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The development of ocean incineration law in Canada Hughes, Elaine Lois 1988

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF OCEAN INCINERATION LAW IN CANADA By ELAINE LOIS HUGHES B . S c . ( S p e c i a l . ) , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1980 L L . B . , The U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF LAWS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE  STUDIES  D e p a r t m e n t o f Law  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s to the required  conforming  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA O c t o b e r 1988 (c) E l a i n e  L o i s Hughes, 1988  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  available  copying  of  department publication  in  partial  fulfilment  University  of  British  Columbia,  for  this or  thesis  reference  thesis by  of  this  of  Law  for  his thesis  and  scholarly  or for  her  The University of British C o l u m b i a 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6G/81)  I  I further  purposes  gain  the  shall  requirements  agree  that  agree  may  representatives.  financial  permission.  Department  study.  of  be  It not  that  the  Library  by  understood be  an  advanced  shall  permission for  granted  is  for  allowed  the  make  extensive  head  that  without  it  of  copying my  my or  written  ii ABSTRACT The p r e s e n t study i s designed t o examine t h e s t r u c t u r e and development o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l and Canadian laws which attempt t o r e g u l a t e t h e ocean d i s p o s a l o f t o x i c waste by a t sea i n c i n e r a t i o n . I t b e g i n s by d e s c r i b i n g some o f t h e hazardous wastes which a r e c r e a t i n g dangerous environmental problems i n Canada and o t h e r n a t i o n s , by i n t r o d u c i n g t h e reader t o the types of t o x i c materials subject t o i n c i n e r a t i o n and dumping a t sea, and t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e hazards t h e s e m a t e r i a l s c r e a t e .  With t h i s background i n  mind, t h e h i s t o r i c a l development o f ocean dumping laws i s then d e s c r i b e d , b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e major  international  t r e a t i e s t h a t p r e s e n t l y r e g u l a t e dumping a c t i v i t i e s .  The  Canadian laws, which emerged i n o r d e r t o implement t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e a t y o b l i g a t i o n s , a r e then examined, w i t h an o u t l i n e o f how t h e s e laws a r e a c t u a l l y i n t h e Canadian c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l  together  administered  context.  Emerging p o l i t i c a l s t r a t e g i e s t o improve t h e management and d i s p o s a l o f t o x i c waste are examined, i n c r e a s e d use o f i n c i n e r a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y .  i n c l u d i n g the The a c t u a l use and  l e g a l r e g u l a t i o n o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s then d e s c r i b e d , i n an attempt t o determine whether t h i s type o f ocean d i s p o s a l i s a u s e f u l and c o n t r o l l a b l e waste management o p t i o n . C u r r e n t Canadian p o l i c y and l e g a l p r o p o s a l s on ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n a r e examined i n l i g h t o f ongoing i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t r o v e r s y over t h e a d v i s a b i l i t y o f i t s use as a waste management s t r a t e g y .  ii i The  study  scientific, context,  examines s e v e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n a l ,  and  political  c a s t doubt upon t h e  e i t h e r p u b l i c acceptance legal  control  particular,  over  the  decision-making  processes  law  and  are reviewed,  policy  formation,  with  such  that  t h e government seek t o respond  "pilot  forms o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  such  difficult  problems.  The reported  policies  to identify  start  areas  in  experiment  i n order to  and  deal  innovative  question of  i s seen as  ability  to  from  I t i s recommended  i n new  Resolving the  the  and  issues.  i n s t i t u t i o n s t o meet t h e  environmental  In  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  processes,  of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  project" to test  political  adequate  t h a t g o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d move away  c o m p l e x and  obtain  needed.  new  desirability  or  operations.  political  with  ways t o t h e s e  Canadian  o f government t o  incineration  relevant legal,  i s concluded  incremental  ability  i n the  of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n ,  at-sea  which improvements a r e It  problems which,  economic,  the  a possible  of Canadian l e g a l  and  f u t u r e c h a l l e n g e s posed  by  issues. and  legislation  a s o f J u n e 30,  1988.  discussed i n the  study  are  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  i i  Acknowledgement  1.  v i i  Introduction  PART I :  1  HAZARDOUS WASTES AND OCEAN DUMPING LAWS  2.  Environmental  I m p a c t s o f Waste D i s p o s a l  3.  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law  Canadian  Development  29  b. R e g i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n s  32  c. G l o b a l  Conventions  34  (i)  L o n d o n Dumping C o n v e n t i o n  35  (ii)  Law o f t h e S e a C o n v e n t i o n  39  Law a. T h e C a n a d i a n b.  47 Environmental P r o t e c t i o n A c t  Constitutional Jurisdiction  c. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  Policies  47 57  and Canadian  Dumping P r a c t i c e s  PART I I :  15  29  a. H i s t o r i c a l  4.  Practices  14  62  OCEAN INCINERATION AND I T S PLACE I N HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT  76  V  5.  6.  Waste Management S t r a t e g i e s  77  a . The Waste Management H i e r a r c h y  77  b . Ocean  81  Incineration  The Use and R e g u l a t i o n o f Ocean a. H i s t o r i c a l  Incineration  90  Use  b. I n t e r n a t i o n a l  90 Regulation  97  c. Canadian L e g i s l a t i o n  7.  The P o l i c y D e b a t e  PART I I I :  8.  102  122  CANADIAN LEGAL AND  C a n a d i a n Law  POLITICAL  PROCESSES  and P o l i c y F o r m a t i o n P r o b l e m s  138  a. J u r i s d i c t i o n a l Problems  138  b. A n a l y t i c a l Problems  141  (i) (ii) c. P o l i t i c a l  The Use o f E c o n o m i c A n a l y s i s  141  The U s e o f S c i e n t i f i c  144  Analysis  Problems  147  d . Summary 9.  Ocean  136  151  Incineration  Law  and P o l i c y F o r m a t i o n P r o b l e m s  a. J u r i s d i c t i o n a l I s s u e s (i) (ii) b. Economic  157 157  Interdepartmental C o n f l i c t s  157  Federal-Provincial  163  Issues  Cooperation  165  vi c.  S c i e n t i f i c Concerns  169  (i) Regulatory (ii)  Standards  The T r e a t m e n t o f S c i e n t i f i c Uncertainty  d. P u b l i c  Participation  183  Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n s a. P o l i c y  189  Review  192  b. I m p l e m e n t a t i o n  198  (i) J u r i s d i c t i o n a l Issues (ii) (iii) c.  172 17 6  e. Summary  10.  169  Conclusion  Technical Public  Concerns  Participation  201 203 2 04 206  Bibliography  208  Glossary  226  vii ACKNOWLE DGEMENT The a u t h o r g r a t e f u l l y a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e a s s i s t a n c e a n d a d v i c e o f D r . Andrew R. Thompson a n d P r o f e s s o r M.D. Copithorne. T h e h e l p f u l comments o f Mr. R i c h a r d K. P a i s l e y are a l s o g r e a t l y appreciated. S p e c i a l t h a n k s t o W a l t e r L. Hughes, Gwen M.B. Hughes a n d J o h n P. S o j a k f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s a n d s u p p o r t .  1 C h a p t e r One:  The an a r e a  Introduction  legal regulation i n which  o f t o x i c waste  international  disposal  marine p o l l u t i o n  w i t h d o m e s t i c laws c o n t r o l l i n g t h e d i s p o s a l substances. structure  The p r e s e n t  s t u d y i s d e s i g n e d t o examine t h e  and development  of international  and t o r e v i e w t h e adequacy  and C a n a d i a n l a w s  The  study also  management and d i s p o s a l considers the role incineration attention policy  i n the Canadian  o f one p a r t i c u l a r t e c h n o l o g y - o c e a n  of potential  i n order  implement  t h e complex  i n Canada,  Traditionally  a r e a s i n w h i c h r e f o r m may  f o r t h e C a n a d i a n government environmental decisions  l e g i s l a t i o n h a s b e e n o f two b a s i c  1960's a n d e a r l y and r e g u l a t o r y to  statutes  1970's,  be  t o make and raised  by t h e  protection  types: p o l l u t i o n  and r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n  control  legislation.  Many o f  were p r o m u l g a t e d i n t h e  and were c h a r a c t e r i z e d  by a  late  reactive  l e g i s l a t i v e approach which concentrated  dispose of pollutants  and  1  Canadian environmental  pollution control  law  and t o t h e  u s e o f t h i s w a s t e management t e c h n o l o g y .  the  Particular  to the examination of the e x i s t i n g  necessary  legislation  political  o f h a z a r d o u s s u b s t a n c e s , and  formation processes  identification  wastes,  d i s c u s s e s t h e need t o improve t h e  - i n achieving t h i s objective.  i s paid  of toxic  o f t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h s u c h laws  d e v e l o p e d and a d m i n i s t e r e d  context.  l a w s mesh  of hazardous  which attempt t o r e g u l a t e t h e ocean d i s p o s a l  are  a t sea i s  o n c e t h e y were p r o d u c e d o r how  on to  how  2 control,  without necessarily p r o h i b i t i n g ,  t h e volume o f  2 pollutants that  entered the  environment.  By t h e 1980's, however, t h e r e was fundamental existing  defects  largely  awareness o f  i n t h e s e environmental laws.  l a n d , water,  deficient,  a growing  and  a i r pollution  ineffective,  The  legislation  and w i t h few  seemed  exceptions,  was 3  allowing  environmental q u a l i t y  The  reasons  complex,  to continue to  f o r s u c h d e f i c i e n c i e s were b o t h s u b t l e  a l t h o u g h t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s were n o t  realized.  Law  deteriorate.  reform e f f o r t s compliance  immediately  at f i r s t  f o c u s s e d on  improving  activities,  then turned  toward  enforcement  and  formulating  i d e a s f o r improving economic i n c e n t i v e s t o  w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l laws.  In a d d i t i o n  c r i m i n a l p e n a l t i e s a s d e t e r r e n t s and incentives  f o r compliance,  developed which  sought  method o f p e r m i t t i n g  t o attempts  t o improve  citizen  common law r e m e d i e s  enforcement  o f laws  t h e l e g i s l a t i o n was  law's  failure  to take into  based,  and  Eventually,  of  of  c o n c e n t r a t i n g upon t h e integrated  t h e y were a t t e m p t i n g t o  4  Ecological nonliving  a  legal  approach  a c c o u n t t h e c o m p l e x and  nature o f t h e environmental problems  interact  and  as  q u e s t i o n i n g t h e b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y upon  which  address.  increase  t o p r o v i d e economic  t h e o r i s t s began t o examine t h e fundamental laws,  to  comply  law r e f o r m p r o p o s a l s were  monitoring administrative decisions.  environmental  and  study has  revealed that the l i v i n g  components o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , i n c o m p l e x ways.  Non-resource  including  and man,  components o f t h e  3 e n v i r o n m e n t may b e v i t a l  to the survival  P o l l u t a n t s may h a v e c u m u l a t i v e forming  of resource species.  or synergistic reactions,  u n p r e d i c t a b l e combinations  w i t h new a n d p o t e n t i a l l y  5 powerful  effects.  Some t y p e s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l  seem s u b t l e a n d o f u n c e r t a i n i m p a c t , genetic diversity  among r e s o u r c e  species.  t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e ozone l a y e r , potentially increasing  catastrophic effect,  resulted  impacts.  Others,  such as  and t h e r e has been an s c a l e o f many o f t h e s e  6  r e c o g n i t i o n o f such b i o l o g i c a l i n a p e r c e i v e d need t o r e f o r m  take these  as t h e l o s s o f  a r e o f v a s t and  recognition of the global  environmental The  such  degradation  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s has t h e laws i n o r d e r t o  c o m p l e x i t i e s i n t o account.  Simultaneously,  has  been an i n c r e a s i n g  recognition of the social,  and  h e a l t h c o s t s t h a t a r e growing as environmental  there  economic damage  7 becomes more w i d e s p r e a d . promoting  Law r e f o r m  industrial  making  process.  priority  p r o t e c t i o n measures  developments and t h e p o l i t i c a l  decision-  8  Recent law reform developing  are,therefore,  a p h i l o s o p h y which would p l a c e a h i g h e r  upon t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l with  efforts  proposals a r e concerned  laws which: p r e v e n t  encourage t h e r e c y c l i n g degraded areas,  o f wastes, promote t h e r e c l a m a t i o n o f research, prohibit the  toxic materials, identify  f o r advance p l a n n i n g , a l l o c a t e p r e f e r a b l e uses,  the production of pollutants,  encourage s c i e n t i f i c  discharge of persistent  with  t h e need  resources t o environmentally  make t h e p o l l u t e r b e a r  the costs of  4 polluting of  activities  and  the environment.  e d u c a t i o n and societal  recognize the  Other  involvement  concepts  international  nature  important g o a l s a r e t o promote of the p u b l i c ,  and  t o seek t o  o f what i s a c c e p t a b l e b e h a v i o u r  the  alter  in relation  9  to  the  environment.  Two  o f t h e a r e a s o f t h e law  r e f o r m have begun a r e c o n c e r n e d t o x i c waste d i s p o s a l , pollution. law  Due  reform  initially  developed  present  generate  developed  or hazardous  wastes,  substances  on a n a t i o n a l  i s the l e g a l  level.  regulation  s e t s o f l a w s must be  order to obtain control wastes a t  nature of the  i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l arena. toxic  Industrial however,  are  legal  c o n t r o l have been  The  focus of  the  o f an a r e a i n w h i c h  c o o r d i n a t e d o r combined,  over the d e l i b e r a t e d i s p o s a l  of  in toxic  sea.  otherwise non-toxic substances,  that  oceans, were  T o x i c w a s t e s a r e s o m e t i m e s dumped a t s e a a s in  of  the p r e v e n t i o n of marine  r e g a r d i n g marine p o l l u t i o n  i n the area of t o x i c  study  t h e s e two  second,  and  the control  c o n f i n e d w i t h i n n a t i o n a l b o r d e r s , and  initiatives primarily  with f i r s t ,  t o the i n t e r n a t i o n a l  initiatives  plants that primarily  and  i n which such review  are being discarded.  s e a on v e s s e l s e q u i p p e d which burn precipitate  They a r e a l s o  allow the  i n t o t h e oceans.  waste d i s p o s a l  such as dredged  a t s e a , as w e l l  Both  materials,  sometimes t a k e n  with high-temperature  t h e w a s t e s and  contaminants  incinerators,  incinerator  emissions to  of these types of  as t h e d e l i b e r a t e  d i s c h a r g e s of n o n - t o x i c waste m a t e r i a l s ,  to  toxic  ocean  are considered to  be  5 f o r m s o f " o c e a n dumping."  In legal  t e r m s , o c e a n dumping i s  10 generally  defined  as f o l l o w s :  1(a)  "Dumping" means: ( i ) any d e l i b e r a t e d i s p o s a l a t s e a o f wastes o r o t h e r m a t t e r from v e s s e l s , a i r c r a f t , p l a t f o r m s o r o t h e r man-made s t r u c t u r e s a t s e a ; ( i i ) any d e l i b e r a t e d i s p o s a l a t s e a o f v e s s e l s , a i r c r a f t , p l a t f o r m s o r o t h e r man-made s t r u c t u r e s a t s e a . (b)  "Dumping" d o e s n o t i n c l u d e : (i) t h e d i s p o s a l a t sea o f wastes o r o t h e r matter i n c i d e n t a l t o , o r d e r i v e d from t h e normal o p e r a t i o n s o f v e s s e l s , a i r c r a f t , p l a t f o r m s , o r o t h e r man-made s t r u c t u r e s a t s e a and t h e i r equipment, o t h e r t h a n wastes o r o t h e r m a t t e r t r a n s p o r t e d by o r t o v e s s e l s , a i r c r a f t , p l a t f o r m s o r o t h e r man-made s t r u c t u r e s a t s e a , operating f o r t h e purpose o f d i s p o s a l o f such matter o r d e r i v e d from t h e t r e a t m e n t o f s u c h w a s t e s o r o t h e r m a t t e r on such v e s s e l s , a i r c r a f t , platforms o r s t r u c t u r e s ; ( i i ) placement o f matter f o r a purpose other than t h e mere d i s p o s a l t h e r e o f , p r o v i d e d t h a t s u c h p l a c e m e n t i s n o t c o n t r a r y t o t h e aims o f t h i s C o n v e n t i o n . ( i i i ) The d i s p o s a l o f wastes o r o t h e r m a t t e r d i r e c t l y a r i s i n g from, o r r e l a t e d t o t h e e x p l o r a t i o n , e x p l o i t a t i o n and a s s o c i a t e d o f f - s h o r e p r o c e s s i n g o f seabed m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s w i l l n o t be c o v e r e d by t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s Convention. It the  has been e s t i m a t e d t h a t  pollutants  entering  approximately t e n percent o f  t h e m a r i n e e n v i r o n m e n t a r e due t o  11 deliberate in  absolute  staggering.  dumping.  Although t h i s  seems r e l a t i v e l y  terms t h e volume o f m a t e r i a l Estimates  from t h e e a r l y  minor,  dumped i s  1980*s p l a c e d t h e  w o r l d w i d e v o l u m e o f o c e a n dumped m a t e r i a l a t a b o u t 250 12 m i l l i o n metric tonnes p e r year, a n d no d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e from c o u n t r i e s which a r e n o t s i g n a t o r i e s t o t h e major 13 international treaties. S i n c e t h a t time t h e use o f ocean disposal  has increased,  and p r o j e c t i o n s  for the continued  e x p a n s i o n o f o c e a n dumping a r e e s t i m a t e d a t up t o 40% p e r 14 year.  By 1985-86, Canada a l o n e was dumping o v e r  eight  million and  m e t r i c tonnes  e v e n t h e n was  of m a t e r i a l i n t o the ocean each  lagging f a r behind  c o u n t r i e s such  year,  as  15  the  United States. In  t h e o r y o c e a n dumping, due  s h o u l d be  to i t s intentional  amenable t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree  nature,  of 17  administrative, addition, all  legal  alternative  and  technological  control.  d i s p o s a l methods e x i s t  In  for virtually  t y p e s o f w a s t e s t h a t a r e dumped i n t h e o c e a n s 18  perhaps, reasons  for polluted  dredged  materials.  However, f o r  many a u t h o r s c o n s i d e r t o be p r i m a r i l y  worldwide volume o f m a t e r i a l d e l i b e r a t e l y oceans has  grown s t e a d i l y  Compared t o l a n d - b a s e d relatively  and  shows no  disposal,  and  less  economic,  discharged into  o c e a n dumping  immediately  the the 19  sign of decreasing.  inexpensive, convenient, with  restrictions  except,  i s often  fewer r e g u l a t o r y  observable  adverse  20 impact.  As  p r e s s u r e s on  land-based  disposal  facilities  h a v e grown, t h e o c e a n s h a v e become i n c r e a s i n g l y cheap, p o l i t i c a l l y  g e n e r a l l y , and  o c e a n dumping i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  considerable concern.  The  the  are matters  oceans,  increasing  which cover  approximately  o f t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e and  c o n t a i n about  80%  and  animal  to the global  ecology, 21  thus v i t a l  are important  to the s u r v i v a l  the atmospheric  oxygen has  of l i f e  of a l l plant  on t h i s p l a n e t .  been produced  by  use  which m e r i t  71%  life,  as  expedient waste r e c e p t a c l e s .  Both marine p o l l u t i o n of  attractive  and Most  of  the 22  p h o t o s y n t h e t i c processes o f marine phytoplankton. c o m p l e x r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e a t m o s p h e r e and  The the  oceans  7 are  a l s o v i t a l t o world temperature,  cloud  cover,  rainfall,  23 winds, t i d e s and r a d i a t i o n l e v e l s . b o t h oxygen and c a r b o n d i o x i d e to  stabilize  The s e a s a c t t o b a l a n c e  l e v e l s i n t h e a t m o s p h e r e and  the world climate.  They a r e a l s o an i m p o r t a n t 24  source o f water f o r t h e Earth's h y d r o l o g i c The  oceans a r e a source o f v a l u a b l e  mankind. fish of  Much o f t h e human p o p u l a t i o n 25  f o r i t s dietary protein  fish  sources,  and o t h e r  living  needs.  transportation,  energy production,  resources f o r  on e a r t h  relies  food  potential f o rother  recreation,  scientific  upon  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e use  r e s o u r c e s o f t h e sea as  t h e oceans p r o v i d e a v a s t  including:  cycle.  research,  mineral  uses,  exploitation,  tourism,  and m i l i t a r y  2S use. I n c r e a s i n g u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e oceans f o r p r o j e c t s such as a q u a c u l t u r e , f r e s h w a t e r p r o d u c t i o n by d e s a l i n i z a t i o n and 27 expansion o f c o a s t a l O c e a n dumping, is the  developments i s a l s o like  anticipated.  other sources o f marine p o l l u t i o n ,  o f c o n c e r n b e c a u s e i t t h r e a t e n s b o t h man's u t i l i z a t i o n o f ocean resources,  upon w h i c h a l l l i f e  and t h e b a l a n c e o f t h e g l o b a l ultimately  depends.  ecology  F o r many y e a r s i t  was assumed t h a t  t h e oceans had an u n l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y t o 28 r e c e i v e , d i l u t e and n e u t r a l i z e wastes, a n d some t h e o r i s t s c o n t i n u e t o argue t h a t t h e oceans a r e a v i a b l e l o c a t i o n f o r 29  d e l i b e r a t e waste d i s p o s a l .  As e c o l o g i c a l knowledge has  grown, however, i t h a s become g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t i t i s e n v i r o n m e n t , a t l e a s t on a l o c a l o r r e g i o n a l b a s i s , and p o s s i b l e f o r man t o h a v e a n a d v e r s e e f f e c t o n t h e m a r i n e t h a t e v e n t h e v a s t v o l u m e s o f t h e o c e a n s h a v e a f i n 30 ite  8 31 capacity  t o absorb wastes.  p r e v a i l i n g view that  I t has a l s o  become t h e  many e c o s y s t e m s c a n a p p e a r t o a b s o r b a  d e c e p t i v e amount o f p o l l u t i o n u n t i l  a certain  i s reached, but i f the  saturation  threshold  level  capacity"  i s e x c e e d e d t h e r e s u l t c a n be a s u d d e n ,  or  "assimilative possibly  32 irreversible,  ecological  collapse.  A f a c t o r w h i c h c o m p l i c a t e s any a t t e m p t t o p r e d i c t much w a s t e of  c a n be a b s o r b e d b e f o r e t h e a s s i m i l a t i v e  t h e o c e a n s m i g h t be e x c e e d e d i s s y n e r g i s m .  combined  e f f e c t s of pollutants  capacity  Synergistic  are unpredictable  p o t e n t i a l l y v e r y dangerous, c r e a t i n g  how  or  and  unforseeable,  multiple  33 or  cumulative r e s u l t s .  scientific  Unfortunately the lack  of  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f b o t h marine e c o l o g y and t h e  and e f f e c t s o f m a r i n e p o l l u t a n t s assessment o r p r e d i c t i o n  makes any  of potential  fate  accurate  synergistic  reactions  34 virtually  impossible  at t h i s time.  C o n c e r n o v e r p r e s e n t and p o t e n t i a l l y a d v e r s e i m p a c t s o f o c e a n dumping u p o n ; o t h e r u s e s o f t h e o c e a n s g r a d u a l l y the to  development control  of international  such a c t i v i t i e s ,  and n a t i o n a l  Canada h a s b e e n an a c t i v e  the  of international  development area the  of national  increases  substances c o n t r o l of  controls  t o x i c waste  participant  t r e a t i e s and  i n c i n e r a t i o n at sea.  i n both  One  b e i n g d e v e l o p e d , as  i t s e f f o r t s t o improve  throughout the nation,  wastes  i n the  o v e r o c e a n dumping.  i n w h i c h C a n a d i a n l a w s a r e o n l y now government  attempting  p a r t i c u l a r l y where t o x i c  were i n v o l v e d . negotiation  laws  led to  i s the  toxic regulation  9 Part  I of the present  s t u d y b e g i n s by d e s c r i b i n g  the hazardous wastes which a r e c r e a t i n g environmental problems  i n Canada  dangerous  and o t h e r n a t i o n s ,  introducing the reader t o the types of t o x i c subject to incineration  these materials create.  background  the h i s t o r i c a l  dumping l a w s i s t h e n d e s c r i b e d , international activities.  t o g e t h e r w i t h an o u t l i n e administered  political  I I o f t h e s t u d y t u r n s t o an e x a m i n a t i o n o f emerging s t r a t e g i e s t o i m p r o v e t h e management a n d d i s p o s a l i n c l u d i n g the increased use of i n c i n e r a t i o n  i s then described,  whether  t y p e o f ocean d i s p o s a l  this  and l e g a l  o f ocean  i s a u s e f u l and Current  Canadian  p r o p o s a l s on o c e a n i n c i n e r a t i o n  o f ongoing i n t e r n a t i o n a l  advisability  regulation  i n an attempt t o d e t e r m i n e  c o n t r o l l a b l e w a s t e management o p t i o n .  economic,  are then  i n t h e C a n a d i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and  incineration  Part  dumping  o f how t h e s e l a w s a r e  The a c t u a l u s e and l e g a l  light  regulate  treaty obligations,  technology.  in  o f ocean  context.  of t o x i c wastes,  policy  this  T h e C a n a d i a n l a w s , w h i c h emerged i n o r d e r t o  examined,  Part  With  development  treaties that presently  the international  political  materials  b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e major  implement  actually  by  a n d dumping a t s e a , a n d t o t h e n a t u r e  of t h e hazards t h a t i n mind,  some o f  a r e examined  controversy over the  o f i t s u s e a s a w a s t e management  strategy.  I I I o f t h e s t u d y examines  several  scientific,  problems which,  Canadian context,  and p o l i t i c a l  jurisdictional,  c a s t d o u b t upon t h e a b i l i t y  i n the  o f government  to obtain  e i t h e r p u b l i c acceptance o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , o r  adequate l e g a l  c o n t r o l over at-sea  In p a r t i c u l a r , the r e l e v a n t administrative identify  political  operations.  and  decision-making processes are reviewed, t o  a r e a s i n which  difficult  legal,  incineration  improvements  must be made i f t h e s e  p r o b l e m s a r e t o be r e s o l v e d  in a satisfactory  manner. P r o p e r t o x i c w a s t e management i s a d i f f i c u l t pressing  e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o b l e m p l a g u e d by  uncertainty, change,  huge human h e a l t h  complex  risks,  public perceptions,  and  scientific  rapid  technological  substantial  economic  impacts,  i m p o r t a n t f o r e i g n p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s and,  present,  a patchwork  of legal  Canadian government, as p a r t health to  new  overwhelming  controls.  The  o f i t s e f f o r t s t o i m p r o v e human  and e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n ,  fashion  i s presently  struggling  l a w s and p o l i c i e s w h i c h c a n a d d r e s s t h e  complexities  known t o c h a r a c t e r i z e facets  and r e g u l a t o r y  at  and u n c e r t a i n t i e s t h a t  are  such environmental problems.  now The many  o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s w h i c h must be d e a l t w i t h and t h e  maze o f e s t a b l i s h e d  institutions  and p r o c e s s e s w h i c h  require  r e v i e w and r e v i s i o n a r e w e l l  current  n e e d t o e v a l u a t e o c e a n i n c i n e r a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y and t o  devise can,  a legal  illustrated  may  by t h e  regime i n which t h e use of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  p e r h a p s , improve Canadian t o x i c waste  control.  11 C h a p t e r One:  Notes  1. The p o l i c i e s and l e g i s l a t i o n d i s c u s s e d i n t h e s t u d y a r e r e p o r t e d a s o f J u n e 30, 1988. S u b s e q u e n t l y , on O c t o b e r 6, 1988, C a n a d a a l t e r e d i t s p o l i c y p o s i t i o n by a g r e e i n g t o a c o m p l e t e b a n on o c e a n i n c i n e r a t i o n by 1994. The i s s u e s r a i s e d by t h e s t u d y a r e , t h e r e f o r e , o f p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e i n t e r i m p e r i o d , b e t w e e n 1988 and 1994. I n a d d i t i o n , many o f t h e c o n c e r n s r e l e v a n t t o o c e a n i n c i n e r a t i o n c o n t i n u e t o be a p p l i c a b l e t o o t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l a r e a s . "65 n a t i o n s t o b a n b u r n i n g o f c h e m i c a l w a s t e a t s e a , " V a n c o u v e r Sun, 7 O c t o b e r 1988, p . A5. 2. F o r a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n s e e : D.P. Emond, " E n v i r o n m e n t a l Law and P o l i c y : A R e t r o s p e c t i v e E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n E x p e r i e n c e , " i n Consumer P r o t e c t i o n . E n v i r o n m e n t a l Law and C o r p o r a t e Power. I v a n B e r n i e r and Andree L a j o i e ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1985), p . 117-124. 3. T a s k F o r c e P r o g r a m Review, E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y S t r a t e g i c Review: F o l l o w - o n R e p o r t (Ottawa: C a n a d i a n G o v e r n m e n t P u b l i s h i n g C e n t r e , 1 9 8 6 ) , p . 30-32. 4. See g e n e r a l l y : A.R. Thompson, " L e g a l R e s p o n s e s t o P o l l u t i o n P r o b l e m s - T h e i r S t r e n g t h s a n d W e a k n e s s e s " (1972) 12 N a t . R e s . J . 227; T . F . S c h r e c k e r , P o l i t i c a l Economy o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l H a z a r d s (Ottawa: Law R e f o r m C o m m i s s i o n o f Canada, 1 9 8 4 ) ; Emond. 5. R o b e r t M. H a l l m a n , Towards a n E n v i r o n m e n t a l l y Sound Law o f t h e S e a ( n . p . : I n t e r n a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r E n v i r o n m e n t and D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 7 4 ) , p . 7. 6. See g e n e r a l l y : W o r l d C o m m i s s i o n on E n v i r o n m e n t and D e v e l o p m e n t , Our Common F u t u r e ( O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1987). 7.  Ibid.  8.  Ibid.  9. Thompson, p. 240-241; Emond, p . F o r c e , p . 4-6.  157  e t seq.; Task  10. C o n v e n t i o n on t h e P r e v e n t i o n o f M a r i n e P o l l u t i o n Dumping o f W a s t e s and O t h e r M a t t e r (London Dumping C o n v e n t i o n ) (1975) 2 U.S.T. 2403, A r t i c l e I I I ( l ) .  by  11. J o h n W. K i n d t , M a r i n e P o l l u t i o n a n d t h e Law o f t h e S e a , 4 v o l s . ( B u f f a l o : W i l l i a m S. H e i n & Co., 1 9 8 6 ) , p . 1087; P h i l i p K u n i g , "Dumping a t S e a " i n The Impact o f M a r i n e P o l l u t i o n , e d s . D o u g l a s J . C u i s i n e and J o h n P. G r a n t (London: Croom Helm L t d . , 1 9 8 0 ) , p. 181.  12 12. M i c h a e l Champ, "Ocean Dumping o f M u n i c i p a l a n d I n d u s t r i a l W a s t e s , " i n The Law o f t h e S e a a n d O c e a n I n d u s t r y : New O p p o r t u n i t i e s a n d R e s t r a i n t s , e d s . D.M. J o h n s t o n a n d N.G. L e t a l i k ( H a w a i i : Law o f t h e S e a I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 8 4 ) , p . 284; I.W. D u e d a l l e t a l . , " G l o b a l I n p u t s , C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d F a t e s o f O c e a n Dumped I n d u s t r i a l a n d Sewage W a s t e s : An O v e r v i e w " i n W a s t e s i n t h e O c e a n . Volume 1: I n d u s t r i a l a n d Sewage W a s t e s i n t h e O c e a n . I.W. D u e d a l l e t a l . (N.Y.: J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , 1 9 8 3 ) , p . 7-9. 13.  Duedall,  p . 9.  14. A l e x W. Reed, Ocean Waste D i s p o s a l P r a c t i c e s R i d g e : N o y e s D a t a C o r p . , 1 9 7 5 ) , p . 5.  (Park  15. C a n a d a , E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, O c e a n Dumping C o n t r o l A c t A n n u a l R e p o r t . 1985-86 ( O t t a w a : S u p p l y a n d S e r v i c e s C a n a d a , 1 9 8 6 ) , p . 29. 16. Champ, p . 284; James A. R o g e r s , "Ocean (1977) 7 E n v . Law 1 a t 2. 17.  Kindt,  18.  Reed, p . 4.  19.  Ibid.;  Kindt,  20.  Kindt,  p . 1087.  Dumping,"  p . 1087.  p . 1087.  21. I b i d . , p . 6, 1086; James W. Nybakken, M a r i n e B i o l o g y : An E c o l o g i c a l A p p r o a c h (N.Y.: H a r p e r & Row, 1 9 8 2 ) , p. 1. 22.  Kindt,  p . 6; H a l l m a n , p . 6.  23.  Kindt,  p . 145; H a l l m a n , p . 6.  24. K i n d t , p . 101, 146; P. K i l h o P a r k a n d T.P. O'Connor "Ocean Dumping R e s e a r c h : H i s t o r i c a l a n d I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t " i n Ocean Dumping o f I n d u s t r i a l W a s t e s . B.H. Ketchum e t a l . (N.Y.: Plenum P r e s s , 1 9 8 1 ) , p . 4. 25.  Kindt,  p . 1086.  26.  H a l l m a n , p . 1-5; K i n d t ,  27.  Ibid.  28.  Kindt,  p . 102, 112.  p . 1087; Nybakken, p . 400.  29. Edward D. G o l d b e r g , "The O c e a n s a s Waste S p a c e " (1985) 5 O c e a n Y e a r b o o k 150; Edward D. G o l d b e r g , "The Oceans a s Waste S p a c e : T h e Argument" (1981) 2 4 ( 1 ) O c e a n u s 2.  13 30. Nybakken, p . 383; H a l l m a n , p . 8; Norman G. L e t a l i k , " P o l l u t i o n f r o m Dumping" i n The E n v i r o n m e n t a l Law o f t h e Sea, D o u g l a s M. J o h n s t o n ( B e r l i n : E r i c h S c h m i d t V e r l a g , 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 217. 31. K i n d t , p . 1087; Nybakken, p . 400; K e n n e t h S. K a m l e t , "The O c e a n s a s Waste S p a c e : The R e b u t t a l " (1981) 24(1) Oceanus 10. 32.  H a l l m a n , p . 8; K a m l e t , p . 12; K i n d t ,  33.  H a l l m a n , p . 7; K a m l e t , p .  34.  Kamlet, p.  14.  14.  p.  4-5.  14 PART I :  HAZARDOUS WASTES AND OCEAN DUMPING LAWS  Before examining t h e e x i s t i n g l a w s w h i c h r e g u l a t e o c e a n dumping,  international  and n a t i o n a l  i t i s w o r t h w h i l e t o have  some p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l a n d h e a l t h  impacts  which t h o s e laws a r e d e s i g n e d t o m i t i g a t e o r a v o i d . to  p r o v i d e some b a c k g r o u n d  chapter  first  historically outlines  i n this  area, the f o l l o w i n g  describes the types of materials  some o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o b l e m s alternatives  caused by c u r r e n t  f o r t o x i c wastes.  t y p e s o f t h e t o x i c w a s t e s w h i c h a r e now u n d e r  Some  consideration  ocean d i s p o s a l by i n c i n e r a t i o n a r e t h e n d e s c r i b e d , t o  illustrate emphasize of  which  h a v e b e e n dumped i n t h e o c e a n s , a n d t h e n  land-based d i s p o s a l  for  In order  t h e extreme why a d e q u a t e  dangers posed by such wastes, regulatory control  s u c h s u b s t a n c e s must b e o b t a i n e d .  and t o  over the disposal  15  C h a p t e r Two: E n v i r o n m e n t a l  I m p a c t s o f Waste  Disposal  Practices  P r i o r t o 1972 t h e r e  was a l m o s t no c o n t r o l o v e r t h e u s e  of t h e ocean as a waste d i s p o s a l s i t e . dumped i n c l u d e d : construction  r a d i o a c t i v e wastes, nerve gas,  and d e m o l i t i o n  dredge s p o i l s ,  Materials  debris,  c h e m i c a l w a r f a r e agents, heavy m e t a l s ,  handcuffs,  hydrocarbons,  seal carcasses,  benzene, o r g a n i c various  solid  Since  driftwood,  objects.  b i o l o g i c a l and  ammunition,  scrubber sludge,  vessels,  wastes, poisons,  garbage,  f l yash,  pharmaceuticals,  engine p a r t s ,  were  arsenic,  sewage s l u d g e ,  acids, pesticides, explosives,  polychlorinated biphenyls,  that  herbicides,  fish  offal,  various  weapons,  d e t e r g e n t s and  1  h a r b o u r and c a n a l  dredging  developments and n a v i g a t i o n a l  for coastal  purposes i s r o u t i n e  i n most  2 coastal  states,  approximately  80% o f t h e m a t e r i a l  t h a t has 3  been and c o n t i n u e s Much o f t h i s disposal adverse  t o b e dumped i s made up o f d r e d g e  dredged m a t e r i a l  i s clean  silt  spoil.  and sand, and i t s  i n o c e a n dump s i t e s h a s a r e l a t i v e l y m i n o r d e g r e e o f impact on t h e m a r i n e e n v i r o n m e n t by t h e b u r i a l o f  m a r i n e o r g a n i s m s , t h e a l t e r a t i o n o f ocean f l o o r h a b i t a t , and the  inhibition  of light  penetration  due t o t h e i n c r e a s e i n  4 suspended s o l i d s i n t h e water column.  With c a r e f u l  a t t e n t i o n t o t h e l o c a t i o n o f dump s i t e s  and t h e t i m i n g o f  dumping o p e r a t i o n s outside  e f f e c t s t e n d t o be l o c a l i z e d ,  t h e immediate a r e a  o f t h e dump s i t e  with  creating  impacts little  risk  o f w i d e s p r e a d harm. For  uncontaminated m a t e r i a l s ,  shoreline  a l t e r n a t i v e uses  include  r e s t o r a t i o n , r o a d b a s e , cement and c o n c r e t e  b e a c h n o u r i s h m e n t and c o v e r f o r s t r i p mines Where t h e m a t e r i a l  and  mixes,  quarries.  i s unwanted t h e two m a j o r a l t e r n a t i v e s t o  7 o c e a n dumping a r e s h o r e l i n e d i s p o s a l a n d Shoreline  d i s p o s a l has t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r s e v e r e  impact,  due t o r e l a t i v e l y  species  diversity.  threatens g  groundwater.  high  Land-based  problems, because the high material  soil  The v a s t  d i s p o s a l a l s o can  salt  sites  seems t h a t  utilize  land.  material  problems t o o , as  sufficient  l a r g e a r e a s o f c o s t l y and  For c l e a n dredge s p o i l ,  c a r e f u l o c e a n dumping may  option,  create  content of the dredged  q u a n t i t i e s of dredged  landfill  otherwise u s e f u l  water  q u a l i t y and c a n c o n t a m i n a t e  f o r d i s p o s a l can c r e a t e could  localized  c o a s t a l and s h a l l o w  destined  disposal  landfilling.  w e l l be an  therefore, i t acceptable  and methods t o m i n i m i z e t h e i m p a c t s o f 9  open  water d i s p o s a l are under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . About is  10%  of the dredged m a t e r i a l  c o n t a m i n a t e d , however, b e c a u s e  industries.  i n such dredged m a t e r i a l  c a u s e w i d e s p r e a d damage w e l l b e y o n d  have  i n the food  chain.  b i o a v a i l a b l e when r e l e a s e d  1 0  the area  o f a dump which  site, can  F o r example, a g r i c u l t u r a l  c h e m i c a l s , h e a v y m e t a l s and o r g a n i c contaminants of dredged m a t e r i a l ,  sites  the p o t e n t i a l to  p a r t i c u l a r l y when t h e c o n t a m i n a n t i s a m a t e r i a l bioaccumulate  for disposal  i t i s dredged from  c l o s e t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and v a r i o u s Contaminants  destined  compounds a r e a l l common  and may  become more r e a d i l y 11 by d r e d g i n g o p e r a t i o n s . Such  17 substances a r e o f t e n extremely dangerous carcinogenic,  n e u r o t o x i c , mutagenic  because  they are  or poisonous,  they tend t o bioaccumulate or biomagnify  o r because  i n marine  12 organisms.  Other  adverse e f f e c t s include severe d e p l e t i o n 13 oxygen, a n d damage t o t h e m a r i n e  of t h e a v a i l a b l e phytoplankton,  a basic  constituent  o f marine  f o o d webs  which  14 normally replenish While majority  dredged  o f ocean  m a t e r i a l which  atmospheric  oxygen.  and o t h e r b u l k y m a t e r i a l s c o n s t i t u t e t h e dumped w a s t e s ,  several  other types of  h a v e b e e n dumped i n s m a l l e r q u a n t i t i e s a r e  c o n s i d e r e d e v e n more d a n g e r o u s and p e r s i s t e n c y  due t o t h e i r 15  i n t h e environment.  extreme  toxicity  N o t a b l e examples o f  s u c h s u b s t a n c e s a r e r a d i o a c t i v e wastes and c h e m i c a l w a r f a r e agents.  Such m a t e r i a l s ,  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned fall  within  "hazardous."  a l o n g w i t h compounds s u c h a s t h o s e  a s common d r e d g e  spoil  contaminants,  a c a t e g o r y o f w a s t e s commonly r e f e r r e d H a z a r d o u s w a s t e s may be d e f i n e d  as wastes  composed o f m a t e r i a l s h a v i n g f a t a l  o r dangerous  such as f l a m m a b i l i t y ,  toxicity  and w h i c h  corrosivity,  t o as  properties,  or radioactivity,  a c c o r d i n g l y may n o t b e h a n d l e d o r d i s p o s e d o f  s a f e l y b y c o n v e n t i o n a l w a s t e management methods s u c h a s sewage s y s t e m s ,  landfills  and r e f u s e  incinerators.  One c a t e g o r y o f h a z a r d o u s w a s t e i s t o x i c w a s t e , w h i c h 17 has been d e f i n e d a s : A substance which can cause death, d i s e a s e , behavioural abnormalities, cancer, genetic mutations, physiological or reproductive malfunctions, or p h y s i c a l d e f o r m i t i e s i n any o r g a n i s m o r i t s o f f s p r i n g , o r w h i c h c a n become p o i s o n o u s a f t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n the food chain o r i n combination with other substances.  18 T o x i c wastes  which  a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e n v i r o n m e n t a l  persistence,  mobility  and  indestructibility  are  often  18 r e f e r r e d t o as s p e c i a l varies  somewhat f r o m one  result, waste the  wastes,  jurisdiction  t h e terms hazardous waste,  are o f t e n used  term t o x i c waste  definition, will  and  to another.  t o x i c waste  will  As  and  i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . Throughout  a  special  this  study,  be u s e d t o d e s c r i b e s u b s t a n c e s  having the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  waste  although the terminology  includes  s e t out i n the p r e c e d i n g  s p e c i a l wastes.  The  term  hazardous  be u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e b r o a d e r c a t e g o r y , w h i c h  i n c l u d e s b o t h t o x i c wastes characteristics  such as  T o x i c wastes  and w a s t e s  with other  dangerous  flammability.  a r e p r o d u c e d by a number o f m a j o r s o u r c e s ,  i n c l u d i n g t h e p u l p and p a p e r , c h e m i c a l , p e t r o l e u m , 19 pharmaceutical, Traditionally  textile,  such wastes  i n t o the environment, point  and e l e c t r o p l a t i n g  industries.  were e i t h e r d i s c h a r g e d  theoretically  becoming  directly  diluted  o f h a r m l e s s n e s s , o r were dumped i n l a n d f i l l s , 20  ponds o r abandoned The U n i t e d  to the holding  wells.  States estimates that  i t produces over  264  m i l l i o n m e t r i c t o n n e s (71 b i l l i o n g a l l o n s ) o f h a z a r d o u s 21 wastes a n n u a l l y , and o v e r 80% i s s t i l l b e i n g dumped i n t o 22 l a n d f i l l s or other types of containment f a c i l i t i e s . As 23 Piasecki  observes,  as a r e s u l t  however, e v e n t h e b e s t dumps l e a k ,  t h e r e have been  numerous d a n g e r o u s  i n v o l v i n g d i r e c t human e x p o s u r e , landfill  gas e x p l o s i o n s ,  croplands,  and  incidents  e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage,  heavy m e t a l c o n t a m i n a t i o n o f  a i r , groundwater,  and  surface  water  and  19 contamination. abandon  24  at least  E v e r y American s t a t e has a l r e a d y had t o one r e g i o n a l  groundwater  s u p p l y due  to  25 hazardous waste  contamination,  and s i n c e  groundwater  provides approximately one-half of the drinking  water  consumed b y U n i t e d  S t a t e s r e s i d e n t s , t h i s h a s become an 26 extremely s e r i o u s problem. Canada p r o d u c e s c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l amounts o f h a z a r d o u s 27  wastes  - approximately 3 m i l l i o n metric tonnes per year.  Nevertheless,  Canada  f a c e s t h e same p r o b l e m s a s t h e U n i t e d  S t a t e s and s o must f i n d materials  i n order t o minimize s o i l  contamination, environmental Island, for  a s a f e way  t o dispose o f hazardous and  groundwater  a n d t o p r o t e c t b o t h human h e a l t h integrity.  F o r example,  a p r o v i n c e which r e l i e s  i n Prince  c o m p l e t e l y upon  and Edward groundwater  i t s d r i n k i n g water supply,  groundwater  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25% o f t h e 28 i s known t o be c o n t a m i n a t e d b y a l d i c a r b , an 29  acutely toxic pesticide  implicated  I n v e s t i g a t i o n s of Canadian l a n d f i l l  as a p o s s i b l e  s i t e s used t o dispose of  dredged m a t e r i a l s have a l s o r e v e a l e d t h a t of  highly toxic  sites."  i t s American counterpart,  a c c e l e r a t e t h e development  and  The C a n a d i a n  implementation of  e v a l u a t i o n o f a l l ocean d i s p o s a l  to  government,  including  effective an  options.  c a t e g o r i e s o f t o x i c waste  the present  continuing  i s f a c e d w i t h t h e need t o  h a z a r d o u s w a s t e management s t r a t e g i e s ,  Two  "...the generation  l e a c h a t e s h a s become a r e g u l a r a n d 30  f e a t u r e o f many d i s p o s a l like  mutagen.  are of p a r t i c u l a r  interest  s t u d y : o r g a n o h a l o g e n s and h e a v y m e t a l s .  Organohalogens a r e a l a r g e group o f o r g a n i c o r carbon-based  compounds c o n t a i n i n g tin  or chlorine.  fluorine,  Those  bromine,  silicon,  containing c h l o r i n e (the  organochlorines o r c h l o r i n a t e d hydrocarbons) group  of concern.  dangerous  T h i s group  chemicals a s :  phosphorous,  o f compounds  form t h e major  includes  such  3 1  1. p o l y c h l o r i n a t e d b i p h e n y l s  (PCB's)  and r e l a t e d  compounds; 2. o r g a n o c h l o r i n e i n s e c t i c i d e s dieldrin,  heptachlor,  chlordane, mirex,  3. o r g a n o c h l o r i n e h e r b i c i d e s TCDD's  (dioxins)  such as a l d r i n ,  a n d TCDF's  DDT,  DDE  endrin,  and  DDD;  s u c h a s 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T,  ( f u r a n s ) ; and  4. l o w m o l e c u l a r w e i g h t c h l o r i n a t e d h y d r o c a r b o n s s u c h a s carbon t e t r a c h l o r i d e ,  c h l o r o b e n z e n e s , c h l o r o p h e n o l s and v i n y l  chloride. A few e x a m p l e s  will  serve t o i l l u s t r a t e  the type of health  and e n v i r o n m e n t a l h a z a r d s c r e a t e d b y s u c h PCB's, m a r k e t e d and C l o p h e n ,  materials.  u n d e r t h e t r a d e names A r o c l o r , K a n e c l o r  a r e a g r o u p o f a b o u t 2 00 r e l a t e d  widely used  i n the past  i n paints,  pesticides,  c a r b o n l e s s copypaper,  inks,  compounds  plastics,  sealants,  hydraulic  fluids,  32 lubricant  additives  and h e a t t r a n s f e r  common u s e was a s a n i n s u l a t i n g  fluid  fluids.  T h e i r most  in electrical  33 equipment.  PCB's a r e v e r y s t a b l e compounds w h i c h a r e  extremely r e s i s t a n t  t o d e c o m p o s i t i o n and t h u s c a n p e r s i s t i n 34  the environment highly  toxic,  f o r decades.  a r e b i o a c c u m u l a t i v e and 35 p a r t i c u l a r l y where t h e r e i s c h r o n i c e x p o s u r e .  In t h e marine  environment  They  PCB's a r e l e t h a l  i n extremely  3S low d o s e s .  Sublethal  effects  on a q u a t i c o r g a n i s m s  include  impaired  reproductive  behavioural  capacity,  immunological  problems,  d e f i c i e n c i e s , body l e s i o n s , r a g g e d  growth i n h i b i t i o n .  There i s a l s o  increased  fins  and  shell  juvenile  37 mortality. I n humans known e f f e c t s o f jaundice,  PCB  exposure  numbness, n a u s e a , a n o r e x i a ,  abnormal f a t i g u e , coughing, 39  a c n e and  probable carcinogens,  can  and  cause  stillbirths.  In the revealed  and  late  include  abdominal  pain, 38 headaches. PCB's  also affect liver  are  function  4 0  1960's and  e a r l y 1970's s t u d i e s  gradually  the  d a n g e r s o f PCB's, and by 1977 a l l m a n u f a c t u r e o f 41 t h e s e c h e m i c a l s had c e a s e d . T h e i r u s e has now b e e n b a n n e d 42 or severely r e s t r i c t e d m most c o u n t r i e s , i n c l u d i n g C a n a d a . However, o f t h e PCB's m a n u f a c t u r e d b e t w e e n 1929 and 1977, approximately  600,000 m e t r i c  tonnes  (1.3  billion  pounds)  are  43 still  i n use,  o c c u r r e n c e and to create  and  due  to past  extreme d i f f i c u l t y  data  freshwater  fish  and  seabirds  somewhat i n t h e  immense  is available  e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t a m i n a t i o n by  widespread  of d i s p o s a l , they  environmental hazards of  I n Canada l i t t l e  declined  releases,  PCB's.  proportions.  4 4  regarding Limited  indicate that  1970's and  continue  PCB  studies  in  levels  have l e v e l l e d  off in  the  45 1980's.  This  decline  regulatory  restrictions  i s generally  attributed to  t h a t h a v e b e e n i m p o s e d . PCB  humans seem t o be  remaining r e l a t i v e l y  virtually  i s known a b o u t t h e  present The  nothing  contamination organochlorine  the  levels.  constant,  levels in  however,  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  and  the  4 6  herbicides,  s u c h as  2,4-D  and  2,4,5-  T,  are another  group of extremely  particularly  i f contaminated  as d i o x i n s .  T h e y a r e known t o be  dangerous  compounds,  by m a n u f a c t u r i n g  byproducts  such  t o x i c t o marine 47  phytoplankton  and  fish,  and  are bioaccumulative.  c a u s e weakness, s t u p o r , t w i t c h i n g , c o n v u l s i o n s . . 48 dermatitis.  and  2.5  million  kilograms  each  .  i n Saskatchewan a l o n e .  human b i r t h  in  sold  49 year  2,4,5-T h a s  may  and  . . . . i t i s s t i l l widely used  Nevertheless,  C a n a d a , w i t h b e t w e e n 1.5  2,4-D  .  .  been i m p l i c a t e d i n  d e f e c t s , i s a p o s s i b l e c a r c i n o g e n and  may  cause  m e t a b o l i c d i s o r d e r s , s k i n i r r i t a t i o n and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r 50 . . disease. I t i s a l s o i n c o n t i n u e d u s e i n Canada, a l t h o u g h it  i s now  restricted  o r banned i n O n t a r i o , B r i t i s h  Columbia  51 and  Saskatchewan. The  is  most n o t o r i o u s o f t h e o r g a n o c h l o r i n e p r o d u c t s ,  a contaminant  herbicides, dioxins.  which  f o r m e d d u r i n g t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f many  i s a g r o u p o f compounds known a s TCDD * s  or  A particularly  t o x i c d i o x i n , 2,3,7,8-TCDD, i s a 52 i n 2,4,5-T. This dioxin i s considered  common c o n t a m i n a n t " . . . t h e most p o t e n t  c a r c i n o g e n i c and  t e r a t o g e n i c chemical  53 known t o man."  I t a l s o causes  s t i l l b i r t h s , mutations,  disorders,  immune s y s t e m p r o b l e m s , c i r r h o s i s ,  disorders,  headaches, kidney  diarrhea,  n a u s e a , w e i g h t l o s s and  bioaccumulative  and  often delayed.  It i s fatal  terrestrial of  inflammation,  persistent  organisms,  and  i t s levels  system  bladder bleeding, 54  depression. responses  It is t o exposure  are  i n s m a l l amounts t o a q u a t i c and 55 . . . .  i n c l u d i n g man.  Limited  2,3,7,8-TCDD i n s e a b i r d e g g s i n t h e G r e a t  that  nervous  skin  seemed t o h a v e d e c r e a s e d  monitoring  Lakes has  t o some d e g r e e  shown  d u r i n g t h e 1970's and t h e n Little posed  o t h e r Canadian by t h e e x i s t i n g  Total herbicide,  levelled  o f f i n t h e 1980's.  data are a v a i l a b l e , contamination insecticide  56  and t h e dangers  levels  a r e unknown.  a n d p e s t i c i d e u s e i n Canada  is presently unquantified, particularly  s i n c e government 57  e x p e n d i t u r e d a t a on f o r e s t r y By  the early  a n d r o a d s i d e u s e i s unknown.  1980's, however, p e s t i c i d e  sales  i n Canada h a d  reached  $698 m i l l i o n  million  pounds o f phenoxy h e r b i c i d e s a l o n e were s o l d  year.  d o l l a r s p e r annum, a n d a n a v e r a g e  Incidents of fish  5 8  p o i s o n i n g s and death, contamination Adding  lead  t o t h e concern i s their  zinc,  be  and  nutrients  a r e elements,  bioaccumulate 62  Mercury,  cadmium a n d  although  arsenic,  chromium, n i c k e l a n d 60 Although  a t v e r y low l e v e l s ,  many they can  elevated concentrations.  are t h e r e f o r e extremely  metals the  o f g r e a t e s t concern,  a t even s l i g h t l y  these metals  o f such  frequent contamination by i n o r g a n i c  c o n s i d e r e d dangerous.  are essential  toxic  over t h e u s e and d i s p o s a l  b e r y l l i u m , selenium,  vanadium a r e a l s o metals  human  environmental 59  p a r t i c u l a r l y heavy m e t a l s .  a r e t h e metals  copper,  and w i d e s p r e a d  kills,  each  have a l r e a d y o c c u r r e d .  organohalogens substances,  and w i l d l i f e  o f 9.6  they are v i r t u a l l y persistent.  a n d human e x p o s u r e  Because  indestructible  Many o f t h e h e a v y can r e s u l t  b y way o f  food chain. Mercury provides a t y p i c a l  heavy metal  contamination.  example o f t h e d a n g e r s  of  S u b l e t h a l marine e f f e c t s i n c l u d e  reproductive disturbances, decreased  growth,  problems and b e h a v i o u r a l a b n o r m a l i t i e s .  immune  system  I n humans m e r c u r y  p o i s o n i n g has caused birth  defects,  irreversible neurological  b l i n d n e s s , deafness, tremors,  p r o g r e s s i v e d e g e n e r a t i o n and l o s s o f r e a s o n . In  severe  ataxia, 6 4  Canada h i g h mercury c o n c e n t r a t i o n s have l e d t o t h e  closure of several 1970's.  damage,  65  commercial  fisheries  since the early  . A l t h o u g h m e r c u r y c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n some a r e a s o f  t h e c o u n t r y have s i n c e d e c l i n e d ,  i n other areas the l e v e l s 66  appear  t o be r e m a i n i n g r e l a t i v e l y  mercury l e v e l s  constant,  c o n t i n u e t o be p e r i o d i c a l l y  and e l e v a t e d detected  near  67 industrial It  and mine  can be seen  organohalogen contaminated  sites. from t h e p r e c e d i n g examples  wastes a r e hazardous by heavy m e t a l s  that  indeed, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f  or other inorganic  substances.  They a r e dangerous t o b o t h marine and t e r r e s t r i a l i n c l u d i n g man, soil,  sediments  by t h e i r  and c a n o c c u r a s c o n t a m i n a n t s or plant  improper  and a n i m a l  disposal  life.  life,  i n water, a i r ,  Problems c r e a t e d  a r e becoming widespread,  p o s i n g an  i n c r e a s i n g t h r e a t t o water s u p p l i e s ,  f o o d s o u r c e s , and p u b l i c  h e a l t h . As a r e s u l t  international  o f such dangers,  been g r a d u a l l y enacted t o r e g u l a t e t h e ocean t h e s e and o t h e r hazardous will  wastes,  1970's t o t h e p r e s e n t .  have  disposal of  and t h e f o l l o w i n g  t r a c e t h e development o f t h e s e laws  laws  section  from t h e e a r l y  25 C h a p t e r Two:  Notes  1. Norman G. L e t a l i k , " P o l l u t i o n From Dumping," i n The E n v i r o n m e n t a l Law o f t h e Sea, D.M. J o h n s t o n ( B e r l i n : E r i c h S c h m i d t V e r l a g , 1 9 8 1 ) , p. 218; J o h n W. K i n d t , M a r i n e P o l l u t i o n a n d t h e Law o f t h e S e a . 4 v o l s . ( B u f f a l o : W i l l i a m S. H e i n & Co., 1 9 8 6 ) , p . 770, 1088-1090; W e s l e y Marx, The F r a i l O c e a n (New Y o r k : B a l l a n t i n e Books, 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 75; L. C u y v e r s , O c e a n U s e s and T h e i r R e g u l a t i o n (New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , 1 9 8 4 ) , p . 74; E.D. Brown, " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law a n d M a r i n e P o l l u t i o n : R a d i o a c t i v e W a s t e s and O t h e r H a z a r d o u s S u b s t a n c e s " (1971) 11 N a t . R e s . J . 221 a t 235; Ramanlal S o n i , C o n t r o l o f M a r i n e P o l l u t i o n i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law ( J o h a n n e s b u r g : J u t a & Co., 1 9 8 5 ) , p . 215; M i c h a e l Hardy, " I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n t r o l o f M a r i n e P o l l u t i o n " (1971) 11 N a t . R e s . J . 296 a t 317; I.W. D u e d a l l e t a l . , " G l o b a l I n p u t s , C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and F a t e s o f Ocean Dumped I n d u s t r i a l and Sewage W a s t e s : An O v e r v i e w , " i n W a s t e s i n t h e Ocean. 5 v o l s . , I.W. D u e d a l l e t a l . (New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , 1 9 8 3 ) , v o l . 1: I n d u s t r i a l and Sewage W a s t e s i n t h e Ocean, p . 9, 24; Canada, E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, Ocean Dumping C o n t r o l A c t A n n u a l R e p o r t 1985-86 ( O t t a w a : S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1 9 8 6 ) , p. 29. 2. R i c h a r d A.W. Hoos, Ocean Dumping : The C a n a d i a n S c e n e . EPS 8-PR-77-1 ( V a n c o u v e r : E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e P a c i f i c R e g i o n , 1 9 7 7 ) , p . 4. 3.  K i n d t , p.  1089.  4. K i n d t , p . 1089; Canada, A n n u a l R e p o r t p . 14; M a c l a r e n P l a n s e a r c h , Review o f D i s p o s a l A l t e r n a t i v e s f o r D r e d g e d M a t e r i a l , 2 v o l s . ( O t t a w a : P u b l i c Works Canada and T r a n s p o r t Canada, n . d . ) , v o l . 2, p . 7.2. F  5. Canada, A n n u a l R e p o r t , p . 14; R i c h a r d A. Gorham, " A l l D r e d g e d Up a n d No P l a c e To Go: The D i s p o s a l o f D r e d g e d M a t e r i a l From G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I n t o t h e N e i g h b o u r i n g S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a " (MSc t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 8 5 ) , p . 3. 6.  M a c l a r e n P l a n s e a r c h , v o l . 2, p .  7.  Ibid.,  8.  Maclaren Plansearch,  9.  Ibid.,  v o l . 2, p .  10.  Kindt,  p.  11.  See g e n e r a l l y  12.  Kindt,  chap.  p.  7; Gorham, p .  1089;  2. B2,  p.  38.  7.3-7.6.  Canada,  Gorham.  1090.  app.  8.13.  A n n u a l R e p o r t , p.  14.  26 13.  Ibid.,  p.  1091;  M a c l a r e n P l a n s e a r c h , v o l . 2, p .  6.5.  14. Anne W. Simon, N e p t u n e ' s Revenge; The Ocean o f Tommorrow (New Y o r k : Bantam Books, 1 9 8 4 ) , p . 36; s e e a l s o F.R. B e r n a r d , A s e l e c t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y on t h e b i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f O c e a n Dumping ( O t t a w a : R e s e a r c h and D e v e l o p m e n t D i r e c t o r a t e , Department o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t , F i s h e r i e s and M a r i n e S e r v i c e , n . d . ) ; D.S. B e z a n s o n , C M . Moyse and S.C B y e r s , R e s e a r c h and R e l a t e d Work on Ocean Dumping: An A n n o t a t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y . Ocean Dumping R e p o r t 2 ( O t t a w a : F i s h e r i e s and O c e a n s Canada, 1 9 7 9 ) ; K.E. C o n l a n , The B i o l o g i c a l E f f e c t s o f Ocean Dumping: A S e l e c t e d A n n o t a t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y ( S i d n e y : I n s t i t u t e o f Ocean S c i e n c e s , 1 9 7 9 ) . 15. K i n d t , p . 1089-1090; P. K i l h o P a r k and T.P. O'Connor, "Ocean Dumping R e s e a r c h : H i s t o r i c a l and I n t e r n a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t " i n Ocean Dumping o f I n d u s t r i a l W a s t e s . B.H. Ketchum e t a l . (New Y o r k : Plenum P r e s s , 1 9 8 1 ) , p . 4. 16. E n v i r o c h e m S e r v i c e s , N a t i o n a l T e c h n i c a l Manual f o r A t S e a I n c i n e r a t i o n o f L i q u i d H a z a r d o u s W a s t e s . M a r c h 1987 W o r k i n g D r a f t ( B u r n a b y : By t h e A u t h o r , 1 9 8 7 ) , g l o s s a r y p . 2. 17. G r e a t L a k e s W a t e r Q u a l i t y A g r e e m e n t (1978) Can. T r e a t y S e r i e s 20, A r t i c l e I ( v ) ; s e e a l s o K i n d t , p . 1090. 18. J o e l S. H i r s c h h o r n , " E m e r g i n g O p t i o n s i n Waste R e d u c t i o n and T r e a t m e n t : A Market I n c e n t i v e A p p r o a c h " i n Beyond Dumping: New S t r a t e g i e s f o r C o n t r o l l i n g T o x i c C o n t a m i n a t i o n . e d . B r u c e P i a s e c k i ( W e s t p o r t : Quorum Books, 1 9 8 4 ) , p . 131. 19.  Piasecki,  p.  xiii.  20. I b i d . , p . x i v ; U.S. C o n g r e s s , O f f i c e o f T e c h n o l o g y Assessment, Ocean I n c i n e r a t i o n : I t s R o l e i n Managing Hazardous Waste, OTA-O-313 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U.S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 8 6 ) , p . 82-83. 21. of  U.S.  C o n g r e s s , p.  63.  22. P i a s e c k i , p . x v i i ; P e t e r Montague, L a n d f i l l i n g " i n P i a s e c k i , p . 1. 23.  Piasecki,  "The  Limitations  p. x i v .  24. G.V. H o o p e r , e d . O f f s h o r e S h i p and P l a t f o r m I n c i n e r a t i o n o f Hazardous Wastes (Park R i d g e : Noyes Data 1 9 8 1 ) , p . 7. 25.  Piasecki,  p.  26.  Montague, p .  xvii. 8.  Co.,  27 27. J . K a r a u , " I n c i n e r a t i o n A t S e a " ( J u l y 1987) 1 Ocean Dumping News 10 a t 10; P e t e r M. B i r d and D.J. R a p p o r t , S t a t e o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t R e p o r t f o r Canada ( H u l l : S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1986), p . 182. 28. J . F . C a s t r i l l i and T. V i g o d , P e s t i c i d e s i n Canada: An E x a m i n a t i o n o f F e d e r a l Law and P o l i c y ( O t t a w a : Law R e f o r m C o m m i s s i o n o f Canada, 1 9 8 7 ) , p . 52. 29. K i n d t , p . 778; M. S i t t i g , Handbook o f T o x i c and H a z a r d o u s C h e m i c a l s and C a r c i n o g e n s , 2nd e d . ( P a r k R i d g e : Noyes P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1985), p . 50; W.H. H a l l e n b e c k and K.M. C u n n i n g h a m - B u r n s , P e s t i c i d e s and Human H e a l t h (New Y o r k : S p r i n g e r V e r l a g , 1985), p . 31. 30.  Hoos, p .  5.  31. J . J . Swiss e t a l . , Regulated L e v e l s of Schedule I S u b s t a n c e s i n t h e Ocean Dumping C o n t r o l A c t - A R e v i e w . Ocean Dumping R e p o r t 3 ( O t t a w a : F i s h e r i e s and O c e a n s Canada, 198 0 ) , p . 13 f f . ; K i n d t , p . 770 f f . ; C u y v e r s , p . 82 f f . ; R a c h e l L. Carson, S i l e n t S p r i n g (Greenwich: Fawcett P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 26 f f . ; Gorham, p . 30 f f . 32. U.S. C o n g r e s s , p. 60; S i t t i g , p. 737; C u y v e r s , p. 86; S w i s s , p . 16; E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e , P a c i f i c and Yukon R e g i o n , F a c t S h e e t on C h e m i c a l s i n t h e E n v i r o n m e n t : P C B s (Ottawa: E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, n . d . ) . 1  33.  C u y v e r s , p.  86.  34. K i n d t , p . 775; C u y v e r s , p . 86-87; E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e , F a c t Sheet:PCB's. 35. S i t t i g , p . 737; C u y v e r s , p . 87; P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e , F a c t S h e e t : PCB's.  Environmental  36.  Environmental Protection Service,  37.  Ibid.;  38.  Sittig,  39.  Ibid.  40.  Sittig,  41.  U.S.  C u y v e r s , p. p . 738;  p.  Fact  Sheet:  PCB's.  87.  C u y v e r s , p.  87.  738.  Congress,  p.  60;  Simon, p .  120.  42. C a n a d i a n E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n A c t , S.C. 1988, c . 22, and C h l o r i n a t e d B i p h e n y l s R e g u l a t i o n s , C.R.C. 1978, c . 564, SOR/85-406 and SOR/85-407. 43.  U.S.  C o n g r e s s , p.  60.  28 44.  Ibid.;  C u y v e r s , p . 87.  45.  Bird,  46.  Ibid.,  p.  47.  Kindt,  p . 771-772; C a s t r i l l i ,  48.  Sittig,  49.  Bird,  50.  Kindt,  51.  Castrilli,  52.  Sittig,  53.  Castrilli,  p . 21.  54.  Sittig,  835-838.  55.  Ibid.,  56.  Bird,  57.  Castrilli,  58 .  Ibid.,  p . 7.  59.  Ibid.,  p.  60.  C u y v e r s , p . 78-81; Gorham, p . 29.  61.  Kindt,  62.  Gorham, p . 61; K i n d t ,  p.  178-185. 222-223. p.  9.  p . 288-289.  p . 173; C a s t r i l l i ,  p . 21.  p . 772-773; S i t t i g ,  p.  822-823.  p . 22.  p . 835.  p.  p . 837. p . 178. p . 8.  9-13.  p . 803; C u y v e r s , p . 73. p . 800; C u y v e r s ,  p . 77.  63 . E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e , P a c i f i c and Yukon R e g i o n , F a c t S h e e t on C h e m i c a l s i n t h e E n v i r o n m e n t : M e r c u r y ( O t t a w a : E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, n . d . ) ; C u y v e r s , p . 79. 64.  Sittig,  65.  Bird,  66.  Ibid.  67. Mercury.  p . 568; Gorham, p . 99-102; K i n d t ,  p . 811.  p . 200.  Environmental Protection Service, Fact  Sheet:  Chapter  a.  Three:  Historical I n 1969  contained  International  Law  Development  a d u m p s i t e was  discovered i n the B a l t i c  enough a r s e n i c t o k i l l  sea  that  the e n t i r e population of  the  1 world,  three times  were b u r n e d  by  over.  fish  That  same y e a r ,  contaminated  Danish  fishermen  w i t h mustard gas  that  had  2 b e e n dumped m I n 1970 gas  t h e o c e a n a f t e r W o r l d War  II.  t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s d i s p o s e d o f 67  b y dumping i t i n t o t h e o c e a n ,  provoking  tons of  nerve  public 3  opposition,  court action  and  international protest.  days of p r o c e e d i n g w i t h the nerve conducted  another  containing  gas  Within  dump, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s  o c e a n dumping o p e r a t i o n and  sank a s h i p  5000 t o n s o f bombs o f f t h e M a r y l a n d  coast.  The  t o dump 70  tons  4 bombs e x p l o d e d I n 1971, arsenic  when t h e s h i p h i t b o t t o m . an /American company p r o p o s e d  i n t o the A t l a n t i c ;  i t suspended o p e r a t i o n s a f t e r 5  court  i n j u n c t i o n was  issued.  storm  of international protest  F o u r months l a t e r ,  after  including  to  i n t e r c e p t the v e s s e l with warships, recalled  a vessel  persistent The public  t o x i c wastes a t  early  1970's was  environmental  incidents dangers  t h a t was  a Dutch chemical  p r e p a r i n g t o dump 600  tons  a  company of  a l s o a time  awareness,  of generally high  s o t h e s e and  other  similar  s e r v e d t o draw i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n t o  n a t i o n s and  a  sea.  o f o c e a n dumping, p a r t i c u l a r l y  which had  a threat  of  the United States.  The  among W e s t e r n  international  the  European  community,  previously concentrated i t s attention primarily  on  vessel-source o i l pollution sea,  was now e x a m i n i n g  issues,  and r a d i o a c t i v e waste d i s p o s a l a t  a broader range  of environmental  a n d p r e p a r i n g f o r t h e 1972 U n i t e d N a t i o n s  Conference  on t h e Human  Stockholm  Environment.  T h e r e were t h r e e l i n e s  o f response t o t h i s developing  awareness o f a need  to control  ocean  dumping a c t i v i t i e s .  Europe,  t h e problem  was s e e n a s l i k e l y  because  o f t h e number o f s h a l l o w e n c l o s e d o r s e m i - e n c l o s e d  t o become  In  critical,  7 s e a s a d j a c e n t t o h i g h l y p o p u l a t e d and i n d u s t r i a l i z e d Responding  to public  therefore called in  to  ocean  a d i p l o m a t i c c o n f e r e n c e t o be h e l d T h i s conference produced  dumping t r e a t y w h i c h ,  t h e N o r t h S e a , became i n f l u e n t i a l  subsequent  initiative  United States.  period  relating  The l a t e  o f i n t e n s e American  environmental  issues,  national pressures.  and  dumping.  G r o u p on M a r i n e  preparing  mainly of  dumping b e g a n i n 1970's was a  public pressure relating t o  a n d a l a r g e number o f m a j o r i n response t o these  Among t h e many d e v e l o p m e n t s legislation  which  took  regulating  I n an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e s e e f f o r t s , t h e  drafted  tabled that  The  applicable  1960's a n d e a r l y  p l a c e was t h e e n a c t m e n t o f d o m e s t i c  Americans  the f i r s t  on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  t o ocean  e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t a t u t e s were p a s s e d  ocean  though  i n Oslo  treaties.  A second the  o u t c r y a n d r e g i o n a l p r e s s u r e s , Norway  t h e autumn o f 1971.  regional  areas.  an i n t e r n a t i o n a l  ocean  dumping c o n v e n t i o n ,  d r a f t with the Intergovernmental 9 Pollution  Working  i n 1971.  I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l W o r k i n g G r o u p was t h e n f o r t h e 1972 S t o c k h o l m  Conference,  thus  actively providing  the t h i r d  initiative  r e g a r d i n g ocean  S e i z i n g upon t h e s u b j e c t which  the Conference  o f ocean  dumping  control.  dumping, a s one  c o u l d perhaps  produce  area i n  agreement  on  10 concrete action, meetings  t h e Working Group began a s e r i e s  to discuss the issue.  proposal,  the regional  I n f l u e n c e d by t h e  convention signed i n Oslo,  p r o p o s a l s s u b m i t t e d by A u s t r a l i a , W o r k i n g G r o u p was draft  ocean  treaty  a t the Stockholm  finally  application. With of  on  a  Rather than concluding the  dumping t r e a t y o f  that  global  These  a  series  included:  the  the Abidjan  Convention, t h e Lima Convention, 13  and  Convention.  In the f o l l o w i n g Conventions w i l l international  followed.  the Barcelona Protocol,  t h e Kuwait  the Cartanega  Oslo conventions i n place,  efforts  Convention,  regulation  the  1 2  t h e L o n d o n and  Convention,  Spain,  i n L o n d o n i n O c t o b e r o f 1972,  an o c e a n  further regional  Helsinki  and  C o n f e r e n c e , however, a s e p a r a t e  convened  produced  American  e v e n t u a l l y a b l e t o o b t a i n a consensus 11  dumping t r e a t y .  c o n f e r e n c e was  Sweden, and  of  s e c t i o n s t h e O s l o , L o n d o n and  be d e s c r i b e d , t o i l l u s t r a t e  approaches  o f ocean  o f most r e g i o n a l  the regional  t h a t have been t a k e n t o t h e  dumping.  approaches  The  Oslo Convention  t o ocean  Helsinki and  legal  i s typical  dumping c o n t r o l  and i t  s e r v e d as a model f o r t h e g l o b a l  London C o n v e n t i o n ,  to  Canada i s a p a r t y .  Convention  briefly  examined, as approach  The  i t offers  t o ocean  Helsinki  an a l t e r n a t i v e ,  dumping  control.  i s also  somewhat  which  stricter  32 b.  Regional Two  Conventions  of the major r e g i o n a l  for  the P r e v e n t i o n of Marine  and  Aircraft,  treaties  are the  P o l l u t i o n by  Convention  Dumping f r o m  Ships  14 1972  (the Oslo Convention)  on t h e P r o t e c t i o n o f t h e M a r i n e  and  the  Convention  Environment of the B a l t i c  Sea  15 Area,  1974 The  to  (the H e l s i n k i  Oslo Convention,  specifically  Scandanavian North  Convention).  Sea,  and  the f i r s t  international  r e g u l a t e o c e a n dumping, was Western European s t a t e s .  the Northeast A t l a n t i c  agreement  s i g n e d by  twelve  I t applies to  O c e a n and  a portion  the  of  the  16 Arctic  Ocean.  The  Oslo Convention  of  having a "black l i s t "  is  absolutely prohibited,  w h i c h c a n be  of substances, and  include:  organohalogens,  of substances  cyanides, tar-like  fluorides, substances,  These substances disposed  includes:  may  and  use  circumstances. Oslo  lead,  mercury,  The  copper,  containers, scrap and  grey  zinc, metal, 19  alkalis. be  a s a c c e p t a b l e by 20  a  to the Convention.  The  s e t s f o r t h g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e Commission  to  i n d e t e r m i n i n g whether t o g r a n t p e r m i s s i o n f o r the 21  dumping o f w a s t e a t  sea.  For a l l substances or  substances 17  dumped o n l y i f t h e y a r e t o  commission e s t a b l i s h e d pursuant also  of  carcinogens.  of i n a quantity specified  Convention  list"  bulky wastes, a c i d s , be  approach  organosilicons, 18  arsenic,  pesticides,  the  t h e dumping o f w h i c h  which are p r o h i b i t e d under the  cadmium, p e r s i s t e n t p l a s t i c s , list  a "grey  dumped o n l y u n d e r l i m i t e d  Substances Convention  developed  grey  list,  not  included i n e i t h e r the black  o c e a n dumping i s p e r m i t t e d , b u t  only i f a  list  license  i s g r a n t e d by a s i g n a t o r y s t a t e .  nations the a b i l i t y  This gives  t o c o n t r o l t h e amount, l o c a t i o n  c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h dumping may  and  take place.  E x c e p t i o n s t o t h e p r o h i b i t i o n s on dumping a r e a l s o out in  i n the Convention.  No  liability  f o r dumping a  c o n t r a v e n t i o n of the Convention w i l l  arise,  set  substance  i f the  dumping  23 was  n e c e s s a r y t o a v e r t an e m e r g e n c y s i t u a t i o n .  addition,  In  s u b s t a n c e s w h i c h a r e o t h e r w i s e p r o h i b i t e d may  dumped i f t h e y a r e p r e s e n t i n o t h e r w a s t e a s  be  "trace  24 contaminants." D e s p i t e some e x h o r t a t i o n s i n t h e p r e a m b l e t o t h e Convention, pollution  and  processes, approach  stating  the importance  setting  out t h e need t o d e v e l o p waste r e d u c t i o n  controlled  disposal practice.  ocean  state,  limited  the s t a t e  e x t e n t , by  on  the  with the permits which a l l o w be e n f o r c e d by t h e  i n which the v e s s e l  coastal  i s based  dumping i s an a c c e p t a b l e w a s t e  Compliance  t h e dumping t o t a k e p l a c e may flag  o f the p r e v e n t i o n of marine  i t i s c l e a r that the Convention  that  Oslo  states  vessel s 1  i s l o a d e d , and  in their  to a  territorial  25 seas. The  r e g u l a t o r y p a t t e r n e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e  Convention o t h e r ocean Convention. Helsinki signed  has been f a i r l y  dumping t r e a t i e s ,  i n 1974  The  f o l l o w e d i n most o f  i n c l u d i n g t h e London  However, some o f t h e t r e a t i e s ,  Convention,  the B a l t i c  closely  by  Sea.  a r e more r e s t r i c t i v e .  seven  Oslo  states,  such as That  r e g u l a t e s ocean  the  Dumping the  Convention, dumping i n  2 6  Helsinki  Convention  prohibits  t h e dumping o f a l l  34 substances  except dredge  accordance  with a special  be  spoil,  27  w h i c h may  permit,  issued  dumped d o e s n o t c o n t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t  substances  including:  DDT,  be dumped o n l y i n  i f the m a t e r i a l  amounts o f  listed  PCB's, m e r c u r y , cadmium,  heavy metals,  phenol, p t h a l i c  hydrocarbons,  pesticides,  acid,  cyanides,  to  several  halogenated  radioactive materials,  oil,  acids,  28 alkalis,  and  lignin.  The  prohibition  on dumping d o e s  not  29 apply  i n the event  o f an emergency.  the Oslo Convention, Convention  the p r o v i s i o n s  territorial  interest  the case  Helsinki due  Convention  Helsinki  state,  a coastal  that  o t h e r forms o f waste.  maintain commercially  facilities,  approach  t o the d i s t i n c t i o n  c r e a t e s d i s p o s a l p r o b l e m s on  the port state  ocean  i s of  o t h e r wastes,  in its  i s drawn b e t w e e n S i n c e dredged  material  o f dredge  spoil  harbour i s continued  which are e i t h e r hazardous land-based  o r c a n be  containment  are completely prohibited.  levels.  feasible,  and m i g h t  studied during future efforts law  reform.  c.  Global  Conventions  well  All  more  or  Arguably,  this  i s both p r o t e c t i v e o f the marine environment  economically  dredged  land, but dredging i s necessary  i m p o r t a n t p o r t and  disposal  c o n t r o l l e d by  destruction, approach  state  particular  s u b j e c t t o p r o v i s i o n s t h a t r e g u l a t e contaminant  carefully  with  sea.  m a t e r i a l s and  to  of the  a r e e n f o r c e a b l e by t h e f l a g  i n w h i c h a v e s s e l i s l o a d e d , o r by 30  The  As was  and  s e r v e as a model t o  at international  and  be  national  35 (i)  L o n d o n Dumping The  P o l l u t i o n by  Convention  Convention  on t h e P r e v e n t i o n o f  Dumping o f W a s t e s and  Other Matter,  31 L o n d o n Dumping C o n v e n t i o n  o r LDC)  c o n v e n t i o n on o c e a n  global  than a regional b a s i s .  1972  (the  . i s the  international rather  Marine  leading  dumping, and  o p e r a t e s on  It prohibits  dumping o f w a s t e s i n a l l m a r i n e w a t e r s  other than  a  the the  i n t e r n a l waters  of states, except i n accordance with the 32 terms of the Convention. The LDC a l s o p r o h i b i t s t h e s i n k i n g o f v e s s e l s and o t h e r man-made s t r u c t u r e s a t s e a , 33 regulates  at-sea  i n c i n e r a t i o n of hazardous  not p u r p o r t t o r e g u l a t e discharges of vessels from  seabed The  or the d i s p o s a l  adopted  and,  Disposal  of substances a  that  approach  are absolutely  of having  prohibited,  therefore,  "general"  s u b s t a n c e s may Substances organohalogens,  and  require  a " s p e c i a l " permit.  n o t on e i t h e r l i s t p e r m i t b e f o r e any 36  i s also restricted,  dumping o f  such  proceed. b l a c k - l i s t e d u n d e r t h e LDC  include:  m e r c u r y , cadmium, p e r s i s t e n t p l a s t i c s , o i l ,  high-level warfare  r a d i o a c t i v e w a s t e s , and c h e m i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l 37 . . agents. The g r e y l i s t i n c l u d e s : a r s e n i c , l e a d ,  copper,  zinc, organosilicons,  pesticides, metal,  a  o f s u b s t a n c e s w h i c h demand s p e c i a l c a r e i n t h e i r 35  disposal  requiring  operational  of wastes r e s u l t i n g 34  the Oslo Convention  of substances  a grey l i s t  I t does  mineral resource exploitation.  LDC  black l i s t  e i t h e r t h e normal  wastes.  and  beryllium,  b u l k y w a s t e s and  cyanides, f l u o r i d e s ,  chromium, n i c k e l , v a n a d i u m , a l l r a d i o a c t i v e wastes not  scrap included  on  the black The  list.  38  C o n v e n t i o n s e t s o u t f a c t o r s w h i c h must b e  considered  39 by  states before  considerations o f t h e waste, potential,  granting  include:  permits.  These mandatory  t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c o m p o s i t i o n  i t s persistence,  toxicity  and b i o a c c u m u l a t i v e  t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e dump s i t e ,  the disposal  method t o b e u s e d , t h e p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s on m a r i n e l i f e a n d man's o t h e r  u s e s o f t h e s e a , and t h e p r a c t i c a l  a v a i l a b i l i t y of 40  land-based treatment or d i s p o s a l a l t e r n a t i v e s . There a r e s e v e r a l  exceptions  Convention, which i n e f f e c t allow substances. vessels  t h e dumping o f p r o h i b i t e d  F o r example, t h e C o n v e n t i o n d o e s n o t a p p l y t o  entitled  vessels,  to the prohibitions i n the  t o sovereign  immunity,  such as m i l i t a r y  although s t a t e s a r e t o ensure t h a t t h e i r  sovereign  vessels  " a c t i n a manner c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e o b j e c t a n d 41 purpose" o f t h e Convention. M i l i t a r y wastes are, i n f a c t , frequently disposed of a t sea, but l i t t l e public information 42 is  normally a v a i l a b l e . Dumping i s a l s o p e r m i t t e d  situations, human l i f e  b y t h e LDC i n e m e r g e n c y  when i t i s " n e c e s s a r y t o s e c u r e t h e s a f e t y o f o r o f v e s s e l s , " o r i n any c a s e which  a d a n g e r t o human l i f e  or a real  appears t o be t h e o n l y  way t o a v e r t  every p r o b a b i l i t y that  t h e damage c o n s e q u e n t u p o n  dumping w i l l  to vessels,"  the threat  i n emergencies  t o human h e a l t h  i f i t  and " t h e r e i s such 43  be l e s s t h a n would o t h e r w i s e o c c u r . "  p e r m i t s may a l s o b e i s s u e d materials  threat  "constitutes  Special  f o r t h e dumping o f b l a c k - l i s t e d  "posing  and a d m i t t i n g  unacceptable r i s k  no o t h e r  relating 44 feasible solution."  Black-listed "rapidly  s u b s t a n c e s may  r e n d e r e d h a r m l e s s by  biological  a l s o be  dumped i f t h e y  physical, chemical  processes"  i n the  ocean, as  e n d a n g e r human h e a l t h  or the  health  long  as  are  or  they w i l l  not  of domestic animals,  or  45 make e d i b l e m a r i n e o r g a n i s m s u n p a l a t a b l e .  Organohalogens,  m e r c u r y , cadmium, p e r s i s t e n t p l a s t i c s and  o i l may  also  be  dumped i f t h e y a r e  p r e s e n t as m e r e l y " t r a c e c o n t a m i n a n t s " i n 46 the waste d e s t i n e d f o r d i s p o s a l . S p e c i a l p e r m i t s may also i s s u e f o r the i n c i n e r a t i o n a t sea of organohalogens,  ,  .  .  pesticides,  .  o i l and  ,  grey-listed  47  materials.  These e x c e p t i o n s have been s u b j e c t criticism  deal  of  p r i m a r i l y because of the ambiguity 48 o f p h r a s e s s u c h as " t r a c e c o n t a m i n a n t s . " Consultative meetings o f the p a r t i e s t o the t r e a t y have attempted, w i t h only  and  to a great  discussion,  l i m i t e d success, to  remove some o f t h i s  ambiguity.  49 McManus  summed up  "(u)nfortunately, no  less baffling original  effort."  As  helpful  effects to  therefore  author points trace  of  out,  of both the  i n which the  vessel  given  in  are  practice)  rise  to  the  i t i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y cause  "possibility" 50  of  toxic  organisms."  o c e a n dumping by  enforcement a c t i v i t i e s  state  more u s e f u l  to date  contaminants should not  " s e n s i t i v e marine  responsibility  no  e f f e c t s , " i n c l u d i n g the  Regulation and  follows:  opaque p h r a s e t h a t h a s  t o know t h a t  "undesireable  s i t u a t i o n as  t h e i r attempts at c l a r i f i c a t i o n (and  than the  that  the  under the vessel's i s loaded  a l s o a t t r a c t e d some c r i t i c i s m ,  way  of  a permit  Convention, flag  system,  are  s t a t e and 51  f o r dumping.  because s t a t e s which  the  the  port  This issue  has  38 flags  of  c o n v e n i e n c e may  of permits or  i n the  not  act  responsibly  i n the  enforcement of permit terms  issuance  and  52 conditions.  Indeed,  signatories may  be  met  coastal  t o the by  the  state  such f l a g  Convention. provisions  states To  an  of the  are  usually  extent these  LDC  enforcement c a p a b i l i t i e s  not  even  concerns  which p r o v i d e over v e s s e l s  for  dumping  53  within  waters subject  include  the  to t h e i r  territorial  sea  and  c u s t o m a r y i n t e r n a t i o n a l law, 54 exclusive The  LDC  wastes a t state to  economic  or  has  sea,  issue  probably,  the  This  as  would  a matter  continental  of  s h e l f and  any  zone.  thus provided  e x c e p t as  coastal  jurisdiction.  state.  a global  p e r m i t t e d by The  ability  permits i s r e s t r i c t e d  the of  on  flag  subject  The  o f minimum  the  dumping  state,  contracting  or p r o h i b i t e d  c e r t a i n dangerous p o l l u t a n t s , Convention provides a set  ban  to  port  parties  in relation  limited  of  to  exceptions.  international  s t a n d a r d s f o r t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f dumping a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h c o n t r a c t i n g s t a t e s must i m p l e m e n t . T h e s e s t a t e s , and states which have j o i n e d i n subsequent r e g i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n s , are 55 free to the of LDC,  e n a c t more r i g o r o u s  signatories 1987,  to  sixty-one  making i t the  pollution  treaty  United States,  the  standards,  Helsinki  nations  and  some, s u c h  C o n v e n t i o n , h a v e done s o .  including  Canada h a v e r a t i f i e d  most c o m p r e h e n s i v e i n t e r n a t i o n a l  in force.  Mexico, the  5 6  The  Soviet  signatories Union, the  Australian  and  As the  marine  include Peoples  o Cs ht i n aa ,l lB W re a zs it le ,r n A rE gu er no tp ie na an , n aC th iiolnes,, t hJea p U ed a fl m o an n i tand Thus N o r t h American, E u r a s i a n ,  as  the Republic  57 AKingdom, ustralia. most  South  39 American c o a s t a l industrialized  dumping n a t i o n s  which p r o t e c t i o n Africa,  areas are protected,  are s i g n a t o r i e s .  5 8  Areas i n  i s l a c k i n g u n d e r t h e LDC i n c l u d e much o f  the Middle East,  northwestern coast in  a n d most o f t h e h i g h l y  India,  South-East A s i a  o f South America,  and t h e  e v e n t h o u g h many  these areas are p a r t i e s t o regional  nations  conventions that  deal,  59 to  a l i m i t e d e x t e n t , w i t h ocean  dumping.  Regular c o n s u l t a t i v e meetings o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g nations in  have t a k e n p l a c e  1975.  and  discussion  grey l i s t ,  high  dredged m a t e r i a l disposal  seas,  changes t o t h e b l a c k  disposal  of offshore  such as waste  options,  platforms,  list  ocean  enforcement i n  Also  of interest to the parties i s  p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t o f t h e 1982 Law o f t h e S e a C o n v e n t i o n ,  a global  convention containing  dumping t h a t (ii)  provisions  i s e x p e c t e d t o come i n t o  r e l a t i n g t o ocean  force.  The Law o f t h e S e a C o n v e n t i o n After the conclusion  on  force  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e m e r g e n c y dumpings a n d  technology t r a n s f e r . the  continues over issues  r a d i o a c t i v e waste d i s p o s a l ,  incineration, the  t h e C o n v e n t i o n came i n t o  I n a d d i t i o n t o problems such as ambiguity o f t h e  Convention, export,  since  o f t h e Stockholm  t h e Human E n v i r o n m e n t o f 1972, t h e T h i r d U n i t e d  Conference Nations  C o n f e r e n c e o n t h e Law o f t h e S e a was c o n v e n e d .  In a s e r i e s  of  Convention  consultations  was f i n a l l y  b e t w e e n 1972 and 1982, a d r a f t  d e v e l o p e d w h i c h was i n t e n d e d t o b e g l o b a l i n  scope and which would p r o v i d e , framework t o d e a l  inter alia.  a comprehensive  with a l l aspects o f marine p o l l u t i o n .  The  40 Law  o f t h e Sea  governing  (LOS)  land-based p o l l u t i o n  pollution, well  Convention  62  includes  sources, vessel-source  atmospheric p o l l u t i o n ,  and  seabed  a s a commitment by t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g  national control  and  international  ocean  The  LOS  dumping.  laws  activities,  states to  t o prevent, reduce  63  as  develop and  6 4  Convention  states to protect  provisions  s e t s out a g e n e r a l o b l i g a t i o n  and p r e s e r v e t h e m a r i n e  upon  environment  from  65 all  sources of p o l l u t i o n ,  minimize  and  i n c l u d e s an o b l i g a t i o n  the release of p e r s i s t e n t t o x i c  substances  to  from  the  66 land,  a t m o s p h e r e o r dumping.  measures, one into  In t a k i n g p o l l u t i o n  control  s t a t e s must a c t s o a s n o t t o t r a n s f e r h a z a r d s  a r e a t o a n o t h e r , o r t o t r a n s f o r m one  type of  from  pollution  another. O c e a n dumping i s d e f i n e d  i n t h e LOS  Convention  i n terms  6 D  very s i m i l a r to the d e f i n i t i o n t h e LOS  treaty  regulation national  and  Article dumping l a w s applicable state,  216  states to  c o n t r o l p o l l u t i o n by less effective  should e f f e c t i v e l y  C o n v e n t i o n t o comply,  set out i n the  flag  and  l a w s must be no  standards, which LOS  dumping, r e q u i r i n g  to  210  of  the adopt  t a k e such o t h e r measures as a r e n e c e s s a r y  t o prevent, reduce National  Article  i s the primary clause r e l a t i n g  o f ocean  laws  i n t h e LDC.  dumping.  than g l o b a l  rules  and  oblige a l l p a r t i e s to the  a t a minimum, w i t h t h e  standards  LDC. o f t h e LOS  adopted  ocean  i n accordance with the Convention,  international the state  Convention provides that  s t a n d a r d s , may  i n which  be e n f o r c e d by  w a s t e s a r e l o a d e d , and  and the  by  coastal state  states.  The LOS C o n v e n t i o n  jurisdiction  provides  over p o l l u t i o n matters  f o rcoastal  i n a 12 m i l e  territorial  s e a , a 200 m i l e e x c l u s i v e e c o n o m i c z o n e , a n d t h e  continental  shelf.  The Convention  a l s o p r o v i d e s t h a t no  dumping may t a k e p l a c e w i t h i n t h e s e  areas without  the express  69 prior  approval  of the coastal state.  Concern has been expressed  t h a t t h e expansion  of coastal  s t a t e j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r dumping m i g h t i n c r e a s e p r e s s u r e t o . . . 70 u t i l i z e areas o f t h e high seas. T h e LOS t r e a t y d o e s provide  f o r s t a t e s t o t a k e measures a g a i n s t any s h i p  voluntarily  i n t h e i r p o r t s i n order t o address  any  illegal 71  discharge one  occurring outside the states'  c a n assume t h a t " d i s c h a r g e "  i n c l u d e s dumping,  extension of port state j u r i s d i c t i o n high  seas  jurisdiction. 72  should  e n f o r c e m e n t where a s h i p f l i e s  If  this  serve t o b o l s t e r  a flag of  convenience  and seeks t o evade g l o b a l ocean  dumping  standards.  In addition, the increased t r a n s p o r t a t i o n costs  o f m o v i n g w a s t e s t o deep o c e a n dump s i t e s may w e l l the  economic v i a b i l i t y At the present  into  force,  although  ratifications.  o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f such  time  activities.  t h e 1982 LOS C o n v e n t i o n  i t continues  t o slowly  preclude  h a s n o t come  collect  Much o f t h e d e l a y h a s b e e n a t t r i b u t e d  t o the  position  o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , which has r e j e c t e d those 73  portions  o f the t r e a t y governing  the t r e a t y extent  i s not i n force,  deep-sea mining.  While  much d e b a t e h a s o c c u r r e d  t o which p o r t i o n s o f t h e t r e a t y  over the  a r e b i n d i n g as a  m a t t e r o f customary i n t e r n a t i o n a l law. Some l e g a l  concepts  which had a l r e a d y enjoyed  widespread  a c c e p t a n c e , and t h u s had achieved  i n t h e absence o f a t r e a t y a l r e a d y  t h e s t a t u s o f b i n d i n g customary i n t e r n a t i o n a l law,  were s i m p l y c o d i f i e d by t h e LOS  Convention.  t h e C o n v e n t i o n sought t o e s t a b l i s h new new  In other  areas,  l e g a l concepts.  For  c o n c e p t s t h a t have s i n c e r e c e i v e d w i d e s p r e a d a p p r o v a l , i t  would seem new  customary laws have emerged.  Such i s t h e c a s e  w i t h t h e e x c l u s i v e economic zone i d e a , w h i c h has g a i n e d  a  74 s u b s t a n t i a l degree o f customary a c c e p t a n c e .  This s e l e c t i v e  acceptance of p o r t i o n s of the t r e a t y , w h i l e r e j e c t i n g other p a r t s , may  f u r t h e r j e o p a r d i z e the r a t i f i c a t i o n of the e n t i r e  document w h i c h was  originally  n e g o t i a t e d as a "package d e a l . "  T h i s has c r e a t e d a g r e a t d e a l o f t e n s i o n between c o u n t r i e s p r e s s i n g f o r a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e e n t i r e t r e a t y , such as  third  w o r l d n a t i o n s i n t e r e s t e d i n s h a r i n g i n revenue from seabed mineral resource  e x p l o i t a t i o n , and c o u n t r i e s l i k e t h e  States t h a t r e j e c t those p r o v i s i o n s .  United  In the i n t e r i m , the  London Dumping C o n v e n t i o n c o n t i n u e s  t o g o v e r n ocean dumping  a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e g l o b a l a r e n a , and  i t s widespread acceptance  means t h a t i t s s t a n d a r d s have p r o b a b l y  become customary  w h i c h i s b i n d i n g even on n o n - s i g n a t o r y  states.  law  43 Chapter Three:  Notes  1. Norman G . L e t a l i k , " P o l l u t i o n From Dumping" i n The E n v i r o n m e n t a l Law o f t h e S e a . D.M. J o h n s t o n ( B e r l i n : E r i c h Schmidt V e r l a g , 1981), p. 218. 2. Waste  Ibid.  3. I b i d . ; D a v i d A . D e e s e , N u c l e a r Power a n d ( L e x i n g t o n : D . C . Heath & C o . , 1978), p. 46. 4.  Deese,  p.  47.  5.  Ibid.,  p.  48.  6.  Ibid.;  Letalik,  p.  219.  7. Michael Hardy, " I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n t r o l P o l l u t i o n " (1971) 11 N a t . R e s . J . 296 a t 3 1 3 . 8.  Letalik,  p.  Radioactive  of  Marine  219.  9. I b i d . ; R . J . McManus, " O c e a n Dumping: S t a n d a r d s i n A c t i o n " i n E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n : The I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i m e n s i o n . D . A . Kay and H . K . J a c o b s e n (New J e r s e y : A l l e n h e l d Osmun, 1 9 8 7 ) , p . 1 2 0 ; L . A . W . H u n t e r , The Q u e s t i o n o f an Ocean Dumping C o n v e n t i o n ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : Am. S o c . I n t . Law, 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 10. 10.  Hunter,  p.  11.  Ibid.,  12.  Letalik,  p.  10. 12;  p.  Letalik,  p.  219.  219.  13. I b i d . , p . 225 f f . ; M a x w e l l B r u c e , " T h e L o n d o n Dumping C o n v e n t i o n , 1972: F i r s t Decade and F u t u r e " (1986) O c e a n Y e a r b o o k 298 a t 302. 14.  (1972)  11 I . L . M .  15.  (1974)  I.L.M.  6  262.  544.  16. L e t a l i k , p . 2 2 5 - 2 2 6 ; P h i l i p K u n i g , "Dumping a t S e a " i n The I m p a c t o f M a r i n e P o l l u t i o n . D . J . C u i s i n e a n d J . P . G r a n t ( L o n d o n : Croom Helm L t d . , 1 9 8 0 ) , p . 184. 17.  Articles  5 and  18.  Annex  I.  19.  Annex  II.  20.  Article  6.  6.  44 21.  Annexes I I and I I I .  22.  Article  23.  Articles  24.  A r t i c l e 8(2).  25.  Article  26.  K u n i g , p . 197.  27.  Article  28.  A n n e x e s I , I I a n d V.  29.  Article 9(4).  30.  A r t i c l e 9(3).  31.  (1975) 2 U.S.T. 2403.  32.  Articles  33.  Article  III(l)  34.  Article  III(l).  35.  Article  36.  Ibid.  37.  Annex I .  38.  Annex I I .  39.  Article  40.  Annex I I I .  41.  Article  42 .  Deese, p . 45 f f . ; B r u c e ,  43 .  Article V(l).  44.  Article V(2).  45.  Annex 1 ( 8 ) .  46.  Annex 1 ( 9 ) .  47.  Annex 1(10) a n d Annex 1 1 ( E ) .  48.  Bruce,  7. 8 ( 1 ) a n d 9.  15.  9.  111(3) a n d I V . and Annexes I and I I .  IV.  I V ( 2 ) a n d Annex I I I .  VII(4). p . 316.  p . 313-314; McManus, p . 122-127.  45 49.  McManus, p. 12 6.  50.  I b i d . , p. 126-127.  51.  A r t i c l e s VI and V I I .  52. L e t a l i k , p. 223-224; John W. K i n d t , Marine P o l l u t i o n and the Law o f the Sea. 4 v o l s . (New York: W i l l i a m S. Hein & Co., 1986), p. 1128. 53.  A r t i c l e s VI and V I I .  54.  L e t a l i k , p. 224; Bruce, p.  55.  Article  304.  IV.  56. World Commission on Environment and Development, Common F u t u r e (Oxford: Oxford U. Press, 1987), p. 270.  1981  57.  Bruce, p. 300-301.  58.  McManus, p.  Our  119.  59. F o r example, s i g n a t o r i e s t o the Lima Convention o f i n c l u d e Columbia, C h i l e , Equador, Panama and Peru.  60. Bruce, p. 306 f f . ; Canada, Environment Canada, Ocean Dumping C o n t r o l A c t Annual Report 1985-86 (Ottawa: Supply and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1986) , p. 25. 61.  (1982) 21 I.L.M. 1261.  62.  Ibid.  63 .  A r t i c l e s 207-209, 211,  64.  Article  65.  A r t i c l e s 192 and  66.  Article  194.  67.  Article  195.  68.  Article  1.  69.  Article  210.  70.  Bruce, p. 306; K i n d t , p. 114 0.  71.  Article  212.  210. 194.  218.  72. M. Hoffmeyer, "Ocean Dumping P r o v i s i o n s o f t h e Convention on the Law o f the Sea" (1985) 11 B r o o k l y n J . o f  46 Int. Law  355 at  372.  73. S.A. Williams and A.L.C. deMestral, An Introduction to International Law C h i e f l y as Interpreted and Applied i n Canada. 2nd ed. (Toronto: Butterworths, 1987), p. 234. 74.  Ibid., p.  229.  47 Chapter Four:  a . The  Canadian  Law  Canadian Environmental P r o t e c t i o n Act  Canada h a s n o t y e t e i t h e r r a t i f i e d 1982  LOS  C o n v e n t i o n , b u t i n 1975  implemented  was  the federal  repealed  and  (ODCA).  On J u n e  1  the  government  t h e London Dumping C o n v e n t i o n by e n a c t i n g  O c e a n Dumping C o n t r o l A c t Act  o r implemented  30,  the  1988,  r e p l a c e d by P a r t V I o f t h e  that  Canadian  2 Environmental Protection Act The  CEPA a s a w h o l e i s d e s i g n e d t o c o n t r o l  substances which might human h e a l t h , Its  (CEPA).  stated  intention  i s to control  for pollution  p o w e r s and enforcement  itself.  such substances a t a l l  The  CEPA s u b s t a n t i a l l y  infractions,  increases  ultimate  increases  emergency  s e e k s t o p r o v i d e a framework f o r b e t t e r 3 and c o m p l i a n c e m e a s u r e s .  I t a l s o attempts t o  t a k e a more p r e v e n t i v e a p p r o a c h by p r o v i d i n g assessment  endanger  from t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n t o t h e i r  or destruction.  penalties  and  r e s o u r c e s p e c i e s or the environment  s t a g e s o f t h e i r use, disposal  enter the environment  toxic  and  regulation  of both e x i s t i n g  s u b s t a n c e s . A l t h o u g h i t p r o p o s e s few deal with existing  and t o  and new  chemical  r e m e d i a l measures t o  p o l l u t a n t s and t h e i r  increase public participation  f o r the  disposal,  i t seeks t o  incorporate  e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s i n t o g o v e r n m e n t and  industry  decision-  making p r o c e s s e s . The federal  CEPA a l s o t r i e s and p r o v i n c i a l  r e c o g n i z e s the problems  t o improve  pollution that  the coordination  c o n t r o l measures,  between  and i t  a r e c r e a t e d by t h e s h a r e d  48 constitutional provision  jurisdiction  f o r the use  committees  of j o i n t  area.  I t makes  federal-provincial  express  advisory  i n the development o f r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g  substances.  4  5  agreements r e g a r d i n g t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f  . and  substances  .  permits  ...  provincial  r e g u l a t i o n by way  responsibility  of l e g i s l a t i o n  for toxic  equivalent to  CEPA p r o v i s i o n s .  Such " e q u i v a l e n c y p r o v i s i o n s " a r e  to  and  include testing  e n f o r c e m e n t and participation The  sampling  compliance  methods, e m i s s i o n  policies,  expected  standards,  p e n a l t i e s and  public  a i r , w a t e r and  pollution.  Part I of the Act deals with the  of national  environmental  of t o x i c  the  procedures.  CEPA i s i n t e n d e d t o g o v e r n  guidelines.  toxic  . . . I t also provides f o r the n e g o t i a t i o n of  federal-provincial  the Act,  in this  land  establishment  quality  o b j e c t i v e s and  practical  Part II s p e c i f i c a l l y  deals with the  regulation  substances,  and  i s i n t e n d e d t o r e p l a c e and  improve  7 upon t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l t h r e e major 1.  i n use new  initiatives:  i n an  to chemicals  2.  I t provides for  development of a system t o assess the t o x i c i t y  chemicals  danger;  Contaminants A c t .  of  o r g a n i z e d manner, w i t h h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y  believed to constitute a significant  given  potential  8  the compilation of a l i s t  of a l l chemicals presently  i n Canada, t o g e t h e r w i t h a t o x i c i t y  chemical 3.  before  i t i s introduced i n t o the country;  the regulation  the assessment process Part  II also  assessment of 9  and  control  determines  is  o f any  substance  toxic.  any and  which  1 0  contains provisions for controlling  fuel  49 additives,  the c o l l e c t i o n  regarding toxic  and  substances,  disclosure of information  and  the  import  and  export of  such  m a t e r i a l s . A t p r e s e n t , however, P a r t I I r e g u l a t i o n s e x i s t  in  relation  I  to only nine chemical  groups,  listed  i n Schedule  11 of the  Act.  Strong p o l i t i c a l comprehensively  will  utilized,  w i t h i n the d i s c r e t i o n  i s necessary since the  be  l e g i s l a t i o n provides that  a c t i v i t i e s may be 12 exempted f r o m t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s . The A c t i s a l s o i n a p p l i c a b l e t o any s u b s t a n c e s , s u c h a s a g r i c u l t u r a l  chemicals,  of Cabinet  f o r the Act t o  any  which are a l r e a d y r e g u l a t e d under o t h e r  federal  13 legislation.  Assuming t h a t the A c t  however, t h e r e i s t h e p o t e n t i a l  is fully  f o r the  implemented,  federal  government,  i n cooperation with the provinces, to regulate the e x p o r t , manufacture, use, transportation, substances ability  and  sale,  testing  i n Canada.  import,  release, disposal,  of a l l e x i s t i n g  Of p a r t i c u l a r  and  importance  future toxic i s the  o f t h e government t o t a k e p r e v e n t i v e a c t i o n ,  a s s e s s i n g and  when n e c e s s a r y  chemicals,  b e f o r e an  c r e a t e d by  the uninformed  Part  restricting  environmental use  and  the use  of  or health hazard r e l e a s e o f such  by new is  substances.  I I I o f t h e CEPA, w h i c h r e p l a c e d P a r t T h r e e o f  the  14 Canada W a t e r A c t ,  deals with the r e l e a s e of n u t r i e n t s .  IV b r o a d e n s t h e s c o p e o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l to and  federal  regulation  l a n d s , Crown c o r p o r a t i o n s and  Part  pertaining  other federal  works  u n d e r t a k i n g s , w h i l e P a r t V, w h i c h r e p l a c e d t h e C l e a n A i r 15 . . Act, deals with international a i r p o l l u t i o n control measures.  50 P a r t VI Its  replaces  i n c l u s i o n i n the  legislation  i s now  f o r contaminants,  the  ODCA, and  CEPA i n d i c a t e s t h a t  being  v i e w e d as  rather  by  the  ultimate  a type of  e n v i r o n m e n t a l and  o r i g i n s of the  o r end  dumping.  dumping  c o n t r o l measure  health  dangers  aligning  their  contamination rather  l o c a t i o n of those substances  p r o b a b l y a more r e a l i s t i c  approach to the  dumping a c t i v i t i e s .  However, i t i s n o t  approach i s l o g i c a l  when a p p l i e d t o t h e  c l e a n dredge  ocean  hazardous wastes of concern,  r e g u l a t i o n with the with the  w i t h ocean  t h a n a form o f marine p o l l u t i o n  enactment. In terms of the created  deals  c o n t r o l of  than  is ocean  clear that this  same  dumping o r r e u s e  of  spoil.  Dumping i s d e f i n e d  i n s e c t i o n 66(1)  of the  CEPA  as:  "dumping" means (a) t h e d e l i b e r a t e d i s p o s a l a t s e a f r o m s h i p s , a i r c r a f t , platforms or other anthropogenic s t r u c t u r e s , i n c l u d i n g d i s p o s a l by i n c i n e r a t i o n o r o t h e r t h e r m a l degradation, o f any s u b s t a n c e , o r (b) t h e d i s p o s a l o f any s u b s t a n c e by p l a c i n g i t on t h e i c e i n any a r e a o f t h e s e a r e f e r r e d t o i n p a r a g r a p h s ( 2 ) ( a ) t o (e) , but does not i n c l u d e (c) any d i s p o s a l t h a t i s i n c i d e n t a l t o o r d e r i v e d from the normal o p e r a t i o n s o f a s h i p , a i r c r a f t , p l a t f o r m o r o t h e r a n t h r o p o g e n i c s t r u c t u r e o r o f any e q u i p m e n t on a s h i p , a i r c r a f t , p l a t f o r m o r o t h e r anthropogenic s t r u c t u r e , other than the d i s p o s a l of s u b s t a n c e s from a s h i p , a i r c r a f t , p l a t f o r m o r o t h e r anthropogenic s t r u c t u r e operated f o r the purpose of d i s p o s i n g of such substances a t sea, and (d) any d i s c h a r g e t h a t i s i n c i d e n t a l t o o r d e r i v e d f r o m t h e e x p l o r a t i o n f o r , e x p l o i t a t i o n o f and a s s o c i a t e d o f f - s h o r e p r o c e s s i n g o f sea bed mineral resources. The  CEPA a p p l i e s t o  that Act.  I t includes  waters of  Canada o t h e r  the  "the  sea"  as  territorial  extensively sea,  than i n l a n d waters,  the  defined  internal  fishing  zones,  in  51 A r c t i c waters, d e s i g n a t e d by jurisdiction  contiguous  zones,  any  e x c l u s i v e economic  Canada, a r e a s o f t h e s e a u n d e r (other than  zone  foreign  i n t e r n a l w a t e r s ) and  any  area of  the 16  sea not  i n c l u d e d i n the  Section dump any  67(1)  foregoing - that  i s , the high  o f t h e CEPA p r o v i d e s t h a t  substance"  "no  person  i n the sea, s u b j e c t t o s e c t i o n  w h i c h a l l o w s dumping t o t a k e p l a c e i n a c c o r d a n c e t e r m s and  conditions of a permit.  prohibited without  i n Canadian  a p e r m i t by  Canadian  ports, into  waters.  Canadian  of a combination  state  a permit i s  i s the  dumping  f o r e i g n waters  of coastal  or the high seas.  The  o f dumping o p e r a t i o n s by  state,  flag  s t a t e and  port  jurisdictions. The  for  the  s h i p s o r by v e s s e l s l o a d e d i n  CEPA t h u s p r o v i d e s f o r t h e c o n t r o l way  shall  67(2)  with  Dumping w i t h o u t  Also prohibited  seas.  CEPA a l s o p r o h i b i t s t h e  the purpose  obtained,  and  l o a d i n g o f v e s s e l s i n Canada  o f dumping, u n l e s s a p e r m i t  p r o h i b i t s Canadian  s h i p s from  is  first  l o a d i n g wastes i n  f o r e i g n p o r t s u n l e s s they have o b t a i n e d a p e r m i t g r a n t e d i n 17 a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e LDC. I n a d d i t i o n , no one i s t o d i s p o s e of  any  vessel  or other anthropogenic  structure  a t sea  without  18 a permit,  which  incorporates p r o v i s i o n s governing  dumping r e g u l a t e d u n d e r t h e LDC. also in  s e t s o u t an  The  ocean  CEPA, i n s e c t i o n  exception to the b a s i c permit  68,  requirements,  c a s e s where " t h e dumping i s n e c e s s a r y t o a v e r t d a n g e r t o  human l i f e  a t s e a o r t o any  anthropogenic The  ship,  aircraft,  platform or  other  structure."  CEPA f o l l o w s t h e b a s i c  format  c o n v e n t i o n s by h a v i n g a b l a c k l i s t  of the  (Schedule  international I I I , P a r t I)  and  52 a grey list  list  include:  plastics, and  (Schedule I I I , P a r t I I ) . organohalogens,  o i l , high-level  chemical warfare  arsenic,  lead,  fluorides,  m e r c u r y , cadmium,  The  zinc,  pesticides,  beryllium,  i n the black l i s t ,  become h a r m f u l The is  due  international  and  in this  t r e a t i e s which r e g u l a t e ocean t h e dumping o f b l a c k - l i s t e d of  and  cyanides, vanadium,  grey  lists  departed  respect.  wastes,  not that  may  dumped.  disposal  a l l g r e y - l i s t e d wastes except  permit,  includes:  non-toxic substances  t h e A c t has  conventions  biological  a l l r a d i o a c t i v e wastes  o f t h e b l a c k and  however, and  persistent  chromium, n i c k e l ,  to the q u a n t i t i e s  significance  obscure,  grey l i s t  organosilicons,  scrap metal, bulky substances, included  on t h e b l a c k  r a d i o a c t i v e w a s t e s and  agents.  copper,  Substances  do  i n t h e CEPA  from  The  international  s o by  prohibiting  prohibiting  i n accordance  the  the  dumping  with a  p r o h i b i t i n g t h e dumping o f a l l o t h e r  special  substances  19 without a general permit. circumstances, nevertheless will  be  a permit  issue;  "rapidly  In c e r t a i n e x c e p t i o n a l  f o r b l a c k - l i s t e d wastes  may  e x a m p l e s i n c l u d e c a s e s where t h e  rendered harmless"  o r a r e p r e s e n t as  wastes "trace  contaminants". The  CEPA t a k e s a somewhat d i f f e r e n t  approach  by 20  prohibiting  t h e dumping o f any  substance without a permit.  Whether t h e s u b s t a n c e  is listed  listed,  issue unless, i n the o p i n i o n of 21  no p e r m i t may  M i n i s t e r of the  I I I or i s  nonthe  Environment:  1. t h e s u b s t a n c e w i l l physical,  i n Schedule  be  "rapidly  chemical or b i o l o g i c a l  rendered harmless  p r o c e s s o f t h e s e a and  by does  not  render normally e d i b l e marine organisms  inedible or  u n p a l a t a b l e o r e n d a n g e r human h e a l t h o r t h e h e a l t h o f animals; 2.  1 1  t h e substance  quantity that  does n o t c o n t a i n a n o t h e r  e x c e e d s a maximum  substance  ina  c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r e s c r i b e d by  regulation; 3. poses  t h e dumping i s n e c e s s a r y t o a v e r t a n e m e r g e n c y  an "unacceptable  admits  risk  o f no o t h e r f e a s i b l e  4. i f t h e s u b s t a n c e product  relating  that  t o human h e a l t h a n d  solution"; or  i s t o be i n c i n e r a t e d ,  and t h e end  o f i n c i n e r a t i o n c a n be d i s p o s e d o f b e c a u s e i t i s  "rapidly  rendered  harmless"  o r does n o t exceed  the prescribed  maximum c o n c e n t r a t i o n . S i n c e t h e same t y p e o f p e r m i t grey-listed  and n o n - l i s t e d  i s issued f o r black-listed,  substances,  and a l l s u b s t a n c e s a r e  p r o h i b i t e d u n l e s s t h e y meet t h e c r i t e r i a international  treaties,  must o n l y b e met b y b l a c k - l i s t e d  wastes, t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e legislation  i s minimized.  black list/grey obligation issuing  list  a permit  of the l i s t s  i n t h e Canadian  The s o l e r e a s o n  approach  t o conduct  which, under t h e  f o rretaining the  seems t o b e t h e LDC t r e a t y  international  consultations prior to  f o r t h e dumping o f l i s t e d  wastes i n order t o  22 avert  an emergency. Upon r e c e i p t  o f a dumping a p p l i c a t i o n ,  the Minister i n  d e c i d i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t t o i s s u e a p e r m i t , must t a k e i n t o account t h e f a c t o r s s e t out i n Schedule I I I , Part I I I t o the Act,  and has t h e d i s c r e t i o n t o t a k e  i n t o account  any o t h e r  23 factor.  Schedule  I I I , Part I I I sets out factors  such as  54 toxicity, site  p e r s i s t e n c e and b i o a c c u m u l a t i o n o f t h e wastes,  characteristics,  exists  f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e consequences,  marine l i f e , and or  possible effects  the practical  or factors,  each  the  Minister's  i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f human l i f e , of the sea."  i s not provided with a role  procedures  or i n the setting  human l i f e  and h e a l t h .  notice  of their  circulation  marine  Surprisingly,  f o c u s o f t h e A c t as a whole, t h e M i n i s t e r  Applicants  any p e r m i t  terms and c o n d i t i o n s as t h e M i n i s t e r  o r any l e g i t i m a t e uses  Welfare  treatment  emphasis t o be g i v e n  S e c t i o n 72(2) s i m p l y p r o v i d e s t h a t  c o n t a i n such  of the sea  i s a s s i g n e d t o any g i v e n  leaving the relative  considers necessary life  No p r i o r i t y  basis  e f f e c t s on  o f a l t e r n a t i v e waste  e n t i r e l y w i t h i n t h e Environment  discretion. "shall  possible  on o t h e r human u s e s  availability  d i s p o s a l methods.  factor to  whether an adequate s c i e n t i f i c  dump  o f H e a l t h and  i n o c e a n dumping  of permit  given  permit  conditions to protect  f o r o c e a n d i s p o s a l p e r m i t s must p u b l i s h a application  i n a newspaper o f g e n e r a l  i n t h e l o c a l e where t h e dumping o p e r a t i o n w i l l 24  take place. in  When g r a n t e d o r v a r i e d , p e r m i t s a r e p u b l i s h e d 25 t h e Canada G a z e t t e . P e r m i t h o l d e r s and a p p l i c a n t s f o r  permits  are granted a r i g h t  t o appeal the M i n i s t e r ' s 26  d e c i s i o n s t o a board  o f review,  w h i l e members o f t h e p u b l i c  may o n l y h a v e p e r m i t d e c i s i o n s a n d p r o p o s e d r e g u l a t i o n s reviewed  i fthe Minister,  i n h i s discretion,  allows a board  27 of  review  t o be e s t a b l i s h e d .  recommendations t o t h e M i n i s t e r , revoke  o r vary the permit  The b o a r d 28  o f review  and t h e M i n i s t e r  c a n make may  i f he c o n s i d e r s i t a d v i s a b l e t o do  55 so.  29  I f a board  . . i s established,  . i t must p e r m i t  a r e a s o n a b l e o p p o r t u n i t y t o appear apply  "the r u l e s  before i t ,  o f p r o c e d u r a l f a i r n e s s and  "any  and  person"  i t must  natural  . . „30 justice." Conspicuously  lacking  mechanism t o a l l o w p u b l i c application  i n these procedures  Also lacking  the public  c o u l d f o r c e a permit review,  proposed  of  an  t h e making o f a p e r m i t  decision.  i s a mechanism by w h i c h a member o f  Additionally,  Minister establish  express  i n p u t between t h e t i m e n o t i c e  i s p u b l i s h e d , and  a b l e t o do.  i s an  a board  regulations are  as p e r m i t - h o l d e r s a r e  i t i s not mandatory t h a t  the  o f r e v i e w when o b j e c t i o n s t o  received. 31  Breaches On  o f t h e CEPA a r e t r e a t e d  summary c o n v i c t i o n ,  maximum f i n e and indictment, years  up  offenders are l i a b l e  to a  t o s i x months i m p r i s o n m e n t .  t h e maximum f i n e  imprisonment.  as h y b r i d o f f e n c e s . $300,000.00 On  i s $1,000,000.00 and  up  to three  C o n t r a v e n t i o n s o f t h e A c t a r e deemed t o 32  be  s e p a r a t e o f f e n c e s f o r each  day  I n many c a s e s t h e e n f o r c e m e n t  they are  committed.  p o w e r s u n d e r t h e CEPA a r e  much b r o a d e r t h a n t h o s e c o n t a i n e d i n t h e e a r l i e r and  this  legislation,  i s t h e main a r e a i n which t h e reenactment  c h a n g e s and  improvements.  will  make  Court o r d e r s a v a i l a b l e under  the  CEPA i n c l u d e d i r e c t i n g t h e o f f e n d e r t o remedy t h e harm t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , t o p e r f o r m community s e r v i c e and t o p a y money t o 33 support e c o l o g i c a l research. The  CEPA a l s o  involvement, cause  i n c l u d e s p r o v i s i o n s which  including  of action  f o r any  section  136  increase public  which c r e a t e s a  b r e a c h o f t h e A c t , and  civil  section  12(4)  w h i c h a l l o w s any p e r s o n t o p e t i t i o n t h e M i n i s t e r substances t o the l i s t priority Bill nor  of materials  does n o t p r o v i d e  f o r an e n v i r o n m e n t a l b i l l  financial  wish t o take enforcement The  inspectors,  an  provisions  o f the Courts, the detention,  cargoes,  assistance  dealing  the designation seizure  and s i m i l a r m a t t e r s .  under Part  of rights,  t o i n d i v i d u a l s who  with the  and powers o f  and f o r f e i t u r e o f s h i p s I f the Minister  a c t i o n be t a k e n t o r e p a i r o r m i t i g a t e  offence  the  action.  A c t also contains  jurisdiction  that  intended t o receive  i n t h e i r r e v i e w and assessment. U n f o r t u n a t e l y ,  does i t p r o v i d e  and  t o add  VI o f t h e Act,  directs  damage c a u s e d b y  the costs  c a n be  34 recovered  from t h e o f f e n d e r  b y t h e Crown.  Interestingly,  S c h e d u l e I I I o f t h e A c t c a n b e amended b y t h e G o v e r n o r General  i n Council  o f t h e M i n i s t e r , by e x e c u t i v e 35 rather than l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n . The R e g u l a t i o n s p r o m u l g a t e d p u r s u a n t t o t h e ODCA are 37 continued  on a d v i c e  i n f o r c e u n d e r t h e CEPA.  application  form t o be used  They a l s o d e f i n e  They p r e s c r i b e t h e  i n s e e k i n g a p e r m i t t o dump.  t h e maximum q u a n t i t i e s o f o r g a n o h a l o g e n s ,  m e r c u r y , cadmium, p e r s i s t e n t p l a s t i c s a n d o i l t h a t a r e considered section  trace  amounts, s o t h a t  71(3)(b).  a p e r m i t may i s s u e  A d e f i n i t i o n t o d i s t i n g u i s h high  under level  r a d i o a c t i v e waste from a l l o t h e r r a d i o a c t i v e m a t t e r i s a l s o included The  i n the  Regulations.  Crown i s bound b y t h e p r o v i s i o n s  o f t h e Canadian  38 legislation.  This,  serves t o eliminate  unlike  t h e s i t u a t i o n u n d e r t h e LDC,  any b l a n k e t  exclusion  of military  57 operations  b.  f r o m t h e n e e d t o c o m p l y w i t h t h e CEPA.  Constitutional Jurisdiction Canada  divided  i s a federal  state,  between t h e f e d e r a l  with c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  authority  and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s o f 39  g o v e r n m e n t . I n 1867, when t h e C a n a d i a n drafted,  the problem  virtually  of environmental  unknown, and t h e s c a l e  h a s b e e n r e a c h e d b y modern unimaginable.  degradation  was  was  o f waste p r o d u c t i o n which  s o c i e t y was  virtually  As a r e s u l t , a t h o u g h t f u l a l l o c a t i o n o f  l e g i s l a t i v e power ensure  Constitution  b e t w e e n t h e two  adequate environmental  Over t h e y e a r s l e g i s l a t i v e  l e v e l s o f government t o  protection  responses  c r i s e s h a v e t h e r e f o r e emerged  was  never  t o v a r i o u s environmental  i n a piecemeal  fashion,  have been j u s t i f i e d  by v a r i o u s heads o f l e g i s l a t i v e  b o t h p r o v i n c i a l and  federal.  The l e g i s l a t i v e  jurisdiction  regarding environmental  affairs  made.  of the federal  has been based  and  power,  government  upon i t s  e n u m e r a t e d p o w e r s o v e r : i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l works and 40 41 42 undertakings, t r a d e and commerce, agriculture, seacoast 43 . . 44 and i n l a n d f i s h e r i e s , n a v i g a t i o n and s h i p p i n g , 45 . 46 taxation, t h e c r i m i n a l law, and t h e power t o l e g i s l a t e 47 f o r t h e peace, provincial  o r d e r and g o o d g o v e r n m e n t o f C a n a d a .  governments have, l i k e w i s e ,  The  been g r a n t e d  l e g i s l a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o environmental p r o t e c t i o n b a s e d on t h e i r s p e c i f i e d powers o v e r : t h e 48 management and s a l e o f p u b l i c l a n d s , municipal 49 . 50 institutions, l o c a l works and u n d e r t a k i n g s , p r o p e r t y and  58 civil  rights,  51  and  matters of  52  a local  or p r i v a t e  nature  the  province.  The  . . . . . p r o v i n c e s a l s o have j u r i s d i c t i o n  the  conservation  and  management o f  non-renewable  over  natural  53 . . . . r e s o u r c e s and f o r e s t r y and s h a r e d j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r 54 . agriculture. In a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r o t h e r powers each of  government has  property  and  the  assets,  prerogative and  the  power t o manage i t s  associated  in  power t o  level own  legislate in  55 relation One affairs, treaty, level  to  such  might  property.  imagine t h a t  s u c h as w o u l d be  the  implementation of  specifically  o f government.  clearly affairs.  Constitution  all  t r e a t i e s entered  in  an  f a c t , the  law  international  ocean  allocated to  e x c l u s i v i t y of  federal  the  behalf.  In  supportive of The  jurisdiction  one  1867,  However, t h e  the  the  jurisdiction  does have f u l l  i n t o by  or  i n Canada i s  Parliament, pursuant to  Act,  dumping  British  C o u r t s have h e l d  not  in  foreign  section  power t o  since  achieving  C a n a d i a n powers r e l a t i n g t o t r e a t i e s a r e 56  l o n g e r t o be  b a s e d on  Constitution  i s t h e r e any  132,  and  other grant of  of  Canada's  sovereignty,  section  132  implement  E m p i r e on  that  other  nowhere i n a foreign  no  the affairs  power. The  p r e v a i l i n g view i s t h a t  g o v e r n m e n t has  the  the  federal  undisputed r i g h t to  enter  level  of  i n t o o r make 57  t r e a t i e s which are The  delegation  the  1947  of  Letters  binding  on  Canada i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l  t h i s t r e a t y - m a k i n g power was Patent pertaining  Governor G e n e r a l . Crown p r e r o g a t i v e ,  5 8  Because the the  authority  to the  law.  confirmed  office  of  in  the  t r e a t y - m a k i n g power i s a to  exercise  that  power  rests  59 with t h e executive branch  of the federal  neither Parliament nor the p r o v i n c i a l legal  role  t o play i n the signing  government, and  L e g i s l a t u r e s h a v e any  or ratification of  59 treaties. In order t o perform  the obligations  t r e a t y must b e i m p l e m e n t e d b y d o m e s t i c this  legislation.  I n Canada  t r e a t y - i m p l e m e n t i n g power i s n o t c o e x t e n s i v e w i t h t h e  treaty-making in  of a treaty, the  power, d u e t o t h e d e c i s i o n 60  t h e Labour Conventions  decided that a treaty  case.  of the Privy Council  In that  ruling  t h e Court  i ti s necessary t o look a t t h e s u b j e c t matter o f  i n order t o decide which l e v e l  o f government has t h e  a u t h o r i t y t o enact  legislation  t o implement t h a t  treaty.  If  the s u b j e c t matter  f a l l s w i t h i n a f e d e r a l head o f l e g i s l a t i v e  power, P a r l i a m e n t c a n i m p l e m e n t t h e t r e a t y ; w i t h i n t h e i r own spheres  of legislative  power t h e p r o v i n c e s h a v e e x c l u s i v e  power t o e n a c t t r e a t y - i m p l e m e n t i n g c o n t i n u e s t o be t h e a u t h o r i t a t i v e  legislation. case  i n Canada,  This although  o v e r t h e y e a r s t h e d e c i s i o n h a s b e e n much c r i t i c i z e d , a n d numerous a u t h o r s h a v e p o i n t e d o u t i n d i c i a Court  o f Canada c a s e s w h i c h h i n t ., , 61 reconsidered. In t h e absence o f a c l e a r to  implement t r e a t i e s ,  t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n may b e  federal  legislation  vulnerable t o provincial  i n r e c e n t Supreme  such  jurisdictional  constitutional  mandate  a s t h e ODCA was a s c h a l l e n g e s as any  other environmental  l a w i n Canada. I n 1982 a c o r p o r a t i o n  in  challenged the constitutional  British  Columbia  t h e ODCA, a f t e r  i t was c h a r g e d  with v i o l a t i n g  v a l i d i t y of  i t s dumping  62 permit.  T h e a r e a o f t h e o c e a n i n w h i c h t h e dumping  took  60 place was  was  no  within  the  p o l l u t i o n of  government j o i n e d jurisdiction  the  Province,  and  e x t r a - p r o v i n c i a l w a t e r s . The  the  action  belonged to  l e g i s l a t i o n had The  boundaries of  been  and  argued t h a t  i t , a l t h o u g h no  there  Provincial  legislative  Provincial  enacted.  Supreme C o u r t o f  Canada d i s a g r e e d ,  three s p l i t  decision  i t upheld the  exercise  of  federal  national  concern r e l a t i n g to the  legislative  and  in a  legislation  jurisdiction  as  four  a  valid  over matters  p e a c e , o r d e r and  to  of  good  63 government  (POGG) o f  Canada.  extensive review of the in various 1896,  Privy  principles.  and  After  the  the  q u a l i f y as  i n the  that  f r e s h w a t e r s , has  scientific  considerations 64  water p o l l u t i o n . "  .  In  a subject  concern  i n order falling  i t s own  that  addition,  the  i n so  f a r as  of  action  matter  national  of  the  Court held the  and  fresh  that  this  requirement  q u a l i f y as  one  of  f e d e r a l p e a c e , o r d e r and  i t s i m p a c t on  of  marine  characteristics  g o v e r n m e n t power i t must h a v e a s c e r t a i n a b l e limits,  since  legal  d i s t i n g u i s h i t from  f o r a matter to  within  out  "...marine p o l l u t i o n , because  s a l t w a t e r / f r e s h w a t e r d i s t i n c t i o n met "...that  set  requirements which a  c o m p o s i t i o n and  w a t e r s and  an  Supreme C o u r t d e c i s i o n s  o u t l i n i n g the  Court held  differences  and  POGG power as  r e c o n c i l i n g a number o f  must h a v e i n o r d e r t o concern,  Court undertook  extent of the  Council  clarifying  The  and  national good  reasonable  provincial jurisdiction  is  65 concerned," place  even though the  e n t i r e l y within  provincial  effect.  actual  marine p o l l u t i o n took  p r o v i n c i a l b o u n d a r i e s and  After  noting  the  had  international  no  extra-  "character  61 and  implications"  o f marine p o l l u t i o n  went o n t o c o n c l u d e t h a t ODCA i n p a r t i c u l a r , of  the federal  marine p o l l u t i o n  sea  generally,  and t h e  was w i t h i n t h e l e g i s l a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n  Parliament.  While t h e d i s s e n t i n g federal  problems, t h e Court  marine p o l l u t i o n  j u s t i c e s would have  supported  l e g i s l a t i o n governing areas o f the  outside the provinces,  o r e v e n i f t h e dumping w i t h i n a 66  p r o v i n c e had t h e e f f e c t  of polluting  other provinces,  they  v i g o r o u s l y d i s a g r e e d about t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n i n a r e a s e n t i r e l y w i t h i n one p r o v i n c e . concern over t h e " p o t e n t i a l 67 control  powers,  "sufficiently  They e x p r e s s e d  breadth" of federal  pollution  and d i d n o t s e e ocean p o l l u t i o n  discrete  strong  as a  s u b j e c t " upon w h i c h t o found  federal  legislative jurisdiction. Notwithstanding t h i s strong dissent, marine p o l l u t i o n , of  national  a n d s p e c i f i c a l l y o c e a n dumping,  c o n c e r n and t h u s w i t h i n  j u r i s d i c t i o n u n d e r t h e POGG power. not  resolve a l l of the possible  relating one  federal  As j u s t  may e x a m i n e t h e c a s e o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  loaded  f o r o c e a n dumping.  transportation  legislative that  different  this  does  problems one example,  o f dangerous goods  facility  where t h e y  would  Depending upon whether t h e  i s international,  intraprovincial,  i s a matter  Unfortunately,  t o o c e a n dumping a c t i v i t i e s .  that  legislative  constitutional  from an i n d u s t r i a l s i t e t o a p o r t be  i ti s clear  levels  interprovincial  o f government would  j u r i s d i c t i o n . One must b e a r i n mind,  questions of constitutional  o r wholly  therefore,  j u r i s d i c t i o n have  r e l e v a n c e t o marine environmental p o l i c y  issues,  have  continued  even  after  the  Supreme C o u r t d e c i s i o n u p h o l d i n g One f u r t h e r p r o b l e m  the  i s whether t h e r e c e n t  ODCA i n t h e CEPA w i l l  constitutional federal  W h i l e t h e ODCA was u p h e l d a s v a l i d  a sufficient  and i n d i v i s i b i l i t y  from m a t t e r s o f p r o v i n c i a l concern, provincial  jurisdiction  legislative attempting toxic well  of a  t h i s was l a r g e l y b e c a u s e o c e a n p o l l u t i o n  was a s u b j e c t m a t t e r w i t h distinctiveness  inclusion of  reopen t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s  challenge.  legislation,  t h e ODCA.  to clearly and w i t h  r e c o n c i l a b l e with  power i n t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n . t o deal with  singleness,  a i r , land,  distinguish i t an impact on  the distribution of  T h e new CEPA,  freshwater  and marine  s u b s t a n c e s r e g u l a t i o n f r o m c r e a t i o n t o d i s p o s a l , may fail  t o meet t h i s  test.  On t h e o t h e r  the  CEPA i s a r g u a b l y  and  t h u s may b e immune f r o m s u c h c h a l l e n g e s  Parts  severable  hand, P a r t V I o f  from t h e remainder o f t h e A c t , even i f o t h e r  o f t h e A c t were e v e n t u a l l y t o b e s t r u c k down a s u l t r a  vires.  c.  Administrative The  Policies  a n d C a n a d i a n Dumping  b a s i c s t r u c t u r e o f t h e ODCA was c l e a r , a n d i t s  constitutional validity which r e p l a c e d therefore,  h a s b e e n u p h e l d . P a r t V I o f t h e CEPA  i t i s extremely s i m i l a r i n design.  suppose t h a t t h e p r a c t i c a l  l e g i s l a t i o n would be s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , rules  Practices  laid  down i n t h e e n a c t m e n t s .  implementation o f the following precisely the  Instead,  Canadian s t a t u t e s , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  One m i g h t ,  like  most  o f t h e ODCA i n v o l v e d a  number o f g u i d e l i n e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s t h a t were o f t e n  internal,  unofficial,  a n d one  d i s c r e t i o n a r y and p u b l i c l y u n a v a i l a b l e ,  63 can a n t i c i p a t e t h a t  these practices w i l l  c o n t i n u e under t h e  CEPA. The has  CEPA p r o v i d e s t h a t  the Minister  t h e d i s c r e t i o n t o g r a n t , w i t h h o l d , v a r y and r e s c i n d  dumping p e r m i t s , a n d a t t a c h . . conditions  officials,  70  ocean  such terms and  In practice t h i s  d i s c r e t i o n i s delegated t o and i t would be an e x t r e m e l y  which t h e M i n i s t e r permit  t o such p e r m i t s  a s h e deems n e c e s s a r y .  Ministerial  administrative rare  case  indeed i n  o f t h e Environment p e r s o n a l l y  reviewed  a  application.  Permit  applications  administrative  Protection, regional  a r e n o r m a l l y reviewed by  o f f i c e r s working  Contaminants C o n t r o l  f o r t h e O c e a n Dumping a n d  d i v i s i o n o f the Environmental  C o n s e r v a t i o n and P r o t e c t i o n  office.  EPCP i s a b r a n c h  application staff,  i s complete  and passes  the application i s generally  (EPCP)  Service  o f E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, t h e  f e d e r a l department o f t h e environment.  the  o f t h e Environment  I f the permit  initial  screening  b y EPCP  c i r c u l a t e d f o r comment t o  f e d e r a l department o f F i s h e r i e s and Oceans, t h e Canadian  Coast  Guard, and t h e r e l e v a n t  provincial Ministry  ofthe  71 Environment. Once t h i s c o n s u l t a t i o n application  i s reviewed  Advisory  Committee  of  from  staff  Canada. subject  process  i s complete,  b y t h e R e g i o n a l Ocean  (RODAC), w h i c h c o n s i s t s  the permit  Dumping  o f a p a n e l made up  E n v i r o n m e n t Canada a n d F i s h e r i e s a n d O c e a n s  RODAC e i t h e r recommends t h a t  t h e p e r m i t be  t o s p e c i f i e d terms and c o n d i t i o n s ,  t h e p e r m i t be d e n i e d .  issued  o r recommends  I n most c i r c u m s t a n c e s  t h i s i s the  that  64 administrative  level  a t w h i c h a d e c i s i o n a b o u t t h e dumping 72  permit  i s a c t u a l l y made.  RODAC's r e c o m m e n d a t i o n  i s made t o t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e  r e g i o n a l Environmental Protection administrative Rarely  officer  that  Service,  a c t u a l l y signs  who i s t h e the permits.  w o u l d a p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n b e t a k e n up a t h i g h e r  administrative  levels,  s u c h a s t h e Head o f t h e O c e a n  Program, Ottawa o f f i c i a l s Minister or the Minister Since  Dumping  o f E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, t h e D e p u t y 73 himself.  t h e e n a c t m e n t o f t h e ODCA i n 1975, o v e r 1800  p e r m i t s h a v e b e e n i s s u e d i n Canada f o r t h e o c e a n d i s p o s a l o f 74 v a r i o u s wastes. From 119 t o 204 p e r m i t s p e r y e a r h a v e b e e n i s s u e d f o r d r e d g e d m a t e r i a l d i s p o s a l , w h i l e 13 t o 32 p e r m i t s 75 per  y e a r have been i s s u e d  percentage o f permits gradually  increased  a b o u t 25% o f t o t a l 75.2%  fish  f o r non-dredged m a t e r i a l  permits  while other  and c r a b  types o f wastes.  offal,  issued.  scrap  metal,  surfactant,  as w e l l  i n 1985  vessels,  brine  solution,  as experimental 77  o f o i l and r a d i o a c t i v e m a t e r i a l .  conditions  generally  Permit  govern matters such as handling,  o f wastes, t h e t i m i n g  10% t o  material  s u b s t a n c e s dumped i n c l u d e d  discharges  loading  d i s p o s a l has  F o r example,  i s s u e d were f o r d r e d g e d  weapons a n d s h i p g a l l e y r e f u s e ,  and  The  o v e r t h e y e a r s , from a p p r o x i m a t e l y 76  o f the permits  disposal,  f o r other  of the disposal  storage  operation, 78  and  t h e method o f p l a c e m e n t a t t h e d i s p o s a l s i t e . The t o t a l q u a n t i t y o f w a s t e s d i s p o s e d o f i n t h e C a n a d i a n 79  o c e a n s i n 1985 was a p p r o x i m a t e l y Canadian wastes a r e g e n e r a l l y  8 m i l l i o n metric  disposed  tonnes.  o f i n s i x major  sites,  65 each  o f which r e c e i v e s over  annually.  There  140,000 t o n n e s  a r e 164 a d d i t i o n a l  of material  dump s i t e s  i n Canadian 80  waters,  i n w h i c h t h e b a l a n c e o f t h e w a s t e s a r e dumped.  L i m i t e d m o n i t o r i n g o f s i x o f t h e m i n o r dump s i t e s h a s indicated prescribed  t h a t dumping o p e r a t i o n s a r e b e i n g r e s t r i c t e d 81 l o c a t i o n s by t h e permit p r o c e s s .  approximately  3 0%  i n t h e 1985-86 y e a r ,  requiring  legal  global  infractions  One may, however,  a l i m i t e d m o n i t o r i n g and  program, p a r t i c u l a r l y  were e v e r u n d e r t a k e n  There  a n d no p e r m i t 82  a c t i o n were d i s c o v e r e d .  q u e s t i o n t h e adequacy o f such  thirteen years  In addition,  o f t h e l o a d i n g a n d dumping o p e r a t i o n s were  inspected  compliance  to the  since only four prosecutions  f o rinfractions  o f t h e ODCA i n t h e  i t was i n f o r c e .  i s c o n t i n u i n g and i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e , b o t h  s c a l e a n d w i t h i n Canada, t o u t i l i z e  on a  t h e oceans as a  waste r e c e p t a c l e f o r e v e r g r e a t e r volumes o f m a t e r i a l . Industrial land-based growing  expansion, p o p u l a t i o n growth and a s h o r t a g e o f disposal f a c i l i t i e s are a l l contributing t o this 83  pressure.  The p o s s i b i l i t y  becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y stringent  attractive  environmental  of land-based  o f ocean d i s p o s a l  e c o n o m i c a l l y , a s more  standards begin t o increase the costs 84  disposal.  I n Canada, p r e s s u r e s c o n t i n u e t o  mount t o u s e t h e o c e a n s t o d i s p o s e o f s o l i d w a s t e s , fuel  drums, e l e c t r i c a l  appliances, scrap metal,  m a c h i n e r y , t o dump i n d u s t r i a l and  construction debris,  s l u d g e and i n c i n e r a b l e As  i s also  wastes such  v e h i c l e s and  a s aluminum  and t o d i s p o s e o f f i s h  organochlorine wastes.  E n v i r o n m e n t Canada s e e k s  such as  t o develop  smelter  offal,  sewage  8 5  domestic  policies  66 that w i l l  b a l a n c e economic p r a c t i c a l i t y w i t h  acceptability,  the administrative  response  environmental  t o such p r e s s u r e s 86  has  b e e n m i x e d . I n t e r n a l management g u i d e l i n e s  state:  I n t h o s e c a s e s where i t c a n n o t be shown t h a t i n c r e a s e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage c a n o r w i l l r e s u l t f r o m o c e a n d i s p o s a l o f a t r e a t e d o r u n t r e a t e d w a s t e and t h i s r e p r e s e n t s t h e l e a s t c o s t d i s p o s a l o p t i o n then ocean dumping s h o u l d n o t be o p p o s e d on t h e b a s i s o f "principle." A few  examples w i l l  have been d e v e l o p e d  h e l p t o i l l u s t r a t e how "unofficially"  policy  guidelines  under t h e ocean difficulties  dumping  legislation,  whenever a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  encountered,  i n o r d e r t o accommodate t h e n e e d t o c o n t i n u e t o  p r o c e s s dumping a p p l i c a t i o n s w i t h o u t the promulgation  of o f f i c i a l  Approximately  10%  dumped i s c o n t a m i n a t e d including  o i l and  legislative  amendment  or  regulations.  of the Canadian by p o t e n t i a l l y  grease,  have been  dredge  spoil  dangerous  that i s  materials,  s y n t h e t i c o r g a n i c s and  heavy  87 metals.  For o i l ,  the regulations  p e r m i s s i b l e c o n c e n t r a t i o n as  "any  f i x t h e maximum  quantity that yields  more  88 than  10 mg  p e r k g o f n-hexane s o l u b l e s u b s t a n c e s . "  as hydrocarbons  are present a t l e s s than t h i s  level,  So  long  t h e CEPA  a l l o w s t h e w a s t e t o be dumped d e s p i t e c o n t a m i n a t i o n by t h e s e 89 b l a c k - l i s t e d substances. A c t u a l a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r p e r m i t s t o dump o i l - c o n t a m i n a t e d wastes have ranged  from m a t e r i a l w i t h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s w e l l  within these l i m i t s . . the s p e c i f i e d  t o m a t e r i a l s which have g r o s s l y  exceeded  90 levels.  been c o n s i s t e n t l y  On  average,  t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s have  above t h e r e g u l a t o r y  limit  (approximately  91 1465  mg/kg t o M a r c h , 1978) ,  and  a government  sponsored  67 review has concluded t h a t t h e r e g u l a t o r y  limit  s h o u l d be  92 changed.  In the interim,  Environment  unofficial  "screening guideline"  Canada h a s a d o p t e d a n  f o r allowing  o i l in  93 sediments  at a level  to permit disposal not exceed  i s that  concept.  a policy  The r a t i o n a l e  s u c h dumping i n v o l v e s d i s p o s a l  i s "rapidly  dumped  spoils  policy  i f t h e y do  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f t h e same  a t t h e p r o p o s e d dump s i t e , 94  as t h e " l i k e - o n - l i k e "  that  and i t i s s t a t e d  o f contaminated dredge  t h e background  contaminants  policy  o f 1500 ppm,  rendered harmless," because  i n t o an a r e a which  i s already  equally  referred to  for this of material  i t i s being polluted.  Some a u t h o r s a r g u e t h a t t o a l l o w t h e dumping o f b l a c k listed trace  substances a t a l l , levels  the s p i r i t  and s p e c i f i e d  and i n t e n t i o n  o t h e r hand,  much l e s s  i n amounts e x c e e d i n g  regulatory  limits,  o f o c e a n dumping l a w s .  P a r t V I o f t h e CEPA, w h i c h  seek merely t o c o n t r o l  o f e x i s t i n g wastes  r e g a r d i t i s worth  developed l a r g e l y  or regulate  and a r e n o t d e s i g n e d t o areas o r  d i s c o u r a g e t h e u s e o f o c e a n dumping a s a w a s t e method. I n t h i s  stems  i n b o t h t h e LDC a n d  a c t i v e l y promote t h e r e c l a m a t i o n o f degraded  initially  On t h e  i t i s clear that the like-on-like policy  from t h e u n d e r l y i n g a t t i t u d e s e x h i b i t e d  the disposal  i s contrary to 95  disposal  n o t i n g t h a t t h e LDC was  by dumping s t a t e s ,  a l t h o u g h non96  dumping n a t i o n s now f o r m a m a j o r i t y Environment t o dredge metals.  spoils  Canada t a k e s a s i m i l a r a p p r o a c h contaminated with organohalogens  I f specified  materials  of participants.  regulatory  levels  i n relation o r heavy  a r e exceeded,  a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s p e r m i t t e d t o be dumped  these  i f they  68 will  be r a p i d l y r e n d e r e d h a r m l e s s e i t h e r u n d e r t h e l i k e - o n -  like  c o n c e p t o r i n some o t h e r  set  manner. The r e g u l a t o r y  level  f o r o r g a n o h a l o g e n compounds i s a n amount n o t e x c e e d i n g  0.01 p a r t s  of a concentration,  organisms i n a t e s t  shown t o b e t o x i c t o m a r i n e  " c a r r i e d out i n accordance  with 97  p r o c e d u r e s e s t a b l i s h e d o r a p p r o v e d by t h e M i n i s t e r . "  A s no  such p r o c e d u r e s have e v e r been e s t a b l i s h e d o r approved, t h e department a d o p t e d an u n o f f i c i a l PCB's.  g u i d e l i n e o f 1 ppm f o r  9 8  The  allowable  regulatory  limit  f o r mercury  i s 0.75 mg/kg  i n t h e s o l i d p h a s e o f w a s t e s , a n d 1.5 mg/kg i n t h e l i q u i d 99 . . . . phase. T h i s has been c r i t i c i z e d because t h e l i q u i d phase i s t h o u g h t t o be more r e a d i l y b i o a v a i l a b l e t h a n t h e s o l i d and,  therefore,  degree.  1 0 0  virtually  i t o u g h t t o be r e s t r i c t e d  In f a c t the s u i t a b i l i t y 101 unknown,  used t o d e t e c t  compounds and  metal contamination l e v e l s  made t o c h a n g e t h e r e g u l a t i o n s  order  chemical reveals  analysis nothing  o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r mercury  i n t h e sediments, o r t h e i r p o t e n t i a l r e l e a s e  a f t e r disposal operations.  bioassays  greater  of e i t h e r value i s  as t h e type o f b u l k  about t h e a c t u a l b i o a v a i l a b i l i t y  to a  phase  Recommendations h a v e now i n order  during been  t o r e q u i r e the use o f  and o n - s i t e e x a m i n a t i o n s o f marine organisms i n 102  t o determine a c t u a l  toxicity.  S i m i l a r problems e x i s t with  the regulatory  limits for  cadmium, w h i c h a r e s e t a t 0.6 mg/kg i n t h e s o l i d p h a s e a n d 103 . . . . . 3.0 mg/kg i n t h e l i q u i d p h a s e . Limited s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e a d v e r s e a q u a t i c e f f e c t s o f cadmium 104 aggravate t h e r e g u l a t o r y problems. Cadmium a l s o c r e a t e s  69 regulatory d i f f i c u l t i e s routinely  occurs  i n some o f f s h o r e l o c a t i o n s b e c a u s e i t  i n n a t u r a l concentrations higher than  the  105 legislated  limits,  averaging  dumping t o c o n t i n u e , like  principle.  permits  0.8  mg/kg.  are  i s s u e d b a s e d on  d i l u t i o n a t such , , 106 harmless.  ever  a s i t e would r a p i d l y  further difficulty  e s t a b l i s h e d i n the  substances.  addition,  i s t h a t no  legislation  ppm  f o r l e a d and  a l l other g r e y - l i s t e d  screen" the  suitability  no  permit  t h e m a t e r i a l t o be  render  unofficial  policy  CEPA h a s  strengthened  pollution, changed.  materials were  unofficial  and  1000  ppm  a s a method t o " p r e 107  o f a w a s t e f o r o c e a n dumping.  dumped i s b e l o w a minimum l e v e l 108  In i f  of  Unfortunately,  any  of  these  o r s c r e e n i n g g u i d e l i n e s when t h e ODCA  was  CEPA.  speaking,  while  the  inclusion  improved p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n e n f o r c e m e n t p o w e r s , and  altered  w a s t e d i s p o s a l o p t i o n and  the  perception  from a v e s s e l - s o u r c e  fundamental concept  Dumping c o n t i n u e s  o f t h e ODCA i n  t o some d e g r e e ,  e n a c t m e n t , t o an A c t c o n t r o l l i n g the  the  grey-listed  pesticides,  contaminants,  o f t h e o c e a n dumping l e g i s l a t i o n pollution  that  i s required f o r n o n - l i s t e d substances  i n t o the  Generally the  the  regarding  done t o i m p l e m e n t o r r e v i e w  incorporated  like-on-  regulatory limits  2000 m e t r i c t o n n e s o f c l e a n d r e d g e s p o i l . n o t h i n g was  the  the theory  E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, t h e r e f o r e , u s e s  g u i d e l i n e s o f 500 for  for  In a d d i t i o n , cadmium-contaminated m a t e r i a l s  h a v e b e e n dumped i n t h e deep o c e a n , on  A  In order  of the  land-based l e g i s l a t i o n has  t o be v i e w e d a s  i s being  an  acceptable  regulated rather  than  not  prohibited. generated wastes, limit  Rather  than t r y i n g  and e n c o u r a g i n g  t h e A c t attempts  associated  the treatment  i n this  and r e c y c l i n g o f  t o manage w a s t e s a s p r o d u c e d  which a r e i n v o l v e d  and p e r s i s t e n t wastes,  earlier  discussion,  including those  a n argument c a n be made t h a t  dumping o f a l l s u c h h a z a r d o u s alternative the Helsinki  dredged  s h o u l d have been  wastes.  Convention  As a  ocean  legislative  approach  seems  I t p r o h i b i t s t h e dumping o f a l l s u b s t a n c e s b u t  materials,  c a r e because contaminants. consideration Canada.  mentioned  reorganized to preclude the deliberate  attractive.  and t o  i n t h e dumping o f  d u r i n g t h e r e c e n t amendments t h e l e g i s l a t i o n completely  being  impacts.  Given t h e dangers toxic  t o p r e v e n t wastes from  and t r e a t s dredge  o f the p o s s i b l e presence Such an approach  spoil of  as needing  special  hazardous  c o u l d have been g i v e n  serious  a s a method o f i m p r o v i n g t o x i c w a s t e c o n t r o l i n  Amendments c o u l d a l s o h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r e d t o make  t h e l e g i s l a t i o n more p r e v e n t i v e a n d t o a c t i v e l y p r o m o t e t h e use  o f b e t t e r w a s t e management o p t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r  toxic  substances.  Chapter Four:  Notes  1.  S.C.  1974-75-76,  2.  S.C.  1988,  c . 55 a s am.  SOR/81-721.  22.  C.  3. Canada, E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, C a n a d i a n E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n A c t E n f o r c e m e n t and C o m p l i a n c e P o l i c y ( O t t a w a : M i n i s t e r o f S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s , 1 9 8 8 ) . 4.  Section  6.  5.  Section  98.  6.  Section  34 ( 6 ) .  7.  S.C.  8.  Sections  12 t o 14.  9.  Sections  25 t o 32.  10.  Sections  33 t o 40.  1974-75-76,  c . 72, a s  am.  11. PCB's, m i r e x , p o l y b r o m i n a t e d b i p h e n y l s , polychlorinated terphenyls, chlorofluorocarbons, l e a d , mercury and v i n y l c h l o r i d e . 12.  Section  34(2) .  13.  Section  34(3).  14.  R.S.C. 197 0  15.  S.C.  16.  Section  66 ( 2 ) .  17.  Section  69.  18.  Section  70.  19. Article  ( 1 s t S u p p . ) , c . 5, a s  1970-71-72,  L o n d o n Dumping IV.  20.  Sections  21.  Section  71(3).  22.  Section  71(4).  23.  Section  72(1).  24.  Section  71(1).  c . 47, a s  Convention  67 and 71.  asbestos,  am.  am.  (1975) 2 U.S.T. 2403,  72 25.  Section  73(1).  26.  Sections  27.  Section  89(1)(3).  28.  Section  96.  29.  Section  72(4).  30.  Section  91.  31.  Section  113(m).  32.  Section  118.  33.  Section  130.  34.  Section  77.  35.  Section  86(2).  36.  C.R.C. 1978, c .  37.  Section  88.  38.  Section  4.  74(1) and  89(4).  1243.  39. C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t , 1867, (U.K.) a s am. 40.  Section  91(29) and  41.  Section  91(2).  42.  Section  95.  43.  Section  91(12).  44.  Section  91(10).  45.  Section  91(3).  46.  Section  91(27).  47.  P r e a m b l e o f s e c t i o n 91.  48.  Section  92(5).  49.  Section  92 ( 8 ) .  50.  Section  92(10).  51.  Section  92 ( 1 3 ) .  30 & 31 V i c t o r i a ,  92(10)(a)(b).  c. 3  73 52.  S e c t i o n 92(16).  53.  Section  54.  S e c t i o n 95.  55.  S e c t i o n s 91(1A) and  92A.  56. A.G. Canada v A.G. (1937) A.C. 326 ( P . C . ) .  92(5). Ontario  (Labour  Conventions)  57. S.A. W i l l i a m s and A.L.C. d e M e s t r a l , A n I n t r o d u c t i o n t o I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law C h i e f l y a s I n t e r p r e t e d and A p p l i e d i n C a n a d a . 2nd e d . ( T o r o n t o : B u t t e r w o r t h s , 1987), p . 351; P. Hogg, C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Law o f Canada. 2nd e d . ( T o r o n t o : C a r s w e l l , 1985), p . 242. 58.  R.S.C. 1970,  App.  I I , No.  35 ( U . K . ) .  59.  Hogg, p . 244;  60.  Labour  61.  Hogg, p . 251-254; W i l l i a m s , p . 357.  W i l l i a m s , p . 351.  Conventions,  supra note  36.  62. R. v Crown Z e l l e r b a c h L t d . . (1988) 3 W.W.R. 385 ( S . C . C . ) ; r v s g . (1984) 2 W.W.R. 714 ( B . C . C . A . ) ; a f f g . (1982) 11 C.E.L.R. 151 (B.C. P r o v . C t . ) . 63. Preamble o f s e c t i o n s u p r a n o t e 19. 64.  Z e l l e r b a c h . p . 412.  65.  Ibid.  66.  Ibid.,  p . 417.  67.  Ibid.,  p . 419.  68.  Ibid.,  p . 426.  91,  Constitution Act,  1867,  69. D o u g l a s M. J o h n s t o n , Canada and t h e New I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law o f t h e Sea ( T o r o n t o : U. o f T. P r e s s , p . 54. 70.  S e c t i o n s 71 and  1985),  72.  71. W i l l i a m J . Andrews and J.W. Higham, P r o t e c t i n g t h e B.C. E n v i r o n m e n t : A C a t a l o g u e o f P r o j e c t R e v i e w P r o c e s s e s ( O t t a w a : E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, 1986), p . 17; I n t e r v i e w w i t h H a l N e l s o n , E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n C o n s e r v a t i o n and P r o t e c t i o n , V a n c o u v e r , B.C., 27 O c t o b e r 1987. 72.  Ibid.  74  73.  Ibid.  74. Canada, E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, O c e a n Dumping C o n t r o l A c t A n n u a l R e p o r t 1985-86 ( O t t a w a : S u p p l y a n d S e r v i c e s Canada, 1 9 8 6 ) , p . 31. 75.  Ibid.,  p . 32.  76.  Ibid.,  p . 12.  77.  Ibid.,  p . 4-6, 19, 29.  78.  Ibid.,  p.2.  79.  Ibid.,  p . 29.  80.  Ibid.,  p . 8.  81.  Ibid.  82.  Ibid.,  p. 7 .  83.  Ibid.,  p . 14.  84. J o h n W. K i n d t . M a r i n e P o l l u t i o n a n d t h e Law o f t h e S e a . 4 v o l s . (New Y o r k : W i l l i a m S. H e i n & Co., 1 9 8 6 ) , p . 1101-1102. 85.  Canada . A n n u a l R e p o r t , p . 17-19.  86. O c e a n Dumping Program, "ODCA Management ( O t t a w a : E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, 1 9 8 6 ) , p . 6. 87.  Canada . A n n u a l R e p o r t , p . 14.  88.  0 • R • 0 •1978,  89.  Section  Guidelines"  c . 1243, s e c t i o n 5 ( e ) .  9(5)(b).  90. J . J . Swiss e t a l . , Regulated Levels o f Schedule I S u b s t a n c e s i n t h e Ocean Dumping C o n t r o l A c t - A R e v i e w . Ocean Dumping R e p o r t 3 ( O t t a w a : F i s h e r i e s a n d O c e a n s Canada, 1980), p . l . 91.  Ibid.,  p . 51.  92.  Ibid.,  p . 5, 51.  93.  O c e a n Dumping Program,  p . 10.  94. J . K a r a u , " N a t i o n a l ODCA R e s e a r c h P r i o r i t i e s , " i n R e p o r t o n O c e a n Dumping R & D P a c i f i c R e g i o n : D e p a r t m e n t o f F i s h e r i e s a n d O c e a n s 1985-86, S.M. Woods ( S i d n e y : I n s t i t u t e o f O c e a n S c i e n c e s , 1 9 8 7 ) , p . 26.  75 95.  F o r example,  see Kindt.  96. W o r l d C o m m i s s i o n on E n v i r o n m e n t a n d D e v e l o p m e n t , Our Common F u t u r e ( O x f o r d : O x f o r d U. P r e s s , 1987), p . 270. 97.  C.R.C. 1978, c . 1243, s e c t i o n 5 ( a ) .  98.  Nelson  99.  C.R.C. 1978, C. 1243, s e c t i o n 5 ( b ) .  interview.  100.  Nelson  interview.  101.  S w i s s , p . 3.  102.  Woods, p . 2.  103.  C.R.C. 1978, c . 1243, s e c t i o n 5 ( c ) .  104.  S w i s s , p . 4.  105.  Ibid.,  p . 1.  106.  Nelson  interview.  107.  Ibid.  108.  O c e a n Dumping Program, p . 2.  76 PART I I : OCEAN INCINERATION AND I T S PLACE IN HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT  Within the existing framework r e g u l a t i n g provisions of  national  and i n t e r n a t i o n a l  o c e a n dumping a c t i v i t i e s ,  have been d e v e l o p e d t o c o n t r o l  t o x i c w a s t e s by i n c i n e r a t i o n .  w a s t e s by i n c i n e r a t i o n method o f d i s p o s i n g great deal  special  the at-sea  The d e s t r u c t i o n  disposal  of toxic  i s t h o u g h t b y many t o b e a  o f these substances,  legal  preferred  although there  isa  o f ongoing c o n t r o v e r s y about t h e use o f t h i s  technology a tsea. In  the following  stategies control  sections,  t h e l e g a l and p o l i t i c a l  which have been d e v e l o p e d t o improve t o x i c  a r e examined,  focussing  on t h e u s e o f i n c i n e r a t i o n  t e c h n o l o g y a n d some o f i t s a s s o c i a t e d health  risks.  The h i s t o r y  laws a r e b r i e f l y  proposed n a t i o n a l then described, legislative incineration Finally,  to  regulation  framework w i t h i n  reviewed.  which t h e The c u r r e n t a n d  of this activity  which Canadian  o p e r a t i o n s would be r e q u i r e d international  i n Canada i s  ocean  t o operate.  debate over t h e  o f t h e use o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  provide a context within  development  following  t o p r o v i d e an o v e r v i e w o f t h e c o m p l e x  t h e ongoing  advisability  e n v i r o n m e n t a l and  o f the use o f i n c i n e r a t i o n  technology a t sea i s described, international  waste  i s discussed,  which Canadian law and p o l i c y  i n t h i s a r e a c a n be examined.  77  Chapter F i v e :  a.  Waste Management  T h e Waste Management I n an e f f o r t  approaches  Strategies  Hierarchy  t o move away f r o m p u r e l y  t o p o l l u t i o n problems,  a n d t o d e v e l o p a more  p r e v e n t i v e approach, t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z e d have r e a c h e d w i d e s p r e a d agreement acceptability wastes,  nations of the world  on t h e n e e d  to evaluate the  o f a v a i l a b l e management o p t i o n s  f o r hazardous  on l a n d and a t s e a , and t o promote p r e f e r r e d  The u n d e r l y i n g risks  reactive  goal  i s t o reduce t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l and h e a l t h  caused by hazardous wastes,  management a l t e r n a t i v e s hierarchy  options.  and t h u s t h e waste  are generally  a r r a n g e d i n an  a c c o r d i n g t o t h e degree t o which they reduce t h e 1  risk  a n d d e g r e e o f harm. The  one  details  jurisdiction  o f t h e waste  management h i e r a r c h y v a r y  t o another.  Nevertheless there  c o n s e n s u s on a n h i e r a r c h y management s t r a t e g y  i n which  the preferred  i s t o change i n d u s t r i a l  from  i s a general waste  processes i n  o r d e r t o e l i m i n a t e o r r e d u c e t h e amount o r t h e t o x i c i t y o f t h e waste  being created.  The o t h e r o p t i o n s ,  i n o r d e r from  2 most t o l e a s t  desirable, are:  1.  recovery, recycling  2.  t r e a t m e n t o r d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e waste  disposal  and r e u s e o f w a s t e s ;  t o reduce i t s hazardous  3.  storage,  4.  dispersal  isolation  before  character;  o r c o n t a i n m e n t ; and  i n t o t h e environment.  Governments a r e , a c c o r d i n g l y ,  looking t o develop  laws  78 and  regulations  which w i l l  management o p t i o n s , strategies.  In  and  promote the  discourage the  now  biological  chemical treatments,  t h e r m a l and  use  of  a d d i t i o n , v a r i e t i e s o f new  techniques are and  preferable  being tested  and  chemical destruction,  waste  less  preferable  w a s t e management  developed,  including  r e c y c l i n g processes,  and  s e c u r e methods  of  landfilling. A b r i e f review of Protection it  Act,  i s based,  and  disposal  the  reveals  designed merely to option,  VI  the  exceptions allow  and  regulate  the  of d i s p e r s a l i n the  LDC  the  s u b s t a n c e s and provisions,  i n Part  the  creation  and  ocean d i s p o s a l  regulations, techniques.  no  preventive  t h e i r p r o h i b i t i o n or  i s taken to  black  to  desirable  environment. a  few  For  types  r e s t r i c t e d (the b l a c k  I I f o r the  grant  hazardous waste streams are  VI  or  generally  are may  of  and  several be  made t o  dumping.  therefore,  the  Environmental  least  d i s p e r s a l of only  o l d ODCA had  CEPA d o e s p r o v i d e  Part  of the  i n which d i s c r e t i o n a r y d e c i s i o n s  While the  some c a r e  use  even f o r t h e s e wastes t h e r e  d i s p e r s a l by  avoiding  Canadian  dumping l a w s a r e  hazardous waste i s p r o h i b i t e d grey l i s t s ) ,  of the  London Dumping C o n v e n t i o n upon w h i c h  that  that  example, u n d e r t h e  Part  assessment of  The  some a s s u r a n c e t h a t  new  introduced  disposal  integrate  grey l i s t s ,  Part  i t may  the  use  CEPA  i n t o Canada,  problems.  As  thus  long  II r e s t r i c t i o n s with be  possible  o f many s u b s t a n c e s o r ,  require  the  toxic  restriction.  not  o f new  provisions,  by  of p r e f e r r e d  Part  to  as the  restrict  II  disposal  The before  L o n d o n Dumping C o n v e n t i o n r e q u i r e s  i s s u i n g permits,  give  that  states,  "careful consideration"  to  the  3 twenty-one f a c t o r s s e t out "the  i n Annex I I I ,  potential availability  one  of which i s  of a l t e r n a t i v e land-based  methods  4 of treatment, requires  the  d i s p o s a l or e l i m i n a t i o n . " M i n i s t e r of the  account" the  S i m i l a r l y the  Environment t o  twenty-one f a c t o r s s e t out  "take  CEPA  into  i n Schedule I I I ,  Part  5 I I I to the  Act  i n d e t e r m i n i n g whether t o g r a n t  These f a c t o r s a l s o alternative  given  or  practical  to this  sea."  consideration  I t i s also unclear  disposal  matter  However, no o v e r any  of the  other  what i s meant by  not  mandatory f o r the  option that  exists.  the  technological  "practical"  feasibility,  but  be  twenty  the  need  to  i t is the  use  i n e v e r y c a s e where s u c h  I t w o u l d a l s o seem t h a t t h e  a l t e r n a t i v e be  or  need  Minister to require  o f a p r e f e r r e d management o p t i o n  of  less  priority  "take i n t o account" a v a i l a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s , but obviously  permit.  availability  of treatment to render the  f o r dumping a t  factors.  "the  l a n d - b a s e d methods o f t r e a t m e n t ,  elimination, harmful  include  a  can  i s not  an  qualification, limited to  include  economic  7 considerations.  Thus, t h e  even the  of  mere u s e  encouraged, and  and  thus l e s s From an  may  best  a better technology, e v e n be  discouraged  i s not  or  actively  i f i t i s more c o s t l y ,  "practical." industry viewpoint,  environmental considerations" activities  as  costs,  created  and  a v a i l a b l e technology,  on  the  such ocean  d r e d g i n g p r o g r a m s has a  "significant  "imposition  of  dumping  caused delay,  expansion of the  increased planning  80 process."  T h i s i s viewed  development, r e s u l t i n g  i n d u s t r y as a n e g a t i v e  i n complaints that  environmental  . . . 9 t e n d t o "dominate t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , " and  concerns calls  by  f o r the promotion  socio-economic  o f " e q u a l and  (considerations)."  CEPA r e q u i r e m e n t s  any  on a t t e m p t s  preferred  t o improve  carried  o u t and  options, this  desirable fail  a t implementing  i n d u s t r y proponents  a r e P u b l i c Works Canada and  involved  i n d r e d g i n g and  scale.  federal  and  provincial  actively  government waste  i s the f a c t that  Other  to  waste  control.  management p o l i c i e s  Canada.  of  i s a dangerous p r e s s u r e  w a s t e management and  C o m p l i c a t i n g the attempt  treatment  Given, t h a t t h e P a r t VI  1 0  generally permit the l e a s t  management s t r a t e g i e s t o be encourage  thorough  two  of the  largest Transport  departments  dumping a c t i v i t i e s  are  also  on a s m a l l e r  1 1  At the  international  t o be d i s c u s s i o n availability"  about  level  t h e r e has  t h e meaning o f t h e  criterion.  o p t i o n s , and  continues  "practical  Some n a t i o n s i n t e r p r e t  a s a method t o a c t i v e l y p r o m o t e p r e f e r r e d treatment  b e e n and  this  recovery  r e f u s e t o i s s u e ocean  phrase  and  dumping  permits  12 if  any  land-based  the p o s i t i o n it  poses  1984  land  sea d i s p o s a l  Other  nations take  s h o u l d be p r o h i b i t e d  a g r e a t e r human h e a l t h o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l 13  practicable in  that  alternative exists.  land-based  alternatives.  by t h e p a r t i e s t o t h e LDC,  alternatives  environmental  costs,  assessment economics,  risk  than  G u i d e l i n e s developed  i n order t o determine i f  a r e more p r a c t i c a l ,  t o make a c o m p a r a t i v e  only i f  require those nations  o f : t h e human hazards  risks,  associated  with  81 transport  and  d i s p o s a l , and  disposal  areas.  the  exclusion  of  f u t u r e uses  of  1 4  15 E n v i r o n m e n t Canada's p o s i t i o n i s t h a t : The f o l l o w i n g w a s t e management o p e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e s w i l l be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t w h e n e v e r t h e s e a d i s p o s a l option i s considered: 1. Whenever p o s s i b l e , r e c y c l e and r e u s e w a s t e products. 2. W a s t e s t h a t c a n n o t be r e c y c l e d o r r e u s e d s h o u l d be t r e a t e d a t t h e s o u r c e t o t h e e x t e n t p o s s i b l e . 3. W a s t e s t h a t c a n n o t be a v o i d e d o r r e u s e d a t a r e a s o n a b l e c o s t must be d i s p o s e d o f s a f e l y . 4. Sea d i s p o s a l s h o u l d o n l y be u s e d i f i t p o s e s l e s s o r no g r e a t e r human h e a l t h and e n v i r o n m e n t a l r i s k s than p r a c t i c a b l e land-based a l t e r n a t i v e s . Again, because these p o l i c y statements are merely and is  not  law,  difficult  and  given  to require  discretionary rather  to ensure t h a t they are  consideration they are  are  the  i n every case, priority. use  of  future  the  is  express consideration,  can  be  of  initial  Additionally, triggered  the  i n the  Ocean  that  guidelines  cost  short  of d i s p o s a l a l t e r n a t i v e s  term economic  viability  There i s  p o t e n t i a l l y huge f u t u r e c o s t s  s i n c e the  balanced against  the  nothing of  short  o c e a n dumping a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  o n c e w a s t e s e x i s t and  implement the  to ensure  term  i m p r o v e m e n t s i n w a s t e management.  t h e i r d i s p o s a l , the  b.  impossible  e x p e c t e d t o have a major i n f l u e n c e .  environmental cleanups are  to  active  improvements i n t e c h n o l o g y .  reasonableness of the  to guarantee that  costs  t h a n mandatory, i t  given  There i s nothing  Since an  and  guidelines  an  Incineration  two  only  a p p l i c a t i o n i s made f o r  o c e a n dumping b u r e a u c r a c y c a n  first  is  do  little  of these stated p r i n c i p l e s .  82 One  area  i n w h i c h t h e o c e a n dumping l e g i s l a t i o n  d e a l s w i t h a w a s t e management o p t i o n  directly  other than d i s p e r s a l i s  17 the  area o f i n c i n e r a t i o n a t sea.  incineration currently  High  i s one o f t h e l e a d i n g  available  waste d e s t r u c t i o n  destruction  technologies  f o r hazardous wastes, and as a form o f  i tfalls  management h i e r a r c h y  temperature  into a middle t i e r  (less desirable  o f t h e waste  t h a n r e c y c l i n g and 18  t r e a t m e n t , b u t more d e s i r a b l e  than d i s p e r s a l  A c c o r d i n g t o American s t u d i e s ,  practices).  approximately  20% o f a l l  h a z a r d o u s s o l i d s , l i q u i d s and s l u d g e s a r e s u i t a b l e f o r 19 destruction least  by h i g h temperature  incineration.  There a r e a t  s i x d i f f e r e n t types of i n c i n e r a t i o n technologies i n  current  use i n land-based  facilities,  ability  t o handle d i f f e r e n t types o f wastes.  technologies are r e l a t i v e l y well methods o f h a z a r d o u s waste The available  each w i t h 20  tested  kiln  These  and w e l l  established  destruction.  two most common t y p e s o f i n c i n e r a t o r s are rotary  varying  incinerators  currently  and l i q u i d  injection  21 incinerators.  Rotary k i l n  incinerators  h a n d l i n g a wide range o f wastes,  including  are capable of s o l i d s and  sludges,  a n d t h e y a r e t h e most common t y p e o f i n c i n e r a t o r i n 22 American land-based commercial f a c i l i t i e s . This i s also t h e t y p e o f i n c i n e r a t o r p r o p o s e d f o r t h e O n t a r i o a n d Quebec 23 hazardous waste d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s . Liquid injection i n c i n e r a t o r s a r e capable o f handling only l i q u i d hazardous wastes, which form a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - h a l f o f a l l  incinerable  24 wastes. used  Nevertheless,  (on-site)  land-based  t h e y a r e t h e most common, incinerator  technologies  privately i n the  83 25 United of  .  States.  These  high temperature  ocean-going v e s s e l s Generally,  incinerators  incineration,  organohalogens  and o t h e r o r g a n i c  wastes which have been  hydrocarbons,  on  f o r use a t sea.  o n l y o r g a n i c wastes  Orange  type  i n c i n e r a t o r s t h a t h a v e b e e n mounted  d e s t r u c t i o n by  PCB's, A g e n t  are also the only  are suitable f o r  i n c l u d i n g waste 26 liquids.  oils, Liquid  i n c i n e r a t e d on v e s s e l s  (2,4-D and  2,4,5-T),  ethylene dichloride t a r ,  compounds, o r g a n o f l u o r i n e s ,  and v i n y l  solvents, hazardous  a t sea  mixed  include  chlorinated  organophosphorous  chloride manufacturing  27 waste. When o r g a n o c h l o r i n e t o x i c w a s t e high temperature  incineration,  i s subjected t o such  the primary products of  complete  c o m b u s t i o n a r e w a t e r , c a r b o n d i o x i d e and g a s e o u s 28 hydrochloric acid. I f heavy m e t a l contaminants a r e p r e s e n t i n the wastes,  t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f them r e m a i n  as  29 particulates, be  altered,  although t h e i r physical  affecting  characteristics  and c h e m i c a l f o r m  such as  may  their  30 solubility. mercury,  However, some d a n g e r o u s  cadmium and  lead,  metals such  are capable of p a r t i a l  as or  complete  . . . 31 volatilization. D e p e n d i n g upon w a s t e c o m p o s i t i o n , v a r i o u s o x i d e g a s e s may a l s o be f o r m e d , i n c l u d i n g s u l f u r , n i t r o g e n 32 and p h o s p h o r o u s In  oxides.  addition,  Where c o m b u s t i o n present,  no  i n c i n e r a t i o n p r o c e s s i s 100%  effective.  i s i n c o m p l e t e , c a r b o n m o n o x i d e may  and c h l o r i n e g a s and h y d r o g e n  g a s may  also  be be  33 produced. performance  One  o f t h e s t a n d a r d s by w h i c h  incinerator  i s e v a l u a t e d and m o n i t o r e d i s t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f  84 the  combustion e f f i c i e n c y  (CE). T h i s  amount o f c a r b o n m o n o x i d e and incineration,  and  34  As small  a result  fraction  of  are  incomplete  of the  of the  total  during  g e n e r a l l y 99.97 t o  made up  of  the at35  99.99%  combustion t h e r e w i l l  emissions  during  percentage of  . . . . Combustion e f f i c i e n c i e s  i n c i n e r a t i o n operations  the  carbon d i o x i d e produced  thus i s i n d i c a t i v e  hydrocarbons destroyed. sea  i s a measure o f  be  a  unburned  36 waste.  Steps are,  incinerator (DE),  operations  generally 99.99%.  during  destruction  efficiency given  i s incinerated. Destruction efficiencies  0.01  t o 0.03%  higher  t h a n CE's,  and  waste are  normally  exceed  3 7  Emissions organic  from i n c i n e r a t o r o p e r a t i o n s  compounds f o r m e d d u r i n g  Such p r o d u c t s to  to monitor the  taken  w h i c h i s a m e a s u r e o f t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f any  compound t h a t  new  therefore, normally  of  incomplete  the  combustion,  i n c l u d e extremely dangerous o r g a n i c  may  also  combustion  contain process.  or PIC's, are compounds s u c h  known as  38 dioxins.  Due  s a m p l i n g and 1%  to the  uncertainties inherent  a n a l y s i s methods,  o f t h e w a s t e f e e d may  waste,  emitted  as  P I C ' s and  u n c e r t a i n t i e s i n m e a s u r e m e n t s o f DE's  a significant variation  unburned be  only  i n the  environmental  translate into contamination  could  result  from i n c i n e r a t o r o p e r a t i o n s .  For  United  States  Congress O f f i c e of Technology  Assessment  (OTA)  as  3 9  The  the  i t i s t h o u g h t t h a t a s much  s o t h a t a c t u a l d e s t r u c t i o n e f f i c i e n c i e s may  99.0%.  that  be  i n current  worked out  a h y p o t h e t i c a l case i n which  i n c i n e r a t o r v e s s e l s w o u l d b u r n 50,000 m e t r i c  example,  ocean tonnes of  waste  85 containing quantity  35%  PCB's p e r  year.  40  I f the  o f u n b u r n e d PCB's r e l e a s e d  DE  was  99.9999%,  e a c h y e a r w o u l d be  the  only  41 0.0175 m e t r i c t o n n e s these  figures,  tonnes of the  (17.5  i f DE's  PCB's p e r  releases  OTA  to  were a s  as  be  21  the  environment i s  potential  i n the  conducted  PCB's s t i l l  United  of  area  i t s waste  i n use,  incinerable 43  and  the from  However, i f one  the  quantity  o f w a s t e i s b e i n g d e c r e a s e d by  99%,  and  that  most u s u a l a l t e r n a t i v e  at  recalls  least  for disposal  of  w a s t e s i s l a n d f i l l i n g ( w i t h a maximum r e t e n t i o n t i m e o f f o r t y y e a r s b e f o r e the f u l l volume o f wastes c o u l d be 44 to  incinerator degree of  f r e s h w a t e r and  t e c h n o l o g y d o e s seem t o  risk  attractions  groundwater  of  involved. l a w s and  substantially  about  reduce  the  the  p o l i c i e s which promote even s u c h as  such  supplies),  S i m u l t a n e o u s l y , however,  w a s t e management a l t e r n a t i v e s ,  10  wastes  of unburned wastes  that  released  of  such  States alone,  seems d a n g e r o u s i n d e e d .  the  metric  i n t o the  significance 42  liquid  environmental releases  incinerators  99.0%, 175  from  "unresolved."  m i l l i o n m e t r i c tonnes of  produced every year  only  released  W i t h 600,000 m e t r i c t o n n e s o f to  Extrapolating  incinerator vessel  concluded that  the  low  annum c o u l d  o c e a n i n w h i c h an  b u r n s . The  kilograms).  r e c y c l i n g and  better reduced  p r o d u c t i o n , become more o b v i o u s . The  implementation  strategies  by  of  such p r e f e r r e d  c h a n g e s i n l a w s and  difficult  p r o c e s s , however, and  decisions  that  following  chapter, the  are  made a r e  actual  p o l i c i e s i s a long  the  often use  w a s t e management  p o l i c y and  controversial. and  regulation  and  regulatory In of  the ocean  86 incineration  i n an  which the e x i s t i n g outlined, control  international and p r o p o s e d  i n an a t t e m p t  context i s described, Canadian  legal  framework i s  t o i d e n t i f y areas i n which  o v e r s u c h a c t i v i t i e s may  be  deficient.  after  regulatory  87 Chapter F i v e  :  Notes  1. U.S. C o n g r e s s , O f f i c e o f T e c h n o l o g y A s s e s s m e n t , O c e a n I n c i n e r a t i o n : I t s R o l e i n M a n a g i n g H a z a r d o u s Waste, OTA-0-313 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 8 6 ) , p . 3. 2. I b i d . , p . 3, 82; J o e l S. H i r s c h h o r n , "Emerging O p t i o n s i n Waste R e d u c t i o n a n d T r e a t m e n t : A M a r k e t I n c e n t i v e A p p r o a c h " i n Beyond Dumping: New S t r a t e g i e s f o r C o n t r o l l i n g T o x i c C o n t a m i n a t i o n , B. P i a s e c k i ( W e s t p o r t : Quorum Books, 1 9 8 4 ) , p . 131. 3.  Article  IV(2).  4.  Annex I I I ( C ) ( 4 ) .  5.  Section  6.  Schedule I I I , Part  72(1)(a). 111(3).  7. O c e a n Dumping Program, "ODCA Management ( O t t a w a : E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, 1 9 8 6 ) , p . 6.  Guidelines"  8. M a c l a r e n P l a n s e a r c h , R e v i e w o f D i s p o s a l A l t e r n a t i v e f o r D r e d g e d M a t e r i a l 2 v o l s . ( O t t a w a : P u b l i c Works Canada a n d T r a n s p o r t Canada, n . d . ) , v o l . 1, p . 2.1. f  9.  Ibid.  10.  I b i d . , v o l . 1, p . 4.1.  11.  I b i d . , v o l . 1, p . 1.1.  12. J . K a r a u , "Summary o f LDC/OSCOM M e e t i n g o n I n c i n e r a t i o n a t S e a A p r i l 27 t o May 1, 1987" ( O t t a w a : E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, 1 9 8 7 ) , p . 6. 13.  Ibid.  14. C. W a l k e r , "The U n i t e d S t a t e s E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n Agency's P r o p o s a l f o r At-Sea I n c i n e r a t i o n o f H a z a r d o u s W a s t e s - A T r a n s n a t i o n a l P e r s p e c t i v e " (1988) 21 V a n d e r b i l t J . o f T r a n s n a t i o n a l Law 157 a t 168. 15. J . K a r a u , " I n c i n e r a t i o n a t S e a " (1987) Dumping News 10 a t 14. 16.  Hirschhorn,  p . 131.  17.  Sections  18.  U.S. C o n g r e s s , p . 3.  19.  Ibid.  66(1) and 7 1 ( 3 ) ( d ) .  1 Ocean  88 20.  Ibid.,  p . 93-99.  21.  Ibid.,  p . 96-98.  22.  Ibid.,  p . 93-94.  23. Envirochem S e r v i c e s , N a t i o n a l T e c h n i c a l Manual f o r A t S e a I n c i n e r a t i o n o f L i q u i d H a z a r d o u s W a s t e s , M a r c h 1987 W o r k i n g D r a f t ( B u r n a b y : By t h e A u t h o r , 1 9 8 7 ) , p . 8. 24.  Ibid.,  p . 6; U.S. C o n g r e s s , p . 3.  25.  Envirochem S e r v i c e s ,  26.  U.S. C o n g r e s s , p . 55,58.  p . 8; U.S. C o n g r e s s , p . 3.  27. I b i d . , p . 179-182; E n v i r o c h e m S e r v i c e s , App. B2; D.G. A c k e r m a n e t a l . , H i s t o r y o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l T e s t i n g o f t h e C h e m i c a l Waste I n c i n e r a t o r S h i p s M/T V u l c a n u s a n d I/V V u l c a n u s I I (Redondo B e a c h : TRW I n c . , 1 9 8 3 ) . 28. G.V. H o o p e r , e d . O f f s h o r e S h i p a n d P l a t f o r m I n c i n e r a t i o n o f H a z a r d o u s W a s t e s ( P a r k R i d g e , Noyes D a t a C o r p o r a t i o n , 1 9 8 1 ) , p . 45; M a n f r e d K. Nauke, " D e v e l o p m e n t o f I n t e r n a i t o n a l C o n t r o l s f o r I n c i n e r a t i o n a t S e a " i n Wastes i n t h e O c e a n Volume 5: Deep-Sea Waste D i s p o s a l . D.R. K e s t e r e t a l . (New Y o r k , J o h n W i l e y & Sons, 1 9 8 5 ) , p . 34. 29. D.G. A c k e r m a n a n d R.A. V e n e z i a , " R e s e a r c h on A t - S e a I n c i n e r a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , i n K e s t e r , s u p r a n o t e 27, p . 56. 30.  U.S. C o n g r e s s , p . 58, 120.  31.  Ibid.  32.  Ibid.  33.  Nauke, p . 38; Ackerman a n d V e n e z i a , p . 56.  34. Nauke, p . 38; U.S. C o n g r e s s , p . 119; R.R. F a y a n d T.A. W a s t l e r , "Ocean I n c i n e r a t i o n : C o n t a m i n a n t L o a d i n g a n d M o n i t o r i n g " , i n K e s t e r , s u p r a n o t e 27, p . 75. 35.  Karau,  LDC/OSCOM. p . 2.  36.  U.S. C o n g r e s s , p . 119.  37.  Ibid.,  38.  U.S. C o n g r e s s , p . 119-120.  39.  Ibid.  p . 179-182; K a r a u ,  LDC/OSCOM, p . 2.  89 40.  Ibid.,  p . 145.  41. A c t u a l PCB t e s t b u r n r e s u l t s (27.5% PCB w a s t e ) showed a DE o f 99.99989%. I b i d . , p . 181. 42.  Ibid.,  p . 145.  43.  Ibid.,  p . 63.  44. P e t e r Montague, "The L i m i t a t i o n s P i a s e c k i , s u p r a n o t e 2, p . 5.  of L a n d f i l l i n g " i n  90 Chapter  a.  Six:  The  Historical By  the  Use  and  R e g u l a t i o n o f Ocean  Use  late  1960's t h e c o m b i n a t i o n  c o r r o s i o n problems i n land-based highly  chlorinated wastes,  environmental  Incineration  impacts  and  1  of c o n t i n u a l  i n c i n e r a t o r s when f a c e d the  with  unacceptable  o f dumping s u c h w a s t e s  (unburned)  2 directly  i n t o the ocean  caused  a number o f  c o u n t r i e s t o t u r n t o ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n of  managing t h e i r h i g h l y c h l o r i n a t e d  wastes. was  The  f i r s t commercial  i n the North  Sea  European  a s an  organic  interim hazardous  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  i n 1969,  by  method  operation  a c o n v e r t e d West German  3 t a n k e r named t h e M a t t h i a s In  1972,  developed,  I.  when t h e L o n d o n and  over  60  thousand  incinerated  each year,  a converted  tanker,  and  and  Oslo Conventions  were b e i n g  m e t r i c t o n n e s o f w a s t e were two  other ships  the Vulcanus  being  (the Matthias I I ,  I, a converted  cargo  4 s h i p ) were o p e r a t i o n a l .  Nevertheless,  ocean  o p e r a t i o n s were n o t  i n i t i a l l y r e g u l a t e d by  conventions,  and  international  specifically  addressed  By  1974  no  over  the ocean  laws e x i s t e d  at-sea incineration  8 0 thousand  incineration dumping  that  control.  m e t r i c t o n n e s o f w a s t e were  5 being  incinerated  difficulties Matthias its  had  I I had  each year,  and  b e g u n t o be encountered  combustion e f f i c i e n c y ,  identified.  sought  F o r example,  the  problems w i t h the maintenance and  other ships i n t o the v i c i n i t y they  occasional operational  the Vulcanus  I had  attracted  o f i t s i n c i n e r a t i o n plume,  t o a s s i s t what a p p e a r e d  t o be  of  a s h i p on  fire  as and  in  distress.  A  6  f u r t h e r problem  i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e r n was  which  caused  the p o s s i b l e regional  gradually increase  i n acid 7  rain  c a u s e d by t h e e m i s s i o n s f r o m t h e i n c i n e r a t o r The U n i t e d S t a t e s c o n d u c t e d  the  Vulcanus  its first  I i n the G u l f o f Mexico  stacks.  t e s t burns  i n October  and  aboard  December  Q o f 1974, d e s t r o y i n g 8400 t o n n e s o f m i x e d c h l o r i n a t e d h y d r o c a r b o n s , w i t h an a v e r a g e c h l o r i n e c o n t e n t o f 63% and 9 t r a c e c o n t a m i n a t i o n by m e r c u r y and cadmium. A l t h o u g h DE's 10 d u r i n g the o p e r a t i o n s averaged problems  with the f i r s t  burn  99.95%,  including  t h e r e were sampling  several  problems,  d i s p u t e s o v e r m o n i t o r i n g methods, e q u i p m e n t f a i l u r e s and 11 communication d i f f i c u l t i e s . During the second burn e f f o r t s were made t o r e c t i f y t h e s e p r o b l e m s , a l t h o u g h t h e r e were f u r t h e r equipment f a i l u r e s  and p r o b l e m s  with the accuracy of  12 measurements.  D e s p i t e such drawbacks, t h e s e i n i t i a l  b u r n s were r a t e d  "a s u c c e s s " and  ocean  incineration  test  was  d e c l a r e d t o be  "an e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y a c c e p t a b l e p r a c t i c e when 13 c l o s e l y m o n i t o r e d and r e g u l a t e d . " Although these c o n c l u s i o n s h a v e s i n c e b e e n q u e s t i o n e d , due t o t h e number o f " e x p e r i m e n t a l and  systematic errors"  that occurred during the  14 burns, early  a further 1975.  In  1975  8400 t o n n e s  o f w a s t e were i n c i n e r a t e d  1 5  t h e M a t t h i a s I was  decommissioned  c o n v e r t e d t a n k e r , t h e M a t t h i a s I I I , was However, t e c h n i c a l encountered,  in  and  efficiency.  also  brought  another 16  into  use.  w i t h t h e i n c i n e r a t o r d e s i g n were  t h e r e were d i f f i c u l t i e s  v e s s e l ' s combustion M a t t h i a s I I I was  problems  and  related  As a r e s u l t , 17 decommissioned.  to the  i n 1978  the  By t h i s t i m e t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l ocean  i n c i n e r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s had  s t a r t i n g w i t h t h e enactment I n c i n e r a t i o n was because  now  community's r e s p o n s e t o  finally  o f t h e 1976  c o n s i d e r e d t o be  begun t o e v o l v e ,  Barcelona Protocol.  a type o f ocean  t h e s t a c k e m i s s i o n s from t h e i n c i n e r a t o r  precipitated therefore,  from t h e atmosphere  "dumped" i n t o t h e o c e a n .  By e a r l y  1977,  dumping  eventually  on t o t h e o c e a n  a l l r e s i d u a l w a s t e p r o d u c t s were  18  surface,  and  effectively  t h e members o f b o t h  t h e L o n d o n Dumping C o n v e n t i o n and t h e O s l o C o n v e n t i o n b e g a n t o d e v e l o p g u i d e l i n e s and incineration  and  r e g u l a t i o n s t o govern  ocean  amendments t o t h e s e t r e a t i e s were i n p l a c e  19 by  1978. Simultaneously,  tests was  i n an a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o c e a n  o f 1977  w a s t e was  a second s e r i e s  conducted  ranged  o f unburned DE's  had been c o n d u c t i n g f u r t h e r  an a c c e p t a b l e w a s t e management t e c h n o l o g y .  April  DE's  t h e U.S.  of burns  incineration In March  and  of organochlorine  i n the G u l f o f Mexico  by t h e V u l c a n u s  f r o m 99.991% t o 99.997%, a l t h o u g h t r a c e  I.  amounts  w a s t e were d e t e c t e d i n t h e s t a c k e m i s s i o n s and  f o r the p r i n c i p a l  w a s t e c o n s t i t u t e n t were a s low  as  20 99.92%. Some e v i d e n c e o f m e a s u r a b l e b i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s was a l s o o b t a i n e d , as f i s h exposed t o s u r f a c e water i n t h e path 21 o f t h e i n c i n e r a t o r plume e x h i b i t e d problems  included  signs of stress.  sampling problems,  difficulties  Other  in  t e m p e r a t u r e measurement, and q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l i a b i l i t y of the c a l c u l a t i o n . . 22 efficiencies. In J u l y  and A u g u s t  o f 1977  of the  destruction  another United States  test  burn  s e r i e s took place, The  t h i s time near Johnston A t o l l  South  Pacific.  wastes burned  Agent  Orange, a m i x t u r e o f t h e h e r b i c i d e s  i n the  were o v e r 12,000 t o n n e s 2,4-D  and  of  2,4,5-T  23 w i t h 2 ppm d i o x i n . E n v i r o n m e n t a l t e s t i n g was 24 "very l i m i t e d , " b u t CE's a v e r a g e d 99.99% and DE's f o r t o t a l 25 h y d r o c a r b o n s a v e r a g e d 99.985%. DE's f o r t h e two m a i n contaminated  h e r b i c i d e s were o v e r 99.999%, b u t t h e DE  f o r d i o x i n s was  as  26 low  a s 99.88%.  encountered,  A g a i n a number o f d i f f i c u l t i e s  including  instrument problems,  b i l g e w a t e r c o n t a m i n a t i o n , crew e x p o s u r e ,  were  spills,  flameouts  and  27 corrosion, had  with the r e s u l t  t o be dumped d i r e c t l y By  1979  ocean  that  270  pounds o f Agent 28 water.  into the  i n c i n e r a t i o n had  stabilized  Orange  at i t s present 29  levels new  o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100,000 m e t r i c t o n n e s p e r y e a r .  incinerator  ship,  t h e V e s t a , had  joined  A  i n the North  Sea  30 operations.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , problems  c a r g o t a n k s and encountered,  addition,  leaking  excessive stack emissions continued to  and  the occasional  including  i n Europe  some s u c h  incidents resulted i n 31  closure of ports to incinerator  a 1981  organofluorine test  burn  ships.  showed DE's  a s 99.4%, s u b s t a n t i a l l y b e l o w t h e London Dumping 32 s p e c i f i e d minimum e f f i c i e n c y o f 99.9%. Despite ongoing u n c e r t a i n t y , engaged i n ocean  incineration:  by  be  1982,  Australia,  In as  low  Convention's  fifteen  n a t i o n s had  Austria,  Belgium,  F i n l a n d , F r a n c e , t h e F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c o f Germany, I t a l y , J a p a n , t h e N e t h e r l a n d s , Norway, S p a i n , Sweden, S w i t z e r l a n d , 33 t h e U.K.  and t h e U.S.A.  the Vulcanus  I I , had  Yet another  incineration  a l s o begun o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e  vessel,  North  94 Sea.  34  M o s t o f t h e w a s t e s t h a t had  . been i n c i n e r a t e d  o r g a n o c h l o r i n e w a s t e s w i t h 60 t o 70%  chlorine  were  content,  and  35 metal  contents i n the p a r t s per m i l l i o n I n 1982,  range.  the U n i t e d S t a t e s conducted  series  of t e s t  burns.  burned  were made up  i t s f o u r t h and  T h i s t i m e t h e 7000 t o n n e s  last  of wastes  o f 27.5%  PCB's and 7% c h l o r o b e n z e n e s , 36 c o n t a i n i n g t r a c e amounts o f f u r a n s . DE's o f o v e r 99.99989% 37 f o r PCB's were r e p o r t e d , b u t a g a i n t h e b u r n was n o t w i t h o u t 38  problems i n c l u d i n g u n r e l i a b l e The  sampling  United States Environmental  concluded that exceeded  and  exhibited criticism  and  P r o t e c t i o n Agency  t h e i r permit requirements  that  no  spills.  had  b e e n met  e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact had been 39 during incinerator operations, despite continued o f t h e measurement and s a m p l i n g m e t h o d s u s e d and 40  a t t e n t i o n had  b e g u n t o f o c u s on o c e a n  negative reaction  eventually  issuance of further I n 1983,  waters.  l e d t h e EPA  incineration  T h i s burn  involved  destruction efficiency  its  EPA,  and  DDT  concerns,  taking place i n  organohalogen  o b t a i n e d was  having monitored  permit c r i t e r i a ,  f o r PCB  to delay 41  p u b l i c h e a r i n g s i n EPA  in late  and  the 42  1983.  the  EPA  European an  lowest  99.998%.  a s u c c e s s f u l burn  history,  the  f o r permit  wastes w i t h  then prepared t o i s s u e  burns  and  the  w h i l e making changes t o i t s c r i t e r i a  a n o t h e r b u r n w h i c h was  public  permits.  e x t r e m e l y h i g h c h l o r i n e c o n t e n t o f 84%,  The  Yet  incineration,  i n o r d e r t o meet t h e s e p u b l i c  monitored  or  adverse  the accuracy of the a n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s .  issuance  (EPA)  and  further  revised permits  However, a t t h e  intense opposition to  largest further  o c e a n i n c i n e r a t i o n was  encountered,  plans t o i s s u e the permits pending . . f o r m u l a t i o n o f more s p e c i f i c Canada r e c e i v e d i t s f i r s t  and  t h e EPA  further  study  . 43 regulations. The  application  cancelled and  the  same y e a r  f o r a permit  to  44 i n c i n e r a t e wastes a t sea, delayed the  and  the Canadian  issuance of a permit pending  government  also  the development  of  45 specific  operating procedures.  I n 1985  t h e EPA  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , response. review just  conducted  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  new  rules to  The  govern  public hearings to obtain a  and  t e c h n o l o g y was  developed.  LDC  However,  international  beginning to reconsider i t s position. Scientific  to arrive  G r o u p on  a t a consensus  Dumping met on  p r o b l e m s due  incineration.  I n 1985  including  i n an  sampling  t o the p r o d u c t i o n o f PIC's d u r i n g  t h e Commission o f t h e  C o m m u n i t i e s a l s o made a p r o p o s a l t h a t i n c i n e r a t i o n by  i n 1985  a number o f u n r e s o l v e d  i s s u e s r e g a r d i n g ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , p r o b l e m s and  to  Canada were d e v e l o p i n g g u i d e l i n e s t o  o c e a n i n c i n e r a t i o n t o commence, t h e  community was  attempt  and  proposed  Concurrently, a research strategy designed  a s t h e U.S.  permit  finally  European  a l l o c e a n dumping  and  n a t i o n s s h o u l d be r e d u c e d and t e r m i n a t e d 46 as soon as p o s s i b l e . F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e London Dumping C o n v e n t i o n were t h e n s c h e d u l e d f o r a j o i n t m e e t i n g 47 w i t h t h e O s l o C o m m i s s i o n i n 1986-87. By  EEC  late  1985  t h e EPA  a PCB  test  burn  made a n o t h e r  tentative decision  to  48 permit was  intense public  . . . 49 litigation.  i n the North A t l a n t i c .  Again  there  o p p o s i t i o n , which e s c a l a t e d i n t o  Among t h e many r e a s o n s  f o r p r o t e s t was  the  96 poor environmental record h a d by t h e n b e e n f i n e d  of the incineration  $17  company,  million for a variety  which  of  50 infractions  o f U.S.  legislation.  I n May  therefore,  denied the i n c i n e r a t i o n  no  p e r m i t s o f any k i n d  further  o f 1986  p e r m i t and  would  issue  the  EPA,  announced  that  f o r ocean 51  incineration  until  the revised  regulations  Debate c o n t i n u e d t o e s c a l a t e , c o n f r o n t a t i o n s between i n c i n e r a t o r had  resulted  and by  lawsuit  o v e r t h e r e s u l t i n g damages, an  banning Greenpeace  vessels  the injunction's  d e c r e a s e ocean  a l l incineration  implementing  a multimillion interim  by  the 52  dollar  injunction incinerator  resulting  European 65%  n a t i o n s agreed t o  no  l a t e r t h a n 1991, and 53 i n t h e N o r t h Sea by 1994, thereby . . 54  a l o n g - s t a n d i n g O s l o Commission p o l i c y .  on December 31, incineration  1987,  the major American  announced i t s d e c i s i o n  incineration  d e l a y s by r e g u l a t o r y  of  to  Then ocean  t o abandon a t t e m p t s  to  to continued  authorities. until  the technical  problems  s u r r o u n d i n g ocean  practice  seems d e s t i n e d t o be p h a s e d  indefinitely  proponent  p e r m i t due, i n p a r t , 55  Thus i t a p p e a r s t h a t ,  out:  groups  vessels.  eight  incineration  ,  burn,  v i o l a t i o n , and  I n November o f 1987,  points  and p r o t e s t  from a p p r o a c h i n g t h e  impoundment o f t h e G r e e n p e a c e  o b t a i n an  1987  i n the c r i p p l i n g of the Vulcanus I I i n Danish  n e t s d u r i n g a commercial  end  late  vessels  fishing  ships,  were f i n a l i z e d .  postponed  incineration  and  are resolved,  out i n Europe  i n North America.  political the  and  However, a s Watson  5 6  (G)iven the nature of the current c r i s i s  i n hazardous  97 w a s t e management, a c h i e v i n g f u r t h e r d e l a y on t h e i s s u e w i t h o u t m a k i n g some c o n c r e t e p r o g r e s s t o w a r d d e v e l o p i n g a g r e a t e r c a p a c i t y of l i q u i d hazardous waste d i s p o s a l was a somewhat h o l l o w v i c t o r y . With p r e d i c t e d  continuing  shortfalls  . . . facilities  t h r o u g h o u t E u r o p e and  to  or  storage  landfilling  of destroying  i n land-based  disposal  . 57 North America, a  reversion  of these hazardous wastes,  them, seems t o be  a step  backward i n  instead  the  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p r e f e r r e d w a s t e management p o l i c i e s . ensure t h a t  a d a n g e r o u s management e r r o r i s n o t  To  made,  g o v e r n m e n t r e g u l a t o r s must somehow come t o t e r m s w i t h difficult  problem of p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n  scientific  uncertainty,  proper place  and  i n the  face  the  of  a c h i e v e some c o n s e n s u s on  of ocean d i s p o s a l  i n the  the  w a s t e management  hierarchy.  b.  International The  e x i s t i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l laws g o v e r n i n g  i n c i n e r a t i o n are treaties,  but  operations, the  design  The  also  1979.  dumping  of v e s s e l s  standards  transporting  for  dangerous  relevant.  are  international legal contained  amended i n 1978  December 1, The  ocean  i n t e r n a t i o n a l r u l e s , s u c h as  i n the to  first  1978,  and  c o n t r o l s over  L o n d o n Dumping  include  i n c i n e r a t i o n operations.  5 8  i n the  ocean  n a t u r e o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  construction  leading  w h i c h was  of  to the  other  incineration  as  p r i m a r i l y contained  due  and  goods, are  at-sea  Regulation  The  regulations  ocean  Convention, governing  amendments were a d o p t e d  came i n t o f o r c e on  o f t h e s e amendments was  March  to the  black  11, list,  98 w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h a t t h e b a n on dumping o f o r g a n o h a l o g e n s a n d oil  does n o t a p p l y t o t h e i r  incineration.  59  . . . S u c h o c e a n i n c i n e r a t i o n now r e q u i r e s a  s p e c i a l permit, apply  and i n i s s u i n g  the Regulations  Convention.  d i s p o s a l a t s e a b y means o f  a permit  s i g n a t o r y s t a t e s must  t h a t were a l s o a d d e d t o Annex I o f t h e  LDC n a t i o n s must a l s o " t a k e  T e c h n i c a l G u i d e l i n e s developed  full  account"  of the  by t h e c o n t r a c t i n g p a r t i e s i n  60 1980.  T h e s e c o n d amendment was t o t h e g r e y  list. It  provided  t h a t c o n t r a c t i n g s t a t e s must a p p l y t h e R e g u l a t i o n s  and  account  take  specified  i n these  s p e c i a l permits substances. The  of the Technical Guidelines, "to the extent Regulations  a n d G u i d e l i n e s , " when  issuing  f o rthe incineration of grey-listed  6 1  Regulations  f o r the Control of Incineration of  Wastes and Other M a t t e r  a t Sea, which have been added t o  Annex I o f t h e LDC b y amendment, a r e b i n d i n g r u l e s t o b e f o l l o w e d by t h e p a r t i e s t o t h e t r e a t y ,  unlike the Technical  G u i d e l i n e s w h i c h must s i m p l y  into account."  rather convoluted prov ides t h a t : 1.  language,  be " t a k e n  Part I of the Regulations  62  Part I I of the Regulations  organohalogens and t o p e s t i c i d e s covered 2.  i n the black  be c o n t r o l l e d  Party  issuing  general  applies to  and t h e i r b y - p r o d u c t s  not  list;  o i l and a l l g r e y - l i s t e d m a t e r i a l s except  shall  3.  In  "to the satisfaction  the special  pesticides  of the Contracting  p e r m i t ; " and  a l l o t h e r wastes t o be i n c i n e r a t e d a r e s u b j e c t t o a permit.  99 T h u s m e r c u r y , cadmium, p e r s i s t e n t p l a s t i c s , h i g h - l e v e l r a d i o a c t i v e wastes, agents are  still  and  biological  completely  and  chemical  warfare  banned. Organohalogens  p e s t i c i d e s must meet P a r t I I r e g u l a t i o n s , w h i l e grey-listed and  substances  n o n - l i s t e d substances  permit.  decided  to  regarded  it  i t as  the  incineration  i n c i n e r a t e d under a has  caused  some  a chemical  warfare  States  the p o s i t i o n  t h a t were b e i n g  o f o r g a n o h a l o g e n s and  the  and  of  which that  transported  itself.  incineration  survey  general  S i n c e many  I I of the Regulations, which a p p l i e s t o  approval  permit,  a g e n t , t h e dumping o f  banned, t h e Americans t o o k  combustion products  other  interesting  f o r example, when t h e U n i t e d  f o r dumping, n o t t h e A g e n t O r a n g e Part  o i l and  i n c i n e r a t e t h e d e f o l i a n t Agent Orange.  completely was  c a n be  This set of Regulations  l e g a l manoeuvring as,  was  require a special  and  pesticides,  incineration  the  provides  systems a t  for  least  64 every  two  years,  special monitoring  o f w a s t e s where t h e r e 65 destructibility, mandatory  a r e doubts as t o t h e i r thermal 66 data recording, i n f o r m a t i o n t o be applications,  and  specified  in  permit  f a c t o r s to consider i n the d e s i g n a t i o n of 68  incineration specific  sites.  The  Regulations  o p e r a t i o n a l requirements, minimum f l a m e  2.  minimum c o m b u s t i o n e f f i c i e n c y  3.  no  4.  t e m p e r a t u r e o f 1250  b l a c k smoke o r f l a m e  degrees  o f 99.995 +/-  extension  from  Celcius; 0.05%;  incinerator  and  destruction efficiencies initial  some  including:  1.  stack;  a l s o s e t out 69  survey.  i n excess  o f 99.9%  i n an  100 However, t h e r e use  i s nothing  i n the regulations  of a i remission control devices,  metals or other  inorganic  to require the  to limit  the content of  contaminants i n t h e waste, t o  m o n i t o r t h e t y p e o f P I C ' s t h a t may b e p r o d u c e d , o r t o e n s u r e that  the required  destruction  efficiencies  compounds b e c o n t i n u a l l y m a i n t a i n e d . now t a k e s t h e v i e w t h a t minimum s t a n d a r d s ,  f o r waste  The U n i t e d  States  EPA  t h e LDC r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e m e r e l y  and " t h a t  a more s t r i n g e n t s t a n d a r d  is  70 b o t h a t t a i n a b l e and n e c e s s a r y . " Three major a r e a s o f t h e law which a r e a l s o r e l e v a n t t o ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n operations and  construction,  occupational  emergency r e s p o n s e systems. o f t h e law which developed of  are standards f o r v e s s e l  o i l tanker accidents,  health  The  a l t h o u g h many o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n s  leading  (MARPOL)  international treaty i n this  1969  types of  area  1973  .  and r e g u l a t e relevant  ship design,  which a r e designed t o equipment and s a f e t y  t o p o l l u t i o n prevention.  of t o x i c chemicals,  i n bulk.  o i l and o t h e r  Other t r e a t i e s  Cases o f O i l P o l l u t i o n C a s u a l t i e s  They a l s o  govern  pollutants  o f importance  Convention Relating t o Intervention 72  include the  on t h e H i g h S e a s i n  a n d i t s 1973 P r o t o c o l ,  which o u t l i n e t h e r i g h t s o f s t a t e s t o intervene of a s p i l l ,  i s the  o f P o l l u t i o n from Ships,  a n d i t s 1978 P r o t o c o l ,  discharges carried  carrying other  cargoes.  71  features  much  i n these areas arose as a r e s u l t  C o n v e n t i o n on t h e P r e v e n t i o n  control  and s a f e t y , and  At the international level  have s i n c e been extended t o v e s s e l s dangerous  design  i n t h e event  and t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Convention f o r t h e S a f e t y  101 of  Life  a t S e a , 1974 (SOLAS),  fire protection specifications The  73  f o r m e c h a n i c a l and e l e c t r i c a l  International  Maritime Organization  International  Code f o r t h e C o n s t r u c t i o n  (IMO) h a s a l s o  a d o p t e d an  and Equipment o f  Dangerous C h e m i c a l s i n B u l k  has  applicable  (IBC Code),  to incinerator ships.  which  In  7 4  t h e IMO Sub-Committee on B u l k C h e m i c a l s d e v e l o p e d a  code o f p r a c t i c e e n t i t l e d and  equipment.  Committee o f t h e  Ships Carrying  addition,  on  a n d emergency r e s p o n s e a n d s e t s o u t  Marine Environmental P r o t e c t i o n  provisions  . . provisions  which i n c l u d e s  "Guidelines  Equipment o f S h i p s C a r r y i n g  for the  Construction  Hazardous L i q u i d Wastes i n  B u l k f o r t h e P u r p o s e o f Dumping a t S e a , " w h i c h h a s b e e n 75 a p p r o v e d b y t h e IMO M a r i t i m e S a f e t y guidelines  encompass a number o f o c c u p a t i o n a l  safety provisions, training, Also,  including rules relating  firefighting  guidelines  Carried  Committee.  These h e a l t h and  t o personnel  and n e c e s s a r y p r o t e c t i v e  for the "Surveillance  equipment.  of Cleaning  O u t a t S e a on B o a r d I n c i n e r a t i o n V e s s e l s "  Operations have been  p r e p a r e d a n d r e f e r r e d t o t h e IMO, i n a n a t t e m p t t o h a r m o n i z e 77 t h e LDC a n d MARPOL p r o v i s i o n s . V e s s e l d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n a r e a l s o s p e c i f i c a l l y d e a l t w i t h i n t h e LDC 78 Technical The  Guidelines. i n t e r n a t i o n a l community  some p r o g r e s s i n a d d r e s s i n g  i s thus continuing  concerns relevant  t o make  t o ocean  incineration,  particularly  construction,  a n d a t t e m p t s a r e b e i n g made t o h a r m o n i z e  provisions  i n the areas o f v e s s e l  w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e LDC.  d e s i g n and these  102 c.  Canadian In  Legislation  a commercial  are normally  land-based  t r a n s p o r t e d by  incinerator  truck or r a i l  waste  Legal  regulatory c o n t r o l s g e n e r a l l y apply to the industry  actual  disposal air  concerns  a l l land-based  and  control  Inorganic matter, n o t d e s t r o y e d by stack emissions  ideally,  f o r the be  equipped  equipment c a l l e d  "scrubbers.  as heavy m e t a l  particulates,  such  incineration by  the  p r o x i m i t y t o human  i n c i n e r a t o r s used  o f hazardous waste s h o u l d ,  pollution  to  operation.  to environmental  populations,  destroyed.  t h e w a s t e , t o t h e t r a n s p o r t e r and  incineration  Due  are  the  t o the  which generates  where t h e y  from  generator and  incinerator,  o p e r a t i o n , wastes  such  c a n be  scrubbers.  removed f r o m They a l s o a c t  with  1 1  which  are  incinerator to  79 n e u t r a l i z e most a c i d relatively  emissions.  ineffective  Scrubbers  are,  a t removing v o l a t i l i z e d  however,  metals, 80  u n b u r n e d o r g a n i c compounds, P I C ' s , addition,  and  h i g h l y c h l o r i n a t e d wastes w i t h over  c o n t e n t may  exceed  scrubber  c h l o r i n e gas  and  of  also generates  scrubbers  w i t h the ash  h y d r o c h l o r i c a c i d may  r e s i d u e from  of  be  emitted.  is, itself,  operation involves the  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o storage tanks  regulate these  use  along a  and  collection  their  i n a port f a c i l i t y .  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  land-based  The  disposal.  t h e wastes from v a r i o u s waste g e n e r a t o r s  national viewpoint,  chlorine  "scrubber waste," which  incineration  at-sea incineration  30%  In  c a p a c i t y , i n which case both 81  hazardous waste t h a t r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l An  nitrogen oxides.  From a  l a w s must, t h e r e f o r e ,  a s p e c t s o f hazardous waste  103  management, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a c t u a l which the  international  conventions  at-sea operations with  are  concerned.  Once s u f f i c i e n t w a s t e s h a v e b e e n c o l l e c t e d pumped on b o a r d  the  incineration vessel,  a designated location conducts  the  with the r e g u l a t i o n i n t e r n a l waters, international  which then  i n the ocean c a l l e d  incineration.  Again,  the burn  national  of port f a c i l i t i e s  they  and  are sails  site,  to and  l a w s must d e a l activities  which are o u t s i d e the scope  of  in  the  laws.  D u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f i n c i n e r a t i o n t h e plume s e t t l e s precipitates terms,  on t o t h e o c e a n s u r f a c e and  c o n s t i t u t e s t h e o c e a n dumping.  l a c k s c r u b b e r s , and  thus p a r t i c u l a t e s ,  emissions are d i r e c t l y environment,  this,  in  legal  At-sea  incinerators  metals  and  discharged into the  acid  receiving  a l o n g w i t h o r g a n i c compounds and  volatilized  i n o r g a n i c s t h a t would n o r m a l l y evade t h e s c r u b b e r s . the b u f f e r i n g  c a p a c i t y o f seawater,  n e u t r a l i z e d w i t h i n a few  hours  c o n t a c t t h e ocean s u r f a c e . a f f e c t e d by t h e be  deposited directly  potential only  the a c i d  as t h e atmospheric  o p e r a t i o n , such  r e a l method o f c o n t r o l l i n g m e t a l  marine environment a r e t o be  from  not  with  will the  food chain. into  unless  t h e amount o f  i n the wastes i n i t i a l l y  are  as m e t a l s ,  emissions  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n ,  required, i s to control  contamination  i n the  to  discharges  wastes  i n t o the marine environment  of eventual bioaccumulation  Due  emissions  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , any  incineration  or  accepted  The  the  scrubbers  metal for  82 destruction. while several  A t p r e s e n t t h e LDC Oslo Convention  c o n t a i n s no  n a t i o n s have s e t  such  controls,  unofficial  104 g u i d e l i n e s on m e t a l c o n t e n t  in  Unburned hazardous waste incinerator materials  wastes.  r e s i d u e s which remain  ships storage tanks,  resulting  must e i t h e r  from the  be r e t a i n e d  83  and o t h e r  cleaning of  on b o a r d f o r  in  the  contaminated  the  future  incinerators, incineration,  or  84 returned not  to  land for  directly Part  aspects of  land-based disposal.  discharged into  VI  legislation  proper  of  the  CEPA,  the  as the  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n ,  primary  v i a the  same p e r m i t  disposal,  and t h e  Regulations s p e c i f y the  obtain  Under the issued unless, incineration  a permit  CEPA p e r m i t s  system as o t h e r  for  for  either  exceed the  It types  form o f  incineration  "rapidly  opinion,  form,  is  thus  of  ocean  application  operations.  i n c i n e r a t i o n may n o t  i n the M i n i s t e r ' s  are  Canadian basic  dumping.  regulated  not  piece of  and i n t h e A c t ' s p r e s e n t 85  i s d e f i n e d as a form o f  t o be u s e d t o  are  ocean.  r e g a r d i n g ocean dumping, governs the  incineration  will  They  be  the  end p r o d u c t s 87 rendered harmless," or  of  c o n c e n t r a t i o n s p r e s c r i b e d by  88 regulation. Where t h e r e i s no o t h e r f e a s i b l e s o l u t i o n , i n c i n e r a t i o n c o u l d a l s o take p l a c e i n emergencies t h a t pose 89 an u n a c c e p t a b l e r i s k t o human The LDC i n c i n e r a t i o n  health.  regulations  and g u i d e l i n e s h a v e  been implemented by C a n a d i a n l e g i s l a t i o n , i n c l u d e d as p a r t instead, of  to  technical  of  refuse to  new CEPA.  The c u r r e n t  incorporate  the  LDC r e g u l a t i o n s  guidelines  for  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n .  p r o p o s e d method o f to  the  and were  regulating  issue a permit  at-sea  not  intention  as p a r t 90  of  a  is, set  The  incineration  unless these p o l i c y  not  is  simply  guidelines  105 are met, and then t o i s s u e p e r m i t s o n l y s u b j e c t  t o terms and  91 conditions  i d e n t i c a l t o t h e LDC r e g u l a t i o n s .  The t r e a t y  o b l i g a t i o n s w i l l thus be implemented not by l e g i s l a t i o n , but by d i s c r e t i o n a r y  administrative  p o l i c y , and i t i s n o t  i n t e n d e d t o enact standards which a r e s t r i c t e r than the; minimum i n t e r n a t i o n a l requirements. Not  a l l a s p e c t s o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s a r e  d e a l t w i t h by t h e d r a f t t e c h n i c a l g u i d e l i n e s .  Numerous o t h e r  enactments, both f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l , a r e a l s o r e l e v a n t t o many a s p e c t s o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s .  In some areas  there i s l e g i s l a t i v e overlap, while i n others there i s a lack of r e g u l a t o r y  activity.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , such  c o n t r o l as e x i s t s i s s c a t t e r e d  regulatory  n o t o n l y among  several  enactments, and s p l i t between t h e two l e v e l s o f government, but  i s also divided  within  among s e v e r a l  departments o r m i n i s t r i e s  each l e v e l o f government.  On t h e broadest s c a l e , t h e f i r s t a c t i v i t y r e l a t i n g t o ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n t h a t a t t r a c t s r e g u l a t o r y  a c t i v i t y i s the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f wastes as hazardous, and t h e assumption o f c o n t r o l over t h e i n d i s c r i m i n a t e the  disposal  o f such wastes.  l a t e 1970's t h e f e d e r a l government made s e v e r a l  t o enact s t a t u t e s  designed t o i d e n t i f y o r c o n t r o l  substances, i n c l u d i n g t h e Pest C o n t r o l Canada Water Act, Contaminants A c t .  t h e F i s h e r i e s Act, 92  In  efforts  toxic  Products Act, t h e  and t h e Environmental  As o f 1988, t h e Environmental  Contaminants A c t and P a r t Three o f t h e Canada Water A c t have been r e p e a l e d and r e p l a c e d The  by t h e CEPA.  Canada Water A c t i s , i n t h e o r y , a sweeping enactment  106  applicable to a l l federal waters, i n t e r n a t i o n a l waters, i n t e r j u r i s d i c t i o n a l waters and boundary waters.  I t i s the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Minister of the Environment. I t provides f o r the designation of water q u a l i t y management areas, within which the deposit of waste would be prohibited or c o n t r o l l e d .  Unfortunately,  due t o reservations about the  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l v a l i d i t y of the Act, and p o l i t i c a l considerations involving the maintenance of amicable f e d e r a l p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , no such management areas have yet been created.  The only part of the Act ever f u l l y  implemented, and subsequently repealed and reenacted  as part  of the CEPA, i s the section r e s t r i c t i n g the use of substances 93  containing nutrients i n excess of prescribed amounts. Part II of the CEPA, which replaces the o l d Environmental Contaminants Act, i s a p o t e n t i a l l y broad scale regulatory enactment under the j o i n t administration of Environment Canada and Health and Welfare Canada. As previously discussed, i t provides f o r the c o l l e c t i o n and evaluation of information to determine whether a substance i s t o x i c , the r e s t r i c t i o n of t o x i c substances new to Canada, and extensive regulation of substances found to be t o x i c , from t h e i r creation to t h e i r ultimate disposal.  Given  sufficient  p o l i t i c a l w i l l , the CEPA should gradually come to regulate a vast number of t o x i c wastes, e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or by way of equivalent p r o v i n c i a l enactments provided f o r i n the Act, although the i n i t i a l t o x i c substances l i s t governs only nine chemical groups: PCB's, polychlorinated terphenyls, chlorofluorocarbons, mirex, polybrominated biphenyls,  107 asbestos,  lead,  substances metals  (except asbestos)  that  The  of p r i o r i t y  s u b s t a n c e s , w h i c h a r e t o be  of the areas  resulted This  given the  toxicity.  i s that  jurisdiction  has  of a g r i c u l t u r a l chemicals.  a r e a i s c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e e x p r e s s s h a r e d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l 95 o f t h e two  l e v e l s o f government.  t o x i c chemicals are used p r i m a r i l y  purposes,  and  are thus governed  Pest Control  P r o d u c t s A c t , and  agricultural  rather  The  of the health  and  at the federal  environmental The use,  governs  safety  the  the by  import,  way  thus  s t o r a g e and  sale  procedure  of  involving  Canada, F i s h e r i e s  t h e Department o f N a t i o n a l  of  assessment  o f p e s t i c i d e s by  federal Ministry  Canada, H e a l t h and W e l f a r e  O c e a n s C a n a d a and  by  enactments.  i n Canada, a l t h o u g h a r e f e r r a l  Environment  level  at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l  of Agriculture,  the manufacture,  pesticides  numbers  Products Act, under the a u t h o r i t y  a r e g i s t r a t i o n system.  regulates  Vast  for agricultural  than environmental  Pest Control  the federal Minister  of  of a  94  i n which departmental  i n some c o n f l i c t  jurisdiction of  as t o t h e i r  .  or  dumping  CEPA a l s o p r o v i d e s f o r t h e c r e a t i o n  assessment  One  these  are e i t h e r organohalogens  . earliest  A l l of  a r e s c h e d u l e d u n d e r t h e CEPA o c e a n  provisions. list  m e r c u r y and v i n y l c h l o r i d e .  Defence  has  and been  96 developed. regulations  A g r i c u l t u r a l c h e m i c a l s a r e t h u s exempt f r o m 97 produced  Although statutes wastes,  that  u n d e r t h e CEPA.  t h e r e a r e numerous o t h e r f e d e r a l regulate  and  provincial  the discharge of t o x i c substances  t h e major enactment o f r e l e v a n c e t o  incineration  the  i s the federal  Fisheries Act.  and  ocean That Act  applies  108 to  the t e r r i t o r i a l  seas,  f i s h i n g zones and i n t e r n a l waters o f  Canada, a n d b e c a u s e o f t h e c l e a r c u t jurisdiction  of the federal  p r o v e d t o be t h e l e a d i n g Canada w h e r e v e r t h e r e  Act  government o v e r f i s h e r i e s , i t has  water p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l  i s a d i r e c t l i n k between  e m i s s i o n s and an a c t u a l The  or potential  primary p o l l u t i o n control  i s section  deleterious  prohibited  measure i n t h e F i s h e r i e s the deposit  of  s u b s t a n c e s i n water f r e q u e n t e d by f i s h , could  e n t e r such  ori n  waters.  most o r a l l o c e a n dumping o f f e n c e s w o u l d a l s o be  contraventions of the Fisheries  Act.  under t h e l a t t e r A c t i f t h e d e p o s i t with the regulations of  enactment i n  harm t o f i s h .  33(2), which p r o h i b i t s  a r e a s where s u c h m a t e r i a l s Accordingly,  constitutional  any o t h e r A c t ,  No o f f e n c e  i s committed  i s made i n c o m p l i a n c e  promulgated under t h e F i s h e r i e s  and f i s h e r i e s R e g u l a t i o n s  Act,  or  permitting  9 8 discharges exist the  f o rs i xindustries.  responsibility of the Minister  The A c t i s p r i m a r i l y  of Fisheries  and Oceans,  a l t h o u g h b y a g r e e m e n t E n v i r o n m e n t Canada a d m i n i s t e r s t h e 99 section The  33 p o l l u t i o n  provisions.  p r o v i n c e s h a v e a l s o made e f f o r t s t o e n a c t  legislation  c o n t r o l l i n g t h e u s e and d i s p o s a l  substances.  Much o f t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n e x e r t s  controls  over waste g e n e r a t o r s ,  o p e r a t i o n and i n s p e c t i o n industries.  Provincial  geographically interprovincial  including  of toxic important  the siting,  of pollution control  s y s t e m s i n many  j u r i s d i c t i o n i s , however,  l i m i t e d and e f f o r t s t o d e a l  with  and i n t e r n a t i o n a l m a t t e r s are,  constrained. Nevertheless, p r o v i n c i a l roles  always  offshore, therefore,  i n t h i s a r e a may  109 gradually provide  increase,  due t o t h e s e c t i o n s  i n t h e CEPA w h i c h  f o r t o x i c s u b s t a n c e c o n t r o l b y way o f e q u i v a l e n t  . , , 100 p r o v i n c i a l laws. Land t r a n s p o r t a t i o n facilities  i s another area  operations. with  o f dangerous goods t o p o r t relevant  t o ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  Again c o n s t i t u t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n  i n t e r n a t i o n a l and i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l m a t t e r s  falling  within  generally within  transport  within  ports  legislative  navigation The  generally  t h e f e d e r a l sphere and i n t r a p r o v i n c i a l  transport  federal  i s divided,  t h e p r o v i n c i a l sphere.  However,  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a t s e a f a l l  jurisdiction  over p u b l i c  within  harbours,  and s h i p p i n g .  major f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n  i n this  area  i s the  101 Transportation  o f D a n g e r o u s Goods A c t (TDGA),  applies t o a l l handling  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f dangerous and  t o x i c goods o r i g i n a t i n g from o r d e s t i n e d Canada, and t o a l l s h i p s It  a p p l i e s t o both land  case o f t h e v e s s e l  which  and a i r c r a f t  f o r any p l a c e i n  r e g i s t e r e d i n Canada.  and s e a t r a n s p o r t ,  transportation  except  f o r the  o f dangerous goods i n b u l k ,  . • 102 w h i c h i s g o v e r n e d b y t h e Canada S h i p p i n g A c t .  T h e TDGA  s e t s o u t a number o f s a f e t y  s t a n d a r d s w h i c h must b e met  before  hazardous m a t e r i a l s ,  a n y o n e may t r a n s p o r t  and a p p l i e s  103 to a long  list  o f dangerous substances,  explosives,  flammable m a t e r i a l s ,  corrosives,  r a d i o a c t i v e wastes and t o x i c s .  Crown i s b o u n d b y t h e A c t , military. official.  there  including  infectious materials, Although the  a r e e x e m p t i o n s made f o r t h e  The M i n i s t e r o f T r a n s p o r t  i s the responsible  110 The  federal  TDGA was d e s i g n e d t o s e t s t a n d a r d s f o r  a d o p t i o n a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n b y way o f a g r e e m e n t s provincial  governments.  and complementary  with  Most p r o v i n c e s have p a s s e d e n a b l i n g  legislation.  The o v e r a l l  intention  of the  enactments i s t o s e t standards f o r t h e s a f e h a n d l i n g o f hazardous m a t e r i a l s ,  as w e l l  as t o c r e a t e a "paper t r a i l " t o  k e e p t r a c k o f t h e movement o f t o x i c w a s t e s , t o e n s u r e t h a t the  q u a n t i t i e s o f waste which l e a v e any g i v e n  actually  arrive  at a disposal  dumping" h a v i n g t a k e n p l a c e . provisions  f o r emergency  facility,  factory  w i t h o u t any " m i d n i g h t  The TDGA a l s o  contains  response i n the event o f s p i l l s .  The s t o r a g e a n d h a n d l i n g o f h a z a r d o u s w a s t e s i n p o r t facilities in  and t h e l o a d i n g and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  p o r t s and h a r b o u r s a l s o  and f e d e r a l  legislation.  constitutional  authority  o f those  wastes  involve a mixture o f p r o v i n c i a l The f e d e r a l government h a s  o v e r p u b l i c h a r b o u r s , and t h e  e n a c t m e n t w h i c h g o v e r n s most m a j o r p o r t s  i s t h e Canada  Ports 104  C o r p o r a t i o n A c t (formerly t h e N a t i o n a l Harbour Board A c t ) , pursuant t o which a c t i v i t i e s which c o u l d  endanger l i f e o r  105 h e a l t h may b e r e g u l a t e d .  The t r a n s p o r t  in  controlled.  the port  i s also  strictly  o f dangerous  goods  106 The H a r b o u r C o m m i s s i o n s federal  regulation  Act  enables t h e assumption o f  o v e r h a r b o u r s n o t g o v e r n e d b y t h e Canada  P o r t s C o r p o r a t i o n A c t , a n d a number o f h a r b o u r s h a v e p l a c e d under t h e c o n t r o l Commissions wharves, harbour.  o f such Harbour Commissions.  r e g u l a t e a l l uses o f the land,  and c o n t r o l  been The  b u i l d i n g s and  t h e use o f dangerous s u b s t a n c e s i n t h e  Part VIII federal  of the  Canada S h i p p i n g  government t h e  p u b l i c harbour,  and  Act  power t o p r o c l a i m  also gives  the  a h a r b o u r t o be  such a harbour i s then s u b j e c t  a  to  108 regulations pursuant to that Act. transportation  The  use  of dangerous cargo i s again  and  strictly  regulated. The  f e d e r a l P u b l i c H a r b o u r s and  (formerly  the  Government H a r b o u r A c t )  except those regulated and  the  under the  As  a l s o be  i f t h i s were n o t  federal  government has  Standards f o r the  Marine Transportation Procedures relating  to bulk  including port seaward.  The  administering The before  the  and  Code i s  while  berths  Coast Guard i s the 110  gas and  the  Recommended  of P o l l u t i o n f o r  Related  and  Act  cases.  "Code o f  Prevention  Assessment guidelines  terminal  systems,  v e s s e l approaches  principal  from  agency i n v o l v e d  in  TERMPOL. s p e c i f i e s that a permit  be  loaded  at sea.  The  with  i s required  w a s t e s f o r dumping  Canada S h i p p i n g  development of r u l e s r e g a r d i n g the  i n some  a nonbinding set of  facilities,  a s h i p may  loading,  Fire  enough o f a r e g u l a t o r y maze,  o i l , chemical  CEPA i t s e l f  incineration  National  relevant  S y s t e m s and  (TERMPOL)" a s  Corporation  facilities,  developed the  Safety  Act  governs a l l harbours  The  also p o t e n t i a l l y applicable to port b y l a w s may  Facility  Canada P o r t s  Harbour Commissions A c t .  municipal  Port 109  s t o w i n g o f g o o d s and  Act  also  precautions the  or authorizes  during  quantities to  be  111 carried.  Once t h e  is  by  regulated  the  goods a r e  loaded,  TDGA when t h e  their  wastes are  transportation in  containers,  112 and  by  the  Canada S h i p p i n g  Act  when t h e  goods a r e  Requirements f o r i n c i n e r a t o r v e s s e l construction, part  as w e l l  as  operational  o f Canada's n a t i o n a l  contained  i n the  mentioned, presently  laws.  design  intended  amendments t o t h e  to  bulk.  and  requirements,  are  not  A l l such requirements  are  i n t e r n a t i o n a l instruments  i n c l u d i n g MARPOL and  in  the  LDC  previously  amendments.  It is  i m p l e m e n t t h e s e c o n v e n t i o n s by  Canada S h i p p i n g  Act  and  the  ocean  way  of  dumping  112 legislation. made t o t h e CEPA.  However, no  ODCA p r o v i s i o n s u p o n i t s r e c e n t  Enabling  implement t h e well  as  s u c h amendments were a c t u a l l y  the  amendments t o t h e  MARPOL and  IMO  Ships Carrying  Canada S h i p p i n g  SOLAS C o n v e n t i o n s and  Code f o r t h e  Construction  and  Dangerous C h e m i c a l s i n Bulk, 113  have been enacted,  inclusion in  but  have not  yet  Act  the  to  Protocols, Equipment  1971  (BCH  as  of  Code),  been p r o c l a i m e d  m  114 force.  As  a result,  unenforceable guidelines vessels  operating  Many o f t h e they contain the  and  in relation  relating  board  regulations  remain  to Canadian v e s s e l s  or  waters.  same C o n v e n t i o n s a r e  provisions  level,  international regulations  i n Canadian  c r e w s w o r k i n g on  national  the  also  to the  important  health  incinerator vessels. governing the  s a f e t y o f C a n a d i a n w o r k e r s on  and  because  safety  At  the  occupational  Canadian v e s s e l s  of  health  have  r e c e n t l y b e e n p r o m u l g a t e d u n d e r P a r t IV o f t h e Canada L a b o u r 115 . . . Code. For land-based a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t i n g to occupational health,  the  Provinces  would have p r i m a r y  legislative  jurisdiction. Even i f the  LDC  and  other  international treaties  were  113 fully  implemented  i n Canada, t h e r e a r e a r e a s  of  concern  where r e g u l a t i o n i s l a c k i n g , p r i m a r i l y i n r e l a t i o n  to  control  no  of  proposed  i n c i n e r a t o r stack emissions.  limits  on m e t a l c o n t e n t  not  required.  Part V of the  the  Clean A i r Act,  There are  i n w a s t e s , and  the  scrubbers  are  CEPA, w h i c h r e c e n t l y r e p l a c e d  116 although  has  fixed  no  enforceable  some " i n t e r i m n a t i o n a l e m i s s i o n  standards,  criteria"  for  PCB  117 d e s t r u c t i o n have been put r e g u l a t i o n s have l i m i t s  on  "dumped" i n a i r e m i s s i o n s permit-granting the  forward. the  set largely  authorities.  "rapidly  meaningless. rendered  defined.  The  an  existing  are,  acute  can  i s considered  contact  may  examine  "Rapidly"  or harmless given  harmful.  on  as p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , the  i s not  i f " h a r m l e s s " means t o t a l l y  exposure,  of  restrictions  example, one 118  e x p o s u r e . I t i s u n c l e a r what must be substance  materials  at the d i s c r e t i o n  harmless" c r i t e r i o n .  I t i s unclear  harmless given  As  CEPA and i t s  q u a n t i t i e s of  exercise of t h i s d i s c r e t i o n  virtually  The  harmless,  chronic  harmed b e f o r e  a  In a d d i t i o n , stack  emissions  s e a b i r d s , e n d a n g e r e d s p e c i e s , downwind v e s s e l s  or  (in  s h i f t i n g wind c o n d i t i o n s ) even t h e crew o f t h e 119 incinerator vessel, b e f o r e ever c o n t a c t i n g the sea i n o r d e r t o be r e n d e r e d h a r m l e s s . T h e r e c a n a l s o be a c u t e 120 toxicity  t o ocean s u r f a c e m i c r o l a y e r p l a n k t o n  commercial  and  e d i b l e s p e c i e s such as  These standards mentioned the provided of the  seem i m p r e c i s e  international  little  f i s h may  at best,  and  even be  unaffected.  as p r e v i o u s l y  attempts at c l a r i f i c a t i o n  assistance, particularly  concerns unique to i n c i n e r a t i o n  though  have  i n r e l a t i o n t o some 121 operations.  114  Regulation  of the choice  g o v e r n e d l a r g e l y b y t h e CEPA.  o f a n o c e a n clumping s i t e i s Again,  however, t h e LDC  amendments w h i c h s e t o u t a d d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i a s i t e s were n o t i n c o r p o r a t e d r e p l a c e m e n t o f t h e ODCA. operations  for incineration  i n t h e CEPA u p o n i t s r e c e n t  A f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r such  i n Canada i s t h e e x i s t e n c e  of the Arctic  Waters  122  Pollution  Prevention  Act.  discharge  o f a l l wastes i n t o A r c t i c waters, except as  permitted  b y r e g u l a t i o n s , a n d most o c e a n dumping w o u l d  within this prohibition. r e t a i n e d by Cabinet, Transport,  Indian  That A c t p r o h i b i t s t h e  fall  Responsibility for the Act i s  except as delegated  and N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s  to the Ministers of  o r Energy, Mines and  Resources. P a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e North, n a t i v e land use r e q u i r e m e n t s a r i s i n g from l a n d c l a i m s e t t l e m e n t agreements 123  may a l s o n e e d t o b e t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Emergency r e s p o n s e s and c o n t i n g e n c y area  plans  are a further  o f c o n c e r n t o ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s ,  application applicant  fires.  t o incinerate a t sea requires the  t o have an approved c o n t i n g e n c y  provincial different  f o r a permit  and t h e  plan.  Municipal,  a n d f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s may a l l b e i n v o l v e d i n p h a s e s o f emergency r e s p o n s e s t o e i t h e r s p i l l s o r  Some o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n s  previously 124  mentioned a l s o provide The  preceding  jurisdictional  f o r emergency  procedures.  d i s c u s s i o n reveals t h e type o f  conflict,  deficiencies,  overlap  and c o n f u s i o n  t h a t must b e managed i n d e a l i n g w i t h  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  operations.  one c o u l d  I n any g i v e n  situation,  i n v o l v e t h e Coast Guard, T r a n s p o r t ,  conceivably  A g r i c u l t u r e , Environment,  115 National  Defence,  Fisheries  and  I n d i a n and  Northern A f f a i r s ,  Resources,  provincial  harbour  authorities,  regulatory  Labour,  authorities,  Energy,  and  native leaders,  and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  being developed,  port  Even w i t h i n  or  this  incineration  including vessel  design  c o n s t r u c t i o n s t a n d a r d s . Moreover, t h e r e are a s p e c t s which  a r e n o t y e t s u b j e c t t o any  formal l e g a l  the national  level,  performance  or p r o v i n c i a l standards.  regulation  such as  Surprisingly,  t h e ODCA u p o n i t s i n c o r p o r a t i o n to  Welfare,  Mines  framework t h e r e a r e a s p e c t s o f ocean  w h i c h a r e o n l y now and  O c e a n s , H e a l t h and  at  either  incinerator  t h e few  amendments t o  i n t o t h e CEPA d i d n o t  i m p l e m e n t t h e s e c o n t r o l s o r i n c o r p o r a t e them i n t o  attempt Canadian  law. In t h i s  climate of regulatory  jurisdictional the a b i l i t y regulatory ensure and  t h e r e i s some r e a l  o f g o v e r n m e n t t o f o r m u l a t e and control  over ocean  that proper s i t e s  t o ensure  safety  conflict,  that  incineration  are selected,  environmental  standards are maintained.  mind, t h e r i s k s acceptability, incineration  With  and  u n c e r t a i n t y over implement  adequate  operations, to emissions,  a r e m i t i g a t e d and  these concerns incineration,  some o f t h e p o t e n t i a l  impacts  o p e r a t i o n s w h i c h must be d e b a t e d i t s use  and  to minimize  impacts  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h ocean  d e c i s i o n to permit discussion.  fragmentation  of  in  their ocean  before a  i s made, f o r m t h e n e x t  subjects of  116 Chapter S i x :  Notes  1. M a n f r e d K. Nauke, "Development o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n t r o l s f o r I n c i n e r a t i o n a t Sea" i n Wastes i n t h e Ocean Volume F i v e : Deep-Sea Waste D i s p o s a l , D.R. K e s t e r e t a l . Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y & Sons, 1985), p . 35. 2.  I b i d . , p.  (New  36.  3. D.H. Bond, " A t - s e a I n c i n e r a t i o n o f H a z a r d o u s W a s t e s : The R i s k i s Y e t To Be J u s t i f i e d " (1984) 18(5) Env. S c i . T e c h n o l . 148A a t 149A; U.S. C o n g r e s s , O f f i c e o f T e c h n o l o g y Assessment, Ocean I n c i n e r a t i o n : I t s R o l e i n Managing H a z a r d o u s Waste, OTA-0-313 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1986), p . 193. 4. U.S. C o n g r e s s , p . 193; D.G. A c k e r m a n e t a l . , H i s t o r y o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l T e s t i n g o f t h e C h e m i c a l Waste I n c i n e r a t o r S h i p s M/T V u l c a n u s and I/V V u l c a n u s I I (Redondo B e a c h : TRW I n c . , 1 9 8 3 ) , p . 5; E n v i r o c h e m S e r v i c e s , N a t i o n a l Technical M a n u a l f o r A t Sea I n c i n e r a t i o n o f L i q u i d H a z a r d o u s W a s t e s , M a r c h 1987 W o r k i n g D r a f t ( B u r n a b y : By t h e A u t h o r , 1 9 8 7 ) , App. Al. 5.  Envirochem  6.  Bond, p .  7.  Ibid.  Services,  App. A l .  149A.  8. K e n n e t h S. K a m l e t , "Ocean D i s p o s a l o f O r g a n o c h l o r i n e W a s t e s by A t - S e a I n c i n e r a t i o n " i n O c e a n Dumping o f I n d u s t r i a l W a s t e s , B.H. Ketchum e t a l . (New Y o r k : Plenum P r e s s , 1981), p . 300 f f . 9.  I b i d . , p.  10.  U.S.  11.  Bond, p .  12.  Bond, p .  13.  Kamlet,  14.  Bond, p .  310;  Envirochem  C o n g r e s s , p. 149A;  Services,  App. B l .  179.  Kamlet,  p.  302-303.  149A. p.  306.  150A.  15. Kim Watson, "Ocean I n c i n e r a t i o n : S c i e n c e o r P o l i t i c s ? " (1986) 9(2) M a r i n e P o l i c y R e p o r t s 1 a t 3. 16.  I b i d . , p.  17.  Ibid.  18.  15  149A.  I.L.M. 285;  s e e a l s o U.S.  C o n g r e s s , p.  193.  117 19.  Nauke, p . 36-37; U.S.  C o n g r e s s , p . 193; K a m l e t ,  p.  311. 20. U.S. C o n g r e s s , p . 179; D.G. A c k e r m a n and R.A. V e n e z i a , " R e s e a r c h on A t - S e a I n c i n e r a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s " i n K e s t e r , s u p r a n o t e 1, p . 60. 21.  Kamlet,  22.  Bond, p .  23.  Kamlet,  24.  Envirochem  25.  Kamlet,  26.  Ibid.;  27. U.S. 150A-151A.  p . 309; U.S.  Congress, p.  179-181.  150A. p . 306 f f . ; U.S.  C o n g r e s s , p . 181.  S e r v i c e s , App. B l .  p . 308. E n v i r o c h e m S e r v i c e s , App. B l .  C o n g r e s s , p . 184; K a m l e t ,  28.  U.S.  Congress, p.  29.  Ibid.,  30.  E n v i r o c h e m S e r v i c e s , App. A l .  31.  Watson, p . 3.  32.  A c k e r m a n , H i s t o r y , p . 117.  33.  U.S.  34.  E n v i r o c h e m S e r v i c e s , App. A l .  35.  U.S.  36.  Watson, p . 3; U.S.  37.  Envirochem  38.  Bond, p . 151A; U.S.  39.  Watson, p . 3.  40.  Bond, p . 151A-152A.  41.  Watson, p . 3.  42.  U.S.  43.  Watson, p . 3; U.S.  p.  p . 308; Bond, p .  184.  195-196.  C o n g r e s s , p . 197.  C o n g r e s s , p . 197. C o n g r e s s , p . 181.  S e r v i c e s , App. B l . Congress, p.  184.  C o n g r e s s , p. 182; E n v i r o c h e m S e r v i c e s , App. B l . C o n g r e s s , p . 182.  118 44. "U.S. f i r m s e e k s p e r m i t t o b u r n t o x i n s o f f N.S.," C h r o n i c l e - H e r a l d . 25 S e p t e m b e r 1987, p . 21. 45. C a n a d a , E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, O c e a n Dumping C o n t r o l A c t A n n u a l R e p o r t 1985-86 ( O t t a w a : S u p p l y a n d S e r v i c e s C a n a d a , 1 9 8 6 ) , p . 20. 46.  U.S. C o n g r e s s , p . 195-196.  47. " J o i n t m e e t i n g t o be h e l d IMO News 15. 48.  Watson, p . 3.  49.  Ibid.;  50.  Watson, p . 4.  51.  Ibid.,  on i n c i n e r a t i o n ,  1 1  (1986) 4  U.S. C o n g r e s s , p . 182-183.  p . 3; U.S. C o n g r e s s , p . 183.  52. "Greenpeace 20 November 1987.  s h i p s o r d e r e d impounded," V a n c o u v e r Sun,  53. C h r i s t o p h e r A. W a l k e r , "The U n i t e d S t a t e s E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n Agency's P r o p o s a l f o r At-Sea I n c i n e r a t i o n o f Hazardous Wastes - A T r a n s n a t i o n a l P e r s p e c t i v e " (1988) 21(127) V a n d e r b i l t J . o f T r a n s n a t i o n a l L. 157 a t 162. 54.  U.S. C o n g r e s s , p . 194.  55.  Ibid.,  56.  Watson, p . 4.  57.  U.S. C o n g r e s s , p . 187, 194.  p . 182; 7 3 ( 2 ) S i e r r a 10.  58. M. N o r d q u i s t a n d K.R. Simmonds, New D i r e c t i o n s i n t h e Law o f t h e S e a , v o l . X (London: O c e a n a P u b l i c a t i o n s , n . d . ) , p . 1. 59.  Annex  I(10).  60.  Walker,  61.  Annex  62.  R e g u l a t i o n 2.  63.  Kamlet,  64.  R e g u l a t i o n 3.  65.  Regulation  p . 165.  II(E).  p . 307.  4.  119 66.  Regulation  6.  67.  Regulation  7.  68.  Regulation  8.  69.  Regulations  70.  Walker,  71.  12  72.  9 I.L.M.  73.  C i t e d i n Envirochem S e r v i c e s ,  Glossary  74.  Envirochem S e r v i c e s ,  p.  75.  Ibid.  76.  E n v i r o c h e m S e r v i c e s , p.  p.  I.L.M.  3 and  5.  179. 1319.  25.  Glossary  p.  4.  2; B r u c e , p .  56.  77. M a x w e l l B r u c e , "The London Dumping C o n v e n t i o n , F i r s t Decade and F u t u r e " (1986) 6 Ocean Y e a r b o o k 298 a t 78.  Annex V I I .  79.  U.S.  80.  I b i d . , p.  81.  I b i d . , p . 15,  82.  U.S.  C o n g r e s s , p.  313.  1972: 313.  58.  127. 57.  C o n g r e s s , p.  12.  83. J . K a r a u , "Summary o f OSCOM M e e t i n g on I n c i n e r a t i o n a t S e a May 4-6, 1987" ( O t t a w a : E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, 1 9 8 7 ) , p . 3 84.  Envirochem S e r v i c e s , p.  85.  Section  86.  C.R.C. 1978,  87.  Section  71(3)(a).  88.  Section  71(3)(b).  89.  Section  71(3)(c).  36-38.  66(1). c . 1243,  s e c t i o n 3 ( 3 ) ; CEPA, s e c t i o n  88.  90. Envirochem S e r v i c e s . 91. J . Karau, " I n c i n e r a t i o n a t Sea" Dumping News 10 a t 12-15.  (1987)  1 Ocean  120 92. R.S.C. 1970, c . P-10, a s am.; R.S.C. 1 9 7 0 ( l s t S u p p . ) , c . 5, a s am.; R.S.C. 1970, c . F-14, a s am.; a n d 1974-75-76, c . 72, a s am. r e s p e c t i v e l y . 93. Phosphorous C.R.C. 1978, c . 393;  Concentration Control CEPA P a r t I I I .  94. Section L e g i s l a t i o n 2.  (1988)  am.  12;  Regulations,  5(8) E c o / L o g C a n a d i a n  95. C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t , 1867, ( U . K . ) , s e c t i o n 95.  30  S.C.  Pollution  & 31 V i c t o r i a ,  c . 3 as  96. W i l l i a m J . Andrews and J.W. Higham, P r o t e c t i n g t h e B.C. E n v i r o n m e n t ; A C a t a l o g u e o f P r o j e c t R e v i e w P r o c e s s e s ( O t t a w a : E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, 1 9 8 6 ) , p . 18. 97.  Section  34 ( 3 ) .  98.  C.R.C. 1978,  99.  Andrews, p .  c . 811,  818,  819,  828,  829  and  830.  13.  100.  Section  98.  101.  S.C.  102.  R.S.C. 1970,  1980-81-82-83, c . 36, c . S-9,  103. Transportation SOR/85-77, a s am.  as  as  am.  o f Dangerous  104.  R • S • C • 1970,  c. N-8,  105.  C • R • C • 1978,  c.  106.  R.S.C. 1970,  c. H - l ,  as  am.  107.  R • S « C« 1970,  c.  S-9,  as  am.  108.  C • R • C • 1978,  c.  1461,  109.  R • S • C • 1970,  c.  G-9,  110.  Andrews ,  1064,  as as  as as  am.  Goods  Regulations,  am. am.  am. am.  p . 15.  111. S e c t i o n L 450, and D a n g e r o u s Goods R e g u l a t i o n s , C.R.C. 1978, c . 1419, a s am. 112.  E n v i r o c h e m S e r v i c e s , p.  113.  S.C.  114.  As o f May  1987,  c. 31,  7. 1988.  37.  Shipping  121 115.  R.S.C. 1970,  116.  S.C.  117.  Envirochem  118.  Section  119.  U.S.  120.  I b i d . , p.  c. L - l , as  1970-71-72, c . 47, Services,  p.  am. as  am.  48.  71(3)(a).  Congress, p. 12,  184.  165.  121. R o b e r t J . McManus, "Ocean Dumping: S t a n d a r d s i n A c t i o n " i n E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n : The I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i m e n s i o n . D.A. Kay and H.K. J a c o b s e n (New J e r s e y : A l l e n h e l d Osmun, 1 9 8 7 ) , p . 126. 122.  R.S.C. 1970  ( 1 s t Supp.),  c . 2,  as  am.  123. Canada, I n d i a n A f f a i r s and N o r t h e r n D e v e l o p m e n t , Western A r c t i c Claim: The I n u v i a l u i t F i n a l A g r e e m e n t ( O t t a w a : S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1 9 8 4 ) . 124.  Envirochem  Services,  p.  57 e t s e q .  The  122 Chapter  Seven:  The  Policy  There are r i s k s , associated with the handling, wastes,  risks  both  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n .  of c o l l i s i o n s ,  There i s the r i s k crew exposure, spills.  of s p i l l s ,  e m i s s i o n s " must be  groundings  with  impacts.  stack d r i f t  There are a l s o r i s k s "upset"  l e a k s and  other  l a n d and  and  can  at  control  with  on-board l e a k s  incineration  or  include acid  and  and  resource-use  of p o s s i b l e i n c i n e r a t o r  d u r i n g a burn.  c a n be  and  sea.  One  of the  major  p r o b l e m s w i t h w h i c h l e g i s l a t o r s must d e a l i s w h e t h e r regulatory  of  i n ports,  u n b u r n e d o r g a n i c compounds  a s s o c i a t e d environmental  malfunction or  toxic  P o t e n t i a l problems e x i s t  incinerator  heavy metals,  storage of  or other s p i l l s  I n c i n e r a t o r stack emissions  emissions,  t o human h e a l t h ,  considered. There are r i s k s  u n l o a d i n g on  of f i r e .  and  Risks associated with  l a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  d u r i n g l o a d i n g and  PIC's,  environmental  i n c l u d i n g the r i s k s  "fugitive spills  Debate  a t t a i n e d and  o p e r a t i o n s , so t h a t such  maintained risks  adequate  over  ocean  are minimized  and  justifiable. There i s a temptation, potential  dangers,  after  known a b s o l u t e l y s a f e way one  such  t o assume t h a t t h e r i s k s  o c e a n i n c i n e r a t i o n must s i m p l y be  and  reciting  too high.  risks  leaks,  fires,  fugitive  Y e t t h e r e i s no  also carries with emissions,  wastes,  o f o t h e r o p t i o n s i n mind  when a s s e s s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e d i s p o s a l m e t h o d s . incineration  of  associated with  to deal with these t o x i c  must k e e p t h e r e l a t i v e  land-based  a litany  For  example,  i t risks  operator exposure  of  spills,  and  123 incinerator malfunction. are minimized to  dispose  by  Although  scrubbers,  one  of scrubber waste.  must f i n d  metal  an  emissions  a d e q u a t e method  M a t e r i a l s n o t w e l l managed  such  be  c l o s e r t o human p o p u l a t i o n s and  Comparable r i s k s  P I C ' s and  and  scrubbers, emitted  as  acid  u n b u r n e d o r g a n i c compounds,  are a s s o c i a t e d with  will  agricultural  other treatment  by  land.  and  1 disposal  options s t i l l  The storage  and  containment of such  produced, the probably  shortage  at the present  wastes, pending  of secure  s t a t u s on  previously  now  the  s h e e r volume o f wastes landfills  and  i r r e v e r s i b l e dangers of groundwater  preferred  is  With the  a l t e r n a t i v e has  If  development.  o n l y o t h e r major a l t e r n a t i v e  further research.  this  under  been c l e a r l y  the  time  is  result  of  being severe  and  contamination,  relegated to a  less  t h e w a s t e management h i e r a r c h y , a s  was  discussed.  one  accepts  t h a t d e s t r u c t i o n or treatment  preferable to their  examine w h i c h i s t h e p r o b l e m becomes one  attempted  one  must  then  l e a s t dangerous d e s t r u c t i o n o p t i o n . of determining  preferable to land disposal, serve to a s s i s t  storage,  of wastes  and  The  whether ocean d i s p o s a l i s  whether ocean d i s p o s a l w i l l  i n o r d e t r a c t from e f f o r t s  b e t t e r w a s t e management o p t i o n s , s u c h  t o implement  as waste r e c y c l i n g  even and  recovery. There are three a l t e r n a t i v e First, are  one  may  so h i g h ,  should  not  hierarchy  conclude  o r so  t h a t the  risks  of ocean  debate. incineration  i n c a p a b l e of adequate r e g u l a t i o n , t h a t i t  occupy the as  answers t o t h i s  same t i e r  land-based  i n t h e w a s t e management  treatment  and  disposal options.  124 A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s view ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n than land-based destruction,  and t h e r e f o r e  prohibited  resort,  o r used as a l a s t  being devoted t o improving  i s less  desirable  o u g h t t o be  w i t h a l l one's e f f o r t s  land-based capacity  and waste  recovery. A  second view i s t h a t ,  desirable interim  than land-based a l t e r n a t i v e s ,  its  i tis a  measure w h i l e l a n d - b a s e d c a p a c i t y  Ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n risks  w h i l e ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  i s less  useful  i s being  i s encouraged over t h e short  developed.  term, as i t s  a r e n o t s e e n a s p r o h i b i t i v e , w h i l e p l a n s a r e made f o r  e v e n t u a l p h a s i n g o u t as b e t t e r  alternatives are  established. The option based  third  view i s t h a t  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  f o r wastes which a r e d i f f i c u l t incinerators,  such as h i g h l y  i s the best  t o dispose of i n land-  chlorinated  which can exceed scrubber c a p a c i t y .  This  wastes  viewpoint  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n as a p r e f e r r e d  w a s t e management  in  that  some c a s e s ,  indefinitely  and a s an a c t i v i t y  as t h e r e w i l l  considers strategy  s h o u l d be c o n t i n u e d  be a c o n t i n u i n g  demand f o r t h i s  alternative. T h e r e a r e members  of the international  community  t a k e each o f these views o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n . the  United  practicable special  Kingdom r e g a r d s o c e a n i n c i n e r a t i o n environmental option"  F o r example,  as t h e "best  f o r wastes which  problems f o r scrubber-equipped  who  present  land-based  2 incinerators. fixed  They a r e opposed t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  date f o r the termination of a l l at-sea  . . . activities,  3  . and c o n s i d e r t h a t  .  .  of a  incineration  .  o c e a n i n c i n e r a t i o n may be a  125 p r e f e r r e d w a s t e management o p t i o n belief  t h a t n o t a l l wastes lend  treatment therefore,  o r r e c y c l i n g and t h a t meet a c o n t i n u i n g  i n some c a s e s .  4  There i s a  themselves t o land-based ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n w i l l ,  demand, p r o v i d i n g  w a s t e management w i t h o u t d e t r a c t i n g  f o r sound  from t h e i n c e n t i v e s t o  5 develop b e t t e r a l t e r n a t i v e technologies. i n c i n e r a t i o n by t h e U n i t e d although,  generally  remains an e a s i l y are  few i n c e n t i v e s  The u s e o f ocean  Kingdom h a s b e e n  speaking,  landfilling  increasing,  o f hazardous wastes  a v a i l a b l e and i n e x p e n s i v e  option,  f o r waste r e c y c l i n g and r e d u c t i o n  and  there  i n the  7 U n i t e d Kingdom. At the other  extreme a r e c o u n t r i e s  s u c h a s Denmark  that  Q  are  strongly  are  o f t h e view t h a t  resort as  and t h a t  possible.  acceptable is  opposed t o t h e use o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n . ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s an o p t i o n  a l l such a c t i v i t i e s  Although  be h a l t e d  i n c i n e r a t o r technology  f o r u s e on l a n d ,  considered  should  They  of last as soon  i s considered  the use o f t h i s technology a t sea  t o be t o o d i f f i c u l t  t o control i n order t o  ensure the proper d e s t r u c t i o n  o f t h e wastes, and i s thought  to  of catastrophic 9  involve unacceptable r i s k s  release  should  include  the aggravation  the  there  be a s p i l l .  Other reasons f o r concern  of regional  interference with other  t o x i c waste  a c i d r a i n p r o b l e m s , and  uses o f l a r g e a r e a s o f t h e ocean  c a u s e d by i n c i n e r a t o r o p e r a t i o n s . established p u b l i c l y administered  1 0  Denmark h a s a w e l l  h a z a r d o u s w a s t e management  p r o g r a m w h i c h r e l i e s p r i m a r i l y upon l a n d - b a s e d i n c i n e r a t i o n . As  a member o f b o t h t h e O s l o a n d L o n d o n C o m m i s s i o n s ,  11 never issued  a permit  f o r ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n .  i t has  126 Most o t h e r  c o u n t r i e s which have used o r c o n s i d e r e d  i n c i n e r a t i o n have adopted p o l i c i e s which view t h e  ocean  p r a c t i c e as  12 acceptable  only  prohibited, only  on  the  on  an  use  interim basis.  of t h i s  a short-term  option  basis, with  d e v e l o p l a n d - b a s e d c a p a c i t y and incineration considers  i n the  yet  i s anticipated to  every  effort  t o phase out  near f u t u r e .  land-based  While not  For  being  made t o  ocean  example,  i n c i n e r a t i o n t o be  continue  Switzerland  "environmentally  p r e f e r a b l e , " because of the g r e a t e r a b i l i t y of r e g u l a t o r y . . . 13 a u t h o r i t i e s t o c o n t r o l land-based operations. Sweden considers  o c e a n i n c i n e r a t i o n an  a transition period" available.  14  i f no  option of  "last  resort  during  land-based a l t e r n a t i v e i s  . Norway c o n s i d e r s  that  . "ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n 15  should  be  Republic on  terminated  as  o f Germany e v a l u a t e s  The policies  "major  i n f l u e n c e of these of the  Oslo  e s t a b l i s h by  the presence or l a c k of  land-  criterion." v a r y i n g views i s seen i n  Conventions.  The  Oslo  the the  Commission,  c o u n t r i e s which e i t h e r view ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  environmentally  alternatives,  Federal  commissions e s t a b l i s h e d pursuant t o  L o n d o n Dumping and d o m i n a t e d by  The  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s  a case-by-case b a s i s , using  based c a p a c i t y as t h e  as  soon as p o s s i b l e . "  had 1990  unsound o r l e s s p r e f e r a b l e t h a n a long standing a fixed  policy  date f o r the  that  land-based  i t would  termination  of  ocean  17 incineration,  and  i n 1987  eight nations  agreed to a 18 c o m p l e t e b a n on o c e a n i n c i n e r a t i o n by 1994. Contracting n a t i o n s w h i c h c u r r e n t l y p e r m i t i n c i n e r a t i o n must do so o n l y 19 i f no p r a c t i c a l l a n d - b a s e d t r e a t m e n t method i s a v a i l a b l e .  W h i l e maximum h e a v y m e t a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a r e regulated  by  the  N e t h e r l a n d s and .  .  O s l o Commission,  some p a r t i e s  Belgium have s e t m e t a l  formally  s u c h as  the  concentration  20  limits.  Restrictions  on  the  i n c i n e r a t i o n h a v e b e e n s e t by  type of wastes accepted other nations,  s u c h as  F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c o f Germany w h i c h p r o h i b i t s incineration terphenyls, The heavily issue,  o f waste c o n t a i n i n g dioxins,  parties  to the  influenced are  not  DDT  by  are  i t . are  are  same m i d d l e t i e r .  t e r m i n a t i o n of  No an  debate over the incineration  b a s e d on  informal  a scientific suitability  on  land  basis.  and  No  prohibiting  land-based  i s being  sea  Unfortunately,  a  limits  the have  considered.  of  r i s k s of  the  current  allow of  occupy  incineration  safety  predictions  made on  f i x e d date f o r the 24  compare t h e  not  take  are  at  or t e c h n o l o g i c a l and  the  a w a s t e management  land-based  a s s e s s m e n t methods " s i m p l y do accurate quantitative  not  when p r a c t i c a l  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  option.  but  heavy metal c o n c e n t r a t i o n  i n c i n e r a t i o n with those of on  governing  to  Permit decisions  A t t e m p t s h a v e b e e n made t o  resolve,  parties  disposal,  automatically 22  and  incineration  regulations  contracting  i n which i n c i n e r a t i o n 23  e v e n on  The  the  while  l e s s s t r i c t than those of  available.  case-by-case basis  been s e t ,  furans.  a l t e r n a t i v e means o f  alternatives  hierarchy  LDC  the  polychlorinated  O s l o C o m m i s s i o n on  requiring  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  PCB's, 21  for  ocean  London Dumping C o n v e n t i o n ,  d o m i n a t e d by  Oslo Convention, account of  and  the  i n c i n e r a t i o n under the  to  not  firm  ocean  in  basis,  order  the  ocean data or  and  highly  r i s k s and/or  their  128 actual  impacts f o r e i t h e r t h e land-based o r a t sea 25  incineration quantified the  risks  options."  Many o f t h e r i s k s  " c a n n o t be  a t a l l " and " t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t  nature of  o f t e n p r e c l u d e s c o m p a r i s o n " b e t w e e n t h e two  26 options.  American  s t u d i e s have c o n c l u d e d t h a t  the choice  b e t w e e n o c e a n a n d l a n d - b a s e d i n c i n e r a t i o n c a n n o t be on a p u r e l y t e c h n i c a l b a s i s , a n d t h a t 27 to  an unambiguous With  data, the  relative  a few g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s  additional  not lead  and p r o b a b l y u n r e l i a b l e  scientific  seem t h a t n o t h i n g c o n c l u s i v e c a n b e s a i d  dangers  incineration  " a n a l y s i s does  choice."  such l i m i t e d  i t would  resolved  o f ocean o r l a n d are possible.  i n v o l v e s an i n c r e a s e d  incineration, First,  risk  about  although  ocean  o f s p i l l s due t o t h e  a t p o r t f a c i l i t i e s and t h e a d d i t i o n a l 28 transportation a t sea. Second, ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i n c r e a s e s t h e d i r e c t e x p o s u r e o f t h e m a r i n e e n v i r o n m e n t by acid  loading  and m e t a l e m i s s i o n s , u n l e s s  s c r u b b e r s a r e t o be  29 required. emissions  T h i r d , d i r e c t e x p o s u r e o f humans t o i n c i n e r a t o r i s l e s s e n e d by ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , because o f t h e 30 remoteness o f t h e o p e r a t i o n s . F o u r t h , ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n operations w i l l  r e l e a s e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15% more w a s t e  into the  31 environment  than land-based operations.  The U n i t e d would  pose  S t a t e s EPA c o n c l u d e d t h a t  a substantially  ocean  incineration  l o w e r r i s k t o human h e a l t h  land-based  incineration,  criticized  f o r a number o f r e a s o n s b y t h e U n i t e d 32  Congress O f f i c e environmental  although t h e i r  a n a l y s i s has been  o f Technology Assessment.  impact assessments  than  States  Comparative  a r e e v e n more  controversial,  129 although a marine s p i l l serious  of  a l l risks,  i s generally  t h o u g h t t o be  the  most  with a p o t e n t i a l l y catastrophic  33 impact. For  p o l i c y decision-makers the  o c e a n i n c i n e r a t i o n i s a l s o an first  economic f a c t o r of  destruction, options:  alternative,  and  decreased there will  turn to  landfilling, land  i f i t s cost i s the  cost  which  of  t o be  i n f l u e n c e the  some w a s t e  comparative costs  cost  generators  and  the  cost  can deal  a l s o be  land,  and  include waste,  lower how  fuel  liquid  fuel  w a s t e s were d i v e r t e d t o a t - s e a a l s o amenable t o r e c o v e r y  to  of waste burn  operations  at a higher  3 5  not  about  Much o f t h e u s e d as  the  insurance.  economic v i a b i l i t y  be  and  the  incinerated at  thus land-based  might have t o purchase replacement  ocean  w h i c h do  of uncertainty  f o r ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n can  than  unreliable.  liability  e n e r g y c o n t e n t and  i n c i n e r a t i o n operations.  s l u d g e s on  of  greater of  of each o p t i o n  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n would a f f e c t the  L i q u i d wastes are  availability  p h y s i c a l s t a t e of the  There i s a l s o a great  these l i q u i d  or  e x t r e m e l y v a r i a b l e and  r e q u i r e supplementary f u e l , 36 cost.  and  cheapest  incineration i s generally  Wastes which have a h i g h  solids  the  i s increased  estimates of the  degree of r e g u l a t i o n ,  suitable  The  i s shared with a l l other  potential that 34  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n mode, t h e  land-based  consideration.  dumping.  i n c i n e r a t i o n are  Factors  of  p r e f e r r e d w a s t e management  continues  illegal  While the  important  importance  t r e a t m e n t and  landfilling  economic v i a b i l i t y  cost i f 37  operations. processes,  and  130 t h u s t h e e x p e c t e d volume a v a i l a b l e  f o r ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s 38  eventually  e x p e c t e d b y many t o d e c r e a s e .  r e c y c l i n g processes produce l i q u i d are  suitable  are  d e v e l o p i n g most r a p i d l y  the  amount o f w a s t e a v a i l a b l e  The limited  waste b y - p r o d u c t s  f o r ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n ,  e x p e c t e d by o t h e r s t o  Perversely,  and r e c o v e r y  which  processes  f o r s o l i d s and s l u d g e s ,  so that  f o r ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s 39  increase.  economic e f f e c t s o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n t o e f f e c t s on l a n d - b a s e d  There i s a l s o  many  a great deal  incinerator  are not  operations.  o f concern about t h e e f f e c t o f  o c e a n i n c i n e r a t i o n o p t i o n s on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r e f e r r e d management a l t e r n a t i v e s . developed, capacity  there  will  I f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  i s concern that  result i n price  i s not  shortages o f land-based  increases  which, as  previously  discussed,  produce a g r e a t e r temptation t o use i l l e g a l 40 d i s p o s a l methods. Others a r e concerned t h a t i f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s d e v e l o p e d , i t s a v a i l a b i l i t y w i l l impede o r 41 slow t h e development o f p r e f e r r e d If  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  phasing-out problems.  i s required, Incinerator  investment, there  i s developed, and i t s  there are further  vessels  and p o t e n t i a l  require  economic  of the industry.  and o t h e r  preferred  t o c o m m e r c i a l l y u n e c o n o m i c a l amounts,  adequate land-based c a p a c i t y  and  As w e l l , t h e  may r e d u c e t h e amount o f w a s t e a v a i l a b l e  incineration  capital  be d i s c o u r a g e d i f  over the regulatory 42  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f waste r e d u c t i o n practices  later  a substantial  operators w i l l  i s t o o much u n c e r t a i n t y  economic f u t u r e  practices.  f o r ocean before  t o handle the remaining  wastes  exists. the  T h i s problem has been t h e s u b j e c t  Oslo  Commission, which i s s e e k i n g  incineration considering  t o phase o u t ocean  i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e and which i s , t h e r e f o r e , options  such as s u b s i d i e s , t h e p r o l o n g a t i o n o f  commercial v i a b i l i t y permitted  o f d i s c u s s i o n by  by i n c r e a s i n g t h e number o f w a s t e s  t o be i n c i n e r a t e d a t s e a , a n d l o n g t e r m  land-based  , 44 storage. C a n a d a h a s n o t y e t i s s u e d any p e r m i t s incineration received for  a t sea.  a request  permission  f o r t o x i c waste  However, t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t h a s  by a c o m m e r c i a l  incineration corporation  t o conduct ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i n Canadian  45 waters.  The government i s t h u s f a c e d w i t h  decision  relating  acceptable, part  and whether t h i s t e c h n o l o g y  initial  controlled that,  shipboard  t o date,  strategy.  exploring a l l environmentally 46 .  f o r managing hazardous wastes," incineration.  are  can form a u s e f u l  Canadian p o s i t i o n i s t h a t Environment  "committed t o f u l l y  options  policy  o f such a c t i v i t i e s  o f C a n a d a ' s h a z a r d o u s w a s t e management The  is  t o whether t h e r i s k s  a major  Canada  sound  including properly  The g o v e r n m e n t  considers  t h e f o r e i g n t e s t b u r n s on i n c i n e r a t o r s h i p s  have i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e  are only minimal negative h e a l t h 47 and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p a c t s , and t h a t t h e r e i s , a c c o r d i n g l y , no c l e a r p r e f e r e n c e b e t w e e n o c e a n a n d l a n d - b a s e d i n c i n e r a t o r 48 . . . . technology. A l t h o u g h gaps i n s c i e n t i f i c knowledge and control  indicate there  a r e unknown r i s k s w h i c h make a  comparative assessment o f t h e o p t i o n s impossible, maintained  difficult,  b o t h n a t i o n a l l y and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y the p o s i t i o n that the careful  i f not Canada has  use o f a l l hazardous  w a s t e d i s p o s a l methods w o u l d be o r no  acceptable  " i f i t poses  g r e a t e r human h e a l t h r i s k s t h a n p r a c t i c a b l e l a n d  less based  49 alternatives, that  are  or  1 1  i f there  environmentally  When c o n s i d e r e d management h i e r a r c h y , allowing  "are  practicable alternatives 50  preferable."  from the the  no  p o i n t of view of the  central policy  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n t o proceed w i l l  p r o m o t i o n o f p r e f e r r e d s t r a t e g i e s , and less preferable options. o c e a n i n c i n e r a t i o n t o be technologies, on  question  the  this position.  incineration  controversy  among o t h e r  S i n c e much o f t h e  revolves  discourage  to other  i s whether  involve  W h i l e E n v i r o n m e n t Canada equivalent  waste  the  the use  of  considers  destruction  nations  opposition to  about concerns r e g a r d i n g  the  casts  doubt  ocean ability  of  g o v e r n m e n t t o assume a d e q u a t e r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l o v e r incinerator vessel operations, and  regulatory jurisdiction  the  creates  fragmented Canadian  legal  cause f o r a d d i t i o n a l  concern. In the  f o l l o w i n g sections, these  jurisdictional  conflicts,  as w e l l as v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l ,  scientific  problems w i l l  be  economic  examined i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l ,  determine whether the  Canadian p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l  capable  s o u n d and  of generating  govern the  use  and  balanced  of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n .  process  policies  and  to is  laws  to  Chapter Seven:  Notes  1. U.S. C o n g r e s s , O f f i c e o f T e c h n o l o g y A s s e s s m e n t , O c e a n I n c i n e r a t i o n : I t s R o l e i n M a n a g i n g H a z a r d o u s Waste. OTA-0-313 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e 1 9 8 6 ) , p . 93 f f . 2.  Ibid.,  p . 201.  3. J . K a r a u , "Summary o f OSCOM M e e t i n g on I n c i n e r a t i o n a t S e a May 4-6, 1987" ( O t t a w a : E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, 1 9 8 7 ) , p . 1. 4. U.S. C o n g r e s s , c h a p t e r 12; J . K a r a u , "Memorandum Re LDC/OSCOM M e e t i n g s on I n c i n e r a t i o n a t S e a , A p r i l 27 t o May 6 1987", p . 1. 5.  Ibid.  6.  U.S. C o n g r e s s , p . 2 01.  7. A l a n C. W i l l i a m s , "A S t u d y o f H a z a r d o u s Waste M i n i m i z a t i o n i n Europe: P u b l i c and P r i v a t e S t r a t e g i e s t o R e d u c e P r o d u c t i o n o f H a z a r d o u s W a s t e " (1987) 1 4 ( 2 ) B o s t o n C o l l . E n v . A f f a i r s L. Rev. 165 a t 182. 8.  U.S. C o n g r e s s , p . 199.  9. I b i d . ; J . K a r a u , "Summary o f LDC/OSCOM M e e t i n g on I n c i n e r a t i o n a t S e a A p r i l 27 t o May 1, 1987" ( O t t a w a : E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, 1987), p . 6. 10.  U.S.  C o n g r e s s , p . 199.  11.  Ibid.  12.  Ibid.,  p . 199-201.  13 .  Ibid.,  p . 210.  14.  Ibid.  15.  Ibid.  16.  Ibid.;  17.  K a r a u . OSCOM. p . 1.  Williams,  190-191.  C. W a l k e r , "The U n i t e d S t a t e s E n v i r o n m e n t a l 18. P r o t e c t i o n Agency's P r o p o s a l f o r At-Sea I n c i n e r a t i o n o f H a z a r d o u s W a s t e s - A T r a n s n a t i o n a l P e r s p e c t i v e " (1988) 21 V a n d e r b i l t J . o f T r a n s n a t i o n a l Law 157 a t 162. 19.  K a r a u , OSCOM. p . 2.  20.  Ibid.,  p.  3.  21.  U.S.  22.  Karau,  OSCOM, p .  23.  Ibid.;  Karau,  C o n g r e s s , p.  200. 2.  LDC/OSCOM s u p r a n o t e 10, p .  6.  24. On O c t o b e r 6, 1988, Canada a l t e r e d i t s p o l i c y p o s i t i o n by a g r e e i n g t o a c o m p l e t e b a n on o c e a n i n c i n e r a t i o n by 1994. The i s s u e s r a i s e d by t h e s t u d y , w h i c h a r e r e p o r t e d a s o f J u n e 30, 1988 a r e , t h e r e f o r e , o f p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e i n t e r i m p e r i o d , b e t w e e n 1988 and 1994. "65 n a t i o n s t o ban b u r n i n g o f c h e m i c a l w a s t e a t s e a , " V a n c o u v e r Sun. 7 O c t o b e r 1988, p . A5. 25. Envirochem S e r v i c e s , N a t i o n a l T e c h n i c a l Manual f o r A t Sea I n c i n e r a t i o n o f L i q u i d H a z a r d o u s W a s t e s , M a r c h 1987 W o r k i n g D r a f t ( B u r n a b y : By t h e A u t h o r , 1 9 8 7 ) , p . 62. 26.  U.S.  C o n g r e s s , p.  27.  Ibid.,  28.  Envirochem  29.  Ibid.  30.  Ibid.  31.  Ibid.,  32.  U.S.  33.  Ibid.,  p.  p.  11. Services,  p.  62.  64.  C o n g r e s s , p. p.  159.  159.  162-163.  34. I b i d . , p. 48-49; W i l l i a m s , p. 175; J o e l S. H i r s c h h o r n , " E m e r g i n g O p t i o n s i n Waste R e d u c t i o n and T r e a t m e n t : A M a r k e t I n c e n t i v e A p p r o a c h " i n Beyond Dumping: New S t r a t e g i e s f o r C o n t r o l l i n g T o x i c C o n t a m i n a t i o n , B. P i a s e c k i ( W e s t p o r t : Quorum Books, 1 9 8 4 ) , p . 130. 35. U.S. C o n g r e s s , p . 167; P a t r i c k G. McCann, " P r e p a r i n g Management: The P o l i t i c a l Economy o f S t r o n g e r C o n t r o l s " i n P i a s e c k i , s u p r a n o t e 35, p . 121. 36.  McCann, p .  37.  U.S.  38.  Ibid.  39.  Ibid.,  p.  43.  40.  Ibid.,  p.  19.  121.  C o n g r e s s , p.  48.  135 41.  Ibid.,  p . 16.  42.  Ibid.,  p . 20.  43.  Ibid.,  p . 17; K a r a u , OSCOM, p . 2.  44.  Ibid.  45. " E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s uneasy a s Ottawa eyes p l a n t o b u r n w a s t e a t s e a , " G l o b e a n d M a i l . 2 O c t o b e r 1987, p . B17. 46. J . Karau, " I n c i n e r a t i o n Dumping News 10 a t 10.  a t S e a " (1987)  47.  Ibid.,  p . 11.  48.  Ibid.;  Envirochem Services,  49.  Karau,  Incineration  1 Ocean  p . 62.  s u p r a n o t e 47, p . 12.  50. Canada, E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, O c e a n Dumping C o n t r o l A c t A n n u a l R e p o r t 1985-8 6 ( O t t a w a : S u p p l y a n d S e r v i c e s Canada, 1 9 8 6 ) , p . 20.  136 PART I I I :  CANADIAN LEGAL AND P O L I T I C A L PROCESSES  Environmental desired  problems a r e an i n e v i t a b l e b y - p r o d u c t o f  e c o n o m i c g r o w t h , d e v e l o p m e n t a n d human  Such problems,  nevertheless, constitute  both e c o l o g i c a l  integrity,  activity.  a growing  a n d human l i f e  threat to  and h e a l t h .  Governments have a r o l e t o p l a y i n b o t h t h e encouragement o f economic development and t h e p r o t e c t i o n related  to the quality  interests  i s reflected  of l i f e .  that  a r e used  jurisdictional,  is  and r e g u l a t o r y  that instruments  are confronted with environmental  the greatest d i f f i c u l t i e s  uncertainties  decisions  t o b o t h make a n d i m p l e m e n t t h o s e c h o i c e s .  decision-makers of  values  The b a l a n c i n g o f t h e s e  i n the policy  g o v e r n m e n t s make, a n d t h e l e g a l  of social  encountered  economic, s c i e n t i f i c  t r u e i n t h e Canadian  i s s u e s , one  i s the extent of the  and p o l i t i c a l  inherent i n every p o s s i b l e p o l i c y  particularly  When  legal  option.  This  and p o l i t i c a l  context. Examination practices  and t h e i r  regulation, comprised  o f t h e n a t u r e o f ocean  incineration  current international  reveals that  ocean  and n a t i o n a l  incineration  i s an a c t i v i t y  o f many c o m p l e x a n d u n c e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s .  these are uncertainties health effects,  as t o i t s environmental  i t s amenability t o legal  legal  Among  impact, i t s  regulation  and i t s  p r o p e r p l a c e i n t h e w a s t e management h i e r a r c h y . Canadian  decision-makers  a r e f a c e d w i t h some d i f f i c u l t  policy  c h o i c e s t o make i n r e l a t i o n  t o ocean  First,  i t must b e d e c i d e d w h e t h e r o c e a n  incineration.  incineration  should  137 be  permitted,  a n d i f s o , i t must b e d e c i d e d  occupy t h e p l a c e strategy.  of a preferred  Second,  o r i n t e r i m w a s t e management  i f the technology  d e c i s i o n s must b e made r e g a r d i n g achieving  adequate l e g a l  whether i t i s t o  i s chosen f o r use,  then  t h e p r o p e r method o f  and r e g u l a t o r y  c o n t r o l over  ongoing  operations. In t h e f o l l o w i n g formation  processes,  administrative  section, the current together  institutional  d e t e r m i n e what s p e c i f i c faced  w i t h t h e l e g a l and structures,  difficulties  by Canadian d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s  processes.  a r e examined t o  will  a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y be  i n attempting t o deal  t h e s e u n c e r t a i n t i e s , and t o i d e n t i f y improvements c o u l d  Canadian p o l i c y  areas  with  i n which  b e made t o e x i s t i n g l e g a l  and p o l i t i c a l  138  Chapter  a.  Eight:  Canadian  Jurisdictional  Law a n d P o l i c y  Formation  Problems  Problems  G o v e r n m e n t i n Canada e n g a g e s i n a m u l t i t u d e o f r o l e s , and  the protection  quality  o f p u b l i c h e a l t h and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  a r e o n l y two o f i t s many r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  major government i n i t i a t i v e s  Other  include t h e promotion o f 1  regional  development and t h e p u r s u i t  Particularly promotion concerns  o f economic  growth.  i n t h e 1980's, e c o n o m i c r e c o v e r y a n d t h e  o f b u s i n e s s and i n v e s t m e n t  have been  o f government, w h i l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l  primary  concerns  have  2 been o f secondary  importance.  Environmental  agencies  therefore,  o f t e n competed u n s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h  economic  priorities . .  i n government and i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e . . 3  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and budget With  limited  political  r e s o u r c e s and a r e l a t i v e l y  mandate, e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n their  enforcement  actions.  ability  the relative  translated  into  t o t a k e s t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p and  an i n a b i l i t y  o f government t o c o n d u c t  r e s e a r c h and i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , 4  on c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h i n d u s t r y .  industry  relationship  of regulatory  position  c r e a t e s a degree  officials  hence an o v e r This close  In addition,  agency-  o f r e l u c t a n c e on t h e  t o take a tough  negotiating  i n a t t e m p t i n g t o e s t a b l i s h and e n f o r c e  standards.  being  shortage o f resources has o f t e n  reliance  part  weak  a g e n c i e s have been  When compared t o t h e i n d u s t r i e s  regulated,  independent  policy  allocations.  financial  constrained  have,  environmental  to avoid a perception of excessive  139 government i n t e r v e n t i o n  i n private  industry,  c o e r c i v e methods  of  implementing p o l i c i e s ,  such as l e g i s l a t i o n ,  may  be a v o i d e d  in  f a v o u r o f l e s s c o e r c i v e methods, s u c h a s t a x i n c e n t i v e s  or  5 other  fiscal  measures.  Adding to the c o n f l i c t i n g industry  i s t h e government's  attitudes  own  o f government  reliance  on a  flourishing  b u s i n e s s c l i m a t e t o m a i n t a i n i t s revenue base.  Moreover,  many c a s e s , s u c h a s when P u b l i c Works Canada a p p l i e s Environment  Canada f o r a d r e d g e d m a t e r i a l  shared, or overlapping j u r i s d i c t i o n s .  agencies  involved  c r e a t e s not o n l y problems  i s responsible  tendency  to  This  accountability,  officials  over which  i n any g i v e n  statute  situation.  i s f o r e l a b o r a t e committees  but  and  to  The cumbersome  procedures to develop.  Environment l e a d e r s h i p and departments. direct  due  Often the  and o b j e c t i v e s .  of public  c o n f u s i o n among t h e f e d e r a l  referral  regulator.  i n a g i v e n problem have s e p a r a t e o r  c o n f l i c t i n g mandates, p r i o r i t i e s  resulting  to  a l s o o c c u r among g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s  unclear,  u s e and who  in  disposal permit,  g o v e r n m e n t i s b o t h t h e i n d u s t r y p r o p o n e n t and t h e Conflicts  toward  Canada o f t e n a t t e m p t s t o p e r f o r m a  coordinating  r o l e among t h e many  However, w i t h "no  a u t h o r i t y t o command o r t o  resources or to set p r i o r i t i e s  departments,"  little  competing  f o r o t h e r government  c a n be done e x c e p t t o p r e v e n t  9  .  . . .  d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t . The s e t t i n g o f p r i o r i t i e s and a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n e a c h d e p a r t m e n t i s done by  10 t h a t department, its  jurisdiction  and e a c h d e p a r t m e n t and b u d g e t .  j e a l o u s l y guards  T h i s autonomy, however,  both  often  140 works a g a i n s t comprehensive  and e f f e c t i v e management o f many  11 environmental Adding  problems.  t o the complexity of environmental  problems i s t h e u n c e r t a i n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l f i e l d s w h i c h may b e d i v i d e d provincial in  governments.  legislative  adversely and  jurisdiction  Such f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  differences  priorities,  i n s p e n d i n g powers, have  activities.  Increasingly,  coupled  often  a f f e c t e d the consistency of environmental . . . 12  compliance  i n many  o r s h a r e d b e t w e e n t h e f e d e r a l and  jurisdiction  with great d i s p a r i t i e s  control  standards  such problems have  b e e n d e a l t w i t h b y c o o p e r a t i v e a g r e e m e n t s b e t w e e n t h e two levels  o f government, b u t as a r e s u l t p o l i t i c a l . . 13 a c c o u n t a b i l i t y are often obscured. Traditionally, matters  as c l o s e l y  t h e p r o v i n c e s have seen tied  attempts  government t o p r o v i d e e n v i r o n m e n t a l intrusion  environmental  to issues of natural  development, and have viewed  into provincial  are often  resource  by t h e f e d e r a l  l e a d e r s h i p as an  jurisdiction  over such r e s o u r c e s .  S i n c e s h o r t - t e r m e c o n o m i c b e n e f i t s on a l o c a l level  and l e g a l  i n c o n f l i c t w i t h l o n g term  and p r o v i n c i a l  environmental  15 protection, choose  the federal  government i s f r e q u e n t l y  forced to  b e t w e e n s t r o n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l m e a s u r e s a n d a n unwanted  increase  in political  t e n s i o n w i t h p r o v i n c i a l governments o r 16 with municipal authorities. Over time, e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o b l e m s h a v e a l s o grown i n s i z e a n d c o m p l e x i t y , a n d many 17 p r o b l e m s a r e now g l o b a l federal enter  or transnational  government i s t h u s  i n t o and f u l f i l l  i n scope.  The  faced with increasing pressure to  international  and b i l a t e r a l  1 4  141 e n v i r o n m e n t a l commitments t h a t jurisdictional governments. climate  may i n t e n s i f y t h e  c o n f l i c t s w i t h p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l A t t h e same t i m e , t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l  may i n c r e a s e  t h e p r e s s u r e on t h e f e d e r a l  economic government  18 to  intervene  increases but  i n resource regulation.  increases  the tension  among t h e f e d e r a l  or national  bilateral  pressures,  b.  Analytical (i)  conflicts the  between  problems f o r both  formation.  Problems  The Use o f Economic In  caught  Consequently,  and i n t e r n a t i o n a l and  pressures, with associated  domestic and f o r e i g n p o l i c y  conflicts,  government  priorities.  f e d e r a l government i s i n c r e a s i n g l y  internal  not only  t h e p o t e n t i a l p r o v i n c i a l and i n d u s t r y  departments, with t h e i r v a r y i n g the  This  Analysis  an e f f o r t t o r e s o l v e  many o f t h e i n t e r n a l  between t h e p r o m o t i o n o f economic development and  preservation  o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y , governments have  made a n i n c r e a s i n g  use o f economic a n a l y s i s .  that  w o u l d p r o v i d e a method t o s i m p l i f y  such a n a l y s i s  decision-making,  and a l l o w o f f i c i a l s  criterion.  because, although  technique,  i tactually involves  unstated  or  has been  i t i s a seemingly-neutral t h e u s e o f a number o f  assumptions, v a l u e judgments and e t h i c a l  decisions. and  a neutral  I n f a c t , economic a n a l y s i s  criticized  policy  t o s e l e c t o r choose  among t h e b e s t a v a i l a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s , u s i n g objective  I t was t h o u g h t  simply  19  Economic t h e o r y l a c k s  assumes t h a t  i t s own v a l u e  system,  a p o s i t i v e m a r k e t outcome i s a  20  142 desirable goal. criteria"  21  . . . The u s e o f p u r e l y economic " e f f i c i e n c y  to select  assumes t h a t  environmental  standards  implicitly  t h e r e a r e no r e d u c t i o n s i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l  w h i c h c o u l d n o t be compensated, and t h a t t h e market  quality  result  22 will  be s a t i s f a c t o r y  t h e growth e t h i c  to society.  i s treated  choice of environmental These assumptions criteria  Wealth  as a s u i t a b l e c r i t e r i o n  about  the s u i t a b i l i t y  a s a means t o make p o l i c y  subject of strong criticism.  suggest t h a t there e x i s t ought  Similarly, moral  convictions  Some f e e l  that  and o t h e r s  about  environmental  inefficient,  benefits.  2 4  t h a t many p e o p l e h a v e i d e a l s a n d quality  that are  b u t which they a r e w i l l i n g  t o have  involves a s a c r i f i c e i n  F o r example, many e n v i r o n m e n t a l  and have been chosen 26  not economically optimal.  are strongly  Attempts  may m e a s u r e t h e s t r e n g t h o f p e r s o n s *  laws,  s u p p o r t e d by  f o r use even though  they a r e  by economists t o  measure w i l l i n g n e s s t o pay f o r t h e promotion  irrelevant  i t i s morally  s o c i a l v a l u e s w h i c h demand t h a t  although economically i n e f f i c i e n t , the p u b l i c  such  q u a l i t y have been t h e  s u p p o r t e d by government even i f t h i s 25 individual  matters  n o t t o h a v e t o p a y f o r some t y p e s o f g o o d s .  i t i s argued  economically  o f economic  c h o i c e s about  e t h i c a l l y wrong t o p r i c e human s u f f e r i n g ,  people  f o r the  standards.  as p u b l i c h e a l t h and e n v i r o n m e n t a l 23  or  maximization or  o f these  convictions,  beliefs  b u t may b e  as t o whether those c o n v i c t i o n s a r e m o r a l l y  right  27 or  wrong. In  Some v a l u e s a r e , p e r h a p s ,  addition,  environmental  priceless.  i n o r d e r t o a p p l y economic a n a l y s i s t o  problems,  many c o s t s a n d b e n e f i t s t h a t  would  143 not  n o r m a l l y be p r i c e d  are assigned a d o l l a r value,  often i n  28 a rather  a r b i t r a r y manner.  v a l u e o n : human l i f e ,  This  includes  human h e a l t h ,  ecosystem e f f e c t s , pain  placing  aesthetic  a dollar  benefits,  and s u f f e r i n g and t h e q u a l i t y o f  29 life.  Unfortunately  estimated, that the  a n d many f u t u r e  valuation analyst  pricing, some  c a n n o t be  occurrences a r e so  accurately unpredictable  becomes a m e a n i n g l e s s g u e s s i n g game.  may j u d g e o n l y  ( s u c h a s t h e mere e x i s t e n c e  a b e n e f i t by  o f w i l d e r n e s s ) might be 30  o r u n d e r p r i c e d by t h e economist.  estimates w i l l  Also,  some v a l u e s t o b e w o r t h y o f  a n d f a c t o r s w h i c h m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d  unpriced cost  such b e n e f i t s  I n many  be p r o v i d e d b y i n d u s t r y ,  cases  and s t u d i e s  shown s u c h e s t i m a t e s t o b e u n r e l i a b l e 31  and i n f l a t e d ,  further  Some h a v e a r g u e d  the  skew a c o s t - b e n e f i t  ratio.  have  which can that  a r b i t r a r y nature of p r i c i n g i n environmental matters i s  such t h a t  a l m o s t any p o l i c y d e c i s i o n  merely p i c k i n g A  further  the correct price difficulty  in  environmental a f f a i r s  of  r i s k s and b e n e f i t s .  c a n be j u s t i f i e d by 32  f o r these  values.  w i t h t h e use o f economic  analysis  i s t h e problem o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n While t h e a n a l y s i s  looks a t t h e aggregate costs  and b e n e f i t s  w h o l e , t h e i n d i v i d u a l s who b e a r t h e c o s t s  that  i s conducted  to society  as a  may n o t b e t h o s e  who r e c e i v e t h e b e n e f i t s o r who h a v e t h e a b i l i t y t o p a y t h e 33 . costs. T h e r e s u l t o f a n e c o n o m i c a n a l y s i s may t h u s b e efficient, market as  but also highly  i s not operating  inequitable.  a s a f r e e m a r k e t where p e o p l e ,  t h o s e p e r s o n s whose h e a l t h  adversely  affected  In addition, the  or quality of l i f e  i n the future  by i n d u s t r i a l  will  such be  emissions,  144 h a v e no power t o d e c l i n e t o " s e l l " Despite analysis Canada.  such shortcomings,  35  . While  . . . i t s use i s i n f a c t  i ti s clear that  i n many e n v i r o n m e n t a l  The Use o f S c i e n t i f i c Some f e e l  environmental  evidence.  that,  issues using  such d e c i s i o n s  on b r o a d e r  This  rather  than t r y i n g t o r e s o l v e  e c o n o m i c a n a l y s i s , one s h o u l d  attitude i s reflective science  make  d o m i n a t e d b y man.  o f a commonly  held  and t e c h n o l o g y c a n s o l v e a l l  e n v i r o n m e n t a l problems, and t h a t  fact  Analysis  r e l y i n g m a i n l y on t e c h n i c a l o r s c i e n t i f i c  misconception that  are  areas  and v a l u e s .  (ii)  In  decisions i n  a h e l p f u l t o o l i n many  may b e n e c e s s a r y t o b a s e p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s  criteria  34  t h e use o f economic  i s a common way o f m a k i n g r e g u l a t o r y  circumstances, it  a t any p r i c e .  n a t u r e c a n be c o n t r o l l e d and  3 6  science  progresses very  c a r e f u l about t h e c o n c l u s i v e n e s s  slowly,  and s c i e n t i s t s  o f the statements  they  37 make.  They t r y t o a v o i d  e r r o r s , such as c l a i m i n g  is  d a n g e r o u s when i t i s n o t ,  is  n o t enough e v i d e n c e t o show c o n c l u s i v e l y w h e t h e r a 38  material look  i n favour  a material  i s h a z a r d o u s , when i t a c t u a l l y may b e .  t o e s t a b l i s h strong  proof  careful to point  validity  of their  there  Scientists  of causality, or at least a  reasonable p r o b a b i l i t y that t h e i r are  of stating that  r e s u l t s a r e c o r r e c t , and  o u t f a c t o r s t h a t may i n f l u e n c e t h e  conclusions,  such as u n c e r t a i n t y  over  n a t u r a l background l e v e l s and problems o f m u l t i p l e 39 . . . causality. F o r most i d e n t i f i e d h a z a r d s , t h e r e i s a l a c k o f  145 scientific  agreement as t o t h e degree  some u n c e r t a i n t y w i l l Often t h i s  p r o b a b l y always  scientific  attitude  4 0  a high  i s incorporated  into  I f government p e r m i t s t h e u s e o f c h e m i c a l s  technologies until  harmful,  and  d e c i s i o n s w i t h o u t an e x p r e s s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f  the consequences. and  exist.  o r danger,  of requiring  s t a n d a r d o f p r o o f o f damaging e f f e c t s public policy  of risk  such time as they a r e proven  a potentially  dangerous  t o be  substance can i n t h e i n t e r i m  c r e a t e h e a l t h and e n v i r o n m e n t a l h a z a r d s o f s e v e r e 41 consequence. prohibit  I n d u s t r y , however, a r g u e s t h a t t o c o n t r o l o r  t h e u s e o f new t e c h n o l o g y a n d m a t e r i a l s u n t i l  are proven  t o be s a f e would unduly  development,  and t h a t  a firm  b e f o r e government r e g u l a t o r y fundamental treated  issue  involves moral, acceptability control,  scientific controls  i s how s c i e n t i f i c  i n public policy ethical  limit  economic growth and basis  i s needed 42  a r e imposed.  uncertainty  The  i s t o be  and law-making d e c i s i o n s . and p o l i t i c a l  of the risks,  This  judgments r e g a r d i n g t h e  their priority  f o r regulatory  a n d w h e t h e r i t i s b e t t e r t o e r r on t h e s i d e o f  p r o t e c t i n g human h e a l t h a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n t e g r i t y , 43 err  on t h e s i d e o f e c o n o m i c Science  i s , therefore,  rational  a tendency  evidence.  Often decision  environmental  for policy  d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s t o make " n o n - d e c i s i o n s " a b o u t 44 of s c i e n t i f i c  the treatment  i s delayed  f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , " a s a way t o a v o i d b o t h c o n f l i c t and t h e need  or to  growth.  i s unable t o s e t p r e c i s e ,  standards. There  industry  they  t o impose c o n t r o l s ,  "pending  with  b u t such d e l a y  amounts t o a c h o i c e t o e r r on t h e s i d e o f e x p o s i n g humans and  146 t h e environment t o dangerous m a t e r i a l s u n t i l  t h e y c a n be  45 proven harmful. In part t h i s  i s a response t o s o c i e t a l  desires  f o r the 46  material benefits is,  o f immediate  i n t h e development  economic development.  o f new t e c h n o l o g y , a l w a y s t h e 47  potential  There  t o achieve net s o c i a l  benefits.  . . In addition,  w h i l e g o v e r n m e n t i s aware o f t h e n e e d t o a s s e s s h a z a r d s a n d to  set priorities  f o r such r i s k assessment,  i m p e r a t i v e s mean t h a t  s u c h p r o b l e m s do n o t m a i n t a i n a 48  consistently high p r i o r i t y governments  political  on p o l i t i c a l  a r e c a u g h t between t r y i n g  agendas.  Often  to act rationally i n  such m a t t e r s , and t r y i n g w h i c h has caught media  t o respond t o the l a t e s t 49 and p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n .  Examination of s c i e n t i f i c  evidence cannot s o l v e  or r i s k d i s t r i b u t i o n problems e i t h e r . decision  crisis  Whenever a  i s made a s t o t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y  equity  political  of a risk,  the costs  a r e n o r m a l l y b o r n e b y some members o f s o c i e t y a n d n o t b y o t h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when t h e r i s k s 50 not d i r e c t l y  comparable.  of different  The l a c k o f i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l  coordination o f environmental hazard  identification  a g g r a v a t e s t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s ' a t t e m p t s t o make choices  i n this  A final  choices are  rational  area.  problem r e l a t e d  to scientific  n e e d t o i n c o r p o r a t e new t e c h n o l o g y i n t o  uncertainty  society.  Often  d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s must c h o o s e b e t w e e n u s i n g a n o l d e r , o b s o l e t e t e c h n o l o g y a n d a newer, p o s s i b l y  i s the  perhaps  inadequately-tested  51 technology.  T h e r e i s a l s o t h e p r o b l e m o f how t o e n c o u r a g e  industry t o incorporate technological  improvements  into  147 d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s a l s , when l a r g e e x p e n d i t u r e s involved  and  scientists  improvement i n v o l v e d .  c.  Problems  With only l i m i t e d scientific left  analyses,  assistance available  pressures.  a r e p r o v i d e d by  international  groups, both  the  industrial  these pressures  are  v a l u e judgments i n response  perceived p o l i t i c a l  and  Frequently these  come f r o m t h e  but  electorate after  or  often  to pressures  community o r by  environmental,  of  from economic  government d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s  making important  be  a r e u n c e r t a i n as t o t h e d e g r e e  environmental  Political  may  lobby  sometimes an  issue  has  r e c e i v e d w i d e s p r e a d media a t t e n t i o n . One  of the d i f f i c u l t i e s  responding expert those  to these  pressures  evaluations of r i s k s risks.  statistical caused  by  f a c e d by  politicians  in  i s t h e d i f f e r e n c e between  and  the p u b l i c perception  Generally speaking,  experts  assess  risks  c o m p a r i s o n s o f t h e number o f d e a t h s o r  a facility  of by  injuries  (such as a h a z a r d o u s waste i n c i n e r a t o r ) 52  over  a g i v e n p e r i o d of time.  t h a t t o the general p u b l i c ,  S t u d i e s h a v e shown, however, annual  mortality i s only  one 53  f a c t o r to consider i n assessing the Public perceptions of r i s k as:  the  s e r i o u s n e s s and  whether people risk,  distribution  a r e a l s o a f f e c t e d by  frequency  have v o l u n t a r i l y  whether the r i s k  r i s k o f an  of p o t e n t i a l  o r unknown,  of benefits associated with risk,  such  factors  accidents,  exposed themselves t o  i s familiar  degree of exposure t o the  activity.  the  the  the  the a c t i v i t y ,  source  of the  risk,  the the  148 controllability  of the  consequences of  exposure, the  the  amount o f d r e a d  potential  risk,  felt  for plant  and  the  degree of delay  threat to  toward the  in  future  generations,  consequences,  a n i m a l m o r t a l i t y and  the  the degree  of  54 uncertainty  involved  Public perceptions ways.  First,  frequency of  i n the  of  there  risk  r i s k are  assessment  also biased  process. i n at  least  i s a tendency t o overestimate  sensational  underestimating the  or  serious  accidents,  f r e q u e n c y o f common b u t  two  the  while  undramatic  55 hazards.  Second, e r r o n e o u s p e r c e p t i o n s  frequencies  of  adverse consequences are  about the  strongly  relative  ingrained,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n to underestimating personal . . 56 from f a m i l i a r sources of danger. In responding t o p u b l i c o p i n i o n risks,  t h a n do  fact that  scientists.  t e r m and  and  public  opinion  will  policy  d e c i s i o n , but  formulation. generally input  regulators  ethical  as  p r o b l e m s c a u s e d by  necessarily reflect  at the  and  the  same t i m e s o c i e t a l  expressly  attained,  uneven  f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e the 57  considered  Unfortunately,  be  differently  r i s k under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . not  into  i n t e r e s t s , economic  lacking in specific  could  risks  take  same t i m e , t h e y must b e a r i n m i n d  A l l these  of the  a r t i c u l a t e d and 58  the  social the  risk distribution. acceptability  lay persons define At  future  considerations,  be  technological  p o l i c y d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s must, t h e r e f o r e ,  account the  long  about  risks  current  during  social Current  best  social  values  need  law  and  environmental  p r o c e s s e s by offer l i t t l e  which such guidance  t o w h i c h o f many c o n f l i c t i n g v a l u e s  to  policy  laws  are  public  to should  be  149 adopted. One  5 9  result  processes  of the failure  t o provide  of the legal  and p o l i t i c a l  f o r adequate p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n  " n o t - i n - m y - b a c k - y a r d " o r NIMBY phenomenon. exception, permit  t h e development o f a r i s k - b e a r i n g f a c i l i t y ,  residing  i n the v i c i n i t y  acceptability  of the risks  i n v o l v e d , and have v i g o r o u s l y Two o f t h e m a j o r r e a s o n s f o r  (the p e r c e p t i o n  a t being  public  about t h e  NIMBY r e a c t i o n a r e p u b l i c o v e r e s t i m a t i o n s involved  such as a  members o f t h e g e n e r a l  have d i s a g r e e d  opposed t h e development.  injustice  without  whenever r e g u l a t o r y a u t h o r i t i e s have d e c i d e d t o  hazardous waste d i s p o s a l s i t e ,  risk  Almost  i s the  bias),  o f t h e degree o f  and a l o c a l  asked t o bear t h e r i s k s  wastes g e n e r a t e d by t h e e n t i r e r e g i o n  this  (the  feeling of  of disposing of equity  60 d i s t r i b u t i o n problem). potential life,  Combined w i t h  d e c l i n e s i n both property  and a g e n e r a l  distrust  concerns  values  and t h e q u a l i t y o f  o f b o t h i n d u s t r y p r o p o n e n t s and  government r e g u l a t o r s , t h e s e  perception biases  d i s t r i b u t i o n problems c r e a t e  a strong  local  over  r e s i s t a n c e t o hazardous waste  and e q u i t y  incentive f o r intense  facilities.  Proper hazardous waste d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s a r e desperately  n e e d e d , however, t o p r o t e c t l o n g 62  e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s o c i e t a l  interests.  c r e a t e d b y t h e NIMBY r e a c t i o n h a s , deal  o f c o n c e r n and study.  originally problem,  The s i t i n g  problem  t h e r e f o r e , caused a great  A l t h o u g h o c e a n i n c i n e r a t i o n was  t h o u g h t t o be an a t t r a c t i v e  since t h e d i s p o s a l takes  one's back y a r d ,  term  s o l u t i o n t o t h e NIMBY  place  t h e American experience  a t s e a and i s i n noh a s shown  this  150 a s s u m p t i o n t o be continued the  t o be  siting  false.  Intense  encountered,  local  and  of port f a c i l i t i e s  has  and  opposition  simply  has  been f o c u s s e d  on  transportation routes 63  r a t h e r than  on  the  location  In the United  of the a c t u a l d i s p o s a l  S t a t e s s e v e r a l a t t e m p t s were made t o  s t a t u t e s w h i c h would preempt t h e to prevent  the  However, t h e s e  site.  siting  ability  of l o c a l  o f hazardous waste  a t t e m p t s t o impose s i t e s  communities have been l a r g e l y  opponents  facilities. on  ineffective.  facilities  by  changing  zoning  u s e s o r b y l a w s , t h e y were u n a b l e local it  r e s i s t a n c e , such  as  Although  became u n e c o n o m i c a l and The  enact  failure  to  road  other  forms  of  to delay a project u n t i l 65  acts of c i v i l  disobedience.  l e g i s l a t i o n providing f o r a structured n e g o t i a t i o n or  developer  whereby l o c a l  were r e q u i r e d t o e n t e r  t h e community w o u l d be c o n s e q u e n c e s and  costs.  a project will  in practice  d i s a g r e e a s t o an  development  may  agreement.  Despite potential  not  adverse  a developer  to convince  a  can  provide  community  a burden,  have been encountered.  groups i n the  acceptable type  are d i s s a t i s f i e d  the  agreement i n which  be more o f a b e n e f i t t h a n  interest  and  for bearing  In theory,  some d i f f i c u l t i e s  example, d i f f e r e n t  authorities  i n t o an  compensated 66  a compensation package s u f f i c i e n t  who  powers  o f p r e e m p t i o n s t a t u t e s l e d some s t a t e s t o  a r b i t r a t i o n process,  that  the  requirements,  to deal with  litigation  6 4  particular  p r e e m p t i o n s t a t u t e s were a b l e t o o v e r r i d e m u n i c i p a l obstruct  enact  community  of compensation,  but  For may  and  those  c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s b o u n d by  any  6 7  problems, n e g o t i a t e d agreements h o l d  151 some p r o m i s e a s a method f o r r e s o l v i n g s u c h s i t i n g particularly  s i n c e n e g o t i a t i o n and b a r g a i n i n g  characteristic  o f the environmental  concerns,  are already  regulatory process i n  68 Canada.  A s a t t e m p t s h a v e b e e n made t o d e v e l o p  processes  t o make a n d i m p l e m e n t h a z a r d o u s w a s t e management  decisions,  i t h a s become c l e a r t h a t some f o r m o f a c t i v e  public participation opportunity societal  i s necessary  t o address  values  decision-makers, distribution d.  legal  i n order  t o p r o v i d e an  perception b i a s e s , t o ensure a l l  are articulated and t o p e r m i t  and g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n by an o p p o r t u n i t y  problems t o be n e g o t i a t e d  f o r equity  and r e s o l v e d .  Summary The  preceding  d i s c u s s i o n has i l l u s t r a t e d  the diversity  o f p r o b l e m s t h a t may be e n c o u n t e r e d b y t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t when a t t e m p t i n g environmental  regulatory decisions.  three basic types: The the  t o make a n d i m p l e m e n t  jurisdictional,  many j u r i s d i c t i o n a l  constitutional  government.  uncertainty  The c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  over  environmental  allocation  of legislative  of legislative  Simultaneously,  conflict  ongoing  authority i n  the structure of  government i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h i n each l e v e l causes interdepartmental  and p o l i t i c a l .  s t r u c t u r e s o f Canadian  o f government c r e a t e s  the extent  affairs.  analytical  problems a r i s e p r i m a r i l y from  and i n s t i t u t i o n a l  p o w e r s b e t w e e n two l e v e l s  These problems a r e o f  o f government  and a l a c k o f c o o r d i n a t e d  action. Governments a l s o f a c e g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y  i n c h o o s i n g and  152 using  appropriate analytical  decision-making. scientific  Both  that  Finally,  public  The  put  the use  of  acceptability  a s methods t o make  must c o n s t a n t l y b e a r  of the  environmental  Obtaining  public  i s a complex  i s c o m p l i c a t e d by  the  and  lack of  process under  direct existing  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e procedures. following  section w i l l  e x a m i n e how  formation problems are a f f e c t i n g  laws d e s i g n e d Canada.  that  rational  issues.  input into the decision-making  l a w s and  policy  environmental  of risk-bearing a c t i v i t i e s problem  and  suitability  t h e y choose t o implement.  acceptance difficult  their  government d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s  i n mind t h e p o l i t i c a l  as a i d s t o  i n f o r m a t i o n h a v e a number o f  affect  d e c i s i v e c h o i c e s about  policies  economic a n a l y s i s  or t e c h n i c a l  shortcomings  techniques  t o r e g u l a t e the use  During the discussion,  forward,  the e x i s t i n g  and  an a t t e m p t  legal  c h a l l e n g e s posed  and  will  political  such  law  and  the development  of  o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  in  some i d e a s f o r r e f o r m w i l l be made t o d e t e r m i n e  whether  p r o c e s s e s can cope w i t h  by t h i s d i f f i c u l t  environmental  be  issue.  the  153 Chapter Eight: 1. Hazards 14, 23.  Notes  T . F . S c h r e c k e r , P o l i t i c a l Economy o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l ( O t t a w a : Law R e f o r m C o m m i s s i o n o f Canada, 1 9 8 4 ) , p .  2. T a s k F o r c e P r o g r a m Review, E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y S t r a t e g i c Review: F o l l o w - o n R e p o r t (Ottawa: C a n a d i a n Government P u b l i s h i n g C e n t r e , 1 9 8 6 ) , p . 36. 3.  Ibid.,  p . 13.  4.  Ibid.,  p . 21.  5. G. B r u c e D o e r n a n d R.W. P h i d d , C a n a d i a n P u b l i c P o l i c y : I d e a s . S t r u c t u r e . P r o c e s s ( T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1 9 8 3 ) , p . 127. 6.  S c h r e c k e r , p . 23.  7.  Ibid.,  8.  T a s k F o r c e , p . 115.  p . 15.  9. S t u d y Team R e p o r t t o t h e T a s k F o r c e o n P r o g r a m R e v i e w , Improved P r o g r a m D e l i v e r y ( O t t a w a : S u p p l y a n d S e r v i c e s Canada, 1 9 8 6 ) , p . 180. 10.  Ibid.  11.  Ibid.,  p . 181.  12. H a r r i e t I . R u e g g e b e r g a n d A.R. Thompson, W a t e r Law a n d P o l i c y I s s u e s i n Canada ( V a n c o u v e r : W e s t w a t e r R e s e a r c h C e n t r e , 1 9 8 4 ) , p . 43. 13. J . Owen S a u n d e r s , " C a n a d i a n F e d e r a l i s m a n d I n t e r n a t i o n a l Management o f N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s " i n M a n a g i n g N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s i n a F e d e r a l S t a t e , e d J . Owen S a u n d e r s ( T o r o n t o : C a r s w e l l , 1 9 8 6 ) , p . 274-279; T a s k F o r c e , p . 23. 14.  Ibid.,  p . 33.  15.  Ibid.,  p . 38.  16.  S c h r e c k e r , p . 12.  17.  T a s k F o r c e , p . 37.  18. S a u n d e r s , p . 284; J o h n D. Whyte, " I s s u e s i n C a n a d i a n F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l C o o p e r a t i o n " i n S a u n d e r s , p . 330. 19. N i c h o l a s A. A s h f o r d , "The L i m i t s o f C o s t - B e n e f i t Analysis i n Regulatory Decisions" i n Resolving Locational C o n f l i c t , e d . R.W. L a k e ( N . J . : C e n t e r f o r U r b a n P o l i c y  154 Research,  1 9 8 7 ) , p.  427;  Schrecker,  p.  39,  53.  20. A.R. Thompson, " L e g a l R e s p o n s e s t o P o l l u t i o n P r o b l e m s - T h e i r S t r e n g t h s and W e a k n e s s e s " (1972) 12 Nat. Res. J . 227 a t 231. 21.  Schrecker,  p.  22 .  Ibid.,  P-  44.  23.  Ibid.,  P-  51.  24.  Ibid.,  P-  45.  48.  25. Mark S a g o f f , " E c o n o m i c T h e o r y and E n v i r o n m e n t a l Rev. 1393 a t 1394-1398. (1981) 79 M i c h . L. 26.  Ibid.,  P-  1397.  27.  Ibid.,  P-  1412.  28.  Ibid.,  P-  49.  29.  Ibid.,  P-  41;  30.  Thompson, p.  31.  Schrecker,  32.  Sagoff,  33.  Schrecker,  p.  45;  34.  Schrecker,  p.  52.  35.  Ibid.,  p.  p.  Thompson, p. 234;  p.  Ashford,  231; p.  Ashford,  429;  46-47; A s h f o r d , p .  427.  S a g o f f , p.  1408.  427.  1396. A s h f o r d , p.  431.  46.  36. D.P. Emond, " E n v i r o n m e n t a l Law and P o l i c y : A R e t r o s p e c t i v e Examination of the Canadian Experience" i n Consumer P r o t e c t i o n , E n v i r o n m e n t a l Law and C o r p o r a t e Power, e d s . I v a n B e r n i e r and A n d r e e L a j o i e ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 8 5 ) , p. 145. 37. G. B r u c e D o e r n , The P o l i t i c s o f R i s k : The I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f T o x i c and O t h e r H a z a r d o u s S u b s t a n c e s i n C a n a d a ( O n t a r i o : R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on M a t t e r s o f H e a l t h and S a f e t y A r i s i n g From t h e Use o f A s b e s t o s , 1 9 8 2 ) , p . 3.3-3.5. 38.  Ibid.;  Schrecker,  39.  Doern, P o l i t i c s  40.  Ibid.,  41.  Schrecker,  p.  27.  o f R i s k , p.  1.21. p.  p.  31.  3.3-3.5.  155 42.  Ibid.,  p . 27, 31.  43. 3.22.  Ibid.,  p . 28, 31; D o e r n , P o l i t i c s  o f Risk,  p . 3.21-  44. S c h r e c k e r , p . 34; W. L e i s s , "Movements i n E n v i r o n m e n t a l Awareness" i n S o c i a l Responses t o T e c h n o l o g i c a l Change. e d s . A. B r a n n i g a n a n d S. G o l d e n b e r g ( W e s t p o r t : Greenwood P r e s s , 1 9 8 5 ) , p . 255. 45.  Doern, P o l i t i c s  46.  Leiss,  o f R i s k , p . 3.4; S c h r e c k e r , p . 35-  37. p . 256.  47. M i l l e r B. S p a n g l e r , "The R o l e o f I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y A n a l y s i s i n B r i d g i n g t h e Gap Between t h e T e c h n i c a l a n d Human S i d e s o f R i s k A s s e s s m e n t " (1982) 2 ( 2 ) R i s k A n a l y s i s 101 a t 109. 48.  Doern, P o l i t i c s  49.  Ibid.,  o f R i s k , p . 1.3-1.4.  p . 4.25.  50. U.S. C o n g r e s s , O f f i c e o f T e c h n o l o g y A s s e s s m e n t , O c e a n I n c i n e r a t i o n : I t s R o l e i n M a n a g i n g H a z a r d o u s Waste OTA0-313 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U.S. Governmnet P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 8 6 ) , p . 40-41. 51.  Ibid.,  p . 39.  52. O. Renn, " T e c h n o l o g y , r i s k a n d p u b l i c p e r c e p t i o n " (1983) Angewandte S y s t e m a n a l y s e Band 4 / H e f t 2:50 a t 53; P. S l o v i c e t a l . " P e r c e i v e d R i s k " P s y c h o l o g i c a l F a c t o r s and S o c i a l I m p l i c a t i o n s , " ( L e s A r c s : NATO A d v a n c e d S t u d y I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 8 3 ) , p . 3. 53. Renn, p . 53; P.L. S t e n z e l , "The Need F o r A N a t i o n a l R i s k A s s e s s m e n t C o m m u n i c a t i o n P o l i c y " (1987) 1 1 ( 2 ) H a r v a r d Env. Law Rev. 381 a t 387. 54.  Renn, p . 54-57;  Slovic,  55.  Renn, p . 53; S l o v i c ,  56.  Slovic,  p . 3; S t e n z e l ,  p . 390.  p . 5.  p . 6.  57. M i l l e r B. S p a n g l e r , "The R o l e o f I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y A n a l y s i s i n B r i d g i n g t h e Gap Between t h e T e c h n i c a l a n d Human S i d e s o f R i s k A s s e s s m e n t " (1982) 2 ( 2 ) R i s k A n a l y s i s 101 a t 106. 58.  Ibid.,  p . 108-109.  156 59. M i l l e r B. S p a n g l e r , "Syndromes o f r i s k and E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n : The C o n f l i c t o f I n d i v i d u a l and S o c i e t a l V a l u e s " (n.d.) 2(3) Env. P r o f e s s i o n a l 274 a t 282; S c h r e c k e r , p. 76. in  60. Lake,  David M o r r e l l , p . 119-121.  "Siting  and  the P o l i t i c s  of Equity"  61. I b i d . , p. 121-122; G. Bingham and D.S. Miller, " P r o s p e c t s f o r R e s o l v i n g H a z a r d o u s Waste S i t i n g D i s p u t e s T h r o u g h N e g o t i a t i o n " (n.d.) 17(3) N a t . R e s . L a w y e r 473 a t 476. 62. M o r r e l l , p. 117; L.S. Bacow and J.R. M i l k e y , " O v e r c o m i n g L o c a l O p p o s i t o n t o H a z a r d o u s Waste F a c i l i t i e s : The M a s s a c h u s e t t s A p p r o a c h " (1982) 6 H a r v a r d Env. L. Rev. 265 a t 267. 63. Kim Watson, "Ocean I n c i n e r a t i o n : S c i e n c e o r P o l i t i c s ? " (1986) 9(2) M a r i n e P o l i c y R e p o r t s 1 a t 4. 64.  Morrell,  p.  123;  Bacow, p.  270.  65.  Morrell,  p.  123;  Bacow, p.  272-274.  66.  Bacow, p . 270;  67.  Bacow, p .  Bingham, p.  473.  277.  68. M o r r e l l , p. 134; A.R. Thompson. E n v i r o n m e n t a l R e g u l a t i o n i n Canada: An A s s e s s m e n t o f t h e R e g u l a t o r y P r o c e s s ( V a n c o u v e r : W e s t w a t e r R e s e a r c h C e n t r e , 1980), p. 45.  157 Chapter  Nine:  Ocean I n c i n e r a t i o n  Law  and  Policy  Formation  Problems  Ideally,  what i s n e e d e d t o r e s o l v e t h e many  jurisdictional,  analytical  with environmental  laws  and  political  and p o l i c i e s  p r o c e s s which takes account  problems  associated  i s a decision-making  of s c i e n t i f i c  uncertainties,  permits public p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  resolves equity distribution  problems,  obligations  meets i n t e r n a t i o n a l  and  balances  e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a l u e s w i t h t h e need f o r economic T h e s e p o l i c i e s must t h e n be and  i m p l e m e n t e d by  development.  legal  instruments  r e g u l a t o r y procedures which p r o v i d e f o r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y ,  clear  j u r i s d i c t i o n a l mandates,  flexibility  and  the  promotion  o f p r e f e r r e d w a s t e management o p t i o n s . In the preceding d i s c u s s i o n , Canadian  government toward  proposed  method o f l e g a l  In the  following  reviewed  section,  t o determine  many j u r i s d i c t i o n a l , by  the use  ocean  and  incineration  implementation  and  have been  these p o l i c i e s  and  analytical  and  political  the outlined.  laws w i l l  concerns  o r whether they  Jurisdictional  i n t o the process of hazardous  Issues  Interdepartmental The  be the raised  require  management.  (i)  the  r e v i s i o n b e f o r e they can b e g i n t o i n c o r p o r a t e  adequately such concerns  a.  of  w h e t h e r t h e y a r e d e s i g n e d t o meet  of such a technology,  rethinking  the present p o l i c i e s  long t i t l e  Conflicts  of the Canadian  Environmental  waste  158 P r o t e c t i o n Act,  "An  e n v i r o n m e n t and  o f human l i f e  statute health of  is  respecting  i s d e s i g n e d t o be and  and  the  In  fact  the  comprehensive.  the  legislation  pollution  the  Pollution statutes  Although the  have not  Canada S h i p p i n g  Prevention  the  P r o c e s s was  not  given  particularly  are  and  consolidated  Act  and  and  the  still  be  Clean the  control  example,  i n enactments  these In Review  incorporation  into  activity  Act. o f o c e a n dumping c o n t r o l ,  i n r e l a t i o n t o ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  Act  and  pollution control provisions  are  of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . For  CEPA t o  include  used to regulate  substances,  s u c h as m e r c u r y and  also  i n the  however, an  the  a p p l i e d t o any  of the  listed  i t  replaced  Three of  For  at  area  of t o x i c substances.  a s t a t u t o r y b a s i s by  perspective  being  range  A r c t i c Waters  failure  presently  Part  contained  the  the  this  l e g i s l a t i o n has  a b s e n t , e v e n where  discharge  i t could  under t h a t  From t h e  Act  Act  this  public  f e d e r a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l A s s e s s m e n t and  CEPA, a l t h o u g h  regulated  of  even w i t h i n  been i n c l u d e d .  pollution provisions  c o n t r o l the  addition,  suggests that  many m a j o r f e d e r a l e n a c t m e n t s w h i c h  discharges  vessel-source such as  the  i s primarily directed  and  O c e a n Dumping C o n t r o l  Canada Water A c t ,  the  health,"  Environmental Contaminants Act  A i r Act,  p r o t e c t i o n of  a comprehensive p i e c e  c o n t r o l of t o x i c substances, not  the  environmental l e g i s l a t i o n governing a broad  issues.  the  Act  the  Pest  Control  of the  example, t h e discharges  operations, Products  Fisheries  F i s h e r i e s Act of  ongoing interdepartmental  is  several  persistent plastics,  o c e a n dumping S c h e d u l e .  Act  that  are  There i s ,  jurisdictional  conflict  159 between F i s h e r i e s In a d d i t i o n ,  and  Environment  t h e Meech L a k e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l A c c o r d  the p o s s i b i l i t y fisheries will  that provincial be  i s now  contemplated,  investigated.  be  almost  The  certain to  failure  chemicals  Nevertheless  i s e v e n more i m p o r t a n t ,  system o f l e g a l products,  such  and  pesticides  as  one  are subject t o a  a s P C B s , w h i c h m i g h t be 1  than  subject to the  same t o x i c i t y  since  not been developed,  and  waste  chemicals  t o x i c waste d i s p o s a l  introduced i s comparatively  scheme t o manage s u c h  other  screening process, the  limited.  " i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l problems proved  single has  new  different  subj e c t t o  Because t h e s e a g r i c u l t u r a l  being  prohibitions  agricultural  incineration.  from  can  i t means t h a t many  regulatory control  o f government t o p r e v e n t  of  occur.  o f t h e CEPA t o r e g u l a t e  o r g a n o h a l o g e n s and  of  contained i n  a n t i c i p a t e t h a t some o v e r l a p w i t h o c e a n dumping will  review  the p o s s i b i l i t y  equivalency p r o v i s i o n s s i m i l a r t o those  t h e CEPA i s b e i n g  raised  over  A separate and  Canada.  has  responsibilities  expanded o r a l t e r e d .  the F i s h e r i e s Act using  O c e a n s Canada and  toxic  are  not  ability  problems However,  insurmountable,"  chemicals  i s not c u r r e n t l y  under the  1  a  CEPA  being  considered. Indeed,  i t seems t h a t t h e c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f s t a t u t e s  u n d e r t h e CEPA h a s situation  o n l y m a r g i n a l l y improved t h e  of l e g i s l a t i v e  not decreased  o v e r l a p and  i n c o n s i s t e n c y , and  interdepartmental j u r i s d i c t i o n a l  the enactments concerned  existing  were a l r e a d y u n d e r t h e  conflict.  has All  jurisdiction  of e i t h e r the M i n i s t e r of the Environment or the M i n i s t e r of  160 H e a l t h and  Welfare.  While  t h e CEPA i n c r e a s e s t h e r o l e  l a t t e r M i n i s t e r i n the assessment o f t o x i c  substances,  of  the  only  t h e M i n i s t e r o f t h e Environment c o n t i n u e s t o have jurisdiction  in relation  t o o c e a n dumping and  i t s potential  2 consequences. to  Thus, a l t h o u g h  p r o v i d e a c o m p r e h e n s i v e a p p r o a c h by  coordinate provincial it  t h e CEPA d o e s make some  efforts  seems t o h a v e made l i t t l e  interdepartmental The  provide national  progress  pollution  standards,  in resolving  c u r r e n t method o f d e a l i n g w i t h  referral  to  federal  conflict.  interdepartmental utilize  and  attempting  effort  i n t e r e s t s and procedures,  discharge permit  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  such  conflicting  jurisdictional  s o t h a t an  overlap i s to  application  (such as a r e q u e s t t o  operations)  i s circulated  for a  conduct  among v a r i o u s  3 interested it  federal  and  provincial  i s E n v i r o n m e n t Canada's p o l i c y  agencies.  Where  t o implement  possible,  federal 4  r e g u l a t i o n s b y way although  of p r o v i n c i a l  i n the case  licensing  o f o c e a n dumping t h e  department d i r e c t l y  sets the permit  While  procedures  such  simplicity,  referral  p r o v i d e a degree  i t a l s o obscures  Additionally,  i t is difficult  aspects of concern  o n l y one  t o meet p e r m i t  requirements,  federal  Environment  t e r m s and c o n d i t i o n s .  s i n c e i n d u s t r y u s u a l l y has  d e a l w i t h when a t t e m p t i n g  requirements,  public  and  of agency  to  licensing  accountability.  t o determine  whether a l l  are b e i n g g i v e n adequate c o n s i d e r a t i o n ,  and  i m p o s s i b l e t o ensure  any  particular  t h a t concerns  are being addressed  priority.  F o r example,  an  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  application  would  in  161 normally  r e q u i r e a review  of matters  storage,  port f a c i l i t i e s ,  vessel design  emergency r e s p o n s e ,  such  as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,  and c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  occupational health, a i r emissions  incinerator design  and  operation, i n a d d i t i o n to the  economic, environmental  and  o c e a n dumping o p e r a t i o n .  resource-use  The  existing  and  c e r t a i n l y the  make t h e i r b e s t e f f o r t Nevertheless, that  there  officials  referral  such  p r e f e r r e d w a s t e management o p t i o n s , w i l l pursued for  by  each of these  public participation  opportunity are being offered  addressed  by  each department.  i n judging permit  scientific  guarantee  as t h e p r o m o t i o n  and  opportunity  little  assist  T h e r e i s no  guidance  s h o u l d be  applications,  nothing  and  a s t o t h e manner i n w h i c h t h e  i n decision-making  federal  concerns  a s t o what v a l u e s  u n c e r t a i n t i e s s h o u l d be  government has  given  to  inevitable  treated. and  resource  issues,  the  provide  some c o o r d i n a t i o n o f p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t  management i n r e l a t i o n t o t o x i c  of  be v i g o r o u s l y  T h e r e i s no  i n the process,  normally  occurs.  f o r t h e p u b l i c t o even determine which  provide guidance  To  agencies.  to decision-makers  priority  a l l these  i s no mechanism i n p l a c e t o policy,  an  procedure  i n v o l v e d would  t o ensure t h a t t h i s  a single well-developed  usual  i s s u e s r a i s e d by  among v a r i o u s d e p a r t m e n t s m i g h t w e l l r e v i e w concerns,  and  i n the past  chemicals  by  allocation attempted  to  and  the  formation  of  5 interdepartmental to  provide  f o r the  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and industry,  the  committees. integration  However, t h e s e  of f o r e i g n p o l i c y  the actions of p r o v i n c i a l  environmental  programs  lobby  agencies,  o r members o f  the  fail  162 community. the  They a l s o c o n t a i n  no  departments i n v o l v e d maintain  mechanism t o e n s u r e a high  level  of  that  commitment  7 to the  program  Short  objectives.  o f an  extensive  seems a p r a c t i c a l agency w i l l  full  land-based aspects  Since  the  resources,  and the  to the  provide  s u i t a b l e to the  technological  and  relating single  made.  specifics  of the  reference  w i t h i n w h i c h e a c h f e d e r a l and  might not  fall  referral  should  be  public.  procedure,  clearly To  economic concerns,  Clearcut  i s assigned  the  should  final  r e s t with  obvious choice. the  terms  and  made r e a d i l y  o f any  to a responsible be  that single  and  equity  each  department.  developed,  p u b l i c , so t h a t p e r c e p t i o n  e t h i c a l values  The  of  conducted to ensure  should  a  p r o v i n c i a l agency  jurisdiction be  A comprehensive p o l i c y imperative consultation with  scientific,  prevent problems i n areas  c l e a r l y w i t h i n the  importance  and  defined  agency, a thorough review s h o u l d issue of  and  public accountability for decisions  a g e n c y ; E n v i r o n m e n t Canada i s t h e  a v a i l a b l e to the  inherent  involved.  t o ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s  must o p e r a t e ,  objective.  of the  issues  However, i m p r o v e m e n t s c o u l d be  a  regime i s perhaps  complexity  jurisdictional  and  have  l e s s than  to diverse expertise  existing administrative  d e s i r a b l e and  responsibility  s u c h an  p r a c t i c e s do  access  one  necessary p r o v i n c i a l r o l e i n  of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , n o t h i n g  referral  any  f o r ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  amendment m i g h t a c h i e v e  present  flexibility  responsibility  I n d e e d , due  constitutional  which  impossibility, i t i s unlikely that  obtain  operations.  government r e o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  in  biases,  distribution  163 problems c a n be addressed. thereafter, criteria  be used  This policy  to establish  which each r e f e r r a l  evaluating  imperative  and s e t p r i o r i t i e s  mechanism f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r j u d i c i a l  r e s o u r c e s and conduct  with  to streamline  some method t o f o c u s  technology  some  review o f  As p a r t o f t h e e f f o r t  i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l workings,  among t h e  a g e n c y s h o u l d u s e when  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s ,  questionable decisions.  should  scientific  a s s e s s m e n t s s h o u l d a l s o be  implemented.  (ii)  Federal-Provincial  Cooperation  Even i f t h e f e d e r a l can be remedied o r reduced, provincial  the p o s s i b i l i t y  governments remains.  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  interdepartmental  Although  conflicts  of conflict  with  offshore aspects of  operations are c l e a r l y within  federal  8 jurisdiction, role  and t h e f e d e r a l  i n relation  land-based  emergency r e s p o n s e ,  are primarily provincial  Traditionally, over the  local federal  substances  of national  concern,  a s p e c t s o f w a s t e management a c t i v i t i e s  transportation, generators  to toxic  government r e t a i n s a prominant 9  and r e g u l a t i o n  o f waste  responsibilities.  t h e p r o v i n c e s h a v e assumed  and i n t r a p r o v i n c i a l  including  environmental  g o v e r n m e n t h a s assumed c o n t r o l  jurisdiction  affairs,  while  national, 10 i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a t t e r s . N e g o t i a t i o n o f a g r e e m e n t s a n d a c c o r d s b e t w e e n t h e two l e v e l s o f government have l a r g e l y  served t o reduce  over  c o n f l i c t s and  11 overlaps. national  I n many a r e a s ,  t h e f e d e r a l government has s e t  g u i d e l i n e s and s t a n d a r d s ,  while the provinces  164  . . . control  the  a c t u a l e n f o r c e m e n t and  E v e n where t h e jurisdiction,  regulatory  f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t has  activities.  clear constitutional  development, c o o p e r a t i v e . . 13 agreements have been n e g o t i a t e d f o r p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n s . The  s u c h as  12  offshore  CEPA p r o v i d e s  a s t a t u t o r y enshrinement of  joint  f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l management o f t o x i c s u b s t a n c e s by negotiated example, the  a g r e e m e n t s and  s e c t i o n 34(6)  release  and  inapplicable that there equivalent" This  have a l r e a d y critics  a  view t h a t  provinces already  are  i s "yet  that  a new  some c o n s e n s u s c a n  statutory  Some procedure the  O t h e r s have t a k e n another f e d e r a l  of  the  incursion  "not  be  be  implemented a t a l l i n  equivalent  p r o v i n c i a l laws  to establish federalAct  are  presently  w i l l i n g n e s s to take  under  political  expected.  federal constitutional jurisdiction  i n c i n e r a t i o n operations  CEPA  provincial constitutional  Negotiations  given  i n the  r e s u l t i n a patchwork q u i l t 15  agreements pursuant t o the  Although  declared  agreement  that  f e d e r a l power t o  country."  i t should  t o the extent 16  however, and  action,  the  that  of  i t "could  of t r a d i t i o n a l  and  be  controversy.  view t h a t t h i s  e n t i r e Act  exist."  provincial way,  that  across  the  For  regarding  i s written  provisions  generated considerable  area  authority"  i f there  s i m i l a r equivalency  and  regulations  regulations  of  requirements of such f e d e r a l r e g u l a t i o n s . 14 .  "risky devolution  provinces"  i n t o an  province,  have taken the  involves  that  i n force provincial "provisions  to the  and  provides  provisions."  d i s p o s a l o f t o x i c substances can  i n any  are  "equivalency  way  i s clear, political  and  over  ocean  economic  165 considerations policy  and  regulatory  anticipate will  be  should ensure extensive p r o v i n c i a l  that  a federal-provincial  necessary.  regional  development i n t h i s area,  The  possibility  agreements a l s o  e x i s t s . There are  i n which express c o o r d i n a t i o n  provincial  w a s t e management o b j e c t i v e s ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  land-based hazardous waste d i s p o s a l equity  international  b.  Economic  on  the  hazardous waste d i s p o s a l some a n a l y s t s  of  so  on  over the  facilities. that  that  the  in and  viability and  the  of  the  interprovincial  or  incineration.  potential  As  the  of  volume o f exceed  such a l t e r n a t i v e s  since  land  land-based in  chapter  waste  land-based  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n w i l l and  of  i n d e f i n i t e l y the  while others are  land-based a l t e r n a t i v e s ,  effect  discussed  b o t h a t - s e a and  remain v i a b l e ,  e x i s t e n c e of  development of cost  areas  seems i m p e r a t i v e :  by  f o r ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n w i l l  operations w i l l the  can  arrangement  federal  economic v i a b i l i t y  predict  land-based capacity,  that  one  Issues  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  suitable  of  imports of wastes f o r ocean  T h e r e i s much u n c e r t a i n t y  seven,  two  facilities,  d i s t r i b u t i o n problems created  into  interprovincial  particular  economic impact of  and  cooperative of  input  concerned  slow  also  the  increase  operators w i l l  need  the to  17 replace In  combustible  liquid  Canada t h e r e  i s an  wastes w i t h e x t r a additional  consideration  a r i s e s because of the  federal-provincial  If  i s developed,  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  administration  and  associated  fuel.  its  d i v i s i o n of  which power.  regulation,  compliance a c t i v i t i e s  will  be  primarily  a federal  government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  hazardous waste d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s regulation  and c o n t r o l w i l l  responsibility. financial an e q u a l  land-based  are developed,  be p r i m a r i l y  their  a provincial  The p r o v i n c e s , w i t h c o m p a r a t i v e l y  resources, w i l l level  If  not a l l  limited  be i n a p o s i t i o n t o  o f w a s t e management s e r v i c e .  If  provide  some  p r o v i n c e s a r e unable t o d e v e l o p p r o p e r waste d i s p o s a l alternatives,  t h e r e a r e two p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s : t h e  government w i l l or a l l  provinces  under the will  find  CEPA)  it  federal  necessary to provide funding to  (perhaps o r waste  linked to import  an e q u i v a l e n c y  some  agreement  and e x p o r t b e t w e e n p r o v i n c e s  become n e c e s s a r y . Ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s ,  waste  facilities,  export. liquid  raise this  i n c i n e r a b l e hazardous waste,  therefore,  other  i s s u e o f waste  Canada p r o d u c e s r e l a t i v e l y  provinces.  like  hazardous  import  and  small quantities especially in  of  coastal  F o r ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n t o be e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e , w a s t e s w o u l d n e e d t o be c o l l e c t e d f r o m  p r o d u c i n g p r o v i n c e s such as O n t a r i o  the  and Q u e b e c , a n d  18 transported to  a port  Alternatively,  wastes might  exported to  to  the  waste  in a coastal province.  n e e d t o be i m p o r t e d f r o m  the United States  Unfortunately, distribution  facility  for  s i t i n g of  increase the  a d i s p o s a l or port  p o s s i b l e ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o f f media a t t e n t i o n ,  ocean d i s p o s a l .  imports aggravate  p r o b l e m s , and t h u s  the  federal  or  facility.  equity local  resistance  When news  Canada's east coast  g o v e r n m e n t was q u i c k t o  of  received announce  t h a t no w a s t e s w o u l d be i m p o r t e d f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s  for  167  d i s p o s a l i n Canada,  19  even though such imports would be 20  a c c e p t a b l e pursuant t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l  agreements.  S i m i l a r l y , p r o v i n c e s s e e k i n g t o develop land-based d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s a r e t r y i n g t o minimize l o c a l r e s i s t a n c e by r e f u s i n g t o a c c e p t e x t r a - p r o v i n c i a l l y generated wastes. While i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e s have t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n to block i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l or i n t e r n a t i o n a l imports t o p o r t f a c i l i t i e s o f wastes d e s t i n e d f o r ocean d i s p o s a l , as a p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t y ,  local  would be e s s e n t i a l t o a s u c c e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n .  agreement  Participation  r a t h e r than preemption seems t h e b e t t e r way t o d e a l w i t h t h e NIMBY phenomenon. Even i f wastes a r e not imported from t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , the American p o s i t i o n on ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s o f importance t o Canadian p o l i c y .  Delays by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s  Environmental P r o t e c t i o n Agency have caused t h e major North American commercial proponent o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n t o announce i t has abandoned  p l a n s t o conduct a t - s e a o p e r a t i o n s  21  i n American waters. Without t h e v a s t American market, i t i s d o u b t f u l whether t h e maintenance o f an i n c i n e r a t o r v e s s e l 22  i n North American waters i s e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e .  T h i s may  p r e c l u d e t h e use o f t h i s t e c h n o l o g y by Canada even i f i t i s viewed as d e s i r a b l e , s i n c e t h e o n l y o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o r e q u i r e European v e s s e l s t o make o c c a s i o n a l t r i p s t o Canadian waters, a t what one would a n t i c i p a t e t o be a p r o h i b i t i v e cost.  I f Canada should choose t o pursue ocean  incineration,  i t may be n e c e s s a r y t o do so by way o f a b i l a t e r a l with the United States.  agreement  168 P r e s e n t A m e r i c a n and incineration issuance of  i s very  Canadian p o l i c y  toward  s i m i l a r ; both nations are  permits pending the  ocean  delaying  development of  the  regulatory  23 measures.  Both n a t i o n s a l s o  take the  incineration  has  i n the  a v a l i d place  view t h a t  ocean  p r o p e r management  of  24 hazardous wastes. amount t o to  positive  proceed,  policies  Although these stated  the  into  indefinitely  commitments t o  de  facto  without p o s i t i v e  the  face of  international  the  or  status  quo  to  foreclose  many u n c e r t a i n t i e s  its  uncertainties  regarding  adequate r e g u l a t o r y  control  over t h i s industry.  situation  i t may  options.  However, t h i s s t a t e  particularly incinerator  i n d e e d be  for  w i s e s t not  industry  since vessels  national  of  to  regulatory  i s required.  The  c l i m a t e may  be  prohibited  w i t h o u t any  substantial  such t h a t  i s probably the  use  of preferred  worst p o l i c y  seems i m p e r a t i v e  - the  policy  plans, in  the  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n improvement  in  is  hazardous  resulting  w a s t e management  failure  techniques  possible.  I f h a z a r d o u s w a s t e management i s t o be this  a  u n c e r t a i n t y makes  e f f e c t of  w a s t e management h a v i n g b e e n o b t a i n e d . The i n c r e a s e the  any  is  assume  such  c a p i t a l investment  regulatory  to  there  In  foreclose  the the  governments t o  t o make l o n g t e r m  a substantial  and  i t s impact,  of  to  use.  e x p r e s s e d by  ability  impossible  prevailing  steps being taken e i t h e r  some d o u b t o v e r t h e  it  government  community a b o u t o c e a n i n c i n e r a t i o n ,  many s c i e n t i f i c  to  incineration  d e l a y s have c o n v e r t e d  implement ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n In  a l l o w ocean  non-decisions, with the and  p o l i c i e s appear  improved  -  Canadian government s h o u l d  and either  169 choose t o implement ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , and q u i c k l y the  n e c e s s a r y time and r e s o u r c e s  and  i t s legal  resources should  and r e g u l a t o r y  f o r developing  devote  that  industry  controls, or d i v e r t those  t o t h e development o f land-based c a p a c i t y .  not inadvertently foster a climate  economic u n c e r t a i n t y ,  while  same  It  o f r e g u l a t o r y and  t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l and h e a l t h  hazards caused by t o x i c wastes s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e . The  initial  p o l i c y choice  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n w i l l such a d e c i s i o n w i l l efforts,  o f whether t o p e r m i t o r ban  be i n f l u e n c e d  i n p a r t by t h e impact  h a v e upon p r o v i n c i a l w a s t e management  and i n p a r t by t h e measure o f p u b l i c a c c e p t a n c e o f  the  industry that  are  required.  c a n be a t t a i n e d i f w a s t e i m p o r t s o r  Because t h i s process  federal-provincial concerns, t h i s  cooperation  raise issues of  as w e l l as e q u i t y  d e c i s i o n might best  c o n s u l t a t i v e process  will  exports  be s u b j e c t  distribution  to a  i n v o l v i n g not only both l e v e l s o f  g o v e r n m e n t a n d i n d u s t r y , b u t a l s o i n t e r e s t e d members o f t h e public.  This  c o n s u l t a t i v e process  unified  policy perspective  could  also help  create  a  from which r e g u l a t o r y a u t h o r i t i e s  c o u l d work a n d f r o m w h i c h f o r e i g n p o l i c y c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d . In t h e l a t t e r  respect,  i t could  a l s o ensure t h a t p r o v i n c i a l  c o n c e r n s a n d w a s t e management o b j e c t i v e s a r e c o o r d i n a t e d federal  foreign policy decisions, particularly  arrangements with incineration  c.  States  a r e t o be d e v e l o p e d .  Scientific (i)  the United  Concerns  Regulatory  Standards  relating  with  i f regional  t o ocean  170 Assuming t h a t incineration  i s made, a d e q u a t e r e g u l a t o r y  incinerator vessel ensure t h a t  operations  associated  or r e g u l a t i o n s requirements method o f  risks  f o r at-sea  the  permits only  must be  ocean  control  attained  are minimized.  over  i n order  No  LDC  incinerators.  Instead,  and  t o t e r m s and  to  laws  operational the  proposed  i s to prepare t e c h n i c a l guidelines regulations,  subject  to  Canadian  e x i s t w h i c h s p e c i f y t e c h n i c a l and  regulation  incorporate  a decision to allow  which  issue incineration  conditions  identical  to  25 those regulations.  W h i l e an  incinerator operator  have i t s p e r m i t revoked  i f i t failed  conditions,  a u t o m a t i c mechanism by  there  members o f t h e  i s no  p u b l i c can  revocation  to take place,  conditions  t o be  observed.  The  provide  varied  intervene  t o comply w i t h  to  these  which  f o r c e such  or t o r e q u i r e permit terms  i f unsatisfactory effects  administrative  board of  control unless  holder  permit v a r i a t i o n or  to the  and  are  review, are  discretionary Ministerial objects  affected  a  e x i s t i n g s t a t u t o r y r e v i e w mechanisms,  f o r an  who  could  i t i s the  which  subject  to  permit-  revocation.  are  27 E v e n i f t h e LDC R e g u l a t i o n s and T e c h n i c a l Guidelines f u l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o dumping p e r m i t s , s u c h r e g u l a t i o n s 28  are  considered  Since  many t o be  more r e s t r i c t i v e  feasible, risk,  by  are  there  required.  standards are  r o u t i n e l y achieved,  w o u l d seem t o be In a d d i t i o n , the  r e q u i r e m e n t s on concern,  and  m e r e l y minimum  the  no LDC  parties to that  technologically  and  appear t o  r e a s o n why regulations  incinerator vessels  standards.  decrease  they should fail  to  not  impose  i n s e v e r a l known a r e a s  Convention are,  be  therefore,  of  171 considering include:  revisions  the  of  possible  their rules.  n e e d t o d e c i d e on  acceptable l e v e l s of  total  concentration  i n wastes, the  limits  These  emissions,  environmentally  the  the  w a s t e management h i e r a r c h y  guidelines,  the  possible  vessels,  and  the  possible  of  need t o  need t o  incorporate  use  concerns  set  metal  specifically into  s c r u b b e r s on  the  incinerator  need f o r c o n t i n u o u s measurements  29 during operations. rules  example, t h e  f o r ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  more s t r i n g e n t 99.9999% DE acid  For  than the  exposed t o criteria,  operations are  e x i s t i n g LDC  f o r PCB's, d i o x i n s  emissions, the and  requiring  proposed United  and  i n some r e s p e c t s  regulations,  furans,  waste c o n c e n t r a t i o n s  the  requiring  a  a limit  on  setting  i n waters  i n c i n e r a t i o n plume t o meet w a t e r prohibiting  States  i n c i n e r a t i o n of  quality  certain  30 substances. T h e r e w o u l d seem t o be no r e a s o n why Canada should not i n c o r p o r a t e s i m i l a r requirements i n t o i t s d r a f t 31 regulations, This  may  be  interested United  yet  no  such s t a n d a r d s have been proposed.  o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e i f C a n a d a becomes in negotiating  a bilateral  arrangement w i t h  S t a t e s r e g a r d i n g ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  The  international  incineration  by  a broad-ranging consultation  are  to  the  parties  that  engage i n i n c i n e r a t i o n  and and  states  of  m a j o r dumping C o n v e n t i o n s ,  These m e e t i n g s have a l s o shipping  operations.  s t a n d a r d s have been  established parties  with  received  interests  the  and  input  i n the  nations including  t h o s e who from  area,  that  do  not.  non-party s u c h as  Liberia,  many n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , both environmental 32 . . . . industrial. The R e g u l a t i o n s and T e c h n i c a l Guidelines  172 which have been enacted r e p r e s e n t technologically used  p o s s i b l e standards,  f o r a number o f y e a r s .  standards could, and  economically  One  accordingly,  T h i s would p r o v i d e  discretion  i n the  issuance,  and  p o s s i b l e the decisions.  implemented  administration  a sufficient judicial  This  some l i m i t s  such  i n Canadian  individual difficult  s e n s i t i v e burn  (ii)  control  The  c o u l d be  of  done w i t h o u t a l o s s o f still  be  regulatory flexibility,  attached  to  s p e c i a l circumstances such  as  improved t e c h n o l o g y or e c o l o g i c a l l y  sites.  Treatment of S c i e n t i f i c  Uncertainty  Another major i s s u e r e l a t i n g  to the  technological  of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s  i s the  way  uncertainty  decisions.  Under the  i s t o be  g o v e r n m e n t was and  that  public health  treated  permitted  satisfied  i n environmental  t o be  used u n t i l  that a chemical  i t consituted a  or the  i n which  o l d Environmental Contaminants Act,  c h e m i c a l s were n o r m a l l y  released  exercise  or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e review of  scientific  the  the  industry  d e g r e e o f c e r t a i n t y t o make  permits to deal with wastes,  on  laws  of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n permit  a s more s t r i n g e n t s t a n d a r d s c o u l d  as  assume t h a t  r e g u l a t i o n s as m a n d a t o r y minimum r u l e s , w i t h o u t  complaint.  and  which have been r o u t i n e l y  may  be  feasible  environment.  "significant Once t h a t  such  was  new  time  being  danger"  occurred,  to the  33 c h e m i c a l ' s use which w i l l a different  c o u l d be  regulate  the  restricted  o r banned.  use  c h e m i c a l s i n Canada,  approach to the  Prior to allowing  new  o f new  c o n t r o l of t o x i c  c h e m i c a l s t o be  The  CEPA,  substances.  introduced,  the  takes  173 government c a n r e q u i r e t h a t submitted,  so t h a t  i n f o r m a t i o n and t o x i c i t y  t e s t s be  an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p o t e n t i a l h a z a r d s o f 34  a new s u b s t a n c e c a n b e made b e f o r e a l l o w i n g regulation  of toxic  drug enactments  i n this  r e s p e c t , which  toxic  proven safe.  should prevent the creation  t y p e s o f h a z a r d o u s waste, at  are central  given  t o both types of uncertainty  s u b s t a n c e s a r e now b e i n g t r e a t e d a s  p o t e n t i a l l y hazardous u n t i l policy  seems l o g i c a l  Although a degree o f s c i e n t i f i c  continues t o exist,  The  c h e m i c a l s i s now s i m i l a r t o t h e f o o d a n d  the p u b l i c h e a l t h concerns that legislation.  i t s use.  Over time,  this  o f l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f new  which would  then require  disposal  s e a o r on l a n d . Nowhere i n t h e A c t , however, i s a s i m i l a r  policy  specifically  technology. scientific option,  a p p l i e d t o t h e use o f ocean  T h e A c t makes no p r o v i s i o n  o r a comparative assessment  incineration,  I t i s a given that will  management  o f ocean and l a n d - b a s e d  o c e a n dumping,  including  c o n t i n u e under a p e r m i t system as i t d i d  u n d e r t h e o l d ODCA. uncertain,  incineration  f o r conducting a  t e c h n o l o g y assessment o f t h i s waste  alternatives.  preventative  The a d v i s a b i l i t y  however, p a r t i c u l a r l y  o f such a p o l i c y i s  i n light  o f t h e American  c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t t h e r i s k s o f l a n d and ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n a r e 35 not d i r e c t l y comparable, a n d g i v e n t h a t t h e r e a r e numerous o u t s t a n d i n g s c i e n t i f i c u n c e r t a i n t i e s and t e c h n i c a l c o n c e r n s 36 o v e r t h e u s e and impact o f ocean Policy as ocean  judgments  incineration,  associated  scientific  incineration.  a b o u t t h e u s e o f a new t e c h n o l o g y , s u c h a n d how one s h o u l d t r e a t t h e uncertainties,  a r e judgments  about t h e  174 acceptability balance risks  of i n e v i t a b l e  e c o n o m i c and  and  social  b e n e f i t s must be  possible,  and  risks,  and  i n v o l v e t h e need  interests. quantified  Some f e e l  that a l l  to the greatest  a d e c i s i o n made b a s e d on  to  the course  extent  which  will  37 provide  " t h e g r e a t e s t g o o d t o t h e g r e a t e s t number."  others,  the best choice  the  Pareto  benefits  i s to pursue the  optimum - t h a t i s , any  some, w i t h o u t  To  economic concept  course  of  of a c t i o n that  l e a v i n g other people  i n a worse  38 position. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , some a r g u e t h a t t h e b e s t c h o i c e i s t h e one w h i c h i s , a t t h e moment, t h e most e q u i t a b l e t o a l l 39 concerned, The  e v e n i f i t may  new  introduction type  of  o f new  chemicals,  " e q u i t y now"  force,  expansion  be  approach.  is fully  a justifiable  h e a l t h and  the such  interests  protection.  undeveloped, w i l l  be  latter the  are not  yet  industrial slowed, a t this  a  i s now  seen  o f i m p r o v e d human  Unfortunately, the Act,  hazardous waste d i s p o s a l  this  to  include  technology,  Some o t h e r p r o c e s s ,  as  yet  needed t o e v a l u a t e t h i s t e c h n o l o g y ,  a forum f o r t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n  values  the  sections of  chemicals  cost. Nevertheless,  as ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n .  social  the  not been extended throughout  a s s e s s m e n t o f new  to provide  Although  implemented,  option i n the  environmental  a t t i t u d e has  moved t o w a r d t h e  t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e c o u l d be  p o t e n t i a l l y huge d o l l a r as  has  u s e d t o e v a l u a t e new  i f the Act and  costly.  CEPA, i n i t s a p p r o a c h t o t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f  Act which w i l l in  p r o v e more  of  regarding the a c c e p t a b i l i t y  and  non-economic of i t s associated  risks. To  a v o i d b i a s e s and  misunderstandings  when d e a l i n g w i t h  175 scientific  and t e c h n i c a l m a t t e r s ,  regarding the access  t o and u s e o f i n f o r m a t i o n  t e c h n o l o g i c a l matters for  parties  however, c a r e f u l  will  be n e c e s s a r y .  t o s e i z e upon s c i e n t i f i c  defend  one v i e w p o i n t  about  There i s a tendency  evidence  " t h e i r " view, t o o v e r s i m p l i f y and p o l a r i z e actively  thought  which  supports  i s s u e s , and t o  a s c o r r e c t e v e n where t h e r e i s 40  genuine s c i e n t i f i c decision-makers acceptability scientific rational  controversy  and doubt.  I f policy  a r e t o seek p u b l i c i n p u t r e g a r d i n g t h e  of technological risks  i n the face of  u n c e r t a i n t y , t h e y must c o n s t a n t l y b e s e e k i n g  c o m p r o m i s e , w h i c h m i g h t b e s t b e done i n a n o n . . . . . 41  adversarial  forum t o m i n i m i z e such  simultaneously  polarization.  ensure t h a t accurate  scientific  a v a i l a b l e and p u t t o use, w h i l e g u a r a n t e e i n g has  access  social ones.  t o the decision-making  attempt t o p r o v i d e  such  issues. Public hearings  adversarial.  E x i s t i n g permit  extensive government-industry comment, a n d l i t t l e  judicial  review.  that the public  so t h a t e t h i c a l and  a forum r a i s e s tend  technical  procedures  tend  and v e r y  to involve  negotiations with  opportunity  many  t o be c o s t l y  minimal  f o r administrative or  The r o l e t h a t t h e C o u r t s  should play i nthe  o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s must a l s o b e a d d r e s s e d ,  e s t a b l i s h whether j u d i c i a l merely procedural. with  data i s  4 2  difficult  review  process,  T h e y must  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e n o t o v e r r i d d e n by p u r e l y  The  public  a  review  s h o u l d be s u b s t a n t i v e o r  Whatever t h e forum, t h e r e a r e problems  d e c i d i n g who h a s o f f i c i a l  interest  to  s t a n d i n g t o a p p e a r , what  groups s h o u l d have, and whether f u n d i n g  role  s h o u l d be  176 p r o v i d e d t o groups  which wish t o prepare r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s .  framework f o r c o n t r o l l i n g  expenditures o f time  d u r i n g t h e r e v i e w p r o c e s s must b e e s t a b l i s h e d . difficult  problems p r o v i d i n g  unenfranchised generations, a detailed  interests,  legal  a n d money There  are also  representation f o r  such as those o f f u t u r e  a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s a n d non-human i n t e r e s t s .  examination  of possible  problems i s beyond t h e scope concerns  adequate  are a l l part  and p o l i c y  A  s o l u t i o n s t o each  o f t h e present study,  While  o f these  such  o f t h e need t o p r o v i d e f o r i n p u t  into  d e c i s i o n s b y t h o s e a f f e c t e d b y t h e outcome  of the decision-making process.  Among t h e a r e a s  i n which  i m p r o v e m e n t s c a n b e made t o t h e e x i s t i n g p r o c e s s a r e t h e provision  o f technology assessments,  scientific  and  outcomes.  d.  Public  about  t h e range  of s c i e n t i f i c  forum  uncertainties  Participation  Throughout been i d e n t i f i e d  the preceding discussion i n which t h e p o l i c y  implementation  several  exhibit  alternative  have  a  failure  i n the p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l  Among t h e s e a r e t h e n e e d f o r p u b l i c  determining the acceptability  areas  f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s , and  of public policy,  to provide for public participation process.  access t o  i n f o r m a t i o n , and a n o n - a d v e r s a r i a l p u b l i c  for discussions  the l e g a l  improved  of risks  involvement i n  associated  with  t e c h n o l o g i e s , t h e b a l a n c i n g o f economic and  e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a l u e s , and t h e need t o r e s o l v e e q u i t y distribution  concerns.  Two o t h e r a r e a s  i n which p u b l i c  i n p u t would be d e s i r a b l e  177 are  the  development of  o f p e r m i t t e r m s and previously  are  by  the  accountability.  subject  compliance  ability  administrative  government enforcement o f  subject  to discretionary Ministerial  public  input  i n t o such d e c i s i o n s  s u c h as  s e t by  be  public to  decisions  monitor CEPA  and  1983,  yet  f o r an  i t was  created  i s the  by  to  limited,  the  lack  aggravation  p u b l i c acceptance of  1987  that  the  of  of  facilities.  area.  o c e a n i n c i n e r a t i o n p e r m i t was until  and  risk-bearing  hazardous waste d i s p o s a l  not  to  control.  encountering problems i n t h i s  application  and  internal  Canadian government's approach t o ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n already  are  political  standards are  major d i f f i c u l t i e s  problems i n o b t a i n i n g industries,  often of the  require  of the  of  i s minimal. Procedures under the  permit p u b l i c review of  One  way  broad  officials,  thus obscuring  standards are  d e p a r t m e n t a l agreement, the  as  In p r a c t i c e , d e c i s i o n s  Minister to administrative  Since  setting  to very  g o v e r n e d l a r g e l y by  agencies,  the  These procedures,  policy guidelines.  referred to various  industry  s t a n d a r d s and  presently  d i s c r e t i o n and  administrative delegated  conditions.  discussed,  Ministerial  regulatory  The  The  may first  received  i s s u e began  in  to  43 attract  p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n and  this period  g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y was  without p u b l i c failure  media c o v e r a g e .  input  to provide  i n t o the  being  Throughout  developed,  but  decision-making process.  p u b l i c access to  information  The  early in  the  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s has b e e n i d e n t i f i e d a s a m a j o r r e a s o n 44 . . . f o r t h e NIMBY syndrome. Inadequacies i n p r o v i d i n g p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n may a l s o r e s u l t i n t h e n e e d t o " s e l l " a d e c i s i o n  178 that  has already  b e e n made, w h i c h i s a n o t h e r  aggravating  45 factor. At  t h e time o f the i n i t i a l  Canada's s t a t e d consider  media r e p o r t s ,  p o s i t i o n was t h a t  i s s u i n g " a permit,  Environment  i t was " p r e p a r e d t o  so long  as t h e regulatory  r e q u i r e m e n t s were met a n d t h e r e were no e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y 46 preferable  practical alternatives.  A spokesman f o r t h e  i n c i n e r a t i o n company t h e n i n d i c a t e d brought  from t h e e a s t e r n  Canadian port, port  best  and t h a t  that  United States  and Canada t o a  t h e company i n t e n d e d t o c h o o s e t h e  s u i t e d t o i t s purposes once t h e f e d e r a l 47  d e c i d e d where t h e c h e m i c a l s c o u l d  be burned.  combination o f a complete l a c k o f p u b l i c decisions and  wastes would be  This  input  into the  t o p e r m i t ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , t o s e l e c t a burn  t o choose a p o r t  facility,  p r o d u c e a NIMBY Within  no A m e r i c a n w a s t e s w o u l d b e i m p o r t e d  i n c i n e r a t i o n here,  by announcing  i n t o Canada f o r  a n d a g o v e r n m e n t spokesman  that  even i f a t - s e a  acknowledged  incineration i s  c o n s i d e r e d by s c i e n t i s t s t o be e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y 48 acceptance w i l l not  be r e q u i r e d . "  i s decisive,  scientific  discussion.  the affected  "public  or technical  t h i s may b e a n example o f t r y i n g t o  p r o v i d e a f a s t and easy s o l u t i o n t o a p u b l i c than l e t t i n g  safe,  A l t h o u g h t h e government i s  making t h e e r r o r o f assuming t h a t  information  guaranteed t o  reaction.  24 h o u r s t h e g o v e r n m e n t r e a c t e d  soon t h e r e a f t e r ,  site  and t h e a g g r a v a t i o n o f e q u i t y  c o n c e r n s b y w a s t e i m p o r t s , w o u l d seem v i r t u a l l y  that  government  concern  p e r s o n s s e t t h e agenda f o r  S u c h a n a p p r o a c h c a n a l s o p r o v o k e a NIMBY  rather  179 reaction.  49  Two o t h e r the  f a c t o r s which aggravate s i t i n g problems a r e  tendency t o provide extremely t e c h n i c a l  little  interest to the affected  parties,  information  and an  of  over-reliance 50  on  a public  hearing process t o resolve  a l l concerns.  A l t h o u g h t h e C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t h a s n o t y e t moved t o w a r d public  hearings regarding  possible. rather to  I f poorly  managed, i t c o u l d  than decrease p u b l i c  achieve public  sorely  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , such a s t e p i s  lacking  input  Alternative  feel  affected  that  methods however,  framework and e x i s t i n g  The p o t e n t i a l  adversely  because they  increase  i n t o t h e l e g a l process are,  procedures.  members o f t h e p u b l i c decisions,  resistance.  i n the legislative  administrative  serve t o  result i s that by t h e r e g u l a t o r y  t h e y have been  poorly  i n f o r m e d a n d g i v e n no o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e decision-making process, w i l l adversarial their  i n the typical  NIMBY m a n n e r , t o s u c h d e c i s i o n s , 51  technical  develop statutory participation  regardless  of  merits.  In t h e U n i t e d  and  react  States  several  a t t e m p t s h a v e b e e n made t o  mechanisms f o r e n s u r i n g a d e q u a t e  i n hazardous waste f a c i l i t y  t h e s e methods may, t h e r e f o r e ,  siting  be a p p l i c a b l e  public  decisions, to the siting  of  o c e a n i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s . The M a s s a c h u s e t t s H a z a r d o u s 52 . Waste F a c i l i t y S i t i n g A c t i s perhaps t h e best s t u d i e d example o f s u c h a n e n a c t m e n t , a l t h o u g h W i s c o n s i n , Rhode Island  and Kentucky have a l s o  developed  similar  statutory  53 procedures.  These s t a t u t e s  communities a r e r e q u i r e d  e s t a b l i s h processes by which  t o s e t up b a r g a i n i n g  committees and  180 enter  into negotiations  directly  with the  t o produce a s i t i n g  agreement.  m a t t e r s s u c h as  compensation payable t o the  the  the  m i t i g a t i v e m e a s u r e s t o be  facility's  operating  as  arbitration  binding  in negotiations,  The  developer  and  are  a g r e e m e n t must  t a k e n by  t e r m s and  the  order  cover  community,  d e v e l o p e r and  conditions.  specified  local  in  Procedures  to resolve  any  government powers t o  the  such  impasse  block  54 facility  s i t i n g may  be  p r e e m p t e d by  Such mandatory n e g o t i a t i o n capable of circumventing  the  the  statutes  local  are,  in  NIMBY r e a c t i o n .  p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n methods, s u c h as ensure t h a t  legislation.  concerns w i l l  theory,  Unlike  other  public hearings,  a c t u a l l y be  they  accommodated,  55 rather  than merely a r t i c u l a t e d .  c o m p e n s a t i o n p a c k a g e be as  the  people bearing  beyond the  general  waste management. the  local  The  negotiated  the  leads  added c o s t s  societal  to greater  improved  compensation  i n c e n t i v e t o oppose a f a c i l i t y  d e v e l o p m e n t may  e v e n be  seen as  a  equity,  also receive  b e n e f i t s of  If sufficient  56  requirement that  benefits  hazardous i s offered,  i s r e d u c e d , and  a desirable addition to  the the  57 local  economy.  developer w i l l which helps increases To  Compensation agreements a l s o ensure t h a t take  full  account of the  discourage inappropriate  the  economic e f f i c i e n c y  very  of  a  development  of  siting.  mandatory b a r g a i n i n g existence  opportunities  of the  .  5 8  .  facilities  .  59  l e g i s l a t i o n have f a i l e d .  siting  for legal  facility,  and  d a t e most e f f o r t s t o s i t e h a z a r d o u s w a s t e  . . using  costs  s t a t u t e s has  challenges  have been t a k e n over a m b i g u i t i e s  and  i n the  a  often  delays,  The  increased as  actions  legislation,  the  the  181 nature of the decisions the  by  siting  arbitration decisions, the  various  contracts,  enactments.  the  s o u g h t when t h e  while the  e n f o r c e a b i l i t y of the  W i s c o n s i n s t a t u t e has  b e t t e r known M a s s a c h u s e t t s  T h e r e i s some s p e c u l a t i o n  was  of  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y of  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the  Wisconsin l e g i s l a t i o n  adequacy  committees, the  and  more s u c c e s s f u l t h a n t h e  the  that  i s due  the  relative  to the  fact  Massachusetts Act  was  Act.  success of  that public  s t a t u t o r y p r o c e s s was  been  being  the  input  drafted,  written without  such  61 participation.  T h i s may  indicate that public  d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g must t a k e p l a c e policy  formation  and  a c c e p t a n c e t o be  at the  s i t i n g processes  input  earliest i n order  stages for  developer-community n e g o t i a t i o n s  attempted. provinces,  The  legislative  such as  Crown c o r p o r a t i o n s operating provide  Ontario  and  Alberta,  carrying  out  their  followed  by  objectives.  i n v o l v e the  the  public  a s was  American cases,  done i n t h e  been  and  negotiation-based  been  Canadian  establish in  actual  methods  decision-making legislation  although  itself,  public  approaches have i n  fact  utilized. To  date only  A l b e r t a has  and  statutes  corporations  i n t o the  to  been t o e s t a b l i s h  These  i n the  incorporated  framework  not  D e t a i l s of the  p r o c e s s e s were n o t  participation  has  p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s may  t h a t must be  used to  eventual  duty of e s t a b l i s h i n g 62  hazardous waste f a c i l i t i e s .  t h a t the  has  a p p r o a c h t a k e n by  charged with the  policies  t o be  of  demonstrated.  I n Canada, t h i s t y p e o f d e t a i l e d s t a t u t o r y require  into  been s u c c e s s f u l  in actually  182 siting  a hazardous waste d i s p o s a l  a p p r o a c h was first,  the  siting  of  characterized  development of the  facility.  extensive public  by  Alberta  g o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y and Prior to  committee s t u d i e s ,  technical  public  sessions.  the  The  a two-stage process  consultations  information  facility.  involving  second,  each stage of the  were u n d e r t a k e n ,  evaluations, Public  input  process,  including  public was  the  hearings  and  sought i n both  d e v e l o p m e n t o f g o v e r n m e n t w a s t e management p o l i c y ,  and  6 3 the  criteria  result  has  facility It  w h i c h w o u l d be  been the  at  used  successful  Swan H i l l s ,  for site  selection.  establishment of  an  The operating  Alberta.  i s interesting to  s p e c u l a t e whether the  Alberta  i  approach,  like  because of  the  the  W i s c o n s i n e x p e r i e n c e , has  extensive public  government p o l i c y f i n a l i z a t i o n legislative  framework. T h i s  study of p u b l i c  recommended. whether the  may  current have the  l e g a l or  be  be  an  assess the  to  development of area  i n which  political, capacity  prove  fruitful. of  to  respond to  i n an  attempts.  to  is  determine  administrative the  NIMBY designing  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e scheme t h a t w i l l . . . . 64 siting  actively  i n t h i s area  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d manner, by  possible  successfully  l e g a l and  a  further  effectiveness  government-sponsored study  reasonable d i s p o s i t i o n of it  may  the  I n p a r t i c u l a r , i t seems d e s i r a b l e  phenomenon i n an single  and  success  p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s s h o u l d be  e n c o u r a g e d , and  structures  involvement p r i o r  p a r t i c i p a t i o n processes could  Indeed, ongoing e f f o r t s t o different  been a  ensure  I f not,  a the while  t o meet p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o n c e r n s ad  hoc,  c a s e - b y - c a s e manner, a  broader  183 solution to provide environmental, part  social,  of public policy  remain  e.  f o r t h e e q u i t a b l e and sound b a l a n c i n g o f and economic  i n t e r e s t s as a  f o r m a t i o n and l e g a l  routine  development  will  elusive.  Summary The p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n h a s r e v i e w e d many o f t h e  s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s w h i c h t h e C a n a d i a n government making  and implementing laws g o v e r n i n g t h e ocean  of t o x i c wastes.  The i s s u e s w h i c h w i l l  require  are of four basic types: j u r i s d i c t i o n a l , and  faces i n incineration resolution  economic,  scientific  participatory. Interdepartmental  public  accountability  t o promote  jurisdictional  and d e c r e a s e d t h e a b i l i t y  p r e f e r r e d w a s t e management p o l i c i e s  c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n d c o n s i s t e n t manner. interdepartmental disposal public which  referral  activities,  and an i n c r e a s e  improvements The n e e d  in a  t o ocean  i n the a b i l i t y  decisions,  for federal-provincial  Of p a r t i c u l a r  development  government  of the  a r e two a r e a s i n  s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d .  environmental matters i s well  incineration  of  A thorough review o f  procedures r e l a t i n g  t o review administrative  context.  c o n f l i c t s have o b s c u r e d  cooperation i n  established  i n t h e Canadian  importance i n r e l a t i o n  t o ocean  i s t h e need t o e v a l u a t e t h e impact t h a t t h e of this  management e f f o r t s ,  i n d u s t r y c o u l d have  on p r o v i n c i a l  waste  and t h e a s s o c i a t e d need f o r c o o r d i n a t e d  a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e two l e v e l s  o f government.  concern i s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f American p o l i c y  An  additional  on t h e e c o n o m i c  184 viability  o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  Particularly possibility to enter  i f waste import of bilateral  into  The  operations  becomes n e c e s s a r y , t h e the United  regulatory standards  to the exercise of discretionary  and s e r v e t o i n c r e a s e p u b l i c a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . t h e treatment  associated with  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n technology  access matters  f o r ocean  conceivably,  Simultaneously,  examined.  States  i s a l s o a matter r e q u i r i n g f u r t h e r  Such a development c o u l d ,  some l i m i t s  decisions,  i n Canada.  r e g i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s must b e c o n s i d e r e d .  consideration. provide  or export  negotiations with  need t o s e t f i x e d  incineration  operations  Systematic  of the s c i e n t i f i c uncertainties  technology  t o , and u s e o f , a c c u r a t e  assessment and improved scientific  w h i c h s h o u l d be a d d r e s s e d  incineration policy  must b e  information are  as p a r t o f any ocean  development.  A major f a c t o r r e l a t e d t o t h e p o t e n t i a l use o f ocean incineration siting  i s t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r p u b l i c acceptance  o f both  port f a c i l i t i e s  r e s i s t a n c e t o such complicated struggling  and burn s i t e s .  risk-bearing activities  f o r some t i m e .  some p r o m i s e ,  involvement  Public  i s an  extremely  problem w i t h which governments have been S o l u t i o n s remain e l u s i v e ,  ideas t o increase p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n hold  of the  i n this  i n decision-making  and government e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n area  i s encouraged.  b u t new  and  185 Chapter Nine: Act" 22,  Notes  1. A.R. L u c a s , "The C a n a d i a n E n v i r o n m e n t a l (1987) 20 R e s o u r c e s 3 a t 4-5. 2. Part  Canadian VI.  Environmental Protection  Protection  A c t , S.C.  1988,  c.  3. L. H a r d i n g , B . L a n g f o r d and L. S w a i n , "Water Q u a l i t y Management i n C o a s t a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " p a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t C o a s t a l Zone, 1987. (Mimeographed.) 4.  Ibid.  5. S t u d y Team R e p o r t t o t h e T a s k F o r c e on P r o g r a m Review, Improved Program D e l i v e r y : Environment (Ottawa: S u p p l y and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1 9 8 6 ) , p. 177-178. 6.  I b i d . , p.  180.  7.  I b i d . , p.  182.  8. Section  R. 91,  v Crown Z e l l e r b a c h L t d . . ( 1 9 8 8 ) 3 W.W.R. 385; C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t , 1867, 30 & 31 V i c t o r i a , a s  am.  9. I b i d . ; S t u d y Team R e p o r t , p. 245; A.R. Thompson, E n v i r o n m e n t a l R e g u l a t i o n i n C a n a d a : An A s s e s s m e n t o f t h e R e g u l a t o r y P r o c e s s (Vancouver: Westwater Research C e n t r e , 1 9 8 0 ) , p. 25. 10. Thompson, p . 19; A.R. L u c a s , " H a r m o n i z a t i o n o f F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l P o l i c i e s : The C h a n g i n g L e g a l and P o l i c y Framework" i n M a n a g i n g R e s o u r c e s i n a F e d e r a l S t a t e , e d . J . Owen S a u n d e r s ( T o r o n t o : C a r s w e l l Co. L t d , 1 9 8 6 ) , p . 33. 11.  Thompson, p.  12.  Lucas,  23.  "Harmonization,  1 1  p.  35.  13. D.M. J o h n s t o n , Canada and t h e New I n t e r n a t i o n a l o f t h e Sea ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1985), 54. 22,  14. Canadian s e c t i o n 98.  Environmental  Protection  15. " C o n t r o v e r s i a l A c t p u t s l i d on new V a n c o u v e r Sun. 24 M a r c h 1988, p. B5. 16.  Lucas,  "Protection  A c t , " p.  A c t , S.C.  Law p.  1988,  c.  chemicals,"  6.  17. U.S. C o n g r e s s , O f f i c e o f T e c h n o l o g y Assessment, O c e a n I n c i n e r a t i o n : I t s R o l e i n M a n a g i n g H a z a r d o u s Waste 0-313 ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : U.S. Government P r i n t i n g  OTA-  186 Office,  1986),  p.  16-20,  43-48.  18. "U.S. f i r m s e e k s p e r m i t t o b u r n t o x i n s C h r o n i c l e - H e r a l d . 25 S e p t e m b e r 1987, p . 21.  o f f N.S.,"  19. "U.S. must b u r n t o x i n s e l s e w h e r e , " V a n c o u v e r S e p t e m b e r 1987.  Sun.  20. IMO, " E x p o r t o f W a s t e s f o r I n c i n e r a t i o n a t S e a " Resolution LDC.II(V)).  26 (IMO  21. "Waste Management I n c . , t h e o n l y U.S. Company w i t h i n c i n e r a t o r s h i p s , has abandoned i t s p l a n t o b u r n t o x i c w a s t e s a t s e a " (Mar/Apr 1988) S i e r r a 10. 22.  Chronicle-Herald,  p.  21.  23. C h r i s t o p h e r A. W a l k e r , "The U n i t e d S t a t e s E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n Agency's P r o p o s a l f o r At-Sea I n c i n e r a t i o n o f H a z a r d o u s Wates - A T r a n s n a t i o n a l P e r s p e c t i v e " (1988) 21(127) V a n d e r b i l t J . o f T r a n s n a t i o n a l Law 157; J . K a r a u ^ " I n c i n e r a t i o n a t S e a " (1987) 1 O c e a n Dumping News 10 a t 10-11. 24.  Karau,  p.  10-11.  25. I b i d . , p . 10; E n v i r o c h e m S e r v i c e s , N a t i o n a l T e c h n i c a l M a n u a l f o r A t Sea I n c i n e r a t i o n o f L i q u i d H a z a r d o u s W a s t e s , M a r c h 11, 1987 W o r k i n g D r a f t ( B u r n a b y : By t h e A u t h o r , 1 9 8 7 ) , p . 12. 22,  26. C a n a d i a n E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n A c t , S.C. s e c t i o n s 74(1) and 8 9 ( 3 ) ( 4 ) .  1988,  c.  27. IMO, " R e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e C o n t r o l o f I n c i n e r a t i o n o f W a s t e s and O t h e r M a t t e r a t S e a " (IMO Document LDC/SG 11/2/2, 1988, Annex I ) ; IMO, " I n t e r i m T e c h n i c a l G u i d e l i n e s on t h e C o n t r o l o f I n c i n e r a t i o n o f W a s t e s and O t h e r M a t t e r a t S e a " (IMO Document LDC/SG 11/2/2, 1988, Annex I ) . 28.  Walker,  p.  179.  29. IMO, " R e p o r t o f t h e J o i n t LDC/OSCOM G r o u p o f E x p e r t s on I n c i n e r a t i o n a t S e a " (IMO Document LDC/OSCOM/IAS 2/9, 1 9 8 7 ) , p . 8, 21, 31, 34-35, 41. See a l s o U.S. C o n g r e s s , C h a p t e r 2. 30.  Walker,  31.  Envirochem  32. See IMO, participants. 33.  p.  179-180. Services.  "Group o f E x p e r t s "  Environmental Contaminants  for a list A c t , S.C.  of  1974-75-76, c .  187 72  a s am.,  section  7.  34.  Canadian Environmental P r o t e c t i o n Act, P a r t I I .  35.  U.S.  36.  Ibid.,  C o n g r e s s , p.  159.  c h a p t e r s 1 and  9.  37. M i l l e r B. S p a n g l e r , "Syndromes o f R i s k and E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n : The C o n f l i c t o f I n d i v i d u a l and S o c i e t a l V a l u e " (n.d.) 2(3) Env. P r o f e s s i o n a l 274 a t 276. 38.  Ibid.  39.  Ibid.,  p.  277.  40.  Ibid.,  p.  276.  41. D.P. Emond, " E n v i r o n m e n t a l Law and P o l i c y : A R e t r o s p e c t i v e Examination of the Canadian Experience" i n Consumer P r o t e c t i o n . E n v i r o n m e n t a l Law and C o r p o r a t e Power, e d s . I v a n B e r n i e r and A n d r e e L a j o i e ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 8 5 ) , p . 148. 42. A.R. Thompson, " B a r g a i n i n g w i t h t h e E n v i r o n m e n t : L i m i t s o f L e g a l R e g u l a t i o n " i n S o c i a l Responses t o T e c h n o l o g i c a l Chancre, e d s . A. B r a n n i g a n and S. G o l d e n b e r g ( W e s t p o r t : Greenwood P r e s s , 1985), p . 46; P h i l i p E l d e r , " C o u n t e r p o i n t : The P o l i t i c s o f B a r g a i n i n g W i t h t h e E n v i r o n m e n t " i n B r a n n i g a n , p . 62. 43.  C h r o n i c l e - H e r a l d , p.  The  21.  44. A. Armour, " N u c l e a r R e a c t o r s - N u c l e a r W a s t e : R e s o l v i n g P u b l i c Acceptance Issues" paper presented t o the C a n a d i a n N u c l e a r S o c i e t y , 1986. ( M i m e o g r a p h e d . ) , p . 11-13. 45.  Ibid.,  p.  11-13.  46.  Chronicle-Herald,  47.  Ibid.  p.  21.  48. V a n c o u v e r Sun, " B u r n t o x i n s e l s e w h e r e ; " " E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s uneasy as Ottawa eyes p l a n t o b u r n a t s e a , " G l o b e and M a i l , 2 O c t o b e r 1987, p . B17. 49.  Armour, p .  50.  Ibid.  51.  Ibid.,  p.  waste  11-13.  11.  52. M a s s a c h u s e t t s H a z a r d o u s Waste F a c i l i t y S i t i n g A c t , (1980) M a s s . A c t s 673, c . 508; Mass. Gen. Laws Ann., c . 21D,  188 para.  1-19  (West  1981).  53. D. B u r c h a r d and R. Hughes, "Beyond C a p a c i t y : A d d r e s s i n g the Concerns of L o c a l O p p o s i t i o n i n the S i t i n g P r o c e s s " (1986-87) 6 S t a n f o r d Env. L . J . 145 a t 155-160; B. H o l z n a g e l , " N e g o t i a t i o n and M e d i a t i o n : The Newest A p p r o a c h t o H a z a r d o u s Waste F a c i l i t y S i t i n g " (1986) B o s t o n C o l l . Env. A f f a i r s L. Rev. 329 a t 370-373.  13  54. G. Bingham and D.S. M i l l e r , " P r o s p e c t s f o r R e s o l v i n g H a z a r d o u s Waste S i t i n g D i s p u t e s T h r o u g h N e g o t i a t i o n " (n.d.) 17(3) N a t . R e s o u r c e s L a w y e r 473 a t 480 ; L.S. Bacow and J.R. M i l k e y , " O v e r c o m i n g L o c a l O p p o s i t i o n t o H a z a r d o u s Waste F a c i l i t i e s : The M a s s a c h u s e t t s A p p r o a c h " (1982) 6 H a r v a r d Env. L. Rev. 265 a t 279 e t s e q . ; Anonymous, "The H a z a r d o u s Waste F a c i l i t y S i t i n g C o n t r o v e r s y : The M a s s a c h u s e t t s Experience" (1987) 12(1) Am. J . o f Law and Med. 131 a t 136 e t s e q . 55.  Bingham, p.  478.  56.  Ibid.,  p. 479;  Burchard,  57.  Bacow,  p. 275;  Bingham, p .  58.  Bingham, p .  59.  Bacow,  p . 302;  60.  Bacow,  p . 289-295.  479;  p.  Burchard,  156. 479; p.  Anonymous, p .  Burchard,  p.  158.  146-147. 139.  61. J . F l e t t , e d . , Law and P o l i c y R e v i e w R e l a t e d t o t Management o f H a z a r d o u s Waste i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a (Edmonton: E n v i r o n m e n t a l Law C e n t r e , 1 9 8 3 ) , p. 17-18. 62. O n t a r i o Waste Management C o r p o r a t i o n A c t , S.O. 1981, c . 21 and S p e c i a l Waste Management C o r p o r a t i o n A c t , S.A. 1982, c . S-21.5, a s am. 63.  F l e t t , p.  7-10.  64.  Bacow, p.  304.  189 Chapter  The  Ten:  Summary a n d C o n c l u s i o n s  existence of toxic  c h e m i c a l s and hazardous  c r e a t e s p u b l i c h e a l t h and e n v i r o n m e n t a l potentially  catastrophic proportions.  p r o t e c t human h e a l t h and  regulatory  and  improve  and  disposal  and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  agencies are continually  legal  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  o f such  dangers  wastes  o f v a s t and  I n an e f f o r t t o integrity,  government  attempting t o create  controls  over t h e use  s u b s t a n c e s . One o f t h e t o x i c  waste  d i s p o s a l methods c u r r e n t l y b e i n g e v a l u a t e d b y t h e C a n a d i a n government, and f o r which l e g a l devised, The dangers  i s t h e u s e o f ocean  controls  a r e now b e i n g  incineration  technology.  p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n h a s o u t l i n e d many o f t h e caused  international  by t o x i c wastes, treaties  and has d e s c r i b e d t h e  and n a t i o n a l  legislation  r e g u l a t e t h e dumping o f s u c h w a s t e s a t s e a . current p o l i t i c a l  and l e g a l  such  I t has o u t l i n e d  s t r a t e g i e s designed t o  b e t t e r management a n d d i s p o s a l the c o n t r o v e r s i a l  which  r o l e o f ocean  o f such wastes, incineration  encourage  and examined  i n promoting  strategies. Current  and proposed  laws  r e g u l a t i n g t h e u s e o f ocean  i n c i n e r a t i o n have been examined and found t o be l a c k i n g i n their  c a p a c i t y t o address  jurisdictional,  economic and p o l i t i c a l  r a i s e d by t h e p o t e n t i a l particular,  a d e q u a t e l y t h e many  uncertainties that are  use o f t h i s technology.  there are three areas  institutional  scientific,  i n which  s t r u c t u r e s and law and p o l i c y  p r o c e s s e s seem i n a d e q u a t e ,  In  Canadian formation  i f s a f e and e f f e c t i v e  ocean  190 incineration 1.  laws a r e t o be d e v e l o p e d :  the a b i l i t y  t o deal with i n t e r j u r i s d i c t i o n a l  conflicts; 2.  the rational  use o f s c i e n t i f i c  and  technological  i n f o r m a t i o n ; and 3.  t h e achievment o f meaningful p u b l i c  participation.  What seems t o b e n e e d e d , i f t h e s e many c o n c e r n s a r e t o be  met, i s s o m e t h i n g o f a d e p a r t u r e  from t h e u s u a l  tendency  of  g o v e r n m e n t t o make m a r g i n a l c h a n g e s t o e x i s t i n g  laws and  policies. rational  Instead,  there exists  and comprehensive p o l i c y  waste d i s p o s a l , incineration  including  a method t o a s s e s s  policy  g o v e r n m e n t s do n o t ,  hazardous  ocean  i n promoting  waste  A p r o c e s s by w h i c h t h i s p o l i c y  i m p l e m e n t e d must a l s o Many p u b l i c  to  t o deal with  t e c h n o l o g y and i t s p l a c e  management o b j e c t i v e s . fully  a need t o f o r m u l a t e a  c a n be  be d e v e l o p e d .  analysts  feel that  i n fact  and perhaps cannot, d e v e l o p t h e c a p a c i t y  c o n d u c t s u c h c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n a l y s e s a n d make  rational 1  c h o i c e s w h i c h accommodate a v a r i e t y Instead,  they  pressures  feel that  from i n t e r e s t  of societal  interests.  t h e complex b u r e a u c r a c y ,  conflicting  groups and l i m i t s t o e x i s t i n g  p l a n n i n g and e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s e s combine t o p r o d u c e a limited  number o f i n c r e m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t  alternatives  which seldom,  i f ever,  result  policy i n a radical  2 policy  choice.  Instead,  small  c h a n g e s t o t h e s t a t u s quo a r e  made b y " m u d d l i n g t h r o u g h " w i t h a few p o s s i b l e past  policy.  variations  on  3  Although h i s t o r i c a l l y incrementalist  policy  decision-  191 m a k i n g h a s s e r v e d t o meet c h a n g i n g be  t h a t problems o f environmental  societal  demands, i t may  deterioration will  provide  i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e on g o v e r n m e n t t o b e more i n n o v a t i v e a n d to respond  w i t h b o l d new p o l i c y  international  initiatives.  recognition of the world  problems and t h e i r  a s s o c i a t e d adverse  t h i s h a s c r e a t e d a new s e n s e  There  scale of societal  o f urgency  about  i s now a n  environmental impacts,  and  t h e need t o  4 take e f f e c t i v e environmental  steps t o deal with environmental  a n d d a n g e r o u s , g o v e r n m e n t s may  f o r c e d b y s u c h p r o b l e m s t o make p o l i t i c a l changes toward  this  more c o m p r e h e n s i v e ,  increasingly that  critical  more commonplace, t h e r e w i l l  i n order to deal  crises  One  such  situation  with  may  a n d a c c i d e n t s become  a l s o be a g r o w i n g  t o support  Canada i s i n a n i d e a l  institutional  state of a f f a i r s .  as environmental  constituency w i l l i n g  and  be  forward-thinking  t o p o l i c y decision-making,  anticipate,  As  d e g r a d a t i o n becomes more s e v e r e , a n d i t s  e f f e c t s more w i d e s p r e a d  approaches  issues.  political  changes. t o make s u c h  a policy  d e p a r t u r e when i t comes t o d e a l i n g w i t h t h e o c e a n incineration industrial  option.  facilities,  economic t i e s  There  a r e a t p r e s e n t no  employees, d i s p o s a l  established  contracts or other  t o t h e i n d u s t r y i n Canada. There  a r e no  e s t a b l i s h e d bureaucracies, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e procedures, allocations existing be  o r r e g u l a t o r y standards  i n a c t i v e u s e . The  o c e a n dumping l a w s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i l l  a d d e d t o o r amended, w h e t h e r t h e p o l i c y p r o c e s s  f o r m u l a t e s t h e needed changes i s t r a d i t i o n a l W i t h i n t h e framework o f e x i s t i n g  budget  need t o which  or innovative.  international  obligations,  192 Canada i s , t h e r e f o r e , incineration processes  free  fashion.  e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h new  The and  nature of  incineration  suggest that  i s to  formation.  law-making  and  lose  policy  by  formation  with the  the and  economic,  b e s t way its  scientific  ocean to  avoid  associated  d e v e l o p a t w o - s t a g e p r o c e s s f o r law T h i s p r o c e s s would r e v i e w and  implementing the  each stage of  law  problems a s s o c i a t e d  comprehensive p o l i c y  At  ocean  nothing to  jurisdictional,  decision-making,  inadequacies,  method f o r  reject  incineration.  the  option  incrementalist  Canada has  approaches to  w i t h ocean  participatory  policy  accept or  u s i n g w h a t e v e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and  i t can  in dealing  to  second, the  first,  the the  a  development of  resulting policy  t h i s process, conflict,  use  i n f o r m a t i o n and  need f o r p u b l i c  of  a  decisions.  e x i s t i n g problems  interjurisdictional the  involve  and  of  scientific  p a r t i c i p a t i o n can  be  addressed.  a.  Policy The  Review  fundamental p o l i c y  proper r o l e ,  i f any,  promotion of  preferred  issue  actually  involves  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n it  s h o u l d be In  to  generally  the  requiring  can  play  w a s t e management p r a c t i c e s . two  subsidiary used at  a preferred  a l l , and or  interim  broader issue  of  federal  the and  i t may  r o l e of  in  the the  whether  i f so,  whether  strategy. be  ocean  provincial  is  This  questions:  answer t h e s e q u e s t i o n s ,  in attaining  resolution  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  s h o u l d be  p u r s u e d as  order to  look at  that  issue  necessary disposal  waste  193 management o b j e c t i v e s .  Canada h a s d e v e l o p e d a d u a l  w a s t e management r e g u l a t i o n , controlled levels, as  where n o n - t o x i c w a s t e s a r e  almost e x c l u s i v e l y  a t t h e m u n i c i p a l and  w h i l e hazardous waste d i s p o s a l  a matter of national  federal  intervention.  influences control,  and  concern, r e q u i r i n g  jurisdiction  t h e ocean d i s p o s a l  wastes has been c o n t r o l l e d  and  viewed  justifying  international  over marine  o f b o t h t o x i c and exclusively  provincial  i s increasingly  However, due t o  federal  system o f  pollution  non-toxic  by t h e  federal  government. This  d i v i s i o n o f w a s t e management r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s m i g h t  be t h e f i r s t level. policy  issue  requiring  The d e v e l o p m e n t on a n a t i o n a l  reexamination at the p o l i c y  o f an i n t e g r a t e d  s c a l e might w e l l  waste  management  p r o d u c e a more u n i f i e d  and c o m p r e h e n s i v e system t o p r e v e n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l deterioration development federal would;  c a u s e d by p o o r waste  o f s u c h a s y s t e m , however, w o u l d  intrusion  practices. involve  be s u b j e c t  challenges.  to constitutional  Federal  leadership  therefore,  c e r t a i n l y n e e d t o be  negotiated  federal-provincial  i n t h i s area  implemented  b y way  would,  of  and p r o v i n c i a l  waste and  the current  o c e a n dumping l a w s may  need  The H e l s i n k i  Convention provides a  useful  model f o r d i s c u s s i o n . except dredge s p o i l  and  and  management r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i s t o be r e c o n s i d e r e d ,  restructuring.  further  arrangements.  I f the d i v i s i o n of federal  perhaps changed,  The  into areas of p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n ,  accordingly,  political  disposal  The o c e a n d i s p o s a l  i s prohibited  by t h a t  of a l l substances convention,  and  194 limits  on c o n t a m i n a n t  imposed. federal  Such control  o v e r o c e a n dumping. dumping i s v i e w e d  disposal with largely  control  efforts  regulators. be t r e a t e d  local  The u s e o f o c e a n  p r e f e r r e d waste  pertaining  or joint  of wastes  while allowing  take place.  incineration  management i s c o n s i d e r e d  Fundamental  r e g a r d i n g ocean  of  toxic  subject to a This  by p l a c i n g  type promote  stronger  through d i s p e r s a l  technologies.  i n promoting  separately  preferred  from o t h e r  federal  policy  t o t h a t t e c h n o l o g y can  incineration  i s t h e development  on t h e t r e a t m e n t o f s c i e n t i f i c there  o f some  uncertainty.  i s increasing  In  agreement  m a t e r i a l s and t e c h n o l o g i e s s h o u l d be assumed t o until  the r i s k s  f o u n d t o be  in  t o the decision-making process  d e a l i n g w i t h hazardous wastes,  expressly  then  s e p a r a t e d e c i s i o n s t o be made  r e v i e w f o c u s s e d on c o n c e r n s r e l a t i n g  until  which might  regulation.  t y p e s o f o c e a n dumping, a more i n t e n s i v e  dangerous  provincial  t o t h e c o n t r o l l e d use o f d e s t r u c t i o n  t o x i c waste  t h a t new  to  dumping  i n v o l v i n g the c o n t r o l  management o b j e c t i v e s ,  I f t h e r o l e o f ocean  consensus  such ocean  o f C a n a d i a n o c e a n dumping l a w s c o u l d  on t h e d i s p o s a l  the environment,  impact,  c o n c e r n , c o u l d be  system o f f e d e r a l  of restructuring  as a m a t t e r o f n o n - t o x i c  incineration,  as a s e p a r a t e i s s u e  restrictions  are  Alternatively, i f  c o u l d p e r h a p s be a l l o c a t e d  substances of n a t i o n a l different  i n the dredged m a t e r i a l  an a p p r o a c h c o u l d be u s e d t o s t r e n g t h e n  dredged m a t e r i a l waste  levels  they are demonstrated  t o be  safe,  or at  be least  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r u s e a r e a s s e s s e d and  acceptable.  consider this  P o l i c y d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s must approach  i n making c h o i c e s about  the  195 use  o f ocean  incineration.  Those i n v o l v e d incineration will about of  the risks  i n making d e c i s i o n s  need a c c u r a t e and complete  and  ocean  and economic impact  assessments  from t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l  studies w i l l involved  and t h e u s e o f c o m p a r a t i v e  be c o n t r o v e r s i a l  i n the process w i l l  of associated  such  rather than c o n c l u s i v e ,  those  know t h e e x t e n t o f t h e a n d b e aware o f t h e  economic and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  Interested parties w i l l attempt  A l t h o u g h one  experience that  u n c e r t a i n t i e s w i t h w h i c h t h e y must d e a l , range  o f land-based  o p t i o n s s h o u l d a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d .  can p r e d i c t  A commitment  be n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e f o r  t e c h n o l o g y assessment,  environmental  ocean  information  associated with the technology.  time and r e s o u r c e s w i l l  adequate  regarding  a l s o be s u r e t h a t  t o gather available technical,  impacts.  a systematic  scientific  and  e c o n o m i c k n o w l e d g e h a s b e e n made. Bearing scientific rely  i n mind t h e l i m i t a t i o n s  a n a l y s e s , government d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s  exclusively  risks  on t h e s e t o o l s .  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h ocean  i n f l u e n c e d by s o c i a l here that be  the role  examined.  well  o f economic and  The a c c e p t a b i l i t y  incineration will  and p o l i t i c a l  of the public  should not  a l s o be  considerations,  i n policy  P u b l i c b i a s e s i n how r i s k s  Public  a r e p e r c e i v e d , as  input at t h i s  t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s seems e s s e n t i a l ensure  that  in policy  and i t i s  f o r m u l a t i o n must  as p r o b l e m s c r e a t e d by t h e uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n  need t o be a r t i c u l a t e d .  of the  early  of risks, stage i n  i n order t o  non-economic s o c i a l v a l u e s a r e t a k e n  into  account  development, and t o e n a b l e d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s t o  196 balance such values  against  P o l i c y - m a k e r s must a l s o be the  decisions  facilities input  may  that  and be  by  vital  will  be  Of  input  which s i t e  industrial  aware t h a t t h e  eventual  a r e made may  transportation  developments. for public  e c o n o m i c and  t o the  the  routes,  eventual  need t o and  i n t o the  formulation  In t h i s  be  regard,  i t may  be  d e t e r m i n e what t e c h n i q u e s participation The  a r e most l i k e l y  use  and  risks.  At  the  n e e d t o be  the  The  considered,  or export  United  States  should  p r o c e s s must be  structured  a l s o be  a d d r e s s some o f t h e s e b a s i c the  at  both  over  the  i t i s perhaps parties,  opportunity  for  input  arrangements  may  i f i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l waste  If bilateral  seem d e s i r a b l e ,  representatives  to  conflicts  of r e g i o n a l  particularly  is likely.  to  public  a l l p o t e n t i a l l y involved  possibility  the  a c c e p t a b i l i t y of i t s  l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t , h a v e an  discussion.  import  siting,  p o l i c y review stage,  most u s e f u l t o e n s u r e t h a t from b o t h  the  for  evaluating  further uncertainty  o f o c e a n i n c i n e r a t i o n and  which  successful.  interjurisdictional  o f government, c r e a t e s  associated  and  toward  need  process  criteria  f r a g m e n t e d n a t u r e o f e x i s t i n g l a w s , due  interdepartmental levels  t o be  possible  necessary  for facilitating  public  such  actual  the  e f f o r t s a t hazardous waste f a c i l i t y  port  early  i s the  made, and  government t o d i r e c t f u r t h e r r e s o u r c e s previous  that  of the  r e s u l t of  site  acceptance of  p a r t i c u l a r importance  selection will  used.  be  concerns.  input  arrangements  from  obtained.  American  The  p o l i c y review  i n a manner t h a t w i l l jurisdictional  r o l e of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i n r e g i o n a l  with  enable i t to  issues, and  so  local  that waste  197 management p r o g r a m s c a n be Designing a process  for this  type of p o l i c y  however, t h e  first  review  be  difficult.  be  t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f some a g e n c y a s a r e s p o n s i b l e  coordinator,  Logically,  clearly defined. will  s t a g e seems t o  w i t h a c l e a r c u t mandate and w e l l d e f i n e d t e r m s  of reference.  The  clear  federal  constitutional  jurisdiction  over ocean p o l l u t i o n p r o v i d e s a s t r o n g b a s i s f o r f e d e r a l leadership  i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f such  several p o s s i b i l i t i e s  suggest  an a g e n c y ,  themselves.  and  These i n c l u d e the  c r e a t i o n o f a t a s k f o r c e o r committee, t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f  an  existing  a  Royal  agency such  a s E n v i r o n m e n t Canada, o r t h e u s e  Commission t o i n q u i r e  i n t o the  Whatever agency i s u t i l i z e d , two  matter.  i t seems i m p e r a t i v e  b a s i c p o w e r s be g r a n t e d t o t h a t  entity.  a g e n c y s h o u l d be g i v e n a s t r o n g mandate t o comprehensive ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n p o l i c i e s methods f o r t h e  implementation  First,  a n t i c i p a t e w o u l d be  federal  that  the  formulate and  to  develop  of those p o l i c i e s .  mandate w o u l d p e r m i t t h e a g e n c y t o make c l e a r , recommendations t o t h e  of  rational  government, t h a t  environmentally, s o c i a l l y  Such a  one  can  and  e c o n o m i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e and w o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , p r o v i d e a foundation Second,  f o r concrete action  i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e a g e n c y be  budget t o accomplish those  at the p o l i t i c a l  funds  fundamental  as  i t s purposes  i t deems n e c e s s a r y .  and  level.  given a  t h e power t o  sufficient allocate  T h e s e p o w e r s seem  t o enable t h e r e s p o n s i b l e agency t o conduct  research necessary to obtain proper technology to obtain useful  environmental  and  solid  the  assessments,  economic impact  studies,  198 to  investigate  participation multilateral  and and  e x p e r i m e n t w i t h methods o f communication,  discussion  with  and  to  interested  public  engage  in  foreign  and  domestic  parties. Given s u f f i c i e n t responsible innovative provide  a g e n c y s h o u l d be  and  resources,  capable of  environmentalists,  necessary industry,  input  fashioning  i n t e r e s t groups.  make c l e a r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o  federal  management h i e r a r c h y ,  and  public,  agencies  will  local  and  and  With such input,  i t can  government about t h e  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n s h o u l d have i n the  role  then that  Canadian waste  s u i t a b l e methods f o r  implementation of t h i s fundamental p o l i c y  the  decision.  Imp1ementat i o n Once a u n i f i e d p o l i c y p e r s p e c t i v e  and  an  from s c i e n t i s t s ,  members o f t h e  governments, a f f e c t e d  international  b.  the  s e r i e s of programs f o r p o l i c y r e v i e w t h a t  i t with the  regional  authority  has  been  impact assessments have been conducted, t h e  of the  l e g a l development p r o c e s s can  incineration  i s t o be  which includes developed. careful  penalties  t h o u g h t must be to  o p e r a t i o n s can design of  and  Alternatively,  legislation  existing  prohibited,  be  CEPA  stage  ocean  legislation  enforcement p r o v i s i o n s  structure  adequate r e g u l a t o r y Alternatives  legislation,  provisions.  second  can  be  i f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s allowed,  maintained.  e n t i r e l y new  If  appropriate  given to the  ensure that  begin.  developed,  or the  of  the  control  include  over  the  amendment o f  the  199 One p o s s i b l i t y i s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a n i n d e p e n d a n t agency c h a r g e d w i t h d e v e l o p i n g an  integrated  f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l p r o g r a m f o r h a z a r d o u s w a s t e management, and  having  final  authority  Such an agency c o u l d freshwater,  seek t o c o o r d i n a t e a i r ,  and marine d i s c h a r g e c o n t r o l s  hazardous waste d i s p o s a l resources public  interested  federal  decisions.  land,  which  I t could  regulate  direct  research,  programs, and a c t as a l i a s o n  establish  among  agencies, p r o v i n c i a l departments,  groups and i n d u s t r y .  attack  practices.  f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l and t e c h n i c a l  information  efforts  o v e r w a s t e management  interest  By c o n t r o l l i n g t h e w a s t e management  of these various  groups i t c o u l d  simultaneously  t h e problem o f p r o p e r hazardous waste d i s p o s a l  o n many  fronts. Arguably, disposal  the national  problem j u s t i f y  dimensions o f t h e hazardous waste  further  federal  intervention i n  w a s t e management p r o g r a m s w h i c h h a v e , t o d a t e , b e e n to primarily provincial control. jurisdiction provides area.  The c l e a r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  o f t h e f e d e r a l government o v e r ocean p o l l u t i o n  further  authority  While there  need f o r a f u r t h e r careful  subject  f o r federal  leadership  i s r e a s o n t o be h e s i t a n t  in this  regarding  the  e x p a n s i o n o f government b u r e a u c r a c y ,  a  r e a l l o c a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e s and p e r s o n n e l  departments p r e s e n t l y regulatory  administering  programs c o u l d  institutional  impacts.  many o f t h e  reduce adverse  Certainly,  f i n a n c i a l and  i t seems t h a t t h e  magnitude and s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e hazardous waste problem j u s t i f y  substantial  current  disposal  changes t o t h e e x i s t i n g  from  200 administrative  insitutions,  a n d i t i s recommended t h a t t h e  f e d e r a l government immediately p r o c e e d w i t h initiatives  i n this  area.  Powerful  further  federal leadership i n  h a z a r d o u s w a s t e management n e e d n o t p r e c l u d e participation;  instead,  such l e a d e r s h i p  provincial  can strengthen  and  improve t h e c o n t r o l o f t o x i c substances a t every l e v e l o f c o n c e r n , by i n c r e a s i n g t h e e f f o r t s and i n v o l v e m e n t o f l o c a l , regional,  n a t i o n a l , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l e n t i t i e s .  at the p r o v i n c i a l level, interested If  such f e d e r a l l e a d e r s h i p  supervision  o f marine a f f a i r s  with those responsible  efforts  shipping  order  Acting  b e t t e r c o n t r o l s over be a t t a i n e d .  ocean  Specific  a l s o be d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t h e improvement o f  c o n t r o l over d i r e c t marine discharges  activities,  offshore  resource  i t s functions.  e x p l o i t a t i o n , and  initiatives  will  be r e q u i r e d i n  could  discharges  i t to  F o r example, t o p r o v i d e  with comprehensive a u t h o r i t y legislation  from  including incineration.  federal legislative  pollution,  some  i n concert  t o e s t a b l i s h s u c h an a g e n c y a n d t o p e r m i t  exercise  new  then provide  with  f o r l a n d - b a s e d waste d i s p o s a l and  o c e a n dumping o p e r a t i o n s , New  could  from t h e s e sources c o u l d  could  and a waste  the personnel charged  sources.  p o l l u t i o n discharges,  regulatory  from  of the regulations c o n t r o l l i n g  marine p o l l u t i o n from v a r i o u s  pollution  i s provided,  established,  much n e e d e d c o o r d i n a t i o n  airborne  and i n p u t  p a r i t e s c a n be i n v i t e d a n d e n c o u r a g e d .  management a u t h o r i t y the  cooperation  Particularly  over offshore  be d r a f t e d g o v e r n i n g from o f f s h o r e  mineral  marine  t h e agency discharges,  vessel-source exploration  201 activities,  a n d o c e a n dumping.  T h i s would c o n s o l i d a t e  or  replace  t h e p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p r o v i s i o n s o f many e x i s t i n g  federal  statutes,  i n c l u d i n g t h e Canada S h i p p i n g  A r c t i c Waters P o l l u t i o n P r e v e n t i o n and  Gas P r o d u c t i o n  incineration opportunity aspects and  standards,  a i r emissions,  and  coordinating  r e l e v a n t t o ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  a l s o be e x p r e s s l y  design  emergency  h a z a r d o u s w a s t e management e f f o r t s ,  based a c t i v i t i e s  an  a l l at-sea  including vessel  B e c a u s e t h e a g e n c y w o u l d a l s o be  intraprovincial  regulatory  For ocean  such l e g i s l a t i o n would p r o v i d e  of i n c i n e r a t i o n operations,  procedures.  land-  operations  c o n t r o l l e d as p a r t o f a  unified  program.  However, t h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n may the  Act.  f o r a single authority to regulate  construction  could  A c t , t h e CEPA, and t h e O i l  and C o n s e r v a t i o n  activities,  Act, the  type of r a d i c a l  change t o t h e  prove impossible  t o achieve.  case i t should,  nevertheless,  present If this i s  be f e a s i b l e t o i m p l e m e n t  some c h a n g e s t o t h e e x i s t i n g o c e a n i n c i n e r a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n . Jurisdictional  conflicts,  scientific  i s s u e s , and t h e  question  of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n environmental d e c i s i o n s are a l l important  c o n c e r n s w h i c h c o u l d be a d d r e s s e d  i n a more  c o m p r e h e n s i v e manner u n d e r t h e e x i s t i n g l a w s .  Fundamental t o  any c h a n g e s t h a t a r e c o n t e m p l a t e d i s t h e n e e d t o promote specific  improvements  i n h a z a r d o u s w a s t e c o n t r o l , a n d some  recommendations  (i) J u r i s d i c t i o n a l It considered  actively  c a n be made i n t h a t  regard.  Issues  i s recommended t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g s t e p s  a s methods t o i m p r o v e t h e c u r r e n t  state of  be  202 jurisdictional incineration 1. role  conflict  The M i n i s t e r o f H e a l t h  s h o u l d be a r r a n g e d  w a s t e management Existing  incineration  with  more  f a c t o r s which promote p r e f e r r e d  procedures  for referring  permit  and p r o v i n c i a l  agencies  t o ensure t h a t each aspect  o f ocean  i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s and a n c i l l a r y  land-based  facilities  be examined. 4.  Each agency r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e review  of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n clearly  defined responsibilities,  g u i d e l i n e s as t o t h e c r i t e r i a  5.  review,  responsibility 6.  terms o f r e f e r e n c e  s h o u l d be u t i l i z i n g i n  applications. clear  information  i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r each aspect o f  and t h e a u t h o r i t y h a v i n g s h o u l d be r e a d i l y  i n force,  final  decision-making  identifiable.  t o allow the establishment of  enforceable p r o v i s i o n s governing  7.  they  with  R e c e n t amendments t o t h e Canada S h i p p i n g A c t s h o u l d  proclaimed  vessel  specific  T h e p u b l i c s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d w i t h  r e g a r d i n g which agency permit  o f an a s p e c t  o p e r a t i o n s s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d  the assessment o f permit  be  before  practices.  s h o u l d be reviewed,  and  applications.  o r revoke ocean  i n some p r i o r i t y ,  applications to various federal  will  s h o u l d be g i v e n a  T h e f a c t o r s w h i c h t h e M i n i s t e r s must c o n s i d e r  e m p h a s i s p l a c e d on t h o s e  3.  and W e l f a r e  o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n permit  d e c i d i n g whether t o grant, v a r y permits  i n ocean  laws.  i n t h e review 2.  and f r a g m e n t a t i o n  design  matters  such  as i n c i n e r a t o r  and c o n s t r u c t i o n .  When o t h e r m a r i n e p o l l u t i o n  legislation,  such  as t h e  203 F i s h e r i e s A c t , i s reviewed  efforts  coordinate the l e g i s l a t i o n  and i t s r e g u l a t i o n s w i t h t h e ocean  dumping  standards.  8. such in  s h o u l d be made t o  A review  of related  chemical  as t h e Pest C o n t r o l Products  control  A c t , s h o u l d be  order t o coordinate the l e g i s l a t i o n  with  P a r t I I o f t h e CEPA, p a r t i c u l a r l y  introduction 9.  o f new  i n relation  jurisdiction,  such  operations  as t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n measures,  i t may be n e c e s s a r y  and implement  such  to establish  standards  legislation  at the provincial  In  national  by way o f e q u i v a l e n c y  p r o v i s i o n u n d e r t h e CEPA, o r b y way o f r e c i p r o c a l  10.  federal-  c o o p e r a t i v e a g r e e m e n t s s h o u l d be n e g o t i a t e d .  particular, standards  to the  chemicals.  o f w a s t e s t o p o r t s a n d emergency r e s p o n s e provincial  initiated,  and i t s r e g u l a t i o n s  F o r a s p e c t s o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n  involving provincial  legislation,  or "mirror"  level.  Negotiation of regional or interprovincial  agreements t o d e a l w i t h  i s s u e s r a i s e d by t h e p o s s i b l e i m p o r t  or export o f wastes f o r i n c i n e r a t i o n  s h o u l d a l s o be  investigated. (ii)  T e c h n i c a l Concerns It  taken  i s recommended t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g s t e p s be  t o improve t h e l e g i s l a t i v e  the attainment including 1.  of regulatory control  over t e c h n i c a l  matters,  emissions. A t a minimum, t h e LDC r e g u l a t i o n s c o n t r o l l i n g  incineration enactment  framework as i t r e l a t e s t o  o p e r a t i o n s s h o u l d b e g i v e n t h e f o r c e o f l a w by  i n t h e f o r m o f r e g u l a t i o n s u n d e r t h e CEPA.  204 2.  Information  s h o u l d be  obtained  used t o enact  regulations governing acceptable 3.  levels  during technology  more r i g o r o u s s t a n d a r d s ,  metal  of t o t a l  contents  to the  including  i n w a s t e s and  maximum  emissions.  More p r e c i s e s t a n d a r d s  relation  assessments  legislative  s h o u l d be  developed  p r o v i s i o n s governing  in  situations  i n w h i c h t h e dumping o r i n c i n e r a t i o n  of wastes i s a c c e p t a b l e ;  in particular,  harmless"  s h o u l d be 4.  "rapidly  t r a c e contaminant d e f i n i t i o n s  r e g u l a t i o n s s h o u l d be  concentration defined,  and  guidelines" 5.  limits  of the  Public It  as  use  s e t out  so t h a t  i n the  acceptable  t e s t i n g procedures  of u n o f f i c i a l  are  "screening  ongoing s u i t a b i l i t y future technology  i s recommended t h a t t h e role  of the use  is  f o r the of  developed.  legislation  by w h i c h t h e  f o l l o w i n g measures  of the p u b l i c i n the  of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n The  established to provide  Participation  t o expand t h e  process  criterion  i s discontinued.  review  (iii)  1.  are s p e c i f i e d ,  the present  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n ,  control  reviewed  A mechanism s h o u l d be  periodic  taken  rendered  defined. The  current  the  assessment  be  and  operations.  s h o u l d be  amended t o p r o v i d e  a f f e c t e d p u b l i c can  comment on  a p p l i c a t i o n s b e f o r e d e c i s i o n s a r e made t o g r a n t  a  permit  or refuse  the  applications. 2. should  When p e r m i t s have r i g h t s  T h i s means t h a t t h e  are v a r i e d or revoked,  equal  t o those  establishment  of industry of a board  the p u b l i c proponents. of review  under  205 t h e CEPA s h o u l d be m a n d a t o r y , r a t h e r t h a n members o f t h e p u b l i c o b j e c t t o p e r m i t  discretionary,  variations  when  and  revocations. 3.  When q u e s t i o n a b l e a g e n c y d e c i s i o n s a r e made  regarding permit in  setting  issuance,  t h e t e r m s and  t h e r e s h o u l d be  the d e s i g n a t i o n of burn s i t e s ,  conditions attached  to  or  permits,  a mechanism f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r  judicial  review. 4.  The  s h o u l d be  role  of the board  strengthened.  of review  C o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d be  making t h e b o a r d ' s recommendations than  subject to Ministerial 5.  Data c o l l e c t e d  operations  s h o u l d be  mechanism t o i n i t i a t e 6.  from m o n i t o r i n g  n o t be  a permit  processes, 7.  f a i r n e s s and limited  such  and  the  CEPA s h o u l d be 8.  facilities While the  and  incineration  to  public  a  r e q u i r e d t o observe These  review the  rules  principles  review  review. developed  to  control  members o f t h e p u b l i c o b j e c t t o  establishment  of a board  mandatory, r a t h e r t h a n  P u b l i c concerns  rather  i funsatisfactory  i n a p p l i c a t i o n to formal  and  to  review.  When r e g u l a t i o n s a r e b e i n g  proposals,  binding,  ongoing  natural justice.  as boards o f  ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n ,  given  the p u b l i c s h o u l d have a c c e s s  o f f i c i a l s s h o u l d be  procedural  should  and  I n a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s and  processes, of  final  CEPA  discretion.  published,  c o n d i t i o n s are observed  under the  relative  of review  under  the the  discretionary.  to the  siting  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s must be  complexities of f a c i l i t y s i t i n g  of  port  addressed.  problems are  beyond  206 the scope  of the present study,  combination resolving  such concerns. There  which combination  in  at f a c i l i t y  siting  to  determine  techniques o f f e r s  the  f o r success.  Conclusion Environmental severity,  and  of the d i f f i c u l t y to bring  problems are r a p i d l y  increasing  that public  institutions  such problems under c o n t r o l .  environmental  regulation  Technological  i s often  own to assess. in conflict  o t h e r s o c i e t a l v a l u e s , such as t h e b e n e f i t s o f  difficult  development. issues,  incremental w i t h new arise,  law  To d e a l w i t h t h e s e c o m p l e x  policy  f o r m a t i o n and  government s h o u l d seek t o respond  ways, and  to As  i n new  c o u l d e a s i l y be u s e d  the a b i l i t y  o f our l e g a l  and  meet t h e f u t u r e c h a l l e n g e s p o s e d  as a " p i l o t political by  such  and  from experiment new  issues  and i n n o v a t i v e  the present question of the d e s i r a b i l i t y  incineration  issues.  start  forms o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s .  with  economic  g o v e r n m e n t n e e d s t o move away  and  example  face i n attempting  r i s k s which are o f t e n d i f f i c u l t  Progressive environmental  g r o w t h and  i n scale  t o x i c w a s t e management p r o v i d e s one  s o l u t i o n s t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l problems have t h e i r  test  of a  i s a p r e s s i n g need f o r f u r t h e r  of participatory  greatest potential  and  the use  o f p a r t i c i p a t o r y p r o c e d u r e s h o l d s some p r o m i s e  evaluation of past e f f o r t s  c.  i t seems t h a t  of  project"  ocean to  institutions  environmental  to  207 Chapter  Ten:  Notes  1. G.B. D o e r n and P. A u c o i n , e d s . P u b l i c P o l i c y i n C a n a d a : O r g a n i z a t i o n . P r o c e s s and Management ( T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n Co. o f Canada, 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 5. 2.  Ibid.,  p.  5-6  3. G. B r u c e D o e r n and R.W. Phidd, Canadian P u b l i c P o l i c y : I d e a s . S t r u c t u r e . P r o c e s s ( T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1 9 8 3 ) , p . 141. 4. W o r l d C o m m i s s i o n on E n v i r o n m e n t and D e v e l o p m e n t , Common F u t u r e ( O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 8 7 ) .  Our  208 BIBLIOGRAPHY A c k e r m a n , D i G . ; M e t z g e r , J . F . ; and S c i n t o , L . L . H i s t o r y of E n v i r o n m e n t a l T e s t i n g o f t h e C h e m i c a l Waste I n c i n e r a t o r S h i p s M/T V u l c a n u s and I/V V u l c a n u s I I . Redondo B e a c h : TRW Inc., 1983. A c k e r m a n , D.G. and V e n e z i a , R.A. 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Common  GLOSSARY  assimilative capacity The  c a p a c i t y of ecosystems t o absorb  without  adverse  pollutants  consequences.  bioaccumulation The  p r o c e s s by w h i c h l i v i n g  organisms absorb  store pollutants within their  and  bodies.  biomagnification The  process  i n which organisms h i g h e r  i n the  chain store progressively greater levels p o l l u t a n t s than  organisms lower  i n the  food  of  food  chain.  carcinogen  A substance  CE  Combustion e f f i c i e n c y ; efficiency destroying  CEPA  of producing  cancer.  a measure o f  of the combustion process  the in  hydrocarbons.  Canadian Environmental c.  2,4-D  capable  Protection Act,  S.C.  1988,  22.  2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic p l a n t growth r e g u l a t o r .  acid;  an h e r b i c i d e and  227 DDT  Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane;  DE  Destruction efficiency; particular  the  an  insecticide.  fraction  w a s t e compound d e s t r o y e d  of  a  by  incineration.  dioxin  See  2,3,7,8-TCDD.  EPA  United States Environmental Protection  Agency.  hazardous waste Waste w i t h including  fatal  or  dangerous  flammability,  properties  corrosivity,  toxicity  or  radioactivity.  heavy  metal Elemental metals including  mercury,  lead  and  cadmium.  Helsinki  Convention C o n v e n t i o n on Environment of I.L.M.  the the  P r o t e c t i o n of B a l t i c Sea  the  Marine  Area.  (1974)  13  544.  IMO  International Maritime  LDC  C o n v e n t i o n on  the  by  W a s t e s and  Dumping o f  Organization.  Prevention of Marine Other Matter  Pollution (London  228  LOS  Dumping C o n v e n t i o n ) .  (1975) 2 U.S.T. 2403 a s am.  Third United Nations  Conference  Sea  mutagen  (LOS C o n v e n t i o n ) .  A substance  capable  on t h e Law o f t h e  (1982) 21 I.L.M. 1261.  of producing genetic  mutations.  NIMBY  " N o t i n my b a c k y a r d ; " t h e name g i v e n t o p u b l i c r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e s i t i n g o f hazardous  industrial  facilities.  ocean  dumping The  ODCA  deliberate disposal  o f waste a t s e a .  O c e a n Dumping C o n t r o l A c t , S.C. 1974-75-76, c . 55,  a s am.  ( r e p e a l e d J u n e 30, 1 9 8 8 ) .  organohalogen Organic  o r carbon-based  w i t h elements  such  compounds  as c h l o r i n e ,  halogenated  bromine o r  fluorine.  Oslo  Convention Convention by  f o r t h e Prevention o f Marine  Dumping f r o m  I.L.M. 262.  S h i p s and A i r c r a f t .  Pollution  (1972) 11  OTA  United  S t a t e s Congress O f f i c e  o f Technology  Assessment.  PCB's  P o l y c h l o r i n a t e d b i p h e n y l s ; a group o f i n s u l a n t s used  f o r a number o f i n d u s t r i a l  and  manufacturing  purposes.  phytoplankton F r e e - f l o a t i n g marine p l a n t s , g e n e r a l l y microscopic  PIC's  Products  i n size.  o f incomplete  combustion;  organic  compounds f o r m e d d u r i n g a n i n c i n e r a t i o n when c o m b u s t i o n  synergism  The j o i n t together  2,4,5-T  i s n o t 100% e f f i c i e n t .  a c t i o n o f substances, i n c r e a s e each o t h e r ' s  2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic and  operation  w h i c h when a c t i n g effects.  acid;  an h e r b i c i d e  pesticide.  2,3,7,8-TCDD 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin;  one o f a  group o f d i o x i n s t h a t i s a byproduct  of  chlorophenol  teratogen  A substance  production.  capable  of producing  birth  defects.  Waste w h i c h can cause d e a t h , c a n c e r ,  disease,  mutations, behavioural a b n o r m a l i t i e s , deformities, or p h y s i o l o g i c a l or reproductive malfunctions.  

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