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The development of ocean incineration law in Canada Hughes, Elaine Lois 1988

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF OCEAN INCINERATION LAW IN CANADA By ELAINE LOIS HUGHES B . S c . ( S p e c i a l . ) , The U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1980 LL.B., The U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF LAWS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Law We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1988 (c) E l a i n e L o i s Hughes, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of L a w  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6G/81) i i ABSTRACT The present study i s designed to examine the structure and development of international and Canadian laws which attempt to regulate the ocean disposal of t o x i c waste by at-sea i n c i n e r a t i o n . I t begins by describing some of the hazardous wastes which are creating dangerous environmental problems i n Canada and other nations, by introducing the reader to the types of to x i c materials subject to in c i n e r a t i o n and dumping at sea, and to the nature of the hazards these materials create. With t h i s background i n mind, the h i s t o r i c a l development of ocean dumping laws i s then described, beginning with the major int e r n a t i o n a l t r e a t i e s that presently regulate dumping a c t i v i t i e s . The Canadian laws, which emerged i n order to implement the int e r n a t i o n a l treaty obligations, are then examined, together with an outline of how these laws are ac t u a l l y administered i n the Canadian c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l context. Emerging p o l i t i c a l strategies to improve the management and disposal of to x i c waste are examined, including the increased use of inc i n e r a t i o n technology. The actual use and le g a l regulation of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s then described, i n an attempt to determine whether t h i s type of ocean disposal i s a useful and co n t r o l l a b l e waste management option. Current Canadian p o l i c y and l e g a l proposals on ocean in c i n e r a t i o n are examined i n l i g h t of ongoing int e r n a t i o n a l controversy over the a d v i s a b i l i t y of i t s use as a waste management strategy. i i i The study examines s e v e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n a l , economic, s c i e n t i f i c , and p o l i t i c a l problems which, i n the Canadian c o n t e x t , c a s t doubt upon the a b i l i t y of government t o o b t a i n e i t h e r p u b l i c acceptance of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , o r adequate l e g a l c o n t r o l over a t - s e a i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s . In p a r t i c u l a r , the r e l e v a n t l e g a l , p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s are reviewed, t o i d e n t i f y areas i n which improvements are needed. I t i s concluded t h a t government should move away from i n c r e m e n t a l law and p o l i c y formation, and s t a r t t o experiment w i t h new forms of decision-making p r o c e s s e s , i n o r d e r t o d e a l w i t h such complex and d i f f i c u l t i s s u e s . I t i s recommended t h a t the government seek t o respond i n new and i n n o v a t i v e ways t o t h e s e problems. R e s o l v i n g the q u e s t i o n o f the d e s i r a b i l i t y of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s seen as a p o s s i b l e " p i l o t p r o j e c t " t o t e s t the a b i l i t y o f Canadian l e g a l and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t o meet the f u t u r e c h a l l e n g e s posed by such environmental i s s u e s . The p o l i c i e s and l e g i s l a t i o n d i s c u s s e d i n the study are r e p o r t e d as o f June 30, 1988. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i Acknowledgement v i i 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 PART I: HAZARDOUS WASTES AND OCEAN DUMPING LAWS 14 2. Environmental Impacts of Waste D i s p o s a l P r a c t i c e s 15 3. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law 29 a. H i s t o r i c a l Development 2 9 b. R e g i o n a l Conventions 3 2 c. G l o b a l Conventions 3 4 (i ) London Dumping Convention 3 5 ( i i ) Law of the Sea Convention 39 4. Canadian Law 47 a. The Canadian Environmental P r o t e c t i o n A c t 47 b. C o n s t i t u t i o n a l J u r i s d i c t i o n 57 c. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P o l i c i e s and Canadian Dumping P r a c t i c e s 62 PART I I : OCEAN INCINERATION AND ITS PLACE IN HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT 7 6 V 5. Waste Management S t r a t e g i e s 77 a. The Waste Management H i e r a r c h y 77 b. Ocean I n c i n e r a t i o n 81 6. The Use and R e g u l a t i o n o f Ocean I n c i n e r a t i o n 9 0 a. H i s t o r i c a l Use 90 b. I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e g u l a t i o n 97 c. Canadian L e g i s l a t i o n 102 7. The P o l i c y Debate 122 PART I I I : CANADIAN LEGAL AND POLITICAL PROCESSES 136 8. Canadian Law and P o l i c y Formation Problems 138 a. J u r i s d i c t i o n a l Problems 138 b. A n a l y t i c a l Problems 141 (i ) The Use of Economic A n a l y s i s 141 ( i i ) The Use of S c i e n t i f i c A n a l y s i s 144 c. P o l i t i c a l Problems 147 d. Summary 151 9. Ocean I n c i n e r a t i o n Law and P o l i c y Formation Problems 157 a. J u r i s d i c t i o n a l Issues 157 ( i ) I n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l C o n f l i c t s 157 ( i i ) F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l C o o p eration 163 b. Economic Issues 165 v i c. S c i e n t i f i c Concerns 169 ( i ) R e g u l a t o r y Standards 169 ( i i ) The Treatment of S c i e n t i f i c U n c e r t a i n t y 172 d. P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n 17 6 e. Summary 183 10. Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s 189 a. P o l i c y Review 192 b. Implementation 198 (i ) J u r i s d i c t i o n a l Issues 201 ( i i ) T e c h n i c a l Concerns 203 ( i i i ) P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n 2 04 c. C o n c l u s i o n 206 B i b l i o g r a p h y 208 G l o s s a r y 226 v i i ACKNOWLE DGEMENT The author g r a t e f u l l y acknowledges the a s s i s t a n c e and a d v i c e o f Dr. Andrew R. Thompson and P r o f e s s o r M.D. Copithorne. The h e l p f u l comments o f Mr. R i c h a r d K. P a i s l e y are a l s o g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . S p e c i a l thanks t o Walter L. Hughes, Gwen M.B. Hughes and John P. Sojak f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s and support. 1 Chapter One: I n t r o d u c t i o n The l e g a l r e g u l a t i o n o f t o x i c waste d i s p o s a l a t sea i s an area i n which i n t e r n a t i o n a l marine p o l l u t i o n laws mesh w i t h domestic laws c o n t r o l l i n g the d i s p o s a l o f hazardous substances. The p r e s e n t study i s designed t o examine the s t r u c t u r e and development of i n t e r n a t i o n a l and Canadian laws which attempt t o r e g u l a t e the ocean d i s p o s a l o f t o x i c wastes, and t o review the adequacy of the p r o c e s s by which such laws are developed and a d m i n i s t e r e d i n the Canadian p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t . The study a l s o d i s c u s s e s the need t o improve the management and d i s p o s a l o f hazardous substances, and c o n s i d e r s the r o l e of one p a r t i c u l a r t echnology - ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n - i n a c h i e v i n g t h i s o b j e c t i v e . P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o the examination of the e x i s t i n g law and p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s e s i n Canada, and t o the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p o t e n t i a l areas i n which reform may be nec e s s a r y i n o r d e r f o r the Canadian government t o make and implement the complex environmental d e c i s i o n s r a i s e d by the use of t h i s waste management t e c h n o l o g y . 1 T r a d i t i o n a l l y Canadian environmental p r o t e c t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n has been of two b a s i c t y p e s : p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n and r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n . Many of the p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l s t a t u t e s were promulgated i n the l a t e 1960's and e a r l y 1970's, and were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r e a c t i v e and r e g u l a t o r y l e g i s l a t i v e approach which c o n c e n t r a t e d on how t o d i s p o s e of p o l l u t a n t s once they were produced or how t o 2 c o n t r o l , without n e c e s s a r i l y p r o h i b i t i n g , the volume of 2 p o l l u t a n t s t h a t e n t e r e d the environment. By t h e 1980's, however, t h e r e was a growing awareness of fundamental d e f e c t s i n these environmental laws. The e x i s t i n g l a n d , water, and a i r p o l l u t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n seemed d e f i c i e n t , l a r g e l y i n e f f e c t i v e , and w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s , was 3 a l l o w i n g environmental q u a l i t y t o c o n t i n u e t o d e t e r i o r a t e . The reasons f o r such d e f i c i e n c i e s were both s u b t l e and complex, although the c o m p l e x i t i e s were not immediately r e a l i z e d . Law reform e f f o r t s a t f i r s t f o c u s s e d on improving enforcement and compliance a c t i v i t i e s , then t u r n e d toward f o r m u l a t i n g i d e a s f o r improving economic i n c e n t i v e s t o comply w i t h environmental laws. In a d d i t i o n t o attempts t o i n c r e a s e c r i m i n a l p e n a l t i e s as d e t e r r e n t s and t o p r o v i d e economic i n c e n t i v e s f o r compliance, law reform p r o p o s a l s were developed which sought t o improve common law remedies as a method of p e r m i t t i n g c i t i z e n enforcement of laws and o f m o n i t o r i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s . E v e n t u a l l y , l e g a l t h e o r i s t s began t o examine the fundamental approach o f environmental laws, q u e s t i o n i n g the b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y upon which the l e g i s l a t i o n was based, and c o n c e n t r a t i n g upon the law's f a i l u r e t o take i n t o account the complex and i n t e g r a t e d nature o f the environmental problems they were attempting t o a d d r e s s . 4 E c o l o g i c a l study has r e v e a l e d t h a t the l i v i n g and n o n l i v i n g components of the environment, i n c l u d i n g man, i n t e r a c t i n complex ways. Non-resource components o f the 3 environment may be v i t a l t o the s u r v i v a l o f r e s o u r c e s p e c i e s . P o l l u t a n t s may have cumulative o r s y n e r g i s t i c r e a c t i o n s , forming u n p r e d i c t a b l e combinations w i t h new and p o t e n t i a l l y 5 powerful e f f e c t s . Some types o f environmental d e g r a d a t i o n seem s u b t l e and o f u n c e r t a i n impact, such as the l o s s o f g e n e t i c d i v e r s i t y among r e s o u r c e s p e c i e s . Others, such as the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the ozone l a y e r , a re of v a s t and p o t e n t i a l l y c a t a s t r o p h i c e f f e c t , and t h e r e has been an i n c r e a s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f the g l o b a l s c a l e o f many o f these environmental i m p a c t s . 6 The r e c o g n i t i o n o f such b i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s has r e s u l t e d i n a p e r c e i v e d need t o reform the laws i n o r d e r t o take t h e s e c o m p l e x i t i e s i n t o account. Simultaneously, t h e r e has been an i n c r e a s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f the s o c i a l , economic and h e a l t h c o s t s t h a t are growing as environmental damage 7 becomes more widespread. Law reform e f f o r t s a re, t h e r e f o r e , promoting a p h i l o s o p h y which would p l a c e a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y upon the i n t e g r a t i o n o f environmental p r o t e c t i o n measures w i t h i n d u s t r i a l developments and the p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n -making p r o c e s s . 8 Recent law reform p r o p o s a l s are concerned w i t h d e v e l o p i n g laws which: prevent the p r o d u c t i o n o f p o l l u t a n t s , encourage the r e c y c l i n g o f wastes, promote the r e c l a m a t i o n o f degraded areas, encourage s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h , p r o h i b i t the d i s c h a r g e o f p e r s i s t e n t t o x i c m a t e r i a l s , i d e n t i f y t he need f o r advance p l a n n i n g , a l l o c a t e r e s o u r c e s t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y p r e f e r a b l e uses, make the p o l l u t e r bear the c o s t s o f 4 p o l l u t i n g a c t i v i t i e s and r e c o g n i z e the i n t e r n a t i o n a l nature of the environment. Other important g o a l s are t o promote the e d u c a t i o n and involvement of the p u b l i c , and t o seek t o a l t e r s o c i e t a l concepts of what i s a c c e p t a b l e behaviour i n r e l a t i o n 9 t o the environment. Two of the areas of the law i n which such review and reform have begun are concerned w i t h f i r s t , the c o n t r o l of t o x i c waste d i s p o s a l , and second, the p r e v e n t i o n o f marine p o l l u t i o n . Due t o the i n t e r n a t i o n a l nature o f the oceans, law reform i n i t i a t i v e s r e g a r d i n g marine p o l l u t i o n were i n i t i a l l y developed i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l arena. I n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s t h a t generate t o x i c or hazardous wastes, however, are p r i m a r i l y c o n f i n e d w i t h i n n a t i o n a l b o r d e r s , and l e g a l i n i t i a t i v e s i n the area of t o x i c substances c o n t r o l have been p r i m a r i l y developed on a n a t i o n a l l e v e l . The focus o f the p r e s e n t study i s the l e g a l r e g u l a t i o n o f an area i n which the s e two s e t s of laws must be c o o r d i n a t e d or combined, i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n c o n t r o l over the d e l i b e r a t e d i s p o s a l of t o x i c wastes a t sea. T o x i c wastes are sometimes dumped a t sea as contaminants i n o therwise n o n - t o x i c substances, such as dredged m a t e r i a l s , t h a t are b e i n g d i s c a r d e d . They are a l s o sometimes taken t o sea on v e s s e l s equipped w i t h high-temperature i n c i n e r a t o r s , which burn the wastes and a l l o w the i n c i n e r a t o r emissions t o p r e c i p i t a t e i n t o the oceans. Both of these types of t o x i c waste d i s p o s a l a t sea, as w e l l as the d e l i b e r a t e ocean d i s c h a r g e s of n o n - t o x i c waste m a t e r i a l s , are c o n s i d e r e d t o be 5 forms o f "ocean dumping." In l e g a l terms, ocean dumping i s 10 g e n e r a l l y d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : 1(a) "Dumping" means: ( i ) any d e l i b e r a t e d i s p o s a l a t sea of wastes o r ot h e r matter from v e s s e l s , a i r c r a f t , p l a t f o r m s o r o t h e r man-made s t r u c t u r e s a t sea; ( i i ) any d e l i b e r a t e d i s p o s a l a t sea of v e s s e l s , a i r c r a f t , p l a t f o r m s o r o t h e r man-made s t r u c t u r e s a t sea. (b) "Dumping" does not i n c l u d e : ( i ) the d i s p o s a l a t sea of wastes o r o t h e r matter i n c i d e n t a l t o , o r d e r i v e d from the normal o p e r a t i o n s o f v e s s e l s , a i r c r a f t , p l a t f o r m s , o r o t h e r man-made s t r u c t u r e s a t sea and t h e i r equipment, o t h e r than wastes o r o t h e r matter t r a n s p o r t e d by or t o v e s s e l s , a i r c r a f t , p l a t f o r m s o r oth e r man-made s t r u c t u r e s a t sea, o p e r a t i n g f o r t he purpose o f d i s p o s a l o f such matter o r d e r i v e d from the treatment o f such wastes o r o t h e r matter on such v e s s e l s , a i r c r a f t , p l a t f o r m s or s t r u c t u r e s ; ( i i ) placement o f matter f o r a purpose o t h e r than the mere d i s p o s a l t h e r e o f , p r o v i d e d t h a t such placement i s not c o n t r a r y t o the aims of t h i s Convention. ( i i i ) The d i s p o s a l o f wastes o r o t h e r matter d i r e c t l y a r i s i n g from, o r r e l a t e d t o the e x p l o r a t i o n , e x p l o i t a t i o n and a s s o c i a t e d o f f - s h o r e p r o c e s s i n g o f seabed m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s w i l l not be covered by the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s Convention. I t has been estimated t h a t approximately t e n p e r c e n t o f the p o l l u t a n t s e n t e r i n g the marine environment are due t o 11 d e l i b e r a t e dumping. Although t h i s seems r e l a t i v e l y minor, i n a b s o l u t e terms the volume of m a t e r i a l dumped i s s t a g g e r i n g . E s t i m a t e s from the e a r l y 1980*s p l a c e d the worldwide volume o f ocean dumped m a t e r i a l a t about 250 12 m i l l i o n m e t r i c tonnes per year, and no data a re a v a i l a b l e from c o u n t r i e s which are not s i g n a t o r i e s t o the major 13 i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e a t i e s . S i n c e t h a t time the use of ocean d i s p o s a l has i n c r e a s e d , and p r o j e c t i o n s f o r the con t i n u e d expansion o f ocean dumping are est i m a t e d a t up t o 40% per 14 y e a r . By 1985-86, Canada alone was dumping over e i g h t 15 m i l l i o n m e t r i c tonnes of m a t e r i a l i n t o the ocean each year, and even then was l a g g i n g f a r behind c o u n t r i e s such as the U n i t e d S t a t e s . In t h e o r y ocean dumping, due t o i t s i n t e n t i o n a l nature, should be amenable t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree of 17 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , l e g a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o n t r o l . In a d d i t i o n , a l t e r n a t i v e d i s p o s a l methods e x i s t f o r v i r t u a l l y a l l t y p e s of wastes t h a t are dumped i n the oceans except, 18 perhaps, f o r p o l l u t e d dredged m a t e r i a l s . However, f o r reasons many authors c o n s i d e r t o be p r i m a r i l y economic, the worldwide volume of m a t e r i a l d e l i b e r a t e l y d i s c h a r g e d i n t o the 19 oceans has grown s t e a d i l y and shows no s i g n o f d e c r e a s i n g . Compared t o land-based d i s p o s a l , ocean dumping i s o f t e n r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e , convenient, w i t h fewer r e g u l a t o r y r e s t r i c t i o n s and l e s s immediately o b s e r v a b l e adverse 20 impact. As p r e s s u r e s on land-based d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s have grown, the oceans have become i n c r e a s i n g l y a t t r a c t i v e as cheap, p o l i t i c a l l y expedient waste r e c e p t a c l e s . Both marine p o l l u t i o n g e n e r a l l y , and the i n c r e a s i n g use of ocean dumping i n p a r t i c u l a r , are matters which m e r i t c o n s i d e r a b l e concern. The oceans, which cover approximately 71% o f the E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e and c o n t a i n about 80% of a l l p l a n t and animal l i f e , are important t o the g l o b a l ecology, and 21 thus v i t a l t o the s u r v i v a l of l i f e on t h i s p l a n e t . Most of the atmospheric oxygen has been produced by the 22 p h o t o s y n t h e t i c p r o c e s s e s o f marine phytoplankton. The complex r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the atmosphere and the oceans 7 are a l s o v i t a l t o world temperature, c l o u d cover, r a i n f a l l , 23 winds, t i d e s and r a d i a t i o n l e v e l s . The seas a c t t o balance both oxygen and carbon d i o x i d e l e v e l s i n the atmosphere and t o s t a b i l i z e the world c l i m a t e . They are a l s o an important 24 source o f water f o r the E a r t h ' s h y d r o l o g i c c y c l e . The oceans are a source o f v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e s f o r mankind. Much of the human p o p u l a t i o n on e a r t h r e l i e s upon 25 f i s h f o r i t s d i e t a r y p r o t e i n needs. In a d d i t i o n t o the use of f i s h and o t h e r l i v i n g r e s o u r c e s o f the sea as food sources, the oceans p r o v i d e a v a s t p o t e n t i a l f o r o t h e r uses, i n c l u d i n g : t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , r e c r e a t i o n , m i n e r a l e x p l o i t a t i o n , energy p r o d u c t i o n , s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h , t o u r i s m , and m i l i t a r y 2 S use. I n c r e a s i n g u t i l i z a t i o n o f the oceans f o r p r o j e c t s such as a q u a c u l t u r e , freshwater p r o d u c t i o n by d e s a l i n i z a t i o n and 27 expansion o f c o a s t a l developments i s a l s o a n t i c i p a t e d . Ocean dumping, l i k e o t h e r sources o f marine p o l l u t i o n , i s o f concern because i t t h r e a t e n s both man's u t i l i z a t i o n o f the ocean r e s o u r c e s , and the balance o f the g l o b a l ecology upon which a l l l i f e u l t i m a t e l y depends. For many ye a r s i t was assumed t h a t the oceans had an u n l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y t o 2 8 r e c e i v e , d i l u t e and n e u t r a l i z e wastes, and some t h e o r i s t s c o n t i n u e t o argue t h a t the oceans are a v i a b l e l o c a t i o n f o r 29 d e l i b e r a t e waste d i s p o s a l . As e c o l o g i c a l knowledge has grown, however, i t has become g e n e r a l l y accepted t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r man t o have an adverse e f f e c t on the marine 30 environment, a t l e a s t on a l o c a l o r r e g i o n a l b a s i s , and t h a t even the v a s t volumes of the oceans have a f i n i t e 8 31 c a p a c i t y t o absorb wastes. I t has a l s o become the p r e v a i l i n g view t h a t many ecosystems can appear t o absorb a d e c e p t i v e amount of p o l l u t i o n u n t i l a c e r t a i n s a t u r a t i o n or t h r e s h o l d l e v e l i s reached, but i f the " a s s i m i l a t i v e c a p a c i t y " i s exceeded the r e s u l t can be a sudden, p o s s i b l y 32 i r r e v e r s i b l e , e c o l o g i c a l c o l l a p s e . A f a c t o r which c o m p l i c a t e s any attempt t o p r e d i c t how much waste can be absorbed b e f o r e the a s s i m i l a t i v e c a p a c i t y of the oceans might be exceeded i s synergism. S y n e r g i s t i c o r combined e f f e c t s of p o l l u t a n t s are u n p r e d i c t a b l e and p o t e n t i a l l y v e r y dangerous, c r e a t i n g u n f o r s e e a b l e , m u l t i p l e 33 or cumulative r e s u l t s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y the l a c k o f s c i e n t i f i c u n d erstanding of both marine ecology and the f a t e and e f f e c t s of marine p o l l u t a n t s makes any a c c u r a t e assessment o r p r e d i c t i o n of p o t e n t i a l s y n e r g i s t i c r e a c t i o n s 34 v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e a t t h i s time. Concern over p r e s e n t and p o t e n t i a l l y adverse impacts of ocean dumping upon;other uses of the oceans g r a d u a l l y l e d t o the development o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l and n a t i o n a l laws attempting t o c o n t r o l such a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y where t o x i c wastes were i n v o l v e d . Canada has been an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n both the n e g o t i a t i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e a t i e s and i n the development of n a t i o n a l c o n t r o l s over ocean dumping. One area i n which Canadian laws are o n l y now b e i n g developed, as the government i n c r e a s e s i t s e f f o r t s t o improve t o x i c substances c o n t r o l throughout the n a t i o n , i s the r e g u l a t i o n o f t o x i c waste i n c i n e r a t i o n a t sea. 9 P a r t I of the p r e s e n t study begins by d e s c r i b i n g some of the hazardous wastes which are c r e a t i n g dangerous environmental problems i n Canada and o t h e r n a t i o n s , by i n t r o d u c i n g the reader t o the types of t o x i c m a t e r i a l s s u b j e c t t o i n c i n e r a t i o n and dumping a t sea, and t o the nature of t h e hazards t h a t these m a t e r i a l s c r e a t e . With t h i s background i n mind, the h i s t o r i c a l development of ocean dumping laws i s then d e s c r i b e d , b e g i n n i n g w i t h the major i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e a t i e s t h a t p r e s e n t l y r e g u l a t e dumping a c t i v i t i e s . The Canadian laws, which emerged i n o r d e r t o implement the i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e a t y o b l i g a t i o n s , a re then examined, t o g e t h e r w i t h an o u t l i n e o f how these laws are a c t u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d i n the Canadian c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t . P a r t I I o f the study t u r n s t o an examination o f emerging p o l i t i c a l s t r a t e g i e s t o improve the management and d i s p o s a l o f t o x i c wastes, i n c l u d i n g the i n c r e a s e d use of i n c i n e r a t i o n t e chnology. The a c t u a l use and l e g a l r e g u l a t i o n o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s then d e s c r i b e d , i n an attempt t o determine whether t h i s type of ocean d i s p o s a l i s a u s e f u l and c o n t r o l l a b l e waste management o p t i o n . C u r r e n t Canadian p o l i c y and l e g a l p r o p o s a l s on ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n are examined i n l i g h t o f ongoing i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t r o v e r s y over the a d v i s a b i l i t y o f i t s use as a waste management s t r a t e g y . P a r t I I I of the study examines s e v e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n a l , economic, s c i e n t i f i c , and p o l i t i c a l problems which, i n the Canadian co n t e x t , c a s t doubt upon the a b i l i t y o f government t o o b t a i n e i t h e r p u b l i c acceptance o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , or adequate l e g a l c o n t r o l over a t - s e a i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s . In p a r t i c u l a r , the r e l e v a n t l e g a l , p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e decision-making pr o c e s s e s are reviewed, t o i d e n t i f y areas i n which improvements must be made i f these d i f f i c u l t problems are t o be r e s o l v e d i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y manner. Proper t o x i c waste management i s a d i f f i c u l t and p r e s s i n g environmental problem plagued by s c i e n t i f i c u n c e r t a i n t y , huge human h e a l t h r i s k s , r a p i d t e c h n o l o g i c a l change, complex p u b l i c p e r c e p t i o n s , s u b s t a n t i a l economic impacts, important f o r e i g n p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s and, a t p r e s e n t , a patchwork of l e g a l and r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l s . The Canadian government, as p a r t of i t s e f f o r t s t o improve human h e a l t h and environmental p r o t e c t i o n , i s p r e s e n t l y s t r u g g l i n g t o f a s h i o n new laws and p o l i c i e s which can address the overwhelming c o m p l e x i t i e s and u n c e r t a i n t i e s t h a t are now known t o c h a r a c t e r i z e such environmental problems. The many f a c e t s of these problems which must be d e a l t w i t h and the maze of e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n s and p r o c e s s e s which may r e q u i r e review and r e v i s i o n are w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d by the c u r r e n t need t o e v a l u a t e ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n t e c hnology and t o d e v i s e a l e g a l regime i n which the use of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n can, perhaps, improve Canadian t o x i c waste c o n t r o l . 11 Chapter One: Notes 1. The p o l i c i e s and l e g i s l a t i o n d i s c u s s e d i n the study are r e p o r t e d as o f June 30, 1988. Subsequently, on October 6, 1988, Canada a l t e r e d i t s p o l i c y p o s i t i o n by a g r e e i n g t o a complete ban on ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n by 1994. The i s s u e s r a i s e d by the study are, t h e r e f o r e , o f primary importance i n the i n t e r i m p e r i o d , between 1988 and 1994. In a d d i t i o n , many of the concerns r e l e v a n t t o ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n c o n t i n u e t o be a p p l i c a b l e t o o t h e r environmental a r e a s . "65 n a t i o n s t o ban b u r n i n g of chemical waste a t sea," Vancouver Sun, 7 October 1988, p. A5. 2. For a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n see: D.P. Emond, "Environmental Law and P o l i c y : A R e t r o s p e c t i v e Examination of the Canadian E x p e r i e n c e , " i n Consumer P r o t e c t i o n .  Environmental Law and Corporate Power. Ivan B e r n i e r and Andree L a j o i e (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Press, 1985), p. 117-124. 3. Task Force Program Review, Environmental Q u a l i t y  S t r a t e g i c Review: Follow-on Report (Ottawa: Canadian Government P u b l i s h i n g Centre, 1986), p. 30-32. 4. See g e n e r a l l y : A.R. Thompson, "Legal Responses t o P o l l u t i o n Problems - T h e i r S t r e n g t h s and Weaknesses" (1972) 12 Nat. Res. J . 227; T.F. Schrecker, P o l i t i c a l Economy of  Environmental Hazards (Ottawa: Law Reform Commission of Canada, 1984); Emond. 5. Robert M. Hallman, Towards an E n v i r o n m e n t a l l y Sound  Law of the Sea (n.p.: I n t e r n a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r Environment and Development, 1974), p. 7. 6. See g e n e r a l l y : World Commission on Environment and Development, Our Common Future (Oxford: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1987). 7. I b i d . 8. I b i d . 9. Thompson, p. 240-241; Emond, p. 157 e t seq.; Task Force, p. 4-6. 10. Convention on the P r e v e n t i o n of Marine P o l l u t i o n by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Dumping Convention) (1975) 2 U.S.T. 2403, A r t i c l e I I I ( l ) . 11. John W. K i n d t , Marine P o l l u t i o n and t h e Law of the  Sea, 4 v o l s . ( B u f f a l o : W i l l i a m S. Hein & Co., 1986), p. 1087; P h i l i p Kunig, "Dumping a t Sea" i n The Impact of Marine  P o l l u t i o n , eds. Douglas J . C u i s i n e and John P. Grant (London: Croom Helm L t d . , 1980), p. 181. 12 12. M i c h a e l Champ, "Ocean Dumping of M u n i c i p a l and I n d u s t r i a l Wastes," i n The Law of the Sea and Ocean I n d u s t r y :  New O p p o r t u n i t i e s and R e s t r a i n t s , eds. D.M. Johnston and N.G. L e t a l i k (Hawaii: Law of the Sea I n s t i t u t e , 1984), p. 284; I.W. D u e d a l l e t a l . , " G l o b a l Inputs, C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Fate s o f Ocean Dumped I n d u s t r i a l and Sewage Wastes: An Overview" i n Wastes i n the Ocean. Volume 1: I n d u s t r i a l and  Sewage Wastes i n the Ocean. I.W. D u e d a l l e t a l . (N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons, 1983), p. 7-9. 13. D u e d a l l , p. 9. 14. A l e x W. Reed, Ocean Waste D i s p o s a l P r a c t i c e s (Park Ridge: Noyes Data Corp., 1975), p. 5. 15. Canada, Environment Canada, Ocean Dumping C o n t r o l  A c t Annual Report. 1985-86 (Ottawa: Supply and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1986), p. 29. 16. Champ, p. 284; James A. Rogers, "Ocean Dumping," (1977) 7 Env. Law 1 a t 2. 17. K i n d t , p. 1087. 18. Reed, p. 4. 19. I b i d . ; K i n d t , p. 1087. 20. K i n d t , p. 1087. 21. I b i d . , p. 6, 1086; James W. Nybakken, Marine  B i o l o g y : An E c o l o g i c a l Approach (N.Y.: Harper & Row, 1982), p. 1. 22. K i n d t , p. 6; Hallman, p. 6. 23. K i n d t , p. 145; Hallman, p. 6. 24. K i n d t , p. 101, 146; P. K i l h o Park and T.P. O'Connor "Ocean Dumping Research: H i s t o r i c a l and I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development" i n Ocean Dumping of I n d u s t r i a l Wastes. B.H. Ketchum e t a l . (N.Y.: Plenum Press, 1981), p. 4. 25. K i n d t , p. 1086. 26. Hallman, p. 1-5; Ki n d t , p. 102, 112. 27. I b i d . 28. K i n d t , p. 1087; Nybakken, p. 400. 29. Edward D. Goldberg, "The Oceans as Waste Space" (1985) 5 Ocean Yearbook 150; Edward D. Goldberg, "The Oceans as Waste Space: The Argument" (1981) 24(1) Oceanus 2. 13 30. Nybakken, p. 383; Hallman, p. 8; Norman G. L e t a l i k , " P o l l u t i o n from Dumping" i n The Environmental Law of the Sea, Douglas M. Johnston ( B e r l i n : E r i c h Schmidt V e r l a g , 1981), p. 217. 31. K i n d t , p. 1087; Nybakken, p. 400; Kenneth S. Kamlet, "The Oceans as Waste Space: The R e b u t t a l " (1981) 24(1) Oceanus 10. 32. Hallman, p. 8; Kamlet, p. 12; K i n d t , p. 4-5. 33. Hallman, p. 7; Kamlet, p. 14. 34. Kamlet, p. 14. 14 PART I : HAZARDOUS WASTES AND OCEAN DUMPING LAWS Before examining the e x i s t i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l and n a t i o n a l laws which r e g u l a t e ocean dumping, i t i s worthwhile t o have some p e r s p e c t i v e on the environmental and h e a l t h impacts which those laws are designed t o m i t i g a t e o r a v o i d . In o r d e r t o p r o v i d e some background i n t h i s area, the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r f i r s t d e s c r i b e s the types of m a t e r i a l s which h i s t o r i c a l l y have been dumped i n the oceans, and then o u t l i n e s some o f the environmental problems caused by c u r r e n t land-based d i s p o s a l a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r t o x i c wastes. Some types o f the t o x i c wastes which are now under c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r ocean d i s p o s a l by i n c i n e r a t i o n a re then d e s c r i b e d , t o i l l u s t r a t e the extreme dangers posed by such wastes, and t o emphasize why adequate r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l over the d i s p o s a l o f such substances must be ob t a i n e d . 15 Chapter Two: Environmental Impacts of Waste D i s p o s a l P r a c t i c e s P r i o r t o 1972 t h e r e was almost no c o n t r o l over the use of the ocean as a waste d i s p o s a l s i t e . M a t e r i a l s t h a t were dumped i n c l u d e d : r a d i o a c t i v e wastes, nerve gas, a r s e n i c , c o n s t r u c t i o n and d e m o l i t i o n d e b r i s , sewage sludge, garbage, dredge s p o i l s , a c i d s , p e s t i c i d e s , e x p l o s i v e s , b i o l o g i c a l and chemical warfare agents, heavy metals, f l y ash, p o l y c h l o r i n a t e d b i p h e n y l s , p h a r m a c e u t i c a l s , ammunition, engine p a r t s , h a n d c u f f s , d r i f t w o o d , scrubber sludge, v a r i o u s hydrocarbons, s e a l c a r c a s s e s , v e s s e l s , h e r b i c i d e s , weapons, benzene, o r g a n i c wastes, poisons, f i s h o f f a l , d e t e r g e n t s and v a r i o u s s o l i d o b j e c t s . 1 S i n c e harbour and c a n a l dredging f o r c o a s t a l developments and n a v i g a t i o n a l purposes i s r o u t i n e i n most 2 c o a s t a l s t a t e s , approximately 80% of the m a t e r i a l t h a t has 3 been and c o n t i n u e s t o be dumped i s made up o f dredge s p o i l . Much of t h i s dredged m a t e r i a l i s c l e a n s i l t and sand, and i t s d i s p o s a l i n ocean dump s i t e s has a r e l a t i v e l y minor degree of adverse impact on the marine environment by the b u r i a l o f marine organisms, the a l t e r a t i o n o f ocean f l o o r h a b i t a t , and the i n h i b i t i o n o f l i g h t p e n e t r a t i o n due t o the i n c r e a s e i n 4 suspended s o l i d s i n the water column. With c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n t o the l o c a t i o n of dump s i t e s and t h e t i m i n g of dumping o p e r a t i o n s e f f e c t s tend t o be l o c a l i z e d , w i t h impacts o u t s i d e the immediate area o f the dump s i t e c r e a t i n g l i t t l e r i s k o f widespread harm. For uncontaminated m a t e r i a l s , a l t e r n a t i v e uses i n c l u d e s h o r e l i n e r e s t o r a t i o n , road base, cement and c o n c r e t e mixes, beach nourishment and cover f o r s t r i p mines and q u a r r i e s . Where the m a t e r i a l i s unwanted the two major a l t e r n a t i v e s t o 7 ocean dumping are s h o r e l i n e d i s p o s a l and l a n d f i l l i n g . S h o r e l i n e d i s p o s a l has the p o t e n t i a l f o r severe l o c a l i z e d impact, due t o r e l a t i v e l y h i g h c o a s t a l and shall o w water s p e c i e s d i v e r s i t y . Land-based d i s p o s a l a l s o can c r e a t e problems, because the h i g h s a l t c o ntent of the dredged m a t e r i a l t h r e a t e n s s o i l q u a l i t y and can contaminate g groundwater. The v a s t q u a n t i t i e s of dredged m a t e r i a l d e s t i n e d f o r d i s p o s a l can c r e a t e problems too, as s u f f i c i e n t l a n d f i l l s i t e s c o u l d u t i l i z e l a r g e areas of c o s t l y and otherwise u s e f u l l a n d . For c l e a n dredge s p o i l , t h e r e f o r e , i t seems t h a t c a r e f u l ocean dumping may w e l l be an a c c e p t a b l e d i s p o s a l o p t i o n , and methods t o minimize the impacts o f open 9 water d i s p o s a l are under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . About 10% of the dredged m a t e r i a l d e s t i n e d f o r d i s p o s a l i s contaminated, however, because i t i s dredged from s i t e s c l o s e t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and v a r i o u s i n d u s t r i e s . 1 0 Contaminants i n such dredged m a t e r i a l have the p o t e n t i a l t o cause widespread damage w e l l beyond the area of a dump s i t e , p a r t i c u l a r l y when the contaminant i s a m a t e r i a l which can bioaccumulate i n the food c h a i n . For example, a g r i c u l t u r a l c h e m i c a l s , heavy metals and o r g a n i c compounds are a l l common contaminants of dredged m a t e r i a l , and may become more r e a d i l y 11 b i o a v a i l a b l e when r e l e a s e d by dredging o p e r a t i o n s . Such 17 substances are o f t e n extremely dangerous because they are c a r c i n o g e n i c , n e u r o t o x i c , mutagenic or poisonous, o r because they tend t o bioaccumulate or biomagnify i n marine 12 organisms. Other adverse e f f e c t s i n c l u d e severe d e p l e t i o n 13 of t h e a v a i l a b l e oxygen, and damage t o the marine phytoplankton, a b a s i c c o n s t i t u e n t o f marine food webs which 14 no r m a l l y r e p l e n i s h atmospheric oxygen. While dredged and ot h e r bulky m a t e r i a l s c o n s t i t u t e the m a j o r i t y o f ocean dumped wastes, s e v e r a l o t h e r types of m a t e r i a l which have been dumped i n s m a l l e r q u a n t i t i e s a re c o n s i d e r e d even more dangerous due t o t h e i r extreme t o x i c i t y 15 and p e r s i s t e n c y i n the environment. Notable examples of such substances a r e r a d i o a c t i v e wastes and chemical warfare agents. Such m a t e r i a l s , along w i t h compounds such as those p r e v i o u s l y mentioned as common dredge s p o i l contaminants, f a l l w i t h i n a c a t e g o r y of wastes commonly r e f e r r e d t o as "hazardous." Hazardous wastes may be d e f i n e d as wastes composed o f m a t e r i a l s having f a t a l o r dangerous p r o p e r t i e s , such as f l a m m a b i l i t y , c o r r o s i v i t y , t o x i c i t y o r r a d i o a c t i v i t y , and which a c c o r d i n g l y may not be handled or d i s p o s e d o f s a f e l y by c o n v e n t i o n a l waste management methods such as sewage systems, l a n d f i l l s and r e f u s e i n c i n e r a t o r s . One c a t e g o r y of hazardous waste i s t o x i c waste, which 17 has been d e f i n e d as: A substance which can cause death, d i s e a s e , b e h a v i o u r a l a b n o r m a l i t i e s , cancer, g e n e t i c mutations, p h y s i o l o g i c a l o r r e p r o d u c t i v e m a l f u n c t i o n s , o r p h y s i c a l d e f o r m i t i e s i n any organism or i t s o f f s p r i n g , o r which can become poisonous a f t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n the food c h a i n o r i n combination w i t h o t h e r substances. 18 T o x i c wastes which are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by environmental p e r s i s t e n c e , m o b i l i t y and i n d e s t r u c t i b i l i t y are o f t e n 18 r e f e r r e d t o as s p e c i a l wastes, although the t e r m i n o l o g y v a r i e s somewhat from one j u r i s d i c t i o n t o another. As a r e s u l t , the terms hazardous waste, t o x i c waste and s p e c i a l waste are o f t e n used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . Throughout t h i s study, the term t o x i c waste w i l l be used t o d e s c r i b e substances h a v i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s e t out i n the p r e c e d i n g d e f i n i t i o n , and i n c l u d e s s p e c i a l wastes. The term hazardous waste w i l l be used t o d e s c r i b e the broader category, which i n c l u d e s both t o x i c wastes and wastes w i t h o t h e r dangerous c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as f l a m m a b i l i t y . T o x i c wastes are produced by a number of major sources, i n c l u d i n g the p u l p and paper, chemical, petroleum, 19 p h a r m a c e u t i c a l , t e x t i l e , and e l e c t r o p l a t i n g i n d u s t r i e s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y such wastes were e i t h e r d i s c h a r g e d d i r e c t l y i n t o the environment, t h e o r e t i c a l l y becoming d i l u t e d t o the p o i n t o f harmlessness, o r were dumped i n l a n d f i l l s , h o l d i n g 20 ponds or abandoned w e l l s . The U n i t e d S t a t e s e s t i m a t e s t h a t i t produces over 264 m i l l i o n m e t r i c tonnes (71 b i l l i o n g a l l o n s ) o f hazardous 21 wastes a n n u a l l y , and over 80% i s s t i l l b e i n g dumped i n t o 22 l a n d f i l l s o r o t h e r types of containment f a c i l i t i e s . As 23 P i a s e c k i observes, however, even the b e s t dumps le a k , and as a r e s u l t t h e r e have been numerous dangerous i n c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g d i r e c t human exposure, environmental damage, l a n d f i l l gas e x p l o s i o n s , heavy metal contamination of c r o p l a n d s , and a i r , groundwater, and s u r f a c e water 19 24 cont a m i n a t i o n . Every American s t a t e has a l r e a d y had t o abandon a t l e a s t one r e g i o n a l groundwater supply due t o 25 hazardous waste contamination, and s i n c e groundwater p r o v i d e s approximately o n e - h a l f of the d r i n k i n g water consumed by U n i t e d S t a t e s r e s i d e n t s , t h i s has become an 2 6 extremely s e r i o u s problem. Canada produces c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l amounts o f hazardous 27 wastes - approximately 3 m i l l i o n m e t r i c tonnes per year. N e v e r t h e l e s s , Canada f a c e s the same problems as the U n i t e d S t a t e s and so must f i n d a s a f e way t o d i s p o s e o f hazardous m a t e r i a l s i n o r d e r t o minimize s o i l and groundwater contamination, and t o p r o t e c t both human h e a l t h and environmental i n t e g r i t y . For example, i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , a p r o v i n c e which r e l i e s c ompletely upon groundwater f o r i t s d r i n k i n g water supply, approximately 25% of the 2 8 groundwater i s known t o be contaminated by a l d i c a r b , an 2 9 a c u t e l y t o x i c p e s t i c i d e i m p l i c a t e d as a p o s s i b l e mutagen. I n v e s t i g a t i o n s of Canadian l a n d f i l l s i t e s used t o d i s p o s e of dredged m a t e r i a l s have a l s o r e v e a l e d t h a t "...the g e n e r a t i o n of h i g h l y t o x i c l e a c h a t e s has become a r e g u l a r and c o n t i n u i n g 30 f e a t u r e o f many d i s p o s a l s i t e s . " The Canadian government, l i k e i t s American c o u n t e r p a r t , i s f a c e d w i t h the need t o a c c e l e r a t e the development and implementation o f e f f e c t i v e hazardous waste management s t r a t e g i e s , i n c l u d i n g an e v a l u a t i o n of a l l ocean d i s p o s a l o p t i o n s . Two c a t e g o r i e s of t o x i c waste are o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o t h e p r e s e n t study: organohalogens and heavy metals. Organohalogens are a l a r g e group o f o r g a n i c or carbon-based compounds c o n t a i n i n g f l u o r i n e , bromine, s i l i c o n , phosphorous, t i n o r c h l o r i n e . Those c o n t a i n i n g c h l o r i n e (the o r g a n o c h l o r i n e s o r c h l o r i n a t e d hydrocarbons) form the major group of concern. T h i s group of compounds i n c l u d e s such dangerous chemicals a s : 3 1 1. p o l y c h l o r i n a t e d b i p h e n y l s (PCB's) and r e l a t e d compounds; 2. o r g a n o c h l o r i n e i n s e c t i c i d e s such as a l d r i n , e n d r i n , d i e l d r i n , h e p t a c h l o r , chlordane, mirex, DDT, DDE and DDD; 3. o r g a n o c h l o r i n e h e r b i c i d e s such as 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, TCDD's ( d i o x i n s ) and TCDF's ( f u r a n s ) ; and 4. low m o l e c u l a r weight c h l o r i n a t e d hydrocarbons such as carbon t e t r a c h l o r i d e , chlorobenzenes, c h l o r o p h e n o l s and v i n y l c h l o r i d e . A few examples w i l l serve t o i l l u s t r a t e the type o f h e a l t h and environmental hazards c r e a t e d by such m a t e r i a l s . PCB's, marketed under the t r a d e names A r o c l o r , K a n eclor and Clophen, are a group of about 2 00 r e l a t e d compounds w i d e l y used i n the p a s t i n p a i n t s , i n k s , p l a s t i c s , p e s t i c i d e s , c a r b o n l e s s copypaper, s e a l a n t s , h y d r a u l i c f l u i d s , 32 l u b r i c a n t a d d i t i v e s and heat t r a n s f e r f l u i d s . T h e i r most common use was as an i n s u l a t i n g f l u i d i n e l e c t r i c a l 33 equipment. PCB's are v e r y s t a b l e compounds which are extremely r e s i s t a n t t o decomposition and thus can p e r s i s t i n 34 the environment f o r decades. They are b i o a c c u m u l a t i v e and 35 h i g h l y t o x i c , p a r t i c u l a r l y where t h e r e i s c h r o n i c exposure. In the marine environment PCB's are l e t h a l i n extremely 3 S low doses. S u b l e t h a l e f f e c t s on a q u a t i c organisms i n c l u d e impaired r e p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y , immunological problems, b e h a v i o u r a l d e f i c i e n c i e s , body l e s i o n s , ragged f i n s and s h e l l growth i n h i b i t i o n . There i s a l s o i n c r e a s e d j u v e n i l e 37 m o r t a l i t y . In humans known e f f e c t s of PCB exposure i n c l u d e j a u n d i c e , numbness, nausea, a n o r e x i a , abdominal p a i n , 3 8 abnormal f a t i g u e , coughing, acne and headaches. PCB's are 39 p r o b a b l e c a r c i n o g e n s , and can a l s o a f f e c t l i v e r f u n c t i o n and cause s t i l l b i r t h s . 4 0 In the l a t e 1960's and e a r l y 1970's s t u d i e s g r a d u a l l y r e v e a l e d the dangers of PCB's, and by 1977 a l l manufacture of 41 t h e s e chemicals had ceased. T h e i r use has now been banned 42 o r s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d m most c o u n t r i e s , i n c l u d i n g Canada. However, o f the PCB's manufactured between 1929 and 1977, approximately 600,000 m e t r i c tonnes (1.3 b i l l i o n pounds) are 43 s t i l l i n use, and due t o p a s t r e l e a s e s , widespread o c c u r r e n c e and extreme d i f f i c u l t y o f d i s p o s a l , they c o n t i n u e t o c r e a t e environmental hazards of immense p r o p o r t i o n s . 4 4 In Canada l i t t l e data i s a v a i l a b l e r e g a r d i n g environmental contamination by PCB's. L i m i t e d s t u d i e s i n f r e s h w a t e r f i s h and s e a b i r d s i n d i c a t e t h a t PCB l e v e l s d e c l i n e d somewhat i n the 1970's and have l e v e l l e d o f f i n the 45 1980's. T h i s d e c l i n e i s g e n e r a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o the r e g u l a t o r y r e s t r i c t i o n s t h a t have been imposed. PCB l e v e l s i n humans seem t o be remaining r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t , however, and v i r t u a l l y n o t h i n g i s known about the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the p r e s e n t c o n t a m i n a t i o n l e v e l s . 4 6 The o r g a n o c h l o r i n e h e r b i c i d e s , such as 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, are another group of extremely dangerous compounds, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f contaminated by manufacturing byproducts such as d i o x i n s . They are known t o be t o x i c t o marine 47 p h y t o p l a n k t o n and f i s h , and are b i o a c c u m u l a t i v e . 2,4-D may cause weakness, stupor, t w i t c h i n g , c o n v u l s i o n s and . . 48 . . . . d e r m a t i t i s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s s t i l l w i d e l y used i n Canada, w i t h between 1.5 and 2.5 m i l l i o n k i lograms s o l d each 49 . . . year i n Saskatchewan alone. 2,4,5-T has been i m p l i c a t e d i n human b i r t h d e f e c t s , i s a p o s s i b l e c a r c i n o g e n and may cause m e t a b o l i c d i s o r d e r s , s k i n i r r i t a t i o n and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r 50 . . d i s e a s e . I t i s a l s o i n c o n t i n u e d use i n Canada, although i t i s now r e s t r i c t e d or banned i n O n t a r i o , B r i t i s h Columbia 51 and Saskatchewan. The most n o t o r i o u s of the o r g a n o c h l o r i n e p r o d u c t s , which i s a contaminant formed d u r i n g the manufacture o f many h e r b i c i d e s , i s a group of compounds known as TCDD * s or d i o x i n s . A p a r t i c u l a r l y t o x i c d i o x i n , 2,3,7,8-TCDD, i s a 52 common contaminant i n 2,4,5-T. T h i s d i o x i n i s c o n s i d e r e d "...the most potent c a r c i n o g e n i c and t e r a t o g e n i c chemical 53 known t o man." I t a l s o causes s t i l l b i r t h s , mutations, s k i n d i s o r d e r s , immune system problems, c i r r h o s i s , nervous system d i s o r d e r s , headaches, kidney inflammation, b l a d d e r b l e e d i n g , 54 d i a r r h e a , nausea, weight l o s s and d e p r e s s i o n . I t i s b i o a c c u m u l a t i v e and p e r s i s t e n t and responses t o exposure are o f t e n d elayed. I t i s f a t a l i n s m a l l amounts t o a q u a t i c and 55 . . . . t e r r e s t r i a l organisms, i n c l u d i n g man. L i m i t e d m o n i t o r i n g of 2,3,7,8-TCDD i n s e a b i r d eggs i n the Great Lakes has shown t h a t i t s l e v e l s seemed t o have decreased t o some degree 56 d u r i n g the 1970's and then l e v e l l e d o f f i n the 1980's. L i t t l e o t h e r Canadian data are a v a i l a b l e , and the dangers posed by the e x i s t i n g contamination l e v e l s are unknown. T o t a l h e r b i c i d e , i n s e c t i c i d e and p e s t i c i d e use i n Canada i s p r e s e n t l y u n q u a n t i f i e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e government 57 e x p e n d i t u r e data on f o r e s t r y and r o a d s i d e use i s unknown. By the e a r l y 1980's, however, p e s t i c i d e s a l e s i n Canada had reached $698 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s per annum, and an average of 9.6 m i l l i o n pounds o f phenoxy h e r b i c i d e s alone were s o l d each y e a r . 5 8 I n c i d e n t s o f f i s h and w i l d l i f e k i l l s , human p o i s o n i n g s and death, and widespread environmental 59 c o n t a m i n a t i o n have a l r e a d y o c c u r r e d . Adding t o t h e concern over the use and d i s p o s a l o f such organohalogens i s t h e i r f r e q u e n t contamination by i n o r g a n i c substances, p a r t i c u l a r l y heavy metals. Mercury, cadmium and l e a d a re the metals o f g r e a t e s t concern, although a r s e n i c , copper, z i n c , b e r y l l i u m , selenium, chromium, n i c k e l and 6 0 vanadium are a l s o c o n s i d e r e d dangerous. Although many metals are e s s e n t i a l n u t r i e n t s a t v e r y low l e v e l s , they can be t o x i c a t even s l i g h t l y e l e v a t e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . Because these metals are elements, they are v i r t u a l l y i n d e s t r u c t i b l e and are t h e r e f o r e extremely p e r s i s t e n t . Many o f the heavy metals bioaccumulate and human exposure can r e s u l t by way of 62 t h e food c h a i n . Mercury p r o v i d e s a t y p i c a l example of the dangers o f heavy metal contamination. S u b l e t h a l marine e f f e c t s i n c l u d e r e p r o d u c t i v e d i s t u r b a n c e s , decreased growth, immune system problems and b e h a v i o u r a l a b n o r m a l i t i e s . In humans mercury p o i s o n i n g has caused i r r e v e r s i b l e n e u r o l o g i c a l damage, severe b i r t h d e f e c t s , b l i n d n e s s , deafness, tremors, a t a x i a , p r o g r e s s i v e d e g e n e r a t i o n and l o s s o f r e a s o n . 6 4 In Canada h i g h mercury c o n c e n t r a t i o n s have l e d t o the c l o s u r e o f s e v e r a l commercial f i s h e r i e s s i n c e the e a r l y 65 . 1970's. Although mercury c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n some areas of the c o u n t r y have s i n c e d e c l i n e d , i n o t h e r areas the l e v e l s 6 6 appear t o be remaining r e l a t i v e l y c onstant, and e l e v a t e d mercury l e v e l s c o n t i n u e t o be p e r i o d i c a l l y d e t e c t e d near 67 i n d u s t r i a l and mine s i t e s . I t can be seen from t h e p r e c e d i n g examples t h a t organohalogen wastes are hazardous indeed, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f contaminated by heavy metals o r o t h e r i n o r g a n i c substances. They are dangerous t o both marine and t e r r e s t r i a l l i f e , i n c l u d i n g man, and can occur as contaminants i n water, a i r , s o i l , sediments o r p l a n t and animal l i f e . Problems c r e a t e d by t h e i r improper d i s p o s a l are becoming widespread, p o s i n g an i n c r e a s i n g t h r e a t t o water s u p p l i e s , food sources, and p u b l i c h e a l t h . As a r e s u l t of such dangers, i n t e r n a t i o n a l laws have been g r a d u a l l y enacted t o r e g u l a t e the ocean d i s p o s a l o f these and o t h e r hazardous wastes, and the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n w i l l t r a c e the development of these laws from the e a r l y 1970's t o the p r e s e n t . 25 Chapter Two: Notes 1. Norman G. L e t a l i k , " P o l l u t i o n From Dumping," i n The  Environmental Law of the Sea, D.M. Johnston ( B e r l i n : E r i c h Schmidt V e r l a g , 1981), p. 218; John W. K i n d t , Marine  P o l l u t i o n and the Law of the Sea. 4 v o l s . ( B u f f a l o : W i l l i a m S. Hein & Co., 1986), p. 770, 1088-1090; Wesley Marx, The  F r a i l Ocean (New York: B a l l a n t i n e Books, 1967), p. 75; L. Cuyvers, Ocean Uses and T h e i r R e g u l a t i o n (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1984), p. 74; E.D. Brown, " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law and Marine P o l l u t i o n : R a d i o a c t i v e Wastes and Other Hazardous Substances" (1971) 11 Nat. Res. J . 221 a t 235; Ramanlal S o n i , C o n t r o l o f Marine P o l l u t i o n i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law (Johannesburg: J u t a & Co., 1985), p. 215; M i c h a e l Hardy, " I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n t r o l of Marine P o l l u t i o n " (1971) 11 Nat. Res. J . 296 a t 317; I.W. D u e d a l l e t a l . , " G l o b a l Inputs, C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Fates of Ocean Dumped I n d u s t r i a l and Sewage Wastes: An Overview," i n Wastes i n the Ocean. 5 v o l s . , I.W. D u e d a l l e t a l . (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1983), v o l . 1: I n d u s t r i a l and Sewage Wastes i n the Ocean, p. 9, 24; Canada, Environment Canada, Ocean Dumping C o n t r o l A c t Annual  Report 1985-86 (Ottawa: Supply and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1986), p. 29. 2. R i c h a r d A.W. Hoos, Ocean Dumping : The Canadian  Scene. EPS 8-PR-77-1 (Vancouver: Environmental P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e P a c i f i c Region, 1977), p. 4. 3. K i n d t , p. 1089. 4. K i n d t , p. 1089; Canada, Annual R e p o r t F p. 14; Maclaren P l a n s e a r c h , Review of D i s p o s a l A l t e r n a t i v e s f o r  Dredged M a t e r i a l , 2 v o l s . (Ottawa: P u b l i c Works Canada and T r a n s p o r t Canada, n.d.), v o l . 2, p. 7.2. 5. Canada, Annual Report, p. 14; R i c h a r d A. Gorham, " A l l Dredged Up and No P l a c e To Go: The D i s p o s a l of Dredged M a t e r i a l From G r e a t e r Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, Int o the Neighbouring S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a " (MSc t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1985), p. 3. 6. Maclaren P l a n s e a r c h , v o l . 2, p. 8.13. 7. I b i d . , chap. 7; Gorham, p. 2. 8. Maclaren P l a n s e a r c h , app. B2, p. 38. 9. I b i d . , v o l . 2, p. 7.3-7.6. 10. K i n d t , p. 1089; Canada, Annual Report, p. 14. 11. See g e n e r a l l y Gorham. 12. K i n d t , p. 1090. 26 13. I b i d . , p. 1091; Maclaren P l a n s e a r c h , v o l . 2, p. 6.5. 14. Anne W. Simon, Neptune's Revenge; The Ocean of  Tommorrow (New York: Bantam Books, 1984), p. 36; see a l s o F.R. Bernard, A s e l e c t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y on the b i o l o g i c a l  e f f e c t s of Ocean Dumping (Ottawa: Research and Development D i r e c t o r a t e , Department of the Environment, F i s h e r i e s and Marine S e r v i c e , n.d.); D.S. Bezanson, CM. Moyse and S.C Byers, Research and R e l a t e d Work on Ocean Dumping: An  Annotated B i b l i o g r a p h y . Ocean Dumping Report 2 (Ottawa: F i s h e r i e s and Oceans Canada, 1979); K.E. Conlan, The  B i o l o g i c a l E f f e c t s of Ocean Dumping: A S e l e c t e d Annotated  B i b l i o g r a p h y (Sidney: I n s t i t u t e of Ocean Sciences,1979). 15. K i n d t , p. 1089-1090; P. K i l h o Park and T.P. O'Connor, "Ocean Dumping Research: H i s t o r i c a l and I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development" i n Ocean Dumping of I n d u s t r i a l  Wastes. B.H. Ketchum e t a l . (New York: Plenum Pr e s s , 1981), p. 4. 16. Envirochem S e r v i c e s , N a t i o n a l T e c h n i c a l Manual f o r  At Sea I n c i n e r a t i o n of L i q u i d Hazardous Wastes. March 1987 Working D r a f t (Burnaby: By the Author, 1987), g l o s s a r y p. 2. 17. Great Lakes Water Q u a l i t y Agreement (1978) Can. T r e a t y S e r i e s 20, A r t i c l e I ( v ) ; see a l s o K i n d t , p. 1090. 18. J o e l S. H i r s c h h o r n , "Emerging Options i n Waste Redu c t i o n and Treatment: A Market I n c e n t i v e Approach" i n Beyond Dumping: New S t r a t e g i e s f o r C o n t r o l l i n g T o x i c  Contamination. ed. Bruce P i a s e c k i (Westport: Quorum Books, 1984), p. 131. 19. P i a s e c k i , p. x i i i . 20. I b i d . , p. x i v ; U.S. Congress, O f f i c e of Technology Assessment, Ocean I n c i n e r a t i o n : I t s Role i n Managing Hazardous Waste, OTA-O-313 (Washington, D.C: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1986), p. 82-83. 21. U.S. Congress, p. 63. 22. P i a s e c k i , p. x v i i ; P e t e r Montague, "The L i m i t a t i o n s of L a n d f i l l i n g " i n P i a s e c k i , p. 1. 23. P i a s e c k i , p. x i v . 24. G.V. Hooper, ed. O f f s h o r e Ship and P l a t f o r m  I n c i n e r a t i o n of Hazardous Wastes (Park Ridge: Noyes Data Co., 1981), p. 7. 25. P i a s e c k i , p. x v i i . 26. Montague, p. 8. 27 27. J . Karau, " I n c i n e r a t i o n At Sea" ( J u l y 1987) 1 Ocean Dumping News 10 a t 10; P e t e r M. B i r d and D.J. Rapport, S t a t e  of the Environment Report f o r Canada ( H u l l : Supply and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1986), p. 182. 28. J.F. C a s t r i l l i and T. Vigod, P e s t i c i d e s i n Canada:  An Examination of F e d e r a l Law and P o l i c y (Ottawa: Law Reform Commission o f Canada, 1987), p. 52. 29. K i n d t , p. 778; M. S i t t i g , Handbook of T o x i c and  Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens, 2nd ed. (Park Ridge: Noyes P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1985), p. 50; W.H. H a l l e n b e c k and K.M. Cunningham-Burns, P e s t i c i d e s and Human H e a l t h (New York: S p r i n g e r V e r l a g , 1985), p. 31. 30. Hoos, p. 5. 31. J . J . Swiss e t a l . , Regulated L e v e l s of Schedule I  Substances i n the Ocean Dumping C o n t r o l A c t - A Review. Ocean Dumping Report 3 (Ottawa: F i s h e r i e s and Oceans Canada, 198 0), p. 13 f f . ; K i n d t , p. 770 f f . ; Cuyvers, p. 82 f f . ; Rachel L. Carson, S i l e n t S p r i n g (Greenwich: Fawcett P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1962), p. 26 f f . ; Gorham, p. 30 f f . 32. U.S. Congress, p. 60; S i t t i g , p. 737; Cuyvers, p. 86; Swiss, p. 16; Environmental P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e , P a c i f i c and Yukon Region, F a c t Sheet on Chemicals i n the  Environment: PCB 1s (Ottawa: Environment Canada, n.d.). 33. Cuyvers, p. 86. 34. K i n d t , p. 775; Cuyvers, p. 86-87; Environmental P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e , F a c t Sheet:PCB's. 35. S i t t i g , p. 737; Cuyvers, p. 87; Environmental P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e , F a c t Sheet: PCB's. 36. Environmental P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e , F a c t Sheet: PCB's. 37. I b i d . ; Cuyvers, p. 87. 38. S i t t i g , p. 738; Cuyvers, p. 87. 39. I b i d . 40. S i t t i g , p. 738. 41. U.S. Congress, p. 60; Simon, p. 120. 42. Canadian Environmental P r o t e c t i o n A ct, S.C. 1988, c. 22, and C h l o r i n a t e d B i p h e n y l s R e g u l a t i o n s , C.R.C. 1978, c. 564, SOR/85-406 and SOR/85-407. 43. U.S. Congress, p. 60. 28 44. I b i d . ; Cuyvers, p. 87. 45. B i r d , p. 178-185. 46. I b i d . , p. 222-223. 47. K i n d t , p. 771-772; C a s t r i l l i , p. 9. 48. S i t t i g , p. 288-289. 49. B i r d , p. 173; C a s t r i l l i , p. 21. 50. K i n d t , p. 772-773; S i t t i g , p. 822-823. 51. C a s t r i l l i , p. 22. 52. S i t t i g , p. 835. 53. C a s t r i l l i , p. 21. 54. S i t t i g , p. 835-838. 55. I b i d . , p. 837. 56. B i r d , p. 178. 57. C a s t r i l l i , p. 8. 58 . I b i d . , p. 7. 59. I b i d . , p. 9-13. 60. Cuyvers, p. 78-81; Gorham, p. 29. 61. K i n d t , p. 803; Cuyvers, p. 73. 62. Gorham, p. 61; Ki n d t , p. 800; Cuyvers, p. 77. 63 . Environmental P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e , P a c i f i c and Yukon Region, F a c t Sheet on Chemicals i n the Environment: Mercury (Ottawa: Environment Canada, n.d.); Cuyvers, p. 79. 64. S i t t i g , p. 568; Gorham, p. 99-102; K i n d t , p. 811. 65. B i r d , p. 200. 66. I b i d . 67. Environmental P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e , F a c t Sheet:  Mercury. Chapter Three: I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law a. H i s t o r i c a l Development In 1969 a dumpsite was d i s c o v e r e d i n the B a l t i c sea t h a t c o n t a i n e d enough a r s e n i c t o k i l l the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n o f the 1 world, t h r e e times over. That same year, Danish fishermen were burned by f i s h contaminated w i t h mustard gas t h a t had 2 been dumped m t h e ocean a f t e r World War I I . In 1970 the U n i t e d S t a t e s d i s p o s e d o f 67 tons of nerve gas by dumping i t i n t o the ocean, p r o v o k i n g p u b l i c 3 o p p o s i t i o n , c o u r t a c t i o n and i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o t e s t . W i t h i n days of p r o c e e d i n g w i t h the nerve gas dump, the U n i t e d S t a t e s conducted another ocean dumping o p e r a t i o n and sank a s h i p c o n t a i n i n g 5000 tons of bombs o f f the Maryland c o a s t . The 4 bombs exploded when the s h i p h i t bottom. In 1971, an /American company proposed t o dump 70 tons of a r s e n i c i n t o the A t l a n t i c ; i t suspended o p e r a t i o n s a f t e r a 5 c o u r t i n j u n c t i o n was i s s u e d . Four months l a t e r , a f t e r a storm o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o t e s t i n c l u d i n g a t h r e a t t o i n t e r c e p t the v e s s e l w i t h warships, a Dutch chemical company r e c a l l e d a v e s s e l t h a t was p r e p a r i n g t o dump 600 tons o f p e r s i s t e n t t o x i c wastes a t sea. The e a r l y 1970's was a l s o a time o f g e n e r a l l y h i g h p u b l i c environmental awareness, so these and o t h e r s i m i l a r i n c i d e n t s s e r v e d t o draw i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n t o the dangers of ocean dumping, p a r t i c u l a r l y among Western European n a t i o n s and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l community, which had p r e v i o u s l y c o n c e n t r a t e d i t s a t t e n t i o n p r i m a r i l y on v e s s e l - s o u r c e o i l p o l l u t i o n and r a d i o a c t i v e waste d i s p o s a l a t sea, was now examining a broader range o f environmental i s s u e s , and p r e p a r i n g f o r the 1972 U n i t e d N a t i o n s Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment. There were t h r e e l i n e s o f response t o t h i s d e v e l o p i n g awareness of a need t o c o n t r o l ocean dumping a c t i v i t i e s . In Europe, the problem was seen as l i k e l y t o become c r i t i c a l , because o f the number of shallow e n c l o s e d o r semi-enclosed 7 seas a d j a c e n t t o h i g h l y p o p ulated and i n d u s t r i a l i z e d a reas. Responding t o p u b l i c o u t c r y and r e g i o n a l p r e s s u r e s , Norway t h e r e f o r e c a l l e d a d i p l o m a t i c conference t o be h e l d i n Oslo i n the autumn of 1971. T h i s conference produced the f i r s t r e g i o n a l ocean dumping t r e a t y which, though a p p l i c a b l e mainly t o t he North Sea, became i n f l u e n t i a l on the development o f subsequent t r e a t i e s . A second i n i t i a t i v e r e l a t i n g t o ocean dumping began i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The l a t e 1960's and e a r l y 1970's was a p e r i o d o f i n t e n s e American p u b l i c p r e s s u r e r e l a t i n g t o environmental i s s u e s , and a l a r g e number o f major environmental s t a t u t e s were passed i n response t o these n a t i o n a l p r e s s u r e s . Among the many developments which took p l a c e was the enactment of domestic l e g i s l a t i o n r e g u l a t i n g ocean dumping. In an e x t e n s i o n o f these e f f o r t s , the Americans d r a f t e d an i n t e r n a t i o n a l ocean dumping convention, and t a b l e d t h a t d r a f t w i t h the Intergovernmental Working 9 Group on Marine P o l l u t i o n i n 1971. The Intergovernmental Working Group was then a c t i v e l y p r e p a r i n g f o r the 1972 Stockholm Conference, thus p r o v i d i n g the t h i r d i n i t i a t i v e r e g a r d i n g ocean dumping c o n t r o l . S e i z i n g upon t h e s u b j e c t of ocean dumping, as one area i n which the Conference c o u l d perhaps produce agreement on 10 c o n c r e t e a c t i o n , the Working Group began a s e r i e s o f meetings t o d i s c u s s the i s s u e . I n f l u e n c e d by the American p r o p o s a l , the r e g i o n a l c onvention s i g n e d i n Oslo, and p r o p o s a l s submitted by A u s t r a l i a , Sweden, and Spain, the Working Group was e v e n t u a l l y a b l e t o o b t a i n a consensus on a 11 d r a f t ocean dumping t r e a t y . Rather than c o n c l u d i n g the t r e a t y a t the Stockholm Conference, however, a s e p a r a t e con f e r e n c e was convened i n London i n October o f 1972, t h a t f i n a l l y produced an ocean dumping t r e a t y o f g l o b a l a p p l i c a t i o n . 1 2 With the London and Oslo conventions i n p l a c e , a s e r i e s of f u r t h e r r e g i o n a l e f f o r t s f o l l o w e d . These i n c l u d e d : the H e l s i n k i Convention, the Barcelona P r o t o c o l , the A b i d j a n Convention, the Kuwait Convention, the Lima Convention, and 13 the Cartanega Convention. In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s the Oslo, London and H e l s i n k i Conventions w i l l be d e s c r i b e d , t o i l l u s t r a t e the r e g i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l approaches t h a t have been taken t o the l e g a l r e g u l a t i o n o f ocean dumping. The Oslo Convention i s t y p i c a l o f most r e g i o n a l approaches t o ocean dumping c o n t r o l and i t served as a model f o r the g l o b a l London Convention, t o which Canada i s a p a r t y . The H e l s i n k i Convention i s a l s o b r i e f l y examined, as i t o f f e r s an a l t e r n a t i v e , somewhat s t r i c t e r approach t o ocean dumping c o n t r o l . 32 b. R e g i o n a l Conventions Two of the major r e g i o n a l t r e a t i e s are the Convention f o r the P r e v e n t i o n of Marine P o l l u t i o n by Dumping from Ships 14 and A i r c r a f t , 1972 (the Oslo Convention) and the Convention on the P r o t e c t i o n o f the Marine Environment of t h e B a l t i c Sea 15 Area, 1974 (the H e l s i n k i Convention). The Oslo Convention, the f i r s t i n t e r n a t i o n a l agreement t o s p e c i f i c a l l y r e g u l a t e ocean dumping, was s i g n e d by twelve Scandanavian and Western European s t a t e s . I t a p p l i e s t o the North Sea, the Northeast A t l a n t i c Ocean and a p o r t i o n of the 16 A r c t i c Ocean. The Oslo Convention developed the approach of h a v i n g a " b l a c k l i s t " o f substances, the dumping o f which i s a b s o l u t e l y p r o h i b i t e d , and a "grey l i s t " o f substances 17 which can be dumped o n l y under l i m i t e d c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Substances which are p r o h i b i t e d under t h e Oslo Convention i n c l u d e : organohalogens, o r g a n o s i l i c o n s , mercury, 18 cadmium, p e r s i s t e n t p l a s t i c s , and c a r c i n o g e n s . The grey l i s t o f substances i n c l u d e s : a r s e n i c , l e a d , copper, z i n c , c y a n i d e s , f l u o r i d e s , p e s t i c i d e s , c o n t a i n e r s , s c r a p metal, 19 t a r - l i k e substances, bulky wastes, a c i d s , and a l k a l i s . These substances may be dumped o n l y i f they are t o be d i s p o s e d o f i n a q u a n t i t y s p e c i f i e d as a c c e p t a b l e by a 20 commission e s t a b l i s h e d pursuant t o the Convention. The Convention a l s o s e t s f o r t h g u i d e l i n e s f o r the Commission t o use i n d e t e r m i n i n g whether t o g r a n t p e r m i s s i o n f o r the 21 dumping o f waste a t sea. For a l l substances not i n c l u d e d i n e i t h e r the b l a c k l i s t o r grey l i s t , ocean dumping i s p e r m i t t e d , but o n l y i f a l i c e n s e i s g r a n t e d by a s i g n a t o r y s t a t e . T h i s g i v e s n a t i o n s the a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l the amount, l o c a t i o n and c o n d i t i o n s under which dumping may take p l a c e . E x c e p t i o n s t o the p r o h i b i t i o n s on dumping are a l s o s e t out i n the Convention. No l i a b i l i t y f o r dumping a substance i n c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f the Convention w i l l a r i s e , i f the dumping 23 was n e c e s s a r y t o a v e r t an emergency s i t u a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , substances which are otherwise p r o h i b i t e d may be dumped i f they are p r e s e n t i n o t h e r waste as " t r a c e 24 contaminants." D e s p i t e some e x h o r t a t i o n s i n the preamble t o the Oslo Convention, s t a t i n g the importance o f the p r e v e n t i o n of marine p o l l u t i o n and s e t t i n g out the need t o develop waste r e d u c t i o n p r o c e s s e s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t the Convention i s based on the approach t h a t c o n t r o l l e d ocean dumping i s an a c c e p t a b l e waste d i s p o s a l p r a c t i c e . Compliance w i t h the permits which a l l o w the dumping t o take p l a c e may be e n f o r c e d by t h e v e s s e l 1 s f l a g s t a t e , the s t a t e i n which the v e s s e l i s loaded, and t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t , by c o a s t a l s t a t e s i n t h e i r t e r r i t o r i a l 25 seas. The r e g u l a t o r y p a t t e r n e s t a b l i s h e d by the Oslo Convention has been f a i r l y c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d i n most of the o t h e r ocean dumping t r e a t i e s , i n c l u d i n g the London Dumping Convention. However, some of the t r e a t i e s , such as the H e l s i n k i Convention, are more r e s t r i c t i v e . That Convention, s i g n e d i n 1974 by seven s t a t e s , r e g u l a t e s ocean dumping i n the B a l t i c S e a . 2 6 The H e l s i n k i Convention p r o h i b i t s the dumping of a l l 34 27 substances except dredge s p o i l , which may be dumped o n l y i n accordance w i t h a s p e c i a l permit, i s s u e d i f the m a t e r i a l t o be dumped does not c o n t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t amounts o f l i s t e d substances i n c l u d i n g : DDT, PCB's, mercury, cadmium, s e v e r a l heavy metals, phenol, p t h a l i c a c i d , c y a n i d e s , halogenated hydrocarbons, p e s t i c i d e s , r a d i o a c t i v e m a t e r i a l s , o i l , a c i d s , 2 8 a l k a l i s , and l i g n i n . The p r o h i b i t i o n on dumping does not 29 apply i n the event of an emergency. As was the case w i t h the O s l o Convention, the p r o v i s i o n s of the H e l s i n k i Convention are e n f o r c e a b l e by the f l a g s t a t e , the p o r t s t a t e i n which a v e s s e l i s loaded, or by a c o a s t a l s t a t e i n i t s 30 t e r r i t o r i a l sea. The H e l s i n k i Convention approach i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t due t o the d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t i s drawn between dredged m a t e r i a l s and o t h e r forms of waste. S i n c e dredged m a t e r i a l c r e a t e s d i s p o s a l problems on l a n d , but d r e d g i n g i s necessary t o m a i n t a i n commercially important p o r t and harbour f a c i l i t i e s , ocean d i s p o s a l of dredge s p o i l i s c o n t i n u e d s u b j e c t t o p r o v i s i o n s t h a t r e g u l a t e contaminant l e v e l s . A l l o t h e r wastes, which are e i t h e r hazardous o r can be more c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d by land-based containment or d e s t r u c t i o n , a r e completely p r o h i b i t e d . Arguably, t h i s approach i s both p r o t e c t i v e o f the marine environment and e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e , and might w e l l serve as a model t o be s t u d i e d d u r i n g f u t u r e e f f o r t s a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l and n a t i o n a l law reform. c. G l o b a l Conventions 35 (i ) London Dumping Convention The Convention on the P r e v e n t i o n o f Marine P o l l u t i o n by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, 1972 (the 31 . London Dumping Convention or LDC) i s the l e a d i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n on ocean dumping, and operates on a g l o b a l r a t h e r than a r e g i o n a l b a s i s . I t p r o h i b i t s the dumping o f wastes i n a l l marine waters o t h e r than the i n t e r n a l waters of s t a t e s , except i n accordance w i t h the 32 terms of the Convention. The LDC a l s o p r o h i b i t s the s i n k i n g of v e s s e l s and o t h e r man-made s t r u c t u r e s a t sea, and 33 r e g u l a t e s a t - s e a i n c i n e r a t i o n of hazardous wastes. I t does not p u r p o r t t o r e g u l a t e e i t h e r the normal o p e r a t i o n a l d i s c h a r g e s o f v e s s e l s o r the d i s p o s a l of wastes r e s u l t i n g 34 from seabed m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n . The LDC adopted the Oslo Convention approach of having a b l a c k l i s t o f substances t h a t are a b s o l u t e l y p r o h i b i t e d , and a grey l i s t o f substances which demand s p e c i a l c a r e i n t h e i r 3 5 d i s p o s a l and, t h e r e f o r e , r e q u i r e a " s p e c i a l " p ermit. D i s p o s a l o f substances not on e i t h e r l i s t i s a l s o r e s t r i c t e d , r e q u i r i n g a " g e n e r a l " permit b e f o r e any dumping o f such 3 6 substances may proceed. Substances b l a c k - l i s t e d under the LDC i n c l u d e : organohalogens, mercury, cadmium, p e r s i s t e n t p l a s t i c s , o i l , h i g h - l e v e l r a d i o a c t i v e wastes, and chemical and b i o l o g i c a l 37 . . warfare agents. The grey l i s t i n c l u d e s : a r s e n i c , l e a d , copper, z i n c , o r g a n o s i l i c o n s , cyanides, f l u o r i d e s , p e s t i c i d e s , b e r y l l i u m , chromium, n i c k e l , vanadium, s c r a p metal, b u l k y wastes and a l l r a d i o a c t i v e wastes not i n c l u d e d 3 8 on the b l a c k l i s t . The Convention s e t s out f a c t o r s which must be c o n s i d e r e d 39 by s t a t e s b e f o r e g r a n t i n g p e r m i t s . These mandatory c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n c l u d e : the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and composition o f the waste, i t s p e r s i s t e n c e , t o x i c i t y and b i o a c c u m u l a t i v e p o t e n t i a l , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the dump s i t e , t he d i s p o s a l method t o be used, the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s on marine l i f e and man's o t h e r uses of the sea, and the p r a c t i c a l a v a i l a b i l i t y of 40 land-based treatment o r d i s p o s a l a l t e r n a t i v e s . There are s e v e r a l e x c e p t i o n s t o the p r o h i b i t i o n s i n the Convention, which i n e f f e c t a l l o w the dumping of p r o h i b i t e d substances. For example, the Convention does not apply t o v e s s e l s e n t i t l e d t o s o v e r e i g n immunity, such as m i l i t a r y v e s s e l s , although s t a t e s a re t o ensure t h a t t h e i r s o v e r e i g n v e s s e l s " a c t i n a manner c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the o b j e c t and 41 purpose" of the Convention. M i l i t a r y wastes are, i n f a c t , f r e q u e n t l y d i s p o s e d o f a t sea, but l i t t l e p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n 42 i s n o r m a l l y a v a i l a b l e . Dumping i s a l s o p e r m i t t e d by the LDC i n emergency s i t u a t i o n s , when i t i s "necessary t o secure the s a f e t y o f human l i f e o r o f v e s s e l s , " o r i n any case which " c o n s t i t u t e s a danger t o human l i f e o r a r e a l t h r e a t t o v e s s e l s , " i f i t appears t o be the o n l y way t o a v e r t the t h r e a t and "the r e i s every p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t the damage consequent upon such 43 dumping w i l l be l e s s than would otherwise o c c u r . " S p e c i a l p e r m i t s may a l s o be i s s u e d f o r the dumping o f b l a c k - l i s t e d m a t e r i a l s i n emergencies "posing unacceptable r i s k r e l a t i n g 44 t o human h e a l t h and a d m i t t i n g no o t h e r f e a s i b l e s o l u t i o n . " B l a c k - l i s t e d substances may a l s o be dumped i f they are " r a p i d l y rendered harmless by p h y s i c a l , chemical o r b i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s " i n the ocean, as l o n g as they w i l l not endanger human h e a l t h or the h e a l t h of domestic animals, or 45 make e d i b l e marine organisms u n p a l a t a b l e . Organohalogens, mercury, cadmium, p e r s i s t e n t p l a s t i c s and o i l may a l s o be dumped i f they are p r e s e n t as merely " t r a c e contaminants" i n 46 the waste d e s t i n e d f o r d i s p o s a l . S p e c i a l p e r m i t s may a l s o i s s u e f o r the i n c i n e r a t i o n a t sea of organohalogens, , . . . , 47 p e s t i c i d e s , o i l and g r e y - l i s t e d m a t e r i a l s . These e x c e p t i o n s have been s u b j e c t t o a g r e a t d e a l of c r i t i c i s m and d i s c u s s i o n , p r i m a r i l y because of the ambiguity 48 of phrases such as " t r a c e contaminants." C o n s u l t a t i v e meetings of the p a r t i e s t o the t r e a t y have attempted, w i t h o n l y l i m i t e d success, t o remove some of t h i s ambiguity. 49 McManus summed up the s i t u a t i o n as f o l l o w s : " ( u ) n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e i r attempts a t c l a r i f i c a t i o n t o date are no l e s s b a f f l i n g (and t h e r e f o r e no more u s e f u l i n p r a c t i c e ) than the o r i g i n a l opaque phrase t h a t has g i v e n r i s e t o the e f f o r t . " As t h a t author p o i n t s out, i t i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l t o know t h a t t r a c e contaminants should not cause " u n d e s i r e a b l e e f f e c t s , " i n c l u d i n g the " p o s s i b i l i t y " o f t o x i c 50 e f f e c t s t o " s e n s i t i v e marine organisms." R e g u l a t i o n of ocean dumping by way of a p e rmit system, and enforcement a c t i v i t i e s under the Convention, are the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f both the v e s s e l ' s f l a g s t a t e and the p o r t 51 s t a t e i n which the v e s s e l i s loaded f o r dumping. T h i s has a l s o a t t r a c t e d some c r i t i c i s m , because s t a t e s which i s s u e 38 f l a g s of convenience may not a c t r e s p o n s i b l y i n t h e i s s u a n c e o f p e r m i t s or i n the enforcement of permit terms and 52 c o n d i t i o n s . Indeed, such f l a g s t a t e s are u s u a l l y not even s i g n a t o r i e s t o the Convention. To an e x t e n t these concerns may be met by the p r o v i s i o n s of the LDC which p r o v i d e f o r c o a s t a l s t a t e enforcement c a p a b i l i t i e s over v e s s e l s dumping 5 3 w i t h i n waters s u b j e c t t o t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n . T h i s would i n c l u d e t h e t e r r i t o r i a l sea and probably, as a matter of customary i n t e r n a t i o n a l law, the c o n t i n e n t a l s h e l f and any 54 e x c l u s i v e economic zone. The LDC has thus p r o v i d e d a g l o b a l ban on the dumping of wastes a t sea, except as p e r m i t t e d by the f l a g s t a t e , p o r t s t a t e o r c o a s t a l s t a t e . The a b i l i t y of c o n t r a c t i n g p a r t i e s t o i s s u e p e r m i t s i s r e s t r i c t e d or p r o h i b i t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o c e r t a i n dangerous p o l l u t a n t s , s u b j e c t t o l i m i t e d e x c e p t i o n s . The Convention p r o v i d e s a s e t of minimum i n t e r n a t i o n a l standards f o r the r e g u l a t i o n of dumping a c t i v i t i e s which c o n t r a c t i n g s t a t e s must implement. These s t a t e s , and s t a t e s which have j o i n e d i n subsequent r e g i o n a l conventions, are 55 f r e e t o enact more r i g o r o u s standards, and some, such as the s i g n a t o r i e s t o the H e l s i n k i Convention, have done so. As o f 1987, s i x t y - o n e n a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g Canada have r a t i f i e d the LDC, making i t the most comprehensive i n t e r n a t i o n a l marine p o l l u t i o n t r e a t y i n f o r c e . 5 6 The s i g n a t o r i e s i n c l u d e the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Mexico, the S o v i e t Union, the Peoples R e p u b l i c o f China, B r a z i l , A r g e n t i n a , C h i l e , the U n i t e d Kingdom, 57 almost a l l Western European n a t i o n s , Japan and A u s t r a l i a . Thus North American, E u r a s i a n , A u s t r a l i a n and most South 39 American c o a s t a l areas are p r o t e c t e d , and most o f the h i g h l y i n d u s t r i a l i z e d dumping n a t i o n s a re s i g n a t o r i e s . 5 8 Areas i n which p r o t e c t i o n i s l a c k i n g under the LDC i n c l u d e much of A f r i c a , t he Middle East , I n d i a , South-East A s i a and the northwestern c o a s t o f South America, even though many n a t i o n s i n t hese areas are p a r t i e s t o r e g i o n a l conventions t h a t d e a l , 59 t o a l i m i t e d extent, w i t h ocean dumping. Regular c o n s u l t a t i v e meetings o f the p a r t i c i p a t i n g n a t i o n s have taken p l a c e s i n c e the Convention came i n t o f o r c e i n 1975. In a d d i t i o n t o problems such as ambiguity o f the Convention, d i s c u s s i o n c o n t i n u e s over i s s u e s such as waste export, r a d i o a c t i v e waste d i s p o s a l , changes t o the b l a c k l i s t and grey l i s t , dredged m a t e r i a l d i s p o s a l o p t i o n s , ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , d i s p o s a l o f o f f s h o r e p l a t f o r m s , enforcement i n the h i g h seas, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r emergency dumpings and technology t r a n s f e r . A l s o o f i n t e r e s t t o the p a r t i e s i s the p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t o f the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention, a g l o b a l c o n v e n t i o n c o n t a i n i n g p r o v i s i o n s r e l a t i n g t o ocean dumping t h a t i s expected t o come i n t o f o r c e . ( i i ) The Law of the Sea Convention A f t e r the c o n c l u s i o n o f the Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment of 1972, the T h i r d U n i t e d Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea was convened. In a s e r i e s o f c o n s u l t a t i o n s between 1972 and 1982, a d r a f t Convention was f i n a l l y developed which was intended t o be g l o b a l i n scope and which would p r o v i d e , i n t e r a l i a . a comprehensive framework t o d e a l w i t h a l l a s p e c t s o f marine p o l l u t i o n . The 40 62 Law of the Sea Convention (LOS) i n c l u d e s p r o v i s i o n s g overning land-based p o l l u t i o n sources, v e s s e l - s o u r c e 6 3 p o l l u t i o n , atmospheric p o l l u t i o n , and seabed a c t i v i t i e s , as w e l l as a commitment by the p a r t i c i p a t i n g s t a t e s t o develop n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l laws t o prevent, reduce and c o n t r o l ocean dumping. 6 4 The LOS Convention s e t s out a g e n e r a l o b l i g a t i o n upon s t a t e s t o p r o t e c t and p r e s e r v e the marine environment from 6 5 a l l sources of p o l l u t i o n , and i n c l u d e s an o b l i g a t i o n t o minimize the r e l e a s e of p e r s i s t e n t t o x i c substances from the 6 6 l a n d , atmosphere or dumping. In t a k i n g p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l measures, s t a t e s must a c t so as not t o t r a n s f e r hazards from one area t o another, or t o t r a n s f o r m one type o f p o l l u t i o n i n t o another. Ocean dumping i s d e f i n e d i n the LOS Convention i n terms 6 D v e r y s i m i l a r t o the d e f i n i t i o n i n the LDC. A r t i c l e 210 of the LOS t r e a t y i s the primary c l a u s e r e l a t i n g t o the r e g u l a t i o n o f ocean dumping, r e q u i r i n g s t a t e s t o adopt n a t i o n a l laws and take such o t h e r measures as are necessary t o prevent, reduce and c o n t r o l p o l l u t i o n by dumping. N a t i o n a l laws must be no l e s s e f f e c t i v e than g l o b a l r u l e s and standards, which should e f f e c t i v e l y o b l i g e a l l p a r t i e s t o the LOS Convention t o comply, a t a minimum, w i t h the standards s e t out i n the LDC. A r t i c l e 216 of the LOS Convention p r o v i d e s t h a t ocean dumping laws adopted i n accordance w i t h the Convention, and a p p l i c a b l e i n t e r n a t i o n a l standards, may be e n f o r c e d by the f l a g s t a t e , the s t a t e i n which wastes are loaded, and by c o a s t a l s t a t e s . The LOS Convention p r o v i d e s f o r c o a s t a l s t a t e j u r i s d i c t i o n over p o l l u t i o n matters i n a 12 m i l e t e r r i t o r i a l sea, a 200 m i l e e x c l u s i v e economic zone, and the c o n t i n e n t a l s h e l f . The Convention a l s o p r o v i d e s t h a t no dumping may take p l a c e w i t h i n these areas without the express 69 p r i o r a p p r o v a l o f the c o a s t a l s t a t e . Concern has been expressed t h a t the expansion o f c o a s t a l s t a t e j u r i s d i c t i o n over dumping might i n c r e a s e p r e s s u r e t o . . . 70 u t i l i z e areas o f the h i g h seas. The LOS t r e a t y does p r o v i d e f o r s t a t e s t o take measures a g a i n s t any s h i p v o l u n t a r i l y i n t h e i r p o r t s i n order t o address any i l l e g a l 71 d i s c h a r g e o c c u r r i n g o u t s i d e the s t a t e s ' j u r i s d i c t i o n . I f 72 one can assume t h a t " d i s c h a r g e " i n c l u d e s dumping, t h i s e x t e n s i o n o f p o r t s t a t e j u r i s d i c t i o n s hould serve t o b o l s t e r h i g h seas enforcement where a s h i p f l i e s a f l a g o f convenience and seeks t o evade g l o b a l ocean dumping standar d s . In a d d i t i o n , the i n c r e a s e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s o f moving wastes t o deep ocean dump s i t e s may w e l l p r e c l u d e t h e economic v i a b i l i t y o f the m a j o r i t y o f such a c t i v i t i e s . A t the p r e s e n t time the 1982 LOS Convention has not come i n t o f o r c e , although i t co n t i n u e s t o s l o w l y c o l l e c t r a t i f i c a t i o n s . Much o f the d e l a y has been a t t r i b u t e d t o the p o s i t i o n o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , which has r e j e c t e d those 73 p o r t i o n s o f the t r e a t y governing deep-sea mining. While the t r e a t y i s not i n f o r c e , much debate has o c c u r r e d over the ex t e n t t o which p o r t i o n s o f the t r e a t y are b i n d i n g as a matter o f customary i n t e r n a t i o n a l law. Some l e g a l concepts which had a l r e a d y enjoyed widespread acceptance, and thus had i n the absence of a t r e a t y already achieved the s t a t u s of b i n d i n g customary i n t e r n a t i o n a l law, were simply c o d i f i e d by the LOS Convention. In other areas, the Convention sought t o e s t a b l i s h new l e g a l concepts. For new concepts t h a t have s i n c e r e c e i v e d widespread approval, i t would seem new customary laws have emerged. Such i s the case w i t h the e x c l u s i v e economic zone id e a , which has gained a 74 s u b s t a n t i a l degree of customary acceptance. This s e l e c t i v e acceptance of p o r t i o n s of the t r e a t y , w h i l e r e j e c t i n g other p a r t s , may f u r t h e r j e o p a r d i z e the r a t i f i c a t i o n of the e n t i r e document which was o r i g i n a l l y n e g otiated as a "package d e a l . " This has created a great d e a l of t e n s i o n between c o u n t r i e s p r e s s i n g f o r acceptance of the e n t i r e t r e a t y , such as t h i r d world n a t i o n s i n t e r e s t e d i n s h a r i n g i n revenue from seabed mineral resource e x p l o i t a t i o n , and c o u n t r i e s l i k e the United S t a t e s t h a t r e j e c t those p r o v i s i o n s . In the i n t e r i m , the London Dumping Convention continues t o govern ocean dumping a c t i v i t i e s i n the g l o b a l arena, and i t s widespread acceptance means t h a t i t s standards have probably become customary law which i s b i n d i n g even on non-signatory s t a t e s . 43 C h a p t e r T h r e e : Notes 1. Norman G. L e t a l i k , " P o l l u t i o n From Dumping" i n The  E n v i r o n m e n t a l Law o f the S e a . D.M. J o h n s t o n ( B e r l i n : E r i c h Schmidt V e r l a g , 1981) , p . 218. 2. I b i d . 3. I b i d . ; Dav id A . Deese, N u c l e a r Power and R a d i o a c t i v e  Waste ( L e x i n g t o n : D . C . Heath & C o . , 1978) , p . 46. 4 . Deese , p . 47 . 5. I b i d . , p . 48. 6. I b i d . ; L e t a l i k , p . 219. 7 . M i c h a e l Hardy , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n t r o l o f Mar ine P o l l u t i o n " (1971) 11 Na t . R e s . J . 296 a t 313. 8. L e t a l i k , p . 219. 9 . I b i d . ; R . J . McManus, "Ocean Dumping: S t a n d a r d s i n A c t i o n " i n E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n : The I n t e r n a t i o n a l  D i m e n s i o n . D .A . Kay and H.K. J a c o b s e n (New J e r s e y : A l l e n h e l d Osmun, 1987) , p . 120; L . A . W . H u n t e r , The Q u e s t i o n o f an Ocean  Dumping C o n v e n t i o n (Washington, D . C : Am. S o c . I n t . Law, 1972) , p . 10. 10. H u n t e r , p . 10. 11 . I b i d . , p . 12; L e t a l i k , p . 219. 12. L e t a l i k , p . 219. 13. I b i d . , p . 225 f f . ; Maxwel l B r u c e , "The London Dumping C o n v e n t i o n , 1972: F i r s t Decade and F u t u r e " (1986) 6 Ocean Yearbook 298 a t 302. 14. (1972) 11 I . L . M . 262. 15. (1974) I . L . M . 544. 16. L e t a l i k , p . 225-226; P h i l i p K u n i g , "Dumping a t Sea" i n The Impact o f Mar ine P o l l u t i o n . D . J . C u i s i n e and J . P . G r a n t (London: Croom Helm L t d . , 1980) , p . 184. 17. A r t i c l e s 5 and 6. 18. Annex I. 19. Annex I I . 20. A r t i c l e 6. 44 21. Annexes I I and I I I . 22. A r t i c l e 7. 23. A r t i c l e s 8(1) and 9. 24. A r t i c l e 8 ( 2 ) . 25. A r t i c l e 15. 26. Kunig, p. 197. 27. A r t i c l e 9. 28. Annexes I, I I and V. 29. A r t i c l e 9 ( 4 ) . 30. A r t i c l e 9 ( 3 ) . 31. (1975) 2 U.S.T. 2403. 32. A r t i c l e s 111(3) and IV. 33. A r t i c l e I I I ( l ) and Annexes I and I I . 34. A r t i c l e I I I ( l ) . 35. A r t i c l e IV. 36. I b i d . 37. Annex I . 38. Annex I I . 39. A r t i c l e IV(2) and Annex I I I . 40. Annex I I I . 41. A r t i c l e V I I ( 4 ) . 42 . Deese, p. 45 f f . ; Bruce, p. 316. 43 . A r t i c l e V ( l ) . 44. A r t i c l e V ( 2 ) . 45. Annex 1 ( 8 ) . 46. Annex 1 ( 9 ) . 47. Annex 1(10) and Annex 11(E). 48. Bruce, p. 313-314; McManus, p. 122-127. 45 49. McManus, p. 12 6. 50. Ibid., p. 126-127. 51. A r t i c l e s VI and VII. 52. L e t a l i k , p. 223-224; John W. Kindt, Marine P o l l u t i o n  and the Law of the Sea. 4 v o l s . (New York: William S. Hein & Co., 1986), p. 1128. 53. A r t i c l e s VI and VII. 54. L e t a l i k , p. 224; Bruce, p. 304. 55. A r t i c l e IV. 56. World Commission on Environment and Development, Our  Common Future (Oxford: Oxford U. Press, 1987), p. 270. 57. Bruce, p. 300-301. 58. McManus, p. 119. 59. For example, signatories to the Lima Convention of 1981 include Columbia, Chile, Equador, Panama and Peru. 60. Bruce, p. 306 f f . ; Canada, Environment Canada, Ocean  Dumping Control Act Annual Report 1985-86 (Ottawa: Supply and Services Canada, 1986) , p. 25. 61. (1982) 21 I.L.M. 1261. 62. Ibid. 63 . A r t i c l e s 207-209, 211, 212. 64. A r t i c l e 210. 65. A r t i c l e s 192 and 194. 66. A r t i c l e 194. 67. A r t i c l e 195. 68. A r t i c l e 1. 69. A r t i c l e 210. 70. Bruce, p. 306; Kindt, p. 114 0. 71. A r t i c l e 218. 72. M. Hoffmeyer, "Ocean Dumping Provisions of the Convention on the Law of the Sea" (1985) 11 Brooklyn J . of 46 Int. Law 355 at 372. 73. S.A. Williams and A.L.C. deMestral, An Introduction  to International Law Chiefly as Interpreted and Applied in  Canada. 2nd ed. (Toronto: Butterworths, 1987), p. 234. 74. Ibid., p. 229. 47 Chapter Four: Canadian Law a. The Canadian Environmental P r o t e c t i o n A c t Canada has not y e t e i t h e r r a t i f i e d o r implemented the 1982 LOS Convention, but i n 1975 the f e d e r a l government implemented the London Dumping Convention by e n a c t i n g the Ocean Dumping C o n t r o l A c t (ODCA). 1 On June 30, 1988, t h a t A c t was r e p e a l e d and r e p l a c e d by P a r t VI o f the Canadian 2 Environmental P r o t e c t i o n A c t (CEPA). The CEPA as a whole i s designed t o c o n t r o l t o x i c substances which might e n t e r the environment and endanger human h e a l t h , r e s o u r c e s p e c i e s or the environment i t s e l f . I t s s t a t e d i n t e n t i o n i s t o c o n t r o l such substances a t a l l stages o f t h e i r use, from t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n t o t h e i r u l t i m a t e d i s p o s a l o r d e s t r u c t i o n . The CEPA s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n c r e a s e s p e n a l t i e s f o r p o l l u t i o n i n f r a c t i o n s , i n c r e a s e s emergency powers and seeks t o p r o v i d e a framework f o r b e t t e r 3 enforcement and compliance measures. I t a l s o attempts t o take a more p r e v e n t i v e approach by p r o v i d i n g f o r the assessment and r e g u l a t i o n of both e x i s t i n g and new chemical substances. Although i t proposes few remedial measures t o d e a l w i t h e x i s t i n g p o l l u t a n t s and t h e i r d i s p o s a l , i t seeks t o i n c r e a s e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t o i n c o r p o r a t e environmental concerns i n t o government and i n d u s t r y d e c i s i o n -making p r o c e s s e s . The CEPA a l s o t r i e s t o improve the c o o r d i n a t i o n between f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l measures, and i t r e c o g n i z e s the problems t h a t are c r e a t e d by the shared 48 c o n s t i t u t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n i n t h i s area. I t makes express p r o v i s i o n f o r the use of j o i n t f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l a d v i s o r y committees i n the development of r e g u l a t i o n s governing t o x i c 4 . . . substances. I t a l s o p r o v i d e s f o r the n e g o t i a t i o n of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l agreements r e g a r d i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of 5 . . . . . the A c t , and permits p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t o x i c substances r e g u l a t i o n by way of l e g i s l a t i o n e q u i v a l e n t t o the CEPA p r o v i s i o n s . Such " e q u i v a l e n c y p r o v i s i o n s " are expected t o i n c l u d e t e s t i n g and sampling methods, em i s s i o n standards, enforcement and compliance p o l i c i e s , p e n a l t i e s and p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n procedures. The CEPA i s intended t o govern a i r , water and l a n d p o l l u t i o n . P a r t I o f the A c t d e a l s w i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f n a t i o n a l environmental q u a l i t y o b j e c t i v e s and p r a c t i c a l g u i d e l i n e s . P a r t I I s p e c i f i c a l l y d e a l s w i t h the r e g u l a t i o n o f t o x i c substances, and i s intended t o r e p l a c e and improve 7 upon the Environmental Contaminants A c t . I t p r o v i d e s f o r t h r e e major i n i t i a t i v e s : 1. development of a system t o assess the t o x i c i t y of c h e m i c a l s i n an o r g a n i z e d manner, w i t h h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y g i v e n t o c h e m i c a l s b e l i e v e d t o c o n s t i t u t e a s i g n i f i c a n t p o t e n t i a l d a n ger; 8 2. the c o m p i l a t i o n o f a l i s t o f a l l chemicals p r e s e n t l y i n use i n Canada, t o g e t h e r w i t h a t o x i c i t y assessment of any 9 new chemical b e f o r e i t i s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the country; and 3. the r e g u l a t i o n and c o n t r o l o f any substance which the assessment p r o c e s s determines i s t o x i c . 1 0 P a r t I I a l s o c o n t a i n s p r o v i s i o n s f o r c o n t r o l l i n g f u e l 49 a d d i t i v e s , the c o l l e c t i o n and d i s c l o s u r e o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t o x i c substances, and the import and export of such m a t e r i a l s . At p r e s e n t , however, P a r t I I r e g u l a t i o n s e x i s t i n r e l a t i o n t o o n l y nine chemical groups, l i s t e d i n Schedule I 11 o f the A c t . Strong p o l i t i c a l w i l l i s necessary f o r the A c t t o be comprehensively u t i l i z e d , s i n c e the l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d e s t h a t w i t h i n the d i s c r e t i o n o f Cabinet any a c t i v i t i e s may be 12 exempted from the a p p l i c a t i o n of the r e g u l a t i o n s . The A c t i s a l s o i n a p p l i c a b l e t o any substances, such as a g r i c u l t u r a l c h e m i c a l s , which are a l r e a d y r e g u l a t e d under o t h e r f e d e r a l 13 l e g i s l a t i o n . Assuming t h a t the A c t i s f u l l y implemented, however, t h e r e i s the p o t e n t i a l f o r the f e d e r a l government, i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the p r o v i n c e s , t o r e g u l a t e the import, export, manufacture, use, s a l e , r e l e a s e , d i s p o s a l , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and t e s t i n g of a l l e x i s t i n g and f u t u r e t o x i c substances i n Canada. Of p a r t i c u l a r importance i s the a b i l i t y o f the government t o take p r e v e n t i v e a c t i o n , by a s s e s s i n g and when necessary r e s t r i c t i n g the use o f new c h e m i c a l s , b e f o r e an environmental or h e a l t h hazard i s c r e a t e d by the uninformed use and r e l e a s e o f such substances. P a r t I I I o f the CEPA, which r e p l a c e d P a r t Three of the 14 Canada Water A c t , d e a l s w i t h the r e l e a s e of n u t r i e n t s . P a r t IV broadens the scope of environmental r e g u l a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o f e d e r a l l a n d s , Crown c o r p o r a t i o n s and o t h e r f e d e r a l works and u n d e r t a k i n g s , w h i l e P a r t V, which r e p l a c e d the Clean A i r 15 . . A c t , d e a l s w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l measures. 50 P a r t VI r e p l a c e s the ODCA, and d e a l s w i t h ocean dumping. I t s i n c l u s i o n i n the CEPA i n d i c a t e s t h a t ocean dumping l e g i s l a t i o n i s now b e i n g viewed as a type of c o n t r o l measure f o r contaminants, r a t h e r than a form of marine p o l l u t i o n enactment. In terms of the environmental and h e a l t h dangers c r e a t e d by the hazardous wastes of concern, a l i g n i n g t h e i r r e g u l a t i o n w i t h the o r i g i n s of the c ontamination r a t h e r than w i t h the u l t i m a t e or end l o c a t i o n of those substances i s p r o b a b l y a more r e a l i s t i c approach t o the c o n t r o l of ocean dumping a c t i v i t i e s . However, i t i s not c l e a r t h a t t h i s same approach i s l o g i c a l when a p p l i e d t o the dumping or reuse of c l e a n dredge s p o i l . Dumping i s d e f i n e d i n s e c t i o n 66(1) of the CEPA as: "dumping" means (a) t h e d e l i b e r a t e d i s p o s a l a t sea from s h i p s , a i r c r a f t , p l a t f o r m s or o t h e r anthropogenic s t r u c t u r e s , i n c l u d i n g d i s p o s a l by i n c i n e r a t i o n or o t h e r thermal d e g r a d a t i o n , o f any substance, o r (b) the d i s p o s a l o f any substance by p l a c i n g i t on t h e i c e i n any area of the sea r e f e r r e d t o i n paragraphs (2)(a) t o (e) , but does not i n c l u d e (c) any d i s p o s a l t h a t i s i n c i d e n t a l t o o r d e r i v e d from the normal o p e r a t i o n s o f a s h i p , a i r c r a f t , p l a t f o r m o r o t h e r anthropogenic s t r u c t u r e o r o f any equipment on a s h i p , a i r c r a f t , p l a t f o r m o r o t h e r anthropogenic s t r u c t u r e , o t h e r than the d i s p o s a l of substances from a s h i p , a i r c r a f t , p l a t f o r m o r o t h e r anthropogenic s t r u c t u r e operated f o r the purpose o f d i s p o s i n g o f such substances a t sea, and (d) any d i s c h a r g e t h a t i s i n c i d e n t a l t o or d e r i v e d from the e x p l o r a t i o n f o r , e x p l o i t a t i o n o f and a s s o c i a t e d o f f - s h o r e p r o c e s s i n g of sea bed m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s . The CEPA a p p l i e s t o "the sea" as e x t e n s i v e l y d e f i n e d i n t h a t A c t . I t i n c l u d e s the t e r r i t o r i a l sea, the i n t e r n a l waters of Canada o t h e r than i n l a n d waters, f i s h i n g zones, 51 A r c t i c waters, contiguous zones, any e x c l u s i v e economic zone d e s i g n a t e d by Canada, areas of the sea under f o r e i g n j u r i s d i c t i o n (other than i n t e r n a l waters) and any area of the 16 sea not i n c l u d e d i n the f o r e g o i n g - t h a t i s , the h i g h seas. S e c t i o n 67(1) of the CEPA p r o v i d e s t h a t "no person s h a l l dump any substance" i n the sea, s u b j e c t t o s e c t i o n 67(2) which a l l o w s dumping t o take p l a c e i n accordance w i t h the terms and c o n d i t i o n s of a permit. Dumping without a permit i s p r o h i b i t e d i n Canadian waters. A l s o p r o h i b i t e d i s the dumping without a permit by Canadian s h i p s or by v e s s e l s loaded i n Canadian p o r t s , i n t o f o r e i g n waters or the h i g h seas. The CEPA thus p r o v i d e s f o r the c o n t r o l o f dumping o p e r a t i o n s by way o f a combination of c o a s t a l s t a t e , f l a g s t a t e and p o r t s t a t e j u r i s d i c t i o n s . The CEPA a l s o p r o h i b i t s the l o a d i n g o f v e s s e l s i n Canada f o r the purpose o f dumping, u n l e s s a permit i s f i r s t o b t a i n e d , and p r o h i b i t s Canadian s h i p s from l o a d i n g wastes i n f o r e i g n p o r t s u n l e s s they have o b t a i n e d a permit granted i n 17 accordance w i t h the LDC. In a d d i t i o n , no one i s t o d i s p o s e of any v e s s e l o r o t h e r anthropogenic s t r u c t u r e a t sea without 18 a permit, which i n c o r p o r a t e s p r o v i s i o n s g o v e r n i n g ocean dumping r e g u l a t e d under the LDC. The CEPA, i n s e c t i o n 68, a l s o s e t s out an e x c e p t i o n t o the b a s i c permit requirements, i n cases where "the dumping i s necessary t o a v e r t danger t o human l i f e a t sea or t o any s h i p , a i r c r a f t , p l a t f o r m or other anthropogenic s t r u c t u r e . " The CEPA f o l l o w s the b a s i c format of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o nventions by having a b l a c k l i s t (Schedule I I I , P a r t I) and 52 a grey l i s t (Schedule I I I , P a r t I I ) . Substances on the b l a c k l i s t i n c l u d e : organohalogens, mercury, cadmium, p e r s i s t e n t p l a s t i c s , o i l , h i g h - l e v e l r a d i o a c t i v e wastes and b i o l o g i c a l and chemical warfare agents. The grey l i s t i n c l u d e s : a r s e n i c , l e a d , copper, z i n c , o r g a n o s i l i c o n s , c y a n i d e s , f l u o r i d e s , p e s t i c i d e s , b e r y l l i u m , chromium, n i c k e l , vanadium, s c r a p metal, b u l k y substances, a l l r a d i o a c t i v e wastes not i n c l u d e d i n the b l a c k l i s t , and n o n - t o x i c substances t h a t may become harmful due t o the q u a n t i t i e s dumped. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the b l a c k and grey l i s t s i n the CEPA i s obscure, however, and the A c t has departed from the i n t e r n a t i o n a l conventions i n t h i s r e s p e c t . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e a t i e s which r e g u l a t e ocean d i s p o s a l do so by p r o h i b i t i n g the dumping o f b l a c k - l i s t e d wastes, p r o h i b i t i n g the dumping of a l l g r e y - l i s t e d wastes except i n accordance w i t h a s p e c i a l permit, and p r o h i b i t i n g the dumping o f a l l o t h e r substances 19 without a g e n e r a l permit. In c e r t a i n e x c e p t i o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a permit f o r b l a c k - l i s t e d wastes may n e v e r t h e l e s s i s s u e ; examples i n c l u d e cases where the wastes w i l l be " r a p i d l y rendered harmless" or a r e p r e s e n t as " t r a c e contaminants". The CEPA takes a somewhat d i f f e r e n t approach by 20 p r o h i b i t i n g the dumping o f any substance without a permit. Whether the substance i s l i s t e d i n Schedule I I I o r i s non-l i s t e d , no permit may i s s u e u n l e s s , i n the o p i n i o n of the 21 M i n i s t e r o f the Environment: 1. the substance w i l l be " r a p i d l y rendered harmless by p h y s i c a l , chemical or b i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s of the sea and does not render normally e d i b l e marine organisms i n e d i b l e o r u n p a l a t a b l e o r endanger human h e a l t h o r the h e a l t h o f animals; 1 1 2. the substance does not c o n t a i n another substance i n a q u a n t i t y t h a t exceeds a maximum c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r e s c r i b e d by r e g u l a t i o n ; 3. the dumping i s necessary t o a v e r t an emergency t h a t poses an "unacceptable r i s k r e l a t i n g t o human h e a l t h and admits o f no o t h e r f e a s i b l e s o l u t i o n " ; o r 4. i f t h e substance i s t o be i n c i n e r a t e d , and the end product o f i n c i n e r a t i o n can be d i s p o s e d o f because i t i s " r a p i d l y rendered harmless" or does not exceed the p r e s c r i b e d maximum c o n c e n t r a t i o n . S i n c e the same type of permit i s i s s u e d f o r b l a c k - l i s t e d , g r e y - l i s t e d and n o n - l i s t e d substances, and a l l substances are p r o h i b i t e d u n l e s s they meet the c r i t e r i a which, under the i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e a t i e s , must o n l y be met by b l a c k - l i s t e d wastes, the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the l i s t s i n the Canadian l e g i s l a t i o n i s minimized. The s o l e reason f o r r e t a i n i n g the b l a c k l i s t / g r e y l i s t approach seems t o be the LDC t r e a t y o b l i g a t i o n t o conduct i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n s u l t a t i o n s p r i o r t o i s s u i n g a permit f o r the dumping o f l i s t e d wastes i n order t o 22 a v e r t an emergency. Upon r e c e i p t o f a dumping a p p l i c a t i o n , the M i n i s t e r i n d e c i d i n g whether or not t o i s s u e a permit, must take i n t o account the f a c t o r s s e t out i n Schedule I I I , P a r t I I I t o the Act, and has the d i s c r e t i o n t o take i n t o account any oth e r 23 f a c t o r . Schedule I I I , P a r t I I I s e t s out f a c t o r s such as 54 t o x i c i t y , p e r s i s t e n c e and b i o a c c u m u l a t i o n o f the wastes, dump s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , whether an adequate s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s e x i s t s f o r a s s e s s i n g the consequences, p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s on marine l i f e , p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s on o t h e r human uses o f the sea and the p r a c t i c a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a l t e r n a t i v e waste treatment or d i s p o s a l methods. No p r i o r i t y i s a s s i g n e d t o any g i v e n f a c t o r o r f a c t o r s , l e a v i n g the r e l a t i v e emphasis t o be g i v e n t o each e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the Environment M i n i s t e r ' s d i s c r e t i o n . S e c t i o n 72(2) simply p r o v i d e s t h a t any permit " s h a l l c o n t a i n such terms and c o n d i t i o n s as the M i n i s t e r c o n s i d e r s necessary i n the i n t e r e s t s o f human l i f e , marine l i f e o r any l e g i t i m a t e uses o f the sea." S u r p r i s i n g l y , g i v e n t h e focus o f the A c t as a whole, the M i n i s t e r of H e a l t h and Welfare i s not p r o v i d e d w i t h a r o l e i n ocean dumping permit procedures o r i n the s e t t i n g of permit c o n d i t i o n s t o p r o t e c t human l i f e and h e a l t h . A p p l i c a n t s f o r ocean d i s p o s a l p e rmits must p u b l i s h a n o t i c e o f t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n i n a newspaper of g e n e r a l c i r c u l a t i o n i n the l o c a l e where the dumping o p e r a t i o n w i l l 24 take p l a c e . When granted o r v a r i e d , p e r m i t s are p u b l i s h e d 25 i n t he Canada Gazette. Permit h o l d e r s and a p p l i c a n t s f o r per m i t s are granted a r i g h t t o appeal the M i n i s t e r ' s 2 6 d e c i s i o n s t o a board o f review, w h i l e members o f the p u b l i c may o n l y have permit d e c i s i o n s and proposed r e g u l a t i o n s reviewed i f the M i n i s t e r , i n h i s d i s c r e t i o n , a l l o w s a board 27 of review t o be e s t a b l i s h e d . The board o f review can make 2 8 recommendations t o the M i n i s t e r , and the M i n i s t e r may revoke o r v a r y the permit i f he c o n s i d e r s i t a d v i s a b l e t o do 55 29 . . . so. I f a board i s e s t a b l i s h e d , i t must permit "any person" a r e a s o n a b l e o p p o r t u n i t y t o appear b e f o r e i t , and i t must apply "the r u l e s of p r o c e d u r a l f a i r n e s s and n a t u r a l . . „30 j u s t i c e . " C o n s p i c u o u s l y l a c k i n g i n these procedures i s an express mechanism t o a l l o w p u b l i c i n p u t between the time n o t i c e of an a p p l i c a t i o n i s p u b l i s h e d , and the making of a permit d e c i s i o n . A l s o l a c k i n g i s a mechanism by which a member of t h e p u b l i c c o u l d f o r c e a permit review, as p e r m i t - h o l d e r s are a b l e t o do. A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t i s not mandatory t h a t the M i n i s t e r e s t a b l i s h a board o f review when o b j e c t i o n s t o proposed r e g u l a t i o n s are r e c e i v e d . 31 Breaches o f the CEPA are t r e a t e d as h y b r i d o f f e n c e s . On summary c o n v i c t i o n , o f f e n d e r s are l i a b l e t o a $300,000.00 maximum f i n e and up t o s i x months imprisonment. On i n d i c t m e n t , the maximum f i n e i s $1,000,000.00 and up t o t h r e e y e a r s imprisonment. C o n t r a v e n t i o n s of the A c t are deemed t o 3 2 be s e p a r a t e o f f e n c e s f o r each day they are committed. In many cases the enforcement powers under the CEPA are much broader than those c o n t a i n e d i n the e a r l i e r l e g i s l a t i o n , and t h i s i s the main area i n which the reenactment w i l l make changes and improvements. Court o r d e r s a v a i l a b l e under the CEPA i n c l u d e d i r e c t i n g the o f f e n d e r t o remedy the harm t o the environment, t o perform community s e r v i c e and t o pay money t o 33 support e c o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . The CEPA a l s o i n c l u d e s p r o v i s i o n s which i n c r e a s e p u b l i c involvement, i n c l u d i n g s e c t i o n 136 which c r e a t e s a c i v i l cause o f a c t i o n f o r any breach o f the A c t , and s e c t i o n 12(4) which a l l o w s any person t o p e t i t i o n the M i n i s t e r t o add substances t o the l i s t o f m a t e r i a l s intended t o r e c e i v e p r i o r i t y i n t h e i r review and assessment. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the B i l l does not p r o v i d e f o r an environmental b i l l o f r i g h t s , nor does i t p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o i n d i v i d u a l s who wish t o take enforcement a c t i o n . The A c t a l s o c o n t a i n s p r o v i s i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the Courts, the d e s i g n a t i o n and powers of i n s p e c t o r s , the d e t e n t i o n , s e i z u r e and f o r f e i t u r e o f s h i p s and cargoes, and s i m i l a r matters. I f the M i n i s t e r d i r e c t s t h a t a c t i o n be taken t o r e p a i r o r m i t i g a t e damage caused by an o f f e n c e under P a r t VI of the Act, the c o s t s can be 34 r e c o v e r e d from the o f f e n d e r by the Crown. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , Schedule I I I o f the A c t can be amended by the Governor General i n C o u n c i l on a d v i c e o f the M i n i s t e r , by e x e c u t i v e 35 r a t h e r than l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n . The R e g u l a t i o n s promulgated pursuant t o the ODCA are 37 c o n t i n u e d i n f o r c e under the CEPA. They p r e s c r i b e the a p p l i c a t i o n form t o be used i n see k i n g a permit t o dump. They a l s o d e f i n e the maximum q u a n t i t i e s o f organohalogens, mercury, cadmium, p e r s i s t e n t p l a s t i c s and o i l t h a t a re c o n s i d e r e d t r a c e amounts, so t h a t a permit may i s s u e under s e c t i o n 7 1 ( 3 ) ( b ) . A d e f i n i t i o n t o d i s t i n g u i s h h i g h l e v e l r a d i o a c t i v e waste from a l l o t h e r r a d i o a c t i v e matter i s a l s o i n c l u d e d i n the R e g u l a t i o n s . The Crown i s bound by the p r o v i s i o n s o f the Canadian 3 8 l e g i s l a t i o n . T h i s , u n l i k e the s i t u a t i o n under the LDC, se r v e s t o e l i m i n a t e any b l a n k e t e x c l u s i o n o f m i l i t a r y 57 o p e r a t i o n s from the need t o comply w i t h the CEPA. b. C o n s t i t u t i o n a l J u r i s d i c t i o n Canada i s a f e d e r a l s t a t e , w i t h c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y d i v i d e d between the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s o f 39 government. In 1867, when the Canadian C o n s t i t u t i o n was d r a f t e d , the problem of environmental d e g r a d a t i o n was v i r t u a l l y unknown, and the s c a l e of waste p r o d u c t i o n which has been reached by modern s o c i e t y was v i r t u a l l y unimaginable. As a r e s u l t , a t h o u g h t f u l a l l o c a t i o n o f l e g i s l a t i v e power between the two l e v e l s o f government t o ensure adequate environmental p r o t e c t i o n was never made. Over the y e a r s l e g i s l a t i v e responses t o v a r i o u s environmental c r i s e s have t h e r e f o r e emerged i n a piecemeal f a s h i o n , and have been j u s t i f i e d by v a r i o u s heads of l e g i s l a t i v e power, both p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l . The l e g i s l a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the f e d e r a l government r e g a r d i n g environmental a f f a i r s has been based upon i t s enumerated powers over: i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l works and 40 41 42 un d e r t a k i n g s , t r a d e and commerce, a g r i c u l t u r e , seacoast 43 . . 44 and i n l a n d f i s h e r i e s , n a v i g a t i o n and s h i p p i n g , 45 . 46 t a x a t i o n , the c r i m i n a l law, and the power t o l e g i s l a t e 47 f o r the peace, o r d e r and good government of Canada. The p r o v i n c i a l governments have, l i k e w i s e , been gra n t e d l e g i s l a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o environmental p r o t e c t i o n based on t h e i r s p e c i f i e d powers over: the 48 management and s a l e o f p u b l i c lands, m u n i c i p a l 49 . 50 i n s t i t u t i o n s , l o c a l works and undertakings, p r o p e r t y and 58 51 c i v i l r i g h t s , and matters of a l o c a l or p r i v a t e nature i n 52 . . . . . the p r o v i n c e . The p r o v i n c e s a l s o have j u r i s d i c t i o n over the c o n s e r v a t i o n and management of non-renewable n a t u r a l 53 . . . . r e s o u r c e s and f o r e s t r y and shared j u r i s d i c t i o n over 54 . a g r i c u l t u r e . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r o t h e r powers each l e v e l of government has the p r e r o g a t i v e power t o manage i t s own p r o p e r t y and a s s e t s , and the a s s o c i a t e d power t o l e g i s l a t e i n 55 r e l a t i o n t o such p r o p e r t y . One might imagine t h a t j u r i s d i c t i o n i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s , such as the implementation o f an ocean dumping t r e a t y , would be s p e c i f i c a l l y a l l o c a t e d t o one or the o t h e r l e v e l o f government. In f a c t , the law i n Canada i s not c l e a r l y s u p p o r t i v e of e x c l u s i v i t y of j u r i s d i c t i o n i n f o r e i g n a f f a i r s . The f e d e r a l Parliament, pursuant t o s e c t i o n 132 of the C o n s t i t u t i o n Act, 1867, does have f u l l power t o implement a l l t r e a t i e s e n t e r e d i n t o by the B r i t i s h Empire on Canada's b e h a l f . However, the Courts have h e l d t h a t s i n c e a c h i e v i n g s o v e r e i g n t y , Canadian powers r e l a t i n g t o t r e a t i e s are no 56 l o n g e r t o be based on s e c t i o n 132, and nowhere i n the C o n s t i t u t i o n i s t h e r e any o t h e r grant of a f o r e i g n a f f a i r s power. The p r e v a i l i n g view i s t h a t the f e d e r a l l e v e l of government has the undisputed r i g h t t o e n t e r i n t o or make 57 t r e a t i e s which are b i n d i n g on Canada i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l law. The d e l e g a t i o n of t h i s treaty-making power was confirmed i n the 1947 L e t t e r s Patent p e r t a i n i n g t o the o f f i c e of the Governor G e n e r a l . 5 8 Because the treaty-making power i s a Crown p r e r o g a t i v e , the a u t h o r i t y t o e x e r c i s e t h a t power r e s t s 59 w i t h the e x e c u t i v e branch o f the f e d e r a l government, and n e i t h e r P a r l i a m e n t nor the p r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e s have any l e g a l r o l e t o p l a y i n the s i g n i n g o r r a t i f i c a t i o n o f 59 t r e a t i e s . In o r d e r t o perform the o b l i g a t i o n s o f a t r e a t y , the t r e a t y must be implemented by domestic l e g i s l a t i o n . In Canada t h i s t r e a t y - i m p l e m e n t i n g power i s not c o e x t e n s i v e w i t h the treaty-making power, due t o the d e c i s i o n o f the P r i v y C o u n c i l 6 0 i n the Labour Conventions case. In t h a t r u l i n g the Court d e c i d e d t h a t i t i s necessary t o look a t the s u b j e c t matter of a t r e a t y i n or d e r t o deci d e which l e v e l o f government has the a u t h o r i t y t o enact l e g i s l a t i o n t o implement t h a t t r e a t y . I f the s u b j e c t matter f a l l s w i t h i n a f e d e r a l head o f l e g i s l a t i v e power, P a r l i a m e n t can implement the t r e a t y ; w i t h i n t h e i r own spheres o f l e g i s l a t i v e power the p r o v i n c e s have e x c l u s i v e power t o enact t r e a t y - i m p l e m e n t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . T h i s c o n t i n u e s t o be the a u t h o r i t a t i v e case i n Canada, although over the ye a r s the d e c i s i o n has been much c r i t i c i z e d , and numerous authors have p o i n t e d out i n d i c i a i n r e c e n t Supreme Court o f Canada cases which h i n t t h a t the d e c i s i o n may be . , , 61 r e c o n s i d e r e d . In the absence o f a c l e a r f e d e r a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l mandate t o implement t r e a t i e s , l e g i s l a t i o n such as the ODCA was as v u l n e r a b l e t o p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c h a l l e n g e s as any ot h e r environmental law i n Canada. In 1982 a c o r p o r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia c h a l l e n g e d the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l v a l i d i t y of the ODCA, a f t e r i t was charged w i t h v i o l a t i n g i t s dumping 6 2 p e r m i t . The area o f the ocean i n which the dumping took 60 p l a c e was w i t h i n the boundaries of the P r o v i n c e , and t h e r e was no p o l l u t i o n of e x t r a - p r o v i n c i a l waters. The P r o v i n c i a l government j o i n e d the a c t i o n and argued t h a t l e g i s l a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n belonged t o i t , although no P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n had been enacted. The Supreme Court of Canada d i s a g r e e d , and i n a f o u r t o t h r e e s p l i t d e c i s i o n i t upheld the l e g i s l a t i o n as a v a l i d e x e r c i s e of f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n over matters of n a t i o n a l concern r e l a t i n g t o the peace, o r d e r and good 63 government (POGG) o f Canada. The Court undertook an e x t e n s i v e review of the e x t e n t of the POGG power as s e t out i n v a r i o u s P r i v y C o u n c i l and Supreme Court d e c i s i o n s s i n c e 1896, c l a r i f y i n g and r e c o n c i l i n g a number of l e g a l p r i n c i p l e s . A f t e r o u t l i n i n g the requirements which a matter must have i n o r d e r t o q u a l i f y as a s u b j e c t of n a t i o n a l concern, the Court h e l d t h a t "...marine p o l l u t i o n , because of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the composition and a c t i o n of marine waters and f r e s h waters, has i t s own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s c i e n t i f i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h i t from f r e s h 64 water p o l l u t i o n . " . In a d d i t i o n , the Court h e l d t h a t t h i s s a l t w a t e r / f r e s h water d i s t i n c t i o n met the requirement " . . . t h a t i n o r d e r f o r a matter t o q u a l i f y as one o f n a t i o n a l concern f a l l i n g w i t h i n the f e d e r a l peace, o r d e r and good government power i t must have a s c e r t a i n a b l e and r easonable l i m i t s , i n so f a r as i t s impact on p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n i s 65 concerned," even though the a c t u a l marine p o l l u t i o n took p l a c e e n t i r e l y w i t h i n p r o v i n c i a l boundaries and had no e x t r a -p r o v i n c i a l e f f e c t . A f t e r n o t i n g the i n t e r n a t i o n a l " c h a r a c t e r 61 and i m p l i c a t i o n s " of marine p o l l u t i o n problems, the Court went on t o conclude t h a t marine p o l l u t i o n g e n e r a l l y , and the ODCA i n p a r t i c u l a r , was w i t h i n the l e g i s l a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n of t he f e d e r a l P arliament. While the d i s s e n t i n g j u s t i c e s would have supported f e d e r a l marine p o l l u t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n governing areas o f the sea o u t s i d e the p r o v i n c e s , o r even i f t he dumping w i t h i n a 6 6 p r o v i n c e had the e f f e c t o f p o l l u t i n g o t h e r p r o v i n c e s , they v i g o r o u s l y d i s a g r e e d about the v a l i d i t y o f the l e g i s l a t i o n i n areas e n t i r e l y w i t h i n one p r o v i n c e . They expressed s t r o n g concern over the " p o t e n t i a l b r eadth" o f f e d e r a l p o l l u t i o n 67 c o n t r o l powers, and d i d not see ocean p o l l u t i o n as a " s u f f i c i e n t l y d i s c r e t e s u b j e c t " upon which t o found f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h i s s t r o n g d i s s e n t , i t i s c l e a r t h a t marine p o l l u t i o n , and s p e c i f i c a l l y ocean dumping, i s a matter of n a t i o n a l concern and thus w i t h i n f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n under the POGG power. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s does not r e s o l v e a l l o f the p o s s i b l e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l problems r e l a t i n g t o ocean dumping a c t i v i t i e s . As j u s t one example, one may examine the case o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f dangerous goods from an i n d u s t r i a l s i t e t o a p o r t f a c i l i t y where they would be loaded f o r ocean dumping. Depending upon whether the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l , i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l o r wh o l l y i n t r a p r o v i n c i a l , d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f government would have l e g i s l a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n . One must bear i n mind, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t q u e s t i o n s o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n have co n t i n u e d r e l e v a n c e t o marine environmental p o l i c y i s s u e s , even a f t e r the Supreme Court d e c i s i o n u p h o l d i n g the ODCA. One f u r t h e r problem i s whether the r e c e n t i n c l u s i o n o f the ODCA i n the CEPA w i l l reopen the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a l l e n g e . While the ODCA was upheld as v a l i d f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n , t h i s was l a r g e l y because ocean p o l l u t i o n was a s u b j e c t matter w i t h a s u f f i c i e n t s i n g l e n e s s , d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s and i n d i v i s i b i l i t y t o c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h i t from matters o f p r o v i n c i a l concern, and w i t h an impact on p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n r e c o n c i l a b l e w i t h the d i s t r i b u t i o n of l e g i s l a t i v e power i n the C o n s t i t u t i o n . The new CEPA, attempting t o d e a l w i t h a i r , l a n d , freshwater and marine t o x i c substances r e g u l a t i o n from c r e a t i o n t o d i s p o s a l , may w e l l f a i l t o meet t h i s t e s t . On the othe r hand, P a r t VI of the CEPA i s arguably s e v e r a b l e from the remainder o f the Act, and thus may be immune from such c h a l l e n g e s even i f oth e r P a r t s o f the A c t were e v e n t u a l l y t o be s t r u c k down as u l t r a  v i r e s . c. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P o l i c i e s and Canadian Dumping P r a c t i c e s The b a s i c s t r u c t u r e of the ODCA was c l e a r , and i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l v a l i d i t y has been upheld. P a r t VI of the CEPA which r e p l a c e d i t i s extremely s i m i l a r i n d e s i g n . One might, t h e r e f o r e , suppose t h a t the p r a c t i c a l implementation o f the l e g i s l a t i o n would be s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , f o l l o w i n g p r e c i s e l y the r u l e s l a i d down i n the enactments. Instead, l i k e most Canadian s t a t u t e s , the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the ODCA i n v o l v e d a number o f g u i d e l i n e s and procedures t h a t were o f t e n i n t e r n a l , u n o f f i c i a l , d i s c r e t i o n a r y and p u b l i c l y u n a v a i l a b l e , and one 63 can a n t i c i p a t e t h a t t h e s e p r a c t i c e s w i l l c o n t i n u e under the CEPA. The CEPA p r o v i d e s t h a t the M i n i s t e r o f the Environment has the d i s c r e t i o n t o grant, w i t h h o l d , v a r y and r e s c i n d ocean dumping p e r m i t s , and a t t a c h t o such permits such terms and . . 70 c o n d i t i o n s as he deems necessary. In p r a c t i c e t h i s M i n i s t e r i a l d i s c r e t i o n i s d e l e g a t e d t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c i a l s , and i t would be an extremely r a r e case indeed i n which the M i n i s t e r o f the Environment p e r s o n a l l y reviewed a permit a p p l i c a t i o n . Permit a p p l i c a t i o n s are normally reviewed by a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r s working f o r the Ocean Dumping and Contaminants C o n t r o l d i v i s i o n o f the Environmental P r o t e c t i o n , C o n s e r v a t i o n and P r o t e c t i o n (EPCP) S e r v i c e r e g i o n a l o f f i c e . EPCP i s a branch o f Environment Canada, the f e d e r a l department of the environment. I f the permit a p p l i c a t i o n i s complete and passes i n i t i a l s c r e e n i n g by EPCP s t a f f , the a p p l i c a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y c i r c u l a t e d f o r comment t o the f e d e r a l department of F i s h e r i e s and Oceans, the Canadian Coast Guard, and the r e l e v a n t p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y o f the 71 Environment. Once t h i s c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s i s complete, the permit a p p l i c a t i o n i s reviewed by the Re g i o n a l Ocean Dumping A d v i s o r y Committee (RODAC), which c o n s i s t s o f a pane l made up of s t a f f from Environment Canada and F i s h e r i e s and Oceans Canada. RODAC e i t h e r recommends t h a t the permit be i s s u e d s u b j e c t t o s p e c i f i e d terms and c o n d i t i o n s , o r recommends t h a t the permit be denied. In most circumstances t h i s i s the 64 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l a t which a d e c i s i o n about the dumping 72 permit i s a c t u a l l y made. RODAC's recommendation i s made t o the D i r e c t o r o f the r e g i o n a l Environmental P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e , who i s the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r t h a t a c t u a l l y s i g n s the p e r m i t s . R a r e l y would a permit a p p l i c a t i o n be taken up a t h i g h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s , such as the Head of the Ocean Dumping Program, Ottawa o f f i c i a l s o f Environment Canada, the Deputy 73 M i n i s t e r o r the M i n i s t e r h i m s e l f . S i n c e t h e enactment of the ODCA i n 1975, over 1800 pe r m i t s have been i s s u e d i n Canada f o r the ocean d i s p o s a l o f 74 v a r i o u s wastes. From 119 t o 204 pe r m i t s p e r year have been i s s u e d f o r dredged m a t e r i a l d i s p o s a l , w h i l e 13 t o 32 pe r m i t s 75 per y e a r have been i s s u e d f o r oth e r types o f wastes. The percentage o f permits f o r non-dredged m a t e r i a l d i s p o s a l has g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d over the yea r s , from approximately 10% t o 7 6 about 25% of t o t a l p e r mits i s s u e d . For example, i n 1985 75.2% o f the permits i s s u e d were f o r dredged m a t e r i a l d i s p o s a l , w h i l e o t h e r substances dumped i n c l u d e d v e s s e l s , f i s h and crab o f f a l , s c r a p metal, s u r f a c t a n t , b r i n e s o l u t i o n , weapons and s h i p g a l l e y r e f u s e , as w e l l as experimental 77 d i s c h a r g e s of o i l and r a d i o a c t i v e m a t e r i a l . Permit c o n d i t i o n s g e n e r a l l y govern matters such as h a n d l i n g , s t o r a g e and l o a d i n g o f wastes, the t i m i n g o f the d i s p o s a l o p e r a t i o n , 78 and the method of placement a t the d i s p o s a l s i t e . The t o t a l q u a n t i t y o f wastes d i s p o s e d o f i n the Canadian 79 oceans i n 1985 was approximately 8 m i l l i o n m e t r i c tonnes. Canadian wastes are g e n e r a l l y d i s p o s e d o f i n s i x major s i t e s , 65 each o f which r e c e i v e s over 140,000 tonnes o f m a t e r i a l a n n u a l l y . There a r e 164 a d d i t i o n a l dump s i t e s i n Canadian 8 0 waters, i n which the balance o f the wastes are dumped. L i m i t e d m o n i t o r i n g o f s i x o f the minor dump s i t e s has i n d i c a t e d t h a t dumping o p e r a t i o n s are be i n g r e s t r i c t e d t o the 81 p r e s c r i b e d l o c a t i o n s by the permit p r o c e s s . In a d d i t i o n , approximately 3 0% o f the l o a d i n g and dumping o p e r a t i o n s were i n s p e c t e d i n the 1985-86 year, and no permit i n f r a c t i o n s 8 2 r e q u i r i n g l e g a l a c t i o n were d i s c o v e r e d . One may, however, q u e s t i o n the adequacy of such a l i m i t e d m o n i t o r i n g and compliance program, p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e o n l y f o u r p r o s e c u t i o n s were ever undertaken f o r i n f r a c t i o n s o f the ODCA i n the t h i r t e e n y e a r s i t was i n f o r c e . There i s c o n t i n u i n g and i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e , both on a g l o b a l s c a l e and w i t h i n Canada, t o u t i l i z e t he oceans as a waste r e c e p t a c l e f o r ever g r e a t e r volumes of m a t e r i a l . I n d u s t r i a l expansion, p o p u l a t i o n growth and a shortage o f land-based d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s are a l l c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s 8 3 growing p r e s s u r e . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f ocean d i s p o s a l i s a l s o becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y a t t r a c t i v e e c o n o m i c a l l y , as more s t r i n g e n t environmental standards b e g i n t o i n c r e a s e the c o s t s 84 of land-based d i s p o s a l . In Canada, p r e s s u r e s c o n t i n u e t o mount t o use the oceans t o d i s p o s e o f s o l i d wastes, such as f u e l drums, e l e c t r i c a l a p p l i a n c e s , s c r a p metal, v e h i c l e s and machinery, t o dump i n d u s t r i a l wastes such as aluminum sm e l t e r and c o n s t r u c t i o n d e b r i s , and t o d i s p o s e o f f i s h o f f a l , sewage slud g e and i n c i n e r a b l e o r g a n o c h l o r i n e w a s t e s . 8 5 As Environment Canada seeks t o develop domestic p o l i c i e s 66 t h a t w i l l balance economic p r a c t i c a l i t y w i t h environmental a c c e p t a b i l i t y , the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e response t o such p r e s s u r e s 8 6 has been mixed. I n t e r n a l management g u i d e l i n e s s t a t e : In those cases where i t can not be shown t h a t i n c r e a s e d environmental damage can o r w i l l r e s u l t from ocean d i s p o s a l of a t r e a t e d or u n t r e a t e d waste and t h i s r e p r e s e n t s the l e a s t c o s t d i s p o s a l o p t i o n then ocean dumping should not be opposed on the b a s i s o f " p r i n c i p l e . " A few examples w i l l h e l p t o i l l u s t r a t e how p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s have been developed " u n o f f i c i a l l y " under the ocean dumping l e g i s l a t i o n , whenever a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s have been encountered, i n o r d e r t o accommodate the need t o c o n t i n u e t o p r o c e s s dumping a p p l i c a t i o n s without l e g i s l a t i v e amendment or the promulgation of o f f i c i a l r e g u l a t i o n s . Approximately 10% of the Canadian dredge s p o i l t h a t i s dumped i s contaminated by p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous m a t e r i a l s , i n c l u d i n g o i l and grease, s y n t h e t i c o r g a n i c s and heavy 87 metals. For o i l , the r e g u l a t i o n s f i x the maximum p e r m i s s i b l e c o n c e n t r a t i o n as "any q u a n t i t y t h a t y i e l d s more 88 than 10 mg per kg o f n-hexane s o l u b l e substances." So long as hydrocarbons are p r e s e n t a t l e s s than t h i s l e v e l , the CEPA a l l o w s the waste t o be dumped d e s p i t e contamination by these 89 b l a c k - l i s t e d substances. A c t u a l a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r permits t o dump o i l - c o n t a m i n a t e d wastes have ranged from m a t e r i a l w i t h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s w e l l w i t h i n these l i m i t s t o m a t e r i a l s which have g r o s s l y exceeded . . 90 the s p e c i f i e d l e v e l s . On average, the c o n c e n t r a t i o n s have been c o n s i s t e n t l y above the r e g u l a t o r y l i m i t (approximately 91 1465 mg/kg t o March, 1978) , and a government sponsored 67 review has concluded t h a t the r e g u l a t o r y l i m i t s h o u l d be 92 changed. In the i n t e r i m , Environment Canada has adopted an u n o f f i c i a l " s c r e e n i n g g u i d e l i n e " f o r a l l o w i n g o i l i n 93 sediments a t a l e v e l o f 1500 ppm, and i t i s s t a t e d p o l i c y t o p e rmit d i s p o s a l o f contaminated dredge s p o i l s i f they do not exceed the background c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of the same contaminants a t the proposed dump s i t e , a p o l i c y r e f e r r e d t o 94 as the " l i k e - o n - l i k e " concept. The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s p o l i c y i s t h a t such dumping i n v o l v e s d i s p o s a l o f m a t e r i a l t h a t i s " r a p i d l y rendered harmless," because i t i s b e i n g dumped i n t o an area which i s a l r e a d y e q u a l l y p o l l u t e d . Some authors argue t h a t t o a l l o w the dumping of b l a c k -l i s t e d substances a t a l l , much l e s s i n amounts exceeding t r a c e l e v e l s and s p e c i f i e d r e g u l a t o r y l i m i t s , i s c o n t r a r y t o 95 the s p i r i t and i n t e n t i o n o f ocean dumping laws. On the o t h e r hand, i t i s c l e a r t h a t the l i k e - o n - l i k e p o l i c y stems from the u n d e r l y i n g a t t i t u d e s e x h i b i t e d i n both the LDC and P a r t VI of the CEPA, which seek merely t o c o n t r o l o r r e g u l a t e the d i s p o s a l o f e x i s t i n g wastes and are not designed t o a c t i v e l y promote the r e c l a m a t i o n of degraded areas o r d i s c o u r a g e the use of ocean dumping as a waste d i s p o s a l method. In t h i s r e g a r d i t i s worth n o t i n g t h a t the LDC was i n i t i a l l y developed l a r g e l y by dumping s t a t e s , although non-96 dumping n a t i o n s now form a m a j o r i t y o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . Environment Canada takes a s i m i l a r approach i n r e l a t i o n t o dredge s p o i l s contaminated w i t h organohalogens o r heavy metals. I f s p e c i f i e d r e g u l a t o r y l e v e l s are exceeded, these m a t e r i a l s are n e v e r t h e l e s s p e r m i t t e d t o be dumped i f they 68 w i l l be r a p i d l y rendered harmless e i t h e r under the l i k e - o n -l i k e concept or i n some o t h e r manner. The r e g u l a t o r y l e v e l s e t f o r organohalogen compounds i s an amount not exceeding 0.01 p a r t s o f a c o n c e n t r a t i o n , shown t o be t o x i c t o marine organisms i n a t e s t " c a r r i e d out i n accordance w i t h 97 procedures e s t a b l i s h e d o r approved by t h e M i n i s t e r . " As no such procedures have ever been e s t a b l i s h e d o r approved, the department adopted an u n o f f i c i a l g u i d e l i n e o f 1 ppm f o r PCB's. 9 8 The a l l o w a b l e r e g u l a t o r y l i m i t f o r mercury i s 0.75 mg/kg i n the s o l i d phase of wastes, and 1.5 mg/kg i n the l i q u i d 99 . . . . phase. T h i s has been c r i t i c i z e d because the l i q u i d phase i s thought t o be more r e a d i l y b i o a v a i l a b l e than the s o l i d phase and, t h e r e f o r e , i t ought t o be r e s t r i c t e d t o a g r e a t e r d e g r e e . 1 0 0 In f a c t the s u i t a b i l i t y o f e i t h e r v a l u e i s 101 v i r t u a l l y unknown, as the type o f b u l k chemical a n a l y s i s used t o d e t e c t metal contamination l e v e l s r e v e a l s n o t h i n g about the a c t u a l b i o a v a i l a b i l i t y o f the p a r t i c u l a r mercury compounds i n the sediments, or t h e i r p o t e n t i a l r e l e a s e d u r i n g and a f t e r d i s p o s a l o p e r a t i o n s . Recommendations have now been made t o change the r e g u l a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o r e q u i r e the use of b i o a s s a y s and o n - s i t e examinations of marine organisms i n 102 or d e r t o determine a c t u a l t o x i c i t y . S i m i l a r problems e x i s t w i t h the r e g u l a t o r y l i m i t s f o r cadmium, which are s e t a t 0.6 mg/kg i n the s o l i d phase and 103 . . . . . 3.0 mg/kg i n the l i q u i d phase. L i m i t e d s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the adverse a q u a t i c e f f e c t s o f cadmium 104 aggravate the r e g u l a t o r y problems. Cadmium a l s o c r e a t e s 69 r e g u l a t o r y d i f f i c u l t i e s i n some o f f s h o r e l o c a t i o n s because i t r o u t i n e l y o c c u r s i n n a t u r a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s h i g h e r than the 105 l e g i s l a t e d l i m i t s , a v e r a g i n g 0.8 mg/kg. In o r d e r f o r dumping t o c o n t i n u e , permits are i s s u e d based on the l i k e - o n -l i k e p r i n c i p l e . In a d d i t i o n , cadmium-contaminated m a t e r i a l s have been dumped i n the deep ocean, on the t h e o r y t h a t the d i l u t i o n a t such a s i t e would r a p i d l y render the m a t e r i a l s , , 106 harmless. A f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t y i s t h a t no r e g u l a t o r y l i m i t s were ever e s t a b l i s h e d i n the l e g i s l a t i o n r e g a r d i n g g r e y - l i s t e d substances. Environment Canada, t h e r e f o r e , uses u n o f f i c i a l g u i d e l i n e s o f 500 ppm f o r l e a d and p e s t i c i d e s , and 1000 ppm f o r a l l o t h e r g r e y - l i s t e d contaminants, as a method t o "pre-107 s c r e e n " the s u i t a b i l i t y of a waste f o r ocean dumping. In a d d i t i o n , no permit i s r e q u i r e d f o r n o n - l i s t e d substances i f the m a t e r i a l t o be dumped i s below a minimum l e v e l of 108 2000 m e t r i c tonnes of c l e a n dredge s p o i l . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , n o t h i n g was done t o implement or review any o f these u n o f f i c i a l p o l i c y or s c r e e n i n g g u i d e l i n e s when the ODCA was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the CEPA. G e n e r a l l y speaking, w h i l e the i n c l u s i o n of the ODCA i n the CEPA has improved p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o some degree, strengthened enforcement powers, and a l t e r e d the p e r c e p t i o n o f the ocean dumping l e g i s l a t i o n from a v e s s e l - s o u r c e p o l l u t i o n enactment, t o an A c t c o n t r o l l i n g land-based p o l l u t i o n , the fundamental concept of the l e g i s l a t i o n has not changed. Dumping c o n t i n u e s t o be viewed as an a c c e p t a b l e waste d i s p o s a l o p t i o n and i s being r e g u l a t e d r a t h e r than p r o h i b i t e d . Rather than t r y i n g t o prevent wastes from b e i n g generated and encouraging the treatment and r e c y c l i n g o f wastes, the A c t attempts t o manage wastes as produced and t o l i m i t a s s o c i a t e d impacts. Given the dangers which are i n v o l v e d i n the dumping of t o x i c and p e r s i s t e n t wastes, i n c l u d i n g those mentioned e a r l i e r i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , an argument can be made t h a t d u r i n g the r e c e n t amendments the l e g i s l a t i o n s h o u l d have been co m p l e t e l y r e o r g a n i z e d t o p r e c l u d e the d e l i b e r a t e ocean dumping of a l l such hazardous wastes. As a l e g i s l a t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e the H e l s i n k i Convention approach seems a t t r a c t i v e . I t p r o h i b i t s the dumping o f a l l substances but dredged m a t e r i a l s , and t r e a t s dredge s p o i l as needing s p e c i a l c a r e because o f the p o s s i b l e presence of hazardous contaminants. Such an approach c o u l d have been g i v e n s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n as a method o f improving t o x i c waste c o n t r o l i n Canada. Amendments c o u l d a l s o have been c o n s i d e r e d t o make the l e g i s l a t i o n more p r e v e n t i v e and t o a c t i v e l y promote the use o f b e t t e r waste management o p t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t o x i c substances. Chapter Four: Notes 1. S.C. 1974-75-76, c. 55 as am. SOR/81-721. 2. S.C. 1988, C . 22. 3. Canada, Environment Canada, Canadian Environmental  P r o t e c t i o n A c t Enforcement and Compliance P o l i c y (Ottawa: M i n i s t e r o f Supply and S e r v i c e s , 1988). 4. S e c t i o n 6. 5. S e c t i o n 98. 6. S e c t i o n 34 (6). 7. S.C. 1974-75-76, c. 72, as am. 8. S e c t i o n s 12 t o 14. 9. S e c t i o n s 25 t o 32. 10. S e c t i o n s 33 t o 40. 11. PCB's, mirex, polybrominated b i p h e n y l s , p o l y c h l o r i n a t e d t e r p h e n y l s , c h l o r o f l u o r o c a r b o n s , asbestos, l e a d , mercury and v i n y l c h l o r i d e . 12. S e c t i o n 34(2) . 13. S e c t i o n 34(3). 14. R.S.C. 197 0 (1st Supp.), c. 5, as am. 15. S.C. 1970-71-72, c. 47, as am. 16. S e c t i o n 66 (2). 17. S e c t i o n 69. 18. S e c t i o n 70. 19. London Dumping Convention (1975) 2 U.S.T. 2403, A r t i c l e IV. 20. S e c t i o n s 67 and 71. 21. S e c t i o n 71(3). 22. S e c t i o n 71(4). 23. S e c t i o n 72(1). 24. S e c t i o n 71(1). 72 25. S e c t i o n 73(1). 26. S e c t i o n s 74(1) and 89(4). 27. S e c t i o n 8 9 ( 1 ) ( 3 ) . 28. S e c t i o n 96. 29. S e c t i o n 72(4). 30. S e c t i o n 91. 31. S e c t i o n 113(m). 32. S e c t i o n 118. 33. S e c t i o n 130. 34. S e c t i o n 77. 35. S e c t i o n 86(2). 36. C.R.C. 1978, c. 1243. 37. S e c t i o n 88. 38. S e c t i o n 4. 39. C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t, 1867, 30 & 31 V i c t o r i a , c. 3 (U.K.) as am. 40. S e c t i o n 91(29) and 9 2 ( 1 0 ) ( a ) ( b ) . 41. S e c t i o n 91(2). 42. S e c t i o n 95. 43. S e c t i o n 91(12). 44. S e c t i o n 91(10). 45. S e c t i o n 91(3). 46. S e c t i o n 91(27). 47. Preamble of s e c t i o n 91. 48. S e c t i o n 92(5). 49. S e c t i o n 92 (8). 50. S e c t i o n 92(10). 51. S e c t i o n 92 (13). 73 52. S e c t i o n 92(16). 53. S e c t i o n 92A. 54. S e c t i o n 95. 55. S e c t i o n s 91(1A) and 92(5). 56. A.G. Canada v A.G. O n t a r i o (Labour Conventions) (1937) A.C. 326 (P.C.). 57. S.A. W i l l i a m s and A.L.C. d e M e s t r a l , An I n t r o d u c t i o n  t o I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law C h i e f l y as I n t e r p r e t e d and A p p l i e d i n  Canada. 2nd ed.(Toronto: Butterworths, 1987), p. 351; P. Hogg, C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Law of Canada. 2nd ed. (Toronto: C a r s w e l l , 1985), p. 242. 58. R.S.C. 1970, App. I I , No. 35 (U.K.). 59. Hogg, p. 244; W i l l i a m s , p. 351. 60. Labour Conventions, supra note 36. 61. Hogg, p. 251-254; W i l l i a m s , p. 357. 62. R. v Crown Z e l l e r b a c h L t d . . (1988) 3 W.W.R. 385 (S.C.C.); r v s g . (1984) 2 W.W.R. 714 (B.C.C.A.); a f f g . (1982) 11 C.E.L.R. 151 (B.C. Prov. C t . ) . 63. Preamble of s e c t i o n 91, C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t , 1867, supra note 19. 64. Z e l l e r b a c h . p. 412. 65. I b i d . 66. I b i d . , p. 417. 67. I b i d . , p. 419. 68. I b i d . , p. 426. 69. Douglas M. Johnston, Canada and the New  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law of the Sea (Toronto: U. of T. Press, 1985), p. 54. 70. S e c t i o n s 71 and 72. 71. W i l l i a m J . Andrews and J.W. Higham, P r o t e c t i n g the  B.C. Environment: A Catalogue o f P r o j e c t Review Processes (Ottawa: Environment Canada, 1986), p. 17; I n t e r v i e w w i t h Hal Nelson, Environmental P r o t e c t i o n C o n s e r v a t i o n and P r o t e c t i o n , Vancouver, B.C., 27 October 1987. 72. I b i d . 74 73. I b i d . 74. Canada, Environment Canada, Ocean Dumping C o n t r o l  A c t Annual Report 1985-86 (Ottawa: Supply and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1986), p. 31. 75. I b i d . , p. 32. 76. I b i d . , p. 12. 77. I b i d . , p. 4-6, 19, 29. 78. I b i d . , p.2. 79. I b i d . , p. 29. 80. I b i d . , p. 8. 81. I b i d . 82. I b i d . , p. 7 . 83. I b i d . , p. 14. 84. John W. K i n d t . Marine P o l l u t i o n and the Law o f the Sea. 4 v o l s . (New York: W i l l i a m S. Hein & Co., 1986), p. 1101-1102. 85. Canada . Annual Report, p. 17-19. 86. (Ottawa: Ocean Dumping Program, "ODCA Management G u i d e l i n e s " Environment Canada, 1986), p. 6. 87. Canada . Annual Report, p. 14. 88. 0 • R • 0 • 1978, c. 1243, s e c t i o n 5 ( e ) . 89. S e c t i o n 9 ( 5 ) ( b ) . 90. J . J . Swiss e t a l . , Regulated L e v e l s o f Schedule I  Substances i n the Ocean Dumping C o n t r o l A c t - A Review. Ocean Dumping Report 3 (Ottawa: F i s h e r i e s and Oceans Canada, 1980), p . l . 91. I b i d . , p. 51. 92. I b i d . , p. 5, 51. 93. Ocean Dumping Program, p. 10. 94. J . Karau, " N a t i o n a l ODCA Research P r i o r i t i e s , " i n Report on Ocean Dumping R & D P a c i f i c Region: Department o f  F i s h e r i e s and Oceans 1985-86, S.M. Woods (Sidney: I n s t i t u t e o f Ocean S c i e n c e s , 1987), p. 26. 75 95. For example, see K i n d t . 96. World Commission on Environment and Development, Our  Common Future (Oxford: Oxford U. Press, 1987), p. 270. 97. C.R.C. 1978, c. 1243, s e c t i o n 5 ( a ) . 98. Nelson i n t e r v i e w . 99. C.R.C. 1978, C. 1243, s e c t i o n 5 ( b ) . 100. Nelson i n t e r v i e w . 101. Swiss, p. 3. 102. Woods, p. 2. 103. C.R.C. 1978, c. 1243, s e c t i o n 5 ( c ) . 104. Swiss, p. 4. 105. I b i d . , p. 1. 106. Nelson i n t e r v i e w . 107. I b i d . 108. Ocean Dumping Program, p. 2. 76 PART I I : OCEAN INCINERATION AND ITS PLACE IN HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT W i t h i n the e x i s t i n g n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e g a l framework r e g u l a t i n g ocean dumping a c t i v i t i e s , s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n s have been developed t o c o n t r o l the a t - s e a d i s p o s a l of t o x i c wastes by i n c i n e r a t i o n . The d e s t r u c t i o n o f t o x i c wastes by i n c i n e r a t i o n i s thought by many t o be a p r e f e r r e d method o f d i s p o s i n g o f these substances, although t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l o f ongoing c o n t r o v e r s y about the use of t h i s t e c h nology a t sea. In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s , the l e g a l and p o l i t i c a l s t a t e g i e s which have been developed t o improve t o x i c waste c o n t r o l a re examined, f o c u s s i n g on the use of i n c i n e r a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y and some o f i t s a s s o c i a t e d environmental and h e a l t h r i s k s . The h i s t o r y o f the use of i n c i n e r a t i o n t e c h nology a t sea i s d e s c r i b e d , f o l l o w i n g which the i n t e r n a t i o n a l laws are b r i e f l y reviewed. The c u r r e n t and proposed n a t i o n a l r e g u l a t i o n o f t h i s a c t i v i t y i n Canada i s then d e s c r i b e d , t o p r o v i d e an overview o f the complex l e g i s l a t i v e framework w i t h i n which Canadian ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s would be r e q u i r e d t o operate. F i n a l l y , t he ongoing i n t e r n a t i o n a l debate over the a d v i s a b i l i t y o f the use o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d , t o p r o v i d e a c o n t e x t w i t h i n which Canadian law and p o l i c y development i n t h i s area can be examined. 77 Chapter F i v e : Waste Management S t r a t e g i e s a. The Waste Management H i e r a r c h y In an e f f o r t t o move away from p u r e l y r e a c t i v e approaches t o p o l l u t i o n problems, and t o develop a more p r e v e n t i v e approach, the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s o f the world have reached widespread agreement on the need t o e v a l u a t e the a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f a v a i l a b l e management o p t i o n s f o r hazardous wastes, on l a n d and a t sea, and t o promote p r e f e r r e d o p t i o n s . The u n d e r l y i n g g o a l i s t o reduce the environmental and h e a l t h r i s k s caused by hazardous wastes, and thus the waste management a l t e r n a t i v e s are g e n e r a l l y arranged i n an h i e r a r c h y a c c o r d i n g t o the degree t o which they reduce the 1 r i s k and degree o f harm. The d e t a i l s of the waste management h i e r a r c h y v a r y from one j u r i s d i c t i o n t o another. N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e r e i s a g e n e r a l consensus on an h i e r a r c h y i n which the p r e f e r r e d waste management s t r a t e g y i s t o change i n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s e s i n or d e r t o e l i m i n a t e o r reduce the amount or the t o x i c i t y o f the waste b e i n g c r e a t e d . The o t h e r o p t i o n s , i n o r d e r from 2 most t o l e a s t d e s i r a b l e , a re: 1. r e c o v e r y , r e c y c l i n g and reuse o f wastes; 2. treatment or d e s t r u c t i o n o f the waste b e f o r e d i s p o s a l t o reduce i t s hazardous c h a r a c t e r ; 3. s t o r a g e , i s o l a t i o n o r containment; and 4. d i s p e r s a l i n t o the environment. Governments are, a c c o r d i n g l y , l o o k i n g t o develop laws 78 and r e g u l a t i o n s which w i l l promote the p r e f e r a b l e waste management o p t i o n s , and d i s c o u r a g e the use of l e s s p r e f e r a b l e s t r a t e g i e s . In a d d i t i o n , v a r i e t i e s of new waste management te c h n i q u e s are now b e i n g t e s t e d and developed, i n c l u d i n g b i o l o g i c a l and chemical treatments, r e c y c l i n g p r o c e s s e s , thermal and chemical d e s t r u c t i o n , and secure methods of l a n d f i l l i n g . A b r i e f review o f P a r t VI of the Canadian Environmental P r o t e c t i o n A c t , and the London Dumping Convention upon which i t i s based, r e v e a l s t h a t the dumping laws are g e n e r a l l y designed merely t o r e g u l a t e the use of the l e a s t d e s i r a b l e d i s p o s a l o p t i o n , t h a t of d i s p e r s a l i n the environment. For example, under the LDC the d i s p e r s a l of o n l y a few types of hazardous waste i s p r o h i b i t e d or r e s t r i c t e d (the b l a c k and grey l i s t s ) , and even f o r these wastes t h e r e are s e v e r a l e x c e p t i o n s i n which d i s c r e t i o n a r y d e c i s i o n s may be made t o a l l o w d i s p e r s a l by dumping. While the o l d ODCA had no p r e v e n t i v e p r o v i s i o n s , the CEPA does p r o v i d e i n P a r t I I f o r the assessment o f t o x i c substances and t h e i r p r o h i b i t i o n o r r e s t r i c t i o n . The CEPA p r o v i s i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , g r a n t some assurance t h a t new hazardous waste streams are not i n t r o d u c e d i n t o Canada, thus a v o i d i n g the c r e a t i o n of new d i s p o s a l problems. As l o n g as some c a r e i s taken t o i n t e g r a t e P a r t I I r e s t r i c t i o n s w i t h the P a r t VI b l a c k and grey l i s t s , i t may be p o s s i b l e t o r e s t r i c t the ocean d i s p o s a l o f many substances or, by P a r t I I r e g u l a t i o n s , t o r e q u i r e the use of p r e f e r r e d d i s p o s a l t e c h n i q u e s . The London Dumping Convention r e q u i r e s t h a t s t a t e s , b e f o r e i s s u i n g p e r m i t s , g i v e " c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n " t o the 3 twenty-one f a c t o r s s e t out i n Annex I I I , one of which i s "the p o t e n t i a l a v a i l a b i l i t y of a l t e r n a t i v e land-based methods 4 of treatment, d i s p o s a l or e l i m i n a t i o n . " S i m i l a r l y the CEPA r e q u i r e s the M i n i s t e r of the Environment t o "take i n t o account" the twenty-one f a c t o r s s e t out i n Schedule I I I , P a r t 5 I I I t o the A c t i n d e t e r m i n i n g whether t o g r a n t a permit. These f a c t o r s a l s o i n c l u d e "the p r a c t i c a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a l t e r n a t i v e land-based methods o f treatment, d i s p o s a l or e l i m i n a t i o n , or of treatment t o render the matter l e s s harmful f o r dumping a t sea." However, no p r i o r i t y need be g i v e n t o t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n over any of the o t h e r twenty f a c t o r s . I t i s a l s o u n c l e a r what i s meant by the need t o "take i n t o account" a v a i l a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s , but i t i s o b v i o u s l y not mandatory f o r the M i n i s t e r t o r e q u i r e the use o f a p r e f e r r e d management o p t i o n i n every case where such an o p t i o n e x i s t s . I t would a l s o seem t h a t the q u a l i f i c a t i o n , t h a t the a l t e r n a t i v e be " p r a c t i c a l " i s not l i m i t e d t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l f e a s i b i l i t y , but can i n c l u d e economic 7 c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Thus, the b e s t a v a i l a b l e technology, or even the mere use of a b e t t e r technology, i s not a c t i v e l y encouraged, and may even be d i s c o u r a g e d i f i t i s more c o s t l y , and thus l e s s " p r a c t i c a l . " From an i n d u s t r y viewpoint, the " i m p o s i t i o n of environmental c o n s i d e r a t i o n s " on such ocean dumping a c t i v i t i e s as d redging programs has caused d e l a y , i n c r e a s e d c o s t s , and c r e a t e d a " s i g n i f i c a n t expansion o f t h e p l a n n i n g 80 p r o c e s s . " T h i s i s viewed by i n d u s t r y as a n e g a t i v e development, r e s u l t i n g i n complaints t h a t environmental . . . 9 concerns tend t o "dominate the decision-making p r o c e s s , " and c a l l s f o r the promotion of "equal and thorough treatment of socio-economic ( c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ) . " 1 0 Given, t h a t t h e P a r t VI CEPA requirements g e n e r a l l y permit the l e a s t d e s i r a b l e waste management s t r a t e g i e s t o be c a r r i e d out and f a i l t o a c t i v e l y encourage any p r e f e r r e d o p t i o n s , t h i s i s a dangerous p r e s s u r e on attempts t o improve waste management and c o n t r o l . C o m p l i c a t i n g the attempt a t implementing government waste management p o l i c i e s i s the f a c t t h a t two o f the l a r g e s t i n d u s t r y proponents are P u b l i c Works Canada and T r a n s p o r t Canada. Other f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l departments are a l s o i n v o l v e d i n d r e d g i n g and dumping a c t i v i t i e s on a s m a l l e r s c a l e . 1 1 At the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l t h e r e has been and c o n t i n u e s t o be d i s c u s s i o n about the meaning o f the " p r a c t i c a l a v a i l a b i l i t y " c r i t e r i o n . Some n a t i o n s i n t e r p r e t t h i s phrase as a method t o a c t i v e l y promote p r e f e r r e d r e c o v e r y and treatment o p t i o n s , and r e f u s e t o i s s u e ocean dumping permits 12 i f any land-based a l t e r n a t i v e e x i s t s . Other n a t i o n s take the p o s i t i o n t h a t sea d i s p o s a l s hould be p r o h i b i t e d o n l y i f i t poses a g r e a t e r human h e a l t h or environmental r i s k than 13 p r a c t i c a b l e land-based a l t e r n a t i v e s . G u i d e l i n e s developed i n 1984 by the p a r t i e s t o the LDC, i n o r d e r t o determine i f l a n d a l t e r n a t i v e s are more p r a c t i c a l , r e q u i r e those n a t i o n s t o make a comparative assessment o f : the human r i s k s , environmental c o s t s , economics, hazards a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 81 t r a n s p o r t and d i s p o s a l , and the e x c l u s i o n of f u t u r e uses of d i s p o s a l a r e a s . 1 4 15 Environment Canada's p o s i t i o n i s t h a t : The f o l l o w i n g waste management o p e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e s w i l l be taken i n t o account whenever the sea d i s p o s a l o p t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d : 1. Whenever p o s s i b l e , r e c y c l e and reuse waste p r o d u c t s . 2. Wastes t h a t cannot be r e c y c l e d or reused should be t r e a t e d a t the source t o the e x t e n t p o s s i b l e . 3. Wastes t h a t cannot be avoided o r reused a t a r e a s o n a b l e c o s t must be d i s p o s e d of s a f e l y . 4. Sea d i s p o s a l should o n l y be used i f i t poses l e s s or no g r e a t e r human h e a l t h and environmental r i s k s than p r a c t i c a b l e land-based a l t e r n a t i v e s . Again, because these p o l i c y statements are merely g u i d e l i n e s and not law, and are d i s c r e t i o n a r y r a t h e r than mandatory, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o ensure t h a t they are g i v e n a c t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n every case, and i m p o s s i b l e t o ensure t h a t they a r e g i v e n p r i o r i t y . There i s n o t h i n g i n t h e g u i d e l i n e s t o r e q u i r e the use of f u t u r e improvements i n technology. S i n c e the reasonableness of the c o s t of d i s p o s a l a l t e r n a t i v e s i s an express c o n s i d e r a t i o n , s h o r t term economic v i a b i l i t y can be expected t o have a major i n f l u e n c e . There i s n o t h i n g t o guarantee t h a t the p o t e n t i a l l y huge f u t u r e c o s t s o f environmental cleanups are balanced a g a i n s t the s h o r t term c o s t s o f i n i t i a l improvements i n waste management. A d d i t i o n a l l y , s i n c e the ocean dumping a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s o n l y t r i g g e r e d once wastes e x i s t and an a p p l i c a t i o n i s made f o r t h e i r d i s p o s a l , the ocean dumping bureaucracy can do l i t t l e t o implement the f i r s t two of these s t a t e d p r i n c i p l e s . b. Ocean I n c i n e r a t i o n 82 One area i n which the ocean dumping l e g i s l a t i o n d i r e c t l y d e a l s w i t h a waste management o p t i o n o t h e r than d i s p e r s a l i s 17 the area o f i n c i n e r a t i o n a t sea. High temperature i n c i n e r a t i o n i s one of the l e a d i n g d e s t r u c t i o n t e c h n o l o g i e s c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e f o r hazardous wastes, and as a form o f waste d e s t r u c t i o n i t f a l l s i n t o a middle t i e r o f the waste management h i e r a r c h y ( l e s s d e s i r a b l e than r e c y c l i n g and 18 treatment, but more d e s i r a b l e than d i s p e r s a l p r a c t i c e s ) . A c c o r d i n g t o American s t u d i e s , approximately 20% of a l l hazardous s o l i d s , l i q u i d s and sludges are s u i t a b l e f o r 19 d e s t r u c t i o n by h i g h temperature i n c i n e r a t i o n . There are a t l e a s t s i x d i f f e r e n t types o f i n c i n e r a t i o n t e c h n o l o g i e s i n c u r r e n t use i n land-based f a c i l i t i e s , each w i t h v a r y i n g 20 a b i l i t y t o handle d i f f e r e n t t y p es of wastes. These t e c h n o l o g i e s a re r e l a t i v e l y w e l l t e s t e d and w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d methods o f hazardous waste d e s t r u c t i o n . The two most common types o f i n c i n e r a t o r s c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e a re r o t a r y k i l n i n c i n e r a t o r s and l i q u i d i n j e c t i o n 21 i n c i n e r a t o r s . Rotary k i l n i n c i n e r a t o r s are capable of h a n d l i n g a wide range o f wastes, i n c l u d i n g s o l i d s and slu d g e s , and they are the most common type o f i n c i n e r a t o r i n 22 American land-based commercial f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s i s a l s o the type o f i n c i n e r a t o r proposed f o r the O n t a r i o and Quebec 23 hazardous waste d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s . L i q u i d i n j e c t i o n i n c i n e r a t o r s are capable o f h a n d l i n g o n l y l i q u i d hazardous wastes, which form approximately o n e - h a l f o f a l l i n c i n e r a b l e 24 wastes. N e v e r t h e l e s s , they are the most common, p r i v a t e l y used ( o n - s i t e ) land-based i n c i n e r a t o r t e c h n o l o g i e s i n the 83 25 . U n i t e d S t a t e s . These i n c i n e r a t o r s are a l s o the o n l y type of h i g h temperature i n c i n e r a t o r s t h a t have been mounted on ocean-going v e s s e l s f o r use a t sea. G e n e r a l l y , o n l y o r g a n i c wastes are s u i t a b l e f o r d e s t r u c t i o n by i n c i n e r a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g waste o i l s , s o l v e n t s , 2 6 organohalogens and o t h e r o r g a n i c l i q u i d s . L i q u i d hazardous wastes which have been i n c i n e r a t e d on v e s s e l s a t sea i n c l u d e PCB's, Agent Orange (2,4-D and 2,4,5-T), mixed c h l o r i n a t e d hydrocarbons, e t h y l e n e d i c h l o r i d e t a r , organophosphorous compounds, o r g a n o f l u o r i n e s , and v i n y l c h l o r i d e manufacturing 27 waste. When o r g a n o c h l o r i n e t o x i c waste i s s u b j e c t e d t o such h i g h temperature i n c i n e r a t i o n , the primary p r o d u c t s of complete combustion are water, carbon d i o x i d e and gaseous 2 8 h y d r o c h l o r i c a c i d . I f heavy metal contaminants are p r e s e n t i n t h e wastes, the v a s t m a j o r i t y of them remain as 29 p a r t i c u l a t e s , although t h e i r p h y s i c a l and chemical form may be a l t e r e d , a f f e c t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as t h e i r 30 s o l u b i l i t y . However, some dangerous metals such as mercury, cadmium and l e a d , are capable of p a r t i a l o r complete . . . 31 v o l a t i l i z a t i o n . Depending upon waste composition, v a r i o u s oxide gases may a l s o be formed, i n c l u d i n g s u l f u r , n i t r o g e n 32 and phosphorous o x i d e s . In a d d i t i o n , no i n c i n e r a t i o n p r o c e s s i s 100% e f f e c t i v e . Where combustion i s incomplete, carbon monoxide may be p r e s e n t , and c h l o r i n e gas and hydrogen gas may a l s o be 33 produced. One of the standards by which i n c i n e r a t o r performance i s e v a l u a t e d and monitored i s the examination of 84 t h e combustion e f f i c i e n c y (CE). T h i s i s a measure o f the amount o f carbon monoxide and carbon d i o x i d e produced d u r i n g i n c i n e r a t i o n , and thus i s i n d i c a t i v e of the percentage of the 34 . . . . hydrocarbons d e s t r o y e d . Combustion e f f i c i e n c i e s d u r i n g a t -35 sea i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s are g e n e r a l l y 99.97 t o 99.99% As a r e s u l t of incomplete combustion t h e r e w i l l be a s m a l l f r a c t i o n of the t o t a l emissions made up o f unburned 3 6 waste. Steps are, t h e r e f o r e , normally taken d u r i n g i n c i n e r a t o r o p e r a t i o n s t o monitor the d e s t r u c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y (DE), which i s a measure of the percentage of any g i v e n waste compound t h a t i s i n c i n e r a t e d . D e s t r u c t i o n e f f i c i e n c i e s are g e n e r a l l y 0.01 t o 0.03% h i g h e r than CE's, and n o r m a l l y exceed 99.99%. 3 7 Emissions from i n c i n e r a t o r o p e r a t i o n s may a l s o c o n t a i n new o r g a n i c compounds formed d u r i n g the combustion p r o c e s s . Such p r o d u c t s o f incomplete combustion, or PIC's, are known t o i n c l u d e extremely dangerous o r g a n i c compounds such as 3 8 d i o x i n s . Due t o the u n c e r t a i n t i e s i n h e r e n t i n c u r r e n t sampling and a n a l y s i s methods, i t i s thought t h a t as much as 1% o f the waste f e e d may be e m i t t e d as PIC's and unburned waste, so t h a t a c t u a l d e s t r u c t i o n e f f i c i e n c i e s may be o n l y 9 9 .0%. 3 9 The u n c e r t a i n t i e s i n measurements of DE's t r a n s l a t e i n t o a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n i n the environmental contamination t h a t c o u l d r e s u l t from i n c i n e r a t o r o p e r a t i o n s . For example, the U n i t e d S t a t e s Congress O f f i c e of Technology Assessment (OTA) worked out a h y p o t h e t i c a l case i n which ocean i n c i n e r a t o r v e s s e l s would burn 50,000 m e t r i c tonnes o f waste 85 40 c o n t a i n i n g 35% PCB's per year. I f the DE was 99.9999%, the q u a n t i t y of unburned PCB's r e l e a s e d each y e a r would be o n l y 41 0.0175 m e t r i c tonnes (17.5 k i l o g r a m s ) . E x t r a p o l a t i n g from th e s e f i g u r e s , i f DE's were as low as o n l y 99.0%, 175 m e t r i c tonnes o f PCB's per annum c o u l d be r e l e a s e d i n t o the area of the ocean i n which an i n c i n e r a t o r v e s s e l conducted i t s waste burns. The OTA concluded t h a t the s i g n i f i c a n c e of such 42 r e l e a s e s t o the environment i s " u n r e s o l v e d . " With 600,000 m e t r i c tonnes of PCB's s t i l l i n use, and 10 t o 21 m i l l i o n m e t r i c tonnes of l i q u i d i n c i n e r a b l e wastes 43 produced every year i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s alone, the p o t e n t i a l environmental r e l e a s e s o f unburned wastes from i n c i n e r a t o r s seems dangerous indeed. However, i f one r e c a l l s t h a t the q u a n t i t y o f waste i s b e i n g decreased by a t l e a s t 99%, and t h a t the most u s u a l a l t e r n a t i v e f o r d i s p o s a l o f such wastes i s l a n d f i l l i n g (with a maximum r e t e n t i o n time of about f o r t y y e a r s b e f o r e the f u l l volume o f wastes c o u l d be 44 r e l e a s e d t o freshwater and groundwater s u p p l i e s ) , i n c i n e r a t o r t e c hnology does seem t o s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduce the degree o f r i s k i n v o l v e d . Simultaneously, however, the a t t r a c t i o n s o f laws and p o l i c i e s which promote even b e t t e r waste management a l t e r n a t i v e s , such as r e c y c l i n g and reduced p r o d u c t i o n , become more obvious. The implementation of such p r e f e r r e d waste management s t r a t e g i e s by changes i n laws and p o l i c i e s i s a l o n g and d i f f i c u l t p r o c e s s , however, and the p o l i c y and r e g u l a t o r y d e c i s i o n s t h a t are made are o f t e n c o n t r o v e r s i a l . In the f o l l o w i n g c hapter, the a c t u a l use and r e g u l a t i o n o f ocean 86 i n c i n e r a t i o n i n an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t e x t i s d e s c r i b e d , a f t e r which the e x i s t i n g and proposed Canadian l e g a l framework i s o u t l i n e d , i n an attempt t o i d e n t i f y areas i n which r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l over such a c t i v i t i e s may be d e f i c i e n t . 87 Chapter F i v e : Notes 1. U.S. Congress, O f f i c e o f Technology Assessment, Ocean I n c i n e r a t i o n : I t s Role i n Managing Hazardous Waste, OTA-0-313 (Washington, D.C: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1986), p. 3. 2. I b i d . , p. 3, 82; J o e l S. H i r s c h h o r n , "Emerging Options i n Waste Reduction and Treatment: A Market I n c e n t i v e Approach" i n Beyond Dumping: New S t r a t e g i e s f o r C o n t r o l l i n g  T o x i c Contamination, B. P i a s e c k i (Westport: Quorum Books, 1984), p. 131. 3. A r t i c l e I V ( 2 ) . 4. Annex I I I ( C ) ( 4 ) . 5. S e c t i o n 7 2 ( 1 ) ( a ) . 6. Schedule I I I , P a r t 111(3). 7. Ocean Dumping Program, "ODCA Management G u i d e l i n e s " (Ottawa: Environment Canada, 1986), p. 6. 8. Maclaren Pl a n s e a r c h , Review o f D i s p o s a l A l t e r n a t i v e  f o r Dredged M a t e r i a l f 2 v o l s . (Ottawa: P u b l i c Works Canada and T r a n s p o r t Canada, n.d.), v o l . 1, p. 2.1. 9. I b i d . 10. I b i d . , v o l . 1, p. 4.1. 11. I b i d . , v o l . 1, p. 1.1. 12. J . Karau, "Summary of LDC/OSCOM Meeting on I n c i n e r a t i o n a t Sea A p r i l 27 t o May 1, 1987" (Ottawa: Environment Canada, 1987), p. 6. 13. I b i d . 14. C. Walker, "The U n i t e d S t a t e s Environmental P r o t e c t i o n Agency's P r o p o s a l f o r At-Sea I n c i n e r a t i o n o f Hazardous Wastes - A T r a n s n a t i o n a l P e r s p e c t i v e " (1988) 21 V a n d e r b i l t J . o f T r a n s n a t i o n a l Law 157 a t 168. 15. J . Karau, " I n c i n e r a t i o n a t Sea" (1987) 1 Ocean Dumping News 10 a t 14. 16. H i r s c h h o r n , p. 131. 17. S e c t i o n s 66(1) and 7 1 ( 3 ) ( d ) . 18. U.S. Congress, p. 3. 19. I b i d . 88 20. I b i d . , p. 93-99. 21. I b i d . , p. 96-98. 22. I b i d . , p. 93-94. 23. Envirochem S e r v i c e s , N a t i o n a l T e c h n i c a l Manual f o r At Sea I n c i n e r a t i o n o f L i q u i d Hazardous Wastes, March 1987 Working D r a f t (Burnaby: By the Author, 1987), p. 8. 24. I b i d . , p. 6; U.S. Congress, p. 3. 25. Envirochem S e r v i c e s , p. 8; U.S. Congress, p. 3. 26. U.S. Congress, p. 55,58. 27. I b i d . , p. 179-182; Envirochem S e r v i c e s , App. B2; D.G. Ackerman e t a l . , H i s t o r y o f Environmental T e s t i n g o f the Chemical Waste I n c i n e r a t o r Ships M/T Vulcanus and I/V  Vulcanus I I (Redondo Beach: TRW Inc., 1983). 28. G.V. Hooper, ed. O f f s h o r e Ship and P l a t f o r m  I n c i n e r a t i o n o f Hazardous Wastes (Park Ridge, Noyes Data C o r p o r a t i o n , 1981), p. 45; Manfred K. Nauke, "Development of I n t e r n a i t o n a l C o n t r o l s f o r I n c i n e r a t i o n a t Sea" i n Wastes i n  the Ocean Volume 5: Deep-Sea Waste D i s p o s a l . D.R. K e s t e r e t a l . (New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1985), p. 34. 29. D.G. Ackerman and R.A. Venezia, "Research on At-Sea I n c i n e r a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , i n K e s t e r , supra note 27, p. 56. 30. U.S. Congress, p. 58, 120. 31. I b i d . 32. I b i d . 33. Nauke, p. 38; Ackerman and Venezia, p. 56. 34. Nauke, p. 38; U.S. Congress, p. 119; R.R. Fay and T.A. Wastler, "Ocean I n c i n e r a t i o n : Contaminant Loading and M o n i t o r i n g " , i n Ke s t e r , supra note 27, p. 75. 35. Karau, LDC/OSCOM. p. 2. 36. U.S. Congress, p. 119. 37. I b i d . , p. 179-182; Karau, LDC/OSCOM, p. 2. 38. U.S. Congress, p. 119-120. 39. I b i d . 89 40. I b i d . , p. 145. 41. A c t u a l PCB t e s t burn r e s u l t s (27.5% PCB waste) showed a DE of 99.99989%. I b i d . , p. 181. 42. I b i d . , p. 145. 43. I b i d . , p. 63. 44. P e t e r Montague, "The L i m i t a t i o n s o f L a n d f i l l i n g " i n P i a s e c k i , supra note 2, p. 5. 90 Chapter S i x : The Use and R e g u l a t i o n of Ocean I n c i n e r a t i o n a. H i s t o r i c a l Use By the l a t e 1960's the combination of c o n t i n u a l c o r r o s i o n problems i n land-based i n c i n e r a t o r s when f a c e d w i t h h i g h l y c h l o r i n a t e d w a s t e s , 1 and the unacceptable environmental impacts o f dumping such wastes (unburned) 2 d i r e c t l y i n t o the ocean caused a number o f European c o u n t r i e s t o t u r n t o ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n as an i n t e r i m method of managing t h e i r h i g h l y c h l o r i n a t e d o r g a n i c hazardous wastes. The f i r s t commercial ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n was i n the North Sea i n 1969, by a c o n v e r t e d West German 3 t a n k e r named the M a t t h i a s I. In 1972, when the London and Oslo Conventions were b e i n g developed, over 60 thousand m e t r i c tonnes o f waste were b e i n g i n c i n e r a t e d each year, and two o t h e r s h i p s (the M a t t h i a s I I , a c o n v e r t e d tanker, and the Vulcanus I, a c o n v e r t e d cargo 4 ship) were o p e r a t i o n a l . N e v e r t h e l e s s , ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s were not i n i t i a l l y r e g u l a t e d by the ocean dumping conventions, and no i n t e r n a t i o n a l laws e x i s t e d t h a t s p e c i f i c a l l y addressed a t - s e a i n c i n e r a t i o n c o n t r o l . By 1974 over 8 0 thousand m e t r i c tonnes o f waste were 5 b e i n g i n c i n e r a t e d each year, and o c c a s i o n a l o p e r a t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s had begun t o be i d e n t i f i e d . For example, the M a t t h i a s I I had encountered problems w i t h the maintenance of i t s combustion e f f i c i e n c y , and the Vulcanus I had a t t r a c t e d o t h e r s h i p s i n t o the v i c i n i t y o f i t s i n c i n e r a t i o n plume, as they sought t o a s s i s t what appeared t o be a s h i p on f i r e and i n d i s t r e s s . 6 A f u r t h e r problem which caused g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g concern was the p o s s i b l e r e g i o n a l i n c r e a s e i n a c i d 7 r a i n caused by the emissions from the i n c i n e r a t o r s t a c k s . The U n i t e d S t a t e s conducted i t s f i r s t t e s t burns aboard the Vulcanus I i n the G u l f o f Mexico i n October and December Q o f 1974, d e s t r o y i n g 8400 tonnes of mixed c h l o r i n a t e d hydrocarbons, w i t h an average c h l o r i n e c ontent of 63% and 9 t r a c e c o n t a m i n a t i o n by mercury and cadmium. Although DE's 10 d u r i n g the o p e r a t i o n s averaged 99.95%, t h e r e were s e v e r a l problems w i t h the f i r s t burn i n c l u d i n g sampling problems, d i s p u t e s over m o n i t o r i n g methods, equipment f a i l u r e s and 11 communication d i f f i c u l t i e s . During the second burn e f f o r t s were made t o r e c t i f y these problems, although t h e r e were f u r t h e r equipment f a i l u r e s and problems w i t h the accuracy of 12 measurements. D e s p i t e such drawbacks, these i n i t i a l t e s t burns were r a t e d "a s u c c e s s " and ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n was d e c l a r e d t o be "an e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y a c c e p t a b l e p r a c t i c e when 13 c l o s e l y monitored and r e g u l a t e d . " Although these c o n c l u s i o n s have s i n c e been questioned, due t o the number of "experimental and s y s t e m a t i c e r r o r s " t h a t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the 14 burns, a f u r t h e r 8400 tonnes of waste were i n c i n e r a t e d i n e a r l y 1 9 7 5 . 1 5 In 1975 the M a t t h i a s I was decommissioned and another 16 c o n v e r t e d tanker, the M a t t h i a s I I I , was brought i n t o use. However, t e c h n i c a l problems w i t h the i n c i n e r a t o r d e s i g n were encountered, and t h e r e were d i f f i c u l t i e s r e l a t e d t o the v e s s e l ' s combustion e f f i c i e n c y . As a r e s u l t , i n 1978 the 17 M a t t h i a s I I I was a l s o decommissioned. By t h i s time the i n t e r n a t i o n a l community's response t o ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s had f i n a l l y begun t o e v o l v e , 18 s t a r t i n g w i t h the enactment of the 1976 B a r c e l o n a P r o t o c o l . I n c i n e r a t i o n was now c o n s i d e r e d t o be a type o f ocean dumping because the s t a c k emissions from the i n c i n e r a t o r e v e n t u a l l y p r e c i p i t a t e d from the atmosphere on t o the ocean s u r f a c e , and t h e r e f o r e , a l l r e s i d u a l waste products were e f f e c t i v e l y "dumped" i n t o the ocean. By e a r l y 1977, the members of both the London Dumping Convention and the Oslo Convention began t o develop g u i d e l i n e s and r e g u l a t i o n s t o govern ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n and amendments t o these t r e a t i e s were i n p l a c e 19 by 1978. Simultaneously, the U.S. had been c o n d u c t i n g f u r t h e r t e s t s i n an attempt t o determine whether ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n was an a c c e p t a b l e waste management technology. In March and A p r i l o f 1977 a second s e r i e s of burns of o r g a n o c h l o r i n e waste was conducted i n the G u l f o f Mexico by the Vulcanus I. DE's ranged from 99.991% t o 99.997%, although t r a c e amounts of unburned waste were d e t e c t e d i n the s t a c k emissions and DE's f o r the p r i n c i p a l waste c o n s t i t u t e n t were as low as 20 99.92%. Some evidence o f measurable b i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s was a l s o o b t a i n e d , as f i s h exposed t o s u r f a c e water i n the path 21 o f the i n c i n e r a t o r plume e x h i b i t e d s i g n s of s t r e s s . Other problems i n c l u d e d sampling problems, d i f f i c u l t i e s i n temperature measurement, and q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the r e l i a b i l i t y o f the c a l c u l a t i o n of the d e s t r u c t i o n . . 22 e f f i c i e n c i e s . In J u l y and August o f 1977 another U n i t e d S t a t e s t e s t burn s e r i e s took p l a c e , t h i s time near Johnston A t o l l i n the South P a c i f i c . The wastes burned were over 12,000 tonnes of Agent Orange, a mixture of the h e r b i c i d e s 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T 23 contaminated w i t h 2 ppm d i o x i n . Environmental t e s t i n g was 24 "very l i m i t e d , " but CE's averaged 99.99% and DE's f o r t o t a l 25 hydrocarbons averaged 99.985%. DE's f o r the two main h e r b i c i d e s were over 99.999%, but the DE f o r d i o x i n s was as 2 6 low as 99.88%. Again a number of d i f f i c u l t i e s were encountered, i n c l u d i n g instrument problems, s p i l l s , b i l g e w a t e r contamination, crew exposure, flameouts and 27 c o r r o s i o n , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t 270 pounds o f Agent Orange 2 8 had t o be dumped d i r e c t l y i n t o the water. By 1979 ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n had s t a b i l i z e d a t i t s p r e s e n t 29 l e v e l s o f approximately 100,000 m e t r i c tonnes per year. A new i n c i n e r a t o r s h i p , the Vesta, had j o i n e d i n the North Sea 30 o p e r a t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , problems i n c l u d i n g l e a k i n g cargo tanks and e x c e s s i v e s t a c k emissions c o n t i n u e d t o be encountered, and i n Europe some such i n c i d e n t s r e s u l t e d i n 31 the o c c a s i o n a l c l o s u r e o f p o r t s t o i n c i n e r a t o r s h i p s . In a d d i t i o n , a 1981 o r g a n o f l u o r i n e t e s t burn showed DE's as low as 99.4%, s u b s t a n t i a l l y below the London Dumping Convention's 32 s p e c i f i e d minimum e f f i c i e n c y of 99.9%. D e s p i t e ongoing u n c e r t a i n t y , by 1982, f i f t e e n n a t i o n s had engaged i n ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n : A u s t r a l i a , A u s t r i a , Belgium, F i n l a n d , France, the F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c o f Germany, I t a l y , Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, S w i t z e r l a n d , 33 the U.K. and t h e U.S.A. Yet another i n c i n e r a t i o n v e s s e l , the Vulcanus I I , had a l s o begun o p e r a t i o n s i n the North 94 34 . Sea. Most of the wastes t h a t had been i n c i n e r a t e d were o r g a n o c h l o r i n e wastes w i t h 60 t o 70% c h l o r i n e content, and 35 metal c o n t e n t s i n the p a r t s per m i l l i o n range. In 1982, the U n i t e d S t a t e s conducted i t s f o u r t h and l a s t s e r i e s of t e s t burns. T h i s time the 7000 tonnes of wastes burned were made up of 27.5% PCB's and 7% chlorobenzenes, 3 6 c o n t a i n i n g t r a c e amounts of f u r a n s . DE's of over 99.99989% 37 f o r PCB's were r e p o r t e d , but a g a i n the burn was not without 3 8 problems i n c l u d i n g u n r e l i a b l e sampling and s p i l l s . The U n i t e d S t a t e s Environmental P r o t e c t i o n Agency (EPA) concluded t h a t t h e i r permit requirements had been met or exceeded and t h a t no adverse environmental impact had been 39 e x h i b i t e d d u r i n g i n c i n e r a t o r o p e r a t i o n s , d e s p i t e c o n t i n u e d c r i t i c i s m o f t h e measurement and sampling methods used and 40 the accuracy of the a n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s . Yet p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n had begun t o focus on ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , and the n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n e v e n t u a l l y l e d the EPA t o d e l a y the 41 i s s u a n c e of f u r t h e r i n c i n e r a t i o n p e r m i t s . In 1983, w h i l e making changes t o i t s c r i t e r i a f o r permit i s s u a n c e i n o r d e r t o meet these p u b l i c concerns, the EPA monitored another burn which was t a k i n g p l a c e i n European waters. T h i s burn i n v o l v e d organohalogen wastes w i t h an extremely h i g h c h l o r i n e content of 84%, and the lowest 42 d e s t r u c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y o b t a i n e d was 99.998%. The EPA, having monitored a s u c c e s s f u l burn and r e v i s e d i t s p e r m i t c r i t e r i a , then prepared t o i s s u e f u r t h e r p e rmits f o r PCB and DDT burns i n l a t e 1983. However, a t the l a r g e s t p u b l i c h e a r i n g s i n EPA h i s t o r y , i n t e n s e o p p o s i t i o n t o f u r t h e r ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n was encountered, and the EPA c a n c e l l e d p l a n s t o i s s u e the permits pending f u r t h e r study and the . . . 43 f o r m u l a t i o n of more s p e c i f i c r e g u l a t i o n s . The same year Canada r e c e i v e d i t s f i r s t a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a permit t o 44 i n c i n e r a t e wastes a t sea, and the Canadian government a l s o d e l a y e d the i s s u a n c e of a permit pending the development of 45 s p e c i f i c o p e r a t i n g procedures. In 1985 the EPA f i n a l l y proposed new r u l e s t o govern ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , and conducted p u b l i c h e a r i n g s t o o b t a i n a response. C o n c u r r e n t l y , a r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g y designed t o review ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n technology was developed. However, j u s t as the U.S. and Canada were d e v e l o p i n g g u i d e l i n e s t o permit ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n t o commence, the i n t e r n a t i o n a l community was b e g i n n i n g t o r e c o n s i d e r i t s p o s i t i o n . The LDC S c i e n t i f i c Group on Dumping met i n 1985 i n an attempt t o a r r i v e a t a consensus on a number of u n r e s o l v e d i s s u e s r e g a r d i n g ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g sampling problems and problems due t o the p r o d u c t i o n of PIC's d u r i n g i n c i n e r a t i o n . In 1985 the Commission o f the European Communities a l s o made a p r o p o s a l t h a t a l l ocean dumping and i n c i n e r a t i o n by EEC n a t i o n s s h o u l d be reduced and t e r m i n a t e d 46 as soon as p o s s i b l e . F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s of the London Dumping Convention were then scheduled f o r a j o i n t meeting 47 w i t h the Oslo Commission i n 1986-87. By l a t e 1985 the EPA made another t e n t a t i v e d e c i s i o n t o 48 permit a PCB t e s t burn i n the North A t l a n t i c . Again t h e r e was i n t e n s e p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n , which e s c a l a t e d i n t o . . . 49 l i t i g a t i o n . Among the many reasons f o r p r o t e s t was the 96 poor environmental r e c o r d of the i n c i n e r a t i o n company, which had by then been f i n e d $17 m i l l i o n f o r a v a r i e t y o f 50 i n f r a c t i o n s o f U.S. l e g i s l a t i o n . In May of 1986 the EPA, t h e r e f o r e , denied the i n c i n e r a t i o n permit and announced t h a t no f u r t h e r p e r m i t s o f any k i n d would i s s u e f o r ocean 51 i n c i n e r a t i o n u n t i l the r e v i s e d r e g u l a t i o n s were f i n a l i z e d . Debate c o n t i n u e d t o e s c a l a t e , and by l a t e 1987 c o n f r o n t a t i o n s between i n c i n e r a t o r v e s s e l s and p r o t e s t groups had r e s u l t e d i n the c r i p p l i n g o f the Vulcanus I I i n Danish f i s h i n g n e t s d u r i n g a commercial burn, a m u l t i m i l l i o n d o l l a r l a w s u i t over the r e s u l t i n g damages, an i n t e r i m i n j u n c t i o n banning Greenpeace v e s s e l s from approaching the i n c i n e r a t o r s h i p s , the i n j u n c t i o n ' s v i o l a t i o n , and the r e s u l t i n g 52 impoundment o f the Greenpeace v e s s e l s . In November of 1987, e i g h t European n a t i o n s agreed t o decrease ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n by 65% no l a t e r than 1991, and t o 53 end a l l i n c i n e r a t i o n i n the North Sea by 1994, thereby , . . 54 implementing a l o n g - s t a n d i n g Oslo Commission p o l i c y . Then on December 31, 1987, the major American proponent of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n announced i t s d e c i s i o n t o abandon attempts t o o b t a i n an i n c i n e r a t i o n permit due, i n p a r t , t o c o n t i n u e d 55 d e l a y s by r e g u l a t o r y a u t h o r i t i e s . Thus i t appears t h a t , u n t i l the t e c h n i c a l and p o l i t i c a l problems s u r r o u n d i n g ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n are r e s o l v e d , the p r a c t i c e seems d e s t i n e d t o be phased out i n Europe and i n d e f i n i t e l y postponed i n North America. However, as Watson p o i n t s o u t : 5 6 (G)iven t h e nature of the c u r r e n t c r i s i s i n hazardous 97 waste management, a c h i e v i n g f u r t h e r d e l a y on t h e i s s u e without making some co n c r e t e p r o g r e s s toward d e v e l o p i n g a g r e a t e r c a p a c i t y of l i q u i d hazardous waste d i s p o s a l was a somewhat hollow v i c t o r y . With p r e d i c t e d c o n t i n u i n g s h o r t f a l l s i n land-based d i s p o s a l . . . . 57 f a c i l i t i e s throughout Europe and North America, a r e v e r s i o n t o s t o r a g e or l a n d f i l l i n g of these hazardous wastes, i n s t e a d o f d e s t r o y i n g them, seems t o be a s t e p backward i n the implementation of p r e f e r r e d waste management p o l i c i e s . To ensure t h a t a dangerous management e r r o r i s not made, government r e g u l a t o r s must somehow come t o terms w i t h the d i f f i c u l t problem of p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n i n the f a c e of s c i e n t i f i c u n c e r t a i n t y , and a c h ieve some consensus on the p r o p er p l a c e of ocean d i s p o s a l i n the waste management h i e r a r c h y . b. I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e g u l a t i o n The e x i s t i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l laws governing ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n are p r i m a r i l y c o n t a i n e d i n the ocean dumping t r e a t i e s , but due t o the nature o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s , o t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l r u l e s , such as standards f o r the d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n of v e s s e l s t r a n s p o r t i n g dangerous goods, are a l s o r e l e v a n t . The l e a d i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e g a l c o n t r o l s over ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n are c o n t a i n e d i n the London Dumping Convention, which was amended i n 1978 t o i n c l u d e r e g u l a t i o n s governing a t - s e a i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s . The amendments were adopted as o f December 1, 1978, and came i n t o f o r c e on March 11, 1 9 7 9 . 5 8 The f i r s t o f these amendments was t o the b l a c k l i s t , 98 which p r o v i d e s t h a t the ban on dumping of organohalogens and o i l does not apply t o t h e i r d i s p o s a l a t sea by means of 59 . . . i n c i n e r a t i o n . Such ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n now r e q u i r e s a s p e c i a l permit, and i n i s s u i n g a permit s i g n a t o r y s t a t e s must ap p l y the R e g u l a t i o n s t h a t were a l s o added t o Annex I of the Convention. LDC n a t i o n s must a l s o "take f u l l account" of the T e c h n i c a l G u i d e l i n e s developed by the c o n t r a c t i n g p a r t i e s i n 6 0 1980. The second amendment was t o the grey l i s t . I t p r o v i d e d t h a t c o n t r a c t i n g s t a t e s must apply the R e g u l a t i o n s and take account o f the T e c h n i c a l G u i d e l i n e s , " t o t h e e x t e n t s p e c i f i e d i n these R e g u l a t i o n s and G u i d e l i n e s , " when i s s u i n g s p e c i a l p e r m i t s f o r the i n c i n e r a t i o n o f g r e y - l i s t e d s u b s t a n c e s . 6 1 The R e g u l a t i o n s f o r the C o n t r o l o f I n c i n e r a t i o n o f Wastes and Other Matter a t Sea, which have been added t o Annex I o f t h e LDC by amendment, a r e b i n d i n g r u l e s t o be f o l l o w e d by the p a r t i e s t o the t r e a t y , u n l i k e the T e c h n i c a l G u i d e l i n e s which must simply be "taken i n t o account." In r a t h e r c o n v o l u t e d language, P a r t I of the R e g u l a t i o n s prov i d e s t h a t : 6 2 1. P a r t I I of the R e g u l a t i o n s a p p l i e s t o organohalogens and t o p e s t i c i d e s and t h e i r by-products not covered i n the b l a c k l i s t ; 2. o i l and a l l g r e y - l i s t e d m a t e r i a l s except p e s t i c i d e s s h a l l be c o n t r o l l e d " t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f the C o n t r a c t i n g P a r t y i s s u i n g the s p e c i a l permit;" and 3. a l l o t h e r wastes t o be i n c i n e r a t e d a re s u b j e c t t o a g e n e r a l p e r m i t . 99 Thus mercury, cadmium, p e r s i s t e n t p l a s t i c s , h i g h - l e v e l r a d i o a c t i v e wastes, and b i o l o g i c a l and chemical warfare agents are s t i l l c ompletely banned. Organohalogens and p e s t i c i d e s must meet P a r t I I r e g u l a t i o n s , w h i l e o i l and other g r e y - l i s t e d substances r e q u i r e a s p e c i a l i n c i n e r a t i o n permit, and n o n - l i s t e d substances can be i n c i n e r a t e d under a g e n e r a l permit. T h i s s e t of R e g u l a t i o n s has caused some i n t e r e s t i n g l e g a l manoeuvring as, f o r example, when the U n i t e d S t a t e s d e c i d e d t o i n c i n e r a t e the d e f o l i a n t Agent Orange. S i n c e many regarded i t as a chemical warfare agent, the dumping of which was completely banned, the Americans took the p o s i t i o n t h a t i t was the combustion pr o d u c t s t h a t were b e i n g t r a n s p o r t e d f o r dumping, not the Agent Orange i t s e l f . P a r t I I of the R e g u l a t i o n s , which a p p l i e s t o the i n c i n e r a t i o n of organohalogens and p e s t i c i d e s , p r o v i d e s f o r t h e a p p r o v a l and survey o f i n c i n e r a t i o n systems a t l e a s t 64 every two y e a r s , s p e c i a l m o n i t o r i n g of wastes where t h e r e 65 are doubts as t o t h e i r thermal d e s t r u c t i b i l i t y , mandatory 6 6 data r e c o r d i n g , i n f o r m a t i o n t o be s p e c i f i e d i n permit a p p l i c a t i o n s , and f a c t o r s t o c o n s i d e r i n the d e s i g n a t i o n of 68 i n c i n e r a t i o n s i t e s . The R e g u l a t i o n s a l s o s e t out some 69 s p e c i f i c o p e r a t i o n a l requirements, i n c l u d i n g : 1. minimum flame temperature of 1250 degrees C e l c i u s ; 2. minimum combustion e f f i c i e n c y of 99.995 +/- 0.05%; 3. no b l a c k smoke or flame e x t e n s i o n from i n c i n e r a t o r s t a c k ; and 4. d e s t r u c t i o n e f f i c i e n c i e s i n excess o f 99.9% i n an i n i t i a l survey. 100 However, t h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n the r e g u l a t i o n s t o r e q u i r e the use o f a i r e m i s s i o n c o n t r o l d e v i c e s , t o l i m i t the content o f metals o r o t h e r i n o r g a n i c contaminants i n the waste, t o monitor the type o f PIC's t h a t may be produced, o r t o ensure t h a t the r e q u i r e d d e s t r u c t i o n e f f i c i e n c i e s f o r waste compounds be c o n t i n u a l l y maintained. The U n i t e d S t a t e s EPA now tak e s the view t h a t the LDC requirements are merely minimum standards, and " t h a t a more s t r i n g e n t s t a n d a r d i s 70 both a t t a i n a b l e and necessary." Three major areas o f the law which are a l s o r e l e v a n t t o ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s a re standards f o r v e s s e l d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n a l h e a l t h and s a f e t y , and emergency response systems. At the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l much of the law which developed i n these areas arose as a r e s u l t of o i l t a n k e r a c c i d e n t s , although many of the conventions have s i n c e been extended t o v e s s e l s c a r r y i n g o t h e r types o f dangerous cargoes. The l e a d i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e a t y i n t h i s area i s the Convention on the P r e v e n t i o n o f P o l l u t i o n from Ships, 1973 71 . (MARPOL) and i t s 1978 P r o t o c o l , which are designed t o c o n t r o l and r e g u l a t e s h i p d e s i g n , equipment and s a f e t y f e a t u r e s r e l e v a n t t o p o l l u t i o n p r e v e n t i o n . They a l s o govern d i s c h a r g e s o f t o x i c chemicals, o i l and o t h e r p o l l u t a n t s c a r r i e d i n bul k . Other t r e a t i e s o f importance i n c l u d e the 1969 Convention R e l a t i n g t o I n t e r v e n t i o n on the High Seas i n 72 Cases o f O i l P o l l u t i o n C a s u a l t i e s and i t s 1973 P r o t o c o l , which o u t l i n e the r i g h t s of s t a t e s t o i n t e r v e n e i n the event o f a s p i l l , and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Convention f o r the S a f e t y 101 73 . . of L i f e a t Sea, 1974 (SOLAS), which i n c l u d e s p r o v i s i o n s on f i r e p r o t e c t i o n and emergency response and s e t s out s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r mechanical and e l e c t r i c a l equipment. The Marine Environmental P r o t e c t i o n Committee o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Maritime O r g a n i z a t i o n (IMO) has a l s o adopted an I n t e r n a t i o n a l Code f o r the C o n s t r u c t i o n and Equipment of Ships C a r r y i n g Dangerous Chemicals i n Bulk (IBC Code), which has p r o v i s i o n s a p p l i c a b l e t o i n c i n e r a t o r s h i p s . 7 4 In a d d i t i o n , the IMO Sub-Committee on Bulk Chemicals developed a code o f p r a c t i c e e n t i t l e d " G u i d e l i n e s f o r the C o n s t r u c t i o n and Equipment of Ships C a r r y i n g Hazardous L i q u i d Wastes i n Bulk f o r the Purpose of Dumping a t Sea," which has been 75 approved by the IMO Maritime S a f e t y Committee. These g u i d e l i n e s encompass a number of o c c u p a t i o n a l h e a l t h and s a f e t y p r o v i s i o n s , i n c l u d i n g r u l e s r e l a t i n g t o p e r s o n n e l t r a i n i n g , f i r e f i g h t i n g and necessary p r o t e c t i v e equipment. A l s o , g u i d e l i n e s f o r the " S u r v e i l l a n c e o f C l e a n i n g Operations C a r r i e d Out a t Sea on Board I n c i n e r a t i o n V e s s e l s " have been prepared and r e f e r r e d t o the IMO, i n an attempt t o harmonize 77 the LDC and MARPOL p r o v i s i o n s . V e s s e l d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n are a l s o s p e c i f i c a l l y d e a l t w i t h i n the LDC 78 T e c h n i c a l G u i d e l i n e s . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l community i s thus c o n t i n u i n g t o make some p r o g r e s s i n a d d r e s s i n g concerns r e l e v a n t t o ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the areas o f v e s s e l d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n , and attempts are b e i n g made t o harmonize these p r o v i s i o n s w i t h the requirements o f the LDC. 102 c. Canadian L e g i s l a t i o n In a commercial land-based i n c i n e r a t o r o p e r a t i o n , wastes are n o r m a l l y t r a n s p o r t e d by t r u c k or r a i l from the waste g e n e r a t o r t o the i n c i n e r a t o r , where they are d e s t r o y e d . L e g a l and r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l s g e n e r a l l y apply t o the i n d u s t r y which generates the waste, t o the t r a n s p o r t e r and t o the a c t u a l i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n . Due t o environmental concerns and p r o x i m i t y t o human p o p u l a t i o n s , a l l land-based i n c i n e r a t o r s used f o r the d i s p o s a l of hazardous waste should, i d e a l l y , be equipped w i t h a i r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l equipment c a l l e d " scrubbers. 1 1 I n o r g a n i c matter, such as heavy metal p a r t i c u l a t e s , which are not d e s t r o y e d by i n c i n e r a t i o n can be removed from i n c i n e r a t o r s t a c k emissions by such s c r u b b e r s . They a l s o a c t t o 79 n e u t r a l i z e most a c i d e m i s s i o n s . Scrubbers are, however, r e l a t i v e l y i n e f f e c t i v e a t removing v o l a t i l i z e d metals, 8 0 unburned o r g a n i c compounds, PIC's, and n i t r o g e n o x i d e s . In a d d i t i o n , h i g h l y c h l o r i n a t e d wastes w i t h over 30% c h l o r i n e c o n t e n t may exceed scrubber c a p a c i t y , i n which case both 81 c h l o r i n e gas and h y d r o c h l o r i c a c i d may be emitted. The use of s c r u b b e r s a l s o generates "scrubber waste," which along w i t h the ash r e s i d u e from i n c i n e r a t i o n i s , i t s e l f , a hazardous waste t h a t r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l d i s p o s a l . An a t - s e a i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n i n v o l v e s the c o l l e c t i o n of t h e wastes from v a r i o u s waste g e n e r a t o r s and t h e i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o s t o r a g e tanks i n a p o r t f a c i l i t y . From a n a t i o n a l v i e w p o i n t , ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n laws must, t h e r e f o r e , r e g u l a t e t h e s e land-based a s p e c t s of hazardous waste 103 management, i n a d d i t i o n t o the a c t u a l a t - s e a o p e r a t i o n s w i t h which t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l conventions are concerned. Once s u f f i c i e n t wastes have been c o l l e c t e d they are pumped on board the i n c i n e r a t i o n v e s s e l , which then s a i l s t o a d e s i g n a t e d l o c a t i o n i n the ocean c a l l e d the burn s i t e , and conducts the i n c i n e r a t i o n . Again, n a t i o n a l laws must d e a l w i t h the r e g u l a t i o n of p o r t f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s i n i n t e r n a l waters, which are o u t s i d e the scope o f the i n t e r n a t i o n a l laws. During the p r o c e s s of i n c i n e r a t i o n the plume s e t t l e s or p r e c i p i t a t e s on t o the ocean s u r f a c e and t h i s , i n l e g a l terms, c o n s t i t u t e s the ocean dumping. A t - s e a i n c i n e r a t o r s l a c k s c r u b b e r s , and thus p a r t i c u l a t e s , metals and a c i d e m i s s i o n s are d i r e c t l y d i s c h a r g e d i n t o the r e c e i v i n g environment, a l o n g w i t h o r g a n i c compounds and v o l a t i l i z e d i n o r g a n i c s t h a t would normally evade the s c r u b b e r s . Due t o the b u f f e r i n g c a p a c i t y of seawater, the a c i d emissions are n e u t r a l i z e d w i t h i n a few hours as the atmospheric d i s c h a r g e s c o n t a c t the ocean s u r f a c e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , any wastes not a f f e c t e d by t h e i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n , such as metals, w i l l be d e p o s i t e d d i r e c t l y i n t o the marine environment w i t h the p o t e n t i a l o f e v e n t u a l b i o a c c u m u l a t i o n i n the food c h a i n . The o n l y r e a l method of c o n t r o l l i n g metal emissions i n t o the marine environment from ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , u n l e s s scrubbers are t o be r e q u i r e d , i s t o c o n t r o l the amount of metal c o n t a m i n a t i o n i n the wastes i n i t i a l l y accepted f o r 82 d e s t r u c t i o n . At p r e s e n t the LDC c o n t a i n s no such c o n t r o l s , w h i l e s e v e r a l Oslo Convention n a t i o n s have s e t u n o f f i c i a l 104 8 3 g u i d e l i n e s on m e t a l c o n t e n t i n w a s t e s . Unburned hazardous waste r e s i d u e s which remain i n the i n c i n e r a t o r s h i p s s t o r a g e t a n k s , and o t h e r con tamina ted m a t e r i a l s r e s u l t i n g from the c l e a n i n g o f t h e i n c i n e r a t o r s , must e i t h e r be r e t a i n e d on b o a r d f o r f u t u r e i n c i n e r a t i o n , o r 84 r e t u r n e d t o l a n d f o r p r o p e r l a n d - b a s e d d i s p o s a l . They a r e no t d i r e c t l y d i s c h a r g e d i n t o the o c e a n . P a r t VI o f the CEPA, as the p r i m a r y p i e c e o f Canad ian l e g i s l a t i o n r e g a r d i n g ocean dumping, governs t h e b a s i c a s p e c t s o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , and i n the A c t ' s p r e s e n t fo rm, 85 i n c i n e r a t i o n i s d e f i n e d as a form o f dumping. I t i s t h u s r e g u l a t e d v i a t h e same p e r m i t system as o t h e r t y p e s o f ocean d i s p o s a l , and the R e g u l a t i o n s s p e c i f y the form o f a p p l i c a t i o n t o be u s e d t o o b t a i n a p e r m i t f o r i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s . Under t h e CEPA p e r m i t s f o r i n c i n e r a t i o n may not be i s s u e d u n l e s s , i n the M i n i s t e r ' s o p i n i o n , the end p r o d u c t s o f 87 i n c i n e r a t i o n a r e e i t h e r " r a p i d l y r e n d e r e d h a r m l e s s , " o r w i l l no t exceed the c o n c e n t r a t i o n s p r e s c r i b e d by 88 r e g u l a t i o n . Where t h e r e i s no o t h e r f e a s i b l e s o l u t i o n , i n c i n e r a t i o n c o u l d a l s o t ake p l a c e i n emergenc ies t h a t pose 89 an u n a c c e p t a b l e r i s k t o human h e a l t h . The LDC i n c i n e r a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s and g u i d e l i n e s have not been implemented by Canadian l e g i s l a t i o n , and were not i n c l u d e d as p a r t o f the new CEPA. The c u r r e n t i n t e n t i o n i s , i n s t e a d , t o i n c o r p o r a t e the LDC r e g u l a t i o n s as p a r t o f a s e t 90 o f t e c h n i c a l g u i d e l i n e s f o r ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n . The p r o p o s e d method o f r e g u l a t i n g a t - s e a i n c i n e r a t i o n i s s i m p l y t o r e f u s e t o i s s u e a p e r m i t u n l e s s t h e s e p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s 105 are met, and then to issue permits only subject to terms and 91 conditions i d e n t i c a l to the LDC regulations. The treaty obligations w i l l thus be implemented not by l e g i s l a t i o n , but by discretionary administrative p o l i c y , and i t i s not intended to enact standards which are s t r i c t e r than the; minimum in t e r n a t i o n a l requirements. Not a l l aspects of ocean in c i n e r a t i o n operations are dealt with by the d r a f t technical guidelines. Numerous other enactments, both federal and p r o v i n c i a l , are also relevant to many aspects of ocean in c i n e r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . In some areas there i s l e g i s l a t i v e overlap, while i n others there i s a lack of regulatory a c t i v i t y . Unfortunately, such regulatory control as e x i s t s i s scattered not only among several enactments, and s p l i t between the two l e v e l s of government, but i s also divided among several departments or m i n i s t r i e s within each l e v e l of government. On the broadest scale, the f i r s t a c t i v i t y r e l a t i n g to ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n that a t t r a c t s regulatory a c t i v i t y i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of wastes as hazardous, and the assumption of control over the indiscriminate disposal of such wastes. In the l a t e 1970's the federal government made several e f f o r t s to enact statutes designed to i d e n t i f y or control t o x i c substances, including the Pest Control Products Act, the Canada Water Act, the Fisheries Act, and the Environmental 92 Contaminants Act. As of 1988, the Environmental Contaminants Act and Part Three of the Canada Water Act have been repealed and replaced by the CEPA. The Canada Water Act i s , i n theory, a sweeping enactment 106 applicable to a l l federal waters, international waters, interjurisdictional waters and boundary waters. It is the responsibility of the Minister of the Environment. It provides for the designation of water quality management areas, within which the deposit of waste would be prohibited or controlled. Unfortunately, due to reservations about the constitutional vali d i t y of the Act, and p o l i t i c a l considerations involving the maintenance of amicable federal-provincial relationships, no such management areas have yet been created. The only part of the Act ever f u l l y implemented, and subsequently repealed and reenacted as part of the CEPA, i s the section restricting the use of substances 93 containing nutrients in excess of prescribed amounts. Part II of the CEPA, which replaces the old Environmental Contaminants Act, i s a potentially broad scale regulatory enactment under the joint administration of Environment Canada and Health and Welfare Canada. As previously discussed, i t provides for the collection and evaluation of information to determine whether a substance is toxic, the restriction of toxic substances new to Canada, and extensive regulation of substances found to be toxic, from their creation to their ultimate disposal. Given sufficient p o l i t i c a l w i l l , the CEPA should gradually come to regulate a vast number of toxic wastes, either directly or by way of equivalent provincial enactments provided for in the Act, although the i n i t i a l toxic substances l i s t governs only nine chemical groups: PCB's, polychlorinated terphenyls, chlorofluorocarbons, mirex, polybrominated biphenyls, 107 asbestos, l e a d , mercury and v i n y l c h l o r i d e . A l l o f these substances (except asbestos) are e i t h e r organohalogens or metals t h a t are scheduled under the CEPA ocean dumping p r o v i s i o n s . The CEPA a l s o p r o v i d e s f o r the c r e a t i o n of a l i s t o f p r i o r i t y substances, which are t o be g i v e n the . . 94 e a r l i e s t assessment as t o t h e i r t o x i c i t y . One of the areas i n which departmental j u r i s d i c t i o n has r e s u l t e d i n some c o n f l i c t i s t h a t o f a g r i c u l t u r a l c h e m i c a l s . T h i s area i s c o m p l i c a t e d by the express shared c o n s t i t u t i o n a l 95 j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the two l e v e l s of government. V a s t numbers of t o x i c c hemicals are used p r i m a r i l y f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes, and are thus governed a t the f e d e r a l l e v e l by the Pest C o n t r o l Products Act, and a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l by a g r i c u l t u r a l r a t h e r than environmental enactments. The Pest C o n t r o l Products Act, under t h e a u t h o r i t y of the f e d e r a l M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , governs the assessment o f the h e a l t h and environmental s a f e t y of p e s t i c i d e s by way of a r e g i s t r a t i o n system. The f e d e r a l M i n i s t r y thus r e g u l a t e s the manufacture, use, import, s t o r a g e and s a l e of p e s t i c i d e s i n Canada, although a r e f e r r a l procedure i n v o l v i n g Environment Canada, H e a l t h and Welfare Canada, F i s h e r i e s and Oceans Canada and the Department o f N a t i o n a l Defence has been 9 6 developed. A g r i c u l t u r a l chemicals are thus exempt from the 97 r e g u l a t i o n s produced under the CEPA. Although t h e r e are numerous ot h e r f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e s t h a t r e g u l a t e the d i s c h a r g e o f t o x i c substances and wastes, the major enactment o f r e l e v a n c e t o ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s the f e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s A c t . That A c t a p p l i e s 108 t o t h e t e r r i t o r i a l seas, f i s h i n g zones and i n t e r n a l waters o f Canada, and because of the c l e a r c u t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the f e d e r a l government over f i s h e r i e s , i t has proved t o be the l e a d i n g water p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l enactment i n Canada wherever t h e r e i s a d i r e c t l i n k between p r o h i b i t e d e m i ssions and an a c t u a l o r p o t e n t i a l harm t o f i s h . The primary p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l measure i n the F i s h e r i e s A c t i s s e c t i o n 33(2), which p r o h i b i t s the d e p o s i t o f d e l e t e r i o u s substances i n water frequented by f i s h , o r i n areas where such m a t e r i a l s c o u l d e n t e r such waters. A c c o r d i n g l y , most o r a l l ocean dumping o f f e n c e s would a l s o be c o n t r a v e n t i o n s o f the F i s h e r i e s A c t . No o f f e n c e i s committed under t h e l a t t e r A c t i f the d e p o s i t i s made i n compliance w i t h the r e g u l a t i o n s promulgated under the F i s h e r i e s A c t , o r of any o t h e r A c t , and f i s h e r i e s R e g u l a t i o n s p e r m i t t i n g 9 8 d i s c h a r g e s e x i s t f o r s i x i n d u s t r i e s . The A c t i s p r i m a r i l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the M i n i s t e r o f F i s h e r i e s and Oceans, although by agreement Environment Canada a d m i n i s t e r s the 9 9 s e c t i o n 33 p o l l u t i o n p r o v i s i o n s . The p r o v i n c e s have a l s o made e f f o r t s t o enact l e g i s l a t i o n c o n t r o l l i n g the use and d i s p o s a l o f t o x i c substances. Much of t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n e x e r t s important c o n t r o l s over waste g e n e r a t o r s , i n c l u d i n g the s i t i n g , o p e r a t i o n and i n s p e c t i o n o f p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l systems i n many i n d u s t r i e s . P r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n i s , however, always g e o g r a p h i c a l l y l i m i t e d and e f f o r t s t o d e a l w i t h o f f s h o r e , i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l matters are, t h e r e f o r e , c o n s t r a i n e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , p r o v i n c i a l r o l e s i n t h i s area may 109 g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e , due t o the s e c t i o n s i n the CEPA which p r o v i d e f o r t o x i c substance c o n t r o l by way of e q u i v a l e n t . , , 100 p r o v i n c i a l laws. Land t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f dangerous goods t o p o r t f a c i l i t i e s i s another area r e l e v a n t t o ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s . Again c o n s t i t u t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n i s d i v i d e d , w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l and i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l matters g e n e r a l l y f a l l i n g w i t h i n the f e d e r a l sphere and i n t r a p r o v i n c i a l t r a n s p o r t g e n e r a l l y w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l sphere. However, t r a n s p o r t w i t h i n p o r t s and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a t sea f a l l w i t h i n f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n over p u b l i c harbours, n a v i g a t i o n and s h i p p i n g . The major f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h i s area i s the 101 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f Dangerous Goods A c t (TDGA), which a p p l i e s t o a l l h a n d l i n g and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f dangerous and t o x i c goods o r i g i n a t i n g from o r d e s t i n e d f o r any p l a c e i n Canada, and t o a l l s h i p s and a i r c r a f t r e g i s t e r e d i n Canada. I t a p p l i e s t o both l a n d and sea t r a n s p o r t , except f o r the case o f the v e s s e l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f dangerous goods i n bulk, . • 102 which i s governed by the Canada S h i p p i n g A c t . The TDGA s e t s out a number of s a f e t y standards which must be met be f o r e anyone may t r a n s p o r t hazardous m a t e r i a l s , and a p p l i e s 103 t o a l o n g l i s t o f dangerous substances, i n c l u d i n g e x p l o s i v e s , flammable m a t e r i a l s , i n f e c t i o u s m a t e r i a l s , c o r r o s i v e s , r a d i o a c t i v e wastes and t o x i c s . Although the Crown i s bound by the Act, t h e r e a re exemptions made f o r the m i l i t a r y . The M i n i s t e r o f T r a n s p o r t i s the r e s p o n s i b l e o f f i c i a l . 110 The f e d e r a l TDGA was designed t o s e t standards f o r ad o p t i o n and implementation by way of agreements w i t h p r o v i n c i a l governments. Most p r o v i n c e s have passed e n a b l i n g and complementary l e g i s l a t i o n . The o v e r a l l i n t e n t i o n of the enactments i s t o s e t standards f o r the s a f e h a n d l i n g o f hazardous m a t e r i a l s , as w e l l as t o c r e a t e a "paper t r a i l " t o keep t r a c k o f the movement of t o x i c wastes, t o ensure t h a t the q u a n t i t i e s o f waste which l e a v e any g i v e n f a c t o r y a c t u a l l y a r r i v e a t a d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t y , w ithout any "midnight dumping" having taken p l a c e . The TDGA a l s o c o n t a i n s p r o v i s i o n s f o r emergency response i n the event of s p i l l s . The s t o r a g e and h a n d l i n g o f hazardous wastes i n p o r t f a c i l i t i e s and the l o a d i n g and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f those wastes i n p o r t s and harbours a l s o i n v o l v e a mixture o f p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n . The f e d e r a l government has c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y over p u b l i c harbours, and the enactment which governs most major p o r t s i s the Canada P o r t s 104 C o r p o r a t i o n A c t (f o r m e r l y the N a t i o n a l Harbour Board A c t ) , pursuant t o which a c t i v i t i e s which c o u l d endanger l i f e o r 105 h e a l t h may be r e g u l a t e d . The t r a n s p o r t o f dangerous goods i n t he p o r t i s a l s o s t r i c t l y c o n t r o l l e d . 106 The Harbour Commissions A c t enables the assumption of f e d e r a l r e g u l a t i o n over harbours not governed by the Canada P o r t s C o r p o r a t i o n A ct, and a number of harbours have been p l a c e d under the c o n t r o l o f such Harbour Commissions. The Commissions r e g u l a t e a l l uses of the l a n d , b u i l d i n g s and wharves, and c o n t r o l the use of dangerous substances i n the harbour. P a r t V I I I of the Canada S h i p p i n g A c t a l s o g i v e s the f e d e r a l government the power t o p r o c l a i m a harbour t o be a p u b l i c harbour, and such a harbour i s then s u b j e c t t o 108 r e g u l a t i o n s pursuant t o t h a t A c t . The use and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f dangerous cargo i s a g a i n s t r i c t l y r e g u l a t e d . The f e d e r a l P u b l i c Harbours and P o r t F a c i l i t y A c t 109 ( f o r m e r l y the Government Harbour Act) governs a l l harbours except those r e g u l a t e d under the Canada P o r t s C o r p o r a t i o n Act and the Harbour Commissions A c t . The N a t i o n a l F i r e Code i s a l s o p o t e n t i a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o p o r t f a c i l i t i e s , w h i l e m u n i c i p a l bylaws may a l s o be r e l e v a n t i n some cases. As i f t h i s were not enough of a r e g u l a t o r y maze, the f e d e r a l government has developed the "Code of Recommended Standards f o r the S a f e t y and P r e v e n t i o n of P o l l u t i o n f o r Marine T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Systems and R e l a t e d Assessment Procedures (TERMPOL)" as a nonbinding s e t of g u i d e l i n e s r e l a t i n g t o b u l k o i l , chemical and gas t e r m i n a l systems, i n c l u d i n g p o r t f a c i l i t i e s , b e r t h s and v e s s e l approaches from seaward. The Coast Guard i s the p r i n c i p a l agency i n v o l v e d i n 110 a d m i n i s t e r i n g TERMPOL. The CEPA i t s e l f s p e c i f i e s t h a t a permit i s r e q u i r e d b e f o r e a s h i p may be loaded w i t h wastes f o r dumping or i n c i n e r a t i o n a t sea. The Canada S h i p p i n g A c t a l s o a u t h o r i z e s the development of r u l e s r e g a r d i n g p r e c a u t i o n s d u r i n g l o a d i n g , the stowing of goods and the q u a n t i t i e s t o be 111 c a r r i e d . Once the goods are loaded, t h e i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s r e g u l a t e d by the TDGA when the wastes are i n c o n t a i n e r s , 112 and by the Canada S h i p p i n g A c t when the goods are i n b u l k . Requirements f o r i n c i n e r a t o r v e s s e l d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n , as w e l l as o p e r a t i o n a l requirements, are not p a r t o f Canada's n a t i o n a l laws. A l l such requirements are c o n t a i n e d i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l instruments p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, i n c l u d i n g MARPOL and the LDC amendments. I t i s p r e s e n t l y intended t o implement these conventions by way of amendments t o the Canada S h i p p i n g A c t and the ocean dumping 112 l e g i s l a t i o n . However, no such amendments were a c t u a l l y made t o the ODCA p r o v i s i o n s upon i t s r e c e n t i n c l u s i o n i n the CEPA. E n a b l i n g amendments t o the Canada S h i p p i n g A c t t o implement the MARPOL and SOLAS Conventions and P r o t o c o l s , as w e l l as the IMO Code f o r the C o n s t r u c t i o n and Equipment of S h ips C a r r y i n g Dangerous Chemicals i n Bulk, 1971 (BCH Code), 113 have been enacted, but have not y e t been p r o c l a i m e d m 114 f o r c e . As a r e s u l t , the i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e g u l a t i o n s remain u n e n f o r c e a b l e g u i d e l i n e s i n r e l a t i o n t o Canadian v e s s e l s or v e s s e l s o p e r a t i n g i n Canadian waters. Many o f the same Conventions are a l s o important because they c o n t a i n p r o v i s i o n s r e l a t i n g t o the h e a l t h and s a f e t y of the crews working on board i n c i n e r a t o r v e s s e l s . At the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , r e g u l a t i o n s governing the o c c u p a t i o n a l h e a l t h and s a f e t y o f Canadian workers on Canadian v e s s e l s have r e c e n t l y been promulgated under P a r t IV of the Canada Labour 115 . . . Code. For land-based a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t i n g t o o c c u p a t i o n a l h e a l t h , the P r o v i n c e s would have primary l e g i s l a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n . Even i f the LDC and o t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e a t i e s were 113 f u l l y implemented i n Canada, t h e r e are areas o f concern where r e g u l a t i o n i s l a c k i n g , p r i m a r i l y i n r e l a t i o n t o the c o n t r o l of i n c i n e r a t o r s t a c k e m i s s i o n s . There are no proposed l i m i t s on metal content i n wastes, and scrubbers are not r e q u i r e d . P a r t V of the CEPA, which r e c e n t l y r e p l a c e d 116 the Clean A i r Act, has f i x e d no e n f o r c e a b l e standards, a l t h o u g h some " i n t e r i m n a t i o n a l e m i s s i o n c r i t e r i a " f o r PCB 117 d e s t r u c t i o n have been put forward. The CEPA and i t s r e g u l a t i o n s have l i m i t s on the q u a n t i t i e s of m a t e r i a l s "dumped" i n a i r emissions s e t l a r g e l y a t the d i s c r e t i o n of p e r m i t - g r a n t i n g a u t h o r i t i e s . The e x i s t i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s on the e x e r c i s e of t h i s d i s c r e t i o n are, as p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , v i r t u a l l y meaningless. As an example, one may examine the 118 " r a p i d l y rendered harmless" c r i t e r i o n . " R a p i d l y " i s not d e f i n e d . I t i s u n c l e a r i f "harmless" means t o t a l l y harmless, harmless g i v e n acute exposure, or harmless g i v e n c h r o n i c exposure. I t i s u n c l e a r what must be harmed b e f o r e a substance i s c o n s i d e r e d harmful. In a d d i t i o n , s t a c k emissions can c o n t a c t s e a b i r d s , endangered s p e c i e s , downwind v e s s e l s or ( i n s h i f t i n g wind c o n d i t i o n s ) even the crew of the 119 i n c i n e r a t o r v e s s e l , b e f o r e ever c o n t a c t i n g the sea i n o r d e r t o be rendered harmless. There can a l s o be acute 120 t o x i c i t y t o ocean s u r f a c e m i c r o l a y e r p l a n k t o n even though commercial and e d i b l e s p e c i e s such as f i s h may be u n a f f e c t e d . These standards seem im p r e c i s e a t b e s t , and as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned the i n t e r n a t i o n a l attempts a t c l a r i f i c a t i o n have p r o v i d e d l i t t l e a s s i s t a n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n t o some 121 o f the concerns unique t o i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s . 114 R e g u l a t i o n o f the c h o i c e o f an ocean clumping s i t e i s governed l a r g e l y by the CEPA. Again, however, the LDC amendments which s e t out a d d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i a f o r i n c i n e r a t i o n s i t e s were not i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the CEPA upon i t s r e c e n t replacement o f the ODCA. A f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r such o p e r a t i o n s i n Canada i s the e x i s t e n c e o f the A r c t i c Waters 122 P o l l u t i o n P r e v e n t i o n A c t . That A c t p r o h i b i t s the d i s c h a r g e o f a l l wastes i n t o A r c t i c waters, except as p e r m i t t e d by r e g u l a t i o n s , and most ocean dumping would f a l l w i t h i n t h i s p r o h i b i t i o n . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the A c t i s r e t a i n e d by Cabinet, except as d e l e g a t e d t o the M i n i s t e r s o f Tr a n s p o r t , I n d i a n and Northern A f f a i r s o r Energy, Mines and Resources. P a r t i c u l a r l y i n the North, n a t i v e l a n d use requirements a r i s i n g from l a n d c l a i m s e t t l e m e n t agreements 123 may a l s o need t o be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Emergency responses and contingency p l a n s a re a f u r t h e r area o f concern t o ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s , and the a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a permit t o i n c i n e r a t e a t sea r e q u i r e s the a p p l i c a n t t o have an approved contingency p l a n . M u n i c i p a l , p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s may a l l be i n v o l v e d i n d i f f e r e n t phases of emergency responses t o e i t h e r s p i l l s o r f i r e s . Some of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l conventions p r e v i o u s l y 124 mentioned a l s o p r o v i d e f o r emergency procedures. The p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n r e v e a l s the type o f j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t , d e f i c i e n c i e s , o v e r l a p and c o n f u s i o n t h a t must be managed i n d e a l i n g w i t h ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s . In any g i v e n s i t u a t i o n , one c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y i n v o l v e the Coast Guard, T r a n s p o r t , A g r i c u l t u r e , Environment, 115 N a t i o n a l Defence, F i s h e r i e s and Oceans, H e a l t h and Welfare, I n d i a n and Northern A f f a i r s , Labour, Energy, Mines and Resources, p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s , n a t i v e l e a d e r s , p o r t or harbour a u t h o r i t i e s , and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Even w i t h i n t h i s r e g u l a t o r y framework t h e r e are a s p e c t s o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n which are o n l y now b e i n g developed, i n c l u d i n g v e s s e l d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n standards. Moreover, t h e r e are a s p e c t s which are not y e t s u b j e c t t o any formal l e g a l r e g u l a t i o n a t e i t h e r the n a t i o n a l or p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , such as i n c i n e r a t o r performance standards. S u r p r i s i n g l y , the few amendments t o the ODCA upon i t s i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o the CEPA d i d not attempt t o implement these c o n t r o l s or i n c o r p o r a t e them i n t o Canadian law. In t h i s c l i m a t e of r e g u l a t o r y fragmentation and j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t , t h e r e i s some r e a l u n c e r t a i n t y over the a b i l i t y o f government t o formulate and implement adequate r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l over ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s , t o ensure t h a t p r o per s i t e s are s e l e c t e d , t o minimize emissions, and t o ensure t h a t environmental impacts are m i t i g a t e d and s a f e t y standards are maintained. With these concerns i n mind, the r i s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , t h e i r a c c e p t a b i l i t y , and some o f the p o t e n t i a l impacts o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s which must be debated b e f o r e a d e c i s i o n t o permit i t s use i s made, form the next s u b j e c t s of d i s c u s s i o n . 116 Chapter S i x : Notes 1. Manfred K. Nauke, "Development of I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n t r o l s f o r I n c i n e r a t i o n a t Sea" i n Wastes i n the Ocean Volume F i v e : Deep-Sea Waste D i s p o s a l , D.R. K e s t e r e t a l . (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1985), p. 35. 2. I b i d . , p. 36. 3. D.H. Bond, "At-sea I n c i n e r a t i o n of Hazardous Wastes: The R i s k i s Yet To Be J u s t i f i e d " (1984) 18(5) Env. S c i . Te c h n o l . 148A a t 149A; U.S. Congress, O f f i c e of Technology Assessment, Ocean I n c i n e r a t i o n : I t s Role i n Managing  Hazardous Waste, OTA-0-313 (Washington, D.C: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1986), p. 193. 4. U.S. Congress, p. 193; D.G. Ackerman e t a l . , H i s t o r y  of Environmental T e s t i n g of the Chemical Waste I n c i n e r a t o r  S h ips M/T Vulcanus and I/V Vulcanus I I (Redondo Beach: TRW Inc., 1983), p. 5; Envirochem S e r v i c e s , N a t i o n a l T e c h n i c a l  Manual f o r At Sea I n c i n e r a t i o n of L i q u i d Hazardous Wastes, March 1987 Working D r a f t (Burnaby: By the Author, 1987), App. A l . 5. Envirochem S e r v i c e s , App. A l . 6. Bond, p. 149A. 7. I b i d . 8. Kenneth S. Kamlet, "Ocean D i s p o s a l of O r g a n o c h l o r i n e Wastes by At-Sea I n c i n e r a t i o n " i n Ocean Dumping o f I n d u s t r i a l  Wastes, B.H. Ketchum e t a l . (New York: Plenum Press, 1981), p. 300 f f . 9. I b i d . , p. 310; Envirochem S e r v i c e s , App. B l . 10. U.S. Congress, p. 179. 11. Bond, p. 149A; Kamlet, p. 302-303. 12. Bond, p. 149A. 13. Kamlet, p. 306. 14. Bond, p. 150A. 15. Kim Watson, "Ocean I n c i n e r a t i o n : S c i e n c e or P o l i t i c s ? " (1986) 9(2) Marine P o l i c y Reports 1 a t 3. 16. I b i d . , p. 149A. 17. I b i d . 18. 15 I.L.M. 285; see a l s o U.S. Congress, p. 193. 117 19. Nauke, p. 36-37; U.S. Congress, p. 193; Kamlet, p. 311. 20. U.S. Congress, p. 179; D.G. Ackerman and R.A. Ven e z i a , "Research on At-Sea I n c i n e r a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s " i n Ke s t e r , supra note 1, p. 60. 21. Kamlet, p. 309; U.S. Congress, p. 179-181. 22. Bond, p. 150A. 23. Kamlet, p. 306 f f . ; U.S. Congress, p. 181. 24. Envirochem S e r v i c e s , App. B l . 25. Kamlet, p. 308. 26. I b i d . ; Envirochem S e r v i c e s , App. B l . 27. U.S. Congress, p. 184; Kamlet, p. 308; Bond, p. 150A-151A. 28. U.S. Congress, p. 184. 29. I b i d . , p. 195-196. 30. Envirochem S e r v i c e s , App. A l . 31. Watson, p. 3. 32. Ackerman, H i s t o r y , p. 117. 33. U.S. Congress, p. 197. 34. Envirochem S e r v i c e s , App. A l . 35. U.S. Congress, p. 197. 36. Watson, p. 3; U.S. Congress, p. 181. 37. Envirochem S e r v i c e s , App. B l . 38. Bond, p. 151A; U.S. Congress, p. 184. 39. Watson, p. 3. 40. Bond, p. 151A-152A. 41. Watson, p. 3. 42. U.S. Congress, p. 182; Envirochem S e r v i c e s , App. B l . 43. Watson, p. 3; U.S. Congress, p. 182. 118 44. "U.S. f i r m seeks permit t o burn t o x i n s o f f N.S.," C h r o n i c l e - H e r a l d . 25 September 1987, p. 21. 45. Canada, Environment Canada, Ocean Dumping C o n t r o l  A c t Annual Report 1985-86 (Ottawa: Supply and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1986), p. 20. 46. U.S. Congress, p. 195-196. 47. " J o i n t meeting t o be h e l d on i n c i n e r a t i o n , 1 1 (1986) 4 IMO News 15. 48. Watson, p. 3. 49. I b i d . ; U.S. Congress, p. 182-183. 50. Watson, p. 4. 51. I b i d . , p. 3; U.S. Congress, p. 183. 52. "Greenpeace s h i p s ordered impounded," Vancouver Sun, 20 November 1987. 53. C h r i s t o p h e r A. Walker, "The U n i t e d S t a t e s Environmental P r o t e c t i o n Agency's P r o p o s a l f o r At-Sea I n c i n e r a t i o n of Hazardous Wastes - A T r a n s n a t i o n a l P e r s p e c t i v e " (1988) 21(127) V a n d e r b i l t J . of T r a n s n a t i o n a l L. 157 a t 162. 54. U.S. Congress, p. 194. 55. I b i d . , p. 182; 73(2) S i e r r a 10. 56. Watson, p. 4. 57. U.S. Congress, p. 187, 194. 58. M. N o r d q u i s t and K.R. Simmonds, New D i r e c t i o n s i n  the Law o f the Sea, v o l . X (London: Oceana P u b l i c a t i o n s , n.d.), p. 1. 59. Annex I ( 1 0 ) . 60. Walker, p. 165. 61. Annex I I ( E ) . 62. R e g u l a t i o n 2. 63. Kamlet, p. 307. 64. R e g u l a t i o n 3. 65. R e g u l a t i o n 4. 119 66. R e g u l a t i o n 6. 67. R e g u l a t i o n 7. 68. R e g u l a t i o n 8. 69. R e g u l a t i o n s 3 and 5. 70. Walker, p. 179. 71. 12 I.L.M. 1319. 72. 9 I.L.M. 25. 73. C i t e d i n Envirochem S e r v i c e s , G l o s s a r y p. 4. 74. Envirochem S e r v i c e s , G l o s s a r y p. 2; Bruce, p. 313. 75. I b i d . 76. Envirochem S e r v i c e s , p. 56. 77. Maxwell Bruce, "The London Dumping Convention, 1972: F i r s t Decade and Future" (1986) 6 Ocean Yearbook 298 a t 313. 78. Annex V I I . 79. U.S. Congress, p. 58. 80. I b i d . , p. 127. 81. I b i d . , p. 15, 57. 82. U.S. Congress, p. 12. 83. J . Karau, "Summary of OSCOM Meeting on I n c i n e r a t i o n a t Sea May 4-6, 1987" (Ottawa: Environment Canada, 1987), p. 3 84. Envirochem S e r v i c e s , p. 36-38. 85. S e c t i o n 66(1). 86. C.R.C. 1978, c. 1243, s e c t i o n 3 ( 3 ) ; CEPA, s e c t i o n 88. 87. S e c t i o n 7 1 ( 3 ) ( a ) . 88. S e c t i o n 7 1 ( 3 ) ( b ) . 89. S e c t i o n 7 1 ( 3 ) ( c ) . 90. Envirochem S e r v i c e s . 91. J . Karau, " I n c i n e r a t i o n a t Sea" (1987) 1 Ocean Dumping News 10 a t 12-15. 120 92. R.S.C. 1970, c. P-10, as am.; R.S.C. 1 9 7 0 ( l s t Supp.), c. 5, as am.; R.S.C. 1970, c. F-14, as am.; and S.C. 1974-75-76, c. 72, as am. r e s p e c t i v e l y . 93. Phosphorous C o n c e n t r a t i o n C o n t r o l R e g u l a t i o n s , C.R.C. 1978, c. 393; CEPA P a r t I I I . 94. S e c t i o n 12; (1988) 5(8) Eco/Log Canadian P o l l u t i o n L e g i s l a t i o n 2. 95. C o n s t i t u t i o n A ct, 1867, 30 & 31 V i c t o r i a , c. 3 as am. (U.K.), s e c t i o n 95. 96. W i l l i a m J . Andrews and J.W. Higham, P r o t e c t i n g the  B.C. Environment; A Catalogue of P r o j e c t Review Processes (Ottawa: Environment Canada, 1986), p. 18. 97. S e c t i o n 34 (3). 98. C.R.C. 1978, c. 811, 818, 819, 828, 829 and 830. 99. Andrews, p. 13. 100. S e c t i o n 98. 101. S.C. 1980-81-82-83, c. 36, as am. 102. R.S.C. 1970, c. S-9, as am. 103. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n of Dangerous Goods R e g u l a t i o n s , SOR/85-77, as am. 104. R • S • C • 1970, c. N-8, as am. 105. C • R • C • 1978, c. 1064, as am. 106. R.S.C. 1970, c. H - l , as am. 107. R • S « C« 1970, c. S-9, as am. 108. C • R • C • 1978, c. 1461, as am. 109. R • S • C • 1970, c. G-9, as am. 110. Andrews , p. 15. 111. S e c t i o n L 450, and Dangerous Goods S h i p p i n g R e g u l a t i o n s , C.R.C. 1978, c. 1419, as am. 112. Envirochem S e r v i c e s , p. 37. 113. S.C. 1987, c. 7. 114. As o f May 31, 1988. 121 115. R.S.C. 1970, c. L - l , as am. 116. S.C. 1970-71-72, c. 47, as am. 117. Envirochem S e r v i c e s , p. 48. 118. S e c t i o n 7 1 ( 3 ) ( a ) . 119. U.S. Congress, p. 184. 120. I b i d . , p. 12, 165. 121. Robert J . McManus, "Ocean Dumping: Standards i n A c t i o n " i n Environmental P r o t e c t i o n : The I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Dimension. D.A. Kay and H.K. Jacobsen (New J e r s e y : A l l e n h e l d Osmun, 1987), p. 126. 122. R.S.C. 1970 (1st Supp.), c. 2, as am. 123. Canada, I n d i a n A f f a i r s and Northern Development, The  Western A r c t i c Claim: The I n u v i a l u i t F i n a l Agreement (Ottawa: Supply and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1984). 124. Envirochem S e r v i c e s , p. 57 e t seq. 122 Chapter Seven: The P o l i c y Debate There are r i s k s , both environmental and t o human h e a l t h , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n . R i s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the h a n d l i n g , l a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and s t o r a g e o f t o x i c wastes, i n c l u d i n g the r i s k s of s p i l l s , l e a k s and o t h e r " f u g i t i v e e m i s s i o n s " must be c o n s i d e r e d . There are r i s k s of s p i l l s d u r i n g l o a d i n g and u n l o a d i n g on l a n d and i n p o r t s , and r i s k s o f c o l l i s i o n s , groundings o r o t h e r s p i l l s a t sea. There i s the r i s k of f i r e . P o t e n t i a l problems e x i s t w i t h crew exposure, i n c i n e r a t o r s t a c k d r i f t and on-board l e a k s or s p i l l s . I n c i n e r a t o r s t a c k emissions can i n c l u d e a c i d e m i s s i o n s , heavy metals, unburned o r g a n i c compounds and PIC's, w i t h a s s o c i a t e d environmental and resource-use impacts. There are a l s o r i s k s of p o s s i b l e i n c i n e r a t o r m a l f u n c t i o n or "upset" d u r i n g a burn. One o f the major problems w i t h which l e g i s l a t o r s must d e a l i s whether adequate r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l can be a t t a i n e d and maintained over ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s , so t h a t such r i s k s are minimized and j u s t i f i a b l e . There i s a temptation, a f t e r r e c i t i n g such a l i t a n y of p o t e n t i a l dangers, t o assume t h a t the r i s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n must simply be too h i g h . Yet t h e r e i s no known a b s o l u t e l y s a f e way t o d e a l w i t h these t o x i c wastes, and one must keep the r e l a t i v e r i s k s of o t h e r o p t i o n s i n mind when a s s e s s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e d i s p o s a l methods. For example, land-based i n c i n e r a t i o n a l s o c a r r i e s w i t h i t r i s k s of s p i l l s , l e a k s , f i r e s , f u g i t i v e emissions, o p e r a t o r exposure and 123 i n c i n e r a t o r m a l f u n c t i o n . Although a c i d and metal emissions are minimized by scrubbers, one must f i n d an adequate method t o d i s p o s e of scrubber waste. M a t e r i a l s not w e l l managed by s c r u b b e r s , such as PIC's and unburned o r g a n i c compounds, w i l l be e m i t t e d c l o s e r t o human p o p u l a t i o n s and a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . Comparable r i s k s are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o t h e r treatment and 1 d i s p o s a l o p t i o n s s t i l l under development. The o n l y o t h e r major a l t e r n a t i v e a t the p r e s e n t time i s s t o r a g e and containment of such wastes, pending the r e s u l t of f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . With the sheer volume of wastes b e i n g produced, the shortage of secure l a n d f i l l s and the severe and p r o b a b l y i r r e v e r s i b l e dangers of groundwater contamination, t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e has now been c l e a r l y r e l e g a t e d t o a l e s s p r e f e r r e d s t a t u s on the waste management h i e r a r c h y , as was p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d . I f one a c c e p t s t h a t d e s t r u c t i o n or treatment o f wastes i s p r e f e r a b l e t o t h e i r attempted storage, one must then examine which i s the l e a s t dangerous d e s t r u c t i o n o p t i o n . The problem becomes one of d e t e r m i n i n g whether ocean d i s p o s a l i s p r e f e r a b l e t o l a n d d i s p o s a l , and whether ocean d i s p o s a l w i l l s e r v e t o a s s i s t i n or d e t r a c t from e f f o r t s t o implement even b e t t e r waste management o p t i o n s , such as waste r e c y c l i n g and r e c o v e r y . There are t h r e e a l t e r n a t i v e answers t o t h i s debate. F i r s t , one may conclude t h a t the r i s k s of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n are so h i g h , or so i n c a p a b l e of adequate r e g u l a t i o n , t h a t i t s h o u l d not occupy the same t i e r i n the waste management h i e r a r c h y as land-based treatment and d i s p o s a l o p t i o n s . 124 A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s view ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s l e s s d e s i r a b l e than land-based d e s t r u c t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e ought t o be p r o h i b i t e d o r used as a l a s t r e s o r t , w i t h a l l one's e f f o r t s b e i n g devoted t o improving land-based c a p a c i t y and waste r e c o v e r y . A second view i s t h a t , w h i l e ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s l e s s d e s i r a b l e than land-based a l t e r n a t i v e s , i t i s a u s e f u l i n t e r i m measure w h i l e land-based c a p a c i t y i s b e i n g developed. Ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s encouraged over the s h o r t term, as i t s r i s k s a re not seen as p r o h i b i t i v e , w h i l e p l a n s are made f o r i t s e v e n t u a l p h a s i n g out as b e t t e r a l t e r n a t i v e s a re e s t a b l i s h e d . The t h i r d view i s t h a t ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s the b e s t o p t i o n f o r wastes which are d i f f i c u l t t o d i s p o s e o f i n l a n d -based i n c i n e r a t o r s , such as h i g h l y c h l o r i n a t e d wastes which can exceed scrubber c a p a c i t y . T h i s v i e w p o i n t c o n s i d e r s ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n as a p r e f e r r e d waste management s t r a t e g y i n some cases, and as an a c t i v i t y t h a t s hould be c o n t i n u e d i n d e f i n i t e l y as t h e r e w i l l be a c o n t i n u i n g demand f o r t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e . There are members of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l community who take each of these views of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n . For example, the U n i t e d Kingdom regards ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n as the "best p r a c t i c a b l e environmental o p t i o n " f o r wastes which p r e s e n t s p e c i a l problems f o r scrubber-equipped land-based 2 i n c i n e r a t o r s . They are opposed t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a f i x e d date f o r the t e r m i n a t i o n o f a l l a t - s e a i n c i n e r a t i o n . . . 3 . . . . a c t i v i t i e s , and c o n s i d e r t h a t ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n may be a 125 4 p r e f e r r e d waste management o p t i o n i n some cases. There i s a b e l i e f t h a t not a l l wastes l e n d themselves t o land-based treatment or r e c y c l i n g and t h a t ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , meet a c o n t i n u i n g demand, p r o v i d i n g f o r sound waste management without d e t r a c t i n g from the i n c e n t i v e s t o 5 develop b e t t e r a l t e r n a t i v e t e c h n o l o g i e s . The use o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n by the U n i t e d Kingdom has been i n c r e a s i n g , although, g e n e r a l l y speaking, l a n d f i l l i n g o f hazardous wastes remains an e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e and in e x p e n s i v e o p t i o n , and t h e r e are few i n c e n t i v e s f o r waste r e c y c l i n g and r e d u c t i o n i n the 7 U n i t e d Kingdom. At the o t h e r extreme are c o u n t r i e s such as Denmark t h a t Q are s t r o n g l y opposed t o the use of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n . They are o f the view t h a t ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s an o p t i o n o f l a s t r e s o r t and t h a t a l l such a c t i v i t i e s s hould be h a l t e d as soon as p o s s i b l e . Although i n c i n e r a t o r t e c hnology i s c o n s i d e r e d a c c e p t a b l e f o r use on lan d , the use o f t h i s t e c hnology a t sea i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be too d i f f i c u l t t o c o n t r o l i n o r d e r t o ensure the proper d e s t r u c t i o n o f the wastes, and i s thought t o i n v o l v e unacceptable r i s k s o f c a t a s t r o p h i c t o x i c waste 9 r e l e a s e s h o u l d t h e r e be a s p i l l . Other reasons f o r concern i n c l u d e the a g g r a v a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l a c i d r a i n problems, and the i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h o t h e r uses of l a r g e areas of the ocean caused by i n c i n e r a t o r o p e r a t i o n s . 1 0 Denmark has a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d p u b l i c l y a d m i n i s t e r e d hazardous waste management program which r e l i e s p r i m a r i l y upon land-based i n c i n e r a t i o n . As a member o f both the Oslo and London Commissions, i t has 11 never i s s u e d a permit f o r ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n . 126 Most o t h e r c o u n t r i e s which have used o r c o n s i d e r e d ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n have adopted p o l i c i e s which view the p r a c t i c e as 12 a c c e p t a b l e o n l y on an i n t e r i m b a s i s . While not y e t p r o h i b i t e d , the use of t h i s o p t i o n i s a n t i c i p a t e d t o c o n t i n u e o n l y on a s h o r t - t e r m b a s i s , w i t h every e f f o r t b e i n g made t o develop land-based c a p a c i t y and t o phase out ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i n the near f u t u r e . For example, S w i t z e r l a n d c o n s i d e r s land-based i n c i n e r a t i o n t o be " e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y p r e f e r a b l e , " because of the g r e a t e r a b i l i t y of r e g u l a t o r y . . . 13 a u t h o r i t i e s t o c o n t r o l land-based o p e r a t i o n s . Sweden c o n s i d e r s ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n an o p t i o n of " l a s t r e s o r t d u r i n g a t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d " i f no land-based a l t e r n a t i v e i s 14 . . a v a i l a b l e . Norway c o n s i d e r s t h a t "ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n 15 s h o u l d be t e r m i n a t e d as soon as p o s s i b l e . " The F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c o f Germany e v a l u a t e s ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s on a case-by-case b a s i s , u s i n g the presence or l a c k of l a n d -based c a p a c i t y as the "major c r i t e r i o n . " The i n f l u e n c e of these v a r y i n g views i s seen i n the p o l i c i e s of the commissions e s t a b l i s h e d pursuant t o the London Dumping and Oslo Conventions. The Oslo Commission, dominated by c o u n t r i e s which e i t h e r view ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n as e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y unsound or l e s s p r e f e r a b l e than land-based a l t e r n a t i v e s , had a l o n g s t a n d i n g p o l i c y t h a t i t would e s t a b l i s h by 1990 a f i x e d date f o r the t e r m i n a t i o n of ocean 17 i n c i n e r a t i o n , and i n 1987 e i g h t n a t i o n s agreed t o a 18 complete ban on ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n by 1994. C o n t r a c t i n g n a t i o n s which c u r r e n t l y permit i n c i n e r a t i o n must do so o n l y 19 i f no p r a c t i c a l land-based treatment method i s a v a i l a b l e . While maximum heavy metal c o n c e n t r a t i o n s are not f o r m a l l y r e g u l a t e d by the Oslo Commission, some p a r t i e s such as the N etherlands and Belgium have s e t metal c o n c e n t r a t i o n . . 20 l i m i t s . R e s t r i c t i o n s on the type of wastes accepted f o r i n c i n e r a t i o n have been s e t by o t h e r n a t i o n s , such as the F e d e r a l R e p u b l i c of Germany which p r o h i b i t s ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o f waste c o n t a i n i n g PCB's, p o l y c h l o r i n a t e d 21 t e r p h e n y l s , d i o x i n s , DDT and f u r a n s . The p a r t i e s t o the London Dumping Convention, w h i l e h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d by the Oslo Commission on the i n c i n e r a t i o n i s s u e , are not dominated by i t . The r e g u l a t i o n s governing i n c i n e r a t i o n under the LDC are l e s s s t r i c t than those of the O slo Convention, r e q u i r i n g c o n t r a c t i n g p a r t i e s t o take account of a l t e r n a t i v e means of d i s p o s a l , but not p r o h i b i t i n g ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n a u t o m a t i c a l l y when p r a c t i c a l land-based 22 a l t e r n a t i v e s are a v a i l a b l e . Permit d e c i s i o n s are made on a case-by-case b a s i s and are based on a waste management h i e r a r c h y i n which i n c i n e r a t i o n on l a n d and a t sea occupy the 23 same middle t i e r . No heavy metal c o n c e n t r a t i o n l i m i t s have been s e t , even on an i n f o r m a l b a s i s . No f i x e d date f o r the 24 t e r m i n a t i o n of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . Attempts have been made t o compare the r i s k s of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n w i t h those of land-based i n c i n e r a t i o n i n o r d e r t o r e s o l v e , on a s c i e n t i f i c or t e c h n o l o g i c a l b a s i s , the debate over the s u i t a b i l i t y and s a f e t y of the ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , c u r r e n t data and assessment methods "simply do not a l l o w f i r m or h i g h l y a c c u r a t e q u a n t i t a t i v e p r e d i c t i o n s of r i s k s and/or t h e i r 128 a c t u a l impacts f o r e i t h e r the land-based or a t sea 25 i n c i n e r a t i o n o p t i o n s . " Many o f the r i s k s "cannot be q u a n t i f i e d a t a l l " and "the fundamentally d i f f e r e n t nature of the r i s k s o f t e n p r e c l u d e s comparison" between the two 2 6 o p t i o n s . American s t u d i e s have concluded t h a t the c h o i c e between ocean and land-based i n c i n e r a t i o n cannot be r e s o l v e d on a p u r e l y t e c h n i c a l b a s i s , and t h a t " a n a l y s i s does not l e a d 27 t o an unambiguous c h o i c e . " With such l i m i t e d and pr o b a b l y u n r e l i a b l e s c i e n t i f i c d ata, i t would seem t h a t n o t h i n g c o n c l u s i v e can be s a i d about the r e l a t i v e dangers of ocean o r l a n d i n c i n e r a t i o n , although a few g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s are p o s s i b l e . F i r s t , ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i n v o l v e s an i n c r e a s e d r i s k o f s p i l l s due t o the a d d i t i o n a l l o a d i n g a t p o r t f a c i l i t i e s and the a d d i t i o n a l 2 8 t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a t sea. Second, ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i n c r e a s e s the d i r e c t exposure of the marine environment by a c i d and metal emissions, u n l e s s scrubbers are t o be 29 r e q u i r e d . T h i r d , d i r e c t exposure of humans t o i n c i n e r a t o r e m i ssions i s l e s s e n e d by ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , because o f the 3 0 remoteness of the o p e r a t i o n s . Fourth, ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s w i l l r e l e a s e approximately 15% more waste i n t o the 31 environment than land-based o p e r a t i o n s . The U n i t e d S t a t e s EPA concluded t h a t ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n would pose a s u b s t a n t i a l l y lower r i s k t o human h e a l t h than land-based i n c i n e r a t i o n , although t h e i r a n a l y s i s has been c r i t i c i z e d f o r a number of reasons by the U n i t e d S t a t e s 32 Congress O f f i c e o f Technology Assessment. Comparative environmental impact assessments are even more c o n t r o v e r s i a l , 129 a lthough a marine s p i l l i s g e n e r a l l y thought t o be the most s e r i o u s of a l l r i s k s , w i t h a p o t e n t i a l l y c a t a s t r o p h i c 33 impact. For p o l i c y decision-makers the economic v i a b i l i t y of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s a l s o an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The f i r s t economic f a c t o r of importance i s shared w i t h a l l o t h e r d e s t r u c t i o n , treatment and p r e f e r r e d waste management o p t i o n s : l a n d f i l l i n g c o n t i n u e s t o be the cheapest a l t e r n a t i v e , and i f i t s c o s t i s i n c r e a s e d or a v a i l a b i l i t y decreased t h e r e i s the p o t e n t i a l t h a t some waste g e n e r a t o r s 34 w i l l t u r n t o i l l e g a l dumping. While the c o s t of i n c i n e r a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y g r e a t e r than l a n d f i l l i n g , e s t i m a t e s of the comparative c o s t s of ocean and l a n d i n c i n e r a t i o n are extremely v a r i a b l e and u n r e l i a b l e . F a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e the c o s t o f each o p t i o n i n c l u d e the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n mode, the p h y s i c a l s t a t e o f the waste, the degree o f r e g u l a t i o n , and the c o s t of l i a b i l i t y i n s u r a n c e . 3 5 Wastes which have a h i g h energy content and which do not r e q u i r e supplementary f u e l can a l s o be i n c i n e r a t e d a t lower , 36 c o s t . There i s a l s o a g r e a t d e a l of u n c e r t a i n t y about how ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n would a f f e c t the economic v i a b i l i t y of land-based i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s . Much of the l i q u i d waste s u i t a b l e f o r ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n can be used as f u e l t o burn s o l i d s and sludges on l a n d , and thus land-based o p e r a t i o n s might have t o purchase replacement f u e l a t a h i g h e r c o s t i f 37 t h e s e l i q u i d wastes were d i v e r t e d t o a t - s e a o p e r a t i o n s . L i q u i d wastes are a l s o amenable t o r e c o v e r y p r o c e s s e s , and 130 thus the expected volume a v a i l a b l e f o r ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s 3 8 e v e n t u a l l y expected by many t o decrease. P e r v e r s e l y , many r e c y c l i n g p r o c e s s e s produce l i q u i d waste by-products which are s u i t a b l e f o r ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , and r e c o v e r y p r o c e s s e s are d e v e l o p i n g most r a p i d l y f o r s o l i d s and slud g e s , so t h a t the amount o f waste a v a i l a b l e f o r ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s 39 expected by o t h e r s t o i n c r e a s e . The economic e f f e c t s o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n a re not l i m i t e d t o e f f e c t s on land-based i n c i n e r a t o r o p e r a t i o n s . There i s a l s o a g r e a t d e a l o f concern about the e f f e c t o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p t i o n s on the development of p r e f e r r e d management a l t e r n a t i v e s . I f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s not developed, t h e r e i s concern t h a t shortages o f land-based c a p a c i t y w i l l r e s u l t i n p r i c e i n c r e a s e s which, as p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , produce a g r e a t e r temptation t o use i l l e g a l 40 d i s p o s a l methods. Others are concerned t h a t i f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s developed, i t s a v a i l a b i l i t y w i l l impede or 41 slow the development of p r e f e r r e d p r a c t i c e s . I f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s developed, and i t s l a t e r phasing-out i s r e q u i r e d , t h e r e a re f u r t h e r economic problems. I n c i n e r a t o r v e s s e l s r e q u i r e a s u b s t a n t i a l c a p i t a l investment, and p o t e n t i a l o p e r a t o r s w i l l be d i s c o u r a g e d i f t h e r e i s too much u n c e r t a i n t y over the r e g u l a t o r y and 42 economic f u t u r e o f the i n d u s t r y . As w e l l , the implementation o f waste r e d u c t i o n and o t h e r p r e f e r r e d p r a c t i c e s may reduce the amount of waste a v a i l a b l e f o r ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n t o commercially uneconomical amounts, b e f o r e adequate land-based c a p a c i t y t o handle the remaining wastes e x i s t s . T h i s problem has been the s u b j e c t o f d i s c u s s i o n by the O s l o Commission, which i s see k i n g t o phase out ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i n the near f u t u r e and which i s , t h e r e f o r e , c o n s i d e r i n g o p t i o n s such as s u b s i d i e s , the p r o l o n g a t i o n o f commercial v i a b i l i t y by i n c r e a s i n g the number of wastes p e r m i t t e d t o be i n c i n e r a t e d a t sea, and l o n g term land-based , 44 s t o r a g e . Canada has not y e t i s s u e d any permits f o r t o x i c waste i n c i n e r a t i o n a t sea. However, the Canadian government has r e c e i v e d a re q u e s t by a commercial i n c i n e r a t i o n c o r p o r a t i o n f o r p e r m i s s i o n t o conduct ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i n Canadian 45 waters. The government i s thus f a c e d w i t h a major p o l i c y d e c i s i o n r e l a t i n g t o whether the r i s k s o f such a c t i v i t i e s are a c c e p t a b l e , and whether t h i s technology can form a u s e f u l p a r t o f Canada's hazardous waste management s t r a t e g y . The i n i t i a l Canadian p o s i t i o n i s t h a t Environment Canada i s "committed t o f u l l y e x p l o r i n g a l l e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y sound 46 . o p t i o n s f o r managing hazardous wastes," i n c l u d i n g p r o p e r l y c o n t r o l l e d s h i p b o a r d i n c i n e r a t i o n . The government c o n s i d e r s t h a t , t o date, the f o r e i g n t e s t burns on i n c i n e r a t o r s h i p s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e are o n l y minimal n e g a t i v e h e a l t h 47 and environmental impacts, and t h a t t h e r e i s , a c c o r d i n g l y , no c l e a r p r e f e r e n c e between ocean and land-based i n c i n e r a t o r 48 . . . . techn o l o g y . Although gaps i n s c i e n t i f i c knowledge and c o n t r o l i n d i c a t e t h e r e are unknown r i s k s which make a comparative assessment of the o p t i o n s d i f f i c u l t , i f not i m p o s s i b l e , both n a t i o n a l l y and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y Canada has maintained the p o s i t i o n t h a t the c a r e f u l use of a l l hazardous waste d i s p o s a l methods would be a c c e p t a b l e " i f i t poses l e s s or no g r e a t e r human h e a l t h r i s k s than p r a c t i c a b l e l a n d based 49 a l t e r n a t i v e s , 1 1 or i f t h e r e "are no p r a c t i c a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s 50 t h a t are e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y p r e f e r a b l e . " When c o n s i d e r e d from the p o i n t of view of the waste management h i e r a r c h y , the c e n t r a l p o l i c y q u e s t i o n i s whether a l l o w i n g ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n t o proceed w i l l i n v o l v e the promotion o f p r e f e r r e d s t r a t e g i e s , and d i s c o u r a g e the use of l e s s p r e f e r a b l e o p t i o n s . While Environment Canada c o n s i d e r s ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n t o be e q u i v a l e n t t o o t h e r d e s t r u c t i o n t e c h n o l o g i e s , the c o n t r o v e r s y among oth e r n a t i o n s c a s t s doubt on t h i s p o s i t i o n . S i n c e much of the o p p o s i t i o n t o ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n r e v o l v e s about concerns r e g a r d i n g the a b i l i t y of government t o assume adequate r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l over i n c i n e r a t o r v e s s e l o p e r a t i o n s , the fragmented Canadian l e g a l and r e g u l a t o r y j u r i s d i c t i o n c r e a t e s cause f o r a d d i t i o n a l concern. In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s , these j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s , as w e l l as v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l , economic and s c i e n t i f i c problems w i l l be examined i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l , t o determine whether the Canadian p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l p r o c e s s i s capable o f g e n e r a t i n g sound and balanced p o l i c i e s and laws t o govern the use of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n . Chapter Seven: Notes 1. U.S. Congress, O f f i c e o f Technology Assessment, Ocean I n c i n e r a t i o n : I t s Role i n Managing Hazardous Waste. OTA-0-313 (Washington, D.C: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e 1986), p. 93 f f . 2. I b i d . , p. 201. 3. J . Karau, "Summary of OSCOM Meeting on I n c i n e r a t i o n a t Sea May 4-6, 1987" (Ottawa: Environment Canada, 1987), p. 1. 4. U.S. Congress, chapter 12; J . Karau, "Memorandum Re LDC/OSCOM Meetings on I n c i n e r a t i o n a t Sea, A p r i l 27 t o May 6 1987", p. 1. 5. I b i d . 6. U.S. Congress, p. 2 01. 7. A l a n C. W i l l i a m s , "A Study of Hazardous Waste M i n i m i z a t i o n i n Europe: P u b l i c and P r i v a t e S t r a t e g i e s t o Reduce P r o d u c t i o n o f Hazardous Waste" (1987) 14(2) Boston C o l l . Env. A f f a i r s L. Rev. 165 a t 182. 8. U.S. Congress, p. 199. 9. I b i d . ; J . Karau, "Summary o f LDC/OSCOM Meeting on I n c i n e r a t i o n a t Sea A p r i l 27 t o May 1, 1987" (Ottawa: Environment Canada, 1987), p. 6. 10. U.S. Congress, p. 199. 11. I b i d . 12. I b i d . , p. 199-201. 13 . I b i d . , p. 210. 14. I b i d . 15. I b i d . 16. I b i d . ; W i l l i a m s , 190-191. 17. Karau. OSCOM. p. 1. 18. C. Walker, "The U n i t e d S t a t e s Environmental P r o t e c t i o n Agency's P r o p o s a l f o r At-Sea I n c i n e r a t i o n o f Hazardous Wastes - A T r a n s n a t i o n a l P e r s p e c t i v e " (1988) 21 V a n d e r b i l t J . o f T r a n s n a t i o n a l Law 157 a t 162. 19. Karau, OSCOM. p. 2. 20. I b i d . , p. 3. 21. U.S. Congress, p. 200. 22. Karau, OSCOM, p. 2. 23. I b i d . ; Karau, LDC/OSCOM supra note 10, p. 6. 24. On October 6, 1988, Canada a l t e r e d i t s policy-p o s i t i o n by a g r e e i n g t o a complete ban on ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n by 1994. The i s s u e s r a i s e d by the study, which are r e p o r t e d as of June 30, 1988 are, t h e r e f o r e , o f primary importance i n the i n t e r i m p e r i o d , between 1988 and 1994. "65 n a t i o n s t o ban b u r n i n g o f chemical waste a t sea," Vancouver Sun. 7 October 1988, p. A5. 25. Envirochem S e r v i c e s , N a t i o n a l T e c h n i c a l Manual f o r At  Sea I n c i n e r a t i o n o f L i q u i d Hazardous Wastes, March 1987 Working D r a f t (Burnaby: By the Author, 1987), p. 62. 26. U.S. Congress, p. 159. 27. I b i d . , p. 11. 28. Envirochem S e r v i c e s , p. 62. 29. I b i d . 30. I b i d . 31. I b i d . , p. 64. 32. U.S. Congress, p. 159. 33. I b i d . , p. 162-163. 34. I b i d . , p. 48-49; W i l l i a m s , p. 175; J o e l S. H i r s c h h o r n , "Emerging Options i n Waste Reduction and Treatment: A Market I n c e n t i v e Approach" i n Beyond Dumping:  New S t r a t e g i e s f o r C o n t r o l l i n g T o x i c Contamination, B. P i a s e c k i (Westport: Quorum Books, 1984), p. 130. 35. U.S. Congress, p. 167; P a t r i c k G. McCann, " P r e p a r i n g Management: The P o l i t i c a l Economy o f S t r o n g e r C o n t r o l s " i n P i a s e c k i , supra note 35, p. 121. 36. McCann, p. 121. 37. U.S. Congress, p. 48. 38. I b i d . 39. I b i d . , p. 43. 40. I b i d . , p. 19. 135 41. I b i d . , p. 16. 42. I b i d . , p. 20. 43. I b i d . , p. 17; Karau, OSCOM, p. 2. 44. I b i d . 45. " E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s uneasy as Ottawa eyes p l a n t o burn waste a t sea," Globe and M a i l . 2 October 1987, p. B17. 46. J . Karau, " I n c i n e r a t i o n a t Sea" (1987) 1 Ocean Dumping News 10 a t 10. 47. I b i d . , p. 11. 48. I b i d . ; Envirochem S e r v i c e s , p. 62. 49. Karau, I n c i n e r a t i o n supra note 47, p. 12. 50. Canada, Environment Canada, Ocean Dumping C o n t r o l  A c t Annual Report 1985-8 6 (Ottawa: Supply and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1986), p. 20. 136 PART I I I : CANADIAN LEGAL AND POLITICAL PROCESSES Environmental problems are an i n e v i t a b l e by-product o f d e s i r e d economic growth, development and human a c t i v i t y . Such problems, n e v e r t h e l e s s , c o n s t i t u t e a growing t h r e a t t o both e c o l o g i c a l i n t e g r i t y , and human l i f e and h e a l t h . Governments have a r o l e t o p l a y i n both the encouragement of economic development and the p r o t e c t i o n o f s o c i a l v a l u e s r e l a t e d t o the q u a l i t y o f l i f e . The b a l a n c i n g o f these i n t e r e s t s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s t h a t governments make, and the l e g a l and r e g u l a t o r y instruments t h a t a re used t o both make and implement those c h o i c e s . When decision-makers are c o n f r o n t e d w i t h environmental i s s u e s , one of the g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i s the e x t e n t o f the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l , economic, s c i e n t i f i c and p o l i t i c a l u n c e r t a i n t i e s i n h e r e n t i n every p o s s i b l e p o l i c y o p t i o n . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n the Canadian l e g a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t . Examination o f the nature o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n p r a c t i c e s and t h e i r c u r r e n t i n t e r n a t i o n a l and n a t i o n a l l e g a l r e g u l a t i o n , r e v e a l s t h a t ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s an a c t i v i t y comprised o f many complex and u n c e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s . Among these are u n c e r t a i n t i e s as t o i t s environmental impact, i t s h e a l t h e f f e c t s , i t s a m e n a b i l i t y t o l e g a l r e g u l a t i o n and i t s p r o p e r p l a c e i n the waste management h i e r a r c h y . Canadian decision-makers are fa c e d w i t h some d i f f i c u l t p o l i c y c h o i c e s t o make i n r e l a t i o n t o ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n . F i r s t , i t must be de c i d e d whether ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n s hould 137 be p e r m i t t e d , and i f so, i t must be de c i d e d whether i t i s t o occupy the p l a c e o f a p r e f e r r e d or i n t e r i m waste management s t r a t e g y . Second, i f the technology i s chosen f o r use, then d e c i s i o n s must be made r e g a r d i n g the proper method of a c h i e v i n g adequate l e g a l and r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l over ongoing o p e r a t i o n s . In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , the c u r r e n t Canadian p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h the l e g a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s , a re examined t o determine what s p e c i f i c d i f f i c u l t i e s w i l l almost c e r t a i n l y be fa c e d by Canadian decision-makers i n attempting t o d e a l w i t h t h e s e u n c e r t a i n t i e s , and t o i d e n t i f y areas i n which improvements c o u l d be made t o e x i s t i n g l e g a l and p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s . 138 Chapter E i g h t : Canadian Law and P o l i c y Formation Problems a. J u r i s d i c t i o n a l Problems Government i n Canada engages i n a m u l t i t u d e o f r o l e s , and the p r o t e c t i o n o f p u b l i c h e a l t h and environmental q u a l i t y a re o n l y two of i t s many r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Other major government i n i t i a t i v e s i n c l u d e the promotion o f 1 r e g i o n a l development and the p u r s u i t o f economic growth. P a r t i c u l a r l y i n the 1980's, economic r e c o v e r y and the promotion o f b u s i n e s s and investment have been primary concerns o f government, w h i l e environmental concerns have 2 been o f secondary importance. Environmental agencies have, t h e r e f o r e , o f t e n competed u n s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h economic p r i o r i t i e s i n government and i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y . . . . 3 deci s i o n - m a k i n g and budget a l l o c a t i o n s . With l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s and a r e l a t i v e l y weak p o l i t i c a l mandate, environmental agencies have been c o n s t r a i n e d i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o take s t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p and enforcement a c t i o n s . When compared t o the i n d u s t r i e s b e i n g r e g u l a t e d , the r e l a t i v e shortage o f r e s o u r c e s has o f t e n t r a n s l a t e d i n t o an i n a b i l i t y o f government t o conduct independent r e s e a r c h and i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , hence an over-4 r e l i a n c e on c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h i n d u s t r y . T h i s c l o s e agency-i n d u s t r y r e l a t i o n s h i p c r e a t e s a degree o f r e l u c t a n c e on the p a r t o f r e g u l a t o r y o f f i c i a l s t o take a tough n e g o t i a t i n g p o s i t i o n i n attempting t o e s t a b l i s h and e n f o r c e environmental s t a n d a r d s . In a d d i t i o n , t o a v o i d a p e r c e p t i o n o f e x c e s s i v e 139 government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y , c o e r c i v e methods of implementing p o l i c i e s , such as l e g i s l a t i o n , may be avoided i n f a v o u r of l e s s c o e r c i v e methods, such as t a x i n c e n t i v e s or 5 o t h e r f i s c a l measures. Adding t o the c o n f l i c t i n g a t t i t u d e s of government toward i n d u s t r y i s the government's own r e l i a n c e on a f l o u r i s h i n g b u s i n e s s c l i m a t e t o m a i n t a i n i t s revenue base. Moreover, i n many cases, such as when P u b l i c Works Canada a p p l i e s t o Environment Canada f o r a dredged m a t e r i a l d i s p o s a l permit, government i s both the i n d u s t r y proponent and the r e g u l a t o r . C o n f l i c t s a l s o occur among government departments due t o u n c l e a r , shared, or o v e r l a p p i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n s . O f t e n the agencies i n v o l v e d i n a g i v e n problem have s e p a r a t e o r c o n f l i c t i n g mandates, p r i o r i t i e s and o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s c r e a t e s not o n l y problems of p u b l i c a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , but c o n f u s i o n among the f e d e r a l o f f i c i a l s over which s t a t u t e t o use and who i s r e s p o n s i b l e i n any g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . The r e s u l t i n g tendency i s f o r e l a b o r a t e committees and cumbersome r e f e r r a l procedures t o develop. Environment Canada o f t e n attempts t o perform a l e a d e r s h i p and c o o r d i n a t i n g r o l e among the many competing departments. However, wi t h "no a u t h o r i t y t o command or t o d i r e c t r e s o u r c e s o r t o s e t p r i o r i t i e s f o r o t h e r government departments," l i t t l e can be done except t o prevent 9 . . . . d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t . The s e t t i n g of p r i o r i t i e s and a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n each department i s done by 10 t h a t department, and each department j e a l o u s l y guards both i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n and budget. T h i s autonomy, however, o f t e n 140 works a g a i n s t comprehensive and e f f e c t i v e management o f many 11 environmental problems. Adding t o the complexity o f environmental c o n t r o l problems i s the u n c e r t a i n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n i n many f i e l d s which may be d i v i d e d o r shared between the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments. Such f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e g i s l a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n and p o l i t i c a l p r i o r i t i e s , coupled w i t h g r e a t d i s p a r i t i e s i n spending powers, have o f t e n a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d the c o n s i s t e n c y o f environmental standards . . . 12 and compliance a c t i v i t i e s . I n c r e a s i n g l y , such problems have been d e a l t w i t h by c o o p e r a t i v e agreements between the two l e v e l s o f government, but as a r e s u l t p o l i t i c a l and l e g a l . . 13 a c c o u n t a b i l i t y are o f t e n obscured. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the p r o v i n c e s have seen environmental matters as c l o s e l y t i e d t o i s s u e s o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e development, and have viewed attempts by the f e d e r a l government t o p r o v i d e environmental l e a d e r s h i p as an i n t r u s i o n i n t o p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n over such r e s o u r c e s . 1 4 S i n c e s h o r t - t e r m economic b e n e f i t s on a l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l a re o f t e n i n c o n f l i c t w i t h l o n g term environmental 15 p r o t e c t i o n , the f e d e r a l government i s f r e q u e n t l y f o r c e d t o choose between s t r o n g environmental measures and an unwanted i n c r e a s e i n p o l i t i c a l t e n s i o n w i t h p r o v i n c i a l governments or 16 w i t h m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s . Over time, environmental problems have a l s o grown i n s i z e and complexity, and many 17 problems are now g l o b a l o r t r a n s n a t i o n a l i n scope. The f e d e r a l government i s thus f a c e d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e t o e n t e r i n t o and f u l f i l l i n t e r n a t i o n a l and b i l a t e r a l 141 environmental commitments t h a t may i n t e n s i f y the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s w i t h p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l governments. A t the same time, the i n t e r n a t i o n a l economic c l i m a t e may i n c r e a s e the p r e s s u r e on the f e d e r a l government 18 t o i n t e r v e n e i n r e s o u r c e r e g u l a t i o n . T h i s not o n l y i n c r e a s e s the p o t e n t i a l p r o v i n c i a l and i n d u s t r y c o n f l i c t s , but i n c r e a s e s the t e n s i o n among the f e d e r a l government departments, w i t h t h e i r v a r y i n g p r i o r i t i e s . Consequently, the f e d e r a l government i s i n c r e a s i n g l y caught between i n t e r n a l o r n a t i o n a l p r e s s u r e s , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l and b i l a t e r a l p r e s s u r e s , w i t h a s s o c i a t e d problems f o r both domestic and f o r e i g n p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n . b. A n a l y t i c a l Problems ( i ) The Use of Economic A n a l y s i s In an e f f o r t t o r e s o l v e many of the i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t s between the promotion of economic development and the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f environmental q u a l i t y , governments have made an i n c r e a s i n g use of economic a n a l y s i s . I t was thought t h a t such a n a l y s i s would p r o v i d e a method t o s i m p l i f y p o l i c y d ecision-making, and a l l o w o f f i c i a l s t o s e l e c t o r choose among t h e b e s t a v a i l a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s , u s i n g a n e u t r a l o r o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i o n . In f a c t , economic a n a l y s i s has been c r i t i c i z e d because, although i t i s a s e e m i n g l y - n e u t r a l t e c h n i q u e , i t a c t u a l l y i n v o l v e s the use of a number o f u n s t a t e d assumptions, v a l u e judgments and e t h i c a l 19 20 d e c i s i o n s . Economic th e o r y l a c k s i t s own v a l u e system, and simply assumes t h a t a p o s i t i v e market outcome i s a 142 21 . . . d e s i r a b l e g o a l . The use of p u r e l y economic " e f f i c i e n c y c r i t e r i a " t o s e l e c t environmental standards i m p l i c i t l y assumes t h a t t h e r e a re no r e d u c t i o n s i n environmental q u a l i t y which c o u l d not be compensated, and t h a t the market r e s u l t 22 w i l l be s a t i s f a c t o r y t o s o c i e t y . Wealth maximization o r the growth e t h i c i s t r e a t e d as a s u i t a b l e c r i t e r i o n f o r the c h o i c e o f environmental standards. These assumptions about the s u i t a b i l i t y o f economic c r i t e r i a as a means t o make p o l i c y c h o i c e s about matters such as p u b l i c h e a l t h and environmental q u a l i t y have been the 23 s u b j e c t o f s t r o n g c r i t i c i s m . Some f e e l t h a t i t i s m o r a l l y or e t h i c a l l y wrong t o p r i c e human s u f f e r i n g , and o t h e r s suggest t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s o c i a l v a l u e s which demand t h a t people ought not t o have t o pay f o r some types o f g o o d s . 2 4 S i m i l a r l y , i t i s argued t h a t many people have i d e a l s and moral c o n v i c t i o n s about environmental q u a l i t y t h a t a re e c o n o m i c a l l y i n e f f i c i e n t , but which they are w i l l i n g t o have supported by government even i f t h i s i n v o l v e s a s a c r i f i c e i n 25 i n d i v i d u a l b e n e f i t s . For example, many environmental laws, a l t h o u g h e c o n o m i c a l l y i n e f f i c i e n t , a re s t r o n g l y supported by the p u b l i c and have been chosen f o r use even though they a re 2 6 not e c o n o m i c a l l y o p t i m a l . Attempts by economists t o measure w i l l i n g n e s s t o pay f o r the promotion o f these b e l i e f s may measure the s t r e n g t h o f persons* c o n v i c t i o n s , but may be i r r e l e v a n t as t o whether those c o n v i c t i o n s a re m o r a l l y r i g h t 27 or wrong. Some v a l u e s are, perhaps, p r i c e l e s s . In a d d i t i o n , i n o r d e r t o apply economic a n a l y s i s t o environmental problems, many c o s t s and b e n e f i t s t h a t would 143 not n o r m a l l y be p r i c e d are a s s i g n e d a d o l l a r v a l u e , o f t e n i n 2 8 a r a t h e r a r b i t r a r y manner. T h i s i n c l u d e s p l a c i n g a d o l l a r v a l u e on: human l i f e , human h e a l t h , a e s t h e t i c b e n e f i t s , ecosystem e f f e c t s , p a i n and s u f f e r i n g and the q u a l i t y o f 29 l i f e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y such b e n e f i t s cannot be a c c u r a t e l y e s t i m a t e d , and many f u t u r e o ccurrences are so u n p r e d i c t a b l e t h a t v a l u a t i o n becomes a meaningless g u e s s i n g game. A l s o , t h e a n a l y s t may judge o n l y some v a l u e s t o be worthy of p r i c i n g , and f a c t o r s which might be c o n s i d e r e d a b e n e f i t by some (such as the mere e x i s t e n c e o f w i l d e r n e s s ) might be 30 u n p r i c e d o r u n d e r p r i c e d by the economist. In many cases c o s t e s t i m a t e s w i l l be p r o v i d e d by i n d u s t r y , and s t u d i e s have shown such e s t i m a t e s t o be u n r e l i a b l e and i n f l a t e d , which can 31 f u r t h e r skew a c o s t - b e n e f i t r a t i o . Some have argued t h a t the a r b i t r a r y n ature o f p r i c i n g i n environmental matters i s such t h a t almost any p o l i c y d e c i s i o n can be j u s t i f i e d by 32 merely p i c k i n g the c o r r e c t p r i c e f o r these v a l u e s . A f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the use of economic a n a l y s i s i n environmental a f f a i r s i s the problem of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of r i s k s and b e n e f i t s . While the a n a l y s i s t h a t i s conducted l o o k s a t the aggregate c o s t s and b e n e f i t s t o s o c i e t y as a whole, the i n d i v i d u a l s who bear the c o s t s may not be those who r e c e i v e the b e n e f i t s o r who have the a b i l i t y t o pay the 33 . c o s t s . The r e s u l t o f an economic a n a l y s i s may thus be e f f i c i e n t , but a l s o h i g h l y i n e q u i t a b l e . In a d d i t i o n , the market i s not o p e r a t i n g as a f r e e market where people, such as those persons whose h e a l t h o r q u a l i t y o f l i f e w i l l be a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d i n the f u t u r e by i n d u s t r i a l e m i s s i o n s , 144 34 have no power t o d e c l i n e t o " s e l l " a t any p r i c e . D e s p i t e such shortcomings, the use of economic a n a l y s i s i s a common way of making r e g u l a t o r y d e c i s i o n s i n 35 . . . . Canada. While i t s use i s i n f a c t a h e l p f u l t o o l i n many cir c u m s t a n c e s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t i n many environmental areas i t may be necessary t o base p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s on broader c r i t e r i a and v a l u e s . ( i i ) The Use of S c i e n t i f i c A n a l y s i s Some f e e l t h a t , r a t h e r than t r y i n g t o r e s o l v e environmental i s s u e s u s i n g economic a n a l y s i s , one should make such d e c i s i o n s r e l y i n g mainly on t e c h n i c a l o r s c i e n t i f i c e vidence. T h i s a t t i t u d e i s r e f l e c t i v e o f a commonly h e l d m i s c o n c e p t i o n t h a t s c i e n c e and technology can s o l v e a l l environmental problems, and t h a t nature can be c o n t r o l l e d and dominated by man. 3 6 In f a c t s c i e n c e p r o g r e s s e s v e r y s l o w l y , and s c i e n t i s t s are c a r e f u l about the c o n c l u s i v e n e s s o f the statements they 37 make. They t r y t o a v o i d e r r o r s , such as c l a i m i n g a m a t e r i a l i s dangerous when i t i s not, i n favour o f s t a t i n g t h a t t h e r e i s not enough evidence t o show c o n c l u s i v e l y whether a 3 8 m a t e r i a l i s hazardous, when i t a c t u a l l y may be. S c i e n t i s t s l o o k t o e s t a b l i s h s t r o n g p r o o f o f c a u s a l i t y , o r a t l e a s t a rea s o n a b l e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e i r r e s u l t s a re c o r r e c t , and are c a r e f u l t o p o i n t out f a c t o r s t h a t may i n f l u e n c e the v a l i d i t y o f t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s , such as u n c e r t a i n t y over n a t u r a l background l e v e l s and problems of m u l t i p l e 39 . . . c a u s a l i t y . For most i d e n t i f i e d hazards, t h e r e i s a l a c k o f 145 s c i e n t i f i c agreement as t o the degree of r i s k o r danger, and some u n c e r t a i n t y w i l l p r obably always e x i s t . 4 0 O f t e n t h i s s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e o f r e q u i r i n g a h i g h s t a n d a r d o f p r o o f of damaging e f f e c t s i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o p u b l i c p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s without an express c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the consequences. I f government permits the use o f chemicals and t e c h n o l o g i e s u n t i l such time as they are proven t o be harmful, a p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous substance can i n the i n t e r i m c r e a t e h e a l t h and environmental hazards o f severe 41 consequence. Industry, however, argues t h a t t o c o n t r o l o r p r o h i b i t the use of new technology and m a t e r i a l s u n t i l they are proven t o be s a f e would unduly l i m i t economic growth and development, and t h a t a f i r m s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s i s needed 42 b e f o r e government r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l s are imposed. The fundamental i s s u e i s how s c i e n t i f i c u n c e r t a i n t y i s t o be t r e a t e d i n p u b l i c p o l i c y and law-making d e c i s i o n s . T h i s i n v o l v e s moral, e t h i c a l and p o l i t i c a l judgments r e g a r d i n g the a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f the r i s k s , t h e i r p r i o r i t y f o r r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l , and whether i t i s b e t t e r t o e r r on the s i d e o f p r o t e c t i n g human h e a l t h and environmental i n t e g r i t y , o r t o 43 e r r on the s i d e o f economic growth. S c i e n c e i s unable t o s e t p r e c i s e , r a t i o n a l environmental stan d a r d s . There i s , t h e r e f o r e , a tendency f o r p o l i c y d e cision-makers t o make " n o n - d e c i s i o n s " about the treatment 44 of s c i e n t i f i c evidence. O f t e n d e c i s i o n i s dela y e d "pending f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , " as a way t o a v o i d both c o n f l i c t w i t h i n d u s t r y and the need t o impose c o n t r o l s , but such d e l a y amounts t o a c h o i c e t o e r r on the s i d e o f exposing humans and 146 the environment t o dangerous m a t e r i a l s u n t i l they can be 45 proven h a r m f u l . In p a r t t h i s i s a response t o s o c i e t a l d e s i r e s f o r the 46 m a t e r i a l b e n e f i t s o f immediate economic development. There i s , i n the development of new technology, always the 47 . . p o t e n t i a l t o achieve net s o c i a l b e n e f i t s . In a d d i t i o n , w h i l e government i s aware of the need t o as s e s s hazards and t o s e t p r i o r i t i e s f o r such r i s k assessment, p o l i t i c a l i m p e r a t i v e s mean t h a t such problems do not m a i n t a i n a 48 c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h p r i o r i t y on p o l i t i c a l agendas. O f t e n governments are caught between t r y i n g t o a c t r a t i o n a l l y i n such matters, and t r y i n g t o respond t o the l a t e s t c r i s i s 49 which has caught media and p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n . Examination o f s c i e n t i f i c evidence cannot s o l v e e q u i t y or r i s k d i s t r i b u t i o n problems e i t h e r . Whenever a p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n i s made as t o the a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f a r i s k , the c o s t s a r e n o r m a l l y borne by some members of s o c i e t y and not by o t h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when the r i s k s o f d i f f e r e n t c h o i c e s are 50 not d i r e c t l y comparable. The l a c k o f i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l c o o r d i n a t i o n o f environmental hazard i d e n t i f i c a t i o n aggravates the decision-makers' attempts t o make r a t i o n a l c h o i c e s i n t h i s a r e a . A f i n a l problem r e l a t e d t o s c i e n t i f i c u n c e r t a i n t y i s the need t o i n c o r p o r a t e new technology i n t o s o c i e t y . O f t e n decision-makers must choose between u s i n g an o l d e r , perhaps o b s o l e t e t e c hnology and a newer, p o s s i b l y i n a d e q u a t e l y - t e s t e d 51 te c h n o l o g y . There i s a l s o the problem o f how t o encourage i n d u s t r y t o i n c o r p o r a t e t e c h n o l o g i c a l improvements i n t o 147 development p r o p o s a l s , when l a r g e e x p e n d i t u r e s may be i n v o l v e d and s c i e n t i s t s are u n c e r t a i n as t o the degree of environmental improvement i n v o l v e d . c. P o l i t i c a l Problems With o n l y l i m i t e d a s s i s t a n c e a v a i l a b l e from economic or s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s e s , government decision-makers are o f t e n l e f t making important v a l u e judgments i n response t o p e r c e i v e d p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s . F r e q u e n t l y these p r e s s u r e s are p r o v i d e d by the i n t e r n a t i o n a l community or by lobby groups, both i n d u s t r i a l and environmental, but sometimes thes e p r e s s u r e s come from the e l e c t o r a t e a f t e r an i s s u e has r e c e i v e d widespread media a t t e n t i o n . One o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c e d by p o l i t i c i a n s i n responding t o these p r e s s u r e s i s the d i f f e r e n c e between ex p e r t e v a l u a t i o n s of r i s k s and the p u b l i c p e r c e p t i o n o f those r i s k s . G e n e r a l l y speaking, e x p e r t s a s s e s s r i s k s by s t a t i s t i c a l comparisons of the number o f deaths o r i n j u r i e s caused by a f a c i l i t y (such as a hazardous waste i n c i n e r a t o r ) 52 over a g i v e n p e r i o d of time. S t u d i e s have shown, however, t h a t t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c , annual m o r t a l i t y i s o n l y one 53 f a c t o r t o c o n s i d e r i n a s s e s s i n g the r i s k o f an a c t i v i t y . P u b l i c p e r c e p t i o n s o f r i s k are a l s o a f f e c t e d by such f a c t o r s as: the s e r i o u s n e s s and frequency of p o t e n t i a l a c c i d e n t s , whether people have v o l u n t a r i l y exposed themselves t o the r i s k , whether the r i s k i s f a m i l i a r or unknown, the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b e n e f i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the a c t i v i t y , the degree o f exposure t o the r i s k , the source of the r i s k , the 148 c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y of the r i s k , the degree of d e l a y i n consequences of exposure, the t h r e a t t o f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s , the amount of dread f e l t toward the consequences, the p o t e n t i a l f o r p l a n t and animal m o r t a l i t y and the degree of 54 u n c e r t a i n t y i n v o l v e d i n the r i s k assessment p r o c e s s . P u b l i c p e r c e p t i o n s o f r i s k are a l s o b i a s e d i n a t l e a s t two ways. F i r s t , t h e r e i s a tendency t o o v e r e s t i m a t e the frequency o f s e n s a t i o n a l or s e r i o u s a c c i d e n t s , w h i l e u n d e r e s t i m a t i n g the frequency of common but undramatic 55 hazards. Second, erroneous p e r c e p t i o n s about the r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s of adverse consequences are s t r o n g l y i n g r a i n e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n t o u n d e r e s t i m a t i n g p e r s o n a l r i s k s . . 56 from f a m i l i a r sources of danger. In responding t o p u b l i c o p i n i o n about t e c h n o l o g i c a l r i s k s , p o l i c y decision-makers must, t h e r e f o r e , take i n t o account the f a c t t h a t l a y persons d e f i n e r i s k s d i f f e r e n t l y than do s c i e n t i s t s . At the same time, they must bear i n mind l o n g term and f u t u r e s o c i a l i n t e r e s t s , economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , and the e t h i c a l problems caused by uneven r i s k d i s t r i b u t i o n . A l l these f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e the s o c i a l 57 a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the r i s k under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Current p u b l i c o p i n i o n w i l l not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t the b e s t s o c i a l p o l i c y d e c i s i o n , but a t the same time s o c i e t a l v a l u e s need t o be a r t i c u l a t e d and e x p r e s s l y c o n s i d e r e d d u r i n g law and p o l i c y 5 8 f o r m u l a t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , c u r r e n t environmental laws are g e n e r a l l y l a c k i n g i n s p e c i f i c p r o c e s s e s by which such p u b l i c i n p u t c o u l d be a t t a i n e d , and o f f e r l i t t l e guidance t o r e g u l a t o r s as t o which o f many c o n f l i c t i n g v a l u e s s h o u l d be 149 a d o p t e d . 5 9 One r e s u l t o f the f a i l u r e o f the l e g a l and p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s t o p r o v i d e f o r adequate p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s the "not-in-my-back-yard" o r NIMBY phenomenon. Almost without e x c e p t i o n , whenever r e g u l a t o r y a u t h o r i t i e s have d e c i d e d t o perm i t the development of a r i s k - b e a r i n g f a c i l i t y , such as a hazardous waste d i s p o s a l s i t e , members of the g e n e r a l p u b l i c r e s i d i n g i n the v i c i n i t y have d i s a g r e e d about the a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f the r i s k s i n v o l v e d , and have v i g o r o u s l y opposed the development. Two of the major reasons f o r t h i s NIMBY r e a c t i o n are p u b l i c o v e r e s t i m a t i o n s o f the degree o f r i s k i n v o l v e d (the p e r c e p t i o n b i a s ) , and a l o c a l f e e l i n g o f i n j u s t i c e a t b e i n g asked t o bear the r i s k s o f d i s p o s i n g o f wastes generated by the e n t i r e r e g i o n (the e q u i t y 6 0 d i s t r i b u t i o n problem). Combined w i t h concerns over p o t e n t i a l d e c l i n e s i n both p r o p e r t y v a l u e s and the q u a l i t y of l i f e , and a g e n e r a l d i s t r u s t o f both i n d u s t r y proponents and government r e g u l a t o r s , these p e r c e p t i o n b i a s e s and e q u i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n problems c r e a t e a s t r o n g i n c e n t i v e f o r i n t e n s e l o c a l r e s i s t a n c e t o hazardous waste f a c i l i t i e s . Proper hazardous waste d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s a r e d e s p e r a t e l y needed, however, t o p r o t e c t l o n g term 62 environmental and s o c i e t a l i n t e r e s t s . The s i t i n g problem c r e a t e d by the NIMBY r e a c t i o n has, t h e r e f o r e , caused a g r e a t d e a l o f concern and study. Although ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n was o r i g i n a l l y thought t o be an a t t r a c t i v e s o l u t i o n t o the NIMBY problem, s i n c e the d i s p o s a l takes p l a c e a t sea and i s i n no-one's back yard, the American exper i e n c e has shown t h i s 150 assumption t o be f a l s e . Intense l o c a l o p p o s i t i o n has c o n t i n u e d t o be encountered, and has simply been foc u s s e d on the s i t i n g of p o r t f a c i l i t i e s and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s 6 3 r a t h e r than on the l o c a t i o n of the a c t u a l d i s p o s a l s i t e . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s s e v e r a l attempts were made t o enact s t a t u t e s which would preempt the a b i l i t y o f l o c a l opponents t o prevent the s i t i n g of hazardous waste f a c i l i t i e s . 6 4 However, thes e attempts t o impose s i t e s on p a r t i c u l a r communities have been l a r g e l y i n e f f e c t i v e . Although the preemption s t a t u t e s were a b l e t o o v e r r i d e m u n i c i p a l powers t o o b s t r u c t f a c i l i t i e s by changing zoning requirements, road uses o r bylaws, they were unable t o d e a l w i t h o t h e r forms of l o c a l r e s i s t a n c e , such as l i t i g a t i o n t o d e l a y a p r o j e c t u n t i l 65 i t became uneconomical and a c t s of c i v i l d i s o b e d i e n c e . The f a i l u r e of preemption s t a t u t e s l e d some s t a t e s t o enact l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d i n g f o r a s t r u c t u r e d n e g o t i a t i o n or a r b i t r a t i o n p r o c e s s , whereby l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s and the d e v e l o p e r were r e q u i r e d t o e n t e r i n t o an agreement i n which the community would be compensated f o r b e a r i n g adverse 6 6 consequences and c o s t s . In t h e o r y , a d e v e l o p e r can p r o v i d e a compensation package s u f f i c i e n t t o convince a community t h a t a p r o j e c t w i l l be more of a b e n e f i t than a burden, but i n p r a c t i c e some d i f f i c u l t i e s have been encountered. For example, d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t groups i n the community may d i s a g r e e as t o an a c c e p t a b l e type o f compensation, and those who are d i s s a t i s f i e d may not c o n s i d e r themselves bound by any development agreement. 6 7 D e s p i t e p o t e n t i a l problems, n e g o t i a t e d agreements h o l d 151 some promise as a method f o r r e s o l v i n g such s i t i n g concerns, p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e n e g o t i a t i o n and b a r g a i n i n g a re a l r e a d y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the environmental r e g u l a t o r y p r o c e s s i n 68 Canada. As attempts have been made t o develop l e g a l p r o c e s s e s t o make and implement hazardous waste management d e c i s i o n s , i t has become c l e a r t h a t some form o f a c t i v e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s necessary i n or d e r t o p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o address p e r c e p t i o n b i a s e s , t o ensure a l l s o c i e t a l v a l u e s a re a r t i c u l a t e d and g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n by decision-makers, and t o permit an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e q u i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n problems t o be n e g o t i a t e d and r e s o l v e d . d. Summary The p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n has i l l u s t r a t e d t he d i v e r s i t y o f problems t h a t may be encountered by the Canadian government when attempting t o make and implement environmental r e g u l a t o r y d e c i s i o n s . These problems are o f t h r e e b a s i c t y p e s : j u r i s d i c t i o n a l , a n a l y t i c a l and p o l i t i c a l . The many j u r i s d i c t i o n a l problems a r i s e p r i m a r i l y from the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s o f Canadian government. The c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a l l o c a t i o n o f l e g i s l a t i v e powers between two l e v e l s o f government c r e a t e s ongoing u n c e r t a i n t y over the exte n t o f l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y i n environmental a f f a i r s . Simultaneously, the s t r u c t u r e o f government i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h i n each l e v e l o f government causes i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l c o n f l i c t and a l a c k o f c o o r d i n a t e d a c t i o n . Governments a l s o f a c e g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n choosing and 152 u s i n g a p p r o p r i a t e a n a l y t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s as a i d s t o r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . Both economic a n a l y s i s and the use of s c i e n t i f i c o r t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n have a number o f shortcomings t h a t a f f e c t t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y as methods t o make d e c i s i v e c h o i c e s about environmental i s s u e s . F i n a l l y , government decision-makers must c o n s t a n t l y bear i n mind the p o l i t i c a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the environmental p o l i c i e s they choose t o implement. O b t a i n i n g p u b l i c acceptance o f r i s k - b e a r i n g a c t i v i t i e s i s a complex and d i f f i c u l t problem t h a t i s c o m p l i c a t e d by the l a c k of d i r e c t p u b l i c i n p u t i n t o the decision-making p r o c e s s under e x i s t i n g laws and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e procedures. The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n w i l l examine how such law and p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n problems are a f f e c t i n g the development of laws designed t o r e g u l a t e the use of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i n Canada. During the d i s c u s s i o n , some i d e a s f o r reform w i l l be put forward, and an attempt w i l l be made t o determine whether the e x i s t i n g l e g a l and p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s can cope w i t h the c h a l l e n g e s posed by t h i s d i f f i c u l t environmental i s s u e . 153 Chapter E i g h t : Notes 1. T.F. Schrecker, P o l i t i c a l Economy of Environmental  Hazards (Ottawa: Law Reform Commission o f Canada, 1984), p. 14, 23. 2. Task Force Program Review, Environmental Q u a l i t y  S t r a t e g i c Review: Follow-on Report (Ottawa: Canadian Government P u b l i s h i n g Centre, 1986), p. 36. 3. I b i d . , p. 13. 4. I b i d . , p. 21. 5. G. Bruce Doern and R.W. Phidd, Canadian P u b l i c  P o l i c y : Ideas. S t r u c t u r e . Process (Toronto: Methuen, 1983), p. 127. 6. Schrecker, p. 23. 7. I b i d . , p. 15. 8. Task Force, p. 115. 9. Study Team Report t o the Task Force on Program Review, Improved Program D e l i v e r y (Ottawa: Supply and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1986), p. 180. 10. I b i d . 11. I b i d . , p. 181. 12. H a r r i e t I. Rueggeberg and A.R. Thompson, Water Law  and P o l i c y I ssues i n Canada (Vancouver: Westwater Research Centre, 1984), p. 43. 13. J . Owen Saunders, "Canadian F e d e r a l i s m and I n t e r n a t i o n a l Management of N a t u r a l Resources" i n Managing  N a t u r a l Resources i n a F e d e r a l S t a t e , ed J . Owen Saunders (Toronto: C a r s w e l l , 1986), p. 274-279; Task Force, p. 23. 14. I b i d . , p. 33. 15. I b i d . , p. 38. 16. Schrecker, p. 12. 17. Task Force, p. 37. 18. Saunders, p. 284; John D. Whyte, "Issues i n Canadian F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l C o o p e r a t i o n " i n Saunders, p. 330. 19. N i c h o l a s A. Ash f o r d , "The L i m i t s o f C o s t - B e n e f i t A n a l y s i s i n Regu l a t o r y D e c i s i o n s " i n R e s o l v i n g L o c a t i o n a l  C o n f l i c t , ed. R.W. Lake (N.J.: Center f o r Urban P o l i c y 154 Research, 1987), p. 427; Schrecker, p. 39, 53. 20. A.R. Thompson, "Legal Responses t o P o l l u t i o n Problems - T h e i r S t r e n g t h s and Weaknesses" (1972) 12 Nat. Res. J . 227 a t 231. 21. Schrecker, p. 48. 22 . I b i d . , P- 44. 23. I b i d . , P- 51. 24. I b i d . , P- 45. 25. (1981) Mark Sagoff, "Economic Theory and Environmental 79 Mich. L. Rev. 1393 a t 1394-1398. 26. I b i d . , P- 1397. 27. I b i d . , P- 1412. 28. I b i d . , P- 49. 29. I b i d . , P- 41; Thompson, p. 231; A s h f o r d , 427. 30. Thompson, p. 234; A s h f o r d , p. 429; Sagoff, p. 1408. 31. Schrecker, p. 46-47; As h f o r d , p. 427. 32. S a g o f f , p. 1396. 33. Schrecker, p. 45; A s h f o r d , p. 431. 34. Schrecker, p. 52. 35. I b i d . , p. 46. 36. D.P. Emond, "Environmental Law and P o l i c y : A R e t r o s p e c t i v e Examination of the Canadian E x p e r i e n c e " i n Consumer P r o t e c t i o n , Environmental Law and Corporate Power, eds. Ivan B e r n i e r and Andree L a j o i e (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1985), p. 145. 37. G. Bruce Doern, The P o l i t i c s o f R i s k : The  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f T o x i c and Other Hazardous Substances i n  Canada ( O n t a r i o : Royal Commission on Matters o f H e a l t h and S a f e t y A r i s i n g From the Use o f Asbestos, 1982), p. 3.3-3.5. 38. I b i d . ; Schrecker, p. 27. 39. Doern, P o l i t i c s o f R i sk, p. 3.3-3.5. 40. I b i d . , p. 1.21. 41. Schrecker, p. 31. 155 42. I b i d . , p. 27, 31. 43. I b i d . , p. 28, 31; Doern, P o l i t i c s o f Ri s k , p. 3.21-3.22. 44. Schrecker, p. 34; W. L e i s s , "Movements i n Environmental Awareness" i n S o c i a l Responses t o T e c h n o l o g i c a l  Change. eds. A. Brannigan and S. Goldenberg (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1985), p. 255. 45. Doern, P o l i t i c s o f Ri s k , p. 3.4; Schrecker, p. 35-37. 46. L e i s s , p. 256. 47. M i l l e r B. Spangler, "The Role of I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y A n a l y s i s i n B r i d g i n g the Gap Between the T e c h n i c a l and Human Si d e s o f R i s k Assessment" (1982) 2(2) R i s k A n a l y s i s 101 a t 109. 48. Doern, P o l i t i c s o f Risk, p. 1.3-1.4. 49. I b i d . , p. 4.25. 50. U.S. Congress, O f f i c e o f Technology Assessment, Ocean I n c i n e r a t i o n : I t s Role i n Managing Hazardous Waste OTA-0-313 (Washington, D.C: U.S. Governmnet P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1986), p. 40-41. 51. I b i d . , p. 39. 52. O. Renn, "Technology, r i s k and p u b l i c p e r c e p t i o n " (1983) Angewandte Systemanalyse Band 4/Heft 2:50 a t 53; P. S l o v i c e t a l . " P e r c e i v e d R i s k " P s y c h o l o g i c a l F a c t o r s and S o c i a l I m p l i c a t i o n s , " (Les A r c s : NATO Advanced Study I n s t i t u t e , 1983), p. 3. 53. Renn, p. 53; P.L. S t e n z e l , "The Need For A N a t i o n a l R i s k Assessment Communication P o l i c y " (1987) 11(2) Harvard Env. Law Rev. 381 a t 387. 54. Renn, p. 54-57; S l o v i c , p. 3; S t e n z e l , p. 390. 55. Renn, p. 53; S l o v i c , p. 5. 56. S l o v i c , p. 6. 57. M i l l e r B. Spangler, "The Role of I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y A n a l y s i s i n B r i d g i n g the Gap Between the T e c h n i c a l and Human Si d e s o f R i s k Assessment" (1982) 2(2) R i s k A n a l y s i s 101 a t 106. 58. I b i d . , p. 108-109. 156 59. M i l l e r B. Spangler, "Syndromes of r i s k and Environmental P r o t e c t i o n : The C o n f l i c t of I n d i v i d u a l and S o c i e t a l V a l u e s " (n.d.) 2(3) Env. P r o f e s s i o n a l 274 a t 282; Schrecker, p. 76. 60. David M o r r e l l , " S i t i n g and the P o l i t i c s o f E q u i t y " i n Lake, p. 119-121. 61. I b i d . , p. 121-122; G. Bingham and D.S. M i l l e r , " P r o s p e c t s f o r R e s o l v i n g Hazardous Waste S i t i n g D i s p u t e s Through N e g o t i a t i o n " (n.d.) 17(3) Nat. Res. Lawyer 473 a t 476. 62. M o r r e l l , p. 117; L.S. Bacow and J.R. M i l k e y , "Overcoming L o c a l Oppositon t o Hazardous Waste F a c i l i t i e s : The Massachusetts Approach" (1982) 6 Harvard Env. L. Rev. 265 a t 267. 63. Kim Watson, "Ocean I n c i n e r a t i o n : S c i e n c e o r P o l i t i c s ? " (1986) 9(2) Marine P o l i c y Reports 1 a t 4. 64. M o r r e l l , p. 123; Bacow, p. 270. 65. M o r r e l l , p. 123; Bacow, p. 272-274. 66. Bacow, p . 270; Bingham, p. 473. 67. Bacow, p . 277. 68. M o r r e l l , p. 134; A.R. Thompson. Environmental R e g u l a t i o n i n Canada: An Assessment of the R e g u l a t o r y Process (Vancouver: Westwater Research Centre, 1980), p. 45. 157 Chapter Nine: Ocean I n c i n e r a t i o n Law and P o l i c y Formation Problems I d e a l l y , what i s needed t o r e s o l v e the many j u r i s d i c t i o n a l , a n a l y t i c a l and p o l i t i c a l problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h environmental laws and p o l i c i e s i s a d ecision-making p r o c e s s which takes account of s c i e n t i f i c u n c e r t a i n t i e s , p e r m i t s p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , r e s o l v e s e q u i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n problems, meets i n t e r n a t i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n s and b a l a n c e s environmental v a l u e s w i t h the need f o r economic development. These p o l i c i e s must then be implemented by l e g a l instruments and r e g u l a t o r y procedures which p r o v i d e f o r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , c l e a r j u r i s d i c t i o n a l mandates, f l e x i b i l i t y and the promotion of p r e f e r r e d waste management o p t i o n s . In the p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n , the p r e s e n t p o l i c i e s of the Canadian government toward ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n and the proposed method o f l e g a l implementation have been o u t l i n e d . In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , these p o l i c i e s and laws w i l l be reviewed t o determine whether they are designed t o meet the many j u r i s d i c t i o n a l , a n a l y t i c a l and p o l i t i c a l concerns r a i s e d by the use of such a technology, or whether they r e q u i r e r e t h i n k i n g and r e v i s i o n b e f o r e they can b e g i n t o i n c o r p o r a t e adequately such concerns i n t o the p r o c e s s of hazardous waste management. a. J u r i s d i c t i o n a l Issues ( i ) I n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l C o n f l i c t s The l o n g t i t l e o f the Canadian Environmental 158 P r o t e c t i o n Act, "An Act r e s p e c t i n g the p r o t e c t i o n of the environment and of human l i f e and h e a l t h , " suggests t h a t t h i s s t a t u t e i s designed t o be a comprehensive p i e c e of p u b l i c h e a l t h and environmental l e g i s l a t i o n g overning a broad range of i s s u e s . In f a c t the l e g i s l a t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y d i r e c t e d a t the c o n t r o l of t o x i c substances, and even w i t h i n t h i s area i t i s not comprehensive. Although the l e g i s l a t i o n has r e p l a c e d the Environmental Contaminants A c t and c o n s o l i d a t e d the Clean A i r A c t , the Ocean Dumping C o n t r o l A c t and P a r t Three of the Canada Water Act, many major f e d e r a l enactments which c o n t r o l p o l l u t i o n d i s c h a r g e s have not been i n c l u d e d . For example, v e s s e l - s o u r c e p o l l u t i o n p r o v i s i o n s c o n t a i n e d i n enactments such as t h e Canada S h i p p i n g A c t and the A r c t i c Waters P o l l u t i o n P r e v e n t i o n A c t are absent, even where these s t a t u t e s c o n t r o l the d i s c h a r g e of t o x i c substances. In a d d i t i o n , the f e d e r a l Environmental Assessment and Review Process was not g i v e n a s t a t u t o r y b a s i s by i n c o r p o r a t i o n i n t o the CEPA, although i t c o u l d s t i l l be a p p l i e d t o any a c t i v i t y r e g u l a t e d under t h a t A c t . From the p e r s p e c t i v e o f ocean dumping c o n t r o l , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n t o ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s , the f a i l u r e o f the CEPA t o i n c l u d e the Pest C o n t r o l Products A c t and the p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p r o v i s i o n s o f the F i s h e r i e s Act are o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . For example, the F i s h e r i e s A c t i s p r e s e n t l y b e i n g used t o r e g u l a t e d i s c h a r g e s o f s e v e r a l substances, such as mercury and p e r s i s t e n t p l a s t i c s , t h a t are a l s o l i s t e d i n the ocean dumping Schedule. There i s , however, an ongoing i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t 159 between F i s h e r i e s and Oceans Canada and Environment Canada. In a d d i t i o n , the Meech Lake C o n s t i t u t i o n a l A c c o r d has r a i s e d the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s over f i s h e r i e s w i l l be expanded or a l t e r e d . A s e p a r a t e review of the F i s h e r i e s A c t i s now contemplated, and the p o s s i b i l i t y of u s i n g e q u i v a l e n c y p r o v i s i o n s s i m i l a r t o those c o n t a i n e d i n the CEPA i s b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s one can a n t i c i p a t e t h a t some o v e r l a p w i t h ocean dumping p r o h i b i t i o n s w i l l be almost c e r t a i n t o occur. The f a i l u r e of the CEPA t o r e g u l a t e a g r i c u l t u r a l c h e m i c a l s i s even more important, as i t means t h a t many organohalogens and p e s t i c i d e s are s u b j e c t t o a d i f f e r e n t system o f l e g a l and r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l than o t h e r waste p r o d u c t s , such as PCB 1s, which might be subj e c t t o i n c i n e r a t i o n . Because these a g r i c u l t u r a l c hemicals are not s u b j e c t t o the same t o x i c i t y s c r e e n i n g p r o c e s s , the a b i l i t y o f government t o prevent new t o x i c waste d i s p o s a l problems from b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i m i t e d . However, s i n c e " i n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l problems proved i n s u r m o u n t a b l e , " 1 a s i n g l e scheme t o manage such t o x i c chemicals under the CEPA has not been developed, and i s not c u r r e n t l y b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . Indeed, i t seems t h a t the c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f s t a t u t e s under the CEPA has o n l y m a r g i n a l l y improved the e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n o f l e g i s l a t i v e o v e r l a p and i n c o n s i s t e n c y , and has not decreased i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t . A l l the enactments concerned were a l r e a d y under the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f e i t h e r the M i n i s t e r of the Environment o r the M i n i s t e r of 160 H e a l t h and Welfare. While the CEPA i n c r e a s e s the r o l e of the l a t t e r M i n i s t e r i n the assessment o f t o x i c substances, o n l y the M i n i s t e r o f the Environment c o n t i n u e s t o have j u r i s d i c t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o ocean dumping and i t s p o t e n t i a l 2 consequences. Thus, although the CEPA does make some e f f o r t t o p r o v i d e a comprehensive approach by attempting t o c o o r d i n a t e p r o v i n c i a l e f f o r t s and p r o v i d e n a t i o n a l standards, i t seems t o have made l i t t l e p r o g r e s s i n r e s o l v i n g f e d e r a l i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l c o n f l i c t . The c u r r e n t method of d e a l i n g w i t h such c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l i n t e r e s t s and j u r i s d i c t i o n a l o v e r l a p i s t o u t i l i z e r e f e r r a l procedures, so t h a t an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a p o l l u t i o n d i s c h a r g e permit (such as a request t o conduct ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s ) i s c i r c u l a t e d among v a r i o u s 3 i n t e r e s t e d f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s . Where p o s s i b l e , i t i s Environment Canada's p o l i c y t o implement f e d e r a l 4 r e g u l a t i o n s by way of p r o v i n c i a l l i c e n s i n g requirements, a l t h o u g h i n the case o f ocean dumping the f e d e r a l Environment department d i r e c t l y s e t s the permit terms and c o n d i t i o n s . While such r e f e r r a l procedures p r o v i d e a degree o f s i m p l i c i t y , s i n c e i n d u s t r y u s u a l l y has o n l y one agency t o d e a l w i t h when attempting t o meet permit and l i c e n s i n g requirements, i t a l s o obscures p u b l i c a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine whether a l l a s p e c t s o f concern are b e i n g g i v e n adequate c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and i m p o s s i b l e t o ensure t h a t concerns are b e i n g addressed i n any p a r t i c u l a r p r i o r i t y . F or example, an ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n would 161 n o r m a l l y r e q u i r e a review of matters such as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , s t o r a g e , p o r t f a c i l i t i e s , v e s s e l d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n , emergency response, o c c u p a t i o n a l h e a l t h , a i r emissions and i n c i n e r a t o r d e s i g n and o p e r a t i o n , i n a d d i t i o n t o the u s u a l economic, environmental and resource-use i s s u e s r a i s e d by an ocean dumping o p e r a t i o n . The e x i s t i n g r e f e r r a l procedure among v a r i o u s departments might w e l l review a l l t h e s e concerns, and c e r t a i n l y the o f f i c i a l s i n v o l v e d would normally make t h e i r b e s t e f f o r t t o ensure t h a t t h i s o c c u r s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e i s no mechanism i n p l a c e t o guarantee t h a t a s i n g l e w e l l - d e v e l o p e d p o l i c y , such as the promotion of p r e f e r r e d waste management o p t i o n s , w i l l be v i g o r o u s l y pursued by each o f these a g e n c i e s . There i s no o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p r o c e s s , and l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the p u b l i c t o even determine which concerns are b e i n g addressed by each department. There i s no guidance o f f e r e d t o decision-makers as t o what v a l u e s s h o u l d be g i v e n p r i o r i t y i n j u d g i n g permit a p p l i c a t i o n s , and n o t h i n g t o p r o v i d e guidance as t o the manner i n which the i n e v i t a b l e s c i e n t i f i c u n c e r t a i n t i e s should be t r e a t e d . To a s s i s t i n decision-making and r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n i s s u e s , the f e d e r a l government has i n the p a s t attempted t o p r o v i d e some c o o r d i n a t i o n of p o l i c y development and management i n r e l a t i o n t o t o x i c chemicals by t h e f o r m a t i o n of 5 i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l committees. However, these programs f a i l t o p r o v i d e f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n of f o r e i g n p o l i c y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and the a c t i o n s of p r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s , i n d u s t r y , t h e environmental lobby or members o f the 162 community. They a l s o c o n t a i n no mechanism t o ensure t h a t t h e departments i n v o l v e d m a i n t a i n a h i g h l e v e l of commitment 7 t o the program o b j e c t i v e s . Short of an e x t e n s i v e government r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , which seems a p r a c t i c a l i m p o s s i b i l i t y , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t any one agency w i l l o b t a i n f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s . Indeed, due t o the necessary p r o v i n c i a l r o l e i n land-based a s p e c t s of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , n o t h i n g l e s s than a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment might achieve such an o b j e c t i v e . S i n c e the p r e s e n t r e f e r r a l p r a c t i c e s do have i n h e r e n t f l e x i b i l i t y and p r o v i d e access t o d i v e r s e e x p e r t i s e and r e s o u r c e s , the e x i s t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e regime i s perhaps d e s i r a b l e and s u i t a b l e t o the complexity of the s c i e n t i f i c , t e c h n o l o g i c a l and j u r i s d i c t i o n a l i s s u e s i n v o l v e d . However, improvements c o u l d be made. C l e a r c u t f i n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and p u b l i c a c c o u n t a b i l i t y f o r d e c i s i o n s r e l a t i n g t o ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s should r e s t w i t h a s i n g l e agency; Environment Canada i s the obvious c h o i c e . The s p e c i f i c s o f the r e f e r r a l procedure, and the terms o f r e f e r e n c e w i t h i n which each f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l agency must operate, should be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and made r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o the p u b l i c . To prevent problems i n areas t h a t might not f a l l c l e a r l y w i t h i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n of any s i n g l e agency, a thorough review should be conducted t o ensure each i s s u e of importance i s a s s i g n e d t o a r e s p o n s i b l e department. A comprehensive p o l i c y i m p e r a t i v e should be developed, i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the p u b l i c , so t h a t p e r c e p t i o n b i a s e s , economic concerns, e t h i c a l v a l u e s and e q u i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n 163 problems can be addressed. T h i s p o l i c y i m p e r a t i v e should t h e r e a f t e r , be used t o e s t a b l i s h and s e t p r i o r i t i e s among the c r i t e r i a which each r e f e r r a l agency should use when e v a l u a t i n g ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n s , w i t h some mechanism f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r j u d i c i a l review o f q u e s t i o n a b l e d e c i s i o n s . As p a r t o f the e f f o r t t o s t r e a m l i n e i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l workings, some method t o focus s c i e n t i f i c r e s o u r c e s and conduct technology assessments s h o u l d a l s o be implemented. ( i i ) F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l C o o peration Even i f the f e d e r a l i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l c o n f l i c t s can be remedied or reduced, the p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n f l i c t w i t h p r o v i n c i a l governments remains. Although o f f s h o r e a s p e c t s o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s are c l e a r l y w i t h i n f e d e r a l 8 j u r i s d i c t i o n , and the f e d e r a l government r e t a i n s a prominant 9 r o l e i n r e l a t i o n t o t o x i c substances o f n a t i o n a l concern, land-based a s p e c t s o f waste management a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , emergency response, and r e g u l a t i o n o f waste g e n e r a t o r s are p r i m a r i l y p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the p r o v i n c e s have assumed j u r i s d i c t i o n over l o c a l and i n t r a p r o v i n c i a l environmental a f f a i r s , w h i l e the f e d e r a l government has assumed c o n t r o l over n a t i o n a l , 10 i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l environmental matters. N e g o t i a t i o n o f agreements and accords between the two l e v e l s of government have l a r g e l y s erved t o reduce c o n f l i c t s and 11 o v e r l a p s . In many areas, the f e d e r a l government has s e t n a t i o n a l g u i d e l i n e s and standards, w h i l e the p r o v i n c e s 164 . . . 12 c o n t r o l the a c t u a l enforcement and r e g u l a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s . Even where the f e d e r a l government has c l e a r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n , such as o f f s h o r e development, c o o p e r a t i v e . . 13 agreements have been n e g o t i a t e d f o r p o l i t i c a l reasons. The CEPA p r o v i d e s a s t a t u t o r y enshrinement o f j o i n t f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l management of t o x i c substances by way of n e g o t i a t e d agreements and " e q u i v a l e n c y p r o v i s i o n s . " For example, s e c t i o n 34(6) p r o v i d e s t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e r e l e a s e and d i s p o s a l o f t o x i c substances can be d e c l a r e d i n a p p l i c a b l e i n any p r o v i n c e , i f t h e r e i s w r i t t e n agreement t h a t t h e r e a r e i n f o r c e p r o v i n c i a l " p r o v i s i o n s t h a t are e q u i v a l e n t " t o the requirements of such f e d e r a l r e g u l a t i o n s . 14 . T h i s and s i m i l a r e q u i v a l e n c y p r o v i s i o n s i n the CEPA have a l r e a d y generated c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o v e r s y . Some c r i t i c s have taken the view t h a t t h i s s t a t u t o r y procedure i n v o l v e s a " r i s k y d e v o l u t i o n of f e d e r a l power t o the p r o v i n c e s " and t h a t i t " c o u l d r e s u l t i n a patchwork q u i l t of 15 r e g u l a t i o n s a c r o s s the c o untry." Others have taken the view t h a t the e n t i r e A c t i s "yet another f e d e r a l i n c u r s i o n i n t o an area of t r a d i t i o n a l p r o v i n c i a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y " and t h a t i t should "not be implemented a t a l l i n p r o v i n c e s t o the e x t e n t t h a t e q u i v a l e n t p r o v i n c i a l laws 16 a l r e a d y e x i s t . " N e g o t i a t i o n s t o e s t a b l i s h f e d e r a l -p r o v i n c i a l agreements pursuant t o the A c t are p r e s e n t l y under way, however, and g i v e n a new w i l l i n g n e s s t o take p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , some consensus can be expected. Although f e d e r a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n over ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s i s c l e a r , p o l i t i c a l and economic 165 c o n s i d e r a t i o n s s hould ensure e x t e n s i v e p r o v i n c i a l i n p u t i n t o p o l i c y and r e g u l a t o r y development i n t h i s area, and one can a n t i c i p a t e t h a t a f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l c o o p e r a t i v e arrangement w i l l be n ecessary. The p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l r e g i o n a l agreements a l s o e x i s t s . There are two areas i n p a r t i c u l a r i n which express c o o r d i n a t i o n of f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l waste management o b j e c t i v e s seems i m p e r a t i v e : the economic impact of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n on the v i a b i l i t y of land-based hazardous waste d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s , and the e q u i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n problems c r e a t e d by i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l imports of wastes f o r ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n . b. Economic Issues There i s much u n c e r t a i n t y over the p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n on the economic v i a b i l i t y o f land-based hazardous waste d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s . As d i s c u s s e d i n c h apter seven, some a n a l y s t s p r e d i c t t h a t the volume of waste s u i t a b l e f o r ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n w i l l exceed i n d e f i n i t e l y the land-based c a p a c i t y , so t h a t both a t - s e a and land-based o p e r a t i o n s w i l l remain v i a b l e , w h i l e o t h e r s are concerned t h a t the e x i s t e n c e of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n w i l l slow the development o f land-based a l t e r n a t i v e s , and a l s o i n c r e a s e the c o s t o f such a l t e r n a t i v e s s i n c e l a n d o p e r a t o r s w i l l need t o 17 r e p l a c e combustible l i q u i d wastes w i t h e x t r a f u e l . In Canada t h e r e i s an a d d i t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n which a r i s e s because of the f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l d i v i s i o n of power. I f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s developed, i t s r e g u l a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and a s s o c i a t e d compliance a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be p r i m a r i l y a f e d e r a l government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I f l a n d - b a s e d h a z a r d o u s waste d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s a r e d e v e l o p e d , t h e i r r e g u l a t i o n and c o n t r o l w i l l be p r i m a r i l y a p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The p r o v i n c e s , w i t h c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , w i l l not a l l be i n a p o s i t i o n t o p r o v i d e an e q u a l l e v e l o f waste management s e r v i c e . I f some p r o v i n c e s a r e u n a b l e t o d e v e l o p p r o p e r waste d i s p o s a l a l t e r n a t i v e s , t h e r e a r e two p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s : the f e d e r a l government w i l l f i n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e f u n d i n g t o some o r a l l p r o v i n c e s (perhaps l i n k e d t o an e q u i v a l e n c y agreement under t h e CEPA) o r waste impor t and e x p o r t between p r o v i n c e s w i l l become n e c e s s a r y . Ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s , l i k e o t h e r hazardous waste f a c i l i t i e s , r a i s e t h i s i s s u e o f waste impor t and e x p o r t . Canada p r o d u c e s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s o f l i q u i d i n c i n e r a b l e hazardous waste , e s p e c i a l l y i n c o a s t a l p r o v i n c e s . F o r ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n t o be e c o n o m i c a l l y v i a b l e , t h e r e f o r e , wastes would need t o be c o l l e c t e d from t h e p r o d u c i n g p r o v i n c e s such as O n t a r i o and Quebec, and 18 t r a n s p o r t e d t o a p o r t f a c i l i t y i n a c o a s t a l p r o v i n c e . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , wastes might need t o be impor ted from o r e x p o r t e d t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r ocean d i s p o s a l . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , waste impor ts a g g r a v a t e e q u i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n p r o b l e m s , and thus i n c r e a s e the l o c a l r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e s i t i n g o f a d i s p o s a l o r p o r t f a c i l i t y . When news o f p o s s i b l e ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o f f C a n a d a ' s e a s t c o a s t r e c e i v e d media a t t e n t i o n , the f e d e r a l government was q u i c k t o announce t h a t no wastes would be impor ted from the U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r 167 19 disposal i n Canada, even though such imports would be 20 acceptable pursuant to international agreements. S i m i l a r l y , provinces seeking to develop land-based disposal f a c i l i t i e s are t r y i n g to minimize l o c a l resistance by refusing to accept e x t r a - p r o v i n c i a l l y generated wastes. While i t i s doubtful that the provinces have the co n s t i t u t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n to block i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l or int e r n a t i o n a l imports to port f a c i l i t i e s of wastes destined fo r ocean disposal, as a p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t y , l o c a l agreement would be es s e n t i a l to a successful operation. P a r t i c i p a t i o n rather than preemption seems the better way to deal with the NIMBY phenomenon. Even i f wastes are not imported from the United States, the American p o s i t i o n on ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s of importance to Canadian p o l i c y . Delays by the United States Environmental Protection Agency have caused the major North American commercial proponent of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n to announce i t has abandoned plans to conduct at-sea operations 21 i n American waters. Without the vast American market, i t i s doubtful whether the maintenance of an incinerator vessel 22 i n North American waters i s economically v i a b l e . This may preclude the use of t h i s technology by Canada even i f i t i s viewed as desirable, since the only other a l t e r n a t i v e i s to require European vessels to make occasional t r i p s to Canadian waters, at what one would anticipate to be a p r o h i b i t i v e cost. I f Canada should choose to pursue ocean in c i n e r a t i o n , i t may be necessary to do so by way of a b i l a t e r a l agreement with the United States. 168 P r e s e n t American and Canadian p o l i c y toward ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s v e r y s i m i l a r ; both n a t i o n s are d e l a y i n g the i s s u a n c e o f p e r m i t s pending the development o f r e g u l a t o r y 23 measures. Both n a t i o n s a l s o take the view t h a t ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n has a v a l i d p l a c e i n the proper management of 24 hazardous wastes. Although these s t a t e d p o l i c i e s appear t o amount t o p o s i t i v e commitments t o a l l o w ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n t o proceed, the de f a c t o d e l a y s have con v e r t e d government p o l i c i e s i n t o n o n - d e c i s i o n s , w i t h the s t a t u s quo p r e v a i l i n g i n d e f i n i t e l y and without p o s i t i v e s t e p s b e i n g taken e i t h e r t o implement ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n or t o f o r e c l o s e i t s use. In the f a c e o f the many u n c e r t a i n t i e s expressed by the i n t e r n a t i o n a l community about ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , and the many s c i e n t i f i c u n c e r t a i n t i e s r e g a r d i n g i t s impact, t h e r e i s some doubt over the a b i l i t y of n a t i o n a l governments t o assume adequate r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l over t h i s i n d u s t r y . In such a s i t u a t i o n i t may indeed be w i s e s t not t o f o r e c l o s e any p o l i c y o p t i o n s . However, t h i s s t a t e of r e g u l a t o r y u n c e r t a i n t y makes i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r i n d u s t r y t o make lo n g term p l a n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e a s u b s t a n t i a l c a p i t a l investment i n i n c i n e r a t o r v e s s e l s i s r e q u i r e d . The e f f e c t of the r e g u l a t o r y c l i m a t e may be such t h a t ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s p r o h i b i t e d without any s u b s t a n t i a l improvement i n hazardous waste management having been o b t a i n e d . The r e s u l t i n g f a i l u r e t o i n c r e a s e the use o f p r e f e r r e d waste management techniques i s p r o b a b l y the worst p o l i c y p o s s i b l e . I f hazardous waste management i s t o be improved - and t h i s seems i m p e r a t i v e - the Canadian government sh o u l d e i t h e r 169 choose t o implement ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , and q u i c k l y devote the n e c e s s a r y time and r e s o u r c e s f o r d e v e l o p i n g t h a t i n d u s t r y and i t s l e g a l and r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l s , o r d i v e r t those same r e s o u r c e s t o the development of land-based c a p a c i t y . I t shou l d not i n a d v e r t e n t l y f o s t e r a c l i m a t e o f r e g u l a t o r y and economic u n c e r t a i n t y , w h i l e the environmental and h e a l t h hazards caused by t o x i c wastes s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s e . The i n i t i a l p o l i c y c h o i c e o f whether t o permit o r ban ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n w i l l be i n f l u e n c e d i n p a r t by the impact such a d e c i s i o n w i l l have upon p r o v i n c i a l waste management e f f o r t s , and i n p a r t by the measure of p u b l i c acceptance of the i n d u s t r y t h a t can be a t t a i n e d i f waste imports o r exports are r e q u i r e d . Because t h i s p r o c e s s w i l l r a i s e i s s u e s o f f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l c o o p e r a t i o n as w e l l as e q u i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n concerns, t h i s d e c i s i o n might b e s t be s u b j e c t t o a c o n s u l t a t i v e p r o c e s s i n v o l v i n g not o n l y both l e v e l s o f government and i n d u s t r y , but a l s o i n t e r e s t e d members of the p u b l i c . T h i s c o n s u l t a t i v e p r o c e s s c o u l d a l s o h e l p c r e a t e a u n i f i e d p o l i c y p e r s p e c t i v e from which r e g u l a t o r y a u t h o r i t i e s c o u l d work and from which f o r e i g n p o l i c y c o u l d be developed. In the l a t t e r r e s p e c t , i t c o u l d a l s o ensure t h a t p r o v i n c i a l concerns and waste management o b j e c t i v e s a re c o o r d i n a t e d w i t h f e d e r a l f o r e i g n p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f r e g i o n a l arrangements w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s r e l a t i n g t o ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n a re t o be developed. c. S c i e n t i f i c Concerns ( i ) R e g u l a t o r y Standards 170 Assuming t h a t a d e c i s i o n t o a l l o w ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s made, adequate r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l over i n c i n e r a t o r v e s s e l o p e r a t i o n s must be a t t a i n e d i n o r d e r t o ensure t h a t a s s o c i a t e d r i s k s are minimized. No Canadian laws or r e g u l a t i o n s e x i s t which s p e c i f y t e c h n i c a l and o p e r a t i o n a l requirements f o r a t - s e a i n c i n e r a t o r s . Instead, the proposed method of r e g u l a t i o n i s t o prepare t e c h n i c a l g u i d e l i n e s which i n c o r p o r a t e the LDC r e g u l a t i o n s , and t o i s s u e i n c i n e r a t i o n p e r m i t s o n l y s u b j e c t t o terms and c o n d i t i o n s i d e n t i c a l t o 25 those r e g u l a t i o n s . While an i n c i n e r a t o r o p e r a t o r c o u l d have i t s p ermit revoked i f i t f a i l e d t o comply w i t h these c o n d i t i o n s , t h e r e i s no automatic mechanism by which a f f e c t e d members o f the p u b l i c can i n t e r v e n e t o f o r c e such a r e v o c a t i o n t o take p l a c e , or t o r e q u i r e permit terms and c o n d i t i o n s t o be v a r i e d i f u n s a t i s f a c t o r y e f f e c t s are observed. The e x i s t i n g s t a t u t o r y review mechanisms, which p r o v i d e f o r an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e board of review, are s u b j e c t t o d i s c r e t i o n a r y M i n i s t e r i a l c o n t r o l u n l e s s i t i s the p e r m i t -h o l d e r who o b j e c t s t o the permit v a r i a t i o n o r r e v o c a t i o n . 27 Even i f the LDC R e g u l a t i o n s and T e c h n i c a l G u i d e l i n e s are f u l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o dumping pe r m i t s , such r e g u l a t i o n s 28 are c o n s i d e r e d by many t o be merely minimum standards. S i n c e more r e s t r i c t i v e standards are t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y f e a s i b l e , are r o u t i n e l y achieved, and appear t o decrease r i s k , t h e r e would seem t o be no reason why they should not be r e q u i r e d . In a d d i t i o n , the LDC r e g u l a t i o n s f a i l t o impose requirements on i n c i n e r a t o r v e s s e l s i n s e v e r a l known areas of concern, and the p a r t i e s t o t h a t Convention are, t h e r e f o r e , 171 c o n s i d e r i n g r e v i s i o n s of t h e i r r u l e s . These concerns i n c l u d e : the p o s s i b l e need t o d e c i d e on e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l s of t o t a l e missions, the need t o s e t metal c o n c e n t r a t i o n l i m i t s i n wastes, the need t o s p e c i f i c a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e the waste management h i e r a r c h y i n t o the g u i d e l i n e s , the p o s s i b l e use of s crubbers on i n c i n e r a t o r v e s s e l s , and the p o s s i b l e need f o r continuous measurements 29 d u r i n g o p e r a t i o n s . For example, the proposed U n i t e d S t a t e s r u l e s f o r ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s are i n some r e s p e c t s more s t r i n g e n t than the e x i s t i n g LDC r e g u l a t i o n s , r e q u i r i n g a 99.9999% DE f o r PCB's, d i o x i n s and f u r a n s , s e t t i n g a l i m i t on a c i d e m i s s i o n s , r e q u i r i n g waste c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n waters exposed t o the i n c i n e r a t i o n plume t o meet water q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a , and p r o h i b i t i n g the i n c i n e r a t i o n o f c e r t a i n 30 substances. There would seem t o be no reason why Canada sho u l d not i n c o r p o r a t e s i m i l a r requirements i n t o i t s d r a f t 31 r e g u l a t i o n s , y e t no such standards have been proposed. T h i s may be o f p a r t i c u l a r importance i f Canada becomes i n t e r e s t e d i n n e g o t i a t i n g a b i l a t e r a l arrangement w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s r e g a r d i n g ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n c i n e r a t i o n standards have been e s t a b l i s h e d by a broad-ranging c o n s u l t a t i o n o f n a t i o n s t h a t a r e p a r t i e s t o the major dumping Conventions, i n c l u d i n g p a r t i e s t h a t engage i n i n c i n e r a t i o n and those who do not. These meetings have a l s o r e c e i v e d i n p u t from non-party s h i p p i n g s t a t e s w i t h i n t e r e s t s i n the area, such as L i b e r i a , and many non-governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s , both environmental 32 . . . . and i n d u s t r i a l . The R e g u l a t i o n s and T e c h n i c a l G u i d e l i n e s 172 which have been enacted r e p r e s e n t e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e and t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y p o s s i b l e standards, which have been r o u t i n e l y used f o r a number of y e a r s . One may assume t h a t such standards c o u l d , a c c o r d i n g l y , be implemented i n Canadian laws and r e g u l a t i o n s as mandatory minimum r u l e s , without i n d u s t r y complaint. T h i s would p r o v i d e some l i m i t s on the e x e r c i s e of d i s c r e t i o n i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n permit i s s u a n c e , and a s u f f i c i e n t degree of c e r t a i n t y t o make p o s s i b l e the j u d i c i a l or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e review o f r e g u l a t o r y d e c i s i o n s . T h i s c o u l d be done without a l o s s o f f l e x i b i l i t y , as more s t r i n g e n t standards c o u l d s t i l l be a t t a c h e d t o i n d i v i d u a l p e r m i t s t o d e a l w i t h s p e c i a l c ircumstances such as d i f f i c u l t wastes, improved technology or e c o l o g i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e burn s i t e s . ( i i ) The Treatment of S c i e n t i f i c U n c e r t a i n t y Another major i s s u e r e l a t i n g t o the t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o n t r o l o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s i s the way i n which s c i e n t i f i c u n c e r t a i n t y i s t o be t r e a t e d i n environmental d e c i s i o n s . Under the o l d Environmental Contaminants Act, new c h e m i c a l s were norm a l l y p e r m i t t e d t o be used u n t i l such time as the government was s a t i s f i e d t h a t a chemical was b e i n g r e l e a s e d and t h a t i t c o n s i t u t e d a " s i g n i f i c a n t danger" t o p u b l i c h e a l t h or the environment. Once t h a t o c c u r r e d , the 33 c h e m i c a l ' s use c o u l d be r e s t r i c t e d or banned. The CEPA, which w i l l r e g u l a t e the use o f new chemicals i n Canada, takes a d i f f e r e n t approach t o the c o n t r o l of t o x i c substances. P r i o r t o a l l o w i n g new chemicals t o be i n t r o d u c e d , the 173 government can r e q u i r e t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n and t o x i c i t y t e s t s be submitted, so t h a t an e v a l u a t i o n o f the p o t e n t i a l hazards of 34 a new substance can be made b e f o r e a l l o w i n g i t s use. The r e g u l a t i o n o f t o x i c chemicals i s now s i m i l a r t o the food and drug enactments i n t h i s r e s p e c t , which seems l o g i c a l g i v e n the p u b l i c h e a l t h concerns t h a t are c e n t r a l t o both types of l e g i s l a t i o n . Although a degree o f s c i e n t i f i c u n c e r t a i n t y c o n t i n u e s t o e x i s t , t o x i c substances are now b e i n g t r e a t e d as p o t e n t i a l l y hazardous u n t i l proven s a f e . Over time, t h i s p o l i c y s h o u l d prevent the c r e a t i o n o f l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f new types o f hazardous waste, which would then r e q u i r e d i s p o s a l a t sea or on l a n d . Nowhere i n the Act, however, i s a s i m i l a r p r e v e n t a t i v e p o l i c y s p e c i f i c a l l y a p p l i e d t o the use of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n t echnology. The A c t makes no p r o v i s i o n f o r c o n d u c t i n g a s c i e n t i f i c t echnology assessment o f t h i s waste management o p t i o n , o r a comparative assessment o f ocean and land-based a l t e r n a t i v e s . I t i s a g i v e n t h a t ocean dumping, i n c l u d i n g i n c i n e r a t i o n , w i l l c o n t i n u e under a permit system as i t d i d under t h e o l d ODCA. The a d v i s a b i l i t y o f such a p o l i c y i s u n c e r t a i n , however, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l i g h t o f the American c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t the r i s k s o f l a n d and ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n are 35 not d i r e c t l y comparable, and g i v e n t h a t t h e r e a re numerous o u t s t a n d i n g s c i e n t i f i c u n c e r t a i n t i e s and t e c h n i c a l concerns 3 6 over the use and impact o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n . P o l i c y judgments about the use of a new technology, such as ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , and how one should t r e a t the a s s o c i a t e d s c i e n t i f i c u n c e r t a i n t i e s , are judgments about the 174 a c c e p t a b i l i t y of i n e v i t a b l e r i s k s , and i n v o l v e the need t o b a l a n c e economic and s o c i a l i n t e r e s t s . Some f e e l t h a t a l l r i s k s and b e n e f i t s must be q u a n t i f i e d t o the g r e a t e s t e x t e n t p o s s i b l e , and a d e c i s i o n made based on the course which w i l l 37 p r o v i d e "the g r e a t e s t good t o the g r e a t e s t number." To o t h e r s , the b e s t c h o i c e i s t o pursue the economic concept of the P a r e t o optimum - t h a t i s , any course of a c t i o n t h a t b e n e f i t s some, without l e a v i n g o t h e r people i n a worse 3 8 p o s i t i o n . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , some argue t h a t the b e s t c h o i c e i s the one which i s , a t the moment, the most e q u i t a b l e t o a l l 39 concerned, even i f i t may prove more c o s t l y . The new CEPA, i n i t s approach t o the r e g u l a t i o n of the i n t r o d u c t i o n of new chemicals, has moved toward the l a t t e r t ype of " e q u i t y now" approach. Although the s e c t i o n s of the A c t which w i l l be used t o e v a l u a t e new chemicals are not y e t i n f o r c e , i f the A c t i s f u l l y implemented, i n d u s t r i a l expansion and t e c h n o l o g i c a l change c o u l d be slowed, a t a p o t e n t i a l l y huge d o l l a r c o s t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s i s now seen as a j u s t i f i a b l e o p t i o n i n the i n t e r e s t s of improved human h e a l t h and environmental p r o t e c t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s a t t i t u d e has not been extended throughout the A c t , t o i n c l u d e the assessment of new hazardous waste d i s p o s a l technology, such as ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n . Some o t h e r p r o c e s s , as y e t undeveloped, w i l l be needed t o e v a l u a t e t h i s technology, and t o p r o v i d e a forum f o r the a r t i c u l a t i o n of non-economic s o c i a l v a l u e s r e g a r d i n g the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of i t s a s s o c i a t e d r i s k s . To a v o i d b i a s e s and misunderstandings when d e a l i n g w i t h 175 s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l matters, however, c a r e f u l thought r e g a r d i n g the access t o and use of i n f o r m a t i o n about t e c h n o l o g i c a l matters w i l l be necessary. There i s a tendency f o r p a r t i e s t o s e i z e upon s c i e n t i f i c evidence which supports " t h e i r " view, t o o v e r s i m p l i f y and p o l a r i z e i s s u e s , and t o a c t i v e l y defend one vie w p o i n t as c o r r e c t even where t h e r e i s 40 genuine s c i e n t i f i c c o n t r o v e r s y and doubt. I f p o l i c y decision-makers are t o seek p u b l i c i n p u t r e g a r d i n g the a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l r i s k s i n the f a c e o f s c i e n t i f i c u n c e r t a i n t y , they must c o n s t a n t l y be s e e k i n g a r a t i o n a l compromise, which might b e s t be done i n a non-. . . . . 41 a d v e r s a r i a l forum t o minimize such p o l a r i z a t i o n . They must s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ensure t h a t a c c u r a t e s c i e n t i f i c d ata i s a v a i l a b l e and put t o use, w h i l e g u a r a n t e e i n g t h a t the p u b l i c has access t o the decision-making p r o c e s s , so t h a t e t h i c a l and s o c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are not o v e r r i d d e n by p u r e l y t e c h n i c a l o n e s . 4 2 The attempt t o p r o v i d e such a forum r a i s e s many d i f f i c u l t i s s u e s . P u b l i c h e a r i n g s tend t o be c o s t l y and v e r y a d v e r s a r i a l . E x i s t i n g permit procedures tend t o i n v o l v e e x t e n s i v e government-industry n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h minimal p u b l i c comment, and l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or j u d i c i a l review. The r o l e t h a t the Courts s h o u l d p l a y i n the review o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s must a l s o be addressed, t o e s t a b l i s h whether j u d i c i a l review should be s u b s t a n t i v e o r merely p r o c e d u r a l . Whatever the forum, t h e r e a re problems w i t h d e c i d i n g who has o f f i c i a l s t a n d i n g t o appear, what r o l e i n t e r e s t groups should have, and whether fun d i n g should be 176 p r o v i d e d t o groups which wish t o prepare r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . A framework f o r c o n t r o l l i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s o f time and money d u r i n g the review p r o c e s s must be e s t a b l i s h e d . There are a l s o d i f f i c u l t problems p r o v i d i n g adequate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r u n e n f r a n c h i s e d i n t e r e s t s , such as those o f f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s , a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s and non-human i n t e r e s t s . While a d e t a i l e d examination o f p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s t o each o f these problems i s beyond the scope o f the p r e s e n t study, such concerns a re a l l p a r t o f the need t o p r o v i d e f o r i n p u t i n t o l e g a l and p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s by those a f f e c t e d by t h e outcome of the decision-making p r o c e s s . Among the areas i n which improvements can be made t o the e x i s t i n g p r o c e s s a re the p r o v i s i o n o f technology assessments, improved access t o s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n , and a n o n - a d v e r s a r i a l p u b l i c forum f o r d i s c u s s i o n s about the range o f s c i e n t i f i c u n c e r t a i n t i e s and outcomes. d. P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n Throughout the p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n s e v e r a l areas have been i d e n t i f i e d i n which the p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s , and the l e g a l implementation o f p u b l i c p o l i c y , e x h i b i t a f a i l u r e t o p r o v i d e f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p o l i t i c a l - l e g a l p r o c e s s . Among these are the need f o r p u b l i c involvement i n de t e r m i n i n g the a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f r i s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l t e r n a t i v e t e c h n o l o g i e s , the b a l a n c i n g o f economic and environmental v a l u e s , and the need t o r e s o l v e e q u i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n concerns. Two o t h e r areas i n which p u b l i c i n p u t would be d e s i r a b l e 177 are the development of r e g u l a t o r y standards and the s e t t i n g o f p e r m i t terms and c o n d i t i o n s . These procedures, as p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , are p r e s e n t l y s u b j e c t t o v e r y broad M i n i s t e r i a l d i s c r e t i o n and governed l a r g e l y by way o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s . In p r a c t i c e , d e c i s i o n s are d e l e g a t e d by the M i n i s t e r t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c i a l s , and r e f e r r e d t o v a r i o u s agencies, thus o b s c u r i n g p o l i t i c a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . S i n c e standards are o f t e n s e t by i n t e r n a l departmental agreement, the a b i l i t y of the p u b l i c t o monitor i n d u s t r y compliance i s minimal. Procedures under th e CEPA t o p e r m i t p u b l i c review of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s and t o r e q u i r e government enforcement of standards are l i m i t e d , and s u b j e c t t o d i s c r e t i o n a r y M i n i s t e r i a l c o n t r o l . One o f the major d i f f i c u l t i e s c r e a t e d by the l a c k of p u b l i c i n p u t i n t o such d e c i s i o n s i s the a g g r a v a t i o n of problems i n o b t a i n i n g p u b l i c acceptance of r i s k - b e a r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , such as hazardous waste d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s . The Canadian government's approach t o ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n may a l r e a d y be e n c o u n t e r i n g problems i n t h i s a r ea. The f i r s t a p p l i c a t i o n f o r an ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n permit was r e c e i v e d i n 1983, y e t i t was not u n t i l 1987 t h a t the i s s u e began t o 43 a t t r a c t p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n and media coverage. Throughout t h i s p e r i o d government p o l i c y was b e i n g developed, but w i thout p u b l i c i n p u t i n t o the decision-making p r o c e s s . The f a i l u r e t o p r o v i d e p u b l i c access t o i n f o r m a t i o n e a r l y i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s has been i d e n t i f i e d as a major reason 44 . . . f o r the NIMBY syndrome. Inadequacies i n p r o v i d i n g p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n may a l s o r e s u l t i n the need t o " s e l l " a d e c i s i o n 178 t h a t has a l r e a d y been made, which i s another a g g r a v a t i n g 45 f a c t o r . At t he time o f the i n i t i a l media r e p o r t s , Environment Canada's s t a t e d p o s i t i o n was t h a t i t was "prepared t o c o n s i d e r i s s u i n g " a permit, so l o n g as the r e g u l a t o r y requirements were met and t h e r e were no e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y 46 p r e f e r a b l e p r a c t i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e s . A spokesman f o r the i n c i n e r a t i o n company then i n d i c a t e d t h a t wastes would be brought from the e a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada t o a Canadian p o r t , and t h a t the company intended t o choose the p o r t b e s t s u i t e d t o i t s purposes once the f e d e r a l government 47 d e c i d e d where the chemicals c o u l d be burned. T h i s combination o f a complete l a c k o f p u b l i c i n p u t i n t o the d e c i s i o n s t o permit ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , t o s e l e c t a burn s i t e and t o choose a p o r t f a c i l i t y , and the a g g r a v a t i o n o f e q u i t y concerns by waste imports, would seem v i r t u a l l y guaranteed t o produce a NIMBY r e a c t i o n . W i t h i n 24 hours the government r e a c t e d by announcing t h a t no American wastes would be imported i n t o Canada f o r i n c i n e r a t i o n here, and a government spokesman acknowledged soon t h e r e a f t e r , t h a t even i f a t - s e a i n c i n e r a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d by s c i e n t i s t s t o be e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y s a f e , " p u b l i c 48 acceptance w i l l be r e q u i r e d . " Although the government i s not making the e r r o r o f assuming t h a t s c i e n t i f i c o r t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s d e c i s i v e , t h i s may be an example of t r y i n g t o p r o v i d e a f a s t and easy s o l u t i o n t o a p u b l i c concern r a t h e r than l e t t i n g t he a f f e c t e d persons s e t the agenda f o r d i s c u s s i o n . Such an approach can a l s o provoke a NIMBY 179 49 r e a c t i o n . Two o t h e r f a c t o r s which aggravate s i t i n g problems are the tendency t o p r o v i d e extremely t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n o f l i t t l e i n t e r e s t t o the a f f e c t e d p a r t i e s , and an o v e r - r e l i a n c e 50 on a p u b l i c h e a r i n g p r o c e s s t o r e s o l v e a l l concerns. Although the Canadian government has not y e t moved toward p u b l i c h e a r i n g s r e g a r d i n g ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , such a ste p i s p o s s i b l e . I f p o o r l y managed, i t c o u l d serve t o i n c r e a s e r a t h e r than decrease p u b l i c r e s i s t a n c e . A l t e r n a t i v e methods t o a c h i e v e p u b l i c i n p u t i n t o the l e g a l p r o c e s s are, however, s o r e l y l a c k i n g i n the l e g i s l a t i v e framework and e x i s t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e procedures. The p o t e n t i a l r e s u l t i s t h a t members o f the p u b l i c a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by the r e g u l a t o r y d e c i s i o n s , because they f e e l t h a t they have been p o o r l y informed and g i v e n no o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e deci s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , w i l l r e a c t i n the t y p i c a l a d v e r s a r i a l NIMBY manner,to such d e c i s i o n s , r e g a r d l e s s o f 51 t h e i r t e c h n i c a l m e r i t s . In t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s s e v e r a l attempts have been made t o develop s t a t u t o r y mechanisms f o r e n s u r i n g adequate p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n hazardous waste f a c i l i t y s i t i n g d e c i s i o n s , and t h e s e methods may, t h e r e f o r e , be a p p l i c a b l e t o the s i t i n g o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s . The Massachusetts Hazardous 52 . Waste F a c i l i t y S i t i n g A c t i s perhaps the b e s t s t u d i e d example o f such an enactment, although Wisconsin, Rhode I s l a n d and Kentucky have a l s o developed s i m i l a r s t a t u t o r y 53 p r ocedures. These s t a t u t e s e s t a b l i s h p r o c e s s e s by which communities are r e q u i r e d t o s e t up b a r g a i n i n g committees and 180 e n t e r i n t o n e g o t i a t i o n s d i r e c t l y w i t h the d e v e l o p e r i n o r d e r t o produce a s i t i n g agreement. The agreement must cover matters such as the compensation payable t o the community, the m i t i g a t i v e measures t o be taken by the d e v e l o p e r and the f a c i l i t y ' s o p e r a t i n g terms and c o n d i t i o n s . Procedures such as b i n d i n g a r b i t r a t i o n are s p e c i f i e d t o r e s o l v e any impasse i n n e g o t i a t i o n s , and l o c a l government powers t o b l o c k 54 f a c i l i t y s i t i n g may be preempted by the l e g i s l a t i o n . Such mandatory n e g o t i a t i o n s t a t u t e s are, i n t h e o r y , capable o f c i r c u m v e n t i n g the NIMBY r e a c t i o n . U n l i k e o t h e r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n methods, such as p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , they ensure t h a t l o c a l concerns w i l l a c t u a l l y be accommodated, 55 r a t h e r than merely a r t i c u l a t e d . The requirement t h a t a compensation package be n e g o t i a t e d l e a d s t o g r e a t e r e q u i t y , as the people b e a r i n g the added c o s t s a l s o r e c e i v e b e n e f i t s beyond the g e n e r a l s o c i e t a l b e n e f i t s of improved hazardous waste management. 5 6 I f s u f f i c i e n t compensation i s o f f e r e d , the l o c a l i n c e n t i v e t o oppose a f a c i l i t y i s reduced, and the development may even be seen as a d e s i r a b l e a d d i t i o n t o the 57 l o c a l economy. Compensation agreements a l s o ensure t h a t a d e v e l o p e r w i l l take f u l l account of the c o s t s of a f a c i l i t y , which h e l p s d i s c o u r a g e i n a p p r o p r i a t e development and i n c r e a s e s the economic e f f i c i e n c y of s i t i n g . 5 8 To date most e f f o r t s t o s i t e hazardous waste f a c i l i t i e s . . . . . 59 u s i n g mandatory b a r g a i n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n have f a i l e d . The v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f the s i t i n g s t a t u t e s has o f t e n i n c r e a s e d the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e g a l c h a l l e n g e s and d e l a y s , as a c t i o n s have been taken over a m b i g u i t i e s i n the l e g i s l a t i o n , the 181 nature o f the a r b i t r a t i o n d e c i s i o n s , the adequacy of d e c i s i o n s by the v a r i o u s committees, the e n f o r c e a b i l i t y of the s i t i n g c o n t r a c t s , and the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y of the enactments. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the W isconsin s t a t u t e has been more s u c c e s s f u l than the b e t t e r known Massachusetts A c t . There i s some s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t the r e l a t i v e success of the W i s c o n s i n l e g i s l a t i o n i s due t o the f a c t t h a t p u b l i c i n p u t was sought when the s t a t u t o r y p r o c e s s was b e i n g d r a f t e d , w h i l e the Massachusetts A c t was w r i t t e n without such 61 p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h i s may i n d i c a t e t h a t p u b l i c i n p u t i n t o d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g must take p l a c e a t the e a r l i e s t stages o f p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n and s i t i n g p r o c e s s e s i n o r d e r f o r e v e n t u a l acceptance t o be demonstrated. In Canada, t h i s type of d e t a i l e d s t a t u t o r y framework t o r e q u i r e developer-community n e g o t i a t i o n s has not been attempted. The l e g i s l a t i v e approach taken by Canadian p r o v i n c e s , such as O n t a r i o and A l b e r t a , has been t o e s t a b l i s h Crown c o r p o r a t i o n s charged w i t h the duty of e s t a b l i s h i n g and 62 o p e r a t i n g hazardous waste f a c i l i t i e s . These s t a t u t e s p r o v i d e t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l governments may e s t a b l i s h p o l i c i e s t h a t must be f o l l o w e d by the c o r p o r a t i o n s i n c a r r y i n g out t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s . D e t a i l s of the a c t u a l methods t o be used t o i n v o l v e the p u b l i c i n the d e c i s ion-making p r o c e s s e s were not i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the l e g i s l a t i o n i t s e l f , as was done i n the American cases, although p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and n e g o t i a t i o n - b a s e d approaches have i n f a c t been u t i l i z e d . To date o n l y A l b e r t a has been s u c c e s s f u l i n a c t u a l l y 182 s i t i n g a hazardous waste d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t y . The A l b e r t a approach was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a two-stage p r o c e s s i n v o l v i n g f i r s t , the development of government p o l i c y and second, the s i t i n g o f the f a c i l i t y . P r i o r t o each stage o f the p r o c e s s , e x t e n s i v e p u b l i c c o n s u l t a t i o n s were undertaken, i n c l u d i n g committee s t u d i e s , t e c h n i c a l e v a l u a t i o n s , p u b l i c h e a r i n g s and p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n s e s s i o n s . P u b l i c i n p u t was sought i n both the development of government waste management p o l i c y , and 6 3 the c r i t e r i a which would be used f o r s i t e s e l e c t i o n . The r e s u l t has been the s u c c e s s f u l e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an o p e r a t i n g f a c i l i t y a t Swan H i l l s , A l b e r t a . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o s p e c u l a t e whether the A l b e r t a i approach, l i k e the Wisconsin exp e r i e n c e , has been a success because o f the e x t e n s i v e p u b l i c involvement p r i o r t o government p o l i c y f i n a l i z a t i o n and the development o f a l e g i s l a t i v e framework. T h i s may be an area i n which f u r t h e r study of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r o c e s s e s c o u l d prove f r u i t f u l . Indeed, ongoing e f f o r t s t o a s sess the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f d i f f e r e n t p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s s h o u l d be a c t i v e l y encouraged, and government-sponsored study i n t h i s area i s recommended. In p a r t i c u l a r , i t seems d e s i r a b l e t o determine whether the c u r r e n t p o l i t i c a l , l e g a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s have the c a p a c i t y t o respond t o the NIMBY phenomenon i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d manner, by d e s i g n i n g a s i n g l e l e g a l or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e scheme t h a t w i l l ensure the . . . . 64 r e a s o n a b l e d i s p o s i t i o n of s i t i n g attempts. I f not, w h i l e i t may be p o s s i b l e t o meet p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n concerns s u c c e s s f u l l y i n an ad hoc, case-by-case manner, a broader 183 s o l u t i o n t o p r o v i d e f o r the e q u i t a b l e and sound b a l a n c i n g o f environmental, s o c i a l , and economic i n t e r e s t s as a r o u t i n e p a r t o f p u b l i c p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n and l e g a l development w i l l remain e l u s i v e . e. Summary The p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n has reviewed many o f the s p e c i f i c problems which the Canadian government f a c e s i n making and implementing laws governing the ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o f t o x i c wastes. The i s s u e s which w i l l r e q u i r e r e s o l u t i o n are o f f o u r b a s i c t y p e s : j u r i s d i c t i o n a l , economic, s c i e n t i f i c and p a r t i c i p a t o r y . I n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s have obscured p u b l i c a c c o u n t a b i l i t y and decreased the a b i l i t y o f government t o promote p r e f e r r e d waste management p o l i c i e s i n a comprehensive and c o n s i s t e n t manner. A thorough review o f i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l r e f e r r a l procedures r e l a t i n g t o ocean d i s p o s a l a c t i v i t i e s , and an i n c r e a s e i n the a b i l i t y o f the p u b l i c t o review a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s , a re two areas i n which improvements should be c o n s i d e r e d . The need f o r f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l c o o p e r a t i o n i n environmental matters i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n the Canadian c o n t e x t . Of p a r t i c u l a r importance i n r e l a t i o n t o ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s the need t o e v a l u a t e the impact t h a t the development of t h i s i n d u s t r y c o u l d have on p r o v i n c i a l waste management e f f o r t s , and the a s s o c i a t e d need f o r c o o r d i n a t e d a c t i o n between the two l e v e l s o f government. An a d d i t i o n a l concern i s the i n f l u e n c e o f American p o l i c y on the economic 184 v i a b i l i t y o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s i n Canada. P a r t i c u l a r l y i f waste import o r export becomes necessary, the p o s s i b i l i t y o f b i l a t e r a l n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s t o e n t e r i n t o r e g i o n a l arrangements must be c o n s i d e r e d . The need t o s e t f i x e d r e g u l a t o r y standards f o r ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s i s a l s o a matter r e q u i r i n g f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Such a development c o u l d , c o n c e i v a b l y , p r o v i d e some l i m i t s t o the e x e r c i s e o f d i s c r e t i o n a r y d e c i s i o n s , and se r v e t o i n c r e a s e p u b l i c a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . S i m u l t a n e o u s l y , the treatment o f the s c i e n t i f i c u n c e r t a i n t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n technology must be examined. Systematic technology assessment and improved ac c e s s t o , and use o f , a c c u r a t e s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n a re matters which should be addressed as p a r t o f any ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n p o l i c y development. A major f a c t o r r e l a t e d t o the p o t e n t i a l use of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s the n e c e s s i t y f o r p u b l i c acceptance o f the s i t i n g o f both p o r t f a c i l i t i e s and burn s i t e s . P u b l i c r e s i s t a n c e t o such r i s k - b e a r i n g a c t i v i t i e s i s an extremely c o m p l i c a t e d problem w i t h which governments have been s t r u g g l i n g f o r some time. S o l u t i o n s remain e l u s i v e , but new i d e a s t o i n c r e a s e p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n decision-making h o l d some promise, and government ex p e r i m e n t a t i o n and involvement i n t h i s area i s encouraged. 185 Chapter Nine: Notes 1. A.R. Lucas, "The Canadian Environmental P r o t e c t i o n A c t " (1987) 20 Resources 3 a t 4-5. 2. Canadian Environmental P r o t e c t i o n A c t , S.C. 1988, c. 22, P a r t VI. 3. L. Harding, B.Langford and L. Swain, "Water Q u a l i t y Management i n C o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia," paper p r e s e n t e d a t C o a s t a l Zone, 1987. (Mimeographed.) 4. I b i d . 5. Study Team Report t o the Task Force on Program Review, Improved Program D e l i v e r y : Environment (Ottawa: Supply and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1986), p. 177-178. 6. I b i d . , p. 180. 7. I b i d . , p. 182. 8. R. v Crown Z e l l e r b a c h Ltd..(1988) 3 W.W.R. 385; S e c t i o n 91, C o n s t i t u t i o n A ct, 1867, 30 & 31 V i c t o r i a , as am. 9. I b i d . ; Study Team Report, p. 245; A.R. Thompson, Environmental R e g u l a t i o n i n Canada: An Assessment of the  R e g u l a t o r y Process (Vancouver: Westwater Research Centre, 1980), p. 25. 10. Thompson, p. 19; A.R. Lucas, "Harmonization of F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Environmental P o l i c i e s : The Changing L e g a l and P o l i c y Framework" i n Managing Resources i n a  F e d e r a l S t a t e , ed. J . Owen Saunders (Toronto: C a r s w e l l Co. L t d , 1986), p. 33. 11. Thompson, p. 23. 12. Lucas, "Harmonization, 1 1 p. 35. 13. D.M. Johnston, Canada and the New I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law  o f the Sea (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1985), p. 54. 14. Canadian Environmental P r o t e c t i o n A c t , S.C. 1988, c. 22, s e c t i o n 98. 15. " C o n t r o v e r s i a l A c t puts l i d on new c h e m i c a l s , " Vancouver Sun. 24 March 1988, p. B5. 16. Lucas, " P r o t e c t i o n A c t , " p. 6. 17. U.S. Congress, O f f i c e o f Technology Assessment, Ocean I n c i n e r a t i o n : I t s Role i n Managing Hazardous Waste OTA-0-313 (Washington,D.C.: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g 186 O f f i c e , 1986), p. 16-20, 43-48. 18. "U.S. f i r m seeks permit t o burn t o x i n s o f f N.S.," C h r o n i c l e - H e r a l d . 25 September 1987, p. 21. 19. "U.S. must burn t o x i n s elsewhere," Vancouver Sun. 26 September 1987. 20. IMO, "Export of Wastes f o r I n c i n e r a t i o n a t Sea" (IMO R e s o l u t i o n L D C . I I ( V ) ) . 21. "Waste Management Inc., the o n l y U.S. Company w i t h i n c i n e r a t o r s h i p s , has abandoned i t s p l a n t o burn t o x i c wastes a t sea" (Mar/Apr 1988) S i e r r a 10. 22. C h r o n i c l e - H e r a l d , p. 21. 23. C h r i s t o p h e r A. Walker, "The U n i t e d S t a t e s Environmental P r o t e c t i o n Agency's P r o p o s a l f o r At-Sea I n c i n e r a t i o n of Hazardous Wates - A T r a n s n a t i o n a l P e r s p e c t i v e " (1988) 21(127) V a n d e r b i l t J . of T r a n s n a t i o n a l Law 157; J . Karau^ " I n c i n e r a t i o n a t Sea" (1987) 1 Ocean Dumping News 10 a t 10-11. 24. Karau, p. 10-11. 25. I b i d . , p. 10; Envirochem S e r v i c e s , N a t i o n a l  T e c h n i c a l Manual f o r At Sea I n c i n e r a t i o n of L i q u i d Hazardous  Wastes, March 11, 1987 Working D r a f t (Burnaby: By the Author, 1987), p. 12. 26. Canadian Environmental P r o t e c t i o n A c t , S.C. 1988, c. 22, s e c t i o n s 74(1) and 8 9 ( 3 ) ( 4 ) . 27. IMO, " R e g u l a t i o n s f o r the C o n t r o l of I n c i n e r a t i o n of Wastes and Other Matter a t Sea" (IMO Document LDC/SG 11/2/2, 1988, Annex I ) ; IMO, " I n t e r i m T e c h n i c a l G u i d e l i n e s on the C o n t r o l o f I n c i n e r a t i o n of Wastes and Other Matter a t Sea" (IMO Document LDC/SG 11/2/2, 1988, Annex I ) . 28. Walker, p. 179. 29. IMO, "Report of the J o i n t LDC/OSCOM Group of E x p e r t s on I n c i n e r a t i o n a t Sea" (IMO Document LDC/OSCOM/IAS 2/9, 1987), p. 8, 21, 31, 34-35, 41. See a l s o U.S. Congress, Chapter 2. 30. Walker, p. 179-180. 31. Envirochem S e r v i c e s . 32. See IMO, "Group o f E x p e r t s " f o r a l i s t o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . 33. Environmental Contaminants A c t , S.C. 1974-75-76, c. 187 72 as am., s e c t i o n 7. 34. Canadian Environmental P r o t e c t i o n A c t , P a r t I I . 35. U.S. Congress, p. 159. 36. I b i d . , c h a p t e r s 1 and 9. 37. M i l l e r B. Spangler, "Syndromes of R i s k and Environmental P r o t e c t i o n : The C o n f l i c t o f I n d i v i d u a l and S o c i e t a l V a l u e " (n.d.) 2(3) Env. P r o f e s s i o n a l 274 a t 276. 38. I b i d . 39. I b i d . , p. 277. 40. I b i d . , p. 276. 41. D.P. Emond, "Environmental Law and P o l i c y : A R e t r o s p e c t i v e Examination of the Canadian E x p e r i e n c e " i n Consumer P r o t e c t i o n . Environmental Law and Corporate Power, eds. Ivan B e r n i e r and Andree L a j o i e (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1985), p. 148. 42. A.R. Thompson, " B a r g a i n i n g w i t h the Environment: The L i m i t s of L e g a l R e g u l a t i o n " i n S o c i a l Responses t o  T e c h n o l o g i c a l Chancre, eds. A. Brannigan and S. Goldenberg (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1985), p. 46; P h i l i p E l d e r , " C o u n t e r p o i n t : The P o l i t i c s o f B a r g a i n i n g With the Environment" i n Brannigan, p. 62. 43. C h r o n i c l e - H e r a l d , p. 21. 44. A. Armour, "Nuclear R e a c t o r s - N u c l e a r Waste: R e s o l v i n g P u b l i c Acceptance I s s u e s " paper p r e s e n t e d t o the Canadian N u c l e a r S o c i e t y , 1986. (Mimeographed.), p. 11-13. 45. I b i d . , p. 11-13. 46. C h r o n i c l e - H e r a l d , p. 21. 47. I b i d . 48. Vancouver Sun, "Burn t o x i n s elsewhere;" " E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s uneasy as Ottawa eyes p l a n t o burn waste a t sea," Globe and M a i l , 2 October 1987, p. B17. 49. Armour, p. 11-13. 50. I b i d . 51. I b i d . , p. 11. 52. Massachusetts Hazardous Waste F a c i l i t y S i t i n g Act, (1980) Mass. A c t s 673, c. 508; Mass. Gen. Laws Ann., c. 21D, 188 para. 1-19 (West 1981). 53. D. Burchard and R. Hughes, "Beyond C a p a c i t y : A d d r e s s i n g the Concerns of L o c a l O p p o s i t i o n i n the S i t i n g P r o c e s s " (1986-87) 6 S t a n f o r d Env. L . J . 145 a t 155-160; B. H o l z n a g e l , " N e g o t i a t i o n and M e d i a t i o n : The Newest Approach t o Hazardous Waste F a c i l i t y S i t i n g " (1986) 13 Boston C o l l . Env. A f f a i r s L. Rev. 329 a t 370-373. 54. G. Bingham and D.S. M i l l e r , "Prospects f o r R e s o l v i n g Hazardous Waste S i t i n g D isputes Through N e g o t i a t i o n " (n.d.) 17(3) Nat. Resources Lawyer 473 a t 480 ; L.S. Bacow and J.R. M i l k e y , "Overcoming L o c a l O p p o s i t i o n t o Hazardous Waste F a c i l i t i e s : The Massachusetts Approach" (1982) 6 Harvard Env. L. Rev. 265 a t 279 e t seq.; Anonymous, "The Hazardous Waste F a c i l i t y S i t i n g Controversy: The Massachusetts E x p e r i e n c e " (1987) 12(1) Am. J . of Law and Med. 131 a t 136 e t seq. 55. Bingham, p. 478. 56. I b i d . , p. 479; Burchard, p. 156. 57. Bacow, p. 275; Bingham, p. 479; Burchard, p. 158. 58. Bingham, p. 479; Burchard, p. 146-147. 59. Bacow, p. 302; Anonymous, p. 139. 60. Bacow, p. 289-295. 61. J . F l e t t , ed., Law and P o l i c y Review R e l a t e d t o t Management of Hazardous Waste i n the P r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a (Edmonton: Environmental Law Centre, 1983), p. 17-18. 62. O n t a r i o Waste Management C o r p o r a t i o n A c t , S.O. 1981, c. 21 and S p e c i a l Waste Management C o r p o r a t i o n A c t , S.A. 1982, c. S-21.5, as am. 63. F l e t t , p. 7-10. 64. Bacow, p. 304. 189 Chapter Ten: Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s The e x i s t e n c e o f t o x i c chemicals and hazardous wastes c r e a t e s p u b l i c h e a l t h and environmental dangers o f v a s t and p o t e n t i a l l y c a t a s t r o p h i c p r o p o r t i o n s . In an e f f o r t t o p r o t e c t human h e a l t h and environmental i n t e g r i t y , government and r e g u l a t o r y agencies are c o n t i n u a l l y attempting t o c r e a t e and improve l e g a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l s over the use and d i s p o s a l o f such substances. One of the t o x i c waste d i s p o s a l methods c u r r e n t l y b e i n g e v a l u a t e d by the Canadian government, and f o r which l e g a l c o n t r o l s are now be i n g d e v i s e d , i s the use of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n technology. The p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n has o u t l i n e d many o f the dangers caused by t o x i c wastes, and has d e s c r i b e d the i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e a t i e s and n a t i o n a l l e g i s l a t i o n which r e g u l a t e the dumping of such wastes a t sea. I t has o u t l i n e d c u r r e n t p o l i t i c a l and l e g a l s t r a t e g i e s designed t o encourage b e t t e r management and d i s p o s a l o f such wastes, and examined the c o n t r o v e r s i a l r o l e o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i n promoting such s t r a t e g i e s . C u r r e n t and proposed laws r e g u l a t i n g the use of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n have been examined and found t o be l a c k i n g i n t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o address adequately the many s c i e n t i f i c , j u r i s d i c t i o n a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l u n c e r t a i n t i e s t h a t are r a i s e d by the p o t e n t i a l use of t h i s technology. In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e r e are t h r e e areas i n which Canadian i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s and law and p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s e s seem inadequate, i f s a f e and e f f e c t i v e ocean 190 i n c i n e r a t i o n laws are t o be developed: 1. the a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h i n t e r j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s ; 2. t he r a t i o n a l use of s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n ; and 3. the achievment of meaningful p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . What seems t o be needed, i f these many concerns are t o be met, i s something o f a depa r t u r e from the u s u a l tendency o f government t o make marginal changes t o e x i s t i n g laws and p o l i c i e s . I nstead, t h e r e e x i s t s a need t o formulate a r a t i o n a l and comprehensive p o l i c y t o d e a l w i t h hazardous waste d i s p o s a l , i n c l u d i n g a method t o assess ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n technology and i t s p l a c e i n promoting waste management o b j e c t i v e s . A pr o c e s s by which t h i s p o l i c y can be f u l l y implemented must a l s o be developed. Many p u b l i c p o l i c y a n a l y s t s f e e l t h a t i n f a c t governments do not, and perhaps cannot, develop the c a p a c i t y t o conduct such comprehensive a n a l y s e s and make r a t i o n a l 1 c h o i c e s which accommodate a v a r i e t y o f s o c i e t a l i n t e r e s t s . I n s t e a d , they f e e l t h a t the complex bureaucracy, c o n f l i c t i n g p r e s s u r e s from i n t e r e s t groups and l i m i t s t o e x i s t i n g p l a n n i n g and e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s e s combine t o produce a l i m i t e d number of i n c r e m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t p o l i c y a l t e r n a t i v e s which seldom, i f ever, r e s u l t i n a r a d i c a l 2 p o l i c y c h o i c e . Instead, s m a l l changes t o the s t a t u s quo are made by "muddling through" w i t h a few p o s s i b l e v a r i a t i o n s on p a s t p o l i c y . 3 Although h i s t o r i c a l l y i n c r e m e n t a l i s t p o l i c y d e c i s i o n -191 making has se r v e d t o meet changing s o c i e t a l demands, i t may be t h a t problems o f environmental d e t e r i o r a t i o n w i l l p r o v i d e i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e on government t o be more i n n o v a t i v e and t o respond w i t h b o l d new p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s . There i s now an i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f the world s c a l e o f environmental problems and t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d adverse s o c i e t a l impacts, and t h i s has c r e a t e d a new sense of urgency about t h e need t o 4 take e f f e c t i v e s t e p s t o d e a l w i t h environmental i s s u e s . As environmental d e g r a d a t i o n becomes more severe, and i t s e f f e c t s more widespread and dangerous, governments may be f o r c e d by such problems t o make p o l i t i c a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l changes toward more comprehensive, f o r w a r d - t h i n k i n g approaches t o p o l i c y decision-making, i n o r d e r t o d e a l w i t h t h i s i n c r e a s i n g l y c r i t i c a l s t a t e o f a f f a i r s . One may a n t i c i p a t e , t h a t as environmental c r i s e s and a c c i d e n t s become more commonplace, t h e r e w i l l a l s o be a growing p o l i t i c a l c o n s t i t u e n c y w i l l i n g t o support such changes. Canada i s i n an i d e a l s i t u a t i o n t o make such a p o l i c y d e p a r t u r e when i t comes t o d e a l i n g w i t h the ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p t i o n . There are a t p r e s e n t no e s t a b l i s h e d i n d u s t r i a l f a c i l i t i e s , employees, d i s p o s a l c o n t r a c t s o r o t h e r economic t i e s t o the i n d u s t r y i n Canada. There are no e s t a b l i s h e d b u r e a u c r a c i e s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e procedures, budget a l l o c a t i o n s o r r e g u l a t o r y standards i n a c t i v e use. The e x i s t i n g ocean dumping laws and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i l l need t o be added t o or amended, whether the p o l i c y p r o c e s s which f o r m u l a t e s the needed changes i s t r a d i t i o n a l o r i n n o v a t i v e . W i t h i n the framework of e x i s t i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n s , 192 Canada i s , t h e r e f o r e , f r e e t o accept o r r e j e c t ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n u s i n g whatever decision-making and law-making p r o c e s s e s i t can f a s h i o n . Canada has n o t h i n g t o l o s e by e xperimenting w i t h new approaches t o law and p o l i c y f ormation i n d e a l i n g w i t h ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n . The n ature of the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l , economic, s c i e n t i f i c and p a r t i c i p a t o r y problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p t i o n suggest t h a t the b e s t way t o a v o i d i n c r e m e n t a l i s t decision-making, and i t s a s s o c i a t e d i n a d e q u a c i e s , i s t o develop a two-stage p r o c e s s f o r law and p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n . T h i s p r o c e s s would i n v o l v e f i r s t , a comprehensive p o l i c y review and second, the development of a method f o r implementing the r e s u l t i n g p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s . A t each stage of t h i s p r o c e s s , the e x i s t i n g problems of i n t e r j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t , the use o f s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n and the need f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n can be addressed. a. P o l i c y Review The fundamental p o l i c y i s s u e r e q u i r i n g r e s o l u t i o n i s the p r o p e r r o l e , i f any, t h a t ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n can p l a y i n the promotion o f p r e f e r r e d waste management p r a c t i c e s . T h i s i s s u e a c t u a l l y i n v o l v e s two s u b s i d i a r y q u e s t i o n s : whether ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n s hould be used a t a l l , and i f so, whether i t s h o u l d be pursued as a p r e f e r r e d or i n t e r i m s t r a t e g y . In o r d e r t o answer these q u e s t i o n s , i t may be necessary t o l o o k a t the broader i s s u e of the r o l e of ocean d i s p o s a l g e n e r a l l y i n a t t a i n i n g f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l waste 193 management o b j e c t i v e s . Canada has developed a d u a l system of waste management r e g u l a t i o n , where n o n - t o x i c wastes are c o n t r o l l e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y a t the m u n i c i p a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s , w h i l e hazardous waste d i s p o s a l i s i n c r e a s i n g l y viewed as a matter of n a t i o n a l concern, r e q u i r i n g and j u s t i f y i n g f e d e r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n . However, due t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e s and f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n over marine p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l , the ocean d i s p o s a l o f both t o x i c and n o n - t o x i c wastes has been c o n t r o l l e d e x c l u s i v e l y by the f e d e r a l government. T h i s d i v i s i o n of waste management r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s might be the f i r s t i s s u e r e q u i r i n g reexamination a t the p o l i c y l e v e l . The development o f an i n t e g r a t e d waste management p o l i c y on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e might w e l l produce a more u n i f i e d and comprehensive system t o prevent environmental d e t e r i o r a t i o n caused by poor waste d i s p o s a l p r a c t i c e s . The development o f such a system, however, would i n v o l v e f u r t h e r f e d e r a l i n t r u s i o n i n t o areas of p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n , and would; a c c o r d i n g l y , be s u b j e c t t o c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l c h a l l e n g e s . F e d e r a l l e a d e r s h i p i n t h i s area would, t h e r e f o r e , c e r t a i n l y need t o be implemented by way of n e g o t i a t e d f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l arrangements. I f the d i v i s i o n of f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l waste management r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i s t o be r e c o n s i d e r e d , and perhaps changed, the c u r r e n t ocean dumping laws may need r e s t r u c t u r i n g . The H e l s i n k i Convention p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l model f o r d i s c u s s i o n . The ocean d i s p o s a l o f a l l substances except dredge s p o i l i s p r o h i b i t e d by t h a t convention, and 194 l i m i t s on contaminant l e v e l s i n the dredged m a t e r i a l are imposed. Such an approach c o u l d be used t o s t r e n g t h e n f e d e r a l c o n t r o l over ocean dumping. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i f dredged m a t e r i a l dumping i s viewed as a matter o f n o n - t o x i c waste d i s p o s a l w i t h l a r g e l y l o c a l impact, such ocean dumping c o n t r o l e f f o r t s c o u l d perhaps be a l l o c a t e d t o p r o v i n c i a l r e g u l a t o r s . The use of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , which might then be t r e a t e d as a s e p a r a t e i s s u e i n v o l v i n g the c o n t r o l o f t o x i c substances of n a t i o n a l concern, c o u l d be s u b j e c t t o a d i f f e r e n t system o f f e d e r a l o r j o i n t r e g u l a t i o n . T h i s type o f r e s t r u c t u r i n g of Canadian ocean dumping laws c o u l d promote p r e f e r r e d waste management o b j e c t i v e s , by p l a c i n g s t r o n g e r r e s t r i c t i o n s on the d i s p o s a l of wastes through d i s p e r s a l i n t h e environment, w h i l e a l l o w i n g s e p a r a t e d e c i s i o n s t o be made p e r t a i n i n g t o the c o n t r o l l e d use o f d e s t r u c t i o n t e c h n o l o g i e s . I f t h e r o l e of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i n promoting p r e f e r r e d t o x i c waste management i s c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y from o t h e r types o f ocean dumping, a more i n t e n s i v e f e d e r a l p o l i c y review f o c u s s e d on concerns r e l a t i n g t o t h a t t e c hnology can take p l a c e . Fundamental t o the decision-making p r o c e s s r e g a r d i n g ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s the development of some consensus on the treatment o f s c i e n t i f i c u n c e r t a i n t y . In d e a l i n g w i t h hazardous wastes, t h e r e i s i n c r e a s i n g agreement t h a t new m a t e r i a l s and t e c h n o l o g i e s should be assumed t o be dangerous u n t i l they are demonstrated t o be s a f e , or a t l e a s t u n t i l the r i s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r use are assessed and found t o be a c c e p t a b l e . P o l i c y decision-makers must e x p r e s s l y c o n s i d e r t h i s approach i n making c h o i c e s about the 195 use o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n . Those i n v o l v e d i n making d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n w i l l need a c c u r a t e and complete i n f o r m a t i o n about the r i s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the technology. A commitment of time and r e s o u r c e s w i l l be necessary t o p r o v i d e f o r adequate technology assessment, and the use of comparative environmental and economic impact assessments o f land-based and ocean o p t i o n s should a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d . Although one can p r e d i c t from the i n t e r n a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e t h a t such s t u d i e s w i l l be c o n t r o v e r s i a l r a t h e r than c o n c l u s i v e , those i n v o l v e d i n the pro c e s s w i l l know the e x t e n t o f the u n c e r t a i n t i e s w i t h which they must d e a l , and be aware of the range o f a s s o c i a t e d economic and environmental impacts. I n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s w i l l a l s o be sure t h a t a s y s t e m a t i c attempt t o gat h e r a v a i l a b l e t e c h n i c a l , s c i e n t i f i c and economic knowledge has been made. Be a r i n g i n mind the l i m i t a t i o n s o f economic and s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s e s , government decision-makers s h o u l d not r e l y e x c l u s i v e l y on these t o o l s . The a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f the r i s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n w i l l a l s o be i n f l u e n c e d by s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , and i t i s here t h a t the r o l e o f the p u b l i c i n p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n must be examined. P u b l i c b i a s e s i n how r i s k s a re p e r c e i v e d , as w e l l as problems c r e a t e d by the uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r i s k s , need t o be a r t i c u l a t e d . P u b l i c i n p u t a t t h i s e a r l y stage i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s seems e s s e n t i a l i n o r d e r t o ensure t h a t non-economic s o c i a l v a l u e s are taken i n t o account i n p o l i c y development, and t o enable decision-makers t o 196 balance such v a l u e s a g a i n s t economic and i n d u s t r i a l concerns. Policy-makers must a l s o be aware t h a t the e v e n t u a l r e s u l t of the d e c i s i o n s t h a t are made may be the need t o s i t e p o r t f a c i l i t i e s and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s , and t h a t e a r l y p u b l i c i n p u t may be v i t a l t o the e v e n t u a l acceptance o f such developments. Of p a r t i c u l a r importance i s the p o s s i b l e need f o r p u b l i c i n p u t i n t o the f o r m u l a t i o n of the a c t u a l p r o c e s s by which s i t e s e l e c t i o n w i l l be made, and the c r i t e r i a which w i l l be used. In t h i s regard, i t may be necessary f o r the government t o d i r e c t f u r t h e r r e s o u r c e s toward e v a l u a t i n g p r e v i o u s e f f o r t s a t hazardous waste f a c i l i t y s i t i n g , t o determine what techn i q u e s f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n are most l i k e l y t o be s u c c e s s f u l . The fragmented nature of e x i s t i n g laws, due t o i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l and i n t e r j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s a t both l e v e l s of government, c r e a t e s f u r t h e r u n c e r t a i n t y over the use o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n and the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of i t s a s s o c i a t e d r i s k s . At the p o l i c y review stage, i t i s perhaps most u s e f u l t o ensure t h a t a l l p o t e n t i a l l y i n v o l v e d p a r t i e s , from both l e v e l s o f government, have an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n p u t and d i s c u s s i o n . The p o s s i b i l i t y of r e g i o n a l arrangements may need t o be c o n s i d e r e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l waste import o r e x p o r t i s l i k e l y . I f b i l a t e r a l arrangements w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s seem d e s i r a b l e , i n p u t from American r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s should a l s o be o b t a i n e d . The p o l i c y review p r o c e s s must be s t r u c t u r e d i n a manner t h a t w i l l enable i t t o address some o f these b a s i c j u r i s d i c t i o n a l i s s u e s , so t h a t t h e r o l e o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i n r e g i o n a l and l o c a l waste 197 management programs can be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . D e s i g n i n g a p r o c e s s f o r t h i s type of p o l i c y review w i l l be d i f f i c u l t . L o g i c a l l y , however, the f i r s t stage seems t o be the d e s i g n a t i o n of some agency as a r e s p o n s i b l e c o o r d i n a t o r , w i t h a c l e a r c u t mandate and w e l l d e f i n e d terms o f r e f e r e n c e . The c l e a r f e d e r a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n over ocean p o l l u t i o n p r o v i d e s a s t r o n g b a s i s f o r f e d e r a l l e a d e r s h i p i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f such an agency, and s e v e r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s suggest themselves. These i n c l u d e the c r e a t i o n o f a t a s k f o r c e or committee, the d e s i g n a t i o n o f an e x i s t i n g agency such as Environment Canada, o r the use o f a Royal Commission t o i n q u i r e i n t o the matter. Whatever agency i s u t i l i z e d , i t seems i m p e r a t i v e t h a t two b a s i c powers be granted t o t h a t e n t i t y . F i r s t , the agency s h o u l d be g i v e n a s t r o n g mandate t o formulate comprehensive ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n p o l i c i e s and t o develop methods f o r the implementation o f those p o l i c i e s . Such a mandate would permit the agency t o make c l e a r , r a t i o n a l recommendations t o the f e d e r a l government, t h a t one can a n t i c i p a t e would be e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y , s o c i a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e and would, t h e r e f o r e , p r o v i d e a s o l i d f o u n d a t i o n f o r c o n c r e t e a c t i o n a t the p o l i t i c a l l e v e l . Second, i t i s necessary t h a t the agency be g i v e n a s u f f i c i e n t budget t o accomplish i t s purposes and the power t o a l l o c a t e those funds as i t deems necessary. These powers seem fundamental t o enable the r e s p o n s i b l e agency t o conduct the r e s e a r c h necessary t o o b t a i n proper technology assessments, t o o b t a i n u s e f u l environmental and economic impact s t u d i e s , 198 t o i n v e s t i g a t e and experiment w i t h methods o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and communication, and t o engage i n m u l t i l a t e r a l d i s c u s s i o n w i t h i n t e r e s t e d f o r e i g n and domestic p a r t i e s . G iven s u f f i c i e n t a u t h o r i t y and r e s o u r c e s , the r e s p o n s i b l e agency should be capable of f a s h i o n i n g an i n n o v a t i v e s e r i e s of programs f o r p o l i c y review t h a t w i l l p r o v i d e i t w i t h the necessary i n p u t from s c i e n t i s t s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , i n d u s t r y , members of the p u b l i c , l o c a l and r e g i o n a l governments, a f f e c t e d f e d e r a l agencies and i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t groups. With such i n p u t , i t can then make c l e a r recommendations t o government about the r o l e t h a t ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n should have i n the Canadian waste management h i e r a r c h y , and s u i t a b l e methods f o r the implementation of t h i s fundamental p o l i c y d e c i s i o n . b. Imp1ementat i o n Once a u n i f i e d p o l i c y p e r s p e c t i v e has been developed, and impact assessments have been conducted, the second stage o f the l e g a l development p r o c e s s can b e g i n . I f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s t o be p r o h i b i t e d , a p p r o p r i a t e l e g i s l a t i o n which i n c l u d e s p e n a l t i e s and enforcement p r o v i s i o n s can be developed. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n i s allowed, c a r e f u l thought must be g i v e n t o the s t r u c t u r e of the l e g i s l a t i o n t o ensure t h a t adequate r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l over o p e r a t i o n s can be maintained. A l t e r n a t i v e s i n c l u d e the d e s i g n o f e n t i r e l y new l e g i s l a t i o n , o r the amendment of the e x i s t i n g CEPA p r o v i s i o n s . 199 One p o s s i b l i t y i s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an independant agency charged w i t h d e v e l o p i n g an i n t e g r a t e d f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l program f o r hazardous waste management, and h a v i n g f i n a l a u t h o r i t y over waste management d e c i s i o n s . Such an agency c o u l d seek t o c o o r d i n a t e a i r , l a n d , f reshwater, and marine d i s c h a r g e c o n t r o l s which r e g u l a t e hazardous waste d i s p o s a l p r a c t i c e s . I t c o u l d d i r e c t r e s o u r c e s f o r environmental and t e c h n i c a l r e s e a r c h , e s t a b l i s h p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n programs, and a c t as a l i a s o n among i n t e r e s t e d f e d e r a l agencies, p r o v i n c i a l departments, i n t e r e s t groups and i n d u s t r y . By c o n t r o l l i n g the waste management e f f o r t s o f the s e v a r i o u s groups i t c o u l d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a t t a c k the problem of proper hazardous waste d i s p o s a l on many f r o n t s . Arguably, the n a t i o n a l dimensions o f the hazardous waste d i s p o s a l problem j u s t i f y f u r t h e r f e d e r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i n waste management programs which have, t o date, been s u b j e c t t o p r i m a r i l y p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l . The c l e a r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the f e d e r a l government over ocean p o l l u t i o n p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r a u t h o r i t y f o r f e d e r a l l e a d e r s h i p i n t h i s a r e a . While t h e r e i s reason t o be h e s i t a n t r e g a r d i n g the need f o r a f u r t h e r expansion of government bureaucracy, a c a r e f u l r e a l l o c a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e s and pe r s o n n e l from departments p r e s e n t l y a d m i n i s t e r i n g many of the c u r r e n t r e g u l a t o r y programs c o u l d reduce adverse f i n a n c i a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l impacts. C e r t a i n l y , i t seems t h a t the magnitude and s e r i o u s n e s s o f the hazardous waste d i s p o s a l problem j u s t i f y s u b s t a n t i a l changes t o the e x i s t i n g 200 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n s i t u t i o n s , and i t i s recommended t h a t the f e d e r a l government immediately proceed w i t h f u r t h e r i n i t i a t i v e s i n t h i s a r ea. Powerful f e d e r a l l e a d e r s h i p i n hazardous waste management need not p r e c l u d e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; i n s t e a d , such l e a d e r s h i p can s t r e n g t h e n and improve the c o n t r o l o f t o x i c substances a t every l e v e l o f concern, by i n c r e a s i n g the e f f o r t s and involvement of l o c a l , r e g i o n a l , n a t i o n a l , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l e n t i t i e s . P a r t i c u l a r l y a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , c o o p e r a t i o n and i n p u t from i n t e r e s t e d p a r i t e s can be i n v i t e d and encouraged. I f such f e d e r a l l e a d e r s h i p i s p r o v i d e d , and a waste management a u t h o r i t y e s t a b l i s h e d , the p e r s o n n e l charged w i t h the s u p e r v i s i o n o f marine a f f a i r s c o u l d then p r o v i d e some much needed c o o r d i n a t i o n o f the r e g u l a t i o n s c o n t r o l l i n g marine p o l l u t i o n from v a r i o u s sources. A c t i n g i n c o n c e r t w i t h those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r land-based waste d i s p o s a l and a i r b o r n e p o l l u t i o n d i s c h a r g e s , b e t t e r c o n t r o l s over ocean p o l l u t i o n from these sources c o u l d be a t t a i n e d . S p e c i f i c e f f o r t s c o u l d a l s o be d i r e c t e d toward the improvement of r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l over d i r e c t marine d i s c h a r g e s from s h i p p i n g a c t i v i t i e s , o f f s h o r e r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n , and ocean dumping o p e r a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g i n c i n e r a t i o n . New f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i v e i n i t i a t i v e s w i l l be r e q u i r e d i n or d e r t o e s t a b l i s h such an agency and t o permit i t t o e x e r c i s e i t s f u n c t i o n s . For example, t o p r o v i d e the agency w i t h comprehensive a u t h o r i t y over o f f s h o r e marine d i s c h a r g e s , new l e g i s l a t i o n c o u l d be d r a f t e d governing v e s s e l - s o u r c e p o l l u t i o n , d i s c h a r g e s from o f f s h o r e m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n 201 a c t i v i t i e s , and ocean dumping. T h i s would c o n s o l i d a t e or r e p l a c e the p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p r o v i s i o n s of many e x i s t i n g f e d e r a l s t a t u t e s , i n c l u d i n g the Canada S h i p p i n g A c t, the A r c t i c Waters P o l l u t i o n P r e v e n t i o n A c t, the CEPA, and the O i l and Gas P r o d u c t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t . For ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , such l e g i s l a t i o n would p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a s i n g l e a u t h o r i t y t o r e g u l a t e a l l a t - s e a a s p e c t s of i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g v e s s e l d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n standards, a i r emissions, and emergency procedures. Because the agency would a l s o be c o o r d i n a t i n g i n t r a p r o v i n c i a l hazardous waste management e f f o r t s , l a n d -based a c t i v i t i e s r e l e v a n t t o ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s c o u l d a l s o be e x p r e s s l y c o n t r o l l e d as p a r t of a u n i f i e d r e g u l a t o r y program. However, t h i s type of r a d i c a l change t o the p r e s e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n may prove i m p o s s i b l e t o a c h i e v e . I f t h i s i s the case i t should, n e v e r t h e l e s s , be f e a s i b l e t o implement some changes t o the e x i s t i n g ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n . J u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t s , s c i e n t i f i c i s s u e s , and the q u e s t i o n o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n environmental d e c i s i o n s are a l l important concerns which c o u l d be addressed i n a more comprehensive manner under the e x i s t i n g laws. Fundamental t o any changes t h a t are contemplated i s the need t o a c t i v e l y promote improvements i n hazardous waste c o n t r o l , and some s p e c i f i c recommendations can be made i n t h a t r e g a r d . ( i ) J u r i s d i c t i o n a l Issues I t i s recommended t h a t the f o l l o w i n g s t e p s be c o n s i d e r e d as methods t o improve the c u r r e n t s t a t e o f 202 j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o n f l i c t and fragmentation i n ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n laws. 1. The M i n i s t e r o f H e a l t h and Welfare should be g i v e n a r o l e i n the review o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n p ermit a p p l i c a t i o n s . 2. The f a c t o r s which the M i n i s t e r s must c o n s i d e r b e f o r e d e c i d i n g whether t o grant, v a r y o r revoke ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n p e r m i t s s h o u l d be arranged i n some p r i o r i t y , w i t h more emphasis p l a c e d on those f a c t o r s which promote p r e f e r r e d waste management p r a c t i c e s . 3. E x i s t i n g procedures f o r r e f e r r i n g permit a p p l i c a t i o n s t o v a r i o u s f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l a g encies s h o u l d be reviewed, t o ensure t h a t each a s p e c t o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s and a n c i l l a r y land-based f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be examined. 4. Each agency r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the review o f an aspect of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s should be p r o v i d e d w i t h c l e a r l y d e f i n e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , s p e c i f i c terms of r e f e r e n c e and g u i d e l i n e s as t o the c r i t e r i a they should be u t i l i z i n g i n the assessment of permit a p p l i c a t i o n s . 5. The p u b l i c should be p r o v i d e d w i t h c l e a r i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g which agency i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r each aspect o f per m i t review, and the a u t h o r i t y having f i n a l d e cision-making r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s hould be r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e . 6 . Recent amendments t o the Canada S h i p p i n g A c t should be p r o c l a i m e d i n f o r c e , t o a l l o w the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f e n f o r c e a b l e p r o v i s i o n s governing matters such as i n c i n e r a t o r v e s s e l d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n . 7. When o t h e r marine p o l l u t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n , such as the 203 F i s h e r i e s A c t , i s reviewed e f f o r t s s hould be made t o c o o r d i n a t e the l e g i s l a t i o n and i t s r e g u l a t i o n s w i t h the ocean dumping standa r d s . 8. A review o f r e l a t e d chemical c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n , such as the Pest C o n t r o l Products A c t, should be i n i t i a t e d , i n o r d e r t o c o o r d i n a t e the l e g i s l a t i o n and i t s r e g u l a t i o n s w i t h P a r t I I of the CEPA, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n t o the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new chemicals. 9. For a s p e c t s o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n , such as the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of wastes t o p o r t s and emergency response measures, f e d e r a l -p r o v i n c i a l c o o p e r a t i v e agreements should be n e g o t i a t e d . In p a r t i c u l a r , i t may be necessary t o e s t a b l i s h n a t i o n a l standards and implement such standards by way o f e q u i v a l e n c y p r o v i s i o n under the CEPA, o r by way o f r e c i p r o c a l o r " m i r r o r " l e g i s l a t i o n a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . 10. N e g o t i a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l o r i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l agreements t o d e a l w i t h i s s u e s r a i s e d by the p o s s i b l e import or export o f wastes f o r i n c i n e r a t i o n s hould a l s o be i n v e s t i g a t e d . ( i i ) T e c h n i c a l Concerns I t i s recommended t h a t the f o l l o w i n g s t e p s be taken t o improve the l e g i s l a t i v e framework as i t r e l a t e s t o the attainment o f r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l over t e c h n i c a l matters, i n c l u d i n g e m i s s i o n s . 1. A t a minimum, the LDC r e g u l a t i o n s c o n t r o l l i n g i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s should be g i v e n the f o r c e o f law by enactment i n the form of r e g u l a t i o n s under the CEPA. 204 2. I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d d u r i n g technology assessments sh o u l d be used t o enact more r i g o r o u s standards, i n c l u d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s governing metal contents i n wastes and maximum a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l s of t o t a l e missions. 3. More p r e c i s e standards should be developed i n r e l a t i o n t o the l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s governing s i t u a t i o n s i n which the dumping or i n c i n e r a t i o n of wastes i s a c c e p t a b l e ; i n p a r t i c u l a r , the " r a p i d l y rendered harmless" c r i t e r i o n s h o u l d be d e f i n e d . 4. The t r a c e contaminant d e f i n i t i o n s s e t out i n the c u r r e n t r e g u l a t i o n s should be reviewed so t h a t a c c e p t a b l e c o n c e n t r a t i o n l i m i t s are s p e c i f i e d , t e s t i n g procedures are d e f i n e d , and the p r e s e n t use of u n o f f i c i a l " s c r e e n i n g g u i d e l i n e s " i s d i s c o n t i n u e d . 5. A mechanism should be e s t a b l i s h e d t o p r o v i d e f o r the p e r i o d i c review of the ongoing s u i t a b i l i t y of the use of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , as f u t u r e technology i s developed. ( i i i ) P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n I t i s recommended t h a t the f o l l o w i n g measures be taken t o expand the r o l e of the p u b l i c i n the assessment and c o n t r o l of ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s . 1. The l e g i s l a t i o n should be amended t o p r o v i d e a p r o c e s s by which the a f f e c t e d p u b l i c can comment on permit a p p l i c a t i o n s b e f o r e d e c i s i o n s are made t o grant o r r e f u s e the a p p l i c a t i o n s . 2. When permits are v a r i e d or revoked, the p u b l i c s h o u l d have r i g h t s equal t o those of i n d u s t r y proponents. T h i s means t h a t the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a board of review under 205 the CEPA sh o u l d be mandatory, r a t h e r than d i s c r e t i o n a r y , when members of the p u b l i c o b j e c t t o permit v a r i a t i o n s and r e v o c a t i o n s . 3. When q u e s t i o n a b l e agency d e c i s i o n s are made r e g a r d i n g permit i s s u a n c e , the d e s i g n a t i o n of burn s i t e s , o r i n s e t t i n g the terms and c o n d i t i o n s a t t a c h e d t o p e r m i t s , t h e r e s h o u l d be a mechanism f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r j u d i c i a l review. 4. The r o l e of the board of review under the CEPA sho u l d be strengthened. C o n s i d e r a t i o n should be g i v e n t o making th e board's recommendations f i n a l and b i n d i n g , r a t h e r than s u b j e c t t o M i n i s t e r i a l d i s c r e t i o n . 5. Data c o l l e c t e d from m o n i t o r i n g ongoing i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s should be p u b l i s h e d , and i f u n s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n d i t i o n s are observed the p u b l i c should have access t o a mechanism t o i n i t i a t e a permit review. 6. In a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s and p u b l i c review p r o c e s s e s , o f f i c i a l s s h ould be r e q u i r e d t o observe the r u l e s o f p r o c e d u r a l f a i r n e s s and n a t u r a l j u s t i c e . These p r i n c i p l e s s h o u l d not be l i m i t e d i n a p p l i c a t i o n t o formal review p r o c e s s e s , such as boards of review. 7. When r e g u l a t i o n s are b e i n g developed t o c o n t r o l ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n , and members o f the p u b l i c o b j e c t t o the p r o p o s a l s , the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a board of review under the CEPA sh o u l d be mandatory, r a t h e r than d i s c r e t i o n a r y . 8. P u b l i c concerns r e l a t i v e t o the s i t i n g o f p o r t f a c i l i t i e s and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s must be addressed. While the c o m p l e x i t i e s of f a c i l i t y s i t i n g problems are beyond 206 the scope o f the p r e s e n t study, i t seems t h a t the use of a combination o f p a r t i c i p a t o r y procedures h o l d s some promise i n r e s o l v i n g such concerns. There i s a p r e s s i n g need f o r f u r t h e r e v a l u a t i o n of p a s t e f f o r t s a t f a c i l i t y s i t i n g t o determine which combination o f p a r t i c i p a t o r y t e c h n i q u e s o f f e r s the g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r success. c. C o n c l u s i o n Environmental problems are r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g i n s c a l e and s e v e r i t y , and t o x i c waste management p r o v i d e s one example o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y t h a t p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s f a c e i n attempting t o b r i n g such problems under c o n t r o l . T e c h n o l o g i c a l s o l u t i o n s t o environmental problems have t h e i r own environmental r i s k s which are o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s . P r o g r e s s i v e environmental r e g u l a t i o n i s o f t e n i n c o n f l i c t w i t h o t h e r s o c i e t a l v a l u e s , such as the b e n e f i t s o f economic growth and development. To d e a l w i t h these complex and d i f f i c u l t i s s u e s , government needs t o move away from i n c r e m e n t a l law and p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n and s t a r t t o experiment w i t h new forms o f decision-making p r o c e s s e s . As new i s s u e s a r i s e , government should seek t o respond i n new and i n n o v a t i v e ways, and the p r e s e n t q u e s t i o n of the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f ocean i n c i n e r a t i o n c o u l d e a s i l y be used as a " p i l o t p r o j e c t " t o t e s t t h e a b i l i t y o f our l e g a l and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t o meet th e f u t u r e c h a l l e n g e s posed by such environmental i s s u e s . 207 Chapter Ten: Notes 1. G.B. Doern and P. Aucoin, eds. P u b l i c P o l i c y i n  Canada: O r g a n i z a t i o n . Process and Management (Toronto: M a c M i l l a n Co. of Canada, 1979), p. 5. 2. I b i d . , p. 5-6 3. G. Bruce Doern and R.W. Phidd, Canadian P u b l i c  P o l i c y : Ideas. S t r u c t u r e . Process (Toronto: Methuen, 1983), p. 141. 4. 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"Ocean I n c i n e r a t i o n : S c i e n c e or P o l i t i c s ? " (1986) 9(2) Marine P o l i c y Reports 1. "We n e g l e c t our magic kingdom." Vancouver Sun. 2 J u l y 1988, p. A8. White, L . J . "The H i s t o r i c a l Roots of Our E c o l o g i c C r i s i s . " (1967) 155 S c i e n c e 3767. Whittaker, Robert H. Communities and Ecosystems. 2nd ed. N.Y.: Macmillan Pub. Co., 1975. Whyte, John D. "Issues i n Canadian F e d e r a l P r o v i n c i a l C o o p e r a t i o n . " In Managing Resources i n a F e d e r a l S t a t e , p. 322. E d i t e d by J . Owen Saunders. Toronto: The C a r s w e l l Co. L t d . , 1986. W i l k i n s o n , P a u l . "The Role of the P u b l i c i n Environmental D e c i s i o n Making." In P r o t e c t i n g the Environment : Issues and 225 Choices - Canadian P e r s p e c t i v e s , p. 231. E d i t e d by O.P. Dwivedi. Vancouver: Copp C l a r k , 1974. W i l l i a m s , A l a n C. "A Study of Hazardous Waste M i n i m i z a t i o n i n Europe: P u b l i c and P r i v a t e S t r a t e g i e s t o Reduce P r o d u c t i o n of Hazardous Waste." (1987) 14(2) Boston C o l l . Env. A f f a i r s L.  Rev. 165. W i l l i a m s , S.A. and A.L.C. d e M e s t r a l . An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law C h i e f l y as I n t e r p r e t e d and A p p l i e d i n  Canada, 2nd ed. Toronto: Butterworths, 1987. Woods, S.M., ed. Report on Ocean Dumping R & D P a c i f i c  Region: Department of F i s h e r i e s and Oceans 1985-86. Sidney: I n s t i t u t e o f Ocean S c i e n c e s , 1987. , ed. Report on Ocean Dumping R & D P a c i f i c Region Department of F i s h e r i e s and Oceans 1984-85. N.p.: n.p., 1986. "Woodwaste case a f f i r m s Ottawa r o l e . " Vancouver Sun. 24 March 1988, p. A l . World Commission on Environment and Development. Our Common  Future. Oxford: Oxford U. Press, 1987. GLOSSARY a s s i m i l a t i v e c a p a c i t y The c a p a c i t y of ecosystems t o absorb p o l l u t a n t s without adverse consequences. b i o a c c u m u l a t i o n The p r o c e s s by which l i v i n g organisms absorb and s t o r e p o l l u t a n t s w i t h i n t h e i r b o d i e s . b i o m a g n i f i c a t i o n The p r o c e s s i n which organisms h i g h e r i n the food c h a i n s t o r e p r o g r e s s i v e l y g r e a t e r l e v e l s o f p o l l u t a n t s than organisms lower i n the food c h a i n . c a r c i n o g e n A substance capable of p r o d u c i n g cancer. CE Combustion e f f i c i e n c y ; a measure o f the e f f i c i e n c y o f the combustion p r o c e s s i n d e s t r o y i n g hydrocarbons. CEPA Canadian Environmental P r o t e c t i o n Act, S.C. 1988, c. 22. 2,4-D 2 , 4 - d i c h l o r o p h e n o x y a c e t i c a c i d ; an h e r b i c i d e and p l a n t growth r e g u l a t o r . DDT 227 D i c h l o r o d i p h e n y l t r i c h l o r o e t h a n e ; an i n s e c t i c i d e . DE D e s t r u c t i o n e f f i c i e n c y ; the f r a c t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r waste compound d e s t r o y e d by i n c i n e r a t i o n . d i o x i n See 2,3,7,8-TCDD. EPA U n i t e d S t a t e s Environmental P r o t e c t i o n Agency. hazardous waste Waste w i t h f a t a l or dangerous p r o p e r t i e s i n c l u d i n g f l a m m a b i l i t y , c o r r o s i v i t y , t o x i c i t y or r a d i o a c t i v i t y . heavy metal Elemental metals i n c l u d i n g mercury, l e a d and cadmium. H e l s i n k i Convention Convention on the P r o t e c t i o n of the Marine Environment of the B a l t i c Sea Area. (1974) 13 I.L.M. 544. IMO I n t e r n a t i o n a l Maritime O r g a n i z a t i o n . LDC Convention on the P r e v e n t i o n of Marine P o l l u t i o n by Dumping of Wastes and Other Ma t t e r (London 228 Dumping Convention). (1975) 2 U.S.T. 2403 as am. LOS T h i r d U n i t e d Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (LOS Convention). (1982) 21 I.L.M. 1261. mutagen A substance capable of pr o d u c i n g g e n e t i c mutations. NIMBY "Not i n my back y a r d ; " the name g i v e n t o p u b l i c r e s i s t a n c e t o the s i t i n g o f hazardous i n d u s t r i a l f a c i l i t i e s . ocean dumping The d e l i b e r a t e d i s p o s a l o f waste a t sea. ODCA Ocean Dumping C o n t r o l A c t , S.C. 1974-75-76, c. 55, as am. ( r e p e a l e d June 30, 1988). organohalogen Organic o r carbon-based compounds halogenated w i t h elements such as c h l o r i n e , bromine o r f l u o r i n e . O s l o Convention Convention f o r the P r e v e n t i o n o f Marine P o l l u t i o n by Dumping from Ships and A i r c r a f t . (1972) 11 I.L.M. 262. OTA U n i t e d S t a t e s Congress O f f i c e o f Technology Assessment. PCB's P o l y c h l o r i n a t e d b i p h e n y l s ; a group of i n s u l a n t s used f o r a number of i n d u s t r i a l and manufacturing purposes. p h y t o p l a n k t o n F r e e - f l o a t i n g marine p l a n t s , g e n e r a l l y m i c r o s c o p i c i n s i z e . PIC's Products o f incomplete combustion; o r g a n i c compounds formed d u r i n g an i n c i n e r a t i o n o p e r a t i o n when combustion i s not 100% e f f i c i e n t . synergism The j o i n t a c t i o n o f substances, which when a c t i n g t o g e t h e r i n c r e a s e each o t h e r ' s e f f e c t s . 2,4,5-T 2 , 4 , 5 - t r i c h l o r o p h e n o x y a c e t i c a c i d ; an h e r b i c i d e and p e s t i c i d e . 2,3,7,8-TCDD 2 , 3 , 7 , 8 - t e t r a c h l o r o d i b e n z o - p - d i o x i n ; one o f a group of d i o x i n s t h a t i s a byproduct o f ch l o r o p h e n o l p r o d u c t i o n . t e r a t o g e n A substance capable o f produc i n g b i r t h d e f e c t s . Waste which can cause death, cancer, disease, mutations, behavioural a b n o r m a l i t i e s , d e f o r m i t i e s , or p h y s i o l o g i c a l or r e p r o d u c t i v e malfunctions. 

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