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The right of succession in international law : a new theory of legitimacy Simpson, Gerry J. 1989

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THE RIGHT OF SECESSION IN INTERNATIONAL  LAW:  A NEW THEORY OF LEGITIMACY  By GERRY J.SIMPSON LLB, Aberdeen U n i v e r s i t y , S c o t l a n d , 1986 D i p . L e g a l P r a c t i c e , Aberdeen University.1987  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF LAWS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( F a c u l t y o f Law)  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February  1989  (&) Gerry Simpson, 1989  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  available  copying  of  department publication  of  in  partial  fulfilment  University  of  British  Columbia,  for  this or  thesis  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and  scholarly  or for  her  Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  (2/88)  I  I further  purposes  gain  the  shall  requirements  agree  that  agree  may  representatives.  financial  permission.  DE-6  study.  of  be  It not  that  the  be  an  advanced  Library shall  permission for  granted  is  for  by  understood allowed  the  make  extensive  head  that  without  it  of  copying my  my or  written  ABSTRACT  T h i s t h e s i s develops a l e g a l t h e o r y o f s e c e s s i o n based on international  law and an o r i g i n a l index o f v a l i d i t y .  Secession discrete that  entity  state.  which  is  the  process  within  In t h i s  legitimizes  by  a state  thesis  which  achieves  a code  secession  in  a  territorially  independence  from  of l e g a l i t y i s devised certain  cases  without  a d v o c a t i n g t h e breakdown o f world o r d e r . The from  right  of secession  political  socialism,  such  derives  i t s f o r c e not  as democracy,  liberalism  b u t from t h e r i g h t i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l  determination. offered  concepts  envisaged  To t h i s  which t r a c e s  self-determination  and  law t o s e l f -  end, an h i s t o r i c a l i n t r o d u c t i o n  the h i s t o r i c a l roots its  earliest  or  is  of the r i g h t to connection  with  s e c e s s i o n . T h i s study i l l u s t r a t e s how t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f self-determination  from p o l i t i c a l  principle  to legal  i n t h e e r a o f t h e U n i t e d Nations and d e c o l o n i z a t i o n restrictive interpretation,  interpretation  of  the  right  led to a  concept.  This  i t i s argued, has n e g l e c t e d t h e l i n k between  self-determination,  human r i g h t s  and t h e r i g h t  t o secede.  i i i S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n  h a s  c o n s e q u e n t l y  s i g n i f i c a n c e  t h e  v e r y  m o m e n t  q u e s t  f o r  v a n g u a r d h u m a n  a t  o f  t h e  s t u d y ,  t h e r e f o r e ,  b a s i s  i n  i n t e r n a t i o n a l  s o u g h t  b y  a n a l y z i n g  D e c l a r a t i o n s  o n  p o t e n t i a l  o f  t h e  t h e  b e t w e e n  l i n k  n o v e l  t h e o r y  o u t l i n e d b e  r i g h t  o r d e r  b a s e d  s h o u l d o n  s t u d i e s  t h e  r e f e r r e d  a p p l y i n g  t h i s  s u b s c r i b e s r e a l i t i e s p r o v i d i n g  a  o f  o f  r i g h t o f  b e  o f  i n  t h e  r e s p e c t  f o r  t h r o u g h o u t  a  t h e  c o n c e p t u a l  t h e o f  i n d e x a  c r i t e r i a  t o  t h e  b y  w e l l  a s  t h e  v a r y i n g  o f  t a k e  r e n e w i n g i n  v a l i d i t y  p a p e r p r a c t i c a l  a i s  s e c e s s i o n  i n t o  l e g a l  i s  N a t i o n s  p a r t i c u l a r  w h i c h  a  h u m a n i t a r i a n  r e a l i z e d  a n o f  a s  U n i t e d  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n  T h i r d ,  m o r a l  w a y ,  t h e  a n d  a n d  i l l u s t r a t e  i s  F i r s t ,  s e c e s s i o n  s e v e r a l  S e c o n d ,  s e c e s s i o n  r i g h t s  u s i n g  t h e o r y  o f  a  l e g i t i m a c y  t h i s  t o  p u r p o s e s .  f o r  l e g i t i m a c y .  w h i c h  w h i c h  s e v e r a l  p r o v i s i o n s  h u m a n  e c o n o m i c  i s  h a s l a w  t h e  a s c e r t a i n e d  i n d e x  I n  i t  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n .  o f  b y  p o l i t i c a l ,  o f  w o r l d  w h e n  d r a i n e d  r i g h t s .  T h i s  c a n  a  b e e n  a c c o u n t  f a c t o r s .  T h i s  i n  c a s e  f i v e  c o n s e q u e n c e s  l e g i t i m a c y .  t h e o r y  o f  r u l e s  o f  s e c e s s i o n  i n t e r n a t i o n a l  i n t e r n a t i o n a l f o u n d a t i o n  i s  p o l i t i c a l f o r  a  h u m a n e  p r o p o s e d l a w  w h i c h a n d  s y s t e m w o r l d  t h e w h i l e o r d e r .  TABLE OF CONTENTS i.  Title.  ii.  Abstract  i v . T a b l e o f Contents vii.  Acknowledgements  Structure  1  CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION  4  CHAPTER TWO: HISTORICAL RESUME  12  A. I n t r o d u c t i o n  14  B. L e g a l S c h o l a r s  20  C. Woodrow W i l s o n  22  D. Communism  25  E. The R i g h t o f S e c e s s i o n  29  F. C o n c l u s i o n  30  CHAPTER TWO: A NOTE: THE AALAND ISLANDS  32  CHAPTER THREE: SELF-DETERMINATION:THE UNITED NATIONS.40 A. I n t r o d u c t i o n  42  B. S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n and D e c o l o n i z a t i o n . . . . .  45  C. The U n i t e d Nations and t h e R i g h t o f S e c e s s i o n  71  CHAPTER FOUR:ERITREA:THE NEW COLONIALISM & SECESSION.81 i.  Abstract  A. I n t r o d u c t i o n : N e o - C o l o n i a l i s m  83 and S e c e s s i o n  B. E r i t r e a n H i s t o r y and S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n C. C o l o n i z a t i o n  84 ...87 93  D. The U n i t e d Nations  and t h e Autonomy Compromise....97  E. Human R i g h t s and t h e R i g h t t o secede F. U n i t e d Nations  Law and t h e E r i t r e a n Claim.  G. The Index o f V a l i d i t y  104 .109 112  H. C o n c l u s i o n  .119  CHAPTER FIVE: BANGLADESH: A HUMANITARIAN BASIS  120  i.  Abstract  123  A.  Introduction  124  B. The Sources o f Bangladesh's Quest f o r Secession...125 C. Success, S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n  and S e c e s s i o n  D. The Index o f V a l i d i t y . .  131 150  CHAPTER SIX:BIAFRA:SECESSION&THE AUTONOMY COMPROMISE.160 i . Abstract  163  A.  164  Introduction  B. C o l o n i a l i s m t o S e c e s s i o n  165  C. The R i g h t t o Secede  169  D. U n i t e d Nations  173  Law and t h e B i a f r a n Claim  E. The Index o f V a l i d i t y  177  CHAPTER SEVEN: SCOTLAND AND QUEBEC  188  i.  190  Abstract  A. I n t r o d u c t i o n  192  B. S c o t l a n d  195  C. Quebec  207  vi CHAPTER EIGHT: A NEW STANDARD OF LEGITIMACY  217  A. A New Standard o f L e g i t i m a c y  219  B. The Index o f V a l i d i t y  232  I. E s s e n t i a l . C o n d i t i o n s .  233  II. C r i t i c a l Variables  245  C. C o n c l u s i o n . . . . . . . .  258  Bibliography  259  Acknowl edcf ement s  This study was completed under the supervision of P r o f e s s o r Maurice Copithorne (UBC) whose comments throughout were g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . P r o f e s s o r Douglas Sanders r e a d a f i n a l d r a f t and made s e v e r a l h e l p f u l comments. Without t h e f i n a n c i a l a i d o f t h e Law Foundation o f B r i t i s h Columbia and a bequest from t h e C.B. Davidson Fund a t Aberdeen U n i v e r s i t y , I would have been unable t o make t h i s study a t UBC, i n t h e b e a u t i f u l c i t y o f Vancouver. I am t h e r e f o r e g r a t e f u l f o r t h e i r generous support. P r o f e s s o r John Rankin o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y the i n s p i r a t i o n behind my Masters S t u d i e s .  o f Aberdeen  was  Jo-Anne D i l l a b o u g h c a s t a v e r y c r i t i c a l eye over t h i s study and deserves thanks f o r the long hours spent deciphering t h e grammatical vissicitudes of the early drafts.  1 Structure  T h i s work i s d i v i d e d i n t o e i g h t main p a r t s . P a r t One i s an  Introduction  and  briefly  i n which I s k e t c h  describe  t h e purpose o f t h e study  a theoretical basis  f o r the r i g h t to  i  secede.  In Part  provenance  Two I p r o v i d e  of the p r i n c i p l e  an H i s t o r i c a l  Resume o f t h e  of self-determination  and t h e  journey  i t had taken up t o 1939. The p e r i o d from 1945 t o t h e  present  i s looked  at i n Part  the Acre o f t h e U n i t e d Nations; This section w i l l to secession  Three,  Self-Determination  in  D e c o l o n i z a t i o n and S e c e s s i o n .  delineate the basis f o r asserting a r i g h t  i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l law. P a r t  Four d e s c r i b e s t h e  ongoing attempt t o secede by t h e E r i t r e a n people i n n o r t h e r n Ethiopia.  This  part,  Secession  and t h e New  Colonialism,  f u r n i s h e s an argument f o r t h e renewal o f t h e r i g h t t o secede in  cases  elemental  of  neo-colonialism  alien  oppression.  nature o f human r i g h t s i n t h e s t r u g g l e  determination  i s addressed  Basis f o r Secession, of  and  Bangladesh  i n Part  which assesses  Five,  A  for self-  Humanitarian  the successful  from t h e r e s t o f P a k i s t a n  The  secession  i n 1971. B i a f r a ' s  f a i l e d attempt t o secede from N i g e r i a i s t h e s u b j e c t o f P a r t Six,  Secession  illustrates  how  and t h e Autonomy rigid  Compromise.  t h e standards  This  are f o r a  section  legitimate  r i g h t o f s e c e s s i o n under t h e index o f v a l i d i t y . S e c e s s i o n i n Western  Democracies  i s the t i t l e  of Part  Seven  and i t s  purpose  is  limited  meaning  Scotland  to  are  e n t i t l e d The posit  my  how  within  reviewed  the a  right  of  democratic  in this  context.  secession state. In  has  only  Quebec  the  and  final  part  Index Of V a l i d i t y : A T h e o r e t i c a l C o n c l u s i o n ,  theory  r e g u l a t i n g the concluding  show  of  legitimacy  e x e r c i s e of the  s e c t i o n completes the  with  right  of  study.  the  intention  secession.  A  I of  short  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  4  In  recent  decades  international  lawyers  and academics  have attempted t o a r t i c u l a t e p r i n c i p l e s which might the  foundation  for a  humane  world  c o n s t r u c t s a r e e i t h e r overambitious The  f o l l o w i n g study  articulation  modestly  will  mark  that  existing, the  Often  o r impenetrably  proposes  of the, already  determination  order.  an  step  these  complex.  imaginative  principle  first  provide  of  self-  towards  a  r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s t a t e system on t h e b a s i s o f a concern f o r human d i g n i t y and human r i g h t s . The  academic  concentrated  their  and  political  attention  on  states within the international is partly justified towards creation The  alliances  the  have  interdependence  system. T h i s  as  of  preoccupation  by t h e i n c r e a s i n g t r e n d i n r e c e n t  i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m i n t h e world,  evidenced  years the  o f many s u p r a n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  economic  Economic  communities  integration  Community) being  of  western  and t h e many  forged  world-wide  Europe  economic  (European  and  political  are i n d i c a t i v e  of  this  movement towards r e g i o n l i s m . However, tendency  undermining  i n the  this  opposite  integrative  direction  exemplified  p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s attempting i n an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t way. Primary secessionist  movements d e d i c a t e d  nation-states.  Nationalism,  once  process  is a by t h e  t o shape t h e world  among these groups a r e  t o t h e dismemberment o f a  potent  force  for  5 integration urge t o not  i s now  just  as  fragment t h r e a t e n s  e x c l u s i v e t o any  one  frequently disintegrative.  a l a r g e number of s t a t e s and geographic area,  o r economic model. S e c e s s i o n ,  political  of  study.  To date the phenomenon o f s e c e s s i o n has not met from the  is  system  the p o l i t i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n  t h i s urge, i s the s u b j e c t of t h i s  adequate response  This  with  i n t e r n a t i o n a l community nor  an has  i t s c e n t r a l i t y been s u f f i c i e n t l y r e c o g n i z e d by i n t e r n a t i o n a l lawyers and p o l i t i c a l In the l i g h t of  secession  realities.  theorists.  of t h i s what i s r e q u i r e d i s a l e g a l  which  incorporates  an  The purpose o f t h i s study  awareness  to  self-determination, that  for  a humane world  The  act  of  of  a  in international  i s congruent w i t h  secession  new  involves  the  In  series  of  s e c e s s i o n as  s t a t e . As  such  i t offends  this  paper  i t i s argued  factors  the  presence  the  allow  that  o n l y be of  i n t e r n a t i o n a l lawyers  legitimacy  of  an  act  of  and  a the  fundamental political  there  is a  rebutted  by  stamp  the  which  legitimate. This legitimacy w i l l  u s i n g , what I have termed, the index will  of  u n i t from an e s t a b l i s h e d s t a t e and  presumption a g a i n s t s e c e s s i o n which can a  vision  separation  norms o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l law and b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of organization.  a  order.  discrete t e r r i t o r i a l creation  political  i s t o develop a l i m i t e d  r i g h t o f s e c e s s i o n , d e r i v e d from the r i g h t law  of  theory  be c a l c u l a t e d  of v a l i d i t y .  The  index  politicians  to  judge  secession  by  examining  the  6 essential  preconditions  f o r v a l i d i t y and weighing  a number  of c r i t i c a l v a r i a b l e s i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e c e s s i o n . In t h i s study a r i g h t o f s e c e s s i o n i s i n f e r r e d  from t h e  U n i t e d N a t i o n s law o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y  from  the  The  1970  International  Law  1  most  recent  Declaration Concerning in  articulation  on  the  this  Declaration  integrity and  aims,  clarity  the Charter  that of  law;  and Cooperation  Among  of the United  t h e presumption  i s defeated  the r i g h t  other  Principles  Friendly Relations  Accordance w i t h  of  i n favour  by a f a i l u r e  Nations . 2  t o secure  as t o what  of v a l i d i t y  this  failure  human  i s intended  entails.  secession to  and  the  i s conceived  self-determination  directed  against  1970  Declaration.  a  legal  to  give  The index o f  The  as a l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n and as  rights  Among i t s  v a l i d i t y i s t h e f l e s h on t h e bones o f t h e p r i n c i p l e determination  In  of t e r r i t o r i a l  t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f "peoples". t h e index  States  remedy  of s e l f right  of  of the right f o r abuses  a t e r r i t o r i a l l y - d i s c r e t e minority within a  state.  I t i s important t o r e c o g n i z e specifically  with  a particular  t h a t t h i s paper w i l l  deal  mode o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n ,  Secession has been described as "maximalist selfdetermination". See Neuberger,B. National SelfDetermination i n Post-Colonial A f r i c a , Boulder,Colo: Lynne Reinner Inc., 1986.p70 See  G.A. R e s o l u t i o n .  2625, 24 October, 1970.  7 secession,  and  t h a t o n l y the  i s s u e of p o t e n t i a l  legitimacy  w i l l be examined.  The doubt  an  question  of  interesting  why  or  when  secessions  one.  However attempts  occur  to  answer  q u e s t i o n remain i n the p r o v i n c e o f the p o l i t i c a l Answers t o these why  secession  Political  questions  is  scientists  4  have  to  be  shown  a  some  this 3  receding  that  no  scientist .  are u s e f u l because they  unlikely  is  explain  occurence. identifiably  modern t r e n d s have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the number o f s e c e s s i o n i s t movements  currently in  have i l l u s t r a t e d how  existence.  Most  surprisingly  i n c r e a s e d interdependence  development can a c t u a l l y f o s t e r separatism. The  and  they  political  re-emergence  of e t h n i c i t y i n m u l t i - n a t i o n a l s t a t e s and i n c r e a s e d c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n are a response political groups may it to  5  homogenization  t o the t h r e a t of c u l t u r a l  i n the  and  modern s t a t e . S e c e s s i o n i s t  e i t h e r f e e l t h r e a t e n e d by  attempts t o a s s i m i l a t e  (e.g.Quebec) or take on a sense o f d e p r i v a t i o n r e l a t i v e the  groups  with  which  they  have  closer  contact  (e.g.Bangladesh). J  See Wood.J. S e c e s s i o n : A Comparative A n a l y t i c a l Framework. Canadian J o u r n a l of P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e XIV:1, March, 1981. See also Connor, W. The Politics of Ethnonationalism, J o u r n a l of I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , XXVII (1973),p 1-21  4  See Wood,J. S e c e s s i o n . s u p r a .  5  See  Suzuki,E. S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n and World P u b l i c Order: Community Responses t o T e r r i t o r i a l S e p a r a t i o n , V.A. J o u r n a l I n t ' l Law V o l 16:4, "The p r o c e s s of s e p a r a t i o n i s t r i g g e r e d by a growing d i s c r e p a n c y between v a l u e e x p e c t a t i o n s and v a l u e r e a l i z a t i o n " p831  8  Secession only  this  i s but  one  particular  aspect  outcome  of of  r e l e v a n t t o t h i s study. Other aspects discussed  self-determination  and  self-determination  is  of these problems  not  i n the f o l l o w i n g pages a r e :  (1) The  " s e c e s s i o n " o f s t a t e s from i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e a t y  organizations.  The  Hungarian and  from the Warsaw Pact  i n 1956  threats to  secession  secede as  and  Czech t h r e a t s t o 1968  withdraw  r e s p e c t i v e l y were not  i s defined  i n the  following  paper. What d i s t i n g u i s h e s these cases i s t h a t i n these cases the t e r r i t o r i a l  (2) to  i n t e g r i t y of a s t a t e was  Self-determination  self-determination  as  not a t i s s u e .  unification,  intermittently  e.g.  the  proclaimed  right  by  the  Korean and German people.  (3)  Self-determination  minorities United  within  States,  for  e.g.  the  territorially black  diffuse  Americans  in  the  S t a t e s o r the C a t h o l i c m i n o r i t y i n Northern I r e l a n d .  (4) Attempts external  Self-determination to  overthrow  boundaries  the is  through  revolution  government without not  secession  or  coup.  changing  the  though  the  even  c h a r a c t e r of the S t a t e might become q u a l i t a t i v e l y  different.  9 (5) The  V o l u n t a r i l y transacted  legitimacy  of  these  secession,  e.g.  i s unquestionable  Singapore.  since  they  are  uncontested.  (6) Vietnam.  Self-determination Self-determination  these cases. military  as has  political minimal  weapon  legal  Most o f t e n i t i s used as a s l o g a n  campaign.  intervention  was  In  the  case  putatively  in  of  content  in  t o support  Vietnam,  support  e.g.  a  American  of  the  South  Vietnamese p e o p l e ' s r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . In c o n t r a s t North Vietnamese a c t i o n was determination  carried  out  on  behalf  f o r the whole of the Vietnamese  of  self-  people.  (7) A c l a i m t o the l e g a l i d e n t i t y of the s t a t e i s not a s e c e s s i o n nor i s an attempt by c e n t r a l government t o cede or abdicate  responsibility  even i f i t s p r a c t i c a l  be s i m i l a r . Beran d e s c r i b e s t h i s as an  (8)  Apartheid  i n South A f r i c a  effect  might  "expulsion ". 6  i s sui generis  7  in  the  sense t h a t d e n i a l o f the r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n through p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s f o r m a l i z e d by the law.  S i m i l a r de  f a c t o forms of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n can be found i n B o l i v i a and  Guatemala  where  the  majority  L i b e r a l Theory XXXII, p21  Indian  of  populations  Secession  ,  are  See  Beran,H. A S t u d i e s , 1984  Political  See  White,R. S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n : Time f o r a Reassessment. N e t h e r l a n d s I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law Review 28, 1987, p l 5 6 .  10 unrepresented  i n government  and  institutionally  oppressed.  However, as Emerson s t a t e s , "the demand f o r s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n t h e r e has no necessary implication of support for selfd e t e r m i n a t i o n elsewhere and c e r t a i n l y not f o r what seems l i k e l y t o be the next major i n c a r n a t i o n i n the clamor of peoples trapped in pluralistic s t a t e s i n which they have no dominant share t o t a k e charge o f t h e i r own d e s t i n i e s " . 8  These are a s p e c t s o f i n t e r n a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n r a t h e r than c l a i m s t o secede.  The  s o l u t i o n t o these problems  lies  i n u n i v e r s a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n not the r e o r g a n i z i n g of s t a t e boundaries.  A l f r e d Cobban s t a t e d once t h a t , "the h i s t o r y o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i s a h i s t o r y of the making of n a t i o n s and the b r e a k i n g o f states" . 9  T h i s study adopts the b r e a k i n g o f s t a t e s as i t s f o c u s . It  f a v o u r s attempts  it  to legal  cause  of  national an  limits  human  t o harness and  rights  territories  attempt  international  to  the urge  9  subject  g i v e i t the c a p a c i t y t o advance the for  oppressed  within states.  legitimize  state-system  peoples  Finally,  the  trapped  this  in  study i s of  the  i n a manner more congruent  with  i n t e r n a t i o n a l law and the promotion  8  t o secede,  realignment  o f human r i g h t s .  See Emerson,R. S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n , AJIL, 65, 1971, See A.Cobban, The Nation-State D e t e r m i n a t i o n .London, 1945, p6.  and ,  National  p275. Self-  11  I  CHAPTER HISTORICAL  RESUME:THE  TWO  PHILOSOPHICAL  DETERMINATION.  FOUNDATIONS  OF  SELF-  OUTLINE A. INTRODUCTION B. LEGAL SCHOLARS C. WOODROW WILSON AND SELF-DETERMINATION.. D. COMMUNISM AND SELF-DETERMINATION E. THE RIGHT OF SECESSION. F.CONCLUSION  14  A.INTRODUCTION.  Self-determination,  i n i t s crudest  form, has  existed  as l o n g as human beings have possessed consciousness instinct  to  communities t h e i r own innate  form  social  fought  for  compacts  the  right  and to  even  and  the  organize  for the  earliest  and  control  s o c i e t i e s . Even i n t h e s e e a r l y times t h e r e was  unwillingness  domination.  in soacial  Indeed,  many  of  groups t o the  submit  major  wars  to  alien  throughout  h i s t o r y have been c o n f l i c t s over the r i g h t t o e x e r c i s e determination  though  it  was  not  until  an  the  self-  intellectual  enlightenment t h a t these i s s u e s were comprehended as such. Self-determination,  as we  now  understand i t , l i e s  f u s i o n of external self-determination, t o choose the  sovereignty  "the  r i g h t of  under which they w i l l  in  the  people  live"  1  and  i n t e r n a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , whose more r e c e n t p h i l o s o p h i c a l h e r i t a g e i s the s u b j e c t of the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . Self-determination  became a  fully-fledged  principle  the advent of n a t i o n a l i s m and democracy i n Europe. These concepts  provided  the  ideological  reason s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n French  Revolution  when  underpinnings.  i s most o f t e n t r a c e d popular  sovereignty  For  back t o usurped  with two this the the  See Woodrow Wilson, Address t o the League t o Enforce Peace, May 27, 1916 quoted i n W e l l s , B., UN D e c i s i o n s on Self-Determination, University Microfilms, Inc, Ann Arbor, Michigan: 1963, p22.  15 d i v i n e r i g h t of kings  as the d e c i s i v e g o v e r n i n g p r i n c i p l e i n  the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the The  formative  popular  steps  sovereignty  nation-state. i n the c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f the  were  taken  the  by  Discoveries  made  in  stimulated  more  sophisticated  the  scientific  Greeks  field  and  by  insights  the  equals. wider  possibility The  Romans simply  domain,  contract  in  thereby  the  stratification The  that  legacy  basis  rationality  as  formal  the  the  and  these  shift  in  as  ideas  formal into  status  a to  institutional  society  at  large . 2  t o undermine  d i v i n e r i g h t of k i n g s  organizing  speculation  from  replacing  equality  invention  treated  t r a d i t i o n s served  f o r the  the  be  incorporated  sphere  of these two  irrational  could  heralding  legal  with  men  Greeks  political  of the a l g e b r a i c v a r i a b l e which aroused p a r a l l e l into  of  Romans.  the  into  o r g a n i z a t i o n . The most i n n o v a t i v e o f these was  idea  p r i n c i p l e i n the  by  the  positing  affairs  of  men. The  collective  progress  of  amnesia of  democracy  3  but  the as  Dark Ages i n t e r r u p t e d European  civilization  r e b o r n so, too, were the i d e a l s of the c l a s s i c a l epochs. developments which l e d t o the establishment of self-determination occurred l e v e l s - the p o l i t i c a l ,  at three,  the l e g a l and  With the u n f o r t u n a t e e x c e p t i o n  the was The  o f the p r i n c i p l e mutually-supportive  the p h i l o s o p h i c a l .  of s l a v e r y .  T h i s was i n p a r t due t o the i n f l u e n c e of C h r i s t i a n i t y and Islairu The Crusades f o r example were a n e g a t i o n of s e l f d e t e r m i n a t i o n . I r r a t i o n a l myth r a t h e r than r a t i o n a l man was the o r g a n i z i n g f o r c e behind s o c i e t y .  16 Many o f t h e g r e a t names o f E u r o p e a n t h o u g h t at  this  last  level.  The  abjured the r e l i g i o u s  thinkers  standards  of  t o the suppression  The  the i n d i v i d u a l s  society  began  with  of the individual . 4  Locke  position  a n d was  in a  political  i n h i s theory  of the  social  c o n t r a c t . B o t h Hobbes a n d L o c k e were c o n c e r n e d  either  man's  sequence of  as,  first,  reach  a  o r from  5  the benevolent process  dictator-  step  i n t h e form o f a  himself  through  the Leviathan . 6  further i n advocating  liberation,  then  community.  the  society  will  of  will  the protection Rousseau < took  individualization  I n d i v i d u a l s were t o  another. could  Having  contribute  accomplished  individual  What  Rousseau  described  self-determination  determination.  this,  the  Will  of  contract could  then  t o the General  a s a w h o l e . Government b y s o c i a l  ensured.  to  was  the  move  collective  See Locke , J , Two Dent, I960., v  from self-  T h e r e i s no t r a n s f e r o f s o v e r e i g n t y , a s t h e r e  See Cameron, D, N a t i o n a l i s m . S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n Quebec Q u e s t i o n . Canada: M a c m i l l a n , 1974, p 3 6 .  See  Lockean  s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n by f r e e i n g themselves from s u b j e c t i o n  individual  be  from government  of rights  the  to  freedom  by Rousseau  placed  in  larger  with  context  and  Enlightenment  central  1  Hobbes  the  so dominant i n t h e Dark Ages  w h i c h were d e d i c a t e d re-assertion of  were i n v o l v e d  Treatises of C i v i l  Hobbes,T., L e v i a t h a n .  Baltimore:  and t h e  G o v e r n m e n t. P e n g u i n , 1968.  London:  17 is  with  Hobbes  sovereignty  and  of  the  Though t h e r e "philosophes" French the  Rather  is a and  grievance rule .  on  clear, i f unspecified, the  people  in  i t s earlier  by  interested  in  displacement occurred  American  this  the  revolution, group  take  War  on  root. any  link  i t was  thoughts  more  community  self-  Only  of  goal,  after  the this  dignity  and  self-determination of  had  i n t e r n a l democracy  makes United  a  an  the  point  States  that then  i f  at  France,  self-determination . 9  already  democratic  self-governing revolutionary Social  1 0  in  Here,  the  country  structure  where  London,  Self-Determination  See Cobban,A, H i s t o r i a n s and R e v o l u t i o n , London: Routledge  the and  was  a  attempting  See C a m e r o n , D, Nationalism, Self-determination Quebec Q u e s t i o n , supra, p26. National supra,pl3  Contract,  later  there  8  See N e u b e r g e r , B, Colonial Africa,  The  self-determination  See Rousseau,J.J, Books p 6 l  1 0  British  was  7  9  was  common  over  primary  authorities.  External  the  lacked  a  and  than  ideals  of  on  states  their  the  Independence  Locke  as  between  counterpart of  than  liberty  British  over  created  within  impose  ongoing  stage.  Neuberger created  mostly  Jeffersonian  precedence early  The  A m e r i c a n s had, the  did  individuality  drew  The of  an  germination  thirteen disparate  individual  determination.  clear  the  Jefferson  8  the  self-determination  felt  exists  7  same p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t i m u l u s . less  there  people .  Revolution,  based  to  Locke.  there  Penguin and  the  in  Post-  Causes of the Kegan, 1958, p8  French  18 had  originally  been monarchy. The  self-determination, o t h e r s . The  both  for  French were a t t r a c t e d t o  themselves,  p r i n c i p l e s o f popular  and  sovereignty,  initially,  democracy  and  e q u a l i t y a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o the r e v o l u t i o n and the  principle  o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n cannot be understood without  reference  to  them.  which  However,  led  to  i t was  the  a  fourth  recantation  element,  by  the  French  commitment t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n f o r o t h e r As  communities  newly-developed  coalesced  nations  to  began  n a t i o n a l i s m became a potent  become to  has  been a p a r a d o x i c a l  the  other  for  and  Nationalism  i n c r e a t i n g the hand,  their  and  these  independence,  f o r c e f o r change i n Europe.  r e l a t i o n s h i p between n a t i o n a l i s m  instrumental  of  nations.  nations  yearn  the  one.  nationalism,  self  nationalism  self-determination has  f r e q u e n t l y been  i n self-determination.  has  Yet  also  been  the  On  single  greatest force i n opposition to self-determination since  the  17th  the  century.  French  Revolution  imperial no way  T h i s occured i n France when the were  nationalism  corrupted  whose e x p a n s i o n i s t  by  Napoleonic  tendencies  were i n  conducive t o independence f o r o t h e r European n a t i o n s .  Post-revolutionary committed  to  principle plebiscites Nice  quickly  i d e a l s of  France  remained,  self-determination  in  cases  i n Avignon  a  short  which became the  of  cession  and  Venaisson  (1792), though imperfect  for  and  governing  annexation.  (1791) and  i n execution,  time,  Savoy  bear w i t n e s s  The and to  this  commitment  1  . However,  Cambon Report i n 1 7 9 2  with  the p u b l i c a t i o n  of the  i t soon became c l e a r t h a t democratic  12  i d e a l i s m c o u l d no l o n g e r h o l d sway i n French f o r e i g n p o l i c y and  that  same  plebiscite  year  saw  f o r which  t h e annexation  only  Belgians  r e v o l u t i o n were e n f r a n c h i s e d .  of  i n sympathy  Hitler  was  intent  German  peoples  whose  aspirations  nationalism. represents calls  but had ran  Hitler's  "national  principle's  aggressive  14  political  progress  depended v e r y  and  1 1  and  of  from Herder t o  f o r those  the  grain  quest o f what It  of  for  theoretical  for  all  nations German  lebensraum  Ofuatey-Kodjoe  resulted rejection  in  the  i n the  century.  other  forms  of  self-determination  much on t h e e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l  Self-determination crises  refinement  determinism" .  l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e 20th The  respect  against  the ultimate  described  self-determination  little  the  hegemony.  and German n a t i o n a l i s m  on a c q u i r i n g  a  was reduced t o  1 3  a whimper i n t h e f a c e o f Napoleonic  by  with  Self-determination,  by Bos as a " c r y o f t h e French R e v o l u t i o n " ,  S i m i l a r l y , Prussian  Belgium  tended  to flourish  during  t h e post-war  dismantling  of  environment. revolutionary  empires  but  was  See Wambaugh,S, A Monograph on P l e b e s c i t e s , With a Collection of O f f i c i a l Documents, New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1920, p33-45.  1 2  Ibid,p47.  1 3  See Bos,M, S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n by t h e Grace o f H i s t o r y , N e t h e r l a n d s Law Review, v o l 15, (1968), p362.  1 4  See Ofuatey-Kodjoe,W, The P r i n c i p l e o f S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law, New York: N e l l e n , 1977, p l l , 2 9 - 3 3 .  20  n e g l e c t e d  w h i l e  E u r o p e  e n t e r e d  T h e  F r e n c h  o t h e r a n d  g r e a t U S S R .  a n  t h e s e a  r a r e  U S ,  s t r a t e g i c a l l y  U S S R  c o u l d o f  t h e  p u r s u a n c e  o f  w a s  a n d  n o  w h i c h  r e a l i t i e s  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n  s t r a t e g y b e i n g  t h a n  a  i n t e r e s t s  o f  s h o u l d  t h e  i t  m a j o r  s c h o l a r s h i p  r e l u c t a n c e t h e  t o  p r i n c i p l e  i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l  a n d  u n t i l l a w  t w o  a g e ;  t h e  U S A  f o u n d  t h a t  i d e a l s  w a s  i n  W e s t e r n  t h e  S o u t h . o f  a  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n ,  w i t h o u t  a  m o d i f i c a t i o n  e x i s t e n c e . t o  t h e  r e a d i l y  f a i l  b e  l i k e t o  a l l  F i r s t  W o r l d  d e s c r i b e d s t r a t e g i e s  f u r t h e r  t h e  a s  a o f  v i t a l  p o w e r s .  S C H O L A R S  c o n f i r m s  a s c r i b e  b y  p r i o r  c a p a b l e ,  B . L E G A L  L e g a l  t h e  c o n s o l i d a t i o n  i n t o  m o r e  i t  o f  w i t h  s e c e s s i o n T h e  t h a t  p r i n c i p l e ,  d i s c a r d e d  t h e  c o m p l e t e d  c o u l d  m o d e r n  d e a l i n g s  p a r t l y  d i c t a t e d  w h e n e v e r  t h a t  J e f f e r s o n i a n  w i t h  b r o u g h t  o r  i n d e p e n d e n c e ,  i t s  i n s p i r e d  i n  t h e  d i f f e r e n t .  s u c c e s s f u l l y  p r i n c i p l e  T h e s e W a r ,  b e  o f  a c h i e v e d  r e v o l u t i o n , n o t  m i r r o r e d  i n  f o r m e d  q u i e s c e n c e .  p o w e r s  u n t e n a b l e  b e i n g  o f  h a v i n g  n e i g h b o u r s ,  T h e  w e r e  w a s  r e v o l u t i o n a r y  i n f l e x i b l e  R u s s i a n  p e r i o d  e x p e r i e n c e  T h e  h e m i s p h e r e  e m p i r e s  a n y a f t e r  c o u l d  p h i l o s o p h i c a l  t h e  a b o v e  c o n c l u s i o n  j u r i s p r u d e n t i a l 1 9 4 5 . n o t  Y e t  c o n t i n u e  c h a n g e s  i n  t h e  w i t h  s i g n i f i c a n c e  t o  d e v e l o p m e n t  o f  o b l i v i o u s t h e  i t s  s t a t u s  t o o f  t h e s e l f -  21 determination.  S h i f t s i n the p o l i t i c a l basis f o r sovereignty  were r e f l e c t e d i n a p p r o p r i a t e as  t h e seventeenth  revocation  of  the  l e g a l responses. Even as e a r l y  century  Grotius  existing  registered  principles  of  a  cautious  conquest  and  c e s s i o n without consent: "In t h e a l i e n a t i o n o f a p a r t o f t h e s o v e r e i g n t y , i t i s a l s o r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e p a r t which i s t o be a l i e n a t e d consent t o t h e a c t " . 1 5  A century the  previous  proposition  to that, Erasamus  that  authority  16  over  had f i r s t  men  could  asserted only  be  e x e r c i s e d w i t h t h e consent o f t h e people. These w r i t e r s were primarily the  concerned w i t h t h e i n f l u e n c e t o be a t t r i b u t e d t o  residents  bargain.  They  involved  i n an  d i d n o t contemplate  p r i n c i p l e of self-determination and  international  contractual  the p o s s i b i l i t y  governing  of a  i n t e r n a t i o n a l law  r e l a t i o n s i n general. Even when s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n entered  the  turn  sceptical  o f t h e century, as  lawyers  t o i t s importance  the l e g a l lexicon a t  and  or  scholars  usefulness.  remained Hall  was  perhaps t h e most s c a t h i n g , warning t h a t , "the phrase i s one o f dangerous vagueness as encouraging i n o r d i n a t e n a t i o n a l i s t c l a i m s , and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n , i n i g n o r i n g economic c o n d i t i o n s has l e d t o some d i s a s t r o u s r e s u l t s " . 1 7  See Grotius,H., De J u r e de B e l l i et Pacis W.Whelwell), Cambridge:CUP, 1853, BK I , p342-3. Quoted i n Wells,B. supra, p8.  UN  Decisions  on  (Trans,  Self-Determination.  See H a l l , A T r e a t i s e on I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law, 8 t h ed., ed. A. Pearce H i g g i n s , Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1924, p54  22 Verjizil limited border while  believes  relevance which  Stowell  was  had a  major  i n t e r e s t was  wars  and  a  disputed  rarity  the subject  in  self-determination  i n the "organization  areas  regarding  that  among  only  of p l e b i s c i t e s i n  national  character"  h i s contemporaries  1 8  in  as worthy o f any comment a t a l l . H i s  i n the r i g h t  this  had  connection  of intervention he  made  the  in civil  point  that  sovereignty, "belongs...not t o t h e government which has been r e c o g n i z e d as a c t i n g f o r t h e community b u t t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l s o f which t h e s t a t e i s composed" . 19  According  t o Stowell,  the r i g h t  of self-determination  was coterminous w i t h t h e r i g h t o f r e v o l u t i o n . Notwithstanding the  major  writers  eloquently determination  of  Stowell, on  the  due  status  a t t h i s time. I t had c l e a r l y n o t found  favour  century  t o t h e support  Woodrow  Wilson  the  principle  most self-  early-20th  of  speaks of  i d e o l o g i c a l sources. of  the s i l e n c e of  i n t e r n a t i o n a l law t h a t  i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l jurisprudence The  i t i s perhaps  i n t h e West.  renascence  i t garnered  of the p r i n c i p l e  from  two  very  was  different  These were t h e l i b e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m and t h e new  Marxist-Leninist  ideology  emanating from t h e S o v i e t Union.  See Verjizil,J. International Law in Historical P e r s p e c t i v e , v o l 1, Leiden: S i t j h o f f , 1 9 6 8 , p321 See Stowell, International Law: a restatement o f P r i n c i p l e s i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h a c t u a l p r a c t i c e . New York: H o l t & Son, 1931, p96.  23  C.WOODROW WILSON AND  Woodrow W i l s o n  SELF-DETERMINATION  i s often credited  as the  d e t e r m i n a t i o n . However, i n h i s l a t e r  life  father  he was  of  self-  t o rue the  h a s t e w i t h which he had sponsored t h i s troublesome c r e a t u r e . From the loam of h i g h p r i n c i p l e s and good i n t e n t i o n s came an u n r u l y weed which spread r a p i d l y through the post-war world. Like  so  many  initially  attracted  to  sounded by t h e p r i n c i p l e , Wilson was an assortment  the  positive  note  f o r c e d t o concede t h a t  of p r a c t i c a l and c o n c e p t u a l problems d e n i e d i t  universalizability. Wilson's from for  definitions  a peculiarly him,  totems  the  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n were d e r i v e d  American p e r s p e c t i v e . The  natural  i n Western  of  successor to a host  democratic  thought.  principle  of other  He  was,  liberal  championed  self-  d e t e r m i n a t i o n as a democratic p r i n c i p l e because of h i s f i r m belief  that  democratic  s t a t e s were l e s s w a r l i k e than  a u t h o r i t a r i a n c o u n t e r p a r t s . S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n was theoretical  tool  with  which  he  would  l a s t i n g post-war peace. Wilson took the US the  intention  proclaiming i n  of  making  the  world  help  t o be the  construct  i n t o the war  safe  their  for  a  with  democracy,  1918,  "what we demand i n the w a r . . . i s t h a t the w o r l d be made...safe f o r every p e a c e - l o v i n g n a t i o n which, like our own, wishes to l i v e i t s own life, determine i t s own i n s t i t u t i o n s , be a s s u r e d of  24 j u s t i c e and f a i r d e a l i n g s , by o t h e r peoples o f t h e world as a g a i n s t f o r c e and s e l f i s h a g g r e s s i o n " . 2 0  Unfortunately if  Wilson's  theoretically  exposed  flawed,  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n was  p r i n c i p l e which d i s i n t e g r a t e d when  t o t h e Manichean European p o l i t i c a l  Even Robert Lansing, Wilson' the  phrase was, "loaded  logical  "democratic  What  altruism"  dynamite" ,  Wilson  began 2 4  environment . 21  S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , warned t h a t  with  conclusions.  conclusion.  a worthy,  as  22  never  i f taken  intended  "democratic  to such  idealism"  2 3  its a or  e v e n t u a l l y became simply c o n d i t i o n a l  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . Wilson's p o s i t i o n was a t b e s t ambiguous. As his  a Southern Democrat he, "had t h e r i g h t bones"  support  2 5  b u t he  was  conspicuous  of secession i n  i n his failure  to  s e c e s s i o n from e x i s t i n g s t a t e s . P r i n c i p l e 10 o f h i s  famous Fourteen  Principles states,  See The P u b l i c Papers o f Woodrow Wilson, War and Peace I . 14 P o i n t s Speech, J o i n t Session o f Two Houses o f Congress, J a n 19th, 1918, pl73 See Pomerance,M. S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n supra, p l - 3 . See Wells,B. supra,p45  UN  Decisions  on  i n Law and P r a c t i c e , Self-Determination,  See Cameron, D. N a t i o n a l i s m . S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n Quebec Question, supra, p87. See Cobban,A. The N a t i o n - S t a t e Determination . supra,pl3-22 See Notter,H, The O r i g i n s Woodrow Wilson. B a l t i m o r e : p69.  and  National  and t h e Self-  of the Foreign Policy of John Hopkins P r e s s , 1937,  25  "the peoples of accorded the f r e e s t development" .  Austro-Hungary...should be o p p o r t u n i t y o f autonomous  26  Yet  W i l s o n was  a t p a i n s t o remind  h i s fellow  statesmen  t h a t he c o u l d not contemplate the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the A u s t r o Hungarian could  be  empire. argued  determination fallible. He  quoted  "the  was  Anomalies  like  this  that  Wilson's  morally  flawed,  abound.  conception as  well  Burke's  paternalistic  character  and  and  as  outdated  situation  of  determine what s o r t o f government i s f i t t e d own  of  it  self-  practically  H i s i d e a s about c o l o n i a l peoples were r e g r e s s i v e .  general  his  Indeed  P r i n c i p l e 6 harks back t o t i t l e  a  axiom people  must  f o r them"  by conquest,  t h a t t h e adjustment o f c o l o n i a l c l a i m s was  that,  27  and  saying  t o be based on,  "the s t r i c t observance o f the p r i n c i p l e t h a t i n d e t e r m i n i n g a l l such q u e s t i o n s o f s o v e r e i g n t y the i n t e r e s t s o f the p o p u l a t i o n concerned must have equal weight w i t h the e q u i t a b l e c l a i m s o f the government whose t i t l e i s t o be d e t e r m i n e d " . 28  Wilson when  eventually  i t was  apparent  became that  E v e n t u a l l y he even condoned the  specious  determination Europe  and  grounds was  too  the f a i l u r e  weary his  of  self-determination  version  was  unworkable.  the US i n t e r v e n t i o n i n Mexico  that great.  the  human  Wilson's  cost  various  of  on  self-  reverses i n  o f the League o f N a t i o n s t o  include  See P u b l i c Papers o f Woodrow Wilson, supra p l 7 9 . See N o t t e r , H. The O r i g i n s Woodrow Wilson, supra, p69. See P u b l i c Papers, supra,pl78.  of  the  Foreign  Policy  of  26  the p r i n c i p l e  i n i t s covenant l e d him t o exclude  o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n from a l l but, defeated  empires".  determination  as  Wilson's a  "the t e r r i t o r i e s  lame  universal  the right  retreat  principle  of the  from  self-  i s perhaps  a  v i n d i c a t i o n o f h i s contemporary, Woolsey's b e l i e f t h a t "the l i t t l e p r i n c i p l e must y i e l d t o t h e b i g  interest" . 2 9  D.COMMUNISM AND SELF-DETERMINATION  The a  Bolshevik Revolution provided  new  and v i g o r o u s  source  favoured  internationalism.  transcend  national  and  spread  of  internationalism. realistic could  theory  be used  system.  boundaries  Marx  intended  communism Lenin  by and  Both 3 0  hampering Stalin  initially  communism  and a t t i t u d e s .  to  Nationalism, only  retard  the progress developed  a  of more  o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n by which n a t i o n a l i s m  t o make piecemeal  determination .  3 0  He  support.  by i m p l i c a t i o n , s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , c o u l d  the  2 9  of  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n with  wrote  major  However,  See Woolsey,T.S. (1919), p304.  while  attacks pieces their  on t h e c a p i t a l i s t extolling  enthusiasm  Self-Determination,  AJIL,  selfappeared v o l 13,  See S t a l i n , J , Marxism and t h e C o l o n i a l Question. New York: I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s and Lenin,I.V, The R i g h t of Nations to Self-Determination, New York: I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s , 1951.  27  unconditional, conception  i t soon became  apparent  of self-determination  that  the  came w i t h  socialist  Lenin's  caveat  that, "the r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n cannot and must not serve as an o b s t a c l e t o t h e e x e r c i s e by t h e working-class of i t s r i g h t t o d i c t a t o r s h i p " . 3 1  Stalin  confirmed  this  with  his  limited  definition,  promising t o , " . . . g i v e f u l l support t o t h e p r i n c i p l e o f s e l f determination where i t i s d i r e c t e d a t a g a i n s t f e u d a l , c a p i t a l i s t and i m p e r i a l i s t s t a t e s " . In  other  Stalin, in  cases,  self-determination  a mere f i c t i o n  itself  but  communism  a  could  communism,  .  means be  Self-determination by  which  secured.  analysis  triumph reveals  of that  a  blooded s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . The " s e l f "  i n question  can o n l y  be  teachings  defined  proletariat All  by  Marxist-Leninist  i n a state  of f u l l  o t h e r s e l v e s a r e denied The  Communists  theoretical  were  framework  institutionalizing  cannot  to  was n o t an end  the ultimate  Closer  nationalism,  according  accommodate  that  like  3 2  was,  that  historical  full-  (i.e.  a  consciousness) .  the r i g h t . responsible  for  for  developing  self-determination  framework as a system  and  a then  o f autonomy  w i t h i n a m u l t i - n a t i o n a l s t a t e . The S o v i e t Union c o n t i n u e s t o serve  as an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f these  3 1  See Lenin, I.V. The Determination. supra.  3 2  See Cobban,A. Determination ,  Right  of  The N a t i o n - S t a t e supra,pl05..  Nations and  ideas  to  self-  National  Self-  28  even i f , i n p r a c t i c e , t h e autonomy o f i n d i v i d u a l r e p u b l i c s is limited. Ultimately, abandon they  t h e Communists,  self-determination,  realized  full  like  as we  materials  and expose  were  understand  self-determination  s o c i a l i s t r e p u b l i c s would t h r e a t e n raw  Wilson,  forced to  i t , because  f o r any  of the  C e n t r a l R u s s i a n access t o  i t s peripheries  t o the threat of  foreign intervention.  E.THE RIGHT OF SECESSION  Unlike secession  the p r i n c i p l e of self-determination, never  political  the r i g h t of  found acceptance e i t h e r among statesmen o r  philosophers.  Most  as  also derided  as dangerous and i m p r a c t i c a l . P o l i t i c i a n s and  determination critique  have  supported  occasionally  of secession.  the  found  Others  principle,  an  offspring  who  i t s parent  ignored  inconvenient  writers  from  often  principle  i t was  of  self-  i t necessary t o i n c l u d e assumed  that  t h e two  a  were  mutually exclusive. Grotius  i s the f i r s t  t o speak  of a r i g h t of  ("ius r e s i s t e n d i ac s e s s i o n i s " ) , though he o n l y 3 3  See G r o t i u s , H . pl39.  De J u r e  de B e l l i  et Pacis,  secession recognized  supra,  V.l,  the  right  i n extreme  maintenance o f c i v i l  circumstances,  favouring  instead the  s o c i e t y a t any c o s t . He s t a t e s ,  "if, i n fact, the r i g h t of resistance should remain without r e s t r a i n t , t h e r e w i l l no l o n g e r be a s t a t e , but only a non-social h o r d e " . 3 4  Much l a t e r Rousseau a l l i e d h i m s e l f w i t h t h e s m a l l and  by i m p l i c a t i o n s e c e s s i o n ,  when  t h a t t h e General W i l l  i s incapable  writers  favoured  at this  assessment t h a t  time  secession  accepted by most Even were been  that  established  continued  of being  become so created . 3 5  the nation-state.  large Most  Lincoln's  was "the essence o f anarchy" was  observers.  by t h e l a t e  arguing  states  state,  nineteenth  the doctrine as  a  century,  when  t h e French .  of self-determination  natural  right,  German  had  writers  t o oppose i t , s a y i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e was,  "wrong i n theory and v a l u e l e s s i n p r a c t i c e , [since] i t contradicted the organic nature o f the s t a t e and would permit s e c e s s i o n " . This such  as  fear  of secession  Despagnet , 37  Litz  eventually 3 8  p r i n c i p l e of self-determination  and  drove French  Bonfils  Ibid.  3 5  See Rousseau J . J , The S o c i a l C o n t r a c t ,  3 6  See Wambaugh,S. P l e b e s c i t e s , supra,p22.  3 8  See Wells,B. supra,pl8. Ibid,pl7.  UN  reject  the  i n toto.  3 4  3 7  to  writers  Decisions  on  supra.  Self-Determination.  30 The  general  secede  was  did  constituting  20th  that  t o recognize  a  i n t e r n a t i o n a l anarchy.  occur  and  were  right  to  Nevertheless  recognized  as  validly  new s t a t e s by t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l community. I f  i s t o detect  (Poland  was  to invite  secessions  one  feeling  a certain pattern  i n t h e 1770's,  century)  Ireland  and t h e f a i l u r e  i t i s t h a t t h e success  and N o r w a y  i n the early  39  (the American  civil  war and  the attempted s e c e s s i o n by Hungary i n 1848) o f s e c e s s i o n can be  a t t r i b u t e d , not t o t h e acceptance  the r i g h t , including parent  o r non-acceptance o f  b u t r a t h e r t o a combination o f p o l i t i c a l the p o l i t i c a l  will  and m i l i t a r y  factors  capacity  of the  s t a t e t o prevent t h e s e c e s s i o n , t h e sense o f i d e n t i t y  present  in  the  seceding  entity  and  the i n t e r n a t i o n a l  situation. Woodrow W i l s o n  was  conscious  o f these  factors  and h i s  advocacy o f t h e r i g h t o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n d i d n o t i n c l u d e approval  of the r i g h t  internal  self-determination  democratic i n s t i t u t i o n s  t o secede.  H i s concern  (the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  i n e x i s t i n g states)  was of  with free,  r a t h e r than t h e  r i g h t of n a t i o n a l i t i e s w i t h i n a s t a t e t o separate. Only  the  constitutional  Soviets  gave  meaning.  Devised  the  right  by S t a l i n  of  secession  and i n c l u d e d i n  the 1936 C o n s t i t u t i o n , i t , i n f a c t , amounted t o n o t h i n g more than a t h e o r e t i c a l r i g h t i n c a p a b l e o f p r a c t i c a l  See Wambaugh,S, P l e b e s c i t e s , supra,p24.  exercise.  F.CONCLUSION  Self-determination this  period  gained await  despite  a precarious another  regulation remained  had  little  practical  application i n  i t s i d e o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t had f o o t h o l d i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l law b u t had t o  major  of state  a political  war  to claim  organization. pariah  a  central  The r i g h t  standing  role of  i n the  secession  i n opposition  t o the  l e g a l and p o l i t i c a l t r e n d s o f t h e time which p o i n t e d , not t o separation strengthening empire.  and  fragmentation,  of state sovereignty  but  rather  to  the  and t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f  32  CHAPTER I I : A NOTE: THE AALAND ISLANDS DISPUTE  (  33  Abstract  The  Aaland I s l a n d s a r e s i t u a t e d a t t h e G u l f o f Bothnia.  They l i e a t a d i s t a n c e and  70 k i l o m e t e r s  o f about  50 k i l o m e t r e s  from F i n l a n d . U n t i l  form  1809 t h e i s l a n d s were  p a r t o f Sweden. In t h a t year they were conquered by The In  Treaty  of Paris  1917. The Aaland  Sweden  Russia.  i n 1856 l e d t o t h e i r d e m i l i t a r i z a t i o n . i s l a n d s were i n c o r p o r a t e d  when t h a t  c o u n t r y gained  islanders  expressed  a  they be r e u n i t e d w i t h  into  Finland  independence i n 1917. However t h e  strong  desire  Sweden. F i n l a n d  in a plebiscite refused  to  that  recognize  the p l e b i s c i t e and t h e matter was brought t o t h e C o u n c i l o f the League o f N a t i o n s by t h e i s l a n d e r s and by Sweden.  34  Much o f the l e g a l j o u s t i n g of the l a t e 20th-century prefigured time,  i n the Aaland  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n was  inquiry. islands  The  somewhat  made  inevitably outcome  this  than  the  integrity  and  accompanying  subject  played  one  a  still-nascent its  of  political  difficult  forces  history to  larger  resolve  and  in  the self-  high-profile,  self-  of  final  for objective international intrigues  the  of  b a r g a i n i n g . The  political  of  role  principle  recent  first  international  t o be consumed i n the f i r e s  strategic  paraded as v i c t o r y  official  a  Despite  d e t e r m i n a t i o n was  the  tortuous  case  political  determination.  the  I s l a n d s case where, f o r the  is  1  territorial  decision  was  l e g a l i s m but  documented  in  the  r e c o r d s o f the time r e v e a l e d t h i s o b j e c t i v i t y as a  facade. The  case  uncontested  r e s t e d on  d e s i r e on  the  the  primacy t o be  p a r t of  the  attached  Aaland  to  the  Islanders to  break from F i n l a n d and form a union w i t h Sweden. However the matter economic  was and  complicated even  moral  by  a  number  of  geo-strategic,  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which  combined  to  m a r g i n a l i z e the q u e s t i o n o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . Here i s not 1  See Barros, J , The Aaland I s l a n d s Question: I t s Settlement by the League of Nations, New Haven and London: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1968.  35 the p l a c e Islands  f o r e i t h e r a summary o f t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e Aaland or  a  recapitulation  of the l e g a l  and  political  machinations o f t h e League o f Nations i n t h e case Instead,  itself.  2  we can ask, what was t h e nature o f t h e p r i n c i p l e o f  self-determination  or secession  invoked by t h e Commission o f  J u r i s t s under t h e a u s p i c e s  of the  ? Commenting  afterwards,Charles  on t h e case  League o f N a t i o n s Noble  Council Gregory  summarizes t h e d e c i s i o n as, the l i m i t a t i o n of the r i g h t of free self-determination, a toxic p r i n c i p l e . 11  1 , 3  His  d e s c r i p t i o n i s accurate  but h i s a c i d i t y  i s both  unwarranted and r e v e a l i n g . By t h e time o f t h i s d e c i s i o n t h e Wilson-inspired subsided recruited  euphoria  and  even  to  the  s u r r o u n d i n g s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n had  Wilson side  himself  of  the  apostasy over s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n he  was  forced  to  flatly  was  islanders  of limiting  International seriously  reject  right  of  an  application could  Jurists'  the possible  of self-determination  l i m i t e d r i g h t of secession  be  following h i s  fail  of the  t o see t h e  the r i g h t of self-determination.  Commission  circumscribed  to  i n t h e Southern T y r o l when  p r i n c i p l e . Only t h e p o l i t i c a l l y n a i v e necessity  unwilling  advisory  implementation  but came c l o s e  The  report of the  t o advocating  a  i n i t s o b i t e r dictum  See  Barros, J . The Aaland I s l a n d s Case, supra. See a l s o , W a l t e r s , J . H i s t o r y o f t h e League. pl03-105.  See  Gregory,C.N. The N e u t r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e Aaland AMJ I n t ' l L. v o l XVII, 1923, p76.  Islands,  The  Commission  concluded  that  self-determination  becomes an i s s u e of i n t e r n a t i o n a l concern o n l y when t h e r e i s no, " definitive established political situation, depending e x c l u s i v e l y upon the t e r r i t o r i a l s o v e r e i g n t y o f the s t a t e II 4  The  case of the Aaland I s l a n d s  fell  into this  category  because F i n l a n d , had not y e t a c q u i r e d the c h a r a c t e r a d e f i n i t i v e l y constituted state  of  11  1 , 5  However even i n such a case s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , i t was  t o be  according there  regarded as an  were  myriad  establishment  the  other  of  being  the  voiced  a  limited  autonomy  separation  post-war  considerations  most important  Commission  outright  trend  to  preference for  7  from F i n l a n d .  T h i s was  towards  form  of  by a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of Europe based on See  Official  Supplement No 5  Ibid, pl4.  6  See The  7  Journal.  League  3, October, 1920,  not, since  taken  i n t e r e s t s of  clear  this  be  into  peace . 6  for  the  islands  over  i n keeping  with  the  compensation  m i n o r i t i e s whose a s p i r a t i o n s c o u l d not be f u l l y  4  could  t o the Commission, be the s o l e governing one  account, the The  important p r i n c i p l e ,  while  for  accommodated  self-determination. of  Nations,  Special  pl4.  B a r r o s , J . The Aaland I s l a n d s Question, supra, p304. Aaland I s l a n d s were f u r t h e r p r o t e c t e d from the t h r e a t o f a s s i m i l a t i o n from the mainland by a p o l i c y of l a n d ownership which made i t d i f f i c u l t y f o r Finns t o buy l a n d on the i s l a n d s .  37 The  most  purposes, reserved  interesting part  concerned t h e r i g h t judgement  o f t h e judgement,  of secession.  on whether  i t would  f o r our  The Commission  recognize  such  a  r i g h t i n cases where t h e r e was, a manifest and continued abuse o f s o v e r e i g n power t o t h e detriment o f a section of the population of a s t a t e . " 11  8  For  the f i r s t  time  a question  was l i n k e d t o human  rights.  Until  had  with  variety  been  democracy, of  associated nationalism  secession,  a  and popular  tentatively  of self-determination  then  self-determination  o f concepts  sovereignty.  envisaged  by  appears t o have no p h i l o s o p h i c a l h e r i t a g e absent  from  the various  determination.  Wilsonian  such  This  the  as  right  Commission,  and i s markedly  derivations  of  self-  Few w r i t e r s have seen f i t t o remark on t h i s  i n n o v a t i o n and i t receded from view u n t i l  i t was r e v i v e d by  the p i v o t a l 1970 D e c l a r a t i o n on P r i n c i p l e s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law . 9  Aside Aaland  from  Islands  this  remarkable,  Case  raises  a  i f inchoate,  number  p r a c t i c a l problems f o r t h e p r i n c i p l e The is  question barely  Islands  of the character  raised.  a negation  Was  linkage the  o f t h e o r e t i c a l and  of self-determination.  of the self-determining  self-determination  of self-determination  unit  f o r t h e Aaland f o r Finland  whole ? Should t h e whole o f t h e Swedish speaking  as a  population  See  O f f i c i a l Journal,  supra,p5.  See  General Assembly R e s o l u t i o n 2625, Oct. 24, 1970.supra.  38  of  Finland  argued  be  included  that  the  determination propaganda behind  in  the  process  Aalanders  s i n c e they  campaign  had  which  ?  Finland  further  were  incapable  of  been the  object  a  had  invalidated  of the  selfSwedish  consensus  the s e c e s s i o n from F i n l a n d . A l l these c u r i o u s matters  were of l i t t l e moment next t o the p a r t p l a y e d by the Islands  in  the  larger  political  Commission's s t a t e d t a s k was  to  context.  Aaland  Indeed  the  find,  " an acceptable compromise based on considerations of commonsense and p o l i t i c a l expediency" . Political  expediency d i c t a t e d t h a t the  s t a t u s quo  maintained, c o n t r a r y t o the wishes of the A a l a n d e r s . the  decisive  Finland's eager t o  factor  was  geographical curry  favour  the  strategic  p o s i t i o n . The with  the  Finns,  Perhaps  significance  Western seeing  be  powers  of  were  F i n l a n d as  cordon s a n i t a i r e or b u f f e r zone between Northern Europe  a and  the S o v i e t Union. Nevertheless, sheen  of  big  i t would  power  be  cynicism  wrong covering  determination  was  and the Great  Powers. S e c e s s i o n was  an  autonomy  both  represents  a  and  perceive  the  only  affair.  a  Self-  g i v e n s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the C o u n c i l  compromise p a r t i a l l y  Finnish  to  Aaland  clear  satisfied  nationalism.  theoretical  See O f f i c i a l J o u r n a l . No  denied the i s l a n d e r s but  advance  The on  1, August, 1920,  the  demands  of  case  decision  the  Wilsonian  p5.  39  doctrine  if  only  because  both  the  limits  and  p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e r i g h t o f s e c e s s i o n were adumbrated.  the  CHAPTER I I I  SELFDETERMINATION IN THE AGE OF THE UNITED NATIONS; DECOLONIZATION AND SECESSION.  41  OUTLINE A. INTRODUCTION B. SELF-DETERMINATION AND DECOLONIZATION ( i ) Competing i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . . . . ( i i ) The U n i t e d Nations C h a r t e r (iii)  Customary i n t e r n a t i o n a l law  (iv) The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Covenants on Human R i g h t s (v) D e c o l o n i z a t i o n and S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n ( v i ) A new phase: The 1970 D e c l a r a t i o n on P r i n c i p l e s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law ( v i i ) Summary o f U n i t e d n a t i o n s P r a c t i c e C. THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE RIGHT OF SECESSION. ( i ) The U n i t e d N a t i o n s C h a r t e r ( i i ) The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Covenants (iii)  The 1960 D e c l a r a t i o n on t h e G r a n t i n g o f  Independence (iv) The 1970 D e c l a r a t i o n on P r i n c i p l e s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l law (v) C o n c l u s i o n  A. INTRODUCTION  The  post-war  determination concept  to  1  panoply . United  from the  This  2  years an  jewel  as  3  purposes. D e s p i t e t h i s , continued  to  escape  international doctrine  the  models  e l e v a t i o n of  one  the by  of  to  grasp  of  of  alike.  international  its the  inclusion  legal in  organizations  major  principle  politicians  and  Attempts  to  the  delimit  Eventually  as an i m p e r a t i v e  anything  for action  d e c r i e d as c o l o n i a l o b s t r u c t i o n i s m or academic indulgence those  states  in  a c c o r d i n g t o how  the  number  of  who  sought  i t might b e s t serve t h e i r  Paradoxically, the  majority,  as  the  principle  opportunities  for  the  lawyers,  obfuscation.  beyond i t s vague restatement  self-  political  p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n o f the  bureaucrats  were  in  exemplified  Charter  the  occasionally-adhered  crown was  Nations  witnessed  to  define  was by it  interests.  grew i n  significance,  a p p l i c a t i o n reduced.  Its  The Wilsonian doctrine of self-determination was e s s e n t i a l l y a p o l i t i c a l one. I t was r e j e c t e d i n the major l e g a l case concerned w i t h the problem a t the time (Aaland I s l a n d s ) and found no p l a c e i n the Covenant of the League of N a t i o n s . I t s p o l i t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n was sometimes haphazard, depending as much on the g i v e n e x i g e n c i e s than any d e v o t i o n t o c o n s i s t e n c y . See Chapter 2.infra. The p r i n c i p l e o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n was r a i s e d i n the U n i t e d n a t i o n s General Assembly and i n committee more o f t e n than any o t h e r p r i n c i p l e . See Ofuatey-Kodjoe.W, The P r i n c i p l e Of S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law, supra,p2. See U n i t e d Nations C h a r t e r A r t i c l e s 1(2)  and  55.  43 subsequent t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  from p o l i t i c a l  r i g h t was accompanied by a r e s t r i c t i o n and  humanitarian  principle desire  potential.  sources.  on  A t one l e v e l ,  the part  secession  from  Secession  These  of  the  i n i t s revolutionary  developments  there  states  to  principle  of  two  the r i g h t  of  self-determination.  was thought t o have enormous d i s r u p t i v e p o t e n t i a l  self-determination  natural  had  was a s e l f - s e r v i n g  exclude  i n t h e new p o s t - c o l o n i a l s t a t e s . T h i s of  principle to legal  offspring,  meant t h e e v o l u t i o n  was attended by an abhorrence o f secession.  The  legal  and  4  its  political  gymnastics t h i s , p o s i t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e d f i n a l l y r e s o l v e d  into  an e s p o u s a l o f double-standards on t h e p a r t o f statesmen and countless  examples o f i l l - c o n c e a l e d legerdemain i n l e g a l and  academic c i r c l e s . The  other  simultaneous  drive  decolonization. recognized  source  as  to  While a  of  the  development  associate  lay  self-determination  self-determination  fruitful  i n the  avenue  was  through  with always  which  the  independence o f t h e c o l o n i e s might be achieved, i t soon came to  be  identified  exclusively  with  the  process  of  d e c o l o n i z a t i o n . Such an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n had s e v e r a l purposes. F i r s t i t had t h e m e r i t o f being m o r a l l y reflected historical useful  purpose  inevitability.  f o r the majority  Third,it  of United  s t a t e s because by making d e c o l o n i z a t i o n 4  laudable.  Second, i t  served Nations  the only  another member  legitimate  See Rigo Sureda, A. The E v o l u t i o n o f t h e R i g h t o f S e l f determination: A Study o f U n i t e d Nations P r a c t i c e . Leiden: S i t j h o f f , 1973.  44 g o a l of  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i t drew a t t e n t i o n  away from  the  p r i n c i p l e of s e c e s s i o n . So  while  definition  self-determination  at  a  theoretical  level  commentators have a r g u e d , i n c a p a b l e application.  The  i t was  to  not,  of i n s p i r i n g  5  practical  continued  principle  evade as  many  consistent  of self-determination  found a n i c h e i n the p r o c e s s of d e c o l o n i z a t i o n but t h i s the double-edged decolonization  effect was  at  6  of both s e c u r i n g i t s primacy  i t s apogee  and  o b s o l e s c e n c e as t h e p r o c e s s reached with  only  certain  the  vestigial  special  cases  conceived  by  principle  without  potential  the  been  purpose It  Only by renewing  ;  threatening i t with  7  of  colonialism  and  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , as  8  a  recipients.  reassessment.  remaining , has  while  completion. At p r e s e n t ,  peculiarities  UN,  had  passively a  right  requires  adopted bereft  as of  a any  reactivation  and  i t s u m b i l i c a l connection with  s e c e s s i o n can such a renascence be a c h i e v e d .  This  chapter  will  investigate  the  UN's  role  in  the  developments I have j u s t d e s c r i b e d and w i l l conclude w i t h an argument  f o r the  re-integration  of  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and  See Pomerance.M, Self-Determination in Law P r a c t i c e , supra, and Neuberger,B, National D e t e r m i n a t i o n i n P o s t - c o l o n i a l A f r i c a , supra. See Emerson,R. p459-75.  S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n , AJIL.  vol  See e.g. G i b r a l t a r , Hong Kong, St Helena. See e.g. South A f r i c a , Namibia and  Palestine.  65,  and Self1971,  45 secession  based  on  a  reformist  rendering  of  the  present  legal position.  B. SELF-DETERMINATION AND  As  we  have  peculiarly of  the  to  World  be  outmoded  War.  Wilson's  only  The  i n the  UN  was  debates  insights  took  the  these  symbolic  of,  if  was  Aaland  over  a  were  i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m that greeted  a  But  if  global  theories, 9  the end  Second  i t s complexities.  dispute ,  lost  values  rampant  into  Wilson's  Islands  a  parochialism  not  transformed  was  remaining  a sanguine u n i v e r s a l i s m .  place  afforded  also  continental  a l s o denuded of many o f  that  during  but  the  heady days f o l l o w i n g the  then c e r t a i n l y  i t was  reflecting  tradition  self-determination  principle  notably  democratic  self-determination  i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n . This  Utopianism,  The  Wilsonian  European concept not  Western  European was  seen,  DECOLONIZATION  in  and  the  most  the  new  swirl  of  of the war.  Toynbee's  warning t h a t , " s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i s merely the statement the problem not the s o l u t i o n o f i t " ,  of  1 0  went unheeded. The  problem was  frequency  in  future  confidence  t h a t i t was  9  1 0  the  to  usually  be in  stated with conjunction  alarming with  a  a comprehensive s o l u t i o n .  See Aaland I s l a n d s Chapter I I  infra.  See Toynbee,A.J. Self-Determination. Review, 484, 1925, p317-338.  The  Quarterly  46  ( i ) Competing I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f  The  advocates  different  of  self-determination  traditions,  concepts of  Self-determination.  the  Afro-Asian,  i n t e r n a t i o n a l law,  and  came  from  Western  i t was  and  i n the  Soviet  interplay  between these t r a d i t i o n s t h a t most of the c o n t r o v e r s y second h a l f of the t w e n t i e t h Afro-Asian these  t r a d i t i o n s and  century was  this  of  form  that  seminal among distinguished  post-war from pre-war s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . M a n i f e s t i n g at  first  as  an  ill-defined  the  aroused.  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n was i t was  three  yearning  for  itself  freedom  or  independence, i t e v e n t u a l l y p r e v a i l e d as the i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the  11  new  UN  law of  World War supposed That  1 1  Two  had  the e f f e c t of r e v e a l i n g as a myth the  invulnerability  this  mattered  self-determination" .  myth  had  little.  p e o p l e s had  been  The  of  the  exposed  by  collective  imperial  the  defeated  psyche  of  absorbed the message t h a t the  dismantled . 1 2  This  was  coupled  T h i r d World from i t s p o l i t i c a l their  Western  colonial  masters  to  with  an  powers. Japanese  the  colonial  empires c o u l d awakening  of  l e t h a r g y . Having fought  r i d the  world  of  fascism  be the  with many  T h i r d World c o l o n i e s were ready t o demand t h e i r reward. As consequence as more independent s t a t e s j o i n e d the UN  See g e n e r a l l y , Pomerance,M. S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n P r a c t i c e , supra. See Kohn,H. The U n i t e d Nations Review o f P o l i t i c s , 1956.  and  a  so more  i n Law  and  Self-Determination,  47 i n t e r n a t i o n a l pressure powers  to  allow  further  had  become a potent  was  to engulf The  was  brought  de-colonization.  the  colonial  Anti-colonialism  force for self-determination.  self-determination  Western powers,  self-determination  t o bear on  and  on  entirely.  the  d i d not  Soon, i t  other regard  hand, were chary i t as  being  of  of  high  p r i o r i t y . Only the a n t i - c o l o n i a l stance o f the USA  prevented  the  Western powers from eschewing i t a l t o g e t h e r .  Certainly  the  Western  the  notion  imperial that  powers were extremely  self-determination  antipathetic  might  be  used  f a c i l i t a t e the dismemberment of t h e i r empires. US idealism  fought  entrenchment on for  a the  running  battle  i s s u e . The  internal self-determination  with  Americans  to  democratic  British  colonial  s t r e s s e d the  proclaiming,  to  "...the  need right  o f a l l peoples t o choose the  form of government under which  they  British,  will  Wilsonian only  to  live"  1 3  approach,  but  the  insisted  those n a t i o n - s t a t e s  that  such  which had  adopting a  British  colonial  attache  to  archaic  be  applied  been submerged under  N a z i domination. On the c o l o n i a l q u e s t i o n , the  tenet  an  Douglas  Washington  at  Williams, the  time,  stated his position succinctly, "most o f our t e r r i t o r i e s , i f the p r i n c i p l e of self-determination were applied, would simply disintegrate as administrative u n i t s and fall a p a r t on the b a s i s of t r i b a l d i v i s i o n s " . 1 4  See Wells B, UN Decisions On Self-Determination, M i c h i g a n : U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , 1963, p54. Ibid,  p57.  48 The  British  view  of  t r a n s p a r e n t l y p a t e r n a l i s t i c and B r i t i s h and  i t was  the  i n the C h a r t e r .  i n f l u e n c e of  alienate their  p r i n c i p l e of  self-determination  allies  i n the  face  of  a  S o v i e t t h r e a t . Though they were eager, too, new  Afro-Asian  determination  was  whole-hearted. Afro-Asian to  the  s t a t e s , American  regarded by  In  the  s t a t e s and  Soviet  seen  in  the  to  version context  of of  Marxist-Leninist  present  day  has  been  Soviet  Union  revolutionary subordinated  from  essentially  meant d e - c o l o n i z a t i o n democracy  i t was  useful  communism. to  the words o f R.B.  the  for  self-  less  than  f o r the  new  i t was  self-determination  self-determination  self-determination  representative  as  favour  left  at  the  Charter.  for  and  support  a power base  promote  support  determination  to curry  American a c t i o n i n the UN  Union  Soviet  newly-perceived  the A f r o - A s i a n s  absence of  e a r l y d i s c u s s i o n s over the UN The  the  The Americans were a t t h i s p o i n t r e l u c t a n t  1 5  w i t h the  was  the other major c o l o n i a l powers t h a t r e s u l t e d i n  the a d o p t i o n of an imprecise  to  self-determination  for simply  Its  Lenin  to  dogma.  to  If  the self-  f o r the A f r o - A s i a n the as  West, a  then  natural  be  Soviet  through  opportunistic.  conceptual  demands of the  needs  bloc  for  the  ally  to  framework  Communist m a n i f e s t o .  was In  Levin,  "...the a b o l i t i o n of c o l o n i a l i s m and the r i s e of the new independent states constitutes the 1 5  See UNCIO, X, p441. See a l s o Wells, B. , UN D e c i s i o n s on Self-Determination. supra, p57-64, Ofuatey-Kodjoe, W., The P r i n c i p l e of S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n i n International Law, supra,pl04-105.  49 implementation determination"  1 6  This t e l l s Soviets with  meant  amplify  aspirations  implementation a  the  of  s t o r y but  i n the  of  the  National  of  liberation  the  and  Third  World for  The UN  derived.  wholly The  new  powers  concrete  states  subsequent  of  the  as  empires and state. for  a  the  National  the  Soviet  Afro-Asians.  as  one  t r a d i t i o n s from ensured  that  the  or i l l u m i n a t i n g and UN  to  develop  the  i n the  would which  expect it  Charter i t was  was said  left  principle  to in  years. •  17  The A t l a n t i c C h a r t e r of 1941 ' r e p r e s e n t s A  of A l l i e d  envisaged  means  unrevealing  different  major  l i t t l e t h a t was the  socialist  Charter  i s as vague and  the  Full Union  p r i n c i p l e o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n as c o n t a i n e d  Charter  given  on  was  Union as s u r e l y as they were ends f o r the ( i i ) The U n i t e d Nations  Soviet  based  the  accorded  states.  the  break-up of  were  half  i t most  multi-national  decolonization  self-  i t i s the  self-determination  socialist,  of  since  revolution  t r a n s i t i o n a l phase between the formation  UN  self-determination  working-class  principles.  principle  o n l y h a l f the  chose t o  the  of  .  an e a r l y statement  i n t e n t i o n s f o r the post-war r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . Signed  by the P r e s i d e n t of the U n i t e d S t a t e s and the Prime M i n i s t e r See D.B.Levin, The P r i n c i p l e of S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law, S o v i e t Y.B. I n t ' l L. 1962, p46. H.DOC. 358/77 CI  1941.  in  50 of t h e UK,  i t r e f e r s t o t h e need t o , " . . . r e s p e c t t h e r i g h t  of a l l peoples  t o choose t h e form o f government under which  they  This  lives."  internal peoples",  i s without  self-determination f o r the B r i t i s h  c o l o n i a l , independent The Charter,  question only  1 8  at least,  purview. A r t i c l e  1 9  entirely simply  need  " t o develop  friendly  relations  take  appropriate  measures  t o strengthen  among  There a r e two reasons  f o r t h i s omission.  British  a  principle  which  break-up o f i t s empire. The second reason the g e n e r a l to  f e e l i n g that other p r i n c i p l e s  maintain  incomparably  peace greater  only  mean non-  , the precursor t o the  1(2) o f t h e P r o p o s a l  to  to  f o r example " a l l  could  self-determination  aversion  reference  peoples.  Dumbarton Oaks P r o p o s a l s omitted  and  a  and  territorial  significance  from  its  mentions t h e  nations  universal The f i r s t  and t o peace" was t h e  contemplated  the  can be found i n such as t h e need integrity  i n the stated  held aim o f  a v o i d i n g a r e p e a t o f t h e r e c e n t war. It principle  was  the Soviet  included  Union  that  i n the Charter  sought  to  a t t h e San  have  the  Francisco  Internal self-determination i s distinguished from e x t e r n a l s e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n elsewhere i n t h i s study. I n t h i s i n s t a n c e i t r e f e r s t o t h e r i g h t o f t h e people i n the European and North American democracies t o m a i n t a i n those democratic t r a d i t i o n s . United Nations, Documents of the United Nations Conference on I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n . San F r a n s i s c o , 1945 New York: United nations Information Organization,1945. UNCIO I I I , p2-19.  51 Conference.  It  was  successful  in  this  amendment d i s c u s s i o n i n Committee 1/1  only  after  an  i n which  " i t was s t a t e d t h a t the p r i n c i p l e conformed t o the Purposes of the UN o n l y i n so f a r as i t i m p l i e d the r i g h t of self-government and not the r i g h t of s e c e s s i o n " . 2 0  Here condemnation how  we of  i t might be  see  for  secession  the  first  without  any  were thought necessary  to  1(2)  clear  an  outright  indication  d i s t i n g u i s h e d , i n c e r t a i n cases,  r i g h t o f self-government o f peoples.  as A r t i c l e  time  No  from  the  further definitions  and the p r i n c i p l e e n t e r e d the  which s t a t e d one  of  Charter  o f the purposes of the  UN  be, " t o develop f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s among n a t i o n s , based on respect f o r the principle of selfdetermination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace" . 2 1  I t was Lachs had  2 2  and  on  the b a s i s o f t h i s  others  confirmed  felt  what was  nebulous e n u n c i a t i o n  a b l e t o a s s e r t t h a t the UN already  i n t e r n a t i o n a l law.  that  Charter However,  e x i s t i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l law r e p r e s e n t e d most p o i n t e d l y by League  of  Nations  Covenant,  opinio  juris  and  the  state  See UNCIO VI, p296. Peace and s e c u r i t y were e l e v a t e d above the p r i n c i p l e of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n any reckoning i n v o l v i n g the these i s s u e s . S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n was not a t t h i s time an independent v a l u e . See Lachs,M. The Law i n and of the U n i t e d N a t i o n s : Some Reflections on the Principle of Self-determination, I n d i a n J o u r n a l of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law, v o l 1, 1961, p429442  52 practice'*  appeared  J  self-determination was  no mention  legitimacy Charter  i n customary  of colonialism  determination  the existence  was  represented  of a  right to  i n t e r n a t i o n a l law.  o f i t i n t h e Covenant  a t best  affairs  t o deny  and u n t i l  rarely  There  1945 t h e  questioned.  a cautious  signal  The UN  that  was t o p l a y an important r o l e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l  i n t h e y e a r s t o come. A r t i c l e  skeleton  awaiting  changing  state  the f l e s h  practice.  1(2) was merely t h e  of future  Certainly,  UN  instruments and  i t was  of  secondary  importance next t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f n o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n and  territorial  supernorms Reich. the  integrity  i s a strong  which were regarded as t h e  conservative  quo i n t h e C h a r t e r  that a r i g h t of secession since  (2(4))  (2(7))  o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l law i n t h e wake o f t h e T h i r d  There  status  self-  the Charter  strain  i n favour o f  so i t i s h a r d l y  surprising  seemed a d i s t a n t p r o s p e c t  i s t h e most c o n s e r v a t i v e  dealing with self-determination  i n 1945  o f instruments  t h e UN has y e t produced. I t  i s t h e o n l y major UN document which d e n i e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a  r i g h t t o immediate  self-determination. self-determination  independence  through  the exercise of  Chapters XI and X I I make i t c l e a r for  non-self-governing  and  that trust  t e r r i t o r i e s i s t o proceed a t a pace d i c t a t e d by t h e c o l o n i a l administrators  e.g. A r t i c l e 73 (b) e n j o i n s these powers  " t o develop self-government ...according t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r circumstances o f each t e r r i t o r y and i t s peoples and t h e i r v a r y i n g stages o f advancement". We can h a r d l y i n c l u d e under t h e banner s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n the quest f o r lebensraum undertaken by A d o l f H i t l e r i n the name o f Aryan s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n .  53 Most  writers  have  discerned  here  the genesis  of a  r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . Lachs reads i n t o a r t i c l e 2(1) 2 4  a right of p o l i t i c a l peoples  t o choose  independence and a r i g h t o f independent  their  political  from i n t e r f e r e n c e . A r e a d i n g 2 5  XI  together  obliges  this  structures  of a r t i c l e  writer  and be  1(2) and Chapter  t o come  t o an  d i f f e r e n t conclusion.  One can i n f e r t h e e x i s t e n c e  of  but a t t h i s  self-determination  free  stage t h e r e  entirely of a goal  i s certainly  no r i g h t o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . Furthermore t h e phrase l a c k s even  the barest  o f d e f i n i t i o n s which  might  have  given i t  j u r i d i c a l meaning. (iii)  Customary I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law.  Customary practice,  international  supported  law,  the contention  was no more than a vacuous slogan. little  obligation  independence eventual guide within  to  for their  i n the that  of  self-determination  the  achievement  The B r i t i s h  the  emphasis).  peoples framework  The  French  along of  t h e road  the  adopted  an  to  British even  of  "...to  self-government Empire"  (my  2 6  more c o n t r o v e r s i a l  See e.g. Ronen,D. The Quest f o r S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n , Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1979, p5. See  felt  had i n mind  independence f o r t h e i r c o l o n i e s b u t pledged,  colonial  state  The c o l o n i a l powers  precipitate colonies.  form  Lachs,M. The Law i n and o f t h e U n i t e d Nations,  New  supra.  See Ofuatey-Kodjoe,W. The P r i n c i p l e o f S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law, supra, p l 3 1 .  54 p o l i c y t h a t envisaged t r u s t e e s h i p as the  first  step  leading  t o u n i o n w i t h France. T h e i r p o s i t i o n was  stated  the  administrators  Brazzaville  1944,  conference  of  colonial  clearly  at in  i n the f o l l o w i n g d i c t a t e , "The aims o f the work o f c i v i l i z a t i o n accomplished by France i n i t s c o l o n i e s exclude a l l i d e a o f autonomy, a l l p o s s i b i l i t y of e v o l u t i o n o u t s i d e of the French b l o c of the Empire; the eventual establishment, even i n the d i s t a n t f u t u r e , of self-government i s t o be dismissed" . 2 7  Portugal,  The  v a r i a t i o n s on one even the of  Netherlands,  had  imperialism,  determination  for  long had  been the  territories  in  with  the  had  i n the  metropolitan  UN  and  states,  towards  many o f were  move  rather  than  immediate achievement of t h a t  Union,  the  original continued  independence  sponsor to  of  formally  in  to  through  their  dialogue an  negotiation  goal.  the  of  accept  The  self-determination uphold  self-  sphere  them,  and  critics  yet to f i n d  content  incremental  Fransisco,  pursued  about  their  2 8  voice  sternest  reservations  i n f l u e n c e . Meanwhile the A f r o - A s i a n s collective  Spain  or both of these c o l o n i a l p h i l o s o p h i e s  Americans, who  Western  Belgium and  idea  Soviet at  San  in  its  See Hatch,J. A H i s t o r y of Post-War A f r i c a . New York: Praeger Publishing, 1965, p37. Quoted in OfuateyKodjoe,W. The Principle of Self-Determination in I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law,supra. pl32. See Kohn,H. The United Nations and National Selfd e t e r m i n a t i o n , supra, p5. And note too, former s e c r e t a r y of s t a t e , C o r d e l l H u l l who c l a i m s the US purpose was, " . . . t o support the attainment o f freedom f o r a l l peoples who, by t h e i r a c t s , show themselves worthy of i t and ready for i t . " ( my emphasis), quoted in OfuateyKodjoe,W. The Principle Of Self-Determination in I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law, supra p l O l .  constitution who  became  Lithuania, became  w h i l e denying i t t o a s u c c e s s i o n  y  either  part  of  L a t v i a and E s t o n i a  known  as  Czechoslovakia  the  the  Union  ) o r were absorbed  Soviet  and Hungary).  Soviet  of  Bloc  The UN  (  nations  itself  i n t o what  e.g.  itself  Poland,  i n sanctioning  the demarcation o f Germany, Korea and Vietnam along lines  had, i n e f f e c t ,  self-determination  abrogated  i n favour  (  c o l d war  the p r i n c i p l e of national  o f t h e i n t e r e s t s o f peace and  s e c u r i t y . Most p e r t i n e n t , was t h e absence o f any mention o f self-determination Declaration the  or  minority  on Human R i g h t s  instrument  J U  rights  drafted  in  the  i n 1948. Intended as  from which human r i g h t s would be  progressively  i t  is  perhaps  not  included  appropriate  was  determination  was about t o explode on t h e scene  (iv)  developed  that  determination  non-evolutionary  since  Universal  the r i g h t  self-  of  self-  i n a most  manner.  The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Covenants on Human R i g h t s .  The  two decades f o l l o w i n g t h e U n i v e r s a l D e c l a r a t i o n was  a p e r i o d marked by t h e end o f empire. D e c o l o n i z a t i o n  and t h e  p r i n c i p l e s behind i t became totems o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l law and organization cause  with  potential.  " 3 0  and  self-determination  little  thought  Self-determination  was  for either became  as  enlisted  i t s heritage synonymous  See The S o v i e t C o n s t i t u t i o n 1933 and 1970. UN DOC. A. 1811.  t o the or with  56 independence been  with  i n the Third nation-state  world  i n this  building  period  as i t had  i n post-World  War  One  E u r o p e . From t h i s moment on, " a n t i - c o l o n i a l r e s u l t s [were] 3 1  deemed  more  methods" . 32  important  than  genuine  I f t h e UN C h a r t e r  self-determination  had been an attempt  t o give  p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t o what had been a moral p r i n c i p l e by making s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n  a political  a s p i r a t i o n o f t h e UN  then t h e v a r i o u s d e c l a r a t i o n s and r e s o l u t i o n s made i n t h e UN during  t h e 1960s  change some l e g a l  strived  t o give  basis. Lachs  3 3  the p o l i t i c a l  states, "this  winds o f  i s how  life  implements t h e p r i n c i p l e o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . " I t c o u l d be more  accurately  described  as  a  hijaking  rather  than  implementation o f t h e p r i n c i p l e f o r i t was transformed a  multifarious  colonial  democratic  a monotheistic  a f t e r the Universal  General Assembly r e c o g n i z e d  the r i g h t  a fundamental human r i g h t  Human  into  from anti-  imperative.  A mere two years  as  ideal  an  Rights  at  3 4  .  Declaration, the  of self-determination  I n 1951 t h e Commission on  i t s 7th session  adopted  the  following  proposal, "By r e s o l u t i o n 545 (VI) t h e General d e c i d e d t h a t t h e covenant o r covenants  Assembly on human  3 1  See g e n e r a l l y , Cobban,A. The N a t i o n S t a t e and N a t i o n a l S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n . New York: C r o w e l l , 1969.  3 2  See Pomerance,M. Self-Determination Today: The Metamorphosis o f an I d e a l , 19 I s r a e l Law Review,p329.  3 3  See Lachs,M. The Law i n and o f t h e U n i t e d p441  3 4  See G.A. R e s o l u t i o n 421 V Dec 4th, 1950.  Nations,  supra  57 r i g h t s should i n c l u d e an a r t i c l e on the r i g h t of a l l people and n a t i o n s t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n " . 3 5  By right  1955 in  the T h i r d Committee had  both  the  p r e p a r e d a t the  draft  covenants  t i m e . The 3 6  the  i n c l u s i o n o f a r i g h t of  of  grounds.  Initially  determination be  was  premature t o  decided on  human  self-determination argued  a p r i n c i p l e rather  government right to  the  i t as a r i g h t i n the  for  Charter trust  of self-determination legal  provide  territories  through  terms . 3 9  was  1966,  both  P o l i t i c a l Rights Social  and  and  and  number  since  self-  international states  immediate exercise  selfof  the  t h a t anyway the p r i n c i p l e  too complex t o be  History,  the  3 8  a  from t h e s e  not  increasingly vociferous in  did  self-determination  being  than a r i g h t i t would  3 7  that  on  that  c o v e n a n t s . Furthermore, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s argued  rights  the  Western European s t a t e s opposed  they  include  to include  however, Afro-Asian  International  was bloc  translated into  with  the  i n the  Covenant  new  UN.  on  and  Adopted  Civil  and  the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Covenant on Economic,  Cultural  Rights  contained  at  Article  One  the  following provision, " a l l peoples have the right to d e t e r m i n a t i o n . By v i r t u e of t h a t r i g h t they  3 5  3 6  A/2929, Chapter IV,  selffreely  #1.  See GAOR 10th Sess. A/3077, para 77).  1955/Annexes,  E/CN.4/SR 253,p7 (GB)  and  agenda  item  3 7  See  E/CN.4/SR 2 4 3 , p l i  3 8  See A/C.3/SR.309, #59  3 9  See A/C.3/SR.311, #21-23 (F) and A/C.3/SR.647, #19  28-1  (  (B).  (GB) (AUS).  58 determine t h e i r p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s and f r e e l y pursue t h e i r economic, s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l development". These  two  covenants  were  t o have  between t h e s i g n a t o r i e s b u t were they international "represent  law  per  se?  authoritative  Brownlie  evidence  legal  also  force  declarative of  argues  that  o f t h e content  4 0  Unfortunately  of the  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n does not  appear  i n the Charter  as a human r i g h t .  thus,  proposes  following  the  they  of the  concept o f human r i g h t s as i t appears i n t h e C h a r t e r United N a t i o n s " .  only  Rosalyn  convincing  Higgins,  method  for  ascertaining the status of a legal proposition: "What i s r e q u i r e d i s an examination o f whether r e s o l u t i o n s w i t h s i m i l a r content, repeated through time, v o t e d f o r by overwhelming m a j o r i t i e s , g i v i n g r i s e t o a g e n e r a l o p i n i o j u r i s , have c r e a t e d t h e norm i n q u e s t i o n " . 4 1  Using  h e r formula s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n c o u l d be s a i d t o  have a c q u i r e d a f u l l y formed  t h e s t a t u s o f a p r i n c i p l e but n o t y e t t h a t o f right  4 2  .  (v) D e - c o l o n i z a t i o n and S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n Assembly.  a t t h e General  See B r o w n l i e , I . B a s i c Documents on Human R i g h t s , Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981,pl50. See Higgins,R. The UN and Lawmaking: Organs. 64 A J I L 43, (Sept, 1970)  The  2nd ed., v  Political  See s t a t e p r a c t i c e on t h i s p o i n t and i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e d i l a t o r i n e s s o f t h e Western c o l o n i a l powers i n a c c e p t i n g the l e g i t i m a c y o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n f o r t h e i r c o l o n i e s . Gross argues t h a t d e c o l o n i z a t i o n a t t h i s p o i n t was a matter o f " p o l i t i c a l expedience" r a t h e r than legal a p p r o v a l . See Gross.L. The R i g h t o f S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law, i n New S t a t e s i n t h e Modern World, ed Kilson,M. New York: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s .  59 The within  General  Assembly,in  twenty-four  established conceptual  the  hours  Declaration  on  of  principle  mechanism the  I960, one  of  behind  another  act  of  of  as  the  independence.  The  to  The  and O f a t u e y - K o d j o e Its  premises,  for  1960)  Declaration  heralded  a  revolution  45  have lambasted  outlined  i t as  i n the Preamble,  that  are  only  partly  all  dependent  territories  peoples",  yet  in  fact.  subsequent  years 4 6  were  from t h e i r parent  s t a t e s . S i m i l a r l y P o r t u g a l and France might e x c e p t i o n t o the n o t i o n " t h a t  It  on the p a r t  such as the Cook I s l a n d s and Puerto R i c o  f a v o u r i n t e g r a t i o n r a t h e r than freedom  44  on the p a r t of  realized  in  Pomerance  were c o n t e n t i o u s (  and r e v e a l a number o f assumptions  drafters  in  unconstitutional.  r e c o g n i z e s "the p a s s i o n a t e y e a r n i n g f o r freedom  to  Colonial  attempted t o amend  4 3  i n t e r n a t i o n a l law. As a r e s u l t , w r i t e r s such as  of  further  C h a r t e r without going through the a p p r o p r i a t e amendment  procedures.  the  resolutions  which  Independence  C o u n t r i e s and Peoples ( R e s o l u t i o n 1 5 1 4 ) the  two  self-determination  the  Granting  passed  have taken some  a l l the peoples o f the world  G.A. Res. 1514, Dec 14, 1960, 66, UN DOC.A/4684 (1960).  15 UNGAOR Supp.  See Pomerance,M. S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n i n Law supra p l l - 1 2  and  (no.16), Practice,  See Ofuatey-Kodjoe,W. The P r i n c i p l e o f S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law, supra, pl21-122 See G.A. R e s o l u t i o n 748 (VIII) , 27 November 1953 which accepted t h a t the Puerto R i c a n people had " e f f e c t i v e l y exercised t h e i r right to self-determination".  60 ardently  desire  the  end  of  colonialism  in  all  its  manifestations". Nevertheless, accurately current  this  reflected,  in  "Magna  at  least  anachronism  governing  and  trust  meticulous  preparation  of,"a  Principle Charter,  in  i n t e r n a t i o n a l law.  something o f an  favour  Carta"  3,  The  for  as  the  and  unconditional  "inadequacy  was  end  evil  in  the  pattern  of  scrambled  in  from the  1 1  UN  economic,social  never serve  world  self-  to colonialism.  political,  modern  become  t o non  the  independence". C o l o n i a l i s m was  great  had  i n i t s departure of  prevailing  Charter  independence  o r e d u c a t i o n a l preparedness should for delaying  UN  the  i n i t s references  the most r a d i c a l  states,  decolonization  spirit,  territories  speedy and  of  4 7  as a p r e t e x t  thus  and  identified  was  said  "to  c o n s t i t u t e a t h r e a t t o the peace" which, under i n t e r n a t i o n a l law,  took  it  outside  the  proscription  against  outside  interference. A number o f p o i n t s can be u s e f u l l y e x t r a c t e d from declaration. suggest  First,  there  is  a move towards r e c o g n i t i o n of  self-determination  i.e.  and  territories  "which have not  as  determination 4 7  freedom  the  government  regarded  little  relevant  from yet  subjects  right  contained a  right to  this  therein to  internal  representative  discrimination.  Only  those  a t t a i n e d independence" for  the  to  right  even i f t h i s r i g h t must be e x e r c i s e d  of  are  self-  according  See Gros E s p i e l l , H . The R i g h t t o S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , York: U n i t e d Nations, 1980,p8.  New  61 to  the  "freely  Second,  expressed  preservation  of  will  imposed on the c o l o n i e s by  literal  approval.  change  of  d e s i r e " of  territorial  remains a supernorm of the UN  given t a c i t  and  and  integrity  the p r e s e n t ,  subject  matter  without  "...politically  1541,  d e f i n e d but  c a u t i o u s restatement of the UN and  trust  territories.  Resolution given  the  1514)  which  nothing  of  the  trend.  need  culturally  previous  self-determination  which  a  immediate  end  are  in  4 9  5 0  The  G.A. Res. 1541, Dec 15, 1960, 29, UN Doc. A. / 4684 (1960).  and  alternatives  says  5 0  absent  embroidered  UNGAOR Supp.  of  with  and (No  to  from  notion  Self-Determination 15  the  colonialism.  simplistic is  (  incongruous  abjure to  a  on dependent  conspicuously  vogue  See Cameron,D. N a t i o n a l i s m . Quebec Question, supra,p99.  of  is  p r o v i s i o n s of  to  number  4 8  day,  somewhat  appears  resolution. then  as  to  i t s predecessor  I t upholds the  i t provides  day's  of  and  diverse  world..."  following  light  1514  quite  organization"  C h a r t e r chapters  viewed  f o r an  independence  the  the  be  Resolution  the  Additionally, complete  i t can  current  Charter  In  t o the  Two's " c u l t u r a l  political  passed  49  boundaries  (of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n ) ,  c o l o n i e s and e x - c o l o n i e s of the d e v e l o p i n g Resolution  6)  the Congress o f B e r l i n were thus  T h i s gave l e g a l approval  communities  people.  (article  the a r t i f i c i a l  d e s c r i b e d by Cameron, from pre-World War linguistic  the  a  the 16),  See P r i n c i p l e VI. The a l t e r n a t i v e s o f f e r e d are (a) emergence as a s o v e r e i g n independent S t a t e , (b) f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h an independent S t a t e , (c) i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h an independent S t a t e .  62 number  of  other  ideas  so  that  while  it  remains  fully-  i d e n t i f i e d w i t h d e c o l o n i z a t i o n i t i s no l o n g e r thought t o  be  necessarily  Alternatives  to  independence are o f f e r e d but these do not i n c l u d e a r i g h t  of  synonymous  s e c e s s i o n . The  5 1  ,  UN  1970  Declaration  adopted  determination  independence.  c o l o n i a l p o l i t i c a l u n i t remains  ( v i ) A New Phase: The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law.  The  with  in still  on  1970,  sacrosanct.  D e c l a r a t i o n on P r i n c i p l e s of  P r i n c i p l e s of develops  International  the  f u r t h e r but p r o v i d e s  right few  of  Law  self-  c l u e s as t o  how  a p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n of terms might be a c c o m p l i s h e d . I t i s 52  content  to  big print its  remain l o y a l of  hidden  resolution,  t o what A r a n g o i r - R e n i z z  self-determination"  agendas. N e v e r t h e l e s s , concerning  5 3  failing as the  self-determination  G.A. Res. 2625, Oct 24th, 1970, 122, UN Doc.A/8028 (1970).  to  calls  "the  grapple  with  most r e c e n t  major  i t represents  25 UNGAOR Supp.  (no.  the  28)  See Cassese,A. P o l i t i c a l Self-Determination Old Concepts and New Developments, i n UN Law Fundamental R i g h t s . Two T o p i c s In I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law, ed. Cassese, Alphen aan den R i j n : S i t j h o f f & Noordhoff, 1979, pl43 i n which he s t a t e s , "The D e c l a r a t i o n s u f f e r s from the same d e f e c t s o f ambiguity and vagueness t h a t marred the Covenants." See A r a n g i o r Renizz, The UN D e c l a r a t i o n on F r i e n d l y Relations and the Systems of International Law, N e t h e r l a n d s : S i t j h o f f Noordhoff, 1979, p l 3 1 .  63 highest  development  makes the p o i n t  yet  of  UN  law  . At  D  l e a s t one  writer  that,  "it i s no overstatement to say that the e l a b o r a t i o n o f the p r i n c i p l e o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n the 1970 D e c l a r a t i o n p r o v i d e s jUie c o r n e r s t o n e o f the UN approach t o the c o n c e p t " . 5  The is  Declaration  innovative  i t proclaims "a  duty  on the  i n two  P r i n c i p l e s of I n t e r n a t i o n a l  distinct  s i g n i f i c a n t ways.  First,  not o n l y a r i g h t of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n but  to  respect  provisions  of  this  the  right  of  of peoples...".  is  to  duties  not  "a  So,  with  first  even  i f the  time  and  the bond between democratic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  purposes  of  Declaration has  ascended  amongst  the  this  as  resume  reinforces to  a  part  the  of  it  of  can  belief  prominent,  principles  that be  i f not  w i t h human r i g h t s  linkage. said  that  For  5 6  that  the  and the 1970  self-determination  predominant,  international  of  more  i t links  self-determination  there  and  importantly, reforges  to  object  Secondly,  self-determination  the  of...self-  f o r the  identified.  also  duty  principle  c o r r e l a t i v e duties is  accordance and  the  determination reference  in  Charter"  promote...realization  these  and  law  law.  It  position can  be  5 4  I t r e p r e s e n t s seven y e a r s work i n committee and on the f l o o r o f the General Assembly. Brownlie c l a i m s t h a t t h i s c o n t r i b u t e s a normative c h a r a c t e r t o the D e c l a r a t i o n . See B r o w n l i e , I . P r i n c i p l e s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law. 3rd ed., Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979,pl5,595.  5 5  See White,R. S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n : Time f o r a R e a p p r a i s a l . N e t h e r l a n d s I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law Review, 28 1981 p l 4 7 .  5 6  See i n f r a f o r a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s development t o both i n t e r n a t i o n a l law and the t h e s i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s study, Chapter E i g h t .  64 described  at t h i s  c l e a r l y defined  stage  as  a  right  (by s t a t e p r a c t i c e )  but  only  i n certain  cases.  ( v i i ) Summary o f UN P r a c t i c e .  In  the  conclusions  following  section  are abstracted  reference  particularly  determination  with  to  certain  theoretical  from the p r e c e d i n g  narrative i n  the  identification  decolonization  of  , the d i s t i n c t i o n  selfbetween  i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and the p o s i t i o n o f s e c e s s i o n i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l law.  From  at least  1950,  national  self-determination,  dominant v a r i a t i o n o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n  up t o t h i s  the  point,  was r e l e g a t e d t o the p o s i t i o n o f an h i s t o r i c a l o b s c u r i t y and r e p l a c e d by c o l o n i a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , a t h e o r y whose s o l e concern  was  domination.  with Colony  the  termination  replaced  of  white  n a t i o n a l i t y as t h e  colonial identifying  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the o b j e c t peoples o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and  with  t h e r i s e t o prominence o f t h e s a l t - w a t e r  colonialism determination asserting arranged  i t became  possible  t o a European n a t i o n  i t f o r a piece by  t o deny  the  colonial  a  right  theory o f of  self-  such as L i t h u a n i a  while  of A f r i c a n t e r r i t o r y powers  5 7  with  little  arbitrarily thought f o r  See Sinha,S.P. I s S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n Passe ?. Columbia J o u r n a l Of T r a n s n a t i o n a l Law, v o l 12, 1973, p260-273.  e t h n i c c o n t i g u i t y . As borders  and  not  ethnic  p h y s i c a l springboard If of  this  distributions  and  clarity,  o f a p e r i o d i n which the  rhetorical  i t is artificial  which  provided  the  was  reduced  had  i t also  the  merit  initiated  democratic  to  the  the  dimension  position  of  d e v i c e . E x t e r n a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , meaning  r i g h t of peoples wish t o l i v e ,  to  members  a Wilsonian  choose be  the  in  the  UN.  Internal  represented,  of  was  government regarded  as  a  they by  self-  c o n s t r u c t s t r e s s i n g the r i g h t  type  of  the  become the o n l y meaning s u b s c r i b e d t o  of  determination, to  t o choose the s o v e r e i g n t y under which  had  majority  wished  reminds us,  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e  self-determination  peoples  sa  for action.  g i v i n g i t substance  beginning  the  Connor  of  by  which  they  an  unnecessary  encumbrance t o the newly-independent A f r o - A s i a n s t a t e s . What r e s u l t e d was ruling  what B e l o f f d e s c r i b e s as the replacement o f  elite  itself,  another . 5 9  In  this  i n the modern sense, gave way  personal  rule  democratic  6 0  ."  standards  independent was  with  states.  regarded  almost  The  UN  were The  never being  enquired  met  as,  See Connor,W. S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n : P o l i t i c s , v o l 20, 1967, p31.  "...government  t o d i r e c t and  achievement  universally  way  in of  one  the  as  corrupt to  the  what newly-  self-determination quite  The  New  literally,  Phase.  a  World  See Beloff,M. Self-Determination Reconsidered. Confluence: An I n t e r n a t i o n a l Forum, v o l 5 , 1956, pl95203. I b i d , p200.  66 desirable  end.  This  universal  acceptance  had  sveral  consequences. By the time t h i s end had the  ex-colonial  territories  authoritatively colonial "ex  that  cases had  origine  doctrine  it  but  statement  a  it  right  was of  (self-determination)  law  of  lies  a  specific  is  not  concept  a  complicating  in  that,  universal  relating  to  the  Behind  this  factors  which  6 2  of  state  Engers noted  decolonization" .  number  to  self-determination 6 1  a  in virtually a l l  possible  been e s t a b l i s h e d .  rather  international  been achieved  require investigation. Self-determination decolonization of  decolonization.  before  been  so  limitations. continued  to  always  pervasive. was  not  So,  to  In  and  consistent Finally,  the  become  a very  fact  closely  provide road  indeed  only with  Conversely,  developmental not  but  had  associated  with  p r e c i s e l y defined  form  self-determination circumscribed  by  international legal only  vague  were open  with  a  practice  completely c o n s i s t e n t d e s p i t e Pomerance's argument  that  to  the  of  documentation on  this  interpretations  that  had  become  self-determination  t h i s new new  never  ideological  signposts  these  application  had  UN  specificity. law  of  self-  See, Higgins,R. The U n i t e d N a t i o n s and Law-making, supra. And note t h a t even s c e p t i c s l i k e Emerson are w i l l i n g t o admit t h i s much. See Engers,J.F. From Sacred T r u s t t o S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , i n Essays on I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law and R e l a t i o n s , ed. H. M e i j e r s and E.W. V i e r d a g , The Hague: S i j t h o f f - L e y d e n , 1977, p88.  determination further  was m o r a l l y  criticism  hypocritical ,  one c o u l d add the  b J  that  even  on  i t s own  terms  it  was  technically inconsistent. The  source  secession, weight  a  but  states.  right  this  confusion  that  secession  will  continue  lies  i n the  i n c e r t a i n cases  remained p o l i t i c a l l y  Until  confusion  of  is  anathema  successfully  to i n h i b i t  had  right  great  of  moral  t o a l l sovereign dealt  with  the development  this  o f the  p r i n c i p l e of self-determination. The  various  attempts  to  define  "peoples"  for  the  purposes o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t e n seem l i k e e x e r c i s e s i n futility  dedicated  t o the c i r c u m n a v i g a t i o n  of the r i g h t  of  secession. In t h e e r a o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n as d e c o l o n i z a t i o n , the position Charter  held  by  some w r i t e r s  that  "peoples"  under t h e  UN  and t h e s e r i e s o f instruments f o l l o w i n g i t had come  t o mean, "communities t h a t l i v e under ( but do not share in) alien  sovereignty" . 6 4  resolutions  indicates  A  closer  a  more  D e c l a r a t i o n on the G r a n t i n g 1514) peoples  relates to  colonialism  times.  6 5  The  to  the  major  definition.  o f Independence  subjugation"  three  of  precise  self-determination  alien  reading  "the  The  (G.A.Resolution subjection  and  specifically  1965  Declaration  6 3  See g e n e r a l l y Pomerance,M. S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n P r a c t i c e , supra.  6  4  See Ofuatey-Kodjoe,W. The P r i n c i p l e o f i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law, supra, p i l l .  6  5  See paragraph 3.  of  mentions on  the  i n Law and  Self-Determination  68 Admissibility  of  Intervention  in  Domestic  P r o t e c t i o n of T h e i r Independence and  Affairs  Sovereignty  and  requires ,  "All states [to] r e s p e c t the r i g h t of selfdetermination and independence o f peoples and nations, to be freely exercised without any f o r e i g n p r e s s u r e , and w i t h a b s o l u t e r e s p e c t f o r , human rights and fundamental freedoms. Consequently a l l s t a t e s s h a l l c o n t r i b u t e t o the complete e l i m i n a t i o n of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and c o l o n i a l i s m i n a l l i t s forms and m a n i f e s t a t i o n s " (my emphasis). 6 6  The  Declaration  (Resolution  2625)  on  makes a  r e s o l u t i o n o u t l i n i n g the most i l l u s t r a t i v e right  of  racist  be  or  to of  other  an  but  right  6 9  (my  self-determination 6 6  G.A.  2131  6 7  See  6 8  See A r t i c l e  that  is  "peoples under c o l o n i a l  and  alien in  noted of  6 7  the  1955  domination" . 6 8  affirmed  in  that,  especially  addition  that,  self-determination the  The  eradication  "the  is of  the  racial  emphasis). C l e a r l y , then Umozurike i s  r i g h t t o say t h a t , " t h e r e  6Q  i t is  the  forms of  of... e s p e c i a l l y  discrimination"  G.A.  to  Law  I t applies  communique  end"  the  prerequisite  Res.  but  i n a l l i t s manifestations...should  brought  exercise  s i m i l a r linkage  of the p r e v a i l i n g c u r r e n t .  Conference  "colonialism  International  D e f i n i t i o n of A g g r e s s i o n  self-determination  regimes  Bandung  P r i n c i p l e s of  i s almost complete unanimity t h a t  applies to c o l o n i a l p e o p l e s " (XX),  Resolution,  12 Dec. 3314  7 0  but  he  is  1965.  XXIX, 14 December 1974:  Annex.  7. •  .  .  •  0 3  See Ofuatey-Kodjoe,W. The P r i n c i p l e of i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law, supra, p l 4 1 .  7 0  See Umozurike,U. S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n n e t i c u t : Archon Books, 1972, pl90.  •  Self-Determination Law,  69 content  to leave  "colonial sixties  i t at that. This i s a serious e r r o r since  self-determination" referred  determination insufficient The  to  for  a  determination  theory  could  China  and  the  territory  strict  almost  Although  of  salt-water apply  to  of  self-  provides  an  UN  itself,  colonialism . Self7 1  parent  by  which  were  oceans or  high  who  Union  were  excluded  from  too were the e t h n i c groups w i t h i n a regarded  "the  majority  In the absence of any  was  the  elite  at  least  rule"  requirement  as  7 2  that  no  matter how  not  attached  oppressive with  the  ( i n the s a l t - w a t e r s e n s e ) .  consistency a  the  territories  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n was  of conceptual on  colonial  consequently  Soviet  enough t h a t  c o l o n i a l stigma  time  mode  and  adherence t o i n t e r n a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i t  unrepresentative,  the  prefix  fifties  o v e r l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n s such as those made  a l i e n or oppressive.  was  and  only  c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Excluded  t h e r e be  specific  from t h e i r m e t r o p o l i t a n  seas. In t h i s way,  colonial  the  the  explanation.  to  separated  highly  which  Afro-Asians,  subscribed  by  a  throughout  salt-water  attaining  i t c o u l d not, definition  of  some measure  based as  i t was  at  colonialism, deal  e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h South A f r i c a n r u l e i n Namibia or Rhodesian  See e.g. G.A.Res. 1541,supra, d e s c r i b i n g c o l o n i e s as "geographically separate and...distinct ethnically and/or c u l t u r a l l y from the country a d m i n i s t r a t i n g i t . " See Higgins,R. The Development of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law Through the P o l i t i c a l Organs of the UN, London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1963, p l 0 5 .  U.D.I.  since  neither  white  elite  m e t r o p o l i t a n power. Hence, a r a c i a l Self-determination denying  was  was  connected  element was  to  apply  where  representation to  other  racial  a  to  a  introduced.  racial  elite  groups.  This  was  dealt  w i t h the Namibian and Rhodesian q u e s t i o n s but r a i s e d f u r t h e r ones about t r i b a l circumvent  this  incorporated. the  result  difficulty  could  an  East  t e r r i t o r y regarded  only  (now  was  no  "foreign  4  5  criterion  there Thus,  to was  termed  approbation and  was  white  the  ruling  i n the l i k e s and  Biafra  indigenous  the c o n t r o l l i n g regime as  of  were  to  the  colonial.  i n the UN  f o r the  the Indonesian a s s i m i l a t i o n  a m u l t i t u d e o f o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s where the  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n was  European" .  the dominant e l i t e was  J  In o r d e r  exponent,  where  Bangladesh)  " f o r e i g n " domination =  apply  even though the peoples  Moroccan a b s o r p t i o n of I f n i  of  academic  domination.  Furthermore, t h e r e was  o f West I r i a n and  additional  discriminating elites  Pakistan  deemed a c c e p t a b l e  of A f r i c a .  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n " meaning t h a t  pseudo-European  r e l i g i o u s or r a c i a l l y  principle  rest  7 4  "pigmentational  or  Eritrea,  i n the  M a z r u i , i t s prime  self-determination European  rule  75  The  where, Syrians  ignored as  because  Neuberger  argued  that  there  states,  providing  not f o r e i g n t o the whole c o n t i n e n t i t  U n i l a t e r a l D e c l a r a t i o n of Independence from B r i t a i n . See Neuberger,B. N a t i o n a l S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n C o l o n i a l A f r i c a , supra, p83. Ibid  p85.  in  Post-  71 should  be  regarded as  indigenous,  T h i s argument h e l d sway i n the To  summarize,  resonance,  therefore legitimate.  UN.  self-determination  which the A f r o - A s i a n most  and  voice  was  i n the UN  defined  as  during and  the  not  within  apply  an  period  world a f f a i r s right  independence from white European c o l o n i a l majority  the  historically-defined  of  who  were  e l i t e s . Neither  being  oppressed  r u l e h e l d by territory.  by  had  external the  It  t o e t h n i c groups w i t h i n these t e r r i t o r i e s  majorities  in  did  nor  non-white  to  alien  s e c e s s i o n nor democratic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n were  regarded as p a r t of t h i s novel r i g h t of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n .  and  Not  s u r p r i s i n g l y these assumptions are b e i n g  a  multitude  colonialism  and  of  concepts  embracing  from  human  secession  rights  employed t o unearth the s i n s of i n t e r n a l  C. THE  UNITED NATIONS AND  International  law  has  THE  yet  s e c e s s i o n . T h i s p r o s c r i p t i o n was the p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d i l l u s t r a t e d with legislation delegates  and  and  years  reference the  are  African  now  being  SECESSION.  admit  a  right  p a r t i c u l a r l y intense of d e c o l o n i z a t i o n and  of  during can  be  to state p r a c t i c e , i n t e r n a t i o n a l  pronouncements  academics.  to  oppression.  RIGHT OF  to  challenged  This  of  i s hardly  politicians, surprising for  UN a  72  number o f the  law  reasons.  intended  First  i n t e r n a t i o n a l law  to regulate  i s , after a l l ,  the b e h a v i o r of  s t a t e s and  t h e r e f o r e premised on the e x i s t e n c e o f s t a t e s o v e r e i g n t y territorial sacred  integrity.  norms.  Secession  Second,  flies  i n the  individual  face of  states  is and  these  and,  more  p a r t i c u l a r l y , the r u l i n g e l i t e s i n these s t a t e s have a w e l l founded f e a r t h a t a r i g h t of s e c e s s i o n would b r i n g about dismemberment and u l t i m a t e d e s t r u c t i o n of the s t a t e and  the with  i t t h e i r power base. From the states  of  conclusion  which  unsuccessfully, potentially  is  to  integrity  This  composed,  maintain  conflicting  territorial rights.  it  of World War  Two,  the  have  a  of  balance has  the often  between  the  self-determination,  (including non-interference)  precarious  and  attempted,  balance  principles  UN,  and human  been undermined by  the  requirement t h a t s e c e s s i o n be outlawed i n a l l p o s s i b l e cases The  r e s u l t has  miasma  of  been t h a t the UN  political  has  compromises,  become bogged down i n a legal  tautologies  7 6  r h e t o r i c a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n . I r o n i c a l l y , the quest f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n o f human r i g h t s has of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , a  great  ceases  many o t h e r s to  become  a  n a t i o n a l s without the  been s a c r i f i c e d a t the  p u t a t i v e l y the v e r y must cover  spring. for  f e a r of an  See Pomerance,M. Practice,supra.  Until  the  and full altar  r i g h t from which self-determination  right  to  abuse  one's  i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y sanctioned  Self-determination  in  Law  and  73 right to secessionist agitation,  i t will  t h e cause o f human r i g h t s throughout In  terms  regressed World  from  War.  Yugoslavia Nations.  of  i t s legality  the position  Then, were  the  given  Contrast  this  t h e globe  the  i t held  secessions  right just  of  t h e imprimatur with  c o n t i n u e t o impede  attempts  of  after  secession the F i r s t  Czechoslovakia of  t h e League  condemnation o r complete s i l e n c e from t h e UN  The the  7 7  with  .  Charter.  UN C h a r t e r c o n t a i n s n o t h i n g d i r e c t l y p e r t a i n i n g t o  s u b j e c t o f s e c e s s i o n . However,  discussions principle right  of  made by Katanga and  B i a f r a t o secede i n r e c e n t y e a r s which were met e i t h e r  ( i ) The U n i t e d Nations  and  of  Fransisco,  during of  the drafting  self-determination  secession  under  t h e Committee  i t was made obvious a t  of the Charter could  any  debating  that the  not i n c o r p o r a t e  circumstances. the Charter  At  a  San  provisions  stated, "Concerning the principle of selfd e t e r m i n a t i o n . .. i t was s t a t e d t h a t t h e p r i n c i p l e conformed t o t h e purposes o f t h e C h a r t e r o n l y i n so f a r as i t i m p l i e d t h e r i g h t o f self-government o f peoples, and n o t t h e r i g h t o f s e c e s s i o n . . . " . 7 8  See O ' B r i e n , C C . The R i g h t t o Secede, New York Times, Dec 30. U. Thant, t h e S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l of the United N a t i o n s a t t h e time o f t h e B i a f r a n s e c e s s i o n condemned it i n t h e c l e a r e s t p o s s i b l e terms as a t h r e a t t o sovereignty. See UNCIO, DOC 343, 1/1/16.  74 Most o f the  state representatives  but  t h e r e were e x c e p t i o n s .  all  nationalities  cases' could  had  become  The  Soviet delegate  sovereign a  supported t h i s  right  claimed  e q u a l i t y which  of  secession . 7 9  aim that  in certain He  defined  n a t i o n a l i t y i n i t s b r o a d e s t p o s s i b l e sense t o mean n a t i o n a l communities under a l i e n in  the  and  subjugation.  d r a f t proposal  in  an  attempt  an  to  unintended  clarify  the  The  Belgians,  approval position  of  too,  saw  secession  advanced  the  following thesis : "One speaks g e n e r a l l y o f the e q u a l i t y of s t a t e s ; s u r e l y one c o u l d use the word, "peoples" as an e q u i v a l e n t f o r the word, " s t a t e s " , but i n the expression "the peoples right of selfdetermination" the word "peoples" means the n a t i o n a l groups which do not i d e n t i f y themselves w i t h the p o p u l a t i o n o f the s t a t e " . 8 0  Meanwhile, the UN a  debate  about  the  d r a f t e r s were r e l u c t a n t t o e n t e r i n t o  nomenclature  i n s t e a d made every e f f o r t , fated,  to  widen  the  allowing a r i g h t of ( i i ) The  the  self-determination  matter how  of  self-determination  ill-  without  secession.  concerns t o  committee  Human R i g h t s  stage  those mentioned above were r a i s e d of  the  International  Covenants  and the words of Abraham L i n c o l n warning o f  See Ofuatey-Kodjoe,W. The P r i n c i p l e of i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law, supra, p l 0 8 . 0  semantically  and  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Covenants.  Similar at  ambit  no  of  See UNCIO, DOC  374,  1/1/17.  on the  Self-Determination  75 potential  f o r anarchy  were m i r r o r e d The  i n the  Iranian  determination  inherent statements  delegate was  in a of  and  of  secession  a number o f  cautioned  misused  right  that,  considered  delegates.  "...if as  8 1  an  selfabsolute  r i g h t n o t h i n g but anarchy would e n s u e " . He went on t o warn 8 2  that, "...no country would be i n e x i s t e n c e i f every n a t i o n a l , r e l i g i o u s or l i n g u i s t i c group had an absolute * ., u n r e s t r i c t e d right to selfdetermination" . an<  Q  8 3  The states  was  hierarchy  of  norms  outlined  by  the  d i s c u s s i o n when he  recognized  Indian  by  delegate  most in  member a  later  said,  " n e i t h e r n a t i o n a l s o v e r e i g n t y nor territorial i n t e g r i t y must be i n f r i n g e d under the p r e t e x t o f self-determination" . 4  But into  attempts  at  s o p h i s t r y . The  a more complex  confusion  of  the  definition Irish  descended  delegate  was  typical, "...the o n l y v a l i d standard was the s u b j e c t i v e one, i n t h e sense t h a t any group of people l i v i n g i n a determinate t e r r i t o r y c o n s t i t u t e d a n a t i o n i f i t was c o n s c i o u s of i t s e l f as a n a t i o n a l u n i t y and a s s e r t e d i t s e l f as such. That d i d not cover the r i g h t o f s t r i c t l y l o c a l groups t o s e c e s s i o n , which would i n e f f e c t , s h a t t e r the right to selfdetermination" . 8 5  See Emerson, R . S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n R e v i s i t e d i n the E r a of Decolonization. Occassional papers i n International A f f a i r s , no 9, December, 1964.supra, p30 2  See A/C/3/SR/888  3  I b i d , at para.  4  Ibid at  891.  5  Ibid at  887.  25.  76 What  are  "determinate  "strictly  territory"?  local  The  groups"?  questions  What  raised  is  by  a  such  " d e f i n i t i o n s " m u l t i p l i e d as s u r e l y as t h e s o l u t i o n s remained unattainable.  Futhermore, i f one s c h o o l  d i s c u s s i o n s was r e p r e s e n t e d self-determination  was,  o f thought a t these  by t h e c o n f i d e n t  "a  matter  interest to colonial t e r r i t o r i e s "  8 6  which  assertion was  that  solely  of  then another was e q u a l l y  a t t r a c t e d t o t h e somewhat n a i v e S o v i e t p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t , "the General Assembly should not undertake t h e o r e t i c a l s t u d i e s o f such simple ideas as " s e l f d e t e r m i n a t i o n " , "peoples" and " n a t i o n " . . . " ! The that  covenants  " a l l peoples  determination"  8 8  themselves shall  indicate  with  have that  their the  this  bare  right  reductive  assertion to  self-  view  had  prevailed. (iii)  The 1960 D e c l a r a t i o n on t h e Grantincr o f Independence.  The Colonial  1960 D e c l a r a t i o n on t h e G r a n t i n g Countries  self-determination has By has  and P e o p l e s o f peoples  8 9  o f Independence t o  recognizes  the r i g h t of  and by "peoples"  i t clearly  i n mind dependent peoples i n s i n g l e t e r r i t o r i a l h i g h l i g h t i n g the p r i n c i p l e of t e r r i t o r i a l the  obvious  intention  of  excluding  8 6  I b i d a t 894.  8 7  I b i d a t 890.  8 8  A r t i c l e 1 o f both covenants.  8 9  G.A. Res. 1514, December 14, 1960.  units.  integrity i t the  right  of  77 secession failure  from these u n i t s . I t i s u n s u c c e s s f u l  to define  because o f a  i t s t e r m i n o l o g y p r e c i s e l y enough. I n t h e  preamble i t notes t h a t , " a l l peoples have an i n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t t o . . . t h e integrity of their national territory"(my emphasis) and  P r i n c i p l e 6 states, "any attempt a t t h e p a r t i a l o r t o t a l d i s r u p t i o n of the national unity and t h e territorial i n t e g r i t y o f a country i s incompatible w i t h t h e purposes and p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e C h a r t e r of the U n i t e d Nations"(my emphasis). The  the  interchangeable  meaning  nature o f these concepts  of the Declaration.  Based  on  a  obscures  traditional  d e r i v a t i o n o f t h e word, " n a t i o n " i t sees p l a u s i b l e t o make a textual  claim  integrity it  the clause  does not, i n a l l cases,  i s not  political  that  the  territorial  unit that  i s being  dealing  with  territorial  p r o h i b i t secession  integrity asserted  of  an  but rather  n a t i o n a l u n i t . One can argue f o r example t h a t state  i s made up o f s e v e r a l  therefore,  the revolutionary  national  groups  since  arbitrary that  of a  the Nigerian 9 0  c r e a t i o n o f a new  and t h a t , territorial  u n i t contiguous w i t h a n a t i o n a l i s t i c impulse does n o t o f f e n d the  proscription  integrity  against  and would  simply  the d i s r u p t i o n represent  of  territorial  the exercise  of a  "peoples'" r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . 9 1  9 0  But note t h a t t h e U n i t e d Nations B i a f r a as a " n a t i o n a l u n i t " .  d i d not c h a r a c t e r i z e  See Pomerance,M. S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n Law and P r a c t i c e , supra, p318, where he s t a t e s , "there i s no C h a r t e r derived necessity t o preserve the t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y of a c o l o n i a l u n i t " .  78  (iv)  The D e c l a r a t i o n on P r i n c i p l e s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law.  The finds  possibility  i t s most  that  forcible  a r i g h t t o secession legal  expression  might e x i s t i n t h e 1970  D e c l a r a t i o n on t h e P r i n c i p l e s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a w . Having 92  re-affirmed and on  of a r i g h t of self-determination,  t h r e e modes o f implementing t h a t r i g h t , a c l e a r advance the  "self-determination=independence"  Declaration the  the existence  includes the usual  territorial  admonition a g a i n s t  breaching as a  p r o t e c t i v e device against the p o s s i b i l i t y of secession,  such  dealing  appear with  of a state.  the  T y p i c a l l y used  clauses  integrity  equation,  at the conclusion  o f most  self-determination.  UN  However  instruments the  1970  D e c l a r a t i o n adds an important r i d e r t o t h e p r o h i b i t i o n which seems t o have t h e e f f e c t o f a l l o w i n g  secessionist  activity  under c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The passage reads: "Nothing i n t h e f o r e g o i n g paragraphs s h a l l be construed as a u t h o r i z i n g o r encouraging any a c t i o n which would dismember o r impair, t o t a l l y o r i n part, the t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y or p o l i t i c a l unity of sovereign and independent s t a t e s c o n d u c t i n g themselves i n compliance w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e o f equal r i g h t s and s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p e o p l e s . . . and thus possessed o f a government r e p r e s e n t i n g the whole people belonging t o the t e r r i t o r y without distinction as to race, creed or colour"(my emphasis). T h i s i s important because i t f u l f i l l s alluded t o i n previous self-determination  a promise,  r e s o l u t i o n s , namely t h e promise  could  be  fully  integrated  G.A Res.2625, October 24th, 1970, supra.  with  often that human  79  r i g h t s T h i s d e c l a r a t i o n takes t h e f i r s t elements  of  principle  of self-determination.  to  the  sanction  "action"  dismemberment governments crucial  Western  democratic  (secession  caveats  are  tradition  ?)  noted.  into  dedicated  integrity  unrepresentative.  t o be  i n readmitting the  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , i t appears  of the t e r r i t o r i a l which  step  First,  to  of states There  there  must  the with  are  two  be  some  r a c i a l o r r e l i g i o u s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n accompanying t h i s l a c k o f representation prohibition  in  order  that  cease t o apply.  the  integrity  Second, such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  i s not r e f l e c t e d i n state p r a c t i c e (v)  territorial  9 3  .  Conclusion.  Nevertheless  such c o n d i t i o n s o f government have e x i s t e d  i n a number o f s t a t e s from B a n g l a d e s h the  indigenous  government)  Indian  and  i n more  94  t o Guatemala (where  population  are  excluded  progressive  states  such  from as the  S o v i e t Union and T u r k e y . 9 5  I f the United the  suffering  Nations i s t o p l a y a r o l e i n a l l e v i a t i n g  caused  by  governments  See  i n f r a , Chapter E i g h t .  See  i n f r a , Chapter F i v e .  and  experienced  by  In t h e S o v i e t Union t h e r e i s a s t r o n g R u s s i a n b i a s i n Government and t h e r e i s no r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s groups. In Turkey t h e Kurds and Armenians have been p e r s e c u t e d f o r c e n t u r i e s and appear t o be excluded from r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h e government.  80 minorities  throughout  responsibility be  saved  rights  and  territorial  t h e desuetude  only a  by  a  flexible  i t must  redefine the  threatened  theoretical approach  by  the  reattachment to  the  end o f  t o human  principle  of  i n t e g r i t y . The D e c l a r a t i o n on t h e P r i n c i p l e s o f  International Law a realignment. right  world  o f t h e n a t i o n - s t a t e . S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n can  from  colonialism  the  t o secede  96  can p r o v i d e a d e c l a r a t i v e b a s i s f o r such  In order f o r t h i s must  be g i v e n  t o occur t h e l i m i t s legislative  effect  of a  a t the  United Nations.  The remaining methods  of  chapters of t h i s  determining  the  study w i l l  criteria  investigate  relevant  f o r m u l a t i o n o f these l i m i t s b e g i n n i n g w i t h a d e t a i l e d  i n the survey  of f i v e cases where a r i g h t t o secede was o r i s a s s e r t e d .  G.A. Res. 2625, October 24th,  1970,supra.  CHAPTER IV ERITREA : THE NEW COLONIALISM AND SECESSION.  OUTLINE i.  Abstract  A. INTRODUCTION: NEO-COLONIALISM AND SECESSION... B. ERITREAN HISTORY AND SELF-DETERMINATION C. COLONIZATION D. THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE AUTONOMY COMPROMISE E. HUMAN RIGHTS AND THE RIGHT TO SECEDE F. UN LAW AND THE ERITREAN CLAIM G. THE INDEX OF VALIDITY ( i ) E r i t r e a ' s e x i s t e n c e as a People ( i i ) Human r i g h t s (iii)  Political  stability  (iv) Economic p o t e n t i a l H. CONCLUSION  and l e g i t i m a c y  83  Abstract  Ethiopia Africa (to of  bordered  the East), 628  1974 in  is  miles  census the  A  the  monarchy  war  with  the  rest  Red  of  Sea  North-Eastern West),  I t has a  capital  i s Addis  million.  coast.  Ethiopia,  division  peoples.  linguistic  There  groupings.  and t h i s  the  discussion.  on  and  (to the South). S e a . The  in  there  Somalia  coastline Ababa.  Eritrea  Its  capital  is a  Eritrean  civil  war  c a n be  regime  division  continues  the  are  divisions  as  such,  a M a r x i s t regime r e p l a c e d  secessionists is  is  made b e t w e e n . C a u c o s c o i d  a r e no t r i b a l I n 1974  A  lies  f o l l o w i n g C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e a n d t h o s e who  similar  That  (to the North  and Kenya  i n the  Negroid  1952.  Sudan  country  p u t t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t 28  As  Moslems.  independent  on t h e Red  between t h o s e  only  by  Noth-West  Asmara.  and  an  t o pursue (EPLF)  subject  of  the  civil  that  began  in  the  following  84  A. S e c e s s i o n  It that  i s o n e o f t h e many i r o n i e s  while  represent premise their but  and Neo-Colonialisin.  i t may  seem  t h e epitome  t o do w i t h  dedicated  y o k e o f a new c o l o n i a l i s m .  War in and  Two  liberation  black  Africa  accusations  Ethiopians are But  secessionist legitimacy  such  n o t be  developed then  that  separatism o f f of the  i s a war o f  the  post-World  by former  separatist  a matter  describing  of the Eritrean  secession  made  of neo-colonialism  need  or  this  paralleling  to  t h e whole  i s i n fact  secession  recent  paper  colonies agitations  as Katanga and B i a f r a .  more t h a n  i n  there  the typology  legitimate  1  closely  t h e more  uprisings i n places  semantics.  if  than  this  t o the the throwing  s t r u g g l e s f o r independence  These the  more  situation  secession,  I n other words  1  national  of  rebels' philosophy  has nothing  i s a movement  i n the context  o f an attempted  of the Eritrean  cause  of the Eritrean  the  directed  against  o f mere r e v o l u t i o n a r y Eritrean  inferred  conflict  a disavowal  as  of the  quest  f o rself  later  i s to include the notion of  i t must  determination. For  accept  too that  those  See, e.g. Andemarian Gebremichael's c o m p l a i n t t h a t , " many i n t h e media continue m i s t a k e n l y t o d e s c r i b e E r i t r e a as an "Ethiopian province" and i t s freedom fighters as "secessionists". Such c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s have greatly damaged t h e c a u s e o f t h e E r i t r e a n s a n d t h e i r e f f o r t s t o s u r v i v e war and famine. E r i t r e a n s a r e n o t f i g h t i n g a war of "secession" ; they never have been a part of E t h i o p i a . They a r e f i g h t i n g a war o f o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e i r homeland by a neighbour'. See C h r i s t i a n S c i e n c e M o n i t o r , J u l y 4-10, 1988.  85  seeking  continued  oppressive extended  in  by  domination  domination  some  most  they  way.  over  The  term  revolutionary  perceive  newly-defined  t o be  colonialism  secessionists  colonialism  movements  cases evidence o f n e o - c o l o n i a l i s m this  the  to  has  been  include  i l l e g i t i m a t e and  are  any  i n some  i s undeniable . Therefore, 2  and s e c e s s i o n  can no  longer  be regarded as m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e phenomena. Indeed over  i t s correct  secession, many  the question  lies  others  colonialism. contention  British)  characterization  and  a t the heart of t h i s  (Eritrean)  A t t h e crux  of the E r i t r e a n  continuing  Ethiopian  t h e replacement  imperialism  with  o f white  black  number o f s i m i l a r groups t h e Western  Sahara  dispute  relationship  non-metropolitan  i s not p e c u l i a r t o t h e E r i t r e a n s  of  and t h e  involving  that  constitutes  of colonialism,  rule  or  matter and indigenous  position over  (Italian  colonialism.  to  i s the  their  and This  land  latterly argument  and has been employed by a  (e.g.like the P o l i s a r o g u e r r i l l a s  who  have  no d i f f i c u l t y  i n equating  t h e i r new Moroccan masters w i t h t h e departed S p a n i s h ) . This of  central  factors  such  issue as  i s further ethnic  complicated  composition,  by a number geostrategic  l o c a t i o n , h i s t o r i c a l anomaly and geographic s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t is  these  that  highlight  Eritrea  as  an  ideal  case  study.  E r i t r e a r e p r e s e n t s a t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l t e s t case f o r  See  i n f r a , Chapter V.  the  f u t u r e development of  determination. can  be  and,  What  Neither conflict, of  the  of  the  application lies  with  should  the  determination  of  cover o t h e r  situations  i n s i g h t s towards  two  most and  immediate  based  on  to  E r i t r e a n s , deny the  real  and  favour  a purely  both  Ababa.  r e p u b l i c s , with  They  Ethiopia's  are  war.  i n s i s t e n c e by that nothing be  for  formal  the  the  a limited  existence  Eritreans  form of  grant  their  sides  is  the  self-  of p r o v i n c i a l Soviet  power r e s i d i n g i n Addis  negotiate over  by  away  any  Eritrea.  seemingly  matched  part  never-ending  an  t o put  an  end  equally  have advanced  Eritrea  that  to h o s t i l i t i e s  a number of i f i t i s on  this  matter  on  civil  stubborn  their  arguments t o the is  of  Ethiopian  the E r i t r e a n People's L i b e r a t i o n F r o n t  r e s p e c t i v e cases and  southern  to  sovereignty  led to  it  real  its  dispute  (EPLF)  s h o r t of complete independence f o r E r i t r e a  sufficient  Both  3  has  However,  the  unwilling  ultimate  intransigence  a  the  accept  essence o f  self-determination  Ethiopians  parties  autonomy f o r E r i t r e a , s i m i l a r t o t h a t a c q u i r e d by the socialist  self-  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s here  further  i s s u e . The  form  The  the  self-determination  the  the  principle  -3  secession.  to  to  take.  provide  Ethiopians  right  from  successfully to  importantly,  u n i f y i n g theory of  stagnant  i s drawn  extrapolated  more  the  will part.  support  battlefields currently  of  being  The p r i n c i p l e of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i s a t r i s k because of i t s r e c e n t confinement t o c o l o n i a l i s m . With the end of colonialism i t has been reduced to the level of p o l i t i c a l slogan.  87 contested,  i t i s nevertheless  positions  with  which  this  the l e s s l e t h a l t h e o r e t i c a l chapter  will  be  primarily  and I t s S i g n i f i c a n c e  f o r Self-  concerned.  B.  Eritrean  History  Determination . The  t a s k o f v a l i d a t i n g t h e h i s t o r i c a l c l a i m s o f t h e two  parties  i s one t h a t has occupied  wishing  t o make a s e r i o u s  t h e minds o f a l l s c h o l a r s  study o f t h e p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n  i n modern E r i t r e a . The debate c e n t r e s  round t h e q u e s t i o n o f  whether  part  Eritrea  has  "always"  been  whether i t s a s s i m i l a t i o n was a r e c e n t history  resolution  this  matter  of t h i s  hold  debate  t h e view  would  Ethiopia  turning point  o f a p r e v i o u s l y d i s c r e t e e n t i t y . Most  approaching  question  of  or  i n the  commentators  that  a  lay to rest  decisive t h e whole  o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . I t i s perhaps more  fruitful  t o see t h i s i s s u e as o n l y one o f many which must be r e s o l v e d in  order  doubt  t o a s c e r t a i n t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f t h e two c l a i m s .  i t i s banal  present  and  unquestioning is  future  i s unlikely  to  that be  justice grounded  i n the i n an  acceptance o f t h e i n j u s t i c e s o f t h e p a s t .  particularly  true  definitive version Eritrea.  t o remind o u r s e l v e s  when t h a t  past  of i t s character.  provides  No  us w i t h  Such i s t h e case  This no with  The f o l l o w i n g n a r r a t i v e i s drawn from a number o f  c o n t r a d i c t o r y academic, sources.  Reference w i l l  a l s o be made  88  t o t h e two c o n f l i c t i n g " h i s t o r i e s " p r o v i d e d government  and t h e p o l i t i c a l  wing  by t h e E t h i o p i a n  of the E r i t r e a n  rebel  movement. These  histories  predictably position  opposite  lead  their  conclusions.  two  proponents  The E t h i o p i a n  to  government  i s summed up i n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t from a 1977  policy declaration: "It i s an i n d e l i b l e h i s t o r i c a l f a c t that the northern region of Ethiopia, c a l l e d E r i t r e a f o r the l a s t 87 years, has been t h e s e a t o f t h e h i s t o r y , c u l t u r e and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a n c i e n t Ethiopia." 4  This  version  i s reconfirmed  by t h e statement  of the  E t h i o p i a n M i n i s t e r f o r F o r e i g n A f f a i r s t o t h e UN Commission 27 y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y which r a n : "In t h e course o f your t r a v e l s i n E r i t r e a and E t h i o p i a you have been a b l e t o note f o r y o u r s e l v e s the complete i d e n t i t y o f t e r r i t o r i e s and peoples which have been i d e n t i f i e d under t h e name o f E t h i o p i a . . . f o r 4000 years E r i t r e a and E t h i o p i a have been, i d e n t i c a l i n t h e i r o r i g i n s , i d e n t i c a l in their historical development, identical i n their defence of the Ethiopian and E r i t r e a n region" . 5  See B a s i c Documents o f t h e E t h i o p i a n R e v o l u t i o n , P u b l i s h e d by The P r o v i s i o n a l O f f i c e f o r Mass Organizational Affairs ; Agitation, Propaganda and Educational Committee, A d d i s Ababa, May 1977, P o l i c y D e c l a r a t i o n o f the P r o v i s i o n a l M i l i t a r y Government t o s o l v e t h e problem i n the administrative region of E r i t r e a i n a peaceful way". C o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h t h e Government o f E t h i o p i a , Annex 6, Report o f t h e U n i t e d Nations Commission. Quoted i n F i r e b r a c e and H o l l a n d , Never Kneel Down - drought.  89 E r i t r e a n statements, on t h e other hand, s t r e s s t h e l a c k of  historical  territory  continuity  Eritrea  i n the region  occupied.  and t h e d i s t i n c t  Discussing  the  connection  between t h e two empires on which t h e E t h i o p i a n s r e s t many o f t h e i r arguments, t h e E r i t r e a n s s t a t e : "All a v a i l a b l e documentary evidence about t h e Axumite Kingdom shows t h a t Axum d i d n o t comprise a l l o f p r e s e n t day E r i t r e a . Nor i s i t t r u e t h a t the Abyssinian kingdom i s an "expansion", "extension", "growth" or "evolution" of the Axumite kingdom. The two kingdoms occupied different territories at different periods of time" . 6  Objective exist,  history,  points  to  a  i f such  conclusion  a  thing  closer  can be to  said to  the E r i t r e a n  v e r s i o n . E r i t r e a has never been an "independent" country i n the  same way as t h e g r e a t  however, E r i t r e a  European n a t i o n s  were.  Equally,  has never c o n s i s t e n t l y formed a p a r t  l a r g e r e n t i t y such t h a t i t c o u l d be s a i d t o have been absorbed i n t o t h a t country's The  Ethiopian  the  notion  that  of a fully  t e r r i t o r y and c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y .  v e r s i o n o f h i s t o r y depends on acceptance o f the  various  were mostly r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  ruling  elites  i n the region  of Ethiopian c u l t u r a l  supremacy.  Haggai E r l i c h supports t h i s , h i s t o r i c a l l y dubious, a s s e r t i o n in stating:  development and Spokesman, p l 3  liberation  in  Eritrea,  See I n Defence o f t h e E r i t r e a n R e v o l u t i o n , p32.  Nottingham:  New York, 1978,  90 "...the core r e g i o n s o f today's Eritrea were undoubtedly an i n t e g r a l p a r t - indeed the c r a d l e of Ethiopian civilization, statehood and history" .  Other  historians  d i f f e r e n t and, historical  and  political  analysts  tell  a  g i v e n our knowledge of the haphazard r o u t e of  development  i n other  parts  of  the  world,  more  come  from  credible story. The  earliest  Egyptian  hieroglyphs  between the  Egypt  points  we  which  pharoahs and  around 3000 B.C. of  records  have  tell  of  to  very  early  i n the  interior .  Ethiopian  empire  building  the  coast  10th  Tigre  Ethiopian  much of the  8  carried  Red  Sea  century  coast  conquest  s e t them a p a r t from  on  their  A.D.. had  with  the  Axumite  Axum depended a major p o r t  on  empire  least  the  4th  the  Red  Sea  i s now  the  i n what  r e s t of E r i t r e a was  of  little  t o the Axumites whose c e n t r e of power moved during  on  influences  r e g i o n from a t  the  history  remaining stresses  Axumite dominion and Melenik's 7  the  cosmopolitan  began  E r i t r e a n c i t y o f Massawa. The  to  trade  8  f o r t r a d i n g and  interest  the  T h i s combined w i t h the H e l l e n i s t i c  neighbours  to  Eritrea  i n h a b i t a n t s of  these c o a s t a l people which helped  which c o n t r o l l e d  of  period the 19th  of  their  connection century  south  dominance.  between  the  empire. However  See E r l i c h , H . The S t r u g g l e Over E r i t r e a , 1962-78, War and R e v o l u t i o n i n the Horn of A f r i c a , S t a n f o r d , Calif.: Hoover I n s t i t u t i o n Press, 1983. See Kaplan,R. The 1988, p60.  Loneliest  War.  Atlantic  Monthly,  July  Selassie  disputes  y  that  Melenik's  same  land  Axumite  empire,  mass  corresponds  t h e nature  that  while  now  of t h i s i t covered  constitutes  t o A n c i e n t Axum. Given  control  and t h e f a c t  connection  that  arguing  substantially  Ethiopia,  i n no  the t r i b u t a r y i t was  the way  nature of  not p a r t i c u l a r l y  secure i n t h e c o a s t a l r e g i o n s not r e q u i r e d f o r t r a d e , i t i s unlikely  that  i t ever  acquired  t h e degree  of  centralized  a u t h o r i t y a t t r i b u t e d t o Melenik. The period  fall  o f Axum  heralded  i n Eritrean history  Ages.  During  maintained  this  period  control  for  the r i s e  of  Islam  and  e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e European the  four  Bejas  invaded  centuries.  The  a  Dark  Eritrea  and  Bejas  were  r e p l a c e d by a s e r i e s o f A b y s s i n i a n k i n g s b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e Amhara people who were ascendents ruling that  elites.  The  significance  i t represents  an  o f t h e pre-1977 E t h i o p i a n o f t h e Beja  interruption  of  four  interlude i s centuries i n  which t h e E r i t r e a n r e g i o n was s u b j e c t t o t h e r u l e o f a group w i t h no E t h i o p i a n h e r i t a g e whatsoever. Even t h e Amhara  rule  beginning  i n t h e 14th c e n t u r y was  an  ephemeral one marked by an u n w i l l i n g n e s s on t h e p a r t o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e r e g i o n t o accept what they p e r c e i v e d as a l i e n r u l e . The v a r i o u s A b y s s i n i a n kingdoms e s t a b l i s h e d over E r i t r e a became s u b j e c t t o a d d i t i o n a l p r e s s u r e s from powers.  With  the  increasing  sophistication  foreign of  the  communications networks they were eager t o g a i n some measure 9  See S e l a s s i e , B . From B r i t i s h Rule t o F e d e r a t i o n and Annexation i n Behind The War i n E r i t r e a , eds. Davidson, C l i f f e and S e l a s s i e , Nottingham: Spokesman, 1980.  92 o f i n f l u e n c e over t h e c r u c i a l Red Sea c o a s t . T h i s meant t h a t E r i t r e a became prey t o a number o f d i v e r s e i n c u r s i o n s which the c e n t r a l E t h i o p i a n l a n d mass E g y p t i a n s , Greeks, sought  escaped.  P e r s i a n s and Arabs were among those  who  a f o o t h o l d on t h i s p r e c i o u s Red Sea c o a s t a l l a n d but  the most dominant r u l e r s  f o r t h r e e c e n t u r i e s from  t h e 16th  t o l a t e 19th c e n t u r y were t h e Ottoman Turks whose o c c u p a t i o n of  Eritrea  virtually  world.  These  effect  on  areas.  cut Ethiopia  developments  the a t t i t u d e s  o f f from  unquestionably  the  outside  a  profound  had  of the i n h a b i t a n t s of these  The r e s u l t was t h a t , as Kaplan  two  says,  "the E r i t r e a n s came t o be more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and less xenophobic than the Amharas of the interior" . 1  The never  Amharas  achieved  more powerful impunity.  c o n t i n u e d t o covet t h e E r i t r e a n c o a s t but  much success  i n this  venture.  By c o n t r a s t ,  f o r e i g n i m p e r i a l powers seemed t o invade  European a d v e n t u r e r s , t o o ,  a r e a . The Portugese them becoming which  followed  by  a  they  i n the  landed i n 1520 and t h e r e a r e r e c o r d s o f  aware o f a c o a s t a l  interior  began t o a r r i v e  with  identified  Scottish  region d i s t i n c t as  explorer  Medi named  Bahr. James  K i n n a i r d who made a s i m i l a r d i s c o v e r y i n 1770.  See Kaplan, The L o n e l i e s t War, supra, p60.  from t h e They Bruce  were of  93 C. COLONIZATION. European h a l f o f the support,  interest  19th  in  the  Turks.  began t h e i r p e n e t r a t i o n  the  same.  of  More  powerful  Italian point  and  self-determination critical  for  I t a l i a n s who  two  the  latter  Egyptians, with  British  Foolowing t h i s ,  states  one  in  were  the  1885.  Italians  Though  by  still  t o e v i c t i n g the of  the  Eritreans  distinct the  was,  can  be  traced.  First,  f o r m a t i o n of  an  Ethiopia.  express d e s i r e  on  because t h e i r m i l i t a r y t h r u s t s  met  w i t h d i s a s t e r and  they had  the  was  of  the  into Ethiopia  been f o r c e d t o sue  an  d i s t i n c t from the E t h i o p i a over which he h e l d  having they 1 1  I t a l i a n c o l o n i a l i s m had established  then  set  the  about  had  f o r peace Treaty  Eritrean control  1 1  land .  a second major e f f e c t . For,  parameters  creating  not  itself  of  But  was  Italians  of  existence  for  the  occurred  i n s i g n i n g The  the  a  Eritrean entity  This  part  it  It  w i t h Melenik, the Amhara Emperor, who, recognized  in  however,  modern-day quest  reasons.  from  engaging  invaders.  Eritrea  but  Ucciali,  this  t r i b e s indigenous t o E r i t r e a  from which the  distinct  any  the  occupation  initiated  territorially because o f  in  e r a i n E r i t r e a n h i s t o r y many of the themes were  c o n t i n u e d t o be d e d i c a t e d  turning  began  Abyssinia  c y n i c a l aggrandizement and  The  region  c e n t u r y . F i r s t the  displaced  marked a new  the  an  of  an  Eritrean  infrastructure  On the 1st January, 1880, the King of the c r e a t i o n of the colony of E r i t r e a .  Italy  nation,  suited  to  proclaimed  94 colonial  exploitation.  This,  in  turn,  created  an  effect  which i s c e n t r a l t o our whole d i s c u s s i o n .  E r i t r e a underwent  something  during  seeds  of  of a  a  socio-economic  national  revolution  which  consciousness were sown. In  UN  terms,  E r i t r e a n s were about t o become a "people". I t i s t r u e the  Italian  of  internal  o c c u p a t i o n made l i t t l e d i v e r s i t y among  r e l i g i o u s groupings but  difference  Eritrea's  i t i s s u r e l y an  that  t o the  various  the  level  ethnic  absurdity  to  and  state,  as E r l i c h does, t h a t , "Italy's impact minimal" .  on  Eritrean  society  was  1 2  C e r t a i n l y the national contrary the  Italians did  identity  in  for  such  i n d u s t r i a l i z e d parts European s o c i a l  social that  revolution  these  1 3  See  and  a  so.  process  of E r i t r e a and political  to  forge  It  would  and  classes  Leonard  to  take  brought  culture to  were  1 3  a sense have  of  been  They d i d however l a y They  people  the  there.  colonially-imposed  makes the  interdependent  place.  a s p e c t s of  the  c l a s s e s were formed d u r i n g t h i s  t r i b a l u n i t s had  1 2  Eritreans.  t o t h e i r i n t e r e s t s t o do  foundations  Whole new  the  little  in  additional a  way  the  point old  never been. S t a t i s t i c a l l y , the most t e l l i n g  E r l i c h , The  Struggle  Over E r i t r e a , supra,  p3.  See Leonard,R. European C o l o n i z a t i o n and the SocioEconomic I n t e g r a t i o n of E r i t r e a , i n The E r i t r e a n Case: Proceedings of the Permanent Peoples' T r i b u n a l o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l League f o r the R i g h t s and L i b e r a t i o n of Peoples, Session on Eritrea, Rome: Research and I n f o r m a t i o n Centre on E r i t r e a , 1982.  95 figure  i s the  18%  from 98%  t o 80%  British.  Even the  by  the  more  political one.  A  form  the  social  fully by  of  the  area  the  a l l these  been  an  E r i t r e a n argument  for  previously  into a  Eritreans  changes  which  the  was  formal  self-determination  which had  up  indisputable  created  B r i t i s h p e r i o d of r u l e from 1941,  modification  at of  aspirations  by  Keren,  the  d i d however serve  to  at  by  to  1952  displaced  a  to  self-  realistic  known no  real  first  allowing  a  wishes  to dispose of  the  later,  measure  population.  Eritreans  and  a  greater  the  when of  Eritreans  British  free  future.  It  to  policy  speech  which  But  i n a manner c o n t r a r y the  establishment  increasing l i t e r a c y  general  awareness  of  nationhood were t o p l a y a minor r o l e i n d e c i s i o n s Eritrea's  a  p o l i t i c a l a g i t a t i o n against  of E r i t r e a  p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s wrought by  only  flames of n a t i o n a l i s t  a c t i v e l y encouraging and  in  c o l o n i a l administration.  f a c i l i t a t e d a g r e a t e r degree o f plans  when the I t a l i a n s  resulted  f u r t h e r f a n the  self-determination  changed,  the  If  Italians is  had  make t h a t  i n an  unit.  digest  the  structure  and  defeated  Allied  peasantry  cohesion.  The were  to  left  political  determination  of  i n forming E r i t r e a  socio-economic  legacy  possibility  instrumental  ready  basis  numbers  modernized communications network s e t  recognizable yet  i n the  d u r i n g the c o l o n i a l r u l e of the I t a l i a n s and  I t a l i a n s was  were not  win  reduction  of  to of the  Eritrean concerning  The  question  competing c l a i m s In having  concerning  the h i s t o r i c a l  a nebulous  Lonrigg  occupation, ill-governed  sense  suggests  Eritrea or  of  can be addressed w i t h t h i s i n mind.  1 4  Eritrea  been p a r t o f "Greater  Stephen  validity  could  be  described  E t h i o p i a " . Writing  i n 1945,  1 5  that,  had t h e r e  "would be p a r t l y , non-governed  been  as  no  Italian  as always b e f o r e , t h e  northernmost  province  of  Ethiopia" . 1 6  Even i f h i s t o r i c a l l y a c c u r a t e , largely  irrelevant,  Eritrea  such hypotheses have become  was  colonized  and  alone renders much o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l d i a l e c t i c Eritrea European  may  well  imperialism"  1 7  be,  "an  but  i t i s f a r from  this  fact  superfluous.  artificial  creation alone  of  among  modern A f r i c a n s t a t e s i n t h i s r e s p e c t . C l e a r l y , t h i s f a c t i s immeasurably  more  than t h e c o l l e c t i o n  critical  t o the question  of tribute  of  sovereignty  on an i n t e r m i t t e n t b a s i s and  over an area much s m a l l e r than present-day E r i t r e a years  ago- -. I f any p a r t y 1  marxist the  1 5  1 6  understand t h i s  i t i s the  E t h i o p i a n s whose own i d e o l o g y makes t h e c r e a t i o n o f  nation-states  Thus  should  over 100  dependent  on t h e advent  of capitalism.  E t h i o p i a and E r i t r e a c o u l d o n l y be n a t i o n - s t a t e s  after  See Levine,D. G r e a t e r E t h i o p i a . Chicago: 1974. See Lonrigg,S. A Short H i s t o r y Clarendon Press, 1945, p3.  of  1 7  See E r l i c h , The S t r u g g l e over E r i t r e a ,  1 8  See Pool,D. i n The E r i t r e a n Case.supra.  Eritrea, supra,pi.  Oxford:  97 the  I t a l i a n c o l o n i z a t i o n . Their claims t o  s h o u l d be based on t h i s p e r i o d ' s l e g a c i e s .  self-determination 1 9  By t h e time t h e  I t a l i a n s l e f t E r i t r e a a c o l o n i a l u n i t had, without already  been carved out o f t h e "Greater E t h i o p i a n  question, Empire".  D. THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE AUTONOMY COMPROMISE. At t h e P a r i s Peace Conference i n 1946 f o l l o w i n g t h e end of  t h e war I t a l y gave up h e r r i g h t s t o E r i t r e a and i t was  decided that  the ultimate  disposal  lie  i n t h e hands o f t h e B i g Powers  and  Great  Britain)  or, f a i l i n g  o f t h e ex-cplony  should  (the USA, USSR,  France  agreement between them, the  UN. In an e f f o r t t o f i n d some common ground between t h e B i g Powers  a  report, have  commission  of inquiry  was  sent  to Eritrea. I t s  submitted i n May,1948, c o n t a i n e d n o t h i n g t h a t formed  the basis  o f an agreement  between  might  the  four  powers and t h e q u e s t i o n was submitted t o t h e UN under t h e terms  of the Treaty  similar resorted 1 9  difficulty t o sending  of Paris finding a  a  second  (article  23) .  satisfactory commission  The  UN  had  solution  and  of inquiry  with  C o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h i s view can be found i n Salmon J . , " D r o i t s des peuples e t d r o i t s des E t a t s , i n R e a l i t e s du d r o i t i n t e r n a t i o n a l contemporain f a c u l t e du d r o i t de Reims, 1976, p221, where he makes t h e p o i n t t h a t t h e Western Sahahra Case had been d e c i d e d " i n a l i n e w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l view a c c o r d i n g t o which only a s t a t e established i n a European s t y l e can h o l d t i t l e to s o v e r e i g n t y " . C l e a r l y , t h i s c o u l d be a p p l i e d e q u a l l y t o the E r i t r e a n s i t u a t i o n .  98 members  from  Burma, Guatemala,  A f r i c a . T h i s commission was  Norway,  Pakistan  and  South  charged w i t h a s c e r t a i n i n g ,  "the wishes o f the E r i t r e a n people and of promoting t h e i r f u t u r e w e l f a r e " .  the means  It  to  2 0  could  originally  agree  mooted  in  only the  on  opposition  Bevin-Sforza  plan  partition,  and  strongly  opposed by the E r i t r e a n s themselves. In t h e relatively was  more  end minor  the wishes of the E r i t r e a n people role  concerned  with  n o t a b l y the need t o be and  security  take  into  S e c u r i t y was of  the  i n the the  other  cognizant  i n East A f r i c a " account  final  the  2 1  r e p o r t . The elements  of  played  a  commission i t s brief,  of "the i n t e r e s t s of peace  and  the  "legitimate"  requirement needs  of  that i t Ethiopia.  d e f i n e d i n terms of the g e o s t r a t e g i c i n t e r e s t s  Western  unambiguously by  powers  articulated  f o r the  Americans  most  S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e John F o s t e r D u l l e s when  he s t a t e d , "From the p o i n t o f view of j u s t i c e , the o p i n i o n s of the E r i t r e a n people must r e c e i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s the s t r a t e g i c i n t e r e s t o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n the Red Sea b a s i n . . .make i t necessary t h a t our country has t o be l i n k e d w i t h our a l l y , Ethiopia" . 2 2  UN R e s o l u t i o n 289 A ( i v ) 2  1  2 2  Ibid. Quoted i n S e l a s s i e , B . H . E r i t r e a and the U n i t e d Nations The E r i t r e a n Case, supra, p l 3 2 .  in  99  The  French and  Eritrean  B r i t i s h were e q u a l l y p r e j u d i c e d  independence  ; the  French  because  against  they  regarded  independence anywhere i n A f r i c a as a danger t o t h e i r c o n t r o l over  colonies  Somalia, and to  the  Red  such  as  Algeria  and  neighbouring  the B r i t i s h because of an o b s e s s i o n Sea  and  Suez  canal  which  was  to  French  with  access  result  d i s a s t r o u s e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t Nassar o n l y f o u r years These powerful the  commission's  incapable  of  s t a t e s undoubtedly had  findings.  supporting  a  The  opinion  an  Eritrea  national  on  administering for  the  despite Guatemala  the  skewed  judgments  of  the and  decision  to  federate  the  reservations Pakistan  of  who  Eritrea  the  was  over-  British  a u t h o r i t i e s . These judgements formed the  final  with  basis  Ethiopia  representatives  favoured  full  and  on  economy  or e f f e c t i v e self-government came about because o f an reliance  a  later.  influence  that  self-sufficient  in  from  immediate  independence. The  r e s o l u t i o n i t s e l f was  strategic the  bargaining  on  r e a l l y the c h i l d one  i n e v i t a b l e outcome on  agreement  with  support  the  exchange  for  Ethiopia's Eritrean the  use  hand the  the  communications base. None of from the  USSR who  had  other.  Emperor  claim of  and  little  apathy  The  made a  other  or,  influence  more l i k e l y ,  Selassie  to  tacit not  important  to  Kagnew  major powers i n the  much t o g a i n from E r i t r e a n independence and were e i t h e r unable  US  as  self-determination • i n  militarily the  ill-disguised  general  Hailie  for  of  (apart  region)  had  as a consequence  unwilling to  perceive  100 the  obvious  flaws  i n the f i n a l  resolution  on E r i t r e a ' s  future. The  drafters  principle  of the resolution  of self-determination  paid  lip-service  without  by name b u t t h i s was t h e p e r i o d , b e f o r e  ever mentioning i t the l a s t vestiges of  c o l o n i a l i s m had disappeared, when i t was s t i l l make t h e e x e r c i s e o f  t o the  self-determination  acceptable t o  c o n d i t i o n a l on such  f a c t o r s as t h e preparedness o f t h e s e l f - d e t e r m i n i n g u n i t and the  interests  prepared  o f other  t e n years  different.  As  standards  set  later  i t stands, out  determination  such  International  Law  Granting  states.  i t s tenor i t fails  in  as  Had  later  The  the r e s o l u t i o n would  t o conform  been  on  much  t o t h e new  declarations  Declaration  (Res 2625)  have  been  on  self-  P r i n c i p l e s of  and The D e c l a r a t i o n  on t h e  o f Independence t o C o l o n i a l Peoples (Res. 1514).  Even i f t h e r e s o l u t i o n , and t h e new c o n s t i t u t i o n s p r i n g i n g from i t , had been adhered t o by t h e p a r t i e s t o them (and i t will  be  case ) 2 3  the  illustrated i tis still  exercise  conclusively doubtful  that  this  was  not the  whether i t was c o n s i s t e n t  of self-determination  as i t has come  with  t o be  defined. In  i t s preamble  disposal  the r e s o l u t i o n  of the t e r r i t o r y  i s t o take  l i g h t o f t h e wishes and w e l f a r e such d i s p o s a l interested 2 3  should  take,"into  governments"(my  See below p96-98.  makes  i t clear place  only,  that the " i n the  o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s " and t h a t consideration  emphasis).  These  t h e views o f "interested"  101 governments i n c l u d e  the major Western powers and  the  USSR.  Thus, not o n l y i s t h i s preamble a n e g a t i o n o f the f u l l r i g h t to  self-determination,  continuation  of  i t a c t u a l l y appears  what  came t o  be  known  ( i . e . the n o t i o n t h a t c o l o n i a l i s m was less  overt  forms  instruments  on  than  had  as  approve  the  neo-colonialism  capable o f e x i s t i n g i n  previously  self-determination  to  been  extant).  were  Later  dedicated  to  e x t i n g u i s h i n g t h i s phenomenon. The  most d e c i s i v e v o i c e  and  one  t h a t e v e n t u a l l y p r e v a i l e d over t h e E r i t r e a n r i g h t t o  self-determination, (c)  among these i n t e r e s t e d governments,  enshrines  was  this  recommendation should  that  of  the  "interest"  Ethiopians.  stating  that  Paragraph the  final  take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n ,  "The r i g h t s and claims of E t h i o p i a based on geographical, historical, ethnic or economic reasons, including in particular Ethiopia's l e g i t i m a t e need f o r adequate access t o the sea." The  resolution also  recognizes,  " t h a t the d i s p o s a l o f E r i t r e a should be based on i t s c l o s e p o l i t i c a l and economic a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Ethiopia". The  spirit  o f compromise t h a t  the need t o s a t i s f y E t h i o p i a ' s best  inform  t h i s document  imperial claims,  are  and  perhaps  i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g paragraph whose o s t e n s i b l e  purpose was  t o safeguard E r i t r e a n c u l t u r e ,  "Desiring that this association assure the i n h a b i t a n t s o f E r i t r e a the f u l l e s t r e s p e c t and safeguards f o r t h e i r institutions, traditions, r e l i g i o n s and languages, as w e l l as the w i d e s t  102 p o s s i b l e measure of self-government, same time respecting the institutions, t r a d i t i o n s and the s t a t u s and i d e n t i t y o f the Empire of  The  actual  surprisingly,  w h i l e a t the Constitution, international Ethiopia. 1 1  recommendations  themselves,  favoured an E r i t r e a t h a t was  not  to,  " c o n s t i t u t e an autonomous u n i t f e d e r a t e d with E t h i o p i a under the s o v e r e i g n t y o f the Ethiopian Crown"(Clause 1). The  remainder of the  r e s o l u t i o n assigned  jurisdiction  in various  matters t o e i t h e r a proposed E r i t r e a n Government  (domestic  affairs)  foreign  affairs  or  and  the  finance)  Federal and  Government  enumerated  r i g h t s which were t o accrue t o the r e s i d e n t s  a  (defence, series  of  of E r i t r e a .  Did the c r e a t i o n of such a u n i t c o n s t i t u t e an a c t of  self-  d e t e r m i n a t i o n on the p a r t of the E r i t r e a n s ? One  of  the  regime and by  principal those who  accepting  the  arguments  employed  by  the  Ethiopian  favour i t s c l a i m s over E r i t r e a i s t h a t  resolution  the  Eritreans  d e f i n i t i v e a c t of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n  2 4  engaged  in  which they cannot  a now  rescind. This first  argument ground  itself,  the  i s e a s i l y refuted lies  i n the  o t h e r i n the  on  flawed  two  major grounds.  nature  of  behaviour o f the  A once-only s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . Chapter V I I I .  See  the  resolution  Ethiopians  Index  The  in  the  of V a l i d i t y ,  103 years  immediately  f o l l o w i n g the  f e d e r a t i o n of E r i t r e a  with  Ethiopia. I t i s never made c l e a r i n the r e s o l u t i o n why  E t h i o p i a should  acquire  and  had,  de  facto  i n the  (tenuous) obvious  control  preceding  historical why  11  over  seventy links  interested"  prominent r o l e  a  territory  years,  with  severed  that  governments  i n the p r o c e s s  of  should  from  who  most  of i t s  Nor  is i t  state.  play  such  a  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . There  a r e s e v e r a l , more t e c h n i c a l , reasons why be d i s q u a l i f i e d  people  r e s o l u t i o n 390 must  c o n s i d e r a t i o n as a v a l i d  act of  self-  determination: (1)  The  "capacity  (paragraph(a)) decision.  was  of  the  deemed  R e s o l u t i o n 1514  people  a  for  self-government"  relevant factor  makes i t c l e a r  i n the  that t h i s  final can  no  l o n g e r a t t e n u a t e the r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n s t a t i n g , "Inadequacy o f p o l i t i c a l , economic, e d u c a t i o n a l preparedness should never pretext f o r delaying independence" .  social or serve as a  25  Two  other  matter.  points  First,  "capacity"  should  there  or  be  noted  i s the  economic  i n connection  question  as  viability  to  with  this  whether  this  was  ever  fully  i n v e s t i g a t e d . There are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e commission have  simply  the  British  determine and 2 5  on  the  administering  this.  motive. See G.A.  depended  Second,  extremely  i s the  E q u i v a l e n t d i s p o s a l s of Res.  1514,  Dec.  p r e j u d i c e d views  authorities  there  14th,  1960  may  when  i s s u e of colonial  it  came  of to  consistency units  around  supra, P r i n c i p l e  3.  104 this  time  govern  no heed  themselves  suspicion subvert (2)  paid  that  effectively  this  may  have  o f t h e people t o  (e.g. Libya) simply  been  raising  another  the  ploy t o  the E r i t r e a n r i g h t to self-determination.  I f we assume t h a t  (something I w i l l  Eritrea  elaborate  apparent r e c o g n i t i o n do  to the capacity  e x i s t e d as a " c o l o n i a l u n i t "  on l a t e r ) and a l l y  i n the r e s o l u t i o n  case  that  a powerful  thought t o have such e x t e n s i v e  neighbour  claims  i t was i n t h i s (Ethiopia)  authority  or  were  at  least  o f an a d m i n i s t e r i n g  was  t o the E r i t r e a n u n i t  when s i m i l a r A f r i c a n c o l o n i e s were e i t h e r g r a n t e d independence  t o the  that the Eritreans  e x i s t as a people26 we have t o ask why  particular  this  p u t under  the  outright temporary  power as a t r a n s i t i o n a l  step  t o independence. The the  only  interests  sovereignty  reasonable c o n c l u s i o n o f governments  one can come t o i s t h a t  with  no  claim  on  Eritrean  were allowed t o p l a y a d e c i s i v e and unwarranted  r o l e i n the ultimate disposal of E r i t r e a .  E. Human R i g h t s  and t h e E r i t r e a n R i g h t t o Secede  I f t h e E r i t r e a n s were d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e outcome o f the UN  involvement i n t h e i s s u e ,  despite  i t s c o n c i l i a t o r y tone,  the Ethiopian was  equally  government, unhappy  and  See references t o the capacity o f t h e "people" a t paragraph (a) and the d i s t i n c t i v e "institutions, t r a d i t i o n s , r e l i g i o n s and languages" i n t h e f i n a l c l a u s e o f t h e preamble.  105 hinted  on s e v e r a l  occasions  that  E r i t r e a n autonomy was t o  become s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d . A number o f o b j e c t i o n s were made by Ethiopian  representatives  to  c o m p l a i n t s about t h e e x i s t e n c e and  the  passed aside  of  Eritrea.  (on J u l y and  measure  By  of  t h e time  that  administrative  Unfortunately,  and A r a b i c  10th, 1952) these  i t appeared  objections  Eritreans  following  flag  the o f f i c i a l  the c o n s t i t u t i o n  was  had been s e t  had  independence  t h e decade  including  o f an E r i t r e a n n a t i o n a l  t h e d e c i s i o n t o make T i g r i n y a  languages  Commission  secured  for  some  themselves.  the passing  of the  c o n s t i t u t i o n was marked by a s e r i e s o f E t h i o p i a n a s s a u l t s on its  provisions  each  with  the  apparent  intention  of  undermining E r i t r e a n autonomy. Between 1952 and t h e o u t r i g h t annexation o f E r i t r e a on November t h e 14th, 1962, systematically implication Tigrinya  subverted  t h e UN  was  the Ethiopian the  Resolution  replaced  constitution  that  by Amharic  language) as E r i t r e a ' s o f f i c i a l  f e d e r a l government  initiated  and,  i t . I n 1956  (the o f f i c i a l  Ethiopian  language and was f o l l o w e d by  a f a m i l i a r sequence o f human r i g h t s d e p r i v a t i o n s . courts  tried  constitution), abolished  Eritrean  and d i s s e n t  s e v e r a l - massacres oppression . 2 7  citizens  newspapers  were  closed  down,  harshly,  demonstrations  The E t h i o p i a n  See S e l a s s i e , B . H . pl41-152.  (impermissible  was t r e a t e d  during  by  Ethiopian under t h e  trade  culminating  against  i n t i m i d a t i o n campaign  E r i t r e a and t h e U n i t e d  unions in  Ethiopian resulted  Nations,  supra,  106 in  the  absorption  empire.  However  molding  an  prove  to to  Eritrea  i t had  Eritrean  fatal  government  of  the  the  period  duress)  of  reclaiming  Furthermore  the  Ethiopia  only  the  a f t e r the  law  an  ensure that  the  Eritrean  the  UN. that  Eritrea  determination  The this  was  was  to  Ethiopian  resistance  annexation  Eritrean action  to  initiated  illegally  national  identity.  frustrated  the  i f we  implemented  never been p a r t the  a  only e f f e c t i v e  federation Therefore,  E r i t r e a has  even the d i m i n i s h e d  The  accept  E r i t r e a n s were never g i v e n  the  which  whole  been argued t h a t E r i t r e a became p a r t  federation  international  by  of  further  d e c i s i o n by the E r i t r e a n Assembly  Ethiopian  arrangement. I t has  The  ambition  eliminate  Ethiopian  e f f e c t of  i n which armed r e s i s t a n c e became the  method  that  to  modern  consciousness  ultimate  completely  the  paradoxical  national  i t s r e g i o n a l hegemony. The (made under  into  accept  then of  opportunity  of  under  Ethiopia.  to  exercise  r i g h t of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n awarded them  UN,  therefore,  right  exercised  is  has  continuing  resurrected .  its  2 8  once-only  i s a p r e p o s t e r o u s one  E r i t r e a n L i b e r a t i o n Force  response t o the p o l i t i c a l  a  (ELF)  The  right  duty  to  proposition to  self-  i n these c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  was  formed  f a i l u r e of the UN  and  i n 1962  in  the autonomy  See UN Commissioner f o r E r i t r e a , Matienzo, F i n a l Report, Chapter 11, p 2 0 1 , " . . . i t does not f o l l o w t h a t the UN would no longer have any r i g h t to deal with the q u e s t i o n . The UN R e s o l u t i o n on E r i t r e a would remain an i n t e r n a t i o n a l instrument and, i f v i o l a t e d , the General Assembly c o u l d be s e i z e d of the matter."  107 compromise d e s c r i b e d Ethiopians  on  the  above. The v i o l e n t i n t r a n s i g e n c e  question  of  even a measure of  independence. Support f o r the ELF struggle  was  tempered  more powerful  elites  it  Islamic  was  an  attachment  to  the  because  fundamentalist  classic  occasional several  off-shoot (EPLF),  hijackings  the  after a  in  which  decade o f  as the o n l y  change was  which ranking  a  attack  did  ELF the  including  little  People's  to  improve  Liberation  organization  and  by  gained  1981  s i g n i f i c a n t opposition to  an  Front  military in-fighting  in Ethiopia made up,  officers  in  and  NCOs  Emperor  transformation marxist  mirrored  m i l i t a r y committee  overthrew  of  Eritrean  could  Ethiopia  Eritrea.  This  The  the  little  punctuated by  terrorist  Eritrean  dominance over t h e i r parent be d e s c r i b e d  with  that  abroad. E v e n t u a l l y they were superseded by  group,  who  fact  p u b l i c support meant t h a t  g u e r r i l l a war  publicity-seeking  t h e i r standing  among  the  m a r g i n a l d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . The  low-level  PLO-style  the  group  majority  p e o p l e . T h i s l a c k of u n c o n d i t i o n a l  fought a  Ethiopian  i t s a s s o c i a t i o n with  i n E r i t r e a n s o c i e t y and  the r o l e of the ELF was  the  i n the e a r l y y e a r s of t h i s  of  Christian  of  of  Haile  Ethiopia  the  by  the  primarily,  Ethiopian  Selassie from  1974  feudal  and  coup  in  of  middle  armed  forces  began  monarchy  the  to  modern  known, f l i r t e d b r i e f l y w i t h the  notion  state.  Dergue, as i t was negotiating  with  the  s e r i e s of u n s u c c e s s f u l  Eritrean rebels.  discussions,  However,  f o l l o w i n g which  after  a  leading  108 Dergue  officials  "failure",  it  were  began  usually  to  liquidated  zealously  pursue  for the  their  military  s o l u t i o n t o which i t remains committed. The  infamous  superpowers d u r i n g  switching the  of  sides  Ogaden war  undertaken  between the  had major i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e of  No  could  the  f r i e n d l y marxist now  allies  the  of  Soviets,  Major  depend  governments abroad  the  Ethiopian  erstwhile  encouraged the EPLF.  Eritreans  offensives  since  government.  suppliers  Dergue t o  on  to  the the  and  Eritrea.  support Soviets  Ironically  the  the  Somalis  Ethiopians longer  by  of  were  it  was  Eritreans,  who  seek m i l i t a r y ascendence over in  pursuit  of  this  objective  the have  r e s u l t e d o n l y i n a m i l i t a r y and p o l i t i c a l stalemate w i t h  the  EPLF  the  controlling  approximately  85%  of  Eritrea  E t h i o p i a n army presence r e s t r i c t e d t o a h a n d f u l I t i s questionable to a desire to Afghanistan, be  little  shared  Persian  Gulf  common ground  marxist  of t o w n s . 2 9  whether t h i s m i l i t a r y stalemate w i l l  seek p o l i t i c a l  the  and  s o l u t i o n s as has and  between  dogma which  c o n v i n c e them both t h a t  lead  happened i n  Angola. There appears the  in this  two  sides  case  serves  t h e i r s i s the  save  their  merely  historically  to  to  correct  position. The  questions  secure Eritrea 2 9  we  must  ask  self-determination have  a  right  See Gebremichael,A. understand Eritrean Monitor, supra.  are,  what  for Eritrea to  outcome and  would  best  Ethiopia  ?, Does  self-determination  under  "Famine makes i t crucial to struggle", Christian Science  international what  law as formulated  are the implications  theory  i n t h e UN  o f our f i n a l  ?  And  finally  assessment  for a  of secession ?  F. ERITREA'S RIGHT TO SELF-DETERMINATION  In a d d r e s s i n g  this  be d i s t i n g u i s h e d .  UNDER UN  LAW.  i s s u e two a s p e c t s o f t h e q u e s t i o n To b e g i n  with,  Eritrea's  claim  should  t o be a  "people" w i t h a r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n must be assessed according the  last  t o how t h e UN has chosen t o d e f i n e t h e term over three  question:  decades. A s s o c i a t e d  do t h e c o n d i t i o n s  with that  e x i s t by which t h i s r i g h t  i n t o e f f e c t over t h e norm o f t e r r i t o r i a l The  rapid  determination  make t h e E r i t r e a n hardly  development  i n various claim  i s t h e second  UN  of  integrity ?  the  right  to  instruments  simply  serves  increasingly irrefutable.  a c r i t e r i o n i n t h e new UN  that E r i t r e a f a i l s to f u l f i l l .  comes  law o f  selfto  There i s  self-determination  Support f o r t h e  establishment  of a new s t a t e o f E r i t r e a does not o f f e n d t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f territorial Eritrea's  integrity incorporation  unconstitutional  act  3 0  .  or  political  into  Ethiopia  Nor  can  sovereignty was  i t be  In o t h e r words E r i t r e a does not Ethiopia's t e r r i t o r i a l integrity.  a recent  said  that  constitute  since and an Eritrea  part  of  110 achieved  self-government,  s t a t e . . . f r e e l y and The  "by  on the b a s i s of a b s o l u t e  EPLF d e s c r i b e s  as " c o l o n i a l " and the  banning  gives  credence t o t h a t  of  exploitation" their  another  equality"  .  the E t h i o p i a n c l a i m t o i t s t e r r i t o r y  languages)  and  would i n d i c a t e  " a l i e n subjugation,  disapproved  so-called  imperialism  economic e x p l o i t a t i o n  d e s c r i p t i o n and  the E r i t r e a n s are under the  Certainly  with  the r e c e n t h i s t o r y of c u l t u r a l  (e.g.  and  association  that  domination  of  in  Resolution  1514.  exercise  of  self-determination  does not come c l o s e t o s a t i s f y i n g the guarantees l a i d out i n P r i n c i p l e s V I I t o IX of R e s o l u t i o n Perhaps  it  International renewed  right  is  Law of  32  the that  1541.  Declaration provides  the  on  Principles  best  argument  Eritrean self-determination.  As  a  of  for  a  people  they, "have the r i g h t t o f r e e l y determine without e x t e r n a l i n t e r f e r e n c e , t h e i r p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s and t o pursue t h e i r economic, s o c i a l and cultural development...". This  much  possibility state  of  Ethiopians  that  i s c l e a r . However, Eritrea  Ethiopia  it  has  is  even  become p a r t  difficult  to  i f we of  the  state  the  sovereign  envision  can a v a i l themselves of the t e r r i t o r i a l  p r o v i s i o n s i n c e any  accept  how  the  integrity  not.  See General Assembly R e s o l u t i o n 1953.  742  See 2.  24th, 1970.supra,  G.A.Resolution. 2625, Oct.  ( V I I I ) , 27th November Chapter  Ill "conducting itself i n compliance with the p r i n c i p l e o f equal r i g h t s and s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p e o p l e s . . . and thus possessed o f a government r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e whole people b e l o n g i n g t o t h e t e r r i t o r y without d i s t i n c t i o n as t o r a c e , c r e e d o r colour", foregoes t h e r i g h t t o an i n a l i e n a b l e s o v e r e i g n t y . So,  under  t h e formal  rules  o f t h e UN  law o f  self-  d e t e r m i n a t i o n t h e E r i t r e a n s have a s t r o n g c a s e t o secede. 1  The  index  of v a l i d i t y ,  outlined later  i n this  paper,  imposes a s u b s t a n t i v e body o f r u l e s on t h e UN law o f s e l f determination. proposed  This  theory  essential  index  of  conditions  i s the construct c e n t r a l  legitimacy. are a l l i e d  I n t h e index to a  number  a  of  t o the s e t of critical  v a r i a b l e s w i t h a view t o e m p i r i c a l l y a s s e s s i n g t h e l e g a l and political Eritrean there our  validity situation  of  a  respond  also a substantive  vision  claim  f o r t h e new  to  secede.  How  does  t o the i n d i c e s of v a l i d i t y ? right  world  o f s e c e s s i o n conforming order  lurking  below  the Is to  a l l the  r e v o l u t i o n a r y v e r b i a g e and f o r m a l i s t i c rule-making?  In o r d e r t o q u a l i f y f o r t h e r i g h t o f s e c e s s i o n t h e E r i t r e a n s must s a t i s f y  a number o f b a s i c c r i t e r i a  and i f  Eritrea i s  l e g a l l y d i s b a r r e d from e x e r c i s i n g t h e r i g h t t o s e c e s s i o n i t must be assumed  that  other  integrity  and  political  Ethiopia's  favour.  supernorms sovereignty  such  as  have  territorial worked  in  112 G.ERITREA AND  THE  INDEX OF  In o r d e r t o a s s e s s the l e g i t i m a c y we  should  part  of  reflect this  on  theory  the  indices  of  of  secession  VALIDITY.  of the E r i t r e a n validity  and  claim  developed  apply  them  to  as the  Eritrean situation.  (i) E r i t r e a ' s e x i s t e n c e  An  Eritrean  as a people.  national  consciousness can  be  traced  a t l e a s t t o the time of I t a l i a n c o l o n i z a t i o n . P r i o r t o historical region  evidence would i n d i c a t e  were  unnecessary  never  then  integrated  to  preempt  that  the  into  any  this,  people of  Ethiopia.  concluding  back  this  It  is  discussions  on  the t h e o r e t i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s of "people" i n o r d e r t o conclude that  Eritreans  UN  Resolution  be  regarded  (390) as  with Ethiopia the  do  Eritrean  indeed  constitute  and  the  c a r r i e d with  ill-fated  it a  would be  stage E r i t r e a was  entity.  failure  Ethiopians its  initial  of  abrogated the decision.  made, the e x i s t e n c e  the  Even a t  being treated UN  based  to  intervene  i n no on  as  way  this a  that early  distinct when  detracts  arguments  to  federation  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l caveat  agreement So,  proposed  protected.  post-colonial The  original  makes i t c l e a r t h a t the E r i t r e a n s are  such  state  a people. The  the from  previously  of an E r i t r e a n people i s u n c o n t e s t a b l e .  ( i i ) Human R i g h t s .  113  Severe s c a l e by other  deprivation  the  human  f a c t o r s are  present,  set  up  aimed a t the m i n o r i t y  world.  and  abuses  The  3 3  Tigre  needs have  and  a valid  i s said  Government's  no  occurred  in In  list  t o be  of  here.  areas  of  Eritrea,  the  have  consequence  to  Ethiopians i n the  J J  been  humanitarian  thought  be to  to  if  self-  law  in  transgressions  of  Typically  by  depressing the  worst  including  Ethiopians Two.  have The  the been  bribery  e a r l y p e r i o d of E r i t r e a n military  tactics  whose  i s indiscriminate violence contrary of  armed  deliberate  create  region.  replaced  the  entity. worst  conflict  the  i n t i m i d a t i o n which marked the  natural  claim  i s a f a m i l i a r and  enumeration  Eritrea.  autonomy  widespread  seceding  waging a campaign of t e r r o r s i n c e World War and  a  i s sought can,  group w i t h i n the  i n t e r n a t i o n a l human r i g h t s law one  on  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i f such d e p r i v a t i o n  E t h i o p i a ' s human r i g h t s r e c o r d the  rights  s t a t e from which s e c e s s i o n  determination. is  of  an  conflict.  policy  optimal  on  3 4  the  environment  In  fact  part  to  i t is of  the  for starvation  3 5  See Amnesty I n t e r n a t i o n a l Report 1978. Little appear t o have changed i n the i n t e r v e n i n g decade.  would  3 4  See e.g. the E t h i o p i a n s are r e p o r t e d t o be u s i n g napalm and chemical weapons on E r i t r e a n c i v i l i a n s . Reports of massacres are too numerous t o be doubted see e.g. N.Y. Times, Aug 23, 1988, p6 and ICJ Review 40, June 1988, p2.  3 5  See Gebremichael,A. C h r i s t i a n Science Monitor, supra. See a l s o the frequent complaints by r e l i e f organizations concerning the obstructive behaviour of Ethiopian o f f i c i a l d o m d u r i n g the famines of the l a s t decade.  114 C o n v e r s e l y the are u n l i k e l y t o be point  where  at  worst  Ethiopian positive writing  3 6  compromised  claims  a c t i v a t e d . The is  E r i t r e a n s have shown t h a t  recent  an  human  a t t a c k by  in this rights  the  E r i t r e a n state to  internal self-determination  aberration,  deceit  on  to  i n an  human r i g h t s  at  arena.  record.  subject,  it  will  the EPLF on a r e l i e f best  a  The  natural  response  Well-documented a  be  convoy  E r i t r e a n s have a  includes  the  in  very  various  thriving  health  s e r v i c e , women's r i g h t s , r e l a t i v e l y benevolent treatment prisoners  o f war  and  a commitment t o  t h a t seems l e s s s p u r i o u s  a socialist  have  humanitarian  survived concerns  representatives,  (iii)  than most. While the l o n g e v i t y of a  greatest  as of  a  nation its  around  b l o c s , o n l y the EEC  and  proven  military  Legitimacy.  has  the  world.  has 3 7  Of  been met the  with  major  the  power  i n d i c a t e d support f o r the E r i t r e a n s .  See Kaplan,R., The Longest War, supra. See and H o l l a n d , Never Kneel Down, supra. 3 7  the  the  the EPLF.  situation in Eritrea  apathy  because o f  political  P o l i t i c a l S t a b i l i t y and  The  of  democracy  g u e r r i l l a cause can never be a measure of i t s l e g i t i m a c y Eritreans  to  also  Firebrace  See e.g. C.B.C., The F i f t h E s t a t e , on the war i n E r i t r e a Sunday 11th October. 9p.m. where i t was s a i d by a commentator t h a t "the Canadian government has no i d e a what's going on i n E r i t r e a " Globe And M a i l Tuesday, October 11th 1988 p l 6 . A l s o i n Kaplan, "The Longest War", where a g u e r r i l l a f i n d s comfort i n the presence of s a t e l l i t e s i n the sky because i t "meant t h a t a t l e a s t somebody somewhere was p a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o the war",p65  115 Ironically  this  determination.  has  strengthened  their  claim  to  self-  L e l i o Basso t e l l s o n l y h a l f t h e s t o r y when he  says : "...the E r i t r e a n people have, f o r 17 y e a r s now been f i g h t i n g a war o f l i b e r a t i o n , and have thereby furnished the best p o s s i b l e proof o f t h e i r e x i s t e n c e as a people, and as a consequence, o f their right to self-determination." 3 8  What he omits t o mention i s t h a t t h i s war o f l i b e r a t i o n has  been fought without t h e patronage o f any major powers.  The  EPLF  claim  i s one o f t h e few g u e r r i l l a  almost  complete  argument a g a i n s t small  nation  self-sufficiency.  the idea  i s simply  that  t o grant  granting  support  "reversed  of the l o c a l  the  classical  This  i s a powerful  independence t o a  i t the r i g h t  as t h e c l i e n t o f a major sponsoring the  movements t h a t can  t o dependence  power. The EPLF a l s o has  populace  3 9  guerrilla  and i s s a i d warfare  t o have  pattern"  by  f e e d i n g t h e peasants r a t h e r than l i v i n g , p a r a s i t i c a l l y , o f f them.  40  There was some doubt as t o whether E r i t r e a n was  powerful  ethnic First  groups Assembly  enough  t o cohere  i n Eritrean (between  the various  society. 1952  3 8  See L e l i o Basso, The E r i t r e a n  3 9  See F i r e b r a c e and H o l l a n d ,  4 0  See Shepherd,J. Issue, War,supra, p63  and  nationalism  religious  and  Erlich  argues  that the  1956)  failed  because,  Case, supra, plO  Never Kneel Down, supra, p43  quoted a t R.Kaplan, The L o n e l i e s t  "Eritrea's  fragmented  society  had  no  majority" . 4 1  He  concludes t h a t by 1978, "the reality of ethnic, religious, regional, social and personal rivalries...legitimizing d i s u n i t y proved s t r o n g e r than t h e r e l a t i v e l y young sentiment o f E r i t r e a n n a t i o n a l i s m " 4 2  According survived too  to  Erlich,  the revolution  while  Ethiopian  i n 1977, E r i t r e a n n a t i o n a l i s m  fragmented t o s u r v i v e a s i m i l a r t r i a l .  highly  disingenuous.  What E r l i c h  Ethiopian "nationalism", committee,  survived  eliminated  nationalism  of  only  high  "failed"  reference  This which  T h i s argument i s  t o mention  i s that  i t s leader,  fragments  in  opponents.  Mengistu,  several  Further,  bloody Eritrean  p r e c i s e l y because t h e r e was no s i m i l a r on t h e E r i t r e a n s i d e . He might have  t o o , t o t h e scorched  E t h i o p i a n Army a p p a r e n t l y entirely  because  level  r u t h l e s s n e s s manifested made  fails  was  i n t h e dubious shape o f a m i l i t a r y  a l l possible  liquidations  nationalism  earth  policy  o f an  d e d i c a t e d t o making E r i t r e a almost  uninhabitable. "fragmentation"  cannot  determination  possibly unless  we  i s essentially preclude are  to  the  a multi-ethnicity  exercise  return  to  of a  self-  neo-Nazi  4 1  See E r l i c h , H . The S t r u g g l e over E r i t r e a , supra, p8.  4 2  I b i d , p96.  117 definition  of  national  self-determination  .  As  Leonard  says, "Under I t a l i a n c o l o n i a l i s m , E r i t r e a was not formed as a n a t i o n - s t a t e but as a m u l t i - n a t i o n a l s t a t e " 4 4  Eritreanism  may  well  be  the  negation  E t h i o p i a n i z a t i o n but i t has served t o c o a l e s c e  the diverse  forces within  t h e country under t h e EPLF. I n t e r n a l  is  a problem  no  longer  movement t o u n i t e  and t h e a b i l i t y  Eritreans  augurs w e l l  of  disunity  of the l i b e r a t i o n f o r the p o l i t i c a l  s t a b i l i t y o f an E r i t r e a n s t a t e . Economic P o t e n t i a l 45  One o f t h e p r i n c i p a l reasons g i v e n by t h e UN Commission (sent t o i n v e s t i g a t e E r i t r e a i n 1950) f o r i t s r e l u c t a n c e t o recommend an independent E r i t r e a was a B r i t i s h r e p o r t stated  that  E r i t r e a was  incapable  of supporting  a  national  economy. However i f E r i t r e a i s t o be judged a c c o r d i n g continental decision  was  standard  i t  is  made  i t had  discovered an  See Cobban,A. The N a t i o n - S t a t e supra, p53 See  that  economic  and  which  when  to a that  infrastructure,  Self-determination,  Leonard, The E r i t r e a n Case, supra ,p58  Note R e s o l u t i o n 1514, Paragraph 3 s t a t e s "Inadequacy o f ...economic...preparedness should never serve as a p r e t e x t f o r d e l a y i n g independence." In terms o f formal l e g a l r u l e s t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s not r e l e v a n t . I f we a r e t o take t h i s p r o c e s s a step beyond t h e s e r u l e s the i s s u e becomes c e n t r a l .  118 inherited  from  the I t a l i a n s ,  advantage over i t s A f r i c a n Its  which  There  support  i s no doubt  developed  a healthy  must take  that  Eritrea  controversial  i s a t present i n  t o f e e d i t s people f a r  economy. N e v e r t h e l e s s  into  distinct  neighbours.  d i r e economic circumstances, unable  Eritrea  i t a  c u r r e n t economic c a p a c i t y i s a more  subject.  less  gave  account  particular  any c r i t e r i a circumstances.  i s a t p r e s e n t a war-zone w i t h one o f t h e combatants  f i g h t i n g a war intended t o d e s t r o y t h e E r i t r e a n  s o c i a l and  economic i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . The E t h i o p i a n s have f o r y e a r s been in the  the process Italians  of dismantling Eritrean  and B r i t i s h .  industries  left  I t i s u n j u s t t o depend on these  p r e s e n t circumstances i n any judgment s i n c e they have bearing  on  Eritrea. progress means.  Though  implicit  i t i s more  made by t h e EPLF  available operate  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  Instead,  i s enough  evidence  scale  4 6  and t h a t  little  independent  to  view  extremely  t h e EPLF  an e q u i t a b l e and e f f i c i e n t  a l b e i t on a minimal  i n an  instructive  within their  i n f o r m a t i o n about  there  by  the  limited  i s not r e a d i l y  t o suggest distributive  that  they  economy,  their,  See Kaplan,R. The L o n e l i e s t War, supra, p58,60 and 64 on the ERA (Eritrean Relief Association) health-care s e r v i c e and O r o t t a , "one o f t h e few b l a c k A f r i c a n " c a p i t a l s " t h a t a c t u a l l y works" (58), R i c h a r d Sherman on the semi-dormant s t a t e o f t h e E r i t r e a n economy, Chapter 5, The U n f i n i s h e d R e v o l u t i o n and F i r e b r a c e and H o l l a n d , Never Kneel Down, supra, on s e l f - r e l i a n c e , "In an e c o n o m i c a l l y backward T h i r d World country l i k e E r i t r e a , g i v e n t h e domination o f t h e world markets by t h e i m p e r i a l i s t power, t h i s p o l i c y o f s e l f - r e l i a n c e i s a n e c e s s a r y p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an independent and v i a b l e economy" (72)  "... achievements t o date p r o v i d e a s t r o n g argument w i t h i n t h e o v e r a l l case f o r t h e economic v i a b i l i t y of a future self-governing E r i t r e a . " 4 7  H.CONCLUSION. E r i t r e a s a t i s f i e s n o t o n l y t h e standards f o r l e g i t i m a c y s e t out i n t h e index o f v a l i d i t y but has an e q u a l l y  strong  c l a i m t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n by s e c e s s i o n under t h e UN law o f self-determination principles as  mapped  out i n t h e 1970 D e c l a r a t i o n  of International Law  and by  48  on  self-determination  decolonization. Eritrea's p o l i t i c a l  p o s i t i o n and h i g h  and economic v i a b i l i t y ,  bona f i d e s  highly  discriminatory  state,  confirm  geographic  combined w i t h t h e abysmal and  human r i g h t s  i t as an i d e a l  record  candidate  of the Ethiopian for a  legitimate  exercise of the r i g h t t o secession.  See  F i r e b r a c e and H o l l a n d ,  See R e s o l u t i o n . 1970, supra.  Never Kneel Down, supra, p83  2625,October  24th,  1970. October  24th,  120 CHAPTER V. BANGLADESH: HUMANITARIAN BASIS FOR SECESSION  121  OUTLINE i.Abstract. A. INTRODUCTION B. THE SOURCES OF BANGLADESH'S QUEST FOR SECESSION...  ( i ) The formation o f P a k i s t a n ( i i ) Developments  i n E a s t P a k i s t a n from Independence t o  secession (iii)  The e l e c t i o n o f 1971  ( i v ) The m i l i t a r y s o l u t i o n  C. SUCCESS. SELF-DETERMINATION AND  SECESSION  ( i ) Success and l e g i t i m a c y ( i i ) Unique f e a t u r e s o f t h e Bangladesh s e c e s s i o n (iii) (iv)  D i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t Bangladesh Economic  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and  the  right  to  self-  determination • • ••  (v) The Bona F i d e s o f Bangladesh's Claim t o Secede the Government (vi) Human r i g h t s and the r i g h t t o secede  D.THE INDEX OF VALIDITY  and  Pakistan  122 (i) Some General Remarks ( i i ) Economic v i a b i l i t y (iii)  Geo-strategic  destabilization  (iv) Popular a l l e g i a n c e and p o l i t i c a l  legitimacy  123  Abstract  Bangladesh i s an independent s t a t e i n South A s i a a t t h e Ganges d e l t a . West Bengal Meghalaya  I t i s bordered  lying  by t h e I n d i a n s t a t e s o f  ( t o t h e west and north) , Assam  (to t h e n o r t h and north-east)  ( t o t h e north) ,  and T r i p a r a (to t h e  E a s t ) . I t a l s o has a border w i t h Burma t o t h e south-east and a southern 105  c o a s t along t h e Bay o f Bengal.  million  ethnic  c o n s i s t s o f 86 % Moslems and 12 % Hindus. In  terms  Bengalis  I t s population of  98%  with  of  the inhabitants  a small  of  Bangladesh  number o f B i h a r i s .  Bengali  are  i s the  official  language. Known as E a s t Bengal d u r i n g t h e B r i t i s h  colonial  rule  of India,  state of Pakistan and  the central  i t became p a r t  o f t h e independent  i n 1947. The o t h e r p r o v i n c e s government  by 6000 m i l e s . A c i v i l war broke out between E a s t  Pakistan's secure  major  after  (now  i n West  separated  i n 1971  Pakistan  found  from  West  East  a l l t o be  Pakistan  and  which  were  of Pakistan  constitutional  political  party,  The  a g r e a t e r measure o f autonomy  Bangladesh)  attempts Awami  by  League,  f o r the region.  was  East to This  c i v i l war ended w i t h t h e I n d i a n i n t e r v e n t i o n and Bangladesh became an independent s t a t e i n 1972.  A.INTRODUCTION  Bangladesh's  secession  from  Pakistan  i n 1971 and i t s  subsequent r e c o g n i t i o n by t h e world community i s o f t e n used as  a  basis  f o r asserting  the legitimacy of  secessionist  s t r u g g l e s . I t i s invoked as t h e prime example o f s e p a r a t i s t success  and  movement  i s summoned  f o r independence  whenever elsewhere  there  is a  similar  i n t h e world.  It is  examined here because i t serves as a model f o r a p o l i t i c a l l y desirable  and  circumstances  legally surrounding  acceptable  secession.  i t s achievement  were  Yet  the  atypical,  making i t s u t i l i t y as a paradigm d o u b t f u l . In t h e absence o f these  peculiar  circumstances,  Bangladesh would  likely  have  been consigned  t o t h e same f a t e as B i a f r a . The q u e s t i o n s t o  be  then,  answered,  only s u c c e s s f u l  1  a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g : why was t h i s t h e  s e c e s s i o n s i n c e World War Two ? I s success  the o n l y standard by which we can measure l e g i t i m a c y ? What was t h e r e a c t i o n o f t h e world community b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e armed insurgency ? How does t h e Bangladesh s i t u a t i o n respond t o (1) t h e p r i n c i p l e o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l law as i t has been developed Nations  and  (2) t h e index  of v a l i d i t y  i n the United  formulated  i n this  paper?  I  include only secessions that parent s t a t e i n t h i s category.  were  contested  by the  125  B. THE SOURCES OF BANGLADESH'S QUEST FOR SECESSION.  The human tragedy which marked t h e p o i n t f o r B a n g l a d e s h i independence began  on March  when t h e P a k i s t a n i armed f o r c e s began rule  i n Dacca and i n i t i a t e d  against  the c i v i l i a n  P a k i s t a n . These  t h e 25th, 1971  a period  population  o f what  i n i t s own r i g h t  political-historical  of military  a s i x month campaign was  events and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  as a n a t i o n - s t a t e  o f no r e t u r n  context  which  find must  of t e r r o r then  East  o f Bangladesh  their  source i n a  be t r a c e d  back a t  l e a s t t o the B r i t i s h c o l o n i a l r u l e of the Indian peninsula. ( i ) The Formation o f P a k i s t a n .  India, defeat  having  played  of the Axis  naturally emergence  felt  such  forces  a  prominent  during  independence  role  t h e Second  should  be  i n the  World  i t s reward.  The  o f Gandhi made B r i t i s h c a p i t u l a t i o n i n e v i t a b l e but  even he was i n c a p a b l e o f w e l d i n g t h e potent r e l i g i o u s of  War,  Hinduism  and  Islam  into  one  political  unit  forces  and t h e  p r e f e r r e d s o l u t i o n o f t h e Muslim e l i t e was t h e c r e a t i o n o f a Muslim  state  League  ensured  recognized  independent that  their  of  India.  the Indian  wish  for a  The  powerful  Independence single  Islamic  Muslim  A c t o f 1947 state*  See g e n e r a l l y , Saxena J.N., S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y o f Delhi,1978, p49-51.  and  Delhi:  126 Pakistan  came  into  being  as  a  state  encompassing  two  c u l t u r a l l y d i s p a r a t e and, more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , g e o g r a p h i c a l l y distinct  territorial  separated  by  unifying  principle,  concepts have  of  1200  miles of Indian t e r r i t o r y .  came  the into  " s h a r i n g o n l y Islam, and  thought  nationhood  favoured  Pakistan  u n i t s known as West and  political  and  capable  of  c u l t u r e which  two-nation  solution  existence  with  the  overriding  the  were  not  long  otherwise  Pakistan.  component  f e a r o f I n d i a and a common  differences  Pakistan  Islam was  3  might  for  its  East  in  4  So  units  poverty..."  5  manifesting  themselves.  One  p r e s c i e n t observer was moved t o note t h a t t h i s c o u l d o n l y l e a d t o f u r t h e r fragmentation i n the I n d i a n subc o n t i n e n t a t a l a t e r date. See Hans J . Morgentau, M i l i t a r y I l l u s i o n s . The New R e p u b l i c , 19 March, 1956, pl4-16  C l e a r l y t h i s was something t h a t was s e r i o u s l y contemplated as can be seen from the f o l l o w i n g quote, "That geographically contiguous u n i t s be demarcated into regions which should be constituted with such t e r r i t o r i a l adjustments as may be necessary, t h a t the areas i n which Muslims are n u m e r i c a l l y i n a m a j o r i t y as i n the North-Western and E a s t e r n zones o f I n d i a should be grouped t o c o n s t i t u t e independent s t a t e s i n which the constituent units shall be autonomous and s o v e r e i g n " Muslim League Conference,1940 a t Lahore quoted i n The Events In P a k i s t a n . A L e g a l Study By The S e c r e t a r i a t Of The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Commission Of J u r i s t s Geneva, 1972,p7. H e r e i n a f t e r "ICJ, A L e g a l Study". See Barnds, 1971.  Pakistan's  D i s i n t e g r a t i o n . World  Today  27  127 ( i i ) Developments i n E a s t P a k i s t a n from Independence t o Secession.  A s p i r a l , t y p i c a l o f these cases, began t o p r e c i p i t a t e events. As t h e u n i t s e e k i n g s e c e s s i o n ( o r , as was t h e case i n East Pakistan a t l e a s t u n t i l greater  independence  preserve  1970, autonomy) a g i t a t e d f o r  so t h e c e n t r a l  the t e r r i t o r i a l  integrity  government  eager  of the state  to  adopted  i n c r e a s i n g l y r e p r e s s i v e measures t o secure t h i s end. T h i s i n turn  has t h e i n e v i t a b l e  consequence  of  inviting  further  r e b e l l i o n by t r a n s f o r m i n g a p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n i n t o a n a t i o n a l and  human i m p e r a t i v e . Thus,  political  a constitutionally permissible  campaign, denied a v o i c e , becomes a  bitter  armed  i n s u r g e n c y . On t h e o t h e r hand, as t h e tragedy o f 1971 amply illustrates,  governmental  disquiet  readily  metamorphosizes  into m i l i t a r y frenzy. This Eritrea  sequence and  o f events,  Biafra,  seen  i s epitomized  to a lesser by  what  extent i n  occurred  P a k i s t a n between 1950 and 1971. As e a r l y as t h a t f i r s t legislators Pakistan  began  demanding  greater  and i n 1954 t h e Muslim League  symbolize  autonomy (which  c o n t i n u e d a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e one-nation  in date  f o r East  had come t o i d e a l ) was  r o u t e d i n an e l e c t i o n . From t h a t p o i n t on E a s t P a k i s t a n was in  effect  Islamabad. Pakistan died  governed By  from  1958  by  s t a t e o f chaos.  West  t h e two men  t h e abyss,  (the former  a  Pakistani most  government  capable  in  of leading  L i a q u a t A l i Khan and J i n n a h , had  was a s s a s i n a t e d )  and t h e c o u n t r y was i n a  The r e s u l t i n g army coup p l a c e d General Ayub  128 Khan  at  the  exacerbated series the  head  the  the  Urdu  of  the  been d e c l a r e d  was  in  religion  was  country.  Throughout the  control,  process longer  alleviate  the  proclaimed  in  from  a  dominance  of  west  language  had  despite  Pakistanis . 0  mono-linguilism  tacitly  of  with  the  spoken by E a s t  number  government  time Khan came t o  those  i n pursuing  i n c l u d e d a new  the  official  s i x t i e s the a  his  Pakistanis  the  sufficient  pressure  opponents. These  by  perhaps  a  implementing  East  By  Pakistan's  Pakistan  no  spoken  zealous  and  to preserve  not w i d e l y  particularly the  the  country.  language  f a c t t h a t i t was  He  of  of measures guaranteed  already the  government  grievances  western p a r t  power  of  binding  admitting force  in that  for his  army r e t a i n e d a tenuous programmes  its  designed  numerous  to  political  c o n s t i t u t i o n i n 1962  which  a " b a s i c democracy" r e v e a l e d soon afterwards  as a  sham, the r e l e a s e o f o p p o s i t i o n l e a d e r s such as Bhutto, from the  West  finally,  and the  president,  Sheikh  Mujibur  imposition  General  Rahman,  of m a r t i a l law  (iii)  The history. 6  The  1971  the  i n 1969  East,  and  under a  Yahya Khan. Yahya Khan commited  t o the r e - i n t r o d u c t i o n of democracy and i n the December of  from  new  himself  an e l e c t i o n was  held  1971.  E l e c t i o n of  1971.  e l e c t i o n was  I t marked the  a turning point  emergence of  Note the s i m i l a r i t i e s here w i t h impose Amhara on the E r i t r e a n s .  i n the  a fully-formed Ethiopian  nation's Bengali  attempts  to  129 national  consciousness  at  polls  the  Mujibur's autonomy.  into  i n t h e E a s t which t r a n s l a t e d an  overwhelming  victory  itself  for  Sheikh  Awami League and i t s S i x P o i n t s f o r E a s t P a k i s t a n i 7  I n t h e months  following  the e l e c t i o n  n e g o t i a t i o n s took p l a c e between General  intense  Khan, Mr Bhutto (who  had  a m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e a t s i n t h e West) and Sheikh  Mujibur  in  order  the p o l i t i c a l  impasse  t o see c e n t r a l  control  to  find  a  way  of  resulting  from  diminished  by an e l e c t e d assembly l e d by a p a r t y  to  Khan's  out  reluctance  committed  autonomy, Bhutto's u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o see l o c a l power s h i f t  eastwards  and Sheikh  Mujibir's  refusal  t o compromise t h e  s t r i d e n t tone o f t h e S i x P o i n t s which he now d e c l a r e d were "public property"  and, t h e r e f o r e , n o t open t o n e g o t i a t i o n .  8  Under p r e s s u r e  from  Bhutto,  who  threatened  s t r i k e i n t h e West, Khan postponed t h e Assembly on  March  t h e 1 s t . From  Pakistan  steadily  majority  of  democratic five-day  aggravated  people rights  i n East  had been strike  on  Pakistan, subverted,  during  indefinitely  the s i t u a t i o n  . The Awami  which  general  League  feeling  i n East and t h e  that  their  participated  in a  were  several  v i o l e n t c l a s h e s . 9 Meanwhile both t h e army and Sheikh  Mujibur  '  general  then  a  there  The e l e c t i o n was c a r r i e d out on a one-man,one-vote p r i n c i p l e thus g i v i n g t h e E a s t e r n p r o v i n c e 169 s e a t s t o the West's 144. When t h e Awami League won 167 o f t h e E a s t ' s a v a i l a b l e s e a t s i t found i t s e l f w i t h a c l e a r m a j o r i t y i n t h e country o v e r a l l and a powerful mandate from a l l i n h a b i t a n t s o f E a s t P a k i s t a n .  8  See A L e g a l Study, ICJ, p l 3  9  I b i d , pl5-16  130 were becoming more obdurate t h a t the  in their  demands. Khan warned  armed f o r c e s would move t o ensure t h a t  integrity  was  t h a t he was  not  threatened  while  Pakistan's  Sheikh Muj i b u r  declared  about t o " o u t l i n e a programme f o r a c h i e v i n g  the  r i g h t of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n f o r the people of Bengal"10. (iv) The M i l i t a r y S o l u t i o n .  On March the 25th the army broke out of i t s b a r r a c k s Dacca and  began an  operation  designed  to  end  any  hopes  in of  B e n g a l i independence or autonomy. What happened between t h a t date and  the  surrender  newly-constituted  of the P a k i s t a n i armed f o r c e s i n the  Bangladesh on December the  f o r c e f u l l y d e s c r i b e d elsewhere and something a k i n t o an A s i a n  16th,  can b e s t be  holocaust.  been  described  In the  1 1  has  e a r l y days  o f the crackdown the army e l i m i n a t e d a l l known s u p p o r t e r s independence  and  intelligentsia  carried  at  Dacca  out  a  massacre  University. This  was  even more i n d i s c r i m i n a t e abuses amounting t o terror.  Later  the  Hindu m i n o r i t y population,  i n East  army)  guerrilla  forces  1 0  1 1  Ibid,  concentrated Pakistan  and  on  operated. the  population  task was  While of  handed  the  finally  to  the by  a campaign  of  on  dealt order  the  of  followed  West  of  the  ( i . e . the  army  maintaining over  of  persecution  amongst whom the Mukti Bahani  guerrilla  civilian  army  as  the  rural Bengali  with  the  among  the  Pakistan  pl6  See, e.g. i b i d , supra, p56-59  p24-45  and  Saxena,  Self-determination,  131 p o l i c e and a p a r a m i l i t a r y f o r c e known as t h e Razakars whose record  of b r u t a l i t y  i n some cases  outstripped that  of the  P a k i s t a n i Army. The v i o l e n c e spread t o o t h e r s e c t i o n s o f t h e populace ; r e l i g i o u s a n t i p a t h i e s s u r f a c e d and v a r i o u s groups w i t h i n t h e country t u r n e d on each o t h e r w i t h The border act  i n t e r v e n t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n Army a f t e r  c l a s h e s throughout November  o f t h e war.  happening problem  venom.  inside  which  Prompted East  had  partly  Pakistan  sent  and p a r t l y  i n e v i t a b l e when P a k i s t a n launched  a series of  (1971) was t h e d e c i s i v e by concern  millions  12  into  f o r what  by t h e  India,  was  refugee  i t became  a s e r i e s o f a i r - s t r i k e s on  I n d i a n a i r f i e l d s on December t h e 3 r d . The war l a s t e d o n l y 12 days and on December t h e 14th I n d i a n t r o o p s Two days l a t e r  t h e war was over w i t h  entered  Dacca.  the surrender  of the  P a k i s t a n Army a t Dacca. On January t h e 20th t h e independent state  of  Bangladesh  was  established  and  immediately  r e c o g n i z e d by seven s t a t e s i n c l u d i n g I n d i a .  C.SUCCESS  . SELF-DETERMINATION AND SECESSION.  ( i ) Success and Legitimacy.  Bangladesh  has  since  been  universally  recognized,  l e a d i n g one commentator t o c o n j e c t u r e t h a t "success  is still  The "war" w i t h i n a war between t h e B i h a r i m i n o r i t y and the Bengals i n E a s t P a k i s t a n i s t h e most prominent example o f such t e n d e n c i e s .  132 r e l e v a n t . . .to t h e q u e s t i o n  o f who  o r who  the " r i g h t " o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n .  may  not  exercise  1 , 1 3  Even i f t h a t o p i n i o n c a r r i e s an element o f p l a u s i b i l i t y it  i s important  political  to  note  that  recognition  a c t and need not imply  i s perforce  approval  o f t h e methods  used t o secure t h e emergence o f a n a t i o n - s t a t e . into  the  world  particular would  a c t of  be  it  from new  come i n t o b e i n g would  be  does  not  to  with  expect  entities  invest  legitimacy.  states  to  f o r states  It  they d i d  manner.  t o continue  a  withhold  on t h e grounds t h a t  i n a l e g a l l y acceptable  perverse  Acceptance  necessarily  self-determination  impractical  recognition not  community  a  to  Equally recognize  e n t i t i e s t h a t no l o n g e r e x i s t as independent s t a t e s , such as Biafra. Yet  surely  determination  we  with  cannot  success.  equate  the  right  of  To do so would be t o  self-  diminish  the p r i n c i p l e o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o t h e s t a t u s o f a j u r a l veneer f o r t h e ex post accomplished determination  acts  legal  of  must  determination, certainty  mean  i t must 1 4  facto  justification  secession. more  than  integrate  and be f i r e d  The the  of s u c c e s s f u l l y  right might  political  of of  realism  selfselfwith  by a v i s i o n f o r t h e f u t u r e  s t r u c t u r e o f t h e world community.  1 3  See Pomerance,M. supra, p20  Self-determination  1 4  See Chapter E i g h t ,  infra.  i n Law and P r a c t i c e ,  133 While  an  investigation  into  the question  o f whether  Bangladesh had t h e r i g h t t o secede from t h e r e s t o f P a k i s t a n may be accused o f l a c k i n g p o l i t i c a l  relevance  i t retains i t s  l e g a l s i g n i f i c a n c e by v i r t u e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e success o f a  military  or  legitimacy. illuminate itself  political  The  campaign  principle  the various  never  establish  self-determination  scenarios  i n their political  i t encounters  should  n o t shape  light.  That i s n o t t o say t h a t assessing  of  can  success has no r e l e v a n c e  when  a c l a i m t o secede. I f t h a t success r e s u l t s i n the  permanent  establishment  presumption c r e a t e d  of  that  a  nation-state  there  is a  some o f t h e f a c t o r s necessary f o r  the presence o f a r i g h t t o secede have been f u l f i l l e d (e.g. economic v i a b i l i t y  and p o l i t i c a l  t h a t success was a i d e d  a l l e g i a n c e ) . Furthermore i f  by t h e support o f a l a r g e s e c t i o n o f  the w o r l d community arguments f o r t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f t h e a c t are enhanced. The the  Bangladesh case i s i n t e r e s t i n g because i t i n d i c a t e s  sort of conditions  successful  t h a t might have t o be p r e s e n t  a c t of secession.  I f success  was  derived  fora from  l e g i t i m a c y and not t h e other way round, as some w r i t e r s have argued'  1 5  then Bangladesh can be used as a marker f o r p a s t  a c t s o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and a p r e c u r s o r  f o r f u t u r e ones.  See Neuberger,B. N a t i o n a l S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n C o l o n i a l A f r i c a , supra, p80  i n Post-  134 ( i i ) Unique Features of the Bangladesh  The from  three  others  Eritrea  facts  that  examined  are,  contributed  not  most  distinguish  in  this  essay,  coincidentally, directly  to  the  the  Secession  the  Bangladesh  notably very  and  West  Pakistan,  the  Biafra  aspects  and  the  human  Bangladesh . 16  bearing law  on  and  the  the  intervention  At  least  question index  of  two  of  which  rights  bifurcation holocaust  o c c u r r e d as a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f a c t i o n taken by the army  and  s u c c e s s f u l r e s o l u t i o n of  the B e n g a l i c l a i m . These are the geographic East  case  of these  the  The  (under  that  Pakistan Army  f a c t o r s have a  of l e g i t i m a c y validity) .  Indian  of  in  direct  international  third  (the  Indian  i n t e r v e n t i o n ) had perhaps the g r e a t e s t e f f e c t on success  but  i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o l e g i t i m a c y i s more a m b i g u o u s . 17  These f a c t o r s are i n t e r r e l a t e d . I t was Bangaldesh's geographic d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s t h a t allowed ' the P a k i s t a n Army t o a c t w i t h such f e r o c i t y . The members o f the armed f o r c e s were drawn predominantly from the West and t h e r e f o r e because of the d i s t a n c e between the two r e g i o n s would have been u n l i k e l y t o have had any c o n t a c t w i t h the B e n g a l i s . T h i s must have allowed them t o form the impression t h a t they were d e a l i n g w i t h an a l i e n p o p u l a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y I n d i a n i n t e r v e n t i o n was made l e s s onerous by the f a c t t h a t the territorial integrity of the central government s unit was unimpaired d u r i n g the I n d i a n f o r a y i n t o E a s t P a k i s t a n . F i n a l l y , the human r i g h t s abuses c a r r i e d out by the P a k i s t a n i s formed a c l i m a t e o f o p i n i o n i n I n d i a which was to favour i n t e r v e n t i o n . See a l s o the refugee problem caused by these a c t i v i t i e s . 1  I will this  d i s c u s s t h i s ambiguity chapter.  i n greater d e t a i l  later in  Bangladesh's  geographic s e p a r a t e n e s s  from t h e r e s t o f  1 8  P a k i s t a n g i v e s t h i s case i t s unusual c h a r a c t e r . P a k i s t a n i n 1947  was  period  and l i k e  imposed as  another  artificial t h e many  creation states  of the post-colonial  enclosed  by  colonially-  boundaries, i t was a c r e a t u r e o f expediency as much  commonsense. U n l i k e these  new  African  states  Pakistan  c o u l d n o t even c l a i m t o e x i s t over a s i n g l e - t e r r i t o r i a l  unit  c a p a b l e o f engendering a n a t i o n a l sentiment based s o l e l y on a  feeling  rarity  of t e r r i t o r i a l  among  determine  such  unity.  creations  Ironically,  i n that  Pakistan i s a  i t was  i t s own a r e a . The accepted  permitted to  colonial  territorial  u n i t was an I n d i a t h a t a t t h e time i n c l u d e d t h e two r e g i o n s of  P a k i s t a n . The UN's  determination this the  case,  only  accepted p r a c t i c e  to colonial  territorial  on  something  inherited reckoned  from to  contiguity.  units  not followed. Instead the relevant  area were a l l o w e d t o choose  based  of offering  than  the c o l o n i a l  be In  other  a  glue  effect,  their  power.  more  "people" o f destiny  administrative Religion  powerful  Pakistan  was, i n  territorial  the  self-  was,  than  seceded  unit thus,  geographical  from  the Indian  c o l o n i a l u n i t b u t i t was an i m p e r f e c t s e c e s s i o n which l i t t l e heed t o e t h n i c and p o l i t i c a l  realities.  paid  Pakistan died  from t h e same sword o f which  i t was born b u t t h e geographic  peculiarity  makes  i t a  poor  of secession  which  i t might  domino 1 8  outlined  theory  contender  f o r the  be thought  to  The t r i p from one wing t o t h e o t h e r had t o be undertaken by a i r . The a l t e r n a t i v e was an arduous 7-day journey by sea.  136 illustrate  1 9  .  Rather,  t h e 1200 m i l e s  separating  East  from  West were m i r r o r e d by a g u l f i n a t t i t u d e s t h a t c o u l d not be bridged  by e i t h e r common r e l i g i o n  India.  Pakistan  prior  to  1971  o r a shared  was  a  mistrust of  political  artifice  undermined by a geographic and c u l t u r a l g u l f . (iii)  D i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t Bangladesh.  There i s no shortage the  policy  o f documentation demonstrating how  of Pakistan's  central  government i n Islamabad  served t o f u r t h e r c l e a v e t h e two r e g i o n s t o t h e p o i n t where an engagement o f o v e r t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n was The  discerned . 2 0  Army was an almost e x c l u s i v e l y West P a k i s t a n i one.  Only 10% o f t h e o f f i c e r corps were from t h e E a s t and out o f a t o t a l number o f f i f t y  appointments t o t h e p o s t o f g e n e r a l  s i n c e independence o n l y one had been an E a s t e r n e r . government l e v e l since  that  had  been  from  the  West.  At a  appointees  The  official  language o f P a k i s t a n became Urdu d e s p i t e t h e f a c t  that the  majority  time  a l l but one o f t h e m i n i s t e r i a l  2 1  (55%) i n t h e E a s t spoke v a r i a t i o n s o f S a n s k r i t and  See l a t e r f o r more d e t a i l e d study o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s domino t h e o r y f o r s e c e s s i o n . See Khan, The D i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f P a k i s t a n . Meerut: Meenakshi Prakashan, 1985, p l O . where i t i s d e s c r i b e d as "...a c e n t r a l policy of invidious economic discrimination...". These f i g u r e s come from Nanda,V.P. S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law : The T r a g i c T a l e o f Two C i t i e s : Dacca and Islamabad, 66 A.J.I.L. p321.  137 were d e e p l y opposed t o t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f t h e e t y m o l o g i c a l l y , Persian-derived But  i t was i n t h e economic sphere t h a t t h e i n e q u i t a b l e  distribution far  Urdu.  o f power was most keenly  as t o d e s c r i b e  colonial  status  economic  figures  description.  from  Estimates  relations"  this  time  the  East.  and some  2 2  f o r the period  from  1958  of the  out t h a t t o 1968  expenditure f o r the  amounted t o 62% f o r t h e West and 38% f o r  Nearly  a l l major  industrial  programs  a l l o c a t e d t o t h e West, f o r e i g n a i d was a s s i g n e d in  t o a "neo-  c e r t a i n l y bear  speak o f an annual budget i n which c i v i l respective regions  Nanda goes as  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p as b e l o n g i n g  o f economic 2 3  felt.  were  for projects  t h e West w h i l e e x p o r t s o f j u t e and j u t e p r o d u c t s from t h e  East while  were East  often  used  Pakistani  t o pay f o r t h e a i d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , exports  amounted  to  59%  of  total  e x p o r t s i t r e c e i v e d o n l y 30% o f t h e i m p o r t s . In 1954, 2 4  The  Economist concluded t h a t , "... P a k i s t a n i s economically viable largely because o f t h e e a s t e r n wing's export and exchange earnings." 2 5  There i s l i t t l e  doubt t h a t t h e government's aim was t o  improve t h e economic p o s i t i o n o f t h e western wing and thus 2 2  See i b i d , p330. See a l s o , A Legal for a s i m i l a r point.  Study. I C J , supra,plO  2 3  Economic f i g u r e s come from Bangladesh Documents. E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s M i n i s t r y , Government o f I n d i a , New D e h l i , 1971 quoted i n New York J o u r n a l o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law and P o l i t i c s 4 1971 p524.  2 4  See Saxena,J.N. S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n ,  2 5  See The Economist. V o l 170, 27th March 1954, p958.  supra, p63,64.  138 consolidate  i t s political  primacy. T h i s  inevitably  l e d to  n e g l e c t i n t h e E a s t and even as droughts were b e i n g t a c k l e d vigorously  i n t h e West u s i n g modern immigration  techniques  v i r t u a l l y n o t h i n g was  done about the l o n g - s t a n d i n g f l o o d i n g  problems  fertile  War  i n t h e more  added  trade  t o the problems  embargo  against  East.  after  India.  The  1965  Indo-Pakistan  t h e government  This  effectively  E a s t o f f from i t s major t r a d i n g p a r t n e r  ordered sealed  a  the  and caused f u r t h e r  economic h a r d s h i p . The e f f e c t o f these measures and p o l i c i e s was  to create  government  a feeling  which  was  o f resentment towards t h e  further  aggravated by  i n d i f f e r e n c e o f t h a t body t o the s u f f e r i n g  the  central apparent  endured by  East  P a k i s t a n d u r i n g t h e c y c l o n e o f November, 13th 1970. It Jurists to  is  suggested by  that  the  International  "callous indifference"  t h e overwhelming mandate g i v e n  2 6  Commission  contributed  to the  Awami League a month l a t e r i n t h e g e n e r a l  of  directly  autonomy-seeking  election.  (iv) Economic D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and the R i g h t t o S e l f determination .  Can i t be s a i d t h a t t h i s economic d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i t s e l f activated  a right  to self-determination f o r the Bengalis  C e r t a i n l y t h e u n f a i r n e s s o f t h e economic system employed the Government However,  does  6  by  o f P a k i s t a n can be e s t a b l i s h e d beyond doubt. i t amount  to  the  r e q u i r e d t o provoke a j u s t i f i a b l e 2  ?  See A L e g a l Study,ICJ,  sort  of discrimination  surge f o r independence ?  supra, p l 2 .  139 Under i n t e r n a t i o n a l law t h e r i g h t o f s e c e s s i o n in  a l l b u t t h e most extreme cases.  is  absent from a l i s t  Economic d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  o f t h e s o r t o f p r a c t i c e s which might  give r i s e to a r i g h t of self-determination. definitional  standard  "colonialism...and  of The UN D e c l a r a t i o n support  very  such  and  imprudent  and even t h e most  among  liberal  that  2 9  on  of  this  Bangladesh  as e a r l y as 1970 based  under-representation  these  2 7  little  Given t h e  clauses  matter  or  reading  finds  f o r self-determination.  practice  to assert  of  i t  on F r i e n d l y R e l a t i o n s  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Perhaps a s t r o n g e r basis  include  interpretations  state  determination  2 8  a claim  restrictive  thusfar  would  Only a v e r y wide  discrimination associated t h e r e w i t h "  "alien...exploitation"  to  i s r u l e d out  made  i t would  had a r i g h t t o on p e r c e i v e d  be  self-  economic  case c o u l d be made on t h e of  Bengalis  in  senior  government and t h e army b u t t h e same o b j e c t i o n s would a r i s e . The  Government o f P a k i s t a n  c o u l d argue t h a t t h e country was,  "possessed o f a government r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e whole people belonging to the territory without d i s t i n c t i o n as t o r a c e , c r e e d o r c o l o u r " . 3 0  It  has  representation  a  plausible  case  G.A.  t h a t . under-  was due t o a l a c k o f competence and t h a t t h e  c e n t r a l government d i d r e p r e s e n t 2 7  f o r arguing  t h e whole people  Res. 1514. Dec 14, 1960, Preamble,  regardless  Paragraph 10,  supra.. 2 8  I b i d , P r i n c i p l e 2.  2 9  G.A. Res. 2625. Oct 24, 1970,supra. Ibid, Paragraph 8,beginning, foregoing...."  3 0  "Nothing  in  the  140 of  i t s e t h n i c make-up . T h i s  argument does have  31  that  i t has never been a requirement  force i n  o f UN r e s o l u t i o n s on  .  the s u b j e c t t h a t a p e r f e c t democracy be e x t a n t  3o  J  . Few s t a t e s  would be a b l e t o depend on t h e paragraph quoted i f such an interpretation statist  was  ideals  territorial  of  the  integrity  rendering.  The  integrity  i s very  exceptional index  adopted.  The  UN  the  make  the  fulcrum  presumption high  inherently  in  preservation  of  favour  any of  and c o u l d be r e b u t t e d  circumstances.  I will  conservative,  enumerate  of  definitive territorial  only  i n very  these  i n the  o f v a l i d i d t y b u t they would i n c o r p o r a t e a l a r g e human  r i g h t s dimension. (v) The Bona F i d e s o f Bangladesh's Claim t o Secede and the P a k i s t a n government.  Did  t h e massacre  carried  out by  t h e army  i n 1971  p r o v i d e grounds f o r such a r e b u t t a l ? It  has been suggested t h a t t h e reason f o r t h e imbalance i n t h e armed f o r c e s was due t o t h e i n h e r e n t l y w a r - l i k e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e people o f t h e western wing and t h e more p a c i f i c tendencies of the Bengalis. It is d i f f i c u l t t o see how t h i s argument c o u l d be extended t o the respective propensity t o acquire positions i n c e n t r a l government.  R e s o l u t i o n 1514, supra, s t a t e s , "Inadequacy o f p o l i t i c a l , economic,social or educational preparedness should never serve as a p r e t e x t f o r d e l a y i n g independence" ( P r i n c i p l e 3 ) . The obvious c o n c l u s i o n t o draw from t h i s l o n g accepted r u l e i s t h a t here i s no requirement t h a t the a c t o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and t h e subsequent implementation o f government and n a t i o n a l economy should be o f a p a r t i c u l a r l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d nature. Lack o f preparedness i s l i k e l y t o l e a d t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n f a i r n e s s and t h e absence o f a j u s t distributive system f o r t h e economy.  141 The  events  important  in  leading  this  up  regard  e s t a b l i s h what the  to  the  because  grounds f o r the  armed  intervention  they  may  be  are  used  to  government a c t i o n were.  I f the grounds f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n are shown t o be j u s t i f i e d i t w i l l be h a r d e r t o show t h a t the methods used, no matter reprehensible,  give  rise,  in  themselves,  to  a  how  right  of  secession. The  people  grievance  when the  vast majority as  the  of  East  Bengal  i n the e l e c t i o n s o f 1970,  majority  Did i t support  party  i n the the  illegally Awami  status  of  East  true  then  the  i n sending i n the was  dedicated  army. I f , on to  the  prima f a c i e r i g h t t o do the t e r r i t o r i a l Six  everything  The  Awami vague.  i t s manifesto is crucial.  acted the  a  i t s place  Bengal was  distinction  Government  f o r by  denied  Assembly.  If  rashly  and  contrary,  the  independence  P a k i s t a n then, under i n t e r n a t i o n a l law,  The  understandable  autonomy (as i t claimed) or was  is  League  was  National  a v e i l e d attempt t o secede ? The former  an  Awami League, whom they voted  League's p o s i t i o n on  the  felt  of  East  the Government had  i n i t s power t o  a  preserve  i n t e g r i t y of i t s n a t i o n . Points  under  which  the  League  fought  the  e l e c t i o n were o s t e n s i b l y a programme f o r r e g i o n a l autonomy. I t s p r o v i s i o n s i n c l u d e d a demand f o r , " . . . f u l l r e g i o n a l autonomy, i n c l u d i n g the powers o f management of the economy ( i n order to) save the r e g i o n a l economy from r u i n a t i o n " . 3 3  Awami League M a n i f e s t o , M i n i s t r y o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , R e p u b l i c of I n d i a , Bangladesh Documents, 66 1971. See note 21, supra.  142 There  was  institutional times" .  a further  framework  Whether  3 4  meant o n l y  call  which  "a v o t e  attempt  doubt  loose  legacy  from  given  3 5  colonial this  plan  o r was, as Bhutto b e l i e v e d ,  at Pakistan's  i t s full  unity.  implementation  would  There  is little  have  led to a  severe e m a s c u l a t i o n o f f e d e r a l power u l t i m a t e l y any  from t h e  f o r p r o v i n c i a l autonomy and not f o r t h e  to strike  that  is a  t h e e l e c t o r a l mandate  d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the c o u n t r y " an  t o "break  facilitating  outright act of secession . 3 6  This  hypothesis  was never  tested  because  the central  government r e f u s e d t o l e t t h e democratic p r o c e s s c o n t i n u e t o the p o i n t where t h e Awami League c o u l d enact t h e S i x P o i n t s constitutionally. strengthen Some question. Pakistan point  Did t h i s  denial  of  democratic  rights  the Bengali claim t o self-determination ? extremely Though  complex  most  writers  issues  are  seem  raised  t o accept  d i d have a r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n  the International  concludes i n i t s r e p o r t  Commssion  of J u r i s t s  by  this  that  East  3 7  at this  Secretariat  that:  " I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o see how i t can be contended t h a t i n March 1971 t h e people o f E a s t P a k i s t a n o r 3 4  3 5  I b i d , p525. Address by Mohammd Yahya Khan, June 28 1971. See i b i d , p559.  President  of  Pakistan,  The S i x P o i n t s c a l l e d f o r f e d e r a t i o n but c e n t r a l c o n t r o l was to be precariously established e.g. t h e "autonomous" E a s t was t o have j u r i s d i c t i o n over taxes and be p e r m i t t e d t o c r e a t e i t s own m i l i t i a . 3 7  See e s p e c i a l l y , Saxena, 84.  Self-determination,  supra, p82-  143 the l e a d e r s o f t h e Awami League on t h e i r b e h a l f , were e n t i t l e d i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l law t o p r o c l a i m t h e independence o f Bangladesh under t h e p r i n c i p l e o f self-determination of p e o p l e " 3 8  The end  date  o f course  i s c r i t i c a l because  i t was a t t h e  o f March when t h e army began i t s campaign o f t e r r o r , a  campaign  that  changed  many  o f t h e premises  on which t h e  above q u e s t i o n i s b a s e d . 3 9  The many  I C J contends  of  the  that  legitimate  t h e 1970 e l e c t i o n grievances  P a k i s t a n i s demanded a r i g h t  on  extinguished  which  the  East  of self-determination. Prior to  t h a t t h e d e n i a l o f "equal r i g h t s " f o r t h e E a s t may have been s u f f i c i e n t grounds f o r an a s s e r t i o n o f t h e r i g h t the but  1970 D e c l a r a t i o n on P r i n c i p l e s the  election,  discrimination League  was  according  against East  denied  Pakistan  i t s place  following  the e l e c t i o n .  anomalous  position  to  based on  of International Law the  ICJ,  ended  41  the  even though t h e Awami  i n the National  The I C J r e a s o n i n g  i s fairly  4 0  confused  Assembly  supporting  beginning  this  with the  statement, "As we have seen, t h e D e c l a r a t i o n o f P r i n c i p l e s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law seems t o imply t h a t a separate 3 8  3 9  4  0  4 1  See A L e g a l Study,ICJ,  supra, p75.  I w i l l d i s c u s s t h e impact o f t h e army's a c t i o n l a t e r i n t h i s essay b u t f o r now i t i s important t o d i s c o v e r whether a r i g h t o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n e x i s t e d b e f o r e their assault. See A L e g a l Study. I C J , supra, p73 and some o f t h e figures showing economic d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and underr e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n government t h a t I have a l r e a d y quoted and upon which t h e I C J base t h e i r t e n t a t i v e d e c i s i o n . See G.A. Res. 2625, October 24, 1970, supra.  144 people w i t h i n a n a t i o n s t a t e are e n t i t l e d t o a h i g h l e v e l o f self-government i n o r d e r t o develop their own cultural, social and economic i n s t i t u t i o n s . But how i s i t t o be determined what t h a t l e v e l should be? On what c r i t e r i a can i t be said that the S i x Points complied with the p r i n c i p l e , whereas a f e d e r a l c o n s t i t u t i o n w i t h i n the L e g a l Framework Order would not have done ? " 4 2  T h i s i s , ex f a c i e , Framework  Order  democratic  was  mandate  a reasonable an  argument but t h e L e g a l  executive  whereas  enactment  the  Six  with  Points  no were  overwhelmingly endorsed i n an e l e c t i o n which t h e I C J i n s i s t s r e - i n t r o d u c e d equal election to  rights  f o r the E a s t e r n p r o v i n c e .  i s the b a s i s on which the E a s t  self-determination  then  surely  that  forfeits election  I f the  i t s right must  be  g i v e n some meaning o u t s i d e the p o l l i n g booths ? The I C J goes on t o say t h a t nothing  to  undermine  the  right  President of  Yahya Khan d i d  self-determination  because, "He c o n s i d e r e d t h a t i n any c o n s t i t u t i o n (drawn up i n accordance w i t h the S i x P o i n t s ) which would have resulted, the powers of the central government o f P a k i s t a n would have been weakened t o the p o i n t where the f u t u r e t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y and p o l i t i c a l u n i t y o f P a k i s t a n was t h r e a t e n e d " 4 3  And y e t i f one c o n s i d e r s t h e ICJ's l a t e r p o i n t t h a t , "The Awami League had no mandate f o r independence, nor d i d they c l a i m t o have one. They had fought the election on t h e S i x P o i n t s programme o f autonomy w i t h i n a f e d e r a l c o n s t i t u t i o n " , 4 4  4 2  Ibid,  4 3  Ibid,  4 4  Ibid.  p73-74. p74.  145 then  clearly  Khan subverted  t h e democratic  c a p r i c i o u s grounds t h a t he disapproved  process  on t h e  o f t h e outcome. T h i s  s u b v e r s i o n makes i t i m p o s s i b l e t o argue t h a t h i s d e c i s i o n t o allow  an  election  establish  equal  province. acquired failure majority reverts  i n the f i r s t rights  place  f o r the  A l t e r n a t i v e l y i f these by  involvement  to  accord  vote  that  people "equal  i n the e l e c t o r a l involvement  f o r the S i x Points)  t h e people  was  of East  enough of  the  eastern  rights"  were r e -  process  then t h e  ( i n the  shape  any p o l i t i c a l  Pakistan  to re-  of  a  relevance  to their pre-election  position v i s a v i s self-determination. The  ICJ  assumption  position  that  armed  P a k i s t a n was j u s t i f i e d  is  further  resistance  confused  on  the  by  part  of  their East  because,  "Provided t h e m a j o r i t y were ready...to grant an equal degree o f autonomy t o t h e people o f West P a k i s t a n , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o see why on democratic p r i n c i p l e s t h e i r w i l l was not e n t i t l e d t o p r e v a i l . I f t h e people o f West P a k i s t a n were not prepared t o accept a c o n s t i t u t i o n on t h i s b a s i s , t h e o n l y remedy would have been p a r t i t i o n o f t h e s t a t e . The minority were not entitled to force their p r e f e r r e d c o n s t i t u t i o n upon t h e m a j o r i t y As the army had r e s o r t e d t o f o r c e t o impose t h e i r will, t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e m a j o r i t y p a r t y were e n t i t l e d t o c a l l f o r armed r e s i s t a n c e t o d e f e a t t h i s a c t i o n by an i l l e g a l r e g i m e " 4 5  T h i s statement i s a t odds w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s cannot be squared w i t h Pakistan  the b e l i e f  were not e n t i t l e d  determination  t h e s i s and  t h a t t h e people o f E a s t  to exercise the r i g h t  i n March 1971. I f t h e "only  of  self-  remedy" p r i o r t o  the army response was p a r t i t i o n how c o u l d i t p o s s i b l y be the 4 5  I b i d , p75  146 case t h a t Bangladesh was not e n t i t l e d t o t h e r i g h t o f s e l f determination? simply  D i d t h e armed  attack  by  the minority  confirm the existence of t h i s r i g h t ?  What t h e I C J has attempted t o do i s support resistance the  not  (which appears  same time denying  ended up d e f y i n g If  a right  incontestable)  of secession.  while at  I t has merely  logic.  t h e Awami  constitution  morally  a r i g h t of  League  had  been  and had implemented  permitted  their  to  form  S i x Point plan  a  then  the r i g h t o f s e c e s s i o n would have been e x t i n g u i s h e d . Had t h e League  subsequently  intervention electorate there the  attempted  would  had  not  endorsed  been no e l e c t i o n  Eastern  Province  to  have  secede  been  autonomy  the  illegal  and  army's  since  the  not s e c e s s i o n .  Had  and no change i n t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f a  right  of self-determination  would  c o n t i n u e t o be p r e s e n t . The  complication  Point plan for  secession"  deceive placed take to  itself.  when  one  considers  designed  to  mislead  the  then  in a difficult  situation.  I f i t allows  t h e government may  facto  declaration  of  find  scheme  electorate  government  de  the S i x  I f t h e p l a n r e a l l y was a " v e i l e d  the c e n t r a l  i t s course a  arises  that  government  and is  democracy t o  itself  secession  acquiescing something  a  government need not do t o ensure t h e equal r i g h t s o f a l l t h e e l e c t o r a t e a r e met. I f i t takes be  accused  autonomy  of refusing thereby  a  the opposite  legitimate  activating  a  course  demand  right  of  i t may  f o r greater secession.  147 International minority the  law suggests  that  the r i g h t  t o autonomy o r  r i g h t s i s a much more r e a d i l y invoked  right  t o secede.  Eastern province  Following  right  than  t h e e l e c t i o n o f 1970 t h e  e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r i g h t t o autonomy w i t h i n a  f e d e r a l s t r u c t u r e based on both t h e e l e c t i o n r e s u l t and t h e previous  two decades o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . I t d i d not have a  r i g h t t o secede s i n c e t h e human r i g h t s element r e q u i r e d was not p r e s e n t . a  reading  I f t h e government had granted  of the S i x Points  outright  secession,  then  conflict  and t h e establishment  autonomy based on  corresponding  i t might  have  t o i t , and not avoided  o f a separate  both t h e  state. I f  i t  c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e Awami League r e j e c t e d autonomy during  the negotiations  then t h e government response was a  l e g a l one. (vi) Human R i g h t s  and t h e R i g h t t o Secede.  The motives o f n e i t h e r p a r t y a r e c l e a r b u t t h e argument i s r e s o l v e d by t h e l a r g e - s c a l e human r i g h t s v i o l a t i o n s which took p l a c e  f o l l o w i n g t h e army  into  place  the factors  right  to  self-determination  could  no  longer  conducting  be  i n t e r v e n t i o n . These  required  argued  to give  under that  East  brought  Pakistan  a  international  law. I t  Pakistan  a  was  itself,  " i n compliance w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e o f equal r i g h t s and self-determination of peoples... and thus possessed o f a government r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e whole  state  148 people belonging to the t e r r i t o r y d i s t i n c t i o n as t o r a c e , c r e e d o r c o l o u r " All  evidence  w i t h these of  t h e UN Human R i g h t s  little  there  was no  compliance  p r i n c i p l e s . A.S. Choudhury, t h e P a k i s t a n i member  as,"atrocities is  indicates that  without  Commission,  described  unparalleled i n h i s t o r y " .  he saw  Further,  4 7  doubt t h a t these  what  there  a t r o c i t i e s were conducted by an  army composed almost e n t i r e l y o f s o l d i e r s from West P a k i s t a n against the Bengali majority  i n East  Pakistan . 4 8  r e c o r d s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a p o l i c y which c o u n s e l l e d was  There a r e genocide  4 9  d i r e c t i n g army a c t i o n . The o f f i c e r who s t a t e d , "We a r e determined t o c l e a n s e E a s t P a k i s t a n once and f o r a l l o f t h e t h r e a t o f s e c e s s i o n , even i f i t means k i l l i n g o f f two m i l l i o n people and r u l i n g the p r o v i n c e as a colony f o r 30 y e a r s " 5 0  was  n o t alone  confirms at  i n this  determination  t h e n e o - c o l o n i a l designs  this  inherently  time.  The  military  discriminatory.  and h i s statement  t h e West had on t h e E a s t  strategy It  of  t h e army  was  encompassed  racial  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and r e l i g i o u s p e r s e c u t i o n and thus  qualified  46 See G.A. R e s o l u t i o n . 2625, Oct 24, 1970, supra. 4 7  New York Times, May 30th 1971 p5 c . l quoted i n Nanda,V.P. S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law, supra, p3 32.  4 8  See A L e g a l Study. I C J Study, p24, "The m i l i t a r y r e i g n o f t e r r o r i n E a s t P a k i s t a n was d i r e c t e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y a g a i n s t t h e unarmed c i v i l i a n p o p u l a t i o n "  4 9  See I n d i r a Gandhi, who claimed t h a t P a k i s t a n ' s i n t e n t i o n was t h e " a n n i h i l a t i o n o f an e n t i r e people whose o n l y crime was t o v o t e d e m o c r a t i c a l l y " . New York Times, December 4th,1971, p l O .  5  See I C J Press Release,  0  Aug 16, 1971, p,3-4  149  as  "alien  subjugation" .  First  5  there  was  the  elimination  of the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a a t Dacca U n i v e r s i t y . T h i s was  followed  by massacres d i r e c t e d e x c l u s i v e l y a t Hindus, ex-members associates  of  proportion  of  providing  the the  support  Awami Bengali  less  than  a  considering operation.  5 2  Mukti  estimates  quarter that  of  a  they  These  and  peasantry  f o r the  Even West P a k i s t a n  League  of  (who  Bahni those  million were  statistics  finally were  large  accused  of  resistance forces). killed  -  a  and  a  amount t o  remarkable  engaged  in  seem  confirm  to  a  no  figure  clean-up Anthony  Mascarenhas' o p i n i o n t h a t , " T h i s was o r g a n i z e d k i l l i n g , t h i s i s what was t e r r i f y i n g about i t . I t was not b e i n g done by mobs. I t was a s y s t e m a t i c o r g a n i z e d t h i n g " 5 3  Nanda s u g g e s t s , c o r r e c t l y i n my  opinion, that,  "...where v i o l e n c e i s p e r p e t r a t e d by a m i n o r i t y t o deprive a majority of p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l and cultural rights, the principles of "territorial integrity" and "non-intervention" should not be p e r m i t t e d as a p l o y t o perpetuate the p o l i t i c a l s u b j u g a t i o n of the m a j o r i t y " * . 5  The right  to  Government of P a k i s t a n legally  govern no  the  had  in effect  region  longer  of  be  East  determination  could  government had  j u r i s d i c t i o n over Bangladesh.  See Res.2625, Declaration I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law supra. See A Lecral Study, ICJ , p33  and  realized  on  the  foregone  the  Bengal.  Self-  while  that  Principles  of  36.  Sunday Times. London, June 13,1971 quoted a t i b i d , See Nanda,V.P. S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n supra,p336.  p33.  in International  Law,  150  D. THE INDEX OF VALIDITY.  It to  was, unquestionably,  the successful separation  Nevertheless, survived war  India's  i t i s unlikely  as a s i n g l e  unit  intervention that l e d  o f Bangladesh that  from  Pakistan  f o r much l o n g e r  would  after  i n 1971 such was t h e resentment harbored  Pakistan. have  the c i v i l  by t h e people  of Bangladesh towards t h e P a k i s t a n Government. The r i g h t o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n came i n t o e f f e c t when i t became l e g a l l y , morally  and p r a c t i c a l l y  impossible  s t a t e p r a c t i c e h a r d l y confirms  to refute  i t . And y e t  t h i s view. C e r t a i n l y t h e UN  chose n o t t o i n t e r p r e t events as g i v i n g r i s e t o a d e f i n i t i v e r i g h t t o secede. The UN S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l a t what had e v o l v e d  Biafran c r i s i s  never but  support  delivered  of t h i s  i r r e f u t a b l e claim.  i n 1968 he had s a i d  the act of secession  h i s position t h e UN's  concern  i n Bangladesh p r i o r t o independence b u t  never came out i n support the  expressed  on  this  occasion  most ambivalent  that  against was  During  t h e UN  could  a member s t a t e  modified  and he  message y e t r e g a r d i n g  the r i g h t o f secession, d e c l a r i n g , "A r e l a t e d problem which o f t e n c o n f r o n t s us and t o which as y e t no a c c e p t a b l e answer has been found i n the p r o v i s i o n s o f the Charter, i s the c o n f l i c t between t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f i n t e g r i t y o f s o v e r e i g n s t a t e s and t h e a s s e r t i o n o f t h e r i g h t t o s e l f determination, and even s e c e s s i o n , by a l a r g e group w i t h i n a s o v e r e i g n s t a t e . Here again, as i n  151 the case o f human r i g h t s , a dangerous deadlock can p a r a l y z e the a b i l i t y of the U.N. t o h e l p those involved" 5 5  This  paralysis  arises  as  a  result  of  the  perceived  ambiguity i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n territorial  integrity  determination  and  declarations  in  UN  instruments  on  and  self-  through a r e l u c t a n c e t o read some o f these  and  resolutions  i n a way  the s t a t i s t framework. The UN,  that  might  threaten  and the s t a t e s o f which i t i s  composed, are most concerned t o m a i n t a i n peace and  security  and  threaten  to  their  avoid  sanctioning  existence.  described  These  a  process  phenomena  as  the  "disruption  is  needed  then  which  allays  which have  factor"  might been  and  5 6  variously  the  "domino  effect". What  determination criteria  which  certainty  would  be  reality.  supporting  a  sanctioning  a  these  established States  legitimate  case  activities  of  formulation fears  by  within  every  by  self-  this  parameters  more  for secession that  In  the  feel  of  incorporating  factors.  would  without w o r r y i n g  the  new  these  recognize  political  example c i t e d  is  secure  such  in  of in the  so  they were  organization  intending  the d e s t r u c t i o n o f a s t a t e ' s t e r r i t o r i a l  doing  as  way  integrity.  See T h a n t , U . " I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Report of the General", 1971, A L e g a l Study, ICJ, p65.  Secretary-  See Bucheit,.L.C. S e c e s s i o n . The Legitimacy d e t e r m i n a t i o n , New Haven and London: Y a l e 1978,Chapter 4.  of S e l f U. Press,  152 I f the indices of v a l i d i t y found  t o possess  irrefutable grounded  a  (from (the  hypothetical attainable  are applied,  Bangladesh i s  right  t o secession  which  was  morally  a human  rights point  o f view),  legally  1970  Declaration  instrument  (taking  based  on  i n t o account  and  a  more  our i n d e x ) ,  complex  practically  some o f t h e f a c t o r s  stated  above) and p o l i t i c a l l y r e a l i z a b l e . The army  human r i g h t s v i o l a t i o n s committed by t h e P a k i s t a n  provide  reasonable  ample  reading  determination  support  f o r the  o f t h e UN  establishes  instruments  formal  substantial  realities  contentions  i . e . the c r i t e r i a  first  contemplated  point  and  concerning  legality.  What  by our t h i r d  established  a  selfof the  and f o u r t h  i n t h e index o f  validity. ( i ) Some General Remarks.  All  four  legitimate  of the e s s e n t i a l conditions  exercise  index o f v a l i d i t y the  people  of  of the r i g h t  are present Bangladesh  necessary  of secession  under t h e  i n t h e Bangladesh case. possessed  a  sense  for a  of  That self-  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and t h e p o l i t i c a l w i l l t o take a c t i o n i n t h e interests narrative. territorial  of  that  So,  self  too  unit.  is  Ample  i s obvious the  from  existence  evidence  also  the  of  exists  p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e human r i g h t s d e p r i v a t i o n s the  a  preceding separable f o r the  i n f l i c t e d on  people o f Bangladesh were o f such a magnitude t h a t t h e  c r i t e r i a r e q u i r i n g s u b s t a n t i a l human r i g h t s abuse was e a s i l y  153 satisfied. to  Finally,  pursue  greater  constitutional inflexible  the Awami League's apparent  framework  response  that  this  was  the  people  autonomy and  would  through  the  seem t o  indeed a remedy of the of  Bangladesh  the  Pakistan point  were  willingness  to  last  state's  government's the  conclusion  r e s o r t and  denied  the  that  option  of  appraising r e a l i s t i c a l t e r n a t i v e s . 5 7  In  addition  necessary  to  to  assess  thse  a  essential  number of  conditions  critical  it  variables  j u d g i n g the l e g i t i m a c y of Bangladesh's r i g h t of  is  before  secession.  ( i i ) Economic V i a b i l i t y .  Bangladesh's  ability  proven over the  last  was  that  predictable  capable  of  Previously province  to  two  Bangladesh  mentioned  of  investment  area  in  it  following  land  in  the  independence  economy. In o t h e r  an  suggest  carrying was  has  the  was  backward o n l y  by  the  world. were  economic  been  central  Eastern  of  aiding  i n return.  because o f government  been d e s c r i b e d  also  potential  the,  burden  Renewed  not  a  lack  and  in  as the most  links  expected  it  nation-state.  that  words, Bangladesh c o u l d  These c o n c l u s i o n s  state  receiving l i t t l e  a g r i c u l t u r a l terms Bangladesh has fertile  a  independent  figures  already  the  had  an  development i n the West and Industrially,  as  decades. However, even i n 1971  supporting  was  survive  with  to  India  boost  be  are supported i n the p r e c e d i n g  the  worse o f f  text.  154 after  secession  economically  since  prior  to  independence  it  was  e x p l o i t e d by the West t o i t s obvious detriment.  Another concern l i n k e d w i t h economic p o t e n t i a l i s t h a t the  parent  state  will  be  This  was  the  secession.  left case  an  economic with  p a r t i c u l a r importance when the seceding access to  sources o f  t o the sea  raw  materials  or  invalid  Biafra  and  e n t i t y has  by  the  is  of  exclusive  controls a l l outlets  ( E r i t r e a ) . None of t h e s e f a c t o r s were an i s s u e i n  Pakistan's  case.  Nanda  makes  this  distinction  clear  in  stating, "...its (Bangladesh's) independence would not undermine t h a t of West P a k i s t a n , f o r the l a t t e r does not depend upon the former e i t h e r f o r i t s p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y o r f o r i t s economic v i a b i l i t y . Therein lies the major d i s t i n g u i s h i n g feature between the East-West P a k i s t a n r e l a t i o n s h i p as contrasted w i t h the Katanga-Congo and BiafraNigeria r e l a t i o n s h i p s " . 5 8  (iii)  The  Geo-stratecric D e s t a b i l i z a t i o n .  f e a r both of the domino e f f e c t and  destabilization  l e d most s t a t e s  Bangladesh's r i g h t t o secede. How  of  to hesitate  geo-strategic  in  recognizing  r e a l i s t i c were these f e a r s  7 The  two  s t a t e s most  e f f e c t were I n d i a and of  the  possibility  Bengal) c a u s i n g  unrest  likely  Pakistan. of  an  to  s u f f e r from the  I n d i a was  independent  concerned because Bangladesh  i n West Bengal, a p r o v i n c e  See Nanda,V.P. S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n supra, p334.  domino  of  (East India.  in International  Law,  155 T h i s never became a problem f o r I n d i a and  t h e i r support  were not  ensuing  years  f o r Bangladesh i n d i c a t e s t h a t these  fears  justified.  The  claim that  i n the  Pakistan's  concern  that  independence f o r Bangladesh would l e a d t o the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of  the  country  into  several  smaller  units  has  proved  unfounded. C e r t a i n l y the Pathans i n West P a k i s t a n were more active  in  their  Pakhtoonistan  during  threatened provinces  that if  the  the  for  crisis  Pakistan  martial  Notwithstanding, because  desire  i n the  would  law  Pakistan  situation  greater  was  the  east  lifted  comparable t o t h a t of Bangladesh. The  a h i g h l y s e l e c t i v e " d i s e a s e " and,  five in  sub-continent  in  was  the, not  of  was  prospect  secession  cases. Indian  viewed  even i n the  f a c e of the human r i g h t s d i s a s t e r i n Bangladesh  was  on  fear  of  territorial  with  Support  this  Pakistan's  It is  5 9  important, many  not  equanimity.  based  for  strategically a  intact  the metaphor,  r e q u i r e s amputation o n l y i n the most s e r i o u s o f Instability  Bangaldesh.  i s weak o r a b u s e d . to continue  had  separate  provinces  contagion  for  Bhutto  territorially  western  spreads o n l y where the state-body  and  become  remained  in  autonomy  instability.  integrity  United  States  S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , Rogers s a i d a t the time, "We favour u n i t y as a p r i n c i p l e and we do f a v o u r s e c e s s i o n as a p r i n c i p l e , because once  not you  Contra Neuberger,B. N a t i o n a l S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n PostColonial Africa. supra, "...there will not be a Bangladesh o n l y i n P a k i s t a n , t h e r e w i l l be a Bangladesh everywhere." p94  156 start down that destabilizing" .  road  i t  could  be  very  6 0  But as B u c h e i t p o i n t s out, "the US's m u c h - c r i t i c i z e d r o l e i n t h e Bangladesh affair was d i c t a t e d l e s s by i t s t h e o r e t i c a l a p p r o v a l o f s e c e s s i o n than by. i t s p e r c e p t i o n o f S o v i e t and Chinese a l i g n m e n t s " ^ . 1  International would  reveal  their  politics hands.  dictated  how  t h e superpowers  The Americans,  s t a t u s quo, demonstrated l i t t l e  inclination  p r e f e r r i n g the t o come t o t h e  a i d o f t h e people o f Bangladesh. Only Congress, d i s p l a y i n g a typically indicated  g r e a t e r humanitarian disapproval  concern than t h e e x e c u t i v e ,  of Pakistan's  action  m i l i t a r y a i d . The S o v i e t Union expressed  by  suspending  i t s d e s i r e t o see a  p e a c e f u l r e s o l u t i o n t o t h e c o n f l i c t as d i d a number o f other states. their  6 2  I n v a r i o u s s e s s i o n s o f t h e UN d e l e g a t e s  sympathy  steered  f o r t h e people  c l e a r o f advocating  ECOSOC condemned P a k i s t a n ' s "compromise". Amersinge,  a right  Pakistan  but  a l l  of self-determination.  a c t i o n but t h e remedy was t o be  The S i n h a l e s e  articulated  of East  spoke o f  Ambassador  t h e ambiguity  member s t a t e s when he requested  t o t h e UN,  felt  by  nearly a l l  that,  "immediate r e c o g n i t i o n (be given) t o t h e w i l l o f the E a s t P a k i s t a n p o p u l a t i o n as expressed i n t h e elections o f December 1970...(but)...the East P a k i s t a n l e a d e r s must renounce a l l s e c e s s i o n i s t demands. We do n o t , however q u e s t i o n t h e i r r i g h t t o n e g o t i a t e s e c e s s i o n w i t h t h e Government o f P a k i s t a n , b u t we cannot condone o r encourage t h e 6 0  Quoted i n B u c h e i t , S e c e s s i o n .  supra,  p209.  6 1  I b i d , p208.  6 2  See Saxena, S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , s u p r a ,  p71-73.  H.S.  157 use of f? objectives" .  r  c  e  i  n  t  n  pursuit  e  6 3  All  state  supporting  o b s e r v e r s wished  a  solution  of  these  t o g i v e t h e appearance o f  i n line  with  democracy  and t h e  p r e s e r v a t i o n o f human r i g h t s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , they c o u l d not b r i n g themselves reasons,  as  t o condone t h e e x e r c i s e o f s e c e s s i o n . The  stated,  l i e i n the  absence  of  consensual  agreement about t h e substance o f t h e r i g h t . It,  therefore,  strategic engineer  effects a process  behooves  those  anxious  o f an u n f e t t e r e d r i g h t by which  the r i g h t  about  the  of secession to  can be  effectively  d e l i m i t e d . P r e d i c t i o n s o f l e g i t i m a c y would do much t o remove the u n c e r t a i n t y which c r e a t e s a c l i m a t e o f i n s t a b i l i t y . (iv) Popular A l l e g i a n c e and P o l i t i c a l  These merits"  6 4  a r e what  Buccheit  of the claim.  activities  of  other  describes  They  states  Legitimacy.  exist and  as  the  "internal  independently  are  a  measure  of the of the  i n g r e d i e n t s which a r e s a i d t o c o n s t i t u t e nationhood l e a d i n g to statehood. In g e n e r a l terms they people  with  collective  a sufficient political  answer t h e q u e s t i o n : I s t h e r e a sense  o f s e l f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and  allegiance  to  support  a  state-  structure?  A/PV  2003, Dec 7th, 1971, p l l - 1 7 . Quoted above, p79.  See B u c c h e i t , L , S e c e s s i o n , supra, p228-231  158 In  t h e case  of E r i t r e a  a national  consciousness  was  c r e a t e d by t h e c o l o n i a l powers ( I t a l y and Great B r i t a i n ) and reached  a  high  point  of  because  of  the  repressive  Government.  The  opposite  with  problem  o f "...making 65  given  geographical is  this  occurred  solidarity  the  Ethiopian  i n Bangladesh absorbed  into  s t a t e e n t i t y . The P a k i s t a n Government was l e f t  t h e massive  surprise  of  u n i t and was l a t e r  what a r e e s s e n t i a l l y t w o " . no  national  activities  process  which began as a separate an a r t i f i c i a l  organized  last  out o f  I t s f a i l u r e t o do so comes as  the ethnic,  cleavages  one n a t i o n  cultural  and, most  of a l l ,  t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e d E a s t from West. I t  factor that  proved  most t e l l i n g .  I t had t h e  e f f e c t o f encouraging an a l l e g i a n c e t o n a t i o n a l i n t h e East and  i t made d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n from those i n t h e West even more  pronounced than e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s alone have  produced.  impossible  Pakistani  and t h e p o l i c i e s  national  best  evidence  a  effect.  e l e c t o r a l mandate g i v e n t o t h e Awami League was t h e  characterized for  proved  o f t h e c e n t r a l government seem  designed t o accomplish t h e o p p o s i t e The  integration  might  of East  dominant  a  universal  Pakistan  party  sense  of  belonging  i n 1970. The unanimous  representing  one  set of  which support  political  i d e a l s was a democratic statement o f i n t e n t t h a t c r e a t e s a s t r o n g presumption both o f t h e e x i s t e n c e the  right  of  that  See Loshak,D. pl8  people  Pakistan  to  o f a people and o f  self-determination.  Crisis,  London:  This,  Heinemann,1971,  159 combined  with  alternative and  a  forms  policy  exploitation deprivations secession  the  of  of  Government  self-determination  racial  culminating gave  refusal  rise  discrimination i n almost to  an  to  grant  any  o r i g i n a l l y sought, and  unegualed  neo-colonial human  irresistible  rights  right  of  .  See C C . O'Brien, C C who d e c r i b e s Bangladesh's r i g h t o f s e c e s s i o n as "the most s o l i d l y founded r i g h t t o secede which has emerged s i n c e WW I I " . See New York Times, Dec 30, 1971.  160  CHAPTER VI CASE STUDY: BIAFRA SECESSION AND THE AUTONOMY COMPROMISE .  OUTLINE i.  Abstract  A. INTRODUCTION. .  B. COLONIALISM TO SECESSION. ( i ) The C o l o n i a l Legacy... (ii) (iii)  Independence Secession.  C. THE RIGHT TO SECEDE  D. UN LAW AND THE BIAFRAN CLAIM  E. THE INDEX OF VALIDITY  a. E s s e n t i a l C o n d i t i o n s : ( i ) B i a f r a as a people (ii)  Biafra  as  a  Territory  Capable  of  Supporting  Right of Secession ( i i i ) Human R i g h t s and B i a f r a  b. C r i t i c a l V a r i a b l e s : ( i ) Economic V i a b i l i t y  o f N i g e r i a and B i a f r a . .  ( i i ) G e o - s t r a t e g i c I m p l i c a t i o n s and Domino E f f e c t .  ( i i i ) A l t e r n a t i v e s t o Secession (iv) Bona F i d e s and t h e Autonomy  Compromise....  163  Abstract  Nigeria most  i s the  populous  bordered  by  the E a s t ,  in  Niger  largest state  Africa to  the  The  (1986  est.106  North,  Chad and  Benin t o the West and  Guinea t o the South. The  i n West A f r i c a  has  capital,  Fulani  I t s major  ( i n the North),  in  the E a s t e r n  to  correspond  official  the  It  is  Cameroons Gulf  Lagos l i e s on t h i s  groups  the  to of  coast.  the South i s mainly  are  the  Hausa  and  the  the Yoruba ( i n the West) and the Ibos  Province  ( B i a f r a ) . The  languages spoken  tend  t o the e t h n i c d i v i s i o n s though E n g l i s h i s the  language. N i g e r i a was  when i t gained been a  ethnic  million).  a c o a s t on the  North i s predominantly Moslem w h i l e  Christian.  and  until  1960  i t s independence. I n t r a - e t h n i c d i s p u t e s  have  feature  of N i g e r i a n  a British  political  colony  life  s i n c e then.  The  worst cases o f e t h n i c c o n f l i c t p r e c i p i t a t e d the s e c e s s i o n of Biafra  (the E a s t e r n Province)  c a p i t u l a t e d a f t e r a c i v i l war legitimacy following  of  this  study.  secession  i n 1967.  In 1970  that l e f t will  be  the  Biafrans  a m i l l i o n dead. discussed  in  The the  A.INTRODUCTION.  If  Bangladesh  is  famous  for  i t s success  from P a k i s t a n then e q u a l l y B i a f r a has gained representative  of  failed  secession.  a l i e n a t i o n , m o b i l i z a t i o n and two  cases.  The  seceding  n o t o r i e t y as  Yet  suppression  in  the  pattern  attributed to a  number o f f a c t o r s but the key t o d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the  s u b s t a n t i a l nature of each of the  the  In  Bangladesh  these  t h e i r most extreme m a n i f e s t a t i o n s likely not  t o f i n d success  true  would  of  a  elements were p r e s e n t making the  any  number  of  in  s e c e s s i o n more  dispassionate moral,  be  elements i n  and be accorded l e g i t i m a c y . T h i s  B i a f r a where  discover  relative  demands f o r s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n w i l l  found i n the pattern.  of  i s s i m i l a r i n these  d i f f e r e n c e i n outcome can be  l e g i t i m a c y o f the two  a  legal  was  investigation and  political  ambiguities. The state  of  Eastern Nigeria  independence as that  the  30th  Republic  of  of  May,  1967  B i a f r a . On  described  as  a p o l i c e action)  the  c i v i l war  leaders  of  ended on the the  Biafran  12th  federal  declaring i t s J u l y the  armed f o r c e s of N i g e r i a a t t a c k e d  o f r e i n t e g r a t i n g the area w i t h i n a new  s t r u c t u r e . The when  on  the  same y e a r the  ( i n what was aim  Region of N i g e r i a seceded from the  with  the  Nigerian  6th  Biafra stated federal  of January,  secession  of  1970  surrendered  165 unconditionally  and  the  Eastern  Region was  reabsorbed  into  Nigeria. The and  antecedents f o r the i n i t i a l d e c l a r a t i o n are complex  i n bear remarkably  situation. colonial  As  with  legacy  few  similarities  Eritrea  was  a  and  t o the  Bangladeshi  Bangladesh  however,  the  factor  creating  the  decisive  in  c o n d i t i o n s which l e d t o the s e c e s s i o n i s t s t r u g g l e .  B. COLONIALISM TO SECESSION  (i)  The  C o l o n i a l Legacy.  The  British  nineteenth  interest  century  with  in  the  Nigeria  occupation  began of  in  Lagos  the  mid-  (a p o r t  on  the South-West c o a s t on the Bay  o f Guinea)  i n the 1860s and  the  consul  1849.  appointment  followed in  1900  Nigeria for  proclamation  and  the  establishment  i n 1914. of  predominantly,  1  British  the  attempt  records  a  by  reasons  first  of  of  the  This  of a Niger  colonial  merge  Christian resentment  See Umozurike.U. Law,supra, p261.  Coast  o f the U n i t e d  administrative to  in  u n i t was  the South. felt  Moslem  the  Self-determination  was  Protectorate  and  North  Significantly, by  This  protectorate  s e t up  convenience  1  North in  of  principally marked and there towards  the the, are the  International  166 merger  2  and t h e r e a r e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t Northern  might  have become a potent  force  separatism  had i t n o t been  for  d e s i r e t o r e t a i n access t o t h e sea through t h e p o r t s South.  The  3  British  policy  from  this  point  its  i n the on  was  e s s e n t i a l l y one o f " d i v i d e and r u l e " b e g i n n i n g w i t h i n d i r e c t rule  after  Nigerians  the F i r s t to  northern  three  this  and  and t h e r e  more  enabled  rapid  consolidated  the Eastern  pace by  than  the  regional  was  little  or Nigerians  attempt  North,  tendencies  East and  and  Richards  remained  on t h e p a r t  to facilitate  West ,  a  i n the following  of  national  i n 1946 i n t o  encouraged  4  their  federalism.  differences  In f a c t the d i v i s i o n o f the country  units,  regional  a  period  the B r i t i s h  identity.  at  War which  o f 1946 which enacted a v e r y weak  Throughout  either  advance  counterparts  Constitution  entrenched  World  decade  these inter-  r e g i o n a l r i v a l r y r e s u l t e d i n s e v e r a l outbreaks o f xenophobic violence. demands  Between under  1957 and  the  1959 a l l t h r e e  constitution  for  ominously p r e f i g u r i n g post-independence  regions  made  self-government,  turmoil.  5  2  Ibid,p261.  3  see Tamuno, S e p a r a t i s t A g i t a t i o n s i n N i g e r i a s i n c e 1914, 8 J o u r n a l o f Modern A f r i c a n S t u d i e s 1970, p566  4  5  These changes were divisions and administration.  made p a r t l y partly to  t o perpetuate r t h n i c facilitate British  These were made a t t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Conferences i n 1957 and 1959. Amber,P. Modernization and Political D i s i n t e g r a t i o n : N i g e r i a and t h e Ibos, 2 J o u r n a l o f Modern A f r i c a n S t u d i e s (1967),pl63.  167 At  this  tribal  peoples  populous were  time  the  and  North  several  was  the  overwhelmingly  orientation  than  development was  Ibos  territory and  of  the  of  a  o t h e r groups.  o f t h r e e major  groups.  The  more  Hausa-Fulani more  Their  who  traditional  relative  p a r t l y a consequence of c u l t u r a l  lack  of  differences  of d e l i b e r a t e B r i t i s h p o l i c y . In the West  were the Yorubas who the  composed  smaller ethnic  Moslem  the  and p a r t l y because  and  country was  Christian  were a mix  Ibos  of Moslems and  dominated  were the most Westernized  the  and  Eastern  Christians region.  entrepreneurial  The  of  the  t h r e e groups and thus had a tendency t o f a n out over N i g e r i a in  s e a r c h of o p p o r t u n i t y . T h i s however had  little  effect  on  the s o l i d i t y o f t r i b a l t i e s and a l l t h r e e areas c o n t i n u e d t o d i s p l a y more r e g i o n a l l o y a l t y than n a t i o n a l u n i t y . at  first  sporadic  consequence state. (ii)  of the  and  attempt  the  inevitable  t o make t h r e e n a t i o n s i n t p  one  Independence  strife.  Central  semblance  of  brought  government  unity  disputed, t r i b a l i s m  6  was  6  Independence i n 1960  was  non-violent,  Conflict,  on  the  was  little  respite  i n c a p a b l e of  country.  Census  from  imposing figures  f l a r e d and the f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n  in  this any were 1964  marked ( e s p e c i a l l y i n the Western region) by, Many w r i t e r s make the p o i n t t h a t the Yorubas, Ibos and H a u s a - F u l a n i c o n s t i t u t e n a t i o n s i n much the same way as the E n g l i s h , W e l s h o r I r i s h . See K.W.J. Post, I s There A Case For B i a f r a ? I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s 44, 1968, p28.  168 " t h e most g l a r i n g abuses t h a t c o u l d be witnessed anywhere i n parliamentary elections" . With t h e whole c o u n t r y e n g u l f e d i n e t h n i c  hostility  and government c o r r u p t i o n , t h e stage was s e t f o r a s e r i e s o f coups t h a t were t o l e a d d i r e c t l y t o t h e B i a f r a n s e c e s s i o n . The led  first  by  coup began on January t h e 15th, 1966 and was  disaffected  Predominantly  junior  Ibo-inspired,  officers  in  i t s victims  the  were  army.  nearly a l l  Northern p o l i t i c i a n s and s e n i o r army commanders. On May 24th a counter-coup was launched by Major (an  General A g u i y i  Ibo s e n i o r o f f i c e r who had s u r v i v e d t h e f i r s t  began  a  personal  war  on  regionalism  which  Ironsi  coup) who  he  clearly  regarded as t h e scourge o f N i g e r i a n u n i t y . He succeeded o n l y in  estranging  Decree the  both  North  and he was k i l l e d  and South  domination  Lieutenant-Colonel  and Yakubu  h i s Unification  i n the year's t h i r d  29th 1966. T h i s coup was prompted  Southern  with  was  by t h e North's f e a r o f  headed  Gowon.  coup o f J u l y  by  Gowon  a  Northerner,  saw  little  to  encourage him t h a t n a t i o n a l u n i f i c a t i o n was p o s s i b l e and he contemplated withdrawing t h e North from t h e r e s t o f N i g e r i a . Meanwhile d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d September-October of  riots  which living the  took p l a c e  took  i n t h e North  accompanied  1966 a number by  massacres  the l i v e s  o f between  10,000  and 40,000  Ibos  i n the region.  One m i l l i o n  Ibos were e x p e l l e d  from  i n t h e E a s t e r n r e g i o n . By t h i s  time  North and r e s e t t l e d  See U m o z u r i k e , S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , supra, p263.  169 two  opposing  implemented  forces a  were  12-state  gathering  federal  momentum.  compromise  Gowon had  which  gave t h e  c e n t r a l government added s t r e n g t h w h i l e d i v i d i n g t h e country provincially government  according  became  to  committed  ethnic  characteristics.  to this  solution  and made i t  c l e a r t h a t any attempt t o r e j e c t i t would be met w i t h (iii)  E a s t e r n Ibos and t h e i r l e a d e r , L i e u t e n a n t - C o l o n e l  Odumegwu Ojukwu, r e s e n t f u l o f t h e North's treatment people  were i n t e n t  Republic  supported ethnic  on a c h i e v i n g independence  of Biafra  was d e c l a r e d  of t h e i r  from N i g e r i a .  i n May, 1967 and was  by both t h e Ibos and, t o l e s s e r e x t e n t , t h e o t h e r  groups  inevitable  which  collision  m i l l i o n s were k i l l e d of  force.  Secession  The  The  His  inhabited occurred  the Eastern and  a  civil  Region. war  o r wounded ended o n l y w i t h  The  i n which the defeat  t h e B i a f r a n s i n 1970.  C. THE RIGHT TO SECEDE  In Bangladesh v i c t o r y went t o t h e s e c e s s i o n i s t s and t h e resultant  state  international  has  long  community.  been  The s i t u a t i o n  accepted  into  i n Eritrea  the  remains  u n r e s o l v e d but p r o b a b l y m a r g i n a l l y favours t h e c r e a t i o n o f a new  sovereign  state.  Biafra,  i n contrast,  has become  a  170 purely  historical  term;  another p r o v i n c e takes  note  longer  issue  Bangladesh's remain  accompli" .  in  Unlike  self-determination  The B i a f r a n  8  international  i t s theoretical  alive.  i t occupied  and  Bangladesh  practical  i t closely  "the law i s no  but  like  implications resembles t h e  archetype o f t h e f e d e r a t e d p r o v i n c e  B i a f r a a l s o wishes t o g a i n  colonially-imposed of s e c e s s i o n  simply  claim  relations  o c c u p i e s a l a n d mass w i t h i n t h e s t a t e ' s l a r g e r area.  is  o f N i g e r i a . As Umozurike s t a t e s ,  of a f a i t  an  the region  i t s own  which  geographical  independence  from  n a t i o n a l boundaries but as w i t h a l l cases  and attempted s e c e s s i o n s  the pertinent  factors  are f r e q u e n t l y those p e c u l i a r t o i t s e l f . B i a f r a was a t e s t case not o n l y but  also  f o r the precarious  integrity  and  the  wider  notion ideal  l e g i t i m a c y was thus p e r c e i v e d of  Bangladesh.  The  future  s a i d t o be a t stake. policy"  that  rights  Biafrans  of  territorial Its  i n d i f f e r e n t terms from  that  of the black  African  state  I t became a matter o f A f r i c a n  African  states  were  from t h e B i a f r a n s e c e s s i o n  were thought t o possess  was  "public  of the i n t e r n a l merits  f a i l t o a t t a i n independence. The  o f t h e new  under t h r e a t  of African  pan-Africanism.  B i a f r a , regardless  i t s c l a i m , should  f o r self-determination  regarded  of  sovereign as  being  so t h a t even i f t h e  a good case  i n vacuo t h e  g r e a t e r good o f A f r i c a n u n i t y would have t o p r e v a i l . This the 8  i s a consideration  substantive  I b i d p267  case  brought  o f some weight by t h e B i a f r a n s  but t o  ignore  would  be t o  171 deny t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f l e g a l p r i n c i p l e and j u s t i c e t o t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f A f r i c a n problems. B i a f r a was no more a wholly African  concern  politics.  Secession  determination The  than  claims  i t was  a matter  is  international  decidedly  an  a matter  to exclusive  of i n t e r n a l  Nigerian  problem,  self-  o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l concern.  jurisdiction  are anachronistic  and  reactionary. On t u r n i n g t o t h e s u b s t a n t i v e confronted The  i s s u e one i s immediately  by t h e complex nature o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c l a i m .  B i a f ran  case  i s undermined  by  factors while the c e n t r a l Nigerian degree  of  Bangladesh is  political  and  human  a  number  of  crucial  a u t h o r i t i e s acted with a concern  not  present  in  or E r i t r e a . Biafra's claim to self-determination  9  not wholly  without  merit  e v e n t u a l l y by E a s t P a k i s t a n  but  unlike  the  claim  held  i t never takes t h e appearance o f  an i r r e f u t a b l e o r undeniable one. This  is  because,  as  stated  a l i e n a t i o n o f t h e Ibos nor t h e i r as  that  of either  Furthermore, different  t h e East  earlier,  suppression  Pakistanis  neither  was as severe  or the E r i t r e a n s .  the p o s i t i o n of the r e s t of N i g e r i a  from t h a t  disintegration  o f West P a k i s t a n  and economic  the  was  much  i n 1971. The f e a r o f  catastrophe  was  reasonable i n  the case o f N i g e r i a and t h e c e n t r a l government's attempts t o h o l d t h e body p o l i t i c t o g e t h e r 9  appear t o have been made i n a  See Chowdhury,S.R. The Genesis o f Bangladesh. London:APH, pl04 i n which i t i s s t a t e d , "evidence shows Army a c t i o n [ i n E a s t Pakistan] f a r more b r u t a l than anything seen i n t h e N i g e r i a n c i v i l war".  172 spirit  of  unlike  the  support  compromise  not  present  Awami League, the  o f the o t h e r t r i b a l  in  Pakistan.  Ibos c o u l d not  groups i n t h e i r  Finally,  guarantee  the  area whose  own  t e r r i t o r i a l ambitions d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y c o i n c i d e w i t h t h a t of the  Ibos.  That  said,  grievances case  Biafra  that  should  comparable  to  Congo between 1960 were  inspired  venture  by  the  economic  without  which  economic  that  be  and  B e l g i a n s who  saw  of  of  the  the  secessionism  the  nor  genuine not  secession  in  was  supported  a the  was  area  in  the  opportunities for mineral  Congo would  B i a f r a ' s m i n e r a l wealth of  some T h i s was  Katangan  motives  exploitation rest  of  In t h a t case t h e s e c e s s i o n i s t s  mercenary  the  out  overlooked.  the  1963.  possibilities  Biafran  born  of  colonial  further  viability.  not  and  by  was  rich lost  its  s u b s t a n t i a l but  the  were  i t s cause  have  area  not  what  aided  by  caused an  ex-  c o l o n i a l power eager t o e x p l o i t i t s economic p o t e n t i a l .  and  Biafra  lies  Eritrea  in  secede.  terms  I want t o now  circumstances right  somewhere on  to  in  order  of  the  look to  the  legitimacy  law  of  discover  1 0  Eight.infra.  .  Katanga  i t s claim  to  a t the r e l e v a n t  whether  secession  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and  of v a l i d i t y o u t l i n e d l a t e r  See Chapter  of  i n more d e t a i l  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n by  U n i t e d Nations  spectrum between  Biafra under  had (1)  (2) the  a the  index  D. UN LAW AND THE BIAFRAN CLAIM.  The the  Biafran  claim  large majority  was looked  of the states  on w i t h that  t h i s may account f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s the  crisis.  and  political  seemed  There was l i t t l e dilemmas  content  attempt  presented  t o allow  some d i s d a i n by  made up t h e UN and passive  response t o  t o address t h e l e g a l  by t h e case  t h e OAU  exclusive  and t h e UN supranational  jurisdiction. The  timing  t h i s regard. three  years  Law . 11  The  something Biafran  of the secession  Biafra's struggle the Declaration UN  of  position  a  came  at  self-determination  colonial  unit's  caveats  on P r i n c i p l e s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l  on  colonial  the  f o r independence predated by  self-determination  transformation  secession  right  i n that  a  time  was  attached  U.Thant, t h e s e c r e t a r y - g e n e r a l  when  underwent  declaration. the  predominant  to t e r r i t o r i a l  subsequently  the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s  i s o f some importance i n  concept  integrity  was f r e e o f  by t h e 1970  Declaration.  o f t h e UN i n 1967, made c l e a r  o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n when he s t a t e d ,  1 2  See G.A. R e s o l u t i o n .  2625, 24 October, 1970,supra.  i - UN Monthly C h r o n i c l e . V o l 7, Feb 1970, p36. 2  of  and t h e p o s t -  "As f a r as t h e q u e s t i o n o f s e c e s s i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r section of the State i s concerned, t h e U n i t e d n a t i o n s ' a t t i t u d e i s unequivocable. As an i n t e r n a t i o n a l organization, the United N a t i o n s has never accepted and does n o t accept and I do n o t b e l i e v e i t w i l l ever accept t h e p r i n c i p l e of secession of a part of i t s member s t a t e " . x ±  The  174 United  Nations  eradicating boundaries.  law  i n 1967  colonialism I t was  and  was  most  concerned  preserving  with  post-colonial  i l l - e q u i p p e d t o d e a l w i t h the coming e r a  o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n s i t u a t i o n s which d i d not conform t o the  colonial  model. The  Declaration Countries there  on  and  the  Granting  People  was,  principles  applied  1 3  "alien  exploitation" .  None  1 4  of  incarnated  Independence only  to  of  these  factors  the  between  neo-colonialism East  ( B i a f r a ) had and of  and  West  which  1 5  was  marked  Pakistan.  1960  Colonial  cases  where  domination  s i g n i f i c a n t degree i n the N i g e r i a o f 1967. of  to  these  subjugation,  i n the  The  and  present  to  There was the  a  little  relationship  Eastern  Province  contributed i t s f a i r  share o f N i g e r i a n l e a d e r s  i t s i n f l u e n c e i n the army was  a t l e a s t as g r e a t as t h a t  any  of  P r o v i n c e was enjoyed  the  other  probably  symbiotic  provinces.  Economically  the  Eastern  the s t r o n g e s t of the p r o v i n c e s and i t  economic  relations  with  the  rest  of  the  country.  See UN General Assembly December,1960, supra. Ibid  Resolution  1514,  14  ,Principle 1  See the d e f i n i t i o n of c o l o n i a l i s m quoted i n Saxena, S e l f Determination , supra, plOl, "colonialism i s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t and maintenance f o r an extended time of r u l e over an a l i e n people t h a t i s separate from and s u b o r d i n a t e t o , the r u l i n g power ...[where t h e r e i s ] a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the e v e r p r e s e n t t r u t h t h a t the s t r o n g dominate the weak and a p a r t of t h a t country does or ought t o e x i s t f o r the b e n e f i t of the o t h e r p a r t . " from Emerson, R. & Fieldhouse,D.K., Colonialism. I n t e r n a t i o n a l E n c y c l o p e d i a o f the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , V o l 3, p i .  175 Under  present  Declaration  law,  as  embodied  i n t h e 1970  on t h e P r i n c i p l e s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law, i t  doubtful  whether  central  question  conducting  UN  the Biafran here  must  claim be  :  has l e g a l Was  is  f o r c e . The  Nigeria  a  state  itself, " i n compliance w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e o f equal r i g h t s and s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f peoples as d e s c r i b e d above and thus possessed o f a government r e p r e s e n t i n g the whole people belonging t o the territory without distinction as t o r a c e , creed o r c o l o u r " ? 1 6  T h i s i s s u e has both a temporal and a f a c t u a l dimension. There  has t o be  phenomena  but  not o n l y  also  a  an  evaluation  recognition  that  o f t h e above the  expression  " N i g e r i a n s t a t e " meant d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s a t d i f f e r e n t The  Biafran  times.  s e c e s s i o n was prompted by a p e r c e p t i o n on  the p a r t o f t h e Ibos t h a t t h e i r p h y s i c a l s e c u r i t y c o u l d no l o n g e r be guaranteed i n t h e N i g e r i a n s t a t e . T h i s i s i n p a r t borne out by t h e evidence o f widespread massacres o f Ibos i n the  North  prior  to  the declaration  However, human r i g h t s abuses alone irresistible  right  of  independence.  do not g i v e  rise  17  t o an  t o secede under i n t e r n a t i o n a l law. They  See General Assembly R e s o l u t i o n supra.  2625, 24th October,1970,  see Legum,Colin. Observer, 16th October, 1966, who i s quoted as s a y i n g , " a f t e r a f o r t n i g h t , t h e scene i n t h e E a s t e r n Region c o n t i n u e s t o be r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e i n g a t h e r i n g o f t h e e x i l e s i n t o I s r a e l a f t e r t h e end o f the l a s t war. Men, women and c h i l d r e n a r r i v e d w i t h arms and l e g s broken, hands hacked o f f , mouths s p l i t open. Pregnant women were c u t open and t h e unborn c h i l d r e n killed"  have t o be accompanied by a c e n t r a l p o l i c y o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and  repression.  There  were a u t h o r i z e d and  continue  t o be  unquestionably had  just  in this  i s no  suggestion  in Eritrea.  power  and  are  well  The  on  provinces.  Gowon's 12-state  the  ameliorating  had  regional  system which was  of  the 27th, 1967  provincially  southern to The  (the  fourth  c o a l i t i o n and  prevent  was  united  Mid-West was  with  among  being saw  willingness  autonomy  to  for  the  an advanced scheme antipathies.  The  federal  twelve  smaller,  sensitive three  of The  more  states.  This  Nigeria's  four  North  feared  a  12-State s o l u t i o n as a means  opposition to concerned  the  government's  o u t l i n e d a new  Biafra).  the  over  f o u r l a r g e semi-autonomous,  interdependent  favour  its  j e a l o u s i e s and  regions  provinces  by real  mutually-suspicious  found  control  s o l u t i o n was  t o r e p l a c e the  and  little  Furthermore, the  question  12-State decree of May  arrangement  N i g e r i a n government  established  negotiate  for  massacres  g u i l t y of n e g l i g e n c e but the Gowon government  acquired  fides  the  i n s t a n c e as they were i n Bangladesh  simmering e t h n i c h o s t i l i t i e s . bona  that  i t s perceived s u p e r i o r i t y .  about an  independent B i a f r a  and  wished t o f o r g e new  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l t i e s w i t h the North w h i l e  the  initially  West,  itself,  saw  domination  though  distinct should  f e d e r a t i o n . As  in  favour  possibilities  Biafra  be  Nixon p o i n t s  allowed out,  for to  Nigeria  the 12-State N i g e r i a ) , p o s i t e d a new,  of  secession  greater withdraw 3  (as he  for  Northern from  the  describes  more l e g i t i m a t e " s e l f "  as a counterweight s o l u t i o n permits determination  t o the B i a f r a n "self"- - . Gowon's  N i g e r i a t o c l a i m both a r i g h t t o i t s s e l f -  and  territorial  integrity  based  on  o f the D e c l a r a t i o n on P r i n c i p l e s of I n t e r n a t i o n a l  E.BIAFRA AND  How  12-State  1  THE  a  reading  Law.  INDEX OF VALIDITY.  would B i a f r a ' s c l a i m be  approached under the more  s o p h i s t i c a t e d l e g a l framework f o r s e c e s s i o n proposed i n t h i s study?  Clearly  international  some o f law  the  would  f a c t o r s r e l e v a n t under  remain  so  under  any  new  present  proposal.  The m e r i t  of s e a r c h i n g f o r a more complex t e s t would l i e i n  its  more  comprehensive  and  political  the  UN  law  equation.  f a c t o r s not on  This  formalistic  would  elements  i s a combination  its  A  number  considered  of  i n any  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n would  decision p o l i t i c a l  and p o l i t i c a l  nature.  have to  a  the  effect  minimum  meaning. T h e r e f o r e ,  formulation  enter of  and  the  reducing  give  any  legal  of  legal the legal  what i s proposed  of p r o c e d u r a l c o n s i s t e n c y ,  relevance  socio-economic  is  certainty  i n d e f i n i n g the r i g h t t o secede  and  limits.  See Nixon, S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n : The World P o l i t i c s 24 1972, p492.  N i q e r i a / B i a f r a Case,  178 The  case i n v o l v i n g B i a f r a  i s n o t one t h a t l e n d s  itself  e a s i l y t o any d e c i s i v e c o n c l u s i o n . T h i s i s because i t s c l a i m to  secede  political Equally  from  Nigeria,  weight,  while  i s flawed  the Nigerian  having  i n some  claim  great  moral  important  t o maintain  and  respects.  i t s territorial  i n t e g r i t y has some f o u n d a t i o n but cannot be admitted  without  certain reservations.  (a)Essential  Conditions:  (i) B i a f r a as a "People".  No  question  of  secession  can  arise  p r e l i m i n a r y d e s i g n a t i o n o f t h e group s e e k i n g I t i s t h e B i a f r a n c l a i m t o be regarded be  a  i t as a people.  as such t h a t must now  considered. Do  the  (ethnicity, Nayar  Biafrans  sense  common d e s t i n y " The  possess  culture, territory)  describes  subjective  the  without  as  the  objective  criteria  and, more i m p o r t a n t l y ;  determining  o f i t s (the people's)  factor own  what  (i.e.  identity  "the and  ) ?  Ibos can be regarded  Welsh  the  o r E n g l i s h . They  as a n a t i o n i n t h e same way as have  common  tribal  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which d i s t i n g u i s h them from o t h e r  and  racial  Nigerians.  Furthermore they were undoubtedly an oppressed people a t t h e 1 9  See Kaladharan Nayar,M.G. S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n Beyond The Colonial Context : Biafra In Retrospect. Texas I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law J o u r n a l , V o l 10, 1975,p334.  179 time  of  the  though, were  .  the  Eastern for  2 0  in  w i t h the  this The  he  concept but  Region. Of  of  substantial c l a i m was  non-Ibo  N i g e r i a . But the  Ibos and the  other  i t has the  the  Biafrans  Biafran  is  Biafran  difficulty,  a  people  nation  tribal  leader,  embraced  groups  "people"  of s e c e s s i o n  minority . 2 1  a not  in  the  never been a p r e r e q u i s i t e in  question  the B i a f r a n C o n s u l t a t i v e  pursuit  not  Assembly  contained  Nevertheless  be  the  a  very  Biafran  p a r t l y based on the r i g h t t o p h y s i c a l s e c u r i t y - a  r i g h t which had  of  the  the  that  e t h n i c a l l y homogeneous and  the  major  "Biafra  the  course  The  Ojukwa,  said,  also  self-determination  which s a n c t i o n e d  that  groups.  when  Ibos  question.  fact  synonymous  at  tribe" only  lies  not  hinted  events  i f t h i s was  Eastern  hand i t was  been withdrawn from the Ibos i n the r e s t of  Region  an Ibo c l a i m why forced  to  a B i a f r a n c l a i m how  secede could  then was  the whole  ?  the  I f on  other  the massacres o f  Ibos be used as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r s e c e s s i o n  ?  2 2  Had  the  these  i s s u e s been r e s o l v e d they might have l e n t more weight t o  the  B i a f r a n cause.  See Ojukwa,G B i a f r a : S e l e c t e d thoughts. P133-134. (1969). The non-Ibo m i n o r i t y the Assembly.  made up  165  speeches of  the  335  and  random  members  of  See Panter-Brick.S.K. The R i g h t t o Self-determination: I t s A p p l i c a t i o n t o N i g e r i a . I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s 44, 1968, p254-66, f o r an e l a b o r a t i o n of t h e s e q u e s t i o n s .  180 ( i i ) B i a f r a as a t e r r i t o r y capable o f s u p p o r t i n g self-determination.  The  Eastern  recognisably Nigeria  a  itself  Province  territorial was c r e a t e d .  component o f t h a t  of  Nigeria  unit  almost  a claim to  (Biafra) from  was  t h e moment  I t has always been a d i s t i n c t  s t a t e and i n 1957 i t gained  i t s internal  autonomy, even sending i t s own r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  t o London.  23  By t h e l a t e s i x t i e s p r o v i n c i a l l o y a l t i e s enhanced by t r i b a l c o h e s i o n meant each r e g i o n was most concerned w i t h  securing  i t s own i n t e r e s t s i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n ahead o f any p e r c e i v e d Nigerian  national  continued  interest.  Secessionist  t o dominate t h e p o l i t i c a l  scene as they had done  throughout t h e h i s t o r y o f modern N i g e r i a . These  tendencies  are  tendencies  2 4  unsuprising  considering  assessment, made by a former a d m i n i s t r a t o r  the  t h a t N i g e r i a was,  "...perhaps t h e most a r t i f i c i a l o f t h e many a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s c r e a t e d i n t h e course o f t h e European o c c u p a t i o n o f Africa." 2 5  The appraisal  Biafran since  administrative probably 2 3  2 4  2 5  claim the  unit  can f i n d Eastern  and, g i v e n  little  solace  Province  itself  the t r i b a l  as a r t i f i c i a l as t h e N i g e r i a n  See Nixon, Self-determination Case,supra. p481.  :  i n such an was  an  d i f f e r e n c e s , was  unit. The  I t was not a Nigeria/Biafra  see f o r f u r t h e r examples, Tamuno, S e p a r a t i s t A g i t a t i o n s , supra. See Lord H a i l e y , An A f r i c a n Survey Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957, p307  Revised ,  London  :  "natural  internal  demarcation"^  d i v i s i o n . T h i s i s not t o d i s c o u n t the  but  that  its  claim  a  colonial  B i a f r a as a t e r r i t o r y  potential f o r self-determination  reminder  rather  on t h i s  but r a t h e r  ground  with  t o post  i s no b e t t e r  a than  Nigeria's. (iii)  Human R i g h t s  The  question  and B i a f r a  o f human  r i g h t s has a l r e a d y  been  dealt  w i t h a t some l e n g t h i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e UN law o f s e l f determination .  The c o n d i t i o n  2 7  abuse i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y to secession. equal  present  Eritrea  rather and  d i r e c t i o n present Even  appears  during  to  international  here t o a c t i v a t e a r i g h t  have  than  direct  Bangladesh).  i n the l a t t e r  government  The  war i t s e l f  operated  within  of  2 8  .  This  of interoppression  of  central  two cases was n o t apparent  the c i v i l  group  degree  observers  a  the Nigerian certain  found  genocide and concluded t h a t f e d e r a l t r o o p s restraint  rights  No doubt t h e r e was a temporary suspension o f  conflict  (e.g.  2 6  human  r i g h t s f o r t h e Ibos b u t i t took t h e form  ethnic  here.  o f aggravated  i s not t o deny t h a t  no  Army  code.  An  evidence  of  had behaved  with  human r i g h t s abuses  See Tamuno, S e p a r a t i s t A g i t a t i o n s , supra,  p565.  2 7  Ibid.  2 8  see Woronoff, J . , O r g a n i z i n g A f r i c a n U n i t y . p424, quoted in Saxena, Self-determination, supra p47. The representatives came from Canada, Poland, Sweden, U n i t e d Kingdom, U n i t e d Nations and t h e OAU. A l l these organizations and s t a t e s however favoured Nigerian u n i t y which may c o l o u r t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e assessment.  182 d i d take place  on  a l a r g e s c a l e , but  case c o u l d  be  one  not  the  not  most  of  extreme  a last  denial  of  (b) C r i t i c a l  the  Katangan  B i a f r a n claims  secession on  important o f t h e s e was a move would have had  on  this analysis  deposits  without  2 9  3 0  3 1  the  state  failed  on  secession  t o meet the  turns.  criteria  grounds but  devastating  of  the  most  economic impact  such  (or the  In  Eastern  l o c a t i o n of a l a r g e number of o i l  which  p o o r e r . However, t h e r e  survived  a  Nigeria  less clear. Biafra  c e r t a i n l y the  populous  (2)  the r e s t of Z a i r e a t t h a t time.  Region) was  most  and  was  the r e l a t i v e l e g i t i m a c y  a number of  the  s i t u a t i o n was  3 0  this  Variables;  index o f v a l i d i t y  B i a f r a the  (1)  been by-passed.  ( i ) Economic v i a b i l i t y of B i a f r a and  The  in this  2 9  rights possible  I t i s t o these a l t e r n a t i v e s and and  remedy  resort since  number o f a l t e r n a t i v e remedies had  of the N i g e r i a n  the  Nigeria  is little the and  would  have  been  much  doubt t h a t N i g e r i a , as  African remained  continent, economically  could  the have  viable  See g e n e r a l l y White. S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n : Time R e a p p r a i s a l , Netherlands Law Review, supra.  For  See Saxena, S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , supra, p37. He puts f i g u r e a t between 600-1200 m i l l i o n tons of o i l .  3 1  . A  the  pace Post,K.J. Is t h e r e a case f o r B i a f r a , supra, p38 i n which he argues t h a t N i g e r i a would not have been v i a b l e  183 Equally  these  disposition  same  of  o i l reserves  the  Ibo  and  people  the  would  entrepreneurial have  ensured  a  r e l a t i v e l y b r i g h t economic f u t u r e f o r an independent B i a f r a . The One  one  would  question  clearly  legitimate  that  prefer  secessions  remains then i s t h a t to  exclude  those t h a t  from  are  case  with  humanitarian  B i a f r a where and of  the  any  on  t h e i r part  motive  of  the  concerns-  central  Biafrans.  for  Nigerian  purely  was .  1  prompted  Nor  do  authorities  they  stress  the  by the  reveal  t h a t t h i s might have been  Instead  of  appear t o have been  secession  political  pronouncements suspicions  the  motive.  category  undertaken  s e l f i s h economic reasons. T h i s does not the  the  of  need  the for  p o l i t i c a l u n i t y r a t h e r than economic i n t e g r a t i o n . ( i i ) Geo-strateqic  A had  successful  i m p l i c a t i o n s and domino e f f e c t .  Biafran  secession  would undoubtedly  major s t r a t e g i c consequences. N i g e r i a would have  access  to  continuing Biafra.  the  sea  conflict  Biafra's  and  there  between  choice  of  it  was  the  and  a  have  lacked  possibility  of  newly-independent  international allegiance  would  w i t h the amputation of the B i a f r a n t e r r i t o r y . One can o n l y assume t h a t h i s standards f o r v i a b i l i t y are much too h i g h . 3 2  Note too t h a t u n l i k e the Katangan s e c e s s i o n where the s e c e s s i o n was supported by the B e l g i a n mining company, Union M i n i e r e , the B i a f r a n s e c e s s i o n was looked on w i t h d i s t a s t e by the l a r g e m u l t i - n a t i o n a l o i l companies who d i d not view the p o s s i b i l i t y of h a v i n g t o r e n e g o t i a t e petroleum contracts with any enthusiasm. As a consequence their support was for the Nigerian government.  184 have been a that  it  controversial issue  was  independence disruption was  not  capable  free  of  would  of  regarded  as  an  big  have  from  minimal  disruption. Talk common currency one  of  these  regions  e f f e c t i n the o t h e r s . swift was  claim  the  Ibos  to  the  potential  Even B i a f r a may  caused  profoundly  in  the by  the not  Biafran  part  decisive,  Biafran  negative  impact  with a  I j awes. There  province. weigh  These  against  They suggest t h a t  secession hardly  the  in  amongst d i s a f f e c t e d  Mid-West  secession.  a  of  was  knock-on  have been met  resentment  of  internal  regions  a disturbing  of  legitimacy  conflict,  t r a n s l a t i o n of t a l k i n t o a c t i o n  f u r t h e r question  though  Nigeria  for  among the v a r i o u s  the  behind  External  since  superpower  on  left  increased  where  might have had 3 3  political  influence.  secession  considerations,  trauma  was  the  power  its  doubt  likely.  of s e c e s s i o n and  is little  been minimal  area  e i t h e r d i r e c t o r by proxy, was Far  there  maintaining  overt,  probably  but  would  have  alleviated  had by  the the a the  sense of s e c u r i t y f e l t by the B i a f r a n s themselves.  S e c e s s i o n has been envisaged by each o f the r e g i o n s a t some point. At the Constitutional Conference of September the 12th, 1966 the North o r i g i n a l l y wished t o i n c l u d e the following clause i n any c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment, " [the] r i g h t of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n of a l l people in this country must be accepted . . . [ i n c l u d i n g ] . . . t h e r i g h t of any state within the c o u n t r y t o secede." The Western Region too proposed t h a t , "each s t a t e should have the r i g h t u n i l a t e r a l l y t o secede from the Commonwealth a t any time of i t s own c h o i c e . " See Umozurike, supra p478.  185 ( i i i ) A l t e r n a t i v e s to secession p o l i t i c a l unity.  Gowon's 12-State whole  discussion.  declaration  of  and N i g e r i a ' s r i g h t t o i t s  f e d e r a l proposal His  political  proposal  i s the  key  transformed  sovereignty  into  a  the a  to  secede would  competing  claim  problems the The  based  arrangements  secession  on  a  i t s e l f was  bald  Biafra's  legitimacy  in  Instead  i t was  by  restructuring  intended  a  greater  f a c e of government i n t r a n s i g e n c e .  constitutional  to  eradicate  dedicated  to  met of  the  the  very  abolishing.  N i g e r i a n government chose an i n t e g r a t i v e s o l u t i o n r a t h e r  than  an  inherently  envisaged  by  the  counterweight  to  political Nigeria. (iv)  the  Biafran like  alienation  one.  became quest  The  3 4  a  for  new  more  Nigeria  legitimate  self-determination  a s o l u t i o n designed t o add  of  the  many  minorities  to  the  left  in  3 5  Bona F i d e s and  This (i.e.  conflictual government  which began t o l o o k  the  have a c q u i r e d  this  sophisticated  a s s e r t i o n of N i g e r i a ' s r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . claim  to  poses  i s the  state  a  the Autonomy Compromise.  major  promise  will  of  "represent  question a  pertaining  to  our  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangement the  whole p e o p l e "  see S a x e n a , S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , supra see Nixon, S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n : supra p492  The  study that  sufficient  to  p93 N i g e r i a / B i a f r a Case,  186 allow  a  government  to  claim  a  right  integrity  over a competing c l a i m t o  secession  be  judged a g a i n s t  to maintain unity?  I f the  to  its  territorial  secede?) Or  previous  should  the  constitutional efforts  l a t t e r i s the case then  Nigeria's  c l a i m i s h a r d e r t o support g i v e n the f a c t t h a t  imperfections  in  million  the  system  caused  such  resentment  that  a  Ibos  were f o r c e d t o evacuate p a r t s o f t h e i r own  c o u n t r y . However,  if  in  we  look  at  the  promise  contained  the  12-State  compromise then the B i a f r a n c l a i m seems l e s s secure.  Biafran  secession  mineral  i s made t o l o o k l i k e the  s e l f i s h a c t of a  r i c h u n i t w i t h i n a f e d e r a l s t a t e l i k e l y t o have consequences detrimental it  has  the  not  other  support  of  the  other  tribal  that  Furthermore  the  groups  Ibos  within  Region of which t h e r e were approximately 40%.  some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t  measure  minorities in Nigeria.  been c o n c l u s i v e l y e s t a b l i s h e d  full  Eastern is  t o the  of  autonomy  the  over  the There  I j awes would have wished  Port  Harcourt  -  had  some  something  they  would be  u n l i k e l y t o a c h i e v e under B i a f r a n s o v e r e i g n t y .  The  12-State  proposal  and  this  may  base  in  have the  would  been  North  arrangement which The  12-state  minorities  question  :  was  proposal  arrangenment may independence.  Gowon's  This  Would  to  have  weakened  The  looked  the  more Ijawes  Biafra  However,  compromised  divided  his by  Northern  to  the  Biafran  gives state  power  the  p o s i t i o n under  rise have  to  the  been  new  region.  needs  more a t t r a c t i v e than  inevitably the  be  catered  Nigeria. have  greatly intention.  also  would  within  have  of this  Biafran further  any  more  187 capable of state  representing  ? There  i s no  the  whole people than the  conclusive  answer t o  f a c t t h a t i t s e l f argues i n favour  From the Ibos and not a  to  Nigerian of  d i d have a r i g h t  to  a r i g h t to outright secession. right  the  principle form  of  of  discriminatory  political  life  been  then  met  validity  up  practices  secession  self-determination  regional that  t o t h a t p o i n t . Had  proposed,  self-determination  but  might,  become  a  argued  Eastern a  Province  newly  this  demands  should  autonomy and had  had  constituted  t o s a t i s f y the  self-determination  greater  quo.  the  within  be  a  that,  The  f e d e r a l s t r u c t u r e . In order  taken the the  self-determination  question,  of the s t a t u s  study made above i t can  Biafra  that  Nigerian  an  afflicted  have  end  Nigerian  these requirements  under  under  legitimate  f o r the B i a f r a n people.  the  means  to  to  index  not of  achieve  CHAPTER V I I I CASE STUDY:  SCOTLAND AND QUEBEC.  SECESSION IN A REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY: PROVINCIALISM AND REGIONALISM.  189  OUTLINE. i.  Abstract:  Scotland.  : Quebec.  A. INTRODUCTION.  B. SCOTLAND ( i ) The Scots as a people (ii)  Scotland's  international (iii)  right  to  self-determination  under  law  S c o t l a n d and t h e r i g h t t o secede  (iv) Human r i g h t s (v) C o n s t i t u t i o n a l  law, i n t e r n a t i o n a l  C. QUEBEC ( i ) Quebec as a people ( i i ) Quebec and t h e r i g h t t o secede  law and s e c e s s i o n .  190  Abstract Scotland Scotland occupying  covers 37%  of  the n o r t h e r n p a r t o f the U n i t e d the t o t a l  British  land  mass.  border w i t h England t o the South but i s otherwise by water the  North  distinct  (the A t l a n t i c Ocean and I r i s h Sea Celtic  t o the East). people,  I t has  a  surrounded  Sea t o the West and  Originally  i t can now  Kingdom  be s a i d  a r e o f t h e same e t h n i c background as t h e  i n h a b i t e d by that  a  t h e Scots  m a j o r i t y o f the  B r i t i s h p e o p l e . The Kingdom o f S c o t l a n d e n t e r e d i n t o a union w i t h England United  and Wales i n 1707 and has remained  Kingdom  s t r o n g sense  ever  since.  limited  pages.  Scots  a r e possessed  o f n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y though they do  a s t a t e i n themselves. the  The  p a r t o f the  political  of a  constitute  T h i s l a t e n t n a t i o n a l i s m has had o n l y effect  described  i n the  following  191  Quebec Quebec i s a p r o v i n c e o f Canada w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f 6,658 000  (Jan,1987).  It  i s bordered  by  the  p r o v i n c e s o f O n t a r i o t o t h e west and  fellow  Canadian  Newfoundland and New  Brunswick t o t h e e a s t . To t h e south i t i s bordered by t h e US s t a t e s o f Vermont, Maine, New York and New Hampshire. I t has a  1000km. c o a s t l i n e  Ocean  on t h e Hudson  Bay  (west) and A t l a n t i c  (east).  Quebec  i s t h e French-speaking  eighty-one  per cent  Eighty-eight  naming  p e r cent  province  French  are Catholics  o f Canada  with  as t h e mother toungue. and t h i s  gives  Quebec  i t s d i s t i n c t i v e q u a l i t y w i t h i n t h e Canadian s t a t e as seen i n the r e c e n t Meech Lake Accord which r e c o g n i z e s Quebec as "a d i s t i n c t s o c i e t y " . Quebec's c l a i m on t h e r i g h t o f s e c e s s i o n , i n t e r m i t t e n t l y agitated for, i s the subject of the following case study.  A.INTRODUCTION.  The problem o f s e c e s s i o n i s not c o n f i n e d t o s t a t e s i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g w o r l d even i f most o f i t s v i o l e n t are  found  there.  discrete, who  have  those  In North  America  territorially-separate a t one time  states.  North  manifestations  and Europe  minorities  o r another America's  sought most  there are  within  states  independence  voluble  separatist  movement i s found i n t h e French-speaking, Canadian  province  o f Quebec which w i t n e s s e d r a r e outbreaks o f v i o l e n c e the  crisis  o f 1970 when i t seemed p o s s i b l e  from  that  during  secession  might o c c u r . Though t h e s i t u a t i o n i s calmer now, t h e Quebec issue  remains  a constitutional  thorn  i n Canada's s i d e and  the Canadian Government i n Ottawa has expended  a great  of energy i n t h e l a s t two decades i n e n s u r i n g t h a t is  never  again  contemplated  by  t h e French  deal  secession  Canadians  in  Quebec. Likewise  few European  countries  are free  concerns d e s p i t e t h e h i g h l e v e l o f economic central  control  separatists  found  on  that  of  advancement and  continent.  i n n o r t h e r n S p a i n and t h e i r  separatist  The  terrorist  Basque arm ETA  have t h e h i g h e s t p r o f i l e among western European groups w h i l e i n E a s t e r n Europe such t e n d e n c i e s t h r e a t e n t h e dismemberment o f t h e m u l t i - n a t i o n a l Yugoslav s t a t e .  In the Soviet  Union,  193 the  Baltic  nations,  beginning  to  opportunity  Lithuania,  perceive  to  Gorbachev's  agitate  for  independence. These and  have met  only  success  However, i t i s important s u c c e s s f u l s e c e s s i o n do  other  and  struggle  f o l l o w i n g the F i r s t World War Irish  part  of  s t a t e , the 1  an  British  Ireland  state.  an  autonomy  if  not  Second World  Indeed  had  the  in  Norway seceded  uncontested Ireland  manner  during  and  r e s u l t e d i n the c r e a t i o n of a  Republic  which  War.  t h a t precedents f o r a  i f not w h o l l y -  new  as  e x i s t t h e r e . In 1905  armed  are  perestoika  s i n c e the  to recognize  Latvia,  movements i n Europe  from Sweden i n a p e a c e f u l low-intensity  and  increased  outright  limited  Estonia  UK  of Ireland, once  i n the  formed  i s perhaps  southern  a  part  of  the  the  most  fertile  ground f o r s e p a r a t i s t movements i n Europe s i n c e i t continues to  bind  Irish,  four Welsh  national The  very and  distinct Scots,  national  a l l of  groups,  whom  the  maintain  English, a  strong  identity.  following  study,  then,  will  examine  the  separatist  movements i n S c o t l a n d , a d i s t i n c t country c o v e r i n g the o f Great B r i t a i n , 2  north  and the p r o v i n c e o f Quebec i n Canada.  T h i s s t a t e was known f i r s t as the I r i s h Free S t a t e but l a t e r became the R e p u b l i c of I r e l a n d (or E i r e as i t i s commonly r e f e r r e d t o i n the UK). A  d i s t i n c t i o n can and should be drawn between Great B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d Kingdom (UK). Great Britain i n c l u d e s o n l y S c o t l a n d , England and Wales. The UK adds Northern I r e l a n d t o these t h r e e . The term " B r i t a i n " i s used synonymously w i t h the UK and the B r i t i s h are regarded as the n a t i o n a l i t y of those who l i v e i n the UK.  194 The modern  purpose  i s t o analyze  industrial  particular  states  secession  (Canada  and  t o examine whether s e c e s s i o n  legitimacy effectively.  while  a  sophisticated  i n the context the could  of  UK)  and  ever  possess  democracy  in  functions  B.SCOTLAND  Scotland's strangely  position  in  anomalous  international province  law  within  one.  and a  the  has  British It  few  federal  unitary  has  of  the  no  state  status  powers of  arrangement  e.g.  is  however  history  and  currently defined  in  a  nation  with  identity  than  existence  and  sub-system  within  i d e n t i f i a b l e as a country absorption economic  i n t o the unit  has  a  more  many  represents the  and  UK.  or  it  has  no  the  both  a  Scots  Ontario. sense  of  nation-states  curiously  Scotland  larger British been  the  under  state  pronounced  of  a  a  l e g i s l a t i v e c a p a c i t y such as t h a t found i n Texas o r It  is  is  well-  readily  as a people y e t i t s  social,  harmonious  political and  and  relatively  comprehensive. This  absorption  began  between England and of two  state  distinctiveness  3  of  with  the  Treaty  with  t o t h i s , S c o t l a n d had i t s own  Scotland  crown  within  the  and  Union  south o f B r i t a i n had  e x i s t e d as nobility.  British  began w i t h the Roman i n v a s i o n of B r i t a i n i n AD the  of  S c o t l a n d which forged a s i n g l e s t a t e out  n a t i o n s . Previous  independent  i n 1707  been conquered but  43. the  land  an The  mass  By AD  77  Roman army  I use t h i s term l o o s e l y t o d e s c r i b e an independent a c t o r on the i n t e r n a t i o n a l scene. S t a t e s as we now conceive of them d i d not e x i s t a t the time r e f e r r e d t o i n the paper.  was  r e p e l l e d by  the  Romans b u i l t two after their physical degree  P i c t s i n the  w a l l s t o separate  departure  the  demarcation  and  of  region  social  of C a l e d o n i a . 4  England from S c o t l a n d  d i v i s i o n was  perpetuated  consolidated  development  i n the  by  two  the  parts  With the union between the P i c t s and the Scots confusingly) whose  i n the  Middle  independence  in  Ages a  the  French.  distinct  It  was  in  educational,  differing of  Britain.  Scottish nation  emerged  period,  l e g a l and  this  Ireland  centuries  this  and  (from  prior  a s s e r t e d i n v a r i o u s wars w i t h the E n g l i s h and the  by  The  too,  to  1707  was  a l l i a n c e s with  that  ecclesiastical  Scotland's  systems took  shape. The  Union  over the  of  1707  has  been the  subject  c e n t u r i e s . However, t h e r e  is little  was  a v o l u n t a r y a c t on the p a r t of two  was  m u t u a l l y - b e n e f i c i a l . I t undoubtedly  of  self-determination  by  Scotland  which  decisive  of  thoroughly  entrenched  Furthermore  this  s u b j e c t t o the constitution more powerful  Caledonia Scotland.  is  self-determination  it  one  whose as  constitutional  subversion  three  be  and  English  a  (i.e.  a  once-only  are  almost  formula  in  now  so  irrevocable.  has  never  been  which marked the E t h i o p i a - E r i t r e a half  nation,  encompassed  remains  act  not have been a  consequences  to  doubt t h a t i t  c o n s t i t u t e d an  f o r c e today. Though t h i s may  decision) ,  dispute  s o v e r e i g n powers t h a t  constitutional act  o f much  most  centuries while  of  later.  imposing  what  we  The  vastly  i t s dominant  now  know  as  197  stamp on t h e B r i t i s h  state,  has done l i t t l e  t o weaken t h e  S c o t t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s o f church, law and e d u c a t i o n p r o t e c t e d by  the treaty.  politically  differentiated.  uniqueness  In  S c o t l a n d has thus  of i t s national  and  ethnically  Biafrans,  This  i twill  evident  by  and the  be shown t h a t S c o t l a n d ,  a w e l l - d e f i n e d "people", more  homogeneous than  does  is  culturally  institutions.  the following section  despite constituting  remained  not possess  a  that right  socially  of the Eritreans of  secession  or  (under  e i t h e r UN law o r my suggested index o f v a l i d i t y ) because o f the absence  o f c e r t a i n necessary c o n d i t i o n s .  f i ) The Scots as a "people".  S c o t l a n d ' s c l a i m t o nationhood i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y one.  In  fact,  only  t h e absence  of  legislative  emphatic capacity  p r e v e n t s us from d e s i g n a t i n g S c o t l a n d a s u b - s t a t e . In  other  matters  Scotland  is  already  relatively  autonomous. I t s e d u c a t i o n system i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t i n England  and Wales w i t h a unique  an e n t i r e l y  Scottish which are  p r o c e s s and  s e p a r a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e . The S c o t t i s h  universities different  examination  offer  degree  orientation police  applies different  from  force  only from  programs that  operates  found under  with  a  in  radically  England.  police  The  legislation  i n S c o t l a n d and many o f i t s procedures that  of  i t s English  counterparts.  198 Edinburgh  i s the seat of S c o t l a n d ' s e x e c u t i v e branch where a  mini-government l e d by the implements  important  bureaucracy.  secretary of  policies  Major  policies  state  formulated are  by  f o r Scotland the  initiated  in  c e n t r a l government. However, the method of t h e i r in  Scotland  is  often  left  to  Scottish  Scottish London  by  application  administrative  bureaux. As K e l l a s reminds us, " S c o t t i s h government should serve two purposes : t o run the t h i n g s which must be done d i f f e r e n t l y i n S c o t l a n d ( e.g. law, e d u c a t i o n , housing and industrial development) and to coordinate government a c t i v i t y on a l l f r o n t s t o take account of S c o t t i s h needs (e.g. economic p l a n n i n g ) . " 5  Apart little  from  defence  and  w i t h which the  foreign  central  policy,  then,  there  is  Scottish  "government" i s not  however,  which  d i r e c t l y involved. It  is  the  legal  system,  argues  most  p e r s u a s i v e l y f o r the n o t i o n of a S c o t t i s h " n a t i o n s u b - s t a t e " and,  by  system  carefully  law,  Roman Law Its  university  S c o t l a n d ' s independent  i n the  Treaty  Scots  lawyers  by  of  Union  and  and  legal  has  politicians  been alike.  unlike i t s English equivalent, i s derived and  i s more  practitioners  those  "people".  i s enshrined  guarded Scots  implication,  law  aspects  "principle"  nearly  faculties of  UK  all which  law  than  "precedent"  come  from  the  teach  only  Scots  which  have  from  based. Scottish law  applicability  and in  See Kellas,J.G, .The Scottish Political System ,3rd,ed.,Cambridge:Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press,1984,p61.  199  S c o t l a n d . Even a t Westminster, home o f t h e UK 6  s e p a r a t e laws must be passed states  that  this  f o r Scotland . 7  separate  legislation  s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e autonomy o f S c o t t i s h These  institutional  factors  parliament,  Kellas,  " i s important  politics."  are  again, in  8  reinforced  by  the  c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e Scots t h a t they do c o n s t i t u t e a people. The  Scottish national  i d e n t i t y i s a powerful one and r e c e n t  p o l l s show t h a t  Scots overwhelmingly p e r c e i v e  as  and B r i t i s h  Scots  first  second .  This  9  o f themselves  subjective  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s an i n d i c a t o r o f t h e e x i s t e n c e Culturally, existence the  this  self-identity  of a d i s t i n c t  sporting  world,  Scottish  Scotland  is press  often  self-  o f a people.  encouraged  by  the  and news media. In  competes  as a  separate  e n t i t y . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f f o o t b a l l where  Scotland  f i e l d s a n a t i o n a l team i n World Cup tournaments competed f o r almost e x c l u s i v e l y by teams r e p r e s e n t i n g has  helped f o s t e r a continuing  states .  sense o f n a t i o n a l  1 0  A l l this  identity i n  the absence o f statehood.  ° e.g. Revenue o r t a x law. 7  P r i v a t e law i s e x c l u s i v e l y S c o t t i s h w i t h minor e x c e p t i o n s . The p u b l i c law areas which a r e most o f t e n l e g i s l a t e d f o r S c o t l a n d s p e c i f i c a l l y a r e i n t h e areas o f law reform, l o c a l government,education and a g r i c u l t u r e .  8  See K e l l a s J.G. The S c o t t i s h P o l i t i c a l System, supra, p25.  9  1 0  Ibid. Only t h e o t h e r "home" c o u n t r i e s a r e p e r m i t t e d t o compete on t h i s b a s i s . I t i s i n c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t any o t h e r e t h n i c o r n a t i o n a l m i n o r i t y be admitted t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l s p o r t at t h i s l e v e l .  200 ( i i ) Scotland's  r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n under UN  By  definition  almost  described  any  as  a  s u b j e c t i v e and existence  "people".  the  It  Scottish  satisfies  nation  the  law  can  criteria,  be both  o b j e c t i v e , by which most models determine the  of  a  determination  can  law  until  1970  and  territories  people. only  be  applied  However asserted  the  still  its rather  r i g h t only  under  right  to  (racial)  to  self-  ambiguously. sovereign  colonial  UN  states  rule.  The  D e c l a r a t i o n on the P r i n c i p l e o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a w , o f t h a t 11  year,  gave the  which  failed  r i g h t meaning  to  meet  for  certain  "peoples" w i t h i n  democratic  and  a  state  humanitarian  standards . 1 2  The hardly  UK  meets  therefore  resort  under  difficult  to  between 1 1  standards  claim that  the  easily  right  to  declaration.  (or  Assembly  the  UK  in  Resolution  and secede  i n the  general) 2625  Scotland as  a  Additionally  discern a c o l o n i a l patina  England  General  those  ,  last is  relationship  and  24th  it  can  Scotland.  October  1 4  1970,  supra. 1 2  See  1 3  See White,R. S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n ; Time f o r a Re-assessment ,Netherlands Law Review. But see "Getting Away S c o t - f r e e , Fed by economic s t a g n a t i o n and p o l i t i c a l n e g l e c t , S c o t t i s h separatism i s r e g a i n i n g i t s head of steam." M i c h a e l Keating, The Globe and M a i l , Monday, January 16th, A7. But t h e r e i s l i t t l e evidence i n the a r t i c l e t h a t t h i s economic s t a g n a t i o n i s p e c u l i a r t o S c o t l a n d . " P a r t s of southern England have been booming" but S c o t l a n d i s s u f f e r i n g no more badly than the North of England and i n some areas i s doing much b e t t e r .  1 4  Chapter I I I , i n f r a .  201 S c o t l a n d has  b e n e f i t e d from the Union and  there i s  evidence  t h a t S c o t l a n d r e c e i v e s a p r o p o r t i o n a l l y g r e a t e r share o f the social UK.  services  and  Scotland's  15  i s s u e . As certain  industrial  development  budget  r i g h t to self-determination i s a  a distinct  minority  n a t i o n a l group S c o t l a n d  rights  and  a  of  the  different  qualifies  right  to  some  been  acquired.  for  degree  of  autonomy. These  rights  possesses  and  maintaining outright  have  e x e r c i s e s the  a  separate  referendum  were g i v e n autonomy support  right  to  the  ,  on  socio-political  opportunity  only  32.8%  existence has  of  in  1975,  t o vote  been allowed  to  the  f u t u r e . In which  for greater  Scots  legislative  e l e c t o r a t e confirmed  their  f o r t h i s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l change.  S c o t l a n d and the r i g h t t o secede.  This  absence  of  popular  measure o f autonomy has secession.  existence people  of  during  (iii)  of  short  r i g h t t o determine i t own  devolution  Scotland  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n by  secession. C e r t a i n l y Scotland  e x e r c i s e i t s democratic the  already  of  One the  of right  approval  important the  in  even  a  limited  consequences f o r the  central  lies  for  the  determinants degree  to  right  of  the  which  the  i n q u e s t i o n have a d e s i r e t o secede. T h i s i s  itself  determined by the amount of g r i e v a n c e f e l t by the people the 1 5  level  of  solidarity  arising  See Mackintosh, S c o t t i s h Quarterly,1967, p345.  from  Nationalism  this ,  38  sense  and of  Political  202 resentment.  The  comparatively or  Tamils  Scottish  people  "low-level g r i e v a n c e " which  is  indicative  experience next  1 6  of  only  a  t o the Eritreans the  absence  of  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and/or human r i g h t s abuse.  ( i i i ) Human R i g h t s i n S c o t l a n d  Human r i g h t s c o n t r i b u t e s t h e most c r i t i c a l index o f v a l i d i t y this  i s p o s i t e d under  scheme as a p o s s i b l e a n t i d o t e t o human r i g h t s  This  i s i n keeping  Declaration Certainly, things  on  the  with  equal)  genocide,  t h e UN  Principles  the s e v e r i t y  being  Clearly rise  f o r secession. Secession  indicae t o the  of  o f t h e abuse  whether  regardless  t o an immediate  law  right  a  i n the  International will  right  o f other  s e t out  abuse.  to  Law.  determine ( a l l secede  factors,  arises.  must  give  of secession. This occurred i n  Bangladesh  and t h e n e a r - g e n o c i d a l  Government  has strengthened  policy  Eritrea's  of the Ethiopian  claim  t o become an  independent s t a t e . Lower l e v e l s  o f abuse may, i n combination  with  a  series  of other f a c t o r s , contribute t o the establishment of a r i g h t to  secede.  Even  these  abuses must  be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e  r i g h t t o p h y s i c a l s e c u r i t y . R i g h t s such as t h e r i g h t t o work or  the r i g h t  study  unless  to suitable  housing  d e p r i v a t i o n o f these  a r e n o t r e l e v a n t t o our rights  i s accompanied by  See Schwarz , The SNP. N o n v i o l e n t Separatism of V i o l e n c e , 22 World P o l i t i c s , 1970.  and T h e o r i e s  203 massive  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . According  t o these  criteria  human  rights  a r e not a r e l e v a n t  i n d i c a e i n t h e case o f S c o t l a n d  which  suffers  worst,  deprivation deeper their  Pakistan,  adaptable  discrimination. and  more  does  are  deprivation.  traditional  English  Any  mild  This  o f an economic r e c e s s i o n which b i t  Scotland's  Scotland  provenance  at  i s a result  into more  from,  not  equivalents . 1 7  not s u f f e r  such  form  inequalities a  industries  result  of  Unlike  extreme have  a  central  than East  economic natural  government  policy.  •  There there  i s no i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d  was  against  Eritreans.  the  Hindus  I t i s doubtful  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n against  violence in  whether  t h e Scots  against  Bangladesh  there  i s even  i n the UK . 18  Scots and  as the  minimal  In f a c t , t h e  S c o t t i s h people may w e l l be as s u c c e s s f u l l y a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o British  political  and c u l t u r a l  life  as i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r  any n a t i o n a l m i n o r i t y t o be. To  talk  arguably,  of  secession  under  these  circumstances  is,  an a b s u r d i t y .  (iv) C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Law, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law and S e c e s s i o n 1 7  pace Tom N a i r n , a M a r x i s t , who b e l i e v e s S c o t l a n d w i l l secede because o f uneven c a p i t a l i s t development and exploitation. see Nairn,T. The Break-up of Britain,London:Verso,2nd ed,1981.  1 8  e.g. t h e N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e V i n d i c a t i o n o f S c o t t i s h R i g h t s p u b l i s h e d a comprehensive programme f o r change. Hanham estimates that every part of the programme has been adhered t o by c e n t r a l government. See Hanham,H.J. The Scottish Nation Faces the PostI m p e r i a l i s t World, 23 I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l 1967/68.  204  The  Scottish National  Party,  f o r independence i n S c o t l a n d , a n t i c i p a t e d success  has  the  major p o l i t i c a l  remains a m i n o r i t y p a r t y .  been much-heralded but  broken the h o l d o f Labour over S c o t l a n d . a  party  o f p r o t e s t whose demand  long  claimed  t h i s view has,  a right  of  secession  i n t e r m i t t e n t l y , been shared  as not  Nevertheless,  f o r Scotland by  Its  never  f o r independence does 1 9  has  i t has  I t i s b e s t seen  a t t r a c t the m a j o r i t y of the S c o t t i s h p e o p l e . it  voice  and  a l l the major  p a r t i e s i n the U K . 20  It  is  important  then  r i g h t t o secede from the Under UK  recognized. that  a  d i s t i n g u i s h the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  i n t e r n a t i o n a l law  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l law  not c l e a r l y convention  to  Scotland's  I t has,  right to  right  to  secede.  secede  is  however, become a matter of  democratically  held  referendum  i n which  These sudden spurts of electorally-significant n a t i o n a l i s m are, a c c o r d i n g t o Berger, a product of the c y c l i c a l nature of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n among the European n a t i o n a l i t i e s . Major breakthroughs a t the p o l l s such as the r e c e n t v i c t o r y i n the Govan b y - e l e c t i o n f o r the SNP are p a r t . o f t h i s c y c l e i n which p r o t e s t inevitably f o l l o w s apathy and d i s a f f e c t i o n , see Berger.S. Bretons. Basques. Scots and Other Nations. Journal of I n t e r n a t i o n a l H i s t o r y 3 1972 pl67 The Labour P a r t y has promised some degree o f independence should they attain power a t Westminster and Leon B r i t t a n , the former Home-Secretary i n Mrs Thatcher's c a b i n e t , has p u b l i c a l l y s t a t e d f o l l o w i n g the SNP v i c t o r y a t the Govan b y - e l e c t i o n t h a t , s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n b e i n g a fundamental r i g h t , " i f i t r e a l l y c o u l d be proved t h a t a m a j o r i t y of Scots s e r i o u s l y and on a s u s t a i n e d b a s i s want S c o t l a n d t o go i t s own way w i t h i n the European community, then B r i t a i n ' s duty would be c l e a r . . . s e l f d e t e r m i n a t i o n i s a fundamental r i g h t t h a t c o u l d not be denied by those u n e q u i v o c a l l y c l a i m i n g i t " , see The Times. November the 17th, 1988 p i .  205 the  Scots  given  voted  effect  overwhelmingly  under  f o r independence  constitutional  law. T h i s  would  be  does not mean  t h a t S c o t l a n d has a r i g h t t o secede under i n t e r n a t i o n a l law. Its  internal  position  external  status  be  and g i v e n  held  government  i n t h e UK  i s not r e f l e c t e d  i n international effect  discretion  by i t s  law. Any referendum  as a matter  i . e . Scotland  has  no  state-  right  under  are  rather  international  law, whose  less stringent  than t h a t o f UK c o n s t i t u t i o n a l law, t o demand  that right  a referendum  democratic  of i n t e r n a l  would  be h e l d .  t o maintain  Rather  t h e UK  i t s territorial  c o n t i n u e s t o possess  standards  has an  integrity  absolute  providing  a government r e p r e s e n t i n g  i t  the B r i t i s h  people as a whole.  S c o t l a n d ' s q u a l i f i c a t i o n s under t h e index o f v a l i d i t y a r e virtually secession  negligible. i.e. a  mobilization, the  right  "Scottish  national  alienation  under  2A  but  identity,  but  qua in  non f o r terms  of  Kellas  says  can be p r e s e r v e d without n a t i o n a l  self-  What  circumstances.  Scotland  cultural  and  determination. Gros-Espiell, a u s p i c e s o f t h e UN, s t a t e s 2 1  the sine  and s u p p r e s s i o n i t c o u l d not c l a i m  present  interests  determination. " secession  I t possesses  has  a  low-level  As  right  to  i s not  political  self-  i n a study conducted under the  clearly  that,  See K e l l a s , The S c o t t i s h P o l i t i c a l System , supra p l 6 1 .  206 "where the people [ S c o t l a n d ] , through the e x e r c i s e o f the r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n [Treaty of Union 1707] has formed a p o l i t i c a l e n t i t y [U.K.] ... the c u l t u r a l content of i t s r i g h t t o s e l f d e t e r m i n a t i o n remains i n e f f e c t . . . " 2 2  Scotland's the  cultural  quest  for  self-determination  domain than the  exists  additional  seeks powers  only to  cultural  matters ."  existing  constitutional  2 4  "to  secure This  in  p o l i t i c a l - e c o n o m i c domain. I t  i s more a product o f r e g i o n a l i s m than n a t i o n a l i s m regionalism  more  provide  certainly  arrangements  this  [Scotland]  self-determination is  and  2 3  in  feasible  without  with broad under  recourse  to  secession.  See Hector Gros E s p i e l l , The R i g h t To S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . Implementation o f UNResolutions. E/CN.4/Sub,2/405/Rev.1, p28 See Mercer,J. Scotland London:J.Calder,1978 p3.  :  The  Devolution  of  Power.  See Eadie, A l e x & S i l l a r s , Jim, "Don't Butcher Scotland's Future : The case f o r reform at a l l levels of government" i n Drucker,H. Breakaway, The S c o t t i s h Labour Party, Edinburgh: EUSB,1978,pl4  C.QUEBEC  Quebec i s Canada's l a r g e s t francophone  community its  traditions  and  distinctive  community.  provincial from  that  own  Quebecois  culture  Unlike  outside  make  Scotland  it  and  French  Canada's  Quebec  a legislative  of the central  France. I t  institutions  which  government w i t h  l i k e Scotland  and i t s predominantly  i s the biggest  25  possesses  province  has  capacity  government i n Ottowa.  most  i t s own separate  Howevever,  i t s h i s t o r i c a l claim to self-determination i s  a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d one. The French century  first  saw  a  settled  further  i n Quebec  influx  of  settlers,  number up t o around 20,000. F o l l o w i n g immigration  from  France.  However,  i n 1627  and t h e next bringing  t h i s , t h e r e was l i t t l e by  1987  that  original  20,000 has become s i x and a h a l f m i l l i o n . The French o f France" have engaged i n s t r u g g l e s English was  countrymen throughout  secured  government language threatened  i n 1759 a f t e r allowed  and  religion.  throughout  with  history.  their  more  British  Quebec's  o f Quebec identity  t h e 19th century  until  numerous  British  t o keep was  "New  domination  a s h o r t war. but t h e new  the residents  the  their  severely  Confederation  I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t 82.5% o f Quebec's i n h a b i t a n t s speak French as a f i r s t language.  208 in  1867  when  control  over  language. 19th and to  its  was  inability  became  civil  Quebec's  century the  Quebec  development  r e t a r d e d by of  but  the  nationalism. Canadians  next  This  had  Canada. The  depression was  been  partly  victory  latter  Canada  with  religion  and  half  a weak p r o v i n c i a l  life  .  2 7  By  the  of  1930 out  of  a  the  church, century,  economically  rise  feeling by  the  government  20th  re-assert i t s e l f saw  of  n o t a b l y the  discriminated against  of  Quebec  that  French  the  rest  of  Union N a t i o n a l e P a r t i c o n t r o l l e d Quebec f o r the  i t failed  to  because o f the  Duplessis  i n the  to  born  t h r e e decades and  However,  of  education,  i t s institutions,  gone some way  great  province  laws,  adapt t o modern i n d u s t r i a l  Quebec had  a  regime in  1960  nationalism.  The  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  to  strengthened arrest  a  refusal  on  accept  heralded economy  autonomy.  f u r t h e r economic d e c l i n e , the  federal a  new  p a r t o f the  dominant  subsidies. A  awakening  expanded  developed  i t s cultural  of  rapidly  and  Liberal Quebecois a  modern  t o meet the needs o f the  late-  20th c e n t u r y . In t h i s p e r i o d , too, the p r o v i n c i a l government began t o vis  flex  France,  government.  i t s international sometimes More  to  muscles,  the ' c h a g r i n  recently,  in  1980,  especially of  the  vis a federal  French-Canadian  6  See The B r i t i s h North American A c t , 1867, 30 V i c , c.3. but note t h a t the Quebec A c t of 1774 had entrenched these r i g h t s f o r Quebec.  2 7  The resurgence of the American economy i n 1896 a l s o had an adverse effect on Quebec's economy. The church c o n t i n u e d t o s t r e s s the v a l u e of simple r u r a l life during t h i s period.  2  209 nationalism i n the  r e c e i v e d a set-back when separatism  was  defeated  referedum of t h a t y e a r . P r o v i n c i a l - f e d e r a l r e l a t i o n s  have improved  from t h a t  point  and  disputes  now  tend  to  be  r e s o l v e d by a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l compromise, the l a t e s t of which is  the  Meech  accompanied Front  de  Lake  by  Accord.  sporadic  Liberation  kidnappings  sparked  violence  de  a  Quebec  since  Quebec  in  the  1963.  Government. However, i t has  has  been  formation In  constitutional c r i s i s  l e d t o the i m p o s i t i o n of the War  FLQ  nationalism  in  of  1970  FLQ  Canada  and  Measures A c t by the Trudeau  never been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t  the  had more than minimal support from the Quebec people.  f i ) Quebec as a "people".  As  we  have  seen  determination  under  these peoples  and  "peoples"  international  d e l i m i t i n g the  proved extremely p r o b l e m a t i c . capable  of  gaining  administration  been  a  law  right  The  to  although  scope o f  their  from  restricted  i s impermissible  a  right  larger  thusfar  self-  defining  genus of peoples  independence  has  peoples. Secession  have  has  legally  political  to  colonial  under i n t e r n a t i o n a l  law  except i n c e r t a i n cases where an e t h n i c group w i t h i n a s t a t e and  occupying  representation arises  from  a at  a  distinct a  area  governmental  reading  of  the  of  that  level. 1970  This  state  lacks  possibility  Declaration  on  the  210 P r i n c i p l e s of I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a w . I t i s the purpose of t h i s 20  paper t o both l i m i t and e l a b o r a t e on t h i s Self-determination secession  and  independence  its or  is  more  inclusive  exercise  need  secession.  possibility. a  not  The  concept  lead  to  than either  nationalist-provincial-  f e d e r a l m a t r i x t h a t e x i s t s i n Quebec a l l o w s us t o d e l i n e a t e more c l e a r l y  these d i s t i n c t i o n s  self-determination detriment  to  the  can  be  body  and  show how  exercised  politic  and  (in this  the  right  asserted case  to  without  Canada)  and  without r e c o u r s e t o s e c e s s i o n . Quebec's r i g h t  to  self-determination  i s premised  on i t s  e x i s t e n c e as a people i n the vaguest, s o c i o l o g i c a l sense opposed  to  the  conditional  United  Nations  definitions).  Here, t h e r e i s v i r t u a l l y no argument -. The French  Canadians  29  in  Quebec are a people  ethnicity, Quebec's  for  language  culture-defining  establish people.  culture,  by v i r t u e  the  existence of  Quebec's  e d u c a t i o n and  own the  of t h e i r  and  institutions a  separate,  provincial allocation  unique  religion. is  (as  A  history,  glance  at  sufficient  to  self-identifying,  government of h e a l t h  i s responsible and  the  social  s e r v i c e r e s o u r c e s . As w i t h S c o t l a n d , the law i s d i s t i n c t i n terms of i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n and content. While c r i m i n a l law i s 2  8  See supra f o r f u l l e r a n a l y s i s of i t s p r o v i s i o n s .  2  9  See C a r e y . C . S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n the P o s t - C o l o n i a l E r a : The Case Of Quebec. ASILS I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law J o u r n a l , V o l 1,1977,47. But for an opposing view see Pierre Trudeau,Federalism and the French Canadians, Toronto:MacMillan, 1968, where he s t a t e " . . . ( a people) i s no more and no l e s s than the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n of a s t a t e . " pl53  211 legislated over  f o r federally,  i t scivil  laws.  each  Quebec's  province civil  has  jurisdiction  law i s based  on t h e  Roman l a w - d e r i v e d C i v i l Law. The o t h e r p r o v i n c e s a l l operate codes  based  most The  on t h e Anglo-American  significant  cultural  predominance  physical  signal  differences  o f t h e French that  common  Quebec  law system.  a r e language  language  i s different  based.  i s the clearest from  the rest of  Canada - t h i s predominance a f f e c t s a l l areas o f Quebec and  The  life  i s t h e source o f both p r i d e and concern f o r t h e French  Canadians . 3 0  This  language  difference  gives  them  an even  stronger  sense o f s e l f - i d e n t i t y than t h e Scots and t h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f themselves the  as a people w i t h c u l t u r a l  adoption  o f shared  political  uniqueness  interests  encourages  and as  Johnson  states, "The u l t i m a t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f nationhood i s t h e development of national identity among a people." 3 1  So,  t h e French  subjective "national"  3 0  3  1  Canadians  standards  used  satisfy to  both  assess  t h e o b j e c t i v e and the  presence  of  identity.  See Robert Bourassa's decision to use the " n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g " c l a u s e i n t h e C h a r t e r t o circumvent "freedom o f e x p r e s s i o n " i n t h e C h a r t e r o f R i g h t s and Freedoms. See Johnson,H. S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n W i t h i n t h e Community o f N a t i o n s . Leyden,1967, p50.  212 ( i i ) Quebec and t h e R i g h t t o Secede.  These f a c t o r s a r e not i n themselves s u f f i c i e n t a right  to assert  o f s e c e s s i o n . Other f a c t o r s must be p r e s e n t  French  Canadians  a r e t o avow  a  right  i f the  t o separate  under  i n t e r n a t i o n a l law. The in  first  favour  evidence against  q u e s t i o n t o be answered i s : I s t h e presumption o f Canada's  of  territorial  discrimination  or  integrity  human  rebutted  rights  t h e people o f Quebec? I n o r d e r  by  violations  t o make t h a t  claim  the French Canadians must show e i t h e r t h a t t h e Quebec-Canada r e l a t i o n s h i p has been a c o l o n i a l one o r t h a t Canada does not have "a government r e p r e s e n t i n g to  the t e r r i t o r y "  3 2  t h e whole people  belonging  . The burden i n t h e l a t t e r case i s on t h e  e n t i t y s e e k i n g s e c e s s i o n and i t i s a heavy one. The c r i t e r i a presented  i n this  round t h i s secession that  aspect  t h e s i s f o r determining  the  right  for  secession  centre  o f " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " . Given t h e f a c t  i s anathema  customary  legitimacy  to nearly  a l l states  i n t e r n a t i o n a l law favours  altogether,  i t i s important  that  i n t h e UN and  the r e j e c t i o n of  that  be s t r i n g e n t i f our t h e o r y  the conditions  of legitimacy i s  to be p r a c t i c a b l e . T h i s i s why human r i g h t s must p l a y such a a  large  human  role  rights  i n the f i n a l i n Quebec  reckoning.  has been  Canada's r e c o r d  attacked  on  two  fronts.  See G.A. R e s o l u t i o n 2625, Oct. 24th 1970. supra.  on  major  213 Many w r i t e r s have d i s c u s s e d in  Quebec,  relative past  stressing particularly  economic  d e p r i v a t i o n . C e r t a i n l y Quebec has  from  vibrancy Quebec  human r i g h t s d e p r i v a t i o n  economic  inequities  argues a g a i n s t  contains  30%  of  but  its  deprivation suffered in  present  or the  economic  institutional  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . True,  the  population  Canadian  and  yet  a  much s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n of i t s s k i l l e d and managerial c l a s s . However, these  f i g u r e s b e l i e the advances made by the French  Canadians  recent  in  decades  and  the  remain have more t o do w i t h h i s t o r i c a l  discrepancies f a c t o r s than  that  present  discrimination. Others have p o i n t e d t o a d i l u t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l the  French  Canadians  in  Quebec.  However,  Quebec,  S c o t l a n d , has been, a t worst, the v i c t i m of a democracy and  cannot be  a  minority  but  recently  the  French  they  d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e amount of power i n the system  J  . There can  democratic represented good d e a l  rights.  be  no  i n parliament  and  Quebec  is  Quebecois d e s i r e d independence and  the  Canadians  are  wielded  Canadian are  deprived over-  i t exercises  Even i f the m a j o r i t y saw  a  political  marginally  provincially  o f independence a l r e a d y .  in  have  sense i n which they  Federally  like  malfunctioning  said to lack representation  Canadian government. P o l i t i c a l l y , indeed  rights for  a of  i t as the b e s t means  Robert Bourassa, the Quebec premier, was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n B r i a n Mulroney's v i c t o r y i n 1988's f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n which was won by the conservatives in Quebec. Furthermore t h i s e l e c t o r a l success was p a r t l y due t o Mulroney's w i l l i n g n e s s t o accommodate Quebec's d e s i r e f o r s p e c i a l treatment i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n a t Meech Lake.  214 to  achieve  federal  a  province  international occur  i f the  where the causing  high  law  level of to  of  Quebec pursue  democratic would the  representation  have  claim . 3 4  no This  the  standing could  s i t u a t i o n i n Quebec d e t e r i o r a t e d t o the  in only  point  treatment of the French Canadians became a matter  i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i s q u i e t . As Umozurike s t a t e s ,  "Inasmuch as the p o l i t i c a l machinery o f Canada has adopted a f l e x i b l e approach t o the problem o f French Canadians, i t i s maintained t h a t i t remains an i n t e r n a l a f f a i r and not one of i n t e r n a t i o n a l concern." Quebec's  right  cultural sphere . 3 6  to  self-determination  Denial  exists  in  the  of t h i s r i g h t combined w i t h human  "...the component s t a t e s o f a f e d e r a l s t a t e normally (my i t a l i c s ) are not s u b j e c t s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l law. Only the f e d e r a l s t a t e has i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i g h t s and d u t i e s . " , Klsen,H. General Theory of Law and the S t a t e . R u s s e l & Russel:1961 p316. See a l s o , I s There A R i g h t t o Secede ?, Murphy K . i n The Referendum and S e p a r a t i o n Elsewhere : Implications for Quebec. Rowat,D.C. ed.,Dept of P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e : C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y . And, Can Quebec Separate ?. Matas,D. M c g i l l Law J o u r n a l , V o l 21, 1975, p399-401, i n which he s t a t e s "Quebec has no l e g a l r i g h t to assert that claim against Ottowa."(p401) Constitutionally, Canada i s under no o b l i g a t i o n to implement a programme supported by a m a j o r i t y of the Quebec p e o p l e . A f u l l a n a l y s i s of the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l m i n u t i a e i n v o l v e d i s outwith the purview of t h i s paper. For a f u l l e r treatment see The Legal Secession of Quebec. A Review Note, Greenwood,F.M. UBC Law Review, V o l 12, p71. See Umozurike,U. Self-determination i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conneticut:Archon,1972, p259.  Law.  see Gros E s p i e l l . H . T h e Right t o Self-determination,supra ,p28. See a l s o D e c l a r a t i o n of P r i n c i p l e s adopted by Habitat: UN Conference on Human Settlements,para 9 s e c t i o n I I , which s t a t e s , "Every country should have the r i g h t t o be a s o v e r e i g n i n h e r i t o r o f i t s own cultural v a l u e s c r e a t e d throughout i t s h i s t o r y and has a duty t o preserve them as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the cultural h e r i t a g e of mankind".  215 r i g h t s abuses and to  a  right  of  a number of a s s o c i a t e d  secession  However,  these  Quebec's  culture  conditions has  undue i n t e r f e r e n c e Politically  as  inconsistencies  remedy  do  been  not  the  obtain  in  last  resort.  Quebec  successfully 3 7  government  Quebec  has  suffered  and  some  policies  been  and  Quebeckers has  can  given r i s e  hardly  to  claim  have  the  secessionist  from  residual  However many of these d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s  maltreatment t h a t  where  without  discrimination. rectified  lead  federal a u t h o r i t i e s .  economically  in  of  preserved  from the  and  a  f a c t o r s might  gross  movements  i n A s i a and A f r i c a . A  Quebecois  numerous  to  community. debt,  secession  mention  Among  for  them  and  would  problem  be  the  Quebec.  As  Cameron  outside  notes  Canadian n a t i o n " .  benefits  and  the of  too world  national  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , economic Furthermore  both  inside  (French-speaking  there  province  The  Quebec  reallocation  irredenta  c o i n c i d e n c e between the 3 8  difficulties  complications.  of  speaking Canadians) and  be  defence  trade  pose  Canada,  would  r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of  restructuring  would  is  only  a  o f Quebec and  there  (EnglishCanadians) "fictional  the  French-  are harder t o gauge though  And note, too, t h a t , as Claydon and Whyte c u l t u r a l a f f i l i a t i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l may coterminous w i t h h i s o t h e r a l l e g i a n c e s . " of Quebec's Claim f o r Independence i n Must ed. Simeon,R. Montreal:Queens Press,1977,p269. See Cameron,D. Quebec and the d e t e r m i n a t i o n , supra,pl52.  Right  to  say, "... the not always be L e g a l Aspects Canada F a i l ? University  National  Self-  216 the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f Quebec' French-Canadian  c u l t u r e would be  ensured i f a s e c e s s i o n took p l a c e .  Quebec's r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n this  case  society"  study. and  predominant  Clearly,  the  group  Quebec  French  who  constitutes  Canadians  deserve  i s not disputed i n  in  the status  a  "distinct  Quebec  are  o f a people  a by  v i r t u e o f t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r e and h i s t o r y . However, i t is  argued  possesses  that  Quebec, as p a r t  a degree  the p r o t e c t i o n  of i t s culture,  self-determination The  index  of p o l i t i c a l  o f t h e Canadian autonomy  federation,  which,  a l l i e d to  r e s u l t s i n the exercise of  already.  of v a l i d i t y  used  right  of secession  right  of self-determination  i n this  paper  as a remedy o f t h e l a s t i s denied  envisages  a  r e s o r t when t h e  a people  and  their  human r i g h t s a r e g r o s s l y v i o l a t e d . The s i t u a t i o n i n Quebec f a i l s t o meet t h e s e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r a r i g h t t o secede.  CHAPTER EIGHT A NEW STANDARD OF LEGITIMACY: THE INDEX OF VALIDITY  218 OUTLINE  A. A NEW B. THE  STANDARD OF  LEGITIMACY  INDEX OF VALIDITY  I. ESSENTIAL CONDITIONS (1) The  e x i s t e n c e of a people  (2) E x i s t e n c e of a g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d i s c r e t e t e r r i t o r i a l o c c u p i e d predominantly by the s e c e d i n g group (3) Human r i g h t s and (4) Remedy alternatives  of  base  the r i g h t of s e c e s s i o n  the  last  resort:  absence ••••  of  realistic  I I . CRITICAL VARIABLES (1) Economic v i a b i l i t y (2) Motive (3) P o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y  and  legitimacy  (4) G e o - s t r a t e g i c d e s t a b i l i z a t i o n (5) The  bona f i d e s of the  (6) General v a r i a b l e s . . . . C. CONCLUSION  s t a t e and  the  seceding e n t i t y . . . .  219  A. A NEW STANDARD OF LEGITIMACY.  It external  i s this 1  author's  contention  self-determination  that  no l o n g e r  the r i g h t  has s u f f i c i e n t  to  legal  substance o r j u r i s p r u d e n t i a l coherence t o serve as t h e r i g h t in  international  law from  which  most  human  rights  must  flow . 2  The enlisted by  principle  of  self-determination  having  i n t h e cause o f d e - c o l o n i z a t i o n has been  been  discarded  statesmen now t h a t t h i s p r o c e s s i s near c o m p l e t i o n . I t s 3  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a n t i - c o l o n i a l i s m brought i t t o a p o l i t i c a l z e n i t h b u t a f a i l u r e t o grasp i t s humanitarian p o t e n t i a l i n other  aspects  of p o l i t i c a l  petrification . 4  The  Reduced  organization  to a  threatens  i t with  rhetorical device ,  i t has  concept o f i n t e r n a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n continues t o have r e l e v a n c e i n terms o f p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , d e m o c r a c y , l i m i t e d autonomy and t h e r i g h t s o f indigenous peoples.  See The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Covenants numerous w r i t e r s on t h i s p o i n t . See See  5  on  Human  Rights  and  chapter I I I , i n f r a . D.W. Bowett, S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and P o l i t i c a l R i g h t s i n Developing C o u n t r i e s , Proceedings o f t h e American S o c i e t y o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law, 129, where he s t a t e s t h a t s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n may have, "exhausted i t s mandate" s i n c e t h e end o f c o l o n i a l i s m .  220 remained i n t h e p a s t two decades i n a t h e o r e t i c a l w i l d e r n e s s inhabited  by  contempt. descent  confusion,hypocrisy  I f the p r i n c i p l e  into  incoherence"  and  on  i s t o be salvaged  i t must  7  even,  first  occasion, from " i t s  be i n j e c t e d  with  c l e a r and d e f i n i t i v e meaning. T h i s can be accomplished o n l y by r e c o g n i z i n g a r i g h t o f secession between  i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l law and thus human  adopting  a  can  galvanized  and  outlined this  the  principle  I t i s to this i n detail  self-determination.  Only  by  right  of  self-determination  be  formulated,  retrieved  limited,  of  from  practical  end I propose  i n this  the l i n k  chapter  and t h e o r e t i c a l  an index  and a p p l i e d  of v a l i d i t y throughout  study. The  by  and  rationally  secession  disuse.  rights  renewing  utility  of self-determination  an u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d  has been  undermined  and l o g i c a l l y - i n c o n s i s t e n t f e a r o f  The most r e c e n t example o f t h i s b e i n g t h e US S t a t e Department's i n s i s t e n c e t h a t A f g h a n i s t a n be accorded the right to self-determination even though t h e r e t r e a t i n g S o v i e t Army w i l l l e a v e a p o l i t i c a l vacuum i n which s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n may have o n l y l i m i t e d meaning. See New York Times, Thursday, Feb 9th. p6, c.6. Witness t h e unsavoury regimes and o r g a n i z a t i o n s who have n a i l e d t h e i r c o l o u r s t o t h e mast o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . Among them a r e t h e Khmer Rouge, t h e IRA, t h e Contras and Renamo ( t h e insurgency group operating in Mozambique w i t h US approval and support and w i t h a seemingly m i n d l e s s degree o f b r u t a l i t y ) .  'i  7 see T. Franck, Legitimacy A J I L 82, 1988, p746.  i n the International  System,  secession  and by a f a i l u r e t o d e f i n e i t i n a way  0  t h a t would  be meaningful i n the contemporary world. This  definitional  lacuna  has  several  consequences. F i r s t ,  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n has  moral  principle  content.  adoption  by  The  a host  of  has  been  disturbing  been emptied  unable  to  of  resist  i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t o r s whose s t r a t e g i c  ambitions have o n l y a s u p e r f i c i a l  connection  with  the  ideas  of democracy and human r i g h t s on which s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i s founded.  This  has  led  to  its  transformation  from  legal  p r i n c i p l e t o p o l i t i c a l weapon . 9  Second, w h i l e has  acquired  definition  the it  p r i n c i p l e s with territorial  i t i s argued  that  self-determination  s t a t u s of j u s c o g e n s ,  i n terms of c l e a r  1 1  is  relatively  ill-equipped  which i t i s most o f t e n  i n t e g r i t y and  These "hard"  1 0  i n t e r n a t i o n a l peace and  supernorms o f  This  i n t e r n a t i o n a l law  paper,  then,  to  are k i n d e r  concept o f  seeks,  what  12  Chapter I I I , i n f r a .  See  e a r l i e r examples note 4,  e.g.  security.  d e s c r i b e s as, " t e x t u a l d e t e r m i n a c y " . As he p o i n t s  See  the  i n competition  t h e i r adherents than the l e s s w e l l - d e f i n e d determination.  next  to  selfFranck  out,  supra.  See H . G . E s p i e l l , S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n and Jus Cogens,in UN Law Fundamental R i g h t s , Two Topics i n International Law, ed.A.Cassese, supra, pl67-171. i . e . "a peremptory See Article 53, Treaties. See T.Franck, supra, p713.  norm of g e n e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l law". Vienna Convention on the Law of  Legitimacy  in  the  International  System,  222 "Rules w i t h a b e t t e r chance the conduct addressed or policy-making Finally, credibility do  not  refer  absence  of  to  conflicts  direct  between  conflicts  present  support  risking  ridicule.  serving .  a  of  1 5  right It  enunciations  reduced  of  I  competing  selves . 1 4  can  at  self-determination  without  be  that  of  lend  allegiance  s i d e s i n a c i v i l war.  p r i n c i p l e s . Rather,  of  may  i t can  its I  i n these c o n f l i c t s  self-determination  However,  1 6  has  Here,  between  both s e t s of a d v e r s a r i e s  shibboleth  substance  a mediating p r i n c i p l e i n c o n f l i c t s .  refer  Usually  1 3  this  as  to  r e a d i l y a s c e r t a i n a b l e meaning have a than those t h a t do not t o r e g u l a t e of those t o whom t h e i r rule i s e x e r t a compliance p u l l on their process" .  by  As w i t h any  proclamation is  itself two  cynically equally  to  diametrically  the self-  sincere opposing  legal statute,  " c o n f u s i o n over the nature o f the p r o c e s s , and misapplication of i t s meaning, have d i s t o r t e d s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n p r a c t i c e and weakened i t s p o t e n t i a l r e s o l u t o r y r o l e as a l e g a l r e m e d y " . 17  Ibid,  p713.  See Chapter V, i n f r a , where the N i g e r i a n s t a t e and the B i a f r a n people were s e l v e s each w i t h a recognizable c l a i m t o r e s p e c t and l e g i t i m a c y . See, Van Dyke, Human R i g h t s . The U n i t e d S t a t e s and World Community, New York,London,Toronto, 1970, p77, " S e l f D e t e r m i n a t i o n has become an emotion-laden term i n the field of human r i g h t s , a s h i b b o l e t h t h a t a l l must pronounce t o i d e n t i f y themselves w i t h the v i r t u o u s . " See  Pakistan  and  Ethiopia.  See Alexander and Friedlander, Self-Determination: N a t i o n a l .Regional and G l o b a l Dimensions, supra, p x i i i .  223  This  distortion  consequence  of  determination right  liberation  confusion  attempts  while  without  and  a  denying  remedy  groups  to  whose  outline a  has  has  right  a  remedy  proved to  come  as  right  of  a  direct  of  self-  secession.  worthless  to  This  national  self-determination  seems  incontestable. With a  clear definition  would come the  possibility  meaningful a p p l i c a t i o n - and a c o n s i s t e n t a p p l i c a t i o n of -1  principle right  to  of  0  self-determination,  secession,  would  have  incorporating a  number  of the  a  limited  of  positive  p r a c t i c a l consequences. (1) I t would enhance the internal human  struggles  rights  element,  those a c t i v i t i e s peace. A  which,  by  would  r o l e of the U n i t e d v i r t u e of fall  the  within  Nations i n  presence  the  of  category  a of  c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a t h r e a t t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l  precise definition  would a s s i g n  legitimacy to  one  o f the p a r t i e s i n such a s t r u g g l e . Under t h e s e circumstances  "... i t i s c e r t a i n l y s a f e t o a s s e r t t h a t the removal of c o n f u s i o n and u n c e r t a i n t y from a d e f i n i t i o n tends t o h e i g h t e n c o n s i d e r a b l y the e x p e c t a t i o n o f a c l e a r and unambiguous a p p l i c a t i o n of the principle". See W. Ofuatey-Kodjoe, The P r i n c i p l e of S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law, s u p r a , p v i i i .  224 the UN  would,  a t the v e r y  least,  be  given  a legal  mandate  f o r e x p r e s s i n g moral d i s a p p r o v a l . 1 9  (2)  Clearer  g u i d e l i n e s would  be  established for  the  r i g h t o f t h i r d p a r t i e s t o g i v e a i d and support e i t h e r t o the o r i g i n a l s t a t e o r seceding e n t i t y . A l r e a d y , least  one  important  right  to  seek  United  support  for  Nations  according to at  Resolution  there  self-determination.  D e c l a r a t i o n o f P r i n c i p l e s of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law  is a  The  1970  states,  "Every S t a t e has the duty t o r e f r a i n from any f o r c i b l e a c t i o n which d e p r i v e s peoples r e f e r r e d t o above i n the e l a b o r a t i o n of the p r e s e n t p r i n c i p l e o f t h e i r r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and freedom and independence. In t h e i r a c t i o n s a g a i n s t , and r e s i s t a n c e t o , f o r c i b l e a c t i o n i n p u r s u i t o f the e x e r c i s e o f the r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , such peoples are e n t i t l e d t o seek and r e c e i v e support i n accordance w i t h the purposes and p r i n c i p l e s of the C h a r t e r " . 2 0  Customary  international  law,  however, does not  the e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s r i g h t t o i n t e r f e r e beyond the situation  and  o n l y the  favour  colonial  removal of the p r o s c r i p t i o n  against  See H . B l i x , S o v e r e i g n t y , A g g r e s s i o n and N e u t r a l i t y . 1970 who s t a t e s , " [the r i g h t of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n ] i s an example o f a r u l e which, f o r i t s proper a p p l i c a t i o n t o c o n c r e t e cases, r e q u i r e s i n t e r n a t i o n a l institutions. Which people i s e n t i t l e d t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n ? I f , on one hand, dangerous fragmentation o f s t a t e s i s t o be avoided, and on the other, the rule i s t o have p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , t h e r e needs t o be a t h i r d p a r t y t o a s s e s s the c o n c r e t e cases and apply the r u l e . While a p o l i t i c a l organ l i k e the General Assembly may not be i d e a l i n the r o l e i t seems t o be the o n l y one which has assumed i t f o r the time b e i n g . " But note t h a t f i r s t we need a r u l e which the i t can u s e f u l l y apply. Such a r u l e does not y e t e x i s t . p l 3 - 1 4 See G.A.  R e s o l u t i o n 2625, 24 October,  1970,  supra.  secession  would permit  secessionist some  outside  groups. While  struggles,  a  strict  set  of  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e are  seceding  group.  effect  more  External  such  likely  conclusion  of  illustrate  secession  from  is possible  fuelled  rebels Army  an  and  mention  the the  bitter  The For  that  example  primarily  2 1  the  already  Bangladesh's  due  to  Indian  climate  lead  recognition of  i n 1970,  supply  of  would have been  grievances  support  for  to  the  defeat  of  an  Eritrean  a  civil  war  of  the the  against Eritrean Ethiopian  state,, not  which  has  to  led  to  insurgents  in  i n terms  of  bloodshed  in  torment f o r the E r i t r e a n people.  and  government  but  support.  studies  Conversely, m i l i t a r y a i d f o r h y p o t h e t i c a l Scotland  criteria  precipitate  case  the  insurgency would have ensued  Likewise,  conclusion  anguish and  these  and  i n t e r v e n t i o n not been forthcoming i t  inexhaustible  would p r o b a b l y  truncate  viability  without  succeeded  and  repression.  to  q u a l i f y f o r support  therefore  point.  the p o l i t i c a l  by  Pakistani  this  a long  which, g i v e n  this  Pakistan  i n t e r v e n t i o n . Had  only  conflict.  presented  satisfy  succeed  would  the  be  support,  groups  to  influence  would  of  prolong  important determinants f o r  (amongst others) they w i l l not be  i n t e r f e r e n c e would  Popular  political  also  behalf  i s t o be l e g i t i m a t e i t must s a t i s f y  criteria.  If  1  such  i t s overall  c o n f l i c t . I f a secession  interference'*- - on  Quebec would  response  and  simply  lead  to  up  the  ante  unnecessary  Though not armed i n t e r v e n t i o n . See of humanitarian intervention possibility.  however the d o c t r i n e for a different  226 pursuit of  of  secessions  autonomy  legitimacy  which would, p r o v i d i n g  remained  under  the  genuinely premises  l i m i t e d forms  available,  of  the  be  index  of  denied validity  p r e s e n t e d here. The point  B i a f r a n case would appear l e s s i l l u s t r a t i v e o f t h i s  but  proposed and,  this  is  Biafran  the  case.  independence  therefore,  insurgency.  not  so  But  too  i f the  Under  would  would  be  the  guidelines  denied  legitimacy  external  autonomy  support  compromise  for  the  favoured  22  by  t h i s w r i t e r f a i l e d t o s a t i s f y l e g i t i m a t e B i a f r a n demands not only  would  third  a  remedy  parties  established.  to The  of  secession  support effect  this such  arise second  a  rule  but  the  right  attempt might  would  have  government i s l i k e l y t o be a s a l u t a r y and p o s i t i v e  on  of be the  one.  T h i s i s not an argument f o r success as a determinant of legitimacy  but  rather  coincidence  between  an  legitimacy  need t o make t h a t c o i n c i d e n c e Finally, claim fora  a  (3)  and  secede as  the  UN  of  likely  the  fortunate  success  a more f r u i t f u l  i t would a l l o w  r i g h t to  such as  explication  and  one.  s e c e s s i o n i s t movements  place  under the  these g u i d e l i n e s  General Assembly. T h i s  would make  See  any  first  A r b i t r a t i o n between the p a r t i e s c o u l d take auspices  of  to resolve  the the  UN  which c o u l d  dispute.  Chapter VI,  infra.  then  I t i s not  here t h a t s e c e s s i o n i s t c o n f l i c t s would disappear. 2 2  to  a human r i g h t i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l  r e s o r t t o armed c o n f l i c t a l a s t r e s o r t r a t h e r than the o p t i o n i t i s now.  the  apply claimed  Rather the  227 s e c e d i n g group would, a t t h e v e r y l e a s t , be a b l e t o p r e d i c t the l i k e l i h o o d o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l support  and make a d e c i s i o n  as t o whether a s e c e s s i o n i s t u p r i s i n g i s a d v i s a b l e . The  rules  established validity shall  by  derive  referred  now t u r n  which  legitimacy  substantive  force  f o r secession from  t o and a p p l i e d throughout  t h e index this  are of  paper. I  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n t o an a n a l y s i s o f  t h i s index and i t s c a p a c i t y t o r e s o l v e s e c e s s i o n i s t c l a i m s .  The t h e o r y o f l e g i t i m a c y proposed d i f f e r s from those o f o t h e r w r i t e r s i n a number o f ways. F i r s t , on p r i n c i p l e s d e r i v e d from l i b e r a l i s m on  the idea  demands dignity.  that  not of Second,  a  new  ideology  world  o r d e m o c r a c y , but  2 3  order  24  should  but o f human  i t recognizes  i t i s based, not  satisfy  rights  political  the  and human  realities  as  f a c t o r s i n t h e p r o c e s s , i f n o t d e t e r m i n i n g ones. F i n a l l y , i t i s a t h e o r y based on a t e l e o l o g i c a l r e a d i n g o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l  See Berans,H. A L i b e r a l 31.  Theory  of Secession,  supra,p21-  See B i r c h , A . Another L i b e r a l Theory o f S e c e s s i o n , p596-602.  supra,  228 law  rather  than  a construct  dictates of r e a l p o l i t i k The and  connection  2 5  responding  e x c l u s i v e l y t o the  .  between human r i g h t s , p o l i t i c a l  reality  i n t e r n a t i o n a l law i s not always an obvious one and each  phase i n t h e development o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n has tended t o reflect  a  prevailing  comprehensive declaration Declaration  philosophy  treatment. concerning  The  most  Nations  the  1970  26  standards.  above  United  a  on P r i n c i p l e s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a w , reaches a  interpretation the  recent  neglects  self-determination,  compromise o n l y through an e q u i v o c a l normative  which  Nevertheless,  rendering  o f competing  i t does  permit  of the r i g h t t o self-determination  connection  i s r e a l i z e d . The t h e o r y  of  an  i n which secession  developed i n t h i s study takes such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as i t s starting  can  point.  The  basis  be  traced  relations Grotius. with 2 5  2 6  i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l law f o r a r i g h t t o secede through  t h e development  and t h e problems o f p o l i t i c a l  of  organization  The p r i n c i p l e o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  international  of re-organization  since  i s pregnant  and each  of  its  See Buchheit,L. S e c e s s i o n . The L e g i t i m a c y of S e l f d e t e r m i n a t i o n , supra, n. Buchheit i s n o t t h e most g u i l t y p a r t y i n t h i s r e g a r d b u t h i s t h e s i s depends t o o much on p o l i t i c a l exigencies and t o o l i t t l e on international law. See Also,Emerson,R. Selfd e t e r m i n a t i o n . A J I L V o l 65, 1971,who s t a t e s , "the realistic issue i s s t i l l not whether a people i s q u a l i f i e d f o r and deserves t h e r i g h t t o determine i t s won d e s t i n y but whether i t has t h e p o l i t i c a l s t r e n g t h , which may w e l l mean t h e m i l i t a r y f o r c e , t o v a l i d a t e i t s c l a i m " p475. See G.A. R e s o l u t i o n  2625, 24 October, 1970,supra.  229 developments has r e f l e c t e d a b a s i c human need t o r e - i n v e n t the  social  model.  Its birth  as a p o l i t i c a l  concept  about because o f a r e v o l u t i o n a r y urge t o r e c l a i m for  t h e people  i n more  advanced  came  sovereignty  nation-states.  National  i n t e g r a t i o n gave way t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e v i s i o n f o l l o w i n g t h e F i r s t World War when s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n was advocated as t h e moving  principle  behind  European e m p i r e s .  The p o s t - C h a r t e r  2 7  empire  and  the  colonization. political case  a  the dismantling  period  of  of  the  central  e r a marked t h e end o f  self-determination  as  de-  Each o f these developments was a response t o  n e c e s s i t y a r i s i n g out o f human d e s i r e and i n each human  need  became  a  human  right  as  defined  by  i n t e r n a t i o n a l law. The human r i g h t s o f t h e c o l o n i a l e n t i t i e s were s a t i s f i e d by t h i s p r o c e s s but as Bibo  recognizes,  "colonial liberation created some fifty new s t a t e s . . . t h e i r formation r e f l e c t i n g t h e r i g h t t o self-determination without any advance i n t h e technique o f applying the p r i n c i p l e " . 2 8  In  t h e p o s t - c o l o n i a l phase  of self-determination the  human r i g h t s o f "peoples" had been abandoned i n favour crude s u p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e norm o f t e r r i t o r i a l with the severing theoretical 2 7  JP  2 9  crisis  In fact infra.  i n t e g r i t y and  o f t h e l i n k w i t h human r i g h t s has come a 2 9  .  i t was never ,  of a  used ,•  as such.  See Chapter ,  ,  II , ,  See I Bibo, The P a r a l y s i s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e Remedies. New York: Wiley & Sons, 1976, p31. I n t e r n a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n continues t o have meaning but i t s connection w i t h e x t e r n a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n has a l s o been severed.  230 The the  intimate  ultimate  connection  exercise  human r i g h t s must be The Law  1970  is  30  a  of  between the external  r i g h t t o secede  self-determination  as and  reasserted.  D e c l a r a t i o n on the P r i n c i p l e s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l tentative  move towards  such  a  reassertion.  It  states, "nothing i n the f o r e g o i n g paragraphs s h a l l be construed as a u t h o r i z i n g o r encouraging any a c t i o n which would dismember o r impair, t o t a l l y o r i n p a r t , the t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y or p o l i t i c a l u n i t y of s o v e r e i g n and independent S t a t e s conducting themselves i n compliance w i t h the p r i n c i p l e of equal r i g h t s and s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f peoples as d e s c r i b e d above and thus possessed of a government r e p r e s e n t i n g the whole people b e l o n g i n g t o the t e r r i t o r y without d i s t i n c t i o n as t o r a c e , c r e e d or colour" . 3 1  The  right  integrity  of  states  i s enshrined  to  maintain  i n the U n i t e d  their  territorial  Nations C h a r t e r  and  3 2  has become a s a c r e d norm o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l law.  This r i g h t i s  the predominant i n t e r n a t i o n a l more i n the OAU  Charter  series  of  UN  instruments.  The  principle  of  and  a  territorial  i n t e g r i t y i s the a n t i t h e s i s of the r i g h t t o secede but  i t is  not  order  imperative  that  either  be  rejected  outright  in  t h a t a s t a b l e i n t e r n a t i o n a l system based on human r i g h t s maintained. preferred breaches G.A.  The  maintenance  value of  that  given  the  integrity.  Resolution.  of  territorial disruptive  2(4).  consequences  However, t e r r i t o r i a l  2625, October 24,1  1970,  I b i d , P r i n c i p l e 3, The p r i n c i p l e of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n of peoples. See A r t i c l e  integrity  be  is  a of  integrity  supra.  equal  rights  and  231 cannot  be an end i n i t s e l f .  promotion  of  acceptance fields  that  value  o f human  There  i f we  rights  must are  catastrophes  be exceptions to  avoid  like  o f Cambodia and t h e carnage i n E a s t  to  passive  the k i l l i n g  Pakistan.  It is  important not t o l o s e s i g h t o f t h e o r i g i n a l r a i s o n d ' e t r e o f territorial  integrity.  This  point  is  emphasized  by  Umozurike: "... the u l t i m a t e purpose o f t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y i s t o safeguard t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p e o p l e s o f a t e r r i t o r y . The concept o f t e r r i t o r i a l integrity i s . . .meaningful [only] so long as i t c o n t i n u e s t o f u l f i l l t h a t purpose t o a l l t h e s e c t i o n s o f t h e people" . 3 3  The  1970  Declaration  makes  territorial  integrity  presumption which can o n l y be invoked by S t a t e s accordance w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e thesis actions should and  posits  secession  extinguish therefore  that  as  3 4  remedy  35  when  the  presumption. The index  f u r n i s h t h e 1970 D e c l a r a t i o n  r e s o l v e t h e d i a l e c t i c between t e r r i t o r i a l  self-determination  who a c t i n  of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . a  This  state's  of v a l i d i t y with  content  i n t e g r i t y and  through a r e a f f i r m a t i o n o f human  See Umozurike,U. S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n supra, p236.  a  rights.  i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law,  See Ofuatey-Kodjoe,W. The P r i n c i p l e o f S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n in International Law. supra, who describes selfd e t e r m i n a t i o n as "a r i g h t t h a t j u s t i f i e s t h e remedying of a d e p r i v a t i o n by r e s t o r i n g self-government." Buchheit c a l l s t h i s "remedial s e c e s s i o n " , S e c e s s i o n , supra, p220-223.  see Buchheit,L.  232 An  assertion of the r i g h t  of t h e l a s t r e s o r t human  right  rights.  This  satisfy  the  3 7  o f s e c e s s i o n would be a r e m e d y  , an e x e r c i s e o f t h e u l t i m a t e  as a means exercise criteria  t o secure of  basic  the r i g h t  outlined  of  i n the  36  collective  i n d i v i d u a l human secession index  to  should acquire  legitimacy.  B.THE INDEX OF VALIDITY.  The  i n d i c e s t o be a b s t r a c t e d from t h e case s t u d i e s made  above a r e o f two d i s t i n c t v a r i e t i e s . The f i r s t group a r e t h e essential The  conditions  o f any l e g i t i m a t e r i g h t  of secession.  second a r e v a r i a b l e s which weigh i n t h e b a l a n c e o f any  decision  as  to  legitimacy  but  are  not  decisive  in  themselves.  I i n t e n d t o arrange them i n t h e f o l l o w i n g groups:  I. E s s e n t i a l C o n d i t i o n s . (1) The e x i s t e n c e o f a "people".  See Cobban,A. The N a t i o n - S t a t e and N a t i o n a l SelfD e t e r m i n a t i o n , supra, who s t a t e s , " s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n comes i n t o p l a y not as a panacea f o r a l l n a t i o n a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s , but as t h e remedy, t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d i n extremis, when a l l e l s e has f a i l e d " , p74. See White,R. S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n : Time f o r a Reassessment, N e t h e r l a n d s I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law review, 28, 1981, p l 4 8 .  233 (2) The  e x i s t e n c e of a d i s c r e t e t e r r i t o r i a l base  o c c u p i e d predominantly by the  s e c e d i n g group.  (3) The  presence of s u b s t a n t i a l human r i g h t s abuse.  (4) The  absence of r e a l i s t i c  the  last  II.  a l t e r n a t i v e s : remedy of  resort.  Critical  (1) Economic  Variables. viability.  (2) G e o - s t r a t e g i c d e s t a b i l i z a t i o n . (3) P o l i t i c a l (4)  stability  (6) General  The  is  legitimacy.  Motive.  (5) Bona f i d e s  be  and  (good f a i t h ) of s t a t e and  seceding e n t i t y .  variables  following  d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of t h e s e i n d i c e s  read w i t h a caveat i n mind. While the proposed  legitimacy,  as  a  theoretical  i t i s not  tool  index of for  but  a measure of  a mathematical model and  as  only  be  objective bring  success. Conditions.  E x i s t e n c e of a People.  The people  can  o n l y i m a g i n a t i v e implementation c o u l d  I.Essential (1) The  validity  establishing  a p p l i e d w i t h t h i s i n mind. These standards are as p o s s i b l e  should  right to  of  separate  secession  i s the  territorially  such i t o b v i o u s l y r e q u i r e s  the  collective right  from  a  parent  e x i s t e n c e of  of  state.  a people.  a As  This  234  begs t h e q u e s t i o n :  How a r e we t o d e f i n e  "people  for this  11  purpose? The at  various  the United  instruments  on s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n  Nations have omitted  drafted  d e f i n i n g the status of  the p o s s i b l e b e n e f i c i a r y o f t h e r i g h t o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . Some w r i t e r s  feel  that  peoples  refers  However, most agree t h a t "peoples" under a l i e n  or colonial  towards a c c o r d i n g For defined on  the  rule.  to states  of  i n a sociological of  this  3 8  .  can a l s o r e f e r t o groups  Recently  the trend  has been  "people" a s t i l l wider d e f i n i t i o n  t h e purpose  concepts  only  study  "peoples"  3 9  .  has  been  sense. A d d i t i o n a l s t r e s s i s l a i d  subjective  self-identification  and  e f f i c a c y which a r e d i s c u s s e d below. The  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Commission o f J u r i s t s i n i t s study o f  the Bangladesh s e c e s s i o n l i s t e d common f e a t u r e s based on (a) history,  (b) r a c e o r e t h n i c i t y , (c) c u l t u r e o r language, (d)  religion  or ideology,  (e) geography  or territory,  and (f)  economy as p o s s i b l e elements i n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p e o p l e . 4 0  These o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a  a r e not important  i n themselves  4 1  3 8  See Kelsen,H. The Law o f The U n i t e d N a t i o n s : A C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s o f i t s Fundamental Problems. London: Stevens, 1950.  3 9  See e.g. Nawaz, The Meaning and Range o f t h e P r i n c i p l e o f S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , Dukes Law Journal,1965 supra.  4 0  See ICJ, A Legal Study, supra, p70.  4  1  See e.g. t h e i d e a o f a common h i s t o r y . Sometimes t h i s itself is artificially created i n s e r v i c e of the s e c e s s i o n . To a c e r t a i n extent t h i s i s t r u e o f t h e E r i t r e a n s e c e s s i o n . There probably needs t o be some s e l f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e p a s t even i f t h e l i n k w i t h o b j e c t i v e common h i s t o r y i s tenuous.  235 but  rather  as  determinants  identification .  This  4 2  positive that  and/or  "is  an  alienation" towards  4 3  alien  referents.  essential be  rule  a  subjective  self-identification  negative  can  of  the  and  result  of  oppression  i s derived  The  precondition  group for  (Eritrea)  s e l f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n may identifies feeling state  4 4  of  itself  with  two  differentiation  antipathy a  positive  on common g o a l s The e x t e n t of  r e l e v a n t i f the p o p u l a t i o n  groups. from  secessionist  or  (e.g.Bangladesh).  a l s o be  from  solidarity  collective  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h f e l l o w group members based or o b j e c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  self-  There must be  the  people  of  a  strong  the  parent  .  There  must  also  exist  effective  self-identification  ( i . e . a s e l f - i m a g e as p o l i t i c a l u n i t ) . As M a n c i n i warns, "The nationalities which do not possess a government i s s u i n g from t h e i r inmost l i f e . . . h a v e become means f o r the purposes of others and, t h e r e f o r e , mere o b j e c t s " . 4 5  If  a  collection  of  individuals  i s t o be  assigned  the  s t a t u s o f "people" i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l law i t must be o r g a n i z e d  4 2  4 3  4 4  4  5  They have g r e a t e r importance index o f v a l i d i t y . See Wood,J. Secession: A Framework. Canadian Journal XIV:1,March, 1981,pll6.  to  other  aspects  of  the  Comparative Analytical of Political Science  See e.g. S c o t l a n d where the Scots i d e n t i f y themselves both B r i t i s h abd S c o t t i s h .  as  See Mancini, On Nationality as the Foundation of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law, i n H.Kohn, The U n i t e d Nations and N a t i o n a l S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n i n Review o f P o l i t i c s 1956, p527.  236 as  a political  level.  A  unit  disparate  capable group  of acting  without  a t an i n t e r n a t i o n a l  this  structure  will  be  unable t o c l a i m a r i g h t t o s e c e d e . Such a group does not 4 6  lack\ l e g i t i m a c y but w i l l be unable t o e x e r c i s e t h e r i g h t t o secede without a p o l i t i c a l To  cadre . 4 7  summarize,the o b j e c t i v e appearance o f a group i s o f  o n l y l i m i t e d importance. What i s r e q u i r e d i s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n combined  with  a  representative  political  structure . 4 8  t h i s way genuine s e l f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i l l be g i v e n  In  political  e f f i c a c y leading to international legitimacy. (2)  Existence  of a Geographically  Discrete  Territorial  Base Occupied Predominantly by t h e Seceding Group. This  i s an e s s e n t i a l p r e c o n d i t i o n  the  r i g h t of secession  the  essence  f o r the exercise of  because t e r r i t o r i a l  of the r i g h t  t o secede.  separability i s  The absence  of this  c o n d i t i o n makes i t i m p r a c t i c a l f o r groups such as t h e b l a c k T h i s s t r u c t u r e need not be p a r t i c u l a r l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d but it should be both representative and capable o f representing. See e.g. A f g h a n i s t a n where t h e Mujahdeen caanot be s a i d t o possess a r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n because t h e beneficiary of the r i g h t i s so i l l - d e f i n e d and disparate. But see J.Wood, S e c e s s i o n : An A n a l y t i c a l Framework, supra , who notes t h a t , " e t h n i c i d e n t i t i e s can be p o l i t i c a l a r t i f a c t s , manipulated by e t h n i c l e a d e r s o r government policy". pll5. See a l s o A.Cobban, H i s t o r i a n s and t h e Causes o f t h e French R e v o l u t i o n , i n which he argues t h a t t h e French R e v o l u t i o n f a r from b e i n g a p o p u l a r u p r i s i n g was a r e v o l t d i r e c t e d by a t i n y p o r t i o n o f t h e middle-classes,p8. Similar revolutions have been w i t n e s s e d i n t h i s century, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e T h i r d World.  237 Americans  to  secede  political will The a  from  the  occupying  an  the  area  with  strengthened i f i t i s l i k e l y to  the  residue  secession  on  state.  other  length  of  the  population offered  the  case  In  no  is  fact,  Gibraltar population.  problem  solutions  the  is The the  of  a  force  units 5 0  and  and  a  de  the  therefore  is  the  i n dealing with t h i s of  deny  characterized  as  an  Indian  on  the  Fijians  arriving  Fijians, in  Fiji  See Wood,J. S e c e s s i o n : pll2.  An  the  Nations  problem.  population  imported other  have long  suggests  after that  In has of  colonial  hand, who  never  the  relevant  self-determination  because  G i b r a l t a r . White  One need o n l y have on the themselves and western  facto  l e v e l o f predominance  What  5 1  right  49  .  date" .  residents  indigenous  despite  occupation  boundaries  f i r s t p o i n t i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as  Gibraltar,  denied  outnumber  external  i t may  territorial  "critical  few  of  the  by  f o r a s c e r t a i n i n g predominance? The U n i t e d  has  been  if  t o cause "unacceptable h a r m "  o f occupation  are moot p o i n t s . The problem  even  legitimacy of secession  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o these u n i t s The  States  existed.  presumption a g a i n s t  group  United  faced the the  A n a l y t i c a l Framework,  now this  British seceding  supra,  imagine the e f f e c t a Quebec s e c e s s i o n might A t l a n t i c p r o v i n c e s i n Canada who would f i n d detached from the remainder of of c e n t r a l Canada.  See Pomerance,M. S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n i n Law and P r a c t i c e , supra, p l - 3 . See a l s o , B.Neuberger, N a t i o n a l SelfD e t e r m i n a t i o n i n P o s t - C o l o n i a l A f r i c a , supra, p57-60.  238 group s h o u l d  have " h i s t o r i c  ties"  with  5 2  the t e r r i t o r y  but  he i s unable t o e l a b o r a t e on what t h i s might e n t a i l . U l t i m a t e l y , the  i s s u e of the c r i t i c a l  date  i s not  one  which o f f e r s any easy standards. F o r t u n a t e l y , i n the case of secession,  i t i s rarely  an  i s s u e . Most  seceding  groups  have h i s t o r i c t i e s w i t h t h e i r t e r r i t o r y . Without these it  i s u n l i k e l y t h a t the p r o c e s s  b e g i n . The imported in  a  critical  colonial  territory.  colonial  age  in  date  i s an important  study  which  the  is  The group  i s s u e concerning  in a  territory  with  the  secession  group post-  has  been  peoples. predominance o f  territory  do  not  a  seceding  one.  What i f  wish t o  secede ? 5 3  c e r t a i n l y an i s s u e i n B i a f r a where the Ijawes were  ambivalent in  the  of  o n l y where  majority  i s a more c o n t e n t i o u s  some groups w i t h i n the T h i s was  concept  concerned  right  c l a i m e d p r i m a r i l y by indigenous  ties  leading to secession could  n a t i o n a l s have become the This  do  about the  secession. A  similar  problem  E r i t r e a where o n l y E t h i o p i a n a t r o c i t i e s t u r n e d  occurred Christian  E r i t r e a n s a g a i n s t the i d e a o f union w i t h E t h i o p i a . The  controversy  addressed  by  looking  further  secession  Failing  this  by  between at the  competing  imaginative Ijawes  selves  alternatives  should  they  only a s o p h i s t i c a t e d u t i l i t a r i a n  so  can (e.g.  be a  desire).  solution  can  5 2  See White,R. S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n : Time f o r a Reassessment, supra, pi60  5 3  Suzuki d e s c r i b e s these people as " r e s i d u a l i n d i v i d u a l s " . See Suzuki,E. Self-Determination and World Public Order: Community Response t o T e r r i t o r i a l S e p a r a t i o n , supra, p276.  239 be o f f e r e d  ( i . e . which s o l u t i o n w i l l most s a t i s f y t h e v a l u e s  of self-determination these  cases  f o r t h e l a r g e s t number o f p e o p l e ) .  the majority  can  only  be  permitted  to  In  self-  determine i f t h e r i g h t s o f t h e m i n o r i t i e s t o a l i m i t e d form of self-determination Against  (e.g. autonomy)  possible  accusations  are entrenched.  that  this  makings o f an o f f e n s i v e human c a l c u l u s , that  a  human  legitimate rights  violations  secession  deprivations  generally  have  is a  the  the  effect  has the  i t should  response  by  method  to large  original of  be noted scale  state.  Such  alienating a l l  peripheral communities . 54  Throughout t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n t h e r e has been emphasis on the  link  between  human r i g h t s and t h e r i g h t o f  secession.  T h i s nexus w i l l now be i n v e s t i g a t e d more f u l l y .  (3) Human R i g h t s  and the R i g h t  The r i g h t o f s e c e s s i o n  of  Secession.  has been v a r i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d  as  a r i g h t to s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n , a v a r i a n t of  self-defence  and  the  5 5  a  right  secession government  has  to  self-help.  been  conceived  behaviour.  In of  Obviously,  this as  study a  i t is  fetter  right  on  crucial  5 6  of  abusive then  to  U n l e s s one o f these communities has been i n d u l g e d by the c e n t r a l government w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f p l a y i n g i t o f f against the s e c e s s i o n i s t s . See Ojukwa, B i a f r a . S e l e c t e d Speeches. p76. See Neuberger,B. N a t i o n a l S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n C o l o n i a l A f r i c a , s u p r a , p71.  in  Post-  240 establish  what  behaviour  might  activate  t h e human  rights  component i n t h e index o f v a l i d i t y . The  right  Biafran  to  leader,  self-preservation , 5 7  General  Ojukwa,  has  asserted  by t h e  i t s roots  in a  p h i l o s o p h i c a l h e r i t a g e descending from G r o t i u s . He s a i d t h a t a right that  a  t o secede province  Similarly,  was based could  on g r o s s a c t s o f tyranny  "not otherwise  Cobban r e c o g n i z e d a r i g h t  preserve  such  itself"  3 0  .  o f s e c e s s i o n when t h e  state, "...does not p r o t e c t and promote, i n r e a s o n a b l e measure, t h e r i g h t s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s , included among which are t h e i r i n t e r e s t s as members o f a n a t i o n a l community" . 59  These w r i t e r s rights.  Others  converge  make  self-determination  on t h e a s p e c t o f g e n e r a l human  s e c e s s i o n a remedy cannot  be  when t h e r i g h t o f  executed  effectively  e.g.  Umozurike s t a t e s , "A people whose development i s s t u l t i f i e d by t h e o f f i c i a l p o l i c y o f t h e s t a t e t o which they belong do n o t enjoy t h e r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n " . 6 0  Gros  Espiell,  i n an  official  United  Nations  study,  reinforces t h i s t i e , noting,  5  7  5 8  5 9  6  0  See Ojukwa, B i a f r a . Speeches, supra. See Wells,B. United Nations D e t e r m i n a t i o n , supra, p322. See Cobban,A. The N a t i o n Determination . supra, p71.  State  Decisions and  On  National  SelfSelf-  See Umozurike,U. S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law. supra,p269.  241 " I f the r i g h t of peoples...to self-determination i s i n t h e l a s t a n a l y s i s a b a s i c human r i g h t , as w e l l as a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r a l l other r i g h t s and freedoms, t h e c o n c l u s i o n must be drawn t h a t i t i s meaningful o n l y i n a system aimed a t e n s u r i n g f u l l r e s p e c t f o r a l l human b e i n g s " . The  right  t o secede  arises,  argues White,  when  there  is, "a s u s t a i n e d campaign o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n making i t unreasonable t o expect t h e people t o be a b l e t o attain self-determination within the e x i s t i n g state" . 6 2  There a r e s e v e r a l dimensions o f t h e human determination-secession developing indice  a  legal  and  territorially abuse s h o u l d or the s t a t e  only  which should  of secession. i f there  discriminatory  be e x t r a c t e d i n  The human r i g h t s  are  abuses  discrete, people  (a)  within  6 3  fundamental,  against  e i t h e r be (c) s t a t e - s p o n s o r e d  a  (b)  state.  a  This  (e.g.Bangladesh)  must be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r (1) a l o s s o f c o n t r o l ,  authority or a b i l i t y to  theory  i s activated  endemic  matrix  rights-self-  t o govern o r (2) n e g l i g e n c e  i n acting  c o n s t r a i n those r e s p o n s i b l e ( e . g . B i a f r a ) . By  sacrifice personal  fundamental of  abuses  civil-political  security  rights.  i s meant  those  rights  and,  In  simpler  See Gros E s p i e l l , H . The R i g h t E/CN.4/Sub.2/405/Rev.l, p66. See White,R. S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n : supra, p l 6 0 . See above d e f i n i t i o n s .  to  i n v o l v i n g the in  terms,  particular, a  large  Self-Determination,  Time f o r a Reassessment,  242 proportion  of  reasonable  in  may seem t o o s t r i c t  in  international  secession The  people  question  must  possess  a  fear f o r t h e i r personal safety.  This basis  the  based  state  law  i s the basis  integrity  international  is a  community  and r e b u t t a l by  to  rights. law and  within this  preference"  i s no  right  f o r international  "value  f a v o u r o f i t must be supported  a  o f democratic  and t h e s t a t e i s s a n c t i f i e d  Territorial  but there  f o r asserting  on t h e mere absence  system  relations  a standard  system. of the  6 4  o f t h e presumption i n  evidence  o f behaviour o f  which t h e m a j o r i t y o f s t a t e s have demonstrated abhorrence. standard values  permitting a r e absent  unworkable  secession would  i n a l l but  be  i n cases  where  unacceptable  t h e most  ideal  democratic  and of  A  therefore  worlds.  The  normative appeal o f these standards u n f o r t u n a t e l y has l i t t l e b e a r i n g on t h e i r  practicability.  I n s t e a d , as I have s a i d , fundamental and d i s c r i m i n a t o r y abuse must be p r e s e n t . The d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d predominantly, relevant  such  not n e c e s s a r i l y  exclusively,  a t the  people.  Human and  but  rights  deprivations are impossible  an e x e r c i s e  encourage a d o p t i o n  would  be  futile.  to quantify  Instead,  o f t h e Human R i g h t s Commission  I  would  criterion  which r e q u i r e s as i t s ground f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,  See R.A.C. White, Self-Determination: Reassessment, supra, p l 6 3 .  Time  for a  243 "...a c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n o f gross ^ n d a t t e s t e d v i o l a t i o n s o f human r i g h t s " .  reliably  6 5  Evidence  of  territorially  such  separate  abuses people  directed  would  against  satisfy  the  a  human  r i g h t s - b a s e d c r i t e r i o n o f t h e index o f v a l i d i t y .  (4)  Remedy  Alternatives.  The  secession. question  Resort:  Absence  of  of  the e s s e n t i a l  a l l modes  In. o t h e r  of  conditions  requires  self-determination  short  the of  words, can t h e r i g h t s o f t h e people i n  n o t be s a t i s f i e d by g r e a t e r autonomy  status within  of R e a l i s t i c  6 6  last  exhaustion  of the Last  or p r o v i n c i a l  a f e d e r a l framework o r a d e v o l u t i o n  o f power  from t h e c e n t r e t o t h e p e r i p h e r i e s ? Has  the  seceding  entity  channeled  its  grievances  d o m e s t i c a l l y u s i n g i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t s and/or c a p a c i t y as  a pressure  group? Has i t attempted t o access  resolutory  mechanisms i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l f o r a ? Associated with  these c r i t e r i a ,  i s the a t t i t u d e of the  c e n t r a l government. What has t h e parent  s t a t e o f f e r e d by way  o f compromise ? How s i n c e r e i s t h i s o f f e r  6 7  ?  See ECOSOC R e s o l u t i o n 1503. See t h e e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n on s e c e s s i o n as a remedy o f the l a s t r e s o r t f o r a d d i t i o n a l comments. See t h e q u e s t i o n o f "bona f i d e s " ,  infra.  244 The  salience  of  this  indice  is  obvious  from  an  examination o f t h e case s t u d i e s made above. I n t h e cases o f Eritrea  and Bangladesh t h e r i g h t t o secede would have been  legitimated were  only  aborted  after  several  constitutional  by t h e p a r e n t - S t a t e .  compromise  The f e d e r a l  compromise  advanced by t h e U n i t e d Nations f o r E r i t r e a was undermined by Ethiopia means the  so t h a t  t o secure Ethiopian  struggle acquiring  i t  could  no l o n g e r  self-determination. Government  f o r secession  made  was  self-determination  with  licensing  remedy f o r Bangladesh's  the  that  possible  response  secession  an  by  armed  method  of  I n Bangladesh,  as  from  the  Pakistan  the only  remaining  Quebec and  Scotland,  grievances.  i n t h e case  respective  states  which makes r e c o u r s e  actions  f o r g r e a t e r p r o v i n c i a l autonomy  Conversely,  willingness t o negotiate  i t clear  f o r the region.  a virulent military  authorities,  e f f e c t i v e as a  Subsequent  the only  The Awami League's p r o p o s a l s met  be  (UK  o f both and  Canada)  have  shown  a  r e a l i s t i c a l t e r n a t i v e s t o secession  t o t h a t r i g h t by t h e people i n q u e s t i o n  unreasonable. Finally, legitimacy  i n the Nigerian  of the Biafran  civil  war  o f 1967-70, t h e  secession  was  weakened  by t h e  f a i l u r e o f t h e B i a f r a n l e a d e r s h i p t o respond t o t h e 12-State s o l u t i o n o f f e r e d by General Gowon on b e h a l f State.  of the Nigerian  245 As  evidenced  by  the  above d i s c u s i o n ,  the  remedy as  a  l a s t r e s o r t p r i n c i p l e formulated must be seen as an a d v i s o r y guideline secede  designed  to  exclude  a  capricious  decision  to  r a t h e r than a b u r e a u c r a t i c t a n g l e i n t e n d e d t o s t i f l e  a l e g i t i m a t e r i g h t of secession.  The have  series  termed  preconditions  of  indices  t o be  "critical f o r the  analyzed now  variables".  right  to  secede  are those  These but  are  rather  I  not  formulae  which should weigh i n the balance o f any e q u a t i o n t o a s s e s s legitimacy.  II. C r i t i c a l (1) Economic  Variables.  Viability.  The economic v i a b i l i t y  of both the s e c e d i n g r e g i o n and  the p a r e n t s t a t e must be reckoned w i t h here. For without that  the an  economic  independence.  destroys surely  state,  the be  strategic  infrastructure More  economic  denied grounds.  independence  would capable  importantly,  c a p a c i t y of  legitimacy  on  be  the  a  of  meaningless supporting  secession  parent  humanitarian  which  state  must  and  geo-  246 (i) V i a b i l i t y o f Seceding  This  cannot  completely  be  a  independent  Entity.  strict  standard.  No  state  is  e c o n o m i c a l l y . Indeed many s t a t e s are  economic i n v a l i d s . What must be avoided are s i t u a t i o n s where newly-created political, be  a  states  economic,  p r o x i e s of l a r g e r sponsors.  cover  economic  become  for  leverage.  vicarious  the  therefore  S e c e s s i o n should  superpower  Ideally  and  expansion  seceding  entity  not  through  should  be  l a r g e enough t o both c a r r y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f statehood and r e j e c t t h e e x p a n s i o n i s t o v e r t u r e s of dominant s t a t e s . Viability comparative states that  in this  case  should be  measured a g a i n s t  economic p o s i t i o n o f the parent s t a t e and  i n the r e g i o n . However the the p o s i t i o n  of the  seceding  entity  prior  to  the  other  relative  to  s e c e s s i o n i s perhaps  the most c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n t h i s assessment. These antecedent  calculations  may  not,  of  course,  be  r e f l e c t e d i n the changing world f o l l o w i n g s e c e s s i o n . 6 8  As Wood i n d i c a t e s , "...the r e t a l i a t o r y p o t e n t i a l o f the l o y a l i s t area and the r e a c t i o n of e x t e r n a l economic a c t o r s are o n l y two unknowns which l e a v e the economic f u t u r e i n doubt f o r s e c e s s i o n i s t s " . 6 9  See e.g. Bangladesh which g i v e n i t s s u p e r i o r economic performance t o West P a k i s t a n up u n t i l 1970 ,might have a n t i c i p a t e d economic success. I n s t e a d the e f f e c t s of the c i v i l war combined w i t h n a t u r a l causes t o s e v e r e l y undermine Bangladesh's economic v i a b i l i t y . See Wood,J. S e c e s s i o n : pll8.  An  Analytical  Framework,  supra,  247 Often  the  economically long-term viability w i l l be  traumatic  potential  and of  independence  can  be  i t i s perhaps b e s t t o l o o k a t the the  seceding  r a t h e r than the short-term  case s t u d i e s presented  calculation.  Bangladesh  possess economic v i a b i l i t y most  to  area  in  assessing  e f f e c t s , many of which  negative.  The this  transition  under-developed  continued picture  union given  states.  with the  but  p o i n t up the d i f f i c u l t i e s  in  appeared,  to  i t i s now However  Pakistan  absence  one  of the  world's  i t i s u n l i k e l y that  would  of  antecedently,  concern  have  changed  displayed  P a k i s t a n government up t o the s e c e s s i o n i n 1971.  this  by  the  Furthermore  Bangladesh's p o t e n t i a l f o r development i s g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d by  the  renewed  sense  of  identity  and  political  awareness  t h a t comes w i t h the long-term e f f e c t s of independence. Eritrea's following  a  economic  victory  in  position the  civil  could war  and  only a  improve subsequent  s e c e s s i o n . E r i t r e a n s are f o r c e d t o t o l e r a t e a s t a t e of s e i g e i n which t h e r e i s no p o s s i b i l i t y o f economic development.  ( i i ) E f f e c t on O r i g i n a l S t a t e .  I f a s e c e s s i o n has the e f f e c t of d e p r i v i n g the s t a t e of its  economic  base  this  will  weigh  that secession quite p r o f o u n d l y . 7 0  upon the  legitimacy  This applies only  of  i f the  revenues from t h a t economic base had not been d i s t r i b u t e d i n 7 0  I t w i l l not exclude  i t however.  248 a  manner  T h i s was  which  discriminated  against  the  seceding  group.  the case w i t h Bangladesh which r e c e i v e d o n l y a t i n y  proportion  of  Biafra  Scotland  and  reserves  the  whose  wealth are  i t created. instructive.  contribution to  the  state i s great.  an  initially  Secession  negative  respectively  but  it  The  the by  concerning  Both possess huge o i l economic w e l l - b e i n g  of  these e n t i t i e s would have  impact is  cases  on  Nigeria  doubtful  whether  and  the  the  UK  economic  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e would c o l l a p s e i n e i t h e r case. E t h i o p i a c l a i m s the E r i t r e a n r e g i o n i s n e c e s s a r y t o survival  of  facilities  the  Ethiopian  hold  an  but  such f a c i l i t i e s  and  cannot be  state.  obvious are not  allowed  the  Certainly E r i t r e a ' s port  a t t r a c t i o n f o r the  Ethiopians  necessary f o r economic s u r v i v a l  t o trump humanitarian  considerations  i n a c a l c u l a t i o n of l e g i t i m a c y .  (2) Motive.  Few of  w r i t e r s have f e l t  motive  for  secession.  w i t h the p r e v i o u s Morally,  the  permitted  a  secession  carried  should  be  mercenary  motive  role  in  a  of  the  out  for  a  address the  consequence  the  index  its  question connection  apparent. seceding of  A  cannot  attract  study  whose  e n t i t y must  validity.  exclusively  legitimacy.  component in  As  d i s c u s s i o n i s not  denied  particularly  obliged to  mercenary  secession sympathy prime  Briefly,  with or  be a  motives a  large  legitimacy  concern  is  the  249  protection  o f human r i g h t s . There must  self-determination lot  of  a  n o t j u s t an i l l - d e f i n e d  particular  territorial instances  people  separation.  would  determination  exist a threat to  be  To  could permit  to t r i v i a l i z e  and undermine  be  f e e l i n g that the improved  through  secession  in  such  the p r i n c i p l e of  self-  the legitimacy  of a r i g h t to  secede.  (3) P o l i t i c a l S t a b i l i t y and L e g i t i m a c y .  The  concepts  of s t a b i l i t y  and l e g i t i m a c y  have  been  p a r t i a l l y d e a l t w i t h i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n on t h e e x i s t e n c e  of a  people. A few a d d i t i o n a l p o i n t s w i l l be made here. The  s t a t e system i s p r e d i c a t e d  on t h e permanence o f t h e  states  within  i t and t h e establishment  carries  with  i t certain responsibilities.  important  that  Stability  and l e g i t i m a c y  supportive,  t h e seceding  of a  e n t i t y be p o l i t i c a l l y  a r e t h e two most v i t a l ,  components o f t h i s  stable p o l i t i c a l  subsequently  securing  regime. R e l a t i v e It  would  stability  be  inequitable  i n t h e new  viable.  mutually-  viability. s u r v i v e as a  u n i t capable o f r e c o v e r i n g and  t h e human r i g h t s l o s t  stability  state  I t i s therefore  I t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t t h e new s t a t e should relatively  new  i s i s the c r i t i c a l t o expect  regime  than  a  under t h e  f a c t o r here.  greater  that  old  degree  present  of  i n the  o r i g i n a l s t a t e . I n t h e case o f Bangladesh, i n s t a b i l i t y  does  250 not become an level  of  o b s t a c l e t o l e g i t i m a c y because o f the s i m i l a r  instability  in  Pakistan.  These  factors  are  t h e r e f o r e n e u t r a l i z e d i n t h i s example. Nevertheless, deprivations  often  instability  in a  transition  the  incidence  directly  state  is likely  to  be  have a c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e The  legitimacy  likelihood  of  a  capable of  instituting  will  be  after  new  effective  caused  the  regime  of  by  the  secession  may  will  future.  predict Does  decision-making  s t a b i l i t y w i l l be  difficult  reflected  then  political  requirements w i l l be met. always be  strife  level  it  the have  ? I f i t i s both r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  72  then both l e g i t i m a c y and It  severe  the  stable  coherence"  i f the  the  rights  e f f e c t on human r i g h t s .  of  "political  human  c o r r e l a t e s with  and  7 1  of  to  gauge  procedures  assured.  whether  these  Support f o r the s e c e s s i o n w i l l  i n support  i t s s u c c e s s f u l completion.  f o r the  regime  However the  Ideally  the the  l e g i t i m a c y of  people  of  r e s u l t s of a new  the a  region  plebiscite  regime but,  behind  only  should  the  two not  established evidence  a v a i l a b l e w i l l be the s e c e s s i o n i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s a b i l i t y mobilize  and  to  secession.  determine  predictably, states  the  facing  T h i s i s not always so. Often the most s t a b l e governments are the most o p p r e s s i v e e.g. North Korea, Saudi A r a b i a and A l b a n i a . However on the whole t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n h o l d s up w e l l when we d i s c u s s s t a t e s whose c r e a t i o n comes about after a legitimate struggle for independence. See Ofuatey-Kodjoe,W. The P r i n c i p l e of i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law, supra, pl56  Self-Determination  251 secessionist readiness  threats  within  their  borders  have  shown  no  t o submit t o the r e s u l t s of p l e b i s c i t e s .  (4) Geo-Stratecfic D e s t a b i l i z a t i o n .  The as  an  question  internal  o f s t a b i l i t y has dimension.  i n t e r n a t i o n a l peace and law  c a r r y i n g great  incorporate  The  i n t e r n a t i o n a l as  prescription  in  well  favour  of  s e c u r i t y i s a norm of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  weight and  a concern  an  any  f o r the  t h e o r y of  possibility  secession  of  must  geo-strategic  destabilization. There are two  major strands  t o t h i s problem. The  concerns what i s termed the domino t h e o r y . The refers from  to one  the  state  According  to  secession second,  and  (i)  legitimate most  The  Despite t h e o r y has  successful  repetition  of  this  further  obvious,  conflagration  a c t of  a  encouraging  proponents  as  widespread initial  phenomenon of  idea,  conflict  of  secession  other  to  weakens the  encompasses the and  domino t h e o r y  act in  first  states.  characterize dominoes.  general  escalating  fear from  The of the  secession.  Domino Theory.  its  metaphorical  attractiveness  r a r e l y been r e f l e c t e d i n r e a l i t y .  c u r r e n c y as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n  f o r the U n i t e d  the  domino  I t found  States  great  presence  252 i n Vietnam but f i f t e e n years a f t e r the d e p a r t u r e o f the l a s t marine a l l the dominoes remain s t a n d i n g . 7 3  In the case has  proved  Singapore, had  o f s e c e s s i o n the "demonstration  negligible.  The  secessions  Norway, I r e l a n d and Senegal  of  effect"  7 4  Bangladesh,  i n t h i s c e n t u r y have  no d i s c e r n i b l e e f f e c t on s i m i l a r movements i n proximate  areas.  Similarly,  failed  secessions  i n N i g e r i a and Katanga  have not d i s c o u r a g e d s e c e s s i o n i n o t h e r s t a t e s . There a r e t h r e e reasons is different to  lead  Second,  secessionist military a  elites  elites  tendency  little  and a d i f f e r e n t s e t o f circumstances  to a different  outcome.  f o r t h i s . F i r s t , each s i t u a t i o n  to  to learn  7 5  .  s e t of perceptions  there i n the Finally,  regard  is  minimal  same way  as  secessionist  themselves  as  from o t h e r s e p a r a t i s t  and  dissimilar  contact there  between  i s between  o r g a n i z a t i o n s have  entirely  unique  with  movement. T h i s o f t e n  l e a d s them t o condemn o t h e r s e c e s s i o n s w h i l e pursuing t h e i r  i s likely  simultaneously  own.  These f a c t o r s make the domino t h e o r y i r r e l e v a n t t o t h i s problem.  ( i i ) Geo-strategic Disruption.  Thailand was regarded as t h e next t a r g e t o f the Vietnamese; i n s t e a d they a r e contemplating a r e t r e a t from Kampuchea (1989). See Kamanu, Determination; 7  5  I b i d , p368-369.  Secession and the Right An OAU Dilemma, supra, p356.  of  Self-  253  I f a s e c e s s i o n appears l i k e l y t o cause a major war, t h e force  of  i t s legitimacy  humanitarian-utilitarian subversion  must  be  teleology  i f i t permits  a  re-evaluated.  of  people  this  to  study  secede  The risks  where t h e  c o l l e c t i v e human misery w i l l be i n c r e a s e d by p e r m i t t i n g t h e secession. This  is  one  of  Buchheit's  major  he  the c e n t r a l i t y  (otherwise  l e g i t i m a t e ) s e c e s s i o n on t h e grounds t h a t i t w i l l  geo-strategic •  •  disruption .  will  into  come t h e r i s k  the c o n f l i c t  on  Disallowing  7 6  may  .  be  counterproductive.  .  I n s t a b i l i t y and c o n f l i c t w i l l this  construct .  but  overstates  cause  of t h i s  points  .  77  continue  t o f e s t e r ' ' and w i t h  t h a t t h e superpowers may be drawn a  partisan,  basis  rather  than  a  l e g a l l y - p r e d i c a t e d one. This  i s a legal  must p l a y theory.  a greater  theory  of secession  r o l e than  i t might  therefore do i n a  justice  political  The r i s k o f major c o n f l i c t must be s u b s t a n t i a l .  Ultimately,  as t h e UN i t s e l f  recognizes,  the greatest  t h r e a t t o peace and s e c u r i t y i s t h e abuse o f human Stability which  does  i s n o t an end i n i t s e l f . not p r o t e c t  the notion  A  stable  o f human  See Buchheit.L, Secession: The D e t e r m i n a t i o n . supra,231-249.  rights.  world  order  dignity  is a  Legitimacy  of  Self-  T h i s i s i n e v i t a b l e i n cases where t h e s e c e s s i o n i s l e g i t i m a t e under t h e index o f v a l i d i t y since this l e g i t i m a c y presumes a h i g h l e v e l o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and commitment on t h e p a r t o f t h e people p u r s u i n g i t . .  254 morally  empty v e s s e l . The  r i g h t t o secede i s a t h r e a t  only  t o a v e r s i o n of "order" which oppresses the human s p i r i t .  (5)  The  Bona  Fides  of  the  State  and  the  Seceding  Entity.  The by  claims  t o the  r i g h t of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n  competing s e l v e s must be  faith the  evinced  by  the  " s e l f " up  bona f i d e s o f the  solutions past  proposed  the  The  78  according  to that point.  competing s e l v e s .  by  performance .  assessed  state  will  The  be  advanced  t o the I call  good these  credibility  dependent  most pungent example  on  from our  of its  case  s t u d i e s i s E r i t r e a where the E t h i o p i a n s t a t e , by i t s f a i l u r e to  heed the  terms o f  examples o f bad  faith  the  autonomy compromise  s i n c e then, has  and  extinguished  numerous its  own  bona f i d e s . In c o n t r a s t  the  EPLF's bona f i d e s are  high  because  i t s proven a b i l i t y and w i l l t o c a t e r f o r the human needs  of and  r i g h t s o f the E r i t r e a n p e o p l e . 7 9  To  take an example d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h the r i g h t of self-determination, see debate i n the UN over the Vietnamese occupation of Kampuchea (Cambodia) where the Kampuchean R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the Khmer Rouge argued t h a t the Vietnamese should l e a v e Kampuchea i n order t h a t f r e e e l e c t i o n s take p l a c e . T h i s p r o p o s i t i o n was supported i n the UN. Under an index o f v a l i d i t y the Khmer Rouge would have the lowest bona f i d e s p o s s i b l e . Any promise t o h o l d f r e e e l e c t i o n s would be deemed w o r t h l e s s . See 17 UN Monthly C h r o n i c l e 122 (Jan, 1980).  See  Chapter IV,  infra.  255 The  q u e s t i o n of bona f i d e s w i l l  not  always be  t o r e s o l v e as i n the E t h i o p i a n case. Often a new will  promise  order  changes  or  t o p l a c a t e the  make c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  seceding  never  decisive.  remain the c r i t i c a l The  bona  fides  Past  easy  government  amendments  group. These changes may  l a r g e l y cosmetic or e a s i l y r e v o c a b l e . They may but  so  performance  of  be  in be  persuasive  the  state  must  factor. of  the  seceding  group may  be  just  as  q u e s t i o n a b l e and w i l l be  somewhat d i m i n i s h e d by a r e c o r d of  human  discrimination  rights  abuse,  or  international  terrorism . 8 0  An  intuitive  sincere  and  the  sense  of  bogus may  be  stressed that  determining difficult  The tends the  8 1  the  relied  between on  by  the  future  f a c t u a l gaps. However, a g a i n i t  i n the  respective  case  bona  studies investigated  fides  has  not  proved  .  above l i s t  i s f a r from comprehensive and  to amplify a d i f f e r e n t index  difference  have t o be  a d j u d i c a t o r s t o b r i d g e any should  the  of  validity  a  set of v a r i a b l e s . certain  each  In  flexibility  case  applying must  be  d i s p l a y e d once the e s s e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s have been s a t i s f i e d .  E r i t r e a n action against a i d a i r c r a f t regard.  i s harmful  in this  With the n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n of B i a f r a where the Gowon 12S t a t e s o l u t i o n appeared t o come w i t h a s p i r i t of compromise but may have simply been a d e l a y i n g t a c t i c .  256 This  may  involve  taking  into  account  one o r more  of the  v a r i a b l e s found below.  (6) General V a r i a b l e s .  (i)  The L e v e l  of Integration  Achieved  and Length o f  Time as S i n g l e S t a t e .  This  can work  integration against  i n two opposing ways. A h i g h  and a l o n g  t h e seceding  separating  and  the  history  group  of assimilation w i l l  because  degree  l e v e l of  of  work  of the d i f f i c u l t y intermingling  in  i n the  population . 8 2  Conversely,  i f a union  has e x i s t e d  f o r only  a  very  s h o r t time t h e s e c e s s i o n i s t s may be accused o f p r e c i p i t a t i n g a  national  crisis  without  allowing  the state  a period of  grace i n which t o u n i f y t h e n a t i o n . 8 3  ( i i ) Non-Alignment.  A stronger professes discourage  non-alignment. t h e formation  international 8 2  8 3  case can be made f o r a seceding  system.  Rules  of  u n i t which  legitimacy  should  o f c l i e n t e l e s t a t e s as p a r t o f t h e  Furthermore,  a  seceding  unit  whose  See S c o t l a n d and Quebec and compare these two t o t h e case s t u d i e s made o f Bangladesh and E r i t r e a . See B i a f r a employed.  and  Katanga  where  these  arguments  were  257 independence  does  not  deals  with  major  struck  depend powers  on  sovereignty-threatening  is likely  to  operate  more  e f f e c t i v e l y as a p o s i t i v e f o r c e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s . successful  secession  accomplished  without  external  would seem t o i n d i c a t e a h i g h l e v e l of i n t e r n a l  ( i i i ) A Previous Act of  Self-determination right  8 4  .  has  Gros-Espiell  A  support  support.  Self-Determination.  been  described  refutes  this  as  a  once-only  notion  in  his  a u t h o r i t a t i v e study f o r the U n i t e d Nations where he s t a t e s , "The r i g h t of peoples t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n has l a s t i n g f o r c e [and] does not l a p s e upon first having been e x e r c i s e d t o secure p o l i t i c a l selfdetermination" . 8 5  It  seems  generations renewed different  previously  exercise  8 6  85  of  The  that  should  a  decision  become  an  self-determination  collection  circumstances .  8 4  inconceivable  of  latin  obstacle by  The  a  individuals maxim,  rebus  Right  to  several to  a  completely under  sic  See e.g., g e n e r a l l y , Trudeau,P. F e d e r a l i s m Cnandians, supra. See Gros E s p i e l l , H . supra, p8.  made  new  stantibus ,  and the  8 7  French  Self-Determination,  86  See e.g. can i t s e r i o u s l y be argued t h a t S c o t l a n d s e l f determined d e f i n i t i v e l y i n an 18th century t r e a t y (the 1707 T r e a t y of Union) ?  87  Change of circumstances f r u s t r a t e s the c o n t r a c t . See L e v i n , The P r i n c i p l e o f S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Nations in International Law, 1962, Soviet Yearbook of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law, p45.  258  operates  t o rebut  pacta  sunt  servanda,  the rule  that  an  agreement once reached and complied w i t h by t h e p a r t i e s can no  longer  be  tampered  with.  I t i s as a p p l i c a b l e  t o the  s o c i a l c o n t r a c t as i t i s t o t h e p r i v a t e c o n t r a c t .  C.CONCLUSION.  The  index  of  validity  outlined  above  is  comprehensive and q u a n t i f i a b l e as a l e g a l - p o l i t i c a l can be. 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