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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Conflicts in divorce jurisdiction and recognition Reid, Nichola Jane Williams 1982

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CONFLICTS IN DIVORCE JURISDICTION AND RECOGNITION by NICHOLA JANE WILLIAMS REID LL.B., UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF LAWS In the Faculty of LAW We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1982 Nichola Reid In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of L ^ O U A )  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date DE-6 (3/81) ( i i ) ABSTRACT I n a n e f f o r t t o a d a p t t h e l a w t o m o d e r n s o c i e t y , t h e c o u r t s h a v e e x p a n d e d t h e b a s e s o n w h i c h d i v o r c e s o b t a i n e d a b r o a d w i l l b e r e c o g n i z e d i n C a n a d a a n d P a r l i a m e n t h a s m o d i f i e d t h e d o m e s t i c r u l e s f o r t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f j u r i s d i c t i o n i n d i v o r c e p e t i t i o n s . T h i s h a s r e s u l t e d i n a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n u n c e r t a i n t y a n d i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e l a w , w h i c h i s e v i d e n c e d i n t h e l a r g e v o l u m e o f l i t i g a t i o n i n t h i s a r e a . A n a l y s i s o f t h e g r o u n d s f o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f f o r e i g n d i v o r c e s g i v e s r i s e t o a f u r t h e r c o n c e r n , t h a t i s , t h e e f f e c t o f a f o r e i g n d i v o r c e o n t h e r i g h t o f a s p o u s e o r f o r m e r s p o u s e t o f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . T h e c h i e f u n r e s o l v e d p r o b l e m , a t l e a s t a s f a r a s C a n a d i a n d i v o r c e l e g i s l a t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d , i s t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f a s p o u s e ' s r i g h t t o f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t i n C a n a d a w h e n a f o r e i g n d i v o r c e i s r e c o g n i z e d h e r e . F u r t h e r m o r e , i f a f o r e i g n d i v o r c e i s n o t r e c o g n i z e d h e r e , i t s e f f e c t o n t h e r i g h t t o f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t seems t o b e s o m e w h a t u n c e r t a i n . H a v i n g c o n s i d e r e d t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e l a w i n t h i s f i e l d , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e c u r r e n t l a w a n d a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e l e g i s l a t u r e , i t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t l a w r e f o r m i s d e s i r a b l e . S p e c i f i c r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e f o r m u l a t e d a t t h e e n d o f e a c h o f t h e t h r e e p a r t s o f t h e t h e s i s . ( i i i ) TABLE OF CONTENTS PART 1 - JURISDICTION CHAPTER 1 1 A. INTRODUCTION 1 B. OBJECTIVES OF THE RULES FOR JURISDICTION IN DIVORCE 2 C. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 3 (1) UNITY OF DOMICILE AND THE WIFE'S DEPENDENT DOMICILE 5 (2) OTHER PROBLEMS WITH THE "DOMICILE"TEST 8 CHAPTER 2 11 THE CURRENT POSITION IN CANADA A. THE WIFE'S DEPENDENT DOMICILE 11 B. THE GROUNDS FOR JURISDICTION 11 (1) ANALYSIS OF S. 5(1)(a) 14 (2) ANALYSIS OF S. 5(1)(b) 17 (3) CONCLUSION 34 (4) STAY AND TRANSFER PROVISIONS 35 CHAPTER 3 43 ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF ESTABLISHING JURISDICTION 1. DOMICILE 43 2. RESIDENCE 45 3. NATIONALITY 49 4. STAY AND TRANSFER PROVISIONS 51 5. RECOMMENDATIONS 53 PART 11 - RECOGNITION CHAPTER 4 56 1. INTRODUCTION 56 2. OBJECTIVES OF THE RECOGNITION RULES 56 3. THE COMMON LAW BEFORE 1967 58 4. ' 1967 - 71 ENGLAND - INDYKA v INDYKA 71 (iv) CHAPTER 5 86 CURRENT CANADIAN LAW 1. LEGISLATION 86 2. THE COMMON LAW FROM 1967 ONWARDS 90 3. DO THE CANADIAN RULES MEET THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS PART? 109 4. SUMMARY ON RECOGNITION 112 5. GROUNDS FOR ATTACKING A FOREIGN DIVORCE 113 CHAPTER 6 121 THE RECOGNITION OF DIVORCES AND LEGAL SEPARATIONS ACT 1971 1. DIVORCES GRANTED IN THE BRITISH ISLES 121 2. RECOGNITION OF OVERSEAS DIVORCES 121 3. STATUTORY GROUNDS OF ATTACK 128 4. THE PROBLEM OF THE EXTRA-JUDICIAL DIVORCE 132 5. CONCLUSION 139 CHAPTER 7 141 RECOMMENDATIONS PART 111 - THE EFFECT OF FOREIGN DIVORCES ON THE RIGHT TO FINANCIAL ' SUPPORT CHAPTER 8 149 INTRODUCTION 149 A. THE EFFECT OF AN UNRECOGNIZED FOREIGN DIVORCE - THE DOCTRINE OF PRECLUSION 149 B. THE EFFECT OF A RECOGNIZED FOREIGN DIVORCE 159 C. RECOMMENDATIONS 170 FOOTNOTES 173 TABLE OF CASES 228 TABLE OF STATUTES 237 BIBLIOGRAPHY 238 PART 1 - JURISDICTION CHAPTER 1 A. INTRODUCTION The question to be answered i n t h i s part i s : on what basis should courts i n Canada exercise j u r i s d i c t i o n over p e t i t i o n s for divorce? There i s probably no j u r i s d i c t i o n a l problem i n the majority of cases as both partie s to the p e t i t i o n w i l l be Canadians, domiciled and resident i n the province i n which j u r i s d i c t i o n i s sought. However, the minority should 1 not be ignored i n t h i s context. Canada has a large number of immigrants, who, i n law, may or may not be domiciled where they l i v e and wish to p e t i t i o n for divorce. In addition, society has become in c r e a s i n g l y mobile and many people move f r e e l y from province to province, or from country to country, for employment and a v a r i e t y of other reasons. The question then becomes: when i s there a s u f f i c i e n t l y close connection with the p a r t i c u l a r province (or Canada as a whole) to j u s t i f y the assumption of j u r i s d i c t i o n to dissolve the marriage? The simple answer seems to be: when the partie s have l i v e d i n the province for a reasonable amount of time. However, the question cannot be answered f u l l y without a d e t a i l e d exposition of the e x i s t i n g law and the various con-siderations regarding divorce j u r i s d i c t i o n . F i r s t , the desirable features of j u r i s d i c t i o n a l rules w i l l be l i s t e d . There i s general agreement about some of the objectives of a j u r i s d i c t i o n a l t e s t but, nevertheless, opinions may d i f f e r as to t h e i r r e l a t i v e importance. 2 The study comprises an analysis of the common law, statutory - 2 -3 4 reforms, the current p o s i t i o n and the a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e for the 5 formulation of appropriate c r i t e r i a for divorce j u r i s d i c t i o n . Proposals for reform of the law are to be found at the end of Part 1 6 of this t h e s i s . B. OBJECTIVES OF THE RULES FOR JURISDICTION IN DIVORCE It i s submitted that the rules should: 1. Enable persons who have l i v e d i n a province for a reasonable time to p e t i t i o n the courts of that province for a divorce, i r r e s p e c t i v e of t h e i r l e g a l domicile. 2. Be such that persons who do not l i v e i n the province are not prevented from p e t i t i o n i n g the court, i f they s t i l l have s u b s t a n t i a l t i e s with the province. 3. Be as c l e a r and c e r t a i n i n the i r a p p l i c a t i o n as p o s s i b l e . 4. Not lead to anomalies and unnecessary inconvenience. 5. Not tend to cause limping marriages. 7 A limping marriage occurs when one law d i s t r i c t views a marriage as v a l i d and su b s i s t i n g but another considers i t i n v a l i d or terminated. The r e s u l t i s that the parties to the marriage are a married couple or single persons according to which country they are i n — an obviously undesirable state of a f f a i r s . Since recognition of a Canadian divorce i n other law d i s t r i c t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n common law countries, may depend on 8 j u r i s d i c t i o n to grant i t , the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l rules should not be so lax as to r e s u l t i n non recognition of Canadian divorces abroad. This i s not to say that the rules should be extremely s t r i c t . - 3 -9 Limping marriages have a v a r i e t y of causes and i t i s not possible to eliminate a l l by means of a s t r i c t test for j u r i s d i c t i o n . The problem would be less l i k e l y to occur i f a l l countries employed s i m i l a r c r i t e r i a for j u r i s d i c t i o n and s i m i l a r standards of evidence. A more pr a c t i c a b l e s o l u t i o n i s to formulate wider rules for recognition of divorces than j u r i s d i c t i o n . 10 6. The ru l e s should not encourage forum shopping. Forum shopping happens when a party, having no r e a l connection with a law d i s t r i c t , resorts to i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n merely because he can obtain a divorce more e a s i l y than i n the law d i s t r i c t with which he has a reason-able connection. Again, t h i s i s encouraged by very lax j u r i s d i c t i o n a l and substantive grounds f or divorce. Forum shopping i s also becoming more common i n order to deprive a wife of the f i n a n c i a l r e l i e f she may other-11 wise have obtained. Likewise, a wife may resort to a forum to obtain greater f i n a n c i a l r e l i e f than she would have otherwise. 7. The r u l e s , i f possible, should prevent the p e t i t i o n e r from d e l i b e r a t e l y choosing a forum which i s inconvenient to the respondent. This i s r e a l l y a form of forum shopping but deserves a separate mention. Choice of an i n -convenient forum can e f f e c t i v e l y deprive the respondent of the opportunity to present v i t a l witness evidence to the court. C. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 12 In England p r i o r to the Divorce and Matrimonial Causes Act 1857 j u r i s d i c t i o n i n matrimonial causes was vested i n the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l courts, 13 which assumed j u r i s d i c t i o n to hear p e t i t i o n s for divorce a mensa et thoro - 4 -and n u l l i t y on the basis of residence within the area. Before 1857 an absolute divorce could be obtained only by means of a private Act of Parliament. The pr a c t i c e was to lodge a p e t i t i o n with the House of 14 Lords. Parliament followed the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l courts' p r a c t i c e ; hence the ground for j u r i s d i c t i o n i n divorce p e t i t i o n s before the 1857 Act was residence i n England or Wales. The law of Canada (with the exception of Quebec) was derived from E n g l i s h law. The date of adoption of E n g l i s h law i n each province depends 15 on when that province became a part of Canada. Eng l i s h law was adopted i n the western provinces a f t e r the Divorce and Matrimonial Causes Act 1857 came into force. Thus, Eng l i s h statutory law of divorce was introduced into these provinces. However, i n Ontario and Newfoundland, E n g l i s h law was introduced p r i o r to 1857. These provinces, unlike Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island, did not have t h e i r own divorce l e g i s l a -t i o n when they became part of Canada and the power to l e g i s l a t e on marriage and divorce was vested i n the Federal Government by the B r i t i s h North 16 America Act 1867. Thus, for many years, Ontario and Newfoundland had 17 no divorce l e g i s l a t i o n u n t i l i t was enacted by the Parliament of Canada. 18 Nevertheless, between 1857 and the 1968 Divorce Act, the Canadian Courts were very much influenced by E n g l i s h case law regarding divorce j u r i s d i c t i o n . 19 In Niboyet v Niboyet a majority of the E n g l i s h Court of Appeal found that the residence test for j u r i s d i c t i o n i n matrimonial causes had not been changed by the Divorce and Matrimonial Causes Act 1857. The court f e l t that no such p r i n c i p l e as domicile existed i n English matrimonial law, and that the law of domicile did not provide a better j u r i s d i c t i o n a l ground t h a n r e s i d e n c e . I t w a s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t d o m i c i l e o n l y o b v i a t e s l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e s i f o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s u s e t h e same t e s t . 2 0 H o w e v e r , i n 1 8 9 5 t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l i n L e M e s u r i e r v L e M e s u r i e r e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t " t h e d o m i c i l e f o r t h e t i m e b e i n g o f t h e m a r r i e d p a i r 2 1 a f f o r d s t h e o n l y t r u e t e s t o f j u r i s d i c t i o n t o d i s s o l v e t h e i r m a r r i a g e " . T h e N i b o y e t c a s e w a s n o t f o l l o w e d b e c a u s e t h e c o u r t f e l t t h a t , a l t h o u g h r e s i d e n c e m a y h a v e b e e n s u f f i c i e n t t o g r a n t t h e r e l i e f a v a i l a b l e t o t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c o u r t s , i t d i d n o t f o l l o w t h a t s u c h r e s i d e n c e w o u l d a l s o b e s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h e m u c h m o r e s i g n i f i c a n t s t e p o f d i s s o l v i n g t h e m a r r i a g e . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s e e w h y a n a b s o l u t e d i v o r c e d e c r e e i s m o r e s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n a n u l l i t y d e c r e e g r a n t e d i n r e s p e c t o f a v o i d a b l e m a r r i a g e . B u t 22 a f t e r t h e Le M e s u r i e r c a s e i t w a s a c c e p t e d b o t h i n E n g l a n d a n d C a n a d a t h a t d o m i c i l e o f t h e p a r t i e s w a s t h e s o l e b a s i s o f j u r i s d i c t i o n i n d i v o r c e . 2 3 I n C a n a d a i t w a s n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v e d o m i c i l e i n a p a r t i c u l a r p r o v i n c e . D o m i c i l e h a s p r o v e d a n a p p r o p r i a t e t e s t i n m a n y c a s e s , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e i t c o v e r s e x p a t r i a t e s , i n o t h e r w o r d s , p e r s o n s who a r e n o t c u r r e n t l y l i v i n g i n t h e l a w d i s t r i c t b u t who m a i n t a i n s u b s t a n t i a l t i e s w i t h i t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a s a n e x c l u s i v e t e s t a t common l a w , t h e c o n c e p t o f d o m i c i l e h a s p r e s e n t e d m a n y p r o b l e m s . I t i s r e p l e t e w i t h t e c h n i c a l i t i e s w h i c h t e n d s o m e t i m e s t o m a k e i t s p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n a b s u r d a n d h i g h l y i n c o n v e n i e n t . 2 4 ( 1 ) U N I T Y OF D O M I C I L E AND THE W I F E ' S DEPENDENT D O M I C I L E A t common l a w , t h e w i f e t o o k h e r h u s b a n d ' s d o m i c i l e o n m a r r i a g e a n d 25 h e r d o m i c i l e t h e r e a f t e r w a s d e p e n d e n t o n t h a t o f h e r h u s b a n d . T h i s d o c t r i n e o f u n i t y o f d o m i c i l e a r o s e a s a n i n c i d e n t o f t h e m a r r i a g e b e c a u s e - 6 -2 6 " b y m a r r i a g e , h u s b a n d a n d w i f e a r e o n e p e r s o n i n l a w " . T h u s , i f H , a C a n a d i a n f r o m A l b e r t a , w e r e t o go t o A u s t r a l i a a n d a c q u i r e a d o m i c i l e o f c h o i c e i n t h e S t a t e o f New S o u t h W a l e s a n d W , h i s w i f e , w e r e t o r e m a i n i n A l b e r t a , h e r d o m i c i l e w o u l d h a v e b e e n c h a n g e d t o New S o u t h W a l e s . A t common l a w s h e w o u l d n o l o n g e r h a v e b e e n a b l e t o p e t i t i o n t h e c o u r t s o f A l b e r t a . T h e h a r d s h i p c a u s e d t o t h e w i f e b y t h i s r u l e e m e r g e d a s a m o s t p r e s s i n g p r o b l e m . A l t h o u g h a t t e m p t s w e r e m a d e b y t h e c o u r t s t o m o d i f y 2 7 2 8 t h e d o c t r i n e , t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l i n A - G f o r A l b e r t a v C o o k r e a f f i r m e d t h a t n o t h i n g s h o r t o f d o m i c i l e o f t h e h u s b a n d i n t h e l a w d i s t r i c t w o u l d 2 9 s u f f i c e f o r d i v o r c e j u r i s d i c t i o n , ( a ) P a r t i a l R e f o r m i n C a n a d a 30 I n 1 9 3 0 t h e D i v o r c e J u r i s d i c t i o n A c t w a s p a s s e d . U n d e r t h a t a c t a m a r r i e d woman who h a d b e e n d e s e r t e d b y a n d w a s l i v i n g s e p a r a t e a n d a p a r t f r o m h e r h u s b a n d , a n d w h o h a d b e e n s o l i v i n g f o r t w o y e a r s , c o u l d p r e s e n t a p e t i t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e i n w h i c h t h e h u s b a n d w a s d o m i c i l e d i m m e d i a t e l y p r i o r t o d e s e r t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h i s p r o v i s i o n w a s o f a s s i s t a n c e t o some d e s e r t e d w i v e s , i t b y n o m e a n s s o l v e d a l l t h e p r o b l e m s a r i s i n g f r o m u n i t y o f d o m i c i l e . I t m i g h t h a v e b e e n e x t r e m e l y i n c o n v e n i e n t t o commence d i v o r c e p r o c e e d i n g s i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f d e s e r t i o n . O r i t m i g h t h a v e b e e n i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p r o v i n c e o f t h e h u s b a n d ' s d o m i c i l e a t t h e t i m e o f d e s e r t i o n . I n a n y e v e n t , t h e a c t d i d n o t p r o v i d e f o r a s i t u a t i o n w h e r e t h e p a r t i e s s e p a r a t e d a m i c a b l y o r w h e r e t h e h u s b a n d d i d n o t f o r m t h e i n t e n t i o n t o d e s e r t h i s w i f e u n t i l a f t e r h e h a d l e f t t h e p r o v i n c e , b y w h i c h t i m e h e m i g h t h a v e b e e n 7 -domiciled i n Timbuctoo. (b) P a r t i a l Reform i n England 31 The f i r s t reform was s. 13 of the Matrimonial Causes Act 1937 which was s i m i l a r to the Divorce J u r i s d i c t i o n Act i n Canada, except that there was no requirement that the desertion period be at least two years and, i n addition, s. 13 applied to cases where the husband had been deported. This again d i d not cover a l l s i t u a t i o n s of p o t e n t i a l hardship to the wife. Further reform was necessary and the Law Reform (Miscellaneous 32 Provisions) Act 1949 provided that the court had j u r i s d i c t i o n not-withstanding the fa c t that the husband was not domiciled i n England, provided that the wife was resident i n England, and had been o r d i n a r i l y resident there for three years immediately preceding the presentation of the p e t i t i o n . This p r o v i s i o n did not provide equality of j u r i s d i c t i o n over husband and wife. Therefore, i t was possible for the law to operate i n c o n s i s t e n t l y i n favour of or against e i t h e r spouse. For example, i f H and W, natives of England, went to A u s t r a l i a , and the husband acquired a domicile of choice i n New South Wales, but the wife returned to England a f t e r a short while, then the wife would not be able to p e t i t i o n the E n g l i s h courts for three years. On the other hand, i f H and W went to England as immigrants and H d i d not acquire a domicile of choice there, W could p e t i t i o n for divorce a f t e r three years residence but H could not. - 8 -33 (2) OTHER PROBLEMS WITH THE "DOMICILE" TEST (a) Tenacity of the Domicile of O r i g i n Everyone acquires a domicile of o r i g i n at b i r t h , which i s u s u a l l y 34 the domicile for the time being of the father, i f the c h i l d i s legitimate. The domicile of o r i g i n continues u n t i l i t s holder has capacity to acquire a domicile of choice; but even then the domicile of o r i g i n continues unless i t i s c l e a r l y shown that there was a fixed and s e t t l e d 35 i n t e n t i o n to acquire a new domicile. The onus of proof rests heavily 36 on the party who asserts the change of domicile. Thus domicile of o r i g i n i s d i f f e r e n t from domicile of choice i n "that i t s character i s more enduring, i t s hold stronger and less e a s i l y 37 shaken o f f " . This could produce anomalies i n divorce j u r i s d i c t i o n , because i t would be harder for a p e t i t i o n e r to show that he had acquired his f i r s t domicile of choice i n a p a r t i c u l a r law d i s t r i c t than say his second or t h i r d or fourth domicile of choice. However, i t has been said that the standard of proof i s the same, i . e . , on a balance of p r o b a b i l i t i e s , i r r e s p e c t i v e of whether the abandoned 38 domicile i s one of choice or o r i g i n . I t i s submitted that t h i s cannot be c o r r e c t . The adhesive q u a l i t y of the domicile of o r i g i n i s c l e a r l y 39 shown i n the case law, and t h i s i s i n d i c a t i v e of a far higher standard of proof for a change from the domicile of o r i g i n to one of choice. (b) Revival of the Domicile of O r i g i n I f X abandons his domicile of choice without e s t a b l i s h i n g a new 40 domicile of choice then his domicile of o r i g i n revives. This i s so even when X has not returned to his domicile of o r i g i n and never intends - 9 -t o d o s o . I n d e e d i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t X h a s n e v e r l i v e d i n h i s d o m i c i l e o f o r i g i n a n d n e v e r i n t e n d s t o d o s o , b u t i t w i l l s t i l l r e v i v e . T h i s c a n b e h i g h l y i n c o n v e n i e n t . F o r e x a m p l e , X h a s a d o m i c i l e o f o r i g i n i n G e r m a n y a n d m o v e s t o E n g l a n d a t f o u r m o n t h s o f a g e . He l i v e s t h e r e u n t i l t h e a g e o f t h i r t y a n d h a s a d o m i c i l e o f c h o i c e i n E n g l a n d . A t t h e a g e o f t h i r t y - o n e h e m o v e s t o O n t a r i o t o l i v e a n d i s u n s u r e w h e t h e r h e w i l l r e m a i n t h e r e o r m o v e t o New Y o r k S t a t e . U n d e r t h e d o m i c i l e t e s t , a t t h i s p o i n t i n t i m e h e w o u l d b e u n a b l e t o p e t i t i o n t h e E n g l i s h c o u r t s o r t h e O n t a r i o c o u r t s . T h e o n l y f o r u m i m m e d i a t e l y a v a i l a b l e t o X w o u l d b e G e r m a n y , a c o u n t r y w i t h w h i c h h e h a s h a d n o c o n n e c t i o n s i n c e h e w a s f o u r m o n t h s o l d . X m a y n o t e v e n h a v e r e c o u r s e t o t h e G e r m a n c o u r t s i f t h e b a s i s o f j u r i s -d i c t i o n i n G e r m a n y i s r e s i d e n c e o r n a t i o n a l i t y o r b o t h . ( c ) I n t e n t i o n t o A c q u i r e a D o m i c i l e o f C h o i c e I n o r d e r t o a c q u i r e a d o m i c i l e o f c h o i c e a p e r s o n m u s t p r o v e t w o t h i n g s : f i r s t , r e s i d e n c e i n t h e l a w d i s t r i c t i n q u e s t i o n , a n d s e c o n d , 41 i n t e n t i o n t o r e s i d e t h e r e p e r m a n e n t l y o r i n d e f i n i t e l y . A d i s p r o p o r t i o n -a t e l y h e a v y e m p h a s i s i s l a i d o n i n t e n t i o n . " I t m u s t b e a r e s i d e n c e f i x e d n o t f o r a l i m i t e d o r p a r t i c u l a r p u r p o s e , b u t g e n e r a l a n d i n d e f i n i t e i n i t s 42 f u t u r e c o n t e m p l a t i o n . " A p e r s o n c a n n o t a c q u i r e a d o m i c i l e o f c h o i c e i f h e i n t e n d s t o l e a v e 43 u p o n a c l e a r l y a n t i c i p a t e d a n d r e a s o n a b l y f o r e s e e a b l e c o n t i n g e n c y . So a t common l a w , X w i l l n o t a c q u i r e a d o m i c i l e o f c h o i c e , a n d t h e r e f o r e c a n n o t b r i n g a d i v o r c e p e t i t i o n , i f h e i n t e n d s t o l e a v e t h e l a w d i s t r i c t 44 w h e n h i s e m p l o y m e n t e n d s , e v e n i f h e h a s l i v e d t h e r e f o r t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s . H o w e v e r , t h e r e i s a u t h o r i t y w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e b u r d e n o f p r o o f m a y - 10 -n o t b e s o h e a v y w h e n t h e a l l e g e d c h a n g e o f d o m i c i l e i s f r o m o n e p r o v i n c e I o f C a n a d a t o a n o t h e r a s o p p o s e d t o a c h a n g e f r o m o n e c o u n t r y t o a n o t h e r . - 1 1 -CHAPTER 2 THE CURRENT P O S I T I O N I N CANADA A . THE W I F E ' S DEPENDENT D O M I C I L E 1 S e c t i o n 6 ( 1 ) o f t h e D i v o r c e A c t 1 9 6 8 p r o v i d e s t h a t a m a r r i e d w o m a n ' s d o m i c i l e i s t o b e d e t e r m i n e d a s i f s h e w e r e u n m a r r i e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h a t a c t : 6 ( 1 ) F o r a l l p u r p o s e s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e j u r i s d i c -t i o n o f a c o u r t t o g r a n t a d e c r e e o f d i v o r c e u n d e r t h i s a c t , t h e d o m i c i l e o f a m a r r i e d w o m a n s h a l l b e d e t e r m i n e d a s i f s h e w e r e u n m a r r i e d a n d , i f s h e i s a m i n o r , a s i f s h e h a d a t t a i n e d h e r m a j o r i t y . T h u s , t h e c o n c e p t o f u n i t y o f d o m i c i l e h a s b e e n e f f e c t i v e l y a b o l i s h e d f o r d i v o r c e p u r p o s e s . A w i f e p e t i t i o n e r ' s d o m i c i l e m u s t n o w b e d e t e r m i n e d 2 w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e h u s b a n d ' s d o m i c i l e . T h e w i f e m u s t p r o v e t h a t s h e i s d o m i c i l e d i n C a n a d a , e i t h e r b y o r i g i n , o r i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e o r d i n a r y 3 r u l e s f o r a c q u i s i t i o n o f a d o m i c i l e o f c h o i c e . B . THE GROUNDS FOR J U R I S D I C T I O N 4 T h e S p e c i a l J o i n t C o m m i t t e e o f t h e S e n a t e a n d H o u s e o n D i v o r c e ( 1 9 6 7 ) w e r e a w a r e o f t h e r i g i d i t y o f t h e common l a w c o n c e p t o f d o m i c i l e a n d h e n c e i t s u n s u i t a b i l i t y a s t h e s o l e c r i t e r i o n f o r j u r i s d i c t i o n i n a h i g h l y m o b i l e s o c i e t y . T h e c o m m i t t e e e n v i s a g e d o n l y t w o s o l u t i o n s : t o a b a n d o n t h e c o n c e p t 5 o f d o m i c i l e a l t o g e t h e r i n f a v o u r o f r e s i d e n c e ; o r t o a b a n d o n t h e c o n c e p t o f p r o v i n c i a l d o m i c i l e i n f a v o u r o f a n a t i o n a l d o m i c i l e . T h e t w o r e a s o n s g i v e n 6 f o r n o t a d o p t i n g t h e f o r m e r s o l u t i o n w e r e a s f o l l o w s : 1 . To r e l y o n r e s i d e n c e a l o n e f o r t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f m a t r i m o n i a l p r o -c e e d i n g s m i g h t p r e s e n t c o m p l i c a t i o n s i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w . - 12 -T h e c o m m i t t e e i t s e l f g a v e n o e x a m p l e s o f s u c h " c o m p l i c a t i o n s " a n d i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i m a g i n e a n y p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m s . P o s s i b l y , i f t h e o n l y t e s t f o r j u r i s d i c t i o n w e r e m e r e r e s i d e n c e i n t h e p r o v i n c e t h e n t h i s w o u l d b e a v a l i d r e a s o n , s i n c e m e r e p h y s i c a l p r e s e n c e i n t h e p r o v i n c e f o r o n e d a y 6A c o u l d s u f f i c e C a n a d a w o u l d b e c o m e a " d i v o r c e h a v e n " f o r n o n - C a n a d i a n s . T h i s c o u l d a l s o l e a d t o f o r u m s h o p p i n g b y C a n a d i a n s a n d c h o i c e o f a f o r u m o n t h e b a s i s o f i t s i n c o n v e n i e n c e t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t . B u t , i f a r e a s o n a b l e p e r i o d o f r e s i d e n c e w e r e r e q u i r e d t h i s r e a s o n w o u l d n o t b e a r s c r u t i n y . C a n a d i a n d o m i c i l i a r i e s c a n a l r e a d y p e t i t i o n p r o v i n c i a l c o u r t s o n t h e b a s i s o f r e s i d e n c e f o r a s p e c i f i e d p e r i o d p u r s u a n t t o s . 5 ( 1 ) o f t h e D i v o r c e A c t . W h e r e t h e n w o u l d b e t h e " c o m p l i c a t i o n s " ? D i d t h e c o m m i t t e e e n v i s a g e a f l o o d o f d i v o r c e p e t i t i o n s f r o m i m m i g r a n t s t o C a n a d a w h o h a v e n o t a c q u i r e d a C a n a d i a n d o m i c i l e ? T h i s i s h a r d l y l i k e l y a n d , c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e s o u t l i n e d i n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r o f t h e t h e s i s , i t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t i m m i g r a n t s s h o u l d n o t b e d e n i e d a c c e s s t o C a n a d i a n d i v o r c e c o u r t s , p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e y h a v e l i v e d i n C a n a d a f o r a r e a s o n a b l e p e r i o d o f t i m e . 2 . To r e l y o n r e s i d e n c e a l o n e f o r t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f m a t r i m o n i a l p r o -c e e d i n g s m i g h t l e a d t o d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e r e c o g n i t i o n a b r o a d o f C a n a d i a n d i v o r c e s . T h i s a g a i n w o u l d b e t r u e i f n o s p e c i f i c p e r i o d o f o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e w e r e r e q u i r e d . A s m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o s e c u r e r e c o g n i t i o n f o r 7 a l l d i v o r c e s . I n 1 9 6 7 m o s t c o m m o n w e a l t h c o u n t r i e s r e c o g n i z e d d i v o r c e s o n 8 t h e b a s i s o f d o m i c i l e a n d a r e s i d e n c e p r o v i s i o n m i g h t h a v e l e d t o s u c h r e c o g n i t i o n p r o b l e m s a t t h a t t i m e . T h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e t o d a y - - E n g l i s h - 13 -9 statutory r u les for recognition are more relaxed, the same i s true i n 10 A u s t r a l i a and other countries may adopt a recognition test based on a " r e a l and s u b s t a n t i a l connection" with the j u r i s d i c t i o n granting the 11 divorce. The concept of domicile i s also a l i e n to many c i v i l law countries 12 which base recognition on n a t i o n a l i t y or residence or both. The current grounds for j u r i s d i c t i o n i n divorce are set out i n s. 5(1) 13 of the Divorce Act: 5(1) The court for any province has j u r i s d i c t i o n to e n t e r t a i n a p e t i t i o n for divorce and to grant r e l i e f i n respect thereof i f , (a) the p e t i t i o n i s presented by a person domiciled i n Canada; and (b) e i t h e r the p e t i t i o n e r or the respondent has been o r d i n a r i l y resident i n that province for a period of at l e a s t one year immediately preceding the presentation of the p e t i t i o n and has a c t u a l l y resided i n that province for at least ten months of that period. Thus, the Divorce Act retains domicile as an e s s e n t i a l prerequisite to j u r i s d i c t i o n but the concept of p r o v i n c i a l domicile has been replaced by a n a t i o n a l or Canadian domicile. I t should be noted that s. 5(1) contains two concurrent j u r i s d i c t i o n a l requirements. The p e t i t i o n e r must not only be domiciled i n Canada but also must s a t i s f y the provisions of s. 5(1)(b) r e l a t i n g to residence. Presumably Parliament when enacting s. 5(1)(a) sought to introduce a less r i g i d connecting factor and, by way of s. 5(1)(b), sought to ensure a reasonable connection 14 between province and party to the a c t i o n . The Special Committee on Divorce f e l t that a one year residence requirement would prevent forum shopping - 14 -within Canada or choice of a province on the basis of i t s inconvenience to the respondent. C l e a r l y , these are very legitimate concerns i n such a 15 vast country and i t i s submitted that some preventive measures are indeed necessary i f there i s to be a federal domicile. (1) AN ANALYSIS OF SECTION 5(1)(a) The court has j u r i s d i c t i o n only i f the p e t i t i o n i s presented by a 16 person domiciled i n Canada. A p e t i t i o n i s "presented" when f i l e d . The p e t i t i o n e r must be domiciled i n Canada when the p e t i t i o n i s f i l e d , and cannot invoke j u r i s d i c t i o n on the basis of the respondent's domicile i n 17 Canada. There seems to be no j u s t i f i c a t i o n for t h i s the domicile of the p e t i t i o n e r or the respondent ought to s u f f i c e . Allowing a p e t i t i o n on the basis of the respondent's domicile m i l i t a t e s against forum shopping or choice of an inconvenient forum by the p e t i t i o n e r . Indeed, these undesirable consequences are more l i k e l y i f j u r i s d i c t i o n i s based s o l e l y on the p e t i t i o n e r ' s domicile, (a) "Domiciled i n Canada" The concept of Canadian domicile has been used before i n the Immigration 18 Act, but the concept as defined i n that act i s r e s t r i c t e d to matters of 19 immigration law. The Special Committee on Divorce i n i t s recommendations proposed a 20 d e f i n i t i o n of "Canadian domicile". I t suggested that a person should have a Canadian domicile i f he or she, i n accordance with e x i s t i n g rules of private i n t e r n a t i o n a l law, was domiciled i n any province of Canada. One may speculate as to why t h i s recommendation was not implemented. I t i s possible that Parliament thought the d e f i n i t i o n was redundant — that - 15 -i n t h e a b s e n c e o f e x p r e s s p r o v i s i o n t h e common l a w r u l e s w o u l d a p p l y , a n d 2 1 t h e s e o f c o u r s e r e f e r t o p r o v i n c i a l d o m i c i l e . I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n a l r u l e s w o u l d b e r e l a x e d o n l y f o r p e o p l e a l r e a d y d o m i c i l e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r p r o v i n c e ; f o r e x a m p l e , X , d o m i c i l e d i n O n t a r i o , c o u l d p e t i t i o n t h e c o u r t s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i f h e s a t i s f i e d t h e r e s i d e n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t P a r l i a m e n t d i d n o t t h i n k i t s h o u l d b e n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v e d o m i c i l e i n t h e p r o v i n c e i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h d o m i c i l e i n C a n a d a ; i n o t h e r w o r d s , t h a t i t s h o u l d o n l y b e n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v e d o m i c i l e i n t h e n a t i o n a l u n i t o f C a n a d a . T h i s i s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a d o p t e d b y t h e c o u r t s . T h e c a s e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e common l a w r u l e s a p p l y t o d e t e r m i n e 22 d o m i c i l e i n C a n a d a , b u t t h a t t h e p r i n c i p l e s d e v e l o p e d i n r e l a t i o n t o 23 p r o v i n c i a l d o m i c i l e a r e n o w t o b e a p p l i e d t o t h e n a t i o n a l u n i t o f C a n a d a . T h e o v e r a l l e f f e c t o f s . 5 ( 1 ) ( a ) i s t o r e l a x t h e t e s t f o r j u r i s d i c t i o n , s i n c e i t i s e a s i e r i n some i n s t a n c e s t o p r o v e d o m i c i l e i n C a n a d a a s a w h o l e 2 4 t h a n d o m i c i l e i n a p r o v i n c e . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n G e l d a r t v G e l d a r t a w i f e came t o C a n a d a , i n t e n d i n g t o f o l l o w h e r h u s b a n d i n h i s e m p l o y m e n t w h e r e v e r i t t o o k h i m i n C a n a d a . She w a s f o u n d t o h a v e a C a n a d i a n d o m i c i l e o f c h o i c e , e v e n t h o u g h s h e h a d n o s p e c i f i c i n t e n t i o n t o r e m a i n p e r m a n e n t l y i n N o v a S c o t i a , t h e p r o v i n c e i n w h i c h s h e p r e s e n t e d t h e p e t i t i o n . H o w e v e r , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e w i f e ' s d e p e n d e n t d o m i c i l e , t h e d r a w b a c k s o f t h e common l a w c o n c e p t o f d o m i c i l e r e m a i n . A p e r s o n w i s h i n g t o p e t i t i o n t h e c o u r t s m u s t p r o v e d o m i c i l e , a l b e i t C a n a d i a n , a n d s o i s s t i l l s u b j e c t t o t h e d o c t r i n e o f r e v i v a l a n d t e n a c i t y o f t h e d o m i c i l e o f 25 o r i g i n . T h e o n u s o f p r o o f c o n t i n u e s t o r e s t o n t h e p e r s o n a l l e g i n g a 2 6 c h a n g e o f d o m i c i l e . - 16 -I t i s h i g h l y i n c o n v e n i e n t t h a t i n t e n t i o n t o r e s i d e p e r m a n e n t l y o r 27 i n d e f i n i t e l y r e m a i n s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r d i v o r c e j u r i s d i c t i o n . P e o p l e w h o h a v e b e e n r e s i d e n t i n C a n a d a f o r a r e a s o n a b l e a m o u n t o f t i m e m a y b e 2 8 d e n i e d t h e r i g h t t o p e t i t i o n t h e C a n a d i a n c o u r t s f o r a d i v o r c e . I n 2 9 A r m s t r o n g v A r m s t r o n g a p r o f e s s o r w i t h f o u r y e a r s r e s i d e n c e i n O n t a r i o w a s u n a b l e t o p e t i t i o n f o r d i v o r c e b e c a u s e h e t h o u g h t h e w o u l d b e r e t u r n i n g t o A u s t r a l i a t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . A l s o , i f A u s t r a l i a h a d a t e s t f o r j u r i s -d i c t i o n s i m i l a r t o C a n a d a , i . e . d o m i c i l e a n d r e s i d e n c e i m m e d i a t e l y p r i o r t o p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e p e t i t i o n , t h e p r o f e s s o r i n t h e A r m s t r o n g c a s e w o u l d h a v e b e e n w i t h o u t a f o r u m i n w h i c h t o p e t i t i o n u n t i l he s a t i s f i e d t h e A u s t r a l i a n r e s i d e n c e t e s t . O b v i o u s l y , t h i s d o e s n o t r e c o m m e n d t h e C a n a d i a n t e s t . ( b ) C a p a c i t y t o a c q u i r e a C a n a d i a n d o m i c i l e A f u r t h e r p r o b l e m a r i s e s i n t h i s c o n t e x t w i t h r e g a r d t o c a p a c i t y t o a c q u i r e a C a n a d i a n d o m i c i l e . A t common l a w a m i n o r , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f f e m a l e m a r r i e d m i n o r s , d o e s n o t h a v e t h e c a p a c i t y t o a c q u i r e a d o m i c i l e o f 3 0 c h o i c e u n t i l h e r e a c h e s m a j o r i t y ( a t t w e n t y - o n e y e a r s o f a g e ) . B u t t h e a g e o f m a j o r i t y n o w v a r i e s f r o m p r o v i n c e t o p r o v i n c e a s a r e s u l t o f p r o v i n c i a l 3 1 l e g i s l a t i o n . D o e s t h i s m e a n t h a t c a p a c i t y t o a c q u i r e a C a n a d i a n d o m i c i l e f o r d i v o r c e p u r p o s e s w i l l d e p e n d o n t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n ? O r w i l l t h e common l a w a g e o f m a j o r i t y p r e v a i l i n m a t t e r s o f f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n ? 3 2 M e n d e s Da C o s t a i s i n f a v o u r o f t h e l a t t e r a p p r o a c h s i n c e i t c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e D i v o r c e A c t , n a m e l y , u n i f o r m i t y o f C a n a d i a n d i v o r c e l a w s . T h i s seems r e a s o n a b l e , b u t i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e i s s u e h a s y e t t o b e d e t e r m i n e d j u d i c i a l l y a n d t h i s g i v e s r i s e t o some u n c e r t a i n t y . - 17 -( 2 ) AN A N A L Y S I S OF SECTION 5 ( 1 ) ( b ) T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s e x p o s i t i o n i s t o r e v i e w t h e c o u r t s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n d a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e r e s i d e n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r j u r i s d i c t i o n u n d e r s . 5 ( 1 ) ( b ) o f t h e D i v o r c e A c t . T h e c o n c u r r e n t r e q u i r e m e n t o f d o m i c i l e i n C a n a d a u n d e r 33 s . 5 ( 1 ) ( a ) h a s a l r e a d y b e e n a n a l y z e d . I n t h e c a s e s t o f o l l o w , t h e c e n t r a l t h e m e h a s b e e n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s . 5 ( 1 ) ( b ) ; q u e s t i o n s a s t o t h e p e t i t i o n e r ' s d o m i c i l e w e r e e i t h e r n o t i n i s s u e o r n o t r a i s e d . T h e r e s i d e n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e : 5 ( 1 ) T h e c o u r t f o r a n y p r o v i n c e h a s j u r i s d i c t i o n t o e n t e r t a i n a p e t i t i o n f o r d i v o r c e a n d t o g r a n t r e l i e f i n r e s p e c t t h e r e o f i f , ( b ) e i t h e r t h e p e t i t i o n e r o r t h e r e s p o n d e n t h a s b e e n o r d i n a r i l y r e s i d e n t i n t h a t p r o v i n c e f o r a p e r i o d o f a t l e a s t o n e y e a r i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g t h e p r e s e n -t a t i o n o f t h e p e t i t i o n a n d h a s a c t u a l l y r e s i d e d i n t h a t p r o v i n c e f o r a t l e a s t t e n m o n t h s o f t h a t p e r i o d . 3 4 F i r s t , some p r e l i m i n a r y p o i n t s s h o u l d b e o u t l i n e d . U n l i k e s . 5 ( 1 ) ( a ) , t h e p e t i t i o n e r o r t h e r e s p o n d e n t m a y s a t i s f y t h e r e s i d e n c e p r o v i s i o n s o f 35 s . 5 ( l ) ( b ) . I f t h e p a r t i e s a r e u n a b l e t o c o m p l y w i t h s . 5 ( 1 ) n o c o u r t i n 3 6 C a n a d a h a s j u r i s d i c t i o n t o h e a r t h e p e t i t i o n . S e c t i o n 5 ( 1 ) ( b ) i n v o l v e s t w o c o n c e p t s , n a m e l y ' o r d i n a r y ' a n d ' a c t u a l ' r e s i d e n c e , a n d t h e s e w o r d s a r e n o t d e f i n e d i n t h e a c t . I t seems t h a t a p e r s o n m a y b e ' o r d i n a r i l y ' r e s i d e n t i n a p r o v i n c e w i t h o u t ' a c t u a l l y ' r e s i d i n g t h e r e 37 f o r t h e w h o l e p e r i o d , i . e . t h a t t h e s e w o r d s a r e n o t c o - t e r m i n o u s . I n r e s p e c t o f b o t h a c t u a l a n d o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o b e a r i n m i n d t h e q u a l i t y o f r e s i d e n c e r e q u i r e d a n d t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e p r e s c r i b e d p e r i o d o f t i m e d u r i n g w h i c h s u c h r e s i d e n c e m u s t e x i s t . A n a t t e m p t w i l l b e made t o p r o v e t h a t s . 5 ( 1 ) ( b ) i s b a d l y d r a f t e d a n d - 18 -u n n e c e s s a r i l y c o m p l e x ; t h a t t h e c o u r t s h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t y i n i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; a n d t h a t t h e s u b s e c t i o n i s i n c o n v e n i e n t i n i t s g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n . I n some i n s t a n c e s t h e r e s i d e n c e p r o v i s i o n s o f s . 5 ( 1 ) ( b ) , c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e d o m i c i l e t e s t o f s . 5 ( 1 ) ( a ) , p r o d u c e a f a r h a r s h e r r e s u l t t h a n t h e o r i g i n a l t e s t o f d o m i c i l e i n a p r o v i n c e o f C a n a d a . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , a n d i n o r d e r t o c o m p l y w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e s o u t l i n e d i n t h e b e g i n n i n g 38 o f t h i s p a r t , i t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t m o r e r e l a x e d j u r i s d i c t i o n a l r u l e s a r e w a r r a n t e d . I n v i e w o f t h e i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e c a s e l a w , t h e c o n c e p t o f ' o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e ' w i l l b e a n a l y z e d i n d e p t h . T h i s w i l l b e f o l l o w e d b y a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e ' a c t u a l r e s i d e n c e ' r e q u i r e m e n t a n d , f i n a l l y , a g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e c u r r e n t C a n a d i a n t e s t s , ( a ) O r d i n a r y R e s i d e n c e ( i ) N a t u r e o f " O r d i n a r y R e s i d e n c e " T h e r e i s a m a r k e d d i v i s i o n i n t h e c o u r t s ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f ' o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e 1 . I n some c a s e s , t h e c o u r t s h a v e b e e n p r e p a r e d t o c o n s t r u e t h e s e w o r d s f a i r l y l i b e r a l l y . I n o t h e r s , a v e r y n a r r o w i n t e r p r e t a t i o n h a s p r e v a i l e d , w h e r e b y ' o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e ' h a s b e e n l i k e n e d t o ' p h y s i c a l p r e s e n c e 1 . ( i i ) L i b e r a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 3 9 I n H a r d y v H a r d y t h e r e l e v a n t f a c t s w e r e t h a t t h e p e t i t i o n e r , a C a p t a i n i n t h e C a n a d i a n A r m y , w a s b o r n i n O n t a r i o , l i v e d c o n t i n u o u s l y i n O n t a r i o u n t i l h e j o i n e d t h e a r m y i n 1 9 4 8 , a n d s p e n t h i s p e r i o d s o f l e a v e a t h i s p a r e n t s ' h o u s e i n S a r n i a , O n t a r i o . H i s a r m y r e c o r d s w e r e k e p t i n O n t a r i o a n d a p p a r e n t l y h e i n t e n d e d t o r e t u r n t o O n t a r i o o n l e a v i n g t h e a r m y . D u r i n g h i s a r m y s e r v i c e t h e p e t i t i o n e r h a d b e e n p o s t e d a b r o a d a n d i n C a n a d a . T h e t e s t u s e d b y H o u l d e n J . i n f i n d i n g t h e p e t i t i o n e r o r d i n a r i l y - 19 -4 0 r e s i d e n t i n O n t a r i o , w a s d e r i v e d f r o m a n E n g l i s h c a s e . He a s k e d t h e q u e s t i o n : " W h e r e d i d t h i s p e t i t i o n e r , r e g u l a r l y , n o r m a l l y o r c u s t o m a r i l y l i v e i n t h e y e a r p r e c e d i n g t h e f i l i n g o f t h e p e t i t i o n ? " T h i s q u a l i t a t i v e 4 1 t e s t h a s b e e n a p p r o v e d i n some o f t h e s u b s e q u e n t c a s e s . I t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h i s i s t h e c o r r e c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n d i t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t s u c h a t e s t d o e s n o t p r e c l u d e , t h e o r e t i c a l l y a t a n y r a t e , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f m u l t i p l e o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e . I f t h i s w e r e p o s s i b l e , t h e n a C a n a d i a n d o m i c i l i a r y who o r d i n a r i l y l i v e s i n a p r o v i n c e o f C a n a d a m a y h a v e a c c e s s t o t h e d i v o r c e c o u r t o f t h a t p r o v i n c e , d e s p i t e h i s o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e e l s e w h e r e d u r i n g some p a r t o f t h e y e a r i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e p e t i t i o n . A n e x a m p l e o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n w o u l d b e a w e a l t h y o r r e t i r e d p e r s o n w h o r e g u l a r l y s p e n d s t h e s u m m e r t i m e a t h i s r e s i d e n c e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d t h e w i n t e r t i m e a t h i s r e s i d e n c e i n H a w a i i . 4 2 I n M a r s e l l u s v M a r s e l l u s A i k i n s J. h e l d t h a t a p e r s o n o r d i n a r i l y r e s i d e n t i n o n e p r o v i n c e m a y l e a v e t h a t p r o v i n c e , a n d a c t u a l l y r e s i d e e l s e -w h e r e f o r " s p e c i a l p u r p o s e s " , a n d y e t c o n t i n u e t o b e o r d i n a r i l y r e s i d e n t i n 4 3 s u c h p r o v i n c e . T h e c o u r t a p p l i e d t h e " r e a l h o m e " t e s t a n d f o u n d t h a t t h e p e t i t i o n e r , a m e m b e r o f t h e C a n a d i a n A r m y , b e c a m e o r d i n a r i l y r e s i d e n t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1 9 6 0 . H i s o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e w a s n o t l o s t o r i n t e r r u p t e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t he w a s p o s t e d t o G e r m a n y f o r o v e r t h r e e y e a r s b e t w e e n 1 9 6 6 4 4 a n d 1 9 6 9 . T h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e p e t i t i o n e r m a y h a v e h a d t w o o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e s 4 5 w a s n o t c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e M a r s e l l u s c a s e . I t w o u l d s e e m t o b e s t r a i n i n g t h e m e a n i n g o f ' o r d i n a r y ' t o s a y t h a t d u r i n g t h e t i m e w h e n t h e p e t i t i o n e r w a s i n G e r m a n y h e w a s n o t a l s o o r d i n a r i l y r e s i d e n t t h e r e , e s p e c i a l l y i f h i s p o s t i n g a t t h a t s t a g e w a s f o r a n u n l i m i t e d p e r i o d . T h i s d o e s n o t m e a n t o s a y t h a t t h e - 20 -p e t i t i o n e r i n the circumstances of the Marsellus case should not be found o r d i n a r i l y resident i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The matrimonial home was situated i n B r i t i s h Columbia and the p e t i t i o n e r returned to t h i s province when he l e f t Germany. The concept of absence for " s p e c i a l purposes" employed by Aikins J., 46 which has been said to be " u s e f u l " appears to be a superfluous l e g a l refinement i f ordinary residence i s to be given a l i b e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 47 Rand J., i n a Supreme Court of Canada decision, said i t was impossible 48 to give the term " r e s i d i n g " a "precise and i n c l u s i v e d e f i n i t i o n " . He went 49 on to say: "The expression 'ordinary residence' c a r r i e s a r e s t r i c t e d s i g n i f i c a t i o n and although the f i r s t impression seems to be that of preponderance i n time, the d e c i s i o n s ^ o n the E n g l i s h A c t ^ l r e j e c t that view. I t i s held to mean residence i n the customary mode of l i f e of the person concerned, and i t i s contrasted with s p e c i a l or occasional or casual residence. The general mode of l i f e i s therefore relevant to a question of i t s application."52 53 The facts reported i n Lotoski v Lotoski are inadequate for constructive c r i t i c i s m . The divorce p e t i t i o n was presented on October 3rd, 1968, and the evidence was that the p e t i t i o n e r separated from her husband i n 1956, and i n 1960 commenced l i v i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia with another man, as his wife, and remained i n that s i t u a t i o n u n t i l 1963. The man was transferred to Montreal i n the course of his employment. He and the p e t i t i o n e r l i v e d together i n Montreal between 1963 and February 1968, when they both returned to B r i t i s h Columbia, where they were a c t u a l l y resident u n t i l presentation of the p e t i t i o n . Macdonald J., of the Supreme Court of B r i t i s h Columbia, gave no reasons for his decision that the p e t i t i o n e r was not o r d i n a r i l y resident i n B r i t i s h Columbia for at least one year immediately preceding the f i l i n g of - 21 the p e t i t i o n . The p e t i t i o n e r ' s residence p r i o r to 1960 was not d i s c l o s e d . Let us assume for a moment that she had been resident i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r twenty years p r i o r to 1960. Should the fact that her "husband" was transferred to Montreal operate to terminate her ordinary residence i n B r i t i s h Columbia? I t i s thought not, and to hold otherwise would be con-54 55 tr a r y to the decisions i n the Hardy and Marsellus cases. I f , however, the p e t i t i o n e r did not l i v e i n B r i t i s h Columbia at a l l u n t i l 1960, prima f a c i e , i t i s reasonable that three years residence i n B r i t i s h Columbia between 1960 and 1963 should not be s u f f i c i e n t for j u r i s -d i c t i o n to be assumed i n 1968. But i f for example, the p e t i t i o n e r maintained a residence i n B r i t i s h Columbia during the years she was absent, the facts 56 would resemble those i n the Marsellus case, i n which the p e t i t i o n e r was found to be o r d i n a r i l y resident i n B r i t i s h Columbia from 1960 onwards. 57 The d e c i s i o n i n Zoldester v Zoldester i s consistent with the Marsellus and Hardy cases and with the proposition that "ordinary residence" i s d i f f e r e n t from residence s i m p l i c i t e r or phys i c a l presence. I t was held that the wife p e t i t i o n e r remained o r d i n a r i l y resident i n B r i t i s h Columbia despite the fact that her husband, a foreign government o f f i c i a l , was posted to India and she l i v e d there with him for one month during the year immediately preceding the presentation of the p e t i t i o n . However, Hutcheon Co. Ct. J . appears to make two questionable assumptions. 58 F i r s t l y , he s a i d , "I am s a t i s f i e d , however, that i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case anyone i n the circumstances of t h i s p e t i t i o n e r , i f asked during February, 1973 (the month during which she was i n India) where she was o r d i n a r i l y resident, would have given B r i t i s h Columbia as the answer." The p e t i t i o n e r - 22 -was a newlywed who honeymooned in Europe and arrived in Bombay, India to start her married l i f e . During February, the petitioner and respondent were livi n g i n hotels, waiting for their apartment i n Bombay to become ready. It is equally l i k e l y that the petitioner would have given India as the answer, or no answer at a l l . Secondly, the court failed to consider whether or not the petitioner's domicile in Canada was affected by the move to India. 59 Doucet v Doucet also gives a lib e r a l interpretation to the quality of ordinary residence required. A United Nations employee, who was posted abroad for many years, was held s t i l l ordinarily resident in Ontario. Factors taken into account were that he spent holidays in Ottawa, had a room in a friend's house which was kept for his use only, and intended, on leaving the United Nations, to return to Ottawa. 60 In Zawatsky v Zawatsky the parties were born and lived their whole l i f e i n Saskatchewan. In an attempt to save their marriage, the parties spent slightly less than four months i n British Columbia during the year preceding the presentation of a divorce petition in Saskatchewan. Macleod J. ignored s. 5(1)(b) and simply stated that where parties were domiciled in Saskatchewan, and ordinarily resident there, a "sojourn" of that length of time in another province on a t r i a l basis was not sufficient to deprive the court of j u r i s -diction. It is submitted that the court was clearly wrong in f a i l i n g to consider the existing statutory provisions. Nevertheless, had the court given f u l l consideration to the "ordinary" and "actual" residence requirements of s. 5(1)(b), the result may have been highly inconvenient. Saskatchewan domiciliaries, who had spent their lifetime in that province, may have been - 23 -denied immediate access to the Saskatchewan divorce courts as a r e s u l t of four months' absence from the province. Had t h i s been the case, s. 5(1) would have represented a more stringent test than that of p r o v i n c i a l domicile, ( i i i ) Narrow Interpretation The divergence i n the courts' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of "ordinary residence" for the purposes of s. 5(1) (b) seems to stem from the decisions of McLellan Co. Ct. J. of the Supreme Court of Nova Sc o t i a . For instance, the decision i n 61 Cullen v Cullen i s inconsistent with the " r e a l home" tes t used i n the 62 63 Hardy case. In Cullen, both p e t i t i o n e r and respondent were born and r a i s e d i n Nova Scotia, and the p e t i t i o n e r had been resident i n Nova Scotia a l l her l i f e . The husband respondent l e f t Nova Scotia to look for work i n Ontario and the wife p e t i t i o n e r subsequently decided not to j o i n him, but to j o i n her lover i n Vancouver. She sold her f u r n i t u r e , paid o f f debts, and an apartment was secured i n Vancouver. The p e t i t i o n e r boarded the plane for Vancouver three days before the p e t i t i o n f o r divorce was f i l e d . McLellan Co. Ct. J. found that the p e t i t i o n e r ceased to be o r d i n a r i l y resident i n Nova Scotia when she boarded the plane. But, i f asked the question, "Where did the p e t i t i o n e r r e g u l a r l y , customarily or o r d i n a r i l y l i v e during the year preceding the presentation of the p e t i t i o n ? " , surely the answer i n the Cullen case should have been Nova Sco t i a . 64 McLellan Co. Ct. J., however, followed Macrae v Macrae i n which 65 Somervell L.J. said: "Ordinary residence i s a thing which can be changed i n a day. A man i s o r d i n a r i l y resident i n one place up t i l l a p a r t i c u l a r day. He then cuts the connection he has with that place - i n t h i s case he l e f t his wife; i n another case he might have disposed of h i s house -and makes arrangements to have his home somewhere e l s e . - 24 -Where there are indi c a t i o n s that the place to which he moves i s the place which he intends to make his home f o r , at any rate, an i n d e f i n i t e period, as from that date he i s o r d i n a r i l y resident at that place." The facts i n the l a t t e r case are patently d i f f e r e n t from those i n the 66 67 Cullen case. In the Macrae case, the court found the husband to be o r d i n a r i l y resident i n his parents' home i n Scotland at the material time, which was the time when the summons was served - some time a f t e r the husband had l e f t England and moved to Scotland. The court took into account facts occurring a f t e r the move to Scotland i n determining that he was no longer o r d i n a r i l y resident i n England. These included a l e t t e r received by the wife around the time the summons was served, and a written statement by the husband s t a t i n g that he had taken up employment i n Inverness and intended s e t t l i n g there. In the l e t t e r , the husband said: "I am w r i t i n g to l e t you know that I have decided to have my home i n Inverness. I have got a home....I w i l l add a s c u l l e r y and one or two things onto i t . . . . also I s h a l l be running the garden....and I s h a l l have a place I can c a l l my own...." On the other hand, i n the Cullen case, the wife rather whimsically, i t would appear, l e f t her home province i n the face of mounting debts to be near her lover. I t i s submitted that although ordinary residence "can" be changed i n a day, th i s does not mean to say that ordinary residence must, of necessity, 68 always change overnight. 69 A further observation i s that i n the Cullen case, had the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l requirement been domicile within a province, the wife p e t i t i o n e r most probably would have s a t i s f i e d the t e s t . I t i s conceivable that the wife acquired a domicile of choice i n B r i t i s h Columbia when she arri v e d there, but i t would seem more probable that she retained her domicile i n Nova Scotia, i n view of - 25 -the f a c t that she was born, r a i s e d and l i v e d almost a l l her l i f e i n Nova Scot i a . In 1970, McLellan Co. Ct. J . , of the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia, 70 decided his second reported case on s. 5 ( l ) ( b ) , namely Nowlan v Nowlan. The facts were that the p e t i t i o n e r was born and rai s e d i n Nova Scotia and l i v e d there u n t i l her marriage i n 1959. The respondent was a member of the Canadian armed forces and he and the p e t i t i o n e r subsequently spent two and a h a l f years i n Germany. On t h e i r return to Canada they separated and the p e t i t i o n e r spent s i x months i n Nova Scotia at the home of her grand-mother. In 1963 she returned to her husband who was stationed i n New Brunswick. In 1966 the p e t i t i o n e r again l e f t the respondent and l i v e d for three or four months i n Nova Scotia with her mother and remained i n Nova Scotia for 16 months. In October 1968 the wife resumed cohabitation with her hus-band i n New Brunswick on the understanding that i f things did not work out there would be a divorce. At Easter, 1969, the p e t i t i o n e r returned to Nova Scotia for ten days to make arrangements to l i v e with her mother a f t e r the end of the children's school year i n New Brunswick. She then l e f t the respondent i n mid-July 1969, returned to Nova Scotia, and f i l e d a divorce p e t i t i o n less than one year l a t e r , on the 11th df June, 1970. It was held that the p e t i t i o n e r was not o r d i n a r i l y resident i n Nova Scotia f o r the prescribed period under s. 5 ( l ) ( b ) . McLellan Co. Ct. J . , 71 72 made no reference to the Hardy or Marsellus cases nor to the English 73 case, Stransky v Stransky. The Judge implied c l e a r l y that he thought "ordinary residence" meant l i t t l e more than residence s i m p l i c i t e r , but that 74 i t could be contrasted with extraordinary residence. Two Engli s h cases 75 were r e l i e d upon for th i s proposition. In one of those cases i t was held - 26-that a wife p e t i t i o n e r , while p h y s i c a l l y present i n Canada, was also 76 o r d i n a r i l y resident there. I f t h i s view i s taken for the purposes of s. 5 ( l ) ( b ) , then "ordinary residence" means "actual residence" and the section i s absurd. There i s far greater support for the opposite conclusion, that 77 ordinary residence and residence or actual residence are not co-terminous. 78 I t i s submitted that the reasoning i n Stransky v Stransky i s cor r e c t , 79 where Karminski J . said the use of the words 'resident' and ' o r d i n a r i l y 80 resident' i n the relevant English statute was neither meaningless nor ac c i d e n t a l . In the Stransky case, a wife, who was p h y s i c a l l y absent for f i f t e e n out of t h i r t y - s i x months, owing to her husband's job, was s t i l l o r d i n a r i l y resident i n England during the whole period. 81 The court i n Nowlan v Nowlan rejected the argument that i n t e n t i o n to return to Nova Scotia from the time of the p e t i t i o n e r ' s ten day v i s i t at Easter made her o r d i n a r i l y resident i n Nova Scotia from that date. It was said that i n t e n t i o n i s not the "main c r i t e r i o n " i n determining residence. Of course, the emphasis on i n t e n t i o n i s greater i n cases concerning domicile than those in v o l v i n g ordinary residence. Nevertheless, i f a l l the circum-stances of the case are to be considered, surely i n t e n t i o n must be relevant. McLellan Co. Ct. J . i n the Nowlan case d i d not appear to consider a l l the circumstances, but merely attached the l a b e l " e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y resident" to the p e t i t i o n e r ' s stay i n Nova Scotia at Easter, 1969. Between July 1967 and 11th June 1970, the p e t i t i o n e r had, i n f a c t , spent most of her time i n Nova Sc o t i a . Had the court taken t h i s f a c t into account, the p e t i t i o n e r ' s i n t e n t i o n to return to Nova Scotia as of Easter 1969 may have been an a d d i t i o n a l factor i n determining ordinary residence, but surely not the - 27 -"main c r i t e r i o n " . The Nowlan case i s also an i l l u s t r a t i o n of unwarranted inconvenience 82 which could be avoided i f the domicile test alone were s u f f i c i e n t . 83 The facts i n G i r a r d i n v G i r a r d i n were that the p e t i t i o n e r , who was born i n Ontario, moved to Saskatchewan i n 1954 and l i v e d there continuously u n t i l 1969 when her husband was transferred, i n the course of employment, to Nova Sc o t i a . The p e t i t i o n e r returned to Saskatchewan for v i s i t s during the time she l i v e d i n Nova Scotia, and returned to l i v e i n Saskatchewan i n 1972, j u s t over ten months p r i o r to presentation of the p e t i t i o n . The court 84 85 86 87 r e f e r r e d to the Macrae, Cullen, Nowlan, and Hopkins cases, a l l of which emphasize the requirement of p h y s i c a l presence for ordinary residence. I t was held that the "home base" of the p e t i t i o n e r between 1969 and 1972 was Nova Scotia and therefore the p e t i t i o n e r was o r d i n a r i l y resident there for that period. The p o s s i b i l i t y of two ordinary residences was not considered. Thus, i t was held that the p e t i t i o n e r was o r d i n a r i l y resident i n Saskatchewan for only ten months or so immediately preceding the presentation of the p e t i t i o n and therefore did not s a t i s f y the requirements of s. 5(1)(b). The r e s u l t of the "McLellan i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " i n this case i s again most inconvenient. A person with sixteen years residence i n Saskatchewan was refused immediate access to the divorce courts, whereas i t i s quite l i k e l y that the p e t i t i o n e r would have s a t i s f i e d the common law test of p r o v i n c i a l domicile. 88 Robichaud v Robichaud can be contrasted with the Zawatsky case which was considered under the heading of l i b e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The p e t i t i o n e r i n the former case had l i v e d continuously i n New Brunswick u n t i l 1972, when she went to Ontario i n an attempt to r e c o n c i l e her marriage. She returned - 28 -to New Brunswick i n A p r i l , 1973, a date less than one year p r i o r to 89 presentation of the p e t i t i o n . Stevenson J . followed Nowlan v Nowlan and found that the p e t i t i o n e r , while i n Ontario, was o r d i n a r i l y resident there. But he also said there was nothing i n the p e t i t i o n e r ' s testimony to suggest that she had two residences, before finding that she had not been o r d i n a r i l y resident i n New Brunswick for at least one year immediately preceding the presentation of the p e t i t i o n . 90 MacPherson v MacPherson i s a f a i r l y recent d e c i s i o n of the Ontario Court of Appeal. The p e t i t i o n e r , a native of Ontario, spent three months i n Nova Scotia i n 1969 and l i v e d there for approximately f i v e months i n the year immediately preceding the f i l i n g of the p e t i t i o n . The r e s t of her time was spent i n Ontario. The p e t i t i o n e r was found not to have been o r d i n a r i l y resident i n Ontario for at l e a s t one year immediately preceding the f i l i n g 91 of the p e t i t i o n and the appeal was allowed. Evans, J.A. quoted extensively 92 from previous a u t h o r i t i e s and s a i d , "In my opinion, the a r r i v a l of a per-son i n a new l o c a l i t y with the i n t e n t i o n of making a home i n that l o c a l i t y for an i n d e f i n i t e period makes that person o r d i n a r i l y resident i n that community....1 do not believe that i n t e n t i o n alone can determine the issue of ordinary residence". The court then refused to take into account the p e t i t i o n e r ' s alleged i n t e n t i o n to return to Ontario during the time she spent i n Nova S c o t i a . The i m p l i c a t i o n i s that more weight i s to be given to an i n t e n t i o n to remain i n a given province than to an i n t e n t i o n to return to another. This seems somewhat i l l o g i c a l and u n j u s t i f i e d . Furthermore, i t i s 93 inconsistent with the reasoning i n the Hardy and Doucet cases. In the l a t t e r case e s p e c i a l l y , i n t e n t i o n to return to Ottawa was considered relevant to e s t a b l i s h that the p e t i t i o n e r ' s ordinary residence i n Ontario had not been - 29 -l o s t o r i n t e r r u p t e d . E v a n s J . A . s p o k e o f " i n t i m a t e c o m m u n i t y t i e s " w i t h N o v a S c o t i a , b u t d o e s n o t s t a t e w h a t t h e s e w e r e o r t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e 9 4 p e t i t i o n e r w a s o n l y t h e r e f o r a b o u t f i v e m o n t h s . A l s o , g i v e n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p e t i t i o n e r w a s o r d i n a r i l y r e s i d e n t i n N o v a S c o t i a , t h e c o u r t d i d n o t c o n s i d e r w h e t h e r o r n o t s h e c o u l d b e s a i d t o h a v e t w o o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e s . T h e p e t i t i o n e r i n t h e M a c P h e r s o n c a s e m o s t p r o b a b l y w o u l d h a v e s a t i s -f i e d t h e common l a w d o m i c i l e t e s t . T h i s i s y e t a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f a h a r s h r e s u l t p r o d u c e d b y t h e c o n c u r r e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s o f s . 5 ( 1 ) . P e r h a p s t h e s t r i k i n g d i v e r g e n c e i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f " o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e " o u t l i n e d a b o v e i s i n p a r t t h e r e s u l t o f l a c k o f d e f i n i t i o n o f w h e t h e r o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e i s t o b e d e t e r m i n e d b y r e f e r e n c e t o : ( a ) g e n e r a l l y a l l t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e c a s e o r ( b ) g e n e r a l l y t h e 12 m o n t h s p r e c e d i n g t h e f i l i n g o f t h e p e t i t i o n o r ( c ) t h e d a y o n w h i c h t h e p e t i t i o n i s f i l e d a n d t h e r e a f t e r t h e 12 m o n t h s p r e c e d i n g t h e f i l i n g o f t h e p e t i t i o n . T h i s c o m m e n t i s , o f c o u r s e , e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e w h e n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e , ( i v ) T h e P e r i o d o f O r d i n a r y R e s i d e n c e T h e p e r i o d o f o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e r e q u i r e d u n d e r s . 5 ( 1 ) ( b ) i s " a t l e a s t o n e y e a r i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e p e t i t i o n " . H o w e v e r , w h e n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e , t h e c o u r t i s n o t l i m i t e d 95 t o t h e y e a r i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g t h e p e t i t i o n . T h u s , i n Wood v Wood t h e p e t i t i o n e r w a s f o u n d t o h a v e b e e n o r d i n a r i l y r e s i d e n t i n M a n i t o b a f o r n i n e t e e n y e a r s . T h i s i n t u r n h a s a n e f f e c t o n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e p e r i o d o f " a c t u a l r e s i d e n c e " , w h i c h i s d i s c u s s e d b e l o w . 9 6 C o u n s e l i n t h e R o b i c h a u d c a s e i n d i c a t e d t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n v o l v e d w i t h - 30 -the requirement for ordinary residence for a s p e c i f i c period. I f a resident of province A goes to province B for less than one year and returns to province A, then neither province A nor province B has j u r i s d i c t i o n to 97 hear the p e t i t i o n u n t i l more than one year a f t e r return to province A. C l e a r l y , i n cases where the p e t i t i o n e r i s domiciled i n the province i n question, t h i s residence requirement i s unreasonable. C a l c u l a t i o n of the period of ordinary residence varies according to the courts' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the nature of ordinary residence. A more f l e x i b l e a t t i t u d e i s taken towards the period of residence i n the cases 98 which i n t e r p r e t ordinary residence l i b e r a l l y . In Zoldester v Zoldester Hutcheon Co. Ct. J . s a i d , " I t i s impossible to f i x the precise point i n time when a person who, by the nature of his work, i s required to move from one country to another, or from one province to another, ceases to be o r d i n a r i l y resident i n the f i r s t country or province". And i t seems that the word "person" i n the quotation above includes the wife of such person. In the Zoldester case the husband was posted abroad. But the wife p e t i t i o n e r , who had accompanied him for a "short time, was held not to have l o s t her ordinary residence i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Therefore, given a wide i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , ordinary residence i s less l i k e l y to be l o s t or interrupted by absences from the province, even i f they 99 are lengthy absences, and s i m i l a r l y the period of ordinary residence i s less l i k e l y to be reduced or brought into question. On the other hand, under the "McLellan i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " ordinary residence i s c l o s e l y linked to p h y s i c a l presence. Thus, the period of ordinary residence w i l l be a f f e c t e d by p h y s i c a l absence from the province, 100 unless the extra p r o v i n c i a l residence may be termed "extra-ordinary". 101 In Graves v Graves, for instance, the petitioner's ordinary residence 102 was questioned, even though she had been absent from the province for only one week during the year preceding the petition. Clearly, the "actual residence" requirement of s. 5(1) (b) is redundant i f the "McLellan inter-pretation" is followed, (v) Summary (a) There is a clear division in the cases between those which adopt 103 a li b e r a l interpretation of ordinary residence, and those which link 104 ordinary residence very closely to residence and thus to physical presence. (b) Likewise, there is also division in the calculation of the period of ordinary residence. Some cases take into account a l l the circumstances of 105 the case and others look specifically to physical presence and events 106 taking place in the year preceding the presentation of the petition. Given a narrow interpretation "ordinary residence" is more likely to be terminated by absence from the province. 107 (c) Intention would appear not to be a major factor i n most cases. However, i t is submitted that objective evidence of intention to return is to be considered in determining whether ordinary residence has been lost or interrupted. For instance, maintaining a residence in the province while one 108 is absent would seem to ensure that ordinary residence is not lost. (d) The possibility of two ordinary residences has been mentioned in 109 only one case. It has been suggested that i t may be impossible to have more than one ordinary residence where such residence is a basis for jur i s -110 111 diction. But this suggestion was based on Hopkins v Hopkins, a case which practically equates ordinary residence with physical residence. Logically, there is no reason why a person who lives part of the time in - 32 -112 o n e p l a c e a n d p a r t i n a n o t h e r c a n n o t b e o r d i n a r i l y r e s i d e n t i n b o t h . ( e ) P o s s i b l y , o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e w i l l n o t b e l o s t b y a b s e n c e f r o m 113 t h e p r o v i n c e i f a g o v e r n m e n t e m p l o y e e i s t r a n s f e r r e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f 114 e m p l o y m e n t , a s o p p o s e d t o a p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e e m p l o y e e o r h i s w i f e . 1 1 4 A T h i s v i e w i s a p p a r e n t l y a d o p t e d i n M a s s e v S y k o r a , o n t h e i l l o g i c a l b a s i s t h a t r e s i d e n c e o u t s i d e a p a r t i c u l a r p r o v i n c e f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f p u b l i c s e r v i c e o r s t u d y i s " e x t r a o r d i n a r y " , w h i l e f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f p r i v a t e e m p l o y m e n t i t i s n o t . ( f ) T h e c o m b i n e d d o m i c i l e a n d r e s i d e n c e t e s t c a n b e h a r d e r t o s a t i s f y t h a n t h e common l a w t e s t , a n d c a n r e s u l t i n u n w a r r a n t e d i n c o n -115 v e n i e n c e f o r t h e p a r t i e s . ( g ) P o s s i b l y , o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e i s m o r e e a s i l y l o s t o r i n t e r r u p t e d 1 1 6 i f a n e m p l o y e e ( o r h i s w i f e ) i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o a n o t h e r p r o v i n c e o f C a n a d a , 117 t h a n i f a n e m p l o y e e ( o r h i s w i f e ) i s p o s t e d a b r o a d . ( b ) A c t u a l R e s i d e n c e S e c t i o n 5 ( 1 ) ( b ) n o t o n l y r e q u i r e s t h e p e t i t i o n e r t o b e o r d i n a r i l y r e s i d e n t i n t h e f o r u m p r o v i n c e f o r a t l e a s t o n e y e a r i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e p e t i t i o n , b u t a l s o t o b e a c t u a l l y r e s i d e n t i n t h e p r o v i n c e f o r a t l e a s t t e n m o n t h s o f " t h a t p e r i o d " . T h e r e h a s b e e n g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t t h a t " a c t u a l r e s i d e n c e " r e q u i r e s 1 1 8 a c t u a l p h y s i c a l p r e s e n c e . I t seems t h a t t h e t e n m o n t h s " a c t u a l r e s i d e n c e " i n a p r o v i n c e n e e d n o t b e c o n s e c u t i v e ; b u t , c u m u l a t i v e l y , t h e r e m u s t b e 1 1 9 t e n m o n t h s p h y s i c a l p r e s e n c e . D i f f i c u l t y h a s a r i s e n i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e w o r d s t e n m o n t h s o f " t h a t p e r i o d " a t t h e e n d o f s . 5 ( l ) ( b ) . " T h a t p e r i o d " o b v i o u s l y r e l a t e s - 33 -t o t h e p e r i o d o f o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e . B u t t h e r e a r e t w o p o s s i b i l i t i e s : f i r s t , t h a t t h e w o r d s r e f e r t o t h e m i n i m u m p e r i o d o f " o n e y e a r i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e p e t i t i o n " ; o r s e c o n d , t h a t t h e y r e f e r t o t h e w h o l e p e r i o d o f o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e . I t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h i s a m b i g u i t y a l o n e i s s u f f i c i e n t g r o u n d s f o r r e d r a f t i n g s . 5 ( 1 ) ( b ) . 120 I n Wood v Wood i t w a s h e l d t h a t t h e w o r d s m e a n t t h a t t h e r e h a d t o b e t e n m o n t h s p h y s i c a l p r e s e n c e i n t h e f o r u m p r o v i n c e d u r i n g t h e w h o l e p e r i o d o f o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n h a s b e e n a p p r o v e d a n d 1 2 1 a p p l i e d i n s u b s e q u e n t c a s e s . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a t l e a s t , i t n o w 122 seems s e t t l e d t h a t t h i s i s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w h i c h w i l l b e a p p l i e d . 123 I n H a r d y v H a r d y " t h a t p e r i o d " w a s h e l d t o m e a n t e n m o n t h s p h y s i c a l p r e s e n c e i n t h e f o r u m p r o v i n c e d u r i n g t h e y e a r i m m e d i a t e l y p r e -c e d i n g t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e p e t i t i o n . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n h a s a l s o 1 2 4 125 b e e n i m p l i c i t l y a p p r o v e d a n d a p p l i e d . To f o l l o w t h e Wood i n t e r p r e t a t i o n m a k e s t h e r e q u i r e m e n t o f a c t u a l r e s i d e n c e m e a n i n g l e s s s i n c e i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i m a g i n e a p e r s o n b e i n g o r d i n a r i l y r e s i d e n t i n a p r o v i n c e f o r t w e n t y y e a r s , o r e v e n f i v e y e a r s , who h a s n o t a c c u m u l a t e d a t o t a l o f t e n m o n t h s a c t u a l r e s i d e n c e . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , i t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h e H a r d y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n m u s t b e c o r r e c t . 1 2 6 A i k i n s J . , i n t h e M a r s e l l u s c a s e , f o l l o w e d t h e Wood i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , p r i m a r i l y o n t h e g r o u n d s o f c o n v e n i e n c e , b u t r e f e r r e d t o t h e H a r d y i n t e r -127 p r e t a t i o n a s a n " e q u a l l y v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e " . M a t h e s o n C o . C t . J . f o l l o w e d t h e Wood i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " b e c a u s e o f t h e i m p r a c t i c a b l e , u n j u s t a n d i n d e e d , m o n s t r o u s r e s u l t " o f f o l l o w i n g t h e H a r d y c a s e ; b u t he d i d s a y 1 2 8 o f t h e l a t t e r , " I n d e e d , i t i s e n t i r e l y p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e l e a r n e d J u d g e h a s s u r m i s e d w h a t w a s i n t h e m i n d s o f t h e l e g i s l a t i v e d r a f t s m e n " . I n - 3 4 -129 M a c P h e r s o n v M a c P h e r s o n , w h i l e t h e m a j o r i t y w a s i n f a v o u r o f t h e Wood i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , E v a n s , J . A . d i s s e n t e d s t r o n g l y o n t h i s p o i n t . H o w e v e r , w h i c h e v e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s p r e f e r r e d , i t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h e a c t u a l r e s i d e n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s h o u l d b e r e m o v e d . P h y s i c a l p r e s e n c e i s a l r e a d y a f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e , w h i c h r e q u i r e m e n t 130 p r o v i d e s s u f f i c i e n t c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n p r o v i n c e a n d p a r t y . T h e f o l l o w -i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n s m a y b e h e l p f u l ( a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e w i f e c a n n o t s a t i s f y t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f s . 5 ( 1 ) ( b ) . A h u s b a n d d o m i c i l e d a n d r e s i d e n t i n X p r o v i n c e f o r t w e n t y y e a r s i s a c t u a l l y a w a y o n b u s i n e s s f o r s i x m o n t h s d u r i n g t h e y e a r i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e p e t i t i o n . U n d e r t h e H a r d y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e c o u r t d o e s n o t h a v e j u r i s d i c t i o n t o h e a r t h e p e t i t i o n f o r d i v o r c e . A h u s b a n d o r d i n a r i l y r e s i d e n t i n X p r o v i n c e f o r f i v e y e a r s , c h a n g e s h i s o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e t o Y p r o v i n c e i n 1 9 7 9 , b u t f o r b u s i n e s s r e a s o n s i s n o t p h y s i c a l l y p r e s e n t i n Y p r o v i n c e f o r m o r e t h a n t h r e e m o n t h s o f a n y g i v e n y e a r . U n d e r t h e H a r d y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e h u s b a n d w o u l d n e v e r , o r n o t u n t i l r e t i r e m e n t , b e a b l e t o o b t a i n a d i v o r c e i n Y p r o v i n c e . S u c h a r e s u l t i s u n j u s t a s w e l l a s i n c o n v e n i e n t . U n d e r t h e Wood i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , h e w o u l d h a v e t o w a i t u n t i l a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 9 8 3 b e f o r e h e c o u l d p r e s e n t h i s d i v o r c e p e t i t i o n . ( 3 ) CONCLUSION R e t e n t i o n o f d o m i c i l e a s t h e s o l e t e s t f o r j u r i s d i c t i o n h a s a l l t h e d r a w b a c k s o f t h e common l a w t e s t , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e w i f e ' s d e p e n d e n t d o m i c i l e , w h i c h h a s b e e n e f f e c t i v e l y a b r o g a t e d f o r d i v o r c e p u r p o s e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s some u n c e r t a i n t y r e g a r d i n g c a p a c i t y t o a c q u i r e a C a n a d i a n - 35 -d o m i c i l e . T h e c o m b i n e d t e s t o f d o m i c i l e a n d r e s i d e n c e c a n p r o d u c e a h a r s h e r r e s u l t t h a n t h e common l a w g r o u n d o f p r o v i n c i a l d o m i c i l e . O v e r a l l , t h i s r e s u l t s i n a h i g h l y i n c o n v e n i e n t j u r i s d i c t i o n a l t e s t a n d , p r e f e r a b l y t h e d o m i c i l e t e s t s h o u l d n o t h a v e r e s i d e n c e f o r a s p e c i f i e d p e r i o d a s a c o n c u r r e n t r e q u i r e m e n t . T h e r e s i d e n c e t e s t i s b a d l y d r a f t e d a n d u n n e c e s s a r i l y c o m p l e x . T h e c o u r t s h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d m u c h d i f f i c u l t y i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f s . 5 ( 1 ) ( b ) o r p e r h a p s , m o r e a p t l y , i n s e e k i n g t o a v o i d t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f i t s p r o v i s i o n s , a n d t h i s h a s l e d t o i n c o n s i s t e n c y . I n v i e w o f t h e m a r k e d d i v e r g e n c e i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y i n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e p e r i o d o f o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e , t h i s c o n c e p t h a s p r o v e d u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i n C a n a d a f o r d i v o r c e p u r p o s e s . T h e a d d i t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t o f a c t u a l r e s i d e n c e a p p e a r s u n j u s t i f i e d a n d u n r e a s o n a b l e . I n d e e d , i t i s r e d u n d a n t i f o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e i s i n t e r p r e t e d n a r r o w l y o r i f t h e p e r i o d o f o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e i s l e n g t h y . T h u s , i t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t s . 5 ( 1 ) a s a w h o l e s h o u l d b e r e p e a l e d a n d r e p l a c e d w i t h a m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e p r o v i s i o n . A l t e r n a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s w i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . ( 4 ) STAY AND TRANSFER PROVISIONS S e c t i o n 5 ( 2 ) o f t h e D i v o r c e A c t i s c u r r e n t l y t h e o n l y r e l e v a n t s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n i n t h i s r e g a r d . I t d e a l s o n l y w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n w h e r e p e t i t i o n s a r e p e n d i n g i n t w o c o u r t s a t t h e same t i m e : 5 . ( 2 ) W h e r e p e t i t i o n s f o r d i v o r c e a r e p e n d i n g b e t w e e n a h u s b a n d a n d w i f e b e f o r e e a c h o f t w o c o u r t s t h a t w o u l d o t h e r w i s e h a v e j u r i s d i c t i o n u n d e r t h i s A c t r e s p e c t i v e l y t o e n t e r t a i n t h e m a n d t o g r a n t r e l i e f i n r e s p e c t t h e r e o f , ( a ) i f t h e p e t i t i o n s w e r e p r e s e n t e d o n d i f f e r e n t d a y s a n d t h e p e t i t i o n t h a t w a s p r e s e n t e d f i r s t i s n o t d i s c o n t i n u e d - 3 6 -w i t h i n t h i r t y d a y s a f t e r t h e d a y i t w a s p r e s e n t e d , t h e c o u r t t o w h i c h a p e t i t i o n w a s f i r s t p r e s e n t e d h a s e x c l -u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n t o g r a n t r e l i e f b e t w e e n t h e p a r t i e s a n d t h e o t h e r p e t i t i o n s h a l l b e d e e m e d t o b e d i s c o n t -i n u e d ; a n d ( b ) i f t h e p e t i t i o n s w e r e p r e s e n t e d o n t h e same d a y a n d n e i t h e r o f t h e m i s d i s c o n t i n u e d w i t h i n t h i r t y d a y s a f t e r t h a t d a y , t h e F e d e r a l C o u r t - T r i a l D i v i s i o n h a s e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n t o g r a n t r e l i e f b e t w e e n t h e p a r t i e s a n d t h e p e t i t i o n o r p e t i t i o n s p e n d i n g b e f o r e t h e o t h e r c o u r t o r c o u r t s s h a l l b e r e m o v e d , b y d i r e c t i o n o f t h e F e d e r a l C o u r t - T r i a l D i v i s i o n , i n t o t h a t c o u r t f o r a d j u d i c a t i o n . T h i s s e c t i o n i s c l e a r l y d e s i g n e d t o c o v e r t h e s i t u a t i o n w h e r e t h e s p o u s e s a r e r e s i d e n t i n d i f f e r e n t p r o v i n c e s a n d e a c h b r i n g s a p e t i t i o n f o r d i v o r c e i n h i s o r h e r r e s p e c t i v e p r o v i n c e . T h e s o l u t i o n p r o v i d e d b y s . 5 ( 2 ) i s t h a t i f t h e f i r s t p r e s e n t e d p e t i t i o n i s n o t d i s c o n t i n u e d w i t h i n t h i r t y d a y s t h e n t h e c o u r t i n w h i c h t h e f i r s t p e t i t i o n w a s p r e s e n t e d h a s 1 3 1 e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n . I f t h e p e t i t i o n s w e r e p r e s e n t e d o n t h e same d a y a n d n e i t h e r i s d i s c o n t i n u e d w i t h i n t h i r t y d a y s , t h e n t h e F e d e r a l C o u r t - T r i a l D i v i s i o n h a s e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n . O b v i o u s l y , i t d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w t h a t t h e f i r s t p e t i t i o n t o b e p r e s e n t e d o u g h t t o b e t h e o n e w h i c h i s c o n t i n u e d . I t m a y w e l l b e , i n some i n s t a n c e s , i f t h e b a l a n c e o f f a i r n e s s a n d c o n v e n i e n c e t o t h e p a r t i e s w e r e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t , t h a t t h e s e c o n d p e t i t i o n o u g h t t o b e a l l o w e d t o c o n t i n u e . 132 T h e c a s e o f T a y l o r v T a y l o r p r o v i d e s a n i n t e r e s t i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e o p e r a t i o n o f s . 5 ( 2 ) ( a ) . H w a s g r a n t e d c u s t o d y o f t h e c h i l d r e n o f t h e m a r r i a g e i n O n t a r i o i n 1 9 7 5 a n d t h e n m o v e d w i t h t h e m t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . W i s s u e d a p e t i t i o n f o r d i v o r c e i n O n t a r i o i n 1 9 7 8 a n d H o b t a i n e d a n o r d e r s t a y i n g t h e O n t a r i o p e t i t i o n so t h a t h e m i g h t s t a r t d i v o r c e p r o c e e d i n g s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w h i c h h e t h e n d i d . W f i l e d a n a n s w e r a n d c o u n t e r p e t i t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r a i s i n g t h e d e f e n c e o f l a c k o f j u r i s d i c t i o n o n t h e p a r t o f - 37 -t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . On a n a p p l i c a t i o n b y H t o s t r i k e o u t t h e a n s w e r a n d c o u n t e r p e t i t i o n i t w a s h e l d t h a t t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o u r t d i d n o t h a v e j u r i s d i c t i o n t o h e a r t h e d i v o r c e p e t i t i o n s i n c e t h e O n t a r i o p e t i t i o n h a d b e e n i s s u e d f i r s t a n d h a d n o t b e e n d i s c o n t i n u e d w i t h i n 30 d a y s . S u r e l y , t h e O n t a r i o c o u r t , w h e n i t g r a n t e d a s t a y o f t h e O n t a r i o p e t i t i o n , w a s o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r u m f o r t h e h e a r i n g w a s B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ? Y e t , t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o u r t , a s a r e s u l t o f s . 5 ( 2 ) ( a ) , w a s f o r c e d t o d e e m t h e p e t i t i o n p r e s e n t e d t o i t t o b e d i s -c o n t i n u e d w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e c a s e . I n a d d i t i o n t o a r b i t r a r y o p e r a t i o n , s . 5 ( 2 ) c a r r i e s t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r p r o d u c i n g a n o m a l o u s a n d i n c o n s i s t e n t d e c i s i o n s . Two f u r t h e r e x a m p l e s i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t . F i r s t , f r o m t h e w o r d i n g o f t h e s e c t i o n , i t o n l y a p p l i e s w h e r e b o t h p e t i t i o n s a r e f i l e d i n d i f f e r e n t p r o v i n c e s i n C a n a d a . T h e r e f o r e , h a d t h e O n t a r i o p e t i t i o n b e e n f i l e d i n New Y o r k S t a t e i n s t e a d o f O n t a r i o , s . 5 w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n a p p l i c a b l e a n d t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w o u l d p r e s u m a b l y h a v e h a d t o r e f e r t o common l a w p r i n c i p l e s , w h i c h a r e d i s c u s s e d b e l o w . T h i s m i g h t w e l l h a v e p r o d u c e d a d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t . S e c o n d , s . 5 ( 2 ) ( a ) c l e a r l y s t a t e s t h a t , i f a p e t i t i o n i s f i l e d i n o n e p r o v i n c e a n d n o t d i s c o n t i n u e d w i t h i n t h i r t y d a y s t h e r e a f t e r , a l l o t h e r l a t e r p e t i t i o n s a r e d e e m e d t o b e d i s c o n t i n u e d i f t h e f i r s t p e t i t i o n i s s t i l l p e n d i n g . H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h i s l i t e r a l i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n c o u l d p r o d u c e a n u n f a i r , i f n o t a b s u r d , r e s u l t . F o r e x a m p l e , i n 133 B a r l o w v B a r l o w t h e p e t i t i o n e r h a d f i l e d f o r d i v o r c e i n A l b e r t a i n J u n e , 1 9 7 0 . T h a t a c t i o n w a s n o t p u r s u e d t o t r i a l a n d t h e p e t i t i o n e r f i l e d - 3 8 -f o r d i v o r c e a g a i n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1 9 7 2 b e f o r e t h e A l b e r t a a c t i o n h a d b e e n d i s c o n t i n u e d . T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a c t i o n came t o t r i a l a f t e r t h e A l b e r t a a c t i o n h a d b e e n d i s c o n t i n u e d . A t t r i a l , A n d e r s o n J . o r d e r e d t h e p e t i t i o n t o b e r e i s s u e d a n d s e r v i c e t o b e d i s p e n s e d w i t h , b y c o n s e n t o f a l l t h e p a r t i e s , p r e s u m a b l y i n o r d e r t o a v o i d t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f s . 5 ( 2 ) ( a ) w h i c h w o u l d h a v e d e e m e d t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p e t i t i o n t o b e d i s c o n t i n u e d . He t h e n s t a t e d i n h i s r e a s o n s f o r j u d g m e n t t h a t i t w a s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o r e i s s u e t h e p e t i t i o n , s i n c e s . 5 ( 2 ) ( a ) s h o u l d b e r e s t r i c t e d t o c a s e s w h e r e o n e s p o u s e f i l e d a p e t i t i o n i n o n e p r o v i n c e a n d t h e o t h e r s p o u s e f i l e d a p e t i t i o n i n a n o t h e r p r o v i n c e . T h e b a s i s g i v e n f o r t h i s c o n c l u s i o n w a s t h a t s . 5 ( 2 ) ( a ) s h o u l d n o t b e i n t e r p r e t e d s o a s t o p r o d u c e a n a b s u r d r e s u l t . I t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t a n e q u a l l y a b s u r d r e s u l t i s p o s s i b l e w h e t h e r o r n o t i t i s t h e same s p o u s e w h o f i l e s t h e s e c o n d p e t i t i o n . I f t h e s p o u s e who c o m m e n c e d t h e f i r s t p e t i t i o n h a s n o t p u r s u e d i t , t h e r e i s n o l o g i c a l r e a s o n f o r d e n y i n g t h e o t h e r s p o u s e t h e r i g h t t o p r o c e e d a t a l a t e r d a t e i n a d i f f e r e n t p r o v i n c e . W h e t h e r o r n o t t h e o t h e r s p o u s e w o u l d b e p r e c l u d e d f r o m p r o c e e d i n g i n a n o t h e r p r o v i n c e i n t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i s n o t c l e a r f r o m t h e B a r l o w c a s e . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h e r e i s n o r a t i o n a l b a s i s f o r a d i s t i n c t i o n w h i c h a l l o w s t h e s p o u s e who f i l e s f o r d i v o r c e f i r s t i n o n e p r o v i n c e t o p r o c e e d i n a n o t h e r p r o v i n c e , y e t a t t h e same t i m e d e n i e s t h a t r i g h t t o t h e o t h e r s p o u s e . F o r e x a m p l e , H a n d W l i v e d t o g e t h e r i n O n t a r i o u n t i l 1 9 7 5 w h e n t h e y s e p a r a t e d . H f i l e d a d i v o r c e p e t i t i o n i n 1 9 7 6 i n O n t a r i o . N o t h i n g f u r t h e r w a s d o n e u n t i l 1 9 8 0 , w h e n W, now l i v i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f i l e s f o r d i v o r c e h e r e . H a l s o d e c i d e s t o f i l e f o r 39 divorce i n Nova Scotia where he i s now l i v i n g , once the B r i t i s h Columbia p e t i t i o n has been served on him. According to Barlow, provided that H discontinues the Ontario p e t i t i o n before the t r i a l of the B r i t i s h Columbia p e t i t i o n , i t would appear that H may proceed i n B r i t i s h Columbia, while W's p e t i t i o n i n Ontario i s deemed discontinued. W would presumably be unable to proceed i n Ontario unless she f i l e s a counter p e t i t i o n i n H's action before i t i s discontinued. Of course, i f Barlow were not followed i n Ontario a s t r i c t a p p l i c a t i o n of s. 5(2)(a) would bestow exclusive j u r i s d i c t i o n upon the Ontario court. On the basis of t h i s a n a l y s i s , i t i s submitted that s. 5(2)(a) i s too r i g i d i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n and should be replaced by a more f l e x i b l e d i s c r e t i o n a r y p r o v i s i o n . Turning to s. 5(2)(b), there i s no statutory power, except i n the l i m i t e d circumstances of t h i s section, to transfer a divorce p e t i t i o n to another court i n Canada. I t i s not hard to imagine s i t u a t i o n s i n which a d i s c r e t i o n a r y transfer p r ovision also could be most u s e f u l to the court i n order to prevent a p e t i t i o n e r from taking advantage of an inconvenient 134 135 forum. Had there been such a power, the Ontario Court i n the Taylor case could have simply transferred the Ontario p e t i t i o n to B r i t i s h Columbia, instead of staying i t i n order that H might issue a second p e t i t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The p o t e n t i a l use of a transfer p r o v i s i o n w i l l be 136 discussed i n more d e t a i l i n the following chapter. The Common Law Where proceedings are pending abroad, or when there i s an i n t e r n a t i o n a l element to a case, i t i s c l e a r from the wording of the section that s. 5(2) does not apply. Therefore, reference must be made presumably to common law - 4 0 -137 g r o u n d s f o r s t a y i n g a c t i o n s a n d , i n a p p r o p r i a t e c a s e s , t h e R u l e s o f 138 C o u r t o f t h e p r o v i n c e i n q u e s t i o n . C a n a d i a n common l a w o n t h i s s u b j e c t i s s o m e w h a t c o n f u s e d f o r t w o r e a s o n s . F i r s t , t h e r e a r e a p p a r e n t l y n o r e p o r t e d C a n a d i a n c a s e s w h e r e a s t a y h a s b e e n g r a n t e d i n a d i v o r c e a c t i o n o n t h e b a s i s o f f o r e i g n p r o c e e d i n g s o r e l e m e n t s . One o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s m a y b e t h a t , a s a p r a c t i c a l m a t t e r , i t m a y b e v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o p e r s u a d e a c o u r t n o t t o a s s u m e j u r i s -139 d i c t i o n o n c e s . 5 ( 1 ) i s s a t i s f i e d . T h e O n t a r i o C o u r t o f A p p e a l h a s g o n e s o f a r a s t o s a y t h a t a p e t i t i o n e r i s e n t i t l e d t o a d i v o r c e a s o f r i g h t , p r o v i d e d h e s a t i s f i e s s . 5 ( 1 ) a n d p r o v e s o n e o f t h e g r o u n d s s e t o u t i n s s . 3 o r 4 a n d t h a t t h e r e a r e n o f a c t s w h i c h c o u l d m a k e t h e b a r s c o n t a i n e d i n s s . 8 o r 9 a p p l i c a b l e . H o w e v e r , i n t h a t c a s e , t h e c o u r t w a s n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f a s t a y o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l e l e m e n t s a n d t h e c a s e c o u l d p o s s i b l y b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d o n t h a t b a s i s . C e r t a i n l y , t h e r e i s m e r i t t o a n a r g u m e n t t h a t C a n a d i a n s a n d t h o s e h a v i n g a s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h C a n a d a o u g h t t o b e a l l o w e d t o h a v e m a t t e r s i n v o l v i n g s t a t u s s e t t l e d h e r e . T h u s , p e r h a p s t h e c o u r t s h o u l d b e q u i t e c a r e f u l i n i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n o f a s t a y w h e n f o r e i g n p r o c e e d i n g s a r e p e n d i n g e s p e c i a l l y i f , f o r e x a m p l e , f o r e i g n l a w d o e s n o t 140 a f f o r d s i m i l a r r i g h t s t o t h e p e t i t i o n e r . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h e r e m a y b e some s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h a s t a y o f d i v o r c e p r o c e e d i n g s i n a p r o v i n c e m a y b e j u s t i f i e d w h e n p r o c e e d i n g s a r e p e n d i n g a b r o a d , o r t h e c a s e i n v o l v e s a f o r e i g n e l e m e n t . F o r e x a m p l e , H a n d W a r e m a r r i e d i n E n g l a n d i n 1 9 7 0 , w h e r e t h e y a r e d o m i c i l e d a n d l i v e u n t i l 1 9 7 5 . H t h e n d e s e r t s W, t a k i n g t h e o n l y c h i l d o f t h e m a r r i a g e w i t h h i m . H t h e n a c q u i r e s a d o m i c i l e i n A l b e r t a i n 1 9 7 6 a n d i n 1 9 7 8 , b e i n g a b l e t o s a t i s f y s . 5 ( 1 ) - 41 -of the Divorce Act commences proceedings for divorce and custody of the c h i l d . W s t i l l l i v e s i n England and has been unable to trace H u n t i l she i s served with the divorce p e t i t i o n . In this s i t u a t i o n , i t i s submitted that the Alberta court could r e f e r to common law p r i n c i p l e s to determine the question of a stay of proceedings on the a p p l i c a t i o n of W, who wishes to have the matter determined according to Engl i s h law. The second reason for uncertainty i n t h i s regard i s the fact that Canadian courts have subscribed to two theories on the question of stays, 141 namely, the doctrine of forum conveniens and English common law. The p r i n c i p l e of forum conveniens i s simply that the court may, i n i t s d i s -c r e t i o n , stay or dismiss an action i f i t i s not a convenient forum, even 142 i f j u r i s d i c t i o n i s authorized by statute. On the other hand, u n t i l 143 some r e l a t i v e l y recent decisions of the House of Lords, E n g l i s h common law required that proceedings be proved vexatious or oppressive before a 144 stay would be granted. A f t e r the decision i n MacShannon v Rockware 145 Glass Ltd. i t may be that the d i s t i n c t i o n between English common law and the doctrine of forum conveniens w i l l prove to be more a matter of 146 semantics than anything e l s e . In that case the majority of the House of Lords were i n favour of discontinuing the use of the words "vexatious or oppressive" and Lord Diplpck stated that i n order to j u s t i f y a stay two ""147 conditions must be s a t i s f i e d : "(a) the defendant must s a t i s f y the court that there i s another forum to whose j u r i s d i c t i o n he i s amenable i n which j u s t i c e can be done between parties at s u b s t a n t i a l l y less inconvenience or expense, and (b) the stay must not deprive the p l a i n t i f f of a legitimate personal or j u r i d i c a l advantage which would be av a i l a b l e to him i f he invoked the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Engli s h Court." - 42 -I t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h i s r e f o r m u l a t e d r u l e i s m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h r e e r e a s o n s . F i r s t , t h e r e m e d y i s d i s c r e t i o n a r y , w h i c h e n a b l e s t h e c o u r t t o c o n s i d e r , a l l t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . S e c o n d , i t e n s u r e s i n p a r a g r a p h ( a ) t h a t t h e r e w i l l b e a n o t h e r f o r u m i n w h i c h t h e c a s e c a n b e t r i e d a n d t h u s , w i l l n o t l e a v e t h e p e t i t i o n e r w i t h o u t a f o r u m . T h i r d , t h e p e t i t i o n e r i s a s s u r e d b y p a r a g r a p h ( b ) t h a t t h e s t a y w i l l n o t b e g r a n t e d i f i t w o u l d d e p r i v e h i m o f a " l e g i t i m a t e p e r s o n a l o r j u r i d i c a l a d v a n t a g e " . T h i s w o r d i n g seems b r o a d e n o u g h t o c o v e r m o s t , i f n o t a l l , o f t h e s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h c o u l d a r i s e i n t h e f i e l d o f d i v o r c e . T h e same a p p e a r s t o b e t r u e o f t h e d o c t r i n e o f f o r u m c o n v e n i e n s . I t t o o i s a d i s c r e t i o n a r y r e m e d y , w h i c h h a s b e e n h e l d t o b e i n a p p l i c a b l e w h e n t h e o t h e r f o r u m d o e s n o t a f f o r d a p l a i n t i f f r i g h t s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e 148 a v a i l a b l e i n t h e f o r u m p r o v i n c e . T h e r e f o r e , i n c o n c l u s i o n , i t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t e i t h e r o f t h e t w o t h e o r i e s , o r b o t h , a r e a p p r o p r i a t e m e t h o d s o f c o n t r o l l i n g t h e c h o i c e o f a n u n f a i r o r i n c o n v e n i e n t f o r u m b y a p e t i t i o n e r , w h e n t h e c a s e i n v o l v e s a f o r e i g n e l e m e n t . I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l c o n f l i c t s a r e n o t s o l v e d i n a s i m i l a r w a y . - 43 -CHAPTER 3 ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF ESTABLISHING JURISDICTION Having concluded that the e x i s t i n g law of divorce j u r i s d i c t i o n i s uns a t i s f a c t o r y , the purpose of t h i s chapter i s to consider a l t e r n a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n a l t e s t s . The use of domicile, residence and n a t i o n a l i t y , or some form of combination of these factors w i l l be examined, together with the p o t e n t i a l use of stay and transf e r provisions. 1. DOMICILE The features and drawbacks of the concept of domicile have already been considered i n the f i r s t chapter. Nevertheless, i t i s submitted that the domicile t e s t continues to have some merit i n terms of divorce j u r i s -d i c t i o n , i n that i t can enable expatriates to p e t i t i o n f o r divorce on t h e i r return to Canada and, furthermore, permits the court to consider relevant factors other than simple residence. Indeed, i n England and A u s t r a l i a , where there have been r e l a t i v e l y recent changes i n divorce j u r i s d i c t i o n , the concept of domicile has been retained as one of the 1 a l t e r n a t i v e grounds for j u r i s d i c t i o n . New Zealand retains domicile as 2 i t s p r i n c i p a l t e s t , although s u b s t a n t i a l reforms to the concept of 3 domicile i t s e l f were made i n the Domicile Act 1976. In Canada l e g i s l a t i v e i n t ervention has helped to eliminate some of the problems encountered with the concept. F i r s t , the wife's domicile of 4 dependency has been abolished f o r divorce purposes and, second, the change from p r o v i n c i a l to na t i o n a l domicile has made i t easier to e s t a b l i s h 5 a domicile i n Canada, thus a l l e v i a t i n g , to some extent, the problems 6 associated with tenacity of the domicile of o r i g i n and i n t e n t i o n to - 44 -7 acquire a domicile of choice. However, two further problems have emerged from the analysis of the Canadian l e g i s l a t i o n i n the previous chapter: f i r s t , the fact that only 8 the p e t i t i o n e r may s a t i s f y the domicile t e s t and, second, the fact that the domicile and residence tests are concurrent and not a l t e r n a t i v e require-9 ments. For the reasons given i n that chapter i t i s submitted that, i n any future l e g i s l a t i o n , e i t h e r the p e t i t i o n e r or the respondent should be able to s a t i s f y the domicile test and, that i t should be an a l t e r n a t i v e ground for j u r i s d i c t i o n , independent of any residence t e s t . This i s the case 10 both i n A u s t r a l i a and England. Other reforms which could be enacted for divorce purposes, and which have already been enacted i n A u s t r a l i a , include the a b o l i t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e of r e v i v a l of the domicile of o r i g i n , i n favour of the continuation 11 of the e x i s t i n g domicile u n t i l another domicile of choice i s acquired. 12 This s o l u t i o n seems more reasonable than the common law doctrine, since a p e t i t i o n e r who has abandoned a domicile of choice i s presumably more l i k e l y to have some r e a l connection with the domicile he has j u s t l e f t than with his i n i t i a l domicile of o r i g i n . The A u s t r a l i a n Act also contains a provision dealing with capacity to 13 acquire a domicile of choice, which would appear to solve problems 14 s i m i l a r to those which could a r i s e i n Canada. I t provides that a person who has attained the age of eighteen years, or a person who has not attained that age but who has at any time been married, i s deemed to have capacity 15 to acquire a domicile of choice. In the Canadian context, i t would be preferable for c o n s t i t u t i o n a l reasons to l i m i t the a p p l i c a t i o n of any such pr o v i s i o n to divorce purposes only. - 4 5 -A n o t h e r c o n c e r n w h i c h i s r a i s e d , i f f e d e r a l d o m i c i l e a l o n e i s t o b e s u f f i c i e n t t o e s t a b l i s h j u r i s d i c t i o n f o r d i v o r c e p u r p o s e s , i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f f o r u m s h o p p i n g o r c h o i c e o f a n i n c o n v e n i e n t f o r u m w i t h i n C a n a d a b y C a n a d i a n d o m i c i l i a r i e s . I t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f s u c h e v e n t s w o u l d b e g r e a t l y d i m i n i s h e d b y t h e e n a c t m e n t o f a d e q u a t e p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e s t a y a n d t r a n s f e r o f d i v o r c e p e t i t i o n s i n a p p r o p r i a t e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T h i s s u b j e c t i s t o b e e x a m i n e d m o r e f u l l y l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . 2 . RESIDENCE T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r t h e a d o p t i o n o f r e s i d e n c e a s a n a l t e r n a t i v e t e s t f o r j u r i s d i c t i o n . T h i s p e r h a p s c a n b e s t b e s h o w n b y c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e s f o r j u r i s d i c t i o n a l r u l e s l a i d o u t a t t h e 16 b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s p a r t . 1 . C l e a r l y a r e s i d e n c e p r o v i s i o n w o u l d s a t i s f y t h e f i r s t o b j e c t i v e , i n o t h e r w o r d s , i t w o u l d e n a b l e a p e r s o n t o p e t i t i o n t h e c o u r t s o f a p r o v i n c e a f t e r h e h a s l i v e d t h e r e f o r a r e a s o n a b l e t i m e . 2 . T h e p r e s e n t c o m b i n e d t e s t o f d o m i c i l e a n d r e s i d e n c e d o e s n o t s a t i s f y t h e s e c o n d o b j e c t i v e , i n t h a t p e r s o n s d o m i c i l e d i n C a n a d a c a n n o t p e t i t i o n a n y C a n a d i a n c o u r t i f t h e y a r e n o t c u r r e n t l y r e s i d i n g i n C a n a d a 17 w i t h i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s . 5 ( 1 ) ( b ) o f t h e D i v o r c e A c t . D o m i c i l e a s a s e p a r a t e t e s t s a t i s f i e s t h i s o b j e c t i v e . 3 . A s r e g a r d s c l a r i t y a n d c e r t a i n t y o f a p p l i c a t i o n , t h e t h i r d o b j e c t i v e , r e s i d e n c e i s a s e f f e c t i v e a s a n y t e s t c o u l d b e i n v i e w o f t h e v a r i a b l e h u m a n e l e m e n t s i n v o l v e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g a p e r s o n ' s h o m e . A r e s i d e n c e t e s t w o u l d a l s o h e l p t o r e m o v e t h e u n c e r t a i n t y w h i c h c a n a r i s e i n t h e d o m i c i l e t e s t a s a r e s u l t o f t h e e m p h a s i s p l a c e d o n i n t e n t i o n . - 4 6 -4 . A n a l t e r n a t i v e r e s i d e n c e t e s t w o u l d c e r t a i n l y p r o v e m o r e c o n v e n i e n t t h a n t h e c u r r e n t C a n a d i a n r u l e . A C a n a d i a n r e s i d e n t w i s h i n g t o p e t i t i o n t h e c o u r t s w o u l d h a v e t h e c h o i c e o f t w o b a s e s o n w h i c h t o f o u n d h i s p e t i t i o n , a n d w o u l d b e a b l e t o p e t i t i o n f o r d i v o r c e d e s p i t e u n c e r t a i n t y a b o u t h i s f u t u r e w h e r e a b o u t s , o r d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t h e i n t e n d s t o l e a v e C a n a d a a t some f u t u r e d a t e . A n i l l u s t r a t i o n m a y b e h e l p f u l : W h a s b e e n l i v i n g i n O n t a r i o f o r t h e p a s t t w e n t y y e a r s b u t i n t e n d s t o e m i g r a t e t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d r e m a r r y , i f s h e o b t a i n s a d i v o r c e . T h e p r e s e n t m a r r i a g e w a s c e l e b r a t e d i n O n t a r i o a n d W h a s l i v e d t h e r e s i n c e t h a t t i m e . A s s u m i n g t h a t W c a n n o t p r o v e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a d o m i c i l e o f c h o i c e i n l a w , W c a n n o t a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e p e t i t i o n f o r d i v o r c e i n O n t a r i o . H o w e v e r i f t h e r e w e r e a r e s i d e n c e p r o v i s i o n t h i s w o u l d s a v e t h e W t h e u n w a r r a n t e d i n c o n v e n i e n c e o f s e a r c h i n g f o r a n o t h e r f o r u m i n w h i c h t o p r e s e n t h e r p e t i t i o n , s u c h a s E n g l a n d w h e r e h e r H i s d o m i c i l e d o r h a b i t u a l l y r e s i d e n t . 5 . A s f a r a s l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e s a r e c o n c e r n e d t h e d o m i c i l e t e s t o n l y 18 o b v i a t e s l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e s i f o t h e r c o u n t r i e s u s e t h e same c o n c e p t . 19 T h e c o n c e p t o f r e s i d e n c e i s m o r e f a m i l i a r t o c i v i l l a w c o u n t r i e s . I t 20 i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t f o r r e a s o n s a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d , r e s i d e n c e w o u l d n o t t e n d t o c a u s e l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e s . 6 . A n y p o s s i b i l i t y o f f o r u m s h o p p i n g a n d c h o i c e o f a n i n c o n v e n i e n t f o r u m ( o b j e c t i v e s s i x a n d s e v e n ) w o u l d b e s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e d u c e d i f a s p e c i f i c p e r i o d o f r e s i d e n c e w e r e r e q u i r e d . I n d e e d , t h e r e s i d e n c e t e s t i n s . 5 ( 1 ) ( b ) o f t h e D i v o r c e A c t w a s i m p o s e d p r e c i s e l y t o p r e v e n t f o r u m 2 1 s h o p p i n g a n d i n c o n v e n i e n c e . I f a r e s i d e n c e p r o v i s i o n w e r e t o b e e n a c t e d , t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s - 4 7 -r e m a i n : a ) Who m a y s a t i s f y t h e r e s i d e n c e t e s t ? b ) S h o u l d " r e s i d e n c e " b e d e f i n e d o r q u a l i f i e d ? c ) How l o n g s h o u l d t h e r e q u i r e d p e r i o d o f r e s i d e n c e be? a ) Who m a y s a t i s f y t h e t e s t ? 22 T h e same c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a p p l y a s f o r t h e d o m i c i l e p r o v i s i o n a b o v e . T h e r e f o r e i t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t r e s i d e n c e o f e i t h e r t h e p e t i t i o n e r o r t h e r e s p o n d e n t o u g h t t o b e s u f f i c i e n t . b ) S h o u l d r e s i d e n c e b e d e f i n e d o r q u a l i f i e d ? Two q u a l i f y i n g w o r d s h a v e b e e n u s e d p r e v i o u s l y i n d i v o r c e j u r i s d i c t i o n 2 3 2 4 " h a b i t u a l " r e s i d e n c e i n E n g l a n d a n d " o r d i n a r y " r e s i d e n c e i n C a n a d a a n d 2 5 A u s t r a l i a . A s h a s b e e n s h o w n t h e c o n c e p t o f " o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e " h a s p r o v e d 2 6 m a r k e d l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i n C a n a d a , o w i n g t o t h e d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; o n t h e o n e h a n d t h e r e a r e c a s e s l i n k i n g o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e w i t h t h e r e a l h o m e , a n d o n t h e o t h e r c a s e s l i n k i n g o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e w i t h m e r e r e s i d e n c e . I f t h e w o r d r e s i d e n c e i s t o b e q u a l i f i e d i t w o u l d s e e m t h a t " h a b i t u a l " r e s i d e n c e i s p r e f e r a b l e t o " o r d i n a r y " r e s i d e n c e . I n f a c t 27 o n e o f t h e r e a s o n s g i v e n b y t h e Law C o m m i s s i o n i n E n g l a n d f o r t h e a d o p t i o n o f h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e r a t h e r t h a n o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e w a s b e c a u s e o f t h e c a s e s l i n k i n g o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e w i t h r e s i d e n c e s i m p l i e i t e r , p a r t i c u -28 l a r l y d i c t a o f V i s c o u n t C a v e i n t h e r e v e n u e c a s e L e v e n e v I R C . " H a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e " , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s a r a t h e r e l u s i v e p h r a s e w h i c h h a s b e e n j u d i c i a l l y d e f i n e d a s a " r e g u l a r p h y s i c a l p r e s e n c e e n d u r i n g 29 f o r some t i m e " . T h e w o r d " r e s i d e n c e " i t s e l f i s d e f i n e d i n W e b s t e r ' s I n t e r n a t i o n a l E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y a s " t h e a c t o r f a c t o f a b i d i n g o r d w e l l i n g - 4 8 -3 0 i n a p l a c e f o r some t i m e " . G i v e n t h e s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s , i s t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n " h a b i t u a l " v e r y h e l p f u l i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f a r e s i d e n c e p r o v i s i o n ? T h e c o u r t s i n t h e p a s t h a v e l i n k e d " r e s i d e n c e " f a i r l y c l o s e l y t o 3 1 p h y s i c a l p r e s e n c e , w h i c h i s u n f o r t u n a t e b e c a u s e p h y s i c a l p r e s e n c e i s o n l y o n e o f m a n y f a c t o r s w h i c h m a y w a r r a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h e m a i n a d v a n t a g e o f " h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e " i s t h a t i t w o u l d seem t o d i s p l a c e t h e e m p h a s i s o n p h y s i c a l p r e s e n c e i n f a v o u r o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a l l t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e c a s e . A n o t h e r a d v a n t a g e o f " h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e " i s t h a t i t i s a n 32 i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n c e p t a p p r o v e d b y t h e H a g u e C o n v e n t i o n s , a n d u s e o f t h i s p h r a s e w o u l d f u r t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i f o r m i t y i n i n t e r n a l l a w . T h e f o r e s e e a b l e d i s a d v a n t a g e o f i n t r o d u c i n g a n e w c o n c e p t s u c h a s " h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e " i s t h a t i t c o u l d l e a d t o t h e b u i l d u p o f y e t a n o t h e r l a r g e v o l u m e o f c a s e l a w o n i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , s i m i l a r t o t h a t e x p e r i e n c e d 33 w i t h " o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e " . T h i s d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o h a v e h a p p e n e d i n E n g l a n d , w h e r e " h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e " h a s b e e n e m p l o y e d a s a g r o u n d f o r b o t h d i v o r c e j u r i s d i c t i o n a n d r e c o g n i t i o n o f f o r e i g n d i v o r c e s s i n c e t h e e a r l y 3 4 1 9 7 0 ' s . H o w e v e r , t h e o n e c a s e w h i c h h a s a n a l y z e d t h e p h r a s e i s n o t a 35 p a r t i c u l a r l y c l e a r a u t h o r i t y . A n a l t e r n a t i v e a n d p r o b a b l y t h e b e s t m e t h o d t o e n s u r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a l l t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e c a s e a n d r e d u c e t h e e m p h a s i s o n p h y s i c a l p r e s e n c e , w o u l d b e t h e u s e o f t h e w o r d " r e s i d e n c e " a n d a s p e c i f i c p r o v i s i o n t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t r e f e r e n c e i s t o b e made t o a l l t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , b u t t h a t " r e s i d e n c e " i s n o t t o b e t e r m i n a t e d o r i n t e r r u p t e d b y t e m p o r a r y o r c a s u a l a b s e n c e s . T h e o n l y q u e s t i o n o p e n t o d e b a t e w o u l d t h e n seem t o b e w h a t i s a " t e m p o r a r y " o r " c a s u a l " a b s e n c e ? - 4 9 -I t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t s u c h w o r d i n g w o u l d b e s u f f i c i e n t t o c o v e r r e g u l a r v a c a t i o n s o r s h o r t b u s i n e s s t r i p s a w a y f r o m t h e p r o v i n c e i n q u e s t i o n . I n t h e c a s e o f l o n g e r a b s e n c e s i t w o u l d a l s o p r o v e t o b e a r e a s o n a b l e p r o v i s i o n : a p e t i t i o n e r w o u l d e i t h e r h a v e t o r e l y u p o n t h e d o m i c i l e o r r e s i d e n c e o f h i s o r h e r s p o u s e , o r p r o v e C a n a d i a n d o m i c i l e , o r w a i t u n t i l h e o r s h e h a s r e s i d e d i n a g i v e n p r o v i n c e f o r t h e s p e c i f i e d t i m e p e r i o d . c ) How l o n g s h o u l d t h e r e q u i r e d p e r i o d o f r e s i d e n c e be? T h i s i s a p u r e l y a r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n . I n t h e p a s t a o n e y e a r p e r i o d 3 6 3 7 seems t o h a v e b e e n p o p u l a r . B o t h A u s t r a l i a n a n d E n g l i s h l e g i s l a t i o n r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e p e r i o d o f r e s i d e n c e b e a t l e a s t o n e y e a r i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g t h e f i l i n g o f t h e p e t i t i o n . 3 . N A T I O N A L I T Y F o r o v e r a c e n t u r y t h e r e h a s b e e n c o n t r o v e r s y b e t w e e n t h e n a t i o n a l i t y 3 8 a n d d o m i c i l e p r i n c i p l e s a s c o n n e c t i n g f a c t o r s i n c o n f l i c t s o f l a w . I n E n g l a n d n a t i o n a l i t y i s n o t a c c e p t e d a s a b a s i s f o r t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f d i v o r c e 3 9 j u r i s d i c t i o n , b u t A u s t r a l i a n l e g i s l a t i o n a f f o r d s j u r i s d i c t i o n o n t h e 4 0 b a s i s o f t h e A u s t r a l i a c i t i z e n s h i p o f e i t h e r p a r t y t o t h e m a r r i a g e . A l t h o u g h n a t i o n a l i t y d o e s h a v e t h e a d v a n t a g e o f r e l a t i v e c o n t i n u i t y a n d c e r t a i n t y o f a p p l i c a t i o n , t h i s i s s u b j e c t t o a n y c h a n g e s w h i c h m a y b e m a d e i n c i t i z e n s h i p l e g i s l a t i o n , w h i c h o f c o u r s e m a y n o t b e m a d e w i t h d i v o r c e j u r i s d i c t i o n i n m i n d . T h i s c o u l d l e a d t o i n c o n s i s t e n c y . 4 1 I n f a c t , s e v e r a l c r i t i c i s m s m u s t b e b r o u g h t t o m i n d w h e n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e n a t i o n a l i t y p r i n c i p l e i n t e r m s o f d i v o r c e j u r i s d i c t i o n . F i r s t , p r o b l e m s m a y a r i s e a s a r e s u l t o f d u a l o r m u l t i p l e n a t i o n a l i t y . S e c o n d , a s a s o l e - 50 -t e s t f o r j u r i s d i c t i o n , t h e n a t i o n a l i t y p r i n c i p l e w o u l d n o t c o v e r r e f u g e e s o r s t a t e l e s s p e r s o n s . T h e f a c t t h a t c r i t e r i a f o r c i t i z e n s h i p t e n d t o b e i n c r e a s i n g i n c o m p l e x i t y , a l s o m i l i t a t e s a g a i n s t i t a s a s o l e t e s t . P e r h a p s t h e g r e a t e s t t h r e a t p o s e d b y t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f c i t i z e n s h i p a s a g r o u n d f o r d i v o r c e j u r i s d i c t i o n i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f f o r u m s h o p p i n g b y a f o r e i g n d o m i c i l i a r y a n d r e s i d e n t . A p e t i t i o n e r w i t h C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n -s h i p , p r i m a f a c i e , w o u l d b e a b l e t o p e t i t i o n C a n a d i a n c o u r t s e v e n i f h e h a d n o f a c t u a l t i e s w h a t s o e v e r w i t h C a n a d a a t t h e t i m e o f f i l i n g t h e p e t i t i o n . I t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t e v e n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a d i s c r e t i o n a r y s t a y p r o v i s i o n w o u l d n o t b e s u f f i c i e n t p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t f o r u m s h o p p i n g a n d i n c o n v e n i e n c e . A n o t h e r w e a k n e s s o f c i t i z e n s h i p a s a g r o u n d f o r j u r i s d i c t i o n i s t h a t common l a w c o u n t r i e s u s e d t o b a s e r e c o g n i t i o n o n d o m i c i l e a n d w e r e u n w i l l i n g t o r e c o g n i z e d i v o r c e s g r a n t e d s o l e l y o n t h e b a s i s o f c i t i z e n s h i p . A s s u m i n g 42 t h a t I n d y k a v I n d y k a i s t h e l a w i n C a n a d a t h e n a d e c r e e g i v e n o n t h e b a s i s o f c i t i z e n s h i p w i l l o n l y b e r e c o g n i z e d i n C a n a d a i f t h e r e w a s a l s o a " r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n " b e t w e e n a p a r t y t o t h e p r o c e e d i n g a n d d e c r e e i n g l a w d i s t r i c t . I f I n d y k a i s n o t t h e l a w i n C a n a d a t h e n t h e c o u r t g r a n t i n g 43 a d e c r e e o n t h e b a s i s o f c i t i z e n s h i p m u s t a l s o b e t h e c o u r t o f t h e d o m i c i l e , 44 o r t h e d e c r e e m u s t b e r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e c o u r t o f t h e d o m i c i l e ; o t h e r w i s e 45 r e c o g n i t i o n may n o t b e a f f o r d e d b y t h e C a n a d i a n c o u r t s . 46 H o w e v e r E n g l i s h a n d New Z e a l a n d c o u r t s , f o r e x a m p l e , n o w r e c o g n i z e d e c r e e s g r a n t e d o n t h e b a s i s o f n a t i o n a l i t y o r c i t i z e n s h i p o f e i t h e r p a r t y t o t h e f o r e i g n p r o c e e d i n g s . T h e r e f o r e , i t seems t h a t i n y e a r s t o come c i t i z e n s h i p a s a g r o u n d f o r j u r i s d i c t i o n w i l l b e l e s s l i k e l y t o c a u s e a - 5 1 -limping marriage. 47 On a broader scale, i t i s arguable that domicile or residence alone provides s u f f i c i e n t grounds for the assumption of j u r i s d i c t i o n since both s i g n i f y a choice of environment and lead to the a p p l i c a t i o n of the law of the country whose s o c i a l and economic conditions are applicable to the p e t i t i o n e r or respondent. Both the domicile and residence tests promote more rapid i n t e g r a t i o n of immigrants into Canadian society. In conclusion, i t i s submitted that the introduction of the n a t i o n a l i t y as a ground for j u r i s d i c t i o n o f f e r s no s i g n i f i c a n t advantage and could very well r e s u l t i n forum shopping and inconvenience to the respondent. Thus i t i s not recommended as an a l t e r n a t i v e ground for j u r i s d i c t i o n i n t h i s work. 4. STAY AND TRANSFER PROVISIONS Discretionary provisions for the stay or dismissal of divorce p e t i t i o n s and for the transfer of p e t i t i o n s to other provinces are important i n th i s context as a means of preventing not only forum shopping and choice of a forum on the basis of inconvenience to the respondent, but also d u p l i c a t i o n of p e t i t i o n s within Canada. The adoption of such provisions i n Canada would permit the court to consider a l l relevant circumstances, including convenience and expense 48 when faced with proceedings which are pending i n more than one court. They would also enable the court to evaluate competing claims more r e a l i s t i c a l l y at any stage, even i f proceedings are pending only i n one court. 49 Such provisions do e x i s t both i n England and A u s t r a l i a . What - 52 -f o l l o w s i s a n a n a l y s i s o f t h o s e i m p l e m e n t e d i n A u s t r a l i a , w i t h a v i e w t o t h e a d o p t i o n o f s i m i l a r p r o v i s i o n s i n C a n a d a . 50 S e c t i o n 4 5 ( 1 ) o f t h e A u s t r a l i a n F a m i l y Law A c t 1 9 7 5 - 6 p r o v i d e s : 4 5 . ( 1 ) - W h e r e i t a p p e a r s t o a c o u r t i n w h i c h a m a t r i m o n i a l c a u s e ( i n c l u d i n g a m a t r i m o n i a l c a u s e i n s t i t u t e d b e f o r e t h e c o m m e n c e m e n t o f t h i s A c t ) i s p e n d i n g t h a t a m a t r i m o n i a l c a u s e ( i n c l u d i n g a m a t r i m o n i a l c a u s e i n s t i t u t e d b e f o r e t h e c o m m e n c e m e n t o f t h i s A c t ) i n r e s p e c t o f t h e same m a r r i a g e o r v o i d m a r r i a g e i s p e n d i n g i n a n o t h e r c o u r t , t h e f i r s t m e n t i o n e d c o u r t m a y s t a y t h e p r o c e e d i n g s i n t h a t f i r s t m e n t i o n e d c o u r t f o r s u c h t i m e a s i t t h i n k s f i t o r m a y d i s m i s s t h e p r o c e e d i n g s . T h u s t h e c o u r t m a y i n i t s d i s c r e t i o n s t a y o r d i s m i s s a m a t r i m o n i a l c a u s e ( i n c l u d i n g d i v o r c e p r o c e e d i n g s ) i f o t h e r m a t r i m o n i a l c a u s e s a r e p e n d i n g e l s e w h e r e ; p r e s u m a b l y t h e c o u r t m a y do s o o f i t s o w n m o t i o n w i t h o u t a p p l i c a t i o n f r o m e i t h e r p a r t y . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e D i v o r c e A c t o f C a n a d a i t w o u l d p r o b a b l y b e w i s e t o l i m i t t h e c o u r t ' s p o w e r t o s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e d i v o r c e p r o c e e d i n g s a r e p e n d i n g b e f o r e i t , i n o r d e r t o a v o i d p o t e n t i a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o b l e m s . N o w h e r e i n t h e F a m i l y Law A c t d o e s i t e x p r e s s l y s a y w h i c h c r i t e r i a a r e t o b e e m p l o y e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r t o s t a y d i v o r c e p r o c e e d i n g s , a n d i t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t t h e c o u r t w a s n o t g i v e n a n y g u i d e l i n e s . H o w e v e r , i t h a s b e e n h e l d t h a t t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s l a i d o u t i n r e g u l a t i o n 102 o f t h e 5 1 F a m i l y Law R e g u l a t i o n s ( w h i c h r e l a t e t o a d i f f e r e n t p r o v i s i o n ) a r e t o a p p l y . R e g u l a t i o n 102 p r o v i d e s : 1 0 2 . T r a n s f e r o f p r o c e e d i n g s t o t h e F a m i l y C o u r t ( 2 ) I n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n , t h e F a m i l y C o u r t s h a l l h a v e r e g a r d t o — ( a ) t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a c o u r t t o h e a r t h e p r o c e e d i n g s ; ( b ) t h e c o n v e n i e n c e o f t h e p a r t i e s ; ( c ) t h e l i m i t i n g o f e x p e n s e a n d t h e c o s t o f t h e p r o c e e d -i n g s ; a n d ( d ) a n y o t h e r r e l e v a n t m a t t e r . - 5 3 -I t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t n o t h i n g i n s . 4 5 ( 1 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n s h o u l d n o t a p p l y t o p r o c e e d i n g s w h i c h a r e p e n d i n g a b r o a d , i n o t h e r w o r d s i n a c o u r t o u t s i d e A u s t r a l i a . I t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e c r i t e r i a i n r . 1 0 2 ( 2 ) p r i m a f a c i e a p p l y t o p r o c e e d i n g s w i t h i n A u s t r a l i a , t h e y s h o u l d a l s o b e u s e d i n o r d e r t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r t o s t a y o r d i s m i s s p r o c e e d i n g s i n t h e l i g h t o f p e n d i n g p r o c e e d i n g s a b r o a d . I t i s a l s o s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h e w o r d " a p p l i c a t i o n " i n r . 1 0 2 ( 2 ) s h o u l d n o t p r e v e n t t h e c o u r t f r o m r e s o r t i n g t o t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h e r e i n i f i t i s a c t i n g o n i t s o w n m o t i o n . T h e A u s t r a l i a n c o u r t s a l s o h a v e p o w e r t o t r a n s f e r p r o c e e d i n g s t o a n o t h e r c o u r t h a v i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n u n d e r t h e F a m i l y Law A c t i f i t i s " i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f j u s t i c e " t o d o s o , e v e n i f o n l y o n e a c t i o n i s i n 53 e x i s t e n c e a t t h e t i m e o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n . R e g u l a t i o n 1 0 2 ( 2 ) seems t o 5 4 a p p l y t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n a s w e l l . T h e r e i s a l s o p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e 55 t r a n s m i s s i o n o f c o u r t p a p e r s i n t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . 5 . RECOMMENDATIONS T h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s b e l o w r e p r e s e n t t h e s u b m i s s i o n s made i n t h i s a n d t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s a n d a r e presented.-S i n t h e f o r m o f m o d e l l e g i s l a t i o n . I f a d o p t e d , i t i s e n v i s a g e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d b e e n a c t e d a s 5 6 a m e n d m e n t s t o t h e D i v o r c e A c t a n d t h a t t h e c u r r e n t s e c t i o n s 5 ( 1 ) a n d 5 ( 2 ) w o u l d b e r e p e a l e d . 1 . ( 1 ) T h e c o u r t f o r a n y p r o v i n c e h a s j u r i s d i c t i o n t o e n t e r t a i n a p e t i t i o n f o r d i v o r c e a n d t o g r a n t r e l i e f i n r e s p e c t t h e r e o f i f , ( a ) e i t h e r t h e p e t i t i o n e r o r t h e r e s p o n d e n t i s d o m i c i l e d i n C a n a d a w h e n t h e p e t i t i o n i s f i l e d o r ( b ) e i t h e r t h e p e t i t i o n e r o r t h e r e s p o n d e n t h a s b e e n r e s i d e n t i n t h a t p r o v i n c e f o r a p e r i o d o f o n e y e a r i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g t h e f i l i n g o f t h e p e t i t i o n . - 54 -( 2 ) F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s A c t , ( a ) a p e r s o n ' s d o m i c i l e a t a n y t i m e , h o w s o e v e r a c q u i r e d , s h a l l b e d e e m e d t o c o n t i n u e u n t i l t h a t p e r s o n a c q u i r e s a n o t h e r d o m i c i l e a n d t h e r u l e o f l a w k n o w n a s t h e d o c t r i n e o f r e v i v a l o f t h e d o m i c i l e o f o r i g i n i s h e r e b y a b o l i s h e d ; a n d ( b ) e v e r y p e r s o n b e c o m e s c a p a b l e o f a c q u i r i n g a n i n d e p e n d e n t d o m i c i l e a t t h e a g e o f e i g h t e e n y e a r s o r o n m a r r i a g e , w h i c h e v e r i s s o o n e r . ( 1 ) W h e r e i t a p p e a r s t o a c o u r t i n w h i c h a p e t i t i o n h a s b e e n f i l e d u n d e r t h i s A c t t h a t , ( a ) o t h e r m a t r i m o n i a l p r o c e e d i n g s i n r e s p e c t o f t h e same m a r r i a g e , o r c a p a b l e o f a f f e c t i n g t h e v a l i d i t y o r s u b s i s t e n c e o f t h e same m a r r i a g e , a r e c o n t i n u i n g i n a n o t h e r c o u n t r y o r a n o t h e r c o u r t h a v i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n u n d e r t h i s A c t a n d , ( b ) i t i s i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f f a i r n e s s ( i n c l u d i n g c o n v e n i e n c e ) t h a t t h o s e p r o c e e d i n g s b e d e a l t w i t h f i r s t , t h e c o u r t m a y , i n i t s d i s c r e t i o n , s t a y t h e p e t i t i o n f o r s u c h t i m e a s i t t h i n k s f i t o r d i s m i s s t h e p e t i t i o n . ( 2 ) W h e r e i t a p p e a r s t o a c o u r t i n w h i c h a p e t i t i o n h a s b e e n f i l e d u n d e r t h i s A c t t h a t , i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f f a i r n e s s ( i n c l u d i n g c o n v e n i e n c e ) , t h e p e t i t i o n s h o u l d b e d e a l t w i t h b y a n o t h e r c o u r t h a v i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n u n d e r t h i s A c t , t h e c o u r t m a y , i n i t s d i s c r e t i o n , t r a n s f e r t h e p e t i t i o n t o t h e o t h e r c o u r t . ( 3 ) I n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i n t e r e s t s o f f a i r n e s s a n d c o n v e n i e n c e f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f s u b s e c t i o n ( 1 ) ( b ) a n d ( 2 ) , t h e c o u r t s h a l l h a v e r e g a r d t o a l l t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e c a s e , i n c l u d i n g , w i t h o u t r e s t r i c t i n g t h e g e n e r a l i t y o f t h e f o r e g o i n g , ( a ) c o n v e n i e n c e t o t h e s p o u s e s ( i n c l u d i n g t h e c o n v e n i e n c e o f w i t n e s s e s ) a n d ( b ) a n y d e l a y o r e x p e n s e w h i c h m a y r e s u l t f r o m e i t h e r s t a y i n g o r t r a n s f e r r i n g t h e p e t i t i o n o r n o t s t a y i n g o r t r a n s f e r r i n g t h e p e t i t i o n , a n d ( c ) t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a c o u r t t o h e a r t h e p r o c e e d i n g s . - 55 -W h e r e a n o r d e r t o t r a n s f e r a p e t i t i o n i s made u n d e r s u b s e c t i o n (2) o f t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e c o u r t p a p e r s s h a l l b e t r a n s m i t t e d b y t h e r e g i s t r a r , o r o t h e r p r o p e r o f f i c e r o f t h e c o u r t , t o t h e c o u r t t o w h i c h t h e p e t i t i o n h a s b e e n t r a n s f e r r e d ; t h e r e a f t e r t h e c o u r t t o w h i c h t h e p e t i t i o n h a s b e e n t r a n s f e r r e d s h a l l c o n t i n u e a s i f t h e p e t i t i o n h a d b e e n o r i g i n a l l y f i l e d i n t h a t c o u r t . I n t h i s s e c t i o n t h e w o r d " p e t i t i o n " i n c l u d e s a c r o s s p e t i t i o n . T h e c o u r t may e x e r c i s e i t s p o w e r s u n d e r t h i s s e c t i o n a t a n y t i m e a n d a t a n y s t a g e o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s e i t h e r o n i t s o w n m o t i o n o r o n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p e t i t i o n e r o r r e s p o n d e n t . - 5 6 -PART 1 1 - RECOGNITION CHAPTER 4 1 . INTRODUCTION T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s p a r t i s t o s t u d y t h e C a n a d i a n r u l e s f o r r e c o g n i -t i o n o f d i v o r c e s g r a n t e d i n o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s , a n d u l t i m a t e l y t o f o r m u l a t e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r s t a t u t o r y r e f o r m i n C a n a d a . A s s . 14 o f t h e D i v o r c e 1 A c t a l r e a d y p r o v i d e s f o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f d e c r e e s g r a n t e d b y C a n a d i a n c o u r t s , t h e c h i e f c o n c e r n o f t h i s p a r t i s t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t r u l y " f o r e i g n " d i v o r c e s - i n o t h e r w o r d s , d i v o r c e s o b t a i n e d o u t s i d e C a n a d a . B e f o r e a n a l y z i n g t h e c u r r e n t C a n a d i a n r u l e s , t h e common l a w g r o u n d s , 2 a s t h e y e x i s t e d p r i o r t o t h e d e c i s i o n i n I n d y k a v I n d y k a a n d t h e p a s s i n g o f t h e D i v o r c e A c t i n 1 9 6 8 , w i l l b e e x a m i n e d i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a b a c k -g r o u n d t o t h e p r e s e n t l a w . A f t e r a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e C a n a d i a n p o s i t i o n , 3 t h e E n g l i s h R e c o g n i t i o n o f D i v o r c e s a n d L e g a l S e p a r a t i o n s A c t 1 9 7 1 w i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d . 2 . OBJECTIVES OF THE RECOGNITION RULES I t i s u s e f u l t o e n u m e r a t e a t t h e o u t s e t t h e s u g g e s t e d c r i t e r i a f o r m o d e l r e c o g n i t i o n r u l e s . 1 . T h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e s h o u l d b e t h e a v o i d a n c e o f l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e s . T h i s n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f b r o a d r u l e s i n o r d e r t o s e c u r e r e c o g n i t i o n f o r d i v o r c e s g r a n t e d u n d e r d i f f e r e n t s y s t e m s o f l a w . 2 . T h e r u l e s s h o u l d n o t l e a d t o h a r d s h i p a n d a n o m a l i e s . T h e w o r d " h a r d s h i p " i s u s e d i n p r e f e r e n c e t o " c o n v e n i e n c e " i n t h i s p a r t b e c a u s e o f t h e g r a v e c o n s e q u e n c e s w h i c h c o u l d a r i s e a s a r e s u l t o f n o n - r e c o g n i t i o n - 57 -o f a f o r e i g n d i v o r c e : s u b s e q u e n t m a r r i a g e s o n t h e s t r e n g t h o f a f o r e i g n d e c r e e w o u l d b e b i g a m o u s a n d v o i d ; t h e c h i l d r e n o f s u c h m a r r i a g e s a t common l a w w o u l d b e b a s t a r d i s e d ; t h e " w i f e " w o u l d n o t b e e n t i t l e d t o s u c c e e d t o t h e d e c e a s e d " h u s b a n d ' s " e s t a t e a s h i s " w i d o w " . 3. T h e r u l e s s h o u l d b e a s c l e a r a n d c e r t a i n i n t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n a s p o s s i b l e . 4. W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f f o r u m s h o p p i n g , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h i s o b j e c t i v e c o n f l i c t s w i t h t h e f i r s t o b j e c t i v e , n a m e l y , p r e v e n t i o n o f l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e s . T h u s , i t s i m p o r t a n c e i n r e l a t i o n t o d i v o r c e r e c o g n i t i o n i s d e b a t a b l e . On t h e o n e h a n d , i f a l l d i v o r c e s w e r e r e c o g n i z e d , a n d C a n a d i a n s k n e w , f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t a d i v o r c e w o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y h a d n o c o n n e c t i o n w h a t s o e v e r w i t h t h e d e c r e e i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n , t h e y may b e e n c o u r a g e d t o r e s o r t t o a l a x j u r i s d i c t i o n b e c a u s e o f t h e e a s e a n d i n e x p e n s e o f o b t a i n i n g a d i v o r c e t h e r e . C e r t a i n l y , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t h a t C a n a d i a n s s h o u l d b e r e q u i r e d t o c o n f o r m w i t h t h e l a w ( i n c l u d i n g t h e d i v o r c e l a w ) o f t h e i r own c o u n t r y a n d s h o u l d n o t b e a l l o w e d t o c i r c u m v e n t i t . 4 On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t m a y b e a r g u e d t h a t f o r u m s h o p p i n g h a s a l r e a d y t a k e n p l a c e w h e n t h e q u e s t i o n o f r e c o g n i t i o n a r i s e s a n d b y t h a t t i m e i t i s t o o l a t e t o p r e v e n t i t . O f c o u r s e , t h i s d o e s b e g t h e q u e s t i o n o f e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f f o r u m s h o p p i n g . A f u r t h e r a r g u m e n t a g a i n s t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f f o r u m s h o p p i n g i s t h a t a s l o n g a s t h e d i v o r c e l a w s o f C a n a d a a r e r e a s o n a b l e , i t i s n o t l i k e l y t h a t C a n a d i a n s w i l l s e e k d i v o r c e s a b r o a d . 5. R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e v i e w o n e t a k e s o n t h e q u e s t i o n o f f o r u m s h o p p i n g , i t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d b e some t a n g i b l e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n a t - 5 8 -l e a s t o n e o f t h e s p o u s e s a n d t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n g r a n t i n g t h e d e c r e e . 3 . THE COMMON LAW BEFORE 1 9 6 7 T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s e x p o s i t i o n i s t o e x a m i n e t h e g r o u n d s o n w h i c h a d i v o r c e , o b t a i n e d e l s e w h e r e , w a s r e c o g n i z e d i n C a n a d a p r i o r t o t h e 1 2 d e c i s i o n i n I n d y k a v I n d y k a a n d t h e D i v o r c e A c t . I n o r d e r t o u n d e r -s t a n d f u l l y t h e p a s t a n d p r e s e n t C a n a d i a n p o s i t i o n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e x a m i n e t h e common l a w a s i t s t o o d i n E n g l a n d b e f o r e t h e s t a t u t o r y r e f o r m 3 i n 1 9 7 1 , s i n c e t h e C a n a d i a n r u l e s w e r e a n d s t i l l a r e l a r g e l y b a s e d o n t h e E n g l i s h common l a w . A t t h i s p o i n t i t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t t h e r e i s a l w a y s a d i s c r e t i o n i n t h e c o u r t t o r e f u s e r e c o g n i t i o n , i f t o r e c o g n i z e t h e d e c r e e , i n t e r a l i a , w o u l d c a u s e a s u b s t a n t i a l i n j u s t i c e o r i f t h e d e c r e e w a s o b t a i n e d b y f r a u d . T h i s a s p e c t o f r e c o g n i t i o n w i l l b e d e a l t w i t h i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r a n d i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d h e r e . B e f o r e t h e I n d y k a c a s e t h e r e w e r e t h r e e p o s s i b l e g r o u n d s f o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f f o r e i g n d i v o r c e s i n E n g l a n d a n d C a n a d a , a . D o m i c i l e T o w a r d s t h e e n d o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i t b e c a m e a c c e p t e d b o t h i n 4 5 E n g l a n d a n d C a n a d a t h a t t h e s o l e t e s t f o r r e c o g n i t i o n w a s d o m i c i l e o f t h e p a r t i e s t o t h e d i v o r c e w i t h i n t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n g r a n t i n g t h e d e c r e e a t t h e t i m e t h e p r o c e e d i n g s w e r e i n s t i t u t e d . I n t h i s c o n t e x t , " d o m i c i l e " m u s t b e p r o v e d , n o t b y r e f e r e n c e t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n g r a n t i n g t h e d e c r e e b u t , i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h i t s d e f i n i t i o n b y t h e l a w o f t h e f o r u m i . e . C a n a d a . A t common l a w t h i s e f f e c t i v e l y m e a n t " d o m i c i l e o f t h e h u s b a n d " , 6 s i n c e t h e w i f e t o o k h e r h u s b a n d ' s d o m i c i l e b y d e p e n d e n c e . T h e s u b s t a n t i v e - 59 -7 g r o u n d s o n w h i c h t h e d e c r e e w a s o b t a i n e d a r e i m m a t e r i a l . 8 b . A r m i t a g e v A - G ( i ) E n g l a n d I n 1 9 0 6 A r m i t a g e v A - G e x t e n d e d t h e d o m i c i l e r u l e a n d e n a b l e d t h e c o u r t s t o r e c o g n i z e , i n t e r a l i a , A m e r i c a n d i v o r c e s i n t h e U . K . e v e n t h o u g h 9 t h e y w e r e n o t o b t a i n e d i n t h e s t a t e o f t h e p a r t i e s d o m i c i l e . T h e f a c t s o f t h e A r m i t a g e c a s e w e r e t h a t a n A m e r i c a n , d o m i c i l e d i n New Y o r k S t a t e , m a r r i e d a n E n g l i s h woman i n E n g l a n d . T h e m a r r i a g e b r o k e d o w n a n d t h e w i f e , who h a d m o v e d t o l i v e i n S o u t h D a k o t a , o b t a i n e d a d i v o r c e i n t h e l a t t e r s t a t e d e s p i t e h e r h u s b a n d ' s d o m i c i l e i n New Y o r k . S i r G o r e l l B a r n e s w a s s a t i s f i e d b y e x p e r t e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e d i v o r c e w o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e l a w o f t h e d o m i c i l e , New Y o r k S t a t e , a n d h e l d t h a t t h e d e c r e e s h o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d i n E n g l a n d . T h u s , t h e r u l e k n o w n a s t h e r u l e i n A r m i t a g e v A - G w a s f o r m u l a t e d , n a m e l y , t h a t a d i v o r c e m u s t b e r e c o g n i z e d a s v a l i d i n E n g l a n d i f i t i s r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e l a w o f t h e d o m i c i l e o f t h e p a r t i e s . T h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n g i v e n f o r t h i s w a s t h a t i f t h e s t a t u s o f t h e p a r t i e s i s c h a n g e d o r r e c o g n i z e d a s c h a n g e d i n t h e c o u n t r y o f t h e i r d o m i c i l e , t h e n i t i s l o g i c a l t h a t t h e c h a n g e s h o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d i n E n g l a n d . I t i s n o t c e r t a i n w h e t h e r d o m i c i l e r e f e r s t o d o m i c i l e a t t h e d a t e o f 10 i n s t i t u t i o n o f p r o c e e d i n g s o r d o m i c i l e a t t h e d a t e o f t h e d e c r e e . B u t t h e c o u r t i n A r m i t a g e d i d s a y " . . . ( t h e p a r t i e s ) h a v e c e a s e d t o b e h u s b a n d 1 1 a n d w i f e i n t h e p l a c e w h e r e t h e y w e r e d o m i c i l e d a t t h e d a t e o f t h e d e c r e e . " T h i s c o u l d b e r e a d i n t w o w a y s : f i r s t , t h a t t h e p a r t i e s c e a s e d t o b e h u s b a n d a n d w i f e " a t t h e d a t e o f t h e d e c r e e " , w h i c h d o e s n o t i n d i c a t e t h e t i m e a t - 60 -w h i c h d o m i c i l e m u s t e x i s t ; o r , s e c o n d , t h a t t h e r e l e v a n t t i m e i s " d o m i c i l e a t t h e d a t e o f t h e d e c r e e " . I t w o u l d b e m o r e l o g i c a l p e r h a p s i f t h e r e l e v a n t t i m e w a s t h e same a s f o r t h e d o m i c i l e t e s t i t s e l f , i n o t h e r w o r d s , d o m i c i l e a t t h e d a t e o f i n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s . H o w e v e r , i t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t d o m i c i l e a t t h e d a t e o f t h e d e c r e e w o u l d b e p r e f e r a b l e , s i n c e t h i s w o u l d b e m o r e l i k e l y t o p r e v e n t l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e s . F o r e x a m p l e , A p e t i t i o n s f o r a d i v o r c e i n c o u n t r y X a n d h i s c o u n t r y o f d o m i c i l e , Y , w o u l d r e c o g n i z e t h e d e c r e e ; b u t b e f o r e t h e d e c r e e i s p r o n o u n c e d A c h a n g e s h i s d o m i c i l e t o Z c o u n t r y , w h i c h w o u l d n o t r e c o g n i z e t h e d e c r e e . I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n t h e E n g l i s h c o u r t s w o u l d b e a d d i n g t o f u t u r e p r o b l e m s i f t h e y r e c o g n i z e d t h e d e c r e e w h i c h A ' s n e w d o m i c i l e , Z , r e f u s e d t o r e c o g n i z e . L i k e w i s e , a l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e w o u l d b e c r e a t e d b y t h e E n g l i s h c o u r t s i f t h e y r e f u s e d t o r e c o g n i z e a d i v o r c e o b t a i n e d b y A , i f , b e t w e e n p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e p e t i t i o n a n d t h e d e c r e e a b s o l u t e , A h a d c h a n g e d d o m i c i l e f r o m a l a w d i s t r i c t w h i c h w o u l d n o t r e c o g n i z e t h e d e c r e e t o o n e w h i c h w o u l d , ( i i ) C a n a d a T h e r u l e i n A r m i t a g e v A - G h a s b e e n a p p r o v e d b y t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f 12 13 C a n a d a a n d t h e A l b e r t a C o u r t o f A p p e a l ; i t h a s b e e n f o l l o w e d i n 14 15 O n t a r i o a n d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b y t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o u r t o f A p p e a l . T h u s a f o r e i g n d i v o r c e w o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d i n C a n a d a i f i t w e r e r e c o g n i z e d 15A i n t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e p a r t i e s ' d o m i c i l e . 16 I n W a l k e r v W a l k e r i t w a s h e l d t h a t t h e r u l e i n A r m i t a g e a p p l i e d i f , p r i m a f a c i e , t h e d i v o r c e w o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e s t a t e o f t h e d o m i c i l e , a n d t h e r e s p o n d e n t i n t h a t c a s e w a s n o t p e r m i t t e d t o a d d u c e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e f o r e i g n c o u r t w a s w i t h o u t j u r i s d i c t i o n o r t h a t t h e d e c r e e w a s o b t a i n e d 17 b y f r a u d . H o w e v e r , i f p r i m a f a c i e t h e d i v o r c e w o u l d n o t b e r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e s t a t e o f t h e d o m i c i l e , a n d f u r t h e r e n q u i r y w o u l d b e n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e r e c o g n i t i o n , t h e r u l e i n A r m i t a g e h a s b e e n h e l d t o b e 18 i n a p p l i c a b l e . 19 I n Y e g e r a n d D u d e r v R e g i s t r a r G e n e r a l o f V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s i t w a s h e l d t h a t A r m i t a g e d o e s n o t a p p l y i f t h e r e l e v a n t d o m i c i l e 2 0 i s t h e p r o v i n c e i n w h i c h r e c o g n i t i o n i s s o u g h t . T h e f a c t s w e r e t h a t H m a r r i e d W i n H u n g a r y i n 1 9 2 3 , w h e r e t h e y w e r e b o t h d o m i c i l e d . I n 1 9 2 9 , a f t e r d e s e r t i n g h i s w i f e , H b e c a m e d o m i c i l e d i n A l b e r t a a n d c o n t i n u e d t o b e s o d o m i c i l e d . I n 1 9 5 6 , t h e w i f e , h a v i n g b e c o m e a c i t i z e n o f W e s t G e r m a n y , o b t a i n e d a d i v o r c e i n a G e r m a n c o u r t . T h e A l b e r t a S u p r e m e C o u r t h e l d t h a t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e A r m i t a g e p r i n c i p l e i n s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s w o u l d b e a b s u r d , s i n c e t h e r u l e w o u l d r e a d : i f t h e l a w o f A l b e r t a ( t h e d o m i c i l e i n t h e C a n a d i a n s e n s e ) w o u l d r e c o g n i z e t h e f o r e i g n d i v o r c e t h e n t h e c o u r t s o f A l b e r t a w o u l d r e c o g n i z e i t s v a l i d i t y . T h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e r e l e v a n t t i m e f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e r u l e i n A r m i t a g e , w h i c h h a s b e e n m e n t i o n e d a b o v e i n r e l a t i o n t o E n g l a n d , came 2 1 s q u a r e l y b e f o r e t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a i n S c h w e b e l v U n g a r a n d i t i s a r g u a b l e t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n w a s a n e x t e n s i o n o f t h e r u l e i n A r m i t a g e . T h e f a c t s w e r e t h a t W a k t o r , w h o h a d l i v e d f o r t w o y e a r s i n I s r a e l , m a r r i e d D i n H u n g a r y o n h i s r e t u r n . S h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s t h e c o u p l e e s c a p e d f r o m H u n g a r y , w h i c h w a s t h e i r d o m i c i l e o f o r i g i n , i n t e n d i n g t o m a k e t h e i r w a y t o I s r a e l t o l i v e p e r m a n e n t l y . W h i l e e n r o u t e t h e p a i r w e r e e x t r a -j u d i c i a l l y d i v o r c e d b y m e a n s o f a J e w i s h " g e t t " i n I t a l y . T h i s d i v o r c e w a s i n v a l i d i n H u n g a r y a n d I t a l y , b u t v a l i d b y t h e l a w o f I s r a e l , w h e r e t h e y b o t h b e c a m e d o m i c i l e d w i t h i n t w o w e e k s . Some t i m e l a t e r D came t o C a n a d a a s a v i s i t o r , a n d m e t a n d m a r r i e d P i n O n t a r i o . P o b t a i n e d a - 62 -d e c l a r a t i o n o f n u l l i t y o f m a r r i a g e o n t h e g r o u n d t h a t D w a s a l r e a d y m a r r i e d a t t h e t i m e o f t h e s e c o n d m a r r i a g e . D a p p e a l e d . T h e t w o i s s u e s w e r e : 1) t h e c a p a c i t y o f D t o r e m a r r y — w h i c h i s n o r m a l l y g o v e r n e d b y 22 t h e l a w o f t h e a n t e n u p t i a l d o m i c i l e . 2 ) t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e I t a l i a n d i v o r c e d e c r e e — w h i c h i s n o r m a l l y g o v e r n e d b y t h e p r i v a t e i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w r u l e s o f t h e f o r u m ( O n t a r i o ) - - a n d t h e e f f e c t o f t h e v a l i d i t y o r i n v a l i d i t y o f t h e d i v o r c e o n D ' s c a p a c i t y t o r e m a r r y . 23 T h e O n t a r i o C o u r t o f A p p e a l h e l d t h a t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e c o n d m a r r i a g e w a s d e t e r m i n e d b y D ' s c a p a c i t y t o m a r r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l a w o f h e r d o m i c i l e a t t h e t i m e o f t h e s e c o n d m a r r i a g e , i . e . I s r a e l i l a w . S i n c e b y I s r a e l i l a w s h e w a s c a p a b l e , t h e O n t a r i o m a r r i a g e w a s v a l i d , n o t w i t h -s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e d i v o r c e w a s n o t r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e l a w o f t h e d o m i c i l e a t t h e d a t e o f t h e d i v o r c e ( H u n g a r y ) . Two j u s t i f i c a t i o n s w e r e g i v e n b y M c K a y J . A . : f i r s t , t h a t t o h o l d o t h e r w i s e w o u l d b e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a p e r s o n ' s s t a t u s b y t h e l e x f o r i ( O n t a r i o ) a n d n o t b y t h e l a w o f t h e d o m i c i l e ( I s r a e l ) ; s e c o n d , t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e s . R i t c h i e J . i n t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a f o u n d t h a t t h e e v i d e n c e w a s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o h o l d t h a t W a k t o r w a s d o m i c i l e d i n I s r a e l , d e s p i t e h i s r e s i d e n c e t h e r e f o r t w o y e a r s p r i o r t o h i s m a r r i a g e . T h e c o u r t a p p r o v e d t h e r u l e i n A r m i t a g e a n d s a i d t h a t , a s a g e n e r a l r u l e u n d e r O n t a r i o l a w , a d i v o r c e w o u l d n o t b e r e c o g n i z e d u n l e s s i t w o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d u n d e r t h e l a w o f t h e c o u n t r y w h e r e t h e h u s b a n d w a s d o m i c i l e d a t t h e t i m e w h e n i t w a s o b t a i n e d . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e l e v a n t t i m e t o d e t e r m i n e d o m i c i l e f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e r u l e i n A r m i t a g e i n C a n a d a - 63 -i s n o r m a l l y t o b e d o m i c i l e a t t h e d a t e o f t h e d e c r e e . R i t c h i e J . w e n t o n t o a p p r o v e t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l . I t w a s h e l d , o n t h e f a c t s o f t h e c a s e a t b a r , w h e r e d o m i c i l e i n t h e r e c o g n i z i n g c o u n t r y w a s a c q u i r e d l e s s t h a n t h r e e w e e k s a f t e r t h e d i v o r c e , t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d b e a n e x c e p t i o n t o t h e g e n e r a l r u l e a n d t h a t t h e d i v o r c e s h o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d i n O n t a r i o . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r a t i o o f t h e c a s e w a s c o m p l i c a t e d b y t h e f u r t h e r c o m m e n t s o f R i t c h i e J . , w h e n h e s t a t e d t h a t t h e g o v e r n i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n w a s t h e s t a t u s o f D a n d n o t t h e m e a n s w h e r e b y s h e s e c u r e d s u c h s t a t u s ( t h e d i v o r c e ) . C l e a r l y t h i s w a s t h e m o s t e q u i t a b l e s o l u t i o n , b u t w h a t e f f e c t d i d i t h a v e o n t h e g e n e r a l r u l e i n A r m i t a g e a s s t a t e d b y R i t c h i e J? S e v e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e p o s s i b l e . I f o n e c o n s t r u e s t h e j u d g m e n t t o m e a n t h a t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e c o n d m a r r i a g e d e p e n d e d s o l e l y o n c a p a c i t y o r s t a t u s , t h e r u l e i n A r m i t a g e i s n o t a f f e c t e d . 2 4 L y s y k h a s e x p l a i n e d t h e d e c i s i o n i n t e r m s o f t h e " i n c i d e n t a l q u e s t i o n " - - t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e d i v o r c e b e i n g i n c i d e n t a l t o t h e p r i n c i p a l q u e s t i o n o f c a p a c i t y . S c h w e b e l v U n g a r w o u l d t h e n b e a u t h o r i t y t h a t t h e l e x c a u s a e ( I s r a e l ) a n d n o t t h e l e x f o r i g o v e r n s t h e i n c i d e n t a l q u e s t i o n . I f c a p a c i t y t o m a r r y d e p e n d e d o n t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e d i v o r c e u n d e r O n t a r i o r u l e s o f p r i v a t e i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w t h e n t h e d e c i s i o n i s a n e x t e n s i o n o f A r m i t a g e . I t h a s b e e n s a i d t h a t t h e s c o p e o f s u c h a n 25 e x t e n s i o n i s d o u b t f u l . F o r i n s t a n c e , i t i s n o t c l e a r w h e t h e r r e c o g n i -t i o n i n t h e f i r s t a c q u i r e d new d o m i c i l e w o u l d b e c o n c l u s i v e , o r w h e t h e r - 6 4 -v a l i d i t y o f t h e d i v o r c e c o u l d b e a f f e c t e d w i t h e a c h s u b s e q u e n t c h a n g e o f d o m i c i l e . I t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h e b e s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w o u l d b e t o v i e w S c h w e b e l v U n g a r a s a n a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e d e m i n i m i s p r i n c i p l e t o t h e r u l e i n A r m i t a g e f o r t h e s a k e o f e q u i t y . A l t e r n a t i v e l y i t c o u l d b e s a i d t h a t , w h e r e t h e r e a r e t w o c o n f l i c t i n g r u l e s o f p r i v a t e i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w , t h e c o u r t s h o u l d c h o o s e t h e m o r e e q u i t a b l e s o l u t i o n a s b e t w e e n t h e p a r t i e s . I n a n y e v e n t , b y 1 9 6 7 i t w a s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t a d i v o r c e w i l l b e r e c o g n i z e d i n C a n a d a i f i t i s r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e c o u n t r y o f t h e p a r t i e s d o m i c i l e a t t h e d a t e o f t h e d e c r e e a n d , p o s s i b l y , i f i t i s r e c o g n i z e d i n a c o u n t r y w h e r e a d o m i c i l e i s a c q u i r e d s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e d e c r e e . 2 6 c . T r a v e r s v H o i l e y — R e c i p r o c a l R e c o g n i t i o n ? i ) E n g l a n d T h e t h i r d g r o u n d f o r r e c o g n i t i o n came i n t o e x i s t e n c e a f t e r s t a t u t o r y i n r o a d s h a d b e e n m a d e i n t o t h e d o m i c i l e r u l e f o r d i v o r c e j u r i s d i c t i o n . T h e s e s t a t u t e s w e r e e n a c t e d m a i n l y i n o r d e r t o m i t i g a t e t h e p o t e n t i a l 27 h a r d s h i p s c a u s e d t o t h e w i f e b y t h e d o c t r i n e o f u n i t y o f d o m i c i l e . I n T r a v e r s v H o l l e y a h u s b a n d a n d w i f e who w e r e d o m i c i l e d i n E n g l a n d w e n t t o New S o u t h W a l e s a f t e r t h e i r m a r r i a g e , b e c a u s e t h e h u s b a n d b e l i e v e d t h a t A u s t r a l i a o f f e r e d b e t t e r p r o s p e c t s . A s i t t u r n e d o u t h e w a s u n s u c c e s s -f u l i n A u s t r a l i a , l e f t t h e m a t r i m o n i a l h o m e , a n d w a s e v e n t u a l l y t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m t h e A u s t r a l i a n a r m y t o t h e B r i t i s h A r m y i n 1 9 4 3 . M e a n w h i l e , t h e w i f e p e t i t i o n e d t h e New S o u t h W a l e s c o u r t f o r a d i v o r c e o n t h e g r o u n d o f t h e 2 8 h u s b a n d ' s d e s e r t i o n , a n d o b t a i n e d a d e c r e e u n d e r a New S o u t h W a l e s d e s e r t e d w i v e s s t a t u t e , w h i c h w a s v e r y s i m i l a r i n t e r m s t o s . 13 o f t h e E n g l i s h - 65 -2 9 M a t r i m o n i a l C a u s e s A c t 1 9 3 7 . 30 T h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l h e l d , b y a m a j o r i t y , t h a t t h e h u s b a n d w a s d o m i c i l e d i n New S o u t h W a l e s a t t h e t i m e o f d e s e r t i o n , w h i c h w a s t h e r e l e v a n t t i m e u n d e r b o t h t h e New S o u t h W a l e s a n d t h e E n g l i s h s t a t u t e s , a n d t h e r e f o r e t h a t t h e d i v o r c e s h o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d . 3 1 S o m e r v e l l L . J . s a i d : " O n p r i n c i p l e i t seems t o me p l a i n t h a t o u r c o u r t s i n t h i s m a t t e r s h o u l d r e c o g n i z e a j u r i s d i c t i o n w h i c h t h e y t h e m s e l v e s c l a i m . " H o d s o n L . J . f o u n d t h a t t h e 1 9 3 7 l e g i s l a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n c h a n g e d t h e p o s i t i o n r e g a r d i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f f o r e i g n d i v o r c e s a l s o , s o t h a t d o m i c i l e w a s n o l o n g e r t h e s o l e b a s i s o f r e c o g n i t i o n . I n a 32 p a s s a g e w h i c h h a s s i n c e b e e n q u o t e d f r e q u e n t l y , h e s a i d : " I w o u l d s a y t h a t w h e r e , a s h e r e , t h e r e i s i n s u b s t a n c e r e c i p r o c i t y , i t w o u l d b e c o n t r a r y t o p r i n c i p l e a n d i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h c o m i t y i f t h e c o u r t s o f t h i s c o u n t r y w e r e t o r e f u s e t o r e c o g n i z e a j u r i s d i c t i o n w h i c h m u t a t i s m u t a n d i s t h e y c l a i m f o r t h e m s e l v e s . " T h u s s u b s t a n t i a l " r e c i p r o c i t y " b e c a m e a b a s i s f o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f 3 3 o v e r s e a s d i v o r c e s . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e l e a r n e d j u d g e , i t i s s u b m i t t e d 3 4 t h a t t h i s u s a g e o f t h e w o r d " r e c i p r o c i t y " w a s i n c o r r e c t . R e c i p r o c i t y n o r m a l l y m e a n s t h a t X c o u n t r y w i l l r e c o g n i z e Y c o u n t r y ' s r i g h t i f Y c o u n t r y r e c o g n i z e s t h o s e o f X . B u t i n T r a v e r s v H o i l e y i t w a s u s e d t o m e a n t h a t a n E n g l i s h c o u r t w i l l r e c o g n i z e Y c o u n t r y ' s d e c r e e s ( o r j u r i s d i c t i o n ) i f Y c o u r t s h a v e j u r i s d i c t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f E n g l i s h c o u r t s . C l e a r l y t h e b a s i s o f r e c o g n i t i o n i n T r a v e r s v H o l l e y w a s s i m i l a r i t y - 66 -o f j u r i s d i c t i o n , n o t r e c i p r o c i t y . B e c a u s e o f t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f j u r i s d i c t i o n t h e E n g l i s h c o u r t f e l t c o m p e l l e d b y a u n i l a t e r a l s e n s e o f j u s t i c e t o 35 r e c o g n i z e t h e d e c r e e . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h e s t a t e m e n t o f S o m e r v e l l L . J . , a b o v e , w a s m o r e c o r r e c t . T h e q u e s t i o n a r o s e : how s i m i l a r d i d t h e g r o u n d s o f j u r i s d i c t i o n i n t h e f o r e i g n c o u n t r y h a v e t o b e , i n o r d e r t o g a i n r e c o g n i t i o n i n E n g l a n d ; o r , i n o t h e r w o r d s , w h a t w a s m e a n t b y " s u b s t a n t i a l r e c i p r o c i t y ? " K e n n e d y w a s o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e b a s i s o f j u r i s d i c t i o n i n t h e f o r e i g n c o u r t d i d n o t h a v e t o c o r r e s p o n d e x a c t l y t o t h e b a s i s o f j u r i s -36 d i c t i o n u n d e r t h e E n g l i s h s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s . He f e l t t h a t : w h e r e t h e s u b s t a n c e o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n w a s d e s e r t e d w i f e l e g i s l a t i o n , t h e d e t a i l s o f t i m e d i d n o t m a t t e r ; w h e r e t h e s u b s t a n c e o f t h e l e g i s l a t i o n w a s j u r i s d i c t i o n b a s e d o n r e s i d e n c e , t h e l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e w a s i m m a t e r i a l , p r o v i d e d t h a t i t d i d n o t d e t r a c t f r o m t h e s u b s t a n c e . I t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h i s w a s t h e m o r e e q u i t a b l e a n d r e a s o n a b l e v i e w . H o w e v e r , i t w a s h e l d t h a t T r a v e r s v H o i l e y w a s o n l y a p p l i c a b l e i n c a s e s w h e r e t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y j u r i s d i c t i o n e x e r c i s e d i n t h e f o r e i g n c o u r t c o r r e s p o n d e d a l m o s t e x a c t l y t o t h e E n g l i s h e x t r a o r d i n a r y ( s t a t u t o r y ) j u r i s d i c t i o n ; t h e E n g l i s h c o u r t s w o u l d r e c o g n i z e t h e r i g h t o f t h e f o r e i g n c o u r t s t o e n c r o a c h u p o n t h e p r i n c i p l e o f d o m i c i l e o n l y t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t 37 t h e E n g l i s h c o u r t s w e r e t h e m s e l v e s a b l e . I f , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e E n g l i s h s t a t u t e c o n f e r r e d j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e w i f e a f t e r t h r e e y e a r s r e s i d e n c e , t h e n i n o r d e r f o r a f o r e i g n d e c r e e t o b e r e c o g n i z e d , t h e w i f e m u s t h a v e b e e n r e s i d e n t w i t h i n t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e f o r e i g n c o u r t f o r a t l e a s t 3 8 t h r e e y e a r s . B u t i t w a s n o t n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e f o r e i g n c o u r t a c t u a l l y a s s u m e d - 67 -j u r i s d i c t i o n on the same basis as the English court; i t was s u f f i c i e n t i f facts existed which would have enabled the English court to assume 39 j u r i s d i c t i o n . Thus, i n Robinson-Scott v Robinson-Scott a Swiss divorce was recognized because the wife had been resident i n the t e r r i t o r y of the Swiss court for over three years, and under those circumstances the English court would have had j u r i s d i c t i o n under s. 18(1)(b) of the 40 Matrimonial Causes Act 1950. It was immaterial that the Swiss Court a c t u a l l y took j u r i s d i c t i o n on the basis of domicile i n the Swiss sense --41 a concept wholly unknown to English law. I t was also immaterial that 42 the ground of divorce was one which was not a v a i l a b l e i n England. Of course, Travers v Holley could only apply where the wife obtained the divorce, or where i n r e a l i t y the divorce was awarded to the husband 43 44 and wife j o i n t l y , and not where the husband alone obtained the divorce. (The reason for t h i s was that the a d d i t i o n a l statutory j u r i s d i c t i o n which 45 was conferred on the E n g l i s h courts was only applicable to the w i f e ) . 46 In Mountbatten v Mountbatten Davis J. held that the rule i n Travers v Holley could not be combined with the rule i n Armitage v A-G. In that case the husband and wife, who were domiciled i n England, married i n the United States i n 1950 and l i v e d i n New York. The husband returned to England and the wife obtained a divorce from the Mexican court i n 1954. She had resorted to the Mexican j u r i s d i c t i o n s o l e l y for the purpose of obtaining a divorce and the Mexican court assumed j u r i s d i c t i o n on the basis of her presence i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n . Evidence was adduced to show that the divorce would be recognized i n New York State, where the wife had been o r d i n a r i l y resident for four years. Davis J. rejected the contention that the decree should be recognized owing to recognition i n the state of - 68 -t h e w i f e ' s r e s i d e n c e , a n d s a i d t h a t t h i s w o u l d b e a w h o l l y i l l e g i t i m a t e e x t e n s i o n o f T r a v e r s v H o i l e y . Had t h e w i f e b e e n d o m i c i l e d i n New Y o r k S t a t e i n s t e a d o f m e r e l y r e s i d e n t t h e r e , t h e c o u r t w o u l d p r e s u m a b l y h a v e h a d n o o p t i o n b u t t o r e c o g n i z e t h e d i v o r c e p u r s u a n t t o t h e r u l e i n 4 6 A A r m i t a g e v A - G . T h e c o u r t a l s o p o i n t e d o u t t h a t E n g l a n d w a s t h e c o u r t o f t h e d o m i c i l e a n d g a v e a n e x a m p l e o f t h e " i m p o s s i b i l i t y " o f e x t e n d i n g t h e 47 r u l e i n T r a v e r s v H o l l e y t o t h e A r m i t a g e - t y p e s i t u a t i o n . He s a i d : " S u p p o s e a h u s b a n d a n d w i f e d o m i c i l e d i n , s a y , V i c t o r i a , A u s t r a l i a . T h e w i f e g o e s o f f t o New Y o r k a n d o r d i n a r i l y r e s i d e s t h e r e f o r o v e r t h r e e y e a r s . She t h e n g o e s t o M e x i c o a n d o b t a i n s a d e c r e e t h e r e i n s i m i l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s t o t h o s e i n w h i c h t h e p r e s e n t w i f e o b t a i n e d h e r d e c r e e . T h a t M e x i c a n d e c r e e i s n o t r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e c o u r t s o f t h e d o m i c i l e , V i c t o r i a , b u t i s r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e c o u r t s o f t h e w i f e ' s r e s i d e n c e , New Y o r k . I n s u b s e q u e n t p r o c e e d i n g s i n t h e E n g l i s h c o u r t s t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e M e x i c a n d e c r e e i s c a l l e d i n q u e s t i o n — f o r e x a m p l e , i n p r o c e e d i n g s a s t o l e g i t i m a c y o r i n h e r i t a n c e a f t e r a s u b s e q u e n t m a r r i a g e o f o n e o f t h e p a r t i e s . T h i s c o u r t w o u l d b e f a c e d w i t h t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e M e x i c a n d e c r e e w a s n o t r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e c o u r t o f t h e d o m i c i l e b u t w a s r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e c o u r t o f t h e w i f e ' s r e s i d e n c e . Can i t p o s s i b l y b e d o u b t e d t h a t t h i s c o u r t w o u l d h o l d , f o l l o w i n g t h e c o u r t o f t h e d o m i c i l e , t h a t t h e d e c r e e w a s n o t e n t i t l e d t o r e c o g n i t i o n ? " T h i s a r g u m e n t w a s e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f T r a v e r s v H o l l e y i t s e l f , a n d b e c a u s e o f t h i s p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t , i t w a s s u g g e s t e d I t h a t T r a v e r s v H o l l e y d i d n o t a p p l y i f t h e p a r t i e s w e r e d o m i c i l e d a b r o a d . H o w e v e r , t h e r e w a s n o a u t h o r i t y o n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f T r a v e r s v H o l l e y w h e r e t h e p a r t i e s w e r e d o m i c i l e d a b r o a d , a n d / o r i n a c o u n t r y w h i c h w o u l d n o t r e c o g n i z e t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e d e c r e e o b t a i n e d o t h e r w i s e t h a n o n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l b a s e s . T h e r u l e i n T r a v e r s v H o l l e y p r o b a b l y o p e r a t e d r e t r o a c t i v e l y t o v a l i d a t e d i v o r c e s o b t a i n e d e v e n b e f o r e t h e r e l e v a n t E n g l i s h s t a t u t e s w e r e e n a c t e d . S i n c e t h i s w a s t h e n a r r o w p o i n t f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n I n d y k a v - 69 -49 I n d y k a i t w i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d u n d e r t h a t h e a d i n g , i i ) C a n a d a B e f o r e 1 9 6 7 i t w a s n o t c e r t a i n w h e t h e r T r a v e r s v H o l l e y w o u l d a p p l y i n a l l o r a n y o f t h e p r o v i n c e s i n C a n a d a . 5 0 T h e r u l e w a s a p p l i e d i n M a n i t o b a i n J a n u s k i e w i c z v J a n u s k i e w i c z . N i t i k m a n J . f o u n d a s s i s t a n c e f r o m t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f 5 0 A C a n a d a i n S c h w e b e l v U n g a r a n d t h a t t h e r e c o u l d b e a n e x c e p t i o n t o t h e d o m i c i l e r u l e . I t w a s a l s o h e l d t h a t t h e g r o u n d s f o r d i v o r c e n e e d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b e t h e same a s t h e C a n a d i a n g r o u n d s p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e 5 1 f o r e i g n j u r i s d i c t i o n i s r e c o g n i z e d . I n O n t a r i o T r a v e r s v H o l l e y w a s a p p r o v e d i n p r i n c i p l e b y t h e O n t a r i o 52 C o u r t o f A p p e a l i n Re C a p o n . T h e r u l e h a s a l s o b e e n a p p l i e d i n A l b e r t a i n B a n d B v T h e D e p u t y 5 3 5 4 R e g i s t r a r o f V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s a n d i n Re A l l a r i e , b o t h o f w h i c h a l s o g a v e 5 5 a p p r o v a l t o t h e p r i n c i p l e l a i d d o w n i n R o b i n s o n - S c o t t v R o b i n s o n - S c o t t — t h a t i t w a s s u f f i c i e n t f o r r e c o g n i t i o n i f f a c t s e x i s t e d w h i c h w o u l d h a v e e n a b l e d t h e A l b e r t a c o u r t t o a s s u m e j u r i s d i c t i o n . C u r i o u s l y t h o u g h , i n t h e B a n d B c a s e , M i l v a i n J . n o t o n l y t o o k i n t o a c c o u n t t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f j u r i s d i c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e f o r e i g n l a w d i s t r i c t a n d C a n a d a , b u t a l s o t h e s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e s u b s t a n t i v e g r o u n d s o f d i v o r c e — a f a c t o r w h i c h 5 6 i s n o t n o r m a l l y r e l e v a n t . 57 T h e r u l e w a s n o t f o l l o w e d i n L a P i e r r e v W a l t e r , w h e r e R i l e y J . o f t h e A l b e r t a S u p r e m e C o u r t r e f u s e d t o r e c o g n i z e a S c o t t i s h d i v o r c e b a s e d o n t h r e e y e a r s r e s i d e n c e o f t h e w i f e , w h e n t h e h u s b a n d w a s a t a l l m a t e r i a l t i m e s d o m i c i l e d i n A l b e r t a . T h i s c a s e c a n b e e x p l a i n e d o n - 70 -s e v e r a l g r o u n d s : 1 ) R i l e y J . w a s u n d e r s t a n d a b l y u n a w a r e o f B a n d B v T h e D e p u t y R e g i s t r a r 5 8 o f V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s w h i c h w a s d e c i d e d o n J a n u a r y 2 8 , 1 9 6 0 . T h e L a P i e r r e c a s e w a s d e c i d e d o n F e b r u a r y 2 6 , 1 9 6 0 b u t t h e r e a s o n s f o r j u d g m e n t o f M i l v a i n J . i n t h e B a n d B c a s e w e r e n o t i s s u e d u n t i l M a r c h 9 , 1 9 6 0 . 2 ) I f " r e c i p r o c i t y " a n d n o t s i m i l a r i t y o f j u r i s d i c t i o n w e r e t h e b a s i s o f r e c o g n i t i o n , t h e n R i l e y J . m a y h a v e b e e n i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t 59 T r a v e r s v H o l l e y w a s n o t a p p r o v e d i n S c o t l a n d . 3 ) T h e m o s t r e a s o n a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f L a P i e r r e v W a l t e r i s t h a t T r a v e r s  v H o l l e y d i d n o t a p p l y b e c a u s e t h e r e w a s n o s u b s t a n t i a l l y s i m i l a r j u r i s -d i c t i o n i n A l b e r t a , i n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e r e w a s n o j u r i s d i c t i o n o n t h e b a s i s o f r e s i d e n c e i n C a n a d a . A t t h a t t i m e t h e o n l y l e g i s l a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g 6 0 j u r i s d i c t i o n i n d i v o r c e w a s d e s e r t e d w i f e l e g i s l a t i o n . T h u s i t w a s c e r t a i n t h a t , i f T r a v e r s v H o l l e y w e r e t o a p p l y i n A l b e r t a , t h e d e f a c t o g r o u n d s o f j u r i s d i c t i o n h a d t o c o r r e s p o n d a l m o s t 6 1 e x a c t l y t o t h e g r o u n d s o f j u r i s d i c t i o n u n d e r t h e C a n a d i a n l e g i s l a t i o n 62 i n t h e D i v o r c e J u r i s d i c t i o n A c t o f 1 9 3 0 . d . Summary B e f o r e I n d y k a t h e r e w e r e t h r e e g r o u n d s f o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f f o r e i g n d i v o r c e s i n E n g l a n d - - n a m e l y , d o m i c i l e a n d t h e r u l e s i n A r m i t a g e a n d T r a v e r s v H o l l e y . I n C a n a d a a d i v o r c e w o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d : 1 ) i f t h e p a r t i e s w e r e d o m i c i l e d i n t h e c o u n t r y g r a n t i n g t h e d e c r e e a t t h e t i m e o f i n s t i t u t i o n o f p r o c e e d i n g s ; 2 ) i f t h e d i v o r c e w a s r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e c o u n t r y o f d o m i c i l e a t t h e - 7 1 -d a t e o f t h e d e c r e e , a n d p o s s i b l y i f d o m i c i l e i n t h e r e c o g n i z i n g c o u n t r y 6 3 w a s a c q u i r e d s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e d e c r e e ; 3 ) p o s s i b l y i f f a c t s e x i s t e d w h i c h w o u l d h a v e b e e n s u f f i c i e n t t o f o u n d 64 j u r i s d i c t i o n u n d e r t h e C a n a d i a n s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n . C l e a r l y t h e s e w e r e r a t h e r n a r r o w , r i g i d g r o u n d s o f r e c o g n i t i o n w h i c h t e n d e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e n u m b e r o f l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e s , e v e n w h e n t h e d e c r e e o f d i v o r c e w a s o b t a i n e d i n o t h e r common l a w j u r i s d i c t i o n s , s u c h a s 65 S c o t l a n d . 1 4 . 1 9 6 7 - 7 1 ENGLAND - - INDYKA v INDYKA T h i s i n f a m o u s c a s e a n d i t s a p p l i c a t i o n h a s b e e n t h e s u b j e c t o f 2 m u c h a c a d e m i c w r i t i n g i n t h e p a s t . A n a t t e m p t w i l l b e made t o a n a l y s e 3 b r i e f l y t h e j u d g m e n t s o f t h e f i v e Law L o r d s who w e r e p r e s e n t , a l t h o u g h i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t n o p r e c i s e r a t i o c o u l d b e d r a w n t h e r e f r o m . H o w e v e r , t o g e t h e r w i t h a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e E n g l i s h c a s e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f I n d y k a , t h i s e x p o s i t i o n m a y f a c i l i t a t e c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e c u r r e n t p o s i t i o n i n C a n a d a a n d may b e i n d i c a t i v e o f p o t e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e r e c o g n i t i o n r u l e s i n C a n a d a . S h o r t l y s t a t e d , t h e f a c t s b e f o r e t h e c o u r t w e r e t h a t W, who h a d a l w a y s l i v e d i n a n d w a s a n a t i o n a l o f C z e c h o s l o v a k i a , w a s g r a n t e d a d i v o r c e b y t h e C z e c h c o u r t w h i c h b e c a m e f i n a l i n F e b r u a r y 1 9 4 9 , s h o r t l y b e f o r e t h e p a s s i n g o f t h e Law R e f o r m ( M i s c e l l a n e o u s P r o v i s i o n s ) A c t 4 1 9 4 9 . ( T h i s e n a b l e d a w i f e t o p e t i t i o n i n E n g l a n d o n t h e b a s i s o f t h r e e y e a r s r e s i d e n c e ) . T h e h u s b a n d , H , a l s o C z e c h b y b i r t h h a d a c q u i r e d a d o m i c i l e o f c h o i c e i n E n g l a n d s o o n a f t e r t h e w a r . I n 1 9 5 9 h e m a r r i e d W2 i n E n g l a n d , a n d i n 1 9 6 4 W2 p e t i t i o n e d t h e E n g l i s h c o u r t s - 7 2 -f o r d i v o r c e . H c l a i m e d b y w a y o f a m e n d e d a n s w e r t h a t t h e C z e c h d e c r e e w a s n o t v a l i d i n E n g l a n d a n d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t h e w a s s t i l l l a w f u l l y m a r r i e d t o W a n d n e v e r v a l i d l y m a r r i e d t o W ^ . T h e i s s u e d i r e c t l y b e f o r e t h e c o u r t w a s w h e t h e r t h e r u l e i n T r a v e r s 5 v H o l l e y c o u l d b e a p p l i e d r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y . Was t h e C z e c h d i v o r c e v a l i d a t e d e v e n t h o u g h i t w a s o b t a i n e d b e f o r e t h e r e l e v a n t E n g l i s h s t a t u t e , a n d b e f o r e t h e E n g l i s h c o u r t c o u l d h a v e a s s u m e d j u r i s d i c t i o n i n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f W? 6 A t f i r s t i n s t a n c e L a t e y J. h e l d t h a t t h e C z e c h d e c r e e w a s i n v a l i d i n E n g l a n d b e c a u s e t h e p r i n c i p l e o f T r a v e r s v H o l l e y w a s a p p l i c a b l e o n l y t o d e c r e e s o b t a i n e d a f t e r D e c e m b e r , 1 9 4 9 , w h e n t h e E n g l i s h s t a t u t e was e n a c t e d . - 7 T h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l , b y a m a j o r i t y , r e v e r s e d t h i s f i n d i n g a n d h e l d t h a t T r a v e r s v H o l l e y o p e r a t e d r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y t o v a l i d a t e t h e d i v o r c e . 8 T h e H o u s e o f L o r d s u n a n i m o u s l y d i s m i s s e d t h e a p p e a l , b u t e a c h o f t h e i r L o r d s h i p s d i f f e r e d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e p r e c i s e g r o u n d s o n w h i c h t h e i r d e c i s i o n r e s t e d . T h e o n e c e r t a i n t y i s t h a t a l l o f t h e i r L o r d s h i p s 9 w e r e i n f a v o u r o f w i d e r b a s e s o f r e c o g n i t i o n f o r f o r e i g n d i v o r c e s . 10 a . R e a s o n s f o r t h e W i d e r R u l e ( s ) T h e H o u s e g a v e v a r i o u s r e a s o n s f o r t h e a d o p t i o n o f w i d e r r e c o g n i t i o n b a s e s . T h e s e w e r e : 1 ) d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h h a d e m e r g e d i n t h e c o n c e p t o f d o m i c i l e i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s ; 2 ) d o m i c i l e w a s n o t t h e o n l y c o m m o n l y a c c e p t e d c o n n e c t i n g f a c t o r ; 3 ) i t w a s a l s o f e l t t h a t c h a n g e d s o c i a l h a b i t s , i n c r e a s e d i n t e r - c o u n t r y - 73 -t r a v e l , m o b i l i t y , a n d t h u s i n c r e a s e d i n t e r - c o u n t r y m a r r i a g e s h a d i n c r e a s e d 1 1 12 t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e " s c a n d a l " o f l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e s . T h u s , p u b l i c p o l i c y d e m a n d e d t h a t a m o r e f l e x i b l e a t t i t u d e b e t a k e n t o w a r d s f o r e i g n 13 14 d i v o r c e s i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e s . L o r d R e i d s t a t e d : " . . . b u t o n c e we g e t r i d o f t h e i d e a t h a t t h e r e c a n o n l y b e o n e t e s t a n d t h a t t h e r e c a n n e v e r b e j u r i s d i c t i o n i n m o r e t h a n o n e c o u r t , i t seems t o me t o b e v e r y m u c h i n t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d b e some o t h e r t e s t b e s i d e s t h a t o f d o m i c i l e . " 4 ) A l s o , t h e s t a t u t o r y i n r o a d s i n t o t h e l a w o f d o m i c i l e i n d i v o r c e j u r i s -d i c t i o n made i t u n n e c e s s a r y t o m a i n t a i n a n y l o n g e r t h a t t h e r i g i d r u l e o f 15 d o m i c i l e w a s t h e o n l y t e s t . S i n c e P a r l i a m e n t h a d n o t i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t h e common l a w r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t , i t w a s o p e n t o t h e H o u s e t o m o d i f y t h e common 16 17 l a w . L o r d P e a r s o n s t a t e d : " N o w t h e f o r m e r s y s t e m i s n o l o n g e r m a i n t a i n a b l e . I t h a s b e e n u n d e r m i n e d a n d d i s c r e d i t e d b y i t s d i s a d v a n t a g e s a n d t h e c h a n g e s i n g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s a n d t h e p a s s i n g o f t h e t w o e n a c t m e n t s t o w h i c h I h a v e r e f e r r e d . I t n o l o n g e r s t a n d s i n t h e w a y o f a r e a l i s t i c a n d r e a s o n a b l e v i e w b e i n g t a k e n o f t h e r a n g e o f c a s e s i n w h i c h v a l i d i t y s h o u l d b e a c c o r d e d i n E n g l a n d t o d i v o r c e s g r a n t e d i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . " T h e i r L o r d s h i p s a d v o c a t e d m o r e g e n e r a l , r e l a x e d g r o u n d s , b u t w h a t w e r e t h e y ? b . M a t r i m o n i a l Home L o r d R e i d d i f f e r e d m o s t f r o m t h e o t h e r Law L o r d s ; h e a l o n e a d v o c a t e d a r e t u r n t o t h e o l d n o t i o n o f l o c a t i o n o f t h e " m a t r i m o n i a l h o m e " a s t h e b a s i s 18 f o r r e c o g n i t i o n . c . N a t i o n a l i t y A l l o f t h e i r L o r d s h i p s w e r e i n f a v o u r o f g i v i n g w e i g h t t o t h e f a c t o r o f n a t i o n a l i t y , b u t t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s . L o r d P e a r c e w a s i n f a v o u r o f 19 r e c o g n i t i o n o n t h e b a s i s o f n a t i o n a l i t y a l o n e , a n d L o r d W i l b e r f o r c e w a s - 74 -2 0 i n f a v o u r o f n a t i o n a l i t y " i n a p p r o p r i a t e c i r c u m s t a n c e s " . I t w a s a l s o a c c e p t e d a s a f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g " r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n " w h i c h i s d i s c u s s e d b e l o w , d . R e s i d e n c e S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e w a s g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t t h a t w e i g h t s h o u l d b e g i v e n t o t h e f a c t o r o f r e s i d e n c e t o d e t e r m i n e " r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n " . L o r d P e a r s o n f e l t t h a t t h e r e w a s d i f f i c u l t y i n r e c o g n i t i o n o n t h e b a s i s o f 2 1 a m e r e l y r e s i d e n t i a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n , b u t h e d i d s a y t h a t " T h e b r o a d d i s t i n c t i o n i s b e t w e e n a p e r s o n who m a k e s h i s home i n a c o u n t r y a n d a 22 p e r s o n w h o i s a m e r e s o j o u r n e r t h e r e . " L o r d R e i d saw n o w r o n g i n r e c o g n i z i n g a d e c r e e g i v e n t o a w i f e w h o 2 3 w a s h a b i t u a l l y r e s i d e n t w i t h i n t h e d e c r e e i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n ; a n d L o r d W i l b e r f o r c e t h o u g h t " i t m a y b e p o s s i b l e . . . f o r j u d i c i a l d e c i s i o n t o a l l o w r e c o g n i t i o n g e n e r a l l y t o d e c r e e s b a s e d o n t h e n o n - d o m i c i l i a r y r e s i d e n c e o f 2 4 t h e s p o u s e s . " e . T h e R e a l a n d S u b s t a n t i a l C o n n e c t i o n W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f L o r d R e i d , t h e H o u s e f e l t t h a t r e c o g n i t i o n s h o u l d b e a c c o r d e d o n t h e b a s i s o f a " r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n " w i t h t h e d e c r e e i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n . R e s i d e n c e a n d n a t i o n a l i t y w e r e c o n s i d e r e d a s 25 f a c t o r s w h i c h c o u l d " r e i n f o r c e t h e c o n n e c t i o n " . 2 6 27 L o r d s M o r r i s a n d P e a r s o n s e e m e d t o f e e l i t w a s n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h c i t i z e n s h i p c o m b i n e d w i t h a r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n . A m a j o r i t y , L o r d s M o r r i s , P e a r c e a n d W i l b e r f o r c e , e n v i s a g e d t h a t t h e r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n t e s t w o u l d b e a p p l i c a b l e t o a w i f e o n l y ; L o r d s W i l b e r f o r c e a n d P e a r c e e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d t h a t t h e t e s t w o u l d b e a p p l i c a b l e t o a w i f e p e t i t i o n e r . - 7 5 -28 L o r d M o r r i s s a i d : " T h e e v i d e n c e w a s t h a t t h e C z e c h c o u r t a c c e p t e d j u r i s d i c t i o n o n t h e g r o u n d t h a t b o t h p a r t i e s w e r e a n d a l w a y s h a d b e e n C z e c h o s l o v a k i a n c i t i z e n s . T h e f i r s t w i f e a t t h e t i m e w h e n  s h e p r e s e n t e d h e r p e t i t i o n i n C z e c h o s l o v a k i a u n d o u b t e d l y h a d a r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h a t c o u n t r y . I s e e n o r e a s o n w h y t h e d e c r e e o f t h e C z e c h c o u r t s h o u l d n o t i n t h o s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s b e r e c o g n i z e d . " ( E m p h a s i s a d d e d ) L o r d P e a r c e s a i d t h a t we s h o u l d " r e g a r d o u r own j u r i s d i c t i o n a s o n l y t h e a p p r o x i m a t e t e s t o f r e c o g n i t i o n w i t h a r i g h t i n o u r c o u r t s t o g o f u r t h e r w h e n t h i s i s j u s t i f i e d b y s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n t h e p e t i t i o n e r ' s c o n n e c t i o n 29 w i t h t h e c o u n t r y g r a n t i n g t h e d e c r e e . " B u t i t w a s c l e a r f r o m t h e j u s t i f i c a -t i o n s g i v e n t h a t L o r d P e a r c e w a s s p e a k i n g i n t e r m s o f a w i f e p e t i t i o n e r : T h e s e w e r e : f i r s t , t h a t r e f u s a l t o r e c o g n i z e t h e d e c r e e w o u l d p u n i s h H who s t a y s i n E n g l a n d b u t w o u l d n o t d e t e r t h e w i f e w h o l i v e d a b r o a d ; s e c o n d , t h a t r e c o g n i t i o n o f a d i v o r c e a c q u i r e d a b r o a d f i t t e d i n w i t h t h e n o t u n r e a s o n -a b l e s c h e m e o f a n i n d e p e n d e n t d o m i c i l e o f t h e w i f e f o r d i v o r c e p u r p o s e s . 30 L o r d W i l b e r f o r c e s a i d : " I t w o u l d b e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h d e v e l o p m e n t s I h a v e m e n t i o n e d a n d w i t h t h e t r e n d o f l e g i s l a t i o n . . . t o r e c o g n i z e d i v o r c e s g i v e n t o w i v e s b y t h e c o u r t s o f t h e i r r e s i d e n c e w h e r e v e r a r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n i s s h o w n b e t w e e n t h e p e t i t i o n e r a n d t h e c o u n t r y o r t e r r i t o r y e x e r c i s i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n . " H o w e v e r t h e s p e e c h e s o f t h e i r L o r d s h i p s c o u l d b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s m e r e g e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e c o u r t s i n f u t u r e c a s e s - - a k i n d o f s t o p - g a p 31 m e a s u r e p e n d i n g p a r l i a m e n t a r y a c t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , L o r d M o r r i s s a i d : " T h e r e m a y i n o t h e r c a s e s , b e f u r t h e r a n d d i f f e r e n t b a s e s f o r r e c o g n i t i o n " , a n d l a t e r i n t h e same p a r a g r a p h : " U n l e s s b y l e g i s l a t i o n some c o d e c a n b e e n a c t e d t h e c o u r t s w i l l b e l e f t t o d e a l w i t h p r o b l e m s a s a n d w h e n t h e y a r i s e . " 32 33 F i n a l l y , Lords Pearson and Pearce expressed the l i m i t a t i o n s to recognition; a decree obtained by fraud or offending against s u b s t a n t i a l 34 j u s t i c e was not to be recognized. They were also of the opinion that the foreign decree should not be recognized i f i t was not a "genuine" 35 divorce, or where the court was used for the convenience of "birds of 36 37 passage". The facts of Mountbatten v Mountbatten, where a divorce was obtained from the Mexican court a f t e r one day's presence, were given as an example of such a divorce. f . What remained of the pre-existing rules? 38 i ) Domicile None of t h e i r Lordships suggested that domicile should no longer be 39 a test of recognition, merely that i t should no longer be the only t e s t . 40 Lords Pearce and Wilberforce were of the opinion that the primary court of reference was s t i l l to be the court of the domicile. 41 i i ) Travers v Holley 42 Travers v Holley emerged "comparatively unscathed". The majority 43 held that i t was wholly retrospective i n a p p l i c a t i o n . However, the 44 r e c i p r o c i t y basis of the dec i s i o n was c r i t i c i z e d heavily by Lord Reid. I t was also f e l t that Travers v Holley should not be a c a s t - i r o n r u l e , to be affected by each piecemeal l e g i s l a t i v e reform of the j u r i s -d i c t i o n a l r u l e s , and that consideration should always be given f i r s t to 45 the character of the l e g i s l a t i o n involved. In any event, the ru l e was applied shortly a f t e r Indyka v Indyka 46 by Simon P. i n T i j a n i c v T i j a n i c . Likewise, the p r i n c i p l e i n Robinson-47 48 Scott v Robinson-Scott was applied i n Brown v Brown. But i t was - 77 -u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e r u l e w a s t h e r e a f t e r o f a n y r e a l v a l u e , s i n c e t h e r e w o u l d p r o b a b l y b e a " r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n " i n t h e T r a v e r s v H o l l e y t y p e s i t u a t i o n . 4 9 g . P o s t - I n d y k a A d m i t t e d l y , m o s t o f t h e d e c i s i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w e d I n d y k a w e r e 50 u n d e f e n d e d a n d , t h e r e f o r e , some o f t h e i n c o n s i s t e n c y a n d a r b i t r a r y e x t e n s i o n s o f i t s a p p l i c a t i o n m a y b e a c c o u n t e d f o r o n t h e b a s i s t h a t t h e j u d g e s i n q u e s t i o n d i d n o t h a v e t h e b e n e f i t o f a f u l l a r g u m e n t ; b u t i t i s h a r d t o c o n c e i v e o f a m o r e i n c o n s i s t e n t g r o u p o f c a s e s . T h e s h e e r a m o u n t o f l i t i g a t i o n b e t w e e n 1 9 6 7 a n d 1 9 7 1 i s i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e u n c e r t a i n t y w h i c h w a s b o u n d t o a r i s e f r o m t h e l a c k o f s p e c i f i c 5 1 r a t i o d e c i d e n d i i n t h e H o u s e o f L o r d s ' d e c i s i o n . L o r d W i l b e r f o r c e s a i d : . . . " I h a v e n o f e a r s t h a t u n c e r t a i n t y w i l l b e i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e l a w . T h e c o u r t s a r e w e l l a b l e t o p e r f o r m t h e t a s k o f e x a m i n i n g t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e r e s i d e n t p e t i t i o n e r w i f e a n d t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n i n v o k e d , b e a r i n g i n m i n d , b u t n o t b e i n g r i g i d l y b o u n d b y , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s o f d o m e s t i c j u r i s d i c t i o n . " T h a t w a s p r e c i s e l y t h e p r o b l e m . S i n c e n o o u t s i d e r c o u l d d e t e r m i n e w h e n t h e f o r e i g n d e c r e e w o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d o n t h e b a s i s o f a r e a l a n d 52 s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n , i t w a s n e c e s s a r y t o go t o c o u r t t o f i n d o u t . T h u s , i t w a s n o t s o m u c h t h a t d i v o r c e s f r o m o v e r s e a s w e r e r e c o g n i z e d a f t e r 1 9 6 7 i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h i c h d i d n o t j u s t i f y r e c o g n i t i o n , b u t t h a t t h e r e w a s n o s p e c i f i c c o d e o f r e c o g n i t i o n o n w h i c h l a w y e r s c o u l d r e l y w h e n a d v i s i n g t h e i r c l i e n t s . A " r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n " w a s h e l d t o e x i s t o n t h e b a s i s 5 3 5 4 o f r e s i d e n c e i n t h e f o r e i g n j u r i s d i c t i o n f o r o n e y e a r , f i f t e e n m o n t h s , 55 a n d t w o a n d a h a l f y e a r s i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g t h e g r a n t i n g o f t h e d e c r e e . B u t r e s i d e n c e o f l e s s t h a n o n e y e a r was i n s u f f i c i e n t t o s h o w - 7 8 -" s u b s t a n t i a l " c o n n e c t i o n , a t l e a s t , i f t h e r e w e r e n o o t h e r a d d i t i o n a l 5 6 f a c t o r s . A l s o , t h e m e r e f a c t o f c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e m a r r i a g e i n t h e d e c r e e i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n was n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o e s t a b l i s h " r e a l a n d 5 7 s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n " i f t h e r e w a s i n s u f f i c i e n t s u b s e q u e n t r e s i d e n c e . 5 8 N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n A n g e l o v A n g e l o r e s i d e n c e o f t h e w i f e p e t i t i o n e r f o r t h r e e m o n t h s i n G e r m a n y was h e l d s u f f i c i e n t t o s a t i s f y t h e t e s t . I n t h e A n g e l o c a s e t h e w i f e w a s a n a t i o n a l o f G e r m a n y a n d h a d l i v e d t h e r e t h r o u g h o u t h e r u n m a r r i e d l i f e . I n t h a t c a s e t h e c o u r t p r e f e r r e d L o r d 59 R e i d ' s t e s t o f h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e o f t h e w i f e , a n d i n r e a l i t y t h e d i v o r c e w a s r e c o g n i z e d o n t h e b a s i s o f h e r h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e i n G e r m a n y . T h e r e l e v a n t d a t e f o r d e t e r m i n g " r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n " w a s n o t c l e a r f r o m t h e c a s e l a w ; i t seems t h a t t h i s f e a t u r e o f t h e t e s t was n o t t h e s u b j e c t o f d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h i s r e f l e c t s t h e t r e n d o f a m o r e f l e x i b l e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s r e c o g n i t i o n o f f o r e i g n d i v o r c e s . 60 I n B l a i r v B l a i r i t w a s h e l d t h a t t h e - p e t i t i o n e r s a t i s f i e d t h e t e s t e v e n t h o u g h h e h a d s e v e r e d h i s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n b y 6 1 t h e t i m e o f t h e p e t i t i o n . I n W e l s b y v W e l s b y , h o w e v e r , C a i r n s J. i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e l e v a n t t i m e w a s t h e d a t e o f t h e d e c r e e , w h e n h e s a i d t h a t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e w i f e h a d r e m a i n e d i n t h e d e c r e e i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n f o r a f u r t h e r t w o a n d a h a l f y e a r s a f t e r t h e d i v o r c e , c o u l d b e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t a s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f n o p r e s e n t i n t e n t i o n t o l e a v e a t t h e t i m e o f t h e d e c r e e . T h u s r e s i d e n c e a f t e r t h e d i v o r c e w a s t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t a n d i t c a n b e s a i d t h a t c o n d u c t o f t h e w i f e , a f t e r t h e p r o n o u n c e m e n t o f t h e d e c r e e , c o u l d b e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e r e 62 w a s a r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n . 63 I n M a t h e r v M a h o n e y a N e v a d a d i v o r c e w a s r e c o g n i z e d o n a c o m b i n a t i o n - 79 -64 of the p r i n c i p l e s i n Armitage v A-G and Indyka; the divorce was recognized because i t would have been recognized i n Pennsylvania, a law 65 d i s t r i c t with which the wife had a r e a l and substantial connection. 66 In Messina v Smith a divorce obtained i n 1946 was recognized, when the wife had been resident i n the United States for s i x years, but had obtained a divorce i n Nevada a f t e r only s i x weeks residence there. The d i s t i n c t i o n drawn between the Messina case and the e a r l i e r case 67 of Mountbatten v Mountbatten was that: i n the former case, the divorce was regarded as "genuine" by the "home" state and that the c o n s t i t u t i o n of the United States required recognition of such divorces throughout the country; while i n the l a t t e r , recognition of the Mexican decree "was a matter for the law of each i n d i v i d u a l state", and was a blatant example 68 of forum shopping. This seems to be a somewhat f i c t i t i o u s d i s t i n c t i o n , since i n the Mountbatten case, the wife p e t i t i o n e r was normally resident i n New York and New York State did i n f a c t recognize the Mexican divorce. Both cases involved forum shopping. In Messina v Smith i t took place within the United States, while Mountbatten involved the Mexican courts. Perhaps a better explanation for the d i s t i n c t i o n between the two cases would be to say that a f t e r Indyka a r e a l and substantial connection with the United States as a whole was s u f f i c i e n t to j u s t i f y recognition 68A of an American decree, regardless of the state which granted i t . h. Retroactivity? The Messina case also indicated that the Indyka test was r e t r o a c t i v e since the divorce was obtained i n 1946. 69 North pointed out the d i f f i c u l t y of a retrospective t e s t , namely, that there may be confusion i f some intervening act takes place which r e l i e s -80 -on the i n v a l i d i t y of the divorce. The t y p i c a l example would be that of H divorcing W-^  i n 1944, and remarrying W2 i n 1945. W^ , acting on good l e g a l advice i n 1946, decides that the 1944 divorce was i n v a l i d , owing 70 to the narrow grounds of recognition at that time. W9 leaves H and 71 remarries h e r s e l f i n 1947. Could Indyka (or, Travers v Holley, i f W^  obtained the divorce) have the e f f e c t of r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y v a l i d a t i n g the 1944 divorce and the 1945 marriage, with the r e s u l t that V^'s second marriage i s in v a l i d ? North suggested that the operative date for determining the v a l i d i t y of the divorce should be the date of the intervening act or "matter i n 72 issue". In those circumstances there would be f u l l r e t r o a c t i v i t y , unless there was an intervening matter i n issue, such as a subsequent marriage. The problem with t h i s s o l u t i o n i s that i t could lead to anomalies, since one may not know of the pre- e x i s t i n g intervening act at the time of the a c t i o n . To take the above example: H could p e t i t i o n i n England for a declaration of v a l i d i t y of the 1944 divorce, or the second marriage i n 1945, a f t e r the decision i n Indyka, but may not know of the whereabouts of or may not discover her remarriage, u n t i l a f t e r the declaration of v a l i d i t y of the 1944 divorce or the 1945 marriage. It seems that the p o t e n t i a l problem of the intervening act which r e l i e s on the i n v a l i d i t y of the divorce i s i n e v i t a b l e , i f divorce recognition rules are to be r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y relaxed. With any luck, the s i t u a t i o n of r e l i a n c e on the i n v a l i d i t y of a divorce, without a 73 decl a r a t i o n from the court, would be rare and u n l i k e l y to cause too much d i f f i c u l t y . Perhaps the number of persons r e l y i n g on the v a l i d i t y - 81 -o f a f o r e i g n d i v o r c e i n t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s w o u l d b e g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f p e r s o n s r e l y i n g o n t h e i n v a l i d i t y o f d i v o r c e . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t n e w c o m e r s t o E n g l a n d , w h o h a d n o c o n c e p t i o n o f E n g l i s h l a w , m a y n e v e r h a v e c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e d i v o r c e s , w h i c h t h e y o b t a i n e d a b r o a d , w o u l d b e i n v a l i d i n E n g l a n d , a n d m a y n e v e r h a v e q u e s t i o n e d t h e i r v a l i d i t y . T h e a d v a n t a g e o f r e c o g n i t i o n a n d m i n i m i s a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e s w o u l d seem t o o u t w e i g h t h e p o t e n t i a l c o n f u s i o n o f r e l i a n c e o n t h e i n v a l i d i t y o f a d i v o r c e , j . Who C o u l d S a t i s f y t h e T e s t ? 7 4 C e r t a i n l y a w i f e p e t i t i o n e r c o u l d s a t i s f y t h e t e s t , a s t h a t w a s t h e s i t u a t i o n i n I n d y k a i t s e l f . B u t t h e I n d y k a c a s e w a s e x t e n d e d i n t h i s r e s p e c t i n s u b s e q u e n t d e c i s i o n s . 75 I n M a y f i e l d v M a y f i e l d i t w a s h e l d t h a t a f o r e i g n d i v o r c e s h o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d o n t h e p r i n c i p l e o f I n d y k a , e v e n t h o u g h i t w a s t h e h u s b a n d w h o o b t a i n e d t h e d i v o r c e . S i m o n P . s a i d t h e m a t e r i a l f a c t w a s t h a t t h e d e c r e e c h a n g e d t h e s t a t u s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t w i f e , w h o h a d a r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h G e r m a n y ( t h e f o r e i g n j u r i s d i c t i o n i n q u e s t i o n ) , a n d s h o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d a s s u c h , i n r e l a t i o n t o b o t h t h e h u s b a n d a n d t h e 76 w i f e . 77 M r . J u s t i c e C u m m i n g - B r u c e , i n B l a i r v B l a i r , s e e m e d t o b e o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t i t w a s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e p e t i t i o n e r ( w h e t h e r h e w a s m a l e o r f e m a l e ) t o h a v e a r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e l a w d i s t r i c t o r c o u n t r y i n q u e s t i o n . I n t h e l a t t e r c a s e , a n E n g l i s h m a n m a r r i e d a N o r w e g i a n a n d a c q u i r e d a N o r w e g i a n d o m i c i l e o f c h o i c e . S h o r t l y a f t e r h e l o s t h i s N o r w e g i a n d o m i c i l e o f c h o i c e , t h e h u s b a n d p e t i t i o n e d f o r d i v o r c e i n N o r w a y . T h e r e w a s n o d o u b t t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t w i f e h a d a r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h N o r w a y , f o r s h e w a s a n a t i o n a l a n d d o m i c i l i a r y - 82 -o f t h a t c o u n t r y a t a l l m a t e r i a l t i m e s . Y e t C u m m i n g - B r u c e J. w e n t i n t o 78 some f a c t u a l d e t a i l t o e s t a b l i s h t h e h u s b a n d ' s r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h N o r w a y , t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t s u c h f a c t o r s a s : h i s m a r r i a g e t o a N o r w e g i a n ; e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e m a t r i m o n i a l home i n N o r w a y ; a c q u i s i t i o n o f a d o m i c i l e o f c h o i c e i n N o r w a y , a n d s o o n . S u r e l y , i f C u m m i n g - B r u c e J. h a d f e l t t h a t t h e c o n n e c t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t w a s s u f f i c i e n t h e n e e d n o t , a n d w o u l d n o t , h a v e g o n e t o s u c h l e n g t h s . 79 I n M u n t v M u n t a d i v o r c e h a d b e e n g r a n t e d o n t h e b a s i s o f d o m i c i l e a n d b o n a f i d e r e s i d e n c e i n V i r g i n i a f o r a t l e a s t a y e a r . T h e j u d g e w a s s a t i s f i e d b y e x p e r t e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e w o r d " d o m i c i l e " , a s u s e d b y t h e f o r e i g n j u r i s d i c t i o n , w a s a k i n t o a m e r e r e s i d e n t i a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e d i v o r c e w a s r e c o g n i z e d o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e h u s b a n d p e t i t i o n e r ' s r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n . T h e r e w a s n o E n g l i s h c a s e w h e r e a w i f e o b t a i n e d a d i v o r c e w h i c h w a s r e c o g n i z e d o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e h u s b a n d r e s p o n d e n t ' s " r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n " . O b v i o u s l y , i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n p r e f e r a b l e t o h a v e a p r o p e r l y d e f i n e d t e s t , s o t h a t o n e c o u l d s t a t e w i t h c e r t a i n t y who c o u l d s a t i s f y t h e t e s t , b e i t h u s b a n d , w i f e , r e s p o n d e n t , p e t i t i o n e r , o r a n y c o m b i n a t i o n , k . F i n a n c i a l P r o t e c t i o n One r e a s o n w h y t h e c o u r t s s h o u l d h a v e c o n s i d e r e d c a r e f u l l y b e f o r e e x t e n d i n g t h e r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n t e s t t o t h e h u s b a n d , o r a t a n y r a t e t h e h u s b a n d p e t i t i o n e r , w a s c l e a r l y p o i n t e d o u t b y L o r d P e a r c e 80 i n I n d y k a v I n d y k a . He s a i d : " I f h e c a n b y r e s i d i n g a b r o a d f o r t h r e e y e a r s o b t a i n a d e c r e e w h i c h i s r e c o g n i z e d i n t h i s c o u n t r y i t w i l l t e r m i n a t e h i s m a t r i m o n i a l o b l i g a t i o n s a n d d e b a r h i s f o r m e r w i f e f r o m s e e k i n g - 8 3 -f i n a n c i a l r e l i e f i n o u r c o u r t s . U n l e s s P a r l i a m e n t i n t r o d u c e s some m a c h i n e r y f o r g r a n t i n g s u c h r e l i e f w h i l e a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h e f o r e i g n s e v e r a n c e o f t h e m a r r i a g e t i e , I s e e n o p r a c t i c a l m e a n s o f p u t t i n g men a n d women o n t h e same b a s i s w i t h r e g a r d t o r e c o g n i t i o n o f d e c r e e s . " T h e i s s u e o f f i n a n c i a l p r o t e c t i o n f o r t h e w i f e a f t e r a f o r e i g n d i v o r c e , w h i c h i s c a n v a s s e d i n t h e f i n a l p a r t o f t h i s w o r k , w a s r a i s e d i n T u r c z a k v 8 1 T u r c z a k . T h e f a c t s w e r e t h a t H a n d W, b o t h P o l i s h , w e r e m a r r i e d i n P o l a n d i n 1 9 3 9 . Two m o n t h s l a t e r t h e y w e r e s e p a r a t e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e w a r . A t t h e e n d o f W o r l d W a r 1 1 , H s e t t l e d i n E n g l a n d a n d W r e m a i n e d i n P o l a n d . I n 1 9 5 0 h e w r o t e t o W a s k i n g h e r t o d i v o r c e h i m a n d s h e r e f u s e d . I n 1 9 6 3 H d e c i d e d t o commence d i v o r c e p r o c e e d i n g s i n P o l a n d a n d a g a i n a s k e d W t o d i v o r c e h i m , t h i s t i m e o f f e r i n g h e r a m o n e t a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n . She r e f u s e d a n d H c o m m e n c e d d i v o r c e p r o c e e d i n g s h i m s e l f i n P o l a n d . He o b t a i n e d a d i v o r c e i n 1 9 6 7 a n d i n t h e same y e a r , w h i l e t h e P o l i s h a c t i o n w a s o n a p p e a l , t h e w i f e i s s u e d a summons i n E n g l a n d u n d e r s . 22 o f t h e M a t r i m o n i a l 82 C a u s e s A c t 1 9 6 5 a l l e g i n g w i l f u l n e g l e c t t o m a i n t a i n b y t h e h u s b a n d . S u b s e q u e n t l y t h e P o l i s h d e c r e e w a s m a d e f i n a l . 83 I t w a s h e l d t h a t t h e w o r d i n g o f s . 22 p r e c l u d e d a n y o r d e r w h e r e t h e r e w a s n o s u b s i s t i n g m a r r i a g e a n d , s i n c e t h e m a r r i a g e h a d b e e n v a l i d l y d i s s o l v e d b y t h e P o l i s h c o u r t , n o o r d e r c o u l d b e m a d e . 8 4 T h u s a w i f e i n E n g l a n d w a s n o t a b l e , a n d s t i l l i s n o t a b l e , t o o b t a i n m a i n t e n a n c e f r o m t h e E n g l i s h c o u r t a f t e r a v a l i d f o r e i g n d i v o r c e . P e r h a p s t h e f a c t s o f T u r c z a k i t s e l f a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t o f t h e m o s t d e s e r v i n g c a s e f o r m a i n t e n a n c e f r o m t h e E n g l i s h c o u r t , s i n c e t h e w i f e h a d a t a l l m a t e r i a l t i m e s b e e n a r e s i d e n t o f P o l a n d , a n d i t c o u l d b e c o n t e n d e d t h a t s h e o u g h t t o h a v e l o o k e d t o h e r o w n c o u r t f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i f - 8 4 -p o s s i b l e . H o w e v e r , i t i s e a s y t o c o n c e i v e o f a s i t u a t i o n w h e r e a d e s e r v i n g w i f e i s r e s i d e n t i n E n g l a n d a n d t h e h u s b a n d o b t a i n s a d i v o r c e a b r o a d a s a r e s u l t o f h i s " r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n . " W h a t p r o t e c t i o n w o u l d t h e w i f e h a v e i n t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s ? I t seems t h a t t h e o n l y s o l u t i o n w o u l d b e t i m e l y a c t i o n o n t h e p a r t o f t h e w i f e t o i s s u e a summons i n E n g l a n d p r i o r t o a n y p o s s i b l e a c t i o n i n t h e f o r e i g n c o u r t . 1 . C a p a c i t y t o r e m a r r y A f u r t h e r p r o b l e m a r o s e a s a r e s u l t o f t h e r e l a x e d r e c o g n i t i o n 85 r u l e s . I t w a s p o s s i b l e t h a t a d i v o r c e , r e c o g n i z e d u n d e r t h e I n d y k a t e s t , a n d t h u s v a l i d i n E n g l a n d , w o u l d b e i n e f f e c t i v e t o e n a b l e a p a r t y t o r e m a r r y . T h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s w a s t h a t c a p a c i t y t o r e m a r r y i s g e n e r a l l y 8 6 g o v e r n e d b y t h e l a w o f e a c h p a r t y ' s a n t e n u p t i a l d o m i c i l e , a n d t h e p a r t y 87 c o u l d h a v e b e e n u n d e r a n i n c a p a c i t y t o r e m a r r y b y t h e l a w o f h i s d o m i c i l e . T h i s t y p e o f s i t u a t i o n a r o s e i n R v B r e n t w o o d S u p e r i n t e n d e n t R e g i s t r a r 8 8 o f M a r r i a g e s , w h e r e a n I t a l i a n n a t i o n a l , d o m i c i l e d i n S w i t z e r l a n d , h a d b e e n m a r r i e d t o , a n d d i v o r c e d f r o m , a S w i s s n a t i o n a l . He w i s h e d t o r e m a r r y a S p a n i s h n a t i o n a l , a l s o d o m i c i l e d i n S w i t z e r l a n d . S a c h s L . J . r e f u s e d t o o r d e r t h e m a r r i a g e c e r t i f i c a t e t o b e i s s u e d , b e c a u s e t h e I t a l i a n w a s u n d e r a n i n c a p a c i t y t o r e m a r r y b y t h e l a w o f h i s d o m i c i l e . U n d e r h i s d o m i c i l i a r y l a w , S w i s s l a w , c a p a c i t y t o m a r r y was g o v e r n e d b y t h e l a w o f t h e n a t i o n a l i t y , i n t h i s c a s e I t a l y . S i n c e h e d i d n o t h a v e c a p a c i t y t o r e m a r r y b y I t a l i a n l a w , h e w a s u n a b l e t o r e m a r r y i n S w i t z e r l a n d , a n d h e n c e i n E n g l a n d a l s o . T h e m a i n j u s t i f i c a t i o n g i v e n w a s t h a t o f c o m i t y b e t w e e n n a t i o n s , t h a t E n g l a n d s h o u l d n o t b e t o o h a s t y t o c r i t i c i s e o t h e r l e g a l s y s t e m s . - 85 -H o w e v e r w o r t h y t h e r e a s o n o f c o m i t y , i t i s a n o b v i o u s l y u n d e s i r a b l e s t a t e o f a f f a i r s w h e r e a man i s u n m a r r i e d a n d y e t n o t f r e e t o r e m a r r y . I n d e e d , i t w a s a r g u e d i n t h e B r e n t w o o d c a s e t h a t t h i s r e s t r i c t i o n w a s p e n a l ; t h e f i r s t w i f e h a d a l r e a d y r e m a r r i e d i n S w i t z e r l a n d . I t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t i t i s o n l y f a i r t h a t a d i v o r c e , i f v a l i d , o u g h t t o e n t i t l e i t s h o l d e r t o r e m a r r y . m . C o n e l u s i o n I n d y k a v I n d y k a o p e n e d t h e g a t e s t o r e c o g n i t i o n , b u t l e f t t h e c o u r t s w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t l y p r e c i s e g u i d e l i n e s a s t o t h e s c o p e o f t h e n e w t e s t . T h i s u n c e r t a i n t y l e d t o m u c h l i t i g a t i o n a n d i n c o n s i s t e n c y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e g e n e r a l p h r a s e o l o g y e m p l o y e d b y t h e i r L o r d s h i p s i n t h e I n d y k a c a s e w a s 89 s u c h a s t o e n a b l e t h e c o u r t s t o make a d h o c e x t e n s i o n s t o t h e n e w t e s t , w h i c h c o u l d h a v e l e a d t o f u r t h e r a n o m a l o u s d e c i s i o n s . T o g e t h e r w i t h t h e p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m s o f f i n a n c i a l p r o t e c t i o n a n d i n c a p a c i t y t o r e m a r r y , t h e s t a t e o f t h e r e c o g n i t i o n r u l e s i n E n g l a n d b e f o r e t h e 1 9 7 1 l e g i s l a t i o n w e r e n o t s u c h a s w o u l d l e a d t o a r a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e l a w . - 8 6 -CHAPTER 5 CURRENT CANADIAN LAW 1 . L E G I S L A T I O N A d r a f t c o n v e n t i o n p r o p o s i n g r e f o r m t o t h e i n t e r n a l l a w o f m e m b e r s t a t e s w a s a d o p t e d i n 1 9 6 8 a t t h e H a g u e C o n v e n t i o n o n R e c o g n i t i o n o f D i v o r c e s a n d L e g a l S e p a r a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h C a n a d a w a s a p a r t y t o t h i s c o n v e n t i o n , n o s t e p s h a v e b e e n t a k e n u p t o t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t o g i v e e f f e c t t o t h e s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s i n C a n a d a . I n f a c t , t h e r e h a s b e e n n o s u b s t a n t i a l l e g i s l a t i v e a l t e r a t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n common l a w r u l e s f o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f f o r e i g n d i v o r c e s . T h e o n l y p r o v i s i o n s f o r r e c o g n i t i o n i n t h e D i v o r c e A c t a r e c o n t a i n e d i n s e c t i o n s 14 a n d 6 ( 2 ) . A s f a r a s d i v o r c e s o b t a i n e d w i t h i n C a n a d a a r e c o n c e r n e d , s . 14 p r o v i d e s t h a t a d e c r e e o f d i v o r c e g r a n t e d u n d e r t h e A c t h a s l e g a l e f f e c t t h r o u g h o u t C a n a d a . T h e D i v o r c e A c t h a s some e f f e c t o n t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f f o r e i g n d e c r e e s . S e c t i o n 6 ( 2 ) p r o v i d e s : 6 ( 2 ) F o r a l l p u r p o s e s o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e m a r i t a l s t a t u s i n C a n a d a o f a n y p e r s o n a n d w i t h o u t l i m i t i n g o r r e s t r i c t i n g a n y e x i s t i n g r u l e o f l a w a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f d e c r e e s o f d i v o r c e g r a n t e d o t h e r w i s e t h a n u n d e r t h i s A c t , r e c o g n i t i o n s h a l l b e g i v e n t o a d e c r e e o f d i v o r c e , g r a n t e d a f t e r t h e f i r s t d a y o f J u l y 1 9 6 8 , u n d e r a l a w o f a c o u n t r y o r s u b d i v i s i o n o f a c o u n t r y o t h e r t h a n C a n a d a b y a t r i b u n a l o r o t h e r c o m p e t e n t a u t h o r i t y t h a t h a d j u r i s d i c t i o n u n d e r t h a t l a w t o g r a n t t h e d e c r e e , o n t h e b a s i s o f d o m i c i l e o f t h e w i f e i n t h a t c o u n t r y o r s u b d i v i s i o n d e t e r m i n e d a s i f s h e w e r e u n m a r r i e d a n d , i f s h e w a s a m i n o r , a s i f s h e h a d a t t a i n e d h e r m a j o r i t y . H e n c e s . 6 ( 2 ) p r o v i d e s a n a d d i t i o n a l g r o u n d f o r r e c o g n i z i n g a f o r e i g n d e c r e e , i f i t w a s g r a n t e d o n t h e b a s i s o f d o m i c i l e o f t h e w i f e d e t e r m i n e d a s i f s h e w e r e u n m a r r i e d , i . e . o n t h e b a s i s o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s s i m i l a r t o - 87 -t h o s e i n w h i c h C a n a d i a n C o u r t s c a n n o w t a k e j u r i s d i c t i o n p u r s u a n t t o 1 s . 6 ( 1 ) a n d 5 ( 1 ) o f t h e D i v o r c e A c t . C l e a r l y t h i s i s n o m o r e t h a n p i e c e m e a l l e g i s l a t i o n , a n d t h e f i r s t 2 p o i n t t o b e made i s t h e l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n o f s . 6 ( 2 ) . I f I n d y k a v I n d y k a i s t h e l a w i n C a n a d a , a d i v o r c e g r a n t e d o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e w i f e ' s d o m i c i l e w i l l u n d o u b t e d l y b e r e c o g n i z e d b e c a u s e o f h e r r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n g r a n t i n g t h e d e c r e e . T h u s , s i n c e I n d y k a seems t o b e 3 g a i n i n g a c c e p t a n c e i n C a n a d a , i t a p p e a r s t h a t s . 6 ( 2 ) i s l a r g e l y r e d u n d a n t a n d t h i s e x p l a i n s w h y t h e s u b s e c t i o n h a s n o t b e e n i n v o k e d t o a n y s i g n i f i c a n t 4 e x t e n t . T h e o t h e r m a j o r c r i t i c i s m i s p o o r d r a f t i n g , w h i c h l e a v e s s . 6 ( 2 ) o p e n t o s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . T h e s u b s e c t i o n a p p l i e s " f o r a l l p u r p o s e s o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e m a r i t a l s t a t u s i n C a n a d a o f a n y p e r s o n . " P o t e n t i a l l y , t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e s e w o r d s i s e x t r e m e l y w i d e . Does " a l l p u r p o s e s " i n c l u d e i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o m a r i t a l s t a t u s w h i c h a r i s e i n a n a c t i o n o t h e r t h a n a m a t r i m o n i a l o n e , s u c h a s a s u c c e s s i o n c a s e ? Does " a n y p e r s o n " i n c l u d e a n y o n e i n t h e w o r l d , e v e n i f t h e y h a v e n o c o n n e c t i o n w h a t s o e v e r w i t h C a n a d a , e x c e p t t h a t p r o c e e d i n g s a r e c o n t i n u i n g b e f o r e a C a n a d i a n c o u r t i n w h i c h t h e i r m a r i t a l s t a t u s h a s b e e n 5 b r o u g h t i n t o i s s u e ? S e c t i o n 6 ( 2 ) s t a t e s t h a t " r e c o g n i t i o n s h a l l b e g i v e n " i f t h e w i f e i s d o m i c i l e d i n t h e l a w d i s t r i c t g r a n t i n g t h e d e c r e e . Does t h i s m e a n t h a t t h e c o u r t h a s n o d i s c r e t i o n t o r e f u s e r e c o g n i t i o n i f f o r e x a m p l e , r e c o g n i t i o n w o u l d b e c o n t r a r y t o n a t u r a l j u s t i c e o r i f t h e d e c r e e w a s o b t a i n e d b y f r a u d a s t o j u r i s d i c t i o n ? P o s s i b l y t h e w o r d s " . . . w i t h o u t l i m i t i n g o r r e s t r i c t i n g a n y e x i s t i n g r u l e o f l a w a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f d e c r e e s o f - 8 8 -d i v o r c e . . . " i n c l u d e t h e common l a w g r o u n d s f o r a t t a c k i n g a f o r e i g n d i v o r c e a n d t h e c o u r t w o u l d n o t b e c o m p e l l e d t o r e c o g n i z e a n o f f e n s i v e d e c r e e . R e f e r e n c e t o d i v o r c e s g r a n t e d b y a " t r i b u n a l o r o t h e r c o m p e t e n t a u t h o r i t y " seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t r e c o g n i t i o n may b e g i v e n t o d i v o r c e s w h i c h h a v e n o t b e e n p r o n o u n c e d i n a c o u r t o f l a w , a n d t h i s i s t h e same a s 6 t h e p o s i t i o n a t common l a w . H o w e v e r , t h e s u b s e c t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e g r a n t i n g 7 o f " d e c r e e s " o f d i v o r c e . Can a n e x t r a - j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e s u c h a s a J e w i s h 8 ' g e t t 1 , p r o p e r l y b e i n c l u d e d a s a ' d e c r e e ' o f d i v o r c e w i t h i n s e c t i o n 6 ( 2 ) ? I t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h e r e i s n o l o g i c a l r e a s o n f o r t h e e x c l u s i o n o f r e l i g i o u s o r e x t r a - j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e s f r o m s e c t i o n 6 ( 2 ) , b u t t o i n c l u d e s u c h d i v o r c e s a s ' d e c r e e s ' o f d i v o r c e w o u l d b e t o s t r a i n t h e o r d i n a r y m e a n i n g o f t h e w o r d . R e c o g n i t i o n i s t o b e g i v e n t o a d i v o r c e o f a f o r e i g n t r i b u n a l o r o t h e r c o m p e t e n t a u t h o r i t y " t h a t h a d j u r i s d i c t i o n u n d e r t h a t l a w t o g r a n t t h e d e c r e e " . R e a d i n c o n t e x t " t h a t l a w " c l e a r l y r e f e r s t o t h e l a w o f t h e f o r e i g n c o u n t r y i n q u e s t i o n . T h e r e seems t o b e n o j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s . I t h a s l o n g b e e n h e l d i m p r o p e r f o r t h e c o u r t o f t h e f o r u m t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e m u n i c i p a l o r i n t e r n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n a n d p r o c e d u r e o f t h e f o r e i g n c o u r t , p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e c o u r t h a d j u r i s d i c t i o n i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e n s e , ( f o r e x a m p l e , b y v i r t u e o f t h e p a r t i e s ' d o m i c i l e i n t h e f o r e i g n j u r i s d i c t i o n ) 9 a n d p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e d e c r e e w a s n o t o f f e n s i v e t o n a t u r a l j u s t i c e . I t seems t h e r e f o r e , t h a t s . 6 ( 2 ) m a y c o n t a i n a n u n p r e c e d e n t e d a d d i t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t o f i n t e r n a l c o m p e t e n c e , a n d t h a t C a n a d i a n c o u r t s c o u l d , t h e o r e t i c a l l y , b e f o r c e d t o g i v e e f f e c t t o i n t e r n a l o r p r o c e d u r a l d e f e c t s a n d t o r e f u s e r e c o g n i t i o n o n t h o s e g r o u n d s . I f t h e d i v o r c e i n q u e s t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o h a v e e f f e c t i n t h e f o r e i g n j u r i s d i c t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , b e c a u s e - 89 -t h e d e f e c t w a s n o t b r o u g h t t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e f o r e i g n c o u r t , i t c o u l d r e s u l t i n a l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e . 10 S e c t i o n 6 ( 2 ) d o e s n o t o p e r a t e r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y , b u t a p p l i e s o n l y t o d e c r e e s o f d i v o r c e " g r a n t e d a f t e r t h e f i r s t d a y o f J u l y 1 9 6 8 . " T h u s i n 1 1 M a c N e i l l v M a c N e i l l a d i v o r c e o b t a i n e d i n 1 9 6 6 c o u l d n o t b e r e c o g n i z e d u n d e r s . 6 ( 2 ) . T h e a s p e c t s o f a r e t r o a c t i v e t e s t h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n d i s c u s s e d 12 i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e I n d y k a p r i n c i p l e a n d i t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t , i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f m i n i m i s a t i o n o f l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e s , r e c o g n i t i o n r u l e s o u g h t t o b e r e t r o s p e c t i v e . 13 I n L a C a r t e v L a C a r t e t h e c o u r t c o n s i d e r e d t h e w o r d s " g r a n t e d . . . o n t h e b a s i s o f d o m i c i l e o f t h e w i f e i n t h a t c o u n t r y o r s u b d i v i s i o n . . . " One o f t h e p r o b l e m s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e s e p h r a s e s i s w h e t h e r s . 6 ( 2 ) p e r m i t s r e c o g n i t i o n o f a d i v o r c e o n l y w h e n t h e f o r e i g n l a w p e r m i t s a w i f e t o a c q u i r e a s e p a r a t e d o m i c i l e a n d w h e n t h e f o r e i g n t r i b u n a l a s s u m e s j u r i s d i c t i o n a s 14 o n t h a t b a s i s . A n d r e w s J . f e l t t h a t t h e b e t t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w a s t h a t s . 6 ( 2 ) p e r m i t s r e c o g n i t i o n o f a f o r e i g n d i v o r c e i f i t w a s g r a n t e d i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s u n d e r w h i c h a C a n a d i a n c o u r t c o u l d h a v e a s s u m e d j u r i s d i c t i o n h a d t h e same f a c t s b e e n b e f o r e i t . 15 I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e c o u r t was p r e p a r e d t o a d o p t a R o b i n s o n - S c o t t t y p e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s . 6 ( 2 ) - t h a t i t w o u l d b e s u f f i c i e n t i f f a c t s e x i s t e d w h i c h w o u l d h a v e e n a b l e d a C a n a d i a n c o u r t t o a s s u m e j u r i s d i c t i o n , a n d t h a t t h e a c t u a l g r o u n d s o f j u r i s d i c t i o n i n t h e f o r e i g n c o u r t w o u l d b e 16 i m m a t e r i a l . I t h a s s i n c e b e e n h e l d i n S z a b o v S z a b o t h a t s . 6 ( 2 ) w i l l b e a p p l i e d i f t h e w i f e w a s d o m i c i l e d w i t h i n t h e f o r e i g n l a w d i s t r i c t a t t h e t i m e o f f i l i n g t h e p e t i t i o n , e v e n t h o u g h j u r i s d i c t i o n may n o t h a v e b e e n a s s u m e d o n t h a t b a s i s a n d e v e n t h o u g h i t w a s t h e h u s b a n d who w a s t h e - 90 -p e t i t i o n e r i n t h e f o r e i g n p r o c e e d i n g s . No e n q u i r y w a s made t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e w i f e h a d c a p a c i t y t o a c q u i r e a s e p a r a t e d o m i c i l e i n t h e f o r e i g n c o u n t r y i n q u e s t i o n ( H u n g a r y ) n o r t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e e x a c t r e q u i r e m e n t s w h i c h w o u l d h a v e e n a b l e d a C a n a d i a n c o u r t t o a s s u m e 17 j u r i s d i c t i o n i n s i m i l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s w e r e s a t i s f i e d . I n f a c t , t h e f a c t s p r o b a b l y w o u l d n o t h a v e j u s t i f i e d t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f j u r i s d i c t i o n i n C a n a d a , 18 s i n c e t h e C a n a d i a n A c t r e q u i r e d t h e p e t i t i o n e r t o b e d o m i c i l e d i n C a n a d a . I n t h e S z a b o c a s e t h e h u s b a n d p e t i t i o n e r p r o b a b l y w a s n o t d o m i c i l e d i n H u n g a r y a t t h e t i m e o f f i l i n g t h e H u n g a r i a n p e t i t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , i f S z a b o i s g o o d l a w , i t seems t h a t a v e r y l i b e r a l R o b i n s o n -19 S c o t t t y p e o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i l l b e a f f o r d e d t o s . 6 ( 2 ) . 2 . THE COMMON LAW FROM 1 9 6 7 ONWARDS B y f a r t h e m o s t c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n i s t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e I n d y k a c a s e i n t h e C a n a d i a n c o n t e x t . I n t h e c a s e s t o d a t e t h e v i e w h a d b e e n t a k e n t h a t I n d y k a v I n d y k a w a s a n " e x i s t i n g r u l e o f l a w " w i t h i n s . 6 ( 2 ) a t t h e 20 t i m e t h e D i v o r c e A c t came i n t o f o r c e i n 1 9 6 8 , s i n c e t h e s p e e c h e s o f t h e i r l o r d s h i p s ' w e r e r e l e a s e d i n 1 9 6 7 , a l t h o u g h t h e y w e r e n o t r e p o r t e d u n t i l 1 9 6 8 . 2 1 T h e c o u r t s h a v e g o n e f u r t h e r t h a n t h a t , a n d i n B e v i n g t o n v H e w i t s o n , f o r i n s t a n c e , i t w a s s a i d t h a t , e v e n i f I n d y k a w a s n o t a n e x i s t i n g r u l e o f l a w i n C a n a d a i n 1 9 6 8 , n o t h i n g i n s . 6 ( 2 ) p r e v e n t s t h e C a n a d i a n c o u r t s f r o m a d o p t i n g f u r t h e r r e c o g n i t i o n r u l e s . I n o t h e r w o r d s , i t i s n o t a n e c e s s a r y i m p l i c a t i o n f r o m s . 6 ( 2 ) t h a t t h e r e c o g n i t i o n r u l e s i n e x i s t e n c e w h e n t h e A c t came i n t o f o r c e a r e n o w e x h a u s t i v e . 22 I n P o w e l l v C o c k b u r n t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a f a i l e d t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f a g o o d o p p o r t u n i t y ( a l b e i t o b i t e r ) t o e x a m i n e t h e r e c o g n i t i o n - 91 -rules and either approve or disapprove of the Indyka case, or to formulate a new Canadian rule. The facts were that D married H' in Ontario. H' convinced D to go to British Columbia and subsequently deserted her, taking most of her money. H1 joined the United States army and took up United States citizenship in 1945. He lived in Michigan for a while and then in Ohio. In 1946-7 he obtained a divorce in Michigan. Under Michigan law in order to found j u r i s -diction, there had to be residence within the state for one year prior to f i l i n g the divorce petition. H' was probably not in fact resident in Michigan for a year preceding the petition and most of the grounds for divorce were false. In 1951 D married P and sometime later obtained a judgment for alimony. P brought an action to set aside the alimony order on the grounds that D was validly married at the time of the second marriage. At issue, was the validity of the Michigan divorce. Cromarty J . at f i r s t instance seemed to be confused by the question of 23 presumptions. He said that there was a presumption in favour of validity of the marriage between P and D, but that once P proved the prior marriage there was a presumption in favour of i t s v a l i d i t y . The learned judge stated that, when D proved the foreign divorce, a presumption arose as to i t s valid i t y also, and that the onus was on P to prove the foreign decree was invalid. With the greatest respect, this writer knows of no "presumption of va l i d i t y " of a foreign divorce. The onus is normally on the person asserting the divorce to prove i t s validity by satisfying the evidentiary requirements 24 25 as to domicile or real and substantial connection with the foreign law - 92 -d i s t r i c t i n q u e s t i o n . T h e c o u r t a t f i r s t i n s t a n c e a l s o f o u n d t h a t t h e e v i d e n c e d i d n o t e s t a b l i s h t h a t H ' h a d c h a n g e d h i s d o m i c i l e f r o m O n t a r i o t o M i c h i g a n a n d t h e r e f o r e , t h e d i v o r c e w a s i n v a l i d . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t C r o m a r t y J . w a s o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e d o m i c i l e r u l e w a s s t i l l t h e o n l y t e s t f o r r e c o g n i t i o n . T h e c o u r t f u r t h e r h e l d t h a t , e v e n i f H 1 h a d c h a n g e d h i s d o m i c i l e t o M i c h i g a n , h e h a d p e r p e t r a t e d a f r a u d g o i n g t o t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e M i c h i g a n c o u r t a n d a l s o a s t o t h e g r o u n d s o f d i v o r c e . S i n c e t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e M i c h i g a n c o u r t w a s n o t e s t a b l i s h e d a s u b s t a n t i a l i n j u s t i c e o c c u r r e d i n g r a n t i n g t h e d e c r e e . S u r e l y , t h o u g h , i f H ' h a d a c q u i r e d a M i c h i g a n d o m i c i l e , t h e M i c h i g a n c o u r t w o u l d h a v e h a d j u r i s d i c t i o n i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e n s e a n d , t h u s , n o s u b s t a n t i a l i n j u s t i c e w o u l d h a v e 2 6 o c c u r r e d . I n a n y e v e n t , a t f i r s t i n s t a n c e , t h e M i c h i g a n d i v o r c e w a s n o t r e c o g n i z e d , P a n d D w e r e f o u n d n o t t o b e v a l i d l y m a r r i e d a n d t h e a l i m o n y j u d g m e n t w a s s e t a s i d e . D a p p e a l e d . 27 T h e O n t a r i o C o u r t o f A p p e a l a l s o i m p l i e d t h a t d o m i c i l e w a s s t i l l t h e t e s t f o r r e c o g n i t i o n i n O n t a r i o w h e n S c h r o e d e r J . A . s a i d " I n o r d e r t o 2 8 d e t e r m i n e . . . ( r e c o g n i t i o n ) . . . t h e t r i a l j u d g e h a d t o c o n s i d e r d o m i c i l e . " T h e c o u r t f o u n d , t h a t t h e e v i d e n c e d i d n o t j u s t i f y a f i n d i n g t h a t H ' h a d n o t a b a n d o n e d h i s d o m i c i l e o f o r i g i n a n d a c q u i r e d a d o m i c i l e i n M i c h i g a n , o r t h a t h e h a d n o t r e s i d e d i n M i c h i g a n f o r t h e s t a t u t o r y p e r i o d o f o n e y e a r p r i o r t o t h e p r o c e e d i n g s . T h e e v i d e n c e r e q u i r e d t o o v e r c o m e t h e p r e s u m p t i o n o f v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e c o n d m a r r i a g e w a s f o u n d i n s u f f i c i e n t l y c o g e n t a n d c o n v i n c i n g i n c h a r a c t e r , a n d t h e a p p e a l w a s a l l o w e d . - 93 -I t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h e b a s i s o f S c h r o e d e r J . A . ' s d e c i s i o n w a s i n c o r r e c t . W h i l e i t i s t r u e t h a t t h e o n u s w a s o n P t o p r o v e h i s c a s e , t h e o n u s o f p r o v i n g c h a n g e o f d o m i c i l e i s v e r y h e a v y a n d r e s t s o n t h e 2 9 p a r t y a l l e g i n g t h e c h a n g e . T h e r e f o r e , i n t h i s c a s e t h e o n u s s h o u l d h a v e b e e n p l a c e d o n D, w h i c h may h a v e l e d t o a d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l p r o v i d e d t h e m o r e e q u i t a b l e o u t c o m e s i n c e , o r i g i n a l l y , P m u s t h a v e b e l i e v e d t h a t h e a n d D w e r e v a l i d l y m a r r i e d . D h a d b e e n b a d l y t r e a t e d b y H ' a n d n o r e a l i n j u s t i c e w o u l d h a v e o c c u r r e d i n r e c o g n i z i n g t h e d e c r e e 30 w h i c h H ' o b t a i n e d . H o w e v e r , t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a r e v e r s e d t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l a n d r e f u s e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e d e c r e e , o n a c c o u n t o f t h e f r a u d p e r p e t r a t e d b y H ' w h i c h w e n t t o t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e M i c h i g a n c o u r t . T h e d e f e n d a n t w i f e a l s o p l e a d e d t h a t d o m i c i l e w a s n o t t h e s o l e t e s t f o r j u r i s d i c t i o n , b u t t h e c o m m e n t s o f t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a i n r e s p e c t o f t h e I n d y k a t e s t w e r e c r y p t i c t o s a y t h e l e a s t . D i c k s o n J . s a i d t h a t t h e I n d y k a c a s e w a s i n t e r p r e t e d c o r r e c t l y i n C h e s h i r e ' s P r i v a t e I n t e r n a t i o n a l 3 1 Law s o t h a t : 1 . L e M e s u r i e r w a s n o l o n g e r g o o d l a w i n s o f a r a s i t w a s a s o l e b a s i s o f j u r i s d i c t i o n , a n d 2 . E n g l i s h c o u r t s s h o u l d r e c o g n i z e a d i v o r c e g r a n t e d o n t h e b a s i s o f a r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n . T h e c o u r t w e n t o n t o s a y t h a t , b e f o r e d e c i d i n g w h e t h e r t h e r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n t e s t s h o u l d b e a d o p t e d i n C a n a d a , i t w o u l d f i r s t s e t t l e t h e q u e s t i o n o f f r a u d ; i f t h e d i v o r c e w a s a t t a c k e d s u c c e s s f u l l y , f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f " r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n " w o u l d b e - 94 -unnecessary. In the r e s u l t there was no further consideration of the Indyka p r i n c i p l e . I t i s submitted that i t was highly desirable for the highest court i n Canada to speak out on the question of recognition of foreign divorces, because, u n t i l i t does, the future of Indyka i n Canada w i l l never be c e r t a i n . Thus, there i s now two f o l d uncertainty i n Canada, which could have been avoided by the Supreme Court: f i r s t , i s Indyka the 32 law i n Canada; second, when i s the Indyka test s a t i s f i e d . The court also said, i f the sole t e s t were domicile, there would be no need even to make a f i n d i n g on the question of fraud, since the t r i a l judge's f i n d i n g of domicile i n Ontario and not Michigan would conclude the matter against the f i r s t husband. I t seems clear from t h i s that domicile i s no longer the only t e s t , but what i s the wider rule? Perhaps the fact that Indyka was mentioned at a l l i s i n d i c a t i v e that the Supreme Court of Canada would be w i l l i n g to apply i t . C e r t a i n l y , the court missed an i d e a l opportunity to devise a new recognition t e s t , i f i t did not approve of the rather uncertain p r i n c i p l e l a i d out i n Indyka. I t i s unfortunate, to say the l e a s t , that the lower courts are l e f t to sort out the tangle of recogni-t i o n of foreign divorces i n Canada, v i r t u a l l y without a word of assistance from the highest court. 33 0'Sullivan J.A. (dissenting) i n Holub v Holub was c l e a r l y of the opinion that i t was wrong f o r Canadian courts to apply the decision of the House of Lords i n Indyka u n t i l i t i s adopted by the Supreme Court of Canada. There i s some merit i n t h i s argument, for the House of Lords i s merely persuasive and not binding authority i n Canada. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , there are a number of decisions i n which the Indyka 34 case has either not been mentioned at a l l or not considered. In - 95 -35 Seagull v Seagull the Ontario Court of Appeal refused to recognize a Michigan divorce, although the wife, who obtained the divorce, had s a t i s f i e d Michigan j u r i s d i c t i o n a l requirements of residence f o r at least one year preceding the p e t i t i o n . Schroeder J.A. held that, since the f i r s t husband was domiciled i n Ontario at the time of the divorce, and since the appellant wife could not at that time acquire separate domicile under Ontario law, the Michigan divorce was i n v a l i d , and the wife's second marriage n u l l and v o i d . The Indyka case was not mentioned, but i t should be noted that t h i s case was decided by the same judge who was overruled by 36 the Supreme Court of Canada i n the Powell v Cockburn case. 37 38 S i m i l a r l y , i n Re Jones and Re Reid v Reid, the Indyka case was not considered. The courts i n these cases seemed to be more concerned with 39 the a p p l i c a t i o n of the doctrine of preclusion, than with the recognition of foreign divorces per se, and the possible a l t e r n a t i v e s to the domicile t e s t . However, the Indyka test has been approved and applied by the lower 40 courts both before and a f t e r the Powell v Cockburn case, a. The Indyka Test as Applied i n Canada Generally, the t e s t has been applied i n the same way as i t was i n 41 England. A " r e a l and s u b s t a n t i a l connection" has been held to e x i s t on the 42 basis of the wife's residence for most of her l i f e i n the country or 43 state i n which the decree was obtained. There appears to be no Canadian authority on whether the r e a l and s u b s t a n t i a l connection t e s t can be 44 applied to a federal country. The Manitoba Court of Appeal has held that s i x years' post-war - 9 6 -r e s i d e n c e b y t h e h u s b a n d i n G e r m a n y i s s u f f i c i e n t t o e s t a b l i s h a r e a l a n d 4 5 4 6 s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h a t c o u n t r y . I n M a c N e i l l v M a c N e i l l i t w a s h e l d t h a t t h e r e w a s s u f f i c i e n t c o n n e c t i o n w h e n t h e p e t i t i o n e r h a d b e e n r e s i d e n t i n M i c h i g a n , t h e s t a t e w h i c h g r a n t e d t h e d e c r e e , f o r t h r e e y e a r s . 4 7 4 8 H o w e v e r , i t seems f r o m L a C a r t e v L a C a r t e a n d Wood v Wood t h a t r e s i d e n c e o f a y e a r , o r e v e n l e s s , w o u l d s u f f i c e . I n Wood v Wood t h e f a c t s w e r e t h a t P a n d R w e r e m a r r i e d i n A l b e r t a i n 1 9 6 7 . P w e n t t o U t a h i n F e b r u a r y 1 9 6 9 a n d R f o l l o w e d s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r . P o b t a i n e d a d e c r e e n i s i o f d i v o r c e f r o m R i n U t a h i n N o v e m b e r 1 9 6 9 . P r e m a i n e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s u n t i l 1 9 7 1 , b u t f r o m S e p t e m b e r 1 9 7 0 t o J a n u a r y 1 9 7 1 s h e w a s i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . R r e t u r n e d t o A l b e r t a f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1 9 7 3 . I n t h e m e a n t i m e t h e y h a d b o t h r e m a r r i e d , b u t n e v e r t h e l e s s h a d r e s u m e d c o h a b i t a t i o n t o g e t h e r f o r t e n w e e k s i n 1 9 7 3 . P w i s h e d t o d i v o r c e h e r s e c o n d h u s b a n d b u t h a d b e e n a d v i s e d t h a t t h e U t a h d i v o r c e , a n d t h u s h e r s e c o n d m a r r i a g e , w e r e i n v a l i d b y C a n a d i a n l a w . T h e r e f o r e P p e t i t i o n e d f o r a d i v o r c e f r o m R i n A l b e r t a . T u r c o t t e L . J . S . C . f o u n d t h a t t h e U t a h d i v o r c e s h o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d i n t e r a l i a o n t h e b a s i s o f r e s i d e n c e i n t h a t s t a t e , s i n c e t h e h u s b a n d a n d w i f e w e r e l i v i n g a n d w o r k i n g i n U t a h , a n d s i n c e n o f o r u m s h o p p i n g w a s 4 9 i n v o l v e d . T h i s c a s e seems t o a p p l y a n e a r l i e r A l b e r t a d e c i s i o n w h i c h f o l l o w e d t h e I n d y k a c a s e , b u t i n f a c t i s a u t h o r i t y f o r t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t a d i v o r c e m a y b e r e c o g n i z e d o n t h e b a s i s o f " b o n a f i d e " r e s i d e n c e i . e . - o n t h e b a s i s o f a n y p e r i o d o f r e s i d e n c e p r o v i d e d t h e s p o u s e ( s ) a r e n o t r e s o r t i n g t o t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n p u r e l y f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f o b t a i n i n g a 50 d i v o r c e . T h e Wood c a s e c a n b e c o n t r a s t e d w i t h E n g l i s h c a s e , D a v i d s o n v - 97 -51 D a v i d s o n , w h e r e r e s i d e n c e o f l e s s t h a n a y e a r , w i t h o u t m o r e , w a s s a i d t o b e i n s u f f i c i e n t t o s h o w " s u b s t a n t i a l " c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e s t a t e i n q u e s t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , i t m a y b e t h a t t h e I n d y k a c a s e , a t l e a s t i n A l b e r t a , 52 i s t o b e i n t e r p r e t e d m o r e l i b e r a l l y t h a n i t w a s i n E n g l a n d . 53 I n L a C a r t e v L a C a r t e t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o l l o w e d t h e Wood c a s e . T h e c o u r t h e l d t h a t a r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n h a d b e e n s h o w n o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e w i f e ' s r e s i d e n c e i n F l o r i d a . A n d r e w s J . w a s s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h e w i f e h a d l i v e d w i t h h e r m o t h e r i n F l o r i d a f o r a t l e a s t f i f t e e n m o n t h s p r i o r t o t h e g r a n t i n g o f t h e d e c r e e . I n t h o s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e F l o r i d a d i v o r c e w a s r e c o g n i z e d a n d t h e h u s b a n d ' s p e t i t i o n f o r d i v o r c e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d i s m i s s e d . T h e f a c t s o f b o t h t h e L a C a r t e a n d Wood c a s e c a n b e c o n t r a s t e d w i t h 54 t h e c a s e s m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y i n w h i c h t h e I n d y k a t e s t w a s n o t c o n s i d e r e d . 55 I n S e a g u l l v S e a g u l l t h e w i f e h a d b e e n r e s i d e n t i n M i c h i g a n f o r o v e r a y e a r b e f o r e s h e o b t a i n e d h e r d i v o r c e , i n o r d e r t o s a t i s f y M i c h i g a n j u r i s -56 d i c t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . I n Re R e i d v R e i d a l s o , t h e h u s b a n d o b t a i n e d a d i v o r c e f r o m t h e M i c h i g a n c o u r t . I n t h e R e i d c a s e t h e o n l y r e l e v a n t f a c t d i s c l o s e d w a s t h a t t h e h u s b a n d w h o o b t a i n e d t h e d i v o r c e w a s " l i v i n g " i n M i c h i g a n a t t h e t i m e . P r e s u m a b l y , s i n c e n o f r a u d w a s a l l e g e d i n t h e c a s e , t h e h u s b a n d h a d s a t i s f i e d s i m i l a r r e s i d e n t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s t o t h o s e i n t h e S e a g u l l c a s e . I n b o t h t h e s e c a s e s t h e M i c h i g a n d i v o r c e w a s n o t r e c o g n i z e d 57 b e c a u s e o f l a c k o f M i c h i g a n d o m i c i l e . Re J o n e s i s a s i m i l a r c a s e w h i c h 58 c a n a l s o b e c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e d e c i s i o n i n t h e M a c N e i l l c a s e . I n Re J o n e s a C a l i f o r n i a n d i v o r c e w a s n o t r e c o g n i z e d e v e n t h o u g h t h e w i f e h a d b e e n r e s i d e n t i n C a l i f o r n i a f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e y e a r s b e f o r e t h e f i n a l d e c r e e o f d i v o r c e w a s g r a n t e d . - 98 -C i t i z e n s h i p o r n a t i o n a l i t y i n t h e d e c r e e i n g l a w d i s t r i c t i s c l e a r l y n o t e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e I n d y k a t e s t , b u t i t i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , o n e o f t h e f a c t o r s t o b e c o n s i d e r e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g " r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l 5 9 c o n n e c t i o n . " H o w e v e r , i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t c i t i z e n s h i p a l o n e w i l l s u f f i c e f o r 60 r e c o g n i t i o n p u r p o s e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n H o l u b v H o l u b , M o n n i n J . A . s t a t e d : " I t h a s b e e n s e t t l e d l a w t h a t t h e v a l i d i t y o f a f o r e i g n d i v o r c e , i n t h e e y e s o f C a n a d i a n c o u r t s , d o e s n o t d e p e n d o n t h e n a t i o n a l i t y o r r e s i d e n c e o f t h e p a r t i e s o r o n t h e c o u n t r y w h e r e t h e m a r r i a g e w a s s o l e m n i z e d , b u t o n w h e t h e r i t w a s g r a n t e d b y a c o u r t o f c o m p e t e n t j u r i s d i c t i o n . Was t h e h u s b a n d d o m i c i l e d i n W e s t G e r m a n y a t t h e t i m e o f t h e d e c r e e o r d i d h e h a v e a r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h W e s t G e r m a n y a t t h a t t i m e , n a m e l y , F e b r u a r y 1 9 5 0 ? T h a t w a s t h e o n l y i s s u e t o b e d e c i d e d . " 6 1 F u r t h e r m o r e , i n K e r e s z t e s s y v K e r e s z t e s s y , w h i c h i s d i s c u s s e d b e l o w , a H u n g a r i a n d i v o r c e w a s n o t r e c o g n i z e d i n C a n a d a d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t b o t h p a r t i e s r e t a i n e d t h e i r H u n g a r i a n n a t i o n a l i t y a c c o r d i n g t o H u n g a r i a n l a w . 62 On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i n L a C a r t e v L a C a r t e t h e r e i s d i c t u m t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t n a t i o n a l i t y o r h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e w o u l d b e s u f f i c i e n t f o r r e c o g n i t i o n . A s f a r a s t h e r e l e v a n t d a t e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d , t h e r e a r e c o n f l i c t i n g a u t h o r i t i e s . I n H o l u b v 6 3 H o l u b M o n n i n J . A . a s k e d t h e q u e s t i o n : "Was t h e h u s b a n d d o m i c i l e d i n W e s t G e r m a n y a t t h e t i m e o f t h e d e c r e e o r d i d h e h a v e a r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l 6 4 c o n n e c t i o n w i t h W e s t G e r m a n y a t t h a t t i m e . . . ? " ( E m p h a s i s a d d e d ) 65 Y e t , i n K e r e s z t e s s y v K e r e s z t e s s y D o n o h u e J . s a i d : " I c a n n o t f i n d t h a t t h e d e f e n d a n t e s t a b l i s h e d a n y r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n h i m a n d H u n g a r y a t t h e t i m e o f  t h e s t a r t o f t h e d i v o r c e p r o c e e d i n g s . " ( E m p h a s i s a d d e d ) - 9 9 -I n a n y e v e n t , i t seems t h a t a p a s t r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n w i l l n o t s u f f i c e . I n K e r e s z t e s s y v K e r e s z t e s s y t h e s p o u s e s , who w e r e m a r r i e d i n H u n g a r y i n 1 9 4 4 , l e f t t h a t c o u n t r y i n 1 9 5 6 f o r p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n s , a n d h a d l i v e d i n C a n a d a e v e r s i n c e . B o t h p a r t i e s h a d b e c o m e C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n s i n 1 9 6 2 , a l t h o u g h b y H u n g a r i a n l a w t h e y r e t a i n e d t h e i r H u n g a r i a n c i t i z e n s h i p . T h e y s e p a r a t e d i n 1 9 7 2 , a n d i n 1 9 7 4 t h e h u s b a n d o b t a i n e d a d i v o r c e f r o m a c o u r t i n H u n g a r y . C l e a r l y , t h e r e w a s s u f f i c i e n t c o n n e c t i o n w i t h H u n g a r y u n t i l 1 9 5 6 a t l e a s t . T h e i m p l i c a t i o n i s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t p a s t c o n n e c t i o n s w h i c h w e r e n o t p r e s e n t a t t h e t i m e o f d i v o r c e w i l l n o t s a t i s f y t h e I n d y k a t e s t . No d o u b t , t h o u g h , t h e o p p o s i t e c o n c l u s i o n w o u l d h a v e b e e n 6 6 r e a c h e d h a d t h e w i f e s t i l l b e e n l i v i n g i n H u n g a r y i n 1 9 7 4 . H o w e v e r , t h e K e r e s z t e s s y c a s e c a n b e c r i t i c i z e d o n o t h e r g r o u n d s . D o n o h u e J. w a s c l e a r l y o p e r a t i n g o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e p a r t i e s w e r e d o m i c i l e d i n C a n a d a b y 1 9 7 4 , a l t h o u g h h e d i d n o t e x p l i c i t l y s a y s o . T h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e h u s b a n d m a y h a v e i n t e n d e d t o r e t u r n t o H u n g a r y , i n t h e e v e n t o f a c h a n g e i n t h e p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e , w a s n o t c o n s i d e r e d . S u r e l y i n t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s h e m a y h a v e l a c k e d t h e n e c e s s a r y i n t e n t i o n f o r 67 a c q u i s i t i o n o f a d o m i c i l e o f c h o i c e i n C a n a d a . D o n o h u e J. a l s o s t a t e d : " I h o l d i t t o b e a m a t t e r o f p u b l i c p o l i c y t h a t a n O n t a r i o c o u r t s h o u l d n o t c o u n t e n a n c e r e s o r t b y o n e r e s i d e n t l i t i g a n t t o a f o r e i g n f o r u m a t t h e r i s k o f p r e j u d i c e t o a n o t h e r r e s i d e n t l i t i g a n t w h e n a n a d e q u a t e r e m e d y i s a v a i l a b l e i n o u r o w n c o u r t . " 6 8 T h e p r o b l e m i s , o f c o u r s e , t h a t a m e r e r e s i d e n t o f C a n a d a h a s n o r e m e d y u n d e r t h e D i v o r c e A c t ; t h e t e s t f o r j u r i s d i c t i o n p u r s u a n t t o s . 5 ( 1 ) i s d o m i c i l e 69 i n C a n a d a , p l u s " a c t u a l " a n d " o r d i n a r y " r e s i d e n c e f o r a s p e c i f i e d t i m e . - 100 -A d i f f e r e n t approach was taken i n somewhat s i m i l a r circumstances 70 i n Haut v Haut. In that case P and R were born i n Germany and married there i n 1940. In 1953, a f t e r t h e i r separation, P came to Canada and s e t t l e d i n Toronto. In 1954 R joined him but l i v e d with him for only two days. P obtained a divorce i n Germany i n 1965, on the basis of his German n a t i o n a l i t y , despite the fact that R had become a Canadian c i t i z e n and that neither P nor R appeared before the court i n person. A f t e r the divorce, i n the summer of 1965, P returned to Germany to l i v e but changed his mind and returned to Canada a f t e r s i x weeks. Thereafter, P l i v e d i n Toronto except for one t r i p to Germany i n 1967, during which he remarried, and a second t r i p i n 1973, to v i s i t his brother. P was found not to have acquired a Canadian domicile p r i o r to the granting of the German divorce despite his stated i n t e n t i o n to " s e t t l e " i n Canada i n 1953. Thus, the German divorce was recognized i n Canada on the basis of P's continued domicile there. I t was also held that P's return to Germany for "important events" demonstrated a " r e a l connection" with Germany at the "relevant times" despite his lengthy residence i n Canada. The main points of d i s t i n c t i o n between t h i s case and Keresztessy appear to be: that the p e t i t i o n e r i n Haut did not take out Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p u n t i l a f t e r the German divorce; that he had been resident i n Canada for ten years while the p e t i t i o n e r i n Keresztessy had been here sixteen. Probably, the most s i g n i f i c e n t difference was that i n Haut there was no evidence to suggest that the respondent f e l t aggrieved, whereas, i n Keresztessy the p l a i n t i f f most c e r t a i n l y was very aggrieved by the Hungarian divorce. While i t i s true that a f a i r r e s u l t was achieved i n both cases, i t - 101 -does seem highly undesirable that recognition of a foreign divorce may depend on whether or not the respondent contests i t s v a l i d i t y i n Canada. This type of approach could produce a great deal of inconsistency i n recognition cases. Perhaps a better r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n would be to say that the divorce i n Keresztessy was offensive to public p o l i c y , while the one i n Haut was not. 71 b. Indyka and the Rule i n Armitage v A-G combined? 72 There i s no Canadian case which has applied Mather v Mahoney, where a Nevada divorce was recognized i n England because of a r e a l and su b s t a n t i a l connection with a state which would recognize the decree, namely, Pennsylvania. 73 However, there i s o b i t e r dictum from the Ontario P r o v i n c i a l Court, which suggests that a divorce may not be recognized i n Canada, on the basis of recognition i n a law d i s t r i c t with which there i s a r e a l and su b s t a n t i a l connection, unless such a divorce i s also recognized by the law of the domicile. Since recognition by the law of the domicile i s , of course, the rule i n Armitage v A-G i t s e l f , there would be no need to use Indyka i n those circumstances. 74 In Hassan v Hassan the parties were Egyptian nationals and Moslems at the time of t h e i r marriage i n Cairo. They emigrated to Canada i n 1971 and acquired a domicile of choice i n Canada at that time. The husband obtained an e x t r a - j u d i c i a l divorce at the Egyptian Consulate i n Montreal 75 i n 1974. Fisher Prov. J . stated: " . . . i t i s now necessary to consider the e f f e c t of the divorce obtained by t h i s husband. The divorce was not granted by the domiciles of either of the parti e s and, i n f a c t , was obtained on Canadian s o i l at the Egyptian consulate. What-ever i t s v a l i d i t y i n Egypt, i t can have no v a l i d i t y i n - 102 -C a n a d a u n l e s s i t c a n f a l l w i t h i n a n e x c e p t i o n t o t h e r u l e t h a t o n l y d e c r e e s g r a n t e d b y t h e d o m i c i l e c a n h a v e a n y v a l i d i t y . I t w a s a r g u e d t h a t t h e d i v o r c e s h o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d a s c o m i n g f r o m a j u r i s d i c t i o n , E g y p t , w h e r e t h e p a r t i e s h a v e a " r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n " ; a c c o r d i n g t o c a s e s s u c h a s I n d y k a v I n d y k a , [L969J 1 A . C . 33, [1967] 2 A l l E . R . 689, a n d R o w l a n d v R o w l a n d (1973), 13 R . F . L . 311, 2 O . R . (2d) 161, 42 D . L . R . (3d) 205. T h e p a r t i e s a r e s t i l l M o s l e m b u t i t seems c l e a r f r o m t h e e x p e r t w i t n e s s ' s e v i d e n c e t h a t w h e n t h e p a r t i e s come h e r e t h e y c a n n o t e n g a g e i n p o l y g a m y a n d , i n f a c t , h a v i n g b e c o m e d o m i c i l e d h e r e t h e y a r e n o t f r e e t o m a r r y m o r e t h a n o n c e . A s d o m i c i l e r u l e s  w i t h r e s p e c t t o v a l i d i t y o f a m a r r i a g e , a s i n d i c a t e d b y A l i v A l i , t h e n i t s h o u l d a l s o r u l e a s t o d i v o r c e a n d , i f r e l i e f i n t h e f o r m o f d i v o r c e i s t o b e g r a n t e d u n d e r t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i t s h o u l d n o t b e g r a n t e d b y t h e E g y p t i a n l a w b u t b y o u r l a w . T h e r e s u l t i s t h a t t h e d i v o r c e i s n o t  r e c o g n i z e d b y t h i s c o u r t . " T h e r e a r e o t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w h i c h c o u l d b e g i v e n t o t h i s p a s s a g e . 1. t h a t t h e M a t h e r v M a h o n e y p r i n c i p l e d o e s n o t a p p l y i f t h e d i v o r c e i s o b t a i n e d i n C a n a d a . 2. t h a t t h e M a t h e r v M a h o n e y p r i n c i p l e d o e s n o t a p p l y i f t h e p a r t i e s a r e d o m i c i l e d i n C a n a d a . 3. t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n r e p r e s e n t s a g e n e r a l d i s a p p r o v a l o f I n d y k a a n d , t h e r e f o r e , d o e s n o t h a v e a n y b e a r i n g o n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e M a t h e r v  M a h o n e y p r i n c i p l e . 4. t h a t t h e p a r t i e s d i d n o t h a v e a r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h E g y p t . c . Who M a y S a t i s f y T h e T e s t ? T h e C a n a d i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t h a t e i t h e r p a r t y , w h e t h e r h u s b a n d , w i f e , 76 p e t i t i o n e r o r r e s p o n d e n t , c a n s a t i s f y t h e t e s t . T h u s , t h e same p r o b l e m e x i s t s i n C a n a d a a s i n E n g l a n d , n a m e l y , t h a t o f e n s u r i n g f i n a n c i a l - 1 0 3 -p r o t e c t i o n f o r a s p o u s e , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e w i f e , a f t e r a v a l i d f o r e i g n 77 d i v o r c e h a s b e e n o b t a i n e d b y t h e h u s b a n d . T h i s p r o b l e m w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d m o r e f u l l y i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e A m e r i c a n 78 s o l u t i o n . d . R e t r o a c t i v i t y a n d C a p a c i t y t o R e m a r r y T h e I n d y k a t e s t i s c e r t a i n l y r e t r o a c t i v e i n t h e C a n a d i a n c o n t e x t , 7 9 a n d i n B e v i n g t o n v H e w i t s o n , f o r e x a m p l e , a d i v o r c e w a s r e c o g n i z e d 8 0 w h i c h h a d b e e n g r a n t e d i n 1 9 5 4 . F o r r e a s o n s g i v e n p r e v i o u s l y , t h i s seems r e a s o n a b l e . T h e p r o b l e m o f c a p a c i t y t o r e m a r r y h a s a p p a r e n t l y n o t a r i s e n i n C a n a d a 8 1 t o d a t e , b u t h a s a l r e a d y b e e n d i s c u s s e d i n t h e E n g l i s h c o n t e x t . T h e d i f f i c u l t y w o u l d a r i s e w h e n a f o r e i g n d i v o r c e i s r e c o g n i z e d u n d e r t h e I n d y k a t e s t , b u t o n e o f t h e f o r m e r s p o u s e s i s u n d e r a n i n c a p a c i t y t o r e m a r r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l a w o f h i s o r h e r a n t e n u p t i a l d o m i c i l e . S h o u l d r e c o g n i t i o n ( u n d e r t h e I n d y k a t e s t ) a u t o m a t i c a l l y g i v e t h e s p o u s e s c a p a c i t y t o r e m a r r y ? S h o u l d t h e r u l e t h a t c a p a c i t y i s t o b e d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e l a w o f e a c h p a r t y ' s a n t e n u p t i a l d o m i c i l e p r e v a i l ? A s s u b m i t t e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e e q u i t a b l e s o l u t i o n s h o u l d g o v e r n t h i s t y p e o f s i t u a t i o n , a n d i t i s o n l y f a i r t h a t t h e h o l d e r o f a v a l i d f o r e i g n 82 d i v o r c e s h o u l d b e e n t i t l e d t o r e m a r r y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t s h o u l d b e p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h i s s o l u t i o n i n v o l v e s a n e n c r o a c h m e n t o n t h e c o n f l i c t s r u l e s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e v a l i d i t y o f m a r r i a g e , a n d i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t a l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e m a y r e s u l t . I f a p e r s o n i s a l l o w e d t o r e m a r r y , a n d t h e m a r r i a g e i s i n v a l i d , f o r l a c k o f c a p a c i t y , b y t h e l a w o f h i s d o m i c i l e , t h e m a r r i a g e i s t h e n v a l i d i n C a n a d a a n d i n v a l i d i n t h e c o u n t r y o f h i s d o m i c i l e . - 1 0 4 -On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t i s a r g u a b l e t h a t t h i s t y p e o f s i t u a t i o n w o u l d a r i s e i n a n y e v e n t . I f t h e p e r s o n w e r e n o t a l l o w e d t o r e m a r r y i n C a n a d a , h e m a y r e t u r n t o t h e c o u n t r y w h e r e h e o b t a i n e d t h e d i v o r c e o r some o t h e r c o u n t r y , a n d b e c o m e v a l i d l y m a r r i e d b y t h e l a w o f t h a t c o u n t r y ; t h u s , t h e l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e w o u l d b e c r e a t e d a n y w a y , a n d p e r h a p s t h e p r o b l e m l i e s 8 4 w i t h t h e r e s t r i c t i v e r u l e s o f t h e c o u n t r y w h i c h p u t s h i m u n d e r a n i n c a p a c i t y . e . W h a t r e m a i n s now o f t h e d o m i c i l e t e s t , A r m i t a g e v A - G 8 5 a n d T r a v e r s v H o l l e y ? 8 6 C e r t a i n l y , d o m i c i l e a n d t h e r u l e i n A r m i t a g e v A - G c o n t i n u e t o b e 87 g r o u n d s f o r r e c o g n i t i o n i n C a n a d a . B u t now t h a t d i v o r c e j u r i s d i c t i o n i s f o u n d e d o n f e d e r a l o r n a t i o n a l d o m i c i l e , i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t s w o u l d a p p l y i f a n a t i o n a l o r f e d e r a l d o m i c i l e i s e s t a b l i s h e d 8 8 a b r o a d . H o w e v e r , t h e c o u r t s s e e m t o h a v e d e c i d e d o t h e r w i s e , a n d t h e d o m i c i l e t e s t a n d t h e r u l e i n A r m i t a g e v A - G r e m a i n u n c h a n g e d i n t h i s r e s p e c t . W h i l e t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e o v e r l a p b e t w e e n t h e d o m i c i l e t e s t a n d t h e r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n t e s t , t h e r e i s p e r h a p s v e r y l i t t l e o v e r l a p b e t w e e n t h e l a t t e r a n d t h e r u l e i n A r m i t a g e v A - G . F o r e x a m p l e , i n V i c c a r i 89 v V i c c a r i a M e x i c a n d i v o r c e , w h i c h w a s r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e s t a t e o f t h e d o m i c i l e , New Y o r k , w a s r e c o g n i z e d i n C a n a d a , e v e n t h o u g h i t w a s c l e a r t h a t r e s o r t h a d b e e n m a d e t o t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n p u r e l y f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f o b t a i n i n g a d i v o r c e , a n d t h a t t h e r e w a s n o r e a l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h M e x i c o . 90 T h e s o l e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h i s c a s e a n d M o u n t b a t t e n v M o u n t b a t t e n i s t h a t , i n t h e V i c c a r i c a s e , t h e h u s b a n d w a s d o m i c i l e d i n New Y o r k , w h e r e a s i n M o u n t b a t t e n t h e w i f e ( w h o l a c k e d c a p a c i t y t o a c q u i r e a s e p a r a t e d o m i c i l e a t t h a t t i m e ) h a d b e e n a r e s i d e n t o f New Y o r k f o r f o u r y e a r s . - 105 -The V i c c a r i case also c o n f l i c t s with other decisions which indicate that i n order to be afforded recognition a divorce must be a "genuine 91 divorce". The V i c c a r i case can be further contrasted with the dec i s i o n of the 92 Supreme Court of New South Wales i n E l Oueik v E l Oueik where i t was held, i n t e r a l i a , that a Lebanese divorce should not be recognized. The husband who was an A u s t r a l i a n c i t i z e n and d o m i c i l i a r y resorted to the Moslem Court i n the Lebanon purely i n order to procure a divorce and avoid his r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s towards his wife. In these circumstances the court held that i t would be manifestly contrary to public p o l i c y to recognize the decree and refused recognition under s. 104(4)(b) of the Family Law 93 Act 1975. One question which does not yet appear to have been answered i s : now that a wife can acquire her own separate domicile for divorce purposes under s. 6(1) of the Divorce Act, i s the rule i n Armitage v A-G applicable to the wife's domicile as we l l as the husband's? Is i t s u f f i c i e n t for recognition that the divorce would be recognized i n the country of the wife's domicile, even i f the divorce would not be recognized i n the country of the husband's domicile (and v i c e versa)? Does s. 6(2) extend the Armitage rule for recognition as well as the domicile test? I t has been said that s. 6(2) 94 does not prevent further development of judge made law, and i t would seem i l l o g i c a l i f recognition by the husband's domicile were a ground for recognition i n Canada, but recognition by the wife's domicile were not. However, a d i f f e r e n t view could be taken. In England the statutory p r o v i s i o n r e l a t i n g to the common law requires that the divorce be obtained i n the domicile of one spouse and recognized i n the domicile of the other, - 106 -95 o r r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e d o m i c i l e o f e a c h s p o u s e . A s m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , i t i s n o t e n t i r e l y c e r t a i n w h e t h e r T r a v e r s 96 97 v H o l l e y i s a p p l i c a b l e i n a l l o r a n y o f t h e p r o v i n c e s i n C a n a d a . T h e r u l e w a s i n t r o d u c e d t o a l l e v i a t e t h e p o t e n t i a l h a r d s h i p c a u s e d t o a w i f e a s a r e s u l t o f h e r d o m i c i l e o f d e p e n d e n c e o n h e r h u s b a n d , b u t t h e o n l y a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e r u l e , p r i o r t o 1 9 6 8 , w a s i n r e s p e c t o f d i v o r c e s g r a n t e d i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e c o n t e m p l a t e d b y t h e D i v o r c e J u r i s d i c t i o n 98 9 9 A c t 1 9 3 0 T h a t A c t w a s a b o l i s h e d b y t h e D i v o r c e A c t a n d p r e s u m a b l y s . 6 ( 2 ) i t s e l f w a s i n t e n d e d t o c o v e r s i t u a t i o n s o f s i m i l a r j u r i s d i c t i o n w h i c h a r i s e u n d e r t h e D i v o r c e A c t s i n c e 1 9 6 8 . 1 0 0 I n B e v i n g t o n v H e w i t s o n L a c o u r c i e r e J . s a i d t h a t P a r l i a m e n t i n e n a c t i n g s . 6 ( 2 ) d i d n o t m e a n t o a b r o g a t e - t h e r u l e i n T r a v e r s v H o l l e y . T h e l e a r n e d j u d g e c o n s i d e r e d t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e d o c t r i n e a n d w a s o f 1 0 1 t h e o p i n i o n t h a t : 1 . T r a v e r s v H o l l e y c o u l d b e a p p l i e d t o d i v o r c e s g r a n t e d p r i o r t o 1 9 6 8 , i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e c o n t e m p l a t e d b y t h e D i v o r c e J u r i s d i c t i o n A c t ; 2 . T h e f a c t t h a t s . 6 ( 2 ) r e l a t e d o n l y t o d i v o r c e s g r a n t e d a f t e r J u l y 1 , 1 9 6 8 , d i d n o t i n h i b i t t h e u s e o f s . 6 ( 1 ) ( w h i c h p r o v i d e s f o r a s e p a r a t e d o m i c i l e f o r t h e w i f e f o r d i v o r c e p u r p o s e s ) i n t h e T r a v e r s v H o l l e y c o n t e x t , 102 i n r e l a t i o n t o d e c r e e s g r a n t e d p r i o r t o t h a t d a t e . T h i s s e c o n d a p p l i c a t i o n o f T r a v e r s v H o l l e y w o u l d b e u s e f u l i f i t 103 w e r e u l t i m a t e l y h e l d t h a t I n d y k a i s n o t t h e l a w i n C a n a d a , b e c a u s e t h e n s . 6 ( 2 ) w o u l d b e a p p l i c a b l e t o d i v o r c e s o b t a i n e d a f t e r 1 9 6 8 , a n d T r a v e r s v  H o l l e y t o s i m i l a r d i v o r c e d e c r e e s o b t a i n e d p r i o r t o t h a t d a t e . T h i s w o u l d t e n d t o m i n i m i s e e x i s t i n g l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e s a n d l e a d t o f e w e r a n o m a l i e s - 107 -1 0 4 i n r e c o g n i t i o n c a s e s . H o w e v e r , L a c o u r c i e r e J . d i d n o t a p p l y t h e d o c t r i n e i n t h e i n s t a n t c a s e . T h e h u s b a n d w a s d o m i c i l e d i n O n t a r i o , b u t t h e w i f e w o u l d c e r t a i n l y h a v e b e e n d o m i c i l e d w i t h i n t h e d e c r e e i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n ( M a i n e ) w i t h i n t h e m e a n i n g o f s . 6 ( 1 ) , a n d w o u l d h a v e s a t i s f i e d t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f s . 5 ( 1 ) 105 o f t h e C a n a d i a n D i v o r c e A c t . 106 T h e r e a s o n g i v e n b y L a c o u r c i e r e J . w a s : " B u t I d o n o t c o n s i d e r t h a t s . 6 ( 1 ) c a n b e s o a p p l i e d t o t h e f a c t s o f t h i s c a s e . F o r t h e s u b s e q u e n t m a r r i a g e , a s I h a v e s t a t e d , t o o k p l a c e i n 1 9 5 8 , a n d t h e q u e s t i o n b e f o r e me i s w h e t h e r , a t t h a t p o i n t o f t i m e , t h e h u s b a n d w a s , b y t h e l a w o f O n t a r i o , f r e e t o r e m a r r y . A n d i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t h a d t h i s q u e s t i o n b e e n a s k e d t h e O n t a r i o c o u r t s a t t h a t t i m e , r e f e r e n c e t o s . 6 ( 1 ) w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n p o s s i b l e . " D o e s t h i s m e a n t h a t r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e d i v o r c e w a s " i n c i d e n t a l " o r s u b o r d i n a t e 107 t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f c a p a c i t y t o r e m a r r y ? T h i s c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n w h a t L a c o u r c i e r e J . h a d i n m i n d , b e c a u s e h e p r o c e e d e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e d i v o r c e o n t h e b a s i s o f a r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n . T h e c o u r t d i d n o t d e a l w i t h t h e r e a l p r o b l e m b e f o r e i t , w h i c h w a s : w h i c h r u l e i s t o g o v e r n w h e n t w o c o n f l i c t i n g r u l e s o f p r i v a t e i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w a r e i n v o l v e d ? By t h e l a w o f h i s d o m i c i l e , O n t a r i o , t h e h u s b a n d l a c k e d c a p a c i t y t o r e m a r r y a t t h e t i m e 108 . o f t h e c e r e m o n y , b u t b y t h e c o n f l i c t r u l e s f o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f d i v o r c e s ( T r a v e r s v H o l l e y a n d I n d y k a ) t h e d i v o r c e w h i c h t h e f i r s t w i f e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e h u s b a n d w a s v a l i d . S h o u l d r e c o g n i t i o n r u l e s r e t r o a c t i v e l y a f f e c t t h e c o n f l i c t s r u l e s f o r c a p a c i t y t o r e m a r r y ? A s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , p r o b a b l y t h e b e s t s o l u t i o n t o t h i s t y p e - o f p r o b l e m w o u l d b e t o a p p l y t h e r u l e w h i c h 1 0 9 g i v e s t h e m o r e e q u i t a b l e r e s u l t . D i d L a c o u r c i e r e J . m e a n t h a t T r a v e r s v H o l l e y s h o u l d b e r e t r o a c t i v e o n l y w h e n t h e r e i s n o " i n t e r v e n i n g " a c t , s u c h a s a s u b s e q u e n t m a r r i a g e b y o n e - 108 -o f t h e p a r t i e s ? I f s o , w h y i s t h e same r e a s o n i n g n o t a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e I n d y k a t e s t a l s o ? I n a n y e v e n t , t h e " i n t e r v e n i n g " a c t a s a r e a s o n f o r n o n - r e t r o a c t i v i t y w a s a d v a n c e d i n r e l a t i o n t o a n a c t w h i c h r e l i e d o n t h e 110 i n v a l i d i t y o f a d i v o r c e , n o t i t s v a l i d i t y . T h e r e seems t o b e n o l o g i c a l r e a s o n w h y t h e T r a v e r s v H o l l e y d o c t r i n e , i f i t i s r e t r o a c t i v e a s r e g a r d s s . 6 ( 1 ) , s h o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n a p p l i e d i n t h e B e v i n g t o n v H e w i t s o n c a s e . Y e t L a c o u r c i e r e J. a p p e a r s t o h a v e p r e f e r r e d t o i n t e r p r e t a n d a p p l y t h e c o n n e c t i o n t e s t . I t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t i f t h e I n d y k a p r i n c i p l e i s t h e l a w i n C a n a d a t h e n i t f o l l o w s t h a t T r a v e r s v H o l l e y s h o u l d a l s o b e t h e l a w , s i n c e t h e f o r m e r s t e m s f r o m t h e l a t t e r . H o w e v e r , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t m o s t s i t u a t i o n s o f s i m i l a r j u r i s d i c t i o n w o u l d i n v o l v e a " r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n " . T h u s , i f t h e I n d y k a p r i n c i p l e c o n t i n u e s t o b e a p p l i e d i n C a n a d a , T r a v e r s v H o l l e y , a s w e l l a s s . 6 ( 2 ) i t s e l f , w i l l b e l a r g e l y r e d u n d a n t . I n d e e d , i t m a y b e t h a t a s a r e s u l t o f I n d y k a t h a t s i m i l a r j u r i s d i c t i o n i s m e r e l y 1 1 1 a n e l e m e n t o f " r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n " , i n w h i c h c a s e t h e T r a v e r s v H o l l e y p r i n c i p l e w o u l d b e w h o l l y r e d u n d a n t . f . E x t r a - j u d i c i a l D i v o r c e s T h e C a n a d i a n p o s i t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o e x t r a - j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e s i s n o t 112 a l t o g e t h e r c l e a r . I n S c h w e b e l v U n g a r a " g e t t " p r o n o u n c e d i n I t a l y a n d r e c o g n i z e d i n I s r a e l , w h e r e t h e p a r t i e s s u b s e q u e n t l y a c q u i r e d a d o m i c i l e , w a s r e c o g n i z e d i n C a n a d a . H o w e v e r , t h i s d e c i s i o n h a s a l s o b e e n 1 1 3 e x p l a i n e d i n t e r m s o f t h e i n c i d e n t a l q u e s t i o n , t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e d i v o r c e m e r e l y b e i n g i n c i d e n t a l t o t h e p r i m a r y q u e s t i o n o f c a p a c i t y t o r e m a r r y b y t h e l a w o f t h e d o m i c i l e . 1 1 4 I n K h a n v K h a n M a n s o n J . c o n s i d e r e d a M u s l i m m a r r i a g e w h i c h t o o k - 109 -p l a c e i n W a s h i n g t o n a n d a T a l a k n a m a ( a t y p e o f i n f o r m a l d i v o r c e ) w h i c h t o o k p l a c e t h e r e a f t e r . He s a i d : " . . . I am s a t i s f i e d t h a t i f t h e m a r r i a g e w a s v a l i d t h e b i l l o f d i v o r c e m e n t w a s a l s o v a l i d . " 115 I n G o l d e n b u r g v T r i f f o n i t w a s h e l d t h a t a J e w i s h r e l i g i o u s d i v o r c e s h o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d i n Q u e b e c s i n c e i t w a s g r a n t e d b y t h e l a w o f t h e p a r t i e s ' d o m i c i l e a t t h e d a t e o f c o m m e n c e m e n t o f p r o c e e d i n g s , e v e n i f t h e p a r t i e s w e r e d o m i c i l e d i n Q u e b e c b y t h e t i m e t h e d i v o r c e w a s f i n a l i z e d . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , w h e r e t h e p a r t i e s a r e d o m i c i l e d i n C a n a d a t h e e x t r a -j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e i s p r o n o u n c e d h e r e , i t h a s b e e n h e l d t h a t t h e d i v o r c e 116 s h o u l d n o t b e r e c o g n i z e d . T h u s , i t seems t h a t e x t r a - j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e s may b e a f f o r d e d t h e same t r e a t m e n t a s a n y o t h e r d i v o r c e , w h i c h i s o n l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e o f c o m i t y b e t w e e n n a t i o n s . 117 3 . DO THE CANADIAN RULES MEET THE OBJECTIVES OF T H I S PART? a . P r e v e n t i o n o f L i m p i n g M a r r i a g e s 1 1 8 T h e common l a w b e f o r e 1 9 6 7 w a s v e r y n a r r o w i n a p p l i c a t i o n , w h i c h d i d n o t a n d d o e s n o t s e r v e t o m i n i m i z e t h e c r e a t i o n o f l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e s . 119 C e r t a i n l y s . 6 ( 2 ) , t a k e n o n i t s o w n , i s s u b j e c t t o t h e same c r i t i c i s m . 120 I f t h e R o b i n s o n - S c o t t t y p e o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w e r e n o t u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e s u b s e c t i o n , t h e n i t s a r e a o f a p p l i c a t i o n w o u l d b e e v e n s m a l l e r , b e c a u s e i t w o u l d a p p l y o n l y t o d i v o r c e s g r a n t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y o n t h e b a s i s o f d o m i c i l e o f t h e w i f e i n t h e g r a n t i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n . S e c t i o n 6 ( 2 ) i s n o t r e t r o a c t i v e , w h i c h w i l l n o t t e n d t o m i n i m i s e e x i s t i n g l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e s ; 1 2 1 b u t t h e u s e o f T r a v e r s v H o l l e y , i n o r d e r t o m a k e t h e s u b s e c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y r e t r o a c t i v e , m a y s o l v e t h i s p r o b l e m . - 110 -122 I f I n d y k a i s t h e l a w i n C a n a d a t h i s o b j e c t i v e w i l l p r o b a b l y b e 123 s a t i s f i e d . T h e t e s t i s r e t r o a c t i v e , w h i c h h e l p s ; b u t , a s e x p l a i n e d 1 2 4 a b o v e , t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e m a y b e c r e a t e d , i f o n e o f t h e p a r t i e s i s u n d e r a n i n c a p a c i t y t o r e m a r r y b y t h e l a w o f h i s d o m i c i l e . b . P r e v e n t i o n o f H a r d s h i p a n d A n o m a l i e s 125 T h e v a r i o u s p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f s . 6 ( 2 ) , o u t l i n e d a b o v e , c o u l d l e a d t o a n y n u m b e r o f a n o m a l o u s d e c i s i o n s , b u t t h e s u b s e c t i o n a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n a p p l i e d o n l y o n c e , e v e n t h o u g h r e f e r e n c e i s s u p p o s e d t o b e 1 2 6 m a d e t o t h i s s u b s e c t i o n b e f o r e I n d y k a . By v i r t u e o f i t s l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e w i l l b e m a n y d e c i s i o n s i n v o l v i n g s . 6 ( 2 ) , l e t a l o n e a n o m a l o u s d e c i s i o n s . 127 T h e e f f e c t o f s . 6 o n t h e r u l e i n A r m i t a g e v A - G i s a s y e t u n c e r t a i n , w h i c h c o u l d l e a d t o a n o m a l i e s b e t w e e n p r o v i n c e s . T h e I n d y k a t e s t c o u l d l e a d t o b o t h h a r d s h i p a n d a n o m a l i e s . A w i f e 1 2 8 c o u l d b e d e p r i v e d o f h e r c l a i m t o f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f r o m h e r h u s b a n d , i f t h e h u s b a n d c a n u n i l a t e r a l l y o b t a i n a r e c o g n i z e d d i v o r c e i n a c o u n t r y w i t h w h i c h h e h a s a " r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n . " I f , b y t h e l a w o f h i s o r h e r d o m i c i l e , o n e e x - s p o u s e i s u n d e r a n i n c a p a c i t y t o r e m a r r y , b u t t h e o t h e r e x - s p o u s e , b y t h e l a w o f h i s o r h e r r e s p e c t i v e d o m i c i l e , i s n o t , t h e n t h e 129 s e c o n d - m e n t i o n e d p e r s o n c a n r e m a r r y , w h e r e a s t h e f i r s t p r o b a b l y c a n n o t . T h e I n d y k a t e s t m a y a l s o b e i n t e r p r e t e d d i f f e r e n t l y f r o m p r o v i n c e t o p r o v i n c e ; f o r i n s t a n c e , i n A l b e r t a t h e t e s t h a s b e e n i n t e r p r e t e d v e r y l i b e r a l l y , t o m e a n r e s i d e n c e f o r a n y p e r i o d o f t i m e , p r o v i d e d t h e p a r t i e s 130 w e r e n o t f o r u m s h o p p i n g . I t i s v e r y p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e same i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 1 3 1 m a y n o t b e g i v e n i n a l l p r o v i n c e s . - I l l -c. C l a r i t y and Certainty of A p p l i c a t i o n 132 The usual c r i t i c i s m s of the domicile test are applicable to s. 6(2), 133 but the poor d r a f t i n g i n s. 6(2) adds greatly to the lack of c l a r i t y and c e r t a i n t y i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n . Of course, vagueness and uncertainty have been major c r i t i c i s m s of 134 the Indyka test i n the past. This i s evidenced by ad hoc extensions to 135 the rule and increased l i t i g a t i o n i n t h i s f i e l d . I t i s not c l e a r whether 136 Indyka can be combined with the r u l e i n Armitage v A-G, or applied to 137 a f e d e r a l country such as the United States as a whole. In a d d i t i o n i t i s 138 not even c e r t a i n whether Indyka i s the law i n Canada. The Canadian p o s i t i o n with regard to e x t r a - j u d i c i a l divorces i s also 139 unclear. d. Prevention of Forum Shopping 140 As stated at the outset, i t i s necessary to balance t h i s objective wi th the conflicting..objective of preventing limping marriages. The Indyka tes t i t s e l f , at l e a s t up to now, does not seem to have led to recognition of 141 a divorce which ought not to have been recognized. Perhaps forum shopping may be prevented, not only by the recognition rules themselves, but also by use of a public p o l i c y ground for refusing recognition of a foreign divorce as, for example, i n the A u s t r a l i a n case of 142 143 E l Oueik v E l Oueik and the case of Keresztessy v Keresztessy. e. Requirement of a Real Connection 144 This objective i s s a t i s f i e d i f Indyka i s the law i n Canada. I f i t i s not the law, there may be instances where a divorce i s not recognized, - 112 -even though there i s a reasonable degree of connection with the foreign 145 jurisdiction. In fact, such instances have already occurred. The domicile test could lead to recognition of a divorce when there is no real connection with the decreeing jurisdiction, because of the 146 technical refinements of the concept. Proposals for change in the concept of domicile (for the purposes of the Divorce Act) have been made 147 in Part 1 of the thesis, and these would be helpful to ensure a real connection with the decreeing jurisdiction. 148 The rule in Armitage v A-G can also lead to recognition when there 149 i s no real connection. But i f there is a real connection with the country of domicile, and that country recognizes the decree, there seems to be l i t t l e j u s t i f ication for refusing recognition in Canada. 4. SUMMARY ON RECOGNITION 150 The Canadian position resembles the English common law between 1967-71, 151 with the added confusion and uncertainties of s. 6(2) of the Divorce Act 152 and lack of authority from the Supreme Court of Canada. The rules do not 153 meet the suggested c r i t e r i a and i t is submitted that the state of the recognition laws in Canada, although well-intended, is unbearably uncertain. The rules should be more clearly defined, so that lawyers may advise their clients on the vali d i t y of a foreign divorce without the necessity of l i t i g a t i o n . The solutions provided by the English Recognition of Divorces and Legal 154 Separations Act 1971 w i l l be considered in the next chapter, followed by recommendations for reform i n Canada. - 113 -1 5. GROUNDS FOR ATTACKING A FOREIGN DIVORCE T h e g r o u n d s f o r n o n - r e c o g n i t i o n o f f o r e i g n d i v o r c e s i n C a n a d a a n d E n g l a n d a r e v e r y s i m i l a r , t h e f o r m e r h a v i n g b e e n i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e l a t t e r t o a g r e a t e x t e n t . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s a n a l y s i s i s o f t h e common l a w p o s i t i o n g e n e r a l l y , a . F r a u d ( i ) I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e f a c t t h a t a f r a u d w a s c o m m i t t e d i n t h e f o r e i g n 2 p r o c e e d i n g s i s n o t o f i t s e l f a s u f f i c i e n t g r o u n d f o r r e f u s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n a t common l a w . I n some o f t h e o l d e r C a n a d i a n c a s e s t h e v i e w w a s t h a t f r a u d 3 o f a n y k i n d w o u l d s u f f i c e , b u t i t seems c l e a r f r o m t h e d e c i s i o n i n P o w e l l 4 v C o c k b u r n t h a t t h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e . T h u s , a f r a u d g o i n g t o t h e m e r i t s 5 o f t h e f o r e i g n p e t i t i o n i s n o t g e n e r a l l y a g r o u n d o f a t t a c k , e v e n i f s o m e t h i n g i s w i t h h e l d w h i c h w o u l d h a v e made t h e f o r e i g n c o u r t come t o a 6 d i f f e r e n t c o n c l u s i o n . H o w e v e r , i t seems t h a t i f t h e f r a u d w h i c h i s p e r p e t r a t e d r e s u l t s i n a " s u b s t a n t i a l i n j u s t i c e " i n g r a n t i n g t h e f o r e i g n d e c r e e , t h e n r e c o g n i t i o n 7 m a y b e d e n i e d . S u b s t a n t i a l i n j u s t i c e a s a g r o u n d f o r r e f u s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n 8 i s e x a m i n e d b e l o w . ( i i ) F r a u d a s t o j u r i s d i c t i o n I f a f r a u d i s p e r p e t r a t e d o n t h e f o r e i g n c o u r t w h i c h g o e s t o t h e v e r y r o o t o f t h e a c t i o n , n a m e l y , t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e c o u r t i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l 9 s e n s e , t h e d e c r e e m a y n o t b e r e c o g n i z e d a t common l a w . T h e m o s t c l e a r 10 e x a m p l e o f t h i s t y p e o f f r a u d i s p r e s e n t e d b y B o n a p a r t e v B o n a p a r t e . I n t h a t c a s e a h u s b a n d p e t i t i o n e r , h a v i n g b e e n u n s u c c e s s f u l i n E n g l a n d , s e t u p a f a l s e r e s i d e n c e i n S c o t l a n d a n d o b t a i n e d a d i v o r c e t h e r e o n t h e b a s i s o f h i s d o m i c i l e i n S c o t l a n d . T h u s , t h e d i v o r c e w a s n o t r e c o g n i z e d i n - 114 -11 E n g l a n d b e c a u s e o f t h e f r a u d a s t o S c o t t i s h d o m i c i l e . M o r e r e c e n t l y , i n P o w e l l v C o c k b u r n , t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a 12 s u m m a r i z e d t h e l a w i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w a y : " T h e g r o u n d s u p o n w h i c h a d e c r e e o f d i v o r c e g r a n t e d b y o n e s t a t e c a n b e i m p e a c h e d i n a n o t h e r s t a t e a r e , p r o p e r l y , f e w i n n u m b e r . T h e w e i g h t o f a u t h o r i t y seems t o r e c o g n i z e , h o w -e v e r , t h a t i f t h e g r a n t i n g s t a t e t a k e s j u r i s d i c t i o n o n t h e b a s i s o f f a c t s w h i c h , i f t h e t r u t h w e r e k n o w n , w o u l d n o t g i v e i t j u r i s d i c t i o n , t h e d e c r e e may b e s e t a s i d e . F r a u d g o i n g t o t h e m e r i t s m a y b e j u s t a s d i s t a s t e f u l a s f r a u d g o i n g t o j u r i s d i c t i o n , b u t f o r r e a s o n s o f c o m i t y a n d p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , i n t h e p a s t we h a v e r e f u s e d t o i n q u i r e i n t o t h e f o r m e r . E v e n w i t h i n t h e l i m i t e d a r e a o f w h a t m i g h t b e t e r m e d j u r i s d i c t i o n a l f r a u d t h e r e s h o u l d b e g r e a t r e l u c t a n c e t o m a k e a f i n d i n g o f f r a u d f o r o b v i o u s r e a s o n s . " A d i s t i n c t i o n m u s t b e d r a w n h e r e b e t w e e n f r a u d a s t o j u r i s d i c t i o n i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e n s e a n d f r a u d a s t o t h e i n t e r n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e f o r e i g n c o u r t . L o r d L i n d l e y , M . R . i n P e m b e r t o n v H u g h e s made t h e 13 p o i n t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w a y : " . . . W h e r e n o s u b s t a n t i a l j u s t i c e , a c c o r d i n g t o E n g l i s h n o t i o n s , i s o f f e n d e d , a l l t h a t E n g l i s h C o u r t s l o o k t o i s t h e f i n a l i t y o f t h e j u d g m e n t a n d t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e c o u r t , i n t h i s s e n s e a n d t o t h i s e x t e n t - n a m e l y , i t s c o m p e t e n c e t o e n t e r t a i n t h e s o r t o f c a s e w h i c h i t d i d d e a l w i t h , a n d i t s c o m p e t e n c e t o r e q u i r e t h e d e f e n d a n t t o a p p e a r b e f o r e i t . I f t h e c o u r t h a d j u r i s d i c t i o n i n t h i s s e n s e a n d t o t h i s e x t e n t , t h e c o u r t s o f t h i s c o u n t r y n e v e r i n q u i r e w h e t h e r t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n h a s b e e n p r o p e r l y o r i m p r o p e r l y e x e r c i s e d , p r o v i d e d a l w a y s t h a t n o s u b s t a n t i a l i n j u s t i c e , a c c o r d i n g t o E n g l i s h n o t i o n s , h a s b e e n c o m m i t t e d . . . B u t t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n w h i c h a l o n e i s i m p o r t a n t i n t h e s e m a t t e r s i s t h e c o m p e t e n c e o f t h e C o u r t i n a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e n s e - i . e . , i t s t e r r i t o r i a l c o m p e t e n c e o v e r t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r a n d o v e r t h e d e f e n d a n t . I t s c o m p e t e n c e o r j u r i s -d i c t i o n i n a n y o t h e r s e n s e i s n o t r e g a r d e d a s m a t e r i a l b y t h e C o u r t s o f t h i s c o u n t r y . . . " T h u s , i t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t i f , i n f a c t , t h e p e t i t i o n e r w a s d o m i c i l e d i n t h e f o r e i g n j u r i s d i c t i o n c o n c e r n e d , i n t h e C a n a d i a n o r E n g l i s h s e n s e , t h e n f r a u d a s t o t h e i n t e r n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e f o r e i g n - 115 -c o u n t r y s h o u l d b e i r r e l e v a n t a t common l a w , u n l e s s i t c a u s e s a s u b s t a n t i a l 14 i n j u s t i c e . H o w e v e r , i t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t t h i s w a s a p p a r e n t l y n o t t h e v i e w t a k e n i n P o w e l l v C o c k b u r n . T h e v i e w i n t h a t c a s e , a s s h o w n i n t h e q u o t a t i o n a b o v e , seems t o b e t h a t s u c h f r a u d w o u l d b e s u f f i c i e n t c a u s e t o r e f u s e r e c o g n i t i o n . A f u r t h e r p r o b l e m w o u l d a r i s e i n t h i s c o n t e x t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e 15 16 r u l e i n A r m i t a g e v A - G . W h a t i f , a s i n M i d d l e t o n v M i d d l e t o n , t h e r e w a s i n f a c t n o d o m i c i l e i n t h e d e c r e e i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n , a n d t h e r e w a s f r a u d a s t o t h e i n t e r n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e f o r e i g n c o u r t , b u t t h e d e c r e e i s n e v e r t h e l e s s r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e c o u n t r y o f t h e s p o u s e s ' d o m i c i l e ? I t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h e p r e f e r a b l e s o l u t i o n w o u l d b e t o g i v e e f f e c t t o t h e r u l e i n A r m i t a g e v A - G , u n l e s s a " s u b s t a n t i a l 17 i n j u s t i c e " o c c u r r e d i n g r a n t i n g t h e d e c r e e . I f a d o p t e d , t h e n e t e f f e c t o f t h i s r e a s o n i n g w o u l d s e e m t o b e t h a t t h e g r o u n d o f f r a u d a s t o j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e f o r e i g n c o u r t w o u l d o n l y b e a s e p a r a t e g r o u n d o f a t t a c k w h e n t h e f o r e i g n c o u n t r y u s e s s i m i l a r d i v o r c e j u r i s d i c t i o n r u l e s t o t h o s e i n t h e c o u n t r y w h e r e r e c o g n i t i o n i s s o u g h t . When t h e r e i s f r a u d a s t o i n t e r n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s w h i c h d o n o t r e s e m b l e t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s i n t h e f o r u m , t h e g r o u n d f o r n o n - r e c o g n i t i o n w o u l d b e , i n e f f e c t , " s u b s t a n t i a l i n j u s t i c e " , i f t h e d e c r e e w o u l d o t h e r -w i s e s a t i s f y C a n a d i a n o r E n g l i s h r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t s . I f s u c h a d e c r e e w o u l d n o t o t h e r w i s e s a t i s f y C a n a d i a n o r E n g l i s h r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t s , i t w o u l d n o t b e r e c o g n i z e d i n a n y e v e n t , b . N a t u r a l J u s t i c e A d e c r e e m a y b e r e f u s e d r e c o g n i t i o n i f i t i s c o n t r a r y t o n a t u r a l 18 j u s t i c e a s a r e s u l t o f some d e f e c t i n t h e f o r e i g n p r o c e e d i n g s . T h e - 116 -m o s t common i n s t a n c e o f n o n - r e c o g n i t i o n o n t h i s g r o u n d i s w h e n t h e d e f e n d a n t h a s n o n o t i c e o f t h e f o r e i g n p r o c e e d i n g s a n d , t h u s , n o 19 o p p o r t u n i t y t o a p p e a r a n d d e f e n d t h e p e t i t i o n . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t h e c a s e w h e n t h e l a c k o f n o t i c e i s a r e s u l t o f t h e p e t i t i o n e r ' s f r a u d u l e n t 20 c o n c e a l m e n t o f t h e d e f e n d a n t ' s w h e r e a b o u t s . I n a d d i t i o n , i t seems t h a t t h e o b j e c t i o n t o l a c k o f n o t i c e c a n n o t b e w a i v e d b y t h e d e f e n d a n t b e c a u s e t h i s w o u l d h a v e t h e e f f e c t o f a l l o w i n g t h a t p e r s o n t o d e t e r m i n e 2 1 h i s o r h e r o w n s t a t u s . B u t l a c k o f n o t i c e o f t h e f o r e i g n p r o c e e d i n g s i s n o t c o n t r a r y t o n a t u r a l j u s t i c e i f , i n f a c t , t h e d e f e n d a n t k n e w t h a t t h e p r o c e e d i n g s 22 w e r e t a k i n g p l a c e . D i c e y a n d M o r r i s a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t a d e f e n d a n t c a n n o t a l l e g e w a n t o f n o t i c e i f h e i s r e s i d e n t i n t h e f o r e i g n c o u n t r y 23 2 4 w h e n t h e p r o c e e d i n g s a r e c o m m e n c e d . B u t i n B a v i n v B a v i n t h e O n t a r i o C o u r t o f A p p e a l r e f u s e d t o r e c o g n i z e a M e x i c a n d i v o r c e , w h e n l a c k o f n o t i c e w a s a r e s u l t o f t h e p e t i t i o n e r ' s f r a u d a s t o t h e w h e r e a b o u t s o f h i s w i f e , e v e n t h o u g h b o t h h u s b a n d a n d w i f e w e r e d o m i c i l e d a n d r e s i d e n t i n M e x i c o a t t h e t i m e . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t seems t h a t a f o r e i g n d e c r e e i s n o t o f f e n s i v e t o n a t u r a l j u s t i c e i f w a n t o f n o t i c e o c c u r s b e c a u s e t h e f o r e i g n c o u n t r y h a s 25 u s e d i t s own r u l e s f o r s u b s t i t u t e d s e r v i c e o r d i s p e n s i n g w i t h 26 s e r v i c e . c . S u b s t a n t i a l I n j u s t i c e " N a t u r a l " j u s t i c e a n d " s u b s t a n t i a l " j u s t i c e a r e s o m e t i m e s u s e d 27 s y n o n y m o u s l y . B u t t h e n o t i o n o f s u b s t a n t i a l j u s t i c e seems t o h a v e a m u c h w i d e r a m b i t t h a n t h e n e c e s s i t y o f n o t i c e a n d o p p o r t u n i t y t o b e 28 h e a r d . I t seems t o b e a n a l o g o u s t o p u b l i c p o l i c y a n d i n M i d d l e t o n - 117 -v M i d d l e t o n C a i r n s J . s t a t e d : " . . . W h a t s t r i k e s a n E n g l i s h j u d g e a s b e i n g 2 9 f u n d a m e n t a l l y u n f a i r i s c o n t r a r y t o s u b s t a n t i a l j u s t i c e . " T h u s a f o r e i g n d e c r e e may n o t b e r e c o g n i z e d a t common l a w i f a s u b s t a n t i a l 30 i n j u s t i c e o c c u r r e d i n g r a n t i n g i t . A s u b s t a n t i a l i n j u s t i c e u s u a l l y o c c u r s w h e r e t h e r e h a s b e e n s e r i o u s f r a u d i n t h e f o r e i g n p r o c e e d i n g s -f o r e x a m p l e , f r a u d l e a d i n g t o t h e c o n c e a l m e n t o f t h e w i f e ' s w h e r e a b o u t s 3 1 s o t h a t s h e r e c e i v e s n o n o t i c e o f t h e f o r e i g n p r o c e e d i n g s . I n M i d d l e t o n 32 v M i d d l e t o n a n I l l i n o i s d i v o r c e w a s h e l d t o be c o n t r a r y t o s u b s t a n t i a l j u s t i c e w h e n t h e h u s b a n d ' s c a s e i n t h e f o r e i g n c o u r t w a s w h o l l y f r a u d u l e n t . He h a d n o t s a t i s f i e d t h e i n t e r n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f r e s i d e n c e i n I l l i n o i s f o r a t l e a s t a y e a r ; he h a d l i e d a b o u t h i s w i f e ' s r e s i d e n c e w i t h h i m i n I l l i n o i s a n d f a l s e l y a l l e g e d t h a t s h e h a d d e s e r t e d h i m . T h e r e f o r e , a l t h o u g h f r a u d p e r s e i s a n i n s u f f i c i e n t g r o u n d f o r r e f u s i n g 33 3 4 r e c o g n i t i o n , u n l e s s i t g o e s t o j u r i s d i c t i o n , i t m a y a m o u n t t o a s u b -s t a n t i a l i n j u s t i c e i n c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , d . O t h e r G r o u n d s W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e g r o u n d s o f a t t a c k m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , t h e c o u r t s a r e n o t g e n e r a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r o p r i e t y o f t h e f o r e i g n 35 p r o c e e d i n g s . T h e s u b s t a n t i v e g r o u n d s o n w h i c h t h e d i v o r c e i s o b t a i n e d 3 6 a r e i r r e l e v a n t . T h e f a c t t h a t a m i s t a k e w a s made b y t h e f o r e i g n c o u r t 37 i s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o j u s t i f y n o n - r e c o g n i t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e f a c t t h a t a d e c r e e w a s o b t a i n e d b y d u r e s s may b e 3 8 a g r o u n d t o r e f u s e r e c o g n i t i o n a t common l a w . I n M e y e r v M e y e r , a n E n g l i s h c a s e , a G e r m a n d i v o r c e w a s o b t a i n e d b y t h e w i f e o f a Jew d u r i n g t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r a t t h e i n s t a n c e o f t h e N a z i s . I t w a s h e l d t h a t t h e d e c r e e w a s o b t a i n e d b y d u r e s s , t h e r e b e i n g a c o n t i n u i n g d a n g e r t o t h e l i f e , - 118 -l i m b a n d l i b e r t y o f t h e w i f e , i f s h e r e m a i n e d m a r r i e d t o t h e h u s b a n d . T h e c o u r t t h e n r e f u s e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e d e c r e e . 3 9 The M e y e r c a s e c a n b e c o n t r a s t e d w i t h I g r a v I g r a . I n t h e l a t t e r c a s e a l s o , t h e w i f e o b t a i n e d a G e r m a n d i v o r c e f r o m h e r J e w i s h h u s b a n d a t t h e i n s t a n c e o f t h e G e s t a p o . T h a t d i v o r c e w a s r e c o g n i z e d i n E n g l a n d . T h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t w o c a s e s seems t o b e t h a t i n I g r a v I g r a t h e w i f e w a s l i v i n g w i t h a n o t h e r m a n a t t h e t i m e o f t h e G e r m a n d i v o r c e a n d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e w i f e w a s n o t r e a l l y s u b j e c t e d t o d u r e s s . C o l l u s i o n b e t w e e n t h e s p o u s e s h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d a s a g r o u n d f o r 4 0 r e f u s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n . H o w e v e r , i t seems t h a t i t i s o n l y w h e r e t h e 4 1 c o l l u s i o n i s c o m b i n e d w i t h f r a u d t h a t r e c o g n i t i o n m a y b e r e f u s e d : a s 4 2 f o r e x a m p l e , i n B o n a p a r t e v B o n a p a r t e , w h e r e t h e r e w a s f r a u d a n d 4 3 c o l l u s i o n g o i n g t o j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e f o r e i g n c o u r t . P r e s u m a b l y , f r a u d a n d c o l l u s i o n c o u l d a l s o a m o u n t t o a " s u b s t a n t i a l i n j u s t i c e " i n 4 4 c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s . 4 5 I n H o r n e t t v H o r n e t t i t w a s s a i d t h a t t h e p a r a m o u n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r r e c o g n i t i o n a n d r e f u s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n s h o u l d b e t h e j u s t i c e o r i n j u s t i c e o f t h e c a s e . On t h e f a c e o f i t t h i s s o u n d s r e a s o n a b l e , a n d c o m p a r a b l e 4 6 4 7 w i t h t h e " s u b s t a n t i a l " a n d " n a t u r a l " i n j u s t i c e g r o u n d s . H o w e v e r , i n t h e H o r n e t t c a s e C u m m i n g B r u c e J . t o o k a c c o u n t o f e v e n t s o c c u r r i n g a f t e r t h e F r e n c h d i v o r c e d e c r e e h a d b e e n p r o n o u n c e d i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e j u s t i c e o f t h e c a s e . I t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h e l e a r n e d j u d g e w a s c l e a r l y w r o n g t o d o s o . F o r t h i s m e a n s t h a t t h e v a l i d i t y o r i n v a l i d i t y o f t h e d i v o r c e ( a n d t h u s t h e s t a t u s o f t h e p a r t i e s ) c o u l d b e a l t e r e d b y e v e n t s t a k i n g p l a c e a f t e t h e d i v o r c e h a s b e e n g r a n t e d . T h e c r i t e r i o n o u g h t t o b e w h e t h e r t h e r e w a s s u b s t a n t i a l j u s t i c e o r i n j u s t i c e i n g r a n t i n g t h e d e c r e e . E v e n t s t a k i n g p l a c - 119 -a f t e r t h e d e c r e e w a s p r o n o u n c e d o u g h t t o b e i r r e l e v a n t . A f u r t h e r g r o u n d o f n o n - r e c o g n i t i o n w a s s u g g e s t e d b y t w o o f t h e i r 4 8 L o r d s h i p s i n I n d y k a v I n d y k a , n a m e l y , w h e r e t h e r e i s n o " g e n u i n e " d i v o r c e . I n o t h e r w o r d s , i t w a s f e l t t h a t t h e d e c r e e s o f c o u n t r i e s w h i c h s e l l o r p u r v e y d i v o r c e s s h o u l d n o t b e a f f o r d e d r e c o g n i t i o n i n 4 9 E n g l a n d . H o w e v e r , i t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h e i r L o r d s h i p s d i d n o t i n t e n d t h a t a l l d i v o r c e s o b t a i n e d i n s u c h c o u n t r i e s s h o u l d b e r e f u s e d r e c o g n i t i o n . F o r i n t h a t c a s e , e v e n d o m i c i l i a r i e s o f t h e s e n a t i o n s w o u l d n o t b e a b l e t o o b t a i n a v a l i d d i v o r c e . T h e p r e f e r a b l e v i e w w o u l d seem t o b e t h a t a d i v o r c e m a y b e r e f u s e d r e c o g n i t i o n i n a p p r o p r i a t e 5 0 c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h e r e i t w a s o b t a i n e d b y m e a n s o f f o r u m s h o p p i n g . I n e f f e c t t h i s w o u l d b e a n e x t e n s i o n o f t h e " s u b s t a n t i a l j u s t i c e " o r p u b l i c 5 1 p o l i c y g r o u n d f o r n o n - r e c o g n i t i o n . I n f a c t , i n t h e r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t 52 c a s e o f K e r e s z t e s s y v K e r e s z t e s s y a d i v o r c e w a s r e f u s e d r e c o g n i t i o n o n p u b l i c p o l i c y g r o u n d s w h e r e b o t h p a r t i e s w h e r e O n t a r i o r e s i d e n t s a n d t h e h u s b a n d h a d r e s o r t e d t o H u n g a r y t o p r o c u r e a d i v o r c e , e . Summary T h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e o v e r l a p b e t w e e n t h e v a r i o u s g r o u n d s o f a t t a c k . " S u b s t a n t i a l j u s t i c e " i n t h e w i d e r s e n s e seems t o c o v e r m o s t s i t u a t i o n s , s u c h a s : g r o s s f r a u d , d u r e s s , l a c k o f n o t i c e , a n d p r o b a b l y f r a u d a s t o j u r i s d i c t i o n . T h u s , t h e same r e s u l t s c o u l d p r o b a b l y b e a c h i e v e d b y u s e o f a g e n e r a l " s u b s t a n t i a l i n j u s t i c e " o f p u b l i c p o l i c y e x c e p t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t d o e s seem t h a t t h e common l a w g r o u n d s f o r r e f u s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o n t h e w h o l e l e a d t o a f a i r r e s u l t . A s t u d y w i l l a l s o b e made o f t h e s t a t u t o r y e x c e p t i o n s t o r e c o g n i t i o n - 120 -u n d e r s . 8 o f t h e E n g l i s h R e c o g n i t i o n o f D i v o r c e s a n d L e g a l S e p a r a t i o n 5 3 A c t 1 9 7 1 . T h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a t t h e e n d o f t h i s p a r t w i l l i n c l u d e a p r o p o s a l f o r g r o u n d s o f a t t a c k o f f o r e i g n d i v o r c e s , b a s e d o n t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e common l a w a n d s t a t u t o r y s t u d i e s . - 1 2 1 -CHAPTER 6 1 THE RECOGNITION OF DIVORCES AND LEGAL SEPARATIONSACT 2 T h e E n g l i s h A c t , a l t h o u g h b a s e d o n t h e H a g u e C o n v e n t i o n , r e p r e s e n t s t h e m o s t s i m p l e a n d c l e a r s e t o f r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t s . T h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f 3 t h e 1 9 6 8 C o n v e n t i o n a n d , s i m i l a r l y , o f t h e r e c e n t l y e n a c t e d A u s t r a l i a n 4 p r o v i s i o n s , s e e m u n j u s t i f i e d a n d i t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t l i t t l e w o u l d b e 5 g a i n e d , f o r p r e s e n t p u r p o s e s , f r o m d e t a i l e d c r i t i c i s m o f t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e w r i t e r h a s c h o s e n t o s t u d y t h e E n g l i s h R e c o g n i t i o n A c t 6 o f 1 9 7 1 a s a p o t e n t i a l m o d e l f o r C a n a d i a n d i v o r c e r e f o r m i n p r e f e r e n c e t o t h e H a g u e ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a n d t h e A u s t r a l i a n l a w . 1 . DIVORCES GRANTED I N THE B R I T I S H I S L E S 7 T h e s e w i l l b e r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m , s u b j e c t t o s . 8 o f 8 t h e A c t , i f t h e y w e r e g r a n t e d u n d e r t h e l a w o f a n y p a r t o f t h e B r i t i s h 9 I s l e s . T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h t h e c u r r e n t C a n a d i a n p o s i t i o n u n d e r t h e 10 D i v o r c e A c t , w h e r e b y d i v o r c e s g r a n t e d u n d e r t h a t A c t a r e t o b e r e c o g n i z e d 1 1 t h r o u g h o u t C a n a d a . H o w e v e r , i n E n g l a n d t h e r e h a s b e e n some c o n c e r n a b o u t t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f e x t r a - j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e s o b t a i n e d i n E n g l a n d , a n d t h i s a s p e c t o f r e c o g n i t i o n 12 w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d u n d e r t h a t h e a d i n g . 2 . RECOGNITION OF OVERSEAS DIVORCES S e c t i o n 2 d e f i n e s " o v e r s e a s d i v o r c e s " a s t h o s e w h i c h " h a v e b e e n o b t a i n e d b y m e a n s o f j u d i c i a l o r o t h e r p r o c e e d i n g s i n a n y c o u n t r y o u t s i d e 13 t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s , " a n d w h i c h a r e e f f e c t i v e u n d e r t h e l a w o f t h a t 14 c o u n t r y . S u b j e c t t o s . 8 o f t h e A c t , w h i c h i s c o n s i d e r e d b e l o w , a n o v e r s e a s d i v o r c e w i l l b e r e c o g n i z e d i n E n g l a n d i f , e i t h e r s p o u s e w a s a n a t i o n a l o f o r , h a b i t u a l l y r e s i d e n t i n , t h e c o u n t r y w h i c h g r a n t e d t h e - 122 -15 d e c r e e , a t t h e d a t e o f i n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s . ( a ) H a b i t u a l R e s i d e n c e T h e c o n c e p t o f h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e h a s a l r e a d y b e e n d i s c u s s e d i n 16 r e l a t i o n t o P a r t 1 o f t h e t h e s i s . H o w e v e r , some c o m m e n t i s n e c e s s a r y o n t h e h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e p r o v i s i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o r e c o g n i t i o n . I f t h e i s s u e c o n c e r n s a f e d e r a l c o u n t r y , t h e n f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f 17 h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e , e a c h t e r r i t o r y i s t o b e c o n s i d e r e d a s e p a r a t e c o u n t r y . F o r e x a m p l e , i t w o u l d n o t b e s u f f i c i e n t f o r r e c o g n i t i o n t o p r o v e h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o r C a n a d a ; h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e i n t h e s t a t e o r p r o v i n c e w h e r e t h e d i v o r c e w a s o b t a i n e d m u s t b e p r o v e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , s e c t i o n 3 ( 2 ) o f t h e 1 9 7 1 A c t p r o v i d e s : 3 . ( 2 ) I n r e l a t i o n t o a c o u n t r y t h e l a w o f w h i c h u s e s t h e c o n c e p t o f d o m i c i l e a s a g r o u n d o f j u r i s d i c t i o n i n m a t t e r s o f d i v o r c e o r l e g a l s e p a r a t i o n , s u b s e c t i o n ( 1 ) ( a ) o f t h i s s e c t i o n s h a l l h a v e e f f e c t a s i f t h e r e f e r e n c e s t o h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e i n c l u d e d a r e f e r e n c e t o d o m i c i l e w i t h i n t h e m e a n i n g o f t h a t l a w . T h e p h r a s e o l o g y e m p l o y e d i n t h i s s u b s e c t i o n i s s o m e w h a t o b s c u r e . Do t h e w o r d s " a s i f t h e r e f e r e n c e t o h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e i n c l u d e d a r e f e r e n c e t o d o m i c i l e " m e a n t h a t , i n o r d e r f o r a d i v o r c e t o b e r e c o g n i z e d , t h e p e r s o n m u s t b e d o m i c i l e d a n d h a b i t u a l l y r e s i d e n t i n t h e c o u n t r y i n q u e s t i o n , o r m e r e l y d o m i c i l e d o r h a b i t u a l l y r e s i d e n t i n t h a t c o u n t r y ? I t seems t h a t d o m i c i l e w i t h i n t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e l a w o f t h e f o r e i g n c o u n t r y i s i n t e n d e d 18 t o b e s u f f i c i e n t . T h u s a f o r e i g n d i v o r c e b a s e d o n f e d e r a l d o m i c i l e w o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d i n E n g l a n d . S . 3 ( 2 ) u n d o u b t e d l y s e r v e s t o m i n i m i z e l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h i s t y p e o f p r o v i s i o n c o u l d p e r m i t f o r u m s h o p p i n g a t a n u n a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l a n d c o u l d r e s u l t i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f o v e r s e a s d i v o r c e s w h e r e t h e r e i s n o r e a l c o n n e c t i o n . w i t h t h e d e c r e e i n g - 123 -j u r i s d i c t i o n . To t a k e a n e x t r e m e e x a m p l e , i f i n c o u n t r y X d o m i c i l e m e a n t t h r e e d a y s p h y s i c a l p r e s e n c e a n d H o b t a i n e d a v a l i d d i v o r c e t h e r e a f t e r a w e e k ' s r e s i d e n c e , t h a t d i v o r c e , p r e s u m a b l y , w o u l d h a v e t o b e r e c o g n i z e d i n E n g l a n d u n d e r t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f s . 3 ( 2 ) a n d s . 3 ( l ) ( b ) . ( b ) N a t i o n a l i t y T h e n a t i o n a l i t y c o n c e p t a s a c o n n e c t i n g f a c t o r h a s b e e n c o n s i d e r e d i n 19 r e l a t i o n t o d i v o r c e j u r i s d i c t i o n i n P a r t 1 . W i t h r e g a r d t o r e c o g n i t i o n , a " c o u n t r y " f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e 20 n a t i o n a l i t y t e s t , u n l i k e t h e h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e t e s t , m e a n s a f e d e r a l c o u n t r y , s u c h a s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a n d n o t e a c h i n d i v i d u a l t e r r i t o r y o r 2 1 s t a t e . T h u s , p r i m a f a c i e , a d i v o r c e g r a n t e d a n y w h e r e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , e v e n a s t a t e w i t h w h i c h t h e r e i s o n l y t h e m o s t t e n u o u s c o n n e c t i o n , w i l l b e r e c o g n i z e d i n E n g l a n d i f t h e p e t i t i o n e r o r r e s p o n d e n t w a s a U n i t e d S t a t e s c i t i z e n . O b v i o u s l y , t h e n a t i o n a l i t y t e s t c o u l d e n c o u r a g e f o r u m s h o p p i n g , a n d r e s u l t i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f a f o r e i g n d i v o r c e w h e r e t h e r e i s n o l o n g e r a s u f f i c i e n t c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p a r t i e s a n d t h e c o u n t r y o f n a t i o n a l i t y . 22 T h i s t y p e o f s i t u a t i o n a r o s e i n T o r o k v T o r o k , w h e r e H a n d W w e r e H u n g a r i a n s who w e n t t o E n g l a n d i n 1 9 5 6 a n d m a r r i e d i n S c o t l a n d i n 1 9 5 7 . I n 1 9 6 4 , H w e n t t o C a n a d a l e a v i n g W a n d c h i l d r e n . A f t e r t h a t t i m e t h e r e w a s n o c o h a b i t a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p a r t i e s a n d n e i t h e r o f t h e m h a d r e t u r n e d t o H u n g a r y s i n c e 1 9 5 6 . U n d e r H u n g a r i a n l a w t h e y r e t a i n e d H u n g a r i a n n a t i o n a l i t y d e s p i t e t h e i r B r i t i s h c i t i z e n s h i p . I n 1 9 7 2 W r e c e i v e d a summons f r o m a c o u r t i n H u n g a r y n o t i f y i n g h e r o f d i v o r c e p r o c e e d i n g s . S t e p s w e r e t a k e n t o a d j o u r n t h e p r o c e e d i n g s a n d , e v e n t u a l l y , t h e w i f e 23 e n t e r e d a n a p p e a r a n c e , c r o s s - p e t i t i o n e d a n d a " p a r t i a l " d e c r e e w a s - 1 2 4 -o r d e r e d . T h e w i f e a p p e a l e d a n d , i n t h e m e a n t i m e , b e g a n d i v o r c e p r o c e e d i n g s i n E n g l a n d a n d a s k e d t o h a v e t h e E n g l i s h d e c r e e a b s o l u t e e x p e d i t e d . T h e r e w a s n o d o u b t t h a t t h e H u n g a r i a n d e c r e e , w h e n i t b e c a m e f i n a l , w o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d i n E n g l a n d b y v i r t u e o f t h e n a t i o n a l i t y p r o v i s i o n i n 2 4 s . 3 ( 1 ) ( b ) o f t h e 1 9 7 1 A c t , e v e n t h o u g h t h i s w a s a c a s e o f d u a l n a t i o n a l i t y . T h e w i f e ' s c o n c e r n w a s t h a t t h e H u n g a r i a n c o u r t s r a r e l y a w a r d e d m a i n t e n a n c e a n d t h a t s h e w o u l d n o t b e e l i g i b l e f o r m a i n t e n a n c e i n E n g l a n d a f t e r t h e 25 f o r e i g n d e c r e e w a s p r o n o u n c e d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e H u n g a r i a n c o u r t h a d n o j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e m a t r i m o n i a l p r o p e r t y , n a m e l y t h e h o u s e , w h i c h w a s i n j o i n t n a m e s a n d s i t u a t e d i n E n g l a n d . I n o r d e r t o a v o i d t h e s e p r o b l e m s , t h e E n g l i s h c o u r t w a s f o r c e d i n t o t h e i n t o l e r a b l e p o s i t i o n o f e x p e d i t i n g t h e E n g l i s h d e c r e e , s o t h a t t h e H u n g a r i a n d e c r e e w o u l d b e i n e f f e c t i v e w h e n i t b e c a m e a b s o l u t e . F r o m t h i s c a s e a n d t h e C a n a d i a n c a s e , K e r e s z t e s s y v K e r e s z t e s s y . i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e n a t i o n a l i t y p r i n c i p l e may r e s u l t i n u n d e s i r a b l e f o r e i g n i n t e r f e r e n c e . 27 F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s e e w h y , a f t e r a l l t h i s t i m e , E n g l i s h l a w s h o u l d b e g i n t o f a v o u r t h e . n a t i o n a l i t y t e s t . A n d i t i s i r o n i c , t o s a y t h e l e a s t , t h a t a t t h e same t i m e t h e n a t i o n a l i t y t e s t i s d w i n d l i n g i n 2 8 29 p o p u l a r i t y i n t h e c i v i l l a w c o u n t r i e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , De W i n t e r h a s s a i d : " A p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e n a t i o n a l l a w t o t h e p e r s o n a l s t a t u s o f a p e r s o n w h o n o l o n g e r h a s a n y s o c i a l t i e s w i t h h i s n a t i v e c o u n t r y i s a r a t h e r p o i n t l e s s j u d i c i a l c o n s t r u c -t i o n c o n t r a r y i n my v i e w t o t h e s o c i a l f u n c t i o n o f P r i v a t e Law a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , y i e l d i n g u n s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s . F o r t h i s s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i s t o e n s u r e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f s t a n d a r d s r e g a r d i n g t h e p e r s o n a l r i g h t s , c a p a c i t y a n d s t a t u s o f p e r s o n s , w h i c h a r e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e i n t e r e s t s a n d t h e l e g a l c o n c e p t s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y o f w h i c h t h e y f o r m p a r t . " - 125 -Moreover, the n a t i o n a l i t y p r i n c i p l e i s d i f f i c u l t to apply to federal countries. The s o l u t i o n provided by the 1971 Recognition Act may be far from s a t i s f a c t o r y . The requirements for recognition of an American divorce under the n a t i o n a l i t y test are: (1) that one of the spouses was a United 30 States n a t i o n a l at the time divorce proceedings were i n s t i t u t e d , and 31 (2) that the divorce i s e f f e c t i v e under that law. D i f f i c u l t i e s may a r i s e i f , for example, both the spouses are United States residents, and H obtains a divorce i n Nevada, which i s " e f f e c t i v e " under the law of Nevada, although H i s not a habitual resident of that s t a t e . However, the state of the wife's residence does not recognize the 32 divorce and, thus, the divorce i s not e f f e c t i v e under the law of Pennsylvania. Can the divorce then be regarded as v a l i d or " e f f e c t i v e " under the nat i o n a l law i . e . the law of the United States? It i s submitted that an appropriate residence test and a domicile 33 test ( i f the proposed amendments to the domicile concept are adopted) would be s u f f i c i e n t i n the recognition context and that a n a t i o n a l i t y test i s unwarranted. (c) The Common Law The 1971 Act prevents further development of judge made law and 34 35 abolishes the Indyka test and Travers v Holley. But the grounds of recognition are not r e a l l y narrowed by this i n view of the width of the statutory t e s t s . 36 37 38 By s. 6(5) the domicile test and the rule i n Armitage v A-G are preserved. But these tests have been modified as a r e s u l t of the 39 a b o l i t i o n of the wife's dependant domicile. S. 2 of the Domicile and 40 Matrimonial Proceedings Act 1973, amending s. 6 of the 1971 Act, makes - 126 -i t clear that the domicile test and Armitage v A-G only apply i f both spouses are domiciled in the granting jurisdiction, or the divorce is 41 recognized by the spouses' common domicile. In addition, s. 6 is extended so that a foreign divorce w i l l be recognized i f i t was obtained in the country of one spouse's domicile and recognized by the other 42 spouse's domicile, or i f i t was recognized by the law of each spouse's 43 domicile respectively. The material time for these tests is the time when proceedings for a 44 foreign divorce were instituted, (d) Proof of Facts Under the 1971 Act, express or implied findings of fact i n foreign proceedings, including findings of domicile, habitual residence or nationality, are conclusive evidence of the fact found, i f both spouses 46 took part in the proceedings. If only one spouse took part then the 47 fact found is only prima facie proof. However, this provision is only applicable to facts, by means of which the divorce was obtained, and on the basis of which jurisdiction was assumed. There may well be instances when a spouse merely enters a formal 48 appearance and takes no active part in the foreign suit, or when a spouse enters an appearance to protest the jurisdiction of the foreign court. In these circumstances the question arises: did both the spouses "take part" within the meaning of the Act? The question, as yet, appears to be unanswered but, s t r i c t l y speaking, i t would be hard to say that 49 both spouses did not "take part" in those circumstances. Yet, in some 50 cases, i t may be unfair i f a spouse were bound by false findings. Thus, i t submitted that, even i f both parties "took part" in the proceedings, - 127 -f i n d i n g s o f f a c t s h o u l d s t i l l o n l y b e p r i m a f a c i e p r o o f i n t h e c o u r t i n w h i c h r e c o g n i t i o n i s s o u g h t . 5 1 5 2 5 3 ( e ) C a p a c i t y , R e t r o a c t i v i t y a n d F i n a n c i a l P r o t e c t i o n N e i t h e r s p o u s e i s p r e c l u d e d f r o m r e m a r r y i n g i f a d i v o r c e h a s b e e n o b t a i n e d w h i c h i s r e c o g n i z e d u n d e r t h e A c t o r b y v i r t u e o f t h e r e m a i n i n g 5 4 common l a w . T h i s i s t h e c a s e e v e n i f t h e d i v o r c e w o u l d n o t b e r e c o g n i z e d 55 a s v a l i d i n a n y o t h e r c o u n t r y . T h e A c t i s r e t r o a c t i v e , b u t d o e s n o t a f f e c t d e c i s i o n s made b y a c o m p e t e n t c o u r t p r i o r t o t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e A c t r e g a r d i n g t h e v a l i d i t y 5 6 o r o t h e r w i s e o f a d i v o r c e . No p r o v i s i o n h a s y e t b e e n made i n E n g l a n d t o e n s u r e a d e q u a t e f i n a n c i a l 57 p r o t e c t i o n f o r a s p o u s e a f t e r a v a l i d f o r e i g n d i v o r c e h a s b e e n o b t a i n e d . H o w e v e r , i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o c i r c u m v e n t t h i s p r o b l e m , t h e c o u r t s i n E n g l a n d 5 8 5 9 h a v e b e g u n t o d e v e l o p a " d i v i s i b l e d i v o r c e " t y p e o f s o l u t i o n . I n 6 0 N e w m a r c h v N e w m a r c h , t h e c a s e w h i c h h a s g o n e t h e f u r t h e s t i n t h i s c o n t e x t , i t w a s h e l d t h a t t h e w i f e w a s e n t i t l e d t o m a i n t e n a n c e u n d e r s . 27 o f t h e 6 1 M a t r i m o n i a l C a u s e s A c t 1 9 7 3 , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t h e r h u s b a n d h a d o b t a i n e d a v a l i d a n d r e c o g n i z e d A u s t r a l i a n d i v o r c e , b e c a u s e t h e a c t i o n u n d e r s . 27 w a s c o m m e n c e d p r i o r t o t h e d i v o r c e p r o c e e d i n g s . I t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h i s d e c i s i o n w a s c l e a r l y i n c o r r e c t i n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t s . 2 7 ( 2 ) o f t h e 1 9 7 3 A c t s t a t e s t h a t t h e c o u r t s h a l l n o t e n t e r t a i n a n a p p l i c a t i o n u n d e r t h i s s e c t i o n u n l e s s i t w o u l d h a v e j u r i s d i c t i o n t o e n t e r t a i n p r o c e e d i n g s f o r a j u d i c i a l s e p a r a t i o n . C l e a r l y , b y t h e t i m e t h e N e w m a r c h c a s e w a s h e a r d t h e r e w a s n o s u c h j u r i s d i c t i o n , s i n c e t h e m a r r i a g e h a d a l r e a d y b e e n t e r m i n a t e d . P r o b a b l y , t h e w o r d i n g o f t h e s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g f i n a n c i a l 6 2 s u p p o r t i n E n g l a n d w i l l p r e v e n t t h e E n g l i s h c o u r t s f r o m e x t e n d i n g t h e - 1 2 8 -63 d i v i s i b l e d i v o r c e d o c t r i n e a s f a r a s t h e A m e r i c a n c o u n t e r p a r t . 6 4 3 . STATUTORY GROUNDS OF ATTACK T h e e x c e p t i o n s t o r e c o g n i t i o n p u r s u a n t t o s . 8 o f t h e 1 9 7 1 A c t d o 65 n o t a p p e a r t o a l t e r t h e common l a w t o a n y s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n t . B u t t h e s e a r e now t h e o n l y g r o u n d s o n w h i c h r e c o g n i t i o n m a y b e r e f u s e d . A d i v o r c e w i l l n o t b e r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m i f , i n t h e e y e s o f E n g l i s h l a w , t h e r e w a s n o s u b s i s t i n g m a r r i a g e b e t w e e n t h e p a r t i e s a t t h e 66 t i m e w h e n t h e d i v o r c e w a s g r a n t e d o r o b t a i n e d . T h i s e x c e p t i o n i s m a n d a t o r y a n d a p p l i e s t o d i v o r c e s o b t a i n e d w i t h i n o r w i t h o u t t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s . P r e s u m a b l y , t h i s w a s a l s o t h e c a s e a t common l a w . ( a ) L a c k o f N o t i c e By s . 8 ( 2 ) ( a ) ( i ) a d i v o r c e o b t a i n e d o u t s i d e t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s , w h i c h w o u l d o t h e r w i s e b e r e c o g n i z e d u n d e r t h e A c t , m a y b e r e f u s e d r e c o g n i t i o n i f i t w a s o b t a i n e d b y o n e s p o u s e , w i t h o u t s u c h s t e p s h a v i n g b e e n t a k e n t o g i v e n o t i c e t o t h e o t h e r s p o u s e a s r e a s o n a b l y s h o u l d h a v e b e e n t a k e n . I n e x e r c i s i n g i t s d i s c r e t i o n u n d e r t h i s p r o v i s i o n t h e c o u r t i s t o h a v e r e g a r d t o a l l t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s . T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h t h e " n a t u r a l j u s t i c e " g r o u n d o f a t t a c k a t common l a w , w h i c h i s d i s c u s s e d 67 a b o v e . T h e f a c t t h a t t h e o t h e r s p o u s e d i d n o t r e c e i v e n o t i c e o f t h e p r o -c e e d i n g s i n t h e f o r e i g n c o u r t d o e s n o t a u t o m a t i c a l l y m e a n t h a t t h e d i v o r c e w i l l b e r e f u s e d r e c o g n i t i o n o n t h i s g r o u n d . T h e p r o v i s i o n r e c o g n i z e s t h a t t h e r e a r e p r a c t i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h e n a s p o u s e may n o t b e p e r s o n a l l y , s e r v e d , a n d w h e n i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d i s p e n s e w i t h s e r v i c e o r e m p l o y s u b -s t i t u t e d s e r v i c e p r o c e d u r e s . ( b ) L a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e p r o c e e d i n g s By s . 8 ( 2 ) ( a ) ( i i ) , t h e c o u r t m a y r e f u s e r e c o g n i t i o n t o a f o r e i g n d e c r e e - 129 -i f o n e o f t h e s p o u s e s w a s u n r e a s o n a b l y d e n i e d a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e f o r e i g n p r o c e e d i n g s , f o r a n y r e a s o n o t h e r t h a n l a c k o f n o t i c e . U n t i l r e c e n t l y t h e r e w a s n o c a s e i n v o l v i n g l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y t o t a k e p a r t i n f o r e i g n p r o c e e d i n g s w h i c h d i d n o t a l s o i n v o l v e l a c k o f n o t i c e 68 t o t h e s p o u s e c o n c e r n e d . B u t i n N e w m a r c h v N e w m a r c h s u c h a n i s s u e d i d come b e f o r e t h e c o u r t . T h e f a c t s w e r e t h a t t h e h u s b a n d o b t a i n e d a n A u s t r a l i a n d i v o r c e w h e n h i s w i f e w a s r e s i d e n t i n E n g l a n d . T h e w i f e h a d r e c e i v e d a m p l e n o t i c e o f t h e A u s t r a l i a n p r o c e e d i n g s a n d h a d g e n u i n e l y i n t e n d e d t o d e f e n d t h e m . H o w e v e r , d u e t o n o f a u l t o f t h e w i f e , t h e A u s t r a l i a n l a w y e r s w h i c h s h e h a d e m p l o y e d f a i l e d t o t a k e a n y a c t i o n i n t h e A u s t r a l i a n p r o c e e d i n g s , a n d a d e c r e e a b s o l u t e w a s p r o n o u n c e d i n f a v o u r o f t h e h u s b a n d . R e e s J . w a s o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t s . 8 ( 2 ) ( a ) ( i i ) c o u l d b e a p p l i e d i n t h i s t y p e o f c a s e . B u t h e a l s o s t a t e d t h a t i t w a s a t t h e c o u r t ' s d i s c r e t i o n w h e t h e r o r n o t t o r e f u s e r e c o g n i t i o n , e v e n i f t h e r e w a s n o o p p o r t u n i t y t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e p r o c e e d i n g s . I n d e c i d i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t t o r e f u s e r e c o g n i t i o n t h e c o u r t h a d r e g a r d t o a l l t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e c a s e , i n c l u d i n g : t h e l i k e l y c o n s e q u e n c e s i f t h e s p o u s e h a d b e e n g i v e n a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o b e h e a r d ; a n a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e l e g i t i m a t e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s p o u s e c o n c e r n e d ; t o w h a t e x t e n t t h o s e o b j e c t i v e s c a n b e a c h i e v e d i f t h e f o r e i g n d e c r e e r e m a i n e d v a l i d , and t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s t o t h e s p o u s e s a n d c h i l d r e n o f t h e f a m i l y i f r e c o g n i t i o n w e r e r e f u s e d . I n t h e i n s t a n t c a s e R e e s J . r e f u s e d t o a p p l y s . 8 ( 2 ) ( a ) ( i i ) b e c a u s e : a ) t h e m a r r i a g e h a d b r o k e n d o w n i r r e t r i e v a b l y , a n d t h e d i v o r c e w o u l d s t i l l h a v e b e e n g r a n t e d , e v e n i f t h e w i f e h a d d e f e n d e d t h e s u i t ( a l t h o u g h t h e h u s b a n d may h a v e h a d t o r e l y o n d i f f e r e n t g r o u n d s ) ; b ) t h e a i m o f t h e w i f e w a s t o s e c u r e m a i n t e n a n c e f o r h e r s e l f a n d - 130 -t h a t a i m w a s n o t f u r t h e r e d i n a n y w a y b y r e f u s i n g t o r e c o g n i z e t h e d e c r e e . 6 9 M o r e r e c e n t l y , i n t h e i n t e r e s t i n g c a s e o f J o y c e v J o y c e , a n E n g l i s h c o u r t r e f u s e d r e c o g n i t i o n t o a C a n a d i a n d i v o r c e i n t e r a l i a o n t h e b a s i s o f l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y t o b e h e a r d . I n t h a t c a s e , i t w a s h e l d t h a t t h e r e m u s t b e a n e f f e c t i v e o p p o r t u n i t y t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e f o r e i g n p r o c e e d i n g s , n o t m e r e l y a n a b i l i t y t o t a k e p a r t i n f o r m a l i t i e s . L a n e J . s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t i n t h e p r o c e e d i n g s m u s t n o t o n l y h a v e t h e r i g h t t o b e h e a r d , b u t a l s o " t h e a b i l i t y o r f a c i l i t y t o 70 p l a c e h e r s e l f i n a p o s i t i o n t o p u t h e r v i e w s b e f o r e t h e c o u r t . " Among t h e m a t t e r s t o b e c o n s i d e r e d w e r e : t h e d a t e a n d c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h t h e f o r e i g n p r o c e e d i n g s w e r e c o m m e n c e d ; t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f f i n a n c i a l a i d t o t h e w i f e a n d c h i l d r e n ; t h e s t e p s s h e h a d t a k e n t o p u t h e r c a s e b e f o r e t h e f o r e i g n c o u r t a n d t h e r e m e d i e s a v a i l a b l e i n t h a t c o u r t . ( c ) P u b l i c P o l i c y A f o r e i g n d e c r e e m a y n o t b e r e c o g n i z e d i f i t s r e c o g n i t i o n w o u l d 7 1 " m a n i f e s t l y b e c o n t r a r y t o p u b l i c p o l i c y . " T h e w o r d m a n i f e s t l y i s p r o b a b l y r e d u n d a n t , s i n c e t h e d i s c r e t i o n t o r e f u s e r e c o g n i t i o n o n t h i s 72 g r o u n d i s v e r y s p a r i n g l y e x e r c i s e d b y t h e c o u r t s . 73 7 4 D i c e y a n d M o r r i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e " r e s i d u a l d i s c r e t i o n , " w h i c h t h e c o u r t s h a d a t common l a w n o t t o r e c o g n i z e a f o r e i g n d e c r e e , i s a b o l i s h e d 75 b y t h e A c t , b u t t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e " s u b s t a n t i a l i n j u s t i c e " g r o u n d o f a t t a c k a n d p u b l i c p o l i c y m a y b e p u r e l y s e m a n t i c . T h e l a t t e r 7 6 s u g g e s t i o n s e e m s t o b e a c c u r a t e . I n K e n d a l l v K e n d a l l H o l l i n g s J . c o n s i d e r e d t h e p u b l i c p o l i c y e x c e p t i o n . I n t h a t c a s e , t h e h u s b a n d , w h o - 131 -w a s w o r k i n g i n B o l i v i a , p e r s u a d e d t h e w i f e t o s i g n d o c u m e n t s w h i c h w e r e w r i t t e n i n S p a n i s h . T h e w i f e d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d S p a n i s h v e r y w e l l b u t s i g n e d t h e d o c u m e n t s , b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e y w e r e n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r f o r h e r a n d t h e c h i l d r e n t o l e a v e B o l i v i a . A f t e r t h e w i f e h a d l e f t t h e c o u n t r y , t h e h u s b a n d o b t a i n e d a B o l i v i a n d i v o r c e , u s i n g t h e d o c u m e n t s s o t h a t t h e w i f e a p p e a r e d a s p e t i t i o n e r o n t h e r e c o r d . T h e c a s e b e f o r e t h e B o l i v i a n c o u r t w a s r i d d l e d w i t h l i e s , f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t t h e c o u p l e h a d n o c h i l d r e n a n d t h a t t h e w i f e w o r k e d . ( T h i s w a s r e l e v a n t t o f i n a n c i a l p r o v i s i o n ) . L a t e r , w h e n b o t h s p o u s e s h a d r e t u r n e d t o E n g l a n d , t h e w i f e f o u n d o u t a b o u t t h e d i v o r c e . T h e c o u r t r e f u s e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h e d e c r e e u n d e r t h e p u b l i c p o l i c y e x c e p t i o n b e c a u s e o f t h e h u s b a n d ' s g r o s s l y f r a u d u l e n t c o n d u c t . T h e r e f o r e , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e s u b s t a n t i a l j u s t i c e a n d p u b l i c p o l i c y g r o u n d s o f a t t a c k w i l l b e i n t e r p r e t e d s y n o n y m o u s l y . A n d t h u s , a s a t common 77 l a w , a l t h o u g h f r a u d p e r s e i s n o t a g r o u n d f o r n o n - r e c o g n i t i o n , i t m a y 78 a m o u n t t o a " s u b s t a n t i a l i n j u s t i c e " i n c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s . I t seems t h a t t h e p u b l i c p o l i c y e x c e p t i o n m a y a l s o c o v e r s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e o n e o f t h e s p o u s e s h a s r e s o r t e d t o a f o r e i g n j u r i s d i c t i o n p u r e l y 79 f o r d i v o r c e p u r p o s e s . 80 T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h t h e s u g g e s t i o n s i n I n d y k a v I n d y k a t h a t t h e c o u r t s s h o u l d r e f u s e r e c o g n i t i o n o f d e c r e e s o b t a i n e d b y m e a n s o f f o r u m s h o p p i n g . I t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h i s m a y b e a c o n v e n i e n t m e t h o d o f c o m p r o m i s e b e t w e e n t h e t w o c o n f l i c t i n g o b j e c t i v e s i n d i v o r c e r e c o g n i t i o n , 81 n a m e l y p r e v e n t i o n o f f o r u m s h o p p i n g a n d l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e s . - 132 -82 4 . THE PROBLEM OF THE E X T R A - J U D I C I A L DIVORCE 8 3 ( a ) T y p e s o f e x t r a - j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e D i v o r c e s w h i c h a r e n o t o b t a i n e d i n a c o u r t o f l a w may t a k e a v a r i e t y 8 4 o f d i f f e r e n t f o r m s . Some c o u n t r i e s p r o v i d e f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v o r c e s . 8 5 O t h e r s , s u c h a s t h e S o v i e t U n i o n a t o n e t i m e , a l l o w d i v o r c e b y m u t u a l 8 6 c o n s e n t . A l s o , r e l i g i o u s d i v o r c e s a r e p e r m i t t e d i n some c o u n t r i e s . A J e w i s h g e t t , f o r e x a m p l e , i s o b t a i n e d b e f o r e t h e R a b b i n i c a l c o u r t , w h i c h 87 d o e s n o t a m o u n t t o a c o u r t o f l a w . One o f t h e m o s t common f o r m s o f e x t r a - j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e i s t h e " t a l a k " 8 8 d i v o r c e u n d e r M o s l e m r e l i g i o u s l a w . U n d e r t r a d i t i o n a l " t a l a k " p r o c e d u r e , a l l t h e h u s b a n d h a s t o do i s p r o n o u n c e t h r e e t i m e s h i s i n t e n t i o n t o e n d t h e m a r r i a g e o r a l l y o r i n w r i t i n g . I t n e e d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b e i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e w i f e o r a d d r e s s e d t o h e r , a n d i t i s n o t e v e n r e q u i r e d t h a t 8 9 t h e h u s b a n d n o t i f y t h e w i f e t h a t s h e i s d i v o r c e d . T h e t a l a k m a y a l s o b e w r i t t e n i n w h i c h c a s e i t i s c a l l e d a " t a l a k n a m a . " A d i v o r c e m a y a l s o b e o b t a i n e d b y a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e s p o u s e s f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n p a i d b y t h e w i f e t o t h e h u s b a n d . T h i s i s c a l l e d " k h u l " a n d m a y a l s o b e o b t a i n e d a t 9 0 t h e i n s t a n c e o f t h e w i f e a l o n e i n c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s . A l s o , f o r t h e w i f e ' s p r o t e c t i o n a n d t o d i s c o u r a g e r a s h d i v o r c e s a f a i r l y l a r g e d o w e r i s 9 1 s e t f o r h e r o n m a r r i a g e , p a y a b l e b y t h e h u s b a n d i f h e s h o u l d d i v o r c e h e r . D i v o r c e p r o c e d u r e s a l s o v a r y ; a n e x t r a - j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e m a y b e e n t i r e l y i n f o r m a l s u c h a s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t a l a k , b u t s o m e t i m e s a r e g i s t r a t i o n a n d 92 r e c o n c i l i a t i o n p r o c e d u r e i s r e q u i r e d . ( b ) T h e Common Law A t o n e t i m e t h e E n g l i s h c o u r t s r e f u s e d t o r e c o g n i z e n o n - j u d i c i a l 9 3 9 4 d i v o r c e s , b u t i t seems f r o m Q u r e s h i v Q u r e s h i t h a t , a t common l a w , - 133 -s u c h a d i v o r c e w o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d i n E n g l a n d , i f i t w e r e v a l i d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l a w o f t h e s p o u s e s d o m i c i l e , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f w h e r e t h e d i v o r c e w a s o b t a i n e d , p r o v i d e d t h a t r e c o g n i t i o n w o u l d n o t c a u s e a s u b s t a n t i a l i n j u s t i c e . 95 ( c ) T h e 1 9 7 1 A c t T h e p r o b l e m s w h i c h h a v e a r i s e n i n t h i s c o n t e x t u n d e r t h e 1 9 7 1 A c t a r e m a i n l y d u e t o t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e E n g l i s h l e g i s l a t u r e t o d e f i n e c l e a r l y t h e t y p e s o f e x t r a - j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e t o w h i c h t h e A c t w a s i n t e n d e d t o a p p l y . I t seems t h a t t h e A c t w a s i n t e n d e d t o c o v e r some n o n - j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e s b u t 96 n o t a l l i n f o r m a l d i v o r c e s . A p p a r e n t l y , t h e c r i t e r i o n w a s s u p p o s e d t o b e 97 w h e t h e r t h e d i v o r c e h a d t h e " n a t u r e o r q u a l i t y o f a n o f f i c i a l a c t , " y e t 9 8 i t w a s a g r e e d t h a t t h e A c t w a s i n t e n d e d t o c o v e r t a l a k d i v o r c e s . T h u s , i t i s n o t c l e a r w h e t h e r i n f o r m a l o r t r a d i t i o n a l t a l a k s w e r e m e a n t t o b e 99 i n c l u d e d . ( i ) D i v o r c e s o b t a i n e d i n t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s S e c t i o n 1 o f t h e A c t a p p l i e s o n l y t o d i v o r c e s g r a n t e d u n d e r t h e " l a w 100 o f " i . e . i n t h e c o u r t s o f t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s . I n a n a t t e m p t t o make t h e p o s i t i o n m o r e c l e a r , s . 1 6 ( 1 ) o f t h e D o m i c i l e a n d M a t r i m o n i a l P r o c e e d i n g s A c t 1 0 1 1 9 7 3 p r o v i d e s t h a t n o p r o c e e d i n g i n t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s s h a l l b e r e g a r d e d a s v a l i d l y d i s s o l v i n g a m a r r i a g e u n l e s s i n s t i t u t e d i n t h e c o u r t s o f l a w o f 102 o n e o f t h o s e c o u n t r i e s . H o w e v e r , s e c t i o n 16 o p e r a t e s p r o s p e c t i v e l y , a n d d o e s n o t a f f e c t t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f e x t r a - j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e s o b t a i n e d i n t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m p r i o r t o J a n u a r y 1 s t , 1 9 7 4 , a n d t h e common l a w r u l e s a p p l y 103 p r i o r t o t h a t d a t e . T h e p o l i c y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s b e h i n d t h i s p r o v i s i o n a r e , p r e s u m a b l y , t h a t t h e E n g l i s h l e g i s l a t u r e d o e s n o t w i s h t o p e r m i t e v a s i o n o f E n g l i s h m a t r i m o n i a l - 1 3 4 -1 0 4 l a w a n d i t s s a f e g u a r d s i n t h e f u t u r e b y U n i t e d K i n g d o m r e s i d e n t s . T h u s , s . 1 6 ( 2 ) o f t h e 1 9 7 3 A c t p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r t h a t a d i v o r c e o b t a i n e d o u t s i d e t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s b y h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n t s o f t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m i s n o t t o 105 b e r e c o g n i z e d a t common l a w ( a s p r e s e r v e d b y s . 6 ) i n c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s . H o w e v e r , s e v e r a l p r o b l e m s a r i s e i n r e l a t i o n t o s . 1 6 ( 1 ) : 1 ) A r e a l l e x t r a - j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e s o b t a i n e d b y m e a n s o f a " p r o c e e d i n g " ? I t h a s b e e n d e b a t e d w h e t h e r a p u r e l y i n f o r m a l n o n - j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e , s u c h a s a t r a d i t i o n a l t a l a k o r d i v o r c e 1 0 6 b y c o n s e n t a m o u n t s t o a " p r o c e e d i n g . " I f " p r o c e e d i n g " d o e s r e q u i r e a n e l e m e n t o f f o r m a l i t y w h i c h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t a l a k o r a c o n s e n s u a l d i v o r c e d o e s n o t p o s s e s s , t h e s e t y p e s o f d i v o r c e s m a y s t i l l b e r e c o g n i z e d i f t h e y a r e o b t a i n e d 107 i n t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s a f t e r 1 9 7 4 , d e s p i t e s . 1 6 ( 1 ) . 2 ) I t i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o t e l l w h e r e t h e " p r o c e e d i n g " t a k e s p l a c e . I f , f o r e x a m p l e , a t a l a k n a m a i s w r i t t e n i n t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m a n d s e n t t o E a s t A f r i c a t o t a k e e f f e c t o n 108 r e c e i p t b y t h e w i f e , w h e r e d o e s t h e p r o c e e d i n g t a k e 1 0 9 p l a c e ? 3 ) T h e i s s u e o f r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e e x t r a - j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e m a y n o t a r i s e d i r e c t l y , b u t o n l y a s a n i n c i d e n t a l q u e s t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , w h e r e t h e p r i m a r y i s s u e i s a q u e s t i o n o f 110 c a p a c i t y t o m a r r y . I f t h e S c h w e b e l v U n g a r s o l u t i o n w e r e a d o p t e d t h e n t h e d i v o r c e w o u l d b e e f f e c t i v e l y r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m , i f t h e i s s u e o f v a l i d i t y o f t h e d i v o r c e d i d n o t a r i s e u n t i l a r e m a r r i a g e h a d t a k e n p l a c e . - 135 -I n a d d i t i o n , t h e d i s t i n c t i o n w h i c h i s made b y s . 1 6 ( 1 ) o f t h e 1 9 7 3 A c t , b e t w e e n e x t r a - j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e s o b t a i n e d i n t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s a n d t h o s e o b t a i n e d e l s e w h e r e i s h a r d t o j u s t i f y . I f t h e d i v o r c e i s r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e l a w o f t h e s p o u s e s ' h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e , w h a t g o o d i s d o n e b y r e f u s i n g t o r e c o g n i z e t h e d i v o r c e i n t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m ? I f t h e h u s b a n d i s d o m i c i l e d a n d h a b i t u a l l y r e s i d e n t i n E n g l a n d a n d t h e w i f e i s d o m i c i l e d a n d h a b i t u a l l y r e s i d e n t i n P a k i s t a n , a t a l a k d i v o r c e p r o n o u n c e d b y t h e h u s b a n d i n E n g l a n d w h i c h c o m p l i e s w i t h t h e P a k i s t a n M u s l i m F a m i l y L a w s O r d i n a n c e 1 9 6 1 w i l l b e v a l i d i n P a k i s t a n b u t n o t i n E n g l a n d a n d t h u s a l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e i s c r e a t e d . H o w e v e r , i f t h e h u s b a n d w e n t t o P a k i s t a n , o r e v e n t o F r a n c e , a n d p r o n o u n c e d t h e d i v o r c e , i t w o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d 1 1 1 u n d e r t h e h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e p r o v i s i o n o f t h e 1 9 7 1 A c t . T h u s , s . 1 6 ( 1 ) m a y c r e a t e s e r i o u s a n o m a l i e s i n d i v o r c e r e c o g n i t i o n c a s e s i n E n g l a n d . ( i i ) O v e r s e a s D i v o r c e s 112 A s s t a t e d a b o v e , s e c t i o n 2 d e f i n e s " o v e r s e a s d i v o r c e s , " f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e s t a t u t o r y r e c o g n i t i o n p r o v i s i o n s , a s t h o s e d i v o r c e s w h i c h : " a ) h a v e b e e n o b t a i n e d b y m e a n s o f j u d i c i a l o r o t h e r p r o c e e d i n g s i n a n y c o u n t r y o u t s i d e t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s ; a n d b ) a r e e f f e c t i v e u n d e r t h e l a w o f t h a t c o u n t r y . " T h e r e f o r e , i t seems t h e d i v o r c e m u s t b e " o b t a i n e d " o u t s i d e t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s b y m e a n s o f " p r o c e e d i n g s " o u t s i d e t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s . A s s t a t e d 113 p r e v i o u s l y , i t m a y b e d i f f i c u l t t o s a y w h e r e a " p r o c e e d i n g " t a k e s p l a c e a n d t h u s w h e r e a n e x t r a - j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e i s " o b t a i n e d . " W h a t i f a w i f e n e g o t i a t e s 1 1 4 a " k h u l " w i t h h e r h u s b a n d b y p o s t , t h e h u s b a n d b e i n g i n E n g l a n d a n d t h e w i f e i n P a k i s t a n ; t h e h u s b a n d w r i t e s a t a l a k n a m a t o h i s w i f e , t o t a k e e f f e c t - 136 -i n P a k i s t a n , w h e n t h e h u s b a n d h a s r e c e i v e d a m o n e t a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n f r o m t h e w i f e ; s u r e l y , i n t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i t w o u l d b e a r g u e d t h a t t h e d i v o r c e w a s o b t a i n e d i n e i t h e r , n e i t h e r o r b o t h c o u n t r i e s . P r e s u m a b l y t h o u g h , i f a n y o n e o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s b y m e a n s o f w h i c h t h e d i v o r c e w a s o b t a i n e d d i d t a k e p l a c e i n E n g l a n d , t h e n s . 1 6 ( 1 ) o f t h e D o m i c i l e a n d M a t r i m o n i a l P r o c e e d i n g s A c t 1 9 7 3 w o u l d p r e v e n t r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e d i v o r c e , e v e n i f t h e d i v o r c e w e r e o b t a i n e d a b r o a d . 115 I n R v R e g i s t r a r o f B i r t h s D e a t h s a n d M a r r i a g e s , e x p a r t e M i n h a s P a r k J . h e l d t h a t a t a l a k w a s o b t a i n e d i n E n g l a n d w h e n i t w a s p r o n o u n c e d i n E n g l a n d a n d n o t i c e w a s s e n t f r o m E n g l a n d t o t h e w i f e , a P a k i s t a n r e s i d e n t , a n d t h e a p p r o p r i a t e P a k i s t a n c o u n c i l . T h i s w a s t h e c a s e , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e d i v o r c e d i d n o t t a k e e f f e c t u n t i l t h e e x p i r y o f 90 d a y s a f t e r t h e p r o n o u n c e m e n t o f t h e d i v o r c e a n d , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e h u s b a n d a p p e a r e d v o l u n t a r i l y b e f o r e a c o n c i l i a t i o n c o u n c i l i n P a k i s t a n b e f o r e t h e e x p i r y o f t h e 90 d a y r e c o n c i l i a t i o n p e r i o d . T h e M i n h a s c a s e h a s s i n c e b e e n e x p l a i n e d b y t h e H o u s e o f L o r d s i n 116 Q u a z i v Q u a z i a s a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e P a k i s t a n M u s l i m F a m i l y L a w s O r d i n a n c e 1 9 6 1 . I t i s n o w c l e a r f r o m t h i s d e c i s i o n o f t h e H o u s e t h a t t h e w o r d s , " o t h e r p r o c e e d i n g s , " i n s . 2 o f t h e 1 9 7 1 A c t i n c l u d e p r o c e e d i n g s w h i c h a r e n o t j u d i c i a l b u t w h i c h a r e o f f i c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e f o r e i g n s t a t e i n q u e s t i o n . T h u s , i n t h e Q u a z i v Q u a z i c a s e , i t w a s h e l d t h a t a t a l a k f o l l o w e d b y c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e M u s l i m F a m i l y Laws O r d i n a n c e a m o u n t e d t o " o t h e r p r o c e e d i n g s " w i t h i n s e c t i o n 2 . T h e q u e s t i o n i s : d o a l l e x t r a - j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e s a m o u n t t o " p r o c e e d -i n g s , " i n c l u d i n g " i n f o r m a l " t a l a k s a n d d i v o r c e s b y m u t u a l c o n s e n t ? I t i s - 137 -t r u e t h a t t h e . w o r d c o n n o t e s some o f f i c i a l o r f o r m a l t y p e o f a c t i o n ; n e v e r -t h e l e s s , i t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t a r e l i g i o u s a c t s u c h a s t h e p r o n o u n c e m e n t o f a t a l a k i t s e l f m a y b e a s m u c h f o r m a l o r o f f i c i a l a s a n a c t i o n i n a c o u r t o f l a w . T a k i n g t h e o r d i n a r y m e a n i n g o f t h e w o r d s , s u r e l y , a n y a c t w h i c h i s s a n c t i o n e d b y a f o r m a l b o d y , s u c h a s t h e s t a t e o r t h e c h u r c h , a m o u n t s t o a " p r o c e e d i n g " o r " p r o c e e d i n g s . " T h i s p o i n t w a s e x p r e s s l y l e f t o p e n i n 117 Q u a z i v Q u a z i . 118 W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e common l a w , a s p r e s e r v e d b y t h e 1 9 7 1 A c t , t h e r e i s n o r e q u i r e m e n t o f " p r o c e e d i n g s " a n d , t h e r e f o r e , i t seems t h a t a l l e x t r a -j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e s o b t a i n e d a b r o a d m a y b e r e c o g n i z e d b y v i r t u e o f t h e s e r u l e s , s u b j e c t t o s e c t i o n 1 6 ( 2 ) o f t h e 1 9 7 3 A c t . 119 ( i i i ) S e c t i o n 1 6 ( 2 ) o f t h e 1 9 7 3 A c t T h i s s e c t i o n w a s e n a c t e d s o a s t o p r e v e n t e v a s i o n o f E n g l i s h m a t r i -m o n i a l l a w b y U n i t e d K i n g d o m r e s i d e n t s i n f u t u r e . A n e x t r a - j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e o b t a i n e d a b r o a d w i l l n o t b e r e c o g n i z e d i f ( a ) b o t h p a r t i e s t o t h e m a r r i a g e w e r e h a b i t u a l l y r e s i d e n t i n t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m d u r i n g t h e y e a r i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g t h e " i n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g , " , a n d ( b ) r e c o g n i t i o n 120 i s n o t r e q u i r e d b y t h e s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e 1 2 1 common l a w p r o v i s i o n s , w o u l d a l l o w r e c o g n i t i o n . I t i s s o m e w h a t i l l o g i c a l t h a t n o n - j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e s s h o u l d b e s i n g l e d 122 o u t i n t h i s w a y . A s s t a t e d b y L o r d P e a r c e i n I g r a v I g r a : " i t h a s l o n g b e e n a c c e p t e d t h a t t h e c o u r t o f t h e d o m i c i l e i s t h e p r o p e r t r i b u n a l t o d i s s o l v e a m a r r i a g e . I t s d e -c i s i o n s s h o u l d , a s f a r a s r e a s o n a b l y p o s s i b l e , b e a c k n o w -l e d g e d b y o t h e r c o u n t r i e s i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f c o m i t y . D i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s h a v e d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l l a w s , d i f f e r e n t s t a n d a r d s o f j u s t i c e a n d d i f f e r e n t p r a c t i c e . T h e i n t e r -e s t s o f c o m i t y a r e n o t s e r v e d i f o n e c o u n t r y i s t o o e a g e r - 138 -t o c r i t i c i z e t h e s t a n d a r d s o f a n o t h e r c o u n t r y o r t o o r e -l u c t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e d e c r e e s t h a t a r e v a l i d b y t h e l a w o f t h e d o m i c i l e . " I n a d d i t i o n , t h i s s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e common l a w t o t h e s t a t u t o r y r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t s i s d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d . T h e r e i s n o i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e s t a t u t o r y t e s t s a r e b e t t e r c o n n e c t i n g f a c t o r s t h a n t h e c o n c e p t o f d o m i c i l e . I n f a c t , a s f a r a s t h e n a t i o n a l i t y t e s t i s c o n c e r n e d , t h e r e v e r s e 123 seems t o b e t h e c a s e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s u b s e c t i o n a c h i e v e s v e r y l i t t l e . I t s e f f e c t i s t o 1 2 4 p r o h i b i t t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e r u l e i n A r m i t a g e v A - G . w h e r e b o t h t h e p a r t i e s a r e h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n t s o f t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m . T h u s , a h u s b a n d a n d w i f e i n t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s c a n n o t h o p o n a d a y t r i p t o C a l a i s a n d b e c o m e v a l i d l y n o n - j u d i c i a l l y d i v o r c e d , e v e n i f t h e d i v o r c e i s r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e c o u n t r y o f t h e i r d o m i c i l e . B u t i f a n e x t r a - j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e w e r e o b t a i n e d i n t h e c o u n t r y o f e i t h e r s p o u s e ' s d o m i c i l e o r n a t i o n a l i t y , s . 1 6 ( 2 ) w o u l d n o t a p p l y b e c a u s e r e c o g n i t i o n w o u l d b e r e q u i r e d u n d e r t h e s t a t u t o r y 125 p r o v i s i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n , s . 1 6 ( 2 ) d o e s n o t a p p l y i f o n l y o n e o f t h e s p o u s e s i s a n U n i t e d K i n g d o m h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n t . S i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e w o r d " p r o c e e d i n g " i n s . 1 6 ( 2 ) , a n d t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f s u c h t e r m i n o l o g y f o r n o n - j u d i c i a l 1 2 6 d i v o r c e s , a s w i t h " p r o c e e d i n g s " i n t h e 1 9 7 1 A c t . F o r i n s t a n c e , i t i s h a r d l y a p t t o s p e a k i n t e r m s o f " i n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g " w h e n c o n s i d e r i n g t a l a k s a n d s o o n . 127 ( d ) E x t r a - j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e s a n d t h e s t a t u t o r y g r o u n d s o f a t t a c k C o n c e i v a b l y , i t c o u l d b e c o n t e n d e d t h a t some e x t r a - j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e s 128 s h o u l d b e r e f u s e d r e c o g n i t i o n b e c a u s e o f l a c k o f n o t i c e , l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y 129 t o b e h e a r d o n t h e p a r t o f t h e w i f e , o r b e c a u s e s u c h d e c r e e s w e r e a g a i n s t - 139 -130 E n g l i s h p u b l i c p o l i c y . H o e v e r , i t seems c l e a r t h a t a t common l a w s u c h 1 3 1 d i v o r c e s w e r e n o l o n g e r o f f e n s i v e t o E n g l i s h p u b l i c p o l i c y . F u r t h e r -m o r e , t h e d i s c r e t i o n t o r e f u s e r e c o g n i t i o n f o r l a c k o f n o t i c e o r o p p o r t u n i t y t o b e h e a r d i s t o b e e x e r c i s e d " h a v i n g r e g a r d t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s 132 a n d a l l t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . " T h e r e f o r e , i t seems t h a t t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s a r e n o t l i k e l y t o b e c o n s t r u e d a g a i n s t t h e e x t r a - j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e s w h i c h , 133 b y t h e i r n a t u r e , c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e m . ( e ) Summary o n E x t r a - j u d i c i a l D i v o r c e s C l e a r l y , t h e p o s i t i o n i s f a r f r o m s a t i s f a c t o r y u n d e r t h e 1 9 7 1 A c t . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e t e r m i n o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s , t h e E n g l i s h l e g i s l a t u r e h a s m a d e some h i g h l y c o m p l i c a t e d a n d i l l o g i c a l p i e c e m e a l a m e n d m e n t s t o t h e 1 9 7 1 A c t , w h i c h m a y c a u s e s e r i o u s i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f e x t r a -j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e s . T h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n i n t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r o f t h i s p a r t w i l l b e made w i t h a v i e w t o p r e v e n t i n g t h e s e i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s . 5 . CONCLUSION T h e r e i s n o d o u b t t h a t t h e 1 9 7 1 A c t r e p r e s e n t s a n i m p r o v e m e n t f r o m t h e 1 3 4 I n d y k a t e s t . M u c h u n c e r t a i n t y h a s b e e n r e m o v e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e a r e 135 m a n y p r o b l e m s i n h e r e n t i n t h e n a t i o n a l i t y t e s t , a n d i t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h i s w a s n o t a g o o d i n n o v a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e A c t i s r i f e w i t h t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e c o n t e x t o f e x t r a - j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e s . A s a r e s u l t o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e s e p r o b l e m s c a n b e a n t i c i p a t e d i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f 1 3 6 C a n a d i a n r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . T h e e x c e p t i o n s t o r e c o g n i t i o n a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e a t common l a w . T h e s e s e e m r e a s o n a b l e , i n c l u d i n g t h e u s e o f t h e p u b l i c p o l i c y e x c e p t i o n i n o r d e r t o d i s c o u r a g e f o r u m s h o p p i n g . - 140 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e E n g l i s h A c t m a k e s n o p r o v i s i o n f o r f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t a f t e r a f o r e i g n d i v o r c e i s r e c o g n i z e d . A n a t t e m p t w i l l b e made t o d e f i n e a n d s o l v e t h i s p r e s s i n g p r o b l e m i n P a r t 1 1 1 o f t h e t h e s i s . - 1 4 1 -CHAPTER 7  RECOMMENDATIONS I f a d o p t e d , t h e s t a t u t o r y r e f o r m s p r o p o s e d b e l o w a r e made w i t h a v i e w t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a s a new p r o v i s i o n i n t h e D i v o r c e A c t . T h e 1 r e c o g n i t i o n o f d i v o r c e s g r a n t e d p u r s u a n t t o t h e D i v o r c e A c t i t s e l f w o u l d n o t b e a f f e c t e d a n d t h u s s . 14 o f t h e A c t w o u l d r e m a i n t h e s a m e . N o r a r e t h e p r o v i s i o n s s u g g e s t e d h e r e made i n o r d e r t o i m p l e m e n t t h e 1 9 6 8 H a g u e C o n v e n t i o n o n R e c o g n i t i o n o f D i v o r c e s a n d L e g a l S e p a r a t i o n s . A p a r t f r o m a n y t h i n g e l s e t h e r e c o u l d b e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s s i n c e l e g a l s e p a r a t i o n s h a v e t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n r e g a r d e d a s b e i n g w i t h i n t h e l e g i s l a t i v e 2 p o w e r o f t h e p r o v i n c e s , n o t t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t . T h e r e f o r e , t h e p r o p o s a l s o u t l i n e d b e l o w a r e l i m i t e d t o r e c o g n i t i o n o f d i v o r c e s . T h e y a r e b a s e d o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t s e c t i o n 6 ( 2 ) o f t h e D i v o r c e A c t 3 w o u l d b e r e p e a l e d a n d t h a t t h e common l a w r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t s w o u l d b e a b o l i s h e d , p r e v e n t i n g f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f j u d g e m a d e l a w . RECOMMENDATION 1 : GROUNDS FOR RECOGNITION 1 . ( 1 ) A d i v o r c e w h i c h w a s n o t g r a n t e d u n d e r t h i s A c t s h a l l b e r e c o g n i z e d a s v a l i d i n C a n a d a i f , a n d o n l y i f , i t w a s r e c o g n i z e d a s v a l i d i n a l a w d i s t r i c t i n w h i c h e i t h e r s p o u s e w a s d o m i c i l e d o r h a b i t u a l l y r e s i d e n t a t t h e t i m e t h e d i v o r c e w a s f i n a l i z e d . 1 . ( 2 ) F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f s u b s e c t i o n ( 1 ) a b o v e a " l a w d i s t r i c t " m e a n s a c o u n t r y , b u t w h e r e a c o u n t r y i s c o m p r i s e d o f t e r r i t o r i e s h a v i n g s e p a r a t e s y s t e m s o f l a w , a " l a w d i s t r i c t " m e a n s t h e i n d i v i d u a l t e r r i t o r y . T h u s , i t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t a d i v o r c e s h o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d i n C a n a d a i f i t w a s r e c o g n i z e d a s v a l i d b y t h e l a w o f e i t h e r s p o u s e ' s d o m i c i l e o r h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e . S u b s e c t i o n 1 i s p h r a s e d i n s u c h a w a y t h a t d i v o r c e s a c t u a l l y o b t a i n e d i n t h e c o u n t r y o f h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e o r d o m i c i l e w i l l b e - 142 -r e c o g n i z e d i n C a n a d a . F o r , i f a v a l i d d i v o r c e i s o b t a i n e d i n a c o u n t r y , i t i s a l s o " r e c o g n i z e d a s v a l i d " i n t h a t c o u n t r y . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p r o v i s i o n i n v o l v e s a n e x t e n s i o n o f t h e r u l e i n 4 A r m i t a g e v A - G t o h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e c a s e s . T h e r e a r e t h r e e j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r t h i s : 5 1 ) B e c a u s e o f t h e r e f o r m s t o t h e l a w o f d o m i c i l e p r o p o s e d i n P a r t 1 , h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e a n d d o m i c i l e a r e l i k e l y t o c o i n c i d e i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s . A n d , i f t h e y d o n o t c o i n c i d e , h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e p r o b a b l y r e p r e s e n t s t h e m o r e f a c t u a l p r a c t i c a l t e s t i n a n y e v e n t . 2 ) I t i s t o b e h o p e d t h a t f o r u m s h o p p i n g w i l l n o t b e e n c o u r a g e d , s i n c e d i v o r c e s o b t a i n e d t h e r e b y m a y b e r e f u s e d r e c o g n i t i o n u n d e r t h e 6 s u b s t a n t i a l i n j u s t i c e o r p u b l i c p o l i c y p r o v i s i o n r e f e r r e d t o b e l o w . 3 ) S u c h a n e x t e n s i o n m a y h e l p t o p r e v e n t l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t s h o u l d b e p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e r e i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a d i v o r c e m a y b e r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e o r t h e d o m i c i l e o f o n e s p o u s e a n d n o t b y t h e o t h e r . H o w e v e r , t h i s p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m seems t o b e a n i n e v i t a b l e c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e e q u a l i t y o f t h e s e x e s . S u c h a s i t u a t i o n 7 „ i s p o s s i b l e w i t h t h e c u r r e n t s . 6 ( 2 ) o f t h e D i v o r c e A c t , t h e r e a l a n d s u b -8 9 s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n t e s t a n d t h e E n g l i s h s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s . T h e r e a s o n f o r t h e c h o i c e o f " h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e " a s o p p o s e d t o 10 " r e s i d e n c e " , w h i c h w a s s e l e c t e d f o r j u r i s d i c t i o n p u r p o s e s i n P a r t 1 , i s t h a t , w h i l e t h e r e i s o b v i o u s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r r e q u i r i n g m o r e t h a n m e r e r e s i d e n c e f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f r e c o g n i t i o n , i t d o e s n o t seem a p p r o p r i a t e t o i m p o s e a r e q u i r e m e n t o f r e s i d e n c e f o r a f i x e d p e r i o d , s u c h a s a o n e y e a r p e r i o d , i n t h e f o r e i g n j u r i s d i c t i o n , b e f o r e r e c o g n i t i o n w i l l b e a f f o r d e d i n 1 1 C a n a d a . T h e u s e o f t h e w o r d " h a b i t u a l " i n t h i s c o n t e x t seems t o i n v o l v e - 143 -a d e s i r a b l e q u a l i t y o f r e s i d e n c e , w i t h o u t t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f a f i x e d t i m e p e r i o d . F o r e x a m p l e , i f H h a s l i v e d i n N e v a d a f o r e l e v e n m o n t h s a n d t h e N e v a d a c o u r t a s s u m e d j u r i s d i c t i o n t o d i s s o l v e h i s m a r r i a g e o n t h e b a s i s o f r e s i d e n c e f o r s i x w e e k s , a n d H c o n t i n u e s t o l i v e i n N e v a d a f o r f i v e y e a r s t h e r e a f t e r , p r i m a f a c i e , t h e r e d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o b e a n y j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r r e f u s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n i n C a n a d a . A h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e t e s t c o u l d a f f o r d r e c o g n i t i o n i n s u c h a c a s e , w h e r e a s r e c o g n i t i o n w o u l d n o t b e a f f o r d e d b y a o n e y e a r r e s i d e n c e t e s t . a . E x t r a - J u d i c i a l D i v o r c e s H a v i n g s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h e r e i s n o j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a d i s t i n c t i o n 12 b e t w e e n d i v o r c e s o b t a i n e d b y n o n - j u d i c i a l m e a n s a n d o t h e r d i v o r c e s , t h e r e c o m m e n d e d p r o v i s i o n a l l o w s f o r t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f e x t r a - j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e s . 13 I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s e x p e r i e n c e d i n E n g l a n d w o u l d b e a v o i d e d , s i n c e t h e c o n c e p t o f " o v e r s e a s d i v o r c e s " h a s n o t b e e n e m p l o y e d . T h u s , t h e p r o b l e m o f d e c i d i n g w h e t h e r a d i v o r c e i s " o b t a i n e d " b y m e a n s o f " p r o c e e d i n g s " a b r o a d w o u l d b e a v e r t e d . I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t a n e x t r a - j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e g r a n t e d w i t h i n a C a n a d i a n l a w d i s t r i c t m a y f a l l w i t h i n t h e p r o v i s i o n . A s a m a t t e r o f p o l i c y , i t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h i s s h o u l d n o t b e e n c o u r a g e d g e n e r a l l y . P r e s u m a b l y , t h e p u b l i c p o l i c y e x c e p t i o n t o r e c o g n i t i o n w o u l d p r e v e n t r e c o g n i t i o n o f 14 s u c h d i v o r c e s i n m o s t i n s t a n c e s . H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h r e c o g n i t i o n o f s u c h a d i v o r c e m a y b e j u s t i f i e d , f o r e x a m p l e , i f H a n d W a r e I s r a e l i n a t i o n a l s a n d d o m i c i l i a r i e s a n d H , h a v i n g i m m i g r a t e d t o C a n a d a , o b t a i n s a g e t t d i v o r c e h e r e , w h i c h i s r e c o g n i z e d a s v a l i d b y t h e l a w o f I s r a e l , w h e r e W r e m a i n s . - 144 -b . D o m i c i l e o r H a b i t u a l R e s i d e n c e i n a T e r r i t o r y o r F e d e r a l C o u n t r y ? S u b s e c t i o n 2 o f t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n p r o v i d e s t h a t t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t s b e r e l a t e d t o e a c h i n d i v i d u a l t e r r i t o r y o f a f e d e r a l c o u n t r y . T h e i n t e n t i o n i s n o t t o d e n y t h e c o n c e p t o f f e d e r a l d o m i c i l e , b u t t o a v o i d t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o b l e m : i f a d i v o r c e w e r e r e c o g n i z e d i n N e v a d a b u t n o t i n C a l i f o r n i a , c o u l d i t b e s a i d t o b e " r e c o g n i z e d a s v a l i d " i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a s a w h o l e ? c . T h e T i m e F a c t o r T h e r e l e v a n t t i m e f o r t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t e s t o u g h t t o b e t h e t i m e o f t h e d e c r e e , n o t t h e d a t e w h e n p r o c e e d i n g s w e r e i n s t i t u t e d . T h e r e f o r e , a d i v o r c e w o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d i n C a n a d a i f i t w a s r e c o g n i z e d a s v a l i d i n t h e c o u n t r y i n w h i c h e i t h e r s p o u s e w a s h a b i t u a l l y r e s i d e n t o r d o m i c i l e d a t t h e d a t e o f t h e d e c r e e . C e r t a i n l y , d o m i c i l e o r h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e a t t h e 15 t i m e o f f i l i n g t h e p e t i t i o n i s r e l e v a n t t o t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f j u r i s d i c t i o n . 16 B u t , a s s h o w n w h e n d i s c u s s i n g t h e r u l e i n A r m i t a g e v A - G a t common l a w , l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e s m a y b e m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y p r e v e n t e d i f t h e r e l e v a n t d a t e f o r r e c o g n i t i o n i s t h e t i m e o f t h e d e c r e e . T h i s w o u l d n o t a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t t h e d o m i c i l e t e s t i t s e l f , b e c a u s e i f j u r i s d i c t i o n i s a s s u m e d o n t h e b a s i s o f d o m i c i l e w h e n p r o c e e d i n g s a r e i n s t i t u t e d , a n d t h e s p o u s e r e m a i n s d o m i c i l e d i n t h e c o u n t r y c o n c e r n e d , t h e d i v o r c e w i l l b e r e c o g n i z e d a s v a l i d i n t h a t c o u n t r y a t t h e d a t e o f t h e d e c r e e . A s s u c h , t h e d e c r e e w o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d i n C a n a d a . T h e same a p p l i e s t o t h e h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e t e s t . H o w e v e r , i f t h e s p o u s e h a s c h a n g e d d o m i c i l e b e t w e e n t h e d a t e o f i n s t i t u t i o n o f p r o c e e d i n g s a n d t h e d e c r e e , t h e d i v o r c e w o u l d o n l y b e r e c o g n i z e d i f i t i s a l s o r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e n e w d o m i c i l e o r h a b i t u a l - 145 -r e s i d e n c e , o r r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e d o m i c i l e o r h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e o f t h e o t h e r s p o u s e . T h i s seems r e a s o n a b l e b e c a u s e i t m a y p r e v e n t a l i m p i n g m a r r i a g e a r i s i n g b e t w e e n C a n a d a a n d t h e n e w d o m i c i l e o r h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e o f t h e s p o u s e c o n c e r n e d . A n d t h e n e w d o m i c i l e o r h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e r e p r e s e n t s t h e c o u n t r y w i t h w h i c h t h a t s p o u s e w i l l b e c o n n e c t e d i n p r a c t i c e i n t h e f u t u r e , w h e r e a s t h e o l d d o m i c i l e ( o r h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e ) m a y h a v e c e a s e d t o h a v e a n y r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h a t s p o u s e . One f o r e s e e a b l e p r o b l e m w i t h t h e s u g g e s t e d t e s t i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e p e t i t i o n e r i n t h e f o r e i g n p r o c e e d i n g s m a y h a v e m o v e d t o C a n a d a a f t e r t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f p r o c e e d i n g s b u t b e f o r e t h e f i n a l d e c r e e . I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n , p r e s u m a b l y , t h e d i v o r c e w i l l o n l y b e r e c o g n i z e d i f i t i s r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e o r d o m i c i l e , s i n c e i t w o u l d b e a b s u r d t o s a y t h a t a d i v o r c e w o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d i n C a n a d a i f i t 16A w e r e r e c o g n i z e d a s v a l i d i n C a n a d a . RECOMMENDATION 2 : PROOF OF FACTS 1 . ( 3 ) F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f r e c o g n i t i o n o f a d i v o r c e u n d e r t h i s s e c t i o n a n y f i n d i n g o f f a c t ( e x p r e s s o r i m p l i e d ) made i n t h e p r o c e e d i n g s b y m e a n s o f w h i c h t h e d i v o r c e w a s o b t a i n e d a n d o n t h e b a s i s o f w h i c h j u r i s d i c t i o n w a s a s s u m e d s h a l l b e s u f f i c i e n t p r o o f o f t h a t f a c t u n l e s s t h e c o n t r a r y i s s h o w n . 1 . ( 4 ) N o t h i n g i n t h i s s e c t i o n s h a l l b e c o n s t r u e d a s r e q u i r i n g t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f a n y f i n d i n g s o f f a u l t made i n d i v o r c e p r o c e e d i n g s o r o f a n y o r d e r s f o r c o r o l l a r y r e l i e f made i n s u c h p r o c e e d i n g s . 17 F o r r e a s o n s g i v e n i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e E n g l i s h A c t , i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t f i n d i n g s o f f a c t i n t h e f o r e i g n p r o c e e d i n g s , o n t h e b a s i s o f w h i c h j u r i s d i c t i o n w a s a s s u m e d , a n d o n t h e b a s i s o f w h i c h t h e d i v o r c e w a s o b t a i n e d , s h o u l d m e r e l y b e p r i m a f a c i e p r o o f o f t h e f a c t s f o u n d . T h u s , t h e C a n a d i a n - 1 4 6 -c o u r t s w o u l d n o t b e b o u n d b y f i n d i n g s o f d o m i c i l e o r h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e i n f o r e i g n p r o c e e d i n g s . I n a d d i t i o n , i t w o u l d b e w i s e t o i n c l u d e a p r o v i s i o n , s i m i l a r t o 18 s . 8 ( 3 ) o f t h e R e c o g n i t i o n o f D i v o r c e s a n d L e g a l S e p a r a t i o n s A c t 1 9 7 1 , t o m a k e i t c l e a r t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n s h e r e i n do n o t r e q u i r e r e c o g n i t i o n o f f i n d i n g s o f f a u l t o r a n c i l l a r y o r d e r s made i n f o r e i g n p r o c e e d i n g s . O b v i o u s l y , o t h e r c o u n t r i e s m a y h a v e d i f f e r e n t s t a n d a r d s i n r e s p e c t o f g r o u n d s f o r d i v o r c e s , m a i n t e n a n c e a n d c u s t o d y o r d e r s . T h e u s e o f t h e w o r d " p r o c e e d i n g s " w i l l n o t p r e s e n t a n y d i f f i c u l t i e s , b e c a u s e t h e s u b s e c t i o n s r e l a t e o n l y t o j u d i c i a l d i v o r c e s . T h u s , t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s r e s e m b l e s e c t i o n s 5 a n d 8 ( 3 ) o f t h e E n g l i s h A c t , w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r y a l t e r a t i o n s . RECOMMENDATION 3 : CAPACITY TO REMARRY 1 . ( 5 ) W h e r e a d i v o r c e i s r e c o g n i z e d b y v i r t u e o f s u b s e c t i o n ( 1 ) o f t h i s s e c t i o n , n e i t h e r s p o u s e s h a l l b e p r e c l u d e d f r o m r e m a r r y i n g i n C a n a d a o n t h e g r o u n d t h a t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e d i v o r c e w o u l d n o t b e r e c o g n i z e d i n a n y o t h e r c o u n t r y . 19 T h i s t o p i c h a s b e e n d i s c u s s e d a b o v e . T h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n i s t h a t a s p o u s e s h a l l n o t b e p r o h i b i t e d f r o m r e m a r r y i n g i n C a n a d a m e r e l y b e c a u s e a d i v o r c e i s n o t r e c o g n i z e d i n some o t h e r c o u n t r y . B u t t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n d o e s n o t a f f e c t a n y o t h e r i n c a p a c i t y , u n r e l a t e d t o t h e d i v o r c e , w h i c h a p e r s o n m a y b e u n d e r a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l a w o f h i s o r h e r d o m i c i l e , f o r 20 e x a m p l e , b y r e a s o n o f a g e , o r l a c k o f p a r e n t a l c o n s e n t . RECOMMENDATION 4 : RETROACTIV ITY 1 . ( 6 ) T h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s s e c t i o n a p p l y t o d i v o r c e s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e d a t e w h e n t h e y w e r e o b t a i n e d , b u t d o n o t a f f e c t : ( a ) t h e s t a t u s o f s p o u s e s i f t h e v a l i d i t y o r o t h e r w i s e o f a d i v o r c e h a s b e e n d e t e r m i n e d b y a c o u r t o f l a w i n C a n a d a p r i o r t o t h e - 147 -c o m m e n c e m e n t o f t h i s s e c t i o n , o r ( b ) p r o p e r t y r i g h t s t o w h i c h a p e r s o n b e c a m e e n t i t l e d p r i o r t o t h e c o m m e n c e m e n t o f t h i s s e c t i o n . 2 1 A s s u b m i t t e d a b o v e , t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f r e t r o a c t i v e r e c o g n i t i o n w i l l p r o b a b l y o u t w e i g h t h e p o t e n t i a l d i s a d v a n t a g e s . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s b e r e t r o a c t i v e . H o w e v e r , c e r t a i n s a f e g u a r d s a r e n e c e s s a r y : 1 ) s o t h a t t h e s e c t i o n d o e s n o t a f f e c t t h e s t a t u s o f s p o u s e s w h e n t h e v a l i d i t y o r o t h e r w i s e o f t h e i r d i v o r c e h a s a l r e a d y b e e n d e t e r m i n e d b y a c o u r t o f l a w i n C a n a d a ; 2 ) s o t h a t t h e s e c t i o n d o e s n o t a f f e c t p r o p e r t y r i g h t s t o w h i c h 22 a p e r s o n b e c a m e e n t i t l e d p r i o r t o t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e s e c t i o n . RECOMMENDATION 5 : GROUNDS FOR NON-RECOGNITION 1 . ( 7 ) No d i v o r c e s h a l l b e r e c o g n i z e d a s v a l i d i n C a n a d a i f , a t t h e t i m e o f t h e d i v o r c e , t h e r e w a s n o s u b s i s t i n g m a r r i a g e b e t w e e n t h e p a r t i e s a c c o r d i n g t o C a n a d i a n l a w . 1 . ( 8 ) N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g s u b s e c t i o n ( 1 ) o f t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e c o u r t s o f a n y p r o v i n c e i n C a n a d a m a y r e f u s e t o r e c o g n i z e a d i v o r c e i f , ( a ) t h e d e c r e e w a s o b t a i n e d i n a m a n n e r c o n t r a r y t o n a t u r a l j u s t i c e , o r ( b ) a s u b s t a n t i a l i n j u s t i c e o c c u r r e d i n g r a n t i n g t h e d e c r e e . 2 3 T h e common l a w g r o u n d s o f a t t a c k s e e m t o l e a d t o a r e a s o n a b l e r e s u l t , 2 4 a n d t h e s t a t u t o r y g r o u n d s i n E n g l a n d a r e v e r y s i m i l a r . T h i s i s a n i d e a l a r e a f o r j u d i c i a l d i s c r e t i o n p r o v i d e d , o f c o u r s e , t h a t s u c h d i s c r e t i o n c o n t i n u e s t o b e s p a r i n g l y e x e r c i s e d . A n e x a m p l e o f t h i s i s t h e u s e o f t h e 2 5 2 6 p u b l i c p o l i c y e x c e p t i o n i n A u s t r a l i a , a n d i t s s u g g e s t e d u s e i n E n g l a n d , 148 -i n o r d e r t o r e f u s e r e c o g n i t i o n t o d e c r e e s o b t a i n e d a s a r e s u l t o f f o r u m s h o p p i n g a n d w h i c h , t h e r e b y , c a u s e a n i n j u s t i c e . T h e g r o u n d s f o r n o n - r e c o g n i t i o n , c o u l d b e r e f e r r e d t o a s t h o s e " a t common l a w " . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , f o r g r e a t e r c e r t a i n t y , i t m a y b e p r e f e r a b l e t o s t a t e e x p l i c i t l y t h e e x c e p t i o n s t o r e c o g n i t i o n , n a m e l y , " n a t u r a l j u s t i c e , " a n d " s u b s t a n t i a l i n j u s t i c e , " o r " p u b l i c p o l i c y . " T h e m o d e l s t a k e n f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n a b o v e a r e " n a t u r a l j u s t i c e " a n d " s u b s t a n t i a l i n j u s t i c e . " A l s o f o r g r e a t e r c e r t a i n t y , i t seems a d v i s a b l e t o i n c l u d e a p r o v i s i o n t h a t n o d i v o r c e s h a l l b e r e c o g n i z e d i n C a n a d a i f , a t t h e t i m e o f t h e d i v o r c e , t h e r e w a s n o 27 s u b s i s t i n g m a r r i a g e b e t w e e n t h e p a r t i e s a c c o r d i n g t o C a n a d i a n l a w . RECOMMENDATION 6 : AMENDMENT TO S . 6 ( 1 ) OF THE DIVORCE ACT I n v i e w o f t h e s u b m i s s i o n t h a t s . 6 ( 2 ) o f t h e D i v o r c e A c t s h o u l d b e r e p e a l e d a n d t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n t h a t r e c o g n i t i o n b y t h e d o m i c i l e o r h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n c e o f e i t h e r s p o u s e s h o u l d a f f o r d r e c o g n i t i o n i n C a n a d a , i t seems n e c e s s a r y a n d a p p r o p r i a t e t h a t s . 6 ( 1 ) o f t h e D i v o r c e A c t b e a m e n d e d t o i n c l u d e d i v o r c e r e c o g n i t i o n p u r p o s e s , a s f o l l o w s : 6 . ( 1 ) F o r a l l p u r p o s e s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n A c t , a n d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f d i v o r c e r e c o g n i t i o n i n C a n a d a , t h e d o m i c i l e o f a m a r r i e d woman s h a l l b e d e t e r m i n e d a s i f s h e w e r e u n m a r r i e d a n d , i f s h e i s a m i n o r , a s i f s h e h a d a t t a i n e d h e r m a j o r i t y . ( w o r d s r e c o m m e n d e d f o r a d d i t i o n a r e u n d e r l i n e d ) . T h u s , p e r s o n s w h o t h o u g h t t h e m s e l v e s t o b e v a l i d l y d i v o r c e d p u r s u a n t t o s . 6 ( 2 ) , b u t w h o h a v e n o t h a d t h e i r s t a t u s j u d i c i a l l y d e t e r m i n e d i n C a n a d a , w o u l d p r o b a b l y f a l l w i t h i n t h e n e w p r o v i s i o n s i n a n y e v e n t . - 149 -PART 3: THE EFFECT OF FOREIGN DIVORCES ON THE RIGHT TO F I N A N C I A L SUPPORT CHAPTER 8  INTRODUCTION T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s p a r t i s t o e x a m i n e t h e e f f e c t o f b o t h r e c o g n i z e d a n d u n r e c o g n i z e d f o r e i g n d i v o r c e s o n a s p o u s e ' s r i g h t t o f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t i n C a n a d a . T h e r e h a v e b e e n s e v e r a l d e c i s i o n s i n t h e p a s t r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t o f f o r e i g n d i v o r c e s w h i c h a r e n o t r e c o g n i z e d a s v a l i d i n C a n a d a a n d t h e s e w i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d f i r s t . T h e c a s e l a w o n t h e s u b j e c t o f i n v a l i d f o r e i g n d i v o r c e s a p p e a r s t o b e s o m e w h a t i n c o n s i s t e n t a n d t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s o - c a l l e d " d o c t r i n e o f p r e c l u s i o n " w i l l b e a n a l y s e d s o t h a t t h e r u l e s t h e r e i n m a y b e r e g u l a r i s e d . T h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l a l s o h a v e some b e a r i n g o n t h e s e c o n d , m o r e p r e s s i n g p r o b l e m o f f i n a n c i a l p r o t e c t i o n f o r t h e s p o u s e s 1 a f t e r a v a l i d a n d r e c o g n i z e d f o r e i g n d i v o r c e h a s b e e n o b t a i n e d . I n a t t e m p t i n g t o s o l v e t h i s l a t t e r p r o b l e m i n C a n a d a , t h e A m e r i c a n s o l u t i o n o f " d i v i s i b l e d i v o r c e " , a n d t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n a l a n d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s 2 o f s u c h a s o l u t i o n i n C a n a d a w i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d . F i n a l l y , r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s 3 f o r r e f o r m w i l l b e made i n s t a t u t o r y f o r m . A . THE EFFECT OF AN UNRECOGNIZED FOREIGN DIVORCE - THE DOCTRINE OF PRECLUSION a . B a c k g r o u n d A f o r e i g n d i v o r c e w h i c h i s n o t r e c o g n i z e d i n C a n a d a g e n e r a l l y h a s n o 1 e f f e c t o n t h e s t a t u s o f t h e p a r t i e s a n d w i l l n o t e n t i t l e t h e m t o r e m a r r y . B u t t h e r e a r e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , w h e n a m o n e t a r y c l a i m i s m a d e , i n w h i c h o n e o f t h e p a r t i e s t o a f o r e i g n d i v o r c e may b e e s t o p p e d f r o m d e n y i n g i t s v a l i d i t y . T h e t y p i c a l s i t u a t i o n i s t h a t o f a w i f e , who o b t a i n s a n u n r e c o g n i z e d f o r e i g n - 150 -divorce from one of the United States and thereafter seek to claim a share of her husband's estate, as his widow. In those circumstances i t has been held that the widow i s estopped from impugning the v a l i d i t y of the decree of a foreign court, whose j u r i s d i c t i o n she invoked and, 2 therefore, cannot claim against her deceased husband's estate. The basis 3 of t h i s "doctrine of pre c l u s i o n " i s equitable, or rather, the inequity of allowing a person to benefit f i n a n c i a l l y from his or her status as a spouse, a f t e r he or she has invoked a foreign j u r i s d i c t i o n to dissolve 4 the marriage. This species of estoppel seems to have originated from the case of 5 Swaizie v Swaizie, although there i s at least one e a r l i e r instance when 6 estoppel was applied against a party to a foreign divorce. Swaizie v Swaizie i t s e l f could be regarded as o b i t e r dictum on the point of estoppel. In that case the husband petitioned for a divorce i n Wisconsin, having been married i n Ontario. The Wisconsin court found i n favour of the wife and granted a divorce plus alimony. The wife sought to recover the amount of the alimony order i n Ontario. The husband contended that he never acquired the necessary domicile to give the fore i g n court j u r i s d i c t i o n . 7 Meredith C.J. said: " I t may perhaps be s u f f i c i e n t to hold, as I think we are warranted i n doing, that the defendant has by his conduct precluded himself from objecting to the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Wisconsin Court to pronounce the judgment sued on." He went on to f i n d that the husband, who had been resident i n Wisconsin f o r s i x years, did not s a t i s f y his claim of 8 want of j u r i s d i c t i o n on the part of the Wisconsin court, and that the - 151 -9 divorce should be recognized in Ontario. Later in the judgment he said: "It is unnecessary to consider what the result would have been had my conclusion been that the Wisconsin Court had no jurisdiction to entertain the proceedings for divorce and whether that part of the judgment which assumes to dissolve the marriage in that case, not being entitled to recognition as a valid adjudication beyond the limits of Wisconsin, the other provisions of the judgment must f a l l or might be upheld, as not dealing with the status of the parties, but only with rights of property or with matters as to which something less than domicile is sufficient to give jurisdiction..." Despite this uncertainty, Swaizie v Swaizie has been followed in 10 subsequent cases on the point of preclusion. But there have been others which disapproved the doctrine of preclusion: for example, Lamont 11 J.A. in Burnfiel v Burnfiel f e l t very strongly that there was no such 12 doctrine of estoppel; and in C v C i t was held that the relationship of husband and wife was of such great public importance that the doctrine of estoppel could not be applied against a subsequent "spouse." b. The Application of the Doctrine A husband or wife, who obtains a foreign divorce which is not recognized in Canada may be estopped from claiming, on the death of the other spouse: 13 14 1. against the estate of the deceased as widow or widower, 15 2. insurance monies which were originally payable to the surviving spouse. Either spouse may also be estopped from setting up an invalid divorce during the l i f e of the other spouse in respect of alimony. In Burpee v 16 Burpee, the husband obtained a divorce from his wife in Washington, and the wife was awarded alimony payable in monthly instalments. Later the - 152 -Washington court awarded a f i n a l judgment of alimony for $5,000 and the wife sued on t h i s judgment i n B r i t i s h Columbia. McDonald J. found that a l l the merits were on the wife's side and also that the husband, having chosen his forum and having brought his action therein, was bound by the d e c i s i o n of that court. Thus, the Washington alimony judgment was enforced against him i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In Rosswrom v Rosswrom a wife's claim for alimony was dismissed a f t e r she had obtained an unrecognized divorce i n Oklahoma, her state of residence. The wife was described as a querulous, d i s s a t i s f i e d , domineering woman, who had l e f t her husband on several occasions to v i s i t the United States. A f t e r she had i n s i s t e d that the husband hand over to her most of the proceeds of sale of his hotel business, i t was agreed that the parti e s should each go t h e i r separate ways. The wife moved to Oklahoma i n 1907 and obtained a divorce. She c a r r i e d on business i n that state and l i v e d there u n t i l 1912, when she returned to Canada, seemingly for the purpose of obtaining alimony from her estranged husband. K e l l y J. found that: the wife had no j u s t cause for complaint against the husband; her conduct was such that the claim should be disallowed; she was bound by the Oklahoma divorce i n s o f a r as to d i s e n t i t l e her to alimony. 18 19 While the d e c i s i o n i n Burpee v Burpee and Rosswrom v Rosswrom can be explained on the basis of the conduct of the spouses i n those cases, 20 a more recent decision of the Ontario Court of Appeal i n Nunn v Nunn seems to overlook the conduct of the spouses altogether. In the Nunn case the wife obtained an alimony judgment i n Ontario on the grounds of desertion by the husband, and f i v e years l a t e r obtained a divorce i n Connecticut, a f t e r she had been resident there for three years. The 153 -husband sought to have the o r i g i n a l alimony order discharged i n Ontario. The Court of Appeal took the p o s i t i o n that the very fact of obtaining a divorce meant that the wife consented to the husband thereafter l i v i n g separate and apart from her. Thus, i t was held, Schroeder J.A. dissenting, that the wife ought not to be allowed to continue to receive alimony, and the Ontario order was discharged. The r a t i o n a l e of t h i s decision would perhaps be more suited to some 21 of the more p r i m i t i v e judgments of the nineteenth century. In t h i s case the f a u l t was c l e a r l y on the husband's side, for i t was he who deserted his wife. There are obvious circumstances i n which such a wife ought to be able to obtain alimony from the husband: for example, i f she has to care f o r the young c h i l d r e n of the marriage and i s , therefore, unable to support 22 h e r s e l f . I f the foreign court did not have personal j u r i s d i c t i o n over the husband, and i f the husband had no r e a l property within the foreign j u r i s d i c t i o n , the only court to which a wife may have recourse i n order to obtain f i n a n c i a l support may be the court of the husband's domicile or residence. c. Limits of the Preclusion Doctrine The doctrine of preclusion applies only i n cases involving pecuniary claims and i s not applicable i n actions to determine the status of the 23 p a r t i e s . Thus, a spouse or subsequent "spouse" w i l l not be precluded 24 25 from obtaining a divorce or n u l l i t y . decree i n Canada a f t e r an i n v a l i d f o r e i g n divorce. Presumably, the court would have regard to the conduct of the p a r t i e s when deciding on f i n a n c i a l r e l i e f upon granting 26 27 a divorce or n u l l i t y decree. In a d d i t i o n , i t seems that the doctrine i s only applicable as between - 154 -the spouses or t h e i r representatives, and cannot be applied against a 28 t h i r d party, such as a subsequent "spouse" even i f the t h i r d party 29 helped to obtain the foreign divorce. Nor can i t be applied against one of the p a r t i e s to the foreign divorce i n favour of a subsequent 30 "spouse". The reason for t h i s seems to be that t h i s would have the e f f e c t of conferring a married status on the subsequent "spouse", which i n law he has never possessed because the subsequent marriage into which 31 he entered was v o i d . In ad d i t i o n to the reason given above, i t i s submitted that i t would be unwise, to extend the doctrine of preclusion to t h i r d p a r t i e s , because further considerations may a r i s e as a r e s u l t of a remarriage by one of the spouses, and the a p p l i c a t i o n of the doctrine would be even less c e r t a i n than i t i s already. In any event a subsequent "spouse" would probably have an adequate remedy i n respect of alimony. The p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n u sually empowers the court to award maintenance upon a declaration of n u l l i t y i f i t 32 i s warranted under the circumstances. However, such a "spouse" may not 33 have the r i g h t to claim a share of her deceased husband's estate, d. Current Trends 34 Downton v Royal Trust Co. i s a f a i r l y recent decision of the Supreme Court of Canada, which i s inconsistent with some of the e a r l i e r decisions, at l e a s t i n respect of claims against the estate of a deceased spouse. The facts were that H married W i n 1948 i n Newfoundland. The spouses separated i n 1960 and entered into a separation agreement under which H was to pay W monthly maintenance. At the same time H signed a note for a lump sum amount i n favour of W. In 1965 H went to Nevada, obtained a - 155 -divorce, remarried on the day of the decree absolute, and returned to Newfoundland. P r i o r to the divorce a Nevada lawyer wrote to W to ask her to sign an enclosed power of attorney to authorize an appearance on her behalf i n the divorce a c t i o n . The power of attorney s p e c i f i e d that the terms of the separation agreement were to be incorporated into the decree. W signed the power of attorney, but included a further condition that H should s a t i s f y his o b l i g a t i o n to W for the lump sum under the note. These obli g a t i o n s were incorporated into the Nevada divorce. A f t e r the death of H, W applied to the Supreme Court of Newfoundland for r e l i e f under the 35 provisions of the Family R e l i e f Act. Laskin J . reviewed the a u t h o r i t i e s and stated that the e t h i c a l or equitable basis of the doctrine of preclusion was l o s t when both partie s invoke (and submit to) the foreign t r i b u n a l , and other considerations must be brought into account i f the doctrine i s to apply. 36 This i s somewhat inconsistent with other cases. For example, i n the 37 o l d case of Stevens v Fisk the husband was estopped from denying the v a l i d i t y of a New York divorce, obtained by the wife, because of his voluntary appearance i n the proceedings, and the wife was e n t i t l e d to an accounting of her property, which was i n his hands, without authorization from the husband or the court. 38 Further, i n Royal Trust Co. v Jones, i t was held, i n t e r a l i a , that the f i r s t wife was precluded from succeeding to her husband's estate because she had obtained a Nevada divorce, even though the husband had entered a 39 general appearance i n the Nevada proceedings and had subsequently remarried. In the Downton case Laskin J . was also i n favour of a "broad and 40 f l e x i b l e approach" towards the a p p l i c a t i o n of the doctrine of preclusion, - 156 -a n d a p p r o v e d t h e A m e r i c a n Law I n s t i t u t e ' s S e c o n d R e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e l a w o n 4 1 t h i s s u b j e c t . T h e c o u r t i n t h e D o w n t o n c a s e w e n t o n t o h o l d t h a t t h e w i f e w a s n o t p r e c l u d e d f r o m c l a i m i n g a g a i n s t H ' s e s t a t e . T h e f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t w e r e : 1 . t h e f a c t t h a t s h e s u b m i t t e d t o t h e f o r e i g n j u r i s d i c t i o n o n l y t o p r o t e c t e x i s t i n g r i g h t s u n d e r t h e N e w f o u n d l a n d s e p a r a t i o n 4 2 a g r e e m e n t . 2 . t h e f a c t t h a t s h e h a d n o t a c t e d o n t h e d e c r e e , n o r a c c e p t e d a n y b e n e f i t s u n d e r i t . A s t o t h e s e c o n d p o i n t , n o n e o f t h e e a r l i e r a u t h o r i t i e s i n v o l v i n g c l a i m s a g a i n s t t h e e s t a t e o f a d e c e a s e d s p o u s e h a v e b e e n c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e 4 3 s u b s e q u e n t c o n d u c t o f a p a r t y t o t h e d i v o r c e . I n t h e e a r l i e r c a s e s t h e v e r y f a c t t h a t a w i f e o b t a i n e d a f o r e i g n d i v o r c e w a s s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h e 4 4 d o c t r i n e t o a p p l y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h e m o r e f l e x i b l e a p p r o a c h a d v o c a t e d b y t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f C a n a d a i s p r e f e r a b l e , b e c a u s e i t e n a b l e s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a l l t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e c a s e a n d t h u s l e a d s t o a m o r e e q u i t a b l e r e s u l t . T h e D o w n t o n c a s e m a y a l s o b e e x p l a i n e d o n t h e n a r r o w e r b a s i s t h a t i t w a s n o t t h e w i f e who o b t a i n e d t h e d i v o r c e , a n d i n t h a t c a s e i s a u t h o r i t y f o r o n e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o p o s i t i o n s : 1 . i f a s p o u s e d o e s n o t o b t a i n t h e d i v o r c e , t h e d o c t r i n e o f e s t o p p e l d o e s n o t a p p l y a g a i n s t t h a t s p o u s e e v e n t h o u g h h e o r s h e e n t e r s a n a p p e a r a n c e i n t h e f o r e i g n p r o c e e d i n g s . 2 . i f a s p o u s e d o e s n o t o b t a i n t h e d i v o r c e , h e o r s h e w i l l b e p r e c l u d e d f r o m c l a i m i n g a g a i n s t t h e e s t a t e o f t h e o t h e r o n l y i f h e o r s h e - 157 -s u b m i t t e d t o t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n , a n d a c t e d o n t h e d e c r e e , f o r e x a m p l e , b y t a k i n g b e n e f i t s u n d e r i t o r b y r e m a r r y i n g . H o w e v e r , t h e w i d e r a p p r o a c h s u g g e s t e d i n t h e D o w n t o n c a s e h a s b e e n 4 5 f o l l o w e d i n Re J o n e s , w h e r e a w i f e o b t a i n e d a n i n v a l i d f o r e i g n d i v o r c e i n C a l i f o r n i a i n 1 9 2 7 . T h e d e c e a s e d h u s b a n d h a d r e m a r r i e d a n d t h e w i f e t h e r e a f t e r h e l d h e r s e l f o u t a s a s i n g l e w o m a n . T h e d e c e a s e d , w h o h a d s e e n t h e w i f e s e v e r a l t i m e s s i n c e t h e d i v o r c e a n d g i v e n h e r m o n e y , h a d p r o m i s e d t o p r o v i d e f o r h e r i n h i s w i l l . R e i d J . h e l d t h a t t h e w i f e w a s n o t p r e c l u d e d f r o m c l a i m i n g a g a i n s t t h e d e c e a s e d ' s e s t a t e w h e n h e f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e f o r h e r i n h i s w i l l b e c a u s e , e v e n t h o u g h i t w a s s h e w h o o b t a i n e d t h e d i v o r c e : 1 . s h e h a d g a i n e d n o p e c u n i a r y a d v a n t a g e f r o m t h e d i v o r c e ; a n d 2 . c o n s i d e r i n g a l l t h e a s p e c t s o f t h e c a s e , e q u i t y w a s o n t h e w i f e ' s s i d e . e . S u m m a r y I n t h e c a s e s i n v o l v i n g c l a i m s f o r a l i m o n y b y a w i f e a f t e r s h e h a s o b t a i n e d a f o r e i g n d i v o r c e , t h e r e seems t o b e l i t t l e u s e f o r t h e a p p l i c a -t i o n o f a d o c t r i n e o f e s t o p p e l b a s e d o n t h e c o n d u c t o f t h e p a r t i e s . T h e r i g h t t o a l i m o n y d e p e n d s o n t h e c o n d u c t o f t h e s p o u s e s i n a n y e v e n t , a n d t h i s i s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e c a s e s b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c o u r t s h a v e f i r s t f o u n d t h a t t h e r e i s n o j u s t c a u s e f o r a l i m o n y , a n d t h e n s t a t e d t h a t t h e 4 6 w i f e w o u l d b e e s t o p p e d . T h e c a s e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e d o c t r i n e d o e s n o t a p p l y i n r e s p e c t o f 4 7 t h i r d p a r t i e s a n d , a s s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , i t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h i s i s j u s t i f i e d o n t h e g r o u n d s o f c e r t a i n t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e a s u b s e q u e n t - 158 -" w i f e " w o u l d m o r e t h a n l i k e l y h a v e a n a d e q u a t e r e m e d y i n r e s p e c t o f 4 8 a l i m o n y . T h e u s e o f e s t o p p e l b y c o n d u c t t o e n f o r c e a l i m o n y o r d e r s o f a f o r e i g n c o u r t seems r e a s o n a b l e . I n some c a s e s i t m a y b e v e r y i n c o n v e n i e n t i f a s p o u s e , w h o w a s a p a r t y t o f o r e i g n d i v o r c e p r o c e e d i n g s c o u l d d e n y 4 9 t h e o t h e r t h e b e n e f i t s a w a r d e d i n t h o s e p r o c e e d i n g s . E n f o r c e m e n t o f a f o r e i g n a l i m o n y o r d e r i n a p p r o p r i a t e c i r c u m s t a n c e s w o u l d s a v e t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a r e t r i a l i n t h e c o u r t o f t h e f o r u m - a r e t r i a l w h i c h m a y w e l l l e a d t o a r e s u l t s i m i l a r t o t h e f o r e i g n a l i m o n y o r d e r . T h e s u c c e s s i o n c a s e s a r e m o v i n g a w a y f r o m t h e i d e a t h a t t h e v e r y f a c t 5 0 o f a f o r e i g n d i v o r c e i s s u f f i c i e n t t o e s t o p t h e s p o u s e w h o o b t a i n e d i t . C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a l l t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e c o n d u c t o f t h e p a r t i e s , l e a d s t o a m o r e e q u i t a b l e s o l u t i o n , a n d i s m o r e i n l i n e w i t h t h e c a s e s 5 1 w h i c h i n v o l v e c l a i m s t o a l i m o n y . I n v i e w o f t h i s f l e x i b l e a p p r o a c h , i t m a y b e p o s s i b l e now f o r a s p o u s e who d i d n o t t a k e p a r t i n t h e f o r e i g n p r o c e e d i n g s t o b e p r e c l u d e d f r o m o b t a i n i n g f i n a n c i a l b e n e f i t f r o m t h e o t h e r s p o u s e i n C a n a d i a n p r o c e e d i n g s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e " a b s e n t " s p o u s e m a y b e p r e c l u d e d i f h e o r s h e h a s s u b s e q u e n t l y r e m a r r i e d o n t h e s t r e n g t h 5 2 o f t h e d e c r e e . T h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a t t h e e n d o f t h i s p a r t w i l l i n c l u d e a p r o v i s i o n w h i c h , i t i s h o p e d , w i l l r e g u l a r i s e t h e d o c t r i n e o f p r e c l u s i o n a c c o r d i n g 5 3 t o t h e f i n d i n g s w h i c h h a v e r e s u l t e d f r o m t h i s s t u d y . H o w e v e r , t h e r e may b e f e w e r i n s t a n c e s o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e d o c t r i n e i n f u t u r e b e c a u s e m o r e d i v o r c e s m a y b e r e c o g n i z e d , i n v i e w o f t h e t r e n d t o w a r d s r e l a x e d 5 4 r e c o g n i t i o n r u l e s . - 159 -B . THE EFFECT OF A RECOGNIZED FOREIGN DIVORCE a . D i v i s i b l e D i v o r c e A d i v o r c e w h i c h i s r e c o g n i z e d a s v a l i d i n C a n a d a t e r m i n a t e s t h e 1 m a r r i e d s t a t u s a n d g e n e r a l l y e n a b l e s t h e p a r t i e s c o n c e r n e d t o r e m a r r y . Now t h a t t h e r e c o g n i t i o n r u l e s a r e m o r e r e l a x e d , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f o n e 2 s p o u s e u n i l a t e r a l l y o b t a i n i n g a f o r e i g n d i v o r c e i s i n c r e a s e d . A s s u m i n g t h a t n o m a i n t e n a n c e i s a w a r d e d i n t h e f o r e i g n p r o c e e d i n g s , w h a t f i n a n c i a l p r o t e c t i o n i s a n d s h o u l d b e a f f o r d e d t o t h e a b s e n t s p o u s e a f t e r a v a l i d f o r e i g n d i v o r c e ? T h i s w a s o n e o f t h e c o n c e r n s e x p r e s s e d b y t h e H o u s e o f 3 L o r d s w h e n t h e r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n t e s t w a s i n i t i a t e d . I n f a c t , t h e E n g l i s h c o u r t s a r e n o w f a c e d m o r e a n d m o r e o f t e n w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f l a c k o f f i n a n c i a l p r o t e c t i o n f o r t h e w i v e s i n t h e s e c i r -4 c u m s t a n c e s . I n C a n a d a t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e p r o t e c t i o n , i f a n y , f o r t h e s p o u s e s a f t e r a f o r e i g n d i v o r c e . M a i n t e n a n c e c a n n o t b e a w a r d e d u n d e r s . 1 1 ( 1 ) o f 5 6 t h e D i v o r c e A c t u n l e s s t h e d e c r e e o f d i v o r c e i s g r a n t e d u n d e r t h a t A c t ; b y s . 1 1 ( 1 ) m a i n t e n a n c e m a y o n l y b e o r d e r e d " u p o n g r a n t i n g a d e c r e e n i s i o f d i v o r c e . " A v a l i d d i s s o l u t i o n o f m a r r i a g e u s e d t o b e a n d s t i l l i s i n some p r o v i n c e s a b a r t o a n o r d e r f o r m a i n t e n a n c e . T h i s i s b e c a u s e o f t h e t e r m s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , w h i c h i s l i m i t e d i n a p p l i c a t i o n t o 7 a h u s b a n d o r w i f e . H o w e v e r , p r o v i n c i a l m a i n t e n a n c e l e g i s l a t i o n i n 8 9 A l b e r t a a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p r o v i d e s f o r m a i n t e n a n c e a f t e r a d i v o r c e h a s b e e n o b t a i n e d . T h i s l e g i s l a t i o n i s s u f f i c i e n t l y b r o a d i n t e r m s t o c o v e r m a i n t e n a n c e a f t e r f o r e i g n d i v o r c e s a l t h o u g h t h e p o i n t - 160 -d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n l i t i g a t e d . U n d e r t h e O n t a r i o l e g i s l a t i o n , 10 a d i v o r c e m a y b e " d i v i s i b l e " t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t a p r i o r O n t a r i o p r o v i n c i a l m a i n t e n a n c e o r d e r s u r v i v e s a d i v o r c e , u n l e s s t h e q u e s t i o n o f 1 1 s u p p o r t w a s j u d i c i a l l y d e t e r m i n e d . 12 b . T h e A m e r i c a n S o l u t i o n T h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f o n e s p o u s e u n i l a t e r a l l y o b t a i n i n g a d i v o r c e h a s e x i s t e d f o r some t i m e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n 1 9 4 2 t h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h e l d t h a t d o m i c i l e o f t h e p e t i t i o n e r a l o n e w a s s u f f i c i e n t t o 13 f o u n d j u r i s d i c t i o n t o t e r m i n a t e m a r i t a l s t a t u s . N o r m a l l y , u n d e r t h e 14 U n i t e d S t a t e s C o n s t i t u t i o n , a d e c r e e g r a n t e d o n t h i s b a s i s w o u l d b e 15 e n t i t l e d t o " f u l l f a i t h a n d c r e d i t " i n t h e r e s t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h u s , t h e d e c r e e w o u l d n o r m a l l y b e e f f e c t i v e t o t e r m i n a t e t h e m a r r i e d s t a t u s . T h e q u e s t i o n a r o s e a s t o w h e t h e r a v a l i d " e x p a r t e " ( u n i l a t e r a l ) d i v o r c e w a s e f f e c t i v e t o t e r m i n a t e t h e r e a f t e r t h e a b s e n t s p o u s e ' s r i g h t t o f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . 16 I n E s t i n v E s t i n . w h i l e b o t h s p o u s e s w e r e d o m i c i l e d i n New Y o r k , a w i f e h a d o b t a i n e d a s e p a r a t i o n a n d a l i m o n y j u d g m e n t i n New Y o r k . L a t e r t h e h u s b a n d w e n t t o l i v e i n N e v a d a a n d o b t a i n e d a d i v o r c e t h e r e w h i c h made n o p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e w i f e . A f t e r t h e N e v a d a d i v o r c e t h e h u s b a n d c e a s e d p a y i n g a l i m o n y a n d t h e w i f e s u e d f o r a r r e a r s i n New Y o r k . T h e S u p r e m e C o u r t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h e l d t h a t New Y o r k c o u l d c o n t i n u e t o e n f o r c e t h e p r i o r a l i m o n y j u d g m e n t i n f a v o u r o f t h e w i f e a n d s t a t e d : " T h e r e s u l t i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s t o m a k e t h e d i v o r c e d i v i s i b l e - t o g i v e e f f e c t t o t h e N e v a d a d e c r e e i n s o f a r a s i t a f f e c t s m a r i t a l s t a t u s a n d t o m a k e i t i n e f f e c t i v e o n t h e i s s u e o f a l i m o n y . I t - 1 6 1 -a c c o m m o d a t e s t h e i n t e r e s t s o f b o t h N e v a d a a n d New Y o r k i n t h e b r o k e n m a r r i a g e b y r e s t r i c t i n g e a c h s t a t e t o t h e m a t t e r s o f h e r d o m i n a n t c o n c e r n . " 1 7 T h e " d i v i s i b l e d i v o r c e " d o c t r i n e i s n o t l i m i t e d t o s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e 18 a p r i o r a l i m o n y o r d e r i s i n e x i s t e n c e . I n V a n d e r b i l t v V a n d e r b i l t . a n a l i m o n y j u d g m e n t w a s a w a r d e d i n New Y o r k a f t e r a v a l i d " e x p a r t e " d i v o r c e h a d b e e n g r a n t e d e l s e w h e r e . A l s o i n t h e V a n d e r b i l t c a s e , New Y o r k w a s n o t t h e m a t r i m o n i a l h o m e . T h e p a r t i e s h a d l i v e d t o g e t h e r i n C a l i f o r n i a a n d t h e w i f e h a d m o v e d t o New Y o r k t o l i v e a f t e r s e p a r a t i n g f r o m h e r h u s b a n d , b u t b e f o r e t h e N e v a d a d i v o r c e p e t i t i o n w a s f i l e d . H o w e v e r , i t i s a t t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f e a c h s t a t e w h e t h e r o r n o t t o a w a r d m a i n t e n a n c e a f t e r a v a l i d e x p a r t e h a s b e e n o b t a i n e d ; some s t a t e s a l l o w s u c h 19 20 a w a r d s , o t h e r s d o n o t . I n some c a s e s a w i f e h a s b e e n p e r m i t t e d t o o b t a i n a l i m o n y a f t e r s h e , 2 1 h e r s e l f h a s o b t a i n e d a n e x p a r t e d e c r e e . I n B l e c h v B l e c h A r i z o n a a w a r d e d a l i m o n y t o a w i f e , a f t e r s h e h a d o b t a i n e d a n e x t r a - s t a t e , e x p a r t e d i v o r c e , b e c a u s e t h e s t a t e g r a n t i n g t h e d i v o r c e h a d n o j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r 22 t h e h u s b a n d t o a w a r d a l i m o n y a g a i n s t h i m . I n P o r t n o y v P o r t n o y i t w a s h e l d i n N e v a d a t h a t a w i f e c o u l d m a i n t a i n a n a l i m o n y a c t i o n a g a i n s t h e r f o r m e r h u s b a n d b e c a u s e s h e d i d n o t h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o l i t i g a t e s u p p o r t r i g h t s w h e n s h e o b t a i n e d t h e v a l i d e x p a r t e d i v o r c e d e c r e e . 23 H o w e v e r , a d i v o r c e c o u r t w h i c h h a s p e r s o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e 2 4 w i f e c a n t e r m i n a t e h e r r i g h t t o a l i m o n y . T h u s , i f b o t h s p o u s e s t a k e p a r t i n t h e d i v o r c e p r o c e e d i n g s , t h e d e c r e e i n g s t a t e m a y a d j u d i c a t e o n t h e r i g h t t o s u p p o r t a n d s u c h a d j u d i c a t i o n w i l l b e e n t i t l e d t o f u l l f a i t h a n d 2 5 c r e d i t i n t h e o t h e r s t a t e s . - 162 -c . S h o u l d t h e d i v i s i b l e d i v o r c e d o c t r i n e b e l i m i t e d t o e x p a r t e d i v o r c e s ? T h e r a t i o n a l e o f " d i v i s i b l e d i v o r c e " h a s b e e n e x p l a i n e d i n t h e U n i t e d 2 6 S t a t e s i n t e r m s o f e a c h s t a t e ' s " i n t e r e s t " i n t h e p a r t i e s : t h e s t a t e o f t h e w i f e ' s r e s i d e n c e h a s a n i n t e r e s t i n h e r w e l f a r e , l e s t s h e b e c o m e s a 27 p u b l i c c h a r g e ; t h e h u s b a n d ' s d o m i c i l e , w h i c h g r a n t s t h e d i v o r c e , h a s a n i n t e r e s t i n t e r m i n a t i n g h i s d e a d m a r r i a g e a n d t h u s r e g u l a r i z i n g h i s a f f a i r s 2 8 i n t h e s t a t e o f h i s d o m i c i l e . T h i s r e a s o n i n g i s e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o C a n a d a a s a w h o l e ; t h i s c o u n t r y h a s a n i n t e r e s t i n t h e w e l f a r e o f i t s r e s i d e n t s , w h o s e m a r r i a g e s h a v e b e e n t e r m i n a t e d b y f o r e i g n d i v o r c e , a n d a l s o i n t e r m i n a t i n g t h e d e a d m a r r i a g e s o f i t s d o m i c i l i a r i e s a n d h a b i t u a l r e s i d e n t s . A s s u m i n g t h a t t h e w i f e i s a C a n a d i a n r e s i d e n t , i t w o u l d b e h i g h l y i n e q u i t a b l e i f t h e h u s b a n d c o u l d u n i l a t e r a l l y d e p r i v e h e r o f t h e r i g h t t o c l a i m m a i n t e n a n c e i n C a n a d a b y m e a n s o f a v a l i d f o r e i g n d i v o r c e . B u t s h o u l d a w i f e b e a b l e t o c l a i m m a i n t e n a n c e i n C a n a d a a f t e r s h e , h e r s e l f h a s o b t a i n e d a f o r e i g n e x p a r t e d e c r e e ? W h a t i f b o t h p a r t i e s t a k e p a r t i n t h e p r o c e e d i n g s ? A n a n a l o g y c a n b e d r a w n h e r e b e t w e e n t h e e f f e c t o f v a l i d a n d i n v a l i d f o r e i g n d i v o r c e s . I n t h e c a s e o f d i v o r c e s w h i c h a r e n o t r e c o g n i z e d i n C a n a d a , t h e a n s w e r d e p e n d s o n t h e c o n d u c t o f t h e s p o u s e s a n d a l l t h e 2 9 c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e c a s e . I t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h e o v e r r i d i n g c o n -s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e c a s e o f r e c o g n i z e d f o r e i g n d i v o r c e s a l s o s h o u l d b e t o e n s u r e e q u i t y a s b e t w e e n t h e s p o u s e s ( o r r a t h e r , t h e e x - s p o u s e s ) h a v i n g r e g a r d t o a l l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . C l e a r l y , t h e r e m a y b e c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h e n a w i f e w h o h a s o b t a i n e d a n e x p a r t e d i v o r c e a b r o a d s h o u l d b e a b l e t o g e t m a i n t e n a n c e i n C a n a d a , f o r - 163 -e x a m p l e , w h e n t h e f o r e i g n c o u r t d i d n o t h a v e j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e h u s b a n d 30 t o a w a r d m a i n t e n a n c e , a n d t h e C a n a d i a n c o u r t d o e s h a v e s u c h j u r i s d i c t i o n . W h e r e b o t h p a r t i e s a p p e a r e d i n t h e f o r e i g n p r o c e e d i n g s , t h e r e may a l s o b e s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h a s p o u s e o u g h t t o b e a b l e t o c l a i m m a i n t e n a n c e i n l a t e r C a n a d i a n p r o c e e d i n g s , f o r e x a m p l e , w h e n a w i f e m e r e l y e n t e r e d a 3 1 f o r m a l a p p e a r a n c e i n t h e f o r e i g n p r o c e e d i n g s a n d t o o k n o a c t i v e p a r t , o r w h e n t h e w i f e a p p e a r e d m e r e l y t o c o n t e s t t h e f o r e i g n j u r i s d i c t i o n . W h e r e c i r c u m s t a n c e s h a v e c h a n g e d s i n c e t h e f o r e i g n d i v o r c e w a s o b t a i n e d , t h e r e m a y b e a c a s e f o r a w a r d i n g m a i n t e n a n c e i n C a n a d i a n p r o -32 c e e d i n g s . To t a k e t h e f a c t s o f G o l d s t e i n v G o l d s t e i n ( a d o m e s t i c d i v o r c e c a s e ) t h e e x - w i f e may h a v e b e c o m e c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s a b l e t o m a i n t a i n h e r s e l f s i n c e t h e t i m e o f t h e d i v o r c e , w h e r e a s t h e e x - h u s b a n d m a y h a v e p r o s p e r e d s i n c e t h a t t i m e . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e m a y b e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h m a i n t e n a n c e a f t e r a f o r e i g n d i v o r c e o u g h t n o t t o b e a w a r d e d , f o r e x a m p l e , w h e n t h e p a r t i e s a g r e e d b e t w e e n t h e m s e l v e s f o r a m o n e t a r y c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t o n e s p o u s e s h o u l d n o t 3 3 t h e r e a f t e r b e l i a b l e t o m a i n t a i n t h e o t h e r . I t m a y a l s o b e i n e q u i t a b l e t o a w a r d m a i n t e n a n c e t o a n e x - s p o u s e m a n y y e a r s a f t e r t h e f o r e i g n d i v o r c e w a s g r a n t e d , i f t h e r e h a s b e e n n o c o n t a c t b e t w e e n t h e e x - s p o u s e s d u r i n g t h e 3 4 y e a r s ; t h e p a y e e m a y h a v e t a k e n o n n e w r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t h i s l i a b i l i t y t o w a r d s t h e e x - s p o u s e h a d e n d e d . S i n c e t h e c o u r t s a r e a l r e a d y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s e t y p e s o f s i t u a t i o n s i n d o m e s t i c d i v o r c e c a s e s , t h e r e s h o u l d b e n o d i f f i c u l t y i n a p p l y i n g e x i s t i n g p r i n c i p l e s t o f o r e i g n d i v o r c e 35 c a s e s . T h u s , i t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t t h e r e o u g h t t o b e p r o v i s i o n s e n a b l i n g a s p o u s e t o o b t a i n m a i n t e n a n c e i n C a n a d a a f t e r a r e c o g n i z e d f o r e i g n d i v o r c e , r e g a r d l e s s - 1 6 4 -o f who t o o k p a r t i n t h e f o r e i g n p r o c e e d i n g s . H o w e v e r , w h e t h e r o r n o t t o a w a r d m a i n t e n a n c e s h o u l d b e l e f t t o t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e c o u r t , h a v i n g r e g a r d t o t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f e a c h c a s e , d . J u r i s d i c t i o n I f p r o v i s i o n i s made e n a b l i n g a n e x - s p o u s e t o c l a i m m a i n t e n a n c e i n C a n a d a a f t e r a f o r e i g n d i v o r c e , s h o u l d t h e r e b e a j u r i s d i c t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t ? T h e r e a r e f o u r a l t e r n a t i v e s h e r e : 3 6 1 . t o u s e t h e same j u r i s d i c t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t a s f o r d i v o r c e i t s e l f ; 2 . t o h a v e n o j u r i s d i c t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t a t a l l ; 3 . t o l e a v e t h e m a t t e r t o t h e o r d i n a r y i n p e r s o n a m j u r i s d i c t i o n r u l e s o f e a c h p r o v i n c e . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r e x a m p l e , t h i s m e a n s t o h a v e n o j u r i s d i c t i o n a l r u l e s , b e c a u s e s e r v i c e 3 7 o u t o f p r o v i n c e i s p e r m i t t e d i n a l l m a t r i m o n i a l a c t i o n s ; 4 . t o h a v e a s e p a r a t e j u r i s d i c t i o n a l t e s t i n " d i v i s i b l e d i v o r c e " c a s e s . I t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e ( 1 ) a b o v e w o u l d n o t b e d e s i r a b l e s i n c e t h e r e q u i r e m e n t , u n d e r c u r r e n t C a n a d i a n L a w , w o u l d b e f o r t h e p e t i t i o n e r t o b e d o m i c i l e d i n C a n a d a , c o u p l e d w i t h o r d i n a r y r e s i d e n c e o f t h e p e t i t i o n e r o r r e s p o n d e n t f o r a t l e a s t o n e y e a r i n t h e p r o v i n c e i n 38 w h i c h t h e a c t i o n i s b r o u g h t . C l e a r l y , t h e r e i s n o j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s i n a m a i n t e n a n c e a c t i o n w h i c h d o e s n o t a f f e c t t h e s t a t u s o f t h e p a r t i e s . A s s u m i n g , f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t t h e r e a r e d i v i s i b l e d i v o r c e p r o v i s i o n s i n C a n a d a , H g o e s t o l i v e i n C a l i f o r n i a , l e a v i n g W a n d h i s c h i l d r e n i n A l b e r t a . H a v i n g e s t a b l i s h e d a " r e a l a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n " , H 3 9 o b t a i n s a d i v o r c e i n C a l i f o r n i a w h i c h i s r e c o g n i z e d i n C a n a d a . W h a s - 165 -j u s t m o v e d t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d w i s h e s t o o b t a i n f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f r o m 3 9 A H . E v e n i f t h e s u g g e s t e d d i v o r c e j u r i s d i c t i o n r u l e s w e r e a d o p t e d , t h e w i f e w o u l d h a v e t o w a i t a t l e a s t o n e y e a r b e f o r e s h e c o u l d m a i n t a i n s u c h a n a c t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B u t h a d s h e r e m a i n e d i n A l b e r t a , s h e w o u l d h a v e b e e n e l i g i b l e t o c l a i m f o r m a i n t e n a n c e i m m e d i a t e l y . To t a k e a n o t h e r e x a m p l e : t h e w i f e i s n o t d o m i c i l e d i n C a n a d a b u t h e r h u s b a n d i s a C a n a d i a n d o m i c i l i a r y a n d r e s i d e n t . U n d e r t h e e x i s t i n g d i v o r c e j u r i s d i c t i o n r u l e s t h e w i f e w o u l d n o t b e a b l e t o o b t a i n m a i n t e n a n c e f r o m h e r h u s b a n d a f t e r a f o r e i g n d i v o r c e 4 0 b e c a u s e t h e r e q u i r e m e n t i s f o r t h e p e t i t i o n e r t o b e d o m i c i l e d i n C a n a d a . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e w o u l d b e l i t t l e p o i n t i n b r i n g i n g a n a c t i o n f o r m a i n t e n a n c e i n C a n a d a u n l e s s t h e o r d e r w o u l d b e e n f o r c e a b l e a g a i n s t t h e d e f e n d a n t ( u s u a l l y t h e h u s b a n d ) . A p e r s o n a l j u d g m e n t i s e n f o r c e a b l e a g a i n s t t h e d e f e n d a n t i f t h e c o u r t r e n d e r i n g t h e j u d g m e n t h a d j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r 4 1 t h e d e f e n d a n t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r u l e s o f t h e e n f o r c i n g c o u r t . One o f t h e m o s t common g r o u n d s f o r e n f o r c i n g a j u d g m e n t i n p e r s o n a m i s r e s i d e n c e o f t h e d e f e n d a n t w i t h i n t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e c o u r t w h e n n o t i c e o f p r o c e e d i n g s w a s 4 2 s e r v e d o n h i m . T h u s , t h e r e i s l i t t l e e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o b r i n g a m a i n t e n a n c e a c t i o n h e r e u n l e s s t h e d e f e n d a n t ( h u s b a n d ) i s r e s i d e n t i n a p r o v i n c e o f C a n a d a . H o w e v e r , w e r e a " d i v i s i b l e d i v o r c e " p r o v i s i o n i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e 4 3 D i v o r c e A c t , a n o r d e r f o r m a i n t e n a n c e w o u l d b e e n f o r c e a b l e a c r o s s C a n a d a . S h o u l d t h e r e b e a p r o v i n c i a l r e s i d e n c e r e q u i r e m e n t ? I t seems t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d . T a k e t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e : t h e s p o u s e s w e r e l i v i n g i n W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e , b u t w h e n t h e y s p l i t u p t h e h u s b a n d r e t u r n e d t o h i s n a t i v e O n t a r i o . T h e w i f e t h e n o b t a i n s a d i v o r c e i n W a s h i n g t o n b u t n o p r o v i s i o n f o r m a i n t e n a n c e i s m a d e b e c a u s e t h e W a s h i n g t o n c o u r t d i d n o t h a v e j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e - 166 -h u s b a n d . I f t h e r e w e r e n o p r o v i n c i a l r e s i d e n c e r e q u i r e m e n t , t h e e x - w i f e w o u l d b e a b l e t o c l a i m m a i n t e n a n c e u n d e r t h e D i v o r c e A c t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a p r o v i n c e w i t h w h i c h t h e r e h a s n e v e r b e e n a n y c o n n e c t i o n , a n d h a v e t h e o r d e r e n f o r c e d a g a i n s t t h e h u s b a n d i n O n t a r i o . T h i s h a r d l y seems f a i r t o t h e h u s b a n d . I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n t h e w i f e s h o u l d b e r e q u i r e d t o b r i n g t h e a c t i o n i n O n t a r i o , t h e p r o v i n c e o f t h e d e f e n d a n t h u s b a n d ' s r e s i d e n c e , s o t h a t h e may h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e f e n d t h e c a s e w i t h o u t t h e i n c o n v e n i e n c e o f t r a v e l l i n g t o t h e W e s t C o a s t o f C a n a d a . F o r t h i s r e a s o n i t i s s u b m i t t e d t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e s ( 2 ) a n d ( 3 ) a b o v e a r e u n a c c e p t a b l e , a n d t h a t a s e p a r a t e j u r i s d i c t i o n a l t e s t o f p r o v i n c i a l r e s i d e n c e m a y b e j u s t i f i e d i n d i v i s i b l e d i v o r c e c a s e s . S h o u l d t h e r e s i d e n t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t b e l i m i t e d t o r e s i d e n c e o f t h e d e f e n d a n t ? I t seems n o t . W h a t i f t h e c l a i m a n t w i f e i s a l s o a r e s i d e n t i n a p r o v i n c e o f C a n a d a ? I f t h e s o l e c r i t e r i o n w e r e r e s i d e n c e o f t h e d e f e n d a n t ( u s u a l l y t h e e x - h u s b a n d ) , t h e n j u r i s d i c t i o n w o u l d b e d e p e n d e n t o n t h e w h i m o f t h e e x - h u s b a n d - h e c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y m o v e f r o m p r o v i n c e t o p r o v i n c e t o t h w a r t h i s e x - w i f e ' s a t t e m p t s t o o b t a i n s u p p o r t . I f t h e e x - w i f e i s a C a n a d i a n r e s i d e n t t h e r e seems t o b e n o r e a s o n t o d e