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The Rotterdam convention on hazardous chemicals and pesticides : a meaningful step towards environmental… Barrios, Paula 2003

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THE ROTTERDAM CONVENTION ON HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS AND PESTICIDES: A MEANINGFUL STEP TOWARDS ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION? by PAULA BARRIOS LL.B, University of Los Andes, 2000 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF LAWS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES FACULTY OF LAW We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  Professor Karin Mickelson, Faculty of Law  Professor o T a v Slaymaker, department of Geography \  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 2003 © Paula Barrios 2003  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in partial f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s for a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e at t h e U n i v e r s i t y of British C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e it freely a v a i l a b l e for r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n for e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s for s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s m a y be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d of m y d e p a r t m e n t or by his or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It is u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s for f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n permission.  Maria Paula Barrios  F a c u l t y of Law T h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Vancouver, Canada  August 29, 2003  Abstract T h e e x p o r t of c h e m i c a l s t h a t a r e b a n n e d or s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d for d o m e s t i c u s e in t h e e x p o r t i n g c o u n t r y for r e a s o n s of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t o r h e a l t h is still a c o m m o n These  double  standards  have  allowed  pesticide  manufacturers  to  export  practice. hazardous  p e s t i c i d e s to d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , w h i c h h a v e l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y to m a n a g e t h e m in a s a f e m a n n e r . T h e c o n s e q u e n c e s a r e not s u r p r i s i n g . It is e s t i m a t e d , for i n s t a n c e , t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y of p e s t i c i d e s a r e a p p l i e d in i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s , t h e m a j o r i t y of p o i s o n i n g s a n d d e a t h s a r i s i n g f r o m p e s t i c i d e u s e o c c u r in t h e d e v e l o p i n g w o r l d .  In  1 9 9 8 , t h e R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n w a s a d o p t e d to d e a l w i t h t h i s a n d o t h e r  p r o b l e m s . T h e t r e a t y , not y e t  in f o r c e , e s s e n t i a l l y c o n v e r t e d  a voluntary  related  system  of  i n f o r m a t i o n e x c h a n g e a n d prior i n f o r m e d c o n s e n t (PIC) into a l e g a l l y b i n d i n g p r o c e d u r e . T h i s t h e s i s u n d e r t a k e s a critical e v a l u a t i o n of t h e R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n . It a r g u e s t h a t t h e t r e a t y is f u n d a m e n t a l l y f l a w e d , a s it d o e s not a d d r e s s s o m e of t h e e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t s upon which  a s u c c e s s f u l PIC s y s t e m d e p e n d s . F u r t h e r m o r e ,  b e c a u s e it is l i m i t e d  to  i n f o r m a t i o n e x c h a n g e a n d P I C , the c o n v e n t i o n m a y well be insufficient to d e a l w i t h t h e p r o b l e m s p e r t a i n i n g to h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s in a n effective m a n n e r .  In o r d e r to s u b s t a n t i a t e t h a t a s s e r t i o n , the t h e s i s c o n s i d e r s t h e c o n t e x t transfer  of  hazardous  chemicals  occurs, and  the  challenges  facing  in w h i c h  the  the  Rotterdam  C o n v e n t i o n . It d e s c r i b e s t h e n a t u r e of t h e s u b s t a n c e s b e i n g t r a d e d , a n d e x p l o r e s t h e pesticides market.  It a l s o c o n s i d e r s the c o n t e x t  in w h i c h t h e N o r t h - S o u t h t r a n s f e r  of  h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s d e v e l o p s , a n d a r g u e s t h a t it is p r i m a r i l y a n e t h i c a l q u e s t i o n . A s a result,  it s t u d i e s the  m o r a l a n d legal p r i n c i p l e s t h a t a p p l y to t h a t t r a n s f e r ,  and  the  i m p l i c a t i o n s of fully i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e m in the R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n . T h e n , it u n d e r t a k e s a  critical  evaluation  of t h e  convention's  main  provisions,  considering  the  voluntary  i n s t r u m e n t s t h a t s e r v e d a s its b a s e . L a s t l y , it s u g g e s t s s o m e m e a s u r e s t h a t c o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d into t h e c o n v e n t i o n for a m o r e s u c c e s s f u l PIC p r o c e d u r e . H o w e v e r , it w a r n s t h a t a s y s t e m of PIC m a y not t h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e w a y of d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p e r t a i n i n g to h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d p e s t i c i d e s .  problems  T a b l e of C o n t e n t s Abstract Table of Contents Acronyms Dedication Acknowledgments  ii Ni v vi vii  Chapter One: Introduction  1  Chapter Two: Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides: Understanding the Problem 2.1. Introduction  10  2.2. Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides: Why regulate them? 2.2.1. Industrial chemicals 2.2.2. Pesticides and Pesticide Formulations: 2.2.2.1. Impact of hazardous pesticides on human health 2.2.2.2. Impact of hazardous pesticides on the environment 2.2.2.3. The circle of poison: a concern of the North  11 12 14 15 19 21  2.3. Northern legislation regulating the export of hazardous chemicals 2.3.1. The European Union 2.3.2. Switzerland 2.3.3. The United States 2.3.4. Justifications to maintain pesticide export double standards  23 24 25 26 27  2.4. The Global Pesticides Market 2.4.1. Production of hazardous pesticides 2.4.1.1. China 2.4.1.2. India 2.4.1.3. Brazil  29 31 32 33 34  2.4.2. Northern Agrochemical Giants: Looking toward the South 2.4.2.1. Bayer (Germany) 2.4.2.2. Syngenta (Switzerland) 2.4.2.3. BASF (Germany) 2.4.2.4. Dow Agrosciences (U.S.) 2.4.2.5. Monsanto (U.S.) 2.4.2.6. DuPont (U.S.) 2.5. Conclusion  35 35 36 37 38 38 39 39  Chapter Three: The North, the South, and Trade in Hazardous Chemicals: Ethical Dilemmas 3.1. Introduction  40  3.2. North-South disparities: hazardous substances trade in a divided world 3.2.1. The World Trade Organisation 3.2.2. Financial Institutions: the World Bank and the IMF  42 44 46  3.3. International trade, environmental protection and hazardous substances 3.3.1. Hazardous Chemicals and the World Trade Organisation 3.3.1.1. The Multilateral Trading System and Environmental Protection 3.3.1.2. How the WTO Promotes Trade in Hazardous Pesticides 3.3.2. Financial Institutions and Trade in Hazardous Chemicals  49 51 52 55 57  3.4. The North-South Transfer of Hazardous Substances: Ethical Dilemmas  59  3.4.1. The principle of State responsibility for transboundary harm  60  3.4.2. The principle of international environmental equity 3.4.2.1. Promoting human rights 3.4.2.2. Treating others as ends: Kant's Categorical Imperative 3.4.2.3. Maximizing human happiness 3.4.2.4. Common but differentiated responsibilities  63 64 66 67 68  3.4.3. Implications of the principles of state responsibility and environmental equity for the treaties dealing with hazardous chemicals and wastes  74  Chapter Four: The Rotterdam Convention: A Modest Starting Point 4.1. Introduction  78  4.2. The voluntary PIC system: Code of Conduct and London Guidelines 4 . 2 . 1 . UNEP London Guidelines (as Amended in 1989) 4.2.2. The FAO Code of Conduct (as amended in 1989)  79 84 85  4.3. The Rotterdam Negotiations 4.3.1. Antecedents 4.3.2. The Negotiations: the opinion of the Group of Experts on PIC  86 86 89  4.4. The Rotterdam Convention 4 . 4 . 1 . Information exchange, export notification and PIC procedure 4.4.2. Chemicals covered by PIC and export notification under Rotterdam 4.4.2.1. Severely hazardous pesticide formulations 4.4.2.2. Banned and Severely Restricted Chemicals 4.4.2.3. Never registered chemicals 4.4.3. Labelling requirements 4.4.4. International cooperation and assistance 4.4.5. Compliance  95 95 98 98 99 101 101 103 104  4.5. Will a binding PIC make a difference?  104  Chapter Five: Protecting Health and the Environment from Hazardous Substances: How and to What Extent Could Rotterdam Contribute? 5.1. Introduction  111  5.2. Towards a successful PIC system 5.2.1. Training and technical support to developing countries 5.2.1.1. Specific obligations for capacity building activities in the South 5.2.1.2. Regional centres for training and assistance 5.2.1.2.1. Regional Centres of the Basel Convention 5.2.1.2.2. Regional Centres under the Rotterdam Convention 5.2.3. Creation of a financial mechanism for capacity building activities  112 112 113 115 115 117 118  5.2.2. Trade with non-Parties: promoting participation of all exporting countries  120  5.3. Trade in hazardous chemicals and the environment: mutually supportive? 122  Bibliography  5.3.1. Trade and environment in the Stockholm and Basel conventions  125  5.3.2. Conclusion  130 133  Acronyms  COP DNA ENB EC EPA EU FAO FDA FIFRA GATT GC GEF GIFAP GNP G-77 IFCS INC IRPTC NGO ODA OECD PAN PANNA PAN UK PIC POPs TSCA UNDP UNEP UNGA WHO WTO  C o n f e r e n c e of the P a r t i e s D e s i g n a t e d N a t i o n a l A u t h o r i t y (for PIC) E a r t h N e g o t i a t i o n s Bulletin European Community Environmental Protection A g e n c y (U.S.) European Union Food a n d A g r i c u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s Food a n d D r u g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( U . S . ) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (U.S.) G e n e r a l A g r e e m e n t o n Tariffs a n d T r a d e G o v e r n i n g C o u n c i l ( e . g . of U N E P ) G l o b a l E n v i r o n m e n t Facility G r o u p e m e n t I n t e r n a t i o n a l d e s A s s o c i a t i o n s de F a b r i c a n t s de P r o d u i t s A g r o c h i m i q u e s (now Croplife International) Gross National Product G r o u p of 77 ( d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s ) Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e g i s t e r of P o t e n t i a l l y T o x i c C h e m i c a l s ( n o w U N E P C h e m i c a l s ) nongovernmental organisation Official D e v e l o p m e n t A s s i s t a n c e O r g a n i z a t i o n for E c o n o m i c C o - o p e r a t i o n a n d D e v e l o p m e n t Pesticide Action Network Pesticide Action Network North A m e r i c a Pesticide Action Network United Kingdom Prior I n f o r m e d C o n s e n t Persistent Organic Pollutants Toxic Substances Control Act (U.S.) United Nations Development Programme United Nations Environment Programme United Nations General A s s e m b l y World Health Organization World Trade Organization  To my mother  Acknowledgments  First a n d f o r e m o s t , I w o u l d like to t h a n k inspiration  and constant support.  P r o f e s s o r K a r i n M i c k e l s o n for h e r d i r e c t i o n ,  Her valuable c o m m e n t s and  ideas are very  much  reflected o n t h i s t h e s i s . I w o u l d a l s o like to t h a n k P r o f e s s o r O l a v S l a y m a k e r , f r o m t h e D e p a r t m e n t of G e o g r a p h y , for his o b s e r v a t i o n s , i d e a s a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t . His v i s i o n a n d e x p e r i e n c e in t h e fields of s c i e n c e a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l e t h i c s e n r i c h e d w h a t I i n t e n d e d to be a m u l t i f a c e t e d a n a l y s i s . L a s t l y , I w o u l d like to t h a n k P r o f e s s o r P e t e r D a u v e r g n e , f r o m t h e D e p a r t m e n t of Political S c i e n c e , for his i n c i s i v e r e m a r k s o n o n e of m y c h a p t e r s , a n d Miki F a b r y for his helpful c o m m e n t s a n d c o n t i n u o u s s u p p o r t .  The Rotterdam Convention on Hazardous Chemicals: A Meaningful Step Towards Environmental Protection? Chapter One  During the  last t h r e e d e c a d e s , t h e  production  of c h e m i c a l s i n c r e a s e d s p e c t a c u l a r l y .  1  R e a l i s i n g t h a t s o m e of t h e s e s u b s t a n c e s p o s e s e r i o u s t h r e a t s to t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a n d to h u m a n h e a l t h , g o v e r n m e n t s in m o s t i n d u s t r i a l i s e d c o u n t r i e s d e c i d e d to p r o m u l g a t e s t r i c t regulations dealing with their registration, testing, production, distribution and s a l e .  2  In  a d d i t i o n , s e v e r a l h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s w e r e b a n n e d or s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d for d o m e s t i c u s e . H o w e v e r , t h e s e s u b s t a n c e s c o u l d be e x p o r t e d to o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , a s r e g u l a t i o n s w e r e s i l e n t or l e n i e n t w i t h r e g a r d to e x p o r t s .  Developing  countries were  3  and continue  to  be a f a v o u r e d  destination  of  hazardous  c h e m i c a l s , s i n c e t h e y a r e less a w a r e of t h e r i s k s i n v o l v e d a n d t h e y o f t e n d e p e n d o n t h e m to  earn  foreign  currencies (e.g. the  u s e of  low-priced  p e s t i c i d e s to  sustain  export  a g r i c u l t u r e ) o r to c o n t r o l v e c t o r - b o r n e d i s e a s e s ( e . g . m a l a r i a a n d y e l l o w f e v e r ) . H o w e v e r , t h e s e c o u n t r i e s u s u a l l y lack a p p r o p r i a t e e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e g u l a t i o n s to d e a l w i t h h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s , a n d w h e n t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s e x i s t , t h e r e is v e r y l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y to e n f o r c e them.  D e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s a l s o g e n e r a l l y lack t h e a b i l i t y  and the infrastructure  to  h a n d l e t h e s e m a t e r i a l s in a n e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y s o u n d m a n n e r ( i . e . , in a w a y t h a t p r o t e c t s t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a n d h u m a n h e a l t h f r o m t h e i r n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s ) . A s a r e s u l t , t h e e x p o r t of  In 1982 there were around 60,000 chemicals on the market, and production of synthetic materials had increased some 350 times since 1940. In the 1990s the number was 100,000, with some 1,000 substances becoming available every year. Mostafa Tolba & Osama A. El-Kholy, eds., The World Environment 1972-1992. Two Decades of Challenge, 1 ed. (London, New York: Chapman & Hall on behalf of UNEP, 1992) at 249. See also UNEP Chemicals, Introduction to the Rotterdam Convention, UN doc. UNEP/Chemicals/98/17 (January 1999). This raised the costs of producing and registering chemicals. The costs of developing and marketing a new insecticide are, for instance, around US $75 million, due partly to strict registration requirements. See Helmut F. Van Emden & David B. Peakall, Beyond Silent Spring: Integrated Pest Management and Chemical Safety, 1 ed. (London; New York: Chapman & Hall, 1996) at 62. In the United States, the export of banned or never registered pesticides to other countries is permitted as long as the foreign purchaser signs a statement acknowledging that he understands that the pesticide is not registered for use in the U.S. The US Environmental Protection Agency strengthened the notification and labelling requirements in its Export Policy 1993, but U.S. companies can still produce and export unregistered pesticides to any country, as long as they are labelled "unregistered" and the importer is notified of this classification. [See Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), 7 U.S.C. § 136 et seq. (1996), at § 136o.]. In the European Union, Council Regulation EEC No. 2455/92 allowed the export of pesticides that were banned or severely restricted within the EC to other states, as long as the exporter complied with certain requirements such as prior notification and consent by the importer and acceptable standards of packaging and labelling. (EC, Council Regulation 2455/92 of 23 July 1992 concerning the export and import of certain dangerous chemicals [1992] O.J. L. 251/13. The regulation was recently replaced by Regulation 304/2003 (EC, st  2  st  3  Regulation  304/2003  of the  European  Parliament  and  of the  Council  of 28  January  2003  concerning  the  export  [2003] O.J. L. 063/1), which implements the Rotterdam Convention within the EU. For further details see section 2.3. in Chapter 2.  and  import  of dangerous  chemicals,  h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s to t h e s e c o u n t r i e s p o s e s a s e r i o u s t h r e a t to h u m a n h e a l t h a n d to the environment.  The most alarming  f a r m e r s in t h e S o u t h .  4  figures  involve the  u s e of h a z a r d o u s p e s t i c i d e s  by  R e v i e w s of h o s p i t a l d a t a f r o m the W H O , w h i c h r e c o r d o n l y  the  gravest cases, indicate that there are about 1 million accidental poisonings and 2 0 , 0 0 0 deaths  due  to  pesticides every  year,  primarily  in d e v e l o p i n g  countries.  s u r v e y s , for t h e i r part, s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e c o u l d be a s m a n y a s 2 5 m i l l i o n  Agricultural agricultural  w o r k e r s in t h e d e v e l o p i n g w o r l d suffering f r o m a n e p i s o d e of p e s t i c i d e p o i s o n i n g e a c h y e a r . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e is e v i d e n c e t h a t p e s t i c i d e s b a n n e d in d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s  may  r e t u r n to t h e m in t h e f o r m of r e s i d u e s in food i m p o r t e d f r o m the d e v e l o p i n g w o r l d . T h i s p h e n o m e n o n is k n o w n a s t h e ' c i r c l e of p o i s o n . '  5  T h e s e a n d o t h e r p r o b l e m s p r o m p t e d a global r e s p o n s e to deal w i t h t r a d e in h a z a r d o u s chemicals between reaction  developed and developing  of s t a t e s w a s to  adopt two  voluntary  countries  in the  instruments  late  1980s. The  that created a system  i n f o r m a t i o n e x c h a n g e o n h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d p e s t i c i d e s . T h e y are the C o d e of C o n d u c t on t h e D i s t r i b u t i o n  initial of  International  a n d U s e of P e s t i c i d e s , a d o p t e d by the Food a n d  A g r i c u l t u r e O r g a n i s a t i o n of the United N a t i o n s ( F A O ) in 1 9 8 5 , a n d t h e L o n d o n G u i d e l i n e s for t h e E x c h a n g e of I n f o r m a t i o n on C h e m i c a l s in I n t e r n a t i o n a l United Nations Environment  P r o g r a m m e ( U N E P ) in 1 9 8 7 . In  T r a d e , a d o p t e d by the  1 9 8 9 , the prior  informed  c o n s e n t (PIC) p r o c e d u r e w a s i n t r o d u c e d into both i n s t r u m e n t s , d u e to t h e p r e s s u r e e x e r t e d by d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s a n d by e n v i r o n m e n t a l  n o n g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i s a t i o n s . T h e PIC  p r o c e d u r e w a s i n t e n d e d to g i v e i m p o r t i n g c o u n t r i e s the o p p o r t u n i t y to refuse f u t u r e i m p o r t s of a n u m b e r of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s t h a t had b e e n b a n n e d or s e v e r e l y restricted in o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . In  1 9 9 8 , the v o l u n t a r y  PIC s y s t e m w a s t r a n s f o r m e d  into a legally  binding  i n s t r u m e n t , w i t h the a d o p t i o n of t h e R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n o n t h e P r i o r I n f o r m e d C o n s e n t P r o c e d u r e for C e r t a i n H a z a r d o u s C h e m i c a l s a n d P e s t i c i d e s in I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Trade. The  t r e a t y is not y e t in f o r c e , a n d it w a s a g r e e d t h a t t h e v o l u n t a r y s y s t e m w o u l d c o n t i n u e to 6  o p e r a t e o n a n i n t e r i m b a s i s , after u n d e r g o i n g s o m e a d j u s t m e n t s t h a t put it in line w i t h the convention's provisions.  7  While the word 'South' refers to the developing and less developed countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America, the word 'North' encompasses the industrialized nations of Europe, Japan, North America and Australasia. For further details see section 3.2. in Chapter 3. For further details on the health and environmental effects of hazardous chemicals see Chapter 2. As of August 2003, the Rotterdam Convention had 73 signatories and 46 parties. 50 ratifications are needed for the treaty to enter into force, online: <http://www.pic.int> (last visited 24 August 2003). Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Convention of the PIC Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade, Rotterdam 10-11 September 1998, Resolution on Interim Arrangements, Annex I, doc. UNEP/FAO/PIC/CONF/5 (1998) [Hereinafter Resolution on Interim Arrangements] at 9. 5  6  7  The  purpose  of  this  thesis  is to  undertake  a  critical  evaluation  of  the  Rotterdam  C o n v e n t i o n . Its c e n t r a l a r g u m e n t is t h a t t h e t r e a t y is f u n d a m e n t a l l y f l a w e d , a n d t h a t it will not a d e q u a t e l y r e s p o n d to the p r o b l e m s a n d c h a l l e n g e s it is i n t e n d e d to a d d r e s s . T h i s is not o n l y b e c a u s e it v i r t u a l l y r e p r o d u c e d t h e v o l u n t a r y PIC s y s t e m w i t h o u t  introducing  m u c h n e e d e d p r o v i s i o n s o n t e s t i n g , m a n a g e m e n t a n d p r o d u c t i o n of c h e m i c a l s , but a l s o b e c a u s e it d o e s not f e a t u r e s o m e of t h e e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t s u p o n w h i c h a s u c c e s s f u l PIC s y s t e m d e p e n d s . Its differences  m o s t n o t a b l e d e f i c i e n c y is t h a t it fails to t r u l y a c k n o w l e d g e  between developed and developing countries. Thus, although  the  it s e e m s to  r e c o g n i s e t h e lack of c a p a c i t y of d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s to m a n a g e h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d to i m p l e m e n t information  its p r o v i s i o n s , it reflects in p r a c t i c e t h e  will by itself i m p r o v e  mistaken assumption  that capacity. Yet, the experience gained with  that the  v o l u n t a r y s y s t e m r e v e a l s t h a t e n h a n c i n g t h e ability of d e v e l o p i n g s t a t e s to a n a l y s e d a t a on c h e m i c a l s , to test c h e m i c a l s u n d e r t h e i r o w n c o n d i t i o n s , to d o c u m e n t  and  report  p o i s o n i n g i n c i d e n t s , a n d g e n e r a l l y to s a f e l y m a n a g e h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s , is e s s e n t i a l for t h e s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the PIC p r o c e d u r e .  A l t h o u g h t h e c e n t r a l s u b j e c t of t h i s a n a l y s i s is t h e R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n , t w o  multilateral  t r e a t i e s t h a t a r e c o n n e c t e d to it are a l s o c o n s i d e r e d , to t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y a s s i s t in t h e e v a l u a t i o n of t h e c o n v e n t i o n . T h e s e t r e a t i e s a r e e x a m i n e d , in p a r t i c u l a r , in t h e s t u d y of t h e u n d e r l y i n g c a u s e s of t h e p r o b l e m , a n d of t h e p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s t h a t c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e to a c h i e v e s o m e p r o g r e s s in t h e a r e a of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s m a n a g e m e n t . T h e y a r e the B a s e l C o n v e n t i o n o n the C o n t r o l of T r a n s b o u n d a r y M o v e m e n t s of H a z a r d o u s W a s t e s a n d t h e i r D i s p o s a l ( a d o p t e d in M a r c h 1 9 8 9 a n d in force s i n c e M a y 1 9 9 2 ) , Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (adopted While  the  wastes,  10  Basel  Convention  s e e k s to  control  the  8  and the Stockholm  in M a y 2 0 0 1 , not y e t in f o r c e ) . international  the S t o c k h o l m C o n v e n t i o n d e a l s w i t h persistent  organic  trade pollutants  of  9  hazardous (hereinafter  In the late 1980s, and encouraged by several scandals involving the dumping of hazardous wastes in the South by industrialised countries, a coalition of developing countries (led by African states) and nongovernmental organisations lobbied UNEP's Governing Council to negotiate an international legally binding instrument dealing with the international trade of hazardous wastes, which resulted in the adoption of the 'Basel Convention on the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal' in 1989. For a review of the Basel negotiations see Jennifer Clapp, Toxic Exports. The Transfer of Hazardous Wastes from Rich to Poor Countries (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001) at 38-44 [Clapp, "Toxic Exports"], and Pamela S. Chasek, Earth Negotiations. Analyzing Thirty Years of Environmental Diplomacy (Tokyo; New York: United Nations University Press, 2000) at 110-116. As of June 2003, the Basel Convention had 158 parties. The only signatories that are not parties to the treaty yet are the U.S.A, Afghanistan, and Haiti, online <http://www.basel.int> (last visited 24 August 2003). As of 22 August 2003, the Stockholm Convention had 151 signatories and 35 parties. 50 ratifications are needed for the treaty to enter into force, online <http://www.pops.int> (last visited 24 August 2003). Although there is no legal definition of 'hazardous wastes,' they can be defined as those substances that require special technologically advanced methods of disposal to render them harmless or less dangerous because of the threat they pose to human health and the environment. They are generated in manufacturing processes, the chemical industry, the petroleum industry and other industrial sectors. Some examples include  9  1 0  P O P s ) , a g r o u p of c h e m i c a l s t h a t p e r s i s t in t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , b i o a c c u m u l a t e e x p o n e n t i a l l y up t h e food c h a i n ,  1 1  a n d t r a v e l long d i s t a n c e s . A s p o i n t e d o u t by U N E P , t h e s e t w o t r e a t i e s  and the Rotterdam Convention "together provide an international framework the environmentally cycles."  1 2  governing  s o u n d m a n a g e m e n t of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r  life-  A s a r e s u l t , t h e effective i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of e a c h o n e of t h e s e t r e a t i e s d e p e n d s  in part o n t h e s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n  of the o t h e r t w o . T h e r e d u c t i o n of P O P s , for  i n s t a n c e , p a r t i a l l y d e p e n d s o n t h e s o u n d m a n a g e m e n t of h a z a r d o u s w a s t e s ,  1 3  w h i c h in  t u r n p a r t i a l l y d e p e n d s o n c e r t a i n p e s t i c i d e s not b e i n g e x p o r t e d to a c o u n t r y w i t h v e r y l i m i t e d or no c a p a c i t y to d i s p o s e of t h e m o n c e t h e y e x p i r e .  1 4  T h e B a s e l C o n v e n t i o n o n h a z a r d o u s w a s t e s is t h e o n l y o n e of t h e s e t r e a t i e s t h a t is c u r r e n t l y in force (since J u n e 1 9 9 2 ) a n d , like R o t t e r d a m , it is b a s e d o n the PIC p r o c e d u r e . It a l s o d e a l s w i t h a p r o b l e m t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l y affects t h e S o u t h , w h i c h d u e to its l o w e r environmental  standards has been an appealing destination  g e n e r a t e d in t h e N o r t h .  1 5  for t h e  hazardous waste  B e c a u s e it t a k e s p l a c e u n d e r s i m i l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e N o r t h -  acids, alkalis, solvents, medical waste, sludge, resins and heavy metals. See David R. Boyd, Canada vs. the OECD: An Environmental Comparison (Victoria, B.C.: University of Victoria, Eco-Research Chair of Environmental Law & Policy, 2001) at 20. POPs resist breakdown in water but they are soluble in fatty tissue. Thus, they bioaccumulate exponentially up the food chain, reaching their greatest magnitudes in birds, mammals and humans. In addition, POPs bioconcentrate under typical environmental conditions. Bioconcentration is the process by which animals absorb high concentrations of POPs directly from the environment. See Resource Futures International, "POPs and the Stockholm Convention: A Resource Guide" (Draft), presented at the Forum "Implementing the Stockholm Convention," March 11-12, 2002 Vancouver, BC, Canada (September 2001) [unpublished] at 2. UNEP, Secretariat of the Basel Convention, Interim Secretariat of the Rotterdam Convention and Interim Secretariat of the Stockholm Convention, "The Hazardous Chemicals and Wastes Conventions" (July 2002), online <http:// www.pops.int/documents/background/hcwc.pdf> The recycling and incineration of some hazardous wastes are important sources of PCDD, PCDF, HCH and PCBs, which are all persistent organic pollutants. See Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, 22 May 2001, Doc. UNEP/POPS/CONF/2, 40 I.L.M. 532 (not in force as of 24 August 2003) [hereinafter Stockholm Convention] Annex C, Part II, online: <http://www.pops.int/documents/convtext/convtext_en.pdf>. Obsolete pesticides are wastes, and they are thus excluded from the scope of the Rotterdam Convention (Art. 2). FAO estimates that there are more than 100,000 tonnes of obsolete pesticides in developing countries, most of which are leftover from donations provided by foreign aid programmes. Among these substances are DDT, dieldrin and HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane). Due to a lack of environmentally sound disposal facilities stocks are constantly increasing, FAO has called for an urgent concerted global effort to dispose of this hazardous waste and to avoid further accumulations. FAO, Press Release, "Stocks of Obsolete Pesticides Threaten the Environment" (5 June 1996). About 95 per cent of the total annual output of hazardous waste comes from a few developed countries. Due to strict regulations on waste disposal in those countries, the export of such wastes to the developing world became an attractive option. During the 1970s and 1980s, the world learned about several toxic wastes dumps in Africa and the Caribbean, and it was found that an estimated U$3 billion worth of hazardous wastes was being exported from the industrialised world to developing countries, most of which lacked the technology or the administrative capacity to dispose of them in a safe manner. In response to this problem, the legal department of UNEP began working towards an international agreement to control the international trade of hazardous wastes in 1981. A group of experts elaborated the "Cairo Guidelines and Principles for the Environmentally Sound Management of Hazardous Wastes," which was adopted by UNEP in 1987. Subsequently, encouraged by the scandals involving the dumping of hazardous wastes in the South by industrialised countries, a coalition of developing countries (led by African states) and non-governmental organisations lobbied UNEP's Governing Council to negotiate an international legally binding instrument dealing with the international trade of hazardous wastes. Negotiations started in 1988, and culminated with the adoption of the 'Basel Convention on the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal' in 1989. See Christoph Hilz, The 1 1  1 2  1 3  1 4  1 5  S o u t h t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s w a s t e s s h e d s light on t h e c a u s e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d w i t h t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e B a s e l C o n v e n t i o n ( a n d t h e fact t h a t it h a s p r o v e n l a r g e l y insufficient to a d d r e s s t h e p r o b l e m s p o s e d by h a z a r d o u s w a s t e s d e s p i t e its c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s ) m a y p r o v i d e i n s i g h t into h o w to a d d r e s s t h e p r o b l e m of t h e t r a n s f e r of c h e m i c a l s m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y . A s for t h e S t o c k h o l m C o n v e n t i o n o n P O P s , its m o s t d i r e c t r e l a t i o n w i t h R o t t e r d a m is t h a t t h e y h a v e s e v e n s u b s t a n c e s in c o m m o n . for t h e N o r t h ,  1 7  1 6  H o w e v e r , POPs are p e r c e i v e d a s a m o r e p r e s s i n g p r o b l e m  b e c a u s e t h e y t r a v e l long d i s t a n c e s a n d t e n d to a c c u m u l a t e in c o l d r e g i o n s  a n d at high a l t i t u d e s , e . g . t h e C a n a d i a n A r c t i c . this,  1 8  O n e c o u l d a r g u e t h a t p a r t l y b e c a u s e of  t h e a p p r o a c h of t h e S t o c k h o l m C o n v e n t i o n to d e a l w i t h POPs is d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h a t  1 9  of t h e  R o t t e r d a m a n d B a s e l c o n v e n t i o n s , w h i c h s e e k to  control trade through  prior  i n f o r m e d c o n s e n t r a t h e r t h a n t h r o u g h c o n t r o l s o n t h e p r o d u c t i o n or g e n e r a t i o n of t h e substances they regulate. POPs,  aiming  at  their  2 0  B e s i d e s i n c l u d i n g p r o v i s i o n s o n t r a d e , p r o d u c t i o n a n d u s e of  ultimate  elimination, the  Stockholm Convention has valuable  p r o v i s i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h N o r t h - S o u t h d i s p a r i t i e s t h a t a r e not f e a t u r e d in e i t h e r B a s e l o r Rotterdam.  2 1  N o t a b l y , it e x p r e s s l y r e c o g n i z e s t h e d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of t h e S o u t h  Toxic Waste Trade (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1992) at 12-37; Clapp, "Toxic Exports," note 8 at 33-34; and Chasek P., supra note 8 at 110-116.  International supra 1  6  See  Rotterdam  Convention  on  the  Prior  Informed  Consent  Procedure  for  Certain  Hazardous  Chemicals  and  10 September 1998, UN Doc. UNEP/FAO/PIC/CONF/2, 38 I.L.M. 1 (1999), (not in force as of 31 August 2003) [hereinafter Rotterdam Convention], Annex III, online: <http://www.pic.int/en/ViewPage.asp?id = 104>, and Stockholm Convention, supra note 13 Annexes A and B. Although POPs are also problematic for developing countries, especially in relation to the environment, human poisonings in the South are mostly due to organophosphates and carbamate pesticides, which do not persist in the environment but are acutely toxic for humans and wildlife (See Chapter 2 for details). In addition, the fact that most POPs are inexpensive because patents no longer protect them, and that they serve important health or agricultural purposes suggests that developing countries had no wish to halt the use of these substances, unless affordable and effective alternatives were available. Mechanisms such as the "cold condenser effect" exist for intra-hemispheric distribution of POPs, such as HCB. These POPs are sourced in temperate and tropical regions, and volatilised and transferred by atmospheric movement to cold arctic regions. The major source for environmental contamination with POPs is still the Northern Hemisphere, with tropical Asia being a recent and major source. See D.W. Connell etal., "POPs in the Southern Hemisphere: Executive Summary," prepared as a Consultancy Service for the Department of Environment, Sport and Territories, Environment Protection Agency, Environment Standards Branch of Australia (June 1996), online: <http://www.chem.unep.ch/pops/indxhtms/manexpl4.html> Other factors that serve to explain the stronger measures of the POPs treaty include: the particular properties of POPs, which triggered serious concern and public attention; the limited number of POPs being initially controlled (12), which may have contributed to broad consensus on some of the most ambitious elements of the convention; many of the initial 12 POPs had already been heavily regulated in many countries and, in some cases, were no longer protected by patents. This suggests that industry did not exert such a great influence to prevent the development of strong commitments to protect the environment and human health from the risks posed by POPs. See Peter L. Lallas, "The Role of Process and Participation in the Development of Effective International Environmental Agreements: A Study of the Global Treaty on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)" (2000) 19 UCLA J. Envtl. L. & Pol'y 83. Although initially the Basel Convention only regulated the export of hazardous waste from North to South, the pressure exerted by developing countries and environmental nongovernmental organisations culminated in 1995 with the adoption of Decision III/l, which proscribes the export of hazardous wastes from the countries of Annex VII (EU members, OECD members and Liechtenstein), to Non-Annex VII countries. It is an amendment to the Convention and, as of August 2003, it had not entered into force. See note 380 and section 3.4.3. in Chapter 3. See Chapter 3 for further details.  Pesticides  1 7  1 8  1 9  2 0  2 1  in International  Trade,  a n d of t h e N o r t h in d e a l i n g w i t h P O P s , a n d p r o v i d e s t h e m e a n s to e n s u r e t h a t d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s will r e c e i v e t h e f u n d s a n d the t e c h n o l o g y t h e y r e q u i r e in o r d e r to  implement  t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s u n d e r t h e t r e a t y . In t h i s w a y , t h e S t o c k h o l m C o n v e n t i o n fills s o m e of t h e g a p s of t h e R o t t e r d a m t r e a t y in relation to t h e s u b s t a n c e s t h e y h a v e in c o m m o n . It a l s o p r o v i d e s s o m e g u i d a n c e o n h o w to b e t t e r d e a l w i t h o t h e r h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s t h a t a r e e s p e c i a l l y p r o b l e m a t i c for t h e S o u t h but are o n l y r e g u l a t e d by R o t t e r d a m b e c a u s e t h e y d o not e x h i b i t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of P O P s .  T h i s t h e s i s is d i v i d e d a s f o l l o w s . C h a p t e r 2 l o o k s at t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t m a d e a c o n v e n t i o n o n h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s n e c e s s a r y . First, it s h o w s the effects t h a t s o m e p e s t i c i d e s a n d i n d u s t r i a l c h e m i c a l s h a v e on t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a n d h u m a n h e a l t h , w i t h s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to t h e c h e m i c a l s p r e s e n t l y i n c l u d e d in t h e PIC p r o c e d u r e . T h e n , the c h a p t e r l o o k s at t h e d o m e s t i c l a w s t h a t h a v e a l l o w e d m a j o r a g r o c h e m i c a l c o m p a n i e s to e x p o r t  hazardous  c h e m i c a l s (i.e. c h e m i c a l s b a n n e d or s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d for d o m e s t i c u s e ) to d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . T h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n s r e g u l a t o r s h a v e g i v e n to s u s t a i n t h e s e d o u b l e s t a n d a r d s a r e a l s o briefly c o n s i d e r e d . L a s t l y , t h e c h a p t e r l o o k s at the g l o b a l p e s t i c i d e m a r k e t . G i v e n t h a t it is c o n t r o l l e d by s i x m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s b a s e d in t h e N o r t h , these  companies  hazardous  is p r e s e n t e d .  p e s t i c i d e s in t h e  manufacturers  in  China,  In  South  India  and  addition, by  the  chapter  multinational  Brazil,  which  l o o k s at  corporations  are  the  most  2 2  a brief profile of  the and  production by s o m e  important  of  local  Southern  markets.  C h a p t e r 3 s e t s t h e c o n t e x t in w h i c h the e x p o r t of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s f r o m d e v e l o p e d to d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s t a k e s p l a c e , t a k i n g into a c c o u n t t h e t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s w a s t e , w h i c h o c c u r s u n d e r s i m i l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . It a r g u e s t h a t t h e r e a r e e s s e n t i a l l y t w o f o r c e s facilitating  - i f not p r o m o t i n g - , t h e s e t r a n s f e r s . T h e first o n e is t h e N o r t h - S o u t h  divide  (i.e., the economic and technological gap that exists between developed and developing c o u n t r i e s ) . T h e s e c o n d o n e is e m b e d d e d in t h e p a r a d i g m t h a t is u p h e l d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t of a free m a r k e t g l o b a l i s e d e c o n o m y . T h e c h a p t e r l o o k s at t h e s e t w o f o r c e s w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t of m u l t i l a t e r a l e c o n o m i c i n s t i t u t i o n s , i.e. t h e B r e t t o n W o o d s i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d t h e W o r l d T r a d e O r g a n i z a t i o n , a s t h e y h a v e p r o m o t e d t r a d e l i b e r a l i s a t i o n at a g l o b a l s c a l e and  have  considerably  influenced,  if  not  shaped,  North-South  relations  since  their  inception. The chapter focuses on agrochemical companies because, unlike most industrial chemicals included in the PIC procedure, pesticides are still largely traded and used in agriculture and public health programmes in the South, and they pose the biggest problems due to conditions of use in those countries. 2 2  After  considering the  conditions  underlying  the t r a n s f e r  of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s  and  w a s t e s , C h a p t e r 3 l o o k s at t h e m o r a l a n d legal p r i n c i p l e s t h a t a p p l y to t h e t r e a t i e s d e a l i n g with that transfer, international  a n d the  environmental  relevance that states  h a v e g i v e n to  arena. These principles are  important  these for  at  rules in least  the three  r e a s o n s . First, b e c a u s e of t h e l i m i t e d c h o i c e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s h a v e , a n d b e c a u s e of t h e n a t u r e of t h e s u b s t a n c e s b e i n g e x p o r t e d , the d e c i s i o n of a N o r t h e r n c o m p a n y  to  e x p o r t h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s to the S o u t h ( a n d of a N o r t h e r n s t a t e to a l l o w s u c h e x p o r t s ) is u l t i m a t e l y of e t h i c a l n a t u r e . T h u s , e v e n if a c o m p a n y o v e r l o o k s m o r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w h e n d e c i d i n g to e x p o r t a d o m e s t i c a l l y b a n n e d c h e m i c a l to a c o u n t r y w i t h v e r y l i m i t e d or no c a p a c i t y to m a n a g e it, t h a t is, in itself, a n e t h i c a l c h o i c e . S e c o n d , t h e s e principles  are  included, either  implicitly  or  explicitly,  in  the  Basel,  Rotterdam  and  S t o c k h o l m c o n v e n t i o n s , w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y a r e d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e to t h e t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s . M o r e o v e r , t h e y h a v e b e e n r e c o g n i s e d by t h e m a j o r i t y of s t a t e s in t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l a r e n a , s o m e of t h e m to t h e e x t e n t of h a v i n g gained the  status  of c u s t o m a r y  international  principles would greatly contribute  law. T h i r d ,  to t h e e f f e c t i v e  if fully  protection  implemented  these  of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t  and  h u m a n health from hazardous chemicals and wastes. Along these lines, two principles and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s for t h e t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d . T h e first is the principle of s t a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t r a n s b o u n d a r y h a r m , e m b e d d e d in p r i n c i p l e s 21 of t h e S t o c k h o l m D e c l a r a t i o n ( 1 9 7 2 ) a n d 2 of the Rio D e c l a r a t i o n ( 1 9 9 2 ) . T h e s e c o n d is the principle of i n t e r n a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l e q u i t y a n d t h e r u l e s t h a t d e r i v e f r o m it, in p a r t i c u l a r the p r i n c i p l e of c o m m o n but d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s (as f o r m u l a t e d  in  principle 7 of the Rio D e c l a r a t i o n ) .  Taking  into a c c o u n t  the  context  in w h i c h  the  transfer  of  hazardous chemicals  and  p e s t i c i d e s o c c u r s , C h a p t e r 4 p r o v i d e s a critical e v a l u a t i o n of t h e R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n . First, it e x a m i n e s the o r i g i n s of t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l pesticides, the  23  r e g i m e of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d  a n d d e s c r i b e s t h e v o l u n t a r y i n s t r u m e n t s t h a t p r e c e d e d t h e c o n v e n t i o n , i.e.,  F A O C o d e of  Conduct and  UNEP's  London Guidelines.  2 4  These two  instruments  International regimes are, according to Keohane (1989) "institutions with explicit rules, agreed upon by governments, that pertain to particular sets of issues in international relations," while institutions are "persistent and connected sets of rules (formal and informal) that prescribe behavioural roles, constraint activity, and shape expectations." This means that the Rotterdam Convention, the voluntary PIC system and the principles of international environmental law analysed in Chapter 3 are part of the regime of hazardous chemicals and pesticides. See Robert O. Keohane "The Analysis of International Regimes. Towards a European-American Research Programme," in Rittberger Volker, ed. Regime Theory and International Relations (Oxford: Claredon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1993) at 28-29. For the full name of these instruments see page 2, in this chapter. 2 4  l a u n c h e d a s y s t e m of i n f o r m a t i o n e x c h a n g e o n h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s , a n d w e r e a m e n d e d in 1 9 8 9 to i n t r o d u c e t h e prior i n f o r m e d c o n s e n t (PIC) p r o c e d u r e , w h i c h is d e s c r i b e d in d e t a i l in t h e c h a p t e r . T h e n , t h e c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s a s u r v e y of t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s t h a t led to t h e a d o p t i o n of the R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e m a j o r p o i n t s of d i v e r g e n c e b e t w e e n s t a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . A brief d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e t r e a t y ' s m a i n p r o v i s i o n s f o l l o w s , t a k i n g into a c c o u n t the c o r r e s p o n d i n g p r o v i s i o n s of t h e v o l u n t a r y PIC s y s t e m . L a s t l y , in v i e w of t h e e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d w i t h t h e v o l u n t a r y e x p r e s s e d by t h e  procedure -particularly  the  opinions  F A O / U N E P J o i n t G r o u p of E x p e r t s on P I C - t h e c h a p t e r reflects  whether the Rotterdam Convention enhanced the voluntary  s y s t e m in a n y  w a y . T h e c o n c l u s i o n of the a n a l y s i s is t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t i m p r o v e m e n t s w e r e  on  meaningful introduced  into t h e c o n v e n t i o n , a n d t h a t e v e n by its o w n s t a n d a r d s ( i . e . , c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t it s e e k s to improve  the  environment  and  human  health through  information  exchange and  not  t h r o u g h t h e s a f e m a n a g e m e n t of c h e m i c a l s ) the t r e a t y is f u n d a m e n t a l l y f l a w e d . T h i s is b e c a u s e it d o e s not a d e q u a t e l y a d d r e s s the v e r y l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y of d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s to e f f e c t i v e l y i m p l e m e n t its p r o v i s i o n s . T h u s , it m a k e s a p r o c e d u r e m a n d a t o r y  without  p r o v i d i n g the m e a n s for m o s t v u l n e r a b l e c o u n t r i e s (for w h i c h t h e s y s t e m w a s c r e a t e d ) to i m p l e m e n t it. In a d d i t i o n , it d o e s not p r o m o t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of all i m p o r t a n t p l a y e r s , a s r e c o m m e n d e d by t h e J o i n t G r o u p of e x p e r t s o n P I C .  H a v i n g e x p l o r e d the c h a l l e n g e s f a c i n g the R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n a n d t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s of the  treaty, Chapter 5 considers the  meaningfully  contribute  w a y s in w h i c h the  to the p r o t e c t i o n  Rotterdam  of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t  Convention  and h u m a n health  could from  h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d p e s t i c i d e s . T a k i n g into a c c o u n t t h e e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d w i t h t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the v o l u n t a r y PIC p r o c e d u r e , a n d t h e r e l e v a n t p r o v i s i o n s of the B a s e l C o n v e n t i o n on h a z a r d o u s w a s t e s a n d t h e S t o c k h o l m C o n v e n t i o n o n P O P s , t h e s u g g e s t s a n u m b e r of m e a s u r e s t h a t c o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d in t h e t e x t of the  chapter  Rotterdam  C o n v e n t i o n for a s u c c e s s f u l PIC p r o c e d u r e . T h e c h a p t e r a r g u e s , h o w e v e r , t h a t a s y s t e m of prior i n f o r m e d  c o n s e n t m i g h t not be t h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e  m e t h o d to a d d r e s s t h e  p r o b l e m s p e r t a i n i n g to h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d p e s t i c i d e s . T h e p r i o r i n f o r m e d  consent  a p p r o a c h reflects t h e idea t h a t t r a d e in h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d e x p o r t d o u b l e s t a n d a r d s a r e not a p r o b l e m in t h e m s e l v e s , a n d t h u s t r a d e s h o u l d not be p r o s c r i b e d but  merely  r e g u l a t e d . For t h a t r e a s o n , C h a p t e r 5 reflects on w h e t h e r t r a d e in h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s and environmental  p r o t e c t i o n are i n h e r e n t l y c o m p a t i b l e , a s c l a i m e d by t h e  Rotterdam  C o n v e n t i o n a n d r e f l e c t e d in t h e PIC p r o c e d u r e a p p r o a c h . T h e a n a l y s i s s h o w s t h a t to m a k e t h a t a s s u m p t i o n is in m a n y w a y s p r o b l e m a t i c , a n d it h a s d e t r a c t e d s t a t e s f r o m e f f e c t i v e l y a d d r e s s i n g t h e p r o b l e m of t r a d e in h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s . A l t h o u g h a m o r e effective w a y  of d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s p r o b l e m is w i t h i n r e a c h , t h e c h a p t e r n o t e s t h e lack of political will to i m p l e m e n t it. T h i s is b e c a u s e e x c e p t for t h o s e t h a t a r e p e r s i s t e n t o r g a n i c p o l l u t a n t s , t h e c h e m i c a l s a n d p e s t i c i d e s r e g u l a t e d by t h e R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n a r e p r i m a r i l y a c o n c e r n of t h e S o u t h . M e a n w h i l e , t h e s o l u t i o n s l a r g e l y d e p e n d o n t h e w i l l i n g n e s s of t h e N o r t h to take action.  Chapter Two Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides: Understanding the Problem 2.1. Introduction  T h e p u r p o s e of t h i s c h a p t e r is to i n t r o d u c e t h e p r o b l e m t h a t led s t a t e s to n e g o t i a t e a c o n v e n t i o n o n t r a d e in h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s . First, t h e c h a p t e r l o o k s at t h e effects s o m e i n d u s t r i a l c h e m i c a l s a n d p e s t i c i d e s h a v e on t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a n d h u m a n h e a l t h .  2 5  T h e n , it  p r e s e n t s a brief s y n o p s i s of t h e l a w s t h a t h a v e a l l o w e d N o r t h e r n a g r o c h e m i c a l c o m p a n i e s to e x p o r t c h e m i c a l s b a n n e d or s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d for d o m e s t i c u s e to t h e world.  Because these  2 6  double  standards  are  still  in  place,  the  developing  justifications  that  r e g u l a t o r s h a v e offered to s u s t a i n t h e m are a l s o briefly c o n s i d e r e d . L a s t l y , t h e c h a p t e r l o o k s at t h e g l o b a l p e s t i c i d e m a r k e t ,  2 7  p r o v i d i n g a brief profile of t h e s i x  multinational  c o r p o r a t i o n s t h a t c o n t r o l it, a n d a n o v e r v i e w of a n u m b e r of local c o m p a n i e s p r o d u c i n g h a z a r d o u s p e s t i c i d e s in C h i n a , I n d i a a n d B r a z i l , w h i c h a r e t h e b i g g e s t S o u t h e r n m a r k e t s . T h e s t u d y of t h e p e s t i c i d e s m a r k e t facing  the  Rotterdam  r e v e a l s not o n l y t h e m a g n i t u d e of t h e c h a l l e n g e s  C o n v e n t i o n , but  also the  problems  t h a t c o u l d a r i s e if  double  standards were simply eliminated. Because the Rotterdam Convention deals only with trade  in  hazardous  chemicals,  Northern  companies  could  transfer  their  production  facilities to d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , w h e r e t h e y h a v e s e v e r a l s u b s i d i a r i e s a n d s o m e of t h e m are already  producing  hazardous pesticides.  2 8  In  addition, Southern companies could  e m b a r k o n - o r e x p a n d - , t h e p r o d u c t i o n of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s . If no r e g u l a t i o n s production intensify  a r e e s t a b l i s h e d , a ban o n t h e  hazardous production  export  in d e v e l o p i n g  p l a y e r s (or by j o i n t v e n t u r e s b e t w e e n t h e m ) .  2 9  of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s c o u l d  countries  by  both  national  and  on thus  foreign  This would merely transform the problem  Substances that are not included in the PIC procedure but are also problematic for the South (e.g. the herbicide paraquat) are also mentioned in the chapter. The world's agrochemical market is controlled by six agrochemical corporations based in the U.S., Switzerland and Germany. For that reason, only EU, Swiss and U.S. legislation is considered. The main focus of this chapter is on pesticides, since they pose the biggest problems in due to their use in agriculture and public health programmes, and they are still largely traded and used in the South. Syngenta, for instance, opened a US$85 million factory China to manufacture paraquat, a herbicide responsible for many poisonings in developing countries. Paraquat is banned in Switzerland, home of Syngenta, and other countries. (For details on paraquat please see notes 142 and 194). Lower standards of production in developing countries could potentially lead to more disasters such as the one occurred in 1984 in Bhopal, India, when about 40 tonnes of methyl isocyanate and other lethal gases leaked from Union Carbide Corporation's pesticide factory. On the night of the disaster, six safety measures designed to prevent a gas leak were not functioning properly, they were shut down or inadequate. The safety siren, intended to alert the community in case of an accident, was turned off. See "Bhopal: The Ongoing Disaster 1984-2001," Greenpeace International, 2001, online: <http://zope.greenpeace.Org/z/gpindia/bhopal-factsheet>. 2 6  2 7  2 8  2 9  of t r a n s f e r  of  h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s into o n e of t r a n s f e r  of  production,  rather  than  a d d r e s s i n g t h e i s s u e at its root.  2.2. Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides: Why regulate them?  H a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s c a n be d e f i n e d a s i n d u s t r i a l c h e m i c a l s a n d c h e m i c a l p e s t i c i d e s t h a t in s m a l l d o s e s c a n c a u s e s i g n i f i c a n t h a r m to t h e e n v i r o n m e n t o r h u m a n h e a l t h .  They  3 0  m a y p o l l u t e w a t e r , a i r a n d s o i l , a n d d e s t r o y f a u n a a n d f l o r a ; s o m e of t h e m p e r s i s t in t h e e n v i r o n m e n t for a long p e r i o d of t i m e , a n d a c c u m u l a t e in t h e f o o d c h a i n .  3 1  Impacts on  h e a l t h c a n be b o t h a c u t e a n d c h r o n i c . A c u t e effects i n c l u d e s k i n b u r n s , p a r a l y s i s , b l u r r e d vision,  blindness  endocrine  and  disruption,  death,  while  reproductive  some  chronic  damage,  birth  effects defects,  s u p p r e s s i o n , lung and heart d i s e a s e , and kidney d a m a g e .  are  neurological  cancer,  damage,  immune  system  3 2  U n d e r t h e R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n , 17 p e s t i c i d e s , 5 i n d u s t r i a l c h e m i c a l s a n d 5 s e v e r e l y hazardous pesticide formulations country.  3 4  parties  will  33  s h o u l d not be e x p o r t e d u n l e s s a g r e e d by t h e i m p o r t i n g  In a d d i t i o n , five n e w p e s t i c i d e s h a v e b e e n a d d e d in t h e i n t e r i m p e r i o d , consider  including  these  c h e m i c a l s in  s u b s t a n c e s o n c e t h e c o n v e n t i o n e n t e r s into f o r c e .  the  originally  agreed  list  3 5  of  and 27  3 6  Lakshman D. Guruswamy & Brent R. Hendricks, International Environmental Law in a Nutshell (St. Paul, Minn.: West Pub. Co., 1997) at 190. Organochlorines, for instance, persist in the environment and accumulate in fatty tissue of animals, reaching the greatest magnitudes in predatory birds and mammals. Bioaccumulation means an increase in the concentration of a chemical in a biological organism over time compared to the chemical's concentration in the environment (e.g., some POPs present in water may bioconcentrate in the fatty tissue of fish by factors up to 70,000 times their concentration in the water column). Resource Futures International, supra note 11 at 2. For pesticides see World Resources Institute, UNEP, UNDP, World Bank, World Resources 1998-1999 (New York: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998) [hereinafter World Resources 1998-1999] at 42-45. For industrial chemicals, see next two pages. While the active ingredient is the one that has the pesticidal effect, a formulation is a mixture of active ingredient(s) with carriers, spreaders or other inert materials, to improve the storage, mixing and/or application properties of a product. See Government of British Columbia, Ministry of Land, Water and Air Protection, Integrated Pest Management Manual for Home and Garden Pests in BC: Glossary, online: <http://wlapwww.gov.bc.ca/epd/ipm/docs/envirowe/gloss.htm>. [Hereinafter BC Glossary]. Annex III of the Rotterdam Convention lists the substances subject to the PIC procedure. Although Annex III chemicals should not be exported unless expressly agreed by the importing country, three exceptions apply to this rule. See Rotterdam Convention, supra note 16 Art. 11(2), and Chapter 4. Binapacryl, toxaphene, ethylene oxide, ethylene dichloride, and monocrotophos. The first two were added to the list in July 1999, the following two in November 2000, and the latter in October 2002. Certain formulations of monocrotophos were already included in Annex III. Art. 8 of the Rotterdam Convention states that any chemical other than those listed in Annex III that has been included in the voluntary PIC procedure before the first meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP) may be added to Annex III by the COP if it finds all the relevant requirements have been fulfilled. See Rotterdam Convention, supra note 16 Art. 8. 3 1  3 2  3 3  3 4  3 5  3 6  2.2.1. Industrial Chemicals  I n d u s t r i a l c h e m i c a l s are c h e m i c a l c o m p o u n d s presently  subject  to  the  PIC  procedure  used or  are:  produced  by  polychlorinated  industry.  biphenyls  Those (PCBs);  p o l y c h l o r i n a t e d t e r p h e n y l s ( P C T s ) ; p o l y b r o m i n a t e d b i p h e n y l s ( P B B s ) ; c r o c i d o l i t e (a t y p e of a s b e s t o s ) ; a n d tris ( 2 , 3 - d i b r o m o p r o p y l )  phosphate (TBPP). Both PCBs and PCTs are  c h l o r i n a t e d c o m p o u n d s . P C B s a r e n o n - f l a m m a b l e oily liquids o r w a x e s u s e d a s h y d r a u l i c fluids  or  additives  to  oils  in  sealants, electrical  applications  and  paints. They  are  s u s p e c t e d of p r o m o t i n g c a n c e r , d a m a g i n g t h e i m m u n e a n d r e p r o d u c t i v e s y s t e m s a n d i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h h o r m o n e s y s t e m s t h r o u g h e n d o c r i n e d i s r u p t i o n . T h e r e is a l s o e v i d e n c e t h a t c h i l d r e n b o r n to m o t h e r s c o n t a m i n a t e d w i t h high l e v e l s of P C B s s u f f e r nervous system development.  3 7  impaired  P C B s p e r s i s t in t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , b i o a c c u m u l a t e in t h e  f o o d c h a i n , c o n c e n t r a t e in h u m a n f a t t y t i s s u e a n d m i l k a n d t r a v e l long d i s t a n c e s . F o r t h a t r e a s o n , t h e y a r e a l s o i n c l u d e d in t h e S t o c k h o l m C o n v e n t i o n . P C T s a r e y e l l o w r e s i n s w i t h p r o p e r t i e s s i m i l a r to P C B s a n d u s e d for s i m i l a r p u r p o s e s . T h e i r p r o d u c t i o n w a s t e r m i n a t e d in m o s t c o u n t r i e s in t h e m i d - 1 9 7 0 s , w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e is no s i g n i f i c a n t t r a d e of P C T s . A l t h o u g h t h e y a r e t o x i c , p e r s i s t e n t , a n d b i o a c c u m u l a t i v e like P C B s , f u r t h e r s t u d i e s a r e n e e d e d to e v a l u a t e t h e h e a l t h i m p a c t of PCTs a n d t h e i r p o t e n t i a l link to l o n g - r a n g e transboundary air p o l l u t i o n ,  38  w h i c h is p o s s i b l y w h y t h e y w e r e not i n c l u d e d in t h e initial  list of 12 P O P s of t h e S t o c k h o l m C o n v e n t i o n .  P B B s a n d T B P P a r e t w o b r o m i n a t e d f l a m e - r e t a r d a n t s . P B B s a r e a d d e d to p l a s t i c s u s e d in p r o d u c t s s u c h a s c o m p u t e r m o n i t o r s , t e l e v i s i o n s , t e x t i l e s , a n d p l a s t i c f o a m s , to  make  t h e m difficult to b u r n . T e s t s o n l a b o r a t o r y a n i m a l s s h o w t h a t P B B s c a n c a u s e b o d y w e i g h t l o s s , s k i n d i s o r d e r s , n e r v o u s a n d i m m u n e s y s t e m d a m a g e , a n d i n j u r e t h e liver, k i d n e y s , and  thyroid  glands. The  International  A g e n c y for  Research  on  Cancer  (IARC)  has  d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e y are p o s s i b l e h u m a n s c a r c i n o g e n s . T h e y a r e s t o r e d m a i n l y in b o d y fat, t e n d to c o n c e n t r a t e in b r e a s t m i l k fat, a n d c a n e n t e r t h e b o d i e s of i n f a n t s b r e a s t f e e d i n g , a n d t h e b o d i e s of u n b o r n b a b i e s t h r o u g h t h e p l a c e n t a . liquid  that was  used  primarily  as a flame  retardant  additive  for  3 9  through  T B P P is a v i s c o u s  synthetic  textiles,  See Paul Harrison & Fred Pearce, American Association for the Advancement of Science, AAAS Atlas of and the Environment (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2000) at 111. Environment Canada, "Polychlorinated Terphenyls (PCTs)" by Greg Filyk (Quebec: 2002) at 24, online: <http://www.unece.orq/env/popsxq/pct.pdf>. PBBs were banned in the U.S. in 1976, but they can be released in small amounts into the environment from poorly maintained hazardous waste sites and improper incineration of plastics that contain them. U.S., Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Public Health Statement for Polybrominated Biphenyls and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (Draft for Public Comment) (September 2002), online: <http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp68.html>. Population 3 8  3 9  particularly  in  children's  sleepwear.  It  can  be  absorbed  through  the  skin,  and  c a r c i n o g e n i c effects h a v e b e e n f o u n d in rats a n d m i c e . In 1 9 7 7 , t h e U S C o n s u m e r P r o d u c t S a f e t y C o m m i s s i o n b a n n e d c h i l d r e n ' s c l o t h i n g t r e a t e d w i t h T B P P , o n t h e g r o u n d s t h a t it m a y be a h u m a n c a r c i n o g e n . T h e use of t h i s s u b s t a n c e a s a f l a m e r e t a r d a n t in c o n s u m e r p r o d u c t s h a s b e e n s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d in m a n y c o u n t r i e s a n d p r o h i b i t e d in t e x t i l e s .  4 1  L a s t l y , a s b e s t o s is t h e n a m e g i v e n to a g r o u p of s i x d i f f e r e n t f i b r o u s m i n e r a l s m a d e of t h i n , s e p a r a b l e f i b r e s t h a t do not d i s s o l v e in w a t e r or e v a p o r a t e a n d a r e r e s i s t a n t to h e a t , f i r e , a n d c h e m i c a l a n d biological d e g r a d a t i o n .  4 2  T h e s e p r o p e r t i e s m a k e it ideal for a w i d e  r a n g e of p r o d u c t s , s u c h a s b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s , f r i c t i o n p r o d u c t s , a n d h e a t - r e s i s t a n t f a b r i c s . T h e d o w n s i d e of a s b e s t o s is t h a t its fibres g e t e a s i l y t r a p p e d in the l u n g s , w h e r e  they  build up o v e r t i m e a n d m a y not be d e g r a d e d . T h i s c a n c a u s e a s b e s t o s i s , a lung d i s e a s e t h a t m a y lead to d i s a b i l i t y or d e a t h , a n d i n c r e a s e d c h a n c e s of g e t t i n g lung c a n c e r a n d c a n c e r in t h e s t o m a c h , i n t e s t i n e s , o e s o p h a g u s , p a n c r e a s , a n d k i d n e y s .  4 3  The Rotterdam  C o n v e n t i o n i n c l u d e s o n l y o n e k i n d of a s b e s t o s ( c r o c i d o l i t e ) , but the o t h e r five f o r m s m a y be a d d e d to t h e PIC list in N o v e m b e r 2 0 0 3 , t r i g g e r e d by b a n s in A u s t r a l i a , C h i l e a n d the EU.  4 4  These  industrial  chemicals  pose  a  serious  risk  to  health  and  to  the  environment  e v e r y w h e r e . H o w e v e r , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of a s b e s t o s ( t h o u g h not t h e t y p e r e g u l a t e d by the Rotterdam C o n v e n t i o n ) ,  4 5  m o s t of t h e m a r e no l o n g e r b e i n g p r o d u c e d o r e x p o r t e d , o r  t h e y a r e not p r o d u c e d in s i g n i f i c a n t a m o u n t s .  4 6  In c o n t r a s t , m a n y h a z a r d o u s p e s t i c i d e s  U.S., Department of Health and Human Services, National Toxicology Program (NTP), "Tris(2,3Dibromopropyl) phosphate," Ninth Report of Carcinogens (January 2001), online: <http://www.sanitaweb.it/web/Biblioteca/carcinogens.htm>. TBPP is banned in several European countries, the U.S. and Japan. International Programme on Chemical Safety, "Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate and Bis(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate," Environmental Health Criteria No. 173 (Geneva: World Health Organization, 1995), online: <http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehcl73.htm>. [hereinafter Int'l Programme of Chemical Safety]. These are amosite, chrysotile, crocidolite, and the fibrous varieties of tremolite, actinolite, and anthophyllite. Chrysotile is considered less hazardous than the other forms of asbestos fibres, which belong to the amphibole family. U.S., Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Public Health Statement for Asbestos (September 2001), online: <http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs61.html>. Both the U.S. EPA and the IARC have determined that asbestos is a human carcinogen. See Ibid. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Press Release, "Three Deadly Pesticides and Asbestos Targeted for Trade Controls" (February 2002). The only type of asbestos manufactured today is chrysotile, and only products in which the fibre is encapsulated in a matrix of cement or resin, preventing the release of fibres, are sold. Major producers are, in order of importance: Russia; Canada; China; Brazil; Zimbabwe; Kazakhstan; Greece; India; Swaziland; South Africa; Colombia; and the U.S. (The Asbestos Institute, 1999-2000, online: <http://www.asbestosinstitute.ca/main.html>). Production of PCBs has almost totally ceased worldwide, although there are reports of it continuing in Russia. (Greenpeace International, Toxics Campaign, "Down to Zero. POPs in the OSPAR Priority List" (2002), online: <http://archive.greenpeace.org/toxics/downtozero/POPS/ospar-list.html>.) Production of PCTs is not known to  4 1  4 2  4 3  4 4  4 5  4 6  are still w i d e l y p r o d u c e d a n d u s e d , a n d d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s s t r o n g l y sustain  export  agriculture.  For  that  reason,  the  focus  of  this  rely o n t h e m  chapter  is  on  to the  i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e a n d p r o d u c t i o n of h a z a r d o u s p e s t i c i d e s .  2.2.2. Pesticides and Pesticide Formulations  47  P e s t i c i d e s a r e s u b s t a n c e s i n t e n d e d to p r e v e n t , d e s t r o y o r c o n t r o l p e s t s , s u c h a s v e c t o r s of h u m a n or a n i m a l d i s e a s e a n d u n w a n t e d s p e c i e s of p l a n t s or a n i m a l s c a u s i n g h a r m interfering  w i t h the p r o d u c t i o n ,  commodities, and w o o d .  4 8  p r o c e s s i n g , s t o r a g e or m a r k e t i n g  of f o o d ,  or  agricultural  T h e y are the o n l y t o x i c c h e m i c a l s p u r p o s e f u l l y i n t r o d u c e d  by  h u m a n s into t h e e n v i r o n m e n t to c o m b a t , a m o n g s t o t h e r s , i n s e c t s ( i n s e c t i c i d e s ) , w e e d s ( h e r b i c i d e s ) a n d f u n g i ( f u n g i c i d e s ) , a n d to c o n t r o l i n s e c t - b o r n e d i s e a s e s s u c h a s m a l a r i a , d e n g u e f e v e r , a n d river b l i n d n e s s .  Chemical  pesticides  reduced vector-borne forests.  5 0  have  4 9  contributed  to  increased  d i s e a s e , a n d to the p r o t e c t i o n  global  agricultural  or r e s t o r a t i o n  productivity,  of p l a n t a t i o n s  and  H o w e v e r , m a n y of t h e m b e a r effects t h a t m a y s u r p a s s t h e i r b e n e f i t s . Millions of  h u m a n p o i s o n i n g s per y e a r , the pollution of air, soil a n d w a t e r , f o o d c o n t a m i n a t i o n (in t h e c a s e of u s e of p e s t i c i d e s o n f o o d c r o p s ) , a n d d i s r u p t i o n of w i l d l i f e , a r e all s i d e effects of t h e p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d use of p e s t i c i d e s .  51  occur anywhere since the early 1980s (Filyk G., supra note 38 at 7). U.S. Monsanto, leading manufacturer of PCBs and PCTs terminated production and export of both chemicals in 1977. (Dr. Heidelore Fiedler, "PCBs: Uses and Environmental Releases," St. Petersburg, Russia (1-4 July 1997), online: <http://www.chem.unep.ch/pops/POPs_Inc/proceedings/bamako/eng/FIEDLERl.html>). PBBs are no longer produced in commercial quantities in the U.S. Many countries have banned their use in textiles (e.g. several European countries, the U.S. Japan), while their manufacture, use and importation is prohibited in Austria, Canada, and Switzerland. However, PBBs are still used in many electrical and electronic devices [OECD, Environment Policy Committee, "Report of Incineration of Products Containing Brominated Flame Retardants," doc. EIW/EPOC/WMP(97)4/REV2 (Paris: OECD, 1998)]. Lastly, as far as is known, TPBB is no longer produced or used in the world as a flame retardant in textiles, but it may be added to polymers used for other purposes. (See Int'l Programme on Chemical Safety, supra note 41). See "BC Glossary," supra note 33. Fora complete definition See Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Code of Conduct for the Distribution and Use of Pesticides, 23 FAO/CONF/RES 10/85 (28 November 1985) (amended in 1989 to include prior informed consent) [hereinafter Code of Conduct] Art. 2, online: <http://journals.iranscience.net:800/Default/www.fao.org/waicent/FaoInfo/Agricult/AGP/AGPP/Pesticid/Code/P M_Code.htm>. [Note: A revised version of the Code of Conduct was adopted at the 123 session of the FAO Council in November 2002, after the adoption of the Rotterdam Convention]. See Andrew M. Crain, "Opportunities to Improve Pesticide Policy in Central America," (2000) 11 Colo.J. Int'l. Envtl.L. & Pol'y 151 at 155-156. See Donald J. Ecobichon "Pesticide Use in Developing Countries," (2001) 160:1-3 Toxicology 27 at 27. Peter Hough, The Global Politics of Pesticides. Forging Consensus from Conflicting Interests (London: Earthscan, 1998) at 21. [Hough, "The Global Politics of Pesticides"]. 4 7  4 8  rd  4 9  5 0  5 1  2.2.2.1. Impact of hazardous pesticides on human health  P e s t i c i d e s h a v e a c l e a r i m p a c t on h u m a n h e a l t h . G l o b a l r e v i e w s of h o s p i t a l d a t a by t h e W H O estimate that there are 1 million accidental poisonings and 2 0 , 0 0 0 deaths every y e a r d u e to p e s t i c i d e s , p r i m a r i l y  in d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s .  record only the most serious poisoning i n c i d e n t s ,  53  5 2  Yet, hospital data  usually  which explains why agricultural worker  s u r v e y s p r e s e n t m u c h h i g h e r e s t i m a t e s . A c c o r d i n g to a 1 9 9 0 s u r v e y by t h e W H O in t h e A s i a n r e g i o n , t h e r e m a y be a s m a n y a s 2 5 m i l l i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l w o r k e r s in the d e v e l o p i n g w o r l d s u f f e r i n g f r o m a n e p i s o d e of p o i s o n i n g e v e r y y e a r . T h i s is b a s e d o n 3 % of f a r m e r s r e c a l l i n g a n illness e p i s o d e o v e r a y e a r a m o n g a w o r k f o r c e of 8 3 0 m i l l i o n w o r k e r s . Recall surveys from other  c o u n t r i e s find still a larger  I n d o n e s i a , a n d up to 1 0 % in B o l i v i a .  ratio at 4 . 5 % in C o s t a R i c a , 9 %  in  5 4  A c c o r d i n g to t h e F A O , a l t h o u g h m o r e t h a n 8 0 % of the w o r l d ' s p e s t i c i d e s a r e a p p l i e d in i n d u s t r i a l i s e d c o u n t r i e s , 9 9 % of all p o i s o n i n g s o c c u r in d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s .  5 5  Several  f a c t o r s m i g h t s e r v e to e x p l a i n this s i t u a t i o n . First, m a n y p e s t i c i d e s c l a s s i f i e d a s e x t r e m e l y or h i g h l y h a z a r d o u s by t h e W H O a r e still u s e d in t h e S o u t h , w h i l e t h e y a r e b a n n e d or s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d in the N o r t h .  5 6  S e c o n d , in d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , p e s t i c i d e s a r e u s u a l l y  a p p l i e d by p e o p l e w i t h v e r y limited or no t r a i n i n g in s a f e a p p l i c a t i o n or s t o r a g e . S t u d i e s of f a r m e r s a n d t h e i r f a m i l i e s r e p e a t e d l y s h o w t h a t t h e r e is a h i g h risk of e x p o s u r e t h r o u g h lack of p r o t e c t i v e c l o t h i n g , l e a k i n g s p r a y e q u i p m e n t , m i x i n g a n d a p p l i c a t i o n of p e s t i c i d e s w i t h b a r e h a n d s , a n d s t o r a g e of p e s t i c i d e s w i t h f o o d .  5 7  A s a r e s u l t , t h e risk of p o i s o n i n g is  m u c h h i g h e r in t h e S o u t h t h a n in the N o r t h . T h e b e s t h e a l t h d a t a s u g g e s t , for e x a m p l e , t h a t Latin A m e r i c a n f a r m w o r k e r s a r e 13 t i m e s m o r e likely to s u f f e r p e s t i c i d e p o i s o n i n g  If intentional poisonings are included, there are 3 million cases of pesticide poisoning per year, which result in approximately 220,000 deaths. Toxic pesticides are extensively used as an agent for suicide in developing countries because of their ready availability to the general public. The herbicide paraquat is largely used for these purposes. See J. Jeyaratnam "Acute Pesticide Poisoning: A Major Global Health Problem," (1990) 43 World Health Statistics Quarterly 139 at 143. See "World Resources 1998-1999," supra note 32 at 44. Helen Murphy, "IPM and Farmer's Health" Spider Web Newsletter (5 November 2001) Online: <http://www.communityipm.org/Spiderweb/spider05pl.htm> and Jeyaratnam J., supra note 52 at 141 and 143. In "International Code on Pesticide Use Adopted in Rome," EuropaWorld (8 November 2002), online: <http://www.europaworld.org/weekl04/internationalcode81102.htm>. According to the Rotterdam Convention, a banned chemical is one all uses of which within one or more categories have been prohibited by final regulatory action in order to protect human health or the environment. A severely restricted chemical is one virtually all use of which within one or more categories have been prohibited by final regulatory action in order to protect human health or the environment. See Rotterdam Convention, supra note 16 Art. 2, and Chapter 4. Jeremy Harris, Chemical Pesticide Markets, Health Risks and Residues (Wallingford, Oxon, OX; New York: CABI Pub., 2000) at 15. 5 3  5 4  5 5  5 6  5 7  than  farm  workers  in t h e  U.S.  Lastly, a factor  5 8  that might also explain the  higher  i n c i d e n c e of a c u t e p o i s o n i n g s in the S o u t h is t h a t w h i l e t h e N o r t h e r n p e s t i c i d e m a r k e t is dominated  by  insecticides,  60  herbicides, which  are  most  59  generally  developing more  countries  toxic.  With  are  the  greater  exception  consumers  of t h e  of  herbicide  p a r a q u a t , r e s p o n s i b l e for m a n y a c c i d e n t a l a n d i n t e n t i o n a l p o i s o n i n g s in t h e S o u t h ,  6 1  the  g r e a t m a j o r i t y of a c c i d e n t a l i n t o x i c a t i o n s c a n be a t t r i b u t e d to t w o g r o u p s of i n s e c t i c i d e s : organophosphates  and  carbamates.  6 2  These  pesticides  inhibit  the  action  of  a c e t y l c h o l i n e s t e r a s e , a n e n z y m e t h a t is e s s e n t i a l to t h e p r o p e r f u n c t i o n i n g of t h e n e r v o u s system.  6 3  There  are  four  major  groups  of  insecticides:  organochlorines, and synthetic pyrethroids. World War II,  65  64  organophosphates,  carbamates,  Organophosphates were discovered  a s a s i d e effect of w a r t i m e r e s e a r c h into t o x i c g a s e s .  6 6  during  Although they do  not p e r s i s t in t h e e n v i r o n m e n t or a c c u m u l a t e in f a t t y t i s s u e s , t h e y a r e u s u a l l y v e r y t o x i c to m a m m a l s . lacrimation,  6 7  Early poisoning s y m p t o m s include n a u s e a , dizziness, s w e a t i n g , salivation,  and  rhinorrhea,  while  muscle  twitching,  weakness,  tremor,  lack  of  c o o r d i n a t i o n , v o m i t i n g , a b d o m i n a l c r a m p s , a n d d i a r r h e a are all s i g n a l s of a w o r s e n i n g of the  poisoned  depressed  state.  motor  Poisoning can also cause sensory and  function,  and  respiratory  behavioural  depression. Death  from  disturbances,  organophosphate  p o i s o n i n g is u s u a l l y l i n k e d to i n c r e a s e d p u l m o n a r y s e c r e t i o n s , c o u p l e d w i t h  respiratory  Richard R. Tansey etal., "Eradicating the Pesticide Problem in Latin America" (1995) 92 Business and Society Review 55 at 55. These are used primarily to reduce the workload of workers. G.S. Dhaliwal & M.D. Pathak, Pesticides: Their Ecological Impact in Developing Countries, Dhaliwal G.S. and Balwinder Singh eds. (New Delhi, India: Commonwealth Publishers, 1993) at 9. Insect populations build up more readily in tropical and subtropical regions, and cause the biggest problems. There are some exceptions, such as Malaysia, where herbicides account for % of pesticides used. See Ibid, at 10, and John Madeley, "Unsustainable for Use -Profile of Paraquat," Pesticide News 56 (June 2002) 3 at 3-5, online: <http://www.pan-uk.org/pestnews/pn56/pn56p3.htm>. Besides being a cause of accidental poisoning, paraquat is extensively used in the South as an agent for suicides. Jeyaratnam J., supra note 52 at 140. Organophosphates may account for as many as 70% of occupational pesticide poisonings. In "Environmental Change and Human Health," supra note 32 at 44. For further details see Emden H. and Peakall D., supra note 2 at 17. Since they are responsible for the majority of global poisonings, this chapter focuses mainly on insecticides. However, not only insecticides are hazardous. Captafol, hexachlorobenzene (extremely hazardous) and pentachlorophenol (highly hazardous), for example, are three fungicides included in the Rotterdam Convention. In addition, the classifications of carbamates, organochlorines, organophosphates and pyrethroids are also valid for other substances: some fungicides are carbamates, acaricides may be organochlorines, herbicides can be organophosphates, etc. See Alan Wood, "Compendium of Pesticide Common Names," 1995-2003, U.K., online: <http://www.hclrss.demon.co.uk/summ groups.html>. Organophosphates are a type of organophosphorous compounds. However, many authors use these two terms interchangeably. See Hough, "The Global Politics of Pesticides," supra note 51 at 4. See Dhaliwal & Pathak, supra note 59 at 7. 5 9  6 0  6 1  6 2  6 3  6 4  6 5  6 6  6 7  failure.  Parathion,  monocrotophos  and  phosphamidon  are  examples  of  o r g a n o p h o s p h a r . e s . C e r t a i n f o r m u l a t i o n s of t h e s e t h r e e p e s t i c i d e s a r e s u b j e c t to t h e P I C procedure under the Rotterdam Convention, and monocrotophos p e s t i c i d e in the i n t e r i m p r o c e d u r e .  was added also as a  6 9  C a r b a m a t e s , d i s c o v e r e d in t h e e a r l y 1 9 5 0 s , a r e a l s o n e r v e p o i s o n s . M o s t of t h e m  are  t o x i c to m a m m a l s but t h e y a r e u s u a l l y e x c r e t e d r a p i d l y . If e x p o s u r e e n d s , c h o l i n e s t e r a s e inhibition hours.  7 0  reverses promptly.  In n o n - f a t a l c a s e s , the illness g e n e r a l l y lasts less t h a n  24  C a r b a m a t e s h a v e s h o r t to m e d i u m p e r s i s t e n c e , t h e y a r e b i o d e g r a d a b l e a n d d o  not a c c u m u l a t e in f a t t y t i s s u e s . Effects of p o i s o n i n g i n c l u d e m u s c l e w e a k n e s s , d i z z i n e s s , salivation,  nausea,  vomiting,  abdominal  pain,  diarrhoea,  blurred  vision,  lack  of  c o o r d i n a t i o n , m u s c l e t w i t c h i n g , a n d s l u r r e d s p e e c h . M o r e s e r i o u s effects i n c l u d e c o m a , seizures,  hypotonicity,  hypertension  and  cardiorespiratory  a l d i c a r b , a n d c a r b o r y l a r e e x a m p l e s of c a r b a m a t e s .  The  other  two  categories  of  insecticides  depression.  7 1  Carbofuran,  7 2  are  organochlorines  and  pyrethroids.  O r g a n o c h l o r i n e s , like o r g a n o p h o s p h a t e s , w e r e d i s c o v e r e d d u r i n g W o r l d W a r II. D D T , t h e m o s t p o p u l a r of t h e s e c o m p o u n d s , w a s d i s c o v e r e d in 1 9 3 9 , a n d d u e to its low c o s t , b r o a d spectrum,  selective toxicity,  e a s e of f o r m u l a t i o n  and  persistence  (which  means  less  a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e n e e d e d ) , it b e c a m e t h e m o s t w i d e l y u s e d i n s e c t i c i d e e v e r m a n u f a c t u r e d . A l d r i n , d i e l d r i n , h e p t a c h l o r , a n d c h l o r d a n e a r e o t h e r e x a m p l e s of o r g a n o c h l o r i n e s .  Like  D D T , t h e y a r e all r e g u l a t e d by b o t h t h e R o t t e r d a m a n d t h e S t o c k h o l m c o n v e n t i o n s , w h i l e endrin,  toxaphene  Rotterdam.  7 4  and  mirex  are  regulated  only  by  Stockholm,  and  A l t h o u g h t h e y a r e not a c u t e l y t o x i c , o r g a n o c h l o r i n e s t e n d to  HCH only  by  bioaccumulate  a n d p e r s i s t in the e n v i r o n m e n t for a long period of t i m e ( 2 - 1 5 y e a r s ) . A s a r e s u l t , t h e y m a y e v e n t u a l l y h a v e a n e g a t i v e effect o n the e n v i r o n m e n t or h u m a n h e a l t h . A l t h o u g h the  See U.S., Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, "Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings," 5 ed., by Drs. J. Routt Reigart & James R. Roberts, (Washington D.C., 1999) at 34 and 38. Monocrotophos was added as a pesticide in October 2002, as only certain formulations of the pesticide are included in Annex III of the Rotterdam Convention. Once the treaty enters into force, Parties will decide whether they want to include the pesticide in Annex III. See Rotterdam Convention, supra note 16 Art. 7. See "Carbofuran. Pesticide Information Profile," Extension Toxicology Network (Oregon University State Archives, September 1993), online: <http://ace.orst.edu/info/extoxnet/pips/carbofur.htm>. See Reigart & Roberts, supra note 68 at 49. According to WHO classification, aldicarb is "extremely hazardous' (class la), and carboryl and pimiricarb are 'moderately hazardous' (II). These classifications are related to concentration levels and a weaker formulation moves an active ingredient into a lower hazard classification. Pesticide Action Network U.K., "The List of Lists," Briefing 3 (November 2001) at 3, online: <http://www.pan-uk.org/briefing/ListofL.pdf>. David Dent, "Integrated Pest Management," 1 ed. (London; New York: Chapman & Hall, 1995) at 48. See Rotterdam Convention, supra note 16 Annex III, and Stockholm Convention, supra note 13 Annexes A and B. th  6 9  7 0  7 1  7 2  7 3  7 4  st  most  conclusive  studies  refer  to  animals,  epidemiological  studies  have  found  an  a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n e x p o s u r e to o r g a n o c h l o r i n e s a n d v a r i o u s c a n c e r s s u c h a s l y m p h o m a , leukemia, lung, pancreatic and breast c a n c e r .  7 5  a l s o e v i d e n c e t h a t o r g a n o c h l o r i n e s affect the  W h i l e t e s t s a r e not c o n c l u s i v e , t h e r e is human  immune  system. This might  be  e s p e c i a l l y t r u e for t h e rural S o u t h , w h e r e i m m u n e r e s p o n s e s a r e a l r e a d y w e a k e n e d by malnutrition, conditions.  contaminated  water  supplies,  lack  of  sanitation  and  poor  housing  7 6  S y n t h e t i c p y r e t h r o i d s a r e the last m a j o r g r o u p of i n s e c t i c i d e s . M o s t of t h e m h a v e low m a m m a l i a n t o x i c i t y a n d a r e r e l a t i v e l y s a f e f o r the s p r a y o p e r a t o r s d u r i n g m i x i n g  and  application.  liver  7 7  T h i s is l a r g e l y  because they  are rapidly  degraded  e n z y m e s , a n d b e c a u s e t h e y a r e partly e x c r e t e d by the k i d n e y .  7 8  by  mammalian  The problem with these  s u b s t a n c e s is t h a t t h e c o s t of i m p o r t i n g t h e m c a n be e x o r b i t a n t for d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , g i v e n t h e i r l i m i t e d a c c e s s to f o r e i g n c u r r e n c y . T h e u s e of p y r e t h r o i d e s t e r s for m a l a r i a c o n t r o l , for i n s t a n c e , is s e v e r a l t i m e s pricier t h a n t h a t of D D T . S o m e s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t pyrethroids cost nine times as m u c h as D D T ; times cheaper.  8 0  7 9  o t h e r s s u g g e s t t h a t D D T is t h r e e to f i v e  Both calculations, despite the gap between t h e m , indicate a substantial  d i f f e r e n c e of p r i c e .  A s n o t e d b e f o r e , h u m a n p e s t i c i d e - r e l a t e d p o i s o n i n g s are u s u a l l y r e l a t e d to t h e u s e of i n s e c t i c i d e s . H e r b i c i d e s g e n e r a l l y h a v e low t o x i c i t y to w a r m b l o o d e d a n i m a l s , i n c l u d i n g h u m a n s . H o w e v e r , s o m e of t h e m c a n be v e r y t o x i c . T h i s is t h e c a s e of p a r a q u a t , o n e of t h e m o s t w i d e l y u s e d h e r b i c i d e s in d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . H i g h a c u t e e x p o s u r e to p a r a q u a t c a n c a u s e lung c o n g e s t i o n , c o n v u l s i o n s , i n c o o r d i n a t i o n , k i d n e y f a i l u r e , lung s o r e s , l i v e r i n j u r y , a n d d e a t h by r e s p i r a t o r y f a i l u r e . C o n t i n u e d e x p o s u r e m a y c a u s e n o s e b l e e d , s k i n b l i s t e r i n g , u l c e r a t i o n or p e e l i n g , n e c r o s i s (cell d e a t h in s k i n t i s s u e ) , t e m p o r a r y nail l o s s , b l i s t e r i n g in s c r o t a l a r e a s ( f r o m l e a k i n g s p r a y e r s s o a k i n g t r o u s e r s ) , b l e p h a r i t i s  (eyelid  inflammation),  of  conjunctivitis,  and  ulcerations  or  keratosis  (wart-like  growth)  the  "World Resources 1998-1999," supra note 32 at 45. A seven-year epidemiological study conducted through the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project found no evidence between organochlorines and the elevated rates of breast cancer in Long Island. However, the study states that it is possible that breast cancer risk in some individuals be associated with organochlorine exposures because of individual differences in metabolism and ability to repair DNA damage. See Cat Lazaroff, "U.S.A.: Study Finds No Link Between Organochlorines and Breast Cancer," Environment News Service (6 August 2002), online: <http://www.corpwatch.org/news/PND.jsp?articleid=3470> This is also valid for some organophosphates, carbamates and metal-based pesticides (e.g. mercury compounds). See "World Resources 1998-1999," supra note 32 at 45. See Dent, supra note 73 at 48. See Reigart & Roberts, supra note 68 at 87. 7 5  7 6  7 7  7 8  79 8 0  See Ecobichon, supra note 50 at 28. Tom Carter, "DDT: Malaria's Answer in Africa?" The  Washington  Times  (6 June 2002).  cornea.  D e s p i t e t h e p r o b l e m s it c a u s e s in d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s ,  p a r a q u a t is not s u b j e c t  to t h e PIC p r o c e d u r e , p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e m o s t s e r i o u s p a r a q u a t - r e l a t e d p o i s o n i n g s a r e s e l f - i n d u c e d , a n d b e c a u s e m o s t of t h e p a r a q u a t b a n s d o not m e e t t h e c r i t e r i a e s t a b l i s h e d first by t h e v o l u n t a r y PIC s y s t e m , a n d t h e n by A n n e x II of t h e R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n e . g . , g o v e r n m e n t s did not c a r r y o u t a c o m p l e t e risk e v a l u a t i o n . S w i t z e r l a n d , h o m e of p a r a q u a t ' s p r i n c i p a l m a n u f a c t u r e r , w o u l d s u p p o r t efforts to a d d t h e p e s t i c i d e to A n n e x III  8 4  The government  recently announced that  8 5  8 3  of it  of t h e R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n to  p r o t e c t d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s f r o m its h a r m f u l c o n s e q u e n c e s .  8 6  2.2.2.2. Impact of hazardous pesticides on the environment  E a c h y e a r , a n e s t i m a t e d 2 . 5 m i l l i o n t o n n e s of p e s t i c i d e s a r e a p p l i e d to a g r i c u l t u r a l c r o p s w o r l d w i d e . F r o m t h i s a m o u n t , less t h a n 0 . 3 % is e s t i m a t e d to r e a c h t h e i n t e n d e d t a r g e t , and the  remaining  9 9 . 7 % g o e s into t h e  environment.  The environmental  impact  of  p e s t i c i d e s d e p e n d s o n t h e i r t o x i c o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s a n d o n t h e d e g r e e of t h e e x p o s u r e . O n c e a p p l i e d , t h e y m a y runoff into s u r f a c e w a t e r , l e a c h into g r o u n d w a t e r , v o l a t i l i s e into t h e a i r , be t a k e n up by p l a n t s or soil o r g a n i s m s , o r s t a y in t h e s o i l .  8 7  A s portrayed  by  R a c h e l C a r s o n in her r e n o w n e d b o o k " S i l e n t S p r i n g , " r e s i d u e s of i n s e c t i c i d e s g e t t i n g into bodies  of  water  can  be t o x i c  to  aquatic  organisms.  g r o u n d w a t e r is p o l l u t i o n of w a t e r e v e r y w h e r e , '  8 8  In  addition,  'pollution  of  the  s i n c e e x c e p t for w h a t e n t e r s s t r e a m s  d i r e c t l y a s rain o r s u r f a c e runoff, all t h e r u n n i n g w a t e r o n t h e e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e w a s o n c e g r o u n d w a t e r . T h i s is a s e r i o u s c o n c e r n if o n e b e a r s in m i n d t h a t g r o u n d w a t e r is a m a j o r s o u r c e of d r i n k i n g w a t e r in m a n y c o u n t r i e s  8 9  a n d t h a t o n e - t a b l e s p o o n of c o n c e n t r a t e d  p e s t i c i d e m a y be e n o u g h to pollute t h e w a t e r s u p p l y of 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e for a d a y .  9 0  See Madeley, supra note 60 at 3-5. Besides being a cause of accidental poisoning, paraquat is extensively used in the South as an agent for suicides. See Jeyaratnam, supra note 52 at 140. For a review of the procedure for adding new hazardous chemicals or pesticides to the PIC list under the voluntary PIC system and under the Rotterdam Convention please see note 466. Information kindly provided by Mr. Achim Halpaap, Senior Programme Coordinator, United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), and Ms. Barbara Dinham, Programme Director, Pesticide Action Network (PAN) U.K. Syngenta's Gramoxone (paraquat) sales were an estimated $430 million in 2001. Jon Cox "Swiss want big Syngenta chemical on UN control list" Reuters News Service (5 December 2002). See "Statement of the Federal Council," 11 November 2002 (answer to the Motion of MP Joseph Zisyadis), posted by the Berne Declaration (a Swiss environmental organization), online: <http://www.evb.ch/index.cfm?page_id = 1832&archive=none>. See Hayo M.G. Van Der Werf, "Assessing the Impact of Pesticides in the Environment," (1996) 60 Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 81 at 81-84. Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, (Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1962) at 42. See Van Der Werf, supra note 87 at 82-83. The Pesticides Trust Review (December 1998) at 3, online: <http://www.pan-uk.org/Reviews/review98.pdf>. [The Pesticides Trust is now the Pesticide Action Network U.K.] 8 2  8 3  8 4  8 5  8 6  8 7  8 8  8 9  9  0  P e s t i c i d e s c a n a l s o pollute t h e s o i l , w h i c h t h e y c a n e n t e r t h r o u g h d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n w h e n t h e y drift after s p r a y i n g , by a t m o s p h e r i c f a l l o u t , or f r o m c r o p r e s i d u e s , leaf f a l l , or root deposits. Persistent pesticides such as organochlorines are especially problematic, as they m a y l e a c h into w a t e r a n d h a r m l o n g - t e r m soil fertility o r p o i s o n o r affect t h e b e h a v i o u r o r r e p r o d u c t i o n of soil o r g a n i s m s , a m o n g s t o t h e r s .  9 1  P e s t i c i d e s m a y a l s o c o n t r i b u t e to a i r  p o l l u t i o n , w h e n t h e y e n t e r t h e a t m o s p h e r e a s a r e s u l t of drift d u r i n g a p p l i c a t i o n  or  s u b s e q u e n t v o l a t i l i z a t i o n into t h e a i r f r o m s o i l , p l a n t s , s u r f a c e w a t e r s , or by w i n d e r o s i o n . V o l a t i l i z a t i o n c a n c o n t i n u e for s e v e r a l d a y s or w e e k s a f t e r t r e a t m e n t , a n d e v e n m o n t h s in t h e c a s e of p a r t i c u l a r l y  persistent pesticides (e.g. organochlorines).  9 2  Organochlorines  s u c h a s a l d r i n , c h l o r d a n e , D D T , d i e l d r i n , h e p t a c h l o r , m i r e x a n d t o x a p h e n e c a n t r a v e l long d i s t a n c e s t h r o u g h c y c l e s of e v a p o r a t i o n a n d a t m o s p h e r i c c y c l i n g a n d d e p o s i t i o n , a n d w i n d a n d w a t e r c a n c a r r y t h e m both r e g i o n a l l y a n d g l o b a l l y . T h e y a r e a l s o v o l a t i l e at w a r m t e m p e r a t u r e s a n d c o n d e n s e at c o o l e r t e m p e r a t u r e s , r e a c h i n g t h e i r h i g h e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s in t h e c o o l e r r e g i o n s of t h e w o r l d ( N o r t h e r n l a t i t u d e s a n d high a l t i t u d e s ) .  93  T h i s is w h y in  C a n a d a t h e h i g h e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of P O P s a r e f o u n d in t h e A r c t i c , G r e a t L a k e s a n d S t . L a w r e n c e b a s i n , a n d l e v e l s of c e r t a i n P O P s in b r e a s t m i l k h a v e b e e n f o u n d up to nine t i m e s h i g h e r in s o m e I n u i t w o m e n t h a n in w o m e n w h o live in s o u t h e r n C a n a d a .  9 4  S i n c e m a n y o r g a n o c h l o r i n e s p e r s i s t in t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a n d a c c u m u l a t e in t h e food c h a i n , t h e y m a y a l s o e v e n t u a l l y d i s t u r b wildlife. D D T , for i n s t a n c e , c a u s e s e g g s h e l l t h i n n i n g , r e p r o d u c t i v e d i s r u p t i o n a n d m o r t a l i t y in p r e d a t o r y b i r d s s u c h a s b a l d e a g l e s a n d p e r e g r i n e f a l c o n s , w h i c h m a y f e e d o n fish t h a t are at t h e e n d of a long c h a i n in w h i c h D D T h a s accumulated over t i m e .  9 5  A l s o , e x p o s u r e to h i g h a m o u n t s of a l d r i n a n d d i e l d r i n  9 6  affects  t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m of a n i m a l s , a n d c o n t i n u o u s o r a l e x p o s u r e to l o w e r l e v e l s of t h e s e s u b s t a n c e s c o u l d affect t h e i r liver a n d d e c r e a s e t h e i r ability to f i g h t i n f e c t i o n s .  97  O r g a n o p h o s p h a t e s a n d c a r b a m a t e s , in t u r n , affect t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m of m a m m a l s a n d birds t h r o u g h  the  inhibition  of t h e  a c e t y l c h l o r i n a t e e n z y m e . C a s e s of bird  mortality  See Hough, "The Global Politics of Pesticides" supra note 51 at 67-69. Volatilization is the physico-chemical process by which a compound is transferred to the gas phase. See Carole Bedos etal., "Mass transfer of pesticides into the atmosphere by volatilization from soils and plants: overview," (2002) 22 Agronomie 21 at 22. See Resource Futures International, supra note 11. See Environment Canada, "The Green Lane: Taking Action on POPs," February 2002, online: <http://www.ec.gc.ca/pops/brochure_e.htm>. See Guruswamy & Hendricks, supra note 30 at 196-198. Because aldrin readily converts to dieldrin in plants and animals, aldrin residues are usually found in small amounts. See Resource Futures International, supra note 11. U.S., Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, "Toxic FAQs about Aldrin and Dieldrin" (September 2002), online: <http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfactsl.html>. 9 2  9 3  9 4  9 5  9 6  9 7  involve the organophosphates diazinon, fenthion, parathion and phosphamidon America),  carbophenothion,  chlorpyrifos  (Argentina).  and  Among  chlorofenvinphos the  carbamates,  (Europe), carbofuran  (North  monocrotophos has  caused the  and most  p r o b l e m s . T h e p e s t i c i d e w a s i n v o l v e d in t h e d e a t h of 1 0 , 0 0 0 A m e r i c a n r o b i n s o n berry fields in F l o r i d a , a n d of 5 0 0 g r e y l a g g e e s e in S c o t l a n d , w h e r e m o r t a l i t y w a s c o n f i r m e d by d i r e c t c o u n t s . Y e t , t h e p r o b l e m c o u l d be m o r e s e r i o u s . A c c o r d i n g to a 1 9 8 9 e s t i m a t e by t h e U S E P A , b e t w e e n 1 a n d 2 million birds die e a c h y e a r in t h e U . S . d u e to c a r b o f u r a n alone.  9 8  O r g a n o p h o s p h a t e s m a y a l s o h a v e a n effect o n t h e i m m u n e s y s t e m of m a m m a l s .  Parathion,  for  instance,  delays  antibody  production,  m a l a t h i o n c a n d e p r e s s different i m m u n e r e s p o n s e s .  while  continuous  exposure  to  9 9  S y n t h e t i c p y r e t h r o i d s , t h e last m a j o r c l a s s of i n s e c t i c i d e s , h a v e g e n e r a l l y low m a m m a l i a n t o x i c i t y . H o w e v e r , t h e y c a n be v e r y t o x i c to b e n e f i c i a l i n s e c t s ( e . g . b e e s ) , f i s h a n d a q u a t i c a r t h r o p o d s ( e . g . c r a b s a n d s h r i m p ) . T h e y are a l s o h a z a r d o u s to t h e b r e e d i n g h a b i t a t of w a t e r f o w l . A s t u d y in t h e C a n a d i a n prairies s h o w e d a s u b s t a n t i a l d e c r e a s e in i n v e r t e b r a t e s p e c i e s d i v e r s i t y d u e to s y n t h e t i c p y r e t h r o i d s , w h i c h i m p e d e d u c k s to o b t a i n e n o u g h f o o d to r a i s e n o r m a l b r o o d s . A s for h e r b i c i d e s , t h e y h a v e t h e a b i l i t y to a l t e r h a b i t a t s a n d t h e r e b y to d i s r u p t wildlife. Different s t u d i e s in t h e U . K . s u g g e s t , for e x a m p l e , t h a t t h e u s e of h e r b i c i d e s h a s c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e d e c l i n e of different birds s p e c i e s ( e . g . g r e y p a r t r i d g e , corn bunting, s k y l a r k ) .  1 0 0  2.2.2.3. The circle of poison: a concern of the North  A s explained earlier problem  for  in t h i s  developing  chapter, acute  countries.  1 0 1  pesticide-related  Although  industrialised  poisonings are a countries  have  major largely  c o n t r o l l e d a c u t e p o i s o n i n g s , p o i s o n i n g s m a y still o c c u r , r e s u l t i n g f r o m e x p o s u r e to low l e v e l s of  p e s t i c i d e s o v e r a long  environmental  pollution  and  period  from  of t i m e . T h a t  exposure usually arises from  pesticide-contaminated  food.  1 0 2  The  phenomenon  See Emden & Peakall, supra note 2 at 18-19. For Argentina see Pfa Iolster & Santiago Krapovickas "Los Plaguicidas en Uso en La Argentina: Riesgos para las Aves Silverstres," (1999) Proyecto Pampas Argentinas, 2 Temas de Naturaleza y Conservacion at 7. The study also blames carbofuran for bird mortality in Argentina. See "World Resources 1998-1999," supra note 32 at 45. For details see Emden & Peakall, supra note 2 at 20-21. This does not mean that long-term pesticide exposure should not also be a matter of concern for the South. For instance, organochlorine residues have been reported in various foodstuffs and human milk in developing countries, suggesting that nursing infants are often ingesting residues at levels many times greater than the acceptable daily intakes proposed by FAO. See G. Forget, T. Goodman & A. de Villiers eds., Impact of pesticide 9 9  1 0 0  1 0 1  use  on  1990  (Ottawa: International Development Research Centre, 1993) at 8. See Jeyaratnam, supra note 52 at 139-140.  1 0 2  health  in developing  countries:  proceedings  of a symposium  held  in Ottawa,  Canada,  September  17-20,  k n o w n a s t h e ' c i r c l e of p o i s o n ' g r e a t l y c o n t r i b u t e s to t h e s e c o n d p r o b l e m . In t h e circle of poison,  pesticides that  developed countries  have  banned  or severely  restricted  for  d o m e s t i c u s e r e t u r n t o t h e m a s r e s i d u e s (at u n a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l s ) in a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s imported from the developing w o r l d .  1 0 3  In t h e last d e c a d e , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e r e w e r e m o r e  t h a n 1 4 , 0 0 0 e m b a r g o e s (for a v a l u e of a r o u n d U S $ 9 5 m i l l i o n ) of p r o d u c t s b e i n g e x p o r t e d from Latin A m e r i c a a n d the Caribbean to the U . S . , d u e to e x c e s s i v e pesticides r e s i d u e s . Similarly,  in a n a n a l y s i s b a s e d o n c o m p u t e r i z e d  records from  1 0 4  the Food a n d Drug  Administration's ( F D A ) pesticide monitoring program for the years 1 9 9 2 a n d 1 9 9 3 , the Environmental  Working  Group (an environmental  research institute)  identified  illegal  r e s i d u e s o n 5.6 p e r c e n t of t h e 1 4 , 9 2 3 s a m p l e s a n a l y z e d ( b o t h n a t i o n a l l y g r o w n a n d imported), a n d 7.4 per cent for imported f o o d .  T h i s p r o b l e m m a y e s p e c i a l l y affect  1 0 5  c h i l d r e n , w h o c a n be a t g r e a t e r risk t h a n a d u l t s b e c a u s e t h e y often c o n s u m e m o r e p e r b o d y w e i g h t of c e r t a i n f o o d s s u c h a s f r u i t s , w h i c h a r e likely t o c o n t a i n p e s t i c i d e r e s i d u e s , a n d b e c a u s e t h e y a r e u n d e r g o i n g rapid t i s s u e g r o w t h , a l l o w i n g g r e a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n of t h e s e s u b s t a n c e s in t h e i r s y s t e m s .  1 0 6  B e c a u s e it w o u l d r e q u i r e t e s t i n g p r a c t i c a l l y all i m p o r t e d f o o d , c o n t r o l l i n g t h e circle of p o i s o n a t h o m e is highly p r o b l e m a t i c . E v e n in t h e U . S . , t h e F o o d a n d D r u g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( F D A ) t e s t s o n l y a b o u t o n e p e r c e n t of all of t h e c o u n t r y ' s f r e s h f o o d , w h e t h e r nationally samples.  or imported, 1 0 7  finding  e x c e s s i v e r e s i d u e s in t w o t o five  percent  grown  of t h e s e  In a d d i t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l W o r k i n g G r o u p , s i n c e 1 9 8 0 t h e  Many pesticides that developed countries have banned or severely restricted for use in their territory are accepted as residues in the products they import, provided that they are below certain levels. See e.g. EC, Council residues on  the  Directive  Directive in and fixing  76/895/EEC on fruit  of maximum  90/642/EEC  of 23 November  and  vegetables  levels  for pesticide  of 27 November  1976  related  to the  [1976] O.J.L. 340/26, EC, 1990  residues fixing  the  in and maximum  fixing  of maximum  levels  Council  Directive  86/362/EEC  on cereals levels  for  pesticide of 24  July  [1986] O.J.L. 221/37; and EC, for pesticide  residues  in and  on  1986 Council certain  [1990] O.J.L. 350/71, in force within the EU, and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), 21 U.S.C. Chapter 9 (1996) which limits pesticide residues on food in the United States, online: <http://www.fda.gov/cvm/index/ffdc_act/ffdcatoc.html>. See Lori Ann Thurp "Cultivos Nuevos, Dilemas Viejos: Oportunidades y Retos en la agroexportaciôn no tradicional en Latinoamérica," based on "New Harvest, Old Problems: Feeding the Global Supermarket," (1994) 28:3 North American Congress on Latin America (NACLA) Report on the Americas online: <http://www.rimisp.cl/documentos/web/99/>. Illegal pesticides include: pesticides which have no tolerance for the crops on which they are detected (the pesticide was used illegally for that crop); pesticides found at levels exceeding legal limits (they were allowed for use on the crop but were found at levels exceeding the legal maximum level); banned pesticides that persist in the environment found at levels exceeding FDA-established limits (e.g. DDT, heptachlor, dieldrin and endrin); pesticides with no tolerance (not allowed in that crop) that are identified at levels too small to be quantified by FDA methods; and pesticides banned for use on some or all crops in the U.S. See Environmental Working Group, "Forbidden Fruit. Illegal Pesticides in the U.S. Food Supply" (February 1995), online: <http://www.ewg.org/reports/fruit/Contents.html> (in Executive Summary). See "World Resources 1998-1999," supra note 32 at 46. Robin L. Cowling, "Pic, Pops and the Mai Apocalypse: our Environmental Future as a Function of Investor's Rights and Chemical Management Initiatives" (1999) 21 Hous. J. Int'l L. 231 at 3.  products  1 0 4  1 0 5  1 0 6  1 0 7  of plant  origin,  including  fruit  and  vegetables  U . S . G e n e r a l A c c o u n t i n g Office ( G A O ) h a s p u b l i s h e d 2 2 r e p o r t s d e t a i l i n g t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s of t h e F D A p e s t i c i d e m o n i t o r i n g  program.  1 0 8  T h e circle of p o i s o n h a s m o t i v a t e d d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s to r e g u l a t e t h e e x p o r t of t o x i c p e s t i c i d e s to d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . related  to  persistent  1 0 9  H o w e v e r , b e c a u s e t h e circle of p o i s o n is p r i m a r i l y  pesticides such  as  organochlorines,  the  focus  of  action  (e.g.  e n v i r o n m e n t a l c a m p a i g n s , e m b a r g o e s of i m p o r t e d p r o d u c t s , t h e s i g n i n g of t h e S t o c k h o l m C o n v e n t i o n o n P O P s ) h a s b e e n on s u c h p e s t i c i d e s . T h i s h a s led f a r m e r s in t h e S o u t h to u s e m o r e o r g a n o p h o s p h a t e s a n d c a r b a m a t e s , w h i c h are less likely to l e a v e a r e s i d u e but are more acutely toxic than o r g a n o c h l o r i n e s .  1 1 0  A s e x p l a i n e d e a r l i e r in t h i s c h a p t e r , o r g a n o p h o s p h a t e s a n d c a r b a m a t e s d e c o m p o s e m o r e q u i c k l y a n d t h u s r e t a i n l o w e r l e v e l s of r e s i d u e , but t h e y p r e s e n t a m u c h h i g h e r h e a l t h risk to f a r m e r s t h a n d o o r g a n o c h l o r i n e s . T h e circle of p o i s o n , t h e r e f o r e , d o e s not  provide  e n o u g h m o t i v a t i o n for d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s to c o n t r o l or p r e v e n t t h e e x p o r t of p e s t i c i d e s t h e y h a v e b a n n e d o r s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d for r e a s o n s of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t  or health  to  d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . W h a t is m o r e , it m a y p r o v i d e a n i n c e n t i v e for d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s to p r o m o t e the u s e of m o r e a c u t e l y t o x i c p e s t i c i d e s in t h e S o u t h in o r d e r to imported  prevent  f o o d f r o m h a v i n g p e s t i c i d e r e s i d u e s at u n a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l s . T h u s , w h i l e  the  S t o c k h o l m C o n v e n t i o n h a s s t r o n g c o n t r o l s o n p r o d u c t i o n a n d u s e of p e r s i s t e n t p e s t i c i d e s such as DDT, aldrin, and chlordane, the  Rotterdam  Convention  merely  sets a  prior  c o n s e n t s y s t e m t h a t u l t i m a t e l y v a l i d a t e s d o u b l e s t a n d a r d s , i.e., t h e e x p o r t by c o u n t r i e s of c h e m i c a l s b a n n e d or s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d for d o m e s t i c u s e . T h u s , o n e c o u l d a f f i r m t h a t t h e spirit of t h e R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n is c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e spirit of the l a w s t h a t h a v e a l l o w e d N o r t h e r n a g r o c h e m i c a l c o r p o r a t i o n s to e x p o r t h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s to t h e S o u t h , w h i c h are p r e s e n t e d in t h e n e x t s e c t i o n .  2.3. Northern legislation regulating the export of hazardous chemicals  Developed countries chemicals  and  have banned or severely restricted  pesticides  b e c a u s e of  the  risks t h e y  the  u s e of m a n y  p o s e to  human  hazardous  health  or  the  See Environmental Working Group, supra note 105 (in FDA Monitoring and Enforcement). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, for example, refers to growing public concern about pesticide residues in imported foods as one of causes for revising its Pesticide Export Policy in 1993. See EPA Final Pesticide Export Policy Statement Rule, 58:31 Fed. Reg., 9062 (1993) at 9063. [hereinafter EPA Export Policy 1993]. See James Colopy "Poisoning the Developing World: The Exportation of Unregistered and Severely Restricted Pesticides from the United States" (1995) 13 UCLA J. Envtl. L. & Pol'y 167 at 183. 1 0 9  1 1 0  environment. A t the s a m e time, they have allowed the export of those substances to o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , p u t t i n g o t h e r p e o p l e ' s h e a l t h a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a t risk. T h i s s e c t i o n will f o c u s o n t h e e x p o r t l e g i s l a t i o n of W e s t e r n E u r o p e a n d t h e U . S . , w h e r e a l l t h e c u r r e n t agrochemical c o m p a n i e s that control the global pesticides market are based.  2.3.1. The European Union  In t h e E u r o p e a n U n i o n , t h e e x p o r t a n d i m p o r t of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s is r e g u l a t e d b y Regulation No. 3 0 4 / 2 0 0 3 ,  1 1 1  w h i c h i m p l e m e n t s t h e t e x t of t h e R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n a n d  t h e i n t e r i m P I C p r o c e d u r e a s e s t a b l i s h e d in t h e R e s o l u t i o n o n i n t e r i m a r r a n g e m e n t s laid d o w n in t h e Final A c t of t h e D i p l o m a t i c C o n f e r e n c e w h i c h a d o p t e d t h e c o n v e n t i o n . T h e new  regulation  voluntary  replaces Council Regulation E E C No. 2 4 5 5 / 9 2 , which  had made the  P I C p r o c e d u r e of t h e F A O C o d e of C o n d u c t a n d U N E P L o n d o n G u i d e l i n e s  mandatory within the community.  T h e r e g u l a t i o n h a s t h r e e b a s i c f u n c t i o n s : a) t o e s t a b l i s h a n e x p o r t notification s c h e m e f o r c h e m i c a l s b a n n e d o r s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d w i t h i n t h e C o m m u n i t y ; b) t o i m p l e m e n t t h e P I C p r o c e d u r e w i t h i n t h e E C f o r t h o s e c h e m i c a l s s u b j e c t t o it u n d e r t h e R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n or u n d e r t h e i n t e r i m p r o c e d u r e (listed in Part 3 of A n n e x I ) , a n d t h o s e q u a l i f y i n g f o r P I C notification  (listed  in Part 2 of A n n e x I ) ;  a n d c) t o g u a r a n t e e  that  provisions on  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , p a c k a g i n g a n d labelling t h a t a p p l y w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y a l s o b e a p p l i e d t o hazardous substances exported to third countries (regardless of whether the importing c o u n t r y is a p a r t y t o t h e R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n ) .  1 1 2  In t h e c a s e of c h e m i c a l s t h a t h a v e b e e n b a n n e d o r s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d w i t h i n t h e E C f o r h e a l t h o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e a s o n s , e x p o r t s to t h i r d c o u n t r i e s a r e a l l o w e d a s long a s t h e e x p o r t e r notifies its o w n g o v e r n m e n t ' s d e s i g n a t e d n a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y  ( D N A ) of t h e first  e x p o r t a t l e a s t 3 0 d a y s b e f o r e it t a k e s p l a c e . T h e e x p o r t e r ' s D N A m u s t t h e n notify t h e e x p o r t to t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a u t h o r i t i e s of t h e i m p o r t i n g c o u n t r y , a t l e a s t 1 5 d a y s p r i o r t o t h e e x p o r t . T h e r e a f t e r , t h e e x p o r t e r m u s t notify t h e first e x p o r t of t h e c h e m i c a l e a c h c a l e n d a r y e a r t o t h e D N A no l a t e r t h a n 15 d a y s prior t o t h e e x p o r t .  1 1 3  In t h e c a s e of t h e  s u b s t a n c e s i n c l u d e d in t h e P I C p r o c e d u r e ( a n d t h o s e t h a t h a v e b e e n b a n n e d o r s e v e r e l y  1  1  1  EC, Regulation  export  and  1 1 2  See  1  Ibid.  1  3  import  Ibid. Art.  304/2003 of dangerous  of the European chemicals  Arts. 7, 13 and 16. 7.  Parliament  and  of the Council  [2003] O J . L. 063/1.  of 28 January  2003  concerning  the  restricted within the C o m m u n i t y a n d qualify for PIC n o t i f i c a t i o n ) ,  114  importing  countries  m u s t h a v e g i v e n t h e i r c o n s e n t f o r t h e e x p o r t to o c c u r . If a n i m p o r t i n g c o u n t r y h a s n o t given a response to t h e import,  t h e c h e m i c a l s h o u l d n o t be e x p o r t e d  unless explicit  c o n s e n t of t h e i m p o r t i n g c o u n t r y w a s s o u g h t a n d o b t a i n e d b y t h e e x p o r t e r o r , in t h e c a s e of P I C c h e m i c a l s , t h e latest c i r c u l a r i s s u e d b y t h e R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n S e c r e t a r i a t ( w i t h information  on decisions on imports)  i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e i m p o r t i n g c o u n t r y h a s g i v e n its  consent to import that c h e m i c a l . Notably, the new directive does not reproduce another e x c e p t i o n t h a t w a s i n c l u d e d in C o u n c i l R e g u l a t i o n E E C N o . 2 4 5 5 / 9 2 : w h e n t h e c h e m i c a l is r e g i s t e r e d in t h e i m p o r t i n g c o u n t r y o r it h a s b e e n u s e d o r i m p o r t e d in t h e p a s t . T h i s is a significant i m p r o v e m e n t because, as Chapter 4 explains, this exception guarantees that trade  in  hazardous  chemicals  p a r t i c i p a t e in t h e P I C p r o c e d u r e . members  to  export  chemicals  will 1 1 5  continue  unless  importing  D e s p i t e this i m p r o v e m e n t ,  that  are banned  countries  effectively  E U l e g i s l a t i o n a l l o w s its  or severely  restricted  within  the  c o m m u n i t y to t h i r d c o u n t r i e s , a n d a l t h o u g h s o m e m e m b e r s ( i . e . S w e d e n a n d D e n m a r k ) h a v e c a l l e d f o r a b a n o n t h e e x p o r t of c h e m i c a l s b a n n e d in t h e c o u n t r y of p r o d u c t i o n , t h e proposal h a s not s u c c e e d e d .  1 1 6  2.3.2. Switzerland  In S w i t z e r l a n d , t h e r e is no s p e c i f i c p r o v i s i o n r e g u l a t i n g t h e e x p o r t of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d p e s t i c i d e s t o o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . A s a r e s u l t , t h e e x p o r t of s u b s t a n c e s t h a t h a v e b e e n banned or severely restricted domestically to protect the e n v i r o n m e n t or h u m a n health, or  which  have  never  been  registered,  is p e r m i t t e d .  More  importantly,  there  is n o  o b l i g a t i o n o n t h e part of t h e e x p o r t e r t o notify t h e i m p o r t i n g g o v e r n m e n t of s u c h e x p o r t s . Even  s o , the production  of a n u m b e r  of s u b s t a n c e s is p r o h i b i t e d  " O r d o n n a n c e s u r les S u b s t a n c e s D a n g e r e u s e s p o u r  under  I' E n v i r o n n e m e n t "  the 1986  (Ordinance on  s u b s t a n c e s d a n g e r o u s t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t ) , w h i c h m e a n s t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t be e x p o r t e d to o t h e r c o u n t r i e s .  i  i  H  See Ibid.  Art.  1 1 7  13  Please see section 4.4.1. in Chapter 4, Council Regulation EEC No. 2455/92, supra note 3 Art. 5.5, and Ibid. Art. 13(6). See "Conference Focuses on International Trade in Dangerous Chemicals" Pesticide Action Network North America Updates Service (PANUPS) (21 July 1995). These substances include, amongst others: HCH, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, chlordane, heptachlor, HCB (except Lindane, which can be manufactured), DDT, DDD, DDE, PCBs and PCTs. (Almost all of these substances are organochlorines, which are not acutely toxic to human health). See Ordonnance Sur les Substances Dangereuses pour l'Environnement, 9 June 1986, Bulletin Officiel (B.O.) 814.013, Art. 11 and Annexes 3 and 4, online: <http://www.admin.ch/ch/f/rs/814_013/index.html>. 1 1 5  1 1 6  1 1 7  R e c o g n i z i n g t h e n e e d to h a r m o n i s e its l e g i s l a t i o n w i t h t h a t of t h e E U a n d to i m p l e m e n t t h e R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n in t h e f u t u r e , t h e S w i s s P a r l i a m e n t a d o p t e d t h e " L o i Fédérale s u r la P r o t e c t i o n c o n t r e les S u b s t a n c e s et les P r é p a r a t i o n s D a n g e r e u s e s " ( F e d e r a l L a w o n p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t h a z a r d o u s s u b s t a n c e s a n d f o r m u l a t i o n s ) in D e c e m b e r 2 0 0 0 . T h i s n e w law will r e p l a c e t h e " L o i Fédérale s u r le C o m m e r c e d e T o x i q u e s " ( F e d e r a l law o n t h e c o m m e r c e of t o x i c s ) , in f o r c e s i n c e 1 9 6 9 , w h i c h d o e s not a d d r e s s t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e in s u b s t a n c e s h a z a r d o u s to h e a l t h . A r t i c l e 19 d) of t h e n e w law will g i v e t h e F e d e r a l C o u n c i l t h e p o w e r to r e g u l a t e t h e e x p o r t of s u b s t a n c e s h a z a r d o u s t o h e a l t h by m e a n s of ordinance.  1 1 8  2.3.3. The United States  In t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e e x p o r t of i n d u s t r i a l c h e m i c a l s falls u n d e r t h e T o x i c S u b s t a n c e s Control Act (TSCA).  S e c t i o n 12 (b)  of t h e  TSCA  requires an export  notification  of  s u b s t a n c e s o r m i x t u r e s in a n u m b e r of c a s e s . If t e s t i n g of t h e s u b s t a n c e o r m i x t u r e h a s been  required  under  sections 4  (the  export  presents  an  unreasonable  health  or  e n v i r o n m e n t a l risk w i t h i n t h e U . S . , e . g . to w o r k e r s ) , or 5 ( b ) (it c o n c e r n s a n e w c h e m i c a l or a n e w u s e ) , t h e e x p o r t e r m u s t notify t h e E P A of its e x p o r t or i n t e n t to e x p o r t . T h e E P A m u s t t h e n notify t h e g o v e r n m e n t of t h e i m p o r t i n g c o u n t r y of t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of t h e d a t a r e c e i v e d . In a d d i t i o n , t h e e x p o r t e r m u s t notify t h e E P A of a n e x p o r t or i n t e n t to e x p o r t in t h e c a s e of a c h e m i c a l s u b j e c t to r e g u l a t o r y o r d e r o r a c t i o n . c a n notify t h e E P A after  1 1 9  In all c a s e s , t h e e x p o r t e r  t h e e x p o r t h a s t a k e n p l a c e . T h u s , no prior c o n s e n t f r o m  the  i m p o r t e r is r e q u i r e d .  A s for p e s t i c i d e s , t h e F e d e r a l I n s e c t i c i d e , F u n g i c i d e a n d R o d e n t i c i d e A c t ( F I F R A ) a l l o w s t h e e x p o r t of u n r e g i s t e r e d p e s t i c i d e s (i.e. b a n n e d o r n e v e r r e g i s t e r e d ) a s long a s s o m e i n f o r m a t i o n is p r o v i d e d to t h e i m p o r t e r . the  exporter  must  label  its  product  1 2 0  T h e act b a s i c a l l y h a s t h r e e r e q u i r e m e n t s :  in a  particular  manner,  including  a  notice  1) -if  a p p l i c a b l e - t h a t t h e p e s t i c i d e is not r e g i s t e r e d for u s e in t h e U . S . ; 2) p r i o r to s h i p p i n g t h e p e s t i c i d e , t h e e x p o r t e r m u s t notify t h e U . S . E P A t h a t it h a s notified t h e f o r e i g n p u r c h a s e r  See Assemblée fédérale de la Confédération suisse, Loi fédérale du 21 mars 1969 sur le commerce des 21 March 1969, B.O. 813.0, online: <http://www.admm.ch/ch/f/rs/c813 Q.html> and Loi fédérale sur la protection contre les substances et les preparations dangereuses, 15 December 2000, B.O. 99.090, online: <http://www.baq.admin.ch/chemikal/chemq/f/index.htm>. For further details see Toxic Substances Control Act, 15 U.S.C. § 2601 (1976) at § 2611 (exports). See also Ray M. Druley & Girard L. Ordway, The Toxic Substances Control Act, Rev ed. (Washington, D.C.: Bureau of National Affairs, 1981) at 396. See FIFRA, supra note 3 at § 136o. toxiques,  1 1 9  1 2 0  that the  products  shipped are  not  registered  for  domestic  use;  1 2 1  and  3)  the  U.S.  g o v e r n m e n t m u s t notify the i m p o r t i n g c o u n t r y w h e n it m a k e s a s u b s t a n t i a l c h a n g e in its r e g u l a t i o n of a c e r t a i n p e s t i c i d e .  1 2 2  T o s u m u p , E U , S w i s s a n d U . S . law s a n c t i o n t h e e x p o r t of c h e m i c a l s b a n n e d or n e v e r r e g i s t e r e d d o m e s t i c a l l y for r e a s o n s of the e n v i r o n m e n t o r h e a l t h . T h i s h a s a l l o w e d t h e t o p s i x a g r o c h e m i c a l c o r p o r a t i o n s , b a s e d in G e r m a n y , S w i t z e r l a n d , a n d the U n i t e d S t a t e s , to e x p o r t h a z a r d o u s p e s t i c i d e s to d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , w h e r e m a n y u s e r s are u n t r a i n e d a n d poorly  educated,  protective  clothing  is too  expensive  or  uncomfortable,  and  rural  c o m m u n i t i e s h a v e p o o r a c c e s s to m e d i c a l c a r e , g o o d w a s h i n g facilities or s a f e s t o r a g e areas.  1 2 3  It s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e c o m e a s no s u r p r i s e t h a t a b o u t 9 9 % of all p o i s o n i n g s o c c u r  in d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s e v e n t h o u g h m o r e t h a n 8 0 % of t h e w o r l d ' s p e s t i c i d e s a r e a p p l i e d in i n d u s t r i a l i s e d c o u n t r i e s .  1 2 4  In s p i t e of t h i s k n o w n fact, d o u b l e s t a n d a r d s a r e still  in  p l a c e , a n d t h e e x p o r t of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s is still a c o m m o n p r a c t i c e . T h e r e a s o n s r e g u l a t o r s h a v e p r o v i d e d to s u s t a i n t h e m follow.  2.3.4. Justifications to maintain pesticide export double standards  In its 1 9 9 3 P e s t i c i d e E x p o r t Policy ( w h i c h clarifies the F I F R A ) , t h e U . S . E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n A g e n c y ( E P A ) p r o v i d e d f o u r a r g u m e n t s to j u s t i f y the e x p o r t of p e s t i c i d e s ( b a n n e d or n e v e r r e g i s t e r e d ) to o t h e r c o u n t r i e s .  1 2 5  unregistered  First, t h e U . S . is o n l y o n e  e x p o r t e r in t h e m a r k e t a n d its u n i l a t e r a l p r o h i b i t i o n of c e r t a i n e x p o r t s will not s t o p t h e u s e of s u c h p r o d u c t s in o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . S e c o n d , it m a y be m o r e e f f e c t i v e to c o n c e n t r a t e o n t h e s a f e m a n a g e m e n t of all p e s t i c i d e s r a t h e r t h a n o n b a n n i n g c e r t a i n U . S . p e s t i c i d e s f r o m i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e . T h i r d , the fact t h a t a p e s t i c i d e is not r e g i s t e r e d in the U . S . m a y g i v e little i n d i c a t i o n of w h e t h e r it a l s o w o u l d i m p o s e a s e r i o u s h e a l t h or  environmental  t h r e a t w h e n u s e d in o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , a s t h e E P A ' s r e g u l a t o r y d e c i s i o n s are b a s e d u p o n r i s k / b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s s p e c i f i c to the U . S . L a s t l y , s o m e p e s t i c i d e p r o d u c e r s m a y not w a n t to  The foreign purchaser must sign a statement acknowledging that he understands that the pesticide is not registered for use in the U.S. and cannot be sold in the U.S. under the FIFRA. A copy of that statement has to be transmitted to an appropriate official of the government of the importing country. See FIFRA, Ibid., § 136o. (a)(2). Michael Holley, "The EPA's Pesticide Export Policy: Why the United States Should Restrict the Export of Unregistered Pesticides to Developing Countries," (2001) 9 N.Y.U. Envtl. L.J. 340, at 3, and FIFRA, supra note 3. Pesticide Action Network UK, "Prior Informed Consent," Pest Management Notes No. 5 (November 1998) at 1, online: <http://www.pan-uk.org/internat/IPMinDC/pmn5.pdf>. "International Code on Pesticide Use Adopted in Rome," supra note 55. 1 2 1  1 2 2  1 2 3  1 2 4  1  See EPA Export Policy 1993, supra  note 109 at 9063.  r e g i s t e r t h e i r p r o d u c t in t h e U . S . s i m p l y b e c a u s e it is m e a n t to be u s e d in o t h e r c o u n t r y a n d it w o u l d not be u s e f u l in t h e d o m e s t i c m a r k e t ( e . g . it m a y c o n t r o l a p e s t t h a t is not a p r o b l e m in the U . S . ) .  1 2 6  A s p o i n t e d o u t by M i c h a e l H o l l e y , t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w o u l d be r e a s o n a b l e if all c o u n t r i e s h a d a s i m i l a r c a p a c i t y to e v a l u a t e t h e risks p o s e d by a p e s t i c i d e , a n d if t h e r e alternatives  (i.e. a less h a r m f u l  exported.  However, developing countries  1 2 7  or a n o n - c h e m i c a l s o l u t i o n ) generally  lack t h e  were  to the s u b s t a n c e c a p a c i t y to  being  make  the  c o m p r e h e n s i v e r i s k / a n a l y s i s e v a l u a t i o n s r e q u i r e d a n d to e n s u r e t h e s a f e u s e a n d d i s p o s a l of t h e i m p o r t e d s u b s t a n c e s , a n d t h e y often c a n n o t afford s a f e r a l t e r n a t i v e s . O n e s h o u l d p r o b a b l y d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n p e s t i c i d e s t h a t h a v e b e e n b a n n e d to p r o t e c t h u m a n and the environment,  health  a n d p e s t i c i d e s t h a t h a v e n e v e r b e e n r e g i s t e r e d for u s e in  the  e x p o r t i n g c o u n t r y . In t h e first c a s e , e x p o r t s h o u l d not t a k e p l a c e , a s a m a t t e r of p r i n c i p l e . If a s u b s t a n c e is too h a z a r d o u s to be u s e d in the N o r t h , it is a l m o s t c e r t a i n t h a t it will be at l e a s t e q u a l l y h a r m f u l w h e n u s e d in t h e S o u t h . T h e v e r y fact t h a t the g r e a t m a j o r i t y  of  p e s t i c i d e p o i s o n i n g s o c c u r in d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s e v e n t h o u g h t h e g r e a t e r u s e r s a r e in t h e N o r t h s u p p o r t s t h i s a s s e r t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , s u b s t a n c e s t h a t a r e not all t h a t h a z a r d o u s in the  North  may  p o s e s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s in t h e S o u t h . T h i s is w h y  only  developing  c o u n t r i e s ( a n d c o u n t r i e s w i t h e c o n o m i e s in t r a n s i t i o n ) c a n t r i g g e r t h e p r o c e s s of a d d i n g h a z a r d o u s p e s t i c i d e f o r m u l a t i o n s to the PIC list, w h i l e d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s c a n n o t .  In  r e l a t i o n to p e s t i c i d e s n e v e r r e g i s t e r e d for use in t h e e x p o r t i n g  a c c e p t t h a t in s o m e c a s e s p r o d u c e r s m a y  not w a n t  to  1 2 8  country, one could  register their  product  simply  b e c a u s e it is not u s e f u l d o m e s t i c a l l y . H o w e v e r , this s h o u l d not e x e m p t t h e p r o d u c e r f r o m t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p r o p e r l y t e s t i n g its p r o d u c t so t h a t it d o e s not p o s e u n r e a s o n a b l e r i s k s to h u m a n h e a l t h or t h e e n v i r o n m e n t e l s e w h e r e . A c o m p l e t e risk a n a l y s i s s h o u l d be still c a r r i e d o u t , t a k i n g into a c c o u n t t h e p h y s i c a l a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l  c o n d i t i o n s of the  c o u n t r y w h e r e t h e p r o d u c t will be u s e d . T h i s v i e w is reflected in t h e F A O C o d e of C o n d u c t , w h i c h requires pesticide m a n u f a c t u r e r s to "Ensure that each pesticide and pesticide product is adequately and effectively tested by well recognized procedures and test methods so as to fully evaluate its safety, efficacy and fate with regard to the various anticipated conditions in regions or countries of u s e . " 129  See Ibid, at 9064. For a further analysis of this issue see Holley, supra note 122 at 4-5. See Rotterdam Convention, supra note 16, Art. 6. See Chapter 3 and Code of Conduct, supra note 48 Art. 4.1.1)  C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t six m u l t i n a t i o n a l pesticides m a r k e t ,  corporations  a n d t h a t all of t h e m  b a s e d in the  North  control  h a v e s e v e r a l s u b s i d i a r i e s in the  the  global  South,  the  r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t t h e y effectively test their p r o d u c t s u n d e r the p h y s i c a l a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s of the regions or c o u n t r i e s of use d o e s not s e e m too o n e r o u s .  2.4. The Global Pesticides Market  In  July  2 0 0 1 , seven agrochemical corporations  controlled  about  73%  of t h e  global  p e s t i c i d e s m a r k e t , v a l u e d at a b o u t U S $ 2 9 , 8 8 0 m i l l i o n in 2 0 0 0 . In o r d e r of s i g n i f i c a n c e , these companies are S y n g e n t a ( S w i s s / U . K . ) ; Monsanto ( U . S . ) ; Aventis ( G e r m a n / F r e n c h ) ; Dow ( U . S . ) ; Bayer ( G e r m a n ) ; Basf ( G e r m a n ) ; and DuPont ( U . S . ) .  1 3 0  With the acquisition  of A v e n t i s by B a y e r in S e p t e m b e r 2 0 0 1 , t h e n u m b e r h a s b e e n r e d u c e d to s i x .  1 3 1  D e s p i t e t h e i r a d v a n t a g e o u s p o s i t i o n , t h e s e c o m p a n i e s a r e f a c i n g a n u m b e r of difficulties t h a t c o u l d s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i m i n i s h t h e i r profits. O n e of t h e m is t h a t p e s t i c i d e t e c h n o l o g y h a s relied  heavily  on chlorine  chemistry,  which  is a t a r g e t of e n v i r o n m e n t a l  b e c a u s e of its p e r s i s t e n c e a n d r e l a t e d h a z a r d s . in n o v e l p r o d u c t s ,  1 3 3  1 3 2  campaigns  T h e r e is a l s o little l i k e l i h o o d of a s u r g e  w h i c h h a s p u s h e d a g r o c h e m i c a l c o m p a n i e s to shift t o w a r d s g e n e t i c  e n g i n e e r i n g in s e a r c h of n e w a v e n u e s of p r o f i t a b i l i t y , a n d p o s s i b l y a l s o to e n s u r e t h e c o n t i n u o u s u s e of p e s t i c i d e s in a g r i c u l t u r e . these  two  industries  agrochemical market.  require  explains  1 3 4  the  various  mergers  and costly research that and  takeovers  in  the  1 3 5  See Barbara Dinham "Corporate change" Pesticides News <http://www.pan-uk.org/pestnews/pn53/pn53pl2.htm>. 1 3 0  The long-term  53 (September 2001) 12 at 12-14, online:  131  The agreement was signed in September 2001. Bayer, Press Release, "Bayer Acquires Aventis CropScience," (2 October 2001). See Dinham, "Corporate Change," supra note 130 at 12-14. 1 3 2  133  After more than 50 years of research, most modern synthetic insecticides are still derived from three chemical classes, i.e., organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids. Pesticide Action Network UK, "Review of the Global Pesticide Market" Pesticides News 22 (December 1993) 11 at 11, online: <http://www.panuk.org/pestnews/pn22/pn22pl 1. htm >. Of the top seven (now six) agrochemical companies, four are among the top 10 seed corporations, and the other 2 (BASF and Bayer) have recently expanded into the sector. See Dinham, "Corporate Change," supra note 130 at 12-14. Although the issue of genetically engineered seeds exceeds the scope of this thesis, it is important to mention its role in promoting the use of pesticides. In 1999, nearly 20 years after agrochemical giants had entered the field, 78% of all the genetically engineered crops planted in the world were engineered for herbicide tolerance. These crops are designed to resist the broad-spectrum herbicides of the companies that make them. One example is Monsanto's 'Roundup' transgenic soybeans, which are resistant to its herbicide glyphosate and have pushed sales through the roof. By gaining control of the genetically engineered seed market, agrochemical corporations are linking the seed market inextricably to the pesticides market. See Devlin Kuyek, "Lords of Poison: The Pesticide Cartel," Seedling (Quarterly Newsletter of Genetic Resources Action International -GRAIN) (June 2000). 1 3 4  135  To give a few examples, Syngenta resulted from the merge of Zeneca and Novartis, while Novartis is a merge between Ciba Ceigy and Sandoz (both Swiss). Aventis (now Bayer) was formed by the merge of RhônePoulenc (France) and AgrEvo, which in turn was a fusion between Hoechst (EU/German) and Schering (EU/German). Also, the crop protection business of Cyanamid (U.S.) was acquired by BASF.  A n o t h e r difficulty t h e s e c o m p a n i e s f a c e is t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s r e q u i r e t h e m to d e v e l o p n e w d a t a o n s u b s t a n c e s t h a t a r e a l r e a d y in the m a r k e t . T h i s h a s c r e a t e d a n i n c e n t i v e for t h e m to d r o p m a n y of t h e i r old s u b s t a n c e s , i n s t e a d of f i n d i n g s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e y a r e safe to t h e e n v i r o n m e n t  and h u m a n health. T h u s , while the EU Council Directive  No  9 1 / 4 1 4 r e q u i r e s c o m p a n i e s to s u b m i t n e w d a t a o n s u b s t a n c e s t h a t are a l r e a d y o n t h e market,  1 3 6  c o m p a n i e s a r e d r o p p i n g m a n y of t h e i r r e g i s t e r e d p r o d u c t s . B a y e r , for i n s t a n c e ,  h a s i n d i c a t e d t h a t it i n t e n d s to d r o p t w o - t h i r d s of its 6 0 a c t i v e i n g r e d i e n t s  currently  m a r k e t e d in E u r o p e , p h a s i n g o u t a r o u n d 1 0 0 p r o d u c t s , w h i l e A v e n t i s ( n o w B a y e r ) h a s b e e n r e m o v i n g m i n o r low profit p r o d u c t s .  1 3 7  S i m i l a r l y , in t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e  FIFRA  r e q u i r e s t h e E P A to r e r e g i s t e r all p e s t i c i d e s r e g i s t e r e d for u s e prior to N o v e m b e r 1 , 1 9 8 4 st  to e n s u r e t h a t p e s t i c i d e r e g i s t r a t i o n s a r e b a s e d o n c u r r e n t s c i e n t i f i c a n d legal s t a n d a r d s . In 1 9 8 8 , U . S . C o n g r e s s a m e n d e d F I F R A to a c c e l e r a t e t h e p r o c e s s a n d e s t a b l i s h e d a s e r i e s of d e a d l i n e s , a n d t h e E P A d i v i d e d t h e p e s t i c i d e s to be r e r e g i s t e r e d  in f o u r lists. T h e  o v e r a l l t r e n d for all lists is a s u b s t a n t i a l r e d u c t i o n in t h e n u m b e r of p e s t i c i d e s b e i n g s u p p o r t e d for r e r e g i s t r a t i o n by p e s t i c i d e c o m p a n i e s . T h e n u m b e r of c a s e s c o n s i d e r e d for r e r e g i s t r a t i o n d e c l i n e d f r o m a b o u t 6 0 0 in 1 9 8 8 to a b o u t 4 0 0 in e a r l y 1 9 9 1 .  1 3 8  This means  t h a t s o m e p o t e n t i a l l y h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a r e b e c o m i n g ' u n r e g i s t e r e d ' a n d c o u l d e n d up in t h e d e v e l o p i n g w o r l d , w h e r e a p p r o p r i a t e risk a n a l y s i s to p r o t e c t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t  and  h u m a n h e a l t h a r e u n l i k e l y to be p e r f o r m e d .  P e s t i c i d e c o m p a n i e s a r e a l s o f a c i n g s t a g n a t i n g m a r k e t s in N o r t h A m e r i c a a n d E u r o p e . In  r e s p o n s e to  that, they  a r e s e e k i n g to  increase the  market  for  agrochemicals  d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y big m a r k e t s s u c h a s B r a z i l , C h i n a a n d I n d i a .  1 4 0  1 3 9  in  This  i m p l i e s not o n l y a n i n c r e a s e in p e s t i c i d e e x p o r t s but a l s o a t r a n s f e r of p r o d u c t i o n to t h e S o u t h . In 1 9 9 6 , w h i l e N o v a r t i s ( n o w S y n g e n t a ) a n n o u n c e d p l a n s to p h a s e o u t t h e u s e of m o n o c r o t o p h o s in t h e N o r t h ,  See products 137  EC, on  Council the  Directive  market  1 4 1  91/414/EEC  it o p e n e d a n e w p l a n t in C h i n a c a p a b l e of p r o d u c i n g 5 , 0 0 0  of 15 July  1991  concerning  the  placing  of plant  protection  [1991] O.J.L. 230/1, Art. 8.  See Dinham, "Corporate Change," supra note 130 at 12-14. See U.S., EPA, "Pesticide Registration 6/91," posted by the Pesticide Management Education Program, Cornell University (2001), online: <http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/regulation/pcdregslib/pestic.reregistration.6.91.html>. See Barbara Dinham, "Merger Mania in World Agrochemicals Market" Pesticides News 49 (September 2000) 10 at 10, online: <http://www.pan-uk.org/pestnews/pn49/pn49pl0.htm>. See Dinham, "Corporate change," supra note 130 at 12-14. Monocrotophos (which was on the PIC list only as a formulation) was added to the interim PIC procedure in October 2002, and it is not registered for use in Switzerland (In Office Fédéral de l'Agriculture, "Produits Phytosanitaires 2002,' Berne, Suisse (CH), (last update 20.09.2002), online: <http://www.blw.admin.ch/pflanzenschutzverz/pb home f.html>. It is banned in Lybia, Australia, Laos, Vanuatu, Hungary, Kuwait and the U.S., and severely restricted in Sri Lanka. It is also prohibited in Belgium, Denmark, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Sweden, Iceland and Liechtenstein, in their national 1 3 8  1 3 9  1 4 0  1 4 1  t o n n e s of t h e p e s t i c i d e e v e r y y e a r . S h o r t l y a f t e r , Z e n e c a ( a l s o n o w S y n g e n t a )  began  c o n s t r u c t i o n of a p l a n t to m a n u f a c t u r e up to 6 , 0 0 0 t o n n e s per y e a r of p a r a q u a t ( b a n n e d for u s e in S w i t z e r l a n d )  in C h i n a .  1 4 2  1 4 3  L a s t l y , t h e p o t e n t i a l of S o u t h e r n c o u n t r i e s s u c h a s C h i n a , India a n d B r a z i l to  become  m a j o r c e n t r e s of g e n e r i c p r o d u c t i o n is p u s h i n g big a g r o c h e m i c a l s to g e t s t r o n g e r in the s a l e of g e n e r i c s , w h i c h a c c o u n t for 5 3 % of the g l o b a l m a r k e t . A v e n t i s ( n o w B a y e r ) , f o r i n s t a n c e , b o u g h t 5 1 % of M i t s u I n d u s t r i e s of I n d i a , w h i c h h a d b e c o m e a l e a d i n g g e n e r i c p r o d u c e r a n d e x p o r t e r of p y r e t h r o i d s .  1 4 4  B A S F b o u g h t M i c r o F l o ( U . S . ) , w h i c h is t h e s e c o n d  b i g g e s t c r o p p r o t e c t i o n g e n e r i c c o m p a n y in the w o r l d ; D u P o n t f o r m e d a j o i n t v e n t u r e w i t h Griffin  (U.S.),  1 4 5  and  Dow  AgroSciences with  Cheminova  (Denmark).  Generic  1 4 6  p r o d u c e r s a r e a l s o a c q u i r i n g c o m p a n i e s in the S o u t h . M a k h t e s h i m - A g a n I n d u s t r i e s  Ltd.  ( I s r a e l ) , t h e w o r l d ' s l e a d i n g g e n e r i c m a n u f a c t u r e r of c r o p p r o t e c t i o n p r o d u c t s , h a s a d d e d A r g e n t i n e a n , B r a z i l i a n , a n d C o l o m b i a n m a n u f a c t u r i n g facilities a n d f o r m u l a t i o n its  global  marketing  and  distribution  system.  Among  its  products  o r g a n o c h l o r i n e a c a r i c i d e e x t r e m e l y t o x i c to a q u a t i c o r g a n i s m s - ,  1 4 7  are  p l a n t s to  dicofol  -an  and azynphos methyl,  c a r b o f u r a n , a n d m e t h o m y l , t h r e e p e s t i c i d e s c l a s s i f i e d a s h i g h l y h a z a r d o u s by the W o r l d Health Organization ( W H O ) .  1 4 8  2.4.1. Production of hazardous pesticides  Besides  being  exported  to  the  South  by  Northern  h a z a r d o u s p e s t i c i d e s a r e p r o d u c e d or f o r m u l a t e d  big  agrochemical  corporations,  in d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s by f o r e i g n  d o m e s t i c c o m p a n i e s , or by a c o m b i n a t i o n of t h e t w o  (e.g. through joint ventures  or or  legislation. See S. Orme and S. Kegley, PAN Pesticides Database, Pesticide Action Network, North America (San Francisco: CA., 2002), <http://www.pesticideinfo.org> (Hereinafter PAN Pesticides Database). Paraquat is not approved for use in Switzerland for toxicological reasons since 1989, which is equivalent to a ban of paraquat as defined by the Rotterdam Convention. See "Statement of the Federal Council," supra note 86. See Kuyek, supra note 134. 1 4 2  1 4 3  1  4  4  See  Ibid.  Griffin L.L.C. has seven separate manufacturing and production facilities in the U.S, Central and South America (Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Colombia, Brazil). Among its products are methyl parathion (la) and paraquat. See Griffin L.L.C. overview online: <http://www.oriffinllc.com/about/ab ovr.htm>, See Dinham, "Merger Mania," supra note 139 at 10. Cheminova is a Danish company with Southern headquarters in Brazil, Argentina, India, Mexico and Taiwan. It produces mainly organophosphorous insecticides, including ethyl parathion and methyl parathion (two class la -extremely hazardous- pesticides). Dicofol is banned in Finland, the Netherlands, Norway and Belize, and severely restricted in Germany and Slovenia. It is not registered for use in Denmark, Hungary and Sweden. In Switzerland, its use is permitted for research purposes only, and the U.S. EPA has classified it as a possible human carcinogen. See PAN U.K., "Dicofol" Pesticide News No. 43 (March 1999) at 20-21, and PAN Pesticides Database, supra note 141. WHO classifications include 'extremely hazardous' (class la) 'highly hazardous' (class lb), and 'moderately hazardous' (II) pesticides. These classifications are related to concentration levels and a weaker formulation moves an active ingredient into a lower hazard classification. See PAN U.K., "The List of Lists," supra note 72 at 3. 1 4 5  1 4 6  1 4 7  1 4 8  licensing a g r e e m e n t s ) . biggest Southern  T h i s s e c t i o n will f o c u s o n I n d i a , C h i n a a n d B r a z i l , w h i c h are t h e  markets.  1 5 0  T h e n e x t s e c t i o n will e x a m i n e  production  of  hazardous  p e s t i c i d e s by t r a n s n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s . T h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s u s e d a r e t h o s e of t h e W H O , a c c o r d i n g to w h i c h  class l a  h a z a r d o u s a n d c l a s s II  pesticides are extremely  are moderately  hazardous, class lb  are  highly  hazardous. T h e s e classifications are related  to  c o n c e n t r a t i o n l e v e l s a n d t h u s a w e a k e r f o r m u l a t i o n c o u l d m o v e a n a c t i v e i n g r e d i e n t into a lower hazard classification.  1 5 1  2.4.1.1. China  A l t h o u g h it a c c o u n t s o n l y for a b o u t 5 % of g l o b a l p e s t i c i d e s a l e s , C h i n a h a s b e e n s i n c e 1990 the world's second largest agrochemical producer, with a predominantly industry  protected  by  the  state.  1 5 2  Annual  output  of  i n c r e a s e d at a n a v e r a g e rate of 8 p e r c e n t s i n c e 1 9 9 4 .  fertilizers 1 5 3  and  national  pesticides  Chinese pesticide  has  production  j u m p e d f r o m a n e s t i m a t e d 2 3 0 , 0 0 0 t o n s of a c t i v e i n g r e d i e n t s in 1 9 9 5 to 4 2 4 , 0 0 0 t o n s in 1 9 9 9 a n d r e m a i n e d at o v e r 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 t o n s in 2 0 0 0 . In 1 9 9 9 , C h i n a e x p o r t e d 1 4 7 , 0 0 0 t o n s of p e s t i c i d e s , a n i n c r e a s e of m o r e t h a n 3 5 % o v e r 1 9 9 8 .  The  national  industry  is l a r g e l y  into g e n e r i c s , w h i c h  1 5 4  are  less e x p e n s i v e to  produce  b e c a u s e p a t e n t s no l o n g e r protect t h e m . In a d d i t i o n , s e v e r a l c o m p a n i e s p r o d u c e export  and  h a z a r d o u s p e s t i c i d e s . H e b e i L o n g A g e P e s t i c i d e C o . , L t d . , for i n s t a n c e , h a s a  production  c a p a c i t y of 8 , 0 0 0  tons  of t e c h n i c a l  products  terbufos, ethoprophos, phorate ( l a ) , and dichlorvos ( l b ) .  1 5 5  per year and  manufactures  Its p r o d u c t s a r e e x p o r t e d to  While production implies synthesizing the 'active ingredient' [which controls the pest(s)], formulation refers to mixing that ingredient with other (inert) compounds to improve its properties for storage, handling, application, effectiveness, safety, etc. The final product is the 'formulation.' See "Glossary," supra note 33. Although there are other important markets (e.g. Argentina, Colombia, Mexico, Korea), transnational corporations are responsible for most of the pesticide production in those countries. Both Colombia and Mexico, for instance, have basically one single important national manufacturer, Proficol S.A. and Tekchem, respectively. Proficol was partly acquired by Makhteshim-Agan (Israel) in 1998, and one of its two manufacturing facilities is owned by Basf. Tekchem is formed by a 100% Mexican capital, but it exports a large part of its technical grade ingredients to multinational corporations located both in the South and in the North. This information was kindly provided by Mr. Pablo Ortiz, Deputy Director General of Tekchem, and Mr. Esmir Portela, International Sales Manager of Proficol. More information can be found online: Proficol <http://www.proficol.com.co>, and Techkem < http : //www, tekchem. com. mx>. See PAN U.K., "The List of Lists," supra note 72 at 3. See "Insight on Booming Chinese Market" Pesticides News 39 (March 1998) 14 at 14, online: <http://www.pan-uk.org/pestnews/pn39/pn39pl4a.htm>. See Gary Liu and Christopher Adams, "Fertile ground," (1998) 25:6 The China Business Review 40 at 4 L See PANNA "China: Land of Vegetables and Pesticides" Global Pesticide Campaigner 11:3 (December 2001), online: <http://www.panna.Org/resources/gpc/gpc_200112.ll.3.05.dv.html>. The WHO classifies pesticides as classes la (extremely hazardous), lb (highly hazardous), II (moderately hazardous), and III (slightly hazardous). These classifications are related to concentration levels. See "List of Lists," supra note 72. 1 5 0  1 5 1  1 5 2  1 5 3  1 5 4  1 5 5  Europe, South America, and Southeast Asia, amongst  others.  Agro-Care Chemical  I n d u s t r y G r o u p L t d , a l e a d i n g e x p o r t e r of a g r o c h e m i c a l s , p r o d u c e s m e t h o m y l , c a r b o f u r a n , and dichlorvos ( l b ) , and the herbicide paraquat (II).  157  Hebei Huafeng Chemical Group  m a n u f a c t u r e s p h o r a t e ( l a ) , m e t h o m y l , o m e t h o a t e , a n d d i c h l o r v o s (all c l a s s l b p e s t i c i d e s ) . S h a n d o n g H u a y a n g T e c h n o l o g y C o . L t d . r a n k s first in t h e c a p a c i t y of p r o d u c i n g  methyl  p a r a t h i o n ( l a ) in C h i n a , a n d is t h e s o l e p r o d u c e r of a l d i c a r b ( l a ) in A s i a . It a l s o p r o d u c e s methomyl  (lb)  manufactures,  and carbofuran formulates  (lb).  Zhangjiagang  and exports  Tianheng  monocrotophos  Chemical  (lb) and endosulfan  E p o c h e m C o , L t d , b a s e d in S h a n g h a i , m a n u f a c t u r e s m e t a m i d o p h o s ( l b ) , (lb).  C o . , Ltd.  1 5 9  (II).  158  and triazophos  L a s t l y , Z h e j i a n g Y i f a n C h e m i c a l C o . , L t d . , w i t h a n a n n u a l o u t p u t of 8 0 0 0 t o n s of  agrochemicals, produces triazophos and fenamiphos, two class l b pesticides.  2.4.1.2. India  Although  its t u r n o v e r  constitutes  hardly  1.5-2%  of the world's  market,  the Indian  p e s t i c i d e i n d u s t r y is t h e f o u r t h l a r g e s t in t h e w o r l d a n d t h e s e c o n d in t h e A s i a - P a c i f i c r e g i o n after C h i n a . It is m a i n l y into g e n e r i c s a n d i n s e c t i c i d e s , Africa, Southeast Asia, and West A s i a .  1 6 1  The manufacturing  1 6 0  which are exported to  c a p a c i t y of t h e i n d u s t r y  k e e p s e x p a n d i n g . In 1 9 9 1 , o n l y 5 0 p e r c e n t of its c a p a c i t y w a s u s e d , w a s run at 7 0 per c e n t .  1 6 3  1 6 2  w h i l e in 2 0 0 1 , it  According to the Pesticides Manufacturers  & Formulators  A s s o c i a t i o n of I n d i a , t h e r e a r e 5 5 b a s i c p r o d u c e r s - i n c l u d i n g 1 0 m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o m p a n i e s and 3 0 0 pesticide f o r m u l a t o r s .  1 6 4  Rallis I n d i a , U n i t e d P h o s p h o r u s Ltd a n d E x c e l I n d u s t r i e s  a r e s o m e of t h e i n d i g e n o u s p r o d u c e r s , w h i l e B a y e r I n d i a , C y a n a m i d A g r o ( n o w B A S F India), Aventis CropScience (now Bayer), Monsanto, and Syngenta (former Novartis) are t h e m a j o r t r a n s n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s o p e r a t i n g in I n d i a .  1 6 5  See company introduction online: <http://www.shiii-pesticide.com/info.htm> See company's profile online: <http://www.aqrocare.com.cn/profile.htm> Certain formulations of monocrotophos are included in Annex III of the Rotterdam Convention, and it was added as a pesticide in the interim procedure (in October 2002). Certain formulations of metamidophos are included in Annex III of the Rotterdam Convention and are thus subject to the PIC procedure. (See Rotterdam Convention, supra note 16, Annex III). See Ramnath Subbu, "Low Capacity Use Dogs Pesticide Units" The Hindu (28 July 2001). See Angus Wright "From Pesticide Trade to Production: New Reform Strategies" Global Pesticide Campaigner (June 1991). 1 5 6  1 5 7  1 5 9  1 6 0  1 6 1  1  6  2  Ibid.  See Subbu R., supra note 160. See Ibid. Note: While manufacturers produce the pesticide, formulators simply mix the active ingredient with inert materials to make a final commercial product (formulation). 1 6 3  1 6 4  1  6  5  See  Ibid.  Rallis I n d i a m a n u f a c t u r e s c a p t a f o l ( l a ) , a n d m o n o c r o t o p h o s ( l b ) . p r o d u c t s of a n u m b e r of m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s in I n d i a ,  1 6 7  1 6 5  It a l s o d i s t r i b u t e s t h e  including carbofuran ( l b ) ,  produced by U . S . F M C , a n d methomyl a n d o x a m y l ( l b ) , manufactured by U . S . DuPont. United Phosphorus Ltd. manufactures phorate, p h o s p h a m i d o n , t e r b u f o s , pesticides),  dichlorvos  manufactures  zinc  and monocrotophos  phosphide  methoxyethyl mercury chloride.  (lb), 1 6 9  (both  class  endosulfan  (II),  l b ) . Excel  1 6 8  (three class l a  Industries  cypermethrin  Limited  (II),  and 2-  Hindustan Insecticides Limited, a c o m p a n y owned by  t h e I n d i a n g o v e r n m e n t , p r o d u c e s m o n o c r o t o p h o s ( l b ) , D D T (II) a n d e n d o s u l f a n ( I I ) .  170  2.4.1.3. Brazil In 1 9 9 6 , B r a z i l a c c o u n t e d f o r a b o u t 5 5 % of p e s t i c i d e s s a l e s in Latin A m e r i c a .  1 7 1  Although  t h e p r e s e n c e of m a j o r a g r o c h e m i c a l c o r p o r a t i o n s a n d o t h e r f o r e i g n c o m p a n i e s p r e v a i l s , the  Brazilian pesticide industry  should  not be n e g l e c t e d . M i l e n i a A g r o C i e n c i a s S . A .  p r o d u c e s , a m o n g s t o t h e r s , e n d o s u l f a n (II), m e t h i d a t h i o n ( l b ) a n d m e t h a m i d o p h o s ( l b ) for t h e d o m e s t i c a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l m a r k e t s . c a p i t a l , is t h e o n l y  1 7 4  1 7 5  in t h e c o u n t r y .  It a l s o  Agripec Quimica e Farmaceutica S . A . , one of  the biggest Brazilian formulating companies, formulates the pesticides parathion (la), monocrothophos,  1 7 3  Nortox S . A . , formed by a 1 0 0 % Brazilian  Brazilian c o m p a n y to produce glyphosate  manufactures dichlorvos (lb) and d i c o f o l .  1 7 2  methamidophos (both l b ) ,  1 7 6  methyl  dicofol, a n d endosulfan (II).  177  In  s o m e c a s e s , it is n o t e a s y t o d e t e r m i n e if a p r o d u c t is b e i n g m a n u f a c t u r e d , f o r m u l a t e d o r j u s t s o l d b y a c o m p a n y ( a n d if s o , w h i c h c o m p a n y m a n u f a c t u r e s i t ) . T h i s is t h e c a s e w i t h P r e n t i s s Q u i m i c a L t d a , w h i c h offers p a r a t h i o n m e t h y l ( l a ) , A g r i c u r D e f e n s i v o s A g r i c o l a s , which sells carbofuran ( l b ) , m e t h o m y l ( l b ) a n d endosulfan ( I I ) ,  178  and Ferson Ind. E C o m .  The Rotterdam Convention regulates both captafol and monocrotophos. See Rotterdam Convention, supra note 16, Annex III, and note 141. These companies are: FMC (U.S.); Monsanto (U.S.); Mitsui Chemicals (Japan); Nihon Nohyaku (Japan); and Du Pont (U.S.) Certain formulations of phosphamidon are regulated by Rotterdam (See Rotterdam Convention, supra note 16, Annex III). As a mercury compound, the pesticide is regulated by the Rotterdam Convention. See Ibid. Online: < h t t p : / / i n d i a p u b l i c s e c t o r . c o m / h i n l s . h t m > . Monocrotophos and DDT are subject to the PIC procedure. DDT is also regulated by the Stockholm Convention on POPs. See "Crop Protection in Latin America" Agrow Reports (1996), in Harris J., supra note 57 at 7. E.g. Stoller, Griffin, FMC (U.S.), Hokko, (Japan), Sumitomo (Japan) and Cheminova (Denmark). Certain formulations of metamidophos are regulated by the Rotterdam Convention. See Rotterdam Convention, supra note 16, Annex III. Online: < h t t p : / / w w w . m i l e n i a . c o m . b r > . Online: < h t t p : / / w w w . n o r t o x . c o m . b r > . For reference on dicofol see supra note 147. See supra notes 158 and 159. Online: < h t t p : / / w w w . a a r i p e c . c o m . b r > . See Associaçâo das Empresas Nacionais de Defensivos Agricolas (AENDA). Complete catalogue of products available online: < h t t p : / / w w w . a e n d a . o r q . b r / i n d e x . h t m > (last update 08/06/2001). 1 6 6  1 6 7  1 6 8  1 6 9  1 7 0  1 7 1  1 7 2  1 7 3  1 7 4  1 7 5  1 7 6  1 7 7  1 7 8  L t d a , w h i c h offers m e t h a m i d o p h o s ( l b ) , m e t h i d a t h i o n ( l b ) , e n d o s u l f a n (II) a n d d i c o f o l .  1 7 9  A c c o r d i n g to the A s s o c i a t i o n of C r o p P r o t e c t i o n N a t i o n a l C o m p a n i e s ( A e n d a ) , F e r s o l a l s o sells carbofuran (lb), and carbaryl (II).  180  2.4.2. Northern Agrochemical Giants: Looking toward the South  Agrochemical  corporations  market  hazardous  pesticides  in  the  South  through  their  subsidiaries, joint ventures, and licensing a g r e e m e n t s , a m o n g s t others. They also have p r o d u c t i o n facilities in d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y  in t h o s e w h e r e t h e m a r k e t  is  s i g n i f i c a n t , s u c h a s C h i n a , India a n d B r a z i l . T a i w a n , M a l a y s i a , S o u t h K o r e a , T h a i l a n d , M e x i c o , C o l o m b i a a n d A r g e n t i n a are o t h e r  important markets.  It  is often difficult  to  c o n f i r m w h e t h e r a plant is u s e d for s y n t h e s i s or f o r m u l a t i o n , a n d w h a t s u b s t a n c e s a r e being  produced  in  a  specific  facility.  The  discouraging. Many involve the production  cases  that  are  known,  however,  of o r g a n o p h o s p h a t e s , r e s p o n s i b l e for  are most  h u m a n p o i s o n i n g s in the S o u t h , or a c t i v e i n g r e d i e n t s of p r o d u c t s t h a t h a v e b e e n b a n n e d or s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d in the North ( e . g . p a r a t h i o n m e t h y l , p a r a q u a t ) , w h i c h h a v e s h o w n to  cause  problems  under  conditions  of  use  in  the  South  (e.g.  monocrotophos,  p h o s p h a m i d o n , p a r a q u a t ) , or w h i c h a r e u n r e g i s t e r e d in the c o m p a n y ' s c o u n t r y of o r i g i n (e.g. a n i l o p h o s ) .  1 8 1  T h e n e x t s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s a brief  profile  of t h e s i x a g r o c h e m i c a l  corporations that control the pesticides market, including the hazardous pesticides they offer ( a n d / o r p r o d u c e ) in the S o u t h .  2.4.2.1. Bayer (Germany) B a y e r C r o p s c i e n c e is o n e of t h e f o u r b u s i n e s s s e g m e n t s of B a y e r .  1 8 2  B a s e d in G e r m a n y ,  t h e c o m p a n y is r e p r e s e n t e d in 1 2 2 c o u n t r i e s a n d h a s a w o r k f o r c e of 2 2 , 0 0 0 p e o p l e . It h a s production  facilities  for  agricultural  products  in  India,  China,  Brazil,  Argentina,  the  P h i l i p p i n e s , I n d o n e s i a , V i e t n a m a n d K o r e a , a m o n g s t o t h e r s . T h e A s i a - P a c i f i c r e g i o n is o n e of B a y e r ' s m o s t i m p o r t a n t m a r k e t s , a n d t h e c o m p a n y p l a n s to i n v e s t by 2 0 1 0 m o r e t h a n U S $ 6 billion in n e w p r o d u c t i o n a n d r e s e a r c h facilities in t h e r e g i o n , m o s t l y in J a p a n , China and Southeast A s i a .  1 8 3  Online: < http://www.fersol.com.br/historia.html>. See AENDA, supra note 178. See Barbara Dinham "Pesticide Production in the South. Linking Production and Trade" Pesticides News (December 1994) 7 at 7-10, online: <http://www.pan-uk.org/pestnews/pn26/pn26p7.htm>. [Dinham, "Pesticide Production in the South"]. These are: healthcare, crop science, chemicals and polymers, online: <http://www.baver.com>. Online: <http://www.baver.com/en/tk/cropscience.php>. 1 8 0  1 8 1  1 8 2  1 8 3  26  B a y e r p r o d u c e s a s i g n i f i c a n t n u m b e r of h a z a r d o u s p e s t i c i d e s , w h i c h a r e e x p o r t e d t o - a n d in s o m e c a s e s p r o d u c e d i n - its S o u t h e r n s u b s i d i a r i e s . T h e s e i n c l u d e p a r a q u a t , a l d i c a r b (la),  1 8 4  parathion methyl ( l a ) ,  (lb), edifenphos ( l b ) ,  1 8 8  1 8 5  fenamiphos ( l b ) ,  1 8 5  methamidophos ( l b ) ,  oxydemethon methyl (lb), and triazophos ( l b ) .  1 8 9  1 8 7  methiocarb  All or s o m e of  t h e s e p r o d u c t s a r e offered b y B a y e r in A r g e n t i n a , B r a z i l , C o l o m b i a , I n d i a , P e r u , K o r e a , C o s t a R i c a , El S a l v a d o r , G u a t e m a l a , P a n a m a , t h e P h i l i p p i n e s , V i e t n a m , T a i w a n , j u s t t o m e n t i o n a f e w . In a d d i t i o n , s o m e c a s e s of p r o d u c t i o n of h a z a r d o u s p e s t i c i d e s in t h e S o u t h are known. extremely countries.  In its plant  in T h a n e ( I n d i a ) , B a y e r m a n u f a c t u r e s  parathion  methyl, an  hazardous pesticide that has been banned or severely restricted It a l s o m a n u f a c t u r e s  1 9 0  anilophos  (II),  1 9 1  an organophosphate  in m a n y  that  is n o t  r e g i s t e r e d f o r u s e in G e r m a n y . A b o u t 3 0 0 t o n n e s of t h i s p e s t i c i d e a r e p r o d u c e d e a c h y e a r in I n d i a , t o s u p p l y t h e r i c e - g r o w i n g c o u n t r i e s of t h e A s i a Pacific r e g i o n .  1 9 2  2.4.2.2. Syngenta (Switzerland)  S y n g e n t a is a w o r l d l e a d i n g a g r i b u s i n e s s , a n d it is b a s e d in S w i t z e r l a n d . T h e c o m p a n y r a n k s first in c r o p p r o t e c t i o n , was  created  November Although  by the merger  2000, general  a n d t h i r d in t h e h i g h - v a l u e c o m m e r c i a l s e e d s m a r k e t . It  1 9 3  of N o v a r t i s  a n d has crop information  A g r i b u s i n e s s a n d Z e n e c a A g r o c h e m i c a l s in  protection  on production  business divisions facilities  in t h e five  is n o t r e a d i l y  continents.  a v a i l a b l e , it h a s  m a n u f a c t u r i n g facilities in C h i n a , w h e r e it p r o d u c e s p a r a q u a t , a t o x i c h e r b i c i d e b a n n e d f o r  In Germany, aldicarb is severely restricted for use as a plant protection product. See PAN Pesticides Database, supra note 141. Parathion methyl is not registered for use in Germany, the U.K. and Canada, amongst others. See PAN Pesticides Database, supra note 141 and note 190. Fenamiphos is not registered for use in Germany, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, the U.K. and Canada. See PAN Pesticides Database, supra note 141. Methamidophos is banned in Indonesia, Libya and Kuwait, and severely restricted in Sri Lanka. It is prohibited in Denmark, Ireland, Sweden, Iceland and Liechtenstein, and it is not registered for use in Finland, the U.K. and the Netherlands. In Switzerland, no products and formulations containing Metamidophos are authorized in the Index of Plant protection Products 1998. See PAN Pesticides Database, supra note 141. Edifenphos is not registered for use in Germany, the U.K., Canada, the U.S., etc. See Ibid. Triazophos is not registered for use in Canada, the U.K., the U.S. and Denmark, amongst others. PAN Pesticides Database, supra note 141. Parathion Methyl is banned in Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Sweden, Iceland and Liechtenstein, and severely hazardous formulations are banned in the U.S. It is not registered for use in the U.K. and Denmark, among other countries. In Switzerland, no products or formulations containing methyl-parathion other than one specific Capsule suspension are authorized. See Ibid.. Anilophos is not registered for use in Germany (home of Bayer), the U.S., the U.K., Denmark, Finland, The Netherlands, amongst other countries. See Ibid. See Dinham, "Pesticide Production in the South," supra note 181 at 7-10. At that time the plant was operated by AgrEvo (now Bayer). This has probably changed with the recent acquisiton of Aventis Crop Science by Bayer. 1 8 4  1 8 5  1 8 6  1 8 7  1 8 8  1 8 9  1 9 0  1 9 1  1 9 2  1 9 3  u s e in S w i t z e r l a n d a n d o t h e r c o u n t r i e s .  1 9 4  c o u n t r i e s u n d e r t h e t r a d e m a r k gramoxone,  S y n g e n t a s e l l s t h e h e r b i c i d e in o v e r 1 0 0 w i t h s a l e s e s t i m a t e d a t $ 4 3 0 m i l l i o n in  195  2 0 0 1 . In s p i t e of e v i d e n c e t h a t p a r a q u a t is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a n y p o i s o n i n g s in t h e S o u t h , S y n g e n t a a r g u e s t h a t t h e p r o d u c t c a n be h a n d l e d s a f e l y , a n d t h a t s t e p s h a v e b e e n t a k e n to p r e v e n t a c c i d e n t a l i n g e s t i o n o r t h e u s e of p a r a q u a t in s u i c i d e s . Syngenta sells methidathion  (lb) a n d profenofos ( I I ) ,  r e g i s t e r e d f o r u s e in s e v e r a l d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s .  197  1 9 6  Besides paraquat,  two hazardous pesticides not  1 9 8  2.4.2.3. BASF (Germany) BASF  is b a s e d in G e r m a n y a n d h a s p r o d u c t i o n  Malaysia, Mexico, Brazil, China and K o r e a .  1 9 9  facilities  in 3 8 c o u n t r i e s ,  including  It a l s o h a s p r o d u c t i o n o p e r a t i o n s in m o r e  t h a n 1 0 0 s i t e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d . Its p r o d u c t line is v e r y b r o a d , a n d its A g r i c u l t u r a l P r o d u c t s d i v i s i o n , l o c a t e d in t h e U . S . , is a l e a d i n g s u p p l i e r a n d m a r k e t e r of h e r b i c i d e s , f u n g i c i d e s a n d i n s e c t i c i d e s , o p e r a t i n g in 1 7 0 c o u n t r i e s . A m o n g its o p e r a t i o n s f i g u r e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of A m e r i c a n C y a n a m i d in 2 0 0 0 , a n d of U . S . M i c r o F l o , a l e a d i n g s u p p l i e r of generic crop protection p r o d u c t s .  2 0 0  B A S F h a s p l a n t s f o r s y n t h e s i z i n g p e s t i c i d e a c t i v e i n g r e d i e n t s in G e r m a n y , t h e U . S . , S p a i n , Brazil (three sites), India and Puerto Rico. End products are formulated at several B A S F facilities,  which  are usually  located  close to the market.  Although  information  on  p r o d u c t i o n is n o t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to t h e p u b l i c , a m o n g its p r o d u c t s a r e m o n o c r o t o p h o s (lb),  2 0 1  terbufos ( l a ) ,  2 0 2  a n d p h o r a t e ( l a ) ( n o t r e g i s t e r e d f o r u s e in G e r m a n y ) ,  2 0 3  which  See Bio Suisse, Communiqué de Presse, "Agriculture Sans Toxiques Au Sud Comme au Nord" (16 Octobre 2002). Paraquat is also banned in Austria, Denmark, Finland, Slovenia, Sweden, and Kuwait, and severely restricted for use as plant protection product in Germany. It is not registered for use in the U.S. See PAN Pesticides Database, supra note 141. See PAN U.K., Press Release "Time to phase out paraquat -Syngenta's controversial pesticide" (22 April 2002), online: <http://www.pan-uk.org/press/paraquat.htm>. See Cox, supra note 85. Methidathion is a highly hazardous pesticide not registered for use in Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands and the U.K. See PAN Pesticides Database, supra note 141. Profenofos is not registered for use in Germany, the Netherlands, the U.K. and Canada, among other countries. See PAN Pesticides Database, supra note 141. Although the active ingredient still has an authorization in Switzerland, there is no product containing profenofos on the Swiss market. However, a réévaluation programme for organophosphates is expected to start in the near future, which will most probably result in the withdrawal of a number of these substances. Information kindly provided by Dr. Elisabeth Bosshard, Federal Office for Agriculture, Section Crop Protection Products, Switzerland. Information on which products are being manufactured in these facilities is not publicly available. Including, amongst others products, plastics, colorants, dispersions, coatings, and crop-protection products, online: <http://www.basf.de/en/corporate/overview/?id=V00-*a3.rMy**bsf700>. For details on monocrotophos please see supra note 141. Terbufos is a class la insecticide. It is not registered for use in Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Portugal and the U.K. It was expected to be withdrawn in the EU by July 2003. See Ibid. Phorate is a class la pesticide. It is not registered for use in Germany (home of Basf), Denmark, Finland, 1 9 4  1 9 5  1 9 6  1 9 7  1 9 8  1 9 9  2 0 0  2 0 1  2 0 2  2 0 3  a r e p o s s i b l y s y n t h e s i s e d in B A S F ' s S o u t h e r n facilities.  2.4.2.4. Dow Agrosciences (U.S.) D o w A g r o S c i e n c e s L L C , b a s e d in t h e U . S . A . , is a g l o b a l l e a d e r in p e s t m a n a g e m e n t a n d biotechnology  products.  It  has  worldwide  s a l e s of  approximately  U$3  billion,  and  o p e r a t i o n s in 1 4 0 c o u n t r i e s , i n c l u d i n g A r g e n t i n a , M e x i c o , B r a z i l , C h i n a a n d I n d i a . It a l s o h a s 2 0 m a n u f a c t u r i n g s i t e s in 15 c o u n t r i e s . Rohm and Haas's Agricultural  2 0 4  In J u n e of 2 0 0 1 , t h e c o m p a n y a c q u i r e d  Chemicals business. The acquisition  included,  amongst  o t h e r s , m a n u f a c t u r i n g s i t e s in J a c a r e i ( B r a z i l ) a n d B a r r a n q u i l l a ( C o l o m b i a ) , a n d the R o h m a n d H a a s ' s s h a r e of a j o i n t v e n t u r e in N a n t o n g ( C h i n a ) . venture  with  NOCIL,  dichlorvos ( l b ) , countries.  2 0 8  2 0 7  2 0 6  an  Indian  company  that  2 0 5  In I n d i a , D o w f o r m e d a j o i n t  manufactures phosphamidon  (la),  a n d m o n o c r o t o p h o s ( l b ) , a n i n s e c t i c i d e b a n n e d in t h e U . S . a n d o t h e r  Other  Dow  (Dow India), d i c o f o l ,  2 1 0  products  include carbofuran  and a t r a z i n e .  (Dow  Brazil),  2 0 9  monocrotophos  2 1 1  2.4.2.5. Monsanto (U.S.) Monsanto  C o m p a n y , b a s e d in t h e  U . S . , is a l e a d i n g  global  products,  including chemicals, seeds, and biotechnology.  It  provider  of  agricultural  h a s l o c a t i o n s in t h e  five  c o n t i n e n t s a n d p r o d u c t i o n facilities in B r a z i l , A r g e n t i n a a n d M e x i c o , w h e r e it m a n u f a c t u r e s and/or formulates include  more  than  its R o u n d u p h e r b i c i d e ( g l y p h o s a t e ) . 90  glyphosate-based  herbicides,  Monsanto's herbicide including  Roundup  products  agricultural  h e r b i c i d e s a n d R o u n d u p b r a n d e d t u r f a n d o r n a m e n t a l p r o d u c t s . G l y p h o s a t e is a s l i g h t l y  Portugal and other European countries. See Ibid. Information on the location of these manufacturing sites is not available. See "Organization" online:  2 0 4  <http://www.dowaqro.com/specialtveurope/orQanization/index.htm>.  Dow News room (1 July 2001), online: <http://www.dowaqro.com/newsroom/news/060101 en.htm> DE-NOCIL is a joint venture between Dow AgroSciences LLC (formerly Dow Elanco) and NOCIL (National Organic Chemical India, Ltd.), a petrochemical company that participates in global generic product development, and operates an agricultural chemicals plant in India. See Dinham, "Pesticide Production in the South," supra note 181, at 7-10. 2 0 5  2 0 6  2 0 7  •jno  For additional information see PAN Pesticides Database, supra note 141. Carbofuran is banned in Lybia and severely restricted in the U.S. and Belize. It is not registered for use in Finland. See Ibid. See supra note 147. Atrazine has been identified as a possible human carcinogen by the U.S. EPA and as a possible endocrine disruptor by the EU and the U.K. Environment Agency. It is banned in Angola, Denmark, Germany, Norway and Sweden. It is not registered for use in Austria, Finland and Uganda, and it is severely restricted in Switzerland, where it can only be used as herbicide in corn, with one application per year. See PAN Pesticides Database, supra note 141, and "Interdiction de I' Atrazine," Réponse du Conseil Fédéral Suisse (Septembre 2002). 2 0 9  2 1 0  2 1 1  >  h a z a r d o u s h e r b i c i d e ( c l a s s III), a n d it is r e g i s t e r e d in t h e U . S . a n d o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . It is not r e g i s t e r e d for u s e in F i n l a n d , o r I n d i a .  2 1 2  2.4.2.6. DuPont (U.S.) D u P o n t C r o p P r o t e c t i o n , b a s e d in t h e U . S . , offers p r o d u c t s for t h e g r a i n a n d s p e c i a l t y c r o p sectors as well as forestry fungicide  and insecticide  and vegetation products  management.  and services, with  It i n c l u d e s g l o b a l  offices  herbicide,  and operations  in 4 0  c o u n t r i e s a r o u n d t h e w o r l d , i n c l u d i n g A r g e n t i n a , B r a z i l , C o l o m b i a a n d M e x i c o . It a l s o h a s j o i n t v e n t u r e s in A r g e n t i n a , M e x i c o a n d C e n t r a l A m e r i c a . I n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e l o c a t i o n of its p r o d u c t i o n facilities is not publicly a v a i l a b l e . A m o n g its p r o d u c t s a r e m e t h o m y l a n d o x a m y l , t w o c l a s s l b (highly countries.  hazardous)  p e s t i c i d e s not r e g i s t e r e d f o r u s e in s e v e r a l  2 1 3  2.5. C o n c l u s i o n  T h i s c h a p t e r h a s c o n s i d e r e d t h r e e e l e m e n t s t h a t a r e e s s e n t i a l to u n d e r s t a n d t h e n e e d f o r a convention  regulating  trade  in h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s : first, it e x p l a i n e d w h y c e r t a i n  p e s t i c i d e s a n d c h e m i c a l s a r e c o n s i d e r e d h a z a r d o u s to t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a n d h u m a n h e a l t h . T h e n , it p r o v i d e d a n o v e r v i e w of t h e l a w s t h a t h a v e a l l o w e d big a g r o c h e m i c a l c o m p a n i e s to e x p o r t h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s to d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . L a s t l y , t h e c h a p t e r e x a m i n e d t h e g l o b a l p e s t i c i d e s m a r k e t , c o n t r o l l e d by a v e r y s m a l l n u m b e r of N o r t h e r n  corporations.  G i v e n t h e n a t u r e of t h e c h e m i c a l s b e i n g t r a d e d a n d t h e n e g a t i v e effects t h e y h a v e in d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , o n e c o u l d t h i n k t h a t a s o l u t i o n m a y be to p r e v e n t s t a t e s f r o m exporting  chemicals  they  have  banned  or  severely  restricted  for  reasons  of  the  e n v i r o n m e n t o r h e a l t h to o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . T h e a n a l y s i s of t h e p e s t i c i d e s m a r k e t r e v e a l s , h o w e v e r , t h a t e l i m i n a t i n g e x p o r t d o u b l e s t a n d a r d s c o u l d be c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e . S i n c e t h e R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n d e a l s o n l y w i t h t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s , a n export  ban could  increase  production  in  the South  both  by f o r e i g n  and  m a n u f a c t u r e r s if no r e g u l a t i o n o n p r o d u c t i o n of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s w e r e The problem  would  thus  be d i s p l a c e d , r a t h e r  than  national  introduced.  being a d d r e s s e d . T h e s e  practical  difficulties, h o w e v e r , d o not j u s t i f y t h e e x i s t e n c e of d o u b l e s t a n d a r d s , e s p e c i a l l y b e c a u s e of t h e c o n t e x t in w h i c h t h e t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s o c c u r s .  See PAN Pesticides Database, supra note 141. Methomyl is banned in Lybia and Kuwait, and it is not registered for use in Finland, Germany, the U.K. and several African countries. Oxamyl is not registered for use in India, Denmark, Finland, Germany and the Netherlands. See PAN Pesticides Database, supra note 141. 2 1 3  Chapter Three The North, the South, and Trade in Hazardous Chemicals: Ethical Dilemmas 3.1. Introduction  P r o b a b l y b e c a u s e of t h e g r e a t publicity s u r r o u n d i n g a n d t h e m o r a l o u t r a g e at t o x i c w a s t e d u m p s d i s c o v e r e d in a n u m b e r of d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s d u r i n g t h e 1 9 7 0 s a n d 1 9 8 0 s ,  2 1 4  t h e N o r t h - S o u t h t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s w a s t e s h a s b e e n l a r g e l y r e g a r d e d a s a n e t h i c a l question.  Many  considered  it  morally  unacceptable  that  companies  in  industrialised  c o u n t r i e s w o u l d e x p o r t t h e i r t o x i c w a s t e to the c o u n t r i e s of t h e S o u t h in o r d e r to a v o i d t h e high c o s t s of d i s p o s a l of the N o r t h , t a k i n g a d v a n t a g e of t h e difficult s i t u a t i o n of m a n y poor countries  (e.g. their  desperate  n e e d for  hard  c u r r e n c i e s ; a lack of a w a r e n e s s  r e g a r d i n g t h e n a t u r e of t h e w a s t e s ; t h e n e e d for c h e a p r a w m a t e r i a l s ; corruption). and  of  a  governmental  C o n s e q u e n t l y , the a d o p t i o n of t h e B a s e l C o n v e n t i o n o n h a z a r d o u s w a s t e s subsequent  amendment  banning  the  export  of  hazardous  waste  from  i n d u s t r i a l i s e d c o u n t r i e s to the d e v e l o p i n g w o r l d w a s to a large e x t e n t t r i g g e r e d by a s e n s e of m o r a l i n j u s t i c e .  2 1 5  E v e n t h o u g h t h e e x p o r t of d o m e s t i c a l l y b a n n e d or s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d p e s t i c i d e s is still a c d m m o n p r a c t i c e , a n d d e s p i t e the fact t h a t m i l l i o n s of f a r m e r s g e t p o i s o n e d e v e r y y e a r a s a r e s u l t , t h e N o r t h - S o u t h t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d p e s t i c i d e s h a s r e c e i v e d less a t t e n t i o n t h a n t h a t of w a s t e s , a n d it w a s h a r d l y put f o r w a r d a s a m o r a l i s s u e d u r i n g t h e Rotterdam Convention negotiations.  2 1 6  T h i s c h a p t e r a r g u e s , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n of  a d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r y to a l l o w t h e e x p o r t of b a n n e d or s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d c h e m i c a l s to t h e South  is p r i m a r i l y  an  ethical  question,  b e c a u s e of t h e  disadvantageous  position  of  i m p o r t i n g c o u n t r i e s , a n d b e c a u s e of t h e n a t u r e of t h e s u b s t a n c e s b e i n g e x p o r t e d a n d t h e During the 1970s and 1980s, several scandals involving the shipment of hazardous wastes from the North being dumped in the South were revealed. Toxic wastes dumps were discovered in Africa and the Caribbean. Two of the most famous cases are the "Khian Sea,' in which a ship with toxic ash from Philadelphia was dumped part of its load into the beach of Haiti (after trying to dump its waste in several countries), and the rest apparently into the Indian ocean, and the "Koko case,' in which an Italian businessmen shipped toxic waste of several Italian industries to Nigeria for storage in the backyard of a Nigerian businessman. See Clapp, "Toxic Exports," supra note 8 at 31-36; and Hilz, supra note 15, at 12-37. Largely due to the pressure exerted by environmental NGOs and developing countries, a decision banning all transboundary movements of hazardous wastes from Annex VII countries (OECD members, EU members and Liechtenstein) to non-Annex VII countries was adopted during the Third conference of the parties (COP) to the Basel Convention. The ban (not yet in force) is immediate for wastes bound for final disposal and it was expected to take effect at the beginning of 1998 for wastes destined for recycling or recovery operations. See Jim Puckett & Cathy Fogel "A Victory for Environment and Justice: The Basel Ban and How it Happened," Greenpeace International (1994), online: <http://www.ban.org/about_basel_ban/a_victory.html>, and section 3.4.3. in Chapter 4. See section 3.4.3. in this chapter. 2 1 5  2 1 6  n e g a t i v e effects t h e y h a v e o n h e a l t h a n d the e n v i r o n m e n t in t h e r e c i p i e n t c o u n t r i e s .  It  c o n t e n d s t h a t t h e i s s u e of t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s , like t h a t of w a s t e s , c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d in i s o l a t i o n f r o m t h e c o n t e x t in w h i c h it t a k e s p l a c e , n o r c a n t h e p r o b l e m be s e r i o u s l y t a c k l e d u n l e s s m o r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t a k e a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t in t h e d e b a t e .  Like t h e t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s w a s t e , t h e t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d p e s t i c i d e s f r o m d e v e l o p e d to d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s d o e s not t a k e p l a c e in the v a c u u m . T h e r e a r e at l e a s t t w o c o n d i t i o n s o r a r r a n g e m e n t s t h a t facilitate a n d a r g u a b l y p r o m o t e t h e s e t r a n s f e r s , w h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d in t h i s c h a p t e r . T h e first o n e is the e c o n o m i c a n d t e c h n o l o g i c a l g a p t h a t e x i s t s b e t w e e n d e v e l o p e d a n d d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , w h i c h t r a n s l a t e s not o n l y into d i f f e r e n t c a p a c i t i e s to m a n a g e h a z a r d o u s s u b s t a n c e s , but a l s o into d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of e c o n o m i c a n d political p o w e r to m a k e d e c i s i o n s t h a t a r e e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y d e s i r a b l e . T h u s , t h e c h a p t e r s h o w s t h a t e v e n if d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s a r e g e n u i n e l y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t  the  e n v i r o n m e n t a l a n d h e a l t h i m p l i c a t i o n s of i m p o r t i n g h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s t h a t t h e y will not be a b l e to h a n d l e in a s a f e m a n n e r , t h e y a r e c o n s t r a i n e d by m o r e p r e s s i n g economic and social problems. These problems go beyond the  short-term  p r e s s u r e s b o r n e by e v e r y N o r t h e r n g o v e r n m e n t in its p u r s u i t of e n v i r o n m e n t a l  economic protection.  T h e e x p o r t of h a z a r d o u s w a s t e i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s point. In 1 9 8 9 , G u i n e a - B i s s a u , o n e of t h e p o o r e s t c o u n t r i e s in A f r i c a , s i g n e d a f i v e - y e a r c o n t r a c t w i t h t w o B r i t i s h c o m p a n i e s to receive  15  million  tons  of  hazardous waste  for  r e p r e s e n t e d f o u r t i m e s its G r o s s N a t i o n a l P r o d u c t .  2 1 7  a  payment  of  second  arrangement  that  facilitates  and  arguably  and  efficiency,  defends  trade  the  liberal  liberalisation)  economic  at a g l o b a l  which  paradigm  2 1 8  encourages the  t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s is t h e m u l t i l a t e r a l upholds  million,  T o j u s t i f y t h e a g r e e m e n t , the f o r m e r  M i n i s t e r of T r a d e a n d T o u r i s m s i m p l y s t a t e d ' w e n e e d t h e m o n e y . '  The  $600  (e.g.  trading free  level. To show the  North-South  system, which  market,  ways  economic  in w h i c h  these  p r i n c i p l e s h a v e p r o m o t e d t h e t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s s u b s t a n c e s f r o m N o r t h to S o u t h , t h e c h a p t e r l o o k s at t h e B r e t t o n W o o d s i n s t i t u t i o n s (i.e. t h e W o r l d B a n k a n d t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l M o n e t a r y F u n d ) a n d at the W o r l d T r a d e O r g a n i s a t i o n ( W T O ) , a s t h e y a r e t h e  major  i n t e r n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t p r o m o t e t r a d e l i b e r a l i s a t i o n at a g l o b a l s c a l e . T h e chapter  explains  how,  according  to  the  liberal  economic  paradigm,  it  is  perfectly  r e a s o n a b l e t h a t h a z a r d o u s s u b s t a n c e s g e n e r a t e d o r p r o d u c e d in a n i n d u s t r i a l i s e d c o u n t r y See Peter Montague, "Dumping on the Developing World," Rachel Hazardous Waste News 126 (25 April 1989). The wastes would have come from American and European firms, but the contract was cancelled due to unfavourable publicity. Jim Puckett, "The Basel Ban: A Triumph over Business-as-Usual," Basel Action Network (October 1997), online: <http://www.ban.org/about_basel_ban/jims_article.html>.  2 1 7  2 1 8  be e x p o r t e d to c o u n t r i e s w i t h less s t r i n g e n t r e g u l a t i o n s a n d / o r v e r y l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y to e n f o r c e r e g u l a t i o n s t h a t d o e x i s t , a s it is m o r e efficient t h a n to d e a l w i t h t h e m (or t h e y c a n n o t be s o l d ) at h o m e . A s s t a t e d in t h e w e l l - k n o w n 1 9 9 1 m e m o r a n d u m of t h e W o r l d B a n k C h i e f E c o n o m i s t L a w r e n c e S u m m e r s , " [ t ] h e e c o n o m i c logic b e h i n d d u m p i n g a load of t o x i c w a s t e in t h e l o w e s t w a g e c o u n t r y is i m p e c c a b l e a n d . . . u n d e r - p o p u l a t e d c o u n t r i e s in A f r i c a are v a s t l y u n d e r - p o l l u t e d . "  2 1 9  This chapter argues that even the ' e c o n o m i c logic' referred  by Mr. S u m m e r s h a s a n  e t h i c a l c o m p o n e n t . T h i s is b e c a u s e w h e n o n e c o n s i d e r s t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s in w h i c h t h e t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s t a k e s p l a c e , e v e n t h e d e c i s i o n by a s t a t e or by a c o m p a n y to d i s r e g a r d m o r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w h e n e x p o r t i n g h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s to t h e S o u t h is a n e t h i c a l c h o i c e . T h u s , w h e n a g o v e r n m e n t d e c i d e s to p r o t e c t citizens from  a t o x i c s u b s t a n c e but d e l i b e r a t e l y s e n d s it to o t h e r s - w h o  its  own  additionally  h a p p e n to be m o r e v u l n e r a b l e - , it is a r g u a b l y m a k i n g a n i m m o r a l d e c i s i o n . For t h a t r e a s o n , t h e q u e s t i o n of w h a t are t h e m o r a l p r i n c i p l e s t h a t a p p l y to t h i s i s s u e , a n d to w h a t extent  have states recognised them  fundamental  importance.  This  in t h e  is w h a t  the  international last  part  of  environmental Chapter  3  a r e n a , is  of  endeavours  to  i n v e s t i g a t e . T h e c h a p t e r l o o k s at t h e p r i n c i p l e of s t a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t r a n s b o u n d a r y h a r m , a n d at t h e p r i n c i p l e of i n t e r n a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l e q u i t y a n d t h e rules t h a t d e r i v e f r o m it, in p a r t i c u l a r t h e p r i n c i p l e of c o m m o n but d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  responsibilities. Finding  t h a t t h e y a r e i m p l i c i t l y or e x p l i c i t l y i n c l u d e d in t h e B a s e l , R o t t e r d a m a n d S t o c k h o l m c o n v e n t i o n s , a n d t h a t t h e y h a v e b e e n r e c o g n i s e d by t h e m a j o r i t y  of s t a t e s w i t h i n t h e  i n t e r n a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l a r e n a , t h e c h a p t e r l o o k s t h e n at t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of p u t t i n g t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s into o p e r a t i o n  in t h e t r e a t i e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l  trade  of  hazardous chemicals and wastes.  3.2. North-South disparities: hazardous substances trade in a divided world T h i s c h a p t e r a r g u e s t h a t t h e first c o n d i t i o n t h a t f a c i l i t a t e s t h e N o r t h - S o u t h t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s is w h a t is often r e f e r r e d to a s t h e ' N o r t h - S o u t h d i v i d e . ' W h i l e t h e w o r d ' N o r t h ' e n c o m p a s s e s t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s of E u r o p e , J a p a n , America and Australasia, the word ' S o u t h '  2 2 0  North  refers to t h e d e v e l o p i n g a n d less d e v e l o p e d  World Bank, Office memorandum, Lawrence M. Summers, Ext. 33774, Subject: GEP, the World Bank/IFC/MIGA (12 December 1991). Later on, Mr. Summers said that this memo was only intended to generate discussion. The term was first used by Independent Commission on International Development Issues (known as the Brandt Commission due to its Chair, Willy Brandt, ex-chancellor of the former Federal Republic of Germany). 2 2 0  c o u n t r i e s of A f r i c a , A s i a a n d Latin A m e r i c a .  A l t h o u g h it is t r u e t h a t t h e c o u n t r i e s of t h e  S o u t h a r e v e r y d i v e r s e , t h e y a r e in a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n in relation to t h e d e v e l o p e d N o r t h . M o s t of t h e m w e r e c o l o n i e s of E u r o p e a n p o w e r s s o m e t i m e b e t w e e n 1 4 0 0 a n d 1 9 4 5 , a n d those that were never under formal  E u r o p e a n g o v e r n m e n t w e r e part of t h e c o l o n i a l  i n f l u e n c e , o r v i c t i m s of u n e q u a l t r a d e t r e a t i e s w i t h E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s t h a t t h e y w e r e in no p o s i t i o n to c o u n t e r .  2 2 2  T h e d o m i n a t i o n of t h e s e c o u n t r i e s by E u r o p e w a s t h e r e f o r e  p r i m a r i l y e c o n o m i c , a n d it w o u l d be later p e r p e t u a t e d by t h e f o r m e r s e t t l e r c o l o n i e s of North A m e r i c a and A u s t r a l a s i a .  2 2 3  B y t h e e n d of W o r l d W a r II, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s e m e r g e d a s a d o m i n a n t w e s t e r n p o w e r a n d w i t h Britain t o o k t h e lead in s h a p i n g n e w i n s t i t u t i o n s to p r o v i d e t h e f r a m e w o r k f o r w o r l d finance  and  trade.  While  committed  to  intervention  in  their  home  economies,  i n d u s t r i a l i s e d c o u n t r i e s w e r e d e t e r m i n e d to a v o i d p r o t e c t i o n i s t p o l i c i e s a b r o a d b y c r e a t i n g a s t r o n g f r e e - t r a d e s y s t e m . A s p u t by t h e B r a n d t C o m m i s s i o n , it w a s " K e y n e s at h o m e , and A d a m Smith a b r o a d . "  2 2 4  In 1 9 4 4 , t h e y m e t a t B r e t t o n W o o d s , N e w H a m p s h i r e a n d  established two central instruments for international financial and monetary cooperation: t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l B a n k for R e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d D e v e l o p m e n t ( k n o w n a s t h e W o r l d B a n k ) to provide  l o a n s to a s s i s t t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n  developing world, and the International  of E u r o p e a n d J a p a n a n d to s u p p o r t t h e  M o n e t a r y F u n d ( I M F ) to r e g u l a t e c u r r e n c i e s ,  p r o m o t e s t a b l e e x c h a n g e rates a n d p r o v i d e liquidity for t h e f r e e r f l o w of t r a d e .  2 2 5  Three  y e a r s later, t h e G e n e r a l A g r e e m e n t o n Tariffs a n d T r a d e ( G A T T ) - p r e d e c e s s o r of t h e W T O - w a s s i g n e d w i t h t h e a i m of p r e v e n t i n g t h e d i s c r i m i n a t o r y m e a s u r e s a n d r e t a l i a t o r y tariffs t h a t t r a d i n g n a t i o n s a d o p t e d d u r i n g t h e g r e a t d e p r e s s i o n of t h e 1 9 3 0 s .  2 2 6  It h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s e o r g a n i s a t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d to d e e p e n i n g t h e d i s p a r i t i e s between the North and the S o u t h , because they adopted rules that neglected the actual See Neil Middleton, Phil O'keefe & Sam Moyo, The Tears of the Crocodile. From Rio to Reality in the Developing World (London; Boulder, CO: Pluto Press, 1993) at 13. See Colin Sage, "The Scope for North-South Cooperation," in Environmental Problems as Conflicts of Interest, Andrew Blowers & Peter Glasbergen eds. (London: Arnold; New York: Halsted Press, 1996) at 167. Only parts of Arabia, Iran, Afghanistan, Liberia, China, Thailand and Ethiopia were never formal colonial ruling. For further details see J.P. Dickenson etal., A Geography of the Third World (London; New York: Methuen, 1983) at 22-36. Unlike the colonies in Latin America, Asia and Africa, in the North American and Australasian colonies there existed only weak and small native populations spread out over vast territories, which were easier to exterminate or displaced, and wholly European settlements were established. See Nassau Adams, Worlds Apart. The North-South divide and the International System (Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Zed Books, 1993) at 6 and Ibid. at 36-37. Independent Commission on International Development Issues (Willy Brandt Chairman), North-South: A Programme for Survival. Report of the Independent Commission on International Development Issues (London: Pan Books, 1980) at 36 [hereinafter Brandt Report]. See Brandt Report, supra note 224 at 36. See Middleton etal., supra note 220 at 97. 2 2 1  2 2 2  2 2 3  2 2 4  2 2 5  2 2 6  s h a p e of t h e w o r l d , b e l i e v i n g t h e p r o b l e m of u n d e r - d e v e l o p m e n t in t h e S o u t h w o u l d be s e t t l e d w i t h aid f l o w s a n d l o a n s t h a t w e r e not a l w a y s w e l l - m a n a g e d by t h e governments.  2 2 7  This downfall  w a s implicitly  r e c o g n i s e d in t h e  Brandt  recipient  report,  which  s t r e s s e d t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t b a s e d o n s i m p l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of e c o n o m i c g r o w t h h a d failed to s e c u r e ' h u m a n d i g n i t y ,  s e c u r i t y , j u s t i c e a n d e q u i t y ' for m u c h of t h e w o r l d ,  a d v o c a t i n g for s t r u c t u r a l c h a n g e s in t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c s y s t e m .  while  Similarly, the  2 2 8  C h a r t e r of E c o n o m i c R i g h t s a n d D u t i e s of S t a t e s a d o p t e d by t h e U N G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y in 1 9 7 4 e x p l i c i t l y c l a i m s for s o c i a l j u s t i c e in i n t e r n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s affecting Third W o r l d ,  2 2 9  the  c a l l i n g u p o n d e v e l o p e d s t a t e s to e x t e n d a n d i m p r o v e a n e n l a r g e d s y s t e m  of g e n e r a l i z e d n o n r e c i p r o c a l a n d n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t o r y tariff p r e f e r e n c e s to t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s (art 1 8 ) . A s s t r e s s e d by R o b e r t J a c k s o n , u n d e r l y i n g this d e m a n d is t h e i d e a t h a t strict  a d h e r e n c e to  widespread  problem  universality of  and  reciprocity  underdevelopment  in  in t h e  economic  relations  South, and  that  neglects  since  the  developing  c o u n t r i e s a r e in no p o s i t i o n to b a r g a i n w i t h t h e N o r t h on a b a s i s of r e c i p r o c i t y , n e w n o r m s of  preferential  treatment  should  be  established  d i s a d v a n t a g e d p o s i t i o n in t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l e c o n o m y .  to 2 3 0  compensate  for  their  material  G i v e n t h e i r e n o r m o u s i n f l u e n c e in  s h a p i n g t h e g l o b a l e c o n o m y a n d t h e r e b y N o r t h - S o u t h r e l a t i o n s ( i n c l u d i n g t h e t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s ) , t h e n e x t s e c t i o n g i v e s a g e n e r a l o v e r v i e w of t h e W T O , t h e W o r l d B a n k a n d t h e I M F , a n d t h e w a y s in w h i c h t h e y m i g h t h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d  to  deepening the divide between developed and developing countries.  3.2.1. The World Trade Organisation  U n d e r t h e G A T T / W T O s y s t e m lies t h e i d e a t h a t all c o u n t r i e s will benefit f r o m a s y s t e m of free  trade  that  e n c o u r a g e s its  participants  to  concentrate  on  those  manufacturing  p r o c e s s e s a n d s e r v i c e s in w h i c h t h e y a r e m o s t efficient o r w h e r e t h e y h a v e c o m p a r a t i v e a d v a n t a g e s ( p r i n c i p l e of s p e c i a l i s a t i o n ) , a n d this will r e m o v e t h e n e e d for p r o t e c t i o n of c o s t l y or inefficient i n d u s t r i e s by m e a n s of s u b s i d y or tariff b a r r i e r s . In a d i v i d e d w o r l d , h o w e v e r , t h i s t h e o r y is u n l i k e l y to w o r k . T o h a v e c o m p a r a t i v e a d v a n t a g e s in a g r i c u l t u r a l commodities  and  raw  materials  has been  precisely one  of  the  major  problems  of  d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , s i n c e t h e p r i c e s of t h e i r e x p o r t p r o d u c t s f l u c t u a t e e n o r m o u s l y w h i l e  See, for instance, Middleton etal., supra note 220 at 92-107, and Adams N., supra note 223 at 19-45. See Peter Calvert & Susan Calvert, The South, the North and the Environment (London; New York, N.Y.: Pinter, 1999) at 184-185. See Robert H. Jackson, Quasi-states: Sovereignty, International Relations and the Third World (Cambridge [England]; New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press, 1990) at 118. See Ibid, at 118-119.  2 2 7  2 2 8  2 2 9  2 3 0  t h e y d e p e n d o n i m p o r t s t h a t a r e e v e r m o r e e x p e n s i v e to p u r c h a s e .  2 3 1  A s stressed by  M i d d l e t o n e r al, " t h e p r i n c i p l e [of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n ] t a k e s no a c c o u n t of m a j o r i n e q u a l i t i e s between  nations  disadvantage."  2 3 2  and  by  this  failure  immediately  puts  poorer  countries  at  a  F u r t h e r m o r e , it h a s b e e n a r g u e d t h a t w h i l e p r o c l a i m i n g free t r a d e a s its  m a j o r t h e m e , t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d i n g s y s t e m is not f r e e , a s tariffs a n d n o n - t a r i f f b a r r i e r s i m p o s e d by t h e N o r t h h a v e i m p e d e d t h e S o u t h to e x p o r t , e . g . , p r o c e s s e d a g r i c u l t u r a l a n d textile manufactured p r o d u c t s .  2 3 3  T h e r e h a s b e e n s o m e r e c o g n i t i o n of t h i s s i t u a t i o n w i t h i n t h e W T O - G A T T s y s t e m .  It h a s  b e e n c o n c e d e d , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l G A T T h a d s e r i o u s l o o p h o l e s in relation to a g r i c u l t u r e , s i n c e it a l l o w e d c o u n t r i e s to u s e s u b s i d i e s a n d n o n - t a r i f f m e a s u r e s s u c h a s import quotas, making the sector become highly d i s t o r t e d . m e m b e r s s i g n e d t h e Agreement  on Agriculture,  2 3 4  A s a r e s u l t , in 1 9 9 5 W T O  by w h i c h all of t h e m , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n  of l e a s t - d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s , c o m m i t t e d to limit a g r i c u l t u r a l s u b s i d i e s , tariffs a n d o t h e r p r o t e c t i o n i s t m e a s u r e s to m a k e t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r Mess d i s t o r t e d . ' Agreement  on Textiles  and Clothing  2 3 5  Similarly, the  e s t a b l i s h e d t h e r e d u c t i o n of r e s t r a i n t s a n d t h e p h a s e  o u t of t h e M u l t i - F i b r e A r r a n g e m e n t o v e r a p e r i o d of t e n y e a r s , to i m p r o v e t h e s i t u a t i o n of exporters  (mostly  from  the  South)  that  had been  subject  to  bilaterally  'agreed'  quantitative restraints or unilaterally imposed restrictions on imports, which were applied b o t h to p r o d u c t s a n d a g g r e g a t e s .  2 3 6  T h e S o u t h a l s o s u c c e e d e d in g e t t i n g p r e f e r e n t i a l tariff  a g r e e m e n t s built into t h e G A T T . H o w e v e r , t h e y a r e s e e n a s m e r e e x c e p t i o n s a n d t h e y a r e  In the late 1940s, the UN Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA) was created to elaborate an analysis of the causes of economic stagnation in Latin America and the ways of overcoming it. The analysis demonstrated deterioration on the terms of trade for Latin America's raw materials exports against the import of manufactured goods from the North. These results flew in the face of theories of comparative advantage. For further details see Sage, supra note 221 at 172. See Middleton etal., supra note 220 at 97. See Brandt Report, supra note 224 at 8, 19 and 42, and Middleton etal., supra note 220 at 98-100. Essentially, trade is distorted if prices, quantities produced, bought, and sold are higher or lower than normal. Import barriers and domestic subsidies can raise crop prices in a country's internal market, and higher prices can encourage over-production. If the surplus is to be exported, where prices are lower, then export subsidies have to be paid. Governments give three reasons for applying measures that distort agricultural trade: a) To make sure that enough food is produced to meet the country's needs; b) To shield farmers from the effects of the weather and swings in world prices; and c) To preserve rural society. This has arguably put developing countries at a disadvantage, as they have less economic capacity to apply subsidies. The Agreement on Agriculture established reductions on tariffs, subsidies and other measures implemented over a six-year period (10 years for developing countries, except least developed countries) that began in 1995. Further negotiations are now underway to continue the reforms. See WTO, "Trading into the Future: The Introduction to the WTO. The Agreements. Agriculture: fairer markets for farmers." Online: <http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/agrm3_e.htm>. The M FA (1973) groups eight "importers," (mainly developed countries) among which six apply restrictions to "exporters" (mainly developing countries.) See WTO, Committee on Trade and Development, 77 session, November 21-25, 1994, "Developing Countries and the Uruguay Round: An Overview," note by the Secretariat, online: <http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/ldc2_512.htm>. 2 3 1  2 3 2  2 3 3  2 3 4  2 3 5  2 3 6  th  usually temporary and non-contractual. the  IMF and  the  2 3 7  M o r e r e c e n t l y , the C h i e f s of t h e W o r l d B a n k ,  WTO issued a joint communiqué  warning  the  OECD  Council that  " i n c r e a s e d p r o t e c t i o n i s m in t h e w o r l d ' s l e a d i n g e c o n o m i e s w o u l d u n d e r m i n e  developing  c o u n t r i e s ' efforts to r e f o r m t h r o u g h m o r e o p e n e c o n o m i e s , " d r a w i n g p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to t h e n e e d of m o d i f y i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l s u p p o r t policies a n d t e x t i l e s r e g i m e s , a n d c a l l i n g for i n t e r v e n t i o n s t h a t are less d a m a g i n g to t h e e c o n o m i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s of t h e p o o r .  2 3 8  T h e s e a d j u s t m e n t s r e p r e s e n t s o m e p r o g r e s s , but t h e y reinforce t h e idea t h a t free t r a d e is t h e s o l u t i o n to t h e p r o b l e m s of t h e S o u t h , a n d a n e c e s s a r i l y c o n s t r u c t i v e g o a l . T h u s , a c c o r d i n g to t h i s v i e w , t h e e x p o r t  of h a z a r d o u s w a s t e s c o u l d be j u s t i f i e d u n d e r  the  a r g u m e n t t h a t d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s m a y h a v e a c o m p a r a t i v e a d v a n t a g e in r e c y c l i n g s u c h materials,  2 3 9  r e g a r d l e s s of the s i g n i f i c a n t r i s k s for t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a n d h u m a n h e a l t h in  t h o s e c o u n t r i e s , o r of t h e fact t h a t the r e c y c l i n g of h a z a r d o u s s u b s t a n c e s m a y not be environmentally desirable.  2 4 0  3.2.2. Financial Institutions: the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund  T h e d i s p a r i t i e s t h a t e x i s t in the c o n t e x t of t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l M o n e t a r y F u n d a n d the W o r l d B a n k a r e in s o m e w a y s i m i l a r to t h o s e of the G A T T , a n d a r e e v e n m o r e p r o b l e m a t i c g i v e n the v i r t u a l l y a b s o l u t e c o n t r o l of t h e s e o r g a n i s a t i o n s by t h e N o r t h ( n o t a b l y t h e U . S . )  2 4 1  The  B a n k w a s s e t up to m o b i l i z e a n d lend f u n d s at m a r k e t r a t e s of i n t e r e s t to e n a b l e c o u n t r i e s to p a y for c a p i t a l g o o d s i m p o r t s . H o w e v e r , w h a t d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s n e e d e d w a s c a p i t a l The agreement on Generalised Scheme of Preferences, for instance, seeks to give developing countries a chance to compete on an equal footing with producers in developed importing markets. Yet, preference schemes frequently place a priori restrictions and criteria on the granting of preferences, and in many instances tariff preferences are temporary and non-contractual, and thus not legally binding. See Ibid. See WTO, News Release, "WTO, World Bank, and IMF chiefs warn against rich-country protectionism" (16 May 2002). (The statement refers to the Doha and Monterrey negotiations, before a new WTO Round). This view is supported, for example, by William Schneider "The Basel Convention Ban on Hazardous Waste Exports: Paradigm of Efficacity or Exercise in Futility?" (1996) 20 Suffolk Transnat'l L. Rev. 247 at 261 and 268; Jason Gudofsky "Transboundary Shipments of Hazardous Waste for Recycling and Recovery Operations," (1998) 34 Stan. J Int'l L. 219 at 283-285; and D. Kofi Asante-Duah & Imre V. Nagy, International Trade in Hazardous Waste (London; New York: E & FN Spon, 1998) at 5-6 and 110. For details on the recycling of hazardous wastes in the South see Clapp, "Toxic Exports," supra note 8 at 61. See also Basel Action Network, "Comments on Decision IV/8: Regarding Annex VII" (12 April 1999), online: <http://www.ban.org/subsidiary/comments.html>. The report argues that the recycling of hazardous wastes poses in many cases greater risks to the environment and to human health than final disposal. (See Hazardous Waste Recycling — A Closer Look). In addition, the recycling of some hazardous wastes is a source of several POPs (PCDD, PCDF, HCH and PCBs). See Stockholm Convention, supra note 13, Annex C Part II. In the World Bank, each member has 250 votes, and one additional vote for each share of stock held. The main shareholders are the U.S., Japan, the U.K., Germany, and France. In the IMF, decisions are taken according to the number of quotas. The largest shareholders are the U.S., Japan Germany, France, and the U.K. The WTO is in theory democratically governed, but in practice it is dominated by developed countries, as its negotiations are formed by private discussions between the Group of Seven G-7 (now G-8, which includes: Japan, the U.S., the U.K., Germany, France, Canada and Italy). See Middleton etal., supra note 220 at 95-96. 2 4 0  2 4 1  to build t h e h u m a n , p h y s i c a l , a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e for d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d t h e b e n e f i t s of s u c h i n v e s t m e n t s w e r e far in t h e f u t u r e a n d t h e y w e r e not s e l f - l i q u i d a t i n g . T h u s , t h e y c o u l d not e a r n t h e f o r e i g n e x c h a n g e r e q u i r e d to r e p a y c o n v e n t i o n a l l o a n s in convertible  currencies.  2 4 2  T h e F u n d , for  its  part,  w a s a i m e d at  providing  temporary  liquidity to a s s i s t c o u n t r i e s in a d j u s t i n g d i s e q u i l i b r i u m in t h e i r b a l a n c e of p a y m e n t s . T h i s g o a l w a s s u p p o s e d to be a t t a i n e d w i t h a s little e c o n o m i c d i s r u p t i o n a s p o s s i b l e ,  2 4 3  keeping  in m i n d its m i s s i o n of c o n t r i b u t i n g to t h e p r o m o t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e of h i g h l e v e l s of e m p l o y m e n t a n d real i n c o m e of all m e m b e r s .  2 4 4  of s t r u c t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t p r o g r a m m e s ( S A P s ) f a c i n g a f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s in t h e e a r l y 1 9 8 0 s .  2 4 6  Yet drastic policy measures - i n the form  2 4 5  were imposed on developing countries  W h i l e t h e s e m e a s u r e s s e r v e d t h e p u r p o s e of  confronting  T h i r d W o r l d ' s d e b t c r i s i s a n d to t h e  system,  they  2 4 7  resulted  in  sharp  cutbacks  m a i n t e n a n c e of t h e w o r l d in  incomes  and  economic  imports,  massive  u n e m p l o y m e n t , s o c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n a n d w i d e s p r e a d d e t e r i o r a t i o n in c a p i t a l s t o c k s a n d in p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y in t h e S o u t h .  2 4 8  Similar programs are now operated financing  individual  by t h e W o r l d B a n k , w h i c h e x p a n d e d its role  p r o j e c t s to S t r u c t u r a l A d j u s t m e n t  Loans ( S A L s ) .  2 4 9  In  relation  of to  i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t s , t h e b a n k w a s c r i t i c i z e d for f i n a n c i n g o n l y t h e f o r e i g n e x c h a n g e c o s t s of t h e a p p r o v e d p r o j e c t s , w h i c h r e s u l t e d in t h e d i s t o r t i o n of i n v e s t m e n t p l a n n i n g a n d d e v e l o p m e n t priorities a n d f a v o u r e d g r o w i n g i m p o r t d e p e n d e n c e . T h e n a r r o w f o c u s of B a n k l e n d i n g o n p h y s i c a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e w a s a l s o c r i t i c i z e d , s i n c e s o c i a l i n v e s t m e n t s in 24?  See Chandra Hardy "Debt negotiations and the North-South dialogue. 1974-1980," in William I. Zartman, ed., Positive Sum: Improving North-South Negotiations (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books, 1987) at 260. 243  According to art I [v] of the IMF's Articles of Agreement, one of the purposes of the IMF is to provide members "with the opportunity to correct maladjustments in their balance of payments without resorting to measures destructive of national or international prosperity." (Emphasis added). See Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund, 22 July 1944 60 Stat. 140, T.I.A.S. No. 1501, 2 U.N.T.S. 39 (entered into force 27 December 1945), online: <http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/aa/>. See Ibid. Art. I [ii] (Purposes). Without getting into details, SAPs generally include: exchange rate devaluation, restraints on government spending, controls on wages, liberalisation of trade and the encouragement of export-oriented activity. See Sage, supra note 221 at 177. Efforts focused on major debtors such as Argentina, Brazil and Mexico. These countries owed U$31 billion to nine banks whose capital totalled U$29 billion. See Adams, supra note 223 at 153-154. In 1979, a rise in oil prices (after a four-fold rise in the mid 1970s) and the increase of interest rates in the U.K. and the U.S. plugged the world economy into a deep recession, and demand for raw materials fell and by 1982 they were at their lowest price since 1945. All of these factors (economic recession, oil prices increase and high rates on heavy borrowings) resulted in the ballooning of the Third World debt: in 1980 it amounted around $500 billion, and by the end of the decade it was almost $1.3 trillion. For details see Adams N., supra note 223 at 158, Sage, supra note 221 at 177, and Robert Weismann, "Corporate Plundering of Third World Resources," in Richard Hofrichter, ed., Toxic Struggles. The Theory and Practice of Environmental Justice (Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1993) at 187. See Adams, supra note 223 at 158. 2 4 4  2 4 5  2 4 6  2 4 7  2 4 8  249  Over the last two decades, the Bank's lending for structural adjustment has doubled, reaching in 1999 over 50% of its lending portfolio earmarked for structural adjustment loans (SALs). See Christine Lee, "All Pain, No Gain: How Structural Adjustment Hurts Farmers and the Environment" Global Pesticide Campaigner 11:1 (April 2001) at 1, and Adams, supra note 223 at 35-36.  a r e a s s u c h a s e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , w a t e r a n d s a n i t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , w e r e not e l i g i b l e for b a n k f i n a n c i n g .  2 5 0  It w a s a l s o c l a i m e d t h a t d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s n e e d e d g r a n t s a n d  soft l o a n s a n d not t h e h a r d c o m m e r c i a l l o a n s p r o v i d e d by t h e b a n k . T h i s p r o m p t e d creation  of t h e  r e s t r i c t e d to needs.  2 5 2  International  Development  Agency (IDA),  low-income countries and even so they  S o m e reforms were also undertaken  in t h e  but  were  m e t o n l y a s m a l l part of  their  B a n k itself,  its  the  resources  2 5 1  a n d in  1970  new  g u i d e l i n e s w e r e p r o m u l g a t e d w i d e n i n g its s c o p e for p r o g r a m m e l e n d i n g , in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a m o r e d i v e r s e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e l o a n s by s e c t o r , w i t h i n v e s t m e n t s in e d u c a t i o n a n d a g r i c u l t u r e . H o w e v e r , a s put by N a s s a u A d a m s , " t h e b a s i c c h a r a c t e r a n d p h i l o s o p h y of t h e B a n k h a s r e m a i n e d u n c h a n g e d o v e r t h e y e a r s , a n d it is still m u c h m o r e a b a n k t h a n a development agency."  2 5 3  B e c a u s e t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h c a p t u r e s t h e v e r y h e a r t of N o r t h - S o u t h d i s p a r i t i e s a n d s u m m a r i z e s w h a t h a s b e e n s a i d up to n o w , it is w o r t h citing at l e n g t h :  "The essence of the conflict between North and South is that the two parts are at different stages of development, so that the South only produces the ingredients for the industry of the North and it sells them at uncertain and fluctuating rates to buy the more expensive finished products. There is an interdependence that locks the two parties into their unequal roles and when the South seeks to share in the industrial role of the North it enters an arena where both the conditions of technology and the rules of competition put it at disadvantage. Thus, there is neither equality of present status nor equality of opportunity for the future and the inequality of condition is mirrored and magnified by the inequality of capability to change it. Not only have the norms and practices of postcolonial international relations trained the new nations to expect something different from their status of economic political subjugation, but the problems of economic inferiority within the international economic order keep coming back to the doorstep of the rich, who must keep their debtors alive enough to continue to service their debt, stable enough to continue to export their raw materials and even prosperous enough to continue to buy the exports of the rich. But kept alive to that degree, the South calls for more, demanding the equality that humanitarian norms promise to human beings and that the norms of the United Nations - a s part of the current international political order- promise to states. Hence, it is a conflict not only of relations but also of perspectives, for it is primarily seen by both sides in zero-sum t e r m s " 254  See Adams, supra note 223 at 33-34. The International Development Agency is the World Bank's concessional lending window, online: <http://www.worldbank.org/> See Hardy, in Zartman W., supra note 242 at 261.  2 5 1  2 5 2  253 2 5 4  Adams, supra note 223 at 35. See William Zartman I. "Introduction: explaining North-South Negotiations" in Zartman, supra  note 242 at  3.3. International trade, environmental protection and hazardous substances This chapter argues that, besides the gap that exists between developed and developing countries, there  is a n o t h e r  powerful  force f a c i l i t a t i n g  and arguably  encouraging  the  t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s f r o m t h e N o r t h to t h e S o u t h : t h e m u l t i l a t e r a l trading  s y s t e m and the  liberal e c o n o m i c p a r a d i g m t h a t it u p h o l d s . T h e  b e t w e e n free t r a d e a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e t h e last d e c a d e .  2 5 5  protection  relationship  h a s b e e n s u b j e c t to m u c h  debate,  Thus, one would expect the trade and environment  l i t e r a t u r e to s t u d y e x t e n s i v e l y t h e i s s u e of N o r t h - S o u t h t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s s u b s t a n c e s (i.e. h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s ) , a n d t h e w a y s in w h i c h t r a d e l i b e r a l i s a t i o n c o u l d be p r o m o t i n g t h i s t r a n s f e r . It is, h o w e v e r , s u r p r i s i n g l y difficult to find s u c h a n a l y s i s .  2 5 6  In a  j u d i c i o u s s t u d y of t h e g l o b a l t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s w a s t e , J e n n i f e r C l a p p n o t e s t h a t t h e r e are three  specific inquiries  in t h e  trade  and  environment  debate  that  have  direct  r e l e v a n c e to t h e p r o b l e m of h a z a r d t r a n s f e r . T h e first o n e is t h e d e b a t e a r o u n d t h e i m p a c t of e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e g u l a t i o n s o n c o u n t r i e s ' t r a d e c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s , t h a t is, w h e t h e r l o w e r environmental  standards have an impact  in t h e  export  of h a z a r d o u s s u b s t a n c e s to  d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . A s e c o n d a s p e c t is t h e role e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e g u l a t i o n s m i g h t play in i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n , i.e., w h e t h e r l o w e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t a n d a r d s in d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s p a r t l y d e t e r m i n e t h e t r a n s f e r of i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y f r o m t h e N o r t h to t h e S o u t h . L a s t l y , there  is  the  i s s u e of  compatibility  between  trade  rules  and  the  trade  measures  i n c o r p o r a t e d in m u l t i l a t e r a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l a g r e e m e n t s , w h i c h i n q u i r e s w h e t h e r t r a d e c a n be l e g i t i m a t e l y r e s t r i c t e d in t h e n a m e of e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n .  2 5 7  In t h e c o n t e x t of t h e first a n a l y s i s , C l a p p n o t e s t h a t t h e l i t e r a t u r e h a s f o c u s e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y o n t h e i m p a c t of d o m e s t i c e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e g u l a t i o n s o n c o u n t r i e s ' e x p o r t s , a n d not o n t h e i m p a c t of w e a k d o m e s t i c r e g u l a t i o n s o n t h e i m p o r t of h a z a r d s s u c h a s t o x i c w a s t e s a n d p e s t i c i d e s . In o t h e r t e r m s , t h e a n a l y s i s h a s c o n s i d e r e d p r i m a r i l y w h e t h e r  For a review of the emergence of the debate and the main issues discussed see Marc Williams "International Trade and the Environment: Issues, Perspectives and Challenges," in Caroline Thomas, éd., Rio. Unravelling the Consequences (London; Portland, Oregon: Frank Cass, 1994) at 80-97, and Annie Taylor "The Trade and Environment Debate," in Annie Taylor and Caroline Thomas eds., Global Trade and Global Social Issues (London; New York: Routledge, 1999) at 72-90. For a fairly extensive economic literature review see Ravishankar Jayadevappa & Sumedha Chhatre "International trade and environmental quality: a survey," (2000) 32:2 Ecological Economics 175 at 175-194. A notable exception is Marc Williams, supra note 255 at 87-96, who recognises that free trade of hazardous substances causes environmental degradation and that the liberal economic perspective conflicts with the environmental perspective. See also Daniel C. Esty, Greening the GATT. Trade, Environment and the Future (Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, 1994) at 186-187. Although the author does not challenge the liberal economic perspective, he addresses the issue of North-South transfer of domestically banned or dangerous products (e.g. pesticides, waste), and mentions export bans as a possible solution to this problem. 2 5 6  257  See Clapp, "Toxic Exports,"  supra  note 8 at 6-12.  stringent  environmental  standards  c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s in t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l  in  industrialised  market,  affected  their  r a t h e r t h a n w h a t is t h e i m p a c t of  lower  e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t a n d a r d s in d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s .  2 5 8  countries  have  T h e e x p o r t of h a z a r d o u s w a s t e s to  t h e S o u t h in o r d e r to a v o i d t h e c o s t s of d i s p o s i n g of s u c h m a t e r i a l s in t h e N o r t h , h o w e v e r , is a c l e a r e x a m p l e of t h e direct i n f l u e n c e t h a t l o w e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t a n d a r d s h a v e h a d in t h e t r a n s f e r of w a s t e . T h e s e t r a n s f e r s h a v e a f f e c t e d t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a n d h e a l t h in t h e importing  c o u n t r i e s , s i n c e t h e y h a v e v e r y l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y to m a n a g e t h e m  safely.  2 5 9  S i m i l a r l y , d o m e s t i c N o r t h e r n r e g u l a t i o n s b a n n i n g t h e u s e of a p e s t i c i d e o r c h e m i c a l but allowing  its e x p o r t a t i o n  a r e c l e a r l y a n i n v i t a t i o n to t r a n s f e r  h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s to  d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s b e c a u s e of t h e i r l o w e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t a n d a r d s . A s in t h e c a s e of w a s t e s , h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s h a v e n e g a t i v e l y affected t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a n d h u m a n h e a l t h in t h e r e c i p i e n t c o u n t r i e s , a n d in s o m e c a s e s a l s o t h e g l o b a l e n v i r o n m e n t ( e . g . p e r s i s t e n t p e s t i c i d e s m a y t r a v e l long d i s t a n c e s o r r e t u r n to t h e N o r t h a s r e s i d u e s in a g r i c u l t u r a l products and foods imported from the developing w o r l d ) .  2 6 0  T h e s e c o n d q u e s t i o n w i t h i n t h e t r a d e a n d e n v i r o n m e n t d e b a t e t h a t is r e l e v a n t to  the  t r a n s f e r of c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s i n q u i r e s w h e t h e r f r e e t r a d e a n d i n v e s t m e n t a r e c r e a t i n g ' p o l l u t i o n h a v e n s , ' i.e., w h e t h e r N o r t h e r n f i r m s are r e l o c a t i n g to d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s to t a k e a d v a n t a g e of t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y l o w e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t a n d a r d s . R e g a r d i n g t h i s i s s u e , C l a p p n o t e s t h a t w h i l e m o s t of t h e t r a d e a n d e n v i r o n m e n t l i t e r a t u r e r e c o g n i s e s t h a t a t r a n s f e r of t h e m o s t h a z a r d o u s i n d u s t r i e s f r o m rich to p o o r c o u n t r i e s h a s o c c u r r e d a s a r e s p o n s e to s t r i n g e n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e g u l a t i o n s in d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s , t h i s p h e n o m e n o n is r e g a r d e d a s a n e x c e p t i o n to t h e r u l e , w h i c h a s s e r t s t h a t f i r m s g e n e r a l l y d o not r e l o c a t e for e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e a s o n s .  2 6 1  T h e r e is, h o w e v e r , e v i d e n c e of i n d u s t r i a l r e l o c a t i o n in t h e  c a s e of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s . O n e of t h e m is U . S . - b a s e d W a s t e M a n a g e m e n t I n c . , w h i c h set up facilities in H o n g K o n g , I n d o n e s i a a n d T h a i l a n d in t h e 1 9 9 0 s ,  2 6 2  or  S w i s s - b a s e d S y n g e n t a , w h i c h o p e n e d a p l a n t to m a n u f a c t u r e p a r a q u a t ( b a n n e d for u s e in  See Clapp, "Toxic Exports," supra note 8 at 9. A notable exception is Marc Williams, who claims that the liberal economic perspective does not provide an adequate model for dealing with environmental degradation, because it abstracts from power relations in the global political economy. Thus, it allows for hazardous waste to be dumped in a poor country because it is economically 'efficient.' See Williams M., supra note 255 at 96. 259  See Clapp, "Toxic Exports," supra note 8 at 26-38. Legislation on hazardous chemicals and the effects of these substances on health and the environment are considered in Chapter 1. See Clapp, "Toxic Exports," supra note 8 at 9. In a subsequent article, Clapp argues that the pollution havens debate has been dominated by economic analysis that use very narrow definitions of'dirty industry' and 'environmental cost,' making pollution havens merely impossible to identify. For instance, the hazardous waste recycling industry, which can be highly polluting, is excluded from the definition of'dirty industry.' See Jennifer Clapp "What the Pollution Haven Debate Overlooks," (2002) 2:2 Global Environmental Politics 9 at 12-16. [Hereinafter Clapp, "Pollution Havens"]. See Clapp, "Pollution Havens," Ibid, at 12-13. 2 6 0  2 6 1  2 6 2  S w i t z e r l a n d s i n c e 1 9 8 9 ) , a n d a n o t h e r o n e to p r o d u c e m o n o c r o t o p h o s (not r e g i s t e r e d for use  in  Switzerland)  in  China.  2 6 3  As  explained  in  Chapter  2,  the  capacity  of  big  a g r o c h e m i c a l c o r p o r a t i o n s t o t r a n s f e r t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n o p e r a t i o n s to t h e S o u t h , w h e r e t h e y h a v e n u m e r o u s s u b s i d i a r i e s a n d s o m e of t h e m a r e a l r e a d y p r o d u c i n g  hazardous  p e s t i c i d e s , s t r e s s e s t h e d a n g e r s of a n o u t r i g h t ban o n the e x p o r t of h a z a r d o u s p e s t i c i d e s to d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s if no r e g u l a t i o n s o n p r o d u c t i o n a r e i n t r o d u c e d .  T h e last i s s u e of t h e t r a d e a n d e n v i r o n m e n t literature t h a t s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d is t h e s t u d y of the c o m p a t i b i l i t y b e t w e e n t r a d e a g r e e m e n t s a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l a g r e e m e n t s . In t h i s r e g a r d , a s n o t e d by C l a p p , the literature h a s f o c u s e d m a i n l y o n legal a s p e c t s , r a t h e r t h a n o n the role t h a t t h e g l o b a l liberal t r a d e o r d e r m i g h t problem.  2 6 4  p l a y in the h a z a r d  transfer  T h e n e x t s e c t i o n a t t e m p t s to u n d e r t a k e t h a t a n a l y s i s . B e s i d e s c o n s i d e r i n g  s o m e g e n e r a l legal a s p e c t s (in p a r t i c u l a r w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t of t h e W T O ) t h a t a p p l y to t h e t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s , it l o o k s at s o m e of t h e w a y s in w h i c h t h e m a j o r g l o b a l e c o n o m i c o r g a n i s a t i o n s (i.e. t h e W o r l d B a n k , t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Fund-IMF  and  the  World  Trade  Organisation-WTO)  have  promoted  the  Monetary export  of  h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d p e s t i c i d e s f r o m d e v e l o p e d to d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s .  3.3.1. Hazardous Chemicals and the World Trade Organisation  T h e W T O p r o m o t e s t r a d e in h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s in at l e a s t t w o w a y s . T h e first o n e is t h r o u g h t h e p r o m o t i o n of free t r a d e a s its c e n t r a l o b j e c t i v e , limiting t h e legal ability of m e m b e r s t a t e s to p r o t e c t the e n v i r o n m e n t t h r o u g h t r a d e - r e s t r i c t i v e  measures. Because  t h i s is a v e r y g e n e r a l i s s u e , t h i s s e c t i o n c o n s i d e r s s o m e g e n e r a l a s p e c t s of  international  t r a d e a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l l a w , i n c l u d i n g not o n l y t h e R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n o n h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d p e s t i c i d e s , but a l s o the B a s e l C o n v e n t i o n o n h a z a r d o u s w a s t e s , a n d t h e S t o c k h o l m C o n v e n t i o n on P e r s i s t e n t O r g a n i c P o l l u t a n t s . T h e s e c o n d q u e s t i o n c o n s i d e r e d is m o r e s p e c i f i c , a n d it refers to t h e w a y s in w h i c h t h e W T O h a s p r o m o t e d t h e t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s p e s t i c i d e s to t h e S o u t h by f o s t e r i n g i n d u s t r i a l a g r i c u l t u r e , w h i c h relies h e a v i l y on chemical pesticides.  2 6 5  A s m a j o r e x p o r t e r s of a g r i c u l t u r a l  commodities,  developing  c o u n t r i e s h a v e b e e n u r g e d to i m p o r t c h e m i c a l p e s t i c i d e s , w h i l e t h e y a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y c a p a b l e of m a n a g i n g t h e m s a f e l y . F u r t h e r m o r e , b e c a u s e of t h e i r limited a c c e s s t o f o r e i g n currency,  the  countries  of  the  South  have  See notes 141 (monocrotophos) and 142 (paraquat). See Clapp, "Toxic Exports," supra note 8 at 10. See Skip Spitzer, "the WTO and Pesticide Reform" Global  tended  Pesticide  to  use older  Campaigner  (and  more  10:1 (April 2000) at 3.  toxic)  p e s t i c i d e s , a s t h e y a r e less e x p e n s i v e to p u r c h a s e b e c a u s e p a t e n t s no l o n g e r  protect  them.  3.3.1.1. The Multilateral Trading System and Environmental Protection  A t t h e h e a r t of t h e m u l t i l a t e r a l t r a d i n g s y s t e m , c e n t r a l i s e d a n d e n f o r c e d by t h e W o r l d T r a d e O r g a n i s a t i o n , lies t h e p r i n c i p l e of n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g to t h i s n o r m , W T O m e m b e r s t a t e s c a n n o t t r e a t a p r o d u c t of a n o t h e r m e m b e r m o r e f a v o u r a b l y t h a n products  2 6 5  of o t h e r m e m b e r s ( m o s t - f a v o u r e d - n a t i o n  principle),  2 6 7  like  and they must treat  g o o d s t h a t h a v e e n t e r e d t h e i r m a r k e t no less f a v o u r a b l y t h a n e q u i v a l e n t d o m e s t i c a l l y p r o d u c e d g o o d s ( p r i n c i p l e of n a t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t ) .  2 6 8  T h i s limits t h e ability of c o u n t r i e s to  restrict i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e for e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e a s o n s , e s p e c i a l l y if d a t a o n t h e  import,  e x p o r t o r d o m e s t i c p r o d u c t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r s u b s t a n c e a r e not a v a i l a b l e or a r e u n c l e a r . A r t i c l e 10 (9) of t h e R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n , for i n s t a n c e , is c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e o n n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . It p r o v i d e s t h a t in o r d e r to be a b l e to p r o h i b i t t h e i m p o r t a t i o n of a h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l , a s t a t e m u s t e n s u r e t h a t t h e s u b s t a n c e is not b e i n g i m p o r t e d  from  o t h e r s o u r c e ( s ) , or p r o d u c e d d o m e s t i c a l l y . T h i s m i g h t be p r o b l e m a t i c b e c a u s e s u c h d a t a m a y not be e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e a n d t h u s a s t a t e c o u l d not b a n t h e i m p o r t of a s u b s t a n c e until s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n is a v a i l a b l e .  D e s p i t e t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s i m p o s e d by t h e p r i n c i p l e of n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , s e v e r a l k e y W T O a g r e e m e n t s i n c l u d e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y for m e m b e r s t a t e s to a d o p t t r a d e - r e s t r i c t i v e m e a s u r e s for t h e p r o t e c t i o n of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . A r t i c l e X X of t h e General Trade ( G A T T ) , tariffs,  on Tariffs  and  a l l o w s W T O m e m b e r s to a d o p t t r a d e - r e s t r i c t i v e m e a s u r e s n e c e s s a r y to p r o t e c t  270  human,  Agreement  c o r n e r s t o n e of t r a d e r e l a t i o n s in t h e a r e a of g o o d s a n d b a s i s of rules o n  2 6 9  animal  or  plant  life or  health  (par.  b ) , or to  conserve exhaustible  natural  r e s o u r c e s if t h e r e a r e e q u a l r e s t r i c t i o n s on d o m e s t i c p r o d u c t i o n or c o n s u m p t i o n (par. g ) . T h e s e m e a s u r e s a r e o n l y a l l o w e d , h o w e v e r , if t h e y are not a p p l i e d in a m a n n e r t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s a m e a n s of a r b i t r a r y or u n j u s t i f i a b l e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n b e t w e e n c o u n t r i e s w h e r e  Term used to describe the same or equivalent products, which should be treated equally under the principles of "national treatment" and "most-favoured-nation" treatment. See General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 30 October 1947, 58 U.N.T.S. 187 (entered into force 1 January 1948) [Hereinafter GATT 1947] Art. I, online: <http://pacific.commerce.ubc.ca/trade/GATT.html>. 2 5 7  2  6  8  See  Ibid.,  Art.  III.  As of April 2003, the WTO had 146 member states. The WTO is an institutional framework that includes the GATT and all the agreements and legal instruments negotiated in the Uruguay Round (1986-94), which are binding upon all members, online: <http://www.wto.org>. Tariffs are national taxes on imported goods that obstruct international commerce. Art I of GATT refers to 'customs duties and charges of any kind imposed on or in connection with importation or exportation'. 2 6 9  2 7 0  t h e s a m e c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l , or a v e i l e d r e s t r i c t i o n on i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e . Agreement  on the Application  a l l o w s W T O m e m b e r s to  of Sanitary  take  this  and Phytosanitary  type  of  Measures  measures when  it  2 7 1  Similarly, the  (SPM agreement)  is n e c e s s a r y for  p r o t e c t i o n of h u m a n , a n i m a l or plant life or h e a l t h , g i v e n c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s . a c c o r d i n g to art 2 . 2 of t h e Agreement  on Technical  Barriers  to Trade,  2 7 2  the  Lastly,  members can adopt  t e c h n i c a l r e g u l a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y to p r o t e c t " h u m a n h e a l t h or s a f e t y , a n i m a l o r p l a n t life o r h e a l t h , or t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . "  However, these regulations cannot create unnecessary  2 7 3  o b s t a c l e s to i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e , a n d t h e y c a n n o t be m o r e t r a d e - r e s t r i c t i v e t h a n n e c e s s a r y to fulfill t h e i r o b j e c t i v e .  W h i l e t h e s e r u l e s s e e m to a l l o w e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t of t r a d e , t h e y h a v e b e e n i n t e r p r e t e d in a r e s t r i c t i v e m a n n e r by i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e t r i b u n a l s . In t h e Beef-Hormone  case, t h e W T O A p p e l l a t e B o d y r e j e c t e d t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t a b a n o n s a l e  of b e e f f r o m c a t t l e t h a t h a d b e e n fed g r o w t h h o r m o n e s ( a p p l i e d e v e n l y to d o m e s t i c a n d foreign  livestock)  was  precautionary m e a s u r e . decisions,  2 7 6  justified 2 7 4  under  the  SPM agreement,  S i m i l a r l y , in t h e Tuna-Dolphin  or  I a n d II  275  was and  a  necessary Shrimp-Turtle  t r a d e t r i b u n a l s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e m e a s u r e s t a k e n b y t h e U . S . to  protect  d o l p h i n s a n d s e a t u r t l e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , w e r e i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e G A T T a n d did not q u a l i f y for A r t i c l e X X ' s g e n e r a l e x c e p t i o n s .  2 7 7  In t h e c a s e i n v o l v i n g s e a t u r t l e s , h o w e v e r , a r e c e n t  d e c i s i o n ( 2 0 0 1 ) by a n a r b i t r a t i o n p a n e l of t h e W T O D i s p u t e S e t t l e m e n t M e c h a n i s m r u l e d See GATT 1947, supra note 267, Article XX. See Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, Apr. 15, 1994, WTO Agreement, Annex 1A, Legal Instruments - Results of the Uruguay Round vol. 27 (1994), Online: <http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/15-sps.pdf> [hereinafter SPS Agreement], Arts. 2(1), 2(2), 2(3) and 5(7). See Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, Apr. 15, 1994, WTO Agreement, Annex 1A, Legal Instruments - Results of the Uruguay Round vol. 27 (1994), Online: <http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/17-tbt.pdf> [hereinafter TBT Agreement], Art. 2(2). For further details of this case see Dale Arthur Oesterle "The WTO Reaches Out to the Environmentalists: Is It Too Little, Too Late?" (1999) Colo. J. Int'l Envtl. L. & Pol'y Y.B. 1 at 4. In Tuna/Dolphin I, Mexico challenged the Marine Mammal Protection Act, which allowed the U.S. to unilaterally impose trade sanctions on imported tuna to protect dolphins threatened by foreign fishing practices. A 1991 GATT dispute resolution panel decision declared the Act to be in violation of GATT, and stated that the measures in the Act were not "necessary" to the protection of animal life within the reservation of Article XX(b) In Tuna/Dolphin II, the act was challenged again by the European Union, and the panel held against the U.S., finding that the import embargoes in the Act did not qualify as "necessary" under Article XX(b) For further details see Ibid, at 3-4. In the Shrimp/Turtle 1998 decision, a WTO panel invalidated a US ban on imports of shrimp harvested with devices that trapped and suffocated endangered sea turtles. The panel found that the US import restrictions were inconsistent with the GATT (art XI), and were not justified under Art. XX. The Appellate Body partially reversed the panel's decision stating that the rule was a permissible measure under art XX (g), but it concluded that U.S. implementation of the Section was discriminatory, and therefore violated GATT Art. XX's chapeau. See 2 7 1  2 7 3  2 7 4  2 7 5  2 7 6  Ibid,  at  3-4,  and  United  States  -Import  Prohibition  of Certain  Shrimp  and  Shrimp  Products  (Appeal  by  the  (1998), WTO Doc. WT/DS58/AB/R (Appellate Body Report), online: <http://www.wto.Org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/dispu_subjects_index_e.htm#list> [Hereinafter"Shrimp-Turtle Decision"]. See Sanford E. Gaines, "Processes and Production Methods: How to Produce Sound Policy for Environmental PPM-Based Trade Measures?" (2002) 27 Colum. J. of Envt'l L. 383 at 385-6.  United  2 7 7  States)  in f a v o u r of t h e U . S . b e c a u s e it c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e m e a s u r e p r o t e c t i n g the turtles w a s no longer d i s c r i m i n a t o r y .  2 7 8  T h e ruling w a s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e 1 9 9 8 p a n e l  d e c i s i o n , w h i c h s t a t e d t h a t t h e U . S . l a w to p r o t e c t s e a t u r t l e s w a s a p e r m i s s i b l e m e a s u r e u n d e r A r t . X X , b u t w a s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h its c h a p e a u .  2 7 9  S i m i l a r l y , in a 2 0 0 1 d e c i s i o n , t h e  W T O A p p e l l a t e B o d y u p h e l d a policy b y F r a n c e w h i c h b l o c k e d i m p o r t s f r o m C a n a d a t h a t contained a s b e s t o s .  2 8 0  T h i s is t h e first t i m e t h a t t h e W T O a p p r o v e s t h e u s e of a t r a d e  r e s t r i c t i v e m e a s u r e in o r d e r t o p r o t e c t h u m a n h e a l t h .  Although  these  two decisions suggest that  there  2 8 1  is s o m e  room  for  p r o t e c t i o n w i t h i n t h e W T O c o n t e x t , it is u n c l e a r w h e t h e r t r a d e - r e s t r i c t i v e  environmental m e a s u r e s of  environmental agreements such as the Basel, Rotterdam and Stockholm conventions are p e r m i s s i b l e w i t h i n t h e W T O s y s t e m . A s n o t e d by t h e W T O ' s C o m m i t t e e o n T r a d e a n d E n v i r o n m e n t , a p o s s i b l e s o u r c e of conflict b e t w e e n e n v i r o n m e n t a l t r e a t i e s a n d G A T T r u l e s is  that  several  of t h e t r a d e  aspects  they  contain  violate  the  principle  of  non-  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , s i n c e t h e y e n v i s a g e t r a d e in a p r o d u c t w i t h s o m e c o u n t r i e s b u t n o t w i t h others (which contradicts the most-favoured-nation clause), or they permit discrimination between rule).  2 8 2  domestic and imported  products  the national  treatment  T h e Basel C o n v e n t i o n , for e x a m p l e , requires parties to apply more  restrictive  t r a d e m e a s u r e s t o n o n - p a r t i e s to t h e t r e a t y ,  (which  2 8 3  contradicts  a n d a n a m e n d m e n t a d o p t e d in 1 9 9 5 b a n s  the export of hazardous wastes from certain states to o t h e r s .  2 8 4  B o t h rules v i o l a t e t h e  p r i n c i p l e of n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , a n d W T O m e m b e r s c o u l d c h a l l e n g e t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n b y a n o t h e r m e m b e r in t r a d e p a n e l s .  2 8 5  Elizabeth R. DeSombre & J. Samuel Barkin "Turtles and Trade: The WTO's Acceptance of Environmental Trade Restrictions," (2002) 2:1 Global Environmental Politics 12 at 14-17. See Ibid, and "Shrimp-Turtle Decision," supra note 276 at 46-76. 2 7 8  2 7 9  280  For details on asbestos see section 2.2.1. in Chapter 2. See Michael Weinstein & Steve Charnovitz, "The Greening of the WTO" Foreign Affairs 80:6 (November/December 2001) 147, and Raj Bhala & David A. Gantz, "WTO Case Review 2001" (2001) 19 Ariz. J. Int'l & Comp. L. 457 at 505-517. See WTO, Committee on Trade and Environment, Agenda Part I, "CTE on: Trade Rules, Environmental Agreements and Disputes," online: <http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/envir_e/cte01_e.htm>. According to Art. 11 of the Basel Convention, parties can only trade hazardous substances with non-parties under certain circumstances, and if a particular agreement has been previously celebrated. See Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, 22 March 1989, UN Doc. I.G.80/3 (22 March 1989), 28 I.L.M. 649 (entered into force 5 June 1992) [Hereinafter Basel Convention], online: <http://www.basel.int/text/con-e.htm>. Decision III/l, known as the Basel Ban, proscribes the export of hazardous wastes from the countries of Annex VII (EU members, OECD members and Liechtenstein), to Non-Annex VII countries. It is an amendment to the Basel Convention and as of August 2003 it had not entered into force. Up-to-date information can be found at: <http://www.basel.int/ratif/ratif.html#ban>. Since so far there have been no disputes between WTO rules and trade provisions of a multilateral environmental agreement, it is still unclear which one would prevail in case of a conflict. 2 8 1  2 8 2  2 8 3  2 8 4  2 8 5  The potential  legal conflict  between trade agreements and the Rotterdam, Basel  and  S t o c k h o l m c o n v e n t i o n s c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y be s o l v e d w i t h the i n c l u s i o n of a t r a d e p r o v i s i o n explicitly allowing those trade-restrictive  m e a s u r e s t h a t a r e s u p p o r t e d by a  multilateral  e n v i r o n m e n t a l t r e a t y . A t the s a m e t i m e , it d o e s not s e e m d e s i r a b l e t h a t t r a d e  tribunals  i n t e r p r e t W T O ' s g e n e r a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l rules m o r e l o o s e l y . A s a r g u e d by W e i n s t e i n a n d C h a r n o v i t z , t h e W T O m u s t find a b a l a n c e b e t w e e n a t t a c k i n g too s t r o n g l y environmental  trade  restrictions, which  invites environmental  the u s e of  damage, and excessive  l e n i e n c y in i m p o s i n g s a n c t i o n s , w h i c h w o u l d invite p r e s s u r e o n p o o r e r c o u n t r i e s to a d o p t standards that are ill-suited protectionist-motivated  to t h e i r  environmental  strained  economies.  restrictions  within  2 8 6  the  Differently context  put,  of  to  allow  international  t r a d e c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y w i d e n S o u t h - N o r t h d i s p a r i t i e s , m a k i n g it e v e n h a r d e r for t h e S o u t h to d e v e l o p the e c o n o m i c a n d t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a c i t y to e n f o r c e e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e g u l a t i o n s .  3.3.1.2. How the WTO Promotes Trade in Hazardous Pesticides In a d d i t i o n to r e s t r i c t i n g the ability of m e m b e r s t a t e s to b a n o r restrict t h e i m p o r t a t i o n h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s , the W T O p r o m o t e s t r a d e in h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s by f o s t e r i n g industrial  agricultural  system.  Industrial  farming  tends  toward  large-scale,  of the  capital-  i n t e n s i v e f a r m s s p e c i a l i z i n g in s i n g l e c r o p s . T h e s e m o n o c u l t u r e s u s u a l l y h a v e m i n i m a l or no c r o p r o t a t i o n s ; t h e y p r e c l u d e b e n e f i c i a l crop i n t e r a c t i o n s ; t h e y lead to t h e loss of soil o r g a n i s m s and beneficial insects; and they disrupt other complimentary relationships on the f a r m , such as the  production  of m a n u r e  by l i v e s t o c k . T h e s e f a c t o r s  make  crops  e s p e c i a l l y v u l n e r a b l e to i n s e c t s , w e e d s a n d d i s e a s e , c r e a t i n g the n e e d for h i g h l e v e l s of pesticide  use.  development pesticides.  In of  addition, pesticide  industrial resistance,  agricultural 2 8 7  requiring  systems the  use  may of  cause more  accelerated or  stronger  2 8 8  See Weinstein & Charnovitz, supra note 281 at 2. Pesticide resistance is a genetically based phenomenon. It occurs when a pest population (e.g. an insect, a weed) is exposed to a pesticide, and some individuals are resistant to the pesticide. If the pesticide is continually applied to the population of the pest, only resistant individuals will survive, breed and multiply, increasing the number of individuals resistant to that pesticide. The more a population is exposed to a pesticide, the more quickly resistance will develop. Because many generations of some pests can develop in a single year, resistance can develop very quickly. Recent studies indicate that more than 500 species of insects and mites are resistant to pesticides, and at least 17 species of insect species are resistant to all major classes of insecticides. Over 270 weed species, over 150 plant pathogens and about half a dozen of rats are resistant to pesticides that once controlled them. See Robert G. Bellinger, "Pesticide Resistance to Pesticides," Clemson University, SC, U.S.A. (March 1996), online: <http://www.google.ca/search?q=cache:27rqxbPROMcJ:ipm.ncsu.edu/safety/factsheets/resistan.pdf+pest+resi stance+to+pesticides&hl=en&ie=UTF-8 >. 2 8 7  288  See Spitzer, supra  note 265 at 3.  W T O a g r e e m e n t s p r o m o t e t h i s t y p e of a g r i c u l t u r e by e l i m i n a t i n g t r a d e r e s t r i c t i o n s in t h i s sector, which  is d e v a s t a t i n g  to  small-scale producers, who  are  potentially  the  p e s t i c i d e - d e p e n d e n t . T h u s , a g r e e m e n t s t h a t r e d u c e o r e l i m i n a t e tariffs, i m p o r t  least  controls,  price a n d f a m i l y f a r m s u p p o r t p r o g r a m s , e t c , r e s u l t in o p e n i n g m a r k e t s to c h e a p e x p o r t s w i t h w h i c h s m a l l f a r m e r s c a n n o t c o m p e t e . T h e y are t h u s f o r c e d to g e t b i g g e r , a n d to u s e i n c r e a s i n g c h e m i c a l i n p u t s to c o n t r o l p e s t s . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , t r a d e r u l e s a l l o w s u b s i d i e s of e x p o r t s  and foreign  investment  pesticide-dependent agriculture.  practices which greatly  foster  larger-scale,  highly  2 8 9  A g a i n , o n e c o u l d t h i n k t h a t t h e s o l u t i o n to this p r o b l e m is to a l l o w p r o t e c t i o n i s t m e a s u r e s in t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r . T h e r e a r e , h o w e v e r , t w o s i d e s of l i b e r a l i s i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l t r a d e . A s it w a s e x p l a i n e d in the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n (on N o r t h - S o u t h d i s p a r i t i e s ) , m o s t d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s l a r g e l y d e p e n d on e x p o r t s of a g r i c u l t u r a l c o m m o d i t i e s , a n d t h e i r s i t u a t i o n h a s w o r s e n e d d u e to p r o t e c t i o n i s t m e a s u r e s by the N o r t h t h a t h a v e d i s t o r t e d t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l m a r k e t . T h e r e f o r e , o n e of t h e a d v a n c e s in t h e W T O is the a t t e m p t to l i b e r a l i s e t h e s e c t o r so t h a t p r o d u c e r s in the t h i r d w o r l d o b t a i n a fair price for w h a t t h e y p r o d u c e . H o w e v e r , this m e a n s t h a t d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s will a l s o be u n a b l e to p r o t e c t t h e i r f a r m e r s , a n d g i v e n t h e i r lack of r e s o u r c e s will h a v e f u r t h e r i n c e n t i v e s to u s e c h e m i c a l p e s t i c i d e s in o r d e r to be c o m p e t i t i v e in t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l m a r k e t . T h i s is a g g r a v a t e d by t h e fact t h a t international  financial  institutions,  which  are e x a m i n e d  next,  usually  condition  their  l e n d i n g to s t r u c t u r a l r e f o r m s t h a t limit t h e role of t h e S t a t e to i m p r o v e t h e c o n d i t i o n of farmers, and the  p o s s i b i l i t y of p r o m o t i n g  the  u s e of m o r 7 e e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y  friendly  t e c h n i q u e s to c o n t r o l p e s t s . T h u s , w h i l e m a k i n g t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r less d i s t o r t e d is e s s e n t i a l to d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s ,  it is e q u a l l y  important  promote  pests  integrated  safer  techniques)  2 9 0  ways  to  control  (e.g.  to e n h a n c e t h e i r pest  ability  management  a n d to s a f e l y m a n a g e c h e m i c a l p e s t i c i d e s in t h o s e c a s e s in w h i c h  to  (IPM) they  m u s t be u s e d .  "  3  See  Ibid,  at  3-4.  The FAO Code of Conduct defines IPM as "a pest management system that, in the context of the associated environment and the population dynamics of the pest species, utilizes all suitable techniques and methods in as compatible a manner as possible and maintains the pest population levels below those causing economically unacceptable damage or loss." From this definition follows that IPM seeks to maintain the targeted pest at a level where damage to the crop is not economically unacceptable, rather than to eliminate it. IPM control methods include: biological control, the use of pest-resistant crops, non-fatal chemical controls, and cultural controls. Biological control entails mobilizing the natural predators of a pest in order to control it, which usually involves introducing a natural enemy (such as insects or microbes) where it does not naturally occur. The use of pest resistant crops entails breeding strains of crops that are inherently resistant to their normal predators. Much of the research in this field has concentrated on isolating the genetic traits responsible for resistance, to breed them into other non-resistant plants (e.g. a strain of tomato inter-bred with a gene from the bacterium bacillus thuringiensis). The non-fatal chemical method entails the use of chemicals that are less toxic and fall short of directly killing the pest (e.g., sex pheromones to disrupt the mating of insects). Lastly, cultural controls, 2 9 0  3.3.2. Financial Institutions and Trade in Hazardous Chemicals  I n t e r n a t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s s u p p o r t t r a d e in h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s m a i n l y  through  t h e p r o m o t i o n of p e s t i c i d e u s e in t h e i r f i n a n c i n g p r o g r a m s . S t r u c t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t  plans  imposed by institutions such as the World Bank a n d the IMF have boosted pesticide sales and  u s e in d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , b y e m p h a s i z i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l  economic budgets,  development direct  in t h e s e c o u n t r i e s .  a n d indirect  2 9 1  A s pointed  subsidies and certain  exports as the k e y to  o u t by t h e F A O , o u t b r e a k  extension  policies are all typical  p e s t i c i d e policies t h a t c o n t r i b u t e to o v e r u s e a n d a b u s e of p e s t i c i d e s , a n d t h e y a r e u s u a l l y i m p l e m e n t e d by n a t i o n a l o r local g o v e r n m e n t s , often i n f l u e n c e d b y d e v e l o p m e n t b a n k s .  2 9 2  S t r u c t u r a l a d j u s t m e n t l o a n s by t h e W o r l d B a n k , f o r e x a m p l e , m a y i n c l u d e c o n d i t i o n s s u c h a s : n a t i o n a l c o m m i t m e n t s t o g e n e r a t e f o r e i g n - e x c h a n g e e a r n i n g s t h r o u g h p r o d u c t i o n of c a s h c r o p s a n d n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l e x p o r t c r o p s ; l i b e r a l i s a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l t r a d e ; p r o v i s i o n of i n c e n t i v e s a n d s u b s i d i e s f o r e x p o r t - o r i e n t e d  agriculture;  r e d u c t i o n in a v a i l a b i l i t y of  c r e d i t t o local f a r m e r s ; a n d c u t s in staff a n d r e s o u r c e s in a g r i c u l t u r a l d e p a r t m e n t s a n d government services.  2 9 3  A p a r t f r o m t h e n e g a t i v e i m p a c t s o n s m a l l s i z e d f a r m e r s , w h o s u f f e r m a s s i v e c u t s in s o c i a l services and financial s u p p o r t ,  2 9 4  these programs can damage the environment, because  non-traditional crop production a n d cash crops are often more susceptible to disease a n d p e s t s , r e q u i r i n g large v o l u m e s of t o x i c c h e m i c a l s .  2 9 5  P e r h a p s r e c o g n i s i n g its i n f l u e n c e o n  p e s t i c i d e u s e in d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , t h e W o r l d B a n k a p p r o v e d in 1 9 9 8 O p e r a t i o n a l Policy 4 . 0 9 ( O P 4 . 0 9 ) , w h i c h a p p l i e s t o all p r o j e c t s i n v o l v i n g pest m a n a g e m e n t a n d s u p p o r t s a strategy  t h a t p r o m o t e s t h e u s e of b i o l o g i c a l o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l  control  methods and  usually based on techniques employed by farmers, seek to limit pests by affecting their habitats. They include: crop rotation, practically abandoned in favour of the monocultures promoted by the 1960s green revolution; physical traps (e.g. yellow boards covered in glue to trap whiteflies); and the^estruction of crop residues after harvesting (so as to remove any remaining pest habitat and eggs). For further details on IPM see Hough, "The Global Politics of Pesticides" supra note 51 at 127-131, and Code of Conduct, supra note 48 Art. 2. T01  292  See Crain,  supra  note 49 at 10.  See Global IPM Facility, "Four essential Elements of IPM Programmes," Online: <http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/AGRICULT/AGP/AGPP/IPM/gipmf/02_programmes/02b.htm>.  2Q"3  See Lee, supra note 249 at 1-2. As explained by Christine Lee, most cash crops require substantial initial capital investments far beyond the reach of small farmers, such as: complex irrigation systems, sophisticated marketing systems, and information on topics ranging from cultivation techniques to international market dynamics, which only foreign corporations and local elites can afford. Additionally, small farmers rarely have access to the financial capital or technical expertise to make the shift from local food to export crops. See Ibid, at 2. 2 9 4  295  As explained before, the shift from a variety of crops to monocropping systems exacerbates the need for agricultural inputs, depletes the soil of essential minerals and nutrients, and decreases biological diversity (including beneficial insects that eliminate pests.) See Ibid, at 4.  reduces reliance on synthetic chemical pesticides. promotes  farmer-driven,  ecologically  based  In a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o j e c t s , t h e p o l i c y  integrated  pest  management  (IPM).  2 9 7  According to O P 4 . 0 9 , t h e Bank can only finance t h e acquisition of pesticides w h e n their u s e is j u s t i f i e d u n d e r a n I P M a p p r o a c h ;  2 9 8  it c a n n o t f i n a n c e h i g h l y h a z a r d o u s f o r m u l a t e d  pesticide products belonging to World Health Organization (WHO) Classes l a , l b , and I I if t h e y  a r e l i k e l y to b e u s e d b y p e r s o n s w i t h o u t a d e q u a t e t r a i n i n g ,  facilities;  and when  3 0 0  supplying  standards s e t forth by the F A O .  3 0 1  pesticides to farmers,  bank  staff  2 9 9  equipment and must  follow t h e  In r e a l i t y , h o w e v e r , m a n y p o o r l y d e s i g n e d p r o j e c t s  p r o m o t e i n c r e a s e d u s e o f p e s t i c i d e s , b a n k staff t e n d s t o o v e r l o o k t h e inability o f f a r m e r s to f o l l o w F A O g u i d e l i n e s ( i . e . , t h e y often c a n n o t afford p r o t e c t i v e e q u i p m e n t o r e x t r e m e t r o p i c a l h e a t m a k e s its u s e i m p r a c t i c a l ) ,  3 0 2  a n d the pesticides used often contain active  i n g r e d i e n t s t h a t a r e listed a s C l a s s e s l a , l b o r I I . m a n a g e m e n t design frequently  303  In a d d i t i o n , p r o j e c t s w i t h g o o d p e s t  fail t o a c h i e v e t h e i r g o a l s d u e t o i n a d e q u a t e  m o n i t o r i n g a n d c o n t r o l by B a n k s t a f f .  3 0 4  project  Pesticide Action Network North A m e r i c a (PANNA)  r e v i e w e d d o c u m e n t s f o r all W o r l d B a n k p r o j e c t s a p p r o v e d b e t w e e n 1 9 9 7 a n d 2 0 0 0 a n d found that few of t h e m even mention I P M .  3 0 5  In a d i f f e r e n t s t u d y , P A N N A f o u n d  that  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f O P 4 . 0 9 is g e n e r a l l y w e a k a n d real p r o g r e s s t o w a r d e c o l o g i c a l l y b a s e d agricultural s y s t e m s a n d pesticide use reduction has been l i m i t e d .  3 0 6  Thus, despite the  g o o d i n t e n t i o n s e x p r e s s e d in its Pest M a n a g e m e n t O p e r a t i o n P o l i c y , t h e W o r l d B a n k still p r o m o t e s t h e u s e o f p e s t i c i d e s in d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s .  World Bank, Operational Policy O.P. 4.09 (December 1998) [Hereinafter O.P. 4.09] Art. 1, online: <http://wbln0018.worldbank.Org/Institutional/Manuals/OpManual.nsf/0/665DA6CA847982168525672C007D07A 3?OpenDocument>. [The policy replaced a previous version dated 1996]. World Bank OP 4.09 defines IPM as "a mix of farmer-driven, ecologically based pest control practices that seeks to reduce reliance on synthetic chemical pesticides." See Ibid, at footnote 4.  2 9 6  2 9 7  2  9  8  See Ibid.  Art.  4.  These are: extremely hazardous (la), highly hazardous (lb), and moderately hazardous (II). Please see supra note 72. See O.P. 4.09, supra note 296 Arts. 6, 7(a) and 7(b). 2 9 9  3 0 0  3  0  1  See Ibid.  Art.  7.  See Marcia Ishii-Eiteman etal., "Monitoring the World Bank's Pest Management Policy: A Guide for Communities," Pesticide Action Network North America (PANNA) (May 2001), online: <http://www.panna.org/resources/documents/monitoringWB.dv.html> and Global IPM Facility, supra note 292. See Ishii-Eiteman etal., Ibid, at 10. 3 0 2  3 0 3  3  0  4  See Ibid,  at  3-4.  See Ned Tozun "New Policy, Old Patterns: A Survey of IPM in World Bank Projects" Global Pesticide Campaigner 11:1 (April 2001) at 1, online: <http://www.panna.Org/resources/gpc/gpc_200104.ll.l.02.dv.html>. Although projects in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia were most likely to aggravate pesticide problems, projects in Latin America, Europe, and Central Asia showed some promise for ecological alternatives. See Ibid, at 1.  3 0 5  3 0 6  U p to n o w , C h a p t e r 3 h a s s o u g h t to i n v e s t i g a t e t h e c o n t e x t in w h i c h t h e  North-South  t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d p e s t i c i d e s t a k e s p l a c e , t a k i n g into a c c o u n t t h e N o r t h S o u t h t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s w a s t e s , w h i c h o c c u r s u n d e r s i m i l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T h e n e x t s e c t i o n a r g u e s t h a t w h e n t h e c o n t e x t is c o n s i d e r e d , it b e c o m e s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s f r o m d e v e l o p e d to d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s is p r i m a r i l y a n e t h i c a l q u e s t i o n . A s a r e s u l t , it s t u d i e s t h e legal a n d m o r a l p r i n c i p l e s t h a t a p p l y to t h i s issue, and the  r e l e v a n c e t h a t s t a t e s h a v e g i v e n to t h e s e r u l e s in t h e  international  environmental arena.  3.4. T h e N o r t h - S o u t h T r a n s f e r of H a z a r d o u s S u b s t a n c e s : E t h i c a l D i l e m m a s  T h e N o r t h - S o u t h t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s e n t a i l s a d i l e m m a for b o t h p a r t i e s . For a N o r t h e r n c o m p a n y , t h e o p t i o n is b e t w e e n g a i n i n g profits o r s a v i n g m o n e y by m e a n s of e x p o r t i n g  h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s to c o u n t r i e s t h a t h a v e l o w e r  e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t a n d a r d s , a n d f a c i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of l o s i n g c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s o r , in t h e w o r s t c a s e , g o i n g b a n k r u p t . For t h e S o u t h , t h e c h o i c e is m o r e difficult. T h e m o s t d r a m a t i c c a s e is t h a t of least d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s , w h i c h r e c e i v e n o x i o u s m a t e r i a l s to  obtain  r e s o u r c e s t h a t a r e i n d i s p e n s a b l e to o v e r c o m e p o v e r t y a n d to fulfill t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n s ' m o s t b a s i c n e e d s . In this c a s e , t h e d i l e m m a is b e t w e e n e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n a n d  survival,  a n d t h e r e f o r e it is less of a c h o i c e . T h e s i t u a t i o n of o t h e r d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s is a l s o p r o b l e m a t i c : w h i l e part of t h e i r i n d u s t r y h a s b e c o m e d e p e n d e n t o n h a z a r d o u s s u b s t a n c e s (i.e. w a s t e s u s e d a s r a w m a t e r i a l s , p e s t i c i d e s to s u s t a i n e x p o r t a g r i c u l t u r e ) to be v i a b l e in the  international  and domestic markets, governments are facing an enduring  social,  e c o n o m i c a n d often political c r i s i s t h a t p r e v e n t s t h e m f r o m m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s t h a t w o u l d immediately  deepen  that  crisis.  The  option  is  between  long-term  environmental  p r o t e c t i o n , t h e b e n e f i t s of w h i c h a r e f a r in t h e f u t u r e , a n d m o r e p r e s s i n g e c o n o m i c a n d social  problems. Although  the  North  also confronts  this  kind  of  predicament,  it  is  s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e o n e r o u s for t h e S o u t h , w i t h less e c o n o m i c a n d t e c h n o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s to o v e r c o m e t h e n e g a t i v e s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c i m p a c t s t h a t r e s u l t f r o m a p p l y i n g d r a s t i c e n v i r o n m e n t a l m e a s u r e s , a n d less p o w e r to e n f o r c e e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e g u l a t i o n s . T h i s is o n e of t h e r e a s o n s w h y a l t h o u g h all c o u n t r i e s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e to p r o t e c t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t f r o m t h e n e g a t i v e effects of h a z a r d o u s s u b s t a n c e s (i.e. c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s ) , t h e N o r t h h a s a g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to do s o , s i n c e it h a s m o r e f r e e d o m to c h o o s e a n d resources to do what  is right.  A s put  by R o b e r t J a c k s o n " t h e r e  better  is no e s c a p e f r o m  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a l t h o u g h it falls m o r e h e a v i l y on t h e s h o u l d e r s of t h o s e w i t h t h e p o w e r a n d a u t h o r i t y to s h a p e e v e n t s . "  greatest  3 0 7  T h e r e a r e , t h e r e f o r e , t w o q u e s t i o n s to c o n s i d e r . T h e first o n e is w h e t h e r t h e e x p o r t of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s by i n d u s t r i a l i s e d c o u n t r i e s to t h e c o u n t r i e s of t h e S o u t h is j u s t i f i e d u n d e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l m o r a l i t y a n d i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a w , c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e  North  h a s m o r e p o w e r to do w h a t is right a n d t h a t it w a n t s to p r o t e c t its o w n c i t i z e n s a n d e n v i r o n m e n t f r o m t h o s e s u b s t a n c e s b e c a u s e of t h e risks t h e y e n t a i l . T h e s e c o n d i s s u e is whether  North-South  protection  disparities  should  t h a t d o e s not u n d e r m i n e  development,  3 0 8  be  addressed  human's  for  a  kind  b a s i c n e e d s or t h e  o r t h e y s h o u l d s i m p l y be formally  of  environmental  South's sustainable  a c k n o w l e d g e d , a s t h e y a p p e a r in t h e  B a s e l a n d R o t t e r d a m c o n v e n t i o n s . In o r d e r to a n s w e r t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , t h e n e x t s e c t i o n studies  the  legal  and  moral  international  environmental  principles  that  have  direct  a p p l i c a t i o n to t h e i s s u e of h a z a r d t r a n s f e r . T h e s e p r i n c i p l e s a p p l y not o n l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e i n c l u d e d e i t h e r e x p l i c i t l y or i m p l i c i t l y in t h e t r e a t i e s d e a l i n g w i t h h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s , but a l s o b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e b e e n r e c o g n i s e d by t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y of s t a t e s in t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l a r e n a .  3.4.1. The principle of State responsibility for transboundary harm  T h e p r i n c i p l e of S t a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t r a n s b o u n d a r y h a r m is r o o t e d in principle 21 of t h e S t o c k h o l m D e c l a r a t i o n ( 1 9 7 2 ) a n d principle 2 of t h e Rio D e c l a r a t i o n ( 1 9 9 2 ) .  Both  d e c l a r a t i o n s a f f i r m t h a t s t a t e s h a v e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to " e n s u r e t h a t a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n or c o n t r o l do not c a u s e d a m a g e to t h e e n v i r o n m e n t of o t h e r S t a t e s o r of a r e a s b e y o n d t h e limits of n a t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . " A s f o r m u l a t e d  in t h e t w o  instruments,  t h e rule h a s b e e n w i d e l y a c c e p t e d a s a s t a t e m e n t of c u s t o m a r y i n t e r n a t i o n a l  law. A s  explicitly  Nations  recognised  (hereinafter  ILC)  3 0 9  by  the  in  its  International commentary  Law to  Commission  the  Draft  of  articles  the on  United  Prevention  of  See Jackson, supra note 229 at 4. By sustainable development I mean a kind of development that seeks to provide human beings a better standard of living by fulfilling their basic needs while respecting the environment and the rights of present and future generations to enjoy a healthy environment. This implies, of course, a change of the consumption patterns both in the North and by the 'elites' in the South. The ILC was established by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1947. Its main objective is the promotion of the progressive development of international law and its codification. Although its statute makes a distinction between progressive development and codification, in practice codification embraces also progressive development. See Shabtai Rosenne, ed., The International Law Commission's Draft Articles on State Responsibility. Parti, Articles 1-35 (Dordrecht; Boston: M. Nijhoff; Norwell, MA, U.S.A.: Kluwer Academic, 1991) at 18. J U  3 0 8  3 0 9  Transboundary Harm from Hazardous Activities, prevent  transboundary h a r m :  3 1 0  t h e p r i n c i p l e e n t a i l s a n o b l i g a t i o n to  3 1 1  "The prevention of transboundary harm arising from hazardous activities is an objective well emphasized by principle 2 of the Rio Declaration and recognised by the International Court of Justice in its advisory opinion of 8 July 1996 on the Legality of the Use by a State of Nuclear Weapons in Armed Conflict as now forming part of the corpus of international l a w " (Emphasis in original). 312  A l t h o u g h i n t e r n a t i o n a l j u r i s p r u d e n c e h a s a l s o a m p l y r e f e r r e d to t h i s p r i n c i p l e ,  3 1 3  there are  s o m e u n c e r t a i n t i e s a s to w h a t p r e v e n t i v e a c t i o n s it e n t a i l s , a n d w h a t k i n d of d a m a g e is to be p r e v e n t e d . appropriate  3 1 4  T h e I L C Draft A r t i c l e s d e f i n e t h e  m e a s u r e s to  m i n i m i z e t h e risk t h e r e o f "  prevent 3 1 5  significant  rule a s a n o b l i g a t i o n to " t a k e  transboundary  harm  or  at  any  all  event  w h e n c a r r y i n g o u t lawful a c t i v i t i e s . S e v e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s c a n  be d r a w n f r o m t h i s p r o v i s i o n : first, t h e o b l i g a t i o n is o n e of d u e d i l i g e n c e , w h i c h m e a n s t h a t s t a t e s a r e not o b l i g e d to g u a r a n t e e t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t t r a n s b o u n d a r y h a r m is p r e v e n t e d , but  to t a k e  all t h e  n e c e s s a r y m e a s u r e s of w h i c h t h e y  t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y - to p r e v e n t s u c h h a r m .  3 1 6  are capable -financially  and  S e c o n d , t h e h a r m to be p r e v e n t e d m u s t b e  s i g n i f i c a n t , t h a t i s , m o r e t h a n d e t e c t a b l e but not n e c e s s a r i l y ' s e r i o u s ' o r ' s u b s t a n t i a l , ' a n d it m u s t lead to a real d e t r i m e n t a l effect, s u s c e p t i b l e of b e i n g m e a s u r e d by f a c t u a l a n d o b j e c t i v e s t a n d a r d s ( e . g . real d e t r i m e n t a l effect o n h u m a n h e a l t h , t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a g r i c u l t u r e in o t h e r S t a t e ) .  3 1 7  or  L a s t l y , t h e risk is d e f i n e d in t e r m s of a h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y of  See International Law Commission, Draft Articles on Prevention of Transboundary Harm from Hazardous UN GAOR, 56 sess., Suppl. No. 10 (A/56/10), chp.V.E.l [hereinafter ILC Draft Articles], online: <http://www.un.org/law/ilc/texts/prevention/prevention_articles(e).pdf> at 366-436. See Gregg Anthony Cervi, "War wrecks and the Environment: Who's Responsible for the Legacy of War? A Case Study: Solomon Islands and the U.S." (1999) 14 J. Envtl. L. & Litig. 351 at 377 and 380; Philippe Sands, Principles of International Environmental Law I: Frameworks, Standards and Implementations (Manchester; New York: Manchester University Press, 1995) [Sands, "Principles of I EL"] at 190-191; Patricia Birnie & Alan E. Boyle, International Law and The Environment (Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1992) at 90-92; André Nollkaemper, The Legal Regime for Transboundary Water Pollution: Between Discretion and Constraint (Dordrecht; Boston: M. Nijhoff/Graham &Trotman; Norwell, MA: Kluwer, 1993) at 30; and Restatement (Third) of the Foreign Relations Law of the United States §§ 601 (1987). See International Law Commission, Commentaries to the Draft Articles on Prevention of Transboundary Harm from Hazardous Activities, UN GAOR, 56 sess., Suppl. No. 10 (A/56/10), chp.V.E.2) [Hereinafter ILC Commentaries] at 378, online: <http://www.un.org/law/ilc/texts/prevention/preventionfra.htm>. See, for instance, Trail Smelter Arbitration (U.S. v. Canada) [1941] 3 U.N.R.I.A.A 1938 (1949), Corfu Channel Case (Merits) (U.K. vs. Albania) [1949] I.C.J. Rep. 4, Lake Lanoux Arbitration (Spain vs. France) 12 U.N.R.I.A.A 281 [1957], and Case Concerning the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary vs. Slovakia) [1997] I.C.J. Rep. 7. See Nollkaemper, supra note 311 at 31. See ILC Draft Articles, supra note 310 Art. 3. See Nollkaemper, supra note 311 at 40-41. The ILC Draft Articles refer to taking steps such as: requiring prior authorization for the activity (Art. 6); making an environmental impact assessment (Art. 7); notifying states likely to be affected (Art. 8); and enter into consultations with those states (Art. 9). See ILC Commentaries, supra note 312 at 388.  Activities,  th  3 1 1  3 1 2  th  3 1 3  3 1 4  3 1 5  3 1 6  3 1 7  causing  significant  transboundary  harm,  or  transboundary harm (e.g. nuclear d i s a s t e r ) .  a  low  probability  of  causing  disastrous  3 1 8  T h e r e l e v a n c e of t h e p r i n c i p l e of s t a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to t h e t r e a t i e s d e a l i n g w i t h h a z a r d o u s substances  lies in t h e  fact  that states could  be v i o l a t i n g  this  rule w h e n  exporting  h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s o r w a s t e s if s i g n i f i c a n t h a r m w e r e likely to o c c u r . G i v e n c o n d i t i o n s of u s e in t h e S o u t h , o n e c o u l d c o n t e n d t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t h a r m is p r e c i s e l y w h a t s h o u l d be expected  whenever  a substance that  a developed country  has  banned  or  severely  r e s t r i c t e d for e n v i r o n m e n t a l o r h e a l t h r e a s o n s is e x p o r t e d to a d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y . T h i s is b e c a u s e if t h e s u b s t a n c e is c o n s i d e r e d t o o h a z a r d o u s t o be u s e d in a n  industrialised  c o u n t r y , w i t h a m p l e r e s o u r c e s a n d c a p a c i t y to m a n a g e t h i s t y p e of m a t e r i a l s , it will in all p r o b a b i l i t y p r e s e n t e q u a l or g r e a t e r p r o b l e m s in t h e i m p o r t i n g s t a t e , w i t h less c a p a c i t y to m a n a g e it s a f e l y . T h e e x p o r t of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s to t h e S o u t h c o u l d t h u s be v i o l a t i n g t h e o b l i g a t i o n u p o n s t a t e s to t a k e all p r a c t i c a b l e s t e p s to p r e v e n t s i g n i f i c a n t transboundary harm.  T h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s rule to t h e i s s u e of t r a d e in h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s r e s i d e s a l s o in t h e fact t h a t t h e conventions  i n c l u d e it e i t h e r  p r e a m b l e s of t h e  implicitly  or explicitly  Basel,  Rotterdam and  it in t h e i r  Stockholm  preambles. The  Basel  C o n v e n t i o n o n h a z a r d o u s w a s t e s ( a d o p t e d prior to t h e a d o p t i o n of t h e Rio D e c l a r a t i o n , which  reiterates  principle  21 of t h e  S t o c k h o l m D e c l a r a t i o n in  principle  2)  not  only  r e c o g n i s e s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e S t o c k h o l m D e c l a r a t i o n but a l s o a f f i r m s t h a t " S t a t e s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e for t h e f u l f i l m e n t of t h e i r i n t e r n a t i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e p r o t e c t i o n of human  h e a l t h a n d p r o t e c t i o n a n d p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t ,  accordance with international  law." The S t o c k h o l m Convention on  p o l l u t a n t s q u o t e s t h e p r i n c i p l e in full l e n g t h , a s f o r m u l a t e d  a n d a r e liable in persistent  organic  in t h e S t o c k h o l m a n d Rio  D e c l a r a t i o n s . L a s t l y , t h e R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n r e c a l l s t h e " p e r t i n e n t p r o v i s i o n s of t h e Rio D e c l a r a t i o n , " w h i l e t h e L o n d o n G u i d e l i n e s for t h e E x c h a n g e of I n f o r m a t i o n o n C h e m i c a l s in I n t e r n a t i o n a l T r a d e , o n w h i c h t h e t r e a t y w a s b a s e d , e x p l i c i t l y i n c l u d e p r i n c i p l e 2 1 of t h e S t o c k h o l m D e c l a r a t i o n in t h e list of g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s to be a p p l i e d (Art. 2 ) :  "In their activities with regard to chemicals, States should act, in so far as applicable, in accordance with principle 21 of the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment" [i.e., the 1972 Stockholm Declaration].  3 1 8  See ILC Draft Articles,  supra  note 310 Art 2(a) and Ibid, at 381.  3.4.2. The principle of international environmental equity T h e p r i n c i p l e of e n v i r o n m e n t a l e q u i t y d i c t a t e s the n e c e s s i t y of t a k i n g s t e p s t o e n s u r e that t h e rich a n d p o w e r f u l d o not i n s u l a t e t h e m s e l v e s f r o m e n v i r o n m e n t a l h a r m b y d i s p l a c i n g p r o b l e m s o n to the p o o r a n d the w e a k .  It refers t o d i s t r i b u t i v e j u s t i c e , to the f a i r n e s s  3 1 9  o r Tightness of d i s t r i b u t i n g b e n e f i t s a n d b u r d e n s within c o m m u n i t i e s .  3 2 0  A s a r g u e d b y the  e n v i r o n m e n t a l j u s t i c e m o v e m e n t in the U . S . a n d parallel m o v e m e n t s in other c o u n t r i e s , minority  communities  disproportionately  and  socially  by environmental  disadvantaged  persons  are  often  burdened  hazards such as toxic waste d u m p s and pesticide  e x p o s u r e , a n d a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n of u n e v e n e x p o s u r e t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l h a z a r d s is a p p a r e n t worldwide. matters  3 2 1  Internationally,  t h e r e f o r e , t h e p r i n c i p l e of e n v i r o n m e n t a l  such as the export  developing countries.  International  e q u i t y refers t o  of h a z a r d o u s w a s t e s a n d p e s t i c i d e s f r o m  developed  e q u i t y w a s at t h e c o r e of t h e d e b a t e a t t h e E a r t h S u m m i t , w h e r e  leaders discussed how to allocate future responsibilities for environmental a m o n g s t a t e s at different particular priorities.  l e v e l s of d e v e l o p m e n t , w i t h different  p r o b l e m s , a n d w i t h different 323  to  3 2 2  environmental  T h i s d o e s not m e a n , h o w e v e r ,  protection  l e v e l s of c o n t r i b u t i o n t o  and developmental  that there  world  needs and  is o n l y o n e d e f i n i t i o n  of the  p r i n c i p l e . J u s t a s d o m e s t i c s o c i e t y h a s c o m p e t i n g d e f i n i t i o n s of w h a t is fair a n d e q u i t a b l e , d i s s i m i l a r a n d e v e n c o n f l i c t i n g v i e w s of e q u i t y a r e p o s s i b l e i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y .  However, a  characterisation  international  that  captures  most  of t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  used  in t h e  c o n t e x t d e f i n e s i n t e r n a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l e q u i t y a s " a fair a n d j u s t d i s t r i b u t i o n c o u n t r i e s of b e n e f i t s , b u r d e n s , a n d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a u t h o r i t y international  environmental  relations"  3 2 4  .  Paul  Harris  among  t h a t is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  describes  six  i n t e r n a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l e q u i t y t h a t h a v e b e e n p r e s e n t in e n v i r o n m e n t a l  versions  of  negotiations.  See Oran R. Young, "Environmental Ethics in International Society," in Jean-Marc Coicaud & Daniel Warner, eds., Ethics and International Affairs: Extents and Limits (Tokyo; New York: United Nations University Press, 2001) at 167. See Paul G. Harris, International Equity and Global Environmental Politics: Powers and Principles in U.S. Foreign Policy (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001) at 27-28. See Steven S. Coughlin, "Environmental justice: the role of epidemiology in protecting unempowered communities from environmental hazards" (1996) 184:1-2 The Science of the Total Environment 67 at 67-69, and Marianne Lavelle & Marcia A. Coyle, "Unequal Protection: The Racial Divide in Environmental Law," in Richard Hofrichter, ed., Toxic Struggles. The Theory and Practice of Environmental Justice (Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1993) at 136-143. For example, chemicals banned or restricted in the U.S. such as DDT and paraquat are widely used in Central America and other less developed areas of the world. See Coughlin, Ibid, at 70. See Philippe Sands "International Law in the Field of Sustainable Development. Emerging Legal Principles," in Winfried Lang, ed., Sustainable Development and International Law (London; Boston: Graham fkTrotman/M. Nijhoff, 1995) at 60. See Harris P., supra note 320 at 25-27. 3 1 9  3 2 0  3 2 1  3 2 2  3 2 3  3 2 4  T h e n e x t s e c t i o n e l a b o r a t e s o n f o u r of t h e s e v e r s i o n s , a s t h e y a p p l y to t h e i s s u e of t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s . T h e y a r e p r o m o t i n g h u m a n r i g h t s ; others  as ends  righting  (Kantian  ethics);  past wrongs ( c o m m o n  maximizing  human  but d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  happiness  treating  (utilitarianism)  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ) . W h i l e t h e first  i n d i c a t e t h a t s t a t e s h a v e a d u t y not t o e x p o r t h a r m f u l c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s to countries  ( e s p e c i a l l y if t h e y  and  are m o r e v u l n e r a b l e a n d  have very  limited  two other  capacity  to  m a n a g e t h e m s a f e l y ) , t h e last t w o s u g g e s t t h a t i n d u s t r i a l i s e d c o u n t r i e s h a v e a n o b l i g a t i o n of at least a m o r a l n a t u r e to f i n a n c e part of t h e s a f e m a n a g e m e n t of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s in t h e S o u t h .  3.4.2.1. Promoting human rights  A c c o r d i n g to t h e h u m a n rights a p p r o a c h , i n d i v i d u a l s h a v e i n h e r e n t rights s i m p l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e h u m a n b e i n g s . A t t h e v e r y l e a s t , i n d i v i d u a l s n e e d to h a v e t h e i r s e c u r i t y a n d s u b s i s t e n c e rights ( h o w e v e r d e f i n e d ) p r o t e c t e d , for w i t h o u t t h o s e r i g h t s all o t h e r s c a n n o t be f u l f i l l e d . T h u s , w h e n h u m a n - i n d u c e d p o l l u t i o n d e n i e s c o m m u n i t i e s t h e c a p a c i t y to achieve those rights, states - a s the  most  important  duty-bearers  by v i r t u e  of  their  c a p a c i t i e s - s h o u l d a c t i v e l y try to s t o p polluting a c t i v i t i e s f r o m w i t h i n t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n s or which are under their c o n t r o l .  3 2 5  In a t h o r o u g h a n a l y s i s of t h e link b e t w e e n t h e e x p o r t of  b a n n e d p e s t i c i d e s a n d h u m a n rights l a w , B e t h G a m m i e a r g u e s t h a t t h e e x p o r t of b a n n e d , unregistered, and  restricted  use p e s t i c i d e s m a y v i o l a t e t h e  rights  to  life  (the  most  f u n d a m e n t a l of h u m a n r i g h t s , s i n c e it is e s s e n t i a l for t h e e n j o y m e n t of all o t h e r r i g h t s ) , h e a l t h ( w h i c h p e r t a i n s to t h e right to c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y for g o o d h e a l t h to o c c u r , a n d is e s s e n t i a l for e n j o y m e n t of t h e right to l i f e ) ,  3 2 6  a n d f a m i l y or r e p r o d u c t i o n (i.e. t h e r i g h t to  c o n c e i v e a n d b e a r c h i l d r e n , w h i c h c o u l d be a f f e c t e d b y p e s t i c i d e s t h a t s t e r i l i s e m e n or w o m e n ) . A l o n g t h e s e l i n e s , t h e d u m p i n g of h a z a r d o u s w a s t e s t h a t r e s u l t s in t h e d e a t h s or p o i s o n i n g of p e o p l e i m p l i c a t e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h e i r r i g h t to life a n d to h e a l t h .  3 2 7  Similarly,  This is consistent with the principle of state responsibility transboundary harm, and with Principle 14 of the Rio Declaration {supra note 341). See last section of Kantian ethics in this chapter and Harris, Ibid, at 32-33. See International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 16 December 1966, 993 U.N.T.S. 3 (entered into force 3 January 1976), Art. 12, online: <http://193.194.138.190/html/menu3/b/a_cescr.htm>. See UN, Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, UN Doc. A/CONF.157/23 (1993), adopted by the World Conference on Human Rights on 25 June 1993, which explicitly recognises that "illicit dumping of toxic and dangerous substances and waste potentially constitutes a serious threat to the human rights to life and health of everyone." (Art. 11), online: <http://www.unhchr.ch/huridocda/huridoca.nsf/(Symbol)/A.CONF.157.23.En?OpenDocument>. In 1995, the UN Economic and Social Council called for appointment of a special rapporteur to study and report on the issue (Decision 1995/288). In her 2001 report, the Rapporteur noted that both the Rotterdam and Stockholm conventions "contain lacunae which prevent effective action to combat clandestine transfers... [which] themselves may open the way to the "legal" transfer of products which may prove dangerous for humans and the environment and which must accordingly be considered to constitute unlawful transfers in the context of human-rights and environmental standards." The term 'illegal,' thus, refers to a transfer of toxic or dangerous 3 2 6  3 2 7  t h e e x p o r t of p e s t i c i d e s b a n n e d in t h e e x p o r t i n g c o u n t r y v i o l a t e s t h e r i g h t to life of p e o p l e in the i m p o r t i n g  c o u n t r y if t h o s e p e o p l e die f r o m a c u t e p o i s o n i n g or t e r m i n a l d i s e a s e s  i n d u c e d by t h o s e s u b s t a n c e s , o r if t h e p e s t i c i d e s e l i m i n a t e s u r v i v a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , s u c h a s clean water and food s u p p l i e s .  3 2 8  In a d d i t i o n to t h e rights to life, h e a l t h a n d f a m i l y , t h e r e is c o n s i d e r a b l e  international  s u p p o r t for t h e r i g h t to a h e a l t h y e n v i r o n m e n t in t h e c o n t e x t of h u m a n r i g h t s l a w . T h i s is e v i d e n c e d by t h e p r a c t i c e of s t a t e s , a n d by d e c l a r a t i o n s , r e s o l u t i o n s a n d o t h e r official a c t s of o r g a n s of t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , a n d r e s e a r c h by i n t e r n a t i o n a l legal s c h o l a r s . T h e h u m a n right to a h e a l t h y e n v i r o n m e n t Salvador, additional  is e x p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i s e d in art 11 of t h e P r o t o c o l of S a n  to the A m e r i c a n C o n v e n t i o n o n H u m a n R i g h t s , a n d it h a s  been  i n c o r p o r a t e d in s e v e r a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l a g r e e m e n t s a n d in a v a r i e t y of d r a f t  international  legal p r i n c i p l e s a n d i n s t r u m e n t s .  constitutions  3 2 9  It h a s a l s o b e e n i n c l u d e d in t h e n a t i o n a l  of m o r e t h a n 6 0 c o u n t r i e s , a n d in t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n States.  3 3 0  of s e v e r a l S t a t e s w i t h i n t h e  United  A s a r g u e d by M a g g i o a n d L y n c h , all t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s s u g g e s t t h e e x i s t e n c e of  a n o r m a t i v e , if not l e g a l , right to t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , w h i c h d e s p i t e its s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n s h a s a n i d e n t i f i a b l e c o r e : e a c h p e r s o n h a s a r i g h t to a n e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t s u p p o r t s h i s / h e r physical others,  and "the  populations."  spiritual dumping  well-being of  toxic  and  development  wastes  in  areas  which  would  inhabited  and  proscribe, utilized  amongst by  local  3 3 1  substances that violate human rights in the recipient country, regardless of whether they are legally "permitted" (e.g. under a treaty). The Commission adopted a resolution (Res. 2002/27), where, inter alia: it affirmed that the illicit movement and dumping of toxic and dangerous wastes and products are a serious threat to the rights to life and physical health, particularly in developing countries that do not have the technologies to process them; it urged all governments to ban the export of toxic and dangerous products, substances, chemicals, pesticides and persistent organic pollutants that are banned or severely restricted in their own countries; and it invited the Rapporteur to include in her next report "the ambiguities in international instruments that allow illegal movement and dumping of toxic and dangerous products and wastes, and any gaps in the effectiveness of the international regulatory mechanisms." See UN ESC, Commission on Human Rights, 58 session, Economic Social and Cultural Rights, Adverse effects of the illicit movement and dumping of toxic and dangerous products and wastes on the enjoyment of human rights, Report by Ms. Fatma-Zohra Ouhachi-Vesely, Special Rapporteur on toxic wastes, UN doc. E/CN.4/2002/61 (21 January 2002). th  328  For a detailed analysis of the status and scope of these rights see Beth Gammie, "Human Rights Implications of the Export of Banned Pesticides" (1994) 25 Seton Hall L. Rev. 558. See, for example, the 1989 Hague Declaration, the 1994 Final Report on Human Rights and the Environment of the Commission on Human Rights Sub-commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities ("Ksentini Report"), the 1986 draft legal principles of the Experts Group of the World Commission on Environment and Development, UNEP's 1993 Proposal for a Basic Law on Environmental Protection and the Promotion of Sustainable Development, Article 24 of the African Charter of Human and Peoples' Rights, and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) draft International Covenant on Environment and Development. In Greg Maggio & Owen J. Lynch, "Human Rights, Environment, and Economic Development: Existing and Emerging Standards in International Law and Global Society," Center for Int'l Envtl. L. (15 November 1997), online: <http://www.ciel.org/Publications/olpaper3.html> and Neil A.F. Popovic, "In Pursuit of Environmental Human Rights: Commentary on the Draft Declaration of Principles on Human Rights and the Environment" (1996) 27 Colum. H.R.L. Rev. 487 at 505-506. See Popovic, Ibid, at 505-509. See Maggio & Lynch, supra note 329. 3 3 0  3 3 1  T h e difficulty of t h e h u m a n r i g h t s a p p r o a c h is t h a t it is not a l w a y s e a s y to c a l c u l a t e w h o c a u s e d h o w m u c h p o l l u t i o n a n d to w h a t e x t e n t it a f f e c t e d w h o s e e s s e n t i a l r i g h t s . c a s e of t r a d e  in h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s , h o w e v e r ,  it m i g h t  3 3 2  In t h e  be p o s s i b l e to  identify t h o s e e l e m e n t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , the s o l u t i o n m i g h t be a s s i m p l e a s to p r o h i b i t e x p o r t of h a z a r d o u s w a s t e or of b a n n e d or u n r e g i s t e r e d p e s t i c i d e s to c o u n t r i e s  the  where  p e o p l e a r e u n a b l e to m a n a g e t h e m s a f e l y a n d in c o n s e q u e n c e will likely get p o i s o n e d w i t h them.  3.4.2.2. Treating others as ends: Kant's Categorical Imperative  T h i s v i e w of e q u i t y  r e s p o n d s to I m m a n u e l  K a n t ' s Categorical  Imperative,  a guide  for  a c t i o n t h a t r e q u i r e s us not to t r e a t o t h e r s a s a m e a n s to o u r o w n e n d s , but a s e n d s in themselves.  3 3 3  W e u s e o t h e r s a s m e r e m e a n s if w e a c t o n m a x i m s t h a t t h e y could  c o n s e n t a s r a t i o n a l a n d free a g e n t s (or moral  a g e n t s ) , or if w e a c t o n m a x i m s t h a t w e  c o u l d not w a n t at t h e s a m e t i m e to be universal agent could a d o p t . hazardous domestically  3 3 4  chemicals  not  l a w s - t h a t is, l a w s t h a t a n y o t h e r m o r a l  K a n t i a n m a x i m s a r e u s e f u l to t e s t t h e m o r a l Tightness of e x p o r t i n g and  b a n n e d to  wastes.  other  The  countries  export could  of  hazardous  arguably  reflect  chemicals the  that  following  are  maxim:  " P e o p l e s h a l l e x p o r t c h e m i c a l s t h a t are b a n n e d d o m e s t i c a l l y for h e a l t h a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e a s o n s to o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . " T h i s m a x i m c o u l d hot be w i s h e d to be a u n i v e r s a l l a w for t w o r e a s o n s : first, its u n i v e r s a l i s a t i o n w o u l d i m p l y t h a t e v e r y o n e s e e k s to e x p o r t h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s , i n s t e a d of i m p o r t i n g  t h e m : therefore,  no o n e w o u l d  e x p o r t t h e m a s d i c t a t e d by the r u l e , w h i c h w o u l d b e c o m e unfeasible.  its  own  be a b l e to  Secondly, seeking  to p r o t e c t o n e ' s o w n h e a l t h f r o m c e r t a i n s u b s t a n c e s by g i v i n g t h e m to o t h e r s  entails  u s i n g t h e m a s m e a n s , s i n c e it w o u l d i m p e d e t h a t t h e y p r o t e c t t h e m s e l v e s by a c t i n g t h e w a y w e d o - t h a t i s , by not u s i n g t h o s e s u b s t a n c e s . F r o m b o t h p e r s p e c t i v e s , t h e r e f o r e , the e x p o r t of h a z a r d o u s s u b s t a n c e s is m o r a l l y u n a c c e p t a b l e .  A l t h o u g h t h e r e h a s b e e n no e x p l i c i t i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n of t h i s v e r s i o n of e q u i t y , o n e c o u l d a r g u e t h a t it is reflected in s t a t e m e n t s r e j e c t i n g d o u b l e s t a n d a r d s , s u c h a s t h e d e c l a r a t i o n by a d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y d u r i n g the R o t t e r d a m n e g o t i a t i o n s t h a t " a n e x p o r t i n g c o u n t r y t h a t h a s b a n n e d or s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d a c h e m i c a l s h o u l d not h a v e the m o r a l r i g h t See Harris P., supra note 320 at 32-33. Since Kantian principles apply whenever there is interaction between actors, they can be used to assess obligations of people in different countries toward one another. See Ibid, at 33. For a detailed analysis of Kant's categorical imperative see Onora O'Neill, Constructions of Reason. Explorations of Kant's Practical Philosophy (Cambridge [England]; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989) at 131-140. 3 3 2  3 3 3  3 3 4  to s e l l it to o t h e r s ,  o r t h e v i e w d e f e n d e d by m o s t d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s at t h e B a s e l  n e g o t i a t i o n s t h a t w a s t e e x p o r t s f r o m rich to p o o r c o u n t r i e s w a s s i m p l y a n u n j u s t p r a c t i c e a n d s h o u l d be b a n n e d . than  170  states  at  3 3 6  the  In a d d i t i o n , P r i n c i p l e 14 of t h e Rio D e c l a r a t i o n ( s i g n e d by m o r e Earth  Summit  or  UNCED),  3 3 7  declares that "States  should  e f f e c t i v e l y c o o p e r a t e to d i s c o u r a g e or p r e v e n t t h e r e l o c a t i o n a n d t r a n s f e r to o t h e r S t a t e s of a n y a c t i v i t i e s a n d s u b s t a n c e s t h a t c a u s e s e v e r e e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e g r a d a t i o n or a r e f o u n d to be h a r m f u l to h u m a n h e a l t h . " A l t h o u g h t h i s rule d o e s not e x p l i c i t l y c o n d e m n d o u b l e s t a n d a r d s , it is c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e d u t y to t r e a t o t h e r s a s e n d s , a n d w i t h t h e h u m a n rights a p p r o a c h ( m o s t n o t a b l y t h e h u m a n right to h e a l t h ) .  3.4.2.3. Maximizing human happiness  U t i l i t a r i a n i s m d i c t a t e s t h a t a n y d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s o u r c e s s h o u l d be j u s t i f i e d b a s e d o n t h e t o t a l a m o u n t of h a p p i n e s s (or utility) it p r o d u c e s , m e a s u r e d by t h e a g g r e g a t i o n of t h e happiness  experienced  humankind).  3 3 8  by  individuals  (not  only  c i t i z e n s of  a  particular  State,  T w o m a i n c h a r g e s h a v e b e e n r a i s e d a g a i n s t t h i s t h e o r y : first, it  but  might  r e q u i r e i m p o s i n g g r e a t h a r m o n a few in o r d e r to c o n f e r a s m a l l benefit to m a n y ; a n d s e c o n d , it p r o v i d e s no m e t h o d for c o m p a r i n g l e v e l s of s a t i s f a c t i o n b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l s to m e a s u r e u t i l i t y .  339  different  T h e first a r g u m e n t m i g h t lose its r e l e v a n c e in t h e c o n t e x t  of p o t e n t i a l l y s e v e r e g l o b a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l d a m a g e , w h e r e s o m e s u f f e r i n g ( e . g . c h a n g i n g w a s t e f u l c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s ) i m p o s e d on a few c o u l d be s e e n a s fair if it is n e e d e d to s a v e the  p l a n e t o n w h i c h w e all d e p e n d . S i m i l a r l y , t h e fact t h a t utility c a n n o t  be e a s i l y  m e a s u r e d d o e s not e x c l u d e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of s e e i n g s u s t a i n a b l e d e v e l o p m e n t a s utility. F r o m t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , w e a l t h y c o u n t r i e s s h o u l d aid p o o r c o u n t r i e s to a c h i e v e s u s t a i n a b l e development  because that would  reduce h u m a n suffering  (and thus  increase overall  ' u t i l i t y ' ) a n d d i m i n i s h e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e s t r u c t i o n , w h i c h c o u l d m i n i m i z e h a p p i n e s s in t h e future.  3 4 0  Statement made by the delegation of Panama. See "Report of the Third Session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for an International Legally Binding Instrument for the Application of the PIC Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade" Earth Negotiations Bulletin 15:2 (2 June 1997) [hereinafter ENB Report INC-3 PIC] at 7, online: <http://www.iisd.ca/linkages/download/pdf/enbl502e.pdf>. See Clapp, "Toxic Exports," supra note 8 at 40. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June 3-14, 1992. Also known as the "Rio Summit" or the "Earth Summit" [hereinafter UNCED]. Classical utilitarians such as Jeremy Bentham believed that people are simultaneously citizens of their own nations and of the world, with duties to the humankind in general. See Harris P., supra note 320 at 30. See H. Peyton Young, Equity in Theory and Practice (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994) at 10. See Harris P., supra note 320 at 30-31. 3 3 6  3 3 7  3 3 8  3 4 0  A t U N C E D , t h e N o r t h a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t it w o u l d h a v e to m a k e s o m e s a c r i f i c e s to a c h i e v e environmental  s u s t a i n a b i l i t y . T h i s is r e f l e c t e d , for i n s t a n c e , in its v o w to " r e d u c e a n d  eliminate unsustainable consumption and production p a t t e r n s . "  3 4 1  International  equity as  u t i l i t a r i a n i s m w a s a l s o i n v o k e d w h e n d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s m a d e a c o m m i t m e n t to r e a c h the target  of 0 . 7 % of t h e i r G N P to official d e v e l o p m e n t  a i d ( O D A ) for  implementing  A g e n d a 21 in the S o u t h b e c a u s e it w o u l d " s e r v e t h e c o m m o n i n t e r e s t s of d e v e l o p e d a n d developing  countries  and  of  humankind  in g e n e r a l , i n c l u d i n g  future  generations."  C o n s e q u e n t l y , e a c h c h a p t e r of A g e n d a 21 (the g l o b a l plan for a c t i o n a g r e e d u p o n UNCED)  3 4 3  3 4 2  at  s p e c i f i e d t h e a n n u a l c o s t s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , a n d it w a s a g r e e d t h a t s o m e  t w e n t y p e r c e n t of t h e t o t a l c o s t s of i m p l e m e n t i n g  t h e a g e n d a in d e v e l o p i n g  w o u l d h a v e to c o m e f r o m the i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m m u n i t y , n a m e l y t h e N o r t h .  3 4 4  countries  As Agenda  21 c o n t a i n s a c h a p t e r o n h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d a n o t h e r o n e o n h a z a r d o u s w a s t e s , o n e could  reasonably  argue  that  the  North  has accepted a duty  to  partly  finance  e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y s o u n d m a n a g e m e n t of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s in t h e S o u t h .  the 3 4 5  3.4.2.4. Common but differentiated responsibilities  T h i s rule e v o l v e d f r o m t h e principle of e n v i r o n m e n t a l e q u i t y a n d f r o m t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t t h e s p e c i a l n e e d s of d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s m u s t be t a k e n into a c c o u n t in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t , a p p l i c a t i o n a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of rules of i n t e r n a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l l a w .  3 4 6  As formulated  in t h e Rio D e c l a r a t i o n , t h e n o r m r e a d s a s f o l l o w s :  "States shall co-operate in a spirit of global partnership to conserve, protect and restore the health and integrity of the Earth's ecosystem. In view of the different contributions to global environmental degradation, States have common but differentiated responsibilities. The developed countries acknowledge the responsibility that they bear in the international pursuit of sustainable development in view of the pressures their societies place on the global environment and of the technologies and financial resources they c o m m a n d " (emphasis added) 347  See Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, 14 June 1992, U.N. doc. A/CONF.151/26/Rev.l (Vol. I) Annex I, [Hereinafter Rio Declaration], Principle 8, online: <http://www.unep.org/Documents/Default.asp?DocumentID=78&ArticleID=1163>. See Agenda 21, 14 June 1992, U.N. doc. A/CONF.151/26/Rev.l (Vol. I) Annex II [Hereinafter Agenda 21], Chapter 33, para. 3, online: <http://www.unep.org/Documents/Default.asp?DocumentID=52>. See supra note 337. Agenda 21 is a comprehensive plan of action to be taken globally, nationally and locally by organizations of the U.N. system, governments, and major groups in several areas in which humans have an impact on the environment. More information online: <http://www.un.orq/esa/sustdev/documents/aqenda21/index.htm>. See Richard N. Gardner, Negotiating Survival. Four Priorities After Rio (New York; Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1992) at 26, and Agenda 21, supra note 342 Chapter 33 para. 18.  3 4 2  3 4 3  3 4 4  345 3 4 6  See Agenda 21, Ibid. Chapter 19 (chemicals) para. 18 and Chapter 20 (wastes) para. 25. See Sands, "Principles of IEL," supra note 311 at 217-218, and Young O., supra note 319 at 168-169.  347  See Rio Declaration, supra  note 341, Principle 7.  T w o i d e a s a r e i n t e g r a t e d in this p r i n c i p l e . T h e first o n e is t h a t all s t a t e s a r e a f f e c t e d by global  environmental  protection  and  problems  restoration  and  of t h e  therefore  have  environment.  shared  obligations  T h e s e c o n d is t h a t t h e  towards  the  situation  of  i n d i v i d u a l c o u n t r i e s differs m a r k e d l y , b o t h in relation to t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h e p r o b l e m a n d to t h e e c o n o m i c a n d t e c h n i c a l c a p a c i t y to c o n f r o n t  it.  3 4 8  Consequently,  o b l i g a t i o n s a n d d u t i e s m a y a p p l y . A s p o i n t e d o u t by P h i l i p p e S a n d s , t h e  different  differentiated  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of s t a t e s for t h e p r o t e c t i o n of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t is w i d e l y a c c e p t e d in t r e a t y a n d o t h e r p r a c t i c e of s t a t e s ,  3 4 9  w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e is a g e n e r a l s e n s e of o b l i g a t i o n  in relation to this rule. E x a m p l e s of t h i s are p r i n c i p l e 2 3 of t h e S t o c k h o l m D e c l a r a t i o n , p r i n c i p l e s 2 a n d 6 of t h e Rio D e c l a r a t i o n , necessity  of  taking  into  account  3 5 1  the  3 5 0  a n d n u m e r o u s g l o b a l t r e a t i e s t h a t identify t h e special  needs  of  developing  countries.  3 5 2  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e rule w a s e x p l i c i t l y i n c l u d e d in t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s F r a m e w o r k C o n v e n t i o n on Climate C h a n g e ( 1 9 9 2 ) ,  a n d in t h e S t o c k h o l m C o n v e n t i o n o n  Persistent Organic  Pollutants (2001).  H o w e v e r , a s s t r e s s e d by K a r i n M i c k e l s o n , t h e p r i n c i p l e of c o m m o n but r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s c a n reflect t o t a l l y different  differentiated  v i e w s of t h e r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s of S o u t h a n d  N o r t h in a d d r e s s i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e g r a d a t i o n . O n o n e h a n d , it c a n reflect a p r a g m a t i c a c c e p t a n c e of d i f f e r e n t f i n a n c i a l a n d t e c h n o l o g i c a l realities a m o n g s t c o u n t r i e s in different e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n s , a n d of t h e fact t h a t t h e N o r t h c u r r e n t l y p u t s a h e a v i e r b u r d e n o n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t (as a r e s u l t of t h e i m p a c t of a h i g h e r p e r c a p i t a c o n s u m p t i o n a n d p o l l u t i o n 34ft 34Q  See Young 0., supra note 319 at 68-169. See Sands, "Principles of IEL," supra note at 219.  350  According to this principle 'the applicability of standards which are valid for the most advanced countries... may be inappropriate and of unwarranted social cost for developing countries'. See Rio Declaration, supra note 341 Principle 3. 351  Principle 2 states that "environmental standards, management objectives and priorities should reflect the environmental and developmental context to which they apply." Principle 6 stresses the need to take into account the special situation of developing countries, particularly the least developed among them. See Rio Declaration, supra note 341 Principles 2 and 6. See, for example, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 10 December 1982, 21 1.L.M. 1261 (entered into force 16 November 1994), Arts. 148, 202 and 203, online: <http://www.un.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_e.pdf>; International Tropical Timber Agreement, 26 January 1994, 33 I.L.M. 1014 (entered into force 1 January 1997) Pmbl. para. 7, online: <http://sedac.ciesin.org/pidb/texts/ITTA.1994.txt.html>; Convention on Biological Diversity, 5 June 1992, 31 I.L.M. 818 (entered into force 29 December 1993) Pmbl. para. 17 and Arts. 12, 17, 20 and 21, online: <http://www.biodiv.org/convention/articles.asp>; Vienna Convention for the Protection of the ozone Layer, 22 March 1985, 26 I.L.M. 1516 (entered into force 22 September 1988), Pmbl. para. 3 and Art. 4(2), online: <http://www.unep.ch/ozone/vienna.shtml> and its Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, 16 September 1987, 26 I.L.M. 1541 (entered into force 1 January 1989) [hereinafter Montreal Protocol], Pmbl. para. 7 and Arts. 5, 10 and 10A, online: <http://www.unep.ch/ozone/montreal.shtml>, U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change, 9 May June 1992, 31 I.L.M. 849 (entered into force 21 March 1994) [hereinafter UNFCCC], Pmbl. para. 6, 10, 20, 21 and 22, and Arts. 3(1), (2) and (5), 4(3), (7), (8), (9) and (10), online: <http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/conveng.pdf>; and Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa, 17 June 1994, 33 I.L.M. 1328 (entered into force 26 December 1996), Pmbl para. 18 and Arts. 3(d), 4(3) and 6(b), (c) and (e), online: < http ://www. u need. int/con vention/text/pdf/conv-eng. pdf >. 3 5 2  g e n e r a t i o n ) ; o n t h e o t h e r , it c a n i n d i c a t e a r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e h i s t o r i c , m o r a l a n d e v e n legal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h e N o r t h t o s h o u l d e r t h e b u r d e n s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n , j u s t a s it e n j o y e d t h e b e n e f i t s of e c o n o m i c a n d i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t l a r g e l y u n c o n s t r a i n e d by e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s .  3 5 3  At U N C E D , that w a s precisely the discussion between the  N o r t h a n d t h e S o u t h : w h i l e t h e latter c o n s i d e r e d t h e t e x t of p r i n c i p l e 7 i n a d e q u a t e i n s o f a r a s it d i d n o t d i r e c t l y b l a m e d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s f o r t h e c u r r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l  problems,  t h e f o r m e r o b j e c t e d t o t h e l a n g u a g e t h a t d e s c r i b e d its s p e c i a l role. T h e m o s t  radical  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w a s a r t i c u l a t e d by t h e U . S . d e l e g a t i o n , w h i c h d i d n o t e v e n a c c e p t a s p e c i a l responsibility  upon developed countries  g i v e n t h e current  pressure they  put on the  environment: " t h e United States understands a n d accepts that Principle 7 highlights the s p e c i a l l e a d e r s h i p role of t h e d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s , b a s e d o n o u r i n d u s t r i a l our  experience with  environmental  technical expertise and c a p a c i t i e s . "  protection  development,  policies a n d a c t i o n s , a n d o u r w e a l t h ,  3 5 4  T h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ' s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n to a s p e c i a l d u t y t o b u r d e n a l a r g e r s h a r e f o r t h e protection  of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t  cannot  be e x t e n d e d ,  however,  to  all  industrialised  c o u n t r i e s . A t U N C E D , m a n y i n d u s t r i a l i s e d s t a t e s u n d e r s t o o d t h e c o m m i t m e n t to p r o v i d e additional funds for developing countries to carry out their obligations under A g e n d a 21 as a c o n s e q u e n c e of t h e i r s p e c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o w a r d s t h e S o u t h , a n d n o t o n l y a s a necessary  step  to achieve overall  sustainable d e v e l o p m e n t .  3 5 5  T h e P r e s i d e n t of t h e  C o m m i s s i o n of t h e E u r o p e a n C o m m u n i t y , f o r e x a m p l e , s t r e s s e d t h e n e e d f o r " m o s t i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s [to] r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e y h a v e special  responsibilities  towards the  d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , " h o p i n g t h a t U N C E D w o u l d b e t h e s t a r t i n g point t o w a r d s a " m o r e equitable  world."  3 5 6  Luxembourg  i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s ] f o r damage  acknowledged  the  "specific  responsibility  to the h u m a n a n d n a t u r a l environment;"  357  [of  T h e Holy  S e e q u a l i f i e d t h e g a p b e t w e e n t h e N o r t h a n d t h e S o u t h a s " u n a c c e p t a b l e a n d unjust,"  and  s t a t e d t h a t "it s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d q u i t e n o r m a l f o r a n a d v a n c e d c o u n t r y t o d e v o t e a p a r t of its p r o d u c t i o n t o m e e t t h e n e e d s of t h e d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s . " industrialised  states  "reaffirmed] t h e i r c o m m i t m e n t s  to m e e t  3 5 8  Consequently,  the accepted  United  See Karin Mickelson, "South, North, International Environmental Law and International Environmental Lawyers," (2000) 11 Y.B. Int'l Envtl. L. 52 at 70. See Ved P. Nanda, International Environmental Law and Policy (Irvington, N.Y.: Transnational Publishers, 1995) at 107-108. Agenda 21 is a comprehensive plan of action for sustainable development, adopted by some 178 Governments at United Nations Convention on Environment and Development (UNCED).  3 5 4  3 5 5  3  5  6  See Statements  Made  By Heads  of State  or Government  at the Summit  Segment  of the  Conference,  Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992, U.N. doc. A/CONF.151/26/Rev.l (Vol. Ill) at 218. (Emphasis added.) Ibid, at 246. (Emphasis added). Ibid, at 197. (Emphasis added.) 3  5  7  3  5  8  Rio  de  N a t i o n s t a r g e t of 0.7 p e r c e n t of G N P for O D A a n d ... a g r e e [ d ]  to a u g m e n t t h e i r  p r o g r a m s in o r d e r to r e a c h t h a t t a r g e t a s s o o n a s p o s s i b l e a n d to e n s u r e p r o m p t e f f e c t i v e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of A g e n d a 2 1 . "  3 5 9  aid and  N e a r l y all c o u n t r i e s , i n c l u d i n g J a p a n a n d t h e  m e m b e r s of the E u r o p e a n C o m m u n i t y , u n d e r s t o o d t h i s p r o v i s i o n a s a d u t y to p r o v i d e n e w a n d a d d i t i o n a l O D A , a n d t h e y all r e j e c t e d t h e U . S . i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t a n y i n c r e a s e d O D A for s u s t a i n a b l e d e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d purposes.  h a v e to c o m e f r o m  Nevertheless, contributions  3 6 0  by  most  a r e d u c t i o n of O D A for  developed  states  have  other  been  disappointing, and only a few developed states have attained or surpassed the  very 0.7%  t a r g e t . In 2 0 0 0 , the c o m b i n e d effort of i n d u s t r i a l i s e d c o u n t r i e s w a s t h e s a m e of 1 9 8 9 : a mere 0 . 3 2 % .  3 6 1  T h i s h i g h l i g h t s t h e m a g n i t u d e of the g a p b e t w e e n t h e ideal a n d t h e real  in t h e field of the e n v i r o n m e n t but, a s n o t e d by O r a n Y o u n g , it d o e s not call into q u e s t i o n t h e v a l i d i t y of the principle of c o m m o n but d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  responsibilities.  362  S o m e c o n t e n d , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e r e is a b s o l u t e l y no o b l i g a t i o n by the N o r t h to  provide  part of t h e f u n d s a n d t e c h n o l o g y t h a t a r e r e q u i r e d for s u s t a i n a b l e d e v e l o p m e n t in t h e South. Richard G a r d n e r ,  3 6 3  Fund'  development  for  sustainable  for i n s t a n c e , a r g u e s t h a t S o u t h e r n d e m a n d s s u c h a s a ' G r e e n reveal  a  philosophy  of  "one-way  sovereignty,  a c c o r d i n g to w h i c h t h e p o o r c o u n t r i e s w o u l d h a v e t h e right to s h a r e in the w e a l t h a n d technology  of  the  rich,  but  should  not  be  asked  to  undertake  w h a t s o e v e r w i t h r e s p e c t to t h e m a n a g e m e n t of t h e i r o w n a f f a i r s . " v i e w , s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n s for t h e S o u t h w o u l d  not be a m a t t e r  any 3 6 4  commitments  A c c o r d i n g to t h i s  of e q u i t y  but of  mere  c o n v e n i e n c e : s i n c e p o p u l o u s S o u t h e r n s u c h a s India or C h i n a c o u l d offset t h e efforts of t h e N o r t h to i m p r o v e t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e N o r t h w o u l d n e e d to s e c u r e t h e i r in v a r i o u s t r e a t i e s by p r o v i d i n g t h e m w i t h f i n a n c i a l a n d t e c h n i c a l r e s o u r c e s to  participation implement  t h e i r c o m m i t m e n t s a n d , at l e a s t for a n initial p e r i o d , w i t h less s t r i n g e n t o b l i g a t i o n s .  3 6 5  See Agenda 21, supra note 342 Chapter 33 para. 13. This commitment is at least of moral nature. See Gardner, supra note 344 at 24-26. In 2001, only Denmark, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden complied with the 0.7% target, and only Denmark (with 1.03%) attained the goal of 1% proposed by the Brandt Commission in 1980. Meanwhile, the U.K. contributed 0.32% of its GNP, Japan 0.28%, and the U.S 0.11% (less than in 1989, when it contributed 0.15%.) See Middleton et al., supra note 220 at 14 (for 1989 data) and OECD, Wet Official Development Assistance Flows from DAC Countries to Developing Countries and Multilateral Organisations (from 1985 to 2001), online: <http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/43/26/1894401.xls>. See Young 0., supra note 319 at 70. Richard Gardner, former U.S. Ambassador to Italy and Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs was as a Special Advisor to the UN at the Earth Summit in 1992, as he was in 1972 at the Stockholm Conference on Human Environment. See Gardner, supra note 344 at 7. See Ibid, at 34-35. 3 5 9  3 6 0  3 6 1  3 6 2  3 6 3  3 6 4  3 6 5  International  environmental  relations  reveal that this  view  is a t b e s t s i m p l i s t i c , a s  m o r a l i t y h a s p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t role in t h e n e g o t i a t i o n a n d o u t c o m e of m a n y m u l t i l a t e r a l a g r e e m e n t s . A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e x a m p l e is t h e o z o n e r e g i m e . U n d e r t h e M o n t r e a l P r o t o c o l , developing countries were given a t e n - y e a r grace period to comply with their obligations, a n d a m u l t i l a t e r a l f u n d w a s c r e a t e d t o a s s i s t t h e m in m e e t i n g t h e i n c r e m e n t a l c o s t s of i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e c o n t r o l m e a s u r e s of t h e t r e a t y .  3 6 6  A s R i c h a r d B e n e d i c k (chief n e g o t i a t o r  for t h e U . S . ) e x p l a i n s , t h e s e c o n c e s s i o n s r e s p o n d e d t o i r r e f u t a b l e f a c t s . A t t h e m o m e n t of t h e P r o t o c o l ' s n e g o t i a t i o n , a n d w i t h less t h a n 2 5 % of t h e w o r l d ' s p o p u l a t i o n , i n d u s t r i a l i s e d n a t i o n s w e r e c o n s u m i n g a n e s t i m a t e d 8 8 % of C h l o r o f l u o r o c a r b o n s ( C F C s - m a i n o z o n e depleting s u b s t a n c e ) .  3 6 7  T h e u s e of C F C s h a d f o r d e c a d e s c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e w e l l - b e i n g of  i n d u s t r i a l i s e d c o u n t r i e s , a n d t h e p r o b l e m w a s l a r g e l y of t h e i r m a k i n g . T h u s , t h e y w e r e in no  position  to  deny  the moral  grounds  of t h e c o n c e r n s  expressed  by  Southern  d e l e g a t i o n s , w h i c h s o u g h t a s s u r a n c e s t h a t t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n s w o u l d n o t b e d e p r i v e d of t h e b e n e f i t s of t h e c o n t r o l l e d s u b s t a n c e s , a n d t h a t t h e y w o u l d a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s of a l t e r n a t i v e p r o d u c t s a n d t e c h n o l o g i e s .  n o t h a v e to a s s u m e t h e  3 6 8  A l t h o u g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n of p o p u l o u s d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s w a s c r u c i a l to a c h i e v e g l o b a l progress  and special  provisions  were  conceded  partly  because  of  that,  moral  3 6 9  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p l a y e d a n i m p o r t a n t role in t h e d e b a t e . D u r i n g t h e s e c o n d m e e t i n g of t h e parties to the Montreal P r o t o c o l , developing  countries  3 7 0  t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r of t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m s t r e s s e d t h a t  had "understandable  concerns about  adverse  effects  on  their  e c o n o m i c g r o w t h , " a n d t h a t it w a s " t h e duty of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s t o h e l p t h e m w i t h substitute technologies and with financing the additional costs i n v o l v e d . "  3 7 1  Likewise, the  E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r of t h e U N E P n o t e d t h a t t h e o z o n e r e g i m e w o u l d " s h o w t h a t t h e n a t i o n s of t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z e d N o r t h w e r e s e r i o u s a b o u t tackling  the inequity  in t h e g l o b a l e c o n o m y ,  w h i c h w a s t h e u n d e r l y i n g r e a s o n f o r t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of t h e h u m a n e n v i r o n m e n t . "  3 7 2  The  The treaty was adopted in 1987 within the framework of the 1985 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (see supra note 352). The term incremental cost is defined as "the additional cost that the GEF funds between the cost of an alternative project that a country would have implemented in the absence of global environmental concerns and a project undertaken with global objectives in mind." Global Environment Facility, Glossary, online <http://www.gefweb.org/gefgloss.doo (last visited 24 August 2003). In China, for example, the per capita consumption was about one-fortieth (1/40) than that of the European Community and the United States. See Richard E. Benedick, Ozone Diplomacy. New Directions in Safeguarding the Planet (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1991) at 149. See Ibid, at 148-149 and 153. Gary C. Bryner "Implementing Global Environmental Agreements in the Developing World," (1997) Colo. J. Int'l. Envtl. L & Pol'y Y.B. 1 at 3. It was in the second meeting of the parties where the multilateral fund was created, through the London Amendment. UNEP, Report of the Second Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol, doc. UNEP/OzL.Pro.2/3, London (29 June 1990) at 2 para. 6 (Emphasis added). Ibid., at 6 para. 18 (Emphasis added). 3 6 7  3 6 8  3 6 9  3 7 0  3 7 1  3  7  2  U n i t e d S t a t e s a g r e e d to t h e M u l t i l a t e r a l F u n d , but it had a v e r y r e s t r i c t i v e  interpretation  of t h e t e r m ' a d d i t i o n a l l y , ' a r g u i n g t h a t a r e a s s e s s m e n t of p r o j e c t s a n d priorities in t h e W o r l d B a n k l e n d i n g p r o g r a m s c o u l d c o m e up w i t h t h e s u m s initially r e q u i r e d for a n o z o n e fund.  Domestic reaction was immediate  a n d critical to t h e  U.S. announcement,  d o u b t s w e r e e x p r e s s e d a b o u t its reliability a s a n e g o t i a t i n g p a r t n e r . importance  of  morality  -both  internationally  and  and  This evidences the  3 7 3  domestically-  in  international  e n v i r o n m e n t a l politics. A s e x p r e s s e d by t h e U . S . c h i e f n e g o t i a t o r " t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had evidently  m i s g a u g e d the  intensity  of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  feeling over this issue:  developing  c o u n t r i e s a s w e l l a s o t h e r d o n o r g o v e r n m e n t s all r e g a r d e d a i d a d d i t i o n a l i t y in t h e c a s e of t h e o z o n e l a y e r a s a m a t t e r of  equity."  374  E q u i t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w e r e a l s o at t h e c o r e of t h e c l i m a t e c h a n g e n e g o t i a t i o n s . m u c h c o n t r o v e r s y , p a r t i e s a g r e e d to i n c l u d e t h e p r i n c i p l e of c o m m o n but  After  differentiated  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s in t h e F r a m e w o r k C o n v e n t i o n o n C l i m a t e C h a n g e , w h i c h d e c l a r e s t h a t states  have different  d i f f e r e n t historical  responsibilities towards  the  problem  of g l o b a l w a r m i n g ,  c o n t r i b u t i o n s a n d c a p a b i l i t i e s for a d d r e s s i n g i t .  3 7 5  given  Developing countries  g e n e r a l l y m a i n t a i n e d t h a t s i n c e d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s w e r e l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e for c l i m a t e change,  it w a s t h e i r  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to t a k e  prepared to accept c o m m i t m e n t s  m e a s u r e s for a s o l u t i o n . Y e t , t h e y  if s u c h m e a s u r e s w e r e  conditional  were  upon 'new  and  a d d i t i o n a l ' f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s t o c o v e r t h e full i n c r e m e n t a l c o s t s of i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e m . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e U S , d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h e n e e d to p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l f u n d s to t h e  S o u t h . H o w e v e r , w i t h a few e x c e p t i o n s ( e . g . N o r w a y ) ,  a v o i d e d s p e c i f i c c o m m i t m e n t s to t h e net i n c r e a s e of f i n a n c i a l f l o w s .  3 7 6  they  A s a result, the  c o n v e n t i o n c o l l a p s e d into p l a c i n g b a s i c a l l y no o b l i g a t i o n s - e v e n c o n d i t i o n a l on e x t e r n a l funding-  upon  developing  throughout the t r e a t y .  countries.  3 7 7  Nevertheless,  equity  provisions  are  spread  3 7 8  See Benedick, supra note 367 at 158. See Ibid, at 161. (Emphasis added). See Matthew Paterson, Global Warming and Global Politics (London; New York: Routledge, 1996) at 74-76, and UNFCCC, supra note 352, Pmbl., paras. 3 and 6. See Dasgupta Chandrashekhar "The Climate Change Negotiations," in Irving Mintzer & Amber Leonard, eds., Negotiation Climate Change: The Inside Story of the Rio Convention (Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994) at 133-135. 3 7 3  3 7 4  3 7 5  3 7 6  377 3 7 8  See Paterson, supra See UNFCCC, supra  note 375 at 74-76. note 352 Pmbl. paras. 3, 6 and 22, and Arts. 3(2), 4(3), (5), and (7), 5(c), and 6(b)[ii].  3.4.3. Implications of the principles of state responsibility and environmental equity for the treaties dealing with hazardous chemicals and wastes  T h e full i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e p r i n c i p l e s of S t a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t r a n s b o u n d a r y and  international  environmental  equity  would  h a v e at  least two  harm  i m p l i c a t i o n s for  the  t r e a t i e s d e a l i n g w i t h h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d w a s t e s , w h i c h refer to the t w o q u e s t i o n s that  were  developed  asked  in  countries  the  introduction  stop  exporting  to  this  section.  3 7 9  First,  it  hazardous substances they  would do  not  require  that  w a n t to  use  t h e m s e l v e s to the c o u n t r i e s of t h e S o u t h , b e c a u s e by d o i n g so t h e y a r e v i o l a t i n g obligation  to p r e v e n t s i g n i f i c a n t t r a n s b o u n d a r y  harm, they are preventing  their  developing  countries from protecting their populations and environment, and they are affecting basic r i g h t s of t h e p e o p l e in t h o s e c o u n t r i e s . S e c o n d , it w o u l d r e q u i r e d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s to provide  financial  resources, technical  assistance and  technology  so that  developing  c o u n t r i e s d e v e l o p t h e c a p a c i t y to m a n a g e h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s ( i n c l u d i n g t h e u s e of s a f e r a l t e r n a t i v e s ) a n d to d i s p o s e of t h e i r o w n h a z a r d o u s w a s t e in w a y s t h a t p r o t e c t  human  health and the environment.  T h e v i e w t h a t it is m o r a l l y r e p r e h e n s i b l e to a l l o w t h e t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s s u b s t a n c e s f r o m i n d u s t r i a l i s e d c o u n t r i e s to t h e S o u t h w a s e x p r e s s e d , to d i f f e r e n t d e g r e e s , in the n e g o t i a t i o n s of t h e B a s e l , R o t t e r d a m a n d S t o c k h o l m c o n v e n t i o n s . A s noted b e f o r e , t h e B a s e l n e g o t i a t i o n s w e r e l a r g e l y t r i g g e r e d by t h e m o r a l i n d i g n a t i o n p r o d u c e d by s c a n d a l s of h a z a r d o u s w a s t e s b e i n g d u m p e d in t h e S o u t h in the 1 9 7 0 s a n d 1 9 8 0 s , a n d t h e i s s u e of i n c l u d i n g a t o t a l b a n o n e x p o r t s of h a z a r d o u s w a s t e f r o m rich to p o o r c o u n t r i e s w a s at t h e c e n t r e of t h e d i s c u s s i o n f r o m the v e r y b e g i n n i n g . A l t h o u g h t h e  b a n w a s not  initially  i n c l u d e d in t h e B a s e l C o n v e n t i o n , it w a s u n a n i m o u s l y a d o p t e d a s a n a m e n d m e n t to t h e t r e a t y d u r i n g t h e t h i r d C o n f e r e n c e of the P a r t i e s ( C O P ) .  3 8 0  A t C O P 3 , it w a s not  only  a d m i t t e d t h a t d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s s h o u l d not e x p o r t t h e i r h a z a r d o u s w a s t e to the S o u t h , but t h a t t h o s e w i t h the c a p a c i t y to do so s h o u l d e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r i b u t e to the s u s t a i n a b l e  That is, whether the export of hazardous chemicals and wastes by industrialised countries to the countries of the South is justified under international morality and law, and whether North-South disparities should be addressed for a kind of environmental protection that does not undermine human's basic needs or the South's sustainable development. Denmark endorsed it at COP1. Eastern and Central European countries, Nordic states and at a later stage the EU supported it at COP2. It was adopted by the parties at COP 3, as Decision III/l. (Previous decisions 1/10 and 11/12, which also included a ban, were rejected because they did not amend the treaty). Decision III/l stipulates a full ban on all transboundary movements of hazardous wastes from Annex VII countries (OECD members, EU members and Liechtenstein) to non-Annex VII countries. It is immediate for wastes bound for final disposal and it was expected to take effect at the beginning of 1998 for wastes destined for recycling or recovery operations. See Puckett & Fogel supra note 215.  m a n a g e m e n t of t h e h a z a r d o u s w a s t e g e n e r a t e d in the S o u t h . F o l l o w i n g the a d o p t i o n of t h e a m e n d m e n t , A u s t r a l i a s t a t e d t h a t the b a n w o u l d s t r e n g t h e n t h e t r e a t y a n d p r o v i d e " g r e a t e r p r o t e c t i o n to t h o s e c o u n t r i e s v u l n e r a b l e to u n w a n t e d h a z a r d o u s w a s t e s , " a n d r e c o g n i s e d t h a t t h e b a n is " b y no m e a n s t h e a n s w e r to the p r o b l e m s v u l n e r a b l e c o u n t r i e s face -it  d o e s not d e a l w i t h d o m e s t i c d i s p o s a l n e e d s , w a s t e m i n i m i z a t i o n  b u i l d i n g . N o r d o e s it a d d r e s s the legitimate  or c a p a c i t y  d e v e l o p m e n t a l n e e d s of d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s .  It is, in e s s e n c e , a half m e a s u r e - a n d it c a n n o t w o r k w i t h o u t t h e c o m m i t m e n t of efforts responsibility."  a n d r e s o u r c e s ... w e will not s h i r k t h a t  In  contrast,  eliminating negotiators  381  no big s c a n d a l s p r e c e d e d t h e export  double  decided  to  Rotterdam  standards w a s practically  limit  their  mandate  to  negotiations,  left o u t  converting  and the  of t h e a  discussion  voluntary  i n f o r m a t i o n e x c h a n g e a n d prior c o n s e n t into a l e g a l l y b i n d i n g t r e a t y .  3 8 2  i s s u e of when  system  of  C o n s e q u e n t l y , the  claim by a developing country delegation that an exporting country that has banned or s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d a c h e m i c a l s h o u l d not h a v e t h e m o r a l r i g h t to sell it to o t h e r s  3 8 3  did  not e n c o u r a g e n e g o t i a t o r s to p r o s c r i b e t h o s e e x p o r t s , or to f u r t h e r d i s c u s s t h e i s s u e . A s for  the  Stockholm  negotiations,  countries should stop exporting  while  two  delegations  claimed  that  industrialised  P O P s to d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , it w a s s t r e s s e d t h a t a n  e x c e p t i o n w a s n e e d e d in t h e c a s e of D D T , u s e d in t h e S o u t h to f i g h t m a l a r i a .  3 8 4  Although  t h e t r e a t y did not g o a s far a s b a n n i n g all e x p o r t s , it w a s d e t e r m i n e d t h a t P O P s w o u l d be e x p o r t e d o n l y for e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y s o u n d d i s p o s a l o r for p e r m i t t e d u s e s by t h e party.  importing  3 8 5  T h e g e n e r a l r e c o g n i t i o n of the principle t h a t d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s s h o u l d c o n t r i b u t e to t h e s a f e m a n a g e m e n t of h a z a r d o u s s u b s t a n c e s in d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s is less c o n t r o v e r s i a l t h a n t h a t of e l i m i n a t i n g d o u b l e s t a n d a r d s . A l t h o u g h the B a s e l , R o t t e r d a m a n d S t o c k h o l m c o n v e n t i o n s offer include  the  different  r e s p o n s e s to t h e  idea of d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  n e e d s of d e v e l o p i n g  responsibilities  and  countries, they  c a p a c i t i e s in t h e i r  b e s i d e s q u o t i n g t h e principle of c o m m o n but d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  all  preambles:  responsibilities as formulated  Statement made by Australia following the Adoption of the Amendment by Consensus in September 1995. See UNEP, Report of the Third Meeting of the COP to the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, Geneva (18-22 September 1995) Doc. UNEP/CWH.3/34 (Emphasis added). 3fi2  For a survey of the Rotterdam negotiations see section 4.3. in Chapter 4. Statement made by the delegation of Panama. See ENB Report INC-3 PIC, supra note 335 at 7. See "Report of the Third Session of the INC for an International Legally Binding Instrument for Implementing International Action on certain POPs" Earth Negotiations Bulletin 15:27 (13 September 1999) at 3-4, online: <http://www.iisd.ca/linkages/download/pdf/enbl527e.pdf>. See Stockholm Convention, supra note 13 Articles 3(2)[a] and 3(2)[b].  3 8 3  3 8 4  3 8 5  in t h e Rio D e c l a r a t i o n (par. 13) t h e S t o c k h o l m C o n v e n t i o n r e c o g n i s e s t h e s p e c i a l n e e d s of d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s (par. 1 1 ) . L i k e w i s e , the B a s e l C o n v e n t i o n a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e capabilities  of  developing  transferring  technology  countries  to t h e  to  manage  S o u t h (par.  hazardous wastes  and  the  20 a n d 2 1 ) , a n d s o d o e s t h e  limited  need  of  Rotterdam  C o n v e n t i o n , w h i c h a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e s p e c i a l n e e d s of d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s a n d t h e n e e d to s t r e n g t h e n  their  c a p a c i t y for the  management  of c h e m i c a l s , i n c l u d i n g  transfer  of  t e c h n o l o g y a n d f i n a n c i a l a n d t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e (par. 4 ) . F o r t h a t r e a s o n , it is not really a q u e s t i o n of e x p l i c i t l y i n c l u d i n g the principle of c o m m o n but d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  responsibilities  into t h e B a s e l a n d R o t t e r d a m t r e a t i e s a s it is f o r m u l a t e d in S t o c k h o l m , but of p u t t i n g t h e rule into o p e r a t i o n w i t h c o n c r e t e o b l i g a t i o n s to p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e to the S o u t h , a n d a d e q u a t e m e c h a n i s m s to f i n a n c e s u c h a s s i s t a n c e .  E l i m i n a t i n g d o u b l e s t a n d a r d s , in c o n t r a s t , c a n be p r o b l e m a t i c in p r a c t i c e . A s e x p l a i n e d e a r l i e r in t h i s c h a p t e r , d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s are not in a p o s i t i o n to m a i n t a i n a m o r a l p o s t u r e if t h a t w o u l d p r e v e n t t h e m f r o m r e c e i v i n g s u b s t a n c e s t h e y r e q u i r e to s o l v e m o r e p r e s s i n g e c o n o m i c n e e d s . T h u s , w h i l e initially d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s s t r o n g l y  advocated  t h e a d o p t i o n of a b a n on t h e e x p o r t of h a z a r d o u s w a s t e s f r o m d e v e l o p e d to d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , s o m e of t h e m h a v e f o u n d t h a t ratification is difficult b e c a u s e a b a n w o u l d m e a n t h a t part of t h e i r i n d u s t r y w o u l d not be a b l e to i m p o r t h a z a r d o u s w a s t e s t h a t a r e u s e d a s raw  materials.  3 8 6  In  the  c a s e of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d  pesticides, there  are  two  a d d i t i o n a l i s s u e s to c o n s i d e r . First, d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s g e n u i n e l y d e p e n d o n c h e m i c a l p e s t i c i d e s to s u s t a i n e x p o r t a g r i c u l t u r e a n d to c o m b a t v e c t o r - b o r n e d i s e a s e . T h u s , u n l e s s affordable  alternatives  hazardous  pesticides  are a v a i l a b l e , the is  not  really  an  option  option.  of a This  ban  on t h e  is w h y  the  import  of  promotion  a l t e r n a t i v e s s u c h a s i n t e g r a t e d pest m a n a g e m e n t t e c h n i q u e s is of p a r a m o u n t  certain of  safer  importance.  S e c o n d , a s e x p l a i n e d in C h a p t e r 2 , t h e e l i m i n a t i o n of d o u b l e s t a n d a r d s c o u l d c r e a t e a n i n c e n t i v e to i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i o n in the S o u t h by m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s a n d by a f e w indigenous  manufacturers.  This  emphasises  the  need  to  deal  not  only  with  the  i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d p e s t i c i d e s , but a l s o w i t h t h e p r o d u c t i o n of these substances.  This is the case, for instance, of Colombia. While the Colombian government fully supported the adoption of Decision III/l at COP 3, ratification of the Basel ban amendment has proven more difficult. The Colombian government supported the adoption of Decision III/l. However, ratification of the ban requires a stricter analysis, as it would turn the ban into a legally binding provision. Thus, while in the process of considering ratification the Ministry of Environment continues to support the ban, the Ministry of Commerce has expressed its concerns in relation to the negative impacts of the ban on the national industries that depend on hazardous wastes, within the context of an economic crisis. Consequently, it has suggested that a study on the impacts of the ban be carried on before ratification is considered. Letter dated February 12, 2001 from the former Minister of Commerce, Mrs. Martha Lucia Ramirez, to the former Minister of Environment, Mr. Juan Mayr.  T h i s c h a p t e r h a s e n d e a v o u r e d to put t h e R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n in c o n t e x t ,  so a s to  p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y b a c k g r o u n d to r e v i e w t h e t r e a t y . First, it l o o k e d at t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t h a v e f a c i l i t a t e d a n d p r o m o t e d t h e t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s a n d p e s t i c i d e s from  developed  to  developing  p e r s p e c t i v e of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  countries.  of  hazardous  it  looked  at  the  problem  from  the  e t h i c s , a r g u i n g t h a t b e c a u s e of t h e c o n d i t i o n s in w h i c h  t a k e s p l a c e a n d b e c a u s e of t h e transfer  Then,  chemicals  nature and  of the s u b s t a n c e s i n v o l v e d , t h e pesticides  is  ultimately  an  it  North-South  ethical  question.  C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e c h a p t e r s t u d i e d t h e m o r a l a n d legal p r i n c i p l e s t h a t a r e r e l e v a n t to t h e i s s u e of h a z a r d t r a n s f e r . H a v i n g c o n s i d e r e d t h e s e i m p o r t a n t a n t e c e d e n t s , t h e p u r p o s e of n e x t c h a p t e r is to e v a l u a t e the R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n in a critical m a n n e r .  Chapter Four The Rotterdam Convention: A Modest Starting Point 4.1. Introduction  T h e m a i n p u r p o s e of t h i s t h e s i s is to u n d e r t a k e a critical e v a l u a t i o n of t h e  Rotterdam  C o n v e n t i o n on t h e Prior I n f o r m e d C o n s e n t P r o c e d u r e for C e r t a i n H a z a r d o u s C h e m i c a l s a n d P e s t i c i d e s in I n t e r n a t i o n a l T r a d e . B e f o r e e m b a r k i n g on t h a t a n a l y s i s , it w a s n e c e s s a r y to u n d e r s t a n d the n a t u r e of the p r o b l e m , a n d to put it in c o n t e x t . T h i s is w h a t t h e  two  p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s h a v e a t t e m p t e d to d o . W h i l e C h a p t e r 2 d e s c r i b e d t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  substances regulated  by  the  convention  and  n e c e s s a r y , C h a p t e r 3 s e t the s t a g e in w h i c h t h e  the  reasons why  North-South  the  transfer  treaty  of  was  hazardous  chemicals takes place, considering the conditions that have facilitated and promoted that transfer.  This chapter reviews the Rotterdam Convention and the voluntary s y s t e m that served as its b a s e . First, it d e s c r i b e s t h e F A O C o d e of C o n d u c t a n d the U N E P L o n d o n G u i d e l i n e s , w h i c h w e r e the initial international  r e s p o n s e to t h e N o r t h - S o u t h t r a n s f e r of h a z a r d o u s  c h e m i c a l s . T h e s e v o l u n t a r y i n s t r u m e n t s l a u n c h e d a s y s t e m of i n f o r m a t i o n h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s . In  1989, they  were  a m e n d e d to  introduce  the  exchange on prior  informed  c o n s e n t ( P I C ) p r o c e d u r e , so a s to a l l o w i m p o r t i n g c o u n t r i e s to c o m m u n i c a t e w h e t h e r o r not t h e y w o u l d w a n t to r e c e i v e c e r t a i n c h e m i c a l s in t h e f u t u r e . B e c a u s e the  Rotterdam  C o n v e n t i o n e s s e n t i a l l y r e p r o d u c e d t h e v o l u n t a r y s y s t e m , t h e PIC p r o c e d u r e is d e s c r i b e d in d e t a i l . T h e n , a s u r v e y of t h e R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n n e g o t i a t i o n s is p r e s e n t e d . A brief d e s c r i p t i o n of the t r e a t y ' s m a i n p r o v i s i o n s f o l l o w s , t a k i n g into a c c o u n t the c o r r e s p o n d i n g provisions  of t h e  voluntary  Rotterdam  Convention  PIC s y s t e m . L a s t l y , t h e  improved  the  voluntary  chapter  PIC s y s t e m  in  considers whether any  meaningful  C o n s i d e r i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d w i t h the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e v o l u n t a r y  the way.  procedure,  t h e c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t i m p r o v e m e n t s w e r e i n t r o d u c e d a n d t h u s  no  s u b s t a n t i a l i m p r o v e m e n t s a r e likely to o c c u r . F u r t h e r m o r e , it a r g u e s t h a t , e v e n by its o w n s t a n d a r d s ( c o n s i d e r i n g its o b j e c t i v e ) t h e R o t t e r d a m C o n v e n t i o n is f u n d a m e n t a l l y f l a w e d . This  is b e c a u s e it  countries  to  d o e s not  effectively  adequately  implement  its  address the  provisions, and  lack of c a p a c i t y b e c a u s e it  of  developing  d o e s not  promote  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of all r e l e v a n t p l a y e r s , w h i c h is o n e of t h e r e a s o n s w h y a b i n d i n g c o n v e n t i o n o n PIC w a s a d o p t e d .  4.2. The voluntary PIC system: the Code of Conduct and the London Guidelines  T h e g l o b a l r e s p o n s e to t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s s t a r t e d w i t h t h e a d o p t i o n of t w o v o l u n t a r y i n s t r u m e n t s w i t h i n the U n i t e d N a t i o n s s y s t e m : t h e C o d e of C o n d u c t o n the Conduct), adopted  Distribution  a n d U s e of P e s t i c i d e s ( h e r e i n a f t e r  in 1 9 8 5 by F A O , a n d t h e  I n f o r m a t i o n o n C h e m i c a l s in I n t e r n a t i o n a l  the C o d e of  L o n d o n G u i d e l i n e s for the  Trade (hereinafter  the  International  E x c h a n g e of  London Guidelines),  a d o p t e d in 1 9 8 7 by U N E P .  A l t h o u g h t h e L o n d o n G u i d e l i n e s c o v e r t h e b r o a d c a t e g o r y of h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s (i.e. industrial chemicals and p e s t i c i d e s ) ,  3 8 7  they were adopted primarily,  like t h e C o d e of  C o n d u c t , to a d d r e s s p e s t i c i d e - r e l a t e d p r o b l e m s . P e s t i c i d e s w e r e a m a i n f o c u s of c o n c e r n since the  mid-1970s,  primarily  for  two  r e a s o n s . First, t h e r e  was  moral  outrage  e v i d e n c e t h a t p e s t i c i d e s b a n n e d in t h e N o r t h a n d e x p o r t e d to t h e S o u t h ( m o s t l y m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s ) w e r e c o n t r i b u t i n g to f a t a l i t i e s a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l  at via  degradation  in d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . S e c o n d , d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s had a n i n t e r e s t in p r e v e n t i n g t h o s e s u b s t a n c e s f r o m r e t u r n i n g to t h e m a s r e s i d u e s in i m p o r t e d f o o d . London  Guidelines was  o c c u r r e d in t h e  possibly  1970s and  n e c e s s i t y of i m p r o v i n g  also  1980s,  3 8 9  connected which  to  T h e a d o p t i o n of t h e  chemical  increased international  chemical safety throughout  measures, information e x c h a n g e .  several  3 8 8  disasters  that  a w a r e n e s s of  the globe through,  amongst  the  other  3 9 0  The London Guidelines apply to chemicals in international trade (e.g. pesticides, industrial chemicals), except pharmaceuticals, radioactive materials, food additives and others. See London Guidelines for the Exchange of Information on Chemicals in International Trade, UN Doc. UNEP/GC.15/9/Add.2/Supp. 3 and Corr.l, Appendix (as amended by UNEP Governing Council Decision 15/30, UN Doc. UNEP/GC. 15/12 (Annex II) (1989) [hereinafter London Guidelines], Art. 3, online: <http://www.pestlaw.com/x/international/UNEP19890500A.html>. For the Code of Conduct see Peter Hough "Institutions for Controlling the Global Trade in Hazardous Chemicals: The 1998 Rotterdam Convention" (2000) 10:2 Global Environmental Change 161 at 161. [Hough, "Institutions for Controlling Global Trade"]. For both instruments see David G. Victor "Learning by Doing in the Nonbinding International Regime to Manage Trade in Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides," in David G. Victor et al.,  eds.,  The  Implementation  and  Effectiveness  of International  Environmental  Commitments.  Theory  and  (Laxenburg, Austria: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis; Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1998) at 234. In 1976, an explosion occurred in Meda (Italy) at a chemical plant owned by a subsidiary of a Swiss company. A thick toxic cloud containing dioxin was released into the atmosphere. The accident was named after Seveso, one of the towns most seriously affected. In 1984, toxic gas escaped from a storage tank at the Union Carbide chemical plant in Bhopal (India), and leaked into the atmosphere. The disaster caused the direct death of over 1,600 people and injured more than 200,000. Two years later, in Basel (Switzerland), efforts to put out a fire at a chemical storage warehouse of Sandoz resulted in a huge discharge of toxic chemicals into the Rhine. The ecological disaster also affected France, Germany and the Netherlands. For details of these disasters see Gunter Handl & Robert E. Lutz, Transferring Hazardous Technology and Substances. The International Legal Challenge (London: Graham &Trotman, 1989) at 2-19. The London Guidelines seek to increase chemical safety in all countries through the exchange of scientific, technical, economic and legal information on potentially harmful chemicals in international trade. See Peter H. Sand, ed., The Effectiveness of International Environmental Agreements. A Survey of Existing Legal Instruments (Cambridge, Eng.: Grotius, 1992) at 326.  Practice  3 9 0  The  p r o b l e m of t r a d e in h a z a r d o u s s u b s t a n c e s w a s o n U N E P ' s a g e n d a s i n c e t h e  mid-  1 9 7 0 s , w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r o u p s a n d d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s s e e k i n g to h i g h l i g h t i n j u s t i c e s in t h e w o r l d t r a d i n g  s y s t e m . M u c h of t h e e a r l y d i s c u s s i o n f o c u s e d o n t h e e x p o r t  of  s u b s t a n c e s b a n n e d o r s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d in t h e N o r t h to t h e less r e g u l a t e d m a r k e t s of t h e South.  In  1976,  UNEP  established  the  International  R e g i s t e r for  Potentially  Toxic  C h e m i c a l s ( I R P T C ) , w i t h t h e t a s k of c o m p i l i n g a n d c i r c u l a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o n c h e m i c a l hazards.  3 9 1  In 1 9 7 7 , in r e s p o n s e to a s p e e c h by t h e K e n y a n g o v e r n m e n t d e n o u n c i n g t h e  ' d u m p i n g ' of b a n n e d h a z a r d o u s c h e m i c a l s in d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , t h e G o v e r n i n g C o u n c i l of U N E P a d o p t e d a r e s o l u t i o n a f f i r m i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t s u c h c h e m i c a l s s h o u l d not be " p e r m i t t e d to be e x p o r t e d w i t h o u t t h e k n o w l e d g e a n d c o n s e n t of a p p r o p r i a t e a u t h o r i t i e s in t h e i m p o r t i n g c o u n t r y . "  3 9 2  In 1 9 7 8 , t h e U N E P G o v e r n i n g C o u n c i l a s k e d I R P T C  U N E P C h e m i c a l s ) to f o c u s on g i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n  on l i m i t a t i o n s ,  bans and  (now  regulations  e n a c t e d in e x p o r t i n g c o u n t r i e s .  D e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s p u s h e d t h e s a m e a g e n d a in t h e U N G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y .  3 9 3  Every  y e a r , s t a r t i n g in 1 9 7 9 , t h e U N G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y a d o p t e d a s t r o n g e r r e s o l u t i o n a d v o c a t i n g l i m i t s o n e x p o r t s of p r o d u c t s b a n n e d o r s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d in t h e N o r t h a n d information exchange on hazardous c h e m i c a l s .  3 9 4  greater  T h e s e efforts c u l m i n a t e d in a r e s o l u t i o n  o n " P r o t e c t i o n A g a i n s t P r o d u c t s H a r m f u l to H e a l t h a n d t h e E n v i r o n m e n t , " a d o p t e d in 1 9 8 2 a n d b a s e d o n a p r o p o s a l by V e n e z u e l a .  3 9 5  The resolution asserted that products banned  f r o m d o m e s t i c u s e a n d / o r s a l e b e c a u s e of t h e  risks they  p o s e d to  health and  the  e n v i r o n m e n t s h o u l d be s o l d o n l y w h e n a r e q u e s t for s u c h p r o d u c t s w a s r e c e i v e d f r o m a n i m p o r t i n g c o u n t r y , o r w h e n t h e c o n s u m p t i o n of s u c h p r o d u c t s w a s officially p e r m i t t e d in t h e i m p o r t i n g c o u n t r y . It a l s o s t a t e d t h a t " a l l c o u n t r i e s t h a t h a v e s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d o r have  not  approved  the  domestic  consumption  and/or  s a l e of  specific  products,  in  p a r t i c u l a r p h a r m a c e u t i c a l s a n d p e s t i c i d e s , s h o u l d m a k e a v a i l a b l e full i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e s e p r o d u c t s w i t h a v i e w to s a f e g u a r d i n g t h e  health and environment  of t h e  importing  See Victor, supra note 388 at 231-232. See UNEP, GC, 5 session, Decision 85(V), UN Doc. A/32/25 (15 May 1977). In Mark Pallemaerts, Developments in International Pesticide Regulation" (1988) 18:3 Environmental Policy and Law 62 at 65. 93 See Victor, supra note 388 at 231-232  3 9 1  3 9 2  th  3 9 3  394 See 395  Ibid,  at  232.  See Pallemaerts,  supra  note 392 at 65.  country."  3  C o n s e q u e n t l y , it p r o v i d e d f o r t h e c r e a t i o n of a c o n s o l i d a t e d list of p r o d u c t s  whose consumption a n d / o r sale had been banned, withdrawn, or severely r e s t r i c t e d .  3 9 7  F a c e d w i t h t h e political d e c l a r a t i o n s in f a v o u r of t h e p r i n c i p l e of prior c o n s e n t a t t h e U N , t h e m a j o r p e s t i c i d e - e x p o r t i n g c o u n t r i e s t o o k t h e lead w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k of t h e O E C D (to w h i c h t h e y w e r e a l l m e m b e r s )  in e l a b o r a t i n g t h e i r o w n g u i d e l i n e s o n  information  e x c h a n g e a s a s t r a t e g y t o p r e v e n t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of m o r e s t r i n g e n t r e g u l a t i o n s .  In  3 9 8  r e s p o n s e t o t h e 1 9 7 7 U N E P r e s o l u t i o n , a n d a t t h e initiative of t h e U . S . a n d C a n a d a , t h e O E C D s e t u p in 1 9 8 0 a s p e c i a l g r o u p to p r e p a r e g u i d e l i n e s o n i n f o r m a t i o n e x c h a n g e o n the export  of c h e m i c a l s .  3 9 9  F o u r y e a r s later, t h e C o u n c i l a d o p t e d a  recommendation  ' C o n c e r n i n g I n f o r m a t i o n E x c h a n g e r e l a t e d to t h e E x p o r t of B a n n e d o r S e v e r e l y R e s t r i c t e d C h e m i c a l s . ' R e i t e r a t i n g t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of O E C D m e m b e r c o u n t r i e s t o " s a f e g u a r d a n d i m p r o v e t h e q u a l i t y of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , b o t h n a t i o n a l l y a n d in t h e g l o b a l c o n t e x t , "  4 0 0  the  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n i n v i t e s m e m b e r c o u n t r i e s t h a t h a v e t a k e n a c o n t r o l a c t i o n to b a n o r s e v e r e l y restrict a c h e m i c a l to m a k e r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o i m p o r t i n g c o u n t r i e s . H o w e v e r , it e m p h a s i z e s t h a t i m p o r t i n g  countries have " t h e primary  responsibility for  p r o t e c t i o n of h e a l t h a n d t h e e n v i r o n m e n t f r o m risks a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i m p o r t s of c h e m i c a l s which  have been banned or severely restricted  f o r u s e in e x p o r t i n g  countries."  4 0 1  In  a d d i t i o n , it is n o t r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e notification be p r i o r to t h e e x p o r t ( a l t h o u g h it is t h e recommendation's 'intention'),  a n d it is s p e c i f i c a l l y n o t e d t h a t t h e p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e  e x p o r t i n g c o u n t r y " s h o u l d n o t be s u c h a s to d e l a y o r c o n t r o l t h e e x p o r t . "  4 0 2  A s p r o b a b l y e x p e c t e d b y e x p o r t i n g c o u n t r i e s , t h e O E C D r e c o m m e n d a t i o n ( r e a d y in d r a f t s i n c e 1 9 8 2 ) h a d a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e o n t h e s u b s e q u e n t r e g u l a t o r y efforts of U N E P a n d t h e F A O . In 1 9 8 2 , U N E P d e c i d e d to c o n v e n e a g r o u p of e x p e r t s t o e l a b o r a t e g u i d e l i n e s o n  UNGA Res. 37/137 (1982), Protection against products harmful to health and the environment, UN Doc. A/37/51 (1982) at 112-113. The list was regarded with suspicion by many developed countries. The U.S., for example, opposed the very concept of a list, arguing that it was an unscientific "blacklist" detrimental to the legitimate interests of industry. See Pallemaerts, supra note 392 at 64. 3 9 6  397  Including chemicals and pesticides (the resolution referred also to pharmaceuticals and other products). For further details see UNGA Res. 37/137 (1982), Ibid. Art. 3. 398  See Pallemaerts, 399  supra  note 392 at 65.  Ibid. The initial work of the OECD was focused on harmonising national legislation on hazardous chemicals (testing, pre-market data requisites, information exchange, etc) to facilitate trade in chemicals and elimionate trade barriers. See Victor, supra note 388 at 224-225 and Robert A. Wynman "Control of Toxic Substances: the Attempt to Harmonise the Notification Requirements of the U.S. TSCA and the EC Sixth Amendment," (1980) 20 Virginia J. of Int'l L. 417 at 417-458. OECD, Council, Recommendation Concerning Information Exchange related to Export of Banned or Severely Restricted Chemicals, 4 April 1984, C(84)37/Final, Pmbl. online: <http://webdominol.oecd.org/horizontal/oecdacts.nsf/Display/64F5748FC50D6FFCC1256D8E006F4E017OpenD ocument>. 4 0 0  4  0  1  See Ibid.  Art.  1.  4  0  2  See Ibid.  Art.  5.  e x c h a n g e of i n f o r m a t i o n  on potentially  h a r m f u l c h e m i c a l s . A t first, t h e g r o u p f a i l e d  to  agree on draft guidelines because while developing countries insisted on trade regulation, experts from notification.  pesticide-exporting  countries  rejected  In t h e e n d , a " P r o v i s i o n a l Notification  even the weakest form  of  export  S c h e m e , " p r o p o s e d by B r i t a i n  and  l a r g e l y m o d e l e d o n the g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s c o n t a i n e d in t h e O E C D ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n , w a s adopted.  U n d e r t h a t s c h e m e , the I R P T C w o u l d d e v e l o p a n d m a n a g e a d a t a b a s e of  4 0 3  c o n t r o l a c t i o n s , i.e. d e c i s i o n s by c o u n t r i e s to b a n o r s e v e r e l y restrict a c h e m i c a l , a n d c i r c u l a t e the d a t a of t h e s e d e c i s i o n s to all U N m e m b e r s . I n f o r m a t i o n e x c h a n g e w o u l d s u p p o s e d l y i n c r e a s e a w a r e n e s s of c o n t r o l s o n h a z a r d o u s s u b s t a n c e s .  4 0 4  S h o r t l y after t h e  P r o v i s i o n a l S c h e m e w a s a d o p t e d , U N E P r e c o n v e n e d t h e w o r k i n g g r o u p to c r e a t e a m o r e permanent  system.  This  was  achieved  in  1987  with  the  adoption  of  the  London  Guidelines, which essentially replicated the provisional s c h e m e and added s o m e general c o m m i t m e n t s to p r o m o t e t h e s o u n d m a n a g e m e n t of c h e m i c a l s .  4 0 5  S i n c e p e s t i c i d e s w e r e t h e m a i n f o c u s of a t t e n t i o n , the i s s u e of i n f o r m a t i o n e x c h a n g e w a s a l s o a d d r e s s e d by t h e F A O , t h e m a i n U N o r g a n i s a t i o n c a r r y i n g o u t a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to pesticides.  Given  its  role  in  the  food  production  system,  the  F A O had  extensive  e x p e r i e n c e i m p l e m e n t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o j e c t s in d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s a n d , a f t e r a d e c a d e of a t t r a c t i n g c r i t i c i s m for p r o m o t i n g o v e r c o n s u m p t i o n of p e s t i c i d e s in t h e 1 9 7 0 s , it b e g a n implementing International  pesticides m a n a g e m e n t  programmes.  4 0 6  In  1 9 8 5 , the  FAO adopted  its  C o d e of C o n d u c t o n the D i s t r i b u t i o n a n d U s e of P e s t i c i d e s . Initial d r a f t s of  t h e C o d e i n c l u d e d a p r o v i s i o n o n prior i n f o r m e d c o n s e n t . H o w e v e r , t h e p r o v i s i o n w a s finally r e m o v e d f r o m t h e C o d e , d u e to the p r e s s u r e of i n d u s t r y a n d O E C D w h i c h did between  not officially the  international  standards  request  its d e l e t i o n  adopted  by  the  but FAO  insisted on the and  those  countries,  n e e d of c o n s i s t e n c y  recommended  o r g a n i s a t i o n s s u c h a s U N E P a n d t h e O E C D . T h e efforts  by  other  of t h e S o u t h  to  r e i n s t a t e t h e PIC p r o v i s i o n m e r e l y r e s u l t e d in the d e l e t i o n of t h e c l a u s e s t a t i n g t h a t " t h e p r o c e d u r e s of t h e c o u n t r y of e x p o r t s h o u l d not be s u c h a s to d e l a y or c o n t r o l t h e e x p o r t , " which had been copied from the OECD r e c o m m e n d a t i o n .  4 0 7  See Pallamaerts supra note 392 at 65-66. See Provisional Notification Scheme for Banned and Severely Restricted Chemicals, UN Doc. UNEP/WG.96/5, Annex (1984), adopted by UNEP Governing Council Decision 12/14, UN Doc. UNEP/GC.12/19 (1984), Annex I. See Victor, supra note 388 at 232-233, and London Guidelines, supra note 387 Arts. 13, 14 and 15. See Victor, Ibid, at 231 and 234. See Hough, "Institutions for Controlling Global Trade," supra note 388 at 161-164, and Pallemaerts, supra note 392 at 65. 4 0 4  4 0 5  4 0 6  4 0 7  T o s u m m a r i s e , n e i t h e r t h e C o d e of C o n d u c t n o r t h e L o n d o n G u i d e l i n e s initially p r o v i d e d for a p r o c e d u r e g i v i n g i m p o r t i n g c o u n t r i e s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r o h i b i t f u t u r e i m p o r t s of certain  hazardous  chemicals  and pesticides,  a n d no  g o v e r n m e n t s w a s required for the export to o c c u r . developing countries  a n d of a g r o u p  procedure w a s integrated (represented by G I F A P ) of  stronger  chemicals.  4 1 1  alternatives  into b o t h  4 0 8  prior  by  importing  H o w e v e r , d u e to t h e i n s i s t e n c e of  of n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l instruments  consent  in 1 9 8 9 .  4 1 0  organisations, Chemical  4 0 9  the PIC  manufacturers  h a d s t r o n g l y o p p o s e d P I C , but t h e y c a m e