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Environment management of coastal forests in British Columbia : an ecolegal analysis Mackenzie, James M. 1976

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ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF COASTAL FORESTS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA AN ECOLEGAL ANALYSIS by JAMES M. MACKENZIE B.A. (Hons), Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1966 LL.B. Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF TME REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF LAWS i n the Facu l t y o f LAW We accept t h i s t he s i s as conforming to the r equ i r ed standard . THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1976 © James M. Mackenzie, 1976 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my written permission. F a c u l t y .of Law The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e A p r i l 1 2 , 1977 ABSTRACT Increas ing demands f o r the natu ra l resources o f B r i t i s h Columbia c oa s t a l f o r e s t s have l e d to c o n f l i c t s between resource user s . In a d d i t i o n recent demand f o r i n t a n g i b l e "non-economic" re sources , such as outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i s c r e a t i n g added pressure upon the w i l d l a n d resource base. The B r i t i s h Columbia Forest S e r v i c e , although r e s t r i c t e d to some ex tent by a narrowly-worded "wood p roduc t i on " s t a t u t e , has attempted to re so l ve f o r e s t resource c o n f l i c t s by a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n such as the development of new c o n t r a c t p rov i s i on s and logg ing g u i d e l i n e s . These a l t e r n a t i v e s can be e f f e c t i v e l y enforced aga in s t Crown l i c en see s due to Crown con t r o l of most t imber re sources , but they are l a r g e l y i n e f f e c t i v e f o r the r e g u l a t i o n of p r i v a t e t imber land ope ra t i on s . A l t h o u g h ' p r i v a t e lands are not e x t e n s i v e , t h e i r harvest i s s u b s t a n t i a l and they comprise a s i g n i f i c a n t acreage i n the r i c h coa s ta l f o r e s t a reas . The common law o f f e r s severa l p o t e n t i a l causes of a c t i o n which might be employed by the Forest Se rv i ce to regu la te logg ing operat ions on p r i v a t e t imber lands , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h respect to impact upon f i s h e r y resources i n coa s t a l f o r e s t s t reams. The Fores t Ac t cou ld a l s o be i n t e r p r e t e d to au tho r i ze r e g u l a t i o n of p r i v a t e logg ing ope ra t i on s . L i t i g a t i o n , whether c i v i l or c r i m i n a l , however, i s not an optimum method o f environmental management. I t i s expens ive, t ime-consuming, extremely t e c h n i c a l and remedies are gene ra l l y post f a c t o i n c h a r a c t e r . ( i ) (.11) What i s r equ i r ed i s broad environmental p lann ing based upon c l e a r s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t y and general p u b l i c and i n d u s t r i a l support . The " f o l i o system" dev i sed by the Forest Se rv i ce r e f l e c t s a new understanding of the need f o r such advance p l ann ing , con s i de r i n g a l l f o r e s t re sou rce s . In tegrated management of f o r e s t resources r equ i re s balanced c o s t -b e n e f i t a na l y s i s of a l l resource uses, "economic" and i n t a n g i b l e a l i k e . The f o l i o system, as managed by the Forest S e r v i c e , does not meet t h i s c r i t e r i o n . S i ng l e resource l e g i s l a t i o n c r e a t i n g l i n e departments w i t h narrow management r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s has hampered i n t e g r a t ed approaches i n the past and accounts p a r t i a l l y f o r the h i s t o r i c a l t imber product ion b ia s o f the Forest S e r v i c e . The present Environment and Land Use Commit tee-Secreta r ia t s t r u c t u r e c o n s t i t u t e s an i n i t i a l s tep i n the c r e a t i o n o f a neu t ra l i n te rdepar tmenta l c o o r d i n a t i n g body. Such an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y p r o j e c t - o r i e n t e d task f o r ce approach i s appropr i a te f o r i n t e g r a t ed environmental resource management. Amendments to the Environment and Land Use Act are suggested i n order to i nc rease the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h i s i n t e g r a t e d approach to f o r e s t resource management. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No. ABSTRACT ( i ) TABLE OF CONTENTS ( i i i ) CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER II ONE CONFLICT BETWEEN RESOURCE USERS: TIMBER VS FISH 8 A. THE TIMBER RESOURCE 8 B. THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF LOGGING OPERATIONS 9 C. THE FISH RESOURCE 10 CHAPTER I I I FOREST SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES 16 A. INTRODUCTION 16 B. THE BRITISH COLUMBIA FOREST SERVICE 18 C. FOREST SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT POLICIES 23 CHAPTER IV ENFORCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT POLICIES 42 A. INTRODUCTION 42 B. CONTRAVENTION BY CROWN LICENSEES 43 C. CONTRAVENTION ON PRIVATELY OWNED TIMBERLANDS 53 D. STATUTORY OFFENCES - CRIMINAL PROSECUTIONS 85 E. CONCLUSIONS 86 ( i i i ) ( i v ) Page No. CHAPTER V LEGAL ASPECTS OF INTEGRATED RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 98 A. INTRODUCTION 98 B. INTEGRATED RESOURCE MANAGEMENT THEORY - A SUMMARY 99 C. LEGAL OBSTACLES 102 D. CURRENT CONFLICT RESOLUTION POLICIES 105 1. The F o l i o System 106 2. The Environment and Land Use Committee 111 3. Interdepartmental Techn ica l Committees 113 4. Department o f the Environment 113 5. Other Resource Management Groups 115 E. RECOMMENDED ACTION 116 CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION 127 BIBLIOGRAPHY 130 APPENDICES A. TIMBER SALE HARVESTING LICENCE 136 B. CUTTING PERMIT 146 C. PLANNING GUIDELINES FOR COAST LOGGING OPERATIONS 151 D. LETTER TO LICENSEES VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT 157 CHAPTER I - INTRODUCTION This study examines l e ga l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e aspects o f na tu ra l resource management i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The resources o f the Prov ince c o n s t i t u t e the bas i s f o r the economic p r o s p e r i t y and high q u a l i t y of l i f e enjoyed by most r e s i den t s of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1 I t i s the t h e s i s of t h i s paper that unless a r a t i o n a l and i n t e g r a t ed approach to na tu ra l resources management, based on cu r ren t concepts o f ecosystems i n t e g r i t y i s adopted, se r ious c o n f l i c t s w i l l a r i s e between the users of var ious w i l d l a n d resources and the q u a l i t y o f a l l resources w i l l be th reatened. At present in B r i t i s h Columbia, a t r a d i t i o n a l s i n g l e resource approach i s ev ident i n resource l e g i s l a t i o n and administ rat ion^. Th is approach i s a n a c h r o n i s t i c and u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d , a r e l i c of other times when man's s l i g h t demand upon the environment and h i s lack of f a m i l i a r i t y w i th ecology l ed him to regard a l l na tu ra l resources as d i s c r e t e sources 3 of economic p r o f i t and employment. In o ther part s o f the wor ld and o f North Amer ica, r i s i n g human demands upon f i n i t e resources have l ed to 4 ser ious p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t between the var ious users of resources. A u t h o r i t i e s are beginning to recognize the need f o r "ecosystems" 5 approaches to na tu ra l resource and land use management. Such ecosystems approaches, as desc r ibed by Lynton K. C a l d w e l l , 6 recognize the i n t e g r a l nature o f the ear th ecosystem. They acknowledge the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between a l l components of the system and the nece s s i t y f o r comprehensive p lann ing to husband nonrenewable resources and to ensure a cont inued and na tu ra l renewal of renewable resources . As Ca ldwel l i n d i c a t e s , present p o l i t i c a l and l ega l i n s t i t u t i o n s have - 1 -- 2 -been e s t a b l i s h e d upon con s i de ra t i on s other than e c o l o g i c a l concepts and have d i c t a t e d cu r ren t p o l i c i e s of resource management. In C a l d w e l l ' s v iew, e c o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s must become the c r i t e r i a f o r sound resource management p lann ing or i n o r d i n a t e and i n s e n s i t i v e human demands upon the environment w i l l lead to an u l t i m a t e breakdown of the ecosystem. This requ i re s a t o t a l systems approach to p lann ing which must i n c l ude many con s i de ra t i on s omit ted i n the l e s s comprehensive systems now i n f o r c e . The c o n f l i c t s d i scussed by Ca ldwel l have not ye t become ser ious in B r i t i s h Columbia due to the r e l a t i v e l y small popu la t ion and the l a r ge area o f undeveloped w i l de rne s s . B r i t i s h Columbia, however, can take no t i c e of developments in o ther par t s of North America and the World. In many areas of B r i t i s h Columbia, the o r i g i n a l f r o n t i e r percept ion o f l i m i t l e s s and i n f i n i t e na tu ra l resources s t i l l p e r s i s t s . This i s a l s o ev ident i n urban a reas , where the popu l a t i on , although complete ly dependent upon resource management f o r i t s q u a l i t y of l i f e , i s not f a m i l i a r w i th the importance of na tu ra l resource management f o r urban 7 s u r v i v a l . Demands upon the na tu ra l environment i n B r i t i s h Columbia are i n c r ea s i n g as popu la t ion increases and.as urban re s i den t s move i n t o w i ldernes s reg ions f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes. In a d d i t i o n , the extens ion of logg ing operat ions and the pressure upon the t imber resource has l ed to c o n f l i c t s between t imber i n t e r e s t s and f i s h e r y i n t e r e s t s i n c e r t a i n 8 areas of the P r o v i n ce . In recent years the importance o f r e s o l v i n g these nascent resource c o n f l i c t s has become ev ident from the d e l i b e r a t i o n s of the Standing Committee of the L e g i s l a t u r e on F i s h e r i e s and Fo res t ry and from the es tab l i shment of an Environment and Land Use Committee. News - 3 -a r t i c l e s have appeared on many occas ions r e p o r t i n g damage by logg ing a c t i v i t i e s to some salmon spawning streams on Vancouver I s land and i n 9 the coa s ta l f o r e s t area o f the Main land. Environmental groups such as the Steelhead S o c i e t y , the S i e r r a Club and the Soc ie ty f o r P o l l u t i o n and Environmental Contro l c o n t i n u a l l y warn the p u B l i c , the Government and the f o r e s t i ndu s t r y o f the danger of u n r e s t r i c t e d "wood f i b r e p roduc t i on " and maximizat ion of economic gain from t imber resources a t the expense o f o ther resources such as r e c r e a t i o n , f i s h i n g and w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t . This study examines i n d e t a i l one resource c o n f l i c t i n B r i t i s h Columbia, that between t imber ha rves t i ng and salmon p roduc t i on . This example i s chosen to i l l u s t r a t e the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i f f e r e n t components of the f o r e s t ecosystem and to emphasize the d e l i c a t e balance e a s i l y d i s r up ted by i n s e n s i t i v e s i n g l e resource e x p l o i t a t i o n . The chain r e a c t i on o f e f f e c t s throughout the ecosystem from major t e chno l o g i c a l developments i s now being perce ived by e c o l o g i s t s and po l i cy -makers i n 10 B r i t i s h Columbia. The paper cons iders one s i n g l e resource agency, the B r i t i s h Columbia Fores t S e r v i c e . An examination i s made o f t h i s agency ' s attempts to re so l ve i n t e r - r e s o u r c e c o n f l i c t s through environmental p lann ing . Through a d m i n i s t r a t i v e pressures upon f o r e s t products companies dependent upon p u b l i c t imber , the Fores t Se rv i ce has attempted t o r e s t r i c t d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s of t imber ha r ve s t i ng on f i s h e r y resources . The study cons iders l e ga l aspects o f t h i s s i n g l e resource management system, focus ing upon enforcement a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r p u b l i c l and resource deve lopers . The p u b l i c nature of 95% of the f o r e s t land i n B r i t i s h Columbia means that p r i v a t e land ownership i s not a se r ious ob s t ac l e to the - 4 -i n t r o d u c t i o n of an ecosystems approach in the ma jo r i t y of the f o r e s t areas in the P rov i nce . However, there are va luab le t imber resources l oca ted on p r i v a t e l ands , p r i m a r i l y on Vancouver I s l and and i n the 11 Lower Mainland a rea . At the present t ime , there i s no con t ro l o f na tu ra l resource management i n these areas. An ecosystems approach to land use management cannot be cons t ra ined by p o l i t i c a l and l e g a l boundar ies. The paper d i scus ses cu r ren t s t a t u t o r y and common law a l t e r n a t i v e s by which the Forest Se rv i ce might extend i t s environmental management system to superv i se t imber ha rves t ing operat ions on p r i v a t e lands i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Fo l lowing t h i s examination of a s i n g l e resource agency approach to environmental management, the study concludes that such an approach i s incompat ib le w i th ecosystems c r i t e r i a . In a d d i t i o n , l e ga l approaches to n a tu r a l resource r e g u l a t i o n based upon c r i m i n a l p rosecut ions o r c i v i l l i t i g a t i o n , are i n e f f e c t i v e due to t h e i r remedial and post f a c to cha r ac te r . What appears to be requ i red i s a p r e v e n t i v e , comprehensive p lann ing approach, r e s t i n g upon p u b l i c support , s u b s t a n t i a l p o l i t i c a l commitment and general i ndu s t r y coopera t i on . Integrated resource management i s a term de s c r i b i n g a t o t a l systems approach to w i l d l a n d resource management. This system, based upon eco-l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , would be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l e g i s l a t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s which complement b i o g e o c l i m a t i c and e c o l o g i c a l parameters, r a t he r than regard ing na tu ra l systems as ma te r i a l to be moulded and e x p l o i t e d . I t i s c l e a r t ha t the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f an ecosystems approach in B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l r equ i re a s u b s t a n t i a l real ignment of p o l i t i c a l , l e ga l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s . This study concludes tha t an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y "committee" approach - 5 -seems most appropr ia te f o r i n t e g r a t e d resource management. Yet i t i s emphasized tha t widespread p u b l i c support and c l e a r p o l i t i c a l commitment are requ i red to prov ide the funds and s t a f f i n g necessary f o r the success o f such an i n teg ra ted system. Without p u b l i c support and s u b s t a n t i a l f und ing , cu r ren t attempts at in terdepar tmenta l cooperat ion and o f f i c i a l p o l i t i c a l a c t i on such as the es tab l i shment of a Department of the Environment w i l l do l i t t l e to r e so l ve i n c r ea s i n g c o n f l i c t s between w i l d l a n d resource users i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Unresolved c o n f l i c t s w i l l r e s u l t i n ser ious p o l i t i c a l d i v i s i o n s i n the P rov ince . T h i s , i n t u r n , may l ead to c o n f r o n t a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s and unproduct i ve , i r r a t i o n a l o s c i l l a t i o n between extremes of complex, expensive and i m p r a c t i c a l p lann ing s t r u c t u r e s on the one hand, and un r e s t r a i ned , p r o f i t - o r i e n t e d , s i n g l e resource maximizat ion on the o the r . The components of the ecosystem gain t h e i r cha rac te r as na tu ra l 12 resources on ly when subjected to s o c i e t a l demands. Unless a law of the jung le approach, p i t t i n g the most powerful economic fo rces i n s o c i e t y aga in s t l e s s powerful fo rces i s p r e f e r r e d , i t would appear that resource management should have as i t s goal the maximizat ion o f o v e r a l l p u b l i c b e n e f i t . In an era when such noneconomic values as r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , p re se r va t i on of w i lde rnes s areas and the maintenance of a high degree of environmental q u a l i t y are regarded as important p u b l i c b e n e f i t s , they must be cons idered along w i th t r a d i t i o n a l economic returns in a management system. Such en l i gh tened c o s t / b e n e f i t a na l y s i s i s d i f f i c u l t under present eva l ua t i on systems which depend p r i m a r i l y upon market demands i n monetary f i g u r e s f o r t h e i r ope ra t i on . One of the most important aspects of t h i s i n t eg r a ted management system i s the r e c o g n i t i o n of the importance of - 6 -noneconomic values and the development of an e va l ua t i on system tha t weighs them r a t i o n a l l y aga in s t more t r a d i t i o n a l monetary r e t u r n s . What seems to be requ i red i s the es tab l i shment o f management p r i o r i t i e s based upon not only p r e v a i l i n g s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s but a l s o en l i gh tened under-s tanding of ecosystem impera t i ve s . CHAPTER I NOTES 1. See i n f r a , p. 9 . 2. Ch r i s t i a nna S. Crook, Environment and Land Use P o l i c i e s and P r a c t i c e s of the Prov ince of B r i t i s h Columbia ( V i c t o r i a : B r i t i s h Columbia I n s t i t u t e f o r Economic P o l i c y Ana l y s i s ) x i x , See d i s cu s s i on i n f r a , Chapter 5. 3. There may be arguments, based upon the complex nature of resource management, i n favour o f the present s i n g l e resource approach. 4. Mining and f o r e s t i n t e r e s t s are p i t t e d aga ins t recreationists in many areas of the United S t a te s . In B r i t i s h Columbia, the West Kootenay reg ion has become the scene of d i sputes between the f o r e s t i ndu s t r y and l o c a l r e s i den t s w i sh ing to p ro tec t outdoor r e c r e a t i o n values as we l l as water q u a l i t y . See Chambers, A.R. Puree!! Range Study: Integrated Resource Management f o r B r i t i s h Columbia ' s P u r c e l ! Mountains ( V i c t o r i a : Environment and Land Use Committee, 1974). 5. B r i t i s h Columbia Environment and Land Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t . Annual Report 1974, p. 9. 6. L.K. C a l d w e l l , "The Ecosystem as a C r i t e r i o n f o r P u b l i c Land P o l i c y " (1970), 10 Natura l Resources Journa l 203. 7. These themes are d i scussed i n John Wa l te r s , "The Great Forest R i p -o f f - b y the P u b l i c " (Vancouver Sun, November 6, 1973) p. 6 and " S ta rve Forests and We Starve Ourse lves " (Vancouver Sun, J u l y 24, 1975) p. 6. 8. See supra , n. 4. 9. "Ca re le s s Logging Br ings P r o t e s t " Vancouver P r o v i n ce , September 28, 1971, p. 31, "Sometimes a Club Should be Used" Vancouver P rov i nce , September 28, 197!, p. 6. 10. W i l l i a m Young, "The F o l i o System" A P re senta t i on to the B.C. Federat ion of Mountain Clubs A p r i l 8, 1976. 11. See i n f r a , p. 9 12. This theme i s developed i n D.A. Smith, Conceptual Bases, P h i l o s o p h i c a l  Foundations and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Procedures f o r M u l t i p l e Use Management  of Natura l Resources. M.F. Thes i s . Facu l t y of Fo re s t r y . U.B.C. 1969. - 7 -CHAPTER II ONE CONFLICT BETWEEN RESOURCE USERS: TIMBER VS. FISH This chapter examines the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between two groups of resource users in B r i t i s h Columbia - one concerned wi th wood f i b r e product ion and the other w i th f i s h p r o t e c t i o n . The d e l i c a t e e c o l o g i c a l balance i n the f o r e s t spawning streams of Vancouver I s land and coas ta l f o r e s t areas of the mainland can be e a s i l y d i s r up ted by i n s e n s i t i v e logg ing p r a c t i c e s . A l l t imber land resources are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d i n the f o r e s t ecosystem and each may s u f f e r from unres t ra ined and unplanned development of other resources. A. THE TIMBER RESOURCE 1 B r i t i s h Columbia f o r e s t s cover..approximately 58% of the Prov ince and conta in many resources e s s e n t i a l to s o c i a l and economic w e l l - b e i n g , i n c l u d i n g t imber , f i s h and w i l d l i f e , c lean a i r and water and outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The most important resource i n terms o f orthodox market value here to fo re has been t imber , p r i m a r i l y the softwoods which dominate p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t s . B r i t i s h Columbia conta ins about one 2 h a l f the e n t i r e Canadian and 7.5% of the w o r l d ' s softwood re se r ve s ,w i th 3 approximately 43% of t h i s t imber l o ca ted i n the Coastal Region, that area of the Prov ince l y i n g west of the Coast Range. These prime coa s ta l t imber l ands , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by steep mountainous t e r r a i n and numerous r i v e r v a l l e y s , conta in 40% hemlock, 25% cedar , 15% balsam f i r and l e s s than 4 10% douglas f i r . As t h i s vast f o r e s t area dominates the l a nd , so the f o r e s t products - 8 -- 9 -i ndus t r y powers the p r o v i n c i a l economy, i n 1971 employing 39.5% of the 5 manufactur ing labour f o rce and paying wages i n excess of $630 m i l l i o n . The economic s u r v i v a l o f e n t i r e communities depends upon t h i s great i ndu s t r y . From i t s beginnings i n 1861 w i th a lumber product ion o f 288,650 bd. f t . , the f o r e s t products i ndus t r y has expanded to a 1971 product ion o f 9 b i l l i o n bd. f t . 7 a n d has e leva ted B r i t i s h Columbia to the s ta tus of a major wor ld s u p p l i e r o f f o r e s t products . One of the major a c t i v i t i e s upon which t h i s economic colossus re s t s i s t imber ha r ve s t i n g . The ha rves t i ng technique gene ra l l y employed i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s " c l e a r c u t t i n g " which requ i re s the removal o f a l l merchantable, i . e . s a l e a b l e , t imber from a logg ing s i t e . In a d d i t i o n unmerchantable dead t rees are f e l l e d . B. THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF LOGGING OPERATIONS Care less logg ing operat ions may cause p a r t i c u l a r l y se r ious harm to the coa s ta l f o r e s t stream environment which i n i t s na tu ra l s t a t e prov ides a spawning and nursery h a b i t a t f o r n a t i v e salmon, t r o u t and char . Small streams, some being seasonal f lows o n l y , which appear to be extremely important f o r these s p e c i e s , are e s p e c i a l l y s u s c e p t i b l e to ser ious damage as a r e s u l t of c a re l e s s t imber ha rve s t i ng i n the surrounding g watershed. The pr imary negat ive phy s i ca l environmental impacts of c a re l e s s t imber ha r ve s t i ng are inc reased water y i e l d w i th h igher peak f lows in these small wa te r cou r se s 1 0 and decreased water q u a l i t y , caused mainly by sedimentat ion due to the eros ion a s soc i a ted w i th logg ing road c o n s t r u c t i o n , c u t t i n g on h i gh l y s e n s i t i v e s i t e s and poor s k i d t r a i l l o c a t i o n . 1 1 Other adverse e f f e c t s i nc lude inc reased water temperatures due to 12 s o l a r r a d i a t i o n f o l l o w i n g the removal o f streambank f o r e s t cover , oxygen - 10 -dep l e t i on r e s u l t i n g from these h igher temperatures o r the b io -chemica l 13 oxygen demand o f decomposing o rgan ic logg ing debr i s and severe stream d i s turbance as a r e s u l t of log jams or the ent ry of o ther l a r ge t imber 14 i n t o the water dur ing f e l l i n g , bucking or y a rd i ng ope ra t i on s . In the op in ion of some a u t h o r i t i e s , much o f t h i s damage can be avoided by the r e t e n t i o n o f p r o t e c t i v e streambank vegetat ion " b u f f e r „15 s t r i p s , but there i s cons ide rab le controversy w i t h i n the f o r e s t 16 i ndu s t r y regard ing t h i s theory . I t seems, however, t ha t under the d i f f i c u l t logg ing cond i t i on s e x i s t i n g in much o f the coa s ta l a r ea , some sed imentat ion , due to road con s t r u c t i on i n such mountainous t e r r a i n and to the heavy annual r a i n f a l l , i n u n a v o i d a b l e . 1 7 C. THE FISH RESOURCE Such major phy s i c a l impacts lead i n turn to s i g n i f i c a n t e c o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s upon the f i s h dependent on c oa s t a l f o r e s t stream h a b i t a t s . E i gh t species of f i s h , i n c l u d i n g f i v e of P a c i f i c salmon, two of t r o u t and one o f char r e l y f o r t h e i r g ene r a l l y s i m i l a r l i f e requirements upon c e r t a i n 1 o unique f o r e s t stream c o n d i t i o n s . A l l of these f i s h are of i n c r e a s i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l and commercial importance but the salmon catch dominates the commercial and spo r t ocean f i s h e r i e s of the Canadian P a c i f i c c oa s t , i n 1968 t o t a l l i n g over 176 m i l l i o n l b s . w i th a value o f approx imately 19 $44 m i l l i o n . For succes s fu l reproduct ion the salmon requ i re s c lean gravel and high q u a l i t y cool upstream water conta ined i n innumerable f o r e s t watercourses a long the e n t i r e northwest P a c i f i c coast . There e x i s t s , t h e r e f o r e , a d e l i c a t e balance between the nature and q u a l i t y o f the coa s ta l watersheds and hea l thy P a c i f i c salmon popu l a t i on s . - 11 -This i n t e g r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i s r e f l e c t e d , f o r example, i n the v i t a l r o l e played by streamside cover i n p rov i d i ng shade and thus r e g u l a t i n g cool water temperatures e s s e n t i a l f o r salmon s u r v i v a l . In na tu re , w i thout man's i n f l u e n c e , the average s u r v i v a l of the coho salmon i n unlogged 20 streams i s on ly about 30% from egg depo s i t i on to emergence o f the f r y . This low s u r v i v a l i s adequate to seed to c apac i t y small t r i b u t a r i e s l ead ing to p r i n c i p a l r i v e r s . De le te r i ou s e f f e c t s of logg ing operat ions such as se r ious sed imentat ion or the depos i t o f logg ing debr i s i n streams may cause a sharp decrease i n salmon s u r v i v a l by damaging f i s h eggs or f r y . I nhosp i tab le cond i t i on s may be d i r e c t l y caused by impacts upon the stream environment a s soc i a ted w i th c a r e l e s s t imber ha rves t i ng ope ra t i on s . The h igher peak f l o w s , f o r example, i n some watersheds f o l l o w i n g c l e a r -c u t t i n g and s la shburn ing may cause abnormal gravel s h i f t i n g and scour ing 21 o f i ncuba t i ng f i s h embryos. Extreme high f lows a l s o a c c e l e r a t e bank e ros ion r e s u l t i n g i n increased sedimentat ion and stream widen ing. The l a t t e r e f f e c t causes a lo s s of deep water l i v i n g space important to l a r g e r 22 f i s h . Extens ive logg ing can a l s o decrease minimum f lows to the detr iment 23 of salmon environment. I t should be noted, however, t ha t inc reased minimum flows sometimes r e s u l t i n g from extens i ve c l e a r c u t t i n g may i n f a c t be b e n e f i c i a l to these spec ie s . Sedimentat ion appears to c o n s t i t u t e the major impact of logg ing operat ions and f o r severa l reasons represents a se r ious t h r ea t to f i s h s u r v i v a l . F i r s t , i n suspens ion, sediment may b lock l i g h t t ransmi s s i on reducing algae product ion and a f f e c t i n g food gather ing by s i g h t - f e e d i n g 24 salmon. Second, s i l t a t i o n can be heavy enough to k i l l f i s h d i r e c t l y by 25 damaging t h e i r g i l l s * and t h i r d , once s e t t l e d upon spawning beds i t can c l og gravel i n t e r s t i c e s , reducing both d i s s o l v ed oxygen supply to and - 12 -26 removal of waste products from developing embryo f i s h . Four th , these i no r gan i c p a r t i c l e s may form a b a r r i e r to f r y emergence by b l o c k i n g 27 egress routes from gravel bed to su r face water. The removal of streambank vegetat ion a l s o seems to have severa l det r imenta l e f f e c t s . As noted above, t h i s may lead to r i s i n g water temperatures which i n tu rn r e s u l t i n lower concent ra t ions o f d i s s o l v e d oxygen, cause increased f i s h metabo l i c rates w i th cor respond ing ly h igher 28 maintenance requirements and s t imu l a te pathogenic organism a c t i v i t y . In a d d i t i o n , stream cover d e s t r u c t i o n s e r i o u s l y reduces salmon food 29 p roduc t i on , based l a r g e l y upon t e r r e s t r i a l sources. Phytoplankton growth, f o r example, may be adverse ly a f f e c t e d by reduct ion i n n i t r a t e supply due 30 to the e r a d i c a t i o n of n i t r o g e n - f i x i n g streamside a l d e r s . F i n a l l y , f i s h 31 are depr ived of escape cover , prov ided by streamside vege ta t i on . Logging d e b r i s , ranging i n s i z e from bark and leaves to l a rge l o g s , may hamper f i s h passage, d i s t u r b spawning grave l s t a b i l i t y and cause se r ious reduct ions i n sur face water and i n t r a g r a v e l d i s s o l v e d oxygen l e v e l s . Narver r e p o r t s , f o r example, a 1969 log jam on Haslam Creek, a Vancouver I s l and coho salmon and s tee lhead stream, that complete ly b locked adu l t f i s h from access to about e i gh t mi le s of 32 spawning and nursery a rea . He a l s o r e f e r s to the severe eros ion of spawning grave l and streambanks caused by log jams and stranded logs i n the lower S t e l l a k o R i ve r . In t ha t case, sockeye salmon were d i s p l a ced from eroded spawning gravel to upstream areas f u l l y u t i l i z e d by spawners w i th the po s s i b l e 33 r e s u l t that eggs a l ready in the gravel were d i s t u r b e d . Fine debr i s p a r t i c l e s produce e f f e c t s s i m i l a r to those caused by sedimentat ion and i n a d d i t i o n exe r t a high b iochemical oxygen demand. S i g n i f i c a n t oxygen demand a l s o r e s u l t s from algae growth s t imu l a ted by - 13 -n u t r i e n t r e l ea se from decomposing debr i s and h igher temperatures p a r t i a l l y 34 caused by d e b r i s - r e l a t e d water v e l o c i t y r educ t i o n . Re su l t i n g lower concent rat ions of d i s s o l v ed oxygen have a det r imenta l impact upon embryo, a l e v i n and f r y s u r v i v a l and the growth, food conve r s i on , 35 swimming a b i l i t y and general f i t n e s s of j u v e n i l e and mature f i s h . I t would appear tha t some ame l i o r a t i on o f these harmful impacts cou ld be achieved by mod i f i c a t i on s i n c e r t a i n logg ing p r a c t i c e s . Carefu l and e x p e r t l y - s u p e r v i s e d con s t r uc t i on of logg ing roads, reduct ion o f c l e a r c u t acreage, r e t e n t i o n o f streambank p r o t e c t i v e s t r i p s , e l i m i n a t i o n of wet-weather operat ions and the e xe r c i s e of extreme caut ion i n any 36 a c t i v i t i e s near f o r e s t streams would g r e a t l y reduce harmful e f f e c t s , but a t cons ide rab le cos t to both the f o r e s t products i ndus t r y and the p r o v i n c i a l Government. CHAPTER II NOTES 1. Canada. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Canadian Fo res t ry S t a t i s t i c s 1971 (Ottawa: Information Canada, 1973) a t 5. 2. Locke, " F o r e s t r y Law in B r i t i s h Columbia" in B.C. Annual Law Lectures 1967 (Vancouver: Cont inu ing Legal Educat ion , 1967) a t 2. 3. B r i t i s h Columbia. Department o f I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade and Commerce, Se lec ted Forest Industry S t a t i s t i c s of B r i t i s h Columbia ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1972) 10. 4. B.C. S t a t s , op. c i t . , n. 3 a t 7. 5. I b i d . , at 9. 6. I b i d . , at 8. 7. I b i d . , at 7. 8. Narver , " E f f e c t s of Logging Debris on F i sh P roduc t i on " i n Symposium Fores t Land Uses and Stream Environment ( C o r v a l l i s : Oregon S tate U n i v e r s i t y , 1971) 100. 9. Loc. c i t . 10. I b i d . , a t 101. 11. J e f f r e y , " Fo re s t Harvest ing and Water Management" (1968), 44 The Fores t ry Chron i c le 5. 12. McMynn, "Green B e l t s " or "Leave S t r i p s " to P r o t e c t F i s h : Why? (Mimeoed, 1970) 7. 13. Narver , op. c i t . , n. 8 at 104. 14 I b i d . , at 103. 15. McMynn, o p . c i t . , n. 12 a t 24. 16. Interv iews wi th W.H.van :Heek, Environmental F o re s t e r , MacMi l lan B loedel L t d . , Vancouver January 9, 1974, March 25, 1974. See a l s o A Submission  on the Forest Gu ide l i nes by MacMi l lan B loedel L im i ted to the Se l ec t  Standing Committee on Fo res t ry and F i s h e r i e s . (Vancouver, A p r i l 2, 1973) 12. 17. In terv iew w i th G.A. West, Regional D i r e c t o r , Lower Mainland Region, B.C. F i sh and W i l d l i f e Branch, Burnaby, June 3, 1974. 18. Narver , op. c i t . , n. 8 at 101. j 19. Canada Year Book 1972 (Ottawa: Information Canada, 1972) 681. - 14 -- 15 -20. Campbel l, "Economic and S o c i a l S i g n i f i c a n c e of Upstream Aquat i c Resources on the West Coast" i n Symposium, op. c i t . , n. 8, 11 a t 12. 21. McMynn, op. c i t . , n. 12 at 6. 22. Loc. c i t . 23. P h i l l i p s , " E f f e c t s of Sediment on the Gravel Environment and F i sh P roduct ion " in Symposiurn, op. c i t . , n.8, 64 at 65. 24. Loc. c i t . 25. Loc. c i t . 26. I b i d . , a t 67. 27. McMynn, op. c i t . , n. 12 at 7. 28. I b i d . , a t 12. 29. Loc. c i t . 30. I b i d . , at 14. 31. Narver , op. c i t . , n. 8 a t 103. 32. I b i d . , a t 104. 33. Loc. c i t . 34. I b i d . , a t 107. 35. L an t z , " F i s h Popu lat ion Impacts" i n Symposium, op. c i t . , n. 8, at 246. 36. Pearse, "Na tu ra l Resource P o l i c i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia; An Economist ' s C r i t i q u e " i n Shearer , e d . , E x p l o i t i n g our Economic P o t e n t i a l : P u b l i c  P o l i c y and the B.C. Economy 45 at 52. CHAPTER I I I FOREST SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES A. INTRODUCTION E c o l o g i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e t imber ha rve s t i ng techniques w i l l b e n e f i t a l l f o r e s t resource uses a s soc i a ted w i th a high standard of environmental q u a l i t y but the cost to the f o r e s t i ndu s t r y and to the people o f B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l be s u b s t a n t i a l . Mr. W i l l i a m Young, the A s s i s t a n t Ch ie f Fo re s te r i n charge of the Fores t Se rv i ce Management D i v i s i o n , has r e f e r r e d to these costs dur ing h i s recent p u b l i c d i s cu s s i on s of Forest Se rv i ce environmental management p o l i c i e s J To some e x t e n t , these cos t s can be prov ided f o r i n the c a l c u l a t i o n of stumpage payments by the i ndus t ry f o r Crown t imber c u t t i n g r i g h t s . Payments by i ndus t r y are c a l c u l a t e d on the bas i s of the product s e l l i n g p r i c e minus f o r e s t r y cost s minus a p r o f i t a l lowance. When the s e l l i n g p r i c e o f the end product decreases, however, there i s a reduct ion i n the f o r e s t r y co s t margin and i ndu s t r y costs f o r environmental programmes may exceed government a l lowances. In such cases the excess costs must be born by the i n d u s t r y . The Ch ie f Fo re s te r o f MacMi l lan B loedel L t d . has es t imated t h a t c a p i t a l and ope ra t i ona l costs almost doubled f o l l o w i n g implementation o f 2 recent Forest Se rv i ce Coast Logging Gu i de l i ne s . One reason f o r t h i s inc rease i n cos t i s the a d d i t i o n a l amount o f r oadbu i l d i n g n e c e s s i t a t e d by reduct ion i n the ex tent o f c l e a r c u t areas. In a d d i t i o n , requirements to leave c e r t a i n areas o f f o r e s t l a n d unlogge, i n s e n s i t i v e streambank l o c a t i o n s , f o r example, may mean a reduct ion in operat ions income from 3 a development a rea . I t i s understandable why the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , whose economic - 16 -s u r v i v a l i s dependent upon maximizat ion of the wood f i b r e re source , might be r e l u c t a n t to manage p u b l i c t imber lands upon which they have c u t t i n g r i g h t s f o r a resource mix o p t i m i z i n g s o c i a l and economic bene f i t s f o r a l l members of s o c i e t y . I t might be quest ioned why the f o r e s t i ndu s t r y must bear the costs of programmes t ha t b e n e f i t o ther groups. This i s not to deny the f a c t that major f o r e s t products companies, such as MacMi l lan B l o e d e l , have i n recent years int roduced comprehensive management programmes designed to op t im ize r e c r e a t i o n a l and f i s h e r i e s resources as we l l as wood f i b r e p roduct ion . In recent yea r s , the B r i t i s h Columbia Fores t S e r v i c e , as manager of the Crown f o r e s t s , has int roduced severa l environmental management requirements i n t o i t s agreements w i th f o r e s t companies app ly ing f o r c u t t i n g r i g h t s on Crown t imber lands . This p o l i c y of environmental management i s g ene ra l l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , r a the r than l e g i s l a t i v e i n cha rac te r . This r e s u l t s from the Fores t Se rv i ce con t r o l o f the resource. The present chapter descr ibes the Forest Se rv i ce i t s e l f and the major forms of f o r e s t tenure i n the Prov ince as a background to a d i s cu s s i on of the environmental p r o v i s i o n s conta ined i n Se rv i ce con t r ac t s w i t h f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s . As i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , the present d i s cu s s i on focuses upon means by which the Forest Se rv i ce attempts to minimize harmful e f f e c t s o f logg ing operat ions upon the f o r e s t stream salmon spawning environment. I t should be noted that f ede ra l F i s h e r i e s Department o f f i c i a l s and i n c e r t a i n areas of B r i t i s h Columbia, the p r o v i n c i a l F i sh and W i l d l i f e Branch r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , are p r i m a r i l y r e spons i b l e f o r p r o t e c t i o n o f the f i s h e r y resource. The f ede r a l F i s h e r i e s Act conta ins s u b s t a n t i a l pena l t i e s a p p l i c a b l e to i n d u s t r i e s conv i c ted o f depo s i t i n g harmful - 18 -substances i n waters f requented by f i s h . 4 The present s tudy , however, deals s o l e l y w i th Forest Se rv i ce s t r a t e g i e s to minimize harmful e f f e c t s on f i s h through r e g u l a t i o n of the f o r e s t i ndu s t r y . B. THE BRITISH COLUMBIA FOREST SERVICE In order to d i scuss environmental management techniques employed by the Forest S e r v i c e , i t i s u se fu l to understand t h e i r l e ga l and admin i s -t r a t i v e contex t . The Forest S e r v i c e , w i th 2,906 ' employees a t the present t ime , i s d i v i ded i n t o f i v e D i v i s i o n s ; Management, P r o t e c t i o n , Graz ing , Eng ineer ing and Research. This study i s concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h the Management D i v i s i o n , which deals w i t h r e g u l a t i o n of Crown t imber c u t t i n g r i g h t s . For a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes, the Prov ince has been d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e Fores t D i s t r i c t s : Vancouver, P r i n ce Rupert , P r i nce George, Kamloops, Nelson and Cariboo - each under the a u t h o r i t y o f a D i s t r i c t Fo re s te r . Genera l l y speak ing, there has been cons ide rab le concern w i t h i n the S e r v i c e , s i nce i t s c r e a t i o n in 1912 and p a r t i c u l a r l y f o l l o w i n g the 1945 repor t of the Sloan Royal Commission on Forest Resources, regard ing conservat ion of t imber resources and development o f management p o l i c i e s 5 ensur ing a perpetua l y i e l d from these renewable resources . The perpetuat ion of hea l thy f o r e s t cover c l e a r l y does b e n e f i t a l l f o r e s t re sources , but p o l i c i e s designed to ensure e f f e c t i v e f o r e s t f i r e f i g h t i n g s t r a t e g i e s , r e f o r e s t a t i o n p o l i c i e s and sus ta ined y i e l d management appear to be mot ivated p r i m a r i l y by the de s i r e to achieve maximum t imber product ion o f the P r o v i n ce ' s f o r e s t l and s r a the r than to manage a l l f o r e s t resources - 19 -i n c l u d i n g f i s h and w i l d l i f e , to product optimum p u b l i c b e n e f i t s . The succes s fu l attempts to implement new conservat ion p o l i c i e s i n p lace of the " t imber m in ing " ph i losophy of e a r l y t imber companies r e f l e c t the s u b s t a n t i a l i n f l uence over the p r i v a t e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y the l a rge f o r e s t products companies, possessed by the Forest S e r v i c e . Timber mining i s the term used to desc r ibe e a r l y logg ing p r a c t i c e s which removed the most va luab le t imber from the f o r e s t w i thout devot ing some e f f o r t to r e f o r e s t a t i o n and conservat ion o f g f o r e s t resources . Some a u t h o r i t i e s s t i l l ma inta in that due to the f a i l u r e of the Forest Se rv i ce to keep r e f o r e s t a t i o n abreast of logg ing a c t i v i t i e s on Crown l ands , the renewable cha rac te r of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r e s t resources i s being s t r a i n e d . 7 John Wa l te r s , the Fo re s te r - i n -Charge of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia exper imental f o r e s t , mainta ins tha t due to lack of s u f f i c i e n t government f i n a n c i a l investment, B r i t i s h Columbia f o r e s t s are s t i l l being "mined" . The bas i s of the Forest Se rv i ce con t r o l over environmental management i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r e s t s i s the p u b l i c ownership of 95% of B r i t i s h 9 Columbia ' s f o r e s t a rea. The ma jo r i t y of t imber ha rves t i ng operat ions are conducted on Crown lands pursuant to var ious l e a s e s , l i c e n c e s and c u t t i n g r i g h t s he ld by p r i v a t e companies and i n d i v i d u a l s . ^ T h e r e do e x i s t some p r i v a t e tenures , compris ing approximately 5% o f the P r o v i n c e ' s f o r e s t l ands , g ene ra l l y l o ca ted in the prime t imber areas of the Lower Mainland and Vancouver I s l and . The importance o f these p r i v a t e t imber resources i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the f a c t t ha t although these areas c o n s t i t u t e only 16% of the coa s t a l f o r e s t r e g i o n , t h e i r products accounted f o r 50% of the Coast t imber harvest i n 1 972 . 1 1 Much o f the Fores t S e r v i c e ' s broad power over p r i v a t e f o r e s t - 20 -i ndu s t r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s conta ined w i t h i n the p rov i s i on s o f the var ious agreements f o r c u t t i n g r i g h t s on Crown lands. As mentioned above, the S e r v i c e ' s power i s mainly a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r a t he r than a r e s u l t o f s p e c i f i c l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s . The B r i t i s h Columbia Forest A c t , however, does convey sweeping j u r i s d i c t i o n over a l l matters connected 12 w i th f o r e s t r y to the S e r v i c e . I t w i l l be argued below that the broad p rov i s i on s of the Forest Act may very w e l l j u s t i f y Forest Se rv i ce con t r o l over environmental management techniques i n a d d i t i o n to s t r i c t t imber p roduc t i on . In f a c t , the Fores t S e r v i ce u t i l i z e s i t s s t rong p o s i t i o n as r e gu l a t o r of Crown lands to i n s e r t environmental management requirements as p rov i s i on s i n l i c e n c e s and c u t t i n g r i g h t s agreements w i th p r i v a t e i ndu s t r y . The Tree Farm L icence (T .F .L . ) and the P u b l i c Susta ined Y i e l d Un i t (P.S.Y.U.) are the two major management un i t s by which the Se rv i ce exe rc i se s i t s a u t h o r i t y . The T . F . L . , as desc r ibed i n the Forest A c t , Sect ion 36, t r a n s f e r s most management and p r o t e c t i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r c e r t a i n Crown f o r e s t areas to p r i v a t e companies. In r e tu rn f o r the r i g h t to harvest the t imber on these l ands , the companies manage the areas a long w i t h t h e i r o ther p r i va te l y -owned ho ld ings upon a " su s ta ined y i e l d " bas i s ( tha t i s , a renewable resource ba s i s ) s ub jec t to Forest Se rv i ce s upe r v i s i on and pay a "stumpage" f o r Crown t imber harvested. The amount of money pa id to the Crown as stumpage i s c a l -cu l a ted by means o f a formula t a k i n g i n t o c on s i de r a t i on the market value of the f o r e s t products minus c e r t a i n al lowances f o r i ndu s t r y f o r e s t costs and a p r o f i t a l lowance. The term of the Tree Farm L icence i s 21 years and although the l i c e n c e i s renewable i t i s s ub jec t to r e n e g o t i a t i o n . By the end of 1970, there were 34 of these l i c e n c e a reas , cover ing a - 21 -t o t a l p roduct i ve f o r e s t of 10.2 m i l l i o n a c r e s ! 0 The P u b l i c Susta ined Y i e l d Un i t i s an area of Crown t imber land u sua l l y de f ined by natu ra l topographic fea tu res such as mountain ranges 14 or r i v e r s . Wi th in t h i s a r ea , the Forest Se rv i ce s e l l s t imber upon a sus ta ined y i e l d bas i s to p r i v a t e companies or i n d i v i d u a l s by means of r e l a t i v e l y sho r t - te rm c o n t r a c t s , the most common o f which are Timber Sale Harvest ing L icences (T.S.H.L.) w i th a term of ten yea r s . The l i cen sees undertake to pay stumpage on t imber harves ted, to log w i t h i n the terms of an agreed development p l a n , to r e f o r e s t logged-over areas 15 and to ca r r y out f o r e s t p r o t e c t i o n measures. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that a lthough the Forest A c t , Sect ion 17 ( l a ) , does r e f e r to the P .S .Y .U. ' s , much o f the r e g u l a t i o n i n these areas i s based upon con t r ac tua l p r o v i s i o n s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s c r e t i o n . For example, there i s now no p u b l i c auct ion f o r P.S.Y.U. t imber as prov ided f o r i n Sec t ion 17 (1) o f the Ac t . In f a c t , the amount of t imber to be cut each year i n accordance w i th the Serv i ce renewable resource management p o l i c i e s ( the "annual a l l owab le c u t " ) i s d i s t r i b u t e d by the Serv i ce as a p r o - r a t i o ned quota f o r each o f 16 the major f o r e s t companies opera t ing w i t h i n the Un i t . Because the f o r e s t i ndu s t r y c o n s t i t u t e s the major source of p r o v i n c i a l Government income, the Serv i ce n a t u r a l l y exe r t s con s ide rab le power w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l Government 1. 7 The Serv i ce i s gene ra l l y regarded as the most powerful agency in the Government and f o r many years perce ived i t s major goal as a m in im i za t i on of f i n a n c i a l returns from the P r o v i n c e ' s 1 g t imber resources. In a d d i t i o n , many years of personal and p r o f e s s i ona l contact between government and i n d u s t r i a l f o r e s t e r s as w e l l as personnel exchanges w i th the i ndus t r y tended to develop a st rong s i n g l e resource 19 o r i e n t a t i o n . Representat ives of o ther resource agencies such as the Parks - 22 -Branch and the F i sh and W i l d l i f e Branch have i n d i c a t e d to the w r i t e r that Forest Se rv i ce p o l i c i e s gene ra l l y dominated in terdepar tmenta l i 20 p roposa l s . This domination r e s u l t e d from the s e n i o r i t y and exper ience of Forest Se rv i ce o f f i c i a l s and a l s o from the concern of p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n -21 makers f o r maximizat ion o f t imber resource income. During the great f o r e s t i n d u s t r i a l expansion of the 1950 1s and 1960 ' s , dur ing which Government i n cen t i v e s l ed to the con s t r uc t i on o f many new sawmi l l s and pulp and paper m i l l s , communications between w i l d l a n d resource manage-ment departments d e t e r i o r a t e d con s i de rab l y . The Deputy M i n i s t e r of the Fores t S e r v i c e , Mr. John S tokes , i n d i c a t e d to the w r i t e r t ha t dur ing t h i s per iod i n d u s t r i a l expansion was the h ighest p r i o r i t y and ob jec t i on s r a i s e d by F i sh and W i l d l i f e and Parks r ep re sen ta t i ve s may have been subord inated 22 to these development p o l i c i e s . In recent y e a r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y dur ing the changing p o l i t i c a l c l ima te of the N.D.P. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , new p o l i t i c a l p r i o r i t i e s were recogn ized and Fores t Se rv i ce communications and cooperat ion w i t h other resource departments appear to have improved con s i de rab l y . The Forest Se rv i ce has always been the s t rongest resource management o r gan i za t i on in the Government but i t has been plagued w i th problems of u n d e r s t a f f i n g . The cu r ren t A s s i s t a n t Ch ie f Fo re s te r has i n d i c a t e d tha t the Serv i ce i s g ro s s l y underequipped i n terms of manpower to cope e f f e c t i v e l y w i th i t s g reat a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s or to in t roduce comprehensive 23 environmental management p o l i c i e s throughout the P rov ince . Unde r s t a f f i n g has r e s u l t e d i n reduced s upe r v i s i on o f logg ing operat ions in some cases and a r e a l l o c a t i o n of p r i o r i t i e s away from comprehensive environmental management approaches. - 23 -I t appears that t h i s l ack of p o l i t i c a l commitment to s u b s t a n t i a l investment i n f o r e s t resource management r e s u l t s from f a i l u r e by the pub l i c ' to understand the importance of en l i gh tened resource management 24 to the economy of B r i t i s h Columbia. Without s t rong p u b l i c concern f o r comprehensive environmental management and cooperat ion by the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , from execut i ve dec i s i o n maker to o n - s i t e employees, c o n t r a -vent ions of environmental management requirements are bound to occur . Operations on p r i v a t e lands and even on p u b l i c lands w i thout some super-v i s i o n w i l l i n vo l ve damage to o ther f o r e s t resources i n c l u d i n g the f o r e s t salmon spawning stream environment. C. FOREST SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT POLICIES This s e c t i on analyzes the s t r a t e g i e s u t i l i z e d by the Forest Se rv i ce i n i t s attempts to re so l ve c o n f l i c t s between var ious f o r e s t resources i n B r i t i s h Columbia. As a s i n g l e resource agency, i t s man-date i s s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d to t imber p roduct ion r e g u l a t i o n , but i n response to changing resource p r i o r i t i e s and r i s i n g p u b l i c concern f o r non-t imber f o r e s t re sources , the Se rv i ce has attempted to in t roduce comprehensive environmental management p o l i c i e s i n t o the f o r e s t i ndu s t r y . Some major reasons f o r assumption by the Se rv i ce of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r such e n v i r o n -mental management are i t s s e n i o r i t y and power i n the Government o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t s o n - s i t e management s t a f f throughout the Prov ince and i t s vas t admin i s -25 t r a t i v e power over p r i v a t e i ndu s t r y . These f a c t o r s should c o n s t i t u t e powerful reasons f o r s ucce s s fu l i n t e g r a t e d environmental management by the Forest S e r v i c e . This t h e s i s , however, holds that due to the s i n g l e resource - 24 -o r i e n t a t i o n o f the Forest Act and the Fores t S e r v i c e , such management s t r a t e g i e s cannot be t o t a l l y e f f e c t i v e in i n t r oduc i ng an ecosystems approach to w i l d l a n d management in B r i t i s h Columbia. For one t h i n g , w i l d l a n d resources share the same ecosystem as urban areas. Government agencies w i th r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r highways, water r i g h t s , p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l and Crown land management must p a r t i c i p a t e i n any comprehensive e c o l o g i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e land management o r gan i z a t i on i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t i s i n s t r u c t i v e , however, to examine in d e t a i l Forest Se rv i ce environmental management p o l i c i e s , f o r the f a i l u r e to extend s upe r v i s i on to p r i va te l y -owned t imber lands i s an impediment to comprehensive manage-ment which w i l l a l s o impede the broader "committee" approach mentioned above. This s e c t i on analyzes the l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y f o r Se rv i ce con t r o l o f Crown t imber lands and argues that such a u t h o r i t y should extend to p r i v a t e t imber lands a l s o . The concept of advance p lann ing i s e s s e n t i a l f o r any environmental management scheme. Forest Se rv i ce techniques i n c l u d i n g gu i de l i ne s and development programmes and con t rac t s are d i scus sed i n some d e t a i l below. As has been the approach in e a r l i e r chap te r s , t h i s s ec t i on focuses upon Forest Se rv i ce attempts to minimize harmful e f f e c t s o f l ogg ing a c t i v i t i e s upon f i s h e r i e s resources . This i s an example o f a s i n g l e resource agency approach to r e s o l u t i o n o f f o r e s t resource c o n f l i c t s through comprehensive environmental management. 1. AUTHORITY Many t imber conservat ion measures are regu la ted by the Fores t A c t , the enab l ing l e g i s l a t i o n t ha t conveys to the Fores t Se rv i ce broad j u r i s d i c t i o n over B r i t i s h Columbia f o r e s t management. Sect ion 5 o f - 25 -the Act prov ides t h a t : "The Fores t Se rv i ce has j u r i s d i c t i o n over and s h a l l c on t r o l and admin i s te r a l l matters r e l a t i n g to o r i n anywise con-nected w i th f o r e s t r y " The Act has been c r i t i c i z e d by such a u t h o r i t i e s as P ro fe s so r Pete r Pearse and P ro fe s so r Timothy B a l l a r d f o r i t s s t r i c t l y t imber product ion o r i e n t a t i o n and lack of p r o v i s i o n f o r o ther f o r e s t resource development 2 6 or general environmental p r o t e c t i o n . I t might be argued, however, that the sweeping powers bestowed upon the Serv ice over " a l l matters r e l a t i n g to f o r e s t r y " cou ld be i n t e r p r e t e d to conta in ample a u t h o r i t y to i n i t i a t e environmental management procedures such as requirements f o r environmental impact s tud ie s p r i o r to t imber ha r ve s t i n g operat ions or to i n t roduce p o l i c i e s reduc ing c o n f l i c t s between t imber and other f o r e s t resources. For example, Sect ion 5 goes on to g ive to the Se rv i ce s p e c i f i c a u t h o r i t y over " conse rva t ion of f o r e s t s " and a u t h o r i t y to promulgate r u l e s and r egu l a t i on s r e l a t i n g to the r e gu l a t i on of f o r e s t r y and the p r o t e c t i o n of f o r e s t s . The Fores t Act i s concerned p r i m a r i l y w i th the management of t imber resources on Crown lands. For c e r t a i n purposes a s soc i a ted w i th lumber manufactur ing s tandards , such as t imbe r - s ca l e t imber-marking and f o r e s t f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , the Forest Act does c l e a r l y apply to p r i v a t e l y -27 owned l and . Genera l l y speaking the Forest Se rv i ce has not regarded the Act as con ta i n i n g a u t h o r i t y f o r Se rv i ce s upe rv i s i on of t imber ha rves t i ng p r a c t i c e s on p r i va te l y -owned lands apart from the Tree Farm L icence areas (a) TIMBER HARVESTING ON CROWN LANDS The broad d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers in Sect ion 5 of the Forest Act are expanded g r e a t l y through Se rv i ce con t r o l over l i c e n s i n g of Crown - 26 -t imber r i g h t s . The Forest S e r v i c e , w i th t h i s power, can i n s e r t 29 environmental gu i de l i ne s i n t o these c o n t r a c t s . The f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y the sma l l e r ope ra to r s , have l i t t l e l eve rage , due to t h e i r dependence upon the Crown t imber , to nego t i a te such environmental p r o v i s i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , gene ra l l y speak ing, i ndu s t r y cooperat ion i s assured due to the t h r ea t of con t rac t te rmina t i on by the Se rv i ce f o r cont ravent ion o f the terms of these environmental p r o v i s i o n s . The s u b s t a n t i a l c a p i t a l investments o f major f o r e s t products companies i n l a r ge modern sawmil l s , and p u l p m i l l s a l s o l ead to a dependence by these o rgan i za t i on s upon Crown t imber . The powerful ba rga in ing p o s i t i o n 30 of the Forest Se rv i ce i s c l e a r . Because of t h i s powerful p o s i t i o n , the Fores t Se rv i ce has been able to regu la te f o r e s t management in B r i t i s h Columbia w i thout the nece s s i t y f o r d e t a i l e d formal l e g i s l a t i v e p rov i s i on s or r e gu l a t i on s wi th respect to streambank p r o t e c t i o n or c on s i de ra t i on o f o ther f o r e s t resources. Forest Se rv i ce admin i s t r a to r s p r e f e r the f l e x i b i l i t y i nherent i n such broad d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers and have not pressed f o r l e g i s l a t i v e amendments, w i th the except ion o f those p rov i s i on s a p p l i c a b l e to super-v i s i o n over Tree Farm L icence areas. The f a c t that the ma jo r i t y o f the Forest Se rv i ce environmental management power i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n nature means that the Se rv i ce has l i t t l e rea l c on t r o l over logg ing p r a c t i c e s on p r i va te l y -owned l a nd , whose owners are not p a r t i e s to cont rac t s w i th the Forest S e r v i c e . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e pressure has proved to be a much more f l e x i b l e and e f f e c t i v e means o f r e g u l a t i n g t imber ha r ve s t i ng upon Crown lands than a r e l i a n c e upon s p e c i f i c l e g i s l a t i v e o r r egu la to ry p r o v i s i o n s . (b) PRIVATELY-OWNED LANDS Because of i t s dependence upon a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s c r e t i o n the Forest Se rv i ce has not possessed the leverage necessary to ensure - 27 -s upe rv i s i on of t imber ha rves t i ng upon p r i v a t e lands. There are no s p e c i f i c l e g i s l a t i v e p rov i s i on s a u t h o r i z i n g such p u b l i c s upe r v i s i on o f p r i v a t e ope ra t i on s . I t cou ld be argued t h a t c l e a r terms must be requ i red to au tho r i ze any i n t e r f e r e n c e w i th p r i v a t e property r i g h t s . I t may be argued, however, t ha t the p rov i s i on s of the Forest Act . cou ld be i n t e r p r e t e d to j u s t i f y a broad Se rv i ce r e g u l a t i o n of p r i v a t e logg ing ope ra t i on s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s o f a r as they a f f e c t environmental q u a l i t y and resource values i n a d j o i n i n g , downstream or downwind Crown t imber areas. The terms o f Sec t ion 5, c i t e d above, appear broad enough 31 to support t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . In t h i s s e c t i o n , the Forest Se rv i ce i s g iven j u r i s d i c t i o n over " a l l matters r e l a t i n g to or i n anywise connected w i t h f o r e s t r y " . S p e c i f i c examples o f such f o r e s t r y management sub jec t s f o l l o w t h i s broad p r o v i s i o n , but do not r e s t r i c t the g e n e r a l i t y of the wide power. Ce r ta i n of the s p e c i f i c management t op i c s l i s t e d i n Sect ion 5, such as r e f o r e s t a t i o n , f o r e s t f i r e p revent ion and f o r e s t p r o t e c t i o n , do i n f a c t extend to p r i v a t e f o r e s t lands. The Forest Se rv i ce does regu la te and superv i se p r i v a t e logg ing operat ions i n s o f a r as f o r e s t f i r e p revent ion and r e f o r e s t a t i o n are concerned. I t i s t rue that c e r t a i n management subject s l i s t e d i n Sec t ion 5 are r e s t r i c t e d to Crown l and s , but t h i s alone cou ld not support a r e s t r i c t i o n of general Forest Se rv i ce j u r i s d i c t i o n to Crown lands i n view o f the wide cha rac te r of the i n t r oduc t o r y words i n the Sec t i on . Furthermore, subsect ion 5 ( c ) , r e f e r r i n g to " con se rva t i on of f o r e s t s " , conta ins no r e s t r i c t i o n whatsoever, and i t cou ld very we l l be i n t e r p r e t e d as r e f e r r i n g to f o r e s t conservat ion on Crown and p r i v a t e lands . S ince " c on se r va t i on " i s not def ined i n the Forest A c t , the Webster ' s New C o l l e g i a t e D i c t i ona r y d e f i n i t i o n appears r e l e v a n t : - 28 -" Ca re fu l p re se r va t i on and p r o t e c t i o n of something; esp: planned management of a na tu ra l resource to prevent e x p l o i t a t i o n , d e s t r u c t i o n , o r n e g l e c t . " I t may be argued, t h e r e f o r e , that t h i s conservat ion j u r i s d i c t i o n may very w e l l support Fores t Se rv i ce r e g u l a t i o n o f p r i v a t e t imbe r -ha r ve s t i n g p r a c t i c e s in order to p r o tec t a l l f o r e s t resource va lues . Sec t ion 5 a l s o prov ides ample a u t h o r i t y f o r i n s p e c t i o n o f p r i v a t e logg ing opera t ions by Fores t Serv ice per sonne l : " . . . i n the e x e r c i s e of any power o r duty i n connect ion t h e r e w i t h , a person employed by the Fores t Se rv i ce may enter i n t o and upon any lands or p r em i s e s . . . " Sec t ion 146 conta ins broad r egu l a to r y powers which prov ide ample a u t h o r i t y 32 f o r r egu l a t i on s governing logg ing p r a c t i c e s upon p r i va te l y -owned lands . In view of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f Se r v i ce a d m i n i s t r a t i v e pressure upon Crown l i c e n s e e s , such r egu l a t i on s have not been cons idered necessary. In o rder to support s upe r v i s i on of p r i v a t e o p e r a t i o n s , however, some such s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t y should be a v a i l a b l e . Subsection 146 (2) (a) r e s t r i c t s supe rv i s i on w i th respect to "methods of l o gg i ng " to Crown l i c e n s e e s , but p o s s i b l y does not modify the general power conta ined in Sect ion 146 (1 ) . 2. ADVANCE PLANNING E f f e c t i v e environmental management requ i re s advanced p l ann i ng , i n c l u d i n g the c o l l e c t i o n o f resource inventory data and the deve lop-ment o f ope ra t i ona l gu i de l i ne s to harvest the t imber resource w i th the l e a s t p o s s i b l e negat ive e f f e c t upon o ther v a l uab l e f o r e s t resources . On Crown l a n d , the Forest Se rv i ce has developed a procedure f o r such p lann ing . Operat iona l requirements are conta ined i n three l e v e l s of g u i d e l i n e s , ranging from f a i r l y general reg iona l con s i de ra t i on s to ac tua l o n - s i t e ope ra t i ona l r e s t r i c t i o n s . I t should be noted that the - 29 -e n t i r e system i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n nature and the re fo re i s a p p l i c a b l e only to operat ions upon Crown land. (a) GUIDELINES The Fores t Se rv i ce i s sues gu i de l i ne s a t the reg iona l and D i s t r i c t l e v e l . Such a p o l i c y i s d i c t a t e d by the problem f a c i n g a l l environmental managers - - " s i t e s p e c i f i c i t y " . This term r e f l e c t s the unique nature o f management cond i t i on s requ i red f o r each s i t e i n view o f the wide d i v e r s i t y of s i t e cond i t i on s in B r i t i s h Columbia. A " g u i d e l i n e " approach ensures the f l e x i b i l i t y e s s e n t i a l f o r e f f e c t i v e environmental p r o t e c t i o n , but from a l e ga l p e r s p e c t i v e , conta ins c e r t a i n d isadvantages. Gu ide l ines do not have the fo rce o f law. They may be app l i ed w i th va ry ing degrees of f o r m a l i t y at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s in the resource agency and at d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s in the P rov ince . Sometimes, i n a d d i t i o n , the regu la ted i n d u s t r i e s a l s o apply gu i de l i ne s r i g i d l y , implementing the l e t t e r r a the r than the s p i r i t . In September, 1972, the Forest Se rv i ce i s sued i t s P lanning Gu ide l i ne s 3 f o r Coast Logging Operations w i th which a l l l i c en see s are expected to comply. These gu i de l i ne s conta in p r ov i s i on s designed to r e s t r i c t the harmful environmental impact o f logg ing operat ions and to promote the " m u l t i p l e use o f f o r e s t a rea s " . " M u l t i p l e use" imp l ie s the p r i o r i t y of t imber product ion and the m i t i g a t i o n o f impact upon other resource uses. This s i n g l e resource o r i e n t a t i o n appears to be r e f l e c t e d i n the Ch ie f F o r e s t e r ' s l e t t e r to l i cen see s which accompanied the Gu i de l i n e s : "We have reached the stage where g rea te r emphasis must be p laced on managing our f o r e s t land i n such a way tha t the g rea te s t bene f i t s a s soc i a ted w i th the f o r e s t w i l l be ach ieved. We must seek a balanced use of f o r e s t land and recognize tha t i n add i t i on to the bas i c c on s i de ra t i on o f the t imber ha r ve s t , we must be f u l l y aware of the o v e r a l l p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the uses made o f t h i s land " 0 / 1 - 30 -In order to achieve these o b j e c t i v e s the Gu ide l i nes conta in severa l requirements d i r e c t e d toward stream p r o t e c t i o n i n d i c a t i n g , f o r example, that " f i s h hab i t a t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e must rece i ve s p e c i a l 35 c o n s i d e r a t i o n " . I t appears, i n f a c t , t ha t the main t h r u s t of the document r e l a t e s to the f o r e s t stream resource although there i s some" 36 mention o f r e c r e a t i o n and w i l d l i f e requirements. As b e f i t s t h e i r reg iona l scope, the p r o v i s i o n s are o f a general c h a r a c t e r , such as that p e r m i t t i n g the logg ing o f mature streambank t imber sub jec t to 37 " s p e c i a l measures" f o r water q u a l i t y p r o t e c t i o n . Companies must a l s o r e s t r i c t t h e i r c l e a r c u t operat ion to 50% o f perenn ia l streambank or lakeshore and must avo id cut openings on d i r e c t l y oppos i te streambanks 38 "un less the maintenance of o ther resource values has been a s su red " . In a d d i t i o n , s e t t i n g boundaries and ya rd i ng plans must co i n c i de w i th watercourses to d i scourage stream damage dur ing f a l l i n g , bucking and 39 ya rd i ng ope ra t i on s . Among other p rov i s i on s are requirements f o r c a r e f u l road l o c a t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n , reduced c l e a r c u t a reas , temporary p r o t e c t i v e streambank f i l t e r s t r i p s and p r o t e c t i o n of immature growth. The Gu ide l ines have aroused cons ide rab le cont rover sy . The f o r e s t i ndus t r y has complained that due to r i g i d , n o n - s i t e - s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n the p r o v i s i on s w i l l l ead to d r a s t i c increases i n ope ra t i ona l and c a p i t a l c o s t s , much o f which must be absorbed by p r i v a t e companies. The e x t r a road mileage nece s s i t a t ed by "patch c l e a r c u t t i n g " w i l l r equ i re wet 40 weather c on s t r u c t i on and may lead to g rea te r environmental damage. Streambank p r o t e c t i o n i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e i s sue w i th the 41 • logg ing companies and w i t h environmental groups. The companies c r i t i c i z e the i n d i s c r i m i n a t e a p p l i c a t i o n of streambank logg ing r e s t r i c t i o n s to a l l streams, which has occurred i n some a rea s , and c l a im tha t such requirements - 31 -not only are economica l l y p r o h i b i t i v e but a l s o r e s u l t i n i nc reased stream d e t e r i o r a t i o n due to windthrow, which f o l l ows f o r e s t cover 42 removal. Trees l o ca ted along streambanks are sub ject to new wind fo rces causing them to f a l l i n t o the streams. The Gu ide l i nes do not au tho r i ze i n d i s c r i m i n a t e a p p l i c a t i o n , but, some f i e l d personnel tend to i n t e r p r e t the p rov i s i on s s t r i c t l y i n some par t s of the P rov ince . Ang l ing groups such as the Steelhead S o c i e t y , c r i t i c i z e the G u i d e l i n e s ' f a i l u r e to r equ i r e streambank p r o t e c t i o n s t r i p s everywhere and advocate t ha t such p r o t e c t i v e 43 measures can be made mandatory through l e g i s l a t i v e amendment. U n i v e r s a l , r i g i d a p p l i c a t i o n o f environmental p r o v i s i on s i s c l e a r l y not f e a s i b l e i n view o f d i ve r se topograph ica l and f o r e s t s i t e requirements. The p r e f e r a b l e approach i s to de l i n ea t e management areas a long general b i o g e o c l i m a t i c parameters such as watersheds, to deve lop, i n the context o f s p e c i f i c resource requi rements, optimum management p lans . Th i s ' c oncep t of comprehensive resource management appears to 44 be gene ra l l y supported by the i ndu s t r y . Un f o r t una te l y , at the present t ime, there are some obs tac le s to the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f such a management system at the ope r a t i ona l l e v e l i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Such problems inc lude a l ack of resource inventory data and problems wi th eva l ua t i on of non-market resources such as r e c r e a t i o n a l areas and f i s h 45 and w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t . The problem of s i t e s p e c i f i c i t y may be a l l e v i a t e d to some extent by the issuance of D i s t r i c t G u i d e l i n e s , based upon l o c a l environmental parameters. The Vancouver Forest D i s t r i c t , f o r example, has i s sued such gu i de l i ne s r e l a t i n g to logg ing " s e n s i t i v e " high e l e v a t i o n s i t e s , where c l e a r c u t t i n g and broadcast s l a shburn ing may cause se r ious s o i l - 32 -damage and e ros ion or where con i fe rous regenerat ion may not be 46 s u c c e s s f u l . These p r o v i s i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t approval w i l l not be granted f o r ha rves t i ng operat ions which are not economical w i th f u l l p r o t e c t i v e measures or which impose s i g n i f i c a n t d e l e t e r i o u s impacts upon f r a g i l e s i t e s . In a d d i t i o n , companies must conduct c a r e f u l p r e - ope ra t i ona l environmental impact s tud ie s i n such areas and must adhere to des ignated,standards w i th regard to t r a c t o r s k i d d i n g , c l e a r -47 cut area extent and s l a s h burn ing. (b) DEVELOPMENT PLANS The gu i de l i ne s are not s u f f i c i e n t l y d e t a i l e d f o r ope ra t i ona l p lann ing . The Fores t Se rv i ce requ i re s the i ndus t ry to prepare "development p l an s " responding to s p e c i f i c s i t e parameters such as w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t , stream l o c a t i o n and e l e v a t i o n . In most areas of B r i t i s h Columbia, l ogg ing companies prepare these plans and forward them to Forest Se rv i ce f o r 48 approva l . Fores t Ranger o n - s i t e i n s pec t i on and recommendations o f the F i sh and W i l d l i f e Branch are u t i l i z e d to a i d the Forest Se rv i ce i n determin ing whether the plans comply w i th the s p i r i t as w e l l as the l e t t e r o f the Gu i de l i ne s . The plans are gene ra l l y i nco rpo ra ted i n t o the t imber l i c e n c e c o n t r a c t s . For example, the standard form u t i l i z e d i n a Timber Sale Harvest ing L icence conta ins the f o l l o w i n g p r o v i s i o n : "Each development p l a n , on approval by the l i c e n s o r , s h a l l be and i s a term of c ond i t i o n and becomes and i s a pa r t o f t h i s l i c e n c e and any breach of the terms and cond i t i on s o f any development p lan o r c u t t i n g permit i s a breach o f the terms and cond i t i on s of t h i s l i c e n c e . " ^ The plans gene ra l l y cover f i v e years ope r a t i on s , w i th the i n i t i a l two years r e l a t i v e l y d e f i n i t e and w i t h years th ree to f i v e l e s s d e f i n i t e , pending complet ion of eng ineer ing data and development o f an area resource - 33 -50 i nvento ry . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , no ha rves t i ng operat ions may commence p r i o r to Se rv i ce approval of the development plan but i n f a c t due to a s u b s t a n t i a l backlog o f plans awa i t ing app rova l , i n some cases , in formal approval to s t a r t logg ing has been g r a n t e d ^ Because of u n d e r - s t a f f i n g , i n many cases the F i sh and W i l d l i f e Branch has been unable to prov ide personnel to review these p lans and has been unable to c o l l e c t f i s h and w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t data to in sure tha t logg ing operat ions have been planned w i th these other resource requirements in mincf^ In c e r t a i n D i s t r i c t s , such as the P r i n ce George Forest D i s t r i c t and the Vancouver Forest D i s t r i c t , a new system of t o t a l resource p l ann ing , desc r ibed as the " f o l i o " system has been i n t roduced. As d i scussed below, t h i s system attempts to coord inate a l l resource data and to produce resource management c o n s t r a i n t s on t imber ha rves t i ng opera t i ons . Once non-t imber resource requ i rements , such as w i l d l i f e t r a n s i t c o r r i d o r s and w i n t e r i n g areas have been i d e n t i f i e d on a s i t e , 53 then i n d u s t r i a l f o r e s t e r s prepare logg ing plans f o r the l o c a t i o n . Both t h i s system and i t s r e f e r r a l aspect r e q u i r i n g F i sh and W i l d l i f e Branch comment p r i o r to Forest Se rv i ce app rova l , have been impeded by manpower shortages and funding problems.^ 4 The s i n g l e resource o r i e n t a t i o n of the Forest Se rv i ce cannot be den ied, de sp i te these attempts to cons ide r a l l o ther resource uses. As i n d i c a t e d by the cu r r en t A s s i s t a n t Ch ie f F o r e s t e r , environmental programs must occupy p o s i t i o n s of secondary p r i o r i t y to maximizat ion of government income from t imber re sou rces , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n times of low market demand f o r t imber products . A lower s e l l i n g p r i c e leads to a lower stumpage payment by the i ndu s t r y and s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduced government income. There are s t i l l s e r i ous problems i n communicating w i th other resource departments, p a r t i c u l a r l y the f ede ra l F i s h e r i e s Department due to d i s tances - 34 -between resource management headquarters and due to over l app ing resource a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o u n d a r i e s . 5 5 (c) CONTRACTS The i n co rpo r a t i o n of development plans i n t o Cu t t i n g Permits and Timber Sale L icences r e f l e c t s the important environmental management f unc t i on of the con t r a c tua l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Forest Se rv i ce and the logg ing ope ra to r s . Var ious other opera t ing r e s t r i c t i o n s are a l s o i nc luded as terms o f these con t rac t s w i th the r e s u l t t ha t non-compliance by a l i c en see would c o n s t i t u t e a breach of c o n t r a c t . The se r ious economic consequences of c on t r a c t te rm ina t i on are e v i d e n t , e s p e c i a l l y f o r the sma l l e r f o r e s t products f i rms completely dependent upon Crown t imber s u p p l i e s . As i n d i c a t e d above, gene ra l l y speak ing, the Fores t Se rv i ce regards t h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e power as s u f f i c i e n t to 57 ensure compliance w i th environmental management p r o v i s i o n s . The B.C. Forest Se rv i ce Management Manual, an in-house p u b l i c a t i o n , conta ins severa l environmental c lauses which may be i n s e r t e d i n t o Se rv i ce form documents such as L icences and Cu t t i ng Permits in response 58 to p a r t i c u l a r s i t e c o n d i t i o n s . The Cu t t i ng Permit i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r i n d i v i d u a l t imber b lock ha rves t i ng operat ions on Tree Farm Licences and Timber Sa le Harvest ing L icence areas. Sample c lauses i nc luded i n the Manual r e f e r to p r o h i b i t i o n of wet weather operat ions and watercourse p r o t e c t i o n measures.59 One p r o v i s i o n r e l a t i n g to c u t t i n g b lock requirements s p e c i f i e s Forest Ranger approval o f c u t t i n g boundaries as a p recond i t i on f o r logg ing ope ra t i on s . This c lause i s regarded by some Se rv i ce o f f i c i a l s as p a r t i c u l a e f f e c t i v e s ince i t permits, the Ranger to re fuse such approval u n t i l - 35 -50 operat ions proceed i n an env i ronmenta l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y manner. Vancouver Forest D i s t r i c t o f f i c i a l s a l s o are attempt ing to d r a f t a streambank p r o t e c t i o n c lause p e r m i t t i n g the ha rves t i ng of mature t imber but r e q u i r i n g the e x e r c i s e of p a r t i c u l a r care to avo id damage to immature o r deciduous t rees as w e l l as t o the stream i t s e l f * ? 1 P e n a l t i e s s i m i l a r to those p re sen t l y l e v i e d f o r damage to young t rees could be imposed f o r avo idab le harm in the streambank s t r i p . Many of the p r o v i s i o n s i nc luded i n the form con t rac t s used by the Forest Se rv i ce a l s o r e l a t e to environmental p r o t e c t i o n both to conserve t imber and to p r o t e c t o ther f o r e s t resources . The Timber Sa le Harvest ing L icence and Cu t t i n g Permit and the Tree Farm L icence Cu t t i ng Permit a l l conta in d e t a i l e d c lauses r e l a t i n g to stream p r o t e c t i o n . For example, these c lauses gene ra l l y p r o h i b i t the l i c en see from a l l ow i ng any t rees or logg ing debr i s l i k e l y to cause p o l l u t i o n to be depos i ted 63 at any t ime i n any l ake o r stream. In a d d i t i o n they p r o h i b i t the s k i dd i ng o f logs o r operat ion of equipment i n stream channels and requ i re a l l stream cross ings to be made wi th a c u l v e r t to accommodate 64 maximum stream f low and permit unobstructed f i s h passage. Other p r ov i s i on s r equ i re operators to remove any logg ing debr i s depos i ted i n any stream 65 channel as d i r e c t e d by Fores t Rangers. Other s ec t i on s r e l a t e to e ro s i on c on t r o l and requ i re the l i c en see to con s t ruc t water-bars or open c u l v e r t s to prevent d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f logg ing roads by uncon t r o l l ed water r uno f f . F i sh and W i l d l i f e personnel and major f o r e s t products company r ep re sen ta t i ve s repor t t ha t these l a t t e r p r ov i s i on s w i th respect to e ros ion c o n t r o l are only o c c a s i o n a l l y 66 en fo rced. Without the cooperat ion o f a l l persons i nvo l ved i n o n - s i t e ope r a t i on s , a s i n g l e resource o r i en t ed management system cannot be t o t a l l y e f f e c t i v e . - 36 -S ince Cu t t i ng Permits have a th ree -yea r term and development plans must be updated y e a r l y , most.Tree Farm and Timber Sa le Harvest ing L icensees now must comply wi th Coast Logging Gu ide l i nes and Fores t D i s t r i c t Gu ide l ines concerning environmental p r o t e c t i o n . The Gu i de l i ne p r o v i s i o n s , however, are not a p p l i c a b l e to p r i va te l y -owned lands or to Timber Sale con t rac t s concluded before Gu i de l i ne p u b l i c a t i o n . S ince these Timber Sa le L icences run f o r a s p e c i f i c term, gene ra l l y u n t i l complet ion o f harvest operat ions i n r e l a t i v e l y small t imber b l o c k s , t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s only temporary. As a r e s u l t , i n theory at l e a s t , most operat ions i n the coa s t a l f o r e s t reg ion o f B r i t i s h Columbia are sub ject to environmental p r o t e c t i o n g u i d e l i n e s , r e q u i r i n g a r e s t r i c t i o n o f logg ing operat ions i n order to p r o t e c t other resource uses, p r i m a r i l y stream spawning areas. 3. SUMMARY The Fores t Se rv i ce has attempted to re so l ve the growing c o n f l i c t between p u b l i c f o r e s t resource uses, p a r t i c u l a r l y that between logg ing and f i s h e r y i n t e r e s t s , through inc reased c o n s u l t a t i o n wi th the F i sh and W i l d l i f e Branch and through the development o f environmental gu ide-l i n e s to be f o l l owed in a l l t imber ha r ve s t i ng ope ra t i on s . Through i t s c on t r a c tua l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Crown t imber l i c e n s e e s , the Se rv i ce possesses a broad d i s c r e t i o n a r y power w i t h which to enforce i t s p o l i c i e s . The S e r v i c e , however, has not been able to escape the s i n g l e resource nature of i t s mandate and var ious ob s tac le s s t i l l e x i s t as impediments to a t o t a l systems approach to w i l d l a n d resource p l ann ing . For example, resource management dec i s ion-making i s s t i l l not c e n t r a l i z e d i n a neu t r a l resource management agency and there are s t i l l communications d i f f i c u l t i e s between var ious resource departments w i t h i n t e r e s t s i n the r e g u l a t i o n o f d i spa ra te w i l d l a n d resources. CHAPTER I I I NOTES 1. Young, "The F o l i o System", op. c i t . , n. I - 10. 2. Submiss ion, op. c i t . , n. I I - 16 at 16. 3. I n te r v i ew, van Heek, op. c i t . , n. II - 16. 4. F i s h e r i e s A c t , R.S.C. 1970, chapter F - 14 as amended, s ec t i on s 33(2) , (4 ) . 5. B r i t i s h Columbia, Royal Commission on Forest Resources, Report , 1956 ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957) 37 at 40. (He re i n a f t e r c i t e d as Sloan Comm.) 6. I b i d . , at 39. 7. Crook, op. c i t . , n. I - 2, at 46, 343. 8. Wa l t e r s , op. c i t . , n. I - 7. 9. Can. For. S t a t s . , op. c i t . , n. II - 1 at 6. 10. These tenures are summarized i n Locke, op. c i t . , n. II - 2 at 7 and d i scussed i n some d e t a i l i n Sloan Comm., op. c i t . , n. 5 a t 19 and i n Task Force on Crown Timber D i s p o s a l , Fores t Tenures i n B r i t i s h Columbia ( V i c t o r i a : 1974). 11. Sloan Comm., op. c i t . , n. 5 a t 39; Can. For. S t a t s . , op. c i t . , n. II - 1 at 6 and Submiss ion, op. c i t . , n. I I - 16 a t 17. 12. Forest A c t , R.S.B.C. 1960, chapter 153, as amended, s e c t i on 5. 13. B r i t i s h Columbia Lumberman, Greenbook 1973 (Vancouver: Journal o f Commerce, 1973) 80. 14. Fores t A c t , supra , n. 12, s e c t i on 17 ( l a ) . 15. Greenbook, op. c i t . , n. 13 at 39. 16. In terv iew w i th R.C. Scarrow, Vancouver Forest D i s t r i c t , Vancouver, May 29, 1974, August 15, 1974. 17. In terv iew w i th R.H. Ahrens, D i r e c t o r Parks Branch, V i c t o r i a , March 29, 1974. See a l s o Crook, op. c i t . , n. I - 2 at 44. 18. In terv iew w i th P ro fe s so r A.R. Chambers, Animal Resources Ecology Department, Facu l t y of F o r e s t r y , U.B.C., Vancouver, January 29, 1974. 19. Farrow, "Bob Wi l l i ams T a l k i n g : 'Stop Wasting Power' " , The Vancouver Sun, January 17, 1974 at 6. - 37 -- 38 -20. I n te r v i ew, Ahrens, op. c i t . , n. 17; I n te rv iew, West, op. c i t . , n. II - 17. 21. I n te rv iew, West, op. c i t . , n. II - 17. 22. In terv iew w i th J . S . Stokes, Deputy -M in i s te r , Forest S e r v i c e , V i c t o r i a , March 28, 1974. 23. Young, "The F o l i o System", op. c i t . , n. I - 10. 24. Wa l te r s , op. c i t . , n. I - 17. 25. Young, "The F o l i o System", op. c i t . , n. I - 10. 26. Interv iew w i th P ro fe s so r Timothy B a l l a r d , Forest S o i l s Department, Facu l t y of F o r e s t r y , U.B.C., Vancouver, January 8, 1974. Pearse, op. c i t . , n. II - 36 a t 52. 27. Forest A c t , supra , n. 12, Sect ions 5 ( e ) , 98 - 129, 5 (d ) , 152, 5(g) and 8 3 - 9 . 28. I n te rv iew, Scarrow, op. c i t . , n. 16. 29. Dan i e l s , " Fo re s t Industry Cont rac t s : The Small Operator " i n B.C. Annual Law Lec tu re s , op. c i t . , n. II - 2, 18 a t 19. 30. I n te r v i ew, Scarrow, op. c i t . , n. 16. 31. Fores t A c t , supra , n. 12, Sec t i on 5: "The Forest Se rv i ce has j u r i s d i c t i o n over and s h a l l c on t r o l and admin i s te r a l l matters r e l a t i n g to or in anywise connected w i th f o r e s t r y , and p a r t i c u l a r l y , and w i thout r e s t r i c t i n g the g e n e r a l i t y of the fo rego ing p r o v i s i o n , has j u r i s d i c t i o n over and s h a l l , sub jec t to and i n compliance w i th the p rov i s i on s o f the S ta tutes of the Prov ince f o r the time being i n f o r c e , con t r o l and r e g u l a t e , r e ce i ve and adm in i s t e r , or invoke and enforce as the case may be, (a) a l l the r i g h t s , p r o p e r t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , c l a i m s , and demands of the Crown in r i g h t o f the Prov ince i n Crown t imber ; (b) a l l revenues and moneys of the Crown i n r i g h t of the Prov ince a r i s i n g from f o r e s t r y , Crown t imber , and g r a z i n g ; (c) conservat ion of f o r e s t s ; (d) r e f o r e s t a t i o n ; (e) prevent ion of f o r e s t f i r e s ; ( f ) sa le s and d i s p o s i t i o n s of Crown t imber ; (g) c u t t i n g , c l a s s i f y i n g , measuring, manufactur ing, brand ing, a p p r a i s i n g , and^export ing of t r e e s , t imber , and products of the f o r e s t ; and (h) S t a t u t e s , r u l e s , and r egu l a t i on s r e l a t i n g to the r e g u l a t i o n of f o r e s t r y , the p r o t e c t i o n of f o r e s t s , and the g raz ing of Crown l and s ; - 39 -( i ) p u b l i c r e c r ea t i o n i n f o r e s t s on Crown l and s ; and i n the e x e r c i s e of any power or duty i n connect ion t h e r e w i t h , a person employed by the Fores t Se rv i ce may enter i n t o and upon any lands or premises other than dwe l l i n g s . I b i d . , s e c t i o n 146: " (1) The L ieutenant-Governor in Counci l may-make such r egu l a t i on s not i n c o n s i s t e n t w i th the s p i r i t of t h i s Act as he cons iders necessary or adv i sab le f o r c a r r y i n g out the purpose and p r o v i s i on s o f t h i s A c t , i n c l u d i n g matters in respect of which no express or on ly p a r t i a l or imper fect p r o v i s i o n has been made. (2) Without thereby l i m i t i n g the g e n e r a l i t y of the p r o v i s i on s conta ined in subsect ion ( 1 ) , the power of the L ieutenant-Governor i n Counci l to make regu l a t i on s extends to the making o f r e gu l a t i on s (a) governing the standards of u t i l i z a t i o n , methods o f l o g g i n g , r e se r va t i on of s eed - t r ee s , and d i sposa l o f debr i s i n respect of any t imber leaseho ld or t imber l i m i t or t r e e -farm l i c e n c e ; (b) f o r ensur ing the f u tu re f o r e s t crop of any t imber l ea seho ld or t imber l i m i t or t ree - fa rm l i c e n c e ; (c) [Repealed. 1967, c. 19, s. 12.] (d) r e q u i r i n g every person carryong on any l a n d - c l e a r i n g , lumber ing, i n d u s t r i a l , eng i nee r i ng , or c on s t r u c t i o n operat ion to mainta in a t h i s own expense such f i r e - f i g h t i n g equipment and such number o f Forest F i r e Prevent ion O f f i c e r s f o r the purpose of p revent ing the occurrence o r spread o f f i r e from tha t operat ion as are p re s c r i bed i n the r e g u l a t i o n s ; (e) p r o v i d i n g f o r a l l matters p e r t a i n i n g to f o r e s t reserves e s t a b l i s h e d pursuant to s e c t i o n 33, i n c l u d i n g r e c r e a t i o n and other uses and occupat ions , and the management, c o n t r o l , and d i sposa l of t imber ; ( f ) f o r ensur ing the renewal of the f o r e s t crop by the l eav i ng of t rees f o r seed purposes on any lands un su i t ab l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e as determined by the M i n i s t e r , he re to fo re or he rea f t e r g ranted, tha t are logged a f t e r the f i r s t day of January, 1938; (g) p rov i d i ng ( i f no other p r o v i s i o n i s made by S ta tu te ) f o r the conservat ion and p r o t e c t i o n o f t r e e s , shrubs, and p l a n t s ; and f o r the ha rves t ing o f the products t he reo f ; and f o r the g rant ing o f permits or l i c e n c e s i n respect o f such h a r v e s t i n g ; and f o r f i x i n g l i c e n c e fees and o ther charges to be pa id by persons permit ted to harvest such p roduct s ; (h) p rov i d i ng f o r the sa le or d i s p o s i t i o n by the Crown o f - 40 -Crown t imber and Crown f o r e s t products from lands i n a t r ee - f a rm l i c e n c e a r ea , and p rov i d i n g gene ra l l y f o r the r e gu l a t i on of t r ee - f a rm l i c e n c e s ; ( i ) governing marking, measuring, and c l a s s i f y i n g o f a l l t imber , wood, and products of the f o r e s t , and p r e s c r i b i n g r u l e s , terms, and cond i t i on s w i th respect to s c a l i n g ; ( j ) p r ov i d i n g f o r the l i c e n s i n g o f a l l types o f m i l l s and wood-manufacturing p l a n t s ; (k) governing roads, b r i d ge s , and t r a i l s b u i l t or acqu i red under t h i s A c t , and gene ra l l y f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a l l roads , b r i d ge s , and t r a i l s b u i l t or acqu i red under t h i s Ac t . (3) Every r e g u l a t i o n o r o rder made under t h i s Act s h a l l be deemed to be par t of t h i s A c t , and has the f o r ce o f law. 33. B r i t i s h Columbia, Forest S e r v i c e , P lann ing Gu ide l i nes f o r Coast Logging  Operations (Mimeoed, September 29, 1972). 34. L e t t e r to A l l L icensees of Timber S a l e s , Tree Farm Licences and Timber Sale Harvest ing L icences i n the Coast Region o f B r i t i s h Columbia from Ch ief F o re s t e r , B.C. Forest S e r v i c e , September 29, 1972. 35. Coast G u i d e l i n e s , op. c i t . , n. 33 at 1. 36. Loc. c i t . 37. I b i d . , a t 2. 38. Loc. c i t . 39. Loc. c i t . (Paragraph E). 40. Submiss ion, op. c i t . , n. II - 16 at 12. 41. Loc. c i t . See a l s o Thornton, "Streamside Logging" (1973), 2 B r i t i s h Columbia Environmental News 7. 42. Submiss ion, op. c i t . , n. II - 16 at 13. 43. Thornton, op. c i t . , n. 41 at 9. 44. Submiss ion, op. c i t . , n. II - 16 at 17, 21. 45. Loc. c i t . Canada, Department o f Regional Economic Expans ion, Towards  In tegrated Resource Management (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1970) 26. 46. B r i t i s h Columbia, Forest S e r v i c e , Vancouver Forest D i s t r i c t , I n te r im Guide- Logging on Severe S i t e s (Mimeoed) a t 1. 47. I b i d . , at 3. - 41 -48. Coast G u i d e l i n e s , op. c i t . , n. 33 a t 5. See a l so L e t t e r to A l l Holders o f Timber Sale Harvest ing L icences and Tree Farm L icences from H.M. Pogue D i s t r i c t F o r e s t e r , Vancouver Forest D i s t r i c t , October 12, 1973, Submission and Annual Updating o f a F i ve -Year Development P l a n . 49. Forest Se rv i ce Timber Sale Harvest ing L icence (Mimeoed fo rm) , paragraph 2.12, see Appendix A. 50. Development P l a n , op. c i t . , n. 48 a t 1. 51. I n te r v i ew, West, op. c i t . , n. II - 17. 52. Young, "The F o l i o System", op. c i t . , n. I - 10. 53. J .G. B u l l e n , " A l l Resources Considered i n Logging P l an s " (1974), 2 Fores t Ta lk 6. 54. Young, "The F o l i o System", op. c i t . n. I - 10. 55. Loc. c i t . 56. Loc. c i t . 57. I n te r v i ew, Scarrow, op. c i t . , n. 16. 58. Loc. c i t . 59. Loc. c i t . 60. Loc. c i t . 61. Loc. c i t . 62. See T.S.H.L. form a t Appendix A, paragraph 6. 63. Loc. c i t . , paragraph 6 ( i ) . 64. Loc. c i t . , paragraph 6 ( i i i ) . 65. See T.S.H.L. Cu t t i n g Permit form at Appendix B, paragraph 4.61(e) . 66. I n te r v i ew, West, op. c i t . , n. II - 17. CHAPTER IV. ENFORCEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT POLICIES A. INTRODUCTION This chapter analyses c e r t a i n l e ga l a l t e r n a t i v e s which may be a v a i l a b l e to the Forest Se rv i ce in order to enforce i t s environmental management p o l i c i e s . The ma te r i a l focuses upon damage by t imber ha rves t i ng operat ions to the f o r e s t stream environment and attempts to i n d i c a t e var ious l e ga l channels by which the Forest Se rv i ce might recover from the ope ra to r s , whether the operat ions are upon p u b l i c or p r i v a t e l ands , cost s of stream r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , or damages f o r harm to the f i s h e r y resource. There may be many reasons f o r cont ravent ion of environmental gu i de l i ne s ranging from l ack o f employee educat ion to d e l i b e r a t e execut i ve p o l i c i e s brought about by economic impera t i ve s . Bas i c human nature appears to r equ i re some supe rv i s i on o f " ope ra t i on s to ensure a s u b s t a n t i a l compliance w i th environmental g u i de l i ne s p a r t i c u l a r l y by • o n - s i t e ope ra t i ona l s t a f f faced w i t h product ion dead l i ne s . I t i s c l e a r l y impo s s i b l e , however, to prov ide t o t a l s upe rv i s i on o f a l l logg ing operat ions throughout the e n t i r e Prov ince and no management scheme would attempt such a goa l . As in the case of a l l law enforcement, a broad consensus on the par t of the regu la ted must be present and i t must be assumed that general cooperat ion wi th the gu i de l i ne s w i l l be forthcoming. I n d u s t r i a l and employee educa t i on , p revent i ve p lann ing l e g i s l a t i o n and reasonable i n cen t i v e s f o r p r i v a t e development appear to be the r e q u i s i t e s f o r a succes s fu l - 42 -- 43 -environmental management system. With i t s emphasis upon s t a t u t o r y enforcement and l i t i g a t i o n a l t e r n a t i v e s , the f o l l o w i n g d i s cu s s i on i l l u s t r a t e s the i n c o m p a t a b i l i t y of s t r i c t l e g a l i s t i c approaches wi th a broad ecosystems and management o r g a n i z a t i o n . The d i s c u s s i o n , however, may be va luab le i n i t s attempt to apply t r a d i t i o n a l and cu r ren t l e ga l p r i n c i p l e s to problems of non-market value resource damage. The problems i nvo l ved i n adapt ing cu r ren t l e ga l concepts to the new percept ion o f ecosystems i n t e g r i t y w i l l have to be cons idered by any resource manager, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the absence of s p e c i f i c l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y r e q u i r i n g w i l d l a n d resource users to pay r e h a b i l i t a t i o n costs f o r damages caused to other resource uses by t h e i r development a c t i v i t i e s . B. CONTRAVENTION BY CROWN LICENSEES I t may be u se fu l as a background to a d i s cu s s i on of enforcement techniques in the case of Crown l i cen see s to cons ider the f o l l o w i n g s cena r i o : A l a rge Timber Sale Harves t ing l i c en see con t rac t s i t s c u t t i n g r i g h t s f o r a c e r t a i n b lock of t imber to a smal l l ogg ing company. The small f i r m possesses few assets and has l i t t l e concern f o r i t s p u b l i c image. In the process of logg ing ope r a t i on s , i t s operators s k i d t imber through a prime salmon stream, dump s u b s t a n t i a l amounts of debr i s i n t o the water and bu l l doze a main logg ing road through the streambed w i th d i sa s t rous e f f e c t upon f i s h h ab i t a t c o n d i t i o n s . Although the f o l l o w i n g d i s cu s s i on analyzes Timber Sale Harves t ing L icence p r o v i s i o n s , i t should be remembered that s i m i l a r p rov i s i on s are i nc luded i n Tree Farm Licences and Cu t t i ng Permi t s . In a d d i t i o n , the - 44 -Forest A c t , Sec. 36, s p e c i f i c a l l y au tho r i ze s Fores t Rangers to suspend operat ions upon Tree Farm L icence areas f o r non-compliance w i th the Forest A c t , the r e g u l a t i o n s , the L icence or the Cu t t i ng Permit . These broad powers are conta ined i n the Fores t Amendment Act in t roduced i n June, 1974. The M i n i s t e r of Lands, Fores t and Water Resources exp la i ned i n the L e g i s l a t u r e tha t these amendments were designed " t o p r o t e c t the envi ronment". 1. SUSPENSION AND CANCELLATION The operator i n t h i s case has v i o l a t e d severa l terms i n the T.S.H.L. and Cu t t i n g Permi t , (see App. A & B). P r o v i s i on s in these documents requ i re the operator to comply wi th the approved development p l a n , which must be prepared i n accordance wi th Coast Logging and Forest D i s t r i c t g u i d e l i n e s , (see App. A, pa ra . 2.12). He has a l s o contravened the main road con s t r uc t i on c lause (see App. A, para . 5 .1) , which requ i re s the con s t r u c t i on of roads accord ing to s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and standards de f ined i n the Cu t t i n g Permit and development p lans . In a d d i t i o n the l i c en see has v i o l a t e d the water supply p r o t e c t i o n c lause (App. A, pa ra . 6) which p r o h i b i t s the depos i t o f any logg ing debr i s or road b u i l d i n g debr i s l i k e l y to cause p o l l u t i o n w i t h i n any lake or stream. The l i c en see has a l s o broken the covenant tha t he w i l l i n no way b l o ck , o b s t r u c t , or damage any watercourse (App. A, para 8.6). In the event of such v i o l a t i o n s , the Fores t Ranger may re fu se to approve subsequent c u t t i n g boundaries o r may suspend the e n t i r e opera t ion u n t i l the damage i s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y r e p a i r e d , (see App. A, para 8.13) Fores t Se rv i ce o f f i c i a l s b e l i e v e t h i s l a t t e r a c t i o n cou ld be the most e f f e c t i v e weapon in the Fores t Se rv i ce a r s e n a l . 1 F i sh and W i l d l i f e - 45 -o f f i c i a l s repor t t ha t some Rangers are prepared to take such a c t i o n but that others are r e l u c t a n t to make a dec i s i o n w i th such se r ious economic 2 consequences. I t appears t ha t suspensions are o f ten employed i n the I n t e r i o r to f o rce l i c en see s to c lean up waste but t ha t they are r e l a t i v e l y 3 i n f requent on the Coast. I f the breach con t i nues , the l i c e n c e i s sub jec t to c a n c e l l a t i o n on s i x t y (60) days no t i ce by the M i n i s t e r (App. A. para. 8.141). This i s a l a s t r e s o r t remedy used very r a r e l y and then only in cases where the l i c en see or permit tee has neg lected to c a r r y o u t any harvest operat ions i n the l i c e n c e a rea . Fores t Se rv i ce o f f i c i a l s do not regard t h i s as a use fu l device s ince i n most cases the operator has a l ready logged the best t imber and c a n c e l l a t i o n of the l i c e n c e would r e l i e v e him o f c lean up 4 and r e f o r e s t a t i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 2. TRESPASS C a n c e l l a t i o n o f the Cu t t i ng Permit or l i c e n c e would render i l l e g a l f u r t h e r removal of t imber from the Crown land (App. A, para. 2.21). Timber t respass i s an o f fence under the Forest A c t , Sec. 10, pun i shab le upon summary c o n v i c t i o n by a pena l ty ranging from $25.00 to $100.00. Although such f i n e s c l e a r l y p lay l i t t l e r o l e i n d e t e r r i n g t imber t r e s pa s s , other Forest Act p r o v i s i on s au tho r i ze the s e i z u re of t imber un l aw fu l l y cut (Sec. 12 (2)) and the impos i t i on o f pena l t i e s in l i e u of stumpage and r o y a l t i e s (Sec. 14 ( 1 ) ) . These sums may be recovered as debts due to the Crown and c o n s t i t u t e a l i e n upon most of the c a p i t a l assets and inventory of the l i c e n s e e or s u b - l i c e n s e e . (Sec. 14 ( 2 ) , ( 3 ) , ( 4 ) ) . The l i c e n s e e w i l l be l i a b l e f o r any acts of h is s ub - l i cen see in cont ravent ion of the con t r ac t s i nce paragraph 8.4 o f the l i c e n c e creates an agency or employment r e l a t i o n -ship between the l i c en see and any person conduct ing operat ions on the lands -46 -i n quest ion wi th the consent of the l i c e n s e e . 3. DEPOSIT FORFEITURE Paragraph 7.5 of the Timber Sa le Harvest ing L icence conta ins p r ov i s i on s r e l a t i n g to the l i c e n c e depos i t . This depos i t i s he ld by the Crown sub jec t to compliance by the l i c e n s e e w i th a l l the terms and cond i t i on s of the l i c e n c e , i n c l u d i n g the stream p r o t e c t i o n p r o v i s i o n s . I f stream damage occur s , t h i s c lause au tho r i ze s the Crown to deduct r e h a b i l i t a t i o n charges from the amount of the depos i t and requ i re s the l i c en see to prov ide f u r t h e r funds to re tu rn the amount on depos i t to the s t i p u l a t e d amount. Normally t h i s depos i t f o r f e i t u r e power would c o n s t i t u t e an adequate remedy i n the event of stream damage. I t , o f cour se , i s not p r e v e n t i v e , but r a the r a post f a c t o remedy. This c lause i s another example of the expansion of Forest Se rv i ce a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s c r e t i o n . There are no p rov i s i on s i n the Forest Act a u t h o r i z i n g the Se rv i ce to hold money on depos i t f o r Timber Sa le Harvest ing L icences and Timber Sa le s . In the case o f Tree Farm L i cence s , however, the A c t , Sec. 36 (6) prov ides s p e c i f i c a l l y t h a t : "depos i t s s h a l l be f o r the purpose of ensur ing compliance on the pa r t of the l i c e n s e e w i t h the terms of t h i s A c t , the r e g u l a t i o n s , the l i c e n c e , and the management and working p l a n , and s h a l l be sub jec t to such payments to the Crown as t h i s A c t , the r e g u l a t i o n s , or the l i c e n c e p r o v i d e s . " I t i s u n l i k e l y that a l i c en see would f a i l to abide by the covenant conta ined i n t h i s depos i t c l au se . The Forest Se rv i ce would c e r t a i n l y employ t h i s depos i t f o r f e i t u r e power to meet the cos t o f stream r e h a b i l i t a t i o n before con s i de r i ng l i t i g a t i o n . I f the l i c e n s e e , however, were u n w i l l i n g to prov ide to the Forest Se rv i ce s u f f i c i e n t funds to meet r e h a b i l i t a t i o n costs of damaged spawning streams, the Forest Se rv i ce would have to cons ide r a l t e r -na t i ve s a v a i l a b l e to obta in these funds from the l i c e n s e e . - 47 -There does not appear to be any bas i s f o r arguing tha t such stream r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s cost s would c o n s t i t u t e a debt to the Crown recoverab le w i th c o s t s , amounting to a l i e n upon operator and l i c e n s e e a s se t s . There are s i m i l a r p r ov i s i on s conta ined i n the Forest Act w i th respect t o expenditures by the Crown f o r f i r e p revent ion (Sees. 114 ( 2 ) , 115 ( 3 ) , 116 (11, 17) , 118 ( 6 ) ) , pest c on t r o l (Sec. 127 ( 4 ) ) , as w e l l as to monies owing f o r " r e n t a l , stumpage, r o y a l t y or t ax " (Sec. 131, 132). Sect ion 132 (1) prov ides a l so f o r a l i e n upon operator premises f o r c e r t a i n charges payable under a Tree Farm L icence but there i s no re fe rence to Timber Sa le Harvest ing L icences such as are under c on s i de r a t i on i n the present d i s c u s s i o n . 4. DAMAGES FOR BREACH OF CONTRACT In the event of cont ravent ion of the stream p r o t e c t i o n p rov i s i on s o f the l i c e n c e , the Crown may suspend or cancel the l i c e n c e . In a d d i t i o n , the cos t of stream r e h a b i l i t a t i o n w i l l be pa id f o r by the depos i t which the l i c e n s e e must prov ide to the Crown. I f the l i c e n s e e , however, were u n w i l l i n g to prov ide s u f f i c i e n t monies to meet t o t a l stream r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c o s t s , the only l e ga l a l t e r n a t i v e open to the Forest Se rv i ce would be a s u i t aga in s t the l i c e n s e e f o r damages f o r breach of c o n t r a c t . I t i s c l e a r t ha t the l i c e n c e i s a l s o a con t r ac t between the l i c en see and the Crown. This conc lu s ion f o l l ows from the p rov i s i on s in the Forest A c t , Sec. 17 (8) and from an examination of the l i c e n c e i t s e l f . The agreement conta ins severa l covenants by the l i c en see and i s s igned by both the l i c e n s o r and the l i c e n s e e , u n l i k e the case of a mere l i c e n c e to c u t . The l i c e n s e e i n the case of the Timber Sale Harvest ing L icence s igns the " i n den tu r e " and thereby binds h imse l f to f u l f i l l the covenants - 48 -i n t h e c o n t r a c t . I n a d d i t i o n , a n y p e r s o n o p e r a t i n g o n t h e l a n d s s u b j e c t t o t h e c o n t r a c t w i t h t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e l i c e n s e e b e c o m e s a n " a g e n t o r s e r v a n t " o f t h e l i c e n s e e p u r s u a n t t o c l a u s e 8 . 4 o f t h e l i c e n c e . ( a ) B R E A C H OF C O N T R A C T I f t h e l i c e n s e e h a s f a i l e d t o c o m p l y w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e C u t t i n g P e r m i t o r t h e T . S . H . L . , w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n a p p r o v e d b y t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e , w o u l d t h e C r o w n b e e n t i t l e d t o s u e t h e l i c e n s e e f o r d a m a g e s t o s t r e a m r e s o u r c e s ? S u c h a s i t u a t i o n m i g h t a r i s e i n t h e e v e n t t h a t a l i c e n s e e r e f u s e d t o p a y f o r s t r e a m r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c o s t s i n e x c e s s o f t h e d e p o s i t a m o u n t , c o n t e n d i n g t h a t t h e F o r e s t S e r v i c e h a d n o c o n s t i t u t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n t o i m p o s e c o s t s f o r " f i s h p r o t e c t i o n " , w h i c h i s a f e d e r a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I t i s c l e a r f r o m t h e w o r d i n g o f t h e l i c e n c e t h a t t h e C r o w n i s e n t i t l e d t o s u s p e n d o r c a n c e l t h e l i c e n c e i n t h e e v e n t o f c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f s t r e a m p r o t e c t i o n c l a u s e s . T h i s p r o c e d u r e , h o w e v e r , w o u l d n o t a i d t h e C r o w n i n i t s a t t e m p t t o o b t a i n c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c o s t s . U n d e r t h e g e n e r a l l a w o f c o n t r a c t t h e C r o w n w o u l d b e e n t i t l e d t o s u e t h e l i c e n s e e f o r b r e a c h o f c o n t r a c t a n d r e c o v e r d a m a g e s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e b r e a c h . I n t h i s c a s e t h e d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n o f d a m a g e a s s e s s m e n t , a s d i s c u s s e d b e l o w , w i l l a r i s e . - 4 9 -(b ) DAMAGES A claim' by the Crown for damages raises two questions. Whether the Crown can recover compensation for damage to water-courses and ultimately to salmon spawning areas constitutes a question of remoteness. In addition, the measure of damages or the quantification of the damage i n terms of money must be determined. The general rule i s that i f the Crown has suffered damage that i s not too remote, i t must, so far as can be done by money, be restored to the p o s i t i o n i t would have been i n had the p a r t i c u l a r damage not occurred.^ (i) Remoteness of Damage. The rule governing remoteness of damages i s that the innocent party i s entitled, to be com-pensated for damage r e s u l t i n g from the breach of contract which would have been i n the contemplation of both part i e s 6 at the time of the contract. (Hadley vs. Baxendale). This would seem to involve some element of f o r e s e e a b i l i t y . If the Crown were suing for.damages equal to the amount of money required to repair streambed damage, i t seems c l e a r that t h i s damage would not be too remote i n the context Of the above rul e . C l e a r l y , a f a i l u r e to comply with watercourse protection provisions could be foreseen as a r e s u l t i n g i n damage to the watercourse. A problen might a r i s e , however, , i f the damage were irreparable o r . i f the Crown were suing for loss of - 50 -r e c r e a t i o n oppo r t un i t i e s or general damage to the salmon f i s h i n g i ndu s t r y as a r e s u l t of the l o s s o f spawning bed resources. The v a l u a t i o n problems in the l a t t e r cases would be f o rm idab l e , but should not be cons idered u n t i l the remoteness i s sue has been r e so l ved . I t i s c l e a r , t h e r e f o r e , t ha t t rees f e l l e d i n t o water lead to stream blockage and tha t poor l y cons t ruc ted roads r e s u l t i n e r o s i on . What may not be c l e a r , however, i s the cha in o f causat ion l ead ing from c o n t r a -vent ion o f stream p r o t e c t i o n c lauses to dead f i s h . This problem w i l l be cons idered below i n connect ion w i th t o r t remedies aga in s t operators not i n con t r ac tua l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i th the Crown. An inc reased s o c i a l and j u d i c i a l consciousness of the e c o l o g i c a l i n t e g r i t y of a l l f o r e s t resources and o f the d e l i c a t e balance between f o r e s t stream q u a l i t y and the salmon l i f e c y c l e become re l e van t to the "remoteness" i n q u i r y conducted by the Courts dur ing such an a c t i on f o r damages f o r breach of c o n t r a c t . Whether such damage o c cu r r i n g "down the e c o l o g i c a l cha i n " may render the l i c en see l i a b l e i s an important i s sue i n an era of i n c r e a s i n g s c i e n t i f i c knowledge of ecosystems r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Would such a cha in of causat ion c o n s t i t u t e a " s p e c i a l c i rcumstance" out s ide the knowledge o f the average l i c en see ? The developed law acknowledges t h a t f o r e s e e a b i l i t y depends on the knowledge possessed by the par ty who commits the breach of c o n t r a c t . Genera l l y speaking a person i s imputed to have the knowledge of a reasonable person and i s taken to know the " o rd i na r y course of t h i n g s " and consequently what los s i s l i a b l e to r e s u l t from a breach of c on t r a c t 7 i n that o rd ina ry course. In c e r t a i n cases , however, a con t r ac t breaker may a c t u a l l y be i n possess ion o f s p e c i a l knowledge which w i l l enable him to know that a breach i n the s p e c i a l c i rcumstance would be l i a b l e to cause more l o s s . I f t h i s i s the case, the party w i l l be l i a b l e f o r the - 51 -a d d i t i o n a l l o s s . ( V i c t o r i a Laundry (Windsor), L td . vs. Newman I ndu s t r i e s L td . ) ? In the V i c t o r i a Laundry case the p l a i n t i f f s c la imed recovery o f bus iness p r o f i t s l o s t due to the delayed d e l i v e r y of a b o i l e r e s s e n t i a l to t h e i r laundry and dyeing ope ra t i on s . The defendants were aware of the nature of the p l a i n t i f f s ' bus iness . In the c o u r t ' s o p i n i o n , the defendants, w i th t h e i r eng ineer ing exper ience and w i th t h e i r s p e c i a l knowledge, could not reasonably contend tha t the l i k e l i h o o d of some l o s s of business was beyond t h e i r f o r e s i g h t . The t e s t of l i a b i l i t y in c on t r a c t has been desc r ibed as one o f " reasonable contemplat ion " as con t ra s ted wi th a t o r t f e a s o r ' s l i a b i l i t y f o r any reasonable fo re seeab le 9 damage, however u n l i k e l y i t s occur rence. Thus, i t would seem probable that streambed damage as a r e s u l t of l i c e n s e e cont ravent ion o f stream p r o t e c t i o n p rov i s i on s could be we l l w i t h i n the scope of c on t r a c t l i a b i l i t y . I t i s u n c e r t a i n , however, how f a r down the e c o l o g i c a l chain t h i s l i a b i l i t y would extend. Presumably, i f the l i c e n s e e were informed at the time the con t rac t was s i gned, of the harmful e f f e c t of c a r e l e s s t imber ha rve s t i ng p r a c t i c e s upon the f o r e s t stream environment, t h i s would c o n s t i t u t e s p e c i a l knowledge analogous to tha t desc r ibed in the V i c t o r i a Laundry case. ( i i ) Measure o f Damages. Q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of damages i s a major problem to be cons idered i n such a c on t r a c t a c t i o n . I t i s c l e a r , however, t ha t the mere d i f f i c u l t y of assessment o f damages i s no reason f o r dpe r i v i n g the p l a i n t i f f of compensation. In Chapl in vs. H i c k s , the p l a i n -t i f f a c t re s s sued f o r breach of an agreement by a theat re manager to prov ide an a u d i t i o n f o r her. Although the value of such an oppor tun i t y cou ld not be determined wi th any e x a c t i t u d e , the Court r equ i red an est imate o f the lo s s to the p l a i n t i f f ] ^ 1 - 52 -The general p r i n c i p l e w i th respect to the measure of damages i s tha t of compensation. I f the p l a i n t i f f has s u f f e r ed damage tha t i s not too remote, he must, so f a r as money can do i t , be re s to red to the p o s i t i o n he would have been i n had t ha t p a r t i c u l a r damage not occu r red . One standard which appears r e l e van t to the ques t ion of streambed damages i s the co s t of r e p a i r , tha t i s , the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the stream environment. The c a l c u l a t i o n o f the monetary compensation to be c la imed f o r a massive f i s h k i l l or a destroyed spawning area con ta i n i ng eggs, however, poses s u b s t a n t i a l problems. What i s the value of the d e s t r u c t i o n of a e s t h e t i c beauty or woodland stream r e c r e a t i o n a l areas? These quest ions of non-market resource v a l u a t i o n have been s t ud i ed by resource economists such as P ro fe s so r Pete r Pea r se . 1 1 Some attempt, f o r example, has been made to eva luate the value per square f oo t o f P a c i f i c salmon spawning grounds, based on the commercial va lue of f o r e s t 12 r e c r e a t i o n a l o ppo r t un i t i e s and P a c i f i c salmon i ndus t r y p r o f i t f i g u r e s . P ro fe s so r Marion Clawson has pioneered i n t h i s area w i th h i s ana l y s i s o f 13 r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s and t h e i r comparative va lue . Resource economists have attempted to formulate such values i n order to conduct c o s t / b e n e f i t analyses of a l t e r n a t i v e resources management systems and to determine those combinations tha t prov ide optimum s o c i a l b e n e f i t s . Some economists , such as P ro fe s so r Pearse, have concluded that orthodox monetary e va l ua t i on o f such resources as mountain scenery or r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s i l l u s o r y and t ha t p o l i t i c a l , r a t he r than economic judgements, are r equ i r ed 14 to accord p r i o r i t y to t h e i r p r o t e c t i o n . Current economic resource va l ua t i on s may prov ide rough gu i de l i ne s f o r j u d i c i a l assessment of damage to the f o r e s t stream environment. - 53 -C. CONTRAVENTION ON PRIVATELY OWNED TIMBER LANDS (OTHER THAN TREE FARM LICENCE AREAS) This s e c t i on analyzes the causes of a c t i o n in t o r t which may be a v a i l a b l e to the P r o v i n c i a l Crown f o l l o w i n g damage to f i s h spawning streams r e s u l t i n g from t imber ha rves t i ng operat ions upon p r i v a t e l y -owned l a nd , other than Tree Farm L icence areas. As i n d i c a t e d above, the Forest Serv ice has r e s t r i c t e d i t s environmental management p o l i c i e s to pub l i c l y -owned t imber lands and to p r i va te l y -owned lands i nc luded in 15 Tree Farm Licence areas. The i n t e g r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between f o r e s t resources on p r i va te l y -owned t imber lands and those upon Crown t imber lands i s c l e a r . The resource management agency, concerned w i th a comprehensive management approach based upon ecosystems c r i t e r i a may very we l l be i n t e r e s t e d i n remedies a v a i l a b l e to i t to ob ta in compensation f o r damages to f o r e s t stream resources , e i t h e r on Crown land or on p r i va te ly -owned l ands , caused by p r i v a t e t imber ope ra t i on s . This d i s cu s s i on attempts to apply t o r t law p r i n c i p l e s to t h i s problem of streambed damage and to cons ider new concepts of ecosystems i n t e g r i t y d i scussed e a r l i e r i n t h i s study. The bas i s of most t o r t ac t i on s i s the i n t e r f e r e n c e by the defendant w i th c e r t a i n recognized p r o p r i e t a r y i n t e r e s t s o f the p l a i n t i f f . I t i s necessary, t h e r e f o r e , to e s t a b l i s h that the P r o v i n c i a l Crown does have some type of p r o p r i e t a r y i n t e r e s t i n the f i s h e r y re sources , the waters and the spawning beds conta ined i n p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t streams. Ecosystems con s i de ra t i on s en te r the d i s cu s s i on whenever causat ion i s an i s sue . Important dec i s i on s must be made by modern judges based upon cu r ren t percept ions of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of var ious components of the f o r e s t ecosystem. Due to the p r o h i b i t i v e expenses i nvo l ved i n such l i t i g a t i o n , the se r ious problems o f s c i e n t i f i c evidence and the . - 54 -re luc tance o f the Forest Se rv i ce to depart from the secure area of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s c r e t i o n , i t i s u n l i k e l y tha t con s i de ra t i on s i n the f o l l o w i n g d i s cu s s i on s would lead the Crown to i n i t i a t e ac t i on s f o r damages aga in s t operators on p r i va te l y -owned t imber lands . Another con s i de ra t i on i s the a v a i l a b i l i t y of c e r t a i n f i s h p r o t e c t i o n p r o v i s i on s of the Canada F i s h e r i e s A c t , which conta in s u b s t a n t i a l p e n a l t i e s and which prov ide f o r the assessment of streambed r e h a b i l i t a t i o n costs 16 aga in s t conv i c ted o f f ende r s . This present study does not examine cu r ren t enforcement problems which p r o v i n c i a l F i sh and W i l d l i f e O f f i c e r s are exper ienc ing i n u t i l i z i n g these f ede ra l F i s h e r i e s Act p r o v i s i o n s ? This study i s concerned r a the r with an ana l y s i s of l e ga l a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e to the p r o v i n c i a l Crown i r r e s p e c t i v e of f ede ra l f i s h e r i e s j u r i s d i c t i o n . The f a c t s i t u a t i o n under c on s i de r a t i on i n the f o l l o w i n g d i s cu s s i on i s s i m i l a r to that o u t l i n e d i n the above ana l y s i s o f t imber ha rves t i ng a c t i v i t i e s upon Crown l and . In t h i s case, however, the excess i ve s i l t a t i o n , log jams or damage to spawning beds w i l l have r e s u l t e d from logg ing operat ions on p r i va te ly -owned lands. This study does not cons ider po s s i b l e cour t ac t i on s which might be a v a i l a b l e f o r damage caused by Crown l i c e n s e e s , s i nce i n most cases , f a c t of a l i c e n c e and permiss ion to operate would c o n s t i t u t e a persuas ive defence to the Crown's a c t i o n . Ce r t a i n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l quest ions a r i s e i n t h i s d i s cu s s i on due to the d i v i ded p r o v i n c i a l and f ede ra l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n i n t h i s area of i n t e r f a c e between t imber and f i s h e r y resources . May the p r o v i n c i a l Crown sue i n t o r t f o r damage to f i s h , i n which i t has a " p r o p r i e t a r y i n t e r e s t " , but which are a f ede ra l l e g i s l a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and are sub jec t to the p r o t e c t i v e p rov i s i on s of the Canada F i s h e r i e s Act? - 55 -1. PROVINCIAL PROPRIETARY INTERESTS In order to determine whether the p r o v i n c i a l Crown i s e n t i t l e d to commence c e r t a i n c i v i l a c t i on s i n t o r t aga in s t logg ing operators on p r i v a t e l and , the p r o p r i e t a r y i n t e r e s t s which form the bas i s of such ac t i on s must be determined. I t w i l l be necessary to e s t a b l i s h that some l e g a l l y - p ro tec ted p r o p r i e t a r y r i g h t o f the p r o v i n c i a l Crown has been i n t e r f e r e d w i th by these logg ing operat ions in most of the common law a c t i o n s , w i th the p o s s i b l e except ion o f that of p u b l i c nu isance. 1 o I t appears c l e a r from the research o f P ro fe s so r Dale Gibson that on the bas i s o f c e r t a i n p r o v i s i on s of the B r i t i s h North America A c t , the Prov ince does possess s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p r i e t a r y r i g h t s i n na tu ra l 19 resources w i t h i n the P rov i nce , p a r t i c u l a r l y land and m ine ra l s . There i s no reference i n the Act to water or o ther na tu ra l resources such as f i s h , f o r the common law never recognized ownership of such commodities 20 wh i l e they remained in t h e i r na tu ra l s t a t e . The J u d i c i a l Committee o f the P r i v y Counci l has acknowledged on seve ra l occas ions tha t pursuant t o Sec. 109 o f the B r i t i s h North America A c t , the beds of a l l r i v e r s , lakes a n d d t h e r waters w i t h i n the t e r r i t o r i a l 21 l i m i t s o f the Prov ince are the property of the p r o v i n c i a l Crown. At common law ownership o f the beds of n o n - t i d a l waters passed equa l l y to the grantees of lands on e i t h e r s ide of the watercourse. This meant tha t where a conveyance o f the banks of the watercourse d i d not mention ownership o f the bed of the stream, i t was presumed by Eng l i s h law tha t the ownership o f the bed to the mid-po in t o f the stream passed to the 22 grantee. This p r i n c i p l e has been v a r i e d by the B r i t i s h Columbia Land A c t , S.B.C. 1970, Chapt. 17, Sec. 52 (1 ) . The p rov i s i on s of t h i s s t a t u t e - 56 -vest the ownership of the beds of most watercourses i n the Prov ince i n the p r o v i n c i a l Crown, w i th some excep t i on s . At common law, ownership of the bed o f a watercourse c a r r i e s w i t h i t ownership o f the " r i g h t of f i s h e r y " i n the super -adjacent water s . In view of the ownership by the p r o v i n c i a l Crown of the beds o f most non-t i d a l watercourses i n the P rov i nce , a t l e a s t i n non-navigable waters i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the Crown P r o v i n c i a l a l s o possesses f u l l ownership o f 24 the r i g h t s o f f i s h i n g . These f i s h e r y r i g h t s would e n t i t l e the Crown to mainta in an a c t i o n o f p r i v a t e nuisance f o r any i n t e r f e r e n c e w i th such 25 r i g h t s as a r e s u l t of p r i v a t e t imber ha rves t i ng ope ra t i on s . P r o v i n c i a l ownership of p u b l i c lands a l s o c a r r i e s w i th i t p lenary Crown r i g h t s w i th re spect to f l ow ing water . The B r i t i s h Columbia Water A c t , Sec. 3, vests i n the p r o v i n c i a l Crown property i n t e r e s t s i n the use and f low of a l l water w i t h i n the P rov ince . 2. CAUSES OF ACTION The t r a d i t i o n a l causes of a c t i o n i n t o r t are p u b l i c nu i sance, p r i v a t e nu i sance, t r e spa s s , i n t e r f e r e n c e w i th r i p a r i a n r i g h t s , s t r i c t l i a b i l i t y , negl igence and p o s s i b l y breach o f s t a t u t o r y duty. There has been cons ide rab le a n a l y s i s o f these common law ac t i on s i n an environmental law context by Canadian s cho la r s i n recent years and the present d i s c u s s i o n attempts on ly to touch on i s sues not canvassed i n the pub l i shed l i t e r a t u r e . One unique i s sue i n the present c on tex t , i s the absence o f a " s t and i n g " o b s t a c l e , which serves to impede most p r i v a t e p l a i n t i f f s i n environmental - 57 -c i v i l a c t i o n s . Genera l l y speak ing, the p l a i n t i f f must have a p r o p r i e t a r y 27 i n t e r e s t a f f e c t e d i n order to i n i t i a t e one of these a c t i o n s . In the present ca se , o f cour se , i t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l Crown does have p r o p r i e t a r y i n t e r e s t s i n f i s h e r y r i g h t s , water r i g h t s and the beds o f f o r e s t watercourses w i t h i n the P rov i nce . (a) PUBLIC NUISANCE There appear to be two general c l a s se s of a c t i on s i n p u b l i c nu i sance. The f i r s t i n vo l ve s an i n t e r f e r e n c e by the defendant w i th c e r t a i n t r a d i t i o n a l l y - recogn ized p u b l i c r i g h t s , wh i l e the second i nvo l ve s defendant a c t i v i t i e s c o n s t i t u t i n g a nuisance so widespread i n i t s range tha t i t would not be reasonable f o r one person to commence proceedings on h i s own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to put a stop to i t . In each case the A t t o r ney -General o f the Prov ince may seek an i n j u n c t i o n to prevent c on t i nua t i o n o f 28 the o f f e n s i v e a c t i o n . There appears to be a u t h o r i t y f o r the p r o p o s i t i o n tha t the p r o v i n c i a l At torney-Genera l may commence an a c t i o n i n p u b l i c nuisance f o r p o l l u t i o n of some p r o v i n c i a l watercourses . (At torney-Genera l 29 of Canada vs. Ewen). Th i s case i n vo l ved p o l l u t i o n o f the Fraser R i ve r by o f f a l from f i s h canne r i e s . In the case, the f ede ra l A t to rney -Genera l had commenced the a c t i o n , but the court acknowledged the r i g h t o f the p r o v i n c i a l A t torney-Genera l to take proceedings w i th respect to the nu i sance. I t i s arguable t h a t t h i s and other sewage p o l l u t i o n cases i n Canada are a p p l i c a b l e to the logg ing debr i s p o l l u t i o n s i t u a t i o n which r e s u l t s i n s i m i l a r l y harmful e f f e c t s to the f i s h environment. In the event o f s u b s t a n t i a l l ogg ing deb r i s which c o n s t i t u t e s an ob s tac l e to a p u b l i c r i g h t o f n a v i g a t i o n , the p r o v i n c i a l At torney-Genera l may a l s o be ab le to ma inta in an a c t i o n i n p u b l i c nu i sance. (A t to rney -- 58 -General o f Canada vs . B r i s t e r e t a l . ) The B r i s t e r case i n vo l ved an i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h the p u b l i c r i g h t o f n av i g a t i on by the de fendant ' s sunken wrecks. The Crown c la imed damages equal to the cost of removing the wrecks from the defendant ' s p roperty as ob s tac le s to nav i ga t i on and a l s o c la imed damages i n common law nu i sance. The t r i a l judge found tha t the wrecks 31 c o n s t i t u t e d a p u b l i c nu i sance. As has been d i scussed above, the case law appears to i n d i c a t e t ha t there i s no t r a d i t i o n a l " p u b l i c r i g h t " o f f i s h i n g i n non-navigable non-32 t i d a l waters i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The p r o v i n c i a l Crown i n these cases i s 33 the owner o f the r i g h t o f f i s h e r y and would t he r e f o r e be e n t i t l e d t o main-t a i n p r i v a t e ac t i on s f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f t h i s r i g h t . An a c t i o n i n p u b l i c nu i sance, however, might be founded upon the c l e a r p u b l i c r i g h t o f f i s h e r y 34 i n t i d a l water s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i th re spect to salmon spec ies i n these wate r s , which depend upon i n l a n d f o r e s t stream spawning beds f o r s u r v i v a l . I f salmon were k i l l e d by logg ing p o l l u t i o n i n f o r e s t streams, a d i r e c t r e s u l t would be ev ident i n t i d a l water salmon popu l a t i on s . P o s s i b l y , the p r o v i n c i a l At torney-Genera l cou ld commence an a c t i o n i n p u b l i c nu i sance. Apart from i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h these t r a d i t i o n a l " p u b l i c r i g h t s " , a nuisance which a f f e c t s a cons ide rab le number o f people i n the enjoyment of t h e i r property i n t e r e s t s may a l s o be a " p u b l i c nu i s ance " . The p u b l i c cha rac te r o f t h i s o f fence appears to be based upon the wide scope o f i t s adverse e f f e c t s , but i t i s not necessary tha t a l l c i t i z e n s be a f f e c t e d , f o r then the o f fence would probably never be e s t a b l i s h e d . (A t to rney - General v s . P.Y.A. Quarr ies L td. )35 The t r a d i t i o n a l view of the nece s s i t y f o r a l a rge number o f p r i v a t e nuisances would appear to m i l i t a t e aga in s t a cause o f a c t i o n o f p u b l i c nuisance f o r damage to Crown-owned f i s h e r y r i g h t s and watercourses i n - 59 -w i ldernes s a reas . The number o f persons a f f e c t e d i n order to c o n s t i t u t e p u b l i c nuisance has been regarded as low as seven f a m i l i e s i n A t t o r ney -General f o r B r i t i s h Columbia vs. Haney Speedways but damage to i n d i v i d u a l p r o p r i e t a r y i n t e r e s t s must s t i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d . Lord Denning 's r a t i o n a l e i n the P.Y.A. Quarr ies case might be used as a bas i s f o r an argument tha t w i ldernes s nuisances cou ld be regarded as " p u b l i c nu i sances " even i n the absence o f l a rge numbers o f p r i v a t e property owners. He r e f e r s to the o b s t r u c t i o n o f a footpath very seldom used except by one o r two persons, but i n d i c a t e s that s i nce the o b s t r u c t i o n a f f e c t s everyone i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y who may wish to walk a long i t , a p u b l i c nuisance 37 has been caused. Th is reasoning may be a p p l i c a b l e to ob s t r uc t i on s i n nav igab le r i v e r s by l og jams o r other logg ing debr i s or to i n t e r f e r e n c e w i th t i d a l Water f i s h e r i e s due to upstream f i s h k i l l s . Even Lord Denning, however, assumes t h a t the second " c l a s s " o f p u b l i c nuisance depends upon i n t e r f e r e n c e w i th p r o p r i e t a r y i n t e r e s t s of 38 a t l e a s t some p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s . Apart from t r a d i t i o n a l p u b l i c r i g h t s , t h e r e f o r e , i n the absence o f p r i v a t e p r o p r i e t o r s , there may be some d i f f i c u l t y i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the foundat ion f o r a s u i t a b l e a c t i o n i n p u b l i c nuisance as a r e s u l t o f logg ing damage to salmon streams i n w i lde rnes s a reas . Genera l l y speak ing, once the nuisance i s shown to e x i s t , the Crown would be e n t i t l e d to an i n j u n c t i o n p r o h i b i t i n g c on t i nua t i o n of the o f f e n s i v e a c t i v i t y . The Ewen case i n d i c a t e s , furthermore t ha t the Court w i l l i s sue an i n j u n c t i o n whenever an i l l e g a l ac t i s threatened or i n a l l cases where 39 i t appears to the cour t j u s t and convenient to grant t h i s remedy. (b) PRIVATE NUISANCE In view o f the c l e a r Crown property r i g h t s i n f i s h , stream beds and - 60 -waterf low,"™ whether these resources are l o ca ted upon p r i va te l y -owned or p u b l i c l and s , an appropr i a te cause o f a c t i o n f o r i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h these r i g h t s appears to be t ha t o f p r i v a t e nu i sance. The i n t e r f e r e n c e , gene ra l l y speak ing, must be the r e s u l t o f a c t i v i t i e s by the defendant out s ide the p l a i n t i f f ' s land t ha t i n t e r f e r e w i th the p l a i n t i f f ' s use and enjoyment o f t ha t land and tha t produce mate r i a l i n j u r y to the 41 p l a i n t i f f ' s p rope r t y . The other c l a s s of nuisance recogn ized by Eng l i sh commun law, an i n t e r f e r e n c e producing personal d i scomfor t on 42 the pa r t of the p l a i n t i f f , would not appear to be a p p l i c a b l e to the s i t u a t i o n under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . In the case o f t imber ha rves t i ng ope ra t i on s , the bas i s o f the Crown's a c t i o n would probably be the i n d i r e c t damage caused to stream spawning a reas . The Crown i n these cases , presumably, would be seeking an i n j u n c t i o n to h a l t those aspects of the operat ions which were l ead i ng to the complained o f harm and would be seeking compensation f o r the ac tua l damage caused. I f damage to the spawning areas cou ld be e s t a b l i s h e d and eva l ua ted , the r e s u l t of d e p r e c i a t i o n i n economic value might be cons idered 43 i n an assessment of compensation. I f there were no p o l l u t a n t damage t o the spawning areas and the g ran t ing o f an i n j u n c t i o n were e f f e c t i v e i n p revent ing the c on t i nua t i o n of the nu i sance, d e p r e c i a t i o n i n economic 44 value would probably not be cons idered i n awarding damages. As owner of the f i s h i n g r i g h t s , fu r thermore, the p r o v i n c i a l Crown would be e n t i t l e d to .an i n j u n c t i o n , w i thout proof of damage, once i n t e r -ference through p o l l u t i o n or d e s t r u c t i o n o f spawning beds has been 45 e s t a b l i s h e d . In a d d i t i o n , on the bas i s of the McKie case, the Crown would be e n t i t l e d to recover any economic lo s ses r e s u l t i n g from spawning 46 bed damage. - 61 -I f the bas i s of the Crown's case i s i n d i r e c t damage caused by excess i ve s i l t a t i o n due to e ros ion r e s u l t i n g from ca re l e s s logg ing a c t i v i t i e s , one po s s i b l e defence would be t ha t the e ros ion was due to natu ra l causes, not the defendant ' s ope ra t i on s . As d i scussed by P ro fe s so r McLaren, i t would appear t ha t on the bas i s o f the case law w i t h re spec t to f l o o d i n g damages, the onus would l i e upon the defendant logg ing 47 operator to e s t a b l i s h t h i s defence of v i s major. Another po s s i b l e defence would be that the damage complained o f was not fo reseeab le by the defendant. While f o r e s e e a b i l i t y does not appear to be as important a f a c t o r i n nuisance l i t i g a t i o n as i t i s i n the negl igence cases, the P r i v y Counc i l i n the Wagon Mound (No. 2) case concluded t ha t f a u l t of 48 some k ind must be proven to e s t a b l i s h nu i sance. Current understanding o f the c lo se r e l a t i o n s h i p between t imber ha rves t i ng operat ions and the e f f e c t on the f o r e s t stream environment would appear to weaken such a defence. A t h i r d p o s s i b l e defence, t h a t the stream p o l l u t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s a " p u b l i c nu i sance" would probably a l so not be succes s fu l i n view o f the 49 c l e a r i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h the Crown's p r i v a t e p r o p r i e t a r y r i g h t s . P ro fe s so r E l de r has d i scussed the problem of e s t a b l i s h i n g , on the bas i s of the case law, whether the damage to Crown i n t e r e s t s i n t h i s 50 case would c o n s t i t u t e a " m a t e r i a l i n j u r y " . Genera l l y speak ing, n ineteenth century judges he ld the r a t he r un soph i s t i c a ted op in i on t ha t such an i n j u r y 51 must be v i s i b l e to o rd i na r y persons conversant w i t h the sub jec t matter . Th is requirement o f " v i s i b i l i t y " r a i s e s an i n t e r e s t i n g quest ion i n view o f the d e l i c a t e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the f o r e s t stream environment and f i s h s u r v i v a l d i scus sed i n Chapter Two. C l e a r l y , widespread f i s h k i l l s or massive log jams would be " v i s i b l e " damage, but would exces s i ve s i l t a t i o n upon spawning beds be " v i s i b l e " ? On the bas i s o f the case law, - 62 -modern e c o l o g i c a l concepts of food pyramids and " b i o l o g i c a l m a g n i f i c a t i o n " may not be r e l i e d upon to found a cause of a c t i o n i n p r i v a t e nuisance f o r an increase i n f o r e s t stream s i l t a t i o n due to streambank l ogg ing . Accor -ding to the cases , s u b s t a n t i a l damage such as f i s h k i l l s perhaps must be e s t a b l i s h e d before the Court would cons ider s c i e n t i f i c evidence r e l a t i n g 52 t h i s damage to t imber ha rves t i ng opera t i on s , (c) TRESPASS D i r e c t damage to spawning beds caused by the ya rd ing of logs through f o r e s t streams or the dumping of logg ing debr i s might c o n s t i t u t e the bas i s f o r an a c t i on i n t respass i n view of the Crown ownership of most o f the streambeds i n the P rov ince . Accord ing to P ro fe s so r s Burns and S l u t s k y , the Crown would not be requ i red to prove ac tua l damage, but i t would be necessary to prove a d i r e c t phy s i ca l ent ry by the defendant 53 upon Crown l and . P ro fe s so r LaForest be l i e ve s that ownership of the streambed as i n the cases under d i s c u s s i o n , would e n t i t l e the owner to ma inta in such an a c t i o n in t respass f o r any d i r e c t ent ry onto the streambed, such as the 54 con s t r u c t i on of a dam. The e a r l y upper Canadian case, At torney-Genera l vs. Perry appears to support the p r o p o s i t i o n tha t Crown p r o p r i e t a r y r i g h t s 55 i n f o r e s t streambeds would j u s t i f y a p r i v a t e a c t i o n i n t re spas s . The t r a d i t i o n a l l y " s t r i c t " l i a b i l i t y f o r damages caused by the t re spas so r has been mod i f ied by cu r ren t no t i on s of " f a u l t " i n P ro fe s so r F leming ' s v iew, but he concludes that the i n t e n t i o n a l t re spas so r i s s t r i c t l y l i a b l e f o r a l l damage caused by h i s presence upon the " l a n d " , 56 p a r t i c u l a r l y i f such damage i s fo reseeab le. This might lead to l i a b i l i t y f o r a great deal of spawning bed i n j u r y r e s u l t i n g from trespass by logg ing - 63 -personnel and equipment. In a d d i t i o n , i f the t respass i s a con t i nu i ng i n t e r f e r e n c e , the Crown may be e n t i t l e d to an i n j u n c t i o n s topp ing the 57 t respass comple te l y . In a nuisance a c t i o n , on the other hand, an i n j u n c t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n on ly p a r t i a l r educ t i on i n the defendant ' s a c t i v i t i e s 58 might be i s sued by the Court . (d) INTERFERENCE WITH RIPARIAN RIGHTS I f watercourses running through Crown lands have been p o l l u t e d or subjected to exces s i ve s i l t a t i o n as a r e s u l t o f logg ing operat ions on upstream pr i va te l y -owned t imber l and s , the Crown may have a r i g h t o f a c t i o n f o r i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h i t s r i p a r i a n r i g h t s . Th i s cause o f a c t i o n as i t app l i e s to l i t i g a t i o n by p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s has been d i scussed i n 59 d e t a i l by Pro fes sor s E l d e r , Burns and S Iutsky and Lucas i n recent/yea r s . The present a n a l y s i s , t h e r e f o r e , i s r e s t r i c t e d to con s i de ra t i on s unique to i n i t i a t i o n of such a cause of a c t i o n by the p r o v i n c i a l Crown. The a u t h o r i t i e s mentioned above have i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n many cases , an a c t i o n fin f o r i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h r i p a r i a n r i g h t s i s p r e f e r ab l e to one i n nu i sance. Th is i s because success by the p l a i n t i f f i s not dependent on proof o f damage and because the i n j u n c t i o n i s sued w i l l complete ly terminate defendant a c t i v i t i e s . The common law doc t r i n e o f r i p a r i a n r i g h t s i s summarized i n the words of Lord MacNaghten i n John Young e t a l v s . Bank ier D i s t i l l e r y Company: "every r i p a r i a n p r o p r i e t o r i s . . . e n t i t l e d to the water of h i s stream i n i t s na tu ra l f low wi thout s en s i b l e d im inut i on or i nc rease and w i thout s en s i b l e a l t e r a t i o n i n i t s cha rac te r or q u a l i t y . Any i nva s i on of t h i s r i g h t caus ing ac tua l damage or c a l c u l a t e d to found a c l a im which may r e s u l t i n an adverse r i g h t e n t i t l e s the par ty i n j u r e d to the i n t e r v e n t i o n of the c o u r t . " 6 1 I t i s not c l e a r e x a c t l y what degree o f p o l l u t i o n or s i l t a t i o n w i l l - 64 -c o n s t i t u t e a " s e n s i b l e " a l t e r a t i o n i n q u a l i t y of water to c o n s t i t u t e an i n t e r f e r e n c e w i th r i p a r i a n r i g h t s . P ro fe s so r E lde r concludes t ha t a degree o f p o l l u t i o n and a l t e r a t i o n of q u a l i t y l e s s than tha t which i s necessary to found an a c t i o n i n nuisance i s s u f f i c i e n t to found an CO a c t i o n f o r i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h r i p a r i a n r i g h t s to na tu ra l q u a l i t y . I t i s t r ue tha t most of the cases concern p o l l u t i o n o f streams by sewage or by the depos i t o f d e l e t e r i o u s mate r i a l from i n d u s t r i a l ope ra t i on s . There are some cases , however, which have cons idered the CO problem of excess s i l t a t i o n . In F i she r vs . D o o l i t t l e s u b s t a n t i a l amounts o f c l a y and sand were dumped by a defendant i n a l o c a t i o n from which the ma te r i a l was f a l l i n g or being washed i n t o the p l a i n t i f f ' s m i l l pond. The Court granted an i n j u n c t i o n p r o h i b i t i n g the defendant from con t i nu i ng the ope ra t i on s . Garrow, J .A . cons idered tha t the defendant ' s operat ions were " i n j u r i o u s l y a f f e c t i n g the p l a i n t i f f ' s pond and charac -64 t e n z e d t h i s i n t e r f e r e n c e as a " n u i s ance " . I t seems c l e a r t ha t such exces s i ve s i l t a t i o n , s u f f i c i e n t to be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a " nu i s ance " , would a l s o c o n s t i t u t e a c l e a r i n t e r f e r e n c e w i th r i p a r i a n r i g h t s , a lthough the a c t i o n was not c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n these terms. The case o f F i t z g e r a l d vs . F irbank a l so cons idered the d i scharge 65 o f mud i n t o a f i s h i n g stream. The e f f e c t o f the d i scharge was to muddy the stream render ing i t too opaque f o r the f i s h to f eed , to damage the spawning beds and to d r i v e away the f i s h . In Lord J u s t i c e L i n d l e y ' s v iew, t h i s f o u l i n g o f the r i v e r c o n s t i t u t e d an in f r ingement of the p l a i n t i f f ' s p r o p r i e t a r y r i g h t s o f such a degree to e n t i t l e him to mainta in an a c t i o n on the case f o r n u i s a n c e . 5 5 Such s i l t a t i o n would a l s o s a t i s f y the l e s s s t r i c t requirements to ma inta in an a c t i o n f o r i n t e r f e r e n c e w i th r i p a r i a n r i g h t s to na tu ra l water q u a l i t y . On the bas i s of the cases , the defendant would c l e a r l y not be - 65 -l i a b l e f o r damage caused t o t a l l y by natu ra l e ro s i on from the l o c a t i o n 67 o f h i s o p e r a t i o n . As i n d i c a t e d , however, the defendant cou ld not r e l y upon the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f na tu ra l causes to the stream p o l l u t i o n to excuse that a t t r i b u t a b l e to h i s own o p e r a t i o n s . 6 8 The operator probably would be l i a b l e f o r exces s i ve s i l t a t i o n caused by the presence of logg ing machinery i n the salmon stream i t s e l f or by the dumping o f ea r th i n t o the stream dur ing logg ing road c o n s t r u c t i o n . I t i s unc l ea r , however, whether he cou ld be l i a b l e f o r exces s i ve and unnatural e ro s i on r e s u l t i n g from the denuding o f t imber lands through i l l - a d v i s e d " cont inuous " c l e a r c u t t i n g . The r a t i o n a l e f o r the r i g h t of the r i p a r i a n owner to proceed w i thout proof o f ac tua l damage appears to be based upon the common law concept o f p r e s c r i p t i o n . That i s , the p l a i n t i f f would be e n t i t l e d to commence h i s a c t i o n i n order to prevent the defendant ' s i n va s i on from 69 " r i p e n i n g " i n t o an adverse p r e s c r i p t i v e r i g h t . I t may be quer ied whether i n B r i t i s h Columbia, where the defence of p r e s c r i p t i o n i s not a v a i l a b l e , the o r i g i n a l r a t i o n a l e i s s t i l l a p p l i c a b l e . There i s some disagreement among l ega l s cho la r s as to whether the B r i t i s h Columbia Water A c t , R.S.B.C. 1960, Chapter 405, Sec t i on 3 and the Land Reg i s t r y A c t , R.S.B.C. 1960, Chapter 208 and Amendments, Sec t i on 38A (1) have a c t u a l l y abo l i s hed the doc t r i ne o f p r e s c r i p t i o n w i th respect to a r i g h t to d i scharge wastes i n t o p r o v i n c i a l w a t e r c o u r s e s . ^ P ro fe s so r Lucas has a l s o argued t ha t the Water A c t , Sec t i on 3 does not abrogate the Eng l i s h common law r i p a r i a n r i g h t to water of undiminished q u a l i t y . ^ Th i s conc lu s i on has been c r i t i c i z e d by Mr. Harry D.C. Hunter, a Vancouver s o l i c i t o r s p e c i a l i z i n g i n water law as w e l l as by Mr. W i l l i a m - 66 -S. Armstrong i n h i s 1962 U.B.C. Law Review a r t i c l e 7 ? The above controversy i s academic f o r purposes of the present d i s c u s s i o n . Even i f the common law p r i v a t e r i p a r i a n r i g h t to water of undiminished q u a l i t y does not su rv i ve the passage of the Water A c t , t h i s would not a f f e c t the Crown's r i p a r i a n r i g h t i n the present case. In a d d i t i o n to any p r i v a t e Eng l i sh common law r i p a r i a n r i g h t which the Crown may possess, i t a l s o possesses a l l those r i g h t s r e f e r r e d to s p e c i f i c a l l y in the Water A c t , Sec t ion 3, as vested i n the Crown. The Crown, as r i p a r i a n owner i n the present f a c t s i t u a t i o n , as a r e s u l t of the s t a t u t o r y m o d i f i c a t i o n and any r e s i dua l r i p a r i a n r i g h t s , possesses the f u l l panoply of r i p a r i a n r i g h t s desc r ibed i n Lord MacNaghten's judgement. I t would f o l l o w , t h e r e f o r e , t ha t the Crown would be e n t i t l e d to mainta in an a c t i o n f o r i n t e r f e r e n c e w i th i t s r i p a r i a n r i g h t s , w i thout the nece s s i t y to prove any damage to i t s economic i n t e r e s t , as a r e s u l t of excess s i l t a t i o n of watercourses running through Crown l ands , caused by logg ing operat ions upon pr i vate ly -owned upstream t imber lands . (e) STRICT LIABILITY The Eng l i sh common law theory of s t r i c t l i a b i l i t y , g ene r a l l y r e f e r r e d 73 to as the Rule in Rylands vs. F l e t c h e r , may be a p p l i c a b l e to logg ing operat ions r e s u l t i n g in damaged f o r e s t stream resources . Genera l l y speak ing, accord ing to t h i s r u l e an occup ie r of land w i l l be s t r i c t l y l i a b l e f o r any damage caused by the escape of a dangerous substance which he has brought onto h i s l and . The r u l e conta ins three major elements: (1) The substance i n quest ion must be " l i k e l y to do m i s ch i e f i f i t e scapes " , (2) the use which leads to the escape must be a " n o n - n a t u r a l " use of the l a n d , and (3) 'there must be an "escape from the defendant ' s l a n d . " ^ - 67 -In the case o f logg ing ope ra t i on s , there does not appear to be an a r t i f i c i a l accumulat ion of a substance, such as water , which was not o r i g i n a l l y on the land and t imber ha rve s t i ng can be regarded as a " n a t u r a l " use of f o r e s t lands . I f the machinery employed i n t imber ha rves t i ng operat ions were unsu i ted f o r the t e r r a i n and r e s u l t e d i n severe d i s turbance and e ros ion of the s o i l , i t might be arguable t h a t , wh i l e logg ing was a na tu ra l use, t h i s means of accompl i sh ing i t was 75 not " n a t u r a l " . In Michalchuk vs. Ratke, the Court regarded p e s t i c i d e a p p l i c a t i o n as a na tu ra l use but cons idered a p p l i c a t i o n from a i r c r a f t to be unusua l , thereby b r i n g i n g the case w i t h i n the r u l e i n Rylands vs. 76 F l e t c h e r where damage was caused to a neighbour ing land owner 's c rops. I t has been he ld that logg ing operat ions are a " n a t u r a l " use of f o r e s t lands in B r i t i s h Columbia: "I t h i nk i t i s c l e a r t ha t the use of the w i l d , f o r e s t ed areas of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r logg ing i s a proper and o rd inary use of such areas and i s f o r the general b e n e f i t of the community." (Canadian Forest Products L im i ted vs.  Hudson Lumber Company L i m i t e d ) . // In t h i s case, f i r e from an unknown cause broke out on the defendant ' s land where i t was c a r r y i n g on logg ing operat ions and was c a r r i e d by wind to ad j o i n i n g l and . The Judge d i d not cons ider the gasol ine-powered y a r d e r , from which the f i r e may have o r i g i n a t e d , to be a "dangerous" t h i ng and dec l i n ed to extend the r u l e i n Rylands vs. F l e t c h e r to t h i s case. I t i s a l s o notab le that he concluded that the impos i t i on o f s t r i c t l i a b i l i t y upon the logg ing operat ions might c r i p p l e the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , the most 78 important economic a c t i v i t y i n the P rov ince . I t may be argued, however, t ha t the a r t i f i c i a l accumulat ion of earth and other debr i s dur ing logg ing road con s t r u c t i on may very we l l b r i n g the present case w i t h i n the r u l e i n Rylands vs. F l e t c h e r . As Salmond notes , - 68 -wh i l e the r u l e i s not a p p l i c a b l e to the land i t s e l f or to th ings which are the product of na tu ra l f o r c e s , i t may be a p p l i c a b l e to the escape of th ings n a t u r a l l y on the l a nd , which have been a r t i f i c i a l l y accumulated by the defendant so tha t t h e i r escape does more m i s ch i e f than i t would 79 otherwise have done. In a d d i t i o n , accord ing to Salmond's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the Eng l i sh case law, the defendant may a l s o be r e spon s i b l e f o r the escape of th ings n a t u r a l l y on the land i f they are due to the a l t e r a t i o n by him i n the na tu ra l c ond i t i on o f h i s l and , (see Whalley vs. Lancash i re 80 & York sh i re Railway Co. ) . Continuous c l e a r c u t t i n g , logg ing road c o n s t r u c t i o n , or exces s i ve use of sk idders might c o n s t i t u t e " a l t e r a t i o n i n the natu ra l c o n d i t i o n " of the land upon which the logg ing operat ions are being conducted. The s o i l , of course, i s n a t u r a l l y on the l a n d , but i t s e ros ion as a r e s u l t of na tu ra l f a c t o r s has been a cce l e r a ted by the a c t i v i t i e s of the logg ing opera to r . I f Rylands vs. F l e t c h e r were a p p l i c a b l e , the logg ing operator would be s t r i c t l y l i a b l e f o r the damage caused to Crown p r o p r i e t a r y r i g h t s i n the streambed and a s soc i a ted f i s h e r y resources . I t i s improbable that the defence of s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t y cou ld be r a i s ed by a logg ing operator i n the present case. The essence of t h i s defence i s t ha t i f an a c t i v i t y i s commanded by s t a t u t e and n e c e s s a r i l y leads to the complained-of damage, no a c t i o n w i l l l i e w i thout proof of 81 neg l i gence . (Tahsis Company vs. Canadian Forest Products L i m i t e d ) . In the Tahs is case, both the p l a i n t i f f and defendant had r ece i ved orders from the Forest Se rv i ce to burn s l a sh on t h e i r l ands . These orders were i s sued pursuant to the Forest Act and c o n s t i t u t e d , i n the op in ion of the Judge, imperat i ve s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t y . He concluded, t h e r e f o r e , t ha t the r u l e i n Rylands vs. F l e t c h e r d id not apply to the case where damage had op been caused by s l a sh f i r e s burning out of c on t r o l f o l l o w i n g such an order? - 69 -In f a c t there cou ld be no l i a b i l i t y i n view of t h i s imperat ive s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t y w i thout ac tua l neg l igence being proved on the par t o f the defendant. This defence has been mod i f ied cons ide rab l y by Anglo-Canadian court s i n recent years and i s s ub jec t to s t r i c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ^ i n a d d i t i o n , the Forest Se rv i ce has not ye t extended i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n to p r i va te ly -owned t imber lands f o r purposes other than pest c on t r o l or f o r e s t f i r e p r e v e n t i o n . 8 ^ ( f ) NEGLIGENCE I f f o r e s t stream damage has r e s u l t e d from ca re le s s or r eck le s s logg ing operat ions in the stream v i c i n i t y , the Crown may be ab le to sue a l i c e n s e e or a p r i v a t e operator i n neg l igence f o r damage to Crown p r o p r i e t a r y i n t e r e s t s . To succeed i n t h i s cause of a c t i o n , the Crown must e s t a b l i s h the f o l l o w i n g elements: (1) The defendant ' s a c t i v i t i e s caused damage to Crown i n t e r e s t s ; (2) The defendant breached the standard of care se t by the law i n these c i r cumstances ; (3) There i s a duty recognized by the law to avo id such damage; (4) The damage i s not too "remote" a r e s u l t of the defendant ' s conduct.85 The problem of " c a u s a t i o n " a r i s e s due to the f a c t that the logg ing operat ions may not be the on ly po s s i b l e cause of sedimentat ion and f i s h k i l l s . I t i s c l e a r t ha t there may be a v a r i e t y of o ther causes, such as na tu ra l e r o s i o n , f l o o d c o n d i t i o n s , log jams, other p o l l u t i o n , or i n s e c t i c i d e a p p l i c a t i o n s which may p lay a r o l e i n damaging the f o r e s t stream environment. As P ro fe s so r Katz reasons, even i f the Crown succeeds i n : e s t a b l i s h i n g that - 70 -logg ing operat ions l ed to excess sed imenta t i on , i t would s t i l l not n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w that the excess sedimentat ion caused the f i s h k i l l s . The Crown would s t i l l have to meet the separate burden of prov ing the e t i o l o g y o f the f i s h k i l l s w i th the best b i o l o g i c a l test imony tha t could be obta ined. The Crown must t he re fo re prove the necessary causal connect ion between the logg ing operat ions and the f i s h k i l l s or other stream damage. This may be a fo rmidab le task as P ro fe s so r Franson has i nd i ca ted^/ S e d i -mentation i s an example of " cumulat i ve i n j u r y " , f o r which i t may be d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h a l l the necessary elements in a cause of a c t i on i n neg l i gence. I t may be d i f f i c u l t , f o r example, to adduce s c i e n t i f i c evidence e s t a b l i s h i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between continuous c l e a r c u t t i n g , se r ious s o i l d i s tu rbance and downstream f i s h k i l l s . Th i s c o n s t i t u t e s a " c a u s a t i o n - i n - f a c t " problem. The most commonly employed technique f o r determin ing c a u s a t i o n - i n - f a c t i s the "but f o r " t e s t . I f the acc iden t would not have occurred but f o r the defendant ' s neg l i gence , then h i s conduct i s the cause of the i n j u r y . The act of the defendant must have made a d i f f e r e n c e . I f h i s conduct had noth ing to do w i th the l o s s , he 88 escapes l i a b i l i t y . In view of the e c o l o g i c a l research d i scussed i n Chapter 2, the Crown cou ld probably e s t a b l i s h that the defendant ' s a c t i v i t i e s had r e s u l t e d i n ser ious e r o s i o n , not present i n na tu ra l c o n d i t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n to the c a u s a t i o n - i n - f a c t requi rement, i t must be e s t a b l i s h e d that the defendant ' s a c t i on i s a " m a t e r i a l " or "p rox imate " cause, of the p l a i n t i f f ' s i n j u r y . In t h i s r e s p e c t , the problem of e ros ion and sedimentat ion i s not d i s s i m i l a r to other examples o f cumulat ive i n j u r y , such as those canvassed i n the a i r p o l l u t i o n cases. The Crown must prove on a balance of p r o b a b i l i t i e s that the defendant ' s conduct caused or - 71 -m a t e r i a l l y c on t r i bu ted to the i n j u r y , not merely that i t was po s s i b l e that the i n j u r y might have been so caused. (Bonnington Cast ings L t d . vs. Ward!aw) The Bonnington case supports the p r opo s i t i o n that any c o n t r i b u t i o n by the a l l e ged a c t i v i t i e s which more than n e g l i g i b l y con t r i bu ted to 90 the damage, would be " m a t e r i a l " cause of the damage. In the f a c t s i t u a t i o n s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i t would appear tha t the Crown need only prove that the defendant ' s operat ions con t r i bu ted an amount of sedimentat ion which was not n e g l i g i b l e to the f o r e s t stream environment and t he re fo re d i d help to s u f f oca te the f i s h eggs or k i l l the adu l t f i s h . In determin ing whether the logg ing operator has exe r c i s ed " reasonab le " care to avo id such damage, the courts may cons ide r customary p r a c t i c e s i n the f o r e s t i ndus t r y f o r as P ro fe s so r Linden notes , those who act i n accordance w i th the general p r a c t i c e of t h e i r trade or p ro fe s s i on are u s u a l l y exonerated 91 from c i v i l l i a b i l i t y . Linden conc ludes , however, that adherence to general p r a c t i c e i s not n e c e s s a r i l y conc lu s i ve as to l ack of neg l i gence. Support 92 f o r t h i s conc lu s ion may be found i n the Canadian Forest Products case. The Judge concluded that the p a r t i c u l a r p r a c t i c e fo l l owed by the defendant, as we l l as being i n accordance w i th t rade p r a c t i c e s , was based upon common sense and upon the ex igenc ies of logg ing in t h i s P rov ince and t he re fo re dec l i ned to hold the defendant neg l i gen t in not wetting-down the ground around the coal deck p i l e i n which the f i r e , which was the sub jec t of the a c t i o n , had 93 s t a r t e d . The s t rength of the defence of compliance w i th custom i s r e l e van t to the present d i s cu s s i on i n view o f the r e l a t i v e l y recent appearance of p u b l i c concern f o r f i s h e r y resources p r o t e c t i o n . Logging p r a c t i c e s which have developed over the years and which do not take i n t o con s i de ra t i on the requirements of o ther resource users should not be r e f e r r e d to as a defence in the present case. - 72 -Another element which the Crown must e s t a b l i s h i s the ex i s t ence of a duty on the pa r t of a logg ing operator to e xe r c i s e reasonable care to avo id damage to streambed resources. The case law appears to support P ro fe s so r L inden ' s conc lus ion t h a t , g ene ra l l y speak ing, Canadian Courts have he ld tha t such a duty a r i s e s whenever some harm i s reasonable f o r e -seeab le , unless good p o l i c y reasons e x i s t f o r denying such a d u t y ^ Fore-s e e a b i l i t y i s very important i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the ex i s t ence of such a duty , but i t cannot be denied that there are o ther important p o l i c y f a c t o r s to 95 be cons idered by the cour t i n each case. In the present case, concepts of " e n t e r p r i s e l i a b i l i t y " and i n c r e a s i n g community s e n s i t i v i t y w i t h respect to environmental p r o t e c t i o n , as we l l as the economic importance- o f the logg ing i ndus t r y in B r i t i s h Columbia, would a l l c o n s t i t u t e p o l i c y f a c t o r s to be cons idered by the courts i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a duty of care on the pa r t of the operator to avo id damage to stream resources . The f i n a l e lement, that of "remoteness" o r "p rox imate " cause i s the means employed by courts to d i s t i n g u i s h between the consequences o f the defendant ' s operat ions that w i l l produce l i a b i l i t y and those that w i l l not. While such f a c t o r s as f o r e s e e a b i 1 i t y and causat ion have been cons idered by the court s in drawing t h i s l i n e , P ro fe s so r Linden concludes that the j u d i c i a l d e c i s i o n . r e q u i r e s a cost b e n e f i t a na l y s i s and value s e l e c t i o n . ^ I t i s d i f f i c u l t , t h e r e f o r e , to p r e d i c t e x a c t l y the extent to which a cour t might f i n d a c a r e l e s s logg ing operator l i a b l e f o r f o r e s t f i s h e r i e s resource damage and r e s u l t i n g economic l o s se s . Many p o l i c y f a c t o r s would come i n t o p lay i n a d d i t i o n to t h e . t r a d i t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n concepts of " d i r e c t cause" and " f o r e s e e a b i 1 i t y " . As w i t h the d i v i s i o n between day and n i gh t i n t o a t w i l i g h t zone, i t may be d i f f i c u l t to draw the l i n e e x a c t l y , but one may determine gene ra l l y on which s ide of - 73 -the l i n e c e r t a i n heads o f damage would be p l aced . (Lockwood vs. Brentwood  Park Investments Ltd.]*? For example, i t does not seem unreasonable to p lace stream c lean-up costs f o r spawning beds and r e p a i r expenses w i t h i n the l i a b i l i t y o f the neg l i g en t opera to r . On the o ther hand, i t may be unrea-sonable to expect the operator to bear the cost o f economic los ses r e s u l t i n g from l o s s o f Crown revenue as a r e s u l t of reduced f i s h popu la t ion or to pay compensation f o r damage to a e s t h e t i c resources . In view of the remote l o c a t i o n of most l ogg ing operat ions and the d i f f i c u l t y which the Crown may encounter i n adducing evidence w i th respect to neg l i gence, the doc t r i ne o f res i p sa l o q u i t u r may be a p p l i c a b l e to these f a c t s i t u a t i o n s . For example, i f s u b s t a n t i a l f i s h k i l l s occur as a r e s u l t of excess sedimentat ion o r the presence o f a s u b s t a n t i a l amount o f l ogg ing debr i s i n f o r e s t streams and there i s ; ' o n l y one logg ing opera t i on being conducted i n the v i c i n i t y of the stream, i t i s arguable tha t i n the o rd i na r y course of events such an acc ident would not have occurred i n the absence o f neg l i gence, (see Sco t t vs. London & St . Cather ines Dock Co.f? The procedural e f f e c t of t h i s doc t r i ne i s u n c e r t a i n , but the most t r a d i t i o n a l treatment i s to regard i t as pe rm i t t i n g an i n fe rence of neg l igence to be drawn, i n the absence o f an e xp l ana t i on . (Temple vs. Terrace T rans fe r L t d . j ^ ' P ro fe s so r L inden, on the other hand, argues tha t va ry ing procedural e f f e c t s should be a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s doc t r i ne depending on the i n d i v i d u a l c i rcumstances 100, i n each case. Ser ious watercourse damage caused by s k i dd ing t imber through stream-beds or b u l l d o z i n g roads through streams would c l e a r l y r e s u l t i n l i a b i l i t y f o r neg l i gence , p r o v i d i n g the above e s s e n t i a l elements were e s t a b l i s h e d by the Crown. In the case of scour ing a c t i o n caused by increased maximum f lows in downstream areas or increases in s i l t load r e s u l t i n g from natu ra l e ros ion as we l l as continuous c l e a r c u t t i n g or ser ious s o i l d i s tu rbance - 74 -in sub -a lp i ne a reas , there may be some d i f f i c u l t y in e s t a b l i s h i n g the causal r e l a t i o n s h i p s r equ i red f o r a neg l igence a c t i o n . In the case o f non - l i c en see s , i t would appear tha t the nuisance ac t i on would be a p r e f e r a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e as a remedy f o r stream damage because of i t s emphasis upon the unreasonable nature o f the i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h Crown p r o p r i e t a r y i n t e r e s t s as cont ra s ted w i th the e x e r c i s e o f reasonable care by the defendant i n the neg l igence a c t i o n . In the case of Crown l i c e n s e e s , where a l t e r n a t i v e s to con t r ac t remedies are r e q u i r e d , wi th the p o s s i b l e except ion o f the a c t i on f o r breach of a s t a t u t o r y duty , negl igence would appear to be the only cause o f t o r t a c t i on a v a i l a b l e to the Crown. (g) CONTRAVENTION OF THE CANADA FISHERIES ACT, R.S.C. 1970, CHAPTER F-14 (FIRST SUPP.), SECTIONS 30, 33(2 ) , 33(3) I f a p r i v a t e logg ing operator or a Crown l i c e n s e e has contravened f i s h e r i e s p r o t e c t i o n p r o v i s i on s of the f ede ra l F i s h e r i e s A c t , the p r o v i n c i a l Crown, whose p r o p r i e t a r y i n t e r e s t s have been adverse ly a f f e c t e d , may be able to r e l y upon such a breach of s t a t u t o r y duty in c i v i l proceedings f o r damages aga in s t the o f fender . There are va r ious r a t i o n a l e s f o r the use o f penal l e g i s l a t i o n by the c i v i l c ou r t s . Most Eng l i s h t e x t w r i t e r s and a u t h o r i t i e s d i scus s the " a c t i o n f o r breach o f s t a t u t o r y duty" as a cause 101 o f t o r t a c t i on d i s t i n c t from an a c t i on f o r neg l i gence. American t e x t w r i t e r s , as w e l l as P ro fes so r s Fleming and L inden, d i scus s the cases in t h i s area as examples of u t i l i z a t i o n o f penal l e g i s l a t i o n by the c i v i l courts and dec l i ne to adopt the orthodox approach of search ing f o r the 102 " i n t e n t i o n of Par l i ament w i t h respect to each s t a t u t e . The p rov i s i on s of the F i s h e r i e s Act which have been contravened by the logg ing operator in the f a c t s i t u a t i o n s under con s i de ra t i on read as f o l l o w s : - 75 -Sect ion 30 "The eggs or f r y of f i s h on the spawning grounds, s h a l l not a t any time be de s t royed . " Sect ion 33 (2) " Subject to s ub - sec t i on ( 4 ) , no person s h a l l depos i t o r permit the depos i t of a d e l e t e r i o u s substance of any type in water f requented by f i s h or i n any p lace under any cond i t i on s where such d e l e t e r i o u s substance or any other d e l e t e r i o u s substance that r e s u l t s from the depos i t of such de l e t e r i ou s substance may enter any such wa te r . " Sect ion 33 (3) "No person engaged i n l o g g i n g , lumber ing, l and c l e a r i n g o r o ther ope ra t i on s , s h a l l put or knowingly permit to be put , any s l a s h , stumps or o ther debr i s i n t o any water f requented by f i s h or t ha t f lows i n t o such wate r , or on the i c e over e i t h e r such wate r , or a t a p lace from which i t i s l i k e l y to be c a r r i e d i n t o e i t h e r such wa te r . " I t i s c l e a r from the broad d e f i n i t i o n of " d e l e t e r i o u s " substance, / J 0 3 conta ined i n Sect ion 33 ( 11 ) , t ha t exces s i ve s i l t a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from the presence of machinery or employees in the streams, would c o n s t i t u t e a depos i t of a " d e l e t e r i o u s substance. " S i l t has in f a c t been de f ined as 104 a d e l e t e r i o u s substance in R. vs. Stearns-Roger. I t i s debatab le , of cour se , whether continuous c l e a r c u t t i n g or t imber ha rve s t i ng p r a c t i c e s caus ing e ros ion would c o n s t i t u t e a depos i t of a d e l e t e r i o u s substance as de f ined i n Sec t ion 33 (2 ) . The p l a i n t i f f i n a c i v i l p roceed ing , r e l y i n g upon the cont ravent ion o f t h i s s e c t i o n , does have a marked advantage over the Crown i n c r i m i n a l proceedings , s i n ce the burden of proof i n the former case i s a "ba lance of p r o b a b i l i t i e s " onus w i th respect to proof of con t raven t i on . (F loyd vs. Edmonton C i t y Dairy L im i ted e t a l ) . ^ P ro fe s so r Alexander d i scusses the p o s s i b l e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l problems invo l ved i n attempt ing to u t i l i z e a f ede r a l s t a t u t e as the bas i s f o r c i v i l 106. proceedings. As he i n d i c a t e s , however, there are severa l reported cases which r e f e r to f ede ra l s t a tu te s as s e t t i n g up standards o f care which can be recognized i n ; c i v i l proceedings in which the r i g h t s of the p a r t i e s are - 76 -107-determined by common law ru le s . (Wasney vs. Ju ranzsky ) . A s i m i l a r approach would appear to be po s s i b l e w i th respect to cont ravent ion o f f i s h e r i e s p r o t e c t i o n p rov i s i on s i n the F i s he r i e s Ac t . Another i n i t i a l o b j e c t i on to the con s i de ra t i on by a c i v i l court of a v i o l a t i o n of F i s he r i e s Act p r o v i s i on s i s the f a c t t ha t most of the cases in t h i s area concern " s a f e t y " s t a t u t e s , such as i n d u s t r i a l s a f e t y regu-l a t i o n s , t r a f f i c r e g u l a t i o n s , or motor v e h i c l e equipment requirements. P ro fe s so r Fleming qu i t e c l e a r l y r e s t r i c t s t h i s cause of a c t i o n to such 108 s t a t u t e s . I t i s submitted tha t these con s i de ra t i on s should not prec lude the cour t from con s i de r i ng evidence of cont ravent ion o f c e r t a i n s e c t i on s of the F i s h e r i e s Act i n c i v i l proceedings. The reported Canadian cases , w i th respect to c i v i l consequences of Cr imina l Code v i o l a t i o n s , r e f e r to " s a f e t y " p rov i s i on s not d i s s i m i l a r to those conta ined i n the F i s h e r i e s Ac t . P r o v i s i o n s 109, p r o h i b i t i n g the s a l e of f i rearms to youngsters (Wasney ca se ) , c on sp i r a c i e s 110 to lessen compet i t ion (F loyd case) and the s a l e of exp lo s i ve s ( P l a ca t ka vs. I l l Thompson) resemble the F i s he r i e s Act p r ov i s i on s more than they resemble the i n d u s t r i a l s a fe t y and t r a f f i c r e g u l a t i o n p rov i s i on s d i scussed by P ro fe s so r Fleming. The quest ion of whether c i v i l consequences a r i s e from the breach o f the p rov i s i on s of the F i s h e r i e s Act has been cons idered by two Canadian 1T2 cou r t s . In F i l l ion vs. New Brunswick I n t e r na t i ona l Paper Company, the cour t cons idered whether the owner of f i s h i n g nets damaged as a r e s u l t of a breach of the A c t , possessed a r i g h t of a c t i on aga in s t the defendant. I t was concluded tha t the p r o v i s i on s of the s t a t u t e were d i r e c t e d to the p re se r va t i on of f i s h l i f e , not to the p r o t e c t i o n o f the property of i n d i v i d u a l s . The Judge noted, however, t ha t the breach of the s t a t u t e might be cons idered by a cour t i n determin ing the standard of care r equ i red of - 77 -113 the defendant in a neg l igence a c t i o n . I t would be necessary in the l a t t e r case t o e s t a b l i s h the e s s e n t i a l elements o f common law neg l i gence. Although the p l a i n t i f f was not succes s fu l i n the F i l l ion case, the dec i s i o n c l e a r l y envisages the u t i l i z a t i o n o f the F i s h e r i e s Act p r o v i s i on s by the cou r t i n c i v i l proceedings. In a d d i t i o n , i t i s submitted tha t the d e c i s i o n i s not adverse to the p r opo s i t i o n that the Crown, as owner of the r i g h t of f i s h e r y , may be e n t i t l e d to r e f e r to a breach of the F i s h e r i e s Act i n i t s s u i t f o r damages. The p l a i n t i f f in the New Brunswick case was suing f o r damage to h i s f i s h i n g nets caused by f rozen chunks of ma te r i a l d i scharged by the defendant company. The Judge conc luded, not only that the damage to the p l a i n t i f f ' s i n t e r e s t s was unforeseeab le , but a l s o that the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f the fo rces of na tu re , combining p a r t i c l e s of wood w i th water i n f rozen masses, broke the " d i r e c t 114 causal c ha i n " between the defendant ' s d i scharge and the p l a i n t i f f ' s i n j u r y . In the f a c t s i t u a t i o n under d i s c u s s i o n , however, the harm to spawning grounds caused by excess s i l t a t i o n or the depos i t of logg ing debr i s i n the stream, would r e s u l t i n d i r e c t and fo reseeab le damage to f i s h e r y i n t e r e s t s . In a shor t d e c i s i o n , the Exchequer Court of Canada, B r i t i s h Columbia Admira l ty D i s t r i c t , he ld t ha t sh ipowners, who had dumped o i l i n t o the Fraser R i v e r , were l i a b l e f o r damage to the p l a i n t i f f ' s nets r e s u l t i n g from t h i s 115 breach of the F i s h e r i e s A c t . (Suzuki vs. " I on ian Leader " ) . The cour t d i s t i n g u i s h e d the F i l l ion case on the f a c t s , reasoning a l so that that case had turned on "remoteness of damage" w i th the element of f r o s t coming i n as a supervening f a c t o r . In the Suzuki case, the i n j u r y was d i r e c t and f o re seeab le . The case i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y in view o f i t s f a i l u r e to a r t i c u l a t e the reasons f o r r ecogn i z i ng the c i v i l consequences of the F i s h e r i e s Act - 78 -v i o l a t i o n s . In view of t h i s d e c i s i o n , i t may be submitted t ha t i f f ishermen are e n t i t l e d to sue f o r damages to t h e i r f i s h i n g gear as a r e s u l t o f a breach o f the F i s h e r i e s A c t , a f o r t i o r i , the owner o f the r i g h t of f i s h e r y would be e n t i t l e d to sue f o r d i r e c t i n j u r y to the f i s h and h i s property i n t e r e s t s t h e r e i n r e s u l t i n g from the defendant ' s conduct-There appear to be fou r t r a d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s cons idered by the courts in t h e i r search f o r l e g i s l a t i v e i n t e n t i o n to provide a c i v i l remedy. P ro fe s so r Linden summarizes these as f o l l o w s : (1) The l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n has been v i o l a t e d by the defendant. (2) Some los s has been caused by the p l a i n t i f f as a r e s u l t of the v i o l a t i o n . (3) The acc i den t was of a k ind the s t a t u t e was aimed at p revent i ng . (4) The p l a i n t i f f was w i t h i n the c l a s s of persons p ro tec ted by the l e g i s l a t i o n . 116 I t may be argued t ha t each of these requirements i s met i n the case of cont ravent ion o f the above-mentioned F i s he r i e s Act p r o v i s i o n s by p r i v a t e logg ing operators or Crown l i c e n s e e s . In view of the wide scope o f the p rov i s i on s of the F i s h e r i e s Act there should be no d i f f i c u l t y in e s t a b l i s h i n g a breach of the l e g i s l a t i o n and s a t i s f y i n g the f i r s t requirement. The second f a c t o r , t h a t o f c au s a t i o n , i n vo l ve s con s i de ra t i on s s i m i l a r to those d i scussed above w i th respect to the common law ac t i on of neg l i gence. The p r o v i n c i a l Crown should be able to show that the defendant ' s conduct contravening the F i s h e r i e s Act was a d i r e c t cause of damage to the f i s h environment, r e s u l t i n g in l o s s to the owner o f the r i g h t of f i s h e r y . The t h i r d requirement appears to be s a t i s f i e d i n the f a c t s i t u a t i o n s under d i s cu s s i on s ince the damage caused would c l e a r l y be of such a nature as i s - 79 -contemplated by the f i s h e r y p r o t e c t i o n p rov i s i on s of the F i s h e r i e s Ac t . I t i s debatable whether the f o u r t h requirement i s met i n the case of damage to p r o v i n c i a l Crown i n t e r e s t s . I t might be argued, f o r example, that the F i s he r i e s Act does not attempt to p ro tec t the owners of a r i g h t f i s h e r y , s ince i t i s u n l i k e l y that Par l i ament possesses l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y to extend p r o t e c t i o n to p r o p r i e t a r y i n t e r e s t s , which are w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n . An argument might be made that the owners of the r i g h t of f i s h e r y would be the l o g i c a l persons to r e l y upon a breach of s t a t u t e r e s u l t i n g i n harm to t h e i r p r o p r i e t a r y i n t e r e s t s . I t must be admitted t ha t w i t h respect to the above p r o v i s i o n s of the F i s h e r i e s A c t , t h i s argument i s not s t rong. 3. REMEDIES I f the Crown succeeds i n one of the above causes of a c t i o n , i t w i l l become necessary to determine which remedies should be requested from the cou r t . There are' two a l t e r n a t i v e s , an i n j u n c t i o n or damages, although i n many cases p a r t i c u l a r l y where past harm has been caused to the p l a i n t i f f ' s p r o p r i e t a r y i n t e r e s t s and the defendant ' s wrongful a c t i v i t i e s con t i nue , the court may award damages and grant an i n j u n c t i o n . ' G e n e r a l l y speak ing, damages are awarded f o r past harm, s i nce the i n j u n c t i o n i s intended to p r o h i b i t the defendant ' s a c t i v i t y and thereby avoid f u tu re damage. Where a p a r t i a l i n j u n c t i o n only i s g ranted, however, and some cont i nu ing i n t e r f e r e n c e w i th the p l a i n t i f f ' s p r o p r i e t a r y r i g h t s i s permit ted by the c o u r t , the cour t may order a lump sum award f o r " p r o s p e c t i v e " damages. (Rombough vs. Crestbrook  Timber Ltd.ji*^ ^ (a) INJUNCTIONS Pro fes so r MacLaren concludes that an i n j u n c t i o n p r o h i b i t i n g the - 80 -defendant ' s o f f e n s i v e a c t i v i t i e s i s the most e f f e c t i v e remedy i n cases of environmental damage s ince the order fo rce s the defendant to cease 118 h i s p o l l u t i n g ope r a t i on . S ince i n j u n c t i o n i s an equ i t ab l e remedy, the 119 power of the cour t to i s sue such an order i s d i s c r e t i o n a r y . This d i s c r e t i o n must be exe r c i s ed j u d i c i a l l y , however, and gene r a l l y speak ing , once the p l a i n t i f f has shown tha t h i s r i g h t s have been v i o l a t e d , he i s e n t i t l e d to an i n j u n c t i o n "as of course " to prevent the recurrence of the 120 v i o l a t i o n , except under s p e c i a l c i rcumstances. This p r i n c i p l e appears to have been f o l l owed by the h ighest a u t h o r i t i e s i n Canada and there can be 121 no doubt that t h i s i s the law i n Canada today. I t i s not so c l e a r , however, which f a c t o r s are to be cons idered by the courts in determin ing whether to refuse to grant an i n j u n c t i o n . By Lord C a i r n s ' Act of 1858, now in f o r ce i n B r i t i s h Columbia pursuant to the Eng l i sh Law A c t , R.S.B.C. 1960, Chapter 129, a Court of Equ i ty i s au tho r i zed to grant damages in l i e u of an i n j u n c t i o n , a power i t d i d not possess a t common law. Most Canadian a u t h o r i t i e s conclude t h a t , s t r i c t l y speak ing, the present r u l e i n Canada i s tha t inconvenience to the defendant should not 122 be a f a c t o r cons idered when r e fu s i n g to grant an i n j u n c t i o n . P ro fe s so r Lucas, however, concludes tha t wh i l e no " ba l anc i ng e q u i t i e s " d o c t r i n e i s gene ra l l y enunc ia ted , the judges in f a c t cons ider the elements of economic and s o c i a l nece s s i t y and b e n e f i t which w i l l r e s u l t from the e xe r c i s e of 123 the c o u r t ' s d e c i s i o n to award damages in s u b s t i t u t i o n f o r an i n j u n c t i o n . The B r i t i s h Columbia Court of Appeal has cons idered the ques t ion 124 of damages i n l i e u o f an i n j u n c t i o n i n Rombough vs. Crestbrook Timber L t d . The court was p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n whether the p l a i n t i f f s were e n t i t l e d to p rospect i ve damages as a r e s u l t of the p ro spec t i ve con t i nua t i on of the nuisance caused by the smoke from the defendant ' s s awmi l l . - 81 -The general power of the Court to grant an i n j u n c t i o n whenever i t deems j u s t and convenient should a l s o be noted. (Laws Dec la ra to ry A c t , R.S.B.C. 1960, C. 213, s. 2(29). This power e n t i t l e s the Court to r e s t r a i n the breach of a f ede ra l or p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e upon a p p l i c a t i o n by the p r o v i n c i a l A t t o rney -Gene ra l , de sp i te the f a c t that s p e c i f i c p e n a l t i e s 125 are conta ined i n the s t a t u t e . (Attorney-Genera l of Canada vs. Ewen). Estey no tes , fu r thermore, t h a t i n such ca se s , the Attorney-Genera l need not show any i nva s i on of a p r o p r i e t a r y r i g h t and may seek any remedy he cons iders 126 commensurate w i th the nature of the o f f ence . In a d d i t i o n , as noted above, the p r o v i n c i a l At torney-Genera l may seek an i n j u n c t i o n to r e s t r a i n any p u b l i c nu i sance, even i n the absence of a breach of the s t a t u t e . The Ewen case i l l u s t r a t e s the Cou r t ' s p r a c t i c e i n 127 t h i s re spec t . This was an a c t i on f o r an i n j u n c t i o n to r e s t r a i n the defendant from depo s i t i n g f i s h o f f a l i n the F raser R i ve r to the detr iment of nav i ga t i on and annoyance of the p u b l i c . Mr. J u s t i c e Drake acknowledged the r i g h t of the p r o v i n c i a l At torney-Genera l to apply f o r an i n j u n c t i o n to r e s t r a i n t h i s p u b l i c nu i sance, but concluded that the f ede ra l At torney-Genera l was a proper p l a i n t i f f i n t h i s case due to the f ede ra l i n t e r e s t i n t i d a l r i v e r s , harbours 128 " and f i s h e r i e s . The i n j u n c t i o n was granted de sp i t e the presence of r e l e van t pena l ty p rov i s i on s i n the f ede ra l F i s h e r i e s Ac t . In the case of f o r e s t stream damage under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the Crown should exper ience l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n ob ta i n i n g an i n j u n c t i o n to r e s t r a i n p r i v a t e logg ing operators from conduct ing t h e i r operat ions i n such a f a sh ion as to cause damage to Crown p r o p r i e t a r y i n t e r e s t s even i f the " ba l anc i ng e q u i t i e s " approach were adopted. I t i s c l e a r t ha t such an i n j u n c t i o n would not have the i n e v i t a b l e e f f e c t of c l o s i n g down the logg ing ope r a t i on . I t would requ i re the operator s imply to e xe r c i s e more care i n h i s t imber ha rves t i ng a c t i v i t i e s . - 82 -I f s u b s t a n t i a l harm has been caused to f i s h e r y resources as a r e s u l t of the defendant ' s a c t i v i t i e s p r i o r to the g ran t ing of the i n j u n c t i o n , the 129 court would probably a l so award damages. As was noted i n the Rombough case, fu r thermore, i f the i n j u n c t i o n were not a t o t a l i n j u n c t i o n and a measure o f nuisance or harm were permi t ted to con t i nue , the Court could award p ro spec t i ve damages f o r f u tu re harm to be caused to Crown p r o p r i e t a r y i n t e r e s t s . The quest ion o f quantum of damages, always a problem where non-market va lue natu ra l resources are concerned, i s cons idered i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . Presumably the extent o f the defendant ' s l i a b i l i t y f o r harm r e s u l t i n g from h i s a c t i v i t i e s would have been determined by the C o u r t , on the bas i s of p o l i c y con s i de ra t i on s and value judgements p r i o r to cons ide r i ng the measure of damages. (b) DAMAGES The primary p r i n c i p l e of damages i n t o r t law i s t ha t compensation, 130 not punishment or de te r rence , i s the r a t i o n a l e . In cases of t o r t s caus ing damage to l a n d , wh i l e compensation of the p l a i n t i f f remains the bas i c c r i t e r i o n , the general r u l e as to the measure of damages i s t ha t the p l a i n t i f f i s e n t i t l e d to an amount equal to the d iminut ion i n the value o f h i s property 131 as a r e s u l t of the defendant ' s a c t i v i t y (Jones vs. Gooday). Anglo-Canadian courts have gene r a l l y r e j e c t e d the cost o f r e p a i r s as a measure of damages. McGregor notes that the bas i s of t h i s l a t t e r j u d i c i a l tendency appears to be that the cost of replacement or r e p a i r may be i napp rop r i a te because i t 132 i s out of a l l ' p r o p o r t i o n to the p l a i n t i f f ' s l o s s . The t rue r a t i o n a l e of the dec i s i on s r e j e c t i n g the cost of r epa i r s may be that the reasonableness 133 o f the p l a i n t i f f ' s de s i r e to r e p a i r the property should be cons ide red . Repair costs have been a l lowed as a measure of damages i n at l e a s t - 83 -one case, Hol lebone vs. Midhurst and Fernhurst B u i l d e r s ' . ^ T h e p l a i n t i f f ' s country mansion had been damaged by f i r e as a r e s u l t of the de fendant ' s neg l i gence. The costs of r e p a i r exceeded the d iminut ion in market va lue of the h i s t o r i c b u i l d i n g . In the c i rcumstances , the O f f i c i a l Referee determined t ha t due to the unique cha rac te r of the house and i t s l o c a t i o n , i t would be unreasonable to expect the p l a i n t i f f to s e l l i t i n i t s damaged s t a te and leave the a rea. He r e f e r r e d to severa l cases i n which r e p a i r 135 costs have been regarded as the appropr ia te measure of damages. In the case o f spawning stream damage, s i nce compensation i s the ba s i c r a t i o n a l e , the cos t of stream bed r epa i r s might not n e c e s s a r i l y be the t rue measure of damage. I t i s conce ivab le that the damage might be i r r e p a r a b l e or t h a t , at l e a s t , d im inut ion in the value of the stream or f i s h resource might be f a r g rea te r than the cost of c lean-up opera t i on s . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e tha t an assessment o f the t rue d im inut ion i n va lue o f the resources cou ld not be prov ided w i th any c e r t a i n t y . In view of these d i f f i c u l t i e s , i t i s probable that the cour t might regard the cos t of c lean-up as a minimum amount o f damages. To determine whether the defendant should be requ i red to meet astronomical cost s of spawning bed r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , r e f o r e s t a t i o n to reduce e ros ion or o ther necessary eng ineer ing p r o j e c t s , the Court would be f o r ced to cons ider a c o s t / b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s , to assess whether, i n view of cu r ren t s o c i a l p r i o r i t i e s , the b e n e f i t s to s o c i e t y of such expenditure exceeded the costs o f defendant l i a b i l i t y . Would such high damage f i g u r e s destroy the logg ing i ndus t ry ? The Courts might meet such problems f i r s t l y by reducing the scope of l i a b i l i t y and secondly by dec id i ng whether such damages were " r ea sonab le " . The general r u l e regard ing d iminut ion of value apparent ly becomes i n a p p l i c a b l e i n cases of i r r e p a r a b l e damage. An under l y ing r a t i o n a l e - 84 -of " reasonable compensation" must emerge in such cases. The major problem in t h i s area remains whichever r u l e of law i s s e l e c ted to a s c e r t a i n damage assessments - the d i f f i c u l t y of e v a l u a t i n g c e r t a i n resources in monetary terms. Although P ro fe s so r Lucas regards 136 none of the cu r ren t resource-economic models as completely s a t i s f a c t o r y , P ro fes so r Pearse argues that " I t i s probably not i naccura te to say tha t the i n c r ea s i n g s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n techniques of e va l ua t i n g non-pr i ced resources a l ready permits est imates of value that are as p rec i s e as those used r e g u l a r l y in other kinds of i n v e s t -ment d e c i s i o n s " . ' 3 ' Pearse notes that c e r t a i n resources can e a s i l y be eva luated i n terms of market v a l ue , such as harvested t imbe r , f i s h , m inera l s and hydro-e l e c t r i c i t y . The b e n e f i t s of such items are r e f l e c t e d by p r i c e s , w h i l e the costs are r e f l e c t e d i n . t h e cost of labour and the c a p i t a l r equ i red f o r development and e x p l o r a t i o n . Such l a t t e r i t ems , however, do not i n c l ude o ther non-market costs such as the disappearance of w i l d r i v e r s , the removal of v i r g i n f o r e s t s and the a l t e r a t i o n o f w i ldernes s areas. He acknowledges the dangerous "tendency to regard b e n e f i t s t ha t generate no revenues as v a l u e l e s s " and concludes that p o s s i b l y such bene f i t s are not sub jec t to eva lua t i on i n orthodox pecuniary terms. The Courts are l e f t w i t h the problem of a s ses s ing damages i n pecuniary terms. I n j u n c t i v e r e l i e f w i l l o f ten be an appropr ia te remedy in the case of con t i nu ing nuisance or p o l l u t i o n . In order to assess damage amounts, however, the Courts w i l l be fo rced to re-examine t h e i r s o c i a l f unc t i on s as a u t h o r i t a t i v e dec i s i on -maker s , whose a u t h o r i t y r e s t s upon a broad s o c i a l consensus. In t h i s area of environmental damage assessment, they w i l l be fo rced to enter broad avenues of s o c i a l c o s t / b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s , a r o l e tha t they have always unconsc ious ly p layed. He re to fo re , costs and bene f i t s have - 85 -t r a d i t i o n a l l y been measured i n pecuniary terms. As new costs and b e n e f i t s not s u s cep t i b l e to monetary eva l ua t i on are recognized by s o c i e t y , the Courts w i l l be requ i red to adopt new assessment procedures to perform t h e i r f u n c t i o n . D. STATUTORY OFFENCES - CRIMINAL PROSECUTIONS In a d d i t i o n to con t r ac t and t o r t remedies, the p r o v i n c i a l Crown may a l s o have the opt ion of p rosecut ing a p r i v a t e operator o r a Crown l i c en see f o r damage to f o r e s t stream resources. S ince the l e g i s l a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n over f i s h e r y p r o t e c t i o n re s t s w i th the f ede ra l Pa r l i ament , however, there are no p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u te s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to t h i s matter . The s t a tu te s d i scussed below are d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y to o b j e c t i v e s other than f i s h p r o t e c t i o n and t h e i r enforcement agenc ie s , i n a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y s i n g l e resource f a s h i o n , ev ince l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n i n i t i a t i n g prosecut ions 139 f o r o ther reasons. The Water A c t , s e c t i on 41 ( k ) , f o r example, p r o h i b i t s the depos i t i n any stream of any sawdust, t imber and other ma te r i a l s a f t e r the depos i t o r has been ordered to cease h i s a c t i v i t i e s by the Water R ights Branch engineer. This s ec t i on cou ld be i n t e r p r e t e d to i nc lude the dumping of l a r ge amounts of ea r th i n t o streams dur ing logg ing road c o n s t r u c t i o n . The maximum penalty f o r cont ravent ion of t h i s s e c t i on i s $250.00 or imprisonment ranging to twelve months. 141 The Health Act i s concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h the p r o t e c t i o n o f p u b l i c hea l th but c e r t a i n sec t i on s o f the r egu l a t i on s conta in general p r o h i b i t i o n s aga ins t the depos i t o f re fuse o r waste ma te r i a l i n streams or l a ke s . The terms appear to be wide enough to i n c l ude logg ing debr i s or road con s t r u c t i on m a t e r i a l s . The Act prov ides a f i n e not exceeding $500.00 or imprisonment - 86 -f o r s i x months f o r cont ravent ion of these p r o v i s i o n s . 142 The Forest Act prov ides no p r o v i s i on s r e l a t i n g to stream p r o t e c t i o n o r environmental management o f logg ing ope ra t i on s . The on ly sec t i on s w i t h marginal re levance to the present d i s cu s s i on are sec t i on s 36(6) and 36(15). The former prov ides tha t depos i t s under Tree Farm Licences s h a l l be sub jec t to such payment as the l i c e n c e p r o v i de s , wh i l e the l a t t e r prov ides tha t the l i c en see s h a l l manage the Tree Farm L icence i n accordance w i th the manage-ment and working p l an , which conta ins stream p r o t e c t i o n p r o v i s i o n s . Cont ra -vent ion of these sect ions cou ld lead to a pena l ty ranging from $50.00 to $1,000.00 accord ing to s e c t i on 139 o f the Ac t . The summary nature of these o f fences and the small p ena l t i e s prov ided f o r would emasculate any enforcement o f these p r o v i s i o n s . In f a c t , P ro fe s so r Lucas and Mr. P a t r i c k Good have concluded tha t p r o v i n c i a l agencies gene ra l l y 143 have l i t t l e i n t e r e s t in i n i t i a t i n g prosecut ions in these areas. Reasons f o r such re luc tance range from a d i s i n c l i n a t i o n by s p e c i a l i z e d departments to i n t e r f e r e i n o ther departmental a d m i n i s t r a t i v e areas to a tendency to regard t h i s type o f environmental l i t i g a t i o n as the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the f ede r a l F i s h e r i e s Se rv i ce i n view of the s t rong p r o t e c t i o n p r o v i s i on s i n the Canada F i s h e r i e s Ac t . In a d d i t i o n , s t a f f shortages and inadequate f i n a n c i a l resources tend to r e l ega te such enforcement to r e l a t i v e l y low p r i o r i t y in departmental programmes. E. CONCLUSIONS 1. I t appears t ha t the p r o v i n c i a l Crown would have l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y in ob ta i n i n g an i n j u n c t i o n to h a l t logg ing operat ions caus ing damage to Crown resources. - 87 -2. In a d d i t i o n , due to the p r o p r i e t a r y i n t e r e s t s of the p r o v i n c i a l Crown in f i s h e r y re sources , spawning beds and watercour ses , the p r o v i n c i a l Crown w i l l not face the " s t and i n g " problems encountered by p r i v a t e l i t i g a n t s i n environmental a c t i o n s . 3. C i v i l and c r i m i n a l enforcement a l t e r n a t i v e s are c l e a r l y a v a i l a b l e to the p r o v i n c i a l Crown, but i t i s u n l i k e l y tha t they w i l l be u t i l i z e d , i n view of the preference by Crown agencies f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i on and the e xe r c i s e of l i c e n s i n g powers. 4. U n t i l resource l e g i s l a t i o n i s amended to apply to t imber ha rve s t i ng operat ions on p r i v a t e l ands , however, the c i v i l causes o f a c t i on d i scussed may be of use to Crown agencies in attempt ing to p r o t e c t common resources . 5. Due to the post f a c t o cha rac te r o f c r i m i n a l and c i v i l l i t i g a t i o n , such an approach, i s c l e a r l y not s u i t a b l e f o r the bas i s of a comprehensive environmental management system. Such a system requ i re s f l e x i b i l i t y , i n c e n t i v e s to i n d u s t r y , a general s p i r i t of cooperat ion on the pa r t o f the regu la ted i n d u s t r i e s and the en fo r c i ng resource agencies. 6. P ro fe s so r Lucas has a l so noted a c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t which might 144 •. weaken p r o v i n c i a l re so l ve to conduct such l i t i g a t i o n e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y . In the f i r s t p l a c e , the i n d u s t r i e s to be regu la ted i n t h i s case c o n t r i b u t e a s u b s t a n t i a l po r t i on of p r o v i n c i a l resource income. In the second p l a c e , the p r o v i n c i a l government i t s e l f , i n recent y ea r s , has p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the f o r e s t i ndus t ry by purchas ing con t r o l of severa l f o r e s t products companies, i n c l u d i n g Canadian C e l l u l o s e L t d . , Kootenay Forest Products L t d . and other ope ra t i on s . 7. I t i s c l e a r t ha t some enforcement i s necessary f o r any management regime, but succes s fu l management i s imposs ib le w i thout general cooperat ion - 88 -by p a r t i e s i nvo l ved i n the r e g u l a t i v e a c t i v i t y . I f such general cooperat ion i s not a t t a i n e d through educa t i on , the adaptat ion of t r a d i t i o n a l l e ga l concepts to the context o f cu r ren t percept ions of ecosystems i n t e g r i t y may be necessary. The above d i s cu s s i on c o n s t i t u t e s an example o f such an adapta t i on . 8. The l i n e a r , segmented cha rac te r of l e ga l a n a l y s i s and r e g u l a t i o n enforcement may not be compatible wi th a general ecosystems approach to resource management. As P ro fe s so r Ca ldwel l has i n d i c a t e d , i n such a comprehensive management system, dec i s ion-making would move away from r e l i a n c e upon l e ga l p r i n c i p l e s and l i t i g a t i o n and concentrate upon the 145 determinat ion o f s c i e n t i f i c f a c t s and s i t e s p e c i f i c requirements. In such a system, on the bas i s of general i ndu s t r y coope ra t i on , g u i d e l i n e s and f l e x i b l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e procedures are p r e f e r a b l e to s t r i c t l e g a l i s t i c approaches. 9. Comprehensive environmental management w i l l r equ i re some l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y and s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s may be r equ i r ed to enforce resource a l l o c a t i o n accord ing to s o c i a l p r i o r i t i e s . Even though broad consensus i s assumed, the pe r s i s t ence of p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s and s h o r t - s i g h t e d economic mot i va t ion w i l l n e ce s s i t a t e some p u b l i c s upe r v i s i on o f p r i v a t e i ndu s t r y . In an ecosystems con tex t , s i n g l e r e sou r ce -o r i en ted enforcement p o l i c i e s w i l l no longer s u f f i c e and cooperat ion between resource s p e c i a l i s t s w i l l be r equ i red i n o rder to enforce e f f e c t i v e l y m u l t i p l e resource management l e g i s l a t i o n . This w i l l r equ i re cooperat ion between a l l the present s i n g l e resource agencies such as the Water Rights Branch, the Health Department, the Forest S e r v i c e , the F i sh and W i l d l i f e Branch, the Department of Highways, the P o l l u t i o n Control Board, the f ede ra l F i s h e r i e s Se rv i ce and - 89 -the Department of Mines. 10. The c r e a t i o n o f a new m u l t i p l e resource environmental o r i e n t e d enforcement o f f i c e r coo rd i na t i n g the e x p e r t i s e of a l l these resource agency r ep re sen ta t i ve s may be the most e f f e c t i v e means of managing such an ecosystems o r g a n i z a t i o n . 11. One of the major problems f o r the courts in u t i l i z i n g new e c o l o g i c a l sc iences i s the problem of environmental damage e v a l u a t i o n . This r equ i re s the court s to enter i n t o new areas of c o s t / b e n e f i t a n a l y s i s , weighing non-market resources aga in s t t r a d i t i o n a l l y recogn ized economic b e n e f i t s . There has been some development i n assessment of non-economic b e n e f i t s i n the areas o f damages f o r pain and s u f f e r i n g , f o r l o s s o f amenit ies and f o r d i s tu rbance of s cen i c beauty a s soc i a ted w i th r ea l e s t a te va lues . C l e a r l y the t r a d i t i o n a l l e ga l system does have the f l e x i b i l i t y r equ i red to meet the new cha l lenges of the environmental c r i s i s . The c h i e f requi rement, t h e r e f o r e , i s f o r lawyers and judges to f a m i l i a r i z e themselves w i t h the comp lex i t i e s o f t h i s developing area of knowledge. CHAPTER IV NOTES 1. I n te r v i ew, Scarrow, op. c i t . , n. I l l - 16. 2. I n te r v i ew, West, op. c i t . , n. IT - 17. 3. I n te r v i ew, Scarrow, op. c i t . , n. I l l - 16. . 4. Loc. c i t . 5. Cheshire and F i f o o t , ed s . , Law of Contract 8th ed. (London: But te rwor ths , 1972) at 583. 6. (1854), 9 Exch. 341; 156 E.R. 145 at 151. 7. V i c t o r i a Laundry (Windsor), L td . v. Newman I ndus t r i e s L t d . , [1949] 2 K.B. 528 at 539. 8. Loc. c i t . 9. Cheshire and F i f o o t , op. c i t . , n. 5, a t 587. 10. [1911] 2 K.B. 786 (C.A.) at 792 p_er Vaughan W i l l i a m s , L . J . 11. P.H. Pearse, "Toward a Theory of M u l t i p l e Use: The Case o f Recreat ion Versus A g r i c u l t u r e " (1969), 9 Natura l Resources Journal 561. 12. H.J. Campbel l, "Economic and S o c i a l S i g n i f i c a n c e o f Upstream Aquat ic Resources on the West Coast" i n Symposium, op. c i t . , n. 11. 13. M. Clawson and J . L . Knetsch, Economics of Outdoor Recreat ion ( Ba l t imo re : Johns Hopkin Univ. P re s s , 1966T 14. P.H. Pearse, "Natu ra l Resource P o l i c i e s in B r i t i s h Columbia: An Economist ' s C r i t i q u e " i n R. Shearer , ed. E x p l o i t i n g our Economic  P o t e n t i a l : P u b l i c P o l i c y and the B.C. Economy (Toronto: H o l t , Re inhart and Winston, 1968) a t 55, 57. 15. See supra , p. 16. F i s h e r i e s A c t , R.S.C. 1970, C.F.-14 ( F i r s t Supp.), sec t i on s 30, 33(2 ) , 33(3). See i n f r a , p. 17. Minutes, March 1976 meeting, Environmental Law Subsec t ion , B.C. Branch, Canadian Bar A s s o c i a t i o n . At t h i s meet ing, r ep re sen ta t i ve s of the B.C. F i sh and W i l d l i f e Branch, Canada Environmental P r o t e c t i o n Se rv i ce and Department o f J u s t i c e d i scussed cu r ren t problems in enforcement of F i s he r i e s Act P r o v i s i o n s . These i nc luded (1) inexper ienced f i e l d o f f i c e r s (2) poor evidence c o l l e c t i o n (3) l ack o f i n t e r e s t by Crown Counsel (4) high burden of proof (5) l en i ence o f Courts . - 90 -- 91 -18. Dale, Gibson, "The C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Context o f Canadian Water P l ann ing " (1969), 7 A l b e r t a Law Review 71 ( c i t e d as " C o n t e x t " ) ; " C o n s t i t u t i o n a l J u r i s d i c t i o n over Environmental Management in Canada" (1973), 23 U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Law Journa l 54 ( c i t e d as " J u r i s d i c t i o n " ) . 19. Gibson, " C o n t e x t " , op. c i t . , n. 18 a t 73. 20. Loc. c i t . 21. A . -G. Canada vs. A . -G. Ontar io e t . a l . ( P r o v i n c i a l F i s h e r i e s Re fe rence) , L1898J A.C. 700 at 711; Bur rard Power case, [1911] A.C. 87 a t 94; A. -G. B.C. vs. A. -G. Canada e t . a l . (B.C. F i s h e r i e s ) , [1914] A.C. 153 at 166. 22. Gibson, op. c i t . , n. 18 at 74. 23. B.C. F i s h e r i e s case, supra , n. 21 at 167. 24. I b i d . , at 173. V i scount Haldane concluded that there e x i s t e d no p u b l i c r i g h t o f f i s h i n g i n B.C. n o n - t i d a l waters . There i s some debate about whether t h i s p u b l i c r i g h t does, i n f a c t , e x i s t i n nav igab le n o n - t i d a l waters. See Re: P r o v i n c i a l F i s h e r i e s (1896), 26 S.C.R. 444 at 520 per S t rong, C . J . 25. McKie vs. K.V.P. Company, [1948] 0'.R. 398 (H.C. ) . 26. See P h i l i p Anisman, "Water P o l l u t i o n Contro l in Ontar io " , (1972), 5 Ottawa Law Review 342; P.T. Burns e t a l , Environmental Abuse and the  Canadian C i t i z e n : A Study of the Adequacy of Legal Remedies (Mimeoed U.B.C. Facu l ty o f Law, 1973); P.S. E l d e r , "Environmental P r o t e c t i o n through the Common Law" (1973), 12 Western Law Review 107; J . C . Juergensmeyer, "Common Law Remedies and P r o t e c t i o n o f the Environment" (1971), 6 U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Law Review 215; G.V. LaFo re s t , " R i p a r i a n Rights i n New Brunswick" (1960), 3 Canadian Bar Journa l 135; A.R. Lucas e t a l . , "Environmental Contro l Through C i v i l Legal A c t i o n " in B.C. Annual Law Lectures 1970 (Vancouver: Cont inu ing Legal Educat ion , 1970) 15; McLaren, J .P .S . "The Common Law Nuisance Act ions and the Environmental ' B a t t l e - Well-Tempered Swords o r Broken Reeds?" (1972), 10 Osgoode H a l l Law Journa l 505; McLaren, J . P . S . , "The Law of Torts and P o l l u t i o n " in New Developments in the Law o f T o r t s " i n Law Soc ie ty of  Upper Canada Spec ia l Lectures 1973 (Toronto: R ichard DeBoo L t d . , 1973) 309. 27. McLaren, "Common Law", op. c i t . , n. 26 at 511, 517. 28. Loc. c i t . 29. (1895), 3 B.C.R. 468 ( F u l l c t . ) . 30. (1943), 3 D.L.R. 50 (N.S.S.C.) a t 62. 31. Loc. c i t . 32. See supra , n. 24. 33. Loc. c i t . 34. B.C. F i s h e r i e s case, supra , n. 21 at 170. - 92 -35. [1957] 2 Q.B. 169 (C.A.) at 191. 36. (1963), 39 D.L.R. (2d) 48 (B.C.S .C. ) . 37. P.Y.A. Quarr ies case, sup ra , n. 35 a t 191. 38. Loc. c i t . 39. Ewen case, supra , n. 29 at 471. 40. See supra , pp. 14 - 15. 41. Southport Corporat ion v. Esso Petro leum, [1956] A.C. 218 at 224 per D e v l i n , J . 42. Walker v. McKinnon I ndu s t r i e s L t d . , [1949] O.R. 549 (H.C.) at 556. 43. B.C. Pea Growers L im i ted v. Portage La P r a i r i e (1965), 50 W.W.R. 415 (S .C.R. ) . 44. Rombough v. Crestbrook Timber L td - (1966), 55 W.W.R. 577 (B .C.C.A. )at 587 per MacLean, J .A. 45. McKie case, supra , n. 25 at 414. 46. Loc. c i t . 47. McLaren, "Common Law", op. c i t . , n. 26 a t 521. 48. The Wagon Mound (No. 2 ) , [1966] 2 A l l E.R. 709 (P.C.) at 717 per_ Lord Re id. 49. McLaren, "Common Law", op. c i t . , n. 26 at 516; E l d e r , op. c i t . , n. 26 at 121. 50. E l d e r , op. c i t . , n. 26 at 139. 51. S a l v i n v. North Brancepeth Coal Company (1874), L.R. 9 Ch. 705 at 707 per S i r George J e s s e l . See E l d e r , l o c . c i t . 52. I b i d . , at 709. 53. P.T. Burns and B.V. S l u t s k y , "The E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f To r t L i a b i l i t y as an E c o l o g i c a l Contro l Device: An A n a l y s i s " i n Burns, Environmental Abuse, op. c i t . , n. 26,.-..111 at 162. 54. LaFores t , op. c i t . , n. 26 a t 138. 55. (1864), 15 U.C.C.P. 329. 56. F leming, The Law o f Torts 4th ed. ( A u s t r a l i a : The Law Book Company L t d . , 1973) at 38. 57. Burns and S l u t s k y , op. c i t . , n. 53 at 168. - 93 -58. Loc. c i t . 59. See a r t i c l e s c i t e d supra , n. 26. 60. Burns and Skutsky, op. c i t . , n. 53 at 198. 61. [1893] A.C. 691 (H.L.) at 698. 62. E l d e r , op. c i t . , n. 26 a t 141. 63. (1912), 5 D.L.R. 549 (Ont. C .A . ) . 64. I b i d . , at 551. 65. [1897] 2 Ch. 96 (C .A . ) . 66. I b i d . , a t 101. 67. S to l lmeyer vs. T r i n i d ad Lake Petroleum Company, [1918] A.C. 485 at 499 per Lord Sumner. 68. See supra , n. 47 and accompanying t e x t . 69. See Lord MacNaughten's statement sup ra , at n. 61: "Any invas ion of t h i s r i g h t . . . c a l c u l a t e d to found a c l a im which may r ipen i n t o an adverse r i g h t e n t i t l e d the party i n j u r e d to the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f the Cou r t . " 70. Burns and S l u t s k y , op. c i t . , n. 53 at 198. Water A c t , Sect ion 3: "The property i n and the r i g h t to the use and f low o f a l l water at any time i n any stream in the Prov ince are f o r a l l purposes vested i n the Crown i n r i g h t o f the P rov i nce , ....No r i g h t to d i v e r t or use water may be acqu i red by p r e s c r i p t i o n . " Land Reg i s t r y A c t , Sect ion 38 A (1) (1) Subject to subsect ion ( 2 ) , a l l e x i s t i n g methods o f a cqu i r i n g a r i g h t i n or over land by p r e s c r i p t i o n are abo l i shed and, w i thout l i m i t i n g the g e n e r a l i t y of the f o rego i ng , the common law d o c t r i n e of p r e s c r i p t i o n . . . [ i s ] a b o l i s h e d . " 71. A.R. Lucas, "Water P o l l u t i o n Contro l Law i n B r i t i s h Columbia" (1969), 4 U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Law Review 56. 72. W.S. Armstrong, "The B r i t i s h Columbia Water Ac t : The End o f R ipa r i an R ight s " (1962), 1 U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Law Review 583. 73. (1866), LKR. 1 Ex. 255. - 94 -74. Salmond on T o r t s , 16th ed. (London: Sweet & Maxwel l , 1973) a t 405. 75. (1966), 57 D.L.R. (2d) 269 (Sask. Q.B.). 76. I b i d . , a t 273. 77. (1959), 20 D.L.R. (2d) 712 (B.C.S.C.) a t 730. 78. Loc. c i t . 79. Salmond, op. c i t . , n. 74 at 416. 80. (1884), 13 Q.B.D. 131 (C.A.) a t 137 per B r e t t , M.R. 81. (1968), 70 D.L.R. (2d) 376 (B.C.S .C. ) . 82. I b i d . , a t 392. 83. A.M. L inden, " S t r i c t L i a b i l i t y , Nuisance and L e g i s l a t i v e A u t h o r i z a t i o n " (1966), 4 Osgoode H a l l Law Journa l 196 at 202. 84. Therefore i t i s improbable that there would e x i s t Forest Se rv i ce orders a p p l i c a b l e to p r i v a t e operat ions tha t cou ld be advanced as j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r c a r e l e s s logg ing p r a c t i c e s . 85. A.M. L inden, Canadian Negl igence Law (Toronto: Bu t te rwor th s , 1972) at 5. 86. M i l t on Ka t z , "The Funct ion of Tor t L i a b i l i t y i n Technology Assessment" (1969), 38 U n i v e r s i t y of C i n c i n n a t i Law Review 587 a t 620. 87. R.T. Franson, "The P r i v a t e C i t i z e n Technology and Environmental Abuse: An In t roductory Study of the Need f o r Legal Rights to a Hea l t h f u l Env i ronmenf ' i n Burns, Environmental Abuse, op. c i t . , n. 26, 1. 88. L inden, "Canad ian " , op. c i t . , n. 85 a t 254. 89. [1956] A.C. 613 (H.L.) at 621 £er Lord Re id. 90. I b i d . , at 623. 91. L inden, "Canad ian " , op. c i t . , n. 85 a t 67. 92. Canadian Forest Products v. Hudson Lumber Company L im i ted (1960), 20 D.L.R. (2d) 712 ( B . C . S . C ) . 93. I b i d . , a t 719. 94. See Home O f f i c e v. Dorset Yacht Co. L t d . , [1970] 2 A l l E.R. 294 at 297, c i t e d i n L inden, "Canad ian " , op. c i t . , n. 85 at 209. 95. Loc. c i t . 96. I b i d . , a t 274. - 95 -97. (1970), 10 D.L.R. (3d) 143 (N .S.S.C. - A.D.) a t 159. 98. (1865), 3 H. & C. 596; 159 E.R. 665 at 667 per E r i e , C . J . 99. (1966), 57 D.L.R. (2d) 631 (B.C.C.A.) a t 640 p_er Tysoe, J .A . 100. L inden, "Canad ian " , o p . c i t . , n. 85 at 191. 101. Salmond, op. c i t . , n. 74 a t 245. 102. F leming, op. c i t . , n. 56 a t 122; L inden, "Canad ian " , op. c i t . , n. 85 at 82; A lexander , " L e g i s l a t i o n and the Standard of Care i n Neg l igence" (1964), 42 Canadian Bar Review 243 at 254. 103. Sect ion 33 (11): (11) For the purposes o f t h i s s e c t i on and s e c t i o n 33 .1 , " d e l e t e r i o u s substance" means (a) any substance t h a t , i f added to any wate r , would degrade or a l t e r or form par t o f a process of degradat ion or a l t e r a t i o n o f the q u a l i t y of that water so tha t i t i s rendered de l e t e r i ou s to f i s h o r to the use by man o f f i s h that f requent t ha t wa te r , or (b) any water that conta ins a substance in such quan t i t y or concen-t r a t i o n , or t ha t has been so t r e a t e d , processed or changed, by heat or o ther means, from a na tu ra l s t a te that i t would, i f added to any other water , degrade or a l t e r or form part of a process of degradat ion or a l t e r a t i o n of the q u a l i t y of t ha t water so that i t i s rendered d e l e t e r i o u s to f i s h or to the use by man o f f i s h tha t f requent tha t water , and w i thout l i m i t i n g the g e n e r a l i t y of the forego ing i nc ludes (c) any substance or any substance that i s par t o f a c l a s s of substances p re s c r i bed pursuant to paragraph (12) ( a ) , (d) any water tha t conta ins any substance o r any substance tha t i s pa r t of a c l a s s of substances in a quan t i t y or concent ra t i on tha t i s equal to o r i n excess of a quan t i t y or concent ra t i on p r e s c r i bed i n respect of t ha t substance or c l a s s of substances pursuant to paragraph (12) ( b ) , and (e) any water t ha t has been subjected to a t reatment , process or change p re s c r i bed pursuant to paragraph (12) ( c ) ; "water f requented by f i s h " inc ludes a l l waters in the f i s h i n g zones of Canada. 104. [1973] 2 W.W.R. 669 (B.C.S.C. ) . 105. [1934] 3 W.W.R. 326 ( A l t a . S.C.) at 328. 106. A lexander , op. c i t . , n. 102 at 261. In a country of d i v i d e d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n such as Canada, a Par l i amentary i n t e n t i o n to con fe r c i v i l causes of a c t i on would be u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s ince i t would be an i nva s i on o f the e x c l u s i v e p r o v i n c i a l power to l e g i s l a t e i n r e l a t i o n to " p roper ty and c i v i l r i g h t s in the P r o v i n c e . " - 96 -107. [1933] 1 W.W.R. 155 (Man. C.A. ) . 108. F leming, op. c i t . , n. 56 at 125. 109. Supra, n. 107. 110. Supra, n. 105. 111. [1941] 1. W.W.R. 528 ( A l t a . C.A. ) . 112. [1934] 3 D.L.R. 22 (N.B.S.C. - A.D.) . 113. I b i d . , at 27. 114. I b i d . , at 28. 115. [1950] 3 D.L.R. 790. 116. L inden, "Canad ian " , op. c i t . , n. 85 at 101. 117. (1966), 55 W.W.R. (N.S.) 517 (B.C.C.A. ) . 118. McLaren, "Common Law", op. c i t . , n. 26 at 547. 119. McKie case, sup ra , n. 25 at 417. 120. Loc. c i t . 121. See cases c i t e d i n E l d e r , op. c i t . , n. 26 at 158. 122. McLaren, "Common Law", op. c i t . , n. 26 a t 552; E l d e r , op. c i t . , n. 26 a t 161; Anisman, op. c i t . , n. 26 at 368. 123. A.R. Lucas, "Legal Techniques f o r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l : the Role o f the P u b l i c " (1971), 6 U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Law Review 167 at 174. 124. Supra, n. 117. 125. (1895), 3 B.C.R. 468 ( F u l l C t . ) . 126. W. E s tey , " P u b l i c Nuisance and Standing to Sue" (1972), 10 Osgoode H a l l Law Journa l 563 at 577. 127. Supra, n. 125. 128. I b i d . , at 470. 129. Supra, n. 117. 130. McGregor on Damages, 13th ed. (London: Sweet & Maxwell L t d . , 1972) a t para . 9. 131. (1841), 8 M.& W. 146; 151 E.R. 985. 132. McGregor, op. c i t . , n. 130 at 1061. 133. Loc. c i t . - 97 -134. [1968] 1 L l o y d ' s Rep. 38. 135. I b i d . , a t 41. 136. Lucas, "Lega l Techniques " , op. c i t . , n. 123 at 183. 137. P.H. Pear se , "Toward a Theory o f M u l t i p l e Use: The Case o f Recreat ion Versus A g r i c u l t u r e " (1969), 9 Natura l Resources Journa l 561 at 573. 138. P.H. Pearse, "Na tu ra l Resource P o l i c i e s in B r i t i s h Co lumbia " , op. c i t . , n. 14 at 55. 139. P. Good, " A n t i - P o l l u t i o n L e g i s l a t i o n and i t s Enforcement: An Emp i r i c a l Study" (1971), 6 U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Law Review 271. 140. R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 405. 141. R.S.B.C. 1960, c. 170. 142. R.S.B.C. 1960, c . 153. 143. Good, op. c i t . , n. 139 at 286; Lucas, "Lega l Techn iques " , op. c i t . , n. 123 at 17,6. 144. Lucas, "Lega l Techn iques " , op. c i t . , n. 123 at 181 145. C a l d w e l l , op. c i t . , n. I - at 415. CHAPTER V INTEGRATED RESOURCE MANAGEMENT - THE LEGAL ASPECTS A. INTRODUCTION The resources of B r i t i s h Columbia ' s f o r e s t l a n d s , i n c l u d i n g t imber , f i s h , w i l d l i f e , r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , are f i n i t e . The demand by users f o r each of these resources i s i n c r ea s i n g w i th the P r o v i n c e ' s popu lat ion. * This increased demand has l ed to c o n f l i c t s between resource 2 uses, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the West Kootenay a r ea , and w i l l lead to i n c r e a s i n g l y severe c o n f l i c t s unless c l e a r p r i o r i t i e s are e s t a b l i s h e d and an "ecosystems" or " i n t e g r a t e d " approach to resource management i s adopted. One of the major impediments to comprehensive environmental p l ann ing , i n the view o f many a u t h o r i t i e s , i s the cu r ren t " s i n g l e resource " o r i e n t ed l e g i s l a t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia (and most •3 other j u r i s d i c t i o n s ) . In view o f the complex nature of i n d i v i d u a l resources management and the general l ack of se r i ous c o n f l i c t s between var ious resource uses u n t i l recent yea r s , the e vo l u t i o n of expert s i n g l e resource departments does not appear unreasonable. This " v e r t i c a l " s t r u c t u r e of na tu ra l resources management bu reauc rac ie s , however, i s incompat ib le w i th cu r ren t percept ions of w i l d l ands resources as a t o t a l , i n t e g r a t ed "ecosys tem" , w i th each 4 component l i n k e d to a l l others in d e l i c a t e ba lance. In a d d i t i o n , of cour se , resource p o l i c i e s have s i g n i f i c a n t socio-economic impact among urban popu la t i on s . This chapter summarizes cu r ren t l i t e r a t u r e d i s cu s s i n g the concept of " m u l t i p l e use" or " i n t e g r a t e d " resource management. I t then analyzes - 98 -- 99 -some l e g i s l a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia to i n d i c a t e some of the se r ious l e g a l ob s t ac l e s to succes s fu l i n t r o d u c t i o n of comprehensive environmental p lann ing in the P rov ince . Ce r t a i n at tempts , g ene r a l l y o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e na tu re , have been made to re so l ve problems o f in terdepartmenta l communications and coopera t i on . The most notab le o f these developments are the " f o l i o system" in t roduced by the Fores t S e r v i ce and the c r e a t i o n o f an Environment and Land Use Committee and S e c r e t a r i a t pursuant to the Environment and Land Use Ac t . In a d d i t i o n , c e r t a i n in terdepar tmenta l t e c h n i c a l committees have been s t ruck to cons ider i s sues r e q u i r i n g input from severa l l i n e departments. An example of such groups i s the Reclamation Adv i sory Committee, c o n s i s t i n g of r ep re sen ta t i ve s from Mines and Petroleum Resources Department, F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, Forest Se rv i ce and Parks Branch. The estab l i shment of the Department of the Environment has brought together the former P o l l u t i o n Contro l Branch, Lands Branch, Water Resources Branch and the Environment and Land Use S e c r e t a r i a t , but does not c o n s t i t u t e a s i g n i f i c a n t departure from the t r a d i t i o n a l s i n g l e resource management o r i e n t a t i o n 5 i n B r i t i s h Columbia. B. INTEGRATED RESOURCE MANAGEMENT THEORY - A SUMMARY Concepts of " m u l t i p l e use" or more s imp ly , env i ronmenta l l y sound resource management, are not new. P r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s , e x i s t i n g i n c l o se contact w i th na tu re , whether na t i ve s o f North America or feudal peasants, g recogn ized e a s i l y the nece s s i t y of understanding na tu ra l systems. The - 100 -development of the new sc ience of ecology has l ed to renewed i n t e r e s t i n the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between var ious components of na tu ra l ecosystems, i n c l u d i n g man and h i s a c t i v i t i e s ^ I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and technology have r e s u l t e d i n a l i e n a t i o n of most people i n the "developed na t i on s " from these na tu ra l systems and have l ed to resource p o l i c i e s incompat ib le w i th g ecosystems parameters. Examples of such i napp rop r i a te p o l i c i e s abound: unplanned development (and de s t r u c t i on ) o f w i lde rnes s a rea s , uncon t r o l l ed t imber h a r v e s t i n g , se r ious water p o l l u t i o n , u t i l i z a t i o n of h i g h l y t o x i c p e s t i c i d e s . The e x p l o i t a t i o n o f one resource i n v a r i a b l y i n f l uence s a l l o ther par t s of the ecosystem - the appearance of DDT in A n t a r c t i c penguins and strontium 90 in mother ' s m i l k are two well-known examples. This i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p between w i l d l a n d resources becomes c l e a r when, w i th i n c r ea s i n g p o p u l a t i o n , demand f o r var ious resources increases to the po i n t where det r imenta l e f f e c t s are f e l t by o ther resource users . E a r l i e r chap te r s , f o r example, have i l l u s t r a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between coas ta l f o r e s t cover and West Coast salmon popu la t i on s . In a d d i t i o n to t h i s concept o f ecosystems i n t e g r i t y , the r o l e of resource development i n our s o c i e t y i s being subjected to renewed s c r u t i n y . As Smith has noted, na tu ra l phenomena become " r e sou rce s " when they are 9 regarded as p r ov i d i n g b e n e f i t s to man. U n t i l r e c e n t l y management p o l i c i e s have regarded such " b e n e f i t s " as p r i m a r i l y economic - p r o f i t s , employment, revenue. Scenic landscapes, c lean a i r and water , undeveloped w i lde rnes s and undisturbed f i s h / w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t , not e a s i l y subject to e va l ua t i on i n monetary terms, cou ld be subord inated to t imber p roduct ion or hydro-10 e l e c t r i c development. In a democratic s o c i e t y , presumably, government resource p o l i c i e s 11. must be d i r e c t e d to maximizat ion of the p u b l i c w e l f a r e . With cu r ren t - 101 -percept ions o f values other than t r a d i t i o n a l revenue product ion l ead ing to i n c rea s i n g importance of non-market re sources , comprehensive p lann ing becomes impera t i ve . A l l resource values must now be cons idered i n the management o f a p a r t i c u l a r a r ea ' s resources . One approach to such a complex p lann ing ta sk , w i t h so many v a r i a b l e s and sub t l e intercomponent r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s to u t i l i z e t o t a l systems p lann ing models developed by 12 e c o l o g i s t s f o r a na l y s i s of na tu ra l systems. What t h i s imp l i e s on a p r a c t i c a l management l e v e l i s tha t a l l na tu ra l resource values i n an area should be cons idered i n deve lop ing management p o l i c i e s . " I n teg ra ted resource management" i s the phrase o f ten used to desc r ibe such a coord inated and comprehensive approach. E c o l o g i s t s , f o r e s t e r s and other s c i e n t i f i c observers seem con f i den t that present problems of non-market resource eva l ua t i on and data c o l l e c t i o n 13 can be r e so l ved . They agree g e n e r a l l y , however, that p o l i t i c a l o b s t a c l e s , such as cu r ren t s i n g l e resource bu reauc ra t i c empires, cannot be so e a s i l y overcome. A reduct ion in resource i ndu s t r y p r o f i t s and government revenue may a l s o be a short term r e s u l t of such p o l i c i e s l i k e l y to arouse s u b s t a n t i a l p o l i t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n . There i s a natura l i n c l i n a t i o n by some experts i n t h i s f i e l d to recommend t ha t a s pec i a l agency be c reated to coord inate such p lann ing . Such an agency should possess (1) knowledge of supply and demand and b i o l o g i c a l t h r e s h o l d s ; (2) the a b i l i t y to make i m p a r t i a l eva luated dec i s i on s regard ing development p r o j e c t s and (3) the a u t h o r i t y to i n t e g r a t e a l l 14 resource agency e x p e r t i s e to e f f e c t an optimum resource use mix. The problems a s soc i a ted w i t h c r e a t i o n of a new bureaucracy f o r t h i s " super p lann ing agency" and the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of i n c l u d i n g a l l impact areas w i t h i n a s i n g l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n - hous ing, urban development, i n d u s t r i a l expansion - 102 -and employment f o r example - l ead t h i s w r i t e r to d i s t r u s t the " super department" 15 s o l u t i o n . A f u n c t i o n a l " p r o j e c t - o r i e n t e d " m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y task f o r ce approach seems more a p p r o p r i a t e . C. LEGAL OBSTACLES S ince l e ga l i n s t i t u t i o n s g ene r a l l y r e f l e c t p o l i t i c a l developments -i wi th some t i m e - l a g , i t i s t r ue - the l awye r ' s pe r spec t i ve i s not d i s s i m i l a r from tha t o f the s c i e n t i f i c p r o f e s s i o n s . He can i l l u s t r a t e l e ga l ob s tac le s to comprehensive environmental p lann ing and can suggest po s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s , but he cannot ignore the o v e r a l l importance of p o l i t i c a l processes i n the reform of present resource management s t r u c t u r e s . The major ob s tac le s to comprehensive environmental p lann ing are not l e g a l . They may be summarized as f o l l o w s : (1) l ack o f funds, (2) l ack o f da ta , (3) l ack o f s t a f f , (4) s i n g l e resource " v e r t i c a l " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s , (5) l ack o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and (6) l ack o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n resource development. The f i r s t f i v e problems stem p r i m a r i l y from the s i x t h p o i n t . Without p u b l i c support f o r comprehensive p l ann ing , there w i l l be no p o l i t i c a l mot i va t i on to i n v e s t i n s t a f f and data c o l l e c t i o n f o r resource management. The major l e ga l ob s tac l e to i n t e g r a t e d resource management i s the s i n g l e resource "myopic" c ha rac te r o f resource l e g i s l a t i o n . Crown ownership o f 95% o f the land i n the Prov ince and the Anglo-Canadian theory of p a r l i a -mentary supremacy would appear to encourage the i n t r o d u c t i o n of app rop r i a te l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h i s f i e l d . I t i s pa radox i ca l t ha t i n t e g r a t e d management i s - 103 -more advanced i n j u r i s d i c t i o n s such as the S tate of Washington where a s u b s t a n t i a l percentage of the w i l d l a n d resources are under p r i v a t e owner-16 s h i p . The f o l l o w i n g d i s cu s s i on focuses upon cu r ren t resource s t a t u t o r y p rov i s i on s and attempts to i l l u s t r a t e the d i f f i c u l t i e s faced by o f f i c i a l s attempt ing to in t roduce coord inated p lann ing . In B r i t i s h Columbia there i s a separate s t a t u t e f o r each i n d i v i d u a l re source , w i th separate departments to admin i s te r the l e g i s l a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , each department branch has developed i t s own resource management d i v i s i o n s throughout the P r ov i n ce , impeding cooperat ion w i th other agenc ies . For example, cu r ren t Forest Se rv i ce p o l i c i e s requ i re a r e f e r r a l o f company logg ing plans to the F i sh and W i l d l i f e Branch f o r review p r i o r to approva l . Despite such laudable i n t e n t i o n s , there are ser ious p r a c t i c a l problems i nvo l ved i n t r y i n g to coord inate communications between agency headquarters in severa l l o c a t i o n s f o r over lapp ing a d m i n i s t r a t i v e areas r e l a t e d to a s i n g l e b lock of . 17 t imber. The Lower Mainland area of the Prov ince i s an example. In c e r t a i n parts of t h i s r e g i o n , F i sh and W i l d l i f e Branch headquarters are a t Nanaimo, Forest Se rv i ce and f ede ra l F i s h e r i e s Se rv i ce at Vancouver, Highways Department in New Westminster and A g r i c u l t u r e at Abbots fo rd . The d i s tances between these l o ca t i on s and the v e r t i c a l d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r one area lead to s i g n i f i c a n t p s ycho log i ca l problems, making a s t reaml ined comprehensive p lann ing procedure v i r t u a l l y impos s ib le . Even, in the r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t forward matter o f F i sh and W i l d l i f e - Forest Se rv i ce coope ra t i on , communication 19 , delays lead to l a rge backlogs of development plans awa i t i ng approva l . 20 The Forest Act i s a prime example of the s i n g l e resource o r i e n t a t i o n . The Act i s concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h the management of Crown t imber and i s d i r e c t e d mainly to the product ion of wood f i b r e f o r maximum economic r e t u r n . As mentioned above, the Act conta ins no p rov i s i on s r e f e r r i n g to other f o r e s t - 104 -resources (wi th the except ion of a recent amendment i n c l u d i n g r e c r e a t i o n 21 within the Se rv i ce r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ) or encouraging coo rd i na t i on by the Forest Se rv i ce w i th other resource agencies. While i t i s t rue tha t many 22. f o r e s t e r s are among the most staunch c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s i n the P r ov i n ce , i t cannot be denied tha t the major miss ion o f the Serv i ce i s maximizat ion of t imber p roduc t i on . 23 The Water Act i s another s i n g l e resource s t a t u t e . The Water Resources Branch devotes i t s a t t e n t i o n to the a l l o c a t i o n of water r i g h t s and has never 24, enforced the minor p o l l u t i o n p rov i s i on s i n the Ac t . The s t a t u t e does not d i r e c t the Branch to cons ider water q u a l i t y and seve re l y r e s t r i c t s the c l a s se s 25 of persons who may ob jec t to the grant of a water l i c e n c e . Although Branch hear ings w i th respect to l i c e n c e a p p l i c a t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e the so le oppor tun i ty f o r p u b l i c input i n t o major h y d r o - e l e c t r i c developments, there i s no l e g a l requirement f o r the Comptro l le r to hear ob jec t i on s r e l a t e d to environmental i s sues from other than a few c l a s se s of " l e g a l o b j e c t o r s . " The F i sh and W i l d l i f e Branch i s p r i m a r i l y r e spons i b l e f o r f i s h and w i l d l i f e management and l i c e n s i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In c e r t a i n f r e s h water areas of the P r ov i n ce , the Branch a l s o admin i s ter s f i s h p r o t e c t i o n p rov i s i on s 26 27 of the f ede ra l F i s h e r i e s A c t . The p r o v i n c i a l F i s h e r i e s Act r e l a t e s mainly to f i s h process ing p l a n t s , and commercial s a l e of f i s h p roduct s , w h i l e the 28 W i l d l i f e Act conta ins game p r o t e c t i o n and hunt ing l i c e n c e p r o v i s i o n s . There are no p rov i s i on s a u t h o r i z i n g or encouraging coo rd i na t i on of environmental p lann ing w i th other resource agencies. 29' The Land A c t , which regu lates use of Crown lands apart from na tu ra l resource e x t r a c t i o n , conta ins no p r o v i s i on s w i th respect to environmental p lann ing . The Lands Branch has a Spec ia l Serv ices Sect ion which examines 30 the environmental impacts of major p r o j e c t s on Crown lands. The Sect ion - 105 -r e s t r i c t s i t s a t t e n t i o n p r i m a r i l y to land use problems. This v e r t i c a l d i v i s i o n of j u r i s d i c t i o n w i t h i n those areas of p r o v i n c i a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y can lead to the i n c r e d i b l e s i t u a t i o n where, i n the case of a p a r t i c u l a r watercourse, one Crown agency i s r e spons i b l e f o r streambed p r o t e c t i o n , another f o r a l l o c a t i o n of water r i g h t s , another f o r p o l l u t i o n " c o n t r o l " , another f o r f i s h i n g l i c e n c e s , another f o r f i s h p r o t e c t i o n , another f o r s upe r v i s i on of i n d u s t r i a l land use on the streambank and another f o r r e g u l a t i o n of l o g -ging i n the a rea. S ince a l l s i n g l e resource agencies are competing f o r p r o v i n c i a l funds, a l l agencies complain of being under s ta f fed and of being unable to meet even t h e i r s i n g l e resource management r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . This makes cooperat ion between departments even more improbable. The Forest Se rv i ce complains that i t does not have s u f f i c i e n t s t a f f to implement comprehensive environmental 31 p lanning o r to superv i se a l l logg ing ope ra t i on s . The F i sh and W i l d l i f e Branch cannot prov ide s t a f f to c o l l e c t v i t a l i nventory data nor to review 32 company development plans under the cu r ren t Fores t Se rv i ce r e f e r r a l system. Lack of funds and unde r s t a f f i n g are major exp lanat ions advanced by the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources f o r l a ck of enforcement o f 33 r e c l a m a t i o n p rov i s i on s i n the Coal Mines Regulat ion Ac t . D. CURRENT CONFLICT RESOLUTION POLICIES The importance of i n t e g r a t i n g resource management p o l i c i e s and the disadvantages of s i n g l e resource v e r t i c a l d i v i s i o n s are apparent to many 34 resource managers i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Current attempts to re so l ve i n t e r -departmental coo rd i na t i on problems have been l a r g e l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n na tu re , - 106 -w i th few attempts to in t roduce subs tant i ve l e g i s l a t i v e amendments. 1. THE FOLIO SYSTEM One of the most promis ing of these p lann ing approaches i s the " f o l i o " system" in t roduced by the Forest Se rv i ce i n the P r ince George Forest D i s t r i c t and now being extended to the Vancouver Forest D i s t r i c t . The f o l i o system i s an " o v e r l a y " procedure, coord inated by the Forest Se rv i ce and u t i l i z i n g in fo rmat ion from government f o r e s t e r s , f i s h and w i l d l i f e b i o l o g i s t s and l o c a l 35 i n d u s t r i a l f o r e s t e r s . The b i o l o g i s t s c on t r i bu t e data and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s r e l a t i v e to w i l d l i f e , water and f i s h e r i e s i n t e r e s t s . There may a l s o be input w i th respect to l o c a l na t i ve Indian requ i rements , r e c r e a t i o n a l resources and landscape a e s t h e t i c s . The D i s t r i c t Fo re s te r c o l l a t e s and presents t h i s resource i n fo rmat ion in a f o l i o o f over lay maps. Each map i s accompanied by a w r i t t e n comment i n c l u d i n g any c o n s t r a i n t s which are to be taken i n t o con s i de ra t i on by the i n d u s t r i a l f o r e s t e r s who design the layout of c u t t i n g areas and roads. In t heo ry , c u t t i n g b locks w i l l be planned i n such a way as not to i n f r i n g e upon w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t a reas , s e n s i t i v e stream and lakeshores or a l p i ne slow growth, s e n s i t i v e s o i l reg ions . While the f o l i o system c o n s t i t u t e s an approach to i n t e g r a t i o n of a l l resource p lann ing in a s p e c i f i c a r e a , severa l major obs tac le s impede the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the system throughout the P rov i nce . Mr. W i l l i a m Young, A s s i s t a n t Ch ie f F o r e s t e r , ' d i s c u s s e d some of these problems i n a p re sen ta t i on to the Federat ion of Mountain Clubs on A p r i l 8, 1976. The primary problem, i n h i s o p i n i o n , i s the lack of s u f f i c i e n t bas i c data on resources other than the t imber resource. At the present t ime , there are not s u f f i c i e n t i n ven to r i e s w i th respect to f i s h and w i l d l i f e popu la t ion - 107 -and h a b i t a t and s o i l types in the P rov i nce . The B.C. Land Inventory c a p a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s r epo r t de l i nea te s important ungulate w i n t e r i n g areas and conta ins broad i n fo rmat ion about s o i l t ype s , but does not conta in data r equ i red f o r e f f e c t i v e use at the ope ra t i ona l l e v e l . Without resource i n v e n t o r i e s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r p lanners to determine the optimum use o f t o t a l resources in the a rea. This leads i n t o another major problem, t ha t of s t a f f i n g . Without s u f f i c i e n t s t a f f , i nventory p reparat ion i s impos s i b l e . Mr. Young i n d i c a t e d that the Forest Se rv i ce i s at 60 percent o f i t s c a p a b i l i t y of two years ago and has been fo rced to reassess p r i o r i t i e s and to r e d i s t r i b u t e i t s s t a f f to more important r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . In a d d i t i o n , the F i sh and W i l d l i f e Branch has never had s u f f i c i e n t s t a f f to b u i l d up an e f f e c t i v e inventory o f f i s h and w i l d l i f e popu lat ions in the P rov i nce . Because of s t a f f i n g and funding problems, Mr. Young concluded tha t the f o l i o system cou ld not be implemented everywhere in B r i t i s h Columbia. To i l l u s t r a t e the under s ta f fed nature of the Fores t S e r v i c e , he compared B r i t i s h Columbia f o r e s t management manpower w i th tha t o f the U.S. Forest S e r v i c e , which has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a t imber acreage comparable to that i n B r i t i s h Columbia. (In 1974 the Un i ted States Nat iona l Forests produced 18,200,000 cun i t s as compared to 17,996,000 cun i t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The U.S. Forest Serv ice i s r e spons i b l e f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of 102,900,000 acres of f o r e s t as compared w i th the B r i t i s h Columbia agency ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r 117,860,210 ac re s . ) The B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Se rv i ce has on ly 2,900 employees f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the e n t i r e P r o v i n ce , w h i l e the Un i ted S tates Forest Se rv i ce has.32,000 employees. In a d d i t i o n almost 1/4 o f the U.S.F.S. s t a f f i s i nvo l ved i n environmental programmes. I f the f o l i o system and environmental management on the U.S. s c a l e are to - 108 -be in t roduced in B r i t i s h Columbia, i t i s imperat ive tha t more funding and s t a f f i n g be a v a i l a b l e to the B r i t i s h Columbia Forest S e r v i c e . Mr. Young i n d i c a t e d a l so that the f o l i o system and environmental management s u f f e red from the present s i n g l e r e sou r ce -o r i en ted bu reauc ra t i c s t r u c t u r e w i th separate j u r i s d i c t i o n s f o r each department. The complex i ty of communications between departments and the compet i t ion f o r funds makes any type of c e n t r a l i z e d resource management very d i f f i c u l t i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In h i s o p i n i o n , a major change i n the s t r u c t u r e of resource management and resource departments i s necessary f o r comprehensive env i r on -mental management. As mentioned above, much more s o p h i s t i c a t e d e va l ua t i on techniques are requ i red f o r meaningful i n t eg r a ted resource management dec i s i on s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. One of the major problems i n t h i s area i s the q u a n t i f i c a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n and w i l d l i f e v a l u e s , as w e l l as o ther non-market, non-economic resources which have to be cons idered i n resource management. At the present t ime , ana l y s i s i s h indered by a l ack o f a b i l i t y to weigh these non-market values aga in s t the t r a d i t i o n a l l y cons idered economic values of wood f i b r e 36 and h y d r o - e l e c t r i c i t y p roduc t i on . These ser ious va lue dec i s i on s have to be made i n any comprehensive management system. Another major po in t d i scussed by Mr. Young was tha t of programme co s t s . Every environmental programme undertaken i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r e s t s has to be pa id f o r by someone, e i t h e r the taxpayers of B r i t i s h Columbia or the f o r e s t i ndu s t r y . At the present t ime , some al lowance f o r f o r e s t r y costs i s i nc luded i n stumpage assessments. As g rea te r cost s are i n cu r r ed f o r road-b u i l d i n g - as a r e s u l t of environmental c o n s t r a i n t s , f o r example - the stumpage pa id f o r c u t t i n g r i g h t s by the f o r e s t i ndus t r y i s reduced. A problem a r i s e s when the stumpage i s reduced to the minimum l e v e l - 109 -a l lowed by l e g i s l a t i o n . At that po i n t any f u r t h e r cost s i n cu r red by environmental programmes must be borne by the i ndu s t r y at the present t ime. The formula f o r c a l c u l a t i o n of stumpage i s as f o l l o w s : S.P. ( S e l l i n g P r i c e ) minus Costs minus P r o f i t Al lowance = Stumpage The problem of reduced stumpage in the face of f l u c t u a t i n g wor ld markets i s apparent when the stumpage f o r 1973, $260 m i l l i o n i s compared w i th tha t 37 f o r 1975, $35 m i l l i o n . A l l f o r e s t programmes cost money. I f the f o r e s t i ndus t r y can no longer a f f o r d to support environmental management, some s u b s i d i z a t i o n must come from the p r o v i n c i a l Government at the cost of other more p o l i t i c a l l y popular we l fa re and u rban-o r iented p r o j e c t s . While r ep re sen ta t i ve s o f c i t i z e n s groups and r e c r e a t i o n a l o r g a n i -za t i on s appear to support the concept of the f o l i o system, there are se r ious problems from the i n d u s t r y ' s po in t of v iew. I n d u s t r i a l f o r e s t e r s 38 have i n d i c a t e d some f r u s t r a t i o n w i th the f o l i o p repara t ion g u i d e l i n e s . They repor t that d i f f e r e n t resource adm in i s t r a to r s are f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s hope les s l y at odds w i th each o the r . Unwritten gu i de l i ne s are being app l i ed as w e l l as the i m p r a c t i c a l ( i n t h e i r view) w r i t t e n g u i d e l i n e s . Logging plans approved at one l e v e l in a resource management agency are being r e j e c t e d at h igher l e v e l s or i n o ther departments. While the i ndu s t r y recognizes the need f o r b e t t e r management and more i n t e g r a t i o n o f t imber -land resources , the present system, due to l ack of communication and in terdepartmenta l f r i c t i o n , i s not prov ing to be e f f e c t i v e . P r o v i n c i a l F i sh and W i l d l i f e r ep re sen ta t i ve s and f ede ra l f i s h e r i e s o f f i c i a l s a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t , due to l ack o f s t a f f i n g , they are unable to p a r t i c i p a t e in the f o l i o system o r g a n i z a t i o n . They support the concept of i n t e g r a t ed management, but f i n d i t imposs ib le to c o l l e c t data f o r i n ven to r i e s - n o -or to superv i se the p repa ra t i on of f o l i o plans by i n d u s t r i a l f o r e s t e r s . F i sh and W i l d l i f e o f f i c i a l s have a l s o i n d i c a t e d that the e n t i r e system i s sub jec t to c r i t i c i s m on the bas i s t h a t development plans are prepared by i n d u s t r i a l f o r e s t e r s and tend to have a wood f i b r e product ion b i a s . Another problem recogn ized by r ep re sen ta t i ve s of c i t i z e n s groups i s the l ack o f p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the f o l i o system. Appa ren t l y , community r ep re sen ta t i v e s are being consu l ted by f o l i o system committees i n the West Kootenay r e g i o n , but there i s no formal r ep re sen ta t i on by r ep re sen ta t i ve s o f such groups as the S i e r r a Club or SPEC to prov ide 39 r e c r e a t i o n a l i nput to the f o l i o p l ann i ng . In a d d i t i o n , there has been r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the f o l i o system. This may stem l a r g e l y from the lack o f p u b l i c awareness t h a t i n t e g r a t ed management and r a t i o n a l a l l o c a t i o n of w i l d l a n d resources to var ious users are v i t a l to the maintenance of a high q u a l i t y o f l i f e i n 40 B r i t i s h Columbia. This i s t rue w i t h re spect not on ly to p r o v i d i n g w i lde rnes s and other r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s to urban popu la t ions but a l s o to the maintenance o f a high Government revenue from the P r o v i n c e ' s na tu ra l re sources . I t i s on ly r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t l y that environmental educat ion courses have been in t roduced i n t o p u b l i c school c u r r i c u l a i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t i s po s s i b l e t ha t such courses w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to an inc reased under-s tand ing by urban dwe l le r s o f the importance o f p re se rv i ng w i l d l a n d resource va lue s . I t i s no tab le , however, t ha t few of such courses con ta i n p r a c t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n w i th re spect to p o l i t i c a l and l e ga l aspects of environmental 42 management i n f o r e s t a reas . - I l l -2. THE ENVIRONMENT AND LAND USE COMMITTEE 43 The Environment and Land Use Act has been u t i l i z e d to coord inate environmental p lanning i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The s t a t u t e conta ins broad l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s , e s t a b l i s h i n g an Environment and Land Use Committee, composed of the var ious resource department M i n i s t e r s . The Committee i s g iven power to adv i se the L ieutenant Governor i n Counci l (the Cabinet) on environmental matters i n the P rov ince . On the bas i s of such adv i c e , the Cabinet i s then empowered to i s sue orders superseding a l l other p r o v i n c i a l 44 l e g i s l a t i o n . In January 1974, a S e c r e t a r i a t was c reated to adv i se the Committee. The o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c r e a t i o n and i t s i n i t i a l p r o j e c t s are d i scussed i n d e t a i l in the S e c r e t a r i a t Annual Report, 1974. This group of b i o l o g i s t s , planners and resource management consu l tant s was c reated to prov ide m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y recommendations w i th respect to resource c o n f l i c t i s sues to the Committee. When areas of c o n f l i c t are i d e n t i f i e d by l i n e resource departments, they are r e f e r r e d to the Committee and i t s s t a f f arm f o r r e s o l u t i o n . The S e c r e t a r i a t i s designed to -per form a c a t a l y t i c f u n c t i o n , b r i n g i ng together r ep re sen ta t i ve s of the concerned agencies i n order to i s o l a t e and i d e n t i f y problem areas. The S e c r e t a r i a t formulates a l t e r n a t i v e courses o f a c t i o n f o r the p o l i t i c a l l y - c o n s t i t u t e d Committee. The Committee has been inst rumenta l i n severa l Cabinet O r d e r s - i n -C o n n c i l , u t i l i z i n g the sweeping powers conta ined i n the Environment and Land Use Ac t . The i n i t i a l f r eeze of development of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , l ead ing 45 to the passage of the Land Commission A c t , was based on such powers. In a d d i t i o n , the Cabinet has dec la red morator ia on development i n severa l areas throughout the P rov ince , to enable the S e c r e t a r i a t to formulate m u l t i -- 112 -d i s c i p l i n a r y programmes f o r land use p lann ing and i n t eg r a ted resource management. In a f u r t h e r attempt to f a c i l i t a t e in terdepartmenta l communications and p l ann i ng , the S e c r e t a r i a t a l s o recommended the d i v i s i o n of the Prov ince i n t o seven Resource Management Regions. Such an o r gan i z a t i on w i l l enable a l l l i n e department resource managers f o r a reg ion to be l oca ted i n a c en t r a l resource management headquarters. The estab l i shment o f the S e c r e t a r i a t has not ended in terdepar tmenta l c o n f l i c t s and j u r i s d i c t i o n a l problems. In the f i r s t p l a c e , the Committee i s a r e f e r r a l group f o r major c o n f l i c t s on ly . There i s no ongoing procedure to ensure m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y r e s o l u t i o n of a l l environmental management i s sue s . Secondly, powerful "economic" departments such as Mines and the Forest Se rv i ce 46 cont inue to dominate resource dec i s ion-making at the f i e l d l e v e l . The s i n g l e resource approach cont inues to p r e v a i l in the P r ov i n ce , p a r t i c u l a r l y where s ub s t an t i a l i n d u s t r i a l development, such as East Kootenay coal d e p o s i t s , i s concerned. In the t h i r d p l a c e , there i s no p u b l i c input i n t o the r e f e r r a l process desc r ibed above. Re fe r r a l i s a t the d i s c r e t i o n of the concerned departments. There are no p rov i s i on s i n the Act,., enab l ing c i t i z e n s ' groups, f o r example, to i n i t i a t e the process . From a l e ga l p e r s p e c t i v e , i t i s c l e a r that the S e c r e t a r i a t i s pure ly an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e w i th no l e g i s l a t i v e p r o t e c t i o n . I t remains t o t a l l y sub jec t to the whims of the cu r rent Adm in i s t r a t i on and can be d i s -mantled as a r e s u l t of shor t term p o l i t i c a l p ressures . The i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of abbrev ia ted p o l i t i c a l pe r spec t i ve s w i th the long term approach necessary 47 f o r environmental p lann ing has been noted by many observers . - 113 -48 3. INTERDEPARTMENTAL TECHNICAL COMMITTEES There are severa l in terdepartmenta l t e c h n i c a l committees in e x i s t e n c e , and other ad hoc groups form from time to t ime , to cons ider management problems r e q u i r i n g input from severa l departments. Examples of such committees i nc lude the Reclamation Adv i sory Committee and the Interdepartmental P e s t i c i d e Committee. I t i s reported by some members of such groups that the " revenue" departments dominate t h e i r d e l i b e r a t i o n s and that non-market resource values 49 o f ten rece i ve short s h i r f t . The Reclamation Adv isory Committee con s i s t s of r ep re sen ta t i ve s from the Mines Department, F i sh and W i l d l i f e Branch, Water Resources Branch and the Forest Se r v i ce . I t i s designed to adv ise the M i n i s t e r of Mines w i th 50 respect to rec lamat ion plans f i l e d pursuant to the Mines Regulat ion Act and 51 the Coal Mines Regulat ion Ac t . F i sh and W i l d l i f e r ep re sen ta t i ve s on t h i s Committee i n d i c a t e that t h e i r views seldom i n f l uence the Committee's recom-mendations and that Mines o f f i c i a l s gene ra l l y ignore "env i ronmenta l " problems. 52 r a i s ed by the F i sh and W i l d l i f e Branch. 4. DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT In January, 1976, a Department o f the Environment was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 53 apparent response to p u b l i c concern f o r environmental values. There i s some doubt whether t h i s i s a s i g n i f i c a n t step towards comprehensive environmental management i n the P r o v i n c e . In the f i r s t p l a c e , the M i n i s t e r appointed 54 p u b l i c l y disavowed any knowledge o f environmental problems. In the second p l a c e , the important management r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the F i sh and W i l d l i f e Branch were not p laced i n the Department o f the Environment but were r e t a i ned 55 i n the Department of Recreat ion and Tourism. • At the present time the Prov ince i s in the anomalous p o s i t i o n of having the major environmental - 114 -management r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r f i s h and w i l d l i f e p r o t e c t i o n r e s t i n g upon the shoulders of the F i sh and W i l d l i f e Branch in the Department o f Recreat ion and : T o u r i s,m . separated from the Department of the Environment. In a d d i t i o n , the o l d l i n e resource department o r i e n t a t i o n cont inues wi th r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r mining and f o r e s t development being separated from the Department o f the Environment. The present Department o f the Environment inc ludes the former Lands Branch, the Water Rights Branch, the P o l l u t i o n Control Branch and the Environment and Land Use S e c r e t a r i a t . In the op in ion of t h i s w r i t e r , t h i s d i v i s i o n of powers along departmental l i n e s w i l l serve to segment f u r t h e r resource management in B r i t i s h Columbia. P e s t i c i d e c o n t r o l , f o r example, i s being r e t a i ned by the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . The Forest Se rv i ce has been e l eva ted i n t o a department of i t s own along w i th the Department of Mines. Interdepartmental communications, which have always been a problem and which the c r e a t i o n of the Environment and Land Use S e c r e t a r i a t was designed to a l l e v i a t e , w i l l once more become major impediments to i n t e g r a t ed resource management i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The c r ea t i on of the Department o f the Environment i n B r i t i s h Columbia appears to be merely a p o l i t i c a l a c t i on designed to g ive a s u p e r f i c i a l appearance of concern f o r environmental management in the P rov ince . I t i s c l e a r t ha t the M i n i s t e r of the Environment has no con t r o l over mining o r f o r e s t development i n the P r ov i n ce , p a r t i c u l a r l y the se r ious 56 environmental i m p l i c a t i o n s of coal development in the East Kootenays. In the southeastern a reas , economic bene f i t s from coal resource development appear to be the primary concern of the Mines Department and the cu r ren t 57 p r o v i n c i a l government. The Environment and Land Use S e c r e t a r i a t has produced a study of t h i s area and has recommended ce r t a i n . p . oa l g u i d e l i n e s ^ but F i sh and W i l d l i f e r ep re sen ta t i ve s and o ther environmental i n t e r e s t s - 115 -b e l i e v e that s i g n i f i c a n t development dec i s i on s have been made p r i o r to 59 meaningful environmental impact assessment. In the op in ion o f the B. C. W i l d l i f e Fede ra t i on , f o r example, any environmental s tud ie s p r e sen t l y being conducted are merely m i t i g a t i o n s tud ie s and not s i g n i f i c a n t p r e r e q u i s i t e s 60 to f i n a l development d e c i s i o n s . 5. OTHER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT GROUPS There are c e r t a i n other groups s t r i v i n g to i n t roduce i n t e g r a t e d concepts i n t o resource management dec i s ion-mak ing i n B r i t i s h Columbia. One of these i s the Forest Land Use L i a i s o n Committee, a non-governmental group c o n s i s t i n g o f r ep re sen ta t i ve s from the Counc i l of Forest I n d u s t r i e s , severa l environmental groups and c e r t a i n government resource agenc ies . This group i s an in formal body which meets to d i scuss f o r e s t land management problems and 61 attempts to produce consensus statement on these i s s u e s . There i s no c l e a r understanding o f what purpose the consensus statements s e r ve . In a d d i t i o n , s i nce they are consensus s tatements, they are vague and gene ra l l y speak ing, do not con ta in suggest ions f o r l e g i s l a t i v e amendment or law reform i n the resource management a rea . I n d u s t r i a l r ep re sen ta t i ve s on t h i s Committee are proud of the consensus and cooperat i ve approach o f the Committee, but i t i s ques t ionab le whether anyth ing s u b s t a n t i a l can r e s u l t from such d e l i b e r a t i o n s which do not have the fo rce o f law. P o l i c i e s t ha t are enunc iated are high sounding "motherhood" statements supported by everyone but l a c k i n g any guarantee of se r i ous c on s i de r a -t i o n by government dec is ion-makers or p o l i t i c i a n s concerned w i th shor t term p o l i t i c a l o b j e c t i v e s . There i s l i t t l e doubt t ha t coope ra t i on , r a t he r than c on f r on t a t i on i s the p r e f e r ab l e route to achieve i n t e g r a t ed management i n B r i t i s h Columbia, but hard value dec i s i on s must be made by p o l i t i c a l dec i s ion-makers i n the - 116 -P rov i nce . The people of B r i t i s h Columbia must be educated to understand the value and importance of i n t e g r a t ed management o f B r i t i s h Columbia w i l d l a n d resources and p o l i t i c i a n s must be fo rced to make long term commit-ments to s u b s t a n t i a l fund ing and s t a f f i n g o f resource management agenc ies . E. RECOMMENDED ACTION As i n d i c a t e d i n the above d i s c u s s i o n , the present system i s not s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f i n t e g r a t ed resource management i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i th the cu r r en t e ro s i on o f the power of the Environment and Land Use Committee and S e c r e t a r i a t . There i s no p u b l i c understanding of the importance of i n t e g r a t ed resource management of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r e s t areas and as a r e s u l t , l i t t l e p o l i t i c a l commitment to t h i s g o a l . There i s a c co rd i n g l y no money a v a i l a b l e f o r s t a f f i n g or f o r data c o l l e c t i o n r equ i r ed f o r e f f e c t i v e i n t e g r a t e d management. What appears to be r equ i r ed p r i m a r i l y i s a s e n s i t z a t i o n of the p u b l i c i n B r i t i s h Columbia to the importance o f i n t e g r a t ed resource manage-ment o f B r i t i s h Columbia w i l d l and s to the q u a l i t y o f l i f e and to the maintenance of environmental q u a l i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Without such p u b l i c s e n s i t i z a t i o n , there can be no p o l i t i c a l commitment to i n t e g r a t e d resource management or to the e s tab l i shment o f e f f e c t i v e c o s t / b e n e f i t analyses r e q u i r i n g c on s i de r a t i on o f non-market as w e l l as market values i n resource management dec i s i on -mak ing . This p o l i t i c a l commitment i s r equ i r ed to make the very hard p o l i t i c a l dec i s i on s a l l o c a t i n g h igher p r i o r i t i e s and more money and more s t a f f to resource management agenc ies . More popular urban-o r i en t ed we l f a re programs must s u f f e r to some ex tent when money i s withdrawn 62 f o r investment i n resource management. - 117 -Subord inat ion o f s u b j e c t i v e and non-economic resource values appears w i l l l ead to the encouragement of s i n g l e resource management o r i e n t a t i o n . What i s r equ i red f o r i n t e g r a t ed resource management i s an in terdepartmenta l dec i s ion-mak ing committee under a s en i o r M i n i s t e r , drawing upon the e x p e r t i s e of var ious resource s p e c i a l i s t s . In a d d i t i o n , resource dec i s ion-mak ing should be d e c e n t r a l i z e d geog raph i ca l l y and wherever p o s s i b l e , o n - s i t e dec i s i on s should be made by managers on the adv ice of resource management teams. Because o f the importance o f resource management to q u a l i t y o f l i f e c on s i de ra t i on s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and the importance o f r e c r e a t i o n a l values i n resource management, there should be p r o v i s i o n f o r p u b l i c i n p u t , from both p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups and the general p u b l i c i n h a b i t i n g l o c a l a reas . Representat ives of these p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups and l o c a l r e s i den t s are best able to a r t i c u l a t e the s u b j e c t i v e , va lue con s i de ra t i on s which cannot 63 be prov ided by resource management t e c h n i c i a n s . Con su l t a t i on w i th i ndu s t r y i s a l s o i m p e r a t i v e , perhaps through such groups as the Fores t Land Use L i a i s o n Committee. S ince i n d u s t r i a l f o r e s t e r s and the i ndu s t r y i t s e l f must be r e l i e d upon to develop the resources sub jec t to s upe r v i s i on by p u b l i c resource managers, t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y should be c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d and g u i d e l i n e s shou ld be e s t a b l i s h e d i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i th these o n - s i t e ope ra t i ona l groups. The Environment and Land Use Committee approach appears p r e f e r ab l e to the c r e a t i o n of a " super agency". I t would appear that a s t rong e n v i r o n -mental p lann ing s t a t u t e i s r e q u i r e d , c on t a i n i n g a u t h o r i t y to promulgate en fo rceab le r e gu l a t i on s as w e l l as f l e x i b l e g u i d e l i n e s . This s t a t u t e should c l e a r l y enunc iate a p o l i t i c a l commitment to i n t e g r a t e d resource management - 118 -i n B r i t i s h Columbia and should g ive to the r e spon s i b l e M i n i s t e r ; p r e f e r a b l y a s en i o r M i n i s t e r , c l e a r a u t h o r i t y to make the major dec i s i on s r equ i r ed f o r i n t e g r a t ed management. With such s u b s t a n t i a l power concentrated i n one dec i s ion -maker , i t may a l s o be adv i s ab le to prov ide f o r a form of appeal to the c o u r t s . The b e n e f i t o f s t rong l e g i s l a t i v e p rov i s i on s i s t ha t they cannot be a l t e r e d at the whim of execut i ve dec i s ion-makers s ub jec t to shor t term p o l i t i c a l mot ives , but must be defended before the L e g i s l a t u r e i n view o f the p u b l i c . The l e g i s l a t i o n should a l s o con ta in enforcement p rov i s i on s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t i n g to the p u b l i c , to government adm in i s t r a t o r s and to i ndu s t r y tha t i n t e g r a t ed resource management dec i s i on s w i l l be s t r i c t l y en fo r ced . The l e g i s l a t i o n might a l s o prov ide f o r gu i de l i ne s which w i l l g ive the f l e x i -b i l i t y r equ i red i n environmental management systems. The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n i s important , and cannot be f u l l y prov ided f o r i n the l e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s . For example, a sen io r M i n i s t e r should be put i n charge o f the Environment and Land Use Committee, drawing upon the e x p e r t i s e o f i n d i v i d u a l resource management agenc ies . In a d d i t i o n , the e n t i r e management system should be l o c a l i z e d whenever p o s s i b l e , along the l i n e s o f the Resource Management Regions devised by the Environment and Land Use S e c r e t a r i a t . Local resource managers w i th the adv ice of resource management e x p e r t s , should make o n - s i t e dec i s i on s whenever p o s s i b l e . An appeal to the Committee i n V i c t o r i a might be a v a i l a b l e from such l o c a l d e c i s i o n -making, i f cons idered necessary. Both a t the l o c a l l e v e l and at the c e n t r a l l e v e l , there should be p r o v i s i o n f o r p u b l i c input both through p u b l i c hearings and through in formal "round t a b l e " d e l i b e r a t i o n s . E v e n t u a l l y , a l l resource developments i n l o c a l areas should be sub jec t - 119 -to approval by l o c a l resource management committees. Developers, whose . p r o j e c t s are r e j e c t e d by l o c a l committees, should have the r i g h t of appeal to the p r o v i n c i a l Committee i n V i c t o r i a and to the Supreme Court , i f necessary, on po int s o f law. Appeal p r ov i s i on s might resemble those conta ined i n the 64 P o l l u t i o n Contro l Act Sec t i on 12. P u b ! i c i z a t i o n of the i n t e g r a t e d resource management system and p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e l i b e r a t i o n s o f l o c a l and c e n t r a l management committees should enable the system to a t t a i n a f l e x i b i l i t y r equ i r ed f o r a l t e r a t i o n o f management p r i o r i t i e s from time to time i n response to changes i n p u b l i c we l f a re requ i rements . The prime c r i t e r i o n should always be the maximizat ion o f s o c i a l b e n e f i t s , which may r equ i r e the reduct ion o f a d i r e c t economic gain from f i b r e product ion to preserve s cen i c beauty of salmon h a b i t a t c o n d i t i o n s . In some cases, pr imary or s i n g l e - u se a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , such as w i lde rnes s or i n t e n s i v e t r ee fa rming , w i t h other resource uses being accorded secondary p r i o r i t y , w i l l be the optimum management d e c i s i o n f o r a p a r t i c u l a r a rea . I t must be emphasized tha t the committee approach w i l l be r equ i r ed f o r a l l resource development d e c i s i o n s . I t w i l l not be s o l e l y a r e f e r r a l dev ice f o r c o n f l i c t s as i s the present case w i th Environment and Land Use Committee. In t h i s way f l e x i b i l i t y and comprehensive environmental management w i l l be a regu la r procedure f o r a l l resource development i n B r i t i s h Columbia. CHAPTER V NOTES 1. See the b r i e f d i s cu s s i on of f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to an increased demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i n R. Robinson, "Legal Problems i n the P r o t e c t i o n of Rec rea t i ona l Va lues " (1971), 6 U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Law Review 237 a t 237-8. The four major f a c t o r s o u t l i n e d a re : (1) Popu la t i on growth (2) Increase i n l e i s u r e time (3) Growth i n d i sposab le income (4) Increased m o b i l i t y . Chambers a l s o documents the i n c r ea s i n g demands upon w i ldernes s resources i n h i s P u r c e l l Range  Study, op. c i t . , n. I -4. 2. See Chambers, P u r c e l l Range Study, op. c i t . , n. 1-4 at 32. 3. R. R. Log i e , "Environmental Assessment Panel Environment Canada" i n Environmental Impact Assessment Conference (Vancouver, U.B.C. Centre f o r Cont inu ing Educat ion , 1976), 33. 4. W i l d l i f e , the Rec reat iona l Resource ( V i c t o r i a : Department o f Recreat ion and Conserva t ion , 1974). 5. The c r e a t i o n of a separate department w i t h " v e r t i c a l " environmental r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s fo rces environmental i s sues to the m i n i s t e r i a l l e v e l where vested departmental i n t e r e s t s o f t en r e s i s t " i n t e r f e r e n c e " . b y a Department of Environment. Some d i s cu s s i on o f t h i s problem took p lace at the Environmental Impact Assessment Conference r e f e r r e d to supra , n. 3. See a l s o a d e s c r i p t i o n o f succes s fu l attempts by the federa l Department o f Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development to shut the f ede ra l Department o f Environment out o f Canadian A r c t i c environmental i s s ue s . Northern P e r s p e c t i v e s , volume 4, number 1, 1976 at 15. 6. Smith, Conceptual Bases, op. c i t . , n. 1-12 a t 142. 7. I t i s not s t r i c t l y accurate to speak o f ecology as a "new" s c i e n c e , s ince the term "oeco logy " was f i r s t i n t roduced by Ernst Haekel i n 1869 and the d i s c i p l i n e p laced on a modern bas i s by F.A. Fowl i n Sw i t ze r l and i n 1892. (Encyc lopedia B r i t a n n i c a ) . See Barry Commoner, The C lo s i ng C i r c l e Man, Nature and Technology (Bantam Books, 1976), a t 11. 8. Accord ing to Commoner, i b i d . , 126," i t i s the great s c i e n t i f i c t e chno l o g i c a l r e v o l u t i o n s ince World War I I , based upon massive amounts of low-cos t energy and innumerable new s y n t h e t i c m a t e r i a l s , which has exer ted the unprecedented severe s t r a i n upon the balance of the Earth ecosystem. See a l s o Smith, op. c i t . , n. 1-12 a t 142. - 120 -- 121 -9. Smith, i b i d . , a t 143. 10. Pearse, "Na tu ra l Resource P o l i c i e s " , op. c i t . , n. 11-36 a t 54. There have appeared severa l p u b l i c a t i o n s i n recent years d i s c u s s i n g "w i l de rne s s " as a new va luab le na tu ra l re source . See: I. McTaggart-Cowan, Wi lderness - Concept Funct ion and Management, ( U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1968); J . S . Marsh, "Ma i n t a i n i n g the Wi lderness Exper ience i n Canada's Nat iona l Parks i n J .G . Ne l son, ed . Canadian Parks i n  Pe r spec t i ve (Montrea l : Harvest House, 1969); Roder ick Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y P re s s , ; 1967); B. M. L i t t l e j o h n , Why Wi lderness (Toronto: New Pres s , 1971). 11. Smith, op. c i t . , n. 1-12 at 143; Pearse, op. c i t . , n. 10 a t 46. 12. Smith, l o c . c i t . See a l s o K.E.F. Watt Ecology and Resource Management (New York: McGraw-H i l l , 1968). 13. Smith, i b i d . , 145. See a l s o Canada, Department o f Regional Economic Expans ion, Towards In tegrated Resource Management (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1970) at 2. One aspect of t imber s c a l i n g development i n B r i t i s h Columbia i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s po i n t t ha t p o l i t i c a l ob s tac le s o f ten b lock the i n t r o d u c t i o n of new s t r u c t u r e s , even a f t e r t e c h n i c a l problems have been so lved and desp i te the f a c t t ha t the change i s i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . As e a r l y as 1910, a Royal Commission recogn ized t ha t cub ic f oo t s c a l i n g was more accurate than the board f oo t wood measurement system. A more accurate measure would inc rease stumpage revenues. P o l i t i c a l oppo s i t i on from p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s delayed i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s system f o r 62 yea r s . In 1972, f o l l o w i n g a Forest Act amendment i n 1954, cub ic f oo t s c a l i n g was f i n a l l y i n t roduced i n B r i t i s h Columbia. J.M. Robinson, The H i s t o r y o f Wood Measurement i n Canada (Ottawa: Forest Management Research and Serv i ces I n s t i t u t e - I n te rna l Report FMR-7, October 1967.) 14. As recommended by Smith, i b i d . , 148. 15. The s o c i a l impact o f resource management d e c i s i o n i s cons idered i n cu r ren t Forest Se rv i ce f o l i o p l ann i ng . A r ep re sen ta t i v e o f the Department o f Human Resources p a r t i c i p a t e s i n in te rdepar tmenta l d i s c u s s i o n s . In the B e l l a Coola a r ea , fu r thermore, an attempt has been made to i n c l ude na t i ve peoples s o c i a l and t r a d i t i o n a l requirements i n i n t e g r a t e d resource management. Personal communication w i th P ro fe s so r Haro ld Sandstrom, Facu l t y o f F o r e s t r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 16. Crown ownership of most l and and na tu ra l resources i n B r i t i s h Columbia - 122 -would appear to f a c i l i t a t e the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f i n t e g r a t e d resource management w i thout s u b s t a n t i a l p r i v a t e property i n t e r e s t r e s i s t a n c e . Lack o f funds, communication problems and l a c k o f p o l i t i c a l commitment, however, tend to h inder the development o f such a system. In the State o f Washington, the Forest P r a c t i c e s Ac t (1974: R.C.W. 76.09.010) conta ins a d e c l a r a t i o n : " t h a t c o i n c i d e n t w i th maintenance o f a v i a b l e f o r e s t products i n d u s t r y , i t i s important to a f f o r d p r o t e c t i o n to f o r e s t s o i l s , f i s h e r i e s , w i l d l i f e , water quan t i t y and q u a l i t y , a i r q u a l i t y , r e c r e a t i o n , and scen i c beauty. " The Act c reates a Forest P r a c t i c e s Board to promulgate f o r e s t p r a c t i c e s r e gu l a t i on s a p p l i c a b l e to p u b l i c and p r i v a t e f o r e s t l a n d s . 17. Young, "The F o l i o System", op. c i t . , n. I-10. 18. Loc. c i t . 19. Loc. c i t . 20. R.S.B.C. 1960, c . 153 as am. 21. Sec t i on 5 ( i ) . 22. P r i o r to the es tab l i shment of the o r i g i n a l Parks Branch i n the Department o f Recreat ion and Conserva t ion , p r o v i n c i a l parks i n B r i t i s h Columbia were managed by the Forest S e r v i c e . Fores ter s were l a r g e l y r e spon s i b l e f o r the c r e a t i o n o f such great preserves as Manning Park. 23. R.S.B.C. 1960, c . 405, as am. 24. Good, op. c i t . , n. IV-139, a t 286. 25. Sec t i on 9(1) r e s t r i c t s l e ga l ob jec to r s to l i c e n s e e s , r i p a r i a n owners and a p p l i c a n t s f o r l i c e n c e s , who cons ide r t ha t t h e i r r i g h t s would be p re jud i ced by l i c e n c e i s s ue . In p r a c t i c e , i n re spect of major p r o j e c t s such as B.C. Hydro ' s Revel stoke Dam, the Compt ro l l e r i n v i t e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n by groups o ther than these few c l a s s e s of ' l e g a l ' o b j e c t o r s . 26. R.S.C. 1970, c . F-14 ( F i r s t Supp.). 27. R.S.B.C. 1960, c . 150. 28. S.B.C. 1966, c . 55. Recent statements by Branch o f f i c i a l s con f i rm tha t the Branch ' s j u r i s d i c t i o n i s l i m i t e d s t r i c t l y to "consumptive" f o r e s t land use - hunt ing and f i s h i n g . There i s l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n such other resources as a i r , w i lderness , , f o r e s t scenery or water q u a l i t y . Personal communication from Mr. A l l a n C a r t e r , Execut ive D i r e c t o r , Outdoor Recreat ion Counci l of B.C. - 12:3 -29. S.B.C. 1970, c . 17. 30. Crook, op. c i t . n. 1-2 a t 31. Young, "The F o l i o System", op. c i t . , n. 1-10. 32. Loc. c i t . 33. "Coal Development i n B r i t i s h Co lumbia " , S i e r r a Club of Western Canada, Van Dusen Gardens, Vancouver, A p r i l 27, 1976. See a l s o Geoff Warden, B lack P i t s and Vanish ing H i l l s (Vancouver: B.C. W i l d l i f e Fede ra t i on , 1976). 34. Young, op. c i t . , n. 1-10. See a l s o Environment and Land Use S e c r e t a r i a t , Annual Report 1974 ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1975) a t 10. 35. J . G . B u l l e n , " A l l Resources Considered i n Logging P lans " (Summer, 1974) 2 Fo re s ta l k 6; Young, op. c i t . , n. 1-10. 36. Pearse, op. c i t . , n. 10 a t 46. 37. Young, op. c i t . , n . 1-10. 38. Comment by Mr. David Handley, MacMi l l an -B loede l L t d . , "The F o l i o System", B.C. Federat ion of Mountain C lubs , B r i t i s h Columbia I n s t i t u t e of Technology, Vancouver, A p r i l 8, 1976. 39. Comment by Mr. Roger Freeman, S i e r r a Club of Western Canada at l o c . c i t . Chambers l i s t s imper fec t p u b l i c communication systems as a major cause o f resource c o n f l i c t s i n the P u r c e l l Range. He recommends c o n s u l t a t i o n w i th Kootenay r e s i den t s to develop e f f e c t i v e p u b l i c communications. Chambers, P u r c e l l Range Study, op. c i t . , n. 1-4 a t 36. 40. Wa l te r s , " S t a r v e " , op. c i t . , n. 1-7. 41. Environmental educat ion i n B r i t i s h Columbia secondary schools emphasizes na tu ra l s c i ence , ecology and w i lde rnes s expe r i ence . There appears to be l i t t l e attempt to s e n s i t i z e students to the p o l i t i c a l and economic aspects o f environmental p r o t e c t i o n . 42. Personal communication from Mr. Cameron Murray, Environmental Educat ion Coord ina to r , Kamloops School Board, Kamloops, B.C. 43. S.B.C. 1971, c . 17 - 12.4 -44. Sec t i on 6. The Department o f the At torney-Genera l has r e c e n t l y i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s power as not extending to r e g u l a t i o n of development on p r i va te ly -owned l and s . Personal communication to Mr. John G. Ince, West Coast Environmental Law A s s o c i a t i o n from Mr. John Secter Environmental Se rv i ce s S e c t i o n , Lands Branch, B.C. Department o f Environment. 45. S.B.C. 1973, c . 46. 46. In terv iew w i th R.H. Ahrens, D i r e c t o r , Parks Branch, March 29,.1974. Personal communication from P ro fe s so r A.D. Chambers, I n s t i t u t e of Animal Resources Ecology, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. See a l s o Chambers, P u r c e l l Range Study, op. c i t . , n. 1-4 a t 32. 47 Log i c , op. c i t . , n. 3. 48. Crook, op. c i t . , n. 1-2 a t r e f e r s to committees of resource managers at the E.L.U.S. Resource Management Region l e v e l as " In terdepartmenta l Techn ica l Committees". In t h i s present work, these bodies are r e f e r r e d to as "Resource Management Committees" i n accordance w i th E.L.U.S. te rmino logy . See a l s o West Coast Environmental Law A s s o c i a t i o n Streambank P ro tec t ion . . (Vancouver: W.C.E.L.A., 1975, unpub l i shed) . 49. Comment by Mr. Bruce Pendergast, B.C. F i sh and W i l d l i f e Branch, S i e r r a Club of Western Canada Execut ive Meet ing, Westwater Research Centre, Vancouver, November 1, 1975. 50. Mines Regu lat ion A c t , S.B.C. 1967, c . 25. 51. Coal Mines Regu lat ion A c t , S.B.C. 1969, c . 3. 52. Pendergast, supra , n. 49. 53. T i t l e changed from Department o f Recreat ion and Conservat ion to Recreat ion and Travel Industry by Government Reorgan izat ion A c t , 1976 B i l l 59. 54. See quote by Hon. James Ne i l sen w i th regard to h i s new p o r t f o l i o i n the Vancouver Sun, December , 1975, p. 55. Department of Environment c rea ted by Government Reorgan izat ion A c t , supra, n. 53, s s . 3-4. The new department was g iven charge of Crown l ands , water r i g h t s and p o l l u t i o n con t r o l and a l l matters connected w i th them except f o r e s t r y and parks mat te r s . - 125 -56. Warden, op. c i t . , n. 33 a t 18. Logie d i scusses the subo rd ina t i on o f environmental values to economic values a t the f ede ra l l e v e l i n L og i e , op. c i t . , n. 3 a t 38. He l i s t s the major reasons f o r t h i s process: (1) the na t i ona l devot ion to an expanding economy, (2) economic values expressed i n d o l l a r s , environmental impacts u n q u a n t i f i a b l e , (3) the p r a c t i c e of comparing environmental and economic impacts over the same per iod of t ime. 57. Warden, op. c i t . , n. 33 at 7. 58. Environment and Land Use Committee, Gu ide l i ne s f o r Coal Development ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1976). Th is document conta ins a resource .. development p lann ing procedure employing in terdepar tmenta l i n t e g r a t e d approaches. A "Coal S t ee r i n g Committee" coord inates the review of proposed coal developments by l i n e agenc ies . An analogous approach might be app rop r i a te f o r major f o r e s t developments. 59. Mr. W i l l i a m Otway, Execut ive D i r e c t o r , B.C. W i l d l i f e Fede ra t i on , S i e r r a Club of Western Canada meet ing, supra , n. 33. 60. Loc. c i t . 61. See, f o r example, Forest Land Use L i a i s o n Committee o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Consensus Statement on the Management of Watersheds, (Vancouver: unpub l i shed, 1976). 62. Wa l te r s , " S t a r v e " , op. c i t . , n. 1-7. 63. Mr. Roger Freeman, S i e r r a Club of Western Canada, B.C. Federat ion of Mountain Clubs meet ing, supra , n. 39. See a l s o A.W. B o l l e , " P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n and Environmental Q u a l i t y " (1971), 11 Natural Resources Journal 497 at 502. 64. P o l l u t i o n Contro l A c t , 1967, S.B.C. 1967, c . 34 as am., sec. 12: 12. (1) An appeal l i e s (a) from every order of an engineer to the D i r e c t o r ; (b) from every order of the D i r e c t o r to the Board; and (c) from every order o f the Board to the L i eu tenan t -Governor i n C o u n c i l , who may de legate any member or members of the Execut ive Counci l of the Prov ince to hear the appeal and pronounce a d e c i s i o n thereon f o r or on beha l f of the L i eu tenan t -Governor i n C o u n c i l , or to the Supreme Court of B r i t i s h Columbia, as the a p p e l l a n t may dec ide ; and i n t h i s s e c t i o n the expres s ion "appeal t r i b u n a l " means the D i r e c t o r , the Board, the L ieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l , - 126 -or the member or members o f the Execut ive Counc i l of the Prov ince delegated by the L i eu t enan t - -Governor i n Counc i l to hear the appea l , or the Supreme Court of B r i t i s h Columbia, as the case may be, to whom the appeal i s t aken . (2) Every appeal from an order o f the engineer or the D i r e c t o r s h a l l be taken f i f t e e n days from the date of the o rde r , and every appeal from an order o f the Board s h a l l be taken w i t h i n t h i r t y days from the date of the o rder . (3) The a p p e l l a n t under an appeal taken under t h i s s e c t i o n s h a l l g ive no t i ce of the appeal as d i r e c t e d by the eng ineer , D i r e c t o r , or the Board from whose order the appeal i s t aken . (4) Before hear ing an appea l , the appeal t r i b u n a l may requ i re the a p p e l l a n t to depos i t w i t h the appeal such sum..of money as the appeal t r i b u n a l cons ider s s u f f i c i e n t to cover the probable expenses o f the appeal t r i b u n a l and the respon-dent i n connect ion w i th the appea l . • (5) The appeal t r i b u n a l may, on any appea l , determine the matters i n vo l ved and make any order that to the appeal t r i b u n a l appears j u s t , and may dispose o f any money depos i ted by the a p p e l l a n t pursuant to a requirement made under subsect ion ( 4 ) . (6) The d e c i s i o n of the Supreme Court of B r i t i s h Columbia, or the L ieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l , or the member or members of the Execut ive Counci l of the Prov ince delegated by the L ieutenant-Governor i n Counc i l to hear the appea l , as the case may be, s h a l l be f i n a l . (7_) No appeal s h a l l act as a s tay of_ e xecu t i on . /R.S.B.C. 1960, c . 289, s. 15 ( a m . ) 7 One of the major recommendations o f Chambers i n h i s P u r c e l l Range Study was the c r e a t i o n of an interagency group at the reg i ona l l e v e l charged w i th the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of develop ing resource management plans i n the r e g i o n . Chambers, P u r c e l l Range Study, op. c i t . , n. 1-4 a t 34. CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS Demands upon f i n i t e natura l resources of B r i t i s h Columbia coa s t a l t imber lands are i n c r e a s i n g e x p o n e n t i a l l y . In a d d i t i o n demands are i n c r e a s i n g f o r i n t a n g i b l e "non-economic" resources such as outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . This has l ed to a c o n f l i c t between var ious resource user s , p r i n c i p a l l y between f o r e s t products i n t e r e s t s and other p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s . The Forest Se rv i ce i s r e spons ib le f o r f o r e s t management i n B r i t i s h Columbia but i t s p r i n c i p a l s t a t u t e and h i s t o r i c a l b ias f avo r t imber p roduc t i on . Neve r th l e s s , due to pub l i c p res sure , the Se rv i ce has attempted to re so l ve i n t e r - r e s o u r c e c o n f l i c t s through the Coast Logging G u i d e l i n e s . Enforcement o f the environmental p r ov i s i on s o f these Gu ide l i ne s has re s ted upon the d i s c r e t i o n a r y power e xe r c i s ed by the Se rv i ce over Crown l i c e n s e e s . There has been l i t t l e attempt made to regu la te logg ing p r a c t i c e s upon p r i va te l y -owned lands which produce a s u b s t a n t i a l percentage o f the B.C. t imber harvest va lue . I t i s not i n accordance w i th concepts of ecosystems i n t e g r i t y t ha t d i f f e r e n t p o l i c i e s apply to t imber lands w i th d i f f e r e n t l e ga l s t a t u s . I t has been suggested tha t there are severa l a l t e r n a t i v e s which may be u t i l i z e d by the Forest Se rv i ce to regu la te logg ing on p r i v a t e l ands , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i th respect to the environmental impact upon f i s h i n coa s ta l f o r e s t streams. The common law o f f e r s severa l p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r causes o f a c t i o n aga in s t c a r e l e s s logg ing ope ra t i on s . - 127 -- 128 -Despite these ready causes of a c t i o n and the a d d i t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t y of p ro secu t i on s , l i t i g a t i o n does not appear to be usefu l i n environmental management. I t i s expens ive, post f a c t o and unneces sa r i l y e s o t e r i c . What i s r equ i red i s a broad i n t e g r a t ed resource approach based upon c l e a r s t a t u t o r y p r ov i s i on s and upon general p u b l i c and i n d u s t r i a l support . The Forest Se rv i ce has attempted to in t roduce such broad p lann ing w i th i t s f o l i o system. For severa l reasons t h i s procedure w i l l not succeed i n i n t r oduc i ng i n t e g r a t e d resource management throughout B r i t i s h Columbia. In a d d i t i o n , the h i s t o r i c a l b ias of the Forest Se rv i ce i s i ne scapab le . A p r o j e c t - o r i e n t e d committee approach, u t i l i z i n g l i n e department e x p e r t i s e , seems appropr i a te f o r the task of resource c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n . The cu r r en t Environment and Land Use Commit tee -Sec re ta r i a t s t r u c t u r e i s a good s t a r t i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . What i s r equ i red now i s a c l e a r e r s t a t u t o r y base f o r Commit tee -Sec re ta r i a t ope r a t i on s , s p e l l i n g out c l e a r l y enforcement procedures, i n te rdepar tmenta l communications, f i e l d - l e v e l resource committee dec i s ion-mak ing and l o c a l and prov ince-wide p u b l i c communications systems. In a d d i t i o n , i t should be c l e a r l y understood tha t i n t e g r a t e d resource plans w i l l be a p p l i c a b l e to p r i v a t e l y owned resource areas. A f i r s t p r i o r i t y should be the encouragement o f environmental awareness throughout the educat iona l system. This should lead to increased e x p e r t i s e a t the U n i v e r s i t y graduat ion l e v e l . 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TIMBER SALE HARVESTING LICENCE | ! i - 136 -- 137 -PROVINCE.OF DEPARTMENT OF BRI-TISil C0LUM3IA FOREST SERVICE LANDS, FORESTS, AND ' WATER RESOURCES TIMBER SALE HARVESTING I LICENCE ^ FOREST DISTRICT -P u b l i c S u s t a i n e d Y i e l d U n i t -THIS KDENTUllE, made t h a ....... day o f •• , A.D. 19... Between: Her M a j e s t y the Queen r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n and A c t i n g by h e r D i s t r i c t F o r e s t e r , of t h e above named d i s t r i c t \ , I • ' ( h e r e i n a f t e r c a l l e d t h e " L i c e n s o r " ) OF THE ONE PART, t o g e t h e r w i t h e x e c u t o r s , a d r a i n i s t r a t o r s s u c c e s s o r s and a s s i g n s , ( h e r e i n a f t e r c a l l e d t h e " L i c e n s e e " ) OF THE. OTHER" PART. and I C O _ _ J ^ W ^ ? [ E j r H _ t ha t , _ j l n _ c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the .payments t o he made and the c o j v H H o i i s t o be c o m p l i e d w i t h by and on the p a r t of the L i c e n s e e , and o f t h e L i c e n s e e ' s o f f e r to p u r c h a s e t i m b e r under and s u b j e c t t o t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f P a r t I I I o f t h e " F o r e s t A c t " , the L i c e n s o r does hereby g r a n t u n t o t h e L i c e n c e n l i c e n c e t o .. c u t and remove q u a n t i t i e s of t i m b e r frcr.i Crown l a n d s w i t h i n the P u b l i c S u s t a i n e d Y i e l d U n i t a c c o r d i n g .to an a p p r o v e d p l a n and p e r m i t s as h e r e i n -a f t e r • m e n t i o n e d , s u b j e c t t o the p r o v i s i o n s of s a i d " A c t " and f o r the t e r m and s u b j e c t t o the r e s e r v a t i o n s and c o n d i t i o n s h e r e i n a f t e r m e n t i o n e d as f o l l o w s : 1. SCOPE OF THE LICENCE 1.1 C u t t i n g A u t h o r i t y The L i c e n s e e . i s a u t h o r i z e d and e n t i t l e d t o h a r v e s t c u b i c f e c t o f timber' per y e a r from the s a i d P u b l i c S u s t a i n e d Y i e l d U n i t a c c o r d i n g t o a p p r o v e d development p l a n s as h e r e a f t e r d e s c r i b e d and t o p e r m i t s i s s u e d as h e r e a f t e r p r o v i d e d , The volume o f t i m b e r h a r v e s t e d each y e a r s h a l l be t a k e n t o i n c l u d e a l l of t h e - t i m b e r c u t and removed o r w a s t e d , o r damaged by the L i c e n s e e or i t s a g e n t s as p r o v i d e d i n t h i s l i c e n c e , the " F o r e s t A c t " and the c u t t i n g p e r m i t s , 1.2 Lands S u b j e c t t o O c c u p a t i o n . . H a r v e s t i n g of ,the t i m b e r p u r s u a n t t o p e r m i t s i s s u e d under a u t h o r i t y o f t h i s l i c e n c e s h a l l be- i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h c u r r e n t l y a p p r o v e d d e v e l o p m e n t i p l a n s , e a c h o f w h i c h c o n s e c u t i v e l y as a p p r o v e d by the L i c e n s o r f o r e a c h s u c c e s s i v e p e r i o d , i s hereby i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o and made a p a r t of t h i s l i c e n c e . P r o v i d e d the L i c e n s e e s h a l l be e n t i t l e d t o c u t and remove t i m b e r o n l y f r o m th o s e l a n d s o v e r w h i c h the L i c e n s o r has i s s u e d t o the L i c e n s e e a c u t t i n g p e r m i t as more p a r t i c u l a r l y d e s c r i b e d h e r e a f t e r , p r o v i d e d a l s o t h a t the l a n d s t o w h i c h t h i s l i c e n c e i s a p p l i c a b l e and f o r w h i c h , o c c u p a t i o n w i l l be g r a n t e d t o the L i c e n s e e a r c l i m i t e d t o t h o s e l a n d s f o r w h i c h a c u t t i n g p e r m i t has been i s s u e d t o the L i c e n s e e . T h i s l i c e n c e s h a l l not t h e r e f o r e be c o n s t r u e d i n any manner t h a t c o u l d i n d i c a t e or be i n t e r p r e t e d as g i v i n g c o n t r o l t o the L i c e n s e e of any of the l a n d s or any p a r t t h e r e o f s p e c i f i e d i n c l a u s e 1.1 but t h a t ' the o n l y r i g h t of e n t r y onco s u c h l a n d c s h a l l be t o the e x t e n t , nc p r o v i d e d by the-o a l d p e r m i t s . - 138 -Page 2. "1.3 Terra . • T h i s l i c e n c e i s f o r n p e r i o d commencing from d a t a - h e r e o f . pnd c o n t i n u i n g f o r a t e r n of t e n (10) y e a r s n e x t e n s u i n g . 2, CUTTING PRIVILEGES 2.1 Development P l a n s •2.11 S u b m i s s i o n o f Development P l a n s S u b j e c t t o the p r o v i s i o n s o f c l a u s e 2.13 the L i c e n s e e s h a l l s u b m i t a p l a n f o r the h a r v e s t i n g of the tLmbcr ( h e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o as a development p l a n ) f o r the a p p r o v a l of the L i c e n s o r no't l a t e r Chan s i x (6) months p r i o r t o t h e p r o p o s e d t i c i e f o r co s - ' c n c c a c n t o f o p e r a t i o n s u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e a u t h o r i z e d by t h e L i c e n s o r . I n t h e e v e n t th3t s u b s e q u e n t development p l a n s a r e r e q u i r e d e a c h p l a n s h a l l be ! s u b m i t t e d f o r the a p p r o v a l o f the L i c e n s o r n o t l a t e r t h a n si.xj (6) months p r i o r t o the proposed t i m e of commencement o f o p e r a t i o n s . A l l d e v e l o p m e n t - p l a n s must be s u b m i t t e d u n der the. hand and s e a l o f a f o r e s t e r r e g i s t e r e d under t h e " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o f e s s i o n a l F o r e s t e r s A c t " and s h a l l be' f o r s u c h p e r i o d o f t i m e and s h a l l c o n t a i n c u c h i n f o r m a t i o n as the L i c e n s o r r e q u i r e s and the. L i c e n s o r r e s e r v e s t h e r i g h t , i f n e c e s s a r y , i n the i n t e r e s t s o f o b t a i n i n g t h e n a x i c u s i end p r o p e r development o f the P u b l i c S u s t a i n e d Y i e l d U n i t t o d e s i g n a t e t he a r e a s o f o p e r a t i o n o f the L i c e n s e e , P r o v i d e d t h a t p r i o r t o the a p p r o v a l o f . t h e i n i t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n t he L i c e n s o r s h a l l send n o t i c e t h e r e o f . t o t h e o t h e r L i c e n s e e s e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e s a i d u n i t . 2.12 Development P l a n a P a r t o f t h e L i c e n c e , E a c h development p l a n , on a p p r o v a l by the. L i c e n s o r , s h a l l be and i s a t e r n and c o n d i t i o n and becomes and i s r. p a r t o f t h i s l i c e n c e and. any b r e a c h of t h a terms and c o n d i t i o n s o f any dj^eIop:T'.eut_pJan_or c u t t i n g p e r m i t i s a b r e a c h o f the terms and-condi'tiono..of• t h i s , l i c e n c e . o.Ti R c v J r . i o n o f Development P l a n s N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g c l a u s e 2.11, t h e L i c e n s e e may s u b m i t r e v i s i o n s t o the development, p l a n and the L i c e n s o r may r e q u i r e t he L i c e n s e e t o s u b m i t w i t h i n t he t i m e f i x e d by the L i c e n s o r r e v i s e d d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s and d e s i g n a t e a r e a s f o r c u t t i n g i n the e v e n t o f any emergency c a u s i n g or t h r e a t e n i n g i n j u r y t o any t i m b e r s u b j e c t , t o t h i s l i c e n c e and w i t h o u t l i m i t i n g t h e - g e n e r a l i t i e s o f the. f o r e g o i n g s u c h e a o r g c a c y s h a l l i n c l u d e i n s e c t a t t a c k s , f i r e , blowdown o r o t h e r c a u s e s and t h a L i c e n s e e s h a l l ta:-:e s u c h measures as t h e L i c e n s o r d i r e c t s t o h a r v e s t '.. .. t h e s a i d , t i m b e r . . . . . . . . 2.2 C u t t i n g P c r r - i t s 2.21 A p p l i c a t i o n f o r and I s s u a n c e o f C u t t i n g P e r m i t s Subsequent t o the a p p r o v a l o f t h e development p i a n and upon f u r t h e r w r i t t e n a p p l i c a t i o n f r o m the L i c e n s e e , and s u b j e c t t o any d i r e c t t o t i f r o m the L i c e n s o r as p r o v i d e d i n c l a u s e 2.22, t h e L i c e n s o r s h a l l i s s u e c u t t i n g p e r m i t s from t i m e t o time as r e q u i r e d t o a u t h o r i z e , t h e h a r v e s t i n g of the t i m b e r f r o m t h e a r e a s f o r w h i c h a d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n . h a s been a p p r o v e d . U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e a u t h o r i z e d by t h e L i c e n s o r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r trie i n i t i a l c u t t i n g p e r m i t o r p e r m i t s s h a l l he made, w i t h i n t w e l v e ( 1 2 ) months f o l l o w i n g the d a t e of i s s u e of t h i n l i c e n c e end a t l e a s t t h r e e (3) months p r i o r t o the proposed d a t e o f commencement of o p e r a t i o n s ; s u b s e q u e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r c u t t i n g p e r m i t s s h a l l he made not l e s s t h a n s i x (6) months p r i o r to the p r o p o s e d co;:r.ieiicement o f o p e r a t i o n s o n.the a r e a a p p l i e d f o r . The term of a c u t t i n g p e r m i t may be f o r any p e r i o d o f y e a r s up - t o a_rinxir,Hir.i o f t h r e e (3) y e a r s ccc.maTV5\7r7fFc"^lTiv~ t h e e s t i m a t e d volume o f t i m b e r i n the a r e a c o v e r e d by the p e r m i t and the r a t e o f c u t t i n g r e f e r r e d t o h e r e a f t e r i n c l a n s o 2.32, p r o v i d e d t h a t c u t t i n g p e r m i t s i s s u e d t o a u t h o r i z e the h.v.'ver: I: i u.j o f t l m l . e r f r o m r o a d r i g h t s - o f - w a y w i t h i n the a r e a o f ••>" «r;>|irv\<<ul devolop::ient p l a n may be I s s u e d t o e x p i r e w i t h the to.1.1 o f the 1 U-oii'cc, - 139 -.Page 3 2.21 C o n t i n u e d : The c u t t i n g p e r m i t s s h a l l c o n s t i t u t e t h e L i c e n s e e ' s a u t h o r i t y t o e n t e r on t h e l a n d s t o w h i c h the c u t t i n g p e r m i t a p p l i e s and the r i r , h t t o h a r v e s t t h e t i m b e r t h e r e f r o m a c c o r d i n g t o the terms and c o n d i t i o n s o f the p e r m i t . A n y _ c j ^ t i n ^ _ Q i _ t . i n b c . r _ n o t _ a u t h o r i z e d _by_a_pc_rmit w i l l be deemed t o be i n _ t r e s p a s s . 2.22 S u r v e y of B o u n d a r i e s The L i c e n s o r nay d i r e c t t h e L i c e n s e e t o have s u r v e y e d and d e f i n e d on the g r o u n d , and at the L i c e n s e e ' s e x p e n s e , any o r a l l o f t h e | b o u n d a r i e s o f the c u t t i n g p e r m i t s w h i c h he may deem n e c e s s a r y t o have so s u r v y e d and d e f i n e d . I n the e v e n t o f f a i l u r e of the L i c e n s e e t o c o m p l e t e any s u c h s u r v e y w i t h i n the time, l i m i t s s e t by t h e L i c e n s o r , t h e L i c e n s o r (may c a u s e the s u r v e y t o be made and t h e c o s t s s h a l l be c h a r g e d t o and be pay-a b l e f o r t h w i t h by the L i c e n s e e . I 2.23 Form of t h e C u t t i n g P e r m i t The c u t t i n g p e r m i t s h a l l . b e i n t h e f o r m o f and s u b j e c t t o s u c h terms and c o n d i t i o n s 33 t h e L i c e n s o r a p p r o v e s c e n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n s and i n t e n t of t h i s l i c e n c e , ' the " F o r e s t A c t " and any amend-ments t h e r e t o and r e g u l a t i o n s t h e r e u n d e r and the p e r m i t s h a l l s e t f o r t h t h e r e i n the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of the t i m b e r t h a t must be h a r v e s t e d . 2.3 R e g u l a t i o n o f Cut . 2.31 A n n u a l Commitment The q u a n t i t y o f t i m b e r t o . b e h a r v e s t e d u n der c l a u s e 1.1 o f t h i s l i c e n c e r e p r e s e n t s an a n n u a l commitment riot e x c e e d i n g c u b i c f e e t o f timberi'b.eing a . p a r t of the a n n u a l a l l o w a b l e c u t i n t h e P u b l i c S u s t a i n e d Y i e l d U n i t . 2.32 C u t t i n g Budgets The L i c e n s e e a g r e e s w i t h the L i c e n s o r t h a t a l l l o g g i n g o r l u m b e r i n g o p e r a t i o n s c a r r i e d on by, or on b e h a l f o f , the L i c e n s e e on t h i s l i c e n c e w i l l be c o n d u c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s : ( a ) The L i c e n s e e s h a l l s u b m i t as p a r t o f the development p l a n t o be . s u b m i t t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h c l a u s e 2.11, a c u t t i n g budget s e t t i n g f o r t h the q u a n t i t i e s of t i m b e r t o be h a r v e s t e d e a c h y e a r and the c u t t i n g p e r m i t s t o w h i c h the c u t t i n g o p e r a t i o n s a p p l y . (b) The q u a n t i t y of t i m b e r h a r v e s t e d a n n u a l l y s h a l l be i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the a p p r o v e d c u t t i n g budget and s h a l l be a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l t o the approved a n n u a l h a r v e s t s t a t e d i n c l a u s e 1.1 above. ( c ) P r o v i d e d t h a t the q u a n t i t y of t i m b e r s c a l e d and b i l l e d or w a sted o r damaged i n any g i v e n y e a r s h a l l n o t : ( i ) E x c e e d one hundred and f i f t y (150) per c e n t of t h a t a n n u a l h a r v e s t , o r ( i i ) Be l e s s t h a n f i f t y (50) per c e n t of t h a t a n n u a l h a r v e s t . ( d ) P r o v i d e d t h a t t h e q u a n t i t y o f t i m b e r s c a l e d and b i l l e d o r w a sted o r damaged s h a l l not c o n t i n u o u s l y exceed the a n n u a l h a r v e s t - s t a t e d i n c l a u s e 1.1 above. ( c ) I V o v i d c J t h a t the t o t a l q u a n t i t y o f t i m b e r h a r v e s t e d d u r i n g a p e r i o d n o t e x c e e d i n g f i v e . (5) d e s i g n a t e d c o n s e c u t i v e y e a r s .nha.ll n o t e x c e e d one hundred and t e n (110) per c e n t nor be l e s s t h a n n i n e t y (90) per c e n t o f f i v e (5) times the a n n u a l h a r v e s t r e f e r r e d t o above, and s h a l l be a l s o s u b j e c t t o the f o l l o w i n g : ( i ) Iv'herc Che q u a n t i t y of t i m b e r h a r v e s t e d who Cher s c a l e d and ; b i l l e d or wasted o r damaged f o r the f i v e (5) d e s i g n a t e d ' '• c o n s e c u t i v e y e a r s i s i n e x c e s s of one hundred (100)' per c e n t of the t o t a l of a n n u a l h a r v e s t s f o r t h a t p e r i o d , t h e n the t o t a l of a n n u a l h a r v e s t s f o r the next p e r i o d ' of f i v e (5) c o n s e c u t i v e y e a r s s h a l l be r e d u c e d by a volume c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the t o t a l of s u c h e x c e s s q u a n t i t i e s . - 140 -2.32 c o n t i n u e d : ( i i ) Where the q u a n t i t y of t i m b e r h a r v e s t e d f o r t h e f i v e (5) d e s i g n a t e d p o n s e c u t i v c y e a r s i s o v e r n i n e t y (90) p e r c e n t b ut l c p A t h n n one hundred (100) p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l o f . a r u u ; j l h a r v e s t s f o r tha^t p e r i o d , then, t he t o t a l o f a n n u a l h.jrv'ests f a r the n e x t per.iod o f f i v e ( 5 ) co n -s e c u t i v e y e ^ r s v ^ h a l i ' ^ c i n c r e a s e d by a v o l u n o c o n r e o j x w d - - . -i n g t o the t o t a l ^ o f s u c h d e f i c i e n t q u a n t i t i e s . .321 Maximum Cut I n the ev e n t t h a t t he maximum q u a n t i t y o f t i m b e r s p e c i f i e d i n , c l a u s e s 2 . 3 2 ( c ) ( 1 ) o r 2.32(e) above i s exc e e d e d an a s s e s s m e n t may be made under c l a u s e 7.71 and t h e l i c e n c e s h a l l be s u b j e c t [ t o c a n -c e l l a t i o n as p r o v i d e d i n c l a u s e ; 8 , 1 4 1 . . i '. 2.322 Minimum Cut ! ' ' i ~~o P r o v i d e d t h a t s h o u l d the q u a n t i t y o f t i m b e r s c a l e d and b i l l e d o r wasted o r damaged be l e s s t h a n t h e amount s p e c i f i e d i n c l a u s e s 2 . 3 2 ( c ) ( I i ) o r 2.32(c) above the l i c e n c e s h a l l be s u b j e c t t o c a n -c e l l a t i o n as p r o v i d e d i n c l a u s e 8.141. LOG MARKING AND SCALING 3.1 Log M a r k i n g B e f o r e any t i m b e r i s removed f r o m the land3 d e s c r i b e d i n any c u t t i n g p e r m i t i s s u e d under t h i s l i c e n c e , i t s h a l l be c o n s p i c u o u s l y marked w i t h the Timber Mark a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e t i m b e r c u t on t h o s e l a n d s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e c u t t i n g p e r m i t . 3.2 S c a l i n g , ( i ) The L i c e n s o r may g i v e d i r e c t i o n as t o t h e method o f s c a l i n g , and may d e s i g n a t e Che p l a c e o f s c a l i n g , m e a s u r i n g and c o u n t i n g of. any t i m b e r c u t under t h i s l i c e n c e . ( i i ) U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e d i r e c t e d by the L i c e n s o r , t h e - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C u b i c S c a l e s h a l l be used and a p p l i e d i n t h e s c a l i n g o f a l l . t i m b e r c u t under t h i s l i c e n c e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h f i r m w o o d s c a l -i n g s p e c i f i c a t i o n s a pproved by the C h i e f F o r e s t e r . .. FORF.ST. PROTECTION. \ 4.1 •' A r e a o f O c c u p a t i o n ( i ) The L i c e n s e e s h a l l bo deemed t o be i n o c c u p a t i o n o f o n l y t h o s e l a n e s d e s c r i b e d i n c u t t i n g p e r m i t s i s s u e d t o the L i c e n s e e pursuer.: t o c h i s l i c e n c e t h a t have not been t e r m i n a t e d i n w r i t i n g b y t h e L i c e n s o r and the p r o v i s i o n s of F a r t X I of the " F o r e s t A c t " s h a l l a p p l y t h e r e t o f o r and d u r i n g t he p e r i o d t h a t the L i c e n s e e i s deemed t o be i n o c c u p a t i o n of any l a n d s w i t h i n t h i c l i c e n c e . '• ( i i . ) The e n t i r e c u c t i n g p e r m i t a r e a s h a l l be deemed t o be i n c l u d e d i n the a r e a s o c c u p i e d by the L i c e n s e e u n t i l t h e L i c e n s o r h a s . n o t i -r i e d t h e L i c e n s e e i n w r i t i n g t h a t t h e . s l a s h has been d i s p o s e d o f s a t i s f a c t o r i l y on the e n t i r e a r e a of a l o g g e d c u t t i n g p e r m i t . A.2 P r o t e c t i o n P r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n 4.21 P r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n P l a n The L i c e n s e e s h a l l submit t o t h e L i c e n s o r p r i o r t o A p r i l 15 o f each y e a r d u r i n g the term of t h i s l i c e n c e a , f i r e p r o t e c t i o n p r c -o r g a n i z a c i o n p l a n t o g e t h e r w i t h a d u t y r o r . t e r w h i c h s h a l l be kept c u r r e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e C l o s e ScnPon, a l l t o the. s a t I s f a c t i o n o f t h e L i c e n s o r . - 141 -Pago 5. •4.22 S t a n d b y F o r c e The L i c e n s e e agrees t o m a i n t a i n a t a l l t i m e s d u r i n g t h e C l o s e Season a minimum st a n d b y f o r c e of t h r e e (3) men p r o v i d e d , however, t h i s f o r c e upon a p p r o v a l of the L i c e n s o r may v a r y i n number o f men d e p e n d i n g upon the acreage deemed t o be o c c u p i e d by the L i c e n s e e and upon h a z a r d c o n d i t i o n s . The L i c e n s o r nay r e q u i r e t h e L i c e n s e e , t o m a i n t a i n on the a r e a of t h i s l i c e n c e an a d d i t i o n a l f o r c e o f n o t more .. . t h a n one (1) man f o r each t h r e e hundred (300) a c r e s o f t h e t o t a l a r e a i n a c r e s deemed o c c u p i e d i n t h i 3 l i c e n c e . 4.23 Standby F o r c e Equipment U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e a u t h o r i z e d by the L i c e n s o r , d u r i n g t h e C l o s e Season the s t a n d b y f o r c e p r o v i d e d by the L i c e n s e e as r e q u L r e d ; I n . "' . c l a u s e 4.22 s h a l l be a d e q u a t e l y t r a i n e d and e q u i p p e d f o r f o r e p t f i r e s u p p r e s s i o n and s h a l l be r e a d y t o t a k e immediate a c t i o n t o s u p p r e s s f i r e whenever n o t i c e o f a f i r e i s g i v e n or r e c e i v e d . A d e q u a t e means o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and r a d i o communication, equipment o f a t y p e ; and number s a t i s f a c t o r y t o the L i c e n s o r s h a l l be p r o v i d e d by t h e L i c e n s e e t o the s a i d s t a n d b y f o r c e . Such f o r c e s h a l l be m a i n t a i n e d i n : a l o c a t i o n on or n e a r the c u t t i n g p e r m i t a r e a o r a r e a s as a p p r o v e d by the L i c e n s o r . . R O A D S . 5.1 , M a i n Road C o n s t r u c t i o n U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e a u t h o r i z e d i n w r i t i n g by the L i c e n s o r , the m a i n r o a d s s h a l l be c o n s t r u c t e d on the l o c a t i o n r o u t e as d e f i n e d o r a p p r o v e d by the L i c e n s o r . The roads s h a l l be c o n s t r u c t e d and m a i n -t a i n e d by the L i c e n s e e a c c o r d i n g t o the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and s t a n d a r d s d e f i n e d i n the c u t t i n g p e r m i t s i s s u e d under c l a u s e 2.21. 5.2 M a i n t e n a n c e D u r i n g the term of o p e r a t i o n s under t h i s l i c e n c e , the L i c e n s e e s h a l l m a i n t a i n a l l main a l l - w e a t h e r r o a d s c o n s t r u c t e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h i s l i c e n c e i n a c o n d i t i o n s a t i s f a c t o r y t o the. L i c e n s o r f o r use by normal v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c d u r i n g the C l o s e S e ason. F.rosion C o n t r o l Upon a n n u a l o r f i n a l c e s s a t i o n o f l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s u n der t h i s l i c e n c e , the L i c e n s e e s h a l l c o n s t r u c t .water-bars o r open c u l v e r t s t o t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , number and l o c a t i o n s deemed n e c e s s a r y by the F o r e s t O f f i c e r t o p r e v e n t d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the r o a d s by u n c o n t r o l l e d w a t e r r u n o f f . 4 A u t h o r i t y t o Take P o s s e s s i o n of Roads by the Crown The Crown r e s e r v e s the r i g h t t o t a k e p o s s e s s i o n .of any o r a l l r o a d s c o n s t r u c t e d on t h i s l i c e n c e a r e a a t any time w i t h o u t compen-s a t i o n t o the L i c e n s e e n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the p r o v i s i o n s o f S e c t i o n 56 o f the " F o r e s t A c t " G u b j c c t , however, t o p e r m i t t i n g the L i c e n s e e t h e use o f the r o a d s f o r the d u r a t i o n o f t h i s l i c e n c e , PROTECTION OF WATER SUPPLY I n c o n d u c t i n g l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s on the l i c e n c e a r e a , no p e r s o n s h a l l f o u l or r e n d e r u n f i t f o r i r r i g a t i o n , d r i n k i n g o r d o m e s t i c p u r p o s e s any l a k e or s t r e a m w h i c h p r o v i d e s the w a t e r s u p p l y f o r any i r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m or of any p e r s o n or community. U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e a u t h o r i z e d and s u b j e c t t o any r e q u i r e m e n t s by the M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s , and Water R e s o u r c e s . ( i ) Mo l o g g i n g d e b r i s or r o a d b u i l d i n g d e b r i s o r any s u b s t a n c e l i k e l y t o cause p o l l u t i o n s h a l l be d e p o s i t e d a t any t i m e w i t h i n any s u c h l a k e o r s t r e a m . ( i i ) A t no time s h a l l l o g s be s k i d d e d , equipment o p e r a t e d o r g r a v e l he d i s p l a c e d o r any damage done to any s t r e a m c h a n n e l .between h i g h w n t c c banks o f . a n y s t r e a m . ( H i ) A l l s t r e a m c r o s s i n g s s h a l l be p r o v i d e d w i t h n b r i d g e o r c u l v e r t o f s u f f i c i e n t d im.Mir: i o n s t o a c c o m o d a t e the max (niira s i roam f l o u and no obr. I: r uc c i o n o:" f i l l s h a l l he p l a c e d w i t h t u any - 142 -Page 6. FINANCIAL The Licensee, s h a l l pay t o the L i c e n s o r the f o l l o w i n g sums a t t h e t i m e s s p e c i f i e d h e r e i n . 7.1 R e n t a l An a n n u a l r e n t a l at the r a t e s as p r o v i d e d i n t h e " F o r e s t A c t " and R e g u l a t i o n s when the same becomes due and p a y a b l e . 7.2 F o r e s t P r o t e c t i o n Tax. F o r e s t P r o t e c t i o n Tax a t r a t e s as p r o v i d e d i n t h e " F o r e s t A c t " and R e g u l a t i o n s when the same becomes due and p a y a b l e . ' .. j ' 7.3 . S c a l i n g j The c h a r g e s f o r s c a l i n g , w e i g h i n g , m e a s u r i n g and c o u n t i n g i i a o c d -i a t e l y upon r e c e i p t of a c c o u n t . i 7.4 G e n e r a l - 1 Any o t h e r sums, assessments o r c o s t s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h i s l i c e n c e o r a r i s i n g from t i m b e r h a r v e s t i n g o p e r a t i o n s c o n d u c t e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h i s l i c e n c e i m m e d i a t e l y upon r e c e i p t o f a c c o u n t , 7.5 D e p o s i t s S u b j e c t t o the p r o v i s i o n s of S e c t i o n s 2.03 and 2.05 o f the B.^. R e g u l a t i o n 05/55, b e i n g a r e g u l a t i o n g o v e r n i n g the s a l e o f Crown \ o<L\ t i m b e r , the L i c e n s e e agrees t h a t the sum of $ a p p l i c a b l e ^ as a d e p o s i t f o r t i m b e r c o v e r e d by t h i s l i c e n c e , s h a l l be h e l d by t h e X ^ L i c e n s o r s u b j e c t t o c o m p l i a n c e • b y ' t h e L i c e n s e e w i t h a l l the terms and . c o n d i t i o n s o f t h i s l i c e n c e ; p r o v i d e d t h a t the L i c e n s o r may d e d u c t f r o m time t o t i m e f r o m the s a i d d e p o s i t any sums n e c e s s a r y t o pay c h a r g e s i n c u r r e d by the L i c e n s o r i n c a r r y i n g out t h e f u l l i n t e n t and p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s - l i c e n c e and t h a L i c e n s e e s h a l l f o r t h w i t h pay t o t h e L i c e n s o r s u c h sums as a r e n e c e s s a r y to make the d e p o s i t e q u a l t o the above mentioned sum; p r o v i d e d l u r t h e r , if the L i c e n s e e has w e l l and t r u l y c o m p l i e d w i t h the terms and c o n d i t i o n s o f t h i s l i c e n c e t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f the L i c e n s o r the a f o r e s a i d sum s h a l l ' become r e -f u n d a b l e s u b j e c t t o the a f o r e s a i d - R e g u l a t i o n ; o t h e r w i s e the s a i d d e p o s i t i s s u b j e c t t o the d e d u c t i o n s as a f o r e m e n t i o n e d o r o t h e r w i s e w i l l be a p p l i e d f o r damages o r o t h e r c h a r g e s . 7.6 . Stumpage Stumpage, i n c l u s i v e of r o y a l t y a t the r a t e s as a p p r a i s e d and . a s s e s s e d by t h e L i c e n s o r from time t o t i m e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e method o f a p p r a i s a l t h a n i r . use by the L i c e n s o r and as s e t f o r t h i n the c u t t i n g p e r m i t s r e f e r r e d t o i n c l a u s e 2.21 above. The L i c e n s e e a g r e e s co pay s a i d stumpage i n c l u s i v e o f r o y a l t y t o g e t h e r w i t h and i n a d d i t i o n rhcrecc: t h e bonus b i d o f $ p e r hundred (100) c u b i c f c e c of wood i m m e d i a t e l y upon r e c e i p t o f a c c o u n t . 7.7 A s s e s s m e n t s 7.71 E x c e s s Volumes I n t h e e v e n t t h a t the q u a n t i t y of t i m b e r c u t or s p e c i f i e d i n c l a u s e 2.32 i s exceeded th e n d o u b l e stumpage i n c l u s i v e o f r o y a l t y s h a l l be a s s e s s e d and be p a y a b l e on any e x c e s s of t h e q u a n t i t i e s above s t a t e d . P r o v i d e d , however, s h o u l d the q u a n t i t y of t i m b e r c u t d u r i n g a p e r i o d not e x c e e d i n g f i v e (5) d e s i g n a t e d c o n s e c u t i v e y e a r s n o t e x c e e d the one hundred and ten (110) per c e n t no a s s e s s m e n t s f o r t h e e x c e s s s h a l l be p a y a b l e and any amounts p a i d f o r a s s e s s m e n t s f o r the e x c e s s above may r e f u n d e d . 7.72 Damage I!o damage s h a l l be done t o young g r o w t h . o r to t r e e s d e s i g n a t e d t o be l e f t s t a n d i n g . I f t r e e s or young growth d e s i g n a t e d t o be l e f t s t a n d i n g a r c damaged e x c e s s i v e l y In the judgment of the L i c e n s o r d u r i n g any woods o p e r a t i o n , an assessment w i l l be made. - 143 -7.73 Waste T r e e s d e s i g n a t e d t o be c u t i n t h e c u t t i n g p e m i t s I s s u e d p u r s u a n t t o c l a u s e 2.21 w h i c h a r e l e f t u n c u t , t i m b e r w a sted i n t o p s and..stumps, t r e e s l e f t lodged i n tha p r o c e s s o f f e l l i n g , and. any m e r c h a n t a b l e t i m b e r w h i c h i s c u t and,not removed f r o m any p o r t i o n o f a c u t t i n g p e r m i t a r e a ' s h a l l be s c a l e d , measured o r c o u n t e d as h e r e i n b e f o r e p r o v i d e d . At any t i m e an a c c o u n t o r a c c o u n t s w i l l be i s s u e d f o r Che t r e e s or t i m b e r a f o r e m e n t i o n e d a t one and o n e - h a l f (1-1/2) t h e . stumpage r a t e s c u r r e n t l y In e f f e c t t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e c o s t s o f s c a l i n g . , -m e a s u r i n g and c o u n t i n g , and such-amounts. .orc.-.payahlo--imiMdJ^TtrJoi ,_... • upon r e c e i p t t h e r e o f . ! 8. MISCELLANEOUS ' . i ' 8.1 R e l a t i n g t o Term o f L i c e n c e 8.11 E x p i r y j S u b j e c t Co any e x t e n s i o n g r a n t e d as h e r e i n a f t e r p r o v i d e d u n d e r t h e terms and c o n d i t i o n s of t h i s l i c e n c e , t h i s l i c e n c e s h a l l e x p i r e on t h e c o m p l e t i o n of. the term as p r o v i d e d i n c l a u s e 1.3. \ -8.12 E x t e n s i o n The M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s , and Water R e s o u r c e s may e x t e n d t h e term of t h i s l i c e n c e f o r a p e r i o d i n k e e p i n g w i t h the L i c e n s e  's --. — ~ r - » a wj.cu c i i u L icensee development p l a n and the o p e r a t i n g h i s t o r y of t h i s l i c e n c e t o d a t e .and on the g r a n t i n g o f any e x t e n s i o n t h e r e o f the. L i c e n s o r may v a r y t h e p r o v i s i o n s and c o n d i t i o n s o f t h i s l i c e n c e o r o f any c u t t i n g p e r m i t s i s s u e d u n d e r a u t h o r i t y o f t h i s l i c e n c e . 8.13 S u s p e n s i o n The F o r e s t O f f i c e r may suspend any o p e r a t i o n c o n d u c t e d p u r s u a n t t o t h i s l i c e n c e by n o t i c e i n w r i t i n g t h e r e o f g i v e n t o the L i c e n s e e o r t o t h e p e r s o n i n c h a r g e o f t h e o p e r a t i o n f o r t h e b r e a c h o f any o f t h e c o v e n a n t s , p r o v i s o e s , terms o r c o n d i t i o n s o f t h i s l i c e n c e and may r e q u i r e the b r e a c h Co be r e m e d i e d within a s t a t e d t i m e . 8.14 C a n c e l l a t i o n B J A l B r e a c h o f C o n d i t i o n s ' The M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s , F o r e s t s , and Water R e s o u r c e s . may . c a n c e l - .. t h i s l i c e n c e on g i v i n g s i x t y (60) days n o t i c e i n w r i t i n g t o . t h e L i c e n s e e f o r the b r e a c h of any c o v e n a n t s , p r o v i s o e s , terms o r c o n d i -t i o n s ' of the l i c e n c e , o r f o r f a i l u r e t o pay any c h a r g e s , I n c l u d i n g stumpage, r o y a l t y , r e n t a l or t a x . 8.142 B a n k r u p t c y and I n s o l v e n c y The L i c e n s o r r e s e r v e s t h e r i g h t t o suspend o r c a n c e l t h i s l i c e n c e i f t he L i c e n s e e i s , o r becomes, b a n k r u p t o r i n s o l v e n t . 8.2 8.21 8.22 8.23 Improvements on A r e a a t E x p i r y F e l l e d Timber On t h e e x p i r y o f t h i s l i c e n c e , any and a l l t i m b e r c u t u n d e r t h i s l i c e n c e and r e m a i n i n g on t h e l i c e n c e a r e a s h a l l be and become t h e a b s o l u t e p r o p e r t y o f the L i c e n s o r , M i l l and Camp B u i l d i n g s I t i s u n d e r s t o o d and a g r e e d t h a t the L i c e n s e e s h a l l remove n i l o f h i s b u i l d i n g s , m i l l and l o g g i n g equipment and f i x t u r c s . upon. c o m p l c t t o n o f o p e r a t i o n s o r t e r m i n a t i o n o f the l i c e n c e , w h i c h e v e r i s the s o o n e r . F i x e d Improvements A l l i i n p r o v c n v i i t ? not c n p a b l e of r e m o v a l or a f f i x e d s h a l l r e v e r t ' t o the Crown and the L i c e n s e e o r anyone c l a i m i n g u n der him o r them s h a l l have no c l a i m w h a t s o e v e r . - 144 -Page. 0. 8.3 - • R e l a t i n g t o T r a n s f e r ' o f . L i c e n c e and A c q u i s i t i o n o f A d d i t i o n a l Cutting Righto i>.3L-.-.-Assigamettt o f L i c e n c e The L i c e n s e e c o v e n a n t s w i t h t he L i c e n s o r t h a t he w i l l n o t ncoisn.-o r t r a n s f e r t h i s l i c e n c e o r any i n t e r e s t t h e r e i n w i t h o u t _ t h e _ w r i t t c n c o n s e n t of the L i c e n s o r f i r s t had and o b t o i n e d . -'^ *""o-,32- A c q u i s i t i o n o f C u t t i n g R i g h t s Thi L i c e n s e e , a g r e e s t h a t a l l t i r . b e r s o l e l i c e n c e s w i t l i i n t h e Moot lea P u b l i c S u s t a i n e d Y i e l d U n i t t h a t may be |sub-s c q u c n t l y a c q u i r e d by the L i c e n s e e s h a l l f o r t h w i t h bo-amended; s o ao t o ens-.re t h a t the terms and c o n d i t i o n s a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e h a r v e s t i n g o f t i m j e r t h e r e u n d e r s h a l l a t a l l t i m e s be the same as t h e ccjrms and c o n d i t i o n s a p p l i c a b l e to. t h e -harvastin£_of t i m b e r u n d e r t h i s l i c e n c e . 8.4 D e f i n i t i o n o f Agency The L i c e n s e e a g r e e s t h a t any p e r s o n o r p e r s o n s w h o . c o n d u c t s . o r . i s c o n d u c t i n g o p e r a t i o n s to- the knowledge o f o r w i t h t he consent, o f th e l i c e n s e e on t h e l a n d s d e s c r i b e d i n any p e r m i t i s s u e d p u r s u a n t t o t h i s l i c e n c e , i s and a r c the a g e n t s o r s e r v a n t s o f the L i c e n s e e , 8.5 Rigr:c-of-Way -The L i c e n s o r r e s e r v e s the r i g h t t o . g r a n t , r i g h t s - o f - w a y t o o t h e r p e n o n s a c r o s s , t h r o u g h o r o v e r the l a n d s w i t h i n t h e c u t t i n g p e r m i t s issued under t h i s l i c e n c e h e r e i n b e f o r e d e s c r i b e d , p r o v i d e d however, the r i g h t s - o f - w a y so g r a n t e d , s h a l l n o t impede o r o b s t r u c t t h e L i c e n s e e - 3 r i ; h t s under t h i s l i c e n c e o r p r e v e n t t he L i c e n s e e f r o m e n j o y i n g t h e • us i of t h e L i c e n s e e ' s improvements on the l a n d s w i t h i n t h e c u t t i n g p e r m i t s , or give, any r i g h t s t o use the L i c e n s e e ' s . improvements w i t h o u t t i e c o n s e n t of t h e . s a i d L i c e n s e e w h i l e t h i s l i c e n c e i s i n e f f e c t . y l i c e n c e S u b j e c t , t o Ot h e r R i g h t s . . The L i c e n s e e c o v e n a n t s w i t h t h e L i c e n s o r t h a t i n c a r r y i n g out' his o p e r a t i o n s under t h i s l i c e n c e he w i l l i n no way b l o c k , o b s t r u c t , o r damage any r a a d , . . t r a i l , w a t e r c o u r s e .or o t h e r p r o p e r t y and any o b s t r u c t i o n c a u s e d o r damage "done by him w i l l be removed and r e p a i r e d f o r t h w i t h by t h e L i c e n s e e a t h i s own e x p e n s e . 8.7 L i c e n c e S u b j e c t t o t h e " F o r e s t A c t " . . e r t h a t t h e i n t e r e s t , r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s o f t h e f.. d hereditaments,~" tenements and p r e m i s e s s h a l l be [!) P r o v i d e d f-Licer.czz. i n the c j n s t r u e d as s u b j e c t a l w a y s t o a l l t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f the " F o r e s t A c t " end amendments.thereof and r e g u l a t i o n s t h e r e u n d e r . DECISION OF T;;K MIHISIER. FINAL The d e c i s i o n o f the M i n i s t e r o f Land3, F o r e s t s , and H a t e r R o s o u r c e a w i l l b? f i n a l i n t h e • i n t e r p r o c n t i o n o f any o f the t e r m s , c o v e n a n t s and c o n d i t i o n s of t h i s l i c e n c e . '• \ - 145 -Page 9 BENEFIT OF LICENCE T h i s l i c e n c e s h a l l be b i n d i n g upon and enure t o t h e . b e n e f i t o f t h e L i c e n s e e , and the s a i d L i c e n s e e ' s e x e c u t o r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , s u c c e s s o r s and a s s i g n s . . , I n W i t n e s w h e r e o f t h e L i c e n s o r has h e r e u n t o s e t h i s hand and s e a l and th e L i c e n s e e has h e r e u n t o a f f i x e d i t s c o r p o r a t e s e a l by t h e hands o f i t s p r o p e r o f f i c e r s i n t h a t b e h a l f . ] SIGNED, SEALED AND DELIVERED by t h e L i c e n s o r i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f : W i t n e s s L i c e n s o r THE CORPORATE SEAL OF THE LICENSEE was h e r e u n t o a f f i x e d i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f : B. CUTTING PERMIT - 146 -- 147 -PROVISO-: oi: BUITISIl COLUMHIA F O R E S T S BR V I C E nr.PARTMRNT OF LANDS. FORKS IS. AND WATER RESOURCES CUTTING PERMIT .. Licence No Culling Permit No.: Forest District...:....! .' : P.S.Y.U I Licensee : '. j !• I Pursuant lo the application made by the Licensee in accordance with clause 2.21 of the' licence, the Licensor hereby grants to-tlic Licensee, subject to the provisions of the licence and for the term and subject to the reservations and conditions hereinafter provided, permission to cut and remove all. the timber which is hereinafter designated for cutting upon the lands shown outlined in black on the map attached hereto and marked Exhibit A , subject to the exceptions and notations as appear on the said map. 1. T E R M The term of the permit is from ' to provided that the permit will not terminate until all operations conducted under the authority of this permit have been completed to tlic satisfaction of the District Forester. 2. A R E A S A P P R O V E D F O R C U T T I N G Prior to the commencement of any operations on the Cutting Permit area, the Licensee, shall submit for the approval of the Licensor a cutting plan for the area: (i) The cutting plan must be prepared and signed by a forester registered under the British Columbia Professional Foresters Act and shall be according to the instructions and requirements of the Licensor. (ii) A l l logging operations on the permit area shall be carried out according to tlic said approved plan, unless otherwise authorized in Writing by the Licensor. (iii) Any operations carried on which are.not authorized or according to the said approved plan may be adjudged as in trespass and be subject to trespass charges. .' (iv) The said plan shall set forth the proposed methods of logging, the equipment to be used and ; the measures proposed to be taken, and the system of regenerating the area when logged, all to the.satisfaction of the Licensor. 3. P A Y M E N T S The Licensee shall pay the following: 3.1 Scaling The cost of scaling, measuring, and counting, payable immediately upon receipt of account. 3.2 Miscellaneous Any other sums, assessments, or costs in connection with this permit or arising from operations conducted in conjunction with this permit, payable immediately upon receipt of account. F.S. lM.tD—8M-27J-IS6I (2) Revised February J97J - 148 -3.3 Stumpage Page 2 (Coast) A stumpage price (inclusive of royalty) for the timber at the following rates, subject to periodic revisions as hereinafter provided and payable immediately upon receipt of account: . 3.31 Notwithstanding the rates set out in condition 3.3 of this permit, stumpage rates of any or all species will be adjusted up or down whenever the average market.value as determined by the Chief Forester has departed by three dollars (S3) or more from the average market value which formed the basis- on-which the existing stumpage rates were established, provided the revised rates shall not be less than the then current minimums, and (i) the revised stumpage rates shall be determined in accordance with the method of stumpage appraisal in use by the Forest Service at the time that the adjustment is made; (ii) the revised stumpage shall be determined based on the costs that were used to compute the original rates set out in condition 3.3, and the profit ratio adjusted for the change in the market risk; (iii) the bonus bid as set out in clause 7.6 of the licence will be added to the revised rates to determine the new rate to apply; (iv) the District Forester shall determine the revised rate of stumpage for each species and notify .the Licensee of such rates and effective date thereof; (v) all timber scaled on and after the date specified in the notice of adjustment shall be paid for at the stumpage rates set out therein. 3.32 At each anniversary date during the term of the permit, the Licensor shall reappraise and designate the stumpage rate for each species. The rates established by each such reappraisal will be subject to adjustment in accordance with the provisions above. The method of appraisal shall be the method then currently in use by the Forest Service. The reappraisal shall include all timber authorized for cutting on tlic entire tract and shall take into consideration current operating conditions. The bonus bid as set out in clause 7.6 of the licence will be added to the rates established by the reappraisal, and the Licensee shall be notified of the new rates.' 4. C O N D I T I O N S Any and all cutting on and removal of timber under this cutting permit shall be carried out in strict compliance with the provisions of the Forest Act arid regulations made thereunder and the provisions of the licence. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, the Licensee shall comply fully with the following conditions: 4.1 Log Marks No timber will be removed from the permit area until it has been conspicuously marked with tlic following registered mark issued for this Cutting Permit: F.S. 16-1 <2C) — 3M 973-79C8 (2) Revised September 1973 - 149 -r o p e 3 2 U t l l l r . i a i . o i i If. 21 Clump H e i g h t Stumps w i l l be c u t l o w enough, t o m i n i m i s e we.st.c, and w i l l n o t be c\a h i g h e r t h i u i t h e di.--.t-.etcr o f t h e t r e e a t t h e p o i n t i.-horc i t I s c u t , and I n no c a s e h i g h e r t h a n t w e l v e ( i f ) i n c h e s on t h e s i d e a d j a c e n t t o t h e h i g h e s t g r o u n d , e x c e p t when n e c e s s a r y i n the.judg.rr.cnt o f t h e F o r e s t . O f f i c e r . k.22 Top D i a m e t e r , ' A l l t r e e s w i l l he u t i l i z e d t o n l a v : t o p d i a m e t e r i n o r d e r t o n i n i m i r . e waste, and i n no c a s e l a r g e r th/_n c. t o p d i a m e t e r o f s i x (6) i n c h e s v h c r e m e r c h a n t a b l e i n t h e judgment o f t h e F o r e s t O f f i c e r . j U.?3 Log L e n g t h s . | . L o g l e n g t h s w i l l be v a r i e d t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e c o m p l e t e u t i l i z a t i o n o f m e r c h a n t -a b l e t i m b e r . i .3 C u t t i n g S p e c i f i c a t i o n s " . ! • A l l l i v i n g end dead t r e e s i n c h e s i n d i a m e t e r o r l a r g e r measured o u t s i d e berk. :.t a p o i n t t w e l v e (l?>) i n c h e s f r o m t h e g r o u n d , must be c u t . A l l down t r e e s n u s t a l s o be c u t and u t i l i s e d . A l l l i v e t r e e s t e n (10) l'ect and oyer- i n h e i g h t n o t o t h e r w i s e r e q u i r e d t o be f e l l e d s h a l l be f e l l e d by t h e L i c e n s e e e t h i s own e x pense w i t h i n a r e a s d e s i g -n a t e d f o r c u t t i n g u n der t h e t e r m s o f t h e l i c e n c e . , ' l C o n c u r r e n t O p e r a t i o n s A l l b r a n c h e s o f t h e l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s h a l l k e e p i n phase w i t h , one a n o t h e r . When o p e r a t i o n s a r e begun oh any l o g g i n g a r e a , t h e c u t t i n g , on t h a t a r e a s h a l l • be f u l l y c o m p l e t e d t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e D i s t r i c t F o r e s t e r b e f o r e c u t t i n g may b e g i n on o t h e r a r e a s , n r o v i d e u , however, t h e D i s t r i c t F o r e s t e r may a u t h o r -i s e i n w r i t i n g ; c u t t i n g on o t h e r a r e a s b e f o r e i0.1 t h e t i m b e r has b e e n c u t on t h e p r e v i o u s a r e a . • .'5 . S l a s h D i s p o s a l S l a s h d i s p o s a l s h a l l keep i n phe.se w i t h a l l b r a n c h e s o f t h e l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n and s h a l l not be - a l l o w e d t o f e l l b e h i n d c u t t i n g , e x c e p t u i t h t h e w r i t t e n c o n -sent o f t h e D i s t r i c t F o r e s t e r . D i s p o s a l , o f s l a s h and snags s h a l l be as p r o v i d e d i n P a r t X I o f t h e F o r e s t A c t . If. 6 O t h e r C l a u s e s If.6l The L i c e n s e e s h a l l : not rllo'..' any t r e e s , l e g s , l o g g i n g d e b r i s , o r any s u b s t a n c e l i k e l y t o c a u s e p o l l u t i o n t o he d e p o s i t e e a t any t i m e w i t h i n any l a k e o r s t r e a m ; {y/(b) n o t .:0.1c/.: any l o g s t o be s k i d d e d , equipment t o be o p e r a t e d , g r a v e l t o be d i s p l a c e d o r any damage t o he done w i t h i n t h e h i g h - w a t e r l e v e l o f any s t r c r r . cher.nc.1.; ^ / ( c ) p r o v i d e e l l s l r e t u . i c r o s s i n g s w i t h a b r i d g e o r c u l v e r t , t h e d e s i g n o f w h i c h w i l l accommodate umisr""! stren;n f l o w end p c r ; n i t u n o b s t r u c t e d i; j r.h p a s s a g e tuid s c h e d u l e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f o i l s t r e f m c r o s s i n g s o.s d i r e c t e d by t h e F o r e s t O f f i c e r ; 1 / (d) not pli-.ce any o b s t r u c t i o n o r f i l l w i t h i n t h e h i g h - w a t e r l e v e l o f any Ctrceja r.h-tnr.el; ( / / ( c ) remove .":;y legg.i v.i;, m i l l i n g o r r o a d - h u j . l d i r,,g d e b r i s d e p o s i t e d i n any c t r c n m c h r - n i i c l o r .l.-.Uo a.-, d i r e c t e d by t h e F o r e s t O f f i c e r . ^ ( f ) l o c a t e I and i n/.r. no c l o s e r t h a n I.wo (2) c h a i n s f r o m airy s t r e a m c h a n n e l and o n l y w i t h i n area:; iU.-r- i r.n.i f e d Tor e n 11: i nj-, ; ^ ( g ) d i r e c t the f a l l In,* a n d y a r d i n g o f l r o e . - i a w a y from t . r c . H i i b a i i k s and 1 a k e s h o r e (Ii) p r o t e c t from 1 or.!: 111;; a n d b u r n i n g damage a l l l i r n i.it 11 r e t r e e s w i t h i n one ( 1 ) c h a i n of a l l r. I I-I-.-I-.HIJ.-I ;>k <; a ml 1 al:e.'.horc.s , o r as othc - r w l.se d o r. i j-.nn L e d ••on the ground n n d approved b y the Fore:,-1 O I T l c c i : . The l i c e n s e e s h a l l a l s o p r o t e c t L / from (l.-iin,i|-,c a l l ;;t r c i m l i a u k a n d l . i k c s h o r e i i l i i ' i i l i s a n d a l l t r e e s which, c a n n o t he f e l l e d away f ' r m n the .1 frraml.nnl; or I ake::horo , nn l.wi th.n tand I111: C o n d i t i o n ' of H i t s p e n u l t . - 150 -Pago 4 4.6 Other Clauses 5. F A I L U R E T O C O M P L Y W I T H P E R M I T C O N D I T I O N S The District Forester, by giving notice to that effect in writing to the Licensee or to the person in charge . of operations upon the area, may suspend any operations conducted upon the area should violation of any of the terms, covenants, provisos of the licence or of this Cutting Permit have occurred, and such violation shall render the said licence liable to cancellation by the Minister of Lands, Forests, and Water Resources. 6. E X P I R Y Upon expiry of this permit all rights of cutting by the Licensee shall absolutely terminate; provided, however, that the responsibility of the Licensee under clause 4.1 of the licence shall not terminate until all of the obligations under the Culling Permit have been satisfactorily completed. The District Forester may for good cause extend the term of this permit for a period in keeping with the term of the licence and the operating history on the permit to date when the conditions and the. stumpage may be changed as the District Forester may decide. D a t C t l ' . District Forester F.S. 161 (4) — I5M-672W U) Revised Juno 1972 PLANNING GUIDELINES FOR COAST LOGGING OPERATIONS I - 1 51 -F O R E S T S E R V I C E V I C T O R I A . B . C . September 29, 1972. PLANNING GUIDELINES FOR COAST LOGGING OPERATIONS A. The general p r a c t i c e s h a l l be to c l e a r - c u t to the c l o s e | u t i l i z a t i o n standards, w i t h the o b j e c t i v e of c r e a t i n g even-aged stands / on the s i t e s harvested. Logging must be conducted' i n such a manner ' that f i r e hazard i s reduced to an acceptable standard and the c u t t i n g area i s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y prepared f o r the f u t u r e crop-. In a d d i t i o n to c u t t i n g a l l ' s p e c i e s to.a minimum diameter l i m i t , f a l l i n g of a l l t r e e s ten f e e t and over i n h e i g h t , r e g a r d l e s s of m e r c h a n t a b i l i t y w i l l n o r m a l l y be r e q u i r e d . Of great concern i s the matter.of p r o t e c t i o n -of water q u a l i t y and the maintenance of a managed environment s u i t a b l e f o r the p r e s e r v a -t i o n , p r o t e c t i o n , and r e g u l a t i o n of other users of the f o r e s t h a b i t a t . Measures, must be taken -to ensure that a l l p r o t e c t i v e f o r e s t cover i s not removed, but r a t h e r that s u f f i c i e n t trees or bloc k s of f o r e s t are l e f t to meet the necessary requirements of the other users. P r o t e c t i v e cover requirements w i l l vary w i t h w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s present and t h e i r h a b i t a t requirements, s i z e of stream, type of bed, Water-flow c o n t i n u i t y , .the present or p o t e n t i a l v a l u e f o r f i s h and game, human consumption, and r e c r e a t i o n a l use. W i Id l i f e and f i s h h a b i t at s_ of_.. s_i g n i f i c a n c e m us t r e -ceive^ s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Normally, many d i f f e r e n t types of f o r e s t cover w i l l be present over the g r e a t e r percentage of any managed u n i t and they must be recognized and d e l i b e r a t e l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o area pla n s . These i n c l u d e : (1) i n a c c e s s i b l e t r e e s which occur i n steep rocky canyons and on steep b l u f f s ; (2) t r e e growth o c c u r r i n g on u n s t a b l e , e r o d i b l e cutbanks: (3) l e a n i n g t r e e s along.water-courses and s h o r e l i n e s which cannot be removed without causing environmental.damage; (4) fast-growing deciduous t r e e s of s u i t a b l e s p e c i e s , not subject to e x t r a - s i t e encroachment,, p l a n t e d along water-courses or s h o r e l i n e s e i t h e r p r i o r to l o g g i n g or a f t e r s l a s h burning; (5) primary timbered leave s t r i p s f o r f i r e c o n t r o l and t h e i r replacements; - 153 -12 (6) leave b l o c k s which w i l l not be cut u n t i l adjacent b l o c k s are r e f o r e s t e d to the stage r e q u i r e d to assure compatible i n t e g r a t e d use; (7) f i l t e r s t r i p s between roads or openings and w a t e r f r o n t or stream banks, h e l d t e m p o r a r i l y pending s t a b i l i z a t i o n of \ run-of f w i t h i n the developed area; j (8) p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d second-growth timber o r s a t i s f a c t o r i l y | renewed immature stands r e s u l t i n g from e a r l i e r c u t t i n g ! or from other causes such as f i r e s , and not forming p a r t ; of, present c u t t i n g areas. •' !, (9) f o r e s t cover i n parks or other ownerships not b e i n g cut over; (10) needed w i l d l i f e c o r r i d o r patches held pending r e - p o s i t i o n -i n g i n t o renewed f o r e s t s or a l t e r n a t i v e areas: (11) f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n a l use development areas; (12) f o r e s t u t i l i z e d as "surround" f o r unique f e a t u r e s ; (13) f o r e s t t e m p o r a r i l y h e l d i n pocket, or s t r i p f o r r e c r e a t i o n areas, pending development and eventual r e - p o s i t i o n i n g ' i n t o a l t e r n a t i v e areas; (14) f o r e s t t e m p o r a r i l y h e l d on • a l t e r n a t e "50 p e r c e n t " cut program f o r watershed p r o t e c t i o n , h e l d pending develop-ment of new f o r e s t on adjacent cut-over areas to the stage r e q u i r e d to assure compatible i n t e g r a t e d use. , (15) stream-face or s h o r e l i n e blocks s u b j e c t to s p e c i a l t r e a t -ment, stand improvement, or s p e c i a l c u t t i n g system. Forest land w i t h i n a watershed w i l l , be harve s t e d under the m u l t i p l e use-concept. Consistent w i t h t h e . i n c o r p o r a t i o n of f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n , game h a b i t a t , and watershed management i n t o c u t t i n g plans designed to accommodate these and other resource uses, mature timber, extending to str'earn _b.drders, may be harvested using such s p e c i a l -.- • measures as, deemed necessary. These measures w i l l prevent stand, decadence and ensure the renewal of f o r e s t growth along water courses w i t h i n a time sequence l o g i c a l to a managed f o r e s t environment. Only i n t h i s way can q u a l i t y stream maintenance, as w e l l as-, the needs of people, be provided f o r simultaneously. Examples of using s p e c i a l nieasures ^T"" where necessary may i n c l u d e : approved forms of s e l e c t i v e c u t t i n g , /3 - 154 -3/ c u t t i n g narrow s t r i p s or s m a l l e r patches, mechanical or other powered methods of c o n t r o l l i n g the d i r e c t i o n of t r e e f a l l , f e l l i n g of t r e e s from opposite banks and l i f t i n g c l e a r to avo i d environmental damage, e t c . Such measures w i l l o f t e n i n v o l v e p r e c i s e t i m i n g of c r i t i c a l o p e r a t i o n s , such as road and bridge, development, stream c l e a r i n g or improvement and other f o r e s t r y operations that can best be done at c e r t a i n times of the; year, depending on the circumstances w i t h i n the p a r t i c u l a r managed u n i t ! - i B. The s i z e , shape and o r i e n t a t i o n of c l e a r - c u t openings s h a l l be! based on an a n a l y s i s of f o r e s t r e g e n e r a t i o n , l o g g i n g economics, f i r e ' p r o t e c t i o n , f i s h and w i l d l i f e production^ s o i l p r o t e c t i o n , a e s t h e t i c appeal, water q u a l i t y maintenance, e t c . In other words, u t i l i z a t i o n of a l l resources and compatible i n t e g r a t e d use s h a l l d i c t a t e the s i z e , shape, and o r i e n t a t i o n of each i n d i v i d u a l proposed opening. Normally, the openings should be kept as s m a l l as p r a c t i c a b l e and, as a b a s i c g u i d e l i n e , the s i z e of a c l e a r - c u t opening w i l l not exceed 200 acres unless the aforementioned f a c t o r s d i c t a t e otherwise. C. Logging i n de f e r r e d areas, adjacent to the. i n i t i a l c l e a r - c u t openings, w i l l be considered when hazard has been abated and r e s t o c k i n g requirements are met w i t h i n , the f i . r s t opening and the maintenance of other resource values i s assured. D. C l e a r - c u t t i n g w i l l be based on an a l t e r n a t e system of cut and leave patches. The l o c a t i o n of the patches must be ad j u s t e d to meet the needs of other i n t e g r a t e d uses. A l s o , an (a l t e r n a t e patch, system i s r e -qu i r e d to reduce the p o t e n t i a l f o r in c r e a s e d water temperature, sediment, and logging,wastes that could reach p e r e n n i a l streams or l a k e s . The.per-centage o£ the t o t a l stream face or. l a k e to be opened d u r i n g any one phase of patch-logging w i l l depend on the s e n s i t i v i t y of the p a r t i c u l a r area to lo g g i n g d i s t u r b a n c e s . As a guide, no more than 50 percent of a', stream or l a k e face w i l l be opened during one phase. At no time d u r i n g the same phase w i l l two cut opening's be permitted to face each other across a p e r e n n i a l stream unless the maintenance of other resource values has been assured. ' E. A l l logging adjacent to streams, stream-beds, and l a k e s must be •regulated so as to ensure there i s no v i o l a t i o n of stream p r o t e c t i o n requirements. S e t t i n g boundaries and y a r d i n g plans s h a l l c o i n c i d e w i t h water-courses so that there i s no yarding damage. -The p r o t e c t i o n of water q u a l i t y w i l l normally r e q u i r e care and s p e c i a l measures i n f a l l i n g , bucking, and ya r d i n g away from the stream or l a k e , arid c u t t i n g w i l l not commence u n t i l the _boundaries_have J3een_app_rqyed. /5 - 155 -F. C u t t i n g w i t h i n approved openings adjacent to streams or l a k e s when r e q u i r e d w i l l be r egulated so that a f i l t e r - s t r i p adjacent to the stream or lake w i l l be reserved u n t i l the l a s t l o g g i n g sequence w i t h i n the opening. To e f f e c t good stream-bank clean-up, care and s p e c i a l measures w i l l be taken i n f a l l i n g , bucking, and y a r d i n g away from the stream or l a k e . G. Stands which would be uneconomic to t r e a t w i l l be excluded from w i t h i n approved c u t t i n g boundaries unless t h e i r i n c l u s i o n i s I •necessary to the c r e a t i o n of the proper s i z e , shape, and o r i e n t a t i o n of the t r e a t e d s i t e i n . i t s f i n i s h e d form. S i m i l a r l y , c e r t a i n stands or p o r t i o n s of stands which could be economically t r e a t e d , but whose e x c l u s i o n i s required.by the proposed p a t t e r n of c u t t i n g , w i l l be ex-cluded from the approved c u t t i n g boundaries. H. Approval f o r f u r t h e r c u t t i n g i n untouched stands w i l l o n l y be given where acceptable logging plans and u t i l i z a t i o n standards p e r t a i n to the timber In question and to any adjacent stands of lower v a l u e which should be logged. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n planning f o r o l d e r p a r t i a l l y logged or " p - r l y stocked o l d growth f o r e s t must be co-ordinated w i t h the plans f o r l o g g i n g the :'adjo'inin2 standing green timber or i t w i l l be necessary f o r the proposed new c u t t i n g to be d e f e r r e d to some f u t u r e date. I • ' . " I. A l l s a t i s f a c t o r i l y - s t o c k e d immature f o r e s t s of manageable proporti o n s surrounding or adjacent to mature merchantable timber w i l l be reserved and p r o t e c t e d . .. • J . A l l roads, (main roads, secondary roads, spur roads, and s k i d t r a i l s ) must be planned, l o c a t e d , designed, c o n s t r u c t e d , used and main- •' t a i n e d i n such a mar.-.er that t h e i r . impact on the t o t a l managed u n i t w i l l be an acceptable minamur. by:~ (1) l o c a t i n g , roads away from streams, narrow canyons, s l i d e , areas, and marshes; (2) l o c a t i n g roads on benches, r i d g e tops., and f l a t t e r slopes ; to minimize harmful disturbances and improve road s t a b i l i t y ;. (3) p r e s c r i b i n g f o r each road those d e s i g n ' s p e c i f i c a t i o n s that are best adapted to given s l o p e s , topography, and s o i l m a t e r i a l s : (4) . d i s p o s i n g of the s l a s h and d e b r i s c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h . c o n s t r u c t i o n ; /5 LETTER TO LICENSEES VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT - 157 -, ,<V - v - A A' '\ " 1 5 8 _ V" v \/ "v ' \, V • M. P r o t e c t i o n Sup. . . ,\..,.'' ' 1 \ ,v V V J u l y 10, 197 FOR TILE iriPOPJ-lATION OF ALL LICENSEES - AND OPERATORS VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT The D i s t r i c t F o r e s t e r r e q u i r e s t h a t f a i r w a r n i n g be g i v e n t o , and j u n d e r s t o o d by, a l l h o l d e r s o f c u t t i n g a u t h o r i t i e s and t h e i r l o g g i n g p e r s o n n e l , , r e g a r d i n g the p o l i c y o f s t r e a m , stream-bed and/or l a k e s h o r e p r o t e c t i o n . I t s h a l l be e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e c o s t and consequences o f improper p l a n n i n g o r i o p e r a t i o n w i l l h e n c e f o r t h be borne e n t i r e l y by t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y . The m u t a l o b j e c t i v e o f L i c e n s e e l o g g i n g and F o r e s t S e r v i c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o p r o v i d e p r o t e c t i o n o f s t r e a m s , stream-beds and l a k e s can be a t t a i n e d when b o t h F o r e s t S e r v i c e a p p r o v a l and L i c e n s e e s u p e r v i s i o n a r e d i r e c t e d , w i t h i n ' t h e p r e s c r i b e d p r o t e c t i v e s t r i p , not o n l y t o c u t t i n g and removing wood s u p p l i e s a v a i l a b l e a c c o r d i n g t o p l a n f o r use by the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y but a l s o t o m a i n t a i n i n g a f o r e s t e n v i r o n m e n t s u t i a b l e f o r o t h e r u s e s , The f o r e s t i n d u s t r y w i l l be p e n a l i z e d f o r w a s t i n g m a t e r i a l r e c o v e r a b l e from the p r o t e c t i v e s t r i p u n der t h e p l a n a p p r o v e d p u r s u a n t t o t h i s p o l i c y . The i n t e n t o f F o r e s t S e r v i c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n - i s t o c l a r i f y t h e e x t e n t and c o m p o s i t i o n o f an a c c e p t a b l e p r o t e c t i v e s t r i p i n c l u d i n g t r e e s l e f t standing., w h i c h w i l l n o t be s u b j e c t t o assessment f o r waste. The f o r e s t i n d u s t r y f a c e s p e n a l t i e s , i n c l u d i n g s u s - tj ''pension, p o s s i b l e p r o s e c u t i o n , and c o s t l y d e l a y s i n v o l v i n g c o m p l i c a t e d . \j c o r r e c t i v e o p e r a t i o n s f o r c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f t h e s t r e a m , stream-bed and l a k e p r o t e c t i o n terms and c o n d i t i o n s . I n t h i s r e g a r d t h e i n t e n t o f F o r e s t S e r v i c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s t o r e q u i r e the a p p l i c a t i o n o f s u i t a b l e l o g g i n g p r a c t i c e s w h i c h w i l l do a f a i l - s a f e j o b o f f e l l i n g and r e m o v i n g m a t e r i a l s u b j e c t t o assessment f o r waste- Such r e m o v a l method d e s i g n e d t o l e a v e , i n an undamaged c o n d i t i o n , a w e l l s c a t t e r e d c o v e r c o n s i s t i n g o f the r e m a i n i n g t r e e s , b r u s h , and u n d e r g r o w t h growing, on the e n t i r e w i d t h o f the p r o t e c t i v e s t r i p , w i t h n e g l i g i b l e ground and s o i l d i s t u r b a n c e . The k e y s t o a t t a i n i n g t h i s r e s u l t a r e f i r s t , an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what i s wanted, and second, an a p p r e c i a t i o n t h a t l o g g i n g must be done d i f f e r e n t l y i n . t h e p r o t e c t i v e s t r i p . The p r o t e c t i v e s t r i p . i s much more t h a n j u s t an unburned p a r t o f the c l e a r c u t s e t t i n g . I t l I . j i s , i n f a c t , more l i k e a s p e c i a l i z e d v e r s i o n o f s e l e c t i v e l o g g i n g , w i t h the./ i p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t i v e o f r e a l i s t i c a l l y m e e t i n g t h e l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h q j c u t t i n g a u t h o r i t y s t r e a m p r o t e c t i o n c l a u s e s . . I t s h o u l d be s t r e s s e d a t t h e o u t s e t , t h a t t h e p r o t e c t i v e s t r i p , a l o n g the e n t i r e s t r e a m , i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a l l b e i n g l o g g e d , depending on t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f p l a n n i n g g u i d e l i n e s , and s i t e s p e c i f i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s . A s t r e a m , f o r i n s t a n c e , . c o u l d be p a s s i n g t h r o u g h immature f o r e s t , w h i c h i s n o t c u t , o r t h r o u g h a canyon, o r p a s t a s t e e p s i d e d c u t b a n k . I n o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s a s e c t i o n o f t h e s t r e a m might c o n s i s t o f i n t e n s i v e l y u s e d spawning g r a v e l , o r t h r o u g h an a r e a b e i n g u s e d f o r f o r e s t r e c r e a t i o n a l - development. I n any e v e n t , t h e r e w i l l be p o r t i o n s . o f the s t r e a m where f o r one r e a s o n o r a n o t h e r , l o g g i n g w i l l not be imminent, o r an u n l o g g e d b u f f e r zone i s d e f e r r e d , and t h e q u e s t i o n o f how t o l o g t o o b t a i n a p r o t e c t i v e s t r i p need not be answered u n t i l a f t e r t h e p e r i o d o f deferment i s o v e r . ../2. - 159 - AO-^ N e v e r t h e l e s s , uhere l o g g i n g i s a c t i v e , p r o t e c t i v e s t r i p s v / i l l need to- be' c r e a t e d as p a r t o f the l o g g i n g , a l o n g the. s t r e a m o r ].alc.es, and l a i d out as an o u t e r c u t t i n g boundary and an i n n e r boundary d e f i n i n g the v.'idth o f the ' s t r i p , . I n the t y p i c a l c a s e , the omt<-r boundary v / i l l lie the s t r e a m , avid t h e i n n e r boundary, v / i l l be marked out a l o n g a l i n e a p p r o x i m a t e l y a v e r a g i n g one c h a i n away from the stream. I n o t h e r s i t e s p e c i f i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s , the o u t e r boundary might c r o s s t h s s t r e a m t o p r o v i d e c l e a r a n c e f o r d e f l e c t i o n , e t c . , o r i t might be a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e av/ay from the s t r e a m , t o e s t a b l i s h a d e f e r r e d a r e a , i n which case t h e r e would a u t o m a t i c a l l y be an u n l o g g e d b u f f e r • s t r i p , as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned,, M'.vare f o r any r e a s o n , the o u t e r c u t t i n g boundary i s away from the s t r e a m , e s t a b l i s h i n g an an.], egged b u f f e r s t r i p , t h e n f o r that p a r t o f the s t r e a m o r l a k e i t sUouirS be undei'otood t h a t the o u t e r c u t t i n g boundary anrl the i n n e r c u t t i n g boundary c o i n c i d e . W i thin the o u t e r and i n n e r b o u n d a r i e s , w h i c h d e f i n e the p r o t e c t i v e s t r i p , a number o f p r a c t i c e s must ho a p p l i e d w h i c h i n t o t a l , make the l o g g i n g o f the s t r i p q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the l o g g i n g on the rost. o f the s e t t i n g . F i r s t , hot a l l the t r e e s and s a p l i n g s v / i l l be f e l l e d . On t h e o t h e r hand, s u b j e c t t o t h e exemption l i s t e d below, a i l trees w h i c h can be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the h a r v e s t i n g p l a n , whether s t a n d i n g , pushed o v e r o r down, must be l o g g e d and removed p i o v i d e d t h e y can be l o g g e d and removed w i t h o u t e x c e s s i v e l y damaging the p l a n n e d remnant stand, o f t r e e s and b r u s h . That i s t o s a y u n l e s s exempted from waste assessment i n accordajv.ee w i t h s t r e a m , stream-bed and l a k e p r o t e c t i o n terms and c o n d i t i o n s o f the c u t t i n g a u t h o r i t y . The r e s u l t d e s i r e d i s to create a p r o t e c t i v e s t r i p c o n s i s t i n g o f b r u s h , s m a l l h e a l t h y t r e e s , and any other snags o r t r e e s , s u c h as l e a n e r s , . w h i c h were l e f t s t a n d i n g because they could not be f e l l e d and l o g g e d w i t h o u t u n d u l y damaging the t r e e s and brush, without c r e a t i n g e x c e s s i v e d i s t u r b a n c e t o the ground, o r otherwise c o n t r a v e n i n g t h e s t r e a m , s t r e a m - b e d , o r l a k e p r o t e c t i o n terms and c o n d i t i o n s . To be s p e c i f i c , no t r e e o r snag ca r be f e l l e d i n t o water o r l o g s k i d d e d w i t h i n the h i g h w a t e r l e v e l o f any s t r e a m channel, and no t r e e o r l o g can be y a r d e d u n l e s s i t can be e i t h e r l i f t e d c l e a r 'of the ground b e f o r e i t i s moved, or h i g h - l e a d e d out i n the d i r e c t i o n i n w h i c h i t was p o i n t i n g b e f o r e b e i n g moved. I n b o t h cases., can o n l y be roov.id out jr. a t r a c k c l e a r o f o b s t r u c t i o n s , and c l e a r o f the t r e e s and shrubs w h i c h a r e a pproved t o be l e f t s t a n d i n g i n an undamaged c o n d i t i o n . . The r e s u l t o f t h i s p r a c t i c e w i l l i n f a c t be a s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o t e c t i v e s t r i p o v e r t h e whole o f the s t r i p ac l a - ' d out-In the c o u r s e o f p r e p a r i n g a r c h e p r o t e c t i v e s t r i p , c o n s i d e r a b l e value judgement and c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n o f a l l l o g g i n g a e t i v i t i . e s must be - e x e r c i s e d . E v e r y t r e e f e l l e d must be fwlf.ed i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n for' y a r d i n g u s i n g j a c k s o r a l i n e h o r s e t o ensure t h a t . i t i s ! e l l e d p r e c i s e l y to l e a d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the r i g g i n g layout a p p r o v e d ana the p r e - p l a n n i n g o f t a i l - b l o c k o r s n a t c h b l o c k l o c a t i o n . T r e e s w h i c h cannot be a d e q u a t e l y coped w i t h i n t h i s way must be l e f t s t a n d i n g , and i f t h e y are i m p r o p e r l y f e l l e d and bucked, t h e y must not be moved u n t i l s p e c i a l a rrangements a r e made t q _ r e : i - r i g t o meet' a l l _ r e q u i r e m e n t s _ to; the s a t i s f a c t i o n , o f ...the^Forest O f f i c e r . ' F a i l u r e to p l a n and. o p e r a t e p r o p e r l y at any s t a g e w i l l r e s u l t i n suspension~oT"tlie l o g g i n g p e n d i n g c o r r e c t i v e a c t i o n s , and p e n a l t y f o r wastage w h i c h would have been a v o i d e d by p r o p e r p l a n n i n g and p r o p e r o p e r a t i o n s . I t s h o u l d be apparent the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y must a c c e p t and overcome i n . a w orkmanlike way the c h a l l e n g e s o f p l a n n i n g and c r e a t i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o t e c t i v e s t r i p s , i f i t e x p e c t s t o e c o n o m i c a l l y c o n t i n u e c u t t i n g and r e m o v i n g t i m b e r from the f o r e s t s . d i s t r i c t F o r e s t e r 

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