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The relationship of brachial pulse wave measurements to the performance of cross country runners Yarr, Alan David 1963

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THE RELATIONSHIP OF BRACHIAL PULSE WAVE MEASUREMENTS TO THE PERFORMANCE OF CROSS COUNTRY RUNNERS by Alan D. Yarr B.P.E. University of Br i t i s h Columbia, 1962 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION in the School of PHYSICAL EDUCATION and RECREATION We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard: THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Apr i l , 1963 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and stu d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r -m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying, or p u b l i -c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of jTjC^&i^ Qztcl^Zci??^ The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date / /f&  ABSTRACT The cardiovascular condition of five members of the University of B.C. cross country team was checked weekly with the Cameron Heartometer. Heartograph measures taken twenty-four hours before competition were com-pared to the coach's subjective appraisal of the athlete's performance to see i f fluctuations in any of the measures corresponded to fluctuations i n performance. A record of the runners' training load was also kept. Using case study methods the information above was observed and studied to see i f the heartometer i s a practical device for anticipating staleness, incipient infection or general i n a b i l i t y to adapt to the training load. The autonomic nervous tone of the athlete i s indirectly represented by the heartometer measures. The measures of the heartograph were also s t a t i s t i c a l l y interpreted to see which measures showed significant trends during the nine weeks of testing. Each of the five athletes showed results that were different than those of his teammates. One athlete, with a long history of endurance training, significantly improved most of the aspects of his cardiovascular condition i n the short nine-week season. This runner ran well throughout the season with no apparent staleness. Another athlete, who has had severe attacks of asthma, performed well u n t i l attempting a particularly heavy amount of work. After this work he ran a very poor race. The heartograph showed a rest-to-work ratio that had dipped sharply from previous readings, on a graph taken twenty-four hours before this race. A th i r d subject had been training a l l year. From the beginning of testing this runner showed strong pulse wave responses. However, his performance was not as would be expected from an athlete that was adapting well to his training. During the season the athlete had a slight nervous breakdown which indicates that he was not adapting to the stresses of his overall programme. With a reduction of training his running improved somewhat as did certain measures of his pulse wave. The fourth subject trained hard but did not perform as well as might be expected for an athlete undertaking this amount of training. The f i f t h man trained moderately throughout the season. This subject was basically a middle distance runner and participated i n cross country i n preparation for the track season. His heartograph measures showed gradual improvements and three - systolic blood pressure, pulse pres-sure and rest-to-work ratio - showed significant linear increase during the training period. This runner performed as expected i n a l l races. Four measures of the pulse wave showed p a r a l l e l development with improving cardiovascular condition; these were the diastolic surge, rest-to-work ratio, systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. The rest-to-work ratio showed variations that on observation best indicated staleness or in a b i l i t y to adapt to the training load. ACKKCOTiEnXjEMENT The writer would like to acknowledge the very considerable assistance given by Dr. S.R. Brown. Dr. Brown was always available for suggestions and recommendations; when discussing this thesis he always gave freely of his time and resource material whenever i t was at a l l possible. In addition, the writer would like to thank the five runners for their complete cooperation, despite heavy schedules of their own. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 1 II JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM 3 III REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 6 IV METHODS AND PROCEDURE 21 V RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Case "J" 26 Case "C" 35 Case "E" hk Case "M" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Case "F" 62 General Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . 77 BIBLIOGRAPHY 80 APPENDICES A APPRAISAL OF PERFORMANCE 82 B SELECTED PULSE WAVES . . . . 83 LIST OF TABLES Table Page I Subject " J " Raw Scores . • 33 II Subject " J " S t a t i s t i c a l Data . . . . . . . 34 III Subject "C" Raw Scores 42 IV Subject "c" S t a t i s t i c a l Data ^3 V Subject "E" Raw Scores . . . 51 VI Subject "E" S t a t i s t i c a l Data 52 VII Subject "M" Raw Scores 60 VIII Subject "M" S t a t i s t i c a l Data 6 l IX Subject "F" Raw Scores . 69 X Subject "F" S t a t i s t i c a l Data . 70 * LIST OF GRAPHS Page I Subject " J " Graph 1 3° Graph 2 31 Graph 3 32 II Subject "e" Graph 1 . . 39 Graph 2 hO Graph 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hi III Subject "E" Graph 1 k8 Graph 2 . . . k9 Graph 3 . . . . . . . . 50 IV Subject "M" Graph 1 . . 57 Graph 2 . 58 Graph 3 . . . . . . . . . . 59 V Subject "F" Graph 1 66 Graph 2 . . . . 67 Graph 3 68 CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The problem i s to determine whether or not variations in autonomic nervous tone are related to variations in cross country running performance. More specifically the problem i s to determine by case study methods whether or not measurements of brachial sphygmographs taken one day before competition w i l l be related to the quality of competitive per-formance. Purpose of the Study Coaches need to have some objective way to determine the effect of training stress on athletes. It would be desirable to find some practical way to foresee staleness, incipient infection or general i n a b i l i t y to adapt to the training load. Delimitations Five college students with an age range of 20-25 years were observed and tested. A l l five were members of the University of B.C. cross country team and a l l testing was done while the runners were i n training. Limitations 1. The operator of the machine was completely inexperienced before the study was undertaken. Although several practice graphs were taken, improvement of technique was apparent during the actual study. 2 2. Psychological apprehension of the subject i s not controllable although i t i s an important factor i n recording. 3. One instrument was used throughout; however, i t i s possible that variations i n the performance of the instrument might have occurred over a period of time since no standardized procedure to control this was employed. b. There i s no way to get an objective measure of the runners' perform-ance because of the nature of cross country running. 5. It i s impossible to determine the psychological drive or motivation for each individual before each race. 6. The runners had a variety of body builds; the influence of this factor i s not accounted for i n the study. 7« Experience and learning that are a result of competition and training are also uncontrolled variables. Assumptions 1. Cardiovascular condition is an important factor i n the performance of an endurance activity. 2. The brachial sphygmograph as recorded by the Cameron Heartometer reflects cardiovascular condition. 3 . The coach from his observation of the runners in training can make a reasonable estimate of how well the runner should perform i n competition. \ 3 CHAPTER II JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM Some athletes f a i l to perform up to their previous standards even though vigorous training i s being undertaken. Time t r i a l s and sub-jective questioning of the athlete are of l i t t l e value i n predicting these failures i n performance. There i s a need for a simple objective measure which would indicate performance potential for an athlete performing i n an endurance event such as cross country running. It was believed possible that the heartograph could provide such a method based on the premise that success-f u l or unsuccessful adaptation to the training load would be reflected i n measures of cardiovascular condition. I f this i s true, i t w i l l help coaches to s c i e n t i f i c a l l y design their training programs to obtain the best performance from individuals by following closely those factors which seem related to performance. The effects of specific training loads on the cardiovascular system can be observed i n this manner Despite the many previous studies done with the Cameron Hearto-meter, much work remains to be done to show predictive values of the measurements and which of them best indicate impending fluctuations i n athletic performance. A great number of the studies completed deal with swimmers. There was no previous study i n which an athlete was followed through the competitive season with weekly measurements related to the actual performances which followed. The f u l l meaning of the pulse wave i s not yet explained , but i t i s very clear that i t has predictive value for endurance performance i f properly administered. This study attempts to devise some reliable but simple methods to predict performance and, therefore, to assess also the effect of the training techniques employed. It i s possible that at some point i n the season rest may be of more benefit than vigorous training. A case study of athletes i n hard training may also reveal areas for further study. The heartometer, through further study, may prove to be a more valuable instrument i n physical education and athletics than i t has been to date. REFERENCES T.K. Cureton, Physical Fitness Appraisal and Guidance, St. Louis, Mosby, 19^7, 232. T.K. Cureton, Physical Fitness of Champion Athletes, Urbana, University of I l l i n o i s , 1951, 22«. 6 CHAPTER III REVIEW OF THE IJTERATURE According to C a r l i l e ^ 1 ) one of the basic problems i n training athletes i s to know when the stressing load of exercise has reached a level to cause staleness. Cureton v ' suggests the heartometer as a possible way to see physiological staleness. The heartograph measures a combination of blood vessel suppleness and energy of the blood stream eminating from the heart. The blood flow i n terms of minute volume and also the stroke volume are quite proportional to certain measurements made on the heartograph by careful quanti-tative procedures, provided the graphs are properly taken.... Curetonsummarizes thirteen separate studies that aid i n the interpretation of the pulse wave i n normal young men: a l l studies were done at the Physical Fitness Research Laboratory, University of I l l i n o i s . (k) He also states : "The pulse wave has predictive value for endurance performance unless the muscles are unduly tensed during exercise". (5) Cureton v ' defines cardiovascular condition: "Both heart and blood vessels are muscular organs which are capable of contracting and relaxing i n ways which move the blood continuously around the body. The efficiency with which this i s done i s called cardiovascular condition". Cureton also relates several conditions under which such circulation i s poor. 7 In addition, Cureton(^) discusses Cardiovascular Component I -Autonomic Tone. Habitual autonomic tone in the quiet state or high versus low peripheral resistance. The component indicates the internal vascular tension we l i v e with i n our resting hours. The blood vessels and the heart are under the control of the autonomic nervous system to a very great extent. This nervous system has the power to "gear i t up" (improve circulation) for quick action, thus producing a type of psychological warm-up even without exercise. It also has the power to depress i t into lethargy quite unsuited for action in the muscular sense. When we are more or less ready for action, our circulation i s ready and this i s what we mean by sympathetic autonomic tone. Such states come and go with l i t t l e conscious thinking and happen as condi-tional reflexes i n spite of ourselves. We may be nervous without wanting to be nervous. We might also lapse into a drowsy state i n spite of ourselves. One person may react almost as i n a mild shock with less circulation (para-sympathetic reaction), whereas, another may react i n a fighting determined mood with more circulation (sympathetic reaction). Good autonomic tone v ' i s indicated by low pulse rates and high amplitude pulse waves with large area. ing to Cureton The autonomic tone i s a very important aspect of fitness accord-(8). One can be apprehensive, tensed up internally and resistant to efficient physical action. In this state we have rela-t i v e l y high peripheral resistance (TER) due to vasoconstriction of the small vessels i n the lungs, muscles and heart i t s e l f . 'This vasoconstriction i s brought about by an anxious nervous state, and i t hurts circulation. On the other hand, there may be a persistently higher circulation i n people i n athletic training which i s indicated by somewhat higher metabolic rate or higher core body heat; by larger volume of blood ejected per beat of the heart (stroke volume) or larger brachial pulse wave. 8 (9) C a r l i l e v / conducted a study on Australian Olympic swimmers to observe i f changes of a physiological nature could be demonstrated during a period of intense swimming training and i f physiological changes could be detected which show an association with poor performance. (10) In this study Ca r l i l e also states: It could possibly prove necessary for ultimate maximum per-formance to carry training to a point of strain not far from the point where the organism i s on the verge of extensive breakdown. On the other hand, i t may prove important to modify training considerably when a relatively small degree of strain i s apparent. To throw light on th i s , we must f i r s t determine how to measure strain s c i e n t i f i c a l l y . Physiological measurements are the main objective means of assessing the degree of strain and controlling the training process. An authority on circulation, Carl W i g g e r s , has pointed out that the pulse wave reflects important aspects of circulatory condition. Severe stress acts as a stimulus which w i l l improve the organism eventually. However, there must obviously be a point where the training load should be (12) eased before breakdown processes outstrip adjustment (13) Hickham et a l stated that emotional disturbances may have a profound effect on circulation, causing changes in heart rate, cardiac output, blood pressure, tone of the peripheral vessels and electrocardiograph records. They cautioned that the interpretation of data relating anxiety to circulatory changes i s handicapped by the absence of reliable objective means of measuring the degree of anxiety i n individual subjects and they concluded that v a r i a b i l i t y of the cardiac system i s qualitative as well as quantitative. (Ik) Rushmer states: "Cardio-acceleration occurs i n anticipation of physical exertion before there i s any significant increase i n metabolism". (15) He also mentions that i n man nor-epinephrine introduced into the blood stream i s reported to have powerful vasoconstrictor effects on the peri-pheral vascular system but less effect on myocardial contraction. Guyton^^ discusses peripheral resistance: I f the peripheral resistance i s greatly decreased, blood i s allowed to flow from the arteries to the veins very rapidly, which increases the return of blood to the heart and thereby increases the pulse pressure. Obviously the opposite effect occurs when peripheral resistance increases rather than decreases. He continues ( 1 7 ) . The velocity of transmission, of a pulse wave, i s less the greater the distensibility. The pulse wave velocity normally averages t h i r t y times the actual velocity of blood flow i n the large arteries. (16) Wiggers summarizes the variations i n peripheral pulses. "The contour of the central pulse i s altered i n i t s transmission to peri-pheral arteries, such as the radial and femoral, by (a) damping of the basic transmitted pressure wave, and (b) by summation with a diphasic reflected wave. The former tends to reduce and the latt e r to raise systolic pressure over that i n the aorta." (19) Rushmerv ' states: Waves of pressure are reflected by peripheral structures, these travel back toward the heart and become superimposed on the advancing pulse wave. This produces a higher peak 10 of systolic •pressure, a slurring of the incisura and a lower diastolic pressure i n the femoral artery.... The systolic pressure i n the femoral artery may exceed the systolic pressure i n the brachial artery by 15 to 25 mm. Hg. (20) Remington and Wood assert that i n most cases reflected waves die out before the next systole. A study showing the correlation between organic efficiency and actual performance i n swimming kkO yards was done by McCurdy and Larson^^"^. (22) They also suggest v : "This work should be supplemented by case studies to determine the relationship by performance to changes in organic efficiency". "While i t i s not the purpose here to go intensively into anatomy or physiology of the autonomic nervous system, i t i s important to give the concept that exercise, persistently taken, can affect the balance of the sympathetic versus parasympathetic dominance" ( 2 3 ) . (2k) Meelandv ' defines the heartometer and relates i t s uses: heartometer - a sci e n t i f i c precision instrument for graphing a permanent record of: (a) Systolic and diastolic blood pressure. (b) Pulse rate. (c) Force and form of the heart impulses. (d) The a r t e r i a l changes throughout the extremities. Measures of the Brachial Sphygmograplv 5'('Cameron Heartometer) 11 (i) Area Under Curve (ABDFCA) (Abhr. A.U.C.) This measurement reflects somewhat the blood pumped per stroke of the heart and also the tone of the wall in the brachial artery and i t s branches. ( i i ) Systolic Pulse Wave Amplitude (A^B) (Abbr. S.A.) Indicates the magnitude of myocardial action due to the contrac-tion of the ventricles. Psychological excitement due to apprehension or fear of a race, undoubtedly causes overaction of the vasoconstrictor system and the secretion of adrenalin in unusual amounts into the blood. The immediate response i s a stronger systole and faster heart rate. ( i i i ) Dicrotic Notch Amplitude (ED) (Abbr. D.N;A.) This measurement indicates the level of cardiovascular tone, i.e. i t i s proportional to the diastolic blood pressure which acts as back 12 pressure to close the semilunar valves. I f the elastic rebound of the aorta and other principal vessels i s relatively strong, the pressure i s transmitted mechanically through the blood to close the semilunar valves quickly. To close the valves this back pressure must be greater than the pressure in the heart ventricles. Fatigue of the Autonomic Nervous System and smooth musculature of the aortic arch seems a reasonable explanation as to why the dicrotic notch i s lowered, but dilation of the arterioles and capillaries may be a greater causal factor. (iv) Fatigue Ratio (ED/AQB) (Abbr. F.R.) This measurement i s the ratio of the amplitude of the dicrotic notch to the amplitude of the systole. Good cardiovascular condition i s normally associated with a relatively higher dicrotic notch compared to the systolic amplitude when the subjects are mentally and physically at rest. (v) Angle of Obliquity (ABO) (Abbr. O.A.) The significance of the angle of obliquity may be i n the fact that a slow acting heart muscle, due to weakness or to sluggish heart tissue, gives a greater angle because more time i s taken for the upward systolic stroke to the maximum point. In such a case i t i s inferred that the heart muscle has•difficulty overcoming the resistance of the blood column above the semilunar valves or that there i s internal resistance in the heart tissue i t s e l f . (vi) Pulse Rate (Abbr. P.R.) This i s the regular rate of the heart beat taken i n beats per minute from the heartograph. 13 (vii) Single Cycle Time Alternate measure for rate. ( v i i i ) Diastolic Pulse Wave Amplitude (GF) (Abbr. D.A.) The part of the t o t a l heartograph i n a single cycle which occurs after the semilunar valves close i s represented by the diastolic pulse wave. In excitement, fear and during the laboring of the heart after effort, S.A. and D.A. increase greatly, with an accompanying lowering of the D.N.A. (ix) Distolic Surge (HF) (Abbr. D.S.) It seems to be caused by the reflected pressure wave from the semilunar valves and possibly by active contraction of the aorta after the semilunar valves close. Part of i t i s no doubt due to e l a s t i c i t y of the aorta, but the aorta contains smooth muscle which seems to develop an active function i n athletic subjects. An important measure i n endurance. (x) Time of Diastole. (EC) (Abbr. D.T.) It measures the time of diastole from the closing of the semi-lunar valves. (xi) Time of Systole (AE) (Abbr. S.T.) From the start of systole to the close of the semilunar valves. (xii) Rest to Work Ratio (EC/AE) (Abbr. D.T./s.T.) This measurement i s the ratio of the systole contraction to the overall time of the diastole. A strong efficient cardiovascular system has a ratio of k to 1; an average cardiovascular system i s I.89 to 1; a poor 14 cardiovascular system i s lower than 1.21 to 1. Poor i n this sense means untrained, probably with a low minute volume capacity. ( x i i i ) Diastolic Blood Pressure (Abbr. D.B.P.) The low pressure value i n the artery between heart beats. (xiv) Systolic Blood Pressure (Abbr. S.B.P.) The highest pressure exerted i n the artery resulting from the contraction of the heart. (xv) Pulse Pressure (Abbr. P.P.) Systolic Blood Pressure minus Diastolic Blood Pressure. "Low pulse pressure indicates vasodilation fatigue of the Autonomic Nervous System, possibly even fatigue of the heart muscle"( 2^. (27) Cureton* has prepared a paper that discusses the many ways the heartometer can be used: (a) To rate the state of functional fitness. (b) To show improvement of a subject. (c) To follow the training of a subject. (d) To measure "physiological warm-up". (e) To measure "fright". (28) Further uses of the heartometer are outlined by W i l l e t v i n his study on predicting treadmill run time. (29) He also shows r e l i a b i l i t y values for test and re-test ;for his own data obtained on two consecutive days and for Cureton's data obtained from two measurements at one si t t i n g . 15 Measure Willet Cureton D.P.W.A. .818 (69 cases) .768 (97 cases) D.P.W.A. . 8 8 1 it ti . 9 0 9 n O.A. .757 ti 1  .788 ti A.U.C. .811 it it .864 1  D.S. . 7 8 3 ti tt .878 it D.T./S.T. .719 1  it .640 1  P.P. .818 it it . 79^ (28 cases) P.R. . 9 2 8 it n .996 (97 cases) S.B.P. . 8 0 8 n 1  .765 (28 cases) D.N.A. .755 it tt . 8 2 3 (97 cases) D.B.P. .764 it it .794 (28 cases) In addition, W i l l e t ^ 0 ) tested the v a l i d i t y of measurements by correlating them with the criterion of time of all-out treadmill run. Measure r P.E. r D.P.W.A. .555 . 0 6 0 S.P.W.A. .528 . 0 6 2 O.A. - .513 . 0 6 4 A.U.C. .470 .067 D.S. .405 .072 D.T./s.T. .328 .077 P.P. . 2 6 3 . 0 8 0 P.R. - . 2 5 6 . 0 8 1 S.B.P. . 2 3 3 . 0 8 2 D.N.A. .165 . 0 8 4 D.B.P. - . 1 0 1 . 0 8 6 R.P.I.* • 333 .077 Reciprocal of Pondera! Index Height (in.)/^/Weight (lb.) The f i r s t six are significant in that their coefficients of correlation exceed four times the calculated P.E. (These are a l l measures of the actual wave.) 16 (31) One of Willet's conclusions was : "The six significant measures correlate more highly with an endurance criterion than any of the traditional Blood Pressure and Pulse Rate measures". (32) C a r l i l e K D ^ ' showed i n his study of 16 male Olympic swimmers that the average increase i n diastolic surge was from . 0 1 cm. to .19 cm. i n eight weeks of hard training. In the same period rest-to-work ratio increased from 1 .9 to 3 . 0 . These same factors show increases i n the women tested. Precautions and procedure for heartometer operation are discussed id (33) by Meeland . He also outlines techniques for wave selection and measure ment (35) S t e r l i n g w did a factor analysis of the five variables of cardiovascular condition, which included autonomic tone i n the resting state. Brachial sphygmograph energy (S.A., D.A. and A.U.C.) had high loadings i n autonomic tone. Michael and Gallon* - 5 ' tested the Santa Barbara basketball team periodically during and after the 1957-58 season. During this period of time the blood pressure and pulse wave measures were studied to investigate the effects of basketball condition on these measurements. Massey et al*-^) divided a student sample into two groups; one with fast and one with slow times in an 880 yard run. They then tested s t a t i s t i c a l l y the difference between the two groups i n the adjustment made 17 i n heartograph measures on changing position from si t t i n g to standing. Measures such as Systolic Amplitude decreased but these differences were ( not significant at the % level of confidence . Data collected by Cureton^9) s n o w s the difference i n the heartograph measures between trained and untrained young men. 1948 Track and Normal Young Fi e l d Champions Men, Freshman N. 20 110 A.U-.C. .560 .298 O.A. 20.8 23.4 S.A. I.63 1.16 D.A. .82 .50 D.S. .35 «08 P.R. (sitting) 50.8 79.2 The measurement which shows the greatest difference between the groups i s the diastolic surge. "This indicates that the v a r i a b i l i t y i n this item i s greatest for the athletes and that this characteristic develops the most with t r a i n i n g " ^ 0 ) . 18 REFERENCES F. C a r l i l e , U. Car l i l e , "T-Wave Changes in ECG Associated with Prolonged Periods of Strenuous Exercise i n Sportsmen with Special Application i n Training Swimmers", Australian Journal of Physical  Education, 17 (November-December, 1959), 10• T.K. Cureton, What the Heartometer Measures that i s of Special Interest. and Importance to Physical Educators and Physical Fitness Directors, Unpublished Paper, Physical Fitness Research Laboratory, University of I l l i n o i s , 1. T.K. Cureton, Physical Fitness of Champion Athletes, Urbana, University of I l l i n o i s Press, 1951, 232-234. Ibid., 228. T.K. Cureton, "The Nature of Cardiovascular Condition i n Normal Humans", Journal of Association for Physical and Mental Rehabilitation, 11 (November-December, 1957), 186. Loc. c i t . Ibid., 187. Ibid., 188. F. C a r l i l e , U. C a r l i l e , "Physiological Studies of Australian Olympic Swimmers in Hard Training". Australian Journal of Physical Education, 23 (October-November, 196l), 7. Ibid., 6. C.J. Wiggers, "The Magnitude of Regurgitation with Aortic Leaks of Different Sizes", Journal of the American Medical Association, 97 (July-December, 1931), 1359. C a r l i l e , op. c i t . , 30. J.B. Hickham, W. C a r g i l l , A. Golden, "Cardiovascular Reactions to Emotional Stimuli", Journal of C l i n i c a l Investigation, 27 (March, 1948), 290. R.F. Rushmer, Cardiovascular Dynamics, Philadelphia, Saunders, 196l, 57. Ibid., 71. A.C. Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, Philadelphia, Saunders, 1956, I63. 19 ) Ibid., 165. C.J. Wiggers, Circulatory Dynamics, New York, Green and Stratton, 1952, 30-31. ) Rushmer, op. c i t . , 134-135. J.W. Remington, E.H. Wood. "Formation of Peripheral Pulse Contour i n Man", Journal of Applied Physiology, 9 (November, 1956) , 436. J.H. McCurdy, L.A. Larson, "The Validity of Circulatory-Respiratory Measures as an Index of Endurance Condition i n Swimming", Research  Quarterly, (October, 1940), 3. Loc. c i t . ) Cureton, op c i t . , 192. T. Meeland, Technical Accuracy of the Heartometer, Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , 1947, 67. ) T.K. Cureton, Physical Fitness Appraisal and Guidance, St. Louis, Mosby, 1947, 235-250. ) Ibid., 201. ) Cureton, What the Heartometer Measures.... op.cit., 3-4. A.E. Willet, Prediction of Treadmill, Running From Heartometer Measurements, Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , 1945. ) Ibid., 7 2 . Ibid., 7 3 . ) Ibid., 62 . C a r l i l e , op.cit., 11 . ) Meeland, op. c i t . , 37-39* ) Ibid. t 4 0 - 4 4 . L.R. Sterling, A Factorial Analysis of Cardiovascular Variables, Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , I 9 6 0 . E.D. Michael, A.J. Gallon, "Pulse Wave and Blood Pressure Changes Occurring Duringca Physical Training Program", Research Quarterly, 31 (March, i 9 6 0 ) , 43-59. 20 (37) B.H. Massey, B.F. Busman, C.L. Kehoe, "The Effect of Posture on the Brachial Sphygmograph as an Indicator of Cardiovascular Condition", Research Quarterly, 2k (May, 1953), 194-204. (38) Ibid., 199. (39) T.K. Cureton, Physical Fitness of Champion Athletes, Urbana, University of I l l i n o i s , 1951, 237. (40) Ibid., 238. CHAPTER IV 21 METHODS AND PROCEDURES Five regular members of the 1962 U.B.C. varsity cross country team were closely observed during the cross country season, which lasted from October 6, 1962 to November 17, 1962. During this period a record was kept of their training regimen, irregularities i n daily l i v i n g and cardiovascular condition as measured by the Cameron Heartometer. Three or four graphs were taken before the f i r s t race of the season to familiarize the subject with the experience of being graphed. In addition, these early recordings gave the writer a basis from which to judge later changes i n the individuals' pulse waves. In addition, each subject was personally interviewed to determine his previous athletic experience and to discover any medical condition that exists or did exist that could possibly affect the results of the study. A l l races took place on Saturday so a heartograph was taken each Friday approximately twenty-four hours before competition. An attempt was made to take a l l graphs at the same time of day, two hours after any eating or coffee. The heartometer was operated essentially as described i n Physical  Fitness Appraisal and Guidance^. There was one exception in the procedure: the systolic blood pressure was taken after diastolic blood pressure without f i r s t releasing the cuff pressure. The forearm was placed palm down i n 22 pronation - as this was found more conducive to relaxation - on a desk 31 inches high. The subjects graph was taken at a minimum of 80 mm. Hg or 15 mm. above diastolic blood pressure i f this measure was above 65 mm. Hg. After taking the s i t t i n g graph for 30 seconds, the subjects stood up and after one minute - to allow for circulatory adjustment - the diastolic blood pressure was checked in this new position and a standing pul6e wave record was taken. The measuring techniques used were as described i n Physical Fitness (2^ Appraisal and Guidance* ' except that three s i t t i n g waves were measured and the averages recorded. Only one (the largest) standing wave was measured. On one occasion during the season a l l subjects but one were tested approximately one hour before competition. This was done to observe what possible changes in the pulse wave recordings might occur on the day of the race compared with recordings made the day before. Two runners' training were altered during the season, p a r t i a l l y as a result of recordings. Subject "F" reduced training appreciably for the week of October l4th because of the apparent failure to adjust to his training load. Subject "M" decreased training due to medical advice received after the race of October 27th. Analysis of Data The method of analysis was the case study method*-3^^. This was used i n the belief that i t was the best method to extract maximum 23 information from the study. The lack of standardization of cross country courses and the va r i a b i l i t y in weather conditions during the f a l l season make i t impossible to obtain a reliable objective evaluation of an athlete's performance. In view of this, i t was necessary to substitute an informed opinion as a subjective evaluation of performance. The coach made a subjective appraisal of actual race performance relative to expected performance. His estimate of expected performance was based on past per-formance and recent training load. This was the criterion used i n interpreting variations and trends i n the heartometer data. A subjective four point scale was used with scale values as follows: (l) better than expected, (2) as expected, (3) not well, (k) did not run. Each individual's results were collated systematically on data sheets and variations and trends i n each pulse wave measurement were com-pared with variations i n running performance. Each case was considered separately to see which measurements showed concomitant variation with running performance. S t a t i s t i c a l Method Although trends which occurred i n pulse wave variables over the training period were shown graphically, the choice of scale dictated by such considerations as size of paper, could disguise relationships which s t a t i s t i c a l treatment might otherwise reveal. An additional method chosen for analysis of the data was the test forj3 yx = 0, where x i s the independent variable which, i n this instance, i s time i n number of days reckoned from the i n i t i a l test date and y i s the dependent variable which, i n this instance, i s each 2k of Ik variables measured from, brachial pulse wave tracings. Thus the number of tests of whether^ yx was significantly different from zero equalled Ik dependent variables times 5 subjects, i.e. 70 tests. It was expected by this means to select those variables which 6howed progressive linear changes in runners who adjusted well to training and which did not show these changes i n runners who f a i l e d to improve or whose cardiovascular condition deteriorated during training. The remaining variables would be those which could not be shown to differentiate between positive adjustments and indifferent or unstable adjustment to training. The method of testing^yx = 0 was as described by Walker and Lev* , using F ratios with # = .05 a r b i t r a r i l y chosen. When F was sufficiently l a r g e ^ y x was significantly different from zero. This means that the pulse wave variable showed a linear relationship with days of training. Regression coefficients, standard errors of estimate and correla-tion coefficients were a l l calculated by I.B.M. machine conputer at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Computer Centre. Results were presented i n the form of (a) graphs, data sheets and case history reports for each subject, (b) a general analysis of pulse wave data obtained from a l l the subjects, and (c) s t a t i s t i c a l data sheets with each case study that included correlation coefficients, standard deviations, regression coefficients, standard errors of estimate and F ratios. 25 PJSFERENCES T.K. Cureton, Physical Fitness Appraisal and Guidance, St. Louis, Mosby, 1947, 266-267. Ibid.., 262-266. M.G. Scott, ed., Research Methods, Washington, American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, 1959, 264-268. D.B. Van Dalen, Understanding Educational Research, New York, McGraw-H i l l , 1962, 198-200. H.M. Walker, J . Lev, S t a t i s t i c a l Inference, Hew York, Henry Holt, 1953, 510. 26 CHAPTER V RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Case Studies Case "J" Subject " J " was twenty-four years old, five feet nine inches t a l l and weighed one hundred and forty pounds. He participated i n cross country primarily as conditioning for the spring track season. His best event i s the half-mile. This runner did not begin competitive track u n t i l 1958. His f i r s t year of competition was i n the 100 and 200 yard dashes. He p a r t i c i -pated i n no act i v i t i e s of an endurance nature up to this time. In 1959 he increased his competitive distances to the kkO and 880. His best race that year was 800 meters i n 1:58.1. That winter he participated i n cross country for the f i r s t time. In i960 subject " J " again participated i n the kk-0 and 880 and had best times of :51.3 and 1:57 respectively. He competed i n track and f i e l d a l l summer and continued with cross country in the f a l l . The l y 6 l track season was restricted to a few spring meets as his employ-ment prevented summer competition and training. The athlete's best times for the kkO and 880 were :52 and 1:59« He participated i n some cross country that f a l l . Again i n 1962 there was no summer competition; best times i n the kkO and 880 were :50 and 1:57«5« In the f a l l during cross country training he ran a 660 i n 1:24. Subject " J " has had no medical conditions that would be con-sidered relevant to his conditioning programme. 27 A record was kept of this runner's training beginning September 2k, 1962'. His training was steady but moderate. At f i r s t i t consisted of a four mile run on some days alternating with some timed track running of one or two miles done periodically. After a week, weight training, done about twice a week, was undertaken i n addition to the running. Beginning the second week i n October some repeat work was done on the track. Subject " J " did some twice-a-day training and trained daily with a day of rest before a cross country race. The heartograph record of subject " J " at no time showed a wave that would indicate good cardiovascular condition as shown by C u r e t o n ^ and described i n Chapter III, page 17 of this study. Only the values for pulse rate and area under the curve could be considered better than the average values for normal young men. The latte r was only slightly above the average. Subject " J " , who was f i f t h man on the cross country team of five, ran as expected (Appendix "A") i n a l l four races i n which he competed. He did not run on October 27th. His cardiovascular condition as indicated by the heartometer did not improve appreciably over the season. The strongest pulse wave was recorded on October 19th. The subject trained a l i t t l e harder than usual that week and said that he had been feeling t i r e d a l l week when the heartograph was taken. However, the recording showed poor adjustment to standing on this occasion. 28 The poorest wave was recorded on November l6th. At this time the runner reported having had aslight cold for two days. Unfortunately, the coach was not present on the following day to make an appraisal of the race. This depressed wave was temporary and was back to normal the following week. Subject "J's" rest-to-work ratio was very variable at the beginning of the season, but toward season's end i t became stabilized at a f a i r l y high value. According to Cureton, as reported i n Chapter III, page 13, "A strong efficient cardiovascular system has a ratio of k to 1". This subject's ratio had a higher value than four from November loth to the end of testing on December 7th. No appreciable diastolic surge developed during the training period. C a r l i l e ( 2 ) noted that diastolic surge appeared i n 25 to 28 subjects after eight weeks of hard training. Possibly subject "J" was not training hard enough to show desirable gains i n this aspect of the record. His actual training programme was not hard compared with those of modern champion trackmen. Relatively low pulse rates are correlated with high endurance^). This subject, however, did not show a decrease in pulse rate through (h) training as often occurs, shown by Cureton* . Of course, the pulse rate at the beginning of testing was relatively low. 29 Three aspects of subject "J's" cardiovascular condition showed trends significant at the .05 level for the nine weeks of testing. There were increases i n rest-to-work ratio, systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. A l l other aspects of the wave showed no definite trends. The training load at no time could be considered severe and the stress of training did not cause staleness. This type of training i f continued over a longer period may lead to very good condition and performance. Subject " J 1 s " 1:24 for the 660 during the cross country season indicated a fitness for © that distance. 31 OCT 1 S JO 15 40 2S 30 HOY4 9 14 J9 & £9 oec 4 9(c*T£$i96z) 32 (XT 1 5 10 J5 20 2S JO A/or 4 9 14 19 24 29 i>£z49 {DAfcS 1962) TABLE I SUBJECT "J" Raw Scores Record. Date Time Press. S.A. D.A. O.A. D.N.A. D.S. A.U.C. D.T./S.T. P.R. S.B.P. D.B.P. P.P. F.R, 3/10/62 12:35 Stand 90 96 1 .08 1.09 .64 .55 22i° 24° .64 .55 0 0 • 33 3.^8 52 133 78 55 .59 VlO/62 12:30 100 . 9 5 .59 22|° 2 5 S .59 0 . 2 6 2 . 9 0 52 140 83 57 . 6 2 Stand 101 . 8 2 .48 .48 0 5/IO/62 12:25 92 1 .00 .62 231° 25° . 6 2 0 •37 4.14 48 140 75 65 .62 9/10/62 Stand 97 . 7 6 .50 . 5 0 0 12:30 88 . 8 7 .55 24° .55 0 . 3 2 2 .73 59 140 78 62 . 6 3 10/10/62 Stand 108 .7^ . 3 8 25° . 3 8 0 12:30 90 1.01 . 5 6 .23° 25° . 5 6 0 . 3 1 3.51 57 140 75 65 .55 12/10/62 Stand 105 .84 .42 .42 0 12:20 90 1.26 . 6 8 22° . 6 6 . 0 2 • * 3 3.66 50 135 73 62 .52 13/10/62 Stand 92 . 9 4 . 5 0 22° . 5 0 0 10:20 85 1.15 . 6 1 2 l i ° . 6 1 0 . 3 2 3.76 56 137 73 64 . 5 3 19/10/62 Stand 90 1.05 .52 23° 22 0 25° .48 . 0 4 12:20 Stand 90 86 1 .23 .65 .72 .42 .72 .42 0 0 .45 4 .25 48 132 67 65 . 5 9 26/10/62 11:55 93 1.06 .65 22|° 24§° . 6 5 0 .37 3.63 52 137 75 62 .61 2/11/62 Stand 102 . 9 2 .54 . 5 4 0 12:10 90 .97 .57 25° . 5 7 0 . 3 6 3.55 52 137 74 63 .59 9/11/62 Stand 101 .76 .47 . 4 7 0 16:20 94 1 .06 . 6 3 22^° 23{° . 6 3 0 . 3 8 3.65 50 140 74 66 . 5 9 16/11/62 Stand 97 . 8 9 .48 .48 0 12:30 Stand 86 104 . 6 9 .65 • 51 .45 24° 25° .51 .45 0 0 • 33 4.14 46 140 70 70 .74 23/11/62 12:00 Stand 88 100 1.05 . 8 6 . 5 8 .46 22° . 5 6 .46 . 0 2 0 . 3 8 4 . 3 2 50 153 72 81 . 5 3 7/12/62 12:25 Stand 9k 98 1.01 .77 . 6 1 .39 2 3 s 25^° . 6 1 •39 0 0 . 3 9 4 . 3 6 52 148 75 73 . 6 0 (JO U ) TABLE II SUBJECT "J" Stat i s t i c a l Data S.A. D.A. O.A. D.N. A. D.S. A.U.C. D.T./S.T. P.R. S.B.P. D.B.P. P.P. F.R. Correlation ° f ~'2k3 "•23° '°95 -.257 .172 . 317 .608 -.331 .670 -.400 .805 .157 Regression Coefficient -.167 -.061 .035 -.067 .006 .071 1.457 -.057 .177 -.072 .250 .042 Standard Errors of .192 . 074 .107 .072 .009 . 062 . 548 . 047 .056 .048 .053 .076 Estimate F. Ratios .759 .676 .110 .850 .366 1.342 7.050 1.478 9»78l 2.269 22.103 .305 F = 4.75 a = .05 35 Case "C" Subject "C" was twenty-two years old, five feet nine and one-half inches t a l l and weighed one hundred and forty pounds. He i s primarily an endurance runner with l i t t l e speed for short track races. This runner began competition i n the f a l l of 1956. He competed in two> three mile cross country races but did not t r a i n that year. In 1957 subject "C" trained a l i t t l e and competed i n three cross country runs and two one mile races. In 1958 he did not run because of asthma (discussed l a t e r ) . In 1959 the athlete trained hard a l l year and competed for the f u l l cross country season. In addition, he did some track running and ran a 4:37 mile. In i960 he again did not run because of asthma. In 1961 subject "C" had severe asthma and was hospitalized i n the spring; however, that f a l l he competed during the cross country season. In 1962 subject "C" ran a l l year and had only slight attacks of asthma. He ran a two mile race in 10:13 and competed i n the f u l l cross country season. Subject "C" has had asthma attacks for several years. He experiences the most trouble i n the months of Apri l , May and June. Fortunately the subject does not have attacks when he i s i n good running condition. A record was kept of this runner's training, beginning September 24, 1962. His training alternated from moderate to heavy amounts of work. On some days he ran only four or five miles while on 36 others he ran up to fifteen miles. Subject "C" took many more rest days i n his training regimen than his teammates. Cm October 6 t h , subject "C" ran as expected and his heartograph measures were f a i r l y normal on the previous day. Pulse pressure and rest-to-work ratio were relatively low on this day. October 1 3 t h , the athlete ran better than expected. In the graphs taken that day'and on the day before systolic amplitude showed a marked increase over the previous week as did also rest-to-work ratio and pulse pressure. This record also showed signs of a developing d i s t o l i c surge. On the day of the race the pulse rate had accelerated from 65 to 72 , the highest value recorded. Again on October 2 0 t h , subject "C" ran better than expected. On the pre-vious day's graph systolic and diastolic amplitudes were especially high and a slight diastolic surge was s t i l l apparent. Area under the curve showed a definite increase, whereas rest-to-work ratio had dropped some-what. The following week, October 2 7 t h , subject 11C" repeated his better than expected performance. The previous cay's graph showed a decrease i n systolic amplitude but a continued rise in diastolic amplitude. The diastolic surge was no longer apparent. The rest-to-work ratio reached a value of 4 . 0 6 , highest of the testing period. Two weeks later on November 1 0 t h the subject ran "not well". The subject had trained very hard the previous week-end, running twenty-seven miles altogether. Two measures showed a marked drop i n size; the rest-to-work ratio dipped sharply to 2 . 3 0 and the fatigue ratio decreased to the lowest point reached during the season. Unfortunately the coach did not evaluate any 37 further races. From this time on the subject reduced training and the rest-to-work ratio made an apparent recovery as did the fatigue ratio also. The pulse pressure of subject "C" was very high on the f i r s t record made and Chen dropped sharply; throughout the season this measure-ment showed a steady increase. The study by C a r l i l e ^ of athletes i n hard training showed a pulse pressure increase from k-6 mm. to 65 mm. during training. Although the pulse pressure gives some indication of cardio-vascular s t a t e ^ i t s interpretation i s s t i l l controversial. The hard training that subject "C" undertook gave some increases i n cardiovascular condition as indicated by heartograph measures. Although there was a poor race on November 10th, one must be careful i n stating (7) that this i s attributable to too much stress. C a r l i l e states: "Many athletes i n hard training show deterioration of times and performance". However, i n Carlile's study*-^ with Olympic swimmers some, despite poor electrocardiographs and worsening performances, continued to tr a i n hard and later, with a week or so of light training, swam well. Subject "C" was consistently one of the top performers on the cross country team. His failure to develop a diastolic surge seemed (9) atypical for, as shown by Ca r l i l e , fifteen or sixteen swimmers developed diastolic surges while i n hard training for eight weeks. In this subject a surge began to develop and then disappeared. The s t a t i s t i c a l interpretation of subject "C's" data shows that only two aspects of his cardiovascular condition showed a significant 38 trend over the nine weeks of testing. His systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure both increased. The rest-to-work ratio fluctuated through-out the season, as did performance, and showed no definite direction. 39 ocr 1 S JO J5 2o 2* 30nov+ 9 If 19 £4 29 oec4 9 (OATes 1962) Ocr 1 S Jo 15 2o £5- JO «o*4 9 & J9 & 29occ4 9 {0Ar£S X9ffz) TABLE III SUBJECT"C" Raw Scores Record. Date Time Press. S.A. D.A. O.A. D.N. A. D.S, 2/10/62 12:20 80 1.11 -.55 21|° .55 0 Stand 80 1.12 A 3 21° A 3 0 3/10/62 12:45 80 1.21 .59 20° .59 0 Stand 92 1.08 .48 21° .48 0 VlO/62 12:05 80 .96 •53 22° .53 0 Stand 85 .89 A 3 23° 22° A 3 0 5/10/62 11:15 90 1.07 .62 .62 0 Stand 85 1.02 • 39 22i° • 37 .02 12/10/62 11:15 80 1.32 .61 21° .61 .0 Stand 87 1.00 • 39 21° .35 .04 13/10/62 10:15 82 1.28 .60 21° .58 .02 Stand 92 .92 • 37 22^° • 3^ .03 19/10/62 11:20 80 I.63 .71 19 S .68 .03 Stand 81 1.31 .51 22|° .49 .02 26/10/62 16:23 78 1.31 .79 2 2 0 .79 0 Stand 92 1.29 .62 22|° .62 0 2/11/62 16:00 87 1.16 .58 21° .58 0 Stand 85 .84 A 5 23° 21° A 3 .02 6/11/62 10:30 80 1.46 .66 .63 .03 Stand 80 1.06 • 39 22° .32 .07 9/11/62 16:30 82 1.56 .63 2(%° 2l}° .54 .09 Stand 82 1.04 A 5 A 3 .02 16/11/62 16:20 81 1.46 .82 21° .82 0 Stand 80 1.10 .50 22° .50 0 23/II/62 16:30 82 1.27 .67 21^° .67 0 Stand 80 • 97 A 9 21° .49 0 7/12/62 11:55 77 I.30 .62 21^° .62 0 Stand 81 .82 .40 24° .40 0 ..U.C. D.T./S.T. P.R. S.B.P. D.B.P. P.P. F.R, .31 2.50 64 145 55 90 .50 • 3t 2.69 56 130 65 65 A 9 .28 3.24 64 130 65 65 .55 .34 2.34 54 130 75 55 .58 .32 3.03 65 132 60 72 .46 .29 2.93 72 137 60 77 A 5 .42 2.54 64 130 57 73 .42 .41 4.06 61 145 68 77 .60 .30 3.04 64 144 68 76 .50 .40 2.64 64 143 55 88 A 3 .38 2.30 64 l4o 55 85 • 35 .40 3.26 54 148 54 94 .56 • S3 3.01 58 153 65 88 .53 .35 3 A 3 56 150 53 97 .48 TABLE IV S.A. D.A. O.A. D.N.A. SSSSS" •*» •<"* £ S £ £ t •** -173 .0X7 .153 Standard Errors of -229 .102 .113 .109 Estimate F. Ratios 3.138 2.843 .023 1.959 F = 4.75 a = .05 SUBJECT "C" Sta t i s t i c a l Data D.S. A.U.C. D.T./S.T. P.R. S.B.P. D.B.P. P.P. F.R. .163 .370 .338 -.311 .785 -.406 .752 -.127 .019 .082 .756 -.075 .305 -.128 .434 -.041 .033 . 059 . 608 . 066 .O69 .O83 .109 .092 .330 1.909 1.548 1.287 19.274 2.381 15.631 .197 44 Case "E" Subject "E" was twenty-five years old, five feet seven and one-half inches t a l l and weighed one hundred and forty-five pounds. He has participated i n track since the age of twelve. This athlete began competing i n cross country events i n England in September 19^9» He trained twice a week, ran several races, and won most of them. In 1950 he competed i n cross country from January to May and again from September to December. This cross country season was typical with those that followed u n t i l 1958. In the summer of 1952 subject "E" raced i n four one-mile events; he had a best time of 4:48. In 1953 he did not compete i n the summer. In addition to the cross country season i n 1954, this runner again ran four one-mile races i n the summer with a best time of 4:40. During these summer seasons he trained very l i t t l e . In the summer of 1955 again this subject did not compete. In 1959 subject "E" trained very hard, that July he won the " A l l England Schools" one-mile race in a time of 4:20.8. In 1957 the athlete trained hard and ran for Oxford University. He competed i n fifteen one-mile races i n the summer track season with a best time of 4:10. He also ran some, two and three mile races. In 1958 the pattern was very similar. In 1959 subject "E" ran a 4:05 mile placing third in the English Championships. That f a l l he did l i t t l e cross country training. In i960 the runner trained hard from February onward; his best race was 3:46 for 1500 meters i n the Olympic t r i a l s . This i s the year he came to Canada and he competed a l l year. In 1961 he did not train hard, ran a 4:13 mile i n A p r i l and did some cross country. Finally, i n 1962 subject "E" trained hard i n the 45 spring, ran a 4:11 mile i n A p r i l , slowed training i n the summer and picked i t up again i n the f a l l . Subject "E" has had no medical history that would affect his running performance to any extent. A record was kept of this runner's training, beginning September 24, 1962. The training load varied from light to moderate. Often throughout the season the runner would take two or three days rest. His running averaged between four and five miles on the days he trained. The type of training was mixed - some distance work and some track work. From September 26th to 30th the athlete had a cold and did not train. After November 10th subject "E" reduced his training appreciably, often running only once a week. This runner always rested for a day before and after each race. On October 6th subject "E" ran as expected. The majority of measures of the pulse wave were i n the range of those of normal young men, as described in Chapter III, page 17 of this study, on the day before this race. The pulse wave did not look l i k e one"of an athlete i n good cardiovascular condition. However, this i s p a r t i a l l y explained by the cold mentioned earlier and the lack of training in the summer. Carl i l e i n his measurement of Olympic swimmers before training indicates that cardiovascular condition i s lost quickly. A diastolic surge appeared for the f i r s t time the day before this race, whereas the area under the curve was very low at this time although i t had been high on the previous day* s recording. There i s no good explanation for this apparent anomaly. k6 Subject "E" ran better than expected on October 13th. The overall pulse wave improved during this week with the rest-to-work ratio and the area under the curve making the largest advances. However, between October 11th and October 12th, these measures dipped slightly. On October 20th the athlete ran as expected. Systolic amplitude, diastolic amplitude and diastolic surge a l l showed increases. Rest-to-work ratio and area under the curve did not make marked changes. Subject "E" ran better than expected again on October 27th. The amplitude measures had leveled off although standing diastolic surge continued to climb. The adjustment to standing was very good the day before this race. The rest-to-work ratio and area made large increases. On November 10th this runner ran as expected, A heartograph was taken both on the day before the race and one hour before race time. The amplitudes a l l rose sharply between the times of these recordings, the pulse rate also increased somewhat. The systolic blood pressures during this period and for some time before were in the area of 160 mm. Hg which various authors imply i s associated with unfitness*- 1^. However, Ciareton*-"^ says: "The slightly b u i l t man trained for endurance running usually shows higher systolic pressure than would be expected". The rest-to-work ratio and area dipped slightly before this race. As mentioned earlier, training was decreased markedly after this time as this was the athlete's last competition of the season. Amplitudes dropped off very sharply after this point as did the area (13) which i s highly correlated with amplitude measures . The rest-to-work ratio i s the one measure that improved appreciably after the decrease i n training. This runner has had a long history of endurance training. Although subject "E" did not undertake a strenuous training programme for the 1962 season, his performance improved rapidly as did his cardiovascular condition as indicated by the heartometer. The runner's obliquity angle decreased to 19%° from 22° which, i n addition to factors discussed earlier, indicates good cardiovascular condition . Many of the aspects of pulse waves discussed above showed significant changes when tested s t a t i s t i c a l l y . There was a trend to increase i n diastolic surge, rest-to-work ratio, systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. Pulse rate and fatigue ratio decreased. It would appear that the subject adapted very well to his training loadj he ran well in a l l races. Although competing against individuals who trained more regularly, subject "E" consistently finished among the leaders. His background of training and experience i s very l i k e l y an important factor here. 48 GRAPH 2 OCT J 5" JO IS £0 25 30WV.4 9 J4- J9 24 (^O/tTSS -£S62 ) 50 GRAPH 3 OCT J S 10 15 20 25 9 14 19 24 fo/iTES 1962) TABLE V Record, Date Time Press. S.A. D.A O.A. 1/10/62 20:45 90 1.14 • *3 22° Stand 100 1.02 .41 22i° 2/10/62 11:55 90 .99 .48 22 0 Stand 99 .99 .42 23i° 2lf° Vlo/62 12? 20 90 1.35 .72 Stand 103 1.32 .69 22$° 2l}° 5/10/62 11:25 80 1.03 .41 Stand 87 1.17 .46 21° II/IO/62 12:05 80 1.15 .55 21* Stand 90 1.10 .50 21° 12/10/62 11:35 80 1.12 .50 22° Stand 86 .87 .41 22£° 19§ 21 s 19/10/62 11:30 82 1.58 .69 Stand 85 1.12 .46 26/10/62 16:15 80 1.57 .73 21° Stand 80 1.55 .76 20° 2/11/62 12:35 80 1.53 .72 19i° Stand 90 1.57 .71 19 5 9/11/62 12:40 80 1.46 .64 20^° Stand 87 .95 .54 24* IO/U/ 6 2 12:30 82 1.82 .79 19i° 22* Stand 87 1.16 .52 16/11/62 12:35 80 1.10 .53 2 2 0 Stand 87 .63 .30 25^° SUBJECT "E" Raw Scores D.fl.A. D.S. A.U.C. D.T./S.T. • *3 0 .29 2.12 .41 0 .48 0 .31 2.44 .42 0 •72 0 .48 2.62 .69 0 .36 .05 .22 2.42 • 37 .09 .48 .07 .36 3.17 .^3 .07 .^3 .07 .29 2.83 .36 .03 .57 .12 .36 2.87 • 33 .13 .61 .12 .45 3.^3 .54 .22 • 53 .19 .45 3-42 .52 .19 .44 .20 •39 3.00 .22 .32 .51 .28 .43 2.95 • 35 .17 .42 .11 .29 4.27 .22 .08 '.R. S.B.P. D.B.P. P.P. F.R. 74 135 75 60 .38 66 135 75 60 .48 60 145 75 70 .53 64 150 65 85 •35 58 142 65 77 .42 60 134 68 66 .38 61 157 64 93 .36 58 158 62 96 • 39 52 162 60 102 • 35 56 160 70 90 .30 66 160 65 95 .28 53 168 68 100 .38 TABLE VI SUBJECT "E" St a t i s t i c a l Data Coefficient of Correlation Regression Coefficient Standard Errors of Estimate F. Ratios S.A. D.A. .561 .527 .897 .412 .417 .209 4.608 3.858 O.A. D.N.A. -.493 -.O63 -.301 -.037 .167 .185 3.221 .040 D.S. A.U.C. .853 .323 .449 .157 .086 .145 26.794 1.167 D.T./S.T. .785 2.684 .668 16.133 F = 4.96 a = .05 P.R. S» B.P. -.596' .874 -.219 .624 .093 .109 5.527 32.575 D.B.P. P.P. F.R. -.481 .831 -.637 -.148 .772 -.263 .085 .163 .100 3.018 22.346 6.83I ro 53 Case "M" Subject "M" was twenty-three years old, five feet ten and one-half inches t a l l and weighed one hundred and f i f t y - s i x pounds. This athlete has participated i n sports other than track to some extent. This runner began training i n 1957j his training was designed for the 880 and one-mile; however, he did not compete that year. In 1958 he trained a l l year and raced in the Br i t i s h Columbia inter-high track meet. His times for the 880 and one-mile were, 1:56 and 4:28 respectively. The number of competitive races were limited and no cross, country was attempted. In 1959 subject "M" did not compete in races of any type but did continue light training. Prom 1957-1959 he played rugby regularly during season and also football at the high school level i n 1957 and 1958. Subject "M" participated in cross country for the f i r s t time i n i960. He trained a l l year and competed i n track meets in the spring and summer; he ran the 880 i n 1:58 and the one-mile in 4:30. The pattern for 196l was very similar; for the 880 and one-mile he had best times of 1:57 and 4:28. Again i n 1962 subject "M" trained a l l year with the exceptions discussed later. His best track performances were 1:56 for the 880 and a 4:24 for the mile. Up u n t i l 1962 subject "M" was not aware of any health problems that would directly or indirectly affect his performance. However, on October 29th he went to a doctor on the suggestion of his coach and was diagnosed as having had a slight nervous breakdown. 54 A record was kept of this runner's training, beginning September 24, 1962. His training load was moderate up u n t i l October 29th; he often ran six or seven miles i n one session and some days did track workouts (for example, 15 x 44o)instead. -Subject "M" rested the day before and the day after races. His training load was cut back sharply after October 29th because of doctor's orders. After this the athlete trained only when he f e l t inclined and then only three or fours miles i n any one session. He had many intervals of rest up to three days duration. His study load and outside a c t i v i t i e s , which were quite heavy, were also cut back sharply. Subject "M" often reported, while being graphed, that he had trouble sleeping, especially before races. After the reduction i n acti v i t i e s he had less trouble sleeping and appeared to be less nervous; a degree of nervousness was apparent before. Subject "M" ran as expected October 6th. On the graph taken the day before the race a l l measurements were within normal limits (Chapter III, page 17). On October 13th this athlete again ran as expected; however there were some abrupt changes i n his pulse wave. The graph of October 10th was very similar to that of the previous week, but the graph of October 11th differed sharply i n some measures. The dicrotic notch amplitude dropped from .56 to .14 i n this twenty-four hour period. Fatigue of the Autonomic Nervous System and smooth musculature of the aortic arch seems a reasonable explanation as 55 to why the dicrotic notch i s lowered, but dilation of the arterioles and (15) capillaries may be a greater causal factor, states Cureton* *''. The area under the curve, rest.-to-work ratio and fatigue ratio were a l l greatly reduced; pulse rate increased. The increase i n diastolic surge might be at the expense of the decreased dicrotic notch amplitude. The subject reported at the time of recording that he was feeling cold and had a headache. . This could possibly be the cause or effect of the cardiovascular change. However, the runner made an apparent recovery on the graph taken one day later, October 12th, twenty-four hours before the race. The area under the curve made ac.particularly large gain. Subject "M" ran "not well" on October 20th. However, the wave at this time appeared especially strong, the amplitudes and area increased markedly. The rest to work ratio dropped a l i t t l e . Again on October 27th the subject ran "not well". Twenty-four hours before this event the subject's pulse wave was strong. However, as a result of a talk with the coach the subject went to a medical doctor and was diagnosed as having had a nervous breakdown. A possible explanation i s related by Cureton*- 1^ : I f sympathetic stimulation i s overdone i t can lead to staleness as a result of too much stimulation for too long a time. Athletes should (17) learn to relax. C a r l i l e states:, "...because of the effort involved i n hard training there occurs something i n the nature of "nervous depletion" so that, despite the improved circulatory response, performance may even deteriorate". Most of the factors of the pulse wave taken on October 26th would suggest that the athlete was i n good cardiovascular condition. In excitement or fear Diastolic Amplitude r i s e s T h i s 56 i s one of the reactions that occurred during this period. On November 10th, after two weeks of light training, subject "M" ran as expected. The rest-to-work ratio increased in this period and the other measures returned to more normal values. According to C a r l i l e " . . . with the increased rest of the 'tapering-off' period, the nervous system 'regenerates' before the efficiency of the cardiovascular system has deteriorated". Subject "M" had a very revealing cross country season. His cardiovascular system indicated good condition and rapid improvements although obviously his nervous system did not adapt to the combined stresses of training, competition and daily l i v i n g . Therefore, he was not able to perform as one would expect from studying his cardiovascular condition as indicated by the heartometer. As discussed i n Chapter III, page 7, "We may be nervous without wanting to be nervous". Hickham (ref. page 8 of the same chapter)discussed the absence of reliable objective means of measuring the degree of anxiety in individual subjects. Appre-hension and i t s affect on competition i s an area that needs much further study. The s t a t i s t i c a l interpretation of subject "M* s" data shows that two factors, systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, indicate an increasing trend for the testing period. Subject "M" did not react favourably to his training load, especially before the enforced reduction in training. He did not perform as well as one might expect from observing the general pulse wave appearance (see Appendix B). 59 ocr l 5 Jo /5 20 2S 30 $ J4 J9 24 29 ore + & fares J962) TABLE VII SUBJECT "M" Raw Scores Record. Date Time Press. S.A. D.A. O.A. D.N.A. D.S. A.U.C. D.T./S.T. P.R. S.B.P. D.B.P. P.P. F.R. 3/10/62 12:55 80 1.4l .68 20° • 54 .14 .40 3.19 55 145 65 80 .38 5/10/62 Stand 95 1.15 .50 21° • 35 12:45 85 1.17 .59 21° .54 .05 .36 3.58 52 142 70 72 .46 Stand 90 .90 .46 234° .40 10/10/62 12:40 80 1.25 .66 2lj° .56 .10 .38 3.84 48 145 60 85 A5 Stand • 80 .92 A3 21° • 33 Ll/lO/62 12:30 80 1.23 .50 21° .14 .36 .21 2.28 68 150 57 93 .11 Stand 85 1.04 .34 21^° -.12 12/10/62 12:50 83 1.15 .69 21 g .65 .04 .48 3.97 44 142 72 70 .56 Stand 100 1.20 .63 20° .59 19/10/62 15:40 85 1.95 .97 18|° • 78 .19 .62 3.33 48 140 70 70 .40 Stand 96 1.58 .61 20° .52 26/10/62 12:45 85 1.74 .88 .61 .27 .57 3.67 47 145 70 75 • 35 2/11/62 Stand 82 1.13 .47 24* .17 12:50 85 1.14 .61 2li° A7 .14 .38 4.49 45 155 70 85 .41 Stand 85 .89 .48 24° .29 19/11/62 13:10 82 1.14 .67 224° .52 .15 .40 4.45 47 158 63 95 .46 23/11/62 Stand 87 .98 .51 24° .25 13:00 85 1.47 .79 21|° • 59 .20 A5 4.48 45 150 64 86 .40 Stand 87 .70 .32 26° .16 7/12/62 12:50 81 1.23 .59 2li° .46 .13 • 33 3.64 54 152 50 102 .37 Stand 85 l.o4 A3 23}° .15 TABLE VIII Coefficient of Correlation Regression Coefficient Standard Errors of Estimate F. Ratios S.A. D.A. -.063 .04l -.078 .025 .406 .207 .036 .015 O.A. D.N.A. .244 -.008 .124 .005 .165 . 237 .570 .000 F = 5.12 OC = .05 SUBJECT "M" St a t i s t i c a l Data D.S. A.U.C. D.T./S.T. P.R. S.B.P. D.B.P. P.P. F.R. .081 -.016 .516 -.246 .680 -.469 .664 .031 .034 -.008 1.538 -.077 .178 -.145 .323 .016 .140 .170 .849 .101 .064 .091 .121 .167 .060 .002 3.276 .584 7.745 2.542 7.120 .009 62 Case "F" Subject "F" was twenty years old, six feet four inches t a l l and weighed one hundred sixty pounds. His early athletic participation was i n sports other than track. In 1954 this athlete played rugby for his school team. During the period 1955-1958 he played touch football daily from September to May and played baseball daily from May to August. In addition, i n 1957 he competed i n the junior 880 i n the B r i t i s h Columbia inter-high track meet, but he did very l i t t l e specific training. In 1958 he again ran i n the inter-high meet, this time he t r i e d the 660 and one-mile, achieving times of 2:13 and 5:01.6 respectively. This, also, was with l i t t l e training. That f a l l he competed i n cross country for the f i r s t time, running i n seven meets. During the cross country season he also ran a 4:48 mile. Subject "F" started training twice to three times weekly i n 1959. He ran 44o i n 52.5; 880 i n 2:10', and one-mile i n 5:01.6. He competed i n races of from 100 yards to three miles in length. In the f a l l this runner trained daily; the load was approximately three miles per session. He participated i n a f u l l cross country season. Subject "F" trained hard daily i n the spring of i960. His best times were: one-mile i n 4:31; two-miles i n 10:01; and three-miles in 15:35* He trained very hard during the cross country season running ten miles daily and often twenty. M i e s a day on week-ends. In 1961 this athlete trained much more lighlly and competed only during the cross country season. Subject "F" ran very l i t t l e i n the spring of 1962 because of plantar warts. He resumed training 63 i n August with three sessions per week. He then competed in the whole 1962 cross country season. The only medical involvement experienced by subject "F" was the plantar wart problem mentioned above. He had an operation i n 1962 for their removal but they s t i l l bother him somewhat. A record was kept of this runner's training, beginning September 2k, 1962. For the f i r s t three weeks of the season subject "F" trained f a i r l y hard, running seven and one-half miles daily. However, due to apparent lack of cardiovascular condition improvement, he reduced training for the week of October 15th. This step was taken after his coach studied his pulse waves with the writer and i t was decided that possibly he was not adapting to his training load. The following week he trained twice a day, seven and one-half miles i n the morning and some track work i n the afternoon. He then returned, in the following week, to the seven and one-half mile run daily. Throughout the season subject "F" rested a day before and after each race. Subject "F" ran "not well" on October 6th. No aspects of the pulse wave were particularly deviant. However, the pulse wave was not typical of an athlete in condition for endurance running (see Appendix B). The systolic amplitude was slightly below that of normal young men and there was no diastolic surge apparent. This runner ran as expected on October 13th. The pulse rate was higher both on the day of the race and the day before, the amplitudes were low and the area under the curve was especially low the day before the race. A diastolic surge appeared for 6k the f i r s t time on this week-end. It was mostly evident on the pulse waves taken standing. The rest-to-work ratio dipped somewhat twenty-four hours before the competition, hut recovered by race time. Subject "F" ran not well again on October 20th; the wave of the preceding day was so poor that i t was unmeasurable. It was at the beginning of this week that the runner's training load was reduced. This decision was reached because of the better times achieved by John Devitt and Alva Colquhoun after easy workouts, as discussed i n Carlile's study( 2 0). This change in regimen did not have an immediate effect on performance. The following week subject "F's" training load was stepped up to a higher l e v e l than before. He ran as expected on October 27th; however his si t t i n g pulse wave was s t i l l unmeasurable. It was, however, possible to make measurements on the pulse wave taken on the subject while standing. The heartograph taken on November 2nd showed a wave of greater amplitude and area than any preceding wave. Unfortunately there was no race that week. Possibly anticipation of races depressed the waves of subject "F". (21) This possible action on the cardiovascular system i s mentioned by Cureton (22) Cureton shows that better endurance i s associated with low diastolic blood pressure, low pulse rate and a small obliquity angle. Subject "F" showed the former two throughout the season. However, at no time during the season did his obliquity angle decrease appreciably. In fact, some-times throughout the season this aspect of the wave showed increases. This unexplained i n a b i l i t y of the heart to contract rapidly may have been a causative factor i n subject "F" not performing as well i n cross country 65 running as might be expected considering his training load. On November 10th the subject ran as expected. The amplitudes and area of the wave were down markedly i n size, the angle of obliquity was high and the rest-to-work ratio was low. The athlete performed adequately and i t would appear, from the heartograph record, that he did so i n spite of relatively poor cardiovascular condition. The pulse wave record was the best for the season i n many respects on November l 6 t h . The rest-to-work ratio read i t s highest value of the season. Unfortunately the coach was not present to judge the athlete's performance on the following day. This was a race i n which annually the subject performed very well and he may have f e l t more confident than usual about the race to come. Also, because of an injury, subject "F" was able to train only on Tuesday of that week. This enforced rest may have been the principal reason for the improvement i n the heartograph measures or a reduction of pre-race apprehension i n association with rest may have exercised a combined effect. There were no significant Regression Coefficients for any of the aspects of subject "F's" pulse wave measurements. This shows that no consistent changes resulted due to the training undertaken. Although subject "F" trained f a i r l y hard, his performance was never really good. His pulse-wave at i t s best (see Appendix B) was not indicative of someone doing systematic and progressive endurance training. 66 ocrj 5 JO JS 2o 2S 3OMV4 9 J4 J9 24- 29 4 $ 1962) TABLE IX SUBJECT "F" Raw Scores Record. Date Time Press. S.A. D.A. O.A. D.N.A. D.S. A.U.C. D.T./S.T. P.R. S.B.P. D.B.P. P.P. F.R 2/10/62 U:45 80 1.06 .65 22 0 .65 0 .32 2.49 51 128 55 73 .61 Stand 92 .64 .29 27° .29 0 3/10/62 11:45 80 1.18 .75 2 1 f ° .75 0 .45 3.04 48 130 45 85 .64 Stand 82 .78 .29 26° .29 0 VlO/62 11:40 80 1.09 .65 22° .65 0 •39 2.82 . ^ 9 130 55 75 .60 Stand 82 .68 .29 24|° .29 0 5/10/62 11:30 80 1.13 .73 2l}° .73 0 A 3 2.97 49 130 55 75 .65 Stand 80 .90 .29 22J° .29 0 9/10/62 12:00 80 .92 •53 23$° • 53 0 .27 2.47 59 118 55 63 .58 Stand 80 .63 .23 26* .23 0 12/10/62 11:20 80 I.03 .45 22° .44 .01 .26 2.35 65 126 60 66 A 3 Stand 80 1.00 • 33 21|° .24 .09 13/10/62 10:30 80 1.20 .53 21 S .53 0 .33 2.84 59 143 55 88 .44 Stand 78 .96 .26 22^° .14 .12 15/10/62 11:55 87 1.10 .70 23° .70 0 .32 2.75 h9 130 55 75 .64 I9/IO/62 Waves very irregular .*. no standing wave taken 11:35 No regular waves ... none measured 52 128 60 68 26/10/62 15:10 No good sittin g waves 56 129 52 77 2/H/62 Stand 85 .67 •33 26^° .33 0 12:00 82 1.26 .79 23i° .79 0 .47 2.51 52 124 60 64 .62 9/11/62 Stand 85 .90 • 35 25° •35 0 12:50 80 .98 .49 24° .49 0 .30 2.54 55 125 53 72 .50 Stand 80 .55 .18 27° .16 .02 16/11/62 12:10 80 1.35 .83 22° .83 0 .4i 3.20 49 135 ^3 92 .61 23/11/62 Stand 78 • 77 25° .29 .05 12? 10 72 1.08 .68 23° .68 0 .40 3.19 58 140 57 83 .63 7/12/62 Stand 80 .75 .25 24£° .22 .03 12:10 75 1.18 .73 22 0 .73 0 .47 3.04 49 112 60 52 .62 Stand 77 .67 .31 25° •31 0 TABLE X SUBJECT "F" Sta t i s t i c a l Data Coefficient of Correlation Regression Coefficient Standard Errors of Estimate F. Ratios S.A. D.A. O.A, D.N.A. .309 . 272 .318 .273 .158 .146 .130 .148 .146 .156 .117 .157 1.167 .885 1.230 .887 D.S. A.U.C. D.T./S.T. -.154 .381 .425 -.001 .127 .555 .003 .093 .356 .269 1.875 2.428 F = 4.84 a = .05 P.R. S.B.P. D.B.P. P.P. F.R. -.O36 -.178 .117 -.008 -.065 .027 .073 .109 .069 .014 .359 .154 -.185 .103 -.093 .035 .148 .102 .393 .119 71 General Discussion The pulse wave measurements of the subjects in this study varied somewhat from week to week. Rest-to-work ratio and diastolic surge seemed to be the most important and consistent variables i n reflecting the effects of the endurance training that was done. The main purpose i n analyzing the data by case study method was to see, i f possible, how the individual adapted to his training load. This was an attempt to determine how practical the heartometer i s as an adjunct to usual methods of assessing an athlete's training (i.e. time t r i a l s , performance and subjectively described feelings of the athlete). Increases i n diastolic surge as an indication of improving condition has been discussed by C a r l i l e ^ 2 3 ' 2 ^ \ C u r e t o n ^ 2 5 ' 2 6 ' 2 7 ' 2 8 ) and (29) Michael and Gallon N Diastolic surges of any consequence appeared i n only three of the five subjects studied. This would seem unusual as C a r l i l e ^ 3 0 ^ observed diastolic surge development i n fifteen of sixteen male swimmers tested i n hard training. Subject " J " showed signs of a diastolic surge only on two occasions; these were very small. A slight diastolic surge was developed by subject "C" but this disappeared before testing had concluded. This subject performed well without developing a surge and ran his poorest race after recording his largest surge of the season. However, this surge possibly developed at the expense of a slower closing of the semi-lunar valves as the fatigue ratio was at i t s low point on this day also. Subject "E", who had not been training over the summer and had a cold for four days before the f i r s t graph, developed a good diastolic surge through the training season. He consistently 72 performed well. His diastolic surge decreased rapidly after the training was reduced on November 10th. This runner had a thirteen year background of endurance training. In some of these years the training was very hard which may p a r t i a l l y explain the rapid development of a diastolic surge during this study. A diastolic surge was present i n the record of subject "M" at the beginning of testing. This runner had been training a l l year. As i n the case of subject "C", subject "M*s" largest surges seemed to develop at the expense of a lowered dicrotic notch amplitude and hence an unfavourable fatigue ratio. Dicrotic notch lowering can be caused (31) when an athlete suffers apprehension before a race v"^ . This runner did not run well on November 27th after recording a large diastolic surge of this type on the preceding day. Subject "F" developed a diastolic surge i n the standing waves only, and these were not regular or well developed. This subject had not been training regularly up to the beginning of the cross country season due to the plantar warts discussed earlier. Rest-to-work ratio i s another aspect of the pulse wave that showed changes which paralleled the individuals' a b i l i t y to perform. (TO) C a r l i l e observed outstanding changes in the heart's rest-to-work ratio; 27 of 28 swimmers showed an average increase of 69$ at the end of eight weeks hard training. As discussed i n Chapter III, page 13, a strong efficient cardiovascular system has a rest-to-work ratio of four to one. Subject "J's" ratio reached four by November l 6 t h and stayed above this figure u n t i l the end of the testing. When subject "C" ran his poorest race on November 10th, his rest-to-work ratio was 2.3O the day before. This was his lowest of the season. Two weeks earlier, when he ran better than expected, his ratio was 4.06. It would appear that sudden decreases 73 i n the size of this ratio after i t has reached a high le v e l indicates failure to adapt to the stress load. The experience of subject "E" showed a direct relationship between the rest-to-work ratio and perform-ance. He had no poor races and his condition generally improved throughout the season; the rest-to-work ratio showed a steady trend upwards ( s i g n i f i -cant at .05 level) with no sharp; reductions and a sharp rise when training was reduced. This trend to increase was apparent i n a l l five cases, although not always s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. Large gains were indicated by a l l subjects after reductions in their training loads during or after the season. This measurement appears to increase i n size when the body i s given time to adapt to training. Too long a rest or reduction i n training causes the ratio to drop. This was apparent in the case of subject "M" who, because of his nervous condition, was on a prolonged reduction i n training. Through further study i t may be possible to see i f these indications bear out the observations of the writer who believes that fluctuations in the rest-to-work ratio may be measured to aid i n scien t i f i c design of an athlete's training. That i s , when sudden decreases in the rest-to-work ratio appear aechange i n training load may be in order. For some athletes this may be a reduction i n the tot a l amount of work done; for others i t may indicate a change in type of training needed; for others some outside stress (e.g. incipient infection or emotional problem) may be effecting the adaptation to the training load. I f the coach has some objective measure to indicate that the athlete i s f a i l i n g to adapt to the stresses encountered, he i s in a position to look for the problem with conviction that one exists. Ik Four of the five runners showed a significant increase in systolic blood pressures and pulse pressures as a result of the season's training. Subject "F" was the exception. Although high blood pressure i s often thought of as a pathological condition, i t would appear that for an athlete undertaking endurance training this could Indicate a physiological improvement. Two of the runners who showed this increase performed very well. With the small decreases i n diastolic blood pressure that occurred i n these four cases, a definite trend toward pulse pressure increase accrued, significant at the .05 level. 75 REFERENCES (1) T.K. Cureton, Physical Fitness of Champion Athletes, Urbana, University of I l l i n o i s , 1951, 237. (2) F. C a r l i l e , U. C a r l i l e , "Physiological Studies of Australian Swimmers in Hard Training", Australian Journal of Physical Education, 23 (October-November, 1961), 12. (3) T.K. Cureton, Physical Fitness Appraisal and Guidance, St. Louis, Mosby, 19^7, 196. (4) Cureton, Physical Fitness of Champion Athletes, op. c i t . , 236. (5>) C a r l i l e , op. c i t . , 21. (6) R.F. Rushmer, Cardiovascular Dynamics, Philadelphia, Saunders, 1961, 89-90. (7) Ibid., 27. (8) Ibid., 29. (9) Ibid., 11. (10) C a r l i l e , op. c i t . , 13. (11) Cureton, Physical Fitness Appraisal and Guidance, op. c i t . , 199* (12) Ibid., 201. (13) A.E. Willet, Prediction of Treadmill Running from Heartometer Measurements, Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , 194b. (14) Cureton, Physical Fitness of Champion Athletes, op. c i t . , 237. (15) Cureton, Physical Fitness Appraisal and Guidance, op. c i t . , 240. (16) T.K. Cureton, "The Nature of Cardiovascular Condition i n Normal Humans", Journal of Association for Physical and Mental Rehabilitation, 11 (November-December, 1957), 189» (17) C a r l i l e , op. c i t . , 13-14. (18) Cureton, Physical Fitness Appraisal and Guidance, op. c i t . , 247. (19) C a r l i l e , Loc. c i t . (20) Ibid., 27. 76 (21) T.K. Cureton, What the Heartometer Measures That i s of Special Interest  and Importance to Physical Educators and Physical Fitness Directors, Unpublished paper, Physical Fitness Research Laboratory, University of I l l i n o i s , 4. (22) Cureton, Physical Fitness of Champion Athletes, op. c i t . , 251. (23) C a r l i l e , op. c i t . , 11. (24) Ibid., 12. (25) Cureton, op. c i t . , 238. (26) Ibid., 251. (27) Ibid., 253. (28) Cureton, Physical Fitness Appraisal and Guidance, op. c i t . , 247. (29) E.D. Michael and A.J. Gallon, "Pulse Wave and Blood Pressure Changes Occurring During a Physical Training Program", Research Quarterly, 31 (March, i960), 51-52. (30) C a r l i l e , op. c i t . , 11. (31) Cureton, op. c i t . , 240. (32) C a r l i l e , op. c i t . , 12. (33) R.F. Rushmer, Cardiovascular Dynamics, Philadelphia and London, Saunders, 1961, 137. 77 CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Five members of the University of B.C. cross country team were observed throughout their 1962 cross country season. Records were kept of their weekly cardiovascular condition as measured by the Cameron Heartometer, training regimen, and the coach's subjective appraisal of their competitive performances. Using case study methods, each individual was observed to see i f he was adapting to his training load. Fluctuations i n performance were compared with heartometer measures to see i f these measures which reflect changes i n autonomic tone would also reflect improvement or lack of improvement i n running performance. Each of the athletes had a different experience from his fellows during the course of the study. One athlete, with a long history of endurance training, improved his condition markedly i n the short nine week season. Another athlete, who has had severe attacks of asthma, performed well u n t i l attempting a particularly heavy amount of work. After this work he ran a very poor race. A t h i r d subject f a i l e d to adapt to the stresses of his overall programme and suffered a slight nervous breakdown during the season. Another athlete did not run as well as might be expected considering the amount of training done. The f i f t h improved slowly but steadily under a moderate conditioning programme. 78 Pour measures of the pulse wave showed p a r a l l e l development with improving cardiovascular condition; these were diastolic surge, rest-to-work ratio, systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. Diastolic surges developed i n only three of the five subjects. Systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure increased significantly i n four of the five runners tested. These four included the subject who experienced the nervous breakdown. The one runner whose systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure did not improve significantly did not show any improvements in condition or performance that might be expected from an athlete undertaking a programme as hard as his. The rest-to-work ratio seemed to show best how well the individual was adapting to his training. Fluctuations i n this measure paralleled good and bad performances; these were apparent on examination of the graphs. The other aspects of the pulse wave showed no consistent trends. Conclusions 1. Diastolic surge i s an indication of improving cardiovascular condition i f i t i s not developed at the expense of a large decrease i n dicrotic notch amplitude. It takes a longer period than eight or nine weeks of moderate training to develop a diastolic surge unless the athlete has a long history of endurance training. 2. Rest-to-work ratio, at rest, gives a good indication of the athlete's a b i l i t y to adapt to a given training load. A sharp drop in rest-to-work ratio at any stage of the training period i s a sign that a reduction i n stresses should be sought. Since time of diastole bears a relationship to pulse rate i t i s important to insure that a l l heartographs are obtained under standardized resting conditions. 79 3* Systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure increase when an athlete undertakes a running programme designed to improve endurance performance, i f he i s adapting to the training load. Recommendat ions 1. It i s suggested that studies be undertaken following athletes for a much longer training period so that more definite trends can be established. 2. With the use of heartometer measures a study could be undertaken to show the types and amounts of training that would result i n the greatest improvements i n cardiovascular condition. 3. The regimen of an athlete i n hard training may be modified with reference to the improvement or lack of improvement in the rest-to-work ratio. Such a programme may achieve optimum condition for the athlete considering the training period available. 80 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Cureton, Thomas Kirk, Physical Fitness Appraisal and Guidance, St. Louis Mosby, 1947. Cureton, Thomas Kirk, Physical Fitness of Champion Athletes, Urbana, University of I l l i n o i s Press, 1951. Guyton, Arthur C., Textbook of Medical Physiology, Philadelphia, Saunders, 1956. Meeland, Tor, Technical Accuracy of the Heartometer, Unpublished Master 1s Thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , 1947. Rushmer, Robert F., Cardiovascular Dynamics, Philadelphia, Saunders, 1961. Scott, M. Gladys, ed., Research Methods, Washington, American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, 1959. Sterling, L.R., A Factorial Analysis of Cardiovascular Variables, Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , i960. Van Dalen Deobold B., Understanding Educational Research, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1962. Walker, Helen M., Lev, Joseph, S t a t i s t i c a l Inference, New York, Henry Holt, 1953. Wiggers, Carl John, Circulatory Dynamics, New York, Green and Stratton, 1952. Willet, A.E, Prediction of Treadmill Running From Heartometer Measurements, Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , 1948. Periodicals C a r l i l e , F., Ca r l i l e , U., "T-Wave Changes i n ECG Associated With Prolonged Periods of Strenuous Exercise i n Sportsmen With Special Application i n Training Swimmers", Australian Journal of Physical Education, 17 (November-December, 1959), 8-19. C a r l i l e , F., C a r l i l e , U., "Physiological Studies of Australian Olympic Swimmers in Hard Training". Australian Journal of Physical Education, 23 (October-November, 1961), 5-34. Cureton, T.K., "The Nature of Cardiovascular Condition i n Normal Humans", Journal of Association for Physical and Mental Rehabilitation, 11 (November-December, 1957), I86-196. 8 l Hickham, J.B., C a r g i l l , W., Golden, A., "Cardiovascular Reactions to Emotional Stimuli", Journal of C l i n i c a l Investigation, 27 (March, 1948) 290-298. Massey, B.H., Husman, B.F., Kehoe, C.L., "The Effect of Posture on the Brachial Sphygmograph as an Indicator of Cardiovascular Condition", Research Quarterly, 24 (May, 1953), 194-204. McCurdy, J.H., Larson, L.A., "The Validity of Circulatory-Respiratory Measures as an Index of Endurance Condition i n Swimming", Research  Quarterly (October, 1940), 3-11. Michael, E.D., Gallon, A.J., "Pulse Wave and Blood Pressure Changes Occurring During a Physical Training Program", Research Quarterly, 31 (March, i960), 43-59. Remington, J.W., Wood, E.H., "Formation of Peripheral Pulse Contour i n Man", Journal of Applied Physiology, 9 (1956), 433-442. Wiggers, C.J., "The Magnitude of Regurgitation With Aortic Leaks of Different Sizes", Journal of the American Medical Association, 97 (July-December, 1931), 1359-1364. Unpublished Papers Cureton, T.K., What the Heartometer Measures That i s of Special Interest  and Importance to Physical Educators and Physical Fitness Directors, Unpublished Paper, Physical Fitness Research Laboratory, University of I l l i n o i s . APPENDIX A SUMMARY OF PERFORMANCE Oct. 6, 1962 Oct. 13. 1962 Oct. 20. 1962 Oct. 27. 1962 Nov. 10. 1962 Subject "J" AE AE AE DNR AE Subject "C" AE AE BTE BTE NW Subject "E" AE BTE AE BTE AE Subject "M" AE AE NW NW AE Subject "F" NW AE NW AE AE Abbreviations BTE - Better than expected AE - As expected NW - Not well DNR - Did not run CO ro SUBJECT V * °& 2 SUBJECT  %M" OCT. 11 t 7 . -— SUBJECT C " OCT 19 SUBJECT "£* OCT J APPENDIX B wove /voy.9 OCT11 /VQV.Z (sTArto) SUBJECT "J" OCT J OCT 19 ocrl 5 JO /5 20 2S 30 *w 4 S J4 J9 24- 29 oec + & fo/ir£S J962) N O . 3 1 9 M I L L I M E T E R S . 1 6 0 B Y 2 2 0 D I V I S I O N S . 0 C O D E X B O O K C O M P A N Y , I N C . N O R W O O D , M A S S A C H U S E T T S . PRINTEO IN U . S . A . 5? 0* C5 3 N O . 3 1 9 M I L L I M E T E R S . 1 6 0 B Y 2 2 0 D I V I S I O N S . C O D E X B O O K C O M P A N Y , I N C . N O R W O O D , M A S S A C H U S E T T S . PRINTED IN U- S . A . N O . 3 1 9 M I L L I M E T E R S . ' 1 6 0 B Y 2 Z O D I V I S I O N S . 8 C O D E X B O O K C O M P A N Y , I N C . N O R W O O D , M A S S A C H U S E T T S . PRINTED IN U . S . A . m N O . 3 1 9 M I L L I M E T E R S . 1 6 0 B Y 2 2 0 D I V I S I O N S . N .8! I C O D E X B O O K C O M P A N Y , I N C . N O R W O O D , M A S S A C H U S E T T S . PRINTED IN U . S . A . ' ' „ . tS ^ fe & £ (Pxessuxj <S Q g> Ci' Q ^ ( //v mm. HQ. m n I n I I i iixui 11111111 II 1111111 n 11 n 11111111111111111 II 11 n i i II 11111111 ,-7-r 1 #3 APPENDIX B SUBJECT F OCT. 2 SUBJECT M OCT. 11 SUBJECT C OCT.W tm SUBJECT "£" OCT. 1 OCT 26 OCT 19 AZOV. 6 OCT 11 /VO/. 16 OCT 26 A/OK 9 A/OV. 2 (STArtq) SUBJECT J ocr.3 OCT. 19 A/oV. J 6 

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