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Variations in the effects of two training methods upon work output Moncrieff, John 1963

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VARIATIONS IN THE EFFECTS OF TWO TRAINING METHODS UPON WORK OUTPUT by JOHN MONCRIEFF B.P.E. University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I960. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the School of PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1963 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Physical Education and Recreation The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date A p r i l ,1963 ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was to determine the effect of "steady pace" and " i n t e r v a l " t r a i n i n g methods upon work output. Thirty-four male University of B r i t i s h Columbia f i r s t year students between the ages of nineteen and twenty-one, were selected from the required physical education a c t i v i t y program. Each student was tested on a f i x e d resistance type bicycle ergometer. The number of revolutions achieved i n two minutes was recorded. Two groups were then formed by the "paired comparison" method and trained f o r s i x weeks. Both groups did the same amount of work i n each t r a i n i n g session but each group varied i t s method of work application, i . e . one group trained at a steady e f f o r t while the other group trained at a higher power, with regulated rest periods between bursts of power. Each group was subjected to a two minute test at the i n t e r v a l s of two, four and s i x weeks after the commencement of t r a i n i n g . On the basis of s t a t i s t i c a l treatment, the following results were evident: 1. There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t improvement of work output scores f o r either group after two weeks of t r a i n i n g . 2. After four weeks of t r a i n i n g , both groups exhibited marked improvement i n work output scores which were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. 3. Tests after s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g indicated s t a t i s t i c a l l y significanttimprovements i n performance scores i n both groups. These scores were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. 4. Both types of t r a i n i n g , when compared, showed no difference i n the re s u l t s obtained at the end of two, four and s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g . There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the means of each group at the end of two, four and s i x weeks of regulated t r a i n i n g . I t was concluded that within the l i m i t a t i o n s of the study, there was no difference i n work output obtained from the re s u l t s of either "steady" or " i n t e r v a l " types of t r a i n i n g provided the t o t a l work done by the members of either group was the same. In both groups, however, a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t gain i n work output was evident after four and s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g . TAB LE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM . 1 I I JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM 2 I I I REVIEW OF LITERATURE. 5 IV METHODS AND PROCEDURE 11 V RESULTS 15 VI DISCUSSION.. 23 VII SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 29 BIBLIOGRAPHY... 31 APPENDICES A. STATISTICAL TREATMENT 34. B. INDIVIDUAL SCORE SHEET 36 C. RAW SCORES FOR WORK OUTPUT 37 D. SPECIFICATIONS OF THE BICYCLE ERGOMETER 38 LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1. Comparison of the Performance Scores of the "Steady" Training Group Between Tests 2 and 3, Test 3 and 4, Tests 4 and 5, Tests 2 and 4, and Tests 2 and 5 IS TABLE 2. Comparison of the Performance Scores of the "Interval" Training Group Between Tests 2 and 3, Tests 3 and 4, Tests 4- and 5, Tests 2 and 4,and Tests 2 and 5 21 TABLE 3. Comparison of the Significance of Performance Between the "Steady" and the "Interval" Training Group on Tests 2, Tests 3, Tests 4 and Tests 5 23 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1. Training Schedule 12 CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM There have been varying reports during recent years, upon the effectiveness of "constant speed" t r a i n i n g and " i n t e r v a l " t r a i n i n g upon athletes. This has been especially so i n t r a i n i n g f o r middle distance events i n track. Champions have resulted from both methods. "Constant speed" t r a i n i n g i s defined herein as work at a constant pace over a set period of time. "Interval" t r a i n i n g i s defined herein as a number of equal work e f f o r t s of shorter duration than the "Constant speed" type, done at a faster pace. This study i s aimed at determining the effect upon work output of (a) "constant speed" and (b) " i n t e r v a l " t r a i n i n g methods, upon human subjects. Work output i s determined by the amount of work the subject can do, over a timed ride upon a bicycle-type ergometer. The measurement of work output i s carried out before and after a s i x week tr a i n i n g period. CHAPTER I I JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM Modern t r a i n i n g methods f o r middle distance running are almost as varied as the number of competitors. Many statements have been made claiming that " i n t e r v a l " t r a i n i n g methods of under distance, with faster than race pace are superior to "constant speed" t r a i n i n g . Boherty ( l ) , Holmer (2) and Stampfl (3), a l l renowned middle distance coaches, recommend i n t e r v a l methods. Bresnahan and Tuttle (U) outline a method using constant speed and over distance. Bowerman (5) claims endurance i s acquired through the "f a r t l e k " type of a c t i v i t i e s . He says (6, p. 81): "Our f a r t l e k a c t i v i t y includes s t r i d i n g at an easy pace u n t i l some fatigue begins to set i n . " Cerutty (7), to some extent also agrees with the application of steady over distance t r a i n i n g methods to improve endurance. Cureton (8) outlines that the best gains i n eardio-vascular improvement have been achieved by repeated two hundred and twenty yard, four hundred and f o r t y yard "run throughs", cross-country and steady pace over distance running. He does not outline which i s the better system. Very few studies have been published where controlled groups are used to determine the effects of i n t e r v a l and steady paced t r a i n i n g upon work capacity. S i n i s a l o and Juurtola (9) i n Finland, compared the physiological effects of two s k i t r a i n i n g methods. Here they used "constant speed" and " i n t e r v a l " t r a i n i n g . They found the " i n t e r v a l " t r a i n i n g improved the a b i l i t y to cover the l a s t stage of the race at an improved pace. 3 In t h i s study an attempt has been made to determine the differences i n work output of two groups of male students during a t r a i n i n g period of s i x weeks. One group trained by the " i n t e r v a l " method of t r a i n i n g ; the other group did "constant speed" t r a i n i n g . The work load for each t r a i n i n g session was the same for each group. The same bic y c l e ergometer, set at a fixed resistance was used by both groups f o r a l l t r a i n i n g and testing r i d e s . REFERENCES 1. Doherty, J.K., Modern Track and F i e l d . Prentice-Hall, New York, 1957i 2. Holmer, G., "Long Distance Running", International- Track and F i e l d Digest, "Champions on Film", Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1956, pp. 8138.5. 3. Stampfl, F., "Franz Stampfl on Running, Herbert Jenkins, London, 1955• 4. Bresnahan, G.T., and Tuttle, W.W., Track and F i e l d A t h l e t i c s . 2nd Edit i o n , C.V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, 194-7. 5. Bowerman, B., "Training for the 1500 Meter (or Mile) Race", Inter-National Track and F i e l d Digest, "Champions on Film", Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1956, pp. 81-85. 6 . Loc. c i t . 7. Cerutty, P.. Running With Cerutty. Track and F i e l d News of Los Altos, C a l i f o r n i a , 1959. 8. Cureton, T.K., "Improvements i n Cardiovascular Condition of Humans Associated with Physical Training, Persistently Performed Sports and Exercises", College Physical Education Association. 60th  Annual Proceedings, Columbus Ohio, 1957, pp. 82-104.. 9. S i n i s a l o , U.V. and Juurtola, T., "Comparative Study of Physiological Effects of Two Skir-Training Methods", Research Quarterly, 28:3, 1957, pp. 238-294. CHAPTER I I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The review of the l i t e r a t u r e i s divided into two parts. One section reviews the studies related to the use of the bicycle ergometer. The other part reviews the studies related to the methods used i n the determination of the effects of t r a i n i n g upon work output. (I) Studies related to the apparatus used i n t h i s study: v i z . , the bicycle ergometer. The f r i c t i o n type resistance bicycle ergometer used i n t h i s study i s of the type manufactured by J.A. Preston Corporation. Reference to i t may be obtained i n Appendix D. The functional workings of a bicycle ergometer and i t s construction are described by Dobeln ( l ) and Ka^povich (2). Henry (3£ used an ergometer set at 69 revolutions per minute with a 620 kg.m./min. load and a 95 kg.m./min. load at 116 revolutions per minute to study i n d i v i d u a l differences i n oxygen metabolism of work at two speeds of movement. The subjects i n Henry's study pedalled at standardized revolutions per minute with a f i x e d load f o r f i v e minutes. Cogswell et a l ( 4 ) , i n observing the effects of trai n i n g upon pulse rate, blood pressure and endurance of humans, used a step test (Harvard), treadmill and an electro-dynamic brake bicycle ergometer. Cogswell's subjects pedalled f o r si x t y seconds at a maximum load. Henry and Demoor ( 5 ) , i n determining the metabolic e f f i c i e n c y of exercise i n r e l a t i o n to work load at constant speed, used the bicycle ergometer and the closed c i r c u i t respiratory apparatus. Gemmill et a l (6) i n studies upon muscular t r a i n i n g , used a bicycle ergometer as a method of tr a i n i n g under controlled conditions. The bicycle ergometer was selected 6 as the instrument f o r testing work output and for controlled t r a i n i n g . (II) Studies related to the methods used i n determining the effects of t r a i n i n g upon work output. Many studies have reported the effects' of t r a i n i n g , but few have compared the effects of two s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g methods. Most studies have been interested i n the physiological variations due to t r a i n i n g rather than the d i r e c t r e s u l t of improvement i n work output. Such tests have been carried out by Cogswell et a l (9) i n determining the effects of a t r a i n i n g period upon pulse rate, and blood pressure. In determining the physiological effects of d a i l y r e p e t i t i o n of the same amount of l i g h t muscular work, Gemmill (9) had subjects ride a bicycle ergometer f o r half an hour each day. Physiological data were obtained and recorded. The following changes were observed: an increase i n the e f f i c i e n c y of the respiratory and cardio mechanisms, a faster return to normal pulse rate a f t e r exercise, a decrease i n t o t a l v e n t i l a t i o n , and no change i n basal metabolism. Gemmill (10) again using two groups - seven track men and seven non-athletes - found t r a i n i n g outdoors d i f f i c u l t to control and used a bicycle ergometer. Here again physiological factors were determined and i t was found there was no change i n gross or net respiratory quotient. The greater change being t o t a l v e n t i l a t i o n increase. Cureton (11) claims that two hundred and twenty yard and four hundred and f o r t y yard i n t e r v a l t r a i n i n g i n track and long distance running are the best methods to improve endurance, but he does not indicate which method i s superior. S i n i s a l o and Juurtola (12), i n Finland, i n 1956, attempted to compare the physiological effects of two s k i - t r a i n i n g methods. Twenty subjects 7 were given ten physical tests at the beginning and at the end of an eight week s k i - t r a i n i n g period. Using the t - t e s t , s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the f i r s t test and the second test i n the t o t a l group of subjects were found i n the following t e s t s : breath holding, pulse rate on a bicycle ergometer, recovery pulse, f l o o r push ups, f u l l squat jumps, a g i l i t y exercises, time of the s k i i n g race, and the time of the l a s t two kilometers i n the s k i i n g race. S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the mean gains were found i n breath holding and "spurt a b i l i t y " i n favour of the i n t e r v a l t r a i n i n g group, and i n f l o o r push-ups i n favour of the constant speed t r a i n i n g group. In order to establish a suitable test f o r the work capacity i t was f i r s t noted that Riedman (13) gives the formula for work upon a bicycle ergometer as the weight of the resistance times the distance of r o t a t i o n . Karpovich (14) states that endurance can be expressed i n terms of how many times one movement can be repeated. Gallagher and Brouha (14) claim: To test dynamic f i t n e s s , which we define as the capacity to perform strenuous exercise and recover from i t , the test i t s e l f must be strenuous. Whether a tread-m i l l , ah ergometer bicycle or the more simple step-test i s used i s not important as long as an exercise requiring no p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l , u t i l i z i n g the' large muscle groups ami gives the heart and lungs so much work to do that a "steady state" cannot be maintained. Taylor et a l (16) claim i n a study of exercise tolerance that: the only defensible "a p r i o r i " c r i t e r i o n of f i t n e s s of a man f o r heavy physical exercise i s the amount of work the man can do. In considering the psychological considerations of exerting maximum work capacity, Henry and Berg (17) assumed: Factors such as i n d i v i d u a l willirigmess to exert maximally and special aptitudes f o r 8 the muscular a c t i v i t y of the test tend to cancel out i n a comparison of performance before and after conditioning, thus making i t possible to demonstrate some improvement i n physical f i t n e s s by t h i s technique even though there may be only a small r e l a t i o n s h i p between f i t n e s s and actual performance scores. Larson (19) reviews cardiovascular respiratory function i n r e l a t i o n to "physical f i t n e s s " . Here he quotes Schneider (20): ...the equipment that enables a man to combat adverse influence i s partly inborn and p a r t l y acquired. He c l a s s i f i e s t h i s equipment into three categories: the morphologic, the physiologic and psychologic. The morphologic consists of the physical form and structure determined largely"by heredity and also by use. The physiologic are organs which by graded and frequent use y i e l d capacity f o r adjustment i n a c t i v i t y . The psychologic i s the mind, the master of the body machine, which acquires greater capacity and adjustment with graded and proper use. The " f i t n e s s " of an i n d i v i d u a l i s determined by a l l three, of which the cardiovascular tests only p a r t i a l l y measure one - the physiologic and r e f l e c t the psychologic. 9 REFERENCES 1. Dobeln, W.V., "A Simple Bicycle Ergometer", Journal of Applied Physiolggy, 7:2, 1954, pp. 222-224. 2. Karpovich, P.V., "A F r i c t i o n a l B icycle Ergometer", Research Quarterly. 21:3, 1950, pp. 210-215. 3 . Henry, F.M., "Aerobic Oxygen Consumption'and A l a c t i c Debt i n Muscular Work. Journal of Applied Physiology. 3, 1951, pp. 427-438. 4. Cogswell, R.C., Henderson, C.R. and Berryman, G^H., "Some Observations of the effects of Training on Pulse Rate, Blood Pressure and Endurance i n Humana, Using the Step Test (Harvard), Treadmill and ElectrodynamieB rake "Bicycle Ergometer", American Journal of  Physiology. 146, 1946, pp. 422-430. 5. Henry, F.M. and DeMoor, J . , "Metabolic E f f i c i e n c y of Exercise i n Relation to Work Load at Constant Speed", Journal of Applied  Physiology. 2, 1950, pp. 481-489. 6. Gemmill, G., Booth, W. and Pocock, A., "The Physiological E f f e c t of Daily Repetition of the Same Amount of Light Muscular Work", American Journal of Physiology. 92, 1930, pp. 253-270. 7. Gemmill, G., Booth, W., Detrick, J . and Schiebel, H., "Muscular Training", American Journal of Physiology. 96, 1931, pp. 265-277. 8. Cogswell, R.G., et a l , Loc. c i t . 9. Gemmill, G., Booth, W. and Pocock, Loc. c i t . 10. Gemmill, G., Booth, W., Detrick, J . and Schiebel, H., Loc. c i t . 11. Cureton, T.K., "Improvements i n Cardiovascular Condition of Humans Associated with Physical Training, Persistently Performed Sports and Exercises", College Physical Education Association, 60th Annual  Proceedings. Columbus, Ohio, 1957, pp. 32-104. 12. S i n i s a l o , U.V. and Juurtola, T., "Comparative Study of Physiological Effects of Two Ski-Training Methods", Research Quarterly, 28:3, 1957, pp. 288-294. 13. Ri^dman, S.R., The Physiology of Work and Play. The Dryden Press, New York, 1952. 14. Karpovich, P.V., "Fatigue and Endurance", Physical Fitness. Supplement to Research Quarterly. 12:2, 1941, pp. 423-431. 10 15. Gallagher, M. and Brouha, L., "Physical Fitness, I t s Evaluation and Significance", Journal of the American Medical Association. 125:12, 1944, PP. 834-838. 16. Taylor, G., "Some Properties of Maximal and Submaximal Exercise with Reference to Physiological V a r i a t i o n , and the Measurement of Exercise Tolerance", American Journal of Physiology. 140, 1914, pp. 200-212. 17. Henry, F.M. and Berg, E.W., "Physiological and Performance'Changes i n At h l e t i c Conditioning", Journal of Applied Physiology. 3, 1950, pp. 103-111. 18. D i l l , D.B., Edwards, H.T. and Talbot, T., "Studies i n Muscular A c t i v i t y V I I . Factors Limiting the Capacity f o r Work", Journal of Physiology, 77:1, 1932, pp. 49-62. 19. Larson, L.A., "Cardiovascular-Respiratory Function'in Relation to Physical Fitness", Physical Fitness Supplement to the Research Quarterly, 12:2, 1941, pp. 456-468. 20. Larson, L.A., Loc. c i t . CHAPTER IV METHODS AND PROCEDURE Determination of Work Output Thirty-four males between the ages of nineteen and twenty-one were selected on a voluntary basis from the required Physical Education Program at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Persons who regularly rode a bicycle were not selected to participate i n the study. The subjects were tested to determine the maximum work they could do upon a f r i c t i o n a l type bicycle ergometer. An index of the amount of work done was recorded by the number of pedal revolutions achieved i n a set time period with the resistance held constant. The bicycle ergometer was of the f r i c t i o n a l type manufactured by J.A. Preston Corporation and was f i t t e d with a revolution counter and a variable resistance meter. As suggested by Henry (1) each subject was allowed a practice session upon the bicycle ergometer to enable him to become s k i l l f u l l upon t h i s machinery. I t i s Henry's opinion (2, p. 15) that practice i s required because: "There i s some element of acquired s k i l l i n doing the work e f f i c i e n t l y . " The practice sessions were limited to a f i v e minute period on Monday, Wednesday and Friday during the week preceding the testing f o r r e l i a b i l i t y of the subjects to perform the t e s t items. The bicycle ergometer was set at a f i x e d resistance of fourteen kilograms f o r a l l t r i a l s . This figure was chosen because i t was near the resistance chosen by Henry and DeMoor (3) for "maximal" work. The subjects were tested upon the number of completed pedal revolutions they could achieve pedalling against the set resistance f o r two minutes. 12 Grouping After the i n i t i a l t e s t , the subjects were ranked i n the order of th e i r performance and two groups selected by the "paired comparison" method as outlined by Garrett (4 , p. 228). The r e l i a b i l i t y of subjects to perform the test item was determined by the test-retest method. GROUP A GROUP B* Test 1 (to equate) Test 2 ( r e l i a b i l i t y ) 1st Two Weeks 1st Two Weeks Six minutes pedalling at 60 rev/mih. Pedalling for a minute at 60 constant speed at f i x e d resistance. rev/min. f o r s i x i n t e r v a l s . Total revs. 360. Total revs. 360. Test 3 2nd Two Weeks 2nd Two Weeks" Six minutes 36 sees, pedalling at 66 rev/mih. f o r 6 intervals at 60 rev/min. constant speed at fix e d half minute duration. Total resistance. Total revs. 396. rev. 396. Test 4 ' 3rd Two Weeks 3rd Two Weeks Seven minutes 12 seconds pedalling 72 rev/mih. f o r 6 inte r v a l s at at 60 rev/min. constant speed at h a l f minute duration. Total f i x e d resistance. Total revs. 432. revs. 432. Test 5 *. The " i n t e r v a l " t r a i n i n g group rested f o r one minute between each e f f o r t . Figure 1. TRAINING SCHEDULE Training and Testing One group used "constant speed" t r a i n i n g and was call e d Group A. The other group used the " i n t e r v a l " t r a i n i n g and was called Group B. Each group trained to a set pattern as outlined i n Figure 1. The " i n t e r v a l " t r a i n i n g group rested for one minute between each e f f o r t . Training was tri-weekly f o r s i x weeks. Training took place on Mondays Wednesday and Friday of each week. During t r a i n i n g , the subjects 13 regulated t h e i r pace by synchronizing the sound produced by a mechanical counter mounted on the bicycle-type ergometer, with the c l i c k of a metronome set at the required pattern. Work ceased when the t o t a l revolutions required at the stage of t r a i n i n g was completed. The subjects were retested f o r work output at the end of each two week period and the effects of t r a i n i n g upon work output recorded. This was carried out on each alternate Friday. Training was f o r f e i t e d on the test days. Thus, testing was carried out after every f i v e t r a i n i n g sessions. Any subject missing a regular session was disregarded along with h is paired counterpart i n the other t r a i n i n g group. The subjects were not informed of t h e i r test score. At the end of s i x weeks t r a i n i n g , twelve of the o r i g i n a l pairs remained. These were used as the test subjects i n t h i s study. A l l t r a i n i n g and testing were completed under the supervision of the same instructor. Individual tests were conducted at the same time on each day. The following verbal i n s t r u c t i o n was given: "You are required to give your best performance i n pedalling for two minutes. You w i l l be t o l d when intervals of t h i r t y seconds, s i x t y seconds and ninety seconds occur. Start on - goi F i n i s h on - stop!" The scoring f o r each i n d i v i d u a l subject was kept on separate cards (c . f . Appendix B. p.3)• These cards were f i l l e d out for necessary parti c u l a r s by the instructor and f i l e d u n t i l required. Testing and t r a i n i n g were administered indoors, on the same bicycle type ergometer, between early October and late November, I960. 14 REFERENCES 1. Henry, F.M., Physiology of Work. Associated Students 1 "Stores. University of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a , January 1950. 2. Loc. c i t . 3 . Henry, F.M. and DeMoor, J . , "Metabolic E f f i c i e n c y of Exercise i n Relation to Work Load at a Constant SpeedW, Journal of Applied  Physiology. 2, 1950, pp. 481-489. 4. Garrett, H.E., S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education. Longmans and Green, New York, 1958. CHAPTER V RESULTS R e l i a b i l i t y of Group Scores on the Test Item The group r e l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t computed between t r i a l s one and two, on the same test item, using the r e s u l t s of the twenty-four subjects who completed the t r a i n i n g program was found to be 0.72-0.10. This r e l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t indicated a moderate amount of i n d i v i d u a l difference i n the a b i l i t y of the subjects to reproduce r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s , using the two minute work output test upon the f r i c t i o n a l - t y p e bicycle ergometer. A r e l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t of 0.72 suggested approximately f i f t y - t w o percent variance i n common for individuals on both t e s t s . The d i f f i c u l t y of obtaining a "high" r e l i a b i l i t y on the test item was probably due to the i n a b i l i t y of untrained subjects to pace themselves upon the two minute t e s t . Investigation of the half minute breakdown of test retest scores indicated differences i n the methods of attempting the test item. For example, some subjects were better able to pace themselves on both t e s t s , while others seemed unable to judge the pace. Due to the l i k e l i h o o d of i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l differences influencing the r e l i a b i l i t y of individuals to perform t h i s type of endurance t e s t , a r e l i a b i l i t y of 0.72-0.10 was considered high enough to meet the purpose of this study. Data were obtained from testing before t r a i n i n g began and thence at two week i n t e r v a l s , u n t i l the completion of s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g . The data were treated s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n two ways: (a) Within Groups - The changes produced i n each group, by the training method used by that group, were tested f o r s t a t i s t i c a l significance using Fisher's " t " s t a t i s t i c at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. 16 The following mean scores were compared: test 2 with tests 3 , 4 and 5J t e s t 3 with test 4 ; and test 4 with test 5 . (b) Between Groups - The superiority of one tr a i n i n g method over another was tested f o r s t a t i s t i c a l l s i g n i f i c a n c e using Fisher's " t " s t a t i s t i c at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. Here the mean scores of each group were compared test by ^ test, i . e . test 1 - group A with test 1 group Bj test 2 group A with test 2 group Bj test 3 group A with test 3 group B; te s t 4 group A with test 4 group B; test 5 group A with test 5 group B. The Results of the Work Output Tests of Group A - The "Steady" Training Group The differences i n mean performance levels between tests were shown i n Table I . No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n the mean scores of the group was shown at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence, after two weeks of t r a i n i n g . Thus, any difference occuring between the means was attributed to chance. After four weeks of t r a i n i n g , the mean of the group showed an increase i n work output, s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. The mean performance showed an increase of 23.3 revolutions above the i n i t i a l work output t e s t . Eleven subjects gave an increased score. One subject's score decreased. TABLE 1 A Comparison of the Significance of Mean Performance Scores of the "Steady" Training Group Between Tests 2 & 3j Tests 3 & 4} Tests 4 & 5 J Tests 2 & 4; and Tests 2 & 5. I n i t i a l Test F i n a l Test Difference Standard Error Between of Difference the Means Between the Means " t " Test of Significance Test Interval Mj- SDj M 2 SD 2 s i 5 t Test 2-Test 3 200.0 15.5 198.3 23.1 -1.7 . 7.6" 0.2 Test 2-Test 4- 200.0 15.5 223.3 19.7 23.3 5.8 4.0 Test 2-Test 5 200.0 15.5 229.0 16.2 29.0' 5.2 5.6 Test 3-Test 4 198.3 23.1 223.3 19.7 25.0 6.4- 3.9 Test 4-T-est 5 223.3 19.7 229.0 16.2 5.7 5.5 1.0 , i •• • - • • • • , - i! u For 11 degrees of freedom a t of 2.20 i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l of confidence. 18 The Results of the Work Output Tests of Group B - The "Interval" Training Group The differences i n the mean performance levels between tests were shown i n Table 2. This group showed no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence, i n mean performance scores as a resul t of the f i r s t two weeks of t r a i n i n g . This r e s u l t was similar to results obtained by the "steady" t r a i n i n g group for the same period of t r a i n i n g . Any differences i n the mean performance scores could only be attributed to chance. The mean scores of work output at the end of four weeks of tra i n i n g showed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t improvement at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. The mean performance was 27.5 revolutions greater than at the onset of t r a i n i n g . Eleven of the twelve subjects exhibited improved scores. After s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g , t h i s group showed a mean improvement of 29 revolutions over the mean score at the Commencement of t r a i n i n g . This improvement was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. A l l subjects gave an increased performance score. An increase i n the mean work output scores between tests at the e"nd of week two and week four was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. At the end of four weeks of t r a i n i n g , the mean increase was 22.7 revolutions above the mean score at the end of week two. The difference between the mean score at the end of four weeks and the mean performance obtained at the end of s i x weeks was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. 19 At the completion of s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g , the mean performance of the group indicated an improvement i n work output. This improvement was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. The mean performance score at the end of s i x weeks was 29 revolutions greater than the i n i t i a l score. Between weeks two and four the increase i n the mean performance scores was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. The mean performance score at the end of four weeks of tr a i n i n g was 25 revolutions ahove the score obtained at the end of two weeks of t r a i n i n g . The increase i n work output of the group, as indicated by the revolution scores on the test item, between tests at the end of four and s i x weeks was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. TABLE 2 A Comparison of the Significance of Mean Performance Scores of the "In t e r v a l " Training Group Between Tests 2 &3; Tests 3 & A; Tests A &5} Tests 2 &A; Tests 2 & 5. I n i t i a l Test F i n a l Test Difference Between the Means Standard Error of the Difference Between the Means "t« Test of Significance Test Interval M-!_ SB± M 2 SD 2 M 2 - M l SEg t Test 2-Test 3 200.1 17.9 196.5 9.5 -3.6 A.A 0.3 Test 2-Test A 200.1 17.9 227.6 15.8 27.6 A.A 6.3 Test 2-Test 5 200.1 17.9 230.1 13.6 30.1 5.A 5. A Test 3-Test A 196.5 9.5 227.6 15.8 31.1 A.l 7.5 Test 4-Test 5 227.6 15.8 230.1 13.6 2.5 3.9 0.6 For 11 degrees of freedom a t of 2.20 i s si g n i f i c a n t at the 5 percent l e v e l of confidence. 21 A Comparison of the Results Obtained f o r the "Steady" Group and the "Interval" Group The differences of mean performance levels of both groups during the same t r a i n i n g periods were shown i n Table 3. The results of the performance tests f o r both groups af t e r two weeks of t r a i n i n g exhibited a difference between the test means of 1.8 and a t r a t i o of 0.25. This difference was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. The mean performance scores f o r the two groups a f t e r four weeks of t r a i n i n g indicated a difference between the means of 4-.3 and a t r a t i o of .81. These res u l t s show no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the scores at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. For the s i x week period of t r a i n i n g , the means of the f i n a l performances gave a difference of 1.1 and a t r a t i o of 0.28. This difference i n score was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. The results obtained on the tests conducted at the end of two, four and s i x weeks indicated that there i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence between groups i n the amount of improvement made i n work output. TABLE 3 A Comparison of the Significance of Mean Performance Scores Between the "Steady" and "Interval" Training Groups on Tests 2, Tests 3, Tests 4 and Tests 5 Test "Steady" Training Group "Interval" Training Difference Between Group the Means of "Standard Error of the Difference Between the Means " t " Test of Significance M l M 2 S B 2 M2-Mx SED t Tests 2 AB 200.0 15.5 200.1 17.9 0.1 5.8 0.02 Tests 3AB 198.3 23.1 196.5 9.5 - 1.8 7.2 0.25 Tests 4AB 223.3 19.7 227.6 15.8 4.3 5.3 0.81 Tests 5AB 229.0 16.1 230.1 13.6 1.1 4.0 0i28 For 11 degrees of freedom t i s si g n i f i c a n t at 2.20 at the 5 percent l e v e l of confidence. CHAPTER VI DISCUSSION In the present study the work load f o r each tr a i n i n g group ("steady" and "interval") was i d e n t i c a l . However-, the method of presen-t i n g the work ( i . e . power) varied from group to group. This design was used to investigate the effectiveness of various t r a i n i n g procedures upon work output. The skiers tested by S i n i s a l o and Juurtola (I) as a group showed improvement i n the timed ski-run, but no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference was found between the times presented by the "constant speed" or the " i n t e r v a l " groups. Results of the present study would indicate that after a s i x week tr a i n i n g period of pedalling a b i c y c l e , set at a fixe d resistance, to a predetermined work schedule, there i s a s t a t i s t i -c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n favour of an increased work output as a re s u l t of the t r a i n i n g . In t h i s study the increase amounted to a f i f t e e n percent improvement i n performance on the test item presented. This was true f o r both t r a i n i n g groups. As the difference between the mean performance scores of each group aft e r s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i t seems evident that no one of the methods i s superior to the other. I t would appear from the results of t h i s study that i f the amount of work applied i n each method of t r a i n i n g i s kept equal, then the tested performance put forward by each group does not vary. However, i t should be kept i n mind that only a small number of subjects were used i n t h i s experiment and d i f f i c u l t y thus arises i n forming generalizations as to the bearing of these results upon a large population sample. Also, s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g may have been too short to allow any differences r e s u l t i n g from the methods 24 used to be apparent. Neither group showed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t improvement as a r e s u l t of the f i r s t two weeks of t r a i n i n g . This would seem to indicate the p o s s i b i l i t y of a s t a b i l i z i n g period of conditioning and practice as indicated by Henry (2) or that the t r a i n i n g load was too l i g h t to evoke a change i n performance after only two weeks of t r a i n i n g . The greater amount of improvement i n performance occured after four weeks of t r a i n i n g . A difference of 23.3 revolutions was recorded f o r the "steady" t r a i n i n g group and 27.6 revolutions for the " i n t e r v a l " t r a i n i n g group. No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference was obtained at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence between the mean test scores obtained by either group at the completion of four weeks of t r a i n i n g . However, each group showed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence at the end of four weeks. In comparison, the differences between the means f o r the "steady" group and the " i n t e r v a l " group after s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g were 29 and 30.1 revolutions, respectively. No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference was obtained at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence between the f i n a l scores of the groups. The results indicate that a performance plateau was reached by the end of the fourth week of t r a i n i n g . An increase i n the work load required for the t r a i n i n g sessions i n the f i n a l two weeks did not a l t e r the performance output at the completion of s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g . I t i s evident that i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case an increase i n the d a i l y work dose did not necessitate an increase i n the work output as revealed by the test at the completion of , t r a i n i n g f o r s i x weeks. Here i t seems that no advantage was gained by application of the "overload p r i n c i p l e " of t r a i n i n g . However, the benefits of t h i s increase i n d a i l y t r a i n i n g dose for the l a s t two weeks may have been 25 masked by the short period of t r a i n i n g at that par t i c u l a r work load. In a report of a study published a f t e r the completion of the present study, Mellerowicz et a l (3) indicated somewhat sim i l a r r e s u l t s to those found i n the present study. They divided twenty-four male students, aged eleven to nineteen years, into two groups, approximately equal i n average weight, height and performance on a hand and arm ergometer t e s t . The f i r s t group exercised on a non-intermittent program, while the second group trained according to an intermittent exercise program. The second group was sub-divided into two subgroups, which dif f e r e d i n the d i v i s i o n of work and rest time. The t o t a l amount of work however, was equal f o r each group. A f t e r four weeks of t r a i n i n g , three times a week, there was an average of twenty-three percent increase i n performance, but no difference was found between the performances produced by the two methods of t r a i n i n g . From the results of Mellerowicz's study and the present study i t was seen that, perhaps i t i s not the type of trai n i n g that affects work output but the amount of work accomplished i n a t r a i n i n g session. The nature of the design of the present study was to allow some i n i t i a l exploration into the effects of two t r a i n i n g procedures upon work output. From the r e s u l t s obtained i t i s obvious that further investigation into t r a i n i n g procedure i s required. Investigation i s needed to reveal the reasons f o r the lack of improvement i n performance at the end of two weeks of t r a i n i n g , i . e . to determine i f t h i s period was t r u l y a s t a b i l i z i n g period or whether the t r a i n i n g dose was below a threshold necessary to produce an increase i n performance. The lack of improvement i n work output as a r e s u l t of the f i n a l two weeks of t r a i n i n g , when the t r a i n i n g dose was increased, also i s i n need of further investigation. This would necessitate investiga-t i o n of t r a i n i n g at the medium work dose compared to t r a i n i n g at the heavier 26 work load. The medium tr a i n i n g dose may be j u s t as e f f e c t i v e at producing an improvement i n the work output as the heavier work load. Studies are required to determine the best t r a i n i n g dose for producing increases i n work output and the effectiveness of the application of the overload p r i n c i p l e . An extension of the t r a i n i n g period to cover a longer period than s i x weeks would give more insight into the effects of various work loads and t r a i n i n g procedures upon work output. The s i x week tr a i n i n g period may be too short a period to r e f l e c t the superiority of one p a r t i c u l a r type of t r a i n i n g over another. I t i s suggested that further study of t r a i n i n g methods should be carried out over a longer period than s i x weeks. Future investigation could include studies where subjects trained at an unaltered t r a i n i n g dose f o r the duration of the experiment and studies where the overload p r i n c i p l e was applied when an improvement i n work output became evident from the results of testing at regular i n t e r v a l s . The nature of the program adhered to by each group i n t h i s present study l i m i t s the interpretation of the r e s u l t s . However, within the l i m i t s of t h i s study i t would appear that so long as the work load i n t r a i n i n g i s kept constant for both groups any difference between the means of the performance tests of the "steady" and " i n t e r v a l " groups at the end of two, four and s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g could have occured only by chance. Both methods of t r a i n i n g were effec t i v e i n producing improvement, over the i n i t i a l performance scores, after four and s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g . No performance increase occured as a r e s u l t of the l a s t two weeks of t r a i n i n g i n either the "steady" or the " i n t e r v a l " group. I f a generalization could be drawn from t h i s study pertaining to i n t e r v a l and steady paced t r a i n i n g methods used i n conditioning f o r middle distance 27 type track events, i t would be that, provided work loads remain the same for both methods, no one method would be superior. Further investigation i s required to determine the importance of the amount of work done during t r a i n i n g compared to the increase i n tested work output. 28 REFERENCES 1. S i n i s a l o , U.V. and Juurtola, T., "Comparative Study of Physiological Effects of Two Ski-Training Methods", Research Quarterly. 28:3, 1957, pp. 288-294. 2. Henry, F.M.> Physiology of Work. Associated Students 1 Stores," University of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a , 1950, p. 15. 3. Mellerowicz, H., Meller, W. and Muller, J . , "Vergleichende Utersuchungen uber Leistungssteigerung durch I n t e r v a l l t r a i n i n g and Dauertraining bei gleicher Trainingsarbeit": (Comparative study of the effect of intermittent versus continuous t r a i n i n g programs with equal t o t a l work) International Ze'itschrift fur angewandte Physiologie  e i n s c h l i e s s l i c k . Arbeitsphysiologie. 18, 1961, pp. 376-385. CHAPTER VII SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Thirty-four male University of B r i t i s h Columbia f i r s t year students between the ages of nineteen and twenty-one, were selected from the required physical education a c t i v i t y program. Each student was tested on a f i x e d resistance type bicycle ergometer. The number of revolutions achieved i n two minutes was recorded. Two groups were then formed by the "paired comparison" method and trained f o r s i x weeks. Both groups did the same amount of work i n each t r a i n i n g session but each group varied i t s method of work application, i . e . one group trained at a steady e f f o r t while the other group trained at a higher power but with regulated rest periods between bursts of power, Each group was subjected to a two minute test at the intervals of two, four and s i x weeks, after the commencement of t r a i n i n g . On the basis of s t a t i s t i c a l treatment, the following r e s u l t s were evident: 1. There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t improvement of work output scores for either group after two weeks of t r a i n i n g . 2. After four weeks of t r a i n i n g , both groups exhibited marked improvement i n work output scores which were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. 3. Tests after s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g indicated s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i -cant improvements i n performance scores i n both groups. These scores were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. 4. Both types of t r a i n i n g , when compared, showed l i t t l e difference i n the r e s u l t s obtained at the end of two, four and s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g . 30 There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the means of each group at the end of two, four and s i x weeks of regulated t r a i n i n g . On the basis of these r e s u l t s , i t seems evident that within the l i m i t a t i o n s of the study, there i s no difference i n work output obtained from the results of either "steady" or " i n t e r v a l " types of t r a i n i n g provided the t o t a l work done by the members of either group i s the same. (In bothn groups, however, a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t gain i n work output was evident a f t e r four and s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g ) . BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS American Association f o r Health, Physical Education and Recreation, Research Methods Applied to Health. Physical Education and  Recreation. Washington. D.G., Department of National Education Association, 1959. Bresnahan, G.T. and Tu t t l e , W.W., Track and F i e l d A t h l e t i c s . 2nd E d i t i o n , C.V. Mosby Co., S t . Louis, 194-7. Cerutty, P., Running with Cerutty. Track and F i e l d News of Los Altos, C a l i f o r n i a , 1959. Comroe, H.R., J r . , Methods i n Medical Research. 12, The Year Book Publishers, Inc., Chicago, 1953. Cureton, T1K., Physical Fitness of Champion Athletes. The University of I l l i n o i s Press, Urbana, 1951. Doherty, J.K., Modern Track and F i e l d . Prentice-Hall, New York, 1957. Garrett, H.E., S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education. Longman, Green and Co., New York, 1958. Henry, F.M., Physiology of Work. Associated Students' Stores, University of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley 4., C a l i f o r n i a , January 1950. Karpovich, P.V., Physiology of Muscular A c t i v i t y . W.B. Saunders and Co., Philadelphia, 1956. Riedman, S.R., The Physiology of Work and Play. The Dryden Press, New York, 1952. Stampfl, F., Franz Stampfl on Running. Herbert Jenkins, London, August 1955. Underwood, B.J., Experimental Psychology. Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., New York, 194-9. Woodworth, R.S. and Schlosberg, H., Experimental Psychology. Henry Holt and Co., New York, 1956. 32 PERIODICALS Bowerman, B., "Training f o r the 1500 Metre (or Mile) Race", International  Track and F i e l d Digest. 1956, pp. 31-85. Cogswell, R.C., Henderson, G.R. and Berryman, C.H., "Some Observations of the Effects of Training on Pulse Rate, Blood Pressure and Endurance i n Humans, Using the Step Test (Harvard), Treadmill and Electro-dynamic Brakes Bicycle Ergometer", American Journal of Physiology. 14-6, 1946, pp. 422-430. Cureton, T.K., "Improvements i n Cardiovascular Condition of Humans Associated with Physical Training, Persistently Performed Sports and Exercises", College Physical Education Association, 60th Annual  Proceedings. Columbus, Ohio, 1957, pp. 82-104. D i l l , D.B., Edwards, H.T. and Talbot, T., "Studies i n Muscular A c t i v i t y VII.' Factors Limiting the Capacity for Work", Journal of Physiology. 77:1, 1932, pp. 49-62. Dobeln, W.V., "A Simple Bicycle Ergometer", Journal of Applied Physiology. 7:2, 1954, pp. 222-224. Gallagher, M. and Brouha, L., "Physical Fitness, I t s Evaluation and Significance", Journal of the American Medical Association. 125:12, 1944, pp. 834-838. Gemmill, G., Booth, W. and Detrick, J . and Schiebel, H., "Muscular Training", American Journal of Physiology. 9 6 , 1931, pp. 265-277. Gemmill, G., Booth, W. and Pocock, A., "The Physiological E f f e c t of Daily Repetition of the Same Amount of Light Muscular Work". American Journal  of Physiology. 92, 1930, pp. 253-270. Henry, F.M., "Aerobic Oxygen Consumption and A l a c t i c Debp i n Muscular Work", Journal of Applied Physiology. 3, 1951, pp. 427-438. Henry, F.M. and Berg, E.W., "Physiological and Performance Changes i n Ath l e t i c Conditioning", Journal of Applied Physiology. 3, 1950, pp. 103-111. Henry, F.M. and DeMoor, J . , "Metabolic E f f i c i e n c y of Exercise i n Relation to Work'Load at Constant Speed", Journal of Applied Physiology. 2, 1950, pp. 481-489. Holmer, G., "Long Distance Running", International Track and F i e l d Digest. 1956, pp. 86-92. Karpovich, P.V., "A F r i c t i o n a l B i c y c l e Ergometer", Research Quarterly. 21:3, 1950, pp. 210-215. 33 Karpovich, P.V., "Fatigue and Endurance", Physical Fitness Supplement  Research Quarterly. 12:2, 194-1, pp. 4-23-4-31. Larsen, L.A., "Cardiovascular-Respiratory Function i n Relation to Physical Fitness", Physical Fitness Supplement to the Research Quarterly. 12:2, 1941, pp. 456-468. Mellorowicz, H., MeHer, W. and Muller, J . , "Vergleichende Utersuchurigen uber Leistungssteigerung durch I n t e r v a l l t r a i n i n g uhd Dauertrainihg bei gleicher Trainingsarbeit": (Comparative study of the effect of intermittent versus continuous t r a i n i n g programs with equal t o t a l work) Internationale Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r angewandte Physiologie  e i n s c h l i e s s l i c h . Arbeitsphysiologie. 18, 1961, pp. 376-385. S i n i s a l o , U.V. and Juurtola, T., "Comparative Study of Physiological Effects of Two S k i - t r a i n i n g Methods", Research Quarterly. 28:3, 1957, pp. 288-294. Taylor, G., "Studies i n Exercise Physiology", American Journal of  Physiology. 135, 1941, pp. 27-42. Taylor, G., "Some Properties;of Maximum and Submaxlmal Exercise with Reference to Physiological Variation and the Measurement of Exercise Tolerance", American Journal of Physiology. 142, 1944, pp. 200-212. APPENDIX 34 APPENDIX A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Two groups were required, one for each method of t r a i n i n g . Steady t r a i n i n g group: Group A N=12 2 groups Interval t r a i n i n g group: Group B N = 12 One test was administered upon a bicycle ergometer. This test was administered f i v e times to each subject. Procedure 1. Test 1 was administered to a group of subjects. 2. The subjects were ranked and placed into two groups, i . e . they were equated upon the performance i n test 1. 3. Test 2 was administered to Group A and Group B one week after test 1. 4. The r e l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t between test 1 and test 2 was then calculated. 5. Test 3 was administered. 6. Test 4 was administered. 7. Test 5 was administered. General S t a t i s t i c a l Outline The following calculations were made: 1. The correla t i o n of r e l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t between test 1 and te s t 2 for groups A and B. 2. ' The significance of differences i n performance of Group A;iand Group B on tests 2, 3, 4, 5. 3. The significance of difference i n performance of Group A on tests 2, 3, 4-, 5« 35 4. The significance of difference i n performance of Group B on tests 2, 3, 4, 5. Procedure and Formulae 1. The correla t i o n of the r e l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t between test 1 and test 2, f o r group A and group B combined, was calculated. Tabulation of the Data The correlation between test.,1 and te s t 2 was calculated by means of the Pearson Product-Moment Formulae r = 2 N <=T^; where N= the t o t a l number of subjects f> standard deviation of the mean of test 1 cTi standard deviation of the mean of te s t 2 sum of the products of the deviations from the two means r,A c o - e f f i c i e n t of correla t i o n 2. The significance of the difference i n mean performance of group A between tests 2 and 3, test 3 and 4> tests 4 and 5, tests 2 and 4-, tests 2 and 5 was calculated by the method of obtaining the difference between two correlated means outlined i n Garrett(1, p. 227). This difference was accepted at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. 36 INDIVIDUAL SCORE CARDS Name .... • Age Phone No Weight Training Group: Interval Height Steady Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test L, Test 5 RAW SCORES OF TESTS ONE TO FIVE STEADY GROUP INTERVAL GROUP Subject Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Test 5 Subject Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4- Test 5 1 183 192 162 206 233 13 216 191 197 238 233 2 230 220 227 225 240 14 217 224 201 251 252 3 204. 216 191 187 203 15 . 205 216 209 213 230 4 246 209 235 260 266 16 192 210 195 225 230 5 186 210 223 242 237 17 214- 211 187 235 212 6 189 201 182 225 233 18 213 197 202 237 226 7 224 230 188 240 227 19 215 231 217 246 252 8 184 182 190 223 226 20 160 182 192 210 215 9 183 187 196 210 2L4 21 206 188 174 219 236 10 172 177 196 202 210 22 178 175 200 220 233 11 160 190 170 218 232 23 207 193 196 237 233 12 201 185 220 228 233 24 186 183 189 200 209 38 SPECIFICATIONS OF THE BICYCLE ERGOMETER s? The bicycle ergometer used i n t h i s study was a f r i c t i o n a l type ergometer manufactured by J.A. Preston Corporation, 175 5th Ave., New York, N.Y. I t was chain driven, with a s o l i d i r o n f l y wheel, thirteen inches i n diameter and one and a half inches deep. Force was applied to the flywheel by adjusting a calibrated "Eekure" spring balance, which was attached to a f r i c t i o n band of chrome leather. Tension upon the leather band increased the force applied to the flywheel. Unfortunately, with t h i s type of ergometer no accurately determined work load can be made. A mechanical revolution counter was f i x e d upon the frame to record each revolution of the drive wheel. These revolutions were used as an index of the work done by the subjects. The force applied to the flywheel remained constant during the experiment. 

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