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Variations in the effects of two training methods upon work output Moncrieff, John 1963

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VARIATIONS IN THE EFFECTS OF TWO TRAINING METHODS UPON WORK OUTPUT  by  JOHN MONCRIEFF B.P.E. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I960.  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the School of PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1963  In presenting  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. f o r extensive  I f u r t h e r agree that permission  copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s  be  representatives.  I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission.  Department of  P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date  A p r i l ,1963  ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was to determine the e f f e c t of "steady pace" and " i n t e r v a l " t r a i n i n g methods upon work output. T h i r t y - f o u r male U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f i r s t year students between the ages of nineteen and twenty-one, were selected from the required p h y s i c a l education a c t i v i t y program. a f i x e d r e s i s t a n c e type b i c y c l e ergometer.  Each student was tested on  The number of r e v o l u t i o n s  achieved i n two minutes was recorded. Two groups were then formed by the "paired comparison" method and t r a i n e d f o r s i x weeks. Both groups d i d the same amount of work i n each t r a i n i n g session but each group v a r i e d i t s method of work a p p l i c a t i o n , i . e . one group t r a i n e d a t a steady e f f o r t while the  other group t r a i n e d a t a higher power, with regulated r e s t periods  between bursts of power. the  Each group was subjected to a two minute t e s t at  i n t e r v a l s of two, four and s i x weeks a f t e r the commencement of t r a i n i n g . On the b a s i s of s t a t i s t i c a l treatment, the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s were  evident: 1. There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t improvement of work output scores f o r e i t h e r group a f t e r two weeks of t r a i n i n g . 2. A f t e r four weeks of t r a i n i n g , both groups e x h i b i t e d marked improvement i n work output scores which were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the  f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. 3. Tests a f t e r s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g i n d i c a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significanttimprovements i n performance scores i n both groups.  These  scores were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. 4. Both types of t r a i n i n g , when compared, showed no d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e s u l t s obtained a t the end of two, four and s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g .  There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the means of each group a t the end of two, four and s i x weeks of regulated t r a i n i n g . I t was concluded that w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s of the study, there was no d i f f e r e n c e i n work output obtained from the r e s u l t s of e i t h e r "steady" or " i n t e r v a l " types of t r a i n i n g provided the t o t a l work done by the members of e i t h e r group was the same.  I n both groups, however, a s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t gain i n work output was evident a f t e r four and s i x weeks of training.  TAB LE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I II  PAGE STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  .  1  JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM  2  III  REVIEW OF LITERATURE.  5  IV  METHODS AND PROCEDURE  11  RESULTS  15  DISCUSSION..  23  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  29  V VI VII  BIBLIOGRAPHY...  31  APPENDICES A. STATISTICAL TREATMENT  34.  B. INDIVIDUAL SCORE SHEET  36  C. RAW SCORES FOR WORK OUTPUT  37  D. SPECIFICATIONS OF THE BICYCLE ERGOMETER  38  LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1. Comparison of the Performance Scores of the "Steady" T r a i n i n g Group Between Tests 2 and 3, Test 3 and 4, Tests 4 and 5, Tests 2 and 4, and Tests 2 and 5  IS  TABLE 2. Comparison of the Performance Scores of the " I n t e r v a l " T r a i n i n g Group Between Tests 2 and 3, Tests 3 and 4, Tests 4- and 5, Tests 2 and 4,and Tests 2 and 5 21 TABLE 3. Comparison of the S i g n i f i c a n c e of Performance Between the "Steady" and the " I n t e r v a l " T r a i n i n g Group on Tests 2, Tests 3, Tests 4 and Tests 5 23 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1. T r a i n i n g Schedule  12  CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  There have been v a r y i n g r e p o r t s during recent years, upon the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of "constant speed" t r a i n i n g and " i n t e r v a l " t r a i n i n g upon a t h l e t e s .  This has been e s p e c i a l l y so i n t r a i n i n g f o r middle  distance events i n t r a c k .  Champions have r e s u l t e d from both methods.  "Constant speed" t r a i n i n g i s defined h e r e i n as work a t a constant pace over a s e t period of time.  " I n t e r v a l " t r a i n i n g i s defined h e r e i n as  a number of equal work e f f o r t s of shorter d u r a t i o n than the "Constant speed" type, done a t a f a s t e r pace. This study i s aimed a t determining the e f f e c t upon work output of (a) "constant speed" and (b) " i n t e r v a l " t r a i n i n g methods, upon human subjects.  Work output i s determined by the amount of work the subject  can do, over a timed r i d e upon a b i c y c l e - t y p e ergometer.  The  measurement of work output i s c a r r i e d out before and a f t e r a s i x week t r a i n i n g period.  CHAPTER I I JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM  Modern t r a i n i n g methods f o r middle distance running are almost as v a r i e d as the number of competitors. Many statements have been made claiming that " i n t e r v a l " t r a i n i n g methods of under distance, with f a s t e r than race pace are superior t o "constant speed" t r a i n i n g .  Boherty ( l ) ,  Holmer (2) and Stampfl (3), a l l renowned middle distance coaches, recommend i n t e r v a l methods. Bresnahan and T u t t l e (U) o u t l i n e a method using constant speed and over d i s t a n c e .  Bowerman (5) claims endurance  i s acquired through the " f a r t l e k " type of a c t i v i t i e s .  He says (6, p. 81):  "Our f a r t l e k a c t i v i t y includes s t r i d i n g a t an easy pace u n t i l some f a t i g u e begins t o s e t i n . "  Cerutty ( 7 ) , t o some extent a l s o agrees with  the a p p l i c a t i o n of steady over distance t r a i n i n g methods t o improve endurance. Cureton (8) o u t l i n e s t h a t the best gains i n eardio-vascular improvement have been achieved by repeated two hundred and twenty yard, four hundred and f o r t y yard "run throughs", cross-country and steady pace over distance running. He does not o u t l i n e which i s the b e t t e r system. Very few studies have been published where c o n t r o l l e d groups are used to determine the e f f e c t s of i n t e r v a l and steady paced t r a i n i n g upon work capacity.  S i n i s a l o and J u u r t o l a (9) i n F i n l a n d , compared the p h y s i o l o g i c a l  e f f e c t s of two s k i t r a i n i n g methods. Here they used "constant speed" and "interval" training.  They found the " i n t e r v a l " t r a i n i n g improved the  a b i l i t y to cover the l a s t stage of the race a t an improved pace.  3  In t h i s study an attempt has been made t o determine the d i f f e r e n c e s i n work output of two groups of male students during a t r a i n i n g period of s i x weeks.  One group trained by the " i n t e r v a l "  method of t r a i n i n g ; the other group d i d "constant speed" t r a i n i n g . The work load f o r each t r a i n i n g session was the same f o r each group. The same b i c y c l e ergometer, s e t a t a f i x e d resistance was used by both groups f o r a l l t r a i n i n g and t e s t i n g r i d e s .  REFERENCES 1. Doherty, J.K., Modern Track and F i e l d . P r e n t i c e - H a l l , New York, 1957i 2. Holmer, G., "Long Distance Running", International- Track and F i e l d Digest, "Champions on F i l m " , Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1956, pp. 8138.5. 3. Stampfl, F., "Franz Stampfl on Running, Herbert Jenkins, London, 1955• 4. Bresnahan, G.T., and T u t t l e , W.W., Track and F i e l d A t h l e t i c s . 2nd E d i t i o n , C.V. Mosby Co., S t . Louis, 194-7. 5. Bowerman, B., "Training f o r the 1500 Meter (or M i l e ) Race", I n t e r National Track and F i e l d Digest, "Champions on F i l m " , Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1956, pp. 81-85. 6.  Loc. c i t .  7. Cerutty, P.. Running With Cerutty. Track and F i e l d News of Los A l t o s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1959. 8. Cureton, T.K., "Improvements i n Cardiovascular Condition of Humans Associated with P h y s i c a l T r a i n i n g , P e r s i s t e n t l y Performed Sports and E x e r c i s e s " , College P h y s i c a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n . 60th Annual Proceedings, Columbus Ohio, 1957, pp. 82-104.. 9. S i n i s a l o , U.V. and J u u r t o l a , T., "Comparative Study of P h y s i o l o g i c a l E f f e c t s of Two Skir-Training Methods", Research Quarterly , 28:3, 1957, pp. 238-294.  CHAPTER I I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  The review of the l i t e r a t u r e i s d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s .  One  s e c t i o n reviews the studies r e l a t e d to the use of the b i c y c l e ergometer.  The other part reviews the studies r e l a t e d to the methods  used i n the determination  of the e f f e c t s of t r a i n i n g upon work output.  (I) Studies r e l a t e d t o the apparatus used i n t h i s study: v i z . , the b i c y c l e ergometer. The f r i c t i o n type resistance b i c y c l e ergometer used i n t h i s study i s of the type manufactured by J.A. Preston Corporation. i t may be obtained i n Appendix D.  Reference t o  The f u n c t i o n a l workings of a b i c y c l e  ergometer and i t s construction are described by Dobeln ( l ) and Ka^povich (2).  Henry (3£ used an ergometer set a t 69 r e v o l u t i o n s per minute with a  620 kg.m./min. load and a 95 kg.m./min. load a t 116 r e v o l u t i o n s per minute to study i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n oxygen metabolism of work a t two speeds of movement. The subjects i n Henry's study pedalled a t standardized r e v o l u t i o n s per minute with a f i x e d load f o r f i v e minutes. (4),  Cogswell et a l  i n observing the e f f e c t s of t r a i n i n g upon pulse r a t e , blood  pressure  and endurance of humans, used a step t e s t (Harvard), t r e a d m i l l and an electro-dynamic  brake b i c y c l e ergometer.  Cogswell's subjects pedalled f o r  s i x t y seconds a t a maximum l o a d . Henry and Demoor ( 5 ) , i n determining  the metabolic e f f i c i e n c y of  exercise i n r e l a t i o n to work load a t constant speed, used the b i c y c l e ergometer and the closed c i r c u i t r e s p i r a t o r y apparatus.  Gemmill et a l (6)  i n studies upon muscular t r a i n i n g , used a b i c y c l e ergometer as a method of t r a i n i n g under c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s .  The b i c y c l e ergometer was selected  6  as the instrument f o r t e s t i n g work output and f o r c o n t r o l l e d t r a i n i n g . ( I I ) Studies r e l a t e d t o the methods used i n determining the e f f e c t s of t r a i n i n g upon work output. Many studies have reported the effects' of t r a i n i n g , but few have compared the e f f e c t s of two s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g methods. Most studies have been i n t e r e s t e d i n the p h y s i o l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n s due to t r a i n i n g rather than the d i r e c t r e s u l t of improvement i n work output.  Such t e s t s have  been c a r r i e d out by Cogswell et a l (9) i n determining the e f f e c t s of a t r a i n i n g period upon pulse r a t e , and blood pressure.  In determining the  p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s of d a i l y r e p e t i t i o n of the same amount of l i g h t muscular work, Gemmill (9) had subjects r i d e a b i c y c l e ergometer f o r h a l f an hour each day.  P h y s i o l o g i c a l data were obtained and recorded.  The  f o l l o w i n g changes were observed: an increase i n the e f f i c i e n c y of the r e s p i r a t o r y and cardio mechanisms, a f a s t e r r e t u r n to normal pulse rate a f t e r e x e r c i s e , a decrease i n t o t a l v e n t i l a t i o n , and no change i n basal metabolism.  Gemmill (10) again using two groups - seven track men  and  seven non-athletes - found t r a i n i n g outdoors d i f f i c u l t to c o n t r o l and used a b i c y c l e ergometer.  Here again p h y s i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s were determined and  i t was found there was no change i n gross or net r e s p i r a t o r y quotient.  The  greater change being t o t a l v e n t i l a t i o n increase. Cureton (11) claims that two hundred and twenty yard and four hundred and f o r t y yard i n t e r v a l t r a i n i n g i n track and long distance running are  the  best methods to improve endurance, but he does not i n d i c a t e which method i s superior. S i n i s a l o and J u u r t o l a (12), i n F i n l a n d , i n 1956,  attempted to compare  the p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s of two s k i - t r a i n i n g methods.  Twenty subjects  7 were given ten p h y s i c a l t e s t s at the beginning and at the end of an eight week s k i - t r a i n i n g period.  Using the t - t e s t , s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  d i f f e r e n c e s between the f i r s t t e s t and the second t e s t i n the t o t a l group of subjects were found i n the f o l l o w i n g t e s t s : breath h o l d i n g , pulse rate on a b i c y c l e ergometer, recovery pulse, f l o o r push ups, f u l l squat jumps, a g i l i t y e x e r c i s e s , time of the s k i i n g race, and the time of the l a s t kilometers i n the s k i i n g race.  Statistically  two  significant differences  between the mean gains were found i n breath holding and "spurt a b i l i t y " i n favour of the i n t e r v a l t r a i n i n g group, and i n f l o o r push-ups i n favour of the constant speed t r a i n i n g group. In order to e s t a b l i s h a s u i t a b l e t e s t f o r the work capacity i t was f i r s t noted that Riedman (13) gives the formula f o r work upon a b i c y c l e ergometer as the weight of the resistance times the distance of r o t a t i o n . Karpovich  (14)  states that endurance can be expressed i n terms of  many times one movement can be repeated.  how  Gallagher and Brouha (14) claim:  To t e s t dynamic f i t n e s s , which we define as the capacity to perform strenuous exercise and recover from i t , the t e s t i t s e l f must be strenuous. Whether a treadm i l l , ah ergometer b i c y c l e or the more simple s t e p - t e s t i s used i s not important as long as an exercise r e q u i r i n g no p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l , u t i l i z i n g the' large muscle groups ami gives the heart and lungs so much work to do that a "steady s t a t e " cannot be maintained. Taylor et a l (16) claim i n a study of exercise tolerance t h a t : the only defensible "a p r i o r i " c r i t e r i o n of f i t n e s s of a man f o r heavy p h y s i c a l exercise i s the amount of work the man can  do.  In considering the psychological considerations of e x e r t i n g maximum work capacity, Henry and Berg (17) assumed: Factors such as i n d i v i d u a l willirigmess to exert maximally and s p e c i a l aptitudes f o r  8 the muscular a c t i v i t y of the t e s t tend to cancel out i n a comparison of performance before and a f t e r c o n d i t i o n i n g , thus making i t possible to demonstrate some improvement i n p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s by t h i s technique even though there may be only a small r e l a t i o n s h i p between f i t n e s s and a c t u a l performance scores. Larson (19) reviews cardiovascular r e s p i r a t o r y f u n c t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to " p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s " .  Here he quotes Schneider (20):  ...the equipment that enables a man to combat adverse influence i s p a r t l y inborn and p a r t l y acquired. He c l a s s i f i e s t h i s equipment i n t o three categories: the morphologic, the p h y s i o l o g i c and psychologic. The morphologic c o n s i s t s of the p h y s i c a l form and s t r u c t u r e determined largely"by heredity and a l s o by use. The physiologic are organs which by graded and frequent use y i e l d capacity f o r adjustment i n a c t i v i t y . The psychologic i s the mind, the master of the body machine, which acquires greater capacity and adjustment with graded and proper use. The " f i t n e s s " of an i n d i v i d u a l i s determined by a l l three, of which the cardiovascular t e s t s only p a r t i a l l y measure one - the physiologic and r e f l e c t the psychologic.  9 REFERENCES 1. Dobeln, W.V., "A Simple B i c y c l e Ergometer", Journal of Applied Physiolggy, 7:2, 1954, pp. 222-224. 2. Karpovich, P.V., "A F r i c t i o n a l B i c y c l e Ergometer", Research Quarterly. 21:3, 1950, pp. 210-215. 3 . Henry, F.M., "Aerobic Oxygen Consumption'and A l a c t i c Debt i n Muscular Work. J o u r n a l of Applied Physiology. 3, 1951, pp. 427-438. 4. Cogswell, R.C., Henderson, C.R. and Berryman, G^H., "Some Observations of the e f f e c t s of T r a i n i n g on Pulse Rate, Blood Pressure and Endurance i n Humana, Using the Step Test (Harvard), T r e a d m i l l and ElectrodynamieB rake " B i c y c l e Ergometer", American J o u r n a l of Physiology. 146, 1946, pp. 422-430. 5. Henry, F.M. and DeMoor, J . , "Metabolic E f f i c i e n c y of Exercise i n R e l a t i o n t o Work Load a t Constant Speed", J o u r n a l of Applied Physiology. 2, 1950, pp. 481-489. 6. Gemmill, G., Booth, W. and Pocock, A., "The P h y s i o l o g i c a l E f f e c t of D a i l y R e p e t i t i o n of the Same Amount of L i g h t Muscular Work", American J o u r n a l of Physiology. 92, 1930, pp. 253-270. 7. Gemmill, G., Booth, W., D e t r i c k , J . and S c h i e b e l , H., "Muscular T r a i n i n g " , American J o u r n a l of Physiology. 96, 1931, pp. 265-277. 8. Cogswell, R.G., e t a l , Loc. c i t . 9. Gemmill, G., Booth, W. and Pocock,  Loc. c i t .  10. Gemmill, G., Booth, W., D e t r i c k , J . and S c h i e b e l , H., Loc. c i t . 11. Cureton, T.K., "Improvements i n Cardiovascular Condition of Humans Associated with P h y s i c a l T r a i n i n g , P e r s i s t e n t l y Performed Sports and E x e r c i s e s " , College P h y s i c a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n , 60th Annual Proceedings. Columbus, Ohio, 1957, pp. 32-104. 12. S i n i s a l o , U.V. and J u u r t o l a , T., "Comparative Study of P h y s i o l o g i c a l E f f e c t s of Two S k i - T r a i n i n g Methods", Research Quarterly, 28:3, 1957, pp. 288-294. 13. Ri^dman, S.R., The Physiology of Work and Play. The Dryden Press, New York, 1952. 14. Karpovich, P.V., "Fatigue and Endurance", P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s . Supplement t o Research Q u a r t e r l y . 12:2, 1941, pp. 423-431.  10 15. Gallagher, M. and Brouha, L., " P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s , I t s E v a l u a t i o n and S i g n i f i c a n c e " , Journal of the American Medical A s s o c i a t i o n . 125:12, 1944, PP. 834-838. 16. T a y l o r , G., "Some Properties of Maximal and Submaximal Exercise with Reference to P h y s i o l o g i c a l V a r i a t i o n , and the Measurement of Exercise Tolerance", American Journal of Physiology. 140, 1914, pp. 200-212. 17. Henry, F.M. and Berg, E.W., " P h y s i o l o g i c a l and Performance'Changes i n A t h l e t i c Conditioning", Journal of Applied Physiology. 3, 1950, pp. 103-111. 18. D i l l , D.B., Edwards, H.T. and Talbot, T., "Studies i n Muscular A c t i v i t y V I I . Factors L i m i t i n g the Capacity f o r Work", Journal of Physiology, 77:1, 1932, pp. 49-62. 19. Larson, L.A., "Cardiovascular-Respiratory Function'in R e l a t i o n t o P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s " , P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Supplement t o the Research Quarterly, 12:2, 1941, pp. 456-468. 20. Larson, L.A., Loc. c i t .  CHAPTER IV METHODS AND  PROCEDURE  Determination of Work Output T h i r t y - f o u r males between the ages of nineteen and twenty-one were selected on a voluntary b a s i s from the required P h y s i c a l Education Program at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Persons who r e g u l a r l y  rode a b i c y c l e were not selected to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study.  The  subjects were tested to determine the maximum work they could do upon a f r i c t i o n a l type b i c y c l e ergometer.  An index of the amount of work done  was recorded by the number of pedal r e v o l u t i o n s achieved i n a set time period with the r e s i s t a n c e held  constant.  The b i c y c l e ergometer was of the f r i c t i o n a l type manufactured by J.A. Preston Corporation and was f i t t e d with a r e v o l u t i o n counter and a v a r i a b l e r e s i s t a n c e meter. As suggested by Henry (1) each subject was allowed a p r a c t i c e session upon the b i c y c l e ergometer to enable him to become s k i l l f u l l upon t h i s machinery.  I t i s Henry's opinion (2, p. 15) that p r a c t i c e i s required  because: "There i s some element of acquired s k i l l i n doing the work efficiently." on  The p r a c t i c e sessions were l i m i t e d to a f i v e minute period  Monday, Wednesday and F r i d a y during the week preceding the t e s t i n g f o r  r e l i a b i l i t y of the subjects to perform the t e s t items. The b i c y c l e ergometer was set at a f i x e d resistance of fourteen kilograms f o r a l l t r i a l s .  This f i g u r e was chosen because i t was near the  r e s i s t a n c e chosen by Henry and DeMoor (3) f o r "maximal" work.  The  subjects  were t e s t e d upon the number of completed pedal r e v o l u t i o n s they could achieve p e d a l l i n g against the set r e s i s t a n c e f o r two minutes.  12 Grouping A f t e r the i n i t i a l t e s t , the subjects were ranked i n the order of t h e i r performance and two groups selected by the "paired comparison" method as o u t l i n e d by Garrett ( 4 , p. 228). The r e l i a b i l i t y of subjects to perform the t e s t item was determined by the t e s t - r e t e s t method. GROUP A  GROUP B* Test 1 (to equate) Test 2 ( r e l i a b i l i t y )  1st Two Weeks S i x minutes p e d a l l i n g a t 60 rev/mih. constant speed a t f i x e d r e s i s t a n c e . T o t a l r e v s . 360.  1st Two Weeks P e d a l l i n g f o r a minute a t 60 rev/min. f o r s i x i n t e r v a l s . T o t a l revs. 360.  Test 3 2nd Two Weeks S i x minutes 36 sees, p e d a l l i n g a t 60 rev/min. constant speed a t f i x e d r e s i s t a n c e . T o t a l revs. 396.  2nd Two Weeks" 66 rev/mih. f o r 6 i n t e r v a l s a t h a l f minute d u r a t i o n . T o t a l r e v . 396.  Test 4 3rd Two Weeks Seven minutes 12 seconds p e d a l l i n g at 60 rev/min. constant speed a t f i x e d r e s i s t a n c e . T o t a l revs. 432.  ' 3rd Two Weeks 72 rev/mih. f o r 6 i n t e r v a l s a t h a l f minute duration. T o t a l r e v s . 432.  Test 5 *. The " i n t e r v a l " t r a i n i n g group rested f o r one minute between each e f f o r t . Figure 1. TRAINING SCHEDULE T r a i n i n g and Testing One group used "constant speed" t r a i n i n g and was c a l l e d Group A. The other group used the " i n t e r v a l " t r a i n i n g and was c a l l e d Group B.  Each  group t r a i n e d t o a set pattern as o u t l i n e d i n Figure 1. The " i n t e r v a l " t r a i n i n g group r e s t e d f o r one minute between each effort.  T r a i n i n g was t r i - w e e k l y f o r s i x weeks.  T r a i n i n g took place on  Mondays Wednesday and F r i d a y of each week. During t r a i n i n g , the subjects  13 regulated t h e i r pace by synchronizing the sound produced by a mechanical counter mounted on the b i c y c l e - t y p e ergometer, with the c l i c k of a metronome s e t a t the required pattern.  Work ceased when the t o t a l  r e v o l u t i o n s required a t the stage of t r a i n i n g was completed. The subjects were retested f o r work output a t the end of each two week period and the e f f e c t s of t r a i n i n g upon work output recorded. was c a r r i e d out on each a l t e r n a t e F r i d a y . t e s t days. sessions.  This  T r a i n i n g was f o r f e i t e d on the  Thus, t e s t i n g was c a r r i e d out a f t e r every f i v e t r a i n i n g Any subject missing a regular session was disregarded  with h i s paired counterpart i n the other t r a i n i n g group.  along  The subjects  were not informed of t h e i r t e s t score.  A t the end of s i x weeks t r a i n i n g ,  twelve of the o r i g i n a l p a i r s remained.  These were used as the t e s t  subjects i n t h i s study. A l l t r a i n i n g and t e s t i n g were completed under the s u p e r v i s i o n of the same i n s t r u c t o r . I n d i v i d u a l t e s t s were conducted a t the same time on each day. The f o l l o w i n g v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n was given:  "You are  required t o give your best performance i n p e d a l l i n g f o r two minutes. You w i l l be t o l d when i n t e r v a l s of t h i r t y seconds, s i x t y seconds and ninety seconds occur.  S t a r t on - goi F i n i s h on - stop!"  The scoring f o r each i n d i v i d u a l subject was kept on separate cards ( c . f . Appendix B. p.3)• These cards were f i l l e d out f o r necessary p a r t i c u l a r s by the i n s t r u c t o r and f i l e d u n t i l required. Testing and t r a i n i n g were administered  indoors, on the same b i c y c l e  type ergometer, between e a r l y October and l a t e November, I960.  14 REFERENCES 1. Henry, F.M., Physiology of Work. Associated Students "Stores. U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a , January 1950. 1  2. Loc. c i t . 3 . Henry, F.M. and DeMoor, J . , "Metabolic E f f i c i e n c y of E x e r c i s e i n R e l a t i o n to Work Load a t a Constant SpeedW, Journal of Applied Physiology. 2, 1950, pp. 481-489. 4. G a r r e t t , H.E., S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education. and Green, New York, 1958.  Longmans  CHAPTER V RESULTS R e l i a b i l i t y of Group Scores on the Test Item The two, who  group r e l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t computed between t r i a l s one  and  on the same t e s t item, using the r e s u l t s of the twenty-four subjects completed the t r a i n i n g program was  r e l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t indicated difference  found to be 0.72-0.10.  a moderate amount of i n d i v i d u a l  i n the a b i l i t y of the subjects to reproduce r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s ,  using the two minute work output t e s t upon the f r i c t i o n a l - t y p e ergometer.  This  A r e l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t of 0.72  bicycle  suggested approximately  f i f t y - t w o percent variance i n common f o r i n d i v i d u a l s on both t e s t s . d i f f i c u l t y of obtaining a "high" r e l i a b i l i t y on the t e s t item was due  The  probably  to the i n a b i l i t y of untrained subjects to pace themselves upon the  two minute t e s t .  Investigation  of the h a l f minute breakdown of t e s t  r e t e s t scores indicated d i f f e r e n c e s i n the methods of attempting the item.  test  For example, some subjects were b e t t e r able to pace themselves on  both t e s t s , while others seemed unable to judge the pace. Due l i k e l i h o o d of i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n f l u e n c i n g  to  the  the r e l i a b i l i t y of  i n d i v i d u a l s to perform t h i s type of endurance t e s t , a r e l i a b i l i t y of 0.72-0.10 was  considered high enough to meet the purpose of t h i s study.  Data were obtained from t e s t i n g before t r a i n i n g began and thence at two week i n t e r v a l s , u n t i l the completion of s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g . The  data were treated s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n two ways:  (a) Within Groups - The  changes produced i n each group, by the  method used by that group, were tested f o r s t a t i s t i c a l  training  significance  using F i s h e r ' s " t " s t a t i s t i c at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence.  16 The f o l l o w i n g mean scores were compared: t e s t 2 with t e s t s 3 , 4 and 5J t e s t 3 with t e s t 4 ; and t e s t 4 with t e s t 5 . (b) Between Groups - The s u p e r i o r i t y of one t r a i n i n g method over another was tested f o r s t a t i s t i c a l l s i g n i f i c a n c e using Fisher's " t " s t a t i s t i c a t the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence.  Here the mean scores of each group  were compared t e s t by ^test, i . e . t e s t 1 - group A with t e s t 1 group B j t e s t 2 group A with t e s t 2 group B j t e s t 3 group A with t e s t 3 group B; t e s t 4 group A w i t h t e s t 4 group B; t e s t 5 group A with t e s t 5 group B. The Results of the Work Output Tests of Group A - The "Steady" T r a i n i n g Group The d i f f e r e n c e s i n mean performance l e v e l s between t e s t s were shown i n Table I . No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n the mean scores of the group was shown a t the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence, a f t e r two weeks of t r a i n i n g .  Thus, any d i f f e r e n c e occuring between the means was  a t t r i b u t e d t o chance. After four weeks of t r a i n i n g , the mean of the group showed an increase i n work output, s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence.  The mean performance showed an increase of 2 3 . 3  r e v o l u t i o n s above the i n i t i a l work output t e s t . increased score.  One subject's score decreased.  Eleven subjects gave an  TABLE 1 A Comparison of the S i g n i f i c a n c e of Mean Performance Scores of the "Steady" T r a i n i n g Group Between Tests 2 & 3j Tests 3 & 4} Tests 4 & 5 J Tests 2 & 4; and Tests 2 & 5.  F i n a l Test  I n i t i a l Test  Difference Standard E r r o r Between of Difference the Means Between the Means  si  " t " Test of Significance  t  Test I n t e r v a l  Mj-  SDj  Test 2-Test 3  200.0  15.5  198.3  23.1  -1.7  Test 2-Test 4-  200.0  15.5  223.3  19.7  23.3  5.8  4.0  Test 2-Test 5  200.0  15.5  229.0 16.2  29.0'  5.2  5.6  Test 3-Test 4  198.3  23.1  223.3  19.7  25.0  6.4-  3.9  Test 4-T-est 5  223.3  19.7  229.0 16.2  5.7  5.5  1.0 ,  M  2  SD  2  5  . 7.6"  0.2  i  •• •  -  •  •• •  ,  -  i! u  For 11 degrees of freedom a t of 2.20 i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 5 percent l e v e l of confidence.  18 The Results of the Work Output Tests of Group B - The " I n t e r v a l " T r a i n i n g Group The d i f f e r e n c e s i n the mean performance l e v e l s between t e s t s were shown i n Table 2. This group showed no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence, i n mean performance scores as a r e s u l t of the f i r s t two weeks of t r a i n i n g .  This r e s u l t was s i m i l a r t o r e s u l t s  obtained by the "steady" t r a i n i n g group f o r the same period of t r a i n i n g . Any d i f f e r e n c e s i n the mean performance scores could only be a t t r i b u t e d t o chance. The mean scores of work output a t the end of four weeks of t r a i n i n g showed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t improvement a t the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence.  The mean performance was 27.5 r e v o l u t i o n s greater than a t  the onset of t r a i n i n g .  Eleven of the twelve subjects e x h i b i t e d improved  scores. After s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g , t h i s group showed a mean improvement of 29 r e v o l u t i o n s over the mean score a t the Commencement of t r a i n i n g . This improvement was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence.  A l l subjects gave an increased performance score.  An increase i n the mean work output scores between t e s t s a t the e"nd of week two and week four was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence.  At the end of four weeks of t r a i n i n g , the  mean increase was 22.7 r e v o l u t i o n s above the mean score a t the end of week two. The d i f f e r e n c e between the mean score a t the end of four weeks and the mean performance obtained a t the end of s i x weeks was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence.  19 At the completion of s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g , the mean performance of the group indicated an improvement i n work output.  This improvement  was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. The mean performance score a t the end of s i x weeks was 29 r e v o l u t i o n s greater than the i n i t i a l score. Between weeks two and f o u r the increase i n the mean performance scores was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence.  The mean performance score a t the end of four weeks of  t r a i n i n g was 25 r e v o l u t i o n s ahove the score obtained a t the end of two weeks of t r a i n i n g . The increase i n work output of the group, as indicated by the r e v o l u t i o n scores on the t e s t item, between t e s t s a t the end of four and s i x weeks was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence.  TABLE 2 A Comparison of the S i g n i f i c a n c e of Mean Performance Scores of the " I n t e r v a l " T r a i n i n g Group Between Tests 2 &3; Tests 3 & A; Tests A &5} Tests 2 &A; Tests 2 & 5.  I n i t i a l Test  F i n a l Test  Difference Between the Means  Standard E r r o r of the Difference Between the Means  "t« Test of Significance  SEg  t  -3.6  A.A  0.3  15.8  27.6  A.A  6.3  230.1  13.6  30.1  5.A  5. A  9.5  227.6  15.8  31.1  A.l  7.5  15.8  230.1  13.6  2.5  3.9  0.6  Test I n t e r v a l  M-!_  Test 2-Test 3  200.1  17.9  196.5  9.5  Test 2-Test A  200.1  17.9  227.6  Test 2-Test 5  200.1  17.9  Test 3-Test A  196.5  Test 4-Test 5  227.6  SB  ±  M  2  SD  2  M  2- l M  For 11 degrees of freedom a t of 2.20 i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 5 percent l e v e l of confidence.  21 A Comparison of the Results Obtained f o r the "Steady" Group and the " I n t e r v a l " Group The d i f f e r e n c e s of mean performance l e v e l s of both groups during the same t r a i n i n g periods were shown i n Table 3. The r e s u l t s of the performance t e s t s f o r both groups a f t e r  two  weeks of t r a i n i n g e x h i b i t e d a d i f f e r e n c e between the t e s t means of 1.8 and a t r a t i o of 0.25.  This d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. The mean performance scores f o r the two groups a f t e r four weeks of t r a i n i n g indicated a d i f f e r e n c e between the means of 4-.3 and a t r a t i o of .81.  These r e s u l t s show no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  between the scores a t the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. For the s i x week period of t r a i n i n g , the means of the f i n a l performances gave a d i f f e r e n c e of 1.1 and a t r a t i o of 0.28.  This  d i f f e r e n c e i n score was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. The r e s u l t s obtained on the t e s t s conducted a t the end of two, four and s i x weeks indicated  t h a t there i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  d i f f e r e n c e a t the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence between groups i n the amount of improvement made i n work output.  TABLE 3 A Comparison of the S i g n i f i c a n c e of Mean Performance Scores Between the "Steady" and " I n t e r v a l " Training Groups on Tests 2, Tests 3, Tests 4 and Tests 5  Test  "Steady" Training Group  M  " t " Test of " I n t e r v a l " Training Difference Between "Standard E r r o r of the Difference S i g n i f i c a n c e Group the Means of Between the Means M  l  2  SB  2  M -M 2  x  SED  t  Tests 2 AB  200.0  15.5  200.1  17.9  0.1  5.8  0.02  Tests 3AB  198.3  23.1  196.5  9.5  - 1.8  7.2  0.25  Tests 4AB  223.3  19.7  227.6  15.8  4.3  5.3  0.81  Tests 5AB  229.0  16.1  230.1  13.6  1.1  4.0  0i28  For 11 degrees of freedom t i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t 2.20 a t the 5 percent l e v e l of confidence.  CHAPTER VI DISCUSSION In the present study the work load f o r each t r a i n i n g group ("steady" and " i n t e r v a l " ) was i d e n t i c a l .  However-, the method of presen-  t i n g the work ( i . e . power) v a r i e d from group t o group.  This design was  used t o i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of various t r a i n i n g procedures upon work output. The s k i e r s t e s t e d by S i n i s a l o and J u u r t o l a ( I ) as a group showed improvement i n the timed s k i - r u n , but no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between the times presented by the "constant speed" or the " i n t e r v a l " groups.  Results of the present study would i n d i c a t e  that a f t e r a s i x week t r a i n i n g period of p e d a l l i n g a b i c y c l e , s e t a t a f i x e d r e s i s t a n c e , t o a predetermined work schedule, there i s a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n favour of an increased work output as a r e s u l t of the t r a i n i n g .  I n t h i s study the increase amounted t o a f i f t e e n  percent improvement i n performance on the t e s t item presented.  This was  true f o r both t r a i n i n g groups. As the d i f f e r e n c e between the mean performance scores of each group a f t e r s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i t seems evident t h a t no one of the methods i s superior to the other. I t would appear from the r e s u l t s of t h i s study that i f the amount of work applied i n each method of t r a i n i n g i s kept equal, then the tested performance put forward by each group does not vary.  However, i t should be kept i n mind  that only a s m a l l number of subjects were used i n t h i s experiment and d i f f i c u l t y thus a r i s e s i n forming g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s as t o the bearing of these r e s u l t s upon a large population sample.  A l s o , s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g  may have been too short t o allow any d i f f e r e n c e s r e s u l t i n g from the methods  24 used to be apparent. Neither group showed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t improvement as a r e s u l t of the f i r s t two weeks of t r a i n i n g .  This would seem to  the p o s s i b i l i t y of a s t a b i l i z i n g period of conditioning and indicated by Henry (2) or that the t r a i n i n g load was  indicate  practice  as  too l i g h t to evoke a  change i n performance a f t e r only two weeks of t r a i n i n g . The  greater amount of improvement i n performance occured a f t e r four  weeks of t r a i n i n g .  A difference  "steady" t r a i n i n g group and group.  27.6  of 23.3  r e v o l u t i o n s was  recorded f o r  r e v o l u t i o n s f o r the " i n t e r v a l " t r a i n i n g  No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference  was  obtained at the f i v e  percent l e v e l of confidence between the mean t e s t scores obtained by group at the completion of four weeks of t r a i n i n g . showed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference confidence at the end  the  of four weeks.  either  However, each group  at the f i v e percent l e v e l of  In comparison, the d i f f e r e n c e s between  the means f o r the "steady" group and the " i n t e r v a l " group a f t e r s i x weeks 30.1 r e v o l u t i o n s ,  of t r a i n i n g were 29 and s i g n i f i c a n t difference  was  respectively.  No  statistically  obtained at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence  between the f i n a l scores of the groups. The  r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that a performance plateau was  of the fourth week of t r a i n i n g .  reached by the  end  An increase i n the work load required f o r  the t r a i n i n g sessions i n the f i n a l two weeks d i d not a l t e r the performance output at the completion of s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g .  I t i s evident that i n  t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case an increase i n the d a i l y work dose d i d not necessitate an increase i n the work output as revealed by the t e s t at the completion of , t r a i n i n g f o r s i x weeks.  Here i t seems that no advantage was  a p p l i c a t i o n of the "overload p r i n c i p l e " of t r a i n i n g .  gained by  However, the b e n e f i t s  of t h i s increase i n d a i l y t r a i n i n g dose f o r the l a s t two weeks may  have been  25 masked by the short period of t r a i n i n g a t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r work l o a d . In a r e p o r t of a study published a f t e r the completion of the present study, Mellerowicz et a l (3) indicated somewhat s i m i l a r r e s u l t s t o those found i n the present study.  They d i v i d e d twenty-four male students, aged  eleven to nineteen years, i n t o two groups, approximately equal i n average weight, height and performance on a hand and arm ergometer t e s t .  The  f i r s t group exercised on a non-intermittent program, while the second group t r a i n e d according t o an i n t e r m i t t e n t exercise program.  The  second  group was sub-divided i n t o two subgroups, which d i f f e r e d i n the d i v i s i o n of work and r e s t time.  The t o t a l amount of work however, was equal f o r each  group. A f t e r four weeks of t r a i n i n g , three times a week, there was an average of twenty-three percent increase i n performance, but no d i f f e r e n c e was found between the performances  produced by the two methods of t r a i n i n g .  From the r e s u l t s of Mellerowicz's study and the present study i t was seen t h a t , perhaps i t i s not the type of t r a i n i n g t h a t a f f e c t s work output but the amount of work accomplished i n a t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n . The nature of the design of the present study was to a l l o w some i n i t i a l e x p l o r a t i o n i n t o the e f f e c t s of two t r a i n i n g procedures upon work output. From the r e s u l t s obtained i t i s obvious t h a t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t r a i n i n g procedure i s r e q u i r e d . I n v e s t i g a t i o n i s needed to r e v e a l the reasons f o r the lack of improvement i n performance a t the end of two weeks of t r a i n i n g , i . e . to determine i f t h i s period was t r u l y a s t a b i l i z i n g period or whether the t r a i n i n g dose was below a threshold necessary t o produce an increase i n performance.  The lack of improvement i n work output as a r e s u l t  of the f i n a l two weeks of t r a i n i n g , when the t r a i n i n g dose was increased, a l s o i s i n need of f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  This would necessitate i n v e s t i g a -  t i o n of t r a i n i n g at the medium work dose compared to t r a i n i n g at the heavier  26 work load.  The medium t r a i n i n g dose may  be j u s t as e f f e c t i v e at producing  an improvement i n the work output as the heavier work load.  Studies are  required to determine the best t r a i n i n g dose f o r producing increases i n work output and the effectiveness principle.  of the a p p l i c a t i o n of the overload  An extension of the t r a i n i n g period to cover a longer period  than s i x weeks would give more i n s i g h t i n t o the e f f e c t s of various work loads and t r a i n i n g procedures upon work output. period may  The s i x week t r a i n i n g  be too short a period to r e f l e c t the s u p e r i o r i t y of one  type of t r a i n i n g over another.  particular  I t i s suggested that f u r t h e r study of  t r a i n i n g methods should be c a r r i e d out over a longer period than s i x weeks. Future i n v e s t i g a t i o n could include studies where subjects t r a i n e d at an unaltered t r a i n i n g dose f o r the d u r a t i o n of the experiment and studies where the overload p r i n c i p l e was  applied when an improvement i n work output became  evident from the r e s u l t s of t e s t i n g at regular i n t e r v a l s . The  nature of the program adhered to by each group i n t h i s present  study l i m i t s the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s .  However, w i t h i n the  limits  of t h i s study i t would appear t h a t so long as the work load i n t r a i n i n g i s kept constant f o r both groups any difference between the means of  the  performance t e s t s of the "steady" and " i n t e r v a l " groups at the end of four and s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g could have occured only by chance.  two,  Both  methods of t r a i n i n g were e f f e c t i v e i n producing improvement, over the i n i t i a l performance scores, a f t e r four and s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g .  No  performance increase occured as a r e s u l t of the l a s t two weeks of t r a i n i n g i n e i t h e r the "steady" or the " i n t e r v a l " group. If a generalization  could be drawn from t h i s study p e r t a i n i n g to i n t e r v a l  and steady paced t r a i n i n g methods used i n conditioning  f o r middle distance  27 type track events, i t would be t h a t , provided work loads remain the same f o r both methods, no one method would be s u p e r i o r .  Further i n v e s t i g a t i o n  i s required t o determine the importance of the amount of work done during t r a i n i n g compared to the increase i n tested work output.  28 REFERENCES 1. S i n i s a l o , U.V. and J u u r t o l a , T., "Comparative Study of P h y s i o l o g i c a l E f f e c t s of Two S k i - T r a i n i n g Methods", Research Quarterly. 28:3, 1957, pp. 288-294. 2. Henry, F.M.> Physiology of Work. Associated Students Stores," U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a , 1950, p. 15. 1  3. Mellerowicz, H., M e l l e r , W. and M u l l e r , J . , "Vergleichende Utersuchungen uber Leistungssteigerung durch I n t e r v a l l t r a i n i n g and Dauertraining b e i g l e i c h e r T r a i n i n g s a r b e i t " : (Comparative study of the e f f e c t of i n t e r m i t t e n t versus continuous t r a i n i n g programs with equal t o t a l work) I n t e r n a t i o n a l Z e ' i t s c h r i f t f u r angewandte Physiologie e i n s c h l i e s s l i c k . A r b e i t s p h y s i o l o g i e . 18, 1961, pp. 376-385.  CHAPTER V I I SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS T h i r t y - f o u r male U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f i r s t year students between the ages of nineteen and twenty-one, were selected from the required p h y s i c a l education a c t i v i t y program.  Each student was tested on  a f i x e d r e s i s t a n c e type b i c y c l e ergometer. The number of r e v o l u t i o n s achieved i n two minutes was recorded. Two groups were then formed by the "paired comparison" method and t r a i n e d f o r s i x weeks. Both groups d i d the same amount of work i n each t r a i n i n g session but each group v a r i e d i t s method of work a p p l i c a t i o n , i . e . one group t r a i n e d at a steady e f f o r t while the other group t r a i n e d at a higher power but with regulated r e s t periods between bursts of power, Each group was subjected t o a two minute t e s t a t the i n t e r v a l s of two, f o u r and s i x weeks, a f t e r the commencement of  training. On the b a s i s of s t a t i s t i c a l treatment, the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s were  evident: 1. There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t improvement of work output scores f o r e i t h e r group a f t e r two weeks of t r a i n i n g . 2. After four weeks of t r a i n i n g , both groups exhibited marked improvement i n work output scores which were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. 3. Tests a f t e r s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g i n d i c a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i cant improvements i n performance scores i n both groups. These scores were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. 4. Both types of t r a i n i n g , when compared, showed l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e s u l t s obtained a t the end of two, four and s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g .  30 There was  no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference  each group at the end of two,  four and  between the means of  s i x weeks of regulated t r a i n i n g .  On the basis of these r e s u l t s , i t seems evident that w i t h i n l i m i t a t i o n s of the study, there i s no difference  the  i n work output obtained  from the r e s u l t s of e i t h e r "steady" or " i n t e r v a l " types of t r a i n i n g provided the t o t a l work done by the members of e i t h e r group i s the same. (In bothn groups, however, a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t gain i n work output was  evident a f t e r four and s i x weeks of t r a i n i n g ) .  BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Health, P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation, Research Methods Applied t o Health. P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation. Washington. D.G., Department of N a t i o n a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n , 1959. Bresnahan, G.T. and T u t t l e , W.W., Track and F i e l d A t h l e t i c s . 2nd E d i t i o n , C.V. Mosby Co., S t . L o u i s , 194-7. Cerutty, P., Running with Cerutty. Track and F i e l d News of Los A l t o s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1959. Comroe, H.R., J r . , Methods i n Medical Research. 12, The Year Book P u b l i s h e r s , Inc., Chicago, 1953. Cureton, T1K., P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s of Champion A t h l e t e s . The U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, Urbana, 1951. Doherty, J.K., Modern Track and F i e l d . P r e n t i c e - H a l l , New York, 1957. G a r r e t t , H.E., S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education. Longman, Green and Co., New York, 1958. Henry, F.M., Physiology of Work. Associated Students' Stores, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley 4., C a l i f o r n i a , January 1950. Karpovich, P.V., Physiology of Muscular A c t i v i t y . W.B. Saunders and Co., P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1956. Riedman, S.R., The Physiology of Work and P l a y . The Dryden Press, New York, 1952. Stampfl, F., Franz Stampfl on Running. Herbert Jenkins, London, August 1955. Underwood, B.J., Experimental Psychology. Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., New York, 194-9. Woodworth, R.S. and Schlosberg, H., Experimental Psychology. Henry H o l t and Co., New York, 1956.  32 PERIODICALS Bowerman, B., "Training f o r the 1500 Metre (or M i l e ) Race", I n t e r n a t i o n a l Track and F i e l d Digest. 1956, pp. 31-85. Cogswell, R.C., Henderson, G.R. and Berryman, C.H., "Some Observations of the E f f e c t s of T r a i n i n g on Pulse Rate, Blood Pressure and Endurance i n Humans, Using the Step Test (Harvard), Treadmill and E l e c t r o dynamic Brakes B i c y c l e Ergometer", American Journal of Physiology. 14-6, 1946, pp. 422-430. Cureton, T.K., "Improvements i n Cardiovascular Condition of Humans Associated with P h y s i c a l T r a i n i n g , P e r s i s t e n t l y Performed Sports and E x e r c i s e s " , College P h y s i c a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n , 60th Annual Proceedings. Columbus, Ohio, 1957, pp. 82-104. D i l l , D.B., Edwards, H.T. and Talbot, T., "Studies i n Muscular A c t i v i t y V I I . ' Factors L i m i t i n g the Capacity f o r Work", Journal of Physiology. 77:1, 1932, pp. 49-62. Dobeln, W.V., "A Simple B i c y c l e Ergometer", Journal of Applied Physiology. 7:2, 1954, pp. 222-224. Gallagher, M. and Brouha, L., " P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s , I t s E v a l u a t i o n and S i g n i f i c a n c e " , J o u r n a l of the American Medical A s s o c i a t i o n . 125:12, 1944, pp. 834-838. Gemmill, G., Booth, W. and D e t r i c k , J . and S c h i e b e l , H., "Muscular T r a i n i n g " , American Journal of Physiology. 9 6 , 1931, pp. 265-277. Gemmill, G., Booth, W. and Pocock, A., "The P h y s i o l o g i c a l E f f e c t of D a i l y R e p e t i t i o n of the Same Amount of L i g h t Muscular Work". American J o u r n a l of Physiology. 92, 1930, pp. 253-270. Henry, F.M., "Aerobic Oxygen Consumption and A l a c t i c Debp i n Muscular Work", J o u r n a l of Applied Physiology. 3, 1951, pp. 427-438. Henry, F.M. and Berg, E.W., " P h y s i o l o g i c a l and Performance Changes i n A t h l e t i c C o n d i t i o n i n g " , J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d Physiology. 3, 1950, pp. 103-111. Henry, F.M. and DeMoor, J . , "Metabolic E f f i c i e n c y of Exercise i n R e l a t i o n to Work'Load a t Constant Speed", J o u r n a l of Applied Physiology. 2, 1950, pp. 481-489. Holmer, G., "Long Distance Running", I n t e r n a t i o n a l Track and F i e l d Digest. 1956, pp. 86-92. Karpovich, P.V., "A F r i c t i o n a l B i c y c l e Ergometer", Research Quarterly. 21:3, 1950, pp. 210-215.  33 Karpovich, P.V., "Fatigue and Endurance", P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Supplement Research Quarterly. 12:2, 194-1, pp. 4-23-4-31. Larsen, L.A., "Cardiovascular-Respiratory Function i n R e l a t i o n to P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s " , P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Supplement to the Research Quarterly. 12:2, 1941, pp. 456-468. Mellorowicz, H., MeHer, W. and M u l l e r , J . , "Vergleichende Utersuchurigen uber Leistungssteigerung durch I n t e r v a l l t r a i n i n g uhd Dauertrainihg b e i g l e i c h e r T r a i n i n g s a r b e i t " : (Comparative study of the e f f e c t of i n t e r m i t t e n t versus continuous t r a i n i n g programs with equal t o t a l work) Internationale Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r angewandte Physiologie e i n s c h l i e s s l i c h . A r b e i t s p h y s i o l o g i e . 18, 1961, pp. 376-385. S i n i s a l o , U.V. and J u u r t o l a , T., "Comparative Study of P h y s i o l o g i c a l E f f e c t s of Two S k i - t r a i n i n g Methods", Research Quarterly. 28:3, 1957, pp. 288-294. Taylor, G., "Studies i n Exercise Physiology", American Journal of Physiology. 135, 1941, pp. 27-42. Taylor, G., "Some Properties;of Maximum and Submaxlmal Exercise with Reference to P h y s i o l o g i c a l V a r i a t i o n and the Measurement of Exercise Tolerance", American Journal of Physiology. 142, 1944, pp. 200-212.  APPENDIX  34 APPENDIX A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Two groups were r e q u i r e d , one f o r each method of t r a i n i n g . Steady t r a i n i n g group:  Group A  N=12  I n t e r v a l t r a i n i n g group:  Group B  N = 12  2 groups  One t e s t was administered upon a b i c y c l e ergometer.  This t e s t was  administered f i v e times to each subject. Procedure 1. Test 1 was administered t o a group of subjects. 2. The subjects were ranked and placed i n t o two groups, i . e . they were equated upon the performance i n t e s t 1. 3. Test 2 was administered t o Group A and Group B one week a f t e r t e s t 1. 4. The r e l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t between t e s t 1 and t e s t 2 was then calculated. 5. Test 3 was administered. 6. Test 4 was administered. 7. Test 5 was administered. General S t a t i s t i c a l Outline The f o l l o w i n g c a l c u l a t i o n s were made: 1. The c o r r e l a t i o n of r e l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t between t e s t 1 and t e s t 2 f o r groups A and B. 2.' The s i g n i f i c a n c e of d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance of Group A;iand Group B on t e s t s 2, 3, 4, 5. 3. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of d i f f e r e n c e i n performance of Group A on tests 2, 3, 4-, 5«  35 4. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of d i f f e r e n c e i n performance of Group B on t e s t s 2, 3, 4, 5. Procedure and Formulae 1. The c o r r e l a t i o n of the r e l i a b i l i t y c o - e f f i c i e n t between t e s t 1 and t e s t 2, f o r group A and group B combined, was c a l c u l a t e d . Tabulation of the Data The c o r r e l a t i o n between test.,1 the Pearson Product-Moment r  and t e s t 2 was calculated by means of  Formulae =  2  N <=T^;  where N= the t o t a l number of subjects f> standard d e v i a t i o n of the mean of t e s t 1 cTi standard d e v i a t i o n of the mean of t e s t 2 sum of the products of the deviations from the two means r, c o - e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n A  2. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e i n mean performance of group A between t e s t s 2 and 3, t e s t 3 and 4> t e s t s 4 and 5, t e s t s 2 and 4-, t e s t s 2 and 5 was calculated by the method of obtaining the difference  between  two correlated means o u t l i n e d i n G a r r e t t ( 1 , p. 227). This d i f f e r e n c e was accepted a t the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence.  36 INDIVIDUAL SCORE CARDS  Name  .... •  Age  Phone No  Weight  T r a i n i n g Group:  Height  Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test L, Test 5  Interval Steady  RAW SCORES OF TESTS ONE TO FIVE  STEADY GROUP  INTERVAL GROUP  Subject  Test 1  Test 2  Test 3  Test 4  Test 5  Subject  Test 1  Test 2  Test 3  1  183  192  162  206  233  13  216  191  197  238  233  2  230  220  227  225  240  14  217  224  201  251  252  3  204.  216  191  187  203  15 .  205  216  209  213  230  4  246  209  235  260  266  16  192  210  195  225  230  5  186  210  223  242  237  17  214-  211  187  235  212  6  189  201  182  225  233  18  213  197  202  237  226  224  230  188  240  227  19  215  231  217  246  252  184  182  190  223  226  20  160  182  192  210  215  9  183  187  196  210  2L4  21  206  188  174  219  236  10  172  177  196  202  210  22  178  175  200  220  233  11  160  190  170  218  232  23  207  193  196  237  233  12  201  185  220  228  233  24  186  183  189  200  209  7 8  Test 4- Test 5  38 SPECIFICATIONS OF THE BICYCLE ERGOMETER s?  The b i c y c l e ergometer used i n t h i s study was a f r i c t i o n a l type ergometer manufactured by J.A. Preston Corporation, 175 5th Ave., York, N.Y.  New  I t was chain d r i v e n , with a s o l i d i r o n f l y wheel, t h i r t e e n  inches i n diameter and one and a h a l f inches deep.  Force was applied t o  the flywheel by a d j u s t i n g a c a l i b r a t e d "Eekure" spring balance, which was attached to a f r i c t i o n band of chrome l e a t h e r .  Tension upon the l e a t h e r  band increased the force a p p l i e d to the f l y w h e e l . Unfortunately, with t h i s type of ergometer no accurately determined work load can be made. A mechanical r e v o l u t i o n counter was f i x e d upon the frame to record each r e v o l u t i o n of the d r i v e wheel.  These revolutions were used as an  index of the work done by the subjects. remained constant during the experiment.  The force applied to the flywheel  

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