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The effects of fatigue on vigilance in sailing Thomas, David William 1980

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THE EFFECTS OF FATIGUE ON VIGILANCE IN SAILING  by  DAVID WILLIAM THOMAS B S c . , York U n i v e r s i t y , 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES S c h o o l Of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n And R e c r e a t i o n  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e g u i r e d s t a n d a r d s  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1980  @ David W i l l i a m Thomas, 1980  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r  an advanced d e g r e e a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  for extensive  study.  copying of this thesis  be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n  o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my written  permission.  r,Department 4. 4. o fx  Physical J  Education  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 February  13,1980  ABSTRACT The E f f e c t s of F a t i g u e on V i g i l a n c e i n S a i l i n g . Twelve male s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d physical  to  determine  if  increasing  f a t i g u e are r e l a t e d t o the a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o s a i l  d u r i n g s a i l i n g . A s a i l i n g s i m u l a t o r was fatigue,  either  mental  w h i l e the s u b j e c t with  amounts  weight.  adjusting  to  determine  p h y s i c a l , caused v i g i l a n c e ; t o  subject  responded  to  fi5  main sheet t o p r o v i d e proper s a i l t r i m f o r  d e f l e c t i o n was videotaped t o time  starting  provide  a  vigilance  sit-ups  i n the  Telltale  score  position  and  position, maximum  isometric  oxygen  s e p a r a t e day t o determine i f vigilance  capacity.  It  with  when t h e . t e l l t a l e s l i f t e d and e n d i n g  i n cne m i n u t e , percent body f a t , i s o m e t r i c  hiking  by three  when adjustment of the s a i l s t o p p e d . F i v e f i t n e s s t e s t s , of  was  endurance . i n  uptake  were  fitness found  strength hiking  administered  scores that  number  the  were  neither  related mental  p h y s i c a l f a t i g u e caused a decrease i n v i g i l a n c e .over the  sailing  as  mean  vigilance  vigilance  high  for  each  capacity  nor  with  successive  as  fitness  maximum  tests  oxygen  was  uptake  related  to  values  were  c o r r e l a t e d with mean v i g i l a n c e s c o r e s . , S u b j e c t s  with  aerobic  c a p a c i t y were f a s t e r a t r e s p o n d i n g t o  windshifts,  thus s u p p o r t i n g the use of a l a r g e a e r o b i c component i n dry fitness  to  s i m u l a t o r s e s s i o n decreased r e g a r d l e s s of the t r e a t m e n t  u s e d . Only one o i the p h y s i c a l  inversely  score  on a  fifteen  minute t e s t s e s s i o n . There was a l e a r n i n g e f f e c t a s s o c i a t e d the apparatus  if vary  windshifts  s e p a r a t e s e s s i o n s , each one being f i f t e e n minutes l o n g .  deflection  trim  was s i t t i n g on the s i d e d e c k , h i k i n g or h i k i n g  Each  the  or  used  of  programs.  land  iii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The a u t h o r would l i k e t o thank those who completing  this  him  in  thesis._Committee:chairman D r . „ G . . S i n c l a i r  and  committee members Dr. , K. ~ o u t t s .  assisted  Dr. . E. _ Rhodes and Mr. . S . „ Tuppar  p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e and g u i d a n c e . The a u t h o r would a l s o l i k e . t o e x p r e s s a d d i t i o n a l thanks to h i s f a t h e r , for  designing  generating  and  apparatus.  supervising  construction  Mr.., W. of  Thomas  the:  wind  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT . . . . . . . o  »  .  .  .  .  .  o  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  ii  .  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XJXST  OF  TABLES  iii  •••••••••••••«•••••••••••••••••,•'•••••••••  LIST. OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ?  v  ^  i  vi  i  Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION  1  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2  Subproblems . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2  DEFINITION OF TERMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3  DELIMITATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5  ASSUMPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY  5  HYPOTHESES  6  ...................................... ,  2. REVIEW OF SELECTED LITERATURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INFORMATION PROCESSING IN VIGILANCE . . .  7 9  THE EFFECTS OF AROUSAL ON VIGILANCE PERFORMANCE . .  10  ...... ^ 11 VIGILANCE IN SAILING ........................ .METHODS AND PROCEEDURES ............................. 14 PHYSICAL FATIGUE IN INFORMATION PROCESSING  3.  SUBJECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14  APPARATUS  14  .  .  .  .  o  o  .  .  .  .  .  „  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . .  S a i l i n g Simulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14  Physical Fitness Testing  18  Apparatus . . . . . . . . . . . .  PROCEEDURES S a i l i n g Simulator Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  , 19 19  S a i l i n g S i m u l a t o r Data R e c o r d i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23  Physical f i t n e s s Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24  EXPERIMENTAL RATIONAL AND CONTROLS . , . . . , . . , . , > * .  26  EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27  DATA ANALYSIS  28  ..  Test Of H y p o t h e s i s  1 ..........................  28  Test Of Hypothesis  2 .........................  28  Test Of H y p o t h e s i s 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28  4. .RESULTS AND DISCUSSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF THE PREPLANNED COMPARISONS OF THE'HYPOTHESES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30  Experiment 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30  Hypothesis  1 .................................  Hypothesis 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . .  30 . 31  Experiment 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Hypothesis 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34  ANALYSIS FOR A LEARNING EFFECT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37  RELIABILITY ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 . . . . . . . . . . . .  41  SUMMARY OF HYPOTHESES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 43 5.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  ..  45  SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  45  CONCLUSIONS « •  46  o s • • • • • • • • •  e • • • • • • •  •  o  SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX •••••••••••  47 , 49  •••»•••••••••••••••• ••••••••  .- 5 3  vi  LIST OF TABLES TABLE  PAGE  3.1  Order Of Treatments For S u b j e c t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20  3.2  Time I n t e r v a l , W i n d s h i f t D i r e c t i o n And P o s i t i o n Change Of The Wind Machine For Each T r i a l . . . . . . . . P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Test R e s u l t s For Experiment 1  22 29  Two Way Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s Of V a r i a n c e Table For Experiment 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31  Of V a r i a n c e C a l c u l a t e d For S a i l i n g Simulator V i g i l a n c e Scores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33  4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4  Analyses  R e s u l t s For A n a l y s e s Of V a r i a n c e  Using  B l o c k i n g For Experiment 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33  4.5  Mean S c o r e s For B l o c k s Used In Experimsnt: 1 . . . . . . . . .  33  4.6  S i g n i f i c a n c e L e v e l s Of I n t e r a c t i o n s For A n a l y s e s Of V a r i a n c e Using V a r i o u s B l o c k i n g Designs . . . . . . . . 36 S u b j e c t Means And Standard D e v i a t i o n s F o r S i t t i n g , H i k i n g And H i k i n g S i t h Weight . . . . . . < . . . . . 36 Two Way Repeated Measures A n a l y s i s Of V a r i a n c e Table For L e a r n i n g E f f e c t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40  4.7 4.8 4.9  S i g n i f i c a n c e L e v e l s Of I n t e r a c t i o n s For A n a l y s e s Of V a r i a n c e Using B l o c k i n g In The L e a r n i n g Effect Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  41  A. 3  Raw Data For Experiment  67  A.4  Means And Standard D e v i a t i o n s For Experiment  1 ......  70  A.5  C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x For Experiment 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  73  A.6  Raw Data For The R e l i a b i l i t y A n a l y s i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  74  T ..........................  vii  LIST OF PI3URES FIGURE  P AGE  4.1  Graph Of Mean D e f l e c t i o n - T i m e  And T r i a l s  . . . . . . . . . , 32  4.2  Mean S c o r e s For S i t t i n g , H i k i n g And H i k i n g With Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35  4.3  Mean Scores By Order Of S e s s i o n For T r i a l s  39  A.I  S a i l i n g S i m u l a t o r T e s t i n g Apparatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  A.2  Physical Fitness Testing  ..........  54  Apparatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63  CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION Vigilance performance  and  for  tracking s k i l l s . concentration variety greater  attention  sports  critical  are  undertaken  for  affect  performance.  levels  of  Consequently,  the  c a p a c i t y of the c o m p e t i t o r t o i n t e g r a t e a l l of t h e  degree  he  and  high  extended p e r i o d s of t i m e , a  still  effectively  of  r e q u i r i n g f i n e motor c o - o r d i n a t i o n and  r e q u i r e d a s p e c t s of the s p o r t w h i l e of  components  When a c t i v i t i e s which r e q u i r e  of f a c t o r s can the  are  vigilance,  the  and e f f i c i e n t l y .  performance  in  longer  maintaining  can  be  high  w i l l be a b l e t o perform  S p o r t s l i k e t h i s are ' o p e n '  them  a  directly  skills  attributed  to  a d a p t a b i l i t y and, i n c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s , concentration l e v e l . S a i l i n g i s a s p o r t whish r e q u i r e s v i g i l a n c e f o r s u c c e s s . An i n d i v i d u a l competing i n a s a i l i n g r a c e w i l l determine the c o u r s e which he must f o l l o w i n h i s attempts t o f i n i s h  first.  Although  the p e r m u t a t i o n s and c o m b i n a t i o n s are - i n f i n i t e , the best path t o sustain  maximum  boat  other competitors s a i l ,  speed  will  be determined by the c o u r s e  the  current  wind  direction  subsequent changes t h a t may occur i u r i n g the r a c e . will  concentrate  on  sail  trim  a p p r o p r i a t e l y t o wind s n i f t s i n o r i e r  and  respond  to  obtain  anl  any  A good s a i l o r quickly the  and  greatest  s u s t a i n e d boat speed. A  major  and  ultimately  performance, i s p h y s i c a l f a t i g u e . The type of f a t i g u e  regularly  associate!  with  factor  affecting  vigilance  p r o c e s s i n g mechanism r e l a t i n g  is  vigilance  that to  the  which a f f e c t s the c e n t r a l ability  for  continuous  2  attention.  Vigilance  diminishes  with  time  r e g a r d l e s s of  p h y s i c a l s t a t e of an i n d i v i d u a l . S e n e r a l f a t i g u e specific  to  the  muscle  groups  used  in  which  is  performance  r e q u i r e d t a s k may, c o n t r i b u t e t o a decrease i n v i g i l a n c e . f a t i g u e i s a performance v a r i a b l e and i t s s h o u l d be r e f l e c t e d by a performance Competitive  sailing  effect  wind  conditions  boat  contributing  speed  remains  the  Bodily  skills  as moderate  and  r e q u i r e h i g h p h y s i c a l work c a p a c i t y  important  and  Maintainance physical  sail  a f f e c t a c o m p e t i t i v e s a i l o r ' s chances of w i n n i n g .  and of  fatigue  to decreased c o n c e n t r a t i o n on s a i l t r i m w i l l  i n a decrease i n coat speed. C o n c e n t r a t i o n on  during  of  vigilance  r e q u i r e s a v a r i e t y of p h y s i c a l  the a b i l i t y t o s u s t a i n nigh l e v e l s of e x e r t i o n . optimum  not  decrement.  and a b i l i t i e s i n c l u d i n g endurance and s t r e n g t h , heavy  on  the  trim  Bodily  result could fatigue  a r a c e would d e t r a c t from performance through i t s  effect  on v i g i l a n c e .  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The purpose o f  this  investigation  was  to  determine  if  increasing  l e v e l s of p h y s i c a l f a t i g u e are r e l a t e d t o d e c r e a s i n g  levels  attention  of  investigation performance  was is  on  sail  designed  affected  c o m p e t i t i o n.  Subproblems The sucproblems a r e :  during  trim to  during  sailing.  determine the  course  how of  The  vigilance a  sailing  3  1.  To determine waat e f f e c t f a t i g u e w i l l nave on v i g i l a n c e  d u r i n g a s i m u l a t e d s a i l i n g task:. 2. T D determine how performance on a s i m u l a t e d s a i l i n g t a s k i s r e l a t e d to varying  l e v e l s of p e r s o n a l f i t n e s s .  DEFINITION OF TERMS V i g i l a n c e . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n r e q u i r e d i n the e x p e r i m e n t a  vigilance  a b i l i t y to  capacity perform  stimulation  without  a  known  as s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n . I t  task  in  the  significant  presence  loss  in  of  is  is  the  distracting  efficiency.  This  is  i d e n t i c a l t o the c o n c e n t r a t i o n r e q u i r e d i n c o m p e t i t i v e s a i l i n g . Fatigue.  The f a t i g u e r e f e r r e d  i  physical fatigue. with  to  in  this  experiment  Although t h e r e i s a ' m e n t a l f a t i g u e *  is  connected  v i g i l a n c e t a s k s , the f a t i g u e e f f e c t i s independent of  that  process. M i k i S S i . The p o s i t i o n assumed  by  a  used  for  the  experiment  was  that  c e n t r e b o a r d s a i l o r d u r i n g s t r o n g w i n d s . Both the  h i p and a n k l e were f i x e d at a p p r o x i m a t e l y n i n e t y degrees and the angle at t h e knee was between zero and n i n e t y degrees  depending  on the h e i g h t of the s u b j e c t and p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e .  The s p i n a l  column  was  s t r a i g h t aiid the head f i x e d i n the normal p o s i t i o n .  The muscles used t o m a i n t a i n t h i s p o s i t i o n i n c l u d e , the l e g muscles f o r the a n k l e , the psoas  and  abdominal  quadriceps  for  the  groups f o r the h i p and the  mastoid f o r the head ( S o r i a ,  1970). In  order  to  anterior  knee,  the  sternocleidomaintain  the  h i k i n g p o s i t i o n the i n s t e p of each f o o t was hooked under a s t r a p  ii  i n the c e n t r e of the boat and the s u b j e c t s a t out over the s i d e . The  torso  was  outside  d u r i n g the e x p e r i m e n t .  the  gunwale  of the boat at a l l t i m e s  Minor p o s i t i o n a d j u s t m e n t s  were  allowed  as some movement o c c u r s d u r i n g a r a c e . Windshift. velocity  and  Although  magnitude,  natural a  windshifts  standardized  vary  set  of  greatly  in  mechanically  produced w i n d s h i f t s were used f o r t h i s s t u d y .  Each s h i f t was t e n  degrees  of  the  windshift  determined randomly. Each w i n d s h i f t was of s u f f i c i e n t  magnitude  that i t  in  magnitude  with  the  direction  c o u l d be e a s i l y d e t e c t e d .  fieflection  Time.. D e f l e c t i o n time was the t i m e r e q u i r e d  the s u b j e c t t o r e t u r n the s a i l to proper t r i m .  For  a  for  windshift  where the wind moved a f t , d e f l e c t i o n time s t a r t e d as soon as the leeward t e l l t a l e s t a r t e d t o f l u t t e r finished  letting  moved f o r w a r d , to  luff  out  sail  started  o r f l a p j u s t a f t of the mast and ended when the  Telltales. in  subject  sail.  The t e l l t a l e s were  length  subject  For a w i n d s h i f t where the wind  d e f l e c t i o n time commenced when t h e  f i n i s h e d p u l l i n g i n the  inches  the s a i l .  and stopped when the  placed  on  pieces  the  of  black  wool  six  s a i l with s m a l l s e c t i o n s  number m a t e r i a l . One was p l a c e d on e i t h e r s i d e of the s a i l  of  eight  i n c h e s from the mast and t h r e e f e e t from the t a c k . Physical components  Fitness  Components.  in  physical  fitness  were f i v e f i t n e s s t e s t s a d m i n i s t e r e d t o the  p r i o r to the t e s t i n g . The t e s t s used sit-ups  The  one  measured:  the  subjects  number  minute, percent body f a t , muscular s t r e n g t h  of in  5  the h i k i n g p o s i t i o n , muscular endurance i n the  hiking  position  and a e r o b i c c a p a c i t y . DELIMITATIONS Sailing  is  an  ' o p e n ' t a s k wnereas t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was  conducted i n a s i m u l a t e d environment which produced task.  The  should  results  generalize  a  'closed'  o b t a i n e d were taken from dinghy s a i l o r s and to  competitors  of  similar  calibre.  The  s u b j e c t s were o n l y t e s t e d i n the ' r e a c h i n g ' p o r t i o n of the r a c e . This  i s one of many s i t u a t i o n s t h a t might a r i s e i n c o m p e t i t i o n .  However, s a i l t r i m i s i m p o r t a n t i n  all  parts  of  a  race  v i g i l a n c e performance i n one p o r t i o n of a race s h o u l d  and  generalize  t o a l l p a r t s of c o m p e t i t i v e s a i l i n g .  ASSUMPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS Because  it  was  impossible  d i r e c t i o n and v e l o c i t y ,  to  t e s t i n g was  conducted  model i n d o o r s .  Although every e f f o r t  results  representative  were  stationary  of  with  sailing.  f i l l e d w i t h wind p r o p e r l y experienced  difficulty  appearance was  not  Only and  in  a  wind  simulated  was made t o <?nsure t h a t  forward the  sailing to  or  bottom  although  identical  on  control  the  the a c t u a l t a s k , the boat was  and not s u b j e c t t o the  associated  effectively  the that  none  sideways  motion  t h i r d of the of  the  sail  subjects  s i m u l a t o r , the s a i l ' s found  in  the  racing  situation. The  major  experimenter. responses  l i m i t a t i o n was the degree of r e l i a b i l i t y  As an o b s e r v e r of the  presented  by  the  videotapes  subjects,  his  of  containing  the the  r e a c t i o n time and  6  c o n c e n t r a t i o n c o u l d have acuity  of  results. it  is  the  unintentionally  video-tape  machine  biased  results.  may a l s o have a f f e c t e d t h e  However, only one experimenter a n a l y s e d v i d e o t a p e s assumed  constant  that  The  and  e r r o r on the p a r t of the e x p e r i m e n t e r was  error.  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The study p r o v i d e d i n s i g h t i n t o the e f f e c t s of f a t i g u e vigilance  tasks  of t h i s n a t u r e . P r i o r t o t h i s e x p e r i m e n t ,  l i t t l e r e s e a r c h had been conducted r e l a t e d t o s a i l i n g had  dealt  hypotheses expected  with  sailing  and  and  in  very none  v i g i l a n c e . S u b s t a n t i a t i o n of  would i n d i c a t e what performance decrements  for  might  the be  c o m p e t i t i o n . The importance of p a r t i c u l a r elements  of t r a i n i n g programs would ce s u b s t a n t i a t e d by  the  results  of  the v i g i l a n c e performance t e s t s .  HYPOTHESES The hypotheses  are:  1. V i g i l a n c e decreases w i l l occur d u r i n g f i f t e e n minutes of s i m u l a t e d s a i l i n g r e g a r d l e s s of the l e v e l of 2. P h y s i c a l f a t i g u e w i l l f u r t h e r  exertion.  decrease e f f i c i e n c y  during  f i f t e e n minutes of the v i g i l a n c e t a s k . 3 . Each o f the f i v e p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s components i s correlated with v i g i l a n c e  performance.  directly  7  Chapter 2  REVIEW OF SELECTED LITERATURE From  the  outset  of  research  p r o c e s s i n g , one i m p o r t a n t part of  attempts  human  which has been examined i s v i g i l a n c e . as  a  into  response  (Deese,  capabilities  V i g i l a n c e can be d e s c r i b e d  h i g h s t a t e of r e a d i n e s s to perform a d a p t i v e  acts  information  and p u r p o s i v e  1955). A d e f i n i t i o n as broad as the one p r o v i d e d  by  Deese i s o f importance i n t h a t i t e n a b l e s one t o determine  which  i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g t a s k s have  Stroll  (1971)  classified  vigilance  stimuli presentation. be  recognition  continuous  vigilance  tasks  components.  according  to  the r a t e  He c o n s i d e r e d r a t e s below 60 per  tasks  while  discrimination.  rates Both  hour  above 60 per hour vigilance  of to  required  capacities  are  dependent on the a b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n a t t e n t i o n . Vigilance  decreases  with  time on t as k (Mackworth,  Decay i n a t t e n t i o n o c c u r s r a p i d l y , minutes  and  Haider  and Dixon  between t h e second and t e n t h  1964).  o f t e n w i t h i n the f i r s t  (1961) found v i g i l a n c e  minute  on  their  three  decreased  tests.  Further  v i g i l a n c e d e c r e a s e s are expected a f t e r the t e n t h minute w i t h rate  of  decrease  depending  experimental factors  (Buck,  on  the  task  1966; F a u l k n e r ,  and 1962;  a  variety  Adams,  the of  Humes  and S t e n s o n , 1962; Mackworth,1964) . There  are  performance  as  characteristics Consequently, have  a  large  a  number of f a c t o r s which may a f f e c t they  by  affect  providing  the  subject's  variability  the schedule used f o r  stimulus  vigilance response  i n the s t i m u l a t i o n . presentation  can  e f f e c t as v i g i l a n c e i n c r e a s e s when the number of  8  stimuli  per  hour  1964,1970),  increases  {Holland,  1958,  Mackworth,  the i n t e r v a l between s t i m u l i a l s o a f f e c t s  vigilance  as i n c r e a s e d p r e d i c t a b i l i t y  enables a s u b j e c t t o spend more t i m e  resting,  thus  vigilance  However,  predictability  increasing  and response time may presented  to  a  (Baker,  1959).  i s u s u a l l y low i n a t r u e v i g i l a n c e  actually  subject  capacity  increase  if  distractions  a t t e m p t i n g to a t t e n d or i f  having  the  experimenter  response t i m e .  It  important  knowledge  as  performance trials  present  Fraser in  appears t h a t many forms of of  results  also  (1953)  a  subject's  found  the room decreased feedback  will  be  increases  vigilance  (Mackworth, 1970). Knowledge of r e s u l t s i n  practice  out not d u r i n g t e s t i n g i s a l s o b e n e f i c i a l as i t  vigilance that  schedule  1979).  M o t i v a t i o n may i n c r e a s e v i g i l a n c e as that  are  expectancy  c r e a t e s a f a l s e i m p r e s s i o n of the s t i m u l u s p r e s e n t a t i o n (Mackworth,  task  scores  (adams, and Humes,  learning  effect  1963).  It  seems  i s possible in vigilance  improves apparent  t a s k s as the  s c o r e s are improved by i n c r e a s e d f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h  the  activity. Although  vigilance  decrements  t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s t h e r e i s no sessions  (Adams,  Humes  and  have  difference Stenson,  in  the  vigilance  longer  sessions  or  within between  Rest a l l o w s  (Mackworth,  (McCormack,1958). Rest can take a  number  may be a break between s e s s i o n s , r e s t p e r i o d s periods  in  of the t e s t i n g  of of  within  a t e s t s e s s i o n where a t t e n t i o n i s  r e q u i r e d because o f the p r e d i c t a b i l i t y  the  1964)  the r e s t p e r i o d , the g r e a t e r t h e r e s t o r a t i o n  capacity  forms as i t  found  vigilance  1962).  c a p a c i t y f o r c o n t i n u o u s a t t e n t i o n to r e c o v e r so  been  not  schedule.  9  INFORMATION PROCESSING! IN VIGILANCE Responding to a s t i m u l u s d u r i n g a v i g i l a n c e of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g . S t r o h are  (1971) c a t e g o r i z e d  attended t o a s ; l a r g e , n o v e l , i n v o l v i n g and  form  stimuli  the  Although  s t i m u l i provided i n a v i g i l a n c e t a s k may not  conforming  a l l of the above c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s they embody them.  Typically,  change  occurs  processing on  the  whatever  being  of  information  (1967)  and  the  stated that a v i g i l a n c e sensory  phase and the d e t e c t i o n i n d i c a t i n g phase. In a t y p i c a l processed and  acted  upon  1969). in  information presented. continuous  a  vigilance  attention  including  of the s t i m u l i .  that  the  intensity  may  occur  with may  the i n t e n s i t y  low change  t as k  the  dependent  Gregory  stimuli.  Small  response r a t e d r a s t i c a l l y ,  Gregory,  1963).  near The  the  mode  the  mode  (1963)  of the s t i m u l i i s i m p o r t a n t as intensity  on  detection  intensity,  Broadbent and  l e v e l s b e i n g used are  and  is  Many f a c t o r s can i n f l u e n c e  complexity  (Broadbent  of  depends  processing  monitored.  phases: the o b s e r v i n g response p h a s e , the  Detection  decreases  one  s t i m u l i and the p r o d u c t i o n of a response  v i g i l a n c e task a s t i m u l i i s r e c e i v e d , (Treisman,  least  have  actual  and  is  p r o d u c t i o n of a r e s p o n s e . J e r i s o n  activity  at  expectancy.  The  receiving  task has t h r e e  to  an i n d i v i d u a l w i l l respond when a d i s c e r n a b l e  in  of  that  movement, f u l f i l l a  need, i n t e r e s t the  individual  task i s a  in and  found  uncertainty  increases  or  especially  if  threshold  level  of s t i m u l a t i o n may  a f f e c t v i g i l a n c e performance as c e r t a i n forms of i n f o r m a t i o n may be more f a m i l i a r and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g response generated (Deutsch and D e u t s c h ,  1967). I f  two s t i m u l i are mixed,  faster  vigilance  10  s c o r e s may i n c r e a s e as the requirement f o r f i l t e r i n g f o r c e s individual  to  process  cases such  as  this,  requires  that  the  information  increased  (Mackworth,  complexity  1970).  of  the  the i n d i v i d u a l d i s c r i m i n a t e more i n the  making p r o c e s s . respond  more  Someone s e a r c h i n g f o r a  faster  when  it  is  certain  easy to r e c o g n i z e the  Filtering Eiley  ( S h r i i f i n and S c h n e i d e r ,  or  more  Treisman and in  tasks  v e r b a l messages was t o l i m i t p e r c e p t i o n of  secondary message r a t h e r than to r e s t r i c t Attention  will  1977).  o f t e n o c c u r s whsn one i s a t t e n d i n g .  competing  decision  appropriate  (1967) found t h a t the c h i e f e f f e c t of a t t e n t i o n  using  In  task  stimulus  s t i m u l u s r a t h e r than having t o d i s t i n g u i s h between two very s i m i l a r ones  the  responses  has no e f f e c t on p e r c e p t i o n and i t  or  w i l l not  the  memory. interfere  with s h o r t - t e r m memory provided a t t e n t i o n i s c o n c e n t r a t e d on one source  of  stimuli.  information  in  The  abiLity  to  receive  and  process  a v i g i l a n c e tas k i s u n a f f e c t e d when s t i m u l a t i o n  l e v e l remains c o n s t a n t . Should a d d i t i o n a l s t i m u l a t i o n of  great  enough  importance  that  p r o v i d e d then v i g i l a n c e s c o r e s  it  will  increased information processing  requires  decrease  which  is  a response  because  of  be the  required.  THE EFFECTS OF AROUSAL ON VIGILANCE PERFORMANCE There has been v e r y l i t t l e in  vigilance  performance.  encephaiogram (EEG) ten  minutes  of  activity a  r e s e a r c h examining a r o u s a l  Stroh  one-hour arousal  (EM3)  in  increased  found  levels increased  stimulation also increases readings  (1971)  testing levels  that  during  session. as  level  electrthe  last  Infrequent  electro-myogram  subjects receiving  fewer s t i m u l i  11  ( S t e r n , 1 9 6 6 ) . V i g i l a n c e performance a l s o  diminishes  with  less  f r e q u e n t s t i m u l a t i o n . However, a r o u s a l l e v e l i s not c o n s i d e r e d a causative  factor  in  i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r as i t  this  relationship.  M o t i v a t i o n i s a very  has a l a r g e e f f e c t on a r o u s a l  level  for  many t a s k s .  PHYSICAL FATIGUE IN INFORMATION PROCESSING Schmidt variable  (1969) c l a s s i f i e d p h y s i c a l f a t i g u e  rather  than  a  learning variable.  supported by o t h e r s i n c l u d i n g Alderman although  an  effectively  individual  may  not  T h i s view has been  (1965)  perform  as a performance  who  the  given  i n a fatigued condition, learning w i l l  provided  there  is  not  complete  decay  technique.  Performance may decrease i f  of  found  massed  progressed,  arm  practice  would  local  f a t i g u e a f f e c t s performance  to t h i s , Meyers  learning  decrease arm performance  lower body f a t i g u e would n o t . Both speed and as  causes different  P h i l l i p s (1963), found t h a t a l t h o u g h fatigue  occur  appropriate  f a t i g u e which i s s p e c i f i c t o the t a s k performed. Using forms of e x e r c i s e ,  t as k as  still  the  accuracy  time  is  while  decrease  (Alderman, 1965).  (1969) found t h a t r e a c t i o n  that  Related  unaffected  w h i l e movement t i m e i n c r e a s e s w i t h l o c a l i z e d p h y s i c a l  fatigue.  For proper l e a r n i n g t o o c c u r , f a t i g u e must be accommodated. Practice  will  increase  performance l e v e l s when the  can manage t o p r a c t i c e the s k i l l even under (Marischuk  and  r e l a t e d warm-up created  was  Kusnetsov, did  not  1973). R e l a t e d t o t h i s , affect  performance  accommodated ( P h i l l i p s ,  t h a t heavy n o n - r e l a t e d  fatigue  as  individual conditions  moderate and any  fatigue  1963). P h i l l i p s a l s o  warm-up d i d improve performance  found  although  12  no e x p l a n a t i o n was p r o v i d e d . The static  hiking one  position  dependent  contractions  have  assumed  upon  during  isometric  a s a i l i n g race i s a strength.  Isouetric  c e r t a i n f a t i g u e c h a r a t e r i s t i c s most of  which  r e l a t e to t h e b l o o d f l o w i n the muscle c o n t r a c t e d . When a muscle i s c o n t r a c t e d t o an amount exceeding '\5% of contraction  (MVC)  c o n t i n u e d work produce  muscle t i s s u e between  30  and  70% is  fatigue  more  (Lind and M c N i c o l ,  for  1961). Blood flow through  occluded  fatigue created  between  l y 3 2 ) . Tensions below 15% of MZ  (Bohmert,  is  occurs  voluntary  b l o o d f l o w i s o f t e n not enough t o accommodate  (Muller,  fatigue  maximum  of  to  varying  MVC  directly  (Humphreys related  rapidly  1967).  degrees  to  do  contracting  for  and L i n d , blood  not  tensions 1963).  The  occlusion  as  with i n c r e a s e d percentage of MVC  although  there  is  some  variation  muscle g r o u p s , f a t i g u e o c c u r s i n the same b a s i c f a s h i o n  all  isometric  contractions.  One  important  variable  in  isometric  work i s m o t i v a t i o n l e v e l . I s c h e m i a l e a d s t o a n a e r o b i c  work  lactate  and  build-up  and  an  athlete  must  be  highly  m o t i v a t e d to endure the p a i n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h optimum performance ( C l a r k e , H e l l o n and L i n d ,  1958).  VIGILANCE IN SAILING A  c o m p e t i t i v e dinghy r a c e r s a i l i n g at an advanced l e v e l  competition requires a nigh l e v e l  of  physical  fitness  as  average r a c e at a major r e g a t t a w i l l r e q u i r e t h r e e t o f o u r of heavy e x e r t i o n and an i n d i v i d u a l with high endurance will  be  more  able  to  produce  position i s physically taxing  and  the work r e q u i r e d . it  requires  high  of an  hours  capacity  The h i k i n g muscular  13  endurance 1979).  to  maintain  Ischemia  quadriceps  with  can  it  for  occur  continued  in  long the  hiking.  p e r i o d s of time (Putnam, abdominal  physical  fatigue,  Decreases  h t i r e d s a i l o r makes m i s t a k e s and the  plays a large  heavy w i n d s . Much of capacity  race.  in  and i n c r e a s e s i n movement time would a l s o be products  can be seen i n performance fatigue  and  Performance i s a f f e c t e d as  r e c o v e r y s e s s i o n s may be r e q u i r e d d u r i n g a agility  muscles  (Street,  1975). I t  is  effects  evident  that  part i n c o m p e t i t i v e s a i l i n g e s p e c i a l l y the  effect  is  manifested  in  of  the  in  work  of the i n d i v i d u a l and the r e s u l t s t h a t f a t i g u e have on  hiking a b i l i t y  a l t h o u g h the a b i l i t y  be h i n d e r e d as w e l l .  to process  information  may  14  Chapter 3  METHODS AND PROCEDURES  Subjects The  subjects  Vancouver a r e a . sailors  who  (12) were  club  sailors  from  subjects  were  active,  centreboard  All  raced  at  the  greater  the c l u b l e v e l i n high p e r f o r m a n c e , one  design r a c i n g d i n g y s d u r i n g the year p r i o r to t h e t e s t i n g . of  boat  the s u b j e c t s have been n a t i o n a l champion i n t h e i r  c l a s s and a l l s u b j e c t s had s a i l e d i n  a  national  Some  respective  championship.  Only males between the age of 18 and 38 were t e s t e d . T e s t i n g  was  conducted  the  prior  to the c o m p e t i t i v e season a l t h o u g h some of  s u b j e c t s had been a c t i v e d u r i n g the o f f s e a s o n . Obese i n d i v i d u a l s or those t r a i n i n g f o r o t h e r s p o r t s were e x c l u d e d .  Apparatus The  apparatus  utilized  had  two  sections:  a  sailing  s i m u l a t o r and p h y s i c a l t e s t i n g a p p a r a t u s . S a i l i ng  Simulator,.  The  equipment  used  was  e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s own c o n s t r u c t i o n . Appendix 1 c o n t a i n s giving  front,  simulator  rear  had  six  machine, a t r a c k barricade,  a  and  side  views  components:  for  the  digital  wind  clock  with  centreboard.  the  photographs  apparatus.  machine,  a  vision  The  occluding  and a v i d e o - t a p e s y s t e m . The  Lasers  the  a s a i l b o a t , a wind g e n e r a t i n g  employed was of t h e l a s e r c l a s s , i . e . , boat  of  of  a 14  foot  boat  single-handed  nave a c a t r i g and t h e r e i s no  15  s t a n d i n g r i g g i n g f o r the s i n g l e s a i l . frame  so  that i t sat upright  The boat was secured i n  and d i d not move when the  a  subject  hiked. Appendix  1 contains a  diagram  of  the  frame.  The  frame  supported the boat on both gunwales a t the f r o n t and back of  the  cockpit.  the  There  was  also  a p o s i t i o n i n g p i e c e coming up i n  c e n t r e b o a r d c a s e . The frame h e l d the boat ground  and l e a n i n g f i v e degress t o p o r t .  of h e e l was used as i t  is  within  the  the  sail,  inches  This f i v e  two  e x p e r i e n c e d when s a i l i n g a l a s e r and i t of  two  to  off  the  degree  eight  angle  normally  also f a c i l i t a t e d  setting  The boat was secured and i t d i d not move when the  s u b j e c t assumed the h i k i n g p o s i t i o n . The s a i l was f l o w n i n the were  affixed  to  showing  the  mast.  Appendix  t e l l t a l e positioning.  was c o n t r o l l e d by the s u b j e c t configuration  fashion.  The  telltales  the s a i l t h r e e f e e t from the t a c k of the  and e i g h t i n c h e s back from diagram  normal  found  1  contains  The p o s i t i o n of the  u s i n g the normal mainsheet  on the l a s e r .  A 'stock'  normal  Use of one t o one on the  two  to  one  meant  that  mainsheet less  rope  rather  decrease than  left  tiller  extension  (steering  hand and the mainsheet was h e l d  tied  subjects  sat  apparatus) in  the  the  needed to be used  p l a c e d i n the f l o o r making i t e a s i e r t o l e t out the The  sail  (rope)  whenever t h e s a i l p o s i t i o n was a d j u s t e d . E l a s t i c i z e d r o p e , was used t o p u l l out the end of the boom, was  to  which  an  was h e l d i n  right  eye  sail.  hand.  f a c i n g the p o r t s i d e of the boat and s a i l e d as  on s t a r b o a r d t a c k .  a  mainsheet was used  and one of the purchases was removed from the system to friction.  sail  the The if  16  The wind g e n e r a t i n g  apparatus  was  situated  on  o p p o s i t e the s t a r b o a r d forward s e c t i o n of the l a s e r . wind  with  a  velocity  of  a  It  produced  a p p r o x i m a t e l y e i g h t m i l e s per  Appendix 1 c o n t a i n s photographs showing s i d e and back the  wind  generating  apparatus.  apparatus was a s i x - b l a d e , diameter  which  track  The  fan  blade  hour.  views  used  of  in  the  t r u c k fan blade t h i r t y - t w o i n c h e s  in  was mounted on the end of a d r i v e  by the framework of the a p p a r a t u s . Two e l e c t r i c  shaft  secured  m o t o r s , one o n e -  h a l f o f a horse power and the o t h e r o n e - t h i r d of a  horse  power  were used t o t u r n the d r i v e s h a f t . The motors t u r n e d at 1725 rpm and  the  862.5  gearing  used  was 2:1 g i v i n g the f a n blade a speed of  rpm.  The c e n t r e of the f a n B l a d e was 65 i n c h e s and  the  blade  off  the  ground  14 d e g r e e s .  was t i l t e d backwards at an angle of  The wind produced by the f a n was d i r e c t e d at. the s a i l through large  vertical  a p e r t u r e 72 i n c h e s high and 12 i n c h e s wide.  opening was t i l t e d backwards at an angle of f o u r  degrees.  a The  Both  the opening and fan blade were aimed above h o r i z o n t a l because of the  (20  height  feet)  of  the  laser  sail.  The" bottom of  a p e r t u r e was 52 i n c h e s above the ground and the fan  blade  aperture.  was  60  inches  Fourteen  from  'louvres'  the  were  centre  outside extremity placed  in  th  This  was  done  to  ensure  that  the  the  horizontal  wind l e a v i n g  a p e r t u r e was p a r a l l e l and t h a t t h e r e would be l i t t l e when the wind c o n t a c t e d the s a i l ,  of  the  aperture,  s e c t i o n i n g i t i n t o f i f t e e n t h r e e i n c h s e c t i o n s i n the plane.  of  the  the  turbulence  a p l a s t i c b e l l o w s was a t t a c h e d  to the frame h o l d i n g the f a n blade and the i n s i d e p o r t i o n of  the  aperture  the  to  direct  all  of  the  wind  produced  through  17  aperture. The whole wind g e n e r a t i n g a p p a r a t u s was p l a c e d on dolly  which  had  f o u r c a s t e r type w h e e l s . The d o l l y  small  was square being  18  The wheels of the d o l l y ran on a track, which t r a c e d  the  w i t h the d i s t a n c e between any inches.  a  a r c through which  the  wind  two  adjoining  generating  wheels  apparatus  was  moved.  Appendix 1 c o n t a i n s p i c t u r e s showing the t r a c k and how the wheels  ran  along  the a r c . There were two c u r v e s ,  two of the wheels as the two c l o s e r t o the smaller  four  i n c h e s or  stations 10 degrees  The d o l l y so  one each  that  the  for  transcribed  a r c . The t r a c k was mounted on a f o u r f o o t by e i g h t  sheet of plywood and i t covered were  sail  dolly  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 55 d e g r e e s .  marked on the o u t s i d e c u r v e ,  foot There  each being 19  apart.  was p o s i t i o n e d under the wind g e n e r a t i n g  machine  c e n t r e of the f a n blade was 10 i n c h e s i n f r o n t  the o u t s i d e curve and e i g h t i n c h e s behind the i n s i d e c u r v e .  i n c h e s beyond the o u t s i d e opening of the a p e r t u r e .  was placed on the ground so t h a t aperture  was  24  inches  from  the  outside  The  opening  point track  of  the mast. T h i s p l a c e d the  the focal  p o i n t f o r the wind f o u r i n c h e s behind the mast o r f o u r i n c h e s f r o n t of the t e l l t a l e s . Because of the way both the  the  of The  was 98 i n c h e s making t h e f o c a l  r a d i u s of the o u t s i d e curve 28  a  laser  a p e r t u r e were t i l t e d , the mast and and a p e r t u r e d i v e r g e d  in and at  an angle of n i n e degrees and the f o c a l p o i n t was not i n the same p o s i t i o n on the s a i l f u r t h e r  above the ground.  An e i g h t f o o t cy e i g h t f o o t v i s i o n o c c l u d i n g b a r r i c a d e used  to  apparatus.  prevent Appendix  the  subject  from s e e i n g the wind  1 c o n t a i n s a diagram of  the  was  generating  barricade.  It  18  was  placed  on  the  starboard  border of the c o c k p i t . I t  s i d e of the boat at the  extended out over the deck of the  making i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r the s u b j e c t the  forward  portion  forward  of  the  to  see  starboard  opposite  s i d e of the l a s e r .  e x t e n s i o n lamp was a t t a c h e d to the frame s a i l to provide a d d i t i o n a l  anything  boat  and  directed  at  An the  light.  The d i g i t a l c l o c k was p l a c e d on a stand on the port s i d e the  boat  62 i n c h e s o f f the ground and 18 i n c h e s from the mast.  Appendix 1 c o n t a i n s photographs model 54517-A C l o c k / C o u n t e r Company  of  of  electronic,  Lafayette  showing  the  clock.  It  produced by the L a f a y e t t e  Indiana.  The  display  was  a  Instrument  of the c l o c k was  p r o d u c i n g f i v e i l l u m i n a t e d d i g i t s , each one i n c h  in  height. The  video-camera  system was p l a c e d o p p o s i t e the p o r t  of the boat so t h a t the c l o c k and t e l l t a l e s were i n the field.  Appendix  apparatus.  1  contains  the  Recordings  Color  viewing  video and  60  were made on V-30H Sony V i d e o t a p e s u s i n g an Portable Videocorder  and  an  AC1000  Power Adaptor. Tapes were a n a l y s e d u s i n g a Shinaden  SV-510U Video Taperecorder  and an BFU-62FW Sony Video  Monitor.  P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Testing; A p p a r a t u s . The equipment used the  tape  The camera used was a Sony AVC-3400 Video  AV-8400 Sony Auto Threading Sony  of  The camera l e n s was 110 i n c h e s from the mast  i n c h e s o f f the ground. Camera.  photo-graphs  side  physical  F i t n e s s Centre  fitness at  the  testing  was  University  from of  for  the John M. Buchanan  British  Columbia.  The  stopwatch used f o r t i m i n g one minute speed s i t - u p s was an MDSI 3 Hydrospeed  Trilite.  The s k i n f o l d c a l i p e r s used t o r f a t  were John B u l l c a l i p e r s produced by B r i t i s h I n d i c a t o r s  testing Limited.  19  Isometric  s t r e n g t h t e s t i n g was done u s i n g a h i k i n g bench of  experimenter's system.  own c o n s t r u c t i o n  Appendix  apparatus.  2  and  contains  a  Cybex  strength  testing  p i c t u r e s of the s t r e n g t h  The h i k i n g bench was 33 i n c h e s h i g h ,  24  the  testing  inches  wide  and 18 i n c h e s deep w i t h the depth b e i n g the same as the width  of  a  it  laser  sidedeck.  The  hiking  strap  a t t a c h e d 2 2 i n c h e s from the top of the Isokinetic  adjustable  hiking  bench.  System { S e r i a l Number C30310) was used f o r  the s u b j e c t s '  hiking strength.  including  Cybex  a  II  S e l e c t o r and a Cybex I I Maximum Beckman  was  oxygen  Metabolic  T h i s a p p a r a t u s had  I s o k i n e t i c Dynamometer, Dual Channel  uptake  values  were  produced by Quinton Instruments  Cybex  recording  three  parts,  a Cybex I I  calculated  Heart r a t e s were  d u r i n g the t r e a d m i l l t e s t with an E x e r s t r e s s Avionics.  A  Speed  kecorder.  Measurement C a r t .  4000 made by D e l Mar  and  Subjects  Display  ran  of S e a t t l e ,  on  using  a  monitored  Cardioguard a  treadmill  Washington.  Procedures The  experiment  was  conducted  in  s e c t i o n i s concerned w i t h the t e s t i n g of sailing the  two  s i m u l a t o r and the second d e a l s w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p  of  physical  fitness  capacities  Three  to  the  subjects*  simulator.  S a i l i n g S i m u l a t o r T e s t i n g ^ Each s u b j e c t times.  response  first a  selected  human  The  on  performance on the  four  parts.  of  subject  the  sessions  simulator  as  responses  different  experimental conditions.  were  were  came i n f o r with  recorded  the under  testing sailing three  The independent v a r i a b l e was  the type o f f a t i g u e produced by the p o s i t i o n used w h i l e  sailing  20  the  simulator.  The  p o s i t i o n s were: s i t t i n g on the s i d e d e c k  t h e l a s e r , the h i k i n g p o s i t i o n and wearing  a  weight  jacket  which  the  hiking  egualed  position  of  while  f i v e p e r c e n t of  body  weight. A l l s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d a l l t h r e e t r e a t m e n t s and design  was  used  ro  eliminate  a  any l e a r n i n g e f f e c t .  balanced 3.1  Table  c o n t a i n s the o r d e r of t r e a t m e n t s f o r each s u b j e c t .  Table 3. 1 Order Of Treatments For i  |  T  SUBJECT 1,7 2,8 3,9  4, 10 5, 11 6,12  the  |  SITTING  | | | | I I  SESSION SESSION SESSION SESSION SESSION SESSION  r 1 1 2 2 3 3  Subjects -T  |  HIKING  j J | | | |  SESSION SESSION SESSION SESSION SESSION SESSION  | 1 | | | |  2 3 1 3 1 2  i  SESSION SESSION SESSION SESSION SESSION SESSION  3 3 1 2 1  P r i o r to the f i r s t s e s s i o n , each s u b j e c t was i n t r o d u c e d  to  equipment;. T h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n i n c l u d e d a f u l l e x p l a n a t i o n  of  the f u n c t i o n of each p i e c e of a p p a r a t u s and a how  —  '  | WITH WEIGHT |  the  simulator  generating direction  operated.  apparatus  was  During  activated  the  demonstration briefing,  and  windshifts  were demonstrated as w e l l as the a p p r o p r i a t e  f o r each type of s h i f t .  Subjects  then  trials,  type  response.  one  for  each  of  received If  two  the wind in  The  throe  each  response practice  the subject  r e q u i r e d t o h i k e f o r t h a t s e s s i o n tne s u b j e c t was p r o v i d e d the o p p o r t u n i t y  of  was with  t o a d j u s t the h i k i n g s t r a p . sessions  c o n s i s t e d of 4 5 w i n d s h i f t s or t r i a l s .  Each w i n d s h i f t was 10 degrees as the wind  generating  apparatus  21  was  moved  from  one  position  to another a l o n g the t r a c k .  f o r w a r d o u t s i d e wheel of t h e d o l l y  was  used  to  indicate  p o s i t i o n of the wind g e n e r a t i n g a p p a r a t u s . The f o u r the  track  68  degrees,  position  following  2 - 7 8  p o s i t i o n 3 - 8 8 degrees and p o s i t i o n 4 - 98 d e g r e e s . of  the  p o s i t i o n s on  p r o v i d e d wind which s t r u c k the mast at the  angles: position 1 -  The  degrees, The  pattern  w i n d s h i f t s f o l l o w e d was the same f o r a l l t h r e e s e s s i o n s  with  the wind g e n e r a t i n g machine s t a r t i n g i n p o s i t i o n 2. Each s e s s i o n l a s t e d 15 minutes with one t r i a l scheduled f o r period  in  the  period  was  occurring interval.  s e s s i o n . The f i r s t  used  as  anywhere  a  between  The s h o r t e s t  w h i l e the l o n g e s t intervals  for  recovery the  each  20  second  10 seconds of each 20 second period 10th  with  and  the  windshift  19th second Df  the  time p e r i o d between s h i f t s was 11 seconds  was 29 s e c o n d s .  Both  the  pattern  and  time  the t r i a l s were generated from a t a b l e of random  numbers. T a b l e 3.2 c o n t a i n s the i n t e r v a l , time and d i r e c t i o n each  shift  and  the  change i n l o c a t i o n of the wind  apparatus f o r each t r i a l . first  S u b j e c t s were informed  of  generating  prior  to  the  s e s s i o n of the p r o t o c o l used f o r the t i m i n g and d i r e c t i o n  of each s h i f t . Before each s e s s i o n s t a r t e d s u b j e c t s any q u e s t i o n s .  They were then t o l d  position  to  and  take  hold  p o s i t i o n i n g of the b a r r i c a d e prevented  the  subject  of was  from  to  assume  the  appropriate  the t i l l e r and m a i n s h e e t . checked viewing  a p p a r a t u s . Both the c l o c k and v i d e o - t a p e and f i n a l l y ,  were asked i f they had  to the  ensure wind  machine  that  it  generating  were  started  the wind machine was t u r n e d - o n t e n seconds p r i o r  the s t a r t of the t e s t s e s s i o n .  The  to  Table3.2 Time I n t e r v a l ,  | |  SHIFT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10  I J I j  1 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45  i  J  I I j | I i  J I | i I i | | | i I I  I  |  TIME  |INTERVAL  | DIRECTION | POSITION | _ j- — ~  | i I I j I i j I |  1 I j | | I j i | I  W i n d s h i f t D i r e c t i o n And P o s i t i o n Change Of Th Wind Machine For Each T r i a l  I | | | J | | | J | j | | | | I | I | | | j i | | | | | I | | | I | | | | I I | i | | j  I  0 0 : 10 00:31 00:58 01:19 0 1:32 01:56 02:14 02:33 02:56 03:16 03:33 03:54 04:10 04:37 04:59 05:11 05:31 05:57 06:18 06:39 06:50 07:13 07:34 07:58 08:15 08:35 08:53 09:15 09:39 09:58 10:10 10:33 10:59 11:12 11:34 11:51 12:10 12:31 12:52 13:13 13:36 13:52 14:17 14:30 14:57  i i | I j i | | | | 1 I I I | I | i I I I | I | I |  10 21 27 21 13 24 18 19 23 20 17 21 16 27 22 12 20 26 21 21 11 23 21 24 17 20  1 | | | I | | I | ! j I I I I I I I 1  18 22 24 19 12 23 26 13 22 17 19 21 21 21 25 16 25 13 27  | | | | | | | | | | I  | | i | | | | | | | | | | ( | | | | | | | | | I  | | | l | | I  | | I  —  — — •—• — — -j- -  FORWARD | AFT | FORWARD | AFT | FORWARD | AFT | AFT | FORWARD | AFT | FORWARD | AFT | AFT | FORWARD | FORWARD | AFT | FORWARD | FORWARD | AFT | AFT | FORWARD | AFT | FORWARD I AFT | AFT j FORWARD | AFT | FORWARD | AFT j FORWARD j FORWARD j AFT | AFT | FORWARD | FORWARD I AFT | FORWARD | FORWARD | AFT } FORWARD | AFT | FORWARD j AFT | AFT | AFT ( FORWARD |  ________ __.| 2-1 1-2 2-1 1-2 2-1 1-2 2-3 3-2 2-3 3-2 2-3 3-4 4-3 3-2 2-3 3-2 2-1 1-2 2-3 3-2 2-3 3-2 2-3 3-4 4-3 3-4 4-3 3-4 4-3 3-2 2-3 3-4 4-3 3-2 2-3 3-2 2-1 1-2 2-1 1-2 2-1 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-3  I | | | I | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | I | | | | | | | | | | | I | | | I | | | |  D u r i n g each t e s t s e s s i o n the e x p e r i m e n t e r s t a t i o n e d h i n s  23  beside  the  wind g e n e r a t i n g apparatus on the o p p o s i t e s i d e from  the b a r r i c a d e . create  was the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  windshifts  station. the  It  by  moving  experimenter generating  as  well  created  as  each  apparatus  to  to  the wind machine from s t a t i o n  The t i m e of each w i n d s h i f t  apparatus  of the e x p e r i m e n t e r  was posted on  side  of  the type of movement r e q u i r e d .  The  windshift the  by  the  to  moving  the  wind  predetermined l o c a t i o n s . I t  a p p r o x i m a t e l y one second f o r each  such  movement  of  took  the  wind  machine. Sailing  Simulator  f o r the f i r s t  Data  R e c o r d i n g . . The dependent  p a r t of tne experiment  was  the  variable  deflection  There were two d i s t i n c t responses which were used i n the simulator  testing.  s u b j e c t to e i t h e r the  For  each  trial,  p u l l - i n or l e t - o u t  it  sailing  was p o s s i b l e f o r  the m a i n s h e e t .  the  Pulling  in  mainsheet made the angle between the s a i l and the boat more  a c u t e . T h i s was t h e c o r r e c t  response f o r a w i n d s h i f t which moved  the wind d i r e c t i o n f o r w a r d or Letting  towards  the  bow  boat. sail  of  apparatus. occurred, simulator. generating  the  'pause'  mode  available  V i d e o t a p e s were viewed usually  immediately  the  same  after  the  Because of the angle of  the  with day  taperecorder that as  session  video-camera  a p p a r a t u s c o u l d be seen at a l l t i m e s . T h i s  t o the e x p e r i m e n t e r shift  ±z  when a w i n d s h i f t would  be.  The  the  boat.  Video t a p e s were analysed on a Shibaden video  of  the  T h i s response was a p p r o p r i a t e f o r w i n d s h i f t s where  wind moved a f t or towards the s t e r n of the  because  of  out the mainsheet i n c r e a s e d the angle betweeen the  and b o a t .  type  time.  piece  of  recording with the  the wind  indicated  was going t o o c c u r and what experimenter  stopped  the  24  t a p e r e c o r d e r as soon as the s a i l responded to the change i n direction.  as  the  c l o c k ran c o n t i n u o u s l y a r e a d i n g of e l a p s e d  time t o the hundredth or  a  second  could  be  taken  m o n i t o r . The e x p e r i m e n t e r stopped the t a p e r e c o r d e r when  the  wind  subject  from  the  a second t i m e  f i n i s n e d a d j u s t i n g the p o s i t i o n of the  sail.  Another r e a d i n g was taken from the c l o c k and d e f l e c t i o n time was determined by s u b t r a c t i n g the f i r s t Physical Fitness Testing. testing, The  r e a d i n g from t h e s e c o n d .  P r i o r to  the  simulator  a l l s u b j e c t s were g i v e n a p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s e v a l u a t i o n .  tests  administered  specific  an  sailing.  A f t e r r e c o r d i n g age and w e i g h t , f i v e obtained.  physical  evaluation  and  were  some  permitted  fitness  scores  sailing  They  capacities  of  required  separate  i n c l u d e d : the number of  s i t - u p s a c c o m p l i s h e d i n one m i n u t e , percent body f a t , strength hiking  in  the  hiking  position,  general in  fitness bent-knee isometric  i s o m e t r i c endurance i n  the  p o s i t i o n and an e v a l u a t i o n of maximum oxygen u p t a k e .  Only one t r i a l was a d m i n i s t e r e d Subjects  were  encouraged  to  for  warm-up  the by  sit-up  testing.  s t r e t c h i n g or  light  e x e r c i s i n g a l t h o u g h no p r a c t i c i n g was a l l o w e d . The s u b j e c t s  feet  were secured by the e x p e r i m e n t e r who counted the number of  sit-  ups  accomplished  out  loud  and  informed  seconds remained i n the t e s t p e r i o d . the  the s u b j e c t  when 15  A l l s i t - u p s were done  with  knees bent and the hands c l a s p e d behind the n e c k . They were  o n l y counted i f t h e s i t - u p touching  the  floor  and  started ended  with  with  the  the  shoulder  blades  elbows t o u c h i n g  the  thighs. The p e r c e n t body f a t e v a l u a t i o n skin-fold  measurement  locations;  was  conducted  using  t r i c e p s , subscapular,  six  chest,  25  suprailiac, skin-fold  abdomen and f r o n t t h i g h fat  calipers.  measures  were  taken  with  Each measurement was r e p l i c a t e d  three  t i m e s and the averages of the s i x s c o r e s were summed f o r use the f o l l o w i n g e g u a t i o n  (Yuhasz,  1965).  Sum o f S i x S k i n f o l d s  (mm) x . 0 9 7 + 3. 64 = P e r c e n t Fat  Isometric  and  strength  endurance  i n the h i k i n g  position  were both e v a l u a t e d u s i n g the cybex equipment. The h i k i n g constructed  by  the  s t r a p on the bench t o f i x  the f e e t .  using  the  dynamometer  a d j u s t e d so t h a t the h i p j o i n t was o p p o s i t e the p i v o t  of t h e dynamometer vertical  and  it  arm. was  The 13  arm  inches  was  set  long  the  The a n g l e at the h i p  was c o n s t a n t f o r a l l s u b j e c t s as the h e i g h t of was  bench  e x p e r i m e n t e r was p l a c e d next t o the Cybex.  The s u b j e c t s s a t on the bench i n the h i k i n g p o s i t i o n hiking  in  30  point  degrees  below  for a l l subjects.  s u b j e c t p l a c e d the end of the arm on h i s sternum  and  Each  attempted  t o push the arm back v e r t i c a l . Each  of  the two s t r e n g t h t r i a l s c o n s i s t e d of a one second  maximal e x e r t i o n a g a i n s t the arm. Tae s i n g l e endurance t r i a l maximal a l t h o u g h s u b j e c t s m a i n t a i n e d the maximum were  capable  are  an  they  of on the arm u n t i l the e x p e r i m e n t e r t o l d them to  s t o p . R e s u l t s f o r the s t r e n g t h t r i a l s were and  pressure  was  expression  of  the  recorded  in  pounds  f o r c e e x e r t e d on the arm. The  b e t t e r of the two t r i a l s was a c c e p t e d . A f a t i g u e c u r v e was drawn f o r the endurance measure as the f o r c e e x e r t e d time.  The  score  recorded  diminished  with  was the time r e q u i r e d f o r the  force  e x e r t e d to decrease t o 50 percent of the o r i g i n a l maximum v a l u e . Endurance s c o r e s were recorded i n s e c o n d s .  26  Maximum oxygen uptake treadmill  evaluation.  values  Each  were  determined  three  distinct  while  The p r o t o c o l  used  phases. A f t e r attachment of the h e a r t  monitoring  a p p a r a t u s , each s u b j e c t warmed-up by w a l k i n g  treadmill  at  t h r e e mph f o r  was not used d u r i n g t h i s himself  direct  s u b j e c t ran on the t r e a d m i l l  measurements were t a k e n from the e x p i r e d a i r . had  by  10 minutes. The b r e a t h i n g  period  as  the  subject  rate  on  the  apparatus  acclimatized  t o the t r e a d m i l l and other n o v e l a s p e c t s of the  testing  situation. The e x e r c i s e  p o r t i o n of t h e t e s t s t a r t e d w i t h the t r e a d m i l l  r u n n i n g at seven mph and zero grade. the  For each s u c c e s s i v e  minute  during  exercise,  grade of the t r e a d m i l l was i n c r e a s e d one  degree.  S u b j e c t s ran u n t i l maximum upte.ke was a c h i e v e d . T h i s was  determined through c o n s t a n t e v a l u a t i o n of rate, values  the  subjects'  oxygen  uptake  level  and  fatigue  level.  were  obtained  from  the  Beckman  every  throughout  the  exercise  session.  worn f o r the whole e x e c i s e  also  m e t a b o l i c r a t e r e t u r n e d w e l l below maximal was the o n l y v a r i a b l e monitored d u r i n g for  all  30  seconds  period. provided  They walked on the t r e a d m i l l a t t h r t e  Results  Oxygen uptake  The b r e a t h i n g a p p a r a t u s was  A f i v e minute r e c o v e r y p e r i o d was subjects.  heart  five  of  for  mph u n t i l  levels.  the their  Heart  rate  recovery.  tae p h y s i c a l f i t r e s s t e s t  were  p r e s e n t e d t o t h e s u b j e c t s i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r the t e s t i n g s e s s i o n .  P Bg£J:SgSfe.^i R a t i o n a l e And C o n t r o l s x  Because t e s t i n g was  done  on  a  simulator,  a  number  of  27  controls  were  variables.  All  individuals  used of  to  the  counter  the  subjects  effect  tested  who had l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y  of  were  highly  p r o d u c i n g the  r e s p o n s e . Randomization i n the time i n t e r v a l and each  stimulus  was  used  to  intervening skilled  appropriate  direction  for  p r e v e n t a n t i c i p a t i o n from skewing  r e s u l t s . Order of t r e a t m e n t s was balanced  to  ensure  that  the  r e s u l t s were a product of v i g i l a n c e and u n a f f e c t e d by l e a r n i n g . The  basic  physical  premise  fatigue  attention  on  caused  sail  of  the experiment was t o determine  decreases  as  high  vigilance.  fitness  levels  Work  could  vigilance  and  if  capacity  diminish  f a t i g u e . The e x p e r i m e n t s were designed t o decreased  Decreased  t r i m would be m a n i f e s t e d by d i m i n i s h e d boat  speed and decrements i n performance. this  in  if  related  the e f f e c t s  indicate  if  to of  fatigue  physical fitness affects  vigilance  1, the design was a 2^-way r e p e a t e d  measures  capacity.  l 2 E § £ i i ! i e a t § 2 Design  For Experiment design  repeated  on  both f a c t o r s .  the amount of f a t i g u e produced by dependent  variable  was  the  The independent sailing  deflection  the  were r e c o r d e d w i t h each s u b j e c t r e c e i v i n g  three  s e p a r a t e days.  repeated on both Experiment nine  variables.  The p r o j e c t  simulator.  time.  trials  v a r i a b l e was The  A t o t a l of 135 45  trials  i s a 3X45 f a c t o r i a l  on  experiment  factors. 2 was a c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s u s i n g The  variables  used  were  f i t n e s s t e s t s c o r e s , the means f o r each of  the the  a five  three  with the s i m u l a t o r and the mean f o r a l l 135 t r i a l s .  The  total  of  physical sessions multiple  28  correlation  analysis  comparisons of  y i e l d e d c o - e f f i c i e n t s f o r the 46 p o s s i b l e  variables.  Data A n a l y s i s Data a n a l y s i s was done i n two s e c t i o n s . For experiment two-way r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e on both v a r i a b l e s For  experiment  (ANOVA)  1, a  repeated  was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g computer program BtiD:P2V. 2,  a c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g  computer program S i m c o r t . Test Of H y p o t h e s i s JL_ Hypothesis  1 predicted that  decreases w i t h time r e g a r d l e s s of p h y s i c a l f a t i g u e . of  the  trials  scores  was  Examination  f a c t o r i n the 3X45 ANOVA i n d i c a t e d i f  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between then  used  to  trials.  A  determine i f  graph  vigilance  of  t h e r e was the  mean  v i g i l a n c e decreased  or  increased. Test Of H y p o t h e s i s 2;_ Hypothesis fatigue  further  independent  decreased  variable  2 predicted that  vigilance.  (amount  of  The  physical  comparison f o r  fatigue)  the  indicated  if  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between the t r e a t m e n t s f o r a l l 45 trials.  The  interaction  t r i a l s factor indicated i f  of  the  independent v a r i a b l e and the  a significant  difference existed  for  3 predicted that  high  one s e c t i o n of the t e s t s e s s i o n s . Test  Of  Hlfiothesis  physical fitness vigilance  scores.  f i t n e s s t e s t and  scores  3._  Hypothesis  would  be  inversely  correlated  with  High n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between a p h y s i c a l deflection  time  would  have  indicated  i n d i v i d u a l s h i g h i n t h a t f i t n e s s c a p a c i t y had b e t t e r  that  vigilance.  29  Chapter 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION representative  A  vigilance  c a l c u l a t i n g The mean of a l l t r i a l s .  score  was  for  by  As t h e r e was no m i s s i n g d a t a  and no t r i a l s were d i s c a r d e d the score o b t a i n e d trials  obtained  each of the 12 s u b j e c t s .  Experiment  1 i s presented i n Appendix  Experiment  1 was 2 . 5 3 seconds.  represents  The s u b j e c t s ' 3.  The  T35  raw data f o r  mean  score  for  The p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s t e s t r e s u l t s a l s o had no m i s s i n g d a t a . Table  4.1  c o n t a i n s t h e s c o r e s f o r each f i t n e s s t e s t as w e l l as  the age and weight f o r each s u o j e c t . are  Results  for  Experiment  f o r s i n g l e t r i a l e v a l u a t i o n s and the data from the  2  physical  f i t n e s s t e s t s was not reduced p r i o r t o the c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s . Table 4.1 P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Test R e s u l t s For Experiment 1 >U3 JECT  AGE  — + -  - - + -  GS DH PL ST MF BL DW JH RB JT MK MC  | j J  | j  | j  | | | |  21 38 23 26 19 27 19 26 18 22 19 18  i  END WEIGHT SIT-UPS %FAT STREN _ _ _ _ _ _ ±. _ _ •f- _ _ _ _ _ - t -4~ —4— | KG #/„IN LBS | SEC +~ --+-t-+.j | 7 7. 8 | 11. 2 | | 40 87 | 3 3 . 8 | 82.0 I j 10. 3 | j 39 116 | 16.4 | 72. 0 j j 61 9. 9 178 | 25. 0 | j 77. 5 I | | 50 7. 9 | 126 | 12.0 j 77.5 I j | 136 | 4 3 . 0 | 40 7.7 j 65. 8 j | | 37 9.9 83 | 11.0 I 77. 5 j | | | 67 9. 1 111 | 4 0 . 0 j 74. 0 I 50 13. 4 | 83 | 2 0 . 0 | I 87. 0 j | | 46 8. 9 | 124 | 2 2 . 0 j 71.0 | | 48 7. 9 | 126 | 3 2 . 0 | 70. 0 | 45 J | 8. 9 | 111 | 1 5 . 0 | 80. 5 42 9.4 102 | 36. 0 |  ~~i  MV02 _ ML/KG 50. 6 42.4 48.0 47. 3 53. 1 54. 8 52.8 36.2 33. 2 47. 6 38. 1 50. 3  30  RESULTS iiND DISCUSSION OF THE PREPLANNED COMPARISONS OF THE  Ji2.E_iEili.fil.  1  SiE2__ --Sis  __,  ;  resulting  in  a  It  was  decrease  expected in  being  the  last  3X45  variable  are  contained  'mental'  would  ANOVA  for  each  the  that  The r e s u l t s  trials  there  of  t r i a l are high  was  the  3X45  i n Taole 4 . 2 . The t r i a l s f a c t o r i s  s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h an a l p i i a l e v e l of <.001, however, deviations  fatigue  o c c u r over the  with  indicated  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t r i a l s . ANOVA  that  vigilance  f i f t e e n minute t e s t s e s s i o n . The factor  HYPOTHESES  the  (see Appendix 4 ) .  highly  standard The mean  d e f l e c t i o n t i m e s were graphed f o r the 45 t r i a l s t o determine  if  trends  is  existed  i n the d a t a . F i g u r e 4 . 1 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e  no s y s t e m a t i c i n c r e a s e i n d e f l e c t i o n time s c o r e s , the  high  varianility  i n the data makes i t  impossible to  t h a t v i g i l a n c e decreased over time f o r experiment the  high  variability  the r e s u l t s i n t o  small  consequently,  1. Because  i n the d a t a , b l o c k i n g was used to blocks  which  could  more  data.  Table  4.3  lists  the  v i g i l a n c e s c o r e s from Experiment various The  readily  using  calculated blocking  be  analyse for  designs  the of  sizes. b l o c k i n g f a c t o r s only had s i g n i f i c a n c e when the number  of t r i a l s was l o w . blocks  1  ANOVAs  of  section  compared. The computer program BMD:P2V was a g a i n used t o the  state  The D l o c k i n g f a c t o r was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r  of f i v e t r i a l s  (. 048) and f i f t e e n b l o c k s of t h r e e  nine trials  ( . 0 0 2 ) . The r e s u l t s f o r the t r i a l s and b l o c k i n g f a c t o r s f o r ANOVA appear i n Table 4 . 4 .  each  31 Table 4.2 A n a l y s i s Of V a r i a n c e Table For Experiment 1 SOUBCE  SS  SUBJECTS CONDITIONS SxC TRIALS SXT CXT SXCXT  df  ms  190.22 . 12 34. 51 97.20 452. 95 72.82 781.89  11 2 22 44 484 88 968  10333. 1 1  1619  17.29 .06 1. 57 2. 21 .94 .83 .81  F  P  .04  . 963  2. 36  <. 001  1.02  .422  For both c a s e s where the b l o c k i n g f a c t o r the  variability  in  the  significant,  t r i a l s f a c t o r f o r the 3X45 d e s i g n has  been t r a n s f e r e d t o the c l o c k i n g f a c t o r . blocks  was  The mean s c o r e s f o r  show t h a t t h e r e i s no r e a l t r e n d and t h a t the  between c l o c k s i s caused by f l u c t u a t i o n s interesting  to  in  the  the  difference  data.  It  is  note t h a t the s c o r e s tend t o s t a b i l i z e near  the  end of the t e s t s e s s i o n s . Both F i g u r e 4 . 1 and the means f o r blocks  i n d i c a t e t h a t tne range of s c o r e s i s g r e a t l y  Table 4.6 c o n t a i n s the s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s of the  b l o c k s of t r i a l s  the  diminished.  interactions 1.  The  mean s c o r e s shown i n Table 4 . 5 c o n f i r m the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d  by  Figure  4. 1.  used i n the a n a l y s i s f o r Experiment  for  The d e f l e c t i o n time d i d not i n c r e a s e and t h e r e was  no decrease i n v i g i l a n c e  for  Experiment  t h e r e f o r e r e j e c t e d and the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s Hypothesis  2*.  The  second  1.  Hypothesis  1  is  accepted.  hypothesis  predicted that  the  p h y s i c a l f a t i g u e produced by one or both of the t r e a t m e n t s  used  in  This  the s a i l i n g s i m u l a t o r t e s t i n g would decrease v i g i l a n c e .  change c o u l d be m a n i f e s t e d i n two ways as d e f l e c t i o n time e i t h e r be g r e a t e r f o r the complete s e s s i o n or o n l y of  it.  for a portion  T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was examined by the c o n d i t i o n s  i n the 3X45 ANOVA and the i n t e r a c t i o n of c o n d i t i o n s  would  and  factor trials  32 3. 2 -  3. 0  2. 8  #  2. 6  #  #  #  #  #  #  #  #  #  #  Time (sec) 2. 4  #  #  2. 2  #  #  #  #  #  ##  2.0-.. 0.0  I  10. 0  20.0 Shift  Figure  #  #  1  I  30.0  40.0  50. 0  Number  4 . 1 Graph of Mean D e f l e c t i o n Time and  Trials.  f o r the same a n a l y s i s  (see Table 4 . 2 ) . The c o n d i t i o n s f a c t o r  an  . 5 6 3 i n d i c a t i n g t h a t no d i f f e r e n c e  alpha  level  of  existed  between any o f the t h r e e t r e a t m e n t s f o r the f u l l 45 t r i a l s . interaction  of  conditions  and  trials  was  for  any  part  of  the  45 t r i a l s .  Figure  The  insignificant,  d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t r e a t m e n t s change  had  did  4 . 2 shows  not the  33 Table 4.3 A n a l y s e s Of V a r i a n c e C a l c u l a t e d For S a i l i n g S i m u l a t o r Scores r" I  BLOCKS  !--  5 9 3 15  I I  # OF TRIALS -+I  Vigilance  DESIGN  I  9 5 15 3  3x5x9 3x9x5 3x3x15 3x15x3  Table 4.4 R e s u l t s For A n a l y s e s Of Variance BLOCKS  DESIGN -+I i I  3x15x3 3x3x15 3x9x5 3x5x9  15 3 9 5  | +-  Using B l o c k i n g For Experiment 1 TRIALS -+I  .002 . 903 .048 . 596  3 15 5 9  I I  •rI  -+-  . 521 . 351 . 570 . 378  Table 4 . 5 Mean Scores For B l o c k s Used In Experiment 1 DESIGN # of  blocks  +-  3x15x3  3x9x5  15  9  trials/blk 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15  2.32 2.46 2. 72 2 . 74 2.37 2. 38 2. 72 2. 59 2.44 2. 51 2. 55 2.46 2.46 2.47 2.61  +-  +-  5 2.34 2.66 2. 55 2. 49 2.62 2.49 2. 51 2.50 2.51  +-  3x5x9  3x3x15  5  3  9  15  2.46 2.49 2. 58 2. 50 2. 51  2.52 2. 54 2. 51  3 4fl  scores for  the  variability  of  three  conditions  the  results  is  for  each  trial.  undoubtedly  s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s o b t a i n e d from the  a  The  high  factor in  the  ANOVA.  The b l o c k i n g used to t e s t H y p o t h e s i s  1  substantiated  the  r e s u l t s of the 3X45 ANOVA. The t r e a t m e n t s e f f e c t i s the same f o r all  of  the  analyses  and  none  of  the  t r e a t m e n t s and b l o c k s of t r e a t m e n t s and  interactions  trials  is  between  significant  f o r any of the ANOVAs c a l c u l a t e d . T_e i n t e r a c t i o n v a l u e s f o r ANOVAs  calculated  u s i n g b l o c k i n g appear i n Table  4 . 6 . The  alpha l e v e l t o approach s i g n i f i c a n c e i s t h a t of the of  only  interaction  t r e a t m e n t s and b l o c k s f o r t h e 3X9X5 d e s i g n as the p v a l u e  . 0 5 3 . However, t h i s i s not a product of a the  the  systematic  trend  in  d a t a and i t can be accounted f o r by the high v a r i a b i l i t y  the s c o r e s . second  The r e s u l t s of  the  data  analyses  h y p o t h e s i s and the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s  Hypothesis  is  contradict  in the  i s a g a i n accepted  for  2.  Experiment 2 Hypothesis sessions the  three  analysis.  3.  Because  it  was  possible  that  the  on the s a i l i n g s i m u l a t o r would be d i f f e r e n t , sessions The  mean  were scores  used for  separately  in  a  three  means f o r correlation  each s u b j e c t are p r e s e n t e d  in  Table 4 . 7 . High i n v e r s e c o r r e l a t i o n between the mean for  the  simulator  f i t n e s s t e s t s except body  fat  s e s s i o n s and s c o r e s f o r a l l of the p e r c e n t body  fat  were  expected.  in  The m a t r i x  Appendix  5.  of  the  correlation  Only t h r e e of the f i v e  time  physical Percent  s h o u l d have the i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p as high body  i s not d e s i r a b l e . presented  deflection  analysis  fat is  correlations  35 # - sitting * - hiking + - w i t h weight  3. 6 -  3. 3  +  #  3. 0 + + #  *# +  2. 7  #  Time (sec)  # * # *#  2. 4  *  #  +++ *  #+# *+  #+  * #  *# *  2. 1  1.8-.. 0.0  10.0  # # # * # # +#  # #  + *• *#  +  #+  + *#  + #  #  # *  **  *  ++  # + # * # * #  20.0  * ##  +# #  I  30.0  40.0  50. 0  S h i f t Number F i g u r e 4 . 2 Mean Scores f o r S i t t i n g , H i k i n g and H i k i n g With Weight. showed  a  inversely  moderate  relationship.  oxygen  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e means f o r s i t t i n g  ( - . 8 0 2 ) , h i k i n g with weight The  Maximum  uptake  (-.625),  (-. 599) and the grand mean  was  hiking (-. 7 3 0 ) .  speed s i t - u p s and percent body f a t had no r e l a t i o n s h i p  with  36 Table 4.6 S i g n i f i c a n c e L e v e l s Of I n t e r a c t i o n s For A n a l y s e s Of V a r i a n c e Using V a r i o u s B l o c k i n g D e s i g n s I  I  T  **  DESIGN  '  | j | j | j | j j  3x15x3 3x15x3 3x3x15 3x3x15 3x9x5 3x9x5 3x5x9 3x5x9  L  treat treat treat treat treat treat treat treat  1  T  INTERACTION X X X X X X X X  | - ~ f —  I | I | | | I j  blocks trials blocks trials blocks trials blocks trials  P  |  . 168 . 878 . 156 . 170 .053 .159 . 208 . 945  Table 4.7 Subject Means And Standard D e v i a t i o n s For S i t t i n g , H i k i n g And H i k i n g With Weight SUBJECT  SITTING  J  X GS DH PL RT MF BL DW JH RB JT MK MC  -f| | | | | | | | | | |  J  2. 24 2.56 1.86 2.65 2.19 2.46 2. 1 6 3.43 2.72 2. 94 2. 66 2.48  I  SD  | | | | | | | | | |  .80 1.02 .58 .84 . 60 .75 .43 1. 75 1.09 .97 .66 .78  ~r-  |  HIKING X | I I j  I | I I j  I I  2.07 2. 40 2.23 2.61 2. 51 2. 34 2.28 3 . 28 3 . 09 2.72 2. 86 2.03  WITH WEI 3HT  I  SD  |  X  | | | | | | | | | | |  .62 .73 .70 1.19 .77 .73 .63 1.34 1.80 • 79 .75 .63  | | | | | | | | | | | |  2. 11 2. 60 1. 86 2. 95 2. 41 2. 47 2. 28 3. 03 2. 63 2. 56 3. 03 2. 35  -+—  I  SD  | | | | | | | | | |  . 67 . 83 .75 1. 54 .71 .81 . 67 1. 40 . 77 1. 02 1. 23 .91  v i g i l a n c e s c o r e s as o n l y one c o r r e l a t i o n was above . 3 0 0 . The two i s o m e t r i c measurements showed very weak c o r r e l a t i o n s as s t r e n g t h was c o r r e l a t e d  at  -.490,  -.090,  -.551  and  -.468.  c o r r e l a t i o n s t h i s low account f o r v e r y l i t t l e of t h e in  the  However, variability  d a t a s e t s and the s t r e n g t h measures cannot be d e s c r i b e d  as i n v e r s e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h v i g i l a n c e . Maximum  oxygen  uptake  is  inversely  correlated  with  37  vigilance  as  the  deflection  time was lower f o r  h i g h e r a e r o o i c c a p a c i t y . The v a l i d i t y  subjects  with  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p can be  questioned i n l i g h t of the f a c t that n e i t h e r  Hypothesis  Hypothesis  p h y s i c a l or mental  fatigue  2  was  causing  simulator  accepted. a  decrease  experiment.  in  is  no  vigilance  for  the  postpones i t s  onset.  nor  sailing  P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s has a b e n e f i c i a l  c o u n t e r a c t i n g f a t i g u e as i t it  There  1  effect  Consequently,  i s d i f f i c u l t t o conclude that a p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s c a p a c i t y  r e l a t e d to a performance fatigue.  It  variable  is definitely  the  is  not  mean  relationship  deflection  does  exist  time  and  examination  for  of  F i g u r e s 4 . 1 and 4 . 2 i t  graph of d e f l e c t i o n t i m e and t r i a l s .  twelve  and  subsequent  trial.  A  then similar  immediately increase  seemed apparent portion  first  of  15  to  the  three  d e f l e c t i o n time i s a  wind and  generating four  product  apparatus  respectively. of  the  on  as  the  The  presentation  24,  marked.  are the is  20  trials  trial  not  i n d i c a t e s t h a t t r i a l s seven and t w e l v e  i n s t a n c e s where positions  is  on  the  treatments  decreases occurs  although the f l u c t u a t i o n i n the mean s c o r e 3.2  is  other  D e f l e c t i o n time i n c r e a s e s q u i t e d r a m a t i c a l l y f o r and  Table  the  A l l t h r e e of the  had s i m i l a r u n d u l a t i o n s i n the curves f o r the  seven  3  Effect  t h a t a d i s t i n c t p a t t e r n had appeared i n the f i r s t  trials.  spurious.  tests.  A n a l y s i s For k L e a r n i n g On  is  by  between  Hypothesis  accepted f o r maximum oxygen uptake and r e j e c t e d four p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s  affected  p o s s i b l e t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n  maximum oxygen uptake and However,  which  is  first  moved  to  increase  in  of  a  new  38  stimulus.  The  accounted  for  expectations.  subsequent  drop  through In  both  in  consideration instances,  i n v e r s e of the p r e v i o u s one and t h i s which  the  subject  expects.  time t h a t p o s i t i o n f o u r i s similar  deflection of  the  can  the  next  is  time  subjects'  windshift i s  undoubtedly  to  the  second  subjects  and  the  sessions  appears  trials  five t r i a l s ,  as  the  portion  to be a product of the p a t t e r n  T h i s i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the i n c r e a s e i n s t a b i l i t y later  a  e f f e c t may have o c c u r r e d , a l t h o u g h i t i s not as marked.  The l a r g e f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the mean s c o r e s f o r t h e f i r s t of  the  something  W i n d s h i f t 2 4 r e p r e s e n t s the  presented  be  seen  used.  in  the  means f o r b l o c k i n g , e s p e c i a l l y b l o c k s of  show very l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n  near  the  end  of  the  sessions. With  the  fluctuations  in  the data b e i n g produced by the  w i n d s h i f t p a t t e r n employed, the data was for  a  learning effect.  restructured  to  test  The ANOVA f o r t r e a t m e n t s i n d i c a t e d  that  t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e between s i t t i n g , h i k i n g and h i k i n g weight.  Because  analysed  of  according  fluctuations  this, to  the  the  i n the f i r s t  sessions  order  were  of  re-ordered  would be an i n d i c a t i o n of a l e a r n i n g e f f e c t .  Figure  a graph of d e f l e c t i o n time and t r i a l s f o r the t h r e e  Experiment  1  was  then  calculated  of  The  ANOVA  indicates  High  sessions  4.3 contains sessions.  variance  used  f o r the r e - o r g a n i z e d  Table 4 . 8 c o n t a i n s the ANOVA t a b l e f o r a 3 X 4 5 r e p e a t e d a n a l y s i s r e p e a t e d on both  and  presentation.  but not the second and t h i r d  The same r e p e a t e d measures a n a l y s i s  with  in  data.  measures  factors. that there i s s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  (p=.017) between the s e s s i o n s . The mean d e f l e c t i o n times f o r  the  39 # - session 1 * - session 2 + - session 3  3. 6-  3. 3  #  3. 0  #*  #  *  *  #  # *  * *  #  #** +  2. 7  +  Time (sec)  #  #  #*  # ft  + #* * # *  *+  #  #  #  #  *  +  + *  #  2. 4  * *# # + ++* *  #* + +  #+  #+  *  #  2. 1  +  #  #  +#  #  # #  * * *#  + +  I  0.  #*  #  *+  1.8-  +  #+** # # * * + * + * # +  *  *+*  +  10.0  20.0  30.0  ^" m a | • • i  40.0  50. 0  S h i f t Number Figure  4.3  Mean Scores by Order of S e s s i o n s by  s e s s i o n a r e : s e s s i o n 1 - 2.62 s e c o n d s , s e s s i o n 2 session 3 -  2.42 s e c o n d s . C l e a r l y  as mean d e f l e c t i o n session.  time  has  Trials 2.53 s e c o n d s ,  a learning effect  decreased  with  each  has  occurred  successive  The graph shows c e r t a i n t r e n d s when the c u r v e s f o r  t h r e e s e s s i o n s a r e compared. There  are  more  large  errors  the in  40 Table 4.3 A n a l y s i s Of V a r i a n c e Table For L e a r n i n g SOURCE  df  SS  session  11 2 22 44 484 88 968  10333.11  1619  one  variaoility  F  ms  190.22 10. 75 23. 88 97.20 452. 95 54. 98 799.73  SUBJECTS CONDITIONS SxC TRIALS SXT CXT SXCXT  Effect  17. 29 5.37 1.09 2. 21 .94 .62 .83  P  4. 95  .017  2. 36  <.001  .76  . 952  than i n e i t h e r s e s s i o n two or t h r e e . decreases a l a r g e amount i n the  third  The amount of session  and  t h i s i n c r e a s e i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s the major reason f o r the drop the  mean  score.  Familiarization  with  the  a p p a r a t u s and the  s t i m u l i p r e s e n t e d appears t o have produced the decrease i n d e f l e c t i o n time. It more  successful  because of t h e i r time i n t e r v a l s  i s also possible that subjects  in  anticipating  with  the  mean  may have been  s h i f t s during l a t e r  increasing familiarity  sessions  pattern  as the r e s u l t s are i d e n t i c a l f o r those r e p o r t e d  treatments trials.  ANOVA. The graph shows only random v a r i a t i o n  Blocking  similar  to  that  used  in  for  interactions  the  interaction  approach  learning  that  significance  occurred  t e s t i n g may have been produced pattern  blocks.  indicating  by  that  the the  The the the  the s e s s i o n .  d u r i n g the s a i l i n g s i m u l a t o r a  number  of  factors.  used f o r the w i n d s h i f t s c r e a t e d high s c o r e s f o r  t r i a l s d u r i n g the f i r s t  in  appear i n Table 4 . 9 . None of  d i f f e r e n c e between s e s s i o n s i s c o n s t a n t throughout The  in  was  Experiment 1 was  u t i l i z e d t o examine the i n t e r a c t i o n of s e s s i o n and results  and  used.  The t r i a l s e f f e c t i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the ANOVA but t h a t expected  in  s e s s i o n . Each time a  new  The  certain  position  was  41 Table 4.9 S i g n i f i c a n c e L e v e l s Of I n t e r a c t i o n s F o r A n a l y s e s Of Using B l o c k i n g I n Learning E f f e c t A n a l y s i s r |  |  DESIGN  h  j I j j j j  sessions. the  Familiarity time  learning.  that  used  standard  deviations  Reliability standard  deflection analysis The  time  extent  in  subsequent  used, p o s i t i o n s p o s s i b l e  between  practice  |  shifts  trials  using  introduction  contributed  to  a l l four possible  to  the  experiment  effect.  Analysis  t h e e r r o r range  high.  displayed  f o r the d e f l e c t i o n analysis  d e v i a t i o n s are a  time  scores  or  was  time  attempted  correct i f  i n Appendix  they  scores  4 indicate was  quite  to determine  i f the  representation are a product  of  the  of the data  technique. video-tape  45 scores  correlation for  lesser  i  .437 . 823 . 920 . 765 . 870 .515 .582 . 686  deflection  be r e q u i r e d t o remove t h e l e a r n i n g  The  The  X X X  | | | | | |  blocks trials blocks trials blocks trials blocks trials  the p a t t e r n  and a more e x t e n s i v e  Reliability  high  X X X  to a  with  intervals  Additional  positions may  This occurred  X X  th e  testing.  during dramatically.  order order order order order order order order  1  P  +  +  3x15x3 3x15x3 3x3x15 3x3x15 3x9x5 3x9x5 3x5x9 3x5x9  and  r |  INTERACTION  Variance  for  f o r one s e s s i o n the  analysis  the r e l i a b i l i t y  three using  study  was r e - a n a l y s e d  sessions computer  were  then  three used  program S i m c o r t .  a p p e a r s i n A p p e n d i x 6. The  times.  Raw  in  a  data  correlation  42  analysis yielded six c o - e f f i c i e n t s used  to  results .798,  indicate i f  correlation  are  which  were  tne data a n a l y s i s system was r e l i a b l e .  ware c o r r e l a t i o n s of . 4 9 0 , . 7 2 7 , . 6 8 0 , which  been  of  not the high p o s i t i v e  representative  of  reliability  .775,  The  .641  and  values which would have  in  the  data  analysis  techniques. The  methods  Experiment  used  for  the  raw  data  used i n  1 d i d not prove t o be c o m p l e t e l y r e l i a b l e . T h i s  than d e s i r e d r e l i a b i l i t y term  obtaining  i n c r e a s e s the s u b j e c t by s e s s i o n s  i n t h e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e and had the e f f e c t of  the power of the a n a l y s i s , c o n s e q u e n t l y ,  error  reducing  an e r r o r may occur as a  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between s e s s i o n s w i l l be negated high  less  extremely  very  clearly  low  the  error  term.  However,  probability  (.963)  indicates  difference  between  i s correct.  T h i s i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the a n a l y s i s f o r a l e a r n i n g  effect.  the  by  value f o r  that  s e s s i o n s and t h a t r e j e c t i o n  there  the  is  no  of h y p o t h e s i s 2  Although the e r r o r term i s i n f l a t e d by poor  reliability,  t h e r e i s s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between s e s s i o n s when t h e y are a n a l y s e d a c c o r d i n g to o r d e r of p r e s e n t a t i o n .  This  indicates  t h a t the power of the a n a l y s i s was s t r o n g enough t o overcome error  due t o poor r e l i a b i l i t y .  and the r e j e c t i o n of h y p o t h e s i s Experiment  by  low  2 i s therefore  as  mean  1 are used i n the c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s  in  2. The use of a mean value overcomes the e r r o r caused  reliability.  Three of the v a l u e s used are means f o r 45  t r i a l s and the f o u r t h i s the average value f o r a l l The  effect  valid.  2 i s a l s o a f f e c t e d by poor r e l i a b i l i t y  v a l u e s from experiment experiment  The f i n d i n g of a l e a r n i n g  the  vigilance  scores  used f o r each s u b j e c t i n t h e  135  trials.  correlation  43  a n a l y s i s are v a l i d because they number  are  means  for  such  Summary Of  correct.  Hypotheses  The r e s u l t s from both Experiment mixed.  Hypothesis  support  the  hypothesis  1  and  Experiment  of  accepted  Mackworth for  one  for sports requiring physical Testing  of  the  t h a t no f a t i g u e , be testing.  and  others.  of the f i v e  The  third  physical  fitness  two it  hypotheses i n Experiment  physical  or  mental,  1 indicated  occurred is  during probable  f i f t e e n minute s e s s i o n s may not have been l o n g enough  interval  may  also  have  v i g i l a n c e performance a c c u r a t e l y . number of v a r i a b l e s t h a t sailing.  training  exertion.  or s t r e n u o u s enough f o r v i g i l a n c e to stimulus  in  A number of f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s . I t  the  are  2  and 2 were not accepted and t h i s does not  findings is  1  t e s t s and t h i s s u b s t a n t i a t e s t h e b a s i c t h e o r y used  The  fatigue  the  be been  The  inter-  too short f o r  testing  The s i m u l a t o r used reduced t h e  subject  effect  affected.  may  had  have  to been  s u b j e c t s d i d not have t o contend w i t h the motion The  large  of t r i a l s . The r e s u l t s of experiment 2 are v a l i d and the  t r e a t m e n t of H y p o t h e s i s 3 i s  that  a  consider reduced of  while as the  the  boat.  s i m u l a t o r d i d not r e q u i r e as much upper cody work as a r a c e  does and t h e attempt at s i m u l a t i n g heavy weather s a i l i n g  may not  have been s u c c e s s f u l . A l e a r n i n g e f f e c t o c c u r r e d and i t may have been a f a c t o r i n the absence of a v i g i l a n c e e f f e c t . replicating experimental  sailing controls  have and  limited all  of  c o n s i d e r e d i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h of t h i s  the  Attempts  effectiveness  these nature.  factors  of  should  at the be  44  The  analysis  f o r Experiment 2 i s p a r t i a l l y dependent  the r e s u l t s of Experiment in  Experiment  1  will  1. A l l of the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  scores  as  uptake v a l u e s . the  only  produced  then nave some b e a r i n g on H y p o t h e s i s 3 .  Maximum oxygen uptake i s i n v e r s e l y time  vigilance  is  correlated  with  deflection  b e t t e r f o r s u b j e c t s with  higher  The r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e data from Experiment  factor  which can d e t r a c t  any  vigilance  product  This  may  1  from t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p .  o t h e r p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s t e s t s d i d not show performance.  upon  be  a  themselves as t h e y may not be a p p l i c a b l e f o r  The  relationship of the  examining  is  to  tests  fitness  l e v e l s of c o m p e t i t i v e s a i l o r s . Because the maximum oxygen uptake measure  only  examines  physical fitness prediction  of  test  aerobic results  performance  capacity obtained  it  i s c l e a r that  cannot  be  used  on the s i m u l a t o r . None of the  a d m i n i s t e r e d g i v e s a comprehensive measure of s a i l i n g  the for  tests  skill.  45  Chapter 5  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  Summary The purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n effect  was  to  determine  what  f a t i g u e had on v i g i l a n c e i n s a i l i n g . The f a t i g u e complex  was d i v i d e d i n t o p h y s i c a l and mental f a t i g u e components f o r investigation. vigilance  A b i l i t y to m a i n t a i n s a i l t r i m was used t o measure  performance  on  a  sailing  simulator.  produced wind s h i f t s were presented t o required  the  subjects  Mechanically and  t o respond t o and c o r r e c t f o r each s h i f t  The hypotheses s t a t e d t h a t t h e d e f l e c t i o n  time  the  time  was r e c o r d e d .  would  increase  with f a t i g u e and t h a t the e f f e c t c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o e i t h e r a mental  or  designed  a to  physical determine  component. if  The  physical  i n v e s t i g a t i o n was a l s o  fitness  was  related  to  v i g i l a n c e performance. Two  separate  experiments  were  performed t o a c h i e v e  purpose. Experiment 1 c o n s i s t e d of t h r e e simulated  sailing.  Each  session  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the s u n j e c r s as side-deck,  they  15 minute had  different  sailed  h i k i n g and h i k i n g w i t h w e i g h t .  Forty-five  session.  The  experimental  task  of  physical  sitting  were p r e s e n t e d i n a random p a t t e r n u s i n g a v a r y i n g each  sessions  this  on  the  windshifts  interval  in  was a s i m p l e t w o - c h o i c e  response as the mainsheet was e i t h e r eased or p u l l e d to l e t  the  sail  the  out  or  pull  it  in.  Deflection  i n c i d e n c e of the w i n d s h i f t on the  sail  time and  s t a r t e d with stopped  when  s u b j e c t had completed the r e q u i r e d mainsheet a d j u s t m e n t .  the  46  Experiment  2  selected  fitness  selected  components  percent body f a t , muscular  examined  the  components were:  muscular  endurance  in  the  relationship  and  vigilance  number  of  strength  five  performance.  sit-ups  in  between  the  The  i n one m i n u t e ,  hiking  position,  h i k i n g p o s i t i o n and maximum oxygen  u p t a k e . The r e s u l t s of the f i v e p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s t e s t s were used w i t h the mean d e f l e c t i o n time v a l u e s f o r the t h r e e s e s s i o n s the  grand  mean  in  a  correlation  a n a l y s i s t o determine  f i t n e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t e d to v i g i l a n c e  and which  performance.  Conclusions The c o n c l u s i o n s a r r i v e d at as a r e s u l t of the  investigation  were:  1. Mental f a t i g u e d i d not occur and v i g i l a n c e d i d over the f i f t e e n minute t e s t i n g  2.  Physical  fatigue  not  decrease  period.  d i d not a f f e c t v i g i l a n c e  performance.  treatments used f o r the t h r e e s e s s i o n s produced no d i f f e r e n c e  The in  d e f l e c t i o n time s c o r e s .  3.  A  learning  effect  occurred  as  deflection  time  scores  decreased w i t h each subsequent s e s s i o n .  4. Four of the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s p a r a m e t e r s , number of s i t - u p s one  minute,  percent  «oody f a t ,  muscular s t r e n g t h  p o s i t i o n and muscular endurance i n the h i k i n g  in  i n the h i k i n g  position,  showed  47  no r e l a t i o n s h i p with v i g i l a n c e  performance.  5. Maximum oxygen uptake i s i n v e r s e l y time  scores.  It  appears  c a p a c i t y have b e t t e r and a d j u s t  6.  with  deflection  that i n d i v i d u a l s with higher  v i g i l a n c e while s a i l i n g as  for windshifts  Training  correlated  they  aerobic  react  to  faster.  programs f o r s a i l i n g should i n c l u d e a l a r g e  component as v i g i l a n c e i s a f a c t o r i n  maintainance  aerobic  of  optimum  boat s p e e d .  _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2 _ _ . For F u r t h e r Because it  is  of  the problems encountered i n t h i s  recommended  considered  in  Research  that  further  certain  aspects  of  the  r e s e a r c h . The r e l i a b i l i t y  tape a n a l y s i s t e c h n i q u e must be e n s u r e d . Removal component  in  electronic  device  provide  the  analysis  is  which  measures  telltale  the desired r e l i a b i l i t y .  t o enhance f u r t h e r should  tape  probably  design  of the of  be  video-  the  human  required.  deflection  An would  Other f a c t o r s c o u l d be changed  r e s e a r c h attempts , e . g . ,  the  wind  velocity  be i n c r e a s e d and the i n t e r - s t i m u l u s i n t e r v a l s h o u l d a l s o  i n c r e a s e , the t e s t i n g effects  of  sessions  fatigue  minutes of s a i l i n g .  are If  not  should  manifested  e.g.,  s a i l could _e i n c o r p o r a t e d . practice  lengthened i n the f i r s t  a requirement t h a t the  balance the boat or t h a t the t i l l e r  be  be  as  could subject  be a d j u s t e d r a t h e r than  One i m p o r t a n t a d d i t i o n t o the  the  fifteen  deemed a p p r o p r i a t e , o t h e r v a r i a b l e s  be added t o the p r o c e d u r e s ,  would  investigation  the  design  t r i a l s as a l l p o s s i b l e w i n d s h i f t s s h o u l d be  48  demonstrated p r i o r t o each s e s s i o n . T h i s would be a in  eliminating  the  learning  effect.  Most of the  major  difficulties  encountered are a product of attempts at s i m u l a t i o n and for  on-the-water  t e s t i n g should be i n v e s t i g a t e d .  step  methods  BIBLIOGRAPHY  50  Adams, J . A . , and Humes, D i s p l a y s . IV Training (1963) 1 4 7 - 5 3 .  J.to., For  M o n i t o r i n g Of Complex V i s u a l Vigilance. Human Factors*. 5  Adams, J . A . , Humes, J . M . , and S t e n s o n , H . H . , M o n i t o r i n g Of Complex V i s u a l D i s p l a y s : 3. E f f e c t s Of Repeated S e s s i o n s On Human V i g i l a n c e . Human Factors*. 4 (1962) 1 4 9 - 1 5 8 . Alderman, R.B. I n f l u e n c e Of L o c a l F a t i g u e On Speed And Accuracy In Motor L e a r n i n g . Research Q u a r t e r l y ^ 36 (1965) 1 3 1 - 1 4 0 . Baker, C.H. Attention To V i s u a l D i s p l a y s During A V i g i l a n c e Task: 2 M a i n t a i n i n g The L e v e l Of V i g i l a n c e . 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Jerison, H.J., Activation And Long Term P h y s c h i p l p g i c a , 27 (1967) 3 7 3 - 3 8 9 .  Performance.  Acta  51  L i n d , A.R. And M c N i c o l , G.W., C i r c u l a t o r y Responses To S u s t a i n e d Hand-grip Contractions Performed During Other E x e r c i s e , Both Rhythmic And S t a t i c . J o u r n a l Of P h y s i o l o g y , 192 (1967) 595. Mackworth, J . F . , Performance Decrement In Vigilance Threshold And High Speed P e r c e p t u a l T a s k s . Canadian J o u r n a l Of P s y c h o l o g y , 18 (1964) 2 0 9 - 2 2 3 . Mackworth, J . F . , V i g i l a n c e And B a l t i m o r e 1970.  Attention^  Penguin  Books  Marischick, V.L. And Kuznetsov, E.V., Changes P s y c h o l o g i c a l I n d i c e s Under C o n d i t i o n s Of F a t i g u e . P s i k h o l o q i i , 19 (1973) 1 1 8 - 1 2 1 .  In  Ltd. Some  _2EE___  McCormack, P . 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Z Angew P h y s i o l _ 19 (1961) 35. Schmidt, R.A., Performance And L e a r n i n g A Gross Motor S k i l l Under C o n d i t i o n s Of A r t i f i c i a l l y Induced F a t i g u e . Research q u a r t e r l y , , 40 (1969) 185-190. Shiffin, R . M . , and S c h n e i d e r , W., Toward A U n i t a r y Model For S e l e c t i v e A t t e n t i o n , Memory Scanning And V i s u a l Search;. Attention And Performance VI_ John Wiley and Sons, Toronto 1977. S o r i a , P . , Musculation Voiles Methode _____________ R a t i q n n e l Pour La Reqate Et La _________ Robert P u b l i s h e r s P a r i s 1970.  Laffont  S t e r n , R . M . , Performance And P h y s i o l o g i c a l A r o u s a l During Two Vigilance Tasks V a r y i n g In Signal Presentation Rate. P e r c e p t u a l And Motor S k i l l s , 23 (,1966) 9 8 7 - 9 9 6 . S t r e e t , D., 53-58.  S h o r t - h a n d e d Watch Systems. S a i l Magazine^ 6  (1975)  52  Stroh, CM., Vigilance^ The Problem Pergamon P r e s s , Toronto 197K  Of S u s t a i n e d  T r e i s m a n , A . M . , S t r a t e g i e s And Models Of Selective P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review*. 76 (1969) 2 2 5 - 2 3 0 .  Attention.. Attention.  Treisman, A.M., and R i l e y , J.3., Is Selective Attention S e l e c t i v e P e r c e p t i o n Or S e l e c t i v e Response. A F u r t h e r T e s t . J o u r n a l Of E x p e r i m e n t a l Psychology*. 79 (196 9) 2 7 - 3 4 . Yuhasz, M . S . , A Method For The I n d i v i d u a l P r e d i c t i o n Of Optimal Body Weight. Physical fitness And S p o r t s Appraisal L a b o r a t o r y M a n u a l , U n i v e r s i t y Of Western O n t a r i o , London 1965. F i t n e s s I n s t i t u t e B u l l e t i n * . S a i l i n g Not For S o f t i e s . 4.  1 (1973)  1-  '~~ , z  APPENDIX  Figure  k 1.  S a i l i n g Simulator Testing  Side View of S a i l i n g  Apparatus  Simulator  55  Rear view of S a i l i n g  Simulator  56  Diagram of Laser  Frame  Diagram Showing T e l l t a l e  Positioning  58  S i d e View of Wind Machine  59  Rear View of Wind Machine  60  The Track and D o l l y Used For C r e a t i n g W i n d s h i f t s  61  Videotape System Used For S e c o r d i n g T e l l t a l e  Activity  Diagram of the V i s i o n O c c l u d i n g  Barricade  S i d e View of S t r e n g t h T e s t i n g Apparatus  Side View of S t r e n g t h T e s t i n g Apparatus With a Subject  65  T r e a d m i l l and Beckman Metabolic: Measurement Apparatus  Heart Rate M o n i t o r  67  Table A 3 . Raw Data For Experiment 1. 0. 90 0.89 2 . 05 2. 00 3. 75 2 . 55 1. 65 2. 54 1. 24 1. 72 2. 41 3 . 16 2. 99 1. 76 2 . 01 2. 09 2. 91 1. 91 1. 95 2. 19 1. 55 2. 80 2. 50 3 . 06 1. 29 1. 99 1. 86 1. 86 1. 50 2. 27 2. 54 2. 09 1. 79 1. 04 2. 25 1. 79 1. 20 3 . 09 3 . 76 2. 85 1.70  1. 95 2. 37 3. 11 2. 00 2. 63 3. 17 3 . 07 1. 34 2. 12  1. 95 2. 93 3,. 52 1. 61 2 . 77 1. 99 1. 87 1. 60 2. 19 2 . 05 1. 86 1 . 94 2 . 38 5 . 09 1. 81 2 . 70 1. 85 2. 13 2. 25 1. 40 2. 20 2. 60 2. 65 2 . 69 2. 30 1. 85 2 . 41 2. 26 1. 90 2. 15 2 . 04 1 . 82 1. 79 3 . 22 2 . 39 1.64 2. 52 2 . 63 2 . 50 2 . 24 2 . 37 1. 99 2,. 83 1. 40 2. 40 4. 13 1. 95 1. 63 2. 01 3 . 26  2.25 1. 94 1.43 1.44 1.63 1. 90 0.60 2. 19 1.92 2. 09 1. 36 1.87 0.92 1.50 2. 31 2.29 1.69 1.30 2.53 2.70 1.62 2.90 3 . 55 2. 24 1. 56 2.50 2.23 2.03 0. 96 1.60 2.04 1.96 1.04 1.60 0. 37 2.43 2.40 2.04 3.03 1.66 2.36 2. 11 8. 14 3.56 4.20 1.10 1.66 3 . 15 1110 1. 99  2. 12 2. 39 2. 59 3 . 72 1. 87 3 . 25 1.41 2. 70 2. 50 2. 45 0. 79 2 . 09 2. 02 1. 20 2. 74 3 . 36 2. 50 2. 49 2. 60 3 . 69 3. 35 3 . 04 1. 70 2. 97 1. 87 •1. 71 1. 30 2. 51 2. 30 2. 76 1. 39 2. 43 2. 09 0. 70 3. 35 2. 21 2. 75 1. 73 1. 74 2. 35 3. 19 2. 70 3 . 70 2 . 53 2. 59 2. 67 2. 10 2. 70 2. 90 1. 88  1. 1. 2. 4. 1. 2. 1. 2. 2. 2. 3. 2. 2. 3. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 3. 1. 2. 2. 3. 1. 2. 1. 2. 1. 2. 3. 2. 0. 2. 2. 2. 3. 1. 1. 2. 1. 2. 2. 2. 1. 2. 2. 2. 2. 3.  60 58 47 05 97 03 56 55 27 33 30 71 72 31 36 26 29 10 49 59 86 46 29 46 39 21 34 87 26 07 00 24 97 25 30 56 19 43 99 85 35 15 40 31 76 43 31 75 09 03  1.40 1.48 2. 18 2.71 2.49 2. 20 2.89 2.74 1 . 98 1.54 1.90 2. 61 1. 65 2.11 11 86 1. 76 1.61 1.20 1. 47 3.71 1.86 4.05 2. 11 2 . 5 0 2. 07 1. 98 1.69 1.41 2 . 05 1.08 3.30 4 . 7 0 2 . 10 3 . 8 0 1. 00 2 . 70 2.74 3 . 97 2 . 06 1.91 1.98 3.50 2 . 74 2 i 2 0 2. 36 2. 27 2.01 2.83 1. 65 1.55 1.40 3 . 60 3 . 06 2.82 2. 33 2. 50 4.26 3.41 2 . Q7 1.67 1.95 2. 82 1. 30 2.23 0. 83 2. 34 1. 97 1.64 1 . 80 0. 64 2.30 2 . 75 1. 57 2.84 2.31 2. 80 1 . 90 1.90 1. 33 2.46 1.90 2. 26 1. 01 2.30 1.76 1. 95 2.70 1.57 1. 57 1. 59 3.60 1. 96 3 . 40 3.31 2 . 76 1. 46 2.88 1.91 1. 94 2.66 1.76 2 . 2 5 2. 33 2.49 1.66 2 . 57 2. 13 2 . 86 1. 18 3.20 3.81 4. 14 5 . 95 2 . 4 6 1 0 . 7 4 2 . 36 2 . 6 5 4 . 1 9 1 . 51 1.38 2.11 2.50 2 . 40 2.17 3 . 2 1 2. 34  2. 34 2. 77 2 . 20 1. 37 1.53 4. 00 2. 76 3 . 86 2. 71 2.06 2 . 76 0.7 3 1. 50 2. 38 2.74 2. 73 1. 80 2. 60 2. 15 1.2 3 1. 84 1. 94 1 . 80 1; 91 2 . 4 5 2 . 20 2. 26 1. 7 0 2. 81 1. 32 2. 88 1. 49 2. 20 2. 44 1.29 3. 94 1. 75 2. 34 1. 19 2.49 2 . 48 1. 89 2. 00 1. 77 1.39 2. 96 3 . 45 1. 77 4. 53 1.15 0. 76 4. 01 2. 60 3 . 19 2.91 2. 29 1. 56 4. 09 1. 90 1.72 3. 20 2. 46 3 . 98 4. 61 1.71 1. 67 1. 50 3 . 81 2. 08 2.07 2. 06 3. 06 1. 67 2. 57 1. 94 2. 60 1. 60 2. 52 6. 24 2.50 1. 56 2. 46 2. 62 2. 30 2.38 2 . 39 1. 88 2. 7 0 2. 26 2.24 1. 87 2. 16 2. 19 2. 46 0.50 0. 21 1.76 2. 67 1.57 2.20 1. 53 1.67 1. 79 2. 21 1.96 2. 85 2. 69 2. 10 3. 18 1.71 1. 97 5. 17 1. 84 2. 20 2.56 3. 26 3. Q0 1. 86 1. 97 1.33 2. 47 2. 10 1. 78 3 . 57 0. 94 1. 53 1. 61 1. 64 1. 70 2.37 3 . 27 0. 37 0. 62 1. 19 1.96 4. 44 3. 77 2 . 03 3 . 64 2.20 1. 77 2. 47 2. 94 3. 99 3 . 4 0 2 . 30 4. 06 1. 90 2. 51 4. 15 1. 43 1. 51 1. 77 4. 45 2.56 2. 36 2. 55 5. 50 2. 50 1.66 2 . 21 3. 67 3 . 40 2. 83 2. 42 2 . 53 3. 33 2. 45 2. 14 3 . 7 5 2. 61 3. 90 2. 39 3. 69 2.76 2 , 47 4. 80 2. 14 1. 37 2.83 1. 69 1. 99 2 . 69 2. 69 2.04 1. 25 2. 10 1. 90 2. 70 2.10  68  1.08 2. 13 3 . 20 1. 95 1.67 1. 30 3 . 50 1. 55 3 . 50 1. 91 1. 92 2.89 2.68 2.44 1. 06 1. 47 1.36 2.20 1. 71 2. }4 2.30 3 . 90 3.02 1.85 1. 46 1.60 1. 84 2.01 1. 76 2.62 1. 60 3.04 1.68 1.92 1.91 2. 11 3.22 2,. 78 2. 11 1. 97 1.62 3.49 1. 91 2. 43 1.72 2. 90 5.50 3.89 3 . 22 8.36 4. 54 4. 99 2. 64 2.62 1. 50 1.67  2. 04 3 . 57 21 01 2. 37 2. 83 2 . 78 2. 48 2. 63 2. 94 1. 81 3 . 70 2. 51 1. 89 2. 18 2 . 27 1. 53 2. 37 2 . 99 4 . 50 1. 89 2. 66 2 . 01 2 . 20 2. 41 2. 14 2. 53 1. 68 2. 90 2 . 16 1. 65 1. 56 2 . 00 2 . 24 2. 03 4. 61 2. 47 1. 77 2 . 04 2 . 09 2 . 43 2 . 39 1. 80 1. 95 2. 06 2 . 31 1. 64 1 . 90 2. 34 4. 64 1,. 88 3 . 66 2 . 65 3 . 07 2 . 04 2. 13 2. 71  1. 57 1. 77 2 . 06 1. 59 3 . 94 2. 66 1. 55 2. 61 2. 09 2. 02 2. 86 1. 02 1. 36 2. 39 2. 57 2 . 24 1. 74 2. 98 1. 91 1. 34 2. 26 2 . 70 2. 67 1. 90 2. 33 1. 77 2 . 83 1. 60 2. 27 1. 73 1. 47 3 . 07 2. 03 2. 89 2. 25 1. 98 2. 29 2. 43 1. 96 0. 82 1. 17 2. 29 1. 88 1. 77 2. 35 3 . 39 2 . 29 3 . 84 3 . 72 2. 64 3 . 89 3 . 95 2 . 70 5 . 34 2 . 46 6 . 23  1.49 3.57 2. 10 2.44 4.86 2. 1 1 2.75 2.01 1.60 2.77 3. 11 2. 93 2.42 3.67 1.69 1. 57 2.70 4.2 1 2.70 2.20 2.61 1.70 1.99 2.06 1.97 2. 31 1. 54 1.8 3 2. 96 4.60 2.06 1.86 3.35 1. 89 2. 57 2. 14 2. 54 1.76 2.35 1.47 1. 63 1.97 2.27 2.60 1.92 2.6 1 2.27 3 . 18 8.79 2.54 1.80 2.24 1. 50 6.20 3.09 3 . 26  1. 48 2. 41 1. 41 2. 66 2. 86 2. 02 1. 55 2. 40 3 . 50 2. 49 2. 08 2. 45 2. 89 1. 96 2. 17 3 . 37 2. 71 2. 47 1. 78 2 . 96 3 . 2.3 3 . 64 1. 07 2. 46 2 . 30 1. 73 1. 40 2. 00 2. 52 2. 53 3 . 33 2. 70 2. 41 4. 84 2. 61 2. 39 2. 25 1. 45 1. 49 2. 06 2. 51 2. 49 2. 14 2. 67 3 . 34 2. 57 4. 04 3 . 10 1. 75 2. 78 2. 83 2. 15 2. 60 3. 43 2. 92 2. 39  2. 14 1. 51 1. 89 2. 71 2. 70 2. 10 2. 22 3 . 69 2 . 64 2 . 74 3 . 66 2 . 51 1. 97 2. 52 2. 34 1. 37 3 . 12 2. 87 3 . 96 1. 60 1. 70 1. 55 1. 96 1. 97 2. 76 2i 71 2. 36 3 . 19 2 . 15 1. 84 2. 70 1. 76 2 . 33 2. 40 3 . 25 3 . 80 2. 43 1. 84 3 . 50 2 . 50 2 . 79 2. 09 2. 16 2. 17 2 . 39 1. 30 2. 96 5 . 65 3 . 24 2 . 30 2. 43 3 . 77 2. 24 2. 31 4. 83 5 . 13  2 . 40 2. 85 2. 54 2. 25 2 . 10 1. 87 2 . 01 1. 77 2 . 96 1. 89 3. 50 2. 16 2. 70 2. 80 2 . 89 2 . 75 3 . 39 2,. 28 3 . 16 2. 03 1. 99 1 . 39 1. 83 4. 19 3. 97 2. 85 1. 80 2 . 21 2 . 19 1. 72 3 . 83 1. 80 2. 28 3. 00 2. 60 1. 71 3 . 00 1. 76 2. 79 3 . 27 1. 04 1. 90 1. 78 1 . 58 2. 65 3. 93 2. 02 3. 03 1. 75 3 . 79 1. 39 3 . 10 1. 80 4. 28 2. 11 1. 48 1. 48 2. 10 1. 70 2. 72 3 . 47 2. 12 3 . 97 2 . 09 2 . 70 1. 81 1. 89 1. 93 2. 38 2. 40 2. 77 1. 95 2. 50 3 . 17 3 . 97 2. 25 3. 14 2. 16 2. 06 1. 90 1. 36 2 . 98 1. 39 2. 34 1. 66 1. 51 3 . 20 2. 31 2 . 83 3. 17 1. 51 2. 21 3 . 57 1. 89 2. 73 2 . 00 2. 31 2. 10 2. 25 2. 36 3 . 59 4. 19 2. 04 1. 69 2. 54 2 . 46 1. 95 3 . 80 1. 43 1. 50 3. 31 2. 10 1. 93 2. 19 2. 71 1. 79 2 . 61 2. 15 2. 09 2 . 09 3 . 14 1. 64 2. 39 2. 30 2. 50 2 . 24 1 . 64 1. 77 2. 91 1. 64 1 . 79 2. 02 2. 34 3 . 07 2 . 50 1. 87 1. 71 2. 34 2. 75 1. 76 1. 46 3 . 41 2. 21 2. 44 2. 91 2. 42 2. 40 1. 64 2. 10 2. 41 1. 75 2. 31 1. 90 3 . 19 1. 62 2. 36 1. 80 2. 26 2. 12 2. 30 2. 1 1 1. 79 2 . 28 1. 92 2. 13 3 . 18 1. 27 2. 59 1. 47 3 . 19 1. 95 1.94 1. 52 2. 61 2. 95 3 . 30 2 . 62 2 . 70 1. 83 1. 70 5. 31 2. 70 2. 89 4. 20 2. 50 1. 92 2 . 48 2. 09 2 . 23 2. 13 2. 13 2. 64 2. 29 2. 10 1. 76 1. 60 2 . 50 1. 28 2. 97 1. 86 2. 39 2. 20 1. 47 1. 01 21. 47 1. 23 2i 82 2. 64 1. 40 2. 14 1. 53 1. 14 2. 34 1. 94 1 . 15 2. 45 1. 35 1. 82 2. 06 1. 49 3. 23 1. 92 1. 82 1. 63 2 . 50 7 . 43 1. 91 2. 00 2 . 41 1. 76 2 . 76 2 . 19 2 . 03 2. 69 2. 54 2. 88 2. 63 1. 63 i  4. 09 2 . 16 4. 16 4. 59 2 . 24 2. 63 2. 73 2. 40 2.. 57 2. 02 21 29 7. 85 1. 45 2. 63 2. 21 3 ; 76 2 . 86 2. 00 1. 59 6. 60 4. 60 5. 01 2. 10 2 . 87 3 . 52 7. 10 2. 13 1. 73 3 . 80 5. 47 1. 80 3. 24 4 . 04 1. 99 2 . 87 2 . 14 2. 09 3 . 23 4. 48 1. 86 4. 40 5 . 96 7. 07 1. 08 2 . 80 1. 77 3 . 34 2. 51 1. 64 3 . 37 6. 04 1. 32 2. 53 2. 27 2. 70 2 . 43  69  2. 06 3 . 82 2 . 63 2. 83 4. 73 2. 38 2. 78 2. 61 1. 95 1. 99 1. 61 2. 68 2. 16 2. 00 4. 17 1. 49 1.47 2. 44 1. 94 2. 77 1. 91 1. 90 3 . 24 3 . 54 2. 26 1.79 2. 19 2. 96 2. 70 2. 94 2. 46 1o 49 2. 59 3 . 03 1. 67 3 . 05 1. 93 5 . 06  2 . 40 4. 17 2 . 79 2. 94 2 . 78 2. 72 2 . 07 4. 14 2 . 50 3 . 60 2. 27 2 . 54 2 . 60 2. 06 2. 82 2 . 22 3. 10 2. 07 1. 91 6 . 30 4. 96 4. 59 2 . 70 2 . 04 4. 01 3 . 09 2 . 76 2 . 72 3 . 58 1. 71 2. 14 3 . 12 3. 51 2 . 33 2. 27 4.36 4. 34 3 . 09  2 . 74 1. 47 2. 46 1. 73 2. 55 2. 42 2. 97 2 . 71 1. 85 2. 37 2. 56 3 . 36 1. 71 2'. 00 2. 80 2 . 21 3. 49 2 . 71 2 . 76 2 . 95 1.87 2. 29 1. 81 2. 47 1. 28 1. 60 3 . 51 2 . 73 2. 19 1. 95 4. 22 2. 45 2. 82 2. 82 2. 13 3 . 21 2. 19 2. 60  3 . 03 2. 60 4. 00 2 . 52 3. 24 2. 93 2. 57 2. 29 2. 13 2 . 90 2. 29 2. 97 3. 07 2. 60 1. 39 2. 92 2. 81 1. 63 2. 47 3 . 82 2. 76 1. 70 2. 69 2. 49 3 . 90 2. 87 2. 78 2. 05 2. 74 2. 03 3 . 72 2. 25 1. 64 2. 20 2. 01 3 . 45 4. 77 4. 59 1. 50 2. 26 1.9112.09 1. 86 2. 41 2. 66 2. 19 2. 93 4. 33 1. 23 2. 14 2. 89 2. 89 3. 33 3. 54 1. 49 3 . 10 3 . 15 2. 77 2. 13 3 . 46 4. 19 1. 80 2. 26 2 . 61 1. 89 3 . 45 3. 01 2. 70 2. 72 1. 58 4. 74 4. 15 2 . 94 3 . 90 2. 67 2. 71  3 . 87 1. 96 2. 80 3 . 00 2 . 56 6 . 95 2. 54 3 . 68 4. 97 2 . 21 1. 92 2 . 42 1. 54 1 . 70 2 . 04 2. 63 2. 45 2. 86 2 . 90 1. 96 2 . 76 2 . 99 3 . 85 2. 31 2. 01 2 . 32 2. 57 3 . 51 2 . 44 2 . 40 3 . 14 2. 68 3 . 96 1.79 3 . 39 4. 80 3 . 03 3 . 27  2. 67 1. 87 3. 78 2. 81 1. 41 6. 24 3 . 94 2. 62 3.55 2 . 41 2. 82 3 . 00 2. 59 2 . 24 3 . 03 2.66 4. 43 2. 34 2 . 86 6. 37 2. 18 2 . 72 3;09 2 . 58 2. 40 2 . 70 2. 62 3 . 76 3 . 81 2.77 2 . 55 1. 69 1. 96 2. 51 3. 50 1. 82 2.30 1. 9 2 2. 93 2. 78 1. 94 2. 93 3 . 86 3. 17 2. 33 2. 77 2 . 11 2. 46 4 . 5 2 2 . 31 2.42 4. 57 3. 25 2. 44 2. 75 1. 33 2. 20 4.21 2. 34 1. 99 2 . 41 1. 93 2. 74 2 . 65 2.62 2. 15 2. 29 2. 67 2. 52 2 . 25 1  2 . 34 6.07 2 . 85 1. 9 2 2. 19 2. 67 2. 34 2. 10 2. 49 2. 82 2. 87 2. 50 4. 53 4. 14 1. 43 7. 13 2. 32 2. 47 2. 15 2. 24 1. 91 3 . 76 1.71 2 . 61 3. 04 1. 88 5. 77 2 . 26 2. 34 1. 80 1. 80 2. 53 3 . 28 2. 66 4. 29 3 . 90 4. 43 1. 76 2. 84 3 . 10 31 50 1. 73 2. 23 1. 81 3 . 18 4. 84 3. 64 3. 09 3 . 15 2. 24 2.14 2 . 78 2. 78 2. 87 3. 29 2'. 46 1. 63 2. 83 2. 54 2. 17 2 . 81 2. 82 1. 67 2 . 60 2 . 10 1. 51 2. 96 2. 17 2. 66 1. 59 2. 50 2 . 55 3 . 34 3 . 07 4. 87 2. 56 3. 07 2 . 03 1177 2. 35 2. 92 2 . 35 2. 09 2 . 68 3 . 26 1.86 2. 77 2. 16 4. 86 2. 91 2. 13 2. 81 3 . 50 2 . 96 2. 87 2. 48 4. 33 2. 70 2 . 7 3 2 . 2 5 3 . 12 4. 7 0 3 . 62 2. 92 1. 89 8. 53 2. 30 2. 16 1. 78 2. 83 3. 04 2. 12 2. 00 3 . 56 2. 01 3 . 58 2 . 91 2. 78 3. 40 2 . 00 1.40 3. 42 2. 24 3 . 24 3 . 20 2 . 02  Table A 4. Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s For S i t i n g On The S i d e Deck T r i a l Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45  2. 42 2.66 2. 26 2. 58 2.44 2.63 2. 84 2.62 2.73 2.65 2.42 2. 90 1.88 2.32 2.78 2. 12 2.25 2.47 3 . 11 2. 23 2.56 2.20 2.56 3. 36 2.98 2.76 2.52 2. 68 2.38 2.71 2.23 2.54 2. 24 2. 75 2. 41 2. 16 2. 17 2.55 2.66 2.82 2.29 2. 12 2.69 2. 69 2.49  1. 35 .79 .74 . 51 .89 .73 .96 1.27 .89 .91 .69 1.0 9 .65 .83 .82 . 70 .74 .59 1.01 .77 .65 1.27 .60 1.62 1.39 .74 1.07 .88 . 75 1.99 .51 .39 .68 1.52 .41 .82 .69 1.30 .99 1. 79 .53 .41 .70 .76 1.54  Experiment  Hiking 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45  2.48 2.23 2.49 2.61 2. 10 2. 42 3.09 2.12 2.52 2.43 3.09 3.14 2.17 2.33 2.81 2.10 2.16 2.37 2.63 2.21 2.76 2.09 2. 64 3 . 10 2.24 2. 53  2.60  2. 73 2.64 2.45 3.32 2.70 2. 30 2.01 2.69 2. 30 2.37 2.73 2.45 2.42 2.33 2.74 3 . 15 2.71 2.43  1.00 .53 .93 1.01 .94 .53 .86 .54 .52 .74 1.61 1.18 .70 . 93 1.29 .84 .60 .43 .69 .74 1.01 .58 .98 1.01 .76 .67 .43 .84 1.93 1.05 2.81 .96 .93 .95 .70 .88 .78 .73 1.44 .60 .99 .95 1.30 .57 . 64  H i k i n g With Weight 1 2 3 4 5 6  1.94 2. 37 2.05 2.63 2.00 2.83  .70 .74 .80 .37 .6 3 1. 09  7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45  3 . 50 2. 45 2. 68 2 . 51 2. 46 2. 93 2. io 2. 36 2. 69 2. 65 2. 60 2. 80 2. 83 2. 91 3. 32 2. 27 2. 64 2. 53 2. 11 2. 57 2. 33 2. 70 1. 96 2. 38 2. 85 2. 57 2. 29 2. 06 2. 80 2. 36 2 . 13 2. 75 2. 23 2. 87 2. 32 2 . 36 2. 61 2. 93 1. 91  2.20 1.32 .87 1.00 .56 1.15 .81 .74 1.8 3 1.36 .95 .70 1.13 2.50 1.76 .82 .85 .47 .85 .35 .54 .76 .80 .96 .59 .84 .85 .60 .62 1.13 .77 1.29 .71 1.04 .79 .60 .60 .74 .65  Table A 5 . C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x For Experiment 2 .  Situps % Fat Stren Endur maxV02 Sitting Hiking Weight Gnd Mn  Sit-ups  % Fat  Stren  1 .0000 -0.0284 0.4426 0.2171 0.0083 -0.2115 0.0269 -.02211 - 0 . 1461  1. 0000 -0.4959 - 0 . 2003 -0.2965 0. 3425 0. 15 32 0. 0405 0. 1951  1 .0000 0. 1 4 5 3 0.0189 -0.4904 -0.0899 -0.3774 ^0.3459  Sitting Sitting Hiking Weight Gnd Mn  1.0000 0.7816 0 . 8 114 0.9372  Hiking 1.0000 0. 7626 0. 9157  Endur  maxV02  1.0000 0.4412 -0.3811 -0.3814 -0.5511 -0.4679  1.0000 -0.6252 -0.8022 -0.5989 -0.7296  Weight Grand Mean  1.0000 0.9239  1.0000  74  Table a 6 . , Raw Data For The R e l i a b i l i t y  5SIG  1  2  3  2. 46 2. 14 41 22 4. 19 1. 80 3 . 14 3 . 26 1. 86 2. 77 2. 16 4 . 86 2. 91 2. 13 1. 49 3 . 12 2. 45 2. 26 2 . 61 2 . 68 2. 81 3. 50 2. 96 2. 87 2. 48 4. 33 2. 70 2. 59 3 . 51 2. 82 1. 89 3 . 45 3 . 96 2. 73 2. 25 3 . 12 4. 10 3. 62 2. 92 1. 89 3. 03 2. 33 2 . 82 3 . 01 2. 70 1. 79  3 . 04 5. 57 3 . 83 6 . 23 1. 90 4. 00 3 . 01 2 . 44 2. 7 7 3 . 23 2 . 96 2 . 51 2. 07 4. 07 3 . 03 2 . 81 3 . 03 3 . 03 2 . 89 3 . 54 3 . 45 3 . 47 2 . 78 2 . 79 4. 55 3 . 65 3 . 37 3 . 57 2. 73 1. 98 3 . 97 3 . 90 2. 11 2. 42 2. 73 4 . 00 3. 33 2. 97 2. 30 2 . 91 2. 27 3. 49 4. 35 3 . 10 1. 73  2. 00 4. 42 4. 01 4 . 80 1. 86 3 . 34 3 . 94 2. 41 3 . 51 1. 62 3. 18 2. 52 1. 65 1. 85 3 . 24 2. 04 2. 25 2. 57 2. 48 3 . 24 3 . 49 3 . 23 2. 87 2 . 43 4. 38 3. 68 2. 28 4. 42 2. 61 2. 16 4. 00 3 . 36 2. 86 2. 14 2. 76 4 . 21 3 . 23 3 . 35 2. 10 2. 77 2. 20 2. 30 2. 48 2. 78 2. 24  4 2. 30 3 . 70 3 . 96 4. 13 1. 86 3 . 57 2. 78 2. 39 2. 66 2. 20 3. 57 2. 89 1. 88 1. 81 3. 14 2. 74 2. 45 2. 69 2. 89 3 . 49 2 . 52 3 . 45 2. 70 2. 41 4 . 62 3 . 58 2- 61 3 . 21 2. 73 1. 99 3 . 36 4. 34 2. 60 2. 16 2. 65 4. 12 3. 57 4. 23 1. 95 2. 95 2. 44 3. 27 2. 34 3 . 42 2- 07  Analysis  

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