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The construction of a criterion-referenced physical education knowledge test Wilson, Gail E. 1980

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THE CONSTRUCTION OF A CRITERION-REFERENCED PHYSICAL EDUCATION KNOWLEDGE TEST by GAIL E. WILSON B.P.H.E., University of Toronto, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Physical Education and Recreation We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1980 0Gail E-. Wilson, 1980 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n & R e c r e a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date A p r i l 25, 1980 ABSTRACT Throughout the last two decades, physical educators have worked to develop a specific body of knowledge. Associated with the formation of this body of knowledge has been a trend by most physical educators to include a cognitive objective as one of the stated aims in their physical education, curricula. As a result, the need for adequate knowledge assessment instruments has become apparent. Although some assessment of knowledge in physical and health educa-tion has occurred since the late 1920's, the majority of tests which have been developed to date are directed towards the evaluation of knowledge in specific sports or activities. Relatively few tests are available that assess general knowledge concepts in physical education. As well, a l l of the knowledge tests that have been produced are norm-referenced' instruments. That is, they have been constructed for the purpose of ranking individuals and comparing differences among them. The purpose of this study was to design a criterion-referenced test which would assess the physical education knowledge of grade eleven high school students in British Columbia and which could function as a measurement instrument for the evaluation of groups or classes. As a criterion-referenced assessment tool, the knowledge test assesses the performance of individuals based on' objectives which had been previously formulated by the Learning Assessment Branch of the Ministry of Education in British Columbia. i i In order to prepare a table of specifications for the design of the test, the specific objectives to be measured were grouped into six sub-test areas. Multiple-choice items were then constructed according to the requirements of the table of specifications. For the in i t i a l pilot administration of the test, two test forms, of 48 items each, were developed. Each of these forms included three of the six sub-test areas. One half of the 288 students to whom the first pilot was administered answered Form A while the remaining students answered Form B. Following the administration of pilot test 1, the results obtained were analysed by the Laboratory of Educational Research Test Analysis Package (LERTAP), and were subjectively reviewed by an advisory panel. As a result of these procedures, 70 items were retained for use on the second pilot test. This test was administered to 133 students and the results were again analysed subjectively and psychometrically. Thirty-eight items from pilot test 2 were considered acceptable for use on the final pilot test. In order to maintain adherence to the table of specifications, nine new items were developed and after approval by the advisory panel, were included on the third test form. This form was given to 800 grade eleven students and the responses of 250 randomly selected students were analysed by the LERTAP procedure. The analysis indicated that a l l items were psychometrically sound and the reliability of this form was estimated at .71. Thus, the items utilized during the third pilot administration con-stituted the final form of the knowledge test. The test is suitable for evaluating groups and the six sub-tests, as well as the total test, can be used to identify strengths and weaknesses within programs. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v ACKNOWLEDGMENT vi Chapter I THE PROBLEM 1 Introduction . 1 Statement of the Problem 3 Delimitations 4 Definition of Terms . . . . . . 4 II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 6 Knowledge Tests in Physical and Health Education . 6 Criterion-Referenced Testing 12 The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives 16 III METHODS AND PROCEDURES 19 Development of the Objectives 19 Construction of the Table of Specifications . . . . 20 Designing the Items 24 Preparation and Administration of Pilot Test 1 . . 25 Preparation and Administration of Pilot Test 2 . . 26 Preparation and Administration of Pilot Test 3 . . 27 IV ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 28 Methods of Analysis 28 Results of the Analysis—Psychometric and Subjective Assessment of Individual Items . . . . 31 Results of the Analysis—Psychometric and Subjective Assessment of Sub-Test and Total Test Data 34 Interpreting the Test Results 43 V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 46 Recommendations 49 BIBLIOGRAPHY 52 APPENDIX 63 iv LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Knowledge Tests in Physical and Health Education . . . 7 2. Sources Surveyed for Information on the Development of the Goals and Learning Outcomes 20 3. Knowledge Learning Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4. Table of Specifications Illustrating the Distribution of Items for Pilot Test 1 and the Proposed Distribution for the Final Test Form 23 5. Summary of Item Performances—Pilot Test 1 -. 32 6. Summary of Item Performances—Pilot Test 2 . . . . . 33 7. Table of Specifications—Distribution of Items— Final Test Form 35 8. Sub-Test Statistics for Pilot Tests 1,2,3 . . . . . . . 36 9. Total Test Statistics 37 10. Summary of Sub-Test and Total Test Reliability Estimates 40 11. Correlation Matrix for Pilot Test 3 ' . 40 v ACKNOWLEDGMENT I offer my thanks to Mr. J. Appleby, Dr. A. Carre, and Dr. G. Sinclair for their contribution to this thesis. Special gratitude is extended to Dr. R. Mosher, the chairman of my committee, for his perseverance and patience, and to Miss Mary Cooper for her knowledgeable guidance. I am grateful to the students, teachers, and administrators who were involved in the. pilot testing phases of this project. Sincere appreciation is extended to the Learning Assessment Branch of the Ministry of Education, Province of British Columbia, and to British Columbia Research for the financial support, assis-tance and co-operation that was provided in the preparation of this study. vi CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM Introduction The gradual admission of physical education to the ranks of disci-plines and professions over the past two decades has been largely due to the recognized need for, and consequent development of, a unique body of knowledge (Barrow, 1977; Bucher, 1975; Cunningham, 1975; Henry, 1964; Kroll, 1971; Paddick, 1967; Thompson, 1971). Although this recently founded body of knowledge is not universally defined or accepted by a l l physical educators, its proponents have strongly encouraged the inclusion, in physical education programs, of a cognitive or knowledge component (Mand, 1962; Walker, 1967). Willgoose (1963:39) stated that: A person is not educated physically by the mere development of motor skills and factual knowledge. One must understand why the skills are beneficial and why exercise is necessary to appreciate the role of recreational activity in a rich and ful l l i f e . Supporting the philosophy further, Paddick (1967:67) proposed that: An understanding of the significance of movement does not auto-matically follow from participation in a curriculum based on one or two arbitrarily selected sports. Bucher and Goldman (1969:14) emphasized the need to go beyond physical activity and insure that students do some.thinking—"to get at the 'why' of 1 2 the activity." In 1969, The American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation prepared a manual entitled Knowledge and Understanding  in Physical Education (1969:xi). In the preface to this document, the following statement appeared: The intellectual, the verbally expressive content of physical education is as significant as the motor content and needs to be assessed. In appraising the student's progress in physical education, therefore, evidence should be obtained on the acquisition of knowledges and understandings in addition to the mastering of physical skills. It was apparent that a cognitive component would appear in future physical education curricula. Although the knowledge concept had been considered an element of physical education in the past, the teaching of this component has, for the most part, been incidental and without direction. However, Barrow (1977:27) spoke of physical education and its place in the general sphere of education: If the use of the rational powers of man is to be the paramount goal of education and if physical education is to be an educa-tional experience, i t too must make a contribution in this area. It was Barrow's belief that the intellectual objective in physical education involved several majior areas: thinking as i t is required to co-ordinate the mind and the muscles, the associated learnings that accompany sk i l l learning—rules, techniques, strategies, terminologies--and an understanding and awareness of the values of developing and maintaining good health and fitness. As the acquisition of knowledge became a commonly stated objective 3 of ph y s i c a l education, a s u i t a b l e means of assessing the attainment of t h i s objective was needed. Unfortunately, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of i n s t r u -ments f or evaluating knowledge i n phys i c a l education has been l e s s than adequate. - Although there are a great many knowledge tes t s i n existence, the majority of these deal with s p e c i f i c sports. There are, i n f a c t , very few instruments which evaluate the t h e o r e t i c a l component of phys-i c a l education programs. This s i t u a t i o n has evolved because of the e c l e c t i c nature of phys i c a l education c u r r i c u l a and the lack of a u n i -v e r s a l l y accepted body of knowledge. In a profession with such v a r i a b i l i t y i n program and content, the development of sui t a b l e evaluation tools i s necessary for continued a c c r e d i t a t i o n and recognition. Statement of the Problem The purpose of t h i s study was to construct a cr i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d knowledge test which would be sui t a b l e for evaluating grade eleven phy s i c a l education programs and which could be u t i l i z e d as a diagnostic t o o l for class assessment. The test was designed to assess the knowledges and understandings i n p h y s i c a l education based on previously established student objec-t i v e s . These objectives, known as Learning Outcomes, were i d e n t i f i e d by the Contract Team* of the Physical Education Learning Assessment *The Contract Team, retained by the Learning Assessment Branch, included three members of the' School of Physical Education and Recrea-t i o n , the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, a primary consultant employed as a Faculty Associate at Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y , an intermediate teacher, from the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t , and a secondary teacher from the Burnaby School D i s t r i c t . The M i n i s t r y convened an Advisory Committee co n s i s t i n g of the chairman of the Contract Team, teacher educators, a trustee, a p h y s i c a l education co-ordinator, a recreation s p e c i a l i s t , a school administrator, 4 Program of the M i n i s t r y of Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Appendix A contains a summary of the s p e c i f i e d Learning Outcomes. Delimitations 1. This test i s delimited to the measurement of knowledge inherent i n the Learning Outcomes and thus does not ne c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t the t o t a l body of knowledge i n phy s i c a l education. 2. This test i s delimited to performance by grade eleven students i n B r i t i s h Columbia schools. 3. The design of t h i s test d e l i m i t s i t s use to the assessment of group performances. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Criterion-Referenced Test A test which measures the degree to which achievement resembles desired or expected performance. That i s , a test f o r which scores are interpreted p r i m a r i l y i n terms of a standard performance i n contrast to comparing the scores to norms or to class performance. Norm-Referenced Test A test which i s designed to provide rankings of members within a group or compare i n d i v i d u a l s with such rankings. Each score i s judged according to i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p s 1 to other * scores. Item A:question on a multiple-choice objective t e s t . Each item on t h i s test consists of a stem and four responses. One response i s co r r e c t . teachers at the elementary and secondary l e v e l s , and representatives of the Learning Assessment Branch. This group met r e g u l a r l y throughout a l l phases of the assessment to review progress and to provide reac-tions and suggestions to the Contract Team. The three incorrect responses are known as foils or distractors. Statements of Information Concepts or facts which are based on the Learning Outcomes. These facts form the basis for the development of questions. Table of Specifications This is the i n i t i a l format for the construction of a multiple choice test. It represents the allocation of questions to each Learn-ing Outcome and indicates the cognitive domains being assessed. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE Knowledge Tests i n Physical and Health Education The purpose of t h i s section i s to investigate the a v a i l a b i l i t y of knowledge tests i n physical and health education. Because of the in c l u s i o n i n the learning outcomes of "structure and function of the body systems" and of "the e f f e c t s of diet and exercise on the body," a review of health knowledge tests was considered relevant for t h i s chapter. The construction and use of knowledge tests for evaluation i n physi c a l and health education began i n 1929 when B l i s s (1929) designed a b a s k e t b a l l knowledge test for use with college men. Since then, well over 80 tests have been recorded i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Of these, 49 are directed to s p e c i f i c sports and a c t i v i t i e s , 25 r e l a t e to health or hygiene, and only 9 deal with several domains within p h y s i c a l and health education. An examination of Table 1 allows some further conclusions to be drawn. The majority of the tests constructed to date measure knowledge and understanding i n p a r t i c u l a r sports or a c t i v i t i e s . Examples of such tests are: Rodgers and Heath (1931), Hooks (1966), baseball; B l i s s (1929), S n e l l (1935), Schwartz (1937), Fisher (1950), McCutcheon (1965), basketball; Kraft (1971, wrestling; Pake (1972), movement 6 7 TABLE 1 KNOWLEDGE TESTS IN PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION Year Author Area Grade Level A: Sports and Activity 1929 Bliss basketball college men 1931 Rodgers-Heath baseball 5 and 6 boys 1931 Knighton soccer college men 1932 Heath-Rod ger s soccer 5 and 6 boys 1933 Murphy golf college women 1934 Grisier field hockey high school & college 1935 Shambaugh folk dance college women 1935 Wagner tennis college women 1937 Hewitt tennis college men & women 1937 Schwartz basketball high school men & women 1937 Thompson dance & rhythm college women 1939 Rogers baseball 1940 Dietz & Trech field hockey high school girls 1943 Scott swimming, badmin-ton, tennis college women 1946 Philips badminton college women 1950 Stradtman & Cureton fitness high school 1950 Broer & Miller tennis college women 1952 Kelly-Brown field hockey college women 1952 Langston volleyball college men 1953 Fox badminton college men 1953 Miller tennis college women 1953 Waglow-Rehling golf college men 1955 Waglow-Stephens softball college men 1956 Goll badminton high school girls 1957 Gershon gymnastics college men 1957 Winn soccer college men 1958 Park track & field high school boys 1958 Power touch football j r . high school boys 1959 Bradley baseball college men 1961 Hardin bowling college men & women 1964 Hewitt tennis college men & women 1965 Blaess archery 1965 McCutcheon basketball college women 1965 Hambright jumping, ball handling grade 5 1967 Hodges lacrosse college women 1970 Mood physical fitness college 1971 Kraft wrestling college men 1971 Warren lacrosse college women 1972 Pake movement principles grade 6 1973 Reichle boating knowledge Table 1, continued Year Author Area Grade Level 1935 Snell 1936 Snell 1943 French 1950 Fisher 1953 Goldberg 1956 Hennis 1960 Ley 1966 Hook 1971 Farrow B: Multi-Activity Tests fundamentals, hockey, baseball, tennis, golf, riding, archery, hygiene soccer, volleyball, basketball badminton, basketball, body mechanics, canoeing, field hockey, folk dance, stunts, swimming, tennis, track & field, volleyball, recreational sports badminton, basketball, archery, table tennis, tennis, volleyball, soccer baseball, basketball, football basketball, bowling, field hockey, soft-ball, tennis, volleyball badminton, basketball, bowling, archery, golf, soccer, soft-ball, tennis, volleyball badminton, Softball, tennis, volleyball archery, badminton, bowling, golf, tennis college women college women college women college women college women college women college men college women Table 1, continued \ 9 Year Author Grade Levels C: Health Tests 1931 Gates-Strang high school and college men 1935 Forsythe & Rugen college freshmen 1937 Kilander high school and college men 1937 Murphy college women 1945 Gold grades.7, 8, 9 1952 Bridges college freshmen 1952 Colebank junior high school girls and boys 1953 Hinrichs college 1953 Dzenowagis grade 5-6 girls & boys 1965 Re id college students 1957 Shaw, Troyer 7-12, college students 1957 Yellen grades 3, 4, 5 1957 Veenker grade 7 1958 Klein grade 5 1958 Poole high school students 1959 Augustin senior high school students 1961 Lohr senior elementary 1965 Dann grade eleven, twelve 1967 Kussman grade five 1967 Spears grade five 1968 Yeakle senior high school 1970 Davila grade 1 1972 Seffrin-Veenker high school 1973 Cook grade 6 1973 Gunter college men D: General Knowledge Tests 1932 Hemphill 9-12 boys 1935 Snell college women 1962 Cowell college men and women 1965 Walker college freshmen 1968 Wade college men and women 1971 A.A.H.P.E.R. elementary school and high school 1976 Markly senior high school 10 principles. Some authors such as French (1943), Hennis (1956), and Ley (1960), constructed objective tests for several different sport activities. These multi-sport tests, similar to most of the specific sport tests, were a l l designed for use at the college level and with the exception of those of Goldberg (1953), and Hooks (1966), a l l of the multi-sport tests were designed for women. In the area of health and hygiene, more tests have been constructed for use at elementary and high school levels than at the college level. Most of the items on these tests deal with health in terms of safety, nutrition, personal, community, and mental hygiene. Very few health tests relate health to exercise and activity. However, the test by Stradtman and Cureton (1950:53) did examine knowledge in the area of fitness: Since physical education is a vital part of the normal student's li f e he should know not only games and activities but :the more common psychological and physiological implications of activities of various kinds. Questions on this test relate to the effects of exercise on cir-culation and respiration, the assessment of personal fitness, the com-ponents of physical fitness, and methods for developing fitness. Similar tests have since been developed by Mood (1971) and Cook (1973). More pertinent to this study are knowledge tests which examine several areas within the broad framework of physical and health educa-tion. In 1931, Hemphill developed a test for boys in grades eight through twelve. Questions were divided into five different areas: major athletic activities (baseball, football, basketball), minor 11 sports (soccer, tennis, handball, volleyball), health related to phys-ical education, self-defence (boxing, wrestling), recreational sports (hiking, camping, swimming). Health questions related to activity, diet, and good health. Snell's battery of knowledge tests (1935) for use with college women included questions on various activities, fundamentals, and hygiene. The fundamentals test contained items relating to running, climbing, jumping, throwing, safety, and body mechanics. The hygiene test was composed mainly of questions relating to structure and function of a l l body systems although several questions referred to the effects of exercise on those systems. Similarly, in order to assess the background of physical education students in college, Cowell (1962) and Walker (1965) developed general knowledge tests in physical education. Topics covered included social psychology, philosophy, biology, measurement, growth and development, physiology, sports knowledge, and safety. Perhaps the best known general knowledge tests in physical educa-tion are those that have been constructed, standardized, and published by the American Association of Health, Physical Education, and Recrea-tion (A.A.H.P.E.R.). These tests, known as the A.A.H.P.E.R. Co-oper-ative Physical Education Tests, were designed to measure "a broad range of understandings of the cognitive aspects of physical education" (A.A.H.P.E.R., 1971:5). There are six tests available; two forms for elementary school usage, two forms designed for junior high school, and two forms for use at the senior high school level. The A.A.H.P.E.R. tests are based on the body of knowledge outlined 12 in Knowledge and Understanding in Physical Education, a manual published by A.A.H.P.E.R. (1969). Consequently, the tests are most appropriate for students who have had instruction based on the content of this manual. Therefore, although the A.A.H.P.E.R. tests constitute a major step in the development of test instruments for physical education, their applicabil-ity to other situations is limited. Thus, in spite of the A.A.H.P.E.R. tests, there is a scarcity of evaluation tools which will provide an assessment of general knowledge in physical education. The majority of the seven general knowledge tests listed in Table 1 have been designed for use at the college level and the items on these tests reflect the content of foundation courses in college physical education programs. Of the three general knowledge tests suitable for use at lower levels of education, only two (A.A.H.P.E.R., 1971; Markly, 1976) are applicable to both boys and girls. Further, a l l of the physical and health education tests reviewed above, including the A.A.H.P.E.R. tests, are norm-referenced instruments, and, as such, are designed to compare and rank the performances of indi-viduals. Criterion-referenced tests which compare individual perform-ances to a pre-determined standard, although evident in other' disciplines —music (Simons, 1976), mathematics (Sheehan, 1979), and English (Macdonald, 1974),—have apparently not been constructed nor utilized by physical educators. Criterion-Referenced Testing Criterion-referenced measurement became prominent in the late 1950's as a result of Skinner's work in programmed instruction. Educators at that time were soon to realize that available 13 methods of evaluation, based on norm-referenced measurement, did not work well with innovative methods of instruction (Popham, 1975). In spite of this, virtually a l l commercially available stand-ardized tests are norm-referenced (Martuza, 1977), and while this type of test provides a comparison between a particular individual's per-formance and the performance of other members of the group, l i t t l e information is provided regarding the individual's degree of s k i l l or competency. According to Radocy (1978:6) "existing achievement tests appear to have as their purpose the demonstration of the great range of individual differences in behaviour." Also, "the very nature of norm-referenced tests suggests that evaluation in education should provide a normal distribution of those being tested" (Popham, 1975:126). Bloom (1971) notes that the normal curve describes a random process whereas education is a purposeful activity in which we seek to have students learn what we teach. Bloom contends that the achievement distribution should be very different i f our instruction is effective and that instructional efforts may in fact be unsuccessful i f student achievement is normally distributed. As a result therefore, of innovative trends in instruction and a dissatisfaction with available measurement instruments, new methods of evaluation evolved. Hambleton (1978:2) summarized this dissatisfaction: Over the years standard procedures for testing and measurement within a norm-referenced framework have been well known to educators; however these procedures are much less appropriate when the questions being asked concern what examinees can and cannot do. It was obvious that there was a need for a different type of measurement instrument with different specifications than those previously estab-lished for norm-referenced testing (Glaser, 1963; Hambleton, 1978; 14 Millman, 1974). The catalyst for criterion-referenced testing seemed to come from an article by Robert Glaser in 1963. According to Glaser (1963:520), "a -criterion-referenced test is one that is deliberately constructed to yield measurements that are directly interpretable in terms of speci-fied performance standards." Similar definitions describe the use of criterion-referenced tests to measure performance in relation to a criterion of behaviour and point out the contrast with norm-referenced tests which make comparisons among individuals (Gronlund, 1976; Hambleton, 1978; Popham, 1975; Popham & Husek, 1971). Strictly speaking, the terms criterion-referenced' and norm-referenced refer only to the methods which are used to interpret and evaluate results (Gronlund, 1976; Taylor & Greer, 1978). However, there are also important differences in the-methods used toedevelop criterion- - and" norm-referenced--tests. In terms of item selection, Popham and Husek (1971) state that the writer of the norm-referenced test, in an effort to promote variant scores for the purpose of discriminating among individuals, rejects items that are .^too. easy or too difficult. Yet an item with a difficulty level of 0.00 or 1.00 that is likely to be rejected as non-discriminating by the norm-referenced writer, may be thorough evidence, on a criterion-referenced test, that the expected behaviour has or has not been attained. Thus, in criterion-referenced testing, items are selected on the basis of whether or not they are judged to measure a component of the knowledge or s k i l l specified in the learning outcomes and "no attempt should be made to eliminate easy items or alter item difficulties in order to obtain a range of scores" (Gronlund, 1976:153). 15 It is apparent that traditional item selection methods are not uniformly applicable for the design of criterion-referenced tests. In a discussion of reliability and criterion-referenced tests, Gronlund (1976) points out that since criterion-referenced mastery tests are not designed to discriminate among individuals, and thus variability need not be present in the scores, the traditional correla-tional estimates of reliability are inappropriate. Hambleton (1978:3) supports this view: A criterion-referenced test is not constructed specifically to maximize the variability of test scores whereas a norm-referenced test is so constructed. Thus, since the distri-bution of scores on a criterion-referenced test will be more homogeneous, i t is obvious that such a test will be less use-ful for ordering individuals on their measured ability. Variability then, which is a prime factor in a well constructed norm-referenced test, is not a prerequisite for a good criterion-referenced test. Correlational methods, in order to be fully effective, require a reasonably large response variance in the measures under con-sideration. Thus estimates of internal-consistency, and test-retest coefficients for example, are likely to be inappropriate in criterion-referenced testing because they depend on total test score variability (Glaser, 1970; Popham, 1975). The variability among scores that is essential for reliability in norm-referenced testing is also necessary for computing validity coefficients (Gronlund, 1976:96). Therefore, established methods for estimating validity of norm-referenced measures do not apply when assessing the validity of criterion-referenced instruments. What is important in assessing the validity of a criterion-16 referenced test is content validity. "Tests are validated primarily in terms of the adequacy with which they represent the criterion behaviour" (Popham, 1971:29). Items must reflect the criterion they are testing. In summary, although the differences between criterion- and norm-referenced tests are not readily apparent, they are important both in terms of test development and interpretation. In spite of the fact that "over six hundred articles have been written to date on this topic" (Hambleton, 1978:3), techniques specifically adopted for evaluating criterion-referenced tests have not yet been fully developed (Glaser, 1970; Gronlund, 1976). As research continues in this area, methods of development and assessment should become more clearly defined. The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Central to the development of any test is a clear statement of the objectives that the test is expected to measure. Related to this state-ment is the attempt to provide a conceptual framework within which a l l the specific goals can be placed. In 1956, Bloom and his associates developed a taxonomy of educa-tional objectives. This system provides a hierarchical classification of the universe of educational objectives into three domains: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. The cognitive domain, which is the consideration in this study, con-tains six categories arranged from simple concepts to complex concepts and since the system is hierarchical in nature, i t is assumed that each level is an extension of a l l previous levels. A brief description of these six categories follows (Bloom, 1956:201). Knowledge—This is the lowest level of the system. It involves the 17 recall of specific facts or information and emphasizes the psychological process of remembering. Comprehension—This concept requires that the individual be able to utilize knowledge accurately. That is, to explain or demonstrate an understanding of knowledge concepts. Application—An individual functioning at this stage must be able to use and apply knowledge in new situations. Analysis—This stage requires the ability to break down a concept or idea into its constituent parts. Synthesis—An individual at this level is able to arrange and organize elements or units into patterns and structures. Evaluation—This is the most complex and abstract level of the taxonomy. It assumes competence in the lower five categories and requires the ability to evaluate and make decisions. Although Bloom's classification includes six levels.of cognitive operations, there is some controversy with regard to the suitability of al l six levels for objective testing and in fact, some concern regarding the explieitness of Bloom's groupings. Ebel (1972:109) maintains that Bloom's terminology is subjective and thus "questions the functional independence of such concepts as comprehension, analysis, and synthesis." Bloom himself contends (1971) that in order :to function, at higher levels of cognition, items must be new to a l l students. That is, the nature of the events that has preceded the point at which a student is being assessed, will reflect the classification of any test item for that student. If the student has previously learned the material, the edu-cational response required will be recall or recognition and thus the item can be classified as one that assesses knowledge. However, if the 18 concept being presented is new or original, a different level of func-tioning will be necessary. Further, Krathwohl and Payne (1971) sug-gested that there is support for the rationale of Bloom's first three categories but l i t t l e evidence for. the order of the more complex cate-gories. Popham (1972:22) suggests that "sufficient utility is gained by using a two level breakdown such as 'lowest level' and 'higher than lowest level.'" The fact that there seems to be a clear distinction between the first level and the five higher levels provides support for this view. In spite of the lack of clarity surrounding the specific classifi-cations, the taxonomy serves a useful purpose in test construction. A classification system such as this prevents unsuspected omissions or overemphases on particular levels of functioning. The common tendency of constructing tests which tax only the memory system, and which there-fore f a i l to assess a student's ability to think as well as to memorize, can be avoided by adhering to such classifications as provided by Bloom's taxonomy. In light of the above considerations, for the purpose of this test, a knowledge item is one that requires specific recall of information. An understanding item measures the student's ability to comprehend some concept or "idea. An item which presupposes an understanding and mea-sures the ability to apply that understanding to novel situations is an application item. All test items will be categorized.in one of these three classifications. CHAPTER I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURES Development of the Objectives In order to develop any t e s t , consideration must be given to what i s being measured. Since c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d t e s t s are designed to determine whether or not c e r t a i n standards or c r i t e r i o n behaviours have been attained, the standards or c r i t e r i o n behaviours which the test purports to measure must be s p e c i f i e d . Glaser and Klaus (1962) maintain that the s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the behaviour which i s to be observed and assessed i s the f i r s t step i n developing a measure of p r o f i c i e n c y . A s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n i s taken by Lehman (1968:79) who contends that " i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the objectives i s the most important part of test construction." As previously stated, the purpose of t h i s research was to con-s t r u c t a cr i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d test which would assess knowledge and understanding i n phys i c a l education based on pre-established goals and learning outcomes. In order to a r r i v e at the s p e c i f i c goals and l e a r n -ing outcomes, the Learning Assessment Branch of the Minis t r y of Educa-t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia conducted an extensive survey of a 'variety of information sources. These sources are presented i n Table 2. As a r e s u l t of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n by the Mi n i s t r y of Education, s i x goals, each with s p e c i f i c learning outcomes, were established to 19 20 TABLE 2 SOURCES SURVEYED FOR INFORMATION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE GOALS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES 1. The existing British Columbia guides in Physical Education (Elementary: 1975 Revision, and Secondary: 1961). 2. All Canadian provincial curriculum guides in Physical Education. 3. Major United States state curriculum guides in Physical Education. 4. Over 200 books and periodicals related to objectives in Physical Education. 5. Major information retrieval systems such as E.R.I.C. (Educational Resources Information Center). 6. Instructional Objectives Exchange. 7. Working paper developed by the Ministry of Education workshop held in Richmond, B.C., December 1976. 8. Rough draft of the Secondary Physical Education Curriculum Guide developed by the Secondary Physical Education Revision Committee. 9. Advisory groups such as: (1) British Columbia Physical Education Society, (2) British Columbia Teachers Federation Physical Educa-tion Provincial Specialists Association, (3) Interested university and school based individuals. SOURCE: Appraisal of Goals and Learning Outcomes: Provincial  Learning Assessment Program in Physical Education. Ministry of Education, British Columbia, 1978. reflect both the existing and the proposed directions for physical educa-tion in the province of British Columbia. A complete l i s t of the goals and learning outcomes appears in appendix A. Several of the specific learning outcomes were directed towards the acquisition of knowledge, and understanding in various domains of physical education. These outcomes, which are ^presented in Table 3, denote the criterion behaviours to be measured by this test. Construction of the Table of Specifications The preliminary step in the construction of the test was to design a table of specifications to ensure that the final test would measure the 21 TABLE 3 KNOWLEDGE LEARNING OUTCOMES Goal Learning Outcome II 1. An understanding of advanced rules, techniques, and strategies involved in physical activities. 2. An understanding of advanced' movement principles such as combining quick and slow elements of time with the strong element of weight and the change of direction element of space to develop a successful spike in volleyball. 3 . An understanding of the advanced psychological factors related to physical activity such as the interaction between co-operative and competitive behaviour. 4. An understanding of advanced physiological factors relating to physical activity such as the effects of chronic exercise on cardio-vascular function. 5. An understanding of the advanced safety procedures relative to physical activity such as the relationship between strenuous training and individual body capabilities. I l l 2. An awareness of advanced methods necessary to achieve an appropriately high level of physical fitness such as the specificity of aerobic and anaerobic training. 3 . The ability to assess and interpret personal physical fitness, utilizing appropriate measurement techniques and instruments in fitness components such as cardiovascular endurance, strength, flexibility, and anthropometrical measures such as height, weight, girth, and per cent body fat. IV 1. An understanding of the relationship between advanced concepts relative to healthful nutrition such as the effects of salt and water depletion during exercise, and the role of physical activity as they interact to provide for healthful daily living. 3 . An understanding of advanced concepts of body mechanics such as the use of the arms for increasing and decreasing speed of rotation in skills such as spinning in figure skating. 5. An understanding of the basic concepts related to the structure and function of the following systems: diges-tive, muscular, skeletal, respiratory, nervous, circula-tory, and endocrine relative to physical activity; together with an understanding of the basic interrela-tionships between these systems. 22 learning outcomes in a balanced manner. As previously mentioned, the knowledge learning outcomes were iden-tified within the six goals formulated by the Ministry of Education (see Table 3 ) . In criterion-referenced testing it is necessary to ensure that there is adequate content coverage within an objective. This can be achieved by constructing a sufficient number of items for each objective. In fact, a minimum number of items is required in order to apply approp-riate psychometric procedures and to ensure that content validity is main-tained. The greater the number of items per objective, the better the quality of the test. However, because of the desire to limit the length of this test to a specific time period, i t was necessary to restrict the number of items that could be used to represent each of the ten learning outcomes. Therefore, after a careful review of the learning outcomes, a decision was made to combine the ten outcomes into six content or sub-test areas: rules, techniques, and strategies; principles and mechanics of movement; concepts and methods of fitness; body structures and func-tions; the effects of physical activity; factors affecting participa-tion. These categories afforded a logical framework for the organization of the knowledge learning outcomes. Table 4 illustrates the distribution of the learning outcomes within the six content areas. Once the sub-test, or content areas, were established they were placed along the vertical side of the table of specifications. Since the purpose of this test was to determine the amount of knowledge students possess with regard to each content area, equal emphasis, where possible, was to be given to each content area within the table. The cognitive levels to be assessed—knowledge, understanding, appli-cation—were placed along the horizontal axis of the table. Because i t is TABLE 4 TABLE OF SPECIFICATIONS ILLUSTRATING THE DISTRIBUTION OF ITEMS FOR PILOT TEST 1 AND THE PROPOSED DISTRIBUTION FOR THE FINAL TEST FORM Related Goals and Learning Distribution of Items Pilot Test 1 Proposed Distribution Final Test Form Content Area Outcomes Know. Understand. Apply Total Know. Understand. Apply Total Rules, techniques, and strategies of physical activity Principles and mechanics of movement Concepts and methods of fitness Body structures and functions The effects of physical activity Factors affecting participation Goal 11,1 Goal 11,2 Goal IV,3 Goal 111,2,3 Goal IV,5 Goal 11,3,4,5 Goal 11,3,4,5 Goal IV,1 8 8 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 16 16 16 16 16 16 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 8 8 8 8 Totals 48 24 24 96 24 12 12 48 to 24 possible to more accurately classify knowledge items and because i t is more difficult to construct good quality objective items for understanding and application than for knowledge (Solleder, 1972), approximately 50 per-cent of the items in the table of specifications were assigned to measure knowledge. The remaining items were apportioned equally in the table of specifications for the assessment of understanding and application abilities. The desired length of the preliminary test form was approximately 96 items. This allowed for the elimination of some items after item analysis and subjective evaluation and s t i l l ensured a sufficient number of items for the final form. On this basis, at least 16 items were designed for each content area. Designing the Items As a result of an investigation of the relevant literature, 18 state-ments of information were prepared to embody the concepts inherent in each of the 6 content areas. From these statements, 108 multiple-choice items were constructed. A review of test construction literature disclosed several advantages and benefits of a multiple-choice format for items: multiple-choice items are adaptable to the measurement of some of the most important educational outcomes and are less susceptible to chance errors from guessing than are true-false type items (Baumgartner, 1975; Ebel, 1972; Safrit, 1973; Scott, 1959; Westman, 1971); further, the American Association of Health, Physical Education and Recreation believe that multiple-choice items "measure the ability to recall and recognize information, as well as to apply facts, analyse situations and solve problems" (A.A.H.P.E.R., 1969:128). According to the rules of multiple-choice item construction, the 25 stem of each newly designed item was phrased as either an incomplete statement or a direct question. An attempt was made to keep a l l pos-sible answers to each question parallel in grammatical form and of a similar length. Wesman (1971) advises that three to five alternatives can be used but he warns against adding distractors that f a i l to dis-tract. Each item in this test was provided with four alternatives, one of which was the correct answer. Preparation and Administration of Pilot Test 1 After the items had been constructed they were submitted to members of the contract team in order to be assessed for content validity. Each of the experts examined each item to ensure that i t reflected the content expressed in the goals and learning outcomes. Items were also scrutinized for proper grammatical construction, clarity, and suitabil-ity for use at the grade eleven high school level. As a result of the assessment by the contract team, and subsequent revisions, 96 items were accepted for preliminary administration. The projected time limit for the final form of the test was set at 40 minutes. Philips (1964) reported that college women answered 100 multiple-choice items in 50 minutes. A 45-minute time limit, according to Safrit (1973), would limit the test size to 60 items. In order to accurately assess the number of items high school students could answer in 40 minutes, and to ensure that there was adequate time for the com-pletion of the preliminary test form, the 96 items were arranged into two forms. As well, students were allowed up to 1 hour to complete the test and a record was kept of the approximate times of completion. Form A was composed of items from three of the six content areas: 26 principles and mechanics of movements; effects of activity; concepts and methods of fitness. The remaining knowledge outcomes made up Form B: rules, techniques and strategies; factors affecting partici-pation; body structures and functions. This procedure was followed so that items could be selected on the basis of their relationship to the sub-test. The items for each test form are presented in appendix E. The seven grade 11 classes to which the test forms were admin-istered were chosen from high schools in British Columbia. The classes selected represented a wide variation in geographic and socio-economic distributions. Instructions to the students emphasized that they should give only one answer per question and that questions to which students did not know the answer should be left blank. Samples of the two preliminary forms were sent to the teachers of the students taking part in this phase and to other physical educators in the province. These people were asked to comment on the appropriate-ness of the content, item difficulty, item construction, and vocabulary (see appendix B). Preparation and Administration of Pilot Test 2 The Laboratory of Educational Research Test Analysis Package (LERTAP) was used to perform a psychometric analysis on the items used in pilot test 1. In addition, since psychometric results should only be used as a guide in selecting items (Popham & Husek, 1971), a l l com-ments received from students, teachers, and other involved physical educators were used to help evaluate the effectiveness of each item. Based on computer and subjective analysis, poorly performing items were eliminated. 27 The revised form of the test was composed of 72 items. An attempt was made to provide at least ten items for each of the six content areas. This form of the test was subjected to careful examination by the advisory panel and the contract team for content validity, grammatical correctness, adherence to objective test construction principles, terminology, and suit-ability for grade 11 students. The test was administered to seven grade 11 high school classes in the greater Vancouver area. Since the major purpose in administering the second pilot was to eliminate errors and weaknesses within the items, a l l students were allowed 1 hour to complete the test. (Items that appeared on pilot test 2 are listed in appendix E.) Preparation and Administration of Pilot Test 3 In order to obtain the appropriate number of items for the third pilot test, the responses from pilot test 2 were again analysed by the LERTAP pro-gram and extensively reviewed by the contract team, the advisory panel, and high school physical educators. All items were closely examined for proper grammatical construction and technical correctness. Any items which were unclear or ambiguous were considered unacceptable and were either altered or deleted. As a result of these procedures, 38 items from the second pilot were considered suitable for inclusion in the next pilot. In order to ensure content validity, and to approximate as closely as possible the original table of specifications, ten new items were constructed for inclusion on pilot test 3. This test was administered to approximately 850 grade 11 students throughout British Columbia. From this population, the responses of 250 randomly selected students were analysed by the LERTAP program. Based on'this analysis, a final form of the test was established. (Items that were used on the third pilot test are listed in appendix E.) CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF THE DATA Methods of Analysis Following the administration of each p i l o t test a l l items were sub-jected to a psychometric item analysis. This analysis was performed using the Laboratory of Educational Research Test Analysis Package (LERTAP) which was developed by Nelson i n 1974. This i s a c l a s s i c a l item analysis program which can be used for test scoring but emphasizes item and test a n a l y s i s . The LERTAP program computes indices r e l a t i v e to the q u a l i t y of each item for item d i f f i c u l t y , d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a b i l i t y , and d i s t r a c t o r adequacy as well as providing information with regard to t e s t means and estimates of r e l i a b i l i t y . D i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s are expressed as p values. This value indicates the proportion or percent of test takers who chose the correct response. A high p value i s an i n d i c a t i o n of a r e l a t i v e l y easy item while a low value indicates a more d i f f i c u l t item. The a b i l i t y of an item to discriminate i s established by the com-putation of a Point B i s e r i a l Correlation (P.B.S.). This i s the c o r r e l a -t i o n between the item option and the sub-test or t o t a l test scores. It i s computed by coding those who select the option as '1' and those who don't choose the option as '0'. An item p o s i t i v e l y discriminates i f 28 29 those responding correctly to the item do well on the total test. It is desirable that the correct choice has a high positive P.B.S. and that a l l incorrect choices have negative correlations. Point biserial indices have a tendency to become smaller as difficulty levels depart from fifty percent. All incorrect options are known as distractors. Good distractors will have a negative point biserial correlation with the sub-test and total test scores. Distractors which have a positive correlation with these criteria should be carefully examined. In addition, a l l distrac-tors must function. Those which f a i l to attract responses should be removed, or altered so that they are more attractive. As well as being psychometrically reviewed, a l l items were subjec-tively evaluated by a panel of experts following each pilot test. The purposes of this procedure were to ensure content validity within each form, and to verify that a l l items measured knowledge that grade eleven physical education students would be expected to master. The experts made critical decisions with regard to the retention, omission, or modi-fication of items on the basis of vocabulary suitability, clarity, cor-rectness, grammatical construction, and appropriateness. It is important to emphasize that decisions made during the subjec-tive evaluations with regard to item quality generally predominated over decisions made based on the psychometric performance of items. According to Millman (1974:339): "the use of item statistics destroys the selec-tion process which is the defining characteristic of domain-referenced tests." Thus, the standard method of eliminating a l l items with extreme difficulty levels or low discriminating abilities, is not suitable. The psychometric analysis was used primarily to detect flaws in items and was 30 utilized more as a diagnostic device than as a measure for item selection. Therefore, p values which were notably extreme were reviewed in order to detect any errors within the item. Items which appeared to be 'too easy' were examined for improper wording which might have made the correct answer obvious. Item 7 on form B of pilot 1 is an example of this procedure (see appendix G). Items which caused great difficulty were inspected for ambiguity. For example, the foils of item 28, form B of pilot 1, could a l l be considered correct. It was this weakness within the item rather, than the-content of-the item that created apvalue of 9.9. In cases where word problems could not be eliminated, or ambiguity removed, items were omitted. Of course, not a l l items which recorded extreme p values were re-moved from the tests. Several items such as 27, 2, 4 on form A of pilot 1, and 13, 39 on pilot 3 were very difficult but were retained because their content was considered relevant and important. Similarly, items such as 16, 36 on form B of pilot 1, and 18, 23, 33, and psychology item 7 on pilot 3 recorded high p values but were retained : (see appendix C). Discrimination indices were reviewed in the same manner. Poorly discriminating items were examined carefully for ambiguity or other flaws. Most items which were poor discriminators were removed i f the error within the item could not be identified or corrected. Items 46 on Form A of pilot 1 and 19, 28, 42, and 68 on form B of pilot 1 are examples of this process. Some items recording weak point-biserial correlations were retained, in spite of those weaknesses, with modifications made to improve the item. Foil A on item 16 pilot 2 recorded a positive P.B.S. of .02 and also contained a typographical error. This item was altered for inclusion on pilot 3 (13) and recorded good indices. The second 31 option of item 10 on pilot 3 recorded a positive P.B.S. of .03. However, since only 4 percent of the sample tested chose this response incorrectly, the f o i l was not changed. In most cases, poor distractors were amended to attract more re-sponses. As an example, distractor D on item 5, form B of pilot 1 attracted only .07% response. This f o i l was modified for pilot 2 (14) and attracted 16.5% of the responses. In conclusion, because of the fundamentals of criterion-referenced test construction methods, some items on this test with poor item statis-tics were retained over items which were psychometrically more sound. The decision to retain or omit items was based on the value of the con-tent, and the feasibility of correcting weaknesses. Results of the Analysis-—Psychometric and Subjective Assessment of Individual Items A complete summary containing item difficulty levels and discrim-inatory values for each item on the three pilot tests, and subjective comments and suggestions is listed in appendix C. In situations where an item was removed the rationale for that removal is given. As a result of the evaluation of the items from pilot test 1, 72 items were selected for pilot test 2. In order to maintain content validity, equal number of items, where possible, were allotted to each of the six content areas. Table 5 indicates the distribution of items for the second pilot test. On the recommendation of the review panel the phrase 'I don't know' was included as a fifth option on a l l items. The purpose of this inclu-sion was to further reduce the possibility that students would guess the correct answer when they did not know i t . 32 TABLE 5 SUMMARY OF ITEM PERFORMANCES—PILOT TEST 1 Number of Items Number of Items Number of Items retained for Content Areas Pilot 1 Omitted Pilot 2 Movement principles 16 4 12 Rules, techniques, strategies 16 4 12 Fitness concepts 16 4 12 Body structures and functions 16 5 11 Effects of activity 16 4 12 Factors affecting participation 16 4 12 In preparation for pilot test 3 many items underwent minor modi-fications. Options such as 'all of the above' (pilot 2, item 64) were replaced, where possible, with more meaningful foils. Further, a l l items which contained diagrams were removed because the general quality of the diagrams was questionable and their interpretation confusing. Since only 38 items from pilot test 2 were considered acceptable for inclusion on the third pilot it was necessary to construct ten new items. Prior to the administration of this pilot, the new items were critically evaluated by members of the Contract Team and the Learning Assessment Branch of the Ministry of Education. On the recommendation of these groups, nine of the new items were included. The new items which appeared on pilot test 3 are 12, 38, 39, psychological items 3, 4,5,6,7,8. During the subjective assessment of the potential items for the third test, considerable discussion took place with respect to items dealing with the area of sport psychology. It was the opinion of the evaluators that such items contained more than one correct answer and for that reason, should be separated from the other items on the test form. As a result, a l l items in this category were removed from the body of the test and placed, with a separate set of instructions (see appendix B) at the end of the test. Pilot test 3 therefore contained 47 items in total, 8 of which were assigned to the sport psychology classification. Table 6 indi-cates the allocation of items to each content area. TABLE .6 SUMMARY OF ITEM PERFORMANCES—PILOT TEST 2 Number of Items Refined or Number of Items Number of Items Added for Content Area Pilot 2 Omitted Pilot 3 Movement principles 11 5 7 Rules, techniques, strategies 13* 5 8 Fitness concepts 13* 7 8 Body structures and functions 12** 5 8 Effects of activity 12 7 8 Factors affecting participation 11* 6 8 *1 item incorrectly classified during the item analysis **1 new item added 34 The 47 items from pilot test 3 were analysed once more by the LERTAP procedure. A summary of this final analysis is included in appendix C. All items which were new to this pilot proved to be psychometrically sound although most of the psychological items produced high p values. Several items revealed very high percentages of responses to the 'I don't know' option. Twenty-six percent of the students chose this response on item 11. On psychology item 4, 23 percent indicated that they were unaware of the answer. Other such findings were: item 10— 46%, item 26—27%, item 39, a new item on this pilot, 41%. These extreme values for the 'I don't know' options would seem to indicate that a large number of students have not been exposed to the concepts expressed in these particular items. Since a l l items on the third pilot test produced satisfactory item statistics, and had a l l received in-depth examination and review, these items remained intact and constituted the final form of the knowledge test. These items are presented in appendix E. The actual distribu-tion of the final form items relative to the sub-test areas and cognitive domains of the table of specifications is given in Table 7. Results of the Analysis—Psychometric and Subjective Assessment of Sub-Test and Total Test Data As well as producing item analyses to aid in test construction, the LERTAP program also computes scores which reflect the overall performance and quality of the total test and its sub-components. Relative to an evaluation of test quality are indices for the mean, the reliability estimates and standard errors of measurement, as well as correlations between sub-test and total test scores. In order to produce such values, each of the six content areas, as 35 TABLE 7 TABLE OF SPECIFICATIONS—DISTRIBUTION FINAL TEST FORM OF ITEMS— Content Area Knowledge Understanding Application Total Rules, techniques, and strategies of 8 physical activity 5 1 2 Principles and mechanics of movement 3 2 2 7 Concepts and methods of fitness 4 3 1 8 Body structures and functions 5 3 0 8 The effects of physical activity 4 2 2 8 Factors affecting participation 2 1 8 Total 26 13 8 47 outlined in the original table of specifications, was treated as a sub-test in the LERTAP format. Table 8 illustrates the relevant statistics for each of the six sub-tests, on each of the three pilot tests. Except for two sub-tests on pilot 3, 'movement principles' and 'factors affect-ing participation,' a l l of the content areas can be classified as being moderately difficult. The two sub-tests mentioned recorded means of approximately 70 percent. On a l l three pilot tests the 'concepts of fitness' sub-tests provided the lowest means (43%,38%,37%) of a l l sub-tests. Since pilots 1 and 2 contained several weak items which affected the sub-test means, the values produced on the third pilot give the most accurate reflection of test difficulty. The mean score for each total 36 TABLE 8 SUB-TEST STATISTICS FOR PILOT TESTS 1,2,3 Means Standard Deviation P i l o t P i l o t P i l o t P i l o t P i l o t P i l o t Sub-Test Content 1 2 3 1 2 3 Movement p r i n c i p l e s 16 i t e m s - p i l o t 1A g Q 5 5 5 Q 2 y 2 ± ± 3 11 x t e m s — p i l o t 2 • 5 & % 5 Q % ? 1 % 1 4 % i g % 2 Q % 7 i t e m s — p i l o t 3 Rules, techniques, strategies 16 i t e m s — p i l o t IB , „ , ~ o o o e i A 1 0 ., 9 7.1 6.2 4.3 2.2 2.6 1.6 12 x t e m s — p i l o t 2 4 3 % 5 Q % 5 Q % 1 3 % 2 1 % 2 Q % 8 i t e m s — p i l o t 3 Concepts of f i t n e s s 16 i t e m s — p i l o t 1A , 0 . , 0 0 o o - o i i c. 9 6.8 4.6 3.3 2.2 2.1 l . j 13 items- p i l o t 2 4 3 % 3 8 % 3 ? % 1 3 % 1 6 % 2 0 % 8 i t e m s — p i l o t 3 Body structures and  functions 16 i t e m s - p i l o t IB ? > g 5 > Q 3 > Q 2 > 2 2 ± ± ^ 12 items p i l o t 2 5 Q % 4 1 % 3_% 1 3 % 1 ? % 1 ? % 8 i t e m s — p i l o t 3 E f f e c t s of a c t i v i t y 16 i t e m s — p i l o t 1A 0 . _ _ . „ 0 , 0 ~. c ... „ 8.4 5.7 4.8 2.4 2.3. 1.5-. 12 items p i l o t 2 5 Q % 4 1 % 6 Q % 1 5 % 1 ? % ± Q % 8 i t e m s — p i l o t 3 Factors a f f e c t i n g  p a r t i c i p a t i o n 16 i t e m s — p i l o t 1A 9 2 5 > 5 5 > 6 2 Q . , 1 > 6 o 11 i t e m s — p i l o t 2 5 6 % 4 5 % ? { ) % 1 5 % l g % 2 Q % 8 i t e m s — p i l o t 3 N = pilot 1A 142 pilot IB 141 pilot 2 133 pilot 3 250 37 test appears in Table 9. A mean of 26 (55%) on pilot test 3 is an indication that the total test is moderately difficult. TABLE 9 TOTAL TEST STATISTICS Statistic Pilot 1 Form A N=142 . Pilot 1 Form B N=141 Pilot 2 N=133 Pilot 3 N=250 Number of items 48 48 . 72 47 High score 38 36 54 41 Low score 8 10 2 7 Mean 24.2 24.4 32.6 26.0 50% 50% 45% 55% Standard deviation 5.7 5.0 9.9 5.5 12% 10% 13% 12% Perhaps the most important measure for assessing the quality of a test is the estimate of the test's reliability. Reliability has been defined in many ways; i t is "the consistency of evaluation results" (Gronlund, 1976:80), "the taste of the pie—the accuracy of the measures taken by the test" (Nelson, 1974:256), "the degree of consistency with which a test measures" (Stanley, 1972:71). Implicit in these defini-tions is the suggestion that a test may produce scores that are inaccur-ate because there may be errors within the test itself. There are two main sources of error for most measurements. The greatest factor in producing measurement error is the sampling error. Sampling errors exist when the boundaries of content areas or objectives are unclear. It reflects how well the sample of test items selected are 38 representative of the t o t a l domain of items which could be used to assess any s p e c i f i c object or content area. An a d d i t i o n a l source of error for measurement instruments i s created by the circumstances under which a test i s written. Such factors as physical or mental fatigue, poor test environment, poor test i n s t r u c t i o n s , and reading d e f i c i e n c i e s can a l l contribute to possible sources of error. A p e r f e c t l y r e l i a b l e test has a c o e f f i c i e n t of +1.00, i n d i c a t i n g an e r r o r - f r e e t e s t . A test that i s completely u n r e l i a b l e has a coef-f i c i e n t of 0.00. According to Cronbach (1951:320), " i f a test has suf-f i c i e n t i n t e r n a l consistency i t i s psychologically i n t e r p r e t a b l e . " Thus, i n order for a test to be meaningful, i t must be r e l i a b l e . There are several v a r i a b l e s which can a f f e c t the r e l i a b i l i t y of a t e s t . One of these variables involves the length of the t e s t . In general, the longer the test the higher the r e l i a b i l i t y . This i s due to the f a c t that a longer test w i l l provide a better sample of the p a r t i c u l a r domain being measured. Also a f f e c t i n g a t e s t ' s r e l i a b i l i t y i s the spread of the obtained scores. Again, the larger the spread, the higher the estimate of r e l i a b i l i t y i s l i k e l y to be. Errors of measurement have les s influence on the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s when the differences among those i n d i v i d u a l s are great. Since a spread of scores i s an unimportant goal i n c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d t e s t s , r e l i a b i l i t y estimates w i l l tend to be low because of the p r o b a b i l i t y of homogeneous responses. D i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of scores and thus to r e l i a b i l i t y , i s the d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l of items on the t e s t . Because items of extreme l e v e l s of d i f f i -c u l t y are retained on c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d t e s t s , scores tend to p o l a r -i z e . Therefore, v a r i a b i l i t y w i l l be low and r e l i a b i l i t y estimates 39 affected. The method used by the LERTAP program to compute the r e l i a b i l i t y estimate i s the Hoyt analysis of variance routine (Hoyt, 1941).' This procedure, which i s s i m i l a r to the Kuder-Richardson method (Kuder-Richardson, 1937) and Cronbach's alpha (Cronbach, 1951) i s known as the i n t e r n a l consistency method. In a test that has perfect i n t e r n a l con-sistency each item measures, without error, exactly the same factor as every other item. In order to estimate the r e l i a b i l i t y of the measure-ment t o o l by the i n t e r n a l consistency method i t i s necessary to calcu-l a t e the percentage of the obtained variance i n the scores that may be regarded as true variance. R e l i a b i l i t y then, i s the r a t i o of true variance to t o t a l variance. The r e l i a b i l i t y estimates for a l l sub-tests and t o t a l tests i n t h i s study are l i s t e d i n Table 10. The r e l a t i v e l y low values for the sub-tests i n p i l o t 3 can be p a r t i a l l y explained by the low numbers of items within each category and by the extreme d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l s of the various items (Stanley, 1972). Conversely, the r e l i a b i l i t y estimate of .85 for p i l o t test 2 r e f l e c t s , to a degree, the large number of items i n each sub-test and on the t o t a l t e s t . The r e l i a b i l i t y estimate for p i l o t test 3 i s .71. This score i s an i n d i c a t i o n that the test i s s u i t a b l e for evaluating programs and assessing groups (Nelson, 1974). Although there are low r e l i a b i l i t i e s within the sub-tests, they too ar-e-suitable for-grouRaey,a!uationVjand program' assessment...i The r e l i a b i l i t y of a test i s d i r e c t l y related to the c o r r e l a t i o n s among the sub-tests. A summary of the sub-test and t o t a l test c o r r e l a -t i o n of p i l o t 3 i s provided i n Table 11. 40. TABLE 10 SUMMARY OF SUB-TEST AND TOTAL TEST RELIABILITY ESTIMATES Pilot Test Pilot Test . Pilot Test Pilot Test 1 1 2 3 Content Areas Form A Form B Movement principles .44 .52 .32 Rules, techniques, strategies .40 .60 .38 Concept of fitness .47 .50 .42 Body structures and functions .45 .47 .26 Effects of activity .48 .54 .28 Factors affecting participation .46 .42 .53 Total test reliabilities .72 .64 .85 .71 TABLE 11 CORRELATION MATRIX FOR PILOT TEST 3 Sub-Test Areas 1 c on .c <4-l 1 •H CO o CO o a m 4-1 4-1 0) 0) 3 CO o bO rd CO 4 J i-H 4-1 <& •H CO H a ft QJ C ft M 4-1 co 4-1 o3 o CO 4 J CO •H •H 4-1 O) -H - [0 0) P. CO CO •H 4-> •H 4 J o B o to a) 4-1 a) a) CO 4-1 o > o a •H r H CU. C QJ 3 rd a C a) O CD •1-1 4-1 QJ 4 J Ct) > -H •H cr U C 4-1 c M-l 4-1 O 14-1 M 4 J o u 3 -H 4-1 o •H o 3 3 m O CtJ 4-1 cd o p4 c CO c_> m pq 4 J <4-l W a) cd ft H Movement principles 1.00 0.27 0.19 0.15 0.21 0.30 0.57 Rules, techniques, strategies 0.27 1.00 0.26 0.10 0.28 0.24 0.61 Concepts of fitness 0.19 0.26 1.00 0.14 0.30 0.28 0.61 Body structure and functions 0.15 0.10 0.14 1.00 0.24 0.15 0.48 Effects of activity 0.21 0.28 0.30 . 0.24 1.00 0.39 0.67 Factors affecting participation 0.30 0.24 0.28 0.15 0.39 1.00 0.66 Total test 0.57 0.61 0.61 0.48 0.67 0.66 1.00 41 All correlations with the total test are reasonably high. The sub-test which correlates to the greatest degree with the total test is 'effects of activity' recording a value of .67. The sub-test 'body structures and functions' has the lowest correlation with the total test (.48) and i t also correlates minimally with a l l other sub-tests. This content area could be considered to be most directly related to health education concepts and as such, it contains items that make l i t t l e i f any inference to physical education and activity. Perhaps for this reason, it does not correlate well with the other areas. Further, the sub-tests of 'effects of activity' and 'factors affecting participation' provided higher correlations than any other sub-tests. While reliability estimates provide an important and necessary mea-sure for the assessment of test quality, the validity of a test is just as significant, i f not more so. And while good reliaiblity is necessary in order to produce a valid test, i t is no guarantee of validity and steps must be taken to ensure that the test is measuring what it is intended to measure. Stanley and Hopkins (1972:101) state that "regardless of a l l other merits of a test, i f the test lacks validity, for a particular pur-pose, the information provided is useless." In measurement theory there are several types of validity. One of these, known as content validity, is of primary consideration in criterion-referenced testing. If i t can be demonstrated that the behaviours per-formed in testing constitute a representative sample of the behaviours specified by the objectives, a test can be considered valid (Taylor, 1978). In other words, a l l items on this knowledge test should measure one or more of the learning outcomes and the total should represent an approp-riate sample of a l l of the outcomes on which the test is.based. 42 It is necessary when discussing and assessing content validity to make a distinction between that concept and the concept of 'educational importance.' According to Safrit (1973:97), "the educational importance of a test is being determined when judgements are being made about the description of the universe or the suitability of the test items." Con-tent validity, the concept under consideration here, reflects how well the items adequately sample the domain under investigation. Unfortunately, the assessment of content validity is not a simple matter and there are no statistical procedures available to assess that aspect of a test's quality. The principle of expressing validity as a correlation coefficient applies only to criterion-related or predictive validity (not relevant in this situation) and therefore, the interpreta-tion and assessment of content validity must be qualitative instead of quantitative. The procedures involved in estimating content validity by a quali-tative or logical interpretation involve the opinion and judgements of professionals in the field and the test constructor who ascertain the validity of the test. However, steps taken during the construction of the test can help ensure that the test is valid. Stanley and Hopkins (1972:102) l i s t three considerations that test reviewers should be aware of in assessing content validity: (1) the degree to which the content of the test items overlaps the content of the subject matter being measured. (2) the degree of concordance between the content emphasis of the test and the content emphasis of the instruction. (3) the degree to which test items are free from factors which are irrelevant or incidental to the measurement (e.g., reading and vocabulary factors). This knowledge test can be said to possess content validity because of the qualitative evaluation of items that was provided by experts in the 43 f i e l d and because of the s p e c i f i c methods used i n the test's development: (i ) the learning outcomes to be assessed were c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d and stated; ( i i ) i n constructing the table of s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , equal numbers of items were a l l o c a t e d to each content area; ( i i i ) at each review session the evaluators c a r e f u l l y examined each item with regard to i t s relevancy for grade 11 physical education students and i t s r e l a t i o n to the behavi-ours suggested by the objectives; and (iv) items which were not considered s u i t a b l e f o r grade 11 students or which did not r e f l e c t the s p e c i f i e d behaviours, were omitted. Interpreting the Test Results One of the purposes of cr i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d t e s t i n g i s to d i s t i n g u i s h between those students who have- mastered the content being sampled by a test and those who have not. In order to make such a d i s t i n c t i o n , i t i s necessary to specify the performance standards, or c r i t e r i o n behaviours, which the students who are considered successful are expected to a t t a i n . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of such standards i s one of the most d i f f i c u l t and con-t r o v e r s i a l aspects of cr i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d t e s t i n g . Many theories have been put forward regarding the establishment of standards for assessing c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d test r e s u l t s and although opinions vary, most experts agree that the procedures involved i n the se t t i n g of standards require judgement and evaluation by pro f e s s i o n a l s . In the assessment of t h i s knowledge t e s t , the r e s u l t s of the test were presented to p r o v i n c i a l l y representative panels of educators and informed members of the public for the purpose of judging strengths or weaknesses i n p a r t i c u l a r objective or sub-test areas. Four separate panels, a preliminary panel and three i n t e r p r e t a t i o n panels, were required to complete the ana l y s i s . 44 The preliminary panel was represented by individuals expert in measurement, growth and development, curriculum content, and instructional practices in physical education. The task of this panel was to establish standards indicative of 'minimally acceptable' performances. Performances falling below the acceptable range were considered a weakness, while those above the acceptable range were identified as a strength. Once these standards had been established, a 15-member panel was con-vened by the Ministry of Education. This panel was composed of teachers, supervisors, teacher educators, trustees, and members of the public who considered the results of the test and rated the performances on each item and sub-test on a 5-point scale (weak, marginally satisfactory, satisfac-tory, very satisfactory, and strong) based upon the percentage of students who had answered each item correctly. While the above procedures no doubt provide a comprehensive and accurate evaluation of the test results, they are time consuming, and somewhat impractical for most classroom teachers who do not have the resources, the time, or the personnel required to assess their test results in this manner. Fortunately, there are more simplified methods available which classroom teachers can use in order to set standards and thus interpret test results. One such method involves the establishment of 'minimally acceptable performance levels' (Taylor, 1978) as set by groups of teachers or other qualified personnel. Each teacher is given a copy .of the test and asked to individually estimate, for each question, how many of 100 minimally competent students would answer that question correctly. This figure is expressed as a percentage or a probability. The easier the question, the higher the figure will be. Since the items on this test are multiple-45 choice, the percentage or probability should never be lower than .25, the chance of guessing the correct answer by luck (Taylor, 1968:43). Once the panel of teacher judges have individually established percentages for each item, the results are then announced to the group. Teachers who have given the most extreme scores are asked to give their reason for such decisions but any changes that are made are optional. In order to establish the standard for the test, each teacher cal-culates their total percentage by adding the set values for each item. The average of these totals is the standard or criterion level which can be expressed as a single cut-off score or which can be expanded to include a range of scores. Once minimal competency levels have been identified, the panel of judges must decide the percentage of students who should score above that level. Utilizing these standards, teachers can iden-tify strengths and weaknesses within their programs and, with caution, within their students. It is important to note that with respect to this particular knowl-edge test, decisions regarding individual performance should only be made in situations where the test is administered in its entirety. The six sub-tests which make up the total test should not be used individually to identify strengths and weaknesses in particular students. However, teachers who are interested in evaluating the performance of their classes or the success of their programs with respect to a specific sub-test con-tent area can use this instrument with confidence if the content of their programs is reflected by the learning outcomes described earlier in this study. CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The purpose of this study was to design a criterion-referenced physical education knowledge test that would be suitable for program assessment and group evaluation at the grade eleven high school level. The cognitive domains to be evaluated were based on goals and specific learning outcomes which had been formulated by the Contract Team and Advisory Panel of the Learning Assessment Branch of the Ministry of Edu-cation in British Columbia. From these goals and learning outcomes, six content areas were developed and these areas formed the framework for the construction of test items. In accordance with the recommended procedures for constructing objective tests, a table of specifications was designed to indicate the proposed allotment of items for each content area. Since i t was the purpose of this test to discover what knowledge students did or did not have with respect to each of the six areas, equal numbers of items were projected for each category. To prepare an i n i t i a l pilot test form, 108 multiple-choice test items, based on a similar number of statements of information, were pre-sented to the Contract Team for approval. As a result of this review process, 96 items (16 for each content area) were accepted for inclusion on pilot test 1. In order to facilitate the administration of this pilot test, two test forms, each containing 48 items, were used. Each form included 46 47, a l l of the items from three of the six content areas. This test was administered to seven grade 11 classes in British Columbia. Following the administration of the test, a l l items were analysed using the Laboratory of Educational Research Test Analysis computer program so that the psychometric performance of each item could be iden-tified. In addition, item quality was assessed by a panel of experts in order to appraise content validity and the appropriateness of item content. The psychometric and subjective evaluation of pilot test 1 produced 72 suitable items for inclusion on the next pilot test. Each of the six content, or sub-test areas, was represented by approximately eleven items on the second pilot test form which was presented to seven grade 11 classes in the greater Vancouver region. The responses to pilot test 2 were again statistically analysed and were reviewed extensively by the Contract Team, Advisory Panel, and other interested high school educators. From this evaluation, 38 items from the second pilot test were considered acceptable for the third test form. In order to maintain content validity and to ensure an adequate number of items for each sub-test, ten new items were constructed and subsequently reviewed by members of the Contract Team and the Learning Assessment Branch of the Ministry of Education. As a result of this appraisal, nine new items were included in pilot test 3. The review panel also recommended that because of the unique nature of the items which relate to knowledges and understandings in sport psychology, these items should be removed from the test and grouped together at the conclusion of pilot test 3. The third pilot test was 48 administered to approximately 800 grade 11 students from various parts of British Columbia. A random sample of the responses of 250 of these stu-dents was used to assess the performance of the items and the general quality of the third test form utilizing the LERTAP program. Since the performance of a l l items was considered to be satisfactory, the items from pilot 3 remained intact, and the final form was produced using these items. On the final form, which contained 47 items, each of the 6 content areas except one was represented by 8 items. Utilizing the Hoyt method of analysis of variance routine, the reliabilities for a l l sub-tests and for the total test were estimated. The reliability estimate for the final form was .71. This value provided an indication that the test was a satisfactory one and could be utilized therefore, for its intended purpose. As a result of this study, the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. A criterion-referenced knowledge test which assesses knowledge and understanding in physical education has been constructed. 2. The knowledge test can be utilized to an additional method for evalu-ating progress and programs in grade eleven physical education. 3. The test is considered to be reliable (+.71) and both the total test and the six sub-tests can be used with confidence in assessing group performance and evaluating programs. 4. If the test is administered in its entirety, and used with caution, it can serve to evaluate and diagnose individual strengths and weak-nesses. Because of-the relatively low reliabilities within the sub-tests, they should not be used alone for such purposes. 5. Due to the methods employed in the construction of the. test and the qualitative analysis provided by experts in the profession, the test 4 9 can be considered to possess content validity. 6. The knowledge test is considered to.be moderately difficult. This difficulty is due in part to: (i) the innovative nature of the curriculum as expressed by the goals and learning outcomes, (ii) the inexperience of students in writing physical education tests. 7. Although the test is designed to assess the knowledge and understand-ing of grade 11 students in British Columbia, the wide range of objectives which are common to most physical education curricula make the test applicable to other programs if the distribution of content in those programs is in close agreement with the test specifications. Recommendations Because of the ever-increasing concern for the transmission of the body of knowledge fundamental to physical education and the: apparent lack of suitable measurement tools to assess that knowledge, there is a strik-ing need for further research of this type. Such research :should be continued to develop tests to assess the acquisition of physical education at different stages of schooling and to improve the quality of assessment instruments. Criterion-referenced tests, while not a panacea for a l l of the dif-ficulties prevalent in educational evaluation, do provide one means of assessing individual or group competency relative to established criteria. In a discipline such as physical education, where the individual is deemed to be of paramount importance, this form of measurement tool would appear to be suitable. Because criterion-referenced tests are more sensitive to instruction than traditional norm-referenced methods, they have greater potential for 50 identifying strengths and weaknesses within both individuals and programs. They could also serve, when used cautiously, as indicators of teacher effectiveness. When the results of tests of any kind are used to make important decisions about individuals, such as teachers or students, it is vital to utilize as many sources of information and types of evaluation instruments as is possible. In situations where this test is to be used for place-ment or promotion, supplemental information should be obtained from other sources such as daily work performance, class assignments, and other assessment devices. In order to stimulate further study into criterion-referenced evalu-ation in physical education, the following suggestions are provided: 1. Since the general body of knowledge in physical and health education is so large and varied, i t is difficult to include items to cover a l l aspects of physical and health education on one test form. It would be advisable therefore, to limit the cognitive domains being assessed by any one test. This procedure would also allow a more precise definition of the objectives being measured and would provide an increase in the number of items designed to assess each specific objective. 2. In order to take f u l l advantage of the expertise offered by the panel of experts, i t is recommended that this group be encouraged to provide critical input at a l l stages of test development. In this manner, items which are considered unacceptable will be modified or discarded at the preliminary stages of test construction. 3 . Items which relate to the area of sport psychology should be used with caution and may in fact have no place on a test where a l l 51 answers are either correct or incorrect. Although i t has been sug-gested that such items do have a 'correct' or 'best' answer, that answer is specific to the individual and not to a defined body of knowledge. 4. Efforts should be made to produce a higher estimate of reliability within the sub-tests. This can be partially accomplished by defin-ing the sub-test area more precisely, increasing the number of items in.the sub-test, and ensuring that a l l items within that area are relevant to the concept being assessed. 5. 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"A Health Knowledge Test for High School." Ph.D. Disser-tation, Indiana University, 1958. 56 Power, W. B. "A Knowledge Test in Touch Football for Junior High Boys." In Completed Research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation 2(1960): 36. Reichle, M. N. "Development of an Instrument to Measure Knowledge in Recreational Boating." In Completed Research in Health, Physical  Education and Recreation. 18(1976): 144. Reid, C. P. "Health Problems Test: A Health Knowledge Test for College Students." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, 1956. Rodgers, Elizabeth G. "The Standardization and Use of Objective Type Information Tests in Team Game Activities." Research Quarterly 10(March 1939): 102-112. Rodgers, E. G., and Heath, M. L. "An Experiment in the Use of Knowledge and Skill Tests in Playground Baseball." Research  Quarterly. 2(December 1931): 113-31. Schwartz, Helen. "Knowledge and Achievement Tests in Girls Basketball on the Senior High School Level." Research Quarterly 8 (March 1937):•143-56. Scott, M. Gladys. "Achievement Examinations for Elementary and Inter-mediate Tennis Classes." Research Quarterly ..^ 12 (March 1941): 40-49. . "Achievement Examinations in Badminton." Research Quarterly. "(May 1941): 242-53. . "Achievement Examinations for Elementary and Intermediate Swimming Classes." Research Quarterly, 12(May 1940): 100-111. Seffrin, John R., and Veeker, C. H. "A Standardized Achievement Test of Health Education Objectives in the Cognitive Domain." Journal of School Health; 42(January 1972): 43-46. Sefton, A. A. "Knowledge Test on Source Material in Physical Education, Including Aspects of Health Education and Recreation." Research  Quarterly. 7(May 1936): 124-35. Shambaugh, Mary E. "Objective Measurement of Success in Teaching Folk Dance to University Women." Research Quarterly, l6(March 1935): 33-58. Shaw, John H., and Troyer, M. E. Health Education Test: Knowledge and  Application. New York: Acorn, 1956. Snell, Catherine. "Physical Education Knowledge Test." Research  Quarterly, 7(March 1936): 73-82. 57 Snell, Catherine. "Physical Education Knowledge. Tests."' Research  Quarterly 7(May 1936): 77-91. . "Physical Education Knowledge Tests." Research Quarterly 6 (October 1935): 78-94. Solleder, Marian. "Evaluation.in the. Cognitive Domain." Journal of  School Health 42(January 1952): 16-20. Spears, I. K. "Construction of a Health Knowledge Test in Growth and Development for the Second Educational Level." " In 1 CompletedfResearch  in Health, Physical Education and Recreation 11(1969): 93. Stradtman, Alan D., and Cureton, D. K. "A Physical Fitness Knowledge Test for Secondary School Boys and Girls." Research Quarterly: 21 (March 1950) : 53-57. Thompson, Betty L. Fundamentals of Rhythm artd Dance. New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1937. Veenker, C. Harold. "A Health Knowledge Test for the Seventh Grade." Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University, 1957. Wade, M. G. "A Proficiency Examination of the Foundations of Physical Education Lecture Materials." In CompletedResearch/In Health, Physical Education and Recreation 11(1969): 112. Waglow, I.F., and Rehling, C. H. "A Golf Knowledge Test." Research  Quarterly 24(December 1953): 463-70. Waglow, I. F., and Stephens, Foy. "A Softball Knowledge Test." Research Quarterly ,.• 26(May 1955) : 234-43. Wagner, Marium M. "An Objective Method of Grading Beginners in Tennis." The Journal of Health and Physical Education 6(March 1935): 79, 24-26. Walker, Wm. P. "The Development of a General Knowledge Inventory Test and a Resource Syllabus for a Foundation Course in Physical Education for College Freshman." Ph.D. Dissertation, Florida State University, 1965. (Health, Physical Education and Recreation, Microform Publications, Card No. P.E. 801, University of Oregon.) Warren, M. S. "The Construction of a Knowledge Test in Lacrosse." In Completed Research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation 14(1972): 118. Winn, Jerome E. "Soccer Knowledge Test for College Men." Ph.D. Dissertation, Indiana University, 1957. 58 Yeakle, M. A. "The Development of a Community Health Knowledge Test for Senior High School Students." Iri Completed Research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation 11(1969): y3. Yellen, Sylvia. "The Development of a Health Practice Inventory for Children in Grades Three, Four, and Five." Masters Thesis, University of California, 1957. B. Measurement and Evaluation Baumgartner, T. A., and Jackson, A. S. Measuring for Evaluation in  Physical Education. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1975. Block, J. H., ed. Mastery Learning: Theory arid Practice. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971. . "Criterion-Referenced Measurement:. Potential." School Review 79(February 1971): 289-297. Bloom, B. S., Hastings, J. T., and Madaus, G. F. Haridbook on Formative  arid Summative Evaluation of Student Learning. New York: McGraw-Hi l l , 1971. ' . "Mastery Learning," in J. H. Block-} ed. Mastery Learriing: Theory and Practice. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971. Clarke, H. Harrison. Application of Measurement to Health and Physical  Education. 4th ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1976. Cronbach, L. "Coefficient Alpha and the Internal Structure of Tests." Psychometrika 16(1951): 297-334. . Essentials of Psychological Testing. 3rd ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1970. Ebel, R. L. Measuring Educational Achievement. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1965. . "Criterion-Referenced Measurements: Limitations." School Review 79(February 1971): 282-288. . Essentials of Educational Measurement. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1972. Eckert, Helen M. Practical Measurement of Physical Performance. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1974. Gagne, Robert M., ed. Psychological Principles in System Development. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1962. . The Conditions of Learning. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1966. 59 Glaser, Robert. "Instructional Technology and the Measurement of Learning Outcomes: Some Questions." American Psychologist 18 (August 1963): 519-521. . Measurement, in Learning and Instruction. Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh University, 1970. Glaser, Robert, and Klaus, David J. "Proficiency Measurement.: Assess-ing Human Performance." In /Psychological Principles -in -System  Development. Robert M. Gagne, ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1962: 418-474. Gronlund, Norman E. Measurement Evaluation in Teaching. 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan, 1976. v- .', . . Constructing Achievement Tests. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1977.. Johnson, B. L., and Nelson, J. K. Practical Measurements for Evaluation  in Physical Education. Minneapolis: Burgess, 1974. Hambleton, Ronald K., and others. "Criterion-Referenced Testing and Measurement: A Review of Technical Issues and Development." Review of Educational Research 48, No. 1(Winter 1978): 1-47. Hoyt, Cyril. "Test Reliability Obtained by Analysis of Variance." Psychometrika VI(June 1941): 153-160. Krathwohl, D., and Payne, D. A. "Defining and Assessing Educational Objectives." R. L. Thorndike, ed. In Educational Measurement. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education, 1971. Lehman, Paul R. Tests and Measurement in Music. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1968. Macdonald, T. F., and Moorman, Gary. "Criterion-Referenced Testing for Functional Literacy." Journal of Reading 17(February 1974): 363-366. Martuza, Victor R. Applying Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced  Measurement, in Education. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1977. Matthews, D. K. Measurement in Physical Education. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunder, 1974. Nelson, Larry G. Guide to LERTAP Use and Interpretation. Dept. of Education, University of Otago, N.Z., 1974. Nunnally, Jum C. Educational Measurement and Evaluation. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964. Popham, W. James. "Indices of Adequacy for Criterion Referenced Test Items," in W. J. Popham, ed. Criterion Referenced Measurement. Educational Technology Publications, New Jersey, 1971. 60 Popham, W. James, ed. Evaluation in Education. Berkley: McCutchan, 1974. . Educational Evaluation. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1975. . "Well Created Criterion Referenced Tests." Educational Leadership. 36(November 1978): 91-95. ., ed. Criterion Referenced Measurement. New Jersey: Educa-tional Technology Publications, 1971. . An Evaluation Guidebook. Los Angeles: The Instructional Objectives Exchange, 1972. Popham, W. James, and Husek, T. R. Implications of Criterion Referenced  Measurement. New Jersey: Educational Publications, 1971. Radocy, R. E. Development of a Test for Non-Performance Aspects of Music Education. U.S., Educational Resources Information Center, ERIC Document ED 051 251, 1971. Safrit, Margaret, J. Evaluation in Physical Education: Assessing Motor  Behaviour. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1973. Scott, M. G., and French, E. "Rules for Constructing Multiple-Choice Questionnaires." In A. W. Hubbard (ed.) Research Methods in  Health, Physical Education and Recreation. Washington: American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 1959. Simons, Gene M. "A Criterion Referenced Test of Fundamental Music and Listening Skills." Child Study Journal 6, No. 4(1976): 223-234. Stanley, Julian C, and Hopkins, Kenneth D. Educational and Psycholog- ical Measurement and Evaluation. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1972. Sheehan, D. S., and R. G. Davis. "The Development and Validation of a Criterion-Referenced Mathematics Battery." School Science and  Mathematics LXXIV, No. 2(February 1979): 125-132. Taylor, Hugh, and Greer, N. Construction and Use of Classroom Tests: A  Resource Book for Teachers. British Columbia: Learning Assessment Branch, Ministry of Education, 1978. Thorndike, R. L., ed. Educational Measurement. 2nd ed. Washington: American Council on Education, 1971. Thorndike, Robert L., and Hagen, Elizabeth P. Measurement and Evalua- tion in Psychology and Education. 4th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1977. Wesman, A. G. "Writing the Test Items." R. L. Thorndike, ed. Educa- tional Measurement. 2nd ed. Washington: American Council on Education, 1971. Whybren, W. E. Measurement and Evaluation in Music. Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown, 1972. 61 C. Physical and Health Education Source Materials Abernathy, Ruth. "The Search for Persistent Themes in Physical Educa-tion." J.O.H.P.E.R. 36(March 1965): 26. American Association of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation. The A.A.H.P.E.R. Co-operative Physical Education Tests Handbook. Princeton: Educational Testing Service, 1971. . Knowledges and Understanding in Physical Education. Washington: A.A.H.P.E.R. Press, 1973. Barrow, Harold M. Man and Movement: Principles of Physical Education. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1977. Bucher, Charles A., and Goldman, Myra. Dimensions of Physical Education. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby, 1969. Bucher, Charles A. Foundations of Physical Education. 7th ed. Saint Louis: C. V. Mosby, 1975. Corbin, Charles B., Dowell, Linus J., Lindsey, Ruth, and Tolson, Homer. Concepts in Physical Education. 2nd ed. Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown, 1970. Cunningham, D. A. "Physical Education as an Academic Discipline." C.A.H.P.E.R. 31(August 1965): 21. Daughtrey, Greyson. Effective Teaching in Physical Education for Secondary Schools. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1973. Frost, Reuben B. Physical Education: Foundations, Practices, Prin-ciples . Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1975. Henry, Franklin M. "Physical Education—An Academic Discipline." Paper presented at the Third Session NCPEA, Dallas, Texas, 10 January 1964. Johnson, Perry B., Updyke, Wynn F., Schaefer, Margellen, and Stolberg, Donald C. Sport, Exercise and You. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1975. Kirchner, Glenn. Physical Education for Elementary School Children. Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown, 1970. Kroll, Walter P. Perspectives in Physical Education. New York: Academic Press, 1971. Mand, Charles L. "The Case for a Bold New Physical Education Exper-ience." J.O.H.P.E.R. 33(September 1962): 39-40. 62 Paddick, R. J. "Nature & Place of a Field of Knowledge in Physical Educa-tion." Masters Thesis, Univ. of Alberta, 1967. (Health, Physical Education and Recreation Microform Publications, Card No. P.E. 1088, University of Oregon.) Pelton, Barry Clifton. "A Critical Analysis of Current Practices and Beliefs Underlying General Physical Education Programs in Higher Education.": Research Quarterly 38(December 1967): 678. Province of British Columbia, Department of Education. Secondary School  Physical and Health Education. Victoria: Province of British Columbia, Department of Education, 1961. Province of Ontario, Ministry of Education. Physical and Health Educa- tion Guide—Intermediate Division. Toronto: Ministry of Educa-tion, Province of Ontario, 1978. Province of Manitoba, Department of Youth and Recreation. Physical Education 7-12. Winnipeg: Province of Manitoba, Department of Youth and Recreation, 1970. Province of Saskatchewan, Department of Education. Physical Education  Curriculum Guide, K-12. Regina: Province of Saskatchewan, Department of Education, 1976. Thompson, John C. Physical Education for the 1970's. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1971. Van Huss, Wayne D., Niemeyer, Roy K., Olson, Herbert W., and Friedrich, John A. Physical Activity in Modern Living. 2nd ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1969. Willgoose, Dr. Carl E. "Re-directed College Physical Education." J.O.H.P.E.R. 24(November 1963): 38-39. Williams, Jesse F., and Brownell, Clifford L. The Administration of Health Education and Physical Education. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1951. 63 APPENDIX A Physical Education Learning Assessment Goals and Learning Outcomes January 1979 Secondary Level Goal I THE SECONDARY PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM SHOULD ASSIST STUDENTS IN DEVELOPING EFFICIENT AND EFFECTIVE MOTOR SKILLS AND ENABLE THEM TO APPLY THESE SKILLS TO A VARIETY OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES. Learning Outcomes By the end of the secondary level physical education program, students should be able to demonstrate: 1. & 2. not specific learning outcomes of secondary program. Advanced proficiency developed by intermediate program. 3. an advanced level of proficiency in manipulative skills (projection and reception) such as throwing, catching, kicking, and striking, together with effective utilization of these skills in physical activities. 4. an advanced level of proficiency in motor abilities such as balance, hand-eye coordination, and agility, together with effective u t i l i -zation of these abilities in physical activities. 5. an advanced level of proficiency in the use of space such as moving in different directions using forward, backward and sideward move-ments, together with effective utilization, in physical activities. 6. a solution to a movement problem such as finding as many ways of crossing a box horse with or without contact, stressing symmetrical or asymmetrical use of the body. 7. an advanced level of proficiency in a variety of'activities selected from individual, dual, and group activities in games, gymnastics, dance, aquatics, and outdoor pursuits. GOAL II THE SECONDARY PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM SHOULD ASSIST STUDENTS IN DEVELOPING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF FACTORS INVOLVED IN ATTAINING COMPETENCE IN AND APPRECIATION OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Learning Outcomes By the end of the secondary level physical education program, students should be able to demonstrate: 64 1. an understanding of advanced rules, techniques, and strategies involved in physical activities. 2. an understanding of advanced movement principles such as combining quick and slow elements of time with the strong element of weight and the change of direction element of space to develop a success-ful spike in volleyball. 3. an understanding of advanced psychological factors related to physical activity such as the interaction between cooperative and competitive behavior. 4. an understanding of advanced physiological factors related to physical activity such as the effects of .chronic exercise on cardio-vascular function. 5. an understanding of advanced safety procedures relative to physical activity such as the relationship between strenuous training and individual body capabilities. GOAL III THE SECONDARY PHYSICAL EDUCATION.PROGRAM SHOULD ASSIST STUDENTS IN DEVELOPING AND MAINTAINING PHYSICAL FITNESS TOGETHER WITH AN AWARE-NESS OF THE METHODS NECESSARY FOR ITS ATTAINMENT. Learning Outcomes By the end of the secondary level physical education program, students should be able to demonstrate: 1. an appropriately high level of physical development in the specific fitness components of cardiovascular endurance, muscular endurance, strength, and flexibility. 2. an awareness of advanced methods necessary to achieve an approp-riately high level of physical fitness such as the specificity of aerobic and anaerobic training. 3. the ability to assess and interpret personal physical fitness, utilizing appropriate measurement techniques and instruments in fitness components such as cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, and anthropometrical measures such as height, weight, girth and percent body fat. GOAL IV THE SECONDARY PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM SHOULD ASSIST STUDENTS IN UNDERSTANDING THE STRUCTURES, FUNCTIONS, AND NEEDS OF THE HUMAN BODY RELATIVE TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. 65 Learning Outcomes By the end of the secondary level physical education program, students should be able to demonstrate: 1. an understanding of the relationship between advanced concepts relative to healthful nutrition such as the effects of salt and water depletion during exercise, and the role of physical activity as they interact to provide for healthful daily living. 2. the application of healthful eating habits. 3. an understanding of advanced concepts of body mechanics such as the use of the arms for increasing and decreasing speed of rotation in skills such as spinning in figure skating. 4. the application of advanced concepts of body mechanics. 5. an understanding of basic concepts related to the structure and  function of the following body systems: digestive, muscular, skeletal, respiratory, nervous, circulatory and endocrine relative to physical activity; together with an understanding of the basic interrelationships between these systems. GOAL V THE SECONDARY PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM SHOULD ASSIST STUDENTS IN DEVELOPING AND MAINTAINING A POSITIVE ATTITUDE TOWARDS PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Learning Outcomes By the end of the secondary level physical education program, students should be able to demonstrate: 1. a positive attitude toward physical activity as a social experience such as the need to follow basic rules of conduct relative to sportsmanship. 2. a positive attitude toward the value of physical activity as an aesthetic experience such as an appreciation of form and style as it applies to their personal movement patterns. 3. a positive attitude toward physical activity for health and fitness. 4. a positive attitude toward the development and lifetime maintenance of an appropriately high level of fitness. 5. a positive attitude toward the fact that the development of personal competence in physical activities can be a positive experience. 6. a positive attitude toward physical activity for the release of  tension such as the sense of relaxation which follows strenuous exercise. GOAL VI THE SECONDARY PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM SHOULD ASSIST STUDENTS IN DEVELOPING POSITIVE PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES AND INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS THROUGH PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Learning Outcomes By the end of the secondary level physical education program, students should be able to demonstrate: 1. a positive attitude toward one's unique physical ability. 2. a positive attitude toward the physical abilities of others. 3. responsibility for one's own behavior. 4. through a variety of opportunities responsibility in different leadership roles. 67 APPENDIX B TO: Teachers of Grade 11 Physical Education involved in P.E.L.A. Pilot Testing Cognitive Test The items in this test are based on the Goals and Learning Outcomes as established by the Physical Education Learning Assessment Team. Its purpose is to assess the knowledge that students have acquired as a result of their physical education experiences. You, the teacher, can provide valuable input which will help to improve this measuring instrument so that i t can become an effective tool in evaluating cognitive knowledge in physical education. It will be extremely helpful i f you could go through the items in the test and make comments and suggestions where applicable. Any feed-back that you can provide regarding the content matter of the questions, their difficulty, their construction or the concepts involved, will be welcomed. Please keep in mind that some of your students are answering Form A of the questionnaire while others are answering Form B. Your comments on both forms would be appreciated. Replies should be forwarded as soon as possible to: Dr. R. Mosher Thank you for your co-operation and assistance. 68 Instructions to Contract Team Jan. 25, 1979 To: All members of the Contract Team From: Gail Wilson Content Validity Assessment—Grade 11 Cognitive Test The purpose of this assessment is to investigate the items on the test in terms of Content Validity. At this stage of the test construction i t is important to make sure that the test items reflect the content of the Goals and Learning Outcomes for secondary school physical education. The questions are presently grouped according to the major headings on the Table of Specifications. If you have any comment to make on a specific item please be sure that you have numbered i t correctly. Thank you for your time. 69 Instructions to students—Pilot Test 1 INSTRUCTIONS There are several answer choices available for each question. Use a BLACK PENCIL to mark an x in the box which corresponds to your answer for each question. Mark only one box per question. If you have no idea of the correct answer, leave that question blank. Do not begin until you are told to do so. Instructions to students—Pilot Test 2 INSTRUCTIONS There are several answer choices available for each question. Use a BLACK PENCIL to mark an x in the box which corresponds to your answer for each question. Mark only one box per question. If you have no idea of the correct answer, mark the box against "I don't know." Do not begin until you are told to do so. 70 Instructions—Pilot Test 3 This booklet contains a number of questions for you to answer. Your answers to these questions will t e l l us how much you know and understand about Physical Education. We will be asking these same questions of many other students in British Columbia. Your answers will help to improve the Physical Education program in the province. Whenever we say Physical Education, we mean only the activities that you have in your regular Physical Education classes. This does not include organized games or activities which occur during recess, lunch time, or after school. Physical Education in your school may also be called Gym or P.E. Please read each question carefully and choose one of the answers pro-vided. Mark a / in the box which corresponds to your answer for each question. Mark only one box per question. If you have no idea of the correct answer, mark a 7 in the box next to the answer "I don't know." If you have difficulty reading certain words, raise your hand and we will come and assist you. Instructions to students—Pilot Test 3—Sport Psychology Items Here are eight more questions that we want you to answer. These questions are a l i t t l e different from the ones you have already answered. We want to know what you think about these questions. Read each one carefully and mark the answer that says what you think is the best answer to each question. 71 APPENDIX C Item Development—Pilots 1, 2, 3 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 1 1. Physical activity is beneficial because i t provides Form A an opportunity to: *A. increase social contacts B. avoid reality C. show aggression towards others D. take advantage of others Analysis: P 84.5; PBS .27; more than one correct answer; omit Pilot 1 Form A 2. Analysis: What is the best method for developing muscle strength? A. Exercising with light weights for many repetitions B. Exercising with light weights for few repetitions *C. Exercising with a heavy weight for few repetitions D. Exercising with maximum weight for one repetition P 21.8; alter PBS .33; change fo i l A and order of foils; Pilot 2 16. What is the best method for developing muscle strength? A. Exercising with maximum weights for many repetitions B. Exercising with light weights for few repetitions *C. Exercising with a heavy weight for few repetitions D. Exercising with a maximum weight for one repetition E. I don't know Analysis: Pilot 3 13. P 28.6; PBS .30; foil A positive, PBS alter; alter What is the best method for developing muscle strength? A. Exercising with light weights for many repetitions B. Exercising with light weights for a few repetitions *C. Exercising with heavy weights for a few repetitions D. Exercising with a maximum weight for one repetition E. I don't know Analysis: P 14.0; PBS .30; retain as is Pilot 1 3. What is the best position for the arm to be in to Form A absorb force? A. Elbow extended at the moment of contact B. Elbow higher than the force *C. Elbow flexed at the moment of contact D. Elbow lower than the force Analysis: P 58.5; PBS .35; reword stem; alter *correct answer 72 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 2 41. What is the best position for the arms to be in to correctly catch an object thrown through the air in order to absorb force? A. Arms extended at the moment of contact B. Elbows held higher than the hands *C. Arms bent at the moment of contact D. Elbows spread away from the body E. I don't know Analysis: P 45.1; PBS .52; foils weak—wording poor; omit Pilot 1 4. If physical activity is to have a beneficial effect on Form A the cardiovascular system of a teenager, what is the minimum heart beat that must be reached? A. 70 B. 90 C. 110 *D. 130 Analysis: P 9.9; PBS .17; very difficult but concept important— change a l l foils; alter Pilot 2 72. If physical activity is to have a beneficial effect on the heart and circulatory system, which of the follow-ing conditions must be met? A. The heart beat must not increase during activity *B. The heart beat must increase during activity C. The activity must be continuous, with no rest periods D. The body must not be 'warmed-up' prior to the activity E. I don't know Analysis: P 29.3; PBS .34; foils C and D unclear; omit Pilot 1 Form A 5. Predict the flight of an object released at an angle of greater than 45 degrees. *A. Greater height than distance B. Equal height and distance C. Greater distance than height D. No prediction possible Analysis: P 23.2; PBS .07; revise stem and foils; alter Item Test No. No. Item Content P i l o t 2 43. What i s the best angle for r e l e a s i n g a baseball i n order to achieve the greatest distance? A. 30° *B. C. D. 45 c 60c 90c Analysis: P 39.8; E. I don't know PBS .38; vague f o i l s — t o o general; omit P i l o t 1 6. Phy s i c a l a c t i v i t y w i l l provide an o u t l e t f o r the release Form A of emotions most often i f : A. you are allowed to say and do exactly what you wish *B. you choose the a c t i v i t y C. you play without r u l e s D. you are very tense before the a c t i v i t y A nalysis: P 37.3; PBS .20; f o i l D a t t r a c t s most students; a l t e r P i l o t 2 36. Phy s i c a l a c t i v i t y w i l l provide an o u t l e t f o r the release of emotions most often i f : A. you are allowed to say exactly what you wish *B. you choose the a c t i v i t y C. you play without rules D. you are allowed to do exactly what you wish E. I don't know Analysis: P 51.9; PBS .39; correct answer depends on the i n d i v i d u a l ; omit P i l o t 1 Form A When s t r i k i n g an object with an implement (for example, i n tennis, badminton, g o l f , or b a s e b a l l ) , i t i s most e f f i c i e n t i f the weight i s tra n s f e r r e d from the back foot to the front foot. Why? A. Transfer of weight provides better balance B. Transfer of weight gives more c o n t r o l of d i r e c t i o n C. Transfer of weight improves the timing AD. Transfer of weight causes an increase i n power Analysis: P 71.1; PBS .43; change f o i l C—poor d i s t r a c t o r ; a l t e r P i l o t 2 51. When s t r i k i n g an object with an implement (for example, i n tennis, badminton, g o l f , or baseball) i t i s most e f f i c i e n t i f the body weight i s tra n s f e r r e d from the back foot to the front foot. Why? A. Transfer of weight provides better balance B. Transfer of weight gives more c o n t r o l of d i r e c t i o n 74 Item Test No. No. Item Content C. Transfer of weight helps to avoid injury *D. Transfer of weight causes an increase in power E. I don't know Analysis: P 65.4; PBS .47; retain concept—alter wording; alter Pilot 3 27. When striking an object with an implement (for example, hitting a ball with a bat or racquet), i t is most efficient i f : A. you contact the ball slightly behind your back foot B. you keep your weight evenly distributed throughout the swing C. you transfer your weight from your front foot to your back foot *D. you transfer your weight from your back foot to your front foot E. I don't know Analysis: P 68.4; PBS .51; retain as is Pilot 1 8. Why is there an increase in the breathing rate during Form A exercise? A. Excessive carbon dioxide must be released to the air B. Muscle tissue requires more oxygen C. The heart needs more oxygen in order to pump faster *D. A l l of the above Analysis: P. 55.6; PBS .27; fo i l D poor; item good; retain as is Pilot 2 42. Why is there an increase in the breathing rate during exercise? A. Excessive carbon dioxide must be released to the air B. Muscle tissue requires more oxygen C. The heart needs more oxygen in order to pump faster *D. All of the above E. I don't know Analysis: P 16.5; PBS .06; foils A,B,C, positive PBS; omit Pilot 1 9. If a person is attempting to improve their physical Form A condition how often should they exercise? A. After heavy meals *B. Regularly C. As soon as they detect an increase in weight D. Whenever they feel the necessity Analysis: P 98.6; PBS .23; too obvious—poor question; omit 75 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 1 10. Which of the following diseases can be partially at t r i -Form A buted to sedentary lifestyles? A. Coronary heart disease B. High blood pressure C. Obesity *D. All of the above Analysis: P 65.5; PBS. 52; fo i l D poor; item good; retain as is Pilot 2 18. Which of the following conditions can be partially attributed to sedentary (inactive) lifestyles? A. Coronary heart disease B. High blood pressure C. Obesity *D. All of the above E. I don't know Analysis: P 71.4; PBS .46; foils A and D unclear; omit Pilot 1 11. Which position will best allow for a quick stop after Form A a sudden burst of speed? A. Feet together, centre of gravity low B. Feet apart, centre of gravity high *C. Feet apart, centre of gravity low D. Feet apart, centre of gravity high Analysis: P 66.2; PBS .33; typing error foils B and D; retain as is Pilot 2 31. Which body position will best allow for a quick stop after a sudden burst of speed? A. Feet together, centre of gravity low B. Feet apart, centre of gravity high *C. Feet apart, centre of gravity low D. Feet together, centre of gravity high E. I don't know Analysis: P 57.9; PBS .55; remove complex terminology "centre of gravity"; alter Pilot 3 7. Which body position will allow for the most efficient stop after a sudden burst of speed? A. Feet together, knees bent B. Feet together, legs straight C. Feet apart, legs straight *D. Feet apart, knees bent E. I don't know Analysis: P 66.8; PBS .38; retain as is 76 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 1 12. In terms of building general fitness the average person Form A should be most concerned with developing: A. strength B. anaerobic power *C. aerobic power D. skilled running patterns Analysis: P 31.7; foi l A; PBS .50; alter fo i l A—strong distractor, change Pilot 2 20. In terms of building general fitness, the average person should be most concerned with developing: A. flexibility B. anaerobic power *C. aerobic power D. skilled running patterns E. I don't know Analysis: P 23.3; PBS .40; fo i l A s t i l l attracting most—use concept from pilot 1; alter Pilot 3 19. In terms of building long term fitness, the average person should be most concerned with developing their: A. muscular system *B. aerobic energy system C. anaerobic energy system D. skilled running patterns E. I don't know Analysis: P 30.8; PBS .57; retain as is Pilot 1 13. Which one of the following statements does not describe Form A good running technique? A. Lean slightly forward B. Swing the arms back and forth *C. Land on the soles of the feet D. Bend the elbows Analysis: P 69.7; PBS .28; change foil D—poor distractor; alter Pilot 2 1. Which of the following statements does not describe good running technique? A. Lean slightly forward B. Swing the arms back and forth *C. Land on the soles of the feet D. Reduce trunk rotation E. I don't know Analysis: P 54.9; PBS .51; foils vague—modify foils slightly; alter 77 Item Test No. No. Item Content P i l o t 3 1. What should you do when you run? A. Lean s l i g h t l y backwards *B. Move the arms a l t e r n a t e l y backwards and forwards C. Land on the heels of the feet D. Increase trunk r o t a t i o n E. I don't know Analysis: P 78.0; PBS .39; r e t a i n as i s P i l o t 1 14. Toe-touching i s an exercise to improve: Form A A. strength B. power *C. f l e x i b i l i t y D. co-ordination Analysis: P 94.4; PBS .23; too obvious; omit P i l o t 1 15. As a r e s u l t of extensive p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , muscle f u e l Form A w i l l eventually be used up and waste products w i l l accumulate. The muscle i s then i n a state of: A. s e n s i t i v i t y *B. fatigue C. i r r i t a b i l i t y D. extension Analysis: P. 57.7; PBS .47; good item; r e t a i n as i s P i l o t 2 44. As a r e s u l t of extensive p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , muscle f u e l w i l l be used up and waste products w i l l accumulate. The muscle i s then i n a state of: A. s e n s i t i v i t y *B. fatigue C. i r r i t a b i l i t y D. extension E. I don't know Analysis: P 50.4; PBS .65; r e t a i n as i s P i l o t 3 36. As a r e s u l t of intensive p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , energy w i l l be used up and waste products w i l l accumulate. The muscles are then i n a state of: A. s e n s i t i v i t y *B. fatigue C. i r r i t a b i l i t y D. extension E. I don't know Analysis: P 47.6; PBS .41; r e t a i n as i s 78 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 1 16. Which of the following tests is not used to measure Form A cardiovascular endurance? A. 12 Minute Run B. Astrand Bicycle Test *C. The Sit-up Test D. The Step Test Analysis: P 37.3; PBS .51; difficult but concept important; retain as is Pilot 2 10. Which of the following tests is not used to measure cardiovascular endurance? A. 12 Minute Run B. Astrand Bicycle Test *C. The Sit-up Test D. The Step Test E. I don't know Analysis: P 50.4; PBS .44; clarify f o i l B; alter Pilot 3 37. Which of the following tests is not used to measure cardiovascular endurance? A. 12 Minute Run B. Stationary Bicycle Test *C. The Sit-up Test D. The Step Test E. I don't know Analysis: P 44.8; PBS .56; retain as is Pilot 1 17. What happens to the heart beat immediately after Form A intense activity? A. It is slower than during rest *B. It is faster than during rest C. It is more irregular than during rest D. It is no different than during rest Analysis: P 89.4; PBS .25; concept too easy for this level; omit Pilot 1 18. Where should the non-kicking foot be placed in order Form A to correctly kick a ball along the ground? A. Ahead of the ball *B. Beside the ball C. Behind the ball D. Well away from the ball Analysis: P 62.7; PBS .32; change f o i l C,D,—poor distractors; alter Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 2 22. Where should the non-kicking foot be placed in order to correctly kick a ball forward along the ground? A. Ahead of the ball *B. Beside the ball (even with the ball) C. Directly behind the ball D. Behind the ball and to the side E. I don't know Analysis: P 41.4; PBS .29; too situation specific; omit Pilot 1 19. If your class has started a weight training and condi-Form A tioning program which of the following outcomes might be expected? A. The females in the class will develop bulging muscles B. The number of voluntary muscles in the body will increase *C. The muscles in the body will become stronger D. The number of muscle fibres in each muscle will increase Analysis: P 58.5; PBS .45; f o i l A weak; alter Pilot 2 67. If your class has started a weight training and condi-tioning program which of the following outcomes might be expected? A. The girls in the class will develop large muscles B. The number of voluntary muscles in the body will increase *C. The muscles in the body will become stronger D. The number of muscle fibres in each muscle will increase E. I don't know Analysis: P 60.9; PBS .41; remove gender connotations; alter Pilot 3 23. If your class has started a weight training and condi-tioning program, which of the following results might be expected? A. The girls and boys in the class will develop large, bulky muscles B. The number of muscles in the body will increase *C. The muscles in the body will become stronger D. The number of muscle fibres in each muscle will increase E. I don't know Analysis: P. 70.8; PBS .36; retain as is 80 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 1 20. Fatigue that occurs during exercise is most often Form A caused by: A. muscle cramps B. inadequate food prior to exercise C. insufficient sleep *D. a build-up of waste products Analysis: P 45.1; PBS .45; somewhat difficult; concept important; retain as is Pilot 2 35. Fatigue that occurs during exercise is most often caused by: A. muscle cramps B. inadequate food prior to exercise C. insufficient sleep *D. a build-up of waste products E. I don't know Analysis: P 18.0; PBS .37; poor discriminator—more than one correct answer; omit Pilot 1 21. What is the purpose of the approach in high jump, Form A vaulting, or in the volleyball spike? A. To allow time for mental preparation B. To assure that the jump is taken from the correct foot *C. To build up power D. To allow the heart and lungs time to reach peak efficiency Analysis: P 62.0; PBS .42; good item; retain as is Pilot 2 12. What is the purpose of the approach in high jump, vaulting, or in the volleyball spike? A. To allow time for mental preparation B. To assure that the jump is taken from the correct foot *C. To build up power D. To allow the heart and lungs to reach peak efficiency E. I don't know Analysis: P 64.7; PBS .44; foil D weak, change in f o i l D, alter stem; alter 81 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 3 2. What is the main purpose of the approach run in high jumping or pole vaulting? A. It allows time for mental preparation B. It ensures that the jump is taken from the correct foot *C. It develops momentum D. It establishes good balance E. I dont' know Analysis: P 71.6; PBS .49; retain as is Pilot 1 22. Physical Work Capacity is best estimated by measuring: Form A A. the amount of work that can be done before fatigue occurs *B. the maximum oxygen consumption rate C. the maximum breathing rate during exercise D. the maximum attainable heart rate during exercise Analysis: P 12.0; PBS .26; too complex for this level; omit Pilot 1 23. If you apply force to the ground or floor but find that Form A you slip, what is missing? A. Weight B. Movement *C. Friction D. Balance Analysis: P 47.9: PBS .47; reword foils A,B; alter Pilot 2 17. If you press your feet to the ground but find that you slip, what is missing? A. Force B. Resistance *C. Friction D. Balance E. I don't know Analysis: P 36.1; PBS .36; vocabulary item; omit Pilot 1 24. Which of the following benefits can not be attributed Form A to regular physical activity? *A. An immunity to bacterial infections B. An aid in relieving depression C. A method to delay the ageing process D. An aid in keeping the digestive system regular Analysis: P 50.7; PBS .40; good item; retain as is 82 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 2 56. Which of the following benefits can not be attributed to regular physical activity? *A. An immunity to bacterial infection B. An aid in relieving depression C. A method to delay the effects of ageing D. An aid in keeping the digestive system regular Analysis: P 42.1; PBS .51; foils B,C—positive PBS,—weak item; not in stem; omit Pilot 1 25. When receiving an object that is coming toward you with Form A great speed what is the best position for the feet to be in? *A. One well ahead of the other facing the throw B. One slightly ahead of the other facing the throw C. Side by side and wide apart D. Side by side and close together Analysis: P 26.8; PBS .25; poorly worded; omit Pilot 1 26. Which of the following statements describes an e f f i -Form A cient circulatory system? A. A pulse that increases rapidly during exercise *B. A pulse that returns quickly to normal after exercise C. A pulse that returns slowly to normal after exercise D. Both A and C are correct Analysis: P 50.0; PBS .39; foi l D poor but concept and item good; retain as is Pilot 2 50. Which of the following statements describes an e f f i c i -ent circulatory system? A. A pulse that increases rapidly during exercise *B. A pulse that returns quickly to normal after exercise C. A pulse that returns slowly to normal after exercise D. Both A and C are correct E. I don't know Analysis: P 57.9; PBS .39; alter f o i l D; alter Pilot 3 24. Which of the following statements describes an e f f i c i -ent circulatory system? Item Test No. No. Item Content A. A pulse that increases rapidly during exercise *B. A pulse that returns quickly to normal after exercise C. A pulse that returns slowly to normal after exercise D. A pulse that is high a l l the time E. I don't know Analysis: P 68.4; PBS .48; retain as is Pilot 1 27. Which of the following exercises utilizes anaerobic Form A energy? A. 10 sit-ups B. A 3-mile run C. A 200-metre swim *D. A 50-metre sprint Analysis: P 18.3; PBS .31; poor distractors—change to clarify concept, alter Pilot 2 29. Which of the following exercises relies mainly on anaerobic energy? A. A 200-metre swim B. A 3-mile run C. A marathon run *D. A 25-metre sprint E. I don't know Analysis: P 16.5; PBS .41; change a l l terms to metric—emphasize differences; alter Pilot 3 10. Which of the following activities relies mainly on anaerobic energy? A. A 400-metre swim B. A 5000-metre run C. A marathon run *D. A 60-metre sprint E. I don't know Analysis: P 20.4; PBS .39; retain as is Pilot 1 28. If the breathing rates of trained and untrained ath-Form A letes were compared during exercise, what would be the result? A. The untrained athlete would breathe deeper and slower 84 Item Test No. No. Item Content B. The trained athlete would breathe deeper and faster C. The untrained athlete would breathe deeper and faster *D. The trained athlete would breathe deeper and slower Analysis: P 54. 9; PBS .40; good item—foil A weak; retain as is Pilot 2 65. If the breathing rates of trained and untrained ath-letes were compared during exercise, what would be the : result? A. The untrained athlete would breathe deeper and slower B. The trained athlete would breathe deeper and faster C. The untrained athlete would breathe deeper and faster *D. The trained athlete would breathe deeper and slower E. I don't know Analysis: P 52. 6; PBS .62; minor wording modifications; alter Pilot 3 22. If the breathing rates of trained and untrained indi-viduals were compared during a long run, what would be the result? A. The untrained athlete would breathe shallower and slower B. The trained athlete would breathe shallower and faster C. The untrained athlete would breathe deeper and faster *D. The trained athlete would breathe deeper and slower E. I don't know Analysis: P 50 .4; PBS .47; retain as is Pilot 1 Form A 29. If a person is attempting to jump as high as possible, which of the following techniques will increase the height of the jump? A. Reach up as high as possible with the arms prior to leaving the floor B. Lean forward with the trunk after leaving the floor *C. Bend the knees prior to leaving the floor D. Both A and C are correct Analysis: P 25.4; PBS .30; change f o i l D; alter 85 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 2 25. If a person is attempting to jump as high as possible, which of the following techniques will increase the height of the jump? A. Reach up as high as possible with the arms prior to leaving the floor B. Lean forward with the trunk after leaving the floor *C. Bend the knees prior to leaving the floor D. Bend the knees after leaving the floor E. I don't know Analysis: P 56.4; PBS .39; f o i l A misleading; alter Pilot 3 14. If a person is attempting to jump as high as possible, which of the following techniques will increase the height of the jump? A. Keep the arms beside the body when leaving the floor B. Lean forward with the trunk after leaving the floor *C. Bend the knees before leaving the floor D. Bend the knees after leaving the floor E. I don't know Analysis: P 68.0; PBS .44; retain as is Exercises which involve a change in the length of a muscle are classified as: *A. isotonic B. static C. adaptive D. isometric Analysis: P 23.2; PBS .22; vocabulary item—retain concept and reword stem and foils; alter Pilot 2 47. Isotonic exercises are exercises which: A. cause an increase in the number of muscle fibres B. cause a decrease in the number of muscle fibres *C. cause a change in the length of a muscle D. cause an increase in tension within a muscle E. I don't know Pilot 1 30. Form A Analysis: P 9.8; PBS .32; poor psychometrically, concept above grade 11 content; omit 86 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 1 31. If you were learning to play badminton, which method Form A would be most effective? *A. Learn the large, general movement pattern first B. Learn the small, specific patterns first C. Learn the entire sequences of movement at the same time D. Take part in a game and perfect skills as i t becomes necessary Analysis: P 36 .6; PBS .29; change f o i l C—poor distractor; alter Pilot 2 68. If you were learning to play tennis, which method would be most effective? *A. Learn the large, general movement pattern first B. Learn the small, specific movement patterns first C. Practice alone as often as possible D. Take part in a game and perfect skills as you need them E. I don't know Analysis: P 1. 5; PBS -.06; concept not relevant to curricular content—item very poor psychometrically; omit Pilot 1 32. Which of the following methods is most accurate for Form A locating and assessing the pulse? A. While exercising, press the palm against the heart *B. After exercising, press two fingers against the side of the neck C. After exercising, press one hand against the heart and the other against the neck D. While exercising, keep the fingers of one hand on the wrist of the other arm Analysis: P 69.7; PBS .33; fo i l C poor distractor-—alter; alter Pilot 2 52. Which of the following methods is most accurate for locating and assessing the pulse? A. During activity, press two fingers against the heart *B. After activity, press two fingers against the side of the neck C. After activity press the thumb against the heart D. After activity keep the thumb of one hand on the wrist of the other arm E. I don't know Analysis: P 84.2; PBS .36; reword f o i l A; poor distractor; alter 87 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 3 31. Which of the following methods is most accurate for locating and recording the pulse? A. During activity, keep the thumb of one hand on the wrist of the other arm *B. After activity, press two fingers against the side of the neck C. During activity press two fingers against the side of the neck D. After activity, keep the thumb of one hand on the wrist of the other arm E. I don't know Analysis: P 71.2; PBS .53; retain as is Pilot 1 33. Why does regular participation in an activity usually Form A lead to better s k i l l performance? A. Through practice muscles learn to contract auto-matically *B. Repetition reinforces the correct nerve responses C. The longer you practice the more relaxed you become D. Practice makes perfect Analysis: P 15.15; PBS .33; poor item—too nebulous—"usually" content not suitable; omit Pilot 1 34. Persons who possess good flexibility are less likely to Form A injure muscles and joints because: A. they have a large range of mobility around their joints B. unstretched muscles become sore when exerted C. stretched muscles have greater elasticity *D. a l l of the above Analysis: P 51.4; PBS .40; fo i l B poor; retain as is Pilot 2 61. Persons who possess good flexibility are less likely to injure muscles and joints because: A. they have a large range of mobility around their joints B. unstretched muscles become sore when exerted C. stretched muscles have greater elasticity *D. All of the above E. I don't know Analysis: P 31.6; PBS .47; a l l answers correct!—weak item; omit 88 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 1 35. Which of the following statements best describes the Form A role of regular physical activity in preparation for future life? A. It prepares students for interschool teams B. It provides a needed break in the day *C. It provides for the constructive use of leisure time D. It prepares students for a profession in athletics Analysis: P 64.1; PBS .28; f o i l B weak; alter Pilot 2 21. Which of the following statements best describes the role of regular physical activity in preparation for future life? A. It prepares students for interschool teams *B. It provides for the constructive use of leisure time C. It prepares students for a profession in athletics D. None of the above Analysis: P 59.4; alter E. I don't know PBS .26; clarify wording in stem—alter f o i l D; Pilot 3 Psychology Item 2. Which of the following statements best describes an important role of a good physical education program? A. It prepares students for interschool teams *B. It teaches students how to make good use of leisure time C. It prepares students for a profession in athletics D. It provides a rest from other school subjects E. I don't know Analysis: P 55.2; PBS .42; retain as is Pilot 1 36 Which diagram represents the safest position for Form A landing after a jump? A 0 o A A Analysis: P 97.9; PBS .25; diagrams poor; omit 89 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 1 37." Physical activity immediately following a meal may Form A produce pain because: A. increased action of the rib cage affects the digestive system *B. blood moves from the digestive organs to the active muscles C. digestive juices are not produced during exercise D. the abdominal muscles contract during exercise Analysis: P 24. .6; PBS .17; f o i l D weak—item difficult; alter Pilot 2 38. Physical activity immediately following a meal may produce pain because: A. increased action of the rib cage affects the digestive system *B. blood moves from the digestive organs to the active muscles C. digestive juices are not produced during exercise D. undigested food presses on the walls of the abdomen E. I don':t know Analysis: P 19 .5; PBS .34; correct answer unclear; omit Pilot 1 38. Interval training is a training method which involves: Form A A. sprinting mixed with distance running at prescribed intervals B. running long distances at specific intervals *C. short sprints separated by measured recovery periods D. distance running with short sprints at prescribed intervals Analysis: P 26.8; PBS .19; difficult question—foil D confusing; alter Pilot 2 58. Interval training:.is.a; training. method which' involves: A. sprinting mixed with distance running at prescribed intervals B. running long distances at specific intervals *C. short sprints separated by measured recovery periods D. short sprints separated by bouts of heavy calisthenics E. I don't know Analysis: P 20.3; PBS .38; foils too similar—weak item; omit 90 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 1 39. What, happens when a stationary object is struck by an Form A .object in motion? A. There is no change in either object B. The object in motion will go faster after the impact *C. The force of the moving object is transferred to the stationary object D. Both objects become stationary because of resistance Analysis: P 63. 4; PBS .41; concept not important at this level; omit Pilot 1 40. Why does a person who is in poor physical condition often Form A feel dizzy and find breathing painful during exercise? A. Muscles cramp causing pain, and dizziness is a psychological effect B. Overstretched muscles produce pain and retard the flow of blood to the brain *C. The oxygen demands of the body are greater than the supply available D. The muscles of respiration are overworked Analysis: P 66. 2; PBS .44; good item; retain as is Pilot 2 3. Why does a person who is in poor physical condition often feel dizzy and find breathing painful during exercise? A. Muscles cramp causing pain, and dizziness is a psychological effect B. Overstretched muscles produce pain and retard the flow of blood to the brain *C. The oxygen demands of the body are greater than the supply available D. The muscles of respiration are over-worked E. I don't know Analysis: P 65. 4; PBS .35; foils weak; omit Pilot 1 41. What is the safest position to take during a fall? Form A A. Let your arms support you so that your body doesn't hit the ground B. Keep your head up to see where you are going C. Spread your body as wide as possible to lessen the impact *D. Roll on to your shoulder and over on to your back as you land Analysis: P 71. 8; PBS .38; change f o i l C—poor distractor; alter 91 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 2 63. What is the safest position to take during a fall? A. Let your arms support you so that your body doesn't hit the ground B. Keep your head up to see where you are going C. Keep your feet together and your weight low *D. Roll on to your shoulder and over on to your back as you land E. I don't know Analysis: P 68.4; PBS .46; clarify wording in foils; alter Pilot 3 33. What is the safest way to fall? A. Keep your head up to see where you are going B. Put your arms straight ahead of you C. Land on your hands and knees *D. Curl up and roll as your f a l l E. I don't know Analysis: P 84.8; PBS .34; retain as is Pilot 1 42. Weak abdominal muscles will: Form.A A. make you look thinner *B. contribute to poor posture C. grow stronger with proper diet D. create digestive problems Analysis: P 54.9; PBS .42; fo i l A poor distractor; alter Pilot 2 5. Weak abdominal muscles will: A. grow stronger with stretching *B. contribute to poor posture C. grow stronger with proper diet D. create digestive problems E. I don't know Analysis: P 22.6; PBS .34; f o i l A—positive PBS, two answers technically correct—alter f o i l A; alter Pilot 3 6. Weak abdominal muscles will: A. make you less flexible *B. contribute to poor posture C. grow stronger with proper diet D. create digestive problems E. I don't know Analysis: P 40.0; PBS .37; retain as is 92 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 1 43. The best technique for catching an object i s : Form A A. to catch i t in front of the face B. to catch i t with outstretched arms *C. to pull the object close to the body D. to catch i t with one hand Analysis: P 76. 1; PBS .38; change f o i l D—poor distractor; alter Pilot 2 60. The best technique for catching an object is: A. to catch it close to the face B. to catch i t with outstretched arms *C. to catch i t with arms bent D. to catch it close to the centre of gravity E. I don't know Analysis: P 60. 2; PBS .37; a l l foils weak; omit Pilot 1 44. Why is the competitive environment provided by some Form A physical activities beneficial? A. Competition brings out the best in everyone B. Only in competition do we learn what people are really like c . Competition separates the winners from the losers *D. We learn how to cope with competition in l i f e Analysis: P 64. 8; PBS .47; good item; retain as is Pilot 2 8. Why is the competitive environment provided by some physical activities beneficial? A. Everyone gives their best performance when they compete against others B. In competitive environment we do learn what people are really like C. Competition separates the winners from the losers *D. Competitive environment in physical activities teaches us how to cope with competition in li f e E. I don't know Analysis: P 66. 2; PBS .39; f o i l A—positive PBS; misleading; omit Pilot 1 45. Why is 'overloading' a muscle important in developing Form A muscle strength? A. Overload destroys weak muscle fibres and replaces them with stronger ones *B. Muscles grow larger and stronger only in response to progressively increasing loads 93 Item Test No. No. Item Content C. During overload, muscles are stretched beyond their • previous capacity thus making them stronger D. Waste materials do not accumulate during overload Analysis: P 41.5; PBS .22; good item—PBS low; retain as is Pilot 2 38. Why is 'overloading' a muscle important in developing muscle strength? A. Overload destroys weak muscle fibres and replaces them with stronger ones *B. Muscles grow larger and stronger only in response to progressively increasing loads C. Overload stretches muscles beyond their capacity D. Waste materials do not accumulate during overlaod E. I don't know Analysis: P 46.6; PBS .39; weak item; retain as is Pilot 3 26. Why is 'overloading' a muscle important in developing muscle strength? A. "Overloading" destroys weak muscle fibres and replaces them with stronger ones *B. Muscles grow larger and stronger only in response to progressively increasing loads C. "Overloading" stretches muscles beyond their capacity D. Waste materials do not accumulate during overload E. I don't! .know Analysis: P 35.2; PBS .47; retain as is Pilot 1 46. Standing in one position for an extended period of time Form A should be avoided because: A. i t is bad for the bones of the feet B. i t promotes poor posture *C. i t hampers the return of blood to the heart D. none of the above Analysis: P 14.8; PBS -.05; poor item—concept weak; omit Pilot 1 47. Which of the following statements applies to s k i l l learn-Form A ing: A. Individual practice is more important than team practice B. Practice is the easiest and shortest phase of learn-ing a s k i l l *C. Incorrect as well as correct techniques can be learned through practice Item Test No. No. Item Content D. In order to learn a new s k i l l an individual must be in good physical condition Analysis: P 43.0; PBS .29; not relevant content; omit Pilot 1 48. Which of the following statements is riot true with Form A regard to muscle endurance? A. It is measured by the number of repetitions that can be performed at a given exercise load *B. It is developed by working the muscles against a heavy resistance through few repetitions C. It is the ability to sustain effort over a long period of time D. It is developed by working the muscles against a light resistance through many repetitions Analysis: P 35.2; PBS .48; negative stem-—-foils too complex; omit 95 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 1 1. Coronary heart disease is caused by: Form B A. an emotional trauma which creates a rapid firing of nerve impulses to the heart *B. a blockage of one of the arteries that provides nourishment for the heart C. a seepage of blood from one side of the heart to the other D. a faulty valve that affects the flow of blood in the heart Analysis: P 46.1: PBS .35; good item; retain as is Pilot 2 30. Coronary heart disease is caused by: A. an emotional experience which causes a rapid firing of nerve impulses to the heart *B. a blockage of one of the arteries that provides nourishment for the heart C. a seepage of blood from one side of the heart to the other D. a faulty valve that affects the flow of blood to the heart E. I don't know Analysis: P 49.6; PBS .40; vocabulary item; omit Pilot 1 2. In a game of badminton doubles, where should the part-Form B ners stand when the opponents are on attack? A. Side by side at the net *B. Side by side at mid-court C. One at the net, the other directly behind D. Outside the service area Analysis: P 16.3; PBS .36; vague item; omit Pilot 1 3. Team sports are beneficial because: Form B *A. individual goals are sacrificed for group goals B. individuals are provided with an opportunity to excel C. strong players can hide the weaknesses of others D. substitutions can be made in case of injury Analysis: P 37.6; PBS .35; f o i l B may also be correct; alter Pilot 2 24. Team sports are beneficial because: *A. individual goals are sacrificed for group goals B. players without s k i l l don't have to play C. strong players can hide the weaknesses of others 96 Item Test No. No. Item Content D. substitutions can be made in case of injury E. I don't know Analysis: P 57.9; PBS .42; incorrect classification re table of specifications—move to effects of activity for pilot 3—alter foils; alter Pilot 3 Psychology Item 1. Which of the following statements suggests a worthwhile benefit of team sports? *A. The needs of the team are important as well as the needs of each person B. People can make the team even though they don't get to play C. Coaching for team sports is usually of a higher calibre than for individual sports D. Players on teams are always under a great deal of stress or anxiety E. I don't know Analysis: P 78.8; PBS .38; retain as is Pilot 1 Form B 4. When executing a basketball lay-up shot, i t is wise to rebound the ball off the backboard. Which of the follow-ing diagrams best illustrates the correct point of contact on the backboard if the lay-up is attempted from the left? B C D Analysis: Pilot 2 62. P 20.6; PBS .09; fo i l B—not distracting; alter When executing a basketball lay-up shot, i t is wise to rebound the ball off the backboard. Which diagram below best illustrates the correct point of contact on the backboard if the lay-up is attempted from the left? 97 Test No. Item No. Item Content Analysis; E. I don't know P 41.4; PBS .39; diagrams confusing; omit Pilot 1 5. Form B Analysis: Pilot 2 23. Analysis: Pilot 3 4. Identify the sequence which best describes the path taken by oxygenated blood. A. Heart, lungs, arteries, capillaries B. Capillaries, arteries, lungs, heart *C. Lungs, heart, arteries, capillaries D. Heart, lungs, capillaries, arteries P 51.1; PBS .45; good item; retain as is Identify the sequence which best describes the path taken by oxygenated blood: A. heart, lungs, arteries, capillaries B. capillaries, arteries, lungs, heart *C. lungs, heart, arteries, capillaries D. heart, lungs, capillaries, arteries E. I don't know P 42.1; PBS .51; reword stem; alter What is the path followed by the blood in order to get oxygen to the body cells? A. Heart, lungs, arteries, capillaries B. Capillaries, arteries, lungs, heart *C. Lungs, heart, arteries, capillaries D. Heart, lungs, capillaries, arteries E. I don't know Analysis: P 29.6; PBS .44; retain as is 98 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 1 Form B Analysis: Pilot 2 54. Which of the following foods will definitely improve athletic performance? A. Peanuts B. Enriched beverages C. Steak *D. None of the above P 51.8; PBS .31; f o i l A correct also; poor item; alter Which of the following foods will definitely improve athletic performance? A. Spaghetti B. Enriched beverages C. Steak *D. None of the above Analysis: P 30.1; omit PBS .24; foils A,B positive PBS—controversial! Pilot 1 7. Which of the following statements identifies a person Form B who has a strong need to achieve? A. One who places friendship ahead of competition as a desirable goal for sport B. One who believes that the essence of sport and activity lies in the beauty of movement C. One who participates in activity to reduce frustra-tion effectively *D. One who sees constant improvement as the main goal of sport Analysis: P 80.9; PBS .35; complex—answer obvious; omit Pilot 1 8. Which of the following food types requires the shortest Form B time to be digested? *A. Carbohydrates B. Proteins C. Fats D. There is no difference Analysis: P 31.2; PBS .23; good item—difficult; retain as is Pilot 2 32. Which of the following food types requires the shortest amount of time to be digested? *A. Carbohydrates B. Proteins C. Fats 99 Item Test No. No. Item Content D. There is no difference E. I don't know Analysis: P 32.3; PBS .36; f o i l C poor discriminator; retain as is Pilot 3 5. Which of the following food types requires the shortest amount of time to be digested? *A. Carbohydrates B. Proteins C. Fats D. There is no difference E. I don't know Analysis: P 29.2; PBS .39; retain as is Pilot 1 9. In order to increase your power you should work on: Form B A. endurance and strength *B. speed and strength C. co-ordination and speed D. agility and strength Analysis: P 11.3; PBS .20; Foil A—+PBS—ambiguous; alter Pilot 2 59. In order to increase your power you should work on: A. flexibility and strength *B. speed and strength C. coordination and speed D. agility and strength E. I don't know Analysis: P 20.3; PBS .18; vocabulary item-^-conceptrbeyond grade eleven level; omit Pilot 1 10. Which of the following minerals contributes to the Form B ability of the red blood cells to carry oxygen? A. Calcium B. Potassium *C. Iron D. None of the above Analysis: P 59.6; PBS .29; a l l answers could be correct; omit 100 Test No. Item No. Item Content Pilot 1 11. In which of the following situations would player 'Y' Form B be in the best position to prevent player 'X' from getting to the goal? Analysis: P 87.9; PBS .28; item confusing; omit Pilot 1 Form B 12. The internal exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place in the: *A. body cells B. veins C. throat D. arteries P 44.0; PBS .48; change f o i l C; alter The internal exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place in the: *A. body cells B. veins C. arterioles D. arteries E. I don't know Analysis: P 24.1; PBS .25; advanced concept—not required; omit Analysis: Pilot 2 13. Pilot 1 13. Form B Analysis: Which term best describes the nerves that carry messages from the brain to the muscles? A. Sensory B. Impulse . C. Receptor *D. Motor P 8.5; PBS .21; very difficult—but concept important fo i l B distracts most; alter 101 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 2 70. Analysis: Which term describes the nerves that transmit messages from the brain to the muscles in order to produce movement ? A. Sensory B. Axon C. Receptor *D. Motor E. I don' t know P 19 .5; PBS . .44; vocabulary Pilot 1 14. Form B Analysis: Pilot 2 2. Analysis: Pilot 3 11. What will happen to a ball that is released with topspin? A. It will swerve to the right *B. It will hit the ground sooner than a ball without topspin C. It will go further before hitting the ground than a ball without topspin D. It will go higher than a ball without topspin P 42.6; PBS .40; good item; retain as is What will happen to a ball that is released with topspin? A. It will swerve to the right *B. It will hit the ground sooner than a ball without topspin C. It will go further before hitting the ground than a ball without topspin D. It will go higher than a ball without topspin E. I don't know P 43.6; PBS .51; clarify f o i l D; alter What will happen to a ball that is released with topspin? A. It will swerve to the right *B. It will hit the ground sooner than a ball without topspin C. It will go farther before hitting the ground than a ball without topspin D. It will go higher before hitting the ground than a ball without topspin E. I don't know Analysis: P 36.4; PBS .47; retain as is 102 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 1 Form B 15 Analysis: Pilot 2 14. Which of the following gases is found in tobacco smoke and affects physical endurance? *A. Carbon Monoxide B. Nitrogen C. Carbon Dioxide D. Oxygen P.. 53.2; PBS .31; f o i l D—poor distractor; alter Which of the following gases is found in tobacco smoke and affects physical endurance? *A. Carbon Monoxide B. Nitrogen C. Carbon Dioxide D. Sulphur Dioxide E. I don't know P 29.3; PBS .28; alter stem Which of the following gases is found in tobacco smoke and reduces physical endurance? *A. Carbon Monoxide B. Nitrogen C. Carbon Dioxide D. Sulphur Dioxide E. I don't know Analysis: P 27.2; PBS .29; retain as is Analysis: Pilot 3 29. Pilot 1 16. Which body part is most effective in receiving a volley-Form B ball that is coming at you low and hard? Why? A. Your upper leg, because it is close to the ground *B. The inside of your forearm, because i t provides better control C. Your fi s t , in order to prevent injury D. The back of your hand, because i t is a flat, hard surface Analysis: P 76.6; PBS .39; easy item—reword foils to increase responses; alter Pilot 2 39. Which body part is most effective in receiving a volley-ball that is coming at you low and hard? Why? A. The back of your forearm because i t is a hard, smooth surface B. Your fist, in order to prevent injury C. The back of your hand because it is a flat surface 103 Item Test No. No. Item Content *D. The inside of your forearm because i t is soft E. I don1t know Analysis: P 52.6; PBS .47; simplify foils; alter Pilot 3 35. When playing volleyball, which body part should be used to receive a ball that is coming at you low and hard? A. Palms of your hands B. Fists C. Knee *D. Forearms E. I don't know Analysis: P 67.6; PBS .47; retain as is Pilot 1 17. Form B Analysis: Pilot 2 7. Analysis: Pilot 3 32. Under which of the following circumstances will exercise place a greater load on the body? A. During hot weather B. During cold weather C. At high altitudes *D. Both A and C are correct P 63.1; PBS .38; good item; retain as is Under which of the following circumstances will exercise place a greater load on the body? A. During hot weather B. During cold weather C. At high altitudes *D. Both A and C are correct E. I don't know P 65.4; PBS .50; alter f o i l D "both A and C"; alter Strenuous activities will place the greatest strain on the body: *A. during hot humid weather B. during cold weather C. during wet weather D. at low altitudes E. I don't know Analysis: P 71.6; PBS .35; retain as is 104 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 1 18. Identify the gas which causes you to breath in. Form B *A. Carbon Dioxide B. Oxygen C. Nitrogen D. Carbon Monoxide Analysis: P 25.5; PBS .32; reword stem; alter Pilot 2 53. Identify the gas which triggers respiration: *A. Carbon Dioxide B. Oxygen C. Nitrogen D. Carbon Monoxide E. I don't know Analysis: P 33.8; PBS .46; stem wording unacceptable; omit Pilot 1 19. You are running a 400-metre race. As you near the Form B finish line you decide to go faster. Which technique will help you to increase your speed? A. Straighten your body B. Take shorter strides C. Use less arm action *D. Lengthen your stride Analysis: P 69.5; PBS .22; poor item—controversial; omit Pilot 1 20. Which of the following combinations is most effective Form B for losing weight? A. A health food diet with regular sauna baths B. Daily massages plus a reduction in calories C. A weight training program with daily massages *D. Regular exercise plus a reduction in calories Analysis: P 94.3; PBS .38; too obvious; omit Pilot 1 21. Alcohol affects motor performance because i t is: Form B *A. a depressant B. a stimulant C. an anti-coagulant D. a pain reliever Analysis: P 39.7; PBS .43; f o i l D—poor distractor; alter 105 Item Test No. No. Item Content P i l o t 2 26. Alcohol i s detrimental to motor performance because i t i s : *A. a B. a C. an D. a E. I don 1t know Analysis: P 42.9; PBS .45; vocabulary item; omit P i l o t 1 22. Which of the following diagrams best i l l u s t r a t e s the Form B correct line-up of players for a basketball free throw? ft B ft D Ft Analysis: P i l o t 2 71. ft 0 _ 10. P 27.0; PBS .39; c l a r i f y diagrams; a l t e r Which of the following diagrams best i l l u s t r a t e s the correct line-up of players for a basketball free throw? 0 B X 3 D .0. x _ 0 E. I don 1t know Analysis: P 28.6; PBS .39; diagram, therefore omit; omit 106 Test No. Item No. Item Content Pilot 1 23. What is the primary function of protein? Form B A. To slow down digestive processes B. To form simple sugars C. To produce energy *D. To repair tissue Analysis: P 29.8; PBS .28; foils A and C—partially correct; alter Pilot 2 48..- What is the primary function of protein? A. To speed up digestive processes B. To form simple sugars C. To absorb acids *D. To repair tissue E. I don't know Analysis: P 51.9; PBS .43; relate stem to activity; alter Pilot 3 16. Why is protein essential for a physically active person? A. It speeds up digestive processes B. It helps form simple sugars C. It absorbs acids *D. It builds body tissues E. I don't know Analysis: P 62.8; PBS .46; retain as is Pilot 1 24. Form B Analysis; Pilot 2 37. Drugs which are taken to improve performance are danger-ous primarily because: A. they accelerate the functioning of the muscles and heart B. they affect the utilization of food C. they increase the rate of nerve firings *D. they push a person beyond his current physical capabilities P 55.3; PBS .34; fo i l B—poor distractor; alter Drugs which are taken to improve performance are danger-ous primarily because: A. they speed up reaction time B. they relax you too much C. they cause an increase in muscle bulk *D. they push people beyond their current physical capabilities Analysis: P 45.9; PBS .31; concept controversial possibly more than one correct answer; omit 107 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 1 25. Which of the following situations would be most likely Form B to result in a 'point' in a badminton game? A. The server steps on the serving line B. The receiver sends the bird high and deep into the opponent's court C. The receiver sends a fast, sharply angled shot down into the opponent's court *D. The server sends a fast, sharply angled shot down into the opponent's court Analysis: P 55.3; PBS .30; wording in f o i l D incorrect; alter Pilot 2 19. Which of the following situations would be most likely to result in a 'point' in a badminton game? A. The server steps on the serving line B. The receiving side sends the bird high and deep into the opponent's court C. The receiving side sends a fast, sharply angled shot down into the opponent's court *D. The serving side sends a fast, sharply angled shot down into the opponent's court E. I don11 know Analysis: P 46.6; PBS .38; retain as is Pilot 3 30. Which of the following situations would be most likely to result in a "point" in a badminton game? A. The server steps on the serving line B. The receiving side sends the bird high and deep into the opponent's court C. The receiving side sends a fast, sharply angled shot to the floor of the opponent's court *D. The serving side sends a fast, sharply angled shot to the floor of the opponent's court E. I don't know Analysis: P 60.8; PBS .40; retain as is Pilot 1 26. Which one of the following nutrients is lost during Form B excessive perspiration? *A. Salt B. Vitamins C. Proteins D. Amino Acids Analysis: P 74.5; PBS .35; easy but important; retain as is 108 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 2 9. Which of the following nutrients is lost during excessive perspiration? *A. Salt B. Vitamins C. Proteins D. Amino Acids E. I don't know Analysis: P 78.9; PBS .40; a l l answers possibly correct; omit Pilot 1 27. Which of the following considerations regarding drugs Form B should be of most concern to athletes? A. Will the drug improve the performance? *B. Is the drug dangerous or unethical? C. Will the drug relieve pain? D. Will the onset of fatigue be delayed? Analysis: P 79.4; PBS .36; easy—but important concept; retain as is Pilot 2 6. Which of the following considerations regarding drugs should be of most concern to athletes? A. Will the drug improve performance? *B. Is the drug dangerous or unethical? C. Will the drug relieve pain? D. Will the onset of fatigue be delayed? E. I don't know? Analysis: P 71.4;. PBS .40; reword f o i l B; alter Pilot 3 18. Which of the following questions about a drug should be of most concern to athletes? A. Will the drug improve performance? *B. Is the drug safe? C. Will the drug relieve pain? D. Will the drug delay the onset' of fatigue? E. I don't know Analysis: P 82.0; PBS .51; retain as is Pilot 1 28. Which system activates respiration in the body? Form B A. Circulatory B. Respiratory C. Muscular *D. Nervous Analysis: P 9.9; PBS .20; confusing item; omit 109 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 1 29. If a basketball team is playing a man-to-man system of Form B defence, each member of the team should: *A. stay between the designated opponent and the basket when the opponents are on attack. B. use the position of the ball to determine the best defensive position on the court C. stay with the designated opponent at a l l times during the game D. ignore the designated opponent i f he moves away from the ball Analysis: P 36.9; PBS .33; clarify foils; alter Pilot 2 27. If a basketball team is playing a man-to-man system of defence, each member of the team should: *A. stay between the designated opponent and the basket when the opponents are on attack B. use the position of the ball to determine the best defensive position on the court C. stay with the designated opponent at a l l times wherever he is on the court D. stay with the designated opponent only i f he is near the ball E. I don't know Analysis: P 39.1; PBS .48; retain as is Pilot 3 8. If a basketball team is playing a man-to-man system of defence, each member of the team should: *A. stay between the designated opponent and the basket when the opponents are attacking B. use the position of the ball to determine the best defensive position on the court C. stay with the designated opponent at a l l times, wherever he is on the court D. stay with the designated opponent only i f he is near the ball E. I don't know Analysis: P 36.4; PBS .42; retain as is Pilot 1 30. Extremely overweight people are not likely to take part Form B in physical activity because: *A. they have a low personal self-image B. they lack s k i l l C. they can't find a team to play on D. they don't think physical activity will help them Analysis: P 72.3; PBS .32; f o i l C—poor distractor; alter 110 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 2 33. Extremely overweight people are not likely to take part in physical activity because: *A. they have a low opinion of themselves B. they lack s k i l l C. they don't like activity D. they don't think physical activity will help them E. I don't know Analysis: P 40.6; PBS .20; possibly more than one correct answer; omit Pilot 1 Form B 31. Analysis: Pilot 2 4. 'Movement' :1s the end result of action by the body's: A. bones B. nerves C. muscles *D. a l l of the above P 61.7; PBS .38; good item; retain as is Movement is the end result of action by the body's: A. bones B. nerves C. muscles *D. a l l of the above E. I don't know P 57.1; PBS .31; retain as is Movement is the end result of action by the body's: A. bones B. nerves C. muscles *D. a l l of the above E. I don't know Analysis: P 63.6; PBS .30; retain as is Analysis: Pilot 3 15. Pilot 1 32. Which type of personality is likely to avoid competitive Form B sports? A. A person with a low need to avoid failure and a high need to achieve B. A person who has a high degree of self confidence and self-worth C. A person high in aggression and low in inhibition *D. A person with a low need to achieve and a high need to avoid failure Analysis: P 66.0; PBS .49; complex question; retain as is 111 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 2 46. Which type of personality is likely to avoid competitive sports? A. A person with a low need to avoid failure and a high need to achieve B. A person who has a high degree of self-confidence and self-worth C. A person high in aggression and low in inhibition *D. A person with a low need to achieve and a high need to avoid failure E. I don't know Analysis: P 67.7; PBS .53; foils too complex; omit Pilot 1 33. Why do fewer girls than boys participate in physical Form B activity? A. Anatomical limitations B. Safety reasons *C. Cultural factors D. Physiological limitations Analysis: P 35.5; PBS .36; foils confusing; alter Pilot 2 55. Why do fewer girls than boys participate in physical activity? A. Girls' bodies aren't built for physical activity? B. They are afraid they'll get hurt C. Girls don't like activity as much as boys *D. Society discourages girls from being physically active E. I don't know Analysis: P 64.7; PBS .48; wording in f o i l D controversial; omit Pilot 1 34. During regular breathing, as the rib cage expands, air: Form B A. leaves the lungs *B. enters the lungs C. enters the blood D. exits through the nose and mouth Analysis: P 81.6; PBS .39; elementary concept; omit 112 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 1 35. Most team sports involve movement into open spaces. The Form B purpose of moving into an open space is: A. to cause an opponent to move with you B. to make room for the player with the ball C. to avoid an opponent who is staying near you *D. a l l of the above Analysis: P 60.3; PBS .37; good item; retain as is Pilot 2 15. Most team sports involve movement into open spaces. The purpose of moving into an open space is: A. to cause an opponent to move with you B. to make room for the player with the ball C. to avoid an opponent who is staying near you *D. a l l of the above E. I don't know Analysis: P 56.4; PBS .46; retain as is Pilot 3 21. Most team sports involve movement into open spaces. The purpose of moving into an open space is: A. to cause an opponent to move with you B. to make room for the player with the ball C. to avoid an opponent who remains close to you *D. a l l of the above E. I don't know Analysis: P 55.6; PBS .40; retain as is Pilot 1 36. If you are passing the ball to a teammate who is Form B accelerating forward the ball should be aimed: A. at the hands of the receiver *B. ahead of the receiver C. at eye level D. to the right of the receiver Analysis: P 73.0; PBS .33; f o i l D weak; alter Pilot 2 11. If you are passing the ball to a teammate who is accelerating forward, the ball should be aimed: A. at the hands of the receiver *B. ahead of the receiver C. at eye level D. at the waist of the receiver E. I don't know Analysis: P 70.7; PBS .59; retain as is 113 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 3 17. If you are passing the ball to a teammate who is running forward, where should the ball be aimed? A. At the hands of the receiver *B. Ahead of the receiver C. At the eye level of the receiver D. At the waist of the receiver E. I don't know Analysis: P. 74.0; PBS .45; retain as is Pilot 1 37-. Form B Analysis: Pilot 2 57. Analysis: Pilot 3 9. Fuel for muscles is provided by which one of the following systems? A. Respiratory B. Nervous *C. Circulatory D. Endocrine P.59.6; PBS .47; f o i l D—"vocabulary"; alter Fuel for muscles is provided by which one of the following systems: A. respiratory B. nervous *C. circulatory D. none of the above E. I don11 know P 42.9; PBS .38; fo i l D weak; alter Fuel for muscles is provided by which of the following systems: A. Respiratory B. Nervous *C. Circulatory D. Digestive E. I don't know Analysis: P 36.8; PBS .5; retain as is Pilot 1 38. In the diagram below there are two attackers (XI, X2) Form B against one defender (Y). In order to get past the defender, when is the best time for 'XI' to pass to 'X2'?„ 1 Y t . XI X2 114 Item Test No. No. Item Content *A. If 'Y' attempts to take the ball from 'Xl' B. As soon as 'X2' calls for the ball C. As soon as 'XI' gets past 'Y' D. As soon as 'X2' gets past 'Y' Analysis: P 56.7; PBS..33; vague diagrams; alter Pilot 2 34. In the diagram below there are two attackers (XI, X2) against one defender (Y). In order to get past the defender, when is the best time for 'XI' to pass to 'X2'? i Y 9 X I X2 *A. If 'Y' attempts to take the ball from 'XI' B. As soon as 'X2' calls for the ball D. As soon as 'XI' gets past 'Y' D. As soon as 'X2' gets past 'Y' E. I don't know Analysis: P 63.9; PBS .56; diagram confusing; omit Pilot 1 39. Which of the following statements best describes a person Forb B who participates in physical activity for social benefits? A. Seeks to get even with an opponent B. Seeks opportunities to try new things *C. Happy just to be on the team D. Enjoys the pleasurable physical sensations derived from activity Analysis: P 20.6; PBS .17; subjective question—more than one •correct answer; omit 115 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 1 40. Which of the following statements does not apply to both Form B badminton and volleyball? *A. The serve must land in a specific area of the court B. 'On the line' is considered in bounds C. One person may serve an entire game D. Contact between a player and the net i t illegal Analysis: P 15.6; PBS .32; difficult question—confusing; retain as is Pilot 2 45. Which of the following statements does not apply to both badminton and volleyball? *A. The serve must land in a specific area of the court B. 'On the line' is considered in bounds C. One person may serve an entire game D. Contact between a player and the net is illegal E. I don't know Analysis: P 46.6; PBS .01; concept good—item complex—foil A, positive discriminator—reword and simplify; alter Pilot 3 25. Which of the following statements is true when playing both badminton doubles and volleyball? A. Overhand serves are illegal B. Serves that contact the net are legal C. The serve must land within a designated service area of the court *D. It is possible for one person to serve an entire game E. I don't know Analysis: P 36.8; PBS .42; retain as is Pilot 1 41. Which of the following statements is correct: Form B *A. After puberty, boys, on the average, are stronger than girls B. After puberty, boys, on the average, are more flex-ible than girls C. Before puberty, boys, on the average, are taller than girls D. A l l of the above are correct Analysis: P 61.7; PBS .39; good item; retain as is Pilot 2 64. Which of the following statements is correct? *A. After puberty, boys, on the average, are stronger than girls B. After puberty, boys, on the average, are more flex-ible than girls 116 Item Test No. No. Item Content C. Before puberty, boys, on the average, are taller than girls D. All of the above are correct E. I don't know Analysis: P 60.2; PBS .46; alter f o i l D " a l l of the above"; alter Pilot 3 20. Which of the following statements is correct? *A. After puberty, boys, on the average, are stronger than girls B. After puberty, boys, on the average, are more flexible than girls C. Before puberty, boys, on the average, are taller than girls D. Before puberty, boys, on the average, are heavier than girls E. I don't know Analysis: P 80.4; PBS .45; retain as is Pilot 1 42. In which of the following positions will the body spin Form B fastest? B o A O A A A Analysis: P 50.4; PBS .31; diagrams confusing; omit Pilot 1 43. Form B What happens to a muscle that is not used? A. It becomes stronger *B. It becomes weaker C. It becomes larger D. Both A and C are correct Analysis: P 95.7; PBS .32; foils poor—correct answer obvious; omit 117 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 1 44. What -is the best way to make a sudden change of Form B direction? A. Turn to face the way you want to go B. Keep the centre of gravity inside the supporting base *C. Move the centre of gravity outside the supporting base D. Turn your body but keep your head facing forward Analysis: P 22 .7; PBS .32; foils weak—redundant; omit Pilot 1 45. How does alcohol affect physical performance? Form B *A. It slows down activity in the brain and affects co-ordination B. It relaxes you and therefore you perform better C. It speeds up brain activity and allows you to make quicker decisions D. It improves muscular strength and endurance Analysis: P 97 .9; PBS .34; foils a l l poor; omit Pilot 1 46. Which of the following phrases best describes the path of Form B the shuttlecock in a badminton overhead clear shot? *A. High and deep to the opponent's court B. High and shallow to the opponent's court C. Low and deep to the opponent's court D. Cross court, high and shallow to the opponent's court Analysis: P 46 .8; PBS .41; good item; retain as is Pilot 2 49. Which of the following phrases best describes the path of the shuttlecock in a badminton overhead clear shot? *A. High and deep to the back of the opponent's court B. High and short to the front of the opponent's court C. Low and deep to the back of the opponent's court D. Low and shallow into the front of the opponent's court E.-, I don't know Analysis: P 54.1; PBS .57; foils weak; omit 118 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 1 47. Form B Analysis: Pilot 2 40. Analysis: Pilot 3 34. Which of the following is not a type of muscle tissue? A. Voluntary B. Involuntary C. Cardiac *D. Connective P 29.1; PBS .15; difficult; retain as is Which of the following is not a type of muscle tissue? A. Voluntary B. Smooth C. Cardiac *D. Connective E. I don't know P 16.5; PBS .21; clarify f o i l B; vocabulary item but terminology important; alter Which of the following is not a type of muscle tissue? A. Smooth B. Skeletal C. Cardiac *D. Connective E. I don't know Analysis: P 8.4; PBS .23; retain as is Pilot 1 48. The performance of which of the following athletes would Form, B be least impaired by smoking? A. A basketball player B. A runner *C. A high jumper D. A badminton player Analysis: P 53.2; PBS .39; foil" A attracts no one; alter Pilot 2 69. The performance of which of the following athletes would be least impaired by smoking tobacco? A. A swimmer B. A runner *C. A high jumper D. A badminton player E. I don't know Analysis: P 41.4; PBS .35; minor word change f o i l D; alter 119 Item Test No. No. Item Content Pilot 3 3. The performance of which of the following athletes is least likely to be affected by smoking tobacco? A. A swimmer B. A runner *C. A high jumper D. A tennis player E. I don't know Analysis: P 55.6; PBS .51; retain as is New Item 66. Which of the following tissues is not easily repaired Pilot 2 once i t is injured? A. Smooth Muscle *B. Nerve C. Striated Muscle D. Skin E. I don't know Analysis: P 51.1; PBS .42; reword stem and alter foils; alter Pilot 3 28. Which of the following tissues is not as easily repaired by the body once i t is injured? A. Muscle *B. Nerve C. Bone D. Skin E. I don't know Analysis: P 59.2; PBS .40; retain as is New Item 12. When doing sit-ups, the abdominal muscles work hardest Pilot 3 when: A. your legs are straight and your hands are locked behind your head *B. your knees are bent and your hands are locked behind your head C. your legs are straight and your back is arched D. your knees are bent and your back is arched E. I don't know Analysis: P 36.0; PBS .41; retain as is Item Test No. No. Item Content New Item 38 In which position will a skater or a diver rotate, or Pilot 3 spin most quickly? A. Arms away from the body; legs together B. Arms above the head; legs apart *C. Arms close to the body; legs together D. Arms close to the body; legs apart E. I don't know Analysis: P 66.4; PBS .54; retain as is New Item 39. Which blood vessels carry nourishment to the heart Pilot 3 muscle? A. Coronary veins B. Carotid arteries *C. Coronary arteries D. Pulmonary veins E. I don't know Analysis: P 18.4; PBS .45; retain as is New Item 3. Which of the following is the least important thing in Pilot 3 determining good team play? Psych. A. Each member appreciates the contribution of every other member *B. Players on the same team have many different characteristics C. Each team member has a positive attitude D. Good communication exists between players and coach E. I don't know Analysis: P 82.0; PBS .49; retain as is New Item 4. Your game skills will probably improve most quickly i f : Pilot 3 A. you win a l l of your games easily Psych. B. you lose a l l of your games by large scores *C. a l l of your games are close D. a l l of your games are against rough players E. I don't know Analysis: P 68.0; PBS .44; retain as is 121 Item Test No. No. Item Content New Item 5. People involved in competitive physical activities will Pilot 3 likely experience high levels of anxiety and stress Psych. during a game i f : *A. winning becomes essential to them B. the game is well officiated C. they decrease their amount of physical exertion D. winning becomes unimportant to them E. I don't know Analysis: P 84.4; PBS .59; retain as is New Item 6. You are most likely to be physically f i t i f : Pilot 3 A. your parents are good athletes Psych. *B. your attitude towards fitness is good C. you know a great deal about fitness D. your school has good physical education facilities and equipment E. I don't know Analysis: P 94.0; PBS .28; retain as is New Item 7. If you want to help your team mates become better players Pilot 3 you should probably: Psych. A. keep reminding them of a l l their errors *B. praise them, while pointing out their errors C. be strict with them D. t e l l them how the professionals do it E. I don't know Analysis: P 90.8; PBS .50; retain as is New Item 8. Which one of the following ways of helping children to Pilot 3 learn sports skills is the least acceptable? Psych. A. Setting goals that the children can work towards *B. Getting the children to work harder by always pointing out their mistakes C. Giving the children encouraging talks before games and practices D. Getting the children to improve on their previous scores E . I don't know Analysis: P 5814; PBS ".59; retain as is APPENDIX D Summary of Item Development—Pilot Tests—1,2,3 Item No. Item No. Item No. Pilot Test 1 Pilot Test 2 Pilot Test 3 Form A 1 omitted ;.2 16 13 . 3 41 omitted 4 72 omitted 5 43 omitted 6 36 omitted 7 51 27 8; 42 omitted 9 omitted 10 18 omitted 11 31 7 12 20 19 13 1 1 14 omitted 15 44 36 16 10 37 17 omitted 18 22 omitted 19 67 23 20 35 omitted 21 12 2 22 omitted 23 17 omitted 24 56 omitted 25 omitted 26 50 24 27 29 10 28 65 22 29 25 14 30 47 omitted 31 68 omitted 32 52 31 33 omitted 34 61 omitted 35 21 Psychol 36 omitted 37 28 omitted 38 58 omitted 39 omitted 40 3 omitted 41 63 33 42 5 6 43 60 omitted 44 8 omitted 45 38 26 46 omitted 47 omitted 48 omitted 123 Item No. Item No. Pilot Test 1 Pilot Test 2 Form B 1 30 2 omitted 3 24 4 62 5 .23 6 54 7 omitted 8 32 9 59 10 omitted 11 omitted 12 13 13 70 14 2 15 14 16 39 17 7 18 53 19 omitted 20 omitted 21 26 22 71 23 48 24 37 25 19 26 9 27 6 28 omitted 29 27 30 33 31 4 32 46 33 55 34 omitted 35 15 36 11 37 57 38 34 39 omitted 40 45 41 64 42 omitted 43 omitted 44 omitted 45 omitted 46 49 47 40 48 69 Item No. Pilot Test 3 omitted Psychology item 1 omitted 4 omitted 5 omitted omitted omitted 11 29 35 32 omitted omitted omitted 16 omitted 30 omitted 18 8 omitted 15 omitted omitted 21 17 9 omitted 25 20 omitted 34 3 Item No. Pilot Test 2 Item No. Pilot Test 3 66 (new item) Psychology 28 12 (new item) 38 (new item) 39 (new item) Items 3 (new item) 4 (new item) 5 (new item) 6 (new item) 7 (new item) 8 (new item) APPENDIX E 125 Test Items—Pilot 1—Form A 1. Physical activity is beneficial because i t provides an opportunity to: *A. increase social contacts B. avoid reality C. show aggression towards others D. take advantage of others 2. What is the best method for developing muscle strength? A. Exercising with light weights for many repetitions B. Exercising with light weights for few repetitions *C. Exercising with a heavy weight for few repetitions D. Exercising with maximum weight for one repetition 3. What is the best position for the arm to be in to absorb force? A. Elbow extended at the moment of contact B. Elbow higher than the force *C. Elbow flexed at the moment of contact D. Elbow lower than the force 4. If physical activity is to have a beneficial effect on the cardio-vascular system of a teenager, what is the minimum heart beat that must be reached? A. B. C. *D. 70 90 110 130 Predict the flight of an object released at an angle of greater than 45 degrees. *A. Greater height than distance B. Equal height and distance C. Greater distance than height D. No prediction possible Physical activity will provide an outlet for the release of emotions most often i f : A. you are allowed to say and do exactly what you wish *B. you choose the activity C. you play without rules D. you are very tense before the activity When striking an object with an implement (for example, in tennis, badminton, golf, or baseball), i t is most efficient i f the weight is transferred from the back foot to the front foot. Why? A. Transfer of weight provides better balance B. Transfer of weight gives more control of direction C. Transfer of weight improves the timing *D. Transfer of weight causes an increase in power ^correct answer 126 8. Why is there an Increase In the breathing rate during exercise? A. Excessive carbon dioxide must be released to the air B. Muscle tissue requires more oxygen C. The heart needs more oxygen in order to pump faster *D. All of the above 9. If a person is attempting to improve their physical condition how often should they exercise? A. After heavy meals *B. Regularly C. As soon as they detect an increase in weight D. Whenever they feel the necessity 10. Which of the following diseases can be partially attributed to sedentary lifestyles? A. Coronary heart disease B. High blood pressure C. Obesity *D. All of the above 11. Which body position will best allow for a quick stop after a sud-den burst of speed? A. Feet together, centre of gravity low B. Feet apart, centre of gravity high *C. Feet apart, centre of gravity low D. Feet apart, centre of gravity high 12. In terms of building general fitness the average person should be most concerned with developing: A. strength B. anaerobic power *C. aerobic power D. skilled running patterns 13. Which one of the following statements does not describe good running technique? A. Lean slightly forward B. Swing the arms back and forth *C. Land on the spies of the feet D. Bend the elbows 14. Toe-touching is an exercise to improve: A. strength B. power *C. flexibility D. co-ordination 127 15. As a result.of extensive physical activity, muscle fuel will even-tually be used up and waste products will accumulate. The muscle is then in a state of: A. sensitivity *B. fatigue C. irritability D. extension 16. Which of the following tests is not used to measure cardiovascular endurance? A. 12 Minute Run B. Astrand Bicycle Test *C. The Sit-up Test D. The Step Test 17. What happens to the heart beat immediately after intense activity? A. It is slower than during rest *B. It is faster than during rest C. It is more irregular than during rest D. It is no different than during rest 18. Where should the non-kicking foot be placed in order to correctly kick a ball along the ground? A. Ahead of the ball *B. Beside the ball C. Behind the ball D. Well away from the ball 19. If your class has started a weight training and conditioning program which of the following outcomes might be expected? A. The females in the class will develop bulging muscles B. The number of voluntary muscles in the body will increase *C. The muscles in the body will become stronger D. The number of muscle fibres in each muscle will increase 20. Fatigue that occurs during exercise is most often caused by: A. muscle cramps B. inadequate food prior to exercise C. insufficient sleep *D. a build-up of waste products 21. What is the purpose of the approach in high jump, vaulting, or in the volleyball spike? A. To allow time for mental preparation B. To assure that the jump is taken from the correct foot *C. To build up power D. To allow the heart and lungs time to reach peak efficiency 128 22. Physical Work Capacity is best estimated by measuring: A. the amount of work that can be done before fatigue occurs *B. the maximum oxygen consumption rate. C. the maximum breathing rate during exercise. D. the maximum attainable heart rate during exercise 23. If you apply force to the ground or floor but find that you slip, what is missing? A. Weight B. Movement *C. Friction D. Balance 24. Which of the following benefits can not be attributed to regular physical activity? *A. An immunity to bacterial infections B. An aid in relieving depression C. A method to delay the ageing process D. An aid in keeping the digestive system regular 25. When receiving an object that is coming toward you with great speed what is the best position for the feet to be in? *A. One well ahead of the other facing the throw B. One slightly ahead of the other facing the throw C. Side by side and wide apart D. Side by side and close together 26. Which of the following statements describes an efficient circulatory system? A. A pulse that increases rapidly during exercise *B. A pulse that returns quickly to normal after exercise C. A pulse that returns slowly to normal after exercise D. Both A and C are correct 27. Which of the following exercises utilizes anaerobic energy? A. 10 sit-ups B. A 3-mile run C. A 200-metre swim *D. A 50-metre sprint 28. If the breathing rates of trained and untrained athletes were compared during exercise, what would be the result? A. The untrained athlete would breathe deeper and slower B. The trained athlete would breathe deeper and faster C. The untrained athlete would breathe deeper and faster *D. The trained athlete would breathe deeper and slower 129 29. If a person is attempting to jump as high as possible, which of the following techniques will increase the height of the jump? A. Reach up as high as possible with the arms prior to leaving the floor B. Lean forward with the trunk after leaving the floor *C. Bend the knees prior to leaving the floor D. Both A and C are correct 30. Exercises which involve a change in the length of a muscle are classified as: *A. isotonic B. static C. adaptive D. isometric 31. If you were learning to play badminton, which' method would be most effective? *A. Learn the large, general movement pattern first B. Learn the small, specific patterns first C. Learn the entire sequences of movement at the same time D. Take part in a game and perfect skills as i t becomes necessary 32. Which of the following methods is most accurate for locating and assessing the pulse? A. While exercising, press the palm against the heart *B. After exercising, press two fingers against the side of the neck C. After exercising, press one hand against the heart and the other against the neck D. While exercising, keep the fingers of one hand on the wrist of the other arm 33. Why does regular participation in an activity usually lead to better s k i l l performance? A. Through practice muscles learn to contract automatically *B. Repetition reinforces the correct nerve responses C. The longer you practice the more relaxed you become D. Practice makes perfect 34. Persons who possess good flexibility are less likely to injure muscles and joints because: A. they have a large range of mobility around their joints B. unstretched muscles become sore when exerted C. stretched muscles have greater elasticity *D. a l l of the above 130 35. Which of the following statements best describes.the role of regular physical activity in preparation for future life? A. It prepares students for interschool teams B. It provides a needed break in the day *C. It provides for the constructive use of leisure time D. It prepares students for a profession irt athletics 36. Which diagram represents the safest position for landing after a jump? C-O A A 37. Physical activity immediately following a meal may produce pain because: A. increased action of the rib cage affects the digestive system *B. blood moves from the digestive organs to the active muscles C. digestive juices are not produced during exercise D. the abdominal muscles contract during exercise 38. Interval training is a training method which involves: A. sprinting mixed with distance running at prescribed intervals B. running long distances at specific intervals *C. short sprints separated by measured recovery periods D. distance running with short sprints at prescribed intervals 39. What happens when a stationary object is struck by an object in motion? A. There is no change in either object B. The object in motion will go faster after:the impact *C. The force of the moving object is transferred to the stationary object D. Both objects become stationary because of resistance 40. Why does a person who is in poor physical condition often feel dizzy and find breathing painful during exercise? A. Muscles cramp causing pain, and dizziness is a psychological effect B. Overstretched muscles produce pain and retard the flow of blood to the brain *C. The oxygen demands of the body are greater than the supply available D. The muscles of respiration are overworked 131 41. What is the safest position to take during a fall? A. Let your arms support you so that your body doesn't hit the ground B. Keep your head up to see where you are going C. Spread your body as wide as possible to lessen the impact *D. Roll on to your shoulder and over on to your back as you land 42. Weak abdominal muscles will: A. make you look thinner *B. contribute to poor posture C. grow stronger with proper diet D. create digestive, problems 43. The best technique for catching an object is: A. to catch i t in front of the face B. to catch i t with outstretched arms *C. to pull the object close to the body D. to catch i t with one hand 44. Why is the competitive environment provided by some physical activities beneficial? A. Competition, brings out the best in everyone B. Only in competition do we learn what people are really like C. Competition separates the winners from the losers *D. We learn how to cope with competition in l i f e 45. Why is 'overloading' a muscle important in developing muscle strength? A. Overload destroys weak muscle fibres and replaces them with stronger ones *B. Muscles grow larger and stronger only in response to progressively increasing loads C. During overload, muscles are stretched beyond their previous capacity thus making them stronger D. Waste materials do not accumulate during overload 46. Standing in one position for an extended period of time should be avoided because: A. it is bad for the bones of the feet B. it promotes poor posture * C. i t hampers the return of blood to the heart D. none of the above 47. Which of the following statements applies to s k i l l learning? A. Individual practice is more important than team practice B. Practice is the easiest and shortest phase of learning a sk i l l * C. Incorrect as well as correct techniques can be learned 132 through practice D. In order to learn a new s k i l l an individual must be in good physical condition 48. Which of the following statements is not true with regard to muscle endurance? A. It is measured by the number of repetitions that can be performed at a given exercise load *B. It is developed by working the muscles against a heavy resistance through few repetitions C. It is the ability to sustain effort over a long period of time D. It is developed by working the muscles against a light resistance through many repetitions 133 Test Items—Pilot 1—Form B . 1. Coronary heart disease is caused by: A. an emotional trauma which creates a rapid firing of nerve impulses to the heart *B. a blockage of one of the arteries that provides nourish-ment for the heart C. a seepage of blood from one side of the heart to the other D. a faulty valve that affects the flow of blood in the heart 2. In a game of badminton doubles, where should the partners stand when the opponents are on attack? A. Side by side at the net *B. Side by side at mid-court C. One at the net, the other directly behind D. Outside the service area 3. Team sports are beneficial because: *A. individual goals are sacrificed for group goals B. individuals are provided with an opportunity to excel C. strong players can hide the weaknesses of others D. substitutions can be made in case of injury 4. When executing a basketball lay-up shot, i t is wise to rebound the ball off the backboard. Which of the following diagrams best illustrates the correct point of contact on the backboard i f the lay-up is attempted from the left? A B C D 5. Identify the sequence which best describes the path taken by oxygenated blood. A. Heart, lungs, arteries, capillaries B. Capillaries, arteries, lungs, heart *C. Lungs, heart, arteries, capillaries D. Heart, lungs, capillaries, arteries 6. Which of the following foods will definitely improve athletic performance? A. Peanuts B. Enriched beverages C. Steak *D. None of the above 134 7. Which of the following statements identifies a person who has a strong need to achieve? A. One who places friendship ahead of competition as a desir-able goal for sport B. One who believes that the essence of sport and activity lies in the beauty of movement C. One who participates in activity to reduce frustration effectively *D. One who sees constant improvement as the main goal of sport 8. Which of the following food types requires the shortest time to be digested? *A. Carbohydrates B. Proteins C. Fats D. There is no difference 9. In order to increase your power you should work on: A. endurance and strength *B. speed and strength C. co-ordination and speed D. agility and strength 10. Which of the following minerals contributes to the ability of the red blood cells to carry oxygen? A. Calcium B. Potassium *C. Iron D. None of the above 11. In which of the following situations would player 'Y' be in the best position to prevent player 'X' from getting to the goal? B D 12. The internal exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place in the: *A. body cells B. veins C. throat D. arteries 135 13. Which term best describes the nerves that carry messages from the brain to the muscles? A. Sensory B. Impulse C. Receptor >'<D. Motor 14. What will happen to a ball that is released with topspin? A. It will swerve to the right *B. It will hit the ground sooner than a ball without topspin C. It will go further before hitting the ground than a ball without topspin D. It will go higher than a ball without topspin 15. Which of the following gases is found in tobacco smoke and affects physical endurance? *A. Carbon Monoxide B. Nitrogen C. Carbon Dioxide D. Oxygen 16. Which body part is most effective in receiving a volleyball that is coming at you low and hard? Why? A. Your upper leg, because it is close to the ground *B. The inside of your forearm, because i t provides better control C. Your fist, in order to prevent injury D. The back of your hand, because it is a flat, hard surface 17. Under which of the following circumstances will exercise place a greater load on the body? A. During hot weather B. During cold weather C. At high altitudes *D. Both A and C are correct 18. Identify the gas which causes you to breathe in *A. Carbon Dioxide B. Oxygen C. Nitrogen D. Carbon Monoxide 19. You are running a 400-metre race. As you near the finish line you decide to go faster. Which technique will help you to increase your speed? A. Straighten your body B. Take shorter strides C. Use less arm action *D. Lengthen your stride 136 20. Which of the following combinations is most effective for losing weight? A. A health food diet with regular sauna baths B. Daily massages plus a reduction in calories C. A weight training program with daily massages *D. Regular exercise plus a reduction in calories 21. Alcohol affects motor performance because i t i s : *A. a depressant B. a stimulant C. an anti-coagulant D. a pain reliever 22. Which of the following diagrams best illustrates the correct line-up of players for a basketball free throw? 0 3 B X 21 SL 23. What is the primary function of protein? A. To slow down digestive processes B. To form simple sugars C. To produce energy * D. To repair tissue 24. Drugs which are taken to improve performance are dangerous primarily because: A. they accelerate the functioning of the muscles and heart B. they affect the utilization of food C. they increase the rate of nerve firings * D. they push a person beyond his current physical capabilities 25. Which of the following situations would be most likely to result in a 'point' in a badminton game? A. The server steps on the serving line B. The receiver sends the bird high and deep into the opponent's court C. The receiver sends a fast, sharply angled shot down into the opponent's court * D. The server sends a fast, sharply angled shot down into the opponent's court 137 26. Which one of the following nutrients is lost during excessive perspiration? *A. Salt B. Vitamins C. Proteins D. Amino Acids 27. Which of the following considerations regarding drugs should be of most concern to athletes? A. Will the drug improve the performance? *B. Is the drug dangerous or unethical? C. Will the drug relieve pain? D. Will the onset of fatigue be delayed? 28. Which system activates respiration in the body? A. Circulatory B. Respiratory C. Muscular *D. Nervous 29. If a basketball team is playing a man-to-man system of defence, each member of the team should: *A. stay between the designated opponent and the basket when the opponents are on attack B. use the position of the ball to determine the best defensive position on the court C. stay with the designated opponent at a l l times during the game D. ignore the designated opponent i f he moves away from the ball 30. Extremely overweight people are not likely to take part in physical activity because: A A. they have a low personal self-image B. they lack s k i l l C. they can't find a team to play on D. they don't think physical activity will help them 31. 'Movement' is the end result of action by the body's: A. bones B. nerves C. muscles *D. a l l of the above 32. Which type of personality is likely to avoid competitive sports? A. A person with a low need to avoid failure and a high need to achieve B. A person who has a high degree of self confidence and self-worth C. A person high in aggression and low in inhibition 138 *D. A person with a low need to achieve and a high need to avoid failure 33. Why do fewer girls than boys participate in physical activity? A. Anatomical limitations B. Safety reasons *C. Cultural factors D. Physiological limitations 34. During regular breathing, as the rib cage expands, air: A. leaves the lungs *B. enters the lungs C. enters the blood D. exits through the nose and mouth 35. Most team sports involve movement into open spaces. The purpose of moving into an open space is: A. to cause an opponent to move with you B. to make room for the player with the ball C. to avoid an opponent who is staying near you *D. a l l of the above 36. If you are passing the ball to a teammate who is accelerating forward the ball should be aimed: A. at the hands of the receiver *B. ahead of the receiver C. at eye level D. to the right of the receiver 37. Fuel for muscles is provided by which one of the following systems? A. Respiratory B. Nervous *C. Circulatory D. Endocrine 38. In the diagram below there are two attackers (XI, X2) against one defender (Y). In order to get past the defender, when is the.best time for 'XI' to pass„tp _'X2'? Y t . XI X2 *A. If 'Y' attempts to take the ball from 'XI' B. As soon as 'X2' calls for the ball C. As soon as 'XI' gets past 'Y' D. As soon as 'X2' gets past 'Y' 139 39. Which of the following statements best describes a person who participates in physical activity for social benefits? A. Seeks to get even with an opponent B. Seeks opportunities to try new things *C. Happy just to be on the team D. Enjoys the pleasurable physical sensations derived from activity 40. Which of the following statements does not apply to both badminton and volleyball? *A. The serve must land in a specific area of the court B. 'On the line' is considered in bounds C. One person may serve an entire game D. Contact between a player and the net is illegal 41. Which of the following statements is correct? *A. After puberty, boys, on the average, are stronger than girls B. After puberty, boys, on the average, are more flexible than girls C. Before puberty, boys, on the average, are taller than girls D. A l l of the above are correct 42. In which of the following positions will the body spin fastest? 0 A o A A Q O 43. What happens to a muscle that is not used? A. It becomes stronger *B. It becomes weaker C. It becomes larger D. Both A and C are correct 44. What is the best way to make a sudden change of direction? A. Turn to face the way you want to go B. Keep the centre of gravity inside the supporting base *C. Move the centre of gravity outside the supporting base D. Turn your body but keep your head facing forward 140 45. How does alcohol affect physical performance? *A. It slows down activity in the brain and affects cor-ordination B. It relaxes you and therefore you perform better C. It speeds up brain activity and allows you to make quicker decisions D. It improves muscular strength and endurance 46. Which of the following phrases best describes the path ofcthe shuttlecock in a badminton overhead clear shot? *A. High and deep to the opponent's court B. High and shallow to the opponent's court C. Low and deep to the opponent's court D. Cross court, high and shallow to the opponent's court 47. Which of the following is not a type of muscle tissue? A. Voluntary B. Involuntary C. Cardiac *D. Connective 48. The performance of which of the following athletes would be least impaired by smoking? A. A basketball player B. A runner *C. A high jumper D. A badminton player Test Items—Pilot 2 Which of the following statements does not describe good running technique? A. Lean slightly forward B. Swing the arms back and forth *C. Land on the soles of the feet D. Reduce trunk rotation E. I don't know What will happen to a ball that is released with topspin? A. It will swerve to the right *B. It will hit the ground sooner than a ball without topspin C. It will go further before hitting the ground than a ball without topspin D. It will go higher than a ball without topspin E. I don't know Why does a person who is in poor physical condition often feel dizzy and find breathing painful during exercise? A. Muscles cramp causing pain, and dizziness is a psychological effect B. Overstretched muscles produce pain and retard the flow of blood to the brain *C. The oxygen demands of the body are greater than the supply available D. The muscles of respiration are over-worked E. I don't know Movement is the end result of action by the body's: A. bones B. nerves C. muscles *D. a l l of the above E. I don't know Weak abdominal muscles will: A. grow stronger with stretching >vB. contribute to poor posture C. grow stronger with proper diet D. create digestive problems E. I don't know Which of the following considerations regarding drugs should be of most concern to athletes? A. Will the drug improve performance? *B. IS the drug dangerous or unethical? C. Will the drug relieve pain? D. Will the onset of fatigue be delayed? E. I don't know? 142 7. Under which of the following circumstances will exercise place a greater load on the body? A. During hot weather B. During cold weather C. At high altitudes *D. Both A and C are correct E. I don't know 8. Why is the competitive environment provided by some physical activities beneficial? A. Everyone gives their best performance when they compete against others B. In competitive environment we do learn what people are .really like C. Competition separates the winners from the losers *D. Competitive environment in physical activities teaches us how to cope with competition in l i f e E. I don't know 9. Which of the following nutrients is lost during excessive perspira-tion? *A. Salt B. Vitamins C. Proteins D. Amino Acids E. I don't know 10. Which of the following tests is not used to measure cardiovascular endurance? A. 12 Minute Run B. Astrand Bicycle Test *C. The Sit-Up Test D. The Step Test E. I don't know 11. If you are passing the ball to a teammate who is accelerating forward, the ball should be aimed: A. at the hands of the receiver *B. ahead of the receiver C. at eye level D. at the waist of the receiver E. I don't know 12. What is the purpose of the approach in high jump, vaulting, or in the volleyball spike? A. To allow time for mental preparation B. To assure that the jump is taken from the correct foot *C. To build up power D. To allow the heart and lungs time to reach peak efficiency E. I don't know 143 13. The internal exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place in the: *A. body cells B. veins C. .arterioles D. arteries E. I don't know 14. Which of the following gases is found in tobacco smoke and affects physical endurance? *A. Carbon Monoxide B. Nitrogen C. Carbon Dioxide D. Sulphur Dioxide E. I don't know 15. Most team sports involve movement into open spaces. The purpose of moving into an open space is: A. to cause an opponent to move with you B. to make room for the player with the ball C. to ayoid an opponent who is staying near you *D. a l l of the above E. I don't know 16. What is the best method for developing muscle strength? A. Exercising with maximum weights for many repetitions B. Exercising with light weights for few repetitions *C. Exercising with a heavy weight for few repetitions D. Exercising with a maximum weight for one repetition E. I don't know 17. If you press your feet to the ground but find that you slip, what is missing? A. Force B. Resistance *C. Friction D. Balance E. I don't know 18. Which of the following conditions can be partially attributed to sedentary (inactive) lifestyles? A. Coronary heart disease B. High blood pressure C. Obesity *D. A l l of the above E. I don't know 144 19. Which of the following situations would be most likely to result in a 'point' in a badminton game? A. The server steps on the serving line B. The receiving side sends the bird high and deep into the opponent's court C. The receiving side sends a fast, sharply angled shot down into the opponent's court *D. The serving side sends a fast, sharply angled shot down into the opponent's court E. I don't know 20. In terms of building general fitness, ;the average person should be most concerned with developing: A. flexibility B. anaerobic power *C. aerobic power D. skilled running patterns E. I don't know 21. Which of the following statements best describes the role of regular physical activity in preparation for future life? A. It prepares students for interschool teams *B. It provides for the constructive use of leisure time C. It prepares students for a profession in athletics D. None of the above E. I don't know 22. Where should the non-kicking foot be placed in order to correctly kick a ball forward along the ground? A. Ahead of the ball ^ *B. Beside the ball (even with the ball) C. Directly behind the ball D. Behind the ball and;.to the side E. I don't know 23. Identify the sequence which best describes the path taken by oxygenated blood: A. heart, lungs, arteries, capillaries B. capillaries, arteries, lungs, heart *C. lungs, heart, arteries, capillaries D. heart, lungs, capillaries, arteries E. I don't know 24. i Team sports are beneficial because: *A. individual goals are sacrificed for group goals B. players without s k i l l don't have to play C. strong players can hide the weaknesses of others D. substitutions can be made in case of injury E. I don't know 145 25. If a person Is attempting to jump as high as possible, which of the following techniques will increase the height of the jump? A. Reach up as high as possible with the arms prior to leaving the floor B. Lean forward with the trunk after leaving the floor *C. Bend the knees prior to leaving the floor D. Bend the knees after leaving the floor E. I don't know 26. Alcohol is detrimental to motor performance because i t is: *A. a depressant B. a stimulant C. an anti-coagulant D. a catalyst E. I don't know 27. If a basketball team is playing a man-to-man system of defence, each member of the team should: *A. stay between the designated opponent and the basket when the opponents are on attack B. use the position of the ball to determine the best defensive position on the court C. stay with the designated opponent at a l l times wherever he is on the court D. stay with the designated opponent only i f he is near the ball E. I don't know 28. Physical activity immediately following a meal may produce pain because: A. increased action of the rib cage affects the digestive system *B. blood moves from the digestive organs to the active muscles C. digestive juices are not produced during exercise D. undigested food presses on the walls of the abdomen E. I don't know 29. Which of the following exercises relies mainly on anaerobic energy? . A. A 200-metre swim B. A 3-mile run C. A marathon run *D. A 25-metre sprint E. I don't know 30. Coronary heart disease is caused by: A. an emotional experience which causes a rapid firing of nerve impulses to the heart *B. a blockage of one of the arteries that provides nourishment for the heart C. a seepage of blood from one side of the heart to the other D. a faulty valve that affects the flow of blood to the heart E. I don't know 146 31. Which body position will best allow for a quick stop after a sudden burst of speed? A. Feet together, centre of gravity low B. Feet apart, centre of gravity high *C. Feet apart, centre of gravity low D. Feet together, centre of gravity high E. I don't know 32. Which of the following food types requires the shortest amount of time to be digested? *A. Carbohydrates B. Proteins C. Fats D. There is no difference E. I don't know 33. Extremely overweight people are not likely to take part in physical activity because: *A. they have a low opinion of themselves B. they lack s k i l l C. they don't like activity D. they don't think physical activity will help them E. I don't know 34. In the diagram below there are two attackers (XI, X2) against one defender (Y). In order to get past the defender, when is the best time for 'XI' to pass to 'X2'? *A. If 'Y' attempts to take the ball from B. As soon as 'X2' calls for the ball C. As soon as 'XI' gets past 'Y' D. As soon as 'X2' gets past 'Y' E. I don't know 'XI' 35. Fatigue that occurs during exercise is most often caused by: A. muscle cramps B. inadequate food prior to exercise C. insufficient sleep *D. a build-up of waste products E. I don't know 147 36. Physical activity will provide an outlet for the release of emotions most often i f : A. you are allowed to say exactly what you wish AB. you choose the activity C. you play without rules D. you are allowed to do exactly what you wish E. I don't know 37. Drugs which are taken to improve performance are dangerous primarily because: A. they speed up reaction time B. they relax you too much C. they cause an increase in muscle bulk AD. they push people beyond their current physical capacities E. I don't know 38. Why is 'overloading' a muscle important in developing muscle strength? A. Overload destroys weak muscle fibres and replaces them with stronger ones AB. Muscles grow larger and stronger only in response to progressively increasing loads C. Overload stretches muscles beyond their capacity D. Waste materials do not accumulate during overload E. I don't know 39. Which body part is most effective in receiving a volleyball that is coming at you low and hard? Why? A. The back of your forearm because i t is a hard, smooth surface B. Your fist, in order to prevent injury C. The back of your hand because i t is a flat surface AD. The inside of your forearm because i t i i s soft E. I don't know 40. Which of the following is not a type of muscle tissue? A. Voluntary B. Smooth C. Cardiac AD. Connective E. I don't know 41. What is the best position for the arms to be in to correctly catch an object thrown through the air in order to absorb force? A. Arms extended at the moment of contact B. Elbows held higher than the hands AC. Arms bent at the moment of contact D. Elbows spread away from the body E. I don't know 148 42. Why is there an increase in the breathing rate during exercise? A. Excessive carbon dioxide must be released to the air B. Muscle tissue requires more oxygen C. The heart needs more oxygen in order to pump faster *D. All of the above E. I don't know 43. What is the best angle for releasing a baseball in order to achieve the greatest distance? A. 30° *B. 45° C. 60° D. 90° E. I don't know 44. As a result of extensive physical activity, muscle fuel will be used up and waste products will accumulate. The muscle is then in a state of: A. sensitivity *B. fatigue C. irritability D. extension E. I don't know 45. Which of the following statements does not apply to both badminton and volleyball? A. The serve must land in a specific area of the court B. 'On the line' is considered in bounds *C. One person may serve an entire game D. Contact between a player and the net is illegal E. I don't know 46. Which type of personality is likely to avoid competitive sports? A. A person with a low need to avoid failure and a high need to achieve B. A person who has a high degree of self-confidence and self-worth C. A person high in aggression and low in inhibition *D. A person with a low need to achieve and a high need to avoid failure E. I don't know 47. Isotonic exercises are exercises which: A. cause an increase in the number of muscle fibres B. cause a decrease in the number of muscle fibres *C. cause a change in the length of a muscle D. cause an increase in tension within a muscle E. I don't know 48. What is the primary function of protein? 149 A. To speed up digestive processes B. To form simple sugars C. To absorb acids *D. To repair tissue E. I don't know 49. Which of the following phrases best describes the path of the shuttlecock in a badminton overhead clear shot? *A. High and deep to the back of the opponent's court B. High and short to the front of the opponent's court C. Low and deep to the back of the opponent's court D. Low and shallow into the front of the opponent's court E. I don't know 50. Which of the following statements describes an efficient circulatory system? A. A pulse that increases rapidly during exercise *B. A pulse that returns quickly to normal after exercise C. A pulse that returns slowly to normal after exercise D. Both A and C are correct E. I don't know 51. When striking an object with an implement (for example, in tennis, badminton, golf, or baseball) i t is most efficient i f the body weight is transferred from the back foot to the front foot. Why? A. Transfer of weight provides better balance B. Transfer of weight gives more control of direction C. Transfer of weight helps to avoid injury *D. Transfer of weight causes an increase in power E. I don't know 52. Which of the following methods is most accurate, for locating and assessing the pulse? A. During activity, press two fingers against the heart *B. After activity, press two fingers against the side of the neck C. After activity press the thumb against the heart D. After activity keep the thumb of one hand on the wrist of the other arm E. I don't know 53. Identify the gas which triggers respiration: *A. Carbon Dioxide B. Oxygen C. Nitrogen D. Carbon Monoxide E. I don't know 150 54. Which of the following foods will definitely improve athletic performance? A. Spaghetti B. Enriched beverages C. Steak *D. None of the above E. I don't know 55. Why do fewer girls than boys participate in physical activity? A. Girls' bodies aren't built for physical activity B. They are afraid they'll get hurt C. Girls don't like activity as much as boys *D. Society discourages girls from being physically active E. I don't know 56. Which of the following benefits can not be attributed to regular physical activity? *A. An immunity to bacterial infection B. An aid in relieving depression C. A method to delay the effects of ageing D. An aid in keeping the digestive system regular E. I don't know 57. Fuel for muscles is provided by which one of the following systems: A. respiratory B. nervous *C. circulatory D. none of the above E. I don't know 58. Interval training is a training method which involves: A. sprinting mixed with distance running at prescribed intervals B. running long distances at specific intervals *C. short sprints separated by measured recovery periods D. short sprints separated by bouts of heavy calisthenics E. I don't know 59. In order to increase your power you should work on: A. flexibility and strength *B. speed and strength C. coordination and speed D. agility and strength E. I don't know 60. The best technique for catching an object is: A. to catch it close to the face B. to catch i t with outstretched arms *C. to catch i t with arms bent D. to catch i t close to the centre of gravity E. I don't know 151 61. Persons who possess good flexibility are less likely to injure muscles and joints because: A. they have a .large range of mobility around their joints B. unstretched muscles become sore when exerted C. stretched muscles have greater elasticity *D. a l l of the above E. I don't know 62. When executing a basketball lay-up shot, i t is wise to rebound the ball off the backboard. Which diagram below best illustrates the correct point of contact on the backboard i f the lay-up is attempted from the left? I don't know 63. What is the safest position to take during a fall? A. Let your arms support you so that your body doesn't hit the ground B. Keep your head up to see where you, are going C. Keep your feet together and your weight low £). Roll on to your shoulder and over on to your back as you land E. I don't know 64. Which of the following statements is correct? *A. After puberty, boys, on the average, are stronger than girls B. After puberty, boys, on the average, are more flexible than girls C. Before puberty, boys, on the average, are taller than girls D. All of the above are correct E. I don't know 65. If the breathing rates of trained and untrained athletes were compared during exercise, what would be the result? A. The untrained athlete would breathe deeper and slower B. The trained athlete would breathe deeper and faster C. The untrained athlete would breathe deeper and faster *D. The trained athlete would breathe deeper and slower E. I don't know 152 Which of the following tissues is not easily repaired once i t is injured? A. Smooth Muscle *B. Nerve C. Striated Muscle D. Skin E. I don't know If your class has started a weight training and conditioning pro-gram which of the following outcomes might be expected? A. The girls in the class will develop large muscles B. The number of voluntary muscles in the body will increase *C. The muscles in the body will become stronger D. The number of muscle fibres in each muscle will increase E. I don't know If you were learning to play tennis, which method would be most effective? *A. Learn the large, general movement pattern first B. Learn the small, specific movement patterns first C. Practice alone as often as possible D. Take part in a game and perfect skills as you need them E. I don't know The performance of which of the following athletes would be least impaired by smoking tobacco? A. A swimmer B. A runner *C. A high jumper D. A badminton player E. I don't . know Which term describes the nerves that transmit message from the brain to the muscles in order to produce movement? A. Sensory B. Axon C. Receptor *D. Motor E. I don't know Which of the following diagrams best illustrates the correct line-up of players for a basketball free throw? B C D 0 X X 0 0 X y 0 X X 0 w 153 72. If physical activity is to have a beneficial effect on the heart and circulatory system, which of the following conditions must be met? A. The heart beat must not increase.during activity *B. The heart beat must increase during activity C. The activity must be continuous, with no rest periods D. The body must not be 'warmed-up* prior to the activity E. I don't know 154 Test Items—Pilot 3-rFinal Form 1. What should you do when you.run? A. Lean slightly backwards *B. Move the arms alternately backwards and forwards C. Land on the heels of the feet D. increase trunk rotation E. I don't know 2. What is the main purpose of the approach run in high jumping or pole vaulting? A. It allows time for mental preparation B. It ensures that the jump is taken from the correct foot *C. It develops momentum D. It establishes good balance E. I don't know 3. The performance of which of the following athletes is least likely to be affected by smoking tobacco? A. A swimmer B. A runner *C. A high-jumper D. A tennis player E. I don't know 4. What is the path followed by the blood in order to get oxygen to the body cells? A. Heart, lungs, arteries, capillaries B. Capillaries, arteries, lungs, heart *C. Lungs, heart, arteries, capillaries D. Heart, lungs, capillaries, arteries E. I don't know 5. Which of the following food types requires the shortest amount of time to be digested? *A. Carbohydrates B. Proteins C. Fats D. There is no difference E. I don't know 6. Weak abdominal muscles will: A. make you less flexible *B. contribute to poor posture C. grow stronger with proper diet D. create digestive problems E. I don't know ^correct answer 155 7. Which body position will allow for the most efficient stop after a sudden burst of speed? A. Feet together, knees bent B. Feet together, legs straight C. Feet apart, legs straight *D. Feet apart, knees bent E. I don't know 8. If a basketball team is playing a man-to-man system of defense, each member of the team should: *A. stay between the designated opponent and the basket when the opponents are attacking B. use the position of the ball to determine the best defensive position on the court C. stay with the designated opponent at a l l times, wherever he is on the court D. stay with the designated opponent only i f he is near the ball E . I don't know 9. Fuel for muscles is provided by which of the following systems? A. Respiratory B. Nervous *C. Circulatory D. Digestive E. I don't know 10. Which of the following activities relies mainly on anaerobic energy? A. A 400 metre swim B. A 5000 metre run C. A marathon run *D. A 60 metre sprint E. I don't know 11. What will happen to a ball that is released with topspin? A. It will swerve to the right *B. It will hit the ground sooner than a ball without topspin C. It will go farther before hitting the ground than a ball without topspin D. It will go higher before hitting the ground than a ball without topspin E. I don't know 12. When doing sit-ups, the abdominal muscles work hardest when: A. your legs are straight and your hands are locked behind your head *B. your knees are bent and your hands are locked behind your head C. your legs are straight and your back is arched D. your knees are bent and your back is arched E. I don't know 156 13. What is the best method for developing muscle strength? A. Exercising with light weights for many repetitions B. Exercising with light weights for a few repetitions AC. Exercising with heavy weights for a few repetitions D. Exercising with a maximum weight for one repetition E. I don't know 14. If a person is attempting to jump as high as possible, which of the following techniques will increase the height of the jump? A. Keep the arms beside the body when leaving the floor B. Lean forward with the trunk after leaving the floor AC. Bend the knees before leaving the floor D. Bend the knees after leaving the floor E. I don't know 15. Movement is the end result of action by the body's: A. bones B. nerves C. muscles AD. a l l of the above E. I don't know 16. Why is protein essential for a physically active person? A. It speeds up digestive processes B. It helps form simple sugars C. It absorbs acids *D. It builds body tissues E. I don't know 17. If you are passing the ball to a team mate who is running forward, where should the ball be aimed? A. At the hands of the receiver AB. Ahead of the receiver C. At the eye level of the receiver D. At the waist of the receiver E. I don't know 18. Which of the following questions about a drug should be of most concern to athletes? A. Will the drug improve performance? *B. Is the drug safe? C. Will the drug relieve pain? D. Will the drug delay the onset of fatigue? E. I don't know 19. In terms of building long term fitness, the average person should be most concerned with developing their: A. muscular system AB. aerobic energy system C. anaerobic energy system D. skilled running patterns E. I don1t know 157 20. Which of the following statements is correct? *A. After puberty, boys, on the average, are stronger than girls B. After puberty, boys, on the average, are more flexible than girls C. Before puberty, boys, on the average, are taller than girls D. Before puberty, boys, on the average, are heavier than girls E. I don't know 21. Most team sports involve movement into open spaces. The purpose of moving into an open space i s : A. to cause an opponent to move with you B. to make room for the player with the ball C. to avoid an opponent who remains close to you *D. a l l of the above E. I don't know • 22. If the breathing rates of trained and untrained individuals were compared during a long run, what would be the result? A. The untrained athlete would breathe shallower and slower B. The trained athlete would breathe shallower and faster C. The untrained athlete would breathe deeper and faster *D. The trained athlete would breathe deeper and slower E. I don't know 23. If your class has started a weight training and conditioning program, which of the following results might be expected? A. The girls and boys in the class will develop large, bulky muscles B. The number of muscles in the body will increase *C. The muscles in the body will become stronger D. The number of muscle fibres in each muscle will increase E. I don't know 24. Which of the following statements describes an efficient circu-latory system? A. A pulse that increases rapidly during exercise *B. A pulse that returns quickly to normal after exercise C. A pulse that returns slowly to normal after exercise D. A pulse that is high a l l the time E. I don't know 25. Which of the following statements is true when playing both badminton doubles and volleyball? A. Overhand serves are illegal B. Serves that contact the net are legal C. The serve must land within a designated service area of the court *D. It is possible for one person to serve an entire game E. I don't know 158 26. Why is "overloading" a muscle important in developing muscle strength? A. "Overloading" destroys weak muscle fibres and replaces them with stronger ones *B. Muscles grow larger and stronger only in response to progressively increasing loads C. "Overloading" stretches muscles beyond their capacity D. Waste materials do not accumulate during overload E. I don't know 27. When striking an object with an implement (for example, hitting a ball with a bat or racquet), i t is most efficient i f : A. you contact the ball slightly behind your back foot B. you keep your weight evenly distributed throughout the swing C. you transfer your weight from your front foot to your back foot *D. you transfer your weight from your'back foot to your front foot E. I don't know 28. Which of the following tissues is not as easily repaired by the body once it is injured? A. Muscle * B. Nerve C. Bone D. Skin E. I don't know 29. Which of the following gases is found in tobacco smoke and reduces physical endurance? * A. Carbon monoxide B. Nitrogen C. Carbon dioxide D. Sulphur dioxide E. I don't know 30. Which of the following situations would be most likely to result in a "point" in a badminton game? A. The server steps on the serving line B. The receiving side sends the bird high and deep into the opponent's court C. The receiving side sends a fast, sharply angled shot to the floor of the opponent's court * D. The serving side sends a fast, sharply angled shot to the floor of the opponent's court E. I don't know 159 Which of the following methods is most accurate for locating and recording the pulse? A. During activity, keep the thumb of one hand on the wrist of the other arm *B. After activity, press two fingers against the side of the neck C. During activity, press two fingers against the side of the neck D. After activity, keep the thumb of one hand on the wrist of the other arm E. I don1t know Strenuous activities will place *A. during hot humid weather B. during cold weather C. during wet weather D. at low altitudes E. I don't know the greatest strain on the body? 33. What is the safest way to fall? A. Keep your head up to see where you are going B. Put your arms straight ahead of you C. Land on your hands and knees * D. Curl up and rol l as you f a l l E. I don't know 34. 'Which of the following is not a type of muscle tissue? A. Smooth B. Skeletal C. Cardiac * D. Connective E. I don't know 35. When playing volleyball, which body part should be used to receive a ball that is coming at you low and hard? A. Palms of your hands B. Fists C. Knee * D. Forearms E. I don't know 36. As a result of intensive physical activity, energy will be used up and waste products will accumulate. The muscles are then in a state of: A. sensitivity * B. fatigue C. irritability D. extension E. I don't know 160 37. Which of the following tests is not used to measure cardio-vascular endurance? A. 12 Minute Run B. Stationary Bicycle Test *C. The Sit-Up Test D. The Step Test E. I don't know 38. In which position will a skater or a diver rotate, or spin, most quickly? A. Arms away from the body; legs together B. Arms above the head; legs apart *C. Arms close to the body; legs together D. Arms close to the body; legs apart E. I don't know 39. Which blood vessels carry nourishment to the heart muscle? A. Coronary veins B. Carotid arteries *C. Coronary arteries D. Pulmonary veins E. I don't know Sport Psychology Items 1. Which of the following statements suggests a worthwhile benefit _ of team sports? * A. The needs of the team are important as well as the needs of each person B. People can make the team even though they don't get to play C. Coaching for team sports is usually of a higher calibre than for individual sports D. Players on teams are always under a great deal of stress or anxiety E. I don't know 2. Which of the following statements best describes an important role of a good Physical Education program? A. It prepares students for interschool teams *B. It teaches students how to make good use of leisure time C. It prepares students for a profession in athletics D. It provides a rest from other school subjects E. I don't know Which of the following is the least important thing in determining good team play? A. Each member appreciates the contribution of every other member *B. Players on the same team have many, different characteristics C. Each team member has a positive attitude D. Good communication exists between players and coach Your game skills will probably improve most quickly i f : A. you win a l l of your games easily B. you lose a l l of your games by large scores *C. a l l of your games are close D. a l l of your games are against rough players E. I don't know People involved in competitive physical activities will likely experience high levels of anxiety and stress during a game i f : *A. winning becomes essential to them B. the game is well officiated C. they decrease their amount of physical exertion D. winning becomes unimportant to them E. I don't know You are most likely to be physically f i t i f : A. your parents are good athletes * B. your attitude towards fitness is good C. you know a great deal about fitness D. your school has good physical education facilities and equipment E. I don't know If you want to help your team mates become better players, you should probably: A. keep reminding them of a l l their errors * B. praise them, while pointing out their errors C. be strict with them D. t e l l them how the professionals do i t E. I don't know Which one of the following ways of helping children to learn sports skills is the least acceptable? A. Setting goals that the children can work towards * B. Getting the children to work harder by always pointing out their mistakes C. Giving the children encouraging talks before games and practices D. Getting the children to improve on their previous scores E. I don't know 

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