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A personality study of successful male and female athletes and professionals Zerbe, Louisa W. 1982

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A PERSONALITY STUDY OF SUCCESSFUL MALE AND FEMALE: ATHLETES AND  PROFESSIONALS  by  LOUISA W.  ZERBE  B.PE., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 19  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Education, P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , U.B.C.)  We accept t h i s  t h e s i s as conforming  to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AUGUST 1982  ( c ) L o u i s a W. Zerbe, 1982  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis i n partial  f u l f i l m e n t of the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that it  freely  the L i b r a r y s h a l l  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  agree that p e r m i s s i o n f o r extensive for  University  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  for  financial  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main M a l l V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6  (3/81)  Columbia  my  It is thesis  s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department  thesis  be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s  gain  further  copying of t h i s  d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . understood that  I  make  written  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The i n v e s t i g a t o r extends her s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e t o her a d v i s o r Dr., Sharon W h i t t a k e r - B l e u l e r , f o r h e r unending p a t i e n c e , without whose a s s i s t a n c e t h i s work would never have been  completed. The thanks o f the experimenter a l s o goes t o my c l o s e  f r i e n d s whose support was a c o n t i n u a l source o f s t r e n g t h . But most important, thanks goes t o my parents f o r t h e i r c o n t i n u e d support,  (investment i n an e l e c t r i c t y p e w r i t e r f o r i n c e n t i v e  to f i n i s h ) and g e n t l e prodding.  With t h e i r love they were a  constant source o f encouragement.  ABSTRACT  The differences law, and  hypotheses t h a t t h e r e would be no s i g n i f i c a n t between s u c c e s s f u l male and  medicine and  a t h l e t i c s on  female i n d i v i d u a l s i n  six selected personality  f i v e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s were t e s t e d by  C a t t e l l ' s 16 PF Form C. and  a socio-cultural  traits  administering  questionnaire.  C a t t e l l ' s 16 PF data o b t a i n e d from:  twenty-eight  male a t h l e t e s , twenty-nine female a t h l e t e s , twenty male professionals  and  being lawyers and  twelve female p r o f e s s i o n a l s  (professionals  doctors),  a one-way  a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e . significant differences  Results  analyzed u s i n g  i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were no  among the  p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s examined: conscientiousness,  was  four groups on the  emotional s t a b i l i t y ,  six assertiveness,  tough-mindedness, s e l f - a s s u r e d n e s s  and  self-  sufficiency. A C h i Square s t a t i s t i c was from the  used to analyze the  s o c i o - c u l t u r a l questionnaire.  t h a t t h e r e were no  The  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the  on b i r t h o r d e r , f a m i l y  s i z e and  culture.  experience  (p^.008).  indicated four  groups  Significant differ-  ences were observed f o r a t h l e t i c experience educational  results  data  (p^. 000.01) and  These d i f f e r e n c e s , however,  were a n t i c i p a t e d as the c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n o f s u b j e c t s based on t h e i r achievement i n a t h l e t i c s and  education.  was  VITA  May 1977  Bachelor of P h y s i c a l  Education,  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1979-82  Instructor  and Coach, The  University of Lethbridge  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. . . . .  ........ ..... . . ..... . . . . . .'. . . . i i  ABSTRACT  i i i  VITA  iv  LIST OF TABLES  vi  LIST OF FIGURES  v i i  CHAPTER I. II. III. IV. V. VI.  INTRODUCTION. . . . .  1  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  10  PROCEDURE AND ANALYSIS...  29  RESULTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .'. . . . . . . .".". . . . . . . . . DISCUSSION. . .  .49  SUMMARY  59  APPENDIX A  64  B  72  C.  . . .  BIBLIOGRAPHY.  . .88  98  v  LIST OF  TABLES  TABLE I II  PAGE Tested S i x P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t s  from the 16PF  Form C  33  Means, Standard D e v i a t i o n s , Sten Scores and F R a t i o s f o r F a c t o r s C,E,G,I,0 and Q  36  III  Frequency Count and Percentages B i r t h Order  of Groups on  42  IV  Frequency Count and Percentages A t h l e t i c Experience  of Groups on  43  V  Frequency Count and Percentages Culture  o f Groups on  44  VI  Frequency Count and Percentages Family S i z e  of Groups on  45  VII  Frequency Count and Percentages E d u c a t i o n a l Experience  of Groups on  46  2  VIII IX A B C D E F G H I  S u b j e c t s i n Each of Groups a t V a r i o u s L e v e l s of A t h l e t i c Experience  47  S u b j e c t s i n Each of the Groups at V a r i o u s L e v e l s of E d u c a t i o n a l Experience  48  Anova Table f o r Emotional S t a b i l i t y Anova Table f o r A s s e r t i v e n e s s Anova Table f o r C o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s Anova Table f o r Tough-mindedness Anova Table f o r Assurance Anova Table f o r S e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y Chi-Square Table f o r B i r t h Order Chi-Square Table f o r F a m i l y S i z e Chi-Square Table f o r C u l t u r e  89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97  vi  LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE  PAGE  1  P e r s o n a l i t y P r o f i l e f o r Female A t h l e t e s Group  2  P e r s o n a l i t y P r o f i l e f o r Male A t h l e t e s Group  3  P e r s o n a l i t y P r o f i l e f o r Male P r o f e s s i o n a l s as a Group  40  4  P e r s o n a l i t y P r o f i l e f o r Female P r o f e s s i o n a l s as a Group  41  vii  as a  as a  38 39  1  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  Presently,  within  t h e r e i s no c o n s i s t e n t personality. personality  the f i e l d o f p e r s o n a l i t y  psychology,  agreement as t o the d e f i n i t i o n o f  D e f i n i t i o n s u s u a l l y emphasize t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s i s what makes one unique.  d e f i n i t i o n s also depict personality  The m a j o r i t y o f  as a h y p o t h e t i c a l  internal  process o r s t r u c t u r e . A c c o r d i n g t o Lazarus  (1971:1) "the p s y c h o l o g i s t  of p e r s o n a l i t y as a study o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l  processes  thinks  that  o r g a n i z e human experience and shape a person's a c t i o n s and reactions  t o h i s environment."  There a r e b a s i c a l l y two r i v a l s c h o o l s o f thought i n p e r s o n a l i t y psychology: "Individual Theories"  the " S o c i a l T h e o r i e s "  (Bavelas, 1978).  and the  The s o c i a l  theorists  emphasize the environment as having the most i n f l u e n c e on personality.  These t h e o r i s t s assume t h a t the study o f  p e r s o n a l i t y must i n c l u d e the s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s  and p r o c e s s e s  t h a t surround the i n d i v i d u a l . Individual theories, theories,  a r i v a l paradigm o f the s o c i a l  are based on the assumption t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y i s  i n f l u e n c e d mainly by the t r a i t s , t i o n s t h a t are w i t h i n  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or d i s p o s i -  an i n d i v i d u a l .  There are a wide v a r i e t y o f i n d i v i d u a l t h e o r i e s .  One  such t h e o r y i s the " T r a i t Approach" which i s perhaps the most enduring approach t o the study o f p e r s o n a l i t y  (Mischel,  1976).  2  The  t r a i t approach-  conceptualizes  t r a i t s as  relatively-  s t a b l e q u a l i t i e s , p r o p e r t i e s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or f a c t o r s e x i s t w i t h i n an i n d i v i d u a l . as  Lazarus  (1971:28) d e f i n e s  that  traits  " . . . d i s p o s i t i o n a l concepts t h a t i s , they r e f e r to tendencies  to r e a c t or a c t i n c e r t a i n ways.  Psychological  dispositions  are presumably c a r r i e d around by the person from s i t u a t i o n to s i t u a t i o n , they imply a c e r t a i n l i k e l i h o o d of h i s behaving i n some given  way."  Not  o n l y has  the t r a i t approach been a dominant approach  w i t h i n p e r s o n a l i t y psychology, but  a l s o w i t h i n the f i e l d s  s p o r t psychology as r e l a t e d to p e r s o n a l i t y and  of  athletic  performance. Henry (1941) , one area of p e r s o n a l i t y and  of the e a r l i e s t workers w i t h i n  the  a t h l e t i c s , r e l i e d on the t r a i t  approach.  T h i s approach t o the study of p e r s o n a l i t y and a t h l e t i c s p e r s i s t e d through the 1950's (Johnson, Hutton and and  Johnson  r e p r e s e n t e d the dominant approach i n the 1960's  1954)  (Cooper,  1969). W i t h i n the s p o r t l i t e r a t u r e , r e s e a r c h e r s to d e s c r i b e  an a t h l e t i c p e r s o n a l i t y i n terms of  personality t r a i t s . COoper (1969) and described  have attempted various  For example, i n review a r t i c l e s  Ogilvie  as p o s s e s s i n g  (1970) the  high  "successful" athlete  l e v e l s of aggression,  toughness, emotional s t a b i l i t y ,  by  assertiveness  and  was  mental self-  sufficiency. The  p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s which " s u c c e s s f u l "  possess may. a l s o be p r e d i c t i v e of life.  Bachtold  and Werner  athletes  "success" i n o t h e r walks of  (1970), f o r example, found  .  " s u c c e s s f u l " female p s y c h o l o g i s t s t o be independent, secure, as w e l l as e m o t i o n a l l y s t a b l e , m e n t a l l y tough, a s s e r t i v e and self-sufficient. Up u n t i l the 1970's p e r s o n a l i t y p s y c h o l o g i s t s  relied  mainly on the t r a i t approach i n t h e i r study o f p e r s o n a l i t y . In  the e a r l y 1970's however, t h e r e emerged a g e n e r a l  of  the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the t r a i t approach.  awareness  While the t r a i t  approach i s important i n the p r e d i c t i o n o f b e h a v i o r , i t i s , however, f a r from p e r f e c t The awareness  (Hogen e t a l 1977).  t h a t the t r a i t approach does not  fully  p r e d i c t b e h a v i o r , but t h a t the behavior i s a f u n c t i o n o f the person and the environment i s known as the " I n t e r a c t i o n i s t Approach".  Kane (1970), Smith  (1970) and Morgan (1972,  1980)  c o n s i d e r the i n t e r a c t i o n i s t approach a more powerful p r e d i c t o r of  b e h a v i o r than person or environment c o n s i d e r e d a l o n e . I n t e r a c t i o n i s m i s not a new mode o f t h i n k i n g .  Lewin suggested t h a t b e h a v i o r was  In  1935  a f u n c t i o n o f both the  d i s p o s i t i o n s o f the person and the v a r i a b l e aspects o f the environment.  Moreover, C a t t e l l  leading t r a i t theorists  (1957) who  (Mischel 1976)  i s one o f the  has suggested t h a t  p e r s o n a l i t y i s a f u n c t i o n o f both the i n d i v i d u a l and the environment  (Bavelas 1978).  The importance o f c o n s i d e r i n g both the " I n d i v i d u a l " and the " S o c i a l " approach t o the study o f p e r s o n a l i t y i s examined emphasize the  i n Bern and Funder's 1978  a r t i c l e i n which they  t h a t b e h a v i o r i s a f u n c t i o n o f both the person and  environment.  4  For the f u t u r e , experiments w i l l have to c o n s i d e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f both i n d i v i d u a l ( H j e l l e and Z i e g l e r 1976).  d i f f e r e n c e s and the environment  In f a c t , Sarason, Smith and Diener  (1975) found t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n dispositional  the  o f s t u d i e s i n which both  and s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s are i n c o r p o r a t e d  the experimental d e s i g n appears t o be  into  increasing.  Statement o f the Problem  The purpose o f t h i s study was  t o determine i f  " s u c c e s s f u l " male and female a t h l e t e s and " s u c c e s s f u l " male and female p r o f e s s i o n a l s possessed c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y to the same degree.  The t r a i t s i n v e s t i g a t e d were:  ness, s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , conscientiousness  and  emotional s t a b i l i t y , mental  traits  assertivetoughness,  self-assurance.  " S u c c e s s f u l " p r o f e s s i o n a l s and " s u c c e s s f u l "  athletes  were a l s o examined t o see i f they possessed s i m i l a r  background  characteristics  cultural,  educational  such as:  b i r t h order,  family size,  and a t h l e t i c e x p e r i e n c e .  The f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were advanced: 1.  That there would be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n  between groups o f s u c c e s s f u l male and female a t h l e t e s  and  and  s u c c e s s f u l male and female p r o f e s s i o n a l s on the f o l l o w i n g personality t r a i t s : tiousness,  assertiveness,  self-sufficiency,  tough mindedness,  self-assurance  conscien-  and emotional  stability. 2.  That there would be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n  between groups o f s u c c e s s f u l male: and female a t h l e t e s  and  and  5  s u c c e s s f u l male and areas of concern: and  athletic  female p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n the f o l l o w i n g b i r t h order,  family size, culture,  five  education  experience.  Delimitations  The  sample was  Canadian and  by the  d e l i m i t e d by the a t h l e t e s  being  " s u c c e s s f u l " p r o f e s s i o n a l s being  selected  by a panel o f "judges" c o n s i s t i n g of e i t h e r f o u r male lawyers or f o u r male d o c t o r s .  Limitations  I t was  a l s o necessary to c o n s i d e r  t i o n s are i n e v i t a b l e when q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (1958) has  found t h a t s u b j e c t s may  are used.  respond to a  i n a manner t h a t i s s o c i a l l y accepted. Tatsuoka  that c e r t a i n l i m i t a -  education  and  questionnaire  C a t t e l l , Eber  (1970) b e l i e v e t h a t the r e s u l t s may  l e v e l of c o - o p e r a t i o n ,  Whitla  and  be a f f e c t e d by  honesty o f the  subjects.  Another v a r i a b l e which c o u l d not be c o n t r o l l e d f o r the wide age  range of the s u b j e c t s .  a f f e c t e d the r e s u l t s . by Stagner 1977,  T h i s age  range may  There i s evidence however, as  t h a t t r a i t s show high c o n s i s t e n c y  of ten, twenty and  thirty  the  was  have  suggested  over  periods  years.  S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study  Support f o r the hypotheses may  help to e s t a b l i s h a  new  6  trend  i n the  study of p e r s o n a l i t y and  a t h l e t i c performance.  would seem t h a t i n our h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e so much emphasis on the p u r s u i t o f and  s o c i e t y which  places  reinforcement of  "success", i n d i v i d u a l s " s u c c e s s f u l " i n other walks of l i f e w e l l as  " s u c c e s s f u l " a t h l e t e s might be d e s c r i b e d  tough minded, c o n s c i e n t i o u s , emotionally  It  as:  as  assertive,  self-assured, s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t  and  stable.  I t would t h e r e f o r e  seem a p p r o p r i a t e  to compare  " s u c c e s s f u l " a t h l e t e s w i t h those " s u c c e s s f u l " i n o t h e r walks o f life  as w e l l as a t h l e t e s of one  s p o r t w i t h a t h l e t e s of another  sport. As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, Sarason, Smith and Diener  ( H j e l l e and  (1975)) r e s e a r c h  p e r s o n a l i t y psychology has  w i t h i n the f i e l d  begun to emphasize the  the i n t e r a c t i o n between the  i n d i v i d u a l and  approach to p e r s o n a l i t y must t h e r e f o r e and  Z i e g l e r (1976)  and of  importance of  the environment.  consider  An  both i n d i v i d u a l  environmental v a r i a b l e s . The  p r e s e n t study has  taken t h i s approach by  t e r i n g C a t t e l l ' s 16 P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Appendix B)  and  a Socio-Cultural Questionnaire  designed by the r e s e a r c h e r b i r t h order,  adminis(See  (See Appendix  B)  t o examine f i v e areas of concern:  f a m i l y s i z e , c u l t u r e , e d u c a t i o n and  athletic  experience.  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms  P e r s o n a l i t y - " i s a s t a b l e s e t of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h a t determine those commonalities and  tendencies  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  7  p s y c h o l o g i c a l behavior  (thought, f e e l i n g and a c t i o n s ) o f  people t h a t have c o n t i n u i t y i n time and t h a t may o r may not be e a s i l y understood i n terms o f the s o c i a l and b i o l o g i c a l pressures  o f the immediate s i t u a t i o n alone."  (Maddi, 1968:10)  C a t t e l l Sixteen P e r s o n a l i t y Factor Questionnaire an a n a l y t i c a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e  (16PF) - i s  designed t o measure s i x t e e n  independent dimensions o f human p e r s o n a l i t y .  (See Appendix B  f o r Form C)  An A t h l e t e - i s any i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n competitive  s p o r t s , where s p o r t i s considered an  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d game.  S u c c e s s f u l A t h l e t e - a Canadian a t h l e t e c u r r e n t l y competing at the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l o f c o m p e t i t i o n .  P r o f e s s i o n a l - a doctor  o r lawyer c u r r e n t l y p r a c t i s i n g w i t h i n  the boundaries o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  S u c c e s s f u l P r o f e s s i o n a l - a p r o f e s s i o n a l who i s s e l e c t e d by three o f f o u r p a n e l "judges".  Judges f o r t h e lawyers w i l l be  four lawyers and judges f o r the d o c t o r s w i l l be f o u r  Assertiveness others.  - defined  doctors.  as a d e s i r e t o i n f l u e n c e o r c o n t r o l  I t i s measured by the F a c t o r E s c a l e on C a t t e l l ' s  16 P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  T h i s dimension o f  p e r s o n a l i t y ranges from submissive behavior, humble and  8  conforming t o dominant behavior, ( C a t t e l l et a l  a g g r e s s i v e and  competitive.  1970)  Tough-mindedness - t h i s t r a i t r e p r e s e n t s a tough, p r a c t i c a l mature and r e a l i s t i c behavior.  I t i s measured by F a c t o r I  on C a t t e l l ' s 16 P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  This  dimension ranges from tender-minded behavior, which i s dependent and  s e n s i t i v e to toughs-minded behavior, which i s r e a l i s t i c  self-reliant.  ( C a t t e l l et a l  1970)  Self-assuredness  - i s d e f i n e d as behavior  tough, expedient  and v i g o r o u s .  that i s r e s i l i e n t ,  T h i s t r a i t i s F a c t o r 0 on  Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire.  Conscientiousness  and  the  ( C a t t e l l et a l 1-970)  - d e f i n e d as being p e r s i s t e n t , being able to  continue even i n the face of o p p o s i t i o n .  T h i s i s F a c t o r G on  the S i x t e e n P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  a dimension  d e a l i n g with behavior which ranges from expedient and r u l e bound behavior.  ( C a t t e l l et a l  to p e r s i s t e n t  1970)  S e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y - d e f i n e d as being r e s o u r c e f u l , p r e f e r r i n g one's own  d e c i s i o n s r a t h e r than being a j o i n e r .  on the F a c t o r Questionnaire.  I t i s measured  scale of C a t t e l l ' s Sixteen P e r s o n a l i t y Factor T h i s dimension d e a l s with behavior  ranging  f o l l o w i n g the group to r e s o u r c e f u l and p r e f e r r i n g one's decisions.  ( C a t t e l l et a l  1970)  own  from,  9  Emotional s t a b i l i t y -  t h i s t r a i t represents a r e a l i s t i c , stable,  calm, t h o u g h t f u l behavior.  I t i s measured by F a c t o r C on  C a t t e l l ' s Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. dimension ranges from r e s t l e s s , behavior  changeable and n e u r o t i c  t o e m o t i o n a l l y mature and p e r s e v e r i n g  ( C a t t e l l e t a l 1970)  This  behavior.  10  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE  The  major r e s e a r c h t h r u s t , w i t h i n the area  p e r s o n a l i t y and  athletics  of p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s .  has  been aimed at the  (1)  a t h l e t e s and  a t h l e t e s of d i f f e r i n g a b i l i t y  different  identification  levels  f o l l o w i n g review i s l i m i t e d  administering C a t t e l l ' s  non-athletes, and  (3)  a t h l e t e s from  questionnaire  to o n l y those s t u d i e s  16 P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r  This p e r s o n a l i t y inventory  by those r e s e a r c h e r s  i n t e r e s t e d i n studying  examination of the present  by comparing i t with other  Questionnaire.  i s the most f r e q u e n t l y used  a t h l e t i c p e r s o n a l i t y (Morgan 1980).  t h a t are s i m i l a r  the  I t i s also f e l t that  an  study c o u l d be made o n l y  studies administering  the 16  Examination o f the s t u d i e s not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s review results  dealt  s p o r t groups. The  accurate  of  Research w i t h i n t h i s f i e l d has  with the comparison o f : (2)  LITERATURE  to those found i n the 16 PF  PF. revealed  studies.  A t h l e t e s compared to Non-athletes  In a review of l i t e r a t u r e Cooper  (1969) suggested t h a t  the male a t h l e t e compared to the male non-athlete described  as:  (1) more outgoing  (2) more outgoing and  leading,  and  socially  s o c i a l l y aggressive,  (4) higher  self-confidence,  and  be  confident,  (3) more dominant  i n s o c i a l adjustment,  (6) more c o m p e t i t i v e ,  could  (5) higher  (7) more  in  emotionally  11  stable, and  (8) having g r e a t e r  pain tolerance,  (9) l e s s anxious  (10) l e s s compulsive. T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of a male a t h l e t e was found among the  research states  s t u d i e s p r i o r t o 1969.  In f a c t , Cooper (1969:19)  "...the most s t r i k i n g aspect of the r e s e a r c h  i s the  coherence o f the p i c t u r e o f the a t h l e t e which emerges." An example o f a study concerned w i t h the p e r s o n a l i t y of male a t h l e t e s i s t h a t o f K r o l l  (1967) .  16 PF was administered t o n i n e t y f o u r -  collegiate wrestlers. were d e s c r i b e d  In t h i s study the  (94) male amateur and  When compared to the norm, the w r e s t l e r s  as being s i g n i f i c a n t l y more tough-minded and  self-reliant. Omizo  (1979) a l s o found s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between  a t h l e t e s and n o n - a t h l e t e s .  The a t h l e t e s were American male  World C l a s s Olympic contenders who were more r e s e r v e d , . intellectual, critical, when compared t o  aloof, conservative  and t r a d i t i o n a l  non-athletes.  In a more recent  study s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between  a t h l e t e s and n o n - a t h l e t e s were a l s o observed i n a study by Tripathi  (1980) .  The a t h l e t e s were male c o l l e g e p a r t i c i p a n t s  i n hockey, c r i c k e t and f o o t b a l l . more outgoing, e m o t i o n a l l y shy,  A t h l e t e s were  significantly  stable,: a s s e r t i v e , sober, expedient,  tough-minded, p r a c t i c a l , c o n s e r v a t i v e ,  group dependent,  u n d i s c i p l i n e d and r e l a x e d when compared w i t h 30 In the 1950's and 1960's t h e m a j o r i t y J  non-athletes.  of studies  p e r t a i n i n g to p e r s o n a l i t y and s p o r t performance, were concerned w i t h the male a t h l e t e  (Cooper 1969).  During the 1970's  12  researchers  a l s o became i n t e r e s t e d i n studying  athletic personality  female  profiles.  For example, Marks  (1971) administered the 16  f o r t y female v a r s i t y c o l l e g e a t h l e t e s i n v o l v e d  Results  to  in basketball,  bowling, f i e l d hockey, g o l f , gymnastics, l a c r o s s e , swimming, t e n n i s and v o l l e y b a l l .  PF  softball,  of the 16  PF  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the female a t h l e t e s compared to the norm were more a s s e r t i v e , s u s p i c i o u s , experimenting, c o n t r o l l e d , stubborn, competitive,  liberal,  In 1974,  s o c i a l l y p r e c i s e and  independent.  Brasher administered the 16 PF to women  p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n extramural a t h l e t i c s at Brigham Young University.  The  a t h l e t e s were i n v o l v e d i n b a s k e t b a l l ,  hockey, s o f t b a l l , v o l l e y b a l l , t r a c k and  field,  badminton, gymnastics, s k i i n g , swimming and  archery,  tennis.  Results  i n d i c a t e d t h a t the a t h l e t i c group i n t h i s study c o u l d described  as e m o t i o n a l l y  f o r t h r i g h t , conservative, While there  reserved,  happy-go-lucky.  are a l s o some d i s c r e p a n c i e s  evident.  i n p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s of a t h l e t e s and  For example, i n a  non-athletes.  year study on a group of three hundred: and  f o r t y U.S.  cadets a l s o found no evidence t h a t c o l l e g e a t h l e t i c (over a f o u r year period) s i g n i f i c a n t l y  p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e as measured by the 16 Darden  in  o f a t h l e t e compared t o n o n - a t h l e t e ,  l o n g i t u d i n a l study Werner (1966) found no s i g n i f i c a n t  tion  be  appears to be a degree of c o n s i s t e n c y  the p e r s o n a l i t y r e s e a r c h there  stable, self-controlled, i n t e l l i g e n t and  field  difference This  four  male participa-  influences PF.  (1972) a l s o found the a t h l e t e i n his. study to  be  13  w i t h i n normal o r average range on t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s as measured by the 16 PF Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . to twenty-two c o m p e t i t i v e competitive  The 16 PF was  given  male body b u i l d e r s and t h i r t y  male weight l i f t e r s .  The r e s u l t s showed no  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the s u b j e c t s and the normal population. Seventy-one male k a r a t e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n K r o l l ' s study were a l s o administered  the 16 PF.  (1967)  K r o l l concluded t h a t  there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between h i s s u b j e c t s and the normal p o p u l a t i o n . In summary i t becomes apparent t h a t there are d i s c r e p a n c i e s w i t h i n the f i n d i n g s o f r e s e a r c h d e a l i n g the p e r s o n a l i t y of a t h l e t e s as compared t o  with  non-athletes.  Perhaps one o f the major reasons f o r the d i s c r e p a n c i e s is  the way i n which r e s e a r c h e r s  have d e f i n e d  "athlete".  The  term " a t h l e t e " has been d e f i n e d so t h a t i t encompasses i n d i v i d u a l s o f a wide range o f s k i l l ,  and c o m p e t i t i v e  level.  For example, i n Darden's study, one might wonder i f body b u i l d e r s are c l a s s i f i e d as a t h l e t e s .  While i n K r o l l ' s  (1967). study, amateur and c o l l e g i a t e w r e s t l e r s may vary i n s k i l l l e v e l , i n competitive  l e v e l , as w e l l as i n experience  p r i o r to college or u n i v e r s i t y  A t h l e t e s of d i f f e r i n g a b i l i t y  competition.  levels  The concept t h a t high l e v e l , champion or s u c c e s s f u l performers i n a t h l e t i c s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p s y c h o l o g i c a l  14  p r o f i l e s which d i s t i n g u i s h them from lower l e v e l  performers,  i s a view which has c r e a t e d a great d e a l of c o n t r o v e r s y . A r e s e a r c h e r who between h i g h and  significant differences  low l e v e l competitors  t h i s study the 16 PF was females who  has found  i s Bushan (1978).  administered to f i v e males and  In five  r e p r e s e n t e d I n d i a a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l events i n  badminton and t a b l e t e n n i s , as w e l l as f i v e male and female a t h l e t e s who  five  had never achieved any d i s t i n c t i o n  badminton and t a b l e t e n n i s .  in  Bushan found t h a t the s u c c e s s f u l  p l a y e r s when compared w i t h the remaining  s u b j e c t s scored  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r on dominance, e x t r o v e r s i o n and  surgency.  W i l l i a m s e t a l (197.0) a l s o found s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between h i g h and low l e v e l competitors. PF, Form B of Jackson*s  In t h i s study the  P e r s o n a l i t y Research Form and Edward's  P e r s o n a l P r e f e r e n c e Schedule  were administered to t h i r t y  female amateur f e n c e r s t o determine i f t h e r e was between p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s : and l e v e l s  any  Williams et a l  found t h a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l c o m p e t i t i v e f e n c e r was  ambitious,  a s s e r t i v e , a g g r e s s i v e , independent,  s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t and r e s e r v e d .  The  one p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t — d o m i n a n c e , high: and low l e v e l competitors  authors however, found  at the championships.  three male and female p l a y e r s i n v o l l e y b a l l achieved a h i g h l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n  S t a t e l e v e l ) were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  only  which d i s c r i m i n a t e d between  A more r e c e n t study by Dowd and Innes  had  correlation  of achievement i n the  196 8 N a t i o n a l American F e n c i n g Championships.  intelligent, analytical,  16  from lower  (1981) o f n i n e t y -  and  squash  (training  who  a t the  l e v e l p l a y e r s by  15  a combination of f a c t o r s .  The  i n t e l l i g e n t , experimenting and low  high a c h i e v e r s conscientious  were more when compared w i t h  achievers. The  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned s t u d i e s are examples of  s t u d i e s which have found s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between a t h l e t e s of d i f f e r i n g s k i l l a b i l i t y . found t h a t a t h l e t e s of v a r i o u s  Kroll  (1967) however,  achievements had  differences in personality variables.  few  K r o l l administered  16 PF to twenty-eight c o l l e g i a t e male w r e s t l e r s a b i l i t y , thirty-three c o l l e g i a t e wrestlers average a b i l i t y .  Results  i f any  of  the  superior  of average to below  of t h i s study showed no  personality  d i f f e r e n c e s between groups. In another study by K r o l l  (1967), seventy-one male  amateur k a r a t e p a r t i c i p a n t s were d i v i d e d i n t o advanced, intermediate  and  novice.  the sample s t u d i e d the three  Using the 16 PF,  K r o l l found t h a t  showed no p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s between  groups of p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Results  o f a study by R u s h a l l  (196 7) a l s o showed no  p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s between s u c c e s s f u l and male a t h l e t e s . 1967  and  1968  Rushall  administered the 16 PF to the  Indiana U n i v e r s i t y f o o t b a l l teams.  i n d i c a t e d t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y was t h e r e was  age  Results  not r e l a t e d to success,  and  those on a l o s i n g f o o t b a l l team.  In another study by R u s h a l l  and  1966,  no d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r s o n a l i t i e s when comparing those  on a winning f o o t b a l l team and  swimmers:  unsuccessful  NCAA and MD  (1970) three  l e v e l s of  n a t i o n a l q u a l i f i e r s , c o l l e g e swimmers  group swimmers were given  the 16 PF to i n v e s t i g a t e  the  16  p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which enhance s u p e r i o r performance in  swimming.  R u s h a l l , however, concluded t h a t success i n  swimming i s not dependent upon p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s In summary, i t i s apparent t h a t there are w i t h i n the f i n d i n g s o f r e s e a r c h  d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of competition  subdivided  may  the  levels.  major reason f o r such d i s c r e p a n c i e s  skill ability.  discrepancies  studies dealing with  comparison of a t h l e t e s of d i f f e r i n g a b i l i t y One  alone.  i s that  not be i n d i c a t i v e of  For example, i n s t u d i e s where a t h l e t e s  into v a r s i t y , intramural  are  and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  d i v i s i o n i s o f t e n based on p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t h e r than  the  skill  level.  Athletes  from d i f f e r e n t s p o r t s  Two controversy  groups  hypotheses t h a t have c r e a t e d are:  a great d e a l  (1) t h a t s p e c i f i c s p o r t groups can  d i s t i n g u i s h e d on the b a s i s of p e r s o n a l i t i e s , and  (2)  of be that  d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s o f a t h l e t e s i n v o l v e d i n i n d i v i d u a l and  team s p o r t s .  In a study d e a l i n g w i t h a comparison of i n d i v i d u a l and team s p o r t a t h l e t e s , Peterson e i g h t female U.S. s p o r t s and  (1967) gave the 16 PF t o  thirty-  Olympic a t h l e t e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i n d i v i d u a l  f i f t y - n i n e female U.S.  p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n team s p o r t s .  Olympic and AAU  Results  athletes  showed t h a t women  engaged i n i n d i v i d u a l s p o r t s when compared  w i t h those  team s p o r t s were more dominant, a g g r e s s i v e ,  adventurous,  in  17  s e n s i t i v e , imaginative,  r a d i c a l , , s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t and  resourceful.  Another study comparing p e r s o n a l i t i e s of i n d i v i d u a l and  team s p o r t s a t h l e t e s was  the 16 PF Malumphy  done by Malumphy  (synchronized s o f t b a l l and i n team and  Using  compared the p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f seventy-seven  i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e female a t h l e t e s i n : g o l f , competitive  (1968) .  i n d i v i d u a l sports  (tennis,  swimming, a r c h e r y ) , s u b j e c t i v e l y judged  swimming and  gymnastics),  f i e l d hockey) and  team s p o r t s  team-individual  sports  (baksetball,  sports  (active  i n d i v i d u a l sports) as w e l l as f o r t y - e i g h t non-  participants.  R e s u l t s of the 16 PF i n d i c a t e d t h a t  the  i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s were l e s s anxious, more venturesome, more e x t r o v e r t e d  and had more l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s than the  other s p o r t groups.  P a r t i c i p a n t s i n s u b j e c t i v e l y judged  sports  were l e s s anxious than team p a r t i c i p a n t s , and were a l s o more conscientious  than the t e a m - i n d i v i d u a l  group and more e x t r o -  v e r t e d than the team and t e a m - i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between male a t h l e t e s o f s p e c i f i c s p o r t groups were found i n a study by K r o l l Crenshaw (1970).  The  16 PF was  administered  and  t o eighty-one  male c o l l e g i a t e f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s , n i n e t y - f o u r w r e s t l e r s , seventy-one k a r a t e p a r t i c i p a n t s and one gymnasts.  hundred and  forty-one  R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s  and  w r e s t l e r s e x h i b i t e d p r o f i l e s which were homogeneous but s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from those who  were gymnasts: and  karate p a r t i c i p a n t s .  karate p a r t i c i p a n t s were  The  gymnasts: and  more s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , more r e s e r v e d and detached than w r e s t l e r s or f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s .  The  p r o f i l e s of the gymnasts and  karate  18  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r . conscientious,  Karate p a r t i c i p a n t s were more  r u l e bound and  tense,  independent when compared w i t h  gymnasts w h i l e the gymnasts were more r e l a x e d than the other  three  groups. Another study d e a l i n g w i t h the comparison o f  of various  s p o r t groups was  administered  done by O'Connor (1976).  O'Connor  the 16 PF to f o u r groups of i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e  female a t h l e t e s and one competitors.  athletes  The  c o n t r o l group c o n s i s t i n g of  s u b j e c t s were:  non-  thirteen basketball  s i x gymnasts, nine t e n n i s p l a y e r s , t h i r t e e n swimmers f o u r t e e n non-competitors.  A n a l y s i s o f the data found  f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s on four of the s i x t e e n p e r s o n a l i t y i n t e l l i g e n c e , r a d i c a l i s m , s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and A more r e c e n t  signitraits:  study by D o l p h i n et a l (1980) a l s o found groups  Cross country runners were d e s c r i b e d  sober, w h i l e Judo p a r t i c i p a n t s were very Rowers and  and  self-control.  p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s between the v a r i o u s a t h l e t i c i n t h e i r study.  players,  as  very  happy-go-lucky.  c r o s s country runners were very c o n t r o l l e d w h i l e  Judo p a r t i c i p a n t s were found u n d i s c i p l i n e d . tended t o be more r e s e r v e d c r o s s country runners and Despite  Judo p l a y e r s  i n c o n t r a s t to the other  group of  rowers.  many s t u d i e s which have found  significant  d i f f e r e n c e s among s p e c i f i c s p o r t groups, Alderman suggests t h a t the d a t a does not support the two p r e v i o u s l y mentioned:  also  (1974)  hypotheses  (1) t h a t s p e c i f i c s p o r t groups can  d i s t i n g u i s h e d on the b a s i s of p e r s o n a l i t i e s , and  (2)  that  be  19  d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s o f a t h l e t e s i n i n d i v i d u a l and team s p o r t s . by s e v e r a l s t u d i e s .  T h i s view has been supported  F o r example, the 16 PF was a d m i n i s t e r e d  to two hundred and seventy-eight  male a t h l e t e s  representing  twenty d i f f e r e n t s p o r t groups  (four team s p o r t s  i n d i v i d u a l sports)  female a t h l e t e s  and e i g h t y  e i g h t d i f f e r e n t s p o r t groups sports)  and s i x t e e n representing  (two team sports and s i x i n d i v i d u a l  a l l o f whom were members o f C z e c h o s l o v a k i a n n a t i o n a l  teams and p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the f i n a l t r i a l s ( K r o l l e t a l 1973).  f o r the Olympics  The purpose o f the study was t o make  comparisons o f the p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e s o f the t h r e e and  involved  eight athletes.  Results  hundred  o f the sample s t u d i e d d i d not  support the premise t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a s p e c i f i c s p o r t have similar personality Results  profiles.  o f a study by Marks  (1971) a l s o i n d i c a t e d no  evidence o f a d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as measured by t h e 16 PF between i n d i v i d u a l and team s p o r t participants.  The 16 PF was given t o f o r t y female c o l l e g i a t e  a t h l e t e s s e l e c t e d from the s p o r t s :  b a s k e t b a l l , bowling,  hockey, g o l f , gymnastics, l a c r o s s e , s o f t b a l l , and  swimming,  field tennis  volleyball. The 16 PF was a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d by F o s t e r  fifty-six  female b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s  s o f t b a l l players.  Results  (1971) t o  as w e l l as f o r t y female  i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  or no p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between the two groups A recent  studied.  study by T r i p a t h i (1980): a l s o found no  20  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s associated with p a r t i c u l a r sport  groups.  In t h i s study c o l l e g e male a t h l e t e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n f o o t b a l l , c r i c k e t and hockey were examined. Upon reviewing  the r e s e a r c h  s t u d i e s comparing the  p e r s o n a l i t y o f a t h l e t e s i n d i f f e r e n t s p o r t groups, i t i s obvious t h a t they have been unable t o come t o any c o n s i s t e n t agreement.  One o f the reasons f o r the i n c o n s i s t e n c y  experimental design  o f many o f the r e s e a r c h  i s i n the  studies.  In Mark's (1971) study, f o r example, f o r t y a t h l e t e s were spread over t e n groups.  T h i s meant t h a t t h e r e was an  average o f f o u r s u b j e c t s per group, making the experiment l e s s s e n s i t i v e t o d e t e c t i n g experimental e f f e c t s . I t i s a l s o important t h a t the a t h l e t i c groups s t u d i e d a r e as homogenous as p o s s i b l e .  being  When comparing a t h l e t e s  of d i f f e r e n t s p o r t groups, c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be made as t o whether t h e a t h l e t e s are a l l w i t h i n t h e same s k i l l competitive  The  level.  successful non-athletic personality  Despite few  l e v e l and  the importance our s o c i e t y p l a c e s on  "success"  p e r s o n a l i t y s t u d i e s have examined s u c c e s s f u l i n d i v i d u a l s  i n o r d e r t o determine whether a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i g h achieving An  i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d be a s c e r t a i n e d . exception  and Werner (1970).  t o t h i s i s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n by B a c h t o l d I n t h i s study s u c c e s s f u l female p s y c h o l o -  g i s t s were given t h e 16 PF and found t o be independent,  21  a s s e r t i v e , e m o t i o n a l l y s t a b l e , tough-minded, s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t and  secure. In a more r e c e n t study by B a c h t o l d  and  (1976) e i g h t hundred  s i x t y - t h r e e women o f d i s t i n c t i o n were administered t h e  16 PF.  These women were s c i e n t i s t s , a r t i s t s , w r i t e r s ,  p s y c h o l o g i s t s and p o l i t i c i a n s .  When compared with the norms  the four groups were a l l more i n t e l l i g e n t , a s s e r t i v e , adventurous and l e s s c o n s e r v a t i v e .  A l s o t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e s between the f o u r groups on any p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s as measured by t h e 16 PF. Henney (1975) a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d success u s i n g the 16 PF. The  sample i n t h i s study was l i m i t e d  t o t h i r t y - s i x male  managers d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o d u c t i o n a t the Longbridge f a c t o r y o f B r i t i s h Leyland.  Each manager was d i r e c t l y  respon-  s i b l e f o r roughly: 400 people and each manager had experience i n e n g i n e e r i n g and 3 t o 5 years experience  a t the managerial  level.  R e s u l t s o f the study i n d i c a t e t h a t the s u b j e c t s c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g : mentally  a s s e r t i v e , e m o t i o n a l l y s t a b l e , outgoing,  tough and e x t r o v e r t e d . Morgan  (1973) compared s u c c e s s f u l female a t h l e t e s ,  a t t o r n e y s and p h y s i c i a n s .  The 16 PF was administered  t o eleven  p r o f e s s i o n a l female g o l f e r s and t e n n i s p l a y e r s , eleven a t t o r n e y s and twelve  female p h y s i c i a n s .  female  Results o f t h i s  study  i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the t h r e e groups i n p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e . d i f f e r e n c e s however, were observed  Significant  when t h e t h r e e groups  combined were compared t o the p o p u l a t i o n norms.  As a combined  22  group of s u b j e c t s compared to the norms the a t h l e t e s , a t t o r n e y s and p h y s i c i a n s were d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g more:  intelligent,  a s s e r t i v e , tough-minded, independent, r e l a x e d , r e s e r v e d , e m o t i o n a l l y s t a b l e , i m a g i n a t i v e , experimenting  and  controlled.  In summary the few  s t u d i e s presented here have  examined the p e r s o n a l i t i e s  of s u c c e s s f u l i n d i v i d u a l s .  study found d i f f e r e n c e s between the s u b j e c t group and  Each the  p o p u l a t i o n norm. An  important  comparisons i s how  aspect to c o n s i d e r when making these  the term "success" has been d e f i n e d .  D e f i n i t i o n s of "success" range from success i n terms of monetary achievement to success i n terms of p o p u l a r i t y to success i n terms o f employment p o s i t i o n or success i n terms of  seniority.  Factors influencing  success  A review o f the l i t e r a t u r e on environmental v a r i a b l e s such as b i r t h o r d e r and f a m i l y s i z e has produced a l a c k o f consistent findings.  For example, Adams (1972) suggests  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s can be made about b i r t h order while (1972) d i s p u t e s t h i s f i n d i n g and suggests r e l i a b l e evidence and Schroers  o r d e r e f f e c t s have been found,  Schooler  t h a t t h e r e i s no  s u p p o r t i n g b i r t h order e f f e c t s .  (1973) a l s o conclude,  that  Mitchell  t h a t while some g e n e r a l b i r t h  the l i t e r a t u r e tends to d i s p l a y  a p i c t u r e of confusion. Much of the r e s e a r c h i n the area of b i r t h order  has  23  d e a l t w i t h the comparison o f f i r s t born t o l a t e r - b o r n For  example,  children.  Sampson e t a l (1967) s t u d i e d the d i f f e r e n c e s  between f i r s t  and l a t e r born c h i l d r e n on need achievement.  They c o l l e c t e d data from two hundred and f i f t y - o n e h i g h s c h o o l students o f two s i b l i n g f a m i l i e s r e p r e s e n t i n g a l l p o s s i b l e combinations o f o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n , s u b j e c t sex and s i b l i n g sex. R e s u l t s o f the m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f the Winterbottom s c a l e i n d i c a t e d t h a t the f i r s t borns had h i g h e r need achievement than l a t e r born c h i l d r e n . Karabenich  (1971) a l s o found no s i g n i f i c a n t  differences  between s e l e c t e d b i r t h order groups on need achievement.  In  t h i s study one hundred and seventy male i n t r o d u c t o r y psychology c o l l e g e students were d i v i d e d i n t o sixty-two f i r s t borns, s i x t y one second borns and f o r t y - s e v e n l a t e r borns. study were o b t a i n e d from two t e s t s : a n x i e t y TAQ  Results of t h i s  the TAT and the t e s t  scale.  Another study t h a t found no s i g n i f i c a n t  differences  between b i r t h order groups on need: achievement was (1973).  Strumpfer  The Holmes-Tyler s e l f - p e e r r a t i n g t e s t and the  Mehrabiam R e s u l t a n t measures  o f achievement m o t i v a t i o n were  g i v e n to one hundred f i f t y - e i g h t female u n i v e r s i t y students and one hundred and s i x t y male u n i v e r s i t y students.  The  subjects  were grouped i n terms o f sex, o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n and f a m i l y The evidence f o r b i r t h order d i f f e r e n c e s on  size.  intellectual  a b i l i t y i s somewhat, s t r o n g e r than t h a t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n need achievement.  Lunneborg  (1968) f o r example,  s t u d i e d 2,878 males  and 2,52 3 females who were h i g h s c h o o l s e n i o r s .  The  subjects  24  took a p r e - c o l l e g e b a t t e r y o f t e s t s and a n a l y s i s o f the data r e v e a l e d t h a t among t h e f i r s t borns, t h e mean grades i n E n g l i s h , f o r e i g n language,  mathematics, s o c i a l s t u d i e s , n a t u r a l  s c i e n c e s and e l e c t i v e s were always h i g h e r when compared w i t h the l a t e r born s u b j e c t s . others  S i m i l a r r e s u l t s have been found by  (Adams and P h i l l i p s 1972; Burton 1968; B r a d l e y and  Sanbon 1969; L e s s i n g and Oberlander  1967).  F a m i l y s i z e as w e l l as b i r t h order has been a h e a v i l y researched t o p i c .  Masterton  (1971) f o r example, a d m i n i s t e r e d  the Marlowe-Crowne S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y S c a l e t o one hundred and f i f t y - f i v e i n t r o d u c t o r y psychology  students c o n s i s t i n g o f  t h i r t e e n o n l y c h i l d r e n , t h i r t y - s e v e n w i t h one s i b l i n g ,  forty-  e i g h t w i t h two s i b l i n g s , f i f t y - s e v e n w i t h t h r e e o r more. S i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s f o r f a m i l y s i z e and sex i n d i c a t e d t h a t s u b j e c t s w i t h s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s showed lower need a p p r o v a l and t h a t females  i n g e n e r a l showed h i g h e r need a p p r o v a l .  Migliorino socio-economic  (1974) a l s o s t u d i e d f a m i l y s i z e as w e l l as  l e v e l and i n t e l l i g e n c e .  was found between socio-economic ment o f t h e s u b j e c t .  A positive  correlation  l e v e l and the mental  develop-  I n g e n e r a l , t h e h i g h e r t h e socio-economic  l e v e l , the g r e a t e r the mental development.  There was however,  a n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between mental development and f a m i l y size.  F o r example, c h i l d r e n from s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s tend t o  have h i g h e r l e v e l s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e w h i l e c h i l d r e n from  larger  f a m i l i e s tend t o d i s p l a y lower l e v e l s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . In summary, disagreement  among i n v e s t i g a t o r s i s q u i t e  e v i d e n t i n the l i t e r a t u r e concerning the e f f e c t s o f b i r t h order  25  and  family  s i z e on i n t e l l i g e n c e , need achievement and need  approval. I t might be expected t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y development would be a f f e c t e d by i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r members.  family  T h i s i n t e r a c t i o n would be determined by o r d i n a l  p o s i t i o n and s i z e o f f a m i l y .  However, the evidence f o r such  e f f e c t s i n g e n e r a l i s weak. Warren  (1968:48) d e s c r i b e s  the f i n d i n g s o f s t u d i e s  r e l a t i n g t o b i r t h order as a "confused but i n t r i g u i n g concept". Perhaps a major reason f o r t h i s c o n f u s i o n l i e s i n the v a r i o u s modifications defined  o f the b a s i c d e f i n i t i o n o f b i r t h o r d e r .  b i r t h order i s "the s e q u e n t i a l  among h i s o r her s i b l i n g s w i t h r e s p e c t (Warren 1968:48). all  p o s i t i o n o f a person t o order o f b i r t h "  Some i n v e s t i g a t o r s compare f i r s t born w i t h  l a t e r born c h i l d r e n .  children.  Simply  Others compare e l d e s t w i t h youngest  Some i n v e s t i g a t o r s c o n s i d e r  o n l y c h i l d r e n t o be  f i r s t borns, w h i l e o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s e l i m i n a t e  only  children  from t h e i r study. Another reason f o r the c o n f u s i o n among b i r t h order studies  i s presented by Masterton  (1971) who suggests t h a t many  authors have f a i l e d t o c o n t r o l f o r e f f e c t s o f s u b j e c t ' s sex. In a d d i t i o n s u b j e c t s  from l a r g e r f a m i l i e s who are f o u r t h and  f i f t h born a r e o f t e n e l i m i n a t e d  from  studies.  Chapter Summary  Upon review o f the l i t e r a t u r e presented i n t h i s  26  chapter, i t becomes apparent t h a t there agreement among the r e s e a r c h the comparisons o f :  i s no c o n s i s t e n t  findings of studies dealing with  (1) a t h l e t e and n o n - a t h l e t e ,  (2) a t h l e t e s  o f d i f f e r i n g a b i l i t y l e v e l s and (3) a t h l e t e s from d i f f e r e n t s p o r t groups. Perhaps one o f the major reasons f o r the d i s c r e p a n c i e s w i t h i n the r e s e a r c h  f i n d i n g s i s the manner i n which the term  " a t h l e t e " has been d e f i n e d .  Researchers have d e f i n e d  t h e term  " a t h l e t e " i n such a way t h a t i t i n c l u d e s a v a r i e t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n a wide range o f s k i l l competitive  level, participation level,  l e v e l and l e v e l o f e x p e r i e n c e .  Another reason f o r the i n c o n s i s t e n t f i n d i n g s i s t h a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f competition ability.  may not be i n d i c a t i v e o f s k i l l  F o r example, an a t h l e t e p a r t i c i p a t i n g a t the c o l l e g i a t e  l e v e l i s not n e c e s s a r i l y more s k i l l e d than an a t h l e t e competing at the amateur l e v e l . only  Researchers r a t h e r than  considering  l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n should a l s o c o n s i d e r  l e v e l s of  achievement: accomplished by the a t h l e t e . Another aspect i s the experimental d e s i g n which may be a reason f o r t h e i n c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s o f r e s e a r c h d e a l i n g w i t h the a t h l e t i c p e r s o n a l i t y . number o f s u b j e c t s  i n a research  studies  F o r example the g r e a t e r  study, the more s e n s i t i v e  t h a t study i s t o d e t e c t i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s .  Researchers  should a l s o concern themselves w i t h making t h e i r s u b j e c t population  as homogenous as p o s s i b l e .  Consideration  should be  g i v e n as t o whether the a t h l e t e s are a l l w i t h i n t h e same l e v e l , p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e v e l , competitive  skill  l e v e l and l e v e l o f  27  achievements. Unlike  t h e s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h the a t h l e t i c  p e r s o n a l i t y , few d i s c r e p a n c i e s  were presented i n the review  of l i t e r a t u r e f o r the s u c c e s s f u l n o n - a t h l e t i c T h i s i s an area i n p e r s o n a l i t y where l i t t l e occurred  r e s e a r c h has  d e s p i t e our s o c i e t y ' s continued emphasis on s u c c e s s . Studies  Henney  personality.  by B a c h t o l d  (1975) and Morgan  and Werner  (1970), B a c h t o l d  (1976),  (1973) were a l l presented and showed  t h a t c o n s i s t e n t l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s have been found within  s u c c e s s f u l male and female i n d i v i d u a l s when compared t o  the p o p u l a t i o n  norm.  An important aspect t o c o n s i d e r  when s t u d y i n g  i n d i v i d u a l s i s how the term "success" has been  successful  defined.  D e f i n i t i o n s o f success have a wide range o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s and researchers  should make an attempt t o c l e a r l y s t a t e  their  definition. While few d i s c r e p a n c i e s  were found w i t h i n the r e s e a r c h  s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h the s u c c e s s f u l n o n - a t h l e t i c the  personality,  l i t e r a t u r e on the f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g success produced a  lack o f consistent  findings.  reason f o r t h i s c o n f u s i o n b i r t h order.  I t i s suggested t h a t the main  l i e s i n how r e s e a r c h e r s  Another reason f o r the c o n f u s i o n  from l a r g e f a m i l i e s have o f t e n been e l i m i n a t e d research  have  defined  i s that children from many  studies. I t i s important t h a t t h e experimental d e s i g n be  c a r e f u l l y examined when studying  f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g success,  as w e l l as s t u d i e s concerned w i t h p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f s u c c e s s f u l  28  non-athletes The  and s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h the a t h l e t i c p e r s o n a l i t y .  d e f i n i t i o n o f terms must be c l e a r l y s t a t e d , the number o f  subjects c a r e f u l l y  considered  as w e l l as the s t a t i s t i c a l  procedure used t o analyze the data.  29  CHAPTER I I I PROCEDURE AND  ANALYSIS  Subject P o p u l a t i o n  The s e l e c t i o n o f s u c c e s s f u l p r o f e s s i o n a l s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s study was performed  by f o u r male lawyers and f o u r male  p h y s i c i a n s who v o l u n t e e r e d as "judges".  These i n d i v i d u a l s  were a r b i t r a r i l y s e l e c t e d by the experimenter and asked i f they would l i s t male and female c o l l e a g u e s whom they c o n s i d e r e d successful. for  The "judges" were not p r o v i d e d w i t h any c r i t e r i a  identifying  "success".  I f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s name appeared  on t h r e e o f the f o u r "judges" l i s t s , t h i s person was  included  i n the sample p o p u l a t i o n . From the judges' l i s t s seven  (27) male d o c t o r s , e i g h t  twelve  (12) female and  twenty-  (8) female lawyers and twenty  (20) male lawyers were s e l e c t e d .  M a i l i n g addresses f o r these  p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s were o b t a i n e d from the "Medical D i r e c t o r y : C o l l e g e o f P h y s i c i a n s and Surgeons o f B.C." and from the " B r i t i s h Columbia  P r o v i n c i a l Directory of Attorneys".  The s u c c e s s f u l s u b j e c t s i n the a t h l e t i c group were c o n t a c t e d through the N a t i o n a l V o l l e y b a l l Sport Governing Body and through m a i l i n g l i s t s o f b a s k e t b a l l , gymnastics, hockey and w e i g h t l i f t i n g n a t i o n a l team members.  field  From these  l i s t s the f o l l o w i n g number o f a t h l e t e s were i n c l u d e d i n the sample p o p u l a t i o n :  twelve  (12) female and twelve  volleyball athletes, fifteen  (12) male  (15) female, and t h i r t e e n  (13)  30  male b a s k e t b a l l a t h l e t e s , s i x t e e n (18) male gymnasts, s i x t e e n and  (16)  female and  eighteen  (16) male f i e l d hockey a t h l e t e s  twelve (12) male w e i g h t - l i f t e r s . Once the m a i l i n g  l i s t s f o r the a t h l e t i c group and  p r o f e s s i o n a l group were complete, each candidate was l e t t e r of i n t r o d u c t i o n 16 PF Form C and  (See Appendix A)  (See Appendix B).  envelope was  a l s o enclosed  The  subjects  A stamped  f o r t h i s study were given one  had  envelope.  sent to those s u b j e c t s who  two  month p e r i o d .  population male and one  of t h i s two  (See Appendix A ) ,  had  A final  along w i t h a  l e t t e r of reminder  s t i l l not responded a f t e r a  month p e r i o d , the  subject  f o r t h i s study c o n s i s t e d of e i g h t y - n i n e  female s u b j e c t s  subjects.  The  month  not y e t responded were sent a second  was  At the end  subject.  month to  A f t e r the one  the S o c i o - c u l t u r a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e  stamped, s e l f - a d d r e s s e d  from a p o s s i b l e one  s u b j e c t s were:  1)  successful  hundred and  Twenty-eight  lifting 2)  (9), f i e l d hockey (7) and  (4),  weight  (3);  Twenty-nine (29)  basketball 3)  (5), gymnastics  eighty-  (28)  s u c c e s s f u l male a t h l e t e s from the s p o r t s of b a s k e t b a l l volleyball  the  self-addressed  t e s t package c o n s i s t i n g of a reminder l e t t e r 16 PF Form C and  designed by  f o r the convenience of the  respond to the i n i t i a l t e s t package. p e r i o d , a l l those who  mailed a  along w i t h C a t t e l l ' s  a S o c i o - c u l t u r a l questionnaire  experimenter  the  s u c c e s s f u l female a t h l e t e s from the  (6), v o l l e y b a l l  Twenty (20)  (11)  and  gymnastics  (12);  s u c c e s s f u l male p r o f e s s i o n a l s c u r r e n t l y  sports  31  p r a c t i s i n g law  (8) or medicine  (12)  i n the p r o v i n c e of  B r i t i s h Columbia; 4)  Twelve  (12)  p r a c t i s i n g law  successful  female p r o f e s s i o n a l s  (5) and medicine  currently-  (7) i n the p r o v i n c e of  B r i t i s h Columbia.  Instruments  In t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n the included  a personality  inventory  a S o c i o - c u l t u r a l questionnaire  ( C a t t e l l ' s 16 PF Form C)  f o r use  and  (See Appendix B).  C a t t e l l ' s 16 PF Form C. selected  instruments which were used  This personality  i n t h i s study because i t met  the  inventory  was  following  requirements: 1) inventory  The  16 PF  most used by p s y c h o l o g i s t s  the p e r s o n a l i t y o f 2)  3)  (1973),  interested i n  the  studying  athletes.  C a t t e l l ' s 16 PF has  f o r a l l four 16 PF  age  i s , a c c o r d i n g to C r a t t y  a well established  s e t of norms  forms.  Scores o b t a i n e d from the  16 PF can be c o r r e c t e d  for  differences. 4)  The  l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s study r e q u i r e d  an o b j e c t i v e l y scored p e r s o n a l i t y a p r o f i l e o f the  subjects  i n the  the use  instrument which would short  give  l e n g t h of time a v a i l a b l e  for testing. 5)  The  questionnaire  16 PF  scales.  of  i s a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l set of R e l i a b i l i t y o f the v a r i o u s  sixteen factors  32  ranges from .50  to .85.  These r e l i a b i l i t i e s  roughly to the i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t i e s 6)  I t has  Spielberger  correspond  ( C a t t e l l 1953).  been e x p e r i m e n t a l l y demonstrated  (1970) t h a t s u b j e c t s may  by  tend to answer i n v e n t o r i e s  not h o n e s t l y but i n a manner which w i l l best r e f l e c t them.  This  type o f response i s known as "Response D i s t o r t i o n " . Form C as w e l l as Form D of C a t t e l l ' s 16 PF are o n l y forms which c o n t a i n a s c a l e r e f e r r e d to as the D i s t o r t i o n " s c a l e or the  "MD"  scale.  the  "Motivational  T h i s s c a l e measures the  l e v e l of the s u b j e c t ' s response d i s t o r t i o n . Presented being  i n Table I are the s i x p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s  t e s t e d f o r u s i n g the 16 PF Form C.  emotional  s t a b i l i t y , assertiveness,  toughmindedness, s e l f - a s s u r a n c e and  These s i x f a c t o r s :  conscientiousness, s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y have been  f r e q u e n t l y used i n d e s c r i b i n g " s u c c e s s f u l " i n d i v i d u a l s . The was  S o c i o - c u l t U r a l Questionnaire.  designed  This  questionnaire  t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on f i v e areas of  b i r t h o r d e r , f a m i l y s i z e , c u l t u r e , e d u c a t i o n a l and experience. t e s t items,  athletic  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s composed o f twenty-three f i f t e e n r e l a t e d to the s u b j e c t ' s own  the remaining information.  concern:  background  e i g h t items r e l a t e d to p a r e n t a l background  and  33  TABLE I TESTED SIX PERSONALITY TRAITS FROM THE 16 PF FORM C  FACTOR  DESCRIPTION OF THE BEHAVIOR  C  A f f e c t e d by f e e l i n g s versus  emotionally  stable E  Humble versus a s s e r t i v e  G  Expedient  I  versus  conscientious  . . Tough-minded versus  tender-minded  0  S e l f - a s s u r e d versus  apprehensive  Q~  Group-dependent versus  self-sufficient  A n a l y s i s Of the Data  As the completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were returned by the s u b j e c t s , each s e t was coded so t h a t a l l i n f o r m a t i o n on s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d be kept t o g e t h e r .  The 16 PF was  scored by hand u s i n g s c o r i n g s t e n c i l s and f o l l o w i n g the procedure d e s c r i b e d i n the Manual  ( C a t t e l l 1972).  The raw  scores were then c o r r e c t e d f o r any age d i f f e r e n c e s u s i n g the age  c o r r e c t i o n t a b l e s found i n t h e manual. A tally  questionnaire  sheet was d e v i s e d  f o r the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l  (See Appendix B) and responses recorded  subject's return.  A l l s u b j e c t s were then mailed  f o r each  an e x p r e s s i o n  o f a p p r e c i a t i o n (See Appendix A) f o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n a 16 PF p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e o f t h e i r answers t o C a t t e l l s 1  16 PF Form C.  plus  34  The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t there would be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among means f o r male and female s u c c e s s f u l  athletes  and p r o f e s s i o n a l s on s i x dimensions o f the 16 PF (Factor C, E, G, I , 0 and Q^) was analyzed u s i n g a one way a n a l y s i s o f variance  on each f a c t o r .  To a v o i d the p r o b a b i l i t y o f one o r  more Type I I e r r o r s the .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was established  f o r r e j e c t i o n o f the f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s .  of s i g n i f i c a n c e (p=0.05) i s c o n s i d e r e d l e v e l used The  (Robson  This  level  t o be the c o n v e n t i o n a l  1974).  .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d f o r  r e j e c t i o n o f the second h y p o t h e s i s which s t a t e s t h a t :  there  would be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among male and female s u c c e s s f u l a t h l e t e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s on f i v e areas o f concern: b i r t h order,  family s i z e , culture, educational  experience.  A C h i Square s t a t i s t i c was used on the data  o b t a i n e d from the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l  questionnaire.  and a t h l e t i c  35  CHAPTER IV RESULTS  T h i s study was designed t o i n v e s t i g a t e the s i m i l a r i t i e s and/or d i f f e r e n c e s among f o u r groups o f s u c c e s s f u l i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h regard  t o p e r s o n a l i t y and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l  information.  Data and r e s u l t s w i l l be presented a c c o r d i n g type o f i n f o r m a t i o n followed  obtained.  by the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l  t o the  Personality information i s information.  P e r s o n a l i t y Assessment  C a t t e l l ' s 16 PF was used t o t e s t the f i r s t  hypothesis  t h a t there would be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among means f o r male and female s u c c e s s f u l a t h l e t e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s on s i x f a c t o r s , C, E, G, I , 0 and Q 2  Table I I c o n t a i n s r a t i o s and sten scores tested.  the means,- standard d e v i a t i o n s , F  f o r each o f the s i x p e r s o n a l i t y  factors  36  TABLE I I MEANS, STANDARD DEVIATIONS, STEN SCORES AND F RATIOS FOR FACTORS C, E, G, I , 0 AND  FACTOR  GROUP  X  s  Q  0  STEN F RATIO  Male A t h l e t e s Female A t h l e t e s Male P r o f e s s i o n a l s Female P r o f e s s i o n a l s  8 .39 8 .59 7 .60 7 . 66  2. 12 2. 08 2. 07 2. 70  6 7 6 6  1 .128  Male A t h l e t e s Female A t h l e t e s Male P r o f e s s i o n a l s Female P r o f e s s i o n a l s  5 .86 4 .90 5 .95 6 . 92  1. 65 2. 74 2. 65 2. 50  6 6 6 7  2 .240  Male A t h l e t e s Female A t h l e t e s Male P r o f e s s i o n a l s Female P r o f e s s i o n a l s  7 .07 6 .80 7 .65 6 .67  2. 45 1. 93 1. 90 3. 21  6 5 6 5  .684  Male A t h l e t e s Female A t h l e t e s Male P r o f e s s i o n a l s Female P r o f e s s i o n a l s  5 .39 6 . 00 5 .03 .6 .85  2. 51 1. 83 1. 98 1. 77  5 4 5 5  2 .297  Male A t h l e t e s Female A t h l e t e s Male P r o f e s s i o n a l s Female P r o f e s s i o n a l s  4 .83 6 .62 6 .03 6 .15  2. 39 3. 17 1. 60 0. 63  5 5 6 5  2 .550  Male A t h l e t e s SelfIn \ Female A t h l e t e s sufficient Male P r o f e s s i o n a l s Female P r o f e s s i o n a l s  4. .43  3. 01 1. 93 2. 61 2. 14  5 6 7 7  2 .375  Emotional Stability  Assertiveness  Conscientiousness  (r) i*-)  (v\ iw  (a\  ToughIT) mindedness \ J-)  Selfassurance  (n\  4 .37 6 .10 5 .19  11 II II  II II 11  II II II  II II II  II  II II  II II II  37  On F a c t o r C, the sten score f o r the female a t h l e t e s was above the normal range o f 4.5 t o 6.5. Q, 2  On F a c t o r s E, G, 0 and  the s t e n scores f e l l w i t h i n the normal range and f o r F a c t o r I  the s t e n score f e l l  below the norm as shown i n F i g u r e 1.  The sten score f o r the male a t h l e t e s on a l l s i x p e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r s C, E, G, I, 0 and Q normal range o f 4.5 t o 6.5  2  were a l l w i t h i n the  as shown i n F i g u r e 2.  Male p r o f e s s i o n a l s ' s t e n scores were above the average on F a c t o r Q  2  while they were a l l average f o r F a c t o r s C, E, G,  I and 0 as shown i n F i g u r e 3. F i g u r e 4 shows the sten scores f o r the female professionals.  On F a c t o r s E and Q  the normal range.  2  the sten scores were above  The s t e n scores were average f o r F a c t o r s C,  G, I and 0. A n a l y s i s o f the p e r s o n a l i t y d a t a i n d i c a t e d no  signifi-  cant d i f f e r e n c e at the .05 l e v e l between the four groups on the six  p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s examined.  Hypothesis one, was  therefore  supported. Summary t a b l e s o f the one-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r a l l V a r i a b l e s C, E, G, I, 0 and Q  0  are presented  i n Appendix  C.  FACTOR  1 2  3 4 5 6 7 8 STANDARD TE]N SCORE (STEN) If  C  •  •  •  •  E  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  I  0  Q  2  ,  • /  10  *  / G  9  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  T  1  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  RANGE OF NORMAL SCORES FOR THE GENERAL POPULATION  F i g u r e 1 . — P e r s o n a l i t y P r o f i l e f o r Female A t h l e t e s as a Group  FACTOR  1 2  3  4  5  STANDARD TI:N  C  •  •  •  •  E  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  6 SCORE  7  8  9  10  (STEN)  '-v. .. " '  *• .  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  G  I  0  Q  2  •  '•  •  •  RANGE OF NORMAL SCORES FOR THE GENERAL POPULATION  F i g u r e 2 . — P e r s o n a l i t y P r o f i l e f o r Male A t h l e t e s as a Group  FACTOR  1 2  3 4 5 6 STANDARD T l:N SCORE  C  •  •  •  •  E  •  •  •  •  ' ".I.'*;  ' "  .  7 8 (STEN)  9  10  *.  •  •  •  '  • . •  t  \  G  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  I  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  0  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  Q  2  •  *  •  •  \^  \  . . .  RANGE OF NORMAL SCORES FOR THE GENERAL POPULATION  F i g u r e 3 . — P e r s o n a l i t y P r o f i l e f o r Male P r o f e s s i o n a l s as a Group  RANGE OF NORMAL SCORES FOR THE GENERAL POPULATION  F i g u r e 4 . — P e r s o n a l i t y P r o f i l e f o r Female P r o f e s s i o n a l s as a Group  42  S o c i o - c u l t u r a l Assessment  B i r t h Order.  Table I I I shows t h a t the female  p r o f e s s i o n a l group had the h i g h e s t percentage o f f i r s t compared w i t h the o t h e r t h r e e groups.  borns  S i x o f the twelve  female p r o f e s s i o n a l s , e x a c t l y 50%, were f i r s t born c h i l d r e n , w h i l e 30% o f the male p r o f e s s i o n a l s , 21.4% o f the male a t h l e t e s and 10.3% o f the female a t h l e t e s were f i r s t  borns.  TABLE I I I FREQUENCY COUNT AND  PERCENTAGES  OF GROUPS ON BIRTH ORDER 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  BIRTH ORDER GROUP 1  6 21.4%  6 21.4%  7 25.0%  GROUP 2  3 10.3%  8 27.6%  11 37. 9%  GROUP 3 GROUP 4  3 10.7%  2 7.1%  2 7.1%  0 0.0%  2 7.1%  1 3.4%  2 6.9%  2 6.9%  1 3.4%  1 3.4%  6 6 30. 0% 30. 0%  0 5 0.0% 25.0%  3 15.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  6 50.0%  1 8.3%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  4 33 • 3%  1 8. 3%  GROUP 1 = MALE ATHLETES GROUP 2 = FEMALE ATHLETES GROUP 3 = MALE PROFESSIONALS GROUP 4 = FEMALE  PROFESSIONALS  43  A t h l e t i c Experience.  A t the time the data was taken  one hundred percent o f the male and female a t h l e t e s , o n l y 8.3% of the female p r o f e s s i o n a l s and 15% o f the male p r o f e s s i o n a l s had  been o r were i n v o l v e d  i n international athletic  competition.  However, 80% o f the male p r o f e s s i o n a l s and 58% o f the female p r o f e s s i o n a l s had been c o m p e t i t i v e  i n a t h l e t i c s a t e i t h e r the  university, national or i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l . p r o f e s s i o n a l s 100% had been o r were s t i l l  Of the male  active i n athletics,  w h i l e 16.7% o f the female p r o f e s s i o n a l s had never p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a t h l e t i c s as shown i n Table IV.  TABLE IV FREQUENCY COUNT AND PERCENTAGES OF GROUPS ON ATHLETIC  EXPERIENCE  GROUP 1  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  28 100.0%  GROUP 2  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  29 100.0%  GROUP 3  0 0. 0%  2 10.0%  2 10.0%  7 35.0%  6 30.0%  3 15.0%  GROUP 4  2 16.7%  3 25. 0%  2 16. 7%  2 16.7%  2 16.7%  1 8.3%  GROUP GROUP GROUP GROUP  1 2 3 4  = = = =  MALE ATHLETES FEMALE ATHLETES MALE PROFESSIONALS FEMALE PROFESSIONALS  44  Culture.  T a b l e V shows t h a t 92.9% o f the male a t h l e t e s  were born i n Canada, while 93.1% o f the female a t h l e t e s , 70% of the male p r o f e s s i o n a l s and 75% o f the female  professionals  were a l s o born i n Canada. The male p r o f e s s i o n a l s compared w i t h the o t h e r three groups had the l a r g e s t percentage o f North America.  (30%) o f those born  outside  Only 6.9% o f the female a t h l e t e s , 7.1% o f  the male a t h l e t e s and 25% o f the female p r o f e s s i o n a l s were a l s o born o u t s i d e  o f North America.  TABLE V FREQUENCY COUNT AND PERCENTAGES OF GROUPS ON CULTURE  CANADA  AMERICA  OTHER  (Place o f B i r t h ) MALE ATHLETE  26 92.9%  0 0.0%  2 7.1%  FEMALE ATHLETE  27 93.1%  0 0.0%  2 6.9%  MALE PROFESSIONALS  14 70.0%  1 5.0%  6 30.0%  FEMALE PROFESSIONALS  9 75.0%  0 0.0%  3 25.0%  45  Family s i z e .  Table VI shows t h a t none o f t h e male o r  female a t h l e t e s was an o n l y c h i l d . came from three  child  Of the male a t h l e t e s 42.9%  f a m i l i e s , as d i d 44.8% o f the female  athletes. The  female p r o f e s s i o n a l s were a l s o w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d i n  the three c h i l d  family  (58.3%).  p r o f e s s i o n a l s came from three  Only 15% o f the male  child families.  Ten percent o f  the male p r o f e s s i o n a l s were the only c h i l d as were 16.7% o f the female p r o f e s s i o n a l s .  TABLE VI FREQUENCY COUNT AND PERCENTAGES OF GROUPS ON FAMILY SIZE  1  2  3 4 5 (Number o f C h i l d r e n  6 7 i n Family)  8  9  GROUP 1  0 4 0. 0% 14.3%  12 7 42. 9% 25.0%  1 3.6%  2 7.1%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  2 7.1%  GROUP 2  0 6 0.0% 20.7%  13 44.8%  7 24.1%  2 6.9%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  1 3.4%  0 0.0%  3 15.0%  4 20.0%  0 0.0%  1 5.0%  1 5.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  GROUP 3  2 10.0%  4 20.0%  GROUP 4  2 16.7%  2 7 16.7%. 58. 3%  0 0.0%  2 10.0%  3 15.0%  0 0.0%  1 8.3%  GROUP 1 = MALE ATHLETES GROUP 2 = FEMALE ATHLETES GROUP 3 = MALE PROFESSIONALS GROUP 4 = FEMALE PROFESSIONALS  46  Educational  experience.  A l l o f the male and female  p r o f e s s i o n a l s had attended u n i v e r s i t y .  While 85.7% o f the  male a t h l e t e s and 62.1% o f the female a t h l e t e s had o r were still  attending  still  i n high  school.  university.  Of the female a t h l e t e s 37% were  school with 10.3% o f these e n r o l l e d i n a p r i v a t e  None o f the 14.3% o f male a t h l e t e s s t i l l  school were e n r o l l e d i n a p r i v a t e school  i n high  as shown i n Table V I I .  TABLE V I I FREQUENCY COUNT AND  PERCENTAGES  OF GROUPS FOR EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE  UNIVERSITY HIGH SCHOOL HIGH SCHOOL PRIVATE PUBLIC ( E d u c a t i o n a l Experience) MALE ATHLETE  4 14.3%  FEMALE ATHLETE  8 27.6%  0 0.0% 3 10.3%  24 85.7% 18 62.1%  MALE PROFESSIONALS  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  20 100.0%  FEMALE PROFESSIONALS  0 0.0%  0 0.0%  12 100.0%  i  47  The C h i Square a n a l y s i s used t o compare the f i v e  areas  of concern on the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e showed a significant difference athletic  ( x ^ = 89.81, p^.00001) when comparing  and e d u c a t i o n a l experience  Hypothesis  (x g= 17.48, p<.008). 2  two was, t h e r e f o r e , not supported.  Table V I I I i s a frequency t a b l e comparing the f o u r groups f o r a t h l e t i c  experience, while Table IX i s a frequency  table f o r educational experience.  A l l other frequency t a b l e s  are found i n Appendix C. TABLE V I I I SUBJECTS IN THE GROUPS AT VARIOUS LEVELS OF ATHLETIC EXPERIENCE  0 0.0 0.0 0.0  MALE ATHLETES  0 0.0  i  0 0.0 0.0 0.0  0 0.0 0.0 0.0  28 100 45.9 31.5  28 31. 5  0.0 0.0  0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0  0 0.0 0.0 0.0  0 0.0 0.0 0.0  29 100 47.5 32.6  29 32. 6  FEMALE ATHLETES  0 0.0 0. 0 0.0  0 0.0 0.0 0.0  MALE  0 0.0 0.0 0.0  2 10.2 40.0 2.2  2 7 10.2 35.0 50.0 77.8 2.2 7.9  6 30.0 75.0 6.7  3 15.0 4.9 3.4  20 22. 5  2 16.7 100.0 2.2  3 25.0 60.0 3.4  2 2 16.7 16.7 50.0 22.2 2.2 2.2  2 16.7 25.0 2.2  1 8.3 1.6 1.1  12 13. 5  2 2.2  5 5,6  4 9 4.5 10.1  8 9.0  61 68.5  89 100. 0  PROFESSIONALS  FEMALE  PROFESSIONALS  COLUMN TOTAL X  2 1 5  = 89.81, p <. .00001  48  TABLE IX SUBJECTS IN THE GROUPS AT VARIOUS LEVELS OF EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE  HIGH SCHOOL PUBLIC  MALE ATHLETES  4 14.3 33.3 4.5  FEMALE ATHLETES  8 27.6 66. 7 9.0  HIGH SCHOOL UNIVERSITY PRIVATE (Levels o f Education) 0 0.0 0.0 0.0  24 85.7 32.4 27.0  3 10.3 100.0 3.4  18 62.1 24.3 20.4  MALE PROFESSIONALS  0 0.0 0.0 0.0  0 0.0 0.0 0.0  20 100.0 27.0 22.5  FEMALE PROFESSIONALS  0 0.0 0.0 0.0  0 0.0 0.0 0.0  12 100. 0 16.2 13.5  12 13.5  3 3.4  74 83.1  COLUMN TOTAL  = 17.48, p < .008  89 100.0  49  CHAPTER V DISCUSSION  I t i s important when s t u d y i n g behavior p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s be c o n s i d e r e d variables.  along with  T h i s approach t o behavior  that environmental  i s known as the  i n t e r a c t i o n i s t approach and i s a much more powerful p r e d i c t o r o f behavior  than c o n s i d e r i n g t r a i t s o r environmental v a r i a b l e s  alone. T h i s study has taken the i n t e r a c t i o n i s t approach and an examination o f the r e s u l t s r e v e a l t h a t the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e o f the four groups, as w e l l as t h e i r s o c i o c u l t u r a l background appear q u i t e  similar.  For a l l four groups, two o f the p e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r G (conscientiousness)  and F a c t o r 0  (self-assurance)  were c o n s i s t e n t l y w i t h i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n norm. (emotional  For Factor C  s t a b i l i t y ) , the female a t h l e t e s c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d  as more e m o t i o n a l l y three  traits—  s t a b l e when compared with the remaining  groups. Emotional s t a b i l i t y a l s o r e f e r r e d t o by C a t t e l l as  higher ego s t r e n g t h i s f r e q u e n t l y found among those who a r e leaders  ( C a t t e l l e t a l 1970).  T h i s above average emotional  s t a b i l i t y i s found i n those who must a d j u s t t o d i f f i c u l t i e s or emergencies presented  t o them, from the o u t s i d e .  I t would  be a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t those i n d i v i d u a l s c l a s s i f i e d as s u c c e s s f u l or s u p e r i o r i n law o r medicine as w e l l as a t h l e t i c s would a l l r e q u i r e t h i s higher than average emotional s t a b i l i t y .  The  *  50  r e s u l t s of the present  study as well: as the r e s u l t s of Morgan s 1  (1973) study are i n disagreement with t h i s argument. present  In  the  study the female a t h l e t e s were the o n l y group which  c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as e m o t i o n a l l y  stable.  The  o n l y group i n  the Morgan study which c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as e m o t i o n a l l y were the female p h y s i c i a n s . attorneys  and  In Morgan's study the  stable  female  female a t h l e t e s were w i t h i n the normal or  average range f o r t h i s  trait.  C l o s e r examination of Morgan's study r e v e a l s t h a t age  range f o r the female a t h l e t e s was  of age  to f o r t y  (40) y e a r s .  f o r Morgan's experiment was B i l l i e Jean King, was  The  q u e s t i o n must be asked as t o earnings  the  of the a t h l e t e s i n This  may  the female a t h l e t e s i n Morgan's study were not stable.  A l s o d u r i n g the l a t e  e a r l y 1970's the p r o f e s s i o n a l c i r c u i t  and g o l f p l a y e r was The  data  gathered a female t e n n i s p l a y e r ,  were over t h i r t y years o l d .  d e s c r i b e d as e m o t i o n a l l y and  years  During the time at which the  a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y , prominence and  e x p l a i n why  (23)  the o l d e s t female p r o f e s s i o n a l a t h l e t e  i n terms of prominence.  Morgan's study who  twenty-three  the  60's  f o r the female t e n n i s  very small as were the f i n a n c i a l  earnings.  time involvement and commitment c o u l d not p o s s i b l y compare  to the commitment of female a t h l e t e s of the 198.0." s or to commitment of female p h y s i c i a n s of the 1960's and  the  70's.  I t would be expected t h a t the female p h y s i c i a n i n Morgan's study c o u l d be described: as e m o t i o n a l l y  s t a b l e , as  o n l y 7% o f the p h y s i c i a n s a t the time the data was were women (Morgan 1973:35).  Subjects  w i t h i n the  collected female  51  physicians Women.  group were obtained  from Who's Who o f American  These women had obtained  S t a t e s , and t h e r e f o r e  prominence i n the  United  i t would be expected t h a t they had h i g h  l e v e l s o f d e d i c a t i o n and s t a b i l i t y t o achieve such prominence i n a male dominated p r o f e s s i o n . While t h e female p h y s i c i a n s were t h e o n l y group i n Morgan's study which c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d  as e m o t i o n a l l y  i t was t h e female a t h l e t i c group i n the present c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d  as being  stable,  study which  above average on t h i s  trait.  Perhaps a reason f o r t h i s i s because o f the female a t h l e t e s ' o v e r a l l youth.  Many o f t h e female a t h l e t e s i n the  present  study hadn't l i v e d long enough t o experience a wide v a r i e t y of f a i l u r e s o r disappointments.  A l s o the young female a t h l e t e  must d e f i n i t e l y have a support system o f f a m i l y , coaches, teammates and f r i e n d s . The  t r a i t o f a s s e r t i v e n e s s was: a l s o examained and  r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e female p r o f e s s i o n a l s were more a s s e r t i v e than a l l remaining groups. personality t r a i t higher  Dominance, as t h i s  i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  than average a g g r e s s i v e n e s s and competitive C a t t e l l e t a l (1970) d e s c r i b e s  which d i s t i n g u i s h e s the sexes:  dominance: as a t r a i t  suggesting  t h a t dominant and  a c h i e v i n g behavior i s a b a s i s on which s o c i e t y masculinity  and f e m i n i n i t y .  behavior.  defines  Women i n the f i e l d o f a t h l e t i c s  w h i l e they o f t e n compete w i t h men f o r equal r e c o g n i t i o n a r e not  i n d i r e c t competition  w i t h men i n a t h l e t i c events and may  as a r e s u l t not e x h i b i t a s s e r t i v e b e h a v i o r .  Female p r o f e s s i o n a l s  52  however are i n d i r e c t c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h men.  In t h e i r  selection  of law or medicine as a c a r e e r , the female a t t o r n e y and p h y s i c i a n showed some degree o f courage and a g g r e s s i v e n e s s . These c a r e e r s have i n the past been dominated by men female a t t o r n e y and p h y s i c i a n w i l l T h i s t o some e x t e n t may  whom the  c o n t i n u e t o compete a g a i n s t .  be the reason f o r the female  p r o f e s s i o n a l s e x h i b i t i n g a h i g h e r degree o f a s s e r t i v e n e s s . Mental toughness was was  another t r a i t examined and i t  found t h a t the female a t h l e t e s were more m e n t a l l y tough  than the remaining t h r e e groups.  C a t t e l l (1969:488) d e s c r i b e s  an i n d i v i d u a l p o s s e s s i n g t h i s t r a i t as a " h a r d - b o i l e d ,  mature,  independent, unemotional, p o i s e d i n d i v i d u a l w i t h some smugness, o v e r - p r e c i s i o n and b l i n k e r e d l o g i c . " The female a t h l e t i c group i n the p r e s e n t study has an average age o f 19 y e a r s .  T h i s average age was  male a t h l e t e s whose average age was whose average age was  lower than the  24, the male p r o f e s s i o n a l s  41 and the female p r o f e s s i o n a l s who  an average age o f 40 y e a r s .  had  Because o f the necessary d e d i c a t i o n  to t r a i n i n g t h a t an a t h l e t e must pursue i n o r d e r t o compete internationally  and because o f the o v e r a l l youth o f the female  a t h l e t e s i t might be expected t h a t the female a t h l e t e s c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as m e n t a l l y tough. Another t r a i t which was sufficiency.  a l s o examined was  self-  In the p r e s e n t study, s u b j e c t s i n the male and  female p r o f e s s i o n a l groups were found t o be more s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t than the male and female a t h l e t i c groups who p o p u l a t i o n norm f o r t h i s  trait.  were w i t h i n the  53  S e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y may own  be d e f i n e d as p r e f e r r i n g one's  d e c i s i o n s r a t h e r than being a f o l l o w e r or a j o i n e r .  C e r t a i n l y w i t h i n the f i e l d of law and medicine, male female a t t o r n e y s  and  and p h y s i c i a n s are r e q u i r e d to make t h e i r  d e c i s i o n s about l e g a l or m e d i c a l cases.  own  In a t h l e t i c s however,  o f t e n the a t h l e t e i s t o l d what to do by other i n d i v i d u a l s such as coaches.  T h i s may  e x p l a i n to some extent why  the  p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h i s study c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as more s e l f s u f f i c i e n t than the a t h l e t i c s u b j e c t s . present  The  r e s u l t s of  the  study c o n t r a s t with the r e s u l t s of a study by Morgan  (1973).  In Morgan's study none of the s u b j e c t s i n law,  as w e l l as a t h l e t i c s c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as In summary i t was  hypothesized  medicine  self-sufficient.  t h a t the p e r s o n a l i t y  of the f o u r groups s t u d i e d would be s i m i l a r but  i t was  also  a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e s would d i f f e r  from  the p o p u l a t i o n norm.  The  subject population  i n the  present  study however, d i d not d i f f e r from the average range on two the s i x p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s e x a m i n e d — F a c t o r G and F a c t o r 0  (self-assurance).  t r a i t s examined was  Not  one  of  (conscientiousness)  of the s i x p e r s o n a l i t y  found to be c o n s i s t e n t l y above or below the  p o p u l a t i o n norm or average range f o r a l l four groups. The assertive  female p r o f e s s i o n a l s c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as more  (Factor E) compared with the other three groups  were w i t h i n the normal range.  Of the four groups the  who  female  a t h l e t e s were the o n l y group which c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as more mentally  tough  (Factor I) and more emotionally, s t a b l e (Factor C ) ,  the remaining three groups were w i t h i n the p o p u l a t i o n norm f o r  54  these two t r a i t s . described  The male and female p r o f e s s i o n a l s c o u l d be  as having a h i g h e r degree o f s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y  (Factor C^) w h i l e the a t h l e t e s i n t h i s study were w i t h i n the average range. While no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  (p<.05) between the  groups were observed f o r the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , two s o c i o c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s — a t h l e t i c experience educational  experience  (p<.00001) and  (p<.008) were s i g n i f i c a n t .  A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between groups on the f a c t o r of a t h l e t i c experience was a n t i c i p a t e d .  After a l l ,  the c r i t e r i a  f o r s e l e c t i o n o f the a t h l e t i c s u b j e c t s was t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n at the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l . and  One hundred precent of the male  female a t h l e t e s had i n t e r n a t i o n a l a t h l e t i c  experience,  w h i l e o n l y 15% o f the male p r o f e s s i o n a l s and 8.3% o f the female p r o f e s s i o n a l s had ever competed a t the i n t e r n a t i o n a l level. D e s p i t e the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between groups on the factor: a t h l e t i c experience, 15% and 8.3% p a r t i c i p a t i o n at the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l f o r the male and female r e s p e c t i v e l y , seems q u i t e high  professionals  f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l groups.  I t appears t h a t the a t h l e t i c and p r o f e s s i o n a l groups i n t h i s study are very sports minded as only two of the 89 had  never been i n v o l v e d i n a t h l e t i c s .  87%  had a t h l e t i c experience a t the u n i v e r s i t y , n a t i o n a l or  international  Of the 89  subjects  subjects,  level.  The male and female p r o f e s s i o n a l s who responded t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  were those i n t e r e s t e d or i n v o l v e d i n  55  athletics.  I t may be t h a t the remaining p r o f e s s i o n a l s who  were m a i l e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s might not have been a t h l e t i c a l l y inclined. of  T h i s might e x p l a i n the o v e r a l l a t h l e t i c  the s u b j e c t s i n t h i s  experience  study.  A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was a l s o observed f a c t o r o f e d u c a t i o n a l experience. of  While one hundred percent  the male and female p r o f e s s i o n a l s had attended  (which i s a foregone  f o r the  university  c o n c l u s i o n ) , o n l y 62.1% of the female  a t h l e t e s and 85.7% o f the male a t h l e t e s had attended The remaining  university.  37.9% o f the female a t h l e t e s and the remaining  14.3% o f the male a t h l e t e s were s t i l l  e n r o l l e d i n high school.  D e s p i t e the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the prof e s s i o n a l and: a t h l e t i c groups on the f a c t o r o f e d u c a t i o n a l experience, the s u b j e c t s as a whole appear to be w e l l  educated.  E i g h t y - t h r e e percent o f the s u b j e c t s have had a u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n , but because o f t h e i r : age, the remaining still  i n v o l v e d in: a h i g h s c h o o l program.  17% are  I t i s conceivable  t h a t upon g r a d u a t i o n these 17% w i l l attend u n i v e r s i t y , as u n i v e r s i t i e s i n Canada o f f e r a h i g h l e v e l o f c o m p e t i t i o n f o r the e l i t e  athlete. B i r t h order, f a m i l y s i z e and c u l t u r e were t h r e e  other s o c i o - c u l t u r a l  f a c t o r s examined w i t h no s i g n i f i c a n t  differences evident.  There was however a prevalence o f f i r s t  borns  (50%) among the female p r o f e s s i o n a l s . T h i r t y percent o f  male p r o f e s s i o n a l s were a l s o f i r s t , born, while 21.4% of the male a t h l e t e s and o n l y 10.3% of the female a t h l e t e s were born.  first  56  Occurrence of the f i r s t born, e s p e c i a l l y among the p r o f e s s i o n a l groups, may way  they were brought up.  bilities  be p a r t i a l l y , accounted f o r by the C a l l e d upon t o take more r e s p o n s i -  around the house, the f i r s t born may  have had t o  s t r i v e t o l i v e up t o the e x p e c t a t i o n s of p a r e n t s .  Parents'  e x p e c t a t i o n s tend to be g r e a t e r f o r the f i r s t born, and once t h a t c h i l d has reached an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l of  achievement,  t h e r e appears to be l e s s p r e s s u r e put on younger c h i l d r e n t o a t t a i n those same e x p e c t a t i o n s . The h i g h occurrence of f i r s t borns i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l groups and the low occurrence of f i r s t borns i n the a t h l e t i c groups may  a l s o be due t o parents p r e s s u r i n g t h e i r f i r s t  borns  i n t o p r o f e s s i o n s l e a d i n g t o h i g h s t a t u s and prominence i n t h e i r community.  A member o f the law or m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n achieves  g r e a t e r d i s t i n c t i o n , prominence and earns more money than the m a j o r i t y of amateur a t h l e t e s . For experience. of  many parents r a i s i n g the f i r s t T h i s may  c h i l d is: a l e a r n i n g  be another reason f o r the low i n c i d e n c e  f i r s t borns i n the a t h l e t i c groups.  Many parents do not  become aware o f the a t h l e t i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s  ( l i t t l e leagues,  dance c l a s s e s , etc.) f o r t h e i r young f i r s t born c h i l d .  The  l a t e r born c h i l d r e n b e n e f i t from the p a r e n t s ' l e a r n i n g experience, as the parents w i l l probably be more aware of the a t h l e t i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n the community f o r t h e i r l a t e r born c h i l d r e n . The groups may  lower i n c i d e n c e o f " f i r s t borns among the a t h l e t i c  a l s o have something  t o do with the sport  involvement  57  of the a t h l e t e s .  A c c o r d i n g to a 1980: a r t i c l e by H a l l , Church  and Stone, the s p o r t s e t t i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n s show t h a t  later  borns seek group a c t i v i t i e s and team s p o r t s more r e a d i l y f i r s t borns. two  W i t h i n the female a t h l e t i c group of t h i s  than  study  of the t h r e e s p o r t s are team s p o r t s while t h r e e of the  five  s p o r t s i n the male a t h l e t i c group are a l s o team s p o r t s . Family  s i z e , another  i n c i d e n c e of male and or more c h i l d r e n .  f a c t o r s t u d i e d , showed, a h i g h  female a t h l e t e s from f a m i l i e s of t h r e e  T h i s may  have something to do w i t h  having  a guaranteed supply of playmates and more o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r competitive  experience.  While t h e r e was  a high i n c i d e n c e of male and  female  a t h l e t e s from f a m i l i e s of t h r e e or more c h i l d r e n , t h e r e also: a h i g h i n c i d e n c e of male and f a m i l i e s of f o u r or l e s s .  female p r o f e s s i o n a l s from  M i g l i o r i n o (1974) found  a negative  c o r r e l a t i o n between mental development of the s u b j e c t family s i z e .  was  In M i g l i o r i n o ' s study  i t was  and  found t h a t c h i l d r e n  from s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s tend t o have h i g h e r l e v e l s of  intelligence  w h i l e c h i l d r e n from l a r g e r f a m i l i e s tend t o d i s p l a y lower l e v e l s of i n t e l l i g e n c e .  I t i s expected  t h a t those who  have  graduated  from a u n i v e r s i t y through a medical or law program must have a high l e v e l o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . u n i v e r s i t y has  As i t i s assumed anyone a t t e n d i n g  some degree of i n t e l l i g e n c e at l e a s t above the  average or p o p u l a t i o n norm. Since c h i l d r e n tend t o surpass the l e v e l of achievement a t t a i n e d by t h e i r p a r e n t s , i t i s a l s o important  t o c o n s i d e r the  e d u c a t i o n a l , o c c u p a t i o n a l and a t h l e t i c l e v e l s reached  by  the  58  parents. Upon examination o f the p a r e n t a l background  information,  i t would appear t h a t s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study d i d not use the parent  o f the same gender as a r o l e model i n c h o i c e o f c a r e e r  or s p o r t .  F o r example, w i t h i n the female p r o f e s s i o n a l s o n l y  33% o f the mothers were employed i n p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r s as t e a c h i n g ,  law o r medicine.  such  The female a t h l e t e s a l s o d i d not  use t h e i r mothers as r o l e models as o n l y 48% o f the mothers were i n v o l v e d i n a t h l e t i c s and then mostly at the high  school  level. The achieve  p a r e n t s ' encouragement o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o  g r e a t e r h e i g h t s than they a t t a i n e d f o r themselves may  be a reason  f o r the s u b j e c t s o f t h i s study not s e l e c t i n g t h e i r  parents  as r o l e models.  J u s t as the female s u b j e c t s i n the  present  study d i d not s e l e c t the parent  o f the same gender as  a r o l e model, n e i t h e r d i d the male s u b j e c t s .  Only 40% o f the  f a t h e r s o f the male p r o f e s s i o n a l s were employed i n p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r s , and 60% o f the male a t h l e t e s ' f a t h e r s had been i n v o l v e d i n a t h l e t i c s but mostly at the h i g h s c h o o l and r e c r e a t i o n a l level. In summary, the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n obtained  from the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s q u i t e  f o r a l l s u b j e c t groups i n the present  study.  Subjects  similar as a  whole can be d e s c r i b e d as w e l l educated and s p o r t s minded individuals.  59  CHAPTER VI SUMMARY  The purpose o f t h i s study was t o determine i f there were any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between male and female s u c c e s s f u l i n d i v i d u a l s i n law, medicine and a t h l e t i c s on s i x p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s : and f i v e s o c i o - c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s .  Cattell's  16 PF Form C was administered by m a i l along with a s o c i o c u l t u r a l questionnaire  (designed by the experimenter) t o  twenty-eight male a t h l e t e s , twenty-nine female a t h l e t e s , twenty male p r o f e s s i o n a l s and twelve female p r o f e s s i o n a l s .  Summary o f the P e r s o n a l i t y Assessment  A one way: a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e  performed on the data  o b t a i n e d from the 16 PF showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s a t the  .05 l e v e l , among the four groups on the s i x p e r s o n a l i t y  traits:  self-assurance,  s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y , emotional  mental toughness, c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s Hypothesis one was t h e r e f o r e  stability,  and a s s e r t i v e n e s s .  supported.  When the f o u r groups were compared i t was found t h a t the  female a t h l e t e s were more e m o t i o n a l l y  s t a b l e and m e n t a l l y  tough when compared w i t h the o t h e r t h r e e groups. p r o f e s s i o n a l s c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d  as having h i g h e r l e v e l s o f  s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and a s s e r t i v e n e s s three  groups.  The female  when compared w i t h the o t h e r  S e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y was the o n l y t r a i t  exhibited  by the male p r o f e s s i o n a l s , w h i l e the male a t h l e t e s c o u l d be  60  d e s c r i b e d as w i t h i n the average o r normal range on a l l s i x personality t r a i t s .  The s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n i n the present  study d i d not d i f f e r from the average range on two o f the s i x p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s — F a c t o r G (conscientiousness)  and F a c t o r 0  (self-assurance).  Summary o f t h e S o c i o - c u l t u r a l Assessment  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found among the f o u r groups on the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s b i r t h order, and  culture.  family size  While s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found among  the groups on the f a c t o r o f a t h l e t i c e d u c a t i o n a l experience  (p^. 008),  (p^.00001) and  these d i f f e r e n c e s were  a n t i c i p a t e d : as c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n o f the s u b j e c t s was based on t h e i r l e v e l o f a t h l e t i c and e d u c a t i o n a l achievement. Despite  t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e the s u b j e c t group  of t h i s study c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as: a s p o r t s minded and w e l l educated group.  Only two o f the 89 s u b j e c t s i n the present  study had never been i n v o l v e d i n a t h l e t i c s .  While o n l y 17% o f  the s u b j e c t s , because o f t h e i r age, were s t i l l  enrolled i n a  h i g h s c h o o l program, the remaining 83% o f t h e s u b j e c t s a t t h e time the data was c o l l e c t e d had attended  o r were  still  attending a u n i v e r s i t y . R e s u l t s o f the C h i Squared s t a t i s t i c performed on the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l data a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t there was: an occurrence o f f i r s t born c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y among the p r o f e s s i o n a l groups.  There was a l s o a high i n c i d e n c e o f a t h l e t e s from  61  f a m i l i e s of three or more c h i l d r e n , while t h e r e was  a high  i n c i d e n c e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s from f a m i l i e s of four or  less.  LEAF 62 OMITTED IN PAGE NUMBERING.  63  Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r StudyAs a r e s u l t o f t h i s study, the i n v e s t i g a t o r recommends c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the f o l l o w i n g concerns f o r further research:  1)  That the "judges" c o n s i s t o f an equal number o f men and  women when c o m p i l i n g a l i s t o f s u c c e s s f u l male and female individuals.  2)  That each "judge" be g i v e n the c r i t e r i a  for selecting a  s u c c e s s f u l c o l l e a g u e and i f no c r i t e r i a i s g i v e n each must s t a t e the c r i t e r i a they used f o r t h e i r  3)  "judge"  selection.  The s o c i o - c u l t u r a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e designed by the  experimenter was not v a l i d a t e d .  4)  That the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the p e r s o n a l i t y and s o c i o -  c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s u c c e s s f u l males and females i n areas o t h e r than law o r medicine be undertaken t o determine i f t h e r e i s a c o n s i s t e n t p r o f i l e f o r the s u c c e s s f u l  individual.  APPENDIX A  Correspondence  L e t t e r o f I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Doctors L e t t e r o f I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Lawyers L e t t e r of I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A t h l e t e Reminder L e t t e r t o Doctors Reminder L e t t e r t o Lawyers Reminder L e t t e r t o A t h l e t e s L e t t e r of A p p r e c i a t i o n t o Subject  65  August 1980  Dear Doctor, I am c u r r e n t l y on f a c u l t y a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f L e t h b r i d g e , but am s t i l l  i n the process o f completing my  master's t h e s i s from The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia.  My t h e s i s i s a p e r s o n a l i t y study o f s u c c e s s f u l :  doctors,  lawyers and a t h l e t e s . Because your time i s v a l u a b l e , questionnaire  t o you.  I am m a i l i n g the  The two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  approximately t h i r t y minutes o f your time. convenience p l e a s e r e t u r n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s possible  require F o r your as soon as  i n the stamped r e t u r n envelope p r o v i d e d . The  r e s u l t s are s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l and a code  i s used merely f o r m a i l i n g purposes.  I f you a r e i n t e r e s t e d  i n your own p e r s o n a l p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e p l e a s e below and r e t u r n t h i s l e t t e r along with the  indicate  questionnaires  to me. Your a s s i s t a n c e greatly  i n h e l p i n g me complete my t h e s i s i s  appreciated.  Thank you very much,  L o u i s a W. Zerbe I n s t r u c t o r , The U n i v e r s i t y o f L e t h b r i d g e PLEASE SEND ME MY PERSONAL PROFILE TO:  66  August 1980  Dear Lawyer, I am c u r r e n t l y on f a c u l t y a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f L e t h b r i d g e , but am s t i l l  i n the process o f completing my  master's t h e s i s from The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h My t h e s i s i s a p e r s o n a l i t y  Columbia.  study o f s u c c e s s f u l :  doctors,  lawyers and a t h l e t e s . Because your time i s v a l u a b l e , questionnaire  to.you.  I am m a i l i n g the  The two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  approximately t h i r t y minutes o f your time. convenience p l e a s e r e t u r n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s possible  require F o r your as soon as  i n the stamped r e t u r n envelope p r o v i d e d . The  r e s u l t s a r e s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l and a code i s  used merely f o r m a i l i n g  purposes.  I f you are i n t e r e s t e d  i n your own p e r s o n a l p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e p l e a s e below and r e t u r n t h i s l e t t e r along w i t h the  indicate  questionnaires  to me. Your a s s i s t a n c e greatly  i n h e l p i n g me complete my t h e s i s i s  appreciated.  Thank you v e r y much,  L o u i s a W. Zerbe I n s t r u c t o r , The U n i v e r s i t y o f L e t h b r i d g e PLEASE SEND ME MY PERSONAL PROFILE TO:  67  August 1980  Dear A t h l e t e , I am c u r r e n t l y on f a c u l t y a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f L e t h b r i d g e , but am s t i l l  i n t h e process o f completing my  master's t h e s i s from The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. My t h e s i s i s a p e r s o n a l i t y  study o f s u c c e s s f u l :  doctors,  lawyers and a t h l e t e s . Because your time i s v a l u a b l e , questionnaire  t o you.  I am m a i l i n g the  The two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  approximately t h i r t y minutes o f your time. convenience p l e a s e r e t u r n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s possible  require F o r your as soon as  i n the stamped r e t u r n envelope p r o v i d e d . The  r e s u l t s a r e s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l and a code i s  used merely f o r m a i l i n g purposes.  I f you are i n t e r e s t e d  i n your own p e r s o n a l p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e p l e a s e below and r e t u r n t h i s l e t t e r along w i t h the  indicate  questionnaires  to me. Your a s s i s t a n c e greatly  i n h e l p i n g me complete my t h e s i s i s  appreciated.  Thank you v e r y much,  L o u i s a W. Z.erbe I n s t r u c t o r , The U n i v e r s i t y o f L e t h b r i d g e PLEASE SEND ME MY PERSONAL PROFILE TO:  68  September 198 0  Dear Doctor, During the summer, you r e c e i v e d a package c o n t a i n i n g two  (2) q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  ( C a t t e l l ' s 16 PF Form C and a  Socio-cultural Questionnaire).  Success o f my master's  t h e s i s i s dependent upon the completion o f these questionnaires. Along with t h i s l e t t e r I have i n c l u d e d a second t e s t package, a t your e a r l i e s t convenience c o u l d you p l e a s e r e t u r n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s time i s p r e c i o u s  t o me.  and I a p p r e c i a t e  I r e a l i z e t h a t your your a s s i s t a n c e i n  h e l p i n g me.  Thank you very much, L o u i s a W. Zerbe, I n s t r u c t o r The U n i v e r s i t y o f L e t h b r i d g e  69  September 1980  Dear Lawyer, During the summer, you r e c e i v e d a package c o n t a i n i n g two  (2) q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  ( C a t t e l l s 16 PF Form C and a 1  Socio-cultural Questionnaire).  Success o f my master's  t h e s i s i s dependent upon the completion o f these questionnaires. Along with t h i s l e t t e r I have i n c l u d e d a second t e s t package,.at your e a r l i e s t convenience c o u l d you p l e a s e r e t u r n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s time i s p r e c i o u s  t o me.  and I a p p r e c i a t e  I r e a l i z e t h a t your your a s s i s t a n c e i n  h e l p i n g me.  Thank you very much, L o u i s a W. Zerbe, I n s t r u c t o r The U n i v e r s i t y o f L e t h b r i d g e  70  September 1980  Dear A t h l e t e , During the summer, you r e c e i v e d a package c o n t a i n i n g two  (2) q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  ( C a t t e l l ' s 16 PF Form C and a  Socio-cultural Questionnaire).  Success o f my master's  t h e s i s i s dependent upon the completion o f these questionnaires. Along with t h i s l e t t e r I have i n c l u d e d a second t e s t package, a t your e a r l i e s t convenience c o u l d you p l e a s e r e t u r n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i s precious  t o me.  I r e a l i z e t h a t your time  and I a p p r e c i a t e your a s s i s t a n c e i n h e l p i n g me.  Thank you v e r y much,  L o u i s a W. Zerbe, I n s t r u c t o r The U n i v e r s i t y o f L e t h b r i d g e  71  Fall  1980  Dear S u b j e c t , Here are your r e s u l t s o f the 16 PF  (Cattell's  S i x t e e n P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) t h a t you completed d u r i n g the summer.  For your convenience, the r e s u l t s have  been put on a " p e r s o n a l i t y p r o f i l e graph". I a p p r e c i a t e your a s s i s t a n c e i n h e l p i n g me  complete  my t h e s i s and I would l i k e t o r e - a s s u r e you t h a t your t e s t r e s u l t s w i l l remain c o n f i d e n t i a l . Again, thank you f o r your speedy response.  Sincerely, L o u i s a W. Zerbe I n s t r u c t o r , The U n i v e r s i t y o f L e t h b r i d g e  APPENDIX B  P e r s o n a l i t y and  Socio-Cultural  Information  1.  Cattell's  16 PF Form C  2.  Socio-Cultural Questionnaire  3.  S o c i o - C u l t u r a l T a l l y Sheet  4.  16 PF P e r s o n a l i t y  Profile  "13. DO NOT COPY PAGES -73-87  Form C 1969 EDITION R  WHAT TO DO: Inside this booklet are some questions to see what interests you have and how you feel about things. On most items there are no "right" or "wrong" answers because people have the right to their own views. All you have to do is answer what is true for you. If a separate answer sheet has not been given to you, turn this booklet over and tear off the answer sheet on the back page. Write your name and other information asked for on the answer sheet. First, read the four EXAMPLES below and mark your answers on (Ae answer sheet where it says EXAMPLES. Fill in the box completely: EXAMPLES: 1. I like to watch team games, a. yes, b. occasionally, c. no.  3. Money cannot bring happiness. a. yes (true), b. in between, c. no (false).  2. I prefer people who: a. are reserved, b. (are) in between, c. make friends quickly.  4. Adult is to child as cat is to: a. kitten, b. dog, c. baby.  In the last example there is a right answer—kitten. But there are very few such reasoning items. Ask now if something isn't clear. When the examiner tells you, start with number 1 and answer the questions. Keep these four things in mind: 1. Give only answers that are true for you. It is best to say what you really think. 2. Don't spend too much time thinking over each question. Give the Hrst, natural answer as it comes to you. Of course, the questions are too short to give you all the information you might like, but give the best answer you can under the circumstances. 3. Answer every question one way or the other. Don't skip any. 4. You should mark the a or c answer most of the time. Mark the middle b answer only when you feel you have to, because neither a nor c seems to be right for you.  S-^r^  without p r » r ptrmiMion in . n u n , from the publish.,-.  '  *"»  Photocopying, mechanic.!. , | t „ „ w  „,.. . L S A Not wb  i {  . rwordinj. or oth«rwi«, C t t i l o j No. SC 051  1. I think my memory is better than it ever was. a. yes  b. in between,  12. When friends play a joke on me, I usually enjoy it as much as the others, without feeling at ail upset.  c. no.  2. I could happily live alone, far from anyone, like a hermit. a. yes,  a. true,  c. no.  b. occasionally,  b. a saint,  a. true,  c. a cloud.  14.  4. When going to bed, I: a. drop off to sleep quickly, b. in between, c. have difficulty falling asleep.  a. yes, 16.  c. no.  17.  7. It's important to me not to live in messy surroundings.  8.  b. uncertain,  b. sometimes,  c. false.  a. yes,  c. no.  b. sometimes,  c. false.  b. in between,  c. false,  c. no.  b. in between,  a. my good friends, b. uncertain, c. a diary. 20.  c. no.  I think the "inexact" is: a. casual,  11. In reading about an accident I like to find out exactly how it happened. a. always,  b. in between,  19. I would rather tell my innermost thoughts to:  I smile to myself at the big difference between what people do and what they say they do. b. occasionally,  c. no.  18. I have sometimes, even if briefly, had hateful feelings towards my parents.  a. fencing and dancing, b. in between, c. wrestling and baseball.  a. yes,  b. occasionally,  (r.nd, column 1 on answer Mheet.)  9. I would rather exercise by:  10.  c. false.  I get impatient easily with people who don't decide quickly. a. true,  Most people I meet at a party are undoubtedly glad to see me. a. yes,  b. uncertain,  I consider myself less "high strung" than most people. a. true,  6. At a party I let others keep the jokes and stories going.  a. true,  c. false.  15. When I plan something, I like to do so quite alone without any outside help.  a. to remain behind most of the other cars, b. in between, c. only after I've reached the front of the line.  b. sometimes,  b. uncertain,  I like to "dream up" new ways of doing things rather than to be a practical follower of welltried ways. a. true,  5. When driving a car in a line of traffic, I feel satisfied:  a. yes,  c. false.  13. When someone speaks angrily to me, I can forget the matter quickly.  3. If I say the sky is "down" and winter is "hot," I would call a criminal: a. a gangster,  b. in between,  21.  c. seldom.  b. accurate,  of  the  opposite  of  c. rough.  I always have lots of energy at timoit when 1 need it. a. yes,  2  opposite  b. in between,  c. no.  22. I am more annoyed by a person who:  32. I like to join with people who show lively group enthusiasm.  a. tells off-color jokes and embarrasses people, b. uncertain, c. is late for an appointment and inconveniences me.  a. yes,  b. uncertain,  a. insurance, b. in between, c. good fortune.  c. false.  34. I can forget my worries and responsibilities whenever I need to.  24. I feel that:  a. yes,  a. some jobs just don't have to be done so carefully as others, b. in between, c. any job should be done thoroughly if you do it at all.  b. in between,  a. yes,  c. a colonel.  37. Which word does not belong with the other two? a. cat,  a. are efficient and practical in their interests, b. in between, c. seriously think out their feelings about life.  39. I am quite happy to be waited on, at appropriate times, by personal servants. a. often,  9. It bothers me if I hear others expressing ideas that are contrary to those that I firmly believe.  b. sometimes,  c. never.  40. I would rather live in a town:  c. false.  a. artistically laid out, but relatively poor, b. uncertain, c. that is rough, prosperous, and booming.  0. I'm over-conscientious and worry over my past acts or mistakes. b. in between,  c. sun.  a. to irritate me, b. in between, c. not to bother me at all.  8. I like friends who:  a. yes,  b. near,  38. Minor distractions seem:  b. occasionally, c. no.  a. true, b. in between,  c. no.  a. machinery or keeping records, b. in between, c. talking to and hiring new people.  11. If people cheat me in small things, I'd rather humor them than show them up. a. yes,  b. sometimes,  36. In a factory it would be more interesting to be in charge of:  c. no.  b. uncertain,  c. no.  35. It's hard for me to admit it when I'm wrong,  It would be more interesting to be: a. a bishop,  b. sometimes,  ( E n d , c o l u m n 2 o n answer sheet.)  25. I have always had to fight against being too shy. a. yes,  c. no.  33. I put my faith more in:  23. I greatly enjoy inviting guests and amusing them. a. true,  b. in between,  41. People should insist more than they now do that moral laws be followed. a. yes, b. sometimes, c. no.  c. no.  1. If I were good at both, I'd rather: a. play chess, b. in between, c. go bowling.  42. I have been told that, as a child, I was rather: a. quiet and kept to myself, b. in between, c. lively and always active. 3  1L  43. I enjoy routine, constructive work, using a good piece of machinery or apparatus. a. yes,  b. in between,  53. I would rather be: a. in a business office, organizing and seeing people, b. in between, c. an architect, drawing plans in a quiet room.  c. no.  44. I think most witnesses tell the truth even if it becomes embarrassing. a. yes,  b. in between,  54. "House" is to "room" as "tree" is to:  c. no.  a. forest, 45. When I meet new people, I'd rather:  a. rarely,  c. no.  b. uncertain,  57. Some people may think I talk too much, a. likely,  c. false.  tempta-  59. I make decisions:  49. I would rather spend two weeks in the summer:  a. faster than many people, b. uncertain, c. slower than most people.  a. bird-watching and walking in the country with a friend or two, b. uncertain, c. being a leader of a group in a camp. /  60. I am more impressed by: a. acts of skill and grace, b. in between, c. acts of strength and power.  50. The effort taken in planning ahead: a. is never wasted, b. in between, c. is not worth it.  61. I am considered a cooperative person, a. yes,  51. Inconsiderate acts or remarks by my neighbors do not make me touchy and unhappy. c. false.  c. no.  a. yes,  b. in between,  c. no.  63. I prefer to:  52. When I know I'm doing the right thing, I find my task easy. b. sometimes,  b. in between,  62. I enjoy talking more with polished, sophisticated people than with outspoken, down-toearth individuals.  (End. column 3 on answer sheet.)  a. always,  c. unlikely.  a. clever, but undependable, b. in between, c. average, but strong to resist tions.  a. military band marches, b. uncertain, c. violin solos.  b. uncertain,  b. uncertain,  58. I admire more people who are:  48. In music I enjoy:  a. true,  c. frequently.  a. taking a gamble, b. in between, c. playing it safe.  47. I never feel so wretched that I want to cry. a. true,  b. occasionally,  56. In most things in life, I believe in:  46. I try to make my laughter at jokes quieter than most people's. b. in between,  c. leaf.  55. Things go wrong for me:  a. discuss politics and social views, b. in between, c. have them tell me some good, new jokes.  a. yes,  b. plant,  c. seldom.  4  .  a. keep my problems to myself, b. in between, e. talk about them to my friends.  64. If a person doesn't answer when I make a suggestion, I feel I've said something silly. a. true, b. in between, c. false.  75. At a party, I like: a. to get into worthwhile conversation, b. in between, c. to see people relax and completely let go.  65. I learned more in my school days by: a. going to class, b. in between, c. reading books.  76. I speak my mind no matter how many people are around. a. yes,  66. I avoid getting involved in social responsibilities and organizations. a. true, b. sometimes, c. false.  a. Columbus, b. uncertain, c. Shakespeare. 78. I have to stop myself from getting too involved in trying to straighten out other people's problems.  68. I get strong emotional moods—anxiety, anger, laughter, etc.—that seem to arise without much actual cause. a. yes, b. occasionally, c. no.  a. yes,  80. If people think poorly of me, I can still go on calmly in my own mind. a. yes,  70. I am happy to oblige people by making appointments at times they prefer, even if it is a bit inconvenient to me. a. yes, b. sometimes, c. no.  c. 7.  82. More trouble arises from people: a. changing and meddling with ways that are already satisfactory, b. uncertain, c. turning down new, promising methods.  c. no.  73. I would rather do without something than put a waiter or waitress to a lot of extra trouble. b. occasionally,  83. I greatly enjoy talking to people about local problems.  c. no.  a. yes,  74. I live for the "here and now" more than most people do. a. true,  b. uncertain,  c. no.  a. just think they're in a bad mood, b. uncertain, c. worry about what 1 may have done wrong.  72. I have occasionally had a brief touch of faintness, dizziness, or light-headedness for no apparent reason.  a. yes,  b. in between,  81. If people seem cold and reserved to me, I usually:  71. I think the proper number to continue the series 1, 2, 3, 6, 5, is:  b. uncertain,  c. no.  a. design and do window displays, b. uncertain, c. be a cashier.  69. My mind doesn't work so clearly at some times as it does at others. a. true, b. in between, c. false.  a. yes,  b. sometimes,  79. In a store or market, I would prefer to:  (End, column 4 on answer sheet.)  b. 5,  c. no.  77. If I could go back in time, I'd rather meet:  67. When a problem gets hard and there is a lot to do, I try: a. a different problem, b. in between, c. a different attack on the same problem.  a. 10,  b. sometimes,  b. sometimes,  c. no.  84. Prim, strict people don't seem to get along well with me.  c. false.  a. true, 5  b. sometimes,  c. false.  IS.  85. I guess I'm less irritable than most people, a. true,  b. uncertain,  96. I think that even the most dramatic experiences during the year leave my personality much the same as it was.  c. false.  (End, column 5 on answer sheet.)  a. yes,  86. I may be less considerate of other people than they are of me. a. true,  b. sometimes,  b. uncertain,  a. naturalist and work with plants, b. uncertain, c. public accountant or insurance salesperson. 98. I get unreasonable fears or distastes for some things, for example, particular animals, places, and so on.  c. false.  88. If the two hands on a watch come together exactly every 65 minutes (according to an accurate watch), the watch is running: a. slow,  b. on time,  a. yes,  a. yes,  b. occasionally,  c. seldom.  b. occasionally,  b. occasionally,  c. false.  a. yes,  c. no.  a. yes,  b. sometimes,  c. no.  103. I may deceive people by being friendly when I really dislike them.  c. no.  a. yes,  94. I think that what people say in poetry could be put just as exactly in plain prose. b. sometimes,  c. no.  (End, column 6 on answer sheet.)  93. I am shy, and careful, about making friendships with new people.  a. yes,  b. occasionally,  102. If left in a lonely house I tend, after a time, to feel a bit anxious or fearful.  a. use it chatting and relaxing, b. in between, c. arrange to fill it with special jobs.  b. occasionally,  c. no.  101. At night I have rather fantastic or ridiculous dreams.  92. At home, with a bit of spare time, I:  a. yes,  b. in between,  a. you're on a team or have a partner, b. uncertain, c. people are on their own.  91. I find it wise to avoid too much excitement because it tends to wear me out. a. yes,  c. no.  100. I prefer games where:  90. People say that I like to have things done my own way. a. true,  b. sometimes,  99. I like to think out ways in which our world could be changed to improve it.  c. fast.  89. I am bored: a. often,  c. no.  97. It would seem more interesting to be a:  c. false.  87. I would just as soon let someone else have all the worry of being in charge of an organization of which I am a member. a. true,  b. sometimes,  b. sometimes,  c. no.  104. Which word does not belong with the other two?  c. no.  a. think,  95. I suspect that people who act friendly to me can be disloyal behind my back.  b. see,  c. hear.  105. If Mary's mother is Fred's father's sister, what relation is Fred to Mary's father?  a. yes, generally, b. occasionally, c. no, rarely.  a. cousin, 6  b. nephew, (End of test.)  c. uncle.  EXAMPLES:  '.-'-J.  I like to watch team gsmes. . a. yen, b. occasionally, c.  V'  b  •  ,. & X prefer people who: . ... a. are reserved, '^"Q , b. (are) In between, c. make frlenda quickly.  c  •  • to*) o c c u r t n o i i  1  •  CM * a m u s u c  • •  not write here  ( • • m i a CMS r  ^ 8,. Money cannot bring happiness. a. yea (true), b. In between, . e. no(falM), •j?4.  1  b  • •  • c  • • .• • • •c b  3  a  4  b  • •  • c  • •• a 7  • a  •• a  10  b • b • b • b b  18  20  21 r j 22 f ]  •  23 r j  •  24 r j  c c  • • e c  • • • •• • • • a b c • • • a  18  • b  Q  c  "•A .„ • •> •c 13  Q  19 r j  25 r j 26 r j 27 r j  e  12  •  c  • • •  a  29 3 0  SI  c  • c  •  D  a • n  a  32  e  •  •  33  34  b • b • b • b • b  • b • b • b • b • b  35 •  • c  36 (f|  •  37 r j  c  • c  •  38 r j 38 r j  c  • c  40 r j  • e  • e  b  •  • •  e  •  •  •  •  b  • b • b • b • b  e  •  AdulttetocUldascattstoi •.Mttan, b . i o f , (.baby. ..  a  2  b  42  44  c  c  •  49  •  47  c  •  48  Q  •  49 r j  c  • • •c a b • • •  60 • 51 rj  C  c • c • c • c • c  • • b • b • b • b  63 54  59 •  60 r j  • •  • b • b  c  •  •  65 •  c  •  a •  8 8  c  •IL'Ti™' ' " V r " " ' ° ' V " " ' °" l°,Z'l?o\ D,W. C h a m j l l ^ nl' . °.7:'» '£«"'-"'io .. A l l ol  C  h  U r l v e , ( . h a m pco l f l n , I l l i n o i s , U . S . A .  •  L  P  , Q l i , > ?  d  P r i n u d in U . S . A .  A  87  •  88 •  c  •  M  T  c  c  •  104 (f) 105 •  b • b • b  •  • c  90 r j  A  •  a  •  c  c  c  c  E F a M I L  98 95  M  97  N O  98  c  •  82 r j  •  b  a  •  • • a b •a •b a b c • • • • . . '. • * • •  c  •  83 r j  •  c  •  n  •  103 •  80  •  8  b  • c  94  •  i  b • b • b • b  •  89  c  99  c  • ••  100  ,0  b  102  only lor 1969 edition of the se tests.)  i  Q Q  •  ' ' ' " » ' - l " ' - " ' i o n o l copyrijh. p r o p . , , , , i h . , , . , . „ . d by T h . I n . t i ' u . . (o b  86  77  •  ((/««  •  • c  93  c  •  b • b • b • b • b  • • c b b • 74 rj 91 • • • • •• c 75 r j b « • b a b 76 Q • • • •• a b c c • • • • a b b • ? • • c • 78 Q • a b • c • • • • 79 • • • c a b •c a b c b • • •• • • c a b c • •b • • • •• 81 r j b c  • c  b • b •  •  73 r j  b • b • b • b • b  9  72 (f]  • •  Q •  67  •  •  • c  Q  66  71  • b • b  62  44  •  c  • • •  Q •  Q  70 r j  b • b  61  63 r j  • c • c  69  •  Q • b  68  c  • c  c Q Q • •c  67 •  •  • b • b • b  9  66  c • c • c • c  •b  • b • b • b • b  D  55  •  b  •  5 2  •  Q •  45 r j  • c  Q  43 r j  b • b • b • b • b  •  ,  9  6  c  • c • c • c •  Qi Qi Q«_  io i l  c o o n l r i a i under the B e r n e U n i o n , B u e n o i A i r e i , P e r s o n a l i t y a n d A b i l i t y T e s t i n g , 1602-04 C o r o n o d o  16 P F - C D o « - 9 A A  SOCIO-CULTURAL QUESTIONNAIRE  DATE: SEX:  1980 MALE  FEMALE  PROFESSION: Lawyer Doctor Athlete  AGE: PLEASE INDICATE YOUR ANSWER WITH A CHECK MARK ( y/) . IF THE QUESTIONS DO NOT APPLY TO YOU PLEASE INDICATE WITH N.A.  1.  In what country were you born: CANADA OTHER  UNITED STATES_  EUROPE  ( s p e c i f y country)  (specify)  2.  How many b r o t h e r s and/or s i s t e r s do you have:  3.  BROTHERS SISTERS I n d i c a t e the b i r t h o r d e r o f YOURSELF, your BROTHERS and your SISTERS: first  born:  second born: third  born:  f o u r t h born; fifth others  4.  born: (specify):  What type o f s c h o o l d i d you a t t e n d : A.  P u b l i c School NAME: GRADES ATTENDED:  B.  P r i v a t e School NAME: GRADES ATTENDED:  81  A.  Have you o r a r e you a t t e n d i n g U n i v e r s i t y :  B.  I f yes, where was o r i s t h i s U n i v e r s i t y l o c a t e d : CANADA  YES  NO  ( s p e c i f y province)  UNITED STATES  ( s p e c i f y state)  '  OTHER ( s p e c i f y country) C.  Where d i d you take your p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g o r your a t h l e t i c t r a i n i n g : CANADA  ( s p e c i f y province)  UNITED STATES  (specify state)  OTHER ( s p e c i f y country)  '  Who i n t e r e s t e d you i n i t i a l l y i n your p r o f e s s i o n o r your sports: MOTHER_  FATHER  GRANDFATHER  BROTHER  SISTER_  GRANDMOTHER  _OTHER ( s p e c i f y )  A.  D i d you p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s p o r t s program w i t h i n your elementary s c h o o l : YES NO  B.  I f yes, i d e n t i f y these a c t i v i t i e s :  C.  D i d you p a r t i c i p a t e i n an o r g a n i z e d s p o r t s c l u b o r program o u t s i d e the s c h o o l program ( i . e . minor league b a s e b a l l , p r i v a t e c l u b s , e t c . ) YES_ N0_  D.  I f yes, i d e n t i f y these a c t i v i t i e s :  A.  D i d you p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s p o r t s program w i t h i n your high s c h o o l : YES NO  B.  I f yes, i d e n t i f y these a c t i v i t i e s :  C.  D i d you p a r t i c i p a t e i n an o r g a n i z e d s p o r t s c l u b o r program o u t s i d e o f the high s c h o o l program ( i . e . minor league hockey, p r i v a t e t e n n i s , e t c . ) YES_ NO  D.  I f y e s , i d e n t i f y these a c t i v i t i e s :  A.  D i d you p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s p o r t s program a t your U n i v e r s i t y : YES_ N0_  B.  I f yes, i d e n t i f y these a c t i v i t i e s :  82  10.  C.  D i d you p a r t i c i p a t e i n an organized s p o r t s c l u b o r program o u t s i d e o f the u n i v e r s i t y program ( i . e . p r i v a t e t e n n i s c l u b , v o l l e y b a l l , e t c . ) YES NO  D.  I f yes, i d e n t i f y these  What i s the h i g h e s t l e v e l o f s p o r t competition have p a r t i c i p a t e d a t : INTERNATIONAL UNI VERS ITY__  NATIONAL__ HIGH SCHOOL_  RECREATIONAL_ 11.  activities: t h a t you  PROVINCIAL (STATE) ELEMENTARY  CLUB  OTHER ( s p e c i f y )  '  Are you s t i l l a c t i v e i n any a t h l e t i c o r sport a c t i v i t y : ( i . e . c u r l i n g , t e n n i s , swimming, jogging, v o l l e y b a l l , e t c . ) YES NO I f yes, i d e n t i f y these a c t i v i t i e s :  13.  A.  Do you work past your r e g u l a r business hours o r p r a c t i s e your s p o r t past r e g u l a r p r a c t i c e hours: YES NO  B.  Number o f hours per week you work past your r e g u l a r business hours or p r a c t i c e hours: 1-4  14.  15.  4-7  10-13  13-16  16-20  more than 20  A.  Do you f e e l t h a t you are i n competition w i t h o t h e r s i n your p r o f e s s i o n o r w i t h o t h e r s i n your s p o r t : YES NO_  B.  I f yes, i n what way do you f e e l t h a t you are i n compet i t i o n w i t h others i n your p r o f e s s i o n o r your s p o r t ( i . e . s t a t u s , p l a y i n g p o s i t i o n , p l a y i n g time)  How would you d e s c r i b e your o v e r a l l h e a l t h : EXCELLENT_  16.  7-10  GOOD  AVERAGE_  BELOW AVERAGE  POOR  In what country was your mother born: CANADA  UNITED STATES_  EUROPE ( s p e c i f y country)  OTHER ( s p e c i f y country) 17.  In what country was your f a t h e r born: CANADA UNITED STATES_ EUROPE ( s p e c i f y country) OTHER ( s p e c i f y country)  83  18.  D i d e i t h e r o f your parents a t t e n d u n i v e r s i t y : MOTHER:  19.  OTHER  FATHER:  Yes_  No  SALES PERSON  What was/is your f a t h e r ' s  OTHER  ENGINEER  LAWYER  DOCTOR  HOUSEWIFE  (specify)  TEACHER  21.  No_  What was/is your mother's o c c u p a t i o n : TEACHER  20.  Yes  SALES PERSON  occupation: ENGINEER  LAWYER  DOCTOR_  ACCOUNTANT  (specify)  A.  D i d your mother ever p a r t i c i p a t e i n an a t h l e t i c o r sport a c t i v i t y : YES_NO_  B.  I f yes, i d e n t i f y these a c t i v i t i e s ;  C.  A t what l e v e l s d i d your mother p a r t i c i p a t e : INTERNATIONAL^ HIGH SCHOOL  NATIONAL_ ELEMENTARY  PROVINCIAL_ CLUB  UNIVERSITY  RECREATIONAL  OTHER(specify) 22.  A.  D i d your f a t h e r ever p a r t i c i p a t e i n an a t h l e t i c o r sport a c t i v i t y : YES NO  B.  I f yes, i d e n t i f y these a c t i v i t i e s :  C.  At what l e v e l s d i d your f a t h e r INTERNATIONAL_ HIGH SCHOOL OTHER  23.  NATIONAL_ ELEMENTARY  participate:  PROVINCIAL CLUB  UNIVERSITY  RECREATIONAL  (specify)  A.  Do e i t h e r o f your parents s t i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n an a t h l e t i c o r sport a c t i v i t y : MOTHER: Yes_ No FATHER: Yes_ No  B.  I f yes, i d e n t i f y these a c t i v i t i e s : MOTHER: : FATHER:  84  TALLY SHEET SUBJECT:  ATHLETE  F  M  /  SUBJECT NUMBER:  FACTOR:  F  M  /  DOCTOR  SPORT:  C  CULTURE:  LAWYER  E  G  F  M  AGE:  I  0  Q„ ~2-  (QUESTIONS 1,16,17)  SUBJECT:  CANADIAN/AMERICAN/OTHER_  MOTHER  CANADIAN/AMERICAN/OTHER_  FATHER  CANADIAN/AMERICAN/OTHER  FAMILY SIZE  (QUESTION 2) (NUMBER OF CHILDREN) 1 2  3 4 5 6  7 8 9 10 BIRTH ORDER:  (QUESTION 3) 5th  EDUCATION:  6th  1 s t born_ 7th  8th  2nd 9th  3rd  4th_  10th  (QUESTIONS 4,5,6,18) JUNIOR: PUBLIC_ SENIOR: PUBLIC UNIVERSITY:  PRIVATE PRIVATE  ATTENDING: Yes  ATTENDED: Yes PROFESSIONAL OR ATHLETIC TRAINING: PROV._ COUNTRY INITIAL INTEREST ATHLETIC EXPERIENCE:  (QUESTION 7,8,9,10,11)  ELEMENTARY SCHOOL:  YES  NO  ACTIVITIES OUTSIDE CLUB:  YES_  NO_  ACTIVITIES: HIGH SCHOOL:  YES_  NO_  ACTIVITIES: OUTSIDE CLUB: ACTIVITIES:  YES__  NO_  No No_  85  UNIVERSITY:  YES  N0_  ACTIVITIES : OUTSIDE CLUB:  YES_  NO_  ACTIVITIES: HIGHEST LEVEL OF COMPETITION: PROVINCIAL_ CLUB_  UNIVERSITY  INTERNATIONAL  HIGH SCHOOL  NATIONAL  ELEMENTARY  OTHER  STILL ACTIVE:  YES_  ACTIVITIES : '  NO_ ' •  PARENT'S ATHLETIC EXPERIENCE: MOTHER:  YES_  (QUESTIONS 21, 22, 23)  NO_  ACTIVITIES: LEVEL: INTERNATIONAL_ UNIVERSITY_  HIGH SCHOOL_  REC REATIONAL_ FATHER:  NATIONAL_  YES_  ACTIVITIES :  ELEMENTARY_  NO_  LEVEL: INTERNAT IONAL_ RECREATIONAL_  CLUB_  OTHER  •  UNIVERSITY_  PROVINCIAL_  : NATIONAL_  HIGH SCHOOL_  PROVINCIAL  ELEMENTARY_  CLUB_  OTHER  DO THEY STILL PARTICIPATE OR COMPETE:  FATHER  YES_  NO  ACTIVITIES MOTHER  YES  NO  ACTIVITIES_ INDIVIDUAL DATA  (QUESTIONS 12, 13, 14, 15)  OVERALL HEALTH : EXCELLENT_  GOOD_  AVERAGE_  COMPETITION: SUBJECT FEELS IN COMPETITION: H O W :  BELOW YES_  POOR NO  :  WORK OR PRACTISE PAST REGULAR HOURS: NO. OF HOURS: 1-4  YES_  4-7  7-10  10-13  HOLD ADMINISTRATIVE POSITION:  YES_  NO_  IF YES, IDENTIFY  NO_ 13-16  16-20  20  PARENT'S DATA:  OCCUPATION (QUESTIONS 19, 20)  MOTHER'S: HOUSEWIFE_ DOCTOR_ FATHER'S: LAWYER  SALES PERSON_  TEACHER_ DOCTOR  SALES PERSON_  ENGINEER_  LAWYER  OTHER MECHANIC  ENGINEER_  TEACHER_ ACCOUNTANT;  OTHER  DID YOUR PARENTS ATTEND UNIVERSITY MOTHER:  YES  NO  FATHER:  YES  NO  16 Hr TtiT PROFILE Raw  Scar*  Fon F B  I A / C / E I  1  AFFECTED  (STEN)  1  »  1  •  8  4  t  •  10  4-4-4  i  BY FEELINGS,  H U M B L E , MILD, EASILY L E D . DOCILE. ACCOMMODATING (Submissivertess)  F  S O B E R . TACI1URN, SERIOUS (Desurgency)  G  E X P E D I E N T . DISREGARDS RULES (Weaker superego strength)  EMOTIONALLY  T R U S T I N G , ACCEPTING C O N D I T I O N S  M  P R A C T I C A L . "DOWN-TO-EARTH" CONCERNS (Pro-em.a)  N  F O R T H R I G H T , UNPRETENTIOUS, GENUINE BUT S O C I A L L Y CLUMSY (Aniessness)  0  S E L F - A S S U R E D , PLACID, SECURE. C O M P L A C E N T , SERENt (Untroubled adequacy)  S T A B L E . MATURE,  A S S E R T I V E , AGGRESSIVE, STUBBORN, COMPETITIVE (Dominance) H A P P Y - G O - L U C K Y , ENTHUSIASTIC (S_tgency) C O N S C I E N T I O U S . PERSISTENT, MORALISTIC, STAID [Stronger superego strength) V E N T U R E S O M E , UNINHIBITED. SOCIALLY BOLD  THREAT-SENSITIVE (Threctiu)  L  ABSTRACT  F A C E S REALITY, C A L M (Higher ego strength)  T E N D E R - M I N D E D , SENSITIVE, CLINGING, O V E R P R O T E C T E D (Prems.al  T O U G H - M I N D E D , SELF-RELIANT, REALISTIC (Homo)  I  O U T G O I N G . WARMHEARTED. EASYGOING. PARTICIPATING [Atte.' tothymia) IHINKING. BRIGHT (Higher scholastic mental capacity)  EMOTIONAL-  E  S H Y . TIMID,  HIGH SCORE DESCRIPTION  MORE INTELLIGENT.  CONCRETE-  LY LESS S T A B L E , EASILY UPSET CHANGEABLE(Lower ego strength)  H  S U S P I C I O U S , HARD TO FOOL (Pretension)  (Alaxia)  I M A G I N A T I V E , BOHEMIAN, ABSENT-MINDED (Aulia) A S T U T E . POLISHED, SOCIALLY AWARE (Shrewdness) A P P R E H E N S I V E , SELF-REPROACHING. INSECURE, WORRYING, T R O U B L E D (Guilt proneness)  Qi  C O N S E R V A T I V E , RESPECTING TRADI TIONAL IDEAS (Conservatism of temperament)  E X P E R I M E N T I N G , LIBERAL, FREETHINKING (Radicalism)  Q.  G R O U P - D E P E N D E N T . A " J O I N E R " AND SOUND FOLLOWER (Group adherence)  S E L F - S U F F I C I E N T , RESOURCEFUL, P R E F E R S OWN DECISIONS (Self-sufficiency)  UNDISCIPLINED  C O N T R O L L E D , EXACTING WILL POWER, SOCIALLY PRECISE, COMPULSIVE (High strength of self-sentiment)  0.  £5  SCORE  THINKING (Lower scholostlc rrtentol capacity)  C  o  TEN  ^h»Averag  B / D  LESS INTELLIGENT.  B  3  STANDARD LOW SCORE DESCRIPTION  R E S E R V E D , O E T A C H E D , CRITICAL. ALOOF. STIFF (Sliothym.o)  A  F Q  Total  Stan* dard Scora  Q.  SELFCONPLICT,  LAX,  FOLLOWS O W N URGES, C A R E L E S S O F SOCIAL RULES (Lo.v integration)  T E N S E , F R U S T R A T E D , DRIVEN, OVERWROUGHT (High ergic tension)  R E L A X E D . TRANQUIL. UNFRUSTRA1 ED, COMPOSf.D (Low ergic tension)  Copyright © 1956, 1973 by the Institute tor Personality and Ability Testing, Inc., 1602 Coronado Drive. Champaign. Illinois. U.S.A. 61820. All rights reserved. Primed In U.S.A.  A «•»  of  by a b o r t  1 1 J %  1 4.4%  1  4  t . 1 % 15 0 %  S  i  11.1% I t 1%  7 15 0 %  I 9.1%  f 4.4%  10  1J%  U af  obta'aoa* adalri  APPENDIX C  N o n - S i g n i f i c a n t Anova Tables and C h i Square Tables  1.  Anova Table f o r Emotional  Stability  2.  Anova Table f o r A s s e r t i v e n e s s  3.  Anova Table f o r C o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s  4.  Anova Table f o r Tough Mindedness  5.  Anova Table f o r Assurance  6.  Anova T a b l e f o r S e l f - S u f f i c i e n c e  7.  Chi-Square  Table f o r B i r t h  8.  Chi-Square  Table f o r Family  9.  Chi-Square  Table f o r C u l t u r e  Order Size  89  TABLE A ANOVA TABLE FOR 16 PF V a r i a b l e C  Variable:  C  EMOTIONAL STABILITY Analysis of Variance Source  F-ratio  D.f.  Sum o f Squares  Mean Squares  395.3715  131.7905  85  5811.2812  68.368.0  88  6206.6526  F-prob,  Between Groups 1.928  0.1312  W i t h i n Groups Total  TABLE B ANOVA TABLE FOR  Variable:  E  16 PF VARIABLE E  ASSERTIVENESS Analysis of Variance Source F-prob.  D.f.  Sum o f S q u a r e s  Mean S q u a r e s  3  38.4196  12.8065  W i t h i n Groups  85  485.9849  5.7175  Total  88  524.4045  F-ratio  Between Groups 2.240  0.0895  91  TABLE C ANOVA TABLE FOR 16 PF VARIABLE G  Variable:  G  CONSCIENTIOUSNESS A n a l y s i s of Variance  F-ratio  Source F-Prob.  D.f.  Between Groups 0.684 Within Total  Sum o f Squares  Mean Squares  10.8375  3.6125  85  448.9627  5.2819  88  459.8002  0.5643 Groups  92  TABLE D ANOVA TABLE FOR 16 PF VARIABLE I  Variable:  I  TOUGH-MINDED Analysis of Variance  F-ratio  Source F-Prob.  Between Groups  D.f. Sum o f Squares  Mean Squares  3  30.2990  10.0997  W i t h i n Groups  85  373.6617  4.3960  Total  88  403.9606  2.297  0.0834  93.  TABLE E ANOVA TABLE FOR 16 PF VARIABLE 0  Variable:  O  ASSURANCE Analysis of Variance  F-ratio  Source F-prob,  D.f.  Between Groups 2.550  Sura o f Squares  Mean Squares  48.2199  16.0733  6.3041  0.0611  W i t h i n Groups  85  535.8485  Total  88  584.0684  94  TABLE F ANOVA TABLE FOR 16 PF VARIABLE Q  Variable:  Q  SELF-SUFFICIENCY  2  Analysis of Variance F-ratio  Source F-prob.  D.f.  Between Groups 2.375  Sum o f Squares  Mean Squares  44.3347  14.7782  6.2231  0.0758  W i t h i n Groups  85  528.9655  Total  88  573.3002  95  TABLE G A CHI SQUARE STATISTIC  FOR  THE SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTOR BIRTH ORDER Count : Row% : Row : Col% : Total Total % :  MALE ATHLETES  FEMALE ATHLETES  MALE PROFESSIONALS  FEMALE PROFESSIONALS  Column Total  1st  2nd  6  6  3rd 4th 5th ( B i r t h Order) 7  3  6th  7th  8th  2  2  0  2  28 31.5  21.4  21.4  25.0  10.7  7.1  7.1  0.0  7.1  28.6  25.0  36.8  30.0  28.6  50.0  0.0  66.7  6.7  6.7  7.9  3.4  2.2  2.2  0.0  2.2  3  8  11  1  2  2  1  1  29  10.3  27.6  37.9  3.4  6.9  6.9  3.4  3.4  32.6  14.3  33.3  57.9  10.0  28.6  50.0 100.0  33.3  3.4  9.0  12. 4  1.1  2.2  2.2  1.1  1.1  6  6  0  5  3  0  0  0  20 22.5  30.0  30.0  0.0  25.0  15.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  28,6  25.0  0.0  50.0  42. 9  0.0  0.0  0.0  6.7  6.7  0.0  5.6  3.4  0.0  0.0  0.0  6  4  1  1  0  0  0  0  12 13.5  50.0  33.3  8.3  8.3  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  28.6  16.7  5.3  10.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  6.7  4.5  1.1  1.1  0.0  0.0  0.0  0.0  21  24  19  10  7  4  1  3  23.6  27.0  21.3  11.2  7.9  4.5  1.1  X*  = 29.71381, p< 0.0979  89  3.4 100.0  96  TABLE H A CHI SQUARE STATISTIC  FOR  THE SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTOR FAMILY SIZE Count Row% Row Col% Total Total %  : : : : : 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  1  2  0  0  2  28 31.5  (Family Size) 0  MALE ATHLETES  FEMALE ATHLETES  7  14.3  42. 9  25.0  3.6  7.1  0.0  0.0  7.1  0.0  25.0  34.3  38.9  20.0  33.3  0.0  0.0  66.7  0.0  4.5  13.5  7.9  1.1  2.2  0.0  0.0  2.2  0  6  13  7  2  0  0  1  0  29  0. 0  0.0  3.4  0.0  32.6  0.0  20.7  44.8  24.1  6.9  0.0  37.5  37.1  38.9  40.0  0.0  o.o. 5 0 . 0  0.0  0.0  6.7  14.6  7.9  2.2  0.0  0.0  1.1  0.0  2  4  4  2  3  0  1  1  20 22.5  10.0  3  20.0  15.0  20.0  10.0  15.0  0.0  5.0  5.0  25.0  8.6  22.2  40.0  50. 0  0.0  50.0  33.3  2.2  4.5  3.4  4.5  2.2  3.4  0.0  1.1  1.1  2  2  7  0  0  1  0  0  0  12 13.5  16.7  16.7  58.3  0.0  0.0  8.3  0.0  0.0  0.0  12.5  20.0  0.0  0.0  16.7  0.0  0.0  0.0  2.2  7.9  0.0  0.0  1.1  0.0  0.0  0.0  4  16  35  18  5  6  0  2  3  89  4.5  18.0  39.3  20.2  5.6  6.7  0.0  2.2  3.4  100.0  FEMALE 50. 0 PROFESSIONALS 2.2  Total  12  0.0  MALE 50.0 PROFESSIONALS  Column  4  X  2  = 25.80316,  p<0.2141  97  TABLE 1 A CHI SQUARE STATISTIC FOR THE SOCIO-CULTURAL FACTOR CULTURE Count Row% Col% Total  MALE ATHLETES  FEMALE ATHLETES  MALE PROFESSIONALS  : : Canadian : :  American  Other  26  0  2  28  92. 9  0.0  7.1  31.5  34.7  0.0  15.4  29.2  0.0  2.2  27  0  2  29  93.1  0.0  6.9  32.6  36.0  0.0  15.4  30.3  0.0  2.2  13  1  6  65.0  5.0  30.0  17.3  100.0  46.2  14.6  1.1  6.7  0  3  9 FEMALE PROFESSIONALS  Column Total  75.0  0.0  25.0  12.0  0.0  23.1  10.1  0.0  3.4  75  1  13  84. 3  1.1  14.6  X  2  6  .=. .11. 34721, p<0.0782  20 22.5  12 13.5  89 100.0  98 BIBLIOGRAPHY  Adams, B.N. 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