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Mechanical energy variations in rowing Martindale, Walter Olsen 1982

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MECHANICAL ENERGY VARIATIONS I N ROWING by WALTER OLSEN MARTINDALE B. P. E.  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES S c h o o l Of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n And R e c r e a t i o n  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA December 1982  ©  W a l t e r O l s e n M a r t i n d a l e , 1982  In  presenting  this  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an Columbia,  I  available  for  permission  agree  her  reference  and  study.  I  g r a n t e d by  this  the It  thesis written  Physical  c o p y i n g of  for  is  thesis  permission.  Education,1,December,1982  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Columbia  freely  agree for  that  gain  the  British  it  that  scholarly  Department or  understood  financial  of  make  further  this  Head of my  of  University  shall  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  Date:  the  Library  be  D e p a r t m e n t of  fulfilment  the  extensive  of  partial  that  representatives.  publication  in  advanced degree at  for  p u r p o s e s may or  thesis  by  copying  shall  not  his or be  i i  Abstract The  purpose  of t h i s  i n s t a n t a n e o u s segmental a single  sculls  rowing  ergometer,  s t u d y was  and  total  racing shell with and  to  w i t h i n segments.  body e n e r g y rowing  contrast  exchanges of mechanical energy energy  t o q u a n t i f y and c o n t r a s t  Four  ergometer  rowing  in single  j o i n t markers parameters, digital energy  scullers,  The  the  evaluated to  t o exchange and  and  least  in  two m a l e a n d rowing  through  two  on  a  female, Gjessing  cart,  S i m i l a r i t y of energy allow  link-segment  digitization  inertial  methods  noise.  after  Mechanical energy  i n t e r c o n v e r s i o n of segmental  energy.  least  i n the wheeled  RE a n d g r e a t e s t  t h r o u g h e x c h a n g e was  t h e s t a t i o n a r y RE. greatest in  the  f o r both the boat  greatest  S a v i n g of wheeled  energy  RE.  and  the  The  stationary  s a v i n g s c o r e s between t h e boat and  the c o n c l u s i o n that  in  o f t o t a l w o r k ) were  rowing ergometer  p e r m i t a t h l e t e s t o work a t s t r o k e r a t e s levels.  and  D i g i t i z e d c o o r d i n a t e s of  ( e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t a g e  l o w e r , and q u i t e s i m i l a r  racing  savings  of  Saving of energy  interconversions  might  with  remove  i n t e r c o n v e r s i o n was  RE  (Norway)  RE mounted on a w h e e l e d  racing shells.  i n t e r n a l work was  boat,  wheeled  energy  i n t e r n a l work a n a l y s i s a l l o w e d c a l c u l a t i o n  in the boat.  RE.  Gjessing  were c o m b i n e d w i t h e s t i m a t e d body segment  filtering and  through  sculls  and  s a v i n g s due  the  (RE),  a  rowing  among s e g m e n t s and c o n v e r s i o n s o f  were f i l m e d a t t h r e e s t r o k e r a t e s w h i l e rowing  p a t t e r n s of  the  more  the  testing  similar  to  iii  Table of Contents Abstract L i s t of Tables L i s t of Figures Acknowledgements Introduction Purpose Methods Subjects Procedures Markers Rowing S e s s i o n Ergometer Sessions D a t a C o l l e c t i o n And A n a l y s i s Segmental Energy T o t a l Body E n e r g y I n t e r n a l Work R e s u l t s And D i s c u s s i o n Cinematography Boat T r i a l s Ergometer T r i a l s I n t e r n a l Work E n e r g y E x c h a n g e And I n t e r c o n v e r s i o n A v e r a g e D r i v e Power Conclusions Recommendations References APPENDIX 1 - DEFINITIONS R o w i n g Terms E n e r g y A n a l y s i s Terms APPENDIX 2 - SYMBOLS USED I N THE PAPER APPENDIX 3 - ENERGY PLOTS OF SUBJECTS 2, 3, AND APPENDIX 4 - REVIEW OF LITERATURE Anthropometry E n e r g y And Work M e c h a n i c s And R o w i n g BIBLIOGRAPHY  4  i i iv y vi 1 3 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 8 8 9 13 13 13 13 16 23 29 32 32 34 36 36 37 40 41 45 45 50 56 62  iv  List 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  Basic Subject I n t e r n a l Work I n t e r n a l Work I n t e r n a l Work Power, S t r o k e  of Tables  Information For S c u l l i n g T r i a l s F o r Wheeled Ergometer T r i a l s For S t a t i o n a r y Ergometer T r i a l s R a t e , And V e l o c i t y , S c u l l i n g T r i a l s  4 17 18 19 ....25  V  List IA. IB. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  D r i v e P h a s e Of D r i v e P h a s e Of K i n e t i c Energy, K i n e t i c Energy, K i n e t i c Energy, K i n e t i c Energy, K i n e t i c Energy,  of F i g u r e s  Rowing A S t a t i o n a r y Ergometer Rowing A Wheeled Ergometer Boat, Ergometers, Subject 1 S u b j e c t 1 And B o a t Subject 2 Subject 3 Subject 4  15 16 21 28 42 43 44  vi  Acknowledgement  I  w i s h t o t h a n k D r . D. G o r d o n E. R o b e r t s o n  p a t i e n c e he h a s p r o v i d e d me The  patience  committee, Mr. B. K l a v o r a  and  encouragement  important  paper t o the c o m p l e t i o n . o f my  i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s  D r . K. D. C o u t t s , were  of  the  members o f my  thesis  D r . D. C. M c K e n z i e , i n my c a r r y i n g t h r o u g h  rowing  crew a r e a l s o  and  thesis.  with  The e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f my c l a s s m a t e s  f r i e n d s on t h e U n i v e r s i t y  acknowledged.  f o r the guidance  and this and  gratefully  1  INTRODUCTION T e s t i n g oarsmen's p h y s i o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s w i t h o f f - w a t e r rowing  simulators  is  not  r e p o r t use o f an h y d r a u l i c Yale  University  rowing  several studies  (1971,  new.  Henderson and Haggard  rowing s i m u l a t o r crew.  1972,  reported  physiological  the e a r l y  1970's u s i n g t h e  Hagerman  1975a,  t o a s RE)  Lyons  (Gamut  Betanien, training The oarsman  Gjessing,  Bergen,  Lyons  Norway)  ergometer  handles  accustomed  to  disadvantage  one  when  to  he  to  test  on one one  is  tested  other  is  a  Amateur Rowing  avd.,  Canadian  referred  Hospitalet  oarsmen i n t h e i r  boat  oarsman a  on a L y o n s - t y p e RE b u i l t  for  of  the  An  the  at  side  of  "center-pull"  the  is  boat;  scullers,  machine.  disadvantage  is  a point at either  guided  straight  are  on  l e a n of t h e i r  s i d e of  the and  Scullers are at  the G j e s s i n g machine,  t w i s t and  sweep  machine,  backwards  t h e i r arm m o t i o n , w h i l e s w e e p - o a r r o w e r s the normal  All  ( s l i g h t ) d i s a d v a n t a g e on t h i s  I n s t e a d , the handle  by r e m o v i n g  Redwood  well.  are at a s i m i l a r  only a l t e r  since  r o w i n g w i t h two o a r s i n a s y m m e t r i c a l m o t i o n  G j e s s i n g RE  least  oarsmen  (hereafter  f o r w a r d s by a b a r a t t a c h e d t o t h e " o a r " h a n d l e . the  have  s i d e of t h e b o a t .  side  as the h a n d l e does not p i v o t about boat.  1979)  Engineering, Canadian  in  teams.  on  to the  a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e as  oarsmen  1978,  rekonstr.  1924  s i m u l a t e s "sweep" r o w i n g , i n w h i c h  oar  rowing  people accustomed  The  Plast.  f o r n a t i o n a l rowing  accustomed  The  the  co-workers,  t e s t i n g of s e v e r a l hundred  uses G j e s s i n g rowing ergometers  (E.  test  and  1975b,  C i t y , C a l i f o r n i a ) rowing ergometer. Association  to  (1925)  as they need must  b o d i e s from  adapt their  2  rowing that  stroke.  The  i t is difficult  more  than  shell  f o r 6 t o 7.5  between  a few  32 and  chief t o row  disadvantage to the G j e s s i n g at normal r a c i n g  minutes, while  40  minutes  to  strokes  per  stroke  most  is  rates  i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o row complete  RE  a  races  for  racing  (striking  m i n u t e , u s u a l l y , d e p e n d i n g on  the  race). An  RE  capable  simulating valuable  the  work  t o o l for  technical  of  output  use  coaching.  in  Current  w i t h a r e s i s t a n c e of  minute;  use  of  the  low  because  the  end  the  s t r o k e s , and  community  if  Lower s t r o k e rower, the  of  this  excessive  of is a  and  in  machine a f f o r d s practise  an  in  the  revolution.  often  the  These  and  result  29  in  fatigue  in  continuum)  "rows" per  second  result  in  very  poorer  well scores  r e v o l u t i o n r a t e d r o p s t o o much b e t w e e n  It  could  accurately  kp.m"  oarsman  the  r o w e r s do  i s spent to r e t u r n the  would  be  valuable difficulty  to  be  redesigned to simulate  t h a n i t d o e s now.  flywheel the  defined, the  P r i o r t o any  to  rowing  i n rowing at  r a t e s e x p e r i e n c e d i n n o r m a l r a c i n g c o u l d be  more  N)  strokes the  a  r a t e s t h a n 24-26 ( d e p e n d i n g upon  r e a s o n ( s ) f o r the  RE  29.4  o a r s m a n d o e s "3  l a r g e r , stronger  effort  speed.  the G j e s s i n g  rowing  training,  r a t e s b e t w e e n 26  rates  flywheel's  "comfortable"  that  rowing  (approximately The  because of e x c e s s i v e  test.  s i z e of  stroke  kp"  revolution.  stroke  higher  performing poorly  a  "3  J o f work f o r e a c h f l y w h e e l  u s u a l l y done w i t h  at the  race  and  r o w i n g c o m m u n i t y i s t o t e s t oarsmen f o r 6 m i n u t e s on  to each f l y w h e e l  the  selection,  rowing motion.  applied  h a l f of  motion  of  Gjessing  RE  are  rowing  present  Gjessing  o r 29.4  the  requirements  team  The  a p p r o x i m a t i o n of t h e Canadian  simulating  feel  the so of  design  3  changes, however, i t i s necessary to study the rowing machine i n comparison with  real  rowing  to  assess  existing  differences  between rowing the G j e s s i n g machine and the boat.  Purpose The  purpose of t h i s study was  instantaneous  segmental  and  to q u a n t i f y and c o n t r a s t the  total  p a t t e r n s of rowing i n a s i n g l e - s c u l l s  body  mechanical  energy  r a c i n g s h e l l with rowing a  G j e s s i n g RE, and to c o n t r a s t energy s a v i n g s through exchanges of mechanical within  energy  segments.  among  segments  and  conversions  of energy  4  METHODS  Subjects Subjects One  i n c l u d e d 2 m a l e s c u l l e r s and  o f e a c h o f t h e m a l e and  international  competition.  significantly  less  study  and  the  subjects  The  other  experienced  in  Table  1. Age,  masses of  two  race  scullers.  subjects  sculling.  informed  consented to p a r t i c i p a t e . i s i n Table  female  f e m a l e s c u l l e r s were e x p e r i e n c e d  t e s t i n g o r m e a s u r i n g e a c h s u b j e c t was the  2  Basic  in were  Before  any  of t h e n a t u r e  of  information  about  1.  h e i g h t , and  body mass o f s u b j e c t s  r a c i n g s h e l l s used i n rowing  and  trials.  Subject  Sex  Age  Height (cm)  Mass (kg)  B o a t Mass (kg)  1  m  23  187.5  85.4  17.6  2  m  20  197.0  90.5  22.5  3  f  22  1 68.5  64.5  20. 1  4  f  23  173.5  65.7  20.1  Procedures Subjects for  were f i l m e d r o w i n g i n s i n g l e  sculls racing  shells  s e v e r a l rowing s t r o k e c y c l e s at s t r o k e r a t e s a t , above,  below  their  normal  the Burnaby Lake separate ergometer  Canada  occasion, (RE)  racing rates.  at  Games  Rowing t r i a l s  (1973)  rowing  took p l a c e  course.  s u b j e c t s were f i l m e d r o w i n g a G j e s s i n g similar  stroke  and  r a t e s to those  On  at a  rowing  used i n  the  5  rowing 16 mm per  trials. camera  second  A l l f i l m i n g was  (Redlake  malleolus),  Markers knee  t o the  shoulder  (acromion  humerus),  joint  wrist  ( p o s t e r i o r l y , on  A l l f i l m i n g was  placed  femoral  line),  a t 25  frames  the  (lateral of  process  opening  of  m a r k e r s were p l a c e d on  the  was  the  ankle  epicondyle,  process  spinous  The  at  (lateral  about  2  h i p ( g r e a t e r t r o c h a n t e r of  p r o c e s s ) , elbow (spinous  (T1)).  marker f o r the  rowing  were  (lateral  superior  All  Industries).  Locam  (f/s).  Markers.  vertebra  done u s i n g a m o t o r - d r i v e n  femur),  epicondyle  the of  ulna),  the  cm  of  the  and  first  neck  thoracic  t h e o u t e r e a r was  used as  a  head.  done w i t h  camera's  image,  face the  positive  the  subjects' right  subjects  facing  f o l l o w i n g the convention x-axis  of  a  normal  the  s i d e and a l l  right  of h a v i n g  of  the  Cartesian  the  subject  coordinate  system. Before the p o r t racing  water t r i a l s ,  s i d e (the s i d e nearest shell.  p l a c e d on masses  a l l  Before  t h e RE  were  force  after  the  Burnaby  250  m t o the  with  a scale accurate  were  workouts  prepared  (within  40  i n the a p p r o p r i a t e r a c i n g lane  Lake  of  ergometer t r i a l s ,  Subjects  rowing  subjects waited  camera)  3 m apart  the two  on  subject's  m a r k e r s were  Subjects'  body  t o w i t h i n 50 g o r  plate.  Rowing S e s s i o n . trials  the  t o i d e n t i f y m o t i o n o f t h e RE.  measured  with a K i s t l e r  the  m a r k e r s were p l a c e d  course,  about  r i g h t of the camera.  for min).  their When  (lane  film ready,  three  of  57 m f r o m t h e c a m e r a ) , a b o u t The  subject started  to  row,  6  and  was  told  of  h i s stroke  r a t e s so that he c o u l d a d j u s t h i s  tempo t o equal t h a t chosen f o r the t r i a l time.  The  subject's  stroke  " r a t e watch" j u s t before  they  felt  Subjects  comfortably  rowed  a t the  r a t e was checked with a c a l i b r a t e d  h i s or her passing  Ergometer S e s s i o n s . until  being  the camera.  were permitted  "warmed  up".  t o row the RE  When  ready f o r  f i l m i n g , subjects  s t a r t e d rowing the machine and used about s i x  to  t o a t t a i n t h e i r designated  eight strokes  which the r a t e s were estimated with rate was  was  adjusted  a  stopwatch.  or maintained as r e q u i r e d .  complete rowing c y c l e s . checked  to  The  trial  complete  on, and about  3  r a t e was  as a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e t o make sure that the subject  the s u b j e c t  the other The  stroke  RE t r i a l s  wheeled c a r t . are  stroke  When the subject  During the f i l m i n g , the stroke  maintained the c o r r e c t r a t e throughout the r e s t e d momentarily.  trial.  After  each  The f i l m i n g was repeated  rates. were  repeated  with  the RE  mounted  on  a  Manufacturer's s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r the G j e s s i n g RE  such that the machine i s mounted on wheels a l i g n e d with the  l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s of the ergometer. no  rates, after  rowing a t the c o r r e c t tempo, f l o o d l i g h t s were turned  the camera was run f o r the time r e q u i r e d  at  stroke  The CARA-owned machine  has  wheels.  Data C o l l e c t i o n and A n a l y s i s Films were p r o j e c t e d time.  The  cartesian  onto a d i g i t i z i n g t a b l e one frame a t a  coordinates  of a l l markers i n each frame  were " d i g i t i z e d " with a Numonics Graphics C a l c u l a t o r  interfaced  7  w i t h a microNova computer cycle  of each t r i a l  used l a t e r the  was d i g i t i z e d  One f u l l  (catch-to-catch).  stroke  Programmes  i n t h e data p r o c e s s i n g r e q u i r e d t h a t 6 frames  beginning  of  t h e s t r o k e and 6 frames a f t e r  s t r o k e were d i g i t i z e d . 470/V8  (Data G e n e r a l C o r p . ) .  computer  before  t h e end of t h e  D a t a w e r e t h e n t r a n s m i t t e d t o an  for error  checking,  kinematic,  Amdahl  and  energy  quant i f i c a t i o n . Perspective error camera  position  i n the coordinate  being  such  that  perpendicular t o the o p t i c a l a x i s of with  a  matrix  Woltring (one  transformation  (1975,  forward  1976). and  low-pass d i g i t a l ergometer  one  the  the  adapted  camera, from  u s i n g a 5 Hz c u t o f f  digital  f o r t h e boat  f o r the d i g i t a l  filtering  c o o r d i n a t e data has Winter from  (1977).  method  been  of  validated  Anthropometric  t a b l e s p r o v i d e d by D e m p s t e r  subject  the  was  not  was  removed  that described i n by  two  frequency  passes  f o r the  t r i a l s were f i l t e r e d filter  frequency  reducing by  using  t o r e t a i n a s much o f  " s i g n a l " as p o s s i b l e w h i l e reducing high  The  movement  by  backward t o e l i m i n a t e p h a s e - s h i f t ) of a  Data  2.5 Hz a s t h e c u t o f f  the  caused  Data were then smoothed  filter  data.  data,  noise.  "noise"  Pezzack,  in  film  Norman,  and  d a t a f o r e a c h s u b j e c t were ( i n Winter,  1979b),  taken  based  on  weight.  Link  segment  instantaneous  analysis  of  the  film  data  (frame-by-frame) l i n e a r and a n g u l a r  gave  the  displacements,  v e l o c i t i e s and a c c e l e r a t i o n s o f t h e segments; e n e r g i e s and r a t e s of  change of m e c h a n i c a l  total  body  were  energies of  calculated.  c a l c u l a t e d assuming t h a t  a l l segments  Energies  a l l segments  of  and  of  the  a l l s e g m e n t s were  returned  to  the  same  8  position there  at  the completion  of each s t r o k e .  In t h i s  i s no n e t e x t e r n a l work done on t h e body o r by  as t h e r e  situation, the  i s no c h a n g e f r o m s t r o k e t o s t r o k e i n t h e h e i g h t  body, of the  body o r i n i t s v e l o c i t y .  Segmental  Energy.  Energies  of  t h e segments and o f t h e  t o t a l body w e r e c a l c u l a t e d a s d e s c r i b e d by W i n t e r , e n e r g y o f e a c h segment E  s  (E ) p  + Translational kinetic + Rotational kinetic = mgh + 1/2 mv  energy  energy  + 1/2 Ia>  2  (E ) kt  (E ) kr (1)  2  segment mass i n k g g r a v i t a t i o n a l a c c e l e r a t i o n (9.8 m/s ) h e i g h t o f segment mass c e n t r e i n m a b s o l u t e v e l o c i t y o f t h e segment mass c e n t r e i n m/s r o t a t i o n a l moment o f i n e r t i a o f t h e segment i n kg.m r o t a t i o n a l v e l o c i t y o f t h e segment i n r a d / s . 2  T o t a l Body E n e r g y . body  The  (E ) was c a l c u l a t e d w i t h t h e f o r m u l a : s  = P o t e n t i a l energy  where m = g = h = v = I = co =  (1979a).  (E t  The i n s t a n t a n e o u s  energy of  ) was c a l c u l a t e d by summing t h e e n e r g i e s  segments i n each f i l m  2  the  of a l l of the  frame: E  t  =  B Z  s=1  E  total  s  where B was t h e number o f s e g m e n t s a n d , E was t h e t o t a l e n e r g y o f segment s i n e a c h f i l m s  (2)  frame,  9  Internal the  rowing  work.  Work.  stroke  A  segment;  caused  external  the total  u s u a l l y done on a f l a t current)  mechanical  energy  The  of  stroke,  every  but  stroke.  at  and thus  points  of  mechanical total  energies  stages slight (E  of  steady  strokes.  ( e . g.,  have been  surface  said  to  energy Since  rowing  i f any change  In  to the next.  found  to vary  finishing  energy (W  to  at  during repeated  studies  a_l. ,  slightly  at  and loaded  and  corresponding  previous et  no  i n the  t o t h e same h e i g h t energy  do and  ( i . e., w i t h  the changes a r e  Pierrynowski,  movements ( w a l k i n g  between  i s  one s t r o k e  and rower r e t u r n  ) a p p e a r s a s e x t e r n a l work  body  from  of  the contraction  1979a).  be l i t t l e  t o t h e same m e c h a n i c a l  cyclic  change  flat  pace rowing  consecutive energy  external  i t sd r a f t and h o r i z o n t a l v e l o c i t y  The b o a t  velocity  work i n  energy  (kinetic)  (Winter,  the system  system does change  against  mechanical  should  and  total  contraction  or nearly  there  internal  increasing the  energy  internal  muscle c o n t r a c t i o n i s s a i d t o  moment)  body  of  (lengthening  dissipating  appreciable  a  (shortening)  on a segment,  work,  decreasing  inclusion  an e c c e n t r i c  b y some  negative  is  required  concentric  do p o s i t i v e work that  Calculation of the total  1980,  of  1 981 )  corresponding walking).  (E ) and s t a r t i n g tn  The  energy  ) d u e t o movement o f t h e t o t a l t  or changes  i n i t s movement:  N W t  In  this  energy  Z AE i=1 - t i =E - E tn tO  =  study  i t was p r e s u m e d  (thus  no W  ) between t  that  there  (3)  was no c h a n g e  corresponding  points  of  in  total  consecutive  10  strokes. return  This constrained to their  original  a l l segmental  energy  components  l e v e l s a t t h e end of each s t r o k e .  to W , t  t h e n , a c c o u n t e d f o r e x t e r n a l work done i n subtracted  from  the  total  energy  c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e exchanges segments.  "This  or  the  strokes  energy unless  level the  and  stroke  the t o t a l this  subject  average v e l o c i t y w i t h each s t r o k e  trial,  and  was  prior  to  interconversions  c o r r e c t i o n assumes t h a t  a n d e n d s a t t h e same many..."  among  of  the  within  body b e g i n s  is  true  across  i s changing h i s or her  (quotation  from  Pierrynowski,  1978). The  total  i n t e r n a l work  (W ) ( d e f i n e d  by W i n t e r , 1979a) o f  i the  sculling  absolute  stroke  changes  was c a l c u l a t e d by  of the t o t a l  taking  body e n e r g y  the  sum  of  the  (AE ) o v e r t h e number t  of  frames  internal  of work  and exchanged implies  the  stroke  assuming  (N). that  from  v i c e - v e r s a , and exchange mechanical energy  calculation  e n e r g y c a n be b o t h  where i n t e r c o n v e r s i o n  conversion  This  interconverted  of energy w i t h i n  p o t e n t i a l energy t o k i n e t i c of energy i m p l i e s the  determined  a  segment energy or  transmission  of  f r o m segment t o s e g m e n t .  N W = -W + Z |AE | (4) i t i=1 t i The total work required assuming t h a t t h e r e was e n e r g y e x c h a n g e among s e g m e n t s b u t no i n t e r c o n v e r s i o n o f e n e r g y within s e g m e n t s (W ) was g i v e n b y : e  11  W Total (W  n  work  ) was  if  e  = -W  there  calculated  t  was  by  N  B I i = 1 s=1 L  |  si  the  segments  (B) a n d o v e r t h e number o f f r a m e s = -w N  t  B  L  L  i=1  s=1  It  interconversion  absolute  in  n  (5)  n e i t h e r exchange nor  summing  segmental  |AE  changes  W  the  +  values  (N)  i n t h e movement:  +  ( | AE | + | AE psi ktsi  | +  | AE krsi  |)  The  by  the  of  energy  ,  and  of t h e s e exchanges  reduce  to e  "saved" or " p r e s e r v e d " i n the  or c o n v e r s i o n s  t h e need f o r t h e muscles  p l a c e w h i l e g e n e r a t i n g energy  W  i  i n t e r c o n v e r s i o n o f , or exchange of m e c h a n i c a l  appearance  energy  amount  (6)  , W n  motion  the  e n e r g y c o m p o n e n t s o v e r t h e number o f  i s p o s s i b l e t o use t h e t h r e e v a l u e s W  calculate  of  of  energy.  mechanical  t o absorb energy  i n another.  Energy  saved  i n one  (c.  f.,  "conserved" Winter, 1979b) due to interconversions within segments (S ) was c a l c u l a t e d a s t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e work i a l l o w i n g n e i t h e r exchange  nor  conversion  (W  )  and  the  work  n allowing  e x c h a n g e b u t no c o n v e r s i o n (W  ).  The  amount o f  energy  e saved t h r o u g h i n t e r c o n v e r s i o n s w i t h i n segments i s e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t a g e of the t o t a l energy  work t h a t w o u l d h a v e been r e q u i r e d  h a d been c o n v e r t e d o r e x c h a n g e d  (W  ) ( i . e.,  if  i f no  muscles  n were  needed  to  generate  or absorb a l l energy changes,  c o n v e r s i o n of energy o c c u r r e d ) . S = 100 (W - W ) / W . i n e n  and  (7)  no  12  E n e r g y s a v e d due calculated  as  the  to  exchanges  among  d i f f e r e n c e between  W  segments  (S ) e  was  and t h e i n t e r n a l  work  n a l l o w i n g exchange  and t r a n s f e r  (W  ).  T h i s f i g u r e was  expressed  i as a p e r c e n t a g e of W : n S The  change  e  = 100  in  (W  e  - w  i  ) / W  n  energy of the t o t a l  .  (8)  system  (body a n d  boat)  from i t s l o w e s t v a l u e j u s t b e f o r e the c a t c h t o i t s h i g h e s t v a l u e j u s t b e f o r e t h e f i n i s h may  be u s e d t o d e r i v e t h e  of the d r i v e phase of the s t r o k e . of  the  system  was  The  average  power  data f o r the t o t a l  energy  s c a n n e d , and t h e s c o r e s f o r t h e l o w e s t a n d  h i g h e s t m e c h a n i c a l e n e r g i e s were r e c o r d e d , w i t h t h e i r times.  The  a v e r a g e d r i v e power  (P ) was  calculated  respective  as:  d ( h i g h e s t M.  E.  - l o w e s t M.  E.)/Atime  (9)  where A t i m e was  the e l a p s e d time of the energy  The a v e r a g e v e l o c i t y  change  ( v ) d u r i n g t h e s t r o k e was  (displacement, catch to catch)/Atime  calculated as: (10)  where A t i m e was to  catch.  the time r e q u i r e d t o complete the s t r o k e from  catch  13  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  Cinematography Boat T r i a l s . movement complete ten  plane  was  of view  projected  required t o permit  before  and  after  filming  the cycle's  Wells  span o f  and  points.  the d i g i t i z e r ,  of  of d i g i t i z a t i o n noise.  The  ratio  such  r a t i o e x p e r i e n c e d by W e l l s a n d C a l d w e l l  true  s i z e t o image s i z e  16:1,  w h i l e t h e same r a t i o f o r t h e d a t a  this  study  was  about  34:1.  c o o r d i n a t e of t h e ankle least  about  RMSD  55  i n most  of  than  approximately  t h e rowing  that  of  one h a l f  Wells  (RMSD)  increased  increased.  as  The l a r g e s t  (1982)  was  f o r the rowing  about  trials in  was  greatest  i n t h e x-  1  standard  deviation)  (23±4 mm, meant  i n the y-coordinate data  f i l m data  The RMSD  the  greater  to-finish)  a n d C a l d w e l l ( 1 9 8 2 ) r e p o r t t h e r o o t mean s q u a r e o f  a s an i n d i c a t i o n  RMSD  o f a t l e a s t one  end  the d i f f e r e n c e s between f i l t e r e d and u n f i l t e r e d  and  20 m i n t h e  images c o u l d n o t be e n l a r g e d t o more t h a n a b o u t 3 % o f  s i z e due t o t h e l i m i t e d  cm).  of approximately  stroke c y c l e (catch-to-catch or f i n i s h -  frames  life  A field  f o r t h e boat  (11±2) mm).  The  d a t a were s i m i l a r  t o or s l i g h t l y  and  using  of the s i z e  Caldwell,  found  i n the previous  images study.  T h i s s i m i l a r i t y , u s i n g images a s s m a l l a s 3 % l i f e - s i z e  suggests  that the accuracy  accuracy  to  permit  rowing  o f t h e d i g i t i z a t i o n was o f s u f f i c i e n t  discussion  energy  with respect to the  The t r u e s i z e  t o image  trials.  Ergometer T r i a l s . the  of mechanical  RE  f i l m data  trials  were  a b o u t 9:1 f o r a l l t r i a l s ;  i n t h i s c a s e was l e s s  than  size  ratios  in  t h e RMSD o f t h e  5 mm f o r a l l o f t h e m a r k e r  14  coordinates.  The x - c o o r d i n a t e  the g r e a t e s t v a r i a b i l i t y  of t h e a n k l e marker again  (average  s m a l l RMSD i n t h e RE f i l m d a t a t h e RE t r i a l s Trials  RMSD  =  4.2±1.2  showed  mm).  This  suggests that the d i g i t i z a t i o n of  was a c c u r a t e . were  assigned  analysis.  "RB1A1,"  subject j_,  stroke  codes  to identify  f o r example, r a t e "A"  refers  t h e data  to  f o r the  Rowing,  Boat,  ( a l o w s t r o k e r a t e - "B" i m p l i e s a  medium r a t e , a n d "C" a h i g h r a t e ) ,  t r i a l j_.  denote  "S" was u s e d t o d e n o t e  wheeled  RE  trials,  and  A "W" was  used  to  trials  using the stationary t r i a l s . Stick  f i g u r e s o f t h e movements o f a s u b j e c t  stationary  rowing  RE a n d on t h e w h e e l e d RE a r e p r e s e n t e d  i n F i g u r e s 1A  and  1B, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  body  translates  on  t h e e r g o m e t e r w h i l e t h e RE d o e s n o t move ( c . f .  the "ankle"  position  i n F i g . 1 A ) . On t h e w h e e l e d RE, h o w e v e r , t h e s u b j e c t ' s  body t r a n s l a t e s v e r y nearly  Note t h a t t h e s u b j e c t ' s  on t h e  stationary  little,  a n d t h e RE  " h i p " and  i s moved  (c.f.  the  t h e moving " a n k l e " p o s i t i o n s i n  Fig. 1B).  I n t e r n a l Work All  i n t e r n a l work m e a s u r e s (W  , W i  the to  rowing 4).  trials the  t r i a l s and l e a s t  The m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e s and  translational  energy  energies  were  e  ) were g r e a t e s t  between  of  work  scores  (Tables in  movements  2  rowing  w e r e due t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  greatest  test  devices.  i n t h e rowing  b e c a u s e t h e s y s t e m o f r o w e r a n d b o a t moved s e v e r a l m e t r e s each s t r o k e ; these  in  n  i n t h e w h e e l e d RE t r i a l s  i n ergometer t r i a l s  translational  ,W  occurred  at  changing  These trials during  velocities  DRIVE PHASE OF ROWING A STATIONARY ERGOMETER  FIGURE 1 A.  DRIVE PHASE OF ROWING A WHEELED  FIGURE  1 B  ERGOMETER  17  T a b l e 2. I n t e r n a l work ( j o u l e s ) a n d e n e r g y s a v i n g s (percent) f o r the s c u l l i n g t r i a l s . Subject  W  i  S  e  S  i  Trial Code  1  832.2 1153. 1 970.7  27.6 27.6 38.1  18.7 13.5 14.8  RB1A1 RB1B2 RB1C3  2  1657.6 1267.6 1655.2  22.8 36.4 19.5  15.0 9.9 12.2  RB2A1 RB2B2 RB2C3  3  594.0 909.6 788.2  32. 1 32.3 33. 1  16.8 11.6 15.0  RB3A1 RB3B2 RB3C3  4  696.2 756. 1 794.4  27.0 31.0 40.4  15.7 13.8 12.3  RB4A1 RB4B2 RB4C4  30.6 6.1  14.2 2.4  MEAN SD  18  Table 3. I n t e r n a l work ( j o u l e s ) and energy savings (percent) f o r the wheeled RE t r i a l s . iject  W  i  S  e  S  i  Trial Code  1  245.6 280.9 336.5  31 .2 29.0 24.7  17.7 16.9 15.3  RW1A1 RW1B2 RW1C3  2  310.7 314.0 335.3  28.8 25.2 25.5  19.5 21.7 18.0  RW2A1 RW2B2 RW2C3  3  213.3 211.7 212.0  22.3 30.0 32.6  17.3 1 1 .8 16.1  RW3A4 RW3B5 RW3C6  4  181.0 1 93.4 236.0  23.3 21 .4 17.6  22.6 22.4 21 .8  RW4A1 RW4B2 RW4C3  26.0 4.5  18.9 3.3  MEAN SD  19  Table  4.  I n t e r n a l work (percent) for  i  e  i  Trial Code  1  361 . 4 367.9 551 . 9  24.1 23.0 1 1.9  13.0 11.8 8.2  RS 1A4 RS1B5 RS1C7  2  468.8 353.6 458.6  22.2 30.1 24.3  1 1 .2 18.2 11.4  RS2A4 RS2B5 RS2C6  3  233.0 265.4 256.8  25.4 22.6 28.7  13.2 10.6 12.6  RS3A1 RS3B2 RS3C3  4  199.7 282.4 320.3  29.2 20.7 16.0  16.2 14.1 15.5  RS4A4 RS4B5 RS4C6  23.2 5.3  13.0 2.7  lub j e c t  MEAN SD  W  ( j o u l e s ) and energy s a v i n g s t h e s t a t i o n a r y RE t r i a l s .  S  S  20  within  the  strokes.  In  the  RE t r i a l s  movement o f t h e body o t h e r t h a n t h a t movement exists  the  of  to  relative  the  slide.  no  t o t h e e x t e r n a l environment (as no  measure  i n the angular v e l o c i t y  of  of t h e  M o t i o n o f t h e RE i n t h e w h e e l e d t r i a l s cause s i g n i f i c a n t changes  little  With  the  change  t h e s y s t e m o f s u b j e c t - R E t h a t was p r o b a b l y  t h e changes  RE.  RE  i n t h e b o a t ) , t h e r e was  energy in  of  on  t h e r e was v e r y  of energy  of  reflected  flywheel  of t h e  was n o t g r e a t  enough  i n t h e system of s u b j e c t  a n d RE. The d i f f e r e n t the  components  i n t e r n a l work v a r i a b l e s e n u m e r a t e  of  the  energies  o f t h e segments.  shown i n F i g u r e 2 show t h e k i n e t i c e n e r g i e s o f  curve  demonstrates  the  mechanical energy of t h e subject  greater  changes  in  The c u r v e s  selected  v a r i a b l e s a t t h e same s t r o k e r a t e on t h e d i f f e r e n t top  changes  energy  devices. in  the  i n the rowing t r i a l s .  The total  The  W i  term  i s made up o f t h e f r a m e - b y  energy, of which the t o p potential entire the  energy  curve  frame changes in  Figure  (which i s e s s e n t i a l l y  2  lacks  a bias,  system and t h e energy of t h e boat.  changes  i n t h e t o t a l body  i n the energy of the system  only  the  i n rowing) of t h e  In the rowing  trials,  ( t h e work) r e f l e c t t h e  s u b j e c t s ' e f f o r t s t o move t h e b o a t t h r o u g h t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n s o f the  oars.  drive,  magnitude  of t h e changes  coupled with the duration of  reflect are  The  the  discussed The  compared  the  drive  ( i . e.,  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the rowing motions. later  in this  internal  These  power) powers  paper.  i n t e r n a l work v a l u e s s e e n i n with  i n energy through t h e  tables  work s c o r e s between  l e v e l w a l k i n g (Winter 1979a).  Pierrynowski,  2  to  4  may  be  48.5 a n d 251.7 f o r et  a l . , (1980),  21  TOTAL BODY AND TQRSQ^THIGHS KINETIC ENERGY SUBJECT 1. TRIAL CODE: SUBJ 1 A — A BODY U N BOAT)  FIGURE 2 .  TIME (SECONDS)  22  found (W  i  work  values  ) , 340.2 (W  carrying  a  e  in  ) , and  500.9  variety  r a n g e d f r o m 328  treadmill (W  n  walking  );  which averaged  values  for  165.7  internal  work  of e x t e r n a l l o a d s d u r i n g t r e a d m i l l w a l k i n g  t o 423  (W  ) ( P i e r r y n o w s k i , et a l . , 1981).  These  e researchers in  their  of  were a b l e t o i n c l u d e t h e  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , t o g i v e an  their  during and  subjects  the present  motions. study,  estimate  Such  trials.  the angular Scores  the  a m e a s u r e was  "velocity" not  flywheel  i n the boat t r i a l s  possible and  d e v e l o p m e n t o f and  v e l o c i t y of the  for W  of  as the equipment a v a i l a b l e ,  f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s prevented  measure of  s p e e d of t h e t r e a d m i l l b e l t  time  adequate  during  the  i n the present  RE study  i were c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r these  other The  than scores  data  for  the  s t a t i o n a r y RE  t h a n f o r t h e w h e e l e d RE.  The  comparing  Figures  1B and  Figure  The  subject  1A and  i n the  t o h a v e t o a c c e l e r a t e and of the  through  the  stroke  stroke.  t h e b o a t moves w i t h t h e boat  himself, with  reason f o r  l a c k of m o t i o n i n t h e  e a c h end  the  (which  This  i s not  r o w e r , and  i m m o b i l i t y of the  slightly is  in  bottom s e t s of c u r v e s  like  RE  causes  oar  rowing a boat,  a l l o w s the the  subject  in the  i . e . , The its  forces  handle  i n which to  move  subject) r e l a t i v e  velocity  a l l  to  absolute  s u b j e c t ' s movements  the e x t e r n a l reference  s t a t i o n a r y RE  higher  apparent  subject's motions being  t o the environment.  and  this  stationary  w e i g h s a b o u t 20-25% o f  subject  are  i n a d d i t i o n t o m o v i n g t h e RE's  i n s t e a d of a l l of the  respect  the  in  d e c e l e r a t e most o f h i s body a t  i n a s h e l l c a u s e the boat t o change both  trials  studies.  work  2.  f o r the w a l k i n g  relative  to  system, while  the  of  the  subject's  23  motions  t o be r e l a t i v e o n l y t o t h e e x t e r n a l s y s t e m o f r e f e r e n c e  s i n c e t h e frame o f t h e RE d o e s n o t move p e r c e p t i b l y i n to  the subject's a c t i o n s .  of c u r v e s  response  The g e n e r a l shape o f t h e b o t t o m  i n F i g u r e 4 i s due t o t h e n e e d  sets  f o r t h e s u b j e c t t o come  t o a complete s t o p a t each end of t h e s l i d e .  After  stopping the  movement  then  required  of  accelerate recovery. drive  the his  drive,  entire  the body  The h i g h peak o f  was  due  to  during the d r i v e .  the  subject  i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n the  subject's  velocity  The l o w e r  was  energy  to  f o rthe  during  the  w i t h w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t moved  peak i n t h e e n e r g y o f t h e s y s t e m i n  t h e r e c o v e r y was due t o t h e s u b j e c t p e r f o r m i n g  essentially  the  r e v e r s e o f t h e d r i v e p h a s e , b u t more s l o w l y . With velocity the  no measure o f t h e f l y w h e e l ' s i n s t a n t a n e o u s there  i s no c l e a r way t o compare t h e i n t e r n a l  ergometer  conditions  The e f f e c t o f t h e r o w e r ' s movements  evident  in  system.  The a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y  the  values  which  instantaneous  changes of  the  boat  i n the v e l o c i t y flywheel  would  are  of the reflect  scores  test devices.  Future  in  this  area  exchange  and  internal  work  measure.  savings  of  energy  i n t e r c o n v e r s i o n avoids the problem of permitting between from  research  and I n t e r c o n v e r s i o n s  Calculating  calculated  the  c o u l d be u s e d t o c o m p a r e t h e i n t e r n a l work  Energy Exchanges  differences  on  energy  must i n c l u d e s u c h a  by  in  i n t h e e r g o m e t e r , a n d c o u l d be u s e d t o g i v e  of t h e d i f f e r e n t  scores  work  w i t h t h e i n t e r n a l work i n t h e r o w i n g  trials.  these e f f o r t s  rotational  the  the  Equations  comparing  comparison  "work"  by  of  values.  the p r o p o r t i o n a l Energy  7 and 8 a r e p r e s e n t e d  savings  i n t h e second  24  and  t h i r d d a t a c o l u m n s o f T a b l e s 2,  3, and  4.  The  S  and  S  e v a l u e s a r e e x p r e s s e d as p e r c e n t a g e s if  of the t o t a l m e c h a n i c a l  n e i t h e r exchange nor c o n v e r s i o n of energy The  energy  exchange term  i  (S ) may  work  are permitted.  be u s e d  t o d i s c u s s some  rowing  ergometers.  e of t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between larger  proportion  rowing  of the t o t a l  and  apparent  "work" (W  A  ) appears  to  n be t r a n s m i t t e d f r o m t h e body t o t h e d e v i c e i n s c u l l i n g either  RE c o n d i t i o n , w i t h v i s i b l e e f f e c t  apparent  from  (Table 5). S  e  the  That  larger the S  S  scores  on t h e s h e l l . in  the  than  in  This i s  sculling  data  e i n the wheeled  RE was g r e a t e r t h a n t h e e i n t h e s t a t i o n a r y RE b u t l e s s t h a n t h a t i n t h e b o a t , a n d t h a t  t h e o n l y r e a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two RE c o n d i t i o n s motion  of  t h e RE  reinforces this wheeled  RE  the s t a t i o n a r y  the  ( r e f e r t o F i g u r e 1 A and B) d u r i n g t h e s t r o k e  suggestion.  "felt"  was  As w e l l ,  s l i g h t l y more l i k e  subjects claimed that real  the  rowing than d i d rowing  RE.  I n t e r c o n v e r s i o n of energy  within  s e g m e n t s (S ) was g r e a t e s t i  in  the wheeled  RE a n d was  s t a t i o n a r y RE d a t a . The estimated S may have i  very s i m i l a r  main source of been the presence  amounts of t r a n s l a t i o n a l energy wheeled  RE most o f t h e m o t i o n  s e g m e n t s , f o r e x a m p l e , was the  vertical  direction  f o r t h e s c u l l i n g and  either only.  the d i f f e r e n c e in or absence of l a r g e  changes i n the segments. of  the  thighs  rotational  the  and  In the  lower  legs  or t r a n s l a t i o n a l i n  W i t h t h e s t a t i o n a r y RE a n d  with  25  T a b l e 5. Power i n d r i v e , a v e r a g e v e l o c i t y , s t r o k e r a t e and a v e r a g e power. Average Vel. (m/s)  S t r o k e Average Rate Power (W) (/min)  Est. 2000 i Time  377 859 962  3.75 4.57 4.74  25.6 32 32  161 459 514  8'53" 7' 18" 7' 02"  RB2A1 RB2B2 * RB2C3  462 434 757  3.66 3.87 4.42  20.4 24. 1 32  157 174 404  9'07" 8' 37" 7' 32"  RB3A1 RB3B2 RB3C3  309 468 655  3.51 4.07 4.21  24.7 29.5 32  127 230 350  9*29" 8' 1 1 " 7'55"  RB4A1 RB4B2 RB4C4  521 566 560  3.72 4.21 4.59  26 30.7 36.6  226 290 343  8*57" 7'55" 7' 15"  Trial Code  Drive Power (W)  * RB1B2 * RB1C3  RB1A1  26  the rowing s h e l l , component  to  t h e r e was  the  a  motion  in  v e r t i c a l movement c o m p o n e n t s . the  stationary  computation  of  and  the  the  S  large  horizontal  addition  to  translational  the r o t a t i o n a l  Thus t h e c h i e f d i f f e r e n c e  wheeled which,  conditions as  a  is  and  between  due  to  the  p e r c e n t a g e of the  total  i a p p a r e n t change i n because  of  the  components seen RE a n d b o a t There of e n e r g y  energy, absence  is of  increased  the  in  the  relatively  wheeled  large  i n the motions of the s u b j e c t i n the  RE  horizontal stationary  trials. was  no a p p a r e n t  saved i n the  A l t h o u g h t h e r e was inferential  an  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e  three  devices  insufficient  statistics,  and  the  percentage  stroke  rate.  number o f s u b j e c t s t o w a r r a n t  t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e means shown  in Tables 2 to 4 are worth note.  The  mean S  f o r the boat  was  e significantly conditions  differences  ,boat  versus  suggest t h a t  further  i n r o w i n g may  of  other  t h e s t u d y and abilities  of  Identification  the  values  boat  the  versus  investigation  study to p r e d i c t  of  the  the  ergometer  wheeled  RE,  ergometer). of  the  and  r a c i n g s h e l l ) may  manipulate  rowing  techniques  m e c h a n i c a l e n e r g y and  to  These  exchange  of  be made t o  mechanical  differences  energy  between  the  inexperienced subjects.)  o f t h e s o u r c e s o f e n e r g y e x c h a n g e among  (including  and  of the s m a l l sample s i z e i n  vast  experienced  both  (No a t t e m p t may  s c u l l e r s because  because  for  stationary  be w o r t h w h i l e .  use t h e d a t a from t h i s savings  from  p ^ 0.05,  (t=2.14,  p ^ 0.01  t=3.l9,  energy  different  segments  be a method f o r a t t e m p t i n g t o maximize  both  exchange  the average v e l o c i t y of the r a c i n g  of  shell.  27  The  possibility  of  the  presence  between t h e s u b j e c t and t h e s h e l l  of exchanges  i s r e i n f o r c e d by t h e  of t h e c u r v e s f o r t h e s u b j e c t and boat i n F i g u r e lowest  point  of  of energy  the subject's E  3.  patterns  Between t h e  c u r v e ( a t about  1.75 s ) a n d  kt the c a t c h  ( i n d i c a t e d by "CAT") a t a b o u t  the boat f e l l , energy  of  w h i l e t h a t of t h e s u b j e c t  the  not expected t o i n c r e a s e before  the  the  increased.  s h e l l was e x p e c t e d t o f a l l ,  i n f l u e n c e of drag from t h e water.  still  2.00 s ,  energy  The k i n e t i c  a s i t was u n d e r t h e  The e n e r g y o f t h e s u b j e c t  was  the catch, since the subject  was  approaching the front of the s l i d e with h i s oars water.  During the recovery  phase  out  o f t h e m o t i o n o f a b o a t by r e d u c i n g  m o t i o n t o a minimum.  The o n l y s o u r c e  have  received  p a t t e r n of the E  energy  at  of  of a s t r o k e rowers t r y t o  minimize disturbances  could  of  from  which  the  excess subject  t h a t p o i n t was t h e b o a t .  c u r v e s between about  0.75 s a n d a b o u t  The  1.75  s  kt (during t h e r a p i d decrease i n the energy of t h e s u b j e c t ) speculation  that  subject t o boat.  f u r t h e r energy In that e n t i r e  s a v i n g e x i s t s a s exchange  subject the  the  boat's  energy  other  source  viscous drag of the water. not  add  to  among b o a t a n d  t o t h e boat a t  have  i n the cycle, The energy  the  feet,  since  o f e n e r g y c h a n g e i n t h e s y s t e m was t h e C l e a r l y , the drag of the  t h e energy of the boat. crew  of kt  t o i n c r e a s e must h a v e come f r o m t h e  through h i s connection  only  from  second, d u r i n g which the E  t h e s u b j e c t f e l l f r o m i t s peak t o i t s l o w e s t p o i n t the E of t h e boat i n c r e a s e d almost c o n t i n u o u s l y . kt causing  permits  been  These exchanges  evident  f o r years,  water  did  of energy and  are  28  TOTAL BODY AND BOAT KINETIC ENERGY  SUBJECT 1  TRIAL CODE'. RB1C3. A — A SUBJECT K. E.  FIGURE 3 .  TIME 1SECOND-SJ  29  apparent ( e . g., no  in  the  M a r t i n and  previous  b o a t and  the  S  is  on  an  and  i  of  the  stroke  search  found  exchanges of energy  of p r o d u c i n g  e  values  between  are higher  speculation that  g r e a t e r work o u t p u t  mounted  on  wheels  or  an  for  the  machine  oarsman  rollers.  i n c r e a s e d by  to t r a v e l  in  i n a 6 min  RE The  t e t h e r i n g the  o f t h e m a c h i n e w i t h a "damped e l a s t i c , "  r o w i n g when mounted on  Average Drive  the S  s u c h a t e s t m i g h t be  tendency  The  A literature  particularly  ergometer  a t e a c h end a  velocity during  B e r n f i e l d , 1980).  c o n d i t i o n a l l o w the  be c a p a b l e  feasibility RE  hull  attempts to q u a n t i f y the  t h e w h e e l e d RE  test  of  rower.  That  would  changes  as  there  "sternward"  during  wheels.  Power  powers of the d r i v e phase  (P  of the  sculling  strokes,  d the average . v e l o c i t y of the to-catch), and  an  the  stroke  estimated  calculated  strokes  i n t h i s paper power  throughout the  strokes  (catch-  r a t e , t h e a v e r a g e power o f e a c h s t r o k e ,  2000 m r a c e  Powers  average  shell  for  time are  presented  in  Table  t h e d r i v e p h a s e o f some o f t h e  ( i n d i c a t e d by  estimated  "*")  are  higher  5.  sculling than  the  f o r maximal rowing ergometer t e s t s of  A m e r i c a n n a t i o n a l - team  candidates.  report  power  in  407  c a l c u l a t e d f r o m t h e number  of  maximal  tests.  The  revolutions  with  average  maximal value revolutions  of in  W,  6 min  310  a v e r a g e power r e q u i r e d t o s c o r e the  Gjessing  RE  used  in  Hagerman  et  al.,  s u b j e c t s , o f 360113.8 W,  rowing  ergometer  5000 f l y w h e e l  this  study  is slightly  (1978) with  a  flywheel  greater  than  30  400 W  (1 r e v o l u t i o n = 29.4 J , t i m e = 3 6 0 s ) . The m a i n  between  the  powers  shown i n t h i s p a p e r  p r e v i o u s rowing ergometer total  mechanical  work  t e s t s may  difference  and t h o s e e s t i m a t e d i n  be due  to  the  measure i n t h e ergometer  lack  tests  of  (i.  a e.,  o n l y t h e e f f o r t a p p l i e d t o t h e f l y w h e e l h a s been m e a s u r e d i n t h e p a s t ) , and t o t h e absence  of  any  previous  estimates  i n t e r n a l work a n d t h e i n t r a - s t r o k e work o f r o w i n g . energy  study  velocity drawn  of  the  mechanical  REs i s r e q u i r e d w i t h a m e a s u r e o f t h e a n g u l a r  o f t h e RE's f l y w h e e l b e f o r e c o r r e c t  between  A  of  the  mechanical  energy  contrasts  may  be  p a t t e r n s of s c u l l i n g  and  r o w i n g an RE. The m e t h o d s u s e d  t o e s t i m a t e the average  power  i n the s h e l l  for the e n t i r e stroke ( a v e r a g e power = (P x ( s t r o k e r a t e ) ) / 6 0 s ) d i n c l u d e s b o t h t h e work through  the  rowing  required stroke  to  and  the  e f f o r t s on t h e v e l o c i t y o f t h e r a c i n g Both of the e s t i m a t e d average a t 32 s t r o k e s p e r m i n u t e than the average (et  a_l).,  calculated real rowing  power  sculler's  shell.  powers f o r s u b j e c t 1 s c u l l i n g  ( t r i a l s RB1B2 a n d  RB1C3)  This  suggests  f l y w h e e l ergometry  exerted i n s c u l l i n g .  that  i n rowing  the  suggestion energies  simultaneous is in  are  greater  average  falls  that  filming  further  power  short of  the  F u r t h e r s t u d y o f t h e power i n  i s n e c e s s a r y a n d s h o u l d i n c l u d e measurement  as  body  e f f e c t s of the s u b j e c t ' s  a p p l i e d e i t h e r a t the o a r l o c k , the o a r , or well  the  p o w e r s o f t h e b e s t o a r s m e n r e p o r t e d by Hagerman  ( 1978). from  move  for  the  of the f o r c e s  footboards,  a power a n a l y s i s .  investigation  of  the  as  Another  mechanical  r o w i n g a G j e s s i n g RE i s w a r r a n t e d , u s i n g a m e a s u r e  31  of  t h e i n s t a n t a n e o u s work a p p l i e d  well  as  energies.  the  internal  work  due  to the flywheel to  the  o f t h e RE,  subjects'  as  segmental  32  CONCLUSIONS The 1.  d a t a p r e s e n t e d above s u p p o r t t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s :  Based and  on t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n e n e r g y energy  savings  in  the  RE  savings i n the  conditions,  there  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e movements o f t h e when s c u l l i n g a n d t h o s e movements when r o w i n g an 2.  The m a i n d i f f e r e n c e s boat  relative  to  subject,  which  exist sculler  ergometer.  i n s a v i n g s a r e due t o t h e m o t i o n  the  boat  of the  d o e s n o t o c c u r on a  s t a t i o n a r y RE. 3.  The t o t a l  body m e c h a n i c a l e n e r g y  a racing shell  is  greater  a n d i n t e r n a l work o f r o w i n g  than  that  of  rowing  a  rowing  ergometer. 4.  Since  the  total  energy  c o n v e r s i o n s i n t h e wheeled stationary  ergometer,  savings  through  RE a r e g r e a t e r t h a n t h o s e  there  like  and  i n the  i s support f o r a proposal that  f u t u r e t e s t i n g o f oarsmen be c o n d u c t e d wheeled  exchanges  using  some  form  of  c a r t u n d e r t h e RE t o p e r m i t u s e o f h i g h e r , more r a c e -  stroke rates  i n ergometer  testing.  Recommendations Based study,  on t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g g a i n e d w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s  the  biomechanics 1.  following  recommendations  are warranted.  The c o m b i n a t i o n o f f i l m s t u d y a n d oarlock  f o r the study of rowing  or t h e o a r would  mechanical energy  force  recording  i n the  permit further understanding of the  c h a n g e s a n d power f l o w s b e t w e e n t h e o a r s m a n  33  and 2.  the  boat.  A moving camera system, necessary rowing,  for  race 3.  The  reduction  of  i f a whole s t r o k e i s t o  rowing course several  the  to permit  analyzed. ideal  any  is  The  of  Olympic  s t r o k e s c o u l d be s t u d i e d , p e r h a p s  as  under  conditions. changes  in  sculling  t h e s t a r t and a t e a c h An  sizes,  f o r such a study,  technique  that  f a t i g u e d u r i n g a r a c e m i g h t be e x a m i n e d by  4.  image  noise i n the f i l m data  be  i n M o n t r e a l w o u l d be  consecutive  larger  250  o r 500  may  occur  filming  m through the  with  strokes at  race.  i n s t a n t a n e o u s measure of t h e f l y w h e e l a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y rowing ergometer  the mechanical  energy  must be and  i n c l u d e d i n any  internal  f u t u r e study  work o f r o w i n g  of of  ergometers.  34  REFERENCES 1.  E l f t m a n , H. F o r c e s a n d e n e r g y c h a n g e s i n t h e l e g d u r i n g walking. Am. J . P h y s i o l . 125:339-356 ( 1 9 3 9 ) .  2.  Hagerman, F. C , a n d W. D. L e e . M e a s u r e m e n t o f o x y g e n c o n s u m p t i o n , h e a r t r a t e , a n d work o u t p u t d u r i n g r o w i n g Med. S c i . S p o r t s . 3 ( 4 ) : 1 5 5 - 1 6 0 , (1971).  3.  Hagerman, F. C , W. A d d i n g t o n , a n d E. A. G a e n s l e r . A c o m p a r i s o n o f s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s among o u t s t a n d i n g c o m p e t i t i v e o a r s m e n . J _ S p o r t s Med. P h y s . Fitness 12(1 ) : 12-22 ( 1 9 7 2 ) .  4.  Hagerman, F. C , M. D. M c K i r n a n , a n d J . A. P o m p e i . Maximal oxygen consumption o f c o n d i t i o n e d and u n c o n d i t i o n e d oarsmen. J . S p o r t s Med. P h y s . F i t n e s s 15(3):43-48, (1975a)  5.  Hagerman, F. C , W. W. A d d i n g t o n , a n d E. A. G a e n s l e r . Severe steady s t a t e e x e r c i s e a t sea l e v e l and a t a l t i t u d e i n O l y m p i c o a r s m e n . Med. S c i . S p o r t s 7 ( 4 ) : 2 7 5 - 2 7 9 ( 1 9 7 5 b ) .  6.  Hagerman, F. C , M. C. C o n n o r s , J . A. G a u l t , G. R. Hagerman, a n d W. J . P o l i n s k i . Energy e x p e n d i t u r e during simulated rowing. J _ Appl. Physiol. 45(1):87-93, (1978) .  7.  Hagerman, F. C , G. R. Hagerman, a n d T. C. M i c k l e s o n . P h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o f i l e s of e l i t e rowers. P h y s i c i a n and Sportsmedicine 7(7):74-83, (1979).  8.  H e n d e r s o n , Y., a n d H. W. H a g g a r d . The maximum o f human power a n d i t s f u e l . Am. J . Physiol. 72:264-282, (1925).  9.  P e z z a c k , J . C , R. W. Norman, a n d D. A. W i n t e r . An assessment of d e r i v a t i v e d e t e r m i n i n g t e c h n i q u e s used f o r motion a n a l y s i s . J _ B i o m e c h a n i c s 10, 3 7 7 - 3 8 2 , ( 1 9 7 7 ) .  10.  P i e r r y n o w s k i , M. R. E n e r g y l e v e l s o f human body s e g m e n t s d u r i n g l o a d c a r r i a g e on a t r e a d m i l l . M. S c . T h e s i s ; U n i v e r s i t y o f W a t e r l o o , (1978)  11.  P i e r r y n o w s k i , M. R., D. A. W i n t e r , a n d R. W. Norman. T r a n s f e r s o f m e c h a n i c a l e n e r g y w i t h i n t h e t o t a l body a n d mechanical e f f i c i e n c y during t r e a d m i l l walking. Ergonomics 23(2):147-156, (1980).  12.  P i e r r y n o w s k i , M. R., R. W. Norman, a n d D. A. W i n t e r . M e c h a n i c a l e n e r g y a n a l y s e s o f t h e human d u r i n g l o a d c a r r i a g e on a t r e a d m i l l . Ergonomics 24(1):1-14, (1981).  13.  R o b e r t s o n , D. G. E., a n d D. A. W i n t e r . M e c h a n i c a l energy g e n e r a t i o n , a b s o r p t i o n a n d t r a n s f e r amongst s e g m e n t s d u r i n g walking. J _ B i o m e c h a n i c s 13:845-854, ( 1 9 8 0 ) .  35  14.  ' W i n t e r , D. A. a n d D. G. E. R o b e r t s o n . J o i n t t o r q u e and energy p a t t e r n s i n normal g a i t . Biological Cybernetics 29:137-142, (1978).  15.  W i n t e r , D. A. human movement.  16.  W i n t e r , D. A. B i o m e c h a n i c s o f Human Movement T o r o n t o , (1979b)  17.  W o l t r i n g , H. J . C a l i b r a t i o n a n d measurement i n 3d i m e n s i o n a l m o n i t o r i n g o f human m o t i o n by o p t o e l e c t r o n i c means. I . P r e l i m i n a r i e s and t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t s . B i o t e l e m e t r y 2:169-196, ( 1 9 7 5 ) .  18.  W o l t r i n g , H. J . C a l i b r a t i o n a n d measurement i n 3d i m e n s i o n a l m o n i t o r i n g o f human m o t i o n by o p t o e l e c t r o n i c means. I I E x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s and d i s c u s s i o n . B i o t e l e m e t r y 3:65-97, ( 1 9 7 6 ) .  A new d e f i n i t i o n o f m e c h a n i c a l work done i n J _ Appl. Physiol. 46(0:79-83, (1979a). Wiley,  36  APPENDIX _ - DEFINITIONS  Rowing Terms. defined  catch  following  rowing  terms  were  operationally  f o r d i s c u s s i o n of r o w i n g a c t i o n s :  -  normally  rower p u t s begin was  The  that  the blade  p a r t of the  p o r t i o n of the o a r ( s )  p u l l i n g to propel  the p o s i t i o n of the  moving  forward  on  rowing s t r o k e  the  the boat;  slide during the  slide  the  i n t o the water  to  f o r t h i s study  r o w e r when he  s t a r t e d t o move back on  i n which  o r she  recovery,  the  "catch"  was  no  longer  and  had  not  i n the d r i v e ( t h i s p o s i t i o n  was  i d e n t i f i e d by t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e o a r h a n d l e when i t  at  i t s furthest point  moving forward  nor  the  s q u a r e d , and  oar  finish  -  handle  with  the blade  t h a t p a r t of the  the  the  blade(s)  to begin  the  blade(s)  position  the  of the  from  recovery;  the  rower  had  during  not  s t r o k e from the c a t c h r a t e - or - s t r o k e r a t e -  and study  rower  t h e bow  -  oar is  i n which  the  oar  handle(s),  feathers finish  of the boat) at the  recovery  was  drive  h a n d l e had  s t a r t e d moving forward  the  the  p o r t i o n of the  the  water,  for this  neither  boat.  s u b j e c t when t h e o a r  moving backwards (toward t h e d r i v e , and  the  was  rower.  rowing s t r o k e  rower c o m p l e t e s the d r i v e , s t o p s p u l l i n g removes  was  s u r f a c e of the water; the  s t r o k e used to p r o p e l  normally  to the  rowing stroke i n which  beneath the  the p a r t of the  r o w e r ' s b o d y , and  backward w i t h r e s p e c t  d r i v e - t h a t p a r t of the pulling  from the  yet  the meant  stopped end  with respect  the o p p o s i t e  end  of  of to the  position. the  stroke  frequency  expressed  in  37  strokes  per  minute,  m i n u t e " , and considered  "striking  extrapolated  strokes recovery and  "rowing  30," and o t h e r  a t 30",  "30  strokes  per  similar  expressions  are  equivalent,  r a t e watch - a c a l i b r a t e d rate  eg.,  stopwatch which  - t h a t p a r t of the rowing s t r o k e the  the  stroke  from the time r e q u i r e d t o complete 3 or 4  ( d e p e n d i n g upon t h e c a l i b r a t i o n  before  displays  of t h e watch f a c e ) , following  the  finish  c a t c h , when t h e r o w e r p r e p a r e s f o r t h e n e x t  stroke. sculling  - rowing i n a boat u s i n g  one on e a c h s i d e o f t h e b o a t shell  -  a boat used f o r f l a t  two  oars ( s c u l l s ) per  (c.f. water  person,  "sweep").  race  rowing - a l s o c a l l e d  a  "skiff". s l i d e - t h e t h e t r a c k s w h i c h g u i d e t h e movement o f t h e w h e e l s the  rower's seat  in a  shell,  s t r e t c h e r - the p a r t of the s h e l l feet during sweep the  -  shell;  a  the  one  oar  minimum  Discussion  operational  rower's  (sweep) on one of  rowers  of mechanical energy  definition  - see " i n t e r c o n v e r s i o n " ,  two  s i d e of while  partners.  terms:  conversion  the  "footboard"  be done a l o n e o r w i t h  A n a l y s i s Terms.  study required -  i n a boat u s i n g  sweeps r e q u i r e  s c u l l i n g may  Energy  used t o p o s i t i o n  rowing; a l s o c a l l e d  rowing  of  below.  of  the  in this  following  38  interconversion  -  (energy  interconversion)  e x p r e s s i o n of the mechanical energy i.  e.,  when  energy  an  object  t h e change i n t h e  within  i s dropped  a  body  from a h e i g h t p o t e n t i a l  i s converted or i n t e r c o n v e r t e d t o k i n e t i c  exchange - (energy energy  from  "generated" reactions  exchange) one  in  body  the  between  the  transmission  part  anterior  to  deltoid  energy,  of  another  mechanical  e. g . ,  muscle  by  energy chemical  a c t i n , myosin, and adenosine t r i p h o s p h a t e  is transferred to  the  shoulder  flexion  (described  Robertson  (1978), and i n Robertson and W i n t e r  i s exchanged  segment  forearm  among s e g m e n t s  segment in  when  in  the  action  of  E l f t m a n (1939), W i n t e r and  the  (1980).  Energy  deceleration  segment c a u s e s a c c e l e r a t i o n o f an a d j a c e n t o r n e a r b y  of  one  segment.  These  d e f i n i t i o n s of i n t e r c o n v e r s i o n and exchange of m e c h a n i c a l  energy  differ  from those p r e v i o u s l y used.  Caldwell  exchange t o d i s c u s s both c o n v e r s i o n and exchange. et  a l . (1980)  used t r a n s f e r  (1980)  used  Pierrynowski,  t o e x p r e s s t h e two v a l u e s .  The u s e  o f two t e r m s whose d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s a r e more s u i t e d t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of d i f f e r e n t energy  of  an  object  same t e r m , w h e t h e r sources  of  energy  for people less this work  i s perhaps  motion  the  mechanical  l e s s ambiguous than u s i n g t h e  exchange o r t r a n s f e r , saving.  on  to  discuss  different  T h i s may be p a r t i c u l a r l y  f a m i l i a r with the concepts  and  important  terminology  of  study and o t h e r s l i k e i t . -  energy  used  to  describe  the  change i n t h e t o t a l  o f a segment o r o f a b o d y ; a l s o c a l l e d  internal in  e f f e c t s of  work; t h e energy  space - d i s t i n c t  mechanical  pseudowork  c h a n g e r e q u i r e d t o move body  from e x t e r n a l work, which  is  the  or  parts energy  39  change  required  to  effect  s u r r o u n d i n g s o f t h e body a g a i n s t  a  change gravity.  in  the  immediate  40  APPENDIX 2 - SYMBOLS USED I N THE PAPER E  k  E  - kinetic  kt  E  kr  E  energy  - translational - rotational  - potential  kinetic  kinetic  energy  energy  energy  P P  d  S  e  - a v e r a g e power - energy  i n t h e d r i v e phase of a  stroke  " s a v e d " by e x c h a n g e among s e g m e n t s e x p r e s s e d a s a  p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l m e c h a n i c a l work r e q u i r e d exchange nor c o n v e r s i o n S  i  - energy  of mechanical  " s a v e d " by i n t e r c o n v e r s i o n  with  energy.  within  segments,  expressed as a percentage of the t o t a l mechanical required  with neither  neither  exchange nor c o n v e r s i o n  work  of mechanical  energy. W  e  - work r e q u i r e d of energy  W  i  t o move t h e s e g m e n t s o f t h e body i f e x c h a n g e  was p e r m i t t e d ,  but i n t e r c o n v e r s i o n  not p e r m i t t e d .  (Equation  #5)  - work r e q u i r e d  t o move t h e s e g m e n t s o f t h e body  b o t h exchange and i n t e r c o n v e r s i o n (Equation W  n  o f e n e r g y was  energy  #4)  - Work r e q u i r e d  t o move t h e s e g m e n t s o f t h e body i f n e i t h e r  exchange nor i n t e r c o n v e r s i o n (Equation  of mechanical  allowing  #6).  o f e n e r g y was  permitted  41  APPENDIX 3 - ENERGY PLOTS OF SUBJECTS 2. 3. AND  4  42  TOTAL BODY AND TORSO+THIGHS KINETIC ENERGY SUBJECT 2  400 _L  0.00 0.25 0.50 0 . 7 5  FIGURE 4 .  I'.OO 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.  TIME [SECONDS]  43  TOTAL BODY AND TORSO+THIGHS KINETIC ENERGY SUBJECT 3 TRIAL CODE: SUBJ 3  FIGURE 5.  TIME (SECONDS)  44  flnn  TOTAL BODY AND TORSO+THIGHS KINETIC ENERGY SUBJECT 4  o.oa  0.25  FIGURE 6.  0.75  1.00  1.25  TIME ISECONDS)  1.50  45  APPENDIX 4 - REVIEW OF LITERATURE The  study of the mechanical  requires  familiarity  anthropometry  with  energy  three  a s a p p l i e d t o human  variations  areas  in  movement,  of  the  rowing  literature:  mechanical  energy  studies  o f human movement, a n d m e c h a n i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e r o w i n g  stroke.  This review contains a b r i e f  anthropometry of  s u r v e y some commonly  s t u d i e s a n d a s h o r t r e v i e w o f some r e c e n t  the i n e r t i a l  p r o p e r t i e s o f human body s e g m e n t s .  used  studies  As w e l l ,  an  effort  h a s been made t o s u r v e y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e m e c h a n i c a l  energy  methods used  development  of  in this  these  study, w i t h the aim of f o l l o w i n g the  methods  r a t h e r than l i s t i n g every  paper  r e p o r t i n g use o f t h e s e methods.  The s e c t i o n on t h e m e c h a n i c s o f  rowing  of  i s incomplete,  as  most  are  more  aspects  scientific.  The a i m i n t h e r o w i n g s e c t i o n o f t h i s  material  rowing  reports  mechanical  be a s c o m p l e t e  of  the  as p o s s i b l e  using  objective  in  surveying  measures  of  the  published  subjective  on than  r e v i e w was t o  English  language  mechanical  aspects of  rowing.  Anthropometry The  study of the mechanical p r o p e r t i e s  requires  a  distribution segments. inertial  knowledge and There  of  inertial have  been  or  a  model  properties  complexity  the  (Chandler, et a l .  representative  movement the  body  mass  and i t s  few  studies  of  the  mainly  because  of  the  of such s t u d i e s and the d i f f i c u l t y  sample d i s t r i b u t i o n s  human  describing of  relatively  p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e human b o d y ,  of  of  the  1975; M c C o n v i l l e , e t a l .  i n obtaining human 1980).  good  population  46  The c e n t r e including (i.  o f g r a v i t y (CG) i s m e a s u r e d i n a number o f ways,  reaction  boards, balance boards, and " g r a v i t y  e . , l o c a t i n g t h e e.g.  at  the intersection  of  lines"  vertical  l i n e s drawn down f r o m 3 o r more d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f s u s p e n s i o n ) . Moments  of  inertia  s u b j e c t s by h o l d i n g releasing the  t h e segment a g a i n s t  t h e segment  segment  a  maximal  The  study  contraction,  suddenly, measuring the a c c e l e r a t i o n of  immediately a f t e r r e l e a s e , and using  computation. segment  c a n be m e a s u r e d i n a few s e g m e n t s i n l i v e  usual  method  f o r whole  the  body  appropriate and  i s t h a t o f t h e compound p e n d u l u m , w h i c h  " s u s p e n d i n g t h e body  [ o r s e g m e n t ] f r o m some f i x e d  cadaver involves  point  [which  may  be e x t e r n a l t o t h e o b j e c t ] , s e t t i n g i t i n m o t i o n by s h i f t i n g  it  a few d e g r e e s f r o m i t s e q u i l i b r i u m p o s i t i o n , a n d d e t e r m i n i n g  i t s period of o s c i l l a t i o n . . . " entered  i n the  (Hay, 1 9 7 4 ) .  This period  i s then  equation: I  = WhT /4(7r)2 2  o  where (I  o  axis the  i s t h e moment o f i n e r t i a through  o f t h e body  or  part  about  an  t h e p o i n t o f s u s p e n s i o n 0, W i s t h e w e i g h t o f  body o r p a r t , h i s t h e d i s t a n c e  f r o m 0 t o t h e CG  of the  o b j e c t , and T i s the p e r i o d of o s c i l l a t i o n . Two the  other  values,  t h e moment o f i n e r t i a  radius of gyration  a b o u t t h e CG ( I ) a n d eg  ( k ) may be c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g : I  =1  eg k  o  - mh , a n d 2  o  = sqrtd  o  /m)  47  where m i s t h e mass o f t h e B r a u n e and F i s c h e r studies  of  object.  (1889) and F i s c h e r  (1906) p r e s e n t  t h e CG and o f t h e moments o f i n e r t i a ,  of human c a d a v e r s and c a d a v e r s e g m e n t s .  These  early  respectively,  German  language  p a p e r s h a v e been s u m m a r i z e d  a n d a b r i d g e d by Krogman a n d J o h n s t o n  (1963)  (1973,1974).  a n d r e v i e w e d by Hay  The  Braune and  d a t a a n d t h e F i s c h e r d a t a h a v e been u s e d i n a b i o m e c h a n i c s s t u d i e s e. g., F e n n Use data  studying  (particularly reasons.  Fischer  small in  kinetic  in athletes)  First,  generally  the  the  in  to  (1906)  properties  motion  of  was  very  while  the  small  (44.057  Second,  one  the  subjects  next major  were  by Hay  (1973,1974).  body a n d  /  cm)  the c a d a v e r s used i n  the  thus  and  t h e saw c u t s  inaccurate  due  gyration were  the  1973).  (1955).  inertiai  That paper  has  by Krogman and J o h n s t o n ( 1 9 6 3 ) , and r e v i e w e d Dempster's  study included  the r a t i o s of d i s t a n c e  the  CG  between  of  t h e CG  lighter,  studied. and o l d e r  Dempster's (the youngest  52) t h a n t h e a v e r a g e w h i t e m a l e  or  seven  and  of  cadavers  listed  military  the  (segment  m a s s ) , a n d moments o f i n e r t i a and r a d i i  o f e a c h segment  smaller,  age was  -body  used  to  s t u d y o f t h e mass d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d  i t s segments,  total  were  150.5  kg,  e a c h s e g m e n t ' s e n d s , t h e mass f r a c t i o n s o f t h e s e g m e n t s mass  of  by  p r o p e r t i e s o f humans i s t h a t o f D e m p s t e r a l s o been condensed  number  used  i n c o n s i s t e n t p o s i t i o n i n g o f t h e c a d a v e r s (Hay, The  a  cadaver  s t u d y were n o t p o s i t i o n e d a c c u r a t e l y ;  segment  human  c a d a v e r s u s e d by B r a u n e and F i s c h e r  (Krogman and J o h n s t o n , 1 9 6 3 ) . earlier  early  (1889) a n d t h e F i s c h e r  i s n o t recommended f o r  stature,  1906  of  (1930) a n d E l f t m a n ( 1 9 3 9 ) .  o f t h e B r a u n e and F i s c h e r  for  number  Fischer  cadaver  personnel  48  (Dempster,  1955).  Dempster's  t h a t o f B r a u n e and  F i s c h e r , but  the was  population  data are  h a v e been u s e d t o  still  not  of a t h l e t e s from w h i c h the  representative  sample i n t h i s  (1974) s u g g e s t s t h a t d a t a  f o r the cadaver  kinetics  s t u d i e s , rather than average data.  t h i s area  the aim the  have s t u d i e d the  estimation  use  of  i n the  Dempster's.  13  Most  embalmed  have  et  information.  the  inertial  for  Future  k i n e t i c s o f humans s h o u l d  completed  attempt  properties  al.  (1975),  those and  McConville,  two  separate  position  of  the  s e g m e n t a l CGs  o f t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n segment  between  p o s t e r i o r landmarks. of  Clauser,  Dempster's  by  position  t h e two  segments than d i d Dempster.  on  the  (in  and  al.  (1955).  The  most  neck  and  to  as  study main  D e m p s t e r was  due  CG  between  Data from t h a t  These d i f f e r e n c e s are p r o b a b l y  having  since  were g i v e n  ends,  t h e h e a d segment  et a l .  et  planes  e t a l _ . , (1976) and  t h e mass f r a c t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d  used a h i g h e r  mass  l o c a t i o n of the  in  to those  the  of C l a u s e r , et a l .  cadavers,  The  segments.  of  p r o p e r t i e s of t h e human body  et a l , (1969) s t u d i e d the  were q u i t e s i m i l a r  torso  studies  regression equations  subject  been  inertial  a n t e r i o r and  difference  valid  worthy of n o t e a r e  Clauser,  proportions certain  the  Chandler,  segments).  More r e c e n t  p r o p e r t i e s o f humans w i t h  information to describe  studies  d i s t r i b u t i o n and  in  and  used f o r  subjects.  Several  (1980).  individual  kinematics  t h i s new  individual  (1969),  inertial  of p r o v i d i n g r e l i a b l e and  research  of  study  i n Dempster's  t a b l e s o f d a t a most n e a r l y m a t c h e d w i t h e a c h s u b j e c t be  to  of  drawn. Hay  in  replace  to  by  in the  Clauser separate  49  Chandler, of the The  inertial  small  cadavers  p r o p e r t i e s o f s i x f r o z e n embalmed m a l e  sample  size,  model.  the  and  use  of two  reduced  et a_l.  the  s t a t e , almost  photography  inertia  pendulum  in a t r i a l  ( 1980) to  assess  to assess  The  not  the  first  total  body and  be  of the  principal  stereometric  equations x-,  y-,  and  compared The  authors, i f  method h a d  not  agreed  anatomical  landmarks rather  p r i n c i p a l a x i s s y s t e m e x t e r n a l t o t h e segment  developed  the  head  and  significantly  i n d i c a t e d by  reduced  axes  was  volume, u s u a l l y found centre  is  than being  neck,  more  the the  accurate  standard e r r o r s of  w i t h t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e moments'  m a i n f a u l t w i t h t h i s s t u d y was  principal  the  to  t o p r e d i c t t h e moments a b o u t  z - a x e s were  t h e mean v a l u e s , a s  estimate  method  n o t h a v e been c o m p l e t e d . ) T h i s  using  In a l l segments except  regression  using  segmental  compound p e n d u l u m  the photographic  study  males  (According to those  s u b j e c t , t h e s t u d y may  some  studied.  mass  are  s h o u l d not  d e f i n e t h e p r i n c i p a l a x e s f o r t h e moment o f i n e r t i a ,  the  the  categorically,  living  the accuracy  body moments.  method and  a p p e a r s t o be  means.  of  presented  s t u d i e d 31  i n three axes.  used as c r i t e r i o n  measure f o r t o t a l  than  three  such.  moments o f  using  cadavers.  accuracy  equations  study  groups of  o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n of a d u l t m a l e s , a n d  stereometric  the  the  regression  M c C o n v i l l e , et a_l.  was  and  Chandler  data  reflections used as  (1975), provide a three-dimensional  in different positions  proposed that  et a l .  located  distal  the  at  that  position  origin  the segmental c e n t r e s  t o t h e c e n t r e of  usual  the  about  p r o p e r t i e s are s t u d i e d (McConville, et a l . ,  mass, which  1980).  while  of of the  inertial  50  E n e r g y a n d Work Early are  r e p o r t s d e s c r i b i n g m e c h a n i c a l e n e r g y i n human  those  o f Fenn ( 1 9 3 0 ) , a n d E l f t m a n ( 1 9 3 9 ) .  speed f i l m i n g t o study t h e changes body  and  used as r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s the  calculation  Fenn u s e d  i n the k i n e t i c  i t s segments i n s p r i n t i n g .  to  exchanges  no  The  calculated  allowance  e t a_l.  ( 1 964)  studied  value  running, recording  a c c e l e r o m e t e r p l a c e d n e a r t h e CG.  Velocity  data  energy of the trunk. energies  work  of  the  were  Accelerations velocity  then used i n c a l c u l a t i n g  Cavagna e t a l .  (1964)  from  also  of  energy p a t t e r n s  studied  l i m b s w i t h t h e trunk as a r e f e r e n c e  (Winter, the  et  a l . , (1969))  1979).  velocity  ( e . g., Cavagna, are  e t a l . , (1964); discussed later  derived  from f o r c e s  similar  to  the  body  i n t h i s review to  study  (hence a c c e l e r a t i o n s ) t o  The p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  this  et a l . ,  approach  are  those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h u s i n g the a c c e l e r a t i o n of the  CG f o r e n e r g y a s s e s s m e n t . (1964)  the  ( 1964);  c a l c u l a t e KE ( e g . , C a v a g n a a n d M a r g a r i a ( 1 9 6 6 ) , C a v a g n a , (1971,1976)).  were  "point".  Gage,  Other s t u d i e s have used f o r c e p l a t e s as  a  the k i n e t i c  F l a w s i n t h e use of t r u n k a c c e l e r a t i o n d a t a t o d e r i v e t o t a l  Gersten,  was  was made f o r t r a n s f e r s o r  i n t e g r a t e d with respect t o time t o o b t a i n the CG.  f r o m body t o  of energy.  Cavagna, tri-axial  since  simplify  i n t h e KE o f t h e arms a n d l e g s , a n d  l i m b s o r from l i m b s t o body. high  the  The s u b j e c t s ' b o d i e s were  t o t r y t o e l i m i n a t e c a l c u l a t i o n of energy exchanges  extremely  high-  energy of  f o r the segmental motions  of changes  motion  B o t h t h e F e n n (1930) a n d t h e  r e p o r t s e s t i m a t e t h e KE o f t h e l i m b s i n c o r r e c t l y .  Cavagna Smith  51  (1975) i n d i c a t e s t h a t Fenn's c a l c u l a t i o n s a p p l y segmental  velocity  horizontal  when  the  i s p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h a t of t h e body, a r a r e  occurrence, and t h a t a b s o l u t e segmental and  only  velocity  (both  c o m p o n e n t s , i n a two d i m e n s i o n a l  vertical  s t u d y ) must be  u s e d t o c a l c u l a t e t h e KE o f a l i m b o r segment. In a c l a s s i c walking,  Elftman  study  of  the  kinetics  and  kinematics  (1939) s y n c h r o n i z e d f o r c e - p l a t e d a t a w i t h  d a t a t o examine t h e r a t e s of t r a n s f e r o f m e c h a n i c a l segments.  Energy exchange  Elftman's  study  the formulae  to  isdifficult,  used t o  chief hindrance  was  compute  studied.  acceleration  information  energy-time  greatly  of  from  computer  collection  the  film.  o f Fenn's  technology  The  techniques velocity  These  manual  study.  to gait  have  Errors associated  a l s o been r e d u c e d ,  f o r humans t o c o l l e c t d a t a .  s t u d i e s has  The c h i e f  i s now a t t h e s t a g e o f f i l m d a t a  al.  (1974),  Pezzack,  et a l .  remaining  o f human  (Winter,  et  energy  patterns i n walking, raw  kinematic  f o r c e s a n d power  f l o w s were  computed  f o r a l l segments, s t a r t i n g w i t h t h e swinging  l e g , and  working  back  through  the  Joint  data  Quanbury, W i n t e r , and  using a television-computer interface to collect automatically.  manual  source  collection  (1977)).  (1975) s t u d i e d t h e m e c h a n i c a l  with  by r e d u c i n g t h e o p p o r t u n i t y  error  data  of  i n c r e a s e d t h e q u a n t i t y , a n d , i t i s hoped t h e q u a l i t y , o f  d a t a t h a t c a n be s t u d i e d .  Reimer  patterns.  d a t a t o o b t a i n segment  techniques a l s o affected the accuracy Introduction  among  Replication  t o E l f t m a n was t h e n e e d t o u s e m a n u a l displacemant  film  b e c a u s e t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n o f the  differentiate  and  not  energy  of  pelvis  to  the  supporting  leg.  These  c a l c u l a t i o n s were done o n l y f o r t h e s i n g l e l e g s u p p o r t p h a s e  of  52  the to  walking  stride.  An e s t i m a t e o f g r o u n d r e a c t i o n f o r c e  t h e s u p p o r t i n g f o o t was c o m p u t e d .  possible  to  calculate  GRF  body i s n o t i d e a l l y s u i t e d assumptions  of  Quanbury, e t calculated Smith  that  be  theoretically  model  were  unable  as i t v i o l a t e s  to  corroborate  contrasted  velocity  t h e use of a b s o l u t e v e l o c i t y  (also  It  u s e d by C a v a g n a , e t a l .  t o a s i g n i f i c a n t amount o f t h e KE  segment's  velocity.  velocity  Norman,  et  was  §_.  and  perpendicular  t h e sum o f t h e a b s o l u t e v a l u e s energy all  changes,  of  the  movement.  for  time This  of  in  rare  to  the  "pseudowork"  is  instance body's  "mechanical  energy of  and  a l l segments i n a l i n k - s e g m e n t (film  most  the  P s e u d o w o r k was c o m p u t e d a s a l l potential  intervals  shown  ( 1 9 6 4 ) ) was  (1976) c o i n e d t h e t e r m  segments d u r i n g w a l k i n g .  was  present  pseudowork" t o d e s c r i b e t h e changes i n mechanical limbs  and  o f s e g m e n t s w i t h F e n n ' s ( 1 9 3 0 ) method o f  movements, a s i t was o n l y v a l i d a t t h e v e r y  when a  their  with real force plate data.  method  insensitive  the  i n a number o f ways.  KE, i n s t u d y i n g a j u m p i n g movement.  Fenn's  human  t o the a n a l y s i s ,  (1975)  (1975)  the r o t a t i o n a l  may  f r o m k i n e m a t i c d a t a , b u t t h e human  link-segment  a l .  GRF  calculating  the  It  (GRF)  frames) equivalent  kinetic  model, f o r  included  in  t o the term  the "W  " n  ( e q u a t i o n #6), u s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t v a l u e s of a l l intra-segment artificially Winter,  h i g h "work" (1979)  study.  Using  the  e n e r g y c h a n g e s , a s i n Wn,  absolute c r e a t e s an  term.  expanding  on  the  concept  of pseudowork,  d e f i n e s " i n t e r n a l " work o f human movement a s a l l p o t e n t i a l kinetic  energy  d u r i n g movement.  changes  that occur  The d i s t i n c t i o n  and  i n a l l s e g m e n t s o f t h e body  drawn  between  internal  and  53  external  work i s t h a t e x t e r n a l work i s a m e a s u r e o f movement o f  an o b j e c t  ( t h e body) t h r o u g h  some v e r t i c a l d i s p l a c e m e n t  c h a n g e i n PE o r an i n c r e a s e i n measure  of  the  energy  velocity;  changes  (PE  internal  and  i . e., a  work  KE) o c c u r i n g  segments w h i l e moving, perhaps d u r i n g e x t e r n a l  work.  work  energies  is  the  sum  of  segments, i n a l l time differs  the  total  mechanical  i n t e r v a l s o f a movement.  from pseudowork  (Norman, e t a l .  is a  This  in a l l  Internal of a l l  calculation  (1976) i n t h a t  internal  work i s t h e "raw" sum o f t h e e n e r g y c h a n g e s , w h i l e p s e u d o w o r k i s the  sum o f t h e a b s o l u t e v a l u e s o f  triangle  inequality  (|a+b|  work i s a l w a y s l e s s Winter's  (1979)  than  term  ^  or  those  energy  changes.  |a|+|b|) d i c t a t e s t h a t (rarely)  "internal  equal  to  The  internal  pseudowork.  work" i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e W i  computed e a r l i e r in  the  i n t h i s paper  calculations  (equation  presented  #4).  by W i n t e r  A  minor  problem  i s that, although the  e x t e r n a l work i s assumed t o e q u a l  zero  usually  amount o f e x t e r n a l w o r k .  occurs  introduces when t h e t o t a l  is different controlled in  some  the  from t h a t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g  digitized  data,  This error  Winter's  of t h e c y c l e .  Often, i n  recognized  and  corrected  work  term i s c r e d i t e d w i t h  requires  f o r by  identifying  e n e r g y o f t h e body a n d s e g m e n t s  d e t e c t e d by s t u d y i n g t h e m o t i o n o f t h e t o t a l  running  (noise)  (1980).  internal  Movement o f t h e l i m b s  This  i n t r o d u c e d by t h e human o p e r a t i n g t h e  was  changes i n t h e mechanical  and  process  body e n e r g y a t t h e e n d o f a movement c y c l e  Pierrynowski, et a l .  not  digitizing  s i t u a t i o n s , t h e e r r o r i s due t o s m a l l e r r o r s  digitizer.  are  small  the  i n r e c i p r o c a l movements some  work  such  as  which  body CG. walking  from t h e m u s c l e s , a l o n g  with  54  p a s s i v e energy changes.  Motions  by  as  following  the  CG,  of the l i m b s are  i n Cavagna, et a l .  ( 1 9 7 9 ) c o m p a r e d t h e e n e r g y p a t t e r n s o f t h e CG work  (W  i  )  of  underestimated  the  body,  and  showed  the a c t u a l mechanical  w i t h t h e method f o r W  detected  (1964).  Winter  w i t h the  that  work o f  , t h i s p a p e r ) by  not  the  internal CG  walking  16 t o 40  "work" (measured  percent.  i Pierrynowski, Winter,  and Norman ( 1 9 8 0 ) f u r t h e r a d a p t e d  c a l c u l a t i o n s of the energy a n a l y s i s . further  partitioned  to permit  This  was  equivalent  the  transfer  done by a d d i n g  " i n s t a n t a n e o u s " changes of calculation  the  is  "work" c a l c u l a t i o n  (mathematically)  energy w i t h i n segments, but not segments.  The  that  of  of  total  "W  "  was  t h e e x c h a n g e of energy  among  the a b s o l u t e v a l u e s of  segment  the  energies.  (equation  the The  #5,  this  e paper).  P i e r r y n o w s k i , et  external  work  (W  ,  al.  (1980)  equation  #3,  then  removed  t h i s p a p e r ) , and  apparent calculated  t e n e r g y t r a n s f e r s and "work"  e x c h a n g e s by  s u b t r a c t i o n of the  terms.  P i e r r y n o w s k i , e_t a l . , ( 1980) term, and  attempting  the  muscular represent  to  different  account  the  The  metabolic appears  a l s o c a l c u l a t e d an  efficiency  f o r i n t e r n a l work, e x t e r n a l work,  efficiencies  contraction.  contractions and  appropriate  of  choice  concentric of  the  efficiencies  of  and  eccentric  numbers the  used  to  different  t o h a v e b e e n somewhat a r b i t r a r y ,  however,  i s open t o q u e s t i o n . Robertson  powers,  and  and  Winter  segmental  (1980)  energy  studied  patterns  of  joint  and  muscle  the lower  limb in  55  normal w a l k i n g . arithmetic  The  were  data  thigh  and  foot.  The  the  A f o r c e p l a t e was  to study  energy curves  model  the  shank  similar  segments,  f o r the  and  f o o t segment e n e r g i e s step  cycle,  entire  showed the  ankle  was  attributed  components  to the  (opposite  measurement  would  d e l i v e r e d t o the  in  to the  of the c o n c l u s i o n s  study  Winter,  of  of t h a t study  was  n o r m a l and  to  o f l o a d c a r r i a g e and  design.  study  Another study  locomotion  is  that  m e c h a n i c a l c o s t and levels  greater  the  through  j o i n t powers v a r i e d stages  of  energy r e s u l t s f o r  a  the the  m u s c l e power  small  change i n the  error total  (1981) a p p l i e d the  in power  of  Caldwell  methods f o r  Problems a s s o c i a t e d  of  the  with  l a b o r a t o r y were i d e n t i f i e d  One  (1980).  stationary  applied  of  backpack  other  of  Caldwell studied  the  exchanges) i n  More s k i l l e d  total  be  forms  t h e e n e r g y t r a n s f e r s (and skiers .  could  p o s s i b l y to study  s k i r a c e r s were f o u n d t o e x c h a n g e  proportion  energy  t h a t t h e methods p r e v i o u s l y  pathological walking  u s i n g these  of c r o s s - c o u n t r y  competitive)  in  l o a d c a r r i a g e on a t r e a d m i l l .  used t o study the  the  foot.  P i e r r y n o w s k i , Norman and calculations  in  change  push-off  where  cause c o n s i d e r a b l e  the  segmental  stride  l a r g e j o i n t power and  sign),  energy  with  stride  little  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n power and  foot  mechanical  f o r most o f t h e  while  difference  T o t a l power and  c o n s i d e r a b l y a t t h e w e i g h t a c c e p t a n c e and step.  finite  used i n c o n j u n c t i o n  j o i n t powers.  were v e r y  entire  and  used to d e r i v e instantaneous  from f i l m d a t a . film  link-segment  (internationally and  transfer  "pseudowork" than cameras  outside  t o be  a  novices.  as:  - c a m e r a - o b j e c t d i s t a n c e has  two  large.  of  the  56  - a wide f i e l d  of view  i s needed t o  ensure  filming at  l e a s t one  - t h e two give small  complete  movement c y c l e ,  r e s t r i c t i o n s above combine t o  very image  size,  t h u s a low  signal:noise  ratio; In  the p r e s e n t study  the  digitizing  was  (digitized)  image was  accuracy  of  the  r e s t r i c t e d as t h e p r o j e c t e d only  about  3%  life  size. Komi, runners  e t a l . , (1981) s t u d i e d t h e m e c h a n i c a l energy  at  the  accumulate.  speeds  High  at  which  correlations  blood  muscle  l a t e r a l i s muscle.  the  for  S u b j e c t s were n o t t e s t e d , n o r were running  Future  further  speeds  relationships  f e a t u r e s of r u n n i n g .  Mechanics  and  aspects  other  than  the  between  the  lactate energy  subject,  mechanical  to and  Rowing  English-language of r o w i n g .  studies  exist  in  the  A s e a r c h of the l i t e r a t u r e  studies  to study the rowing  stroke  approach  cycle.  literature  existing  mechanical  f o u n d no  u s i n g the mechanical energy Most  of  mechanical  r u n n i n g s t u d i e s w i t h m e t a b o l i c and  metabolic  Few  average  percentage  measures s h o u l d t e s t a t a v a r i e t y of speeds i n each test  to  f i b r e s measured from b i o p s i e s of the v a s t u s  energies assessed at "threshold".  begins  were f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e  power o u t p u t a t t h e m e a s u r e d v e l o c i t i e s and slow-twitch  lactate  of n i n e  on  the  mechanics  or  57  biomechanics equipment  of  rowing  design  consider  hydrodynamics,  force at the oar-handle  other  literature  subjective observations A  recently  biomechanical it  (Zsidegh, each  technique, Zsidegh's  review  force review  over a timed  velocity. relatively  physiological sports  rate  i s useful as  upon  impulse  i s useful  and  rigging  are  mentioned.  f o r guiding a search  of t h e non-  rowing.  oarsman i n t a k i n g a s t r o k e , a n d d i s c u s s e s  required  Cameron ( 1 9 6 7 ) e v a l u a t e d  shell design,  structural  rowing  to  evaluated  actually the  various  (widest p o i n t ) and surface  using  roughness,  effects  length, viscous  r e l a t i v e v e l o c i t y of a rowing Pope ( 1 9 7 3 ) d e s i g n e d at  the  oar  water  design,  drag,  and  of  and  other  asymmetric  other  a t t e n t i o n was  Wellicome  (1967)  depth, boat  breadth  shell wave  cross-section, dynamics  on t h e  shell.  a t h e o r e t i c a l model t o  o a r , power a p p l i c a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t  the o a r l o c k , effects  equipment; l i t t l e  of  rowing.  oar s t i f f n e s s , and  the equipment.  of  the timing of the  power a p p l i c a t i o n i n a r o w i n g s t y l e n o t common i n modern  paid  (in  i n t e r v a l ) , a n d s t u d i e s on s t r o k e  development,  of  and  p a p e r s on r o w i n g  (1967) d e s c r i b e s t h e " i d e a l " m o t i o n s  aspects  at  rowing.  of rowing and p a d d l i n g  E n g l i s h work on t h e m e c h a n i c s o f  the  of  of  The e f f e c t o f s t r o k e  and  Williams  shell  some o f t h e non E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e  1981).  stroke  on  here) contains  of the kinematics  published  aspects  discusses  (notreported  and  (and c o n s e q u e n t l y ,  the b l a d e ) , o r the e f f e c t s of s t r o k e r a t e Most  boat  factors.  The  include  force  t o the p o s i t i o n of  model  simplified  the  f o r c e a p p l i c a t i o n ( c a u s i n g yaw), and o f  t h e movement o f t h e s y s t e m ' s t o t a l CG d u r i n g  the  stroke.  Some  58  insights  were  gained  regarding  the p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  changes i n t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e o a r l o c k of  the  front of the s l i d e .  relative  to the  position  Pope a p p e a r s t o r e c o g n i z e  numerous  human f a c t o r s e x e r t i n g a t l e a s t a s much i n f l u e n c e on b o a t as  the  equipment.  After developing  states,  "... r o w i n g i s an  clearly  understood."  McMahon racing  (1971)  studied  of  lightweight  speeds  theoretical  affair  lightweight  t o a heavyweight s h e l l ,  weight  to  shell.  I t was p r o p o s e d t h a t  and  the  men,  and  this  heavyweight  was m o d e l l e d t o be  be  on t h e  crews.  A  geometrically  i n terms of the r a t i o s  l e n g t h , b r e a d t h , and w e t t e d s u r f a c e  heavyweight crews should  Pope  must  e f f e c t of boat design  and  shell  similar  t h e model a t l e n g t h ,  of  the  speed  of  crew  area of the  s i m i l a r s h e l l s rowed by l i g h t w e i g h t f i n i s h a race  i n t h e same  time.  Another approach t o mechanics i n rowing i s t h a t of B r e a r l e y (1977). was  The moment a b o u t t h e s t e r n o f e i g h t - m a n  calculated  the  oars.  for  "standard"  The s t a n d a r d  left  r i g , with  side of the s h e l l ) ,  t h e sweeps s t a g g e r e d f r o m and s t r o k e  i t s course throughout each s t r o k e .  the  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e sum o f t h e d i s t a n c e s  to  the  different the  pulled  (#8)  on  This  wavering from  i s due t o the  stern  the greater  sum o f  distances  At of  r i g g e r s c a u s e s t h e bow o f t h e b o a t t o be p u s h e d o r  slightly  respectively.  (#8) on t h e p o r t  on p r o t s i d e a n d t h e same sum on s t a r b o a r d .  parts of the stroke,  starboard  bow  was shown t o c a u s e t h e b o a t t o waver  in  riggers  shells  r i g a n d f o r an a l t e r n a t e r i g o f  t o s t e r n , w i t h bow (#1) on s t a r b o a r d or  racing  off  course  at  The a l t e r n a t e r i g , w i t h  the bow,  catch 3,  5,  and  finish,  and  t h e same s i d e , a n d 2, 4, 5, a n d 7 on t h e o p p o s i t e  stroke side  59  e l i m i n a t e s t h e moment a b o u t distances  from  the  the  stern,  as  the  sums  of  the  s t e r n t o t h e r i g g e r s a r e t h e same f o r b o t h  s i d e s of the boat. Ishiko  (1971) measured t h e f o r c e a t  g u a g e s on t h e i n b o a r d p o r t i o n the  oarlock)  Force curves  of  an  the  oar  with  strain  (between t h e end of t h e h a n d l e and  o a r , and t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n of the s h e l l .  were f o u n d t o v a r y  g r e a t l y from s u b j e c t  e v e n among e l i t e members o f t h e same c r e w .  to  subject  The a c c e l e r a t i o n s o f  t h e b o a t were r e l a t e d t o t h e f o r c e - t i m e p a t t e r n s o f t h e o a r , b u t neither  force  kinematics  nor  of the subject's  Asami, e t a_l. force-time curves gauges.  a c c e l e r a t i o n were a d e q u a t e l y  Force-time  considered  in teaching  telemetry  were g e n e r a t e d  skill  levels.  The  chief d i f f i c u l t y  oarlock or oar shaft i s p r o h i b i t i v e l y  during  et  ( 1 974)  per minute.  of a p a i r w i t h o u t total  c o x w a i n , on s t r o k e  greater  curves  information to assist  and t o i d e n t i f y data  skilled  i s that the  force information  at  the  expensive.  about  20  and  about  37  (and d r i v e phase) d u r a t i o n ,  "work" done p e r s t r o k e were a l s o s t u d i e d .  rates  strain  The e f f e c t s o f s t r o k e r a t e o f t h e v e l o c i t y  f l u c t u a t i o n a b o u t i t s mean v e l o c i t y stroke  with  s t u d i e d the forces i n the oar  rowing a t s t r o k e r a t e s between  strokes  and  a_l.  report  force-time  with these  equipment needed t o c o l l e c t  Celentano,  ( 1978)  i n r o w i n g by a number  The  as p o s s i b l e i n s t r u c t i o n a l  oarsmen improved t e c h n i q u e ,  performance.  et a l .  or o a r l o c k s , determined  curves  of o a r s m e n w i t h d i f f e r e n t were  motions.  ( 1978), and S c h n e i d e r ,  f o r oars  r e l a t e d t o the  than  35  was f o u n d t o be  per minute.  f o r c e , and t h e p r o p o r t i o n of t h e s t r o k e taken  The  shell's  reduced  The power  at  output,  by t h e d r i v e p h a s e  60  were f o u n d t o i n c r e a s e w i t h r a t e . M a r t i n a n d B e r n f i e l d (1980) s t u d i e d f i l m the  velocity  of  an  eight  data  w i t h coxwain a t three  to  measure  stroke  rates  b e t w e e n 37 a n d 41 s t r o k e s p e r m i n u t e .  The l e a s t  velocity  a t 39 s t r o k e s p e r m i n u t e .  The  ( a r a n g e o f 2.65 m/s) o c c u r e d  greatest  mean  velocity  strokes per minute. Celentano,  et  These  a_l.  was  6.41 m/s, a n d o c c u r r e d  results  ( 1974).  per  stroke,  and  extended  The  increased v e l o c i t y of the s h e l l a t force  the  fluctuation  chief  the  in  a t 41  findings  of  c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the  higher  rates  were  greater  increased percentage of the t o t a l  stroke c y c l e time spent e x e r t i n g t h e f o r c e  ( i .  e.,  increased  impulse). Studies occurring  mentioned  above  as  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of the forces  i n the oar or i n the oarlock  (measured  a p p e a r t o make no m e n t i o n o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y in  taking  data  these  measures.  by  s e v e r a l other  Klavora  was  greater 1979  as  t h a n any f u n d i n g  p r i c e was e s t i m a t e d A  study  shell,  of  and expense  Klavora  involved  (1979)  describes  by, f o r example, I s h i k o (1971), and  coaches and r e s e a r c h e r s .  described  the pin)  In a d e s c r i p t i o n of a computerized  system f o r a four-oared  s e v e r a l problems experienced  at  having  an  A s y s t e m d e s c r i b e d by "attractive" price, far  available forthis a t about  study  ( i .  e.,  $10,000)  t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e oarsman a t t h e c a t c h , a n d  the e f f e c t o f t h a t p o s i t i o n of t h e f o r c e developed i n t h e phase  o f t h e s t r o k e showed l i t t l e ,  are very  highly  duplicate testing  a  the  skilled  skilled  they  motion  r o w i n g m o t i o n s must be  except t h a t : unless  are  likely  to  be  drive  subjects  unable  to  r e l i a b l y and, the environment f o r made  as  similar  to  the  real  61  rowing motion as p o s s i b l e  (Klavora,  1978).  Very few s t u d i e s have been p u b l i s h e d  d e s c r i b i n g comparisons  of the mechanics of rowing with ergometers and rowing i n s h e l l s . Stuble,  Erdman,  and  Stoner  (1980)  rowing i n a boat  and  rowing  two  ergometer.  Eight  s t u d i e d the kinematics of  different  types  of  s u b j e c t s were f i l m e d through s e v e r a l  rowing strokes  in c o x l e s s p a i r s and i n the two machines, and the kinematics the  hands  and  of  several  r e l a t i v e angles (e.g.,  angle) were examined g r a p h i c a l l y . „ discern skill in  between  levels.  sweep-oar  members  et a l .  rowing  was  thigh-trunk  were able  to  of d i f f e r e n t rowing c l u b s and between  The movement out of the s a g g i t a l plane  (vertical-anteroposterior) investigation.  Stuble,  of  ignored, plane  was  occurring  and only motion i n the x-y examined,  as  in  this  62  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A s a m i , T., N. A d a c h i , K. Yamamoto, K. I k u t a , and K. 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