UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Knowledge of results and the perceptual trace Stafford, Eric Michael 1978

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KNOWLEDGE OF RESULTS AND THE PERCEPTUAL TRACE by ERIC MICHAEL STAFFORD B . P . E . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES i n the Schoo l of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c on fo rm ing to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March , 1978 E r i c M i chae l S t a f f o r d , 1978 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i lrtrent o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I ag ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thou t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Physical Education The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date A p r i l 2S. 1978 ABSTRACT An e xpe r imen t was de s i gned to t e s t the r o l e of knowledge of r e s u l t s (KR) i n p e r c e p t u a l t r a c e (PT) development w i t h KR tempora l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s and p re sence or absence o f KR as i ndependent v a r i a b l e s . Each of t h r e e groups of 10 Ss_ per group had a s p e c i f i c a r rangement of KR tempora l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s such t h a t over a l l groups t h e r e were two KR de l ay i n t e r v a l s o f 1.0 and 30.0 s econds , two pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l s of 10.0 and 39.0 seconds and two i n t e r t r i a l i n t e r v a l s ( I T I ) o f 11.0 and 40.0 s e cond s . A l l groups per fo rmed a l i n e a r p o s i t i o n i n g task over t h r e e phases of r e spond i n g i n o r d e r to vary the p re sence or absence of KR. Two hypotheses were t e s t e d . H y p o t h e s i s 1, which s t a t e d t h a t the pos t -KR d e l a y i n t e r v a l i s the l o c u s o f pos t -KR phase response b i a s , was not s uppo r t ed by the r e s u l t s . However, t h e r e was a t e n t a t i v e f i n d i n g t h a t the KR phase ITI i s the l o c u s o f pos t -KR phase re sponse b i a s , wh ich s uppo r t s both the concept of a f u n c t i o n i n g , P T and the concept t h a t the PT i s formed s o l e l y from r e s p o n s e - p r o d u c e d feedback ( F B ) . H ypo the s i s 2, which s t a t e d t h a t KR does not pe rmanent l y a f f e c t re sponse v a r i a b i l i t y , was s u p p o r t e d by the r e s u l t s . Response v a r i a b i l i t y was the same p r i o r to ( i . e . , pre-KR phase) and f o l l o w i n g ( i . e . , pos t -KR phase) the p r e s e n t a t i o n of KR. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES v i i i CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 S ta tement of the Prob lem 10 Hypotheses .10 D e f i n i t i o n s 11 D e l i m i t a t i o n s 12 As sumpt ions 13 L i m i t a t i o n s 14 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Study . . .- 14 II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 16 I n t r o d u c t i o n ' 16 T h e o r e t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s - Feedback . . . 19 D e f i n i t i o n 19 Theory 20 K i n e s t h e s i s 30 T h e o r e t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s - Knowledge of Resul ts 34 D e f i n i t i o n . . . .* 34 Theory 35 i v CHAPTER Page T h e o r e t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s - C l o s e d - l o o p T h e o r i e s of B e h a v i o r 53 D e f i n i t i o n 5 3 Theory 53 Adams' C l o s e d - l o o p Theory of Motor B e h a v i o r 67 T h e o r e t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s - Adaquacy of Dependent V a r i a b l e s 73 D e f i n i t i o n s 7 5 R e l a t i o n s h i p and Use. 75 E m p i r i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s - KR Temporal De 1 ay I n te r va 1 s 79 E f f e c t on KR Phase Responding 80 E f f e c t on Post -KR Phase Respond ing . . . 86 Summary of E f f e c t s o f KR Temporal Delay I n t e r v a l s 89 E m p i r i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s - KR and Response V a r i ab i 1 i ty 9 3 Summary 99 I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURES 101 S u b j e c t s 101 Appara tu s 101 E x p e r i m e n t a l Des ign 110 P rocedu re s I l l E x p e r i m e n t a l C o n d i t i o n s 119 V CHAPTER Page A n a l y s i s of Data 121 IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 123 A n a l y s i s of C o n s t a n t E r r o r , A b s o l u t e D i f f e r e n c e and V a r i a b l e E r r o r 123 R e s u l t s P e r t a i n i n g to H y p o t h e s i s 1 -The E f f e c t of the P o s t - K R Delay I n t e r v a l on P o s t - K R Phase Response B i a s 124 F u r t h e r R e s u l t s P e r t a i n i n g to Response B i a s - E v i d e n c e o f a P e r c e p t u a l T r a c e . . . 134 F u r t h e r R e s u l t s P e r t a i n i n g to Response B i a s - E v i d e n c e o f A u g m e n t a t i o n of the P e r c e p t u a l T race D u r i n g P o s t - K R Phase R e s p o n d i n g 140 R e s u l t s P e r t a i n i n g to H y p o t h e s i s 2 -The Permanent E f f e c t o f KR on Response Va r i ab i 1 i ty 15 7 F u r t h e r R e s u l t s P e r t a i n i n g to Response V a r i a b i l i t y - E v i d e n c e R e g a r d i n g the Natu re o f Response V a r i a b i l i t y 162 F u r t h e r R e s u l t s P e r t a i n i n g to Response V a r i a b i l i t y - E v i d e n c e R e g a r d i n g a T r a n s i e n t E f f e c t of KR on Response V a r i ab i 1 i ty 166 V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 169 Summary 169 C o n c l u s i o n s • . . 173 v i Page Recommendations 174 BIBLIOGRAPHY 176 APPENDICES A. Appara tu s 192 B. I n s t r u c t i o n s to S u b j e c t s 195 C. R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n P e r t a i n i n g to Methodology and to I n d i r e c t T h e o r e t i c a l I s sues 212 D . Tab! e o f Means ' . . . 2 3 1 E. A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e Tab le s 235 vi i LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 111 -1 Sequence o f T im ing Bank O p e r a t i o n . • . . . . 108 IV-1 Means and S t anda rd D e v i a t i o n s of CE ( I n che s ) f o r KR and Pos t -KR Phase Responding 125 IV-2 Means and S t anda rd D e v i a t i o n s of |CE| ( I n che s ) f o r KR and Post -KR Phase Responding 129 IV- 3 C o e f f i c i e n t of V a r i a n c e (V) f o r KR and Pos t -KR Phase Responding . . . . . . 137 I V - 4 Means and S tanda rd D e v i a t i o n s of VE ( I nches ) f o r S t a b i l i z e d P re -KR , KR and Post -KR Phase Responding 161 D-1 B lock Means and S t anda rd D e v i a t i o n s ( I n che s ) f o r Con s tan t E r r o r 232 D-2 B l ock Means and S t anda rd D e v i a t i o n s ( I n che s ) f o r A b s o l u t e D i f f e r e n c e 233 D-3 B l ock Means and S tanda rd D e v i a t i o n s ( I nche s ) f o r V a r i a b l e E r r o r 234 E - l A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e of Con s tan t E r r o r . . . 236 E-2 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f A b s o l u t e Di f f e r e n c e . . 2 3 7 E-3 A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e o f V a r i a b l e E r r o r . . . 238 v i i i L I S T OF F I G U R E S F I G U R E P a g e I V - 1 Mean c o n s t a n t e r r o r p e r 5 - t r i a l b l o c k f o r p r e - K R , KR a n d p o s t - K R p h a s e r e s p o n d i n g 126 I V - 2 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f c o n s t a n t e r r o r p e r 5 - t r i a l b l o c k f o r p r e - K R , KR a n d p o s t - K R p h a s e r e s p o n d i n g 127 I V - 3 Mean a b s o l u t e d i f f e r e n c e p e r 5 - t r i a l b l o c k f o r p r e - K R , KR a n d p o s t - K R p h a s e r e s p o n d i n g 130 I V - 4 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f a b s o l u t e d i f f e r e n c e p e r 5 - t r i a l b l o c k f o r p r e - K R , KR a n d p o s t - K R p h a s e r e s p o n d i n g 131 I V - 5 Mean v a r i a b l e e r r o r p e r 5 - t r i a l b l o c k f o r p r e - K R , KR a n d p o s t - K R p h a s e r e s p o n d i n g 159 I V - 6 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f v a r i a b l e e r r o r p e r 5 - t r i a l b l o c k f o r p r e - K R , KR a n d p o s t - K R p h a s e r e s p o n d i n g 160 A - 1 L i n e a r p o s i t i o n i n g d e v i c e - c a r r i a g e a n d t r a c k 1 93 A - 2 E l e c t r i c a l s c h e m a o f s o l e n o i d p o w e r s u p p l y - r e l a y s y s t e m 194 i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Our f a c t s must be c o r r e c t . Our t h e o r i e s need not be i f they he l p us to d i s c o v e r i m p o r t a n t new f a c t s . Hans S e l y e I am g r a t e f u l l y i n d e b t e d . . . to the members o f my t h e s i s c ommi t t ee , Dr. G . J . J ohn son , Dr. G.D. S i n c l a i r and Dr. R.W. S c h u t z , f o r t h e i r encouragement and c r i t i c a l comments, . . . to Dr. S c h u t z , my t h e s i s c h a i r m a n , f o r a l l o w i n g me the l a t i t u d e to. e x p e r i e n c e s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y as a c r e a t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l adven tu re w h i l e at the same t ime keep ing me m i n d f u l o f the d i s c i p l i n a r y c o n s t r a i n t s of r e s e a r c h , . . . to Mr. K. Hsu, who assembled the e l e c t r o n i c c o n t r o l system f o r the appa ra tu s used i n t h i s t h e s i s , f o r h i s i n g e n -u i t y and c o - o p e r a t i o n , . . . to my f r i e n d , Penny Thomas, who t yped both d r a f t s of t h i s t h e s i s , f o r a s u p e r b l y typed t e x t and f o r her a f f e c -t i o n a t e s u p p o r t and encouragement t h r oughou t t h i s endeavou r , . . . to my pa ren t s f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t and encouragement , . . . and to my c h i l d r e n , Rahl and N i k a , f o r h e l p i n g to s u s t a i n me w i t h t h e i r i n t e r e s t , p a t i e n c e and c o - o p e r a t i o n d u r i n g the d a y - t o - d a y s t r u g g l e to b r i n g t h i s t h e s i s to f r u i t i o n . CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM I n t r o d u c t i on C e n t r a l to any t heo r y o f l e a r n i n g i s the q u e s t i o n of what i s s t o r e d i n memory. Seek i ng answers to t h i s q u e s t i o n i s l a - r ge l y a m a t t e r o f , f i r s t , d e t e r m i n i n g the s ou rce s o f i n p u t a memory sys tem has acces s to and , s e cond , d e c i d i n g which of these i n p u t sou rce s are s t o r e d . A c c o r d i n g to the c l o s e d - l o o p t h e o r y of motor l e a r n i n g proposed by J . A . Adams ( 1971 ) , the memory sys tem u t i l i z e d i n r e p r o d u c i n g movement e x t e n t i s the p e r c e p t u a l t r a c e ( P T ) . Input s ou rce s u t i l i z e d i n d e v e l o p i n g a PT r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f c r i t e r i o n r e s pond i n g are r e s p o n s e - p r o d u c e d feedback ( a b b r e v -i a t e d here to FB) and knowledge of r e s u l t s (KR) . The t h e o r y c o n t e n d s , however, t h a t on l y i n f o r m a t i o n from FB i s a c t u a l l y s t o r e d as the PT. That FB s h o u l d be the s o l e i n p u t sou rce to ga i n acces s to the PT i s based on the i n f e r e n t i a l l o g i c t h a t v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d to KR do not c o n t i n u e to a f f e c t re sponse a c c u r a c y once s u f f i c i e n t p r a c t i s e w i t h KR a t a s t a b l e l e v e l o f 2 r e s p o n d i n g h a s b e e n a c h i e v e d ( A d a m s , 1 9 7 1 : 1 2 8 - 1 4 1 ) , w h e r e a s v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o FB do h a v e a c o n t i n u e d e f f e c t o f r e s p o n s e a c c u r a c y ( A d a m s , G o e t z a n d M a r s h a l l , 1 9 7 2 ) . H o w e v e r , c o n t r a r y t o t h e p o s i t i o n a d o p t e d i n A d a m s ' ( 1 9 7 1 ) p a p e r r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f i c a c y o f KR r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s , a f u r t h e r c r i t i c a l r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s t h a t t h e r e i s c o n f u s i o n i n t w o p e r t i n e n t a r e a s t h a t r e l a t e t o t h e r o l e o f KR i n PT d e v e l o p m e n t . One a r e a o f c o n f u s i o n c o n c e r n s c o n f l i c t i n g r e s u l t s a c c r u i n g f r o m s t u d i e s t h a t h a v e m a n i p u l a t e d t h e t e m p o r a l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s r e l a t e d t o t h e b e t w e e n - t r i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n o f KR ! T h e t h e o r e t i c a l r e l e v a n c e o f t h e s e i n t e r v a l s i s t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e i r m a n i p u l a t i o n on r e s p o n s e e r r o r c a n i n d i c a t e w h i c h s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n a r e s t o r e d a s t h e P T . M a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e s e i n t e r v a l s a p p e a r s t o a f f e c t r e s p o n s e b i a s a n d t h e r e i s s u g g e s t i v e b u t n o t c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e i n t h i s r e g a r d t h a t KR i n d i g e n o u s i n f o r m a t i o n g a i n s a c c e s s t o t h e P T . 1 There are three temporal delay intervals related to the between-trial presentation of KR. The KR_ de lay interval is the lapsed time between termination of a response and presentation of KR. The post-KR delay interva1 is the lapsed time between presentation of KR and initiation of the following response. The inter trial interva1 (ITI) is the lapsed time between termination of a response and initiation of the following response ( i . e . , the sum of the KR delay interval plus the post-KR delay interval). 3 The o t h e r a rea o f c o n f u s i o n concerns r e s u l t s a c c r u i n g from s t u d i e s t h a t have m a n i p u l a t e d the e f f e c t s of p r a c t i s e under the i n f l u e n c e of p re sence and absence o f KR. The t h e o r e t i c a l r e l e v a n c e has to do w i t h l i m i t i n g the r o l e t h a t KR p l a y s i n PT deve lopment . There i s s u g g e s t i v e but not c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e i n t h i s a rea t h a t KR does not pe rmanent l y a f f e c t response v a r i a b i l i t y , i n which case the r o l e o f KR would be l i m i t e d to a f f e c t i n g those a spec t s of PT deve lopment th-at are r e f l e c t e d by re sponse b i a s . In the absence of c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e i n the above two a r e a s , t h e r e i s u n c e r t a i n t y r e g a r d i n g the p r e c i s e na tu re of the r o l e t h a t KR p l a y s i n PT deve lopment . The p r o b l e m , t h e r e f o r e , i s to p r o v i d e c l a r i f i c a t i o n i n these areas.. Deve l op -ment o f a p o t e n t i a l s o l u t i o n to the p rob lem w i l l c o n s i s t of t h r ee s t a g e s , the f i r s t o f which c o n s i s t s of r e v i e w i n g Adams' (1971) t h e o r y as i t i s p r e s e n t l y s t a t e d . The second s tage c o n s i s t s of p r e s e n t i n g the case f o r s e p a r a t e measures of response b i a s and response v a r i a b i l i t y . Then, i n the t h i r d s t a g e , s u g g e s t i v e e v i d e n c e c o n c e r n i n g the e f f e c t s o f v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d to KR i s r e v i ewed i n o r d e r to deve lop two h y p o t h e s e s , one r e l a t i n g to the e f f e c t s o f KR tempora l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s on response b i a s and the o t h e r r e l a t i n g to the permanent e f f e c t o f KR on response v a r i a b i l i t y . 4 Adams' c l o s e d - l o o p t h e o r y . In i t s p r e s e n t f o r m , Adams' t h e o r y emphas izes two phases o f r e s p o n d i n g i n h e r e n t i n l e a r n -i ng to rep roduce movement e x t e n t . These two phases a re c o n t i n g e n t on the p resence and absence of KR. They are termed here the KR phase and the pos t -KR phase. In the KR phase , FB from r e spond i n g i s compared to KR so t h a t subsequent r e s pond i n g can be a d j u s t e d toward a c r i t e r i o n . KR i s u t i l i z e d on a t r i a l - b y - t r i a l b a s i s o n l y , whereas FB e n t e r s memory and i s s t o r e d as a r e f e r e n c e system t h a t Adams' terms the p e r c e p t u a l t r a c e ( PT ) . The PT i s d e v e l o p i n g but dormant as a response c o n t r o l mechanism i n the KR phase. Under the t r i a l - b y - t r i a l gu idance of KR, s u f f i c i e n t c r i t e r i o n - l e v e l p r a c t i s e forms a s t a b l e PT which i s then used to m a i n t a i n c r i t e r i o n - 1 e v e l r e s pond i n g i n the subsequent absence o f KR (po s t -KR pha se ) . The PT m a i n t a i n s the response l e v e l e s t a b l i s h e d i n the KR phase by a c t i n g as an i n t e r n a l r e f e r e n c e mechanism a g a i n s t which FB from ongo ing r e s pond i n g i s compared. When c u r r e n t FB matches the PT, p e r c e i v e d e r r o r i n r e spond i n g i s n u l l i f i e d and r e s pond i n g i s t e r m i n a t e d . I t i s the p roces s of r e f e r e n c i n g FB a g a i n s t the PT, a mechanism t h a t a c t s to d e t e c t e r r o r , t h a t makes Adams' t h e o r y c l o s e d -loop i n n a t u r e . 5 I m p l i c a t i o n s of dependent measures . S chutz and Roy (1973) s t a t e a ma themat i c a l and e m p i r i c a l case f o r the combined use of c o n s t a n t e r r o r (CE) and v a r i a b l e e r r o r (VE) as the a p p r o p r i a t e dependent measures f o r d i s c r e t e -t r i a l motor r e s p o n d i n g . CE i s a measure o f d i r e c t i o n and magnitude of response b i a s . VE measures magnitude of response v a r i a b i l i t y . CE and VE are s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n d e -pendent measures and both are r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r to p r e s e n t a -comprehensive p i c t u r e of response t e n d e n c i e s . Of e m p i r i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r e s t , v i e w i n g r e s p o n d -i n g i n terms o f both CE and VE can marked ly change the a n a l y t i c p i c t u r e compared to t h a t p r o v i d e d by o t h e r dependent measures . For examp le , Schutz and Roy demons t ra te t h a t a b s o l u t e e r r o r ( AE ) , wh ich measures magnitude o f re sponse e r r o r i r r e g a r d l e s s o f d i r e c t i o n of e r r o r , i s a confounded measure o f both CE and VE. In t h i s l i g h t , i t i s i n s t r u c t i v e to note t h a t many of the s t u d i e s c i t e d i n document ing the t e n e t s of Adams' (1971) t h e o r y r e p o r t r e s u l t s i n terms o f AE. Development o f h y p o t h e s e s . E x t e n s i o n o f the r o l e p r e s e n t l y a s s i g n e d to KR i n PT development i s s ugge s ted by the r e s u l t s of f o u r movement r e p r o d u c t i o n s t u d i e s t h a t have m a n i p u l a t e d KR tempora l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s . These s t u d i e s showed t h a t such m a n i p u l a t i o n d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a f f e c t e d measures 6 of response b i a s . In one s t u d y , Dees and G r i n d l e y (1951) r e - a n a l y z e d data from an e a r l i e r s t udy by Macpher son, Dees and G r i n d l e y (1949) which m a n i p u l a t e d the post -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l and the i n t e r t r i a l i n t e r v a l ( I T I ) w h i l e keep ing the KR de l ay i n t e r v a l c o n s t a n t . They found g r e a t e r o v e r -s h o o t i n g (CE) i n the post -KR phase f o r l o n g e r pos t -KR de l a y 2 i n t e r v a l / I T I . In t h r e e r e l a t e d s t u d i e s , Dyal and h i s c o -worker s ( D y a l , 1966; Dyal and A r r i n g t o n , 1964; D y a l , W i l s on and- B e r r y , 1965 ) r e l a t e d pre-KR phase response b i a s ( i . e . , whether S_s_ under shot or o v e r s h o t an e x p l i c i t c r i t e r i o n i n a s i t u a t i o n where they had never r e c e i v e d KR) to the man ipu-l a t i o n o f KR tempora l de l a y i n t e r v a l s . These s t u d i e s man ipu-l a t e d the KR de l a y i n t e r v a l and the post -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l w i t h i n a f i x e d ITI and found t h a t pre-KR phase response b i a s i n t e r a c t s w i t h m a n i p u l a t i o n of KR tempora l de l ay i n t e r v a l s to a f f e c t the d i r e c t i o n o f post -KR phase re sponse e r r o r . I n f o r m a t i o n from KR can undergo t r a n s f o r m a t i o n (such as 2 The three KR temporal delay intervals are interrelated. If an experimental design has one interval fixed, ( i . e . , the interval does not vary), varying a second, interval dictates that the third interval will co-vary with the second interval. Thus, designs which do not allow each of the KR temporal delay intervals to vary separately are necessarily confounded. Consequently, if one interval is fixed, it is not possible to ascribe an observed difference in response tendency specifically to one or the other of the co-varying intervals . 7 decay r e p r e s e n t e d by response b i a s ) on l y over the pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l . T h e r e f o r e , d i f f e r e n t i a l pos t -KR phase b i a s i n g r e l a t e d to m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h i s i n t e r v a l would imp l y t h a t KR i s s t o r e d as the PT. There a r e , however, no s t u d i e s which both m a n i p u l a t e KR tempora l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of an unconfounded e x p e r i m e n t a l de s i gn and measure re sponse b i a s . L i m i t a t i o n of the r o l e t h a t KR p l a y s i n PT deve lopment to a s p e c t s o f r e spond i n g r e f l e c t e d by response b i a s i s s ugges ted by s t u d i e s t h a t have measured response v a r i a b i l i t y under v a r i o u s c o n d i t i o n s of p r a c t i s e w i t h and w i t h o u t KR. A l though t h e r e are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the p re sence of KR c a n , under c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a c t to t r a n s i t o r i l y r a i s e response v a r i a b i l i t y ( B i l o d e a u , 1955) , t h e r e i s c o n f l i c t i n g e v i d e n c e as to whether KR can ac t to pe rmanent l y a f f e c t t h i s a s p e c t o f r e spond i n g ( i . e . , a f f e c t pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g ) . On the one hand, Baker and Young (1960) have shown pos t -KR phase response v a r i a b i l i t y to dec rea se as a f u n c t i o n o f amount of p r a c t i s e w i t h KR. However, t h i s s t udy does not c l e a r l y d i s -t i n g u i s h whether KR or amount of p r a c t i s e i n f l u e n c e d response v a r i a b i l i t y . On the o t h e r hand, w i t h no KR a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h -out p r a c t i s e , a number o f s t u d i e s have shown r e d u c t i o n i n response v a r i a b i l i t y (Henry , 1970: McGuigan e t a l . , 1964 ; Meyer s , 1968; N o r r i e , 1967). 8 F a i l u r e to e l i c i t a d i f f e r e n c e between s t a b i l i z e d response v a r i a b i l i t y p r i o r to r e c e i v i n g KR and t h a t f o l l o w -ing the a p p l i c a t i o n of KR would demons t ra te t h a t KR does not pe rmanent l y a f f e c t response v a r i a b i l i t y , t h e r e f o r e , i t would be i m p l i e d t h a t the r o l e KR p l a y s i n PT deve lopment i s l i m i t e d to a spec t s r e f l e c t e d by re sponse b i a s . There a r e , however, no s t u d i e s wh ich have both m a n i p u l a t e d the presence and absence o f KR under s u i t a b l y c o n t r o l l e d c o n -d i t i o n s and employed an adequate measure of response b i a s . E x i s t i n g e v i d e n c e ga rne red from s t u d i e s t h a t have employed measures o f re sponse b i a s and/or measures o f response v a r i a b i l i t y sugges t two uncon f i rmed h y p o t h e s e s . One h y p o t h e s i s i s r e l a t e d to the e f f e c t of KR on CE. The o t h e r h y p o t h e s i s i s r e l a t e d to the permanent e f f e c t of KR on VE. R e l a t e d to CE, the f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e s t h a t the pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l i s the l o cu s of pos t -KR phase CE b i a s i n g . Two reasons prompt t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . F i r s t , v a r i a t i o n of the post -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l i s common to the s t u d i e s t h a t r e p o r t pos t -KR phase d i f f e r e n c e s i n re sponse b i a s (Dees and G r i n d l e y , 1951; D y a l , 1966; Dyal and A r r i n g t o n , 1964; D y a l , W i l s on and B e r r y , 1965). Second, the pos t -KR d e l a y i n t e r v a l i s , l o g i c a l l y , the l o cu s of the g r e a t e s t demand 9 on c e n t r a l p r o c e s s i n g a c t i v i t y s i n c e both a v a i l a b l e sou rce s o f i n f o r m a t i o n (FB and KR) can be a c t e d upon i n t h i s i n t e r v a l i n o r d e r to form s t r a t e g i e s f o r subsequent r e s p o n d i n g . R e l a t e d to VE, the second h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e s t h a t KR does not a c t to pe rmanent l y a f f e c t response c o n s i s t e n c y as measured by VE. Three reasons prompt t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . F i r s t , a number of s t u d i e s , as m e n t i o n e d , demons t ra te VE r e d u c t i o n in- the t o t a l absence of KR (Henry , 1970 ; McGuigan e t a l . , 1964; Meyer s , 1968; N o r r i e , 1967) . Second, FB appears to be the i n p u t s ou rce a f f e c t i n g VE. The s t u d i e s d e m o n s t r a t i n g VE r e d u c t i o n i n the t o t a l absence of KR have o n l y FB as an i n p u t s o u r c e . T h i r d , i t can be argued l o g i c a l l y t h a t the na tu re of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by KR m i t i g a t e s a g a i n s t permanent m o d i f i -c a t i o n o f VE. I n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g d i r e c t i o n and magnitude o f r e spond i n g i n h e r e n t i n KR does not appear to p r o v i d e the type o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t would make r e s pond i n g more c o n s i s t e n t . D i r e c t s uppo r t f o r both of the above hypotheses i s l a c k i n g . However, both hypotheses may be t e s t e d w i t h i n the framework o f an e x p e r i m e n t a l parad igm a d h e r i n g to the f o l l o w -i n g f e a t u re s . 1. unconfounded m a n i p u l a t i o n of the t h r e e KR tempora l de l a y i n t e r v a l s , 2. a p p r o p r i a t e dependent measures , 10 3. an e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n w h i c h i s s e n s i t i v e t o t h e i n i t i a l change i n d i r e c t i o n t h a t a c c o m p a n i e s t h e o n s e t o f KR ( i . e . , i n c l u s i o n o f a pre-KR p h a s e ) , 4. t h r e e p h a s e s o f r e s p o n d i n g i n o r d e r t o a l l o w o b s e r v a t i o n o f r e s p o n s e t e n d e n c y b e f o r e , d u r i n g and f o l l o w i n g p r e s e n -t a t i o n o f KR ( p r e - K R phase/KR p h a s e / p o s t - K R p h a s e ) . S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m The p u r p o s e o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t o e x a m i n e two a s p e c t s o f t h e r o l e o f KR i n PT d e v e l o p m e n t . The f i r s t a s p e c t o f KR c o n c e r n s t h e e f f e c t o f KR t e m p o r a l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s on r e s p o n s e b i a s i n g . The s e c o n d a s p e c t o f KR c o n c e r n s t h e e f f e c t o f t h e p r e s e n c e o r a b s e n c e o f KR on r e s p o n s e v a r i a b i l i t y . H y p o t h e s e s The h y p o t h e s e s a r e : 1 . The p o s t - K R d e l a y i n t e r v a l i s t h e l o c u s o f p o s t - K R phase b i a s i n g as r e f l e c t e d by c o n s t a n t e r r o r . 2. Knowledge o f r e s u l t s does n o t p e r m a n e n t l y a f f e c t r e s p o n s e v a r i a b i l i t y as r e f l e c t e d by v a r i a b l e e r r o r . 11 L o g i c a l deve lopment o f these hypotheses i s s t a t e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n . S ta tement o f the second h y p o t h e s i s i s r e s t r i c t e d to permanent e f f e c t s of KR on re sponse c o n s i s t e n c y s i n c e B i l o d e a u (1955) has demons t ra ted t h a t the p re sence o f KR can have a t r a n s i t o r y e f f e c t on VE. F u r t h e r m o r e , VE can be e x p e c t e d to dec rease e a r l y i n the pre-KR phase and then s t a b i l i z e . Th i s i s i n a c c o r d w i t h H e n r y ' s (1970) h y p o t h e s i s t h a t , f o r s i m p l e s k i l l s , VE p r i m a r i l y r e p r e s e n t s i n n a t e b i o -l o g i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y . De f i n i t i ons C l o s e d - l o o p b e h a v i o r . Responding t h a t i s m o n i t o r e d and a d j u s t e d f o r c o r r e c t n e s s by compar ing FB from ongo ing r e s p o n d -i ng to a c e n t r a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d r e f e r e n c e mechanism i s c l o s e d -loop i n n a t u r e (Adams, 1968, 1971) . Knowledge of r e s u l t s (KR) . Knowledge of r e s u l t s i s e x t e r n a l l y p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n wh ich r e l a t e s to S^  the d i s c r e p a n c y between a c h i e v e d r e s pond i n g and a c r i t e r i o n . KR tempora l de l a y i n t e r v a l s . The t h r ee tempora l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s r e l a t e d to the b e t w e e n - t r i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of KR are the f o l 1 o w i ng: KR de l a y i n t e r v a l - the l a p s e d t ime between t e r m i n a t i o n 12 of a re sponse and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f KR, pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l - the l a p s e d t ime between p r e s e n t a t i o n of KR and i n i t i a t i o n o f the f o l l o w i n g r e s p o n s e , i n t e r t r i a l i n t e r v a l ( I T I ) - the l a p s e d t ime between t e r m i n a t i o n o f a response and i n i t i a t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g response ( i . e . , the sum of the KR d e l a y i n t e r v a l p l u s the pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l ) . P e r c e p t u a l t r a c e ( P T ) . The p e r c e p t u a l t r a c e i s the r e f e r e n t memory s y s t e m , a l l e g e d to be formed from FB, wh ich i s used i n pos t -KR phase r e s pond i n g to govern the e x t e n t of movement (Adams, 1971). Response -produced feedback ( FB ) . Response -p roduced feedback i s a f f e r e n t s en so r y i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t i n g e n t on and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of r e s p o n d i n g . S e l f - p a c e d r e s p o n d i n g . A s e l f - p a c e d response i s one i n wh ich S_ de te rm ine s the r a t e o f r e spond i n g but which i s n e v e r t h e l e s s s low enough to a l l o w m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the re sponse v i a FB w h i l e the response i s under p r o d u c t i o n . De1i mi t a t i ons 1. The s tudy i f d e l i m i t e d to s i t u a t i o n s where a response s e t i s e s t a b l i s h e d p r i o r to a d m i n i s t r a t i on of KR. 13 2. The s tudy ,is d e l i m i t e d to s i t u a t i o n s where the end l o c a t i o n of the c r i t e r i o n movement i s c o n s t a n t . 3. The s tudy i s d e l i m i t e d to s i t u a t i o n s where k i n e s t h e t i c FB i s the on l y r e l e v a n t FB channel o p e r a t i n g . 4. The s tudy i s d e l i m i t e d to s i t u a t i o n s where KR i s p r e s e n t e d v e r b a l l y and i n terms of magni tude and d i r e c t i o n of response e r r o r . 5. The s tudy i s d e l i m i t e d to s i t u a t i o n s of non-i n t e r f e r e n c e ( i . e . , t h e r e i s no secondary ta sk as i n t e r p o l a t e d a c t i v i t y d u r i n g e i t h e r the re sponse i n t e r v a l or any o f the KR tempora l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s ) . As s umpti ons 1. S e l f - p a c e d , movement e x t e n t re sponses are assumed to be under c l o s e d - l o o p c o n t r o l (Adams, 1968, 1971). 2. The e x i s t e n c e o f the p e r c e p t u a l t r a c e i s assumed (Adams, 1971) . 3. The f o l l o w i n g two a s sumpt ions are advanced as a s e t o f c r i t e r i a , both of wh ich are to be met i n o r d e r to a c cep t t h a t KR does not pe rmanent l y a f f e c t response v a r i -a b i l i t y as r e f l e c t e d by VE: i . VE must change w i t h o u t p r i o r . a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f KR. i i . There must be no d i f f e r e n c e between s t a b i l i z e d VE i m m e d i a t e l y p r i o r to the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of KR (pre-KR phase) 14 and s t a b l e VE f o l l o w i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of KR (po s t -KR pha se ) . L i m i t a t i o n s 1. The s tudy i s l i m i t e d by the a b i l i t y to a c c u r a t e l y measure r e s p o n d i n g . 2. The s tudy i s l i m i t e d by the sample s i z e o f t h i r t y Ss. S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the Study J . A . Adams' (1971) c l o s e d - l o o p t heo r y of motor l e a r n i n g a s s i g n s KR a l i m i t e d r o l e i n p e r c e p t u a l t r a c e deve lopment . R e - e x a m i n a t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e on KR, some o f wh ich i s employed to b u t t r e s s the t h e o r y , r e v e a l s two areas where f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the r o l e o f KR i n PT deve lopment i s r equ i r e d . In one a r e a , a l t hough the t heo r y s t a t e s t h a t i n p u t from KR does not e n t e r memory to form the PT, t h e r e i s s u g g e s t i v e e v i d e n c e to the c o n t r a r y . C o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e f o r KR as a PT i n g r e d i e n t would be ga ined i f the pos t -KR d e l a y i n t e r v a l were demons t ra ted to be the l o cu s of pos t -KR phase re sponse b i a s i n g , a phenomenon r e f l e c t e d by c o n s t a n t e r r o r . 15 In the o t h e r a r e a , m a n i p u l a t i o n of p re sence and absence of KR as a v a r i a b l e and of p r a c t i s e as a v a r i a b l e sugges t s t h a t KR does not pe rmanent l y a f f e c t v a r i a b l e e r r o r . C o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e i n t h i s a rea r e q u i r e d t h a t VE be reduced by p r a c t i s e p r i o r to the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f KR and t h a t VE then be un-changed from a s t a b i l i z e d pre-KR phase l e v e l to po s t -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s s t u d y , t h e n , i s to a t tempt to c l a r i f y these two areas p e r t a i n i n g to the r o l e o f KR i n PT deve lopment . CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE I n t r o d u c t i o n " A l l paths l e a d to memory" (Norman, 1969) and , one might add, from memory. C l e a r l y , memory i s an i m p o r t a n t e lement i n l e a r n i n g , to a p o i n t where the two terms are used a lmos t synonymous ly . L e a r n i n g i n v o l v e s u t i l i z i n g i n p u t to a c h i e v e a d e s i r e d ou tpu t p l u s , th rough s t o r a g e of i n p u t ( i . e . , memory), a c h i e v i n g p e r s i s t e n c e ove r t ime o f the c o r r e l -a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d between i n p u t and o u t p u t . C l o s e d - l o o p l e a r n i n g , the gene ra l i s s u e of t h i s s t u d y , i n v o l v e s u t i l i z i n g i n p u t to e s t a b l i s h a r e f e r e n t i a l memory sys tem a g a i n s t which f u t u r e r e s pond i n g can be compared f o r c o r r e c t n e s s (Adams, 1968, 1971) . Thus, the e f f i c a c y o f l e a r n e d r e s pond i n g depends both on i n p u t ( p o t e n t i a l paths to memory) and on the adaquacy of s t o r i n g r e l e v a n t i n p u t (memory). The s p e c i f i c t h e o r e t i c a l frame of r e f e r e n c e to which t h i s s tudy owes i t s due i s a c l o s e d - l o o p t heo r y of motor 17 l e a r n i n g proposed by J . A . Adams (1971 ) . A c c o r d i n g to t h i s t h e o r y , s ou rce s o f i n p u t f o r l e a r n i n g movement e x t e n t are r e s p o n s e - p r o d u c e d feedback (FB) and knowledge of r e s u l t s (KR) . The r e f e r e n t i a l memory system g o v e r n i n g movement e x t e n t i s the p e r c e p t u a l t r a c e ( P T ) . W i t h i n the framework o f Adams' (1971) t h e o r y , p r e s e n t i n t e r e s t i s w i t h the r e l a t i o n of KR ( i n p u t ) to the PT (memory). The s tudy a t tempt s answers to two q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the r o l e of KR i n PT deve lopment . F i r s t , does KR f i n d a path to memory? Adams' t heo r y i m p l i e s t h a t KR i s not s t o r e d as an i n g r e d i e n t o f the PT a l t hough t h e r e i s s u g g e s t i v e e v i d e n c e to the c o n t r a r y . Second, does KR a f f e c t response v a r i a b i l i t y , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a t p u r p o r t e d l y r e f l e c t s the s t r e n g t h o f a memory sys tem ( Laab s , 1973) . Adams' t h e o r y i s not s p e c i f i c i n t h i s r e g a r d , a l t hough l i m i t e d e v i d e n c e sugges t s t h a t KR does not a f f e c t t h i s a s p e c t of r e s p o n d i n g . Both of the above q u e s t i o n s are i n e x t r i c a b l y bound to the adaquacy o f dependent measures . C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the a n a l y t i c p i c t u r e p r o v i d e d by a p p r o p r i a t e dependent measures prompted the above q u e s t i o n s and the en su i ng a t t empt to p r o v i d e c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the r o l e of KR i n PT deve lopment . 18 Th i s b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n has thus come f u l l c i r c l e and, i n i t s u n r a v e l l i n g , the gene ra l c o n t e x t o f the r e v i ew t h a t w i l l f o l l o w has been e x p l i c a t e d . The r ev i ew beg ins by examin ing the t h e o r e t i c a l n a t u r e o f the two sou rce s of i n p u t , r e s p o n s e - p r o d u c e d FB and KR. Then, c l o s e d - l o o p t h e o r i e s o f motor l e a r n i n g are r e v i e w e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n l i g h t o f t h e i r emphasis on i n p u t s ou r ce s and on r e f e r e n c e mechanisms. S i n c e dependent v a r i a b l e s p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n f o rm ing and a t t e m p t i n g s o l u t i o n s to the problems s t a t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , measure-ment t h e o r y i s r e v i ewed n e x t . The purpose o f r e v i e w i n g the above t h e o r e t i c a l areas i s to e s t a b l i s h the v a l i d i t y o f a s sumpt ions r e g a r d i n g c l o s e d - l o o p r e s p o n d i n g upon which the two problems of the t h e s i s are ba sed . Of impo r tance here i s e v i d e n c e t h a t FB and KR a c t as s ou rce s of i n f o r m a t i o n ( i n p u t ) to a c l o s e d -loop c o n t r o l mechanism. As w e l l , e v i d e n c e f o r e x i s t e n c e o f the PT as a r e f e r e n c e mechanism f o r e r r o r d e t e c t i o n i s r e v i e w e d . F o l l o w i n g a r ev i ew o f g ene ra l t h e o r e t i c a l a r e a s , the two s p e c i f i c p rob lem a reas of the t h e s i s are r e v i e w e d . These areas a r e , f i r s t , the e f f e c t o f v a r y i n g KR tempora l 19 de l a y i n t e r v a l s on response b i a s i n g and , s e cond , the e f f e c t of KR on response v a r i a b i l i t y . The purpose here i s to e s t a b l i s h the c o n t e x t o f e m p i r i c a l background t h a t the p r e s e n t s tudy seeks to e x t e n d . T h e o r e t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s - Feedback Def i n i t i on The term FB can r e f e r to the s en so r y consequences of movement (Adams, 1968, 1971; Robb, 1966) or to the s en so r y c o n s e q u e n c e s ' o f a t t empted movement ( H o i s t , 1954; W iene r , 1948). The d i s t i n c t i o n here i s t h a t FB can be of p e r i p h e r a l o r i g i n , r e p r e s e n t i n g movement t h a t has a c t u a l l y o c c u r r e d , o r i t can be o f c e n t r a l o r i g i n , r e p -r e s e n t i n g an e f f e r e n t motor command to move. Whatever the f o r m , p e r i p h e r a l or c e n t r a l , FB i s a f f e r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n . For p e r i p h e r a l FB, j o i n t r e c e p t o r s and o t h e r s en so r y m o d a l i t i e s t h a t d i r e c t l y p e r c e i v e t h a t movement has o c c u r r e d are the sou rce o f a f f e r e n c e . For c e n t r a l FB, a p o r t i o n of the e f f e r e n t motor command ( o u t p u t ) r e v e r t s back to c e n t r a l p r o c e s s i n g c e n t e r s as an a f f e r e n t s i g n a l . 20 Theory F i v e t h e o r i e s d e l i n e a t i n g the r o l e of FB are examined. Depending on the t h e o r y , FB i s i n v o l v e d i n s e l e c t i n g r e s -p o n d i n g , i n i t i a t i n g r e s pond i n g or d e t e c t i n g re sponse e r r o r . Some of the t h e o r i e s are more a p p l i c a b l e to a s i n g l e re sponse w h i l e o t h e r s dea l e s p e c i a l l y w i t h s e q u e n t i a l r e s p o n d i n g . Some, a l s o , are more a p p l i c a b l e to r a p i d (or b a l l i s t i c ) re-sponding w h i l e o t h e r s o f f e r g r e a t e r e x p l a n a t o r y va l ue f o r s low ( s e l f - p a c e d ) r e s p o n d i n g . W i t h i n these t h e o r i e s , FB can be v iewed g e n e r a l l y as an open - l o op or a c l o s e d - l o o p m o d a l i t y . For open - l oop r e s p o n d i n g , FB s i m p l y r e p r e s e n t s s t i m u l i to wh ich responses are c o n d i t i o n e d . For c l o s e d - l o o p r e s p o n d i n g , FB i s a sou rce o f i n f o r m a t i o n which i s compared to a r e f e r e n c e mechanism f o r the purpose of d e t e c t i n g and c o r r e c t i n g response e r r o r . The f i v e FB o r i e n t e d t h e o r i e s r e v i ewed are s e r i a l c h a i n i n g t h e o r y (James, 1890a) , f r a c t i o n a l a n t i c i p a t o r y goal t heo r y ( H u l l , 1931 ) , i d e o - m o t o r t heo r y ( G r e e n w a l d , 1970) , motor programming t h e o r y ( K e e l e , 1968; L a s h l e y 1917, 1951; L a s z l o , 1967) , and c l o s e d - l o o p t heo r y (Adams, 1968, 1971) . S e r i a l c h a i n i n g t h e o r y . Th i s i s the most v e n e r a b l e of the above t h e o r i e s . O r i g i n a l l y termed response c h a i n i n g by 21 W i l l i a m James ( 1890a ) , the t heo r y i s p a r t i c u l a r l y conce rned w i t h i n i t i a t i o n of s e q u e n t i a l segments o f r e s p o n d i n g . As deve loped by James, t h i s t h e o r y s t a t e s t h a t as a p a t t e r n of movements become l e a r n e d , each re sponse i n the p a t t e r n becomes c o n d i t i o n e d to the FB from the p r i o r r e s p o n s e . Where s i t u -a t i o n a l s t i m u l i i n i t i a l l y cue each re sponse i n a s equence , l e a r n i n g the response becomes a m a t t e r of d i s r e g a r d i n g s i t u -a t i o n a l s t i m u l i i n f a v o u r of e x t r i n s i c r e s p o n s e - p r o d u c e d s t"i mul i . There i s l i t t l e d i r e c t e x p e r i m e n t a l e v i d e n c e to s u p p o r t s e r i a l c h a i n i n g . The i n h e r e n t appeal of the t h e o r y i s by way of ana logy such as the s e r i a l r e m i n i s c e n c e of l i n e s of p o e t r y (G reenwa ld , 1970 :76 ) . In the motor domain, i n t e r -r u p t i n g or e l i m i n a t i n g FB from o v e r l e a r n e d s e q u e n t i a l r e s p o n d -i n g ( S m i t h , 1966) can be taken as e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t i n g t h a t p r i o r r e s pon se - p r oduced s t i m u l i . c o n t r o l subsequent re sponses i n s e r i a l b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s . F r a c t i o n a l a n t i c i p a t o r y goal t h e o r y . Th i s t h e o r y i s a c c r e d i t e d to H u l l (1931) and i s d e r i v e d from the concept of s e r i a l c h a i n i n g . A g a i n , s e q u e n t i a l r e s pond i n g i s i n v o l v e d . As w e l l , the t h e o r y p r o v i d e s an open - l oop e x p l a n a t i o n f o r g o a l - d i r e c t e d b e h a v i o r , a concept which i s c e n t r a l to the f o r m u l a t i o n of c l o s e d - l o o p t h e o r i e s o f b e h a v i o r . 22 The development of a f r a c t i o n a l a n t i c i p a t o r y goal response beg in s w i t h a sequence o f s p e c i f i c s t i m u l i each e l i c i t i n g a s p e c i f i c response u n t i l a goal response i s p roduced . As w e l l as the e l i c i t i n g s t i m u l u s , each r e s p o n s e , i n c l u d i n g the goal r e s p o n s e , has a s s o c i a t e d FB s t i m u l i . S e r i a l c h a i n i n g e v o l v e s from t h i s s i t u a t i o n b u t , a c c o r d i n g to H u l l ( 1 9 3 1 ) , so does a s i t u a t i o n whereby FB s t i m u l i c o n d i t i o n e d to the goal response a l s o became c o n d i t i o n e d to re-sponses t h r oughou t the s e r i a l c h a i n i n g sequence. With FB s t i m u l i f rom the goal response d i r e c t l y l i n k e d to re sponses t h roughou t the sequence , a n t i c i p a t i o n of FB a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the goa l response i s s u f f i c i e n t to i n i t i a t e e i t h e r the e n t i r e sequence or any p a r t t h e r e o f . Th i s i s , t h e r e f o r e , a t h e o r y p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned w i t h response s e l e c t i o n . H u l l used the concept of f r a c t i o n a l - g o a l - res ponse-produced s t i m u l i to e x p l a i n p u r p o s i v e b e h a v i o r i n terms o f an open - l o op c o n d i t i o n i n g pa rad i gm. The t h e o r y a l s o o f f e r s an e x p l a n a t i o n o f how unneces sa ry re sponses are e l i m i n a t e d from a sequence i n the deve lopment of s k i l l e d b e h a v i o r . Greenwald (1970: 78) d e s c r i b e s a t r a n s f e r parad igm f o r d e m o n s t r a t i n g f r a c t i o n a l a n t i c i p a t o r y goal r e s p o n d i n g 23 whe re i n an u n c o n d i t i o n d s t i m u l u s i n a c l a s s i c a l c o n d i t i o n -i ng s i t u a t i o n and r e s p o n s e - p r o d u c e d FB ( i . e . , goal s t i m u l u s ) i n an i n s t r u m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n i n g re sponse are the same. Support f o r f r a c t i o n a l a n t i c i p a t o r y goal r e s pond i n g would be f o r t h c o m i n g i f the r e s u l t i n g c o n d i t i o n e d s t i m u l u s i n the c l a s s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g s i t u a t i o n f a c i l i t a t e d the i n s t r u m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n i n g r e spon se . As Greenwald p o i n t s o u t , however , r e s u l t s from a d a q u a t e l y c o n t r o l l e d e xpe r imen t s emp loy i ng t h i s parad igm " r e p r e s e n t n o n - s p e c i f i c e x c i t a t o r y - i n h i b i t o r y p r o c e s s e s , r a t h e r than h i g h l y s p e c i f i c response s e l e c t i o n mechanisms" ( G r e e n w a l d , 1970: 79 ) . I deo -motor t h e o r y . Th i s t h e o r y , o r i g i n a l l y proposed by James (1890b) and r e c e n t l y r e v i v e d by Greenwald ( 1 970 ) , d i f f e r s from f r a c t i o n a l a n t i c i p a t o r y goal t heo r y by p o s t u -l a t i n g a response s e l e c t i o n mechanism t h a t i s s p e c i f i c to each response i n a sequence. Where the f r a c t i o n a l a n t i c i -p a t o r y goal response i s i n i t i a t e d by a n t i c i p a t i o n of FB a s s o c i a t e d w i t h on l y the goal r e s p o n s e , the i d e o - m o t o r mechanism i n i t i a t e s r e spond i n g a c c o r d i n g to a n t i c i p a t i o n of FB a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each s p e c i f i c r e s pon se . The i d e o - m o t o r mechanism c o n s i s t s of c e n t r a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d images formed from FB from s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , an image becomes c o n d i t i o n e d to the re sponse 24 from which i t has been fo rmed. A g a i n , the t heo r y i s open-loop i n concept and i s concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h re sponse s e l e c t i o n and i n i t i a t i o n . Ev idence r e g a r d i n g a c o n n e c t i o n between c e n t r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f r e s p o n d i n g and r e s pond i n g i t s e l f , where the c e n t r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n n e c e s s a r i l y p recedes a c t u a l r e s p o n d i n g , i s taken as e v i d e n c e of i d e o - m o t o r i n v o l v e m e n t (G reenwa ld , 1970: 8 6 - 9 2 ) . Where FB has been m a n i p u l a t e d i n s e e k i n g s u p p o r t f o r the i d e o - m o t o r p r i n c i p l e , the paradigms employed have not been a b l e to d i s t i n g u i s h whether the image formed from FB i s o p e r a t i v e p r i o r to or f o l l o w i n g r e s p o n d i n g . Th i s p red i cament i s i n h e r e n t i n a s tudy by Greenwald and A l b e r t ( 1968) , where p a s s i v e S_s_ l e a r n e d a re sponse s i m p l y by w a t c h i n g o t h e r S_s_ p r a c t i s e . P re sumab l y , the p a s s i v e Ss_ formed an image o f the r e q u i r e d response from v i s u a l s t i m u l i a s s o c i a t e d w i t h w a t c h i n g the a c t i v e Ss_. However, a l t hough the r e s u l t s of t h i s man ipu-l a t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t an image has been fo rmed, t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n of when the image i s employed r e l a t i v e to re sponse p r o d u c t i o n . I f the image i s o p e r a t i v e p r i o r to r e s p o n d i n g , s uppo r t i s ga rne red f o r an i d e o - m o t o r mechanism. C o n v e r s e l y , i f the image i s o p e r a t i v e f o l l o w i n g r e s p o n d i n g , a c l o s e d -loop mechanism i s i m p l i c a t e d . 25 In o r d e r to a v o i d c o n f u s i o n i n a t t e m p t i n g to i s o l a t e c o n t r o l mechanisms, Greenwald (1970: 91) sugges t s t h a t the i d e o - m o t o r mechanism s h o u l d be t e s t e d i n s i t u a t i o n s of b a l l i s t i c r e s p o n d i n g , . w h e r e p e r i p h e r a l FB cannot be u t i l i z e d . Th i s be i ng the c a s e , the i d e o - m o t o r t heo r y must be c o n s i d e r e d a l o n g s i d e motor programming t h e o r i e s t h a t a l s o w i e l d e x p l a n a t o r y power i n s i t u a t i o n s where p e r i p h e r a l FB i s nega ted . Motor programming t h e o r y . The concept of a motor program was i n i t i a t e d by L a s h l e y (1917, 1951) who argued a g a i n s t s e r i a l c h a i n i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y and the r o l e of p e r i p h e r a l FB g e n e r a l l y . Armed w i t h l o g i c , a n e c d o t a l example and e x p e r i m e n t a l e v i d e n c e , L a s h l e y ' s motor programm-i n g h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e d t h a t FB was unneces sa ry f o r s e q u e n t i a l b e h a v i o r such as r unn i ng a maze. L a s h l e y ' s e x p e r i m e n t a l t e c h n i q u e was d e a f f e r e n t a t i o n , whereby FB channe l s were e l i m i n a t e d . A l t hough h i s d e a f f e r e n t e d an ima l s s t umb led and groped through the passage ways f o l 1 o w i n g s u r g i c a l i n t e r -v e n t i o n , they n e v e r t h e l e s s succeeded i n n e g o t i a t i n g t h e i r mazes, c o n v i n c i n g La sh ley . t h a t a c e n t r a l motor program r a t h e r than p e r i p h e r a l FB was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b e h a v i o r . Conse-q u e n t l y , FB was r e l e g a t e d to the s i d e l i n e s , i t s r o l e narrowed to i n c l u d e on l y the f i n e r a s pec t s of r e g u l a t i o n of motor c o n t r o l . 26 L a s h l e y h a s b e e n c r i t i c i z e d f o r n o t e l i m i n a t i n g a l l FB c h a n n e l s , n o t a b l y b y H o n z i k ( 1 9 3 6 ) , t h e g i s t o f t h e c r i t i c i s m b e i n g t h a t t h e a n i m a l w i l l u s e w h a t e v e r FB c h a n n e l i s a v a i l a b l e , e v e n i f i t i s n o t t h e u s u a l c h a n n e l f o r p e r f o r m i n g t h e t a s k . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e i d e a o f a c e n t r a l m o t o r p r o g r a m h a s p e r s i s t e d w i t h r e s e a r c h e r s s u c h a s K e e l e ( 1 9 6 8 ) w h o s e p o s i t i o n , a l t h o u g h f a v o u r i n g t h e c o n t r o l o f m o v e m e n t b y m o t o r p r o g r a m m i n g , i s c o n s i d e r a b l y m o r e l i b e r a l w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e r o l e o f FB t h a n t h a t o f L a s h l e y . F o c u s i n g on d a t a r e g a r d i n g p r o c e s s i n g t i m e a n d r e g a r d i n g a t t e n t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s , K e e l e p r o p o s e s m o t o r p r o g r a m m i n g f o r r a p i d , w e l l l e a r n e d m o v e m e n t s b u t w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n o f c e n t r a l FB l o o p s m o n i t o r i n g e f f e r e n t o u t f l o w . T h e r e i s a l s o an e m p h a s i s on s h i f t o f c o n t r o l t o p e r i p h e r a l FB l o o p s i n t h e c a s e o f s1 o w e r m o v e m e n t s . B a s e d on d a t a f r o m b a l l i s t i c t a p p i n g a n d o t h e r r a p i d m o v e m e n t t a s k s , L a s z l o a n d h e r c o - w o r k e r s ( L a s z l o , 1 9 6 7 ; L a s z l o a n d M a n n i n g , 1 9 6 9 ; L a s z l o , S h a m o o n a n d S a n s o n - F i s c h e r , 1 9 6 9 ) h a v e p r e s e n t e d a c a s e f o r b o t h a m o t o r p r o g r a m m i n g u n i t o p e r a t i n g a l o n e a n d f o r a m o t o r p r o g r a m m i n g u n i t o p e r a t -i n g w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a c e n t r a l c l o s e d - l o o p s y s t e m . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o . b e a l i m i t a t i o n t o t h i s t y p e o f c o n t r o l , h o w e v e r . L a s z l o a n d B a i r s t o w ( 1 9 7 1 ) h a v e s h o w n t h a t a m o t o r p r o g r a m o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a c e n t r a l FB l o o p i s 27 s u i t a b l e f o r c o n t r o l l i n g r a t e of movement whereas f i n e movement c o n t r o l depends upon i n f o r m a t i o n from p e r i p h e r a l FB. N e i t h e r the data r e v i ewed by Kee le ( 1968 ) , nor t h a t p r o v i d e d by L a s z l o and her coworker s deny the e f f i c a c y of p e r i p h e r a l FB i n c o n t r o l l i n g movement. On the c o n t r a r y , t h i s work demons t ra te s t h a t c o n t r o l of movement can procede by v a r i o u s means o f open- and c l o s e d - l o o p c o n t r o l depend ing on the type of movement i n v o l v e d and on the i n p u t channe l s a v a i l a b l e . To t h i s end , Roy and Ma r ten i uk (1974) demons t ra ted t h a t motor c o n t r o l f o r a b a l l i s t i c t i m i n g ta sk was be s t e x p l a i n e d by motor programming t heo r y w h i l e motor c o n t r o l f o r a s e l f - p a c e d t i m i n g ta sk was be s t e x p l a i n e d by c l o s e d -l oop t h e o r y . In the s e l f - p a c e d t a s k , t h e r e was e v i d e n c e t h a t p e r i p h e r a l FB s e r ved as a c o n t r o l agent d u r i n g the movement. C l o s e d - l o o p t h e o r y . Th i s i s the f i n a l t heo r y to be r ev i ewed i n d i s c u s s i n g the t h e o r e t i c a l r o l e of FB. S i n c e an expanded d i s c u s s i o n of c l o s e d - l o o p t h e o r i e s compr i se s a l a t e r s e c t i o n to t h i s r e v i e w , p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be kept to a minimum. In a c l o s e d - l o o p s y s t em, FB s e r ve s two f u n c t i o n s (Adams, 1968, 1971) . The f i r s t f u n c t i o n i s to p r o v i d e 28 i n p u t f o r the f o r m a t i o n of an e r r o r d e t e c t i o n mechanism. The second f u n c t i o n i s to p r o v i d e i n p u t to the above mechanism, once f o rmed , f o r compar i son i n o r d e r to d e t e c t e r r o r . The r o l e o f FB i n c l o s e d - l o o p t h e o r y , t h e r e f o r e , has to do w i t h d e t e c t i n g response e r r o r . Both d i s c r e t e -t r i a l and s e q u e n t i a l r e s pond i n g i s encompassed by the th-eory. Adams (1971) has b u t t r e s s e d h i s c l o s e d - l o o p l e a r n i n g t heo r y w i t h e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e ga the red from s e l f -paced , d i s c r e t e p o s i t i o n i n g s t u d i e s , w h i l e e a r l i e r e n g i n -e e r i n g c l o s e d - l o o p models ( C r a i k , 1947, 1948) have been concerned w i t h t r a c k i n g b e h a v i o u r . Two l i n e s o f e v i d e n c e are r e q u i r e d to s u p p o r t the c l o s e d - l o o p h y p o t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g FB. F i r s t , t h e r e must be e v i d e n c e t h a t FB forms a r e f e r e n c e , or r e c o g n i t i o n , mechanism. Second, i t must be demons t ra ted t h a t FB i s compared to the r e f e r e n c e mechanism f o r e r r o r d e t e c t i o n . From r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d by Greenwald and A l b e r t ( 1968 ) , p r e v i o u s l y r e f e r r e d t o , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e of a c e n t r a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d image formed from FB. Z e l a z n i k and S p r i n g (1976) have produced s i m i l a r e v i d e n c e , a l s o based on p a s s i v e S_s who l e a r n e d a response by r e c e i v i n g cues from 29 the responses of a c t i v e Ss_. As noted when d i s c u s s i n g the Greenwald and A l b e r t (1968) r e s u l t s , however, t h i s type of paradigm doesn ' t d i s t i n g u i s h when the image formed from FB i s used. To f i t the c l o s e d - l o o p schema, the image thus formed must be used f o l l o w i n g o r , at l e a s t , dur ing responding . • There have been demonstrat ions that S_s_ develop the a b i l i t y to recognize wrong responses a f t e r they occur . This happens even though has never before made the wrong response. Marshal l ( 1972 ) had S_s_ lea rn a c r i t e r i o n movement by moving to contact wi th a s t o p . S_s were then tes ted on a t w o - i nte rva 1 , f o r c e d - c h o i c e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n task where e i t h e r the c r i t e r i o n movement or an a l t e r n a t i v e movement was p resented . Resul ts showed that a b i l i t y to detect e r r o r was r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y to number of re inforcements ( p r a c t i s e with FB) and to d i s c r i m i n -a b i l i t y of a l t e r n a t i v e s (extent of d i f f e r e n c e of a l t e r n a t i v e response from c r i t e r i o n response) . A b i l i t y to detec t e r r o r was i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d to r e t e n t i o n i n t e r v a l (decay of FB between responses ) . Adams and Goetz (1973) a l s o used a two-choice d i s c r i m i n a t i o n task i n an experiment s i m i l a r to that performed by Marshal l (1972) , where amount of FB was an i n -dependent v a r i a b l e . They found that augmented FB enhanced a b i l i t y to recognize wrong responses . Response r e c o g n i t i o n as d iscussed above has been 30 demons t ra ted to be on l y one s i d e o f dual r e c a l l and r e c o g n i t i o n p r o c e s s e s . W i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f c l o s e d - l o o p t h e o r y , i t has been r e c o g n i z e d t h a t an i n i t i a t i n g mechanism must e x i s t p r i o r to r e s pond i n g (Adams, 1971). Thus, G reenwa l d ' s (1970) i d e o - m o t o r mechanism, or some s i m i l a r i n i t i a t i n g mechanism such as a motor program ( K e e l e , 1968; L a s h l e y , 1917, 1951; L a s z l o , 1967) i s not d i s c o u n t e d . R a t h e r , the i n i t i a t i n g , or r e c a l l , mechanism i s on l y p a r t of- o v e r a l l r e s p o n s e c o n t r o l . Summary of t h e o r i e s of f eedback . In summary, r e v i ew of t h e o r i e s t h a t propose a r o l e f o r FB i n re sponse c o n t r o l has r e v e a l e d a s t r o n g case f o r p e r i p h e r a l FB o p e r a t i n g i n a c l o s e d - l o o p c o n t e x t . Other mechanisms, such as open - l oop motor programs are not den i ed as a r e s u l t o f the case f o r c l o s e d - l o o p r e s p o n d i n g . R a t h e r , the emphasis has been on c i r c u m s c r i b i n g the domain o f a p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r y i n r e l a t i o n to o v e r a l l re sponse c o n t r o l . K i n e s t h e s i s The p r e s e n t s tudy i s d e l i m i t e d to one form of FB, t h a t be i ng k i n e s t h e t i c . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , a p p r o p r i a t e to r ev i ew the p r o p e r t i e s o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s en so r y m o d a l i t y . 31 A comprehens i ve r ev i ew and t h e o r e t i c a l s t r u c t u r i n g of k i n e s t h e s i s has been unde r taken by Smith ( 1969 ) . She d e f i n e s k i n e s t h e s i s as the movement sense and g i v e s i t the t h e o r e t i c a l s t a t u s of a p e r c e p t u a l phenomenon. As s u c h , f o u r l i n e s of i n q u i r y s e r ve to e x p l o r e the domain o f t h i s s en se . 1. What i s the na tu re of k i n e s t h e t i c r e c e p t o r s ? What forms o f energy are they s e n s i t i v e to and, t h e r e f o r e , • what i s the na tu re o f the i n p u t they convey? 2. To what l e v e l o f the nervous system i s i n p u t from the f i r s t o r d e r k i n e s t h e t i c r e c e p t o r s conveyed? 3. Is k i n e s t h e t i c i n f o r m a t i o n s t o r e d and, i f s o , i n what form i s i t s t o r e d ? 4. Is k i n e s t h e s i s an e f f e r e n t as w e l l as an a f f e r e n t phenomenon? Smith d e f i n e s a sen so ry m o d a l i t y as "a s u b j e c t i v e l y d i s t i n c t i v e response w i t h i n the c e n t r a l nervous sys tem to s t i m u l a t i o n of a s p e c i f i c group o f r e c e p t o r s " (1969: 32 ) . A f f e r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g movement a r i s e s from r e c e p -t o r s connec ted w i t h the l i g a m e n t s ( f r e e G o l g i - t y p e end i n g s ) and the j o i n t c a p s u l e ( s p r a y - t y p e R u f f i n i end ings and m o d i f i e d P a c i n i a n c o r p u s c l e s ) . The G o l g i - t y p e and R u f f i n i end ings are s low a d a p t i n g p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t o r s and the P a c i n i a n c o r p u s c l e s are r a p i d a d a p t i n g movement i n d i c a t o r s . 32 Th i s i n f o r m a t i o n has come from a number o f s ou r ce s m a i n l y by way o.f s i n g l e u n i t r e c o r d i n g t e c h n i q u e s (Andrew, 1954 ; Boyd, 1954; Gardner and Noer , 1952; S k o g l u n d , 1956) . That the f i r s t o r d e r a f f e r e n t s i n the j o i n t c a p s u l e ga in c o r t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n seems c e r t a i n from e v i d e n c e s u b m i t t e d by Gardner and Noer ( 1 952 ) , M o u n t c a s t l e , Cova in and H a r r i s o n (1950) and Skog lund (1956 ) . The a f f e r e n t pathway l ead s from the j o i n t r e c e p t o r s v i a the d o r s a l column med ia l l e m n i s c a l sys tem and a r e l a y i n the v e n t r a l p o s t e r i o r n u c l e a r complex of the tha lamus u l t i m a t e l y to the s oma t i c sen so ry c o r t e x . M o u n t c a s t l e and Powe l l (1959) have shown t h a t c o r t i c a l neurons are s e n s i t i v e to 60 - 90 degrees of a rc whereas i n d i v i d u a l j o i n t r e c e p t o r s are s e n s i t i v e to 15 - 20 degrees of a r c . Th i s i n f o r m a t i o n he lp s to answer the q u e s t i o n of how i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d at h i g h e r l e v e l s by s u g g e s t -i ng t h a t on l y a summary of i n f o r m a t i o n reaches the c o r t e x ( S m i t h , 1969). N e v e r t h e l e s s , M o u n t c a s t l e , Cova in and H a r r i s o n (1950) a l ong w i t h M o u n t c a s t l e and Powe l l (1959) have i n d i c a t e d t h a t , th rough r e c i p r o c a l i n h i b i t i o n , complex movement p a t t e r n s can be s p a t i a l l y and t e m p o r a l l y r e p r e -sen ted a t the c o r t e x . 33 In p r o v i d i n g s e n s a t i o n of movement, the l i g a m e n t and j o i n t c a p s u l e r e c e p t o r s convey i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g both l o c a t i o n ( p o s i t i o n r e c e p t o r s ) and d i s t a n c e (movement r e c e p t o r s ) . E m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e from movement r e p r o d u c t i o n s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t l o c a t i o n and d i s t a n c e cues do not r e c e i v e the same t r e a t m e n t i n c e n t r a l p r o c e s s i n g . R e t e n t i o n of l o c a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n has been shown to be a i d e d by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of c e n t r a l p r o c e s s i n g c a p a c i t y , w h i l e r e t e n t i o n o f d i s t a n c e i n f o r m a t i o n i s not a i d e d by such a v a i l a b i l i t y ( Laab s , 1973, 1974, 1976; Ma r ten i uk and Roy, 1972; M a r t e n i u k , S h i e l d s and C a m p b e l l , 1972; Po sne r , 1967). K i n e s t h e t i c i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e n , would appear to be s t o r e d i n a form r e p r e s e n t i n g cues from movement l o c a t i o n . As w e l l as h i g h e r o r d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a f f e r e n t l y d i r e c t e d cues from movement, e xpe r imen t s d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t a c t i v e movement i s more a c c u r a t e than p a s s i v e move-ment (Browne, Lee and R i n g , 1954; Lee and R i n g , 1954; L l o y d and C a l d w e l l , 1965; M e r t o n , 1964; P a i l l a r d and B rouchon , 1968) i n d i c a t e t h a t , p e r c e p t u a l l y , k i n e s t h e s i s s hou l d be c o n s i d e r e d an e f f e r e n t as w e l l as an a f f e r e n t phenomenon. S i n ce a c t i v e movement i n v o l v e s an e f f e r e n t o u t f l o w to the muscu l a r s y s t em, i t may be p o s s i b l e to m o n i t o r and s t o r e t h i s s ou rce o f i n f o r m a t i o n and app l y i t to f u t u r e r e s p o n d i n g . H o i s t (1954) has proposed a model i n which Ss_ compare the o u t f l o w of motor i n n e r v a t i o n by 34 way o f i n t e r n a l FB l o o p s . Th i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y a c l o s e d -loop schema whe re i n the p a t t e r n and i n t e n s i t y o f i n n e r -v a t i o n are checked a g a i n s t an i n t e r n a l r e f e r e n c e mechanism. Merton ( 1964) speaks of a " sense of e f f o r t " whereby S_s_ p e r c e i v e to have moved even when the movement i s b l o c k e d , e i t h e r by mechan i ca l means or a n a e s t h e t i c a l l y . C o n c e i v a b l y , e f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s and i n t e n s i t i e s o f motor commands a re l e a r n e d i n a s i m i l a r manner to which a f f e r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n i S" remembered. T o g e t h e r , these two sou rce s of i n f o r m a t i o n would a l l o w more a c c u r a t e movement c o n t r o l . T h e o r e t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s - Knowledge o f R e s u l t s De f i n i t i on Knowledge of r e s u l t s has been s u c c i n c t l y d e f i n e d by I. B i l o d e a u as the " d i s c r e p a n c y between goal and o b t a i n e d r e s p o n s e s " (1966: 256 ) . I s s u i n g from B i l o d e a u ' s b a s i c d e f i n i t i o n are two d e l i m i t i n g q u a l i t i e s . F i r s t , KR i s an e x t e r n a l form o f i n p u t . As s u c h , KR has sometimes been termed e x t r i n s i c FB to d i s t i n g u i s h i t from response i n d i g e n -ous, or i n t r i n s i c , FB ( A n n e t t , 1961; Anne t t and Kay, 1957; F i t t s , 1964; Robb, 1966) . Second, KR i s a lways E c o n t r o l l e d . Thus, the goal (o r c r i t e r i o n ) , f r e q u e n c y of p r e s e n t a t i o n , s p e c i f i c i t y , tempora l de l a y i n t e r v a l s and o t h e r v a r i a b l e s 35 r e l a t e d to the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f KR are m a n i p u l a t e d by E_. There are two types of KR, depend ing upon whether KR i s p r e s e n t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h a response or f o l l o w -ing c o m p l e t i o n of a r e s p o n s e , such as i n the i n t e r v a l between d i s c r e t e r e s p o n s e s . The type o f KR the p r e s e n t s tudy i s conce rned w i t h i s t h a t o c c u r r i n g f o l l o w i n g com-p l e t i o n o f a r e spon se . Nomenc lature has v a r i e d ; the term KR i s not a lways employed i n the l i t e r a t u r e . The term i n f o r m a t i o n FB ( I F ) i s p r e f e r r e d by I. B i l o d e a u (1966 ) . A f u r t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n i s p r o v i d e d by the terms a c t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n FB (A IF) f o r i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h r e s p o n d i n g and t e r m i n a l i n f o r m a t i o n FB (T IF ) f o r i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d f o l l o w i n g r e s p o n d i n g (Fox and Levy , 1969, 1970) . E a r l i e r , M i l l e r (1953) c o i n e d the terms a c t i o n FB f o r i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h r e s pond i n g and l e a r n i n g FB f o r i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d f o l l o w i n g a r e s pon se . Theo ry Brown (1949) has proposed t h r e e t h e o r e t i c a l r o l e s f o r KR. These are r e i n f o r c e m e n t , i n f o r m a t i o n and m o t i v a t i o n . As r e i n f o r c e m e n t , KR a c t s to s t r e n g t h e n b e h a v i o r . Open- loop 36 t h e o r i e s of b e h a v i o r have emphas ized the r e i n f o r c i n g na tu re of KR. P r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g re sponse e r r o r l ends i t s e l f to c l o s e d - l o o p t h e o r i e s have i n c l u d e d e x p l a n a t i o n s of the m o t i v a t i n g a spec t s of KR. KR as r e i n f o r c e m e n t . S c i e n c e i s i n d e b t e d to Tho rnd i ke (1927, 1932) f o r an emphasis on the r e i n f o r c e m e n t p r o p e r t i e s of KR. A c c o r d i n g to T h o r n d i k e ' s Law of E f f e c t , " t h a t what comes a f t e r a c o n n e c t i o n a c t s upon i t to a l t e r i t s s t r e n g t h " (1972: 212 ) . The Law of E f f e c t was proposed as an e m p i r i c a l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t u r n e d on T h o r n d i k e ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t "when 1 a n n o y i n g n e s s ' i s a t t a c h e d to a f r e q u e n t c o n n e c t i o n and ' s a t i s f y i n g n e s s ' to a r a r e c o n n e c t i o n , the l a t t e r ga i n s and the fo rmer l o s e s u n t i l the l a t t e r becomes the h a b i t u a l r e s p o n s e " (1927: 212 ) . T h o r n d i k e ' s 1927 s tudy has KR i n the form of E_ s p e a k i n g the words " r i g h t " or "wrong " f o l l o w i n g a r e s p o n s e . In a l e n g t h e s t i m a t i o n e x p e r i m e n t and i n a l i n e d raw ing e x p e r i m e n t , Ss who were t o l d " r i g h t " or "wrong " f o l l o w i n g t h e i r re sponses improved much more than Ss_ who were t o l d n o t h i n g . Th i s s tudy has been r e p l i c a t e d by Baker and Young (1960 ) . In e x p l a i n i n g h i s r e s u l t s , Tho rnd i ke emphas ized t h a t " t h e consequences of a c o n n e c t i o n work back upon i t to 37 i n f l u e n c e i t " (1927: 215 ) . Th i s p r i n c i p l e has s t ood as the fundamenta l t e n n e t of the two major open - l oop e x p l a n -a t i o n s of b e h a v i o r , S-R p s ycho l ogy and ope ran t c o n d i t i o n i n g . Suppor t f o r the S-R v i e w p o i n t o f KR as a r e i n f o r c i n g agent comes m a i n l y f rom t h r e e a r e a s , those conce rned w i t h the e f f e c t s of p re sence or absence o f KR, f r e q u e n c y of KR and tempora l de l a y of KR. Reviews o f these areas are p r o v i d e d by Ammons (1956) and by I. B i l o d e a u (1966 ) . There are t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t a l paradigms by which the e f f e c t o f p resence or absence of KR may be o b s e r v e d . One parad igm i n v o l v e s p a r a l l e l o b s e r v a t i o n , where re sponse tendency f o r an e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n w i t h KR a v a i l a b l e i s compared to a c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n w i t h no KR a v a i l a b l e (Baker and Young, 1960; E l w e l l and G r i n d l e y , 1938; McGuigan, Hu tchen s , Eason and R e y n o l d s , 1964; T h o r n d i k e , 1927). Sometimes combined w i t h the above p a r a l l e l o b s e r v -a t i o n pa r ad i gm, the o t h e r two paradigms i n v o l v e s e r i a l o b s e r v a t i o n , emp loy i n g e i t h e r a KR/post-KR phase s e r i e s o f t r i a l s ( E l w e l l and G r i n d l e y , 1938; McGuigan, Hutch i n s , Eason and Reyno l d s , 1964; MacPher son, Dees and G r i n d l e y , 1948) or a pre-KR/KR/post -KR phase s e r i e s of t r i a l s (Baker and Young, 1960; D y a l , 1966; Dyal and A r r i n g t o n , 1964; D y a l , W i l s o n and B e r r y , 1965; Tho rnd i ke 1927) . 38 To summarize the e f f e c t of p re sence or absence of KR, r e s pond i n g g e n e r a l l y improves i n r e l a t i o n to a c r i t e r i o n when KR i s p r e s e n t . There i s no tendency f o r r e s p o n d i n g to move toward a c r i t e r i o n when KR i s a b s e n t . A l l o f the above s t u d i e s demons t ra ted d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n r e s pond i n g away from the c r i t e r i o n when KR was w i t h d r a w n . D e t e r i o r -a t i o n was n o t , however, to o r i g i n a l response l e v e l s . Ano the r i n d i r e c t l i n e of e v i d e n c e o f f e r i n g some s uppo r t f o r the r e i n f o r c e m e n t p r o p e r t i e s o f KR i s t h a t r e l a t e d to f r equency o f KR. I f KR i s r e i n f o r c i n g , the s t r e n g t h o f a re sponse s h o u l d be i n c r e a s e d by the f r e -quency w i t h which KR i s a p p l i e d . Both r e l a t i v e and a b s o l u t e f r e q u e n c y o f KR have been m a n i p u l a t e d and the l i t e r a t u r e on the s u b j e c t appears to be unanimous i n d e c l a r i n g t h a t a b s o l u t e r a t h e r than r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y of KR u l t i m a t e l y de te rm ine s l e v e l o f l e a r n i n g (Baker and Young, 1960; B i l o d e a u and B i l o d e a u , 1958a; B i l o d e a u , B i l o d e a u and Shumsky, 1959; L a r r e , 1961; McGuigan, 1959b). B i l o d e a u and B i l o d e a u (1958b: 379) note t h a t r e l a t i v e f r equency of KR i s s i m i l a r to reward or u n c o n d i t i o n e d s t i m u l u s (UCS) s c h e d u l e s , but c a u t i o n t h a t D e s p i t e many s i m i l a r i t i e s between KR and r e w a r d , the two are not n e c e s s a r i l y e q u i v a l e n t In the human s k i l l s c o n t e x t , the ta sk 39 i s u s u a l l y one o f l e a r n i n g to make graded responses by means o f a graded e r r o r s i g n a l , KR be i ng a q u a n t i t a t i v e i ndex o f how and by how much subsequent b e h a v i o r s h o u l d be modi f i ed . These au tho r s go on to emphas ize the p r o b l e m a t i c n a t u r e of motor t a s k s i n a manner s i m i l a r to Adams (1971: 122) who emphas izes t h a t Motor l e a r n i n g i s be s t v iewed as a prob lem to be s o l v e d , where t r i e s a movement, i s g i ven KR, t r i e s a ga i n on the next t r i a l , and so on , and the KR i s the i n f o r m a t i o n used to s o l v e the p rob lem. In the same pape r , Adams r e f e r s to the work of E l 1 we 11 and G r i n d l e y ( 1938 ) , commenting t h a t they made the p e r c e p t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t a human S_ does not r e p e a t rewarded r e s p o n s e s , as an ima l s seem to do. R a t h e r , on the next t r i a l he a t tempt s to c o r r e c t  h i s e r r o r s . An u n s u c c e s s f u l movement r e s u l t s i n a v a r i a t i o n i n the response j u s t made, not i t s r e p e t i t i o n . The T h o r n d i k i a n , S-R i n t e r p r e t a t i o n r e q u i r e s a r e p e t i t i o n o f rewarded re sponses and a vo i dance of pun i shed ones , but t h e r e i s no a c c o u n t i n g f o r imp rove -ment i n per fo rmance based on s y s t e m a t i c c o r r e c t i o n of e r r o r . (Adams, 1971: 115) The we i gh t o f e v i d e n c e and l o g i c appears to f a v o u r KR as a s ou rce o f i n f o r m a t i o n . However t h e r e i s a no the r avenue o f approach i n s e e k i n g e v i d e n c e f o r r e i n f o r c i n g p r o p e r t i e s of KR, t h a t hav i n g to do w i t h tempora l d e l a y of KR. I f KR a c t s as a r e i n f o r c e r s i m i l a r to reward i n an imal e x p e r i m e n t s , then the f a r t h e r KR i s removed ( t empo ra l 40 from a r e s p o n s e , the l e s s e f f e c t KR s h o u l d have on a l t e r i n g the r e spon se . Based on an imal e x p e r i m e n t s , t h i s concept was f o r m a l i z e d by H u l l ( 1932 , 1943) as the goal g r a d i ent h y p o t h e s i s , a c c o r d i n g to which l e a r n i n g was a n e g a t i v e e x p o n e n t i a l f u n c t i o n o f the tempora l d i s p l a c e m e n t between a re sponse and i t s r e i n -fo rcement . S t u d i e s m a n i p u l a t i n g the de l a y of KR are d i v i d e d as to the e f f i c a c y o f t h i s p r o c e d u r e . . To con fu se m a t t e r s , tempora l de l a y i n t e r v a l s are o f t e n con founded , i nadaqua te dependent measure are commonplace and many of the s t u d i e s have f a i l e d to i n c l u d e o b s e r v a t i o n of pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . Of n i n e t e e n s t u d i e s r e v i ewed i n a f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n devoted s p e c i f i c a l l y to e v i d e n c e r e g a r d i n g m a n i p u l a t i o n of KR tempora l de l a y i n t e r v a l s , on l y f i v e have unconfounded de s i gn s which a l l o w each of the t h r e e KR tempora l de l a y i n t e r v a l s to vary i n d e p e n d e n t l y ( B e c k e r , Muss ina and P e r s o n s , 1963; B i l o d e a u and B i l o d e a u , 1958b; Denny, A l l a r d , H a l l and Rokeach, 1960; McGuigan, C r o c k e t t and B o l t o n , 1960; M a g i l l , 1977). Of these f i v e s t u d i e s , on l y t h a t by McGuigan e t a l . (1960) found an e f f e c t due to m a n i p u l a t i o n of the KR de l ay i n t e r v a l and t h i s was on l y p r e sen t i n the KR phase of r e s -pond i n g . The o t h e r p o s i t i v e f i n d i n g s i s s u i n g from uncon-founded des i gn s have been f o r the ITI and post -KR de l a y 41 i n t e r v a l ( B i l o d e a u and B i l o d e a u , 1958b) and the ITI (Denny e t a l . , 1960 ) . Taken t o g e t h e r , e v i d e n c e from s t u d i e s on p re sence or absence o f KR, f r equency o f KR and tempora l d e l a y of KR does not p r o v i d e s t r o n g s uppo r t f o r the r e i n f o r c i n g na tu re of KR. KR as an i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e . The second p o s s i b l e r o l e f o r KR, t h e n , i s as a s ou rce of i n f o r m a t i o n (Brown, 1949) . Adams ( 1971 ) , B i l o d e a u and B i l o d e a u (1958b) and E l w e l l and G r i n d l e y ( 1 938 ) , as n o t e d , have argued from gene ra l o b s e r v -a t i o n t h a t human Ss_ u t i l i z e KR as i n f o r m a t i o n f o r p rob lem s o l v i n g . E m p i r i c a l l y , s u p p o r t f o r an i n f o r m a t i v e r o l e o f KR has been sought i n two a r e a s , m a n i p u l a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c i t y of KR and m a n i p u l a t i o n of the pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l . I n c r e a s i n g the s p e c i f i c i t y o f KR i s tantamount to i n c r e a s i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t e n t . In an e a r l y r e b u t t a l to T h o r n d i k e ' s (1927) r e i n f o r c e m e n t - o r i e n t e d s t u d y , T rowbr idge and Cason (1932) p r o v i d e d KR f o r a 3.0 i n ch l i n e d rawing ta sk i n f o u r ways, these be i ng (1) no KR, (2) a nonsense s y l l a b l e , (3) KR as " r i g h t " or " w r o n g " , and (4) KR as d i r e c t i o n and magn i tude i n 1/8 i n c h u n i t s of e r r o r . R e s u l t s o f t h i s e xpe r imen t tend to s u p p o r t 42 both T h o r n d i k e ' s r e i n f o r c e m e n t p o s i t i o n as w e l l as the e f f i c a c y of KR as an i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e : Nonsense s y l l a -b l e s as KR r e s u l t e d i n worse per fo rmance than d i d the no KR c o n d i t i o n w h i l e , on the o t h e r hand, response e r r o r dec rea sed i n o r d e r o f the " r i g h t " and "wrong " group and then the magni tude and e r r o r g roup . The e f f e c t of the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n KR i s ev- ident i n the r e s u l t s o f a s t udy r e p o r t e d by I. B i l o d e a u (1966: 281) where groups r e c e i v e d KR as (1) magni tude p lu s d i r e c t i o n of e r r o r , (2) magnitude o f e r r o r o n l y , and (3) d i r e c t i o n o f e r r o r o n l y . Magn i tude o f e r r o r o n l y KR produced the l e a s t a c c u r a t e p e r f o r m a n c e , w i t h the o t h e r two groups s i m i l a r i n response t endency . There are two r e l e v a n t i n f e r e n c e s t h a t may be drawn from the r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d by I. B i l o d e a u ( 1966 ) . F i r s t , the t ype o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n KR a f f e c t s re sponse a c c u r a c y ; d i r e c t i o n on l y KR r e s u l t e d i n r e spond i n g t h a t was as a c c u r a t e as magnitude p l u s d i r e c t i o n KR and these two types o f KR both r e s u l t e d i n more a c c u r a t e r e s p o n d i n g than d i d magnitude on l y KR. Second, ex l reme r e f i n e m e n t of KR does not appear to be n e c e s s a r y ; d i r e c t i o n o f e r r o r on l y was as po t en t i n g u i d i n g r e s pond i n g as was d i r e c t i o n and magnitude o f e r r o r . 43 E.A. B i l o d e a u (1955) has demons t ra ted t h a t the amount of i n f o r m a t i o n i n h e r e n t i n KR d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a f f e c t s d i f f e r e n t measures of response t endency . H i g h l y r e f i n e d KR tends to dec rea se c o n s t a n t e r r o r and i n c r e a s e v a r i a b l e e r r o r (w i t h i n - S^ v a r i a n c e ) . R e f i n e d KR a l s o dec rea se s between-15 v a r i a n c e , i . e . , S_s_ become more a l i k e i n r e s p o n d i n g . That w i t h i n - S ^ v a r i a n c e s h o u l d i n c r e a s e w i t h g r e a t e r r e -f i nement of KR i s a t t r i b u t e d by B i l o d e a u to " h u n t i n g be-h-av io r " . the g i s t o f which i s t h a t S_s are encouraged to mod i fy subsequent r e s pond i n g as a f u n c t i o n o f the amount of p e r c e i v e d response e r r o r . F u r t h e r s u p p o r t f o r KR as an i n f o r m a t i o n s ou r ce comes from a s tudy by Ha rdes t y and Bevan (1964 ) . Us ing a r e a c t i o n t ime t a s k , these au tho r s r e p o r t t h a t a noKR c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n worsened i n per fo rmance w h i l e e x p e r i -mental groups r e c e i v i n g KR improved t h e i r p e r f o rmance . Among the e x p e r i m e n t a l g r oup s , q u a l i t a t i v e p l u s q u a n t i -t a t i v e KR produced s u p e r i o r pe r fo rmance to q u a n t i t a t i v e -on l y KR w h i c h , i n t u r n , produced s u p e r i o r pe r fo rmance to q u a l i t a t i v e - o n l y KR. Opposed to e v i d e n c e t h a t i n c r e a s e d s p e c i f i c i t y of KR enhances per fo rmance are a number o f s t u d i e s t h a t have f a i l e d to d i f f e r e n t i a t e r e spond i n g on t h i s b a s i s ( A n n e t t , 44 1959a; E. B i l o d e a u , 1952a, 1952b; G reen , Z i m i l i e s and Sp ragg , 1955) . The reasons t h a t these s t u d i e s f a i l e d to d i f f e r e n t i a t e , however, may be due to e x p e r i m e n t a l de s i gn r a t h e r than due to f a i l u r e f o r s p e c i f i c i t y to a c t as h y p o t h e s i z e d . Anne t t (1959a) and E. B i l o d e a u (1952a, 1952b) may not have i n c r e a s e d s p e c i f i c i t y enough, a s h o r t -coming t h a t appears to be r e c t i f i e d i n subsequent s t u d i e s unde r taken by B i l o d e a u (1953 , 1954, 1955) . For G reen , Z i m i l i e s and Spragg ( 1 955 ) , who compared d i r e c t i o n - o n l y KR to d i r e c t i o n p lu s magnitude KR and found no d i f f e r e n c e i n response t e n d e n c y , i t i s noted t h a t I. B i l o d e a u (1966: 281) r e p o r t s a s i m i l a r t endency . N e v e r t h e l e s s I. B i l o d e a u i n -c l u d e d a c o n d i t i o n w i t h m a g n i t u d e - o n l y KR and t h i s c o n d i t i o n demons t ra ted i n f e r i o r r e s p o n d i n g when compared to d i r e c t i o n on l y and magnitude p lu s d i r e c t i o n KR. G reen , Z i m i l i e s and Spragg ( 1955 ) , t h e r e f o r e , s i m p l y appear not to have ex tended t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n f a r enough. Thus, e v i d e n c e . r e l a t e d to the s p e c i f i c i t y o f KR argues i n f a v o u r o f KR as an i n f o r m a t i o n m o d a l i t y . S t u d i e s such as r e p o r t e d by I. B i l o d e a u (1966: 281) s u g g e s t , however, t h a t KR does not have to be h i g h l y r e f i n e d i n o r d e r to b r i n g r e s -pond ing to a c r i t e r i o n l e v e l . I ndeed , Adams (1971) sugges t s t h a t KR a c t s as a s ou rce o f i n f o r m a t i o n on l y as f a r as i t produces c r i t e r i o n l e v e l r e s p o n d i n g . I f Adams i s c o r r e c t , 45 then KR on l y i n d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e s the f o r m a t i o n of a c r i -t e r i o n r e s p o n s e , the d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on re sponse tendency be i ng the i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d v i a r e s p o n s e - p r o d u c e d FB. M a n i p u l a t i o n of the pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l i s a l s o of i n t e r e s t i n a t t e m p t i n g to e s t a b l i s h an i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g r o l e f o r KR. I f KR i s an i n f o r m a t i o n m o d a l i t y , then the i n f o r m a t i o n from KR must be p r o ce s s ed i n the pos t -KR d e l a y i n t e r v a l . Two methods have been employed to e s t a b l i s h an i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g r o l e f o r KR. One method i n v o l v e s s h o r t e n i n g the pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l and the o t h e r i n v o l v e s f i l l i n g the pos t -KR d e l a y i n t e r v a l w i t h i n t e r -p o l a t e d a c t i v i t y . The purpose of both o f these methods i s to i n t e r f e r e w i t h p o t e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g a b i 1 i t y . A d i s t i n c t i o n s h o u l d be made between the t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f s h o r t e n i n g and l e n g t h e n i n g the pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l . Whereas s h o r t e n i n g the i n t e r v a l i s an a t tempt to i n t e r f e r e w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g , l e n g t h e n -i n g the i n t e r v a l i s an a t tempt to produce f o r g e t t i n g . E m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e r e l a t e d to l e n g t h e n i n g the pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l w i l l be rev i ewed i n the s e c t i o n on man ip -u l a t i o n of KR tempora l de l a y i n t e r v a l s . 46 The i dea t h a t t h e r e must be a minimum p r o c e s s i n g t ime f o r i n f o r m a t i o n from KR i s s uppo r t ed by r e s u l t s from a movement r e p r o d u c t i o n s tudy by We inburg , Guy and Tupper ( 1964 ) . They found t h a t a pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l of 1.0 second r e s u l t e d i n l e s s a c c u r a t e r e s pond i n g com-pared to i n t e r v a l s of 5.0 seconds and g r e a t e r . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s i n the a rea of concept i d e n t i f i c a t i o n have been r e p o r t e d (Bourne and Bunder son , 1963; Bourne , Guy, Dodd an-d J u s t e s e n , 1965 ; C r o l l , 1970 ; White and S chm id t , 1972 ). Motor l e a r n i n g s t u d i e s t h a t have found no e f f e c t due to s h o r t e n i n g the pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l ( B e c k e r , Muss ina and P e r s o n s , 1963; Denny e t a l . , 1960; McGuigan, C r o c k e t t and B o l t o n , 1963; Magi 1 1 , 1973 , 19 77 ) have f a i l e d to employ a pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l as s h o r t as t h a t p r o v i d e d by Weinbu e t a l . ( 1964 ) . The i dea t h a t i n t e r p o l a t e d a c t i v i t y w i l l i n t e r f e r e w i t h p r o c e s s i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n from KR i s s u p p o r t e d by t h r e e motor l e a r n i n g s t u d i e s . Boucher (1974) was a b l e to d i s r u p t r e spond i ng i n a l i n e a r movement r e p r o d u c t i o n ta sk by hav i ng Sj^ engage i n a v e r b a l ta sk d u r i n g the pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l . Us ing a s i m i l a r p r ima ry task to t h a t employed by Bouche r , McGuigan (1959b) and McGu igan, Hu tchens , Eason and Reynolds (1964) have demons t ra ted t h a t an i n t e r p o l a t e d motor a c t i v i t y i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g 47 KR dec rea se s response a c c u r a c y . Nega t i v e f i n d i n g s f o r i n t e r p o l a t e d motor a c t i v i t y i n the pos t -KR d e l a y i n t e r v a l have been r e p o r t e d by B i l o d e a u and B i l o d e a u ( 1958a ) , B l i c k and B i l o d e a u ( 1 963 ) , L a r r e (1961) and Magi 1 1 ( 1973 ). These s t u d i e s a l l had motor a c t i v i t y as a secondary t a s k , w i t h Magi 1 1 (1973, 1977) a l s o i n c l u d i n g a v e r b a l t a s k . A r e c e n t r ev i ew by Schendel an-d Newel l ( 1976 ) has c r i t i c i s e d methodology employed i n s t u d i e s t h a t have sought to i m p l i c a t e event s i n the pos t -KR de l ay i n t e r v a l . T h e i r c r i t i c i s m , which r e f e r s to the n a t u r e of secondary t a s k s and the types of movement ( p r ima r y t a s k ) emp loyed , l ead s to a v iew t h a t n e v e r t h e l e s s f a v o u r s the i dea t h a t S_ ope r a t e s on the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t e n t of KR i n the p o s t -KR de l ay i n t e r v a 1 . One f u r t h e r s tudy by Rogers (1974) i s o f i n t e r e s t because i t c o v a r i e s both the s p e c i f i c i t y of KR and the l e n g t h of the post -KR d e l a y i n t e r v a l , both of the f a c t o r s t h a t t h i s r e v i ew emphas izes i n r e g a r d to the r o l e of KR as an i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e . Rogers found t h a t f o r a g i v en pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l , r a t e of response a c q u i s i t i o n f o r a m i c r omete r t u r n i n g task was d e l a y e d as a f u n c t i o n of the s p e c i f i c i t y o f KR. I n c r e a s i n g the pos t -KR d e l a y i n t e r v a l , however, a l l o w e d f o r a f a s t e r r a t e of a c q u i s i t i o n . 48 These r e s u l t s prompt an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t a minimum amount of t ime i s n e ce s s a r y f o r p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from KR. In summary, e v i d e n c e accumu la ted as a r e s u l t of m a n i p u l a t i n g the s p e c i f i c i t y of KR and event s r e l a t e d to the post -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l encourage the concept of KR as a sou rce o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The manner i n wh ich the i n - f o rmat i on from KR i s o pe r a t ed on , r e t a i n e d and u l t i m a t e l y used by i s a n o t h e r m a t t e r . KR as a m o t i v a t o r . A t h i r d p o s s i b l e r o l e f o r KR a c c o r d -i ng to Browne. (1949) i s as a m o t i v a t o r . Concern w i t h m o t i v -a t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s o f KR i n the p r e s e n t rev i ew are t w o f o l d . The f i r s t conce rn i s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l and has to do w i t h i n d i -v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e v e l o f m o t i v a t i o n . Is i t l i k e l y t h a t l e v e l of m o t i v a t i o n w i l l vary g r e a t l y between Ss^, t h e r e b y a f f e c t i n g l e v e l o f pe r fo rmance ? The second concern i s t h e o -r e t i c a l and has to do w i t h how c l o s e d - l o o p t h e o r y , a major i s s u e of t h i s t h e s i s , encompasses m o t i v a t i o n w i t h i n i t s g e n e r a l f ramework. KR i s o f t e n acknowledged to s i m u l t a n e o u s l y pe r f o rm more than one r o l e i n i n f l u e n c i n g b e h a v i o r . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e has been an e f f o r t i n s t u d y i n g the m o t i v a t i o n a l a s pec t s of KR 49 to i n i t i a l l y s e p a r a t e these v a r i o u s r o l e s . Payne and Hauty (1955) began an i n v e s t i g a t i o n by assuming t h a t KR i s p r i m a r i l y a c o m b i n a t i o n o f d i r e c t i v e ( c u i n g ) and i n c e n t i v e ( m o t i v a t i o n a l ) p r o p e r t i e s . D i r e c t i v e p r o p e r t i e s o f KR would be of h i gh i n -f o r m a t i o n a l c o n t e n t s p e c i f i c to the ta sk w h i l e i n c e n t i v e p r o p e r t i e s would be of a g e n e r a l n a t u r e w i t h l i t t l e or no d i r e c t ta sk i n f o r m a t i o n . To t e s t these a s s u m p t i o n s , Payne and Hauty i n c l u d e d t h r ee l e v e l s each of what they c o n s i d e r e d to - be i n c e n t i v e and d i r e c t i v e KR r e s p e c t i v e l y p lu s t h r e e l e v e l s of drugs de s i gned to a f f e c t c o r t i c a l a r o u s a l . In terms of the s e p a r a t i o n of p r o p e r t i e s o f KR, a r e l e v a n t f i n d -ing was a s i g n i f i c a n t o r t h o g o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n between the assumed i n c e n t i v e and d i r e c t i v e l e v e l s o f KR m a n i p u l a t e d i n the e x p e r i m e n t . L o c k e , C a r t l e d g e and Koeppel (1968) have made a f u r t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n i n c o n s i d e r i n g goal s e t t i n g b e h a v i o r i n r e l a t i o n to the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n KR. These au tho r s contend t h a t when KR r e p o r t s a d i s c r e p a n c y i n r e spond i n g between an a c h i e v e d r e s p o n s e ' a n d an £ e s t a b -l i s h e d e x t e r n a l g o a l , t h a t Ss_ tend to d i s p l a y s i m i l a r m o t i v a t i o n a l t e n d e n c i e s , i . e . they a l l t r y to reach the same g o a l . E r r o r - t y p e KR p r e s e n t s w i t h a s e t of "demand c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " (Orne, 1962) r e q u i r i n g a s t e r e o t y p e d response t endency . On the o t h e r hand, when S_s_ are ab l e 50 to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own goa l s i n a ta sk and n o n - c u i n g ( i . e . , i n c e n t i v e - t y p e ) KR i s emp loyed , i n d i v i d u a l goal s e t t i n g i s found to be a p o t e n t d e t e r m i n e r o f response t e n d e n c y , w h i l e KR per se i s not ( B a y t o n , 1948; H e l m s t a d t e r and E l l i s 1952; L o c k e , 1967; Locke and B r y a n , 1966) . When Ss_ s e t t h e i r own goa l s they are s t i l l o p e r a t i n g on the b a s i s of an e r r o r s i g n a l . Only now, the e r r o r i s a- f u n c t i o n of the d i s c r e p a n c y between an i n t e r n a l s t a n d a r d and a c t u a l pe r f o rmance . He re , raw s c o r e KR, f o r i n s t a n c e , r a t h e r than e r r o r s c o r e KR, can s u f f i c e s i n c e S_ r e l a t e s to an i n t r i n s i c s t a n d a r d . I n v e s t i g a t o r s such as Payne and Hauty (1955) and Locke , C a r t l e d g e and Koeppel (1968) have s t r i p p e d as much of the p o t e n t i a l c u i n g , or i n f o r m a t i o n a l , p r o p e r t i e s from KR as p o s s i b l e when s t u d y i n g m o t i v a t i o n . However i t appears to be i m p o s s i b l e to r ende r KR t o t a l l y d e v o i d of c u i n g p r o p e r t i e s . Say i ng " p o o r " , " a v e r a g e " or " e x c e l l e n t " to S_ f o l l o w i n g a response can s t i l l c o n c e i v a b l y convey i n f o r -mat ion s i n c e S_ can be presumed to be aware of the na tu re of the task to be p e r f o r m e d . What i s i n s t r u c t i v e , i n T i g h t of r e s e a r c h on the m o t i v a t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s of KR r e v i ewed h e r e , i s the e v i d e n c e t h a t the m o t i v a t i o n a l e f f e c t o f s p e c i f i c , e r r o r - t y p e KR based on an e x t e r n a l s t a n d a r d a c t s i n a 51 r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t manner a c r o s s Ss. Research on the m o t i v a t i n g e f f e c t s of KR has g e n e r a l l y been c a r r i e d o u t , as n o t e d , by m i n i m i z i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t e n t o f KR, e s p e c i a l l y by m i n i m i z i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g response e r r o r . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the e r r o r i n KR may i t s e l f be m o t i v a t i n g and i t i s d i f f i c u l t to m a n i p u l a t e KR i f the i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g e r r o r i s at the same t ime both d i r e c t i v e and m o t i v a t i n g . E v i dence of the m o t i v a t i n g p r o p e r t i e s o f p e r c e i v e d e r r o r has come from Rus s i an r e s e a r c h e r s such as Anokh in (1969) and Soko lov (1969) who have ex tended c l a s s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g p rocedu re s to p r e s e n t an ima l s w i t h s i t u a t i o n s i n which e r r o r can be p e r c e i v e d . R e l a t i n g to these s i t u a t i o n s of c o n t r i v e d e r r o r i s what Anokh in (1969) terms o r i e n t i n g b e h a v i o r , a phenomenon t h a t i s ob se rved i n two ways. F i r s t , r e s u l t i n g o v e r t b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s a re e x p l o r a t o r y i n n a t u r e and are u l t i m a t e l y i n the d i r e c t i o n of r e d u c i n g the e r r o r . Second, a c o n c o m i t a n t p a t t e r n of p h y s i o l o g i c a l a r o u s a l i s o b s e r v e d . The Rus s i an p o s i t i o n t h a t e r r o r i s m o t i v a t i n g i s c l o s e d - l o o p because e r r o r i s p e r c e i v e d by r e l a t i n g a f f e r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n about the env i r onment to a r e f e r e n c e mechanism formed from p r e v i o u s a f f e r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n . I f an i n c o n g r u i t y e x i s t s between c u r r e n t a f f e r e n t s i g n a l s and the r e f e r e n c e , e r r o r i s p e r c e i v e d and then a c t e d upon. 52 A l t hough not e x p l i c i t l y c l o s e d - l o o p , the c o g n i t i v e d i s s onance t h e o r y advanced by F e s t i n g e r (1957) bears a f a m i l i a l re semblance to the Ru s s i an p o s i t i o n . In t h i s t h e o r y , when t h e r e i s d i s s o n a n c e , or d i s c r e p a n c y , between two c o g n i t i o n s , a ( p s y c h o l o g i c a l ) p r e s s u r e e x i s t s wh ich works to a t t empt to reduce the d i s s o n a n c e . Suppor t f o r the c o g n i t i v e d i s s onance t h e o r y i n the motor l e a r n i n g domain has come from I s o - A h o l a (1976) i n an e xpe r imen t t h a t m a n i p u l a t e d KR to s i g n a l e i t h e r i n i t i a l f a i l u r e or i n i t i a l s ucces s i n p e r f o r m i n g a complex p o s i t i o n i n g t a s k . Subsequent s k i l l l e v e l s were found to be h i g h e r when KR i n i t i a l l y s i g n a l l e d f a i l u r e . An i m p l i c a t i o n from the r e s u l t s of I s o - A h o l a (1976) i s t h a t S_s r e c e i v i n g KR w i l l tend to be m o t i v a t e d to reduce t h e i r e r r o r to z e r o . In e xpe r imen t s where i n i t i a l KR r e p o r t s f a i r l y l a r g e e r r o r , S^  s h ou l d be a d e q u a t e l y m o t i v a t e d to reduce c o g n i t i v e d i s s o n a n c e by a t t e m p t i n g to reduce response e r r o r . KR t h a t c o n t i n u e s to r e p o r t e r r o r s h o u l d s e r v e , t h e n , to keep S_ m o t i v a t e d . Th i s i s s i m i l a r to the c o n t e n t i o n of Locke e t a l . (1968) t h a t Ss_ r e c e i v i n g e r r o r - t y p e KR are t y p i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d to reduce e r r o r to z e r o , an i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n w i t h r e ga rd to c o n t r o l o f e xpe r imen t s i n wh ich the i n f o r m a t i o n a l and 53 m o t i v a t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s o f KR are con founded . T h e o r e t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s - C l o s e d - l o o p T h e o r i e s o f B e h a v i o r De f i n i t i on Common to a l l c l o s e d - l o o p d e s c r i p t i o n s of r e s pond i n g i s compar i son o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g ongo ing b e h a v i o r w i t h a r e - f e rence , or s t a n d a r d , t h a t d e s c r i b e s d e s i r e d b e h a v i o r . I f i n c o n g r u i t y e x i s t s between a c t u a l b e h a v i o r and the r e f e r e n c e , then b e h a v i o r c o n t i n u e s u n t i l a congruous match e x i s t s . Thus , c l o s e d - l o o p systems are s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g , o p e r a t i n g on a b a s i s of e r r o r d e t e c t i o n and c o r r e c t i o n . The a r c h e t y p a l machine example of c l o s e d - l o o p b e h a v i o r i s the t h e r m o s t a t . The c l a s s i c human-machine ana logue i s the t r a c k i n g t a s k . D e f i n i t i v e human examples t h a t do not i n v o l v e i n t e r f a c e w i t h a machine are more d i f f i c u l t to c i t e but i n c l u d e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s of s e l f - d e t e c t i o n and c o r r e c t i o n o f e r r o r i n v e r b a l and i n motor l e a r n i n g t a s k s . Theory Because c l o s e d - l o o p systems work to reduce e r r o r , t h e i r b e h a v i o r i s v iewed as t e l e o l o g i c a l , or p u r p o s i v e , i n n a t u r e . 54 As men t i oned , e r r o r i s c o n s i d e r e d to be m o t i v a t i o n a l i n c l o s e d - l o o p schemas ( A n o k h i n , 1969; S o k o l o v , 1969) . Th i s i s i n c o n t r a s t to o p e n - l o o p , or S-R, systems which r e l y upon e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t i m u l i or upon agents such as " d r i v e s " to e l i c i t b e h a v i o r . T e l e o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s of b e h a v i o r have not a lways found f a v o u r w i t h p s y c h o l o g i s t s . I t has taken the c r e a t i o n of- machine and human-machine systems t h a t embody the p r i n c i -p l e s o f p u r p o s i v e , e r r o r - r e d u c i n g b e h a v i o r to encourage the i dea t h a t s i m i l a r mechanisms c o u l d govern human b e h a v i o r . In e s t a b l i s h i n g h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , M i l l e r , G a l a n t e r and P r i b r a m (1960: 42) note t h a t p r i o r to the advent of machines c a p a b l e of behav ing i n a d e t e r m i n i s t i c , e r r o r - r e d u c i n g manner p s y c h o l o g i s t s g e n e r a l l y r ega rded " t e l e o l o g i c a l " and " u n s c i e n t i f i c " as synonymous, and i t was t h e r e f o r e s u r p r i s -i n g to r e a l i z e t h a t machines c o u l d s t r i v e toward g o a l s , c o u l d c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n about the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i r i n -t e n t i o n s and t h e i r per fo rmance and then work to reduce t h a t d i f f e r e n c e . R e j e c t i o n o f the t e l e o l o g i c a l concept o f b e h a v i o r i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n the r o l e a f f o r d e d FB by open - l o op S-R t h e o r i e s . Here FB i s s i m p l y a s t i m u l u s w h i c h , th rough c o n d i t i o n i n g , can evoke a r e s p o n s e . C l o s e d - l o o p t h e o r y , on the o t h e r hand, a f f o r d s FB a c e n t r a l r o l e i n b e h a v i o r . In t h i s c a s e , FB l i n k s ongo ing r e s pond i n g w i t h the r e f e r e n c e 55 mechanism, thus p r o v i d i n g the means of e r r o r d e t e c t i o n . Berns t e i n ' s t h e o r y . An e a r l y e n u n c i a t i o n o f c l o s e d -loop t h e o r y i s p r o v i d e d by N. B e r n s t e i n ( 1 967 ) , a Ru s s i an p h y s i o l o g i s t . In a f o rwa rd to B e r n s t e i n ' s book, A.R. L u r i a s t a t e s t h a t B e r n s t e i n had deve l oped a c l o s e d - l o o p model of motor b e h a v i o r i n 1935. B e r n s t e i n ' s model c o n t a i n s the e s s e n t i a l e lements f o r c l o s e d - l o o p r e s p o n d i n g . A "motor programmer " , which i s the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n memory of c r i t e r i o n r e s p o n d i n g , feeds i n t o a " c o m p a r a t o r " wh ich a c t s as the r e f e r e n c e mechanism, j u d g i n g r e spond i ng as s i g n a l l e d by i n p u t from r e c e p t o r s . The "com-p a r a t o r " , i n t u r n , r e l a y s p e r c e i v e d e r r o r to r e g u l a t o r and e f f e c t o r mechanisms which a c t to c o r r e c t r e s p o n d i n g . W i e n e r ' s t h e o r y . C l o se beh i nd B e r n s t e i n i s the work o f Wiener (1948) and h i s c o l l e a g u e s ( R o s e n b l u e t h , Wiener and B i g e l o w , 1943) who, under the head ing of " c y b e r n e t i c s " , advoca ted t h a t c l o s e d - l o o p m o n i t o r i n g was the c o n t r o l agent f o r a l l b i o l o g i c a l s y s tems . A r e f e r e n c e mechanism p l u s c a p a c i t y f o r e r r o r d e t e c t i o n and c o r r e c t i o n are i n c l u d e d i n W i e n e r ' s mode l . The mechanism of FB d i f f e r s somewhat between Wiener and 56 B e r n s t e i n . For W iene r , FB i s a p o r t i o n of the ou tpu t s i g n a l ( e f f e r e n t ) t h a t i s d i r e c t e d back i n t o the c e n t r a l p r o c e s s i n g sys tem ( a f f e r e n t ) . B e r n s t e i n , however, has FB as i n p u t from r e c e p t o r s t h a t respond to movement and which appear to be i ndependent of the ou tpu t ( e f f e r e n t ) s i g n a l which gene ra te s movement. Ano the r d i f f e r e n c e between W i e n e r ' s model and most c l o s e d - l o o p models has to do w i t h the i n c l u s i o n of f e e d -f o rwa rd ( p o s i t i v e f eedback ) as' w e l l as feedback ( n e g a t i v e f eedback ) mechanisms. R e g u l a t i o n o f b e h a v i o r v i a FB as emphas ized i n most c l o s e d - l o o p t h e o r i z i n g i s an e r r o r n u l l i n g or s u b t r a c t i v e p r o c e s s ; t h i s d e f i n e s n e g a t i v e f eedback . However, i n f o r m a t i o n v i a FB p l u s o t h e r a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n , such as t h a t from chang ing e n v i r o n m e n t a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , can be combined i n o r d e r to gene ra te e xpec -t a t i o n s as to f u t u r e response r e q u i r e m e n t s t h a t may d i f f e r from response r equ i r emen t s r e p r e s e n t e d i n the c u r r e n t r e f e r e n c e s t a n d a r d . In t h i s c a s e , ongo ing r e s p o n d i n g can be a d j u s t e d i n an a d d i t i v e manner which i n c r e a s e s r a t h e r than l e s s e n s the d i s c r e p a n c y between the c u r r e n t s t a n d a r d and c u r r e n t FB. Feed fo rward p l o y s a re c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t produce r e s p o n d i n g based on p r o j e c t i o n s of f u t u r e re sponse 57 r e q u i r e m e n t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , r e s pond i n g i s s t i l l based on the o r i g i n a l r e f e r e n c e s t a n d a r d and i s judged f o r i t s c o r r e c t n e s s a c c o r d i n g to a f u n c t i o n of the o r i g i n a l r e f e r e n c e s t a n d a r d p lu s an a d d i t i v e f a c t o r . C r a i k ' s t h e o r y . W i e n e r ' s model of c l o s e d - l o o p b e h a v i o r i s h i g h l y ma themat i c a l and draws h e a v i l y on machine a n a l o g i e s . Somewhat s i m i l a r i n concept and h i s t o r i c a l l y p a r a l l e l to Wi-ener are the e f f o r t s of E n g l i s h e n g i n e e r i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t s such as C r a i k (1947, 1948) and H ick ( 1948 ) . As w e l l as i n t e r e s t i n a n a l o g i e s between humans and mach i ne s , e n g i n e e r -i n g p s ycho logy was conce rned w i t h a c t u a l human-machine i n t e r -a c t i o n . Machines c o u l d c l e a r l y be made to o p e r a t e on a c l o s e d - l o o p e r r o r d e t e c t i o n and c o r r e c t i o n b a s i s and humans o p e r a t i n g such machines were c o m p e l l e d by the na t u r e of the i n t e r a c t i o n to behave i n a s i m i l a r manner. Pars imony as w e l l as p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n n a t u r a l l y f a vou r s s i m i l a r t h e o r i e s f o r both human and machine and i n d e e d , data on human i n f o r -mat ion p r o c e s s i n g has tended to s uppo r t such a n a l o g i e s (Crossman, 1964; F i t t s , 1954; M i l l e r , 1953; W e l f o r d , 1960) . Papers by C r a i k (1947, 1948) advoca te a c l o s e d - l o o p model t h a t encompasses n e g a t i v e and p o s i t i v e FB. The human o p e r a t o r i s e n v i s i o n e d as m o n i t o r i n g c o n s t a n t f a c t o r s i n r e s pond i n g v i a FB and making i n t e r m i t t a n t c o r r e c t i o n s a c c o r d -i ng to d e t e c t e d e r r o r . 58 Because t r a c k i n g t a s k s tend to be per fo rmed under duress of l i m i t e d t i m e , e n g i n e e r i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t s add re s sed themse lves p a r t i c u l a r l y to b a l l i s t i c movement. P r o c e s s i n g of FB and c o r r e c t i o n o f an ongo ing re sponse i s , t h e r e f o r e , s u b j e c t to t ime l a g . A d i s c r e t e response segment o f the movement i n v o l v e d i n t r a c k i n g w i l l not be c o r r e c t e d . R a t h e r , the i n f o r m a t i o n i nd i genou s i n p e r c e i v e d e r r o r w i l l be a p p l i e d to subsequent r e s pond i n g ( p o s i t i v e FB) . Human comp l i a n ce as e s t a b l i s h e d by the demands and c o n s t r a i n t s o f c l o s e d - l o o p , human-machine i n t e r a c t i o n does n o t , however, u n e q u i v o c a l l y demons t ra te t h a t human b e h a v i o r i s e s s e n t i a l l y c l o s e d - l o o p i n n a t u r e . Humans have a l s o adapted w e l l , f o r i n s t a n c e , to machines based on open - l oop concept s of b e h a v i o r (Lumsdaine and G l a s e r , 1960; S k i n n e r , 1961) . What i s n e ce s s a r y i s a d e m o n s t r a t i o n t h a t b e h a v i o r procedes i n a c l o s e d - l o o p manner i n the absence o f e x t r i n s i c c o n s t r a i n t s , thus d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t c l o s e d - l o o p b e h a v i o r i s p a r t o f the i n h e r e n t de s i gn c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the human o r gan i sm . Fai r b a n k ' s t h e o r y . A r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y a t t empt a t d e l i m i t i n g c l o s e d - l o o p b e h a v i o r s o l e l y w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of human b e h a v i o r i s t h a t of F a i r b a n k s ( 1954 ) . Speech was F a i r b a n k ' s concern and h i s model used FB v i a a u d i t o r y , t a c t i l e 59 and p r o p r i o c e p t i v e channe l s as a compar i son a g a i n s t a r e f e r e n c e s t a n d a r d which was termed a c o m p a r a t o r . F a i r b a n k ' s model i n c l u d e s a s h o r t - t e r m memory sys tem f o r temporary s t o r a g e of i n p u t p lu s a motor program u n i t wh ich i s s e p a r a t e from the compara to r and used f o r i n i t i a t i n g the s p e a k i n g r e spon se . The i d e a o f s e p a r a t e memory systems f o r i n i t i a t i n g a response and then c h e c k i n g i t s c o r r e c t n e s s w i-l 1 r e c e i v e f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n when Adams' (1971) c l o s e d -l oop t h e o r y i s d i s c u s s e d . The s h o r t - t e r m memory sys tem i n F a i r b a n k ' s model r e t a i n s a t r a c e of the motor program t h a t gene ra te s the s p e a k i n g response u n t i l a compar i son can be made w i t h FB from the a c t u a l r e s pon se . Congruent FB, t h e n , s i g n a l s t h a t the u n i t of speech i n i t i a t e d by the motor program has been a c c o m p l i s h e d , w h i l e i n c o n g r u e n t FB s i g n a l s , i n e f f e c t , t h a t the motor program has f a i l e d to f i r e an a p p r o p r i a t e r e s p o n s e , i n wh ich case the sys tem i s r e a c t i v a t e d f o r c o r r e c t i o n of the p e r c e i v e d i n c o n g r u i t y . Chase ' s t h e o r y . The c o n s t r a i n t s o f F a i r b a n k ' s model sugges t s t h a t i n t e r r u p t i n g FB w i l l be d e t r i m e n t a l to ongo ing r e s p o n d i n g . In f a c t , a t t empt s at d e l a y i n g FB, n o t a b l y Chase (1965a , 1965b) and Smith (1966) have demons t ra ted p ro found d i s r u p t i o n s i n b e h a v i o r . 60 •Chase has proposed a c l o s e d - l o o p model based i n p a r t on work w i t h de l a yed FB. T h e r a p e u t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n concerned Chase; h i s p r a c t i c a l , m e d i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d approach c e n t e r e d on l e a r n i n g to use new FB channe l s when o l d ones became u n a v a i l a b l e . The model he proposes emphas izes the impo r tance of p r i o r s t i m u l u s i n p u t to the subsequent c o n t r o l of motor b e h a v i o r . W i thou t a s t r o n g r e f e r e n c e s t a n d a r d b u i l t up by p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e , b e h a v i o r w i l l be i m p o v e r i s h e d . The r e f e r e n c e s t a n d a r d i n Cha se ' s c l o s e d - l o o p model i s a component of a c e n t r a l p r o c e s s i n g sys tem t h a t i n c l u d e s a motor programming u n i t p l u s e r r o r d e t e c t i o n and e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n u n i t s . The motor program i t s e l f i s an open - l oop mechanism t h a t s e r ve s two f u n c t i o n s . One f u n c t i o n i s to i s s u e motor command p a t t e r n s t h a t d i r e c t l y e l i c i t motor o u t p u t ; t h i s i s an open - l oop mechanism. The o t h e r f u n c t i o n i s to program the s t a n d a r d so t h a t a com-p a r i s o n w i t h FB can be made; t h i s i s a c l o s e d - l o o p mech-an i sm. Thus, the motor programming u n i t ac t s both to i n i t i a t e a response and to p r o v i d e a s t a n d a r d f o r c h e c k i n g the c o r r e c t n e s s of the response once f i r e d . That the motor program and the s t a n d a r d s h o u l d be e s s e n t i a l l y the same e n t i t y i s a p p a r e n t l y of conce rn to 61 Chase (1965b: 344 ) , who s t a t e s : The models wh ich p o s i t a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the g e n e r a t i o n o f a motor-command p a t t e r n and the s t a n d a r d a g a i n s t wh ich i t s a f f e r e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n can be matched do not s i g n i f i c a n t l y add to u n d e r s t a n d i n g of how the n e u r a l s u b s t r a t e o f these s t a n d -ards i s i n i t i a l l y o r g a n i z e d . Such s e l f - c r i t i c i s m presages c r i t i c i s m by Adams (1971) which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s s e c t i o n . A f u r t h e r c r i t i c i s m , not o n l y a g a i n s t Cha se ' s model but a g a i n s t a l l the c l o s e d - l o o p models d i s c u s s e d thus f a r , has to do w i t h t h e i r appa ren t unconcern w i t h l e a r n i n g . Chase goes f a r t h e r than most a u t h o r s , however, and does a f f o r d l e a r n i n g at l e a s t a p e r i p h e r a l r o l e i n c l o s e d -loop r e spond i n g by i n v o k i n g concept s o f c o n d i t i o n i n g deve loped by Anohk in ( 1961 ) , whose c l o s e d - l o o p model i s a l s o to be r e v i e w e d . Chase (1965b: 340) a l s o c o n t e n d s , w i t h o u t o f f e r i n g e v i d e n c e , t h a t as l e a r n i n g p r o g r e s s e s , r e spond i n g becomes more open - l oop i n n a t u r e . . . . . l e a r n i n g might i n v o l v e the p r o g r e s s i v e change o f c l o s e d - l o o p c o n t r o l i n t o o p e n - l o o p c o n t r o l v i a p r o g r e s s i v e improvement i n the c e n t r a l programming o f motor command p a t t e r n s , and a c o r r e s p o n d i n g p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e r m i t t e n c y o f s amp l i n g of s en so r y feedback f o r e r r o r d e t e c t i o n o p e r a t i o n s . C l o s e d - l o o p models d i s c u s s e d thus f a r have had a s i n g l e FB loop t h a t , e x cep t i n B e r n s t e i n ' s (1967) mode l , 62 appear to o r i g i n a t e as a s amp l i n g of the e f f e r e n t motor command.. A c r i t i c i s m here i s t h a t FB r e g a r d i n g a c t u a l response tendency ( i . e . , the movement o v e r t l y pe r fo rmed) and FB r e g a r d i n g response i n t e n t ( i . e . , the e f f e r e n t motor command) may not c o i n c i d e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i f on l y the motor command i s checked f o r c o r r e c t n e s s , even a g a i n s t an i n d e p e n d e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d s t a n d a r d , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t movement w i l l be judged as c o r r e c t . H o i s t ' s t h e o r y . A c l o s e d - l o o p model o f motor b e h a v i o r p roposed by H o i s t (1954) account s f o r FB from i n t e r n a l and p e r i p h e r a l s o u r c e s . An i n t e r n a l FB l oop compares the e f f e r e n t s i g n a l f o r the i n t e n d e d response w i t h a s t o r e d r e f e r e n c e of the r e spon se . The same r e f e r e n c e i s then a l s o used to compare the a f f e r e n t , or p e r i p h e r a l FB s i g n a l , from movement r e c e p t o r s which a c t i n d e p e n d e n t l y of the e f f e r e n t s i g n a l . In s t a t i n g a case f o r two FB l o o p s , H o i s t has made a r e a s o n a b l e p r o p o s i t i o n . There i s c l e a r e v i d e n c e of j o i n t r e c e p t o r s t h a t are s e n s i t i v e to d i r e c t i o n , range and speed of movement and t h a t are s o l e l y a f f e r e n t i n f u n c t i o n (Andrew, 1954; Boyd, 1954; Gardner and Noer , 1952; S k o g l u n d , 1956) . L i k e w i s e , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e movement can occu r i n the absence o f s e n s a t i o n from p e r i p h e r a l r e c e p t o r s 63 (Browne, Lee and R i n g , 1954; Lee and R ing 1954). F u r t h e r -more, S_s d e p r i v e d o f a f f e r e n t s e n s a t i o n r e p o r t t h a t they have moved to a c r i t e r i o n when, i n f a c t , they have been p h y s i c a l l y r e s t r a i n e d from do ing so ( M e r t o n , 1964). In the absence of a f f e r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the a c t u a l i t y of movement, m o n i t o r i n g the e f f e r e n t s i g n a l to move, wh ich H o i s t terms the e f f e r e n t c o r o l l a r y , produces a cong ruen t match w i t h the s t a n d a r d and thus produces the p e r c e p t i o n of mo-vement. M i l l e r , G a l a n t e r and P r i b r a m ' s t h e o r y . Where H o i s t (1954) emphas izes the r o l e of FB, M i l l e r , G a l a n t e r and P r i b r a m (1960) emphas ize the r o l e o f the r e f e r e n c e s t a n d a r d i n c l o s e d -loop b e h a v i o r . They o f f e r a compar i son mechanism c a l l e d a TOTE, where TOTE s tands f o r t e s t - o p e r a t e - t e s t - e x i t . B e h a v i o r c o n t i n u e s ( t e s t - o p e r a t e ) u n t i l congruence w i t h a s t a n d a r d i s a c h i e v e d ( t e s t - e x i t ) . M i l l e r e t a l . c o n c e i v e of b e h a v i o r as governed by P lans which a r e , e s s e n t i a l l y , s t r i n g s of TOTE u n i t s h e i r a r c h i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d and j o i n e d t o g e t h e r so as to s p e c i f y the o p e r a t i o n s and t e s t s r e q u i r e d to a c h i e v e a d e s i r e d outcome. The P l a n s , i n t u r n , are gene ra ted by and t e s t e d a c c o r d i n g to the Image, which i s these a u t h o r s ' term f o r the r e f e r e n c e s t a n d a r d . 64 The Image i s a c co rded a major r o l e by M i l l e r e t a l . I t amounts to no l e s s than a g l o b a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a l l the e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t an o rgan i sm has a ccumu la ted i n i t s e x i s t e n c e . . . . . the e f f e c t an event w i l l have upon b e h a v i o r depends on how the event i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n the o r g a n i s m ' s p i c t u r e of i t s e l f and i t s u n i v e r s e . . . c o r r e l a t i o n s between s t i m u l a t i o n and response must be med ia ted by an o r g a n i z e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the e n v i r o n m e n t , a system o f concept s and r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n which the o rgan i sm i s l o c a t e d . A human be i ng - and p r o b a b l y o t h e r an ima l s as w e l l - b u i l d s up an i n t e r n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , a model of the u n i v e r s e , a schema, a s i m u l a c r u m , a c o g n i t i v e map, an Image. ( M i l l e r , G a l a n t e r and P r i b r a m , 1960: 7) De sp i t e the emphasis on the Image, FB i s a l s o g r a n t e d a c e n t r a l r o l e i n the f u n c t i o n i n g of the TOTE mechanism. W i t h i n the TOTE u n i t s , t h e m s e l v e s , FB i s i n the form o f c e n t r a l l o o p s . P e r i p h e r a l FB i s on l y emphas ized as a sou rce of programming the Image. In p u r s u i n g t h e i r machine a n a l o g y , M i l l e r e t a l . (1960: e x p l a i n how the Image c o u l d be formed from FB. . . . . an Image c o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d i n a machine i f the machine were ab l e to remember the r e a c t i o n s i t r e q u i r e d to i m i t a t e i t s i n p u t . A n o k h i n ' s t h e o r y . Other t h e o r i e s e m p h a s i z i n g the p e r -v a s i v e na tu re of a r e f e r e n c e mechanism have been proposed by 65 Rus s i an r e s e a r c h e r s ( A n o k h i n , 1961, 1969; L u r i a , 1966; S o k o l o v , 1963) . I s s u i n g from c l a s s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g p a r a -d igms, the Rus s ians f o r m u l a t e what a r e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , c l o s e d -loop mode 1s . Anokh in (1961) d e s c r i b e s an imal c o n d i t i o n i n g e x p e r i -ments t h a t demonst ra te t h a t a s t i m u l u s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a d i r e c t impetus f o r a r e f l e x a c t i o n . Lobotomized an ima l s be-come con fu sed when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h s i t u a t i o n s i n wh ich s t i m u l i r e q u i r e t h a t a c h o i c e must be made r e g a r d i n g a l t e r n a t e b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s . C o n v e r s e l y , when t h e r e i s no c h o i c e r e a c t i o n , t h e r e i s no c o n f u s i o n . I t i s a p p a r e n t , t h e n , t h a t a complex i n t e r v e n i n g mechanism s e n s i t i v e to many sou rce s of i n p u t e x i s t s between c o n d i t i o n e d s t i m u l u s and c o n d i t i o n e d r e spon se . Anokh in emphas izes t h a t a m u l t i t u d e o f s i t u a t i o n a l s t i m u l i a f f e c t the an imal a l l the t i m e , whereas c o n d i t i o n e d s t i m u l i a f f e c t the an imal on l y some o f the t i m e . He w r i t e s Thus i t becomes c l e a r t h a t a l l forms of a f f e r e n t e x c i t a t i o n s a f f e c t i n g the a n i m a l ' s nervous sys tem at the g i ven moment undergo a s y n t h e t i c p r o c e s s i n g and t h a t o n l y a f t e r  t h i s s t age does the e f f e r e n t complex o f the wo r k i n g e x c i t a t i o n s beg in to f o rm. ( A n o k h i n , 1961: 196) The i n t e r v e n i n g mechanism proposed i s a n e u r a l image formed by a l l i m p i n g i n g a f f e r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n and termed the a f f e r e n t s y n t h e s i s . 66 Format ion o f the c o n d i t i o n e d re sponse i s dependent upon and proceeds p a r a l l e l to f o r m a t i o n of the a f f e r e n t s y n t h e s i s . Through i n t e r v e n t i o n of the a f f e r e n t s y n t h e s i s , the an imal i s a b l e to a c t i n a p u r p o s i v e manner, d i r e c t i n g b e h a v i o r toward goa l s i n an e r r o r r e d u c i n g f a s h i o n . Th i s occu r s by means of what Anokh in c a l l s r e t u r n a f f e r e n t a t i o n , e s s e n t i a l l y FB c o n c e r n i n g the r e s u l t s of a c t i o n . Return a f f e r e n t a t i o n i s d i r e c t e d toward and matched a g a i n s t what i s termed the a c c e p t o r o f a c t i o n , t h a t p a r t o f the a f f e r e n t s y n t h e s i s which i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to a response t h a t has o c c u r r e d . I f r e t u r n a f f e r e n t a t i o n p e r f e c t l y matches the a c c e p t o r o f a c t i o n , r e s p o n d i n g c e a s e s . On the o t h e r hand, i f r e t u r n a f f e r e n t a t i o n does not match the a c c e p t o r of a c t i o n , then what Anokh in terms the o r i e n t i n g - i n v e s t i g a t o r y r e a c t i o n i s i n s t i g a t e d . The compar i son o f r e t u r n a f f e r e n t a t i o n w i t h the a c c e p t o r o f a c t i o n a c c o m p l i s h e s e r r o r d e t e c t i o n . The o r i e n t i n g - , i n v e s t i g a t o r y r e a c t i o n i s a mechanism o f e r r o r c o r r e c t i o n . He re , a s ea r ch i s conduc ted f o r a l t e r n a t e re sponse p a t t e r n s t h a t w i l l r e s u l t i n congruence of r e t u r n a f f e r e n t a t i o n w i t h the a c c e p t o r of a c t i o n . A c t i v e l y s e a r c h i n g the e n v i r o n -ment as a consequence of the o r i e n t i n g - i n v e s t i g a t o r y r e a c t i o n produces new a f f e r e n t a t i o n s , a consequent ad ju s tmen t of the a f f e r e n t s y n t h e s i s and, c o n c o m i t a n t l y , new e f f e c t o r p a t t e r n s 67 ( r e spon se s ) wh ich are aga in compared a g a i n s t the a c c e p t o r of a c t i o n . In d i s c u s s i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e f f e c t o r mechanisms p r o d u c i n g the c o n d i t i o n e d response to the e n t i r e c h a i n o f the r e f l e x , Anokh in (1961: 211) emphas ized The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of t h i s e f f e c t o r i n t e g r a t i o n i s the f a c t t h a t each of i t s f u n c t i o n i n g p e r i p h e r a l components i s h a rmon i -o u s l y r e l a t e d to the o t h e r components and t o g e t h e r they c o n s t i t u t e the g i v e n a c t of b e h a v i o u r or the c o n d i t i o n e d r e f l e x . Thus, the response i s i n i t i a t e d and compared f o r c o r r e c t n e s s by e s s e n t i a l l y the same mechanism, the a f f e r e n t s y n t h e s i s . Adams ( 1971 ) , whose c l o s e d - l o o p t h e o r y i s to be r ev i ewed n e x t , has c r i t i c i z e d the t h e o r i e s of Anokh in and o t h e r Ru s s i an r e s e a r c h e r s f o r f a i l i n g to have s e p a r a t e mechanisms r e s p o n s -i b l e f o r i n i t i a t i n g a response and then c h e c k i n g i t s c o r r e c t n e s s . Adams' C l o s e d - l o o p Theory of Motor B e h a v i o r Two h a b i t s t a t e s , s e p a r a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n i t i a t i n g a response and f o r c h e c k i n g i t s c o r r e c t n e s s s e t Adams' (1971) c l o s e d - l o o p t heo r y of motor l e a r n i n g a p a r t from the o t h e r c l o s e d - l o o p t h e o r i e s r e v i e w e d , w i t h the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n of F a i r b a n k s ( 1954 ) . The i dea of two h a b i t s t a t e s comes from v e r b a l l e a r n i n g where d i s t i n c t i o n s have been demons t ra ted 68 between r e c a l l and r e c o g n i t i o n . Luh (1922) i s perhaps the e a r l i e s t to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between r e c a l l and r e c o g n i t i o n , f i n d i n g r e c o g n i t i o n s t r o n g e r i n h i s s t u d y . L a t e r work by B a h r i c k (1965) and by Postman, J e n k i n s and Postman (1948) has a l s o demons t ra ted t h a t v e r b a l re sponses can be r e c o g -n i z e d but not r e c a l l e d . C o n v e r s e l y , Lachman and h i s a s s o c -i a t e s (Lachman and F i e l d , 1965; Lachman, Laughery and F i e l d , 1966) have produced r e s u l t s whe re i n r e c a l l i s s u p e r i o r to r e - c o g n i t i o n . F u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f the d i s s o c i a t i o n of r e c a l l and r e c o g n i t i o n i n v e r b a l l e a r n i n g paradigms comes from E s te s and Da P o l i t a ( 1967 ) , Bower, L e s g o l d and Tieman ( 1 9 6 9 ) , K i n t c h (1968) and Postman, S t a r k and F r a z e r ( 1968 ) . R e c a l l and r e c o g n i t i o n i n motor b e h a v i o r are e x e m p l i f i e d by d i r e c t i o n and e x t e n t o f r e s pond i n g r e s p e c t i v e l y . Adams (1971) has proposed two s e p a r a t e memory s y s t ems , or h a b i t s t a t e s , f o r motor r e c a l l and r e c o g n i t i o n termed the memory t r a c e (MT) and the p e r c e p t u a l t r a c e ( PT ) . The MT i s a l i m i t e d open - l oop motor program t h a t i n i t i a t e s a response and thus de te rm ine s i t s d i r e c t i o n ; t h i s i s the agent of motor r e c a l l . The PT i s the r e c o g n i t i o n agent t h a t governs movement e x t e n t and i t o pe r a t e s i n a c l o s e d - l o o p manner as a r e f e r e n c e mechanism a g a i n s t wh ich FB from r e spond i n g i s compared. E v i dence f o r s e p a r a t e r e c a l l and r e c o g n i t i o n s t a t e s i n 69 motor memory has a c c rued i n r e c e n t y ea r s a l t hough a l l s t u d i e s have not produced p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s . S t u d i e s by Adams (1973) and by W a l l a c e , De Oreo and Robert s (1976) have r e g i s t e r e d n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s i n a t t e m p t i n g to s e p a r a t e motor r e c a l l and r e c o g n i t i o n , p o s s i b l y due to i n adaqua te e x p e r i m e n t a l m a n i p u l a t i o n s w h i c h , i n both c a s e s , u t i l i z e d min imal FB. Adams and Goetz (1973) used the same e x p e r i -mental parad igm as Adams 1973 s tudy e x cep t f o r the a d d i t i o n of- s uppl emental FB channe l s and o b t a i n e d p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s s e p a r a t i n g r e c a l l and r e c o g n i t i o n . F u r t h e r s uppo r t has been o f f e r e d by C h r i s t i n a and Merr iman ( 1977 ) , M a r s h a l l ( 1972 ) , Newel l ( 1 974 ) , Newel l and Chew ( 1974 ) , Schmidt and White (1972) and Schmidt and W r i s b e r g (1973a and b) on the b a s i s o f l e a r n i n g paradigms u t i l i z i n g both KR and FB . Not o n l y i s t h e r e e v i d e n c e of s e p a r a t e r e c a l l and r e c o g n i t i o n mechanisms, but t h e r e i s a l s o e v i d e n c e t h a t the r e c o g n i t i o n mechanism ope ra te s f o l l o w i n g r e s p o n d i n g . Some of t h i s e v i d e n c e has a l r e a d y been r ev i ewed i n the s e c t i o n of t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of FB. Greenwald and A l b e r t (1968) and Z e l a z n i k and S p r i n g (1976) have demons t ra ted the f o r m a t i o n o f an image which governs r e s p o n d i n g . M a r s h a l l (1972) and Adams and Goetz (1973) have shown t h a t the image i s used f o l l o w i n g a response f o r 70 the purpose of d e t e c t i n g re sponse e r r o r . As w e l l , Newel l ( 1976b) has conducted expe r imen t s whe re i n Ss_ deve l oped a response r e c o g n i t i o n mechanism based on FB o n l y . In ano the r s t u d y , Newel l and Boucher (1974) have p r e s e n t e d a case t h a t response r e c o g n i t i o n i t s e l f i s a compos i te of two i n d i v i d u a l p r o c e s s e s , one conce rned w i t h r e c o g -n i z i n g FB and the o t h e r concerned w i t h c l a s s i f y i n g the FB a c c o r d i n g to a s c a l e r e l a t i o n s h i p . Thus, t he r e i s a c c u m u l a t i n g e v i d e n c e f o r a PT go ve rn i n g response r e c o g n i t i o n based on a gene ra l parad igm where FB and, i n most c a s e s , KR are i n p u t s ou r ce s to a l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . Adams' (1971) t heo r y s tands a p a r t from o t h e r c l o s e d -l oop t h e o r i e s because i t i s s p e c i f i c a l l y a l e a r n i n g t h e o r y . Th i s i s most e v i d e n t i n the deve lopment and subsequent use of the PT. A c c o r d i n g to the t h e o r y , amount of FB and amount of p r a c t i s e are the two v a r i a b l e s which a f f e c t the f o r m a t i o n of the PT. A number of s t u d i e s have s uppo r t ed the e f f i c a c y of these two v a r i a b l e s i n PT development (Adams, Goetz and M a r s h a l l , 1972; Adams and G o e t z , 1973; Adams, Gopher and L i n t e r n , 1977; M a r s h a l l , 1972; N e w e l l , 1974; W a l l a c e , De Oreo and R o b e r t s , 1976; Z e l a z n i k and S p r i n g , 1976) . 71 A major r o l e i s a cco rded FB by Adams' t h e o r y s i n c e i t not on l y p r o v i d e s i n p u t f o r e r r o r d e t e c t i o n but a l s o a c t s as i n p u t f o r f o rm ing the e r r o r d e t e c t i o n mechanism, the PT. However the PT must be deve l oped b e f o r e i t can a c t as a response c o n t r o l mechanism and FB' i s a f f o r d e d dual pe r fo rmance and l e a r n i n g r o l e s by the t h e o r y . As a pe r fo rmance v a r i a b l e , FB i s a l l e g e d to govern t r i a l to t r i a l b e h a v i o r o n l y . As a l e a r n i n g v a r i a b l e , FB e x e r t s a r e l a t i v e l y permanent change i n r e s pond i n g th rough development of the PT (Adams, Goetz and M a r s h a l l , 19 72 ) . In a l e a r n i n g pa r ad i gm, t h e r e must be some o t h e r agent be s i de FB which se rve s to d i r e c t toward the c r i t e r i o n response t h a t i s to be l e a r n e d . KR s e r ve s t h i s f u n c t i o n , a c t i n g to i n f o r m S_ of the d i s c r e p a n c y between an a c t u a l response and the c r i t e r i o n r e spon se . Adams' t h e o r y has S_ u s i n g FB i n r e l a t i o n to KR to a d j u s t subsequent r e s p o n d i n g toward a c r i t e r i o n . S u f f i c i e n t p r a c t i s e w i t h KR a t a c r i -t e r i o n response l e v e l a l l o w s FB to l a y down a s t r o n g PT t h a t w i l l a c t as a r e f e r e n c e of the c r i t e r i o n when KR i s no l o n g e r a v a i l a b l e . When i t i s p r e s e n t , KR i s the e s s e n t i a l c o n t r o l mechanism g u i d i n g r e s p o n d i n g . In the absence of KR, the PT takes over as the response c o n t r o l mechanism, a c t i n g as an i n t e r n a l s u b j e c t i v e form o f KR. 72 The s h i f t i n response c o n t r o l from KR to PT i s d e f i n e d i n the t heo r y not on l y i n terms of the presence ' or absence of KR but a l s o i n terms of two s t age s which Adams has c o i n e d the v e r b a l - m o t o r and the motor s t a g e s . In the v e r b a l - m o t o r s t age the PT i s weak l y d e f i n e d and i s u s i n g FB i n r e l a t i o n to KR by f o rm ing v e r b a l s t r a t e g i e s r e l a t i n g to f u t u r e r e s p o n d -i n g . Response a c c u r a c y w i l l d e t e r i o r a t e i f KR i s w i thd rawn i n the v e r b a l - m o t o r s t a g e . In the motor s t a g e , S_ can i g n o r e KR- and r e l y on match ing FB to the PT w i t h o u t v e r b a l i n t e r -v e n t i o n . Response a c c u r a c y w i l l not d e t e r i o r a t e i f KR i s w i thd rawn i n the motor s t a g e . The s t a b l e PT of the motor s t age deve lop s as a f u n c t i o n o f s t i m u l u s c o n t i g u i t y . The s t i m u l u s , or i n p u t s ou rce to the PT, i s p e r i p h e r a l r e s p o n s e - p r o d u c e d FB. More p r e c i s e l y , the PT i s seen as a d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a l l the t r a c e s l a i d down by i m p i n g i n g FB, w i t h the modal v a l ue o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n d e f i n i n g the s t a b l e e r r o r d e t e c t i o n s t a n d a r d (or PT) o f the motor s tage (Adams, 1971: 125). A major i s s u e of t h i s t h e s i s concerns whether KR i s a l s o an i n p u t s ou r ce to PT deve lopment . C l e a r l y , both FB and KR are major sou rce s o f i n p u t f o r l e a r n i n g and f o r c o n t r o l of motor b e h a v i o r . However, e v i d e n c e r e g a r d i n g the e f f i c a c y of these v a r i a b l e s does not i n and of i t s e l f a t t e s t to the mech-a n i c s of t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on memory. 73 In c o n t e n d i n g t h a t o n l y FB forms the PT, the t h e o r y draws orr e v i d e n c e from motor l e a r n i n g s t u d i e s t h a t have m a n i p u l a t e d the tempora l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s r e l a t e d to the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f KR. The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n g i ven t h i s e v i d e n c e i s t h a t on l y the ITI a f f e c t s r e s pond i n g and , at t h a t , o n l y m a r g i n a l l y i n the KR phase (Adams, 1971: 128 -141 ) . S i n ce KR i s p r e s e n t e d f o l l o w i n g the s t a r t of the I T I , the i m p l i -c a t i o n o f t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n i n h e r e n t i n KR i s not a d i r e c t c o n t r i b u t o r to the f o r m a t i o n o f the PT. The r ev i ew goes on to c r i t i c a l l y r e - e xam ine s t u d i e s t h a t have m a n i p u l a t e d the KR tempora l de l ay i n t e r v a l s . In o r d e r to p r o v i d e a f o u n d a t i o n f o r c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f these s t u d i e s , i t i s n ece s s a r y f i r s t to i n q u i r e as to the adequacy of depend-ent measures . With t h i s b a s i s , the r e s u l t s a c c r u i n g from m a n i p u l a t i o n o f KR tempora l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s can be c r i t i c a l l y a p p r a i s e d . I t w i l l become e v i d e n t t h a t the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n g i ven to m a n i p u l a t i o n o f KR tempora l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s i n Adams (1971) paper has f a i l e d to account f o r c o n f l i c t i n g r e s u l t s i n the l i t e r a t u r e . I t i s shown t h a t a case e x i s t s f o r c o n -s i d e r i n g the d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t o f KR i n PT deve lopment . T h e o r e t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s - Adequacy of Dependent V a r i a b l e s The r e v i ew has thus f a r c o n s i d e r e d t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t s of FB and KR as w e l l as c o n s i d e r i n g t h e o r e t i c a l a s pec t s o f c l o s e d -74 l oop b e h a v i o r . P r i o r to c o n s i d e r i n g e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e i nd i genou s to i n p u t v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g motor memory, i t i s nece s s a r y to rev i ew the ways i n wh ich motor ou tpu t i s measured ( i . e . , o b s e r v e d ) . Th i s i s i m p o r t a n t f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . 1. S t u d i e s p r o v i d i n g the e m p i r i c a l b a s i s f o r the m a n i p u l a t i o n -of i ndependent v a r i a b l e s i n the p r e s e n t s tudy have r e -p o r t e d r e s u l t s u s i n g a v a r i e t y of measures . The r e l a t i o n -s h i p of these measures to one ano the r r e q u i r e s i n t e r p r e -- t a t i o n i f the e f f e c t s of i ndependen t v a r i a b l e m a n i p u l a t i o n are to be u n d e r s t o o d . 2. In the p r e s e n t s t u d y , s e p a r a t e hypotheses are f o r m u l a t e d r e g a r d i n g the e f f e c t s of i ndependent v a r i a b l e s on d i f f e r e n t response meas ures . Three dependent measures are emphas i zed h e r e . These are a b s o l u t e e r r o r ( AE ) , c o n s t a n t e r r o r (CE) and v a r i a b l e e r r o r (VE ) . Use o f these t h r e e measures and o f measures d e r i v e d from them has been the s u b j e c t of c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n i n the motor l e a r n i n g l i t e r a t u r e . A l t hough measures o t h e r than AE, CE and VE have been used to r e p o r t r e s u l t s o f d i s c r e t e - t r i a l movement r e p r o -d u c t i o n s t u d i e s , t h e r e appears to be no l i t e r a t u r e exam in i ng the adequacy of these dependent measures. When measures o t h e r than AE, CE and VE are r e p o r t e d l a t e r i n t h i s r e v i e w , 75 an a t tempt w i l l be made to r e l a t e the re sponse p i c t u r e they p r e s e n t to t h a t d e p i c t e d by AE, CE or VE. Def i n i t i ons A l l t h r e e measures of conce rn here are e r r o r measures . That i s , they r e p r e s e n t a d e v i a t i o n i n r e s pond i n g from a c r i t e r i o n r e spon se . The c r i t e r i o n response f o r a l l t h r e e measures i s z e ro e r r o r . A b s o l u t e e r r o r measures the d e v i a t i o n of an o b t a i n e d response from a c r i t e r i o n response l e v e l r e g a r d l e s s of d i r e c t i o n of response e r r o r . Con s t an t e r r o r measures the d e v i a t i o n of an o b t a i n e d response from a c r i t e r i o n response l e v e l w i t h r ega rd to d i r e c t i o n o f response l e v e l . As s u c h , CE measures e r r o r and i n f o rms of response b i a s . V a r i a b l e e r r o r measures t r i a l - t o - t r i a l change i n r e s p o n d i n g . I t i s a measure o f w i th in - S_ v a r i a n c e taken around an average CE. R e l a t i o n s h i p and Use The most commonly r e p o r t e d measure appears to be AE, a p r a c t i s e which has ga ined c o n s i d e r a b l e s uppo r t ( J o n e s , 76 1974; N e w e l l , 1976a; Roy, 1976; S chm id t , 1970, 1975; Thomas and Moon, 1976) . However, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n s o f Schmidt (1975) and Thomas and Moon 1976) , the above au tho r s advocate a s e l e c t i v e use o f AE. Schutz and Roy (1973) have p r e s e n t e d a case f o r the combined use of CE and VE i n r e p o r t i n g the r e s u l t s of d i s c r e t e - t r i a 1 movement r e p r o d u c t i o n e x p e r i m e n t s . They contend t h a t CE and VE r e p r e s e n t s e p a r a t e a spec t s of r e spond i n g and, f u r t h e r m o r e , t h a t AE i s a confounded measure o f CE and VE. When CE - 2.0 s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s g r e a t e r than ze ro ( i . e . , CE/ Vvl = 2 . 0 ) , AE a lmos t t o t a l l y r e f l e c t s CE. However, when CE 0 . 0 , then AE i s p r i m a r i l y a r e f l e c t i o n of VE. Between these ext remes ( i . e . , 0<CE/ VTE<2.0), VE i s a confounded measure r e f l e c t i n g we i gh ted q u a n t i t i e s of both CE and VE. Schutz and Roy (1973) beg in t h e i r a n a l y s i s o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between AE, CE and VE by r e a s o n i n g t h a t the mean and v a r i a n c e p r o v i d e an adequate d e s c r i p t i o n of a s e t of measurements w i t h known d i s t r i b u t i o n . They then assume t h a t a t h i r d s t a t i s t i c , such as AE, must e i t h e r be redundant or r e f l e c t a we i gh ted c o m b i n a t i o n of the mean and v a r i a n c e . A n a l y t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l p r o cedu re s are then employed i n s e e k i n g s uppo r t f o r these a s s u m p t i o n s . 77 In d e v e l o p i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between AE, CE and VE, Schutz and Roy (1973) d e r i v e s e v e r a l o t h e r r e l a t e d measures. These are the a b s o l u t e v a r i a b i l i t y ( AV ) , be i n g the v a r i a n c e taken around a mean AE as n o t e d , and the a b s o l u t e d i f f e r e n c e (|CE|), be i ng the c o n s t a n t e r r o r e xp re s s ed w i t h o u t r ega rd to s i g n . There appears to be l i t t l e , i f any, p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n f o r AV due to the confounded na tu re o f the AE from which i t i s d e r i v e d . However |CE| appears to have p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n a l t h o u g h t h i s i s i g n o r e d by Schutz and Roy ( 1973 ) . Henry (1974) has s t a t e d t h a t |CE| i s the a p p r o p r i a t e measure f o r d e t e r m i n i n g c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between dependent v a r i a b l e s . Ano the r use f o r |CE| has been h i n t e d . at by Newel l (1976a) a l t hough he has used the wrong measure to do so . Newel l sugges t s t h a t when a group o f S^s_ are d i v i d e d i n t h e i r tendency f o r response b i a s i n g (b imoda l d i s t r i b u t i o n ) , h a l f the S_s hav i ng p o s i t i v e CE and h a l f the Ss hav i ng n e g a t i v e CE, t h a t AE i s the a p p r o p r i a t e measure. The r e a s o n i n g here t h a t d i s t i n c t l y p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e CEs can c a n c e l each o t h e r out i s c o r r e c t , but p r o p o s i n g AE as the s o l u t i o n f o r t h i s dilemma i s not c o r r e c t . The c o r r e c t measure f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g response b i a s r e g a r d l e s s of d i r e c t i o n i s |CE|, s i n c e t h i s measure i s d e r i v e d from CE, wh ich i s an unconfounded measure. Whereas |CE| and AE appear 78 on the s u r f a c e to be s i m i l a r measures , AE can i n some c i r c u m s t a n c e s be a confounded measure o f CE and VE. The i n h e r e n t advantage of AE to many i n v e s t i g a t o r s i s t h a t i t i s a s i n g l e , or c o m p o s i t e , measure (Roy, 1976). Ano the r compos i te measure has been proposed by Henry ( 1974 , 1975 ). Termed E and d e r i v e d as E= \/cE2 + V E 2 , t h i s measure r e p r e s e n t s the t o t a l w i t h i n - S ^ v a r i a b i l i t y i n a r e p e a t e d r e s p o n d i n g s i t u a t i o n . However, l i k e AE, E i s s t i l l a confounded measure s i n c e i t i s compr i s ed o f both CE and VE. As w e l l as p r o v i d i n g unconfounded dependent measures , a f u r t h e r p o t e n t i a l advantage e m i n a t i n g from the j o i n t use o f CE and VE i s t h a t the s e p a r a t e measures may h e l p to r e v e a l s e p a r a t e u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g motor pe r f o rmance . As an example , i n work on s h o r t - t e r m motor memory, Laabs (1973) has p roposed t h a t CE r e p r e s e n t s b i a s c r e a t e d i n memory by movements of d i f f e r e n t l e n g t h s and t h a t VE r e f l e c t s decay c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the movements i n memory. Pepper and Herman ( 1970 ) , on the o t h e r hand, contend t h a t CE r e f l e c t s decay and i n t e r f e r e n c e p r o ce s s e s i n motor STM. Rega rd l e s s o f how such d i s ag reement may be u l t i m a t e l y r e s o l v e d , i t i s e v i d e n t a l r e a d y t h a t the j o i n t use of CE and VE p r o v i d e added d imens ions f o r t h e o r i z i n g r e g a r d i n g motor b e h a v i o r . 79 Roy (1976) advocate s t h a t , f o r a " b e h a v i o r i s t i c " a p p r o a c h , a compos i te measure of per fo rmance such as VE or E i s adaqua te , w h i l e f o r an " i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g " a p p r o a c h , which seeks to unde r s t and the components under -l y i n g p e r f o r m a n c e , the j o i n t use o f unconfounded measures such as CE and VE i s r e q u i r e d . I t i s d i f f i c u l t , however, to a c c e p t the argument t h a t a " b e h a v i o r i s t i c " approach to motor l e a r n i n g can be s a t i s f i e d by a compos i te s c o r e . Re-gardless of the t h e o r e t i c a l meanings a t t a c h e d to CE and to VE i n terms of i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g or any o t h e r i n f e r r e d c o v e r t mental p r o c e s s e s , these measures do r e p -r e s e n t s e p a r a t e o v e r t components of b e h a v i o r . In summary, t h e n , t h e r e are two reasons f o r c h o o s i n g both CE and VE as dependent v a r i a b l e s f o r measur ing d i s c r e t e - t r i a l motor r e s p o n d i n g . F i r s t , CE and VE are unconfounded measures wh ich t o g e t h e r p r o v i d e a r e l a t i v e l y complete d e s c r i p t i o n o f re sponse t endency . Second, these measures d e p i c t s e p a r a t e a spec t s of r e s p o n d i n g . As s u c h , the b e h a v i o r a l p i c t u r e i s broadened as i s the scope f o r d rawing i n f e r e n c e s based on b e h a v i o r a l o b s e r v a t i o n . E m p i r i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s - KR Temporal Delay I n t e r v a l s S t u d i e s r ev i ewed i n t h i s s e c t i o n p r o v i d e a da ta base r e l e v a n t to c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the type of a c t i v i t y t h a t might 80 proceed i n the v a r i o u s KR tempora l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s . E v i dence r e l a t i n g to a c t i v i t y i n the pos t -KR d e l a y i n t e r v a l i s o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . E m p i r i c a l l y , i f r e s pond i n g worsens when the pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l i s e i t h e r s h o r t e n e d ( R o g e r s , 1974; We inburg , Guy and Tupper , 1964) or f i l l e d w i t h a p o t e n t i a l l y i n t e r f e r i n g a c t i v i t y ( Bouche r , 1974 ; McGuigan, 1959b; McGuigan e t a l . , 1964 ), t h i s may be taken as e v i d e n c e t h a t t h i s i n t e r v a l i s the l o c u s of p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from KR. On the o t h e r hand, however, t h e r e i s the q u e s t i o n o f what happens to the i n f o r m a t i o n from KR. Once p r o c e s s e d , i f t h i s i s i ndeed the c a s e , i t i s p e r t i n e n t to c o n s i d e r i f KR i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n permanent s t o r a g e ( i . e . , the PT) . One l i n e of e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t i n g t h a t KR i s s t o r e d i n memory would come from s t u d i e s d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t r e s p o n d i n g d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i n some manner a c c o r d i n g to l e n g t h e n i n g of an u n f i l l e d pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l . M a n i p u l a t i o n o f the t h r e e KR tempora l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s has produced d ichotomous r e s u l t s . G e n e r a l l y , a wide v a r i e t y of o f t e n i n a p p r o p r i a t e dependent measures have been emp loyed , des i gns have been confounded and a number o f s t u d i e s have l i m i t e d o b s e r v a t i o n to the KR phase. E f f e c t on KR Phase Responding Nine o f e i g h t e e n s t u d i e s r ev i ewed r e p o r t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the KR phase a t t r i b u t a b l e to l eng thened de l a y i n t e r v a l s . Of 81 t h e s e , on l y t h r ee employ unconfounded d e s i g n s . B i l o d e a u and B i l o d e a u (1958b) compared r e s u l t s over f i v e s t u d i e s which employed s i m p l e p o s i t i o n i n g ' movements and which v a r i e d a l l t h r e e KR tempora l de l a y i n t e r v a l s . Four o f the f i v e e xpe r imen t s had Ss_ pe r f o rm t h r e e to f i v e t r i a l s w h i l e a f i f t h e xpe r imen t p r e s e n t e d Ss_ w i t h 15 t r i a l s . R e p o r t i n g r e s u l t s i n terms of a b s o l u t e e r r o r , B i l o d e a u and Bi- lodeau conc l ude t h a t the ITI and, p o s s i b l y , the pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l are the i n f l u e n t i a l de l a y i n t e r v a l s . R e s u l t s b e a r i n g on e f f e c t s of l e n g t h e n i n g the pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l come from an e xpe r imen t i n wh ich a group r e c e i v i n g immediate KR.and a 24 hour ITI was i n f e r i o r i n r e s p o n d i n g to both (a) a group which r e c e i v e d immediate KR and reminder KR 15 seconds b e f o r e the end of a 24 hour ITI and (b) a group t h a t had KR de l a yed 24 hours and a 24 hour I T I . Ano the r s tudy e x h i b i t i n g an unconfounded de s i gn and f i n d i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n KR phase re sponse t e n d e n c i e s i s a t t r i b -u t a b l e to Denny, A l l a r d , H a l l and Rokeach (1960 ) . He re , each KR tempora l d e l a y i n t e r v a l was a l l o w e d to vary i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f the o t h e r s ( 0 , 10 and 30 second KR de l a y i n t e r v a l s ; 10 and 30 second post -KR de l ay i n t e r v a l s ; 10, 20 and 30 second I T I s ) . Employ ing the c l a s s i c a l 3.0 i n ch l i n e drawing t a s k , Denny e t a l . used t r i a l s to c r i t e r i o n as the dependent measure and 82 found t h a t number of t r i a l s nece s s a r y to reach the c r i t e r i o n i n c r e a s e d as the l e n g t h o f the ITI i n c r e a s e d . The t h i r d s tudy to use an unconfounded de s i gn and f i n d KR phase re sponse d i f f e r e n c e s due to m a n i p u l a t i n g the KR tempora l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s i s one by McGuigan, C r o c k e t t and B o l t o n (1960 ) . Us ing number of c o r r e c t re sponses as the c r i t e r i o n , these i n v e s t i g a t o r s r e p o r t th-at l e n g t h e n i n g the KR de l a y i n t e r v a l s i g n i f i c a n t l y dec rea sed the number of c o r r e c t re sponses over 50 KR phase t r i a l s (p < . 03 ) . Because the d i f f e r e n c e between c o n d i t i o n s wh ich m a n i p u l a t e d the pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l approached s i g n i f i c a n c e (p < . 1 6 ) , a second e x p e r i m e n t r e p e a t e d these two c o n d i t i o n s (0 and 20 seconds pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l ) . Th i s t i m e , however, t h e r e was v i r t u a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e between c o n d i t i o n s , l e a d i n g McGuigan e t a l . to c onc l ude t h a t the pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l i s not the c i t e o f response d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . F i v e s t u d i e s r e p o r t KR phase d i f f e r e n c e s as a r e s u l t of m a n i p u l a t i n g the KR de l a y i n t e r v a l w i t h i n a f i x e d ITI ( B o u l t e r , 1964 ; Dyal , 1964 ; Dyal e t a l . , 1965 ; Greenspoon and Foreman, 1956; Lorge and T h o r n d i k e , 1935). S i n c e the de s i gn s employed i n these s t u d i e s confound the KR de l a y and pos t -KR de l ay i n t e r v a l s , i t i s not 83 p o s s i b l e to a t t r i b u t e the r e s u l t s to a s p e c i f i c i n t e r v a l . The s tudy of Lorge and T h o r n d i k e (1935) i s a g e n e r i c and o f t e n quoted s tudy i n the a rea of KR d e l a y . In t h i s e x p e r i m e n t , S_s_ t o s s ed b a l l s backward at an unseen t a r g e t . Delays o f two, f o u r and s i x seconds i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of KR de te rm ined the c o n d i t i o n s o f the e x p e r i m e n t , w i t h the i n v e s t i g a t o r s c o n c l u d i n g t h a t t h e r e was l e s s imp rove -ment i n r e s pond i n g f o r the f o u r and s i x second d e l a y s . The s t u d i e s o f B o u l t e r ( 1964 ) , Dyal ( 1 964 ) , Dyal e t a l . (1965) and Greenspoon and Foreman (1956) c l u n g to the T h o r n d i k i a n l e gacy of the 3.0 i n ch l i n e d rawing t a s k . The ITI f o r a l l f o u r of these s t u d i e s was 30 s e cond s , each had a 0 second KR de l a y and o t h e r KR de l a y i n t e r v a l s ranged from 10 to 30 seconds . P o s i t i v e f i n d i n g s from these s t u d i e s were r e p o r t e d i n terms o f AE ( B o u l t e r , 1964; Dyal e t a l . , 1965) and i n terms of number of c o r r e c t re sponses ( D y a l , 1964 ; Dyal et a l . , 1965 ; Greenspoon and Foreman, 1956) . One o t h e r s tudy has r e p o r t e d KR phase response d i f f e r e n c e s due, i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , to confounded man ipu-l a t i o n o f the pos t -KR de l ay i n t e r v a l and the I T I . Dees and G r i n d l e y (1951) r e - a n a l y z e d da ta i n terms o f CE from a s tudy by Macpher son , Dees and G r i n d l e y (1949) t h a t had 84 o r i g i n a l l y r e p o r t e d i n terms o f poo led AE and f r e q u e n c y of r e l a t i v e improvement between c o n d i t i o n s . Where the Macpherson e t a l . data d i d not i n d i c a t e a d i f f e r e n c e between c o n d i t i o n s i n the KR phase o f a knob t u r n i n g e x p e r i m e n t , the r e - a n a l y s i s showed o v e r s h o o t i n g f o r s h o r t pos t -KR d e l a y i n t e r v a l / I T I (1 .8 and 7.5 seconds ) and u n d e r s h o o t i n g f o r l ong pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l / I T I (33.0 s e c o n d s ) . There i s a tendency f o r KR phase d i f f e r e n c e s due to KR tempora l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s to d i m i n i s h as a f u n c t i o n of t r i a l s . In the s tudy by B o u l t e r (1964) d i f f e r e n c e s between c o n d i t i o n s d i m i n i s h e d q u i t e r a p i d l y . The r e s u l t s of Dees and G r i n d l e y ( 1 951 ) , Denny e t a l . (1960) and Dyal e t a l . ( 1965 ) show a more g r adua l convergence of response t endency . I t appears from these s t u d i e s t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , the e f f e c t o f m a n i p u l a t i n g KR tempora l v a r i a b l e s on KR phase r e spond i n g i s to i n f l u e n c e the r a t e ( i . e . , number of t r i a l s ) o f a t t a i n i n g a c r i t e r i o n response l e v e l . Nine s t u d i e s f a i l e d to d e t e c t any d i f f e r e n c e s i n KR phase r e s pond i n g due to m a n i p u l a t i o n of KR tempora l i n t e r v a l s . A t e n t h s tudy (Dyal e t a l . , 1965 ) r e p o r t s n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s when AE and number of s h o r t responses per 5 - t r i a l b l o c k (a d i r e c t i o n a l measure) are employed as dependent measures but 85 p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s , as p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , when the dependent measure i s number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . Two o f the s t u d i e s f a i l i n g to f i n d any KR phase d i f f e r -ences employed an unconfounded d e s i g n . B e c k e r , Muss ina and Persons (1963) employed number of c o r r e c t re sponses as the dependent measure. T h e i r e xpe r imen t was s i m i l a r to t h a t of Denny e t a l . (1960) who, u s i n g t r i a l s to c r i t e r i o n as the de-pendent measure, d i d f i n d a d i f f e r e n c e f o r I T I . Becke r e t a l . contend t h a t the f a i l u r e to f i n d a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r e xpe r imen t stemmed from use o f h i g h l y s p e c i f i c KR t h a t h e l p e d to b r i dge the I T I . A s tudy by Magi 11 ( 1977 ) a l s o used an unconfounded d e s i g n . R e p o r t i n g r e s u l t s i n terms o f VE, M a g i l l f a i l e d to f i n d re sponse d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n a s tudy wh ich was p a r t i c u l a r l y d i r e c t e d to e x p l o r i n g the post -KR d e l a y i n t e r v a l . Other s t u d i e s f a i l i n g to d e t e c t KR phase d i f f e r e n c e s are B i l o d e a u and Ryan ( 1960 ) , Dyal ( 1 966 ) , Dyal and A r r i n g t o n (1964) and S a l t m a n , Kan fe r and Greenspoon ( 1955 ) , a l l o f which confounded the KR de l a y and pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l s . McGuigan (1959b) f a i l e d to d e t e c t KR phase d i f f e r e n c e s i n an e xpe r imen t which confounded the KR de l a y i n t e r v a l and the ITI and s t u d i e s by Macpherson e t a l . (1949) and M a g i l l (1973) 86 a l s o f a i l e d to f i n d d i f f e r e n c e s i n s i t u a t i o n s where the pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l and ITI were con founded . I t has been n o t e d , however, t h a t r e - a n a l y z i n g the data of Macpherson e t a l . (1949) by Dees and G r i n d l e y (1951) d i d produce KR phase d i f f e r e n c e s when CE was s u b s t i t u t e d f o r AE. S t u d i e s f a i l i n g to f i n d KR phase d i f f e r e n c e s employed dependent measures r ang i n g from AE ( B i l o d e a u and Ryan, 1960; McGuigan, 1959b; Macpherson e t a l . , 1949; Magi 1 1 , 1973 ) to number o f s h o r t and number o f l ong responses per f i v e - t r i a l b l o c k ( D y a l , 1966; Dyal and A r r i n g t o n , 1964). E f f e c t on Post -KR Phase Responding Aga in on a c o u n t i n g b a s i s , e i g h t of the e i g h t e e n s t u d i e s r ev i ewed extended i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the pos t -KR phase. Of these e i g h t s t u d i e s , f o u r r e p o r t e i t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n of response a c c u r a c y (Dees and G r i n d l e y , 1951) or d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f r e s pond i n g ( D y a l , 1966; Dyal and A r r i n g t o n , 1964; D y a l , W i l s on and B e r r y , 1965) i n the pos t -KR phase as a r e s u l t of m a n i p u l a t i n g the KR tempora l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s . The de s i gn s of a l l f o u r s t u d i e s are con founded . Dees and G r i n d l e y (1951) r e - a n a l y z e d data from Macpherson e t a l . (1949) and demons t ra ted pos t -KR phase d i f f e r e n c e s i n terms of both AE and CE f o r a knob t u r n i n g t a s k . Longer p o s t -87 KR de l a y i n t e r v a l / I T I was found to produce l e s s e r r o r i n the pos t -KR phase r e g a r d l e s s o f whether the measure was AE or CE. J u d g i n g from the s i z e o f CE, AE was l i k e l y a t o t a l r e f l e c t i o n o f CE ( S chu t z and Roy, 1973). The s t u d i e s of Dyal ( 1966 ) , Dyal and A r r i n g t o n (1964) and D y a l , W i l s on and Be r r y (1965) can be c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r s i n c e the same de s i gn was employed t h roughou t and s i n c e the r e s u l t s a re s i m i l a r . These s t u d i e s c o n s i d e r e d r e s p o n d i n g over t h r ee phase s , the pre-KR phase , KR phase and pos t -KR phase. Responding was ob se r ved u s i n g number of s h o r t r e s -ponses per f i v e - t r i a l b l o c k and number o f l ong re sponses per f i v e - t r i a l b l o ck as the dependent measures . In the pre-KR phase, S_s_ were i n s t r u c t e d t h a t the c r i t e r i o n was a 3.0 i n ch l i n e but no KR was p r o v i d e d . As a r e s u l t o f t h e i r per fo rmance i n the pre-KR phase, Ss_ were c l a s s i f i e d as unde r shoo te r s or o v e r s h o o t e r s . Dur ing the KR phase , KR was g i v en e i t h e r i m m e d i a t e l y or 20 seconds f o l l o w i n g a response ( IT I c o n s t a n t at 30 s e c o n d s ) . A c c o r d i n g to the dependent measures u sed , post -KR phase r e s pond i n g d i f f e r -e n t i a t e d depend ing upon a i n t e r a c t i o n between pre-KR phase response tendency and m a n i p u l a t i o n o f the KR/post-KR de l a y i n t e r v a l s . When KR was p r e s e n t e d i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g a r e s p o n s e , pos t -KR phase r e s pond i n g tended to p roceed i n the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n to the pre-KR phase response s e t ( i . e . , 88 unde r s hoo te r s i n the pre-KR phase became o v e r - s h o o t e r s i n the pos t -KR pha se ) . C o n v e r s e l y , when KR was de l a yed f o l l o w i n g a r e s p o n s e , pos t -KR phase r e s pond i n g tended to r e v e r t back i n the d i r e c t i o n o f the pre-KR phase response s e t . Four d i s s e n t i n g s t u d i e s f a i l e d to f i n d a d i f f e r e n c e i n pos t -KR phase r e s pond i n g due to m a n i p u l a t i o n of KR tempora l de l ay i n t e r v a l s . Two of these s t u d i e s , Becke r e t a l . (1963) an-d McGuigan e t a l . ( 1960 ) both employed unconfounded de s i gn s and measured response tendency i n terms of number o f c o r r e c t r e s pon se s . An e a r l i e r s tudy by McGuigan ( 1959b ) , t h a t c on -founded KR de l a y i n t e r v a l and I T I , measured r e spond i n g i n terms of AE and a l s o f a i l e d to d i s t i n g u i s h between c o n d i t i o n s i n the pos t -KR phase. The f o u r t h d i s s e n t i n g s tudy i s r e p o r t e d by B o u l t e r (1964) and these r e s u l t s are the most d i s c o n c e r t i n g f o r a p o s i t i o n a d v o c a t i n g post -KR phase d i f f e r e n c e s a c c o r d i n g to KR tempora l d e l a y f a c t o r s . B o u l t e r ' s s tudy confounds the KR de l a y and post -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l s and measures post -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g i n terms o f both AE and CE. N e i t h e r of the measures employed d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between the KR tempora l de l ay c o n d i t i o n s employed (0 and 20 second KR de l a y w i t h t r i a l s commencing a t 30 second i n t e r v a l s ) . 89 De sp i t e the i m p l i c a t i o n s of B o u l t e r ' s f i n d i n g s , t h e r e i s a p e c u l i a r c o m b i n a t i o n of two a spec t s o f !the Dyal s e r i e s o f s t u d i e s ( D y a l , 1966; Dyal and A r r i n g t o n , 1964; D y a l , W i l s on and B e r r y , 1965) wh ich m i t i g a t e s a g a i n s t ha s t y c o n c l u s i o n s . The use of d i r e c t i o n a l measures o f r e spond i n g ( c r u d e l y ana lagous to CE) p l u s the e x t a b l i s h -ment o f a pre-KR phase re sponse b i a s demons t ra ted t h a t Sjs_ who responded a c c o r d i n g to the same c o n d i t i o n s of KR tempora l de-lay i n t e r v a l s can n e v e r t h e l e s s d i f f e r e n t i a t e i n response tendency i n the pos t -KR phase. B o u l t e r ' s pos t -KR phase CE r e s u l t s , t h e n , may r e p r e s e n t the mean of o p p o s i t e re sponse t e n d e n c i es . Summary of E f f e c t s of KR Temporal Delay I n t e r v a l s In g e n e r a l , the s t u d i e s m a n i p u l a t i n g KR tempora l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s can be summarized i n terms of two a s p e c t s , de s i gn and dependent v a r i a b l e s . One prob lem w i t h de s i g n has to do w i t h the c o n f o u n d i n g of KR tempora l de l a y i n t e r v a l s . Of the f i v e s t u d i e s r ev i ewed t h a t do e x h i b i t unconfounded d e s i g n s , t h r e e r e p o r t p o s i t i v e f i n d i n g s f o r the KR phase. McGuigan e t a l . (1960) i m p l i c a t e the KR de l a y i n t e r v a l , B i l o d e a u and B i l o d e a u (1958b) the pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l p lu s the ITI and Denny e t a l . (1960) 90 the IT I . P o s i t i v e f i n d i n g s , t h e n , are sp read a c ro s s the t h r ee KR tempora l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s , t he reby p r e c l u d i n g any d e f i n i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n f o r the KR phase. Of the s t u d i e s w i t h unconfounded d e s i g n s , two (Becke r e t a l . , 1963; McGuigan e t a l . , 1960) ex tend o b s e r v a t i o n to the pos t -KR phase , both r e p o r t i n g n e g a t i v e f i n d i n g s . Ano the r prob lem w i t h de s i gn has been f a i l u r e i n n ine of- e i g h t e e n s t u d i e s r ev i ewed to examine phases o t h e r than the KR phase. A l t hough the unconfounded des i gn s of Becke r e t a l . (1963) and McGuigan e t a l . (1960) f a i l e d to r e v e a l pos t -KR phase d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , as d i d the confounded de s i gn s o f B o u l t e r (1964) and McGuigan ( 1959b ) , f o u r o t h e r s t u d i e s u t i l i z i n g confounded de s i gn s have produced p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s f o r pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g (Dees and G r i n d l e y , 1951; D y a l , 1966; Dyal and A r r i n g t o n , 1964; D y a l , W i l s on and B e r r y , 1965). A g a i n , no f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s are p o s s i b l e . Dependent measures have a l s o posed problems i n i n t e r -p r e t i n g the r e s u l t s o f s t u d i e s t h a t have m a n i p u l a t e d KR tempora l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s . None o f the e i g h t e e n s t u d i e s rev iewed r e p o r t e d both CE and VE, two s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d CE ( B o u l t e r , 1964; Dees and G r i n d l e y , 1951) and one s tudy r e -p o r t e d VE ( M a g i l l , 1977). Problems a r i s i n g from the use of AE have been rev iewed ( S chu t z and Roy, 1973). However 91 dependent measures o t h e r than CE, VE and AE have a l s o been employed i n f e r r e t i n g out the p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s of KR tempora l de l a y i n t e r v a l s . Number of c o r r e c t re sponses ( A l e x a n d e r , 1951; Becker et a l . , 196 3 ; B i l o d e a u and Ryan, 1960 ; D y a l , 1964; D y a l , W i l s on and B e r r y , 1965; Greenspoon and Foreman, 1956; McGuigan e t a l . , 1960) i s a q u e s t i o n a b l e measure i n t h a t the on l y r e s pond i n g t h a t t h i s measure i s s e n s i t i v e to i s t h a t w i t h i n a r e l a t i v e l y narrow and a r b i t r a r i l y e s t a b -l i s h e d range. I n f o r m a t i o n from r e spond i n g o u t s i d e such a range i s t o t a l l y i g n o r e d . L i k e w i s e , t r i a l s to c r i t e r i o n (Denny et a l . , 1960; M a g i l l , 1973; Sa l t zman e t a l . , 1955) aga in i g no re s a l l i n f o r m a t i o n from r e spond i n g e x c e p t f o r responses t h a t f a l l w i t h i n the e s t a b l i s h e d c r i t e r i o n range. Frequency of s h o r t and l ong responses ( D y a l , 1966; Dyal and A r r i n g t o n , 1964; D y a l , W i l s on and B e r r y , 1965) has the advan-tage o f i n d i c a t i n g response d i r e c t i o n but the d i s a d v a n t a g e of f a i l i n g to exp re s s magn i tude . I n c o n s i s t e n c i e s r e g a r d i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l de s i gn s and r e g a r d i n g the employment o f dependent v a r i a b l e s have r ende red d e c i s i o n making d i f f i c u l t . Pe rhap s , on the one hand, pop-u l a t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s due to m a n i p u l a t i o n of KR tempora l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s are r e l a t i v e l y sma l l and, t h e r e f o r e , d i f f i c u l t to d e t e c t . Such a c o n c l u s i o n might be prompted by the f a i r l y even ba l ance o f p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e f i n d i n g s . On the o t h e r 92 hand, i t appears t h a t measures employed to date have g e n e r a l l y p r o v i d e d o n l y a narrow exposu re to the t o t a l w i t h i n - and between-S_ response p i c t u r e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s may have been c o m p l e t e l y or p a r t i a l l y m i s s e d . A l t hough t h e r e i s no g e n e r a l e m p i r i c a l consensus as to the KR tempora l d e l a y p e r i o d t h a t i s the l o cu s o f re-sponse d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n the KR phase , t h e r e does appear to be a g e n e r a l agreement t h a t the e f f e c t s are t r a n s i t o r y and , l i k e l y , t h a t those e f f e c t s t h a t have been demons t ra ted a re the r e s u l t o f r e l a t i v e l y non-s p e c i f i c KR and u n c e r t a i n t y as to task r e q u i r e m e n t s ( Becke r e t a l . , 1963; Denny e t a l . , 1960). As t he se i n v e s t i g a t o r s p o i n t o u t , the p resence of s p e c i f i c KR i s a powe r f u l i n f l u e n c e i n b r i d g i n g the i n t e r v a l between responses . The s i t u a t i o n may be d i f f e r e n t i n the pos t -KR phase , however. H e r e , t h e r e i s no KR to p r o v i d e a b r i d g e from one response to the n e x t . In t h i s r e g a r d , B o u l t e r (1964) has sugge s ted t h a t the c o n t e x t , or b a ckg r ound , a g a i n s t which responds i s d i f f e r e n t i n the absence o f KR, c on se -q u e n t l y b i a s i n g pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . As w e l l , Adams' (1971) t h e o r y makes i t c l e a r t h a t o n l y KR phase r e s p o n d i n g 93 i s d i r e c t l y under the c o n t r o l of KR. I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , not un rea sonab le to e x p e c t t h a t the more pronounced e f f e c t s of m a n i p u l a t i n g v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d to KR might be r e v e a l e d i n the pos t -KR phase. Th i s c o n t e n t i o n i s s u p p o r t e d by the r e s u l t s o f f o u r s t u d i e s r ev i ewed t h a t have demons t ra ted pos t -KR phase response d i f f e r e n c e s as a r e s u l t of m a n i p u l a t i n g KR tempora l d e l a y v a r i a b l e s (Dees and G r i n d l e y , 1951; D y a l , 1966; Dyal and A r r i n g t o n , 1964; D y a l , W i l s o n and B e r r y , 1965) . These s t u d i e s are p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t a b l e i n t h a t , even though t h e i r de s i gn s are con founded , they a l l m a n i p u l a t e the pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l . Ano the r common f e a t u r e i s the use of depend-ent v a r i a b l e s t h a t are s e n s i t i v e to d i r e c t i o n o f re sponse e r r o r . As w e l l , the s t u d i e s by Dyal and h i s c o l l e a g u e s d i f f e r e n t i a t e as to e f f e c t s of i n i t i a l ( i . e . , pre-KR phase) response t e n d e n c i e s . There i s , t h e r e f o r e , s u g g e s t i v e e v i d e n c e t h a t the p o s t -KR phase may be the s i t e o f response d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from m a n i p u l a t i o n of the post -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l . E m p i r i c a l s uppo r t i n t h i s a rea would prompt the t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n from KR i s s t o r e d i n memory as the PT. E m p i r i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s - KR and Response V a r i a b i l i t y D i s c u s s i o n of KR tempora l de l a y i n t e r v a l s i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n f o cu sed on e f f e c t s r e v e a l e d i n terms of re sponse 94 b i a s i n g as measured by CE. A number o f s t u d i e s have shown t h a t CE t y p i c a l l y dec rea se s i n the p re sence of KR (Baker and Young, 1960; Dees and G r i n d l e y , 1951; Schumsky, Grasha and Seymann, 1966; T h o r n d i k e , 1927, 1932) and t h a t CE does not change w i t h o u t the p re sence o f KR (Baker and Young, 1960; T h o r n d i k e , 1927, 1932). F u r t h e r m o r e , KR appears to e x e r t a permanent i n f l u e n c e on r e s pond i n g as r e f l e c t e d by pos t -KR phase CE l e v e l s r e l a t i v e to pre-KR phase l e v e l s and a noKR c o n t r o l group (Baker and Young, 1960). The p i c t u r e i s not as c l e a r w i t h r e ga rd to the e f f e c t o f KR on response v a r i a b i l i t y . In the f i r s t o f two e x p e r i -ments , one i n v o l v i n g l e n g t h e s t i m a t i o n , Tho rnd i ke (1927) r e p o r t s t h a t improvement under KR was p a r t l y due to r e d u c t i o n o f CE and p a r t l y due to r e d u c t i o n o f VE. As a r e s u l t of f u r t h e r e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , however, T h o r n d i k e (1932: 192) became c o n v i n c e d t h a t KR f o s t e r e d a " r e d u c t i o n o f c o n s t a n t but not v a r i a b l e e r r o r s " . Because CE d i d not dec rea se i n the absence o f KR, Tho rnd i ke (1932) c onc l uded t h a t KR was nece s s a r y i n o r d e r f o r l e a r n i n g to take p l a c e . Seashore and B a v e l i s (1941) d i s a g r e e d w i t h T h o r n d i k e ' s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t response r e p e -t i t i o n sans KR f a i l s to demons t ra te l e a r n i n g . They r e -examined data ( T h o r n d i k e , 1927, e xpe r imen t I I ) from S_s_ who 95 drew 3000 l i n e s w i t h o u t KR and found e v i d e n c e o f a dec rea se i n response v a r i a b i l i t y . An e xpe r imen t by Baker and Young ( 1 960 ) , wh ich r e p l i -c a t ed T h o r n d i k e ' s l i n e d rawing t a s k , y i e l d e d r e s u l t s wh ich o s t e n s i b l y d i s a g r e e w i t h those o f Seashore and B e v a l i s ( 1941 ) . Us ing average i n t e r q u a r t i l e range as the measure o f re sponse v a r i a b i l i t y , a c o n t r o l group t h a t drew 200 l i n e s per day f o r 10- days remained a t a f a i r l y c o n s t a n t l e v e l t h r oughou t p r a c t i s e . On the o t h e r hand, response v a r i a b i l i t y d i d appear to dec rea se as a f u n c t i o n of the amount o f t r a i n i n g w i t h KR. F u r t h e r m o r e , pos t -KR phase l e v e l s of response v a r i a b i l i t y appeared to be a f u n c t i o n of amount o f t r a i n i n g w i t h KR. There are at l e a s t t h r e e r e s e r v a t i o n s wh ich app l y to the p i c t u r e of re sponse v a r i a b i l i t y p r e s e n t e d by Baker and Young (1960 ) . F i r s t , as the au tho r s n o t e , the c o n t r o l group had l e s s re sponse v a r i a b i l i t y i n the pre-KR phase than d i d the e x p e r i m e n t a l g roups . Dur ing the KR and pos t -KR phases the e x p e r i m e n t a l groups approached but d i d not su rpa s s the r e l a t i v e l y low v a r i a b i l i t y of the c o n t r o l g roup. Second, t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n of t r e n d i n response v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h i n days of p r a c t i s e s i n c e the i n t e r q u a r t i l e ranges r e p o r t e d were averaged f o r each day. With 200 l i n e s per day drawn, t he r e i s ample scope f o r d a i l y t r end s i n response v a r i a b i l i t y , 96 i f they e x i s t , to become m a n i f e s t . For i n s t a n c e , i f a dec rea se i n response v a r i a b i l i t y o c c u r r e d e a r l y , w i t h r e s pond i n g then s t a b i l i z i n g , the e a r l y t r e n d would not be d i s c e r n a b l e . T h i r d , the i n t e r q u a r t i l e range i s a n o n - p a r a m e t r i c s t a t i s t i c which i s not a p p r o p r i a t e to the d a t a . C o n s i d e r a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g r e spond i n g may be l o s t by u s i ng t h i s r e l a t i v e l y i n s e n s i t i v e measure. A l though the Baker and Young (1960) a n a l y s i s does i n d i c a t e t h a t response v a r i a b i l i t y dec rea se s as a f u n c t i o n of amount o f p r a c t i s e , i t i s not c l e a r whether p r a c t i s e must i n c l u d e KR. In a s tudy where KR was never a d m i n i s t e r e d to a c o n t r o l g r oup , McGuigan, Hu t chen s , Eason and Reynolds (1964) found t h a t r e s -ponse v a r i a b i l i t y f o r a 6.0 i n ch l i n e d rawing ta sk dec rea sed ove r p r a c t i s e . However, t r e n d over the 140 t r i a l s o f the e xpe r imen t i s not r e p o r t e d . N e i t h e r i s a compar i son o f response v a r i a b i l i t y between the noKR c o n t r o l group and groups t h a t r e c e i v e d KR i n c l u d e d . In o r d e r to de te rm ine i f KR has a perm-anent e f f e c t on response v a r i a b i l i t y , a compar i son s h o u l d be made between noKR c o n t r o l groups and pos t -KR phase re sponse l e v e l s of groups t h a t r e c e i v e KR. Adequate compar i son of response v a r i a b i l i t y under c o n d i t -ions of t r a i n i n g w i t h and w i t h o u t the i n f l u e n c e o f KR does not appear to have been u n d e r t a k e n . Only two areas o f e x p e r i -mental m a n i p u l a t i o n r e l a t i n g to the e f f e c t o f KR on re sponse 97 v a r i a b i l i t y seem to have been f a i r l y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . F i r s t , the p re sence o f KR can i n f l u e n c e re sponse v a r i a b i l i t y i n the KR phase. A s tudy by E. B i l o d e a u (1955) both i n c r e a s e d and dec rea sed the s p e c i f i c i t y of response e r r o r r e p o r t e d by KR, w i t h the f i n d i n g t h a t i n c r e a s e d e r r o r KR was accompanied by i n c r e a s e d VE. B i l o d e a u sugges t s t h a t i n c r e a s e d e r r o r KR encourages t o make a g r e a t e r m o d i f i c a t i o n o f subsequent r e s p o n s e s , a p l oy he terms " h u n t i n g b e h a v i o r " . Thus the c o n s t a n t change i n response tendency i nduced by i n c r e a s e d e r r o r KR r e s u l t s i n r e l a t i v e l y h i gh response v a r i a b i l i t y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , B i l o d e a u d i d not c a r r y h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i n t o the pos t -KR phase. Second, t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t response v a r i a b i l i t y can dec rease as a r e s u l t of p r a c t i s e i n the t o t a l absence of KR. R e s u l t s r e p o r t e d by McGuigan e t a l . (1964) and Seashore and B e v a l i s (1941) f o r d i s c r e t e - t r i a 1 movement r e p r o d u c t i o n have been n o t e d . As w e l l as s t u d i e s u t i l i z i n g d i s e r e t e - t r i a 1 movement r e p r o d u c t i o n t a s k s , dec rea se s i n i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a n c e ( i . e . , re sponse v a r i a b i l i t y ) f o r a number of o t h e r motor t a s k s have a l s o been r e p o r t e d . For the s t a b i l o m e t e r , Car ron and L e a v i t t (1968a and b ) , and S te lmach (1968) have r e p o r t e d dec rea se s i n i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a n c e f o r r e a c t i o n and movement t imes f o r both s i m p l e and 98 complex t a s k s . Henry (1970) has r ev i ewed s t u d i e s on i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a n c e pe r fo rmed i n h i s l a b o r a t o r y and conc l uded t h a t , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the s t a b i1 o m e t e r , t h a t t h i s measure tends to dec rea se e a r l y i n p r a c t i s e and then remain c o n s i s t e n t . Th i s c o n c l u s i o n ho ld s w i t h H e n r y ' s t h e o r y t h a t , e x c l u d i n g e r r o r v a r i a n c e due to measurement, i n t r a -i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a n c e r e p r e s e n t s i n n a t e b i o l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n . The reason t h a t i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a n c e on the s t a b i l -ometer c o n t i n u e s to d e c l i n e may be due to the r e l a t i v e c o m p l e x i t y of the t a s k . Reynolds (1958) p o s t u l a t e s t h a t e x t r aneou s movements are g r a d u a l l y e l i m i n a t e d over p r a c t i s e , thus r e d u c i n g i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a n c e . Henry (1970) and Reynolds (1958) may appear to h o l d oppos ing v i e w p o i n t s . However t h i s appa ren t o p p o s i t i o n might be r e s o l v e d by c o n s i d e r i n g the na tu re of the t a s k s i n v o l v e d . Complex t a s k s t h a t a l l o w f o r the e l i m i n a t i o n of e x t r aneou s movement may adhere to R e y n o l d ' s h y p o t h e s i s . On the o t h e r hand, r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e t a s k s such as d i s c r e t e - t r i a l l i n e a r r ep l acement movements may show the type of dec rea se i n i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a n c e t h a t Henry s u g g e s t s . 99 There i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t p r a c t i s e reduces i n t r a -i n d i v i d u a ! v a r i a n c e , e x c l u s i v e of measurement e r r o r , to z e r o . For t a s k s t h a t can be c l a s s i f i e d as s i m p l e , t h e n , H e n r y ' s h y p o t h e s i s t h a t i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a 1 v a r i a n c e w i l l dec rease i n i t i a l l y , r e p r e s e n t i n g ad ju s tment to task demands, and then s t a b i l i z e i s r e a s o n a b l e . I f , e x cep t f o r i n i t i a l ad ju s tment to the t a s k , i n t r a - i n d i v i d u a 1 v a r i a n c e does r e p r e s e n t i n n a t e b i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y , then KR would not be - e xpec t ed to pe rmanent l y i n f l u e n c e VE. To t e s t whether KR pe rmanent l y a f f e c t s response v a r i a b i l i t y , VE must change w i t h o u t the p resence of KR, as has been d e m o n s t r a t e d , and t h e r e must be no d i f f e r e n c e between response v a r i a b i l i t y i n a noKR c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n and t h a t i n pos t -KR phase r e s -p o n d i n g , which has not been d e m o n s t r a t e d . S umma ry P e r t i n e n t i s s u e s of t h i s r e v i e w , as a l l u d e d to i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n , conce rn memory and paths to memory. The a s p e c t of memory which i s o f i n t e r e s t i s the p e r c e p t u a l t r a c e ( P T ) . The p o t e n t i a l paths to memory ( i . e . , to the PT) are r e s p o n s e -produced feedback (FB) and knowledge of r e s u l t s (KR) . E x i s t e n c e of the PT has been f a i r l y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . F u r t h e r e v i d e n c e argues t h a t the PT i s an e lement of a c l o s e d -l oop response c o n t r o l s y s tem. Less w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , however, 100 i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p of FB and KR to PT deve lopment . D e l i n e a t i n g the r o l e o f KR i n PT development i s hampered by two m e t h o d o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s . One f a c t o r i n v o l v e s i n -a p p r o p r i a t e dependent measures w h i l e the o t h e r f a c t o r i n v o l v e s i nadaqua te e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n s . These d e f i c i e n c i e s r ende r i t i m p o s s i b l e to de te rm ine from the p r e s e n t l i t e r a t u r e p r e -c i s e l y the e f f i c a c y of KR as a p o t e n t i a l path to memory ( i . e . , the PT ) . Review o f the l i t e r a t u r e , however , t e n t a t i v e l y sugges t s two areas i n which the r o l e of KR i n PT deve lopment c o u l d be e l u c i d a t e d . One a rea concerns the e f f e c t o f KR tempora l de l ay i n t e r v a l s on response b i a s i n g . There i s s u g g e s t i v e e v i d e n c e t h a t the pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l i s the l o c u s o f pos t -KR phase b i a s i n g . C o n f i r m i n g e v i d e n c e i n t h i s a rea would argue t h a t KR i nd i genou s i n f o r m a t i o n i s d i r e c t l y r e p -r e s e n t e d i n the PT. The o t h e r area concerns the e f f e c t o f p r a c t i s e under the i n f l u e n c e of p re sence and absence of KR on response v a r i a b i l i t y . There i s s u g g e s t i v e e v i d e n c e here t h a t KR does not pe rmanent l y a f f e c t response v a r i a b i l i t y . C o n f i r m -ing e v i d e n c e i n t h i s a rea would l i m i t the r o l e of KR to a f f e c t i n g a spec t s of memory r e f l e c t e d by response b i a s . CHAPTER I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURES S u b j e c t s T h i r t y r i g h t handed male and female S_s_ were r e c r u i t e d on a v o l u n t e e r b a s i s from two s o u r c e s . One s ou r ce c o n s i s t e d o f un-dergraduate and g raduate s t u d e n t s at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co l umb i a . The o t h e r source c o n s i s t e d o f members o f f i t n e s s c l a s s e s at a l o c a l community c e n t e r . F i v e male and f i v e female Ss_ were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a s s i g n e d to each o f the t h r ee g r oup s , thus p r o v i d i n g a t o t a l o f 10 Ss^  per g roup. Ss ranged i n age from 22 to 42 yea r s w i t h a mean age o f 29 y e a r s . Appara tu s Ove rv i ew. The appa ra tu s f o r p e r f o r m i n g the e x p e r i m e n t a l ta sk was a l i n e a r p o s i t i o n i n g d e v i s e c o n s i s t i n g of a c a r r i a g e w i t h a v e r t i c a l l y mounted hand le which S moved a l ong a l i n e a r t r a c k . I n t e g r a l to the hand le was a S_-operated m i c r o s w i t c h which a c t u a t e d a b r a k i n g d e v i s e used f o r m a i n t a i n i n g the e x a c t p o s i t i o n of the c a r r i a g e upon t e r m i n a t i o n of a movement. 102 Power f o r the brake was d e r i v e d from a power s u p p l y - r e l a y s y s tem. The r e l a y i n i t i a t e d the s e q u e n t i a l o p e r a t i o n of f i v e t i m i n g banks w h i c h , upon a c t i v a t i o n of the b r a k e , c o n t r o l l e d t i m i n g of the KR tempora l de l a y i n t e r v a l s . As w e l l , the t i m i n g banks t r i g g e r e d a l i g h t i n f o r m i n g E_ when to p r e s e n t KR to S_ p l u s two tone cues which cued S_ when to beg in a t r i a l and when to r e t u r n hand to l ap f o l l o w i n g a t r i a l . To f a c i l i t a t e r e t u r n of the c a r r i a g e to the s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n by JE between t r i a l s , the i n t e g r a t e d power s u p p l y - r e l a y system was f i t t e d w i t h a s w i t c h which c o n t r o l l e d the b r a k e , wh ich was n o r m a l l y on , w i t h -out a c t i n g th rough the r e l a y system and thus d i s t u r b i n g the a c t i o n of the t i m i n g banks d u r i n g t h e i r b e t w e e n - t r i a l o p e r a t i o n . In o r d e r to f a c i l i t a t e p r a c t i s e p r i o r to the e x p e r i m e n t , a n o t h e r s w i t c h a l l o w e d the brake to f u n c t i o n w i t h o u t i n i t i a t i n g the a c t i o n of the t i m i n g banks . Tone c u e s , v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s and knowledge of r e s u l t s (KR) from E_ p lu s w h i t e n o i s e were channe led to th rough head -phones. These t h r e e sou rces o f aud io i n p u t were i n t e g r a t e d through a 4 - c h a n n e l m i x e r , a m p l i f i e d and fed to the headphones. D e t a i l e d mechan i ca l and e l e c t r i c a l d iagrams o f the appa r -atus are p r e s e n t e d i n Append ix A. .103 L i n e a r p o s i t i o n i n g d e v i s e . The moveable c a r r i a g e which _S p o s i t i o n e d rode on a b 1 ancha rd - g round s t e e l t r a c k measu r i ng 130 cm. l ong x 3.70 cm. wide x 0.65 cm. deep. A d j u s t a b l e s tops l i m i t e d the t o t a l e x c u r s i o n of the c a r r i a g e , w i t h 70 cm. o f the t o t a l l e n g t h a v a i l a b l e i n p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t . The t r a c k was mounted h o r i z o n t a l l y above an ang le i r o n l o c a t i n g b r a c k e t by s tuds which r a i s e d the t r a c k to a l l o w f r e e movement o f the c a r r i a g e . A 3.0 cm. wide s t r i p of emery c l o t h was epoxy bonded to" the upper s u r f a c e of the t r a c k i n o r d e r to p r o v i d e a h i g h -f r i c t i o n s u r f a c e f o r the c a r r i a g e brake pad to c o n t a c t . Moving on the t r a c k , the c a r r i a g e made c o n t a c t v i a t h r e e deep-g rooved s t e e l w h e e l s , two a d j o i n i n g one edge of the t r a c k and the t h i r d a d j o i n i n g the o p p o s i t e edge. Each wheel was machined to a c c e p t an FAG 608 A*ZS b a l l b e a r i n g assembly which i n t u r n was mounted to the base o f the c a r r i a g e by a b o l t e x t e n d i n g through the c e n t e r s l e e v e of the b e a r i n g . The aluminum base of the c a r r i a g e measured 10.5 cm. x 9.5 cm., the l o n g e s t s i d e r unn i ng p a r a l l e l to the t r a c k . Mounted v e r t i c a l l y on the c a r r i a g e base was an aluminum mount ing b r a c k e t to which was a t t a c h e d a Guard ian E l e c t r i c c on t i nuou s a c t i o n pu sh - t ype s o l e n o i d (Model 16P-C0NT-120-AC) and a 5.0 amp. m i c r o s w i t c h ( " M i c r o " , Model 1SM1-7250). The m i c r o s w i t c h was connec ted between the power s u p p l y - r e l a y system and the s o l e n o i d . 104 I t was w i r e d i n a normal c l o s e d (NC) c o n f i g u r a t i o n . The s o l e n o i d was mounted v e r t i c a l l y so t h a t a pos t a t t a c h e d to the p l u n g e r of the s o l e n o i d ran th rough a ho l e i n the base o f the c a r r i a g e and pushed down on the b rake pad mechanism which c o n t a c t e d the emery c l o t h s u r f a c e of the t r a c k . To p r o v i d e the a c t u a l b r a k i n g c o n t a c t , one end of an 8.0 cm. x 2.2 cm. s t r i p o f l i g h t guage s p r i n g s t e e l s t o c k was s e cu red by machine screws to the u n d e r s i d e of the c a r r i a g e . The s o l e n o i d post bore a g a i n s t the f r e e end of the s p r i n g s t e e l s t r i p so t h a t when the s o l e n o i d was e n e r g i z e d the pos t f o r c e d the s t r i p down on the t r a c k . The b r a k i n g pad was a 2.2 cm. x 3.0 cm. p i e c e o f heavy ga ske t m a t e r i a l bonded to the s p r i n g s t e e l and w h i c h , i n t u r n , was bonded to cou r se emery c l o t h . Thus, emery c l o t h (b rake pad) c o n t a c t e d emery c l o t h ( t r a c k ) to produce a h i gh f r i c t i o n b r a k i n g i n t e r f a c e . Heavy ga ske t m a t e r i a l was a l s o used at a l l p o i n t s of c o n t a c t i n the b r a k i n g mechanism to e l i m i n a t e v i b r a t i o n i n h e r e n t i n the a c t i o n of the s o l e n o i d . When the s o l e n o i d was d e e n e r g i z e d , the s p r i n g s t e e l h e l d the c o n t a c t pad away from the t r a c k . As w e l l , a s p r i n g mounted to the s o l e n o i d mount ing b r a c k e t a c t e d to l i f t the d e e n e r g i z e d s o l e n o i d p l u n g e r away from the t r a c k . 105 A c i r c u l a r , t h i n - g u a g e s t e e l " c a n " , 7.0 cm. i n d i a m e t e r and 7.0 .cm. h i gh cove red the s o l e n o i d a s semb ly . A l e n g t h o f 1.8 cm. o . d . s t e e l t u b i n g was a l i g n e d and b ra zed to the top of the " c a n " to s e r ve as a v e r t i c a l s h a f t on which a l o o s e - f i t t i n g , f r e e - f l o a t i n g c o l l a r r ode . Th i s c o l l a r was the hand le which :S '' g r a s ped . I n s i d e and p r o t r u d i n g from the top and bottom of the s h a f t wa's a s p r i ng-1 oaded magnesium p l u n g e r . The bottom end of the p l u n g e r a c t u a t e d the s o l e n o i d m i c r o s w i t c h v i a a c o m p a t i b l e l e v e r as sembly ( " M i c r o " , Model J S 224 ) . The c o l l a r , or h a n d l e , r i d i n g over the v e r t i c a l s h a f t was formed of 12.5 cm. l ong aluminum t u b i n g (2.6 cm. o . d . and 2.1 cm. i . d . ) w i t h a s t e e l p l u g t h r e d -ded i n t o one end. A machined tab on the i n s i d e of the p l u g c o n t a c t e d the rounded top o f the magnesium p l u n g e r . Thus, push ing the hand le down a c t u a t e d the s o l e n o i d m i c r o s w i t c h v i a the p l unge r and l e v e r d e s c r i b e d above. In o r d e r to measure the e x c u r s i o n of the c a r r i a g e a l ong the t r a c k , a wooden measur ing s t i c k marked o f f i n two s e p a r a t e s c a l e s , both of 1/8 i n ch u n i t s , was s i t u a t e d b e s i d e and p a r a l l e l to the t r a c k . Th i s measur ing s t i c k was f i x e d by aluminum clamps to an ang le i r o n b r a c k e t i n a manner t h a t made i t e a s i l y moveab le . An aluminum p o i n t e r a t t a c h e d to the c a r r i a g e marked i t s e x c u r s i o n a l ong the s c a l e s . 106 One s c a l e was marked so as to be e a s i l y read i n the u n i t s i n which KR was a d m i n i s t e r e d . Numbers r a d i a t e d i n o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s from a " z e r o " p o i n t wh ich was s e t at the d e s i r e d c r i t e r i o n . A d i s t a n c e of 1 3/8 i n che s l e s s than the c r i t e r i o n c o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , be read d i r e c t l y o f f the s c a l e by E_ as "minus e l e v e n " . The o t h e r s c a l e was marked i n s t a n d a r d u n i t s of 1/8 i n ch d i s p l a c e m e n t , p r o c e e d i n g i n g r e a t e r magni tude from l e f t to r i g h t , the d i r e c t i o n moved the c a r r i a g e i n the e x p e r i -ment . Both the b r a c k e t s u p p o r t i n g the t r a c k and t h a t s u p p o r t i n g the measur ing s t i c k were a t t a c h e d to a common heavy wooden base which was s i t u a t e d c l o s e to the edge of a t a b l e t o p . Th i s ar rangement s i t u a t e d the top of the hand le 110 cm. from the f l o o r . s a t on a c h a i r i n f r o n t o f the a p p a r a t u s , the f r o n t h e i g h t of the s ea t measur ing 45 cm. from the f l o o r . With t h i s a r r angement , the h e i g h t of the hand le above the f l o o r co r r e sponded a p p r o x i m a t e l y w i t h s h o u l d e r h e i g h t . S o l e n o i d power s u p p l y - r e l a y s y s tem. The 115 v o l t AC power s upp l y to the s o l e n o i d was a l s o t r a n s f o r m e d by a Hammond t r a n s -fo rmer ( t ype C, Model 166J12) to 12 v o l t s AC and then r e c t i f i e d to DC by means of a d iode ( M o t o r o l a , Number 1N4005 S) and a f i l t e r c a p a c i t o r ( E l y t , 500 m i c r o f a r a d s , 35 v o l t s ) . In t u r n , the 12.0 v o l t DC power s upp l y e n e r g i z e d a r e l a y (Armaco, Model 107 MQ-208) which c o n t r o l l e d the f i r s t of the f i v e t i m i n g banks . Thus, when the s o l e n o i d c i r c u i t was c l o s e d upon t e r m i n a t i o n of a movement, the b rake was a p p l i e d and the f i r s t t i m i n g bank was s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a c t i v a t e d . A bypass c i r c u i t a l l o w e d E_ to c o n t r o l the brake and r e t u r n the c a r r i a g e to the s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n w i t h o u t r e a c t i v a t i n g the r e l a y and c o n s e q u e n t l y i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h the be t w e e n - t r i a 1 a c t i o n of the t i m i n g banks . To f a c i l i t a t e p r a c t i s e by S_ p r i o r to the e x p e r i m e n t , a n o t h e r bypass c i r c u i t a l l o w e d the brake to f u n c t i o n w i t h o u t a c t i v -a t i n g the r e l a y . T im ing a p p a r a t u s . Temporal i n t e r v a l s r e l a t e d to the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f KR were c o n t r o l l e d by f i v e banks o f t i m e r s ( L a f a y e t t e I n s t r ument Company, Models 51013 and 52011) . Each bank was a c c u r a t e w i t h i n 0.01 second as checked by a D i g i t a l C l o c k / C o u n t e r ( L a f a y e t t e I n s t r ument Company, Model 54517) . The t i m i n g banks o p e r a t e d i n s e r i e s f a s h i o n , c o n t r o l l i n g event s i n the manner s c h e m a t i z e d i n Tab le 111 — 1. Events c o n t r o l l e d by banks 2, 3 and 5 were f i x e d t h roughou t the e x -pe r imen t w i t h the tempora l i n t e r v a l s c o n t r o l l e d by banks 1 and 4 v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g to phase o f r e s pond i n g and e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n . In phases 1 and 3, where no KR was a d m i n i s t e r e d , bank 1 was s e t to z e r o . Banks 2, 3 and 4 de te rm ined the TABLE 11 I - 1. Sequence of T im ing Bank O p e r a t i o n . KR d e l a y i n t e r v a l bank 1 ( v a r i a b l e ) hand r e t u r n de l a y i n t e r v a l ( l i g h t ) bank 2 (5 seconds ) r e t u r n hand to l ap ( tone 1) bank 3 (2 seconds ) pos t -KR d e l a y i n t e r v a l r ema inde r o f post -KR de l ay i n t e r v a l bank 4 ( v a r i a b l e ) beg in next t r i a l ( tone 2) bank 5 (2 seconds ) 109 i n t e r t r i a l i n t e r v a l ( I T I ) i n phases 1 and 3 and the pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l i n phase 2. A 12.0 v o l t orange a u t o m o t i v e - t y p e l i g h t r e c e i v i n g power from the 12.0 v o l t DC s i d e of the powe r - s upp l y r e l a y system and c o n t r o l l e d by t i m i n g bank 2 i n f o rmed E_ when to a d m i n i s t e r KR. Two tone g e n e r a t o r s ( L a f a y e t t e I n s t r ument Company, Model 58025 ) i n f o rmed S_ to r e t u r n the hand to the l ap and to beg in the next t r i a l . Aud io i n p u t . White n o i s e , tone cues and v e r b a l i n p u t from |_ c o n s i s t i n g of i n s t r u c t i o n s and KR were fed to _S th rough headphones. These sou rce s o f aud i o i n p u t were i n t e -g r a t e d by a Shure 4 - channe l m i xe r and a m p l i f i e d by a H e a t h k i t High F i d e l i t y A m p l i f i e r (14 w a t t , Model AA -161 ) . Headphones were L l o yd s (Model Y707 ) . The w h i t e n o i s e g e n e r a t o r was one produced by the L a f a y e t t e I n s t rument Company (Model 15012). Output from the g e n e r a t o r was fed d i r e c t l y to the m i x e r . S i g n a l s from the tone g e n e r a t o r s reached the m i xe r v i a a u n i d i r e c t i o n a l l o w - g a i n microphone (AKG, Model 109) p l a c e d between and s e v e r a l i n che s from the ou tpu t sou rce s of the tone gene r -a t o r s . E p r o v i d e d v e r b a l i n p u t to S_ th rough a mode ra te -ga in microphone (Sony, Model F -27S) . The microphones were 110 s e n s i t i v e to aud io i n p u t w i t h i n a f a i r l y r e s t r i c t e d range and, t h e r e f o r e , d i d not t r a n s m i t background sounds such as t h a t produced by movement of the c a r r i a g e . E x p e r i m e n t a l Des ign There were t h r ee phases to the e x p e r i m e n t . The f i r s t , or pre-KR phase , r e q u i r e d S_s i n each c o n d i t i o n to a t t empt to produce the same c r i t e r i o n response on each t r i a l w i t h o u t the a i d o f KR. In the s e cond , or KR phase , Sj>_ r e c e i v e d KR f o l l o w i n g each t r i a l . The t h i r d , or pos t -KR phase , was s i m i l a r to the f i r s t phase i n t h a t Ss_ a t t empted the c r i t e r i o n response w i t h o u t the a i d of KR. Three c o n d i t i o n s d e f i n e d the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f tempora l de l a y i n t e r v a l s r e l a t e d to the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f KR i n the second phase of the e x p e r i m e n t . These i n t e r v a l s are the KR de l a y i n t e r v a l , post -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l and the I T I . A l t hough the KR d e l a y and post -KR d e l a y i n t e r v a l s c o u l d not be d e f i n e d i n the pre-KR and post -KR pha se s , the ITI was the same f o r each KR tempora l d e l a y c o n d i t i o n over a l l t h r e e phases o f the e x p e r i m e n t . Each S_ pe r fo rmed 30 t r i a l s i n each phase of the e x p e r i -ment and S_s were a s s i g n e d to one c o n d i t i o n of KR tempora l I l l d e l a y o n l y . The d e s i g n , de l a y i n t e r v a l s x phases r epea ted measures on the groups of S_s r e c e i v e d 30 o f the e x p e r i m e n t . t h e n , was a 3x3x30 (KR tempora l x t r i a l s ) f a c t o r i a l de s i gn w i t h l a s t two f a c t o r s . Thus, t h r e e t r i a l s under each o f t h r e e phases P rocedure s Genera l p r o c e d u r e s . The e x p e r i m e n t began i n an o u t e r room so t h a t the appa ra tu s would not be v i s i b l e to S_s. To a v o i d t a c t i l e cues from c l o t h i n g , male S_s_ were asked to s t r i p to the w a i s t and female S_s_ were asked to wear a s i n g l e t . A f t e r be i n g i n f o rmed of the gene ra l na tu re of the e x p e r i -ment, _S was b l i n d f o l d e d and l e d i n t o the room where the e xpe r imen t took p l a c e . Seated i n f r o n t o f the a p p a r a t u s , _S was p o s i t i o n e d so t h a t the hand le o f the c a r r i a g e was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10.0 cm. to the l e f t o f the mid p o i n t o f the r i g h t s h o u l d e r , and so t h a t the r i g h t hand c o u l d grasp the hand le w i t h the arm i n f u l l e x t e n s i o n . I t was emphas ized t h a t the elbow was to be s t r a i g h t but not s t i f f , w i t h a l l movement e m i n a t i n g from the s h o u l d e r j o i n t . 112 The hand le was g rasped w i t h the pad o f the thumb r e s t i n g l i g h t l y on top and w i t h the f i n g e r s c u r l e d g e n t l y around the s h a f t . A l i g h t g r i p was emphas ized as was a l i g h t f o r c e i n moving the h a n d l e . S_ was i n s t r u c t e d to s i t u p r i g h t i n the c h a i r and to f a ce s t r a i g h t ahead t h r oughou t the e x p e r i m e n t . S i n c e any movement o t h e r than the r e q u i r e d arm movement might i n t e r f e r e wi.th p o s i t i o n i n g a c c u r a c y , S^  was c a u t i o n e d to remain as m o t i o n l e s s as p o s s i b l e a t a l l t i m e s . The l e f t arm, which was not used i n the e x p e r i m e n t , remained i n the l a p . The r i g h t arm was r e t u r n e d to the l ap between t r i a l s . Both arms remained m o t i o n l e s s when i n the l a p . To ensure t h a t S_ c o u l d c o m f o r t a b l y p o s i t i o n the h a n d l e , keep ing the elbow s t r a i g h t and w i t h o u t movement o f the body o t h e r than at the s h o u l d e r j o i n t , E_ p a s s i v e l y moved _S th rough the range of mot ion o f the a p p a r a t u s , a d j u s t i n g S_ i n p r o x i m i t y to the appa ra tu s i f n e c e s s a r y . Th i s a c c o m p l i s h e d , headphones were p l a c e d on S^  and the i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r p e r f o r m i n g the e xpe r imen t were read by E_ through the head se t . The i n s t r u c t i o n s read to S^  a re quoted v e r b a t i m i n Append ix B. 113 I n s t r u c t i o n s p r i o r to b e g i n n i n g the e xpe r imen t em-p h a s i z e d the type of movement to be made and the c o r r e c t o p e r a t i o n of the b r a k i n g d e v i s e . S l ow, s e l f - p a c e d movement was emphas ized i n o r de r to ensure t h a t the movement was under the c o n t r o l of FB ( C h e r n i k o f f and T a y l o r , 1952; V i n c e , 1948; r e v i ewed by K e e l e , 1968: 395 ) . The b r a k i n g d e v i s e was not to be used to t e r m i n a t e the movement; r a t h e r , the movement was t e r m i n a t e d under S^  c o n t r o l and then the brake was a p p l i e d in- o r de r to f i x the c a r r i a g e so t h a t an a c c u r a t e measurement o f the movement end p o i n t c o u l d be r e c o r d e d . Movement o f the hand le was emphas ized i n the i n s t r u c t i o n s . No cues were g i v en r e g a r d i n g what the hand le was a t t a c h e d to or r e g a r d i n g the path through which the hand le moved. S_ knew on l y t h a t the hand le moved from l e f t to r i g h t , w i t h the movement always commencing i n the same p o s i t i o n . Sequence o f t r i a l - b y - t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s was e s s e n t i a l l y the same th roughou t the e x p e r i m e n t . A tone i n s t r u c t e d S^  to remove the r i g h t hand from the l a p , engage the h a n d l e , p res s the hand le down and beg in a t r i a l . T im ing o f the ITI began when S_ a l l o w e d the hand le to r i s e upon t e r m i n a t i o n of a movement, thus a c t i v a t i n g the brake and the o p e r a t i o n of the t i m i n g banks . In the pre-KR and pos t -KR pha se s , a second tone f i v e seconds f o l l o w i n g the s t a r t of the ITI s i g n a l l e d S^  114 to r e t u r n the r i g h t hand to the l a p . In the KR phase , the tone f o r r e t u r n i n g the hand to the l a p o c c u r r e d f i v e seconds f o l l o w i n g the p r e s e n t a t i o n of KR. The f i v e second de l a y i n hand r e t u r n was i n keep ing w i t h r e s u l t s from an e xpe r imen t by McGuigan e t a l . (1964) d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t immediate hand r e t u r n r e t r o a c t i v e l y i n t e r f e r e s w i t h the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f KR. I t was reasoned th-at immediate hand r e t u r n c o u l d a l s o r e t r o a c t i v e l y i n t e r f e r e w i t h FB from r e spond i n g a l t hough no s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e i n t h i s r e g a r d . S p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r each phase o f the e x p e r i m e n t were b r i e f and were read p r i o r to commencement o f the phase to which they a p p l i e d . Con sequen t l y S_s_ were not ab l e to a n t i c i p a t e f u t u r e r equ i r emen t s d u r i n g the e x p e r i m e n t . There was a 3.0 minute pause between the pre-KR and KR phases . Th i s a l l o w e d t ime f o r E_ to read the KR phase i n s t r u c t i o n s , de te rm ine the amount by which the c r i t e r i o n was to be m a n i p u l a t e d i n the next two phases and r e s e t the t i m i n g banks . A 2.0 minute pause ensued between the KR and pos t -KR phase s , s u f f i c i e n t f o r r e a d i n g post -KR i n s t r u c t i o n s and r e s e t t i n g the t i m i n g banks . The d u r a t i o n of the between-phase pauses was measured from the t e r m i n a t i o n o f the f i n a l 115 r e s p o n s e o f a phase to the commencement of the f i r s t r e s p o n s e of the f o l l o w i n g p h a s e . S p e c i f i c p r o c e d u r e s : p r e - K R p h a s e . The t a s k i n the f i r s t phase was to a t t e m p t to move the h a n d l e 7 . 0 i n c h e s on each t r i a l w i t h o u t the b e n e f i t o f KR. S^  was to c o n c e i v e of a 7 . 0 i n c h l i n e and to a t t e m p t on each t r i a l to r e p r o d u c e t h i s s u b j e c t i v e i m p r e s s i o n . C o n s i s t e n c y of movement was e m-p h a s i z e d . A 7 .0 i n c h movement was chosen to p r e s e n t to Ss_ as a s u b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i o n because i t was f e l t t h a t the r e s u l t i n g range o f o b j e c t i v e r e s p o n s e tendency e n c o u n t e r e d i n the p r e -KR phase would tend not to i n h i b i t r e s p o n d i n g i n s u b s e q u e n t phases when, unknown to :S, the p r e - K R phase l e v e l o f r e s p o n d -i n g was b i a s e d by an a d d i t i o n a l 4 . 0 i n c h e s . I f o b j e c t i v e p r e - K R phase r e s p o n s e tendency was c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r than 7 . 0 i n c h e s , the n e c e s s i t y to respond w i t h a movement i n the KR phase which was y e t a n o t h e r 4 . 0 i n c h e s l o n g e r c o u l d prove to be beyond the a b i l i t y o f S_ to p o s i t i o n the h a n d l e w i t h o u t moving p a r t s of the body o t h e r than the s h o u l d e r . The s i t u -a t i o n would be f u r t h e r confounded i f the e x p e r i m e n t a l m a n i p u -l a t i o n i n c l i n e d S^  toward o v e r s h o o t i n g i n the p o s t - K R p h a s e . Inch u n i t s were chosen r a t h e r than m e t r i c u n i t s s i n c e 116 i t was l i k e l y t h a t S_s would be more f a m i l i a r w i t h the f o rme r . S p e c i f i c p r o c e d u r e s : b i a s i n g KR and pos t -KR phase  response l e v e l s . A l t hough S^  was l e d to b e l i e v e t h a t the c r i t e r i o n i n a l l t h r e e phases o f the e xpe r imen t was a 7.0 i n ch movement, the a c t u a l c r i t e r i o n i n the KR and pos t -KR phases was m a n i p u l a t e d i n a c co rd w i t h the o b t a i n e d l e v e l o f pre-KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . Dur ing the pre-KR phase , the l e n g t h of each re sponse S^  made was c u m u l a t i v e l y e n t e r e d i n t o the memory of a c a l c u l a t o r . F o l l o w i n g t r i a l 30, the l a s t t r i a l o f the phase , the t o t a l o f the re sponse l e n g t h s was d i v i d e d by the number of t r i a l s to o b t a i n the average re sponse l e n g t h f o r pre-KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . Four i n che s was then added to t h i s average response l e n g t h to a r r i v e at the a c t u a l c r i t e r i o n t h a t KR and pos t -KR phase r e spond i n g would be judged a g a i n s t . As an example , i f average response tendency f o r S^  i n the pre-KR phase was 5.75 i n c h e s , the a c t u a l c r i t e r i o n a g a i n s t which KR was a d m i n i s t e r e d and a g a i n s t which a l l KR and p o s t -KR phase r e spond i n g was measured was 5.75 + 4.00 = 9.75 i n c h e s . Th i s m a n i p u l a t i o n was not r e v e a l e d to S_ who was i n f o rmed p r i o r to a l l t h r ee phases of r e spond i n g t h a t the c r i t e r i o n was a 7.0 i n ch movement. 117 M a n i p u l a t i o n o f the c r i t e r i o n i n t h i s manner was based on the f i n d i n g s o f Dyal and h i s coworker s t h a t pre-KR phase response tendency i n t e r a c t e d w i t h KR tempora l de l a y i n t e r v a l s to de te rm ine d i r e c t i o n o f pos t -KR phase r e s pond i n g ( D y a l , 1966; Dyal and A r r i n g t o n , 1964; D y a l , W i l s o n and B e r r y , 1965) . • However, r e l i a n c e on i n n a t e re sponse t e n d e n c i e s i n d e t e r m i n i n g pre-KR phase response s e t sugges t s t h a t S_s_ r e s pond i n g c l o s e to the c r i t e r i o n would c o n t r i b u t e m a r g i n a l l y , i f at a l l , to the c o n d i t i o n s t h a t were to be s t u d i e d . As w e l l , e i t h e r S_s who both o v e r s h o t and under shot the c r i t e r i o n would have to be i n c l u d e d i n the s tudy or a s u b s t a n t i a l number of S_s_ would have to be e l i m i n a t e d from the s tudy f o l l o w i n g the pre-KR phase. S i n ce most of the data p r o v i d e d by Dyal and h i s a s s o c i a t e s was based on Ss^ who were i n n a t e unde r s hoo te r s , i t was d e c i d e d to d e l i m i t the p r e s e n t s tudy to u n d e r s h o o t e r s . Th i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d a r t i f i c i a l l y , as d e s c r i b e d , wh ich a l l o w e d c o n t r o l of both the d i r e c t i o n and magnitude o f response b i a s . By e s t a b l i s h i n g a common l e v e l of p r i o r l e a r n i n g , a l l S_s were f a ced w i t h e f f e c t i n g the same r e l a t i v e change i n response t endency . S p e c i f i c p rocedure s i n terms o f d i r e c t i o n and KR phase. KR was r e p o r t e d v e r b a l l y magnitude o f response e r r o r . U n i t s 118 were u n s p e c i f i e d but we re , i n f a c t , 1/8 i n ch u n i t s and were read as the numerator o n l y . Where e r r o r magnitude was g r e a t e r than 1.0 i n c h , the numerator was read as t h a t o f an imprope r f r a c t i o n . Thus, i f o v e r s h o t the c r i t e r i o n by 1 3/8 i n c h e s , KR was r e p o r t e d as " p l u s e l e v e n " . Under-s h o o t i n g the c r i t e r i o n by 5/8 i n ch was r e p o r t e d as "minus f i v e " , e t c e t e r a . S p e c i f i c p r o c e d u r e s : pos t -KR phase. The pos t -KR phase was e s s e n t i a l l y a r epea t o f the pre-KR phase. S_ was i n f o rmed f o l l o w i n g the l a s t t r i a l o f the KR phase t h a t no KR would be p r o v i d e d f o r the rema inder of the e xpe r imen t and t h a t the o b j e c t i v e f o r the l a s t phase was to c o n t i n u e to r ep roduce a 7.0 i n ch movement as a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e . S p e c i f i c p r o c e d u r e s : q u e s t i o n p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g pos t -KR  phase. F o l l o w i n g the l a s t t r i a l o f the t h i r d phase , S^  r e -mained s ea ted i n f r o n t o f the a p p a r a t u s . The headphones were removed but the b l i n d f o l d was l e f t on w h i l e £ asked q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g S_' s per fo rmance i n the e x p e r i m e n t . The q u e s t i o n s are r e co rded i n Append ix B as p a r t o f the i n s t r u c t i o n s to S. 119 E x p e r i m e n t a l C o n d i t i o n s KR Temporal Delay I n t e r v a l s . Three c o n d i t i o n s v a r y i n g the amount o f de l a y of the t h r e e tempora l v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d to the b e t w e e n - t r i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of KR were employed. These are r e f e r r e d to as C o n d i t i o n 1, C o n d i t i o n 2 and C o n d i t i o n 3 a c c o r d i n g to the f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c a t i o n s : C o n d i t i o n 1 ( t empora l d e l a y 1-10/11). KR de l a y i n t e r v a l 1.0 second pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l 10.0 seconds ITI 11.0 seconds C o n d i t i o n 2 ( t empora l de l a y 1-39/40). KR de l a y i n t e r v a l 1.0 second post -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l 39.0 seconds ITI 40.0 seconds C o n d i t i o n 3 ( t empora l d e l a y 30 -10/40 ) . KR de l a y i n t e r v a l 30.0 seconds pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l 10.0 seconds ITI 40.0 seconds The above t h r ee c o n d i t i o n s a l l o w the t h r e e KR tempora l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s to vary i n d e p e n d e n t l y . There are two KR de l a y i n t e r v a l s (1.0 and 30.0 s e c o n d s ) , two pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l s (10.0 and 39.0 seconds ) and two I T I ' s (11.0 and 40.0 s e c o n d s ) . 120 The tempora l de l ay s employed were chosen f o r a number of r e a s on s . W i t h i n each source of KR tempora l d e l a y v a r i a -b i l i t y i t was d e s i r e d to have as wide a sp read of tempora l d e l a y as p o s s i b l e i n o r d e r f o r any e f f e c t t h a t might be i n h e r e n t l y p r e s e n t to m a n i f e s t i t s e l f . At the same t i m e , the l o n g e s t ITI s hou ld not be so l o ng as to be o v e r t a x i n g on S_ or as to be beyond r e a s o n a b l e t ime l i m i t s f o r a d m i n i s -t r a t i o n . I t was a l s o d e s i r e d to have the tempora l i n t e r v a l s employed c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the m a j o r i t y of s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d . The i n t e r v a l s employed tended to be as l ong as or s l i g h t l y l o n g e r than the m a j o r i t y o f i n t e r v a l s employed i n o t h e r s t u d i e s . Phases of Respond ing . The p re sence and absence o f KR d e f i n e s a s ou rce of v a r i a b i l i t y which may be e x p r e s s e d e s -s e n t i a l l y i n t h r ee ways. E i t h e r KR i s not a v a i l a b l e ( i . e . , i s not be i ng p r e s e n t e d to S_) and has never been a v a i l a b l e , KR i s a v a i l a b l e , or KR was a v a i l a b l e but i s no l o n g e r a v a i l a b l e . In the p r e s e n t s tudy KR was p r e s e n t e d as a v a r i a b l e i n t h r e e s e q u e n t i a l phases as f o l l o w s : Pre-KR Phase. S_ was i n f o rmed p r i o r to t h i s phase t h a t c r i t e r i o n per fo rmance was a 7.0 i n ch movement. A l t hough S_ was to a t tempt to produce a 7.0 i n ch movement on each o f the 30 t r i a l s i n t h i s phase, no KR was p r o v i d e d . 121 A n a l y s i s o f Data The two dependent measures t h a t were i n t e n d e d to be employed were c o n s t a n t e r r o r (CE) and v a r i a b l e e r r o r (VE ) . Because post -KR phase CE was found to mask d i f f e r e n t i a l b i a s i n g t e n d e n c i e s w i t h i n g r oup s , a b s o l u t e d i f f e r e n c e (|CE|) was a l s o employed as a dependent measure. CE i s the a l g e b r a i c , or s i g n e d , e r r o r and accoun t s f o r both magn i tude and d i r e c t i o n of re sponse e r r o r . |CE| i s the a b s o l u t e v a l ue of CE, a c -c o u n t i n g f o r magnitude of e r r o r r e g a r d l e s s of d i r e c t i o n of e r r o r . VE i s the w i t h i n - S_ v a r i a b i l i t y of e r r o r c a l c u l a t e d around a mean CE. Schutz and Roy (1973) have demons t ra ted . t h a t CE and VE are s t a t i s t i c a l l y i ndependent measures t h a t s hou ld both be r e p o r t e d i n o r d e r to a c h i e v e a comprehens i ve p i c t u r e of re sponse t endency . Raw data c o l l e c t e d f o r the e xpe r imen t was the CE f o r each t r i a l . Pre-KR phase CE was based on e r r o r taken around the mean response l e n g t h f o r each S_ f o r the 30 t r i a l s of t h i s phase. For the KR and pos t -KR phase s , CE was based on e r r o r taken around the c r i t e r i o n re sponse l e n g t h w h i c h , f o r each _S, was 4.0 i n che s g r e a t e r than the mean re sponse l e n g t h of the pre-KR phase. |CE| and VE measures were d e r i v e d from the raw CE d a t a . 122 The data f o r each S_ was reduced to b l o c k s of f i v e t r i a l s p e r b l o c k . The average of CE and o f |C E| over f i v e t r i a l s was the b l o c k CE and the b l o c k |CE| measure r e s p e c t -i v e l y . B l ock VE was the w i th i n - S_ v a r i a n c e over f i v e t r i a l s taken around the mean CE f o r t h a t b l o c k . For each dependent v a r i a b l e , the b l o c k e d data f o r i n d i v i d u a l S_s_ w i t h i n c o n -d i t i o n s was averaged i n o r d e r to o b t a i n group means f o r each b l o c k . These were the c e l l means used f o r a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e . O v e r a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the data were a n a l y z e d i n a 3x3x6 (KR tempora l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s x phases x b l o c k s ) a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e w i t h r e p e a t e d measures on the l a s t two f a c t o r s (W ine r , 1971: 546 ) . The hypotheses were t e s t e d u s i n g p r e - p l a n n e d o r t h o g o n a l compar i sons (Edwards , 1960: 144 -148 ) . Where w a r r a n t e d , the S c h e f f e " t e s t (Edwards , 1960: 154-156) was u t i l i z e d as the method of pos t hoc a n a l y -s i s . CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION R e s u l t s d i r e c t l y p e r t a i n i n g to the hypotheses o f t h i s t h e s i s are p r e s e n t e d and d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . Other p e r t i n e n t r e s u l t s wh ich have i n d i r e c t t h e o r e t i c a l r e l e v a n c e or m e t h o d o l o g i c a l impo r t are d e a l t w i t h i n Append ix C. In-cluded i n t h i s append ix i s a d i s c u s s i o n of the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f measurement v a r i a b l e s s i n c e t h i s was a major i s s u e of the t h e s i s . A n a l y s i s of Con s t an t E r r o r , A b s o l u t e D i f f e r e n c e and V a r i a b l e E r r o r Two measures of response b i a s and one measure of re sponse v a r i a b i l i t y were u l t i m a t e l y employed i n the a n a l y s i s . I t had been i n t e n d e d t h a t c o n s t a n t e r r o r (CE) would be the measure of response b i a s . However, i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t use o f CE masked d i f f e r e n t i a l pos t -KR phase b i a s i n g t e n d e n c i e s which p r o v i d e d , t h e r e f o r e , a m i s l e a d i n g p i c t u r e o f r e s p o n d i n g i n t h i s phase. For t h i s r e a s o n , a b s o l u t e d i f f e r e n c e (|CE|), the uns igned va lue of CE, was employed as the a p p r o p r i a t e measure o f post -KR phase b i a s . V a r i a b l e e r r o r (VE) was employed as the measure o f response v a r i a b i l i t y . 124 Each of the t h r e e dependent v a r i a b l e s was a n a l y z e d i n a 3x3x6 (KR tempora l de l ay i n t e r v a l s x phases x b l o c k s ) a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h r epea ted measures on the l a s t two f a c t o r s . Tab le s o f c e l l means and accompanying c e l l s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s on which the a n a l y s e s are based are p r e s e n t e d i n Append ix D. A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e t a b l e s are p r e s e n t e d i n Append ix E. - R e s u l t s P e r t a i n i n g to Hypo the s i s 1 - The E f f e c t of the Post -KR Delay I n t e r v a l on Pos t -KR Phase Response B i a s Hypo the s i s 1 s t a t e s t h a t the post -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l i s the l o cu s of post -KR phase response b i a s i n g as r e f l e c t e d by CE. In o r d e r to ga in s uppo r t f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s as i t i s s t a t e d , t h e r e must be no CE d i f f e r e n c e between the c o n d i t i o n s wh ich vary KR tempora l de l a y i n t e r v a l s i n the KR phase and t h e r e must be a s i g n i f i c a n t CE d i f f e r e n c e between these c o n -d i t i o n s i n the pos t -KR phase. S p e c i f i c a l l y , i n the pos t -KR phase , C o n d i t i o n s 1 (1-10/11) and 3 (30-10/40) s h o u l d have s i m i l a r CE w h i l e d i f f e r i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y from C o n d i t i o n 2 ( 1 - 39/40 ) . Th i s i s because C o n d i t i o n s 1 and 3 have the same post -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l (10.0 seconds ) w h i l e C o n d i t i o n 2 has a l o n g e r pos t -KR d e l a y i n t e r v a l (39.0 s e c o n d s ) . Group means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r KR and pos t -KR phase CE are shown i n Tab le I V - 1 . G r aph i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of 125 CE f o r a l l phases o f r e s pond i n g i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e I V - 1 , w h i l e the accompanying s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of CE i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e I V - 2 . The o v e r a l l a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r CE i s p r e s e n t e d i n Tab le E - l , Append ix E. TABLE I V - 1 . Means and S t anda rd D e v i a t i o n s of CE ( I n che s ) f o r KR and Pos t -KR Phase Respond ing . KR Phase Pos t -KR Phase C o n d i t i o n 1 C o n d i t i o n 2 C o n d i t i o n 3 X .19 - .02 SD .29 .91 X .18 .16 SD .42 1.42 X .07 0.05 SD .40 1.47 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r CE r e s u l t e d i n a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t o v e r a l l groups e f f e c t w i t h F (2 ,27 )<1 .0 . A p r e - p l a n n e d o r t h -ogonal a n a l y s i s o f pos t -KR phase CE which compared the we i gh ted means of C o n d i t i o n s 1 and 3 w i t h t h a t of C o n d i t i o n 2 a l s o f a i l e d to a t t a i n s i g n i f i c a n c e , w i t h F(2 ,27 ) < 1. 0 . Thus , the CE r e s u l t s f a i l e d to s u p p o r t Hypo the s i s 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 i 1 i : 1 1 BLOCKS (PRE-KR PHASE) BLOCKS (KR PHASE) BLOCKS (POST-KR PHASE) Figure IV-1. Mean constant error per 5 - t r i a l block for pre-KR, KR and post-KR phase responding. 2.50, 2.25 2.00 1.75 1.50 r 1.25 1.00 .75 .50 ,25 Condition 1 (1-10/11) — Condition 2 (1-39/40) *-Condition 3 (30-10/40) o-J I L J L 2 3 4 5 - 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 BLOCKS (PRE-KR PHASE) J L J L BLOCKS (KR PHASE) BLOCKS (POST-KR PHASE) Figure IV-2. Standard deviation of constant error per 5 - t r i a l block for pre-KR, KR and post-KR phase responding. 128 I t was obse rved by E_ t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f the S_s_ i n each group tended to marked ly under shoot w h i l e the r e s t of the S_s_ tended to marked ly o v e r s h o o t . Th i s tendency was not r e f l e c t e d by the CE r e s u l t s . I t appeared t h a t s t r o n g t e n d e n c i e s toward both n e g a t i v e and p o s i t i v e CE w i t h i n each group were c a n c e l l i n g each o t h e r o u t , c o n s e q u e n t l y p r o d u c i n g an average CE o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y z e r o . Two i n d i c a t i o n s from the graph of s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f CE ( F i g u r e IV - 2) s e r ved to c o r r o b o r a t e the o b s e r v a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t i a l b i a s i n g w i t h i n g roups . F i r s t , t h e r e appears to be a t r e n d toward i n c r e a s i n g s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f CE f o r a l l ^groups i n pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . Second, t h e r e i s an appa ren t between-groups d i f f e r e n c e i n the pos t -KR phase s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of CE, w i t h C o n d i t i o n 1 Ss^  d i s p l a y i n g l e s s between-S^ v a r i a b i l i t y than both C o n d i t i o n s 2 and 3 Ss . N e i t h e r of these e f f e c t s are r e f l e c t e d i n t h i s i n s t a n c e by CE. I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t t he se o b s e r v a t i o n s o f s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of CE c o r r o b o r a t e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e o f d i f f e r e n t i a l b i a s i n g t e n d e n c i e s on l y and do not r e p r e s e n t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d to i n t e r p r e t i n g s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of CE. On the b a s i s o f the above E o b s e r v a t i o n p lu s c o r r o b o r -a t i n g e v i d e n c e from s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of CE, a d e c i s i o n was J 29 made, t h e r e f o r e , to r e a n a l y z e the data u s i n g a b s o l u t e d i f f e r e n c e (|CE|) as the measure of response b i a s . Th i s measure would be s e n s i t i v e to amount o f b i a s r e g a r d l e s s of the d i r e c t i o n o f b i a s . Group means and s t a n d a r d d e v i -a t i o n s f o r KR and post -KR phase |CE| are shown i n Tab le IV-2 G r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of |CE| f o r a l l phases of r e s pond i n g i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e I V - 3 , w h i l e the accompanying s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of |CE| i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e IV -4 . The o v e r a l l an -a ly s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r |CE| i s p r e s e n t e d i n Tab le E-2, Append ix E. TABLE I V -2 . Means and S tanda rd D e v i a t i o n s of |CE| ( I n che s ) f o r KR and Post -KR Phase Responding C o n d i t i o n 1 C o n d i t i o n 2 SD X SD X KR Phase . 35 .22 .40 .34 .43 Pos t -KR Phase . 75 .48 1. 15 . 77 1.23 C o n d i t i o n 3 SD 35 71 A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r |CE| r e s u l t e d i n a near s i g n i f i -cant o v e r a l l groups e f f e c t , w i t h F (2 ,27) '•= 2 .47, p=.10. 1.50r-1.25 — 1.00-. 7 5 -.50 -. 2 5 -Condition 1 (1-10/11) •-Condition 2 (1-39/40) * -Condition 3 (30-10/40) 0 -BLOCKS (PRE-KR PHASE) BLOCKS (KR PHASE) BLOCKS (POST-KR PHASE) Figure IV-4. Standard deviation of absolute difference per 5 - t r i a l block for pre-KR, KR and post-KR phase responding. 132 G raph i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of |CE| i n d i c a t e d t h a t a p o t e n t i a l groups main e f f e c t was c o n f i n e d to pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . However, a post hoc t e s t o f pos t -KR phase |CE| which compared the we i gh t ed means of C o n d i t i o n s 1 and 3 w i t h t h a t o f C o n d i t i o n 2 f a i l e d to a t t a i n s i g n i f i c a n c e , w i t h F (2 ,27 ) < 1.0. G r a p h i c a l l y ( F i g u r e IV-3) , i t i s appa ren t t h a t any p o t e n t i a l pos t -KR phase |CE| groups d i f f e r e n c e would be between C o n d i t i o n s 2 and 3 ver sus C o n d i t i o n 1 r a t h e r than between C o n d i t i o n s 1 and 3 ver sus C o n d i t i o n 2. Thus , the |CE| r e s u l t s a l s o f a i l e d to s uppo r t Hypo the s i s 1. D i s c u s s i o n . In f a i l i n g to s u p p o r t H y p o t h e s i s 1, the p r e s e n t r e s u l t s agree w i t h a number o f s t u d i e s t h a t have f a i l e d to demons t ra te post -KR phase response d i f f e r e n c e s due to m a n i p u l a t i o n o f the post -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l . Becke r e t a l . ( 1963) and McGuigan e t a l . ( 1960 ), emp loy ing un-confounded de s i gn s and measur ing r e s p o n d i n g i n terms o f number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s , f a i l e d to f i n d pos t -KR phase d i f f e r e n c e s . A l t hough con found i ng the KR de l a y and pos t -KR de l ay i n t e r v a l s , B o u l t e r (1964) u s i n g AE and CE, Dyal e t a l . (1965) u s i n g AE and McGuigan (1959b) u s i n g AE, a l s o f a i l e d to f i n d pos t -KR phase d i f f e r e n c e s . Only s t u d i e s w i t h confounded de s i gn s have found post -KR phase d i f f e r e n c e s due to l e n g t h e n i n g KR tempora l d e l a y 133 i n t e r v a l s . Of t h e s e , the s t u d i e s o f Dyal ( 1966 ) , Dyal and A r r i n g t o n (1964) and Dyal e t a l . (1965) which c o - v a r i e d the KR and pos t -KR d e l a y i n t e r v a l s appear to be i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the p r e s e n t r e s u l t s . A d i s c u s s i o n as to why the r e s u l t s of the Dyal s e r i e s of s t u d i e s were not r e p l i c a t e d i n the p r e s e n t ,-s tudy appears under a s e p a r a t e head ing i n Append ix C (page 214 ) . The p r e s e n t r e s u l t s a l ong w i t h o t h e r s i m i l a r r e s u l t s (Becke r e t a l . , 1963 ; B o u l t e r , 1964 ; Dyal e t a l . , 1965 ; McGuigan, 1959b; McGuigan e t a l . , 1960) sugges t t h a t f o r s imp l e t a s k s , such as l i n e a r p o s i t i o n i n g t a s k s , t h a t i n p u t from KR does not ga in d i r e c t acces s to the PT. I f the concept o f KR as a PT i n g r e d i e n t i s to be pursued f u r t h e r , d i f f e r e n t t a s k s , i n c l u d i n g d i f f e r e n t types of KR, s hou l d be c o n s i d e r e d . Rogers (1974) appears to be on the r i g h t t r a c k i n m a n i p u l a t -i ng task c o m p l e x i t y by i n c r e a s i n g the s p e c i f i c i t y of KR and d e c r e a s i n g the post -KR de l ay i n t e r v a l , a c o m b i n a t i o n o f which i m p l i c a t e d the pos t -KR d e l a y i n t e r v a l as the l o c u s o f i n f o r -mat ion p r o c e s s i n g a c t i v i t y . However, i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h i n f o r -mat ion p r o c e s s i n g does n o t , i n i t s e l f , p o i n t to the u l t i m a t e use of the i n f o r m a t i o n . I f i n c r e a s i n g task c o m p l e x i t y i s to be u t i l i z e d to demonst ra te whether or not i n f o r m a t i o n from KR ga in s d i r e c t acces s to the PT, then ta sk c o m p l e x i t y must be m a n i p u l a t e d i n such a way t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n from FB a l one would be i nadaqua te to form a v i a b l e PT. I f such a parad igm 134 can be p r o d u c e d , then decay f u n c t i o n s r e l a t e d to KR would speak f o r KR as a PT i n g r e d i e n t . F u r t h e r R e s u l t s P e r t a i n i n g to Response B i a s -E v i dence of a P e r c e p t u a l T race Formed S o l e l y from Response -P roduced Feedback From e x a m i n a t i o n of the graph o f | CE | ( F i g u r e I V - 3 ) , i t was c l e a r t h a t groups were a r r anged i n the wrong o r d e r i n the pos t -KR phase to o f f e r s uppo r t f o r H y p o t h e s i s 1. The a r r a n g e -ment of group |CE| i n the pos t -KR phase would f a v o u r the I'TI as the l o cu s o f pos t -KR phase b i a s i n g p r o v i d i n g a r e a s o n a b l e l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e c o u l d be a c h i e v e d . An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i -ance of |CE| f o r pos t -KR phase r e s pond i n g on l y r e v e a l e d a non-s i g n i f i c a n t between-g roups d i f f e r e n c e w i t h F (2 ,27 ) = 2 .40 , p =. 11. In s p i t e o f the n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t groups F, the s eem ing l y l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e of .44 i n che s compar ing C o n d i t i o n 1 to the average of C o n d i t i o n s 2 and 3 prompted the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a p o s t - h o c t e s t . A S c h e f f e ' t e s t was emp loyed , t h e r e f o r e , to compare the mean of C o n d i t i o n 1 a g a i n s t the w e i g h t e d means of C o n d i t i o n s 2 and 3 w i t h F( 2 , 27 ) = 4.75 , p>. 10. Th i s r e s u l t was, n e v e r t h e l e s s , very c l o s e to the .10 l e v e l w i t h r e q u i r e d F^(2,27) = 5.02. Due to the c o n s e r v a t i v e n a t u r e of the t e s t , S c h e f f e ^ ( 1 9 5 3 ) has recommended t h a t i n v e s t i g a t o r s c o n s i d e r the .10 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e as adaquate when u s i n g t h i s t e s t . 135 A d e c i s i o n was made to c o n s i d e r the d i f f e r e n c e between C o n d i t i o n 1 and C o n d i t i o n s 2 and 3 a r e a l d i f f e r e n c e . Two reasons prompted t h i s d e c i s i o n . F i r s t , the between-g roups d i f f e r e n c e was r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e . Second, the na t u r e of re sponse t e n d e n c i e s over the pos t -KR phase was h i g h l y s y s t e m a t i c . The *-d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d i n s p i t e o f Sj_ w i t h i n each group d i s p l a y -i ng d i f f e r e n t i a l t e n d e n c i e s toward u n d e r s h o o t i n g and o v e r s h o o t -i n g . A l s o , response t e n d e n c i e s w i t h i n and between Ss_ were c o - n s i s t e n t . D i f f e r e n c e s between S_s_ are of an o r d e r of magn i -tude and d i r e c t i o n t h a t s t a y s r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t ove r the s i x b l o c k s of the pos t -KR phase. A c c e p t i n g t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between C o n d i t i o n 1 and C o n d i t i o n s 2 and 3 i s a r e a l d i f f e r e n c e , then i t f o l l o w s t h a t the f a i l u r e i n the p r e s e n t i n s t a n c e to ga in a h i g h e r l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e on a pos t hoc b a s i s stems from a c o m b i n a t i o n of i n h e r e n t l y h igh between-S^ v a r i a b i l i t y and the r e l a t i v e l y low n employed. F i g u r e I V - 4 , which p l o t s the s t a n d a r d d e v i -a t i o n of |CE| i n d i c a t e s t h a t between-S_ v a r i a b i l i t y i s n e a r l y t h r ee t imes as g r e a t i n the pos t -KR phase as i t i s i n the KR phase . S i n c e v a r i a n c e s must be compared r e l a t i v e to the means w i t h which they are a s s o c i a t e d , the c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a n c e (V) i s the a p p r o p r i a t e s t a t i s t i c f o r c o m p a r i s o n . Tab le IV-3 p r e s e n t s V f o r each c e l l o f KR and post -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . 136 De sp i t e the i n c r e a s e i n between-S_ v a r i a b i l i t y , average V a c ro s s the pos t -KR phase i s l e s s than t h a t f o r the KR phase due to the c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r pos t -KR phase |CE|. O v e r a l l , f o r KR phase r e s p o n d i n g , V=.82, w h i l e f o r pos t -KR phase r e s -pond ing V=.65. Rega rd l e s s o f phase , however, V i s r e l a t i v e l y h i g h , thus d e m o n s t r a t i n g the d i f f i c u l t y of a c h i e v i n g a l ower p o s t - h o c s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l between groups i n the pos t -KR phase w i t h n=10/group. Even t h i s r e l a t i v e l y low n, however, s h o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t to o b t a i n s i g n i f i c a n c e at l e s s than the .05 l e v e l on a r e p l i c a t i o n o f the p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t i n which the compar i son between groups i s p r e - p l a n n e d . D i s c u s s i o n . A l though u n e x p e c t e d , the t e n t a t i v e pos t -KR phase groups e f f e c t s tands as a major f i n d i n g of t h i s t h e s i s . That the ITI s h o u l d appear to be the l o cu s o f pos t -KR phase response b i a s i n g runs c o u n t e r to Hypo the s i s 1 a l t h o u g h not n e c e s s a r i l y c o u n t e r to Adams' (1971) c l o s e d - l o o p t h e o r y of motor l e a r n i n g . S p e c i f i c a l l y , Adams' t heo r y s t a t e s t h a t l e n g t h e n i n g the KR de l a y i n t e r v a l w i l l have no e f f e c t on post -KR phase r e spond !ng ' ( Adams , 1971: 137) . He re , the p o s t -KR de l ay i n t e r v a l i s c o n s i d e r e d to c o - v a r y w i t h the KR de l a y i n t e r v a l (Adams, 1971: 140) . However t h e r e i s a r e f e r e n c e i n the s t a t e m e n t o f the t heo r y t h a t the I T I , a t l e a s t under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , c o u l d be the l o c u s of both KR and pos t -KR phase response e f f e c t s . In n o t i n g the d i f f i c u l t y i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g r e s pond i n g a c c o r d i n g to m a n i p u l a t i o n of e i t h e r the ITI i t s e l f C o e f f i c i e n t o f V a r i a n c e (V) f o r KR and Post -KR Phase Responding TABLE I V -3 . KR Phase Post -KR Phase ( B l o c k s 1 - 6) ( B l o c k s 1 - 6) 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 C o n d i t i o n 1 .50 .67 .91 .59 1.07 .72 .45 .88 .70 .60 C o n d i t i o n 2 .75 1.17 1.07 1.00 .57 1.00 .81 1.05 .68 .46 C o n d i t i o n 3 .85 .63 .77 .91 .80 .74 .78 .53 .48 .51 138 or event s d u r i n g the I T I , Adams (1971: 140) s t a t e s : Longer i n t e r r e s p o n s e i n t e r v a l s [ I T I ] or s t r o n g e r i n t e r f e r e n c e c o n d i t i o n s ought to show an e f f e c t of i n t e r p o l a t e d a c t i v i t y i n a c q u i s i t i o n [KR phase] I f the t h e o r y i s c o r r e c t i t s hou l d be p o s s i b l e to d e v i s e c o n d i t i o n s of i n t e r f e r e n c e t h a t would worsen per fo rmance both i n a c q u i s i t i o n [KR phase] and KR w i t h d r a w a l t r i a l s Qpos t -KR p h a s e ] . The p r e s e n t s tudy has demons t ra ted an i n c r e a s e i n response e r r o r w i t h i n c r e a s i n g ITI under c o n d i t i o n s where i n t e r p o l a t e d a c t i v i t y was not imposed. S i n c e FB i s the o n l y i n p u t sou rce t h a t has the e n t i r e ITI to decay o v e r , the p r e s e n t r e s u l t s , a t l e a s t , s u p p o r t the concept o f an o p e r a t i v e PT t h a t i s composed s o l e l y of FB. Th i s c e r t a i n l y ag rees w i t h Adams' c l o s e d - l o o p t h e o r y . The concept of a PT t h a t i s formed s o l e l y from FB i n the KR phase but not u t i l i z e d u n t i l the pos t -KR phase i s g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t e d by the p r e s e n t r e s u l t s . The absence o f response d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n the KR phase combined w i t h p o s t -KR phase response d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n t h a t can be a s c r i b e d to a c t i v i t y i n the KR phase ( i . e . , m a n i p u l a t i n g the KR tempora l de l ay i n t e r v a l s ) i s the c r u c i a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n . S i n ce FB i s the o n l y appa ren t i n p u t source t h a t can decay over the I T I , f u r t h e r s u p p o r t f o r Adams' concept of the PT i s g a r n e r e d . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , not a s i n g l e r e s u l t but a p a r t i c u l a r c o m b i n a t i o n of r e s u l t s t h a t m i t i g a t e s i n f a v o u r of the 139 p a r t i c u l a r e lements of PT deve lopment and u t i l i z a t i o n advanced by Adams (1971 ) . A p p e a l i n g as these r e s u l t s appear to be, t h e r e i s one f a c t o r i n d i g enou s to p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t a l p r ocedu re s t h a t must be c o n s i d e r e d b e f o r e c o n c l u d i n g t h a t the pos t -KR phase |CE| groups d i f f e r e n c e was due to a c t i v i t y over the KR phase I T I . S i n ce the ITI was c o n s t a n t w i t h i n c o n d i t i o n s a c ro s s a l l t h r ee phases of r e s p o n d i n g , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the t e n t a t i v e between groups |CE| d i f f e r e n c e encoun te r ed i n the post -KR phase was due e i t h e r e n t i r e l y or p a r t i a l l y to d i f f e r -ences i n the l e n g t h of the pos t -KR phase ITI r a t h e r than to v a r i a t i o n o f the KR phase I T I . There are s e v e r a l a s p e c t s o f the |CE| r e s u l t s , however, t h a t i m p l i c a t e the KR phase ITI as the l o c u s of pos t -KR response d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . F i r s t , between group r e s p o n d i n g i m m e d i a t e l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n B l o ck 1 of the pos t -KR phase. Th i s i s f o l l o w i n g 30 t r i a l s over which c o n s i d e r a b l e i n p u t has been r e c e i v e d and a l l t h r e e KR tempora l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s have been v a r i e d . Second, t h e r e was no post -KR phase groups x b l o c k s e f f e c t f o r • |CE|. T ime-based decay i nd i genou s to the pos t -KR phase ITI s h o u l d r e s u l t i n a groups x b l o c k s e f f e c t w i t h the l o n g e r ITI showing a g r e a t e r r e l a t i v e i n c r e a s e i n e r r o r over t r i a l s than the s h o r t e r I T I . The reason i s t h a t a l o n g e r ITI w i l l r e s u l t i n a g r e a t e r average e x t e n t of t r a c e decay per t r i a l i f the 140 pos t -KR phase ITI i s i n f l u e n c i n g response t endency . G r e a t e r average t r a c e decay ( i . e . , f o r l o n g e r IT I ) w i l l r e s u l t i n r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r average re sponse e r r o r per t r i a l . In the p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e n , i t appears t h a t the cour se o f pos t -KR phase r e spond i n g was e s t a b l i s h e d e n t i r e l y i n the KR phase. F u r t h e r R e s u l t s P e r t a i n i n g to Response B i a s - E v i dence o f Augmentat ion of the PT Dur ing Pos t -KR Phase Responding R e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d and d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t an o p e r a t i v e PT a c t e d as a c o n t r o l agent f o r pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . However, r e s u l t s i n two f u r t h e r areas of the p r e s e n t s tudy sugges t t h a t pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d -i n g was not e n t i r e l y under the c o n t r o l o f the PT. These r e s u l t s are i n terms of |CE|. In the a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e of |CE|, the o v e r a l l s i m p l e main e f f e c t s f o r phases and f o r b l o c k s were h i g h l y s i g n i f i -c a n t . The phases main e f f e c t was s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h F (2 ,54 ) = 30 .81 , p < < . 01 . The b l o c k s main e f f e c t was s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h F(5 ,135) = 9 . 13 , p<< .01 . The phases e f f e c t o f i n t e r e s t was t h a t between the KR and pos t -KR phases . G r a p h i c a l l y ( F i g u r e 3 ) , i t appeared t h a t from the f i r s t b l o c k o f pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g t h a t 141 |CE| was s u b s t a n t i a l l y g r e a t e r than the s t a b l e l e v e l a c h i e v e d i n the KR phase. A S c h e f f e ' t e s t was per fo rmed compar ing the o v e r a l l mean o f the l a s t f i v e b l o c k s of the KR phase w i t h the mean of a l l s i x b l o c k s of pos t -KR phase r e spond i n g y i e l d i n g F( 1 ,54 ) = 9 6 . 95 , p<<.01. Thus, the o v e r a l l d i f f e r e n c e i n |CE| between the KR and pos t -KR phases was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g l e s s a c c u r a t e than KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . A f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g the d i f f e r e n c e between KR and pos t -KR phase response l e v e l s was whether the between-phase e f f e c t was p r e s e n t as of the f i r s t b l o c k o f pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . Aga in a Schef f e ' ' t e s t was p e r f o r m e d , i n t h i s i n s t a n c e compar ing the mean of a l l groups on the l a s t b l o c k o f KR phase r e s pond i n g w i t h the s i m i l a r mean f o r the f i r s t b l o c k of pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . The r e s u l t of t h i s t e s t y i e l d e d F ( l , 5 4 ) = 3 .56, p<.05, thus i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e from KR to pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g was i m m e d i a t e l y appa ren t w i t h the on se t of the pos t -KR phase. For the pos t -KR phase , a s t r o n g l i n e a r t r e n d i n the d i r e c t i o n of i n c r e a s i n g |CE| was s u b s t a n t i a t e d w i t h F (5 ,135) = 46 . 12 , p < < . 0 1. Th i s t r e n d was s i m i l a r f o r a l l g r oup s , the o v e r a l l a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t i n g the absence o f a groups x b l o c k s e f f e c t , w i t h F(10 ,135)<1.0. Thus, po s t -KR 142 phase r e s p o n d i n g commences w i t h g r e a t e r |CE| than t h a t r e c o r d e d over the s t a b l e r e s p o n d i n g o f the KR phase and response b i a s c o n t i n u e s to i n c r e a s e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y t h r o u g h -out pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . D i s c u s s i o n . (A summary of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n on augmen-t a t i o n of the PT d u r i n g pos t -KR phase r e s pond i n g i s p r e s e n t e d on page 155.) Apa r t from the t e n t a t i v e pos t -KR phase |CE| d i f f e r e n t -i a t i o n of C o n d i t i o n 1 from C o n d i t i o n s 2 and 3, the h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between KR and pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d -i ng i s of i n t e r e s t . The d i f f e r e n c e between groups i n the post -KR phase s uppo r t s the concept of a PT deve l oped i n the KR phase but not o p e r a t i v e u n t i l the pos t -KR phase. The d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n response a c c u r a c y from the KR to the p o s t -KR phase , however, shows t h a t the PT deve l oped under the c o n d i t i o n s of t h i s e xpe r imen t was not ab l e to m a i n t a i n the l e v e l o f r e spond i n g deve l oped i n the KR phase. A gene ra l t h e o r e t i c a l q u e s t i o n has to do w i t h why r e s p o n d i n g s h o u l d d e t e r i o r a t e so d r a s t i c a l l y f o l l o w i n g the w i t h d r a w a l o f KR, e s p e c i a l l y f o l l o w i n g a f a i r l y l ong p e r i o d ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25 t r i a l s ) o f s t a b l e , n e a r - c r i t e r i o n r e s p o n d i n g . One p o s s i b l e , a l t hough t e n u o u s , e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the d i f f e r e n c e between KR and pos t -KR phase r e s pond i n g l i e s 143 w i t h the type of FB employed i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t . A number o f s t u d i e s have demons t ra ted the e f f i c a c y of augment ing k i n e s t h e t i c FB, e s p e c i a l l y w i t h v i s u a l FB, i n m a i n t a i n i n g KR phase re sponse l e v e l s i n t o the pos t -KR phase (Adams, Goetz and M a r s h a l l , 1972; Adams, Gopher and L i n t e r n , 1977; S te lmach and K e l s o , 1975) . There i s a l s o e v i d e n c e t h a t some e x t e r o c e p t i v e form o f i n f o r m a t i o n , such as KR o r v i s u a l FB, i s n ece s s a r y to e i t h e r supp lement ( F i t t s , 1951; F l e i chman and R i c h , 1963) or to s c a l e (Newe l l and Bouche r , 1974) the i n f o r m a t i o n from k i n e s t h e t i c FB. Taken t o g e t h e r , the above two l i n e s o f e v i d e n c e sugges t a r e l a t i v e impotence of k i n e s t h e s i s when i t i s the s o l e r e s p o n s e - i n d i g e n o u s form of i n f o r m a t i o n . However, the a b i l i t y to e x p l a i n pos t -KR phase f i n d i n g s i n these terms i s l i m i t e d . For one r e a s o n , i n t r o s p e c t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t , s u b j e c t i v e l y at l e a s t , a s c a l e r e l a t i o n s h i p was d e v e l o p e d . Ss_ r e p o r t e d t h a t i n the KR phase they o f t e n knew i n advance of r e c e i v i n g KR the d i r e c t i o n and a p p r o x i m a t e l y the e x t e n t o f t h e i r e r r o r . L i k e w i s e , i n the post -KR phase Ss_ r e p o r t e d t h a t they a d j u s t e d t h e i r r e s p o n d i n g from t r i a l to t r i a l i n a c co rd w i t h what they p e r c e i v e d to be d i r e c t i o n and e x t e n t of e r r o r i n the p r e v i o u s r e s pon se . Y e t , d e s p i t e e v i d e n c e o f a deve l oped s c a l e r e l a t i o n -s h i p , post -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g was marked ly b i a s e d . Ano the r reason i s t h a t pos t -KR phase b i a s i n g i s s y s t e m a t i c i n n a t u r e . 144 S i m i l a r l y the t e n t a t i v e between-groups d i f f e r e n c e demons t ra ted i n t h i s phase argues t h a t when the PT was be i n g formed i n the KR phase , k i n e s t h e t i c FB decayed s y s t e m a t i c a l l y over the I T I . S y s t e m a t i c response t e n d e n c i e s as opposed to random response t e n d e n c i e s can be taken as an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t response i n f o r - . mat ion i s be i ng p r oce s sed i n an o r d e r e d f a s h i o n , p resumably a r e q u i s i t e c o n d i t i o n f o r d e v e l o p i n g f a c t o r s such as r e l a t i o n -s h i p s between v a r i a b l e s and s c a l i n g f u n c t i o n s of a s i n g l e v a r i a b l e . Yet d e s p i t e the s y s t e m a t i c n a t u r e o f r e s p o n d i n g , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t v a r i a b l e s are a c t i n g i n an o r d e r e d manner, pos t -KR phase r e s pond i n g was marked ly b i a s e d . The e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s , t h e n , t h a t re sponse a c c u r a c y d o e s n ' t d e t e r i o r a t e i n the pos t -KR phase because the mechan-isms c o n t r o l l i n g r e s p o n d i n g f a i l to f u n c t i o n . R a t h e r , the c o n t r o l mechanisms r e s p o n s i b l e f o r pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g appear to have been d i s t o r t e d i n some way. F u r t h e r m o r e , p l a c i n g a l l the onus f o r post -KR phase response d e t e r i o r a t i o n on the type of FB employed i g n o r e s the f a c t t h a t i n a l l phases of the e x p e r i m e n t , on l y k i n e s t h e t i c FB was a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g the a c t u a l e x e c u t i o n of a r e s pon se . The i n p u t sou rce t h a t v a r i e d over phases was KR. The f a c t o r t h a t changes response t e n d e n c i e s from the KR to the post -KR phase a p p e a r s , t h e r e f o r e , to be the mechanism t h a t FB i n t e r a c t s w i t h . The i m p l i c a t i o n s of the p r e s e n t r e s u l t s a r e , f i r s t , t h a t d i f f e r e n t mechanisms 145 are o p e r a t i v e i n the KR and pos t -KR phases and, s e c o n d , t h a t the p resence o r absence o f KR a f f e c t s the na t u r e of the mechanism i n v o l v e d . Adams (1971) has c l e a r l y d e s c r i b e d the na tu re of the PT as the mechanism o p e r a t i v e i n the pos t -KR phase and the p r e s e n t r e s u l t s g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t the e x i s t e n c e and c l o s e d -l oop c o n s t r a i n t s of such a mechanism. An i m p o r t a n t a spec t o f the c l o s e d - l o o p mechanism t h a t Adams d e s c r i b e s i s t h a t i t i s s u b t r a c t i v e i n n a t u r e . O the rw i se known as n e g a t i v e FB, pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g proceeds a c c o r d i n g to a com-p a r i s o n of ongo ing FB from r e spond i n g w i t h the PT. When the d i f f e r e n c e ( s u b t r a c t i o n ) between the FB s i g n a l and the PT i s reduced to z e r o , the response i s t e r m i n a t e d . G iven the e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t i n g t h a t post -KR phase r e s pond i n g i s under the c o n t r o l o f a s u b t r a c t i v e c l o s e d - l o o p mechanism, a f u r t h e r m a t t e r o f t h e o r e t i c a l impo r t concern s whether KR phase r e s p o n d i n g i s a l s o under c l o s e d - l o o p c o n t r o l . C o n s i d e r a t i o n of the sequence o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g event s over the ITI i n the KR phase i n d i c a t e s t h a t a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of c l o s e d - l o o p c o n t r o l governs KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . In s e -q u e n t i a l o r d e r , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e to assume t h a t S_ f i r s t p r o -ces ses KR r e l a t e d to the r e s p o n s e . Shou ld KR r e p o r t e r r o r i n r e s p o n d i n g , :S must then f o r m u l a t e a p l an to make the next 146 response d i f f e r e n t from the p r e v i o u s one. In an i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g c o n t e x t , p r o j e c t i o n of the r e q u i r e m e n t f o r a f u t u r e response i n v o l v e s add ing a f a c t o r de te rm ined by the e r r o r s i g n a l ( i . e . , KR) to the FB from the p r e v i o u s r e s pon se . Such a p roce s s i s p o s i t i v e FB , or f e e d f o r w a r d , as d e s c r i b e d by C r a i k (1947, 1948) and Wiener ( 1948 ) . Adams (1971) has sugges ted as much i n p o s t u l a t i n g how KR" a c t s to i n f l u e n c e r e s p o n d i n g . He s t a t e s That KR i s i n f o r m a t i o n to a prob lem -s o l v i n g S^  means t h a t S_ ope r a t e s on KR and o f t e n w i l l use i t to f orrru hypothes es and s t r a t e g i e s r a t h e r than use the i n f o r m -a t i o n i n a d i r e c t f a s h i o n . (Adams, 1971: 122) and aga in For l e a r n i n g to o c c u r , S_ must use KR to make the next response di f f e r e n t from p r e v i o u s ones: he must use the p e r c e p t u a l t r a c e i_n r e l a t i o n to KR from E_, and a d j u s t the response a c c o r d -i n g l y on the next t r i a l . (Adams, 1971: 124) A r e c e n t r ev i ew by Newel l (1976c) t h a t emphas izes the i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g na tu re o f KR e s s e n t i a l l y concur s w i t h Adams. Newel l s t a t e s The c o g n i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g approach i n t e r p r e t s the e f f e c t s of KR by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the p e r f o r m e r remembers the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the response to i t s outcome, and then a c t i v e 1 y dec i de s what response s hou l d be i n i t i a t e d on the next t r i a l . (Newe l l , 1976c : 201) 147 The f a c t o r t h a t adds to the FB o f a p r e v i o u s response, i n o r d e r to make the next re sponse d i f f e r e n t may be e i t h e r a p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e amount, depend ing on whether the p r e v i o u s response under shot or o v e r s h o t the c r i t e r i o n . In t h i s way a s u b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i o n , or PT, i s formed to govern response e x t e n t on the f o l l o w i n g t r i a l , at which t ime FB i s compared to the PT i n a sub -t r a c t i v e manner. Thus, both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e FB mechanisms appear to a c t to c o n t r o l r e s pond i n g i n the KR phase. Th i s i s i n c o n t r a s t to r e s p o n d i n g i n the pos t -KR phase, wh ich Adams' (1971) t heo r y p o s t u l a t e s i s c o n t r o l l e d by a n e g a t i v e FB mechanism. Ano the r p o t e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between the KR and p o s t -KR phase response mechanisms under d i s c u s s i o n here i s i n the type o f memory sys tem i n v o l v e d i n each phase. Because each response i n the KR phase w i l l tend to be programmed ( i . e . , p o s i t i v e FB) d i f f e r e n t l y due to v a r y i n g d i s c r e p a n c i e s r e p o r t e d by KR, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t the memory sys tem i n v o l v e d i s s h o r t - t e r m memory (STM). S i n ce i n f o r m a t i o n i n STM r e q u i r e s r e h e a r s a l , t h i s would he lp e x p l a i n why t r i a l - t o - t r i a l r e spond i ng i n the KR phase was m a i n t a i n e d a t a n e a r - c r i t e r i o n l e v e l i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . On the o t h e r hand, the memory sys tem o p e r a t i n g to c o n t r o l r e s pond i n g i n the pos t -KR phase i s l o n g - t e r m memory 148 (LTM). The p r e s e n t r e s u l t s are i n agreement h e r e , as are the r e s u l t s of o t h e r s t u d i e s t h a t have sought to v e r i f y the e x i s t e n c e of a PT. i nd i genou s to l e a r n i n g (Adams, Goetz and M a r s h a l l , 1972; Adams and G o e t z , 1973; Adams, Gopher and L i n t e r n , 1977; M a r s h a l l , 1972; N e w e l l , 1974; W a l l a c e , DeOreo and R o b e r t s , 1976; Z e l a z n i k and S p r i n g , 1976) . A c c e p t i n g the argument t h a t t e n t a t i v e pos t -KR phase | CE | group d i f f e r e n c e s r e s u l t from KR phase a c t i v i t y , the i m p l i -c a t i o n i s t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n e n t e r i n g LTM decay s , p resumably because i t i s not r e h e a r s e d . I t i s c o n v e n i e n t , t h e n , to t h i n k i n terms o f two k i nd s o f PT. A s h o r t - t e r m PT i s formed by a p o s i t i v e FB mechanism t h a t u t i l i z e s i n f o r m a t i o n from r e s p o n s e - p r o d u c e d FB and KR. Th i s PT then s e r ve s to govern KR phase r e s p o n d -i n g . A l t hough i n o p e r a t i v e i n the KR phase, a l o n g - t e r m PT i s programmed c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h the s h o r t - t e r m PT. The long term PT u t i l i z e s r e s p o n s e - p r o d u c e d FB on l y and i n f l u -ences pos t -KR phase response a c c u r a c y . In both the KR and post -KR pha se s , the FB from an ongo ing response i s compared to the r e s p e c t i v e s h o r t - t e r m and l o n g - t e r m PTs i n a s u b t r a c t -i v e manner, ( i . e . , n e g a t i v e FB) . Whether the decay of i n f o r m a t i o n e n t e r i n g the l o n g -term PT can be c o n t r o l l e d i s not c e r t a i n a l t hough the 149 r e s u l t s o f a s tudy by Lave ry (1962) i n d i c a t e t h a t c o n t r o l l i n g a t t e n t i o n i n the KR phase can i n f l u e n c e pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d -i n g . No p a r t i c u l a r e f f o r t was made to c o n t r o l a t t e n t i o n i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , v i r t u a l l y a l l S_s_ r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r a t t e n t i o n was g r e a t e s t i n the KR phase , a l t hough many S_s_ a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r thought s tended to t u r n to ma t te r s u n r e l a t e d to the t a sk d u r i n g the u n f i l l e d r e t e n t i o n i n t e r v a l s . The tendency to a t t e n d to u n r e l a t e d ma t t e r s appeared to be the g r e a t e s t , however, i n the pre-KR and p o s t -KR phases . That FB decays i n e n t e r i n g the l o n g - t e r m PT d u r i n g the KR phase p r o v i d e s an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the between-g roups pos t -KR phase |CE| d i f f e r e n c e . However, t h i s does not he l p to e x p l a i n the accompanying h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e a r t r e n d . The l o n g - t e r m PT may be b i a s e d by event s o c c u r r i n g i n the KR phase but the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t FB decays i n a s y s t e m a t i c manner over the IT I . T h e r e f o r e , i f r e s p o n d i n g s t a b i l i z e s i n the KR phase, which i n the p r e s e n t s tudy i t does , the s y s tem-a t i c a l l y decayed t r a c e r e p e a t e d l y l a i d down as the l o n g - t e r m PT would a l s o be e xpec t ed to be s t a b l e . Ra ther than p o s t u l a t i n g c o n t i n u e d decay of i n f o r m a t i o n e n t e r i n g the l o n g - t e r m PT, the reason f o r the pos t -KR phase l i n e a r t r e n d may have to do w i t h the change i n re sponse 150 c o n t r o l mechanisms i n h e r e n t i n p r o c e e d i n g from the KR to the post -KR phase. Faced at the onset o f the pos t -KR phase w i t h the n e c e s s i t y to use an u n t r i e d and t h e r e f o r e u n f a m i l i a r response c o n t r o l mechanism, S_ may s u b c o n s c i o u s l y a t t empt to i n c o r p o r a t e a spec t s of p r e v i o u s re sponse c o n t r o l mechanisms. O p e r a t i n g under the i n f l u e n c e of a g i v en c o n t r o l mechanism can be assumed to c r e a t e a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t i v e i m p r e s s i o n of r e s p o n d i n g . When n e c e s s i t y demands both t h a t a new c o n t r o l me-chanism be u t i l i z e d and t h a t the p r e v i o u s l e v e l o f r e s p o n d -i ng be m a i n t a i n e d , the f u n c t i o n of the new c o n t r o l mechanism may be i n f l u e n c e d by the s u b j e c t i v e i m p r e s s i o n of r e s pond i n g i nd i genou s to the p r e v i o u s c o n t r o l mechanism. In the s i t u -a t i o n under d i s c u s s i o n h e r e , c o n t r o l o f pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d -i ng appears to be i n f l u e n c e d by not o n l y the e s t a b l i s h e d PT but a l s o by the s u b j e c t i v e i m p r e s s i o n s of r e s pond i n g a t t r i b u -t a b l e to c o n t r o l mechanisms o p e r a t i n g i n both the pre-KR and KR phases . Anne t t (1959b, 1970) has produced some s u p p o r t i n g data f o r t h i s c o n t e n t i o n . S t u d i e s u t i l i z i n g p r e s s u r e and p o s i t i o n -i n g responses have demons t ra ted marked but s y s t e m a t i c post -KR phase o v e r s h o o t i n g . Anne t t argues t h a t the na tu re of i n f o r m -a t i o n a v a i l a b l e to p e r c e p t u a l mechanisms p lu s the s y s t e m a t i c na tu re of b i a s i n g sugges t s a s en so r y summation of i n f o r m a t i o n i n the pos t -KR phase i n an a t tempt to r e c r e a t e the " f e e l " o f KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . 151 Sensory summation c o u l d i n v o l v e p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e f a c t o r s , , as s ugge s ted by the p r e s e n t r e s u l t s . I n he r en t o v e r s h o o t e r s would r e q u i r e i n c r e a s e d senso ry summation w h i l e i n h e r e n t unde r s hoo te r s would r e q u i r e dec rea sed sen so r y summation. For f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n on the p o s s i b l e i n h e r e n t na tu re of b i a s i n g t e n d e n c i e s , see Append ix C, page 218. Ano the r l i n e o f e v i d e n c e t h a t sugges t s t h a t t h e r e are problems r e s u l t i n g from a t t e m p t i n g to cope w i t h u n t r i e d and u n f a m i l i a r re sponse mechanisms comes from s t u d i e s by Lave ry and Suddon (1962) and Suddon and Lave ry ( 1962 ) . These s t u d i e s r e p e a t e d s e r i e s of KR and pos t -KR phases ( i . e . , a l t e r n a t i n g s e r i e s KR and noKR b l o c k s of t r i a l s ) . Compared to c o n t r o l groups w i t h a s i n g l e KR and a s i n g l e pos t -KR phase but w i t h the same t o t a l number of KR and noKR t r i a 1s res p e c t i v e 1 y , the r epea ted s e r i e s of phases produced more a c c u r a t e pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . The i m p l i c a t i o n from these r e s u l t s i s t h a t the a l t e r n a t i n g KR/noKR phases he l p S^  to become f a m i l i a r w i t h the f u n c t i o n o f the pos t -KR phase c o n t r o l mechanism. An advantage of KR i s t h a t i t not on l y i n f o rms as to the a c c u r a c y o f a response but i t a l s o i n f o rms as to the e f f i c a c y o f the c o n t r o l mechanism g o v e r n i n g r e s p o n d i n g . A l t e r n a t i n g s e r i e s of KR and noKR t r i a l s s e r ve a s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n , i n f o r m i n g as to the e f f i c a c y of the c o n t r o l mechanism o p e r a t i n g when KR i s a b s e n t . 152 A l o n e , the concept of sen so ry summation does not e x p l a i n the pos t -KR phase l i n e a r |CE| t r e n d . One more r e l a t e d i n g r e d i e n t i s needed and, a g a i n , t h e r e i s some s u p p o r t i n g e v i d e n c e . I t has been argued t h a t the l o n g - t e r m PT l a i d down i n the KR phase s h o u l d be s t a b l e s i n c e i t was formed under c o n d i t i o n s of s y s t e m a t i c decay over a p e r i o d o f s t a b l e re-sponding. The s h o r t - t e r m PT g o v e r n i n g the KR phase can a l s o be e xpec t ed to decay b u t , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the p r o p e r -t i e s o f STM, not to a s t a b l e re sponse l e v e l . The f a r t h e r i n t ime t h a t a pos t -KR phase t r i a l i s removed from the end o f the KR phase , the more the KR phase i m p r e s s i o n of movement can be e xpec t ed to have decayed . The pre-KR phase t r a c e can be e xpec t ed to decay a c c o r d i n g to a s i m i l a r t i m e - b a s e d p a t t e r n , p a r t i c u l a r l y so due to the tenuous na tu re o f i t s f o r m a t i o n . In the p r e s e n t s t u d y , the r e s u l t o f c o n t i n u e d decay of the i m p r e s s i o n s of movement deve l oped under p r e v -i o u s l y o p e r a t i v e c o n t r o l mechanisms i s h y p o t h e s i z e d to be c o n t i n u a l l y g r e a t e r sen so ry summation which m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f as the post -KR phase |CE| l i n e a r t r e n d . Ev idence t h a t a s ou rce of i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n pos t -KR phase r e spond i n g decays as a f u n c t i o n o f the t ime i n t e r v a l between the end o f KR phase r e s p o n d i n g and a g i ven 153 post -KR phase t r i a l comes from a s tudy by Schumsky, Grasha and Seymann ( 1966 ) . T h e i r s tudy v a r i e d the pos t -KR d e l a y i n t e r v a l o f the l a s t KR phase t r i a l , emp loy i ng 10.0 s e c o n d , 2.0 minute and 5.0 minute i n t e r p o l a t e d r e s t s a c c o r d i n g l y . R e s u l t s i n two areas o f t h i s s tudy r e l a t e to the p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s and d i s c u s s i o n . F i r s t , Schumsky e t a l . found a s i g n i f i c a n t groups d i f f e r e n c e on the i n i t i a l pos t -KR phase t r i a l , where l o n g e r r e s t s p roduced i n c r e a s i n g l y n e g a t i v e CE. Se-cond, when e r r o r measures were t r a n s f o r m e d so t h a t a l l groups had equa l e r r o r on the i n i t i a l pos t -KR phase t r i a l , the e n s u i n g g r a d i e n t o f decay i n c r e a s e d as a d i r e c t f u n c t i o n of the d u r a t i o n of r e s t i n t e r p o l a t e d between phases . A n a l y s i s o f the un t r an s f o rmed CE measures r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t t r i a l s and groups x t r i a l s e f f e c t s . Schumsky e t a l . v iew t h e i r r e s u l t s as s u p p o r t f o r H u l l ' s (1943) r e a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n c o n s t r u c t s i n c e pos t -KR phase r e s pond i n g moves i n i t i a l l y i n one d i r e c t i o n ( n e g a t i v e CE) and then back i n the o t h e r d i r e c t i o n ( p o s i t i v e CE) as r e s p o n d -i ng ensues . Based on a 2.0 minute i n t e r p o l a t e d r e s t between the l a s t KR r e p o r t and the s i g n a l to beg in the f i r s t pos t -KR phase t r i a l , the p r e s e n t pos t -KR phase |CE| r e s u l t s d i s p l a y a l i n e a r t r e n d i n the d i r e c t i o n o f i n c r e a s i n g e r r o r , as H u l l ' s c o n s t r u c t would p r e d i c t . However, the i n i t i a l r e v e r s a l of d i r e c t i o n of r e s p o n d i n g , wh ich i s a l s o p r e d i c t e d by the 154 r e a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n c o n s t r u c t , i s not i n e v i d e n c e . Thus , on l y p a r t i a l s u p p o r t f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n i n terms o f r e a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n a c c r ue s from the p r e s e n t r e s u l t s . Whether or not r e a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e x p l a i n s the pos t -KR phase l i n e a r |CE| t r i a l s e f f e c t , i t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s e v i d e n t t h a t a t l e a s t two f a c t o r s a c t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y to a f f e c t response b i a s i n g . As p r e v i o u s l y d i - s cu s sed , the t e n t a t i v e between-groups |CE| d i f f e r e n c e argues f o r the f o r m a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n of a l o n g - t e r m PT i n the manner t h a t Adams' (1971) c l o s e d - l o o p t h e o r y h y p o t h e s i z e s . However, i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y , the change from KR to pos t -KR phase r e s pond i n g does not appear to be governed s i m p l y by a l o n g - t e r m PT. A p o s i t i v e FB mechanism would aga in appear to be a c t i v e i n f o rm ing the r e f e r e n c e mechanism used to c o n t r o l pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . He re , the l o n g - t e r m PT ( formed i n the KR phase) i s augmented by a c o n t i n u o u s l y d e c a y i n g t r a c e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f response tendency under the KR phase c o n t r o l mechanism. A s i m i l a r l y d e c a y i n g t r a c e from the pre-KR phase may p r o v i d e f u r t h e r a u g m e n t a t i o n . The pos t -KR phase r e s u l t s from Schumsky e t a l . i n d i c a t e t h a t i n the c o n d i t i o n where no r e s t was i n t e r p o l a t e d between the KR and pos t -KR phases t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e , i f any, t r a c e decay. Thus, even a f t e r on l y the s i x KR phase t r i a l s 155 employed by these a u t h o r s , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t a l o n g -term PT can ope r a te as the s o l e pos t -KR phase c o n t r o l mechan-i sm. Presumably t h i s would o ccu r when the l o n g - t e r m PT, wh ich beg ins o p e r a t i o n a t the on se t of pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d -i n g , matches the i m p r e s s i o n of r e s pond i n g formed by the KR v phase s h o r t - t e r m PT. Summary o f d i s c u s s i o n on augmenta t i on of the PT. Post -KR ph-ase |CE| r e s u l t s sugges t t h a t a l t hough a PT was o p e r a t i v e i n the pos t -KR phase , t h a t t h i s mechanism was not adaquate f o r m a i n t a i n i n g KR phase response l e v e l s . P o s s i b l e i n a d a q u a c i e s i f k i n e s t h e t i c - o n l y FB are r e j e c t e d on two g rounds . F i r s t , S_ i n t r o s p e c t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t k i n e s t h e t i c FB was adequate f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g s c a l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n both the KR and pos t -KR phases . Second, the s y s t e m a t i c na tu re o f pos t -KR phase r e s pond -i ng i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n from k i n e s t h e t i c FB was p r o ce s s ed i n an o r d e r e d manner. I t a p p e a r s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t i t was the mechanism t h a t FB i n t e r a c t e d w i t h t h a t caused response t e n d e n c i e s to change from the KR to the pos t -KR phase. F u r t h e r m o r e , the p re sence or absence of KR dec i de s the na tu re o f the mechanism i n v o l v e d . I t i s argued t h a t when KR was p r e s e n t s h o r t - t e r m PTs were formed on a t r i a l - b y - t r i a l b a s i s i n the manner of p o s i t i v e FB (or f e e d f o r w a r d ) . That i s to s a y , i n f o r m a t i o n from KR de te rm- : i ned a f a c t o r to be added to FB i n o r d e r to form a c l o s e d - l o o p 156 r e f e r e n c e mechanism t h a t a c t e d to c o n t r o l the subsequent r e spon se . C o n t r o l o f the ongo ing response then p roceeded a c c o r d i n g to p r i n c i p l e s o f n e g a t i v e FB, i . e . , match ing c u r r e n t FB to the s h o r t - t e r m PT u n t i l p e r c e i v e d e r r o r was n u l l i f i e d . In the pos t -KR phase , however, an u n t r i e d , and t h e r e f o r e u n f a m i l i a r , l o n g - t e r m PT became an o p e r a t i v e response c o n t r o l a gen t . The l o n g - t e r m PT i t s e l f was not programmed i n the manner o f p o s i t i v e FB; r a t h e r i t s i m p l y a c t e d as a n e g a t i v e e r r o r d e t e c t i o n mechanism. Because the onset of pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g d i c t a t e d the use of an u n t r i e d and t h e r e f o r e u n f a m i l i a r response c o n t r o l mechanism, i t i s f u r t h e r argued t h a t i n t h i s phase a t t empted to rep roduce the " f e e l " o f r e s pond i n g a c h i e v e d under the p r e v i o u s l y o p e r a t i v e KR phase response c o n t r o l mechanism. Th i s r e s u l t e d i n a summation o f the i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i g e n o u s to both the KR and pos t -KR phase c o n t r o l mechanisms. Thus, i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d to the s h o r t - t e r m PTs o f the KR phase was added to the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n the l o n g - t e r m PT i n o r d e r to form a t r i a 1 - b y - 1 r i a 1 r e f e r e n c e mechanism t h a t u l t i m a t e l y c o n t r o l l e d pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . E v i dence of such a summation p roces s i s p r o v i d e d by Anne t t ( 1959b) . As w e l l , da ta p r o v i d e d by Lavery and Suddon (1962) and by Suddon and Lavery (1962) can be taken as f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e of the d i f f i c u l t y o f s w i t c h i n g from one c o n t r o l mechanism to a n o t h e r . 157 Summation of i n f o r m a t i o n i n i t s e l f , however, does not e x p l a i n the pos t -KR phase |CE| l i n e a r t r e n d i n the d i r e c t i o n of i n c r e a s i n g e r r o r . To e x p l a i n t h i s o c c u r r e n c e , i t i s argued t h a t because the KR phase r e f e r e n c e mechanism i s r e p -r e s e n t e d i n s h o r t - t e r m memory, t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d to r e spond i n g i n t h i s phase c o n t i n u e s to decay over the pos t -KR phase. C o n s e q u e n t l y , c o n t i n u a l l y g r e a t e r summation i s r e -q u i r e d as the post -KR phase p r o g r e s s e s i n o r d e r to c o n t i n u e to- rep roduce the " f e e l " o f r e s pond i n g a c h i e v e d under the i n f l u e n c e o f the KR phase c o n t r o l mechanism. Suppor t f o r t h i s c o n t e n t i o n i s s u e s from a s tudy by Schumsky, Grasha and Seyman (1966 ) . R e s u l t s P e r t a i n i n g to Hypo the s i s 2 -The Permanent E f f e c t o f KR on Response V a r i a b i l i t y Hypo the s i s 2 s t a t e s t h a t KR does not pe rmanent l y a f f e c t response v a r i a b i l i t y as r e f l e c t e d by VE. In o r d e r to ga in s uppo r t f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s w i t h i n the de s i gn o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y , pre-KR phase VE must s t a b i l i z e and t he re must be no d i f f e r e n c e between s t a b i l i z e d pre-KR phase VE i m m e d i a t e l y p r i o r to the a p p l i c a t i o n of KR and s t a b l e post -KR phase VE. That i s , VE r e d u c t i o n s h o u l d o c cu r i n d e p e n d e n t l y of KR w i t h VE r ema i n i n g s t a b l e and q u a n t i t a t i v e l y the same p r i o r to and f o l l o w i n g the KR phase. 158 Group VEs f o r s t a b i l i z e d per fo rmance and t h e i r accompany-i ng s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s are shown i n Tab le IV -4 . G r aph i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f VE i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e IV- 5, w h i l e the accompanying s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of VE i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e IV -6 . The o v e r a l l a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r VE i s p r e s e n t e d i n Tab le E-3, Append ix E. A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e f o r VE i n d i c a t e d s uppo r t f o r Hypo the s i s 2 a l ong two l i n e s . F i r s t , the main e f f e c t f o r phases was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h F( 2 ,54) = 67 .18 , p < <.0 1. Second, the q u a d r a t i c component of the phases a n a l y s i s was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h F( 1 ,27 ) = 127 .05 , p<<.01. G r a p h i c a l l y ( F i g u r e IV- 5) i t appears t h a t pre-KR and pos t -KR phase VE i s s i m i l a r and l e s s than KR phase VE. However, h igh VE a t t r i b -u t a b l e to the f i r s t b l o c k of KR phase r e s pond i n g i n f l u e n c e s both of the above s t a t i s t i c s . T h e r e f o r e , the a p p r o p r i a t e t e s t of Hypo the s i s 2 was a p r e - p l a n n e d o r t h o g o n a l compar i son between s t a b i l i z e d pre-KR and pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . S i n ce a t r e n d a n a l y s i s o f pre-KR phase VE i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i -cant r e d u c t i o n of VE over the f i r s t b l o c k on l y of pre-KR phase r e s pond i n g (see r e s u l t s p. 163 ) , the o r t h o g o n a l compar i son was between the mean o f the l a s t f i v e b l o c k s of pre-KR phase r e spond i n g and a l l s i x b l o c k s of pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . The compar i son f a i l e d to y i e l d s i g n i f i c a n c e by a wide marg in w i t h F (2 ,54 )<1 .0 . Thus, the r e s u l t s s u p p o r t H y p o t h e s i s 2. .90 .85 .80 .70 .60 .50 .40 .30 .20 .10 Condition 1 (1-10/11) •-Condition 2 (1-39/40) x-Condition 3 (30-10/40) o-o BLOCKS (PRE-KR PHASE) BLOCKS (KR PHASE) BLOCKS (POST-KR PHASE) Figure IV-6. Standard deviation of variable error per 5 - t r i a l : b l o c k for pre-KR, KR and post-KR phase responding. 161 TABLE IV -4 . Means and S t anda rd D e v i a t i o n s o f VE ( I n che s ) f o r S t a b i l i z e d P re -KR, KR and Pos t -KR Phase Responding Pre-KR Phase KR Phase Pos t -KR Phase VE .46 .59 .47 SD of VE .22 .27 . 19 The f i r s t b l o c k of r e s pond i n g i n t h i s phase i s not i n c l u d e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g the average VE and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f V E . D i s c u s s i o n . The p r e s e n t r e s u l t s r e g a r d i n g the permanent e f f e c t of KR on response v a r i a b i l i t y agree w i t h T h o r n d i k e ' s (1932) c o n c l u s i o n t h a t KR a c t s to reduce c o n s t a n t but not v a r i a b l e e r r o r . I t i s o f i n t e r e s t to note t h a t i n an e a r l i e r pape r , Tho rnd i ke (1927) contended t h a t KR was an agent f o r r e d u c t i o n of both c o n s t a n t and v a r i a b l e e r r o r . Baker and Young ( 1960 ) , emp loy ing a l i n e drawing t a s k , c o n c u r r e d w i t h T h o r n d i k e ' s e a r l i e r c o n c l u s i o n t h a t KR a f f e c t s both c o n s t a n t and v a r i a b l e e r r o r . However t h e i r r e s u l t s and the i n t e r p r e t -a t i o n they a p p l y to them may be c r i t i c i z e d on s e v e r a l grounds (see Chapte r 11, p. 9 5 ) . One i n d i c a t i o n as to why KR d i d not a c t i n the p r e s e n t s tudy to pe rmanent l y a f f e c t response v a r i a b i l i t y comes from the na tu re of KR i t s e l f . The i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s e i t h e r 162 d i r e c t l y c o n t a i n e d i n KR, or t h a t may be i n d i r e c t l y e x t r a c t e d from KR, has to do w i t h the magnitude and d i r e c t i o n o f response b i a s i n g . I t would seem t h a t e l i m i n a t i n g re sponse b i a s i s the p a r t i c u l a r domain of KR, j u d g i n g from the p r e s e n t r e s u l t s and from the r e s u l t s of s t u d i e s t h a t have found d i r e c t i o n - o n l y KR to be as po t en t a response m o d i f i e r as d i r e c t i o n p l u s magn i -tude KR ( I . B i l o d e a u , 1966; G reen , Z i m i l i e s and Sp ragg , 1955) . F u r t h e r R e s u l t s P e r t a i n i n g to Response V a r i a b i l i t y -E v i dence Regard ing the Nature of Response V a r i a b i l i t y In expand ing Hypo the s i s 2, i t was s t a t e d t h a t r e d u c t i o n of VE would o ccu r e a r l y i n the pre-KR phase , f o l l o w e d by s t a b l e r e s pond i n g f o r the r e s t of t h a t phase. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e would be no t r e n d i n VE t h r oughou t the pos t -KR phase. In o r d e r to ga in s uppo r t i n t h i s a r e a , b l o c k s and b l o c k s x phases e f f e c t s s hou ld be appa ren t i n the o v e r a l l a n a l y s i s of VE. Be s i de t h a t due to pha se s , the o n l y o t h e r main e f f e c t to ga in s i g n i f i c a n c e was t h a t due to b l o c k s w i t h F (5 ,13 5) = 33 .04 , p<<.01. The phases x b l o c k s i n t e r a c t i o n was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h F( 10 ,270 ) = 34.28 , p<< . 01 . Th i s f i n d i n g tended to c o r r o b o r a t e the v i s u a l e v i d e n c e from F i g u r e IV- 5 t h a t t r e n d i n the data was c o n f i n e d to the pre-KR and KR phases . 163 Trend a n a l y s i s o f pre-KR phase r e s pond i n g r e v e a l e d a q u a d r a t i c t r e n d w i t h F( 1 , 135 ) = 10.68 , p<.01. P r e -p l anned o r t h o g o n a l a n a l y s e s based on Hypo the s i s 2 compared the f i r s t b l o ck o f pre-KR phase r e s pond i n g to the r e m a i n i n g b l o c k s of t h a t phase w i t h F(5 , 13 5 ) = 8 .47 , p < . 01 and the second b l o c k of pre-KR phase r e s pond i n g to the r e m a i n i n g b l o c k s of t h a t phase w i t h F(4 ,135 ) < 1. 0 . Thus, VE was reduced over pre-KR phase r e s p o n d i n g , w i t h the r e d u c t i o n c o n f i n e d to the f i r s t b l o c k of the phase. D i s c u s s i o n . The p r e s e n t r e s u l t s p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e as to the gene ra l na tu re o f response v a r i a b i l i t y . Th i s i s demon-s t r a t e d i n pre-KR phase r e s pond i n g by a r a p i d i n i t i a l dec rea se i n VE f o l l o w e d by s t a b l e r e s p o n d i n g . F u r t h e r e v i d e n c e i s t h e r e f o r e o b t a i n e d i n s uppo r t o f H e n r y ' s (1970) c o n t e n t i o n t h a t VE p r i m a r i l y r e f l e c t s i n n a t e b i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y . At l e a s t f o r what c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as s i m p l e s k i l l s , t h e r e i s a b r i e f i n i t i a l ad ju s tment to the t a sk where VE i s reduced a f a i r l y s m a l l but s i g n i f i c a n t amount. I f the na tu re o f the i n f o r m a t i o n i n h e r e n t i n KR does not have a permanent, or l e a r n i n g , e f f e c t on response v a r i a b i l i t y , i t i s o f i n t e r e s t to s p e c u l a t e as to what type o f i n f o r m a t i o n might s e r ve t h i s pu rpo se . I t i s p roposed here t h a t the type o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t w i l l a c t to reduce VE i s t h a t r e l a t e d 164 to FB. Th i s i s because o f the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t v a r i o u s FB channe l s , and the r e f e r e n c e mechanisms they i n t e r a c t w i t h may d i f f e r i n terms of a b i l i t y to d i s c r i m i n a t e between s t i m u l i . In the language o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g , amount o f i n f o r -mat ion i s a f u n c t i o n o f d i s c r i m i n a b i 1 i t y w h i c h , i n t u r n , i s r e l a t e d to the number of a v a i l a b l e c h o i c e s (Shannon and Weaver, 1949). Couched i n concept s of p s y c h o p h y s i c a l s c a l i n g , a b i l i t y to d i s c r i m i n a t e between s t i m u l i i s a f u n c t i o n o f j u s t - n o t i c e a b 1 e d i f f e r e n c e ( j . n . d . ) , i . e . , d i f f e r e n c e l i m e n . A c c e p t i n g H e n r y ' s (1970) h y p o t h e s i s t h a t VE r e f l e c t s i n n a t e b i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y , such v a r i a b i l i t y s h o u l d be reduced as a f u n c t i o n o f the a b i l i t y o f a p a r t i c u l a r b i o -l o g i c a l system to d i s c r i m i n a t e between s t i m u l i . For c l o s e d -loop r e s p o n d i n g , a b i l i t y to d i s c r i m i n a t e between s t i m u l i s hou l d depend upon two f a c t o r s . One f a c t o r concerns the s e n s i t i v i t y o f the FB c h a n n e l . The o t h e r f a c t o r concern s the s e n s i t i v i t y of the r e f e r e n c e mechanism, i . e . , the PT, a g a i n s t wh ich the FB i s r e f e r r e d . Th i s r e a s o n i n g l ead s to a h y p o t h e s i s , termed here the t w o - f a c t o r d i s c r i m i n a b i 1 i t y h y p o t h e s i s , t h a t d i s c r i m i n a b i l i t y of s t i m u l i w i l l be a f u n c t i o n o f the l e a s t s e n s i t i v e o f e i t h e r the FB channe l o r the r e f e r e n c e mechanism the FB channe l i n t e r f a c e s w i t h . E v i dence t h a t comes from s e v e r a l type o f FB a f f e c t s s ou rce s . The on l y response v a r i a b i l i t y d i r e c t s o u r c e , where 165 the measure was VE, appears to be Weiss ( 1954 ) . I n d i r e c t e v i d e n c e comes from s t u d i e s by Adams, Goetz and M a r s h a l l ( 1972 ) , Adams and Goetz ( 1973 ) , Adams, Gopher and L i n t e r n (1977) and B a h r i c k , Bennet t and F i t t s ( 1955 ) . These s t u d i e s a l l r e p o r t d i f f e r e n c e s i n AE a c c o r d i n g to type of FB u t i l i z e d , w h i l e CE ac ro s s c o n d i t i o n s i s r e p o r t e d as low and non-s i g n i f i c a n t . Based on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these measures ( S chu t z and Roy, 1973) , when CE i s l ow , AE r e f l e c t s p r - i m a r i l y V E . E v i dence f o r the t w o - f a c t o r d i s c r i m i n a b i l i t y h y p o t h e s i s comes from the s tudy of Adams, Goetz and M a r s h a l l ( 1972 ) . Here , FB was e i t h e r the same or d i f f e r e n t ac ro s s the KR and post -KR phases . The r e s u l t was t h a t augment ing FB i n the post -KR phase when min ima l FB channe l s had been employed i n the KR phase d i d not dec rea se and i n one i n s t a n c e i n c r e a s e d response e r r o r . L i k e w i s e , s w i t c h i n g from augmented to min ima l FB r e s u l t e d i n an i n c r e a s e i n response e r r o r . The channe l s which convey and the n e u r o l o g i c a l mechan-isms which r e f e r e n c e and o t h e r w i s e program i n f o r m a t i o n from FB can be assumed to be i n n a t e b i o l o g i c a l e n t i t i e s . A f u r t h e r a s sumpt ion i s t h a t the r e f e r e n c e mechanism u t i l i z e d on a g i ven t r i a l i s formed p r i o r to t h a t t r i a l . Thus , an ongo ing response p r o c e e d i n g under c l o s e d - l o o p c o n t r o l has 166 on l y FB and i t s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the r e f e r e n c e mechanism as d e t e r m i n a n t s o f response a c c u r a c y . S i n c e e v i d e n c e r e -v iewed p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t FB channe l s and the mechan-isms they i n t e r a c t w i t h vary i n t h e i r a c u i t y , t he r eby i n f l u -e n c i n g response v a r i a b i l i t y , and s i n c e the we i gh t of e v i d e n c e from the p r e s e n t s tudy i n d i c a t e s t h a t KR does not ga i n d i r e c t access to the PT, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t KR does not appear to a c t to reduce VE. F u r t h e r R e s u l t s P e r t a i n i n g to Response V a r i a b i l i t y - E v i dence Rega rd ing a T r a n s i e n t E f f e c t of KR on Response V a r i a b i l i t y In r e s t r i c t i n g the s t a tement of Hypo the s i s 2 to permanent e f f e c t s of KR on response v a r i a b i l i t y , i t was f u r t h e r s t a t e d t h a t the p resence o f KR can have a t r a n s i t o r y e f f e c t on VE. As r e p o r t e d by B i l o d e a u ( 1955 ) , VE i n c r e a s e s under the i n f l u -ence of r e l a t i v e l y s p e c i f i c KR. In o r d e r to demons t ra te such an e f f e c t i n the p r e s e n t r e s u l t s , s t a b i l i z e d KR phase VE must be s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than s t a b i l i z e d VE i n the pre-KR and post -KR phases . The s i g n i f i c a n t phases main e f f e c t and the s i g n i f i c a n t q u a d r a t i c component of the phases a n a l y s i s ( r e p o r t e d on page 158) i n d i c a t e t h a t the p re sence o f KR had a t r a n s i t o r y e f f e c t of i n c r e a s i n g KR phase VE. Such an e f f e c t i s e v i d e n t 167 i n the graph o f VE ( F i g u r e IV-5) . However, as p o i n t e d o u t , these two s t a t i s t i c s a re i n f l u e n c e d by the h igh VE on the f i r s t b l o c k of KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . Trend i n the KR phase was de te rm ined p r i o r to compar ing VE over the t h r e e phases o f r e s p o n d i n g . Both l i n e a r and q u a d r a t i c t r e n d a n a l y s e s were h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t , the l i n e a r t r e n d w i t h F( 1 , 135) = 458.07 , p<<.01 and the q u a d r a t i c t r e n d w i t h F( 1 , 135 ) = 97 .08 , p<<.0 1. A S c h e f f e ' t e s t compar ing the second b l o c k o f KR phase r e s p o n d i n g w i t h the r e m a i n i n g b l o c k s y i e l d e d F(4 ,135)< 1.0 , d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t KR phase r e s p o n d i n g had s t a b i l i z e d by the second b l o c k o f t h a t phase. With the s t a b l e re sponse c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f each phase d e t e r m i n e d , a p r e - p l a n n e d o r t h o g o n a l compar i son was per fo rmed which compared the we i gh ted mean VEs o f s t a b i l i z e d pre-KR and post -KR phase r e s pond i n g w i t h the s t a b i l i z e d mean VE o f KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . The r e s u l t was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h F (2 ,54) = 19 .09 , p<<.01. Thus, KR had a t r a n s i t o r y e f f e c t o f i n c r e a s i n g VE. D i s c u s s i o n . The r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r KR phase VE, compared to p r e - and post -KR phase l e v e l s , can be a t t r i b u t e d to " h u n t i n g b e h a v i o r " as demons t ra ted and d e s c r i b e d by E. B i l o d e a u ( 1955 ) . Given an e r r o r message by means o f KR, S_ m o d i f i e s the subse -quent response i n an a t t empt to reduce the e r r o r . I f KR i s 168 r e f i n e d to the e x t e n t t h a t e r r o r i s a lmos t a lways r e p o r t e d , then i s c o n t i n u a l l y m o d i f y i n g each subsequent r e s p o n s e , c o n s e q u e n t l y i n c r e a s i n g VE. The v a r i a b i l i t y i n r e s p o n d i n g , however, occu r s around an average measure of response b i a s w h i c h , as i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y , may be c o i n c i d e n t w i t h the c r i te r i on. That the e f f e c t of KR on VE i s s t r i c t l y t r a n s i t o r y i s c l e a r l y demons t ra ted by the p r e s e n t r e s u l t s . Except f o r the f i r s t b l o c k of pre-KR phase r e s p o n d i n g , VE i n the pre-KR and post -KR phases i s s t a b l e and s i m i l a r i n magn i tude . T o g e t h e r , p r e - and post -KR phase VE i s l ower i n magni tude than KR phase VE. Whereas B i l o d e a u (1955) advances the concept of " h u n t i n g b e h a v i o r " s o l e l y on o b s e r v a t i o n of KR phase r e s p o n d i n g , the p r e s e n t s tudy p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r c o n f i r m -a t i o n o f t h i s concept by p r o v i d i n g a compar i son o f KR phase response t e n d e n c i e s w i t h p r e - and pos t -KR phase t e n d e n c i e s . CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS S umma ry The purpose of t h i s s tudy was to de te rm ine the r o l e o f knowledge o f r e s u l t s (KR) i n p e r c e p t u a l t r a c e (PT) deve lopment . Ind igenous to Adams' (1971) c l o s e d - l o o p t heo r y of motor l e a r n i n g , the PT i s a r e f e r e n c e mechanism t h a t i s o p e r a t i v e i n the pos t -KR phase o f r e s pond i n g as p a r t o f a n e g a t i v e feedback sys tem gove rn i n g movement e x t e n t . The t heo r y f u r t h e r contends t h a t i n the KR phase o f r e s p o n d i n g , when the PT i s f o rm ing but dormant , t h a t the on l y d i r e c t sou rce of i n p u t to PT development i s r e s p o n s e - p r o d u c e d feedback ( FB ) . Two s p e c i f i c a s pec t s of KR were i n v e s t i g a t e d a c c o r d i n g to two h ypo the se s . Hypo the s i s 1 s t a t e d t h a t the pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l i s a s ou r ce o f pos t -KR phase b i a s i n g r e f l e c t e d by c o n s t a n t e r r o r (CE ) . Suppor t f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s would c o n s t i t u t e e v i d e n c e t h a t KR can a l s o a c t as a d i r e c t s ou rce o f i n p u t to PT deve lopment . H y p o t h e s i s 2 s t a t e d t h a t KR does not a c t to pe rmanent l y a f f e c t response c o n s i s t e n c y as r e f l e c -ted by v a r i a b l e e r r o r (VE ) . Suppor t f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s would l i m i t the r o l e o f KR i n PT deve lopment to a f f e c t i n g response b i a s i n g o n l y . 170 An e xpe r imen t de s i gned to t e s t these two hypotheses had KR tempora l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s and p re sence or absence of KR as sou rce s o f i ndependent m a n i p u l a t i o n . A t h i r d f a c t o r , which was not v a r i e d and which was c o n c e a l e d from Ss , had to do w i t h b i a s i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n i n h e r e n t i n KR and, t h e r e f o r e , w i t h b i a s i n g the c r i t e r i o n . M a n i p u l a t i o n of KR tempora l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s saw KR de l a y i n t e r v a l , p o s t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l and i n t e r t r i a l i n t e r v a l ' ( I T I ) v a r i e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y . Three groups of 10 S_s_ each were t r e a t e d i d e n t i c a l l y e x cep t f o r m a n i p u l a t i o n of KR tempora l de l a y i n t e r v a l s . Th i s a l l o w e d compar i son o f two KR de l a y i n t e r -v a l s (1.0 and 30.0 s e c o n d s ) , two post -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l s (10.0 and 39.0 seconds ) and two ITI (11.0 and 40.0 s e c o n d s ) . M a n i p u l a t i o n of p resence o r absence o f KR, and w i t h i t the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f c o n c e a l e d response b i a s i n g , saw t h r e e s e -q u e n t i a l s tages of r e spond i n g p r e s e n t e d to S_s_. F i r s t , was a pre-KR phase , d u r i n g the 30 t r i a l s of which b l i n d f o l d e d Ss a t tempted to produce t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e i m p r e s s i o n of a 7.0 i n ch movement. Second, was a KR phase , d u r i n g which Ss c o n t i n u e d f o r ano the r 30 t r i a l s to a t tempt to produce what they were i n f o rmed was s t i l l a 7.0 i n ch movement. In the KR phase , however, the KR e r r o r message was a c t u a l l y based on a c r i t e r i o n t h a t was 4.0 i n che s g r e a t e r than the average pre-KR phase movement l e n g t h f o r each S^ . Th i s p rocedu re was employed on the b a s i s of s t u d i e s i n d i c a t i n g 171 t h a t pos t -KR phase re sponse b i a s i n g i s a f u n c t i o n of the i n t e r a c t i o n between pre-KR phase b i a s and m a n i p u l a t i o n of KR tempora l de l a y i n t e r v a l s ( D y a l , 1966; Dyal and A r r i n g t o n , 1964; D y a l , W i l s on and B e r r y , 1965). T h i r d , was a pos t -KR phase i n which Ss_ c o n t i n u e d to a t tempt to produce w i t h o u t the a i d of KR what they were s t i l l i n f o rmed was a 7.0 i n ch c r i t e r i on. Hypo the s i s 1 was t e s t e d a c c o r d i n g to two d i f f e r e n t measures o f response b i a s , n e i t h e r of which demons t ra ted t h a t the pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l i s the l o cu s of pos t -KR phase response b i a s i n g . CE was demons t ra ted to be an i n v a l i d measure o f pos t -KR phase response b i a s s i n c e i t masked d i f f e r e n t i a l b i a s i n g t e n d e n c i e s whe re i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f of the Sj^ i n each group marked ly and c o n s i s t e n t l y under shot the c r i t e r i o n w h i l e the o t h e r h a l f d i s p l a y e d s i m i l a r o v e r s h o o t i n g t e n d e n c i e s . S u b s t i t u t i o n of a b s o l u t e d i f f e r e n c e (|CE|) as the a p p r o p r i a t e measure of response b i a s d i d , however, r e v e a l t h r e e f i n d i n g s of i n t e r e s t i n the pos t -KR phase. F i r s t , t h e r e was a m a r g i n a l l y s i g n i f i -cant pos t -KR phase between-groups d i f f e r e n c e a t t r i b u t a b l e to a c t i v i t y i n the KR phase IT I . Th i s f i n d i n g was i n t e r p r e -ted as e v i dence of the e x i s t e n c e of a PT and as e v i d e n c e t h a t r e s pon se - p r oduced FB i s the s o l e PT i n g r e d i e n t . Second, t he r e was an o v e r a l l be tween-phase d i f f e r e n c e from 172 n e a r - c r i t e r i o n KR phase r e spond i n g to marked ly b i a s e d , pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . T h i r d , b i a s i n g t e n d e n c i e s f o r a l l groups i n c r e a s e d u n i f o r m l y t h roughou t the pos t -KR phase , d e m o n s t r a t i n g a s t r o n g l i n e a r t r e n d . The second and t h i r d o f the above f i n d i n g s were i n t e r p r e t e d as i n d i -c a t i n g t h a t the PT was be i n g augmented by a p o s i t i v e f e e d -back sys tem which u t i l i z e d d e c a y i n g r e s p o n s e - i n d i g e n o u s i n f o r m a t i o n from the pre-KR and KR phases . Hypo the s i s 2 was s uppo r t ed by the VE d a t a . There was no d i f f e r e n c e between s t a b i l i z e d pre-KR and pos t -KR phase VE, the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of which was t h a t the KR i n t e r v e n i n g between these two phases had no permanent e f f e c t on response v a r i a b i l i t y . There was a sma l l but s i g n i f i c a n t dec rea se i n VE over the f i r s t b l o c k of pre-KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . S i n c e t h i s i n i t i a l dec rea se was f o l l o w e d by s t a b l e and v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l p r e - and pos t -KR phase VE, t h i s was i n t e r p r e t e d as s u p p o r t f o r H e n r y ' s (1970) c o n t e n t i o n t h a t f o r s i m p l e s k i l l s VE r e f l e c t s i n h e r e n t b i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y . A t h i r d f i n d i n g of i n t e r e s t was t h a t KR phase VE was g r e a t e r than t h a t o f the p r e - and pos t -KR phases . Th i s f i n d i n g was i n t e r p r e t e d as " h u n t i n g b e h a v i o r " (E. B i l o d e a u , 1955) whe re i n the e r r o r i n h e r e n t i n r e f i n e d KR causes S to c o n t i n u a l l y mod i fy r e s p o n d i n g , thus i n c r e a s i n g VE. 173 Conc lu s i ons The c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g response b i a s i n g a re t h a t : 1. The pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l i s n o t , as h y p o t h e s i z e d , the l o cu s of pos t -KR phase re sponse b i a s i n g . 2. The KR phase ITI i s the l o c u s of pos t -KR phase re sponse b i a s i n g , c o n t r a r y to what was h y p o t h e s i z e d . 3. The post -KR phase between-groups d i f f e r e n c e a t t r i b u t a b l e - to a c t i v i t y over the KR phase ITI i s e v i d e n c e of a PT t h a t forms i n the KR phase and i s o p e r a t i v e i n the p o s t -KR phase . 4. The pos t -KR phase between-groups d i f f e r e n c e a t t r i b u t a b l e to a c t i v i t y over the KR phase ITI i s e v i d e n c e t h a t the PT i s formed s o l e l y o f r e s p o n s e - p r o d u c e d FB. 5. D i f f e r e n c e between KR and pos t -KR phase l e v e l s of r e s p o n d -i ng c oup l ed w i t h pos t -KR phase l i n e a r t r e n d i s e v i dence ' t h a t the PT i s augmented by c o n t i n u o u s l y d e c a y i n g i n f o r m -a t i o n i nd i genou s to the o p e r a t i o n o f c o n t r o l mechanisms u t i l i z e d i n p r e v i o u s phases of r e s p o n d i n g . The c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g response v a r i a b i l i t y are t h a t : 1. KR has no permanent e f f e c t on re sponse v a r i a b i l i t y . 2. Response v a r i a b i l i t y p r i m a r i l y r e f l e c t s i n n a t e b i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y , thus s u p p o r t i n g a h y p o t h e s i s p r e v i o u s l y advanced by Henry ( 1970 ) . 174 3. The e r r o r message i n h e r e n t i n KR encourages to modi fy r e s p o n d i n g , t he reby r e s u l t i n g i n a t r a n s i t o r y i n c r e a s e i n response v a r i a b i l i t y . Th i s c o n c l u s i o n s uppo r t s the h y p o t h e s i s and data of E. B i l o d e a u ( 1955 ) . Recommendati ons Recommendations are t h a t : 1. - The p r e s e n t s tudy be r e p l i c a t e d w i t h l a r g e r n i n o r d e r to seek f u r t h e r s uppo r t f o r the t e n t a t i v e f i n d i n g i n the p r e s e n t s tudy t h a t the KR phase ITI i s the l o c u s of pos t -KR phase re sponse b i a s i n g . 2. A f u r t h e r s tudy s hou l d va ry both the type and amount of pre-KR phase b i a s i n g . Th i s f a c t o r was not v a r i e d i n the p r e s e n t s tudy and thus i t was not p o s s i b l e to d i r e c t l y a s c e r t a i n the i n f l u e n c e of pre-KR phase b i a s i n g on post -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . The q u e s t i o n has t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the m o d i f i c a t i o n of a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d movements. 3. In l i g h t o f the p r e s e n t r e s u l t s , |CE| be c o n s i d e r e d the r e l e v a n t measure of response b i a s i n s i t u a t i o n s where CE masks d i f f e r e n t i a l b i a s i n g t e n d e n c i e s . Th i s recom-mendat ion concur s w i t h t h a t o f Schutz (1977) . 4. Future s t u d i e s seek to c o n t r o l decay of KR phase FB e n t e r i n g the l o n g - t e r m PT. Arguments p r e s e n t e d by Anne t t and Kay (1957) and by M i l l e r (1953) p lu s data p r e s e n t e d 175 by Lavery (1962) sugges t at a h i g h l y t e n t a t i v e l e v e l t h a t such decay can be c o n t r o l l e d . BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, J . A . Response feedback and l e a r n i n g . P s y c h o l o g i c a l  B u l l e t i n , 1968 , 70 , 486-504. Adams, J . A . A c l o s e d - l o o p t heo r y of motor l e a r n i n g . J o u r n a l  o f Motor B e h a v i o r , 1971, 3, 111-149. Adams, J . A . Feedback and the c l o s e d - l o o p mode l . In I.P. 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New York Teachers C o l l e g e , Co lumbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1932. T r o w b r i d g e , M.H., and Cason, H. An e x p e r i m e n t a l s tudy of T h o r n d i k e ' s t heo r y of l e a r n i n g . J o u r n a l of Genera l  P s y c h o l o g y , 1932 , 7 , 245-258. 191 V i n c e , M.A. C o r r e c t i v e movements i n a p u r s u i t t a s k . Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1948, 1, 85 -103 . W a l l a c e , S .A. , De Oreo, K . L . , and R o b e r t s , G.C. Memory and p e r c e p t u a l t r a c e development i n b a l l i s t i c t i m i n g . J o u r n a l  o f Motor B e h a v i o r , 1976, 8, 133-137. We inbe rg , D.R., Guy, D.E., and Tupper , R.W. V a r i a t i o n s of p o s t f eedback i n t e r v a l i n s i m p l e motor l e a r n i n g . J o u r n a l  o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1964, 67, 98 -99 . We i s s , B. The r o l e o f p r o p r i o c e p t i v e feedback i n p o s i t i o n i n g r e s pon se s . J o u r n a l of E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1954, 47, 215-224. We- l ford, A.T. The measurement of s en so r y motor p e r f o r m a n c e : Survey and r e a p p r a i s a l o f t w e l v e y e a r s ' p r o g r e s s . Ergonomi c s , 1960, 3 , 189-230. W h i t e , R.M., J r . , and S c h m i d t , S.W. P re re spon se i n t e r v a l s ver sus p o s t i n f o r m a t i v e feedback i n t e r v a l s i n concept i d e n t -i f i c a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 19 72 , 94 , 350-352. W iener , N. C y b e r n e t i c s ; or c o n t r o l and communicat ion i n the  an imal and the mach ine. Cambr idge, Mass . : Techno logy P r e s s , 1948. W ine r , B . J . S t a t i s t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s i n e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n . New Yo rk : M c G r a w - H i l l Co . , 1971. Z e l a z n i k , H., and S p r i n g , J . Feedback i n response r e c o g n i t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n . J o u r n a l of Motor B e h a v i o r , 19 76 , 8 , 309-312 . 192 APPENDIX A Apparatus 193 12 V D.C. (TO LIGHT) CONTROL BOX TO A.C, POWER POWER SW. PILOT LIGHT 22 KQ MICRO-SW. (N.C.) PUSH OPEN -1-115 V A.C. SW. TO CONTROL SOLENOID O o o o SOLENOID _ l 115 V A.C. RELAY r • _500 I 1 TO TIMERS ^ (BANK 1) SW. TO (\iC0NTR0L TIMING BANKS Figure A-2. E l e c t r i c a l schema of solenoid power supply-relay system. 1 9 5 APPENDIX B I n s t r u c t i o n s to S u b j e c t s 196 Preamble Th i s append ix r e l a t e s v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s read to £ by E_ p lu s c o v e r t p r o c e d u r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s to E_. The v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s are su r rounded by q u o t a t i o n marks. I n s t r u c t i o n s to £ are u n d e r l i n e d . As w e l l as p r o v i d i n g e x p l a n a t i o n and c o n t i n u i t y r e l a t i v e to the v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s , the c o v e r t i n s t r u c -t i o n s to E_ i n d i c a t e when c e r t a i n p rocedu re s were i n i t i a t e d and t e r m i n a t e d as w e l l as the manner i n wh ich these p r o c e d -ures were e x e c u t e d . There are e s s e n t i a l l y two p a r t s to the i n s t r u c t i o n s . The f i r s t p a r t of the i n s t r u c t i o n s were read to S_ i n an o u t e r l a b o r a t o r y where £ c o u l d not see the appa ra tu s used i n the e x p e r i m e n t . These i n s t r u c t i o n s r e l a t e to S_ the gene ra l purpose of the r e s e a r c h , the na t u r e of the ta sk to be per fo rmed p lu s s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g p r o -cedures to be unde r taken i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r e n t e r i n g the c u b i c l e where the e xpe r imen t was p e r f o r m e d . The second p a r t of the i n s t r u c t i o n s , t h e n , were read to £ i n the c u b i c l e and are d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h per fo rmance o f the e x p e r i m e n t . These i n s t r u c t i o n s c o n s i s t of an e x p l a n a t i o n 197 f a m i l i a r i z i n g w i t h the o p e r a t i o n of the appa ra tu s p lu s i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v en p r i o r to each phase of the e xpe r imen t ( p re -KR , KR and pos t -KR phases ) and f o l l o w i n g the l a s t phase of the e x p e r i m e n t . Que s t i on s which E_ asks are a l s o i n c l u d e d i n sequence w i t h the i n s t r u c t i o n s f o l l o w i n g the l a s t phase of the e x p e r i m e n t . I n s t r u c t i o n s to S u b j e c t s - O u t e r L a b o r a t o r y The appa ra tu s i s not v i s i b l e to _S and JE reads the  f o l 1 o w i ng i n s t r u c t i o n s : "The purpose o f t h i s e xpe r imen t i s to de te rm ine a c c u r a c y o f human movement sen se . The e xpe r imen t c o n s i s t s o f a s e r i e s o f t r i a l s where you w i l l be r e q u i r e d to move you r r i g h t arm i n a h o r i z o n t a l p l ane as a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e . " To male Ss - "To a v o i d any t a c t i l e cues t h a t might come from you r c l o t h i n g , would you p l e a s e s t r i p to the w a i s t . " To female Ss - "To a v o i d any t a c t i l e cues t h a t might come from your c l o t h i n g , would you p l e a s e wear t h i s s i n g l e t i n p l a c e of y ou r upper g a rmen t s . " 198 To a l l Ss - "So t h a t o n l y the movement sense w i l l be a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g the e x p e r i m e n t , no v i s u a l or a u d i t o r y cues w i l l be a v a i l a b l e to y ou : Would you p l e a s e , t h e r e f o r e , put on t h i s b l i n d f o l d . When you are s ea ted in f r o n t of the appa ra tu s you w i l l a l s o wear headphones through which you w i l l hear an u n p a t t e r n e d background n o i s e . You w i l l a l s o r e c e i v e v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s and tone cues through the headphones. "I w i l l now l e ad you to the a p p a r a t u s , s e a t you i n f r o n t of i t and f a m i l i a r i z e you w i t h i t s o p e r a t i o n " . E_ l ead s S_ c a r e f u l l y to appa ra tu s , s ea t s S_ and  p o s i t i o n s £ and the appa ra tu s i n c o r r e c t p r o x i mi ty to  one ano the r a c c o r d i n g to the f o l 1 o w i ng c r i t e r i a : 1. d i s tance from hand le a t o r i g i n i s f u l 1 but c o m f o r t a b l e  a rm ex tens i on w i t h o u t e x t e n s i o n o f s h o u l d e r , 2. hand le a t o r i g i n i s a p p r o x i mate!y 4.0 i n che s medi a l  o f s h o u l d e r . I n s t r u c t i o n s to S u b j e c t s - E x p e r i m e n t a l C u b i c l e " P l e a s e s i t w i t h both hands i n you r l a p . I w i l l p l a c e the headphones over your e a r s . P l e a s e a d j u s t the headphones i f they do not f i t s e c u r e l y , t a k i n g ca re to 199 c a r e f u l l y move your hands both away from you r l ap and back to y o u r l ap a g a i n . A l l f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the e xpe r imen t w i l l come to you th rough the headphones " . E pi aces headphones on S_. "Would you p l ea se t e l l me i f the volume i s s u f f i c i e n t so t h a t you hear my words c l e a r l y but low enough so as not to h u r t your e a r s ? " re p i i es and E a d j u s t s vo l ume i f necessa r y . "To b l o ck o f f o u t s i d e sound you w i l l hear an un-p a t t e r n e d background no i s e th rough the headphones. The no i s e sounds l i k e t h i s " . Wh i te no i s e t u r n e d on. "Can you s t i l l hear my words c l e a r l y ? " answers and E a d j u s t s as n e c e s s a r y . "I w i l l now f a m i l i a r i z e you w i t h the a p p a r a t u s . F i r s t , I w i l l e x p l a i n what you have to do. Then you w i l l have a. chance to p r a c t i s e u s i n g the appa ra tu s b e f o r e the e xpe r imen t 200 b e g i n s . P l e a s e do not move u n t i l s p e c i f i c a l l y r e q u e s t e d to do so . "Your ta sk i n t h i s e xpe r imen t i s to p o s i t i o n you r r i g h t arm as a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e . The movement i s from l e f t to r i g h t , s t a r t i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y i n f r o n t o f y o u , where I i n i t i a l l y p o s i t i o n e d you r hand. Would you now g rasp the hand le w i t h a ve ry l i g h t g r i p and w i t h you r thumb .on t o p . (E_ gu ides to_ the h a n d l e . ) I t i s t h i s hand le t h a t you w i l l move. "By g e n t l y push ing down w i t h your thumb on top of the h a n d l e , you w i l l n o t i c e t h a t the hand le moves up and down s l i g h t l y . There i s a s w i t c h s i t u a t e d under the hand le t h a t ope r a te s a b r a k i n g d e v i s e and which a l s o a c t u a t e s e l e c t r o n i c m o n i t o r i n g equ ipment . I t i s , t h e r e -f o r e , i m p o r t a n t t h a t you pres s down and r e l e a s e the hand le on l y a t the a p p r o p r i a t e t imes once the e x p e r i m e n t b e g i n s . " P r e s s i n g the hand le down w i l l r e l e a s e the b r a k e . A l l o w i n g the hand le to r i s e ( i t i s s p r i n g l o aded ) w i l l a c t u a t e the b r a k e . " T r y p r e s s i n g the hand le down and r e l e a s i n g i t s e v e r a l 201 t imes i n o r d e r to deve l op a f e e l f o r how much p r e s s u r e i s r e q u i r e d . P l e a s e do not use exces s p r e s s u r e . "Now, t r y p r e s s i n g the hand le down and , keep ing the hand le down, g e n t l y a t t empt to move the hand le to the l e f t . " S_ a t tempt s movement to the l e f t . "You w i l l n o t i c e t h a t the hand le cannot be moved to the l e f t . From the s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n , the hand le can be moved o n l y to the r i g h t . "Now, would you p l e a s e a l l o w the hand le to r i s e and r e t u r n you r hand to your l a p . " S_ r e t u r n s hand to l a p . " N e x t , you w i l l make some random p o s i t i o n i n g movements to the r i g h t i n o r d e r to f a m i l i a r i z e y o u r s e l f w i t h the type of movement to be made. F i r s t , however, t h e r e are s e v e r a l ma t te r s to c o n s i d e r r e g a r d i n g o p e r a t i o n of the b r a k i n g d e v i c e , and r e g a r d i n g the way i n wh ich the movement i s to be made. " R e g a r d i n g o p e r a t i o n of the b r a k i n g d e v i c e : 202 1. When the hand le i s down the brake i s r e l e a s e d . 2. Once the hand le i s down, be su re to keep i t p r e s s e d down u n t i l you have t e r m i n a t e d your movement a t p r e c i s e l y the p o i n t you wi sh to t e r m i n a t e mov ing . Then i m m e d i a t e l y a l l o w the hand le to r i s e and do not p res s i t down a g a i n . Push the hand le down once and r e l e a s e i t once. 3. P l ea se note c a r e f u l l y t h a t the brake i s not used to t e r m i n a t e the movement. The movement i s t e r m i n a t e d w i t h o u t u s i n g the b r a k e . Then, when the hand le i s e x a c t l y where you want i t , i m m e d i a t e l y app l y the brake by a l l o w i n g the hand le to r i s e . " R e g a r d i n g the way you w i l l make you r movements: 1. Look s t r a i g h t ahead at a l l t imes d u r i n g the e x p e r i m e n t . Don ' t t u r n you r head. 2. Your l e f t hand s t a y s i n your l a p t h roughou t the e xpe r imen t and s h o u l d not move. When you r r i g h t hand r e t u r n s to your l a p between t r i a l s , i t s h o u l d r e t u r n to the same p l a c e i n you r l ap each t ime and i t s h o u l d not move u n t i l you hear the s i g n a l to beg in the next t r i a l . 3. Keep the arm s t r a i g h t t h r oughou t the movement. The elbow s h o u l d be l o c k e d but not t i g h t . 4. Use a very l i g h t g r i p on the h a n d l e . 203 5. The h a n d l e , as you w i l l n o t i c e , r e q u i r e s very l i t t l e f o r c e to move. 6. Move the hand le w i t h a l i g h t f o r c e and a t a moderate and even speed. 7. Movement i s from l e f t to r i g h t . 8. Come to a s top smooth ly and q u i c k l y at the end of a movement and w i t h o u t back a n d . f o r t h mot ions o f the h a n d l e . 9. As a l r e a d y men t i oned , a l l o w the hand le to r i s e when the - movement i s t e r m i n a t e d and at p r e c i s e l y the p o i n t t h a t you f e e l i s the c o r r e c t end p o i n t of the movement. "As p r a c t i s e , I w i l l move you r arm s e v e r a l t imes through a p p r o x i m a t e l y the e n t i r e range t h a t the hand le w i l l move. Th i s w i l l a c q u a i n t you w i t h the speed at which you are to move and w i t h the manner i n wh ich you are to t e r m i n a t e your movement. You w i l l make no e f f o r t to move on you r own d u r i n g these t r i a l s . I w i l l put my hand over y o u r s , push the hand le down and do the moving f o r y o u . " To i n i t i a t e each t r i a l IE asks £ to_ grasp the h a n d l e . E_ checks d u r i n g each movement to i n s u r e t h a t £ i_s_ not  e x t e n d i ng the s h o u l d e r or engag ing i n any mo vement of the  t r u n k . The p o s i t i o n o_f £ i_n p r o x i mi ty to the appa ra tu s  i s a d j u s t e d i f n e c e s s a r y . At the c o n c l u s i on o f each 204 t r i a l Ji asks to_ r e t u r n the hand to the l a p . When two  s u c c e s s f u l pas s i ve t r i a l s are compl e t e d , E_ c o n t i n u e s w i t h  f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n s . "Now I would l i k e you to t r y making movements of v a r i o u s l e n g t h s w i t h i n the range o f movement of the a p p a r -a t u s . You w i l l hear a tone t e l l i n g you when to g rasp the h a n d l e , push the hand le down and beg i n a t r i a l and a n o t h e r tone t e l l i n g you when to r e l e a s e you r grasp of the hand le and r e t u r n your arm to you r l a p . "The f i r s t tone f o r b e g i n n i n g a t r i a l sounds l i k e t h i s . " £ demons t ra te s tone _1. "The second tone f o r r e t u r n i n g you r hand to y o u r l ap sounds l i k e t h i s . " £ demons t r a t e s tone 2_. "Do you have any q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the i n s t r u c t i o n s you have r e c e i v e d thus f a r ? " I f asks q u e s t i ons , £ answers by q u o t i n g a_ r e l evant  s e c t i o n o f the i n s t r u c t i o n s wherever p o s s i b l e . I f a_ q u e s t i o n 205 i s not a p p l i c a b l e , E says , " Tha t q u e s t i o n i s not a p p l i c a b l e . Do not conce rn y o u r s e l f w i t h t h a t m a t t e r . " r e c e i ves t h r ee or more p r a c t i s e t r i a l s to ensure  t h a t the i n s t r u c t i o n s are be i ng f o l 1 owed c o r r e c t l y . E_ checks t h a t : 1. the hand le i s h e l d w i t h a_ ve ry l i g h t g r i p , 2. the hand le i s moved w i t h a_ l i g h t f o r c e , 3-. the hand le i s moved a t a mode r a t e and even speed , c l e a r l y a_ s e l f - p a c e d and not a_ b a l l i s t i c movement, 4. the movement i s t e rm i nated smooth ly and p o s i t i v e l y  w i t h o u t back and f o r t h moti on o f the h a n d l e , 5. t h e r e i s no s h o u l d e r ex tens i on o r movement o f the  head or t r u n k . When E_ j_s_ s a t i s f i e d t h a t S_ i_s_ movi ng c o r r e c t l y , the  e xpe r imen t begi ns . Pre-KR Phase I n s t r u c t i o n s "We are now ready to beg in the e x p e r i m e n t . You are f a m i l i a r w i t h the type of movement r e q u i r e d , w i t h the tone i n s t r u c t i n g you to beg in each t r i a l and w i t h the o t h e r tone i n s t r u c t i n g you to remove you r hand from the hand le f o l l o w i n g a t r i a l and r e t u r n you r hand to y o u r l a p . 206 "Your task i s to a t tempt to produce a 7.0 i n ch movement. Th ink o f a 7.0 i n c h l i n e and a t t empt to move the hand le e x a c t l y t h a t d i s t a n c e each t ime you hear the a p p r o p r i a t e t o n e . A t tempt to produce the same 7.0 i n ch movement on each t r i a l . In o t h e r word s , t r y to make a l l y ou r movements c o n s i s t e n t . " P l e a s e c o n c e n t r a t e very c a r e f u l l y t h roughou t the e-xper i ment. "Do you have any q u e s t i o n s ? " I f S_ asks q u e s t i o n s , E_ answers them by q u o t i n g a_ r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n of the i n s t r u c t i o n s wherever poss i b l e . I f a q u e s t i o n i s not a p p l i c a b l e , E_ s ays , "That q u e s t i o n i s not a p p l i c a b l e . Do not conce rn y o u r s e l f w i t h t h a t m a t t e r . " When q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r i s e have been answered, IE c o n t i n u e s w i t h the i n s t r u c t i o n s . "You w i l l now hear the tone i n s t r u c t i n g you to commence your f i r s t r e s p o n s e . " E a c t u a t e s tone 1. 207 KR Phase I n s t r u c t i o n s . Fol 1 owi ng t r i a l 30 of the pre-KR phase , E_ says , " Tha t was the f i n a l t r i a l o f t h i s phase. F o l l o w i n g a b r i e f r e s t , c o n t i n u e as b e f o r e , a t t e m p t i n g to produce an e x a c t 7.0 i n ch movement. " P l e a s e c o n t i n u e to c o n c e n t r a t e c a r e f u l l y . Du r ing t-his phase you w i l l be t o l d f o l l o w i n g each t r i a l what your e r r o r i s . E r r o r w i l l be r e p o r t e d i n u n s p e c i f i e d u n i t s and as " p l u s " i f you moved too f a r and as "m inu s " i f you d i d not move f a r enough. As examp le s , e r r o r messages might be " p l u s n i n e " , "minus e i g h t " e t c e t e r a . Use t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n to t r y to reduce your e r r o r . " A l l o t h e r a s p e c t s o f the e x p e r i m e n t w i l l remain the same. L i s t e n f o r the tone s i g n a l l i n g you to beg i n a movement. F o l l o w i n g the movement w a i t f o r e r r o r to be r e p o r t e d . Return your hand to your l ap at the second t o n e . "Do you have any q u e s t i o n s ? " I f S_ asks q u e s t i o n s , |_ answers them by q u o t i ng a_ r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n erf the i n s t r u c t i o n s wherever p o s s i b l e . 208 I f _a q u e s t i o n i s not a p p l i c a b l e , E_ s a y s , " Tha t q u e s t i o n i s not a p p l i c a b l e . Do not concern y o u r s e l f w i t h t h a t m a t t e r . " When q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r i s e have been answered, E_ c o n t i n u e s w i t h the i n s t r u c t i o n s . "There w i l l be a s h o r t r e s t pause. The tone w i l l s i g n a l you to beg in you r f i r s t t r i a l . " E_ a c t u a t e s tone 1_ ajt the end of the 3.0 minute res t  p e r i o d . Post -KR Phase I n s t r u c t i o n s Fol 1 owi ng t r i a l 30 o f the KR phase , E_ s a y s , "That was the f i n a l t r i a l o f t h i s phase. There i s one more phase to the e x p e r i m e n t . Th i s f i n a l phase i s i d e n t i c a l to the f i r s t phase. You w i l l c o n t i n u e to a t tempt on each t r i a l to p r o -duce an e x a c t 7.0 i n ch movement. Dur ing t h i s phase you w i l l not be t o l d what you r e r r o r i s . "There w i l l be the usua l tones s i g n a l l i n g you to beg in a movement and s i g n a l l i n g you to r e t u r n you r hand to you r l a p . 209 "Do you have any q u e s t i o n s ? " I f S_ asks q u e s t i o n s , E_ answe rs them by q u o t i n g a_ r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n of the i n s t r u c t i o n s wherever p o s s i b l e . I f a_ q u e s t i o n i s not a p p l i c a b l e , £_ s a y s , " Tha t q u e s t i o n i s not a p p l i c a b l e . Do not concern y o u r s e l f w i t h t h a t m a t t e r . " When q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r i s e have been answe r e d , E_ co n t i n u e s w i t h the i n s t r u c t i o n s . "There w i l l be a s h o r t r e s t pause. The tone w i l l s i g n a l you to beg in you r f i r s t t r i a l . " E_ a c t u a t e s tone 1_ a_t the end o f the 2.0 minute res t  p e r i o d . End of Expe r iment - I n s t r u c t i o n s and Ques t i on s Fol 1 owi ng t r i a l 30 of the pos t -KR phase , E_ says , " Tha t was the f i n a l t r i a l o f the e x p e r i m e n t . P l ea se remain s e a t e d w i t h you r hands i n you r l a p . Thank you f o r you r c o o p e r a t i o n i n p e r f o r m i n g t h i s e x p e r i m e n t . " " B e f o r e you l e a ve I would l i k e to ask you some q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g you r per fo rmance i n the e x p e r i m e n t . F i r s t , however, 210 I w i l l t u r n o f f the background n o i s e and remove the headphones f o r y o u . " E_ t u r n s o f f wh i te no i s e and removes headphones. "Here are the q u e s t i o n s I wou ld l i k e you to answer. 1. Did you use any s t r a t e g y or p l an to he lp you remember the movement you were a t t e m p t i n g to make? 2-. In the second phase of the e x p e r i m e n t , the phase where you were t o l d your e r r o r , d i d you pay more a t t e n t i o n to the f e e l o f the movement, more a t t e n t i o n to the e r r o r r e p o r t e d to y o u , or d i d you pay about equa l a t t e n t i o n to both o f t he se a s p e c t s ? 3. Would you d e s c r i b e how you combined the two sou rce s of i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n the second phase of the e x p e r i m e n t , those sou rce s be i ng the f e e l o f the movement and the e r r o r r e p o r t e d to you? 4. Did you v i s u a l i z e the movement you were a t t e m p t i n g to produce? I f n o t , how d i d you t h i n k o f the movement? 5. In t h i n k i n g about the movement d i d you c o n c e n t r a t e more on i m a g i n i n g the l e n g t h of the movement or the end p o i n t of the movement? 6. Did you r arm get t i r e d or sore d u r i n g the e x p e r i m e n t ? (lf_ S_ answers ' yes ' . . . . ) When d i d t h i s o c cu r ? 7. Were you ab l e to c o n c e n t r a t e t h roughou t the e x p e r i m e n t ? 211 I f n o t , when d i d you r c o n c e n t r a t i o n l a p s e ? 8. What d i d you t h i n k about w h i l e you were w a i t i n g be twee re sponse s ? 9. Did you use any type o f s t r a t e g y go ing from the second to the t h i r d phase to h e l p you m a i n t a i n the a c c u r a c y you had deve loped i n the second phase? 10. How c o n f i d e n t were you o f y ou r r e s p o n d i n g i n the t h i r d phase? 11. " What path do you t h i n k you moved the hand le i n ( i . e . , s t r a i g h t , cu rved toward y o u , cu rved away from you e t c . ) ? 12. Can you p r o v i d e any f u r t h e r comments r e g a r d i n g you r per fo rmance i n the e xpe r imen t ? "Those are a l l the q u e s t i o n s I w i sh to ask . A g a i n , thank you f o r you r c o o p e r a t i o n i n p e r f o r m i n g t h i s e x p e r i -ment. P l ea se do not d i s c u s s any a s p e c t at a l l o f the e xpe r imen t a f t e r you l e a ve the l a b o r a t o r y . I w i l l be t e s t i n g u n t i l the end of August and would a p p r e c i a t e c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y u n t i l t h a t t ime a t l e a s t . Thank y o u . "I w i l l now gu ide you away from the appa ra tu s and then you may take the b l i n d f o l d o f f . " JL gu ides out o f c u b i c l e and i n t o o u t e r 1 ab where S takes b l i n d f o l d o f f . 2 1 2 APPENDIX C R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n P e r t a i n i n g to Methodo logy and I n d i r e c t T h e o r e t i c a l I s sues 213 Th i s append ix dea l s w i t h i s s u e s t h a t do not d i r e c t l y f a l l under the purv iew of Chap te r IV. These i s s u e s have f u r t h e r b e a r i n g on m e t h o d o l o g i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l r a m i f i c -a t i o n s of the r e s u l t s . Three s p e c i f i c i s s u e s are r a i s e d and d i s c u s s e d h e r e . The f i r s t i s s u e examines p o s s i b l e reasons f o r f a i l u r e by the p r e s e n t s t udy to r e p l i c a t e the r e s u l t s of the s t u d i e s by- Dyal and h i s c o -wo rke r s ( D y a l , 1966; Dyal and A r r i n g t o n , 1964; D y a l , W i l s on and B e r r y , 1965) from which the de s i g n o f the p r e s e n t s tudy drew much of i t s i n s p i r a t i o n . M e t h o d o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n measurement t e c h n i q u e s are examined. I s sues r e l a t e d to the i m p l i c a t i o n s of pre-KR phase response b i a s i n g a re a l s o examined, s i n c e compar i son of the r e s u l t s a c c r u i n g from n a t u r a l l y and a r t i f i c i a l l y i nduced b i a s i n g t e c h n i q u e s l ead s to q u e s t i o n s of t h e o r e t i c a l impor t w i t h r e ga rd to a p o s s i b l e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e f a c t o r . The second i s s u e to be examined has to do w i t h p r o c e d -u r a l ma t te r s b e a r i n g on pos t -KR phase |CE| r e s u l t s . The p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the between-groups |CE| d i f f e r e n c e i n the pos t -KR phase might be due to a c t i v i t y over the post -KR phase ITI r a t h e r than the KR phase ITI was examined and r e j e c t e d i n Chapte r IV (page 139 ) . Two f u r t h e r ma t te r s r e l a t e d to pos t -KR phase b i a s i n g a l s o beg d i s c u s s i o n , however. One i s a p r o c e d -u r a l ma t t e r and i s concerned w i t h how the magnitude of pre-KR 214 phase b i a s i n g might have a f f e c t e d pos t -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . ( I m p l i c a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the d i r e c t i o n of response b i a s i n g are d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i n g the p r e s e n t s t udy to the s t u d i e s of Dyal and h i s c o - w o r k e r s . ) The o t h e r m a t t e r concerns a r e s u l t , t h a t be i ng the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t of t r e n d i n the p r e -KR phase data ( l i n e a r and q u a d r a t i c CE t r end s f o r C o n d i t i o n 1 and q u a d r a t i c |CE| t r e n d f o r C o n d i t i o n 2) on pos t -KR phase b i a s i n g t e n d e n c i e s . The t h i r d i s s u e has to do w i t h measurement. D i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s a rea i s w a r r a n t e d due to the major r o l e t h a t measure-ment t h e o r y p l a yed i n d e v e l o p i n g the t h e s i s . L i m i t a t i o n s o f CE as demons t ra ted by the p r e s e n t |CE| r e s u l t s p r o v i d e s one a rea f o r d i s c u s s i o n . A l s o d i s c u s s e d i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of i n c l u d i n g the s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s of dependent v a r i a b l e s i n o r d e r to ex tend the o v e r a l l p i c t u r e o f response t e n d e n c i e s . F a i l u r e to R e p l i c a t e the R e s u l t s of the Dyal S t u d i e s The s e r i e s of s t u d i e s by Dyal and h i s c o -wo r ke r s ( D y a l , 1966; Dyal and A r r i n g t o n , 1964; D y a l , W i l s on and B e r r y , 1965) a l l found a d i f f e r e n c e i n pos t -KR phase b i a s i n g due to man ipu -l a t i o n of e i t h e r the KR d e l a y i n t e r v a l or the post -KR d e l a y i n t e r v a l . S i n ce the de s i gn s of these s t u d i e s were confounded 215 (see pages 6 and 87) i t i s not p o s s i b l e to de te rm ine which o f these i n t e r v a l s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the ob se rved e f f e c t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the p r e s e n t s t u d y , u t i l i z i n g a de s i gn s i m i l a r to t h a t employed i n the s t u d i e s by Dyal and h i s c o l l e a g u e s , f a i l e d to demons t ra te d i f f e r e n c e s i n po s t -KR • phase b i a s i n g due to m a n i p u l a t i o n of e i t h e r the KR or pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l s . A l t hough the p r e s e n t s tudy was not i n t e n d e d to be an e x a c t r e p l i c a t i o n , an a t tempt to account f o r the d - i s p a r i t y i n r e s u l t s between the p r e s e n t s tudy and the Dyal s e r i e s of s t u d i e s i s i n o r d e r s i n c e s i m i l a r r e s u l t s were e x p e c t e d . Three p r o c e d u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s might account i n v a r y i n g degrees f o r the d i s p a r i t y between the r e s u l t s o f the p r e s e n t s tudy and those of the Dyal s t u d i e s . These p r o c e d u r a l ma t t e r s concern the l e n g t h of the c r i t e r i o n movement, the i n f o r m a t i o n i n h e r e n t i n KR and the method of d e t e r m i n i n g pre-KR phase response b i a s . The method o f d e t e r m i n i n g S_ b i a s a l s o has p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s w i t h r e ga rd to an i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e f a c t o r . In the Dyal s t u d i e s the c r i t e r i o n movement was 3.0 i n c h e s . In the p r e s e n t s tudy the c r i t e r i o n movement v a r i e d between Ss , a l t hough i n a l l cases i t was c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r than 3.0 i n c h e s . A c c o r d i n g to the C e n t r a l Tendency, or Range, E f f e c t 216 (Hoi 1 ingwor th , 1909 ), l o n g e r movements would be e x p e c t e d to e x h i b i t l e s s o v e r s h o o t i n g than s h o r t e r movements. C o r r o b o r a t i n g e v i d e n c e f o r the C e n t r a l Tendency E f f e c t has been p r o v i d e d i n an e xpe r imen t by Anne t t ( 1970 ) , the r e s u l t s of which i n d i c a t e d t h a t o v e r s h o o t i n g tendency v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g to the type and amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g movement. Thus , i t may be argued t h a t S_s i n the p r e s e n t e xpe r imen t r e c e i v e d d i f f e r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n to those i n the Dy-al e xpe r imen t s and , t h e r e f o r e , produced d i f f e r e n t response t e n d e n c i e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , s i n c e the c r i t e r i o n movement i n the p r e s e n t s tudy v a r i e d between Ss_, t h e r e i s scope f o r g r e a t e r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n re sponse t e n d e n c i e s due to a g r e a t e r range o f amount o f movement i n f o r m a t i o n . D i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s u l t s due to l e n g t h of movement s h o u l d be s y s t e m a t i c , however, and H y p o t h e s i s 1 a ccoun ted f o r s y s t e m a t i c s h i f t s due to d i f f e r e n c e s between e x p e r i m e n t s by s i m p l y s t a t i n g t h a t t h e r e w i l l be a between-groups d i f f e r -ence i n post -KR phase r e spond i n g due to l e n g t h e n i n g the p o s t -KR d e l a y i n t e r v a l . There i s no s p e c i f i c s t i p u l a t i o n i n the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s under shoot w h i l e o t h e r s o v e r s h o o t . As w e l l , a l t h o u g h the p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s of the post -KR de l ay i n t e r v a l might r e a s o n a b l y cause the t r a c e of i n f o r m a t i o n i nd i g enou s to d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i o n movements to decay to d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s , t he reby p r o d u c i n g r e l a t i v e l y h i gh 217 i n t e r - i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e r e s hou l d at l e a s t have been an i n d i c a t i o n o f the h y p o t h e s i z e d d i f f e r e n c e s between group means. Even though s i g n i f i c a n c e may have been d i f f i -c u l t to a c h i e v e due to the low n of t h i s e x p e r i m e n t , the r e s u l t s s h o u l d , n e v e r t h e l e s s , have been e xpec t ed to have been at l e a s t s u g g e s t i v e o f c o r r o b o r a t i n g the Dyal s e r i e s o f e x p e r i m e n t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t appears u n l i k e l y t h a t f a i l u r e to r e p l i c a t e was due to the l e n g t h of the c r i t e r i o n movement. A second p r o c e d u r a l a rea t h a t d i f f e r e d between the p r e s e n t s tudy and the Dyal s t u d i e s has to do w i t h the i n f o r -mat ion i n h e r e n t i n KR. The p r e s e n t s tudy r e p o r t e d KR i n terms o f magnitude and d i r e c t i o n of response e r r o r w h i l e the Dyal s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d KR i n terms o f d i r e c t i o n o n l y . Thus t h e r e i s l e s s i n f o r m a t i o n i n KR i n the Dyal s t u d i e s j u s t as the r e s u l t s of A n n e t t ' s (1970) s tudy argue t h a t t h e r e i s l e s s i n f o r m a t i o n i n the 3.0 i n ch c r i t e r i o n response than i n a l o n g e r c r i t e r i o n r e spon se . In a s i t u a t i o n where response i nd i g enou s i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d , £ may engage i n a g r e a t e r amount of c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t y i n the pos t -KR phase i n an a t tempt to gene ra te p lans r e g a r d i n g f u t u r e r e s -ponding (see r e f e r e n c e to G e n t i l e and o t h e r s i n N e w e l l ' s 1976c r ev i ew o f KR). Such c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t y may, i n t u r n , i n t e r f e r e w i t h the r e h e a r s a l of i n f o r m a t i o n go ing i n t o l o n g -218 term memory f o r use i n the pos t -KR phase. The r e s u l t a n t decay would be a f u n c t i o n , then of the l e n g t h o f the pos t -KR de l ay i n t e r v a l . Th i s c o n t e n t i o n i s h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e , however, s i n c e t h e r e appear to be no s t u d i e s t h a t have con -c o m i t a n t l y dec rea sed the i n f o r m a t i o n i n h e r e n t i n KR and i n c r e a s e d the l e n g t h of the tempora l de l ay i n t e r v a l s s u f f i c i -e n t l y to a l l o w f o r p o t e n t i a l pos t -KR phase d i f f e r e n c e s i n response b i a s i n g to o c c u r . A t h i r d p r o c e d u r a l d i f f e r e n c e , t h a t due to method o f d e t e r m i n i n g b i a s , p r o v i d e s a f u r t h e r p o t e n t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the f a i l u r e of the p r e s e n t s tudy to at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y r e p l i c a t e the r e s u l t s of Dyal and h i s c o - w o r k e r s . To r e v i e w , the Dyal s t u d i e s de te rm ined response b i a s on the b a s i s of i n h e r e n t re sponse t e n d e n c i e s . Thus, Sj^ were c l a s s i f i e d as to whether they n a t u r a l l y e x h i b i t e d u n d e r s h o o t i n g or o v e r -s h o o t i n g t e n d e n c i e s . In c o n t r a s t , the p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t a l method was to a r t i f i c i a l l y b i a s a l l S_s_ as u n d e r s h o o t e r s . The r e s u l t s , wh ich saw a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f o f the S_s_ i n each c o n d i t i o n i n the pos t -KR phase under shoot w h i l e the o t h e r h a l f o v e r s h o t , s tand as an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the tendency f o r d i r e c t i o n a l b i a s i n r e spond i ng may be i n n a t e . D e s p i t e r a t h e r extreme a t tempt s to c o n t r o l the d i r e c t i o n and magnitude o f £ response b i a s i n g , i n n a t e d i r e c t i o n a l b i a s i n g c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s appear to have p r e v a i l e d d u r i n g r e l a t i v e l y u n c o n s t r a i n e d 219 r e s pond i n g i n the pos t -KR phase. Th i s c o n t e n t i o n i s not d i r e c t l y s uppo r t ed by the p r e s e n t s t u d y , however. D i r e c t e v i dence would be f o r t h c o m i n g from an e xpe r imen t which compared the e f f e c t s of n a t u r a l and a r t i f i c i a l means o f d e t e r m i n i n g £ b i a s w i t h i n the same S_s_. There e x i s t s , t h e r e f o r e , some e v i d e n c e from the p r e s e n t r e s u l t s and from the s t u d i e s of Dyal and h i s c o -wo r ke r s t h a t ' d i r e c t i o n of response b i a s may compr i se an i n n a t e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e f a c t o r i n r e s p o n d i n g . However, t h e r e does not appear to be e v i d e n c e t h a t magnitude of response b i a s i s a f f e c t e d i n a s i m i l a r manner. C o n s e q u e n t l y , g i v en the c o n -s t r a i n t s i n t r o d u c e d by a r t i f i c i a l l y i n d u c i n g re sponse b i a s , |CE| i n the p r e s e n t s tudy would be e x p e c t e d to have r e v e a l e d d i f f e r e n c e s between c o n d i t i o n s i n a manner p a r a l l e l i n g the f i n d i n g s of the Dyal s t u d i e s . As w e l l as p r o c e d u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n methods of measurement t h a t c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y accoun t f o r the f a i l u r e o f the p r e s e n t s tudy to y i e l d r e s u l t s s i m i l a r to the Dyal s t u d i e s . Us ing number of s h o r t and number of l ong responses as dependent measures p r o v i d e s a very s e n s i t i v e measure to what c o u l d be r e l a t i v e l y sma l l q u a n t i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s between e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s i n the Dyal s t u d i e s . In post -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g , data from Dyal et a l . (1965) shows 220 t h a t when p r e s e n t a t i o n of KR was d e l a y e d , somewhat l e s s than t h r ee responses per f i v e - t r i a l b l o c k were s h o r t re sponses ( i . e . , u n d e r s h o o t i n g ) . T h e r e f o r e , two or more responses per f i v e - t r i a l b l o c k were e i t h e r c r i t e r i o n responses or l ong r e s pon se s . Th i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t r e s p o n d i n g , on the a v e r a g e , was h o v e r i n g near the c r i t e r i o n . A l t hough when KR was p r e -sen ted i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g a r e s p o n s e , t h e r e was an average of on l y one s h o r t response per f i v e - t r i a l b l o c k , enough to set- t h i s c o n d i t i o n a p a r t from the c o n d i t i o n where KR was d e l a y e d , the i n d i c a t i o n here a l s o i s t h a t r e s pond i n g was w i t h i n f a i r l y c l o s e p r o x i m i t y of the c r i t e r i o n . I t i s r e a s o n -ab l e to assume t h a t i f r e s p o n d i n g i s s t r o n g l y b i a s e d t h a t few, i f any , responses w i l l show a change i n s i g n . The p o i n t here i s t h a t the dependent measures and a n a l y s i s employed i n the Dyal s t u d i e s may have d e t e c t e d very sma l l changes t h a t g e n e r a l l y would not be r e v e a l e d i n a n a l y s i s o f a q u a n t i t a t i v e dependent v a r i a b l e . As w e l l , f o r the dependent v a r i a b l e s of number of s h o r t and number of l ong responses to p r o v i d e a u s e f u l l measure of response d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , the c o n d i t i o n s be i n g compared must be c o n v e n i e n t l y a r r anged w i t h t h e i r average re sponse t e n d e n c i e s on o p p o s i t e s i d e s o f the c r i t e r i o n . S i n c e the r e s u l t s of the Dyal s t u d i e s have been r e p l i -c a t ed on t h r e e o c c a s i o n s ( D y a l , 1966; Dyal and A r r i n g t o n , 1964; Dyal e t a l . , 1965 ) , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to i g n o r e the 221 i m p l i c a t i o n s o f not o n l y an i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e f a c t o r i n response v a r i a b i l i t y but a l s o a sou rce of v a r i a b i l i t y i n e i t h e r the KR or pos t -KR de l a y i n t e r v a l . I f , as the p r e s e n t r e s u l t s t e n t a t i v e l y s u g ge s t , the ITI i s the major l o c u s o f response b i a s i n g , an e x a c t r e p l i c a t i o n of the Dyal s t u d i e s , but w i t h e x t e n s i o n to unconfounded m a n i p u l a t i o n of the KR tempora l d e l a y i n t e r v a l s , would be e x p e c t e d to r e v e a l a sma l l d i f f e r e n c e due to v a r y i n g e i t h e r the KR or pos t -KR de-lay i n t e r v a l and a l a r g e r d i f f e r e n c e due to v a r y i n g the I T I . However, the KR and pos t -KR d e l a y i n t e r v a l s f a i l e d to a c h i e v e s i g n i f i c a n c e by a wide marg in i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y , f u r t h e r s u g g e s t i n g t h a t a r e p l i c a t i o n of the Dyal s t u d i e s would y i e l d s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the KR/post-KR de l a y i n t e r v a l o n l y i n terms of the n o n - q u a n t i t a t i v e measures of number of s h o r t and number of l ong r e s p o n s e s . P r o c e d u r a l M a t t e r s B e a r i n g On The Pos t -KR Phase B i a s i n g R e s u l t s The t e n t a t i v e f i n d i n g of l e s s b i a s e d r e s pond i n g f o r C o n d i t i o n 1 ( s h o r t e r IT I ) as compared to C o n d i t i o n s 2 and 3 ( l o n g e r IT I ) must be c o n s i d e r e d i n l i g h t of t h r e e p o t e n t i a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r s . As ment ioned i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s a p p e n d i x , the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t pos t -KR phase |CE| d i f f e r e n c e s might be due to a c t i v i t y over the pos t -KR phase ITI was 222 examined and r e j e c t e d i n Chapte r IV. Th i s l e a v e s two f u r t h e r m a t t e r s to con tend w i t h , one m a t t e r c o n c e r n i n g the e x t e n t o f pre-KR phase b i a s i n g (a p r o c e d u r a l m a t t e r ) and the o t h e r c o n c e r n i n g t r e n d i n the pre-KR phase CE and |CE| data (a r e s u l t ) . To what e x t e n t the i nduced b i a s i n g t e n d e n c i e s of the p r e s e n t e x p e r i m e n t a f f e c t e d the r e s u l t s , i n p a r t i c u l a r those of the pos t -KR phase, i s not r e v e a l e d by the de s i gn employed. The p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a r t i f i c i a l b i a s i n g f a i l e d to change i n n a t e d i r e c t i o n a l response t e n d e n c i e s has been d i s c u s s e d . In a d d i t i o n , however, the magnitude of response b i a s i n g was not v a r i e d i n the p r e s e n t e xpe r imen t so i t i s not known how much post -KR phase | C E | might have been a f f e c t e d by t h i s f a c t o r , e s p e c i a l l y i n terms of the d i f f e r e n c e s between g roup s . Fu tu re e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n c o u l d vary type ( n a t u r a l or a r t i f i c i a l l y i n d u c e d ) , d i r e c t i o n and magnitude of pre-KR phase b i a s i n g . The amount of pre-KR phase b i a s i n g c oup l ed w i t h a p r o -nounced pos 't-KR phase tendency to e i t h e r under shoot or o v e r -shoot w i t h i n a l l o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s sugges t s t h a t the FB a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b i a s i n g i s a po t en t form of s en so ry i n p u t . M a n i p u l a t i o n of the v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d to re sponse b i a s i n g w i l l be n e c e s s a r y , however, to v e r i f y t h i s c o n t e n t i o n and to d e l i n e a t e the p r e c i s e way i n which b i a s i n g i n f l u e n c e s f u t u r e r e s p o n d i n g . In t h i s r e g a r d , t h e r e are two s p e c i f i c and 223 somewhat c o u n t e r a c t i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s which c o u l d have a f f e c t e d the p r e s e n t r e s u l t s . F i r s t , the e x t e n t of pre-KR phase b i a s i n g may have a c t e d to i n c r e a s e the d i f f e r e n c e between pos t -KR phase |CE| group means. Second, e m p h a s i z i n g i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n b i a s i n g tendency may have c o n t r i b -uted to the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e pos t -KR phase between-S^ |CE| d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t were e n c o u n t e r e d , thus making i t more d i f f i -c u l t to a c h i e v e s i g n i f i c a n c e between g roups . The o t h e r ma t t e r b e a r i n g on the t e n t a t i v e f i n d i n g of l e s s . pos t -KR phase response b i a s i n g f o r s h o r t e r ITI concerns a s i g n i f i c a n t CE groups x b l o c k s e f f e c t (Tab le E - l ) w i t h F (10,135) = 1.94, p<.05. Th i s e f f e c t was i s o l a t e d to the pre-KR phase where C o n d i t i o n 1 d i s p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e a r t r e n d w i t h F ( 5 ,13 5 ) = 24 .57 , p < . 01 plus, a s i g n i f i c a n t q u a d r a t i c t r e n d w i t h F ( 5 , 135 ) = 7.49 , p< .01. C o n d i t i o n 1 S_s unde r sho t an average of 0.75 i n che s over the f i r s t b l o ck of the pre-KR phase and p r o g r e s s i v e l y i n c r e a s e d re sponse l e n g t h to o v e r -s h o o t i n g by 0.48 i n che s on the f i f t h b l o c k . By the s i x t h b l o c k of pre-KR phase r e s p o n d i n g , o v e r s h o o t i n g tendency was reduced to 0.29 i n c h e s . The s i g n i f i c a n t q u a d r a t i c t r e n d i n d i c a t e d t h a t response t e n d e n c i e s were s t a b i l i z i n g toward the end of the phase , an o b s e r v a t i o n which i s v i s u a l l y appa ren t i n F i gure I V - 1. 224 The i n t r o s p e c t i o n s of C o n d i t i o n 1 S_s_ and the o b s e r v a t i o n s of E_ i n d i c a t e t h a t response t e n d e n c i e s were somewhat d i f f e r e n t f o r Ss_ i n C o n d i t i o n 1 (11.0 second IT I ) than f o r Ss_ i n C o n d i t i o n s 3 and 4 (40.0 second I T I ) . D e s p i t e i n s t r u c t i o n s and p r a c t i s e p r i o r to the e x p e r i m e n t t h a t emphas ized the s l o w , s e l f - p a c e d na tu re of r e s p o n d i n g , i t was ob se rved t h a t S_s i n C o n d i t i o n 1 tended to be somewhat h u r r i e d i n r e s p o n d i n g . Some C o n d i t i o n 1 Ss_ had to be t o l d e a r l y i n the e x p e r i m e n t to reduce t h e i r r a t e of r e s p o n d i n g . These E_ o b s e r v a t i o n s c o r r e sponded w i t h the remarks of C o n d i t i o n 1 Ss_ t h a t they f e l t rushed when p e r f o r m i n g the e x p e r i m e n t . That t h e r e seemed not t o be enough t ime between t r i a l s i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e when c o n s i d e r i n g the a c t i v i t y t h a t occu r s i n t h i s i n t e r v a l . Over the 11.0 seconds of ITI f o r C o n d i t i o n 1, the hand i s r e t u r n e d to the l a p e i t h e r 5.0 or 6.0 seconds f o l l o w i n g t e r m i n a t i o n o f the response (depend ing on the phase) and then a lmos t i m m e d i a t e l y r e t u r n e d to the hand le a ga i n to commence the subsequent r e spon se . The i m p l i -c a t i o n here i s t h a t the t ime urgency tended to i n c r e a s e response l e n g t h over pre-KR phase t r i a l s . The p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t of t ime urgency on pre-KR phase r e spond i n g may be encouraged by the l a b i l i t y of a p u r e l y k i n e s t h e t i c t r a c e . Recent e v i d e n c e from s t u d i e s by Adams, 225 Goetz and M a r s h a l l ( 1 972 ) , Adams, Gopher and L i n t e r n (1977) and S te lmach and Ke l s o (1975) sugges t s t h a t k i n e s t h e t i c i n f o r m a t i o n needs to be combined w i t h o t h e r forms of i n f o r -mat ion i n o r d e r to deve lop a s t a b l e PT. E a r l i e r work ( F i t t s , 1951; F l e i chman and R i c h , 1963) i n d i c a t e s t h a t e a r l y i n l e a r n i n g i n t e r o c e p t i v e FB channe l s l a c k the potency of e x t e r o c e p t i v e channe l s i n g o v e r n i n g r e s p o n d i n g . The reason may be t h a t an a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n channe l i s needed to he-lp code k i n e s t h e t i c i n f o r m a t i o n . Newel l and Boucher ( 1974 ) have produced e v i d e n c e t h a t re sponse r e c o g n i t i o n c o n s i s t s of two p r o c e s s e s , one i n v o l v i n g e v a l u a t i o n of FB from a re sponse and the o t h e r i n v o l v i n g a t t a c h i n g a i n t e r v a l s c a l e l a b e l to the s p e c i f i c FB s t i m u l i . KR can c o n t r i b u t e to the second of t he se p r o c e s s e s , s e r v i n g as an e x t e r o c e p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n m o d a l i t y t h a t a c t s to s c a l e the i n t e r o c e p t i v e k i n e s t h e t i c i n f o r m a t i o n . P r i o r to the a v a i l a b i l i t y of KR, t h e n , the i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t S_s have d i f f i c u l t y r e c o g n i z i n g t h e i r own p r e v i o u s r e s p o n s e s , thus a l l o w i n g f a c t o r s such as a sense of t ime urgency to a f f e c t subsequent r e s p o n d i n g . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t ime urgency was not the o n l y f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g pre-KR phase r e s p o n d i n g , however. Even f o r r e l a t i v e l y l ong ITI (40.0 s e c o n d s ) , C o n d i t i o n 2 demons t ra ted a s i g n i f i c a n t |CE| q u a d r a t i c t r e n d , w i t h F(5 ,13) = 10 .03 , p <.01. Th i s f i n d -i ng s uppo r t s the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t S_s_ g e n e r a l l y had d i f f i c u l t y 226 d e v e l o p i n g a s c a l i n g mechanism when the on l y i n p u t was r e s p o n s e - p r o d u c e d k i n e s t h e t i c FB. What appears to be a gene ra l d i f f i c u l t y i n s c a l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n the pre-KR phase i n d i c a t e s t h a t the l ong term i m p r e s s i o n of r e s p o n d i n g i n t h i s phase i s of a g e n e r a l r a t h e r than a s p e c i f i c n a t u r e . P r o v i d e d t h a t subsequent i n f o r m a t i o n ( i . e . , i n the KR phase) can add s p e c i f i c i t y to the gene ra l i m p r e s s i o n of r e s p o n d i n g a c q u i r e d i n the pre-KR phase, the c i r c u m s t a n c e s c a u s i n g the pre-KR phase b l o c k s e f f e c t would not be e xpec t ed to a f f e c t post -KR phase r e s p o n d i n g . Measurement V a r i a b l e s The p r e s e n t data d i s t i n c t l y demons t ra te s t h a t s e p a r a t e components of o v e r a l l response tendency are e l i c i t e d by u s i n g s e p a r a t e measures t h a t i n d e p e n d e n t l y r e f l e c t response b i a s and response v a r i a b i l i t y . N e i t h e r one of these com-ponents a l o n e , nor a compos i te measure based on b o t h , would have p r o v i d e d as complete a d e s c r i p t i o n of the re sponse t e n d e n c i e s e l i c i t e d by m a n i p u l a t i o n o f the i ndependen t v a r i a -b l e s of t h i s s t u d y . and i ng L i m i t a t i o n s of CE i n the p r e s e n t s tudy were r e v e a l e d r e c t i f i e d by the use of |CE|. In a r e c e n t paper u t i l i z -the data from t h i s t h e s i s , S chutz (1977) has r e - empha s i z ed 227 Newel l ' s ( 1976a) argument t h a t when r ough l y h a l f the S_s_ w i t h i n a group respond w i t h n e g a t i v e b i a s w h i l e the r e s t respond w i t h p o s i t i v e b i a s , the average CE can a c t u a l l y mask the r e a l b i a s i n g t e n d e n c i e s o f Ss_. Because o f the na t u r e o f b i a s i n g t e n d e n c i e s encoun te red i n the pos t -KR phase o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y , an a n a l y s i s o f AE per fo rmed on the data by S chu t z matches very c l o s e l y the a n a l y s i s o f |CE|. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the i n v e s t i g a t o r f a ced w i t h a s i t u a t i o n such as t h i s i s s t i l l charged w i t h e x p l a i n i n g the a c t u a l n a tu re o f re sponse t e n d e n -c i e s . He re , as Schutz p o i n t s o u t , |CE| i s the s t a t i s t i c a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e v a r i a b l e . As w e l l , the na tu re of |CE| o f f e r s a d i r e c t e x p l a n a t i o n of response tendency t h a t r e q u i r e s no f u r t h e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n terms of o t h e r component measures . F a vou r i n g the s o l e use of AE, Adams, Gopher and L i n t e r n ( 1977: 20 ) have s t a t e d ' t h a t measures of response b i a s have no p l a c e i n a l e a r n i n g e xpe r imen t f o r the f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n : On a 1 e a r n i n g t r i a l re sponse b i a s comes to a s u b j e c t as e r r o r v i a the KR r e p o r t from the e x p e r i m e n t e r , and he would t r y to e l i m i n a t e i t on the next t r i a l . By i t s i n h e r e n t n a t u r e , a l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n works to remove b i a s and , when l e a r n i n g i s c o m p l e t e , the response i s p e r f e c t l y a c c u r a t e and the b i a s i s z e r o . The v a l i d i t y of t h i s s t a t emen t can be q u e s t i o n e d a l ong s e v e r a l l i n e s . F i r s t , a l t hough the u l t i m a t e aim of l e a r n i n g 228 may be to e l i m i n a t e response b i a s , t h i s does not a lways happen. L e a r n i n g may have o c c u r r e d even though a re sponse b i a s s t i l l e x i s t s . Second, i f a compos i te measure such as AE i s emp loyed, the r e s u l t s must s t i l l be e x p l a i n e d i n terms of the components of the compos i te measure ( Schutz and Roy, 1973) , even when response b i a s i s reduced to z e r o . Where the combined use of CE (o r |CE|) and VE r e v e a l s d imens ions of b e h a v i o r t h a t may be h i d d e n , confounded or o t h e r w i s e m i s r e p r e s e n t e d when compos i te measures are emp loyed , the re sponse p i c t u r e can s t i l l be enhanced f u r t h e r a l ong o t h e r r e l a t e d d i m e n s i o n s . S t anda rd d e v i a t i o n s of these measures are a l s o r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s i n the t o t a l response p i c t u r e . Whereas CE (o r |CE|) r e p r e s e n t s the average of between-S_ b i a s w h i l e VE r e p r e s e n t s average w i th in - S_ v a r i a -b i l i t y , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s a lways r e p r e s e n t between-S. d i s p e r s i o n of response t e n d e n c i e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t he se measures may a l s o r e f l e c t the i n f l u e n c e of i ndependent v a r i a b l e m a n i p u l a t i o n . For examp le , the pos t -KR phase s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of |CE| shows no appa ren t between-groups d i f f e r e n c e s , nor i s t h e r e an appa ren t t r e n d to the d a t a . Thus, the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f KR tempora l de l a y i n t e r v a l s i n the p r e c e e d i n g phase does not seem to have e x e r t e d a d i f f e r -e n t i a l e f f e c t on i n d i v i d u a l b i a s i n g t e n d e n c i e s . Nor does t h e r e appear to be scope f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n i n terms o f 229 f o r g e t t i n g , where d i f f e r e n c e s i n response t e n d e n c i e s between Ss i n c r e a s e s as f o r g e t t i n g i n c r e a s e s . A g a i n , the s y s t e m a t i c na tu re o f r e spond i n g i s e v i d e n t . The g r e a t e r but s eem ing l y s t a b l e d i s p e r s i o n of re sponse t e n d e n c i e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t Ss_ were more u n a l i k e i n s e l e c t i n g ( e i t h e r o v e r t l y or c o v e r t l y ) response s t r a t e g i e s when f a ced w i t h the n e c e s s i t y to use the post -KR phase response c o n t r o l mechanism. However, once a response s t r a t e g y had been a d o p t e d , i t was m a i n t a i n e d . A f i n a l p o i n t f o r d i s c u s s i o n concerns when to use CE i n p l a c e o f CE. C l e a r l y , |CE| w i l l a lways r e p r e s e n t amount o f re sponse b i a s and i n t h i s sense has an advantage ove r CE. However, d i r e c t i o n of r e s pond i n g or change i n d i r e c t i o n of r e spond i n g may i n i t s e l f be o f v a l ue i n d e p i c t i n g and i n t e r -p r e t i n g response t e n d e n c i e s . Where t h i s i s the c a s e , CE i s the r e l e v a n t measure. There i s , t h e n , no s i m p l e f o r m u l a f o r d e c i d i n g whether to employ CE or |CE| s i n c e t h e r e are a p p r o p r i a t e a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r both o f these measures. A p r i o r i hypotheses w i l l d e t e r -mine which measure s hou l d be g i ven i n i t i a l t r e a t m e n t and p r e - p l a n n e d c o m p a r i s o n s , o f c o u r s e , must be based on the measurement t h a t r e l a t e s to the h y p o t h e s i s . However the manner i n which S_s_ a c t u a l l y respond i n an e xpe r imen t may not conform to h y p o t h e s i s . As w e l l , t h e r e may be i n s u f f i c i e n t 230 i n f o r m a t i o n to a l l o w an e x a c t p r e d i c t i o n o f response t e n d e n c i e s on an a p r i o r i b a s i s . T h e r e f o r e , both CE and |CE| s hou l d be examined on a p o s t - h o c b a s i s i n o r d e r to de te rm ine which measure be s t r e p r e s e n t s response t e n d e n c i e s . 231 APPENDIX D Tab le s of Mea TABLE D-l Block Means and Standard Deviations (Inches) for Constant Error. Pre-KR Phase KR Phase Post-KR Phase (Blocks 1-6) (Blocks 1-6) (Blocks 1-6) 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 X -0.76 -0.19 0.10 0.38 0.48 0.29 -1.25 -0.01 0.11 0.06 -0.02 -0.05 -0.17 -0.23 -P.06 0.15 0.12 0.07 Condition 1 (1-10/11) SO 0.52 0.57 0.46 0.31 0.26 0.56 0.64 0.18 0.29 0.19 0.22 0.22 0.45 0.73 0.83 0.89 1.24 !.30 X -0.24 -0.13 -0.09 0.12 0 0.01 -1.30 0.09 0.06 0.06 0.02 -0.03 0.23 0.46 0.27 0.08 -0.11 0.04 Condition 2 (1-39/40) SD 1.06 0.69 0.52 0.39 0.54 0.80 0.98 0.27 0.40 0.36 0.34 0.18 0.92 1.21 1.54 1.58 1.57 1.67 X 0.05 0.14 0.20 0.08 -0.20 -0.27 -1.31 -0.06 0.20 0.28 0.19 0.31 0.24 0.01 -0.08 -0.12 0.05 0.17 Condition 3 (30-10/40) SO 0.60 0.20 0.52 0.40 0.44 0.33 1.11 0.23 0.27 0.35 0.18 0.23 0.94 1.14 1.38 1.65 1.69 2.03 ro co ro TABLE D-2 Block Means and Standard Deviations (Inches) for Absolute Di f ference. Pre-KR Phase U Phase Post-KR Phase (Blocks 1-6) (Blocks 1-6) (Blocks 1-6) 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 X 0.76 0.47 0.35 0.40 0.43 0.49 1.28 0.15 0.22 0.17 0.15 0.18 0.42 0.57 0.66 0.75 1.03 1.04 r o Condition 1 oo (1-10/11) oo SD 0.62 0.35 0.29 0.28 0.26 0.37 0.64 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.15 0.13 0.19 0.50 0.46 0.45 0.62 0.70 X 0.78 0.56 0.40 0.33 0.37 0.6b 1.30 0.18 0.27 0.25 0.28 0.13 0.72 0.88 1.2b 1.33 1.31 i.34 Condition 2 (1-39/40) SD 0.71 0.38 0.31 0.22 0.37 0.43 0.93 0.21 0.29 0.25 0.16 0.13 0.58 0.92 0.35 0.64 0.76 0.88 X 0.39 0.22 0.41 0.33 0.39 0.34 1.31 0.19 0.26 0.33 0.20 0.31 0.74 0.97 1.19 1.41 1.39 1.65 Condition 3 (30-10/40) SD 0.45 0.09 0.37 0.23 0.25 0.32 1.11 0.12 0.20 0.30 0.16 0.23 0.58 0.51 0.57 0.72 0.83 1.05 TABLE D-3 Blocks Means and Standard Deviations (Inches) for Variable Error . Pre-KR Phase KR Fhase Post-KR Phase (Blocks 1-6) (Blocks 1-6) (Blocks 1-6) 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 X ' 0.53 0.48 0.53 0.34 0.53 0.55 1.67 0.49 0.57 0.56 0.58 0.49 0.36 0.43 0.40 C.60 0.47 0.39 Condit ion 1 , , (1-10/11) £ SO 0.33 0.24 0.27 0.13 0.24 0.25 0.48 0.20 0.19 0.26 0.38 0.21 0.11 0.20 0.17 0.26 0.11 0.20 X 0.62 0.49 0.40 0.52 0.47 0.53 1.92 0.71 0.52 0.61 0.58 0.61 0.54 0.33 0.48 0.55 0.41 0.41 Condition 2 (1-39/40) SD 0.36 0.19 0.21 0.17 0.27 0.18 0.81 0.35 0.21 0.30 0.20 0.25 0.26 0.13 0.17 0.15 0.16 0.11 X 0.58 0.47 0.46 0.32 0.44 0.44 1.62 0.66 0.62 C.54 0.68 0.66 0.46 0.52 0.59 0.55 0.49 0.55 Condition 3 (30-10/40) SD 0.22 0.21 0.23 0.14 0.18 0.17 0.56 0.27 0.29 0.34 0.17 0.37 0.23 0.22 0.24 0.20 0.17 0.27 235 APPENDIX E A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Tab le s 236 TABLE A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e Sources of V a r i a n c e KR Temporal Delay I n t e r v a l s (T) Ss w i t h i n T Phases (P) " P ( l i n e a r ) P ( q u a d r a t i c) T x P £s_ w i t h i n T x P B l o c k s (B) B ( l i n e a r ) B ( q u a d r a t i c ) T x B Ss_ w i t h i n T x B P x B T x P x B Ss_ wi th i n T x P x B * E r r o r terms f o r these F r a t i o s of the i n t e r a c t i o n e r r o r terms E - l o f Con s t an t E r r o r df MS F P 2 0 .096 • <1. ,0 05 27 3 . 353 2 2 .043 <1. ,0 > . 05 1 0 . 353 <1. .0* > . 05 1 3 .7 32 2 . 149* > . 05 4 0 . 4 36 <1. .0 > . 05 54 3 .004 5 4 .951 20 , .177 < < . 01 1 11 .611 16 . .856* < < . 01 1 10 . 129 47 .515* < < . 01 10 0 .475 1 .937 < . 05 135 0 .245 10 2 .715 8 .935 01 20 0 .447 1 .471 05 270 0 . 304 are the p o l y n o m i a l components 237 TABLE E-2 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f A b s o l u t e D i f f e r e n c e Sources of V a r i a n c e df MS F P KR Temporal Delay I n t e r v a l s (T) 2 1. 356 2 .467 • 10 S s w i t h i n T 27 0 . 550 Phases (P) 2 22 . 898 30 .811 < < . 01 P (1 i near ) 1 31. 252 29 .96 5* < < . 01 P ( q u a d r a t i c ) 1 14. 544 32 . 799* < <. 01 T x P 4 1. 634 2 . 199 > . 05 Ss_ wi th i n T x P . 54 0 . 743 B l o ck s (B) 5 1. 549 9 . 127 < < . 01 B ( l i n e a r ) 1 0 . 148 <1 . 0 * 05 B ( q u a d r a t i c ) 1 4. 175 11 .817* < < . 01 T x B 10 0 . 082 <1 .0 > . 05 S_s_ w i t h i n T x B 135 0 . 170 P x B 10 3. 386 18 . 363 < < . 01 T x P x B 20 0 . 081 <1 .0 > . 05 Ss w i t h i n T x P x B 270 0. 184 * E r r o r terms f o r these F r a t i o s are the p o l y n o m i a l components of the i n t e r a c t i o n e r r o r t e rms . 238 TABLE E-3 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e of V a r i a b l e E r r o r Sources of V a r i a n c e df MS F P KR Temporal Delay I n t e r v a l s (T) 2 0 . 090 <1. .0 > . 05 S_s_ w i t h i n T 27 0 . 152 Phases (P) 2 5. 541 67 . 182 < < . 01 - P ( l i n e a r ) 1 0 . 008 < 1 . 0* 05 P ( q u a d r a t i c ) 1 11. 074 127 .048* > > . 01 T x P 4 0 . 121 1 .462 05 Ss_ wi th i n T x P 54 0 . 082 B l o c k s (B) 5 2 . 539 33 .036 < < . 01 B ( l i n e a r ) 1 5 . 223 43 .955* < < . 01 B ( q u a d r a t i c ) 1 4. . 709 55 . 177* 01 T x B 10 0 . ,081 1 .054 05 Sjs^  w i t h i n T x B 135 0 . .077 P x B 10 2. , 103 34 .281 < < . 01 T x P x B 20 0 • .041 <1 .0 05 Ss w i t h i n T x P x B 270 0 , .061 * E r r o r terms f o r these F r a t i o s are the p o l y n o m i a l components of the i n t e r a c t i o n e r r o r t e rms . 

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