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The effects of a body awareness exercise program on body concept, self concept and body composition of… Bouchard, Leonne Mary Fernandine 1977

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'THE EFFECTS OF A BODY AWARENESS EXERCISE PROGRAM ON BODY CONCEPT, SELF CONCEPT AND BODY COMPOSITION OF INACTIVE OBESE AND NON-OBESE YOUNG WOMEN .by .LEONNE MARY FERNANDINE BOUCHARD B . E d . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( S c h o o l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d © THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA November , 1977 Leonne Mary F e r n a n d i n e B o u c h a r d 1977 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department Of Physical Education § Recreation The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 DEDICATION I d e d i c a t e my t h e s i s t o my f a m i l y who have s u p p o r t e d me s p i r i t u a l l y , e m o t i o n a l l y and f i n a n c i a l l y t h r o u g h o u t my M a s t e r ' s p r o g r a m . F o r me, my F a t h e r ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s o b e s i t y e x p r e s s e s t h e theme o f my t h e s i s : " Y o u c a n s t a r v e a C l y d e s d a l e b u t y o u w i l l n e v e r ge t an A r a b i a n , o n l y a s k i n n y C l y d e s d a l e " I a l s o d e d i c a t e my t h e s i s t o a l l C l y d e s d a l e s ( s k i n n y o r o t h e r w i s e ) who dream o f b e c o m i n g A r a b i a n s . I l l u s i o n d e s t r o y s r e a l i t y - r e a l i t y d e s t r o y s i l l u s i o n . The r e s u l t c a n o n l y be a d i s i l l u s i o n e d C l y d e s d a l e . ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In appreciation f o r the help and understanding given to me, I want to thank the following persons f o r t h e i r support and assistance: my Chairperson, Dr. A. Carre; my Committee -Dr. R. Schutz, Dr. T. Rhodes, Dr. S. Brown, and Dr. R. Boshier, my s i s t e r s L i l i and Marion, Jim Wright, P a t r i c i a Donahue Kaufman, the students who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n th i s study, and a very s p e c i a l thank you to Celine Gunawardene without whose constant encouragement and typing my thesis would never have been completed i n time. ABSTRACT The m a i n p r o b l e m was t o s t u d y t h e e f f e c t s o f a 10 week b o d y awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m on body c o n c e p t , s e l f c o n c e p t and body c o m p o s i t i o n change i n i n a c t i v e obese and n o n - o b e s e young women as s t a t e d i n H y p o t h e s e s One, Two and T h r e e r e s p e c t i v e l y . The s u b p r o b l e m was t o examine t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among body c o n c e p t , s e l f c o n c e p t , body c o m p o s i t i o n and body c o m p o s i t i o n change i n i n a c t i v e obese and n o n - o b e s e young women. H y p o t h e s i s F o u r s t a t e d t h a t i n a c t i v e obese young women have a l o w e r body c o n c e p t t h a n t h e i r n o n - o b e s e c o u n t e r p a r t . H y p o t h e s i s F i v e s t a t e d t h a t t h e d e g r e e o f change i n body c o n c e p t i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e amount o f change i n body c o m p o s i t i o n o v e r t h e 10 week e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m . D a t a was o b t a i n e d f rom 50 s u b j e c t s who were f e m a l e s t u d e n t s be tween t h e ages o f 17 and 25 y e a r s , l i v i n g i n P l a c e V a n i e r and Totem P a r k R e s i d e n c e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The t r e a t m e n t g roup p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a 10 week body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m f o r a minimum o f t h r e e h a l f - h o u r s e s s i o n s a week, and was composed o f 15 n o n - o b e s e and 10 obese s u b j e c t s . The c o n t r o l g roup was a l s o composed o f t h e same number o f s u b j e c t s b u t d i d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r o g r a m . A 2x2x2 f a c t o r a l d e s i g n w i t h r e p e a t e d measures on t h e t h i r d f a c t o r was e m p l o y e d . The i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s were t r e a t m e n t , s i z e and t i m e . S u b j e c t s were p r e and p o s t t e s t e d f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g f i v e dependen t v a r i a b l e s : Body C a t h e x i s . P h y s i c a l S e l f , S e l f C a t h e x i s , T o t a l S e l f C o n c e p t , and P e r c e n t Body F a t . I n s t r u m e n t s u s e d w e r e : t h e S e c o u r d - J o u r a r d Body C a t h e x i s - S e l f C a t h e x i s S c a l e s , t h e Tennessee S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e and t h e Y u h a s z method f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p e r c e n t body f a t . H y p o t h e s e s One, Two and T h r e e w h i c h s t a t e d t h a t t h e use o f t h e e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m c a u s e s a p o s i t i v e change i n b o d y c o n c e p t , s e l f c o n c e p t and body c o m p o s i t i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y , were a n a l y z e d u s i n g t h e ANOVA. H y p o t h e s i s One was n o t a c c e p t e d (Body C a t h e x i s change , p = . 6 1 ; P h y s i c a l S e l f change , p = . 0 7 ) ; H y p o t h e s i s Two was n o t a c c e p t e d ( S e l f C a t h e x i s c h a n g e , p = . 1 8 ; T o t a l S e l f C o n c e p t change , p = . 0 6 ) ; H y p o t h e s i Th ree was a c c e p t e d ( P e r c e n t Body F a t c h a n g e , p = . 0 1 ) . A c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x o n a l l dependen t v a r i a b l e s ( p r e t e s t s c o r e s ) i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p , e x i s t e d among t h e s e v a r i a b l e s . H y p o t h e s i s F o u r was n o t a c c e p t e d s i n c e t h e p r e p l a n n e d o r t h o g a n a l c o m p a r i s i o n i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n obese and n o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t s H y p o t h e s i s F i v e was n o t a c c e p t e d s i n c e t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t e d be tween body c o n c e p t change s c o r e s and body c o m p o s i t i o n change s c o r e s , a l t h o u g h a t r e n d was n o t e d . W i t h i n t h e l i m i t a t i o n s and d e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e sample p o p u l a t i o n , e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e s u t i l i z e d and s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s p e r f o r m e d , i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t : (a) t h e p r o g r a m d i d n o t have a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t (howeve r , t h e s c o r e s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e Tennessee S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e ) , (b) t h e p r o g r a m h a d a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on body c o m p o s i t i o n , (c) t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s among body c o n c e p t , s e l f c o n c e p t , body c o m p o s i t i o n and body c o m p o s i t i o n change i n i n a c t i v e obese and n o n - o b e s e y o u n g women. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM 1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; . . . . . . . 3 HYPOTHESES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 DELIMITATIONS 7 ASSUMPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 S IGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 O B E S I T Y : ETIOLOGY, MEASUREMENT, INCIDENCE, EFFECTS AND TREATMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 OBESITY AND ITS EFFECTS ON BODY CONCEPT AND SELF CONCEPT 19 OBESITY AND PHYSICAL A C T I V I T Y 27 I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURES 42 S e l e c t i o n o f S u b j e c t s 42 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f T i m e , S p a c e , P e r s o n n e l 42 I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n 44 Body C a t h e x i s and S e l f C a t h e x i s S c a l e s 45 Tennessee S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e 46 S k i n f o l d Measure 47 E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n 47 A n a l y s i s o f D a t a 48 i v TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I V RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 MAIN PROBLEM : PROGRAM EFFECTS ON BODY CONCEPT, SELF CONCEPT AND BODY COMPOSITION OF INACTIVE OBESE AND NON-OBESE YOUNG W O M E N . . . . . . . . . . . 50 H y p o t h e s i s One : The Use o f a Body Awareness E x e r c i s e P r o g r a m Causes a P o s i t i v e Change i n Body C o n c e p t i n I n a c t i v e Obese and N o n - o b e s e Young Women. 0 . . R e s u l t s 51 H y p o t h e s i s Two: The Use o f a Body Awareness E x e r c i s e P r o g r a m Causes a P o s i t i v e Change i n S e l f C o n c e p t i n I n a c t i v e Obese and N o n - o b e s e Young Women. R e s u l t s 55 H y p o t h e s i s One and Two: The Use o f a Body Awareness E x e r c i s e P r o g r a m Causes a P o s i t i v e Change i n Body C o n c e p t and S e l f C o n c e p t i n I n a c t i v e Obese and Non-obese Young Women. D i s c u s s i o n 59 H y p o t h e s i s T h r e e : The Use o f a Body Awareness E x e r c i s e P r o g r a m Causes a Body C o m p o s i t i o n Change i n I n a c t i v e Obese and Non-obese Young Women. R e s u l t s 6 2 D i s c u s s i o n 64 V TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE Summary o f P r o g r a m E f f e c t on Body C o n c e p t , S e l f C o n c e p t and Body C o m p o s i t i o n 64 SUBBROBLEM: RELATIONSHIPS AMONG BODY CONCEPT, S E L F CONCEPT, BODY COMPOSITION AND BODY COMPOSITION CHANGE OF INACTIVE OBESE AND NON-OBESE YOUNG WOMEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 R e l a t i o n s h i p s Among Body C o n c e p t , S e l f C o n c e p t and Body C o m p o s i t i o n . R e s u l t s 67 D i s c u s s i o n 68 • H y p o t h e s i s F o u r : I n a c t i v e Obese Young Women Have a Lower Body C o n c e p t t h a n I n a c t i v e Non-obese Young Women. R e s u l t s 68 D i s c u s s i o n 69 H y p o t h e s i s F i v e : In- I n a c t i v e ' O b e s e Young Women t h e Degree o f Change i n Body C o n c e p t i s P r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e Amount o f Change i n Body C o m p o s i t i o n o v e r a 10 Week Body Awareness E x e r c i s e P r o g r a m . R e s u l t s 71 D i s c u s s i o n 7.4 Summary o f R e l a t i o n s h i p s Among Body C o n c e p t , S e l f C o n c e p t , Body C o m p o s i t i o n and Body C o m p o s i t i o n Change i n I n a c t i v e Obese and Non-obese Y o u n g Women 74 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ......................... 77 Summary 77 Conclusions 79 Recommendations 80 REFERENCES 83 APPENDICES 91 APPENDIX A: PHYSICAL ACTIVITY READINESS QUESTIONNAIRE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRE .......... 91 APPENDIX B: YUHASZ SKINFOLD MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE..... 94 APPENDIX C: BODY CATHEXIS-SELF CATHEXIS SCALES ... 98 APPENDIX D: BODY AWARENESS EXERCISE PROGRAM 102 i APPENDIX E: RELIABILITY STUDY FOR SKINFOLD MEASUREMENT. 122 APPENDIX F: RAW SCORES ................... 124 APPENDIX G: MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR DEPENDENT VARIABLES 129 v i i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1. Means, Standard Deviations and R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Body Cathexis Scale and S e l f Cathexis Scale 45 2. Means, Standard Deviations and R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the Tennessee S e l f Concept Scale.. 46 3. MeansScores f o r Body Cathexis 51 4. Summary of ANOVA f o r Body Cathexis 52 5. Mean Scores f o r Physical S e l f 53 6. Summary of ANOVA f o r Physical S e l f 54 7. Mean Scores f o r S e l f Cathexis 55 8. Summary o f ANOVA f o r S e l f Cathexis 56 9. Mean Scores f o r Total S e l f Concept 57 10. Summary of ANOVA f o r Total S e l f Concept 58 11. Mean Scores f o r Percent Body Fat 62 12. Summary o f ANOVA f o r Percent Body Fat 63 13. C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Between Percent Body Fat and Body Concept, S e l f Concept 67. 14. Body Concept Change Score and Body Composition Change Score i n Obese Treatment Subjects 72 15. Percent Body Fat and Standard Score C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Young Women 97 16. S k i n f o l d R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s 123 17. Treatment-Obese Subjects' Individual Scores 125 18. Control-Obese Subjects' Individual Scores 126 19. Treatment-Non-obese Subjects' Individual Scores.... 127 20. Control-Non-obese Subjects* Individual Scores 128 v i i i L I S T OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 2 1 . Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r Body Concep t S c o r e s 1^0 2 2 . Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r S e l f C o n c e p t S c o r e s 131 2 3 . Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r P e r c e n t Body F a t S c o r e s 131 i x LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. Experimental Design of Study 47 2. Program E f f e c t on Body Cathexis Score 52 3. Program E f f e c t on Physical S e l f Score 54 4. Program E f f e c t on S e l f Cathexis Score 36 5. Program E f f e c t on Total Body Concept Score 58 6. Program E f f e c t on Percent Body Fat Score 63 7. Relationship Between Body Cathexis Change Score and Body Composition Change Score 73 8. Relationship Between Physical S e l f Change Score and Body Composition Change Score 73 9. Design of Program Description 106 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM The ' m i n d - b o d y ' r e l a t i o n s h i p has become an e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t t h e r a p e u t i c c o n c e p t f o r t h e p s y c h i a t r i s t and p s y c h o l o g i s t t o d a y . S c h u t z (1967) n o t e d : A f t e r many y e a r s o f b e i n g a l l b u t i g n o r e d , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f b o d y - f u n c t i o n i n g t o e m o t i o n a l s t a t e s i s b e c o m i n g r e c o g n i z e d more w i d e l y and a p p l i e d t o ( s e l f ) g r o w t h p r o d u c i n g s i t u a t i o n s . . . . F e e l i n g s and b e h a v i o r s a r e e x p r e s s e d i n t e r m s o f a l l p a r t s o f t h e b o d y , o f body movement and o f b o d i l y f u n c t i o n s . . . S u p p o r t i n g t h e r e c o g n i t i o n i n e v e r y d a y l i f e o f t h e c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n s be tween b o d i l y and e m o t i o n a l and m e n t a l s t a t e s . . . p s y c h o s o m a t i c m e d i c i n e has made a s t r o n g c a s e f o r t h e f a c t t h a t e m o t i o n a l s t a t e s a f f e c t t h e b o d y . ( p . 2 7 - 2 9 ) An i n d i v i d u a l ' s p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e d u r i n g movement and a t r e s t c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y and a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s h i m s e l f w h i c h r e f l e c t s h i s body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t (Lowen , 1 9 5 8 ) . How an i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s h i s body i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o how he f e e l s a b o u t h i m s e l f . The p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e obese i n d i v i d u a l i s b e l i e v e d t o a d v e r s l y a f f e c t h i s body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t ( S t u a r t , i n p r e s s ) . T h i s ' m i n d - b o d y ' r e l a t i o n s h i p may be e v e n more c r u c i a l f o r t h e obese woman. As S t u a r t p o i n t e d o u t : The f a c t t h a t t h e y (women), s u f f e r more f rom t h e s o c i a l l i a b i l i t y o f w e i g h t , t h a t t h e y e x p e r i e n c e a c u l t u r a l p r e s s u r e t o g i v e a p p e a r a n c e a c e n t r a l r o l e i n t h e i r s e l f c o n c e p t and t h a t e x c e s s i v e f a t i s more v i s a b l e on women, p r o b a b l y a l l c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e f a c t t h a t a d e s i r e t o i m p r o v e t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e i s p i v o t a l i n womens' d e c i s i o n s t o a t t e m p t t o l o s e w e i g h t , ( p . 12) . I f , : a s n o t e d by S t u a r t , t h e r e i s s u c h a r e l a t i o n s h i p among body c o n c e p t , s e l f c o n c e p t and o b e s i t y , t h e n a k e y f a c t o r i n v o l v e d i n t h e 2 management o f o b e s i t y l i e s i n how t h e obese woman p e r c e i v e s h e r body and h e r p e r s o n a l w o r t h . The p r e v e n t i o n and c o r r e c t i o n o f o b e s i t y h a s been b a s e d m a i n l y on p rograms e m p h a s i z i n g d e c r e a s e d c a l o r i c i n t a k e ( d i e t ) a n d / o r i n c r e a s e d c a l o r i c e x p e n d i t u r e ( e x e r c i s e ) . These p rograms have b e e n m a i n l y u n d e r t h e s u p e r v i s i o n and c o n t r o l o f a v a r i e t y o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h e m e d i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and p h y s i o l o g i c a l f i e l d s . The m a j o r i t y o f s t u d i e s r e v i e w i n g t h e m e d i c a l t r e a t m e n t o f t h e obese c o n d i t i o n i n v o l v e d t h e u s e o f c a l o r i c r e s t r i c t i o n s u c h as d i e t i n g o r f a s t i n g t o o b t a i n w e i g h t l o s s ( K l i n e , C o l e m a n , § W i c k , 1 9 7 6 ) . S e v e r a l s t u d i e s c o n c e r n i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r e a t m e n t o f t h e obese c o n d i t i o n i n v o l v e d t h e use o f v a r i o u s t y p e s o f p s y c h o t h e r a p y , s u c h as h y p n o t h e r a p y and b e h a v i o r m o d i f i c a t i o n , t o r e i n f o r c e c a l o r i c r e s t r i c t i o n ( K l i n e e t a l . ) . Many s t u d i e s r e g a r d i n g t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l t r e a t m e n t o f t h e obese c o n d i t i o n i n v o l v e d t h e use o f e x e r c i s e p rograms t o i n c r e a s e c a l o r i c e x p e n d i t u r e ( C l a r k e , 1975) . The m a j o r i t y o f e x e r c i s e p rog rams u s e d i n t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l t r e a t m e n t o f o b e s i t y i n v o l v e d p rograms w h i c h e m p h a s i z e d t h e ' f i t n e s s o r f a t n e s s ' a p p r o a c h w i t h s u c h a c t i v i t i e s as w a l k i n g , j o g g i n g , r u n n i n g , w e i g h t t r a i n i n g and c a l i s t h e n i c s ( C l a r k e ) . Few s t u d i e s have been c o n d u c t e d i n w h i c h o t h e r t y p e s o f a c t i v i t y p rog rams s u c h as body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m s have been employed as a t r e a t m e n t f o r o b e s i t y . Many i n v e s t i g a t o r s have r e s e a r c h e d body c o m p o s i t i o n c h a n g e , body c o n c e p t change a n d / o r s e l f c o n c e p t change as a r e s u l t o f e x e r c i s e p rograms 3 designed s p e c i f i c a l l y to obtain p h y s i o l o g i c a l change (Clarke; Stuart). Few inve s t i g a t o r s however, have researched body composition change, body concept change and/or s e l f concept change as a r e s u l t of exercise programs designed s p e c i f i c a l l y to obtain psychological change. In view of the s c a r c i t y of research i n th i s area, the present study focuses on both the psychological and p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s of an exercise program designed s p e c i f i c a l l y to obtain psychological change i n body concept and s e l f concept and p h y s i o l o g i c a l change i n body composition of in a c t i v e obese and non-obese young women. The body awareness exercise program employed i n t h i s study was s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to emphasize body awareness, movement s a t i s f a c t i o n , body concept, and s e l f concept i n order to obtain psychological change. The t r a d i t i o n a l , conventional exercise programs for in a c t i v e obese and/or non-obese young women have been designed s p e c i f i c a l l y to emphasize 'fitness or f a t n e s s 1 , fat and/or weight l o s s , improved cardiovascular-respiratory e f f i c i e n c y , strength, endurance and/or f l e x i b i l i t y i n order to obtain p h y s i o l o g i c a l change. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM The primary purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was to study the eff e c t s of a body awareness exercise program on body concept, s e l f concept and body composition of in a c t i v e obese and non-obese young women. Subproblem A secondary purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was to examine the rel a t i o n s h i p s among body concept, s e l f concept, body composition and body composition change i n in a c t i v e obese and non-obese young women. 4 HYPOTHESES H y p o t h e s i s One: The u s e o f a body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m c a u s e s a p o s i t i v e change i n t h e body c o n c e p t o f i n a c t i v e obese and n o n - o b e s e y o u n g women. R a t i o n a l e : By e x p l o r i n g t h e ' i s o l a t i o n t e c h n i q u e ' o f body movement, t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i l l i n c r e a s e h e r k n o w l e d g e abou t h e r s e l f , h e r b o d y , how she moves and what h e r b o d y ' s c a p a b i l i t i e s ' a r e . F e l d e n k r a i s (1972) s t a t e d t h a t "movement i s t h e b a s i s o f a w a r e n e s s " ( p . 3 6 ) and t h a t " a p e r s o n ' s p h y s i c a l b u i l d and h i s a b i l i t i e s t o move a r e more i m p o r t a n t t o h i s s e l f image t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e " ( p . 3 4 ) . H y p o t h e s i s Two: The u s e o f a body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m c a u s e s a p o s i t i v e change i n t h e s e l f c o n c e p t o f i n a c t i v e obese and n o n - o b e s e young women. R a t i o n a l e : Movement i s a k e y f a c t o r i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f body c o n c e p t . Body c o n c e p t b a s e d on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s e v a l u a t i o n o f h e r p h y s i c a l s e l f ; how she v i e w s h e r b o d y , h e r s t a t e o f h e a l t h , h e r p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e -i n t e r m s o f i d e n t i t y (what I am) and s e l f s a t i s f a c t i o n (how I f e e l abou t m y s e l f ) i s a f a c t o r i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f c o n c e p t ( F i t t s , 1 9 6 5 ) . H y p o t h e s i s T h r e e : The use o f a body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m c a u s e s body c o m p o s i t i o n change i n i n a c t i v e obese and n o n - o b e s e young women. R a t i o n a l e : I t has b e e n c o n c l u d e d by s e v e r a l a u t h o r s t h a t r e g u l a r s e s s i o n s o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y w i l l c ause an i n c r e a s e i n c a l o r i c 5 e x p e n d i t u r e , w h i c h when a c c u m u l a t e d o v e r t i m e , r e s u l t s i n a d e c r e a s e i n f a t t i s s u e and an i n c r e a s e i n l e a n body t i s s u e . (Behnke § W i l m o r e , 1974 ; C l a r k e ; O s c a r , 1 9 7 3 ) . H y p o t h e s i s F o u r : I n a c t i v e obese women have a l o w e r body c o n c e p t t h a n i n a c t i v e n o n - o b e s e y o u n g women. R a t i o n a l e : S i z e and a p p e a r a n c e a f f e c t s t h e way an i n d i v i d u a l f e e l s abou t h e r s e l f and h e r b o d y . W i c k s (1976) n o t e d : Once t h e p a t i e n t has become o v e r w e i g h t , - h i s obese s t a t u s c r e a t e s new p r o b l e m s . They i n c l u d e h i s own d i f f i c u l t y t o a c c e p t h i m s e l f i n t h e r o l e o f an obese i n d i v i d u a l , and h i s r e s u l t i n g s e l f r e j e c t i o n c o u p l e d w i t h and r e i n f o r c e d by t h e r e s p o n s e f rom a w e i g h t c o n s c i o u s s o c i e t y ( p . . 1 9 ) . H y p o t h e s i s F i v e : I n i n a c t i v e obese y o u n g women, t h e d e g r e e o f change i. - ' . ' i n body c o n c e p t i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e amount o f change i n body c o m p o s i t i o n o v e r a t e n week body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m . R a t i o n a l e : S t o n e r and F i o r e l l o (1976) f o u n d t h a t i n a p r o g r a m d e s i g n e d f o r obese a d o l e s c e n t f e m a l e s w h i c h e m p h a s i z e d i m p r o v i n g s e l f -c o n c e p t as w e l l as l o s i n g w e i g h t , t h e p r o g r a m d i d r e s u l t i n a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e change i n t h e p h y s i c a l S e l f s c o r e f rom t h e Tennes see S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e i n a d d i t i o n t o w e i g h t l o s s . DEFINITIONS Body A w a r e n e s s : The k n o w l e d g e and c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f how s p e c i f i c body p a r t s c a n be moved i n r e l a t i o n t o e a c h o t h e r and t o t h e body as a w h o l e , b a s e d o n awareness o f k i n e s t h e t i c s e n s a t i o n ( M a u l d s o n ^ L a y s o n , 1965) . 6 Body Awareness Exercise Program: An exercise program designed s p e c i f i c a l l y to develop and/or improve body awareness through rhythmical movement based on the ' i s o l a t i o n technique' (see Appendix D fo r a complete d e s c r i p t i o n of program). Body Composition: The composition of the body i n terms o f the pro-portion of body f a t and lean t i s s u e (Behnke § Wilmore). Composition, op e r a t i o n a l l y defined, i s based on the Yuhasz (1973) scoring chart (see Appendix B). Body Composition Change: The change i n proportion of f a t and lean body tissues (Behnke § Wilmore). Operationally defined, body composition change i s the differ e n c e between pretest and posttest scores f o r body composition. Body Concept: Body concept or body cathexis i s the degree of f e e l i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the various parts or processes of the body (Secord § Jourard, 1953). Operationally defined, body concept i s the set of scores obtained from the Body Cathexis Scale (Secord § Jourard) and the Physical S e l f Score obtained from the Tennessee S e l f Concept Scale ( F i t t s ) . I n a c t i v i t y : P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the form of regular p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y for less than a t o t a l of two hours a week (see Appendix A). I s o l a t i o n Technique: A technique f o r learning control over one's b o d i l y movement. One or more s p e c i f i c j o i n t s are i s o l a t e d f o r movement while the remainder of the body i s relaxed, being used f o r balance and support. The possible range of movement f o r the s p e c i f i c j o i n t or j o i n t s i s 7 e x p l o r e d and e x p e r i e n c e d . C o n t r o l i s o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h p r a c t i c e ( M i s h k i n § S c h i l l , 1 9 7 3 ) . O b e s i t y : A p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n o f e x c e s s f a t t y t i s s u e r e s u l t i n g f r o m e i t h e r e x c e s s i v e c a l o r i c i n t a k e o r i n s u f f i c i e n t c a l o r i c e x p e n d i t u r e o r b o t h ( O s c a i ) . O p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d , an i n d i v i d u a l was c l a s s i f i e d as obese i f t h e p e r c e n t body f a t was above 23 p e r c e n t ( see A p p e n d i x B). S e l f C o n c e p t : The p e r c e p t i o n an i n d i v i d u a l has o f h i m s e l f i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o h i s e n v i r o n m e n t . Roge r s (1951) d e f i n e d s e l f c o n c e p t as f o l l o w s : S e l f c o n c e p t i s "an o r g a n i z e d - c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f p e r c e p t i o n s o f s e l f w h i c h a r e a d m i s s a b l e t o a w a r e n e s s . I t i s composed o f s u c h e l e m e n t s as t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f o n e ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a b i l i t i e s ; t h e p e r c e p t s and c o n c e p t s o f t h e s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e v a l u e o f q u a l i t i e s w h i c h a r e p e r c e i v e d as a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e x p e r i e n c e s and o b j e c t s ; t h e g o a l s and i d e a l s w h i c h a r e p e r c e i v e d as h a v i n g p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e v a l u e s , ( p . 1 3 6 ) O p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d , s e l f c o n c e p t i s t h e s e t o f s c o r e s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e S e l f C a t h e x i s S c a l e ( S e c o r d § J o u r a r d ) and t h e Tennes see S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e ( F i t t s ) . DELIMITATIONS 1. I n f e r e n c e s a r e r e s t r i c t e d t o f e m a l e u n i v e r s i t y r e s i d e n t s t u d e n t s b e t w e e n t h e ages o f 17 and 25 y e a r s . 2 . Body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t a r e r e s t r i c t e d t o e v a l u a t i o n by t h e Body C a t h e x i s , S e l f C a t h e x i s and Tennessee S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e s . 3 . O b e s i t y i s r e s t r i c t e d t o e v a l u a t i o n b y t h e Y u h a s z method o f s k i n -f o l d measurement . 4 . E f f e c t s o f t h e body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m were a s s e s s e d a f t e r a 10 week p e r i o d , t h e r e f o r e i n f e r e n c e s a r e d e l i m i t e d t o p rograms o f t h a t l e n g t h . 8 ASSUMPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS 1 . Body c o n c e p t c a n be e v a l u a t e d by t h e P h y s i c a l S e l f s e c t i o n o f t h e Tennessee S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e ( F i t t s ) and t h e Body C a t h e x i s S c a l e ( S e c o r d § J o u r a r d ) p a p e r and p e n c i l t e s t s . 2. S e l f c o n c e p t c a n be e v a l u a t e d by t h e T e n n e s s e e S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e ( F i t t s ) and t h e S e l f C a t h e x i s S c a l e ( S e c o r d § J o u r a r d ) p a p e r and p e n c i l t e s t s . 3. Body c o m p o s i t i o n c a n be e v a l u a t e d by u s i n g t h e Y u h a s z s k i n f o l d measurement t e c h n i q u e ( Y u h a s z ) . 4. Body c o m p o s i t i o n change c a n be e v a l u a t e d by a c o m p a r i s o n o f p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t s k i n f o l d m e a s u r e s . 5 . I t was assumed t h a t s u b j e c t s c o n t i n u e d n o r m a l d a i l y e a t i n g and a c t i v i t y h a b i t s s i n c e t h e r e was no c o n t r o l o v e r d i e t o r a c t i v i t y . 6. The l e n g t h o f t h e p r o g r a m was l i m i t e d t o t h e t i m e p e r i o d o f t h e s c h o o l t e r m . 7. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e movement p r o g r a m was l i m i t e d t o a minimum o f t h r e e h a l f - h o u r s e s s i o n s p e r week and a maximum o f e i g h t . 8. The a r e a u s e d f o r e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m was l i m i t e d t o t h e H a i d a House l o u n g e i n Totem P a r k and Tweedsmui r House l o u n g e i n P l a c e V a n i e r w h i c h were p u b l i c r e s i d e n c e l o u n g e s . T h i s was i n c o n v e n i e n t s i n c e t h e s u b j e c t s were i n v i e w o f t h e p u b l i c p a s s i n g b y t h e l o u n g e s and o f t e n were o b s e r v e d w h i l e e x e r c i s i n g w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n some d e g r e e o f s e l f c o n s c i o u s n e s s and u n e a s i n e s s i n t h e s u b j e c t s . 9 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY L o n g t e r m ' w e i g h t ' management f o r t h e p r e v e n t i o n and c o r r e c t i o n o f o b e s i t y i s a v e r y c r i t i c a l i s s u e i n p u b l i c h e a l t h t o d a y ( C l a r k e ; K i n d l § B r o w n , 1976 ; K l i n e e t a l . ; O s c a i ) . O b e s i t y ( w i t h i n n o r m a l c o n d i t i o n s ) may be d e f i n e d as a p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n r e s u l t i n g f r o m e i t h e r e x c e s s i v e c a l o r i c i n t a k e o r i n s u f f i c i e n t c a l o r i c e x p e n d i t u r e , o r b o t h ( O s c a i ) . Howeve r , o b e s i t y , i s t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n o n l y , t h e r e s u l t . The p o s s i b l e u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r s w h i c h m i g h t c ause o r a f f e c t o b e s i t y a l s o need t o be c o n s i d e r e d . A s t a r t i n g p o i n t i n t h e management o f o b e s i t y s h o u l d b e g i n w i t h t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e ' m i n d - b o d y ' r e l a t i o n -s h i p be tween t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n body a w a r e n e s s , body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t and t h e e f f e c t o f t h e s e p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s on c a l o r i c i n t a k e and c a l o r i c e x p e n d i t u r e . T h i s ' m i n d - b o d y ' r e l a t i o n s h i p i s an e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t f o r t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r t o u n d e r s t a n d . R e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between b o d y - s e l f c o n c e p t and o b e s i t y , b o d y - s e l f c o n c e p t and i n a c t i v i t y , and b o d y - s e l f c o n c e p t and body c o m p o s i t i o n change c o u l d s u p p l y v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p o s s i b l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n o b e s i t y and i n a c t i v i t y . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be u s e d i n d e s i g n i n g e x e r c i s e p rograms s p e c i f i c a l l y t o enhance body and s e l f c o n c e p t , t o i m p r o v e body a p p e a r a n c e , and t o i n c r e a s e t h e l e v e l o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . I f an e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m c o u l d be d e s i g n e d w h i c h w o u l d h e l p t h e i n a c t i v e obese woman t o become l e s s i n a c t i v e and l e s s obese as w e l l as i m p r o v e h e r body a w a r e n e s s , body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t a t t h e same t i m e , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t she w o u l d f e e l s u c c e s s f u l and c o n t i n u e t o become more a c t i v e and l e s s 10 obese as a r e s u l t o f t h i s s u c c e s s f u l movement e x p e r i e n c e . Many t r e a t m e n t s have been d e s i g n e d f o r t h e p r e v e n t i o n and c o r r e c t i o n o f o b e s i t y , b u t none seem t o have a l a s t i n g e f f e c t . S e l d o m does a l o s s i n w e i g h t become a permanent w e i g h t l o s s ( K i n d l § B r o w n ) . K i n d l and Brown s t a t e d : Our s e d e n t a r y l i f e s t y l e i s p r o b a b l y t h e b i g g e s t f a c t o r i n t h e h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f o b e s i t y . . . . T o e f f e c t a permanent w e i g h t l o s s and a t t a i n good h e a l t h , t h e o v e r w e i g h t p e r s o n must l e a r n t o e n j o y i n c r e a s e d p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , (p.39) The p r e v e n t i o n and c o r r e c t i o n o f o b e s i t y p o s e s a p a r t i c u l a r l y c h a l l e n g i n g p r o b l e m f o r t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r . I f an e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m f o r t h e i n a c t i v e obese and n o n - o b e s e woman c o u l d be d e s i g n e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e l e v e l o f en joyment and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , t h e n t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r w o u l d have a s u i t a b l e t h e r a p e u t i c medium t o o f f e r f o r t h e p r e v e n t i o n and c o r r e c t i o n o f o b e s i t y . The t y p e o f body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m employed i n t h i s s t u d y c o u l d p r o v e t o be an e f f e c t i v e a l t e r n a t e method t o c o n s i d e r f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t and p r e v e n t i o n o f t h e obese c o n d i t i o n i n i n a c t i v e women s i n c e i t c o n s i d e r s t h e p o s s i b l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c a u s e s f o r t h e obese c o n d i t i o n as w e l l as t h e i n a c t i v e c o n d i t i o n . S u c h a p r o g r a m c o u l d p r o v i d e t h e i n a c t i v e obese woman w i t h a s u c c e s s f u l movement e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h r e s u l t s i n i m p r o v e d a p p e a r a n c e r a t h e r t h a n a n o n - s u c c e s s f u l d i e t e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h r e s u l t s i n f a i l u r e . Too o f t e n t h e i n a c t i v e obese woman s u b j e c t s h e r s e l f t o an e n d l e s s s e r i e s o f a t t e m p t s and f a i l u r e s w i t h d i e t s , • q u i c k i e , r w e i g h t - r e d u c i n g ' g i m m i c k s o r s e l d o m c o n t i n u e d , s e l d o m f i n i s h e d e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m s . The body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m c o u l d a l s o be 11 b e n e f i c i a l f o r t h e i n a c t i v e n o n - o b e s e woman as a method t o s t i m u l a t e i n c r e a s e d p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y t h u s p r e v e n t i n g o b e s i t y due t o i n a c t i v i t y . S i n c e women p r e f e r r h y t h m i c a l , d a n c e - o r i e n t e d e x e r c i s e ( N e l s o n § B r o w n , 1970) and a r e more c o n c e r n e d a b o u t p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e t h a n p h y s i c a l h e a l t h ( S t u a r t ) , t h e s e f a c t o r s s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n t h e d e s i g n o f an e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m f o r women i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e maximum en joyment and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m e m p l o y e d i n t h i s s t u d y has been d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o a f f e c t body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t t h r o u g h t h e use o f r h y t h m i c a l movement i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n an i n c r e a s e i n t h e l e v e l o f en joyment and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y i n i n a c t i v e obese and n o n - o b e s e y o u n g women. CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF LITERATURE O b e s i t y has been d e f i n e d i n te rms o f t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n o f a c c u m u l a t e d e x c e s s f a t . ( O s c a i , 1 9 7 3 ) . A v e r y common m i s c o n c e p t i o n i s t o assume t h a t b e i n g o b e s e - i s synonymous with b e i n g . o v e r w e i g h t . T h i s i s e m p h a s i z e d by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Depar tmen t o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e manual on O b e s i t y and H e a l t h ( 1 9 6 6 ) : I t c a n n o t be o v e r s t a t e d t h a t a s s i g n i n g a l a b e l o f o b e s e . . . s h o u l d come o n l y a f t e r a c o m p r e h e n s i v e a s se s smen t o f a l l p e r t i n e n t f a c t o r s . The s e x o f t h e s u b j e c t , a g e , b o d y t y p e and s t a t e o f h e a l t h a l o n g w i t h s p e c i f i c measurements s u c h as a s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s must be c o n s i d e r e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g i f a p e r s o n i s o b e s e . C o m p a r i n g . . . h e i g h t and w e i g h t w i t h a g i v e n s e t o f a v e r a g e s t a n d a r d s d o e s . n o t g i v e adequa t e i n f o r m a t i o n on w h i c h t o a s s e s s o b e s i t y s i n c e s u c h c o m p a r i s o n s i m p l y w e i g h t n o t f a t n e s s , ( p . 2 ) I n r e v i e w i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e abou t t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f o b e s i t y , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r n o t e d many s t u d i e s and a r t i c l e s w h i c h c o n t i n u e d t o p e r p e t r a t e t h i s m i s c o n c e p t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e obese and o v e r w e i g h t c o n d i t i o n . O b e s i t y was g e n e r a l l y d e f i n e d i n t e rms o f p e r c e n t o f w e i g h t above i d e a l body w e i g h t as d e t e r m i n e d by s t a n d a r d ' h e i g h t - w e i g h t ' t a b l e s ( S t u a r t , i n p r e s s ) . T h i s t y p e o f d e f i n i t i o n does n o t a l l o w f o r t h e l a r g e - f r a m e d , w e l l m u s c l e d i n d i v i d u a l who i s d e f i n e d as o v e r w e i g h t and h e n c e , o b e s e , o r t h e s m a l l - f r a m e d i n d i v i d u a l w i t h e x c e s s f a t who i s d e f i n e d as a v e r a g e and hence n o n - o b e s e b e c a u s e frame s i z e and body c o m p o s i t i o n a r e n o t c o n c i s e l y d e f i n e d ( S t u a r t ) . T h i s e r r o r i n d e f i n i t i o n i s c r i t i c a l f o r t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f o b e s i t y ( G r a n d e , 1 9 7 3 ) . T h e r e f o r e , l i t e r a t u r e r e l y i n g on t h e ' o v e r w e i g h t ' v i e w o f o b e s i t y was n o t g e n e r a l l y i n c l u d e d i n t h i s r e v i e w . 12 13 The l i t e r a t u r e i s r e v i e w e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : (1) o b e s i t y : e t i o l o g y , measurement , i n c i d e n c e , e f f e c t s , and t r e a t m e n t ; (2) o b e s i t y and i t s e f f e c t on body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t and (3) o b e s i t y and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . OBESITY: ETIOLOGY, MEASUREMENT, INCIDENCE, EFFECTS AND TREATMENT E t i o l o g y o f O b e s i t y O b e s i t y has b e e n d e f i n e d i n te rms o f a p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n , b u t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l w h i c h i n f l u e n c e t h e obese c o n d i t i o n . B r a y (1976) n o t e d t h a t t h e r e were w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s i n o b e s i t y b u t i t was d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e a s p e c i f i c p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h o b e s i t y . Two t y p e s o f o b e s i t y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by B r u c h (1973a) were c l a s s i f i e d as (1) r e a c t i v e o b e s i t y w h i c h r e s u l t e d f rom e x c e s s i v e c a l o r i c i n t a k e due t o e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n and (2) d e v e l o p -m e n t a l o b e s i t y i n w h i c h e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s were m i n i m a l . An e t i o l o g i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n o b e s i t y was s u g g e s t e d by Maye r (1957) i n w h i c h g e n e t i c , h y p o t h a l a m i c a n d / o r o t h e r c e n t r a l me.rvo.us - s y s t e m o r i g i n s , and e n d o c r i n e d i s o r d e r s were d e f i n e d as p h y s i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s w h i l e i m m o b i l i z a t i o n , p s y c h i c d i s t u r b a n c e s , s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l p r e s s u r e s were d e f i n e d as p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s . Mayer (1976) n o t e d t h a t o b e s i t y d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n a p e r m i s s i v e i n t e r a c t i o n o f g e n e t i c , t r a u m a t i c a n d / o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s . The age o f o n s e t o f o b e s i t y was emp loyed by B r a y (1976) t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e e t i o l o g i c f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n y o u t h and a d u l t o b e s i t y . F o r t h o s e who became obese b e f o r e 18 y e a r s o f age , e t i o l o g y i n v o l v e d 14 g e n e t i c , i n f a n t f e e d i n g , e n d o c r i n e , h y p o t h a l a m i c and d r u g f a c t o r s . F e e d i n g p a t t e r n s , i n a c t i v i t y , e n d o c r i n e , p r e g n a n c y , h y p o t h a l a m i c and d rugs were t h e e t i o l o g i c f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e a d u l t - a g e d o n s e t o f o b e s i t y . A summary o f e t i o l o g i c f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n o b e s i t y c o m p i l e d by Coleman (1976) i n c l u d e d : The s o c i a l , t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l , t h e p h y s i c a l , t h e e m o t i o n a l , t h e h a b i t u a l , t h e h e r e d i t a r y , t h e g e n e t i c , t h e e t h n i c , t h e geo -g r a p h i c a l , t h e c u l t u r a l , t h e s t r u c t u r a l , t h e n u t r i t i o n a l , t h e d i e t a r y , t h e m e t a b o l i c , t h e c h e m i c a l , t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l , t h e h o r m o n a l , t h e p s y c h o s o c i a l , t h e e c o n o m i c . . . ( p . 8 3 ) Co leman c o n c l u d e d h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n o b e s i t y by s t a t i n g t h a t u n l e s s b o t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s were c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e c a u s e s o f o b e s i t y f o r each i n d i v i d u a l , f a i l u r e i n t r e a t m e n t w o u l d be i n e v i t a b l e . Measurement o f O b e s i t y The t e r m o b e s i t y i s a p p l i e d t o t h e c o n d i t i o n o f e x c e s s body f a t d e p o s i t s . The d e g r e e o f body f a t may be d e t e r m i n e d b y s e v e r a l l a b o r a t o r y and f i e l d m e t h o d s . Methods s u c h as p r e d i c t i o n o f body f a t f rom body w a t e r , body p o t a s s i u m , body d e n s i t y , o r i n e r t gas u p t a k e i n v o l v e t h e use o f a l a b o r a t o r y s i t u a t i o n (Behnke § W i l m o r e , 1974; G r a n d e , 1 9 7 3 ) . The most commonly a c c e p t e d f i e l d method f o r p r e d i c t i o n o f body f a t i s t h e s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s measurement t e c h n i q u e u s i n g c a l i p e r s J ( G r a n d e ) . The s k i n f o l d measurement t e c h n i q u e a l l o w s f o r ease o f r e l i a b i l i t y , u se o f e q u i p m e n t , t i m e and p e r s o n n e l , as w e l l as h a v i n g w e l l - s t a n d a r d i z e d norms ( G r a n d e ) . 15 S e v e r a l s t u d i e s have been c o n d u c t e d on v a r i o u s p o p u l a t i o n s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o r r e l a t i o n be tween s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s measures and body d e n s i t y measures w i t h t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s measures c o r r e l a t e n e g a t i v e l y w i t h body d e n s i t y measures (Behnke § W i l m o r e ; G r a n d e ) . A s t u d y w h i c h c l o s e l y a p p r o x i m a t e d the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n by Y o u n g , M a r t i n , C h i r h a n , M c C a r t h y , M a n n i e l l o , Harmeth and F r y e r (1961) i n v o l v i n g 94 m i d d l e and u p p e r c l a s s f e m a l e u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t v o l u n t e e r s w i t h a mean age o f 20 y e a r s . A c o r r e l a t i o n o f - . 6 8 was found be tween s k i n f o l d measures and body d e n s i t y m e a s u r e s . S e v e r a l methods f o r p r e d i c t i n g body f a t measurement f r o m s k i n f o l d measurement have been s u g g e s t e d , t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n v o l v i n g t h e number o f s k i n f o l d s i t e s employed ( G r a n d e ) . S e l t z e r and Mayer (1965) recommended t h e use o f o n l y one s i t e ( t h e t r i c e p s ) . T h r e e s i t e s ( t h e t r i c e p s , s u b s c a p u l a r and a b d o m i n a l ) were u s e d by G l i c k and Kaufman ( 1 9 7 6 ) . Y u h a s z (1973) recommended t h e use o f s i x s i t e s ( t h e t r i c e p s , s u b s c a p u l a r , a b d o m i n a l , s u p r a i l i a c , f r o n t t h i g h and r e a r t h i g h f o r women). I n c i d e n c e o f O b e s i t y O b e s i t y i s f a r more p r e v a l e n t t h a n any o t h e r d i s o r d e r e x c e p t f o r u n d i a g n o s e d and d i a g n o s e d a t h e r o s c l e r o s i s ( Y u d k i n , 1974) and i s t h e most p r e v a l e n t m e t a b o l i c d i s o r d e r ( K e n n e l § G o r d o n , 1973) i n a f f l u e n t c o u n t r i e s . S e v e r a l e s t i m a t e s have b e e n made t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f obese p e o p l e i n a s p e c i f i c p o p u l a t i o n b u t due t o v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f o b e s i t y , i n i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n and i n m e t h o d o l o g y , i t 16 i s d i f f i c u l t t o s t a t e a g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d p r o p o r t i o n ( C h r i s t a k i s , 1973) . I n t h e Framingham S t u d y c o n d u c t e d by K a n n e l and G o r d o n , i t was f o u n d t h a t i n a p o p u l a t i o n o f 5209 men and women aged 30 t o 62 y e a r s , i n c i d e n c e o f o b e s i t y was g r e a t e r i n f e m a l e s t h a n i n m a l e s : 20 p e r c e n t o f t h e women and 15 p e r c e n t o f t h e men were 35 p e r c e n t above a v e r a g e w e i g h t w h i l e n i n e p e r c e n t o f t h e women and t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e men were 50 p e r c e n t above t h e a v e r a g e w e i g h t (as d e t e r m i n e d by s t a n d a r d ' h e i g h t -w e i g h t ' t a b l e s ) . Age o f o n s e t was u s e d as a b a s i s f o r c l a s s i f y i n g d e v e l o p m e n t and p r e v a l e n c e o f o b e s i t y i n t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . D a n o w s k i (1973) n o t e d i n any g roup o f 100 f a t a d u l t s , 25 became o v e r w e i g h t b e f o r e t h e age o f 1 2 , and 12 o r 13 o f t h e s e were a l r e a d y o v e r w e i g h t by t h e age o f s i x ; a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25 d e v e l o p e d w e i g h t p r o b l e m s as t e e n a g e r s o r s h o r t l y a f t e r l e a v i n g h i g h s c h o o l ; a n o t h e r 25 began t o be o v e r w e i g h t a f t e r m a r r i a g e a n d / o r one o r more p r e g n a n c i e s ; t h e r e m a i n i n g 25 became h e a v y i n t h e i r 3 0 ' s o r 4 0 ' s . E f f e c t s o f O b e s i t y O b e s i t y c a u s e s o r adds t o many p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s . O b e s i t y i s s t i g m a t i z e d as a s i n o f s e l f - i n d u l g e n c e , as a d i s e a s e w i t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o n s e q u e n c e s , and as an u g l i n e s s ( A l l o n , 1 9 7 3 ) . E x c e s s f a t d e p o s i t s a f f e c t t h e p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e obese i n d i v i d u a l o f t e n r e s u l t i n g i n c o m p l e x p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s . A l l o n 17 r e m a r k e d t h a t as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r c o n d i t i o n many f a t p e r s o n s f e l t " s e l f d i s p a r a g e m e n t and s e l f h a t r e d and t r e b l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d (1) b e c a u s e t h e y a r e d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t , (2) b e c a u s e t h e y a r e made t o f e e l t h a t t h e y d e s e r v e s u c h b e h a v i o u r , (3) b e c a u s e t h e y come t o a c c e p t t h e i r t r e a t m e n t as j u s t " ( p . 8 4 ) . H i r s c h (1973) n o t e d e m o t i o n a l e f f e c t s r a n g i n g f r o m i n f e r i o r i t y t o v e r y s e r i o u s i n c a p a c i t i e s r e s u l t e d when t h e obese c o n d i t i o n i n t e r f e r r e d w i t h s o c i a l i z a t i o n o r even s e x u a l a c t i v i t y . As a r e s u l t o f n e g a t i v e s o c i a l judgments and o p i n i o n s , t h e obese i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e d a v u l n e r a b i l i t y w h i c h was r e l a t e d t o p e r s o n a l and e m o t i o n a l , p r o b l e m s . ( B r u c h , 1 9 7 3 b ) . Mayer (1968) s u g g e s t e d t h a t obese g i r l s s u f f e r e d f r o m p r e j u d i c e and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n f e e l i n g s o f s e l f - b l a m e and i n f e r i o r i t y . P h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e , w h i c h was f o u n d t o be t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n d a t i n g b e h a v i o r i n c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s ( W a l s t e r , A r o n s o n , Abramham and Rothman, 1966) and i n women m a r r y i n g above t h e i r s o c i a l c l a s s ( E l d e r , 1 9 6 9 ) , p l a c e s -the o b e s e - f e m a l e a t a d i s advan tage .^ . C a n n i n g and Mayer (1966) s u g g e s t e d a p o s s i b l e l i n k be tween t h e p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e obese p e r s o n and c o l l e g e a c c e p t a n c e a f t e r t h e y n o t e d t h a t t w o - t h i r d s more n o n - o b e s e t h a n obese h i g h s c h o o l a p p l i c a n t s were a c c e p t e d b y c o l l e g e s . They s u g g e s t e d t h a t o b e s i t y may be more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f l o w e r c l a s s e s b e c a u s e t h e obese a r e " p r e v e n t e d f r o m o b t a i n i n g t h e e d u c a t i o n and u l t i m a t e l y t h e o c c u p a t i o n and income n e c e s s a r y t o r a i s e o r m a i n t a i n p r e s e n t s o c i a l c l a s s l e v e l s " ( p . 1 1 7 4 ) . 18 The n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s o f o b e s i t y on body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t have b e e n n o t e d by s e v e r a l a u t h o r s „ ( B r u c h , 1 9 7 3 a , 1973b; Dwyer § M a y e r , 1 9 7 3 ; N a t h a n , 1 9 7 3 ; S t u n k a r d § M e n d e l s o n , 1 9 6 1 , 1 9 6 7 ) . A r e v i e w o f t h e a r e a o f o b e s i t y and t h e e f f e c t s on body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t i s p r e s e n t e d i n a s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n b e c a u s e o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e a r e a t o t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . The p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t o f e x c e s s f a t d e p o s i t s has b e e n o b s e r v e d as an e x c e s s s t r e s s on a l l sy s t ems and o r g a n s o f t h e b o d y . P h y s i o l o g i c a l s t r a i n , as o b s e r v e d by s e v e r a l a u t h o r s was n o t e d i n changes i n body f u n c t i o n i n g : i n c r e a s e d i n c i d e n c e o f r e s p i r a t o r y d i s e a s e s , h i g h b l o o d p r e s s u r e , a t h e r o s c l e r o s i s , c a r d i o v a s c u l a r d y s f u n c t i o n , e n d o c r i n e and m e t a b o l i c c h a n g e s , d i a b e t e s , r e n a l and g a l l b l a d d e r d y s f u n c t i o n , , r i s k i n s u r g e r y , r i s k i n p r e g n a n c y , i n c r e a s e d s t r e s s on w e i g h t b e a r i n g s u r f a c e s l e a d i n g t o o s t e o a r t h r i t i s ( B r a y , 1976 ; C l a r k e , 1 9 7 5 ; T o m k i n , 1975 ; U n i t e d S t a t e s Depar tmen t o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e , 1 9 6 6 ) . T r e a t m e n t o f O b e s i t y S i n c e o b e s i t y i s a c o n d i t i o n r e s u l t i n g f r o m an e n e r g y i m b a l a n c e due t o e x c e s s i v e c a l o r i c i n t a k e o r i n s u f f i c i e n t c a l o r i c e x p e n d i t u r e , t r e a t m e n t i s c o n s e q u e n t l y b a s e d on r e v e r s i n g t h e c a u s e s o f t h e i m b a l a n c e ( O s c a i ) . O b e s i t y most o f t e n has been t r e a t e d by t h e m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s who r e l y on v a r i o u s methods o f d e c r e a s i n g c a l o r i c i n t a k e t h r o u g h d i e t i n g and f a s t i n g ( L e y , B r a d s h a w , K i n c e y , C o u p e r - S m a r t and W i l s o n , 1 9 7 3 ) , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s who employ t e c h n i q u e s t o s u p p o r t a n d / o r r e i n f o r c e t h e s e a t t e m p t s a t d i e t i n g and f a s t i n g ( B r a y , 1976 ; K l i n e , Ca leman § W i c k , 1 9 7 6 ) . S i n c e i t i s n o t w i t h i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r e s e n t 19 s t u d y t o expand upon o r p r e s e n t new i n f o r m a t i o n abou t t h e s u b j e c t o f d e c r e a s i n g c a l o r i c i n t a k e , t h e r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o B r a y ( 1 9 7 3 , 1976) and K l i n e e t a l . . Me thods employed f o r i n c r e a s i n g c a l o r i c e x p e n d i t u r e i n v o l v e t h e use o f v a r i o u s t y p e s o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y p rograms and t h u s l i e w i t h i n t h e domain o f t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r . A r e v i e w o f t h e b e n e f i c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y on o b e s i t y i s p r e s e n t e d i n a s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n b e c a u s e o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e a r e a to t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . OBESITY AND ITS EFFECT ON BODY CONCEPT AND SELF CONCEPT The n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s o f o b e s i t y on body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t have been n o t e d by s e v e r a l a u t h o r s ( B r u c h , 1973a , 1973b; Dwyer § M a y e r , 1 9 7 3 ; N a t h a n , 1 9 7 3 ; S t u n k a r d § M e n d e l s o n , 1 9 6 1 , 1 9 6 7 ) . I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e manner i n w h i c h a p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s u c h as o b e s i t y may a f f e c t t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t s o f body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e v i e w t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : (1) t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t a n d ; : ( 2 ) t h e e f f e c t s o f o b e s i t y on body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t . S i n c e i t i s n o t w i t h i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t o e l a b o r a t e upon o r d e t a i l t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e v o l u t i o n , r e f i n e m e n t and e v a l u a t i o n o f body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t i n d e p t h , t h e r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o D u v a l and W i c k l a n d ( 1 9 7 2 ) , F e l d e n k r a i s ( 1 9 7 2 ) , Lowen ( 1 9 6 7 , 1 9 7 5 ) , R o g e r s ( 1 9 5 1 ) , W e b s t e r and S o b i e s z e k ( 1 9 7 4 ) , W e l l s and M a r w e l l (1976) and W y l i e ( 1 9 7 4 ) . 20 R e l a t i o n s h i p ; . ) Be tween Body C o n c e p t and S e l f C o n c e p t Body c o n c e p t has been d e f i n e d by S e c o r d and J o u r a r d (1953) i n t e rms o f body c a t h e x i s o r t h e deg ree o f f e e l i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n o r d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e v a r i o u s p a r t s a n d / p r p r o c e s s e s o f t h e b o d y . F i t t s (1965) d e f i n e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l s e l f as t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f h i s b o d y , t h e s t a t e o f h i s . h e a l t h s h i s ^ p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e , s k i l l s , and s e x u a l i t y i n t e r m s o f i d e n t i t y (what he i s as he sees h i m s e l f ) , s e l f s a t i s f a c t i o n (how he f e e l s abou t t h e s e l f he p e r c e i v e s ) , and b e h a v i o r (how he p e r c e i v e s h i s own b e h a v i o r o r t h e way he f u n c t i o n s ) . Body image (body c o n c e p t ) was p e r c e i v e d by S t u n k a r d and M e n d e l s o n ( 1 9 6 1 , 1967) as t h e c o n c e p t e a c h i n d i v i d u a l has o f h i s own body as an o b j e c t i n space i n d e p e n d e n t and a p a r t f r o m a l l o t h e r o b j e c t s . S e l f c o n c e p t , as d e f i n e d b y t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l E n c y c l o p e d i a o f t h e S c i e n c e s (1968) was r e p r e s e n t e d as a p r o c e s s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l s e n s e : A d e v e l o p m e n t a l f o r m a t i o n i n t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l make-up o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n s i s t i n g o f i n t e r r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e s t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l has a c q u i r e d i n r e l a t i o n t o h i s own body and i t s p a r t s , t o h i s c a p a c i t i e s and t o o b j e c t s , p e r s o n s , f a m i l y , g roups and i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h d e f i n e and r e g u l a t e h i s r e l a t e d n e s s t o them i n c o n c r e t e s i t u a t i o n s and a c t i v i t i e s , ( p . 153) F i t t s d e f i n e d s e l f - e s t e e m ( s e l f c o n c e p t ) a c c o r d i n g t o t h r e e a s p e c t s : " ( 1 ) t h i s i s what I am, (2) t h i s i s how I f e e l abou t m y s e l f , and (3) t h i s i s what I d o " ( p . 2 ) i n t h e a r e a s o f p h y s i c a l s e l f , m o r a l - e t h i c a l s e l f , p e r s o n a l s e l f , f a m i l y s e l f , and s o c i a l s e l f . I t was s u g g e s t e d b y D o u t y , Moore and H a r t f o r d (1974) t h a t p o s s i b l y t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f h i s w o r l d , h i s b e h a v i o r , h i s s e l f image ( s e l f c o n c e p t ) i s " h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f o t h e r ' s a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s h i m . 21 What o t h e r s d e f i n e as t h e p e r s o n and show i n t h e i r a c t i o n s t o w a r d s h i m may be more i m p o r t a n t t h a n h i s f e e l i n g s o r e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n t o h i m s e l f " (p.500) . The r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t has been s t u d i e d by v a r i o u s i n v e s t i g a t o r s . N o t a b l y , S e c o r d and J o u r a r d h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e body w o u l d be e a t h e x e d i n a s i m i l a r manner as t h e s e l f . I n t h e i r o f t e n - r e f e r e n c e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween body c a t h e x i s and s e l f c a t h e x i s , t h e y f o u n d a c o r r e l a t i o n o f r = . 5 8 f o r ma le s and r = . 6 6 f o r f e m a l e s . S t u d i e s by W e i n b e r g (1960) and Rosen and Ross (1968) s u b s t a n t i a t e d t h e r e s u l t s o f S e c o r d and J o u r a r d . W h i t e and Wash (1965) f o u n d a c o r r e l a t i o n o f r = . 7 1 between body c a t h e x i s and s e l f c a t h e x i s i n a s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n composed o f u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . L e a r n e r , K a r a b e n i c k and S t u a r t (1973) s t u d y i n g a d o l e s c e n t s ' a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e i r p h y s i q u e and i t s e f f e c t on s e l f c o n c e p t n o t e d t h a t t h e deg ree o f p o s i t i v e s e l f c o n c e p t i n c r e a s e d w i t h t h e d e g r e e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n o r p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s o n e ' s body c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . E f f e c t s o f O b e s i t y on Body C o n c e p t and S e l f C o n c e p t O b e s i t y and i t s r e s u l t i n g p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e has a v e r y d e f i n i t e e f f e c t upon t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f o n e ' s body and o n e ' s s e l f ^ ( B r u c h , 1973a , 1 9 7 3 b ) . Two i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s have been l i n k e d t o t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e body by t h e obese i n d i v i d u a l : (1) t h e d i s t o r t i o n o f body s i z e and (2) t h e d i s t u r b a n c e i n body c o n c e p t ( G l u c k s m a n § H i r s c h , 1 9 6 9 ) . The d i s t o r t i o n o f body s i z e . The d i s t o r t i o n o f body s i z e has o f t e n been o b s e r v e d i n obese i n d i v i d u a l s ( B a i l e y , S c h e n d l i n g and P a y n e , 1 9 6 8 ; 22 Cappon £ B a n k , 1968; G lucksman $ H i r s c h , 1969 , H i r s c h , 1 9 7 3 ) . Cappon and Bank i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e deg ree o f d i s t o r t i o n i n body s i z e p e r c e p t i o n f o u n d t h a t t h e obese g roup o v e r e s t i m a t e d t h e i r s i z e , and t h e e r r o r s i n p r e d i c t i o n o f w i d t h and t h i c k n e s s were " a f u n c t i o n o f o b e s i t y r a t h e r t h a n s i z e p e r s e . . . . a f t e r c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h t h e i r image i n a m i r r o r , t h e e r r o r s d i m i n i s h e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y a t l e a s t f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d " ( p . 4 4 6 ) . B a i l e y e t a l . f o u n d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s w i t h o v e r w e i g h t i n d i v i d u a l s who t e n d e d t o p e r c e i v e a l a r g e r body s i z e t h a n t h o s e who were n o n - o b e s e . The p e r c e p t i o n o f body s i z e a p p e a r e d t o p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n b o t h t h e obese and t h e r e d u c e d s t a t e s . G l u c k s m a n and H i r s c h c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e was d e n i a l and d i s t o r t i o n o f o n e ' s a p p e a r a n c e by t h e obese i n d i v i d u a l . They f o u n d t h a t f o r some obese p e o p l e a ' phan tom body s i z e ' phenomenon e x i s t e d , t h a t i s , obese s u b j e c t s i n c r e a s i n g l y o v e r e s t i m a t e d body s i z e d u r i n g and a f t e r w e i g h t r e d u c t i o n . An e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e c ause o f t h i s ' phan tom body s i z e ' phenomenon was t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t "body s i z e image b e f o r e w e i g h t l o s s ( i s ) r e l a t i v e l y f i x e d and ( i t ) c a n n o t be a l t e r e d as r a p i d l y as an a c t u a l change i n body c o n f i g u r a t i o n " ( p . 6 ) . H i r s c h f u r t h e r a d d e d : W i t h t h e c h i l d h o o d - o n s e t o b e s e , t h e r e i s a p e r s i s t a n t s e n s a t i o n o f o b e s i t y i n s p i t e o f w e i g h t r e d u c t i o n . . . t h e r e a l i t y o f a w e i g h t r e d u c t i o n i s i n many ways e x p e r i e n c e d as a t h r e a t t o s e l f image and body i n t e g r i t y . . . p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s e q u e n c e s o f o b e s i t y a r e most c l e a r l y seen o n l y when w e i g h t i s r e d u c e d . . i m p r i n t e d w i t h o b e s i t y . . . w e i g h t r e d u c t i o n l e a d s t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l changes t h a t m i g h t be e x p e c t e d when r e a l i s t i c w e i g h t and body s i z e d i f f e r f r o m i m p r i n t e d o r o p t i m a l l e v e l , ( p . 8 2 ) The d i s t u r b a n c e i n body c o n c e p t . The d i s t u r b a n c e i n body c o n c e p t was n o t e d t o be m a n i f e s t e d i n t h e way one v i e w e d h i m s e l f , h i s s e l f c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n g e n e r a l and h i s s e l f c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o 23 t h e o p p o s i t e s e x ( S t u n k a r d § M e n d e l s o n , 1967) . A c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n t h e d e g r e e o f d i s t u r b a n c e was t h e age o f o n s e t o f o b e s i t y (Dwyer § M a y e r , 1968 , 1 9 7 3 ; H i r s c h , 1 9 7 3 ; M o n e l l o $ M a y e r , 1 9 6 3 ; S i l v e r s t o n e , 1 9 7 3 ; S t u n k a r d $ B u r t , 1 9 6 7 ; S t u n k a r d § M e n d e l s o n , 1 9 6 1 , 1 9 6 7 ) . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s by S t u n k a r d and B u r t , and S t u n k a r d and M e n d e l s o n ( 1 9 6 1 , 1967) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t age o f o n s e t o f o b e s i t y was a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n t h e d i s t u r b a n c e o f body c o n c e p t . They f o u n d t h a t t h e d i s t u r b a n c e o c c u r e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y among p a t i e n t s who became obese d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d o r a d o l e s c e n c e . Not one i n 40 a d u l t - a g e d o n s e t p a t i e n t s s u f f e r e d f r o m s e v e r e d i s t u r b a n c e s whereas 17 o u t o f 34 j u v e n i l e - a g e d o n s e t p a t i e n t s s u f f e r e d s e v e r e d i s t u r b a n c e s . O t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n p r e d i s p o s i n g body c o n c e p t d i s t u r b a n c e s were t h e p r e s e n c e o f e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e and t h e n e g a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e obese c o n d i t i o n by s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s . Among j u v e n i l e - a g e d o n s e t o b e s e , t h e body c o n c e p t was u s u a l l y a c e n t r a l f a c t o r t o any e m o t i o n a l d i s o r d e r b u t n o t so w i t h a d u l t - a g e d o n s e t o b e s e . The d i s t u r b a n c e i n body c o n c e p t was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by S t u n k a r d and M e n d e l s o n (1967) as f e e l i n g s t h a t " o n e ' s body i s g r o t e s q u e and l o a t h e s o m e and t h a t o t h e r s v i e w i t w i t h h o s t i l i t y and con tempt " ( p . 1229) . T h i s d i s t u r b a n c e i n body c o n c e p t was f o u n d t o be u n l i k e t h a t e x h i b i t e d by b r a i n -damaged o r s c h i z o p h r e n i c p e o p l e . The obese i n d i v i d u a l o f t e n became so p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h h i s o b e s i t y t h a t he e x c l u d e d a l l o t h e r p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s . S t u n k a r d and M e n d e l s o n s u g g e s t e d t h a t " a k i n d o f c i r c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p ( e x i s t e d ) be tween body image (body c o n c e p t ) d i s t u r b a n c e s w h i c h p r e d i s p o s e s t o s e l f - e s t e e m l o w e r i n g e x p e r i e n c e s and d e p r e s s i v e moods w h i c h 24 i n t u r n r e i n f o r c e t h e d i s t u r b e d body i m a g e . . . " ( p . 1 2 9 7 ) . The a t t i t u d e o f p a r e n t s and p e e r s t o w a r d s a c h i l d and h i s body were n o t e d t o have a v e r y d e f i n i t e e f f e c t on h i s body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t . N a t h a n (1973) p o i n t e d o u t : D e r o g a t o r y , c r i t i c a l comments d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s o v e r w e i g h t c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o e n d u r i n g images o f t h e s e l f . (p . 456) . W i t h i n c r e a s i n g a g e , t h e obese c h i l d ' s i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f n e g a t i v e s o c i a l a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s o b e s i t y r e s u l t s i n t h e d e n i a l and s e l f a v o i d a n c e o f n o r m a l b o d i l y i n t e r e s t , s e l f h a t r e d and f e e l i n g s o f u g l i n e s s and i n a d e q u a c i e s , ( p . 4 6 0 ) . The e f f e c t s o f o b e s i t y on body c o n c e p t a p p e a r e d t o have t h e g r e a t e s t i m p a c t on t h e obese a d o l e s c e n t . M o n e l l o and Maye r a f t e r s t u d y i n g obese a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n f a c t , t h e s e g i r l s b e h a v e d as a m i n o r i t y g roup e x h i b i t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i s o l a t i o n and r e j e c t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n w i t h d r a w a l , b u t w i t h o u t t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e m i n o r i t y ' i n - g r o u p ' f o r p e e r a c c e p t a n c e . The obese a d o l e s c e n t was p l a c e d i n t h e u n c o m p r o m i s i n g p o s i t i o n o f n e e d i n g p e e r a p p r o v a l and i n d e p e n d e n c e f rom p a r e n t s more t h a n p a r e n t a l a p p r o v a l and d e p e n d e n c e . H o w e v e r , r e j e c t i o n by t h e p e e r g roup l e f t t h e a d o l e s c e n t w i t h o n l y t h e p a r e n t s f o r a p p r o v a l . Obese a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s were o b s e r v e d t o e x p r e s s more g u i l t y f e e l i n g s abou t t h e i r c o n d i t i o n and t o be more a f f e c t e d by n e g a t i v e s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e i r c o n d i t i o n t h a n i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h o t h e r t y p e s o f p h y s i c a l a b n o r m a l a c i e s b e c a u s e t h e y f e l t t h a t i t was t h e i r l a c k o f c o n t r o l w h i c h c a u s e d t h e i r c o n d i t i o n , n o t f a t e (Dwyer E, M a y e r , 1968) . O f t e n t h e obese a d o l e s c e n t g i r l t h o u g h t t h a t she a t e much more t h a n t h e n o n - o b e s e g i r l when i n f a c t she a c t u a l l y a t e l e s s 25 ( M o n e l l o <| M a y e r ) . Dwyer and Mayer ( 1 9 6 8 , 1973) a l s o f o u n d t h a t p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e and i n t e n s e a n x i e t y o v e r w e i g h t change o f t e n p e r s i s t e d even a f t e r t h e obese c o n d i t i o n h a d been r e d u c e d . S u m m a r i z i n g t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f o b e s i t y o n t h e a d o l e s c e n t , Hammer (1975) c o n c l u d e d t h a t ""damage t o t h e t e e n a g e r i n s e l f c o n c e p t may be i r r e p a r a b l e , t h e i r l ow s e l f e s t e e m , f e e l i n g s o f r e j e c t i o n s , l o n e l i n e s s and d e p r e s s i o n become d i f f i c u l t i f n o t i m p o s s i b l e t o c h a n g e " ( p . 7 8 8 ) . The body c a t h e x i s (body c o n c e p t ) and s e l f c a t h e x i s ( s e l f c o n c e p t ) o f s u p e r - o b e s e p a t i e n t s were s t u d i e d by G o t t s f e l d ( 1 9 6 2 ) . The s u p e r -obese g roup was compared t o a g roup o f n e u r o t i c s . Body c a t h e x i s was a s s e s s e d u s i n g s e l f f i g u r e - d r a w i n g s . E v a l u a t e d b y ' g l o b a l c l i n i c a l j u d g m e n t ' t o d e t e r m i n e p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e body c a t h e x i s , 25 o u t o f 30 d r a w i n g s j u d g e d as s h o w i n g t h e most n e g a t i v e body c a t h e x i s b e l o n g e d t o t h e s u p e r - o b e s e g r o u p , o n l y f i v e b e l o n g e d t o t h e n e u r o t i c g r o u p . Judgment o f n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e o m i s s i o n o f body p a r t s . r e v e a l e d t h a t 12 o u t o f 13 d r a w i n g s w h i c h d i s p l a y e d m i s s i n g body p a r t s b e l o n g e d t o t h e s u p e r - o b e s e g r o u p , ' T h e d e g r e e o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n (as d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e h i g h e r t h e s c o r e , t h e g r e a t e r t h e d e g r e e o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ) showed a mean o f 1 9 . 7 f o r t h e s u p e r - o b e s e g roup and 4 2 . 6 f o r t h e n e u r o t i c g r o u p . The o p p o s i t e r e s u l t s were f o u n d i n t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f s e l f c a t h e x i s w h i c h was e v a l u a t e d b y means o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . R e s u l t s showed t h a t 22 oiSt o f t h e 30 most d i s s a t i s f i e d r e s p o n s e s b e l o n g e d t o t h e n e u r o t i c g roup and o n l y e i g h t b e l o n g e d t o t h e s u p e r - o b e s e g r o u p . T h i s c o n f l i c t o f r e s u l t s , i n w h i c h t h e s u p e r - o b e s e showed t h e most n e g a t i v e body c a t h e x i s 26 and y e t showed t h e l e a s t n e g a t i v e s e l f c a t h e x i s , was e x p l a i n e d i n te rms; , o f t h e c h o i c e o f measurement i n s t r u m e n t s . The s e l f f i g u r e - d r a w i n g s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e u n c o n s c i o u s a s p e c t o f a t t i t u d e ; t h e s e l f d e s c r i p t i v e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e p r e s e n t e d t h e more c o n s c i o u s l e v e l o f a t t i t u d e . G o t t s f e l d a l s o n o t e d t h a t t h e s u p e r - o b e s e i n d i v i d u a l was u n a b l e t o " a c c e p t a n e g a t i v e s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i m s e l f and on t h e c o n s c i o u s l e v e l p o r t r a y s h i m s e l f as w e l l s a t i s f i e d " ( p . 3 1 7 ) . C o m p a r i s o n s o f o b s e r v e d b e h a v i o r and s e l f - r e p o r t e d b e h a v i o r d i s c l o s e d a d i s p a r i t y i n p e r c e p t i o n s . The obese r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s c l o s e r t o t h e i r i d e a l s e l v e s t h a n t o t h e i r o b s e r v e d r e a l s e l v e s . Based on t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s , G o t t s f e l d s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e most e f f e c t i v e t r e a t m e n t f o r the ^ super-.-iO.be.s.e- should i n c l u d e some f o r m o f p s y c h o t h e r a p y , b u t t h i s c o u l d be d i f f i c u l t b e c a u s e t h e s u p e r - o b e s e t e n d t o deny t h a t t h e r e i s a n y t h i n g w r o n g w i t h t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s and hence t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n f o r p s y c h o t h e r a p y i s p o o r . S t a n l e y , G l a s s e r , L e v i n , Adams, and C o l e y (1970) s u g g e s t e d t h a t p rograms f o r obese a d o l e s c e n t s need t o c o n c e n t r a t e more on t h e improvement o f body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t . They o b s e r v e d t h a t t h o s e obese a d o l e s c e n t s who managed s u c c e s s f u l w e i g h t l o s s " i n some way i m p r o v e d t h e i r body image o r s e l f image o r b o t h , w h i c h i n t u r n h e l p e d them t o keep t h e i r w e i g h t down" ( p . 3 4 ) . S t o n e r and F i o r e l l o (1976) e m p h a s i z e d t h a t u n l e s s a p r o g r a m f o r obese i n d i v i d u a l s was d e s i g n e d t o a f f e c t a change i n s e l f c o n c e p t as w e l l as w e i g h t l o s s , a change i n s e l f c o n c e p t c o u l d n o t be e x p e c t e d t o accompany a change i n w e i g h t l o s s . They d e s i g n e d a c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m i n w h i c h t h e major emphas i s was o n i m p r o v e d p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e by means o f i m p r o v i n g p e r s o n a l g r o o m i n g and s o c i a l s k i l l s i n s t e a d o f 27 c o n c e n t r a t i n g s o l e l y on w e i g h t l o s s . A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e be tween t r e a t m e n t and c o n t r o l g roup was f o u n d i n t h e P h y s i c a l S e l f s c o r e b u t n o t i n t h e o v e r a l l T o t a l S e l f s c o r e as e v a l u a t e d by t h e Tennes see S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e . . OBESITY AND PHYSICAL A C T I V I T Y O b e s i t y has been d e f i n e d as an e n e r g y i m b a l a n c e w h i c h i s t h e r e s u l t o f e x c e s s i v e c a l o r i c i n t a k e o r i n s u f f i c i e n t c a l o r i c e x p e n d i t u r e o r b o t h ( O s c a i , 1 9 7 3 ) . R e g u l a t i n g c a l o r i c i n t a k e t h r o u g h d i e t w i l l c o r r e c t t h e p r o b l e m o f e x c e s s i v e c a l o r i c i n t a k e ; i n c r e a s i n g p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y w i l l c o r r e c t t h e p r o b l e m o f i n s u f f i c i e n t c a l o r i c e x p e n d i t u r e . I n o r d e r t o e x p l a i n t h e e f f e c t s o f a body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m on body c o n c e p t , s e l f c o n c e p t , and body c o m p o s i t i o n i n i n a c t i v e obese and n o n - o b e s e young women, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e v i e w t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : (1) t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and o b e s i t y , (2) t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y on t h e obese i n d i v i d u a l , and (3) t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y on t h e obese : i n d i v i d u a l .*•> ~ z" ~ „ :• . ' „ The R e l a t i o n s h i p Be tween O b e s i t y and P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y I t i s a w e l l - i n v e s t i g a t e d f a c t t h a t p h y s i c a l i n a c t i v i t y i s a ma j o r f a c t o r i n v o l v e d i n o b e s i t y ( C l a r k e , 1 9 7 5 ; J o h n s o n , B u r k e and M a y e r , 1 9 5 6 ; M a y e r , 1957 , 1 9 6 8 , 1976 ; Roby , 1969 ; W e l l s , 1 9 7 2 ) . Howeve r , t h e r e a r e two p e r s i s t e n t p o p u l a r m i s c o n c e p t i o n s p e r p e t r a t e d and a c c e p t e d r e g a r d i n g t h e f u n c t i o n o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and m e t a b o l i c r e g u l a t i o n ( M a y e r , 1968 , 1976) : (1) e x e r c i s e r e q u i r e s r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e c a l o r i c e x p e n d i t u r e . T h i s i s 28 wrong particularly for the obese individual. The cumulative effects of exercise increases proportionally to body weight. Therefore, an obese individual utilizes more body fat than a non-obese individual for the same amount of activity. Evidence has shown that caloric expenditure continues above basal levels for several hours after the activity is completed. (Danowski, 1973; Mayer, 1968; Roby), (2) an increase in physical activity at any level of caloric intake is followed by an automatic increase in appetite and as such is a self defeating weight control measure. This presumed relationship is not valid i f the individual is inactive to begin with. Decreasing the amount of physical activity below a certain level will no longer be accompanied by a decrease in appetite which, explains :why underexercising is an important cause in the prevalence of obesity (Mayer, 1968, 1976). It has been shown that moderate daily physical activity regulated appetite and in some cases diminished appetite to the requirements of a sedentary, level. (Mayer, 1968; Roby). The level of physical activity is a critical factor in obesity at a l l ages but particularly in childhood and adolescence (Clydesdale, 1975; Mayer, 1976). At the infant age, Mayer (1976) observed that active babies often ate more but were thinner and lighter than inactive babies who ate less but were fatter. Clydesdale remarked: Excessive, eating is not the case for the majority of (obese)... one of the best means available now to help obese children and also to help children who are at risk to develop obesity is to increase daily caloric expenditure through exercise, (p.9). Summarizing research'finding, :;Mayer. • (1976) concluded that lack 29 o f e x e r c i s e may w e l l be t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f o b e s i t y t o d a y . I n h i g h s c h o o l g i r l s , i t was o b s e r v e d t h a t i n a c t i v i t y was i n d e e d a ma jo r f a c t o r i n p e r p e t r a t i n g o b e s i t y i n most o f t h e obese a d o l e s c e n t s . M a y e r (1976) c l a s s i f i e d two t y p e s o f obese y o u n g s t e r s : (1) t h o s e who a t e no more b u t e x e r c i s e d l e s s t h a n n o n - o b e s e p e e r s , and (2) t h o s e who a t e more t h a n n o n - o b e s e p e e r s b u t e x e r c i s e d n o r m a l l y . W h i l e p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s , t h e obese y o u n g s t e r s were o b s e r v e d by B u l l e n , Reed and Maye r (1970) t o be i n a c t i v e t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e t i m e : i n v o l l e y b a l l t h e obese were e s s e n t i a l l y m o t i o n l e s s f o r 80 p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e as compared t o 50 p e r c e n t f o r t h e n o n - o b e s e ; i n t e n n i s t h e obese were i n a c t i v e 60 p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e as compared t o 20 p e r c e n t f o r t h e n o n - o b e s e ; i n swimming t h e obese t e n d e d t o s i t , s t a n d o r f l o a t f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e t i m e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween f a t t i s s u e and m u s c l e t i s s u e was s u g g e s t e d by Roby t o be an " i n v e r s e one b e c a u s e c e s s a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y r e s u l t s i n some m u s c l e a t r o p h y w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e c r e a t i n g a p r e d i s -p o s i t i o n f o r f a t a c c u m u l a t i o n " ( p . 1 5 8 ) . Roby a l s o r e m a r k e d t h a t t h e obese i n d i v i d u a l s a r e " l e s s a c t i v e t h a n p e r s o n s o f n o r m a l w e i g h t , t h e r e f o r e t h e c a u s a t i o n o f o b e s i t y i s n o t e n t i r e l y due t o a b n o r m a l l y h i g h c a l o r i c i n t a k e " ( p . 1 5 8 ) . O s c a i c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e g r o s s l y o v e r w e i g h t i n d i v i d u a l was i n d e e d c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s a c t i v e t h a n t h e n o r m a l w e i g h t i n d i v i d u a l and i n t h e c a s e o f m i l d o b e s i t y " a d e c r e a s e i n e x e r c i s e a p p e a r s t o be an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n w e i g h t g a i n l e a d i n g t o t h e g r o s s l y o v e r w e i g h t c o n d i t i o n ' , ' ( p . 1 1 9 ) . The l a c k o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y has been n o t e d t o be a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n t h e l i f e s t y l e o f t h e obese i n d i v i d u a l . ( B u l l e n e t a l . ; C l a r k e ; 30 C l y d e s d a l e ; O s c a i ; R o b y ; ) The f u n c t i o n o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y has o f t e n been m i s u n d e r s t o o d i n r e l a t i o n t o the e f f e c t s on o b e s i t y r p a r t i c u l a f l y i n t h e a r e a o f c a l o r i c e x p e n d i t u r e and a p p e t i t e c o n t r o l ( M a y e r , 1 9 7 6 ) . The P s y c h o l o g i c a l E f f e c t s o f P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y on t h e Obese I n d i v i d u a l The b e n e f i c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y s u g g e s t i t s a p p l i c a t i o n as a medium f o r t h e r a p y i n t h e t r e a t m e n t and p r e v e n t i o n o f o b e s i t y ( C o l l i n g w o o d & W i l l e t , 1 9 7 1 ; L e o n a r d s o n , 1977 ; L o w e n , 1 9 7 5 ) . I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p o s s i b l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f a body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m on body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t o f i n a c t i v e obese and n o n - o b e s e women, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e v i e w t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : (1) t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y on body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t and (2) t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y on body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t i n obese i n d i v i d u a l s . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y on body c o n c e p t  and s e l f c o n c e p t . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y on body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t have b e e n w e l l r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e p s y c h i a -t r i s t , p s y c h o l o g i s t , dance t h e r a p i s t and movement t h e r a p i s t ( F e d e r § F e d e r , 1977 ; F e l d e n k r a i s , 1972 ; H e c o x , L e v i n e and S c o t t , 1 9 7 5 ; Lowen , 1 9 7 5 ; R o b b i n s and R o b b i n s , 1972 ; S c h u t z , 1967 ; W e i s b r o d , 1 9 7 2 ) . S i n c e i t i s n o t w i t h i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t o expand i n d e t a i l t h e e v o l u t i o n , r e f i n e m e n t o r e v a l u a t i o n o f p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l t h e r a p y p e r s e , t h e r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o F e l d e n k r a i s , Lowen ( 1 9 6 9 , 1975) and S c h u t z . 3 1 Dance t h e r a p y i s u n l i k e t h e s t a n d a r d m e n t a l - h e a l t h t h e r a p i e s w h i c h r e l y m a i n l y on v e r b a l l a n g u a g e i n t r e a t m e n t . F e d e r and F e d e r d e s c r i b e d i t as f o c u s i n g o n : Body movement t o d i a g n o s e as w e l l as i n f l u e n c e e m o t i o n and b e h a v i o r . . . m o v e m e n t i s n o t m e r e l y a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y i t i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f i t , as w e l l as a major i n f l u e n c e o n a p e r s o n ' s e m o t i o n a l s t a t e s . . . . f o c u s i s d i r e c t l y on p h y s i c a l change on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e mind and body a r e i n e x t r i c a b l y i n t e r w o v e n . . . . i m p r o v e m e n t i s u s u a l l y d i r e c t and o b s e r v a b l e , ( p . 7 6 ) I n t h e i r dance t h e r a p y s e s s i o n s f o r o u t p a t i e n t s , F e d e r and F e d e r emp loyed two b a s i c t e c h n i q u e s i n t r e a t m e n t : ( 1 ) e x e r c i s e p e r i o d s t o expand body awareness and p e r h a p s make m i n o r changes i n m u s c u l a t u r e and ( 2 ) and f o l k dances w h i c h e n c o u r a g e body awareness and p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e a s y n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g i n t e r a c t i o n . " ( p . 7 6 ) As dance t h e r a p i s t s , t h e y e m p l o y e d b o d y - a l i g n m e n t e x e r c i s e s t o c r e a t e p h y s i c a l b a l a n c e b y e a s i n g p h y s i c a l and t h e r e f o r e m e n t a l t e n s i o n s , and body awareness e x e r c i s e s a imed a t " i s o l a t i n g a p e r s o n ' s t e n s i o n s and a n a l y z i n g how he moves" ( p . 2 6 ) . By i n c r e a s i n g an i n d i v i d u a l ' s movement r e p e t o i r e , dance t h e r a p y was n o t e d t o a i d i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e p h y s i c a l s e l f as w e l l as h e l p t h e p a t i e n t " r e c o g n i z e t h e n a t u r a l n e s s o f t h e s e n -s u a l i t y and e n j o y t h e p l e a s u r e o f p h y s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e " ( p . 8 0 ) . F e d e r and F e d e r c o n c l u d e d : W i t h t h e g r o w i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e u n i t y o f mind and b o d y , d a n c e t h e r a p y , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h one o r more o f t h e e x i s t i n g p s y c h o t h e r a p i e s , may w e l l assume a p r o m i n e n t r o l e i n t h e m e n t a l h e a l t h M e l d ( p . 8 0 ) . I n h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f s h a p i n g body image (body c o n c e p t ) t h r o u g h movement t h e r a p y , W e i s b r o d d e f i n e d movement t h e r a p y and dance t h e r a p y a s : 32 The p l a n n e d use o f any a s p e c t o f d a n c e , movement and s e n s o r y e x p e r i e n c e t o f u r t h e r t h e p h y s i c a l and p s y c h i c i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e b o d y . . . . S i n c e movement i s a f u n d a m e n t a l d i m e n s i o n o f human b e h a v i o r i t can be a mode f o r v i t a l n o n - v e r b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n (p.66). P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as a f o r m o f p s y c h o - p h y s i o l o g i c a l t h e r a p e u t i c e d u c a t i o n i s t h e b a s i s o f an E d u c a t i o n a l R h y t h m i c p r o g r a m u s e d by R o b b i n s and R o b b i n s t o a f f e c t body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t i n i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s . They have o b s e r v e d : T h r o u g h t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e components o f s p a c e , t i m e and movement, i t c r e a t e s a s t r u c t u r e d awareness o f s e l f c o n c e p t i n ' b o d y i m a g e ' , ( p . 5 3 ) The e f f e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e may i n c l u d e g a i n i n p o i s e , s e l f e s t e e m , c r e a t i v i t y , i m a g i n a t i o n , h a p p i n e s s i n m o v i n g i n u n i s o n w i t h o t h e r s , en joyment o f l e a r n i n g and d o i n g , s a t i s f a c t i o n o f c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h o t h e r s , ( p . 4 4 ) ;. R h y t h m i c a l movement and dance a r e a p p r o p r i a t e p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s t o u s e as p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l t h e r a p y f o r t h e improvement o f body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t (Hecox e t a l . ; P u r e t z , 1 9 7 3 ) . Hecox e t a l . d e f i n e d t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f dance i n p h y s i c a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as f o l l o w s : (1) t o i m p r o v e t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s h i m s e l f , c h a n g i n g n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e body f o r what i t c a n ' t do t o p r i d e i n what i t c a n d o , (2) t o p r o v i d e an e n j o y a b l e o u t l e t f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l whose need o f p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n i s t o o o f t e n n e g l e c t e d , (3) t o i m p r o v e p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y , (4) t o i m p r o v e t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s f u n c t i o n i n g i n h i s d a i l y l i f e , r e g a r d l e s s o f w h e t h e r t h i s r e f l e c t s l o s s o f s e l f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , i n c r e a s e d c o n f i d e n c e , , o t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l - s o c i a l improvement s o r p h y s i c a l i m p r o v e m e n t , (5) t o p r o v i d e t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p e r i e n c e movement and dance w i t h and t h r o u g h o n e ' s own b o d y . The e f f e c t s o f modern e d u c a t i o n a l dance on s e l f c o n c e p t were expanded upon by P u r e t z . She u s e d t h e medium o f movement t o examine t h e 33 s e l f i n a n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l l o w i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h a r e i n c o n s i s t a n t w i t h t h e s e l f c o n c e p t t o be p e r c e i v e d and a s s i m i l a t e d , t h u s f a c i l i t a t i n g a more p o s i t i v e s e l f c o n c e p t . Modern e d u c a t i o n a l dance was d e s i g n e d t o a f f e c t t h e s e l f c o n c e p t t h r o u g h t h e use o f t h e b o d y : The body c a n be v i e w e d as t h e o u t w a r d symbo l o f t h e s e l f and i n modern e d u c a t i o n a l dance t h i s o u t w a r d symbo l o f t h e s e l f i s u s e d as a means o f e x p r e s s i o n . No t o n l y must t h e r e be a d e v e l o p m e n t o f body c o n t r o l and s k i l l , w h i c h i s a b y = p r o d u c t o f most p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , b u t a l s o t h e r e must be a p h y s i c a l s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . . . t h o s e p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s p e r c e i v e d as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f h i m and h i m a l o n e , w h i c h can be c o n t r o l l e d o n l y b y h i m w h i c h a c c o u n t f o r p a r t o f t h e s e l f c o n c e p t . The u s e o f t h e b o d y . . . e m p h a s i z e s and r e i t e r a t e s t h e u s e f u l n e s s t h a t t h e body p o s s e s s e s as a means o f e x p r e s s i o n and as a p r o j e c t i o n o f s e l f . ( p . 11) S t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e use o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s , t h e l e v e l o f p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and t h e i r e f f e c t s on body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t change have been u n d e r t a k e n by s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s ( L e o n a r d s o n , 1 9 7 7 ; McGowan, Ja rman and P e d e r s o n , 1974 ; S o r e n s o n , 1974 ; T u c k e r , 1 9 7 5 ; T y l e r , 1 9 7 3 ) . S t u d y i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f a s p e c i a l s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m on t h e s e l f c o n c e p t and p e e r a p p r o v a l o f s e v e n t h g r ade b o y s , S o r e n s e n o b s e r v e d a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e change i n s e l f c o n c e p t - ( a s e v a l u a t e d by t h e Tennessee S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e ) r e l a t e d t o changes i n p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s l e v e l . The e f f e c t o f p h y s i c a l a c h i e v e m e n t on s e l f c o n c e p t o f h i g h s c h o o l boys i n a b i l i t y - g r o u p e d v e r s u s t r a d i t i o n a l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p rograms was s t u d i e d by T u c k e r . A l t h o u g h t h e r e was no s i g n i -f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e be tween t h e two p r o g r a m s , he f o u n d t h a t t h e h i g h a b i l i t y boys were t h e most p o s i t i v e i n s e l f c o n c e p t , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t a b o y ' s l e v e l o f p h y s i c a l a c h i e v e m e n t i n f l u e n c e s h i s s e l f c o n c e p t p r i m a r i l y i n t h o s e a r e a s o f h i s l i f e where p h y s i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e p l a y s an i n t e g r a l r o l e . I n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n s o c i a l and s p o r t s e l f -34 p e r c e p t i o n T y l e r f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e p e r c e p t i o n be tween f e m a l e v a r s i t y a t h l e t e s and c l a s s p a r t i c i p a n t s o f s o c i a l s e l f , b u t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d i n s p o r t s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n . She a l s o f o u n d t h a t change i n s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s w a s e v i d e n t o v e r a s p o r t s e a s o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y d e c r e a s e s i n s e l f c o n f i d e n c e , a c h i e v e m e n t and dominance i n u n s u c c e s s f u l p a r t i c i p a n t s . The e f f e c t s o f a c o m p e t i t i v e endu rance t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m on s e l f c o n c e p t and p e e r a p p r o v a l were i n v e s t i g a t e d by McGowan e t a l . . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t a f t e r ah 18 week t r a i n i n g p e r i o d t h e r e was a s i g n i -f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n s e l f c o n c e p t (as measured by t h e Tennes see S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e ) i n t h e t r e a t m e n t g roup b u t no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n p e e r g roup a p p r o v a l . S t u d y i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween p e r c e i v e d p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and s e l f c o n c e p t , L e o n a r d s o n (1977) o b s e r v e d t h a t p e r c e i v e d p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and s e l f c o n c e p t were s i g n i f i c a n t l y b u t m o d e r a t e l y c o r r e l a t e d . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t " p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , d e t e r m i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f p e r c e i v e d o r a c t u a l p h y s i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e seems an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e c o n s t r u c t o f . s e l f c o n c e p t " ( p . 6 2 ) . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y on body c o n c e p t  and s e l f c o n c e p t o f obese i n d i v i d u a l s . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y on body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t o f obese i n d i v i d u a l s has n o t b e e n w i d e l y r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . The emphas i s on r e s e a r c h w i t h o b e s i t y and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y has been d i r e c t e d t o p h y s i o l o g i c a l changes i n body c o m p o s i t i o n , body f a t l o s s a n d / o r w e i g h t l o s s . The r e s e a r c h i n v o l v i n g o b e s i t y and t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s o f body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t has m a i n l y c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e d i e t a p p r o a c h t o w e i g h t o r f a t l o s s and p s y c h o t h e r a p y f o r r e i n f o r c i n g t h e d i e t i n g o r t h e 35 a s s e s s m e n t o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f obese i n d i v i d u a l s . L i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i n g t h e u s e o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as a f o r m o f t h e r a p y f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t o f o b e s i t y on a p s y c h o l o g i c a l l e v e l a p p e a r s t o be l i m i t e d . The e f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g upon t h e s e l f c o n c e p t and body a t t i t u d e o f obese a d o l e s c e n t m a l e s - w e r e i n v e s t i g a t e d b y . C o l l i n g w o o d . and W i l l e t ( 1 9 7 1 ) . F i v e male s u b j e c t s were i n v o l v e d i n a t h r e e week, two h o u r a day gym and swim p r o g r a m o f s p r i n t s , c a l i s t h e n i c s and endu rance a c t i v i t i e s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t : P h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g p r o v i d e d a f a i r l y c o n c r e t e g r o w t h and s u c c e s s e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h gave t h e ( s u b j e c t s ) p o s i t i v e f e e d b a c k o f t h e m s e l v e s a f f e c t i n g t h e i r s e l f a t t i t u d e . . . s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s (were found) i n p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s p e r f o r m a n c e , p o s i t i v e body a t t i t u d e , p o s i t i v e s e l f a t t i t u d e , s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e and s i g n i f i c a n t d e c r e a s e s i n r e a l v e r s u s i d e a l s e l f d i s c r e p a n c y . ^ . ( 4 1 2 ) The P h y s i o l o g i c a l E f f e c t s o f P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t i e s on t h e Obese ' I n d i v i d u a l The b e n e f i c i a l p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y a l s o s u g g e s t i t s a p p l i c a t i o n as a medium f o r t h e r a p y i n t h e t r e a t m e n t and p r e v e n t i o n o f o b e s i t y ( B r a y , 1976; B j o r n t o r p , 1973 ; C l a r k e ; F o s s , Lampman and S c h t e i n g a r t , 1 9 7 3 ; M a y e r , 1968 , 1976 ; O s c a i , 1 9 7 3 ) . I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p o s s i b l e p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f a body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m o n body c o m p o s i t i o n o f i n a c t i v e obese and n o n - o b e s e women, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e v i e w t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e a r e a o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y on obese and n o n - o b e s e i n d i v i d u a l s . S i n c e t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l a f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y a r e r e p o r t e d t o be s i m i l a r f o r b o t h obese and n o n - o b e s e i n d i v i d u a l s , t h e e f f e c t s w i l l be i n f e r r e d t o b o t h g roups ( C l a r k e ; O s c a i ) . The p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y have b e e n w e l l 36 r e s e a r c h e d by s e v e r a l e x e r c i s e p h y s i o l o g i s t s (Behnke § W i l m o r e , 1974; C l a r k e ; M a y e r , 1968; O s c a i ) . S i n c e i t i s n o t w i t h i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t o expand upon o r p r e s e n t new m a t e r i a l i n t h e a r e a o f e n e r g y m e t a b o l i s m a n d / o r t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f e x e r c i s e p e r s e , t h e r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o Behnke and W i l m o r e ; B r a y ( 1 9 7 6 ) , C l a r k e , Maye r (1968) and O s c a i . The e f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y on a p p e t i t e , body g r o w t h and body c o m p o s i t i o n were r e v i e w e d a t l e n g t h b y O s c a i . E m p h a s i z i n g t h e p o p u l a r m i s c o n c e p t i o n t h a t r e g u l a r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y i n c r e a s e s a p p e t i t e and f o o d i n t a k e , he s t a t e d : The b e l i e f t h a t r e g u l a r e x e r c i s e c o n s i s t a n t l y s t i m u l a t e s t h e a p p e t i t e i s n o t c o m p a t a b l e w i t h a number o f c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d on human and e x p e r i m e n t a l a n i m a l s . . . v i g o r o u s e x e r c i s e o f ( s h o r t ) d u r a t i o n does n o t a p p e a r t o s t i m u l a t e t h e a p p e t i t e , ( p . 1 0 5 ) / R e g u l a r s e s s i o n s o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y were n o t e d t o have a f a v o r a b l e •„ e f f e c t o n body c o m p o s i t i o n o f c h i l d r e n as w e l l as a d u l t s . I n c h i l d r e n , r e g u l a r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y l o w e r e d o r p r e v e n t e d an i n c r e a s e i n body f a t t i s s u e w h i l e i n c r e a s i n g l e a n t i s s u e . I n a d u l t s , s i n c e body f a t t e n d s t o i n c r e a s e w i t h age and i t i s t h i s i n c r e a s e i n f a t w h i c h c a u s e s an i n c r e a s e i n a d u l t w e i g h t , f a t r e d u c t i o n t h r o u g h p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y was n o t e d t o be an a p p r o p r i a t e t r e a t m e n t f o r t h e c o n t r o l a n d / o r p r e v e n t i o n o f a d u l t - o n s e t o f o b e s i t y . An i n t e r e s t i n g s t a t e m e n t r e g a r d i n g t h e p r e f e r e n c e o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y o v e r d i e t a r y means f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t o f o b e s i t y was made by O s c a i : L a r g e amounts o f l e a n t i s s u e i n a d d i t i o n t o f a t a r e l o s t when t h e w e i g h t o f an i n d i v i d u a l i s r e d u c e d by means o f c a l o r i c 37 r e d u c t i o n . . . . o n e a d v a n t a g e o f e x e r c i s e o v e r c a l o r i c r e s t r i c t i o n i s t h a t i t p r o v i d e s c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e l o s s o f p r o t e i n and f a t f r e e w e i g h t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n e g a t i v e c a l o r i c b a l a n c e . ( p . 1 1 5 ) The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y on obese s u b j e c t s mainly measured' t h e change i n body c o m p o s i t i o n . The e f f e c t s o f a modera t e e i g h t week , f i v e day a week w a l k - j o g e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m on 11 obese c o l l e g e women were s t u d i e d by Moody, K o l l i a s and B u s k i r k ( 1 9 6 9 ) . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t as a r e s u l t o f t h e p r o g r a m , a d e c r e a s e i n s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s i n d i c a t e d a d e c r e a s e i n t o t a l body f a t . Z w i r e n (1970) a l s o t e s t e d an e i g h t week, one h o u r a day w a l k - j o g e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n a s i g n i f i c a n t d e c r e a s e i n p e r c e n t body f a t f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p . G l i c k and Kaufman (1976) o b s e r v e d . t h a t i n t h i n , a v e r a g e and obese male s u b j e c t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a s i x week i n t e n s i v e army t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m , s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s changes were n o t u n i l a t e r a l . Those i n t h e t h i n c a t e g o r y i n c r e a s e d s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s whereas t h o s e i n t h e a v e r a g e and obese c a t e g o r i e s d e c r e a s e d s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s . O t h e r t y p e s o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y p rog rams were a l s o u s e d t o s t u d y t h e e f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y o n body c o m p o s i t i o n . W e i g h t t r a i n i n g p rograms u s e d by Mayhew and G r o s s (1974) and W i l m o r e (1974) t o s t u d y t h e e f f e c t o f s u c h a p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y o n body c o m p o s i t i o n were f o u n d t o p r o d u c e a s i g n i f i c a n t r e d u c t i o n i n s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s . The use o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y p rograms i n t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f e x t r e m e l y obese p a t i e n t s was a d v o c a t e d b y Foss e t a l . . They c o n c l u d e d : A l t h o u g h t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f i n c l u d i n g some f o r m o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as a t h e r a p y i n t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o g r a m f o r 38 e x t r e m e l y obese p a t i e n t s has been a c k n o w l e d g e d , t h e r e have been few e f f o r t s t o d e v i s e a r e a s o n a b l e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m . . . ( t h e r e i s a ) n e e d t o d e v i s e p rograms t h a t a r e s a f e , p r a c t i c a l and e f f e c t i v e and w i l l h o l d t h e i n t e r e s t o f p a t i e n t s . (p.425)) Summary o f t h e R e v i e w o f L i t e r a t u r e The e t i o l o g i c f a c t o r s o f o b e s i t y were r e v i e w e d i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o g e n e t i c , t r a u m a t i c o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s ( M a y e r , 1968) w i t h t h e age o f o n s e t o f t h e obese c o n d i t i o n n o t e d t o be a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n b o t h t h e c a u s e s and e f f e c t s o f o b e s i t y ( S t u n k a r d § B u r t , 1 9 6 7 ) . O b e s i t y b y d e f i n i t i o n i s t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f e x c e s s f a t t y t i s s u e ( O s c a i , 1973) and by s u c h d e f i n i t i o n s h o u l d be measured i n t e r m s o f some t e c h n i q u e w h i c h e v a l u a t e s t h e p r o p o r t i o n n o f body f a t t i s s u e t o l e a n m u s c l e t i s s u e (Behnke S W i l m o r e , 1 9 7 4 ) . The most commonly a c c e p t e d p r a c t i c a l f i e l d measurement t e c h n i q u e emp loyed was t h e s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s measurement t e c h n i q u e w h i c h u s e s c a l i p e r s ( G r a n d e , 1 9 7 3 ) . A d e f i n i t i o n a l m i s c o n c e p t i o n was o b s e r v e d i n t h e a r e a o f o b e s i t y r e s e a r c h . The o v e r w e i g h t c o n d i t i o n d e f i n e d as t h e - d e g r e e t o w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l exceeds t h e ..-a v e r a g e w e i g h t f o r h i s age as d e t e r m i n e d by s t a n d a r d ^ " h e i g h t - w e i g h t ' t a b l e s was o f t e n i n c o r r e c t l y c o n s i d e r e d synonymous w i t h o b e s i t y w h i c h i s d e f i n e d i n t e rms o f p e r c e n t body f a t ( S t u a r t , i n p r e s s ) . The g e n e r a l i n c i d e n c e o f o b e s i t y was f o u n d t o be d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s due t o t h e i n c o n s i s t a n c y i n o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n , i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n and m e t h o d o l o g y v X C h r i s t a k i s , 1 9 7 3 ) . ' I n t h e Framingham S t u d y ( K a n n e l £ G o r d o n , 1 9 7 4 ) , i n c i d e n c e s o f o b e s i t y were n o t e d t o be h i g h e r i n f e m a l e s t h a n m a l e s . 39 Many p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s and c o n d i t i o n s were n o t e d i n t h e obese i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h e a d o l e s c e n t g i r l ( B r u c h , 1 9 7 3 a , 1973b ; Dwyer $ M a y e r , 1968 , 1 9 7 3 ) . The e f f e c t s - o f o b e s i t y o n p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e was o b s e r v e d t o cause f e e l i n g s r a n g i n g f rom i n f e r i o r i t y , r e j e c t i o n „ a n d l o n e l i n e s s t o d i s t u r b a n c e s : i n body c o n c e p t , s e l f d i s p a r a g e m e n t and s e l f h a t r e d ( A l l o n , 1 9 7 3 ; B r u c h , 1 9 7 3 a , 1973b ; Dwyer § M a y e r , 1968 , 1 9 7 3 ; M o n e l l o $ M a y e r , 1 9 6 3 ; S t u n k a r d § M e n d e l s o n , 1 9 6 1 , 1 9 6 7 ) . D a t i n g b e h a v i o r , m a r r i a g e s e l e c t i o n , and c o l l e g e a c c e p t a n c e a p p e a r e d t o be n e g a t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e d by o b e s i t y , p l a c i n g t h e obese i n d i v i d u a l a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e w i t h p r e s e n t s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l d i c t a t e s . The n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s o f o b e s i t y o n t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s and s t r u c t u r e s o f t h e b o d y were a l s o e m p h a s i z e d . E x c e s s f a t d e p o s i t s p l a c e d e x c e s s s t r a i n on a l l s y s t e m s and o r g a n s o f t h e b o d y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e r e s p i r a t o r y and c i r c u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s ( B r a y , 1 9 7 6 ; C l a r k e , 1 9 7 5 ; O s c a i , 1 0 7 3 ; Tomlcin , 1 9 7 5 ) . O b e s i t y was p e r c e i v e d as an e n e r g y - i m b a l a n c e r e s u l t i n g f r o m e x c e s s i v e c a l o r i c i n t a k e a n d / o r i n s u f f i c i e n t c a l o r i c e x p e n d i t u r e , t h e r e f o r e t r e a t m e n t i n v o l v e d methods t o r e v e r s e t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s ( O s c a i ) . R e g u l a t i n g d i e t was e m p h a s i z e d t o d e c r e a s e c a l o r i c i n t a k e ( K l i n e e t a l . , 1 9 7 6 ) . , I n c r e a s i n g p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y was employed t o i n c r e a s e c a l o r i c e x p e n d i t u r e ( B r a y , 1976; C l a r k e , O s c a i ) . The n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s o f o b e s i t y on body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t have been n o t e d by s e v e r a l a u t h o r s ( B r u c h , 1973a , 1973b; Dwyer <S M a y e r , 1973 ; N a t h a n , 1973 ; S t u n k a r d $ M e n d e l s o n , 1 9 6 1 , 1 9 6 7 ) . Body c o n c e p t was n o t i c e a b l y a f f e c t e d b y d i s t o r t i o n o f body s i z e ( B a i l e y e t a l . 1 9 7 0 ; 40 Cappon (5 B a n k , 1968 ; G l u c k s m a n § H i r s c h , 1969; H i r s c h , 1973) and d i s t u r b a n c e i n body c o n c e p t ( N a t h a n , 1973 ; S t u n k a r d 5 B u r t , 1967; S t u n k a r d § M e n d e l s o n , 1 9 6 1 , 1 9 6 7 ) . Age o f o n s e t o f o b e s i t y was n o t e d t o be a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n t h e d i s t u r b a n c e i n body c o n c e p t (Dwyer § M a y e r , 1 9 6 8 , 1973 ; H i r s c h ; M o n e l l o $ M a y e r , 1 9 6 3 ; S i l v e r s t o n e , 1973 ; S t u n k a r d $ B u r t ; S t u n k a r d $ M e n d e l s o n , 1 9 6 1 , 1 9 6 7 ) . The e f f e c t s o f o b e s i t y on body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t a p p e a r e d t o have t h e g r e a t e s t e f f e c t on a d o l e s c e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s (Dwyer § M a y e r , 1 9 6 8 , 1 9 7 3 ; Hammer, 1 9 7 5 ; M o n e l l o £ M a y e r ) . S u p e r - o b e s e i n d i v i d u a l s were n o t e d t o have more n e g a t i v e body c a t h e x i s t h a n n e u r o t i c s when e v a l u a t e d by s e l f f i g u r e - d r a w i n g s b u t l e s s n e g a t i v e s e l f c a t h e x i s when e v a l u a t e d b y q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( G o t t s f e l d , 1 9 6 2 ) . The v a l i d i t y o f r e s p o n s e on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was q u e s t i o n e d i n t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e may have been a c o n s c i o u s a t t i t u d e o f p e r c e i v i n g o n e s e l f as c l o s e r t o t h e i d e a l s e l f t h a n t o t h e o b s e r v e d r e a l s e l f ( G o t t s f e l d ) . I t was recommended t h a t p rog rams f o r obese i n d i v i d u a l s i n c l u d e some fo rm o f p s y c h o t h e r a p y i n o r d e r t o overcome t h e n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s o f o b e s i t y on body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t ( G o t t s f e l d ; S t a n l e y e t a l . , 1970 ; S t o n e r § F i o r e l l o , 1 9 7 6 ) . H o w e v e r , changes i n body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t c o u l d n o t be e x p e c t e d t o accompany a change i n w e i g h t l o s s u n l e s s t h e p r o g r a m was d e s i g n e d t o a f f e c t change i n body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t as w e l l ( S t o n e r § F i o r e l l o ) . The b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y on t h e obese c o n d i t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y on body c o m p o s i t i o n o f an i n d i v i d u a l , have been n o t e d by s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s ( B r a y , 1976 ; C l e r k e ; O s c a i ) . R e g u l a r s e s s i o n s o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y were n o t e d t o have a f a v o r a b l e e f f e c t on body 41 c o m p o s i t i o n , d e c r e a s i n g f a t c o n t e n t and i n c r e a s i n g l e a n m u s c l e c o n t e n t ; ( O s c a i ) . S p e c i f i c p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y p rog rams s u c h as w a l k i n g , w a l k i n g -j o g g i n g , sw imming , w e i g h t - l i f t i n g were f o u n d t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s ( G l i c k § Kaufman, 1976 ; Gwinup , 1 9 7 5 ; May hew § G r o s s , 1974 ; W i l m o r e , 1 9 7 4 ) . Foss e t a l . (1976) a d v o c a t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f u s i n g p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y i n t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f obese i n d i v i d u a l s , a l t h o u g h few e f f o r t s h a d b e e n made t o s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n - p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y p rograms f o r t h e i n a c t i v e - o b e s e i n d i v i d u a l ! -CHAPTER I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURES The p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o compare t h e e f f e c t s o f a body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m on t h e body c o n c e p t , s e l f c o n c e p t and body c o m p o s i t i o n o f i n a c t i v e obese and n o n - o b e s e y o u n g women. A s e c o n d a r y p u r p o s e o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o d e t e r m i n e t o what e x t e n t t h e r e were r e l a t i o n s h i p s among body c o n c e p t , s e l f c o n c e p t , body c o m p o s i t i o n and body c o m p o s i t i o n change i n t h e i n a c t i v e obese and n o n - o b e s e young women. S e l e c t i o n o f S u b j e c t s S u b j e c t s by d e f i n i t i o n were i n a c t i v e , be tween t h e ages o f 17 t o 25 y e a r s , w i t h a mean age o f 1 8 . 6 y e a r s and s e l e c t e d f rom f e m a l e v o l u n t e e r s l i v i n g i n Totem P a r k and P l a c e V a n i e r s t u d e n t r e s i d e n c e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A l l s u b j e c t s were c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o body c o m p o s i t i o n (obese o r n o n - o b e s e ) t h e n a s s i g n e d t o a t r e a t m e n t o r c o n t r o l g r o u p . Due t o d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g obese s u b j e c t s , random a s s i g n m e n t o f s u b j e c t s was n o t t o t a l l y p o s s i b l e . B o t h t r e a t m e n t and c o n t r o l g r o u p s c o n s i s t e d o f 25 s u b j e c t s : 10 obese and 15 n o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t s . I n t o t a l , 50 s u b j e c t s t o o k p a r t i n t h e s t u d y . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f T i m e , Space and P e r s o n n e l The s c r e e n i n g o f v o l u n t e e r s was c o n d u c t e d f r o m J a n u a r y 10 t o J a n u a r y 29 , 1977 , d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e s u b j e c t s were a c c e p t e d , a s s e s s e d f o r p e r c e n t body f a t , body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t , t h e n a s s i g n e d t o a t r e a t m e n t o r c o n t r o l g r o u p . The t r e a t m e n t g roup c o n s i s t e d o f 12 obese 42 43 and 18 n o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t s ; t h e c o n t r o l g roup c o n s i s t e d o f 11 obese and 15 n o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t s . I n t o t a l , p r e t e s t e v a l u a t i o n was c o m p l e t e d f o r 56 s u b j e c t s . The body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m (see A p p e n d i x D) began t h e week o f J a n u a r y 3 1 , 1977 i n b o t h r e s i d e n c e s f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p . H a l f - h o u r e x e r c i s e s e s s i o n s were h e l d e i g h t t i m e s a week i n H a i d a House l o u n g e a t Totem P a r k R e s i d e n c e and s i x t i m e s a week i n Tweedsmui r House l o u n g e a t P l a c e V a n i e r R e s i d e n c e f o r a p e r i o d o f 10 w e e k s . S u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d t o a t t e n d a t l e a s t t h r e e h a l f - h o u r s e s s i o n s a week . The a v e r a g e t o t a l a t t e n d a n c e f o r t h e obese g roup was 33 s e s s i o n s , f o r t h e n o n - o b e s e g roup was 32 s e s s i o n s . F o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , t h e p r e t e s t d a t e o f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l was c o n s i d e r e d as t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e 10 week t e s t p e r i o d . S u b j e c t s i n t h e c o n t r o l g roup were a s k e d t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r same l i f e s t y l e w i t h o u t g o i n g on a d i e t o r i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r a c t i v i t y . P o s t t e s t i n g began M a r c h 2 8 , 1977 , and was c o m p l e t e d by A p r i l 1 6 , 1 9 7 7 . The t r e a t m e n t g roup was r e - e v a l u a t e d a f t e r t h e t e n t h week o f t h e e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m . Two obese and t h r e e n o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t s f a i l e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e p r o g r a m . P o s t t e s t e v a l u a t i o n was c o m p l e t e d f o r 10 obese and 15 n o n - o b e s e t r e a t m e n t s u b j e c t s . The c o n t r o l g roup was r e - e v a l u a t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y 10 weeks a f t e r t h e p r e t e s t d a t e o f e a c h s u b j e c t . One obese s u b j e c t i n t h e c o n t r o l g roup was n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r p o s t t e s t e v a l u a t i o n . P o s t t e s t e v a l u a t i o n was c o m p l e t e d f o r 10 obese and 15 n o n - o b e s e c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s . Body Awareness E x e r c i s e P r o g r a m The body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m employed i n t h e s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o s p e c i f i c a l l y d e v e l o p a n d / o r i m p r o v e body awareness t h r o u g h 44 t h e use o f r h y t h m i c a l movement. B a s e d on t h e i s o l a t i o n t e c h n i q u e ( M i s h l i n § S c h i l l , 1973) o f l e a r n i n g and p r o d u c i n g movement, t h e method was as f o l l o w s : (1) s p e c i f i c j o i n t s o r s e t s o f j o i n t s were i s o l a t e d , (2) t h e r e m a i n i n g p a r t s o f t h e body were r e l a x e d and u s e d o n l y f o r s u p p o r t and b a l a n c e , (3) m u s c l e a c t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o t h a t s p e c i f i c i s o l a t e d j o i n t o r j o i n t s was e x p l o r e d and p r a c t i c e d . E a c h e x e r c i s e s e s s i o n r e q u i r e d h a l f an h o u r t o c o m p l e t e , w i t h e a c h movement b e i n g r e p e a t e d e i g h t t i m e s t o r e c o r d e d 2 /4 and 4 / 4 rhy thms (see A p p e n d i x D ) . I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n The Body C a t h e x i s S c a l e , S e l f C a t h e x i s S c a l e ( S e c o r d § J o u r a r d , 1953) and t h e Tennes see S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e ( F i t t s , 1965) were a d m i n i s t e r e d a t t h e p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t s e s s i o n s by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . S i n c e w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s a c c o m p a n i e d e a c h s c a l e , s u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e d t h e s c a l e s w i t h m i n i m a l i n s t r u c t i o n s f rom t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . A l l s k i n f o l d measures were t a k e n by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r a c c o r d i n g to t h e Y u h a s z (1973) m e t h o d . Two a s s i s t a n t s a i d e d i n r e c o r d i n g and c a l c u l a t i n g d a t a . The Body C a t h e x i s S c a l e , S e l f C a t h e x i s S c a l e and t h e Tennes see S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e were c h o s e n f r o m e v a l u a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s f o r body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t b e c a u s e o f ease o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n . The Body C a t h e x i s and S e l f C a t h e x i s S c a l e s were recommended t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r by S t u a r t (1976) f o r use w i t h obese s u b j e c t s . The T e n n e s s e e S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e was c h o s e n b e c a u s e t h e s c a l e had been employed i n s e v e r a l s t u d i e s c o n c e r n i n g s e l f c o n c e p t and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y ' (McGowan, J a rman and Pederson (1974) ; ; ' ;So renson ( 1 9 7 4 ) . Two s e p a r a t e s c a l e s were c h o s e n t o e v a l u a t e body and s e l f c o n c e p t b e c a u s e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l d e s i g n 45 o f e a c h s c a l e and common s c o r i n g s y s t e m . The Body C a t h e x i s and S e l f C a t h e x i s S c a l e s were b a s e d on i t e m s c o n s i s t i n g o f one w o r d and were more s p e c i f i c i n n a t u r e . The Tennes see S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e was b a s e d on i t e m s c o n s i s t i n g o f s e n t e n c e s t a t e m e n t s and was more g e n e r a l i n n a t u r e . A s e c o n d r e a s o n t h e S e l f C a t h e x i s S c a l e and t h e Tennes see S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e were c h o s e n f o r u se as s e l f c o n c e p t measures was t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y h a d an a c c o m p a n y i n g body c o n c e p t measure w i t h a s i m i l a r d e s i g n . Body C a t h e x i s S c a l e and S e l f C a t h e x i s S c a l e . The Body C a t h e x i s S c a l e c o n s i s t e d o f a l i s t i n g o f 46 body p a r t s and f u n c t i o n s ; t h e S e l f C a t h e x i s S c a l e c o n s i s t e d o f a l i s t i n g o f 55 i t e m s b e l i e v e d t o r e p r e s e n t a s a m p l i n g o f v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e s e l f ( S e c o r d § J o u r a r d ) . B o t h s c a l e s were r a t e d on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e ( see A p p e n d i x C ) . Means , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s and r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1 ( S e c o r d § J o u r a r d ) . T a b l e 1 Means , S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s and R e l i a b i l i t y . C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Body C a t h e x i s S c a l e and S e l f C a t h e x i s S c a l e S c o r e Mean S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t Body C a t h e x i s 3 . 4 6 0 . 4 0 1 0 . 8 3 S e l f C a t h e x i s 3 .35 0 . 5 1 0 0 . 9 2 The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n Body C a t h e x i s and S e l f C a t h e x i s was r e p o r t e d t o be r = 0 . 6 6 ( S e c o r d § J o u r a r d ) . 46 Tennes see S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e The Tennessee S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e was a s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e , c o n s i s t i n g o f 100 s e l f - d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t e m e n t s , t o w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t r e s p o n d e d on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e . The s c a l e i s d e s i g n e d i n s u c h a manner t h a t s t a t e m e n t s r e p r e s e n t i n g b o t h i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l forms o f r e f e r e n c e a r e i n c l u d e d ( F i t t s J . T o t a l S e l f S c o r e and P h y s i c a l S e l f s c o r e as o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e C o u n s e l l i n g f o r m o f t h e Tennessee S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e were . e m p l o y e d i n t h e s t u d y . Norms f o r t h e Tennessee S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e were e s t a b l i s h e d f rom ,a s t a n d a r d i z e d , p o p u l a t i o n o f 626 . s u b j e c t s . :Me'ans, . s t a n d a r d " - d e v i a t i o n s , and t e s t - r e t e s t c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 2 ( F i t t s ) . T a b l e 2 Means , S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s and R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Tennessee S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e S c o r e Mean S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t T o t a l S e l f C o n c e p t s c o r e 3 4 5 . 5 7 3 0 . 7 0 0 . 9 2 P h y s i c a l S e l f s c o r e 7 1 . 7 8 7 . 6 7 0 . 8 7 47 S k i n f o l d Measure The Ha rpenden s k i n f o l d c a l i p e r s were u s e d t o a s s e s s t h e amount o f body f a t . Measu re s were t a k e n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e Y u h a s z (1973) t e c h n i q u e a t t h e f o l l o w i n g s i t e s : t r i c e p s , s u b s c a p u l a r , a b d o m i n a l , s u p r a i l i a c , f r o n t t h i g h , and r e a r t h i g h ( see A p p e n d i x B ) . T h r e e s e r i e s o f measures were t a k e n and t h e a v e r a g e s c o r e was r e c o r d e d i n o r d e r t o r e d u c e v a r i a b i l i t y . The i n v e s t i g a t o r h a d e s t a b l i s h e d a p e r s o n a l t e s t -r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y s c o r e o f . 99 f o r e a c h s i t e b e f o r e s t a r t i n g t h e s t u d y ( see A p p e n d i x E ) . E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n The e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n emp loyed i n t h e s t u d y was a 2 X 2 X 2 f a c t o r a i ; d e s i g n w i t h r e p e a t e d measures o n t h e l a s t f a c t o r . The i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i n t h e s t u d y w e r e : (1) g r o u p , (2) body c o m p o s i t i o n , (3) t i m e ( see F i g u r e 1 ) . GROUP BODY COMPOSITION TIME T r e a t m e n t obese p r e t e s t p o s t t e s t , p r e t e s t n o n - o b e s e r p o s t t e s t obese C o n t r o l p r e t e s t p o s t t e s t n o n - o b e s e p r e t e s t p o s t t e s t F i g u r e 1 E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n o f S t u d y 48 The dependent variables in the study were: (1) Body Concept Scores: (a) Body Cathexis Score (b) Physical Self Score from Tennessee Self Concept Scale. (2) Self Concept Scores: (a) Self Cathexis Score (b) Total Self Concept Score from Tennessee Self Concept Scale. (3) Body Composition Score: (a) Percent Body Fat Score obtained from Yuhasz method Analysis of Data An extensive error-checking computer program, DATASNIFF (Goodman § Schutz, 1976) was used to evaluate the data for erroneous values above or below a specified acceptable minimum or maximum value and to compute means';'standard deviations., and correlations for a l l dependent variables. A three-way analysis of variance using the BMD:P2V (Dixon, 1975) computer program was applied to the data to test Hypotheses One, Two and Three for program effect on body concept, self concept and body composition respectively as indicated by the 'Group X Time' interactions. A pre-planned orthogonal contrast was applied to the data to test Hypothesis Four, comparing body concept in obese and non-obese subjects. Pearson Product Moment correlation coefficients were calculated to test Hypothesis Five to indicate whether a relationship existed between body concept change and body composition change in the obese treatment subjects. A correlation matrix as obtained from the DATASNIFF program was applied to data of a l l dependent variables to answer the subproblem which asked to what extent relationships existed among body concept, self concept, body composition, and body composition change. CHAPTER I V RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS The e f f e c t s o f a body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m on body c o n c e p t , s e l f c o n c e p t and body c o m p o s i t i o n o f i n a c t i v e obese and n o n - o b e s e young women were a s s e s s e d on a s ample o f 50 s u b j e c t s . P r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t d a t a were c o m p l e t e d f o r 10 obese and 15 n o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t s i n b o t h t h e t r e a t m e n t and c o n t r o l g r o u p . Body c o n c e p t was e v a l u a t e d u s i n g t h e Body C a t h e x i s S c a l e ( S e c o r d § J o u r a r d , 1953) and P h y s i c a l S e l f S c o r e f rom t h e Tennessee S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e ( F i t t s , 1 9 6 5 ) . S e l f c o n c e p t was e v a l u a t e d u s i n g t h e S e l f C a t h e x i s S c a l e ( S e c o r d § J o u r a r d ) and t h e T o t a l S e l f C o n c e p t S c o r e f r o m t h e Tennessee S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e ( F i t t s ) . Body c o m p o s i t i o n was e v a l u a t e d u s i n g t h e Y u h a s z (1973) v method t o d e t e r m i n e P e r c e n t Body F a t . An i n c r e a s e i n body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t s c o r e s i n d i c a t e d a p o s i t i v e change i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s s e s s m e n t ; a d e c r e a s e i n body f a t i n d i c a t e d a p o s i t i v e change i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l a s s e s s m e n t . The r e s u l t s and d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e d a t a a n a l y s e s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h t h e m a i n  p r o b l e m - t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m on t h e body c o n c e p t , s 8 1 f c o n c e p t and body c o m p o s i t i o n o f i n a c t i v e obese and n o n - o b e s e young women. The s e c o n d s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h t h e s u b - p r o b l e m - t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among body c o n c e p t , s e l f c o n c e p t , body c o m p o s i t i o n and body c o m p o s i t i o n change o f i n a c t i v e obese and n o n -obese young women. The means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r a l l dependent v a r i a b l e s a r e c o m p i l e d i n T a b l e s 2 1 , 22 and 23 i n A p p e n d i x G . 49 50 MAIN PROBLEM : PROGRAM EFFECTS ON BODY CONCEPT,SELF CONCEPT AND BODY COMPOSITION OF INACTIVE OBESE AND NON-OBESE YOUNG .WOMEN. The e f f e c t s o f t h e body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m on body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t a r e t e s t e d by H y p o t h e s e s One and Two r e s p e c t i v e l y . The r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e l y b u t a r e d i s c u s s e d t o g e t h e r s i n c e body c o n c e p t was e v a l u a t e d as a component o f s e l f c o n c e p t i n t h e i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d . The e f f e c t s o f t h e body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m on body c o m p o s i t i o n a r e t e s t e d by H y p o t h e s i s T h r e e . The s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t emp loyed t o t e s t H y p o t h e s e s One, Two and T h r e e was t h e ANOVA. T e s t i n g was c o n d u c t e d f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e be tween g r o u p s w h i c h c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s as i n d i c a t e d by t h e ' T r e a t m e n t X T i m e ' i n t e r a c t i o n s . S o u r c e s f o r t h e ANOVA a r e d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : T r e a t m e n t : Body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m group v s c o n t r o l g r o u p , S i z e : Obese v s n o n - o b e s e body c o m p o s i t i o n , T i m e : P r e t e s t e v a l u a t i o n v s p o s t t e s t e v a l u a t i o n . 51 H y p o t h e s i s One: The Use o f a Body Awareness E x e r c i s e P r o g r a m Causes  a P o s i t i v e Change i n t h e Body C o n c e p t o f I n a c t i v e Obese and Non-obese  Young Women R e s u l t s . Body c o n c e p t was e v a l u a t e d by two s c o r e s : (1) Body C a t h e x i s and (2) P h y s i c a l S e l f . The r e s u l t s f o r e a c h s c o r e a r e p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e l y . P r o g r a m e f f e c t s o n t h e Body C a t h e x i s s c o r e s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d b y : (1) T a b l e 3 w h i c h l i s t s mean s c o r e s f o r t h e p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s , (2) F i g u r e 2 w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s i n g r a p h i c f o r m t h e mean s c o r e s o b t a i n e d f r o m T a b l e 3 and (3) T a b l e 4 w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e ANOVA f o r Body C a t h e x i s . The e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m d i d n o t have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on Body C a t h e x i s XP = -61 f o r t h e T r e a t m e n t by Time i n t e r a c t i o n ) . A h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t t i m e e f f e c t (p=<.01) was o b s e r v e d f o r t h e t o t a l s ample on t h e Body C a t h e x i s s c o r e ( see T a b l e 4 ) . T a b l e 3 Mean S c o r e s f o r Body C a t h e x i s P r e P o s t T r e a t m e n t Obese 3 .00 3 .29 N o n - o b e s e 3 . 2 0 3 . 5 0 Combined 3 . 0 8 3 .40 C o n t r o l Obese 2 . 9 9 3 . 3 6 N o n - o b e s e 3 . 2 0 3 . 3 0 Combined 3 .07 3 . 3 2 52 3 . 7 r 3 . 6 • P r e P o s t P r e P o s t P r e Pos t -Obese N o n - o b e s e Combined T = T r e a t m e n t Group C = C o n t r o l Group F i g u r e 2 P rog ram E f f e c t o n Body C a t h e x i s S c o r e T a b l e 4 Summary o f ANOVA f o r Body C a t h e x i s S o u r c e d f T r e a t m e n t S i z e T r e a t m e n t b y S i z e E r r o r 1 1 1 46 Time 1 Time by T r e a t m e n t 1 Time b y S i z e 1 Time b y T r e a t m e n t by S i z e 1 E r r o r 46 Mean S q u a r e 0 . 0 2 0 0 .499 0 . 0 9 6 0.-225 0 .087 2 . 2 2 1 0 .425 0 .77 0 . 1 4 0 . 5 2 1.716 0 .018 0 . 0 9 6 0 . 1 0 5 0 .070 2 4 . 3 7 2 0 . 2 6 0 1.356 1.488 <.01 0 .61 0 . 2 5 0 .23 53 P r o g r a m e f f e c t on t h e P h y s i c a l S e l f s c o r e s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d b y : (1) T a b l e 5 w h i c h l i s t s mean s c o r e s f o r t h e p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s , (2) F i g u r e 3 w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s i n g r a p h i c f o r m t h e mean s c o r e s o b t a i n e d f r o m T a b l e 5 and (3) T a b l e 6 w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e ANOVA f o r P h y s i c a l S e l f . The e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m had a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on P h y s i c a l S e l f as t h e T r e a t m e n t g roup showed a t h r e e u n i t improvement o v e r t h e p r o g r a m d u r a t i o n whereas t h e c o n t r o l g roup showed a s l i g h t d e c l i n e o f 0 . 6 u n i t s . T h i s e f f e c t , t h e T r e a t m e n t by Time i n t e r a c t i o n , a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e . / ( p'j= 0 7 ) . The re was no s i g n i f i c a n t t i m e e f f e c t (p=.18) o b s e r v e d f o r t h e t o t a l sample on t h e P h y s i c a l S e l f s c o r e ( see T a b l e 6 ) . T a b l e 5 Mean S c o r e s f o r P h y s i c a l S e l f P r e P o s t T r e a t m e n t Obese 5 9 . 1 6 3 . 7 Non-obese 6 3 . 0 6 6 . 7 Combined 6 1 . 8 6 4 . 8 C o n t r o l Obese 6 2 . 8 6 2 . 8 N o n - o b e s e 6 2 . 9 6 2 . 0 Combined 6 2 . 9 6 2 . 3 54 P r e P o s t P r e P o s t P r e P o s t Obese N o n - o b e s e Combined T = T r e a t m e n t Group C = C o n t r o l Group F i g u r e 3 P rogram E f f e c t on P h y s i c a l S e l f S c o r e T a b l e 6 Summary o f ANOVA f o r P h y s i c a l S e l f S o u r c e d f Mean S q u a r e T r e a t m e n t S i z e T r e a t m e n t by S i z e E r r o r 1 1 1 46 1.398 1 1 1 . 8 1 3 1 4 9 . 0 0 0 1 0 1 . 0 6 3 0 . 0 1 4 1 .106 1.474 0 .91 0 . 3 0 0 .23 Time Time by T r e a t m e n t Time b y S i z e Time by T r e a t m e n t by S i z e E r r o r 1 1 1 1 46 3 8 . 0 0 2 7 1 . 4 1 4 0 .882 1.815 20 .921 1.816 3 . 4 1 4 0 .042 0 . 0 8 7 0 . 1 8 0 .07 0 . 8 4 0 . 7 7 55 Hypothesis Two: The Use of a Body Awareness Exercise Program Causes  a P o s i t i v e Change i n the S e l f Concept of Inactive Obese and Noh-obese  Young Women Results. S e l f concept was evaluated by two scores:(1) S e l f Cathexis and (2) Total S e l f Concept. The r e s u l t s f o r each score are presented separately. Program e f f e c t s o f the S e l f Concept scores are represented by: (1) Table 7 which l i s t s mean scores f o r the pretest and posttest r e s u l t s , (2) Figure 4 which i l l u s t r a t e s i n graphic form the mean scores as obtained from Table 7 and (3) Table 8 which indicates the res u l t s o f the ANOVA for S e l f Cathexis. The exercise program did not have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on S e l f Cathexis (p=.18 f o r the Treatment by Time interaction) f o r the combined treatment group. However, as observed i n Table 7 and Figure 4, a difference was noted between the pretest and posttest scores of the non-obese treatment and control subjects. A time e f f e c t which approached s i g n i f i c a n c e (p =.06) was observed for the t o t a l sample on the S e l f Cathexis scores (see Table 8). Table 7 Mean Scores f o r S e l f Cathexis Ere Post Treatment Obese 3.31 3.50 Non-obese 3.33 3.62 Combined 3.32 3.57 Control Obese 3.23 3.44 Non-obese 3.51 3.38 Combined 3.40 3.40 56 <4-t a> 3 . 1 -3 . 0 L , . i 1 i 1 P r e P o s t P r e P o s t P r e P o s t Obese N o n - o b e s e Combined T = T r e a t m e n t Group C = C o n t r o l Group F i g u r e 4 P rog ram E f f e c t on S e l f C a t h e x i s S c o r e T a b l e 8 Summary o f ANOVA f o r S e l f C a t h e x i s S o u r c e d f Mean S q u a r e F P T r e a t m e n t 1 0 053 0 145 0 71 S i z e 1 0 184 0 510 0 48 T r e a t m e n t b y S i z e 1 0 008 0 022 0 88 E r r o r 46 0 368 Time 1 0 490 3 800 0 06 Time b y T r e a t m e n t 1 0 244 1 894 0 18 Time b y S i z e 1 0 079 0 617 0 44 Time b y T r e a t m e n t b y S i z e 1 0 282 2 186 0 15 E r r o r 46 0 129 57 P r o g r a m e f f e c t s on t h e T o t a l S e l f Concep t s c o r e s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d b y : (1) T a b l e 9 w h i c h l i s t s mean s c o r e s f o r t h e p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s , (2) F i g u r e 5 w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s i n g r a p h i c f o r m t h e mean s c o r e s as o b t a i n e d f r o m T a b l e 9 and (3) T a b l e 10 w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e ANOVA f o r T o t a l S e l f C o n c e p t . The t r e a t m e n t g roup e x h i b i t e d a c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r change i n T o t a l S e l f C o n c e p t t h a n d i d t h e c o n t r o l g roup (p=.06 f o r t h e T r e a t m e n t by Time i n t e r a c t i o n ) . Howeve r , as o b s e r v e d i n T a b l e 9 and F i g u r e 5 , a d i f f e r e n c e was n o t e d be tween t h e p o s t t e s t s c o r e s o f t h e obese and n o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t s i n t h e t r e a t m e n t g roup i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e s i g n i f i c a n t change was o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e n o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t s ' change r a t h e r t h a n obese s u b j e c t s ' c h a n g e . T h e r e was a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t t i m e e f f e c t (p=.68) o b s e r v e d f o r t h e t o t a l sample on t h e T o t a l S e l f C o n c e p t s c o r e ( see T a b l e 1 0 ) . T a b l e 9 Mean S c o r e s f o r T o t a l S e l f C o n c e p t P r e P o s t T r e a t m e n t Obese 3 3 0 . 0 3 3 0 . 7 N o n - o b e s e 3 3 8 . 0 3 4 7 . 7 Combined 3 3 4 . 8 3 4 0 . 9 C o n t r o l Obese 3 3 4 . 3 3 3 0 . 1 Non-obese 3 3 3 . 8 3 3 2 . 1 Combined 3 3 4 . 0 3 3 1 . 3 P r e P o s t P r e P o s t P r e P o s t Obese N o n - o b e s e Combined T = T r e a t m e n t Group C = C o n t r o l Group F i g u r e 5 P rog ram E f f e c t on T o t a l S e l f C o n c e p t S c o r e T a b l e 10 Summary o f ANOVA f o r T o t a l S e l f C o n c e p t S o u r c e T r e a t m e n t S i z e T r e a t m e n t b y S i z e E r r o r d f Mean S q u a r e F p 1 5 5 . 7 5 0 0 . 0 2 9 0 . 8 6 1 4 0 5 . 3 1 3 0 . 2 1 4 0 . 6 5 1 1 6 8 3 . 3 7 5 0 . 8 9 0 0 . 3 5 46 1 8 9 2 . 0 9 6 Time Time by T r e a t m e n t Time b y S i z e Time by T r e a t m e n t b y S i z e E r r o r 1 1 1 1 46 4 6 . 4 8 0 1 0 3 7 . 5 2 1 6 8 9 . 0 7 4 18 .371 2 7 4 . 0 6 2 0 . 1 7 0 3 . 7 8 6 2 . 5 1 4 0 .067 0 .68 0 . 0 6 0 . 1 2 0 . 8 8 59 H y p o t h e s e s One and Two: The Use o f a Body Awareness E x e r c i s e P r o g r a m  Causes a P o s i t i v e Change i n t h e Body C o n c e p t and S e l f C o n c e p t o f I n a c t i v e  Obese and Non-obese Young Women. D i s c u s s i o n . H y p o t h e s e s One and Two s t a t e d t h e u s e o f a body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m causes a p o s i t i v e change i n t h e body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t o f i n a c t i v e obese and n o n - o b e s e y o u n g women. B a s e d on t h e r e s u l t s , H y p o t h e s e s One and Two were n o t a c c e p t e d s i n c e t h e e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m d i d n o t have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on body c o n c e p t o r s e l f c o n c e p t ; h o w e v e r , i t must be n o t e d t h e e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m had a p o s i -t i v e e f f e c t w h i c h a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e on P h y s i c a l S e l f (p = .07) and on T o t a l S e l f C o n c e p t (p = . 0 6 ) . A h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t t i m e e f f e c t was n o t e d f o r t h e Body C a t h e x i s s c o r e s (p=< .01) , w i t h S e l f C a t h e x i s s c o r e s a l s o s h o w i n g a n e a r s i g n i f i c a n t change o v e r t i m e Xp = - 0 6 ) ; h o w e v e r , t h e t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t s i n c e t h e c o n t r o l group i m p r o v e d o v e r t i m e as w e l l as t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p . The n o n - a c c e p t a n c e o f H y p o t h e s e s One and Two i s i n c o n s i s t a n t w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h c i t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , a l t h o u g h t h e n e a r s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s f o r P h y s i c a l S e l f and T o t a l S e l f C o n c e p t s c o r e s l e n d s u p p o r t t o t h e c i t e d r e s e a r c h . C o l l i n g w o o d and W i l l e t (1971) n o t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n p o s i t i v e body a t t i t u d e , s e l f a t t i t u d e and s e l f a c c e p t a n c e . McGowan, J a rman and P e d e r s o n (1974) c o n c l u d e d a f t e r a p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n s e l f c o n c e p t (as measured b y t h e Tennes see S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e ) . S o r e n s o n (1974) o b s e r v e d a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n s e l f c o n c e p t , (as measured b y t h e Tennes see S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e ) a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g 60 program. Improvement i n body concept and s e l f concept i s one of the major p r i n c i p l e s and objectives of dance and movement therapy as expressed by Feder and Feder (1977), Hecox, Lavine and Scott (1975) and Robbins and Robbins (1972). The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t i n g a program e f f e c t on body concept and s e l f concept appeared to be influenced by three fa c t o r s : (1) time, (2) design of instruments and (3) timing of posttest evaluation session. The time e f f e c t was noted to be s i g n i f i c a n t f or the Body Cathexis score and considered to be near s i g n i f i c a n t f or the S e l f Cathexis score. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t time e f f e c t f o r the Physical S e l f or Total S e l f Concept scores. This may be explained i n terms of the second factor, design of instruments. The-Body Cathexis and S e l f Cathexis Scales are constructed of s p e c i f i c one word items whereas the Physical S e l f and Total S e l f Concept scores taken from the Tennessee S e l f Concept Scale are constructed of general sentence statements. It appeared the s p e c i f i c evaluations of Body Cathexis and S e l f Cathexis were more d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by time than were the general evaluations of Physical S e l f and Total S e l f Concept. This difference i n the e f f e c t of time on the s p e c i f i c and general evaluation of body and s e l f concept could explain the lack of s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on Body and S e l f Cathexis, while the e f f e c t on Physical S e l f and Total S e l f Concept scores approached s i g n i -ficance . The t h i r d factor which may have affected the degree of program e f f e c t on body and s e l f concept was the timing of the posttest evaluation session which coincided with the l a s t week of u n i v e r s i t y classes before f i n a l exams. Pressures and tensions r e s u l t i n g from t h i s pre-exam academic s i t u a t i o n couid very well have influenced the subjects' body and s e l f concept, modifying any p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s experienced from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the exercise program. Several g i r l s mentioned going on pre-exam eating sessions and f e e l i n g g u i l t y because they were i n the exercise program and t h e i r extra eating might be observed i n t h e i r posttest s k i n f o l d measures. During the l a s t week of classes, many of the g i r l s received grades f o r term papers and laboratory exams which may have had an e f f e c t on the academic aspect of s e l f concept. 62 H y p o t h e s i s T h r e e : The Use o f a Body Awareness E x e r c i s e P r o g r a m Causes  Body C o m p o s i t i o n Change i n - . I n a c t i v e " Obese"and' .Non-obe"se Young Women . R e s u l t s . P r o g r a m e f f e c t s on body c o m p o s i t i o n s c o r e s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by I:, (1) T a b l e 11 w h i c h l i s t s t h e mean s c o r e f o r t h e p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s , (2) F i g u r e 6 w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s i n g r a p h i c f o r m t h e mean s c o r e s as o b t a i n e d f r o m T a b l e 11 and (3) T a b l e 12 w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e ANOVA f o r P e r c e n t Body F a t . The e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m group d e c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n P e r c e n t Body F a t (p=.01 f o r t h e T r e a t m e n t by Time i n t e r a c t i o n ) (See T a b l e 1 2 ) . T a b l e 11 Mean S c o r e s f o r P e r c e n t Body F a t P r e P o s t T r e a t m e n t Obese 2 7 . 8 2 6 . 1 N o n - o b e s e 1 8 . 7 1 7 . 7 Combined 2 2 . 4 2 1 . 2 C o n t r o l Obese 2 8 . 4 2 8 . 9 N o n - o b e s e 1 7 . 0 1 7 . 7 Combined 2 1 . 1 2 2 . 2 63 32 r 30 . Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Obese Non-obese Combined T = Treatment Group C = Control Group Figure 6 Program E f f e c t on Percent Body Fat Score Table-' 12 Summary of ANOVA for Percent Body Fat Source df Mean Square Treatment Size Treatment by Size Error 1 1 1 46 3.921 2418.767 39.990 35.233 0.111 68.651 1.135 0.74 0.00 0.29 Time Time by Treatment Time by Size Time by Treatment by Size Error 1 1 1 1 46 3.212 22.698 1.612 0.304 3.431 0.936 6.616 0.470 0.089 0.34 0.01 0.50 0.77 64 D i s c u s s i o n . H y p o t h e s i s Th ree s t a t e d t h a t t h e use o f a body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m c a u s e s body c o m p o s i t i o n change i n i n a c t i v e obese and n o n - o b e s e y o u n g women. B a s e d on t h e r e s u l t s , H y p o t h e s i s T h r e e was a c c e p t e d s i n c e t h e e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on body c o m p o s i t i o n (p = . 0 1 ) . The a c c e p t a n c e o f H y p o t h e s i s T h r e e i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h w h i c h s t a t e d t h a t e x e r c i s e c a u s e d a d e c r e a s e i n body f a t c i t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e by G l i c k and Kaufman ( 1 9 7 6 ) , Mayhew and G r o s s ( 1 9 7 4 ) , Moody , K o l l i a s , and B u s k i r k ( 1 9 6 9 ) , W i l m o r e (1974) and Z w i r a n ( 1 9 7 0 ) . A l l f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t d e c r e a s e s i n s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s as a r e s u l t o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , w h i c h i s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p h y s i o l o g i -c a l e f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y on body c o m p o s i t i o n as n o t e d b y Behnke and W i l m o r e ( 1 9 7 4 ) , C l a r k e (1975) and O s c a i ( 1 9 7 3 ) . M a i n P r o b l e m : Summary o f P r o g r a m E f f e c t on Body C o n c e p t , S e l f C o n c e p t  and Body C o m p o s i t i o n The m a i n p r o b l e m o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o s t u d y t h e e f f e c t s o f a body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m on t h e body c o n c e p t , s e l f c o n c e p t and body c o m p o s i t i o n o f i n a c t i v e obese and n o n - o b e s e young women. I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m c a u s e s a p o s i t i v e change i n body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t as t e s t e d by H y p o t h e s e s One and Two r e s p e c t i v e l y . A p o s i t i v e change w h i c h a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e was o b s e r v e d i n t h e P h y s i c a l S e l f and T o t a l S e l f C o n c e p t s c o r e s ; h o w e v e r , a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e change was o b s e r v e d i n Body C a t h e x i s and S e l f C a t h e x i s s c o r e s . T h e r e f o r e , H y p o t h e s e s One and Two c o u l d n o t be a c c e p t e d . 65 It was stated i n Hypothesis Three that a body awareness exercise program causes body composition change. It was found that a s i m i l a r decrease i n Percent Body Fat f o r both obese and non-obese t r e a t -ment subjects re s u l t e d i n a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e change i n body composition. Therefore, Hypothesis Three was accepted. Based on the r e s u l t s of the data analyses, the body awareness exercise program: 1. caused a p o s i t i v e change which approached s i g n i f i c a n c e i n body concept and s e l f concept with inferences delimited to the r e s u l t s obtained from the Tennessee S e l f Concept Scale; 2. did not cause a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e change i n body concept and s e l f concept with inferences delimited to the r e s u l t s obtained from the Body Cathexis and S e l f Cathexis Scales; 3. caused a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e change i n body composition i n both obese and non-obese subjects. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the body awareness exercise program resu l t e d i n a s i g n i f i c a n t reduction i n Percent Body Fat i n both obese and non-obese subjects. Therefore, i t may be concluded that t h i s type of exercise program i s a p o t e n t i a l l y e f f e c t i v e and appropriate form of physical a c t i v i t y to use with i n a c t i v e obese and non-obese young women. It may be speculated that since the body awareness exercise program resulted i n p o s i t i v e changes which approached s i g n i f i c a n c e i n body concept and s e l f concept (as delimited) t h i s type of exercise program may be e f f e c t i v e i n improving body and s e l f concept i n i n a c t i v e obese and non-obese young women. Since p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the exercise program resul t e d i n a p o s i t i v e change i n body and s e l f concept, i t may also 66 be s p e c u l a t e d t h a t r t h e p o s i t i v e e f f e c t , m a y - e n c o u r a g e c o n t i n u e d p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y w i t h t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g d e c r e a s e i n body f a t . SUBPROBLEM: RELATIONSHIPS AMONG BODY CONCEPT, SELF CONCEPT, BODY COMPOSITION AND' BODY COMPOSITION CHANGE IN INACTIVE' OBESE AND NON-OBESE YOUNG WOMEN The r e l a t i o n s h i p s among body c o n c e p t , s e l f c o n c e p t and body c o m p o s i t i o n i n i n a c t i v e obese and n o n - o b e s e young women were examined u s i n g t h e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x on p r e t e s t s c o r e s f o r a l l dependen t v a r i a b l e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween body c o n c e p t and body c o m p o s i t i o n as t e s t e d by H y p o t h e s i s F o u r and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween body c o n c e p t change and body c o m p o s i t i o n change as t e s t e d by H y p o t h e s i s F i v e a r e p r e s e n t e d and d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y . R e l a t i o n s h i p s Among Body C o n c e p t , S e l f C o n c e p t and Body C o m p o s i t i o n The e x p e c t e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n a l l dependen t p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e means be tween obese and n o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t s as i n d i c a t e d by T a b l e s 2 1 , 22 and 23 ( see A p p e n d i x G) d i d n o t m a t e r i a l i z e . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s s were n o t o b t a i n e d be tween t h e obese and t h e n o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t s ' s c o r e s . A d i f f e r e n c e i n mean s c o r e s o c c u r e d be tween t h e sample means and t h e norms f o r t h e s p e c i f i c measurement s c a l e s w h i c h was u n e x p e c t e d s i n c e t h e norms were e s t a b l i s h e d f rom p o p u l a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g t h e sample p o p u l a t i o n ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I n c o m p a r i n g t h e means o b t a i n e d f rom t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w i t h t h e norms f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l s c a l e s , i t was n o t e d t h a t b o t h obese and n o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t s o b t a i n e d means b e l o w t h e s c a l e norms f o r Body C a t h e x i s , P h y s i c a l S e l f and T o t a l S e l f C o n c e p t . S i n c e i n a c t i v i t y was a common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n b o t h obese and n o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t s , i t w o u l d - 67 a p p e a r t h a t i n a c t i v i t y was more i n f l u e n t i a l t h a n body c o m p o s i t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o l o w e r mean s c o r e s . B o d y - c o m p o s i t i o n d i d n o t a p p e a r t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e means be tween obese and n o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t s i n Body C a t h e x i s , P h y s i c a l S e l f , S e l f C a t h e x i s and T o t a l S e l f C o n c e p t . R e s u l t s . The c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x f o r a l l dependen t v a r i a b l e s as o b t a i n e d on t h e p r e t e s t e v a l u a t i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1 3 . No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t e d among body c o n c e p t , s e l f c o n c e p t and body c o m p o s i t i o n . , T a b l e 13 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Be tween P e r c e n t Body F a t and Body C o n c e p t , S e l f C o n c e p t T r e a t m e n t C o n t r o l Obese N o n - o b e s e Obese Non-obese Body C a t h e x i s 0 . 4 1 8 - 0 . 0 1 6 0 . 3 6 3 0 . 0 0 8 P h y s i c a l S e l f - 0 . 1 5 5 - 0 . 1 9 5 - 0 . 4 0 2 - 0 . 0 7 9 S e l f C a t h e x i s 0 . 3 4 0 - 0 . 0 5 5 0 . 1 5 2 - 0 . 1 4 1 T o t a l S e l f C o n c e p t 0 . 1 7 9 - 0 . 1 5 8 - 0 . 3 4 6 - 0 . 0 7 5 Obese : r Q 5 . ^ = 0 .634 N o n - o b e s e : r . 0 5 , 1 3 = 0 .514 68 Discussion. It was expected that there would be a significant relationship between body composition and body concept as well as between body composition and self concept since obesity was noted to be negatively related to body concept and self concept particularly in the area of body size distortion and body concept disturbance (Monello 5 Mayer, 1963; Stunkard & Mendelson, 1961, 1967). However, this did not occur, therefore there may have been other factors involved in this study that were more influential than body composition which resulted in the lack of relationships with body concept and self concept. Stunkard and Mendelson (1967) stated that the presence of emotional disturbances and negative evaluation of the obese condition by signi-ficant others were important factors in predisposing body concept disturbances. It is possible that the backgrounds of the obese volunteer subjects were such that other areas of Total Self Concept in addition to Physical Self modified any negative effect of the obese condition. Since the volunteer subjects were university students, i t may be possible that academic performance was more important than physical appearance, therefore having a stronger influence on the perception of self. It was possible that factors other than body composition were more highly correlated to body concept and self concept in the total sample of young university women. Hypothesis Four: Inactive Obese Young Women Have a Lower Body Concept  Than Inactive Non-obese Young Women Results. The results of the pre-planned orthogonal comparison indicated that there was no significant difference in body concept between obese and non-obese subjects ( Body Cathexis: t = .77, p > .10; Physical Self: t=.42, p>.10). 69 D i s c u s s i o n . H y p o t h e s i s F o u r s t a t e d t h a t i n a c t i v e obese young women have a l o w e r body c o n c e p t t h a n i n a c t i v e n o n - o b e s e young women. S i n c e t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n body c o n c e p t be tween obese and n o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t s (p .> .10) H y p o t h e s i s F o u r c o u l d n o t be a c c e p t e d . The n o n - a c c e p t a n c e o f H y p o t h e s i s F o u r i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e s e a r c h c i t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . The l a c k o f d i f f e r e n c e be tween obese and n o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t s was n o t e x p e c t e d s i n c e i t was n o t e d by s e v e r a l a u t h o r s t h a t o b e s i t y was o f t e n r e l a t e d t o n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s on body c o n c e p t s u c h as d i s t o r t i o n o f body s i z e and d i s t u r b a n c e o f body c o n c e p t ( S t u n k a r d $ B u r t , 1967 ; S t u n k a r d $ M e n d e l s o n , 1 9 6 1 , 1 9 6 7 ) . T h i s l a c k o f d i f f e r e n c e c o u l d have been i n f l u e n c e d by t h r e e f a c t o r s : (1) t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e obese i n d i v i d u a l who v o l u n t e e r e d t o be a s u b j e c t , (2) t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s u b j e c t s ' r e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s and (3) t h e common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n a c t i v i t y . The f i r s t f a c t o r w h i c h c o u l d have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e n o t e d l a c k o f d i f f e r e n c e was t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e obese i n d i v i d u a l who v o l u n t e e r e d t o be a s u b j e c t . A c c o r d i n g t o S t u n k a r d and M e n d e l s o n ( 1 9 6 1 , 1967) and N a t h a n ( 1 9 7 3 ) , t h e j u v e n i l e age o f o n s e t o f o b e s i t y i s a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n t h e d i s t u r b a n c e o f body c o n c e p t . S i n c e t h e v o l u n t e e r s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y were w i t h i n t h e age r ange o f 17 t o 25 y e a r s w i t h a mean age o f 1 8 . 6 y e a r s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t o n l y - t h o s e obese i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h o u t body c o n c e p t d i s t u r b a n c e and n e g a t i v e s e l f c o n c e p t s v o l u n t e e r e d . T h i s i s a v e r y r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y s i n c e t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r e x p e r i e n c e d g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n r e c r u i t i n g obese s u b j e c t s f o r t h e s t u d y . I n f a c t o n l y 20 i n a c t i v e obese g i r l s c o u l d be f o u n d who 70 w o u l d v o l u n t e e r t o be s u b j e c t s and some w o u l d o n l y be i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , n o t t h e e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p . T h e r e was no d i f f i c u l t y i n r e c r u i t i n g n o n - o b e s e v o l u n t e e r s f o r s u b j e c t s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h o s e obese i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h n e g a t i v e body c o n c e p t s and s e l f c o n c e p t s d i d n o t v o l u n t e e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y b e c a u s e t h e i r n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s abou t t h e i r b o d i e s and t h e m s e l v e s i n g e n e r a l p r e v e n t e d them f rom v o l u n t e e r i n g . The v a l i d i t y o f t h e s u b j e c t s ' r e s p o n s e t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c o u l d have been i n f l u e n t i a l i n c a u s i n g a l a c k o f d i f f e r e n c e i n body c o n c e p t be tween obese and n o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t s . G o t t s f e l d (1962) n o t e d a c o n f l i c t i n r e s u l t s when a s s e s s i n g obese s u b j e c t s w i t h n e u r o t i c s u b j e c t s f o r body c a t h e x i s ( u s i n g s e l f f i g u r e - d r a w i n g s ) and s e l f c a t h e x i s ( u s i n g a q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) . The obese s u b j e c t s showed t h e most n e g a t i v e body c a t h e x i s y e t t h e l e a s t n e g a t i v e s e l f c a t h e x i s . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s e l f f i g u r e - d r a w i n g r e p r e s e n t e d t h e u n c o n s c i o u s a s p e c t s o f a t t i t u d e whereas t h e s e l f d e s c r i p t i v e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e p r e s e n t e d a more c o n s c i o u s l e v e l o f a t t i t u d e . G o t t s f e l d c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e obese i n d i v i d u a l was " u n a b l e t o a c c e p t a n e g a t i v e s e l f d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i m s e l f and o n t h e c o n s c i o u s l e v e l p o r t r a y s h i m s e l f as w e l l s a t i s f i e d " ( p . 3 7 ) . H i s c o m p a r i -sons o f o b s e r v e d b e h a v i o r and s e l f - r e p o r t e d b e h a v i o r d i s c l o s e d a d i s p a r i t y i n p e r c e p t i o n s . The obese r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s c l o s e r t o t h e i r i d e a l s e l f t h a n t o t h e i r o b s e r v e d r e a l s e l f . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e obese s u b j e c t s r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s c l o s e r t o t h e i r i d e a l s e l f w h i c h w o u l d a p p r o x i m a t e t h e n o n - o b e s e i d e n t i t y t h a n t o t h e i r r e a l s e l f w h i c h w o u l d have shown a more n e g a t i v e body c o n c e p t as n o t e d by G o t t s f e l d . 71 The common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n a c t i v i t y c o u l d have been t h e t h i r d f a c t o r i n v o l v e d i n t h e l a c k o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n body c o n c e p t be tween obese and n o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t s . Body c o n c e p t means f o r b o t h t h e obese and i r o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t s were b e l o w t h e norm f o r t h e Body C a t h e x i s and P h y s i c a l S e l f s c a l e s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e f e e l i n g s a b o u t t h e b o d y ' s a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m moto r s k i l l s and i t s l e v e l o f p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s c o u l d be more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o body c o n c e p t t h a n i s p h y s i c a l s i z e and a p p e a r a n c e . T u c k e r (1975) o b s e r v e d t h a t h i g h a b i l i t y b o y s ^ were more p o s i t i v e i n s e l f c o n c e p t t h a n l o w a b i l i t y b o y s . T y l e r (1973) f o u n d t h a t changes i n s e l f p e r c e p t i o n were e v i d e n t o v e r t i m e , p a r t i c u l a r l y d e c r e a s e s i n s e l f c o n c e p t and a c h i e v e m e n t i n u n s u c c e s s f u l p a r t i c i p a n t s . S o r e n s e n (1974) showed t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n s e l f c o n c e p t was r e l a t e d t o p o s i t i v e changes i n p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . L e o n a r d s o n (1977) o b s e r v e d t h a t p e r c e i v e d p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o s e l f c o n c e p t . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e i n a c t i v i t y f a c t o r m o d i f i e d any d i f f e r e n c e s be tween obese and n o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t s w h i c h were r e l a t e d t o body c o m p o s i t i o n , t h u s r e s u l t i n g i n a l a c k o f d i f f e r e n c e be tween i n a c t i v e obese and n o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t s f o r t h e dependen t v a r i a b l e o f body c o n c e p t . H y p o t h e s i s F i v e : I n I n a c t i v e Obese Y o u n g Women, t h e Degree o f Change  i n Body C o n c e p t i s P r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e Amount o f Change i n Body Compo- s i t i o n O v e r a Ten Week Body Awarenes s E x e r c i s e P r o g r a m R e s u l t s . Body C a t h e x i s , P h y s i c a l S e l f and P e r c e n t Body F a t change s c o r e s as o b t a i n e d by s u b t r a c t i n g p r e t e s t s c o r e s f rom p o s t t e s t s c o r e s a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 1 4 . The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s as c a l c u l a t e d 7 2 i n d i c a t e t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n d i d n o t e x i s t be tween Body C a t h e x i s change s c o r e s and P e r c e n t Body F a t change s c o r e s ( r= - . 1 5 , p > . 1 0 ) , o r be tween P h y s i c a l S e l f change s c o r e s and P e r c e n t Body F a t change s c o r e s ( r = - . 1 4 , p > . 1 0 ) . A change i n body c o n c e p t was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a change i n body c o m p o s i t i o n ; t h a t i s , w i t h i n t h e 80 p e r c e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s who e x p e r i e n c e d a d e c r e a s e i n P e r c e n t Body F a t , 8 8 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e s u b j e c t s e x p e r i e n c e d an i n c r e a s e i n B o d y - C a t h e x i s and 63 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e same s u b j e c t s e x p e r i e n c e d an i n c r e a s e i n P h y s i c a l S e l f ( see F i g u r e s 7 and 8 ) . T a b l e 14 Body C o n c e p t Change S c o r e s and Body C o m p o s i t i o n Change S c o r e s i n Obese T r e a t m e n t S u b j e c t s Body C a t h e x i s P h y s i c a l S e l f P e r c e n t Body F a t S u b j e c t Change S c o r e Change S c o r e Change S c o r e 1 + . 30 + 7 . 0 - 1.9 2 + . 30 + 6 . 0 - 3 . 9 3 + . 2 2 + 4 . 0 + 1.6 4 + . 4 8 + 2 . 0 - 3 . 6 5 = . 19 - 2 . 0 - 2 . 7 6 + . 7 3 - 3 . 0 - 2 . 0 7 - . 30 - 2 . 0 + 2 . 0 8 + . 27 + 1 1 . 0 - 3 .4 9 + . 11 - 2 . 0 - 2 . 5 10. + 1.06 + 8 .0 - 1.7 73 CU U O a cn <D c. ^! CJ •H X CU nj U o CQ 1.2 1.0 .8 .6 . 4 . 2 . 0 - . 2 - . 4 - 3 . 0 - 2 . 0 - 1 . 0 0 . 0 P e r c e n t Body F a t Change S c o r e F i g u r e 7 R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Body C a t h e x i s Change S c o r e and Body C o m p o s i t i o n Change S c o r e u o u C/3 CU s-U t—I <U cn cd •H io a, 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 - 2 - 4 x •3 .0 - 2 . 0 - 1 . 0 0 . 0 P e r c e n t Body F a t Change S c o r e 2 . 0 3 . 0 F i g u r e 8 R e l a t i o n s h i p Be tween P h y s i c a l S e l f Change S c o r e and Body C o m p o s i t i o n Change S c o r e . 74 D i s c u s s i o n . H y p o t h e s i s F i v e s t a t e d t h a t i n i n a c t i v e obese young women, t h e d e g r e e o f change i n body c o n c e p t w o u l d be p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e amount o f change i n body c o m p o s i t i o n o v e r a 10 week body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m . S i n c e a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n d i d n o t e x i s t be tween body c o n c e p t change and body c o m p o s i t i o n change , H y p o t h e s i s F i v e c o u l d n o t be a c c e p t e d . However , an a s s o c i a t i o n a p p e a r e d t o be e v i d e n t be tween an i n c r e a s e i n body c o n c e p t and a d e c r e a s e i n body f a t . The n o n - a c c e p t a n c e o f H y p o t h e s i s F i v e i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f S t o n e r and F i o r e l l o ( 1 9 7 6 ) . They f o u n d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e P h y s i c a l S e l f s c o r e ( f rom t h e Tennessee S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e ) as w e l l as w e i g h t l o s s i n a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m ( w h i c h i n c l u d e d e x e r c i s e ) d e s i g n e d t o a f f e c t s e l f c o n c e p t as w e l l as w e i g h t c h a n g e . They e m p h a s i z e d t h a t u n l e s s a p r o g r a m was d e s i g n e d t o a f f e c t change i n s e l f c o n c e p t as w e l l as w e i g h t l o s s , a change i n s e l f c o n c e p t c o u l d n o t be e x p e c t e d t o accompany a change i n w e i g h t l o s s . S t a n l e y e t a l . (1970) a l s o o b s e r v e d s u c h a r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween body c o n c e p t change and b o d y c o m p o s i t i o n c h a n g e . They s t a t e d t h a t t h o s e obese a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s who managed s u c c e s s f u l w e i g h t l o s s " i n some way i m p r o v e d t h e i r body image o r s e l f image o r b o t h , w h i c h i n t u r n h e l p e d them keep t h e i r w e i g h t down" ( p . 3 4 ) . Summary o f R e l a t i o n s h i p s Among Body C o n c e p t , S e l f C o n c e p t , Body Compo- s i t i o n Change i n I n a c t i v e Obese and N o n - o b e s e Young Women The s u b p r o b l e m o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o examine t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among body c o n c e p t , s e l f c o n c e p t , body c o m p o s i t i o n and body c o m p o s i t i o n change i n i n a c t i v e obese and n o n - o b e s e young women. 75 No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d be tween obese and n o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t s ' means f o r t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l dependent v a r i a b l e s . However i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e sample means were b e l o w t h e a v e r a g e f o r t h e s c a l e norms o f t h e body C a t h e x i s , P h y s i c a l S e l f and T o t a l S e l f C o n c e p t s c o r e s . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t : (1) t h e common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n a c t i v i t y r e s u l t e d i n t h e d i f f e r e n c e s be tween t h e sample means and t h e i n s t r u m e n t s ' norms and (2) body c o m p o s i t i o n d i d n o t appea r t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e means ' .be tween obese and n o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t s i n body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t s c o r e s . The - c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x f o r a l l dependen t v a r i a b l e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t no s i g n i -f i c a n t c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t e d among body c o n c e p t , s e l f c o n c e p t and body c o m p o s i t i o n . P o s s i b l e f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s l a c k o f e x p e c t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s w e r e : (1) t h e b a c k g r o u n d s o f t h e obese v o l u n t e e r s u b j e c t s and (2) a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e and i t s i n f l u e n c e on t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e s e l f . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t f a c t o r s o t h e r t h a n body c o m p o s i t i o n were more e f f e c t i v e i n i n f l u e n c i n g body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t i n t h i s sample o f young u n i v e r s i t y women. H y p o t h e s i s Hour s t a t e d t h a t t h e i n a c t i v e obese young women have a l o w e r body c o n c e p t t h a n t h e i n a c t i v e n o n - o b e s e young women. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was f o u n d be tween t h e body c o n c e p t s c o r e s o f t h e obese and t h e n o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t s , t h e r e f o r e H y p o t h e s i s F o u r c o u l d n o t be a c c e p t e d . P o s s i b l e f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e l a c k o f e x p e c t e d d i f f e r e n c e i n body c o n c e p t w e r e : (1) t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e obese i n d i v i d u a l s who v o l u n t e e r e d t o be s u b j e c t s , (2) t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s u b j e c t s ' r e s p o n s e s on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and (3) t h e common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n a c t i v i t y i n body obese and n o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t s . 76 H y p o t h e s i s F i v e s t a t e d t h a t t h e d e g r e e o f change i n body c o n c e p t i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e amount o f change i n body c o m p o s i t i o n o v e r a 10 week body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m . An a s s o c i a t i o n a p p e a r e d t o be e v i d e n t i n t h a t an i n c r e a s e i n body c o n c e p t was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d e c r e a s e i n body f a t . However , t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n was n o t p r o v e n t o be s i g n i f i c a n t , t h e r e f o r e . . H y p o t h e s i s F i v e c o u l d n o t be a c c e p t e d . The u n e x p e c t e d l a c k o f r e l a t i o n -s h i p be tween body c o n c e p t change and body c o m p o s i t i o n change s u g g e s t s t h a t i n a c t i v i t y was more i n f l u e n t i a l i n a f f e c t i n g body c o n c e p t t h a n was body c o m p o s i t i o n . Based on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e d a t a a n a l y s e s , i t may be c o n c l u d e d t h a t i n i n a c t i v e obese and n o n - o b e s e young women: 1. t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s among body c o n c e p t , s e l f c o n c e p t and body c o m p o s i t i o n , 2. s ample means were b e l o w i n s t r u m e n t s ' norms f o r Body C a t h e x i s , P h y s i c a l S e l f and T o t a l S e l f C o n c e p t , 3. body c o m p o s i t i o n as a f a c t o r d i d n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e means be tween obese and n o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t s i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l dependen t v a r i a b l e s , 4. i n a c t i v e obese young women d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m i n a c t i v e n o n - o b e s e young women i n body c o n c e p t , 5. an i n c r e a s e i n body c o n c e p t s c o r e s a p p e a r e d t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d e c r e a s e i n body f a t s c o r e s . Howeve r , t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n was f o u n d t o be n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t , . ' I n c o n c l u s i o n , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t f o r t h e young women i n t h i s s t u d y , body c o m p o s i t i o n was n o t i n f l u e n t i a l i n a f f e c t i n g body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t . The common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n a c t i v i t y a p p e a r e d t o have more e f f e c t on body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t t h a n d i d body c o m p o s i t i o n . CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary The e f f e c t o f i n a c t i v i t y and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o b e s i t y i s a ' v e r y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r f o r t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r t o c o n s i d e r when d e s i g n i n g e x e r c i s e p rograms f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t a n d / o r p r e v e n t i o n o f o b e s i t y i n i n a c t i v e p e o p l e . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , c o n v e n t i o n a l e x e r c i s e p rograms f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t and p r e v e n t i o n o f o b e s i t y i n i n a c t i v e p e o p l e have been d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o o b t a i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f p o s i t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s r e s u l t i n g f rom e x e r c i s e o f t e n has n o t b e e n c o n s i d e r e d o r e m p h a s i z e d . T h e r e f o r e t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s as w e l l as t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f an e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o a f f e c t body a w a r e n e s s . P u r p o s e . The m a i n p r o b l e m o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o s t u d y t h e e f f e c t s o f a 10 week body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m on t h e body c o n c e p t , s e l f c o n c e p t and body c o m p o s i t i o n i n i n a c t i v e obese and n o n -obese young women. A s u b p r o b l e m was t o examine t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among body c o n c e p t , s e l f c o n c e p t , body c o m p o s i t i o n and body c o m p o s i t i o n change i n i n a c t i v e obese and n o n - o b e s e young women. P r o c e d u r e s . S u b j e c t s were be tween t h e ages o f 17 and 25 y e a r s , i n a c t i v e , and f e m a l e u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s l i v i n g a t Totem P a r k and P l a c e V a n i e r S t u d e n t s R e s i d e n c e s , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S u b j e c t s were p r e t e s t e d and p o s t t e s t e d f o r : (1) body c o n c e p t as e v a l u a t e d by t h e Body C a t h e x i s S c a l e ( S e c o r d § J o u r a r d , 1953) and t h e P h y s i c a l S e l f s e c t i o n o f t h e Tennes seee S e l f 77 78 C o n c e p t S c a l e ( F i t t s , 1 9 6 5 ) ; (2) s e l f c o n c e p t as e v a l u a t e d by t h e S e l f C a t h e x i s S c a l e ( S e c o r d Js J o u r a r d ) and t h e Tennessee S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e ( F i t t s ) , and (3) body c o m p o s i t i o n as e v a l u a t e d by t h e Y u h a s z (1973) method f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e P e r c e n t Body F a t s c o r e . C o m p l e t e d a t a was o b t a i n e d f o r 50 s u b j e c t s : 10 obese and 15 n o n - o b e s e i n b o t h t h e t r e a t m e n t and c o n t r o l g r o u p s . The s t u d y u s e d a 2 x 2 x 2 f a c t o r a l d e s i g n w i t h r e p e a t e d measures o n t h e t h i r d f a c t o r . The i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w e r e : (1) t h e t r e a t m e n t f a c t o r , (2) t h e s i z e f a c t o r and • (3) t h e t i m e f a c t o r . F i v e dependen t v a r i a b l e s were m e a s u r e d : (1) Body C a t h e x i s , (2) P h y s i c a l S e l f , (3) S e l f C a t h e x i s , (4) T o t a l S e l f C o n c e p t and (5) P e r c e n t Body F a t . The t r e a t m e n t g r o u p p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a 10 week body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m f o r a minimum o f t h r e e h a l f - h o u r s e s s i o n s a week . The e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m c o n s i s t e d o f a s e t o f e x e r c i s e s d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o d e v e l o p a n d / o r i m p r o v e body awareness t h r o u g h r h y t h m i c a l movement b a s e d on t h e i s o l a t i o n t e c h n i q u e . R e s u l t s . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s o f t h e d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t u n d e r t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s were f o u n d : 1; M a i n P r o b l e m : The body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m c a u s e d : (a) a p o s i t i v e change w h i c h a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e i n P h y s i c a l S e l f (p = .07) and i n T o t a l S e l f C o n c e p t (p = . 0 6 ) , (b) a p o s i t i v e change w h i c h was n o t c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t i n Body C a t h e x i s (p =.61) and i n S e l f C a t h e x i s (p = . 1 8 ) , (c) a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e change (p = . 0 1 ) i n P e r c e n t Body F a t . 79 2. S u b p r o b l e m . No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were f o u n d : (a) among body c o n c e p t , s e l f c o n c e p t and body c o m p o s i t i o n i n i n a c t i v e obese and n o n -obese s u b j e c t s , (b) be tween obese and n o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t s i n body c o n c e p t and (c) be tween body c o n c e p t change and body c o m p o s i t i o n change i n obese t r e a t m e n t s u b j e c t s . C o n c l u s i o n s W i t h i n t h e l i m i t a t i o n s and d e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e sample p o p u l a t i o n , e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e s u t i l i z e d and s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s p e r f o r m e d , t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s a p p e a r w a r r a n t e d : 1. M a i n P r o b l e m : The i n c r e a s e i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y t h r o u g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m h a d : (a) a p o s i t i v e change w h i c h was n o t c o n s i d e r e d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t i n body c o n c e p t o r s e l f c o n c e p t (howeve r , a p o s i t i v e change a p p r o a c h i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e was n o t e d as d e l i m i t e d by t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f rom t h e P h y s i c a l S e l f and T o t a l S e l f C o n c e p t s c o r e s f rom t h e T e n n e s s e e S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e ) , and (b) a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e change i n body c o m p o s i t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n f a t r e d u c t i o n . 2. S u b p r o b l e m : I t was o b s e r v e d t h a t : (a) t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s among body c o n c e p t , s e l f c o n c e p t , body c o m p o s i t i o n and body c o m p o s i t i o n c h a n g e , (b) body c o m p o s i t i o n was n o t i n f l u e n t i a l i n a f f e c t i n g body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t c h a n g e s , and (c) t h e common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n a c t i v i t y a p p e a r e d t o have more e f f e c t on body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t t h a n d i d b o d y c o m p o s i t i o n . S i n c e i n a c t i v i t y was f o u n d t o be more i n f l u e n t i a l t h a n body c o m p o s i t i o n f o r t h i s s ample o f young women, i t s u g g e s t s t h a t p rog rams f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t and p r e v e n t i o n o f o b e s i t y i n . i n a c t i v e obese and n o n - o b e s e 80 young women s h o u l d e m p h a s i z e i n c r e a s i n g p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y r a t h e r t h a n e m p h a s i z e c h a n g i n g body c o m p o s i t i o n . I t a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t o b j e c t i v e s f o r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y p rog rams f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t and p r e v e n t i o n o f o b e s i t y i n i n a c t i v e young women s h o u l d e m p h a s i z e p o s i t i v e change i n body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t r a t h e r t h a n e m p h a s i z e o n l y f a t a n d / o r ' w e i g h t ' l o s s and f i t n e s s i m p r o v e m e n t . Recommendat ions P r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s and c o n c l u s i o n s b a s e d on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y w o u l d seem t o w a r r a n t t h e f o l l o w i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s : 1. S t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g i n a c t i v e obese and n o n - o b e s e young women, o r t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n s h o u l d i n c l u d e methods f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p h y c h o -l o g i c a l f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d w h i c h c ause o r i n f l u e n c e t h e i n a c t i v e c o n d i t i o n . 2 . R e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f movement s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d a n d / p r expanded i n t h e f i e l d o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e a r e a s o f body a w a r e n e s s , movement s a t i s f a c t i o n , body c o n c e p t and s e l f c o n c e p t . 3. The p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s h o u l d become more i n v o l v e d w i t h m e d i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n r e s e a r c h on o b e s i t y and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , i n t e g r a t i n g t h e f i e l d s o f p s y c h o l o g y and p h y s i o l o g y . 4. A common d e f i n i t i o n a l t e r m f o r o b e s i t y s h o u l d be a d o p t e d f o r u s e i n r e s e a r c h on o b e s i t y . T h i s w o u l d p e r m i t a b a s i s f o r c o m p a r i s i o n o f r e s e a r c h d a t a and r e s u l t s w h i c h i s n o t p o s s i b l e when c o n c e p t s s u c h as t h e o v e r w e i g h t v i e w o f o b e s i t y a r e u s e d . 8 1 5. An increased emphasis should be placed on the development of more appropriate a t t i t u d i n a l instruments to assess the e f f e c t s of phy s i c a l a c t i v i t y on body concept and s e l f concept. LEAF 82 OMITTED IN PAGE NUMBERING. R E F E R E N C E S 83 84 A l l o n , N , The s t i g m a o f o v e r w e i g h t i n e v e r y d a y l i f e . I n G . A . B r a y ( E d . ) , O b e s i t y i n p e r s p e c t i v e . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 7 3 , B a i l e y , W . , S h i n e d l i n g , H . , § P a y n e , I . Obese i n d i v i d u a l s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f body i m a g e . P e r c e p t u a l and M o t o r S k i l l s , 1970 , 31_, 6 1 7 - 1 8 . B e h n k e , A . R . , § W i l m o r e , J . H . E v a l u a t i o n and r e g u l a t i o n o f body b u i l d and c o m p o s i t i o n . Eng lewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 1 9 7 4 . B j o r n t o r p , P . E f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g i n o b e s i t y . I n G . A . B r a y ( E d . ) , O b e s i t y i n p e r s p e c t i v e . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 7 3 . B j o r n t o r p , P . The e f f e c t s o f e x e r c i s e i n human o b e s i t y . I n W . L . B u r l a n d , P . D . S a m u e l , § J . Y u d k i n ( E d s . ) , O b e s i t y Sympos ium. New Y o r k : C h u r c h i l l L i v i n g s t o n e , 1974 . B r a y , G . A . ( E d . ) . O b e s i t y i n p e r s p e c t i v e . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 7 3 . B r a y , G . A . The obese p a t i e n t . I n L . H . S m i t h ( E d . ) , M a j o r p r o b l e m s i n i n t e r n a l m e d i c i n e X I . T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o : W . B . Saunde r s Company, 1976 . B r u c h , H . E a t i n g d i s o r d e r s : o b e s i t y , a n o r e x i a n e r v o s i a and t h e p e r s o n w i t h i n . New Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s , 1973 (a ) . B r u c h , H . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l h a n d i c a p s o f t h e o b e s e . I n G . A . B r a y (Ed.), O b e s i t y i n p e r s p e c t i v e . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1973 (b) . B u l l e n , B . A . , R e e d , R . B . , § M a y e r , J . P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y o f obese and n o n - o b e s e a d o l e s c e n t f e m a l e s as a p p a r e n t b y m o t i o n p i c t u r e s a m p l i n g . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f C l i n i c a l N u t r i t i o n , 1 9 7 0 , 14 , 2 1 L B u r l a n d , W . L . , S a m u e l , P . D . , § Y u d k i n , J . O b e s i t y sympos ium. New Y o r k : C h u r c h i l l L i v i n g s t o n e , 1974 . C a n n i n g , H . , § M a y e r , J . O b e s i t y - i t s p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s on c o l l e g e a c c e p t a n c e . The New E n g l a n d J o u r n a l o f M e d i c i n e , 1 9 6 6 , 2 7 5 : 2 1 , 1 1 7 2 - 7 4 . Cappon , D . , § B a n k s , R . D i s t o r t e d body p e r c e p t i o n i n o b e s i t y . J o u r n a l o f N e r v o u s and M e n t a l D i s e a s e , 1 9 6 8 , 1 4 6 , 4 6 5 - 6 7 . C h r i s t a k i , G . The p r e v a l e n c e o f a d u l t o b e s i t y . I n G . A . B r a y ( E d . ) , O b e s i t y i n p e r s p e c t i v e . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 7 3 . 85 C l a r k e , H . H . ( E d . ) E x e r c i s e and f a t r e d u c t i o n . P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s  R e s e a r c h D i g e s t , 1 9 7 3 , s e r i e s 5_;2. C l y d e s d a l e , F . M . The obese c h i l d and t h e r o l e o f e x e r c i s e . H e a l t h , 1 9 7 5 , 41_:3, 9 ; 2 1 ; 2 5 . " C o l e m a n , L . L . I n t r o d u c t i o n t o s e l e c t e d r e a d i n g s on o b e s i t y . I n M . L . K l i n e , L . L . C o l e m a n , § E . E . Wick ( E d s . ) . O b e s i t y : E t i o l o g y , t r e a t - ment and management. S p r i n g f i e l d , I I I ; : Thomas, 1 9 7 6 . C o l l i n g w o o d , T . R . , § W i l l e t , L . The e f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g upon s e l f c o n c e p t and body a t t i t u d e . J o u r n a l o f C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 1 , 27_, 4 1 1 - 1 3 . D a n o w s k i , T . S . S u s t a i n e d w e i g h t c o n t r o l t h e i n d i v i d u a l a p p r o a c h . P h i l a d e l p h i a : F . A . D a v i s Company, 1 9 7 3 . D i x o n , W . J . . ( E d . ) . BIOMEDICAL P r o g r a m s . U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , 1 9 7 0 . D i x o n , W . J . ( E d . ) . BIOMEDICAL P r o g r a m s . U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a . Los A n g e l e s , 1 9 7 5 . D o u t y , H . I . , M o o r e , J . B . , § H a r t f o r d , D . Body c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n r e l a t i o n t o l i f e a d j u s t m e n t s , body image and a t t i t u d e s o f c o l l e g e f e m a l e s . P e r c e p t u a l and M o t o r S k i l l s , 1 9 7 4 , 3 9 , 4 9 9 - 5 2 1 . Dwyer , H . , § M a y e r , J . P s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s o f v a r i a t i o n s i n p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e . A d o l e s c e n c e , 1 9 6 8 , 3_, 3 5 3 - 7 9 . Dwyer , H . , § M a y e r , J . The d i s m a l c o n d i t i o n : p r o b l e m s f a c e d b y obese a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s i n A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y . I n G . A . B r a y ( E d . ) , O b e s i t y i n p e r s p e c t i v e . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 7 3 . E l d e r , G . H . A p p e a r a n c e and e d u c a t i o n i n m a r r i a g e m o b i l i t y . A m e r i - S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , 1 9 6 9 , 39_, 5 1 9 - 3 3 . F e d e r , E . , § F e d e r , B . Dance T h e r a p y . P s y c h o l o g y T o d a y , 1 9 7 7 , F e b . , 7 6 - 8 0 . F e l d e n k r a i s , M . Awarenes s t h r o u g h movement. New Y o r k : H a r p e r § Row, P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 7 2 . F e r g u s o n , G . A . S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s i n P s y c h o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n , ( 4 t h E d . ) . T o r o n t o : McGraw H i l l , Book Company, 1976 . F i t t s , W . H . Tennessee S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e : m a n u a l . N a s h v i l l e , T e n n : : C o u n s e l l o r R e c o r d i n g s and T e s t s , Depar tmen t o f M e n t a l H e a l t h , 1965 . F o s s , M . L . Lampman, R . M . § S c h e i n g a n t , D. P h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i n g e x t r e m e l y obese p a t i e n t s . A r c h i v e s o f P h y s i c a l  M e d i c i n e and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , 1976 . 9 , 4 2 5 - 2 9 . 86 G l i c k , M . , § Kaufman , N . A . W e i g h t and s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s changes d u r i n g a p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g c o u r s e . M e d i c i n e and S c i e n c e i n  S p o r t s , 1 9 7 6 , 8_:2, 1 0 9 - 1 2 . G l u c k s m a n , M . , § H i r s c h , J . The r e s p o n s e o f obese p a t i e n t s t o w e i g h t r e d u c t i o n . P s y c h o s o m a t i c M e d i c i n e , 1 9 6 8 , 5 1 , 1 -7 . Goodman, D . , § S c h u t z , R. DATASNIFF - A compute r p r o g r a m f o r p r i m a r y t r e a t m e n t o f d a t a . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , 1976 . G o t t s f e l d , H . Body and s e l f c a t h e x i s o f s u p e r obese p a t i e n t s . J o u r n a l  o f P s y c h o s o m a t i c - R e s e a r c h , 1 9 6 2 , 6_, 1 7 7 - 8 3 . G r a n d e , F . A s s e s s m e n t o f body f a t i n man. I n G . A . B r a y ( E d . ) , O b e s i t y i n p e r s p e c t i v e . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 7 3 . G w i n u p ^ , . E f f e c t s o f e x e r c i s e a l o n e on t h e w e i g h t o f obese women. " M r c h ' i v e s * o f I n t e r n a l M e d i c i n e , 1 9 7 5 , 1 3 5 , 6 7 6 . Hammer, S . L . O b e s i t y and t h e p e d i a t r i c i a n . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f  D i s a b l e d C h i l d r e n , 1 9 7 5 , 1 2 5 , 788 . H e c o x , B . , L e v i n e , E . , § S c o t t , D. A r e p o r t on t h e u s e o f dance i n p h y s i c a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n : e v e r y b o d y has t h e r i g h t t o f e e l g o o d . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n L i t e r a t u r e , 1 9 7 5 , 3 6 , 1 , 1 1 - 1 5 . H i r s c h , J . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s e q u e n c e s o f o b e s i t y . I n G . A . B r a y ( E d . ) , O b e s i t y i n p e r s p e c t i v e . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 7 3 . J o h n s o n , M . L . , B u r k e , B . S . , § M a y e r , J . R e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f i n a c t i v i t y and o v e r e a t i n g i n e n e r g y b a l a n c e o f obese h i g h s c h o o l g i r l s . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f C l i n i c a l N u t r i t i o n , 1 9 6 5 , 4_, 3 7 - 4 4 . K a n n e l , W . B . , d, G o r d o n , J . O b e s i t y and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r d i s e a s e - t h e Framingham S t u d y . I n W . L . B u r l a n d , P . D . S a m u e l , § J . Y u d k i n ( E d s . ) , O b e s i t y Sympos ium. New Y o r k : C h u r c h i l l L i v i n g s t o n e , 1974 . K i n d l , M . § B r o w n , P . The team a p p r o a c h - t h e e f f e c t i v e t r e a t m e n t o f o b e s i t y w i t h i n t h e communi ty . CAHPER J o u r n a l , 1 9 7 6 , 4 3 : 1 , 3 9 r 4 4 . K l i n e , M . V . , C o l e m a n , L . L . , § W i c k , E . E . ( E d s . ) . O b e s i t y : E t i o l o g y , treatment%. and management. S p r i n g f i e l d , 1 1 1 . : Thomas, 1976 . L e a r n e r , R . M . , K a r a b e n i c k , S . A . <5 S t u a r t , J . L . R e l a t i o n s h i p s among p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s , body a t t i t u d e and s e l f c o n c e p t i n ma le and f e m a l e c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 3 , 8 5 , 1 1 9 - 2 9 . L e o n a r d s o n , G . R . R e l a t i o n s h i p s be tween s e l f c o n c e p t and p e r c e i v e d p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . P e r c e p t u a l and M o t o r S k i l l s , 1 9 7 7 , 4 4 , 6 2 . 87 L e y , P . , B r a d s h a w , P . W . , K i n c e y , J . , C o u p e r - S m a r t t , J . , § W i l s o n M . P s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s i n t h e c o n t r o l o f o b e s i t y . I n W . L . B u r l a n d , P . D . S a m u e l , § J . Y u d k i n g ( E d s . ) , O b e s i t y sympos ium! New Y o r k : C h u r c h i l l L i v i n g s t o n e , 1974 . Lowen , A . B e t r a y a l o f t h e b o d y . T o r o n t o , O n t . : C o l l i e r - M a c m i l l i a n C a n a d a , 1 9 6 9 . Lowen , A . B i o e n e r g e t i c s . Markham, O n t . : P e n g u i n B o o k s , 1 9 7 5 . Lowen, A . P h y s i c a l Dynamics o f C h a r a c t e r S t r u c t u r e . New Y o r k : G r u i n e § S t r a t t o n , 1 9 5 8 . M a u l d o n , E . , § L a y s o n , J . T e a c h i n g g y m n a s t i c s . L o n d o n : M a c d o n a l d § E v a n s , 1965 . M a y e r , J . O v e r w e i g h t and e x e r c i s e . H e a l t h , 1976 , £2_ : 2 , 8 - 9 ; 2 0 - 2 1 . M a y e r , J . O v e r w e i g h t c a u s e s , c o s t and c o n t r o l . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 1 9 6 8 . M a y e r , J . Some advances i n t h e s t u d y o f t h e p h y s i o l o g i c ba se s o f o b e s i t y : sympos ium on o b e s i t y . : . M e t a b o l i s m , 1957 , 6^:5, 4 3 6 - 4 6 . Mayhew, J . L . , § G r o s s , P . M . Body c o m p o s i t i o n changes i n y o u n g women w i t h h i g h r e s i s t a n c e w e i g h t t r a i n i n g . R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 1974 . McGowan, R . W . , - J a r m a n , B . O . , <5 P e d e r s o n , D . M . E f f e c t s o f a c o m p e t i t i v e endu rance t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m on s e l f c o n c e p t and p e e r a p p r o v a l . J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , 1974 , 8 6 , 5 7 - 6 0 . M i s h k i n , J . R . £, S c h i l l , M . The c o m p l e a t b e l l y d a n c e r . Garden C i t y , New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y Company I n c . , 1 9 7 3 . M o n e l l o , L . , £ M a y e r , J . Obese a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s an u n r e c o g n i z e d m i n o r i t y g r o u p . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f C l i n i c a l N u t r i t i o n , 1963 , 1 3 , 3 5 - 3 9 . Moody, D . L . £ A s s o c i a t e s . The e f f e c t s o f a j o g g i n g p r o g r a m on body c o m p o s i t i o n o f n o r m a l and obese h i g h s c h o o l g i r l s . M e d i c i n e  and S c i e n c e i n S p o r t s , 1972 , 4 0 : 4 , 210 . Moody, D . L . , K o l l i a s , J . , and B u s k i r k , E . R . ^_The e f f e c t s o f a modera te e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m on body w e i g h t and s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s i n o v e r w e i g h t c o l l e g e women. M e d i c i n e and S c i e n c e i n S p o r t s , 1969 1_:2, 75 N a t h a n , S . Body image i n c h r o n i c a l l y obese c h i l d r e n as r e f l e c t e d i n f i g u r e -d r a w i n g . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y A s s e s s m e n t , 1973 , 3 7 , 4 5 6 - 6 3 . N e l s o n , B . A . , § A l l e n , D . J . S c a l e f o r t h e a p p r a i s a l o f movement s a t i s f a c t i o n . P e r c e p t u a l and M o t o r S k i l l s , 1970 , 31_, 7 9 5 - 8 0 0 . O s c a i , L . B . The r o l e o f e x e r c i s e i n w e i g h t c o n t r o l . I n J . H . W i l m o r e ( E d . ) , E x e r c i s e and S p o r t S c i e n c e R e v i e w , 1973 , 1_, 1 0 3 - 2 3 . 88 P u r e t z , S . A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e e f f e c t s o f dance and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  on t h e s e l f c o n c e p t o f s e l e c t e d d i s a d v a n t a g e d g i r l s . U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 3 . R o b b i n s , F . , & R o b b i n s , J . E d u c a t i o n a l r h y t h m i c s : an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p r o a c h t o m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s . J o u r n a l o f L e a r n i n g  D i s a b i l i t i e s , 1 9 7 2 , 5_, 2, 1 0 4 - 1 0 9 . R o b y , F . B . P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y - t h e p r e v e n t i o n and c o n t r o l o f o b e s i t y . P h y s i c a l E d u c a t o r , 1 9 6 9 , 26_, 1 5 8 - 6 1 . R o g e r s , C . R . . C l i e n t c e n t e r e d t h e r a p y . B o s t o n : Hough ton M i f f l i n , 1 9 5 1 . R o s e n , G . M . , § R o s s , A . O . R e l a t i o n s h i p o f b o d y image t o s e l f c o n c e p t . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g and C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 8 , 32_:1, 100 . S e c o r d , P . F . § J o u r a r d , S . M . The a p p r a i s a l o f body c a t h e x i s and t h e s e l f . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 5 3 , 17_:5, 3 4 3 - 4 7 . S e l t z e r , C . C , % M a y e r , J . A s i m p l e c r i t e r i o n o f o b e s i t y . P o s t g r a d u a t e  M e d i c i n e , 1 9 6 5 , 3 8 A , 1 0 1 - 0 7 . S c h u t z , W . C J o y e x p a n d i n g human a w a r e n e s s . New Y o r k : G r o v e P r e s s I n c . , 1 9 6 7 . S i l l s , D . ( E d . ) . I n t e r n a t i o n a l e n c y c l o p e d i a o f t h e s c i e n c e s . U . S . A . : M a c m i l l i a n Company and t h e F r e e P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 . S i l v e r s t o n e , J . T . P s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n p a t h o g e n e s i s o f o b e s i t y . I n G . A . B r a y ( E d . ) , O b e s i t y i n p e r s p e c t i v e . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1973 . S o r e n s e n , W . J . The e f f e c t s o f a s p e c i a l s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m on  s e l f c o n c e p t and p e e r a c c e p t a n c e o f s e v e n t h g r ade b o y s . Unpub-l i s h e d m a s t e r t h e s i s , B r i g h a m Young U n i v e r s i t y , 1974 . S t a n l e y , E . S . , G l a s s e r , H . H . , L e v i n , D . C , Adams, P . A . , § C o l e y . B . A . O v e r c o m i n g o b e s i t y i n a d o l e s c e n t s . C l i n i c a l P e d i a t r i c s , 1 9 7 0 , 9_, 2 9 - 3 5 . S t o n e r , S . , § F i o r e l l o , , M . A p rog ram f o r s e l f c o n c e p t improvement and w e i g h t r e d u c t i o n f o r o v e r w e i g h t a d o l e s c e n t f e m a l e s . P s y c h o l o g y : A J o u r n a l o f Human B e h a v i o r , 1 9 7 6 , L3_:3 , 3 5 - 3 5 . S t u a r t , R . B . P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , December 7 , 1976 . S t u a r t , R . B . Sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n o b e s i t y . To a p p e a r i n E . Gomberg , § V . F r a n k s ( E d s . ) , Gender and p s y c h o l o p a t h o l o g y : s ex d i f f e r e n c e s  i n d i s o r d e r e d b e h a v i o r . New Y o r k : B r u n n e r , M a z e l , i n p r e s s . S t u n k a r d , A . , § B u r t , V . O b e s i t y and t h e body image I I age o f o n s e t o f d i s t u r b a n c e i n body image . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h i a t r y , 1 9 6 7 , 1 2 3 , 1 4 4 3 - 4 7 . 89 S t u n k a r d , A . , § M e n d e l s o n , A . D i s t u r b a n c e s i n body image o f some obese p e r s o n s . A m e r i c a n D i e t e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l , 1 9 6 1 , 3 8 , 3 2 8 - 3 1 . S t u n k a r d , A . , § M e n d e l s o n , M . O b e s i t y and t h e body image I c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s o f d i s t u r b a n c e s i n t h e body image o f some obese p e r s o n s . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h i a t r y , 1 9 6 7 , 1 2 3 , 1 2 9 6 - 1 3 0 0 . T o m k i n , G . H . O b e s i t y - d i e t and o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s . J o u r n a l o f t h e  I r i s h M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 7 5 , 6 8 : 2 1 , 5 3 8 . T u c k e r , R . C . S e l f c o n c e p t and p h y s i c a l a c h i e v e m e n t : c o m p a r i s o n be tween h i g h s c h o o l boys i i i an a b i l i t y g r o u p e d v e r s u s a t r a d i t i o n a l p h y s i c a l  e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m . U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f O r e g o n , 1 9 7 5 . T y l e r , S . D i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l and s p o r t s e l f p e r c e p t i o n be tween f e m a l e  v a r s i t y a t h l e t e s and c l a s s p a r t i c i p a n t s . U n p u b l i s h e d m a s t e r s t h e s i s , P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 3 . U n i t e d S t a t e s Depar tmen t o f H e a l t h and W e l f a r e . O b e s i t y and h e a l t h . 1966 . W a l s t e r , E . , A r o n s o n , V . , A b r a n h a m , D . , § Rothman , I . I m p o r t a n c e o f p h y s i c a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s i n d a t i n g b e h a v i o r . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y  and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 6 , 4_, 5 0 5 - 1 6 . W e b s t e r , M . , § S o b i e s z i k , B . S o u r c e s o f s e l f e v a l u a t i o n . New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , 1 9 7 4 . W e i n b e r g , J . R . A f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f b o d y c a t h e x i s and t h e s e l f . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 0 , 24_:3, 2 7 7 . W e l l s , C L . E x e r c i s e and w e i g h t c o n t r o l - what y o u s h o u l d know. CAHPER J o u r n a l , 1972 , 38_, 2 1 - 2 8 . W h i t e , W . , § Wash, J . P r e d i c t i o n o f s u c c e s s f u l c o l l e g e a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e f r o m measures o f body c a t h e x i s , s e l f c a t h e x i s and a n x i e t y . P e r c e p t u a l and M o t o r S k i l l s , 1 9 6 5 , 2 0 , 4 3 1 - 3 2 . W i l m o r e , J . H . A l t e r a t i o n s i n s t r e n g t h , b o d y c o m p o s i t i o n and an a n t h r o p o m e t i c measurement c o n s e q u e n t t o a 10 week t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m . M e d i c i n e and S c i e n c e i n S p o r t s , 1 9 7 4 , 6_:2, 1 3 3 . W y l i e , R . C . The s e l f c o n c e p t . L i n c o l n , N e b r a s k a : U n i v e r s i t y o f N e b r a s k a P r e s s , 1974 . W e i s b r o d , J . S h a p i n g a b o d y image t h r o u g h movement t h e r a p y . M u s i c E d u c a t o r s J o u r n a l , 1972 , A p r i l , 6 6 - 6 9 . W i c k s , E . E . O v e r e a t i n g p a t t e r n s f o u n d i n o v e r w e i g h t and obese p a t i e n t s . I n M . V . K l i n e , L . L . C o l e m a n , and E . E . W i c k s ( E d s ) , O b e s i t y : e t i o l o g y , t r e a t m e n t and management. S p r i n g f i e l d , 1 1 1 . : Thomas ,1976 . 90 Y o u n g , C , M a r t i n , M . , C h i r h a n , M . , M c C a r t h y , M . , M a n n i e o l l o , M . , H a r m e t h , E . , § F r y e r , J . Body c o m p o s i t i o n o f young women. A m e r i c a n D i e t e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l , 1 9 6 1 , 3 8 , 3 3 2 . Y u d k i n , J . O b e s i t y syndrome . I n W . L . B u r l a n d , P . D . S a m u e l , § J . Y u d k i n ( E d s . ) , O b e s i t y sympos ium. New Y o r k : C h u r c h i l l L i v i n g s t o n e , 1974 . Y u h a s z , M . P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s e v a l u a t i o n m a n u a l . L o n d o n , O n t . : U n i v e r s i t y o f W e s t e r n O n t a r i o P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 . Z w i n e r , L . D . The a c c u r a c y o f s k i n f o l d e q u a t i o n i n o v e r w e i g h t c o l l e g e women b e f o r e and a f t e r w e i g h t l o s s . U n p u b l i s h e d m a s t e r s t h e s i s , P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 0 . APPENDIX A PHYSICAL ACTIVITY READINESS QUESTIONNAIRE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRE 91 92 VOLUNTEER FACT - FINDING QUESTIONNAIRE GROUP A l A2 SECTION BI B2 CODE NUMBER R E S I D E N C E P R O G R A M TIME NAME AGE BIRTHDAY (LAST) (FIRST) DAY MONTH YEAR RESIDENCE ADDRESS RESIDENCE PHONE NUMBER (HOUSE) (ROOM) HOME ADDRESS HOME PHONE NUMBER FACULTY OF STUDIES YEAR PHYSICAL A C T I V I T Y READINESS QUESTIONNAIRE Check YES on l i n e i f t h e answer i s YES t o t h e q u e s t i o n . 1. Has y o u r d o c t o r e v e r s a i d t h a t y o u have h e a r t t r o u b l e ? 2 . Do y o u f r e q u e n t l y have p a i n s i n y o u r h e a r t and c h e s t ? 3 . Do y o u o f t e n f e e l f a i n t o r have s p e l l s o f s e v e r e d i z z i n e s s ? 4 . Has a d o c t o r e v e r s a i d y o u r b l o o d p r e s s u r e was t o o h i g h ? 5 . Has a d o c t o r e v e r t o l d y o u t h a t y o u have a bone o r j o i n t p r o b l e m s u c h as a r t h r i t i s t h a t has been a g g r e v a t e d b y e x e r c i s e o r m i g h t be made w o r s e w i t h e x e r c i s e ? 6 . I s t h e r e a good p h y s i c a l r e a s o n n o t m e n t i o n e d h e r e why y o u s h o u l d n o t f o l l o w an a c t i v i t y p r o g r a m even i f y o u wan ted t o ? PHYSICAL A C T I V I T Y PARTICIPATION QUESTIONNAIRE What P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t i e s have y o u p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s i n c e Sep tember ? A C T I V I T Y MINUTES PER DAY WEEK MONTH TOTAL 93 P l e a s e answer t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s , 1. A r e y o u s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e s i l h o u e t t e o f y o u r body? YES _ NO 2. I f y o u c o u l d change y o u r s i l h o u e t t e what p a r t s w o u l d y o u change? ( L a r g e 0 r s m a l l e r , be s p e c i f i c ) . 3. A r e y o u s a t i s f i e d w i t h y o u r p r e s e n t w e i g h t ? YES NO 4. Do y o u t h i n k y o u a r e o v e r w e i g h t ? Yes NO 5. I f y o u c o u l d change y o u r w e i g h t w o u l d y o u want t o ? GAIN LOSE 6 . A r e y o u s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e way y o u r body i s a b l e t o move when y o u p a r t i c i p a t e i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s ? Y e s NO APPENDIX B YUHASZ SKINFOLD MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE 94 95 YUHASZ METHOD FOR DETERMINING BODY COMPOSITION S i t e s F o r S k i n f o l d Measurements 1. T r i c e p - L o c a t e d on t h e r i g h t arm a t t h e m i d p o s t e r i o r m i d p o i n t be tween t h e t i p o f t h e a c r o m i o n and t h e t i p o f t h e o l e c r a n o n w i t h t h e e lbow i n 90 degree f l e x i o n , w i t h t h e e x t r e m i t y h a n g i n g s t r a i g h t i n an e x t e n d e d b u t r e l a x e d p o s i t i o n . The s k i n f o l d i s l i f t e d p a r a l l e l t o i t s l o n g a x i s and "should be l o c a t e d p r e c i s e l y . 2 . S u b s c a p u l a r - Taken b e l o w t h e t i p o f t h e i n f e r i o r a n g l e o f t h e r i g h t s c a p u l a w i t h t h e s u b j e c t i n a r e l a x e d s t a n d i n g p o s i t i o n . The f o l d i s t a k e n i n t h e d i a g o n a l p l a n e a t abou t a 45 d e g r e e a n g l e f rom t h e h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l p l a n e s m e d i a l l y upward and l a t e r a l l y downward. Some d i f f e r e n c e s i n l o c a t i n g t h e s i t e a r e n o t i m p o r t a n t . 3 . Rea r T h i g h (Women O n l y ) - The s k i n f o l d . ' i s l o c a t e d midway on t h e b a c k o f t h e u p p e r l e g . The f o o t i s p l a c e d on a 6" s t e p w i t h t h e knee s l i g h t l y f l e x e d and m u s c l e s r e l a x e d . The s k i n f o l d i s l i f t e d p a r a l l e l t o t h e l o n g a x i s o f t h e l e g . 4 . F r o n t T h i g h - The s k i n f o l d i s l o c a t e d midway be tween t h e h i p and knee j o i n t s , on t h e f r o n t o f t h e u p p e r l e g o v e r t h e q u a d r i c e p s . The l e g i s h e l d i n t h e same p o s i t i o n as i n t h e r e a r t h i g h measurement . 96 5 . S u p r a - i l i a c - The s k i n f o l d i s l o c a t e d i m m e d i a t e l y above Cl t o 2 i n c h e s ) t h e c r e s t o f t h e r i g h t i l l i u m ( a n t e r i o r , s u p e r i o r i l i a c s p i n e ) . The thumb i s p l a c e d o v e r t h e i l i a c c r e s t , and t h e f o l d l i f t e d a t a s l i g h t a n g l e t o t h e v e r t i c a l a l o n g t h e n o r m a l f o l d l i n e on t h e m i d a x i l l a r y l i n e . 6 . A b d o m i n a l ( U m b i l i c a l ) - The s k i n f o l d i s l o c a t e d t o t h e l e f t o f , a d j a c e n t t o and i n l i n e w i t h t h e n a v e l . The f o l d i s l i f t e d p a r a l l e l t o t he l o n g a x i s o f t h e b o d y , and t h e measurement i s t a k e n j u s t b e l o w t h e l e v e l o f t h e n a v e l . C a l c u l a t i o n s S K I N FOLD MEASURES C l C2 1. T r i c e p s C l C2 2 . S u b s c a p u l a r C l C2 3 . A b d o m i n a l C l C2 4 . S u p r a i l i a c C l C2 5 . F r o n t t h i g h C l C2 6 . R e a r t h i g h C l C2 TOTAL C l C2 (Sum o f 6 s k i n f o l d s X C o e f f i c i e n t ) + C o n s t a n t = % F a t % F a t C l ( X 0 . 1 2 7 ) + 4 . 4 7 = % F a t % F a t C2 Y u h a s z , M . P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s E v a l u a t i o n M a n u a l . L o n d o n , O n t a r i o : U n i v e r s i t y o f W e s t e r n O n t a r i o P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 . 97 T a b l e ".15 P e r c e n t Body F a t and S t a n d a r d S c o r e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Young Women C l a s s i f i c a t i o n B o u c h a r d Y u h a s z T h i n Non-obese D e s i r a b l e A v e r a g e P e r c e n t F a t S t a n d a r d S c o r e 8 10 12 85 80 75 14 16 18 70 65 60 20 22 55 50 A v e r a g e 23 24 45 26 40 Obese Plump 28 35 30 30 32 25 F a t 34 20 36 15 N o t e : When i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e Y u h a s z c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , t h e h i g h e r t h e s t a n d a r d s c o r e , t h e l o w e r t h e p e r c e n t body f a t . By d e f i n i t i o n , t h e obese s u b j e c t was one who h a d a s t a n d a r d s c o r e b e l o w 50 and a p e r c e n t body f a t measure above 23 p e r c e n t . The n o n - o b e s e s u b j e c t was one who had a s t a n d a r d s c o r e above 50 and a p e r c e n t body f a t measure b e l o w 23 p e r c e n t . APPENDIX C BODY CATHEXIS S C A L E - S E L F CATHEXIS SCALE 98 99 BODY CATHEXIS - SELF CATHEXIS SCALE On t h e f o l l o w i n g pages a r e l i s t e d a number o f t h i n g s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f y o u r s e l f o r r e l a t e d t o y o u . You a r e a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e w h i c h t h i n g s y o u a r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h e x a c t l y as t h e y a r e , w h i c h t h i n g s y o u w o r r y about and w o u l d l i k e t o change i f i t were p o s s i b l e and w h i c h t h i n g s y o u have no f e e l i n g s abou t one way o r t h e o t h e r . C o n s i d e r e a c h i t e m l i s t e d b e l o w and e n c i r c l e t h e number w h i c h b e s t r e p r e s e n t s y o u r f e e l i n g s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o l l o w i n g s c a l e : 1. Have s t r o n g f e e l i n g s and w i s h change c o u l d somehow be made. 2 . D o n ' t l i k e , b u t can p u t up w i t h . 3 . Have no p a r t i c u l a r f e e l i n g s one way o r t h e o t h e r . 4 . Am s a t i s f i e d . 5 . C o n s i d e r m y s e l f f o r t u n a t e . S c o r i n g o f S c a l e s 1. Body C a t h e x i s S c a l e T o t a l a l l c i r c l e d s c o r e s and d i v i d e by 46 (number o f i t e m s ) . 2 . S e l f C a t h e x i s S c a l e T o t a l a l l c i r c l e d s c o r e s and d i v i d e by 55 (number o f i t e m s ) . S e c o r d , P . F . , and J o u r a r d , S . M . - "The A p p r a i s a l o f Body C a t h e x i s " : Body C a t h e x i s and t h e S e l f - J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 5 3 , 17.: 5 , 343 t o 3 4 7 . 100 BODY CATHEXIS SCALE ITEM RATING hair 1 2 3 4 5 facial complexion 12 3 4 5 appetite 12 3 4 5 hands 12 3 4 5 distribution of hair over body 12 3 4 5 nose 12 3 4 5 fingers 12 3 4 5 elimination 12 3 4 5 wrists 12 3 4 5 breathing 12 3 4 5 energy level 12 3 4 5 back 1 2 3 4 5 ears 12 3 4 5 chin 12 3 4 5 exercise 12 3 4 5 ankles 12 3 4 5 neck ' 12 3 4 5 shape of head 12 3 4 5 body build 12 3 4 5 profile 12 3 4 5 height 12 3 4 5 age 12 3 4 5 waist 12 3 4 5 ITEM Width of shoulders arms chest eyes digestion hips skin texture lips legs teeth forehead feet sleep voice health sex activities knees posture face weight sex (male/female) back view of head trunk RATING 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 101 SELF CATHEXIS SCALE ITEM RATING ITEM RATING f i r s t name 1 2 3 4 5 s e n s i t i v i t y t o o p i n i o n o f . . o the r s 1 2 3 4 5 m o r a l s 1 2 3 4 5 a b i l i t y t o l e a d 1 2 3 4 5 a b i l i t y t o e x p r e s s s e l f 1 2 3 4 5 l a s t name 1 2 3 4 5 t a s t e i n c l o t h s 1 2 3 4 5 i m p u l s e s 1 2 3 4 5 s ense o f d u t y 1 2 3 4 5 manners 1 2 3 4 5 s o p h i s t i c a t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 h a n d w r i t i n g 1 2 3 4 5 s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g 1 2 3 4 5 i n t e l l i g e n c e l e v e l 1 2 3 4 5 l i f e g o a l s 1 2 3 4 5 a t h l e t i c s k i l l s 1 2 3 4 5 a r t i s t i c t a l e n t s 1 2 3 4 5 h a p p i n e s s 1 2 3 4 5 t o l e r a n c e 1 2 3 4 5 c r e a t i v e n e s s 1 2 3 4 5 moods 1 2 3 4 5 l o v e l i f e 1 2 3 4 5 g e n e r a l k n o w l e d g e 1 2 3 4 5 s t r e n g t h o f c o n v i c t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 i m a g i n a t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 c o n s c i e n c e 1 2 3 4 5 p o p u l a r i t y 1 2 3 4 5 s k i l l w i t h hands 1 2 3 4 5 s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e 1 2 3 4 5 f e a r s 1 2 3 4 5 a b i l i t y t o e x p r e s s sympa thy 1 2 3 4 5 c a p a c i t y f o r work 1 2 3 4 5 e m o t i o n a l c o n t r o l 1 2 3 4 5 c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s 1 2 3 4 5 s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s 1 2 3 4 5 a b i l i t y t o meet p e o p l e 1 2 3 4 5 g e n e r o u s i t y 1 2 3 4 5 s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e 1 2 3 4 5 a b i l i t y t o a c c e p t c r i t i c i s m 1 2 3 4 5 s u g g e s t i b i l i t y 1 2 3 4 5 t h o u g h t 1 2 3 4 5 n e a t n e s s 1 2 3 4 5 a r t i s t i c § l i t e r a r y t a s t e 1 2 3 4 5 v o c a b u l a r y 1 2 3 4 5 memory 1 2 3 4 5 p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 t h r i f t i n e s s 1 2 3 4 5 w i l l power 1 2 3 4 5 p e r s o n a l i t y 1 2 3 4 5 s e l f - a s s e r t i v e n e s s 1 2 3 4 5 s e l f - r e s p e c t 1 2 3 4 5 a b i l i t y t o make d e c i s i o n s 1 2 3 4 5 a b i l i t y t o c o n c e n t r a t e 1 2 3 4 5 dreams 1 2 3 4 5 a b i l i t y t o t a k e o r d e r s 1 2 3 4 5 APPENDIX D BODY AWARENESS EXERCISE PROGRAM 102 103 BODY AWARENESS EXERCISE PROGRAM The body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m employed i n t h i s s t u d y i s d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o d e v e l o p a n d / o r i m p r o v e body awareness t h r o u g h t h e use o f r h y t h m i c a l movement. B a s e d on t h e ' i s o l a t i o n t e c h n i q u e 1 ( M i s h k i n and S c h i l l , 1973) o f l e a r n i n g and p r o d u c i n g movement , t h e movement p r o g r a m e m p h a s i z e s body awareness and movement s a t i s f a c t i o n . O b j e c t i v e s 1. To i m p r o v e body awareness t h r o u g h t h e ' i s o l a t i o n t e c h n i q u e ' w h i c h d e v e l o p s d i r e c t c o n t r o l o v e r s p e c i f i c body p a r t s . 2 . To i m p r o v e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r a b i l i t y t o move. 3 . To i m p r o v e m o b i l i t y o f t h e ma jo r j o i n t s and f l e x i b i l i t y o f t h e m a jo r m u s c l e g roups w i t h i n t h e b o d y . 4 . To i n c r e a s e t h e l e v e l o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and en joyment t h r o u g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m . R a t i o n a l e Many p e o p l e have l i t t l e awareness o f t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e i r b o d i e s ( F e l d e n k r a i s , 1 9 7 4 ) . F e l d e n k r a i s has s t a t e d : Our s e l f image (body awarenes s ) c o n s i s t s o f f o u r components t h a t a r e i n v o l v e d i n e v e r y a c t i o n : movement, s e n s a t i o n , f e e l i n g and t h o u g h t . . . . I n o r d e r t o move, (one) must u se a t l e a s t one o f h i s s e n s e s , c o n s c i o u s l y o r u n c o n s c i o u s l y , w h i c h i n v o l v e s f e e l i n g and t h i n k i n g , ( p . 10) Movement and awareness c a n be d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h e x p l o r a t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e . The b a s i c p r e m i s e o f t h e ' i s o l a t i o n t e c h n i q u e ' . i n l e a r n i n g " m o v e m e n t i s t h a t awareness c a n be d e v e l o p e d i n s p e c i f i c body p a r t s and t h r o u g h t h i s i n c r e a s e d a w a r e n e s s , c o n t r o l c a n be d e v e l o p e d . E x p l o r a t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e o f movement a r e e s s e n t i a l t o t h e l e a r n i n g o f c o n t r o l . 104 An e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m f o r women s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d t o meet t h e s p e c i f i c needs o f women, o f f e r i n g t h e t y p e o f movement t h e y f e e l most s a t i s f i e d w i t h , and c a n a c h i e v e s u c c e s s i n . N e l s o n a n d - A l l e n (1970) found t h a t women e x p r e s s e d more s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h o s e a s p e c t s o f t h e i r movements w h i c h r e l a t e d t o r h y t h m i c a l and g r a c e f u l q u a l i t i e s . The body awareness e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m employed i n t h i s s t u d y i s dance o r i e n t e d , r h y t h m i c a l movement a c c o m p a n i e d w i t h r e c o r d e d m u s i c . S i n c e e a c h woman i s e n c o u r a g e d t o become aware o f h e r own b o d y , t h e movements a r e s e l f - p a c e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t i e s , p r o g r e s s i o n s and e v a l u a t i o n . P r o g r a m T e c h n i q u e The e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m use s t h e ' i s o l a t i o n t e c h n i q u e ' ( M i s h k i n § S c h i l l ) w h i c h may be d e s c r i b e d as, f o l l o w s : (1) s p e c i f i c j o i n t s o r s e t s o f j o i n t s a r e i s o l a t e d , (2) t h e r e m a i n i n g p a r t s o f t h e body a r e r e l a x e d and u s e d f o r s u p p o r t and b a l a n c e o n l y , (3) m u s c l e a c t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o t h a t s p e c i f i c , i s o l a t e d j o i n t o r j o i n t s i s e x p l o r e d and p r a c t i c e d . One o r more i s o l a t e d movements a r e p o s s i b l e a t t h e same time'.- T h i s r e q u i r e s a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f body awareness and c o n t r o l . C o m b i n a t i o n s o f movements and body p a r t s have been added t o i n c r e a s e t h e l e v e l o f c o n t r o l and body a w a r e n e s s . T h i s method a l l o w s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f d i r e c t c o n t r o l o v e r s p e c i f i c body p a r t s and a l l o w s f o r s p o n t a n e o u s y e t c o n t r o l l e d movement. P r o g r a m E v a l u a t i o n f o r E f f e c t on Body C o n c e p t and S e l f C o n c e p t Body c o n c e p t was e v a l u a t e d o b j e c t i v e l y by u s i n g t h e P h y s i c a l S e l f s c o r e o f t h e Tennessee S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e ( F i t t s , 1965) and t h e 105 Body C a t h e x i s S c a l e ( S e c o r d § J o u r a r d ) . S e l f c o n c e p t was e v a l u a t e d o b j e c t i v e l y by u s i n g t h e Tennessee S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e T o t a l S e l f C o n c e p t S c o r e ( F i t t s ) and t h e S e l f C a t h e x i s S c a l e ( S e c o r d § J o u r a r d ) . P r o g r a m D e s i g n The e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m i s s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d f o r t h e i n a c t i v e woman so t h a t she may (1) become more aware o f h e r body and h e r b o d y ' s c a p a c i t y f o r e n j o y a b l e movement, and (2) p r e p a r e h e r body f o r more a c t i v e and s t r e n u o u s movement. Emphas i s i s p l a c e d o n body awareness and i n c r e a s e d m o b i l i t y and f l e x i b i l i t y o f t h e major j o i n t s and m u s c l e s o f t h e b o d y . S p e e d , s t r e n g t h and endu rance a r e d e - e m p h a s i z e d so t h a t t h e i n a c t i v e woman does n o t f e e l f r u s t r a t e d o r u n s u c c e s s f u l b e c a u s e she c a n n o t keep up o r compare w i t h t h e a c t i v e woman. The movements a r e done s l o w l y and r h y t h m i c a l l y w i t h o u t b o b b i n g o r j e r k y movements . A s p e c i f i c p r o g r e s s i o n sequence i s f o l l o w e d i n o r d e r t o ' w a r m - u p ' t h e body and p r e p a r e i t f o r more s t r e n o u s movement. Awareness i s f o c u s s e d upon t h e ' a r m - s h o u l d e r - c h e s t ' and t h e ' l e g - h i p - w a i s t ' a r e a s o f t h e b o d y . These a r e t h e a r e a s w i t h w h i c h most women a r e d i s s a t i s f i e d , abou t w h i c h t h e y w o r r y t h e most f o r a p p e a r a n c e s a k e , and on w h i c h t h e y t e n d t o d e p o s i t e x c e s s f a t . ( S t u a r t , i n p r e s s ) . P r o g r a m D e s c r i p t i o n The p r o g r a m d e s c r i p t i o n i s d e s i g n e d so t h a t t h e body p a r t , movement p a t t e r n name and d e v e l o p m e n t a l sequence o f e a c h s p e c i f i c movement i s o u t l i n e d ( see F i g u r e 9 ) . BODY PART MOVEMENT PATTERN DEVELOPMENTAL SEQUENCE Head (1) V e r t i c a l Head C i r c l e ( s t a n d i n g ) (a) T i l t head f o r w a r d . . (b) T i l t h e a d b a c k w a r d (2) H o r i z o n t a l Head  C i r c l e ( s t a n d i n g ) (6) Combine m o v e m e n t s . . (a) P u s h c h i n f o r w a r d . . (b) P u l l c h i n b a c k w a r d s S h o u l d e r s C . (3) H o r i z o n t a l Head  T w i s t ( s t a n d i n g ) A . (4) D o u b l e S h o u l d e r C i r c l e ( s t a n d i n g ) (5) S i n g l e S h o u l d e r  C i r c l e ( s t a n d i n g ) (6) A l t e r n a t i n g S h o u l d e r  C i r c l e ( s t a n d i n g ) (e) Combine m o v e m e n t s . , (a) T u r n head t o . . . . (d) T u r n h e a d t o . . . (a) L i f t up b o t h . . . (e) Combine m o v e m e n t s . . (a) Same a s . . . (a) Same a s . . . . F i g u r e 9 D e s i g n o f P r o g r a m D e s c r i p t i o n S o u r c e : See A p p e n d i x D, p . 1 0 8 . 107 The 'movement p a t t e r n ' s e c t i o n has two s e t s o f s e q u e n c e s . The c a p i t a l l e t t e r s r e f e r t o t h e s e r i e s o f movements f o r a s p e c i f i c body p a r t . W i t h a change i n body p a r t , t h e movement p a t t e r n l e t t e r s e r i e s s t a r t s a g a i n w i t h A . , B . , C , The numbers i n b r a c k e t s r e f e r t o t h e t o t a l p r o g r a m s e q u e n t i a l p r o g r e s s i o n , t h a t i s , s t a r t i n g a t t h e h e a d , m o v i n g down t o t h e f e e t , c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e l e g - h i p - w a i s t a r e a , and r e v e r s i n g t h e sequence and f i n i s h i n g a t t h e h e a d . The p r o g r a m ' s s e q u e n t i a l p r o g r e s s i o n f o l l o w e d a s p e c i f i c p a t t e r n : Warm-up - (1) t o (28) L e g - h i p - w a i s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n - (29) t o (49) Warm-down - (28) t o (1) same as warm-up b u t r e v e r s e o r d e r p l u s (50) t o (57) I n t h i s s t u d y , e a c h e x e r c i s e s e s s i o n r e q u i r e d h a l f an h o u r t o c o m p l e t e , w i t h e a c h movement b e i n g r e p e a t e d e i g h t t i m e s t o r e c o r d e d 2 / 4 , 4 / 4 r h y t h m s . 108 BODY AWARENESS THROUGH MOVEMENT PROGRAM (ISOLATION TECHNIQUE) MOVEMENT PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES BODY PART MOVEMENT PATTERN Head A . (1) V e r t i c a l Head C i r c l e ( S t a n d i n g ) DEVELOPMENTAL SEQUENCE (a) T i l t head f o r w a r d , c h i n t o c h e s t (b) T i l t h e a d b a c k w a r d , b a c k o f head t o s p i n e (c) T i l t head t o r i g h t s i d e , e a r t o s h o u l d e r (d) T i l t head to l e f t s i d e , e a r t o s h o u l d e r (e) Combine movements t o f o r m c i r c l e , t i l t f r o n t , t i l t s i d e , t i l t b a c k , t i l t s i d e . C i r c l e i n b o t h d i r e c t i o n s . B . (2) H o r i z o n t a l H e a d _ C i r c l e (arms above h e a d , hands j o i n e d , pa lms t o g e t h e r , e l b o w s b e n t , s t a n d i n g ) (a) P u s h c h i n f o r w a r d , p a r a l l e l t o g r o u n d (b) P u l l c h i n b a c k t o w a r d s p i n e p a r -a l l e l t o g r o u n d (c) Push r i g h t e a r t o r i g h t e l b o w , p a r a l l e l t o g r o u n d , d o n o t l e t head t i l t t o s i d e (d) Push l e f t e a r t o l e f t e lbow (e) Combine movements t o fo rm c i r c l e , push f r o n t , push s i d e , p u l l b a c k , push s i d e . C i r c l e i n b o t h d i r e c t i o n s . C . (3) H o r i z o n t a l _ H e a d T w i s t (a) ( s t a n d i n g ) (b) (c) (d) S h o u l d e r s A . (4) D o u b l e S h o u l d e r C i r c l e (a) (arms down a t s i d e s o r (b) (arms o u t a t s h o u l d e r l e v e l * s t a n d i n g ) (c) (d) (e) T u r n head t o l o o k o v e r r i g h t s h o u l d e r , eyes l o o k l e f t T u r n h e a d t o l o o k o v e r l e f t s h o u l d e r , eyes l o o k r i g h t T u r n head t o l o o k o v e r r i g h t s h o u l d e r , eyes l o o k r i g h t T u r n head t o l o o k o v e r l e f t s h o u l d e r , eyes l o o k l e f t . L i f t up b o t h s h o u l d e r s t o w a r d s e a r s Push down b o t h s h o u l d e r s t o w a r d s f l o o r P u l l b o t h s h o u l d e r s t o w a r d s f r o n t m i d l i n e , ' r o u n d i n g s h o u l d e r s ' P u l l b o t h s h o u l d e r s t o w a r d s back m i d l i n e Combine movements t o fo rm c i r c l e , l i f t u p , p u l l b a c k , p u s h down, p u l l f r o n t . C i r c l e i n b o t h d i r e c t i o n s , f o r w a r d s and b a c k w a r d s . 109 B . (5) S i n g l e S h o u l d e r C i r c l e (arms down a t s i d e s o r (arras, o u t a t s h o u l d e r l e v e l , s t a n d i n g ) C . (6) A l t e r n a t e S i n g l e S h o u l d e r C i r c l e ' " (arms down a t s i d e s o r (arms o u t a t s h o u l d e r l e v e l , s t a n d i n g ) A . Arms and S h o u l d e r C o m b i n a t i o n Arms (7) S i n g l e S h o u l d e r Push -P u l l " ( S t a n d i n g ) B . (8) A l t e r n a t e S i n g l e S h o u l d e r P u s h - P u l l (arms o u t a t s h o u l d e r l e v e l , e l bows s l i g h t l y bent , s t a n d i n g ) A . (9) A l t e r n a t e _ A r m _ S w i n g s _ ( s t a n d i n g ) (a) Same as d o u b l e s h o u l d e r c i r c l e , b u t o n l y c i r c l e , one s h o u l d e r a t a t i m e , b o t h f o r w a r d s and b a c k w a r d s . Xa) Same as s i n g l e s h o u l d e r c i r c l e , b u t a l t e r n a t e l e f t and r i g h t . C i r c l e b o t h f o r w a r d and b a c k w a r d . (a) Push r i g h t s h o u l d e r f o r w a r d (b) P u l l r i g h t s h o u l d e r b a c k (c ) Repea t w i t h l e f t s h o u l d e r . (a) Same as s i n g l e s h o u l d e r p u s h - p u l l b u t p u s h r i g h t s h o u l d e r f r o n t , p u s h l e f t s h o u l d e r f r o n t , p u l l r i g h t s h o u l d e r b a c k , p u l l l e f t s h o u l d e r b a c k , f r o n t , f r o n t , b a c k , b a c k . (a) L e f t arm s w i n g s , p a l m b a c k w a r d and up as r i g h t arm s w i n g s p a l m f r o n t w a r d and u p , h o l d , t h e n r e v e r s e a c t i o n i n (b) (b) L e f t arm s w i n g s f o r w a r d and down t o s t a r t p o s i t i o n , r i g h t arm s w i n g s f o r w a r d and down t o s t a r t p o s i t i o n . (c ) Repea t w i t h r i g h t arm s w i n g i n g b a c k w a r d s and up and l e f t arm r s w i n g i n g f o r w a r d and up so t h a t movement becomes c o n t i n u o u s . B . ( 1 0 ) A l t e r n a t e Arm C i r c l e ( s t a n d i n g ) (a) Arm s w i n g s f rom f r o n t , u p w a r d s , o v e r s h o u l d e r , b a c k w a r d s , down t o w a r d s f r o n t a g a i n as i n b a c k s t r o k e . A l t e r n a t e r i g h t and l e f t c i r c l e s . (b) ^Repea t arm c i r c l e s b u t change d i r e c t i o n s so movement s t a r t s b a c k w a r d s , u p , o v e r , f r o n t and down. C . ( l l ) D o u b l e Arm S w i n g (knees bend i n t i m e w i t h s w i n g , s t a n d i n g ) D. (12) Doub le Arm C i r c l e s ( s t a n d i n g ) (a) Same as a l t e r n a t e arm s w i n g b u t b o t h arms move b a c k w a r d s t o g e t h e r and f o r w a r d s t o g e t h e r . (a) Same as s i n g l e arm c i r c l e b u t b o t h arms move t o g e t h e r 110 , < Cb) Cc) E . (13) Arm R o t a t i o n (a) F . C14) V e r t i c a l Arm A b d u c t i o n (a) A d d u c t i o n ( s t a n d i n g ) Cb) (c) G(15) H o r i z o n t a l Arm A b d u c t i o n - (a) A d d u c t i o n ( s t a n d i n g ) _ (b) (c ) S t a r t w i t h l a r g e c i r c l e , t h e n make c i r c l e s m a l l e r as arms come down t o s h o u l d e r l e v e l e n d i n g w i t h arms s t r a i g h t o u t a t s h o u l d e r l e v e l and v e r y s m a l l c i r c l e s . Do c i r c l e s b o t h f o r w a r d s and b a c k w a r d s Arms ou t a t s h o u l d e r l e v e l , t w i s t arms on s h o u l d e r s b o t h f o r w a r d s and b a c k w a r d s . Arms a t s i d e s , l i f t b o t h arms s l o w l y s t r a i g h t u p , t o u c h i n g hands above h e a d , h o l d . ( A b d u c t i o n ) S l o w l y l o w e r arms down s i d e w a y s , r e v e r s i n g a c t i o n t o ( a ) . ( A d d u c t i o n ) Repea t s l o w l y and r h y t h m i c a l l y . Arms s t r a i g h t o u t , i n f r o n t o f b o d y , a t s h o u l d e r l e v e l , hands t o g e t h e r pa lms o u t , s l o w l y s w i n g arms s i d e w a y s a n d b a c k as f a r as p o s s i b l e i n a h o r i z o n t a l p a t h , h o l d , t u r n pa lms t o w a r d s f r o n t . ( A b d u c t i o n ) S l o w l y s w i n g arm f o r w a r d t o o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n i n h o r i z o n t a l p a t h . ( A d d u c t i o n ) As pa lms come t o g e t h e r , t u r n pa lms up so t h a t l i t t l e f i n g e r s a r e t o g e t h e r . K e e p i n g pa lms u p - ^ s l o w l y b r i n g e a c h p a i r o f f i n g e r s t owards w r i s t s , s t a r t i n g w i t h l i t t l e f i n g e r s , one p a i r a t s a t i m e , e n d i n g w i t h thumb. Movement i s l i k e a wave t h r o u g h t h e f i n g e r s as a f i s t i s f o r m e d . T u r n f i s t s t o w a r d s each o t h e r , t h e n down, t h e n f a c i n g o u t . The movement i s done as a c i r c l e w i t h t h e l i t t l e f i n g e r s s t a r t i n g t o g e t h e r , p a l m s u p . The f i n g e r s c l o s e , t h e hands t u r n i n , down t h e n o u t so t h a t t h e pa lms a r e f a c i n g o u t . As t h e hands t u r n o u t , t h e f i n g e r s s t r a i g h t e n , s t a r t i n g w i t h t h e l i t t l e f i n g e r s . The c o m p l e t e I l l movement i s a c i r c l e w i t h t h e f i n g e r s c l o s i n g on t h e up and i n , and o p e n i n g on t h e down and o u t . H(16X D i a g g n a l _ A r m _ A b d u c t i o n -a d d u c l i g n _ ( S t a n d i n g ) R i b Cage A ( 1 7 ) H o r i z o n t a l _ R i b _ C a g e C i r c l e (arms out. a t s h o u l d e r l e v e l o r hands on h i p s , s t a n d i n g ) (d) Repea t s l o w l y and r h y t h m i c a l l y , •(a-c) (a) Same movements as H o r i z o n t a l , e x c e p t t h e arms move i n a d i a g o n a l d i r e c t i o n . (a) Push r i b cage t o r i g h t s i d e w i t h h o r i z o n t a l movement (b) P u s h r i b cage t o l e f t s i d e w i t h h o r i z o n t a l movement (c ) Push r i b cage f o r w a r d p u s h i n g c h e s t f o r w a r d i n a h o r i z o n t a l movement (d) B u l l r i b cage b a c k w a r d r o u n d i n g s h o u l d e r s , i n h o r i z o n t a l movement. (e) Combine movements t o f o r m c i r c l e s , p u s h front p u l l back push s i d e . ( f ) Make l a r g e and s m a l l c i r c l e s w i t h hands o u t and w i t h hands on h i p s . B(18) J/_ert_ic_a_l_ DJLajmond_ Rp_l_l_ (hands on h i p s , S t a n d i n g ) (a) (b) S t a r t w i t h r i b cage c e n t e r e d , p u s h r i b cage d i a g o n a l l y up and t o t h e r i g h t s i d e L i f t r i b cage d i a g o n a l l y up and t o t h e l e f t t o r e a c h c e n t e r f r o n t , b r e a t h i n on t h i s movement. -(c ) Drop r i b cage d i a g o n a l l y down and t o t h e l e f t (d) P u l l r i b cage d i a g o n a l l y down and t o r i g h t t o r e a c h c e n t e r f r o n t o f s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n , b r e a t h o u t on t h i s movement.. (e) Combine movements t o make smooth d iamond shaped r o l l - u p r i g h t s i d e , up c e n t e r down l e f t s i d e down c e n t e r , do both..•to r i g h t and l e f t s i d e s ,do l a r g e and s m a l l r o l l s . 112 C (19) H o r i z o n t a l _ R i b _ C a g e T w i s t (arms a t s i d e s , S t a n d i n g ) D . (20) Shou lde r_Sh immy__ (arms up a t s h o u l d e r l e v e l o r down a t s i d e s , s t a n d i n g ) (a) T w i s t r i b cage t o r i g h t , w i t h t u r n i n g head l e f t and eyes l o o k i n g r i g h t (b) T w i s t r i b cage t o l e f t , w h i l e t u r n i n g head r i g h t and eyes l o o k i n g l e f t (c) T w i s t r i b cage t o r i g h t , t u r n h e a d r i g h t , eyes r i g h t (d) T w i s t r i b cage t o l e f t , t u r n head l e f t , eyes l e f t (e) Do c o n t i n u o u s l y i n r h y t h m i c a l movements , t u r n r i g h t , t u r n l e f t . (a) W i t h h e a d f a c i n g c e n t e r , eyes l o o k i n g a h e a d , t w i s t r i b cage t o l e f t , t h e n r i g h t , c o n t i n u o u s l y i n c r e a s e s p e e d o f t w i s t , d e c r e a s e s i z e o f movement. H i p s A . (21) P e l v i c _ T i l t (knees b e n t , s t a n d i n g , arms any p o s i t i o n ) (b) P e l v i c t i l t b a c k w a r d s - a r c h l o w e r b a c k , p u s h h i p s b a c k -wards and u p . (c) P e l v i c t i l t f o r w a r d s - r o u n d l o w e r b a c k , p u s h h i p s f o r w a r d s and up (d) P u t hands on s e a t so t h a t t h e h i p s c a n be f e l t m o v i n g b a c k w a r d s , t h e n on t h e f o r w a r d t i l t p u s h s e a t f o r w a r d w i t h hands t o f e e l t h e f o r w a r d t i l t , d o s l o w l y and r h y t h m i c a l l y , a r c h and r o u n d . B . (22) H o r i z o n t a l _ H i p _ C i r c l e _ (hands ou t o r a t s i d e s , , knees b e n t o r s t r a i g h t , s t a n d i n g ) (a) P u s h h i p t o r i g h t s i d e (b) P u s h h i p t o t h e l e f t s i d e (c) P e l v i c t i l t f o r w a r d p u s h i n g h i p s f o r w a r d (d) P e l v i c ~ t i l t b a c k w a r d s * (e) Combine movements t o f o r m c i r c l e , t i l t f r o n t , p u s h s i d e , t i l t b a c k , y p u s h s i d e „ C i r c l e b o t h t o r i g h t and l e f t , l a r g e and s m a l l . C . (23) H o r i z o n t a l _ B a c k w a r d F i g u r e 8 (knees b e n t , s t a n d i n g ^ arms any p o s i t i o n ) (a) T w i s t h i p on r i g h t d i a g o n a l so t h a t t h e r i g h t h i p i s i n f r o n t and t h e l e f t h i p i s i n b a c k . 113 Cb) Cc) Cd) (e) Cf) * D. (24) Hgrizontal_Frontward ( a) Figure.8 (knees bent, (arms any position) E. (25) Horizontal_Hip_Twist (a) (knees bent or straight, arms in any position) (b) (c) (d) Ce) Push right hip to right front as far as possible. Twist right hip to side and backwards as far as possible which w i l l twist the le f t hip to l e f t diagonal at same time, so this move ends with l e f t hip in front and right hip behind on l e f t diagonal. Push l e f t hip to le f t front as far as possible. Twist l e f t hip to side and backwards as far as possible which wi l l twist the right hip to right diagonal at same time. Combine movements to form continuous figure 8's, from step e go back to step b:~ diagonal front, twist-side-back diagonal front, twist-side-back Hands may be used to give direction for hip movement with right (or left) arm in front of body, draw horizontal figure 8 in air and have hips follow pattern of arms. Same as horizontal backward figure 8 except the push along the diagonal is from front to back instead of from back to front, and the push along the side is from back to front instead of from front to back. Twist hips to right side as far as possible. Twist hips to le f t side as far as possible. Twist hips to right, ribcage to l e f t . , head to right, eyes look l e f t . Twist hips to l e f t , ribcage to right, head to l e f t , eyes took right. Combine movement into continuous forward-back twisting motion. 114 (26) Hip Shimmy (Basic Across} (standing) (27) Knee_Circles (standing) (28) Diagonal Spinal Twist "[lying on~back) (29) Single_Leg_Lifts ( l y i n g on back) (a) Tuck hip i n forward p e l v i c t i l t , weight evenly spread over both feet , knees bent. ' (b) L i f t r i g h t hip up, then drop down. (c) L i f t l e f t hip up and drop. (d) Combine moves to form continous movements - speed w i l l increase with p r a c t i c e . (a) Bend both knees. (b) Straighten both knees (c) Rotate ankles to r i g h t , bend knees to r i g h t (d) Rotate ankles to l e f t , bend knees' to l e f t . (e) Do c and dbut do not straighten knees between, s h i f t knees from side. (f) Combine movements to form c i r c l e , bend knees, s h i f t r i g h t , s t r a i g h t e n ^ s h i f t l e f t , reverse d i r e c t i o n . (a) Arms out at sides, shoulder l e v e l , legs bent, feet by hips on f l o o r , r o l l both legs to l e f t side and touch knees to f l o o r , keep shoulders on f l o o r , turn head i n opposite d i r e c t i o n . (b) R o l l legs across to other side and rest on f l o o r , turn head i n opposite d i r e c t i o n (c) Repeat r o l l i n g legs from side to side slowly pausing at end of each movement. (d) Progress to l i f t i n g bent legs over hips with feet o f f the f l o o r , r o l l legs from side to side with opposite head movement. (e) Repeat movement slowly. (a) Right l e g s t r a i g h t , l e f t leg bent, p e l v i s tilted forward so waist i s on f l o o r , arms out at side, l i f t r i g h t l e g up as f a r as possi b l e , hold, lower to f l o o r . L i f t r i g h t leg to side (45° to side) hips do not move o f f f l o o r , hold, lower. L i f t r i g h t l e g to other side, hold, lower. 115 (b) Repea t w i t h l e f t . l e g . B . ( 3 0 ) K n e e - A n k l e C o m b i n a t i o n s ^ ; ( l y i n g on b a c k ) C . (31) H i p - L e j _ R o t a t i o n ( l y i n g on b a c k ) D. (32) L e g _ A d d u c t o r s tIying~on Back) (a) Legs above h i p s a t 9 0 ° , c i r c l e f e e t t o r i g h t , t o l e f t , b o t h t o c e n t e r , b o t h t o s i d e . (b) F l e x and p o i n t f e e t (c) Bend and s t r a i g h t e n knees (d) Shake l e g s (a) L y i n g on b a c k , l e g s s t r a i g h t above h i p s abou t one f o o t a p a r t , head and s h o u l d e r s i n a b d o m i n a l c u r l , head s u p p o r t e d w i t h a r m s , p e l v i s t i l t e d f o r w a r d , w a i s t on f l o o r . (b) T w i s t l e g s i n so t h a t f e e t t o u c h t o g e t h e r , h o l d . ( c ) T w i s t l e g s o u t so t h a t f e e t p o i n t away f rom e a c h o t h e r , h o l d . (d) Repea t s l o w l y and c o n t i n o u s l y . (e) R e l a x head and s h o u l d e r s f rom t i m e t o t i m e . ( f ) Repea t w i t h l e g s s t r a i g h t , t o g e t h e r b u t on f l o o r , keep p e l v i s t i l t e d f o r w a r d , w a i s t o n f l o o r . (a) Knee b e n t , f e e t t o g e t h e r f l a t on f l o o r , w a i s t p u s h e d a g a i n s t f l o o r w i t h p e l v i c t i l t f o r w a r d , hands c l a s p e d b e h i n d h e a d , e lbow a g a i n s t s i d e o f h e a d , l i f t head ( s u p p o r t e d b y arms) and s h o u l d e r s up and l o o k a t knees ( a b d o m i n a l h o l d o p t i o n a l ) (b) L e t knees s l o w l y s e p a r a t e , m o v i n g as f a r a p a r t as c o m f o r t a b l e , h o l d , ( g r a v i t y s t r e t c h ) . (c) S l o w l y p u l l l e g s b a c k t o g e t h e r , ( a d d u c t o r c o n t r a c t i o n ) . (d) R e l a x , d r o p p i n g h e a d , t h e n r e p e a t o p e n , c l o s e d , s e q u e n c e . (e) Same body p o s i t i o n , b u t t h i s t i m e l e g s a r e s t r a i g h t and above h i p s , k e e p w a i s t on f l o o r w i t h f r o n t p e l v i c t i l t , l i f t head and s h o u l d e r u p , l o o k a t l e g s , h o l d . ( f ) L e t l e g s s e p a r a t e and move as f a r a p a r t as p o s s i b l e . (g) C l o s e l e g s t o g e t h e r s l o w l y and r e l a x . (h) Same as e t o g b u t r e l a x head and s h o u l d e r s , u se hands t o p u s h a g a i n s t i n n e r t h i g h t o s u p p l y a d d i t i o n a l r e s i s t a n c e . 116 ( i ) E,(33) Leg Abductor-Adductor Comb In at I on ~ tIyifig'*on back) F.(34) Leg Abductor-Adductor (a) Hlg"Com6ination (Iying~on backj (b) (c) G.(35) Arm-Leg_Abductor- (a) Adductor Combination ( l y i n g on back) (b) H.(36) Leg Abductors (a) (l y i n g on side) (b) a to g arms can follow action of legs i n adduction-abduction. Arms.out at side, head and shoulders relaxed, p e l v i c t i l t e d forward, legs spread out as f a r as comfortable. Keeping t h i s distance (a) constantly drop r i g h t leg to f l o o r with l e f t following at set distance. Once r i g h t reaches f l o o r l e t l e f t continue moving to rest on top of ri g h t l e g , hold. L i f t l e f t leg up toward center u n t i l set distance (a) i s reached, hold, then continue moving l e f t leg over to l e f t side with r i g h t leg following at set distance. Once l e f t leg reaches f l o o r l e t r i g h t continue to rest on top of l e f t , hold. Legs above hips (90°) , hands on inner thighs, Push legs apart with hands, legs r e s i s t , as f a r as p o s s i b l e , breathe i n while pushing out, hold. Bring legs back together, r e s i s t with arms, breathe out while arms are r e s i s t i n g . Lie on l e f t side with l e f t leg bent under r i g h t leg f o r balance, arm under hea d , r i g h t leg s t r a i g h t with foot flexed and leg turned inward so toes point downward. L i f t r i g h t leg up and hold, making sure the l i f t i s s t r a i g h t up the side not to front or back, the foot i s flexed and the toes are pointed downward. (a) With legs center and together, above hips, head and shoulders relaxed, arms out at side, p e l v i c t i l t e d forward, drop r i g h t leg to r i g h t side and r e s t i t on f l o o r , keeping l e f t leg centered, hold. (b) Drop l e f t leg slowly on top of r i g h t leg, hold. (c) L i f t l e f t leg back up to center, hold. (d) L i f t r i g h t leg back up to center, hold. (e) Repeat dropping l e f t leg to l e f t side f i r s t . 117 I , (37) T h i g h E x t e n s i o n (lyIng"on"Itomach) J . ( 3 8 ) Back A r c h $ Round (on h a n d s " a n d k n e e s ) (c) Lower l e g s l o w l y , t h e n r e l a x . (d) Repea t w i t h l e f t l e g on t o p . (e) P r o g r e s s t o u p p e r body s u p p o r t e d b y b e n t f o r e a r m . ( f ) P r o g r e s s t o u p p e r body s u p p o r t e d b y s t r a i g h t a rm. (a) Hands u n d e r t h i g h s o r r e s t i n g b y s i d e s , l i f t f i r s t one l e g , h o l d , l o w e r , t h e n l i f t o t h e r l e g , h o l d l o w e r . (b) P r o g r e s s t o l i f t i n g b o t h l e g s , a t o n c e . (c) P r o g r e s s t o l i f t i n g b o t h l e g s and u p p e r b o d y . (a) On hands and k n e e s , r o u n d t h e b a c k d r o p p i n g t h e head down, h o l d . (b) A r c h b a c k r a i s i n g h e a d , h o l d . (c) Combine movements i n t o f l o w i n g s e q u e n c e , a r c h and r o u n d and a r c h and r o u n d . K . ( 3 9 ) Hands § Knees H i p C i r c l e ( a ) Same as h o r i z o n t a l h i p c i r c l e e x c e p t ^ e b 0 c l y p o s i t i o n i s hands (hands and knee p o s i t i o n ) L . ( 4 0 ) Hands K n e e s _ R i b - c a g e C i r c l e (hands and knees p o s i t i o n ) and knees i n s t e a d o f s t a n d i n g . (b) A r c h b a c k , p u s h h i p s t o r i g h t s i d e . (c) Round b a c k , p u s h h i p s t o l e f t s i d e . (d) Combine t o fo rm c i r c l e , a r c h , s i d e r o u n d , s i d e , change d i r e c t i o n s . (a) Same as:, h a n d s - k n e e s h i p c i r c l e b u t a r i b - c a g e c i r c l e i s done . (b) P r o g r e s s t o combine 1 h i p , 1 r i b - c a g e c i r c l e , b o t h d i r e c t i o n s M . (41) L e g , H i p , S p i n e F l e x i o n - E x t ens i o n (hands r a r i d Knees p o s i t i o n ) (a) Bend l e f t l e g , r o u n d b a c k , d r o p head b r i n g l e f t l e g t o w a r d head and h o l d . (b) S t r a i g h t e n l e f t l e g and l i f t up above h i p s , a r c h b a c k , l i f t up head and h o l d . (c) Repea t -'a* and i> d e s i r e d number o f t i m e s . (d) H o l d l e f t l e g u p , do m i n i push ups t o u c h i n g c h i n t o f l o o r . (e) Repea t 'a t o di w i t h r i g h t l e g . ( f ) Combine moves t o fo rm f l o w i n g movement , l e g i n , b a c k r o u n d , l e g u p , b a c k a r c h e d . 118 N.(42) Leg Medial Rotation ( s i t t i n g ) 0((43) Leg Lateral Rotation ( s i t t i n g ) (a) (b) Cc) Cd) (e) Cf) Ca) 0 0 Cc) (d) (e) S i t on f l o o r with feet about two feet part, legs bent, hips by heels, s t r a i g h t arms supporting upper body, head relaxed. Drop l e f t knee i n towards center to touch f l o o r , f e e l s t r e t c h diagonally from outside hip to inside knee of l e f t l e g . L i f t l e f t leg back up to s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n . Drop r i g h t knee and repeat 4 to 8 times. Progress to bent arm upper body support. Progress to upper body on f l o o r . Right leg s t r a i g h t , l e f t leg bent to side so that foot i s near r i g h t knee, support ankle and foot with hands, push l e f t knee as close to f l o o r as.possible, hold, r e l a x , repeat 4x. Repeat with r i g h t leg bent. S i t on f l o o r with legs bent,knees apart soles of feet placed together, hands holding feet together. Slowly push knees towards f l o o r , hold (do not bounce) release. Repeat push, hold, release, (f) May want to use elbow on knee to help push knees down but don.'t force past l i m i t . Spine A.(44)Lower Back Arch-Hip Combinations Combination (l y i n g on back) B.(45) Ugper Back Arch-Rib-Cage Combination nyIng~on~Sac1c) ~" (a) Lying on back, legs bent, heels as close to hips as possible. L i f t hips up, keeping shoulders down on f l o o r . Hold, relax, lower. (b) L i f t up hips and do hori z o n t a l hip twist, r e l a x and lower. (c) L i f t up hips and do hip c i r c l e s i n both d i r e c t i o n s , relax, lower. (a) With knees bent, back on f l o o r , arms bent at side slowly arch upper back to neck l e v e l , hold, r e s t i n g on neck, relax. Make sure lower back i s not arching, do p e l v i c t i l t forward to keepiwaist on f l o o r . 119 C . ( 4 6 ) T r u n k C u r l Up ( l y i n g knees b e n t ) D . ( 4 7 ) H i g - L e g _ S w i n g C o m b i n a t i o n (hands and knees p o s i t i o n ) E . (48) Back S t r e t c h ( s t a n d i n g ) (b) Repea t a b u t c o n t i n u e a r c h i n g t h r o u g h n e c k so t h a t u p p e r b a c k i s a r c h e d f rom w a i s t t o t o p o f head w h i c h i s r e s t i n g on f l o o r , w e i g h t o f u p p e r body i s s u p p -o r t e d by b e n t arms and h e a d , h o l d p o s i t i o n t h e n r e l a x . (c ) W i t h same p o s i t i o n as b" do s h o u l d e r ( b r e a s t ) sh immy, r e l a x , l o w e r . (d) W i t h same p o s i t i o n as b 1 do r i b - c a g e c i r c l e s i n b o t h d i r e c t i o n s , r e l a x , l o w e r . (a) B r i n g r i g h t knee o v e r h i p , p u t r i g h t hand on r i g h t k n e e , p u t l e f t hand b e h i n d h e a d , arm c l o s e t o s i d e o f h e a d , b r e a t h i n . (b) B r e a t h o u t w h i l e l i f t i n g l e f t s h o u l d e r and l i f t e lbow t o w a r d s r i g h t k n e e . L i f t o n l y u n t i l a b d o m i n a l s s t a r t t o f l u t t e r t h e n h o l d . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s movement i s t o r e a c h t h e p o i n t o f s t r a i n and h o l d , n o t t o s t r a i n t o r e a c h t h e k n e e . (c ) Repea t w i t h r i g h t e l b o w , l e f t k n e e . (d) Repea t w i t h b o t h e lbows t o b o t h k n e e s , ( h i p s t o c h e s t , c h e s t t o i . h i p s ) . (a) L i f t r i g h t l e g p a r a l l e l t o f l o o r a t h i p l e v e l , w i t h f o o t f l e x e d and t o e s p o i n t e d f o r w a r d . (b) S w i n g r i g h t f o o t f o r w a r d t owards r i g h t ' s h o u l d e r _ s l o w l y , and h o l d , keep arms s t r a i g h t , s t r e t c h o v e r b a c k . o f h i p . (c) S w i n g r i g h t f o o t b a c k w a r d s t o w a r d s l e f t h i p , h o l d , s t r e t c h o v e r s i d e and f r o n t o f r i g h t h i p . (d) Repea t w i t h l e f t l e g s w i n g i n g . (a) Bend l e g s , b a s i c b a l a n c e , g rounded p o s i t i o n ; S t a r t i n g f r o m h e a d , s l o w l y bend f o r w a r d , u n t i l body i s bend as f a r f o r w a r d as p o s s i b l e , h o l d k e e p i n g l e g s b e n t . (b) S l o w l y u n b e n d , s t a r t i n g w i t h l o w e r b a c k , head comes up l a s t . 120 F . ( 4 9 ) H a m s t i n g S t r e t c h (a) S t r a i g h t l e g s , f l a t b a c k , c h i n up ( s t a n d i n g ) hands j o i n e d b e h i n d b a c k , s l o w l y l o w e r u p p e r body k e e p i n g l e g s s t r a i g h t , back f l a t as f a r as p o s s i b l e . L e t arms hang o v e r head as g r a v i t y p u l l s body down, h o l d , (b) S l o w l y l i f t t h e u p p e r body u p , l e a d i n g w i t h t h e c h i n , ! k e e p i n g b a c k  f l a t , l e g s s t r a i g h t . A b d o n m i n a l A . ( 5 0 ) B e l l y R o l l S p i n a l ( s t a n d i n g , k n e e s b e n t ; '.arms any p o s i t i o n ) (a) Suck a b d o m i n a l i n and h o l d . (b) Push a b d o m i n a l o u t and h o l d . (c ) Suck i n o n l y a b d o m i n a l above w a i s t and h o l d . (d) P u s h o u t o n l y a b d o m i n a l above w a i s t and h o l d . (e) Suck i n o n l y a b d o m i n a l b e l o w w a i s t and h o l d . ( f ) P u s h o u t a b d o m i n a l b e l o w w a i s t and h o l d . (g) Push a b d o m i n a l above w a i s t o u t . (h) P u s h a b d o m i n a l b e l o w w a i s t o u t . ( i ) Suck i n a b d o m i n a l above w a i s t , ( j ) Suck i n a b d o m i n a l be low, w a i s t . (k) Combine g>- t o j n t o f o r m c o n t i n u o u s c i r c u l a r f l o w o f a b d o m i n a l t o p o u t , b o t t o m o u t , t o p i n , b o t t o m i n . B . ( 5 1 ) S g i n e _ a n d _ F e e t C o m b i n a t i o n ( l y i n g on b a c k ) (a) A r c h and r o u n d b a c k so t h a t t h e w a i s t i s o f f t h e f l o o r i n a r c h i n g and on t h e f l o o r i n r o u n d i n g . (b) F l e x f e e t so t h a t t o e s p o i n t upward t h e n e x t e n d f e e t so t h a t t o e s p o i n t away. Combine movements i n t o f e e t c i r c l e s , r o t a t i n g i n b o t h d i r e c t i o n s . (c) Combine f e e t and s p i n e a c t i o n s so t h a t as t h e b a c k a r c h e s t h e t o e s p o i n t away, and as t h e back r o u n d s , t h e t o e s p o i n t u p . F a c e _ § _ N e c k A ( 5 2 ) Vowe l_Sounds B . (53)Sounds oo -e i - y i - y i - y i C . (54 )Cheek I n § Out (a) E m p h a s i z e and h o l d v o w e l sounds a , e , i , o , u . (a) E m p h a s i z e and h o l d s o u n d s . (a) Suck cheeks i n (b) Push c h e e k s o u t . D . ( 5 5 ) L o w e r L i p Push S_ P u l l (a) Pu t l o w e r l i p o v e r l o w e r t e e t h . ^ push j a w o u t , h o r i z o n t a l movement, (c) P u l l jaw i n , h o r i z o n t a l movement. 121 E . (56) L i o n Face F . ( 5 7 ) S m i l e (a) S t i c k o u t t ongue as f a r as p o s s i b l e , open eyes as w i d e as p o s s i b l e , h o l d . (b) R e l a x f a c e . APPENDIX E R E L I A B I L I T Y STUDY FOR SKINFOLD MEASUREMENT ( 122 123 R E L I A B I L I T Y STUDY FOR SKINFOLD MEASUREMENT The i n v e s t i g a t o r e s t a b l i s h e d a p e r s o n a l t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y s c o r e ( F e r g u s o n , 1976) b e f o r e s t a r t i n g t h e s t u d y , u s i n g 10 f e m a l e v o l u n t e e r s f r o m a r e q u i r e d p h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n g y m n a s t i c s c o u r s e and 11 f e m a l e v o l u n t e e r s f rom t h e s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n . B o t h g roups o f v o l u n t e e r s i n c l u d e d a w i d e r a n g e o f f a t d e p o s i t s , s i m i l a r t o t h e s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n . E a c h s i t e was l o c a t e d , t h e n marked w i t h w a s h a b l e i n k . A t l e a s e two s u b j e c t s were measured b e f o r e a s e c o n d and t h i r d s e t o f measures was t a k e n on an i n d i v i d u a l . Time d i f f e r e n c e s be tween t e s t -r e t e s t measures was be tween 30 t o 90 m i n u t e s . The a v e r a g e t e s t and r e t e s t s c o r e was c a l c u l a t e d f o r e a c h s i t e . R e l i a b i l i t y s c o r e s were computed f o r each s i t e u s i n g t h e BMD : 02D compute r p r o g r a m (1970) t o o b t a i n a c o r r e l a t i o n s c o r e . C o r r e l a t i o n s c o r e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1 6 . , T a b l e 16 S k i n f o l d R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s S i t e R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t T r i c e p s 0 . 9 9 S u b s c a p u l a r 0 . 9 9 A b d o m i n a l 0 . 9 9 S u p r a i l i a c 0 . 9 9 F r o n t T h i g h 0 .99 R e a r T h i g h 0 . 9 9 N o t e : R e l i a b i l i t y s c o r e s may have been l o w e r i f a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t i m e had b e e n a l l o w e d t o e l a p s e be tween t e s t and r e t e s t s e s s i o n s . APPENDIX E RAW SCORES 124 125 RAW SCORES Table 17 Treatment - Obese Subjects' Individual Scores S I C Body .. Physical Self Total Self Percent Subject Time Cathexis Self Cathexis Concept Body Fat 1 pre 2.84 55.0 3.60 331.0 23.4 post 3.04 62.0 3.96 311.0 21.5 2 pre 2.93 55.0 3.47 313.0 27.9 post 3.23 61.0 3.65 317.0 24.9 3 pre 3.43 62.0 3.63 322.0 24.4 post 3.65 66.0 3.92 348.0 26.1 4 pre 2.50 60.0 2.98 335.0 25.6 post 3.02 62.0 2.63 334.0 22.0 5 pre 3.47 60.0 3.96 351.0 36.5 post 3.28 58.0 4.01 336.0 33.8 6 pre 3.00 70.0 2.90 359.0 25.0 post 3.73 67.0 3.60 353.0 23.0 7 pre 3.19 56.0 3.74 353.0 29.8 post 2.89 54.0 3.72 349.0 31.8 8 pre 2.73 55.0 2.74 322.0 28.7 post 3.00 66.0 2.70 322.0 25.3 9 pre 2.67 55.0 2.64 296.0 28.4 post 2.78 53.0 2.43 273.0 25.9 10 pre 3.17 63.0 3.41 318.0 28.7 post 4.23 71.0 4.38 364.0 27.0 126 Table 18 Control - Obese Subjects' Individual Scores Body Physical Self Total Self Percent Subject Time Cathexis Self Cathexis Concept Body Fat pre 2.76 55.0 3.10 324.0 23.7 post 2.80 62.0 3.54 341.0 25.0 2 pre 2.69 56.0 post 3.17 46.0 3 pre 3.15 70.0 post 3.56 58.0 4 pre 2.97 54.0 post 3.63 64.0 5 pre 2.95 55.0 post 3.21 61.0 6 pre 3.36 59.0 post 3.39 55.0 7 pre 3.02 72.0 post 3.24 70.0 8 pre 3.08 69.0 post 3.50 70.0 9 pre 2.71 68.0 post 3.08 68.0 .0 pre 3.20 70.0 post 4.00 74.0 1.74 277.0 31.8 3.12 186.0 31.1 3.61 374.0 33.5 2.94 340.0 37.5 3.67 343.0 32.0 3.78 352.0 31.9 2.41 313.0 28.5 3.16 313.0 28.6 4.12 332.0 39.2 3.60 322.0 36.1 3.60 373.0 23.6 3.72 361.0 21.2 2.90 356.0 23.7 3.41 352.0 24.3 3.59 379.0 25.4 3.21 364.0 25.3 3.60 372.0 23.1 3.94 370^ .0 28.1 127 Table 19 Treatment - Non-obese Subjects' Individual Scores Body .  Physical Self Total Self Percent Subject Time Cathexis self 'Cathexis Concept Body Fat 1 pre 3.43 65.0 2.94 323.0 21.4 post 3.26 59.6 3.61 313.0 20.2 2 pre 2.71 61.0 3.20 351.0 16.4 post 3.34 68.0 3.34 358.0 13.5 3 pre 3.00 48.0 2.76 272.0 19.0 post 3.52 61.0 3.58 310.0 26.2 4 pre 3.65 78.0 3.94 384.0 9.7 post 4.02 79.0 4.09 410.0 8.2 5 pre 3.60 66.0 3.90 356.0 22.5 post 3.80 65.0 3.85 341.0 18.6 6 pre 3.50 65.0 3.98 359.0 20.3 post 3.78 77.0 3.85 391.0 17.5 7 pre 3.56 63.0 3.52 355.0 19.8 post 2.93 53.0 3.52 335.0 23.4 8 pre 3.00 57.0 2.60 315.0 17.8 post 3.19 69.0 3.25 339.0 16.3 9 pre 2.36 55.0 2.36 299.0 16.9 post 3.13 59.0 3.06 314.0 16.2 10 pre 3.17 69.0 3.69 356.0 22.8 post 3.32 67.0 3.65 353.0 19.2 11 pre 3.30 75.0 3.61 347.0 19.9 post 3.91 71.0 3.74 337.0 18.0 12 pre 3.84 76.0 3.87 364.0 16.4 post 4.06 79.0 4.21 363.0 17.9 13 pre 3.13 73.0 3.12 326.0 17.5 post 3.15 68.0 3.50 313.0 16.7 14 pre 2.76 63.0 3.47 317.0 18.1 post 3.39 78.0 3.87 382.0 17.0 15 pre 2.95 62.0 2.92 346.0 22.3 post 3.63 68.0 3.21 356.0 17.4 Table 20 Control - Non-obese Subjects' Individual Scores 128 Body .. Physical Self .. Total Self Percent Subject Time Cathexis Self Cathexis Concept Body Fat 1 pre 3.78 71.0 post 3.30 66.0 2 pre 3.45 75.0 post 3.54 73.0 3 pre 3.15 76.0 post 2.91 70.0 4 pre 2.69 72.0 post 3.65 76.0 5 pre 3.13 65.0 post 3.21 72.0 6 pre 3.69 80.0 post 3.86 69.0 7 pre 3.26 72.0 post 3.21 74.0 8 pre 2.20 61.0 post 2.93 61.0 9 pre 2.58 65.0 post 2.47 68.0 10 pre 3.15 69.0 post 3.54 67.0 Lll pre 2.91 58.0 post 2.78 49.0 12 pre 3.73 65.0 post 3.13 68.0 13 pre 3.41 78.0 post 3.56 75.0 14 pre 3.58 69.0 post 3.76 68.0 15 pre 3.28 69.0 post 3.86 62.0 3.80 332.0 20.2 3.38 302.0 23.5 3.89 350.Or 7.8 3.70 348.0 8.4 3.05 324.0 10.5 3.01 318.0 13.0 3.74 352.0 18.6 3.72 364.0 18.2 3.25 322.0 22.0 3.20 339.0 23.2 4.00 381.0 18.5 3.98 353.0 17.0 3.46 319.0 14.3 3.25 313.0 16.2 4.60 273.0 16.3 2.38 273.0 15.6 2.60 322.0 19.1 2.98 309.0 18.4 3.14 344.0 9.7 3.46 346.0 11.8 3.00 287.0 20.0 3.40 273.0 21.2 3.69 322.0 18.5 3.29 364.0 18.2 3.54 391.0 20.5 3.78 386.0 27.8 3.81 368.0 17.6 3.98 352.0 15.2 3.05 320.0 21.0 3.23 341.0 18.2 APPENDIX G MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR DEPENDENT VARIABLES 129 130 T a b l e 21 Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r Body C o n c e p t S c o r e s Body C a t h e x i s S c o r e s T r e a t m e n t C o n t r o l Obese N o n - o b e s e Obese Non-obese P r e 2 . 9 9 +_ .31 3 .20 +_ . 40 2 .99 +_ .21 3 .20 +_ .44 P o s t 3 . 2 9 +_ .43 3 . 5 0 +_ .34 3 .36 +_ . 3 2 3 .31 +_ .40 S c a l e n o r m : 3 .46 + .40 P h y s i c a l S e l f S c o r e s T r e a t m e n t C o n t r o l Obese N o n - o b e s e Obese N o n - o b e s e P r e 5 9 . 1 0 +_ 4 . 7 0 6 3 . 6 7 +_ 7 .59 6 2 . 8 0 +_ 7 . 1 7 6 2 . 9 3 +_ 6 .61 P o s t 6 2 . 0 0 +_ 5 . 4 8 6 6 . 7 3 + 7 .70 6 2 . 8 0 +_ 7 . 9 2 6 2 . 0 0 +_ 10 .14 S c a l e n o r m : 7 1 . 7 8 + 7 .67 131 T a b l e 22 Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r S e l f C o n c e p t S c o r e s S e l f C a t h e x i s S c o r e s T r e a t m e n t C o n t r o l Obese Non-obese Obese Non-obese P r e 3 . 3 1 +_ . 43 3 .31 +_ .51 3 . 2 3 + .66 3 . 5 1 + .49 P o s t 3 . 5 0 +_ .64 3 . 6 2 +_ .32 3 .44 +_ .31 3 . 3 8 £ .41 S c a l e norm : 3 .35 +_ . 50 T o t a l S e l f C o n c e p t S c o r e s T r e a t m e n t C o n t r o l Obese Non-obese Obese Non-obese P r e 3 3 0 . 0 0 +_ 1 8 . 8 5 3 3 8 . 1 0 +_ 2 7 . 9 3 3 3 4 . 3 0 + 3 1 . 4 5 3 3 3 . 8 0 +_ 3 0 . 7 5 P o s t 3 3 0 . 7 0 + 2 5 . 0 2 3 4 7 . 6 7 + 2 9 . 1 4 3 3 0 . 1 0 +_ 5 0 . 9 9 3 3 7 . 7 5 +_ 3 1 . 9 7 S c a l e norm : 3 4 5 . 5 7 + 3 0 . 7 0 T a b l e 23 Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r P e r c e n t Body F a t T r e a t m e n t Obese P r e 2 7 . 8 4 +_ 3 .54 P o s t 2 6 . 1 3 + 3 .77 N o n - o b e s e 1 8 . 7 2 +_ 3 . 2 1 1 7 . 7 5 + 3 .90 C o n t r o l Obese Non-obese 2 8 . 4 5 +_ 5 .21 1 6 . 9 7 +_ 4 . 2 6 2 8 . 9 1 + 4 . 9 9 1 7 . 7 3 + 4 . 7 3 Obese : above 23% N o n - o b e s e : b e l o w 23% 

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