Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Effects of an accelerated physical education programme on certain physical and motor traits of children… Blackshaw, Arthur Rennie 1968

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1968_A7_5 B43.pdf [ 5.26MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0077384.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0077384-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0077384-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0077384-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0077384-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0077384-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0077384-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0077384-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0077384.ris

Full Text

THE EFFECTS OF AN ACCELERATED PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME ON CERTAIN PHYSICAL AND MOTOR TRAITS OF CHILDREN IN KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO*  by ARTHUR R BLACKSHAW. B.Sc„, U n i v e r s i t y of Windsor, 1965 B.P.E., U n i v e r s i t y of Windsor, 1966 c  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT CF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION  i n the S c h o o l of PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming  to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d :  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA . A p r i l , 196S " T h i s study was supported by the F i t n e s s and Amateur S p o r t D i r e c t o r a t e , Department of N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , Ottawa, Canada.  In  presenting  advanced  Library  agree  this  degree  shall  that  at  make  thesis  the  it  permission  in  University  freely  for  may  be  granted  tatives.  It  is  understood  financial  gain  Department  nf  by  not  April,  British  available  the  that  be  fulfilment  Head  of  my  1968  Columbia  the  Columbia,  reference  copying  copying  allowed  for  of  of  this  Department  or  without  requirements  for  I  the  agree  and  study.  thesis  or  publication  my w r i t t e n  P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  Date  of  extensive  purposes  shall  partial  by  of  that  I  an  further  for  scholarly  his  represen-  this  thesis  permission.  for  ABSTRACT  The purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t s of an accelerated p h y s i c a l education programme on various p h y s i c a l and motor development f a c t o r s of kindergarten and grade two students. The p h y s i c a l and motor development f a c t o r s i n v e s t i g a t e d were: 1.  P h y s i c a l Development:  height, weight, lung capacity, arm and  thigh g i r t h , c h r o n o l o g i c a l age, and s k e l e t a l age. ?  2.  Motor A b i l i t y and A g i l i t y :  standing broad jump and s h u t t l e  run. 3.  Strength:  4.  Cardiovascular A p p r a i s a l :  g r i p strength, flexed arm bar hang. submaximal work task.  One hundred students of S i r Richard McBride Elementary School of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study.  I n each  grade the p u p i l s were d i v i d e d i n t o one experimental group and one cont r o l group.  A l l groups were pretested, the exception being the grade  two c o n t r o l group.  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s made t h i s not p o s s i b l e .  For the f i n a l t e s t s , a t o t a l of forty-one subjects were randomly selected from the four groups. The subjects of the c o n t r o l groups followed a programme outlined by the Department of Education of B r i t i s h Columbia under the guidance of the homeroom teacher.  The grade two c o n t r o l group met  twice weekly, f o r f o r t y minute periods.  The kindergarten c o n t r o l group  met twice weekly, f o r twenty minute periods.  The subjects of the exper  m e n t a l groups f o l l o w e d a programme d e s i g n e d investigator.  The  and a d m i n i s t e r e d by  grade two e x p e r i m e n t a l group met  f o r f o r t y minute p e r i o d s .  The  m e n t a l p e r i o d was  t h r e e times w e e k l y ,  kindergarten experimental  t h r e e times w e e k l y , fOr twenty minute p e r i o d s .  The  the  group  met  grade two e x p e r i -  f i f t e e n weeks i n d u r a t i o n , and the k i n d e r g a r t e n  p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d was  ex-  t w e l v e weeks i n l e n g t h .  There were found t o be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  differ-  ences i n the f i n a l means of b o t h groups o t h e r than the f o l l o w i n g exceptions.  The  grade two c o n t r o l group mean c h r o n o l o g i c a l age was  signi-  f i c a n t l y o l d e r than the grade two e x p e r i m e n t a l group c h r o n o l o g i c a l age w i t h a t - v a l u e of 2.43,  s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l .  arm bar hang s c o r e of k i n d e r g a r t e n c o n t r o l was a t the .05 group.  l e v e l , t = 2.54,  The  The f l e x e d  significantly better  than t h a t of the k i n d e r g a r t e n  experimental  grade two e x p e r i m e n t a l group had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y  lower  steady h e a r t r a t e than d i d the grade two c o n t r o l group ( t = 2.24). A l l groups made improvement i n a l l v a r i a b l e s .  Significant  improvements a t the .01 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e were demonstrated i n s t a n d i n g broad jump ( t = 4.09, ( t = 4.37,  grade two e x p e r i m e n t a l ) , f l e x e d arm bar hang  kindergarten control).  S i g n i f i c a n t improvements a t the  l e v e l were demonstrated i n l u n g c a p a c i t y ( t = 2.38, m e n t a l ) , s h u t t l e r u n ( t = 2.28,  .05  kindergarten experi-  kindergarten control).  W h i l e the r e s u l t s of t h i s study do n o t show c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t an a c c e l e r a t e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme b e n e f i t s the growth and phys i c a l development of p r i m a r y  s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , the concept  initiating  t h i s p r o j e c t does have m e r i t .  A more c o n s t r u c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of t h e  programme's o b j e c t i v e s c o u l d be o b t a i n e d w i t h an extended p e r i o d of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a t l e a s t one s c h o o l y e a r . F u r t h e r recommendations seem w a r r a n t e d of t h i s s t u d y .  i n view of t h e r e s u l t s  More a t t e n t i o n should be g i v e n t o t h e time f o r t e s t i n g  and a s u f f i c i e n t number of p e r s o n n e l a s s i g n e d t o . t h i s a s p e c t of t h e s t u d y . The c o n t r o l group programme s h o u l d be m o n i t o r e d p a r i s o n of a c t i v i t i e s . c o u l d be reviewed  t o i n s u r e a t r u e com-  The a c c e l e r a t e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme  t o s t r e n g t h e n those areas w h i c h appear weak.  It  must be r e c o r d e d here t h a t more r e s e a r c h i s needed i n elementary school p h y s i c a l education.  .ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  Acknowledgement i s extended f o r h i s guidance and c o u n s e l . of my Committee.  t o Dr. H.D. W h i t t l e , my a d v i s o r ,  A p p r e c i a t i o n i s e x p r e s s e d t o t h e members  Thanks a l s o t o Mr. C.W. M c L a c h l a n , P r i n c i p a l o f  M c B r i d e S c h o o l and members of h i s s t a f f who gave o f t h e i r time and f a c i l i t i e s so g e n e r o u s l y .  The i n v e s t i g a t o r i s e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l t o  Mr. Jeno T i h a n y i who shared i n t h e work and f r u s t r a t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y . I s h o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e t o my w i f e , Daphne, who assisted i n preparing  the m a n u s c r i p t s f o r t y p i n g .  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION PURPOSE OF THE STUDY STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM LIMITATIONS ' ' DELIMITATIONS DEFINITIONS REFERENCES  1  . '  1 2 3 3 4 .6 7 9  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT MOTOR ABILITY AND AGILITY STRENGTH CARDIOVASCULAR APPRAISAL REFERENCES  IC 10 15 17 19 22  CHAPTER I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURES PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT MOTOR A B I L I T Y AND AGILITY STRENGTH CARDIOVASCULAR APPRAISAL SUBJECTS . DESIGN OF THE STUDY TESTING STATISTICAL METHODS  26 26 29 30 31 33 33 34 35  CHAPTER I V RESULTS PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT MOTOR ABILITY AND AGILITY STRENGTH CARDIOVASCULAR APPRAISAL  36 37 47 50 53  CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  64  APPENDIX A I . ACCELERATED PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME J.I. REGULAR PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME REFERENCES  73 82 84  APPENDIX B •I. II.  SKELETAL AGE ASSESSMENT FORM SAMPLE X-RAY  86 87  L I S T OF TABLES  TABLE I WETZEL GRID DEVELOPMENTAL LEVELS FOR EXPERIMENTAL. AND CONTROL GROUPS  5  TABLE I I SAMPLE DISTRIBUTION FOR THE FINAL TESTING OF THE CONTROL AND, EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS  6  TABLE I I I COMPARISON OF THE FINAL MEANS BETWEEN THE EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR HEIGHT, WEIGHT, AND LUNG OF KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO CHILDREN TABLE CAPACITY IV  39  CORRELATION OF HEIGHT, WEIGHT AND LUNG CAPACITY TO STRENGTH, MOTOR ABILITY, MATURITY AND WORKING CAPACITY FACTORS OF CHILDREN IN KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO  40  TABLE V COMPARISON OF THE FINAL MEANS BETWEEN THE EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR GIRTHS OF THE LEFT ARM AND LEFT THIGH OF KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TvlO CHILDREN  42  TABLE V I CORRELATION OF LEFT ARM GIRTH AND LEFT THIGH GIRTH TO GROWTH, MOTOR ABILITY, STRENGTH, MATURITY AND WORKING .CAPACITY FACTORS OF CHILDREN I N KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO  43  TABLE V I I COMPARISON OF THE FINAL MEANS BETWEEN THE EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR CHRONOLOGICAL AGE AND SKELETAL AGE OF KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO CHILDREN  45  TABLE V I I I CORRELATION OF CHRONOLOGICAL AGE AND SKELETAL AGE TO GROWTH, MOTOR ABILITY, STRENGTH AND WORKING CAPACITY FACTORS OF CHILDREN I N KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO TABLE I X  . . .  COMPARISON OF THE FINAL MEANS BETWEEN THE EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR SHUTTLE RUN AND BROAD JUMP OF KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TOO CHILDREN TABLE X CORRELATION OF SHUTTLE RUN AND BROAD JUMP TO GROWTH, STRENGTH, MATURITY AND WORKING CAPACITY FACTORS OF CHILDREN IN KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO TABLE XL COMPARISON OF THE FINAL MEANS BETWEEN THE EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR GRIP STRENGTH AND FLEXED ARM BAR HANG OF KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TOO CHILDREN TABLE X L I CORRELATION OF GRIP STRENGTH AND FLEXED ARM BAR HANG TO GROWTH, MOTOR A B I L I T Y , MATURITY AND WORKING CAPACITY FACTORS OF CHILDREN I N KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO TABLE X I I I COMPARISON OF THE FINAL MEANS BETWEEN THE EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR STANDING HEART RATE AND STEADY HEART RATE OF KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO CHILDREN TABLE XIV CORRELATION OF STANDING HEART RATE AND STEADY HEART . RATE TO GROWTH, MOTOR ABILITY, STRENGTH AND MATURITY FACTORS OF CHILDREN IN KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO TABLE XV COMPARISON OF IMPROVEMENT I N HEIGHT, WEIGHT, AND LUNG CAPACITY MADE BY CHILDREN PARTICIPATING I N TWO DIFFERENT PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMMES IN KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO  TABLE XVI COMPARISON OF IMPROVEMENT I N THIGH GIRTH AND ARM GIRTH MADE BY CHILDREN PARTICIPATING I N TWO DIFFERENT PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMMES I N KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO TABLE X V I I COMPARISON OF IMPROVEMENT I N BROAD JUMP AND SHUTTLE RUN MADE BY CHILDREN PARTICIPATING I N TWO DIFFERENT PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRA.MMES IN KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO TABLE X V I I I COMPARISON OF IMPROVEMENT I N GRIP STRENGTH AND FLEXED ARM BAR HANG MADE BY CHILDREN PARTICIPATING IN TWO DIFFERENT PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMMES IN KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  The  growing  and m a t u r i n g c h i l d i s exposed t o a t l e a s t two  v e r y i m p o r t a n t environments.  The p r i m a r y i n f l u e n c e i s t h a t of the home.  T h i s i s a c o n t i n u i n g p r o c e s s over w h i c h we have l i t t l e c o n t r o l . secondary  i n f l u e n c e i s t h a t of t h e s c h o o l .  particularly  The  The e f f e c t of the s c h o o l ,  i n t h e e a r l y growing y e a r s o f t h e c h i l d , i s of c o n s i d e r -  a b l e importance.  Each c h i l d s h o u l d be g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o mature  and develop m e n t a l l y , s o c i a l l y , p h y s i c a l l y , and e m o t i o n a l l y , t o t h e b e s t of h i s a b i l i t y . P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d of the c h i l d ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a l  experiences.  as a n e c e s s a r y f a c e t  The l a r g e number o f p h y s i c a l  a c t i v i t i e s demands' c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n i f we a r e t o be s u c c e s s f u l i n a c h i e v i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s s e t o u t f o r each c h i l d . (1) suggest  W i l l i a m s and B r o w n e l l  t h a t " t h e sum o f man's p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s a r e s e l e c t e d as  to t h e k i n d and conducted  as t o t h e outcomes".  Each a c t i v i t y has i t s  own p u r p o s e ; however, the t o t a l programme of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n aims a t one s i n g l e p u r p o s e , t h e development o f t h e whole p e r s o n . The  f o r m a t i v e p e r i o d o f c h i l d h o o d i s c e n t e r e d around the e l e -  mentary s c h o o l y e a r s .  C e r t a i n experiences w i l l profoundly a f f e c t not  o n l y s o c i a l , e m o t i o n a l , and m e n t a l growth, b u t a l s o p h y s i c a l growth. I t i s t h e purpose o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n t o c r e a t e an e n v i r o n m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n conducive  t o t h e achievement o f d e s i r e d g o a l s .  2  I n many s c h o o l supervision  systems p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , under t h e  of an a c c r e d i t e d  p h y s i c a l education teacher, begin with  grade f o u r , some as l a t e as grade f i v e .  Do t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e lower  grades n o t d e s e r v e and w a r r a n t t h e s p e c i a l i z e d programmes t h e i r b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s a r e o b t a i n i n g ?  older  A w e l l o r g a n i z e d and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y  a d m i n i s t e r e d programme of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s p r o b a b l y one of t h e most i m p o r t a n t means used t o meet t h e needs of elementary s c h o o l The o b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n  children.  of such a programme i s a c h i e v e d by  comparing p a r t i c i p a n t s of d i f f e r e n t programmes i n terms o f some v a r i a b l e s of p h y s i c a l growth.  The p r e s e n t study i s d e s i g n e d t o o b t a i n i n -  f o r m a t i o n on t h e d i f f e r e n c e s  i n p h y s i c a l growth of c h i l d r e n , i n k i n d e r -  g a r t e n and grade two, who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n two d i f f e r e n t programmes c f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ; t h a t i s , an a c c e l e r a t e d  programme and a r e g u l a r  programme.  • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of t h i s study i s t o examine t h e e f f e c t an a c c e l e r ~ a t e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme has on p h y s i c a l and motor growth of c h i l d r e n i n kindergarten In constructing  and grade two. the s t u d y , the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s a r e ex-  amined ; 1.  Do c h i l d r e n , of the same g r a d e , who p a r t i c i p a t e s accelerated strength  programme o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n show  i n an greater  than c h i l d r e n who p a r t i c i . p a t e - i n a r e g u l a r  p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme?  :  3  2.  Do c h i l d r e n , o f the same g r a d e , who p a r t i c i p a t e : ' i n the two . d i f f e r e n t programmes of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n a n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l measurements?  3.  Do c h i l d r e n who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e a c c e l e r a t e d  pro-  gramme s c o r e h i g h e r on t h e motor a b i l i t y and a g i l i t y t e s t s i n comparison t o c h i l d r e n who p a r t i c i p a t e . ' i n the r e g u l a r 4.  programme?  I f c h i l d r e n o f the a c c e l e r a t e d  programme a c h i e v e d a  g r e a t e r t o t a l a p p r a i s a l , d i d they a l s o have g r e a t e r s k e l e t a l maturity? 5.  Do c h i l d r e n , who p a r t i c i p a t e ' i n t h e a c c e l e r a t e d  pro-  gramme, show s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n t h e i r test: scores from the i n i t i a l  t o the f i n a l  test?  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The accelerated  p r o b l e m i n t h i s study i s t o d e t e r m i n e whether or n o t an  p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme has any e f f e c t s on some s e l e c -  t e d a s p e c t s of p h y s i c a l growth of young c h i l d r e n .  JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM The novel idea.  exposure o f young c h i l d r e n t o p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y i s n o t a The young c h i l d i s f o r e v e r  the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e moment.  active.  He b e g i n s t o p l a y a t  As h i s neuromuscular system d e v e l o p s ,  h i s a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m new.and d i f f e r e n t movement, p a t t e r n s  increases.  4  D u r i n g t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n p e r i o d the c h i l d s h o u l d e x p e r i e n c e t h e b a s i c movement p a t t e r n s .  I n s c h o o l t h e c h i l d ought t o have t h e oppor-  t u n i t y t o e x p r e s s and d e v e l o p  these a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n s .  T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l be j u s t i f i e d i f one o f two t h i n g s occur: (a)  the c h i l d r e n of the a c c e l e r a t e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme b e n e f i t t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t w i t h r e l a t i o n t o p h y s i c a l growth c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , o r  (b)  f u r t h e r i n q u i r y and i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s i n i t i a t e d  into  the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme i n t h e elementary k i n d e r g a r t e n and p r i m a r y  schod, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e  divisions.  LIMITATIONS I n i t i a l t e s t i n g of t h e grade two c o n t r o l group was n o t adm i n i s t e r e d , due t o c e r t a i n u n f o r s e e n d i f f i c u l t i e s a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e level.  T h e r e f o r e , i t was assumed t h a t , because of the random s e l e c t i o n  of s u b j e c t s i n t o t h e two groups f r o m t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e g r a d e s , t h e means and  s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l groups were  approximately  similar.  T h i s a s s u m p t i o n i s supported by the f a c t t h a t  the c l a s s e s were comparable", based on academic a b i l i t y and m e n t a l age, as determined The W e t z e l G r i d (2)  a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the s c h o o l y e a r . i n v e s t i g a t o r employed t h e D e v e l o p m e n t a l L e v e l s from t h e t o determine  t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e above assumption.  This  method of a n a l y s i s shows a r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e s i m i l a r i t y between t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups.  (Table I ) .  TABLE I  WETZEL GRID DEVELOPMENTAL LEVELS FOR EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS  GRADE  KIN.  NUMBER EXP.  CONT.  11  11  10  MEAN  EXP.  CONT.  STANDARD DEVIATION EXPERIMENTAL  STANDARD ERROR OF THE MEAN  CONTROL  EXPERIMENTAL  CONTROL  SIGNIFICANT t-VALUE EXP.  SIGNIFICANCE AT 5%  CONT. EXPERIMENTAL  CONTROL  40.4 35.9  12.16  12.16  3.8  3.8  df=10 2.23  df=10 2.23  NOT SIGNIF.  NOT SIGNIF.  70.4  13.63  12.57  4.8  3.5  df=8 2.31  df=9 2.26  NOT SIGNIF.  NOT SIGNIF.  66.6  6  DELIMITATIONS The s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study were s t u d e n t s o f S i r R i c h a r d McBride Elementary School. For  t e s t i n g p u r p o s e s , t h e random sample i n each grade was  r e p r e s e n t e d by one s e x . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e samples i s i n d i c a t e d i n Table I I . The s t u d y was conducted over a f i f t e e n week p e r i o d f o r t h e grade two groups.  There was a two week b r e a k a f t e r t h e s e v e n t h week of  i n s t r u c t i o n f o r Christmas v a c a t i o n .  The k i n d e r g a r t e n groups r e c e i v e d  t w e l v e weeks of i n s t r u c t i o n , w i t h t h e same two week break.  TABLE I I  SAMPLE DISTRIBUTION FOR THE FINAL TESTING OF THE CONTROL AND EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS  NUMBER  GROUP  GRADE  SEX  11 11  CONTROL EXPERIMENTAL  K K  FEMALE FEMALE  10  CONTROL EXPERIMENTAL  2 2  MALE MALE  9  7  DEFINITIONS The d e f i n i t i o n s e x p r e s s e d h e r e i n a r e a p p l i c a b l e o n l y t o the p u r p o s e s of t h i s 1. _  study.  A c c e l e r a t e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme i s a p l a n n e d programme of a c t i v i t y t a u g h t by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r on a t r i - w e e k l y b a s i s , each p e r i o d c o n s i s t i n g o f f o r t y 'minutes f o r grade two, and twenty m i n u t e s f o r k i n d e r garten.  2.  R e g u l a r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme r e f e r s t o t h a t programme as o u t l i n e d i n t h e p r e s e n t B r i t i s h Columbia Curriculum.  I t i s administered  by t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m  on a b i - w e e k l y  basis  t e a c h e r , e x c e p t grade f o u r  who f o l l o w e d a t r i - w e e k l y programme.  Each p e r i o d was  f o r t y minutes i n l e n g t h . 3.  P h y s i c a l t r a i t s a r e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s of p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s measured by t h e f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : (a) Arm g i r t h i s t h e measurement of t h e l e f t arm a t i t s greatest  circumference.  (b) T h i g h g i r t h i s t h e measurement of t h e l e f t  thigh  e x a c t l y below t h e g l u t e a l f o l d . ( c ) Lung c a p a c i t y i s t h e amount of a i r t h a t can be e x p i r e d a f t e r the deepest p o s s i b l e i n s p i r a t i o n  (3).  (d) Dynamic s t r e n g t h i s the measure of the f o r c e t h a t i s e x e r t e d on the hand manuometer.  8  (e)  S t a t i c s t r e n g t h i s the measure, of the l e n g t h of t i m e one i s a b l e t o m a i n t a i n a f l e x e d arm hang.  4.  M o t o r t r a i t i s synonymous w i t h motor a b i l i t y ,  which.is  the immediate c a p a c i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l t o p e r f o r m a s p e c i f i c t a s k (4). 5.  A g i l i t y i s t h e a b i l i t y t o change the p o s i t i o n and d i r e c t i o n of t h e body ( 5 ) .  6.  S k e l e t a l Age i s the degree of s k e l e t a l development of the r i g h t hand and w r i s t d e t e r m i n e d by the G r e u l i c h P y l e Hand W r i s t X-Ray method.  7.  C h r o n o l o g i c a l Age i s the age of the c h i l d ( y e a r s , months) a t the t i m e of t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l  8.  testing.  Submaximal work t a s k i s the measure of the l e n g t h o f time t a k e n t o a d j u s t t o t h e g i v e n work l o a d by a steady h e a r t r a t e w i t h i n p l u s o r minus f o u r  developing beats.  REFERENCES  W i l l i a m s , J.F. and B r o w n e l l , C.L. The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , P h i l a d e l p h i a , W.B. Saunders Co., 1947, ( t h i r d e d i t i o n ) , p. 20. E v a l u a t i n g . P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s i n Terms of Growth and Development; The W e t z e l G r i d , Department of N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , 1949, Ottawa. Mathews, D .K.., Measurements i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , W.B. Saunders Co., P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1963, (second e d i t i o n ) p. 64. IJbJUL, p. 123. M c C l o y , C.H., T e s t s and Measurements i n H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y C r o f t s , I n c . , New Y o r k , 1954, ( t h i r d e d i t i o n ) p. 75.  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE  I n t h i s s t u d y , c h i l d r e n of e l e m e n t a r y and p r e - s c h o o l age were the s u b j e c t s .  S t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g t h e above age l e v e l s a r e meagre.  The  i n v e s t i g a t o r t h e r e f o r e extended the r e v i e w o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e beyond the s t a t e d age l e v e l s .  The i n f o r m a t i o n i s p o o l e d  under t h e f o l l o w i n g  headings: 1. - P h y s i c a l Development 2.  M o t o r A b i l i t y and A g i l i t y  3.  Strength  4.  Cardiovascular Appraisal  1. Although  PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT  t h e r e a r e many ways of a s s e s s i n g p h y s i c a l d e v e l o p -  ment:, the b a t t e r y o f e v a l u a t i o n s a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d .  To  a p p r e c i a t e the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the v a r i o u s methods and t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n t o the present  s t u d y , t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i l l encompass the f o l l o w -  ing: 1.  A n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l Measurements:  g i r t h , upper arm g i r t h , and l u n g c a p a c i t y . 2.  Maturity:  hand-wrist  x-ray.  height, weight, thigh  11  An t h r o p o m e t r i c a l Measurements S t u d i e s i n w h i c h age, h e i g h t , w e i g h t v a r i a b l e s have been used v a r y i n c o n c l u s i o n s as t o t h e i r v a l u e and r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o t h e r p a r a m e t e r s of measurements i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . P a t e r s o n ( 1 ) i n h i s summary o f a n t h r o p o m e t r i c  a n a l y s i s of  growth d i s c u s s e d t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e of h e i g h t and w e i g h t i n meas u r i n g p h y s i c a l development.  E a r l y s t u d i e s were m a i n l y c o n f i n e d t o  h e i g h t and w e i g h t measurements. pometric  I n l a t e r y e a r s o t h e r forms o f a n t h r o -  t e c h n i q u e s have e v o l v e d .  These, however, d i d n o t e l i m i n a t e  the r e l a t i v e importance o f h e i g h t and w e i g h t d a t a , as they a r e s t i l l u n i v e r s a l l y accepted  t o o l s f o r t h e assessment and a n a l y s i s o f growth.  I n a n t h r o p o m e t r y , l i n e a r and c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l measurements a r e employed f r e q u e n t l y because o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e ease o f o b t a i n i n g r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g p h y s i c a l growth, p h y s i c a l development as a r e s u l t o f a c t i v i t y , or a t r o p h y  as a r e s u l t o f i n a c t i v i t y ( 2 ) .  R a r i c k ( 3 ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t m u s c u l a r a c t i v i t y of c h i l d r e n and t h e i r consequent development can be e a s i l y demonstrated by an o b s e r v a b l e i n b r e a d t h and g i r t h measurements.  increase  C l a r k and P e t e r s o n ( 4 ) i n c o n t r a -  d i s t i n c t i o n t o R a r i c k ' s i n d i c a t i o n s , found no s i g n i f i c a n t measure o f c h e s t and upper arm g i r t h s i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t and a t h l e t i c groups.  S i g n i f i c a n t t - r a t i o s were o b t a i n e d o n l y when  o u t s t a n d i n g i n d i v i d u a l s were compared w i t h n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . M a t u r a t i o n a l i n d e x , d e f i n e d by c h r o n o l o g i c a l age, h e i g h t , and w e i g h t as r e p o r t e d by C a r p e n t e r  (5), showed a s u b s t a n t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n  w i t h composite s c o r e s obtained, on a t h l e t i c events w i t h c h i l d r e n i n t h e f i r s t three  grades.  12  V i t a l c a p a c i t y has been.known f o r . a l o n g time as an i n d e x of g e n e r a l p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n .  Cureton  important  (6) and numerous o t h e r  i n v e s t i g a t o r s have shown t h a t the more a c t i v e groups had g r e a t e r capacity.  vital  However, i t must be k e p t i n mind t h a t the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the  r a t i o of v i t a l c a p a c i t y t o w e i g h t i s a v e r y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r .  McCloy  (7) s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e seems t o be some r e l a t i o n s h i p between body b u i l d and l u n g c a p a c i t y .  M o t o r performance,  h e i g h t , w e i g h t and p h y s i o l o g i -  c a l age c o r r e l a t e s h i g h l y w i t h l u n g c a p a c i t y .  I t has been  observed  t h a t t h e r e i s a tendency i n the r e d u c t i o n of c o r r e l a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s w i t h l u n g c a p a c i t y d u r i n g the pubescent y e a r s .  T h i s i s of  p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o t h i s study as the m a j o r i t y of the s u b j e c t s have n o t a t t a i n e d t h e i r pubescent development. C l a r k and P e t e r s o n  (4) r e p o r t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t  the .05 l e v e l between'the l u n g c a p a c i t y means of a t h l e t i c groups n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s a t the upper elementary  school  and  level.  De L o t t o (8) w i t h 348 boys, 9 to 12 y e a r s of age,  s t u d i e d the  e f f e c t s of a two hour a t h l e t i c programme a d m i n i s t e r e d once a week f o r e i g h t months.  The measurements of h e i g h t , w e i g h t ,  s t a n d i n g broad jump,  r i g h t and l e f t g r i p s , and l u n g c a p a c i t y showed no s i g n i f i c a n t ences between the c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l  differ-  groups.  C l a r k and H a r r i s o n (9) upon comparing the r e t a r d e d and vanced maturers of the same c h r o n o l o g i c a l age ference i n t h e i r lung capacity.  The  ad-  showed a s i g n i f i c a n t  dif-  s i g n i f i c a n c e i n d i f f e r e n c e favored  the 15 year o l d group to a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than the younger age  groups.  T h i s seems to be i n agreement w i t h M c C l o y ' s (7) o b s e r v a t i o n on the t i o n s h i p of l u n g c a p a c i t y to pubescent y e a r s .  rela-  13  Maturity  . . . C h r o n o l o g i c a l age h a s , from t h e b e g i n n i n g of s t u d i e s of phy-  s i c a l growth, been used as t h e measure o f t h e e x t e n t of m a t u r a t i o n . W h i l e c h r o n o l o g i c a l age seems t o be r e l a t i v e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y , i t poss e s s e s c e r t a i n shortcomings  as a s t a n d a r d f o r comparison.  C h i l d r e n of  the same c h r o n o l o g i c a l age demonstrate l a r g e v a r i a t i o n s i n s i z e . G r e u l i c h (10) has found t h a t the c h r o n o l o g i c a l age o f c h i l d r e n up t o the e a r l y p a r t of t h e second decade of l i f e i s n o t h i n g more than j u s t t h e i n d i c a t i o n of the l e n g t h of time they l i v e d .  C h r o n o l o g i c a l age has  l i m i t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e amount of p r o g r e s s c h i l d r e n make toward achieving maturity.  A c c o r d i n g t o Todd ( 1 1 ) , t h e phenomena of m a t u r a t i o n  i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f growth.  Maturation i m p l i e s both progres-  s i v e m a t u r i t y and i n c r e a s e i n d i m e n s i o n .  T h i s p r i n c i p l e was c o n f i r m e d  by Simmons and G r e u l i c h (12) who c o n c l u d e d  t h a t m a t u r a t i o n and growth  p r o c e s s e s a r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t and t h a t changes i n s k e l e t a l development d i f f e r e d from changes i n body s i z e . The  s e a r c h f o r a s i n g l e and v a l i d measure of p h y s i c a l m a t u r i t y  has n o t a c h i e v e d i t s end; however, t h e r e i s g e n e r a l agreement t h a t skeletal  age r e p r e s e n t s t h e b e s t m a t u r a t i o n a l i n d e x from b i r t h t o m a t u r i t y .  Bayer and B a y l e y (13) suggest  t h a t s k e l e t a l age i s a v a l u e d t o o l i n t h e  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of e a r l y and l a t e m a t u r i n g c h i l d r e n .  Hindmarch (14)  found t h a t advanced m a t u r i t y boys s u r p a s s e d r e t a r d e d m a t u r i t y boys on v a r i o u s body s i z e , s t r e n g t h , motor a b i l i t y ,  and r e a c t i o n time measures  by h a v i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r means, and i t was s i g n i f i c a n t beyond t h e • .01 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e .  14  The i n v e s t i g a t i o n of Rove, Krogman, and F a i t (15, 16, 17) have shown that boys i n upper elementary  school and j u n i o r high school  who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n i n t e r s c h o o l a t h l e t i c s or i n an i n t e n s i v e p h y s i c a l education programme demoiistrated greater advance i n s k e l e t a l age. The d i f f e r e n c e s i n some cases were as much as two years. I n t e r e s t i n g to note that a l l three i n v e s t i g a t o r s found non-athletes or c h i l d r e n exposed to poorer p h y s i c a l education programmes outgained the a t h l e t e s i n height, weight, and lung capacity.  Rowe explained the f i n d i n g s may  have been influenced by the p o s s i b i l i t y that the c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n good p h y s i c a l education programmes matured e a r l i e r , thereby already completing some of t h e i r adolescent growth.  I t was pointed out (4, 15,  16, 17) that, i n general,the d i f f e r e n c e i n s i z e of c h i l d r e n was more s i g n i f i c a n t i n j u n i o r high school than i n elementary  school.  The  basis of comparison was between c h i l d r e n i n two programmes of c o n t r a s t i n i n t e n s i t y and p a r t i c i p a n t s and non-participants i n i n t e r s c h o o l a t h l e t i c s Clark and Peterson (4) reported s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher standing height i n elementary non-participants:  school f o r a t h l e t i c p a r t i c i p a n t s as compared to  the t-values were 3.27 and 2.64 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  They  also observed considerable d i f f e r e n c e s i n s k e l e t a l age. 'The d i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t between s k e l e t a l age means only when the outstanding i n d i v i d u a l s were compared w i t h n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . The t - r a t i o s ranged from 2.20 to 3.86. W h i t t l e (18) studied the e f f e c t s of a three year programme of good and poor elementary  school p h y s i c a l education.  I n the f i n a l , analy-  s i s , the two groups p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the two types of programmes showed  15  no  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n s k e l e t a l age,  w e i g h t , h e i g h t , W e t z e l Dev-  e l o p m e n t a l L e v e l , and McCloy's C l a s s i f i c a t i o n I n d e x I . 2.  MOTOR ABILITY AND  AGILITY.  M o t o r a b i l i t y i m p l i e s the degree of management o f one's body in various a c t i v i t i e s .  I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t from  through adolescence, to m a t u r i t y .  childhood,  The normal i n d i v i d u a l of s c h o o l  age  can p e r f o r m everyday motor a c t i v i t i e s , but t h e r e a r e o b s e r v a b l e d i f ferences  i n p r e c i s i o n and  M o t o r development and  f a c i l i t y w i t h w h i c h t h e s e movements a r e made.  the consequent motor a b i l i t y of the c h i l d  t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , the a c t i v i t y o p p o r t u n i t i e s the c h i l d The  growth and  reflects,  had.  development of c h i l d r e n a f f e c t s the components  of motor development such as a g i l i t y , s t r e n g t h , f l e x i b i l i t y , and (19).  The  balance  l a t t e r s t a t e m e n t i s s u p p o r t e d by Kane and M e r e d i t h (20)  in  t h e i r study on the s t a n d i n g b r o a d jump a b i l i t y of s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . T h e i r f i n d i n g s showed t h a t t h e r e i s a p r o p o r t i o n a t e t a i n e d means a t each age than f o r g i r l s .  l e v e l , and  MdCloy (21)  i n c r e a s e i n the  ob-  the means a r e g r e a t e r f o r boys  i n an e a r l y study on the r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e  of c h r o n o l o g i c a l age.  h e i g h t , and w e i g h t on motor performance found  no  linear relationship.  He  to  p u b e r t y by b o t h boys and further  observed a g e n e r a l girls.  t r e n d of improvement up  However, hyond t h i s age,  t h e r e was  no  increase. R a r i c k and O y s t e r (22)  suggested t h a t the i n f l u e n c e of phy-  s i c a l m a t u r a t i o n on young s c h o o l age  c h i l d r e n i s not c l e a r l y  I n t h e i r r e p o r t on the motor p e r f o r m a n c e of c h i l d r e n i t was  defined. found  that  16  m a t u r i t y i s of l i t t l e  consequence i n e x p l a i n i n g i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s  i n motor p r o f i c i e n c y . Many e a r l y s t u d i e s i n motor development i n v o l v e d o n l y t h e f i n e r c o o r d i n a t e d movements o f t h e arm and f i n g e r s .  The major p o r t i o n  of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s done i n motor development o f t h e l a r g e muscle type has been c o n f i n e d t o c h i l d r e n under f i v e y e a r s o f age and t o t h e p r e a d o l e s c e n t and a d o l e s c e n t  l e v e l s (23).  J e n k i n s (24) a l s o emphasizes t h i s  when she s t a t e s t h a t t h e age group o f t h r e e t o t e n y e a r s r e p r e s e n t s a n e g l e c t e d area of r e s e a r c h .  S e l l s (23) i n h i s study i n d i c a t e d t h a t  motor performance i n r u n n i n g  showed a c o n s t a n t i n c r e a s e f r o m younger t o  o l d e r ages.  Of a l l t h e p h y s i c a l growth and m a t u r a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s , ske  l e t a l m a t u r i t y showed t h e h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n (.51) w i t h r u n n i n g formance.  H i g h p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s were observed w i t h a g i l i t y and  s t a n d i n g broad jump t e s t s t o s k e l e t a l age o f boys tively.  per-  S e i l s concluded  and g i r l s  respec-  t h a t w h i l e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s k e l e t a l  m a t u r i t y and motor performance were n o t g r e a t , they c o u l d be g i v e n more significance.  I n a study by Espenschade (19) a c o r r e l a t i o n o f .56 was  shown between s k e l e t a l m a t u r i t y and s t a n d i n g broad jump.  The s i z e of  t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was reduced when c h r o n o l o g i c a l age was p a r t i a l e d o u t . The mean motor performance t e s t s c o r e s i n c r e a s e d as t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l m a t u r i t y of the s u b j e c t s i n c r e a s e d .  Govatos (25) i n h i s  study o f elementary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e mean motor performance o f b o t h boys and g i r l s showed an i n c r e m e n t a t each age l e v e A t v a r i o u s age l e v e l s c e r t a i n mean motor s k i l l performances were domin a n t , whereas a t other age l e v e l s the same were q u i t e i n s i g n i f i c a n t .  17  There was e v i d e n c e o f sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the mean motor performances as w e l l .  F o r example, t h e boys s u r p a s s e d t h e g i r l s a t t h e 7, 8, 9 and  11 y e a r age l e v e l s i n t h e s t a n d i n g broad jump, whereas g i r l s were s u p e r i o r t o boys i n t h e jump and r e a c h a t ages 6, 7, 10 and 11 y e a r s . 3. Strength  STRENGTH  t e s t i n g i s an i m p o r t a n t  e f f e c t s o f a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme. determining  measure i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e The hand g r i p as a t e s t f o r  s t r e n g t h was used by S a r g e n t (26) i n 1880 a t H a r v a r d .  Since  t h e n g r i p s t r e n g t h has been used as a measure of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , phys i o l o g i c a l growth,and hand dominance.  G r i p s t r e n g t h i s one o f the most  r e l i a b l e d y n a m o m e t r i c a l measures' o f human s t r e n g t h . has  stated that g r i p strength i s a reasonable  body  strength.  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t o t a l  B o o k w a l t e r ' s (27) g r i p s t r e n g t h norms may be used t o  compare i n d i v i d u a l s a c c o r d i n g index  B o o k w a l t e r (27)  t o age, w e i g h t , and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  categories. The  theory  t h a t a g a i n i n s t r e n g t h does n o t occur d u r i n g r a p i d  growth has been r e f u t e d by s e v e r a l a u t h o r s .  Meredith  (28)  reported  t h a t boys i n c r e a s e d i n g r i p s t r e n g t h 359.0 p e r c e n t from s i x t o e i g h t e e n y e a r s of age.  Metheny (2.9) found t h a t g i r l s i n c r e a s e d 260.0  per c e n t i n g r i p s t r e n g t h d u r i n g a comparable growth p e r i o d .  Kintis  (30) found t h a t a c h i l d ' s s t r e n g t h i n c r e a s e d p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y t o w e i g h t a t each grade l e v e l e x c e p t i n grades 3 and 4 where s t r e n g t h remained constant  r e l a t i v e t o weight.  Gates (31) d i s c o v e r e d w i t h a s a m p l i n g of  j u n i o r p r i m a r y f o u r t h grade p u p i l s , g r i p s t r e n g t h c o r r e l a t e d .45 w i t h  18  h e i g h t , and .40 w i t h w e i g h t .  Crampton (32) b e l i e v e s growth r a t e s a r e  dependent upon pubescence p e r i o d s and n o t age, and t h a t a c c e l e r a t i o n s i n w e i g h t , h e i g h t and s t r e n g t h occur a t t h e same time. Heebol-Nielson  Asmussen and  (33) f e l t t h e g a i n s i n m u s c u l a r s t r e n g t h o f boys they  t e s t e d was s u g g e s t i v e of t h e o p e r a t i o n o f some u n i d e n t i f i e d m a t u r a t i o n a l influence.  Y e t Baldwin  (34) i n h i s s t u d i e s found r i g h t g r i p s t r e n g t h  and c h r o n o l o g i c a l age had a c o r r e l a t i o n of .762 f o r boys between t h e ages o f seven and f i f t e e n y e a r s .  J o h n s o n (35) s u b s t a n t i a t e d B a l d w i n ' s  f i n d i n g s w i t h a c o r r e l a t i o n o f .765 f o r boys between t h e ages o f 3 n d a  .13 y e a r s f o r t h e same two v a r i a b l e s .  I n R a r i c k and O y s t e r ' s (36)  s t u d y , of t h e f o u r p h y s i c a l m a t u r i t y i n d i c a t o r s employed, c h r o n o l o g i c a l age was t h e most i m p o r t a n t Baldwin  i n e x p l a i n i n g the variance i n strength.  (37) o b t a i n e d  c o r r e l a t i o n s between g r i p s t r e n g t h and  h e i g h t , w e i g h t and b r e a t h i n g c a p a c i t y and found the r e l a t i o n s h i p between b o y s ' g r i p s t r e n g t h and w e i g h t was more m e a n i n g f u l than between s t r e n g t h and h e i g h t .  F o r g i r l s , t h e o p p o s i t e was t r u e .  Metheny (29) was concerned w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f g r i p s t r e n g t h t o age, h e i g h t , w e i g h t , upper arm g i r t h , and b r e a t h i n g c a p a c i t y . She a r r i v e d a t c o r r e l a t i o n s o f .75 or b e t t e r between g r i p s t r e n g t h and h e i g h t , b r e a t h i n g c a p a c i t y , w e i g h t , and age f o r b o t h  sexes.  The q u e s t i o n of "handedness" and w h i c h i s t h e s t r o n g e r hand has i n t e r e s t e d H e i n l e i n , J o h n s o n and M a r t i n t o name b u t a few.  Hein-  l e i n (38) found 61.7 p e r c e n t o f h e r sample were c o n s i s t e n t l y " r i g h t handed", 3.3 per c e n t were c o n s i s t e n t l y " l e f t - h a n d e d " , and 35.0 p e r c e n t  19  were i n c o n s i s t e n t .  J o h n s o n (35) discovered, a s i g n i f i c a n t tendency  toward a m b i d e x t e r i t y age.  M a r t i n (39)  or r i g h t - h a n d e d n e s s \ j i t h i n c r e a s i n g c h r o n o l o g i c a l  c o n c l u d e d the p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e between the  s i d e s of t h e body a r e n e i t h e r c o n s t a n t e r r o r , and equally  t h e r e f o r e the two  serious  s i d e s of the body can be assumed t o  be  strong. C a r p e n t e r (AO)  .24  enough t o p r e s e n t any  two  e s t a b l i s h e d c o r r e l a t i o n s of .38 f o r boys  and  f o r g i r l s between g r i p s t r e n g t h and motor a b i l i t y of c h i l d r e n . 4.  CARDIOVASCULAR APPRAISAL  Cardiovascular  c o n d i t i o n r e f e r s t o the e f f i c i e n c y w i t h w h i c h  the h e a r t and b l o o d v e s s e l s f u n c t i o n i n t r a n s p o r t i n g f u e l and waste products.  Cardiovascular  t e s t s attempt to appraise  removing  heart-lung  e f f i c i e n c y d u r i n g or a f t e r some s p e c i f i c amount of p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e . A sub-maximal work t a s k was  used i n t h i s s t u d y .  Maximal work, t a s k s  a r e n o t s u i t a b l e f o r c l i n i c a l use because they demand an e f f o r t by the s u b j e c t ( 4 1 ) . determination  'all-out'  Too much depends upon the w i l l - p o w e r  and  of the s u b j e c t , w h i c h v a r y e x t e n s i v e l y between i n d i v i -  duals. Sjostrand  (42) d e f i n e s w o r k i n g c a p a c i t y as the maximum amount  of work t h a t can be performed on a b i c y c l e , and measured by an  ergcmeter,  under a s t e a d y s t a t e . Adams (43) p r e f e r s e x p r e s s i n g working capacity.  the r e s u l t s of f i t n e s s t e s t s as  This enables a subject to evaluate h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n s p e c i a l programmes.  Comparison of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h each other  and  20  i with a group is also feasible. Pulse and respiratory rates are the most suitable indicators of working capacity, feels Wahlund (44).  Sjostrand (42) reports that  pulse rate is as accurate an index of working capacity and physical fitness as other more complicated measurements of maximum oxygen uptake and cardiac output.  Cumming (45) reported that the determination of  oxygen consumption would appear to offer no particular advantages, and physical working capacity of children may be determined with confidence by simply determining the pulse rate at known work loads.  Cummi.hg(41)  states that the pulse rate is based on the simple fact that the welltrained individual is able to perform a given work load at a lower pulse rate than the untrained individuals.  Cumming (45) in another study-  warns that the working capacity of those in poor condition may be slightly under-estimated when pulse rate methods are used. Several investigators have shown that before puberty, boys are superior in cardiorespiratory endurance capacity than girls (46).  Heb-  belink (46) says individual differences are due in part to the development of s k i l l with age that influences the efficiency of movement. Sjostrand (42) contends that cardiac output increase is dependent upon the physical fitness of the individual.  The working capaci-  ties in a group of private school children exposed to more physical training, states Cumming (41),  tended to be higher than average.  Orban (47) found the heart frequency increased with increased exercise j  intensity and heart frequency rose rapidly following the third minute of  21  exercise but at a d e c e l e r a t i n g rate as the exercise i n t e n s i t y and v a l increased.  inter-  Adams (43) resolved working capacity increased w i t h  age, height, weight, heart volume, surface, area, and degree of p h y s i c a l training. The graded exercise, on a t r e a d m i l l has the advantage over most t e s t s i n that i t permits the study of various p h y s i o l o g i c a l parameters before, during, and a f t e r c a l i b r a t e d exercise (43).  Ericson  et a l (48) i n an extensive experiment p e r t a i n i n g to the energy cost of t r e a d m i l l walking, has demonstrated the advantages of the t r e a d m i l l i n the study of f i t n e s s and cardiovascular a n a l y s i s .  REFERENCES  1.  P a t t e r s o n , D.G. P h y s i q u e and I n t e l l e c t , New Y o r k , A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y C r o f t s , I n c . , 1930.  2.  S i l l s , F.D. A n t h r o p o m e t r y i n R e l a t i o n t o P h y s i c a l P e r f o r m a n c e , S c i e n c e and M e d i c i n e of E x e r c i s e and S p o r t s , New Y o r k , Harper & B r o t h e r s P u b l i s h e r s , 1960, pp. 40-53.  3.  R a r i c k , G.L., E x e r c i s e and Growth, S c i e n c e and M e d i c i n e of E x e r c i s e and Growth, New Y o r k , Harper & B r o t h e r s P u b l i s h e r s , 1960, p.441.  4.  C l a r k , K.H., P e t e r s o n , K.H., C o n t r a s t of M a t u r a t i o n a l , S t r u c t u r a l , and S t r e n g t h C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of A t h l e t e s and N o n a t h l e t e s 10 t o 15 y e a r s o f Age, The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 32, No. 2, May 1961, pp. 163-176.  5.  C a r p e n t e r , A., The Measurement o f G e n e r a l M o t o r C a p a c i t y and G e n e r a l M o t o r A b i l i t y i n t h e F i r s t Three G r a d e s , The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 13, No. 4, December 1942.  6.  C u r e t o n , T.K. A n a l y s i s o f V i t a l C a p a c i t y as a T e s t of C o n d i t i o n f o r H i g h S c h o o l Boys, The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V, 7, No. 4, December 1936-, pp. 80-92.  7.  M c C l o y , C.H,, Young N.D., T e s t s and Measurements i n H e a l t h and Phys i c a l E d u c a t i o n , New Y o r k , A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , I n c . 1954 ( t h i r d e d i t i o n ) pp. 384-395. •  8.  De L o t t o , M. , The E f f e c t s o f C o m p e t i t i v e A t h l e t i c s on t h e Growth and Development o f P r e - P u b e s c e n t Boys, D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, 1954.  9.  C l a r k e , H.H., H a r r i s o n , J.C.E., D i f f e r e n c e s i n P h y s i c a l and M o t o r T r a i t s between Boys of Advanced, N o r m a l , and R e t a r d e d M a t u r i t y , The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 33, No. 1, March 1962, pp. 13-25.  10.  G r e u l i c h , W.W. S k e l e t a l S t a t u s and P h y s i c a l Growth, Dynamics o f t h e Growth P r o c e s s , N . J . , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1950.  11.  Todd, T.W., A t l a s of S k e l e t a l M a t u r a t i o n ,  S t . L o u i s , C.V. Mosby Co.,  1937.  12.  Simmons, K. G r e u l i c h , W.W., M e n a r c h a l Age and t h e H e i g h t , Weight and S k e l e t a l Age o f G i r l s , Age 7-17 Y e a r s , J o u r n a l o f P e d i a t r i c s , V. 22, 1943, pp. 518-54S.  23  13.  B a y e r , L.M. , B a y l e y , N. Growth D i a g n o s i s C h i c a g o , U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1959.  14.  Hindmarch, R.G., S i g n i f i c a n c e of P h y s i q u e , M a t u r a t i o n a l , Body S i z e , S t r e n g t h , M o t o r A b i l i t y , a.nd R e a c t i o n Time C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of E i g h t Y e a r O l d Boys, M i c r o c a r d e d D o c t o r a l ' D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, 1962.  15.  Rowe, F.A., Growth Comparison of A t h l e t e s and N o n - A t h l e t e s , The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 4, 1933, p. 108.  16.  Krogman, W.M. , F a c t o r s of P h y s i c a l Growth of C h i l d r e n as They May Apply to P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Health, P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , and R e c r e a t i o n P r o c e e d i n g s , 1954, p. 60.  17.  F a i t , H., An A n a l y t i c a l Study of t h e E f f e c t s of C o m p e t i t i v e A t h l e t i c s Upon J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l Boya, M i c r o c a r d e d D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, 1951.  18.  W h i t t l e , H.D., E f f e c t s of E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Upon A s p e c t s of P h y s i c a l , Motor,- and P e r s o n a l i t y Development, The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V..32, N o . 2 , May 1962, pp. 249-260.  19.  Espenshade, A., Development of M o t o r C o o r d i n a t i o n i n Boys and G i r l s , The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 18, No. 1, March 1947, pp. 31-44.  .20..  Kane, R . J . , M e r e d i t h , H.V. , A b i l i t y i n the S t a n d i n g Broad Jump of E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l C h i l d r e n 7, 9, and 11 Y e a r s of Age, The - R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 23, No. 2, May 1952, pp. 198-208.  21„  M c C l o y , C.H., The I n f l u e n c e of C h r o n o l o g i c a l Age on M o t o r P e r f o r mance, The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 6, No. 2, May 1935, pp. 61-64.  -22.  R a r i c k , G.L., O y s t e r , N., P h y s i c a l M a t u r i t y , M u s c u l a r S t r e n g t h and Motor Performance of Young School-Age Boys, The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 35, No. 4, December 1964, pp. 523-531."  23.  S e i l s , L.G., The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Measures of P h y s i c a l Growth and G r o s s Motor P e r f o r m a n c e of P r i m a r y - G r a d e S c h o o l C h i l d r e n , The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 22, No. 2, May 1951, pp. 244-260.  24.  J e n k i n s , L.M., A Comparative Study of M o t o r achievements of C h i l d r e n of F i v e , S i x , and Seven Y e a r s of Age, New Y o r k ; T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1930.  25.  G o v a t o s , L.A. R e l a t i o n s h i p s and Age D i f f e r e n c e s i n Growth and M o t o r S k i l l s , C h i l d Development, V. 30, 1959.  Measures  24  26.  S a r g e n t , D.A., S t r e n g t h T e s t s and the S t r o n g Men of H a r v a r d , A i g e r i can P h y s i o l o g i c a l E d u c a t i o n Review, 11:108.  27.  B o o k w a l t e r , K.W., G r i p S t r e n g t h Norms f o r M a l e s , The Q u a r t e r l y , V. 21, October 1950, pp. 249-273.  Research -  28.. M e r e d i t h , H.V., The Rhythm of P h y s i c a l Growth: A Study of E i g h t e e n A n t h r o p o m e t r i c Measurements on Iowa C i t y W h i t e Males Ranging I n Age Between B i r t h and E i g h t e e n Y e a r s . U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa S t u d . , S t u d , i n C h i l d W e l f a r e , 11:3 ( 1 9 3 5 ) , p. 128. 29.  Metheny, E. B r e a t h i n g C a p a c i t y and G r i p S t r e n g t h of P r e - s c h o o l C h i l d r e n . U n i v . Iowa S t u d . , S t u d , i n C h i l d W e l f a r e , 18:2 . (1941) pp. 207.  30.  K i n t i s , P.F. P a t t e r n s of Growth i n S t r e n g t h of E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l Boys. M i c r o c a r d e d T h e s i s (M.S.). U n i v e r s i t y of W i s c o n s i n , 1953.  31.  G a t e s , A . J . , The N a t u r e and E d u c a t i o n a l S i g n i f i c a . n c e of P h y s i c a l S t a t u s and of M e n t a l , P h y s i o l o g i c a l , S o c i a l and E m o t i o n a l M a t u r i t y . J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 15:1924.  32.  Crampton, C.W. P h y s i o l o g i c a l Age — Development, 15:3-47, 1944.  33.  Asmussen, E., and H e e b o l - N i e l s o n , K. A D i m e n s i o n a l A n a l y s i s of P h y s i c a l Performance and Growth i n Boys. J . A p p l . P h y s i o l . 6:585-92, 1955.  34.  B a l d w i n , B.T. A n t h r o p o m e t r i c Measurements. ( I n ) Terma.n, L.M. , G e n e t i c S t u d i e s of G e n i u s , V. I , M e n t a l and P h y s i c a l T r a i t s of a Thousand G i f t e d C h i l d r e n . S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1926.  35.  Johnson, B. M e n t a l Growth of C h i l d r e n i n R e l a t i o n t o the R a t e of Growth i n B o d i l y Development. A R e p o r t of the Bureau of Educ a t i o n a l E x p e r i m e n t s , New Y o r k C i t y : E.P. D u t t o n , 1925.  36.  R a r i c k , G.L., and O y s t e r , N. P h y s i c a l M a t u r i t y , M u s c u l a r S t r e n g t h , and Motor Performance of Young School-Age Boys, The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 35, December, 1964, pp. 523-531.  37.  B a l d w i n , B.T. The P h y s i c a l Growth of C h i l d r e n from B i r t h t o M a t u r i t y . Univ.; Iowa S t u d . , S t u d , i n C h i l d W e l f a r e , 1:1 (1921) pp. 411.  38.  H e i n l e i n , J.H. A Study of D e x t r a l i t y i n C h i l d r e n . J . Genet. P s y c h o l . , 36: 91-119, 1929.  A Fundamental P r i n c i p l e .  Child  5  Ped. Sem.  and  25  39.. M a r t i n , Gordon E. Muscular Strength and Muscular Symmetry i n Human Beings -- American J o u r n a l of Physiology; 67-73, May 1918. 40.  Carpenter, A. Tests of Motor E d u c a b i l i t y f o r the F i r s t Three Grades. C h i l d Development, 4:293-299, 1940,  41.  Curcming, G.R. and Cumraing, P.M., Working Capacity of Normal Children Tested on a B i c y c l e Ergometer. Can. Med. Assoc. J . Feb. 16, 1963, V o l . 88: 351-355.  42.- Sjostrand, T.  Acta., Med. Scand. (Suppl. 196), 128: 687, 1947.  43.  Adams, F.A. , Linde, L.L. and Miyake, H., The P h y s i c a l Working Capacity of Normal School Children. P e d i a t r i c s , 28: 55-64, J u l y , 1961.  44.  Wahlund, H. Determination of the P h y s i c a l Working Capacity. Med. Scand. (Suppl. 815), 132: 74, 1948.  45.  Cumming, G.R. and Danzinger, R., B i c y c l e Ergometer Studies i n C h i l dren. P e d i a t r i c s , 32: 202-208, August, 1963.  46.  Hebbelink, D.M. E x e r c i s e Tolerance of 6-10 Years Old Children and the Development of P h y s i c a l Performance Capacity. Gymnasiqn, I I I , 1966.  47.  Orban, W.A.R., B a i l e y , D.A. and Bolonchuk, W. A n a l y s i s of Selected Cardio-Pulmonary V a r i a b l e s of Young Boys i n an "All-Out Exerc i s e " . Unpublished Paper.  48.  E r i c k s o n , L., Simonson, E., Taylor, H.L., Alexander, H. and Keys, A. The Energy Cost of H o r i z o n t a l and Grade Walking on the MotorDriven T r e a d m i l l , American Journal of .Physiology. 145: 391401, 1946.  Acta.  CHAPTER I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURES  '  The methods and p r o c e d u r e s employed i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f two types o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programmes a r e d e s c r i b e d i n this  chapter. The 1.  e x p e r i m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s used were:  P h y s i c a l Development (a)  Anthropometrical  measurements:  height, weight, thigh  g i r t h , upper arm g i r t h , l u n g c a p a c i t y . (b)  Maturity:  band-wrist  2.  M o t o r A b i l i t y and A g i l i t y :  3.  Strength;  ,4.  Cardiovascular A p p r a i s a l :  '  x-ray. s h u t t l e r u n , s t a n d i n g broad jump.  f l e x e d arm b a r hang, g r i p s t r e n g t h .  !•  submaximal work t a s k .  PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT  Height T h i s i s t h e measurement o f e r e c t body l e n g t h f r o m t h e s o l e s of t h e f e e t t o t h e v e r t e x . p l a n e a t r i g h t angles bare f e e t stands  The head i s h e l d w i t h t h e t r a g i o n - o r b i t a l e  t o the l o n g a x i s o f t h e body.  The s u b j e c t w i t h  e r e c t w i t h h e e l s a l m o s t t o u c h i n g each o t h e r .  Heels,  b u t t o c k s , upper p a r t o f the back, and r e a r o f t h e head a r e i n c o n t a c t w i t h the w a l l t o which the s c a l e i s attached  (woven-type t a p e ) .  The  arms hang a t t h e s i d e s i n a n a t u r a l manner.  A squared wooden b l o c k i s  p l a c e d f i r m l y on t h e head and a g a i n s t t h e w a l l i n a h o r i z o n t a l manner.  27  One measurement was t a k e n p r e c e d i n g and one. a f t e r the e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d , t o the n e a r e s t q u a r t e r (1/4) i n c h .  Weight The measuring i n s t r u m e n t was a beam-type p l a t f o r m s c a l e .  The  s u b j e c t i n gym s h o r t s and top and bare f e e t stood.on the c e n t e r of the platform.  One measurement was t a k e n p r e c e d i n g and one a f t e r the e x p e r i -  m e n t a l p e r i o d t o the n e a r e s t h a l f (1/2) pound.  Thigh G i r t h The m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t was a woven-type tape.  The measure-  ment was t a k e n of t h e g i r t h of the l e f t t h i g h a t the l e v e l of the maximum p r o j e c t i o n of the m e d i a l s u r f a c e below the g l u t e a l s u l c u s and a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o the l o n g a x i s of t h e t h i g h .  The s u b j e c t stands w i t h  f e e t a p a r t ( s o t h a t t h e m e d i a l s u r f a c e s of the thighs a r e n o t t o u c h i n g ) and w i t h h i s w e i g h t e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d over b o t h f e e t .  The c o n t a c t of  the tape on the s k i n i s f i r m b u t w i t h o u t i n d e n t i n g the s k i n .  One  measurement was t a k e n p r e c e d i n g and one a f t e r the e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d to  t h e n e a r e s t e i g h t h (1/8) of an i n c h .  Upper Arm G i r t h The m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t was a woven-type tape.  Maximum  g i r t h of t h e l e f t arm i s e s t i m a t e d a t the g r e a t e s t " b u l g e " o f the b i c e p s muscle.  T h i s p o i n t was determined  by an a l l out f l e x i o n of the l e f t  and t h e h i g h e s t p o i n t o f t h e " b u l g e " marked w i t h an i n k d o t .  During  arm,  28  the measurement the s u b j e c t stands i n a n a t u r a l manner w i t h t h e arms hanging  r e l a x e d a t the s i d e s of the body.  When the measurement i s  taken c a r e must be t a k e n n o t t o compress the t i s s u e w i t h the tape. measurement was  One  t a k e n p r e c e d i n g and one a f t e r the e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d  to the n e a r e s t e i g h t h (1/8) of an i n c h .  Lung C a p a c i t y The m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t was  the s t a n d a r d We--t  Spirometer  of  400 c u b i c i n c h c a p a c i t y , w i t h an exchangeable mouthpiece of t h r e e e i g h t h s (3/8) of an i n c h i n n e r d i a m e t e r .  B e f o r e the t e s t the s u b j e c t s  were shown the p r o p e r f o r m w i t h an e x p l a n a t i o n of the c o r r e c t p r o c e d u r e . E a c h s u b j e c t then had one p r a c t i c e t r i a l .  The. s u b j e c t s were i n s t r u c t e d  to t a k e two or t h r e e deep b r e a t h s ( h y p e r v e n t i l a t e ) b e f o r e the t e s t trials.  Three t e s t t r i a l s were g i v e n t o each s u b j e c t b e f o r e and  the experimental p e r i o d .  The h i g h e s t s c o r e was  recorded i n cubic  inches.  X-ray Roentgenogram s p e c i f i c a t i o n s : Type of x - r a y machine:  M a c h l e t t Dynomex 500,  60 c y c l e s  operation. 2.  S i z e of f i l m :  3.  Focal f i l m distance:  4.  Amerage ( m i l l i a m p e r e s ) :  5.  Voltage:  45  8 x 10 i n c h e s I l f e x  KVP  40 i n c h e s 100  (non-screen)  after  29  6.  Exposure time:  7.  Developing  process:  laboratory  preparation.)  The the x - r a y was  3/10  second 5 minutes a t 68°F (Ansco Chemicals  s u b j e c t s were seated w i t h t h e i r r i g h t arms r e s t i n g  table i n a flexed  p o s i t i o n palm down.  One  taken of the r i g h t hand of each s u b j e c t a f t e r  pre-  on  roentgenograph  the  experimental  period.  2  Shuttle  -  MOTOR ABILITY AND  AGILITY  Run The measuring i n s t r u m e n t s were two wooden b l o c k s  i n c h e s ) and  one  stop watch c a l i b r a t e d  d i s t a n c e of the run i s 120 position  feet  runs  p l a c e d a few and  i n f o u r 30 f o o t p o r t i o n s .  30 f e e t  to a l i n e  inches apart.  Same procedure  procedure. trial. The  forehead  The  s u b j e c t then p i c k s up one  are  of the b l o c k s  and p l a c e s the b l o c k beyond t h a t  line.  f o r the second b l o c k , o n l y t h i s time the b l o c k i s c a r r i e d  the f i n i s h  Before  starting  beyond which the two wooden b l o c k s  line.  Measurement i s i n seconds to the n e a r e s t  of a second from the s t a r t i n g s i g n a l line.  The  The  On a g i v e n command the s u b j e c t jumps t o  runs back to the s t a r t i n g l i n e  through  of a second.  i s l y i n g f a c e down, hands a t the s i d e s of the c h e s t ,  p l a c e d on the s t a r t i n g l i n e . f e e t and  to one-tenth  ( 2 x 3 x 3  testing,  Two  until  the s u b j e c t c r o s s e s the  e x p l a n a t i o n and d e m o n s t r a t i o n  was  g i v e n on  tenth finish the  t r i a l s were p e r m i t t e d , w i t h a s h o r t r e s t between each  Measurements were taken b e f o r e and  best time a c h i e v e d was  recorded  after  the e x p e r i m e n t a l  on each o c c a s i o n .  period.  30  Standing Broad Jump The items of equipment used for the measuring were one 6 foot tumbling mat and one woven-type tape. feet from the mat.  The take-off line was marked two  The subject assumed a position with feet slightly  apart and the toes behind the take-off line.  The distance jumped was  measured from the take-off line to the point of contact on the mat to the nearest one half (%) inch for the best of three t r i a l s .  The sub-  jects received an explanation and demonstration of the procedure and were allowed one practice t r i a l before the actual test.  Measurements  were taken before and after the experimental period. 3.  STRENGTH  Flexed Arm Bar Hang The equipment consisted of a doorway gym bar placed five feet above the floor and one stopwatch.  The subject reverse grasped the bar  (palms toward face) and was assisted in pulling himself to the bar so that his eyes were at the level of the bar.  The arms were fully flexed.  The assistance was withdrawn; the stopwatch was started and was stopped when the subj-ect's head dropped below the level of the bar. was recorded to the nearest one tenth of a second. and verbal encouragement was given.  The time  One t r i a l was allowed  Measurements were taken before and  after the experimental period. Grip Strength One Narragansett Hand Manuometer of 200 pound maximum was used.  The subject stood on the floor, feet approximately shoulder  31  w i d t h a p a r t , h e l d the d i a l f a c i n g i n w a r d , i . e . d i a l was The  p a l m - s i d e down.  s u b j e c t squeezed the manuometer u s i n g a sweeping a c t i o n of the  downward, from s h o u l d e r l e v e l i n the s a g i t a l p l a n e .  arm  A t no time was  he  a l l o w e d - t o c o n t a c t h i s body or any o b j e c t around him w i t h the manuometer and the hand b e i n g t e s t e d .  The  s u b j e c t was  a l l o w e d two t r i a l s w i t h  each hand, the b e s t performance of each was  r e c o r d e d to the n e a r e s t  pound and v e r b a l encouragement was  used.  Measurements were t a k e n be-  f o r e and a f t e r the e x p e r i m e n t a l period."" -'•  4.  CARDIOVASCULAR APPRAISAL  Submaximal Work Task A r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l e d no r e f e r e n c e t o submaximal work t a s k s on a t r e a d m i l l a p p l i c a b l e t o c h i l d r e n between the ages of f i v e and e l e v e n y e a r s .  The  submaximal x^ork t a s k employed i n t h i s  study  r e s u l t e d from a p i l o t p r o j e c t i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n , comparable i n age, h e i g h t , and w e i g h t t o the s u b j e c t s , were used.  T r i a l runs were made  w i t h v a r i o u s speeds and grades u n t i l the p r e s e n t method was The c r i t e r i a b e i n g t h a t a l o a d was  determined.  p l a c e d on the c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y s y s -  tem w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o make the c h i l d r e n r u n on the t r e a d m i l l . The measuring (Model 2 4 - 7 2 ) ,  d e v i c e s employed were one Q u i n t o n T r e a d m i l l  one Sanborn 500 V i s o - C a r d i e t t e , one ECG  Telemetering  T r a n s m i t t e r (Model 27r>l), one ECG P.adio T e l e m e t r y R e c e i v e r (Model RC-27) , two s e t s of Beckmari s k i n e l e c t r o d e s , p l u s the n e c e s s a r y t a p e , s c i s s o r s , a l c o h o l , c o n d u c t i n g g e l and  stopwatches.  32  One  e l e c t r o d e was  p l a c e d on the upper s t e r n u n and t h e o t h e r  on the f i f t h i n t e r c o s t a l space under the l e f t n i p p l e . were w i r e d t o the T r a n s m i t t e r , -which was the w a i s t . t u r n was  electrodes  a t t a c h e d t o a b e l t worn around  The h e a r t b e a t s were p i c k e d up by the R e c e i v e r , w h i c h i n  connected  t o the V i s e - C a r d i e t t e .  A d e m o n s t r a t i o n was walking.on  The  g i v e n and each s u b j e c t e x p e r i e n c e d  the t r e a d m i l l a t the a s s i g n e d speed p r i o r t o t h e a c t u a l  testing. The  s u b j e c t was  p l a c e d on the l o a d i n g s h e l f of t h e  treadmill  w h i l e f i n a l adjustments  were made t o the equipment and a s t a n d i n g -  r e s t i n g p u l s e r a t e was  taken.  The  t r e a d m i l l was  s t a r t e d a t the s p e c i f i e d speed, the s u b j e c t  l i f t e d and p l a c e d upon the moving b e l t . ing  He was  a l l o w e d t o h o l d the  rail-  e n c i r c l i n g the f r o n t h a l f of the t r e a d m i l l u n t i l he was w a l k i n g  fidently.  The  s u b j e c t them w a l k e d f o r t h r e e m i n u t e s on a z e r o p e r  concent  grade a t 2.5 m i l e s per hour f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n , 3.0 m i l e s per hour f o r grade to  too.  A t the end of the t h i r d m i n u t e , the e l e v a t i o n was  an e i g h t p e r c e n t grade, and  h e a r t r a t e was  monitored  increased  the o r i g i n a l speed was m a i n t a i n e d .  each m i n u t e ( a f t e r t h e t h i r d m i n u t e of z e r o  grade w a l k i n g ) on an e l e c t r o c a r d i o g r a m .  W i t h the onset of a steady  s t a t e (+ 4 b e a t s per m i n u t e ) , u s u a l l y a f t e r the. 8 t h t o 9 t h minute of w a l k i n g , the s u b j e c t was work t a s k was  removed f r o m the t r e a d m i l l .  The  submaximal  a d m i n i s t e r e d a t the end of the e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d .  The  33  SUBJECTS The s u b j e c t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e study were 100 c h i l d r e n , i n k i n d e r g a r t e n and grade too, from S i r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e Elementary  School.  No c h i l d who had a known p h y s i c a l d e f o r m i t y or d i s e a s e was i n c l u d e d i n the s t u d y .  The e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups i n each grade l e v e l  were s e l e c t e d randomly.  The homogeneity of t h e groups was v e r i f i e d by  the W e t z e l G r i d D e v e l o p m e n t a l L e v e l s , t h e r e s u l t s shown i n T a b l e I . The s u b j e c t s came f r o m f a m i l i e s of below average t o moderate socioeconomic  s t a t u s . . A l s o , t h e s u b j e c t s were a m i x t u r e , of s e v e r a l .  ethnic origins.  I t i s apparent  t h a t t h i s sample c o n s t i t u t e s an a t y p i -  c a l group and t h e r e f o r e t h e f i n d i n g s cannot be g e n e r a l i z e d t o o t h e r school populations. DESIGN OF THE STUDY The c h i l d r e n of t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups p a r t i c i p a t e d i n two d i f f e r e n t programmes of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . groups,  The c o n t r o l  taught by t h e r e g u l a r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , f o l l o w e d the programme  o u t l i n e d i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Guide and C u r r i c u lum.  The c l a s s e s r e c e i v e d t w o , . f o r t y minute p e r i o d s of i n s t r u c t i o n p e r  week.  The e x p e r i m e n t a l groups f o l l o w e d a programme d e s i g n e d and t a u g h t  by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . i n s t r u c t i o n p e r week. pendix,  Grade .too r e c e i v e d t h r e e , f o r t y m i n u t e p e r i o d s of The programme o u t l i n e s are. p r e s e n t e d i n t h e Ap-  The l e n g t h of t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d was f i f t e e n weeks f o r  grade too and t w e l v e weeks f o r k i n d e r g a r t e n , w i t h an i n t e r r u p t i o n o f too weeks, a f t e r t h e seventh week, f o r t h e Christmas v a c a t i o n .  34  TESTING The  t e s t i n g was  done by p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n m a j o r s of the U n i -  v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. of the study was  regarded  T h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the t e s t i n g phase  as a l a b o r a t o r y assignment of a s e n i o r y e a r  t e s t s and measurement c o u r s e o f f e r e d by The S c h o o l of P h y s i c a l Educat i o n and R e c r e a t i o n . testing.  The  i n v e s t i g a t o r s u p e r v i s e d a l l s t a g e s of the  E x c e p t i o n t o the above was  w r i s t x - r a y w h i c h was  conducted  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the hand-  by a p r o f e s s i o n a l x - r a y t e c h n i c i a n  employed by The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia H e a l t h S e r v i c e . The r e l i a b i l i t y of the t e s t i n g procedure was thorough  a s s u r e d by a  i n s t r u c t i o n g i v e n t o the t e s t e r s , and by a d e m o n s t r a t i o n  of  a l l t e s t items. F o r t e s t i n g , the items were d i v i d e d i n t o two groups:  one  group of t e s t s was' a d m i n i s t e r e d i n the morning, the o t h e r group o f t e s t s was  a d m i n i s t e r e d i n the a f t e r n o o n , a f t e r a one hour l u n c h p e r i o d .  The m o r n i n g group of t e s t s c o n s i s t e d of bar hang, h e i g h t , w e i g h t , s t a n d i n g broad jump. l a r a p p r a i s a l t e s t was  and  W h i l e these items were measured, the c a r d i o v a s c u administered.  The a f t e r n o o n group of t e s t s  s i s t e d of g i r t h s , hand g r i p s , l u n g c a p a c i t y and s h u t t l e r u n . these items were measured, the h a n d - w r i s t x - r a y was I n i t i a l t e s t i n g of the c o n t r o l groups was  con-  While  taken. not administered.  A l l c h i l d r e n of the e x p e r i m e n t a l groups were t e s t e d i n i t i a l l y .  For  the  f i n a l t e s t s , t e n c h i l d r e n , s e l e c t e d randomly f r o m each grade, from b o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups, were t e s t e d .  The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the  s u b j e c t s as t o grade, number, and sex i s o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e I I .  35  STATISTICAL METHODS A l l c a l c u l a t i o n s were done by computer.  The means and s t a n -  d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r a l l e x p e r i m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s were c a l c u l a t e d and t h e . s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f t h e means was d e t e r m i n e d : f e r e n c e between t h e means was then computed.  t h e t - r a t i o of t h e d i f The r e l a t i o n of v a r i a b l e s  was determined by t h e P e a r s o n P r o d u c t Moment c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n . The r e s u l t s o f t h e two groups were compared t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e .  The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l  t e s t s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l groups was c a l c u l a t e d .  CHAPTER I V RESULTS  The t a b l e s summarizing t h e t e s t r e s u l t s and c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e grouped i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g 1.  Categories:  P h y s i c a l Development:  h e i g h t , w e i g h t , l u n g c a p a c i t y , arm  and t h i g h g i r t h s , c h r o n o l o g i c a l 2.  Motor A b i l i t y and A g i l i t y :  and s k e l e t a l ages.  s h u t t l e r u n and s t a n d i n g  broad  jump. 3.  Strength:  4.  Cardiovascular  f l e x e d arm b a r hang, g r i p Appraisal:  strength.  submaximal work t a s k .  The d i f f e r e n c e between means i s s i g n i f i c a n t when t h e probability  i s h i g h t h a t t h e r e s u l t cannot be a t t r i b u t e d t o chance, and i t i s  c o n s i d e r e d n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t when i t appears t h a t t h e r e s u l t may have a r i s e n f r o m normal f l u c t u a t i o n or chance. I n t h i s s t u d y , the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e means was s i g n i f i a t t h e .05  cant:  t s 2.11;  t-  l e v e l w i t h a) d f = 20,  and a t t h e .01  t = 2.09,  l e v e l w i t h a) d f = 20,  17,  and b) d f =  t = 2.84,  and b) d f =  2.90. C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were s i g n i f i c a n t :  when a) N = 11, d f = 8,  r = .63;  b) N = 9,  d f = 9,  r = .60,  and a t t h e .01  d f = 7, r = .80,  b) N = 9,  d f = 7,  r = .66,  l e v e l when a) N = 11,  c) N - 11,  d f = 8, r =  a t t h e .05  .77.  level  c) N =  d f = 9,  r =  10, .74,  17,  37  The The  reporting  of the r e s u l t s i s divided  i n t o two s e c t i o n s .  f i r s t s e c t i o n , T a b l e s I I I - XIV,- summarize the f i n a l means and c o r -  r e l a t i o n s between t h e t e s t v a r i a b l e s m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups.  employed i n comparing t h e e x p e r i -  The second s e c t i o n , T a b l e s X V - X V I I I ,  illus-  t r a t e t h e improvement made between t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t s o f t h e variables  used i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups.  SECTION I 1.  PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT  T a b l e I I I summarizes t h e f i n a l means and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e f i n a l means of the e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups f o r t h e v a r i a b l e s The  subjects  of h e i g h t , w e i g h t and l u n g  showed g a i n s i n h e i g h t , w e i g h t and l u n g  but no g a i n s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y The  capacity. capacity,  significant.  range o f s c o r e s of h e i g h t and w e i g h t remained r e l a t i v e l y  c o n s t a n t , i n d i c a t i n g no sudden growth changes took p l a c e between t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t  periods.  T a b l e I V summarizes t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f h e i g h t , w e i g h t and lung capacity  to strength,  motor a b i l i t y , m a t u r i t y and w o r k i n g  capacity  factors. H e i g h t v s . w e i g h t showed c o r r e l a t i o n s r a n g i n g f r o m .68 t o .86. B o t h k i n d e r g a r t e n groups had c o r r e l a t i o n s of s i g n i f i c a n c e between h e i g h t and s k e l e t a l age. K i n d e r g a r t e n e x p e r i m e n t a l had an r = .75, and  k i n d e r g a r t e n c o n t r o l had an r = .83 ( s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 and .01  38  levels respectively). W e i g h t c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l e f t arm g i r t h i n every group, r v a l u e s r a n g i n g f r o m .68 t o .88.  Weight c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l e f t t h i g h g i r t h i n  a l l b u t one group, k i n d e r g a r t e n e x p e r i m e n t a l , v a l u e s f r o m .64 t o  .78.  O n l y two groups, k i n d e r g a r t e n e x p e r i m e n t a l and grade two  con-  t r o l , showed c o r r e l a t i o n s of s i g n i f i c a n c e between age and h e i g h t , w i t h v a l u e s of .72 and  .66 r e s p e c t i v e l y ( s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05  level).  TABLE I I I COMPARISON OF THE FINAL MEANS BETWEEN THE EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR HEIGHT, WEIGHT, AND LUNG CAPACITY OF KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO CHILDREN  Test Height  Weight  Lung C a p a c i t y  Grade  Mexp Tl  SDexp 2  x  T  l  Mcont T  T  1  K n=ll  42.95  43.79  2.52  2.56  2 n=9 . K n=ll .  48.27  49.02  1.60  1.59  43.81  44.20  4.85  5.01  2 n=9 K n=ll  54.47  55.86  5.70  7.39  47.90  62.45  12.99  15.53  2 n=9  80.11  86.66  15.87  15.23  Mexp mean o f e x p e r i m e n t a l group SDexp - s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of e x p e r i m e n t a l group Mcont - mean o f c o n t r o l group SDcont - s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f c o n t r o l group  T  42.79  2  43.09  I  SDcont 1  1.93  48.70 41.86  42.18  4.66  55.94 47.63  55.81  87.80 T-^ T^ Mtse* Mtzc  — — — —  12.01  T  Mtze-Mtzc 2  df  t  •  1.91  +0.70  20  0.73  2.21  +0.32  17.  0.36  4.71  +0.02  20  0.97  6.83  -0.08  17  0.02  12.71  +6 .,64  20  1.09  15.22  -1.14  17  0.16  i n i t i a l mean f i n a l mean f i n a l mean o f e x p e r i m e n t a l group f i n a l mean o f c o n t r o l group  TABLE I V CORRELATION OF HEIGHT, WEIGHT AND LUNG CAPACITY TO STRENGTH, MOTOR A B I L I T Y , MATURITY AND WORKING CAPACITY FACTORS OF CHILDREN I N KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO  Grade K-E n=ll  K-C n=ll  2-E n=9  Test Items  2  3  4.  5  6  . 68* 1.00  .04 .68*  -.01 .51.  ..37 .08  .47 .55  .59 .72*  .01  . :. 44  .24  .26  .56 . 85**  . 67* . 64*  .29 -.02  .50 .25  . 75** -.03 .46 -.33  A.57  .50  .01  .27  .21  .34  "r.45  .69* . 88**  . 68* .70*  -  .18 .31  .34 .48  .44 .37  .35  .59  .79**  .24  .49  .56  .30 . 69*  .23. .78**  .37 .37  . 85** ' . 74* . 85** .54  .15 -.08  '+.50. + .26  .39  .34  .31  .68  -.36  + .21  Height Weight Lung Capacity  . 72* .43  I.00 .68*  .76**  .71*  Height Weight Lung Capacity  .34 .08  Height Weight Lung Capa.city  2-C n=I0  1  Height Weight Lung Capacity  -.12 ,-.18 -.09 .12 .66* .27 . .13  1.0 .82**  .46 . 82** 1.00 .56  .59 1.0 . 86**  . 86** 1.00  .51  .56  1.00 .72  .72* 1.00  .53  * **  S i g n i f i c a n t a t 5 percent l e v e l S i g n i f i c a n t a t 1 percent l e v e l  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  Age Height Weight Arm G i r t h Thigh G i r t h S t a n d i n g B r o a d Jump  .58  -.15  7. 8. 9. 10. 11.  ,.28 .29  7  Left Grip Right Grip F l e x e d Arm B a r Hang S h u t t l e Run Lung C a p a c i t y  8  . 74*  9 .55 .35 -. 37  -.15  10  12  13  .71* .46  -.07 .10  -.12 .41  . 75* .44  f ,67* 1.00  • .26  -.44"-  .60*  .59 .56  -.11 -.17  -.78** -.69*  . 83** .47  1.00  -.42  -.59  .26  .28 .17  .51 .56  .22 .06  .36 -.02  .28 .46  .13  1.00  -.36  .37  .37  .53 .58  -.62 -.33  -.61 -.59  .28 .28  1.00  -.02  -.54  -.13  * .37 .03  * .14  12. 13. 14.  11  Standing Heart Rate Steady Heart Rate S k e l e t a l Age  14  41  T a b l e V summarizes t h e f i n a l means and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i f f e r e n c e  between t h e f i n a l means o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l  groups f o r t h e v a r i a b l e s  o f arm and t h i g h  girths.  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found i n t h e means f o r arm and  thigh  girths. I n t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n e x p e r i m e n t a l group, t h e f i n a l g i r t h meas-  urements were l e s s than t h e i n i t i a l g i r t h measurements. T a b l e VT summarizes t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s thigh  g i r t h t o growth, motor a b i l i t y ,  capacity  of l e f t arm and.  left  s t r e n g t h , m a t u r i t y and -working  factors. The  arm and t h i g h  girths correlated  c o n s t a n t l y and s i g n i f i -  c a n t l y w i t h w e i g h t , e x c e p t i n t h e case of t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n e x p e r i m e n t a l thigh  girth. The  arm  and t h i g h  two grade two groups had s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s  between  g i r t h s , b o t h s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l (grade two  e x p e r i m e n t a l , r = .69; grade two c o n t r o l , r ~ . 7 1 ) . A correlation  o f .83, s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l , was n o t e d  between arm g i r t h and steady h e a r t r a t e i n t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n experiment a l group. There was one c o r r e l a t i o n variables,  between arm g i r t h and t h e s t r e n g t h  r = .65 ( g r a d e two c o n t r o l ) ,  t  s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l .  TABLE V COMPARISON OF THE FINAL MEANS BETWEEN THE EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR GIRTHS OF THE LEFT ARM AND LEFT THIGH OF KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO CHILDREN  Mexp  Mcont  SDexp T  T  Test  Grade  Girth  K n=li 2 n=9  6.96  6.95  0.50  0.55  7.00  7.09  0.53.  0.53  K n=ll 2 n=9  12.80  12.68  1.12  1.14  13.30  13.98  1.45  1.46  Thigh  Mexp— SDexpMcontSDcont-  T  l  •" 2 T  1  2  mean o f e x p e r i m e n t a l group s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f e x p e r i m e n t a l group mean o f c o n t r o l group s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f c o n t r o l group  T  1  . 6.72  df  0.43  +0.17  20  0.80  0.52  -0.03  17  0.12  0.67  +0.12  20  0.29  1.01  -0.30  17  0.53  SDcont T, . T 1 2  6.78  0.41  7.12 12.19  Mtze-Mtzc  T '2  12.56  14.28  T^ -T^ — Mtze-Mtzc—  0.64  i n i t i a l meanf i n a l mean f i n a l mean o f e x p e r i m e n t a l group f i n a l mean o f c o n t r o l group  t  TABLE V I  ;  CORRELATION OF LEFT ARM GIRTH AND LEFT THIGH GIRTH TO GROWTH, MOTOR A B I L I T Y , STRENGTH MATURITY AND WORKING CAPACITY FACTORS OF CHILDREN I N KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO ' Grade K-E n=ll K-C n=ll 2-E r.i=9  ?.-C n=10  T e s t Items  1  Arm G i r t h -.07 T h i g h G i r t h -.02 Arm G i r t h -.20 Thigh G i r t h .28 Arm G i r t h -.13 Thigh G i r t h .43 Arm G i r t h -.32 , T h i g h G i r t h [••.21  2 .04 .01 . .56 .67 .69* .68* .30 t  3  4  . 68* .51 . 85** . 64* . 88** .70* . 69* ,.78**}  1.00 .51 1.00 .55 I . 00 .69*  5 .51 1.00 .55 1.00  .69* I'.OO 1.00 .71* .71**! 1.00  6  7  8  -.39 .24 -.23 .10 -.17 .13 .10 .39 .31 .51 .61 .62 ..38 |.65* } .07 1.54  .33  .36 .11 .40 .30 .48 .35 .07  9  10  11  12  13  -.18 .55 .14 .15 .09 , .36 -.01 , ..26 -.42 t .12 .501 + .42 -.23 •r. 12 .23 . 0 1 . .16 i f . 15 .35 .23 .41(J..37 .591 .07 .12 1 *.. 47 .39 .11 .34 .06 I-.03K04 1  r  14  . 83** -.09 .29  +.39  +•.52 + ,07 .14 -*>.05  +•.28  -.20 .15 .68* .57 . 85** .01 .02  S i g n i f i c a n t at.5 percent l e v e l S i g n i f i c a n t a t 1 percent l e v e l 1. Age 2. Height 3. W e i g h t 4. A n a g i r t h 5. T h i g h g i r t h 6. S t a n d i n g broad jump 7. L e f t g r i p  8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.  Right grip F l e x e d arm b a r hang Shuttle run Lung c a p a c i t y . S t a n d i n g hear t r a t e Steady h e a r t r a t e S k e l e t a l Age.  Co  44  T a b l e V I I summarizes t h e f i n a l means and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e f i n a l means o f the e x p e r i m e n t a l and cont r o l groups f o r the v a r i a b l e s of c h r o n o l o g i c a l The c h r o n o l o g i c a l  age and s k e l e t a l age.  age d i f f e r e n c e 'betoeen t h e grade two groups  was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l , t = 2.43.  The s k e l e t a l age d i f f e r e n c e  was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 months, grade two c o n t r o l b e i n g the younger of t h e two  groups. T a b l e V I I I summarizes t h e c o r r e l a t i o n of c h r o n o l o g i c a l age  and s k e l e t a l age t o growth, motor a b i l i t y ,  s t r e n g t h and w o r k i n g  capacity  factors. There were no c o n s t a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s found between t h e s e matu r i t y f a c t o r s and the. o t h e r f a c t o r s  tested.  The c o r r e l a t i o n between s k e l e t a l age a.n.d t h i g h g i r t h (grade too e x p e r i m e n t a l ) had t h e h i g h e s t r ~ .83, s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l . More s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were found between s k e l e t a l age and t h e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s than were n o t e d between c h r o n o l o g i c a l age and t h e same v a r i a b l e s .  TABLE V I I COMPARISON OF THE FINAL MEANS BETWEEN THE EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR CHRONOLOGICAL AGE AND SKELETAL AGE OF KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO CHILDREN •  5.15  5.40 5.62  0.26  0.26 0.63  7.80  8.22 8.55  0.53  0.53 1.76  Age Chronological Skeletal  K n=ll  Age Chronological Skeletal  2 n=9  A  l  S i g n i f i c a n t at 5 percent  Mexp -SDexp-Mcont -SDcont --  SDexp  \  T  *  Mexp  T 2  Grade  Test  \  Mcont T  1  5.25  T  2  5.51 5.50  8.86 7.63  Mtze-Mtzc  df  0.23 0.89  -0.11 +0.12  20 20  1.02 0.37  0.61 1.03  -0.64 +0.92  17 17  2.43* 1.40  SDcont T, T 1 2  0.24  t  level  mean o f e x p e r i m e n t a l group s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f c o n t r o l group mean o f c o n t r o l group s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of c o n t r o l group  T -T£ -Mtze — M t z c --  i n i t i a l mean f i n a l mean f i n a l mean o f e x p e r i m e n t a l group f i n a l mean o f c o n t r o l group  TABLE V I I I CORRELATION OF CHRONOLOGICAL AGE AND SKELETAL AGE TO GROWTH, MOTOR A B I L I T Y , STRENGTH AND WORKING CAPACITY FACTORS OF CHILDREN I N KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TOO  2  1  Grade  T e s t Items  K-E  C h r o n o l . age  n=ll  S k e l e t a l age  K-C  C h r o n o l . age  1.00  n=ll  S k e l e t a l age  .55  2-E  C h r o n o l . age  1.00  n=9  S k e l e t a l age  .58  2-C  C h r o n o l . age  1.00  n=10  S k e l e t a l age  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  . 72*  .43  -.07  -.23  .51  .67*  .52  .57  -.68*  .76**  .09  4-.23  . 75**  .44  -.09  -.20 '  . 68*  .57  .56  .39  -.70*  .60*  + .06  + .14  1.00  .34  .08  -.20  -.12  .37  .62*  .14  -.40  -.12  .47  + .07  .55  . 83**  .47  .15  . 68*  .33  .59  . 81**  .06  -.74**  .26  .26  + .69*  1.00  -.18  -.09  -.13  .43  .26  .39  .36  .11  -.60  .12  + .08  + .33  .58  .28  .46  .57  .85**  .56  .53  .27  .02  -.61  .37  +.03  + .12  1.00  .66*  .27  -.32  -.21  .10  .33  .31  -.14  .02  .13  +-.55  + .06  .28  .28  .01  .02  .18  .17  -.05  -.21  .15  -.13  + .15  + .04  1.00 .71*  .65*  S i g n i f i c a n t a t 5 percent S i g n i f i c a n t a t 1 percent 1. Age 2. Height 3. W e i g h t 4. Arm g i r t h 5. T h i g h g i r t h 6. S t a n d i n g b r o a d jump 7. L e f t g r i p  3  .28  .71*  .65* 1.00  level level 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.  Right grip F l e x e d arm b a r hang Shuttle run Lung c a p a c i t y Standing heart rate Steady h e a r t r a t e S k e l e t a l age  ON  47  2  «  MOTOR ABILITY AND AGILITY  T a b l e I X summarizes t h e f i n a l means and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e f i n a l means o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups f o r the v a r i a b l e s The  of s h u t t l e r u n and s t a n d i n g b r o a d jump.  standard d e v i a t i o n  i n the f i n a l t e s t of the s h u t t l e r u n  was g r e a t l y reduced by the k i n d e r g a r t e n c o n t r o l group. T a b l e X summarizes t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f s h u t t l e r u n and s t a n d i n g broad jump :to growth, s t r e n g t h , m a t u r i t y and w o r k i n g  capacity  factors. Shuttle had  run vs.  s t a n d i n g broad jump ( k i n d e r g a r t e n  experimental)  a c o r r e l a t i o n o f .77, s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l . Broad jump v s . l u n g c a p a c i t y  (grade two e x p e r i m e n t a l ) had a  c o r r e l a t i o n o f .79, s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l .  TABLE I X COMPARISON OF THE FINAL MEANS BETWEEN THE EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR •SHUTTLE RUN AND BROAD JUMP OF KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO CHILDREN  Mexp Grade  Test  K n=ll 2 n=9  Broad Jump  S h u t t l e Run  1 Mexp SDexp — Mcont — SDcont —  K n=ll 2  T  1  Mcont  SDexp T  2  T  1  T  2  28.36  30.27  7.34  5.43  42.50  53.77  7.88  2.49  18.07  16.75  2.78  3.11  13.40  12.62  0.88  0.73  T  SDcont T  1 31.54  2  34.77  T  1  5.13  54.22  27.74  16.38  7.71  12.61  T  Mtze-Mtzc  df  t  6.69  -4.50  20  1.73  5.89  -0.45  17  0.21  1.24  +0.37  20  0.36  0.83  +0.01  17  0.03  2  n=9  mean of e x p e r i m e n t a l group standard d e v i a t i o n of experimental group mean o f c o n t r o l group s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f c o n t r o l group  T^ — . T^ —  i n i t i a l mean f i n a l mean  Mtze — Mtzc — •  f i n a l mean o f e x p e r i m e n t a l group f i n a l mean o f c o n t r o l group  TABLE X CORRELATION OF SHUTTLE RUN AND BROAD JUMP TO GROWTH, STRENGTH, MATURITY AND WORKING CAPACITY FACTORS OF CHILDREN I N KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO  Grade  T e s t Items  KE  S h u t t l e Run  n=ll  Broad Jump  KC  1  2  -.68*  3  4  5  -.37  .03  .55  .36  .51  .37  .08  -.39  -.23  S h u t t l e Run  -.40  -.57  -.14  .12  n=ll  Broad Jump  -.12  .29  -.02  2E  S h u t t l e Run  -.60  .28  n=9  Broad Jump  .26  2C  S h u t t l e Run  n=10  Broad Jump  6  7  8  -.38  -.25  -.46  1.00  .53  .41  .48  -.12  + .36  -.38  -.17  .10  1.00  .17  -.15  -.37  .28  .29  .31  .02  -.50  -.26  .10  .37  .37  S i g n i f i c a n t a t 5 percent S i g n i f i c a n t a t 1 percent 1. Age 2. H e i g h t 3. Weight 4. Arm g i r t h 5. T h i g h g i r t h 6. S t a n d i n g broad jump 7. L e f t g r i p  +.77**  9  10  11"  12  1.00  -.67*  -.19  .44  -.05  -.51  +.77**  13  i  .60*  14 -.70* . 68*  -.67*  -.08  1.00  -.45.  -.06  .45  -.74**  .51  .33  -.05  + .36  .27  -.13  -.34  .33  + .27  -.68*  .04  .15  1.00  .13  -.35  .24  -.61  .61  1.00  .30  .10  .16  + .27  . 79** -.16  .49  .56  -.47  .04  + .57  -.57  -.72  -.53  1.00  -.21  .50  . 74*  .15  .38  .07  1.00  .53  .53  I-.24  + .57  .31  -.47  -.36  .18  level level 8. 9. TO. 11. 12. 13. 14.  Right grip F l e x e d arm b a r hang Shuttle run Lung c a p a c i t y Standing heart rate Steady h e a r t r a t e S k e l e t a l age  4> vO  50  3.  STRENGTH  T a b l e XI summarizes t h e f i n a l means and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e f i n a l means of the e x p e r i m e n t a l groups f o r t h e v a r i a b l e s  and c o n t r o l  o f g r i p s t r e n g t h and f l e x e d arm b a r hang.  The t o t a l g r i p s t r e n g t h o f a l l groups improved.  F o r each-  group, t h e l a r g e s t degree of improvement was made by t h e hand w h i c h was the weakest a t t h e i n i t i a l t e s t .  The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e f i n a l means  o f t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n groups was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l , t = 2.54. T a b l e XEI summarizes t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f g r i p s t r e n g t h and ' f l e x e d arm b a r hang t o growth, motor a b i l i t y , m a t u r i t y and w o r k i n g capacity factors. L e f t g r i p s t r e n g t h and r i g h t g r i p s t r e n g t h c o r r e l a t e d  signi-  f i c a n t l y w i t h each o t h e r , v a l u e s r a n g i n g from .76 t o .90 ( s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l ) . -  F l e x e d arm b a r hang and g r i p s t r e n g t h d i d n o t ex-  h i b i t any c o n s i s t e n t l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s .  TABLE X I COMPARISON OF THE FINAL MEANS BETWEEN THE EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR GRIP STRENGTH AND FLEXED ARM BAR HANG OF KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO CHILDREN  Mexp Test  Grade  Grip Strength Left  Right  F l e x e d Arm Bar Hang  *  K n=ll 2 n=9 Kn=ll 2 n=9 K n=ll 2 n=9  T  "I  Mcont  SDexp T  1  T  2  10.45  11.27  5.10  4.69  20.22  23.55  4.73  • 6.80  10.18  11.36  4.46  5.22  25.88  25.11  8.63  8.14  14.09  16.89  7.96  9.29  34.00  37.45  21.46  22.93  S i g n i f i c a n t a t 5 percent  Mexp — SDexp -Mcont SDcont  T 2  x  T  1  8.72  SDcont T  2  T., 1  9.36  4.94  T  23.00 9.81  10.36  4.16  25.80  7.83  30.90 25.65  7.71  Mtze-Mtzc  df  t  3.64  +1.91  20  1.06  7.07  +0.55  17  0.17  5.97  +1.00  20  0.41  7.17  -0.69  17  0.19  15.69  -14.01  20  2.54*  16.19  +10.80  17  1.30  2  L_  level  mean of e x p e r i m e n t a l group s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f e x p e r i m e n t a l group mean of c o n t r o l group s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of c o n t r o l group  l " *2 " Mtze — Mtze — T  i n i t i a l mean f i n a l mean f i n a l mean of e x p e r i m e n t a l group f i n a l mean of c o n t r o l group  TABLE XT.I CORRELATION OF GRIP STRENGTH AND FLEXED ARM BAR HANG TO GROWTH, MOTOR A B I L I T Y , MATURITY AND WORKING CAPACITY FACTORS OF CHILDREN I N KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO  Grade K-E n=ll K-C n=ll 2-E n=9 2-C n=10  * **  T e s t Items Left Grip Right Grip F l e x e d Arm Left Grip Right Grip F l e x e d Arm Left Grip Right Grip F l e x e d Arm Left Grip Right Grip F l e x e d Arm  Hang Hang Hang  Hang  1 .67* .52 .57 .37 .62 .14 .39 .36 .11 .33 .31 .14  5 2 4 3 .10 .47 .55 .24 .36 .59 . 72* .33 -.18 .55 .35 .09 .50 .25 .13 .39 . 75** .46 .40 .11 -.03 -.42 -.23 -.33 .62 .18 .51 .31 .48 .34 .48 .30 .16 .44 .41 .37 . 85** . 85** .65* .54 .74* ~. 35 .54 .07 .15 .12 -.03 .08 r  -1  6 .53 .41 .48 .51 .33 -.05 .30 .10 .16 .53 .53 -.24  7 1.00 .90** . 72* 1.00 .77** 4.15 1.00 .57 .51 1.00 .76** .07  8 9 .90** .72* 1.00 . 78** .78** 1.00 .77** 4.15 1.00 4.01 - .01 1.00 .57 .51 1.00 . 84** . 84** 1.00 .76** .07 .06 1.00 .06 1.00  10 -.38 -.25 -.46 -.38 -.67* -.08 -.68* .04 .15 -.57 -. 72* -.53  11 .24 .26 .37 .21 .34 -.15 .24 .49 .56 .68* .74* -.36  12 -.06 -.03 -.09 -.05 . .14 -.05 .19 -.41 -.24 -.43 -.53 -.24  14 13 .13 .57 .16 .56 -.35 .39 -.40 .59 -.64 .81*' . 66* .41 -.17 .53 -.23 .27 .02 .19 -.71* .17 - . 82**j- . 05 -.37 L.21  S i g n i f i c a n t a t 5 percent l e v e l S i g n i f i c a n t a t 1 percent l e v e l .  1. Age 2. H e i g h t 3. Weight 4. A r m G i r t h 5. T h i g h G i r t h 6. S t a n d i n g Broad Jump 7. L e f t G r i p  8. R i g h t G r i p 9. F l e x e d Arm B a r Hang 10. S h u t t l e Run 11. . Lung C a p a c i t y 12. S t a n d i n g H e a r t R a t e 13. Steady H e a r t R a t e 14. S k e l e t a l Age  ro  53  4.  CARPIOVASCUIAR APPRAISAL  T a b l e X I I I summarizes t h e f i n a l means and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e f i n a l means of t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and cont r o l groups f o r t h e v a r i a b l e s - o f s t a n d i n g h e a r t r a t e and s t e a d y  heart  rate. The mean s t a n d i n g and steady h e a r t r a t e s of the. two k i n d e r g a r t e n groups were r e l a t i v e l y t h e same.  There was a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s t a n d i n g h e a r t r a t e s of t h e grade two groups, t h a t o f t h e grade two e x p e r i m e n t a l group b e i n g the lower o f t h e two. The  steady h e a r t r a t e of t h e grade two e x p e r i m e n t a l group was  c a n t l y lower than t h a t of t h e grade two c o n t r o l group.  signifi-  The t - v a l u e of  2.24 was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . •Table XLV summarizes t h e c o r r e l a t i o n of s t a n d i n g h e a r t r a t e and s t e a d y h e a r t r a t e t o g r o w t h , motor a b i l i t y ,  s t r e n g t h , and m a t u r i t y  factors. There were no common c o r r e l a t i o n s of s i g n i f i c a n c e .  A cor-  r e l a t i o n o f r = .83 between steady h e a r t r a t e and l e f t arm g i r t h d e r g a r t e n e x p e r i m e n t a l ) was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l .  (kin-  TABLE X I I I COMPARISON OF THE FINAL MEANS BETWEEN THE EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS FOR STANDING HEART -RATE AND STEADY HEART RATE OF KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO CHILDREN  SDexp  Mexp Test Heart Rate Standing  Steady  *  Grade  T  1  2  T  1  T "2  Mcont T. T 1 2  T  1  SDcont T  2  Mtze-Mtzc  df  t  K n=ll 2 n=9  114.18  6.80  114.09  9.71  +0.09  20  0.02  105.44  17.42  112.00  9.66  -6.56  17  1.02  K n=ll 2 n=9  143.68  5.63  141.86  5.96  +1.82  20  0.73  142.16  7.42  150.35  8.38  -8.19  17  2.24*  S i g n i f i c a n t a t 5 percent  Mexp — SDexp — Mcont SDcont —  T  level  mean o f e x p e r i m e n t a l group s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f e x p e r i m e n t a l group mean o f c o n t r o l group s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f c o n t r o l group  T^ 1^ — Mtze Mtze —  i n i t i a l mean f i n a l mean f i n a l mean o f e x p e r i m e n t a l group f i n a l mean o f c o n t r o l group  TABLE X I V CORRELATION OF STANDING HEART RATE AND STEADY HEART RATE TO GROWTH, MOTOR A B I L I T Y , STRENGTH AND MATURITY FACTORS OF CHILDREN I N KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO  Grade  T e s t Items  1  K-E  S t a n d i n g H.R.  .09  n=ll  Steady H.R.  K-C  S t a n d i n g H.R.  n=ll  S t e a d y H.R.  2  6  7  9  10  -.05  -.06  -.03  -.09  -.19  .29- -.51  .13  .16  -.35  -.13  -.05  .14  -.05  -.52  -.34  -.40  -. 64*  3  4  -.07  .10  .14  .26  + .23  -.12  .41  . 83**  .47  -.11  -.17  -.42  .23  -.69*  -.39  + .07 -.78**  2-E . S t a n d i n g H.R. . +.08  5  8  11  12  13  1  14  .26  1.00  .04  -.06  -.44  .04  1.00  -.14  -.06  -.42  1.00  + .16  .26  .04  .45  -.59  + .16  1.00  -. 69*  .60*  .22  .06  .23  .07  -.16  .19  -.41  -.24  -.35  -.36  1.00  + .00  -.03  n=9  Steady H.R.  + .33  .36  -.02  -.07  .14  .49  -.17  -.23  .19  .24  .37  + .00  1.00  -.12  2-C  S t a n d i n g H.R.  + .55  -.62  -.33  .11  .05  -.47  -.43  -.53  -.24  .50  -.02  1.00  .33  -.15  n=10  Steady H.R.  + .06  -.61  -.59  -.58  -.28  -.36  -.71  I-.82**  -.37  . 74* -.54  .33  1.00  -.04  * **  S i g n i f i c a n t a t 5 percent l e v e l S i g n i f i c a n t a t 1 percent l e v e l  1. Age 2. Height 3. W e i g h t 4. Arm g i r t h 5. T h i g h g i r t h 6. S t a n d i n g broad jump 7. L e f t g r i p  8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.  Right grip F l e x e d arm b a r hang Shuttle run Lung c a p a c i t y Standing heart rate Steady h e a r t r a t e S k e l e t a l age  Ul  56  SECTION I I T a b l e XV summarizes t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l means o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  and c o n t r o l groups f o r t h e v a r i a b l e s o f  h e i g h t , w e i g h t and l u n g c a p a c i t y . The g a i n made by t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n e x p e r i m e n t a l c a p a c i t y was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l ( t = 2.38).  group i n l u n g  T h i s g a i n was  a l m o s t d o u b l e t h a t o f t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n c o n t r o l group and more  than  d o u b l e t h e l u n g c a p a c i t y g a i n made by t h e grade two e x p e r i m e n t a l  group.  TABLE XV COMPARISON OF IMPROVEMENT I N HEIGHT, WEIGHT, AND LUNG CAPACITY MADE BY CHILCREN PARTICIPATING I N TWO DIFFERENT PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMMES IN KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO  SD  M Test  Height  Weight  Lung C a p a c i t y  *  Grade  T  2  T  1  T 2  M-M 1 2  df  t  KE  42.95  '. 43.79  2.52  2.56  -0.84  20  0.77  KC  42.79  43.09  1.93  1.91  -0.30  20  0.35  2E  48.27  49.02  1.60  1.59  -0.75  16  0.99  KE  43.81  44.20  4,85  5.01  -0.39  20  0.18  KC  41.86  . 42.18  4.66  4.71  -0.32  20  0.15  2E  54.57  . 55.86  5.70  7.39  -1.39  16  0.44  KE  47.90  62.45  12.99  15.53  -14.55  20  2.38*  KC  47.63  55.81  12-..01  12.71  -8.18  20  1.55  2E  80.11  86.66  15.87  15.23  -6.55  16  0.89  S i g n i f i c a n t a t 5 percent  M -SD — T_ —  l;*  T  mean standard d e v i a t i o n i n i t i a l test  level M]_ — M2 — T — 2  i n i t i a l t e s t mean f i n a l t e s t mean f i n a l test  58-  T a b l e XVT summarizes t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l means o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups f o r t h e v a r i a b l e s of g i r t h measurement. • No s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s were demonstrated i n e i t h e r arm or thigh g i r t h .  The mean arm and t h i g h g i r t h s o f t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n  experi-  m e n t a l group were l e s s a f t e r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d , even though was a s l i g h t w e i g h t g a i n .  there  59  TABLE XVT COMPARISON OF IMPROVEMENT I N THIGH GIRTH AND ARM GIRTH MADE BY CHILDREN PARTICIPATING I N TWO DIFFERENT PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMMES I N KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE WO  Test  Grade  M T  T,  SD  M -M x  2  df  t  1  T 2  KE  6.96  6.95  0.50  0.55  +0.01  20  0.04  KC  6.72  6.78  0.41  0.43  -0.06  20  0.32  2E  7.00'  7.09  0.53  0.53  -0.09  16  0.38  1  T  2  Girth Ann  Thigh  M — SD — T  l  -  KE  12.80  12.68  1.12  1.14  +0.12  20  0.25  KC  12.19  12.56  0.64  0.67  -0.37  20  1.31  •2E  13.30  13.98  1.45  1.46  ! -0.68  16  0.98  mean standard d e v i a t i o n i n i t i a l test  i n i t i a l t e s t mean f i n a l t e s t mean f i n a l test  60  T a b l e X V I I summarizes the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the i n i t i a l  and  f i n a l means of the c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l groups f o r the v a r i a b l e s o f s h u t t l e r u n and -The  s t a n d i n g broad jump.  grade two e x p e r i m e n t a l group made a c o n s i d e r a b l e g a i n  i n s t a n d i n g b r o a d jump d i s t a n c e , h a v i n g a t - v a l u e of 4.09 a t the .01  significant  level. The k i n d e r g a r t e n c o n t r o l group improved i n the s h u t t l e r u n  enough t o have a t - v a l u e of 2.28,  s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05  level.  A l l groups i l l u s t r a t e d v a r y i n g degrees of improvement i n both t e s t  items.  61  TABLE X V I I COMPARISON OF IMPROVEMENT I N BROAD JUMP AND SHUTTLE RUN MADE BY CHILDREN PARTICIPATING I N TOO DIFFERENT PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMMES I N KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TOO  Test  M  Grade \  Broad Jump  'Shuttle Run  SD T  2  T  1  M  T  l- 2  df  t  2  KE  28.36  30.27  7.34  5.43  -1.91  20  0.69  KG  31.54  34.77  5.13  6.69  -3.23  20  1.26  2E  42.50  53.77  7.88  2.49  -11.27  16  4.09**  KE  18.07  16.75  2.78  3.11  +1.32  20  1.04  KC  27.74  16.38  7.71  1.24  +11.36  20  2.28*  2E  13.40  12.62  0.88  0.73  +0.78  16  2.03  * S i g n i f i c a n t at 5 percent l e v e l "** S i g n i f i c a n t a t 1 p e r c e n t l e v e l  M -« SD — T — x  M  mean standard d e v i a t i o n i n i t i a l test  i n i t i a l t e s t mean f i n a l t e s t mean f i n a l test  62  T a b l e X V I I I summarizes t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i n i t i a l f i n a l means of the c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l  and  groups f o r t h e v a r i a b l e s  of g r i p s t r e n g t h and f l e x e d arm b a r hang. The k i n d e r g a r t e n c o n t r o l group improved i n f l e x e d arm b a r hang, w i t h t - 4.37,  statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l .  This  g a i n was a c h i e v e d w i t h o u t any a p p r e c i a b l e i n c r e a s e i n g r i p s t r e n g t h . The g r e a t e s t g a i n made i n g r i p s t r e n g t h was by the hand w h i c h v/as t h e weakest a t the time of the i n i t i a l t e s t i n g . i n each group.  T h i s i s seen  63  TABLE X V I I I COMPARISON OF IMPROVEMENT I N GRIP STRENGTH AND FLEXED ARM BAR HANG MADE BY CHILDREN PARTICIPATING IN EJO DIFFERENT PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMMES I N KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE TWO  Test  M  Grade T  Grip  Right  F l e x e d Arm Bar Hang  1  T  M, -M 1 2  df  t  2  KE  10.45  11.27  5,10  4.69  -0.82  20  0.39  KC  8.72  9.36  4.94  3.64  -0.64  20  0.34  2E  20.22  23.55  4.73  6.80  KE  10.18  11.36  4.46  5.22  -1.18  20  0.57  •ICC  9.81  10.36  4.16  5.97  -0.55  20  0.24  2E  25.88  25.11  8.63  8.14  +0.77  16  0.19  KE  14.09  16.89  7.96  9.29  -2.80  20  0.75  KC  7.83  30.90  7.71  15.69  -23.07  20  i.37**  2E  34.00  .37.45  21.46  22.93  -3.45  16  D.33  S i g n i f i c a n t a t 1 percent  M — mean SD — standard d e v i a t i o n T -- i n i t i a l t e s t n  2  T  Strength  Left  **  1  SD T  U20  level i n i t i a l test f i n a l t e s t mean f i n a l test  CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND  CONCLUSIONS  Summary. The purpose of t h i s study was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t s of an a c c e l e r a t e d  p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme on c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l and  motor t r a i t s of c h i l d r e n i n k i n d e r g a r t e n  and grade  too.  One hundred s t u d e n t s of S i r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l , Vancouver, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , were s e l e c t e d as s u b j e c t s  f o r the study.  F i f t y s t u d e n t s were i n the two c o n t r o l groups (twenty i n t h i r t y i n grade  too).  The o t h e r f i f t y s t u d e n t s made up t h e two  m e n t a l groups ( t w e n t y i n k i n d e r g a r t e n ,  t h i r t y i n grade  e x p e r i m e n t a l groups and t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n For  kindergarten,  too).  c o n t r o l group were  experi-  Both pretested.  t h e f i n a l t e s t s , a random sample o f . 4 1 s u b j e c t s was used ( T a b l e I I ) . The e x p e r i m e n t a l groups f o l l o w e d  t a u g h t by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r .  a programme d e s i g n e d and  T h i s programme l a s t e d 12 weeks f o r k i n d e r -  g a r t e n and 15 weeks f o r grade  too.  The c o n t r o l groups r e c e i v e d  a pro-  gramme o u t l i n e d i n t h e B r i t i s h Columbia P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Guide and C u r r i c u l u m and t a u g h t by t h e homeroom t e a c h e r . The p h y s i c a l and motor development f a c t o r s i n v e s t i g a t e d 1.  P h y s i c a l Development:  height, weight, lung capacity,  and t h i g h g i r t h s , c h r o n o l o g i c a l 2.  M o t o r A b i l i t y and A g i l i t y : jump.  were:  arm  and s k e l e t a l age.  s h u t t l e r u n and s t a n d i n g  broad  65  3.  Strength:  grip strength  4.  Cardiovascular Appraisal:  and f l e x e d arm b a r hang. submaximal work  The s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d  task.  of a comparison of the  f i n a l means, t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e means, P e a r s o n s r , and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e amount o f improvement made 1  by t h e groups. Tables III-XIV  illustrate  t h e f i n a l means, t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e  of t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e means, and t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s c o e f f i c i e n t s of t h e v a r i a b l e s  listed.  The most s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e f i n a l means was seen i n t h e f l e x e d arm b a r h a n g . ( k i n d e r g a r t e n c o n t r o l )  t - v a l u e of 2.54,  s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . The h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n , r = .90, s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l , was between l e f t and r i g h t g r i p s t r e n g t h  (kindergarten  experi-  mental) , T a b l e s XV-XVTII summarize t h e g a i n s made by t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and  c o n t r o l groups d u r i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  period.  The k i n d e r g a r t e n c o n t r o l group s c o r e d t h e g r e a t e r improvement i n t h e f l e x e d arm b a r hang w i t h a t - v a l u e of 4.37 s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e ,05 l e v e l . A g e n e r a l summary o f t h e study shows t h a t t h e c o n t r o l groups and  e x p e r i m e n t a l groups each improved i n a l l t h e t e s t i t e m s .  programme i n f l u e n c e d  Neither  growth and motor development t o such an e x t e n t  t h a t any one group d e m o n s t r a t e d dominance i n a l l t h e v a r i a b l e s  tested.  66  The k i n d e r g a r t e n e x p e r i m e n t a l  group was  c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y younger, s k e l e -  t a l l y o l d e r , h e a v i e r , t a l l e r , had a l a r g e r l u n g c a p a c i t y , g r e a t e r  girth  measurements and g r e a t e r g r i p s t r e n g t h than k i n d e r g a r t e n c o n t r o l .  How-  e v e r , none of t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s t a n d i n g broad jump, s h u t t l e r u n and  a t the .05  Only the f l e x e d arm bar hang  statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t ( t == 2.54),  level. Grade two e x p e r i m e n t a l  group was  t a l l e r , s k e l e t a l l y o l d e r , had  l o n g e r f l e x e d arm bar hang t i m e , b e t t e r g r i p s t r e n g t h and a p p r a i s a l t h a n grade two c o n t r o l . c a l age v a r i a b l e s f a v o u r e d 2.24;  t «= 2.34  The  grade two e x p e r i m e n t a l  h e a v i e r , had  cardiovascular  steady h e a r t r a t e and  chronologi-  statistically  r e s p e c t i v e l y ) b o t h s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05  two c o n t r o l was  level.  ( t «= Grade  l a r g e r l u n g c a p a c i t y , g r e a t e r g i r t h measure-  ments, and b e t t e r broad jump r e s u l t s .  However, none of these d i f f e r e n c e s  i n the f i n a l means of the c o n t r o l group were s t a t i s t i c a l l y Any  The  c a r d i o v a s c u l a r a p p r a i s a l scores  were i n f a v o u r of k i n d e r g a r t e n c o n t r o l . s c o r e of k i n d e r g a r t e n c o n t r o l was  significant.  significant.  d i f f e r e n c e s can o n l y be accounted f o r by chance or n o r m a l f l u c t u a t i o n s .  Conclusions I n Chapter I f i v e h y p o t h e s e s , p r e s e n t e d asked.  The  o f the  study.  Hypothesis  as q u e s t i o n s , were  answers t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a r e s t a t e d below as  1.  Do c h i l d r e n of the same grade who  conclusions  p a r t i c i p a t e i n an a c c e l -  e r a t e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme who's g r e a t e r than c h i l d r e n who  strength  p a r t i c i p a t e i n a r e g u l a r p h y s i c a l educa-  t i o n programme? The  kindergarten experimental  group showed g r e a t e r g a i n s i n  dynamic s t r e n g t h ( g r i p s t r e n g t h ) than d i d the k i n d e r g a r t e n c o n t r o l group.  B o t h grade two groups s c o r e d s i m i l a r r e s u l t s i n t h i s  test.  67  The  k i n d e r g a r t e n c o n t r o l group performed t o a  d e g r e e i n t h e f l e x e d arm b a r hang between the  strength).  The d i f f e r e n c e  t h e f i n a l means o f t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n g r o u p s was  .01 l e v e l , w i t h t = 2.54.  combination less  (static  of f a c t o r s :  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e may  degree than  have  Hypothesis  static  g r a d e two e x p e r i m e n t a l  c o n t r o l group i n t h i s means was  emphasized  g r o u p , and  not  be e x p l a i n e d b y  group  at a  weighed  t h e programme o f t h e  s t r e n g t h items  the a c c e l e r a t e d p h y s i c a l education  The  significant  m o t i v a t i o n , k i n d e r g a r t e n c o n t r o l group  than k i n d e r g a r t e n experimental  c o n t r o l g r o u p may  significant  to a  greater  programme.  outscored  the grade  t e s t i t e m , b u t the d i f f e r e n c e between  two  the  final  significant.  2.  Do  c h i l d r e n o f t h e same g r a d e , who  participate  i n the  two d i f f e r e n t p r o g r a m m e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  differ  i n anthrop©metrical m e a s u r e m e n t ? No  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e f o u n d i n t h e f i n a l means o f  the a n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l measurements. fairly  constant  of growth.  The  standard  d e v i a t i o n s remained  f o r each i n d i v i d u a l group, i n d i c a t i n g a steady  The k i n d e r g a r t e n e x p e r i m e n t a l  pattern  g r o u p g a i n e d w e i g h t and  h e i g h t , y e t t h e a r m a n d t h i g h g i r t h s were' l e s s u p o n c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e study.  Hypothesis  3.  Do  c h i l d r e n who  score higher  participate  i n the motor  c o m p a r i s o n t o c h i l d r e n who programme?  i n t h e a c c e l e r a t e d programme  ability  and a g i l i t y  participate  tests i n  i n the r e g u l a r  68  The and a g i l i t y .  e x p e r i m e n t a l groups improved t h e i r s c o r e s i n motor a b i l i t y However, these improvements were not h i g h e r :than  the  s c o r e s of the c o n t r o l groups w h i c h a l s o improved d u r i n g the experimental period. r u n was  The k i n d e r g a r t e n c o n t r o l group improvement i n the  s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l ( t = 2.28).  d e v i a t i o n of the c o n t r o l group was  reduced  The  final  standard  c o n s i d e r a b l y from i t s i n i -  t i a l v a l u e , w h i l e t h a t of the e x p e r i m e n t a l group d i d n o t T h i s may  shuttle  decrease.  i n f e r a c e r t a i n amount of l e a r n i n g t o o k p l a c e , and as a r e -  s u l t , the c o n t r o l group s c o r e d b e t t e r i n t h i s  H y p o t h e s i s 4.  event.  I f c h i l d r e n i n the a c c e l e r a t e d p h y s i c a l education programme a c h i e v e d a g r e a t e r t o t a l a p p r a i s a l , d i d t h e y a l s o have g r e a t e r s k e l e t a l m a t u r i t y ?  The  e x p e r i m e n t a l groups d i d n o t p o s s e s s  a p p r a i s a l than the c o n t r o l groups.  a greater t o t a l  B o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l groups were more  advanced s k e l e t a l l y than the c o n t r o l groups, b u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e was not s i g n i f i c a n t .  B o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l groups were c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y  younger than the c o n t r o l groups.  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was  s i g n i f i c a n t at  •the .-05 l e v e l w i t h t h e grade two e x p e r i m e n t a l group ( t = 2.43). is  It  i n t e r e s t i n g t o p o i n t out t h a t the c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y o l d e r groups,  c o n t r o l groups, agility.  s c o r e d h i g h e r i n the t e s t s of motor a b i l i t y  the  and  P e r h a p s the motor e x p e r i e n c e of the o l d e r c o n t r o l groups was  g r e a t e r than t h a t of the younger e x p e r i m e n t a l groups.  T h i s i s a pos-  s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n motor a b i l i t y and scores favouring.the c o n t r o l  groups.  agility  69  H y p o t h e s i s 5.  Do c h i l d r e n , who  participate  i n the a c c e l e r a t e d phy-  s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme show s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n t h e i r t e s t scores from the i n i t i a l  t o the f i n a l  test?  The k i n d e r g a r t e n e x p e r i m e n t a l group showed s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n l u n g c a p a c i t y ( t = 2.38), s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05  level.  The grade two e x p e r i m e n t a l group improved i n s t a n d i n g broad jump a b i l i t y , h a v i n g a t - v a l u e of 4.09, Reference c o n t r o l group had  s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01  level.  s h o u l d be made t o the f a c t t h a t the k i n d e r g a r t e n  s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n the s h u t t l e r u n ( t =  2.28,  s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l ) , and t h e f l e x e d arm bar hang ( t = 4 . 3 7 , s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l ) . • Improvement i n t e s t s c o r e s can be f o r a v a r i e t y of o t h e r than t h e r e s u l t of a c e r t a i n programme.  I n s t r u c t i o n a l approach,  s u b j e c t m o t i v a t i o n and i n t e l l i g e n c e a r e f a c t o r s t h a t must be when one attempts  reasons  considered  to e x p l a i n the reasoning, behind experimental  as those r e p o r t e d i n t h i s  results  study.  W h i l e the r e s u l t s of t h i s study do n o t show c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t an a c c e l e r a t e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme b e n e f i t s t h e growth and p h y s i c a l development of p r i m a r y t h i s p r o j e c t does have m e r i t .  s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , the concept  initiating  A more c o n s t r u c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of the  programme's o b j e c t i v e s c o u l d be o b t a i n e d w i t h an extended p e r i o d of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a t l e a s t one s c h o o l y e a r .  70  F u r t h e r recommendations seem w a r r a n t e d of t h i s study.  i n v i e w of t h e r e s u l t s  More a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o t h e time f o r t e s t i n g  and a s u f f i c i e n t number of p e r s o n n e l a s s i g n e d t o t h i s a s p e c t of t h e study.  "The c o n t r o l group programme s h o u l d be m o n i t o r e d  t r u e comparison  of a c t i v i t i e s .  to insure a  The a c c e l e r a t e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o -  gramme c o u l d be r e v i e w e d t o s t r e n g t h e n those areas w h i c h appear weak. I t must be r e c o r d e d h e r e t h a t more r e s e a r c h i s needed i n elementary school p h y s i c a l education.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Adams, F.A., L i n d e , L.L. and M i y a k e , H., The P h y s i c a l W o r k i n g C a p a c i t y of Normal S c h o o l C h i l d r e n . P e d i a t r i c s 28: 55~64, J u l y , 1961. Asmussen, E., and H e e b o l - N i e l s o n , K., A D i m e n s i o n a l A n a l y s i s of P h y s i c a l P e r f o r m a n c e and Growth i n Boys, J . A p p l . P h y s i o l . , 6:585592, 1955. B a l d w i n , B.T., A n t h r o p o m e t r i c Measurements. ( I n ) Terman, L.M. , G e n e t i c S t u d i e s o f G e n i u s , V. 1, M e n t a l and P h y s i c a l T r a i t s of a Thousand G i f t e d C h i l d r e n . S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1926. B a l d w i n , B.T., The P h y s i c a l Growth of C h i l d r e n from B i r t h t o M a t u r i t y . U n i v . Iowa S t u d . , S t u d , i n C h i l d W e l f a r e , 1:1, 1921, p. 411. B a y e r , L.M., B a y l e y , N., Growth D i a g n o s i s , C h i c a g o , U n i v e r s i t y of C h i cago P r e s s , 1959; B o o k w a l t e r , K.W., G r i p S t r e n g t h Norms f o r M a l e s , The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 21, O c t o b e r 1950, pp. 249-273. C a r p e n t e r , A., The Measurement of G e n e r a l Motor C a p a c i t y and G e n e r a l Motor A b i l i t y i n the F i r s t Three G r a d e s , The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 13, No. 4, December 1942.. C a r p e n t e r , A., T e s t s o f M o t o r E d u c a b i l i t y f o r the F i r s t Three Grades. C h i l d Development, 4:293-299, 1940. C a r p e n t e r , A., The Measurement of G e n e r a l M o t o r C a p a c i t y and G e n e r a l M o t o r A b i l i t y i n the F i r s t Three G r a d e s , The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 13, No. 4, December 1942, pp. 444-465. C l a r k e , H.H., H a r r i s o n , J.C.E., D i f f e r e n c e s i n P h y s i c a l and M o t o r T r a i t s Between Boys of Advanced, N o r m a l , and R e t a r d e d M a t u r i t y , The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 33, No. 1, M a r c h 1962, pp. 13-25. C l a r k e , H.H., P e t e r s o n , K.H., C o n t r a s t of M a t u r a t i o n a l , S t r u c t u r a l , and S t r e n g t h C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of A t h l e t e s and N o n - A t h l e t e s 10-15 Y e a r s of Age, The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 32, No. 2, May 1961, pp. 163-176. C l a r k e , H.H., W i c k e n s , J . S . , M a t u r i t y , S t r u c t u r a l , S t r e n g t h , and M o t o r A b i l i t y Growth Curves o f Boys 9 t o 15 Y e a r s of Age, The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 33, No. 1, M a r c h 1962. C l a r k e , H. H a r r i s o n , A p p l i c a t i o n of Measurement t o H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 1959 ( t h i r d e d i t i o n ) .  • Crampton, C.W., P h y s i o l o g i c a l Age Development, 15:3-47, 1944.  —  A Fundamental P r i n c i p l e .  Child  Cumming, G.R., and Cumming, P.M., W o r k i n g C a p a c i t y of Normal C h i l d r e n T e s t e d on a B i c y c l e Ergometer. Can. Med. A s s o c . J . , F e b r u a r y 16, 1963, V. 88: 351-355. Cumming, G.R. and D a n z i n g e r , R., B i c y c l e Ergometer S t u d i e s i n C h i l d r e n . P e d i a t r i c s , 32: 202-208, A u g u s t , 1963. C u r e t o n , T.K., A n a l y s i s of V i t a l C a p a c i t y as a T e s t of C o n d i t i o n f o r H i g h S c h o o l Boys, The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 7, No. 4, December 1936, pp. 80-92. D e L o t t o , M., The E f f e c t s of C o m p e t i t i v e A t h l e t i c s on the Growth and Development of P r e - P u b e s c e n t Boys, D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, 1954. E r i c k s o n , L., Simonson, E., T a y l o r , H.L., A l e x a n d e r , H. and K e y s , A., The Energy C o s t of H o r i z o n t a l and Grade W a l k i n g on the M o t o r D r i v e n T r e a d m i l l , A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l of P h y s i o l o g y , 145: 391-401, 1946. Espenschade, A., Development of M o t o r C o o r d i n a t i o n i n Boys and G i r l s , The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 18, No. 1, March 1947, pp. 31-44. F a i t , H., An A n a l y t i c a l Study of the E f f e c t s of C o m p e t i t i v e A t h l e t i c s upon J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l Boys, M i c r o c a r d e d D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y of Iowa, 1951. G a l l a g h e r , J.R., The S t a t i c and Dynamic P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s of A d o l e s c e n t s . J o u r n a l of P e d i a t r i c s , 24:81, 1944. G a t e s , A . J . , The N a t u r e and E d u c a t i o n a l S i g n i f i c a n c e of P h y s i c a l S t a t u s -and of M e n t a l , P h y s i o l o g i c a l , S o c i a l and E m o t i o n a l M a t u r i t y . J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 15: 1924. G o v a t o s , L.A., R e l a t i o n s h i p s and Age D i f f e r e n c e s i n Growth Measures . and M o t o r S k i l l s , C h i l d Development, V. 30, 1959. G r e u l i c h , W.W., S k e l e t a l S t a t u s and P h y s i c a l Growth, Dynamics of Growth P r o c e s s , N.J., P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1950.  the  G r e u l i c h , W.W., P y l e , S . I . , R a d i o g r a p h i c A t l a s of S k e l e t a l Development of the Hand and W r i s t , S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959. H e b b e l i n k , D.M., E x e r c i s e T o l e r a n c e of 6-10 Y e a r s Old C h i l d r e n and the Development of P h y s i c a l P e r f o r m a n c e C a p a c i t y , Gymnasion, I I I , 1966.  H e i n l e i n , J.H., A Study of D e x t r a l i t y i n C h i l d r e n . Genet. P s y c h o l . , 36: 91-119, 1929.  Ped. Sem.  and J .  Hindmarch, R.G., S i g n i f i c a n c e of P h y s i q u e , M a t u r a t i o n a l , Body S i z e , S t r e n g t h , Motor A b i l i t y , and R e a c t i o n Time C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of E i g h t Y e a r O l d Boys, M i c r o c a r d e d D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, 1962. Humphrey, J.H., J o n e s , E., H a v e r s t i c k , M.J., Readings i n P h y s i c a l Educ a t i o n f o r the E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l , ( r e v . e d . ) , P a l o A l t o : The N a t i o n a l P r e s s , 1965. J e n k i n s , L.M., A Comparative Study of M o t o r Achievements of C h i l d r e n of F i v e , S i x , and Seven Y e a r s of Age, New Y o r k , Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1930. Johnson, B., M e n t a l Growth of C h i l d r e n i n R e l a t i o n t o the R a t e of Growth i n B o d i l y Development: A R e p o r t of the Bureau of E d u c a t i o n a l Exp e r i m e n t s , New Y o r k C i t y : E.P. D u t t o n , 1925. Kane, R . J . , M e r e d i t h , H.V., A b i l i t y i n the S t a n d i n g Broad Jump of E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l C h i l d r e n . 7 , 9, and 11 Y e a r s of Age, The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 23, No. 2, May 1952, pp. 198-208. K i n t i s , P.F., P a t t e r n s of Grcx^th i n S t r e n g t h of E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l Boys. M i c r o c a r d e d T h e s i s (M.S.), U n i v e r s i t y of W i s c o n s i n , 1953. Krogman, W.M., F a c t o r s of P h y s i c a l Growth of C h i l d r e n as they may a p p l y to P h y s i c a l Education, American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , and R e c r e a t i o n P r o c e e d i n g s , 1954, p. 60. M a r t i n , Gordon E., M u s c u l a r S t r e n g t h and M u s c u l a r Symmetry i n Human B e i n g , A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l of P h y s i o l o g y , :67-73, May, 1918. M e r e d i t h , H.V., The Rhythm of P h y s i c a l Growth: A Study of E i g h t e e n A n t h r o p o m e t r i c Measurements on Iowa C i t y W h i t e M a l e s Ranging i n Age Between B i r t h and E i g h t e e n Y e a r s . U n i v . Iowa S t u d . , S t u d , i n C h i l d W e l f a r e , 11:3, 1935, p. 128. Metheny, E., B r e a t h i n g C a p a c i t y and G r i p S t r e n g t h of P r e - S c h o o l C h i l d r e n . U n i v . Ioxja S t u d . , S t u d , i n C h i l d W e l f a r e , 18:2, 1941,p. 207. M i l l e r , A.G., Whitcomb, V., P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n the E l e m e n t a r y C u r r i c u l u m , New Y o r k : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1957.  School  McNeely, S.A., S c h n e i d e r , E., P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n t h e S c h o o l C h i l d ' s Day, Washington, Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1950.  M c C l o y , C.H., T e s t s and Measurements i n H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , I n c . , 1959, New Y o r k . M c C l o y , C.H., Young, N.D., T e s t s and Measurements i n H e a l t h and Phys i c a l E d u c a t i o n , New Y o r k , A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , I n c . , 1954 " ( t h i r d e d i t i o n ) pp. 384-395. M c C l o y , C.H., The I n f l u e n c e o f C h r o n o l o g i c a l Age on Motor Performance, The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 6, No. 2, May 1935, pp. 61-64. N i e l s on, N.P., Van Hagen, W., P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r E l e m e n t a r y A.S. Barnes and Co., New Y o r k , 1954.  Schools.  Orban, W.A.R., B a i l e y , D.A. and Bolonchuk, W., A n a l y s i s o f S e l e c t e d Cardio-Pulmonary V a r i a b l e s o f Young Boys i n A n " A l l - O u t E x e r c i s e " . U n p u b l i s h e d paper. P a t t e r s o n , D.G., P h y s i q u e and I n t e l l e c t . C r o f t s , I n c . , 1930.  New Y o r k ,  Appleton-Century-  R a n d a l l , M.W., Waine, W.K., O b j e c t i v e s o f the P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n L e s s o n , London: G. B e l l and Sons L t d . , 1960. R.arick, G.L., E x e r c i s e and Growth, S c i e n c e and M e d i c i n e o f E x e r c i s e and S p o r t , New Y o r k , Harper & B r o t h e r s P u b l i s h e r s , 1960, p. 441. R a r i c k , G.L.,. O y s t e r , N., P h y s i c a l M a t u r i t y , M u s c u l a r S t r e n g t h and M o t o r Performance o f Young School-Age Boys, The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 35, No. 4, December 1964, pp. 523-531. R a r i c k , G.L., M o t o r Development D u r i n g I n f a n c y and C h i l d h o o d , C o l l e g e P r i n t i n g and T y p i n g Co., I n c . , Madison, W i s c o n s i n , 1961. Rowe, F.A., Growth Comparison o f A t h l e t e s and N o n - A t h l e t e s , The Res e a r c h Quarterly, V. 4, 1933, p. 108. S a r g e n t , D.A., S t r e n g t h T e s t s and The S t r o n g Men o f H a r v a r d , P h y s i o l o g i c a l E d u c a t i o n Review, 11:108.  American  S e i l s , L.G., The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Measures o f P h y s i c a l Growth and Gross M o t o r Performance o f Primary-Grade S c h o o l C h i l d r e n , The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 22, No. 2, May 1951, pp. 244-260. Simmons, K., G r e u l i c h , W.W., M e n a r c h a l Age and t h e H e i g h t , Weight and S k e l e t a l Age o f G i r l s , Age 7-17 Y e a r s , J o u r n a l o f P e d i a t r i c s , V. 22, 1943, pp. 518-548. S i l l s , F.D., Anthropometry i n R e l a t i o n t o P h y s i c a l P e r f o r m a n c e , S c i e n c e and M e d i c i n e o f E x e r c i s e and S p o r t s , New Y o r k , Harper & B r o t h e r s P u b l i s h e r s , 1960, pp. 40-53.  SjBstrand, T., Acta. Med. Scand. (Suppl. 196), 128:687, 1947. Todd, T.W., 1937.  A t l a s of S k e l e t a l Maturation, St. L o u i s , C.V. Mosby Co.,  Van Hagen, W., Dexter, G., W i l l i a m s , J.F., P h y s i c a l Education i n the Elementary School, Sacramento, C a l i f o r n i a State P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1951, ( t h i r d p r i n t i n g ) . Vannier, M., F o s t e r , M., Teaching P h y s i c a l Education i n Elementary Schools, Third E d i t i o n , P h i l a d e l p h i a . W.B. Saunders Company, 1963. Wahlund, H., Determination of the P h y s i c a l Working Capacity, Acta. Med. Scand. (Suppl. 215), 132:74, 1948. W h i t t l e , H.D., E f f e c t s of Elementary School P h y s i c a l Education upon Aspects of P h y s i c a l , Motor, and P e r s o n a l i t y Development, The Research Quarterly, V. 32, No. 2, May 1962, pp. 249-260. W i l l i a m s , J.F., Brownell, C.L., The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Health and Phys i c a l Education, P h i l a d e l p h i a , W.B. Saunders Co., 1947 ( t h i r d edition).  APPENDICES  APPENDIX A  I. II.  ACCELERATED P H Y S I C A L EDUCATION PROGRAMME REGULAR P H Y S I C A L EDUCATION PROGRAMME  73  I.  ACCELERATED PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME  T h i s p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme was d e s i g n e d and t a u g h t by t h e i i i v e s t i g a t o r .  The grade too e x p e r i m e n t a l  group r e c e i v e d  three,  f o r t y minute p e r i o d s o f i n s t r u c t i o n w e e k l y , f o r a f i f t e e n week p e r i o d . The k i n d e r g a r t e n e x p e r i m e n t a l  group r e c e i v e d t h r e e , twenty m i n u t e  p e r i o d s of i n s t r u c t i o n w e e k l y , f o r a twelve week d u r a t i o n . The  aims and p u r p o s e s ; development c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and needs  of c h i l d r e n ; and t h e s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s of t h e a c c e l e r a t e d programme are o u t l i n e d .  1.  AIMS AND PURPOSES 1.  Development o f c o r r e c t p o s t u r a l h a b i t s .  2.  Development of b a s i c m u s c u l a r s t r e n g t h and c o - o r d i n a t i o n .  3.  Development of c r e a t i v i t y i n m o t i o n t h r o u g h e n j o y a b l e  rhy-  thmic a c t i v i t i e s . 4.  Development of s u f f i c i e n t s k i l l i n motor movement t o a s s u r e enjoyment of . a c t i v i t i e s ,  5.  Development of i n t e r e s t s t o s u s t a i n optimum p h y s i c a l , m e n t a l , s o c i a l , and e m o t i o n a l  6.  well-being.  Development o f e m o t i o n a l  s t a b i l i t y t h r o u g h f r e q u e n t and v i -  gorous p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e c a p a c i t y o f of the i n d i v i d u a l .  74  7.  Development of courage,  initiative, alertness, self-control  and c o - o p e r a t i o n i n group a c t i v i t i e s and i n d i v i d u a l games. 8.  Develop movement a c c u r a c y , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h ages 9 and  9.  Develop awareness of s e l f and  CHILD GROWTH AND Age 1.  DEVELOPMENT;"  10.  independence  CHARACTERISTICS AND  NEEDS  5, 6 and 7 Y e a r s B o u n d l e s s energy e x p r e s s e d  through r u n n i n g , j u m p i n g ,  hanging,  t h r o w i n g , k i c k i n g and c a t c h i n g . 2.  Many c h i l d r e n do n o t have s k i l l or c o n f i d e n c e ; they t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n i n l e s s demanding a c t i v i t i e s . c o n f i d e n c e i s developed s i v e l y complicated  3.  find  Skill  by i n c r e a s i n g l y demanding and  progres  activities.  P h y s i c a l growth n o t as r a p i d as b e f o r e e n t e r i n g s c h o o l , however, i t i s c o n t i n u o u s .  An average g a i n of two t o t h r e e  i n c h e s i n h e i g h t and t h r e e t o s i x pounds i n w e i g h t per y e a r . 4.  Muscular  development i s r e l a t i v e l y uneven; b i g m u s c l e s b e i n g  more developed 5.  than s m a l l ones.  The p l a y p a t t e r n s of t h i s age group a r e e x u b e r a n t , t a l , d r a m a t i c and make b e l i e v e .  experimen-  I t reflects certain ideas,.  r o l e s of p a r e n t s or a d u l t s . 6.  There i s an e x p r e s s e d d r i v e to be  active.  7.  Complicated,  8.  B e i n g f i r s t or b e s t i s the d e s i r e of a l l .  l o n g p l a y s confuse and i r r i t a t e them.  mize c o n f l i c t .  S m a l l groups m i n i -  75  9.  S h o r t a t t e n t i o n span and an i n t e r e s t i n m u l t i t u d e o f a c t i v i ties.  10.  Continuous p r a c t i c e i s u n a p p e a l i n g .  F a t i g u e i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r t o be r e a l i z e d . need r e s t w h i l e engaged i n v i g o r o u s a c t i v i t i e s .  Children often Too much  s i t t i n g , confinement w i l l a l s o cause f a t i g u e ; and t h e b e s t c o u n t e r - i r r i t a n t t o f a t i g u e of t h i s s o r t i s vigorous B.  activity.  Age 8, 9 and 10 Y e a r s 1.  Growth i n h e i g h t and w e i g h t a r e n o r m a l l y  slow and steady a t  t h i s age. There w i l l be a l a g j u s t p r i o r t o pubescence. 2.  G i r l s have a s p u r t o f growth a t about 10 y e a r s .  They a t t a i n  s k e l e t a l m a t u r i t y b e f o r e boys. 3.  D i f f e r e n c e s i n i n d i v i d u a l o s s i f i c a t i o n a r e v e r y wide -- as much as 5 t o 6 y e a r s a t a g i v e n age. M a l n u t r i t i o n or s e r i o u s i l l n e s s may d e l a y  4.  ossification.  M e n t a l m a t u r i t y and s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t have some c o r r e l a t i o n with skeletal maturity.  5.  The s m a l l m u s c l e s a r e d e v e l o p i n g .  Manipulative s k i l l i s i n -  creasing. 6.  Muscular  c o - o r d i n a t i o n s a r e good.  The hand-eye c o - o r d i n a t i o n s  are c o n t i n u i n g to develop. 7.  P o s t u r e may be p o o r , n o t even as good as d u r i n g t h e f i r s t year of s c h o o l . to drop.  The s p i n d l y type o f body i s most i n c l i n e d  In some c a s e s , poor p o s t u r e may be symptomatic.  I t s p r e s e n c e may i n d i c a t e a c o n d i t i o n n e e d i n g a t t e n t i o n ;  76  chronic i n f e c t i o n , f a t i g u e , m a l n u t r i t i o n , orthopedic  diffi-  c u l t i e s , emotional maladjustement, e t c . The heart d e v e l o p s  i n s i z e l e s s r a p i d l y than the body. I t s  work i s i n c r e a s e d .  Damage t o the h e a r t i s p r e v e n t e d  p l a y because t h e s k e l e t a l muscles f a t i g u e , f i r s t .  during  T a x i n g the  h e a r t s h o u l d be avoided by s e e i n g - t h a t c h i l d r e n do n o t compete w i t h t h o s e who a r e s t r o n g e r or more mature p h y s i c a l l y . The  lungs a r e n o t f u l l y  developed.  A t t h e end o f t h i s p e r i o d , t h e eyes f u n c t i o n as w e l l as those of a d u l t s ^  Myopia ( n e a r - s i g h t e d n e s s ) may  around t h e age o f 8 y e a r s .  develop  Many eye d e f e c t s c a n be remedied  by g l a s s e s . By the end of t h i s p e r i o d t h e c h i l d w i l l have had many o f the c o n t a g i o u s d i s e a s e s of c h i l d h o o d or w i l l have b u i l t up immunity t o them. I n t e r n a l changes i n glands and body s t r u c t u r e a r e t a k i n g place.  There i s a w i d e range i n t h e b e g i n n i n g of s e x u a l mat-  urity.  The p e r i o d of r a p i d growth comes e a r l i e r f o r g i r l s  than f o r boys, b u t i t l a s t s l o n g e r i n boys.  I n boys, t h e  b e g i n n i n g of the p u b e r t y c y c l e o c c u r s between 10-13 y e a r s o f age and ends between 14-18% y e a r s of age.  I n g i r l s , menstrua^  t i o n appears between t h e ages of 10-16, w i t h t h e average a t 13 y e a r s .  The c h i l d of 8, 9 or 10 y e a r s i s s t u r d y though l o n g - l e g g e d and rangy i n appearance. has boundless energy.  H i s h e a l t h i s u s u a l l y good and he  He seems h u r r i e d and u n t i d y .  He i s  prone t o a c c i d e n t s . He now has a w i d e r range, of i n t e r e s t s and a l o n g e r a t t e n t i o n span.  H i s g o a l s a r e immediate and c o n s i s t e n c y i s demanded,  as i s i n d i v i d u a l j u s t i c e . He i s l e a r n i n g t o c o - o p e r a t e b e t t e r . groups over a l o n g e r p e r i o d .  He p l a y s i n self-made  He i s b e g i n n i n g t o be  interested  i n teams and w i l l a b i d e by group d e c i s i o n s . The c h i l d d e s i r e s p r e s t i g e and may b o a s t i n g and  seek i t t h r o u g h s i z e ,  rivalry.  The r h y t h m i c sense i s much improved. Sex antagonism may  be a c u t e .  Sex i n t e r e s t i s n o t d e t a i l e d .  S e x u a l "modesty" cippears. The a p p e t i t e i s good.  The c h i l d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n e a t i n g .  There now a r e fewer f o o d p r e f e r e n c e s and r e f u s a l s . He i s g e n e r a l l y r e l i a b l e about f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s i n household j o b s .  He can t a k e c a r e of h i s own room.  He can t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s own c l o t h i n g .  He i s now  more aware of h i s p e r s o n a l h y g i e n e . The c h i l d needs an a s s u r e d p o s i t i o n i n a s o c i a l Membership i n a gang or s e c r e t c l u b f i l l s  group.  t h i s need.  At  this  p e r i o d c h i l d r e n need a c e r t a i n amount of freedom i n s e t t i n g  78  up t h e i r own s t a n d a r d s and r u l e s , y e t s t r o n g l y d e s i r e unders t a n d i n g and sympathy from a d u l t s .  Participation i n family  a f f a i r s i s important* 23.-  There must be f u l l o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p body c o n t r o l , s t r e n g t h and endurance.  The c h i l d o f 8, 9 or 10 y e a r s needs  a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g use of t h e whole body; s t u n t s , t h r o w i n g and c a t c h i n g , r u n n i n g , " i t " noise, etc.  games w i t h t h e i r accompanying  Seasonal p l a y i s important:  k i t e s , tops,  marbles,  etc. 24.  He needs o r g a n i z e d games f o r team p l a y .  He i s w i l l i n g t o  p r a c t i c e i n o r d e r t o become adequate i n s k i l l s f o r games.  He  g a i n s s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e by e x c e l l i n g i n some one t h i n g . 25.  I t i s as i m p o r t a n t f o r c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n good f o l l o w e r s h i p as i t i s f o r them t o l e a r n good l e a d e r s h i p .  26.  Encouragement t o e x e r c i s e c r e a t i v i t y i n rhythms s h o u l d be given.  27.  A c t i v i t i e s such as p l a y i n g i n caves and b r o o k s , g a t h e r i n g n u t s , making c a m p f i r e s , a r e needed.  28.  B i c y c l e s and s k a t e s a r e enjoyed.  The c h i l d s h o u l d s l e e p about 11 h o u r s . g e t enough r e s t .  He u s u a l l y does n o t  A q u i e t p e r i o d i n t h e a.fternoon, n o t neces-  s a r i l y i n bed, may p r e v e n t o v e r - f a t i g u e .  A c o n s t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of growth i s change.  Each p e r s o n p a s s e s  through a c h a n n e l of growth w i t h t h e same s t a g e s i n v e r y much t h e  79  same o r d e r .  The development from i n f a n c y t o any g i v e n s t a g e w i l l  n o t o n l y be prominant  i n p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l growth, b u t a l s o i n  an ever i n c r e a s i n g t r e n d toward b a s i c needs.  Some b a s i c needs  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e age groups above a r e : 1.  The need f o r a c t i v i t y .  2.  The need f o r b e l o n g i n g t o t h e group, t h e p r o j e c t t h a t i s impo r t a n t t o him, and p e o p l e he wants t o p l e a s e .  3.  The need f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g  successfully.  4.  The need f o r s t a t u s e x p r e s s e d by b e i n g a c c e p t e d by t h e p e o p l e i m p o r t a n t t o him, f o r what he i s and what he has t o c o n t r i b u t e .  5.  The need f o r s e c u r i t y ; i n b e l o n g i n g , p a r t i c i p a t i n g and r e c o g nition.  6.  3.  The need f o r s h a r i n g .  BASIC MOVEMENTS TO BE STRESSED Catching Throwing Butting Turning Twisting Bending  Walking Running Pulling Pushing Climbing Stretching  Jumping Hopping Leaping Kicking Swinging  Phases of A c t i v i t y : 1.  F r e e movement.  2. Body mechanics.  3. M o t o r a b i l i t y .  • A c t i v i t y was c e n t e r e d around these t h r e e phases,  each phase  r e c e i v i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y , e q u a l p r o p o r t i o n of time o v e r a l l , w i t h one part i c u l a r phase b e i n g emphasized p e r p e r i o d , i n a d d i t i o n t o a c t i v i t y i n t h e r e m a i n i n g too phases..  80  4  -  SPECIFIC  ACTIVITIES  Kindergarten A.  B.  Rhythm and Movement E x p l o r a t i o n . 1.  I can, can you  2.  Monkey see, monkey do  3.  Statues  4.  Green l i g h t , r e d l i g h t  5.  D i d you ever  6.  To rhythm ~~ r u n , w a l k , s k i p , s l i d e ,  Games of Low  Organization.  1.  Slowkee p o k i e  2.  C h a r l e y over the w a t e r  3.  Duck i n the pond  4.  Once t h e r e was a l i t t l e  5.  J u n g l e hunt  6.  Cat and mice  7.  P a s s i t around  8.  B l a c k bear  9.  F o x and r a b b i t •  10. C.  see a l a s s i e ?  Doggie, your bones gone.  S t u n t s and Tumbling. 1.  Log  2.  Tunnel  3.  Popcorn  roll roll  frog  gallop.  4.  B r e a k i n g soap b u b b l e s  5.  T i g h t rope w a l k  6.  B a l a n c e jump  7.  Kangaroo jump  8.  R o c k i n g boat  9.  Stepping stones.  Grade A.  B.  Two  Rhythm and Movement E x p l o r a t i o n . 1.  Scissor  2.  R i d i n g b i k e on back  3.  Thread f o l l o w s the n e e d l e  4.  Broom dance  5.  Old k i n g c o l e  Games of Low  Man  Organization.  1.  Farmer and. f o x  2.  Doggie, your bones gone  3.  Around the w o r l d  4.  Tunnel b a l l  5.  Cage mix-up  6.  Auto race  7.  Midnight  8.  T i g e r s and l e o p a r d s  9.  P a s s i t ar.ound  10.  Gardner and scamp  82  C.  11.  B u l l £<;rog  12.  Bean bag t o s s  13.  Hare and hound  14. -  G o l f b a l l and  spoon  S t u n t s , Tumbling. 1.  Turn under  2.  Missile  man  3.  Blast-off  4.  Batman and R o b i n  5.  Over the p u d d l e  6.  The r o c k e t  7.  Heel slap  8.  Elevator  9.  Under the b r i d g e  10.  B a l l passing.  1 1  •  REGUIAR PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME  T h i s p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme i s o u t l i n e d i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m .  The grade two c o n t r o l  group met t w i c e w e e k l y , f o r f o r t y m i n u t e p e r i o d s .  The  kindergarten  c o n t r o l group r e c e i v e d two, twenty minute p e r i o d s of i n s t r u c t i o n .  The  two c o n t r o l groups were t a u g h t by t h e i r homeroom t e a c h e r s . The f o l l o w i n g i s i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d f r o m i n t e r v i e w i n g t h e classroom  t e a c h e r of each c o n t r o l group.  The i n v e s t i g a t o r was concerned  w i t h the g e n e r a l programme of a c t i v i t i e s and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n of t h e c l a s s r o o m  teacher.  training  83  Teacher "A: was  educated  i n England  and r e c e i v e d a two  year  p r o f e s s i o n a l course i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a t an E n g l i s h Teacher T r a i n i n g College.  She p r o v i d e d f r e e p r a c t i c e w i t h s m a l l a p p a r a t u s .  d r e n e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f e r e n t ways of moving.  The  Climbing apparatus  r o p e s , benches, box and l a r g e mats were used.  The  chilin  gym,  arrangement of t h e s e  v a r i e d to p r e s e n t c h a l l e n g e s and i n c r e a s e p o s s i b i l i t i e s  of movement.  Teacher "B" r e c e i v e d her e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Her  p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n background c o n s i s t e d of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n h i g h s c h o o l a t h l e t i c s and the s t u d y i n g of one c o u r s e i n p r i m a r y s c h o o l p h y s i c a l education. The grade two c o n t r o l programme was  based on apparatus work,  dance, f r e e movement, a d j u s t i n g t o game s i t u a t i o n s . p a t t e r n o p p o r t u n i t i e s as jumping, were p r e s e n t e d t o the c h i l d r e n . h a n d l i n g a l s o were mentioned.  B a s i c movement  c l i m b i n g , r u n n i n g , and c a t c h i n g The use of equipment, i t s c a r e  and  REFERENCES  1.  M i l l e r , A.R., Whitcomb, U. P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n the E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l C u r r i c u l u m , 3d ed., New Y o r k ; P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1957.  2.  N a n n i e r , M., F o s t e r M. T e a c h i n g P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n Elementary, S c h o o l s , P h i l a d e l p h i a : W.B. Saunders Company, 1963.  3.  R a n d a l l , M.W. , Waine, W.K.. O b j e c t i v e s of the P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n L e s s o n . London: G. B e l l and Sons, L t d . , 1960.  4.  Humphrey, J.H., J o n e s , E. H a v e r s t i c k , M.J. Readings i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r the E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l (.rev. ed) , P a l o A l t o : The N a t i o n a l P r e s s , 1965.  5.  N i e l s o n , N.P., Van Hagen, W. S c h o o l , New Y o r k : A.S.  P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r Elementary Barnes Co., 1954.  APPENDIX B  SKELETAL AGE ASSESSMENT FORM , SAMPLE X-RAY  I.  SKELETAL AGE ASSESSMENT FORM.  HUMAN PERFORMANCE LABORATORY SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA S k e l e t a l Age o f I n d i v i d u a l Bones D i s t a l End of R a d i u s D i s t a l End of U l n a  Capitate Hamate Triquetral Lunate Navicular Greater Multangular Lesser Multangular  Metacarpal.^ Metacarpal I I Metacarpal I I I Metacarpal IV Metacarpal V  Proximal Proximal Proximal Proximal Proximal  Phalanx Phalanx Phalanx Phalanx Phalanx  I II III IV V  Middle Middle Middle Middle  Phalanx Phalanx Phalanx Phalanx  II III IV V  Distal Distal Distal Distal Distal  Phalanx Phalanx Phalanx Phalanx Phalanx  I II III IV V  P isiform A d d u c t o r Sesamoid of Thumb F l e x o r Sesamoid of Thumb  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0077384/manifest

Comment

Related Items