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Observational accuracy in sport Miller, Gary N. 1989

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OBSERVATIONAL ACCURACY I N SPORT By GARY N . B.A. ,  MILLER  The U n i v e r s i t y  o f Western Ontario,  1979  B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y  o f Western Ontario,  1980  A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR THE D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF P H Y S I C A L E D U C A T I O N in THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE (School  We  of Physical  accept this to  thesis  the required  Education)  as conforming standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H April  STUDIES  COLUMBIA  1989  (c) G a r y N . M i l l e r ,  1989  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  available  copying  of  department publication  in  partial  fulfilment  University  of  British  Columbia,  for  this or of  thesis  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and  study.  scholarly  or for  her  of  financial  Physical Education  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6  (2/88)  June 6,  1988  I  1 further  purposes  gain  the  shall  requirements  agree  that  agree  may  representatives.  permission.  Department  of  be  It not  that  the  be  Library  an  advanced  shall  permission for  granted  is  for  by  understood allowed  the  make  extensive  head  that  without  it  of  copying my  my or  written  ABSTRACT While  numerous s t u d i e s e x i s t  examined t h e a c c u r a c y little  of eyewitnesses  research exists  i n the  the o b s e r v a t i o n a l accuracy here and  attempted  t o address  s o c c e r coaches.  subjects  in this  i n the  to criminal  of coaches. this  The  s o c c e r games.  randomly s e l e c t e d  experimental  A l l t h r e e groups watched the  pretest recall to  videotape  shoot.  The  experimental  events  critical  the  g r o u p was  o f match p l a y .  priming  same v i d e o t a p e d  q u e s t i o n n a i r e they a l s o watched the  All  and  based  minute  s o c c e r games.  instructions.  as an  same v i d e o t a p e d to prepare  upon t h e i r  same game segment w i t h t h e  Instances in a  orienting  o n l y answered  the  activity watched  the  C o n t r o l group  e x c e r p t s as t h e o t h e r  the  identical  ii  two  two  sessions that  observations of the videotaped  completed  the  videotape  C o n t r o l g r o u p one  a training  to  t o observe  a training  r e c e i v e d i n the p r e t e s t .  t h r e e groups then  control  missed o p p o r t u n i t i e s  trained  They u s e d  i n s t a n c e s but  g r o u p s b u t were a s k e d would use  two  e l e m e n t s o f m a t c h p l a y were i l l u s t r a t e d  specific  videotaped  c o a c h e s were  g r o u p and  shots taken  p r o g r e s s i v e manner u s i n g t h e v i d e o t a p e with  The  soccer  as  study viewing  same f i f t e e n  excerpts of 7 p r o f e s s i o n a l  containing  sport of  answered a q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e l a t i n g  of the goals scored,  critical  of  and  reported  soccer coaches served  observational accuracy  very  t h a t examines  experiment  issue using the  segments o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l  groups.  events,  sport science f i e l d  Thirty-six  f o r one  l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h have  they games.  same p o s t t e s t w a t c h i n g number o f g o a l s , s h o t s  the and  missed  shooting  opportunities  as t h e p r e t e s t v i d e o t a p e .  The  d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e was t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s each s u b j e c t three  displayed  critical  events.  when a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s Results  c o a c h e s seem t o be i n c a p a b l e information of  that  events that  was no b e t t e r performed able  pertains  lead than  t o how g o a l s  t o s h o t s and m i s s e d 2 0% c o r r e c t .  events during  pretest.  The t r a i n i n g  in  recall  better  recalled  the events leading  shooting  Their  found t h a t  recall  opportunities  An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e  the posttest  post  subjects  were  than during  hoc a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d to the scoring  than they r e c a l l e d  shooting  are scored.  was better  the resulted  f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p t h a n t h e two c o n t r o l  A Scheffe  missed  on t h e a v e r a g e ,  p r o g r a m on d i r e c t e d o b s e r v a t i o n  groups.  accurately  these  o f r e m e m b e r i n g more t h a n 40% o f  on t h e d a t a and i t was  to recall  indicated that,  about  that  opportunities.  iii  that  of goals  the events leading  a l l subjects more  t o s h o t s and  T A B L E OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  i  L I S T OF T A B L E S  i V  L I S T OF F I G U R E S  v i  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  v i i  1. I n t r o d u c t i o n  1  2. M e t h o d  16  2.1 S u b j e c t s  16  2.2 E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n  16  2 . 3 Environment  16  2.4 V i d e o t a p e C o n s t r u c t i o n  18  2.5  Procedure  20  2.6  Data A n a l y s i s  25  3. R e s u l t s  26  4. D i s c u s s i o n  37  Appendices  42  4.1 A p p e n d i x  1  42  4.2 A p p e n d i x  2  61  4.3 A p p e n d i x  3  63  4.4 A p p e n d i x  4  65  4.5 A p p e n d i x  5  69  4.6 A p p e n d i x  6  72  4.7 A p p e n d i x  7  76  4.8 A p p e n d i x  8  79  4.9 A p p e n d i x  9  81  References  82 iv  L I S T OF  TABLES  Table  Page 1 Design  of the Experiment  ...17  2 An example o f a g o a l b e i n g the  Pretest  Game U . S . S . R .  scored i n versus  Belgium  23  3 E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Goals,  Shots  Scores f o r  and M i s s e d  Opportunities  Shooting  i n the Pretest  and  Posttest 4 Control Shots in  Group  the Pretest  Shots  One  and M i s s e d  5 Control  in  28 Scores  Shooting Opportunities  and P o s t t e s t .  G r o u p Two  and Missed  the Pretest  f o r Goals,  Scores  29  f o r Goals,  Shooting Opportunities  and P o s t t e s t  6 R e s u l t s o f t h e Sum  30  of t h e Squares,  Degrees o f Freedom,  t h e Mean  F R a t i o s and t h e S i g n i f i c a n c e  v  the  Squares,  the  Level...32  LIST  OF  FIGURES  Figure  Page 1 The  Critical  2 The  Flow  Features of Soccer  C h a r t o f The  3 Numbered A r e a s 4  of 5  Correct 6  of  Conditions Answers  Conditions Correct  and  Percentage 34  Pretest/Posttest on P e r c e n t a g e s  of  f o r Each Group  I n t e r a c t i o n Between and  21  Answers  I n t e r a c t i o n Between and  Pretest  and Groups on  Correct  Program..13  of the Field  I n t e r a c t i o n Between 'Posttest  Training  12  on  Answers  vi  35  Pretest/Posttest  Percentage 36  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  The a u t h o r i s v e r y g r a t e f u l t o G e r r y J e n n i n g s a n d J o a n n e DiNardo f o r t h e i r i n v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n i n t y p i n g t h e m a n u s c r i p t a n d The O n t a r i o S o c c e r A s s o c i a t i o n f o r a l l o w i n g them t h e t i m e t o s p e n d on i t . T h a n k s a r e a l s o e x t e n d e d t o J o h n and Donna C o n n o r f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e a n d h o s p i t a l i t y . Finally the a u t h o r w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s h i s t h a n k s t o D r . I a n F r a n k s , Dr. Gary S i n c l a i r and Dr. R i c h a r d Mosher f o r t h e i r a d v i c e and d i r e c t i o n t h a t was g i v e n r e g a r d i n g t h e d e s i g n a n d w r i t e - u p o f the experiment. A s p e c i a l n o t e o f t h a n k s t o my w i f e C i n d y f o r a l l o f h e r s u p p o r t and encouragement t h r o u g h o u t t h i s r e s e a r c h .  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Several Elliot  and  difficulty sporting of  competition.  This  this  fact  When a c o a c h  specifically  to  of the  there  Miller,  events  seems t o be  transpired during 60%  and  case  during  for a l l levels  i s a s k e d t o make d e c i s i o n s  a competitive  time  have  that occur  the  Franks,  event  they  (Appendix 2 P i l o t  a p p e a r s t o be  little  i n v e s t i g a t e the process  can  the  observational  l a c k of research  accuracy  of observers  between e y e w i t n e s s e s  i n the  of observing  i n t o the  field  general  designed events  area  of  to a criminal s i t u a t i o n is intuitively  The and  eyewitnesses  appealing.  t o c r i m i n a l events  unreliable  and  inaccurate.  Neisser  (1982),  attitudes,  the  on  eyewitness  of a person's a b i l i t i e s ,  beliefs,  by  the  a p a s s i v e p e r c e i v e r and  on what has  b e e n s e e n by 1  processes  background,  e n v i r o n m e n t and The  are  testimony,  memory a r e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g  i s eventually tested.  r a t h e r than  conclusions  and  totality  m o t i v e s and  recollection  active  in h i s research  that perception by  circumstances  the  comparison  i t appears t h a t eyewitnesses in certain  has  that deals with  Generally,  way  in a  of sports science,there  in criminal situations.  (coaches) t o a s p o r t i n g event  affected  in  Study).  research  b e e n a c o n s i d e r a b l e body o f a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h  stated  be  environment.  Despite  accuracy  1986,  h a v e shown t h a t c o a c h e s  experience.  a s much as  sporting  1985)  (Franks  i n remembering c r i t i c a l  on what h a s  Despite  studies  Johnson,  coaching  error  recent  observer recorder,  by  the  i s an reaching  e v a l u a t i n g fragments  of  information  and r e c o n s t r u c t i n g  by  t o be a c c u r a t e by i m p o s i n g  a desire  amount  of information that  desire  to live  Several eyewitness Scott,  testimony  (Clifford  Insignificant  and H o l l i n ,  t o be p r e s e n t i n  1980, C l i f f o r d  can a t t e n d t o .  c o n d i t i o n s which apply, such movement and t h e p r e s e n c e with the e f f i c i e n t  may  than  witness.  a p e r s o n who  o r need t o s e e .  lighting,  be o b s e r v i n g u n d e r s t r e s s .  (e) The o b s e r v e r ' s p h y s i c a l i s t o o o l d o r t o o s i c k may ( f ) The t e n d e n c y  T h i s has been termed  forget  (h) T a l k i n g  the o r i g i n a l  (d) The This  b l o o d p r e s s u r e and i s not a  condition.  That  h a v e an i m p a i r e d t o s e e what we want  perceptual bias,  i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h t h e passage  t o others i n f l u e n c e s the content of the  information  and r e p o r t s become more a c c u r a t e and c o m p l e t e  moving i n t o  t h e t e s t i m o n y phase b e f o r e t h e t r i a l .  t o a w i t n e s s may  fast  interferes  of the attention process.  A person under extreme s t r e s s  of the event.  into  of features a  A l l of these  i s manifest i n increased heart rate,  flow of adrenalin.  fully  ideal observation  as d i s t a n c e , poor  o f crowds.  working  witnesses themselves  (g) O b s e r v e r s  observed.  (b) The l e n g t h o f t h e  t h e number  (c) The l e s s  and  below.  process of attention.  person  perception  people.  e v e n t s do n o t m o t i v a t e p e o p l e t o b r i n g  o f o b s e r v a t i o n which l i m i t s  of time.  b u t a l s o by a  o f t h e e v e n t s t h a t were  period  is,  appear  These s o u r c e s a r e l i s t e d  the selective  reliable  i s motivated  m e a n i n g on t h e v a s t  up t o t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f o t h e r  sources of u n r e l i a b i l i t y  1978) .  response  The o b s e r v e r  f l o o d s the senses,  (a) The i n s i g n i f i c a n c e  play  them.  a l s o b i a s the response 2  when  ( i ) Questions  when t h e w i t n e s s i s  encouraged t o f a b r i c a t e testimony. persuaded  ( j ) The  o b s e r v e r can  t o conform t o the m a j o r i t y o p i n i o n .  o f s u g g e s t i o n a r e m a x i m i z e d when f i g u r e s  (k) The  of authority  also  be  effects do  the  testing. In u n c o v e r i n g unreliable  or  suggestions. investigate  the reasons  why  inaccurate, several  s t u d i e s have  Clifford  (1980) ,  how  and  Hollin  of the witnesses  principal  finding  witnesses  to a violent  that  in this  arousal  and  s t u d y was  that  that  Scott  range of  increasing  the adverse  h a v e on p e r c e p t i o n . experiment violent  that  accuracy  showed t h a t  i n c i d e n t was  nonviolent is  The  incident.  The  the v i c t i m  T h i s would  recall  l e s s than  general effect  the  as a f u n c t i o n  o f a r o u s a l and  t h e e m o t i o n a l i t y s u r r o u n d i n g an and  of  Similarily,  of t h i s hypothesis  significantly  stress  t h a t has incident  the  witnesses. 3  from  a  of a  been can  may  in their  of d e t a i l s recall  of  indicate  isolated  affect  completeness with r e s p e c t to the testimony  and  than  The  the hypothesis that  the eyewitness  of  v i o l e n c e generates  report decreased  testing  The  poorer  causing a narrowing  that high levels  number  the  the testimony  e m o t i o n a l i t y of the crime.  effects  the  identification.  information.  (1978) t e s t e d  completeness of the eyewitness the  and  influenced  significantly  observed  i n the witness  attention to a limited Clifford  and  event  to  to a nonviolent incident.  p r e s e n t e d was  or s t r e s s  testimony  i n c i d e n t was  g i v e n by w i t n e s s e s  explanation  an e v e n t  be  proposed  s e t out  the v i o l e n c e of a witnessed  of p e r p e t r a t o r s i n v o l v e d i n such accuracy  these observers could  of  both both  W e l l s and L e i p p e paid  to a criminal's  processing recall  of other  fortrivial  (1981), face  suggested that  during  an e v e n t ,  or peripheral  f a c t o r s may  o f t h e i r work s u g g e s t t h a t  e y e w i t n e s s e s were a t t e n d i n g processing as  little  room t r i v i a ,  enquiry, face,  information  discrete v i s u a l features. analysis that  different  features.  accorded  equal  features  are given  enhances t h e i r  involves This  attention.  that  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  rather  factors,  such  when we l o o k  may d e r i v e sequential  from a p r e c o n s c i o u s processing  d o e s n o t mean t h a t The e v i d e n c e  at a  than as a s e t o f  of the  each f a c i a l  indicates that which  area i s  some  i n turn  recognition  (1977), examined t h e  eyewitness i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s  where t h e y saw i t . of faces  able  t o recognize  are biased a face  The r e s u l t s s u p p o r t e d i s much b e t t e r  c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f an e n c o u n t e r ,  recognition  of the  encoding.  that  some o c c a s i o n s  rather  f e a t u r e s . The  more a t t e n t i o n t h a n o t h e r s ,  o b s e r v e r s a r e much b e t t e r recall  less,  A l o n g t h e same l i n e s o f  Brown, D e f f e n b a c h e r and S t u r g i l l possibility  imply  the majority  (1984) f o u n d t h a t  This  preclude  accurate  about t h e p e r i p h e r a l  and room l a y o u t .  W e l l s and L o f t u s  facial  to the thief's  we s e e i t a s a w h o l e p e r c e p t  pattern  t h i s may  l e s s c e n t r a l d e t a i l s and t h a t  t h a n more, e n c o d i n g o f t h e c r i m i n a l ' s results  i fattention i s  raising  because  than t o  the  theory  than r e c a l l of  the p o s s i b i l i t y  w i t n e s s e s might base t h e i r  indictments  t h a t on on  face  alone.  R e s e a r c h on v i c t i m i z a t i o n a s a d e t e r m i n a n t a c c u r a c y was c o n d u c t e d b y H o s c h and C o o p e r 4  o f eyewitness  (1982) u s i n g  three  eyewitness  conditions:  impersonal  calculator-theft  watch-theft accuracy  the  condition.  indicated  increased  a no-theft control  The r e s u l t s  that presence  identification  criminal  condition,  o f t h e crime  upset  effects  showed t h a t t h e r a t e s o f  They found  the thief,  d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  I t was f o u n d  o f heightened  remembered t h e d e t a i l s  modify  accuracy of aroused  of a violent  about  (1984).  eyewitness Firstly,  crime b e t t e r than  witnesses those of a  one (wrong - t h e a d d e d s t r e s s t h a t v i o l e n c e c r e a t e s  underestimate  t h e d u r a t i o n o f a crime  (wrong - t h e more v i o l e n t  likely  they  t h u s m i t i g a t i n g any  c l o u d s o u r p e r c e p t i o n s ) . Second, w i t n e s s e s  confident  that  that  attention.  were summarized by L o f t u s  witnessess  such  t h a t t h e v i c t i m s were more  A number o f common m i s c o n c e p t i o n s  nonviolent  i tlikely  although being the  t h a n were t h e o t h e r w i t n e s s e s ,  testimony  significantly  a c t catches witnesses' attention  identification. and  and a p e r s o n a l i z e d  o f a crime  accuracy.  e n c o d e more i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t victim  c o n d i t i o n , an  overestimate a witness  a r e as l i k e l y t o  as t o overestimate i t  and s t r e s s f u l  the crime  i t s duration). Finally,  t h e more  t h e more  seems, t h e more a c c u r a t e t h e t e s t i m o n y i s  t o be (wrong - t h e r e may be l i t t l e  o r no r e l a t i o n s h i p  between c o n f i d e n c e and a c c u r a c y ) . In making comparisons sporting but,  situations,  interestingly  example, fluctuate  between c r i m i n a l  i t i s apparent  that  there are differences  enough, t h e r e a r e a l s o many s i m i l a r i t i e s . F o r  d u r i n g c o m p e t i t i o n , t h e coach's depending  s i t u a t i o n s and  arousal level  upon t h e s e q u e n c e o f e v e n t s 5  does  i n t h e game  (i.e.,  i f t h e game a c t i o n i s c o n c e n t r a t e d  areas,  then there  conceded  and t h e a r o u s a l  seriousness competition, often  i sa possibility  (i.e.,  because  during  sport  of performance  (MacDonald, goals  can d i s t o r t  1984).  t h a t were  a goal As  stated  Finally  scored  (Franks  observation  that  to the other).  situation  t h e coach  earlier,  from  a coach brings  i n eyewitness  testimony  period  of observation,  observation  speed  can  lead  observers a  to a  leading  up  are associated  with  and teaching/coaching  These  as  include the length  conditions, level  of  of the observer  t o s e e what one wants t o s e e , f o r g e t t i n g  information  after  a passage o f time,  o f t h e movement b e i n g  observed.  t o a d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n the accuracy are to recall  certain period  one s i d e  remember t h e  t h e type  movement'response a n t i c i p a t e d , t h e number o f p e o p l e the  i n the  o f t h e event  can often  t h e problems that  similar.  original  pass  1986).  above a r e q u i t e  the  a long  i n a game b u t n o t t h e e v e n t s  and M i l l e r ,  the tendency  a t t e n t i o n away  the play  the perception  The  the scoring of a  (i.e.,  The b i a s e s  coach  i s on t h e team).  (i.e.,  switches  stated  arousal,  perceived  the local  a t e a m game d i r e c t i n g  half of the field  the field  The  or  and non-important  a son o r daughter  t o t h e more p e r i p h e r a l f e a t u r e s  defending  scored  t h e c o a c h o f an O l y m p i c team whose j o b i s  central features  goal)  to  increase).  important  one o f t h e g o a l  being  d e p e n d e n t upon t h e game's o u t c o m e v e r s u s  coach has a problem  of  of a goal  will  o f t h e game i n c l u d e s  who i s c o a c h i n g  from  level  around  o f time  6  they  i n v o l v e d and  A l l o f these  factors  of observation.  accurately the events that then  of  must d e v e l o p  a  occur  I f  within  systematic  framework t h a t w i l l their  perceptions  of the  (Franks  described  objectively.  and  to direct  their was  adapted  first  that  postulated are  direct  eliminate  in several two  recent pilot  for  studies  received  as  was  l o c a t i o n s i n the  organizing  organization  skilled are  observer.  and  a process  i t related  observational  defined  array,  and  He delineated  second,  of  features  said  as  that  feature change  state  t o have o c c u r r e d .  The  ongoing behavior  o r more f e a t u r e s  observation intervals,  occurred.  Newtson goes  w o u l d be  i n v o l v e s a common  b a s i c premise, be  the  of ongoing behavior,  undefined The  break-points  should  therefore,  unit that  was  included  more memorable t h a n a f l o w  only  feature  that  of a n a l y s i s  changes  and  distinctive of behaviour  intervals.  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f Newtson*s work a r e  perception  These  o n g o i n g s e q u e n c e where a  s u g g e s t t h a t m e a n i n g f u l a c t i o n i s assumed t o e x i s t  transformation.  imposes a s h o r t  that  t e r m memory l o a d on 7  use  ( 1 9 7 6 ) . Newtson o u t l i n e d  p r o p o s e d a model o f t h e  break-point  when a minimum o f two  some  coaches could  a model  o r more o f t h e s e  c h a n g e i n s t a t e o f one  had  process,  of a stimulus  was  and  3).  observed a c t i o n s  When one  break-points  in  help  a l s o the  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the  perception  monitoring. then the  see  f r o m Newtson  and  changes i n f e a t u r e s  to  should  of t h i s p e r c e p t u a l  accuracy  t h a t had  suggested  behavior  1986,  observational  measurability  to observer  on  This  process  a t t e m p t t o d e v e l o p a framework t h a t  perceptions  process  Miller  i n A p p e n d i c e 2 and  I n an  by  observation  problems t h a t have been o b s e r v e d  studies  the  prime the  the  behavior observer:  that  therefore,  feature  s e l e c t i o n i s imperative  observer  i s one  features  for perceptual  maximal  information  observers use  that  s e l e c t s the  develop a s p e c i a l i z e d  implications trying While  from the  Newtson  p e r s o n may  see  an  s e c o n d s a n o t h e r p e r s o n may seconds i n d u r a t i o n Newtson and  Engquist  used b r e a k p o i n t s accurate  as  and  u n i t s of  I n summary, t h e the v a r i a b i l i t y  observations specialized  and  specialized important  accuracy  two  use  any  key  with  the  f e a t u r e s and  the  a coach,  seconds.  who  s e q u e n c e as  more  more  sequence of  basis  events  aid.  These  f o r the  formation  observation  appear  difficulty  f o r use  in  a  these  t o more a c c u r a t e l y  needs t o d e v e l o p a s y s t e m a t i c  f a c e d by  definition  their  development of  i n order  set of p r e d i c t i v e features  be  eight  over twelve  w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s segment  remember e v e n t s ,  may  event.  twenty  a c t i o n s , one  f a c t o r s of behavior  Therefore,  which accuracy  over  of  a i d were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  set of p r e d i c t i v e features  i s the  a meaningful  such o b s e r v a t i o n a l are  for  behavior.  of c r i t i c a l  observations.  An  observational  d i d not  (skilled)  a methodology  (1976) f o u n d t h a t s u b j e c t s an  gives  these  extending  another extending  suggest that breakpoints  of perceptual  perceive  i t as  as  more a c c u r a t e l y j u d g e d t h e  s u b j e c t s who  results  t o be  conducted using  i n a c t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n s , r a t e d the  intelligible, than  and  event, which  a r r i v e d at  a c t i o n as see  critical  set of p r e d i c t i v e features  t o m e a s u r e what s u b j e c t s p e r c e i v e one  skilled  event. A l s o veteran  (197 3)  through research  a  redundant s e t of  o r g a n i z a t i o n of the  gain  in observation.  least  and  o f an  scored. 8  any  f o r use  in  and  observation.  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  adequate c r i t e r i o n  observer against  In  an attempt t o develop  coaches simple had  (specifically  included,  enough t o a l l o w  and y e t s p e c i f i c  information  flow  chart  scored.  several  of  t o shoot.  lead  The  from  soccer occur  attempted  crosses, being  of this  c o a c h was a b l e  their  1968).  to a  recall  basis  upon w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t s  goal  o r i g i n a t e from from  from t h e 1982 ;  These key f a c t o r s passes and  and goals  scored.  being  was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t s t o improve t h e accuracy recall  This  training i n such  them more a c c u r a t e l y a f t e r  with  c e r t a i n key events  key events during  programme  a way t h a t t h e competition  the competition.  were t r a i n e d c e n t r e d  i n Figure  1.  emphasize  observations  to prioritize  were designed  i n Figure  and, t h e r e f o r e ,  and then  match.  hence  activities  taken  research  a soccer  framework presented  that  penetrating  scored  being  coaches observe  to direct  t o be  The  ( s e e F r a n k s a n d Thomson,  programme d e s i g n e d  during  event.  a repossession shots  and The  around t h e  1 and a s e r i e s o f o r i e n t i n g  that  emphasized  outlined.  9  a  f o r breakpoint  t h a t have been d e r i v e d  games  of shots  purpose  a training  that  of play  t o goals  of play  i s illustrated from  that  These o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e c r e a t e d  (set plays,  expectation  which  a l l instances  e t a l , 1 9 7 1 ; Reep and B e n j a m i n ,  dribbles)  of  are scored  o f many s o c c e r  game p l a y  the  study  be used by  This description  an ongoing  extends a l l play  key elements  analysis Reep,  f o rt h i s  Goals  opportunities  from  could  i t was i m p e r a t i v e  enough t o a l l o w  t o be e x t r a c t e d  framework designed  being  coaches),  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e game b e p r o p o s e d .  t o be general  This  soccer  a framework t h a t  the flow  of action  The other  use of o r i e n t i n g  fields  defined  using  of using  process, the  orienting  would  student It  ball  inexperienced will  that  activities  possession,  set plays,  critical  events  goal  and a goal  was n e c e s s a r y standardized  the observational  the observer  t h e more  the coaches'  shooting  scored.  t o design training  and g o a l s  was p r i m i n g  a missed  being  beneficial  perspective i t  activities  i n an  observations organizers  crosses,penetrating  opportunities, shots  to anticipate  the specific  skills  beneficial.  shooting  coach  to orient  new  to  t o improve t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l  directing  this  which  One m e t h o d o f  When c o n s i d e r i n g  i n t h e form o f advanced  since  have  advanced o r g a n i z e r s  the use of o r i e n t i n g  c o a c h e s w o u l d be felt  (p.239).  be. From a p r a c t i c a l  program designed  was  orienting  1979).  organizers  activity  appear t h a t  educational of  advanced  t h e more  i s to give  (Mayer,  (1986)  as a "mediator through,  to the learner"  activities  learners  has proven b e n e f i c i a l i n  H a n n a f i n and Hughes  activity  i s presented  orienting  potential case  of research.  an o r i e n t i n g  information  activities  passes,  (Wickelgren, opportunity,  i n which  program t h a t  such  as  missed  would h i g h l i g h t the  In order  a study  around  to test a group  included  1979) t h e a shot  this  activity i t  received  specific  on  a  orienting  tasks. These t r a i n i n g  tasks  material.  Coaches viewed  instructed  o n how  framework compared  t o parse  illustrated  were  excerpts  2.  Groups t h a t  10  of audio  f r o m games  the information  i n Figure  t o two C o n t r o l  i n t h e form  This  visual  and were  flow  according  Experimental  d i d not receive  t o the  Group  was  the training  program. visual  Both these  training  instructions. true  control  g r o u p s , however, were e x p o s e d t o i d e n t i c a l  m a t e r i a l b u t were n o t e x p o s e d t o t h e o r i e n t i n g Firstly,  C o n t r o l Group Two was c o n s i d e r e d  as t h e  c o n d i t i o n a n d was g i v e n t a s k s t h a t w o u l d be  expected  o f them u n d e r n o r m a l game o b s e r v a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s .  is,  discussed the video  they  e x c e r p t s and d e c i d e d  appropriate corrective training group  upon  The second  control  ( C o n t r o l G r o u p One) was u s e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e  possibility shots  procedures.  That  t h a t coaches'  and m i s s e d  practising excerpt.  memories f o r e v e n t s  s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s would  the recollection  of these  such  as g o a l s ,  i m p r o v e j u s t by  key events  after  each  T h i s g r o u p was, t h e r e f o r e , g i v e n a memory r e c a l l  a f t e r viewing  each v i d e o  excerpt.  11  video task  FIGURE 1  THE CRITICAL F E A T U R E S OF SOCCER  GOALS SCORED  SHOTS ON GOAL  A L L S H O T S T A K E N (ON T A R G E T , O F F T A R G E T , B L O C K E D )  SHOOTING  CROSSES  SET PLAYS  OPPORTUNITIES  PENETRATING  PASSES  DRIBBLES  C O R N E R KICKS  PENALTY-KICKS  KICKS OUTSIDE T H E PENALTY AREA  REPOSSESSION A S A SET PLAY T H A T IS P L A Y E D F O R W A R D  ALL  R E P O S S E S S I O N IN F R E E P L A Y T H A T IS P L A Y E D F O R W A R D  REPOSSESSIONS  12  ("BREAK-POINT" - NEWTSON)  FIGURE 2  FLOW C H A R T OFTRAINING P R O G R A M  YES  OPPOSING PLAYERS IN AREA OF THE BALL  CRITERIA:  YES  CRITERIA:  WAS IT A REPOSSESSION IN A SET PLAY  RULES OF THE GAME  FREE KICK  NO  OPPOSING PLAYERS NOT IN THE AREA OF THE BALL  NO  CRITERIA:  CRITERIA:  THE BALL REMAINED IN THE POSSESSION OF THE ORIGINAL TEAM  NO (FREE-PLAY)  TACKLE, POOR PASS. REBOUND  WHERE ON THE FIELD WAS IT REPOSSESSED  WHERE ON THE FIELD WAS IT REPOSSESSED  CORNER KICK  CRITERIA:  WAS IT A REPOSSESSION  THE BALL HAS CHANGED TEAMS  YES  CRITERIA:  IS THERE A CHANCE OF REPOSSESSION  THROW-IN  13  YES  YES  IS THERE A PROBABILITY IT WILL BE PLAYED INTO A SHOOTING POSITION  CRITERIA:  THE NUMBER OF PLAYERS IN A SHOOTING POSITION  YES  CRITERIA:  IS THERE A PROBABILITY IT WILL BE PLAYED INTO A SHOOTING POSITION  CRITERIA:  IS THERE AN OPPORTUNITY TO SHOOT  WITHIN THE SHOOTING ANGLE, THE DISTANCE FROM GOAL AND THE NUMBER OF OPPOSING PLAYERS IN THE AREA  14  CRITERIA:  NO  THE SPACE AVAILABLE AND THE NUMBER OF OPPOSING PLAYERS IN THE AREA  {NO]  OUTSIDE OF SHOOTING ANGLE, TOO FAR FROM THE GOAL AND NO PLAYERS IN THE AREA  YES  WAS THE SHOT TAKEN  THE BALL WAS KICKED, HEADED, ETC., IN THE DIRECTION OF THE GOAL  CRITERIA:  YES  CRITERIA:  CRITERIA:  OPPOSING PLAYER BLOCKED SHOOTING PATH, TEAMMATE IN BETTER SHOOTING POSITION  WAS THE SHOT ON GOAL  THE BALL WAS WITHIN THE BOUNDARIES OF THE GOALPOSTS AND CROSSBAR  YES  CRITERIA:  NO  NO  CRITERIA:  THE BALL W A S BLOCKED WENT WIDE, WENT HIGH AND WIDE OR WENT HIGH  WAS THE GOAL SCORED  THE WHOLE BALL CROSSED THE GOAL-LINE  15  CRITERIA:  NO  THE BALL WAS SAVED BY THE GOALKEEPER  CHAPTER 2  • METHOD  in "C"  2.1  Subjects  The  s u b j e c t s were 36 m a l e and  age  f r o m 20-55 y e a r s o l d .  License  female s o c c e r coaches  A l l had  attained  coaching c e r t i f i c a t i o n level within  C o a c h i n g C e r t i f i c a t i o n P r o g r a m and t h e i r r a n g e d b e t w e e n two training  related  randomly  chosen  Level  3 and  and t w e n t y y e a r s .  f r o m The  "C"  included  consisting  was  assigned  They h a d no  formal  The  s t u d y employed  (Approximately 200).  were of  The  to three operational  groups  control  a randomized groups d e s i g n  b e t w e e n g r o u p s and p r e t e s t  o f c o n c e r n and was training  and  groups  s u b j e c t s per group.  Experimental Design  designed to t e s t  program  coaches' observational  presented  National  coaching experience  e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p and two  2.2  specific of  one  3 or  O n t a r i o S o c c e r A s s o c i a t i o n ' s group  L i c e n s e coaches  o f 12  interaction  the  Level  t o q u a n t i t a t i v e performance a n a l y s i s  s u b j e c t s were r a n d o m l y which  their  ranging  and p o s t t e s t  i n which  the  performance  the r e l a t i v e merits of a  t h a t was  d e s i g n e d t o improve  a group  skills.  The d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y i s  i n T a b l e 1.  2.3  Environment  The  g r o u p s were s e a t e d  television  set.  6) were e x p l a i n e d  The  i n a c l a s s r o o m and v i e w e d  definitions  o f t h e c r i t e r i o n code  a 20  inch  (Appendix  and p o s t e d on a c h a l k b o a r d f o r t h e s u b j e c t s t o  16  TABLE 1  EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN  GROUPS  PRETEST  TRAINING  POSTTEST  Experimental  View Videotape and answer questionnaire  V i e w Training Program V i e w v i d e o t a p e of s e v e n s e q u e n t i a l l y a n d a n s w e r prepared videotapes questionnaire plus orienting activities  C o n t r o l (1)  View videotape and answer questionnaire  View seven videotapes and answer a questionnaire after e a c h tape  View videotape and answer questionnaire  Control  V i e w videotape and answer questionnaire  View Seven videotapes a n d e n g a g e in a group discussion and complete a personal analysis  View videotape and answer questionnaire  (2)  17  refer All  t o throughout  questions  videotape  missed  were answered p r i o r  being  distributed  shown.  time  the questionnaire. required  questionnaires  a)  and t h e S o v i e t  a total  shooting  opportunities.  to  nine  training  shots was  critical  goals,  a s much  The  Union. shots  (England). after  This  study  consisted  the 9 critical  after  videotape  and three  missed  l e a d i n g up  t h a t made u p t h e  o f 1 5 m i n u t e s o f game features  of 3 goals,  o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The f i r s t  videotape  a team r e g a i n e d  second videotape  what happened  C u p Game  f e a t u r e s was 190.  shooting  and Everton  The  number o f e v e n t s  a E u r o p e a n C u p game b e t w e e n R a p i d  (England)  the subjects  experimenter.  T r a i n i n g - The s e v e n v i d e o t a p e s  and 3 missed  The  game s e g m e n t h a d  questions.  three  The t o t a l  segment o f t h i s  happened  kick  of three  each and i n c l u d e d  Everton  anything  were g i v e n  i n to the  and  questions  t h e P r e t e s t was a segment o f a 1986 W o r l d  included  b)  The s u b j e c t s  then  Construction  between Belgium  these  and  not t o write  had f i n i s h e d  t o answer these  7) was  (goals, shots  the videotaped  were t h e n handed  2.4 V i d e o t a p e  action  until  Once t h e v i d e o t a p e  as they  played  events  The s u b j e c t s were r e q u e s t e d  been viewed. answered  critical  (Appendix  o p p o r t u n i t i e s ) were e x p l a i n e d  down o n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e  periods.  t o t h e P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t  A questionnaire  and t h e three  shooting  answered.  t h e P r e t e s t , T r a i n i n g and P o s t t e s t  Vienna  was u s e d  possession  videotape  ( A u s t r i a ) and t o examine  This  t a p e was u s e d  a team had a s e t p l a y  and throw-in). 18  what  of the ball.  w a s a game b e t w e e n M a n c h e s t e r  (England).  3  (corner  United  t o examine  kick,  free  The  third  videotape,  a game b e t w e e n S c o t l a n d a n d S p a i n ,  examined c r o s s e s i n t o t h e p e n a l t y a r e a t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e events l e a d i n g up t o t h e c r o s s . The  f o u r t h v i d e o t a p e was a game between S h e f f i e l d  (England)  and C o v e n t r y  City  (England).  e x a m i n e what h a p p e n e d a f t e r with t h e events The and  fifth  Everton  The  and  (England).  and A r s e n a l  events  T h i s t a p e was u s e d  Town  seventh  t o examine t h e events  s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t y a n d what happened  was a game between G r i m s b y Town  (England).  T h i s t a p e was u s e d  t o examine  videotape  (England).  was a game b e t w e e n W a t f o r d  T h i s tape  was u s e d  t o see t h e events  Posttest:  The f i f t e e n m i n u t e v i d e o t a p e  used  p o s t t e s t was a segment o f a 1986 W o r l d Cup game p l a y e d West Germany a n d S c o t l a n d .  both these  (England)  up t o t h e s c o r i n g o f g o a l s . c)  three  (England)  l e a d i n g up t o t h e t a k i n g o f t h e s h o t .  Walsall  leading  was made t o g e t h e r  v i d e o t a p e was a game b e t w e e n L u t o n  sixth videotape  The  a p e n e t r a t i n g pass  the opportunity.  (England) the  T h i s t a p e was u s e d t o  l e a d i n g up t o t h e p e n e t r a t i n g p a s s .  l e a d i n g up t o t h e m i s s e d following  Wednesday  The v i d e o t a p e  s h o t s and t h r e e m i s s e d o f t h e teams. nine The  videotape  critical  description  between  included three goals,  shooting opportunities t o t a l  The t o t a l  i n the  number o f e v e n t s  from  l e a d i n g up t o  f e a t u r e s was 190. of the pretest videotape,  and t h e p o s t t e s t v i d e o t a p e  19  the training  i s i n c l u d e d i n A p p e n d i x 8.  2.5.  Procedure Pretest  All  s u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e d t h e same P r e t e s t i n w h i c h  they  v i e w e d a 15 m i n u t e segment o f a s o c c e r game. T h i s e x c e r p t an  international  following  game d i d n o t h a v e any commentary.  i n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n  from  The  t o a l l groups p r i o r t o  viewing: 1) "You a r e t h e c o a c h o f Team A ( d e s i g n a t e d s c r e e n ) . A t t h e end o f t h e v i e w i n g will  be a s k e d q u e s t i o n s  relating  on t h e  p e r i o d you  to three  categories: a) t h e s c o r i n g o f g o a l s b) t h e t a k i n g o f s h o t s c)  the missed o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o  Do n o t t a l k d u r i n g Are  there  the viewing  any q u e s t i o n s ?  The  ( A p p e n d i x 7) a n d c r i t e r i o n be e x p l a i n e d during  on t h e b o a r d  the pretest.  example o f a c r i t i c a l  Goals,  shots  f o c u s i n g on t h e i r  location  and e v e n t .  the  field  That  questionnaire ( A p p e n d i x 6)  and w i l l  be l e f t  will  there  be b r o k e n  (see F i g u r e  event  will  3.)  occurring  An  will  f o r m on t h e b o a r d . "  and m i s s e d  examined  session.  code  The f i e l d  down i n t o numbered a r e a s  be shown i n p o i n t  shoot  shooting  origin  o p p o r t u n i t i e s were  on t h e f i e l d  i n terms o f  i s , what was t h e e v e n t  and where on  d i d i t o r i g i n a t e and e n d . The s u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d  20  FIGURE 3  N U M B E R E D A R E A S OF T H E FIELD  21  to  w r i t e down t h e e v e n t  on t h e  field)  critical  events.  long pass central  and  from  and  the sequence o f An  example o f t h i s  a r e a D 1/3  right  the p o s i t i o n  events  that  1/3  resulted  trained  a w a r e n e s s o f : a)  changes  and  Experimental  experimenter pertaining described  stopped  g)  t o observe  observing  change  of  factors  and  then  shown an  t h e key  as  the  factors  (Each t a p e i s  Group i s shown i n F i g u r e  resulted  of  2.  the p r e v i o u s videotape  in a goal.  T h i s means a  i n a set play  i n a shooting opportunity  22  edited  flow c h a r t f o r the program  from  asked  questions.  the tape t o i d e n t i f y  8 ) . The  a  t h e v i d e o t a p e t h e y were  videotape  factor)  Each s e s s i o n  while  Group w a t c h e d e a c h  possession resulted  resulted  s e t p l a y s , c)  shooting  (i.e.,  the answers t o t h e s e  the Experimental  (first  experimental  goals scored.  to that p a r t i c u l a r videotape. i n Appendix  possession  1/3  watching  T h e r e f o r e , t h e y were e x a m i n i n g  Each v i d e o t a p e progressed  that  and  A f t e r viewing  t h e s e key  videotape to c l a r i f y  a won  e) m i s s e d  b e i n g asked  set plays).  q u e s t i o n s about  The  p o s s e s s i o n , b)  upon t h e p r e v i o u s t r a i n i n g ,  sequence of events.  training  in ball  f) shots taken  c r o s s e s t h e y were s t i l l  The  a  i n a p r o g r e s s i v e manner t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r  p e n e t r a t i n g passes,  opportunities,  possession  a cross to A  program c o n s i s t e d o f a l l t h r e e groups  g r o u p was  built  Team A,  in a goal.  v i d e o t a p e s as p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d .  was  3  PROGRAM  training  d)  l e d to these  right,  the seven  crosses,  (location  s e q u e n c e w o u l d be  to A  a s h o t on t a r g e t t h a t  TRAINING The  (technique used),  (third  until  won  (second  factor),  factor) a  shot  TABLE 2 C O D I N G OF GAME E V E N T S  An  example o f t h e coding  being  EVENT  scored  of t h e events  leading t o a goal  i n t h e P r e t e s t Game U . S . S . R . v e r s u s  TEAM  LOCATION  DESCRIPTON  Tl  U.S.S.R.  RA 1/3 - RA 1/3  SFP  U.S.S.R.  RA 1/3 - RA  C  U.S.S.R.  RA 1/3 - CA 1/3  MG  PK  U.S.S.R.  RA 1/3 - CA 1/3  GOAL  *  See Appendix  6 f o rdefinition  23  Belgium  SFP  1/3  o f codes  *  (fourth  f a c t o r ) and  training  was  a goal  (final  p r o g r e s s i v e and  awareness of the  was  outcome). designed  T h i s method  to  increase  s e q u e n t i a l dependancy o f e v e n t s  of  their  in a  soccer  game. At the  end  3 e x a m p l e s on the  field,  the  field  each videotape  the  Experimental had  ball  was  videotape  was  played  completed the  p r e v i o u s l y r e c e i v e d on  completed  the  i f the  shots  and  (seeing shooting  experience  seven videotapes  directed  observation  program), then recalling  this  events  on  G r o u p Two  the  would n o r m a l l y and  A f t e r each  do  being  after  formulate  and  It  on  equal,  G r o u p on  a training  15 m i n u t e game, t h e  24  plan  training  f o r the plans  shooting repetition  and  goals not  at  Posttest.  excerpts their  a s k e d t o do (i.e.,  they  on  better,  the  amongst t h e m s e l v e s ,  a game  was  training  i f not  f i f t e e n minute v i d e o t a p e d  observing  that  them) and  the p r o g r e s s i v e  They were t h e n  the  was  a f u n c t i o n of  asked t o r e c a l l  be  as  questions  goals.  just  Experimental  discussed,  on  where  15 m i n u t e v i d e o t a p e  o p p o r t u n i t i e s , shots  group should the  won  environment  of r e c o l l e c t i n g missed  (being given  e a c h o f t h e games.  analysis  P r e t e s t . The each  g o a l s was  and  than  A f t e r viewing Control  the  skills  and  and  same q u e s t i o n n a i r e  o p p o r t u n i t i e s , shots  that  was  same s e v e n v i d e o t a p e s  after  opportunities,  over  ball  q u e s t i o n n a i r e . They answered t h e  shooting  hypothesized  possession  towards.  G r o u p and  P r e t e s t and  s u b j e c t s were shown  used t o p l a y the  watched the  to the  the  o f where b a l l  Group One  identical  missed  seventh  what t e c h n i q u e  Control  they  of the  what  thoughts they  w r i t e down  their  f o l l o w i n g week). were  collected.  They i n c l u d e d set  plays,  practice sessions  etc. This  passing,  defending,  i s what c o a c h e s do t o i m p r o v e t h e i r  p e r f o r m a n c e b a s e d on t h e i r focused  of shooting,  subjective  analysis.  This  team's  plan  on i m p r o v i n g t h e w e a k n e s s e s o f b o t h t e a m s .  POSTTEST The  posttest  groups observing  consisted the f i r s t  o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l 15 m i n u t e s o f a s o c c e r  a n s w e r i n g t h e same q u e s t i o n n a i r e This  of missed  were i d e n t i c a l shooting  same number  The  t h e same number  t h e same number  features  2.6 D a t a  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner; t h e same  opportunities,  of goals,  critical  and t h e same amount o f t i m e  but  involved  shooting  or  Table 2). place  up t o  f o r viewing.  Analysis  an i t e m i z e d  opportunities,  this  T h a t means, event  list  features  i n both pre  of events leading to  s h o t s and g o a l s .  t a k e n o f t h e e v e n t and t h e o r d e r (see  the  method o f measurement t h a t was u s e d t o t e s t t h e  posttests  missed  number  of shots,  of events leading  coaches' r e c o l l e c t i o n s of these c r i t i c a l and  i n the Pretest.  game was d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e p r e t e s t game b u t t h e c r i t i c a l  features  the  a s was g i v e n  game and  A c c o u n t s were  i n w h i c h t h e e v e n t was  t h e c o a c h may  recollect  i n c o r r e c t l y i n the t o t a l  i n t h e wrong l o c a t i o n on t h e f i e l d .  placed  t h e event  sequence o f events  The games were  previously  analyzed  and e a c h e v e n t , team, l o c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n were  recorded  (see Table 2 ) .  either  being  c o r r e c t o r i n c o r r e c t and was t h e n c o n v e r t e d t o a  percentage c o r r e c t value missed  E a c h component was marked a s  shooting  f o r each c a t e g o r y o f g o a l ,  opportunity.  25  shot  and  CHAPTER  3  RESULTS  The design  design  with  used  i n this, study  repeated  was a t h r e e - f a c t o r m i x e d  measures on two f a c t o r s  (Edwards,  Three groups o f s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d a l l o f t h e conditions design.  performances  permits  treatment  (pretest/posttest) presented.  province  subjects  sampled  of Ontario  that completed  experimental  from  Level  s e s s i o n s . Between these  tests  earlier  (see Method  coaches soccer  after game.  tactical be  they  termed  position  serial or  focused  and these  a missed  Subjects  a t which  order,  coaches i n  thirty-six  a l l groups regimes  were  explained  prior  shooting  of a series  of  the observational accuracy  had watched t h i r t y  areas  conditions: goals,  opportunities. the  t o assess  Questions  concern  study  section).  p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t comprised  were designed  of  both  p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t  to various observational training  that  i n this  I I Isoccer  and were comprised identical  i n performance  conditions with  Subjects  exposed  The  group's  and t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e v a r i a t i o n s  (N = 3 6 ) w e r e r a n d o m l y the  randomized  t h e comparison of t h e three  shown by s u b j e c t s u n d e r a l l t h r e e factors  treatment  and were compared as i n a c o m p l e t e l y  This  1960).  minutes of a  upon t h r e e formed  shots  t o the three  26  place  category  opportunity).  areas  of  t h e b a s i s o f what  and missed  took  of the  videotaped  critical  shall  shooting  were r e q u i r e d t o r e c a l l  t h a t event  questions  game e v e n t s  and  i n the correct  conditions  (goal,  The dependent v a r i a b l e  shot was  the  percentage  of correct  when a n s w e r i n g  questions  responses that about these  each  three  subject  critical  displayed  events or  conditions. The the  scores  whole experiment.  deviations are  categorized  All  under c o n d i t i o n  16.8% and d u r i n g being  posttest  since  Goodman  earlier  and  critical  events  levels.  On t h e a v e r a g e ,  i n a soccer  r e m e m b e r i n g more t h a n are scored,  coaches'  memory  that  shots  and missed  correct. not of  That  accurately shots  o f games.  that  would  than  chance  lead  recall  what s e q u e n t i a l  t o how  of events  was p o o r , i t  that  lead to  was no b e t t e r level  events  to the  that the  t o goals  opportunities.  27  of  pertains  determined  opportunities  shooting  that  i s fundamental  i s , coaches even a t t h i s  o r missed  data i n  appear t o be o f uppermost  Having  their  shooting  recall  study  1986;  o f coaches f o r  game w a s n o b e t t e r  40% o f i n f o r m a t i o n  pretest  was n o t  see p i l o t  t h e memory  f o r the events that  was n o t s u r p r i s i n g  standard  c o a c h e s seem t o be i n c a p a b l e  a fact  and l o s i n g  the pretest  (Franks and M i l l e r ,  importance t o t h e d e c i s i o n making t h a t winning  shooting  I n t h e main,  This  1983; a l s o  2) h a d i n d i c a t e d t h a t  during  of 21% with  research  Miller,  missed  scores  3, 4 a n d 5.  accuracy  (<22%).  Appendix  goals  shots,  a n d 6.1 r e s p e c t i v e l y . were poor  standard  and p o s t t e s t  i n Tables  an o v e r a l l  the posttest,  4.4  scores  unanticipated Franks,  sums, means a n d  (goals,  and a r e t a b u l a t e d  groups displayed  deviations and  The raw d a t a ,  t o 71.8% c o r r e c t f o r  f o r each o f t h e group's p r e t e s t  opportunities)  of  r a n g e d b e t w e e n 0% c o r r e c t  (Level  than  20 %  I I I ) , could  l e d to the taking  TABLE 3  Experimental Goals,  Shots  Group % C o r r e c t Scores  and Missed  Shooting  f o r Events  Leading t o  O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n P r e t e s t and  Posttest Evaluations.  DESIGN  PRETEST  POSTTEST  GROUPS  COND. 1  COND.  COND.  COND.  COND.  COND. 3 20.8  51 5 4 . 6  0  8.3  46.8  25.6  52  2.5  0  18 . 7  5.1  0  6.2  57.8  12.8  16. 6  17 .9  20.8  4.6  53  50  54 2 3 . 4  7.6  10.4  40.6  55 15.6  3.8  18 . 7  29.6  35.4  71.8  12 . 5  45.3  6.4  50  0  56 57.8  39.7  8.9 58.9  8.3  22 . 9 41.6  57 25  0  58 2 6 . 5  0  59 1 2 . 5  3.8  12 . 5  43.7  12 . 8  31.2  510  2.5  10.4  28 . 1  10.2  14.5  6.2  0  511  10.9  0  0  15. 6  512  4.6  0  0  54 . 6  i  291.7  59. 9  114.4  M  24.3  4.9  9.5  SD  452 . 6 41.8  13.026  28  2.5 26.9  188 15.6  0 16. 6  16.6 18 .7  228 . 6 19  TABLE  4  Control Shots  G r o u p One % C o r r e c t S c o r e s  and Missed  f o r Events  Leading  t o Goals,  Shooting O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e P r e t e s t and  Posttest Evaluations.  DESIGN  PRE  TEST  POST T E S T  GROUPS  COND. 1  COND.  COND.  COND.  COND.  COND. 3  513 54.6  7.6  18.7  34 . 3  24 . 3  16. 6  514 6 2 . 5  12.8  16. 6  46.8  26.9  16. 6  515 50  16. 6  39.5  62.5  32  12.5  516 20.3  7.6  10. 4  31.2  15. 3  0  517 29.6  6.4  22 . 9  29 . 6  16. 6  20.8  518 35.9  3.8  37 . 5  42 . 1  8.9  519 56.2  24 . 3  18.7  62.5  28.2  14 . 5  520 31.2  6.4  12.5  31.2  14.1  8.7  521  1.2  14 . 5  28 .1  3.8  0  8.9  8.3  6.2  27  6.4  0  12 . 5  523 43.7  10. 2  0  35.9  29.4  0  524 5 1 . 5  23 . 0  12.5  60.9  33 . 3  6.2  125.5  203.8  477.6  241.7  141. 2  10.4  16.9  39.8  20.1  11.7  522  i  14  455.7  M  37.9  SD  12.931  29  TABLE 5  Control Shots  G r o u p Two % C o r r e c t  and Missed  Posttest  Scores  f o r Events  Shooting Opportunities  Leading  t o Goals  i n t h e P r e t e s t and  Evaluations.  DESIGN  PRE TEST  POST T E S T  GROUPS  COND. 1  COND. 2  525  60.9  19.2  526  10.9  527  COND. 3  COND. 1  COND. 2  6.2  54.6  17.9  0  0  54.6  0  0  12.5  0  16.6  10.9  7.6  4.1  528  39.0  8.9  6.2  42.1  3.8  6.2  529  14  3.8  0  9.3  0  0  5.1  14.5  9.3  5.1  10.4  54.6  12.8  18.7  40.6  8.9  0  532 32.8  10.2  12.5  18.7  17.9  12.5  18.7 ,  23.4  17.9  0  530 15.6 531  COND. 3 6.2  533  34.3  0  534  39.0  0  0  14  8.9  14.5  535  15.6  5.1  6.2  17.1  2.5  10.4  536  60.9  0  46.8  11.5  0  (  90.1  M  32.5  SD  12.136  25  65.1  124 . 1  5.4  10.3  341.4 28.4  30  102 8.5  64 . 3 5.3  An  analysis of variance  results  are displayed  significant  during  subjects  (  F  j 33  As c a n be s e e n t h e r e  d i f f e r e n c e s between  and p o s t t e s t  able  to recall  the pretest.  This  = 49.6,p<.001).  Figure  4)  events during  conclusion  experimental posttest  Therefore,  interaction  i n t e r a c t i o n (see of the  f o r the increase i n  t h e t r a i n i n g program  systematically directed observation for  qualified  the performance scores  g r o u p were m a i n l y r e s p o n s i b l e  scores.  overall,  the posttest  h a s t o be  A f t e r graphing t h i s  i t would appear t h a t  There  performances  indicating that  when one e x a m i n e s t h e G r o u p by P r e t e s t / P o s t t e s t (F  were no  f o r a l l groups across a l l  - 147.3, p<.001),  were b e t t e r  than during  6.  and t h e  i n t h e main e f f e c t s f o r g r o u p s .  significant  the pretest  conditions  i n Table  differences  were, however,  was p e r f o r m e d on t h e d a t a  which  resulted i n better  t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l G r o u p t h a n t h e two C o n t r o l  recall  Groups.  / A Scheffe  post  hoc a n a l y s i s o f t h e C o n d i t i o n s  =81.3,p<.001) r e v e a l e d  ( 2,33 F  events  leading  recalled  a l l subjects  t o the scoring of goals  the events leading  opportunities.  that  Figure  r e c a l l e d the  more a c c u r a t e l y  t o shots o r missed  5 illustrates  how t h e v a r i o u s ability  events leading  events.  appears that  this  f i n d i n g supports the previous  c o n d u c t e d by F r a n k s and M i l l e r data  (reported  i n Appendix  shots,  a r e e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same 31  t o r e c a l l the Again, i t  studies  Although the events that  goals,  they  training  (1986) and a l s o t h e p i l o t  2).  each o f t h e above c a t e g o r i e s : opportunities  critical  than  shooting  programs a f f e c t e d a l l t h e groups i n t h e i r up t o t h e s e t h r e e  main e f f e c t  missed  study precede  shooting  (Reep e t a l , 1971;  Reep  TABLE  6  A N A L Y S I S OF  Sum  of the Squares,  and  Level  of  RESULTS  D e g r e e s o f Freedom, Mean S q u a r e s ,  F  Ratios  Significance.  SOURCE  ss  df  ms  f  p  107  -  -  -  -  1,082.7  2.0  n.s.  -  -  TOTAL  64,979.61  BETWEEN S U B J E C T S  19,822.881  35  2,165.487  2  17,657.394  33  535  45,156.729  72  -  965.202  1  965.2  147.3  P<.001  2  12324.8  81.3  P<.001  2  1012.2  49.6  P<.001  59  GROUPS ERROR b WITHIN  SUBJECTS  PRETEST/POSTTEST CONDITIONS  24,649.62  GROUPS X P R E T E S T  2,024.467  POSTTEST GROUPS X C O N D I T I O N S  236  4  PRETEST/POSTTEST  604.818  2  302.4  3.6  538.83  4  134.7  1.62  673.02  33  X  0.38  n.s P<.05  CONDITIONS  GROUPS X P R E T E S T / POSTTEST X ERROR 1  CONDITIONS 20.39  ERROR 2  10,000.656  66  151.5  ERROR 3  5,464.113  66  82.7  32  n.s.  and  Benjamin  these of  1968;  F r a n k s and  Thomson,  events would  seem t o be  influenced  the events.  results what  and  Consequences  consequences  led to critical  1 9 8 2 ) , t h e memory f o r by  both i n terms  f o r the coach  events as d e f i n e d  the  of overall  i n being by  consequentiality  able  players  team to  and  recall  the  public. The revealed  interaction significance  examination results the  f o r a l lgroups  training  individual  program  Conditions  i n Figure  i n both goals  improve.  group's performance  Groups  1 and  recall  scores  5,  but the r e c a l l  d i d not  the r e c a l l  and  a t t h e p<.05 l e v e l  of the groups  opportunities  that  between  33  2  6  g  =  i t would  and  3.6).  appear  In that  shots benefited  of missed  (see F i g u r e  an the  from  shooting examines  6 ) , i t becomes  opportunities  improve w h i l e  doubled.  (F  However, when one  of missed shooting  2 d i d not  Pretest/Posttest  by  each clear  Control  t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l Group's  FIGURE 4  INTERACTION BETWEEN PRETEST A N D POSTTEST A N D GROUPS ON THE PERCENTAGE OF CORRECT A N S W E R S . GROUP ONE = EXPERIMENTAL = GROUP T W O = CONTROL ONE = GROUP THREE = CONTROL TWO =  34  FIGURE 5  INTERACTION BETWEEN PRETEST/POSTTEST A N D CONDITIONS ON THE PERCENTAGE OF CORRECT ANSWERS. * ^  35  GOALS = • SHOTS = 0 MISSED SHOOTING OPPORTUNITIES = •  FIGURE  6  INTERACTION BETWEEN PRETEST/POSTTEST AND CONDITIONS ON THE PERCENTAGES OF CORRECT ANSWERS FOR EACH GROUP. GOALS = • SHOTS = 0 OPPORTUNITIES = •  PRETEST POSTTEST EXPERIMENTAL  PRETEST POSTTEST CONTROL ONE  36  PRETEST  POSTTEST CONTROL TWO  CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION The that  ability  of coaches  t o remember s p e c i f i e d  o c c u r r e d d u r i n g a 15 m i n u t e  appears  t o be  recount, event.  extremely  i n sequential  limited  events  v i d e o segment o f a s o c c e r game when c o a c h e s  o r d e r , t h e e v e n t and  are asked  location  to  of  that  However, t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s a r e made w i t h a n o t e  caution.  Yuille  and  Cutshall  (1986),  i n a case study  e y e w i t n e s s memory o f a c r i m e , s t a t e d in  key  eyewitness  r e s e a r c h does not q u a l i f y  r e l e v a n t paradigm" to real  world  centered  and may  situations.  around  more a c t i o n  that  the f a c t  details  and  be The  filmed  as a  of  on  events  (videos)  "forensically  of l i m i t e d value f o r g e n e r a l i z i n g essence  of t h e i r  criticism  that witnesses to a l i v e  event reported  t h e s e d e t a i l s were more a c c u r a t e t h a n  t h o s e r e p o r t e d by v i e w e r s o f a v i d e o t a p e d v e r s i o n  o f t h e same  event. Hence, sterility  i t would appear  of a laboratory  that  the r e l a t i v e l y  s e t t i n g would l e a d  underestimation of the coaching r e c a l l o f t h e t a s k and e x c e r p t s be u s e d impossible  training in this  procedure particular  t o have coaches  view  live  events.  the performance affected. interactive  Also,  The  necessitated  that  study.  and  s i n c e t h i s was  effects  i t was of t h i s  That  posttest  not p o s s i b l e  video  i s , i t was and  posttest  conditions  t o examine t h e on  had  study,  would have been  ecological modification  37  constraints  a comparative  s c o r e s on a l l t h r e e g r o u p s  Although  an  ability.  similar pretest  s e g m e n t s o f games i f t h e s e p r e t e s t t o be  to  unemotional  the  training  program, g i v e n  that  the r e c a l l  have been u n d e r e s t i m a t e d ,  i ts t i l l  accounting  i s poor.  and  o f game a c t i o n  i s s u p p o r t e d b y many o t h e r  Appendix 2 ) .  that  lead  been  found t h a t  Why  This  only It  t o goals  as a r e s u l t  of a certain  coaches p e r c e i v e  goals  shooting  coach,  spectators  m e d i a may h a v e many q u e s t i o n s these  goals that  event  study,  as being o f opportunities. do  The c o n s e q u e n c e s a r e n o t  a f t e r t h e game.  may d i s c u s s  Neisser  life  since goals  coaches a r e e x p e c t e d t o be a b l e  are scored  t o goals.  are recalled  d i r e c t e d t o t h e game b u t a l s o t o t h e c o a c h e s that  shooting  idea t o the present  l e a d t o t h e w i n n i n g o f games.  i s a fact  I t has  then t h e events l e a d i n g  Extending t h i s  probable that  t o events  opportunities.  consequence than shots o r missed  how g o a l s  Players  themselves. to recollect  may q u e s t i o n t h e  w i t h t h e c o a c h and e v e n t h e require  a s o u n d knowledge o f  events. Whereas, a k n o w l e d g e o f how g o a l s  the  i s superior  w o u l d a p p e a r t o be a s o u n d p r o p o s i t i o n  indeed  i s that the  t h e consequences can change a p e r s o n ' s  i s highly  greater  studies i n  answer h a s b e e n o f f e r e d b y  He h a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t  (consequentially). it  (pilot  finding  t o s h o t s and m i s s e d  the events leading  A possible  reliable  i s n o t a new  however,  shooting  a r e no d i f f e r e n t  more a c c u r a t e l y ?  occurring  studies  the events leading  i s i t then that  (1982).  This  lead t o goals  t o shots o r missed  opportunities  appears t h a t  What i s i n t e r e s t i n g ,  remembering o f e v e n t s t h a t  o f t h e s e c o a c h e s may  memory o f t h e s e e v e n t s s h o u l d  they depress the r e c a l l  of other  38  are scored  i s critical,  n o t be e m p h a s i z e d equally  critical  such  that  e v e n t s s u c h as  shots  and  training  missed  shooting  opportunities.  program developed t o a i d the  c o a c h e s must be  equally distributed  e v e n t s t h a t has  been p o s t u l a t e d  The  major f i n d i n g  observation  training  for  a l l three  opportunities, improvement  events.  that  ability  excerpts  d i s c u s s i o n s by  coaches.  recollection missed goals  that  for this.  greatly of  t o be  for  missed  The due  shooting  the  results  revealed  perceived  b e t t e r coaches  (8%)  experience  i n terms of  by  group  the  i t had  had  helped  improving  on  while  an  from s u b j e c t s  that  Group  t h a t performance  to offer  the  repeated  from  slightly  It is difficult  in  Control to  to  evident  program r e s u l t  seem t o be  fact,  the  coaches a b i l i t y  of coaches?  Indeed, r e p o r t s  and  designed  1 1 % , and  training  c o n t r o l group i n d i c a t e d t h a t the  extremely b e n e f i c i a l  one  systematic  improvement was  o p p o r t u n i t i e s decreased  remained unchanged.  explanation  In  of  critical  o f a c t i o n segments f o l l o w e d  o f C o n t r o l Group One  shooting  skills  group of  that a  i n the  This  i t d i d not  exposures to video the  was  shots,  did this  recall  any  here.  improvement  1 2 % ) . Why  imply  among t h e  study  (goals, 22%,  of the  performances  an  critical  a l l categories  observational  p r o g r a m s u c h as t h e  experiment d i d e f f e c t recall  in this  Therefore,  involved  in  been them  their  quality  observation. The  improvement  could  not  given  some t r a i n i n g  shooting  be  i n the  attributed on  experimental  to the simply  o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the  C o n t r o l G r o u p One  fact  group's  that the  recounting  39  c o a c h e s had  goals,  p o s t t e s t f o r the  d i d show some improvement  performance  shots second  i n the  and  been missed  time.  recalling  of  goals  and s h o t s  shooting the  b u t showed no improvement  opportunities.  specific  shooting  task  systematic employing  by  Mayer  of just  recounting  goals,  shots  subjects to receive information  a priming  given  and m i s s e d  technique  observations  using  b y means o f a  advanced  organizers  d o e s b e n e f i t t h e s u b j e c t when a  i s required.  In research  conducted  ( 1 9 7 9 ) , he s t a t e s t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n o f an a d v a n c e i s "to provide  incorporation differentiated organizer short  T h i s C o n t r o l Group Two h a d b e e n  approach t o observation  of their  organizer  a)  missed  opportunities.  Preparing  test  in recalling  ideational s c a f f o l d i n g f o r the stable  and r e t e n t i o n o f t h e more d e t a i l e d a n d material that  follows"  ( p . 3 7 2 ) . An a d v a n c e  g e n e r a l l y has each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g set of verbal or visual  information  characteristics: b) p r e s e n t e d  t o l e a r n i n g a l a r g e r o f body o f t o - b e - l e a r n e d c o n t a i n i n g no s p e c i f i c information  c)  from t h e t o - b e - l e a r n e d  d) p r o v i d i n g a means o f g e n e r a t i n g  relationships information  content  information  prior  the l o g i c a l  among t h e e l e m e n t s i n t h e t o - b e - l e a r n e d  e) i n f l u e n c i n g t h e l e a r n e r ' s e n c o d i n g p r o c e s s .  research  clearly  employs t h e s e  priming  technique.  This  characteristics within i t ' s  Recommendations The National Technical  results  of this  research  Coaching C e r t i f i c a t i o n Course f o r soccer  of t r a i n i n g  level.  be u t i l i z e d  Program  coaches.  i n the observation  f o r coaches a t t h i s  will  4 0  i n the Level I I I  There  of c r i t i c a l  The t r a i n i n g  within the  i s a definite  lack  f e a t u r e s o f t h e game  program developed i n  this  study w i l l  their  be u t i l i z e d  observations  around t h e c r i t i c a l  will  allow  coaches t o t r a i n  that  their  training  the  previous  their  sessions  features  teams w i t h  within  were i d e n t i f i e d .  of play.  the  as l o n g  realization  coaches i n a l l s p o r t s .  41  occurred  technique  as t h e c r i t i c a l  i s a f u t u r e area  This  in  occurred.  p r o g r a m and p r i m i n g  any s p o r t This  organizing  stem f r o m what a c t u a l l y  game and n o t what t h e y t h o u g h t  This type of t r a i n i n g be u t i l i z e d  t o prime coaches i n t o  could  features  o f development f o r  APPENDIX  1  LITERATURE REVIEW Numerous r e s e a r c h e r s reliability Loftus,  of eyewitness testimony  1984, W e l l s ,  done b y Newtson behavior  (Clifford  and H o l l i n , 1980,  1983) i n c r i m i n a l s i t u a t i o n s .  (1976) on t h e p e r c e p t u a l  The work  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f ongoing  i s a model by w h i c h e y e w i t n e s s t e s t i m o n y  explained. that  have been c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e  c o u l d be  A r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h h a s emanated  experimental  attention i s included  Memory R e s e a r c h - An I n f o r m a t i o n Humans c a n be r e g a r d e d such process  information  Processing  Approach processors  as i t i s p r e s e n t e d ,  i t t o be s t o r e d  series  that  of stages  here.  as i n f o r m a t i o n  form t h a t a l l o w s  from  i n memory.  and a s  putting i t into a T h i s happens i n a  involves certain limitations  a t each  stage. Immediate memory o n l y there  i s more i n f o r m a t i o n  materials  before  than t h e system c a n handle.  The a t t e n d e d - t o  short-term those  materials  memory, where t h e y  Only the  that receive s t i l l  further processing  There they  as  G a r n e z y and Z i g l e r ,  needed  (Kimble,  Information  processing  remain  i n v o l v e d , which a r e c a l l e d  attention)  enter  f o r e v e r , a v a i l a b l e f o r use  c a n be d e s c r i b e d  42  (selective  remain f o r h a l f a minute  l o n g - t e r m memory.  processes  s e c o n d s when  t o w h i c h we p a y a t t e n t i o n a r e r e t a i n e d f o r f u r t h e r  processing. enter  e x i s t s w i t h i n those  1980). i n terms o f t h e  encoding,  s t o r a g e and  retrieval.  Encoding  i s putting materials  memory s y s t e m c a n h a n d l e . encoded m a t e r i a l that  i s stored  t o memory.  i s t h e process o f committing  Retrieval i s taking  the material  i n memory o u t a g a i n .  R e s e a r c h by Newtson perceive  Storage  i n t o a form t h a t t h e  involves  (1976),  states that  learning to  s e l e c t i n g f r o m what i s a v a i l a b l e ,  although  more t h a n one s e l e c t i o n may be p o s s i b l e a t a n y t i m e . differentiation relevant objects one  and a l l o w s that  features  comes t o know what i s  a t t e n t i o n t o be d i r e c t e d t o e v e n t s and  have importance  o f Newtson's  veteran  o c c u r s as t h e p e r c e i v e r  Increased  f o rthe i n d i v i d u a l . This  (1976) i m p l i c a t i o n s  stating that  relates to  s k i l l e d or  observers develop a s p e c i a l i z e d s e t o f p r e d i c t i v e f o r use i n observations.  goes t o a deeper l e v e l  and t h e s e  Their  information  features  processing  are better  retained  than others  at a superficial  level.  Within  the organization  o f memory i s e p i s o d i c memory and  s e m a n t i c memory.  E p i s o d i c memory i s t h e i m m e d i a t e memories o f  personal  experiences.  contains  information  time o r p l a c e . considerable perceived,  S e m a n t i c memory i s l a t e r that  i s not associated  In eyewitness testimony  that  with a p a r t i c u l a r  s e m a n t i c memory h a s  c o n t r o l o v e r how o u r e p i s o d i c  i n t e r p r e t e d and s t o r e d  knowledge  (Kimble,  experiences are G a r n e z y and Z i g l e r ,  1980) . A g u i d e d memory t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m w o u l d u t i l i z e of priming.  Wickelgren  memory r e t r i e v a l association  (1979) s t a t e s  that  t h e concept  the priming  i s t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h an i n a c t i v e ,  i s converted  e f f e c t of stored  i n t o an a c t i v e , r e t r i e v e d a s s o c i a t i o n .  43  Once an a s s o c i a t i o n i s i n t h e r e t r i e v a l maintained  i n that  Attentional particular stimuli  state v i r t u a l l y  s e t i s the a b i l i t y class of stimuli.  falling  attentional  find  - Naturalistic  i n t h e study  o f memory.  experiments  i t is  t o p e r c e i v e an  Approach  T r a v e l e r s on t h e h i g h  two  road  (information processsing);  want t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s p e c i f i c  i n ordinary  human e x p e r i e n c e .  b e e n w e l l mapped a s y e t , Neisser  The a c t i v a t i o n o f t h e  hope  b a s i c m e n t a l mechanisms t h a t c a n be d e m o n s t r a t e d i n  low road  memory  retards  (1982) s t a t e s t h a t p s y c h o l o g y h a s f o l l o w e d  well-controlled the  stimuli.  s e t and o f t e n  e v e n t t h a n an u n e x p e c t e d one.  Neisser  to  fora  I t s p e e d s up r e a c t i o n t i m e s t o  T h i s makes a p e r s o n more l i k e l y  Memory R e s e a r c h  routes  by r e h e a r s a l .  t o prepare oneself  s e t p r i m e s a l l o f t h e nodes t o which  associated. expected  indefinitely  w i t h i n the expected  responses t o unexpected  s t a t e , i t c a n be  refers to this  manifestations  The l o w e r r o a d  and much r e m a i n s t o be  as the n a t u r a l i s t i c  those  study  on of  has not  discovered. o f memory.  R e s e a r c h e r s h a v e e x a m i n e d a v a r i e t y o f t h e o r i e s on perception  and o b s e r v a t i o n ,  observers.  Neisser  humans and f o u n d  comparing s k i l l e d  (1967) e x a m i n e d t h e c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f  i t may b e d e f i n e d  organized  representation of prior  organized  i n terms o f these  experiences Neisser  were e l a b o r a t e d  as a n o n s p e c i f i c but experiences.  events.  Recall i s  s t r u c t u r e s because t h e o r i g i n a l i n t h e same t e r m s .  (1982) f o u n d t h a t p e o p l e d e v e l o p e d  accepting  and u n s k i l l e d  a schemata f o r  One o f h i s e x a m p l e s was a news r e p o r t e r 44  who  builds  a  framework a r o u n d t h e  where, when and on  and  N e i s s e r went on  events unfold,  t h a t we the  why.  questions  there  are  who,  what,  t o say  t h a t as  c e r t a i n landmarks which  t e r m as h i s t o r i c moments.  He  discusses  the  " f l a s h b u l b memory" t h a t s u g g e s t s a s u r p r i s e ,  indiscriminate registration events.  At  i l l u m i n a t i o n and  of the  novelty  b r e v i t y . The  occurs  a micro-level this  time  be  occur  concept  of  an  permanent  as w e l l a s  can  runs  other  compared t o  recent  brain  Newtson's  break-points. Earlier, directed the  by  (1976) had  expectations  "pickup"  situation  Neisser  of  there  "real"  but  found t h a t p e r c e p t i o n  not  c o n t r o l l e d by  information.  i s a l w a y s more t o s e e  He  them; i t i n v o l v e s  stated that  The  p e r c e i v e r does not  the  not  e q u i p p e d t o do  p i c k up  as  they  o n l y what t h e y  perceptual  cycle that  what i s b e i n g  Neisser  this  perceived)  has  t h a t once t h e  fixation point,  will  a c t u a l l y c o n t r o l s these  d e p e n d s on  many f a c t o r s : t h e  overall  experience  of  the  that  i s being  imagining, used.  and  In the  schemata  (the  internal  experience  and  specific  the  rest.  materials  eye  as  be eye  Learners they  up  and  until i t  i n midcourse.  movements and  particular  memorize  been s e t i n motion  picked  plans  to  through p r a c t i c e .  has  game o f c h e s s ,  45  more  p i c k up a l l  i t cannot change i t s path  information  and  Perceivers  ignore  o r g a n i z a t i o n on  t o say  arrived; l i t t l e  Anticipation  f o r , and  by  real  so.  o r g a n i z a t i o n i s strengthened  went on  t o w a r d a new  have d e v e l o p e d i s modified  impose t h e i r p e r s o n a l them and  are  in a  t h a n anyone s e e s ,  t o know t h a n anyone knows. information  is  it  intentions,  scanning  the  pattern  a good c h e s s  player's  eye  movements a r e c l o s e l y  position  on t h e b o a r d :  squares.  related  to the structure ofthe  he l o o k s a t c r u c i a l  Chess masters see t h e p o s i t i o n d i f f e r e n t l y  adequately  and c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y  - than  o f n o t i c i n g more r a t h e r t h a n  less.  (1976) s t a t e t h a t t h e g e n e r a l o u t l i n e incoming  m a t e r i a l and s h a p e s b o t h  D e t a i l s which a r e n o t f i t t e d  - more  a n o v i c e would.  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two a r e n o t m a t t e r s but  p i e c e s and c r u c i a l  of truth  Weiford  The  and e r r o r  and Bourne  o r schema i s imposed on  p e r c e p t i o n and r e c a l l .  by t h e schema a r e e i t h e r  ignored or  recorded separately. Mourant and R o c k w e l l visual their  (1972) i n v e s t i g a t e d  s e a r c h by n o v i c e a n d e x p e r i e n c e d e y e movements w h i l e d r i v i n g .  showed t h a t t h e n o v i c e d r i v e r s : fixations  experienced suggest  d r i v e r s by v i d e o t a p i n g  The r e s u l t s  of the testing  1) c o n c e n t r a t e d t h e i r e y e  i n a s m a l l e r area as they g a i n e d  made p u r s u i t  the s t r a t e g i e s of  driving  experience  2)  e y e movements on t h e f r e e w a y r o u t e w h i l e t h e d r i v e r s made o n l y e y e f i x a t i o n s .  that the visual  d r i v e r s was u n s k i l l e d  acquisition  process  and o v e r l o a d e d .  These  results  of the novice  T h u s , t h e s e a r c h and s c a n  p a t t e r n s o f t h e n o v i c e d r i v e r s may be c o n s i d e r e d u n s a f e t r a f f i c .context, whereas, n o v i c e coaches c o u l d f a c e problems i n a n a l y z i n g ongoing  i n the  similar  movement i n an a t h l e t i c  environment. Neisser finding such  (1982) s t a t e d t h a t p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h documents t h e  t h a t most p e o p l e  numerical  reconstruction  details  a r e markedly i n a c c u r a t e i n r e p o r t i n g  as time,  speed  and d i s t a n c e i n t h e  o f automobile d e s t r u c t i o n .  46  Eyewitness The  Testimony  ability  of eyewitnesses  to recall,  from  a multitude of  m e m o r i e s , e x a c t l y t h e memory t h a t meets t h e p a r t i c u l a r requirements retrieval.  of a particular An i t e m  certain physical  situation  i s a problem o f  i n memory i s s t o r e d i n a c o d e t h a t i n c l u d e s  f e a t u r e s as w e l l as i t s meaning.  i n memory p l a c e s i t i n a n e t w o r k o f r e l a t e d retrieval with  must c o n s i s t  a range o f meaning  features  (Kimble,  Thornton two  o f a search through  training  accuracy. three  G a r n e z y and Z i g l e r ,  procedures  hypothesized  recognition  encouraged  simply  careful the t h i r d  had  also  their  one o f t h e  (control);  on t h e a v o i d a n c e accuracy  o f b e h a v i o r a l events  training  than  The f i r s t  s e tof  t h e second  included the instructions given  showed t h a t s u b j e c t s t r a i n e d  observation  with  o b s e r v a t i o n and r e c o r d i n g o f s p e c i f i c  o f o b s e r v a t i o n . Observer  instructions,  t o evaluate  t o improve o b s e r v a t i o n  explained the task  errors  (1982),  a study  behavioral events.  set plus training  results  1980).  aimed a t t h e o b s e r v a t i o n p r o c e s s e s .  second  objective test  physical  i n c l u d e d e t e c t i o n , p e r c e p t i o n and r e c a l l o r  of specific  instructions  The  a r e g i o n o f memory  The g r o u p o f s u b j e c t s were t r a i n e d  sets of instructions  behavior;  items.  f o r an i t e m w i t h p a r t i c u l a r  and Z o r i c h (1980) c o n d u c t e d  These p r o c e s s e s  It's location  of eight systematic was m e a s u r e d b y an  i n the videotape.  The  under t h e t h i r d  set. of  on e r r o r a v o i d a n c e ,  were more a c c u r a t e i n  s u b j e c t s i n t h e o t h e r two g r o u p s .  conducted  i n the  Murphy, e t a l  r e s e a r c h on o b s e r v a t i o n a l a c c u r a c y and  s u b j e c t s view videotaped  47  lectures  and were a s k e d t o  indicate  the frequency  behaviours included pausing  occurred  using  with  i n e a c h l e c t u r e . T h e s e 12  the blackboard,  f o r questions.  frequency The  w h i c h a number o f w e l l - d e f i n e d  The r e s u l t s  use o f guided  b y M a l p a s s and D e v i n e  of the witnesses'  reinstating  the context  instructions.  after  the rationale that  long periods  offence  found t h a t c o n t e x t  memory p r o c e d u r e  o f time, the  increased  through  verbal  reinstatement the rate of  f r o m 40% t o 60% c o r r e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s  activities  short video  segment.  (1986) f o u n d ,  i n computer-based  orienting activity  facilitated  in their  after  a 5 -  research  advanced  within  procedural  organizer  prime l e a r n e r s t o information. higher-level information. attention  mental processes  prior  t o new i n s t r u c t i o n t o  which focus  drawn t o t h e c r i t e r i o n  t o improve t h e c o n d i t i o n s  48  The  The l e a r n e r s t h e n a c t i v a t e  T h i s c a n be p a r t i a l l y  information.  organizer,  c a n be subsumed  cognitive structures.  i s presented  that  learning during a  T h e y u s e t h e t e r m , an a d v a n c e d  individual  on  i n t e r a c t i v e video,  i s , a v e h i c l e t h r o u g h w h i c h new i n f o r m a t i o n  meaningfully  helps  was  delay.  orienting  that  (1981) w i t h  of the witnessed  H a n n a f i n and Hughes  the  identification  r e c o g n i t i o n c a n be e n h a n c e d by  The r e s u l t s  through t h e guided  month  showed t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f  memory i n e y e w i t n e s s  when r e c o g n i t i o n i s r e q u e s t e d  accuracy  i n m i d - s t e n t e n c e and  r a t i n g s were v e r y l o w .  researched  accuracy  stopping  behaviours  on q u e s t i o n - r e l e v a n t  a t t r i b u t e d t o an i n c r e a s e i n  elements o f t h e question. f o rprocessing  relevant  This  Observation In the research  done on  observational accuracy.  skill  a n a l y s i s t o be  information  movement a n a l y s i s . expectancies, recording  observation  A plan  techniques  used.  R e s e a r c h by  i s the  Hoffman,  p r e - s e r v i c e and t h e r e has and  Grieve influence  c o a c h e s ) do  be  not  monitoring  for  systematic  observation makes a  t o h a p p e n and  and  comparison  what  actually  r e g a r d l e s s of  to define  coaches while golf  have a s t a n d a r d  and  the  the monitoring  softball.  system  experts  for  that a diagnostic strategy, useful in  b e e n an athletic  (1971) a t t e m p t e d  Knowledge o f t h e s e  The  and  i s essential  in-service  a coach's a b i l i t y  acquisition.  a  observer's  systematic  novice  of  i s s t r e s s e d as  needed  i s the  and  drawn f r o m t h i s work i s t h a t  not  p e r f o r m a n c e and  Therefore, observing  of s k i l l  (1977) a t t e m p t e d and  study  importance  post-observation  for observation  c o n c l u s i o n t h a t can  monitoring  Higgins  The  p e r f o r m a n c e s s u c h as g y m n a s t i c s ,  (experienced  A r e n d and  systematic  criteria  expected  d i f f e r e n c e s between e x p e r t  training  and  o f p e r f o r m a n c e and  happened.  The  little  observation  Pre-observation  e v a l u a t i o n o f what was  athletic  process  includes pre-observation,  post-observation  and  the  been v e r y  movement a n a l y s i s f o r t h e t e a c h e r  f a c t o r u n d e r l y i n g the  strategy  t h e r e has  o f human movement i n g e n e r a l .  observational major  Sport  sport science area,  (1976) r e g a r d analysis  In  coaches remains  attempt t o t r a i n  coaches i n  performance.  to determine the  factors that  t o make a d j u s t m e n t s  f a c t o r s would a s s i s t  49  illusive.  i n the  game.  them i n i m p r o v i n g  their  ability.  The t i m e  must u t i l i z e 1.  factor involves  their  ability  preliminary  four periods  t o analyse  planning(based  on  when t h e c o a c h  t h e opponent: previous  information) 2.  formulating  3.  analysing  the practice  during  4. a n a l y s i n g  plan  t h e game  a f t e r t h e game  T h e r e a r e numerous f a c t o r s w h i c h ability  t o make t h e p r o p e r  1.  emotional  2.  nature of the sport  3.  player  i n f l u e n c e t h e coach's  decisions:  involvement  influence  4. t i m e o f t h e s e a s o n 5.  l o c a t i o n of the contest  6. w e a t h e r  conditions  7.  home o r away  8  coach's personal  9.  officials  10.  analytical  problems  ability  o f a s s i s t a n t coaches  E x p e r i e n c e was f o u n d t o be t h e g r e a t e s t d o e s n o t mean t h a t result  of their  teacher  a l l coaches have a n a l y t i c a l  experience.  Inexperienced  ability  coaches  develop systematic An and  observational  analysis of visual  Fleury,  1976) r e a l i z e d  50  play.  analytical  on t h e This  a b i l i t y to  strategies.  search that  as a  focus  performance o f t h e a t h l e t e s r a t h e r than the o v e r a l l i s why c o a c h e s need t o be t r a i n e d on t h e i r  but this  activity  instability  during  sport  was t h e main  (Bard  characteristic causes  of  specific  sport  e n v i r o n m e n t s and  perceptual  problems.  observer  s e l e c t s w h a t he  or  from  e n v i r o n m e n t and  discards  the  irrelevant.  The  search  patterns  and  determine  to  results  of  on  the  having  both  experts  the  non-experts In  speed  of  visual  search.  a deeper  on  environment,  eye  the on  perception  location  second  (1988) a l s o  perceptual  ability  system to  51  players,  and  Starkes  non-players to  was  the due  being  slides  While  and  t o encode  ball to  i n possession search and  at  the information  the  the ball).  performance  novice  demonstrated  thus have developed the  of  the  fast  r e c o g n i z i n g more o f  expert  recall  game.  fixations.  This  found  by  players  and  of  The  experts  specific  using  (slides)  significant  with  d e t e c t i o n and  found t h a t v i s u a l  experienced  a  compared t o  search  p l a y e r s were  between the  had  offensive  study  Millslagle  refined  type  environment.  team c l e a r l y  recall  visual  patterns.  fixations  (experienced)  (one  significant  these  in sport, Allard  slides  The  seems  the  player.  structured  basketball.  analyse  the  non-players  exist  to  an  information  defensive  than  do  that  o f f e n s i v e and  level  differences  recognized  that which  experience  a rapid visual  In the  of  different  only  in ball  was  this  relevant  ignores  study  that  s o l v i n g b a s k e t b a l l problems  in a volleyball  response  basketball at  use  or  subject's  that players  target  this  number and  focused  (inexperienced)  deems t o be  number o f  s t u d i e s on  found  the  the  concentrated  two  I t was  characteristics  overall  the  as  the  lower  of  subjects  showed t h a t  effect  (1980)  object  she  suggested  players a  in  superior a  more  organization of  the  In r e s e a r c h  conducted  on  the  expert-novice  knowledge s t r u c t u r e s o f a c t i o n , V i c k e r s basis  of sequencing  faster  and  more a c c u r a t e  reconstructing in  s e t s of photos,  I t was  The  the  that  experts,  type  of  often  a l s o found  t h a t t h e more d i f f i c u l t  subtle links and  often possess  teachers, training  between p i e c e s  the v i s u a l  Petrakis  and  novice  patterns.  teachers  Experts  t h e r e was  were f o u n d  novices  The  a l s o showed a n t i c i p a t i o n  fixations The coaching  p u r p o s e o f an  the process and  on  ( b e i n g ahead o f t h e  by  Barrett  article  (1979) was  of observation  c o a c h e s as  they  intricate  assist  patterns  of  tennis  involved with visual  teachers In the  become  testing  a d i f f e r e n c e i n the on  central  the  of  scan  factors  (the  s t r a t e g i e s on  these  movement). on  observation  t o share  others  52  more  p e r i p h e r a l f a c t o r s (the r a c k e t ) .  t h a t has  i  and  situation.  growth.  focus  body) w h i l e experts  focused  to  and  information t h a t are  T h i s would h e l p n o v i c e their  the  stated  same amount  have d e v e l o p e d  observation  facilitate  novice  the  Vickers  need more k n o w l e d g e e f f e c t i v e  observation patterns.  and  of  the  (1986) s t a t e d t h a t t h o s e  of teachers  more c o m p e t e n t  do,  gymnasts  needed t o r e c o n s t r u c t  applicable in a particular  In s t u d y i n g  expert  they  both  fewer e r r o r s than  number o f e r r o r s .  information that others  effective  intermediate  committed  although  the  gymnasts i n  f a s t e r and  g r e a t e r the  t h a t on  g y m n a s t s were  intermediate  g y m n a s t i c s e q u e n c e , t h e more t i m e was s e q u e n c e and  (1983) f o u n d  elite  gymnastic sequences.  t u r n were b o t h  gymnasts.  than  differences in  to  f o r teaching  information gained  implications for improve t h e i r  and about  teachers  observation  skill.  An  important  analyse  critical  factor  i s the a b i l i t y  f e a t u r e s which are  being performed.  The  on  important  o b s e r v e r must be  f e a t u r e s o f t h e movement t h a t w i l l  to identify  t o t h e movement  able to select  critical  r e s e a r c h as e y e w i t n e s s e s  f e a t u r e s of the  (occurred) The principle 1.  and  be  crime  must be  (event)  of analysis  that affected  are  illustrated  Concentration - the  2.  inability  periods  of time.  Distraction  through  emotional  involvement,  position  t h e more t h e  in relation  observer  success with  to  maintain  i t was  to  occurred pulse  t o the  level  distraction  and  class.  anticipated  level  -  time  they  the  s e r v e d as  a  f o r some o b s e r v e r s .  i n the  - t h e more  situation  53  -  the  the e a s i e r  of the students  Number o f s t u d e n t s ( o v e r 8)  of  observe.  extremes i n a b i l i t y  4.  for long  s u b j e c t s knew a h e a d o f  observation experience,  Ability  able to identify  below:  what movement m i g h t o c c u r d u r i n g  3.  the  committed  equipment, o t h e r s t u d e n t s  T y p e o f movement r e s p o n s e  felt  to  t h a t was  f o c u s on what t h e y were o b s e r v i n g  their  related  the  a b l e t o r e p o r t them.  various factors  activity,  those  have t h e g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e  i t ' s p e r f o r m a n c e a t t h e moment. T h i s c a n be  eyewitness  and  students  t h e more  the  5.  difficulty  the  their  for observation.  plan  S p e e d and  observers  repetition  had  o f movement -  s p e e d o f t h e movement and times  the  affected  observers their  i n the p r i n c i p l e  prepared  i n advance.  Barrett that  nothing. of  presented  observers  their  who  the to  number  observe.  step.  they  see.  of planning,  Besides  planning  Without  Therefore,  idea of  i t , observers  states  perceiving regardless  able to analyse  for observation  observers  up  a l l observers being  being  which  e v e r y t h i n g o f t e n end  ability.  most e s s e n t i a l  of  movement  T h i s seems t o h o l d t r u e w i t h observation  to  the  of a n a l y s i s i s the  t r y t o see  observed,  which  the  the p r i n c i p l e  movement b e i n g  than  saw  ability  Implicit  attending  tend  seems t h e  next  t o m i s s more  needed a s c a n n i n g  i n v o l v e d a scheme f o r what t o o b s e r v e ,  the  when and  stategy for  how  long. The  final  observers  are  recognition  t h a t o f v a n t a g e p o i n t a s many  o f t e n i n extremely  poor p o s i t i o n s t o see.  o f where t h e good and  increasingly position  p r i n c i p l e was  e a s i e r as t h e y  directly  implications  p o o r s p o t s were, became  became more aware o f how  i n f l u e n c e d what and  I n summary, a f u r t h e r s t u d y of observation  by  when t h e y  Barrett  The  skill  of. movement f o r t e a c h e r s ,  of observation  plays a very  could  (1979) on  c o n c e r n s were e x a m i n e d . 1.  -  c r i t i c a l role  54  The  observation whether  their observe. the four  skill as  analysis  the  specific,  a n a l y s i s o f human movement i n  general,  o r as t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f  developmental 2.  i s viewed as task  sequences.  U n d e r s t a n d i n g movement - t h e need  fora  knowledge base as a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r skilled  observation  i s implied  rather  than  suggested. 3.  Factors  affecting  concentration,  observation  s p e e d o f t h e movement,  number o f s t u d e n t s , skill  ability  -  observer's  personal  and t h e l a c k o f a v i s u a l  strategy. 4.  Teaching observation observation  will  automatically,  i t needs  observer's a b i l i t i e s  carefully  and t h e need p r a c t i c e .  Analysis  F r a n k s a n d Goodman information describe  skillful  not develop  designed guidelines  Sport  -  gained  from t h e coach  the a t h l e t i c  They s t a t e d  that  identification  subjective  i s o f some u s e b u t i t d o e s n o t  performance completely  be d e s i g n e d b e f o r e  The major c o n c e r n o f t h i s  establishment  that  a c o m p l e t e and a c c u r a t e  performance should initiated.  (1986) s t a t e d  or accurately.  d e s c r i p t i o n of the  training  sessions  c a n be  d i s c u s s i o n was t h e  o f a sound base f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n  o f f i r s t the  o f t h e k e y f a c t o r s o f p e r f o r m a n c e and t h e n  55  prioritizing the  these key factors.  are critical  game a n d t h e y a r e p l a c e d i n l o g i c a l  step  i s acquiring  problems events  (1983), s t a t e d  t o have  another  which Such  one a s s i s t a n t  assistant  head  that  coach  would  coach  with  analysis  the ideal  record  a record  where coaches  would  coaches  method  encounter a l l the  i s needed.  b y F r a n k s , Goodman a n d situation  f o ra coach  game s t a t i s t i c s ,  of the critical  would  editing  be f a r s u p e r i o r  to recall  them  thus  providing  events videotaped  o f t h e game v i d e o t a p e . t o the present  c o m m i t t o memory a l l t h e c r i t i c a l  game a n d a t t e m p t  third  coach v i d e o t a p e t h e c o m p e t i t i o n and  permit a detailed  conditions  The  and c a t e g o r i z i n g  then a recording  on performance  elements i n  sequence.  and because  assimilating  i n a performance,  Miller  the  the information  i n memorizing,  Research  be  There  situation  events of the  f o rthe design o f the next  practice. In  a s t u d y done on a g e n e r a l model  o f team  sports  Franks,  W i l s o n a n d Goodman ( 1 9 8 7 ) , a m i c r o c o m p u t e r  analyze  and d e s c r i b e  The  the events  i n the sport  h y p o t h e s i s p u t f o r w a r d was t h a t  was u s e d t o  of Field  Hockey.  an a c c u r a t e and d e t a i l e d  description  o f t h e sequence  of events  potentially  o f more u s e t o t h e c o a c h  description  that  was t y p i c a l l y  by  i n a performance than a  gained from  was  qualitative subjective  analysis.  The  critical  e v e n t s o f c o m p e t i t i o n were r e c o r d e d i n r e a l  and  selected  items o f team p l a y  sequentially  stored.  T h i s would  (critical  p r o v i d e coaches  game e v e n t  information  that  i s so v i t a l  correction  and o v e r a l l  performance  56  events)  to error  assessment.  time  were with  accurate  detection, This  analysis  would  help  direct every  t o supplement  their  observations toward s p e c i f i c  coach has access Franks,  sources  o f game  could  This the  (1983)  relied  identified  heavily  was h i g h l i g h t i n g  which  and t e c h n i c a l  tends t o d i s t o r t  effect  intermediate  t h e coaches  effect  The second a r e a  the  computer, events  recall  be  which  coach  i n a  1982).  of Emotion and  f o rhalf  an i n t e r a c t i v e immediate  occurs. analysis  time  57  w i t h t h e use of a  and a videotape.  on t h e v i d e o  computer v i d e o .  video  memory  a minute b e f o r e any  i s quantitative  i n real  effect  i n short-term  r e c o r d s game s t a t i s t i c s  be coded  t o have  Material  memory p r o c e s s i n g  alternative  fed into  a t an  result  (in Neisser,  and t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y  only remain  would  cues  b i a s e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s can a l s o  long-term The  t o the von  was human memory w h i c h h a s i t ' s  memory p r o c e s s .  will  These  d e c i s i o n s by  relate  r e m e m b e r i n g a l l t h e game e v e n t s . personal  upon s u b j e c t i v e  assessment o f  where d i s t i n c t i v e  point i n free  psuedo-primacy  limitations  error  achievements by p l a y e r s .  c o m p l e t e game. T h i s w o u l d  Restorff  two  involves  i n a game t h a t s t a n d o u t .  include goals, controversial  officials  but not  actions:  area  occurrences  game e v e n t s ,  technology.  Goodman a n d M i l l e r  The f i r s t  2.  to this  f o r c o a c h e s when t h e y  assessment 1.  t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s made b y a c o a c h a n d  access  and they  This would  of specified  gane  The would  allow the events,  for  feedback t o the p l a y e r s .  technology which u t i l i z e s  Such  a structure to categorize  p r e s e n t s them i n a s y s t e m a t i c An  example o f how  observations and  Goodman  and  The  could  performance  o f an a t h l e t i c  be a p p l i e d  r e s p e c t t o b o t h team and relies  events  help d i r e c t  completed  by  Franks of  to analyze quantitatively  event.  T h i s was  individual  heavily  and  coach's  s t u d y f o c u s e s on k e y e l e m e n t s  that  analysis  this  form.  r e l e v a n t d a t a was  performance  sport  summary  a framework may  collect  (1986).  an a p p r o a c h employs  sports.  discussed  the  with  T h e i r model o f  upon q u a n t i f i a b l e  data  collection  u s i n g modern t e c h n o l o g y ( m i c r o c o m p u t e r s ) . Once t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of a s y s t e m a t i c  analysis,  e r r o r s h a v e been  a s t r u c t u r e d programme.of  c a n be d e s i g n e d t o meet t h e needs t e r m t h i s method ways i n w h i c h practices  to f u l f i l l  a consequence  o f t h e team.  " p r a c t i c e by o b j e c t i v e s "  criterion  d e t e c t e d w i t h t h e use  performance  The  researchers  i.e., identify  i s a c h i e v e d and  t h e o b j e c t i v e s t h a t have been  of comparisons  instruction  between c r i t e r i o n  and  the  develop identified  as  actual  performance. The includes:  evaluation  b) p r i o r i t y  d i d o u r team w i n  events are placed  acquire the information recorded  i n a soccer context,  a) d e t e r m i n i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e  where on t h e f i e l d ball  of a performance  efficiently  and  lose possession  in a hierarchical  i . e . , competition  (microcomputer).  p l a n n i n g the next p r a c t i c e with c l e a r the session  of the performance i . e . ,  a f t e r w a r d s . The  This  scheme c)  events are  l e a d s the coach  objectives  hierarchical  58  related  of the  and  into  evaluating  scheme o f t h e  structure  of performance could of nodes a s s o c i a t e d constitute  a plan,  Franks analysis  one  t h e team p l a y ,  could  framework f o r t h e  (Soccer)  b a s e d upon a of  competition.  found t h a t c e r t a i n events  follow  i n a p r e d i c t a b l e and s e q u e n t i a l l y d e p e n d e n t manner  t h e r u l e s o f t h e system. what l e a d s  of s e t plays,  He went on t o d i s c u s s how  t o the scoring of goals,  an a n a l y s i s o f c r o s s e s ,  and  from t h e  goals  t h e importance  defending.  framework f o r a n a l y s i s was t h e n s e t up t o c o l l e c t  data  a set  f o r scoring a goal.  from a l l l e v e l s  Franks  (1979) d o e s ,  structure that  program,  a n a l y s i s gained  were s c o r e d ,  A  in this  of Association Football  another  within  i n a branching  (1988) p r o p o s e d a s y s t e m a t i c  quantitative Within  be t e r m e d a s W i c k e l g r e n  a l l of the  competition.  F r a n k s made r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s on t h e k e y f a c t o r s o f successful  performance  f o rplayers  a l a r g e p o r t i o n of coaching of  errorful  performance essential opinions finding that  performance.  entails  In order  the detection to detect  and  and c o r r e c t i o n analyze  i n a c o n t i n u o u s team game s u c h a s s o c c e r ,  that gained  some r e c o r d from c a s u a l  i n research  o f performance, observation,  on t h e a c c u r a c y  i t i s extremely e r r o r f u l  definite  and f o r c o a c h e s s t a t i n g t h a t  limitation  other  than  i t is subjective  be o b t a i n e d .  of coaching  The b a s i c  observations i s  a s human memory i s s u b j e c t t o  and i s e a s i l y  biased  by  personal  expectations. F r a n k s recommends t h a t of  competition.  This  could  T h i s would  be done u s i n g  coaches r e c o r d  the c r i t i c a l  events  l e a d t o a framework f o r a n a l y s i s .  a p e n c i l and p a p e r c h e c k l i s t , a 59  sophisticated recording Each  computer aided r e c o r d i n g system,  of observations or a videotape  of these  recommends t h e v i d e o t a p e  it  has t h e a d d i t i o n a l players visual The  are  ensuing  structural  improve  observer  first;  secondly,  o b s e r v a t i o n a l framework  o b s e r v a t i o n and a i d them  critical  events.  these this  events  used  systematic  within  direct  i s used i n their  factors  prior  that  and t h e  performance  events  must be  thirdly, the  to direct the recall  of the  t h e framework  coaches'  them  t h e coaches'  b e much h i g h e r t h a n framework.  60  i n Appendix  o b s e r v a t i o n s towards  t o them o c c u r i n g I would then  f o r the  i n F i g u r e 2 and t h e  i n t h e game a n d a s s i s t  priming has occured will  the c r i t i c a l  research i s presented  statements  events  events  t o provide  s y s t e m a t i c framework t h a t has been developed  framework w i l l  critical  of the  to the structure;  coaches'  This  of crimes  The s t r u c t u r e  systematic  detailed  t h e coach  framework t h a t must be p u t i n p l a c e t o  i n relationship  of this  but  performance.  testimony  identified  purpose  game.  r e c o r d i n g d e v i c e as  research considers several  accuracy.  must be d e v e l o p e d  of allowing  on t h e i r  t o the eyewitness  The  of the entire  as t h e best data  benefit  feedback  sport related  related  audiotape  m e t h o d s p r o v i d e s a memory a i d f o r t h e c o a c h ,  he  the  an  i fthey  8. certain  i n anticipating expect recall  that  once  of these  were n o t exposed  to this  APPENDIX 2 PILOT STUDY 1 C o a c h e s must be obtain  able to  focus  some f o r m o f a c c u r a c y  F r a n k s and criminal  Miller  and  situations  An  recall  c r i t i c a l t e c h n i c a l events international  possession,  contacts  and  experimental following variations  game.  observations  the  amount o f  questionnaire.  The  performance p r i o r observational  g r o u p t h a t had  than  showed t h a t t h e r e were no  ability  with  than  given  the  should  one  half  included  goalkeeper  assigned  was  to  or  t o determine i f effect  on  to direct  the  groups, but  post  the  game  l e c t u r e on  key  f a c t o r s of  h a v e shown s u p e r i o r  c o n t r o l groups.  statistically  of coaches t o r e c a l l  accurately  and  coaches. These i n s t r u c t i o n s v a r i e d i n  to viewing  between e x p e r i m e n t a l  during  i n s t r u c t i o n s w o u l d h a v e any  coaches toward a f i n a l  qualities  i n which  instructions either prior  i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t was of the  in  to observe  set plays,  T h i s secondary concern  of the  so.  These c r i t i c a l events  Three randomly  g r o u p s were g i v e n  the  t o do  undertaken  ability  to  coaches f o l l o w i n g a  that occurred  crosses,  at goal.  i n pre-event  observations  their  s o c c e r game.  passing,  shots  the  training  made by  e x p e r i m e n t was  c o a c h e s were t e s t e d on  ball  need t h e  to observations  novice  an  c r i t i c a l events  (1986) compared e y e w i t n e s s t e s t i m o n y  s p o r t i n g performance.  of  on t h e  The  results  significant differences  t h e r e were d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e  certain  c a t e g o r i z e d events  more  others.  The  overall  the  category  observational accuracy of set plays being  61  of the  c o a c h e s was  better recalled  than  42% ball  possession,  goalkeeper contacts,  crosses,  shots  and g o a l s .  c o u l d h a v e b e e n due t o t h e d i s c o n t i n u i t y o f s e t p l a y s continuous  nature  organized be  format  o f t h e game s t o p s f o rset plays.  used by t h e o b s e r v e r  of  perception of these  array. should  a n d i s s t a r t e d i n an  These stoppages  action that  i s perceived,  He went on t o p r o p o s e t h a t  be viewed as f e a t u r e m o n i t o r i n g  o f what a r e c o n s i d e r e d  a c t i o n becomes c r i t i c a l  a s a change  behaviour  f e a t u r e s change s t a t e t h e n a b r e a k p o i n t  definition  i n a c t i o n may  T h i s p o i n t was made p r e v i o u s l y by  (1976) who d e f i n e d  stimulus  as t h e  a s a framework a r o u n d w h i c h t h e game  e v e n t s c a n be o r g a n i z e d . Newtson  This  a n d when one occurs.  t o be b r e a k p o i n t s  The  i n the  i f we a r e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r o c e s s o f  observation. From t h i s  initial  study  of observational  c o a c h e s s e v e r a l p r o b l e m s were e n c o u n t e r e d Pilot  Study  accuracy  t h a t were e x a m i n e d i n  2. The p r o b l e m s i n c l u d e d t h e u s e o f n o v i c e  who w o u l d n o t h a v e any d i r e c t e d s y s t e m o f o b s e r v a t i o n game o f s o c c e r .  The number o f c r i t i c a l  o b s e r v e would have been so e x t e n s i v e  of  coaches f o r the  events that they  had t o  i t would exceed t h e l i m i t s  o f s h o r t t e r m memory. The p r o b l e m s w o u l d b e s o l v e d b y : (1) u s i n g experienced  coaches as s u b j e c t s  training  for directing  critical  features that should  organizing principles  (2) a l l o w i n g a p e r i o d o f  observations  be o b s e r v e d  of behavior  groups o f coaches.  62  (3) r e d u c i n g  t h e number o f  (4) i d e n t i f y i n g t h e  observation  f o r specialized  APPENDIX 3 P I L O T STUDY 2 In  a follow-up  Miller,  (1986),  certain  events  Pilot  Study  regarding  experienced  study  asked  i n a game t h e y h a d j u s t w a t c h e d .  the training  coaches held  by Franks and  coaches were a l s o  2 was t o o v e r c o m e t h e p r o b l e m s  PROBLEM  Program  to the preliminary  of their  1 - Using  a C License  and were t a k i n g  part  Study  1  skill.  Coaches - The  i n the National the first  The p u r p o s e o f  i n Pilot  observational  Experienced  to recall  experienced  Coaching  of their  Certification  B  License  course. PROBLEM trained features  of Training  3 - Reducing features  opportunities,  The c o a c h e s  t h e Number o f C r i t i c a l goals,  and c r o s s e s .  l e s s t h a n what was u s e d  shots, This  organizing and  overall analyzed (72%). at  missed  critical study.  Principles of  program  involved the  that  b u t when t h e f i v e individually,  recalling  i n Franks  (1986).  r e s u l t s showed  Therefore,  - The  shooting  p r i n c i p l e s o f team a n a l y s i s t h a t was u s e d  Goodman's s t u d y The  Features  i n the preliminary  - The t r a i n i n g  critical  started.  was one  PROBLEM 4 - I d e n t i f y i n g t h e O r g a n i z i n g Behaviour Observation  were  i n on c e r t a i n  t o the t e s t i n g being  included  set plays  -  on f o c u s i n g  i n t h e game p r i o r  critical  feature  A Period  f o rtwenty minutes  PROBLEM five  2 -  t h e coaches were 6 4 % i n e r r o r  critical  goals  categories  were r e c a l l e d most  the experienced  information  feature  relative  63  coaches while t o goals,  were  accurately being  superior  were no b e t t e r  than  novice The  coaches a t r e c a l l i n g  critical  o t h e r k e y e l e m e n t s o f team p l a y .  f e a t u r e c a t e g o r i e s were d e r i v e d f r o m  previous  s t u d i e s done on t h e game o f s o c c e r b y Reep a n d B e n j a m i n Franks  a n d Thomson  (1982),  C o a c h e s were v e r y memory o f s h o t s very  crucial  1982 W o r l d Cup A n a l y s i s .  accurate  and o t h e r  because they  i n recalling  goals but t h e i r  f e a t u r e s were p o o r .  The  should  o f an e v e n t  g o a l may be a benchmark  important  after  t h e event.  be more w i d e s p r e a d .  But shots a r e  lead t o goals, therefore, goals are a  consequence o f shots. C o n s e q u e n t i a l i t y r e f e r s changes as t h e r e s u l t  t o how  something  occuring. (Newtson,  1 9 7 6 ) , t h a t becomes  I would suggest Therefore,  t h a t benchmarks  the proposed  study  systematic  training  p r o g r a m aimed a t d e v e l o p i n g  predictive  features  ( s e e F i g u r e 2) f o r s o c c e r c o a c h e s .  to  do t h i s ,  developed previous and  a logical,  systematic  ( s e e F i g u r e 2 and Appendix 8 ) .  a schemata o f In order  T h i s was done  from  q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e game o f s o c c e r b y  Thomson  (1982).  These r e s u l t s  missed  shooting  lead t o P i l o t  64  Study  Franks 3 which  features of goals,  o p p o r t u n i t i e s and t h e e v e n t s  them.  i sa  a p p r o a c h t o t h e game was  would attempt t o look a t t h e c r i t i c a l and  (1968) ,  shots  w h i c h l e d up t o  APPENDIX 4 PILOT STUDY 3 INTRODUCTION In used  the t h i r d  again.  study,  Level I I I (experienced)  The c r i t i c a l  s h o t s and m i s s e d  coaches  f e a t u r e s were c o m p r i s e d  were  of goals,  shooting o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o determine  exactly  how  much o b s e r v a t i o n a l e r r o r t h e r e was f o r g o a l s compared t o s h o t s compared t o m i s s e d up  shooting opportunities.  t o g o a l s , s h o t s and m i s s e d  determined  by c o m p a r i s o n  videotaped  game.  The e v e n t s l e a d i n g  s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s were  to the objective analysis of the  METHOD The control recall  coaches groups.  were d i v i d e d  They were t o l d  the c r i t i c a l  opportunities  A l l t h r e e g r o u p s r e c e i v e d t h e same  The e x p e r i m e n t a l  clarified  e x a m p l e s o f won b a l l  presented  examples o f s e t p l a y s .  passes.  videotape t r a i n i n g  The f o u r t h t a p e  The f i f t h  tape  The s i x t h  and  tape  procedure  program:  possession. The t h i r d  The f i r s t  tape  The s e c o n d  tape  tape  showed  examples  showed e x a m p l e s o f p e n e t r a t i n g  showed e x a m p l e s o f m i s s e d  opportunities. the seventh  pretest  g r o u p was t h e n p u t t h r o u g h t h e  seven  crosses.  shooting  and answer t h e same q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) (See  following  of  t h e y w o u l d be a s k e d t o  o b s e r v i n g a f i f t e e n m i n u t e segment o f a  ( v i e w t h e same v i d e o t a p e 7).  that  and two  f e a t u r e s o f g o a l s , s h o t s and m i s s e d  after  v i d e o t a p e d game.  Appendix  i n t o an e x p e r i m e n t a l  tape  shooting  showed e x a m p l e s o f s h o t s  taken  showed e x a m p l e s o f g o a l s s c o r e d . T h i s  stimulates the process of elaborative  65  r e h e a r s a l which  deals with  new  processing  i s t a k i n g p l a c e a t a deeper l e v e l  and  Zigler, The  after  information  c o n t r o l group answered t h e  each of the  analysis  as  (Kimble,  Garnezy  1980).  first  training.  i n terms o f i t ' s meaning  The  seven d i f f e r e n t  same  videotapes  without  second c o n t r o l group d i d t h e i r  after  each of the  seven  questionnaire  own  any  personal  videotapes.  RESULTS The  results  accurately three  than  groups.  accurately Control study  shots The  (an  be  (8%)  success  goals,  than  shots  l e a d i n g up  training  more  o p p o r t u n i t i e s by a l l goals  more  C o n t r o l Group 1  (21%)  Therefore,  and  t o the  This w i l l  recalled  group r e c a l l e d  a l l three groups.  opportunity. of the  shooting  i n the p o s t t e s t .  done on  described  shooting  missed  experimental  opportunities with must be  and  i n c r e a s e o f 29%)  Group 2  will  showed t h a t g o a l s were a g a i n  missed  detailed  shooting  Each event goal, shot  a  and  and  and  location  missed  give a better indication  of  the  program.  GENERAL DISCUSSION The the  three p i l o t  final  study  give a clear  focusing  i n on  observed  and  research  used novice  and  recall  differences  the  then  specific recalled  critical  international  s t u d i e s t h a t were c o n d u c t e d  critical by  events  ability  that occurred The  results  of these  66  coaches.  their  ability  i n one  The to  half  coaches to  first  initial  observe of  an  showed t h a t t h e r e  novice  to  researcher  f e a t u r e s t h a t must be  experienced  coaches t o t e s t  s o c c e r game.  i n the  i n d i c a t i o n to the  l e a d i n g up  were  recall  certain t h i s  categorized  study  it  experienced reduce the  the  was  trained  number  f i r s t them  categories coaches their  Therefore,  of  The  shooting  shots,  on  penetrating  this  a)  Study  the  Experimental  two  Control  This  experienced  Study  3  context  a  The w i l l  for  purpose improve  a  posttest goals,  the  identify  goals  that  event  these  but  poor  opportunities,  etc.  that  P i l o t  observing  set  manner  and  c r i t i c a l  goals  the  coaches  shots  missed  training  more  detailed  training the  shots  missed  d) shots  resulted  was  correct  than  to  program  examining and  f)  accurately study  of  crosses,  opportunities, of  only.  again  and  c)  3  c r i t i c a l  consisted  plays,  with  Study  opportunities  program  shooting  similar  and  coaches  showed  goals,  training  a  use  observations,  Five  shooting  b)  From  would  observed  experienced  again  of  Therefore,  be  to  in the done  P i l o t  r e c a l l  of  shooting  against.  the  the  be  experienced  r e c a l l i n g  and  of  used  study  direct  decided  missed  missed  surrounding  opportunities,  was  others.  observation.  shooting  progressive  and  to  r e c a l l i n g  it  The  coaches,  to  results  possession,  group  pre  in  features  e)  groups.  using  and  b a l l  the  coaches  and  c r i t i c a l  g)  that  shots  P i l o t  and  the  study  experienced  passes,  goals.  events  missed  opportunities.  videotapes  period  observations.  and  accurate  than  following  behavior  their  observed  from  the  c r i t i c a l  direct  goals,  examining  training  u t i l i z e d  of  third  the  experiment  very  u t i l i z e  events  of  that  accurately  of  were  were  a  more  p r i n c i p l e s  to  memory  would  decided  coaches,  organizing The  events  study  was  perceptual  67  to  design  a  organization  training of  soccer  program coaches  and  direct  their  identification of  shooting  scoring  observations  of the c r i t i c a l  I f a coach  to modify Therefore,  o f t h e game: a) c r e a t i o n  t o focus  and i m p r o v e p e r f o r m a n c e , w i l l  be  i t was n e c e s s a r y t o i d e n t i f y  probability  (Franks  and Thomson,  1982).  68  be u s e d  experiment, i n training  substantiated.  t h e e v e n t s t h a t had a  of leading t o shooting set plays,  a n d c) t h e  on t h e c r i t i c a l  i n the previous  framework t h a t w i l l  e v e n t s were b a l l p o s s e s s i o n , passes  i s able  o f t h e game a s i d e n t i f i e d  then the observational  higher  features  accurate  o p p o r t u n i t i e s , b) t h e t a k i n g o f s h o t s  of goals.  features  t o w a r d t h e more  opportunities.  crosses  These  and p e n e t r a t i n g  APPENDIX  5  C R I T I C A L GAME E V E N T S GOALS The  SCORED  o b j e c t i v e of the  of  the  game w i l l  In  Pilot  Study by  training  people  subjects  were  placed  on  the  Therefore an  SHOTS ON on  the  Research  of  states  1983)  that  Shots  that are  off target  Results  show  every  ten  (Olympic shots  O P P O R T U N I T I E S TO physical  scored  taken  one  SHOOT FROM A  demands o f  i n a l l goals  by  Team R e p o r t ,  taken,  shooting  shots  will  give  the  low  goal  Research on  (below  (Franks,  are  a  shows  8  shot a  random (Olympic goal  f e e t ) have  a  1988).  p l a y e r s on  goal w i l l  are  a  g o a l , one  include those  1983)  from  that shots  on  and be  G I V E N A R E A OF on  goal  from  originating  from  within  69  that  originate  four shots  kept  blocked  was  accurate.  originated  taken.  f o r every  shots  and  more  on  1979)  when e m p h a s i s  (Reep e t a l , 1971)  that are  study  (Newtson's b r e a k p o i n t ) .  chance of becoming a goal  SHOTS T A K E N - T h e  result  a goal  that are  result scored.  In a  They c o n c l u d e d  d u r i n g a game a n d  a l l shots  final  that are  category.  a w h o l e w o u l d be  goals  the  (Woodhead e t a l ,  features.  b a c k how  - The  goals  in identification  GOAL  target,  for  facial  and  of o b s e r v a t i o n a l accuracy  faces,  accurate  f a c e as  scored.  greater  i n the  whole event.  Team R e p o r t ,  ALL  less  occurrence  be  highest level  to recognize  goals  number o f g o a l s  idea of the  occurrence  will  the  c o a c h e s was  in tracing  goal.  random  the  isolated  considering  coach  d e p e n d on  2,  attained  game i s t o s c o r e  t h a t are  either (Reep,  on  team. 1971)  that  scored. THE  FIELD  thirty-five this  area  -  The  yards of  the  away  field. the  This  ball  greater  area  has  i s repossessed chance  the  middle  and  Benjamin,  and  Miller,  SET  PLAYS  one  of  third  (25%)  1968;  - This  a l l goals Franks,  The  i s played (World  crosses.  contacted lead  to  defending  and  Thomson,  by  total  an  a  have a  5:1  goal  If  is a  rather than (10%)  plays  in  (Reep  Goodman  (corner  Results (World  show  Cup  the  attacker  and  the  ball  80%  of  are  scored  goals  that  Analysis,  ball  ball  or  past  - These are  into, the  middle  from  feature  of  the  penalty  area.  show t h a t  25%  are  set plays,  8:1  not  show t h a t goal  result  crosses  ratio  and  that  were  crosses  that  passes into  are  balls  space.  creates  a  occurs  are  Attackers one-on-one  goalkeeper  4 passes  that  or  or  less  when an  can  run  situation  a  crossed  (Reep,  1979).  attacker  and  t h e n has  an  opportunity  played  from the  corner  ball.  balls the  the  occurred.  1988)  opposition's  a defender  cross  into  that  ratio.  space which  critical  crosses  Franks,  1988)  over defenders  with  CORNER K I C K S  set  position  - Penetrating  in this  DRIBBLES - T h i s  number o f  (Franks,  ball  field  there  Franks,  occurred.  A n a l y s i s , 1984,  the  the  1982;  set plays  a t t a c k e r h a v e an  between or  the  from  flank  onto  shoot  field  one-third  number o f that  total  from  Results  shots  dribbles  the  scoring a goal  opportunities that  PENETRATING PASSES played  of  and  scored  i s the  Cup  a l l shooting  from  attacking one-third.  1988).  - This  of  area  team  throw-ins)  are  CROSSES  Results  Franks  i s the  30%  ball  the  the  1983).  free kicks,  1984,  in this  (65%)  kicks, of  been termed  goal  70  area.  A  high  of  the  percentage  of  to  shooting is  opportunities result  an inswing  THROW-INS field. is  from t h i s  k i c k t o t h e near post  - These a r e b a l l s  thrown  FREE-KICKS  t o a corner  - These a r e b a l l s  that  where f o u l s have occurred.  shots  a t goal  or indirect  PENALTY-KICKS penalty  one  k i c k i s awarded.  theball  i splaced  goals  outside  a r e scored  K I C K S OUTSIDE taken  from  area.  THE PENALTY  until  i s won f r o m  play  theball  REPOSSESSION won f r o m  ball ALL  the  a  on t h e goal l i n e and  The r e s t o f t h e p l a y e r s A very  high  percentage of  - These a r e f r e e k i c k s t h a t a r e other  at least  than  the penalty  t e nyards  team f o r a s e tp l a y .  forward  into  away  a shooting  At the set  position.  I N F R E E P L A Y THAT I S P L A Y E D FORWARD - When t h e b a l l t h e opposing forward  team.  team i n f r e e p l a y .  into  - This  a shooting  occurs  There a r e over  when  i sa natural break-point 71  I n free play the  position. theball  i s won f r o m t h e  200 r e p o s s e s s i o n s  Cup A n a l y s i s , 1984, F r a n k s ,  ball  stands  area  i t moves.  t h e opposing  REPOSSESSIONS  (World  thepenalty  at goal.  kick.  team must s t a n d  i splayed  i s moved  opposing  AREA  shots  o u t from t h e goal  area.  free  be d i r e c t  A S A S E T P L A Y THAT I S P L A Y E D FORWARD - When t h e  ball  is  yards  then i t  a t l o c a t i o n s ont h e  o r more)  inside  l o c a t i o n s on t h e f i e l d  The d e f e n d i n g  from t h e b a l l  areplaced  at goal.  thepenalty  from t h i s  other  REPOSSESSION  shot  distance  These c a n e i t h e r  occurs  twelve  1988).  shooting opportunities.  The goalkeeper  attacker has a direct  must remain  a long  (played twice  - I fa foul  (Franks,  the ball  i n from t h e s i d e o f t h e  k i c k and creates  field  line,  area  I f a p l a y e r can throw t h e b a l l  similar  s e t p l a y when  1988). (Newtson  i n o n e game  The r e p o s s e s s i o n o f -  1976).  APPENDIX  6  CRITERION 1.  Won  2.  Lost  CODE  Possession  Possession  (W.P.)  A team b a l l .  (L.P.)  The  has  opposing  through kicked saved 3.  Throw-In  (T.I.)  The  5.  Shot  on  Missed  Target  (S.O.T.)  Shooting  Opportunity  (M.S.O.)  a  Square  Pass  (S.P.)  of  Back  Pass  (B.P.)  A  shot  that  is  a  goal.  A  shot  which  travels  Forward  9.  Direct  Pass  Free  (F.P.)  Kick  ball  the pass,  a  shot  The  not  or  of  play.  becomes  taken  (player  off).  the  in  the  i t . i s  p a r a l l e l  across  at  f i e l d  saved  is  are  bound  and  the  pass  f i e l d .  d i r e c t i o n  of  own  goal. pass  played  opponent's The  (D.F.K.)  or  and  passed  played  poor  of  f i e l d into  A 8.  out  back  or  a  the  goalkeeper.  the  dribbled  regains  bounds  thrown  Pass 7.  of  goes  Teammates 6.  team  the  b a l l  possession of  tackle,  out by  sides  4.  won  a  b a l l  towards  the  goal.  is  placed  at  the  point  foul.  The  b a l l  can  be  hit  d i r e c t l y  at  goal. 10.  Cross  (C)  The  b a l l  position  72  of  is  played  into  the  from  the  penalty  wing area.  the  Criterion 11.  Code  (Continued) ( F a r P.) - T h e g o a l p o s t f a r t h e s t  Far Post  the b a l l 12.  Goalkeeper's  Kick  - The b a l l  (Goal 13.  Goal  (G.K.) - T h e b a l l  Kick  line  where  i s situated. i s kicked  goalkeeper's  K.)  from  from  out of the  hands.  i s p l a c e d on t h e s i x y a r d  and k i c k e d  out of the penalty  area. 14.  Goal  (G)  - The w h o l e b a l l goal  15.  Shot  High  16.  Shot  High  - A shot  (S.H.W.) 17.  Shot  line  (S.H.) - A s h o t and Wide  Wide  and  Shot  over  above t h e c r o s s b a r h e i g h t  (S.W.) - A s h o t t h a t  Saved  (S.S.)  that  - A shot that deflected  19.  Shot  Blocked  the crossbar.  wide o f t h e goal.  height 18.  has crossed the  crosses the endline. i s caught,  punched o r  by t h e goalkeeper.  (S.B.) - A s h o t t h a t original  i s below t h e crossbar  i s knocked  o f fof i t ' s  path by an opponent o r  teammate. 20.  Attacking the  1/3 o f  Field  - The p a r t o f t h e f i e l d ( A 1/3)  goal  line  field 21.  Middle the  1/3 o f  Field  (M 1/3)  t o 35 y a r d s  from t h e out into the  of play.  The p a r t o f t h e f i e l d  from  out  from  one g o a l l i n e  out  from  the other goal  73  35 y a r d s  t o 35 line.  yards  Criterion 22.  23.  Code  (Continued)  Near Post  (N.P.)  Mid-Goal  (M.G.)  The  goalpost  the  ball  The  central part  area 24.  Indirect  Freekick  The a  (I.F.K.)  25.  Right  (R)  Left  (L)  at the  28.  29.  30.  Central  (C)  Corner Kick  Penalty  (C.K.)  Kick  Drop B a l l  (P.K.)  >  (D.B.)  (P.P.)  ball  penalty  spot. at  the  point  must touch  of  two  i t enters  the  goal.  Right  the  (20  metres  in  side  side  the  field  20  ball  the  field  The  ball  from the  i s placed and  kicked  into  goal  and  player after  line  from  out  kicked  from  h i t the  between or space.  of  play.  yards  dropped  h a n d s and  into  corner  each team k i c k  i t has  played  (the  field).  i n the  12  One  metres  field  the  i s placed  goal.  defenders  the  metres of  the  (20  sideline)  s e c t i o n of  The  ball  field  sideline).  of  from the  middle  74  of  from the  in  A  Pass  the  penalty  The  referee's Penetrating  where  people before  ball  31.  of  i s placed  foul.  Central 27.  to  is situated.  ball  Left 26.  nearest  at  the the  ground.  behind .  Criterion 32.  Code  (Continued)  Dribble  (D.)  33.  Long  Pass  34.  Short Pass  35.  Running  with  A player  runs with  feet  beats a  and  the b a l l  defender.  (L.P.)  A ball  passed  over  (L.P.)  A ball  passed  under  with  the b a l l  Ball (R.W.B.)  Running space.  75  at his  15 15  metres. metres. i n open  QUESTIONNAIRE GAME A N A L Y S I S 1.  Describe  leading  form  t h e sequence o f  up t o t h e s c o r i n g o f each  the goal terms  i n point  first  from  positions EVENT  and recount  the Criterion  goal.  the events  Code and t h e  events Start  using  with  the  field  only. TEAM  LOCATION  76  DESCRIPTION  2. D e s c r i b e  i n p o i n t form  t h e sequence o f events  t o t h e t a k i n g o f each shot goals).  ( n o t t h e s h o t s t h a t were  S t a r t w i t h t h e s h o t and r e c o u n t  t h e t e r m s from  l e a d i n g up  the C r i t e r i o n  the events  Code and t h e f i e l d  positions  only.  EVENT  TEAM  LOCATION  77  using  DESCRIPTION  3• D e s c r i b e  i n point  t o each missed opportunities missed the  form t h e sequence o f e v e n t s  shooting  opportunity  t h a t were g o a l s  shooting  opportunity  terms from t h e C r i t e r i o n  l e a d i n g up  (not t h e shooting  or shots).  and r e c o u n t  S t a r t with the the events  Code and t h e f i e l d  using  positions  only.  . EVENT  TEAM  LOCATION  78  DESCRIPTION  APPENDIX  8 TRAINING  PROGRAM  COACHING A N A L Y S I S EXPERIMENTAL 1.  WON  15 M I N U T E SEGMENTS  GROUP  BALL POSSESSION  Looking  f o r the probability  o f a change i n p o s s e s s i o n .  Where on t h e f i e l d t h e p o s s e s s i o n The c h a n c e o f g o i n g f o r w a r d a shooting opportunity. 2.  SET  PLAYS  Was  the ball  played  Was  the ball  played  Were t h e r e 3.  players  the ball  t o create  into  a shooting  i n a position  position.  t o take  a  shot.  CROSSES  Was  the ball  Were t h e r e PENETRATING Was  SHOOTING Is  players  a defendeg p r i o r into  the penalty  i n a position  to crossing the area.  to challenge  f o r the ball.  PASSES between o r behind  attackers running  defenders.  onto t h e b a l l .  OPPORTUNITIES  the ball  shooting Can  crossed  the ball>played  Were t h e r e 5.  won.  forward.  Did the attacker beat ball.  4.  with  was  being  played  angle.  the player  shoot.  79  into  positions  within the  SHOTS Is  the shot  GOALS Is  TAKEN on t a r g e t .  SCORED  t h e shot  a  goal.  CONTROL GROUP 1 They w i l l the  watch  t h e seven videotapes  same q u e s t i o n n a i r e  pretest They w i l l  that  they  and complete  received  i nthe  (Appendix D). not discuss  their  answers w i t h  the other  coaches.  CONTROL GROUP 2 The  c o n t r o l group w i l l  their  thoughts  They w i l l plan  discuss  on t h e s e v e n  w r i t e down t h e i r  f o r n e x t w e e k f o r Team  80  amongst  themselves  videotapes. analyses A.  and formulate  a  APPENDIX  9  National  Coaching C e r t i f i c a t i o n  Level  I  Level  Program  II  Level  III  B License  A  License  2  years  Technical  16  hours  16  hours  16 h o u r s  2 years  Theory  14  hours  21 h o u r s  35 hours  Over two y e a r s T e c h n i c a l & Theory Combined  Practical  One  Season  One  Season  81  C License 24 h o u r s  REFERENCES  Allard,  F., a n d S t a r k e s , J . , ( 1 9 8 0 ) . V o l l e y b a l l " , Journal of Sport  Allard,  F . , G r a h a m , S., a n d P a a r s a u , M., ( 1 9 8 0 ) . "Perception i n S p o r t : B a s k e t b a l l " , J o u r n a l o f S p o r t P s y c h o l o g y , 2, 1 4 - 2 1 .  Arend,  S., a n d H i g g i n s , J . , ( 1 9 7 6 ) . 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