UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Observational accuracy in sport 1989

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
UBC_1989_A7_5 M54.pdf [ 3.65MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0077379.json
JSON-LD: 1.0077379+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0077379.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0077379+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0077379+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0077379+rdf-ntriples.txt
Citation
1.0077379.ris

Full Text

OBSERVATIONAL ACCURACY I N SPORT By GARY N. M I L L E R B.A. , The U n i v e r s i t y o f W e s t e r n O n t a r i o , 1979 B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y o f W e s t e r n O n t a r i o , 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PH Y S I C A L EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( S c h o o l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A p r i l 1989 (c) G a r y N. M i l l e r , 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. 1 further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date J u n e 6 , 1988 DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT While numerous s t u d i e s e x i s t i n the l i t e r a t u r e which have examined the accuracy of eyewitnesses t o c r i m i n a l events, v e r y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h e x i s t s i n the s p o r t s c i e n c e f i e l d t h a t examines the o b s e r v a t i o n a l accuracy of coaches. The experiment r e p o r t e d here attempted t o address t h i s i s s u e u s i n g the s p o r t of s o c c e r and s o c c e r coaches. T h i r t y - s i x s o c c e r coaches served as s u b j e c t s i n t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n a l accuracy study v i e w i n g videotaped segments of i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c c e r games. The coaches were randomly s e l e c t e d f o r one experimental group and two c o n t r o l groups. A l l t h r e e groups watched the same f i f t e e n minute p r e t e s t v i d e o t a p e and answered a q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e l a t i n g t o the r e c a l l of the g o a l s scored, shots taken and missed o p p o r t u n i t i e s to shoot. The experimental group was t r a i n e d t o observe the c r i t i c a l events of match p l a y . They used a t r a i n i n g v i d e o t a p e c o n t a i n i n g e x c e r p t s of 7 p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c c e r games. Instances of c r i t i c a l elements of match p l a y were i l l u s t r a t e d i n a p r o g r e s s i v e manner u s i n g the v i d e o t a p e as an o r i e n t i n g a c t i v i t y w i t h s p e c i f i c p r i m i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s . C o n t r o l group one watched the same v i d e o t a p e d i n s t a n c e s but o n l y answered the q u e s t i o n n a i r e they r e c e i v e d i n the p r e t e s t . C o n t r o l group two a l s o watched the same vi d e o t a p e d e x c e r p t s as the o t h e r two groups but were asked t o prepare a t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s t h a t they would use based upon t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s of the v i d e o t a p e d games. A l l t h r e e groups then completed the same p o s t t e s t watching the same game segment with the i d e n t i c a l number of g o a l s , shots and i i missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s as the p r e t e s t v i d e o t a p e . The dependent v a r i a b l e was the percentage of c o r r e c t responses t h a t each s u b j e c t d i s p l a y e d when answering q u e s t i o n s about these t h r e e c r i t i c a l events. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t , on the average, coaches seem t o be i n c a p a b l e o f remembering more than 40% of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t p e r t a i n s t o how g o a l s are sc o r e d . T h e i r r e c a l l of events t h a t l e a d t o shots and missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s was no b e t t e r than 2 0% c o r r e c t . An a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was performed on the data and i t was found t h a t s u b j e c t s were b e t t e r a b l e t o r e c a l l events d u r i n g the p o s t t e s t than d u r i n g the p r e t e s t . The t r a i n i n g program on d i r e c t e d o b s e r v a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n b e t t e r r e c a l l f o r the experimental group than the two c o n t r o l groups. A S c h e f f e p o s t hoc a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t a l l s u b j e c t s r e c a l l e d the events l e a d i n g t o the s c o r i n g of g o a l s more a c c u r a t e l y than they r e c a l l e d the events l e a d i n g t o shots and missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i L I S T OF TABLES V L I S T OF FIGURES v i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS v i i 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 2. M e t h o d 16 2.1 S u b j e c t s 16 2.2 E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n 16 2 . 3 E n v i r o n m e n t 16 2.4 V i d e o t a p e C o n s t r u c t i o n 18 2.5 P r o c e d u r e 2 0 2.6 D a t a A n a l y s i s 25 3. R e s u l t s 26 4. D i s c u s s i o n 37 A p p e n d i c e s 42 4.1 A p p e n d i x 1 42 4.2 A p p e n d i x 2 61 4.3 A p p e n d i x 3 63 4.4 A p p e n d i x 4 65 4.5 A p p e n d i x 5 69 4.6 A p p e n d i x 6 72 4.7 A p p e n d i x 7 76 4.8 A p p e n d i x 8 79 4.9 A p p e n d i x 9 81 R e f e r e n c e s 82 i v L I S T OF TABLES T a b l e P age 1 D e s i g n o f t h e E x p e r i m e n t ...17 2 An e x a m p l e o f a g o a l b e i n g s c o r e d i n t h e P r e t e s t Game U.S.S.R. v e r s u s B e l g i u m 23 3 E x p e r i m e n t a l G r o u p S c o r e s f o r G o a l s , S h o t s a nd M i s s e d S h o o t i n g O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e P r e t e s t a n d P o s t t e s t 2 8 4 C o n t r o l G r o u p One S c o r e s f o r G o a l s , S h o t s a nd M i s s e d S h o o t i n g O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e P r e t e s t a n d P o s t t e s t . 29 5 C o n t r o l G r o u p Two S c o r e s f o r G o a l s , S h o t s a n d M i s s e d S h o o t i n g O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e P r e t e s t a n d P o s t t e s t 3 0 6 R e s u l t s o f t h e Sum o f t h e S q u a r e s , t h e D e g r e e s o f Freedom, t h e Mean S q u a r e s , t h e F R a t i o s a nd t h e S i g n i f i c a n c e L e v e l . . . 3 2 v L I S T OF FIGURES F i g u r e P a ge 1 The C r i t i c a l F e a t u r e s o f S o c c e r 12 2 The F l o w C h a r t o f The T r a i n i n g P r o g r a m . . 1 3 3 Numbered A r e a s o f t h e F i e l d 21 4 I n t e r a c t i o n B e t w e e n P r e t e s t a n d ' P o s t t e s t a nd G r o u p s on P e r c e n t a g e o f C o r r e c t A n s w e r s 3 4 5 I n t e r a c t i o n B e t w e e n P r e t e s t / P o s t t e s t a n d C o n d i t i o n s on P e r c e n t a g e s o f C o r r e c t A n s w e r s f o r E a c h G r o u p 35 6 I n t e r a c t i o n B e t w e e n P r e t e s t / P o s t t e s t a n d C o n d i t i o n s on P e r c e n t a g e o f C o r r e c t A n s w e r s 3 6 v i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author i s ve r y g r a t e f u l t o Gerry Jennings and Joanne DiNardo f o r t h e i r i n v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n i n t y p i n g the manuscript and The O n t a r i o Soccer A s s o c i a t i o n f o r a l l o w i n g them the time t o spend on i t . Thanks are a l s o extended t o John and Donna Connor f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e and h o s p i t a l i t y . F i n a l l y the author would l i k e t o express h i s thanks t o Dr. Ian Franks, Dr. Gary S i n c l a i r and Dr. R i c h a r d Mosher f o r t h e i r a d v i c e and d i r e c t i o n t h a t was g i v e n r e g a r d i n g the d e s i g n and write-up of the experiment. A s p e c i a l note of thanks t o my w i f e Cindy f o r a l l o f her support and encouragement throughout t h i s r e s e a r c h . CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION S e v e r a l r e c e n t s t u d i e s (Franks and M i l l e r , 1986, Franks, E l l i o t and Johnson, 1985) have shown t h a t coaches have d i f f i c u l t y i n remembering c r i t i c a l events t h a t occur d u r i n g s p o r t i n g c o m p e t i t i o n . T h i s seems t o be the case f o r a l l l e v e l s of coaching e x p e r i e n c e . When a coach i s asked t o make d e c i s i o n s on what has t r a n s p i r e d d u r i n g a c o m p e t i t i v e event they can be i n e r r o r as much as 60% of the time (Appendix 2 P i l o t Study). D e s p i t e t h i s f a c t t h e r e appears t o be l i t t l e r e s e a r c h designed s p e c i f i c a l l y t o i n v e s t i g a t e the process of o b s e r v i n g events i n a s p o r t i n g environment. D e s p i t e the l a c k of r e s e a r c h i n t o the g e n e r a l area of o b s e r v a t i o n a l accuracy i n the f i e l d o f s p o r t s s c i e n c e , t h e r e has been a c o n s i d e r a b l e body of a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h t h a t d e a l s with the accuracy of observers i n c r i m i n a l s i t u a t i o n s . The comparison between eyewitnesses t o a c r i m i n a l s i t u a t i o n and eyewitnesses (coaches) t o a s p o r t i n g event i s i n t u i t i v e l y a p p e a l i n g . G e n e r a l l y , i t appears t h a t eyewitnesses t o c r i m i n a l events are u n r e l i a b l e and i n c e r t a i n circumstances i n a c c u r a t e . N e i s s e r (1982), i n h i s r e s e a r c h on eyewitness testimony, s t a t e d t h a t p e r c e p t i o n and memory are d e c i s i o n making processes a f f e c t e d by the t o t a l i t y of a person's a b i l i t i e s , background, a t t i t u d e s , motives and b e l i e f s , by the environment and by the way r e c o l l e c t i o n i s e v e n t u a l l y t e s t e d . The observer i s an a c t i v e r a t h e r than a p a s s i v e p e r c e i v e r and r e c o r d e r , r e a c h i n g c o n c l u s i o n s on what has been seen by e v a l u a t i n g fragments of 1 i n f o r m a t i o n and r e c o n s t r u c t i n g them. The observer i s motivated by a d e s i r e t o be a c c u r a t e by imposing meaning on the v a s t amount of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t f l o o d s the senses, but a l s o by a d e s i r e t o l i v e up t o the e x p e c t a t i o n s of ot h e r people. S e v e r a l sources of u n r e l i a b i l i t y appear t o be p r e s e n t i n eyewitness testimony ( C l i f f o r d and H o l l i n , 1980, C l i f f o r d and S c o t t , 1978) . These sources are l i s t e d below. (a) The i n s i g n i f i c a n c e of the events t h a t were observed. I n s i g n i f i c a n t events do not motivate people t o b r i n g f u l l y i n t o p l a y the s e l e c t i v e p rocess of a t t e n t i o n . (b) The l e n g t h of the p e r i o d of o b s e r v a t i o n which l i m i t s the number of f e a t u r e s a person can a t t e n d t o . (c) The l e s s than i d e a l o b s e r v a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s which apply, such as d i s t a n c e , poor l i g h t i n g , f a s t movement and the presence of crowds. A l l of these i n t e r f e r e s w i t h the e f f i c i e n t working of the a t t e n t i o n p r o c e s s . (d) The witne s s e s themselves may be o b s e r v i n g under s t r e s s . T h i s response i s ma n i f e s t i n i n c r e a s e d h e a r t r a t e , b l o o d p r e s s u r e and flow of a d r e n a l i n . A person under extreme s t r e s s i s not a r e l i a b l e w i t n e s s . (e) The observer's p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n . That i s , a person who i s too o l d or too s i c k may have an impaired p e r c e p t i o n of the event. (f) The tendency t o see what we want or need t o see. T h i s has been termed p e r c e p t u a l b i a s , (g) Observers f o r g e t the o r i g i n a l i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h the passage of time. (h) T a l k i n g t o o t h e r s i n f l u e n c e s the content of the i n f o r m a t i o n and r e p o r t s become more a c c u r a t e and complete when moving i n t o the testimony phase b e f o r e the t r i a l . ( i ) Questions t o a witness may a l s o b i a s the response when the witness i s 2 encouraged t o f a b r i c a t e testimony. (j) The observer can a l s o be persuaded t o conform t o the m a j o r i t y o p i n i o n . (k) The e f f e c t s of s u g g e s t i o n are maximized when f i g u r e s of a u t h o r i t y do the t e s t i n g . In u n c o v e r i n g the reasons why these o b s e r v e r s c o u l d be u n r e l i a b l e or i n a c c u r a t e , s e v e r a l s t u d i e s have proposed s u g g e s t i o n s . C l i f f o r d and H o l l i n (1980) , s e t out t o i n v e s t i g a t e how the v i o l e n c e of a witnessed event and the number of p e r p e t r a t o r s i n v o l v e d i n such an event i n f l u e n c e d the accuracy of the witnesses testimony and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The p r i n c i p a l f i n d i n g i n t h i s study was t h a t the testimony of witnesses t o a v i o l e n t i n c i d e n t was s i g n i f i c a n t l y poorer than t h a t g i v e n by witnesses t o a n o n v i o l e n t i n c i d e n t . The e x p l a n a t i o n presented was t h a t observed v i o l e n c e generates a r o u s a l or s t r e s s i n the witness c a u s i n g a narrowing of a t t e n t i o n t o a l i m i t e d range of i n f o r m a t i o n . S i m i l a r i l y , C l i f f o r d and S c o t t (1978) t e s t e d the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the completeness of the eyewitness r e p o r t decreased as a f u n c t i o n of the i n c r e a s i n g e m o t i o n a l i t y of the crime. T h i s would i n d i c a t e the adverse e f f e c t s t h a t h i g h l e v e l s of a r o u s a l and s t r e s s may have on p e r c e p t i o n . The t e s t i n g of t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i n t h e i r experiment showed t h a t the eyewitness r e c a l l of d e t a i l s from a v i o l e n t i n c i d e n t was s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s than r e c a l l of a n o n v i o l e n t i n c i d e n t . The g e n e r a l e f f e c t t h a t has been i s o l a t e d i s t h a t the e m o t i o n a l i t y surrounding an i n c i d e n t can a f f e c t both a c c u r a c y and completeness w i t h r e s p e c t t o the testimony of both the v i c t i m and the witnesses. 3 W e l l s and Leippe (1981), suggested t h a t i f a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o a c r i m i n a l ' s face d u r i n g an event, t h i s may p r e c l u d e p r o c e s s i n g o f oth e r l e s s c e n t r a l d e t a i l s and t h a t a c c u r a t e r e c a l l f o r t r i v i a l o r p e r i p h e r a l f a c t o r s may imply l e s s , r a t h e r than more, encoding of the c r i m i n a l ' s f a c i a l f e a t u r e s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e i r work suggest t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the eyewitnesses were a t t e n d i n g t o the t h i e f ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p r o c e s s i n g l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n about the p e r i p h e r a l f a c t o r s , such as room t r i v i a , and room l a y o u t . Along the same l i n e s of enquiry, W e l l s and L o f t u s (1984) found t h a t when we look at a fac e , we see i t as a whole pe r c e p t r a t h e r than as a s e t of d i s c r e t e v i s u a l f e a t u r e s . T h i s may d e r i v e from a pre c o n s c i o u s p a t t e r n a n a l y s i s t h a t i n v o l v e s s e q u e n t i a l p r o c e s s i n g of the d i f f e r e n t f e a t u r e s . T h i s does not mean t h a t each f a c i a l area i s accorded equal a t t e n t i o n . The evidence i n d i c a t e s t h a t some f e a t u r e s are g i v e n more a t t e n t i o n than o t h e r s , which i n t u r n enhances t h e i r encoding. Brown, Deffenbacher and S t u r g i l l (1977), examined the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t eyewitness i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s are b i a s e d because o b s e r v e r s are much b e t t e r a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e a f a c e than t o r e c a l l where they saw i t . The r e s u l t s supported the theory t h a t r e c o g n i t i o n of f a c e s i s much b e t t e r than r e c a l l of circumstances o f an encounter, r a i s i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t on some o c c a s i o n s witnesses might base t h e i r i n d i c t m e n t s on face r e c o g n i t i o n alone. Research on v i c t i m i z a t i o n as a determinant of eyewitness accuracy was conducted by Hosch and Cooper (1982) u s i n g t h r e e 4 eyewitness c o n d i t i o n s : a n o - t h e f t c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n , an impersonal c a l c u l a t o r - t h e f t c o n d i t i o n , and a p e r s o n a l i z e d w a t c h - t h e f t c o n d i t i o n . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t the r a t e s of accuracy i n d i c a t e d t h a t presence of a crime s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n accuracy. They found i t l i k e l y t h a t the c r i m i n a l a c t catches w i t n e s s e s ' a t t e n t i o n such t h a t they encode more i n f o r m a t i o n about the t h i e f , although b e i n g the v i c t i m of the crime d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y modify accuracy o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . I t was found t h a t the v i c t i m s were more aroused and upset than were the other witnesses, thus m i t i g a t i n g any e f f e c t s o f heightened a t t e n t i o n . A number of common misconceptions about eyewitness testimony were summarized by L o f t u s (1984). F i r s t l y , witnesses remembered the d e t a i l s o f a v i o l e n t crime b e t t e r than those of a n o n v i o l e n t one (wrong - the added s t r e s s t h a t v i o l e n c e c r e a t e s c l o u d s our p e r c e p t i o n s ) . Second, witnesses are as l i k e l y t o underestimate the d u r a t i o n o f a crime as t o ov e r e s t i m a t e i t (wrong - the more v i o l e n t and s t r e s s f u l the crime the more w i t n e s s e s s o v e r e s t i m a t e i t s d u r a t i o n ) . F i n a l l y , the more c o n f i d e n t a witness seems, the more a c c u r a t e the testimony i s l i k e l y t o be (wrong - t h e r e may be l i t t l e o r no r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o n f i d e n c e and a c c u r a c y ) . In making comparisons between c r i m i n a l s i t u a t i o n s and s p o r t i n g s i t u a t i o n s , i t i s apparent t h a t t h e r e are d i f f e r e n c e s but, i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, t h e r e are a l s o many s i m i l a r i t i e s . For example, d u r i n g c o m p e t i t i o n , the coach's a r o u s a l l e v e l does f l u c t u a t e depending upon the sequence of events i n the game 5 ( i . e . , i f t h e game a c t i o n i s c o n c e n t r a t e d a r o u n d one o f t h e g o a l a r e a s , t h e n t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y o f a g o a l b e i n g s c o r e d o r c o n c e d e d a n d t h e a r o u s a l l e v e l w i l l i n c r e a s e ) . The p e r c e i v e d s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e game i n c l u d e s i m p o r t a n t a n d n o n - i m p o r t a n t c o m p e t i t i o n , ( i . e . , t h e c o a c h o f an O l y m p i c t e a m whose j o b i s o f t e n d e p e n d e n t upon t h e game's outcome v e r s u s t h e l o c a l c o a c h who i s c o a c h i n g b e c a u s e a s o n o r d a u g h t e r i s on t h e t e a m ) . The c o a c h h a s a p r o b l e m d u r i n g a team game d i r e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n away f r o m c e n t r a l f e a t u r e s o f p e r f o r m a n c e ( i . e . , t h e s c o r i n g o f a g o a l ) t o t h e more p e r i p h e r a l f e a t u r e s ( i . e . , a l o n g p a s s i n t h e d e f e n d i n g h a l f o f t h e f i e l d t h a t s w i t c h e s t h e p l a y f r o m one s i d e o f t h e f i e l d t o t h e o t h e r ) . The b i a s e s a c o a c h b r i n g s t o a s p o r t s i t u a t i o n c a n d i s t o r t t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e e v e n t ( M a c D o n a l d , 1 9 8 4 ) . F i n a l l y t h e c o a c h c a n o f t e n remember t h e g o a l s t h a t w e r e s c o r e d i n a game b u t n o t t h e e v e n t s l e a d i n g up t o a g o a l ( F r a n k s a n d M i l l e r , 1 9 8 6 ) . As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o b s e r v a t i o n i n e y e w i t n e s s t e s t i m o n y a n d t e a c h i n g / c o a c h i n g a s s t a t e d a b o v e a r e q u i t e s i m i l a r . T h e s e i n c l u d e t h e l e n g t h o f t h e p e r i o d o f o b s e r v a t i o n , o b s e r v a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s , l e v e l o f o b s e r v e r a r o u s a l , t h e t e n d e n c y t o s e e what one w a n t s t o s e e , f o r g e t t i n g t h e o r i g i n a l i n f o r m a t i o n a f t e r a p a s s a g e o f t i m e , t h e t y p e o f m o v e m e n t ' r e s p o n s e a n t i c i p a t e d , t h e number o f p e o p l e i n v o l v e d and t h e s p e e d o f t h e movement b e i n g o b s e r v e d . A l l o f t h e s e f a c t o r s c a n l e a d t o a d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n t h e a c c u r a c y o f o b s e r v a t i o n . I f o b s e r v e r s a r e t o r e c a l l a c c u r a t e l y t h e e v e n t s t h a t o c c u r w i t h i n a c e r t a i n p e r i o d o f t i m e t h e n t h e y must d e v e l o p a s y s t e m a t i c 6 framework t h a t w i l l prime the o b s e r v a t i o n process and d i r e c t t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o b j e c t i v e l y . T h i s should h e l p e l i m i n a t e some of the problems t h a t have been observed i n s e v e r a l r e c e n t s t u d i e s (Franks and M i l l e r 1986, see a l s o the two p i l o t s t u d i e s d e s c r i b e d i n Appendice 2 and 3). In an attempt t o develop a framework t h a t coaches c o u l d use t o d i r e c t t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n a l process, a model f o r o r g a n i z i n g p e r c e p t i o n s was adapted from Newtson (1976). Newtson o u t l i n e d the m e a s u r a b i l i t y of t h i s p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n as i t r e l a t e d t o observer accuracy and proposed a model of the o b s e r v a t i o n a l p r o c e s s t h a t had i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the s k i l l e d o b server. He suggested f i r s t t h a t observed a c t i o n s are d e f i n e d and d e l i n e a t e d by changes i n f e a t u r e s of a s t i m u l u s a r r a y , and second, t h a t b e h a v i o r p e r c e p t i o n was r e c e i v e d as a process of f e a t u r e m o n i t o r i n g . When one or more of these f e a t u r e s change s t a t e then the p o s t u l a t e d b r e a k - p o i n t was s a i d t o have o c c u r r e d . These b r e a k - p o i n t s are l o c a t i o n s i n the ongoing sequence where a change i n s t a t e of one or more f e a t u r e s o c c u r r e d . Newtson goes on t o suggest t h a t meaningful a c t i o n i s assumed t o e x i s t only when a minimum of two b r e a k - p o i n t s i n v o l v e s a common f e a t u r e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . The b a s i c premise, t h e r e f o r e , was t h a t changes i n ongoing b e h a v i o r should be the u n i t of a n a l y s i s and o b s e r v a t i o n of ongoing behavior, t h a t i n c l u d e d d i s t i n c t i v e i n t e r v a l s , would be more memorable than a flow of behaviour t h a t had u n d e f i n e d i n t e r v a l s . The i m p l i c a t i o n s of Newtson*s work are t h a t behavior p e r c e p t i o n imposes a s h o r t term memory l o a d on the observer: 7 t h e r e f o r e , f e a t u r e s e l e c t i o n i s i m p e r a t i v e and a s k i l l e d o b server i s one t h a t s e l e c t s the l e a s t redundant s e t of c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s f o r p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the event, which g i v e s maximal i n f o r m a t i o n g a i n from the event. A l s o v e t e r a n ( s k i l l e d ) o b s e r v e r s develop a s p e c i a l i z e d s e t of p r e d i c t i v e f e a t u r e s f o r use i n o b s e r v a t i o n . Newtson (197 3) a r r i v e d a t these i m p l i c a t i o n s through r e s e a r c h conducted u s i n g a methodology of t r y i n g t o measure what s u b j e c t s p e r c e i v e as a meaningful event. While one person may see an a c t i o n as extending over twenty seconds another person may see i t as two a c t i o n s , one e i g h t seconds i n d u r a t i o n and another extending over twelve seconds. Newtson and E n g q u i s t (1976) found t h a t s u b j e c t s who used b r e a k p o i n t s as an o b s e r v a t i o n a l a i d were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a c c u r a t e i n a c t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n s , r a t e d the sequence as more i n t e l l i g i b l e , and more a c c u r a t e l y judged the sequence of events than s u b j e c t s who d i d not use any such o b s e r v a t i o n a l a i d . These r e s u l t s suggest t h a t b r e a k p o i n t s are the b a s i s f o r the formation of p e r c e p t u a l u n i t s of behavior. In summary, the key f a c t o r s of b e h a v i o r o b s e r v a t i o n appear t o be the v a r i a b i l i t y with which i n d i v i d u a l s segment t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s of c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s and the development of a s p e c i a l i z e d s e t of p r e d i c t i v e f e a t u r e s f o r use i n these o b s e r v a t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , a coach, i n order t o more a c c u r a t e l y p e r c e i v e and remember events, needs t o develop a s y s t e m a t i c and s p e c i a l i z e d s e t of p r e d i c t i v e f e a t u r e s f o r use i n o b s e r v a t i o n . An important d i f f i c u l t y f a ced by any i n v e s t i g a t i o n of observer accuracy i s the d e f i n i t i o n of an adequate c r i t e r i o n a g a i n s t which accuracy may be s c o r e d . 8 I n a n a t t e m p t t o d e v e l o p a f r a m e w o r k t h a t c o u l d be u s e d by c o a c h e s ( s p e c i f i c a l l y s o c c e r c o a c h e s ) , i t was i m p e r a t i v e t h a t a s i m p l e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e game be p r o p o s e d . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n h a d t o b e g e n e r a l e n o u g h t o a l l o w a l l i n s t a n c e s o f p l a y t o be i n c l u d e d , a n d y e t s p e c i f i c e nough t o a l l o w f o r b r e a k p o i n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o be e x t r a c t e d f r o m an o n g o i n g e v e n t . The f r a m e w o r k d e s i g n e d f o r t h i s s t u d y i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1. T h i s f l o w c h a r t e x t e n d s a l l p l a y f r o m a r e p o s s e s s i o n t o a g o a l b e i n g s c o r e d . G o a l s a r e s c o r e d f r o m s h o t s t h a t o r i g i n a t e f r o m o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o s h o o t . T h e s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e c r e a t e d f r o m s e v e r a l k e y e l e m e n t s o f p l a y t h a t h a v e b e e n d e r i v e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s o f many s o c c e r games ( s e e F r a n k s a n d Thomson, 1982 ; Reep, e t a l , 1 9 7 1 ; Reep and B e n j a m i n , 1 9 6 8 ) . T h e s e k e y f a c t o r s o f game p l a y ( s e t p l a y s , c r o s s e s , p e n e t r a t i n g p a s s e s a n d d r i b b l e s ) l e a d t o g o a l s b e i n g s c o r e d a n d , t h e r e f o r e , e m p h a s i z e t h e e x p e c t a t i o n o f s h o t s b e i n g t a k e n a n d g o a l s b e i n g s c o r e d . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f a t r a i n i n g programme d e s i g n e d t o i m p r o v e t h e a c c u r a c y w i t h w h i c h s o c c e r c o a c h e s o b s e r v e a n d t h e n r e c a l l c e r t a i n k e y e v e n t s t h a t o c c u r d u r i n g a s o c c e r m a t c h . T h i s t r a i n i n g programme a t t e m p t e d t o d i r e c t t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e c o a c h was a b l e t o p r i o r i t i z e k e y e v e n t s d u r i n g c o m p e t i t i o n a n d h e n c e r e c a l l them more a c c u r a t e l y a f t e r t h e c o m p e t i t i o n . The b a s i s u p o n w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e t r a i n e d c e n t r e d a r o u n d t h e f r a m e w o r k p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 1 and a s e r i e s o f o r i e n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s w e r e d e s i g n e d t h a t e m p h a s i z e d t h e f l o w o f a c t i o n o u t l i n e d . 9 The u s e o f o r i e n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s h a s p r o v e n b e n e f i c i a l i n o t h e r f i e l d s o f r e s e a r c h . H a n n a f i n a n d Hughes (1986) h a v e d e f i n e d an o r i e n t i n g a c t i v i t y a s a " m e d i a t o r t h r o u g h , w h i c h new i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d t o t h e l e a r n e r " ( p . 2 3 9 ) . One method o f u s i n g o r i e n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i s t o g i v e a d v a n c e d o r g a n i z e r s t o p o t e n t i a l l e a r n e r s ( M a y e r , 1 9 7 9 ) . When c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s p e c i f i c c a s e o f u s i n g a d v a n c e d o r g a n i z e r s t o o r i e n t t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l p r o c e s s , t h e more i n e x p e r i e n c e d t h e o b s e r v e r t h e more b e n e f i c i a l t h e o r i e n t i n g a c t i v i t y w i l l b e . From a p r a c t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e u s e o f o r i e n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n an e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m d e s i g n e d t o i m p r o v e t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l s k i l l s o f s t u d e n t c o a c h e s w o u l d be b e n e f i c i a l . I t was f e l t t h a t d i r e c t i n g t h e c o a c h e s ' o b s e r v a t i o n s a r o u n d o r i e n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e f o r m o f a d v a n c e d o r g a n i z e r s s u c h as b a l l p o s s e s s i o n , s e t p l a y s , c r o s s e s , p e n e t r a t i n g p a s s e s , m i s s e d s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , s h o t s a n d g o a l s w o u l d h i g h l i g h t t h e c r i t i c a l e v e n t s s i n c e t h i s was p r i m i n g ( W i c k e l g r e n , 1979) t h e c o a c h t o a n t i c i p a t e a m i s s e d s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t y , a s h o t on g o a l a n d a g o a l b e i n g s c o r e d . I n o r d e r t o t e s t t h i s a c t i v i t y i t was n e c e s s a r y t o d e s i g n a s t u d y i n w h i c h a g r o u p r e c e i v e d a s t a n d a r d i z e d t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m t h a t i n c l u d e d s p e c i f i c o r i e n t i n g t a s k s . T h e s e t r a i n i n g t a s k s w e r e i n t h e f o r m o f a u d i o v i s u a l m a t e r i a l . C o a c h e s v i e w e d e x c e r p t s f r o m games and w e r e i n s t r u c t e d on how t o p a r s e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n f l o w a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f r a m e w o r k i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 2. T h i s E x p e r i m e n t a l G r o u p was c o m p a r e d t o t w o C o n t r o l G r o u p s t h a t d i d n o t r e c e i v e t h e t r a i n i n g 10 program. Both these groups, however, were exposed t o i d e n t i c a l v i s u a l t r a i n i n g m a t e r i a l but were not exposed t o the o r i e n t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s . F i r s t l y , C o n t r o l Group Two was c o n s i d e r e d as the t r u e c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n and was g i v e n t a s k s t h a t would be expected of them under normal game o b s e r v a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s . That i s , they d i s c u s s e d the v i d e o e x c e r p t s and de c i d e d upon a p p r o p r i a t e c o r r e c t i v e t r a i n i n g procedures. The second c o n t r o l group ( C o n t r o l Group One) was used t o i n v e s t i g a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t coaches' memories f o r events such as g o a l s , shots and missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s would improve j u s t by p r a c t i s i n g the r e c o l l e c t i o n of these key events a f t e r each video e x c e r p t . T h i s group was, t h e r e f o r e , g i v e n a memory r e c a l l t ask a f t e r v i e w i n g each v i d e o e x c e r p t . 11 FIGURE 1 THE CRITICAL FEATURES OF SOCCER G O A L S S C O R E D S H O T S O N G O A L A L L S H O T S T A K E N (ON T A R G E T , O F F T A R G E T , B L O C K E D ) S H O O T I N G O P P O R T U N I T I E S S E T P L A Y S C R O S S E S P E N E T R A T I N G P A S S E S D R I B B L E S C O R N E R KICKS P E N A L T Y - K I C K S K I C K S O U T S I D E T H E P E N A L T Y A R E A R E P O S S E S S I O N A S A S E T P L A Y T H A T IS P L A Y E D F O R W A R D R E P O S S E S S I O N IN F R E E P L A Y T H A T IS P L A Y E D F O R W A R D A L L R E P O S S E S S I O N S ( " B R E A K - P O I N T " - N E W T S O N ) 1 2 FIGURE 2 F L O W C H A R T OF T R A I N I N G P R O G R A M YES IS THERE A CHANCE OF REPOSSESSION CRITERIA: OPPOSING PLAYERS IN AREA OF THE BALL YES CRITERIA: WAS IT A REPOSSESSION CRITERIA: THE BALL HAS CHANGED TEAMS YES CRITERIA: WAS IT A REPOSSESSION IN A SET PLAY CRITERIA: RULES OF THE GAME WHERE ON THE FIELD WAS IT REPOSSESSED CORNER KICK FREE KICK THROW-IN CRITERIA: NO OPPOSING PLAYERS NOT IN THE AREA OF THE BALL NO THE BALL REMAINED IN THE POSSESSION OF THE ORIGINAL TEAM NO (FREE-PLAY) TACKLE, POOR PASS. REBOUND WHERE ON THE FIELD WAS IT REPOSSESSED 13 YES IS THERE A PROBABILITY IT WILL BE PLAYED INTO A SHOOTING POSITION YES IS THERE A PROBABILITY IT WILL BE PLAYED INTO A SHOOTING POSITION NO C R I T E R I A : THE NUMBER OF PLAYERS IN A SHOOTING POSITION CRITERIA: THE SPACE AVAILABLE AND THE NUMBER OF OPPOSING PLAYERS IN THE AREA YES IS THERE AN OPPORTUNITY TO SHOOT C R I T E R I A : WITHIN THE SHOOTING ANGLE, THE DISTANCE FROM GOAL AND THE NUMBER OF OPPOSING PLAYERS IN THE AREA {NO] CRITERIA: OUTSIDE OF SHOOTING ANGLE, TOO FAR FROM THE GOAL AND NO PLAYERS IN THE AREA 1 4 YES WAS THE SHOT TAKEN CRITERIA: THE BALL WAS KICKED, HEADED, ETC., IN THE DIRECTION OF THE GOAL YES NO CRITERIA: OPPOSING PLAYER BLOCKED SHOOTING PATH, TEAMMATE IN BETTER SHOOTING POSITION WAS THE SHOT ON GOAL CRITERIA: THE BALL WAS WITHIN THE BOUNDARIES OF THE GOAL- POSTS AND CROSSBAR YES NO CRITERIA: THE BALL WAS BLOCKED WENT WIDE, WENT HIGH AND WIDE OR WENT HIGH WAS THE GOAL SCORED CRITERIA: NO THE WHOLE BALL CROSSED THE GOAL-LINE CRITERIA: THE BALL WAS SAVED BY THE GOALKEEPER 15 CHAPTER 2 • METHOD 2.1 S u b j e c t s The s u b j e c t s were 36 male and female s o c c e r coaches ranging i n age from 20-55 years o l d . A l l had a t t a i n e d t h e i r L e v e l 3 or "C" L i c e n s e coaching c e r t i f i c a t i o n l e v e l w i t h i n the N a t i o n a l Coaching C e r t i f i c a t i o n Program and t h e i r coaching experience ranged between two and twenty y e a r s . They had no formal t r a i n i n g r e l a t e d t o q u a n t i t a t i v e performance a n a l y s i s and were randomly chosen from The O n t a r i o Soccer A s s o c i a t i o n ' s group of L e v e l 3 and "C" L i c e n s e coaches (Approximately 200). The s u b j e c t s were randomly assi g n e d t o t h r e e o p e r a t i o n a l groups which i n c l u d e d one experimental group and two c o n t r o l groups c o n s i s t i n g of 12 s u b j e c t s per group. 2.2 Experimental Design The study employed a randomized groups d e s i g n i n which the i n t e r a c t i o n between groups and p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t performance was of concern and was designed t o t e s t the r e l a t i v e m e r i t s of a s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g program t h a t was designed t o improve a group of coaches' o b s e r v a t i o n a l s k i l l s . The d e s i g n of the study i s pre s e n t e d i n Table 1. 2.3 Environment The groups were seated i n a classroom and viewed a 2 0 inch t e l e v i s i o n s e t . The d e f i n i t i o n s of the c r i t e r i o n code (Appendix 6) were e x p l a i n e d and posted on a chalkboard f o r the s u b j e c t s t o 16 TABLE 1 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN G R O U P S P R E T E S T T R A I N I N G P O S T T E S T E x p e r i m e n t a l V i e w V i d e o t a p e and a n s w e r quest ionna i re V i e w Training Program of s e v e n s e q u e n t i a l l y p repared v i d e o t a p e s p lus or ien t ing ac t i v i t i es V i e w v i d e o t a p e a n d a n s w e r ques t ionna i re C o n t r o l (1) V i e w v i d e o t a p e a n d a n s w e r ques t ionna i re V i e w s e v e n v i d e o t a p e s a n d a n s w e r a q u e s t i o n n a i r e af ter e a c h tape V i e w v i d e o t a p e a n d a n s w e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e C o n t r o l (2) V i e w v ideo tape a n d a n s w e r ques t ionna i re V i e w S e v e n v i d e o t a p e s a n d e n g a g e in a g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n a n d c o m p l e t e a p e r s o n a l a n a l y s i s V i e w v i d e o t a p e a n d a n s w e r ques t ionna i re 17 r e f e r t o t h r o u g h o u t t h e P r e t e s t , T r a i n i n g a n d P o s t t e s t p e r i o d s . A l l q u e s t i o n s w e r e a n s w e r e d p r i o r t o t h e P r e t e s t a n d P o s t t e s t v i d e o t a p e b e i n g shown. A q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( A p p e n d i x 7) was t h e n d i s t r i b u t e d a n d t h e t h r e e c r i t i c a l e v e n t s ( g o a l s , s h o t s a n d m i s s e d s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s ) w e r e e x p l a i n e d a n d q u e s t i o n s a n s w e r e d . The s u b j e c t s w e r e r e q u e s t e d n o t t o w r i t e a n y t h i n g down on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e u n t i l t h e v i d e o t a p e d game segment h a d b e e n v i e w e d . Once t h e v i d e o t a p e h a d f i n i s h e d t h e s u b j e c t s a n s w e r e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The s u b j e c t s w e r e g i v e n a s much t i m e a s t h e y r e q u i r e d t o a n s w e r t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e t h e n h a n d e d i n t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r . 2.4 V i d e o t a p e C o n s t r u c t i o n a) t h e P r e t e s t was a segment o f a 1986 W o r l d Cup Game p l a y e d b e t w e e n B e l g i u m a n d t h e S o v i e t U n i o n . The v i d e o t a p e i n c l u d e d a t o t a l o f t h r e e g o a l s , t h r e e s h o t s a n d t h r e e m i s s e d s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The t o t a l number o f e v e n t s l e a d i n g up t o t h e s e n i n e c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s was 190. b) T r a i n i n g - The s e v e n v i d e o t a p e s t h a t made up t h e t r a i n i n g s e g m e n t o f t h i s s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f 15 m i n u t e s o f game a c t i o n e a c h a n d i n c l u d e d t h e 9 c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s o f 3 g o a l s , 3 s h o t s a n d 3 m i s s e d s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The f i r s t v i d e o t a p e was a E u r o p e a n Cup game b e t w e e n R a p i d V i e n n a ( A u s t r i a ) a n d E v e r t o n ( E n g l a n d ) . T h i s v i d e o t a p e was u s e d t o e x a m i n e what h a p p e n e d a f t e r a t e a m r e g a i n e d p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e b a l l . The s e c o n d v i d e o t a p e was a game b e t w e e n M a n c h e s t e r U n i t e d ( E n g l a n d ) a n d E v e r t o n ( E n g l a n d ) . T h i s t a p e was u s e d t o e x a m i n e w h a t h a p p e n e d a f t e r a t e a m h a d a s e t p l a y ( c o r n e r k i c k , f r e e k i c k a n d t h r o w - i n ) . 18 The t h i r d v i d e o t a p e , a game between S c o t l a n d and Spain, examined c r o s s e s i n t o the p e n a l t y area t o g e t h e r w i t h the events l e a d i n g up t o the c r o s s . The f o u r t h v i d e o t a p e was a game between S h e f f i e l d Wednesday (England) and Coventry C i t y (England). T h i s tape was used t o examine what happened a f t e r a p e n e t r a t i n g pass was made tog e t h e r w i t h the events l e a d i n g up t o the p e n e t r a t i n g pass. The f i f t h v i d e o t a p e was a game between Luton Town (England) and E v e r t o n (England). T h i s tape was used t o examine the events l e a d i n g up t o the missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t y and what happened f o l l o w i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y . The s i x t h v i d e o t a p e was a game between Grimsby Town (England) and A r s e n a l (England). T h i s tape was used t o examine the events l e a d i n g up t o the t a k i n g of the shot. The seventh v i d e o t a p e was a game between Watford (England) and W a l s a l l (England). T h i s tape was used t o see the events l e a d i n g up t o the s c o r i n g o f g o a l s . c) P o s t t e s t : The f i f t e e n minute v i d e o t a p e used i n the p o s t t e s t was a segment of a 1986 World Cup game pl a y e d between West Germany and S c o t l a n d . The vi d e o t a p e i n c l u d e d t h r e e g o a l s , t h r e e s h o t s and t h r e e missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o t a l from both o f the teams. The t o t a l number of events l e a d i n g up t o these nine c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s was 190. The d e s c r i p t i o n of the p r e t e s t v i d e o t a p e , the t r a i n i n g v i d e o t a p e and the p o s t t e s t v i d e o t a p e i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix 8. 19 2.5. Procedure P r e t e s t A l l s u b j e c t s completed the same P r e t e s t i n which they viewed a 15 minute segment of a so c c e r game. T h i s e x c e r p t from an i n t e r n a t i o n a l game d i d not have any commentary. The f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n t o a l l groups p r i o r t o vie w i n g : 1) "You are the coach of Team A( d e s i g n a t e d on the s c r e e n ) . At the end of the view i n g p e r i o d you w i l l be asked q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : a) the s c o r i n g of g o a l s b) the t a k i n g of shots c) the missed o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o shoot Do not t a l k d u r i n g the viewing s e s s i o n . Are t h e r e any q u e s t i o n s ? The q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix 7) and c r i t e r i o n code (Appendix 6) w i l l be e x p l a i n e d on the board and w i l l be l e f t t h e r e d u r i n g the p r e t e s t . The f i e l d w i l l be broken down i n t o numbered areas (see F i g u r e 3.) An example of a c r i t i c a l event o c c u r r i n g w i l l be shown i n p o i n t form on the board." Goals, shots and missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s were examined f o c u s i n g on t h e i r o r i g i n on the f i e l d i n terms of l o c a t i o n and event. That i s , what was the event and where on the f i e l d d i d i t o r i g i n a t e and end. The s u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d 20 FIGURE 3 NUMBERED A R E A S OF THE FIELD 21 t o w r i t e down the event (technique used), the p o s i t i o n ( l o c a t i o n on the f i e l d ) and the sequence of events t h a t l e d t o these 3 c r i t i c a l events. An example of t h i s sequence would be Team A, a long pass from area D 1/3 r i g h t t o A 1/3 r i g h t , a c r o s s t o A 1/3 c e n t r a l and a shot on t a r g e t t h a t r e s u l t e d i n a g o a l . TRAINING PROGRAM The t r a i n i n g program c o n s i s t e d of a l l t h r e e groups watching the seven v i d e o t a p e s as p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d . The experimental group was t r a i n e d i n a p r o g r e s s i v e manner t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r awareness o f : a) changes i n b a l l p o s s e s s i o n , b) s e t p l a y s , c) c r o s s e s , d) p e n e t r a t i n g passes, e) missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , f) shots taken and g) g o a l s s c o r e d . Each s e s s i o n was b u i l t upon the p r e v i o u s t r a i n i n g , ( i . e . , w h i l e o b s e r v i n g c r o s s e s they were s t i l l b eing asked t o observe change of p o s s e s s i o n and s e t p l a y s ) . T h e r e f o r e , they were examining a sequence of events. A f t e r viewing the v i d e o t a p e they were asked q u e s t i o n s about these key f a c t o r s and then shown an e d i t e d v i d e o t a p e t o c l a r i f y the answers t o these q u e s t i o n s . The Experimental Group watched each v i d e o t a p e as the experimenter stopped the tape t o i d e n t i f y the key f a c t o r s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h a t p a r t i c u l a r v i d e o t a p e . (Each tape i s d e s c r i b e d i n Appendix 8). The flow c h a r t f o r the program of t r a i n i n g the Experimental Group i s shown i n F i g u r e 2. Each v i d e o t a p e progressed from the p r e v i o u s v i d e o t a p e u n t i l a won p o s s e s s i o n r e s u l t e d i n a g o a l . T h i s means a won p o s s e s s i o n ( f i r s t f a c t o r ) r e s u l t e d i n a s e t p l a y (second f a c t o r ) t h a t r e s u l t e d i n a s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t y ( t h i r d f a c t o r ) , a shot 22 TABLE 2 CODING OF GAME EVENTS An e x a m p l e o f t h e c o d i n g o f t h e e v e n t s l e a d i n g t o a g o a l b e i n g s c o r e d i n t h e P r e t e s t Game U.S.S.R. v e r s u s B e l g i u m * EVENT TEAM LOCATION DESCRIPTON T l U.S.S.R. RA 1/3 - RA 1/3 S F P SFP U.S.S.R. RA 1/3 - RA 1/3 C U.S.S.R. RA 1/3 - CA 1/3 MG PK U.S.S.R. RA 1/3 - CA 1/3 GOAL * See A p p e n d i x 6 f o r d e f i n i t i o n o f c o d e s 23 ( f o u r t h f a c t o r ) and a g o a l ( f i n a l outcome). T h i s method of t r a i n i n g was p r o g r e s s i v e and was designed t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r awareness of the s e q u e n t i a l dependancy of events i n a s o c c e r game. At the end of the seventh v i d e o t a p e the s u b j e c t s were shown 3 examples on each v i d e o t a p e of where b a l l p o s s e s s i o n was won on the f i e l d , what technique was used t o p l a y the b a l l and where on the f i e l d the b a l l was p l a y e d towards. C o n t r o l Group One watched the same seven v i d e o t a p e s as the Experimental Group and completed the same q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t they had p r e v i o u s l y r e c e i v e d on the P r e t e s t . The environment was i d e n t i c a l t o the P r e t e s t and a f t e r each 15 minute v i d e o t a p e they completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . They answered the q u e s t i o n s on missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , shots and g o a l s . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t i f the s k i l l s of r e c o l l e c t i n g missed sh o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , shots and g o a l s was j u s t a f u n c t i o n of r e p e t i t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e ( s e e i n g s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , shots and g o a l s over seven v i d e o t a p e s and being asked t o r e c a l l them) and not d i r e c t e d o b s e r v a t i o n (being g i v e n the p r o g r e s s i v e t r a i n i n g program), then t h i s group should be equal, i f not b e t t e r , a t r e c a l l i n g events than the Experimental Group on the P o s t t e s t . A f t e r v i e w i n g the f i f t e e n minute v i d e o t a p e d e x c e r p t s C o n t r o l Group Two d i s c u s s e d , amongst themselves, t h e i r thoughts on each of the games. They were then asked t o do what they would nor m a l l y do a f t e r o b s e r v i n g a game ( i . e . , w r i t e down t h e i r a n a l y s i s and formulate a t r a i n i n g p l a n f o r the f o l l o w i n g week). A f t e r each 15 minute game, the t r a i n i n g p l a n s were c o l l e c t e d . 24 They i n c l u d e d p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s o f s h o o t i n g , p a s s i n g , defending, s e t p l a y s , e t c . T h i s i s what coaches do t o improve t h e i r team's performance based on t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s . T h i s p l a n focused on improving the weaknesses of both teams. POSTTEST The p o s t t e s t c o n s i s t e d of the experimental and c o n t r o l groups o b s e r v i n g the f i r s t 15 minutes of a s o c c e r game and answering the same q u e s t i o n n a i r e as was g i v e n i n the P r e t e s t . T h i s game was d i f f e r e n t from the p r e t e s t game but the c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s were i d e n t i c a l i n the f o l l o w i n g manner; the same number of missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , the same number of shots, the same number of g o a l s , the same number of events l e a d i n g up to the c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s and the same amount of time f o r viewing. 2.6 Data A n a l y s i s The method of measurement t h a t was used t o t e s t the coaches' r e c o l l e c t i o n s of these c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s i n both pre and p o s t t e s t s i n v o l v e d an i t e m i z e d l i s t of events l e a d i n g t o missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , shots and g o a l s . Accounts were taken of the event and the order i n which the event was p l a c e d (see T a b l e 2 ) . That means, the coach may r e c o l l e c t the event but p l a c e t h i s event i n c o r r e c t l y i n the t o t a l sequence of events or i n the wrong l o c a t i o n on the f i e l d . The games were p r e v i o u s l y a n a l y z e d and each event, team, l o c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n were rec o r d e d (see Table 2 ) . Each component was marked as being e i t h e r c o r r e c t or i n c o r r e c t and was then converted t o a percentage c o r r e c t v a l u e f o r each categ o r y of g o a l , shot and missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t y . 25 CHAPTER 3 RESULTS The d e s i g n u s e d i n t h i s , s t u d y was a t h r e e - f a c t o r m i x e d d e s i g n w i t h r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s on two f a c t o r s ( E d w a r d s , 1 9 6 0 ) . T h r e e g r o u p s o f s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d a l l o f t h e t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s a n d w e r e c o m p a r e d a s i n a c o m p l e t e l y r a n d o m i z e d d e s i g n . T h i s p e r m i t s t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e t h r e e g r o u p ' s p e r f o r m a n c e s a n d t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n p e r f o r m a n c e shown b y s u b j e c t s u n d e r a l l t h r e e t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s w i t h b o t h f a c t o r s ( p r e t e s t / p o s t t e s t ) p r e s e n t e d . S u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y (N = 36) w e r e r a n d o m l y s a m p l e d f r o m L e v e l I I I s o c c e r c o a c h e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f O n t a r i o a n d w e r e c o m p r i s e d o f t h i r t y - s i x s u b j e c t s t h a t c o m p l e t e d i d e n t i c a l p r e t e s t a n d p o s t t e s t e x p e r i m e n t a l s e s s i o n s . B e t w e e n t h e s e t e s t s a l l g r o u p s w e r e e x p o s e d t o v a r i o u s o b s e r v a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g r e g i m e s e x p l a i n e d e a r l i e r ( s e e M e t h o d s e c t i o n ) . The p r e t e s t a n d p o s t t e s t c o m p r i s e d o f a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s t h a t w e r e d e s i g n e d t o a s s e s s t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l a c c u r a c y o f t h e c o a c h e s a f t e r t h e y h a d w a t c h e d t h i r t y m i n u t e s o f a v i d e o t a p e d s o c c e r game. Q u e s t i o n s f o c u s e d u p o n t h r e e c r i t i c a l a r e a s o f t a c t i c a l c o n c e r n a n d t h e s e a r e a s f o r m e d t h e b a s i s o f what s h a l l be t e r m e d c o n d i t i o n s : g o a l s , s h o t s a n d m i s s e d s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . S u b j e c t s w e r e r e q u i r e d t o r e c a l l game e v e n t s and t h e p o s i t i o n a t w h i c h t h a t e v e n t t o o k p l a c e i n t h e c o r r e c t s e r i a l o r d e r , p r i o r t o t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r y c o n d i t i o n s ( g o a l , s h o t o r a m i s s e d s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t y ) . The d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e was 26 t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s t h a t e a c h s u b j e c t d i s p l a y e d when a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e s e t h r e e c r i t i c a l e v e n t s o r c o n d i t i o n s . The s c o r e s r a n g e d b e t w e e n 0% c o r r e c t t o 7 1 . 8 % c o r r e c t f o r t h e w h o l e e x p e r i m e n t . The raw d a t a , sums, means a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r e a c h o f t h e g r o u p ' s p r e t e s t a n d p o s t t e s t s c o r e s a r e c a t e g o r i z e d u n d e r c o n d i t i o n ( g o a l s , s h o t s , m i s s e d s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s ) a n d a r e t a b u l a t e d i n T a b l e s 3, 4 a n d 5. A l l g r o u p s d i s p l a y e d an o v e r a l l a c c u r a c y d u r i n g t h e p r e t e s t o f 1 6 . 8 % a n d d u r i n g t h e p o s t t e s t , o f 2 1 % w i t h s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s b e i n g 4.4 a n d 6.1 r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n t h e m a i n , p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t s c o r e s w e r e p o o r ( < 2 2 % ) . T h i s was n o t u n a n t i c i p a t e d s i n c e e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h ( F r a n k s a n d M i l l e r , 1986; F r a n k s , Goodman a n d M i l l e r , 1 9 8 3 ; a l s o s e e p i l o t s t u d y d a t a i n A p p e n d i x 2) h a d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e memory o f c o a c h e s f o r c r i t i c a l e v e n t s i n a s o c c e r game was no b e t t e r t h a n c h a n c e l e v e l s . On t h e a v e r a g e , c o a c h e s seem t o be i n c a p a b l e o f r e m e m b e r i n g more t h a n 4 0 % o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t p e r t a i n s t o how g o a l s a r e s c o r e d , a f a c t t h a t w o u l d a p p e a r t o b e o f u p p e r m o s t i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g t h a t i s f u n d a m e n t a l t o t h e w i n n i n g a n d l o s i n g o f games. H a v i n g d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e c o a c h e s ' memory f o r t h e e v e n t s t h a t l e a d t o g o a l s was p o o r , i t was n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e i r r e c a l l o f e v e n t s t h a t l e a d t o s h o t s a n d m i s s e d s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s was no b e t t e r t h a n 2 0 % c o r r e c t . T h a t i s , c o a c h e s e v e n a t t h i s l e v e l ( L e v e l I I I ) , c o u l d n o t a c c u r a t e l y r e c a l l w h a t s e q u e n t i a l e v e n t s l e d t o t h e t a k i n g o f s h o t s o r m i s s e d s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . 27 TABLE 3 E x p e r i m e n t a l G r o u p % C o r r e c t S c o r e s f o r E v e n t s L e a d i n g t o G o a l s , S h o t s a n d M i s s e d S h o o t i n g O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n P r e t e s t a n d P o s t t e s t E v a l u a t i o n s . DESIGN PRETEST POSTTEST GROUPS COND. 1 COND. COND. COND. COND. COND. 3 51 54.6 52 4.6 53 50 54 23.4 55 15.6 56 57.8 57 25 58 26.5 59 12.5 510 6.2 511 10.9 512 4.6 0 2.5 0 7.6 3 . 8 39.7 0 0 3.8 2.5 0 0 8.3 0 6.2 10.4 18 . 7 35.4 12 . 5 0 12 . 5 10.4 0 0 46.8 18 . 7 57.8 40.6 29.6 71.8 45.3 50 43.7 28 . 1 15. 6 54 . 6 25.6 5.1 12.8 17 .9 8 . 9 58.9 6.4 0 12 . 8 10.2 2 . 5 26.9 20.8 8 . 3 16. 6 20.8 22 . 9 41.6 0 16. 6 31.2 14.5 16.6 18 .7 i 291.7 M 24.3 SD 13.026 59. 9 4.9 114.4 9.5 452 . 6 41.8 188 15.6 228 . 6 19 28 TABLE 4 C o n t r o l G r o u p One % C o r r e c t S c o r e s f o r E v e n t s L e a d i n g t o G o a l s , S h o t s a n d M i s s e d S h o o t i n g O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e P r e t e s t a n d P o s t t e s t E v a l u a t i o n s . DESIGN PRE TEST POST TEST GROUPS COND. 1 COND. COND. COND. COND. COND. 3 513 54.6 514 62.5 515 50 516 20.3 517 29.6 518 35.9 519 56.2 520 31.2 521 6.2 522 14 523 43.7 524 51.5 7.6 12.8 16. 6 7 . 6 6.4 3 . 8 24 . 3 6.4 1.2 6.4 10. 2 23 . 0 18.7 16. 6 39.5 10. 4 22 . 9 37 . 5 18.7 12.5 14 . 5 0 0 12.5 34 . 3 46.8 62.5 31.2 29 . 6 42 . 1 62.5 31.2 28 .1 12 . 5 35.9 60.9 24 . 3 26.9 32 15. 3 16. 6 8.9 28.2 14.1 3 . 8 8.9 29.4 33 . 3 16. 6 16. 6 12.5 0 20.8 27 14 . 5 8.7 0 8 . 3 0 6.2 i 455.7 125.5 203.8 477.6 241.7 141. 2 M 37.9 10.4 SD 12.931 16.9 39.8 20.1 11.7 29 TABLE 5 C o n t r o l G r o u p Two % C o r r e c t S c o r e s f o r E v e n t s L e a d i n g t o G o a l s S h o t s a n d M i s s e d S h o o t i n g O p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e P r e t e s t a n d P o s t t e s t E v a l u a t i o n s . DESIGN PRE TEST POST TEST GROUPS COND. 1 COND. 2 COND. 3 525 60.9 19.2 6.2 526 10.9 0 0 527 12.5 0 16.6 528 39.0 8.9 6.2 529 14 3.8 0 530 15.6 5.1 14.5 531 54.6 12.8 18.7 532 32.8 10.2 12.5 533 34.3 0 18.7 , 534 39.0 0 0 535 15.6 5.1 6.2 536 60.9 0 25 COND. 1 COND. 2 COND. 3 54.6 17.9 6.2 54.6 0 0 10.9 7.6 4.1 42.1 3.8 6.2 9.3 0 0 9.3 5.1 10.4 40.6 8.9 0 18.7 17.9 12.5 23.4 17.9 0 14 8.9 14.5 17.1 2.5 10.4 46.8 11.5 0 ( 90.1 65.1 124 . 1 341.4 102 64 . 3 M 32.5 SD 12.136 5.4 10.3 28.4 8.5 5.3 30 An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was performed on the data and the r e s u l t s are d i s p l a y e d i n Table 6. As can be seen t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the main e f f e c t s f o r groups. There were, however, s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between performances d u r i n g the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t f o r a l l groups a c r o s s a l l c o n d i t i o n s ( F j 33 - 147.3, p<.001), i n d i c a t i n g t h a t o v e r a l l , s u b j e c t s were b e t t e r a b l e t o r e c a l l events d u r i n g the p o s t t e s t than d u r i n g the p r e t e s t . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n has t o be q u a l i f i e d when one examines the Group by P r e t e s t / P o s t t e s t i n t e r a c t i o n (F = 49.6,p<.001). A f t e r graphing t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n (see F i g u r e 4 ) i t would appear t h a t the performance s c o r e s o f the experimental group were mainly r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n c r e a s e i n p o s t t e s t s c o r e s . T h e r e f o r e , the t r a i n i n g program which s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d i r e c t e d o b s e r v a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n b e t t e r r e c a l l f o r the Experimental Group than the two C o n t r o l Groups. / A S c h e f f e post hoc a n a l y s i s of the C o n d i t i o n s main e f f e c t ( F 2 , 3 3 =81.3,p<.001) r e v e a l e d t h a t a l l s u b j e c t s r e c a l l e d the events l e a d i n g t o the s c o r i n g o f g o a l s more a c c u r a t e l y than they r e c a l l e d the events l e a d i n g t o shots o r missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . F i g u r e 5 i l l u s t r a t e s how the v a r i o u s t r a i n i n g programs a f f e c t e d a l l the groups i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l the events l e a d i n g up t o these t h r e e c r i t i c a l events. Again, i t appears t h a t t h i s f i n d i n g supports the p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s conducted by Franks and M i l l e r (1986) and a l s o the p i l o t study data ( r e p o r t e d i n Appendix 2). Although the events t h a t precede each of the above c a t e g o r i e s : g o a l s , shots, missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s are e s s e n t i a l l y the same (Reep e t a l , 1971; Reep 3 1 TABLE 6 ANALYSIS OF RESULTS Sum o f t h e S q u a r e s , D e g r e e s o f Freedom, Mean S q u a r e s , F R a t i o s a n d L e v e l o f S i g n i f i c a n c e . SOURCE s s d f ms f p TOTAL 64 , 9 7 9 . 6 1 107 - - BETWEEN SUBJECTS 19,822.881 35 - - GROUPS 2,165.487 2 1,082.7 2.0 n . s . ERROR b 17,657.394 33 535 WITHIN SUBJECTS 45,156.729 72 - - - PRETEST/POSTTEST 965.202 1 965.2 147.3 P<.001 CONDITIONS 24,649.62 2 12324.8 81.3 P<.001 GROUPS X PRETEST 2,024.467 2 1012.2 49.6 P<.001 POSTTEST GROUPS X CONDITIONS 236 4 59 0.38 n.s PRETEST/POSTTEST 604.818 2 302.4 3.6 P<.05 X CONDITIONS GROUPS X PRETEST/ 538.83 4 134.7 1.62 n . s . POSTTEST X CONDITIONS ERROR 1 673.02 33 20.39 ERROR 2 10,000.656 66 151.5 ERROR 3 5,464.113 66 82.7 32 a n d B e n j a m i n 1968; F r a n k s a n d Thomson, 1 9 8 2 ) , t h e memory f o r t h e s e e v e n t s w o u l d seem t o be i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e c o n s e q u e n t i a l i t y o f t h e e v e n t s . C o n s e q u e n c e s b o t h i n t e r m s o f o v e r a l l t e a m r e s u l t s a n d c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r t h e c o a c h i n b e i n g a b l e t o r e c a l l w h a t l e d t o c r i t i c a l e v e n t s a s d e f i n e d b y p l a y e r s a n d t h e p u b l i c . The i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n C o n d i t i o n s a n d P r e t e s t / P o s t t e s t r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e p<.05 l e v e l ( F 2 6 g = 3 . 6 ) . I n an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e g r o u p s i n F i g u r e 5, i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e r e s u l t s f o r a l l g r o u p s i n b o t h g o a l s a n d s h o t s b e n e f i t e d f r o m t h e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m b u t t h e r e c a l l o f m i s s e d s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s d i d n o t i m p r o v e . However, when one e x a m i n e s e a c h i n d i v i d u a l g r o u p ' s p e r f o r m a n c e ( s e e F i g u r e 6 ) , i t becomes c l e a r t h a t t h e r e c a l l o f m i s s e d s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s b y C o n t r o l G r o u p s 1 a n d 2 d i d n o t i m p r o v e w h i l e t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l G r o u p ' s r e c a l l s c o r e s d o u b l e d . 33 F I G U R E 4 INTERACTION BETWEEN PRETEST AND POSTTEST AND GROUPS ON THE PERCENTAGE OF CORRECT ANSWERS. G R O U P O N E = E X P E R I M E N T A L = G R O U P T W O = C O N T R O L O N E = G R O U P T H R E E = C O N T R O L T W O = 34 F I G U R E 5 INTERACTION BETWEEN PRETEST/POSTTEST AND CONDITIONS ON THE PERCENTAGE OF CORRECT ANSWERS. * G O A L S = • S H O T S = 0 M I S S E D S H O O T I N G ^ O P P O R T U N I T I E S = • 35 F I G U R E 6 INTERACTION BETWEEN PRETEST/POSTTEST AND CONDITIONS ON THE PERCENTAGES OF CORRECT ANSWERS FOR EACH GROUP. GOALS = • SHOTS = 0 OPPORTUNITIES =• P R E T E S T P O S T T E S T P R E T E S T P O S T T E S T P R E T E S T P O S T T E S T E X P E R I M E N T A L C O N T R O L O N E C O N T R O L T W O 36 CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION The a b i l i t y of coaches t o remember s p e c i f i e d key events t h a t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g a 15 minute v i d e o segment of a s o c c e r game appears t o be extremely l i m i t e d when coaches are asked to recount, i n s e q u e n t i a l order, the event and l o c a t i o n of t h a t event. However, these c o n c l u s i o n s are made wit h a note of c a u t i o n . Y u i l l e and C u t s h a l l (1986), i n a case study on eyewitness memory of a crime, s t a t e d t h a t f i l m e d events (videos) i n eyewitness r e s e a r c h does not q u a l i f y as a " f o r e n s i c a l l y r e l e v a n t paradigm" and may be of l i m i t e d v a l u e f o r g e n e r a l i z i n g t o r e a l world s i t u a t i o n s . The essence of t h e i r c r i t i c i s m c e n t e r e d around the f a c t t h a t witnesses t o a l i v e event r e p o r t e d more a c t i o n d e t a i l s and these d e t a i l s were more a c c u r a t e than those r e p o r t e d by viewers of a v i d e o t a p e d v e r s i o n of the same event. Hence, i t would appear t h a t the r e l a t i v e l y unemotional s t e r i l i t y o f a l a b o r a t o r y s e t t i n g would l e a d t o an u n d e r e s t i m a t i o n of the coaching r e c a l l a b i l i t y . The c o n s t r a i n t s of the t a s k and t r a i n i n g procedure n e c e s s i t a t e d t h a t v i d e o e x c e r p t s be used i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study. That i s , i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o have coaches view s i m i l a r p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t segments of games i f these p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t c o n d i t i o n s had t o be l i v e events. A l s o , s i n c e t h i s was a comparative study, the performance s c o r e s on a l l t h r e e groups would have been a f f e c t e d . Although i t was not p o s s i b l e t o examine the i n t e r a c t i v e e f f e c t s of t h i s e c o l o g i c a l m o d i f i c a t i o n on the 37 t r a i n i n g program, g i v e n t h a t the r e c a l l of these coaches may have been underestimated, i t s t i l l appears t h a t r e l i a b l e a c c o u n t i n g of game a c t i o n i s poor. T h i s i s not a new f i n d i n g and i s supported by many oth e r s t u d i e s ( p i l o t s t u d i e s i n Appendix 2 ) . What i s i n t e r e s t i n g , however, i s t h a t the remembering of events t h a t l e a d t o g o a l s i s s u p e r i o r t o events t h a t l e a d t o shots or missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I t has been found t h a t the events l e a d i n g t o shots and missed shooting o p p o r t u n i t i e s are no d i f f e r e n t then the events l e a d i n g t o goal s . Why i s i t then t h a t the events l e a d i n g t o g o a l s are r e c a l l e d more a c c u r a t e l y ? A p o s s i b l e answer has been o f f e r e d by N e i s s e r (1982). He has suggested t h a t as a r e s u l t o f a c e r t a i n event o c c u r r i n g the consequences can change a person's l i f e ( c o n s e q u e n t i a l l y ) . Extending t h i s i d e a t o the pr e s e n t study, i t i s h i g h l y probable t h a t coaches p e r c e i v e g o a l s as being of g r e a t e r consequence than shots or missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . T h i s would appear t o be a sound p r o p o s i t i o n s i n c e g o a l s do indeed l e a d t o the winning of games. The consequences are not only d i r e c t e d t o the game but a l s o t o the coaches themselves. I t i s a f a c t t h a t coaches are expected t o be a b l e t o r e c o l l e c t how g o a l s are scored a f t e r the game. P l a y e r s may q u e s t i o n the coach, s p e c t a t o r s may d i s c u s s g o a l s with the coach and even the media may have many qu e s t i o n s t h a t r e q u i r e a sound knowledge of these events. Whereas, a knowledge of how g o a l s are scored i s c r i t i c a l , the memory of these events should not be emphasized such t h a t they depress the r e c a l l of other e q u a l l y c r i t i c a l events such as 38 shots and missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . T h e r e f o r e , any t r a i n i n g program developed t o a i d the o b s e r v a t i o n a l s k i l l s of coaches must be e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d among the group of c r i t i c a l events t h a t has been p o s t u l a t e d here. The major f i n d i n g i n t h i s study was t h a t a s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n t r a i n i n g program such as the one designed f o r the experiment d i d e f f e c t an improvement i n the coaches a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l a l l t h r e e c r i t i c a l events. T h i s improvement was evident f o r a l l c a t e g o r i e s (goals, 2 2 % , shots, 1 1 % , and missed shooting o p p o r t u n i t i e s , 1 2 % ) . Why d i d t h i s t r a i n i n g program r e s u l t i n the improvement of the r e c a l l a b i l i t y of coaches? The C o n t r o l Group performances imply t h a t i t d i d not seem t o be due t o repeated exposures t o v i d e o e x c e r p t s of a c t i o n segments f o l l o w e d by group d i s c u s s i o n s by the coaches. In f a c t , the r e s u l t s from the r e c o l l e c t i o n of C o n t r o l Group One r e v e a l e d t h a t performance on missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s decreased s l i g h t l y (8%) w h i l e g o a l s remained unchanged. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o o f f e r an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s . Indeed, r e p o r t s from s u b j e c t s i n v o l v e d i n t h a t c o n t r o l group i n d i c a t e d t h a t the e x p e r i e n c e had been extremely b e n e f i c i a l and p e r c e i v e d t h a t i t had helped them g r e a t l y t o be b e t t e r coaches i n terms of improving t h e i r q u a l i t y o f o b s e r v a t i o n . The improvement i n the experimental group's performance c o u l d not be a t t r i b u t e d t o the f a c t t h a t the coaches had been g i v e n some t r a i n i n g on simply r e c o u n t i n g g o a l s , shots and missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the p o s t t e s t f o r the second time. C o n t r o l Group One d i d show some improvement i n the r e c a l l i n g of 39 g o a l s and shots but showed no improvement i n r e c a l l i n g missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . T h i s C o n t r o l Group Two had been gi v e n the s p e c i f i c t a s k of j u s t r e c o u n t i n g g o a l s , shots and missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . P r e p a r i n g s u b j e c t s t o r e c e i v e i n f o r m a t i o n by means of a s y s t e m a t i c approach t o o b s e r v a t i o n u s i n g advanced o r g a n i z e r s employing a p r i m i n g technique does b e n e f i t the s u b j e c t when a t e s t o f t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s i s r e q u i r e d . In r e s e a r c h conducted by Mayer (1979), he s t a t e s t h a t the f u n c t i o n o f an advance o r g a n i z e r i s "to p r o v i d e i d e a t i o n a l s c a f f o l d i n g f o r the s t a b l e i n c o r p o r a t i o n and r e t e n t i o n o f the more d e t a i l e d and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d m a t e r i a l t h a t f o l l o w s " (p.372). An advance o r g a n i z e r g e n e r a l l y has each of the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : a) s h o r t s e t of v e r b a l o r v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n b) pres e n t e d p r i o r t o l e a r n i n g a l a r g e r of body of t o - b e - l e a r n e d i n f o r m a t i o n c) c o n t a i n i n g no s p e c i f i c content from the t o - b e - l e a r n e d i n f o r m a t i o n d) p r o v i d i n g a means of g e n e r a t i n g the l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the elements i n the t o - b e - l e a r n e d i n f o r m a t i o n e) i n f l u e n c i n g the l e a r n e r ' s encoding p r o c e s s . T h i s r e s e a r c h c l e a r l y employs these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n i t ' s p r i m i n g technique. Recommendations The r e s u l t s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h w i l l be u t i l i z e d w i t h i n the N a t i o n a l Coaching C e r t i f i c a t i o n Program i n the L e v e l I I I T e c h n i c a l Course f o r s o c c e r coaches. There i s a d e f i n i t e l a c k of t r a i n i n g i n the o b s e r v a t i o n of c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s o f the game f o r coaches a t t h i s l e v e l . The t r a i n i n g program developed i n 4 0 t h i s study w i l l be u t i l i z e d t o prime coaches i n t o o r g a n i z i n g t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s around the c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s o f p l a y . T h i s w i l l a l l o w coaches t o t r a i n t h e i r teams wit h the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e i r t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s stem from what a c t u a l l y o c c u r r e d i n the p r e v i o u s game and not what they thought o c c u r r e d . T h i s type of t r a i n i n g program and p r i m i n g technique c o u l d be u t i l i z e d w i t h i n any s p o r t as long as the c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s were i d e n t i f i e d . T h i s i s a f u t u r e area of development f o r coaches i n a l l s p o r t s . 4 1 APPENDIX 1 LITERATURE REVIEW Numerous r e s e a r c h e r s have been concerned w i t h the r e l i a b i l i t y of eyewitness testimony ( C l i f f o r d and H o l l i n , 1980, L o f t u s , 1984, Wells, 1983) i n c r i m i n a l s i t u a t i o n s . The work done by Newtson (1976) on the p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of ongoing b e h a v i o r i s a model by which eyewitness testimony c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d . A review of the l i t e r a t u r e which has emanated from t h a t experimental a t t e n t i o n i s i n c l u d e d here. Memory Research - An Information P r o c e s s i n g Approach Humans can be regarded as i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s o r s and as such p r o c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n as i t i s presented, p u t t i n g i t i n t o a form t h a t a l l o w s i t t o be s t o r e d i n memory. T h i s happens i n a s e r i e s of stages t h a t i n v o l v e s c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s a t each stage. Immediate memory o n l y e x i s t s w i t h i n those seconds when t h e r e i s more i n f o r m a t i o n than the system can handle. Only the m a t e r i a l s t o which we pay a t t e n t i o n are r e t a i n e d f o r f u r t h e r p r o c e s s i n g . The attended-to m a t e r i a l s ( s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n ) e n t e r s h o r t - t e r m memory, where they remain f o r h a l f a minute b e f o r e those t h a t r e c e i v e s t i l l f u r t h e r p r o c e s s i n g e n t e r long-term memory. There they remain f o r e v e r , a v a i l a b l e f o r use as needed (Kimble, Garnezy and Z i g l e r , 1980). I n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g can be d e s c r i b e d i n terms of the pr o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d , which are c a l l e d encoding, s t o r a g e and 42 r e t r i e v a l . Encoding i s p u t t i n g m a t e r i a l s i n t o a form t h a t the memory system can handle. Storage i s the pro c e s s o f committing encoded m a t e r i a l t o memory. R e t r i e v a l i s t a k i n g the m a t e r i a l t h a t i s s t o r e d i n memory out aga i n . Research by Newtson (1976), s t a t e s t h a t l e a r n i n g t o p e r c e i v e i n v o l v e s s e l e c t i n g from what i s a v a i l a b l e , although more than one s e l e c t i o n may be p o s s i b l e a t any time. Increased d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n occurs as the p e r c e i v e r comes t o know what i s r e l e v a n t and allo w s a t t e n t i o n t o be d i r e c t e d t o events and o b j e c t s t h a t have importance f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s r e l a t e s to one o f Newtson's (1976) i m p l i c a t i o n s s t a t i n g t h a t s k i l l e d or v e t e r a n o b s e r v e r s develop a s p e c i a l i z e d s e t of p r e d i c t i v e f e a t u r e s f o r use i n o b s e r v a t i o n s . T h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g goes t o a deeper l e v e l and these f e a t u r e s are b e t t e r r e t a i n e d than o t h e r s a t a s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l . W i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of memory i s e p i s o d i c memory and semantic memory. E p i s o d i c memory i s the immediate memories of p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . Semantic memory i s l a t e r knowledge t h a t c o n t a i n s i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r time o r p l a c e . In eyewitness testimony semantic memory has c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o l over how our e p i s o d i c e x p e r i e n c e s are p e r c e i v e d , i n t e r p r e t e d and s t o r e d (Kimble, Garnezy and Z i g l e r , 1980) . A guided memory t r a i n i n g program would u t i l i z e the concept o f p r i m i n g . Wickelgren (1979) s t a t e s t h a t the p r i m i n g e f f e c t of memory r e t r i e v a l i s the process by which an i n a c t i v e , s t o r e d a s s o c i a t i o n i s converted i n t o an a c t i v e , r e t r i e v e d a s s o c i a t i o n . 43 Once an a s s o c i a t i o n i s i n the r e t r i e v a l s t a t e , i t can be maintained i n t h a t s t a t e v i r t u a l l y i n d e f i n i t e l y by r e h e a r s a l . A t t e n t i o n a l s e t i s the a b i l i t y t o prepare o n e s e l f f o r a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s of s t i m u l i . I t speeds up r e a c t i o n times t o s t i m u l i f a l l i n g w i t h i n the expected s e t and o f t e n r e t a r d s responses t o unexpected s t i m u l i . The a c t i v a t i o n o f the a t t e n t i o n a l s e t primes a l l o f the nodes t o which i t i s a s s o c i a t e d . T h i s makes a person more l i k e l y t o p e r c e i v e an expected event than an unexpected one. Memory Research - N a t u r a l i s t i c Approach N e i s s e r (1982) s t a t e s t h a t psychology has f o l l o w e d two rou t e s i n the study o f memory. T r a v e l e r s on the h i g h road hope t o f i n d b a s i c mental mechanisms t h a t can be demonstrated i n w e l l - c o n t r o l l e d experiments ( i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s s i n g ) ; those on the low road want t o understand the s p e c i f i c m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of memory i n o r d i n a r y human expe r i e n c e . The lower road has not been w e l l mapped as ye t , and much remains t o be d i s c o v e r e d . N e i s s e r r e f e r s t o t h i s as the n a t u r a l i s t i c study of memory. Researchers have examined a v a r i e t y of t h e o r i e s on p e r c e p t i o n and o b s e r v a t i o n , comparing s k i l l e d and u n s k i l l e d o b s e r v e r s . N e i s s e r (1967) examined the c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e of humans and found i t may be d e f i n e d as a n o n s p e c i f i c but or g a n i z e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e s . R e c a l l i s or g a n i z e d i n terms of these s t r u c t u r e s because the o r i g i n a l e x p e r i e n c e s were e l a b o r a t e d i n the same terms. N e i s s e r (1982) found t h a t people developed a schemata f o r a c c e p t i n g events. One of h i s examples was a news r e p o r t e r who 44 b u i l d s a framework around the q u e s t i o n s who, what, where, when and why. N e i s s e r went on t o say t h a t as time runs on and events u n f o l d , t h e r e are c e r t a i n landmarks which occur t h a t we term as h i s t o r i c moments. He d i s c u s s e s the concept of the " f l a s h b u l b memory" t h a t suggests a s u r p r i s e , an i n d i s c r i m i n a t e i l l u m i n a t i o n and b r e v i t y . The permanent r e g i s t r a t i o n of the n o v e l t y occurs as w e l l as o t h e r r e c e n t b r a i n events. At a m i c r o - l e v e l t h i s can be compared t o Newtson's b r e a k - p o i n t s . E a r l i e r , N e i s s e r (1976) had found t h a t p e r c e p t i o n i s d i r e c t e d by e x p e c t a t i o n s but not c o n t r o l l e d by them; i t i n v o l v e s the "pickup" of " r e a l " i n f o r m a t i o n . He s t a t e d t h a t i n a r e a l s i t u a t i o n t h e r e i s always more t o see than anyone sees, and more t o know than anyone knows. The p e r c e i v e r does not p i c k up a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n as they are not equipped t o do so. P e r c e i v e r s p i c k up o n l y what they have developed schemata (the i n t e r n a l p e r c e p t u a l c y c l e t h a t i s m o d i f i e d by e x p e r i e n c e and s p e c i f i c to what i s b e i n g perceived) f o r , and ignore the r e s t . Learners impose t h e i r p e r s o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n on m a t e r i a l s as they memorize them and t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i s strengthened through p r a c t i c e . N e i s s e r went on t o say t h a t once the eye has been s e t i n motion toward a new f i x a t i o n p o i n t , i t cannot change i t s path u n t i l i t has a r r i v e d ; l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be p i c k e d up i n midcourse. A n t i c i p a t i o n a c t u a l l y c o n t r o l s these eye movements and i t depends on many f a c t o r s : the o v e r a l l p l a n s and i n t e n t i o n s , the e x p e r i e n c e of imagining, and the p a r t i c u l a r scanning p a t t e r n t h a t i s being used. In the game of chess, a good chess p l a y e r ' s 45 eye movements are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the s t r u c t u r e of the p o s i t i o n on the board: he looks a t c r u c i a l p i e c e s and c r u c i a l squares. Chess masters see the p o s i t i o n d i f f e r e n t l y - more adequately and comprehensively - than a n o v i c e would. The d i f f e r e n c e between the two are not matters o f t r u t h and e r r o r but o f n o t i c i n g more r a t h e r than l e s s . Weiford and Bourne (1976) s t a t e t h a t the ge n e r a l o u t l i n e or schema i s imposed on incoming m a t e r i a l and shapes both p e r c e p t i o n and r e c a l l . D e t a i l s which are not f i t t e d by the schema are e i t h e r ignored or record e d s e p a r a t e l y . Mourant and Rockwell (1972) i n v e s t i g a t e d the s t r a t e g i e s of v i s u a l s e arch by novic e and experienced d r i v e r s by v i d e o t a p i n g t h e i r eye movements while d r i v i n g . The r e s u l t s o f the t e s t i n g showed t h a t the no v i c e d r i v e r s : 1) c o n c e n t r a t e d t h e i r eye f i x a t i o n s i n a s m a l l e r area as they gained d r i v i n g experience 2) made p u r s u i t eye movements on the freeway route w h i l e the expe r i e n c e d d r i v e r s made onl y eye f i x a t i o n s . These r e s u l t s suggest t h a t the v i s u a l a c q u i s i t i o n p rocess o f the no v i c e d r i v e r s was u n s k i l l e d and overloaded. Thus, the search and scan p a t t e r n s of the novic e d r i v e r s may be c o n s i d e r e d unsafe i n the t r a f f i c .context, whereas, novi c e coaches c o u l d f a c e s i m i l a r problems i n a n a l y z i n g ongoing movement i n an a t h l e t i c environment. N e i s s e r (1982) s t a t e d t h a t p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h documents the f i n d i n g t h a t most people are markedly i n a c c u r a t e i n r e p o r t i n g such numerical d e t a i l s as time, speed and d i s t a n c e i n the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f automobile d e s t r u c t i o n . 46 Eyewitness Testimony The a b i l i t y of eyewitnesses t o r e c a l l , from a m u l t i t u d e of memories, e x a c t l y the memory t h a t meets the p a r t i c u l a r requirements of a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n i s a problem of r e t r i e v a l . An item i n memory i s s t o r e d i n a code t h a t i n c l u d e s c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s as w e l l as i t s meaning. I t ' s l o c a t i o n i n memory p l a c e s i t i n a network of r e l a t e d items. The r e t r i e v a l must c o n s i s t of a search through a r e g i o n of memory with a range of meaning f o r an item with p a r t i c u l a r p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s (Kimble, Garnezy and Z i g l e r , 1980). Thornton and Z o r i c h (1980) conducted a study t o eva l u a t e two t r a i n i n g procedures hypothesized t o improve o b s e r v a t i o n accuracy. The group of s u b j e c t s were t r a i n e d w i t h one of the th r e e s e t s of i n s t r u c t i o n s aimed at the o b s e r v a t i o n p r o c e s s e s . These p r o c e s s e s i n c l u d e d e t e c t i o n , p e r c e p t i o n and r e c a l l or r e c o g n i t i o n of s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r a l events. The f i r s t s e t of i n s t r u c t i o n s simply e x p l a i n e d the t a s k ( c o n t r o l ) ; the second encouraged c a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n and r e c o r d i n g o f s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r ; the t h i r d i n c l u d e d the i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n i n the second s e t p l u s t r a i n i n g on the avoidance o f e i g h t s y s t e m a t i c e r r o r s o f o b s e r v a t i o n . Observer accuracy was measured by an o b j e c t i v e t e s t of b e h a v i o r a l events i n the v i d e o t a p e . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t s u b j e c t s t r a i n e d under the t h i r d set. of i n s t r u c t i o n s , t r a i n i n g on e r r o r avoidance, were more accurate i n o b s e r v a t i o n than s u b j e c t s i n the oth e r two groups. Murphy, et a l (1982), a l s o conducted r e s e a r c h on o b s e r v a t i o n a l accuracy and had t h e i r s u b j e c t s view videotaped l e c t u r e s and were asked to 47 i n d i c a t e the frequency w i t h which a number of w e l l - d e f i n e d behaviours o c c u r r e d i n each l e c t u r e . These 12 behaviours i n c l u d e d u s i n g the blackboard, s t o p p i n g i n mid-stentence and pausing f o r q u e s t i o n s . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t the m a j o r i t y of frequency r a t i n g s were v e r y low. The use of guided memory i n eyewitness i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was resea r c h e d by Malpass and Devine (1981) wi t h the r a t i o n a l e t h a t when r e c o g n i t i o n i s requested a f t e r l o n g p e r i o d s o f time, the accuracy o f the wit n e s s e s ' r e c o g n i t i o n can be enhanced by r e i n s t a t i n g the context of the witnessed o f f e n c e through v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s . The r e s u l t s found t h a t c o n t e x t r e i n s t a t e m e n t through the guided memory procedure i n c r e a s e d the r a t e of accuracy from 40% t o 60% c o r r e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s a f t e r a 5 - month d e l a y . Hannafin and Hughes (1986) found, i n t h e i r r e s e a r c h on o r i e n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n computer-based i n t e r a c t i v e v i d e o , t h a t the o r i e n t i n g a c t i v i t y f a c i l i t a t e d p r o c e d u r a l l e a r n i n g d u r i n g a s h o r t v i d e o segment. They use the term, an advanced o r g a n i z e r , t h a t i s , a v e h i c l e through which new i n f o r m a t i o n can be subsumed m e a n i n g f u l l y w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s . The advanced o r g a n i z e r i s presented p r i o r t o new i n s t r u c t i o n t o prime l e a r n e r s t o i n f o r m a t i o n . The l e a r n e r s then a c t i v a t e h i g h e r - l e v e l mental pr o c e s s e s which focus on q u e s t i o n - r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s can be p a r t i a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o an i n c r e a s e i n a t t e n t i o n drawn t o the c r i t e r i o n elements of the q u e s t i o n . T h i s h e l p s t o improve the c o n d i t i o n s f o r p r o c e s s i n g r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . 48 O b s e r v a t i o n In Sport In the s p o r t s c i e n c e area, t h e r e has been v e r y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h done on o b s e r v a t i o n a l accuracy. Arend and H i g g i n s (1976) regard s k i l l a n a l y s i s t o be the s y s t e m a t i c study and a n a l y s i s of human movement i n g e n e r a l . The importance of o b s e r v a t i o n a l movement a n a l y s i s f o r the t e a c h e r i s s t r e s s e d as a major f a c t o r u n d e r l y i n g the process of s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n . The s t r a t e g y i n c l u d e s p r e - o b s e r v a t i o n , o b s e r v a t i o n and p o s t - o b s e r v a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n and c r i t e r i a needed f o r s y s t e m a t i c movement a n a l y s i s . P r e - o b s e r v a t i o n i s the o b s e r v e r ' s e x p e c t a n c i e s , o b s e r v a t i o n i s the s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n and r e c o r d i n g of performance and p o s t - o b s e r v a t i o n makes a comparison and e v a l u a t i o n of what was expected t o happen and what a c t u a l l y happened. A p l a n f o r o b s e r v a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l r e g a r d l e s s of the t e c h n i q u e s used. Research by Hoffman, (1977) attempted t o d e f i n e the d i f f e r e n c e s between expert and n o v i c e coaches w h i l e monitoring a t h l e t i c performances such as gymnastics, g o l f and s o f t b a l l . The c o n c l u s i o n t h a t can be drawn from t h i s work i s t h a t experts (experienced coaches) do not have a standard system f o r m o n i t o r i n g performance and t h a t a d i a g n o s t i c s t r a t e g y , u s e f u l i n t r a i n i n g p r e - s e r v i c e and i n - s e r v i c e coaches remains i l l u s i v e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e has not been an attempt t o t r a i n coaches i n o b s e r v i n g and m o n i t o r i n g a t h l e t i c performance. G r i e v e (1971) attempted t o determine the f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e a coach's a b i l i t y t o make adjustments i n the game. Knowledge of these f a c t o r s would a s s i s t them i n improving t h e i r 49 a b i l i t y . The time f a c t o r i n v o l v e s f o u r p e r i o d s when the coach must u t i l i z e t h e i r a b i l i t y t o analyse the opponent: 1. p r e l i m i n a r y planning(based on p r e v i o u s i n f o r m a t i o n ) 2. f o r m u l a t i n g the p r a c t i c e p l a n 3. a n a l y s i n g d u r i n g the game 4. a n a l y s i n g a f t e r the game There are numerous f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e the coach's a b i l i t y t o make the proper d e c i s i o n s : 1. emotional involvement 2. nature o f the s p o r t 3. p l a y e r i n f l u e n c e 4. time of the season 5. l o c a t i o n of the c o n t e s t 6. weather c o n d i t i o n s 7. home or away 8 coach's p e r s o n a l problems 9. o f f i c i a l s 10. a n a l y t i c a l a b i l i t y of a s s i s t a n t coaches E x p e r i e n c e was found t o be the g r e a t e s t t e a c h e r but t h i s does not mean t h a t a l l coaches have a n a l y t i c a l a b i l i t y as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r e xperience. Inexperienced coaches focus on the performance of the a t h l e t e s r a t h e r than the o v e r a l l p l a y . T h i s i s why coaches need t o be t r a i n e d on t h e i r a n a l y t i c a l a b i l i t y to develop s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s . An a n a l y s i s of v i s u a l search a c t i v i t y d u r i n g s p o r t (Bard and F l e u r y , 1976) r e a l i z e d t h a t i n s t a b i l i t y was the main 50 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f s p o r t e n v i r o n m e n t s a n d s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s c a u s e s s p e c i f i c p e r c e p t u a l p r o b l e m s . I t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t an o b s e r v e r s e l e c t s w h a t he o r s h e deems t o be r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and d i s c a r d s o r i g n o r e s t h a t w h i c h seems i r r e l e v a n t . The o b j e c t o f t h i s s t u d y was t o a n a l y s e t h e v i s u a l s e a r c h p a t t e r n s o f s u b j e c t s s o l v i n g b a s k e t b a l l p r o b l e m s ( s l i d e s ) a n d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s e p a t t e r n s . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t t h e s u b j e c t ' s e x p e r i e n c e h a d a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e o v e r a l l number o f e y e f i x a t i o n s w i t h e x p e r t s h a v i n g b o t h l o w e r number and d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f f i x a t i o n s . W h i l e t h e e x p e r t s c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e o f f e n s i v e a n d d e f e n s i v e p l a y e r s , t h e n o n - e x p e r t s f o c u s e d o n l y on t h e o f f e n s i v e p l a y e r . I n t w o s t u d i e s on p e r c e p t i o n i n s p o r t , A l l a r d a n d S t a r k e s (1980) f o u n d t h a t p l a y e r s ( e x p e r i e n c e d ) c o m p a r e d t o n o n - p l a y e r s ( i n e x p e r i e n c e d ) u s e a r a p i d v i s u a l s e a r c h s p e c i f i c t o t h e b a l l a s t h e t a r g e t i n a v o l l e y b a l l e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s was due t o t h e s p e e d o f r e s p o n s e i n b a l l l o c a t i o n d e t e c t i o n a n d b e i n g f a s t a t v i s u a l s e a r c h . I n t h e s e c o n d s t u d y u s i n g s l i d e s a n d t h e b a s k e t b a l l e n v i r o n m e n t , p l a y e r s w e r e f o u n d t o e n c o d e i n f o r m a t i o n a t a d e e p e r l e v e l t h a n n o n - p l a y e r s b y r e c o g n i z i n g more o f t h e s t r u c t u r e d s l i d e s (one t e am c l e a r l y i n p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e b a l l ) . M i l l s l a g l e (1988) a l s o f o u n d t h a t v i s u a l s e a r c h p e r f o r m a n c e d i f f e r e n c e s do e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e e x p e r t and n o v i c e p l a y e r s i n b a s k e t b a l l . The e x p e r i e n c e d p l a y e r s d e m o n s t r a t e d a s u p e r i o r s i g n i f i c a n t r e c a l l a b i l i t y a n d t h u s h a v e d e v e l o p e d a more r e f i n e d p e r c e p t u a l s y s t e m t o r e c a l l t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e game. 51 In r e s e a r c h conducted on the e x p e r t - n o v i c e d i f f e r e n c e s i n knowledge s t r u c t u r e s of a c t i o n , V i c k e r s (1983) found t h a t on the b a s i s of sequencing s e t s of photos, e l i t e gymnasts were both f a s t e r and more a c c u r a t e than i n t e r m e d i a t e gymnasts i n r e c o n s t r u c t i n g gymnastic sequences. The i n t e r m e d i a t e gymnasts i n t u r n were both f a s t e r and committed fewer e r r o r s than novice gymnasts. I t was a l s o found t h a t the more d i f f i c u l t the gymnastic sequence, the more time was needed t o r e c o n s t r u c t the sequence and the g r e a t e r the number of e r r o r s . V i c k e r s s t a t e d t h a t e x p e r t s , although they o f t e n possess the same amount and type of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t o t h e r s do, have developed i n t r i c a t e and o f t e n s u b t l e l i n k s between p i e c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t are more e f f e c t i v e and a p p l i c a b l e i n a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . In s t u d y i n g the v i s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n p a t t e r n s of t e n n i s t e a c h e r s , P e t r a k i s (1986) s t a t e d t h a t those i n v o l v e d with the t r a i n i n g of t e a c h e r s need more knowledge e f f e c t i v e v i s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n p a t t e r n s . T h i s would h e l p n o v i c e t e a c h e r s become more competent and f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r growth. In the t e s t i n g of e x p e r t and n o v i c e t e a c h e r s t h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e i n the scan p a t t e r n s . E x p e r t s were found t o focus on c e n t r a l f a c t o r s (the body) w h i l e n o v i c e s focused on p e r i p h e r a l f a c t o r s (the r a c k e t ) . The e x p e r t s a l s o showed a n t i c i p a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s on these f i x a t i o n s (being ahead of the movement). The purpose of an a r t i c l e on o b s e r v a t i o n f o r t e a c h i n g and coaching by B a r r e t t (1979) was t o share i n f o r m a t i o n gained about the p r o c e s s of o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r teachers and coaches as they a s s i s t o t h e r s t o improve t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n i 52 s k i l l . An important f a c t o r i s the a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y and a n a l y s e c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s which are important t o the movement bei n g performed. The observer must be a b l e t o s e l e c t those f e a t u r e s of the movement t h a t w i l l have the g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e on i t ' s performance a t the moment. T h i s can be r e l a t e d t o the eyewitness r e s e a r c h as eyewitnesses must be a b l e t o i d e n t i f y the c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s of the crime (event) t h a t was committed (occurred) and be a b l e t o r e p o r t them. The v a r i o u s f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t e d observer success with the p r i n c i p l e of a n a l y s i s are i l l u s t r a t e d below: 1. C o n c e n t r a t i o n - the i n a b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n focus on what they were o b s e r v i n g f o r l o n g p e r i o d s of time. D i s t r a c t i o n o c c u r r e d through emotional involvement, p u l s e of a c t i v i t y , equipment, other students and t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o the c l a s s . 2 . Type of movement response a n t i c i p a t e d - the more the s u b j e c t s knew ahead of time what movement might occur d u r i n g the o b s e r v a t i o n experience, the e a s i e r they f e l t i t was t o observe. 3. A b i l i t y l e v e l of the students - the extremes i n a b i l i t y l e v e l served as a d i s t r a c t i o n f o r some obs e r v e r s . 4. Number o f students - the more students (over 8) i n the s i t u a t i o n the more 53 d i f f i c u l t y the observers had a t t e n d i n g t o t h e i r p l a n f o r o b s e r v a t i o n . 5. Speed and r e p e t i t i o n of movement - the speed of the movement and the number of times the observers saw the movement a f f e c t e d t h e i r a b i l i t y t o observe. I m p l i c i t i n the p r i n c i p l e of a n a l y s i s i s the idea of being prepared i n advance. B a r r e t t presented the p r i n c i p l e of p l a n n i n g , which s t a t e s t h a t o b s e r v e r s who t r y t o see e v e r y t h i n g o f t e n end up p e r c e i v i n g n o t h i n g . T h i s seems t o h o l d t r u e with a l l o b s e r v e r s r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n a b i l i t y . Besides being a b l e t o analyse the movement be i n g observed, p l a n n i n g f o r o b s e r v a t i o n seems the next most e s s e n t i a l s t e p . Without i t , observers tend t o miss more than they see. T h e r e f o r e , observers needed a scanning s t a t e g y which i n v o l v e d a scheme f o r what t o observe, when and f o r how l o n g . The f i n a l p r i n c i p l e was t h a t of vantage p o i n t as many obse r v e r s are o f t e n i n extremely poor p o s i t i o n s t o see. The r e c o g n i t i o n of where the good and poor spots were, became i n c r e a s i n g l y e a s i e r as they became more aware of how t h e i r p o s i t i o n d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d what and when they c o u l d observe. In summary, a f u r t h e r study by B a r r e t t (1979) on the i m p l i c a t i o n s of o b s e r v a t i o n of. movement f o r t e a c h e r s , f o u r concerns were examined. 1. The s k i l l o f o b s e r v a t i o n - o b s e r v a t i o n p l a y s a v e r y c r i t i c a l r o l e whether 54 s k i l l a n a l y s i s i s viewed as ta s k s p e c i f i c , as the a n a l y s i s of human movement i n g e n e r a l , or as the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of developmental sequences. 2. Understanding movement - the need f o r a knowledge base as a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r s k i l l e d o b s e r v a t i o n i s i m p l i e d r a t h e r than suggested. 3. F a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n - c o n c e n t r a t i o n , speed of the movement, number of students, o b s e r v e r ' s p e r s o n a l s k i l l a b i l i t y and the l a c k of a v i s u a l s t r a t e g y . 4. Teaching o b s e r v a t i o n - s k i l l f u l o b s e r v a t i o n w i l l not develop a u t o m a t i c a l l y , i t needs c a r e f u l l y designed g u i d e l i n e s and the ob s e r v e r ' s a b i l i t i e s need p r a c t i c e . Sport A n a l y s i s Franks and Goodman (1986) s t a t e d t h a t s u b j e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n gained from the coach i s of some use but i t does not d e s c r i b e the a t h l e t i c performance completely or a c c u r a t e l y . They s t a t e d t h a t a complete and ac c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n of the performance should be designed b e f o r e t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s can be i n i t i a t e d . The major concern of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n was the es t a b l i s h m e n t of a sound base f o r the e v a l u a t i o n o f f i r s t the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the key f a c t o r s of performance and then 55 p r i o r i t i z i n g t h e s e k e y f a c t o r s . T h e r e a r e c r i t i c a l e l e m e n t s i n t h e game and t h e y a r e p l a c e d i n l o g i c a l s e q u e n c e . The t h i r d s t e p i s a c q u i r i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a n d b e c a u s e c o a c h e s e n c o u n t e r p r o b l e m s i n m e m o r i z i n g , a s s i m i l a t i n g a n d c a t e g o r i z i n g a l l t h e e v e n t s i n a p e r f o r m a n c e , t h e n a r e c o r d i n g m e thod i s n e e d e d . R e s e a r c h on p e r f o r m a n c e a n a l y s i s b y F r a n k s , Goodman and M i l l e r ( 1 9 8 3 ) , s t a t e d t h a t t h e i d e a l s i t u a t i o n f o r a c o a c h w o u l d be t o h a v e one a s s i s t a n t c o a c h v i d e o t a p e t h e c o m p e t i t i o n and a n o t h e r a s s i s t a n t c o a c h r e c o r d game s t a t i s t i c s , t h u s p r o v i d i n g t h e h e a d c o a c h w i t h a r e c o r d o f t h e c r i t i c a l e v e n t s v i d e o t a p e d w h i c h w o u l d p e r m i t a d e t a i l e d e d i t i n g o f t h e game v i d e o t a p e . S u c h c o n d i t i o n s w o u l d be f a r s u p e r i o r t o t h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n w h e r e c o a c h e s commit t o memory a l l t h e c r i t i c a l e v e n t s o f t h e game a n d a t t e m p t t o r e c a l l them f o r t h e d e s i g n o f t h e n e x t p r a c t i c e . I n a s t u d y done on a g e n e r a l m o d e l o f t e a m s p o r t s by F r a n k s , W i l s o n a n d Goodman ( 1 9 8 7 ) , a m i c r o c o m p u t e r was u s e d t o a n a l y z e a n d d e s c r i b e t h e e v e n t s i n t h e s p o r t o f F i e l d H o c k e y . The h y p o t h e s i s p u t f o r w a r d was t h a t a n a c c u r a t e a n d d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e q u e n c e o f e v e n t s i n a p e r f o r m a n c e was p o t e n t i a l l y o f more u s e t o t h e c o a c h t h a n a q u a l i t a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n t h a t was t y p i c a l l y g a i n e d f r o m s u b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s . The c r i t i c a l e v e n t s o f c o m p e t i t i o n w e r e r e c o r d e d i n r e a l t i m e and s e l e c t e d i t e m s o f t e a m p l a y ( c r i t i c a l e v e n t s ) w e r e s e q u e n t i a l l y s t o r e d . T h i s w o u l d p r o v i d e c o a c h e s w i t h a c c u r a t e game e v e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s s o v i t a l t o e r r o r d e t e c t i o n , c o r r e c t i o n a n d o v e r a l l p e r f o r m a n c e a s s e s s m e n t . T h i s a n a l y s i s 56 w o u l d h e l p t o s u p p l e m e n t t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s made by a c o a c h and d i r e c t t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s t o w a r d s p e c i f i c game e v e n t s , b u t n o t e v e r y c o a c h h a s a c c e s s t o t h i s t e c h n o l o g y . F r a n k s , Goodman and M i l l e r (1983) i d e n t i f i e d t w o e r r o r s o u r c e s f o r c o a c h e s when t h e y r e l i e d h e a v i l y u p o n s u b j e c t i v e a s s e s s m e n t o f game a c t i o n s : 1. The f i r s t a r e a was h i g h l i g h t i n g w h i c h i n v o l v e s o c c u r r e n c e s i n a game t h a t s t a n d o u t . T h e s e c o u l d i n c l u d e g o a l s , c o n t r o v e r s i a l d e c i s i o n s b y o f f i c i a l s and t e c h n i c a l a c h i e v e m e n t s b y p l a y e r s . T h i s t e n d s t o d i s t o r t t h e c o a c h e s a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e c o m p l e t e game. T h i s w o u l d r e l a t e t o t h e v o n R e s t o r f f e f f e c t w h e r e d i s t i n c t i v e c u e s a t a n i n t e r m e d i a t e p o i n t i n f r e e r e c a l l r e s u l t i n a p s u e d o - p r i m a c y e f f e c t ( i n N e i s s e r , 1 9 8 2 ) . 2. The s e c o n d a r e a was human memory w h i c h h a s i t ' s l i m i t a t i o n s and t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e m e m b e r i n g a l l t h e game e v e n t s . E m o t i o n a n d p e r s o n a l b i a s e s a n d e x p e c t a t i o n s c a n a l s o e f f e c t t h e memory p r o c e s s . M a t e r i a l i n s h o r t - t e r m memory w i l l o n l y r e m a i n f o r h a l f a m i n u t e b e f o r e a n y l o n g - t e r m memory p r o c e s s i n g o c c u r s . The a l t e r n a t i v e i s q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s w i t h t h e u s e o f a c o m p u t e r , w h i c h r e c o r d s game s t a t i s t i c s a n d a v i d e o t a p e . The e v e n t s w o u l d be c o d e d i n r e a l t i m e on t h e v i d e o a n d t h e y w o u l d be f e d i n t o an i n t e r a c t i v e c o m p u t e r v i d e o . T h i s w o u l d a l l o w t h e c o a c h t o h a v e i m m e d i a t e v i d e o a c c e s s o f s p e c i f i e d gane e v e n t s , 57 f o r feedback t o the p l a y e r s . Such an approach employs t h i s technology which u t i l i z e s a s t r u c t u r e t o c a t e g o r i z e events and p r e s e n t s them i n a s y s t e m a t i c summary form. An example of how a framework may h e l p d i r e c t coach's o b s e r v a t i o n s and c o l l e c t r e l e v a n t data was completed by Franks and Goodman (1986). The study focuses on key elements of performance t h a t c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o analyze q u a n t i t a t i v e l y the performance of an a t h l e t i c event. T h i s was d i s c u s s e d with r e s p e c t t o both team and i n d i v i d u a l s p o r t s . T h e i r model of s p o r t a n a l y s i s r e l i e s h e a v i l y upon q u a n t i f i a b l e data c o l l e c t i o n u s i n g modern technology (microcomputers). Once the performance e r r o r s have been d e t e c t e d with the use of a s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s , a s t r u c t u r e d programme.of i n s t r u c t i o n can be designed to meet the needs of the team. The r e s e a r c h e r s term t h i s method " p r a c t i c e by o b j e c t i v e s " i . e . , i d e n t i f y the ways i n which c r i t e r i o n performance i s achieved and develop p r a c t i c e s t o f u l f i l l the o b j e c t i v e s t h a t have been i d e n t i f i e d as a consequence of comparisons between c r i t e r i o n and a c t u a l performance. The e v a l u a t i o n of a performance i n a s o c c e r context, i n c l u d e s : a) determining the s t r u c t u r e of the performance i . e . , where on the f i e l d d i d our team win and l o s e p o s s e s s i o n of the b a l l b) p r i o r i t y events are p l a c e d i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l scheme c) a c q u i r e the i n f o r m a t i o n i . e . , c o m p e t i t i o n r e l a t e d events are recorded e f f i c i e n t l y (microcomputer). T h i s l e a d s the coach i n t o p l a n n i n g the next p r a c t i c e with c l e a r o b j e c t i v e s and e v a l u a t i n g the s e s s i o n a f t e r w a r d s . The h i e r a r c h i c a l scheme of the s t r u c t u r e 58 of performance c o u l d be termed as Wickelgren (1979) does, a set of nodes a s s o c i a t e d i n a branching s t r u c t u r e t h a t c o u l d c o n s t i t u t e a p l a n , i n t h i s program, f o r s c o r i n g a g o a l . Franks (1988) proposed a s y s t e m a t i c framework f o r the a n a l y s i s of A s s o c i a t i o n F o o t b a l l (Soccer) based upon a q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s gained from a l l l e v e l s o f c o m p e t i t i o n . W i t h i n the team p l a y , Franks found t h a t c e r t a i n events f o l l o w one another i n a p r e d i c t a b l e and s e q u e n t i a l l y dependent manner w i t h i n the r u l e s of the system. He went on t o d i s c u s s how goals were scored, what lead s t o the s c o r i n g of g o a l s , the importance of s e t p l a y s , an a n a l y s i s of c r o s s e s , and defending. A framework f o r a n a l y s i s was then s e t up t o c o l l e c t a l l of the data from the c o m p e t i t i o n . Franks made recommendations on the key f a c t o r s of s u c c e s s f u l performance f o r p l a y e r s and f o r coaches s t a t i n g t h a t a l a r g e p o r t i o n of coaching e n t a i l s the d e t e c t i o n and c o r r e c t i o n of e r r o r f u l performance. In order t o d e t e c t and analyze performance i n a continuous team game such as so c c e r , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t some r e c o r d of performance, ot h e r than s u b j e c t i v e o p i n i o n s gained from c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n , be obt a i n e d . The b a s i c f i n d i n g i n r e s e a r c h on the accuracy of coaching o b s e r v a t i o n s i s t h a t i t i s extremely e r r o r f u l as human memory i s s u b j e c t t o d e f i n i t e l i m i t a t i o n and i s e a s i l y b i a s e d by p e r s o n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . Franks recommends t h a t coaches r e c o r d the c r i t i c a l events of c o m p e t i t i o n . T h i s would l e a d t o a framework f o r a n a l y s i s . T h i s c o u l d be done u s i n g a p e n c i l and paper c h e c k l i s t , a 59 s o p h i s t i c a t e d c o m p u t e r a i d e d r e c o r d i n g s y s t e m , a n a u d i o t a p e r e c o r d i n g o f o b s e r v a t i o n s o r a v i d e o t a p e o f t h e e n t i r e game. E a c h o f t h e s e m e t h o d s p r o v i d e s a memory a i d f o r t h e c o a c h , b u t he recommends t h e v i d e o t a p e a s t h e b e s t d a t a r e c o r d i n g d e v i c e a s i t h a s t h e a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t o f a l l o w i n g t h e c o a c h t o p r o v i d e t h e p l a y e r s v i s u a l f e e d b a c k on t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e . The s p o r t r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h c o n s i d e r s s e v e r a l f a c t o r s t h a t a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e e y e w i t n e s s t e s t i m o n y o f c r i m e s a n d t h e e n s u i n g s t r u c t u r a l f r a m e w o r k t h a t must be p u t i n p l a c e t o i m p r o v e o b s e r v e r a c c u r a c y . The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e m u s t be d e v e l o p e d f i r s t ; s e c o n d l y , t h e c r i t i c a l e v e n t s must be i d e n t i f i e d i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e s t r u c t u r e ; t h i r d l y , t h e s y s t e m a t i c o b s e r v a t i o n a l f r a m e w o r k i s u s e d t o d i r e c t t h e c o a c h e s ' o b s e r v a t i o n a n d a i d them i n t h e i r r e c a l l o f t h e c r i t i c a l e v e n t s . The s y s t e m a t i c f r a m e w o r k t h a t h a s b e e n d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 2 a n d t h e d e t a i l e d s t a t e m e n t s u s e d w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k i n A p p e n d i x 8 . T h i s f r a m e w o r k w i l l d i r e c t c o a c h e s ' o b s e r v a t i o n s t o w a r d s c e r t a i n c r i t i c a l e v e n t s i n t h e game a n d a s s i s t them i n a n t i c i p a t i n g t h e s e e v e n t s p r i o r t o them o c c u r i n g I w o u l d e x p e c t t h a t o n c e t h i s p r i m i n g h a s o c c u r e d t h e n t h e c o a c h e s ' r e c a l l o f t h e s e e v e n t s w i l l be much h i g h e r t h a n i f t h e y w e r e n o t e x p o s e d t o t h i s s y s t e m a t i c f r a m e w o r k . 60 APPENDIX 2 PILOT STUDY 1 Coaches must be a b l e t o focus on the c r i t i c a l events t o o b t a i n some form of accuracy and need the t r a i n i n g t o do so. Franks and M i l l e r (1986) compared eyewitness testimony i n c r i m i n a l s i t u a t i o n s t o o b s e r v a t i o n s made by coaches f o l l o w i n g a s p o r t i n g performance. An experiment was undertaken i n which n o v i c e coaches were t e s t e d on t h e i r a b i l i t y t o observe and r e c a l l c r i t i c a l t e c h n i c a l events t h a t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g one h a l f of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c c e r game. These c r i t i c a l events i n c l u d e d b a l l p o s s e s s i o n , p a s s i n g , c r o s s e s , s e t p l a y s , goalkeeper c o n t a c t s and shots a t g o a l . Three randomly a s s i g n e d experimental groups were g i v e n i n s t r u c t i o n s e i t h e r p r i o r t o or f o l l o w i n g the game. T h i s secondary concern was t o determine i f v a r i a t i o n s i n pre-event i n s t r u c t i o n s would have any e f f e c t on the o b s e r v a t i o n s of the coaches. These i n s t r u c t i o n s v a r i e d i n the amount of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t was g i v e n t o d i r e c t the o b s e r v a t i o n s of the coaches toward a f i n a l post game q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The group t h a t had the l e c t u r e on key f a c t o r s of performance p r i o r t o viewing should have shown s u p e r i o r o b s e r v a t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s than the c o n t r o l groups. The r e s u l t s showed t h a t t h e r e were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between experimental groups, but t h e r e were d i f f e r e n c e s i n the a b i l i t y o f coaches t o r e c a l l c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i z e d events more a c c u r a t e l y than o t h e r s . The o v e r a l l o b s e r v a t i o n a l accuracy of the coaches was 42% w i t h the c a t e g o r y of s e t p l a y s being b e t t e r r e c a l l e d than b a l l 61 p o s s e s s i o n , goalkeeper c o n t a c t s , c r o s s e s , shots and g o a l s . T h i s c o u l d have been due t o the d i s c o n t i n u i t y of s e t p l a y s as the continuous nature of the game stops and i s s t a r t e d i n an or g a n i z e d format f o r s e t p l a y s . These stoppages i n a c t i o n may be used by the observer as a framework around which the game events can be org a n i z e d . T h i s p o i n t was made p r e v i o u s l y by Newtson (1976) who d e f i n e d a c t i o n t h a t i s p e r c e i v e d , as a change of s t i m u l u s a r r a y . He went on t o propose t h a t behaviour p e r c e p t i o n should be viewed as f e a t u r e m o n i t o r i n g and when one of these f e a t u r e s change s t a t e then a b r e a k p o i n t o c c u r s . The d e f i n i t i o n of what are c o n s i d e r e d t o be b r e a k p o i n t s i n the a c t i o n becomes c r i t i c a l i f we are t o understand the process of o b s e r v a t i o n . From t h i s i n i t i a l study of o b s e r v a t i o n a l accuracy of coaches s e v e r a l problems were encountered t h a t were examined i n P i l o t Study 2. The problems i n c l u d e d the use of novic e coaches who would not have any d i r e c t e d system o f o b s e r v a t i o n f o r the game of s o c c e r . The number of c r i t i c a l events t h a t they had to observe would have been so e x t e n s i v e i t would exceed the l i m i t s o f s h o r t term memory. The problems would be s o l v e d by: (1) using e x p e r i e n c e d coaches as s u b j e c t s (2) a l l o w i n g a p e r i o d of t r a i n i n g f o r d i r e c t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s (3) r e d u c i n g the number of c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s t h a t should be observed (4) i d e n t i f y i n g the o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s of beh a v i o r o b s e r v a t i o n f o r s p e c i a l i z e d groups of coaches. 62 APPENDIX 3 PILOT STUDY 2 I n a f o l l o w - u p t o t h e p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y b y F r a n k s a n d M i l l e r , ( 1 9 8 6 ) , e x p e r i e n c e d c o a c h e s w e r e a l s o a s k e d t o r e c a l l c e r t a i n e v e n t s i n a game t h e y h a d j u s t w a t c h e d . The p u r p o s e o f P i l o t S t u d y 2 was t o o v e r c o m e t h e p r o b l e m s i n P i l o t S t u d y 1 r e g a r d i n g t h e t r a i n i n g o f t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n a l s k i l l . PROBLEM 1 - U s i n g E x p e r i e n c e d C o a c h e s - The e x p e r i e n c e d c o a c h e s h e l d a C L i c e n s e i n t h e N a t i o n a l C o a c h i n g C e r t i f i c a t i o n P r o g r a m a nd w e r e t a k i n g t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e i r B L i c e n s e c o u r s e . PROBLEM 2 - A P e r i o d o f T r a i n i n g - The c o a c h e s w e r e t r a i n e d f o r t w e n t y m i n u t e s on f o c u s i n g i n on c e r t a i n c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s i n t h e game p r i o r t o t h e t e s t i n g b e i n g s t a r t e d . PROBLEM 3 - R e d u c i n g t h e Number o f C r i t i c a l F e a t u r e s - The f i v e c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s i n c l u d e d g o a l s , s h o t s , m i s s e d s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , s e t p l a y s a n d c r o s s e s . T h i s was one c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e l e s s t h a n w h a t was u s e d i n t h e p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y . PROBLEM 4 - I d e n t i f y i n g t h e O r g a n i z i n g P r i n c i p l e s o f B e h a v i o u r O b s e r v a t i o n - The t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m i n v o l v e d t h e o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f t e a m a n a l y s i s t h a t was u s e d i n F r a n k s and Goodman's s t u d y ( 1 9 8 6 ) . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t t h e c o a c h e s w e r e 6 4 % i n e r r o r o v e r a l l b u t when t h e f i v e c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e c a t e g o r i e s w e r e a n a l y z e d i n d i v i d u a l l y , g o a l s w e r e r e c a l l e d m o s t a c c u r a t e l y ( 7 2 % ) . T h e r e f o r e , t h e e x p e r i e n c e d c o a c h e s w h i l e b e i n g s u p e r i o r a t r e c a l l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o g o a l s , w e r e no b e t t e r t h a n 63 n o v i c e coaches a t r e c a l l i n g o t h e r key elements of team p l a y . The c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e c a t e g o r i e s were d e r i v e d from p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s done on the game of s o c c e r by Reep and Benjamin (1968) , Franks and Thomson (1982), 1982 World Cup A n a l y s i s . Coaches were very a c c u r a t e i n r e c a l l i n g g o a l s but t h e i r memory of shots and oth e r f e a t u r e s were poor. But shots are ver y c r u c i a l because they l e a d t o g o a l s , t h e r e f o r e , g o a l s are a consequence of shots. C o n s e q u e n t i a l i t y r e f e r s t o how something changes as the r e s u l t of an event o c c u r i n g . The g o a l may be a benchmark (Newtson, 1976), t h a t becomes important a f t e r the event. I would suggest t h a t benchmarks should be more widespread. T h e r e f o r e , the proposed study i s a s y s t e m a t i c t r a i n i n g program aimed a t d e v e l o p i n g a schemata of p r e d i c t i v e f e a t u r e s (see F i g u r e 2) f o r s o c c e r coaches. In order t o do t h i s , a l o g i c a l , s y s t e m a t i c approach t o the game was developed (see F i g u r e 2 and Appendix 8 ) . T h i s was done from p r e v i o u s q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f the game o f s o c c e r by Franks and Thomson (1982). These r e s u l t s l e a d t o P i l o t Study 3 which would attempt t o look a t the c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s of g o a l s , shots and missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s and the events which l e d up to them. 64 APPENDIX 4 PILOT STUDY 3 INTRODUCTION In the t h i r d study, L e v e l I I I (experienced) coaches were used a g a i n . The c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s were comprised of g o a l s , shots and missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o determine e x a c t l y how much o b s e r v a t i o n a l e r r o r t h e r e was f o r g o a l s compared t o shots compared t o missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The events l e a d i n g up t o g o a l s , shots and missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s were determined by comparison t o the o b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s of the vi d e o t a p e d game. METHOD The coaches were d i v i d e d i n t o an experimental and two c o n t r o l groups. They were t o l d t h a t they would be asked t o r e c a l l the c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s of g o a l s , shots and missed shooting o p p o r t u n i t i e s a f t e r o b s e r v i n g a f i f t e e n minute segment of a vi d e o t a p e d game. A l l t h r e e groups r e c e i v e d the same p r e t e s t (view the same vi d e o t a p e and answer the same q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) (See Appendix 7). The experimental group was then put through the f o l l o w i n g seven v i d e o t a p e t r a i n i n g program: The f i r s t tape c l a r i f i e d examples of won b a l l p o s s e s s i o n . The second tape p r e s e n t e d examples of s e t p l a y s . The t h i r d tape showed examples of c r o s s e s . The f o u r t h tape showed examples of p e n e t r a t i n g passes. The f i f t h tape showed examples of missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The s i x t h tape showed examples of shots taken and the seventh tape showed examples of g o a l s s c o r e d . T h i s procedure s t i m u l a t e s the process of e l a b o r a t i v e r e h e a r s a l which 65 d e a l s w i t h new i n f o r m a t i o n i n terms of i t ' s meaning as p r o c e s s i n g i s t a k i n g p l a c e a t a deeper l e v e l (Kimble, Garnezy and Z i g l e r , 1980). The f i r s t c o n t r o l group answered the same q u e s t i o n n a i r e a f t e r each of the seven d i f f e r e n t v i d e o t a p e s without any t r a i n i n g . The second c o n t r o l group d i d t h e i r own p e r s o n a l a n a l y s i s a f t e r each of the seven v i d e o t a p e s . RESULTS The r e s u l t s showed t h a t g o a l s were again r e c a l l e d more a c c u r a t e l y than shots and missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s by a l l t h r e e groups. The experimental group r e c a l l e d g o a l s more a c c u r a t e l y (an i n c r e a s e of 29%) than C o n t r o l Group 1 (21%) and C o n t r o l Group 2 (8%) i n the p o s t t e s t . T h e r e f o r e , a d e t a i l e d study w i l l be done on g o a l s , shots and missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h a l l t h r e e groups. Each event and l o c a t i o n must be d e s c r i b e d l e a d i n g up t o the g o a l , shot and missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t y . T h i s w i l l g i v e a b e t t e r i n d i c a t i o n of the success of the t r a i n i n g program. GENERAL DISCUSSION The t h r e e p i l o t s t u d i e s t h a t were conducted l e a d i n g up t o the f i n a l study g i v e a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n t o the r e s e a r c h e r f o c u s i n g i n on the s p e c i f i c c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s t h a t must be f i r s t observed and then r e c a l l e d by experienced coaches. The i n i t i a l r e s e a r c h used n o v i c e coaches t o t e s t t h e i r a b i l i t y t o observe and r e c a l l c r i t i c a l events t h a t o c c u r r e d i n one h a l f of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c c e r game. The r e s u l t s showed t h a t t h e r e were d i f f e r e n c e s i n the a b i l i t y of these n o v i c e coaches t o r e c a l l 66 c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i z e d e v e n t s m o r e a c c u r a t e l y t h a n o t h e r s . F r o m t h i s s t u d y i t w a s d e c i d e d t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g s t u d y w o u l d u s e e x p e r i e n c e d c o a c h e s , a t r a i n i n g p e r i o d t o d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n s , r e d u c e t h e n u m b e r o f c r i t i c a l e v e n t s t o b e o b s e r v e d a n d i d e n t i f y t h e o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s o f b e h a v i o r o b s e r v a t i o n . T h e f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t u t i l i z e d e x p e r i e n c e d c o a c h e s a n d t r a i n e d t h e m t o d i r e c t t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s . F i v e c r i t i c a l e v e n t c a t e g o r i e s w e r e o b s e r v e d a n d t h e r e s u l t s s h o w e d t h a t t h e s e c o a c h e s w e r e v e r y a c c u r a t e i n r e c a l l i n g t h e g o a l s b u t p o o r w i t h t h e i r m e m o r y o f s h o t s , m i s s e d s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , e t c . T h e r e f o r e , f r o m t h i s s t u d y i t w a s d e c i d e d t h a t P i l o t S t u d y 3 w o u l d u t i l i z e e x p e r i e n c e d c o a c h e s a g a i n o b s e r v i n g t h e c r i t i c a l e v e n t s o f g o a l s , s h o t s a n d m i s s e d s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s o n l y . T h e t h i r d P i l o t S t u d y u s e d e x p e r i e n c e d c o a c h e s a g a i n e x a m i n i n g t h e c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s o f g o a l s , s h o t s a n d m i s s e d s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . T h e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m c o n s i s t e d o f v i d e o t a p e s o n a ) b a l l p o s s e s s i o n , b ) s e t p l a y s , c ) c r o s s e s , d ) p e n e t r a t i n g p a s s e s , e ) m i s s e d s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , f ) s h o t s a n d g ) g o a l s . T h i s p r o g r e s s i v e m a n n e r o f t r a i n i n g r e s u l t e d i n t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p r e c a l l i n g g o a l s m o r e a c c u r a t e l y t h a n t h e t w o C o n t r o l g r o u p s . T h e r e f o r e , a d e t a i l e d s t u d y w a s t o b e d o n e u s i n g e x p e r i e n c e d c o a c h e s , a s i m i l a r t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m t o P i l o t S t u d y 3 a n d a p r e a n d p o s t t e s t e x a m i n i n g t h e c o r r e c t r e c a l l o f t h e c o n t e x t s u r r o u n d i n g g o a l s , s h o t s a n d m i s s e d s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , f o r a n d a g a i n s t . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y w a s t o d e s i g n a t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m t h a t w i l l i m p r o v e t h e p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s o c c e r c o a c h e s 67 and d i r e c t t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s toward the more a c c u r a t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s o f the game: a) c r e a t i o n of s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , b) the t a k i n g of shots and c) the s c o r i n g o f g o a l s . I f a coach i s a b l e t o focus on the c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e s of the game as i d e n t i f i e d i n the p r e v i o u s experiment, then the o b s e r v a t i o n a l framework t h a t w i l l be used i n t r a i n i n g t o modify and improve performance, w i l l be s u b s t a n t i a t e d . T h e r e f o r e , i t was necessary t o i d e n t i f y the events t h a t had a h i g h e r p r o b a b i l i t y o f l e a d i n g t o s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . These events were b a l l p o s s e s s i o n , s e t p l a y s , c r o s s e s and p e n e t r a t i n g passes (Franks and Thomson, 1982). 68 APPENDIX 5 C R I T I C A L GAME EVENTS GOALS SCORED The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e game i s t o s c o r e g o a l s a n d t h e f i n a l r e s u l t o f t h e game w i l l d e p e n d on t h e number o f g o a l s t h a t a r e s c o r e d . I n P i l o t S t u d y 2, t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l o f o b s e r v a t i o n a l a c c u r a c y a t t a i n e d b y t h e c o a c h e s was i n t h e g o a l s c a t e g o r y . I n a s t u d y on t r a i n i n g p e o p l e t o r e c o g n i z e f a c e s , (Woodhead e t a l , 1979) s u b j e c t s w e r e l e s s a c c u r a t e i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n when e m p h a s i s was p l a c e d on i s o l a t e d f a c i a l f e a t u r e s . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f a c e a s a w h o l e w o u l d be more a c c u r a t e . T h e r e f o r e i n t r a c i n g b a c k how a g o a l o r i g i n a t e d w i l l g i v e t h e c o a c h a n i d e a o f t h e w h o l e e v e n t . ( N e w t s o n ' s b r e a k p o i n t ) . SHOTS ON GOAL - The g o a l s t h a t a r e s c o r e d o r i g i n a t e f r o m a s h o t on g o a l . R e s e a r c h s t a t e s (Reep e t a l , 1971) t h a t s h o t s a r e a random o c c u r r e n c e d u r i n g a game and s h o t s on g o a l a r e a random o c c u r r e n c e o f a l l s h o t s t h a t a r e t a k e n . R e s e a r c h shows ( O l y m p i c Team R e p o r t , 1983) t h a t f o r e v e r y f o u r s h o t s on g o a l , one g o a l w i l l be s c o r e d . S h o t s t h a t a r e k e p t l o w ( b e l o w 8 f e e t ) h a v e a g r e a t e r c h a n c e o f b e c o m i n g a g o a l ( F r a n k s , 1 9 8 8 ) . A L L SHOTS TAKEN - The s h o t s t a k e n i n c l u d e t h o s e t h a t a r e on t a r g e t , o f f t a r g e t and b l o c k e d by p l a y e r s on e i t h e r team. R e s u l t s show ( O l y m p i c Team R e p o r t , 1983) a n d (Reep, 1971) t h a t f o r e v e r y t e n s h o t s t a k e n , one g o a l w i l l be s c o r e d . OPPORTUNITIES TO SHOOT FROM A GIVEN AREA OF THE F I E L D - The p h y s i c a l demands o f s h o o t i n g on g o a l f r o m t h i r t y - f i v e y a r d s away r e s u l t i n a l l g o a l s o r i g i n a t i n g f r o m w i t h i n t h i s a r e a o f t h e 69 f i e l d . T h i s a r e a h a s b e e n t e r m e d t h e a t t a c k i n g o n e - t h i r d . I f t h e b a l l i s r e p o s s e s s e d i n t h i s a r e a o f t h e f i e l d t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r c h a n c e (65%) o f t h e t e am s c o r i n g a g o a l r a t h e r t h a n i n t h e m i d d l e one t h i r d (25%) and d e f e n d i n g o n e - t h i r d (10%) (Reep a n d B e n j a m i n , 1968; F r a n k s and Thomson, 19 8 2 ; F r a n k s , Goodman and M i l l e r , 1 9 8 3 ) . SET PLAYS - T h i s i s t h e t o t a l number o f s e t p l a y s ( c o r n e r k i c k s , f r e e k i c k s , t h r o w - i n s ) t h a t o c c u r r e d . R e s u l t s show t h a t 30% o f a l l g o a l s a r e s c o r e d f r o m s e t p l a y s ( W o r l d Cup A n a l y s i s , 1984, F r a n k s , 1 9 8 8 ) . CROSSES - T h i s i s t h e t o t a l number o f c r o s s e s t h a t o c c u r r e d . The b a l l i s p l a y e d f r o m a f l a n k p o s i t i o n i n t o t h e p e n a l t y a r e a . R e s u l t s ( W o r l d Cup A n a l y s i s , 1984, F r a n k s , 1988) show t h a t 25% o f a l l s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t a r e n o t s e t p l a y s , r e s u l t f r o m c r o s s e s . R e s u l t s ( F r a n k s , 1988) show t h a t c r o s s e s t h a t were c o n t a c t e d by an a t t a c k e r h a v e an 8:1 g o a l r a t i o a n d c r o s s e s t h a t l e a d t o s h o t s h a v e a 5:1 g o a l r a t i o . PENETRATING PASSES - P e n e t r a t i n g p a s s e s a r e b a l l s t h a t a r e p l a y e d b e t w e e n o r o v e r d e f e n d e r s i n t o s p a c e . A t t a c k e r s c a n r u n o n t o t h e b a l l i n t h i s s p a c e w h i c h c r e a t e s a o n e - o n - o n e s i t u a t i o n w i t h t h e a t t a c k e r and t h e o p p o s i t i o n ' s g o a l k e e p e r o r a c r o s s e d b a l l 8 0 % o f g o a l s a r e s c o r e d f r o m 4 p a s s e s o r l e s s (Reep, 1 9 7 9 ) . DRIBBLES - T h i s c r i t i c a l f e a t u r e o c c u r s when an a t t a c k e r d r i b b l e s t h e b a l l p a s t a d e f e n d e r and t h e n h a s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o s h o o t t h e b a l l o r c r o s s t h e b a l l . CORNER KICKS - T h e s e a r e b a l l s p l a y e d f r o m t h e c o r n e r o f t h e f i e l d i n t o , t h e m i d d l e o f t h e g o a l a r e a . A h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f 70 s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s r e s u l t f r o m t h i s s e t p l a y when t h e b a l l i s a n i n s w i n g k i c k t o t h e n e a r p o s t a r e a ( F r a n k s , 1 9 8 8 ) . THROW-INS - T h e s e a r e b a l l s t h r o w n i n f r o m t h e s i d e o f t h e f i e l d . I f a p l a y e r c a n t h r o w t h e b a l l a l o n g d i s t a n c e t h e n i t i s s i m i l a r t o a c o r n e r k i c k a n d c r e a t e s s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . FREE-KICKS - T h e s e a r e b a l l s t h a t a r e p l a c e d a t l o c a t i o n s on t h e f i e l d w h e r e f o u l s h a v e o c c u r r e d . T h e s e c a n e i t h e r be d i r e c t s h o t s a t g o a l o r i n d i r e c t ( p l a y e d t w i c e o r more) s h o t s a t g o a l . PENALTY-KICKS - I f a f o u l o c c u r s i n s i d e t h e p e n a l t y a r e a a p e n a l t y k i c k i s a w a r d e d . The g o a l k e e p e r s t a n d s on t h e g o a l l i n e , t h e b a l l i s p l a c e d t w e l v e y a r d s o u t f r o m t h e g o a l l i n e and one a t t a c k e r h a s a d i r e c t s h o t a t g o a l . The r e s t o f t h e p l a y e r s m u s t r e m a i n o u t s i d e t h e p e n a l t y a r e a . A v e r y h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f g o a l s a r e s c o r e d f r o m t h i s f r e e k i c k . K I C KS OUTSIDE THE PENALTY AREA - T h e s e a r e f r e e k i c k s t h a t a r e t a k e n f r o m o t h e r l o c a t i o n s on t h e f i e l d o t h e r t h a n t h e p e n a l t y a r e a . The d e f e n d i n g t e am must s t a n d a t l e a s t t e n y a r d s away f r o m t h e b a l l u n t i l i t moves. REPOSSESSION AS A SET PLAY THAT I S PLAYED FORWARD - When t h e b a l l i s won f r o m t h e o p p o s i n g t e am f o r a s e t p l a y . A t t h e s e t p l a y t h e b a l l i s p l a y e d f o r w a r d i n t o a s h o o t i n g p o s i t i o n . REPOSSESSION I N FREE PLAY THAT I S PLAYED FORWARD - When t h e b a l l i s won f r o m t h e o p p o s i n g t e a m i n f r e e p l a y . I n f r e e p l a y t h e b a l l i s moved f o r w a r d i n t o a s h o o t i n g p o s i t i o n . A L L REPOSSESSIONS - T h i s o c c u r s when t h e b a l l i s won f r o m t h e o p p o s i n g t e a m . T h e r e a r e o v e r 200 r e p o s s e s s i o n s i n one game ( W o r l d Cup A n a l y s i s , 1984, F r a n k s , 1 9 8 8 ) . The r e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e b a l l i s a n a t u r a l b r e a k - p o i n t ( N e w t s o n - 1 9 7 6 ) . 71 A P P E N D I X 6 C R I T E R I O N C O D E 1. W o n P o s s e s s i o n ( W . P . ) 2. L o s t P o s s e s s i o n ( L . P . ) 3 . T h r o w - I n ( T . I . ) 4 . S h o t o n T a r g e t ( S . O . T . ) 5 . M i s s e d S h o o t i n g O p p o r t u n i t y ( M . S . O . ) 6 . S q u a r e P a s s ( S . P . ) 7 . B a c k P a s s ( B . P . ) 8 . F o r w a r d P a s s ( F . P . ) 9 . D i r e c t F r e e K i c k ( D . F . K . ) 1 0 . C r o s s (C ) A t e a m h a s w o n p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e b a l l . T h e o p p o s i n g t e a m r e g a i n s t h e b a l l t h r o u g h a t a c k l e , a p o o r p a s s , k i c k e d o u t o f b o u n d s o r a s h o t s a v e d b y t h e g o a l k e e p e r . T h e b a l l g o e s o u t o f b o u n d a t t h e s i d e s o f t h e f i e l d a n d i t . i s t h r o w n b a c k i n t o T h e f i e l d o f p l a y . A s h o t t h a t i s s a v e d o r b e c o m e s a g o a l . A s h o t w h i c h i s n o t t a k e n ( p l a y e r d r i b b l e d o r p a s s e d o f f ) . T e a m m a t e s a r e p a r a l l e l a n d t h e pass t r a v e l s a c r o s s t h e f i e l d . P a s s p l a y e d i n d i r e c t i o n o f own g o a l . A p a s s p l a y e d t o w a r d s t h e o p p o n e n t ' s g o a l . T h e b a l l i s p l a c e d a t t h e p o i n t o f a f o u l . T h e b a l l c a n b e h i t d i r e c t l y a t t h e g o a l . T h e b a l l i s p l a y e d f r o m t h e w i n g p o s i t i o n i n t o t h e p e n a l t y a r e a . 72 C r i t e r i o n Code ( C o n t i n u e d ) 1 1 . F a r P o s t ( F a r P.) 12. G o a l k e e p e r ' s K i c k ( G o a l K.) 13. G o a l K i c k (G.K.) 14. G o a l (G) 15. S h o t H i g h (S.H.) 16. S h o t H i g h a n d Wide (S.H.W.) 17. S h o t Wide (S.W.) 18. S h o t S a v e d 19. S h o t B l o c k e d (S.S.) (S.B.) 20. A t t a c k i n g 1/3 o f t h e F i e l d (A 1/3) 21 . M i d d l e 1/3 o f t h e F i e l d (M 1/3) - The g o a l p o s t f a r t h e s t f r o m w h e r e t h e b a l l i s s i t u a t e d . - The b a l l i s k i c k e d f r o m o u t o f t h e g o a l k e e p e r ' s h a n d s . - The b a l l i s p l a c e d on t h e s i x y a r d l i n e a n d k i c k e d o u t o f t h e p e n a l t y a r e a . - The w h o l e b a l l h a s c r o s s e d t h e g o a l l i n e - A s h o t o v e r t h e c r o s s b a r . - A s h o t a b o v e t h e c r o s s b a r h e i g h t and w i d e o f t h e g o a l . - A s h o t t h a t i s b e l o w t h e c r o s s b a r h e i g h t t h a t c r o s s e s t h e e n d l i n e . - A s h o t t h a t i s c a u g h t , p u n c h e d o r d e f l e c t e d b y t h e g o a l k e e p e r . - A s h o t t h a t i s k n o c k e d o f f o f i t ' s o r i g i n a l p a t h b y a n o p p o n e n t o r teammate. - The p a r t o f t h e f i e l d f r o m t h e g o a l l i n e t o 35 y a r d s o u t i n t o t h e f i e l d o f p l a y . - The p a r t o f t h e f i e l d f r o m 35 y a r d s o u t f r o m one g o a l l i n e t o 3 5 y a r d s o u t f r o m t h e o t h e r g o a l l i n e . 73 C r i t e r i o n Code ( C o n t i n u e d ) 22. N e a r P o s t (N.P.) 23. M i d - G o a l (M.G.) 24. I n d i r e c t F r e e k i c k ( I . F . K . ) 25. R i g h t (R) 26. L e f t (L) 27. C e n t r a l (C) 28. C o r n e r K i c k (C.K.) 29. P e n a l t y K i c k (P.K.) 30. D r o p B a l l > (D.B.) 31. P e n e t r a t i n g P a s s (P.P.) The g o a l p o s t n e a r e s t t o w h e r e t h e b a l l i s s i t u a t e d . The c e n t r a l p a r t o f t h e p e n a l t y a r e a a t t h e p e n a l t y s p o t . The b a l l i s p l a c e d a t t h e p o i n t o f a f o u l . The b a l l m ust t o u c h two p e o p l e b e f o r e i t e n t e r s t h e g o a l . R i g h t s i d e o f t h e f i e l d (20 m e t r e s i n f r o m t h e s i d e l i n e ) . L e f t s i d e o f t h e f i e l d (20 m e t r e s i n f r o m t h e s i d e l i n e ) C e n t r a l s e c t i o n o f t h e f i e l d ( t h e m i d d l e 20 m e t r e s o f t h e f i e l d ) . The b a l l i s p l a c e d i n t h e c o r n e r o f t h e f i e l d a n d k i c k e d i n t o p l a y . The b a l l i s p l a c e d 12 y a r d s o u t f r o m t h e g o a l l i n e a n d k i c k e d a t t h e g o a l . One p l a y e r f r o m e a c h t e a m k i c k t h e b a l l a f t e r i t h a s d r o p p e d f r o m t h e r e f e r e e ' s h a n d s and h i t t h e g r o u n d . A b a l l p l a y e d b e t w e e n o r b e h i n d . d e f e n d e r s i n t o s p a c e . 74 C r i t e r i o n Code ( C o n t i n u e d ) 32. D r i b b l e (D.) 33. L o n g P a s s ( L . P . ) 34. S h o r t P a s s ( L . P . ) 35. R u n n i n g w i t h B a l l (R.W.B.) A p l a y e r r u n s w i t h t h e b a l l a t h i s f e e t a n d b e a t s a d e f e n d e r . A b a l l p a s s e d o v e r 15 m e t r e s . A b a l l p a s s e d u n d e r 15 m e t r e s . R u n n i n g w i t h t h e b a l l i n o pen s p a c e . 75 QUESTIONNAIRE GAME ANALYSIS 1. D e s c r i b e i n p o i n t f o r m t h e s e q u e n c e o f e v e n t s l e a d i n g up t o t h e s c o r i n g o f e a c h g o a l . S t a r t w i t h t h e g o a l f i r s t a n d r e c o u n t t h e e v e n t s u s i n g t h e t e r m s f r o m t h e C r i t e r i o n Code and t h e f i e l d p o s i t i o n s o n l y . EVENT TEAM LOCATION DESCRIPTION 76 2. De s c r i b e i n p o i n t form the sequence of events l e a d i n g up t o the t a k i n g of each shot (not the shots t h a t were g o a l s ) . S t a r t w i t h the shot and recount the events u s i n g the terms from the C r i t e r i o n Code and the f i e l d p o s i t i o n s o n l y . EVENT TEAM LOCATION DESCRIPTION 77 3• De s c r i b e i n p o i n t form the sequence of events l e a d i n g up t o each missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t y (not the s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t were g o a l s or s h o t s ) . S t a r t with the missed s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t y and recount the events u s i n g the terms from the C r i t e r i o n Code and the f i e l d p o s i t i o n s o n l y . . EVENT TEAM LOCATION DESCRIPTION 78 APPENDIX 8 TRAINING PROGRAM COACHING ANALYSIS 15 MINUTE SEGMENTS EXPERIMENTAL GROUP 1. WON BALL POSSESSION L o o k i n g f o r t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a c h a n g e i n p o s s e s s i o n . Where on t h e f i e l d t h e p o s s e s s i o n was won. The c h a n c e o f g o i n g f o r w a r d w i t h t h e b a l l t o c r e a t e a s h o o t i n g o p p o r t u n i t y . 2 . SET PLAYS Was t h e b a l l p l a y e d f o r w a r d . Was t h e b a l l p l a y e d i n t o a s h o o t i n g p o s i t i o n . Were t h e r e p l a y e r s i n a p o s i t i o n t o t a k e a s h o t . 3. CROSSES D i d t h e a t t a c k e r b e a t a d e f e n d e g p r i o r t o c r o s s i n g t h e b a l l . Was t h e b a l l c r o s s e d i n t o t h e p e n a l t y a r e a . Were t h e r e p l a y e r s i n a p o s i t i o n t o c h a l l e n g e f o r t h e b a l l . 4. PENETRATING PASSES Was t h e b a l l > p l a y e d b e t w e e n o r b e h i n d d e f e n d e r s . Were t h e r e a t t a c k e r s r u n n i n g o n t o t h e b a l l . 5. SHOOTING OPPORTUNITIES I s t h e b a l l b e i n g p l a y e d i n t o p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e s h o o t i n g a n g l e . Can t h e p l a y e r s h o o t . 79 SHOTS TAKEN I s t h e s h o t on t a r g e t . GOALS SCORED I s t h e s h o t a g o a l . CONTROL GROUP 1 T h e y w i l l w a t c h t h e s e v e n v i d e o t a p e s a n d c o m p l e t e t h e same q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t t h e y r e c e i v e d i n t h e p r e t e s t ( A p p e n d i x D ) . They w i l l n o t d i s c u s s t h e i r a n s w e r s w i t h t h e o t h e r c o a c h e s . CONTROL GROUP 2 The c o n t r o l g r o u p w i l l d i s c u s s a m o n g s t t h e m s e l v e s t h e i r t h o u g h t s on t h e s e v e n v i d e o t a p e s . T h e y w i l l w r i t e down t h e i r a n a l y s e s a n d f o r m u l a t e a p l a n f o r n e x t week f o r Team A. 80 APPENDIX 9 N a t i o n a l C o a c h i n g C e r t i f i c a t i o n P r o g r a m L e v e l I L e v e l I I L e v e l I I I B L i c e n s e A L i c e n s e T e c h n i c a l 16 h o u r s 16 h o u r s 16 h o u r s 2 y e a r s 2 y e a r s T h e o r y 14 h o u r s 21 h o u r s 3 5 h o u r s O v e r t w o y e a r s T e c h n i c a l & T h e o r y C o m b i n e d P r a c t i c a l One S e a s o n One S e a s o n C L i c e n s e 24 h o u r s 81 REFERENCES A l l a r d , F., and S t a r k e s , J . , ( 1 9 8 0 ) . " P e r c e p t i o n i n S p o r t : V o l l e y b a l l " , J o u r n a l o f S p o r t P s y c h o l o g y . 2, 2 2 - 3 3 . A l l a r d , F., Graham, S., and P a a r s a u , M., ( 1 9 8 0 ) . " P e r c e p t i o n i n S p o r t : B a s k e t b a l l " , J o u r n a l o f S p o r t P s y c h o l o g y , 2, 14-21. A r e n d , S., and H i g g i n s , J . , ( 1 9 7 6 ) . "A S t r a t e g y f o r t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , S u b j e c t i v e A n a l y s i s , a n d O b s e r v a t i o n o f Human Movement", J o u r n a l o f Human Movement S t u d i e s , 2, 3 6 - 5 2 . B a r d , C , a n d F l e u r y , M., ( 1 9 7 6 ) . " A n a l y s i s o f V i s u a l S e a r c h A c t i v i t y D u r i n g S p o r t P r o b l e m S i t u a t i o n s " , J o u r n a l o f Human Movement S t u d i e s , 3., 2 1 4 - 2 2 2 . B a r r e t t , K. , ( 1 9 7 9 ) . " O b s e r v a t i o n o f Movement f o r T e a c h e r s - A S y n t h e s i s a n d I m p l i c a t i o n s " , M o t o r S k i l l s : T h e o r y i n t o P r a c t i c e , 2, 67-76. B a r r e t t , K., ( 1 9 7 9 ) . " O b s e r v a t i o n f o r T e a c h i n g a n d C o a c h i n g " , J o u r n a l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n a n d R e c r e a t i o n . J a n u a r y , 2 3 - 2 5 . B e d i n g f i e l d , W., M a r c h i o r i , G., a n d G e r v a i s , P., ( 1 9 8 2 ) . "Game S t r a t e g y : F i l m and C o m p u t e r A n a l y s i s " , I n N. Wood (Ed.) C o a c h i n g S c i e n c e U p d a t e , 23-24. B e k e r i a n , D., a n d B o w e r s , J . , ( 1 9 8 3 ) . " E y e w i t n e s s T e s t i m o n y : Were we M i s l e d ? " J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y : L e a r n i n g , Memory and C o g n i t i o n . 9, 1 3 9 - 1 4 5 . Brown, E., D e f f e n b a c k e r , K., and S t u r g i l l , W., ( 1 9 7 7 ) . "Memory f o r F a c e s a n d t h e C i r c u m s t a n c e s o f E n c o u n t e r " , J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 3, 311-318. C a n a d i a n S o c c e r A s s o c i a t i o n , ( 1 9 8 4 ) . W o r l d Cup A n a l y s i s - O t t a w a 1984. 82 R e f e r e n c e s ( C o n t i n u e d ) C l i f f o r d , B., and S c o t t , J . , ( 1 9 7 8 ) . " I n d i v i d u a l a n d S i t u a t i o n a l F a c t o r s i n E y e w i t n e s s T e s t i m o n y " , J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 63, 3 5 2-359. C l i f f o r d , B., a n d H o l l i n , C., ( 1 9 8 0 ) . " E f f e c t s o f t h e Type o f I n c i d e n t a n d t h e Number o f P e r p e t r a t o r s on E y e w i t n e s s Memory", J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 65, 364-370. C o o p e r , L. , and R o t h s t e i n , A., ( 1 9 8 1 ) . " V i d e o t a p e R e p l a y and t h e L e a r n i n g o f S k i l l s i n Open and C l o s e d E n v i r o n m e n t s " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y f o r E x e r c i s e and S p o r t . 52, 191-199. C u t l e r , B., P e n r o d , S., and M a r t e n s , T., ( 1 9 8 7 ) . " I m p r o v i n g t h e R e l i a b i l i t y o f E y e w i t n e s s I d e n t i f i c a t i o n : P u t t i n g C o n t e x t i n t o C o n t e x t " , J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 72, 6 2 9 - 6 3 7 . D a r s t , P., ( 1 9 8 1 ) . " A n a l y z i n g C o a c h i n g B e h a v i o u r a n d P r a c t i c e T i m e " , M o t o r S k i l l s , 5, 13-16. D a v i e s , G., S h e p h e r d , J . , and E l l i s , H., ( 1 9 7 9 ) . " E f f e c t s o f I n t e r p o l a t e d M u g s h o t E x p o s u r e on A c c u r a c y o f E y e w i t n e s s I d e n t i f i c a t i o n " , J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y . 64. 2 3 2 - 2 3 7 . E d w a r d s , A.L., ( 1 9 6 0 ) . E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n s i n P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h , r e v . e d . New-York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t a n d W i n s t o n , I n c . C h a p t e r 17, pp. 3 0 9 - 3 1 1 . E j e m , M., ( 1 9 8 0 ) . "Some T h e o r e t i c a l A s p e c t s o f S t a t i s t i c a l Game A n a l y s i s U t i l i z a t i o n i n P l a y e r ' s P e r f o r m a n c e E v a l u a t i o n " , V o l l e y b a l l T e c h n i c a l J o u r n a l , 5, 4 3 -48. F r a n k s , I . , E l l i o t , M., and J o h n s o n , R., ( 1 9 8 5 ) . "The E f f e c t s o f E x p e r i e n c e a n d A t t e n t i o n a l F o c u s on t h e D e t e c t i o n and L o c a t i o n o f P e r f o r m a n c e D i f f e r e n c e s i n a G y m n a s t i c T e c h n i q u e " , P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e C a n a d i a n P s y c h o m o t o r C o n f e r e n c e , M o n t r e a l , O c t o b e r . 83 F r a n k s , I . , a n d Thomson, W., ( 1 9 8 2 ) . " R e p o r t on t h e W o r l d U n i v e r s i t y S o c c e r C h a m p i o n s h i p s " , C a n a d i a n S o c c e r A s s o c i a t i o n . F r a n k s , I . , ( 1 9 8 1 ) . " M a t c h A n a l y s i s " Y o u t h S o c c e r C o a c h i n g , O t t a w a : F i t n e s s & A m a t e u r S p o r t P u b l i c a t i o n s , A p p e n d i x A, 2 6 5 - 2 6 9 . F r a n k s , I . , a n d M i l l e r , G., ( 1 9 8 3 ) . "How E r r o r f u l a r e S u b j e c t i v e A s s e s s m e n t s ? An A n a l y s i s o f C o a c h i n g O b s e r v a t i o n s " , ( U n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t . ) F r a n k s , I . , ( 1 9 8 8 ) . " A n a l y s i s o f A s s o c i a t i o n F o o t b a l l , S o c c e r J o u r n a l , S e p t e m b e r / O c t o b e r , 3 5 - 4 3 . F r a n k s , I . , Goodman, D., a n d M i l l e r , G., ( 1 9 8 3 ) . " A n a l y s i s o f P e r f o r m a n c e : Q u a l i t a t i v e o r Q u a n t i t a t i v e " , S c i e n c e P e r i o d i c a l on R e s e a r c h a n d T e c h n o l o g y i n S p o r t , M a r c h , GY-1. F r a n k s , I . , and M i l l e r , G., ( 1 9 8 6 ) . " E y e w i t n e s s T e s t i m o n y i n S p o r t " , J o u r n a l o f S p o r t B e h a v i o r , V o l . 9, No. 1, 38-45. F r a n k s , I . , a n d Goodman, D., ( 1 9 8 6 ) . "A S y s t e m a t i c A p p r o a c h t o A n a l y s i n g S p o r t s P e r f o r m a n c e " , J o u r n a l o f S p o r t S c i e n c e s , 4, 49 - 5 9 . F r a n k s , I . , W i l s o n , G., a n d Goodman, D., ( 1 9 8 7 ) . " A n a l y z i n g a Team S p o r t w i t h t h e A i d o f C o m p u t e r s , " C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f S p o r t S c i e n c e . 12, 12 0 - 1 2 5 . F r a n k s , I . , Goodman, D., and P a t e r s o n , G., ( 1 9 8 6 ) . "The R e a l T ime A n a l y s i s o f S p o r t : An O v e r v i e w . " C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d S p o r t S c i e n c e , I I , 5 5 - 5 7. F r a n k s , I . , Goodman, D., a n d M i l l e r , G., ( 1 9 8 3 ) . "Human F a c t o r s i n S p o r t s S y s t e m s : An E m p i r i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f E v e n t s i n Team Games", P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e Human F a c t o r s S o c i e t y 2 7 t h A n n u a l M e e t i n g , V i r g i n i a , U.S.A. 3 8 3 - 3 8 6 . 84 R e f e r e n c e s ( C o n t i n u e d ) G o u l d , P., a n d G a t r e l l , A., ( 1 9 7 9 ) . "A S t r u c t u r a l A n a l y s i s o f a Game: The L i v e r p o o l v s . M a n c h e s t e r U n i t e d Cup F i n a l o f 1977", S o c i a l N e t w o r k s , 2, 2 5 3 - 2 7 3 . G o u l d , P., and G r e e n a w a l t , N . J . , ( 1 9 8 1 ) . "Some M e t h o d o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e A n a l y s i s o f Team Games", J o u r n a l o f S p o r t s P s y c h o l o g y , 4, 283-288. G r i e v e , D., ( 1 9 7 1 ) . " F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g A C o a c h ' s A b i l i t y To A n a l y z e " , The A t h l e t i c J o u r n a l , J u n e 1 9 7 1 , 42-54. H a n n a f i n , M., and Hughes, C., ( 1 9 8 6 ) . "A F r a m e w o r k f o r I n c o r p o r a t i n g O r i e n t i n g A c t i v i t i e s i n C o m p u t e r - B a s e d I n t e r a c t i v e V i d e o " , I n s t r u c t i o n a l S c i e n c e , 15, 239-255. H a r k e s s , D., a n d B r o d i e , D., ( 1 9 8 1 ) . "The U s e o f M i c r o c o m p u t e r f o r A c t i v i t y Time A n a l y s i s " , A b s t r a c t f r o m B r i t i s h C o n f e r e n c e on C o m p u t e r s and M i c r o p r o c e s s o r s i n S p o r t s S c i e n c e , L e e d s , p. 38. H o f f m a n , S . J . , ( 1 9 7 7 ) . " C o m p e t e n c y - B a s e d T r a i n i n g i n S k i l l A n a l y s i s : D e s i g n i n g A s s e s s m e n t S y s t e m s " , i n R.E. S t a d u l i s ( E d ) , R e s e a r c h a n d P r a c t i c e i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , Champagn, I l l i n o i s : AAPHER, 3-12. H o s c h , H., a n d C o o p e r , D., ( 1 9 8 2 ) . " V i c t i m i z a t i o n a s a D e t e r m i n a n t o f E y e w i t n e s s A c c u r a c y " , J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y . 67, 6 4 9 - 6 5 2 . H o s c h , H., L e i p p e , M., M a r c h i o n i , P., and C o o p e r , D.S., ( 1 9 8 4 ) . " V i c t i m i z a t i o n , S e l f - M o n i t o r i n g , a n d E y e w i t n e s s I d e n t i f i c a t i o n " , J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 69, 2 8 0 - 2 8 8 . H u g h e s , C., ( 1 9 8 3 ) . " M a t c h P e r f o r m a n c e A n a l y s i s " , C o u r s e C o n d u c t o r ' s M a n u a l , C a n a d i a n S o c c e r A s s o c i a t i o n . K a z d i n , A., ( 1 9 7 7 ) . " A r t i f a c t , B i a s a n d C o m p l e x i t y o f A s s e s s m e n t : The ABC's o f R e l i a b i l i t y " , J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d B e h a v i o u r A n a l y s i s , 10, 141-150. 85 R e f e r e n c e s ( C o n t i n u e d ) K i m b l e , G., G a r n e z y , N., and Z i g l e r , E., ( 1 9 8 0 ) . P r i n c i p l e s o f G e n e r a l P s y c h o l o g y . New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y a n d S o n s . L e i p p e , M., W e l l s , G., and O s t r o m , T., ( 1 9 8 7 ) . " C r i m e S e r i o u s n e s s a s a D e t e r m i n a n t o f A c c u r a c y i n E y e w i t n e s s I d e n t i f i c a t i o n " , J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 63, 3 4 5 - 3 5 1 . L i n d s a y , R., W e l l s , G., and R u m p e l , C , ( 1 9 8 1 ) . "Can P e o p l e D e t e c t E y e w i t n e s s - I d e n t i f i c a t i o n A c c u r a c y W i t h i n a n d A c r o s s S i t u a t i o n s " , J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 66 7 9 - 8 9 . L o f t u s , E., ( 1 9 8 4 ) . " E y e w i t n e s s e s : E s s e n t i a l b u t U n r e l i a b l e " P s y c h o l o g y T o d a y . Feb. 22-26. M a c d o n a l d , N., ( 1 9 8 4 ) . " A v o i d i n g t h e P i t f a l l s i n P l a y e r s S e l e c t i o n " , C o a c h i n g S c i e n c e U p d a t e , 4 1 - 4 5 . M a l p a s s , R., a n d D e v i n e , P., ( 1 9 8 1 ) . " G u i d e d Memory i n E y e w i t n e s s I d e n t i f i c a t i o n " , J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y . 66, 343-350. M a l p a s s , R., a n d D e v i n e , P., ( 1 9 8 1 ) . " E y e w i t n e s s I d e n t i f i c a t i o n : L i n e u p I n s t r u c t i o n s a n d t h e A b s e n c e o f t h e O f f e n d e r " , J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y . 66, 4 8 2 - 4 8 9 . M a y e r , R., ( 1 9 7 9 ) . "Can A d v a n c e O r g a n i z e r s I n f l u e n c e M e a n i n g f u l L e a r n i n g " , R e v i e w o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . 49., 371-383 . M i l l s l a g l e , D., ( 1 9 8 8 ) . " V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n , R e c o g n i t i o n , R e c a l l a n d Mode o f V i s u a l S e a r c h C o n t r o l i n B a s k e t b a l l I n v o l v i n g N o v i c e a n d E x p e r i e n c e d B a s k e t b a l l P l a y e r s " , J o u r n a l o f S p o r t B e h a v i o u r , 1 1, 32-44. M o r r i s , D., ( 1 9 8 1 ) . The S o c c e r T r i b e , L o n d o n : J . Cape Co., 9 4 - 1 0 1 . 86 R e f e r e n c e s ( C o n t i n u e d ) M o u r a n t , R., a n d R o c k w e l l , T., ( 1 9 7 2 ) . " S t r a t e g i e s o f V i s u a l S e a r c h b y N o v i c e a n d E x p e r i e n c e d D r i v e r s " , Human F a c t o r s , 14/ 3 2 5 - 3 3 5 . M u r p h y , K., G a r c i a , M., K e r k a r , S., M a r t i n , C., a n d B a l z e r , W., ( 1 9 8 2 ) . " R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n O b s e r v a t i o n a l A c c u r a c y and A c c u r a c y i n E v a l u a t i n g P e r f o r m a n c e " , J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y . 67, 3 2 0 - 3 2 5 . N e i s s e r , U., ( 1 9 6 7 ) . C o g n i t i v e P s y c h o l o g y , New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y C r o f t s . N e i s s e r , U., ( 1 9 7 6 ) . C o g n i t i o n and R e a l i t y , S a n F r a n c i s c o : W.H. Freeman & Co. N e i s s e r , U., ( 1 9 8 2 ) . Memory O b s e r v e d . S a n F r a n c i s c o : W.H. Fr e e m a n & Co. N e w t s o n , D., ( 1 9 7 3 ) . " A t t r i b u t i o n a n d t h e U n i t o f P e r c e p t i o n o f O n g o i n g B e h a v i o r " , J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 28, No. 1, 28-38. N e w t s o n , D., ( 1 9 7 6 ) . "The P r o c e s s o f B e h a v i o r O b s e r v a t i o n " , J o u r n a l o f Human Movement S t u d i e s , 2, 1 1 4 - 1 2 2 . N e w t s o n , D., a n d E n g q u i s t , G., ( 1 9 7 6 ) . "The P e r c e p t u a l O r g a n i z a t i o n o f O n g o i n g B e h a v i o r " , J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 12., 43 6 - 4 5 0 . P a c h e l l a , R., ( 1 9 7 4 ) . "The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f R e a c t i o n Time i n I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g R e s e a r c h " , i n K a n t o w i t z , B. ( E d . ) , Human I n f o r m a t i o n - P r o c e s s i n g : T u t o r i a l s i n P e r f o r m a n c e a n d C o g n i t i o n , New J e r s e y : L a w r e n c e E r l b a u m A s s o c . , 4 1 - 6 5 . P e t r a k i s , E., ( 1 9 8 6 ) . " V i s u a l O b s e r v a t i o n P a t t e r n s o f T e n n i s T e a c h e r s " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y f o r E x e r c i s e a n d S p o r t , 57, 2 5 4 - 2 5 9 . 87 R e f e r e n c e s ( C o n t i n u e d ) P o l l a r d , R., B e n j a m i n , B., and Reep, C., (1977) . " S p o r t and t h e N e g a t i v e B i n o m i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n " , i n L a n d a n y , S. and M a c h o l , R., (Ed.) O p t i m a l S t r a t e g i e s i n S p o r t s , A m s t e r d a m , N o r t h - H o l l a n d , 1 8 7 - 1 9 5 . Reep C , P o l l a r d , R., B e n j a m i n , B., ( 1 9 7 1 ) . " S k i l l a n d Chance i n B a l l Games", J o u r n a l o f t h e R o y a l S t a t i s t i c a l S o c i e t y , 134, 6 2 3 - 6 2 9 . Reep, C , a n d B e n j a m i n , B., ( 1 9 6 8 ) . " S k i l l s a n d C h a n c e i n A s s o c i a t i o n F o o t b a l l " , J o u r n a l o f t h e R o y a l S t a t i s t i c a l S o c i e t y . 1 3 1. 5 8 1 - 5 8 5 . T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t - C a n a d i a n O l y m p i c S o c c e r Team. S e p t e m b e r , (1982) - M a r c h , ( 1 9 8 3 ) . T h o r n t o n , G., a n d Z o r i c h , S., ( 1 9 8 0 ) . " T r a i n i n g t o I m p r o v e O b s e r v e r A c c u r a c y " , J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 65 35 1 - 3 5 4 . V a n d e r h e n d e n , A., ( 1 9 8 1 ) . S h o r t - T e r m V i s u a l I n f o r m a t i o n F o r g e t t i n g , L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e & K e g a n P a u l . V i c k e r s , J . , ( 1 9 8 3 ) . " E x p e r t - N o v i c e D i f f e r e n c e s i n K n o w l e d g e S t r u c t u r e s o f A c t i o n " , (Ph.D. T h e s i s ) U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . V o j i k , J . , ( 1 9 8 0 ) . " S e v e r a l R e m a r k s t o a S y s t e m o f A c c u m u l a t i n g D a t a i n V o l l e y b a l l " , V o l l e y b a l l T e c h n i c a l J o u r n a l , 5, 3 5 - 4 1 . W a l k , R., ( 1 9 7 8 ) . " P e r c e p t u a l L e a r n i n g " , i n Handbook o f P e r c e p t i o n . C a r t e r e t t e , E., a n d F r i e d m a n , M., ( E d s . ) , A c a d e m i c P r e s s , 2 5 7 - 2 9 7 . W e l f o r d , A., and B o u r n e , L., ( 1 9 7 6 ) . S k i l l e d P e r f o r m a n c e : P e r c e p t u a l a n d M o t o r S k i l l s . U.S.A.: S c o t t , F o r e s m a n & Co., 18-146. 88 R e f e r e n c e s ( C o n t i n u e d ) W e l l s , G., and L e i p p e , M., ( 1 9 8 1 ) . "How Do T r i e r s o f F a c t I n f e r t h e A c c u r a c y o f E y e w i t n e s s I d e n t i f i c a t i o n s ? U s i n g Memory f o r P e r i p h e r a l D e t a i l Can Be M i s l e a d i n g " , J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 66, 682-687. W e l l s , G., a n d L o f t u s , E., ( 1 9 8 4 ) . " E y e w i t n e s s R e s e a r c h - Then a n d Now", i n E y e w i t n e s s T e s t i m o n y : P s y c h o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s , C a m b r i d g e , U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1-11. W e l l s , G., ( 1 9 8 3 ) . "The P s y c h o l o g y o f L i n e u p I d e n t i f i c a t i o n " , J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , S e p t e m b e r , 1-30. W i c k e l g r e n , W., ( 1 9 7 9 ) . C o g n i t i v e P s y c h o l o g y , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l . W i l k i n s o n , W., a n d Thomas, V., ( 1 9 7 8 ) . "An A n a l y s i s o f C o n c o r d a n c e B e t w e e n S k i l l e d O b s e r v e r s o f S o c c e r P e r f o r m a n c e " , R e s e a r c h P a p e r s i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 3, 6 4 - 6 5 . Woodhead, M., B a d d e l e y , A., a n d Simmonds, D., ( 1 9 7 9 ) . "On T r a i n i n g P e o p l e t o R e c o g n i z e F a c e s " , E r g o n o m i c s , 22 3 3 3 - 3 4 3 . Y u i l l e , J . , a n d C u t s h a l l , J . , ( 1 9 8 6 ) . "A C a s e S t u d y o f E y e w i t n e s s Memory o f a C r i m e " , J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 7 1 , 2 9 1 - 3 0 1 . 89

Cite

Citation Scheme:

    

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
United Kingdom 6 6
Japan 4 0
China 4 18
Ireland 2 0
United States 1 0
City Views Downloads
Unknown 6 8
Beijing 4 0
Washington 2 1
Tokyo 2 0
Edinburgh 1 0
Lincoln 1 0
Ashburn 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}

Share

Share to:

Comment

Related Items