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Anthropometric, cardiovascular and motor performance characteristics of university ice hockey players Selder, Dennis James 1964

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I  1MHR0P0MEERIC, CABDIOVASCULAH M D MOTOR PERFORMfiMJE CHiiRACTSRISTICS OF IWH^BRSITI ICE HOCKEY FLAYERS  by  Dennis James Selder ,P,E., The University of British Columbia, 1962  -is. Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of The Requirements for the Degree of Master of Physical Education in the School of Physical Education and Recreation  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard.  The University of British Columbia September 1964  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of • British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall.make it freely available for reference,and study®  I further agree that per-  mission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be~granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It is understood that; copying or publi-  cation of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  / V ^ ^  The University of British Columbia, Vancouver 8« Canada. Date  ABSTRACT  The purpose of this study was to describe characteristics of physique, motor fitness and cardiovascular fitness of University ice hockey players. Fourteen University of British Columbia varsity ice hockey players were given selected tests of physique, motor fitness and cardiovascular fitness. The tests were administered during the last month of the competitive season. In the physique area the subjects were characterized by extreme mesomorphy, average endomorphy, low ectomorphy, low fat measurements, had relatively long trunks, wide hips, slightly above average shoulder width and arm proportions that are mechanically suited for efficient mechanical manoeuvering of a light instrument such as a hockey stick. The motor fitness tests ranged from average to good and could not be considered excellent for a group of athletes. The cardiovascular measurements ranged from good to excellent. These results were attributed to the nature of the sport and the demanding intervallike training program which the hockey team had undergone during the season.  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER  PAGE  I II III IV V VI  STATEMENT OP THE PROBLEM  1  JUSTIFICATION OP THE PROBLEM  3  REVIEW OP LITERATURE METHODS AND PROCEDURES  . .  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ........  .  5 11  ..............  SUMMARY RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  17 25  REFERENCES  27  APPENDICES A  ANATOMICAL MEASUREMENTS AMD RATIOS ..........................  29  B  AVERAGE ANATOMICAL MEASUREMENTS .............................  31  C  BODY AMD SKINFOLD PAT MEASUREMENTS  32  D  STRENGTH MEASUREMENTS .......  33  E  FLEXIBILITY, AGILITY AND BALANCE BEAM MEASUREMENTS ..........  34  F  HARVARD STEP TEST RESULTS «o»»**e««e*«*«««*«*e»«se««*««*ceo««  G  BRACHIAL PULSE WAVE MEASUREMENTS  ..  36  LIST OP TABLES I II III  GROUP COMPARISONS FOR SOMATOTYPES  ..  GROUP COMPARISONS POR SELECTED BODY MEASUREMENTS ............  17  AVERAGE PAT MEASUREMENTS  19  IV . GROUP AVERAGES POR MOTOR FITNESS TESTS V VI  VII VIII  16  GROUP COMPARISONS FOR SELECTED MOTOR FITNESS  20 21  GROUP AVERAGES FOR SUM OP RECOVERY PULSE AND FITNESS INDEX FOR HARVARD STEP TEST  22  GROUP AVERAGES POR BRACHIAL PULSE WAVE MEASUREMENTS .........  22  GROUP COMPARISONS FOR SELECTED BRACHIAL PULSE WAVE MEASUSEMEIWS  24  CHAPTER II  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to describe characteristics of physique, cardiovascular condition and motor fitness of fourteen University of British Columbia ice hockey players.  Analysis of the Problem The study has attempted to answer the following questions: 1. In what respects do the subjects differ from normal, healthy college men of approximately the same age? 2. What are the unusual characteristics of the subjects? 3. How do these subjects compare with a sample of champion athletes on the 1948 U.S. Olympic team (swimmers and track and field men)? 4. Are there any physical attributes that appear to be associated with success in playing hockey?  Delimitations 1. The subjects are all members of the U.B.C. varsity ice hockey team, 2. Only certain aspects of physical fitness will be measured.  Limitations 1. The tests were taken during the third and fourth month of a fourmonth season to obtain raw scores during the peak of the conditioning program. However, it is felt by the writer that some did not reach their maximum level of fitness due to pressure of studies. 2. It was not possible to control the subjects' activity, hours of sleeping or diet during the testing period although the need for normal diet, activity and hours of rest was impressed upon the subjects.  1. The tests were valid and reliable. 2. Each subject was adequately motivated to do his best.  Definitions and Use of Terms 1. Muscular strength: muscular strength is defined as the force that a muscle or group of muscles can exert against a resistance in a maximum effort (2l). It is measured in units of pounds. 2. Muscular flexibility: refers to the measurement in inches of the ability to certain body segments to flex or extend through the action of muscles over the involved joints. Movements are regulated by the nature of the joint structure, ligaments and physical forces which act upon the joint (6). 3. Cardiovascular fitness: is possessed by participants in long distance swimming and track events. Excellent cardiovascular, condition reflects a strong heart, good blood vessels, proper functioning lungs and cardio-respiratorv systems (2l)» 4.  Characteristics of physique: refers to somatotype, skeletal and  adipose measurements. 5. Motor fitness: is defined by Mathews as "a limited phase of motor ability" (21, p.5). The aspects selected for emphasis are endurance, power, strength, agility, flexibility and balance. 6. Dynamometer: is an instrument used for measuring static strength. It is scaled to measure in pounds. 7. Cameron Heartometer: is an instrument that records the brachial pulse wave form. It is a quick simple method to test certain components of cardiovascular condition (8).  CHAPTER II  JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM There is a need for scientific information on the physical fitness of the players.who regularly participate in various competitive and recreational games end sports. This is important not only to the physiologist in understanding effects of body exercise, but also to the physical educator and coach who are interested in developing effective training techniques. Cureton states; "The difficulty in recognizing the key elements in the success of outstanding athletes is that neither the individuals nor the events have been very carefully studied." (6, p.6). Objective data will provide a basis for further independent research, the exact nature of which it is not possible to determine exactly -until the data is analyzed. The findings in this study should be of interest to persons engaged in the selection and training of proficient hockey players. For example, it might be possible to predict success in hockey from characteristics of physique and components of motor fitness. Other studies might be concerned with developing training programs designed to produce certain characteristics of physique, cardiovascular condition and motor fitness relative to successful participation in hockey. The necessity of specific training to athletes is emphasized by the Soviet Union, which has divided exercise for training athletes into the following areas (23): 1) Participation in the sport in which one specializes. 2) Exercise for general development: a) exercise with or without weight. b) exercise for different sports. 3) Special exercise for specific skills of the activity or sport. Ozolin (23) reported that the most important principle recognized by the Soviet Union is conscientious appraisal or evaluation of every aspect of the sport during the training season. Currently there is considerable discussion regarding the effects of  4  strenuous athletic participation. Karpovich reports: "Physical directors and coaches usually take it for granted that physical education and athletics help to prolong life. There are, however, many people who, admitting that moderate indulgence in exercise is hygenic, believe that participation in strenuous athletics is definitely harmful and shortens life" (15, p.27l). The only way this question can be answered is through long-range studies. Since so few older athletes have been measured, the big problem is getting as many young athletes as possible on record (6).  CHAPTER III REVIEW OP LITERATURE Physical fitness can be described under three main headings; characteristics of physique, motor performance and cardio-respiratory efficiency (7). Cureton intercorrelated twenty-two physical fitness tests and a subsequent factor analysis showed that there were six fairly independent groups of tests, all of which come under the three headings of physique, motor fitness and cardio-respiratory efficiency ( 7 ) . (2)  The six factors were;  (l) constitutional "body type,  factors associated with the adipose tissue aspect of ponderosity,  ness associated with thin bones and ectomorphic build, respiratory tests,! (6)  (4)  strength,  gross motor performances tests and (7)  (3)  thin-  (5) circulo-  metabolism. With  further rotation the (5) and (7) groups merged into one factor.  PHYSIQUE Sheldon, Stevens and Tucker have presented methods for assessing body build (26), They employ the concept of three main body components; endomorphy, ectomorphy and mesomorphy, which describe each somatotype (body build). Body build has been related to success in various athletic contests. Sills and Mitchem correlated body build with sit-ups, pull-ups and a three hundred yard shuttle run (27). They found that by assessing body build they-could validly divide college men into homogeneous groups for physical activity. In a factor analysis study of somatotype and achievement in motor skills, Sills reports that those with dominant mesomorphy were superior to dominant ectomorphs and endomorphs in motor ability tests (29). Sills and Everett found mesomorphs stronger than endomorphs and ectomorphs; endomorphs stronger than ectomorphs; ectomorphs superior to endomorphs in speed, agility and endurance;- mesomorphs superior to both endomorphs and ectomorphs in agility, speed and endurance and that excess weight is a handicap to ectomorphs in the performance of physical tests (28).  6  Willgoose reports that great athletes, who are usually extreme mesomorphs, have endomorphic or ectomorphic support (3l). Sheldon states: "the 261 together with its more numerous cousins the 263 and the 362, and its scarcer cousin the 462, defines the picture of the most encountered successful athletes. These four somatotypes make up about 4.8$ of the male population....Even if we allow a small sprinkling of 5's in mesomorphy among the top-flight athletes in the country, it is apparent that the four somato types named must constitute something in the neighbourhood of two thirds of them" (25, p.119).  MOTOR PERFORMANCE' Mathews in reviewing twenty-eight factor analysis studies dealing with motor ability tests found strength, velocity and muscular co-ordination as the main factors ,(2l). Other factors identified were: motor educability, body size, height, weight, force, endurance, power and agility. McCloy lists muscular strength, speed of muscular contraction, power, ability to change direction, muscular endurance, circulo-respiratory endurance, agility, weight and flexibility as factors in general motor ability ( 1 9 ) . Cureton states: "general motor ability...has been shown by logic and factor analysis to be composed of six factors, namely; endurance, power, strength, agility, flexibility and balance". (8, p.63). Fleishman, in a review of research in motor fitness, described fourteen factors of physical proficiency identified from previous research. He states: "There is no such thing as general 'physical proficiency'. The problem is a multi-dimensional one" (ll, p.16). Further light is thrown on the subject by Henry, whose research indicates that motor ability is not general but rather specific to the task ( 1 3 ) . Neuro-motor co-ordination patterns are stored in a "memory drum" in the mind. Once a pattern is learned it cmbe called upon or played back whenever the  7 proper stimulus reaches the brain. Cureton gives examples of specificity in training and skills obtained by champion athletes (8). Larson (l8), through a factor analysis study of strength items as related to motor fitness found two components of muscular strength:  (l) dynamic  strength, defined as the ability to raise body weight against gravity and (2) Static dynamometrical strength, defined as muscular contraction against an immovable object, measured by' a dynamometer. By measuring the vertical jump, number of chins and number of dips on the parallel bars, an "all-round" athletic score can be computed by Larson's formula. Balance..,tests are divided into two areas: "static balance" and "dynamic balance" (l9)i McCloy states that "both types .are probably compounded of the same elements, but in widely different degrees." (19, p.103). The balance beam test of static balance has low r's, seldom above 0.5, the reason being that the test is difficult to standardize, because locomotion is involved as well as balance (l9). Flexibility measurements were standardized by Cureton in an unsuccessful effort to correlated success in swimming with the degree of flexibility (8). McCloy states that the thirty foot shuttle run has a validity ,r=.829 and a reliability r=.932 (19). Fleishman states: "by far the most clearly defined area in factor analysis literature is the area of "strength". When the intercorrelations among tests of strength are factored, three broad factors emerge repeatedly. These factors are Explosive Strength, Dynamic Strength and Static Strength....Explosive strength emphasizes the ability to exert maximum energy in one explosive act.,.. The purest tests of this factor include standing broad jump, vertical jump and medicine ball put....The best tests for this factor (Dynamic strength) seem to be pull-ups, rope climb and dips....The best tests of Static strength appear to require an exertion of a maximum for a brief period of time....Typically the force  8  is exerted against a fairly immovable object, such as a dynamometer (ll, p.4). Cureton states that supremacy in some competitive sports depends "in part on some strength factor". This conclusion is based on the fact that the average standard score of the 1948 U.S. Olympic Swim Team on gross strength was 73.6. Other champion athletes had similar scores.  CARDIO-RESPIRATORY FITHESS Cardiovascular fitness has been described by Cureton as having five components (5):  (l) autonomic tone, (2) splanchnic tone, (3) response to a sub-  maximal work task, (4) response to submaxiraal work tasks and (5) recovery from hard work (5) • The brachial pulse wave, as measured by the Cameron Heartometer, is a valuable test of heart function that has been well validated by Cureton (6), Wiggers (30) ^nd Hayden (12).  Studies by Beswick. and Jordan (l), Cundiff (4) and  Cureton (8) have shorn that brachial pulse wave measurements are valuable in classifying athletes. The Harvard Step Test was developed at the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory and is designed to measure the ability of the body.to adapt to hard work (3). Studies on Harvard undergraduates illustrate the value of the step test in distinguishing the athletes' ability to adapt to hard work as compared to nonathletes ( 2 ) .  RELATED LITERATURE Sargent (24), in 1889, reported on aspects of physique and their relationship to athletes. The findings of Sargent regarding relationships of muscle mechanics and grosser organization of body balance, range and direction of movements, leverage and force, speed and power (6), were verified by Kohlrausch (l6) in his study of athletes competing in the 1928 Olympics. Skeletal dimensions have become important in modern studies of athletes.  Q  Davenport (9) reported that the "Crural Index" is always higher in the jumping animals, such as the hare-like Pedetes Caffer vrhich is able to clear 20-30 feet in a single bound. Krakower (ll), in studying the skeletal dimensions of jumpers, found that they had longer legs, greater height and broader feet. After "World War II there was renewed interest in the appraisal of physical fitness. Pox (lo), in an editorial, stated why such interest should be continued: "The term (physical fitness) has a wide usage, both lay and medical; the doctor is interested in the fitness of his patients for various types of work, the physical educator in the athletic skill and precision of his pupils, the manufacturer and the State servant in the efficiency with which a job of work is done". As an example of keen interest Cureton, who earlier studied Olympic swimmers xn 1932 and 1936 (8), took a wide variety of measurements of physique, motor ability and cardiovascular fitness of athletes at the 1948 Olympics (6). Cureton compares his 1948 data with measurements taken on 110 University of Illinois Medical students (8). For a fairly complete list of important sources in research of physical fitness on athletes, the reader is referred to Cureton's book (6). In reviewing the literature, the writer was able to find one study on the physical fitness of hockey players. G. Metivier found that participation in one season of intramural ice hockey will reduce subcutaneous fat, increase right and left grip and back strength, reduce sitting systolic pressure, sitting pulse rate and recuperation pulse (2l). In ice hockey the training of players is based on intensive bursts of speed for short distances. Recent studies have indicated the importance of training in producing certain aspects of fitness. Holmes (14) reported that interval and steeplechase training made larger gains in endurance and cardiovascular fitness than circuit training and muscular endurance training, Mateev (20) found that repetitions of short sprints at greatest speed builds endurance at a higher speed, whereas training at long distance builds en-  durance, but at slower speed.  CHAPTER IV METHODS AID PROCEDURES Members of the UBC Ice Hockey team were measured with selected tests of physique (including photographs), cardiovascular condition and motor fitness in the spring of 1964. The photographs and measurements were all taken during the last month of a four months hockey season. There was an exception in the case of one student and his photograph, adipose measurements ajid cardiovascular measurements were taken three weeks after the last league game. Except for one individual with a back injury, all subjects were healthy and free from physical defects. For those variables for which normative tables were available the mean raw scores obtained were converted into standard scores (SS) and both mean scores and corresponding standard scores were reported in tables of results. It was not possible to convert leg dynometrical strength scores into standard scores as norms were not available. The mean standard scores of the hockey players were compared with those of normal young men (8), flight students (6) and samples of champion athletes (6).  ASPECTS OF PHYSIQUE Constitutional body-type was estimated by Sheldon's (25) photo comparison method. Four by five inch photographs of front, side and back view were taken of each subject. The reciprocal of the ponderal index (Ht/  Wt) was com-  puted for each individual. Using this index it is possible to reduce the number of possible body-types to several likely ones. The closest approximation to each subject's body-type was chosen through a comparison of photographs and by checking the description of the accompanying body-type under consideration. In the Sheldon typology each of three body components - endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy are rated on a scale of 1-7.  12  The writer and a faculty member of the School of Physical Education and Recreation, U.B.C,, made separate estimates of the body type of each subject. These were compared and any differences that occurred were discussed until an agreement was reached. The skeletal measurements were taken from photographs using Vernier calipers, .An exception was the aim span which was a direct measurement. Detailed procedures in performing these measurements have been described by Cureton (6). The measurements and ratios used were: 1) Foreleg Length 2) Thigh Length 3) Trunk Length 4)  Leg Length  5)  Forearm Length  6) Upper Arm Length 7) Arm Length 8; Bust Height 9) Total Height 10) Shoulder Width 11) Hip Width 12) Knee Width 13) Shoulder Width/Hip Width 14) Leg Length/Trunk Length 15) Foreleg Length/Thigh Length 16) Arm Span/Height 17) Upper Arm Length/Forearm Length 18) Bust Height/Height Subcutaneous fat measurements were taken by a member of the Physical Education Faculty, U.B.C., who was experienced in the use of calipers. The method of measuring skinfolds which was used in this study is described by Cureton (8).  13 The measurements were: 1) Cheeks 2) Abdomen 3) Hip 4) Gluteals 5) Rear Thigh 6) Front Thigh  MOTOR ABILITY AREA The strength tests were both static and dynamic in nature and are listed below. The method of testing was as described by Mathews (2l). 1)  Static Strength a) Back Strength b) Leg Strength c) Right Grip d) Left Grip  2)  Dynamic Strength a) Chins b) Dips c) Vertical Jump  Roger's Arm Strength Index was computed (22) and Larson's Dynamic Strength Test weighted scores for 2, a, b & c were obtained using the Illinois rating scale (6). The flexibility tests were taken from Cureton's 18-item motor fitness test (6), The method of application is fully described in the reference literature. The measurements were: 1) Shoulder Flexibility 2) Trunk Flexibility 3) Back Flexibility  14 Each subject was given a variety of stunts to perform on a "balance beam" two inches wide and twenty feet long (Illinois Balance Beam Test). The Method is described by Cureton (6). The sum of scores for all stunts is used to indicate a measure of balance. The Shuttle Bun was used as a test of "agility". The method is described by Mathews (2l).  CARDIOVASCULAR MEASUREMENTS The index from the Harvard Step Test was rated under one of six categories, i.e. very poor, poor, fair, good, excellent and superior. The test was administered and scored as described by Mathews (2l). The brachial pulse wave was recorded by the Cameron Heartometer under non-basal conditions. The procedures of testing and measuring the pulse waves was as described by Cureton (8). The measurements obtained were: l) systolic amplitude (sitting) 2) dicrotic notch amplitude  i) diastolic amplitude 4) diastolic surge 5) area under the curve 6) rest/work ratio 7) systolic amplitude (standing) 8) obliquity angle 9) fatigue ratio 10) difference between 1 and 7 11) average systolic amplitude after exercise  ANALYSIS OF DATA Group means and corresponding standard score (when available) were used as a basis of a discussion of the characteristics of the subjects. Individual  measurements and profile charts are presented for each subject in the appendix. Although the general characteristics of the group were described in terms of the mean or average scores, the importance of individual differences was recognised and the scores of all subjects have been reported in the appendix.  CHAPTER ¥ RESULTS Al© DISCUSSION Selected tests of physique, motor fitness and cardiovascular fitness were administered to fourteen University of British Columbia ice hockey players, The tables and discussion that follow are based on the results of the selected tests. PHYSIQUE AREA . l) Body-type. Table I shows the reciprocal ponderal indices and somatotypes of the ice hockey players. TABLE I Reciprocal Ponderal Indices, Somatotypes and Ratings of the Ice Hockey Players Ratio Index  Subjects  SomatoType  Bowles  12.5  452  Merlo*  12.1  462  McLeod*  11.8  461  Leishman*  12.5  452  Kelley  11.9  371  Cairns  12.5  452  R.Morris  13.1  343  Subjects  (( (  (Endo/ /leso  ( (  Medial  Ratio Index  SomatoType  Parker  10.9  252  Smith  12.7  262  >Eztreme-  Lortie  12.7  262  Meso  Ronald  12.9  162  Harris  12.8  263  (Ecto-  D.Morris  13.1  163  ^Meso  Gibbs*  12.9  353  MedialMeso  *Defensemen The majority of players is divided between two categories - Endomorphic mesomorphy and extreme mesomorphy. These results reinforce Sheldon's statement that: "Even if we allow for a small sprinkling of 5's in mesomorphy among the top-flight athletes of the country,...the four somatotypes named (261, 263, 362, 462) must constitute something in the neighbourhood of two thirds of them." (25, p.110). In comparison with Cureton's track and field sample of Olympic athletes (6), the hockey players are generally higher in the mesomorphic, lower in the ectomorphic and similar in the endomorphic components. The defensemen have above average to high mesomorphy and average endo-  morphy. The forwards and goalie (subject #l) are characterized by high mesomorphy, low endomorphy and ectomorphy, Willgoose .(3.1) in a report on body types and physical fitness found the same relationship amongst ice hockey players which he studied. 2) Anatomical Proportions Table II shows the average anatomical measurements of the ice hockey players used in this study together with the same measurements of other athletic groups and a group of normal non-athletic college students (6,p.30). The standard scores of the athletic groups are taken from the standard scale for 200 flight students, who represent a sample of normal college young men, TABLE II Body Measurement of Ice Hockey Players and other Athletic Groups Plight Students N=200  Measurement  69.61  50  2. Weight  149.59  50  71.83  50  5. Bust Height/ Picture Height  Olympic Track & Field N=25  Ice Hockey Players 1J=13  Mean Standard Mean Standard Mean Standard Mean Standard Score Score Score Score Score Score Score Score  1. Height 3. Arm Span 4. Trunk Length/ Leg Length  Olympic Swimmers M=22  72,2  68 72  173  70.80 157.7  58  70.28  55  56  174.03  73  70,40  48  .625 50  .628 51  ,605 42  .638 54  .485 50  .490 56  .472 34  ,485 50  6. Foreleg Length/ Thigh Length  1.14  50  1.21  67  1.25  77  1.18  63  7, Leg Length/ Trunk Length  1.61  50  1.60  48  1.66  58  1.56  43  8. Upper Arm Length/ Forearm Length  1.19  50  1.12  39  1.26  62  1.24  59  9. Shoulder Width/ Hip Width  1.17  50  1.18  52  1.26  64  1.17  50  The athletic groups are taller and heavier than normal young men. Although the hockey players are just above average in height, they are well above average in weight.  18 The subjects of this study are similar in weight to the Olympic swimmers while at the same time they are two inches shorter in height. This comparatively high weight/height relationship is obviously associated with the high mesomorphic body type component in this group. The crural ratio (foreleg length/thigh length) is, like those of other athletic groups, above average and is closer to the ratio of the swimmers than to the ratio of the track and field sample. The high crural ratio of the track and field men reflects the nature of their sport which calls for spring in overcoming gravitational pull. Ice hockey players by contrast are earth-bound, requiring comparatively low centers of gravity for balance and in order to siirvive constant body contact. This is also evident in the below average leg/trunk ratio of the hockey men, who have relatively long trunks in relation to overall body height. The ratio for this group is lower than that of any of the other groups. The ratio of tipper arm length/forearm length is similar to that of the track and field men. Both are above average, in contrast to the swimmers who have relatively shorter upper arms - a characteristic which is related to the powerful pulling action required in performing swimming strokes. The track men and hockey players have comparatively long upper arms which is mechanically advantageous in manoeuvering a light implement such as a javelin or hockey stick. Although a usual characteristic of dominant mesomorphy is wide shoulders in relation to hip width, this was not found in the subjects of this study. The ratio of shoulder width/hip width of the hockey players was average, i.e., like the swimmers but very unlike the track and field men. This type of build may be advantageous in a body contact sport where shorter clavicles are less subject to injury and relatively wider hips an advantage in the constant bumping contact of ice hockey. 3) Adipose Measurements Table III shows the means, corresponding standard scores and classification of measures for six skinfold fat measurements.  19 TABLE III  Average Fat Measurements Measurements  Group Means  1. Cheeks  8 (mm)  Standard Scores*  Classification  100+  Very low  2. Hip  19 "  65  Trained  3. Abdomen 4. Gluteals  15 "  70  Trained  16 "  83  Low  5. Front Thigh  15 "  75  Low  6. Rear Thigh  13 "  80  Low  *Standard Scores based on standard scales of normal young men (8). The Skinfold Fat Measurements show that the ice hockey players, as a group, have little adipose tissue. The high average body weight (73 SS) of this group is obviously due to above average muscular development. These findings are in line with Metivier's (2l), who found that participation in one season of ice hockey lowered the adipose tissue content of the body. In body contact sport, maximum weight commensurate with mobility is an advantage both for increased momentum and protection of muscles and joints. Evidently hockey players do not enjoy this advantage. The continuous high level of energy output associated with repeated bursts of speed skating during games and practice sessions undoubtedly prevents ice hockey players from accumulating fat during the competitive season. MOTOR FITHESS AREA. Table IY shows the mean scores, standard scores and percentile scores, where available, for the motor fitness tests. The sources of the normative tables are also listed. The scores for Vertical Jump, Larson's Muscular (Dynamic) Strength Test, Shoulder Flexibility and Trunk Flesions were average. All other scores were above average but could not be considered excellent for a group of athletes.  20 TABLE IT Mean Scores, Standard Scores and Percentile Scores of Motor Fitness Test Items Mean Score  Tests  Standard PerScore centile  Norm  1. Chins  7  53  -  ( Illinois  2. Dips  13,5  75  -  | Rating Scale  3. Vertical Jump  20,5  49  ( for  4. Larson's C-D-VJ  308  54  -  ^ College Men  5. Right Grip  138.9 lbs.  66  -  ^ Cureton  6. Left Grip  131.4 lbs.  60  7. Shuttle Run  ( Adult Men 75  9.4  College Men AAEEPER Tables  8. Shoulder Flexibility  13.8"  51  9. Trunk Extension  13.8"  62  10. Trunk Flexion  11.7"  53  11. Balance Beam  22.7  60  12. Back Strength  442  lbs.  13. Leg Strength  948  lbs.  -  ( Research Quarterly | Supplement, May, 1941  -  70  ( P.388 ^ Cureton ( Adult Men  The highest scores obtained were Dips (75 SS), Back Strength (70 SS) and Right Grip (66 SS). Standard scores for Leg Strength, using the Dynamometer with belt, were not available, but the mean score was well above average and probably equivalent in standard scores to the Back Strength Test. The ice hockey players were thus above average to good in dynamometer strength tests and very good in strength and endurance of the arm extensors (Dips). This latter performance was in marked contrast to the merely average ability in lifting the body weight continuously, with the arm flexors (Chins) and the also merely average ability to propel the body weight upward against gravity (Vertical Jump). The performance of the ice hockey players in the motor fitness test items under this study are, on the whole, not outstanding. This may reflect the fact that training and conditioning for the sport does not include the use of gymnastic  21 and weight lifting exercises which are now employed by almost all other athletic groups during off-season and early season periods. Table V shows that the hockey players are relatively inferior to the track and field men in items 1, 2, 3 and 4 and to the swimmers in items 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6. TABLE Y Results of Motor Fitness Tests of Hockey Players, Highly Trained Athletes and Normal Young Men University Men in P.E.Classes 1940-41 N=2600 Mean Standard Score Score  Test  1. Larson's C-D-VJ  294  Hockey Team 1963-64 N=14 Mean Standard Score Score  50  308.42  54  Track & Field U.S. 1948 Olympics N=18 Mean Standard Score Score  410.7  Olympic Swimmers 1948 N=18 Mean Standard Score Score  80.6  373.3*  76  2. Chinning  7.50  50  8.0  53  13.20  80.2  12.5*  78  Dips  10.67  50  13,40  75  19.30  99.0  11.0*  68  4. Vertical Jump  20.5  50  20.35  49  23.67  70.0  24,30  78  5. Shoulder Flexibility  12.90  50  13.8  51  —  -  18.9  76  6. Trunk Extension  11.45  50  13.8  62  —  —  17.6  81  7. Trunk Flexion  12,08  50  11.7  53  -  -  12.8  47  *0nly four men took the tests. CARDIOVASCULAR AREA Table VI shows the mean recovery pulse with the corresponding standard score, the fitness index and the performance classification for the Harvard Step Test on a 20 Inch bench. The Harvard Step Test on the 20" bench was designed to indicate the ability of the circulatory system to adjust to strenuous work (2l). The results obtained with the subjects of this study indicate that the hockey players adjusted  22 very efficiently to strenuous exercise. Hockey training is very hard work of high intensity repeated at frequent intervals and it is logical that good recovery of the circulatory system after exercise would be an essential condition for successful participation in the sport. TABLE VI Results of the Harvard Step Test Mean Score  Standard Score*  1. Sum of Recovery Pulses  142.3  79.3  2. Index  105.6  -  Measurement  Classification  -  Excellent  •^Standard Score based on standard scales for normal young men (8). Table VII shows the group means, corresponding standard scores and performance classifications for a selection of measurements of the brachial pulse wave. All measurements were obtained using the Cameron Heartometer. TABLE VII Brachial Pulse Wave Measurements Group Means  Standard Score*  1. Area under Curve  0.40  64  Good  2. Systolic P.W. Amplitude (Sitting)  1.50  69  Good  3- Dicrotic Notch Amplitude 4. Fatigue Ratio  0.47  55  Average  0.31  39  Fair  19.3  97  Excellent  61.0  74  Very Good  Measurement  5. Obliquity Angle 6. Pulse Rate  Classification  7. Diastolic P.W. Amplitude  0.69  69  Good  8. Diastolic Surge  0.21  77  Very Good  9. Rest/Work Ratio 10. Systolic P.W. Amplitude (Standing)  2.86  79  Very Good  1.18  -  11. Average Sjrstolic Amplitude (After Exercise)  1.69  -  12. Systolic Amplitude (Sitting-Standing)  0.32  -  •^Standard Scores based on those of normal young men(8).  23 The brachial pulse wave measurements indicate that the general cardiovascular conditions of the subjects is quite good (69 SS). Cureton reports that several research studies and theses completed by Cureton (l947), Mieland (1947), Houston (1948), Xruzic (1948), Millet (1948) and Michael (1949), indicate that: "...Variations in endurance in top-flight swimmers are better differentiated in terms of diastolic surge measurement than any other. This suggests unusually fast and full venous filling of the left ventricle and good venous tone....The young well trained athlete has a stronger heart (systole), faster and more complete filling (diastole), a slow pulse rate, a somewhat higher pulse pressure and a larger pulse wave, the latter typically characterized by a well developed diastolic sur^e, large diastolic (secondary) wave, large systolic (primary) wave and a lower rather than higher diastolic notch...." (6,p. 253) It is also mentioned that diastolic amplitude, systolic amplitude and small obliquity angle differentiate between levels of cardiovascular fitness of swimmers and track and field men. In all of the measurements listed above the subjects of this study range from 69 SS (diastolic P.W, amplitude) to 97 SS (obliquity angle). The basic training schedule of the hockey team consisted of short intensive bursts of speed. In this respect the results of the hockey team's measurements agree with those of Holmes (14) and Mateev (.20) in that repetitions of short sprints at greatest speeds build endurance and cardiovascular fitness at higher levels. Although the goaltender participated in skating drills during practice, he was of necessity much less active than other players during games and scrimmages. This appears to be reflected in his cardiovascular measures (Appendix F,G) which are lower than the other players. Table VIII illustrates how well the subjects compare with other groups of endurance athletes and normal young men. The hockey team appears to fit in between the Olympic athletes (an exceptionally highly trained group) and Illinois varsity swimmers.  TABLE VIII Cardiovascular Measurements of Ice Hockey Players, Groups of Highly Trained Athletes and Normal Young Men (6),  Heartograph Items 1 . Area (sq.cm.) 2. Angle of Obliquity (deg.) 3- Systolic Amplitude (cm.) 4. Diastolic Amplitude (cm.) 5. Diastolic Surge (cm.) 6. Heart Rate Sitting - Beats (min.)  1948 Olympic Men-Swimmers and Divers  1948 Track & Field Champions  1947-48 Illinois Varsity Swimmers  1963-64 UBC Varsity Hockey Team  Normal Young Men-Freshmen  Mean Standard Score Score  Mean Standard Score Score  Mean Standard Score Score  Mean Standard Score Score  Mean Standard Score Score  »458 21,8  73 69  .560 20.8  86 80  .330 23.6  55 45  .404 19.3  64 97  .298 23.4  50 50  1.58  73  1.63  76  1.29  57  1.50  69  1.16  50  .80  80  .82  82  .70  70  .69  69  .50  50  .41  100+  .35  100+  .42  100+  .21  77  .08  50  65.5  73  50.8  94  77.3  53  61.0  74  79.2  50  CHAPTER VI SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary Fourteen University of British Columbia varsity ice hockey players were given selected tests of physique, motor fitness and cardiovascular fitness. The UBC team participated in a thirty-game schedule that started in November, 1963 and ended in late February, 1964. The majority of tests were administered during the last two weeks of February. The purpose in collecting the data was to describe the fitness characteristics of university hockey players. No previous study of this nature appeared to have been made in Canada or the United States. Most of the subjects of this study were characterized by extreme mesomorphy, average endomorphy and low ectomorphy. These characteristics represent what Sheldon calls the body-types of our country's (United States) most successful athletes. The amount of fat measured by skinfold measurements made at six sites was quite low. The ice hockey players were structurally built for stability and power, with relatively long trunks, wide hips and only slightly above average shoulder width. Their a m proportions were suited to efficient mechanical manoeuvering of a light instrument such as a hockey stick. The subjects had above average to good scores in back and leg dynamometrical strength, right and left grip strength and dipping strength. They did not otherwise perform highly in tests of motor fitness. This may be a direct reflection of the fact that hockey players usually do not use such aids as weight training, circuit training and calisthenics which now play an important role in the training and conditioning of successful athletes in other sports. Results of cardiovascular measurements of the subjects were rated good to excellent and could be attributed to the nature of the sport and the demanding interval-like training program which the hockey team had undergone during the season.  26 Conclusions The results of this study appear to support the following conclusions. (1) Dominant mesomorphy, low ectomorphy and average enaomorphy in ice hockey players indicates that a selective process has gone on, with players of this type achieving success in the game, while others of markedly different "body-types do not. The selective process also appears to have favoured those with relatively short legs in relation to trunk length and those with average shoulder and hip width ratio. These characteristics appear to be desirable for survival in a game with violent body contact. Playing ice hockey does not permit accumulation of fat or else only players with relatively low fat covering are successful at the game. (2) Performance in most strength items was relatively good, but a m flexor strength and other tests of motor fitness were average or above but were not excellent. (3)  The game of ice hockey produces very good cardiovascular condition as meas-  ured by characteristics of the brachial pulse wave and the Harvard .Step Test. (4)  Results of the Motor Fitness tests indicate the need to explore the possibil-  ities of improving hockey performance through a pre-season training program designed to improve aspects of motor fitness which, on testing, are found to be weak.  Recommendations (1) That pre-season training programs be introduced into the preparation of hockey players using methods adopted by athletes of other sports. (2)  That a similar study such as this be carried out on a professional hockey  team in order to determine if the characteristics of professional and university players are different and if so in what respects are they different. (3)  That the UBC hockey team or any other similar group of hockey players be  tested before and at the end of a competitive season in order to determine what changes in fitness take place.  27 REFERENCES BESWICE, F. and. JORDAN, R.C., "Aspects of Circulatory Function", Ergonomics (Proceedings) 3i86, January, I960, BROUHA, Lucien, FRADD, N.W. and SAVAGE, B.M., "Studies in Physical Fitness of College Students", Research Quarterly, Vol. 15, #3, Oct., 1944. BROUHA, Lucien, "The Step Test; A Simple Method for Measuring Physical Fitness for Muscular Work in Young Men", Research Quarterly, Vol. 14, #1, March, 1943. CUNDIFF, D.E., "The Progressive Changes in Certain Cardiovascular Measurements during a Season of Basketball", Master's Thesis, U. of Illinois, Urbana, 1960-61. CURETON, T.K., "The Nature of Cardiovascular Condition in Normal Humans", Jnl. of Assoc. for Physical & Mental Rehabilitation, 11:6:186-196, Nov.-Dec,, 1957. CURETON, T.D., Fnysical Fitness of Champion Athletes, U. of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1954. CURETON, T.E., "Physical Training Produces Important Changes, Psychological and Physiological", Sports Medicine, 17-18. 7. 1952, CURETON, T.D., "Physical Fitness Appraisal & Guidance", C.7. Mosby Co., Saint Louis, 1947. DAVENPORT, C.B., "The Crural Indes", American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 17:333-353, Jan,-Mar., 1933. FOX, T.F., (Editorial), "Research and Physical Fitness", The Lancet, 255:64, July 10, 1948. FLEISHMAN, E.A. and WICKS, D.C., "What do Physical Fitness Tests Measure? A Review of Factor Analytic Studies", Prepared under Contract Nonr 609(32) f or the office of Naval Research, Yale University,.July, I960. EAYDEN, F.J., "A P-Technique Factor Analysis of Cardiovascular Variables", Ph.D. Thesis, U. of Illinois, Urbana, 1961-62. KBMY, F.M. and ROGERS, D.E., "Increased Response Latency for Complicated Movements and a "Memory Drum" Theory of Neuromatic Reaction", Research Quarterly, Oct., I960. HOLMES, R.A., "The Effects of Various Methods of Training on Endurance and Cardiovascular Tests", Master's Thesis, U. of Illinois, Urbana, 1958-59. KARPOVTCH, P.V., Physiology of Muscular Activity, W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1962. 10HLRAUSCH, ¥., "Zusammenglagne von Korperform und Leistung - Ergebruise der Anthropoimetrichen Messungen an der Athletes der Amsterdamer Olymriade", Arbeitsphysiologie, 2:129, June, 1939,  28  KRAKOWBR, H., "Skeletal Sjmimetry and High Jumping", Research Quarterly, 12:218-227, March. 1941 LARSON, L.A., "A Factor and Validity Analysis of Strength Variables and Tests with a Combination of Chinning, Dipping and Vertical Jump", Research Quarterly, Vol. 11, #4, Dec., 1940. McCLOY, C.H. and YOUNG, N.D., Tests and Measurements in Health and Physical Education, Appleton-Ceritury-Crofts, New York, 1954. MATEEV, D., "Development of the Qualities of Strength, Speed and Endurance", Le Gymnastique Educative, Nos. 1-2, I960. MATHEWS, D.K., Measurement in Physical Education, ¥.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1965. METIVIER, G., "The Effects of One Season of Ice Hockey on the Total Blood Serum Cholesterol Level, Muscular Strength, Reaction Time, Fat and Cardiovascular Condition of Adult Males", U. of Ottawa, Unpublished material, 1963. OZOLIN, N.G., "The Soviet Training Method", Revue de L'Educative Physique, 191:21-31, 1st trimester, I960, SARGENT, D.A,, "The Physical Characteristics of the Athlete", Scribnerst II, 5:541-561. SHELDON, W.H., Atlas of Men, Harper & Bros., New York, 1954. SHELDON, W.H., STEVENS, S.S. and TUCKER, V.B., The Varieties of Human Physique, Harper & Bros., New York, 1940. SILLS, F.D. and MITCHEM, J., "Predictions of Performances on Physical Fitness Tests by Means of Somatotype Ratings", Research Quarterly, 28:1, 1957. SILLS, F.D. and EVERETT, P.W., "The Relationship of Extreme Somatotypes to Performance in Motor and Strength Tests", Research Quarterly, 24:2, 1953, SILLS, F.D., "A Factor Analysis of Somatotypes and of their Relationship to Achievement in Motor Skills", Research Quarterly, 21:4, 1950, ¥IGGERS, C.J., "The Magnitude of Regurgitation with Aortic Leaks of Different Sizes'", Jnl. America Med. Ass'n., 97:1359-64, Nov. 7, 1931, WILLGOOSE, C.D., "Body Types and Physical Fitness", Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, Sept., 1956.  ANATOMICAL MEASUREMENTS AND RATIOS OBTAINED FROM PHOTOGRAPHS  APPENDIX A (p.l)  ^ACTUAL MEASUREMENT STAND SCORES 3ASED ON STANDARD SCALES OP 200 PLIGHT STUDENTS N = 13 Merlo  Harris  Leishman  McLeod  Parker  RS  SS  RS  SS  RS  SS  RS  SS  RS  SS  RS  SS  R. Morris CD RS DO  55  53 50  45  18.82  44  20.61  71  19.10  48  20.73  73  39  19.43 17.06  18,88  Thigh Length  19 .59 16 .49  17.31  55  17.13  52  16 .16  33  15.98  29  16.64  41  Trunk Length  23 .60  74  23.56  73  22.61  60  21,50  22 .37  56  23.04  67  22.77  62  Leg Length  36 .09  47  35.41  42  36,19  48  35.95  44 46  36 .79  54  35.08  39  37.37  Forearm Length  12 .28  72  12.05  68  12,15  70  11.15  54  11 .50  59  11.41  58  11.93  59 66  Upperarm Length  13 .80  67  13.54  63  14.67  83  14,38  77  13 .86  69  14.67  83  14.59  81  Bust Height  35 .53  76  33.04  43  32.80  40  32.46  36  32 .98  42  34.12  58  35.55  50  *Arm Span  72,00  Shoulder Width  15 .18  67  15.23  68  14.53  61  15.25  68  14.13  57  14.87  64  14.46  60  Hip Width  12 .21  60  11.98  56  12.22  60  13.3  82  11.91  54  12.46  65  12.54  67  Knee Width  4 .28  Shldr W/Hip ¥  1 .24  62  1.19  49  1.19  24  1.15  14  3.88 1 .18  20  1,19  42  1.15  35  Leg L/Trunk L  1 .52  35  1.50  32  1.60  49  1.67  60  1 .64 : 55  1.52  35  1.64  55  Foreleg L/Thigh L Arm Span/Height  1 .18  1.13  50  1 ,27  1.19  65  24  1.09 1,00  40  1.03  1.09 1.03  40  1,01  64 25  1.02  65 40  1.24 .99  75 0  U.arm L/F.arm L  1 .12  39  1.12  39  1.20  52  1.28  65  1 ,20  52  1,28  65  1.22  55  .47  40  ,48  55  .47  40  .48  55  .47  40  ,49  65  .47  40  Foreleg Length  Bust Ht/Height  72.00  73.00  4.80  68.00  68.25  4.5  3.93  Kelley  10  71.00  71.00  4.01  84 .985 15  c  4.36  ANATOMICAL MEASUREMENTS AND RATIOS OBTAINED FROM PHOTOGRAPHS  APPENDIX A (  *ACTUAL MEASUREMENT STAND SCORES BASED OK STANDARD SCALES OF 200 FLIGHT STUDENTS N = 13 Lortie  Cairns  Smith.  D. Morris  Bowles  Ronalds  RS  SS  RS  SS  RS  SS  RS  SS  RS  SS  RS  SS  Foreleg Length  19.50  54  19.87  60  19.37  52  20.68  72  19.28  51  19.85  59  Thigh Length  15.13  13  15.32  17  16.37  37  17.35  56  16.73  43  17.61  61  Trunk Length  25.60 100  24.49  86  23.80  77  22.24  54  22.76  63  24.12  81  Leg Length  34.63  35  35.19  40  35.73  44  38.64  70  36.01  47  37.47  60  Forearm Length  10.41  41  11.45  58  12.28  72  10.51  43  11.13  56  11.74  63  Upperarm Length  15.27  93  14.97  88  13.64  65  14.78  85  13.82  68  14.40  78  Bust Height  36.71  94  35.33  74  35.40  74  34.10  57  28.71  0  *Arm Span  70.00  Shoulder Width  15»06  66  13.59  51  13,91  55  14.37  59  14.32  59  14.19  56  Hip Width  12.56  67  12.55  67  12,82  72  12.20  60  12,69  70  12.65  69  Knee Width  4.37  Shldr W/Hip W  1.19  52  1.08  25  1,10  29  1.18  39  1.12  20  1.12  32  Leg L/Trunk L  1.35  7  1.43  20  1.50  32  1.73  70  1.58  45  1.55  40  Foreleg L/Thigh L  1.29  89  1.29  89  1.18  63  1.19  64  1.15  55  1,12  49  Arm Span/Height  .98  0  1,02  40  .97  0  .97  0  .99  0  .99  0  U.arm L/F.arm L  1.46  95  1.30  69  1.11  37  1.40  85  1.24  59  1,22  55  .51  90  .50  80  .50  70  .47  40  .42  0  .52  95  Bust Ht/Height  69.00  72.00  4.28  70.00  71.50  67.5  4.54  4.43  37.75 100  4,40  4.75  31 APPENDIX B AVERAGE ANATOMICAL MEASUREMENTS AND PROPORTIONS  Measurement  Average Score  Standard Score  Foreleg Length  19.67  42  Thigh Length  16.56  40  Trunk Length  23.11  67  Leg Length  36.20  49  Forearm Length  11.54  60  Upper Arm Length  14.34  77  Bust Height  34.04  57  Arm Span  70.40  Shoulder ¥idth  14.55  61  Hip Width  12.46  65  Knee Width  4.35  Shoulder Width/Hip Width  1.17  50  Leg Length/Trunk Length  1.56  43  Foreleg Length/Thigh Length  1.18  63  Shoulder Width/Height  1.00  10  Upper Arm Length/Forearm Length  1.24  59  ,48  50  Bust Height/Height  BODY AND SKINFOLD MEASUREMENTS OF  APPENDIXG(p.2)  14 UBC VARSITY ICE HOCKEY PLAYERS  Height *  Weight *  Cheeks  Hips  Abdomen  Gluteals  Front Thighs  Rear Thighs  RS  SS  RS  SS  RS  SS  RS  SS  RS  SS  RS  SS  RS  SS  RS  SS  Harris  71.5  64  173.50  73  10  100+  15  75  9  88  12  95  9  95  8  100  Merlo  69.25  49  186.50  85  11  100+  12  79  23  50  17  80  19  60  14  75  Leishman  70.25  54  176.25  75  10  100+  26  50  15  70  17  80  15  75  15  77  McLeod  67.75  37  178.00  78  7  100+  27  48  28  38  20  67  21  55  20  55  Parker  69.25  49  156.00  56  8.  100+  14  77  10  85  15  85  10  93  10  90  Kelley  69.25  49  192.75  90  8  100+  21  62  20  58  17  80  16  70  13  80  R.Morris  70.75  57  159.50  60  9  100+  20  67  15  70  10  100+  14  80  80  Lortie  71.25  63  173.75  73  7  100+  15  75  11  83  9  100+  14  80  13 8  Cairns  70.50  56  182.50  81  11  100+  28  45  27  40  30  30  27  33  23  Smith  70.75  57  175.75  74  5  100+  13  80  7  93  15  85  12  85  10  43 90  Gibbs  72.75  78  180.75  79  11  100+  21  62  16  68  23  55  19  60  19  58  D.Morris  72.00  68  165.50  65  8  100+  18  68  13  75  16  83  14  80  10  90  Bowles  68.00  38  162.00  62  8  100+  20  67  11  83  18  75  16  70  17  65  Ronalds  72.00  68  173.75  74  9  100+  18  68  7  93  15  85  8  100  10  90  985.25 Arithmetic Mean 70.37 Average 1.30 Deviation  122  2436.50 55  174.03 7.69  74  18.7 1.42  268 100+  19 4.14  214 65  15  70  5.42  Standard scores based on standard scales of University of Illinois medical freshmen, 1945RS = Raw Score; SS = Standard score. * Standard Scores based on standard scales of flight students  16 1.,07  190  214  234 88  15 3.71  100  75  13 3.71  80  SELECTED STRENGTH TESTS, LARSON'S COMPOSITE SCORE AND ROGER'S ARM STRENGTH INDEX RS = RAW SCORE  Chins  Dips  APPENDIXG(p.2)  SS = STANDARD SCORE  Vertical Jump  ClassificaComposite tion JJCJ.J.  O ^ I L  RS  SS  RS  SS  RS  SS  Harris  10  50  19  80  24.5  68  395.2  Exc.  Merlo  7  40  14  60  21  53  312,3  Gibbs  7  40  14  60  19  44  Roger's .Arm Strength  Back RS  SS  835.2  535  89  Satis,  583,8  425  66  286,0  Satis,  644,7  Defic.  331.5  340  Legs  Right Grip  Left Grip  RS  SS  RS  SS  1180  150  75  131  69  950  141  140  76  830  139  67 66  130  69  49  750  162  85  150  85  McLeod  5  25  8  40  18.5  42  240,0  Lortie  7  40  12  55  21  53  304.4  Satis.  541,5  438  68  925  135  61  118  58  Kelley  7  40  18  75  19,5  46  300.3  Satis.  710,0  490  80  1145  140  67  110  51  Parker  5 10  25  15  65  20.5  50  288,7  Satis,  496,0  403  61  869  140  67  138  50  19  80  19.5  46  336.0  Good  849,7  469  75  985  98  35  122  75 61  D.Morris  8,5 44  15  65  20.5  50  317,2  Satis,  669.7  421  65  1075  160  84  140  76  R.Morris  9  45  9  45  19  44  286 „5  Satis»  478,8  405  61  879  131  60  131  69  Cairns  9  45  10  48  20  48  304.3  Satis,  545,3  415  63  1200  150  75  141  76  Leishrnan  8  44  13  58  20.5  50  295,2  Satis,  583,8  485  78  749  140  67  145  80  Smith  9  45  15  65  22,5  60  350.1  Good  436,8  465  74  1022  140  67  122  61  Bowles  7,5 43  12  55  20,5  50  301.7  Satis,  471,9  459  73  719  111  45  110  51  109 Arithmetic Mean 7 35 Average 1,3 Deviation  193  13278  1945  1840  138,9 65  131,4 69  Ronalds  13 2,7  286.6 58  20,4 1.1  5750 50  308.42  Satis.  584,2  442 38.3  70  948 106.4  11,5 .  9,8  Standard scores for chins, dips and vertical jump are based on those of normal young men, Larson's weighted score and classification is rated on the Illinois rating scale for young men. The static strength tests (SS) are based on those of adult men 26-60 years of age.  34 APPENDIX  F  FLEXIBILITY, AGILITY AND BALANCE BEAM MEASUREMENTS RS = RAW SCORE  Shoulder Flexibility RS  SS = STANDARD SCORE  Back Extension  SS  RS  SS  foILE = PERCENTILE  Trunk Flexion RS  Shuttle Run  Balance Beam  SS  RS  SS .  RS  SS  Harris  8.8  30  10.5  36  8.4  68  9.3  73  27  75  Merlo  14.1  56  14.3  59  12.1  50  9.7  50  22  58  Gibbs  27-0 100+  20.6  88  9.1  62  9.2  80  21  55  McLeod  6.8  30  12.5  50  8.5  68  9.5  70  24  63  Lortie  10.7  36  12.3  48  8.5  68  9.3  73  28  85  Kelley  16.2  64  18.5  80  11.5  55  9.4  75  12  35  Parker  17.6  70  13.4  54  16,0  34  9.3  73  25  65  Ronalds  9.2  30  . 10.6  36  18,0  25  9.5  70  23  60  D.Morris  13.2  52  13.1  52  9.3  60  9.5  70  26  68  R.Morris  10.7  36  8.2  30  •12.6  47  9.4  75  29  95  5.0  9  11.4  44  8.0  68  9,7  50  20  60  Leishman  24.3  88  74  8,3  66  9.3  73  25  65  Smith  13=1  51  17.4 16.0  66  18,9  20  9.3  73  20  60  Bowles  13.9  55  13.4  54  14.4  40  9.4  75  17  48  Arithmetic Mean  13.8  51  13,8  55  11,7  53  9.4  75  22,7 60  Cairns  Average Deviation  4.42  2.54  3.05  3.70  Standard scores for flexibility measurements taken from the Research Quarterly Supplement, May, 1941, p.388. .Shuttle run percentiles taken from norms for college men. Balance Beam: standard scores based on norms of adult men 26-60.  35 APPENDIX F SUM OP RECOVERY PULSE COUNTS, FITNESS AND CLASSIFICATION CP HARVARD STEP TEST ON 20" BENCH  RecoveryPulse Counts __  Fitness Index  Classification  Harris  169  58  88.8  Merlo  138  91  108,7  Excellent  Leishman  130  100  115.4  Excellent  McLeod  148  81  101,3  Excellent  Parker *  165  63  90,.9  Excellent  Kelley  146  83  102.7  Excellent  R.Morris  141  89  106.3  Excellent  Lortie  155  73  96.7  Excellent  Cairns  136  94  110.3  Excellent  Smith  133  97  112,8  Excellent  Gibbs  121  100+  123.9  Excellent  D.Morris  141  89  106.3  Excellent  Bowles  150  79  100.0  Excellent  Ronalds  120  100+  125.0  Excellent  Mean Score  142.3  79  105,6  Excellent  Standard scores based on standard scales of Illinois medical freshmen. * Suffering from slight cold at time of measurement.  Good  BRACHIAL PULSE WAVE MEASUREMENTS  APPENDIX G (p.2)  AS RECORDED BY THE CAMERON HEARTOMETER Area under curve (sq.cm.)  Systolic P.W. Amplitude (cm.)  Dicrotic Notch Amplitude (cm.)  Obliquity Angle (Degrees)  Pulse Rate (Beats/ Min.)  RS  SS  RS  SS  RS  SS  RS  SS  RS  SS  RS  SS  Harris  .41  65  1.42  65  .64  72  .45  58  17.9  100+  60  75  Merlo  .44  70  1.99  96  .61  69  .30  32  100+  64  70  100+  .53  68  17.5 19.0  Leishman  .84  100+  1.92  92  1.03  100  48  91  McLeod  .30  50  1.18  51  .28  36  .23  29  19,6  94  72  60  Parker  .43  68  1.61  75  .56  64  .34  34  20.0  89  52. 86  Kelley  .50  77  1.62  75  .45  58  .27  27  18.0  100+  68  65  R.Morris  .36  58  1.38  65  .54  62  .39  50  19.0  100  60  75  Lortie  .34  55  1.56  72  .40  51  .25  31  18.0  100+  64  70  Cairns  .54  83  1.88  90  e63  71  .33  43  19.1  96  56  81  Smith  .50  77  1,75  83  .53  60  .30  37  20.5  83  68  65  Gibbs  .29  49  1.32  59  .24  32  .18  22  19.4  96  60  75  D.Morris  .33  55  1.23  54 .  .42  50  .34  46  20,2  86  64  70  Bowles  .20  36  1.12  48  .10  55  .08  16  20.5  83  68  65  Ronalds  .23  40  1.05  45  .16  24  ,15  19  21.2  75  48  91  Mean Scores  .40  64  1.50  69  .47  55  .31  39  19.3  97  61  74  Fatigue Ratio (cm.)  Standard scores are based on standard scale of Illinois Medical freshmen.  BRACHIAL PULSE WAVE MEASUREMENTS  APPENDIX G (p.2)  AS RECORDED BY THE CAMERON HEARTOMETER Systolic P.W. Amplitude (standing) (cm.)  Average Syst. Amplitude (After Exercise) (cm.)  Systolic Amplitude (SittingStanding) (cm)  Diastolic P.W. Amplitude (cm.)  Diastolic Surge (cm.)  Rest/Work Ratio (cm.)  RS  SS  RS  SS  RS  SS  .68  68  .04  44  2.16  58  1,48  1.91  .05  ,92  92  .31  97  2.57  70  1.15  1.71  .84  .,07  100+  .04  12  4.05  100+  1.71  2.76  .26  ,40  40  .04  12  1.87  49  ,70  1.23  ,48  .81  81  .25  85  3.22  89  .83  1.72  .78  .62  62  ,17  69  2,04  55  1.56  1,67  .06  .75  75  .21  77  3,57  99  .80  1.43  .58  .75  79  .39  100+  2.89  80  1,05  1,05  .51  .99  99  .36  100+  2,86  79  1.80  1,60  ,08  .92  92  ,38  100+  2.70  74  1.29  1.85  .46  .46  46  .19  77  2,75  75  1.16  1,67  ,16  ,60  60  .18  71  3,35  93  ,53  1,70  ,70  .29  93  .19  73  2.50  68  1,34  1,68  ,32  .39  39  ,23  81  3,59  100  1,25  1,78  .20  .69  69  .21  77  2,86  79  1.18  1,69  .32  Standard scores are based on standard scale of Illinois Medical freshmen.  

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