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Employment equity in Canadian newspaper sports journalism : a comparative study of the work experiences… Dépatie, Caroline 1997

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E M P L O Y M E N T EQUITY IN C A N A D I A N NEWSPAPER SPORTS JOURNALISM: A C O M P A R A T I V E STUDY OF THE WORK EXPERIENCES OF W O M E N A N D M E N SPORTS REPORTERS by CAROLINE DEPATIE A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF ARTS in THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES School of Human Kinetics We accept this thesis-as conforming to the-fequired standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A May 1997 © Caroline Depatie, 1997 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. 1 further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. School ^  idrehes Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) Abstract There is continuing evidence that North American newspaper sports departments are under pressure to rethink the contents of their sports pages as part of an overall strategy to gain larger readerships and rebuild their revenue base which eroded during the last recession (Sparks, 1994). Rambo (1986) has noted that some sports departments in the United States have hired more women sports journalists as a strategy to appeal to women readers and expand thereby their section readerships and potential advertising income. However, as reported in the literature, the overall number of women sports journalists working in major daily newspapers remains low. Women represent approximately 9% of the total work force of newspaper sports reporters in the United States (Eberhard & Myers, 1986) and 4.3% in Canada (Sparks, 1991). In addition to being under represented, women working in sports journalism often face discrimination on the job. This discrimination is, for example, revealed in a lack of high profile assignments and in difficulties with accessing senior editorial ranks (Eberhard & Myers, 1988; Creedon, 1994). This thesis investigated the work environment in Canadian daily newspaper sports departments and assessed the differential impacts of hiring practices, assignments procedures and promotion opportunities on women and men sports reporters respectively. Data was collected through a national survey. Questionnaires were sent to all women sports reporters (N=21) working full-time in a Canadian daily newspaper and to all men sports reporters (N=134) working full-time in a Canadian daily newspaper that employed one or more women sports reporters full-time. Questionnaires were also sent to all sports editors (N=106) working for a Canadian daily newspaper. Separate questionnaires were designed for sports reporters and for sports editors. For sports reporters a total of 88 questionnaires (56.8%) were completed and returned, 16 (76.2%) from women sports reporters and 72 (53.7%) from men sports reporters, for a total response rate of 56.8%. The information obtained from sports reporters was first analyzed as a whole and then analyzed with a matched sample. The matched sample included all women sports reporters who had responded (n=16) and an equivalent selected number of men sports reporters. The information obtained from sports editors was used to support the findings from the sports reporters. Four major themes emerged from the data analyses of the matched sample. First, the nature of the assignments and the visibility of the work was different for women and men sports reporters. Women sports reporters covered less prestigious assignments, published 17 articles less per month than their male peers, and a significantly higher number of women than men (p=.0170) agreed to covering more women's sports than their male peers. Second, there was a lack of opportunities to advance in the field of sports journalism and for women working in sports journalism. Although, the opportunities to advance in the field of sports journalism were limited, significantly (p=.0281) more women than men respondents tended to think that women did not have the same opportunities to advance in the field than their male peers. Third, sports journalism was male dominated and women and men sports reporters tended to belong to different networking groups. No woman was affiliated with a professional sports association. Fourth, although women reporters were unhappy with a number of things, they would still be willing to become reporters again. Over 50% (n=8) of them were not satisfied with issues surrounding career advancement, working schedule and work assignments. However, seventy-five percent (n=12) of them said they would choose to become sports reporters if they had to decide again. iv Table of Contents ABSTRACT ii T A B L E OF CONTENTS iv LIST OF TABLES vii LIST OF FIGURES ix CHAPTER I - INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER II - REVIEW OF LITERATURE 6 EVOLUTION OF SPORTS JOURNALISM 6 Sports pages and potential new markets 9 EMPLOYMENT EQUITY AND WOMEN IN THE MEDIA 11 Employment equity programs 13 Women in the media and in the sports media 17 Forms of discrimination in sports journalism 20 Under-representation of women sports journalists 23 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE 27 Schein 's three levels of organizational culture 29 Organizational culture and the work environment 30 Organization, gender and the work environment in sports journalism 31 CONCLUSION AND GAPS IN THE LITERATURE 33 CHAPTER III - RESEARCH METHODS 34 INTRODUCTION TO CHAPTER III 34 CHARACTERIZATION OF THE STUDY 34 Introduction to survey research approach 34 Sampling strategy 36 Hypotheses 38 D A T A COLLECTION PROCESS 40 Structure and content of questionnaires 40 Pilot study 41 Schedule 42 ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 43 ETHICS 45 CHAPTER IV - RESULTS AND ANALYSES 46 SAMPLE RATES AND RATES OF RETURN 46 TOTAL SAMPLE 48 Total sample - Demographic information and positions 48 Total sample - Assignments procedures 51 Total sample - Promotion opportunities 53 V MATCHED SAMPLE 55 MATCHED SAMPLE AND HYPOTHESIS #1: THERE IS GENDER INEQUITY IN EMPLOYMENT IN CANADIAN DAILY NEWSPAPER SPORTS DEPARTMENTS CONCERNING: 58 a) Hiring practices: Women do not have the same opportunities to enter the field of sports journalism as men 58 b-i) Assignments procedures: Women sports reporters cover significantly more stories on women's athletes than their male peers 62 b-ii) Assignments procedures: Women sports reporters significantly cover less "prestigious " beats and stories than their male peers 63 c) Promotion opportunities: Women sports reporters do not have the same opportunities to progress in the field of sports journalism as men sports reporters 74 MATCHED SAMPLE AND HYPOTHESIS #2: CANADIAN DAILY NEWSPAPER SPORTS DEPARTMENTS HAVE A WORK ENVIRONMENT THAT DISCOURAGES THE PARTICIPATION OF WOMEN SPORTS REPORTERS 80 a-i) Networks and support - Men sports reporters have significantly "stronger" networking links within the field of sports journalism than women sports reporters 80 a-ii) Networks and support - Women sports reporters are significantly less independent in their work than their male peers 84 b-i) Personal/family responsibilities versus work environment - Personal/family responsibilities have an effect on what beats and stories are assigned to women sports reporters to a significantly greater degree than their male peers 86 b-ii) Personal/family responsibilities versus work environment - Personal/family responsibilities negatively affect the promotion opportunities of women sports reporters to a significantly greater degree than their male peers 88 c-i) Work Expectations - Women sports reporters work expectations' are met to a significantly lesser degree than men's in the following areas: salary, career advancement, working schedule, job assignments, amount of work, job security, influence in the department, status/prestige and work environment. 90 c-ii) Work expectations - If women and men sports reporters had to decide all over again to be sports reporters, significantly more women than men would reconsider their choice 92 C H A P T E R V - DISCUSSION 9 4 THEME I - THE DIFFERING NATURE OF "WOMEN'S WORK ASSIGNMENTS". "I THINK WOMEN TEND TO PREFER AMATEUR SPORTS WHICH TENDS TO GET LESS PROFILE" 94 Linkages between the findings and the literature 95 THEME II - THERE IS A LACK OF OPPORTUNITIES TO ADVANCE IN THE FIELD OF SPORTS JOURNALISM FOR WOMEN SPORTS JOURNALISTS. "COLUMNIST PROMOTED SOLELY ON GENDER, 5 FEMALES HAVE WORKED AS REPORTERS IN THIS DEPARTMENT BUT THEY HAVE NEVER BEEN PROMOTED TO FULL-TIME COLUMNIST" 99 Linkages between the findings and the literature 99 v i THEME III - M E N AND WOMEN SPORTS REPORTERS BELONG TO DIFFERENT NETWORKING GROUPS. " M E N RUN THE SPORTS WORLD. Y O U DON'T SEE TOO M A N Y WOMEN WHO ARE SPORTS WRITERS, UNFORTUNATELY" 102 Linkages between the findings and the literature 102 THEME I V - T H E "DOUBLE-SIDED" NATURE OF WOMEN REPORTERS' SATISFACTION WITH THEIR WORK SITUATION. "I LIKE M Y JOB VERY MUCH, BUT DON'T LIKE THE HOURS. I 'VE WORKED WITH SOME GREAT PEOPLE, AND A FEW THAT ARE TERRIBLE. IT'S A CHALLENGING OCCUPATION, RARELY BORING, BUT OFTEN FRUSTRATING." 104 Linkages between the findings and the literature 104 C H A P T E R VI - C O N C L U D I N G R E M A R K S 107 PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS FOR THE CAREERS OF CANADIAN WOMEN SPORTS REPORTERS AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF THIS STUDY TO THE FIELD OF SPORTS JOURNALISM 107 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES 111 R E F E R E N C E S 113 A P P E N D I X 119 A . - QUESTIONNAIRE TO SPORTS JOURNALISTS 119 B . - QUESTIONNAIRE TO SPORTS EDITORS 134 C . - LETTER USED IN SECOND MAIL OUT 139 D . - LETTER USED IN THIRD MAIL OUT 140 E . - ETHICS APPROVAL 141 List of Tables Table 1 - Southam News Group 10 recommendations toward employment equity. Table 2 - Recommendations for women managers. Table 3 - Participants in pilot study. Table 4 - Questionnaires sent and response rate (n & %). Table 4a - Number o f daily newspapers included and represented in the study (n & %) . Table 5 - Different groups identified in the study. Table 6 - (Q.l, 2, 4, 49) - Years o f working experiences by gender (average number o f years). Table 7 - (Q.3) - Position o f respondents in their sports departments (% & n). Table 8 - (Q.14,19,24) - Work assignment distribution (%). Table 9 - (Q.38,39) - D o women have as many opportunities to enter and progress in the field o f sports journalism as men? - responses o f sports reporters by gender (%). Table 10 - (Q.65) - Extent to which expectations have been met by gender (%). Table 11- (Q.l, 2,3, 4, 49,54, 55, 56, 60) - Biographical information o f matched-sample respondents (% & n ) . Table 12 - (Q.38) - Women have as many opportunities to enter the field o f sports journalism as men -responses o f sports reporters by gender (%). Table 13 - (Q. l l . l , 11.2,11.3) - Coverage o f men's and women's sports (%). Table 14 -(Q.8,9,10) Criteria used in 3 categories o f assignment distributions (%). Table 14a - (Q.8,9,10) - Average and rank o f criteria used to distribute assignments by gender (mean o f the rating & r for rank). Table 15 - (Q.8,9,10,64) - Criteria used in 3 categories o f assignments distributions by market size. Table 16- (Q.14,20,24) - Coverage o f category o f assignments by gender (%). Table 16a - (Q.l 7,22, 28) - Number o f articles published by gender and category o f assignments (n o f articles). Table 17 - (Q.14-15) - Assignments covered by gender (number o f beat). Table 18 - (Q.30) - Sports covered on a regular basis in sports reporter's career (n o f sports) by professional or amateur status. Table 19 - (Q.31) - What sports would respondents enjoy to write about the most and which they would like to write about all the time (%). Table 20 - (Q.33,34,35) - Top sports according to market research, to interest o f readers and to vis ibi l i ty and coverage (%). Table 21 - (Q.40) - Situations which were perceived as being a promotion in sports journalism (%). Table 22 - (Q.41,42).- Situations which were perceived as being a promotion opportunity by market size (%). Table 23 - (Q.39) - Women have as many opportunities to progress in the field o f sports journalism as men - responses o f sports reporters by gender (%). Table 24 - (Q.36.1,36.2,36.3, 36.4) - General statements about promotion opportunities (%). Table 25 - (Q.46) - Future career goals by gender (%). Table 26 - (Q.36.7) - General statements about promotion opportunities (%). Table 27 - (Q.50) - Professional Association Membership o f Respondents (n). Table 28 - (Q.11.4) - Degree o f autonomy by gender (%). Table 29 - (Q.18.1,18.2, 23.1,23.2, 29.1,29.2) - Freedom o f coverage by 3 work assignments categories and gender (%). Table 30 - (Q.11.7,11.8,11.10,11.11) - General statements about promotion opportunities (%). Table 31 - (Q.11.9) - Work schedule and family life (%). Table 32 - (Q.13) - D o you feel that your personal/family responsibilities have an effect on what beats or stories are assigned to you. Answers from 32 respondents and from respondents wi th children by gender (% & n). Table 33 - (Q.37) - D o you feel that your personal/family responsibilities have restricted your promotion opportunities. Answers from 32 respondents and from respondents with children by gender (% & n). Table 34 - (Q.65) - Extent to which expectations have been met by gender (%). Table 35 - (Q. l l . l , 11.7) - Sports journalists satisfaction with work assignments (%). Table 36 - (Q.66) - I f they had to decide all over again, the respondents wou ld . . . (% & n). List of Figures Figure 1 - Relation between organizational culture and work environment. Figure 2 - Strength of networking links. Chapter I - Introduction What goes on in newspapers matters. As a highly visible media form, newspapers have always played a significant role in directing public opinion and in maintaining and reinforcing attitudes and beliefs that collectively, help constitute our society (Innis, 1950; Laswell, 1948; McLuhan, 1962; O'Sullivan, Hartley, Saunders & Fiske, 1983; Tuchman, 1978). Newspapers can and do influence social opinion, meanings and values and, in this sense they fulfill a cultural role. Yet the media are an economic as well as a cultural enterprise. Newspapers are a business and they must respond to the market. Their day-to-day viability rests on their economic performance (Mayer, 1993). The different sections within newspapers vary in their advertising potential, and as a result they are seen to serve two essential functions: one of revenue and the other of service (Sparks, 1993). Revenue sections are those concerned with selling sufficient advertising space to contribute to overall profitability while service-oriented sections provide the reader with information of interest or value but do not themselves carry sufficient advertising to generate a profit. The role of the service sections are to support the revenue sections of the newspaper by attracting and maintaining a readership. The sports section in many major dailies in Canada, functions as a service section. It is expected to satisfy, maintain and ideally attract readers for the newspaper. For sports departments, functioning as a service section has meant creating a section that appeals to readers, predominantly male readers, who in addition to buying the 2 newspaper will read the sports section. Rambo (1989) reported that readers "particularly among adults, are mostly males" (p. 81). The sports that they read about tend to be male dominated professional sports such as hockey, football, baseball, and basketball (Sparks, 1993). Consequently, because women are not well represented in professional sports, over the years there have been an extremely poor representation of women athletes in the sports news (Hillard,1984; Lumpkin & Williams, 1991; Rintala & Birrell, 1984; Salwen & Wood, 1994; Theberge & Cronk, 1986). In a broader perspective, newspapers are currently looking at expanding their readership ratings and so are sports departments. There has been indications suggesting that newspaper sports departments have experienced pressure to rethink their sports pages (Rambo, 1989; Sparks, 1993). This pressure has been directly linked to the desire to gain a broader readership, and changes in editorial and managerial practices have been slowly taking place. Amongst other strategies, higher readerships can be attained by making sports pages more appealing to women. One strategy for reaching more women readers would be to hire more women sports reporters (Rambo, 1989). Yet, Canadian and United States data have indicated that women are under-represented in the sports journalism field. Data from the United States showed that women comprised only 9% of sports journalists at 109 major daily newspapers (Eberhard & Myers, 1988) and results from a Canadian survey indicated that 4.3% sports reporters at 119 major newspapers were women (Sparks, 1991). In addition to being poorly represented, women sports reporters have faced promotional barriers and other forms of discrimination. For example, discrimination has been revealed in the lack of good assignments and in difficulties with promotion, particularly with attaining the senior ranks within the field of sports journalism (Burton Nelson, 1994; Eberhard & Myers, 1988; Schultz-Brooks, 1984). In 1976, women such as Cindy Meagher, who then worked for The Detroit News, predicted a healthy future for women sports journalists and declared that sports sections would eventually reflect the same women/men ratio as other sections of newspapers (Gilman, Moran & Miller, 1976). Twenty years later, however, the situation does not appear to have improved. Is there a particular reason why women do not enter the field of sports journalism? Hawkesworth (1994), in researching employment equity, provided two explanations that help to frame the question better. Women might deliberately choose not to enter sports journalism because they are simply not interested, or women might not feel welcome to enter such a men dominated field. Many studies (Angell, 1979; Bruning, 1990; Burton Nelson, 1994; Eberhard & Myers, 1988; Fitzhenry, 1991; Gilman, Moran & Miller, 1976) have explored the challenges that women sports reporters face within the sports world; for example, the struggle for access to locker rooms and assumption of incompetence. However, very few studies have investigated sports reporters within their work environment and have attempted to assess the challenges that women sports reporters face regarding hiring, promotion and assignment practices. The present research attempts to redress, in some part, this imbalance in the literature. It is inspired by the work of Eberhard and Myers (1988) who undertook a national survey on the profile of women sportswriters at large metropolitan daily newspapers in the United States. The study included 96 women working in 69 American 4 newspaper sports departments with a daily circulation of 100,000 or more. Eberhard and Myers focused on job conditions and satisfaction. They found that, once hired, women sports reporters were generally satisfied with their assignments. Respondents were optimistic about the future of women in sports journalism and seemed to think that the opportunities would increase as time passed. Women sports reporters were struggling for acceptance and recognition and believed that there was still progress to be made before women would be fully accepted as sports reporters. They are aware that they are still breaking barriers by their choice of career field, because of generations of sexual stereotypes related both to occupational choice and male dominance of most aspects of sports in American society. (Eberhard & Myers, 1988: 599) In Canada, there is very little information available on women sports reporters, yet this information is necessary for understanding more fully the working conditions of women and men in sports journalism and for assessing employment equity in the newspaper industry. The present study investigated the gender processes in Canadian daily newspapers sports departments. More specifically, the study examined the career of Canadian sports reporters and the state of employment equity in newspaper sports journalism concerning hiring practices, assignments procedures and promotion opportunities. The central question of this thesis was to determine how the work environment at Canadian daily newspapers sports departments affected the career of women sports reporters. The study focused on women's career opportunities and career progress in Canadian daily newspapers sports departments. Work environment factors 5 included hiring, promotion and assignments practices. These factors were considered part of the work context of sports departments. Five more chapters follow this introductory chapter. In Chapter two, a review of the relevant literature in the area of sports journalism, employment equity, women in the media and organizational culture is presented . In Chapter three, the research methods used in the study is described. In Chapter four and five, an analysis and a discussion of the findings are presented. Finally, in Chapter six are concluding remarks and recommendations for further study. In this thesis, the term "sports reporter" is mainly used to describe the women and men working for a newspaper sports department and writing about sports. This is a term that most of these individuals use to describe themselves. Sports reporters work in the profession of "sports journalism". The term "sports journalist" is a broader term used in this thesis to describe sports reporters, sports editors and/or sports columnists. Chapter II - Review of literature In order to conceptualize the employment situation of women in sports journalism, this chapter begins with a review of research focused on employment equity, work environments and culture within Canadian daily newspaper sports departments. First, a brief overview of the evolution of sports journalism is presented. Sports journalism has experienced a number of changes over the last few years and some of the changes have had repercussions on sports coverage and on the staff composition of sports departments. Second, the issue of employment equity is presented. In this section key aspects of employment equity are discussed and relates these to the experiences of women working in the field of journalism and sports journalism. Finally, prior research on organizational culture in sports and sports journalism is discussed, and the point is made that sports journalism traditionally has been and arguably still is perceived as male oriented and that this factor has impacted negatively on the status and work context of women sports reporters. Evolution of sports journalism According to a number of authors (Anderson, 1983; Dwyer, 1981; Garrison & Sabjac, 1985; Garrison & Salwen, 1989; McKee, 1991; Rambo, 1989; Rintala & Birrell, 1983; Sparks, 1993), the way that sports have been covered over the years has changed as sports departments have tried to shift their image. Sports departments have long been 7 have suffered the pejorative label of "toy department" (Garrison & Sabjac, 1985). Dwyer (1981) suggested however that sports departments recently have attempted to move away from statistics and "sports writing", which tended to be a very descriptive form of reporting, to a more business-oriented and in-depth form of sport analysis. Rambo (1989) cited Dave Smith, deputy managing editor and executive sports editor of The Dallas Morning News, who claimed that sports journalism now has three different types of writers. The first one is the business writer who reports on issues surrounding new franchises, sponsorships and negotiations between players and owners. The second one reports on sports events and personalities and, the third one is the writer who practices investigative reporting, covering issues, policies, and industry developments. In agreement with Dwyer (1981), Garrison and Salwen (1989) suggested that some sports departments have moved to a more journalistic and serious approach to sports reporting. This shift in sports journalism has developed along with industry recognition that sports coverage is a form of news. "Cheerleading is on the way out, more traditional journalism is taking over" (Rambo, 1989: 20). Other researchers have also noted that sports journalism now entails more investigative and diversified reporting approaches than was traditionally present a decade ago (Anderson, 1983; Rintala & Birrell, 1983; McKee, 1991; Sparks, 1993). A n investigative approach means that sports journalists report more than just sports events and they are more critical toward different issues surrounding sports such as cheating and violence. A diversified approach means that some newspapers are covering a greater range of different sports and topics. For example, Rambo (1989) noted that more sports tabloids are being published. These supplemental 8 publications have increased the number of stories not only on spectator sports but on participatory sports and as a result, different sports stories are finding their way onto page one and wire services are supplying more diversified sports coverage and features. Two phenomena which have pushed the sports departments to slowly adopt change included: the introduction, in 1954, of the magazine Sports Illustrated on the market and the success of the daily newspaper USA Today sports coverage in the late 1980s (Rambo, 1989). Sports Illustrated offered a kind of sports journalism that was more than statistics and score reporting, and USA Today devoted a fair amount of space to major and minor leagues, college and high school sports coverage. The changes seen in newspapers sports have in part been the result of changes in corporate strategies, in particular an initiative to gain a broader readership. Such changes have not been adopted by everyone, however. As Rambo (1989) noted, some newspapers such as The Noblesville in Indiana continues to cover sports in traditional ways. Along the same lines as Rambo, Sparks (1993) demonstrated that Canadian newspapers sports departments were under pressure to modify the contents of their sections in order to gain a broader readership. A n important finding made by Sparks was that the size of the city in which the paper was published had an impact on the sports coverage. Larger city newspapers were interested in carrying more national and international sports stories whereas smaller newspapers tended to carry more high school and recreational sports because these had local affiliation and the journalists had local access to the athletes. (Sparks, 1993: ii) 9 One of the rationales for changing sport section contents is to gain more women readers and thereby improve overall section readership figures. Sports pages and potential new markets "The sports section's rating would be far higher i f it were read by as many women as men" (Rambo, 1989: 26). Many authors have reported that men's sports receive significantly more coverage than women's sports (Crossman, Hyslop & Guthrie, 1994; Hillard, 1984; Lumpkin & Williams, 1991; Rintala & Birrell, 1984; Salwen & Wood, 1994; Theberge & Cronk, 1986). According to Rowe (1991), "the rules of sports journalism are directed at a large, male working class readership which, it is believed, forms the natural constituency of sports" (p. 83). On the production side, this appears to be the case. The sports news producers are largely male. Burton Nelson (1994) and Eberhard and Myers (1988) reported on the low numbers of women involved in the production of sports news. In order to expand their readership to include women yet not threaten present readership levels, sports sections need to gain the interest of women without losing male readers. A solution would be to devote a little more space to sports that attract female readers. A n American study by Burnett, Menon and Smart (1993) revealed that sports marketers have largely ignored the fact that women have become more and more involved in sports. The researchers sent a survey to five thousand consumers (consumer panel mailing) and analyzed data from 3,870 respondents. The intent of the study was to dispel the myth that sports enthusiasts represented a homogeneous market segment. 10 Although, this study was not directed specifically at women readers of sports news, it indicated that women are now more interested and involved in sports. By extension, it is logical to assume that they may be more interested in reading about sports. Along these lines, Simmons Market Research (1991) reported that women accounted for almost 40 % of all major television network sports audiences. It follows from these trends that it might be timely for newspaper sports departments to take into consideration the needs and wants of their women readers. One strategy for reaching more women readers would be to hire women sports journalists (Rambo, 1989). This strategy would be justified i f it were demonstrated that women journalists covered sports in a way that could attract women readers. Burton Nelson (1994) wrote that women journalists have different reporting styles than men. This could have an impact on the level of interest of female readers. In 1989, the sports editor for The Wilmington News-Journal, claimed that covering a diverse population meant having a diversified newsroom (Rambo, 1989). Cramer (1994) argued that "at the present sports reporters, editors and directors by and large are white men" (p. 167). Cramer added that sports reporters, editors and directors had a subconscious tendency to treat as newsworthy the sports topics which they were most familiar and comfortable with. This projected onto their audience and, as a result, women's sports coverage is badly neglected. Hiring more women sports journalists could be one way of diversifying a newsroom and maybe sports coverage. Unfortunately the situation for women sports reporters has not always been very positive and many women sports reporters have been discriminated against. In 1988, Eberhard and Myers surveyed 96 women sports reporters in the United States, and found that 60% of the respondents had faced discrimination from male peers in their sports department. As well, 58% of the respondents indicated they had experienced discrimination from people in the sports field (coaches, players, managers or sports information personnel). Employment equity and women in the media Employment equity is concerned with access to and distribution of employment opportunities in the work place. In broad terms, this translates into a concern for employment justice for working people (Ministry of Citizenship, Ontario, 1992). The goal of employment equity is to overcome the inherent discrimination which has kept some groups from being hired or promoted in the same way as other groups. In Canada, the groups usually considered as being discriminated against are women, aboriginal people, individuals with disabilities and racial minorities. In addition, employment equity programs are designed to eliminate barriers that prevent fair and equitable hiring, promotion, and training opportunities for workers (Ministry of Citizenship, Ontario, 1992). In Canada, the first unified employment legislation was the Employment Equity Act which was proclaimed in 1986. This act required federally regulated employers with 100 or more employees to report on the makeup of their workforce and to create employment equity programs (Braundy, 1988). These programs were designed to establish procedures to eliminate employment barriers, to accommodate particular workers and to institute positive policies and practices (Braundy, 1988). The 12 Employment Equity Act has no power to sanction organizations that fail to adopt or implement an employment equity plan. It can only sanction the organizations that fail to report on the composition of their workforce (Ministry of Citizenship, Ontario 1992). In the United States, a term that has been used in place of employment equity is "affirmative action". Affirmative action programs, like employment equity programs, can vary in their structure and content depending on how the concept has been interpreted. Many different policies have gone under the general label of affirmative action and many different organizations have got involved in formulating or interpreting the meaning of that term. (Sowell, 1977: 114) Despite the differences in terminology, certain common tenets and principles can be identified. The concepts of affirmative action and employment equity both require more than the balancing of racial and gender representation in organizations (Pottinger, 1977). They require key decision makers within organizations to revise policies which are discriminative and to adopt equitable policies concerning all aspects of employment for the individuals involved in the organization. Within organizations, the goal of employment equity programs and affirmative action programs has been to bring about progressive change. Through these programs, organizations have the potential to identify forms of discrimination within their working environment, and to work toward understanding discrimination and finding solutions that jointly can help create an "equitable climate" for workers. In a well known review of issues surrounding affirmative action, Sowell (1977) argued that it was necessary to come to terms with several key factors: (1) organizations and policy makers need to identify the 13 essential concepts and legal rationale of affirmative action, (2) they need to measure the magnitude of the problem that it is intended to ameliorate and the actual results achieved by an affirmative action plan, and (3) they need to balance the implications of affirmative action policies for those directly affected and for society more generally. With this in mind, the following discussion focuses on an employment equity program that was produced by the Southam News Group in 1990. Southam News Group is a Canadian media conglomerate that owns seventeen leading newspapers in cities and smaller urban centers including The Calgary Herald, The Vancouver Sun and The Province. Employment equity programs In response to the Employment Equity Act (1986), the Southam Newspaper Group (SNG) appointed a task force in 1988 to create an employment equity program. The "Task Force on Women's Opportunities" was established with a mandate to investigate barriers to the advancement of women within the Southam news organization. A report was produced containing ten detailed recommendations (Table 1). Initially the SNG task force was set up to study women in senior management but, logically, in order "to integrate women into the senior level of the company, it [made] sense that SNG recruit, hire, develop, promote and retain women at all levels" (Report on the Southam News Group task force on women's opportunities, 1990: 3). The task force's data collection took several forms. Data was gathered from existing programs, from previously collected information, from consultation with external sources and from internal attitudinal surveys. The final report not only identified the areas where women 14 faced barriers to advancement, it also proposed strategies to be implemented in order to eliminate some of these barriers. The following table reports these strategies. Table 1 - Southam Sews Croup 10 recommendations toward employment equity. Recommendations 1 Circulation of policy statement with the commitment of the organization toward full equity for women 2 Assess publishers and senior managers performance for recruiting and promoting women. 3 Include the name of at least one woman on the lists for promotion and recruitment. 4 Management should be open to concept of part-time work, flextime, four day weeks and job sharing. 5 SNG divisions are encouraged to establish child care facilities and assume or share capital costs. 6 Adopt supportive policies on maternity, paternity, adoption and dependent sick leave. 7 Information on training and development programs should be made widely available and women should be recruited to participate in different programs and encouraged to plan their career path. 8 Strict policy on harassment at work is recommended. 9 A full-time equal opportunity coordinator should be hired. 10 Remove all gender bias language from written documents (applications forms, job descriptions, evaluations,...) and collective agreements should be reviewed. From Keport un The Southam Xcwspupcr Group Tusk Force un lt\>men'.\ Opportunities, April IV90. According to the report, only five percent of senior managers were women. The results showed that women in SNG occupied positions of lower status than men, were under-represented in non traditional (for women) jobs and in newsrooms and were over-represented in the "pink ghetto" of clerical work. If one applies Sowell's (1977) key factors mentioned earlier to the SNG report, it becomes clear that further analysis still needs to take place. In the report, the magnitude of the gender discrimination problem was well identified. However, in order to transform the findings into a working employment equity program, the results of the task force's proposed intervention would need to be measured in terms of the impact on women working at SNG and more broadly on society. As of today, there are no indication that 15 this has been done. In the context of this thesis, the term "employment equity" is seen as implicitly linked with social initiatives for "progressive change". If the SNG report were intended to act as an agent of social change for the women involved, then additional research ought to be done to evaluate the impact of the proposed initiatives. The ten SNG recommendations are similar to a list of recommendations provided by White, Cox and Cooper (1992) from a British study that examined women's career development. The sample studied for this research consisted of 48 women who had achieved different levels of career success in a number of different fields. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the career and personal experiences of successful women and to identify the general barriers which they had to overcome. Table 2 outlines the recommendations related to organizational practices. According to White, Cox and Cooper, these could enhance the role of women managers. Table 2 - Recommendations for women managers. Recommendations 1 Redesigning work to make part-time flexible and job sharing realistic options, with benefits and promotion opportunities. 2 Creating flexible career programs, retainers and re-entry programs. 3 Providing family support and enhanced maternity and paternity leaves. 4 Developing returner programs, resolving practical issues and training managers to raise their awareness of family issues. 5 Changing assumptions about the need for continuous employment and geographic mobility. 6 Fostering a change in attitude towards women in the workplace. 7 Improving childcare facilities. f-'ronr White. Cox<$ Cooper. U'onien'i Career Development- A Study oJ High Hyers (1VD2) According to the above recommendations (Tables 1 & 2), programs dealing with issues such as flexible work, promotion policies and enhanced childcare facilities need to be considered, developed and implemented in order to facilitate the access for women to 16 higher profile positions and management positions. One conclusion that can be drawn from the inherent similarities of the SNG report and White et al. recommendations is that, as a tendency, the experiences of women in the work place have been different from men's, and employment equity policies need to be implemented i f women are to have equal access to higher profile positions and management ranks. White et al. (1992) agreed that it is necessary for equal opportunities policies to reflect the fact that many women's career patterns are different from those of men. Frisby (1992) created a model of women's career development in the leisure services industry. She argued that in order to understand the career of women in leisure services and the factors that create ceilings to their advancement, the interaction of a number of factors must be taken into account. She identified seven factors, as follows: socio-economic, organizational, professional organizations, family, current position, individual and background. So far, the discussion of employment equity has dealt mostly with organizational issues. Organizational policies need to be reconsidered and redirected in order to create an "equitable climate" for all. The development of employment equity programs is quite recent. Traditionally, women in the work force have been segregated into stereotypic "gender-appropriate" occupations and have been limited in their promotional opportunities. A number of recent studies have documented that this tendency toward the ghettoization of women in employment still prevails (cf. Duffy & Pupo, 1992; Kelly, 1989; Rinehart, 1987). Women who occupy "traditional" positions are often limited in the nature of the tasks they undertake within that occupation. Women often earn less than men, have access to less prestigious positions within their organizations and are not involved in the decision making process and power structures (Boyd, Mulvihill & Myles, 1991; Rinehart, 1987). Boyd, Mulvihill & Miles (1991) reported that in the organizational structures of power and authority, women were less inclined than men to occupy positions of power. In many different fields of work women have been fighting for access to higher positions which would enable them to be part of the decision-making process. Such a change might challenge the existing norms and values that have long been centered around men's needs and understandings and therefore have not taken into account the experiences of women. Women in the media and in the sports media Recent research on media work suggests that women have been entering employment in the mass-media in greater numbers over the last few years (Beasley, 1990; SNG report, 1990). In 1988, in the United States, two-thirds of all graduates from journalism schools were female (Beasley, 1990). Beasley reported that a large portion of these women graduates found themselves working in non-traditional areas of journalism such as advertising and public relations. Women were less likely than men graduates to look for jobs in news and editorial areas. Despite this, there was still an increase in the numbers of women entering the news room. As early as 1984, Schultz-Brooks wrote: Slowly discrimination is easing as men see that women can do the job. The courage, persistence, and sheer hard work of women journalists have made these changes possible. But at too many news organizations, women have yet to scale the top peaks; despite their increased visibility, they do not have much more power than before (p. 418). 18 Cramer (1994) found that many women who participated in her study felt that women were making great strides but realized, that although their numbers had risen, their progress into management positions had been limited. Schultz-Brooks (1984) found that top management in large media corporations were as closed to women in 1984 as they had been 20 years previously. Ferri (1988) reported that some women news anchors saw their gender as an inhibiting factor in their application for positions. These studies (Beasley, 1988; Cramer, 1994; Ferri, 1988; Schultz-Brooks, 1984) focused on women working in the media, not in the sports media as such. Some studies have focused on issues of employment equity and of women working in the sports media (Bruning, 1990; Burton Nelson, 1994; Eberhard & Myers, 1988; Fitzhenry, 1991). According to these studies, women have had to struggle for their rights to work as sports journalists by confronting and breaking down some of the unwritten gender rules that dominate the sports world (Angell, 1979; Bruning, 1990; Burton Nelson, 1994; Eberhard & Myers, 1988; Gilman, Moran & Miller, 1976). In 1976, Cindy Meagher (a sports reporter for The Detroit News at the time) predicted a healthy future for women sports journalists (Gilman et al., 1976). Almost 20 years later, the work of Burton Nelson (1994) clearly shows that very little progress has been made in the employment situation of women in sports journalism. Although it appears that an increasing number of women are entering the field of sports journalism today, there are fewer women writing about sports than any other popular media subject (Burton Nelson 1994). As well, although the number of women sports journalists has increased, their progress into management has been limited (Creedon, 1994). According to Linda Robertson of The Miami Herald, to be a successful 19 woman sports journalist "it takes someone who's willing to come against the odds and break down the barriers in a male world" (Eberhard & Myers, 1988: 599). In 1984, in reference to sports broadcasting, Hoffman reported that those women who have succeeded have been persistent in dealing with the various "hoops and hurdles" they have encountered, such as difficult access to promotions. Two incidents which involved women reporters help to dramatize the problems. Both increased social awareness and led people to appreciate the predicament of women in sports journalism. The incidents, although unfortunate, raised questions about the limited place of women in sports journalism and about the discriminative experiences that they often faced and helped thereby to bring about change. The first one involved a Sports Illustrated sports reporter named Melissa Ludtke, who was "excluded from the Clubhouses during the 1977 World Series, and claimed that the exclusion had been based solely on her sex" (Angell, 1979: 46). After a law suit, Ludtke won her case and the Yankee's locker room was opened to both men and women sports reporters in late 1978. This was only a beginning however, and women still face discrimination when it comes to access to locker rooms (Burton Nelson, 1994; Eberhard & Myers, 1988). The second and most recent event that affected the lives and careers of women sports reporters was the case of Lisa Olson. In 1990, Olson was on assignment with the New England Patriots and while doing her job in the locker room, she experienced hostile remarks and harassment by players (Bruning, 1990). After a series of other incidents, Olson successfully sued the New England Patriots for sexual harassment, civil rights violations, intentional infliction of emotional distress and intentional damage to her professional 20 reputation. She was awarded $250,000 by the courts (Burton Nelson, 1994). These, and similar incidents, have helped to raise awareness about the situation of women in sports journalism and helped galvanize support for improving the working conditions of women in the sport news and information industry. Forms of discrimination in sports journalism As demonstrated through these two cases, women sports reporters have been and continue to be discriminated against. Burton Nelson (1994) indicated that women sports journalists "face difficult working conditions, from minor annoyances to pay inequities to verbal and even physical assaults" (p. 237). These conditions are evidence of organizational discrimination based on gender. This discrimination comes from inside as well as outside the sports department. Forms of discrimination within the sports departments of daily newspapers includes: assumptions of the incompetence of women, resentment of the presence of women, lack of good assignments and promotion, isolation, sexual harassment, and general lack of acceptance (Eberhard & Myers, 1988). The immediate work environment of women in sports reporting includes individuals such as sports reporters, sports editors and support staff who oftentimes, wittingly or unwittingly, contribute to the conditions just listed. Cramer (1994) reported that journalists covering the prestigious sports beats such as football, baseball and basketball get published the most. Yet, one of the reporters interviewed by Cramer (1994) claimed that it is typical that "women sportswriters get pigeonholed into women's sports and when that happens, your career stalls" (p. 169). Smith, Fredin and Ferguson (1988) studied gender 21 discrimination in story assignments among TV reporters in other fields than sports and found insignificant conclusions to the hypothesis that women journalists were assigned lower status stories. Conflicting results have been presented in sports journalism. For example, according to a British study by Fitzhenry (1990), women's competencies to report on men's sports were regularly questioned as there was an assumption that women could not cover men's sports. In Eberhard and Myers' study (1988), respondents reported that a form of discrimination came about with a lack of assignments. In their study which surveyed over 90 women sports journalists working at newspapers with daily circulation of over 100,000 copies, they found that out of 90 beats covered by these women, only 13 were related to a professional sport and of these, only 11 related to a mainstream professional sport (mainstream professional sports consist of basketball, football, hockey, baseball and golf). Despite these results, Eberhard and Myers' study reported that editors of American dailies were not using women to cover women's sports events. In addition, Rambo (1989) pointed out that women have been slow to reach the top in sports department management, reflecting poor promotional policies for women in sports journalism. Of course such issues are raised in other professions and in different sectors of employment as well. In general, women are found in lower paying positions where they do not have access to the decision-making process (Rinehart, 1987). In the organizational structures of power and authority women are often less inclined than men to occupy positions of power (Boyd, Mulvihill & Myles, 1991). The discrimination experienced by women reporters in the external work environment of sports reporting is primarily constituted in a general lack of acceptance, 22 the denial of access to locker rooms, and occasional overt sexual harassment, physical intimidation and threats (Eberhard & Myers, 1988). These forms of discrimination can come from coaches, players, owners, administrators, volunteers and fans. A study undertaken in the United States by Ordman and Zillman (1994) revealed that women sports reporters (radio and print media) were perceived as less competent than their male colleagues and were also perceived as being less informed about sports in general. Subjects participating in this study were exposed to sports commentaries in both radio and print media and then had to give their opinions on the credibility of the sports reporters. Rambo (1989) noted that locker room access problems and crude treatment by some men players are all too common for women sports reporters. Burton Nelson (1994) provided an extensive discussion of the locker room situation. She reported that conducting locker room interviews is very traditional and that sports administrators and coaches have difficulty in convincing their "million-dollar men [athletes] to refrain from harassing women" (p. 233). She provides recommendations on how individuals can challenge the masculine-orientation in order to take "the sex and sexism and even gender out" (Burton Nelson, 1994: 257). For example, it could be done by creating models of reporting where everyone wins and where no one is exploited such as by turning away from sports jargon and discussing the multiple ways that the manly sports system affects women. Burton Nelson felt that the controversy around women sports reporters raised an important question: Why do women want to write about sports? Her answer to this question was drawn from the comments of the journalists she studied. For example, Kaufman from The Detroit Free Press responded that she liked sports and that she liked 23 to write about it (Burton Nelson, 1994). She added that wherever she went she was asked how she had gotten into sports and that male reporters never got asked that question. Dodds, another woman sports reporter from The Los Angeles Times liked the overwhelming sense of accomplishment in a "dynamic, challenging business" (Rambo, 1989: 26). Like their male peers, women sports reporters liked writing about sports, it was that simple. Under-representation of women sports journalists. In 1994, in the United States, women sports reporters and broadcasters comprised eight percent of the total population of sports reporters and broadcasters (Burton Nelson, 1994) and around nine percent of the total work force of sports reporters (Eberhard & Myers, 1988). Numbers for Canada were even lower with women constituting around four and one half percent of the work force of sports journalism (Sparks, 1991). Does this represent the healthy future that Cindy Meagher predicted for women sports reporters back in 1976 (Gilman, Moran & Miller, 1976)? Why are there so few women working in sports journalism? Perhaps one of the reasons can be found in the gender-specificity of sports themselves and the processes of socialization into sports. In regards to the effect of socialization in children's sports behavior, Greendorfer (1992) noted that "few of us question or challenge the reasons for or the validity of the underlying ideology that is embedded in such practices" (p. 5). Greendorfer found that boys and girls engaged in different sports and that the level of participation differed between them. But her work points beyond children's sports play 24 and engages the issue of the effects of socialization on the involvement of women in sports more generally. These findings have the potential to be linked to the issue of why women do not enter the sports journalism profession in the same numbers as men. Socialization processes affect the decisions about working in the media and about what sectors of the media are gender appropriate places to work. In addition to the effects of socialization noted by Greendorfer, Hawkesworth's (1991) theory of individuality can also help explain why few women enter a career of sports journalism. Hawkesworth provided a useful discussion of affirmative action that helps clarify issues around the subject of job selection, recruitment and advancement. She described two opposing perspectives on career patterns and affirmative action programs, emanating from two different conceptions of individuality. These two conceptions hinge on the issues of the nature of individual identity and individual freedom, on the relationship of the individual to other people and social groups, and on the importance of impersonal historic forces in people's lives. In her terms, opponents of affirmative action tend to conceptualize the issues of gender equity from a standpoint of atomistic individualism whereas proponents of affirmative action tend to embrace a concept of socialized individualism. The concept of atomistic individualism suggests that women willingly choose different career patterns from men, and that women often lack appropriate qualifications which prevents them from entering certain types of work which are assumed to be "men dominated". The atomistic conception posits the individual as radically independent,... the individual exists as a self-contained entity impervious to history, culture or society...Success is a function of individual initiative and effort and is, consequently, deserved. (Hawkesworth, 1991: 296). In this perspective, the low number of women in sports journalism is not a result of discrimination against qualified candidates but rather a consequence of women lacking the required qualification, and as a result failing to qualify for a career in sports journalism. Eberhard and Myers (1988) reported a number of reasons why there were not many women in sports journalism, two of which reflected such an atomistic individualism point of view. First, they argued that the number of women sports reporters was low because not enough women had solid backgrounds in sports and those who did often had insufficient interests in all types of sports. Secondly, women were not persistent enough and seemed to lack the motivation to get into sports journalism. The concept of socialized individualism holds that the choice that women make regarding their career is influenced by societal values, norms and roles. This perspective concedes that individual identity is shaped by the values and beliefs of predominant cultures. Individuals adopting a more socialized individualism point of view would tend to emphasize different reasons to explain the low number of women sports reporters. For example, the socialized individualism conception would claim that there are few women in sports journalism because gender socialization in our society discourages women's involvement in sports and sports reporting. Hawkesworth noted that" the inculcation of cultural, sexual norms may constitute formidable obstacles to individual freedom" (1991: 297) and that "when women and white men achieve the same goals, sexism may preclude 26 recognition of the accomplishments as identical" (1991: 302). Eberhard and Myers (1988) found evidence that women who worked as sports reporters were discriminated against within their work environment. General lack of acceptance, lack of good assignments and promotions were included on their list. It could be argued from a socialized individualism perspective, therefore that women are not pursuing careers in sports journalism partially because they are socialized not to and partially because they are aware of the discrimination they will have to cope with if they ever enter the field, a result of the gender socialization of the men who already work in newspapers. In this research, the assumption is that the hiring, promotion and assignments procedures within sports departments affect the careers of women and men sports reporters in different ways. The reasons for this may be complex and only partially clear to the parties involved. For example, decision makers in sports journalism might be proponents of affirmative action but not fully understand the work environment of newspapers and its inherent unfriendliness towards women. This means that the dominant male group in sports journalism might think that there are few women interested in sports journalism because of lack of interest and not because of the barriers that discourage women. The findings of the SNG report, for example, would tend to support such a conclusion. A British study by Fitzhenry (1990) adds several other factors to those discussed by Eberhard and Myers (1988) and Burton Nelson (1994) to explain the under-representation of women in sports journalism. Fitzhenry investigated the under-representation of women sports reporters within the British system and was mostly 27 interested in the reasons for women's low participation in the sports media. In her investigation, she found that women stayed away from sports because there was no tradition of women writers working in this particular field of journalism and because those who tried to gain entrance were often challenged on their capability to report sports. Fitzhenry indicated that sports reporting was an intimidating profession to break into mostly because of the level of male domination of the field, and because there was a widespread belief that women might have difficulty combining professional and family life. Fitzhenry also noted that women studying in journalism "are not given an opportunity to spend part of their journalism apprenticeship in the sports department" (1990: 35) as are their male counterparts. There are no published Canadian or American studies on internship programs in sports journalism. However, one relevant fact is that in 1977, in the United States, the percentage of women studying in journalism surpassed the number of men studying in the same field and women students have since continued to outnumber men (Beasley, 1987). The same author reported that, in 1984, women comprised 60% of the students enrolled in journalism school. Furthermore, she noted that employers have had difficulty in adapting to this shift. While the overall presence of women has grown in journalism studies, there has been very little growth in the number of women who go on to write about sports. Organizational culture A useful way to understand organizational constraints is in terms of organizational culture. In essence, organizations are like miniature societies that possess cultural 28 characteristics. Organizations are created by individuals and are comprised of individuals who work together to some end (Allaire & Firsirotu, 1987). Following this interpretation, sports departments can be understood as organizations (or sub-units within organizations) since they consist of a group of individuals working to the common end of producing the newspaper sports section. Allaire and Firsirotu (1987) emphasize that organizations can be looked upon as systems that are culturally circumscribed in terms of socialization processes, norms and social structures. In this thesis, sports departments are considered as organizations characterized by their own culture (socialization processes, norms and social structures) which affect the experiences of women sports reporters. The organizational culture emerges in different forms and from various conditions. It can be shaped through historical forces, current practices, social demographics, ecological contexts and work roles (Van Maanen & Barley, 1985). The present research is mostly focused on the current practices of hiring practices, assignment procedures and promotion opportunities and their impacts on women's careers in sports reporting. The organizational culture of newspaper sports departments is conceptualized herein as sustaining particular hiring practices, promotional opportunities and assignments procedures that together comprise key employment practices and contexts. In order to get a clearer understanding of organizational cultures, Schein (1991) argued that we must look at the multiple levels at which the culture of an organization is manifested. He felt that culture is revealed at three different levels. 29 Schein's three levels of organizational culture Schein's (1991) first level of culture is constituted within the artifacts of the organization. By studying the artifacts of a specific organization, a researcher can investigate the visible organizational structures and processes that shape the organization. In sports departments, for example, this entails investigating the managerial and editorial practices which reflect tangible patterns in the hiring practices, promotional opportunities and assignments procedures which in turn affect the careers of women and men sports reporters. The second level for understanding the particularities of an organizational culture is from the standpoint of the values of the organization. At this level, the researcher is concerned about strategic planning and about the values defining the organization and its culture. Studying values manifested within a sports department would entail the researcher taking on the role of a participant in the day-to-day operation. Also, the researcher could use interview or focus group methods to get at this second level of the organizational culture. Finally, organizational culture is manifested at a third more implicit or subconscious level. Here, the underlying assumptions and unconscious, taken-for-granted beliefs, habits of perception, thoughts and feelings are the focus of attention. To be able to describe and understand the underlying assumptions, one has to have a strong relationship with the organization and its members. 30 Organizational culture and the work environment According to Schein (1991), research such as this thesis that relies on a questionnaire survey design typically focuses on an organization's first, more manifested, level (Schein, 1991). For the purpose of this study, the term "work environment" has been chosen to describe the first level at which the organizational culture is being studied. The work environment encompasses hiring practices, promotion opportunities and assignment procedures offered to sports reporters. In relation to Schein's work, these three issues (hiring, promotions and assignments) are considered artifacts or first level characteristics of the organizational culture. Figure 1 graphically represents the relation between organizational culture and the work environment. Figure 1 Relation between organizational culture and work environment Organizational Culture /. Artifacts 2. Values 3. Under ly ing Assumptions Work Environment Hiring practices, promotion opportunities and assignments procedures The present study evaluates the three identified elements of the work environment and studies their impact on the careers of women sports reporters. In order to understand the nature of gender processes in sports departments, the following section gives a description of how organizations can be defined and understood through their gendered structure. 31 Organization, gender and the work environment in sports journalism Acker and VanHoutten (1991) argued that "organizational structures and processes are influenced by sex" (p. 27). This statement can be applied to the situation of women in the recruitment process in sports journalism. For example, these authors have argued that women tend to be recruited into jobs requiring dependence and where decision-making is not an issue. For example, the SNG report revealed that women were highly represented in clerical positions (positions which generally are high in dependence) and were under-represented in professional and management positions where decision-making was an integral part of the positions. Assuming that a sports reporter, like a reporter in other areas of journalism, has to be autonomous and independent (Fishman, 1980), the claims made by Acker and VanHoutten could explain, the low number of women sports reporters. To be a sports reporter, one needs to be independent and autonomous, and women are usually under-represented in jobs requiring these characteristics. Tancred-Sheriff (1989) has suggested that the unequal representation of women in the work force might be better explained by factors concerning the nature of the organization rather than factors concerning solely the nature of the individual. For example, by focusing on those factors linked with gender and sexuality in the organization, light may be shed on how the labor process itself constitutes a gendered context. In sports journalism, this means that the male dominated nature of sports reporting has to be studied to understand the work environment under which women sports reporters work and the different impacts of the work environmet on the people 32 working in the sports department. Mills (1989) similarly pointed to the relationship between societal values and organizational behavior in organizations. Individuals brought their cultural values into the organization thereby influencing its general purposes and the management styles that, in turn, affected the way things were done. Organizations that embody and reward male thinking and purposes stand to have a high potential for discriminating against women (Hearn & Parkin, 1987). The issues presented by Mills and Hearn & Parkin have obvious relevance for analyzing the cultural perspectives of sports departments in terms of being male dominated domains. This view is supported by the socialized individualism approach presented earlier. Several authors (cf. Acker & VanHoutten, 1991; Mills, 1989; Tancred-Sheriff, 1989) contributed to a broader view of organizations as gendered entities that can be used to help clarify why there are low numbers of women sports reporters and why women in sports journalism report being discriminated against. Rinehart (1992) has noted that the Canadian work force has been in a state of change over the last decade, and that a reorganization in the division of labor, in the market and in the pattern of ownership are transforming the nature of work in our society. Amongst all the changes, women have been entering the labor force in significant numbers. It is imperative, therefore, to examine the gender structures of organizations, in order to take account of how women are, and will be, accommodated in the paid labor force. In this study, this objective has been operationalized in the area of the work environment in sports journalism. Conclusion and gaps in the literature 33 From a market standpoint, it has been noted that newspapers presently have reasons to increase their readerships. One strategy for doing so is to capture the attention of women readers, possibly by hiring more women sports reporters. Many studies (Badgikan, 1974; Burks & Stone, 1993; Carlisle Duncan, 1990; Carlisle Duncan & Bummet, 1993; Cramer, 1994; Ferri, 1988; Hil l iard, 1984; Kle in , 1988; Lumpkin & Will iams, 1991; Theberge & Cronk, 1986) have concluded that women athletes are under-represented in the media in comparison to men athletes and that the quality of the coverage of women is not equivalent. Several studies (Angell, 1979; Gilman, Moran & Mil le r , 1976; Hoffman, 1984) have specifically examined the evolution of sports journalism over time, but few, have investigated the role of women sports reporters in the newspaper industry. Two studies (Burton Nelson, 1994; Eberhard & Myers, 1988) have reported on the work conditions of women sports reporters in the United States. However, to my knowledge, no study has been completed on the impact of the work environment (hiring practices, assignment procedures and promotion opportunities) in Canadian daily newspapers on the careers of Canadian women sports reporters. 34 Chapter III - Research Methods Introduction to chapter III The following chapter describes the research methods used in this study. Specifically, a survey questionnaire was adopted as the main instrument for gathering information. The population studied consisted of full-time women sports reporters working in Canadian daily newspaper sports departments and full-time men sports reporters working in a sports department where at least one women was employed full-time as a sports reporter. Characterization of the study Introduction to survey research approach This thesis studies the gendered nature of careers and the work context of sports reporters working at daily newspapers in Canada. Central importance is given to the experiences of women sports reporters, and to how the work environment affects their careers. In order to document and analyze the work environment and the gendered processes it entails, a matched sample method was used so that the experiences of women sports reporters could be compared with those of men in terms of hiring practices, assignments procedures and promotion opportunities within Canadian daily newspaper sports departments. A mailed self report questionnaire (Appendix A) was developed as the instrument for collecting information from journalists targeted by the study. The use of questionnaires as an instrument for surveying has limitations as well as advantages. 35 The advantages of a mailed questionnaire protocol include the fact that respondents have time to give thoughtful answers and that it provides access to groups of individuals who would be difficult to reach through other means (Fowler, 1993). Since this study was intended to gather information from across Canada, the mailed survey was also chosen as a cost-effective and efficient way of collecting information. Individualized information on Canadian sports reporters could be obtained using this method and different populations could be targeted. One questionnaire that targeted sports reporters was developed for the study and a subsequent questionnaire was constructed for sports editors. Preparation and planning in survey research is critical for ensuring the validity of the results (Thomas & Nelson, 1990). In order to increase validity, the questions need to conform to the hypotheses or assumptions they are intended to measure, and the questionnaire needs to be tested with an initial sub-sample to evaluate its communicative clarity and effectiveness. Reliability, which is the ability to provide consistent measures in similar situations, is also controlled through the formulation of the questions and through a pilot study. Some questions are constructed to obtain complementary or opposing views. For example, in the eventual questionnaire, sports reporters were asked if they felt independent in their work and in the stories they covered, and then they were asked about the involvement of the sports editor in suggesting what assignments to cover. In response to these two questions, opposite results were expected, and the differing points of view of the respondents could be assessed. Similar answers would suggest a complementarity of views. Differences would suggest opposing or divergent views. The main limitations of mailed questionnaires are that the answers can simply reflect what individuals think they do or believe, like or dislike at a specific moment (Thomas & Nelson, 1990), and that the questionnaire is less personalized and therefore less efficient at gaining cooperation from the sample (Fowler, 1993). This means that there is the possibility of obtaining a variety of responses from questionnaire surveys depending on the time of day and work situation in which participants choose to fill it out. Since sports reporters work in a dynamic environment, this could lead to varied results. Also, there is some possibility of selection bias in survey research unless a sufficiently large portion of the sample population takes part in the study and completes the questionnaire. It is readily acknowledged that the results of this thesis project will primarily reveal what the respondents felt at the time they completed the questionnaire. Collectively, however, there is a tendency for these variations to be dampened by the overall responses of a large sample and for selection bias to be diminished by having a high return rate. This study was designed to achieve a sufficient sampling rate and rate of return to compensate for response variability. Sampling strategy Two groups of reporters were selected for the survey in this research. The first population included all women who worked full-time as sports reporters at Canadian daily newspapers and the second population was, all men working full-time as sports reporters at Canadian daily newspapers where at least one woman worked full-time as a sports reporter. Full-time status was defined as being a minimum of 25 hours of work per 37 week. Excluded from this study were women and men sports reporters working under 25 hours a week and sports reporters working on a freelance basis. Telephone calls were made to all 106 Canadian daily newspaper sports departments listed in the Canadian Directory of Newspaper Sports Journalists (Sparks, 1991) in order to determine the number of departments with full-time women reporters and the number of women and men working in these departments. From the telephone calls, 21 women full-time sports reporters were identified. The number of women working in sports journalism was lower than the number (N=29) found by Sparks (1991) due to the fact that only women sports reporters working full-time were selected for the study. The 21 women sports reporters worked in the sports departments of 19 different newspapers. Through the telephone census, the names of 134 men sports reporters were also obtained which constituted the total population of men working full-time as sports reporters at Canadian daily newspapers where at least one woman also worked full-time as a sports reporter. According to the Canadian Directory of Newspaper Sports Journalists (Sparks, 1991), this sample of men corresponded to approximately 20% of the total of men reporters covering sports at Canadian daily newspapers. In addition to surveying sports reporters, a questionnaire was developed for sports editors (appendix B). The questionnaire was sent to all 106 sports editors working at Canadian daily newspapers. Participation in the survey was strictly voluntary as stated in the covering letter accompanying the questionnaire. Names and addresses were provided by the Canadian Directory of Newspaper Sports Journalists (Sparks, 1991). 38 Hypotheses Two major research hypotheses were identified at the outset of the study, to help guide the questionnaire design and data analysis. The hypotheses were intended to situate the context of women sports reporters relative to their male peers in the key areas of hiring, assignments procedures and promotion opportunities. The two hypotheses were as follow: Hypothesis #1: There is gender inequity in employment in Canadian daily newspaper sports departments concerning: a) Hiring practices: Women do not have the same opportunities to enter the field of sports journalism as men. b) Assignments procedures: i) Women sports reporters cover significantly more stories on women athletes than their male peers. ii) Women sports reporters cover less "prestigious " beats and stories than their male peers. c) Promotion opportunities: Women sports reporters do not have the same opportunities to progress in the field of sports journalism as men sports reporters. Hypothesis #2: Canadian daily newspaper sports departments have a work environment that discourages the participation of women sports reporters, a) Networks and support i) Men sports reporters have significantly "stronger " networking links within the field of sports journalism than women sports reporters. ii) Women sports reporters are significantly less independent in their work than their male peers. h) Personal/family responsibilities versus work environment i) Personal/family responsibilities have an effect on what beats and stories are assigned to women sports reporters to a significantly greater degree than their male peers. ii) Personal/family responsibilities negatively affect the promotion opportunities of women sports reporters to a significantly greater degree than their male peers. c) Work Expectations i) Women sports reporters work expectations are met to a significantly lesser degree than men's in the following areas: salary, career advancement, working schedule, job assignments, amount of work, job security, influence in the department, status/prestige and work environment. ii) If women and men sports reporters had to decide all over again to be sports reporters, significantly more women than men would reconsider their choice. 40 The questionnaire was constructed to evaluate the above hypotheses. Before presenting the results and analyses, the following section describes how the information was gathered. Data collection process Structure and content of questionnaires When constructing a questionnaire, there should be a clear understanding of what is intended to be gained from the survey (Berg & Latin, 1994). Generally, the relevance and effectiveness of the questionnaire items can be enhanced by operationalizing the research question(s) in clearly stated hypotheses or research assumptions that help to clarify the results that are anticipated. This was achieved through the development of the hypotheses discussed above. Also , because this study was inspired by the work o f Eberhard and Myers (1988), a number of items from the sports reporter questionnaire developed by them were adapted for this survey. Since the current study focused on the work environment of sports departments in addition to reporters' perceptions of their jobs the information gathered went beyond Eberhard and Myers ' study. Both closed and semi-closed questions were used. A s suggested by Borg and Gal l (1983), each question was constructed to be as clear, short and bias-free as possible, making it easier for respondents to answer in an honest and objective way. The study used a predominantly quantitative and descriptive survey method, and the questionnaire was designed to solicit predominantly nominal and ordinal data, with some interval data. A s noted above, two questionnaires were designed: one for women and men sports reporters and a second for 41 sports editors (Appendices A & B). The respective completion times for the two questionnaires were 40 minutes and 20 minutes. The sports reporter questionnaires were identical for women and men. Each sports reporter questionnaire was composed of three major sections: assignments (including hiring), promotions and general information (demographic data). The sports editor questionnaire complemented the sports reporter questionnaire and provided a management perspective on issues related to hiring policies, assignment procedures and promotion opportunities. The questionnaire gave sports editors an opportunity to comment on issues related to the nature of the barriers that may prevent Canadian women from entering the newspaper sports journalism field. As noted above, the sports editor questionnaire was not analyzed as a separate entity but rather was used to substantiate and contextualize the findings from the sports reporter questionnaire. Both questionnaires were translated into French in order to respond to the needs of the French speaking subjects. The questionnaires was checked for accuracy by two fully bilingual individuals and was piloted with a French speaking sports editor. Pilot study As shown in Table 3, a two stage pilot study was conducted. First, in order to determine the range of issues impacting the careers of sports reporters and to identify employment equity policies and issues in sports journalism, interviews were conducted with a small sample (n=4) of sports reporters and editors working in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan (CMA) Area. These interviews were semi-structured and lasted for 42 an average of one hour. Three sports reporters and one editor were interviewed and the results were used as a basis for constructing the sports reporter and the sports editor questionnaires. The second stage of the pilot study entailed conducting a test of the effectiveness of the two questionnaires. In this stage, feedback was solicited from a sample of four sports reporters and four sports editors on the format and content of the questionnaires. A small number of questions were perceived by this group to be irrelevant or asked in a manner which made the purpose of the question unclear. With the help of the pilot study, the sports reporter questionnaire and the sports editor questionnaire were modified and then circulated to their targeted samples in the national populations. Table A - Participants in pilot study. Stage I Stage II Interviews Questionnaire Feedback • 2 female sports reporters • 2 female sports reporters • 1 male sports reporter • 2 male sports reporters • 1 sports editor (male) • 4 sports editors (all males) Schedule The sports reporter questionnaires were sent out in May, 1995, with a pre-addressed and pre-stamped return envelope to a total of 155 sports reporters across Canada. Two subsequent follow-ups were done. The first follow-up consisted of the mail out of a letter (Appendix C) to the 155 sports reporters. In the letter, those who had already responded to the questionnaire were thanked while non-respondents were encouraged to complete and return the questionnaire as soon as possible. The second follow-up consisted of a second mail-out of the entire questionnaire to all 155 subjects. The accompanying letter to the questionnaire (Appendix D) thanked those who had responded and encouraged the non-respondents to complete and return the questionnaire. The follow-up procedures were undertaken to obtain a higher rate of return (Berg & Latin, 1994). The sports editor questionnaire was sent in October 1995. Only one mail-out was done as sports editors were not the focus of the study. Analysis of the data The response rates for the two questionnaires are presented in the following tables. Table 4 reports the response rates of sports reporters and sports editors and Table 4a reports on the number of daily newspapers included and represented in the study. Table 4 - Questionnaires sent and response rate (n & %). Questionnaire sent Women M e n Total Response rate Women M e n Total Sports reporters 21 134 155 (13.5%) (86.5%) (100%) 16 66 82 * (76.2%) *(49.3%) *(52.9%) Sports editors 106 (100%) 2 22 24 *(22.6%) * % represents the portion of respondent* for each group separately Table 4a - \umber of daily newspapers included and represented in the study (n & %). Newspapers-Questionnaire sent Women M e n Total Newspapers-Response rate Women M e n Total Sports reporters 19 19 19 (100%) (100%) (100%) 16 16 16* (84%) (84%) (84%) Sports editors 106 (100%) 2 22 24 (22.6%) v I he 16 newspapers are the same Jar » omen and men sports reporters Data from the questionnaires were coded and then analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) for Windows. A total of 253 variables were 44 coded. Each variable corresponded to a question or part of a question and was given a numerical value. Once all the questionnaires were coded, 10% of the questionnaires were randomly selected (n=8) and screened for potential coding errors by a second coder. Some minor errors errors were found. In addition, the coded data were re-examined and cleaned by the researcher in order to ensure the elimination of minor typographical errors. The data were analyzed in three steps. First, the overall returns of the sports reporter questionnaires were analyzed as a whole. This meant evaluating the answers of all respondents (n=82), both women (n=16) and men (n=66). The second step consisted of a matched sample descriptive data analysis. The matched sample included the total number of women respondents (n=16) and a selected sample of men (n=16) who had characteristics similar to the women's sample. The criteria used for the matched sample are reported in the results and analyses chapter and in Table 11. Third, the sports editors' data were coded as well and used for comparison and corroboration purposes. A chi-square test with an alpha level of 0.05 was used to test statistical significant differences between variables and by extension, for deciding the descriptive power of the operationalized research hypotheses. It is important to note that those differences which were not statistically significant were not necessarily unimportant despite the fact that they failed to meet the predetermined probability level (.05). The chi-square ( X 2 ) test was used because it is designed to test relationships based on comparing proportions. When a statistically significant difference between variables was found using the chi-square, a Spearman's correlation (r) test was also calculated in order to identify the strength of the relationship between the two measured variables. 45 Ethics The study received approval from the University of British Columbia Behavioural Sciences Screening Committee for Research Involving Human Subjects (Appendix E). Chapter IV - Results and Analyses 46 Sample rates and rates of return As reported earlier in Table 4, a total of 155 questionnaires were sent to sports reporters, 21 questionnaires to women sports reporters and 134 questionnaires to men sports reporters. A total of 88 questionnaires (56.8%) were completed and returned, 16 (76.2%) from women sports reporters and 72 (53.7%) from men sports reporters, for a total response rate of 56.8%. There were important similarities between the respondent and non-respondent groups which suggest that selection bias was minimal. Both groups worked as full-time sports reporters in a major Canadian daily newspaper and in both groups the newspaper circulations were clustered in a range of 11,000 to 600,000 copies daily. Of the nineteen newspapers included in the sample frame for the study, sixteen responded which constitutes an 84% return rate by newspaper. Six of the returned and completed questionnaires (6.8%) were excluded from the analysis, lowering the total usable returns to 82 (52.9%), 16 for women (76.2%) and 66 for men (49.3%). They were excluded from the study because they did not fulfill the predetermined criteria. Two questionnaires were rejected because they were answered by sports editors who did not write articles on a regular basis, two were answered by copy editors who did not write articles and two were completed by part-time sports reporters. In the case of sports editors, 106 questionnaires were sent out and 24 returned (22.6%). 47 Data from the returned sports reporter questionnaires were collated into five groupings for analysis. The first group was the sample as a whole which represented all sports reporters (n=82). The second and third groups constituted the women's sample (n=16) and a sub-sample of men (n=16) chosen to "match" the women's sample. The fourth group was the total matched sample (n=32) which included the women's sample and the men's sub-sample. The fifth group was the sports editors (n=24) surveyed using a separate questionnaire. Table 5 presents an overview of these five different groups. Table 5 - Different groups identified in the study. Respondents n Group 1 Total sample (women and men) 82 Group 2 Total women 16 Group 3 Matched sample - men sub-sample 16 Group 4 Matched sample - women and men 32 Group 5 Sports Editors 24 An analysis was done of the whole sample initially in order to get a general feel for the sports journalism environment in newspapers across Canada. From this analysis, general descriptive information such as age and education of sports reporters was prepared. In addition, some gender comparisons were made which are further discussed below. Following the analysis of the overall sample (total sample), the data of the matched sample were summarized and examined. The specific criteria under which the matched sample was selected were as follows: education, years of experience, size of newspaper and age of the respondents (see Table 11). Using the matched sample data, an in-depth analysis was performed according to the two general hypotheses presented in the research methods chapter. The data collected from the sports editors complemented some 48 of the findings from the sports reporters but was not analyzed as a separate entity. The majority of the sports editors who responded worked at smaller newspapers where the sports departments had less than seven full-time staff including the sports editor and desk people. Out of the 24 sports editors who responded, seven worked in a sports department where there was at least one woman sports reporter working full-time. Total Sample Total sample - Demographic information and positions The ages of the sports reporters ranged from 23 years to 63 years with an average age of 38.1 years. Women respondents ages ranged from 24 to 38 years with an average age of 30.5 years. Men respondents ages ranged from 23 years to 63 years with an average of 39.9 years. The education levels of sports reporters ranged from high school to university graduate studies, as follows: 17.1% (n=14) had high school degrees, 19.5% (n=16) had college or technical school degrees, 54.9% (n=45) had university undergraduate degrees, 4.9% (n=4) had post-graduate degrees. In general, younger sports reporters with less work experience had higher levels of education. As seen previously, the women in the sample were, on average, 9.5 years younger than their male peers. In addition, they demonstrated a higher education level with 93.8% (n=14) of them having at least a university undergraduate degree in comparison to 45.5% (n=30) for their male peers. This finding is supported by Garrison and Salwen's (1989) work which concluded that during the past two decades, sports reporters have become more skilled and better educated. 49 Furthermore, Pollards' study (1995) acknowledged that women newsworkers in general were younger than their male counterparts, had more education and less work experience. In the study, full-time sports reporters worked an average of 45.2 hours per week although there was a wide range of hours in the sample (31-84 hours per week). Women worked an average of 40.4 hours per week and men worked 46.4 hours per week. There were significant gender differences in the number of nights spent away per month for work purposes. The women sports reporters were away an average of 1.9 nights per month in comparison to 15.4 nights per month for men sports reporters. This difference of 13.5 nights per month can be explained, as will be seen later, by the fact that men tend to cover more professional sports beats and therefore, need to be away longer and more frequently. As Fishman (1980) reported, "routinely they (beat reporters) spend more time stationed at their beat locations than in the newsroom" (p. 27). For reporters covering professional sports beats, this means spending more time out of town with the professional team to which they are affiliated. From Monday to Friday, the average daily circulation of the newspaper where the respondents worked was 167,135. Respondents worked in daily newspapers with a circulation of anywhere from 11,000 copies to 600,000 copies. The circulation numbers corresponded to the ones reported in the Canadian Directory of Newspaper Sports Journalists (Sparks, 1991). Respondents worked in sports departments employing anywhere from three to sixteen full-time sports reporters, indicating a diverse range of department sizes. As shown in Table 6, the women respondents had been involved in the sports journalism field for a shorter amount of time. This could be explained in part by the fact that the women sports reporters were younger than their male peers by 9.5 years. Table fy-fQ. 1.2,4. 49) Years of working experiences by gender (average number of years). Women Men Difference News or sports news 8.0 17.2 9.2 + for men Present newspaper 5.9 13.1 7.2 + for men Present sports department 5.9 iiiiiiii^ 6.5 + for men Current position 5.6 1111111111^8J4I1|11111111 2.8 + for men The current position held by the respondents was either sports reporter, sports columnist or acting sports editor and scoreboard editor. Questionnaires from four sports editors (or acting sports editors) and one scoreboard editor were included in the analysis of the sample findings. These five individuals were included in the study because they wrote articles on a regular basis and worked therefore as reporters and columnists. Table 7 provides a summary of the positions held by the respondents. Table 7-(Q.J) Position of respondents in their sports department (% & n). Women (n=16) Men (n=66) Reporter 87.5 (n=14) 80.3 (n=53) Columnist 0.0 (n=0) 15.2 (n=10) Editor or acting 12.5 (n=2) 3.0 (n-2) Other 0.0 (n=0) 1.5 (n-1) These were the positions defined in the questionnaire as comprising "the major role" of the respondents, but it did not preclude the possibility that some of the respondents occasionally had other roles and tasks, as will be reported in the work assignments section. There were no full-time women sports columnists in Canada, although a few women wrote columns on an infrequent basis (see Table 8). A woman respondent wrote: Columnists are promoted solely on gender - 5 females have worked as reporters in this department but they have never been promoted to full-time columnist - They look outside the department instead. For many, being a sports columnist was considered more prestigious than beat reporting, and columns seemed to be covered mainly by senior journalists. A respondent wrote that "a columnist should be opinionated, informative, entertaining, funny, serious, satirical and controversial". Sports columnists were usually very independent and were able to choose their own topics on which to write. The findings regarding columnists were congruent with those of Burton Nelson (1994) who found that, in the United States, only about a dozen women wrote a regular column in the sports pages. Burton Nelson reported the total number of sports journalists and broadcasters in the United States to be around 10,000 of whom 800 were women. A dozen regular women sports columnists is a very low number on a total of 10,000 sports journalists and broadcasters. Total sample - Assignments procedures In the work assignment section of the questionnaire, a series of questions were asked regarding the way assignments were distributed, the nature of work assignments and whether or not personal or family responsibilities of reporters affected work assignments. 52 Overall, 19.5% (n-16) of the respondents believed that their personal or family responsibilities affected their assignments while 79.3% (n=65) believed that such responsibilities did not affect their assignments. These response rates varied with the gender of the respondents with 43.8% (n=7) of the 16 women and 13.6% (n=9) of the 66 men indicating that their personal or family responsibilities affected the beats and stories that were assigned to them. Furthermore, women with children appeared more concerned about the issue than their male peers. Specifically, out of nine women who had children, 71.4% (n=5) believed that their personal or family life affected the beats and stories that were assigned to them in comparison with 14.6% (n=6) for the 41 men who had children. In these results, there was a clear line of distinction between the perceptions of women and men, with women tending to emphasize that personal/family responsibilities affected their work assignments. For example, a woman wrote: Because I have children, I would be hesitant to accept a beat such as hockey that would necessitate a great deal of travel. But I think I've proven that I'm flexible and will work whatever hours are asked of me. Respondents were asked which categories of assignments they were presently covering. Assignments were divided into three major categories: (1) beats, (2) general assignments and (3) columns. As demonstrated in Table 8, very few sports reporters found themselves covering stories in only one category. From these numbers, there is evidence that the majority of women and men were involved in the coverage of more than one category of work assignments. 53 Table 8 - (Q. 14,19, 24) Work assignment distribution (%). Group (n=82) Women (n=16) M e n (n=66) Beat 21.9 12.5 General assignments 3.7 12.5 i l l ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ; ! ! ! ; ! : :" Columns 9.8 0.0 I l l l l l l l l l l i l l l s s l Beat & general assignments 29.3 43.8 :|lllll!:21:81111111 Beat & columns 9.8 12.5 l l l l l l l ^ i l i i l l l l i i General assignments & columns 1.2 6.2 0.0 Beat, general ass. & columns 24.3 12.5 27.3 Total 100 100 100 The findings relating to assignments were the only ones that were chosen from the assignments variables to be summarized for the whole sample. The issue of work assignments is evaluated in greater detail with the matched sample. Total sample - Promotion opportunities The promotion opportunities section of the questionnaire focused on the possibilities for promotion and the accessibility to promotion opportunities within the industry. A few questions also concerned the perceived attributes that makes a promotion a promotion within different sports media markets, especially within larger and smaller newspaper markets. For example, respondents were asked i f a salary increase or becoming a sports columnist were considered promotions. A s in the work assignment section, the respondents were asked i f they perceived that their personal or family responsibilities had restricted their promotion opportunities. Overall, 15.9% (n=13) answered yes, that their personal/family responsibilities had affected their promotion opportunities and 84.1% (n=69) answered no. For women, 25.0% (n=4) appeared to think that their personal/family responsibilities had restricted their promotion opportunities in comparison to 13.6% (n=9) for men. In addition, the 54 respondents were asked i f they felt that women had as many opportunities to enter and to advance in the field of sports journalism as men. Table 9 reports these results. Table 9- (Q. .111,39) Do women have as many opportunities to enter and progress in the field of sports journalism as men? - responses of sports reporters by gender (%). women (n=16) do not yes no know men (n=66) do not yes no know Enter the field 50.0 37.5 12.5 62.1 28 8 9.1 Advance in the field 25.0 62.5 12.5 60.6 31.8 7.6 Nearly two thirds of the women (62.5%) perceived that they did not have the same opportunity to advance in the field of sports journalism as their male peers whereas only a third (31.8%) of the men shared this view. On the basis of these responses, it cannot be determined whether or not women were not offered the same opportunities as men in absolute terms as a result of their own personal choices, or because of organizational culture and structure. This issue w i l l be revisited and discussed in greater detail in the matched sample data analysis below. Respondents were asked i f their expectations had been met in the following areas: salary, career advancement, working schedule, job assignments, amount of work required, job security, influence in the department, status/prestige and work environment. Summary results according to gender are presented in Table 10. Table 10 - (Q. 65) Extent to which expectations have been met by gender (%). Women (n=16) Men (n _ 66) no yes exceeded i i l l i i r i p l l l i l llliyl!!*!* exceeded Salary 25.0 68.8 6.3 iiiiiii 59.1 21.2 Career advancement 50.0 50.0 0.0 66.7 12.1 Work schedule 56.3 37.5 6.3 10.6 Illliil 12.1 Job assignments 50.0 37.5 12.5 69.7 15.2 Amount o f work required 6.3 81.3 12.5 ilisopisf 15.2 Job security 6.3 81.3 12.5 18.2 iliiiii 12.1 Influence in department 43.8 43.8 12.5 28.8 l i i i i l l 7.6 Status/prestige 18.8 81.2 0.0 21.2 62.1 16.7 Work environment 43.8 43.8 12.4 24.1 72.7 3.1 55 The variables that revealed the greatest discrepancies and where women appeared to be less satisfied than men were: career advancement, work schedule, work assignments and work environment. The results concerning the issues of work assignments and career advancement were congruent with the fact that many women perceived that they did not have the same opportunities as their male peers to advance in the field of sports journalism. The questions related to expectations w i l l be addressed in more detail in the matched sample data analysis. In general, the majority 79.3% (n=65) of the respondents felt that i f they had to decide all over again, they would choose without hesitation to be a sports reporter or columnist. Only 18.3% (n=15) indicated they would reconsider becoming a sports reporter or columnist and 2.4% (n=l) would definitely not choose to be a sports reporter or columnist. Distinguished by gender, 75.0% (n=12) of women responded that they would choose to become a sports reporter or columnist without hesitation and 80.3% (n=53) of the men claimed the same. Many respondents "loved" their jobs and added comments such as: "Wouldn't change my job or life for the world", "This is the only job I ever wanted. Tacky, but true" or "I can honestly say, I am one of the few people on this earth who love their job and look forward to coming to work". Matched sample From the 62 male respondents a sample of 16 men were selected to match the 16 female respondents. Four main criteria were used: (1) age, (2) educational background, (3) size of newspaper and (4) years of experience (a) in the media and in (b) their current 56 position (see Table 11). The objective was to select a group of men who would be as similar as possible to the women along these criteria. A l l 16 women sports reporters were between the ages of 24 and 38. Fifteen women had a university degree and one had a college degree. The degrees were in arts and more specifically in the area of journalism and communication. They had been working in the sports media or general media industry for a period of 6 months to 16 years and had been in their current positions for a period ranging from 5 months to 16 years. The daily circulation of the newspapers where these women worked ranged from 11,000 to 500,000 copies with an average of 115,800 copies. The purpose of identifying and controlling these variables was to limit those conditions that may create a discrepancy between the experiences of women and men sports reporters. For example, although newspaper sports journalism has traditionally been a profession for men, the number of women sports reporters has grown steadily over the last few years (Rambo, 1989). It stands to reason, therefore, that the average age and years of experience would be greater for men than women because men have been in the profession for a longer time. If this difference was not controlled for in this study, men with more seniority would be compared with junior women reporters. Another example of the potential shortcoming of not using a matched sample is the matter of education levels. According to the findings, women in sports journalism are better educated than men. Here, again, the age factor probably helps to explain the difference. The profession of sports journalism has recently become more competitive at the entry level and a higher quality of reporting and sports coverage is now required (Rambo, 1989; Garrison & Salwen, 1989). This means that younger sports reporters need better qualifications and education to get jobs. Most of the women sports reporters in the study were in the younger half of the sample and, correspondingly had higher levels of formal education. By controlling for the age, education and years of experience of the respondents through a matched sample strategy one can more directly focus on the issues contained in the hypotheses of this study, mainly hiring, work assignments, promotion opportunities and work environment. Table 11 is a summary of the relevant biographical information gathered from the general information section of the questionnaire for the matched sample. Table 11- (Q. 1, 2, 3, 4, 49,54, 55, 56, 60) Biographical information of matched-sample respondents (% & it). Women (n=16) Men (n=16) Age * range: 24-38 years old average: 30.5 years old range: 23-38 years old average: 32.6 years old Marital Status single: 12.5% (n=2) involved-not married: 31.3% (n=5) married: 56.3% (n=9) single: 25%(n~4) involved-not married: 18.8% (n=3) married: 56.3% (n-9) Number of children have children: 56.3% (n=9) have children: 50% (n S) Education * college degree: 6.3% (n=l) university degree: 93.8% (n=15) university degree: 100%(n=16) Years working in media * range: 3 to 16 years average: 8.0 years range: 3 lo 16 \ears average: 10.0 years Years working for newspaper range: 3 to 16 years average: 7.0 years range: 1 to 16 years average: 7.4 years Years working for sports department range: 2 to 15 years average: 5.9 years range: 6 months to 16 years average: 6.6 years Current position reporter: 87.5% (n=14) acting editor: 6.3% (n=l) editor: 6.3% (n=l) reporter: 87.5% (n=14) columnist: 6.3% (n=l) lay-out artist: 6.3% (n=l) Years in current position * range: 1 to 16 years average: 5.6 years range: 5 months to 12 years average: 4.6 years Daily Circulation of newspapers* range: 11,000 to 500,000 average: 115,800 range: 26,000 to 500,000 average: 133,312 * Mam vuriahki uwi /or mauhc-J \ampk 58 The following section relates to the first hypothesis of the study which was linked to employment inequity in Canadian daily newspaper sports departments. There were three parts to this hypothesis. The first part concerned hiring practices, the second assignments procedures and the third promotion opportunities. Matched Sample and Hypothesis #1: There is gender inequity in employment in Canadian daily newspaper sports departments concerning: a) Hiring practices: Women do not have the same opportunities to enter the field of sports journalism as men. The hypothesis that women did not have the same opportunities to enter the field of sports journalism is supported overall by the findings but the level of support based on responses to single items is not statistically significant. This suggests there was equivocation over the extent to and ways in which women were perceived as being discriminated against. A main question asked respondents i f they felt that women had as many opportunities to enter the field of sports journalism as men did (Q. 38). Following this question, three supportive questions (Q. 5, 6, 7) helped in understanding and defining the channels through which a reporter would enter the sports journalism field. The respondents were asked where they worked prior to their present job.(Q. 5), how they had heard about the availability of their current position (Q. 6) and what steps they had taken when they applied for their current position (Q. 7). Finally, in order to have an understanding of the growth in department size of sports departments, respondents were asked if the numbers of reporters and columnists in their department had increased, decreased or stayed the same over the last ten years (Q. 48). 59 In question 38, reporters were asked if they felt that women had as many opportunities to enter the field of sports journalism as men. These results are shown in Table 12. Over one third (37.5%) of the respondents felt that women did not have as many opportunities to enter the field of sports journalism as their male peers. There were no significant differences between gender or between yes/no/don't know answers. Table 12 - (Q. 38) Women have as many opportunities to enter the field of sports journalism as men - responses of sports reporters by gender (%). Women (n=16) don't yes no know men (n=16) don't yes no know Enter in the field 50.0 37.5 12.5 56.3 37.5 6.3 :\'o significant difference found between gender tlK '.05) .\:o significant difference found between yes no regardless oj gender //>• 05) Nevertheless, some of the open comments on this question were useful in identifying the kinds of barriers the reporters met with regard to hiring. For example, a female respondent wrote that it depended whether or not the person doing the hiring or running the department advocated having a female sports reporter on staff. Other comments such as "Still old-boys network", "It's easier for men overall" and "Men run the sports world" also help to illustrate the difficulties. Conversely, a male respondent noted: "The opportunities are there. Few [women] pursue them. It's almost as if they fear being ghetto-ized so they pursue other fields such as political reporting, where they assume -1 believe incorrectly - that there will be more opportunities." These comments reflect two essentially different ways of thinking. On the one side, the fact that there were few women entering sports journalism was attributed to the nature of the environment that was predominantly male dominated and on the other side 60 the under-representation of women was portrayed as the result of deliberate and individualized decisions made by women. Apart from answering whether they felt that women had the same opportunities as men to enter the field of sports journalism, respondents were asked a series of questions about their own experience applying for their position, including i f they worked for their organization prior to entering their current position, how they had heard about their current position being available and what steps they had taken to apply for the position. These were intended to help determine i f women obtained their positions in different ways than men. Fifty-six percent (n=9) of the women had moved into their current position from an internal position within the newspaper and many of the men had also moved into their current position from an internal position, 43.8% (n=7), although an equal number of women and men had also come directly from an another paper , 43.8% (n=7). More significantly, 50% (n=8) of the women responded that they had heard about the availability of their position by being recruited in comparison to 18.8% (n=3) men who reported the same situation. One female respondent explained that despite her own case, however, recruitment is not assured for women. "Depends on the attitude of sports editor. I was actively recruited by my former editor because I 'm a women and former athlete and it was felt I could offer a unique voice. But not all editors and copy editors have been so liberal minded" On the same response item, 31.3% (n=5) of the men indicated they had heard about their position through friends while no women reported this situation. These results hinted to the fact that men may have different networking links within the sports journalism field 61 than women. This topic will be revisited in further detail when presenting the results of the hypothesis specifically related to networking (p.80). Adding to the results of how sports reporters had heard about the availability of their current position, some of the respondents comments on the survey are useful for illustrating the actual conditions under which they were hired. One woman started out working part-time with the sports department in a clerical position and eventually was hired full-time as a sports reporter. Four respondents had heard about their positions through journalism/communication schools they attended or by working as an intern within the newspaper. For example, one male respondent wrote: "[I] saw the job posting on a bulletin board at journalism school" and one female respondent wrote: "[I] had worked at the paper as a journalism school intern when the position opened". The link between journalism schools and recruitment into sports journalism may well be an important one. According to respondents, Canadian daily newspaper sports departments had either decreased or maintained their work force of reporters and columnists over the last ten years. Seventy-five percent (n=12) of women and 25% (n=4) of men respondents reported that the number of reporters and columnists in their department had decreased and 12.5% (n=2) of women and 50% (n=8) of the men reported that their numbers had stayed the same. In either case, it was clear that there had been a negligible increase in staff over the last ten years, and that in general, there was little opportunity for hiring or for expanding the number of employees. One respondent wrote: "Your questionnaire has given me cause to reflect on how little movement there has actually been within the 62 department". Similar results were reported by sports editors where 87.5% of them seemed to think that over the last ten years the number of sports reporters in their department had either decreased or stayed the same. A sports editor noted that they had not hired in five years due to a hiring freeze. b-i) Assignments procedures: Women sports reporters cover significantly more stories on women's athletes than their male peers. The hypothesis that women sports reporters significantly cover more stories on women athletes than their male peers is supported by the findings. Table 13 reports the results on the coverage of women's and men's sports and on the general satisfaction with the work assignments. The respondents were asked i f they covered more men's or women's sports than their peers (Q. 11.2, 11.3). In addition, respondents were asked i f they were generally satisfied with their assignments (Q. 11.1). Table 13 - (Q. 11.1, 11.2,11.3) Coverage of men's and women \ sports (%). Agree Neither Disagree W i i i i l l W ! | M | ! W M p (gender) Generally satisfied with assignments** 75.0 87.5 6.3 6 3 18.8 6.3 .5616 Cover more men's sports than peers * * * 0.0 18.8 56.3 56.3 43.8 25.0 .1482 Cover more women's sports than peers 81.3 18 8 6.3 43.8 12.5 37.5 Significant difference found between gender ( p -- 05) * \ -12 "'SO. p- OrO and r - 55<J~V. />- Ml9 Significant differences found bens ecu agree-neither disagree (p'- 05) ** .V -31250. p-0001 * * * - V •-JO 5625. p 0051 Regarding their general level of satisfaction, 81.3% (n=26) of the matched sample respondents agreed with the following statement: "I am generally satisfied with my assignments." There were significantly more respondents who agreed to being generally 63 satisfied with their assignments regardless of gender (p=.0001), 75% (n=12) of the women and 87.5% (n=14) of the men were satisfied. There were significantly more respondents who neither agreed nor disagreed to covering more men's sports regardless of gender (p=.0051). There was a statistically significant difference by gender between the perception of covering more women's sports. Significantly more women than men reported covering more women's sports at a p value of .0170. b-ii) Assignments procedures: Women sports reporters significantly cover less "prestigious" beats and stories than their male peers. This section is focused on the exact nature and content of the respondents' work assignments. The hypothesis that women sports reporters cover less prestigious beats is generally supported by the findings, although this was not evaluated statistically because of the intricacy and interactivity of the items used to assess it. Women's work is generally less published than men's and is oriented more toward amateur sports which is considered to be less "prestigious" than professional sports. Several groups of questions were used to operationalize this hypothesis. Questions were asked about how work assignments were allocated (Q. 8,9,10) and a series of questions were asked concerning the categories of assignments covered by the respondents, their publication frequency and the specific sports covered (Q. 14-29). In addition, a series of questions were asked regarding what sports respondents would like to cover the most and on actual sports coverage in their newspaper's sports sections (Q. 31, 32, 33, 34, 35). These questions taken together yielded a comprehensive picture of which 64 sports were the most prestigious and the most visible. Work assignments were divided into three categories in related items: beats, general assignments and columns. A beat is a mode of news coverage that is widespread across newspapers. Typically in a sport department this involves being assigned to cover a particular sport. L ike a police officer's "beat", the reporter on a beat assignment is expected to "make rounds" o f her/his contacts in the sport(s) industry and generate a steady flow of information and stories. In general, reporters not generating news from a beat, worked on "general assignments". Column writing is a third type of assignment that solicits the critical views of the reporter on different topics of her/his choice. The respondents were asked how beats, general assignments and columns were assigned within their own sports departments. Criteria that are commonly used in allocating assignments were presented to the respondents and they had to identify the degree to which these criteria were actually used in their department. The criteria were: seniority of the reporter, interest/personal choice of the reporter, technical sports knowledge of the reporter, reputation of the reporter, availability of the reporter, past sports experiences of the reporter and gender of the reporter. Table 14 summarizes the results by response rates (percentages) and Table 14a ranks the results. A number one rank means that this variable received the highest score and was more frequently used in work assignments, according to respondents. For example, in beat assignments, seniority was classified as the variable most frequently used according to women respondents. 65 Table 14 - (Q. 8,9,10) Criteria used in 3 categories of assignment distributions (%). Questions: In vour department beats, general assignments and columns are assigned on the following basis: 1= never. 2- seldom/occasionally and 3~frequently/very frequently Beats General assignments Columns Women Women Men Women M e n Seniority 1 -2 46.7 3 53.3 mmmmmm i l l l l l i i l l l l l l l l 1 13.3 2 46.7 3 40.0 12.5 62.5 25.0 1 33.3 2 8.3 3 58.3 26.7 20.0 i i i i i i i i i i i Interest/personal choice 1 2 53.3 3 46.7 68.8 l l l l l l l l l l l l l l ; ; 1 13.3 2 46.7 3 40.0 56.3 43.8 1 8.3 2 41.7 3 50.0 28.o 28.6 i i i i i i i i i i i i i i Technical sports knowledge 1 20.0 2 46.7 3 33.3 lElilllllll;!! 1 26.7 2 46.7 3 26.7 62.5 37.5 1 16.7 2 33.3 3 50.0 28.6 35.7 35.7 Reputation 1 26.7 2 40.0 3 33.3 l l l l l l l l l l l l l l 1 33.3 2 46.7 3 20.0 62.5 l l l l l l l l l l l 1 41.7 2 16.7 3 41.7 l i i i i i i i i i l l l l l l l l l l l l 57.1 Avai lab i l i ty 1 13.3 2 40.0 3 46.6 16il:|iillllllll 50.0 i i l l i i i i i i i i i 1 -2 20.0 3 80.0 12.5 87.5 1 16.7 2 50.0 3 33.3 42.9 35.7 21.4 Past sports experience 1 -2 73.3 3 26.7 i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i 1 12.5 2 62.5 3 20.0 6.3 62.5 31.3 1 8.3 2 66.7 3 25.0 28.6 28.6 l l l l l l l l l l l l ; ; Gender 1 40.0 2 60.0 3 -i i i i i i i i i i l l l l l l l l l l l l l l ; 6.3 1 40.0 2 60.0 3 -25.0 68.8 6.3 1 41.7 2 41.7 3 16.7 i i i i i i i i i i 42.9 Table 14a - (Q. 8,9,10) \verage and rank of criteria used to distribute assignments by genderfmean of the rating & r for rank). Beats General assignments Columns Women Women liiiHiiiiiiiiii Women Men mean r. mean 1111. mean r. moan l i i i mean r. mean r. Seniority 2.533 1 2.188 I S 2.267 2 2 125 i i i i 2.250 2 2.267 iiiiiiiiiii Interest/personal choice 2.467 2 2 313 111 2.267 2 2.438 1111 2.417 1 2.143 i l l ! Technical sports knowledge 2.133 5 2.375 111:1 2.000 5 2.375 3 2.333 3 2.071 5 Reputation 2.067 6 2.625 i l l 1.867 6 2.375 liill 2.000 6 2.35? iiiiiiiiiiiiii Avai lab i l i ty 2.333 3 2.375 111 2.800 1 2.875 Iiiiiiiiiii: 2.167 4 1 786 111 Past sports experiences 2.267 4 2.375 111 2.067 4 2.250 5 2.167 4 2.143 3 Gender 1.600 7 1.688 lilii 1.600 7 1.813 l i l l 1.750 7 1.429 liil Rank I means this variable wis the most important in distribution of assignment. Rank 7 means this variable was the least important in distribution of assignment. 66 The results demonstrate variability according to the assignment category. Some categories {seniority and reputation) yielded different answers from women and men respondents. The gender category itself was very consistent regardless of the gender of the respondent and received a rank 7 (least important variable) in all three assignment categories. A l l respondents felt that gender was never or seldom used as a criterion for distributing assignments. Results on the seniority and reputation items between women and men reporters differed markedly. In general, women felt that seniority was more frequently used in beats (rank 1) and general assignments (rank 2) in comparison to men respondents who felt that seniority was seldom used in beats (rank 6) and general assignments (rank 6). For the reputation item, women felt that it was seldom used in beats (rank 6) and columns (rank 6) in comparison to men who felt that reputation was more frequently used in beats (rank 1) and columns (rank 1). Availability was the most frequently cited variable in general assignments (rank 1) for both women and men reporters and was not so important in beat (ranks 3 and 2) and columns assignments (ranks 4 and 6). For example, a respondent wrote: "There are so few general assignments in our sports department, i f something does come up it usually goes to the soul who happens to be in at the moment". Sports editors appeared to agree with this as they reported that availability was more important for general assignments than for beat and column assignments. Written comments supported the fact that columns were not typically assigned. Rather, there were full-time columnists in charge of writing the columns. Availability (ranks 5 and 6) was judged less significant for being given a 67 column in comparison with seniority (rank 2) and interest/personal choice (rank 1 and 3). For example, a respondent commented on the issue of column assignments: "Columns are not assigned on a day-to-day basis, they are written by columnists, not reporters." Interest/personal choice (ranks 1, 2 ,3 or 5) was considered important for all assignment categories implying that sports reporters had a degree of input in deciding which sports and categories of assignment they covered. As reported in Table 15, there was little difference in the ranking of the variables by market size. Gender was never or seldom used for assignment distribution in either the smaller or larger market groups (rank 7). Availability was an important issue in both markets when distributing general assignments (rank 1) but was not important in column assignments (rank 6). Availability was more important in beat distribution in smaller markets (rank 1) than in larger markets (rank 6). Reputation appeared to be more important in larger markets for the three assignment categories. Table 15 - (Q. H, 9, 10, 64) Criteria used in 3 categories of assignment distributions by size of market. Rank of criteria used to distribute assignments by size of market (smaller market (n=J8): daily circulation < 100 000 copies and larger market (n=lH): daily circulation > 100 000 copies. Beats General Ass . Co lumn smaller market larger market smaller market larger market smaller market larger market Seniority 4 4 4 4 3 2 Interest/personal choice 2 2 2 2 1 5 Technical sports knowledge 4 5 3 4 2 4 Reputation 3 1 6 3 3 1 Availability 1 5 1 1 6 6 Past sports experiences 4 3 4 6 5 .3 Gender 7 7 7 7 7 7 Rank 1 means this variable was the most important in distribution of assignment. Rank " means this variable was the least important in distribution of assignment. 68 The results in Table 15 did not show large differences between markets but identified some trends such as the fact that reputation was more important in larger markets and that availability was more important in smaller market. In general, the results in Table 15 were congruent with those presented in Table 14a. Many women and men covered regular beats: 81.3% (n=13) of women and 87.5% (n=14) o f men sports reporters (see Table 13). When examined in more detail, women did not cover the same number of professional sports as men (see Table 17) and, published less (see Table 16). Table 16 summarizes the category of assignments covered by the respondents and Table 16a the frequency of publication at the time of the study. Table 16- (Q. 14, 20, 24) Coverage of category of assignments by gender (%). (ex.: 81.3% of women cover a beat). Women M e n Beat 81.3 87.5 General Ass . 75 I l l l l l l l l i ; i 4 3 i 8 j i i i i i i i i i i Column 31.3 Table 16a- (Q.17,22,28) Xumber oJ articles published by gender and category of assignments (n of articles). Women Total Total Difference Beat 19.3 54.3 -15.7 less for W General Ass . 9.8 5.5 15.3 +4.3 more for W Column 4.8 10.4 15.2 - 5.6 less for W TotaJ 33.9 50.9 84.8 -17.0 less for W In terms of articles written and published per month, under a beat category, women averaged 19.3 monthly articles in comparison to 35.0 monthly articles from men. Women, therefore, published an average of 15.7 fewer monthly articles than their male peers under a beat category. More women tended to cover more general assignments 75% (n=12) in comparison to men 43.8% (n=7), and their number of published articles 69 was higher in the general assignment category. Women tended to publish an average o f 9.8 monthly general assignment articles in comparison to 5.5 monthly general assignments articles for men. Women, therefore, published an average of 4.3 articles more than their men peers in the matched sample under the general assignment category. This difference still did not balance out the higher number of articles published in beat coverage for men (see Table 16a). Column writing was not as common as beats or general assignments for the matched sample with only 37.5% (n=12) sports reporters answering yes to the question "Do you presently write a column?". Fewer women wrote columns, 31.3% (n=5) women versus 43.8% (n=7) men, and the average number of columns published was lower for women. Women published 4.8 columns per month in comparison to 10.4 for their male peers. The average total monthly articles and columns published for women was 33.9 articles and columns for women and 50.9 articles and columns for men, a difference of 17 articles and columns per month. The total numbers or articles and column published per month varied by gender and newspapers daily circulation as well . Women (n=7) working in newspapers where the daily circulation was 75,000 copies or below published 31 articles less than their male peers (n=9) and women (n=8) working in newspapers where the circulation was above 75,000 copies published 12 articles less than their male peers (n=7). Respondents were asked which sports and level they specifically covered at the time of the study (e.g., N H L hockey or amateur curling). These results are presented in Table 17. On a total of 18 beats reported by men respondents, 13 beats (72.2%) were a professional sport in comparison to 3 beats (16.6%) for women respondents also out of 18 beats. General assignments sports were highly varied between the respondents and ranged from hockey, to softball to "every sport" possible. The sports covered in columns were similarly varied, two women wrote columns on professional golf. Table 17-(Q. 14, IS) Issignments covered by gender (number oJ sports). Women i i i i i i i i i i i i i i ^ Beats Professional Sports 3 (golf, hockey & football) 13 (hockey x8, golf, football x3 , baseball) Amateur Sports 15 (curling, high school x 3, university x3 , amateur x3) 5 (curling x3 , high school, other) Total 18 l l l l l l l l l ^ General Assignments Professional Sports 11 (hockey x6, go l f x2, soccer, tennis x2) 5 (hockey x3 , basketball, motorsports) Amateur Sports 10 (hockey x2, soccer, Olympic Games, amateur x2, softball, everything, other x2) 4 (amateur, everything x2, softball) Total 21 Columns Professional Sports 2 ( g o l f x 2 ) 7 (hockey, basketball, golf, soccer, football x2, motorsports) Amateur Sports 4 (amateur, high school, other x2) 1 (curling) Total 6 The reporters were asked to identify sports they had covered on a regular basis in their sports reporting careers. These results are presented in Table 18. The results represent a limited range of sports. Only the three sports that each respondent had been involved with for the longest time were coded. If a respondent indicated only two sports, both of these sports were coded. 71 Table IX - (Q. 30) Sports covered on a regular basis in sports reporter's career (number oj sports) by professional or amateur status. Women Men Professional Sports 16 24 Amateur Sports 15 17 T o t a l 31 41 The results show that most of the respondents reported covering many different sports in their career and indicated that although women are not presently covering professional sports to a great extent, some of them have experience in the area. One question asked the respondents to identify the sport or sports they would enjoy writing about the most. The purpose was to see i f given an opportunity women and men sports reporters would want to cover professional sports. The respondents had to write down the four sports and levels (e.g., professional, amateur) they would enjoy writing about the most and which they would prefer to write about all the time (see Q.31). The answers varied by gender as shown in Table 19. Table 19-tQ. 31) What sports would respondents enjoy writing about the most and which they would like to write about alt the time {%). Women Men Professional sports 40.4 Amateur sports (including high school, university, O lympic Games) 59.6 Overall, fewer numbers of women demonstrated interest in covering professional sports. O f 57 sports that were reported by women, 23 sports were related to one of the mainstream professional sports, that is 40.4%. These results show that, given the choice, 72 less than half the women would want to cover mainstream professional sports. However, more than half of them were content with covering other sports and levels such as local, college and university sports. The men's responses reflected a greater desire to cover mainstream professional sport, i f given the choice. O f 58 sports reported by men, 43 sports (74.2%) were related to one of the mainstream professional sports. In addition to being asked what sports they wanted to cover, the respondents were asked i f their newspaper ever conducted any market research on sports readership and i f so, the nature of the results. The majority of respondents (84.4%) reported that market research on sports readership had previously been conducted in their newspapers anywhere from 2 months to 5 years previous. The market research reflected a strong interest in professional sports and a low interest in amateur, recreational, high school, college or university sports (see Table 20). Similar results were obtained from the sports editors responses. They agreed that market research revealed a higher interest for professional sports. In addition to being questioned about the results of market research, the respondents were asked from their point of view, which four sports or sports events were of most interest to their readers and which four sports or sports events received the most visibility and coverage. Table 20 summarizes the results of these questions. Table 20- (Q. 33, 34, 35) Top sports according to market research, to interest of readers and to visibility and coverage (%). Market research Most interest to readers Most visibi l i ty & coverage Professional - 84.5% Amateur/Recreational - 15.5% Professional - 77.6% Amateur/Recreational - 22.4% Professional - 81.2% Amateur /H School/ U n i v . - 18.8% 73 The three different perspectives (market research, most interest to readers and most visible and covered sports) presented in Table 20 showed a stronger percentage for professional sports. In all three perspectives, amateur, recreational, high school and university sports were of lesser importance (market research = 15.5%, interest to readers = 22.4% and visibility and coverage = 18.8%) than professional sports (market research = 84.5%o, interest-to readers = 77.6% and visibility and coverage = 81.2%). The third perspective in Table 20, amount of visibility of coverage, is interesting in light of earlier results which demonstrated that women sports reporters tend to cover non-professional sports, including amateur, recreational, high school, college and university sports. Table 20 suggests that according to the respondents, professional sports receive more visibility and coverage than amateur, recreational, high school, college and university sports. Therefore, it appears that the work of women sports reporters is less visible than the work of their male peers as they cover less prestigious sports and have fewer articles published than men sports reporters. This was also demonstrated in the number of articles published by the respondents. The hypothesis that women sports reporters covered less prestigious sports is supported by these findings. A s demonstrated above, the most prestigious sports were the professional sports which were described as being the most visible sports within the sports media. Women sports reporters did not cover and publish stories on professional sports to the same extent as their male peers. 74 c) Promotion opportunities: Women sports reporters do not have the same opportunities to progress in the field of sports journalism as men sports reporters. The hypothesis that women sports reporters do not have the same opportunities to progress in the field of sports journalism as men sports reporters was supported by the results. Significantly more women felt they did not have the same opportunities for career advancement as men at a p value of .0281. Opportunities for promotion were reported to be limited within the newspaper sports journalism field, particularly for women. Promotions were not always handled in a fair way and there were few employment equity programs in place. In addition, working in a bigger market was considered better than working in a smaller market. One principal question (Q. 39) directly related to this hypothesis and tested for significance asked respondents i f they felt that women had as many opportunities to advance in the field of sports journalism as men did. Secondary questions (Q. 36.1-36.4, 40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46 ) helped in understanding and defining what a promotion was in sports journalism, i f this differed according to market size and what was included in the future career goals of the respondents. To understand the meaning of a promotion in sports journalism, a group of questions were designed to ask the respondents to evaluate a series of situations and indicate i f these constituted a promotion. These situations were: a salary increase, being given more power in the decision-making process, becoming a sports columnist, 75 becoming an assistant sports editor or editor and publishing more articles. These results are presented in Table 21. Table 21 - (Q. 40) Situations which were perceived as being a promotion in sports journalism (%). Women 11111111^  yes no yes no Salary increase 75.0 25.0 50.0 50.0 Power decision making 75.0 25.0 lllll;8iillllli l i i i i i i i i i i i i Sports columnist 93.8 6.3 87.5 Ass. Editor or editor 100.0 0.0 93.8 Increase in publishing 18.8 81.3 18.8 The results presented in Table 21 show similarities between gender. The only small difference was in the salary increase variable where more women (75%, n=12) considered a salary increase as a promotion than men (50%, n=8). A substantial majority of the respondents (75%, n=12 women and 87.5%, n=14 men) of the matched sample felt that being given more power in the decision making process could also be considered a promotion. Similarly, the vast majority of the women (93.8%, n=15) and men (87.5%, n=14) responded that a reporter becoming a sports columnist would be considered a promotion. Nearly all respondents (100%, n=16 women and 93.8%, n=45 men) agreed that becoming an assistant sports editor or an editor was a promotion. Publishing more articles, by contrast, was not considered a promotion opportunity by 81.3% (n=26) of the respondents. Two comments were added by respondents indicating that covering a major beat and moving to the higher profile beats could be considered a promotion. The respondents were also asked to judge similar promotion situations in a different size of market. Sports reporters were asked i f moving to a smaller newspaper would be considered a promotion under certain situations (see Table 22). The same was 76 asked in regards to a larger newspaper. The rationale behind this was to examine the relationship between the size of the newspaper and what sports reporters perceived as being a promotion. For example: Was an increase in salary considered a promotion at a smaller newspaper? A t a larger newspaper? A "smaller market" was operationalized in the questionnaire as a newspaper where the circulation, frequency of publication or importance of the sports section was smaller than the present newspaper of the respondent. A "larger market" was described as a newspaper where the circulation or the importance of the sports section was greater than the present newspaper of the respondent. Table 22- (Q. 41, 42) Situations which were perceived as being a promotion opportunity by market size <%). Smaller Market Bigger Market Women Men Women Men Increase in salary 31.3 31.3 93.8 56.3 Increase in power over decision making 50.0 68.8 87.5 75.0 Promotion to sports columnist 50.0 75.0 93.8 Promotion to ass. editor or editor 87.5 87.5 100.0 87.5 Increase in published articles 0.0 12.5 25.0 l i i i i i i l i i Less constraints about which sports to cover 12.5 37.5 62.5 37.5 Similar job assignments 0.0 6.3 56.3 56.3 A s shown in Table 22, the results revealed that working in a bigger market was perceived as being more of a promotion in most situations for both women and men. The main exception to this was the men's response to the situation of becoming an assistant or sports editor and of having less constraints about what sports to cover, which were identical for both smaller and larger markets. For 56.3% (n=18) of the respondents, keeping a similar job description while moving to a larger market was considered a 77 promotion. In relation to bigger markets respondents added comments such as: "Better pay and higher profile" and " More sports to cover - large variety. Large market would likely mean a pro sport beat which is definitely a move up". The items that were considered a promotion for the smaller market were related to gaining more power in the decision-making process, becoming a sports columnist and becoming an assistant sports editor or a sports editor. Several questions were focused on promotion opportunities for women. One of these asked the respondents to indicate whether they felt women had as many opportunities to advance in the field of sports journalism as men. A s seen in Table 23, 62.5% (n=10) women and 31.3% (n=5) men sports reporters believed that women did not have as many opportunities to progress in the field of sports journalism as their male peers. This difference was statistically significant at a p value of .0281. The number of women respondents who felt women reporters did not have as many opportunities to progress in the field of sports journalism was significantly higher than the number of men who felt the same way. Table 23 - (Q. 3V) H omen have as many opportunities to progress in (he field oJ sports journalism as men - responses of sports reporters by gender (%). women (n=16) do not yes no know men (n=16) do not yes no know P Progress in the field 25.0 62.5 12.5 68.8 31.3 0.0 .02811* Significant difference found between gender (p i .05): * X - --4.821. p .0281 and r-.4(>08. p 0281 In addition to these results, 34.8% (n=8) sports editors reported that women did not have the same opportunities to progress as their male peers. One man sports editor noted "we 78 are still battling old stereotypes" and a woman sports editor wrote that "as a woman sports editor, it can sometimes be very difficult". Another sports editor indicated that things have improved over the last few years. In general, both women and men sports reporters did not agree with the statement that the chances for promotion within their department were good (Table 24). This was supported in a comment by one respondent who wrote that: "There are few opportunities to advance within the department". It is obvious from the results presented in Table 24 that the respondents felt the chances for promotion within their department were poor. Table 24 - (Q. 36.1 , 3 6 . 2 . 3 6 . 3 . 3 6 . 4 ) General statements about promotion opportunities ("<>). A g ree Neither Disagree D o not K n o w W 111111 W i l i l ! W M W M Chances for promo. In dept. good * 6.3 l l l i i l 25.0 25 0 68.8 62.5 Chances for promo. In field good * * 31.3 l l l l l l i 12.5 18 8 56.3 75.0 Promotions are handled fairly * * * 18.8 l i l i l l 25.0 l i i i i 56.3 50.0 Employment equity programs in place 25.0 25.0 25.0 i i i i i ! 37.5 25.0 12.5 18.8 A n s igmfkant difference found hei» een %etu ler. Signifk ani differences found between agreeneither.dn-agree regardless offender fp' 05): * A ' - ' - M IH6.p 0003 **.\" t5063.p-.0005 *"*\- 6.063 p .04X3 Both women (68.8%, n=l 1) and men (62.5%, n=10) disagreed with the statement that the chances for promotion in their department was good. More women (31.3%, n=5) than men (6.3%, n=l) believed that the chances for promotion in the field of sports journalism were good. Overall, only 25% (n=8) of the matched sample agreed that their newspaper had an employment equity program in place to guide promotions within their organization, and 56.3% (n=9) of the women and 50% (n=8) of the men disagreed with 79 the statement that promotions were handled fairly at their newspaper. Respondents were asked about their future career goals. Table 25 summarizes these responses. Table 25 - (Q. 46) Future career goals by gender (%). Women yes no maybe M e n yes no maybe Current position 25.0 43.8 31.3 12.5 18.8 68 8 Current department with promotion 56.3 18.8 25.0 68.8 12.5 18 8 Current newspaper - other department 31.3 31.3 37.5 iiii! 56.3 37.5 Larger market - in sports 31.3 37.5 31.3 26 7 46.7 26.7 Larger market - not in sports 18.8 43.8 37.5 0 0 75.0 25.0 Smaller market - in sports 0.0 75.0 25.0 12.5 6.0 Smaller market - not in sports 6.3 68.8 25.0 ().() 18.8 Changing media - in sports 12.5 37.5 50.0 12 5 68.8 18.8 Changing media - not in sports 0.0 68.8 31.3 0.0 Mill lllllll Over half of the women (56.3%, n=9) and men (68.8%, n=l 1) responded that their future career goals included staying in their current department with a possible promotion. Respondents reacted negatively to moving to a smaller market both in sports and out of sports. Seventy-five percent (n=12) of the women and 81.3% (n=13) of the men had no intention of working for a smaller newspaper in sports. This supported the data in Table 22 on the issues of promotion in smaller and larger markets. Moving to a different medium such as television and not working in sports were not supported as options for both the respondents. Changing media in sports was envisioned as a promotion by only 12.5% (n=4). In summary, the above results demonstrate that smaller markets were not very appealing and that most sports reporters who took part in the study did not anticipate working in a field other than sports. Matched sample and Hypothesis #2: Canadian daily newspaper sports departments have a work environment that discourages the participation of women sports reporters. This section discusses findings concerning the second hypothesis of the study which was focused on the work environment. The three parts to this hypothesis are discussed in turn. The first part addresses the networking links and support networks in sports journalism, the second deals with personal and family responsibilities of sports reporters in relation to work assignments and promotion opportunities, and the third is focused on the sports reporters' work expectations. a-i) Networks and support - Men sports reporters have significantly "stronger" networking links within the field of sports journalism than women sports The hypothesis that men sports reporters have significantly "stronger" networking links within the field of sports journalism than women sports reporters was supported. The word "stronger" was chosen to represent the strength of the involvement between sports reporters and professional sports which are the most visible and covered sports in sports reporting (see Figure 2). reporters. Figure 2 Strength of networking links Less involvement wi th professional sports "Weaker" networking links "Stronger" networking links More involvement with professional sports 81 To operationalize this hypothesis, it is helpful to use some of the findings discussed for the hypothesis l a and lb to evaluate networks and their effects. Responses to several of the hiring and assignments items discussed previously (hypotheses l a and lb) suggest that men respondents used networks in ways that were different from women. One question on hiring asked the respondents how they had heard about the availability of their current position (Q. 6) and questions on the assignment item asked which sports they covered (Q. 14 to 30). Results showed that women and men belonged to different networks, and that this affected how they had heard about their present position. Fifty percent (n=8) of the women had heard about the availability of their position by being recruited in comparison to 18.8% (n=3) of the men who had obtained their current position in the same way. For men, 31.3% (n=5) had heard about the position through friends in comparison to 0% (n=0) for women. Further results showed that women covered less prestigious sports (i.e., amateur sports vs professional sports) than their male peers, and accordingly, women had networks in the amateur sports field whereas men were better networked in professional sports. The following section builds on the results of hypothesis l a and lb and looks in more detail at the relative value of networks for men. In addition to the questions noted above, respondents were asked how would they usually hear about promotion opportunities (Q. 45), i f it was important to have links with the "right people" to progress in the field (Q. 36.7) and if they were affiliated with any professional associations (Q. 50). 82 Sixty-three percent (n=20) of both men and women answered that they frequently expect to hear about promotion opportunities through friends. This supports the idea of having a strong network and support group in the sports journalism field. In addition, some respondents indicated that they would expect to hear about promotion opportunities through internal notice boards at their work place (18.8%, n=6), through career opportunities advertisements in the newspaper (6.3%, n=2) and through professional associations (9.4%, n=3). N o one indicated that they expected to be recruited (0.0%, n-0). Although there were few promotion opportunities available in the sports journalism field, the best channels to hear about the ones available seemed to be informal (networking and friends). The expectations for hearing about promotion opportunities through more formalized means such as career advertising, internal notice boards or professional associations were less significant. Respondents were questioned about the importance of knowing the right people in the field in order to progress. Table 26 reports these results. Table 26 - (Q, 36.7) General statements about promotion opportunities (%). Agree Neither Disagree W M W M W Advancement and links with right people * 75.0 62.5 25.0 25.0 0.0 l l l i l l i A « significant difference found between gender. Significant difference found between agree-'neilher.'disa^rea (p - .051. * A -JO ~50.p-.OU01 The majority of the respondents, 75% (n=12) women and 62.5% (n=10) men, agreed that in order to progress in the field of sports journalism it was important to have links with the "right people". This finding was statistically significant (p=.0001) and 83 showed that networking and establishing relationships with key decision-makers is important for career progress. Respondents were asked i f they were members of any professional associations. Over 50% (n=17) of the matched sample responded positively that they were a member of a professional association. Table 27 summarizes the professional associations that were identified. A s demonstrated in Table 27, no women belonged to an association that was linked to a professional sport, whereas seven men belonged to four such associations which means that the men sports reporters were better "networked" in the professional sports industry. Tabic27-tQ. SO) Professional Association Membership of Respondents (n). Women M e n Canadian Ass . o f Journalists 4 Provincia l Sportswriters & Casters Ass . 2 lllllll^illlll;Giii;;iii;iiii;iii!i Provincia l Newspaper G u i l d 1 0 Professional Hockey Writers Ass . 0 Football Reporters o f Canada 0 North Amer ican S k i Journalists Ass . 0 Professional Baseball Writers 0 l l l l l l i l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l i l Women in Sport & Physical 1 Ac t iv i ty Support Group Other 1 T o t a l 9 8 Despite this imbalance, women also belonged to several organizations that men did not. Four women who belonged to the Canadian Association of Journalists, two to a Provincial Sportswriters & Casters Association, one to a Provincial Newspaper Gui ld and one to a Women in Sports & Physical Activity Support Group. 84 a-ii) Networks and support - Women sports reporters are significantly less independent in their work than their male peers. The hypothesis that women sports reporters were less independent than their male peers was supported. Several items were used to assess independence. Question 11.4 focused on being autonomous at work as did questions 18.1, 18.2, 23,1, 23.2, 29.1 and 29.2. In Table 28, results are reported on the perception of autonomy, mainly the respondents feel that they were autonomous in their work? Table 28 - (Q. 11.4) Degree of autonomy by gentler (%). Agree Neither Disagree W M W M W M P Autonomous in my work * * 43.8 75.0 50.0 l l l i i l l 6.3 18.8 .0207* Significant differem e found between gender <p-' 051 •X '-"65 and p .020' Significant difference found between agree, neither, disagree regardless of gender <p' 05): "* X -W93KP-0042 More women (50%, n=8) than men (6.3%, n=l) neither agreed nor disagreed with being "autonomous" in their work, which yielded a statistical difference of a p value .0207. Table 29 summarizes respondents' perceptions on their freedom to cover the stories they wanted and whether or not their sports editor influenced what they covered based on the type of assignment: beats, general assignments or columns. Although a majority of the women indicated they frequently had the freedom to write about the events they wanted when covering general assignments (83.3%, n=14), a number of women also indicated that editors strongly suggested topics of coverage (58.3%, n=9). 85 Table 29 - (Q. 18.1, 18.2, 23.1, 23.2, 29.1, 29.2) Freedom of coverage by 3 work assignments categories and gender (%). l^never, 2=seldom/uccasionally and 3=frcquently/very frequently Beats General Assignments Columns Women Men Women Men Women M e n I have the freedom 1 - - 1 - - 1 -to cover the events 2 15.4 21.4 2 16.7 I i i i i i i i i i i i i i 2 -I want 3 84.6 78.6 3 83.3 100.0 3 100.0 100.0 M y editor strongly 1 7.1 1 - 14.3 1 40.0 14.3 suggests what I 2 84.6 85.7 2 41.7 l l i i i i l l l l l l l 2 60.0 85.7 should cover 3 15.4 7.1 3 58.3 lllllillll 3 -DU not test for signific ance because of low n in each cells The results show that in almost all cases sports reporters (women or men), felt they had the freedom to cover the events they wanted within their respective assignment categories. The only results that diverged from this trend were those of the women covering general assignments. In relation to the question of independence, respondents were asked three questions: D i d their editor give them the opportunity to cover the sports they were the most qualified for? D i d they receive sufficient support from their editor? D i d they have enough help, resources and time to get the job done? Results are presented in Table 30. Table30 -<Q. 11.7, 11.8.11.10, 11.11) General statements about promotion opportunities (%). Agree Neither Disagree W iiiiiiiiiiiiii W M W ilililii P Chance cover sports qualified to cover * * 81.3 75.0 12.5 iiiiiiiiiii 6.3 i i l l i .8297 Sufficient support from my editor 43.8 68.8 12.5 6 3 43.8 25.0 .3605 Enough help and resources 31.3 iiisiiii 62.5 6.3 6.3 31.3 .0028 * Enough time to get the job done 43.8 56 3 25.0 18.8 43.8 31.3 .7772 Significant difference found between gender tp-\l)5v * . V - •-// 69~ tmdP-0.02N Significant difference found between agree 'neither disagree regard/as of gender (p'-~ 05) • - * A"- 2S 930. r - 0001 86 In general, both women (81.3%, n=13) and men (75%, n=12) agreed that their superiors gave them the opportunity to cover the sports they were most qualified to cover. There was a significant (p=.0028) difference between the women's and men's responses regarding whether or nor they received enough help and resources to get the job done, with more men (62.5%, n=10) acknowledging receiving enough help and resources to get the job done in comparison to 31.3% (n=5) of the women. b-i) Personal/family responsibilities versus work environment - Personal/family responsibilities have an effect on what beats and stories are assigned to women sports reporters to a significantly greater degree than their male peers. The hypothesis that personal/family responsibilities had more of an effect on beat and story assignments for women sports reporters than their male peers was supported. Two questions related directly to the hypothesis. Respondents were asked i f they felt that their personal/family responsibilities had an effect on the beats or stories that were assigned to them (Q. 13) and i f their work schedule conflicted with their family life (Q. 11.9). There were indications that personal/family life conflicted with the work schedule o f the respondents (p= .0001) with or without children. The majority of women and men sports reporters agreed that their work schedule conflicted with their family life, as reported in Table 31. More men (33.3%, n=3) than women (0.0%, n=0) who had children, disagreed with the statement that their work schedule conflicted with their family life. 87 Table 31 -(Q. 11.9) Work schedule and family life (%). Agree Neither Disagree W M W i i i i i i W M Work schedule conflicts with family life * 87.5 75.0 6.3 0.0 6.3 25.0 • Women with children (i) --9) and men with children (n -9) Work schedule conflicts with family life 100.0 66.7 0.0 0 0 0.0 33.3 ,\'(> significancefound hetwven gender Significant for agree.'netiher'dhagree regardless of gender (p- 05): * X 3 . p-OUOi • Did not test for significance for respondents with children because of low n. In addition to being questioned about their work schedule, respondents were asked i f their personal/family responsibilities had an effect on what beats and stories were assigned to them. One woman wrote: Being a single parent, senior beats and stories are not assigned to me because of the assumption that I can not travel. I have proven that I am wil l ing and able to accept day trips but I choose not to travel overnight but this affected my seniority in all areas. Taking time off to have a baby has affected my seniority. Other comments from women included: I have a 13 month old baby and even though I have said travel is no problem, I have been refused several assignments. I was told it was for budgetary reasons and true no one else went but until I said I wanted to go, it was in the budget. Sometimes I feel my son is used as an excuse to give others assignments I should have had. These three quotes are evidence that some sports reporters perceive that personal/family responsibilities have an effect on what beats and stories are assigned to 88 them. A s presented in Table 32, more women sports journalists, 43.8% (n=7), felt that their personal/family responsibilities had an effect on their assignments in comparison to 12.5% (n=2) of the men sports journalists. This difference was statistically significant (p=.0493). Table 32 - (Q. 13) Do yon feet that your personal/family responsibilities have an ejfeet on what heats or stories are assigned to you. Answers from 32 respondents and from respondents with children by gender <% & n). women (n=16) yes no men (n=16) i l l l i y | | : l l l l l l l l l lh^ | | | i P Personal/family responsibilities V S work assignments * * 43.8 (n=7) 56.3 (n=9) 12.5 (n=2) 87.5 (n=14) .0493 * • Respondents wi th ch i ldren women with children (n=9) yes no men with children (n=9) lllli^llllliiiillill^ill^li^ll Personal/family responsibilities V S work assignments 66.7 (n=6) 33.3 (n=3) 22.2 (n=2) 77.8 (n=7) Significant difference found between gender ( p- .05): * X : - 3.865. p- 0493 and r 3 4 8 . p - W l Significant difference found between \es no regardless o f gender (p- .05) * * " X 6.125, p 0133 • D i d not test for significant dilferenccs for respondents w itli children because low n. Overall, however 56.3% (n=9) of the women and 87.5% (n=14) of the men reporters answered that their personal/family responsibilities did not affect their work assignments. More women (66.7%, n=6) than men (22.2%, n=2) who had children indicated that their work assignments had been affected by their personal/family responsibilities. b-ii) Personal/family responsibilities versus work environment - Personal/family responsibilities negatively affect the promotion opportunities of women sports reporters to a significantly greater degree than their male peers. Although, a number of women agreed with the fact that their personal/family responsibilities had restricted their promotion opportunities, the above hypothesis was not supported. Question 37 was specifically focused on this hypothesis: did respondents feel that their personal/family responsibilities had restricted their promotion opportunities? Most respondents (84.4%, n=27) answered negatively that their promotion opportunities had not been restricted by their personal/family responsibilities, this finding was statistically significant (p=.0001). A s shown in Table 33, 25% (n=4) of the women and 6.3%o (n=l) of the men answered affirmatively that their promotion opportunities had been restricted by their personal/family responsibilities, but this difference was not statistically significant. Table 33 - (Q. 37) Do you feel that your personal/family responsibilities have restricted your promotion opportunities. Answers from 32 respondents and from respondents with children by gender (% & n). women (n=16) men ( n-16) yes no l l l l l i l l l l l l l l l no Personal/family responsibilities V S promotion opportunities * 25 (n=4) 75 (n=12) 6 . 3 ( n - l ) 93.8 (n=15) • Respondents wi th children women with children (n=9) men with children (n=9) yes no l l l l l i l l l l l l l l l no Personal/family responsibilities V S promotion opportunities 44.4 (n=4) 55.6 (n=5) 11.1 (n=l) 88.9 (n=8) N o significant difference found between gender Significant difference between yes-no regardless o f gender, (p- .05): * V 15 125, p .0001 • D id not test for significant difference* for respondents w ith children because low n. When the data were analyzed for respondents with children, the results showed that all respondents who indicated having conflicts with their personal/family responsibilities and their promotion opportunities had children. Four out of nine women who had children and one out of nine men who had children indicated that their personal/family responsibilities had restricted their promotion opportunities. The level of restriction was not assessed but comments help to clarify some of the issues. For example, two women respectively reported: 90 Time off to have a baby affected my seniority. Single parenthood affects my ability to take the most senior (traveling) beats. Maybe in the beginning, before proving I was flexible. Also , I 'm due to go on maternity leave in 2 weeks and just being away for 6 months restricts opportunities for promotions. A s seen in these comments, some women in sports journalism are having to balance the career and caring for a family. In summary, the results indicated that one quarter of the women respondents felt that their personal/family responsibilities had restricted their promotion opportunities but this hypothesis was not supported statistically. The proportion of women with children who felt the same way was even higher. c-i) Work Expectations - Women sports reporters work expectations' are met to a significantly lesser degree than men's in the following areas: salary, career advancement, working schedule, job assignments, amount of work, job security, influence in the department, status/prestige and work environment. This hypothesis was supported to a certain extent but failed to provide statistically significant results in all areas but the working schedule variable which showed a significant gender difference at p=.0132. A significant difference was also found between yes/no answers for the status/prestige variable at p=.0047. Respondents were asked (Q. 65) to what extent their expectations had been met in the areas of career advancement, work schedule, job assignments, influence in the department, 91 status/prestige and work environment. In addition, respondents were asked i f they were generally satisfied with their assignments ( Q . l 1.1) and i f they felt comfortable with the sports they covered ( Q l 1.7). Table 34 summarizes the results for both women and men sports reporters. Table 34 - (Q. 65) Extent to which expectations have been met by gender (%). Women (n=16) Men(n=16) no yes exceeded llllllll ves exceeded P Career advancement 50.0 50.0 0.0 18.8 62.5 18.8 .2527 W o r k schedule 56.3 37.5 6.3 i i i i i i i 6.3 .0132* Job assignments 50.0 37.5 12.5 6.3 75.0 18.8 .0717 Influence in department 43.8 43.8 12.5 12.5 l l l f f l l i 6.3 .3605 Status/prestige ** 18.8 81.2 0.0 111$!! 68.8 6.3 .4142 Work environment 43.8 43.8 12.4 Ill i l l l 1111621111 0.0 .8187 Signifk am difference found between genderip- .05) * X- -X.65-kp-.0l32 andr - 356, p- 0455 Significant difference found hetween n-v no regardless of gender fp .05/ ** ,V- -H.000.p-.004~ Two significant differences were found. First, significantly more respondents' expectations had been met in the area of status and prestige at a p=.0047. The results indicated that 81.2% (n=13) of women's and 68.8% (n=l 1) of men's expectations had been met. Second, significantly more women's than men's expectations in regard to work schedule had not been met (p = .0455). The results indicated that 56.3% (n==9) of women's in comparison to 12.5% (n=2) of men's expectations had not been met. Even though no significant differences were found between gender, half o f the women (50%, n=8) indicated that their expectations had not been met with regard to career advancement (men not satisfied: 18.8%, n=3) and job assignments (men not satisfied: 6.3%), n=l). In general, men's expectations were met at a greater level in all areas except for the status/prestige variable. 92 A s can be seen in Table 35, 75% (n=12) of women sports journalists agreed to being generally satisfied with their assignments in contrast to 87.5% (n=14) of the men. Significantly more respondents agreed to being generally satisfied with their job assignments at a p value of .0001. Table35- (Q. 11.1, 11.7) Sports journalists satisfaction with work assignments (%) n= 16. A g ree Neither Disagree W IMlllll W w M Generally satisfied with my assignments * 75.0 87.5 6.3 6.3 18.8 6.3 Comfortable with the sports I cover * * 87.5 l i o j l l 12.5 0 0 0.0 0.0 •Vo significant difference found between gender Significant differences found by agree neither/disagree regardless of gender (p*. 051. * 24.5(10. p :00OI ** X •-33.250, p-.OOOl Although 50% of the women indicated that their expectations had not been met with regard to their job assignments (see Table 34), a majority agreed that they were generally satisfied with their assignments and that they were comfortable with the sports they covered. c-ii) Work expectations - If women and men sports reporters had to decide all over again to be sports reporters, significantly more women than men would reconsider their choice. This hypothesis was not statistically supported. The respondents were asked (Q. 66) i f they had to decide all over again would they choose to become a sports reporter. The results presented in Table 36 provide an assessment of the satisfaction of respondents concerning their careers. 93 Table 36 - (Q. 66) If they hail to decide all over again, the respondents would... (% & n). Women (n=16) M e n (n=16) Decide without hesitation to become a sports journalist 75 (n=12) 81.3 (n=13) W o u l d have second thoughts 25 (n=4) 18.8 (n=5) Choose not to be a sports journalist 0 l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l s * Significant difference between 3 options regardtew of gender fp-~ 05) A s an indication of positive satisfaction, no sports journalists reported that i f they had to decide all over again, they would definitely not choose to be a sports journalist. There was a significantly higher number of respondents (78.1% n=25) who indicated that they would without hesitation become a sports journalist again i f given the choice. This represented 75% (n=12) of women sports reporters and 81.3% (n=13) of men sports reporters. A few would reconsider their choice 21.9% (n=7). This was not surprising, especially in the case of women, where it had been reported previously that some of their career and work expectations had not been met. The results presented in Table 36 conclude the results and analyses chapter. Two more chapters follow: (1) chapter five is a discussion of the major and relevant findings and (2) chapter six presents the concluding remarks of the study. 94 Chapter V - Discussion This following chapter discusses the implications of this study by relating the major findings presented in the results and analyses chapter to the literature on sports journalism, employment equity, organizational culture and work environment. The discussion is organized in four sections following four major findings that emerged from the study as follows. (1) The experiences of Canadian women sports journalists were significantly different from those of their male peers with regard to their work assignments, (2) the opportunities to advance were different for women and men sports reporters, (3) the sports journalism culture was still very much an "old boys club" and women were not affiliated with the professional sports associations, and (4) both women and men sports reporters were satisfied with their work situation although many of their career and work expectations had not been met. For each of the four topics, factual information in point form is presented, followed by a discussion of the results based on the literature. Theme I - The differing nature of "women's work assignments". "I think women tend to prefer amateur sports which tends to get less profile " Important findings from the study: • Women, on average, published 17 articles less per month than their male peers. • Women tended to cover more women's sports than their male peers. • Women tended to cover less professional sports than their male peers. • Professional sports received more coverage and were more visible. • Family/personal responsibilities affected the work opportunities o f women significantly more than the work opportunities o f men. 95 Linkages between the findings and the literature. The findings presented above demonstrate a difference in the nature of the work between women and men sports reporters. On average, women tended to publish 17.0 articles less per month than their male peers (Table 16a). The variables of age, education and years of experience as a sports reporter were not accountable for such differences because they were controlled for in the "matched sample" process. The gap in articles published was even greater at smaller newspapers. From this result, it was clear that the work of women sports reporters, on a monthly basis, was not as visible as the work of their male peers. Not only did women publish less, but the nature of their assignments tended to vary greatly in comparison with their male peers, in three different areas. First, women tended to cover more general assignments (see Table 17) which are usually considered less prestigious. Second, women tended to cover fewer professional sports and more amateur sports than their male peers (see Table 17) and third, women tended to cover more stories on women sports (see Table 13). There is evidence that covering a professional sports beat is considered more prestigious than covering amateur sports. The evidence comes from two sources. First from the literature, Cramer (1994) reported that journalists who cover the prestigious sports such as football, baseball and basketball receive the most coverage. Secondly, in this thesis, it was reported that professional sports received the most visibility and coverage (see Table 20) and comments were made which demonstrated that "to cover a professional sport as a beat reporter is considered a promotion." The findings of this study show, therefore, that according to these standards, women do not have as prestigious and visible assignments as their peers. These results support the findings of Eberhard and Myers (1988) which revealed discrimination in the awarding of assignments. Results from this thesis and Eberhard and Myers ' study are different however, from the findings of Smith, Fredin and Ferguson (1988) who studied sex discrimination in story assignments among T V reporters in other fields than sports and found insignificant results to the hypothesis that women journalists were assigned lower status stories. This indicates that the findings of this thesis and of Eberhard and Myers are not generalizable to other fields and other media. The results in this thesis suggest that gender does not interact with assignments distribution (Table 14a) despite the fact that women in the study reported covering less prestigious sports and more women's sports than their male peers (see Table 13). Many women, when asked, were not interested in covering professional sports (see Table 19). In accordance with my results, Eberhard and Myers ' study (1988) reported that editors at United States dailies were not using women instead of men to cover women's sports events. Theoretically, it is difficult to assess on the basis of this study i f the reason that fewer women reporters want to cover professional sports is due to systemic gender discrimination or to individual choice. It is not clear, therefore, which of Hawkesworth's (1991) two frameworks apply (socialized or atomistic individualism), although a lot of the findings point to systemic issues and a more socialized perspective. From a systemic point of view, women are not given as many opportunities to cover professional sports and the experience that they have in the sports reporting area is not always positive (Eberhard & Myers, 1988; Burton & Nelson, 1994). Results from a 97 British study by Fitzhenry (1990) reported that women were regularly challenged to report on men's sports and there was an assumption that women could not adequately cover men's sports. From an individualized personal choice perspective, it might be assumed that women freely decide not to cover sports because of their own personal preferences. For example, in one of the interviews in the pilot study for this thesis, a woman reporter explained that she was not interested in covering professional hockey, that she had been asked to take on the beat and had refused. She was not interested in entering this environment which she found male dominated. But even here, the context is certainly a site of socialization, so her choices are made in response to her understanding and experiences of professional sports as a male domain. Nevertheless, women appeared to be content with their assignments as 75% of women respondents agreed to being generally satisfied with the assignments they are given (see Table 35). In contrast, 50% of them reported that their expectations had not been met in regard to their work assignments (see Table 34). One can only conclude that, although women were satisfied, for many of them expectations had not been met. Another issue that was raised through the findings of the study was the impact of personal and family responsibilities on work assignments, with significantly more women indicating that their personal/family responsibilities affected their work assignments (see Table 32). Various respondents attributed this issue to the organizational culture and to the fact that the work environment was not supportive of their personal/family situation. A mother of a 13 month old baby at the time of the study had been refused several traveling assignments and another woman felt that her son was used as an excuse to give 98 others assignments she should have had. N o comments from men were made in regard to the fact that their assignments might have been affected by their personal/family responsibilities. Quite the opposite, one man wrote that "unfortunately, I find myself adapting my family life responsibilities to fit around my work schedule" and another wrote that "your job must be your life". According to these comments, the experiences of women and men sports journalists appear to be different. This was also observed in the relationship between work schedule and family life of sports reporters who had children (see Table 32). A l l women (n=9) who had children experienced conflict between their work schedule and their family life and only six of the nine men who had children experienced the same. Three men who had children reported not having conflict between their schedule and their family life. This last finding was particularly interesting as it reveals that children affect the work experiences of women and men sports reporters in different ways. There is no question that the support received by women sports journalists from their work environment in relation to their assignments is different from the support received by men sports journalists. The fact that the work of women in sports journalism was less visible and did not cover as many high profile sports as the work of their male peers is an indication of gender differentiation in work assignments procedures and of choices. 9 9 Theme II - There is a lack of opportunities to advance in the field of sports journalism for women sports journalists. "Columnist promoted solely on gender, 5 females have worked as reporters in this department but they have never been promoted to full-time columnist" Important findings from the study: • Both women and men sports reporters felt that women did not have the same opportunity to progress in the field o f sports journalism. • Larger markets appear to be more popular than smaller markets. • There are limited employment equity policies guiding promotions in Canadian daily newspaper sports departments. • In general, there is a lack o f promotion opportunities in Canadian daily newspaper sports departments. Linkages between the findings and the literature. The findings presented above indicate that there is a lack of opportunities to advance in the field of sports journalism for women. From the results, significantly more women felt they did not have the same opportunity for career advancement as their male peers (see Table 23). These results are congruent with a study done by Beasley and Theus (1988) on newspaper organizations that addressed the issues of hiring and promotion and acknowledged the difficulties that women have in getting hired and moving up the newspaper career ladder. The results are also congruent with Cramer (1994) who found that many women respondents who worked in the media field felt that they were making great strides but realized that although numbers had risen, their progress into management positions had been limited. In addition, Hoffman (1984) discussed women in sports broadcasting and their success and persistence in dealing with various "hoops and hurdles", such as difficult access to promotions. A n important issue for the promotion of women in sports journalism is the overall lack of promotion 100 opportunities at this time. There is probably a greater emphasis on lateral movement, where moving from covering general assignments or lower profile beats to covering higher profile beats is considered a promotion. Since the higher profile beats are associated with professional sports, women do not have the same opportunities to cover these beats as their male peers and women's lateral mobility prospects are diminished. Overall, women sports reporters do not have access to the same opportunities and in the same ways as men. The lack of promotion for women can be explained in part by the limited number of employment equity programs in place to guide promotions in sports reporting. Only 25% of respondents agreed that their organizations had employment equity programs in place (see Table 24). Some staff in Canadian daily newspaper sports departments do not seem to acknowledge the fact that there might be an issue of employment inequity in their department. A male respondent wrote that "women had as many opportunities to enter the field of sports journalism but that there were a lack of qualified candidates". Another male respondent commented on the fact that "competent people w i l l advance, regardless of gender and that too much is made on gender issues, capable people w i l l advance". Comments from these two respondents indicate that some sports journalists do not perceive the existence of gender discrimination in sports journalism. In addition to this study however, other studies (Burton Nelson ,1994 and Eberhard and Myers, 1989) have similarly found that women are discriminated against in terms of equal access to promotion opportunities in sports journalism. 101 In order to "see" the ceiling preventing women from progressing in the field o f sports journalism, several issues need to be clarified. In particular, the factors presented by Frisby (1992) can be applied to the situations of women sports reporters and to their lack of advancement. The factors Frisby discussed include socio-economic, organizational, professional organizations, family, current position, and individual background factors. Organizational factors include element such as schedule policies that privilege men, and a lack of employment equity policies to counter balance these tendencies for women. Individual factors are seen in the fact that many women did not want to cover mainstream professional sports. Additionally, some women did not anticipate a promotion (25%, n=4 anticipated staying in their current position). It could be argued that these women were content with their positions and personally did not want to advance in the field of sports journalism. Or, it could be argued, that women were realistic in not pursuing senior positions because they were aware of the organizational and professional barriers and challenges blocking their advancement in sports journalism. For example, Burton Nelson (1994) indicated that women face organizational discrimination based on gender. If discrimination is part of the reality of women sports journalists, it might be correct to assume that women are not pursuing senior positions because they are aware of the barriers and challenges blocking their advancement. The organizational culture prevailing in sports departments pushes women to find alternatives to being involved in the male dominated culture of professional sports and to attain senior positions. Women 102 agree to cover less visible sports where they wi l l not have to face discrimination such as difficult access to locker rooms and presumptions of incompetence. Theme III - Men and women sports reporters belong to different networking groups. "Men run the sports world. You don't see too many women who are sports writers, unfortunately ". Important findings from the study: • Women and men sports reporters have heard about their position being available through different channels. • Women sports reporters are involved with professional sports at a lesser degree than their male peers. • Women and men sports reporters belong to different professional associations. Linkages between the findings and the literature. The findings presented above demonstrate that the world of sports journalism is still male dominated. The results of this study showed that more women had heard about the availability of their current position by being directly recruited in comparison to men who had heard about the availability of their current position through friends. This suggests that, from the start of their employment with their sports department, women and men sports reporters arrive associated with different networks. Other key findings also demonstrate that women sports reporters, in general, are not involved in the same professional sport dominated networks as the men which appear to be central to the sports world. First, few women covered beats associated with professional sports (see Table 17). This exclusion removes women from the "main networks" and directs women towards alternative networks. Second, women and men sports journalists were seen to belong to different professional associations (see Table 27) 103 with men belonging to professional sports associations and women belonging to Canadian and Provincial Journalistic Associations. Here again the study by Frisby (1992) is useful as she found that membership in professional organizations was important to the career development of women in the leisure industry. As noted above, these findings demonstrate that men appear to have "stronger" i networking links within the mainstream networks in sports journalism than women. This supports the research by Fitzhenry (1990) who observed that the sports environment is an intimidating field to break into for women. She noted: Men have operated their support systems for years - the old boys' association and organizations which provide contacts, information and in many cases facilities to make working life easier. Breaking into these cozy networks can be daunting (p.35). Women consciously or unconsciously stay out of the "main networks" by accepting and being satisfied with the non-professional sport assignments they are given, with belonging to different professional associations than their male peers and through covering more women's sports than their male peers. They exclude themselves from the mainstream and therefore are segregated. By not being involved with these "main networks", women undoubtedly miss important information such as hearing about promotion opportunities and about story leads. Over 75% of women and 70% of men who participated in the study, responded that, in order to progress in the field, it is important to have links with the right people. Yet, all the evidence seems to suggest that women do not have strong networks with key decisions-makers, certainly not as strong as the men's. 104 Theme IV- The "double-sided" nature of women reporters' satisfaction with their work situation. "I like my job very much, but don't like the hours. I've worked with some great people, and a few that are terrible. It's a challenging occupation, rarely boring, but often frustrating. " Important findings from the study: • H a l f o f the women respondents responded that their expectations had not been met in regard to their career advancement and job assignments • 78% o f respondents would decide to become sports journalists i f they had to decide all over again. • 8 1 % o f respondents agreed to being generally satisfied with their assignments. Linkages between the findings and the literature. The findings presented above indicate that even i f some expectations have not been met in certain areas of their work, the majority of women sports reporters are generally satisfied with their work assignments and would, i f they had to choose all over again, enter the world of sports journalism. The above quote chosen to represent this theme reflects quite well the ambiguity felt by some sports reporters. Eberhard and Myers (1988) found similar results. Their respondents were generally satisfied with their work situation but admitted struggling for acceptance and recognition. They believed that there was still progress to be made before women would be fully accepted as sports reporters. Overall, women were satisfied with their assignments (75.0%, n=12) at a rate comparable to that reported in Eberhard and Myers ' (1988) study where 83.0%) o f al l the women respondents claimed that they were satisfied with the assignments they were given. In addition, 75% (n=12) answered that they would, without hesitation, become a sports reporter, i f they had to decide all over again. These results are congruent with the 105 work of Pollard (1995) who found that 66% of the newsworkers he studied would take the same job while 37.6% were unsure. Despite the fact that 75% (n=12) of the women reporters in this study appeared generally satisfied, 50% (n=8) of them had not had their expectations fully met with regard to their career advancement, work schedule and job assignments. One factor that could explain women's dissatisfaction with certain areas o f their work can be found in the fact that policies in sports journalism have been made by men, and that women measure their success on male standards (Burton Nelson, 1994). Hawkesworth (1991) noted, for example, that when women and men achieve the same goals sexism may not recognize the accomplishments as identical. Women's work is less valued and rewarded. Supporting this conclusion, one male respondent in this thesis study wrote: "I don't think it's [career advancement] a problem for top-notch women sports reporters, but I believe an average one with average knowledge of sports isn't accepted as easily as an average male". This quote reveals a systematic disparity in the evaluation standards for women and men sports journalists. The organizational culture of newspaper sports departments remains male dominated and women sports reporters appear to compromise and choose, at times, to opt out of the mainstream culture. In doing so they often choose alternative paths to success that may not be as recognized as others. For example, this thesis demonstrates that women choose to cover less prestigious sports and to belong to different professional associations. The choice of covering less prestigious assignments in turn, may well impact on their promotion opportunities. If women's expectations are to be met, they may need to measure their success through new standards that are not as closely limited to the male system of peer evaluation on the basis of linkages with men's professional sports. In order for this to happen, the sports journalism profession would need to be opened to change and diversity in sports coverage as well as in the composition of sports reporting staff. 107 Chapter VI- Concluding remarks This chapter summarizes some practical implications of this thesis for the careers of Canadian women sports reporters and identifies some of the major contributions of the study to the field of sports journalism including some recommendations for further studies. Practical implications for the careers of Canadian women sports reporters and contributions of this study to the field of sports journalism This research has provided an evaluation of the present employment equity situation in Canadian daily newspaper sports departments. The study provided a comparative analysis of the experiences of women and men sports reporters working at nineteen Canadian daily newspapers which employed at least one woman sport reporter full-time. The employment equity issues which were studied included: hiring procedures, assignments procedures and promotion opportunities. As well, the study related the careers of women sports journalists to the organizational culture and work environment of Canadian daily newspapers sports departments and, in a broader sense, to the sports culture of Canadian professional sports that is male dominated. At different levels, the study drew on different sectors of research in the literature, reviewing related work on employment equity, organizational culture, gendered work culture, general media and sports media. In this sense, it can be considered inter-disciplinary in scope. At the time of the study, there were twenty-one women sports reporters working full-time at nineteen Canadian daily newspapers. Sports editors who responded to the 108 survey claimed that only 14.3% of the resumes they received for potential employment as sports journalists were from women. Women seemed to be opting for areas of journalism other than sports journalism. Why? Fitzhenry (1990) reported a few reasons such as: women were not given the opportunity to spend part for their apprenticeship program in the sports departments while in journalism school; sports was an intimidating field to break into and; it was difficult to combine both professional and private life. This thesis did not take into account curriculum and program issues in journalism schools, however, it did evaluate the extent to which sports journalism can be an intimidating field. If it is important to have more women working as sports reporters then the following steps are necessary. Sports editors would need to be pro-active and stop saying that they would hire women as sports journalists i f qualified candidates would apply. They would need to go into journalism schools and communication schools to recruit women and they would need to present women sports journalists with more opportunities to cover high profile sports. Sports editors would also need to question why there is a lack of women sports journalists and challenge the dominating culture which prevails in their own departments. This is a logical extension of Tancred-Sheriff s (1989) study that raised the issue that the unequal representation of women in the work force might be better explained by factors concerning the nature of the organization rather than factors concerning the nature of the individual. Women reported covering more women's sports than their peers. This is good for women athletes, but it is not sufficient. Women athletes are underrepresented in the media and will be until more women get hired as sports journalists and until both men 109 and women sports journalists make an effort to cover women's sports. It is time that all sports news makers and producers realize, as reported by Rambo (1989), that the number of women as fans (readers and viewers) is increasing and these women might be interested in alternatives and different sports coverage. Boutillier and SanGiovanni (1983) reported that since women sports journalists have a tendency to cover women's sports, it can be suggested that women's sports w i l l receive greater coverage as more women are recruited into sports journalism. Through different interviews with sports journalists, Cramer (1994) believed that an increase in the number of women sports journalists was bound to lead to more space and time dedicated to the coverage of women's sports. Yet, clearly based on this thesis sports editors would need to encourage all sports journalists to write about women's sports. In addition to this thesis, a few other studies have reported on the discrimination that women sports journalists face in their work (Eberhard & Myers, 1988; Burton Nelson, 1994; Fitzhenry, 1989). Based on this work, employment equity policies need to be developed in order to overcome the extant discrimination. These policies should encompass equitable access to players and coaches, equitable distribution of assignments between women and men reporters and equitable access to promotions. Unfortunately, oftentimes "decisions makers are bounded by their backgrounds and experiences and it is likely that decisions makers w i l l therefore support programs that reflect their own interests and values" (Frisby, 1992, p. 170). In the case of sports journalism, this means that until more women enter the field and more women progress into senior positions, the situation is unlikely to change. In addition, these women who 110 will some day gain seniority in sports journalism will need to challenge the traditional male centered model, re-adjust policies that will provide employment equity for both women and men journalists and re-think the 'male centered sports coverage model'. If women sports reporters access higher profile positions, they will have an opportunity to serve as role models and encourage other women to enter the field. This study has demonstrated that it was not enough to review appointments and report that the number of women in sports journalism has increased over the last few years. There is a need to go further and investigate why Canadian women sports journalists are being assigned less prestigious stories and given fewer opportunities to progress than their male peers. Should women struggle to increase the number of articles they publish and should they seek out higher profile assignments? If the answer is yes, then women have to be ready to break down stereotypes and to challenge discriminative editorial understandings such as the assumption that women are better at writing about women's sports and that women cannot handle adequately the dual roles of family and work. Arguably, women reporters also will need to keep writing about women's sports and need to convince their male peers that writing about women's sports is important. For this to happen, sports editors themselves would need to understand the value of covering women's sports for both social and economic reasons. Sports news producers and managers would also need to stop assuming that women are less capable of handling a high profile beat than their male peers and would need to develop equitable work assignments policies and to actively support women sports journalists. If some of these changes could be made we Ill may start witnessing more women entering the sports reporting profession and in turn, this may lead to changes in the way sports are covered in Canada. Recommendations for further studies Over the course of this study a number of areas of related research were identified. The following section outlines a series of recommendations which would complement this study and other studies and contribute to the Canadian sports media literature. • One question that was raised was why are women not interested in working in sports departments? It was reported that of all the resumes received by sports editors from individuals seeking employment as sports journalists, only 14.3% came from women. A study involving journalism and communication students could answer this question. A s well , a study on the curriculum in journalism and communications schools might be insightful. How many courses specifically refer to sports journalism? H o w many opportunities are there for work internships in sports departments? Are women students directed towards areas other than sports journalism to a greater extent than men students? These are all relevant questions which would assist us in shedding some light on why the number of Canadian women sports reporters is so low. • What role does socialization play in the reality of women in sports journalism and more specifically what role does it play in the nature of the work assignments of women sports journalists? Socialization plays an important role in gender processes which can help in defining which sports women and men get involved in. A s a result 112 women and men get involved in sports in different ways. This is potentially also true in sports journalism where the experiences of women and men reporters are different. • Do women sports readers want a more diversified sports section? Rambo (1989) indicated that there are potential economic benefits to be gained from attracting more female readers. But the question is, what are female readers interested in? A t this point, sports coverage in Canadian daily newspapers seems to appeal primarily to male readers. • H o w many women sports journalists work on a part-time basis or work as freelancers? The purpose of this question is to find out why women might choose to work part-time or as a freelancers instead of working full-time. Is it easier to get a position on a part-time basis or as a freelancer? Is it easier to manage a career and a family when working part-time? This thesis examined the situation of women sports journalists working on a full-time basis only. The experiences of women working part-time or as freelancers may be very different and should not be ignored. • Do women and men sports editors operate on different paradigms? 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Sheppard; Tancred-Sheriff, P. & Burrell, G . (Eds.). The sexuality of organization (pp.45-55). California: Sage Publications. Theberge, N . & Cronk, A . (1986). Work routines in newspaper sports department and the coverage of women's sports. Sociology of Sport Journal, 3, 195-203. Thomas & Nelson (1990). Descriptive research. Research methods in physical activity. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics Publishers. Tuchman, G . (1978). Making news. N e w York: The Free Press. V a n Maanen, J. & Barley, S.R. (1985). Cultural organization, fragments of a theory. In Frost, P.J. & al.(Eds.). Organizational culture. California: Sage Publications. White, B . , C . Cox & Cooper, C. (1992). Women's career development: A study of high flyers. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers. 120 Career Patterns of Sports Journalists The purpose of this study is to investigate the assignment procedures and promotion opportunities in Canadian daily newspapers as a condition of career development. The research focuses on career patterns in Canadian sport journalism, and attempts to assess the impact ofpersonal factors such as educational background, gender and work experience on reporters' assignments and promotional opportunities. There are three sections to this questionnaire. The first section deals with assignment procedures, the second section with promotion opportunities, and the third section with general information. I would like to stress that your answers will be treated in the strictest confidence and that you will remain completely anonymous. All responses will be aggregated. Once you have completed the questionnaire, please send it back in the self addressed and stamped envelope provided. Thank you. Section I: Assignments In this section, 1 ask you about the procedures used for the assignments distribution in your department. I am also interested in learning more about the sports you cover. 1. H o w many years have you been working for this newspaper: years 2. H o w many years have you been working in the sports department o f this newspaper: years 3. What is your current position at the newspaper: 4. H o w many years have you been in the position you are presently in: years 5. D i d you move into your present position from: • A n internal position • Another media • Another newspaper • A n unrelated job • Other 6. H o w did you learn about the availability o f your current position (check all possible answers)? I heard through some friends that the position was available. • I saw it advertised internally. • I saw it advertised in the career opportunity section o f a newspaper. • I heard about it through a professional association to which I am affiliated. • I had previously sent my resume and they called me. • I was recruited. • Other(s): 7. What steps did you take when you applied for your present position (check all possible answers)? I sent in my resume. • I contacted the sports editor. • I contacted individuals I knew in the organization. • Other(s): 121 8 In your opinion, beats are assigned on the following basis in your department: Never Seldom Occasionally Frequently Very Frequently Seniority o f the reporter • • • • • Interest/personal choice o f the reporter • • • • • Technical sports knowledge o f the reporter • • • • • Reputation o f the reporter • • • • • Avai lab i l i ty o f the reporter • • • • • Past sports experiences o f the reporter • • • • • Gender o f the reporter • • • • • Others: • • • • • • • • • • 9 . In our opinion, general assignments are assigned on the fol lowing basis in your department: Never Seldom Occasionally Frequently Very Frequently Seniority o f the reporter • • • • • Interest/personal choice o f the reporter • • • • • Technical sports knowledge o f the reporter • • • • • Reputation o f the reporter • • • • • Avai lab i l i ty o f the reporter • • • • • Past sports experiences o f the reporter • • • • • Gender o f the reporter • • • • • Others: • • • • • • • • • • 10. In your opinion, columns are assigned on the fol lowing basis in your department: Never Seldom Occasionally Frequently V e r y Frequently Seniority o f the reporter • • • • • Interest/personal choice o f the reporter • • • • • Technical sports knowledge o f the reporter • • • • • Reputation o f the reporter • • • • • Avai lab i l i ty o f the reporter • • • • • Past sports experiences o f the reporter • • • • • Gender o f the reporter • • • • • Others: • • • • • • • • • • 122 11. Please indicate the extent to which each o f the fol lowing statements reflects your current job situation: Strongly Agree Neither Agree Disagree Strongly Agree or Disagree Disagree • I am generally satisfied with my assignments. • • • • • • 1 cover more men's sports than my peers. • • • • • • I cover more women's sports than my peers. • • • • • • I am autonomous in my work. • • • • • • I have a strong knowledge about several sports. • • • • • • I have a strong knowledge about a few sports. • • • • • • I feel comfortable with the sports I cover. • • • • • • I receive sufficient support from my editor regarding my work. • • • • • • M y work schedule often conflicts with my family life. • • • • • • I receive enough help and resources to get the job done. • • • • • • I am given a chance to cover the sports I am most qualified to cover. • • • • • • M y background as an athlete is very important and helps me do a better job. • • • • • n/ 12. Can you please indicate what your sport background is, as a participant, spectator, official , coach, volunteer, etc.: Sports Leve l Specify role (participant, Years (competitive or recreational) coach, spectator, official, etc.) (Approximate) e.g.. Basketball Competitive - College Participant 1978-1984 13. D o you feel that your personal/family responsibilities have an affect on what beat or stories are assigned to you? • yes • no Comments: 123 14. D o you presently cover a beat ? • yes • no If you answered no. please go to question #19 15. What beat are you presently covering and number o f years have you covered this beat (Please indicate the sport and level) Beat ^> Number o f Years ^> 16. In covering your beat, on average, how many articles per month do you write? 17. In covering your beat, on average, how many o f your articles per month are published? 18. When covering this beat, to what extent do the following statements affect you? Never Seldom Occasionally Frequently V e r y Frequently I have the freedom to cover the events I want within that beat. • • • • • M y editor strongly suggests what I should cover. • • • • • I cover the events which are the most accessible for sports reporters. • • • • • 19. Do you presently cover general assignments? • yes • no If you answered no. please go to question # 24 20. What general assignments are usually assigned to you (Please indicate the sport and level)? Sport ^> Leve l ^> 21. F rom your general assignments, on average, how many stories do you write each month? 22. F rom your general assignments, on average, how many of your stories are published each month? 23. When covering these stories, to what extent do the following statements affect you? Never Seldom Occasionally Frequently V e r y Frequently I can suggest new ideas o f sports I want to cover. • • • • • M y editor strongly suggests what I should cover. • • • • • I cover the events which are the most accessible for sports reporters. • • • • • 124 24. D o you presently write a column: • yes • no If you answered no. please go to question # 30 25. H o w many years have you been a columnist? 26. In general, what are the topic(s) o f your column? 27. From your column, on average, how many articles do you write each month? 28. From your column, on average, how many articles are published each month? 29. When wri t ing your column(s), to what extent do the following statements affect you? Never Seldom Occasionally Frequently V e r y Frequently I have the freedom to cover the topics I want. • • • • • M y editor strongly suggests what I should cover. • • • • • I cover topics which I can get easy access to. • • • • • 30. In addition, could you please identify the sports which you have covered on a regular basis in your newspaper sports reporter career: Sports and level Length o f time Category (beat or general (e.g., women's professional golf) (e.g., 1991 to 1993) assignment) e.g.. women's professional golf September 1991 to 1993 General assignment 31. I f you had to choose 4 sports or sport events you enjoy writing about the most and which you would prefer to write about all the time, what would they be? Sports Leve l (e.g., men's or women's basketball, Olympic games,...) (e.g., professional, amateur,...) 1) 2) 125 32. Has your newspaper ever conducted any market research on sport readership? • yes • no • don't know If yes, when was the last research done: I f no or don't know, please go to #34 33. From the market research on sport readership that has been done on your newspaper what 4 sports or sports events are o f greatest interest to your readers? Sports Leve l (e.g., men's or women's basketball, Olympic games,...) (e.g., professional, amateur,...) 1) • " 2) 3) 4) . 34. F rom your point o f view, which 4 sports or sport events are o f most interest to your readers? Sports Leve l (e.g., men's or women's basketball, Olympic games,...) (e.g., professional, amateur,...) 1) 2) 3) 4) 35. A t your newspaper, which 4 sports or sport events receive the most visibi l i ty and coverage? Sports Leve l (e.g., men's or women's basketball, Olympic games,...) (e.g., professional, amateur,...) 126 Section II: Promotions This section of the questionnaire investigates the promotion opportunities in sports journalism. 36. Please indicate the extent to which each o f the fol lowing statements reflects your current job situation? Strongly Agree Neither Agree Disagree Strongly Don ' t agree or Disagree Disagree K n o w • The chances for promotions within your department are good. • • • • • • • The chances for promotions within the sports journalism field are good. • • • • • • • A t your newspaper promotions are handled fairly. • • • • • • • Employment equity programs are in place to guide promotions. • • • • • • • M y job is secure. • • • • • • • M y background as an athlete has helped me in attaining my present position. • • • • • • • To progress in my field it is important to have links with the right people. • • • • • • • There is more pressure on me than on my peers in the department to perform wel l . • • • • • • • I have enough time to get the job done. • • • • • • • I see mysel f taking on a higher profile position in this department in the next few years. • • • • • • • I see mysel f as having a lengthy involvement with this newspaper. • • • • • • 37. D o you feel that your personal/family responsibilities have restricted your promotion opportunities? • yes • no Comments: 38. D o you feel that women have as many opportunities to enter the field o f sports journalism as men? • yes • no • Don ' t know Comments: 39. D o you feel that women have as many opportunities to advance in the field o f sports journalism as men? • yes • no • Don ' t know Comments: 127 The questions #40 to #47 will help us understand your views on promotions. You will often find the terms "smaller and larger markets " which are defined as the following: Smaller market: Where the circulation of the newspaper, the frequency ofpublication ( e.g., daily or weekly) or the importance of the sports section is less than your present newspaper. Larger market: Where the circulation of the newspaper or the importance of the sports section is greater than your present newspaper. 40. In newspaper sports journalism would you consider the fol lowing situations to be promotion opportunities: yes no Do you think it will ever happen to you, please write yes, no or n/a ? A salary increase. • • A reporter or columnist given more power in the decision making process. • • A reporter becoming a sports columnist. • • A reporter or columnist becoming an assistant sports editor or a sports editor. • • A reporter or columnist publishing more articles. • • Others: • • • • 41. W o u l d moving to a smaller newspaper market in sports be considered a promotion if: yes no The salary increased? • • A reporter or columnist had more power in the decision making process? • • A reporter became a sports columnist? • • A reporter or columnist became an assistant sports editor or a sports editor? • • A reporter or columnist had more articles published? • • A reporter or columnist had less constraints about what sports to cover? • • A reporter or columnist did the same job? • • For what other reasons would moving to a smaller newspaper market in sports be considered a promotion? 42. W o u l d moving to a larger newspaper market in sports be considered a promotion if: yes no The salary increased? • • A reporter or columnist had more power in the decision making process? • • A reporter became a sports columnist? • • A reporter or columnist became an assistant sports editor or a sports editor? • • A reporter or columnist had more articles published? • • A reporter or columnist had less constraints about what sports to cover? • • A reporter or columnist d id the same job? • • For what other reasons would moving to a larger newspaper market in sports be considered a promotion? 128 43. W o u l d you consider going to work for another media in sports (e.g., television, radio, other print media) a promotion if: yes no The salary increased? • • The job went from less hands-on work to more administrative work? • • The job offered a greater challenge? • • The job offered more power in the decision making process? • • A n individual work became more visible? • • A n individual had less constraints about what sports to cover? • • For what other reasons would moving to another media in sports be considered a promotion? 44. Over the last 10 years have you heard o f any promotion opportunities in: Never Seldom Occasionally Frequently Very Frequently Y o u r own department • • • • • Other departments, same paper • • • • • Larger market, in sports • • • • • Larger market, not in sports . • • • • • Smaller market, in sports • • • • • Smaller market, not in sports • • • • • Other media, in sports • • • • • Other media, not in sports • • • • • 45. In your field, how would you usually hear about promotion opportunities: Never Seldom Occasionally Frequently V e r y Frequently Networking/Friends • • • • • Internal information boards • • • • • Career opportunity in newspapers • • • • • Recruiters (head hunters) • • • • • Professional associations • • • • • Others: • • • • • • • • • • 129 46. D o your future career goals include: yes no Maybe Don ' t K n o w Staying in your current position? • • • • Staying in the department with a possible position promotion? • • • • Staying with your newspaper but working in another department? • • • • M o v i n g to a larger market ( i n sports)? • • • • M o v i n g to a larger market (not in sports)? • • • • M o v i n g to a smaller market (in sports)? • • • • M o v i n g to a smaller market (not in sports)? • • • • Changing media (in sports)? • • • • Changing media (not in sports)? • • • • Others? • • • • • • • • 47. When a sports reporter or columnist is hired in your department, what is the most l ikely source o f this hiring? • Internal • External 48. Dur ing the last 10 years, would you say that the number o f reporters and columnists in your department has: • Increased • Decreased • Stayed the same 49. Please outline the positions you have held in other newspapers or media organizations: Time Period (From - To) Name, city Position e.g.. 1983-88 The Da i ly Planet (newspaper). B igv i l l e Writer 50. A r e you a member o f any professional associations? • yes • no I f yes, can you please name them: 51. I f you are a member o f any professional associations, are you actively involved in some o f these associations (e.g., board member, committee member,...)? • yes • no 52. I f yes: Association(s) ^ Position(s)^> 130 Section III: General Information 53. A r e you: • male • female 54. What is your age? years 55. W h i c h o f the fol lowing best describes your current marital status: • Single, not involved in a relationship • Involved in a relationship but not married • L i v i n g with a partner but not married • Marr ied 56. D o you have children? • yes • no • expecting 57. I f applicable, please list the age o f your children, the percentage o f time they live with you, and the type o f chi ld care they receive. A g e % of time l iv ing Type o f chi ld care arrangement with you (e.g. group day care, relative, nanny, baby-sitter, mother or father, grand-parent,...) C h i l d #1 C h i l d #2 C h i l d #3 C h i l d #4 58. D o you have any other dependents (e.g., relative)? • yes • no ^> H o w many: 59. In your family, who has the main responsibility for seeing that the fol lowing tasks get done? Y o u have Share equally Partner has N / A with partner Indoor housework, including food preparation, housecleaning, clothing care, etc. or arranging for these types o f tasks to be done by others. • • • • Outdoor work, including gardening, lawn care, small repairs, etc. or arranging for these types o f tasks to be done by others • • • • I f applicable: C h i l d care, including feeding, dressing, bathing, etc. or arranging for these types o f tasks to be done by others. • • • • 131 60. Please, indicate your level o f education: Degree Attained Year o f Graduation H i g h School Dip loma • College D ip loma • Technical School • Universi ty Degree • Graduate Degree • 61. Wi th respect to your employment in the sports department, on average: H o w many hours per week do you work? O f the total weekly hours you work: H o w many hours per week do you work at your work place? H o w many hours per week do you work at home? H o w many hours per week do you spend in the field? 62. Please indicate your usual daily work hours (e.g., from 1:00pm to 9:00pm): 63. Approximately how many nights per month do you spend away from home because o f work-related travel? Number o f nights per month: 64. Average daily circulation o f your newspaper (approximately): weekday edition weekend edition 65. L o o k i n g back over your career so far, indicate the extent to which your expectations in the fol lowing areas have been met: Has not met my Has met my Has exceeded my expectations expectations expectations Salary • • • Career advancement • • • Working schedule • • • Job assignments • • • Amount o f work required o f you • • • Job security • • • Influence in the department • • • Status/prestige • • • Work environment • • • Others: • • • • • • 66. I f you had to decide all over again whether to be a sports reporter or columnist (please check one)? • I would decide without hesitation to be a sports reporter or columnist. • I would have second thoughts. • I wou ld definitely choose not to be a sports reporter or columnist. Comments: 132 If you have additional comments, please feel free to write them in the provided space below: Please return this questionnaire back in the self addressed and stamped envelope provided. Thank you very much for taking the time to complete this questionnaire. 133 Are you interested in receiving a brief summary o f the results: • yes • no I f yes, please indicate the name and address where it should be sent to: Name: Address: The above information will be removed from the questionnaire as soon as I will receive it or you could return it separately. Thanks again. 136 04. In your sports department, how are columns usually assigned: 05. In your department, beats are usually assigned on the fol lowing basis: Never Seldom Occasionally Frequently V e r y Seniority o f the reporter • • • • Frequently • Interest/personal choice o f the reporter • • • • • Technical sports knowledge o f the reporter • • • • • Reputation o f the reporter • • • • • Avai lab i l i ty o f the reporter • • • • • Past sports experiences o f the reporter • • • • • Gender o f the reporter • • • • • Wri t ing abilities/skills o f the reporter • • • • • Other: • • • • • 06. In vour sports department, general assignments are usually assigned on the fol lowing basis: Seniority o f the reporter Never • Seldom • Occasionally • Frequently • V e r y Frequently • Interest/personal choice o f the reporter • • • • • Technical sports knowledge o f the reporter • • • • • Reputation o f the reporter • • • • • Avai lab i l i ty o f the reporter • • • • • Past sports experiences o f the reporter • • • • • Gender o f the reporter • • • • • Wri t ing abilities/skills o f the reporter • • • • • Other: • • • • • 07. Please indicate the extent to which each o f the fol lowing reflects the current situation in your department: Strongly Agree Neither Agree Disagree Strongly agree or Disagree Disagree • The sports journalists in my department are given a chance to cover the sports they feel comfortable with. • • • • • • The sports journalists in my department are given enough help and resources to get their job done • • • • • 137 • There is a correlation between the athletic background o f a sports journalist and the sports he/she is being assigned to. • • • • • • Personal/family responsibilities are taken into consideration when assigning beats or general stories. • • . • • • • I am actively involved in giving suggestions to the sports journalists in my department in regards to what stories they should cover. • • • • • Promotion Opportunities & Hiring Practices This section of the questionnaire investigates the promotion opportunities and the hiring practices in your department. If a question is irrelevant or not applicable to your situation please do not hesitate to make note of it in the margins of the questionnaire. Thank you. 08. When a sports journalist is hired in your department, what is the most l ikely source o f this hiring? • Internal • External 09. Dur ing the last 10 years, would you say that the number o f journalists in your department has: • Increased • Decreased • Stayed the same 10. Amongst al l the resumes that are sent to you from individuals seeking employment in your department as a sports journalist, what is the approximate ratio male/female received: % / % male female 11. Does your newspaper have any policies regarding the hiring of women: • yes • no • don't know I f yes, how do these policies affect your department: 12. When hir ing new sports reporters or columnists, Very Important Educational background • Work experiences • Writ ing abilities/skills • Sports experiences • References • A b i l i t y to work with deadlines • Fami ly responsibilities • Gender • Other: • these issues are carefully considered Important Not so Not important Important at al l • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 138 13. Where do you usually look for potential candidates or advertise for open sports journalists positions (check al l possible answers): Talk about it to colleagues in the business • A d in career opportunities' section o f newspapers • Professional Associations • Consider people we already know for the position • Journalism School • L o o k into the resumes that were previously sent • Internal search through different means such as bulletin boards or employees' newsletter • Other: • 14. D o you feel that women have as many opportunities to enter the field o f sports journalism as men? • yes • no • don't know Comments: 15. D o you feel that women have as many opportunities to advance in the field o f sports journalism as men? • yes • no • don't know Comments: General Information 16. H o w long have you been working for this newspaper? years 17. H o w long have you been sports editor for this newspaper? years 18. A r e you: • male • female 19. What is your age? years 20. Average daily circulation o f your newspaper: weekday edition weekend edition 21. A r e the sports journalists in your department unionized: D y e s • no *** If you have additional comments, please feel free to write them in the space provided below. Thank you! Please return this questionnaire in the self addressed stamped envelope provided or fax it to (604)822-5884 as soon as possible. Thank you very much for taking the time to complete this questionnaire. 

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