UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The response of older women to strength training and its relationship to physical self-efficacy Haydock, Eleanor 1987

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THE RESPONSE OF OLDER WOMEN TO STRENGTH TRAINING AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO PHYSICAL S E L F - E F F I C A C Y by E l e a n o r Haydock B.Sc. U n i v e r s i t y o£ R e a d i n g , 1938 B.L.S. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1962 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES S c h o o l Of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1987 © E l e a n o r H a y d o c k , 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Physical Education The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date a 8 / * r / Qj g y A b s t r a c t The e f f e c t s of weight t r a i n i n g on the s t r e n g t h , power and s i z e of arm f l e x o r muscles i n ol d e r women and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p h y s i c a l s e l f - e f f i c a c y and changes In s t r e n g t h and power were I n v e s t i g a t e d . Being reasonably s t r o n g i s c l e a r l y d e s i r a b l e f o r o l d e r women to be able to l i v e independently and s a f e l y ; both s t r e n g t h and power are important. Although most o l d e r people l i v i n g alone are women, very l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been concerned with s t r e n g t h or power, or with t r a i n i n g f o r s t r e n g t h , i n ol d e r women. A 2 (experimental and c o n t r o l groups) x 2 (before and a f t e r t r a i n i n g ) experimental design was used. Subjects (N = 68) were randomly assigned to the 2 groups. Right arm s t r e n g t h (6RM), peak power, f a t - f r e e c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l area (FCA), and P h y s i c a l S e l f - e f f i c a c y (PSE) were measured before and a f t e r 12 weeks t r a i n i n g , which was c a r r i e d out a t home. The experimental group t r a i n e d elbow f l e x o r s 3 times a week, using dumbells; the c o n t r o l group t r a i n e d f o r inc r e a s e d f l e x i b i l i t y , f o r a s i m i l a r amount of time weekly. For v a r i o u s reasons (no-shows, drop-outs, medical, incomplete cases) o n l y 50 cases were a v a i l a b l e f o r a n a l y s i s , 30 i n the experimental group and 20 i n the c o n t r o l group. Eighteen of these 50 s u b j e c t s had i n i t i a l l y r e p o r t e d minor d i s o r d e r s such as c o n t r o l l e d h y p e r t e n s i o n or j o i n t problems. Adherence was approximately 92%. In the experimental group, 6RM inc r e a s e d 20% more than i n the c o n t r o l group, but peak power was s l i g h t l y lower i n both groups. There was no change i n FCA. PSE was not c o r r e l a t e d with the inc r e a s e i n 6RM, but was s i g n i f i c a n t l y l i n e a r l y c o r r e l a t e d with peak power. These r e s u l t s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y the d i f f e r e n t response to t r a i n i n g f o r s t r e n g t h and power i n t h i s group, are d i s c u s s e d . The mean r e d u c t i o n i n peak power over the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d was not expected; p o s s i b l e reasons are d i s c u s s e d . The e x p e c t a t i o n of a r e l a t i o n s h i p between PSE and changes i n p h y s i c a l performance was not r e a l i z e d , although there was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between PSE and peak power. P o s s i b l e reasons f o r t h i s are d i s c u s s e d . In g e n e r a l , i t was concluded t h a t , a f t e r twelve weeks of t r a i n i n g , the i n c r e a s e i n w e i g h t - l i f t i n g performance u s i n g arm f l e x o r s : shows t h a t o l d e r women can, through a simple programme of p r o g r e s s i v e weight t r a i n i n g done a t home, improve the amount of weight they can l i f t . was not accompanied by hypertrophy of arm f l e x o r s . was not accompanied by an i n c r e a s e i n peak power of the arm f l e x o r s . was not r e l a t e d to p h y s i c a l s e l f - e f f i c a c y as measured In t h i s study. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT .11 LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF FIGURES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i l Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1 P h y s i o l g i c a l v a r i a b l e s 2 P s y c h o l o g i c a l V a r i a b a l e s 6 Design of the Experiment 7 Purposes 8 Hypotheses 8 D e l i m i t a t i o n s 9 L i m i t a t i o n s 9 II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 10 Importance of Strength, Power, and Muscle Bulk f o r Older Women 11 Diminution of Strength, Power, and Muscle Bulk with Ageing 14 Measurement of Strength and Power 25 Issues i n Measurement of Strength and Power ....28 Measurement of Muscle Bulk 34 E f f e c t s of Strength T r a i n i n g 38 P s y c h o l o g i c a l V a r i a b l e s and P h y s i c a l T r a i n i n g . . . 53 II I METHOD 6 4 Subjects 64 Design of the Experiment 64 V S e l e c t i o n o f P h y s i o l o g i c a l M e a s u r e s 64 The P s y c h o l o g i c a l M e a s u r e 71 P r o c e d u r e 74 D a t a A n a l y s i s 79 I V RESULTS 81 V DISCUSSION 93 REFERENCES 113 APPENDIXES 129 1 M e a s u r e m e n t o£ 6RM 129 2 D e s c r i p t i o n o f Dynamometer 131 3 M e a s u r e m e n t o f Power 143 4 C a l c u l a t i o n o f Power ...147 5 E s t i m a t i o n o f FCA 148 6 P h y s i c a l S e l f - e f f i c a c y S c a l e 149 7 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f PSE , 151 8a S u b j e c t R e c o r d S h e e t P a r t 1 152 8b S u b j e c t R e c o r d S h e e t P a r t 2 153 9 PAR-Q 154 10 I n f o r m e d C o n s e n t 155 11 I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r S t r e n g t h T r a i n i n g 157 12 S t r e n g t h T r a i n i n g R e c o r d S h e e t 158 13a I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r F l e x i b i l i t y T r a i n i n g P a r t I 159 13b I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r F l e x i b i l i t y T r a i n i n g P a r t I I 160 14 F l e x i b i l i t y T r a i n i n g R e c o r d S h e e t 161 15 C a l c u l a t i o n o f Dynamometer H a n d l e S e t t i n g . 1 6 2 vj L i s t o f T a b l e s T a b l e No. Page 1 D i f f e r e n c e s i n f o r c e a n d power r e l a t i v e t o bod y w e i g h t : women a t v a r y i n g a g e s 15 2 Age, h e i g h t a n d w e i g h t o f s u b j e c t s : means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s 83 3 C o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x : e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p 85 4 C o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x : c o n t r o l g r o u p 86 5 C o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x : c o m b i n e d g r o u p s 87 6 D e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s 6RM, peak power, a nd ( r i g h t ) FCA: means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s ..88 7 Summary MANOVA t a b l e s 89 v i i L i s t of F i g u r e s F i g u r e Page 1 6RM: i n t e r a c t i o n , Group x Time 90 2 Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r change i n 6RM a f t e r 12 weeks t r a i n i n g 91 3 Frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r change i n peak power a f t e r 12 weeks t r a i n i n g 96 4 Dynamometer - general view 134 5 Dynamometer - pa r t s I d e n t i f i e d 135 6 Dynamometer i n use 137 7 Instantaneous values of angle, angular v e l o c i t y , f o r c e , and power from one s u b j e c t 138 8 S t r a i n r i n g : w i r i n g diagram 140 9 Instantaneous values of v i b r a t o r y f o r c e recorded by a K i s t l e r f o r c e p l a t f o r m and the s t r a i n gauge transducer) 142 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e h e l p o f a l l t h e members o f my g r a d u a t e c o m m i t t e e : D r . S t a n B r o w n , D r . Bonny L o n g , D r . G o r d o n R o b e r t s o n , a n d D r . J e a n W e s s e l . I n p a r t i c u l a r , I w i s h t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e h e l p o f D r . Brown, w i t h o u t whose e n c o u r a g e m e n t , e x p e r t i s e a n d g e n e r o u s p r a c t i c a l h e l p t h i s s t u d y c o u l d n o t have b e e n c a r r i e d o u t . D r . L o n g and D r . W e s s e l b o t h p a r t i c i p a t e d I n i m p o r t a n t p i l o t s t u d i e s ; D r . R o b e r t s o n w r o t e p r o g r a m s f o r d a t a r e c o r d i n g a n d f o r c o m p u t a t i o n s : I t h a n k a l l t h r e e . I a l s o w i s h t o a c k n o w l e g e t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f Mr. P h i l i p H u r r e n , who d e s i g n e d a n d made t h e s t r a i n g a u g e , o f f r i e n d s who h e l p e d w i t h r e c o r d i n g a n d c l e r i c a l w o r k , a n d o f a l l t h e women who p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y made i t p o s s i b l e . I INTRQPUCTIQM T h i s s t u d y has a number o f a s p e c t s . I t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h q u e s t i o n s a b o u t s t r e n g t h o f o l d e r women: w h e t h e r o r n o t t r a d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g methods c a n be a d a p t e d f o r use by o l d e r women a n d w i l l r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e s i n s t r e n g t h a n d p o w e r ; w h e t h e r o r n o t a c h a n g e i n s t r e n g t h w i l l be a c c o m p a n i e d b y a c h a n g e i n power; a n d w h e t h e r o r n o t s h o r t - t e r m (12 weeks) t r a i n i n g r e s u l t s i n h y p e r t r o p h y o f t h e t r a i n e d m u s c l e . I t i s a l s o c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e m e n t a l a t t i t u d e o f o l d e r women and t h e i r r e s p o n s e t o t r a i n i n g . V e r y f e w p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s have b e e n c o n c e r n e d w i t h a n y o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , a l t h o u g h s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g f o r o l d e r p e o p l e I s b e i n g recommended b y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s ( S a l e , 1 9 8 6 ) . S t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g a s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n f o r p e o p l e who have b e e n s i c k o r i n j u r e d h a s been i n t e n s i v e l y s t u d i e d ( V a n d e r v o o r t , H a y e s , & B e l a n g e r , 1 9 8 6 ) , y e t s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g t o i m p r o v e t h e p h y s i c a l c o m p e t e n c e o f o l d e r p e o p l e has b e e n g e n e r a l l y n e g l e c t e d . The i n d i v i d u a l ' s m e n t a l a p p r o a c h t o a p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y c a n be a d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r i n p e r f o r m a n c e ( D i s h m a n & G e t t m a n , 1 9 8 0 ) . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s a s w e l l a s p h y s i o l o g i c a l o nes were c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . I m p o r t a n c e o f S t r e n g t h a n d Power f o r O l d e r Women Some o f t h e s t r e n g t h l o s s I n o l d e r p e o p l e a p p e a r s t o be i n e v i t a b l e , b u t S m i t h a n d G i l l i g a n ( 1 9 8 3 ) b e l i e v e t h a t 2 " d i s u s e a c c o u n t s f o r a b o u t 5 0 % o f t h e [ g e n e r a l ] f u n c t i o n a l d e c l i n e " ( p . 9 2 ) , a n d t h a t t h e l o s s i s , a t l e a s t p a r t l y , r e v e r s i b l e w i t h i n c r e a s e d a c t i v i t y . I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o p r o p o s e t h a t o l d e r women, e s p e c i a l l y u r b a n a n d p r e d o m i n a n t l y s e d e n t a r y o n e s , s h o u l d m a i n t a i n l e v e l s o f m u s c l e s t r e n g t h a n d power a d e q u a t e f o r them t o u n d e r t a k e e n j o y a b l e p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s a n d t o m a i n t a i n i n d e p e n d e n t l i v i n g a s l o n g a s p o s s i b l e . B o s c o a n d Komi ( 1 9 8 0 ) f o u n d women b e t w e e n a g e s 51 a n d 64 l o s t 1 9 % o f s t r e n g t h b u t 6 2 % o f power when c o m p a r e d w i t h a y o u n g e r g r o u p . T h i s d e g r e e o f s t r e n g t h a n d power l o s s i m p l i e s c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y i n d o i n g t h i n g s l i k e o p e n i n g h e a v y s w i n g d o o r s o r l i f t i n g a h e a v y w e i g h t up t o c o u n t e r l e v e l . The a l t e r n a t i v e t o i n d e p e n d e n c e , some f o r m o f l o n g - t e r m c a r e , means h i g h e c o n o m i c c o s t s t o s o c i e t y a n d o f t e n h i g h p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o s t s t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l s a s t h e y l e a r n t h e i r new d e p e n d e n t r o l e s ( K u y p e r s & B e n g s t e n , 1973) a n d b e g i n t o u n d e r e s t i m a t e t h e i r p h y s i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s ( M y e r s & Huddy, 1 9 8 5 ) . T h i s i s b e c o m i n g a n i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l a n d m e d i c a l c o n c e r n a s t h e number o f women o v e r 55 i n c r e a s e s y e a r l y a n d t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n t h e y c o m p r i s e becomes l a r g e r ( C a n a d a . N a t i o n a l H e a l t h & W e l f a r e , 1982; V a l b o n a & B a k e r , 1 9 8 4 ) . P h y s i o l o g i c a l Vflriabl^s D i m i n u t i o n o f S t r e n g t h a n d Power w i t h A g e i n g S t r e n g t h d i m i n i s h e s q u i t e r a p i d l y a f t e r t h e age o f 50 (C a n a d a F i t n e s s S u r v e y , 1 9 8 3 ) . Few s t u d i e s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h 3 changes i n power with age, though power has been found to d i m i n i s h even more than s t r e n g t h (Bosco & Komi, 1980). Choice of Study P o p u l a t i o n . Subjects i n s t u d i e s of p h y s i o l o g i c a l change with ageing have u s u a l l y been d e l i m i t e d by s e l e c t i o n or s c r e e n i n g to c o m p a r a t i v e l y v e r y h e a l t h y members of the p o p u l a t i o n (Canada F i t n e s s Survey, 1983), and the s t u d i e s have almost always been c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l (Damon, 1965); i n both cases g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y i s r e s t r i c t e d . For the present study, i t was decided to screen out o n l y women with c l e a r c o n t r a i n d i c a t i o n s (Piscopo, 1979) f o r the p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures and s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g programme used, so t h a t the r e s u l t s would be as w i d e l y g e n e r a l i z a b l e as p o s s i b l e . The Measurement of Strength and Power The concept " s t r e n g t h " i s not simple; d i f f e r e n t authors have used d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s , making i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s t u d i e s d i f f i c u l t . Choice of a measurement method was a l s o d i f f i c u l t . No one v a r i a b l e can be used to measure o v e r a l l s t r e n g t h . Contemporary t h e o r i s t s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n the area of s t r e n g t h development, such as Heyward (1983), d i f f e r e n t i a t e between s t r e n g t h , endurance and power. Some authors have a p p l i e d f a c t o r a n a l y s i s to s t r e n g t h measurements and r e p o r t e d f a c t o r s v a r y i n g i n number from f i v e (Jackson, 1971) to e l e v e n ( L i b a , 1967). Many other workers d i s c u s s i s o m e t r i c , i s o t o n i c , i s o k i n e t i c or dynamic s t r e n g t h measurement ( C l a r k e , 1973; Pipes & Wilmore, 1975) and o f t e n d e f i n e s t r e n g t h as a maximum v o l u n t a r y c o n t r a c t i o n (Sale & Norman, 1982). T h i s measure i s not n e c e s s a r i l y r e l e v a n t to a c t i v i t i e s of d a i l y l i v i n g f o r o l d e r women, which o f t e n i n v o l v e the a p p l i c a t i o n of s t r e n g t h i n l i f t i n g and c a r r y i n g 4 weights, and moving them by pushing, i . e . , must i n v o l v e power and endurance as w e l l as s t a t i c s t r e n g t h i£ they are to be c a r r i e d out comfortably. K u l i g , Andrews, and Hay (1984) r e s t r i c t e d t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n of s t r e n g t h and the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the f i n d i n g s to a s p e c i f i c muscle group i n a p a r t i c u l a r s e t of e x e r c i s e c o n d i t i o n s . No d i r e c t measurement of power has been c a r r i e d out with o l d e r women. For the present study, t h e r e f o r e , i t was co n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e to measure both s t r e n g t h and power. Muscle Bulk and Ageing Decrease i n muscle bulk accompanies the ge n e r a l d e c l i n e i n s t r e n g t h and power with ageing, and i s b e l i e v e d to be i n pa r t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t (Stones & Kozma, 1985). M o r i t a n i and de V r i e s (1980) suggested t h a t n e u r a l f a c i l i t a t i o n of muscle f u n c t i o n can i n par t compensate f o r the l o s s of muscle mass. Other r e s e a r c h e r s suggested t h a t muscle f i b r e s i n c r e a s e i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l area with t r a i n i n g (Aniansson, Ljundberg, Rundgren, & Wettequist, 1984; Larsson, 1982a). Weight T r a i n i n g T r a i n i n g f o r in c r e a s e d s t r e n g t h and muscle bulk ( i . e . , weight t r a i n i n g ) has been e x t e n s i v e l y i n v e s t i g a t e d (Atha, 1981), yet there are few s t u d i e s of s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g with o l d e r people, and ol d e r women i n p a r t i c u l a r (Aniansson et a l . , 1984). Change i n power with t r a i n i n g i n o l d e r women has not p r e v i o u s l y been i n v e s t i g a t e d . I t has been s t a t e d that s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g can improve speed, and t h e r e f o r e power (Stegemann, 1981, p.277), but other r e s e a r c h has shown t h a t s t r e n g t h and arm speed are not c o r r e l a t e d (Smith, 1969). In the present study an experimental dynamometer of novel 5 d e s i g n , capable of measuring power d u r i n g a dynamic movement, was used. I t was Intended to show whether or not ol d e r women i n the study group who in c r e a s e d s t r e n g t h a l s o i n c r e a s e d power. Muscle changes with t r a i n i n g . Evidence f o r i n c r e a s e i n muscle bulk with t r a i n i n g i n o l d e r people i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y . Some i n v e s t i g a t o r s working with o l d e r s u b j e c t s have re p o r t e d impressive gains i n muscle s i z e as w e l l as s t r e n g t h with weight t r a i n i n g (Dobrev, 1978); others c o n s i d e r t h a t changes i n s t r e n g t h r e s u l t from i n c r e a s e d muscle a c t i v a t i o n l e v e l alone, i . e . , there i s no hypertrophy. T h i s view i s supported by evidence of c o n t r a l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r of s t r e n g t h gains ( M o r i t a n i & de V r i e s , 1979). I t may be t h a t most s t u d i e s have been too s h o r t and not Intense enough to cause hypertrophy; Dobrev's (1978) study l a s t e d two yea r s , while most others l a s t s i x to twelve weeks (Aniansson, 1980, Aniansson, Grimby, & Rundgren, 1980; Johnson, 1982; Kauffman, 1985; Liemohn, 1975; M o r i t a n i & de V r l e s , 1980; Perki n s & K a i s e r , 1961). Only one study of weight t r a i n i n g has i n v o l v e d o l d e r women s p e c i f i c a l l y (Aniansson et a l . , 1984), but n e i t h e r power nor muscle bulk were measured. Young women do inc r e a s e muscle mass i n response to s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g but not n e a r l y as much as men do (Fox, 1979); i t i s not known whether t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s a l s o found i n o l d e r people. In the present study, g i r t h s and s k i n f o l d s of the upper arms of the s u b j e c t s were measured before and a f t e r t r a i n i n g , and used to c a l c u l a t e f a t - f r e e c r o s s -s e c t i o n a l area, a measure of muscle bulk (which i t was not thought would i n c r e a s e with o n l y 12 weeks t r a i n i n g ) . 6 P s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s The t e r m " s e l f - c o n c e p t " i s o f t e n u s e d f o r t h e way p e o p l e d e s c r i b e t h e m s e l v e s i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r s a n d t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t (Layman, 1 9 7 4 ) , b u t t h e r e i s l i t t l e c o n s e n s u s a b o u t t h e m e a n i n g . I t i s n o t c l e a r w h e t h e r o r n o t s e l f c o n c e p t c h a n g e s w i t h a g e i n g ( B r e y t s p r a a k & G e o r g e , 1 9 7 9 ) . Some a s p e c t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f - c o n c e p t ( m e a s u r e d b y s c a l e s s u c h a s t h e T e n n e s s e e S e l f - c o n c e p t S c a l e ) i s t h o u g h t t o I n f l u e n c e r e s p o n s e t o p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y ( T u c k e r , 1 9 8 4 ) . However, r e s e a r c h e r s i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n s e l f - c o n c e p t a n d p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y do n o t a g r e e a b o u t what a s p e c t o f s e l f - c o n c e p t t o m e a s u r e , o r how t o m e a s u r e i t ( B a n d u r a , 1978; Dish m a n & G e t t m a n , 1980; M o r g a n , 1 9 8 5 ; W y l i e , 1974, 1 9 7 9 ) . I t w o u l d be u s e f u l f o r programme p l a n n i n g t o have some g e n e r a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l m e a s u r e r e l a t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f i t c o u l d p r e d i c t p e r f o r m a n c e o r t r a i n i n g r e s p o n s e . S e l f - e f f i c a c y B a n d u r a ( 1 9 7 7 ) p r o p o s e d t h e c o n c e p t o f s e l f - e f f i c a c y a s a u n i f y i n g m e d i a t o r i n human a c t i o n , a n d s p e c i f i c a l l y i n b e h a v i o u r a l c h a n g e . An i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f s e l f -e f f i c a c y i n c l u d e s b e l i e f s a b o u t w h e t h e r o r n o t a t a s k c a n be c o m p l e t e d s u c c e s s f u l l y , a n d a b o u t what t h e outcome w i l l b e . I n B a n d u r a ' s v i e w , how p e o p l e p e r c e i v e t h e i r own e f f i c a c i o u s n e s s g o v e r n s i n p a r t what t h e y c h o o s e t o d o , how much e f f o r t t o p u t I n t o p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , a n d how l o n g t o p e r s e v e r e a t them i n t h e f a c e o f o b s t a c l e s . T h e s e c h o i c e s 7 a r e b o t h t h e o r e t i c a l l y a nd p r a c t i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e t o p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g , a nd t h e r e f o r e t o t h e outcome o f t h e t r a i n i n g . P h y s i c a l S e l f - e f f i c a c y S e l f - e f f i c a c y h a s b e e n u s e d e x p e r i m e n t a l l y i n a w i d e v a r i e t y o f a p p l i c a t i o n s , I n c l u d i n g some r e l a t i n g I t t o p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s a n d l i n k i n g b e t t e r p e r f o r m a n c e s t o h i g h e r s c o r e s on s e l f - e f f i c a c y m e a s u r e s ( B a n d u r a & C e r v o n e , 1983; B a r l i n g & A b e l , 1 9 8 3 ; F e l t z , L a n d e r s , & R a e d e r , 1 9 7 9 ; G o u l d & W e i s s , 1 9 8 1 ) . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was i n v e s t i g a t e d b y Ryckman, R o b b i n s , T h o r n t o n , and C a n t r e l l ( 1 9 8 2 ) ; t h e y d e v e l o p e d a n d c a r e f u l l y v a l i d a t e d t h e i r P h y s i c a l S e l f - e f f i c a c y S c a l e (PSE) r e p o r t e d t o be a r e l i a b l e p r e d i c t o r o f p e r f o r m a n c e on t a s k s r e q u i r i n g p h y s i c a l s k i l l . The r e p o r t o f p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y f o r PSE h a s b e e n s u p p o r t e d by s u b s e q u e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s (Ryckman, R o b b i n s , & T h o r n t o n , 1 9 8 3 ; M c A u l e y & G i l l , 1 9 8 3 ) , b u t no s t u d i e s were f o u n d r e l a t i n g PSE and t r a i n i n g o u t c o m e s . S i n c e s e l f - e f f i c a c y i s r e p o r t e d t o d e t e r m i n e c h o i c e s a b o u t what t o do and how much e f f o r t t o a p p l y , PSE was e x p e c t e d t o be r e l a t e d t o t r a i n i n g outcome i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . D e s i g n o f t h e E x p e r i m e n t S u b j e c t s f o r t h e s t u d y , women o v e r 50 y e a r s o f age r e c r u i t e d f r o m t h e c o m m u n i t y , were r a n d o m l y a l l o c a t e d t o a n e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p ( w h i c h c o m p l e t e d a 12 week programme o f t r a i n i n g f o r s t r e n g t h o f f o r e a r m f l e x o r s ) a nd a c o n t r o l g r o u p ( w h i c h f o l l o w e d a f l e x i b i l i t y t r a i n i n g programme u n r e l a t e d t o s t r e n g t h d e v e l o p m e n t ) . E a c h s u b j e c t c a r r i e d o u t t h e t r a i n i n g a t home. 8 S t r e n g t h , power, and b u l k o f t h e r i g h t f o r e a r m f l e x o r s , t r u n k f l e x i b i l i t y i n f l e x i o n , a n d PSE (a p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e b e l i e v e d t o be r e l a t e d t o p h y s i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e ) , were m e a s u r e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g a nd end o f t h e s t u d y . The d a t a were a n a l y s e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n e x p e r i m e n t a l a nd c o n t r o l g r o u p s i n t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l m e a s u r e s b e f o r e a nd a f t e r t r a i n i n g , a n d w h e t h e r o r n o t s c o r e s on t h e PSE were r e l a t e d t o t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s . The f l e x i b i l i t y d a t a were n o t a n a l y s e d . The p u r p o s e s were t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t women o v e r 50 c a n i n c r e a s e m u s c l e s t r e n g t h , power and b u l k a s a r e s u l t o f s h o r t - t e r m w e i g h t t r a i n i n g , a n d w h e t h e r o r n o t PSE i s r e l a t e d t o t h e outcome o f t h e t r a i n i n g . Hypotheses 1. A f t e r t r a i n i n g , s u b j e c t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s w i l l g a i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n s t r e n g t h o f t h e r i g h t a r m c o m p a r e d t o t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , a s m e a s u r e d by t h e c h a n g e i n 6RM. 2. A f t e r t r a i n i n g , s u b j e c t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p w i l l g a i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n power o f t h e r i g h t arm c o m p a r e d t o t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , a s m e a s u r e d by t h e c h a n g e i n peak power. 3. A f t e r t r a i n i n g , t h e r i g h t u p p e r arms o f t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p w i l l n o t c h a n g e s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f a t - f r e e c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a r e a a s d e r i v e d f r o m a n t h r o p o m e t r l c a l m e a s u r e m e n t . 4. H i g h e r i n i t i a l s c o r e s f o r PSE w i l l be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h e r g a i n s I n 6RM and peak power a f t e r t r a i n i n g i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . 9 D e l i m i t a t i o n s The s t u d y was d e l i m i t e d t o : 1. A p r i m a r i l y m i d d l e - c l a s s g r o u p o f v o l u n t e e r s . 2. S t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g o f t h e e l b o w f l e x o r s o f t h e r i g h t a r m o n l y . 3. The u s e o f 6RM a s t h e c r i t e r i o n m easurement f o r t r a i n i n g p r o g r e s s i o n . 4. Peak power o f t h e e l b o w f l e x o r s a s t h e c r i t e r i o n m e a surement f o r power. 5. The use o f t h e P h y s i c a l S e l f - e f f i c a c y S c a l e d e v e l o p e d b y Ryckman e t a l . (1982) a s t h e p s y c h o m e t r i c i n s t r u m e n t . L i m i t a t i o n s The s t u d y was l i m i t e d by: 1. The use o f a v o l u n t e e r g r o u p o f s u b j e c t s r a t h e r t h a n one c h o s e n b y random s a m p l e . 2. The u s e o f one e x e r c i s e a n d one m u s c l e g r o u p . 3. R e s t r i c t i o n o f t r a i n i n g t o 12 weeks. 4. The l a c k o f c l o s e p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l o f t r a i n i n g . 5. The use o f o n l y one p s y c h o l o g i c a l m e a s u r e . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE I n t r o d u c t i o n T o p i c s r e v i e w e d w e r e : s t r e n g t h , p o wer, a n d m u s c l e b u l k ; t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e i n r e l a t i o n t o a g e ; t h e p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r m e a s u r e m e n t ; t h e e f f e c t on t h e m o f t r a i n i n g ; a n d t h e p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p h y s i c a l s e l f - e f f i c a c y a n d t h e r e s u l t s o f s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g . I n s p i t e o f common a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e i r c l o s e r e l a t i o n -s h i p , p h y s i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f human b e i n g s , e s p e c i a l l y a s r e l a t e d t o p h y s i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e , a r e u s u a l l y s t u d i e d i n m u t u a l i s o l a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o d i s c u s s t h e m i n a n y o t h e r c o n t e x t . T h u s , i t h a s b e e n n e c e s s a r y t o d e a l w i t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d p h y s i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s s e p a r a t e l y . T h i s d u a l i s t a p p r o a c h i s n o t l i k e l y t o r e p r e s e n t t h e way t h i n g s r e a l l y a r e , b u t i s t h o u g h t t o be t h e o n l y one p o s s i b l e i n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . O u t l i n e o f t h e R e v i e w The i m p o r t a n c e o f s t r e n g t h f o r t h e g r o w i n g number o f o l d e r women l i v i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y i s r e c o g n i z e d ( B a s s e y , 1 9 7 8 ) . S t r e n g t h , power a n d m u s c l e b u l k d e c r e a s e w i t h a g e , s i g n i f i c a n t l y s o f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l a f t e r age 50 t o 60 ( V a n d e r v o o r t , H a y e s , & B e l a n g e r , 1 9 8 6 ) . M o s t s t u d i e s m e a s u r i n g o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g s t r e n g t h have b e e n b a s e d on s a m p l e s f r o m v e r y h e a l t h y p o p u l a t i o n s ( e . g . , C a n a d a . F i t n e s s S u r v e y , 1983) a n d t h e r e i s l a c k o f a g r e e m e n t a b o u t how t o i n t e r p r e t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s u l t s o f c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l and l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s ( C l e m e n t , 1974; Damon, 1 9 6 5 ) . 11 S t r e n g t h has many a s p e c t s , a n d b o t h d e f i n i t i o n a n d measurement a r e d i f f i c u l t . Power i s a l s o h a r d t o measure f o r t e c h n i c a l r e a s o n s ( H e y w a r d , 1 9 8 3 ) ; i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , a dynamometer was d e v e l o p e d i n o r d e r t o measure power u n d e r d e s i r e d c o n d i t i o n s . T r a i n i n g i s known t o i n c r e a s e t h e w e i g h t - l i f t i n g a b i l i t y o f o l d e r p e o p l e ( A n i a n s s o n , L j u n b e r g , R u d g r e n & W e t t e n q u i s t , 1 9 8 4 ) . I t i s n o t c l e a r w h e t h e r t h i s i n c r e a s e i n s t r e n g t h i s a c c o m p a n i e d b y i n c r e a s e i n m u s c l e s i z e o r i s r e l a t e d o n l y t o n e u r a l f a c t o r s ( L a r s s o n , 1 9 8 2 a ; M o r i t a n i & de V r l e s , 1 9 8 0 ) . The t r a i n i n g method s h o u l d r e s e m b l e t h e t e s t i n g method ( S a l e & M a c d o u g a l l , 1981). M e a s u r e s t h e m s e l v e s a nd t r a i n i n g m ethods a r e r e v i e w e d i n t h e M e t h o d s s e c t i o n . A s p e c t s o f p e r s o n a l i t y a r e b e l i e v e d t o be r e l a t e d t o p h y s i c a l p e f o r m a n c e ( K a n e , 1 9 7 2 ) , a nd t o r e s u l t s a c h i e v e d by t r a i n i n g . The many p e r s o n a l i t y m e a s u r e s u s e d have made c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y d i f f i c u l t ( G e o r g e & B e a r o n , 1 9 8 0 ) . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a g e n e r a l m e a s u r e , p h y s i c a l s e l f - e f f i c a c y , was u s e d (Ryckman, R o b b i n s , T h o r n t o n , & C a n t r e l l , 1 9 8 2 ) , f o r r e a s o n s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e s e c t i o n on P s y c h o l o g i c a l V a r i a b l e s a n d P h y s i c a l T r a i n i n g ( p . 5 3 ) . I m p o r t a n c e o f S t r e n g t h r Power a n d M u s c l e B u l k f o r O l d e r Women P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y o f many k i n d s has b e e n shown t o be b e n e f i c i a l t o p e o p l e a t a l l a g e s ; l a c k o f a c t i v i t y c a n l e a d t o p h y s i o l o g i c a l a g e i n g ( B o r t z , 1982; B r u n n e r & J o k l , 1970; M e u s e l , ( 1 9 8 4 ; S m i t h & G i l l i g a n , 1 9 8 3 ) . B a s s e y (1978) s t a t e d t h a t " q u a l i t y o f l i f e i n o l d age i s c r u c i a l l y d e p e n d e n t on t h e a b i l i t y t o p u r s u e a v a r i e t y o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s " ( p . 6 6 ) . P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y i n c r e a s e s l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n ( P r i c e & L u t h e r , 1980; S h e p h a r d , 1 9 8 4 ) , h e l p s d i s s i p a t e s t r e s s ( B e r a n , 1 9 8 4 ) , I m p r o v e s f l e x i b i l i t y ( F r e k a n y & L e s l i e , 1 9 7 5 ) , m o b i l i t y , c o - o r d i n a t i o n , s t r e n g t h , e n d u r a n c e ( M e u s e l , 1 9 8 4 ) , r e a c t i o n t i m e , and b a l a n c e ( P i s c o p o , 1980; S t a c e y , Kozma & S t o n e s , 1 9 8 5 ) , and p o s s i b l y d e l a y s t h e bone l o s s w h i c h r e s u l t s i n o s t e o p o r o s i s ( F a l c h , 1 982; M o n t o y e , 1 9 8 3 ) . H owever, s t r e n g t h i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r o l d e r p e o p l e t o be a b l e t o p e r s e v e r e i n c l a s s e s f o r i m p r o v e m e n t o f f i t n e s s ( D a v i d s o n & M u r p h y , 1984; S t i r l i n g , M i l l e r , B a r k e r , Rowden, & Meehan, 1984) a s w e l l a s f o r e v e r y d a y a c t i v i t i e s ( A n i a n s s o n , 1980; M y e r s & Huddy, 1 9 8 5 ) . McAvoy ( 1 9 7 6 ) f o u n d a l a r g e s a m p l e o f o l d e r p e o p l e i n M i n n e s o t a gave " l a c k o f p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y " t h r e e t i m e s more o f t e n t h a n a n y o t h e r ( p . 3 8 9 8 A ) a s a f a c t o r p r e v e n t i n g t h e m f r o m t a k i n g p a r t i n d e s i r e d a c t i v i t i e s . C u r e t o n (1947) commented on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s t r e n g t h f o r s u c h t a s k s a s " o p e n i n g t i g h t b o t t l e s , r a i s i n g o r l o w e r i n g s t u c k w i n d o w s , . . . m o v i n g f u r n i t u r e , a nd c a r r y i n g c o a l , w a t e r o r wood" ( p . 3 5 6 ) . T o d a y ' s e q u i v a l e n t o f c o a l , w a t e r and wood m i g h t be g r o c e r i e s , l u g g a g e , a n d f i r e l o g s . A d e q u a t e power i s n e c e s s a r y t o open s t u c k windows a n d move f u r n i t u r e ; i t s m a i n t e n a n c e may be a m a j o r f a c t o r i n c o n f i d e n t , s a f e management o f t a s k s o f d a i l y l i v i n g . The p r o p o s i t i o n ( d i s c u s s e d on p.15-16) t h a t d i m i n u t i o n o f p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y i s more n o t i c e a b l e t h e more t h e a v a i l a b l e power d e c r e a s e s ( S t o n e s & Kozma, 1 9 8 5 ) , was d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h t h e s t u d y o f p e r f o r m a n c e i n o l d e r a t h l e t e s . I t c a n j u s t a s w e l l be a p p l i e d t o n o n - a t h l e t e s , a n d e m p h a s i z e s t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f s t r e n g t h and power m a i n t e n a n c e . M a i n t e n a n c e o f m u s c l e b u l k d u r i n g a g e i n g i s b e l i e v e d t o 13 d e l a y l o s s e s o f s t r e n g t h a n d po w e r , a s w e l l a s b e i n g i m p o r t a n t f o r j o i n t s t a b i l i t y ( S h e p h a r d , 1984) a n d p r o b a b l y i n p o s t p o n e m e n t o f o s t e o p o r o s i s ( F a l c h , 1 9 8 2 ) . E f f e c t o f d e m o g r a p h i c c h a n g e s . The number o f women i n t h e a g e i n g p o p u l a t i o n i s l i k e l y t o have i n c r e a s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y b y t h e y e a r 2000; a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f them w i l l , i f t r e n d s c o n t i n u e , be l i v i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y . U n l e s s t h e y a r e a b l e t o p r e s e r v e t h e i r i n d e p e n d e n c e , h o u s i n g a n d c a r i n g f o r them c o u l d c r e a t e a p r o b l e m f o r s o c i e t y t h a t w i l l become more s e r i o u s w i t h t i m e . P r o j e c t i o n s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e number o f C a n a d i a n s o v e r 60 y e a r s o f age w i l l h ave grown f r o m 3.2 m i l l i o n i n 1980 t o 4.5 m i l l i o n b y t h e y e a r 2000. A l m o s t 1 2 % o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n w i l l be 65 o r o l d e r . Over t h e same p e r i o d , t h e r a t i o o f men t o women I n a l l age g r o u p s w i l l d e c l i n e s t e a d i l y ; I n t h e g r o u p a g e d 60 and o v e r i t w i l l f a l l f r o m a b o u t 80 t o 73 (men p e r 100 women). I n 1 9 8 0 , o f t h o s e i n t h e 55-59 age g r o u p l i v i n g a l o n e i n t h e i r own homes, a b o u t 1 2 % were women and o n l y 6% were men. I n t h e 70-74 age g r o u p , t h e f i g u r e r o s e t o 34% f o r women and 1 5 % f o r men ( C a n a d a . N a t i o n a l H e a l t h & W e l f a r e , 1982; S t o n e & F l e t c h e r , 1 9 8 1 ) . C l e a r l y , i t w i l l be t o s o c i e t y ' s a d v a n t a g e a s w e l l a s t o t h e i r own i f t h e s e women m a i n t a i n t h e i r p h y s i c a l c o m p e t e n c e a s l o n g a s p o s s i b l e ( B a s s e y , 1 9 7 8 ; V a l b o n a & B a k e r , 1 9 8 4 ) . I m p o r t a n t p o i n t s f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w e r e ; - S t r e n g t h , p o w e r , a nd m u s c l e b u l k a r e i m p o r t a n t t o o l d e r women. - The number o f women l i v i n g a l o n e w i l l c o n t i n u e t o i n c r e a s e . - T h e s e women nee d s t r e n g t h a d e q u a t e f o r e n j o y a b l e d a l l y l i v i n g . D i m i n u t i o n o f S t r e n g t h . Power a n d M u s c l e B u l k w i t h A g e i n g D i m i n u t i o n o f S t r e n g t h V a n d e r v o o r t e t a l . ( 1 9 8 6) have r e v i e w e d s t u d i e s o f s t r e n g t h d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e o p l e o f v a r y i n g a g e s a s m e a s u r e d by m a x i m a l v o l u n t a r y c o n t r a c t i o n (MVC) o r i s o k i n e t i c a l l y ; a l l s t u d i e s were c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l . The MVC o f b o t h men a n d women i n t h e i r s e v e n t i e s was a t l e a s t 2 0 % l e s s t h a n t h a t o f y o u n g a d u l t s ; i s o k i n e t i c s t r e n g t h m e a s u r e s showed s i m i l a r r e s u l t s b u t o n l y a t l o w e r v e l o c i t i e s . Brown a n d H a r r i s o n ( 1 9 8 1 ) f o u n d l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n s t r e n g t h b e t w e e n u n t r a i n e d women i n a g e - g r o u p s 17-26 (N = 42) a n d 40-49 (W =41). S t r e n g t h l o s s was n o t a p p a r e n t u n t i l a f t e r t h e age o f f i f t y . J o h n s o n ( 1 9 8 2 ) c o m p a r e d t h e s t r e n g t h o f knee e x t e n s o r s i n women a g e d 20-29 (N = 15) and 50-80 (N = 15) a s m e a s u r e d b o t h i s o m e t r i c a l l y a n d i s o k i n e t i c a l l y , u s i n g a C y b e x I I . Mean s t r e n g t h i n t h e o l d e r age g r o u p was a b o u t 40% l e s s t h a n i n t h e y o u n g e r g r o u p w i t h e i t h e r method o f measurement ( p < . 0 1 ) . I s o m e t r i c s t r e n g t h was a b o u t 3 3 % g r e a t e r t h a n i s o k i n e t i c s t r e n g t h i n b o t h age g r o u p s . R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s t r e n g t h a n d power. B o s c o a nd Komi ( 1 9 8 0 ) s t u d i e d o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f age and s e x w i t h s t r e n g t h a n d power w i t h 113 men and 113 women, a l l s t i l l i n t h e work f o r c e . L e g s t r e n g t h a n d power were m e a s u r e d b y v e r t i c a l jumps on a f o r c e p l a t f o r m ; s c o r e s on b o t h m e a s u r e s b o t h p e a k e d i n t h e age g r o u p 18-26. R e s u l t s f o r women a r e shown i n T a b l e 1. I n t h i s s t u d y , s t r e n g t h d i m i n i s h e d e a r l i e r 15 t h a n was r e p o r t e d i n o t h e r s t u d i e s , a n d more c o m p l e t e l y . Power a l s o f e l l v e r y e a r l y , and d i f f e r e n t i a l l y f r o m s t r e n g t h . P o s s i b l y t h e u n f a m i l i a r a n d s t r e n u o u s n a t u r e o f t h e t e s t method a f f e c t e d t h e r e s u l t . No o t h e r s t u d i e s o f s t r e n g t h a n d power c h a n g e s d u r i n g a g e i n g i n women were f o u n d • Age EL F o r c e % c h a n g e Power % c h a n g e G r o u p (N) (W) 18-26 41 478.7 1188.7 34-40 10 341.3 28 764.9 35 41-48 15 316.2 33 716.5 39 51-64 11 226.3 52 466.1 61 71-73 14 229.1 52 328.0 72 T a b l e 1. Changes i n f o r c e a n d power o f women i n v a r i o u s age g r o u p s . A d a p t e d f r o m B o s c o a nd Komi ( 1 9 8 0 ) . ( P e r c e n t a g e c h a n g e s a r e r e d u c t i o n s f r o m v a l u e s i n age g r o u p 18-26.) Shock a nd N o r r i s ( 1 9 7 0 ) c o m p a r e d s t r e n g t h a n d power i n 218 men a g e d 20 - 89. Power o u t p u t ( m e a s u r e d b y a n arm-c r a n k i n g t e s t ) b e g a n t o d e c l i n e a t age 40, and f o r men i n t h e i r 80's (N = 4) had d e c l i n e d b y 4 5 % ( 3 0 % when c o r r e c t e d f o r b o d y w e i g h t ) c o m p a r e d t o t h a t o f y o u n g a d u l t s . I n t h e same g r o u p , s t r e n g t h ( m e a s u r e d i s o m e t r i c a l l y ) had b e e n r e l a t i v e l y w e l l m a i n t a i n e d , d e c l i n i n g b y 2 8 % ( 1 9 % when c o r r e c t e d f o r b o d y w e i g h t ) c o m p a r e d t o y o u n g a d u l t s . The g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f power l o s s a s o p p o s e d t o s t r e n g t h l o s s was a t t r i b u t e d t o r e d u c e d c o - o r d i n a t i o n a b i l i t y w i t h a g e i n g . 16 D i m i n u t i o n o f Power S t o n e s a n d Kozma (1985) h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e d i m i n u t i o n o f p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y w i t h a g e i n g I s more n o t i c e a b l e t h e more t h e available power i s c h a l l e n g e d , i . e . , t h e n e a r e r t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s t o w o r k i n g a t maximum; t h i s e f f e c t i s g r e a t e r f o r m a x i m a l t h a n f o r s u b m a x i m a l p e r f o r m a n c e . The r a t i o b e t w e e n momentary power o u t p u t t o power a v a i l a b l e i s c r i t i c a l ; t h e h i g h e r t h i s r a t i o t h e g r e a t e r t h e e f f e c t . T hey g a v e a s a n e x a m p l e t h e r e l a t i v e demand on power o u t p u t o f r u n n i n g a n d w a l k i n g . E v i d e n c e s u p p o r t i n g t h i s h y p o t h e s i s was f o u n d i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d i e s o f d e c l i n e s i n p e r f o r m a n c e . A n n u a l d e c l i n e s were a p p r e c i a b l y s m a l l e r f o r h a b i t u a l a c t i v i t i e s s u c h a s w a l k i n g (-.5% p r o p o r t i o n a t e p e r f o r m a n c e c h a n g e ) t h a n f o r h i g h power demand a c t i v i t i e s s u c h a s M a s t e r s ' c o m p e t i t i o n i n t r a c k and f i e l d (-1.6% p r o p o r t i o n a t e p e r f o r m a n c e c h a n g e ) ; i n t h i s g r o u p , t h e d e c l i n e seemed t o s t a r t a t age a b o u t f i f t y . T h e y a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t h a t l o n g e r d i s t a n c e s c o n s t i t u t e d a h i g h e r power demand r e l a t i v e t o power a v a i l a b i l i t y a n d showed a g r e a t e r d e c l i n e w i t h age ( S t o n e s & Kozma, 1 9 8 2 ) . W e l f o r d ( 1 9 8 5 ) commented on t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f r e c o n c i l i n g t h i s v i e w w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l o n e , t h a t d e c l i n e s w i t h age a r e g r e a t e s t f o r s p r i n t s . H a r t l e y a n d H a r t l e y ( 1 9 8 6 ) a l s o h e l d a d i f f e r e n t v i e w f r o m t h a t o f S t o n e s and Kozma ( 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e y b e l i e v e d t h a t l o s s e s r e l a t e d t o age were due p r i m a r i l y t o r e d u c e d m u s c l e s t r e n g t h , and n o t t o r e d u c e d a v a i l a b l e power. T h e y c o m p a r e d t h e t o p 10 1976 a n d 1981 s p r i n t s wimming s p e e d s (4 d i f f e r e n t s t r o k e s ) a t t h e M a s t e r s ' l e v e l i n age c l a s s e s 25-29 t o 65-69 (men a n d women). T h e r e was no g e n e r a l c h a n g e i n s p e e d s . The 1976 s p e e d f o r e a c h age g r o u p was c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e 1981 s p e e d f o r a n age c l a s s 5 y e a r s o l d e r ( i . e . t h e 60-64 c l a s s i n 1976 was com p a r e d w i t h t h e c l a s s a g e d 65-69 i n 1 9 8 1 ) . T h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b y a g e . As h y p o t h e s i z e d , s p e e d s f o r t h e s t r o k e c a l c u l a t e d t o have t h e h e a v i e s t l o a d ( b u t t e r f l y ) showed t h e l a r g e s t c h a n g e w i t h a g e , and were l a r g e r f o r women t h a n men. The s t r o k e c a l c u l a t e d t o make t h e h e a v i e s t power demand ( b r e a s t s t r o k e ) showed t h e s m a l l e s t s p e e d d i f f e r e n c e s . T h i s was i n t e r p r e t e d a s s h o w i n g t h a t d e c r e a s e I n s p r i n t s w imming s p e e d w i t h age c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o r e d u c e d m u s c l e s t r e n g t h , n o t t o r e d u c e d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f power. D i m i n u t i o n o f M u s c l e B u l k M u s c l e mass o r b u l k I s known t o d e c r e a s e d u r i n g a g e i n g ( G r i m b y , A n i a n s s o n , Z e t t e r b e r g , & S a l t i n , 1984; L a r s s o n , G r i m b y , & K a r l s s o n , 1 9 7 9 ) . R e d u c t i o n i n b u l k w i t h age h a s bee n r e l a t e d t o r e d u c t i o n i n m u s c l e s t r e n g t h ( A n i a n s s o n , 1 9 8 0 ) , a n d power ( S t o n e s & Kozma, 1 9 8 5 ) . A n i a n s s o n ( 1 9 8 0 ) i n v e s t i g a t e d m a x i m a l s t r e n g t h a n d b o d y mass i n a g r o u p o f 52 men ( a g e d 66-76) a n d 13 women ( a g e d 6 7 - 7 1 ) . S t r e n g t h a n d b o d y c e l l mass ( c a l c u l a t e d f r o m w h o l e b o d y p o t a s s i u m c o u n t ) c o r r e l a t e d .45 i n men and .63 i n women ( p < .05 i n b o t h ) . A n i a n s s o n , H e d b e r g , H e n n i n g , a n d G r i m b y ( 1 9 8 6 ) i n a f o l l o w - u p t o a n e a r l i e r s t u d y ( A n i a n s s o n e t a l . ( 1 9 8 1 ) , r e - m e a s u r e d 23 men a g e d f r o m 73 t o 83 a f t e r s e v e n y e a r s . Of t h e o r i g i n a l 49 men, e i g h t h a d d i e d , f i v e were m e d i c a l l y u n f i t , a n d t w e l v e were n o t i n t e r e s t e d . B ody w e i g h t had d e c l i n e d 2% and q u a d r i c e p s m u s c l e s i z e b y 1 0 - 2 2 % ( v a r y i n g w i t h s u b j e c t ) , p < .05. However, i n a n o t h e r s t u d y ( M a c l e n n a n , H a l l , T i m o t h y , & R o b i n s o n , 1980) w i t h 158 men and 112 women a g e d 65 t o 74, f a t - f r e e mass d e c l i n e d o n l y m a r g i n a l l y with age, although g r i p s t r e n g t h d e c l i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Both Maclennan et a l . (1980) and Larsson et a l . (1979) suggested t h a t muscle atrophy was d i s g u i s e d by a in c r e a s e i n the amount of f a t and connective t i s s u e i n the muscle. Larsson et a l . (1979) s t u d i e d s t r e n g t h and j o i n t e x t e n s i o n v e l o c i t y i n 114 male s u b j e c t s aged 11 to 70. Men aged 20 - 30 were compared with men over 65. The maximum ex t e n s i o n v e l o c i t y (unloaded) of the knee extensors d e c l i n e d i n the ol d e r group by 7%, and s t r e n g t h by 25%. Power was not measured. The s t r e n g t h d e c l i n e was not accompanied by any measurable change In t h i g h c i r c u m f e r e n c e . I f t h i s i s so, f a t -f r e e mass may be a l e s s a c c u r a t e measure of change i n muscle bulk i n o l d e r people than has been b e l i e v e d . E f f e c t on Data of D e l i m i t a t i o n through Screening The maximum s t r e n g t h of o l d e r women has been shown to d e c l i n e by 16% to 23% i n age groups 60-70 and 71-80 r e s p e c t i v e l y (Canada F i t n e s s Survey, 1983; Clement, 1974; Montoye & Lamphiear, 1977). In many l a r g e s t u d i e s s c r e e n i n g of s u b j e c t s happens. I t may be unavoidable, but l i m i t s t h e i r g e n e r a l i z a b l l i t y . The Canada F i t n e s s Survey i s such study and must be i n t e r p r e t e d as being d e l i m i t e d to a p o p u l a t i o n of people h e a l t h i e r than the p o p u l a t i o n as a whole. I t i s , however, our only source of i n f o r m a t i o n on the d e c l i n e of s t r e n g t h with ageing i n the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n . The Tecumseh Community Health Study 1962-1965 i n c l u d e d s t r e n g t h measurements of 3,345 females. Mean g r i p s t r e n g t h i n women was a t a maximum of 52.2 kg i n the age group 20-29 (N = 192), and dim i n i s h e d to 44 kg i n the age group 50-59 (N = 88), 19 a l o s s of 16%. However, 29% of the p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s (males and females) were screened out f o r medical or other reasons (Montoye & Lamphlear, 1977). Clement's (1974) c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l data from a l a r g e group of h e a l t h y females aged from 16 to over 96 showed t h a t the g r i p s t r e n g t h of women dim i n i s h e d from a mean of 30.3 kp i n age group 31-35 (N = 20) to 21.3 kp i n age group 71-75 (N = 77), and f u r t h e r to 15.6 kp i n age group 81-85 (N = 47), d i f f e r e n c e s of 23% and 48% r e s p e c t i v e l y . "Not l e s s than 70% p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n each age group" (p.424) was obtained; the s u b j e c t s t e s t e d are l i k e l y to have been the h e a l t h i e r ones. The r e s u l t s of the Canada F i t n e s s Survey (1983) showed s t r e n g t h l e v e l s f o r g i r l s peaking i n the l a t e teens, and then d e c l i n i n g with age. Mean g r i p s t r e n g t h f e l l from 62 kg i n the age group 20-29 (W = 1562) to 52 kg In age group 60-69 (W = 201), a l o s s of 16%, comparable t o t h a t found i n the Tecumseh Community Health Study. Muscular endurance and power were a l s o t e s t e d , u s i n g s i t - u p s and push-ups. Performance on these t e s t s a l s o peaked i n the l a t e teens f o r women, with mean scores of 35 r e p e t i t i o n s f o r s i t - u p s and 21 f o r push-ups, then d e c l i n e d " s t e a d i l y and r a t h e r completely" to scores of 5 s i t - u p s and 6 push-ups i n age group 60-69 (Canada F i t n e s s Survey, 1983, p.25). However, the s u b j e c t s i n t h i s survey were a l s o screened, and a ve r y l a r g e percentage i n the old e r age groups were not t e s t e d on any of the performance items - about 55% of the age group 60-69, f o r example. As a r e s u l t , t h i s study was narrowly d e l i m i t e d to a p o p u l a t i o n e n j o y i n g good h e a l t h . Another type of s c r e e n i n g occurs when vo l u n t e e r p o p u l a t i o n s are sampled. Vo l u n t e e r s tend to be more s o c i a b l e and i n t e l l i g e n t , b e t t e r educated, and of higher s o c i o -economic s t a t u s than non-volunteers (Borg & G a l l , 1979). f However, the l a r g e study by Clement (1974) r e v e a l e d no c o r r e l a t i o n between s t r e n g t h and i n t e l l i g e n c e , i n t e l l e c t u a l performance, p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y l e v e l , or o c c u p a t i o n . Perhaps s t r e n g t h i s more g e n e r a l i z a b l e from v o l u n t e e r p o p u l a t i o n s than some other v a r i a b l e s . Important p o i n t s f o r the present s t u d y were: - women lo s e about 20% of s t r e n g t h by age 65. - they a l s o l o s e up to 60% of muscular power. - power l o s s begins e a r l i e r than s t r e n g t h l o s s . - muscle bulk i s a l s o l o s t , but how much i s l e s s c l e a r . - the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n of s t r e n g t h and power to decrements In performance i s not c l e a r . - s c r e e n i n g and use of v o l u n t e e r s means performance decrements may be underestimated i n many s t u d i e s . - s t r e n g t h may be more g e n e r a l i z a b l e than other v a r i a b l e s C r o s s - s e c t i o n a l Versus L o n g i t u d i n a l S t u d i e s Smaller l o s s e s In c r o s s - s e c t l o n a l s t u d i e s ? I t i s reasonable to expect c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d i e s to show s m a l l e r s t r e n g t h l o s s e s than l o n g i t u d i n a l ones. In c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d i e s , the o l d e r s u b j e c t s t e s t e d are s u r v i v o r s and tend a l s o to be the vigorous ones. The younger group can be expected to i n c l u d e a higher p r o p o r t i o n of weaker members and to be r e l a t i v e l y weaker. In l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s , the same s u b j e c t s are t e s t e d a t d i f f e r e n t ages, so t h a t whether the i n d i v i d u a l s are s t r o n g or weak, the composition o£ the group i s constant. As Damon (1965) p o i n t s out, c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d i e s d e s c r i b e age d i f f e r e n c e s between groups which cannot be assumed to correspond with age changes in individuals. S t u d i e s by Clement (1974), Asmussen (1975), Bruce (1984), and Dehn and Bruce (1972) support the view t h a t c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e s m a l l e r s t r e n g t h l o s s e s . Clement's (1974) study of changes i n s t r e n g t h with i n c r e a s i n g age compared c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l and l o n g i t u d i n a l methods. He t e s t e d g r i p s t r e n g t h i n h e a l t h y s u b j e c t s , 1139 male and 716 female, aged from 16 to over 96. For the l o n g i t u d i n a l study, some s u b j e c t s were r e t e s t e d a f t e r 5 years (369 men and 162 women), some of these a f t e r 10 years (109 men and 55 women), and "a few" a f t e r 15 ye a r s . From these measures, he c a l c u l a t e d t h e o r e t i c a l values f o r changes i n st r e n g t h by age group from 25 to 90 yea r s , and s t a t e d t h a t "the true d e c l i n e i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r than t h a t expected on the b a s i s of the c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l study" (p.427). Asmussen's (1975) follow-up study of 25 former a t h l e t e s (19 men and 6 women) showed l a r g e l o s s e s i n g r i p s t r e n g t h a f t e r 40 ye a r s . In the women, 36.6% of former s t r e n g t h had been l o s t ; approximately 20% commonly decrease i s commonly rep o r t e d i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d i e s (Vandervoort et a l . , 1986). Comparison with t e s t i n g 10 years e a r l i e r ( a f t e r 30 years) showed that most of the l o s s i n a l l s u b j e c t s occurred a f t e r the age of f i f t y . Bruce (1984) he l d a s i m i l a r view of the d i f f e r e n c e between c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l and l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s . He s t a t e d t h a t the d e c l i n e i n V02max d u r i n g ageing i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y 22 lower i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d i e s than i n l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s . Dehn and Bruce (1972) r e p o r t e d t h a t 40 men i n the age group 40-72, r e t e s t e d a f t e r 2.3 years, showed a change i n V02max of -.94 ml/kg/min a year when measured l o n g i t u d i n a l l y . A c o n t r o l group, c o n s i s t i n g of men of v a r y i n g ages a l l t e s t e d at the same time, showed a change of -.28 ml/kg/min a year of age. Since a e r o b i c metabolism i s p r o p o r t i o n a l to muscle mass (Mathews & Fox, 1976, p.458), the f i n d i n g s of these s t u d i e s support those of Clement (1974). However, as Sidney and Shephard (1978) p o i n t out, such decrements c o u l d not be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a l i f e t i m e of annual l o s s e s , but would be s p e c i f i c to the age group i n v o l v e d . Greater l o s s e s i n c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d i e s ? Contrary views to the preceding are expressed by Damon (1965) and by Stones and Kozma (1982). Damon (1965) reviewed d i s c r e p a n c i e s between l o n g i t u d i n a l and c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d i e s ; a t l e a s t 15 l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s were i n progress a t the time, i n c l u d i n g the Framingham Heart Study of the U.S. P u b l i c Health S e r v i c e , the Tecumseh Community Study of the U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan, and the Thousand A v i a t o r Study of the U.S. School of A v i a t i o n Medicine. He found t h a t a l l c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d i e s show decreases with age i n h e i g h t , g r i p s t r e n g t h , and v i t a l c a p a c i t y . For h e i g h t , he showed t h a t the l o s s c o u l d at l e a s t p a r t l y be accounted f o r by the g e n e r a l long-term height i n c r e a s e , which r e s u l t e d i n young men being on average t a l l e r than o l d men. Another p o s s i b i l i t y was t h a t s h o r t e r people l i v e longer, so t h a t o l d e r people would n a t u r a l l y be s h o r t e r . He f u r t h e r suggested that the c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l d e c l i n e s i n g r i p s t r e n g t h and v i t a l c a p a c i t y might themselves be r e l a t e d to long-term changes i n p o p u l a t i o n height r a t h e r than to age per se. C o e f f i c i e n t s o£ c o r r e l a t i o n between g r i p s t r e n g t h and height i n o l d e r men ranged from .36 to .46, and between height and v i t a l c a p a c i t y from .56 to .78. I t f o l l o w s t h a t o l d e r men, because they are s h o r t e r than young ones, would have lower g r i p s t r e n g t h and v i t a l c a p a c i t y , u n r e l a t e d to age. In the study by Dehn and Bruce (1972) r e f e r r e d to above, the s u b j e c t s were aged 40 to 72. One cause suggested fo r the s m a l l e r decrease i n v i t a l c a p a c i t y i n the c r o s s -s e c t i o n a l study was " u n c o n t r o l l e d p o p u l a t i o n t r u n c a t i o n " (p.805). However, i f the s u r v i v o r s were shorter, the apparent l o s s of v i t a l c a p a c i t y should have been l a r g e r (using Damon's (1965) argument). I t seems these authors may be using the same e x p l a n a t i o n f o r c o n t r a d i c t o r y r e s u l t s . Damon and Sheldon, i n unpublished data (quoted by Damon, 1965), recorded r e s u l t s of r e - s t u d y i n g 187 Columbia C o l l e g e men (aged 56) who had been s t u d i e d a t age 18-19. Only 27 showed height l o s s . The mean d i f f e r e n c e i n g r i p s t r e n g t h was 2.8 kg, and i n v i t a l c a p a c i t y was 169 cc, both higher a t the o l d e r age. Damon acknowledged t h a t h e i g h t , g r i p s t r e n g t h and v i t a l c a p a c i t y might have in c r e a s e d a f t e r age 18-19. Even t a k i n g t h i s i n t o account, he c o n s i d e r e d t h a t c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d i e s would p r e d i c t decrements by age 56, not the i n c r e a s e s ( i n g r i p s t r e n g t h and v i t a l c a p a c i t y ) found i n t h i s study. Perhaps the decreases do not show u n t i l a f t e r that age. Stones and Kozma (1982), i n a study a n a l y s i n g performance data f o r a t h l e t e s a t the Masters age l e v e l , i n c l u d e d a comparison between c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l and l o n g i t u d i n a l data f o r long jump, which i s In p a r t a measure of s t r e n g t h and power. Over a 5-year p e r i o d , s u b j e c t s i n age groups 40-49, 50-59, and 60+ were compared. The c r o s s -s e c t i o n a l d e c l i n e (expressed as a y e a r l y percentage performance change) was approximately twice as steep as the l o n g i t u d i n a l d e c l i n e . The authors i n t e r p r e t t h i s to i n d i c a t e t h a t trends from c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l data r e f l e c t a c o n t r i b u t i o n due to d i f f e r e n c e s i n l i f e experiences approximately equal to t h a t from age changes. However, the study l a s t e d o n l y 5 years, and the s u b j e c t s were a t h l e t e s i n t r a i n i n g , some of whom cou l d be expected to improve t h e i r performance. The best i n d i v i d u a l performances per event per year d i d i n f a c t improve i n the two o l d e r age groups. Evidence i s c o n f l i c t i n g . O bviously, r e s e a r c h e r s d i s a g r e e about the d i f f e r e n c e s between the r e s u l t s of c r o s s -s e c t i o n a l and l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s . C r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d i e s are s a i d to show changes which r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s between ol d and young i n education, l i f e e x perience, m o t i v a t i o n , e x p e c t a t i o n s , and f a m i l i a r i t y with t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n s r a t h e r than i n age (McPherson, 1983). Older people are thought to do l e s s than t h e i r best d u r i n g t e s t i n g , so t h a t t h e i r t r u e d e c l i n e would be smaller than many s t u d i e s show; the work of Damon (1965) and Stones and Kozma (1982) supports t h i s view. I t seems from the l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s of Clement (1974) t h a t i n the case of s t r e n g t h t h i s i s not so, and t h a t the t r u e d e c l i n e with age may be g r e a t e r (and the s i t u a t i o n of o l d e r people even worse), than i s suggested by c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d i e s . However, the evidence i s c o n f l i c t i n g , and i t i s not p o s s i b l e to come to a c o n c l u s i o n . Arenberg (1982) has o f f e r e d suggestions f o r a v o i d i n g b i a s from a t t r i t i o n i n planni n g s t u d i e s . Important points for the present study were: - l o n g i t u d i n a l and c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d i e s y i e l d d i f f e r i n g r e s u l t s . - d i f f e r e n c e s r e l a t e d to age and to long-term changes i n p o p u l a t i o n s may be confounded. Measurement of Strength and Power Strength and power are i n t e r - r e l a t e d i n a complex manner. Both d e c l i n e with age (Grimby et a l . , 1984; Larsson, 1982a), e s p e c i a l l y i n women. The v a r i a n c e from the mean remains about the same i n ab s o l u t e terms d u r i n g ageing; t h i s i m p l i e s g r e a t e r h e t e r o g e n e i t y i n o l d e r p o p u l a t i o n s (Clement, 1974). In measuring such a p o p u l a t i o n , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t the measure should be s u i t a b l e f o r and ac c e p t a b l e to the whole group, otherwise the sample w i l l become l e s s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . "This Is p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e l y to happen when a . . . t e s t i s used with a group of o l d people. I t would probably exclude j u s t those i n d i v i d u a l s . . . of most i n t e r e s t i n t h i s study, e i t h e r because the t e s t would be p r e j u d i c i a l to t h e i r h e a l t h or because they would f e e l d i s i n c l i n e d to do i t " (Bassey, 1978, p.69). The measures i n the present study needed to be s a f e , simple, and ( f o r the convenience of the s u b j e c t s ) a p p r o p r i a t e to do i n s t r e e t c l o t h e s . General aspects of measurement are d i s c u s s e d below. Strength Measurement A d i f f i c u l t y In r e s e a r c h i n v o l v i n g measurement o£ s t r e n g t h i s the complexity of the concept. The Concise Oxford d i c t i o n a r y g i v e s 6 d e f i n i t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g "toughness", " d u r a b i l i t y " , and " i n t e n s i t y , as of sound". In common usage we have expressions such as "strong-minded". So even i n popular use, s t r e n g t h i s seen as p o s s e s s i n g s e v e r a l a t t r i b u t e s , i n c l u d i n g immaterial ones. Reviews by Heyward (1983) and Macintosh (1974) provided background f o r the present study and i l l u s t r a t e the complexity mentioned above. Heyward (1983) reviewed muscle t e s t i n g f o r p l a n n i n g and implementing s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g programmes. Macintosh (1974) reviewed r e s e a r c h d e a l i n g with the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l nature of s t r e n g t h and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s t r e n g t h measurement, and d i s c u s s e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between f o r c e and the v e l o c i t y of movement. Strength, endurance, and power were d e s c r i b e d as the three components of muscular f i t n e s s . Another view of s t r e n g t h d e s c r i b e d three s i m i l a r components: e x p l o s i v e (as i n jumping or throwing), dynamic (as i n l i f t i n g up or p u l l i n g the body weight), and s t a t i c or i s o m e t r i c s t r e n g t h (Fleishman, 1964). Other i n v e s t i g a t o r s have a l s o c o n s i d e r e d s t r e n g t h to be m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l . D i f f e r e n t numbers of f a c t o r s have been repor t e d by r e s e a r c h e r s u s i n g f a c t o r a n a l y s i s ; e.g., 11 ( L i b a , 1967) and 7 (Jackson, 1971). More recent s t u d i e s (Linden, 1977; Jackson & F r a n k i e w i c z , 1975) d e s c r i b e d fewer and more gen e r a l f a c t o r s . Nicks and Fleishman (1962) reviewed f a c t o r a n a l y s i s s t u d i e s and considered i t "not worth w h i l e " (p.82) to look f o r f a c t o r s of s t a t i c s t r e n g t h . I n t e r e s t In f a c t o r i a l a n a l y s i s has not continued i n recent y e a r s . Power Measurement Power i s the r a t e of doing work, or the product of f o r c e and v e l o c i t y ; accurate measurement of power i s considered d i f f i c u l t (Heyward, 1983). The d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d are d i s c u s s e d i n the l a t e r s e c t i o n on Issues i n Measurement of Power (p.32-33). The r e l a t i o n s h i p of movement speed to muscle s t r e n g t h and power (the f o r c e - v e l o c i t y curve) was d e s c r i b e d and d i s c u s s e d by Sale and Norman (1982). In c o n c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s , f o r c e decreases as v e l o c i t y i n c r e a s e s ; power i s g r e a t e s t when v e l o c i t y Is l e s s than 50% of maximum. Thus, s t r e n g t h and v e l o c i t y are p o o r l y c o r r e l a t e d ; Smith (1969) rep o r t e d n e g l i g i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n s (-.06 to -.14 a t d i f f e r e n t j o i n t angles) i n unloaded forearm f l e x i o n . C o r r e l a t i o n becomes s i g n i f i c a n t when the limb i s moving a s u b s t a n t i a l mass (E c k e r t , 1965; Macintosh, 1974). Whitley and Smith (1963) s t u d i e d f o r c e and v e l o c i t y i n adductive movement of the arm. They found t h a t the a d d i t i o n of weight to the limb r e s u l t e d i n i n c r e a s i n g c o r r e l a t i o n between i s o m e t r i c s t r e n g t h and v e l o c i t y - s t r o n g e r s u b j e c t s c o u l d move the heavier weight more q u i c k l y than weaker s u b j e c t s . The weight of the arm plus load was i n c r e a s e d from 1.999 kg to 11.37 kg; the c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n between s t r e n g t h and v o l o c i t y increased from .37 to .73. When the combined weight of the arm and load became so great t h a t i t c o u l d not be moved, any c o n t r a c t i o n would be s t a t i c . To demonstrate a c o r r e l a t i o n between s t r e n g t h and power, the load had to be heavy enough for power to be developed, but not so heavy as to slow the movement down. Ecke r t (1965) co n s i d e r e d t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l had a f i x e d amount of energy, which she c a l l e d force-energy, a v a i l a b l e f o r a s i n g l e muscle c o n t r a c t i o n ; maximal f o r c e -energy could o n l y be exerted when o p p o r t u n i t y was provided by the load or range of motion or both. In the present study range of motion was f i x e d . Thus, the s e l e c t i o n of an a p p r o p r i a t e load to a l l o w each i n d i v i d u a l to e x e r t maximum force-energy was very important, and i s d i s c u s s e d i n the Methods s e c t i o n . Important points for the present study were: - s t r e n g t h , power, and muscle bulk are i n t e r - r e l a t e d . - v e l o c i t y c o r r e l a t e s low with s t r e n g t h but high with power. - a p p r o p r i a t e measures f o r s t r e n g t h and power are c r i t i c a l . Issues i n Measurement of S t r e n g t h and Power The i d e a l movement f o r measuring s t r e n g t h and power would be s i m i l a r to the one used i n t r a i n i n g and to the movement f o r which in c r e a s e d s t r e n g t h i s d e s i r e d (Pipes, 1978; Sale & MacDougall, 1981). S i m i l a r i t y i s a l s o d e s i r a b l e i n v e l o c i t y ( M o f f r o i d & Whipple, 1970), and i n c o n t r a c t i o n type ( e c c e n t r i c , c o n c e n t r i c , i s o m e t r i c , isodynamic, or i s o k i n e t i c ) ; the human muscle adapts c o n t r a c t i l e p r o p e r t i e s d i f f e r e n t l y a c c o r d i n g to the type of t r a i n i n g (Duchateau & Hainut, 1984). In p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the present study, t e s t methods and c r i t e r i a were reviewed so t h a t the measures which best met the requirements noted above co u l d be s e l e c t e d . 29 Issues i n Measurement of Strength General. Strength has long been of i n t e r e s t to p h y s i c a l educators, t h e r a p i s t s , and o t h e r s : as a component of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , as a means of i d e n t i f y i n g the need f o r and r e s u l t s of remedial treatment or r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and as a f a c t o r i n the measurement of f u n c t i o n a l age (Shock, 1981). In consequence, many methods of measurement have been developed, i n c l u d i n g t e s t b a t t e r i e s , i s o m e t r i c methods ( i n c l u d i n g g r i p s t r e n g t h ) , i s o k i n e t i c methods, and dynamic methods. Test b a t t e r i e s . Most e a r l y work was concerned with male students i n s c h o o l or c o l l e g e ; b a t t e r i e s of t e s t s were devised ( C l a r k e , 1945; Cureton, 1947; McCloy, 1938; Rogers, 1926; Sargent, 1897). The measures used i n these b a t t e r i e s i n c l u d e d one l i f t of the maximum weight p o s s i b l e or R e p e t i t i o n Maximum (1RM), g r i p s t r e n g t h , and p u l l u p s and pushups as t e s t s of s t r e n g t h endurance (the maximum number performed to exhaustion) or power (the number completed i n a f i x e d t i m e ) . In 1897, Sargent p u b l i s h e d h i s I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e Strength Test, d e r i v e d from s t r e n g t h measures of handgrip, back, and l e g s , together with p u l l u p s and pushups. Rogers (1926) used the same t e s t items as Sargent, combined them f o r h i s Strength Index, and p u b l i s h e d norms f o r i t s use. He r e p o r t e d i t to be h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d (r = .70) with h i s A t h l e t i c Index, a performance measure. A l l measures showed high i n t e r -c o r r e l a t i o n s , from r = .81 ( g r i p s t r e n g t h with back stre n g t h ) to r = .59 (arm s t r e n g t h with l e g s t r e n g t h ) . He thought s t r e n g t h t e s t s should minimize s k i l l and emphasize s t r e n g t h per se, and d i d not d i s c u s s the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t r e n g t h might r e s u l t i n p a r t from l e a r n i n g or experience. McCloy (1938) proposed changes i n the items i n Rogers' Strength Index, and noted the lack of data f o r females. Clarke (1945, 1950) modified Rogers' Index, and d e v i s e d a l t e r n a t i v e s to r e g u l a r pushups and p u l l u p s f o r g i r l s . Cureton (1947) reduced the b a t t e r y of t e s t s to four dynamometer t e s t s ( r i g h t and l e f t g r i p s , back and leg) to give the T o t a l P r o p o r t i o n a l Strength Index. I t c o r r e l a t e d h i g h l y (r = .77) with s t r e n g t h per pound of body weight (measured by an u n s p e c i f i e d method), but lower with measures of motor performance (r = .4 to .5). The t e s t items were i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d (r = .90). He commented on the e d u c a b i l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l s i n r e l a t i o n to s t r e n g t h t e s t s , d i f f e r i n g from Rogers (1926) on t h i s p o i n t . Modern o v e r a l l s t r e n g t h measurement p r o t o c o l s show the i n f l u e n c e of these e a r l i e r s t u d i e s . The Canada F i t n e s s Survey (1983), f o r i n s t a n c e , used g r i p s t r e n g t h (the item which c o r r e l a t e d most h i g h l y with Rogers* (1926) A t h l e t i c Index), as a measure of o v e r a l l s t r e n g t h , and pushups (together with s i t u p s ) as a measure of s t r e n g t h endurance. Heyward (1983) d e s c r i b e s t e s t s of s t a t i c s t r e n g t h corresponding e x a c t l y with those of Cureton (1947), and g i v e s very s i m i l a r norms. Isometric methods: MVC. Isometric t e s t i n g and t r a i n i n g became popular a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of H e t t i n g e r ' s work on s t r e n g t h p h y s i o l o g y (1961). An i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n measures the f o r c e or torque developed by a muscle group working a g a i n s t a f i x e d r e s i s t a n c e without change i n muscle l e n g t h . I t i s the measure p r e f e r r e d by many educators (e.g., Sale & Norman, 1982) and r e s e a r c h e r s (e.g., Kroemer, 1970). I t i s r e l i a b l e and r e l a t i v e l y easy to s t a n d a r d i z e . Heyward (1983) d e s c r i b e d measurement of i s o m e t r i c (or s t a t i c ) s t r e n g t h , u s i n g dynamometer, cable tensiometer, or the Cybex II machine. Though g r i p s t r e n g t h measurement i n v o l v e s movement, i t i s r e a l l y a s p e c i a l type of i s o m e t r i c measurement, taken at maximum s t a t i c c o n t r a c t i o n . R e s u l t s of measurement i n which muscle le n g t h and j o i n t angle remain the same ( i s o m e t r i c ) d i f f e r fundamentally from those i n which muscle l e n g t h and j o i n t angle change, e.g., using f r e e weights (Inman & R a l s t o n , 1954; Rutherford & Jones, 1986). This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of changes i n s t r e n g t h with age or t r a i n i n g . I measurement i s to be i s o m e t r i c , t r a i n i n g should a l s o be isometr i c . However, i s o m e t r i c methods are not considered s u i t a b l e f o r t e s t i n g or t r a i n i n g o l d e r people. Sustained muscular c o n t r a c t i o n s can r e s u l t i n l a r g e i n c r e a s e s i n blood pressure not found d u r i n g rhythmic e x e r c i s e (Lind & MacNicol, 1967). Piscopo (1979) recommended a g a i n s t very s t r o n g muscle c o n t r a c t i o n s i n e x e r c i s e s f o r o l d e r people as tending to impede c i r c u l a t i o n as w e l l as i n c r e a s e blood p r e s s u r e . I s o k i n e t i c method. The Cybex II i s o k i n e t i c dynamometer and other machines such as the Mini-Gym and Kin-corn ( A r i e l , 1985) measure torque at constant speed with angular v e l o c i t i e s t h a t can be v a r i e d (from 0° to 300°/sec i n Cybex) These machines can be used fo r measures i n c l u d i n g i s o m e t r i c o s t r e n g t h (at 0 / s e c ) , i s o k i n e t i c s t r e n g t h , and i s o k i n e t i c endurance (Heyward, 1983). At lower v e l o c i t i e s , approaching 32 no movement at a l l , an i s o k i n e t i c movement becomes l i k e an i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n . The Cybex dynamometer i s c o n s i d e r e d accurate and r e l i a b l e . I t i s r e l a t i v e l y easy to s t a n d a r d i z e p o s i t i o n i n g , load, and angular v e l o c i t y , and there i s no need to "hunt" f o r a maximum load (Heyward, 1983; Sale & Norman (1982). On the other hand, i s o m e t r i c and i s o k i n e t i c movements are not l i k e movements used i n everyday l i f e or i n weight t r a i n i n g . Dynamic methods: RM. Dynamic (or i s o t o n i c ) s t r e n g t h i s commonly measured as the maximum weight that can be l i f t e d once only, or at 1RM ( r e p e t i t i o n maximum). Th i s measure i s r e l a t i v e l y d i f f i c u l t to s t a n d a r d i z e , e s p e c i a l l y with u n t r a i n e d s u b j e c t s ; i n a d d i t i o n , i t i s necessary to "hunt" fo r maximum l o a d . Berger and Hardage (1967) found four or f i v e t r i a l s were needed to determine 1RM f o r c o l l e g e students f a m i l i a r with the l i f t used. Rose and Beatty (1957) found "more than three or four l i f t s were seldom necessary" to e s t a b l i s h the maximum value (p.157). L i k e i s o m e t r i c methods, 1RM i s not considered s u i t a b l e f o r o l d e r people. A l a r g e r number of r e p e t i t i o n s , o f t e n 6, a t a lower load, u s u a l l y a percentage of 1RM, i s a l s o o f t e n used. I t i s necessary to determine 1RM f i r s t (Sale & Norman, 1982), followed by measurement of 6RM. The l a r g e number of r e p e t i t i o n s may cause f a t i g u e f o r the s u b j e c t . In some s t u d i e s i t i s not c l e a r how the weight a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a s e r i e s of r e p e t i t i o n s was a r r i v e d a t . P e r k i n s and K a i s e r (1961) f o r i n s t a n c e , simply s t a t e d t h a t 10RM was "the maximum r e s i s t a n c e a s u b j e c t c o u l d move through a f u l l range of motion ten times" (p.633). O'Shea (1966) s a i d h i s s u b j e c t s "handled maximum weight loads f o r the number of r e p e t i t i o n s they were r e q u i r e d to perform" (p.97). Neither author gave a d d i t i o n a l d e t a i l s . Dynamic methods can r e a d i l y be r e l a t e d to a c t i v i t i e s of d a i l y l i v i n g . Issues i n Measurement of Power General. Power i s a f u n c t i o n of f o r c e and speed, but no method f o r the d i r e c t measurement of speed d u r i n g a f r e e movement was r e p o r t e d . I n d i r e c t measures of power i n c l u d e v a r i o u s types of performance t e s t s , i s o k i n e t i c t e s t s , and weight l i f t i n g . Sale and Norman (1982) suggested an apparatus instrumented to measure power d i r e c t l y d u r i n g weight l i f t i n g . The comments on choice of movement f o r s t r e n g t h and power t e s t s on p.24-25 above are p e r t i n e n t here. Performance t e s t s . O p e r a t i o n a l t e s t s , such as timed s l t u p s f o r abdominal muscle power (Canada. F i t n e s s Survey, 1983), l e n g t h of throw as i n the s i t t i n g shot put, hei g h t of v e r t i c a l jump (Heyward, 1983) or jump f o r c e measured by a for c e p l a t f o r m (Bosco & Komi, 1980), d i s t a n c e of st a n d i n g broad jumps (Stones & Kozma, 1982), and timed s p r i n t s (Stones & Kozma, 1985) have been used. T h e i r v a l i d i t y has not been e s t a b l i s h e d (Considlne, 1971), nor are they a p p r o p r i a t e f o r ol d e r women. I s o k i n e t i c methods. I s o k i n e t i c d e v i c e s , such as Cybex, a l l o w measurement of power ( u s u a l l y as torque) a t constant p r e s e t v e l o c i t y , and provide r e s i s t a n c e which i n c r e a s e s as the a p p l i e d muscle f o r c e i n c r e a s e s . Larsson et a l . (1979) used t h i s method to study movement speed and s t r e n g t h (of knee extensors) with a group of males (aged 11 - 70+). V e l o c i t i e s s t u d i e d were 30°, 60°, 120° and 180 /sec. Torque d e c l i n e d with age, and was g r e a t e r a t the lower v e l o c i t i e s i n a l l age groups. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to r e c o n c i l e the use of an i s o k i n e t i c movement, c o n t r o l l e d a t a constant v e l o c i t y , with the need f o r s p e c i f i c i t y of t r a i n i n g and t e s t i n g method. Weight l i f t i n g . To o b t a i n a c c u r a t e measures of power developed d u r i n g l i f t i n g , i t i s necessary to measure not o n l y the f o r c e developed but a l s o the v e l o c i t y of movement (Sale & Norman, 1982). There are d i f f i c u l t i e s i n o b t a i n i n g the v e l o c i t y measure. High speed cinematography c o u l d be used, but r e q u i r e s frame by frame a n a l y s i s to determine d i s t a n c e moved and speed of movement (Heyward, 1983). For the present study, a novel dynamometer was developed capable of d i r e c t measurment of angular v e l o c i t y and f o r c e . I t i s d e s c r i b e d f u l l y i n Appendix 2. Important points for the present study were: - measures should be r e l a t e d to n a t u r a l movement and to t r a i n i n g movement. - many measures are u n l i k e n a t u r a l movement. - some common measures are too strenuous f o r o l d e r people. - no s a t i s f a c t o r y e s t a b l i s h e d measure was a v a i l a b l e f o r power measurement. Measurement of Muscle Bulk Most r e s e a r c h e r s c o n s i d e r t h a t the c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l f a t -f r e e area of a limb i s a s a t i s f a c t o r y estimate of i t s muscle area (the major v a r i a b l e i n change i n muscle b u l k ) . Anthropometric methods are g e n e r a l l y used, f o r t h i s purpose (Ross & M a r f e l l - J o n e s , 1982). 35 A n t h r o p o m e t r i c M e t h o d s . M e a s u r e s o f s k i n f o l d s and g i r t h h a v e b e e n u s e d t o d e r i v e e s t i m a t e s o f t h e f a t - f r e e c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a r e a (FCA) o f a l i m b . The l i m b i s t r e a t e d a s i f i t were a c y l i n d e r a n d t h e g i r t h u s e d t o c a l c u l a t e t h e c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a r e a . S k i n f o l d m e a s u r e s a r e u s e d t o e s t i m a t e t h e a v e r a g e t h i c k n e s s o f f a t , a n d t h e a r e a i s c o r r e c t e d t o g i v e t h e f a t - f r e e a r e a . I t i n c l u d e s bone and c o n n e c t i v e t i s s u e a s w e l l a s m u s c l e . M o r i t a n i a n d de V r i e s ( 1 9 8 0) m e a s u r e d f i v e y o u n g men and f i v e o l d men, u s i n g f o u r s k i n f o l d m e a s u r e m e n t s o f t h e u p p e r arm a t 90o i n t e r v a l s ( t h e s p e c i f i c s i t e s were n o t i d e n t i f i e d , b u t a p p e a r t o be b i c e p s , t r i c e p s a nd two i n t e r m e d i a t e s i t e s ) . The a v e r a g e o f t h e f o u r was u s e d , t o g e t h e r w i t h a r m c i r c u m f e r e n c e , t o c a l c u l a t e t h e " c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a r e a o f m u s c l e " ( p . 6 7 5 ) by w h i c h t h e y must have meant f a t - f r e e c r o s s -s e c t i o n a l a r e a . T h e y d e s c r i b e d t h e method a s p o s s i b l y c r e a t i n g l a r g e e r r o r s , b u t u n l i k e l y t o do s o f o r c h a n g e s b r o u g h t a b o u t b y t r a i n i n g . FCA i s o f t e n e s t i m a t e d f r o m measurement o f a r m g i r t h a nd o n l y one s k i n f o l d m easurement ( t r i c e p s ) . T h i s method i s c o n s i d e r e d a d e q u a t e f o r c o m p a r a t i v e a s s e s s m e n t p u r p o s e s , and was u s e d by B u r r and P h i l l i p s ( 1 9 8 4 ) , B i s h o p , Bowen, a n d R i t c h e y (1981), a n d F r i s a n c h o ( 1 9 8 1 ) . B u r r and P h i l l i p s ( 1 9 8 4 ) m e a s u r e d o n l y arm c i r c u m f e r e n c e a n d t r i c e p s s k i n f o l d , i n 298 men and 516 women a g e d f r o m 65 t o o v e r 85, l i v i n g i n S o u t h W a l e s . Norms were d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e s e p o p u l a t i o n s . However, s i n c e t h e t r i c e p s s k i n f o l d i s u s u a l l y a t l e a s t t w i c e a s t h i c k a s i s t h e b i c e p s s k i n f o l d , l a r g e a b s o l u t e n e g a t i v e e r r o r s i n e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e m u s c l e area must r e s u l t . T h i s probably p a r t l y e x p l a i n s why, i n t h e i r study, the average FCA f o r men In the age group 65-69 was 2 Z o n l y 43.20 cm , much lower than the 64.45 cm r e p o r t e d by M o r i t a n i and de V r i e s (1980) f o r t h e i r f i v e o l d men s u b j e c t s ; and the average f o r women i n the age group 65-69 was 33.50 cm a l s o much lower than the 49.25 cm*found i n i t i a l l y f o r women i n the present study, whose average age was 62.3 y e a r s . Data from the U. S. Health and N u t r i t i o n a l Examination Survey, 1971-74 were analyzed by Bishop, Bowen, and R i t c h e y (1981) and by F r i s a n c h o (1981), using very l a r g e samples (28,043 and 19,047 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , i n order to develop norms f o r n u t r i t i o n a l assessment. They used measurements of circumference and t r i c e p s s k i n f o l d to c a l c u l a t e upper arm muscle c i r c u m f e r e n c e s . R e c a l c u l a t i o n shows muscle area f o r women i n age range 55-75 to be about 40 cm*" i n both these s t u d i e s . Chumlea, Roche, and Mukherjee (1986) found s i m i l a r measurements f o r a sample of 150 e l d e r l y women i n d i c a t e d an average FCA of about 44 cm2" a t ages 65 to 70. These s t u d i e s show t h a t d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n s , measured d i f f e r e n t l y , cannot p r o p e r l y be compared. The lower values i n the U.S. s t u d i e s may r e l a t e to exaggeration of subcutaneous f a t ( r e ducing the apparent FCA) because of the use of t r i c e p s s k i n f o l d only, and not n e c e s s a r i l y to the p o p u l a t i o n i n v o l v e d . Brozek and Kinzey (1960) i n v e s t i g a t e d changes i n s k i n f o l d c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y with ageing i n men. They measured s i t e s i n c l u d i n g t r i c e p s and found marked v a r i a b i l i t y and decreased c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y i n o l d e r ages (40-69). No data were 3 7 found f o r women, but i t seemed l i k e l y t h a t s k i n f o l d measures f o r women i n the present study would show the same tendency. Variances l i k e these would be d i s t u r b i n g i f group means were being compared, but f o r i n d i v i d u a l change over time with t r a i n i n g and provided t h a t the measurements are taken by the same experienced observer, the measures may be co n s i d e r e d " s e r v i c e a b l e " (Burr & P h i l l i p s , 1984, p.165). Other Methods of Measurement. Ultrasound techniques f o r measurement of subcutaneous f a t have been I n v e s t i g a t e d by a number of workers. Haymes, Lundegren, Loomis, and Buskirk (1976) compared u l t r a s o u n d and s k i n f o l d measures a t four s i t e s . At the t r i c e p s s i t e i n women, the measures c o r r e l a t e d .83 (N = 20). Borkan et a l . (1982) compared A-scan u l t r a s o u n d and s k i n f o l d measurements i n 39 men aged 41-76 f o r e s t i m a t i n g subcutaneous f a t and p r e d i c t i n g t o t a l body f a t . The p r e d i c t e d t o t a l body f a t was compared with the t o t a l measured by whole body potassium c o u n t i n g . T h e i r r e s u l t s suggested t h a t s k i n f o l d s were more e f f e c t i v e f o r a s s e s s i n g subcutaneous f a t than t h i s t echnique. B-mode scan techniques were i n v e s t i g a t e d by Weiss and C l a r k (1985) with c o l l e g e - a g e d men and women. For women, the p r e d i c t i o n s from f a t sonograms and t r i c e p s s k i n f o l d s c o r r e l a t e d .81, but a c r i t e r i o n measure (such as whole body potassium count) was not obta i n e d . Booth, Goddard, and Paton (1966) compared u l t r a s o u n d , anthropometry, and e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y . They concluded t h a t u l t r a s o u n d i n the hands of an experienced operator was the most a c c u r a t e , but "could not be recommended f o r o c c a s i o n a l e s t i m a t i o n " (p.724). Anthropometry was con s i d e r e d to be very s a t i s f a c t o r y , i f an experienced observer and a p p r o p r i a t e equlment were a v a i l a b l e (Burr & P h i l l i p s , 1984). Important p o i n t s f o r the present s t u d y were: - FCA estimated from a n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l measurement shows c o n s i d e r a b l e between s u b j e c t v a r i a b i l i t y . - f o r i n t r a - s u b j e c t comparison the method i s very s a t i s f a c t o r y when used by an experienced measurer. E f f e c t s of Strength T r a i n i n g T r a i n i n g , an organized e f f o r t to i n c r e a s e one or more measures of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , has been shown to improve muscular s t r e n g t h and working c a p a c i t y i n o l d e r people comparably with the young (Muravov, 1966; Piscopo, 1985). T r a i n i n g should be s p e c i f i c ; c a r d i o v a s c u l a r t r a i n i n g w i l l not r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e s i n s t r e n g t h (Shephard & Sidney, 1978). Books and a r t i c l e s with i n f o r m a t i o n about s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g f o r o l d e r women are beginning to appear i n popular l i t e r a t u r e . Some books about e x e r c i s e f i t n e s s i n c l u d e a s e c t i o n on weight t r a i n i n g f o r o l d e r people (e.g., Burke, 1980), and there are o c c a s i o n a l a r t i c l e s on the t o p i c i n magazines (e.g., Darden, 1983; Todd, 1984). A popular book about weight t r a i n i n g i n d i c a t e d no age l i m i t a t i o n s f o r t r a i n i n g f o r e i t h e r sex (Reynolds, 1982, p.9). However, s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g i n o l d e r people are few, though guidance should be provided f o r c l a s s l e a d e r s , p r a c t i t i o n e r s , and t h e r a p i s t s . T r a i n i n g and S t r e n g t h T r a i n i n g t o i n c r e a s e s t r e n g t h , b o t h r e m e d l a l l y a n d f o r f i t n e s s o r a t h l e t i c p e r f o r m a n c e , h a s b e e n e x t e n s i v e l y s t u d i e d . R e v i e w s b y A t h a ( 1 9 8 1 ) , C l a r k e ( 1 9 7 3 ) , a n d W e s t c o t t ( 1 9 8 2 ) p r o v i d e d g e n e r a l b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . V a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s o f w e i g h t a n d r e p e t i t i o n s have b e e n t r i e d . DeLorme (1945) m a i n t a i n e d t h e b e s t way t o b u i l d s t r e n g t h was t o use h e a v y w e i g h t and f e w r e p e t i t i o n s . Many p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n t h e f i e l d ( e . g . , A n d e r s o n & K e a r n e y , 1 982; B e r g e r & H a r d a g e 1967) have c o n f i r m e d D e l o r m e ' s f i n d i n g s , a l t h o u g h n o t w i t h o l d e r s u b j e c t s . T h i s p r i n c i p l e was u s e d i n s e l e c t i n g t h e t r a i n i n g method f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , s i n c e no p r e f e r r e d method f o r t r a i n i n g i n o l d e r p e o p l e h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d . I n s p i t e o f a g r e a t d e a l o f i n t e r e s t i n w e i g h t t r a i n i n g g e n e r a l l y , o n l y a f e w s t u d i e s have b e e n c o n c e r n e d w i t h o l d e r p e o p l e . Of t h e s e , v e r y f e w were w i t h women ( A n i a n n s o n e t a l . 1984; K a u f f m a n , 1 9 8 5 ) , a n d o n l y a f e w more w i t h men ( A n i a n s s o n , 1 980; D o b r e v , 1978; M o r i t a n i & de V r i e s 1 9 7 9 , 1 9 8 0 ) . D e s h i n ( 1 9 6 8 ) a nd P e r k i n s a n d K a i s e r ( 1 9 6 1 ) c o n d u c t e d s t u d i e s w i t h g r o u p s i n c l u d i n g b o t h men a n d women. No s t u d i e s u s i n g a c o n t r o l g r o u p w i t h o l d e r women were f o u n d . V a n d e r v o o r t e t a l . ( 1 9 8 6 ) r e v i e w e d s t u d i e s o f s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g i n o l d e r men and women, i n v o l v i n g m u s c l e a c t i o n a t d i f f e r e n t j o i n t s ( k n e e s , h i p s a n d f i n g e r s ) , a n d d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f t r a i n i n g ( i s o m e t r i c , c a l i s t h e n i c s , a n d w e i g h t l i f t i n g ) . I n women, i n c r e a s e s i n s t r e n g t h a f t e r t r a i n i n g o f f r o m 1 0 % t o 7 2 % were r e p o r t e d . F a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o these d i f f e r e n c e s i n c l u d e d i n i t i a l s t r e n g t h l e v e l , m o t i v a t i o n of s u b j e c t s , muscle groups Involved, d u r a t i o n of t r a i n i n g , t r a i n i n g method, and measurement method (most were i s o m e t r i c ) . Strength has been shown to c o r r e l a t e with body weight, and to some extent with h e i g h t . Johnson (1982) found c o r r e l a t i o n s between s t r e n g t h and both h e i g h t and weight i n a young group (20 - 29), but not i n an ol d e r group (50 - 80). Clement (1974) found c o r r e l a t i o n s but no age p a t t e r n . In women, c o r r e l a t i o n s of s t r e n g t h with weight ranged from .51 to .19 (average = .33), and with height from .64 to -.06 (average = .29). S i m i l a r averages were found by F i s h e r and B i r r e n (1947). Comparative s t u d i e s of s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g and age. Brown and H a r r i s o n (1986) i n v e s t i g a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s u l t s of 12 weeks weight t r a i n i n g i n young (aged 17-26) and middle-aged (aged 40-49) women. Th i s was the o n l y study found to use c o n t r o l s . In each age group, s u b j e c t s were randomly a s s i g n e d to experimental and c o n t r o l groups. Strength gains a f t e r t r a i n i n g were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r i n the experimental s u b j e c t s than i n the c o n t r o l s . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two age groups, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t response to s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g i s s i m i l a r i n middle-aged and young women. Age d i f f e r e n c e s are probably not s i g n i f i c a n t u n t i l a f t e r the age of 50. Kauffman (1985), i n one of only two s t u d i e s of t r a i n i n g i n o l d e r women, I n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t of i s o m e t r i c t r a i n i n g of the non-dominant abductor d i g i t i minimi muscles i n younger and o l d e r women. Ten student nurses (ages 20-26 years) and 10 o l d e r women (ages 65 to 73 years) t r a i n e d the muscle with i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s three times a week f o r s i x weeks. D i f f e r e n c e s between the i s o m e t r i c s t r e n g t h of the two groups before and a f t e r t r a i n i n g were i n s i g n i f i c a n t . The younger group was 2.9% s t r o n g e r than the o l d e r group before t r a i n i n g , and 14% s t r o n g e r a f t e r t r a i n i n g ; these s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s were not c o n s i d e r e d compatible with the age-dependent s t r e n g t h l o s s r e p o r t e d by others (Burke et a l . , 1953; Clement, 1974). S u r p r i s i n g l y , both groups showed s i g n i f i c a n t s t r e n g t h i n c r e a s e s with t r a i n i n g (p < .001); the a b s o l u t e s t r e n g t h i n c r e a s e f o r the o l d e r group was 74.1% of t h a t of the younger group. Suggested reasons f o r these r e s u l t s i n c l u d e d a t r a i n i n g s t i m u l u s high compared to those i n most other s t u d i e s , the c o - o p e r a t i v e n e s s and probable high m o t i v a t i o n of the o l d e r group, and the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the o l d e r group may not have been o l d enough (at an average age of 69) f o r a g e - r e l a t e d change i n s t r e n g t h to have developed. P o s s i b l y t h i s muscle was v i r t u a l l y u nexercised i n a l l the s u b j e c t s so t h a t high gains would be expected. Furthermore, the sample may have been too s m a l l to show s i g n i f i c a n c e with such r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s between groups. T h i s study c a s t s doubt on the g e n e r a l l y accepted view t h a t o l d e r muscles are n e c e s s a r i l y weaker. The author, however, cautioned a g a i n s t g e n e r a l i z i n g from t h i s s m a l l muscle to other muscles. He e v i d e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d t h a t s m a l l and l a r g e muscles respond d i f f e r e n t l y to t r a i n i n g , although the t o p i c does not seem to have been i n v e s t i g a t e d . P e r k i n s and K a i s e r (1961) compared the e f f e c t of s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g i n 20 ol d e r people (15 women and 5 men, ages 62 to 74) randomly assigned to two groups, one t r a i n e d i s o m e t r i c a l l y and one i s o t o n i c a l l y . The muscles t r a i n e d were the a n t i g r a v i t y muscles of the legs (ankle p l a n t a r f l e x o r s , knee extensors and h i p e x t e n s o r s ) . T r a i n i n g f o l l o w e d the DeLorme (1945) method, and was continued u n t i l the s u b j e c t reached a p l a t e a u i n s t r e n g t h , u s u a l l y a t s i x weeks. Strength was measured as the maximum weight t h a t c o u l d be hel d up a g a i n s t g r a v i t y f o r s i x seconds, and t e s t e d weekly. The group t r a i n e d i s o m e t r i c a l l y gained 56.9% and the one t r a i n e d i s t o n i c a l l y gained 45.8%. R e s u l t s were not s e p a r a t e l y r e p o r t e d f o r men and women. I t i s d i s a p p o i n t i n g t h a t no d e t a i l s of the s t r e n g t h c a l c u l a t i o n were gi v e n , and the r e s u l t s were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y a n a l y s e d . Furthermore, a l l t e s t i n g was i s o m e t r i c ; c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of s p e c i f i c i t y of t r a i n i n g (Sale & MacDougall, 1982) suggest t h a t d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s might have been obtained i f t e s t i n g had been i s o t o n i c . M o r i t a n i and de V r i e s (1980) s t u d i e d s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g i n a group of f i v e young men (aged 18 to 26 years) and one of f i v e o l d e r men (aged 67 to 72 y e a r s ) . P r o g r e s s i v e r e s i s t a n c e (dumbell) t r a i n i n g was c a r r i e d out o n l y with the dominant arm; the non-dominant arm served as an un t r a i n e d c o n t r o l . A f t e r e i g h t weeks, o l d e r s u b j e c t s gained an average of 22% (p < .001) and younger s u b j e c t s 30% (p < .002). Muscle hypertrophy and in c r e a s e i n n e u r a l a c t i v a t i o n l e v e l were co n s i d e r e d as p o s s i b l e c o n t r i b u t o r s to the s t r e n g t h i n c r e a s e s . There was hypertrophy i n the young group but not In the ol d e r group. The authors concluded t h a t n e u r a l f a c t o r s alone were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the changes i n the o l d e r group. T h i s view i s supported by r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e a b s o l u t e s t r e n g t h i n c r e a s e s i n the o l d e r group d u r i n g the f i r s t three weeks of t r a i n i n g , before hypertrophy c o u l d have been s i g n i f i c a n t . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between age, n e u r a l f a c t o r s , and hypertrophy i s d i s c u s s e d below (p.46-49). M o r i t a n i and de V r i e s (1980) were s u r p r i s e d to f i n d s t r e n g t h Increases i n the two groups were comparable, and wondered whether the ol d e r group might i n i t i a l l y have been i n h i b i t e d from e x e r t i n g maximum e f f o r t , or have been s i g n i f i c a n t l y below p o t e n t i a l maximum s t r e n g t h when compared with the young group. However, more troublesome as p e c t s of the study are the sm a l l number of s u b j e c t s (5 i n each group), the use of i s o m e t r i c t e s t i n g with a dynamic t r a i n i n g regime, and r e p e t i t i o n of t e s t i n g a t 2, 4, and 6 weeks, with the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t l e a r n i n g a f f e c t e d the f i n a l t e s t s c o r e s . Warshal (1979) has commented on the confounding i n f l u e n c e of repeated i s o m e t r i c assessment on measurement of s t r e n g t h g a i n , although McDonagh, Hayward, and Davies (1983) r e p o r t e d no e f f e c t of t r a i n i n g on elbow f l e x o r s t r e n g t h i n a group t e s t e d i s o m e t r i c a l l y once a week f o r f i v e weeks. Older women and s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g . A study by Aniansson et a l . (1984) was the second of the two s t u d i e s concerned with t r a i n i n g f o r muscle s t r e n g t h i n o l d e r women s u b j e c t s . I t in v o l v e d 15 women pensioners aged from 63 to 84 who t r a i n e d twice a week f o r 10 months. No c o n t r o l group was used. They used t h e i r own body weight and e l a s t i c bands f o r r e s i s t a n c e . Both s t a t i c and dynamic s t r e n g t h of knee ext e n s o r s , as 44 measured by the Cybex II dynamometer, i n c r e a s e d . For Cybex v e l o c i t i e s of 0°, 30°, 100° and 180°, gains were 7 - 13% (p < .02 - .001). The group i n c l u d e d f i v e women with some c a r d i o v a s c u l a r problem, and one with a locomotor problem, i . e . , not a l l s u b j e c t s with d i s a b i l i t i e s were screened out. Thus, the f i n d i n g s may be more g e n e r a l i z a b l e than those of some other s t u d i e s . Again, the lack of a match between t r a i n i n g method (dynamic) and t e s t method ( i s o m e t r i c ) c o u l d have obscured a c t u a l changes (Sale & McDougall, 1982). Long-term s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g . Deshin (1968), r e p o r t e d i n Gore (1972), s t u d i e d a group of 6 men and 16 women; 10 were aged 51-55 and the r e s t over 55 a t the beginning of the study. A f t e r 10 years of a regimen i n c l u d i n g group e x e r c i s e s twice a week and d a i l y g e n e r a l e x e r c i s e , s u b j e c t s showed i n c r e a s e s i n s t r e n g t h measured by o p e r a t i o n a l t e s t s such as s i t - u p s , press-ups and v e r t i c a l jumps (e.g., the number of r e p e t i t i o n s of press-ups f o r women inc r e a s e d from none to an average of e i g h t ) . These changes occurred a t a time of l i f e when d i m i n u t i o n i n s t r e n g t h would normally be expected, su g g e s t i n g a r e v e r s a l of the usual course of s t r e n g t h l o s s with age. Important points for the present study were: - o l d e r women can inc r e a s e s t r e n g t h with t r a i n i n g . - s t r e n g t h may be c o r r e l a t e d with body weight and h e i g h t . - the amount of in c r e a s e may be r e l a t e d to f a c t o r s such as age, weight, h e i g h t , i n i t i a l s t r e n g t h , l e n g t h of t r a i n i n g , m o t i v a t i o n , and method of measurement. T r a i n i n g and Power No s t u d i e s of changes i n power with t r a i n i n g i n o l d e r women were found. Power Is lower i n women than i n men. De Konlg, B i n k h o r s t , Vos and van 't Hof (1985) examined the f o r c e -v e l o c i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p of arm f l e x i o n i n males and females. Groups of u n t r a i n e d males (N = 123), and females (N = 110) aged 15 to 36 were compared with arm-trained a t h l e t e s (N = 48) aged 22 -32. The mean maximal power of the women was 43% lower than t h a t of the u n t r a i n e d males. The mean maximal power of the a t h l e t e s was 30% higher than t h a t of the un t r a i n e d males. There was no age e f f e c t . S t u d i e s have been made of the e f f e c t of t r a i n i n g on f o r c e - v e l o c i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of muscle groups. Urbanik and Ubukata (1983) compared the changes In f o r c e and v e l o c i t y a f t e r c o n c e n t r i c or e c c e n t r i c t r a i n i n g , and the e f f e c t of d i f f e r e n t e x t e r n a l loads on v e l o c i t y . Two groups of nine students (non-athletes) t r a i n e d h i p and l e g muscles f o r s i x weeks. One group used c o n c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s and the other group used e c c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s . Loads were e q u a l i z e d f o r k i n e t i c energy output, and v a r i e d i n an u n s p e c i f i e d weekly c y c l e . The maximum in c r e a s e i n moment of f o r c e f o r h i p extensors was 15%, f o r knee extensors 12%, and f o r p l a n t a r f l e x o r s 25%. The e c c e n t r i c and c o n c e n t r i c groups v a r i e d i n the time course of the s t r e n g t h g a i n , but not i n i t s amount. V e l o c i t y of knee e x t e n s i o n was a l s o t e s t e d d u r i n g the study, u s i n g e x t e r n a l loads v a r y i n g from 20 to 140 Nm. The v e l o c i t y i n c r e a s e d over time and with the t e s t l o a d , by between 4 and 16% a f t e r t r a i n i n g - not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Force r a t h e r than v e l o c i t y changed with s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g . V i i t a s a l o (1983) examined the r e s u l t s of t r a i n i n g on f o r c e - v e l o c i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n high jumpers and v o l l e y b a l l p l a y e r s . T r a i n i n g , from March to October, followed the normal p a t t e r n f o r the a t h l e t e s . A f o r c e p l a t f o r m with an external, timer was used i n measurement. The upward displacement of the cen t r e of g r a v i t y was used to measure v e l o c i t y . E x t r a loads on the shoulder extended the f o r c e p a r t of the curve. Height of v e r t i c a l jumps i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p = .01) a f t e r high jump (N = 5) and v o l l e y b a l l t r a i n i n g (N = 12), i n d i c a t i n g an upward displacement of the f o r c e - v e l o c i t y curve with t r a i n i n g . Higher v e l o c i t y was achieved a t a l l l o a d s . Important p o i n t s f o r the present study were: - no s t u d i e s of the e f f e c t of t r a i n i n g on power i n o l d e r men or women were found. - power can be developed with t r a i n i n g i n young s u b j e c t s . - f o r c e and v e l o c i t y respond d i f f e r e n t l y to t r a i n i n g . T r a i n i n g and Muscle Bulk Changes i n the human muscle system d u r i n g ageing have been reviewed by Larsson (1982b). Almost a l l s t u d i e s of changes i n bulk with t r a i n i n g used young men as s u b j e c t s ; no s t u d i e s r e p o r t i n g separate data f o r women were found. There i s a t h e o r e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between muscle s i z e and the f o r c e the muscle can e x e r t (other t h i n g s being equal) (Astrand, 1977, p.371). T h i s agrees with our everyday o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t " s t r o n g " people have l a r g e muscles. People o f t e n a s s o c i a t e weight t r a i n i n g with muscle hypertrophy -some women a c t u a l l y a v o i d t r a i n i n g because they fear the 47 development of muscle bulk (Rose, Radzymlnski, & Beatty, 1957). But weight t r a i n i n g can i n c r e a s e s t r e n g t h without muscle hypertrophy ( M o r i t a n i & de V r i e s , 1980). F a c t o r s other than Increased muscle s i z e must account f o r these i n c r e a s e s . I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n f a c t o r s such as n a t u r a l endowment (Cureton, 1947, p.362), m o t i v a t i o n (Astrand, 1977, p.106), s k i l l (Astrand, 1977 p.114), and decreased i n h i b i t i o n ( I k a i & Steinhaus, 1961), may be i n v o l v e d when low c o r r e l a t i o n s are r e p o r t e d between s t r e n g t h and muscle s i z e i n a group of people. There are c o n f l i c t i n g o p i n i o n s about the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t the muscles of o l d e r people w i l l hypertrophy with t r a i n i n g . Increased muscle bulk r e p o r t e d . Noble (1971), reviewed r e s e a r c h on the e f f e c t of r e s i s t i v e e x e r c i s e on muscle s i z e i n a d u l t s and found o n l y 13 s t u d i e s . A l l s u b j e c t s were under 30 years of age. Two s t u d i e s used groups c o n s i s t i n g of both men and women, the r e s t men o n l y . T r a i n i n g p e r i o d s v a r i e d from 6 to 12 weeks. Wide d i f f e r e n c e s i n responses to t r a i n i n g were r e p o r t e d . Over the 13 s t u d i e s , the maximum change i n g i r t h of t h i g h and upper arm showed Increases of 3.3 cms (4.4%) and 1.93 cms (4.9%) r e s p e c t i v e l y . Holmdahl and Ingelmark (1948), r e f e r r e d to by Wiswell (1980), found muscle hypertrophy a s s o c i a t e d with e x e r c i s e d u r i n g ageing. Dobrev (1978) followed 25 s u b j e c t s aged 50 to 80 (mean age 65) d u r i n g two years of weight t r a i n i n g , and found p o s i t i v e changes i n a l l anthropometric measurements, i n c l u d i n g a 4.4% decrease i n body weight and a 10.5% decrease i n waist c i r c u m f e r e n c e . C o n s i d e r a b l e hypertrophy of arm, shoulder and l e g muscles (10% to 15%) r e s u l t e d from a "systematic and p u r p o s e f u l f u n c t i o n a l load by means of e x e r c i s e with weights", e.g., " r i g h t armpit f l e x o r c i r c u m f e r e n c e " (pp.28-29) i n c r e a s e d by 3.9 cm or 12.2%. D e t a i l s of t r a i n i n g are l a c k i n g and i t i s not c l e a r whether o n l y men or both men and women took p a r t . Larsson (1982a) compared the e f f e c t of t r a i n i n g i n sedentary men a t d i f f e r e n t ages. Eigh t e e n men aged 22 to 65 t r a i n e d knee extensors i n t e n s i v e l y (60 - 80 min) three times a week f o r 15 weeks, emphasizing endurance s t r e n g t h (low weight and high r e p e t i t i o n s ) . I s o m e t r i c and i s o k i n e t i c s t r e n g t h (at four d i f f e r e n t v e l o c i t i e s ) were measured before and a f t e r t r a i n i n g . Strength i n c r e a s e s were s m a l l r e l a t i v e to those i n some other s t u d i e s (Larsson et a l . , 1979; M o r i t a n i & de V r i e s , 1980), and s i g n i f i c a n t (p < .05) onl y a t 60° angular v e l o c i t y (but not a t 0 ° ) . The l a r g e s t Increase (7.5%) was i n the o l d e s t age group. B i o p s i e s of vastus lateralis were made before and a f t e r t r a i n i n g . Muscle f i b r e s i z e (and t h e r e f o r e muscle c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l area) i n c r e a s e d a f t e r t r a i n i n g , most e v i d e n t l y i n the o l d e s t p a r t i c i p a n t s (age 55-65, N = 6, p < .05). Larsson concluded t h a t these men were able In p a r t to r e g a i n through e x e r c i s e the muscle f i b r e area a t r o p h i e d by d i s u s e . Neural f a c t o r s or hypertrophy?. Larsson's (1982a) c o n c l u s i o n s appear to c o n f l i c t with those reached by M o r i t a n i and de V r i e s i n t h e i r (1980) study. In t h a t study, two groups, one of o l d e r and one of younger men, t r a i n e d elbow f l e x o r s u s i n g dumbells three times a week f o r e i g h t weeks. The group of o l d e r men showed no hypertrophy a f t e r t r a i n i n g . Strength i n c r e a s e , measured i s o m e t r i c a l l y , was comparable i n 49 the two groups and averaged 20%. The authors concluded that gains i n s t r e n g t h i n o l d e r s u b j e c t s were the r e s u l t of n e u r a l f a c t o r s a l o n e . In d i s c u s s i n g the p o i n t , Larsson suggests t h a t the increase i n muscle f i b r e area i n o l d e r men was achieved with l o s s of intramuscular f a t and/or conn e c t i v e t i s s u e , i . e . , a f t e r t r a i n i n g , there were l a r g e r f i b r e s and l e s s f a t or connective t i s s u e i n the muscle. T h i s i s supported by h i s f i n d i n g t h a t , i n h i s s u b j e c t s , t h i g h circumferences a f t e r t r a i n i n g were u n a l t e r e d , d e s p i t e the i n c r e a s e i n muscle f i b r e a r e a shown by biopsy. The M o r i t a n i and de V r i e s (1980) study l a s t e d e i g h t weeks, and used p r o g r e s s i v e r e s i s t a n c e a t two-t h i r d s of maximum, compared to 15 weeks with low weight and high r e p e t i t i o n s f o r Larsson's (1982a) study. Both these f a c t o r s may be r e l a t e d to the d i f f e r e n c e i n s t r e n g t h gains r e p o r t e d (20% and 7.5% r e s p e c t i v e l y ) and perhaps to the i n c r e a s e i n f i b r e a r e a . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the views of M o r i t a n i and de V r i e s (1980) were supported by t h e i r measures of n e u r a l a c t i v i t y u s i n g i n t e g r a t e d electromyography. Strength gains r e s u l t i n g from neura l f a c t o r s alone should be a s s o c i a t e d with i n c r e a s e d n e u r a l a c t i v i t y d u r i n g c o n t r a c t i o n . More f i b r e s c o n t r a c t , but with no change in the force exerted per f i b r e . On the other hand, s t r e n g t h gains from hypertrophy alone would show no change In neural activity but Increased f o r c e per muscle f i b r e . Thus, i f f o r c e i n c r e a s e d while n e u r a l a c t i v i t y remained the same ( i . e . , the same muscle groups were a c t i v e to the same extent) hypertrophy would be i n d i c a t e d . In o l d e r s u b j e c t s , muscle a c t i v a t i o n l e v e l was higher a f t e r t r a i n i n g , but there was no hypertrophy. The i n c r e a s e i n s t r e n g t h , as measured by Cybex, was comparable to th a t i n the younger group. The authors concluded t h a t n e u r a l f a c t o r s , or "the i n t e r a c t i o n of f a c i l i t a t o r y and i n h i b i t o r y phenomena a c t i n g at v a r i o u s l e v e l s of the nervous system" (p.681), were alone r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s t r e n g t h change In ol d e r s u b j e c t s . In t h e i r study, each group had o n l y f i v e s u b j e c t s , and i n Larsson's (1982a) study there were o n l y s i x : r a t h e r few f o r general c o n c l u s i o n s to be drawn from the s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s . These s t u d i e s should be repeated with l a r g e r numbers, and f o r women. Lear n i n g and c o - o r d i n a t i o n . Another theory about the mechanism by which s t r e n g t h i n c r e a s e s with t r a i n i n g has been suggested by Rutherford and Jones (1986). They i n v e s t i g a t e d c e n t r a l changes a s s o c i a t e d with three t r a i n i n g regimes v a r y i n g i n the complexity of s k i l l and c o - o r d i n a t i o n r e q u i r e d . Three groups were formed among 22 young men and nine young women; a l l t r a i n e d the knee extensors of one l e g only, three times a week f o r 12 weeks. The f i r s t group ( s i x men aged 23-27) t r a i n e d i s o m e t r i c a l l y ( l e a s t complex), and the second ( f i v e men, 19-37) t r a i n e d c o n c e n t r i c a l l y (more complex). The t h i r d (11 men and 9 women, aged 21-40) t r a i n e d both c o n c e n t r i c a l l y and e c c e n t r i c a l l y with no support f o r the upper body (most complex). Other muscle groups co-operated to s t a b i l i z e the t r a i n i n g muscle. MVC was measured every two to three weeks and a t the end. For men i n the f i r s t group, i s o m e t r i c t r a i n i n g r e s u l t e d i n a 40% Increase i n MVC. For men in the 2nd and 3rd groups, the weight t h a t c o u l d be l i f t e d In le g e x t e n s i o n i n c r e a s e d by about 200%, but MVC o n l y by 15-51 20%. For women i n the 3rd group the weight t h a t c o u l d be l i f t e d i n c r e a s e d by 240%, but MVC by on l y 4%. Fourteen s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d by super i m p o s i t i o n of an e l e c t r i c a l (twitch) s t i m u l u s , and i n d i c a t e d f u l l v o l u n t a r y a c t i v a t i o n before t r a i n i n g . The authors b e l i e v e d t h a t s u b j e c t s could f u l l y a c t i v a t e quadriceps v o l u n t a r i l y ( I . e . , t h a t the i s o m e t r i c t e s t was a v a l i d measure of i n t r i n s i c s t r e n g t h ) , and were h i g h l y motivated. They concluded t h a t the incr e a s e was the r e s u l t of improved c o - o r d i n a t i o n of a l l the muscle groups, not of in c r e a s e d n e u r a l a c t i v a t i o n as suggested by M o r i t a n i and de V r i e s (1980). I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t the young women In t h i s study showed such a sm a l l i n c r e a s e (4%) i n MVC. No r e p o r t of changes i n muscle bulk were given, so i t i s not p o s s i b l e to r e l a t e s t r e n g t h changes to hypertrophy. These i n v e s t i g a t o r s may have confounded t r a i n i n g method ( i s o m e t r i c or dynamic) with complexity. I t seems probable that the muscles of o l d e r women respond to t r a i n i n g In much the same way as those of o l d e r men, and do not show v i s i b l e changes i n muscle bulk. C o n t r a l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r of t r a i n i n g . The view t h a t n e u r a l f a c t o r s are a t l e a s t i n pa r t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s t r e n g t h i n c r e a s e with t r a i n i n g i s supported by s t u d i e s i n which one arm or l e g i s t r a i n e d and s t r e n g t h i s found to in c r e a s e not only i n the t r a i n e d limb but a l s o i n the un t r a i n e d ( c o n t r a l a t e r a l ) one. In the M o r i t a n i and de V r i e s study (1980), the f i v e o l d e r men inc r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n mean s t r e n g t h and ne u r a l a c t i v a t i o n l e v e l f o r both the t r a i n e d and the u n t r a i n e d arm. The c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l area of the arm muscle d i d not change i n e i t h e r arm. The f i v e younger men a l s o 52 increased s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n mean s t r e n g t h and neural a c t i v a t i o n l e v e l f o r both t r a i n e d and u n t r a i n e d arms, and, i n a d d i t i o n , c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l area i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the t r a i n e d arm, i . e . , there was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n both hypertrophy (p < .001) and n e u r a l a c t i v a t i o n l e v e l p < .01). There was no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n muscle area i n the untr a i n e d arm. However, there was no c o n t r o l group i n t h i s study, and i t i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e t h a t , i n both groups, both arms were strengthened as a r e s u l t not of c o n t r a l a t e r a l t r a n s f e r but of some other f a c t o r , e.g., an i n c r e a s e i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y l e v e l i n a l l s u b j e c t s . Again, the s m a l l numbers suggest t h a t the r e s u l t s cannot be g e n e r a l i z e d . C h r i s t , H i l d e b r a n d t , K r i e b e l , and Rohrbach (1979 s t u d i e d the t r a n s f e r of the e f f e c t s of g r i p s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g from one forearm to the ot h e r . A group of s i x young men t r a i n e d one arm d a i l y f o r seven days, with the c o n t r a l a t e r a l arm immobilized. The e f f e c t s of t r a i n i n g were t r a n s f e r r e d to the immobilized limb and i t d i d not atrophy as might have been expected. Neural f a c t o r s were c o n s i d e r e d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the t r a i n i n g e f f e c t . Muscle t e n s i o n i n the immobilized arm produced by i n v o l u n t a r y c o - i n n e r v a t i o n was too weak to be a t r a i n i n g s t i m u l u s . S i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s were reached by Houston, Froese, V a l e r i o t e , Green, and Ranney (1982), who s t u d i e d the e f f e c t of t r a i n i n g the knee extensors of one l e g i n a group of young men. T r a i n i n g was t r a n s f e r r e d to the c o n t r a l a t e r a l l e g , but muscle f i b r e changes occurred o n l y i n the t r a i n e d l e g . The e f f e c t s were reversed with d e t r a i n i n g . 53 Important p o i n t s f o r the present s t u d y were: - v i s i b l e hypertrophy does not occur i n o l d e r people. - hypertrophy In o l d e r women has not been s t u d i e d . - s t r e n g t h can i n c r e a s e without muscle hypertrophy. - d i s u s e atrophy may be r e v e r s i b l e with t r a i n i n g . - p o s s i b l e mechanisms f o r i n c r e a s e d s t r e n g t h i n o l d e r people i n c l u d e i n c r e a s e d n e u r a l a c t i v a t i o n , improved c o - o r d i n a t i o n , and Increased f i b r e s i z e ; a l l three may c o n t r i b u t e . P s y c h o l o g i c a l V a r i a b l e s and P h y s i c a l T r a i n i n g The mental a t t i t u d e s of people, as assessed by measures of p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s , are b e l i e v e d to be a s s o c i a t e d with the r e s u l t s of t r a i n i n g . Many terms have been used f o r " p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s " , I n c l u d i n g p e r s o n a l i t y , m o t i v a t i o n , v o l i t i o n , s e l f -c o n f i d e n c e , s e l f - e s t e e m , s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n , s e l f - i m a g e . In t h i s review, s e l f - c o n c e p t has been used as a g e n e r i c term. The r o l e played i n performance by a high sense of s e l f - c o n c e p t i s recognized i n a t h l e t i c s and s p o r t s , as shown by the use of p s y c h o l o g i c a l techniques i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of a t h l e t e s . self-Concept and Physical performance. Attempts to demonstrate a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l f -concept and p h y s i c a l performance (e.g., Kane, 1974; Weingarten, 1975) show l i t t l e consensus about e i t h e r what should be i n v e s t i g a t e d or what psychometric measures should be used. Many measures have been used i n r e s e a r c h with o l d e r people, o f t e n o n l y once or twice (George & Bearon, 1980), and mostly with people e i t h e r i n i n s t i t u t i o n s or being assessed 54 f o r e n t r y i n t o them (Kane & Kane, 1981). Measures of p h y s i c a l s e l f - c o n c e p t lack psychometric v a l i d i t y (Sonstroem 1984; Wylle 1974, 1979). V a l i d a t i o n has o f t e n been c a r r i e d out o n l y with young s u b j e c t s ; v e r y few s t u d i e s have been done with r e l a t i v e l y h e a l t h y o l d e r women, and i t i s not c l e a r whether ( i n a d u l t s ) there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between age per se and s e l f - c o n c e p t (Breytspaak & George, 1979). Most i n v e s t i g a t o r s have assessed aspects of s e l f - c o n c e p t u s i n g a b a t t e r y of t e s t s (Dishman & Gettman, 1980; Massie & Shephard, 1971; Tucker, 1984). This p r a c t i c e i s time-consuming f o r both s u b j e c t and i n v e s t i g a t o r , and makes i t d i f f i c u l t to compare r e s u l t s from d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s . A general measure t h a t would a l l o w comparison of r e s u l t s would be u s e f u l . Some r e s e a r c h e r s have i n v e s t i g a t e d changes over time i n the s e l f - c o n c e p t as a r e s u l t s of t r a i n i n g , e.g., s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g (Brown & H a r r i s o n , 1986) and a e r o b i c e x e r c i s e ( P e r r i & Templer, 1985). Changes i n scores on a p s y c h o l o g i c a l measure may be r e l a t e d to an experimental treatment, but t h i s does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean th a t a change i n s e l f - c o n c e p t has occurred or t h a t the change i s r e l a t e d to a p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t . The change may be o n l y i n s c o r e s , not i n s e l f - e s t e e m per se, and i t i s not c l e a r which agent i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the r e s u l t (Sonstroem, 1984). S e l f - c o n c e p t has a l s o been viewed as r e l a t e d to or p r e d i c t i n g performance ( F e l t z & Brown, 1984; Scanlan, Lewthwaite, & Jackson, 1984). T h i s appeared to be the more u s e f u l approach f o r treatment or programme pl a n n i n g , and was p r e f e r r e d f o r the present study. In s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g , i n i t i a l s t r e n g t h l e v e l i s i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d to s t r e n g t h g a i n , e s p e c i a l l y i n i n i t i a l l y u n t r a i n e d s u b j e c t s . Thus, i f lower s e l f - c o n c e p t p r e d i c t e d lower s t r e n g t h a t the beginning of t r a i n i n g i t might be r e l a t e d to higher improvement. On the other hand, lower s e l f - c o n c e p t might r e f l e c t a person not e x p e c t i n g success i n s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g , and t h e r e f o r e l e s s l i k e l y to succeed than more c o n f i d e n t people. S e l f - c o n c e p t i s a l s o r e l a t e d to the w i l l i n g n e s s of people to persevere with p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s (Dishman & Gettman, 1980). s i n c e perseverence with t r a i n i n g i s a major f a c t o r i n i n c r e a s i n g s t r e n g t h , higher s e l f - c o n c e p t should be r e l a t e d to higher s t r e n g t h g a i n with t r a i n i n g . On balance, i t i s more reasonable to expect higher s e l f - e f f i c a c y to be r e l a t e d to gr e a t e r s t r e n g t h g a i n s . Bandura's Theory of S e l f - e f f i c a c y Bandura (1977) proposed s e l f - e f f i c a c y as a u n i f y i n g mediator i n human agency and s p e c i f i c a l l y i n b e h a v i o u r a l change. His concept of s e l f - e f f i c a c y somewhat resembles White's (1959) concept of " e f f e c t a n c e " as the m o t i v a t i o n a l d r i v e towards competence i n d e a l i n g with the environment. I t has two as p e c t s : an i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e l i e f s about whether or not he or she can s u c c e s s f u l l y complete the task or maintain the behaviour i n v o l v e d ( e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s ) , and b e l i e f s about the outcome (outcome e x p e c t a t i o n s ) . I n d i v i d u a l s who b e l i e v e they have the s k i l l s and a b i l i t y to accomplish a task are l i k e l y to be r i g h t , and can do i t , but t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of the probable outcome may determine whether or not they w i l l do i t . Bandura b e l i e v e d t h a t I t i s p a r t l y on the b a s i s of s e l f -e f f i c a c y t h a t people choose what to do, how much e f f o r t to i n v e s t , and how long to persevere with i t . T h i s concept corresponds with o b s e r v a t i o n of how people a c t u a l l y behave -they are l i k e l y to a v o i d a c t i v i t i e s unless they b e l i e v e they have the necessary a b i l i t y and are c o n f i d e n t t h a t i t can be a p p l i e d i n the p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . They w i l l not i n v e s t much time or e f f o r t i f they do not f e e l the voutcome w i l l be rewarding i n some way. The rewarding outcome of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , f o r i n s t a n c e , might be to improve t h e i r h e a l t h , or give them ple a s u r e or a p p r o b a t i o n . Thus, s e l f - e f f i c a c y should t h e o r e t i c a l l y be a good p r e d i c t o r of behaviour and t h i s was shown to be so i n a wide range of tasks (Bandura, 1982). Bandura's work has not been without i t s c r i t i c s , who have questioned both the c e n t r a l i t y Bandura claims and the d i s t i n c t i o n between e f f i c a c y and outcome e x p e c t a t i o n s (Eastman & M a r z i l i e r , 1984; K i r s c h , 1985; Tryon, 1981). N e v e r t h e l e s s , the concept has been of growing i n t e r e s t to r e s e a r c h e r s i n f i e l d s where the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s and p h y s i c a l or p h y s i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s i s important, e.g., p h y s i c a l therapy or a t h l e t i c t r a i n i n g . Bandura's model has been e m p i r i c a l l y t e s t e d by r e s e a r c h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n (Mcauley, 1985; Weinberg, Gould, & Jackson, 1979) with encouraging r e s u l t s . Comparative studies of self-efficacy and Physical Activities A number of s t u d i e s have shown a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l f - e f f i c a c y and p h y s i c a l performance, without c l a i m i n g p r e d i c t i o n . Most ( l i k e the f o l l o w i n g ) used measures which were s p e c i f i c to the a c t i v i t y . Bandura and Cervone (1983) s t u d i e d s e l f - e f f i c a c y and strenuous a c t i v i t y (arm-cranking) i n a group of 45 men and 45 women studen t s , with and without g o a l - s e t t i n g and feedback. Higher s e l f - e f f i c a c y was a s s o c i a t e d with improved performance. More h i g h l y s e l f -e f f i c a c i o u s s u b j e c t s scored higher on a second t r i a l than l e s s e f f i c a c i o u s ones when both groups had s e t goals and were r e c e i v i n g feedback (N = 20, r = .45, p < .025). B a r l i n g and Abel (1983) found t e n n i s s e l f - e f f i c a c y to be r e l a t e d c o n s i s t e n t l y to success i n some measures of t e n n i s performance, though other p s y c h o l o g i c a l measures (response-outcome, valence) were not. Two s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g water s k i l l s i n v e s t i g a t e d the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t mastery of a s k i l l would enhance s e l f -e f f i c a c y . F e l t z , Landers, and Raeder (1979) compared two modell i n g techniques f o r t e a c h i n g a back d i v e ; s e l f - e f f i c a c y i n c r e a s e d a f t e r a s u c c e s s f u l performance. Hogan and Santomier (1984) s t u d i e d swim s e l f - e f f i c a c y i n a group of men and women over 60 years of age, us i n g the Swim S k i l l s E f f i c a c y Scale (SSES) de v i s e d f o r the study. Subjects who attended swim c l a s s e s f i v e times a week i n c r e a s e d mean SSES scores s i g n i f i c a n t l y , when compared to a c o n t r o l group (p < .05). Thi s was not s u r p r i s i n g , s i n c e the items i n the SSES were s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d to swimming s k i l l s (e.g., f l o a t on f r o n t ; swim the pool width; swim two pool l e n g t h s ) . However, most s u b j e c t s (78%) a l s o r e p o r t e d changes i n f e e l i n g s about t h e i r g e n e r a l a b i l i t y to perform or a c h i e v e . T h i s r e p o r t was the o n l y one found to suggest a g e n e r a l i z e d i n c r e a s e i n s e l f -e f f i c a c y as a r e s u l t of l e a r n i n g a p h y s i c a l s k i l l . T h i s c o u l d be important to i n d i v i d u a l s as a means of improving t h e i r view of t h e i r p h y s i c a l a b i l i t i e s i n g e n e r a l . Gould and Weiss (1981) compared the muscular endurance of groups o£ women c o l l e g e students (N = 150). s u b j e c t s were randomly a s s i g n e d to f i v e groups, one of which was a c o n t r o l . S e l f - e f f i c a c y was manipulated by the use of confederate models who demonstrated the endurance measure. S p e c i f i c s e l f -e f f i c a c y f o r the endurance task was measured. Muscular endurance was measured as the time d u r i n g which they could maintain a l e g i n ex t e n s i o n a g a i n s t a l o a d . In a l l groups, higher s e l f - e f f i c a c y s cores were c o r r e l a t e d with higher l e v e l s of endurance (p < .05). S p e c i f i c S e l f - e f f i c a c y and P r e d i c t i o n Other workers have i n v e s t i g a t e d s p e c i f i c s e l f - e f f i c a c y measures as p r e d i c t o r s of performance. McAuley (1985) t e s t e d Bandura's (1977) model with women undergraduates without gymnastic experience. Subjects were randomly a l l o c a t e d to two treatment groups and one c o n t r o l (N_ = 13 i n each). The two treatment groups watched demonstrations by two d i f f e r e n t methods and then attempted the gymnastic t a s k . A measure of gymnastic s e l f - e f f i c a c y immediately before performance was a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r of d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance between treatment and c o n t r o l groups (p < .001). I t was concluded t h a t Bandura's model was a b e t t e r f i t to the data than an a n x i e t y - r e d u c t i o n model. Ewart, T a y l o r , Reese, and DeBusk (1983) s t u d i e d e x e r c i s e t e s t i n g and s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n i n o l d e r s u b j e c t s (40 men aged 43 to 61, post myocardial i n f a r c t i o n ) . They compared p r e d i c t i o n from s p e c i f i c t r e a d m i l l s e l f - e f f i c a c y with p r e d i c t i o n from a c t u a l performance on a t r e a d m i l l t e s t . S e l f - e f f i c a c y was the b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r of performance on a second t r e a d m i l l t e s t . Strength S e l f - e f f i c a c y and P r e d i c t i o n . A number of s t u d i e s were concerned with s p e c i f i c s e l f - e f f i c a c y as a p r e d i c t o r of s t r e n g t h performance. Weinberg, Gould, and Jackson (1979), i n an e m p i r i c a l t e s t of Bandura's (1977) theory, randomly assi g n e d 112 undergraduates (56 men and 56 women) to two groups. The l e v e l s of s t r e n g t h s e l f - e f f i c a c y i n the two groups were e x p e r i m e n t a l l y manipulated (by the use of conf e d e r a t e s ) to be r e l a t i v e l y high or low. Subjects whose s e l f - e f f i c a c y e x p e c t a t i o n s were higher were ab l e to maintain l e g e x t e n s i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y longer a g a i n s t g r a v i t y than the group whose s e l f - e f f i c a c y was lower (p < .001). There was no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f i c a c y d i f f e r e n c e between sexes. In a subsequent study, Weinberg, Yukelson, and Jackson (1980) used a s i m i l a r d e s i g n and the same numbers of s u b j e c t s . L e v e l s of s t r e n g t h s e l f - e f f i c a c y were again manipulated, but t h i s time s u b j e c t s c o u l d not see the co n f e d e r a t e s . They were a l s o asked to s t a t e before t e s t i n g how w e l l they expected to perform d u r i n g the l e g e x t e n s i o n t e s t . Only the males showed a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f i c a c y e f f e c t (p < .001). The authors e x p l a i n the sex d i f f e r e n c e (not found i n the e a r l i e r study) by t h e o r i z i n g t h a t women may be l e s s c o m p e t i t i v e with themselves than men are, i . e . , s i n c e they c o u l d not see the confe d e r a t e , they d i d not f e e l a need to compete. No t h e o r e t i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n was given f o r t h i s c o n c l u s i o n , which seems r a t h e r u n l i k e l y . P o s s i b l y the overt statement of b e l i e f s about performance c o u l d have d i f f e r e n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r men and women. Wilkes and Summers (1984), s t u d i e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between mental p r e p a r a t i o n methods ( i n c l u d i n g s e l f - e f f i c a c y e n h a n c e m e n t ) a n d s t r e n g t h p e r f o r m a n c e . They a s s i g n e d 60 male u n d e r g r a d u a t e s u b j e c t s r a n d o m l y t o f o u r g r o u p s a c c o r d i n g t o m e n t a l p r e p a r a t i o n method ( a r o u s a l , a t t e n t i o n , i m a g e r y o r s e l f - e f f l c a c y ) a n d t o a c o n t r o l g r o u p . The s u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e d an I n i t i a l t e s t o£ I s o k i n e t i c l e g s t r e n g t h , f o l l o w e d b y m e n t a l p r e p a r a t i o n a n d a s e c o n d t e s t o f s t r e n g t h , with t h e e f f e c t o f i n i t i a l s t r e n g t h l e v e l c o n t r o l l e d , s u b j e c t s i n t h e s e l f - e f f i c a c y g r o u p showed s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e s i n s t r e n g t h on t h e s e c o n d t e s t ( 1 6 . 7 % ) , b u t i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p t h e r e was a d e c r e m e n t o f 5% ( p <.05). P r e p a r a t i o n u s i n g a r o u s a l showed t h e g r e a t e s t i n c r e a s e ( 1 7 . 8 % ) . K a v a n a u g h a n d H a u s f e l d ( 1 9 8 6 ) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t mood ( h a p p y o r s a d ) w o u l d a f f e c t h a n d g r i p s t r e n g t h , a n d t h a t s p e c i f i c s e l f - e f f i c a c y w o u l d be r e l a t e d t o t h i s e f f e c t . S u b j e c t s (20 men and 31 women) who s c o r e d h i g h e r on a h a n d g r i p e f f i c a c y s c a l e a l s o s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r I n g r i p s t r e n g t h ( p < .001) t h a n t h o s e whose s e l f - e f f i c a c y s c o r e s were l o w e r . G e n der a nd mood were n o t r e l a t e d t o s t r e n g t h . The a u t h o r s commented on t h e r e s i l i e n c e o f t h e s e l f - e f f i c a c y c o n c e p t t o m i n o r c h a n g e s i n t h e measurement s c a l e f r o m t h a t u s e d b y B a n d u r a ( 1 9 7 7 ) . P r e d i c t i o n o f t r a i n i n g r e s u l t s . E w a r t , S t e w a r t , G i l l i l a n , a n d K e l e m e n ( 1 9 8 6 ) s t u d i e d s t r e n g t h g a i n s a f t e r c i r c u i t w e i g h t t r a i n i n g I n men w i t h c o r o n a r y a r t e r y d i s e a s e . F o r t y s u b j e c t s were a l l o c a t e d r a n d o m l y t o two g r o u p s . The s t r e n g t h o f m u s c l e g r o u p s i n u p p e r a n d l o w e r b o d y was m e a s u r e d d y n a m i c a l l y on a w e i g h t t r a i n i n g m a c h i n e . B o t h g r o u p s t r a i n e d b y j o g g i n g ; i n a d d i t i o n , one g r o u p d i d c i r c u i t w e i g h t t r a i n i n g a n d t h e o t h e r p l a y e d v o l l e y b a l l . F o r men i n t h e w e i g h t t r a i n i n g g r o u p , t h e i n i t i a l l e v e l o f w e i g h t l i f t i n g s e l f - e f f i c a c y s i g n i f i c a n t l y p r e d i c t e d s t r e n g t h g a i n s (p < .001). T h i s was t h e o n l y s t u d y f o u n d r e p o r t i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l f - e f f i c a c y and r e s u l t s o f t r a i n i n g . G e n e r a l i z e d S e l f - e f f i c a c y (PSE) and P r e d i c t i o n The u s e f u l n e s s o f measures s u c h a s t h e above i s r e s t r i c t e d . T h e y c a n be used o n l y w i t h t h e a c t i v i t y f o r w h i c h t h e y were d e s i g n e d . R e s u l t s f r o m s t u d i e s u s i n g d i f f e r e n t m easures c a n n o t be compared. The o n l y g e n e r a l i z e d measure o f p h y s i c a l s e l f - e f f i c a c y s o f a r p r o p o s e d has been t h a t o f Ryckman e t a l . (1982). They wanted t o be a b l e t o measure i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n g e n e r a l p h y s i c a l s e l f - e f f i c a c y and t o use t h e measure t o p r e d i c t p e r f o r m a n c e i n a b r o a d r a n g e o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . T h e y d e v e l o p e d and v a l i d a t e d t h e i r 2 2 - i t e m P h y s i c a l S e l f -e f f i c a c y S c a l e ( A p p e n d i x 6), and r e p o r t e d t h a t i t d i d i n f a c t p r e d i c t p e r f o r m a n c e . I t had two f a c t o r s , P e r c e i v e d P h y s i c a l A b i l i t y (PPA) and P h y s i c a l S e l f - p r e s e n t a t i o n C o n f i d e n c e (PSPC). In a s t u d y w i t h a g r o u p o f men and women u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s (N = 128), Ryckman, R o b b i n s , T h o r n t o n , and K a c z o r f o u n d t h e PPA was a b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r t h a n PSPC o f s u b j e c t s ' i n v o l v e m e n t i n v a r i o u s t y p e s o f e x e r c i s e ( a e r o b i c , f l e x i b i l i t y and m u s c l e e n d u r a n c e ) and s p o r t s . Women s c o r e d l o w e r on PSE t h a n men and had low e r i n v o l v e m e n t i n e x e r c i s e and s p o r t s ( p < .001). I n a f o l l o w - u p s t u d y by Ryckman, R o b b i n s , and T h o r n t o n (1982), t h e ge n d e r d i f f e r e n c e was a g a i n i n v e s t i g a t e d w i t h men and women s t u d e n t s . I t was f o u n d , as h y p o t h e s i z e d , t h a t women (N = 136) had weaker p e r c e p t i o n s (as m e a s u r e d by t h e PPA) o f t h e i r p h y s i c a l c o m p e t e n c e t h a n men (W = 160) ( p < . 0 0 1 ) , and l e s s c o n f i d e n c e ( a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e PSPC) i n u s i n g t h e i r s k i l l s i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f o t h e r s ( p < . 0 1 ) . M c A u l e y and G i l l ( 1 9 8 3 ) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e r e l i a b i l i t y , v a l i d i t y a n d p r e d i c t i v e a b i l i t y o f t h e PSE s c a l e . F i f t y - t w o women g y m n a s t s c o m p l e t e d t h e PSE b e f o r e c o m p e t i n g i n a n i n t e r - u n i v e r s i t y meet; mean s c o r e s were n o t r e p o r t e d , i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e m e a s u r e was t e s t e d , u s i n g c o e f f i c i e n t a l p h a ( C r o n b a c h , 1 9 5 1 ) ; t h e v a l u e o f .72 was c o n s i d e r e d t o show a d e q u a t e r e l i a b i l i t y . To be v a l i d , PSE s h o u l d be r e l a t e d t o o t h e r m e a s u r e s o f s e l f - e f f i c a c y f o r t h e t a s k . However, t h e a u t h o r s f o u n d o n l y a weak r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n PSE s c o r e s and m e a s u r e s o f g y m n a s t i c s e l f - e f f i c a c y , a n d d i d n o t c o n s i d e r i t v a l i d f o r t h i s s a m p l e . The g y m n a s t i c s e l f - e f f i c a c y m e a s u r e s were b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r s o f p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s t h a n PSE, a c c o u n t i n g f o r 5 2 % o f t h e v a r i a n c e c o m p a r e d t o 1 0 % f o r PSE. S u b j e c t s were b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r s o f t h e i r own p e r f o r m a n c e s t h a n e i t h e r PSE o r t h e g y m n a s t i c s e l f - e f f i c a c y m e a s u r e . T h e s e a u t h o r s d i d n o t a g r e e w i t h Ryckman e t a l . ( 1 9 8 2 ) t h a t PSE s i g n i f i c a n t l y p r e d i c t e d p e r f o r m a n c e . However, t h e i r s u b j e c t s were a v e r y s e l e c t g r o u p o f c o m p e t i t i v e g y m n a s t s w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e i n a s s e s s i n g t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e s . The PSE, on t h e o t h e r h a n d , was v a l i d a t e d w i t h s u b j e c t s p e r f o r m i n g n o v e l t a s k s . M c A u l e y ' s ( 1 9 8 5 ) s t u d y ( d e s c r i b e d a b o v e ) , u s i n g s u b j e c t s w i t h o u t g y m n a s t i c e x p e r i e n c e , d i d show a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a s e l f - e f f i c a c y m e a s u r e ( n o t PSE) a n d p e r f o r m a n c e . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n s a m p l e s c o u l d h a v e , i n p a r t , a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n p r e d i c t i v e a b i l i t y . Means a nd s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f PSE, f o r c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h o s e i n t h e o r i g i n a l work (Ryckman e t a l . , 1 9 8 2 ) , w o u l d have b e e n h e l p f u l . G a y t o n , M e t t h e w s a nd B u r c h s t e a d ( 1 9 86) r e p o r t e d PSE p r e d i c t e d r e s u l t s i n m a r a t h o n r u n n i n g . PSE c o r r e l a t e d n e g a t i v e l y w i t h p r e d i c t e d ( r = - . 3 8 , p < .05) and a c t u a l ( r = - . 4 3 , p < .01) f i n i s h i n g t i m e s , f o r 22 men and 11 women. The i n f l u e n c e o f age and s e x on PSE was e x a m i n e d b y G o d l n a n d S h e p h a r d ( 1 9 8 5 ) . S u b j e c t s (44 women and 41 men) o f a v e r a g e age 60.2 ( r a n g e 45-74) c o m p l e t e d P SE. To e x t e n d t h e age r a n g e , PSE s c o r e s were c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e i n i t i a l s c o r e s f o r u n d e r g r a d u a t e s i n t h e o r i g i n a l r e l i a b i l i t y s t u d y b y Ryckman a t a l . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . R e s u l t s d i d n o t show a n y s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d i n PSE w i t h a g e , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t up t o age 74, p e r c e i v e d p h y s i c a l s e l f - e f f i c a c y d o e s n o t d e c l i n e . However, women had l o w e r PSE ( p <.005) and l o w e r PPA ( p <.01) t h a n men. T h i s was i n t e r p r e t e d a s , i n p a r t , t h e r e s u l t o f c u l t u r a l r e s t r a i n t s d u r i n g e a r l i e r l i f e on women now o v e r 45; i . e . , i t was s o c i a l r a t h e r t h a n b i o l o g i c a l . Important points for the present study were. - s p e c i f i c s e l f - e f f i c a c y m e a s u r e s c a n p r e d i c t p h y s i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e i n c l u d i n g s t r e n g t h . - one s t u d y r e p o r t s a s e l f - e f f i c a c y m easure p r e d i c t e d t r a i n i n g r e s u l t s . - PSE h a s be e n r e p o r t e d t o be a p r e d i c t o r o f g e n e r a l p h y s i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e . - PSE d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o c h a n g e w i t h a g e , b u t women do n o t s c o r e a s h i g h a s men on t h i s m e a s u r e . UEXBQU. Subjects S i x t y - e i g h t women a g e d 50-74 were r e c r u i t e d t h r o u g h p u b l i c i t y i n c o m m u n i t y n e w s p a p e r s a n d TV p u b l i c s e r v i c e a n n o u n c e m e n t s , a n d b y d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h g r o u p s o f o l d e r women, s u c h a s t h e M a t u r e women's N e t w o r k a n d t h e UBC Summer Programme f o r R e t i r e d P e o p l e . M o s t came f r o m m i d d l e income g r o u p s , a n d were l i v i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y i n t h e w e s t e r n a r e a o f V a n c o u v e r . N i n e t e e n o f them were w o r k i n g . A l l were r e a s o n a b l y h e a l t h y a n d a c t i v e . Design of the Experiment S u b j e c t s were r a n d o m l y a l l o c a t e d t o e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s . T h e i r r i g h t a r m s t r e n g t h , r i g h t a r m p o w e r , r i g h t a n d l e f t a r m FCA, a n d PSE were m e a s u r e d . The l e f t a r m FCA was m e a s u r e d t o c o n t r o l f o r p o s s i b l e c h a n g e s u n r e l a t e d t o t r a i n i n g . The e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p f o l l o w e d a w e i g h t t r a i n i n g programme f o r 12 w e e k s , a n d t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p f o l l o w e d a f l e x i b i l i t y t r a i n i n g programme t a k i n g a c o m p a r a b l e d a i l y amount o f t i m e . The m e a s u r e s were r e p e a t e d a f t e r t r a i n i n g . The d a t a were a n a l y s e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e o f i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s , a n d b e f o r e a n d a f t e r t r a i n i n g I n e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s ; a n d f o r c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s c o r e s on PSE and c h a n g e s i n a r m s t r e n g t h o r a r m p o w e r . s e l e c t i o n of P h y s i o l o g i c a l Measures M e a s u r e s o f S t r e n g t h The i d e a l method f o r t e s t i n g s t r e n g t h w o u l d be c l e a r l y r e l a t e d t o t h e t r a i n i n g m e t h o d , a n d b o t h methods w o u l d be r e l a t e d to r e a l l i f e a c t i v i t i e s i n which in c r e a s e d s t r e n g t h would be u s e f u l . In s e l e c t i n g the method t h a t would be nearest to the i d e a l , the f o l l o w i n g were c o n s i d e r e d : g r i p s t r e n g t h , s i t u p s and pushups, i s o k i n e t i c torque, i s o m e t r i c methods, and weight l i f t i n g (RM). G r i p s t r e n g t h . T h i s t e s t has been used as a measure of overall s t r e n g t h f o r many years (Burke et a l . , 1953; Canada F i t n e s s Survey, 1983; Montoye & Lamphiear, 1977). Rogers (1926) found a c o r r e l a t i o n of .70 between a combination of r i g h t and l e f t g r i p s t r e n g t h and h i s A t h l e t i c Index (a measure i n c l u d i n g running, throwing and jumping) i n d i c a t i n g a r e l a t i o n s h i p between g r i p s t r e n g t h and g e n e r a l p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y . The g r i p s t r e n g t h t e s t i s quick and simple to a d m i n i s t e r , but i s b a s i c a l l y i s o m e t r i c . T r a i n i n g f o r i n c r e a s e i n g r i p s t r e n g t h would be d i f f i c u l t to q u a n t i f y and i n the circumstances would not provide feedback to the s u b j e c t . For these reasons i t was thought i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the present study. S i t u p s and Pushups. The t o t a l number of s i t u p s or pushups completed i n a given time or to exhaustion can be used as a measure of s t r e n g t h . C l e a r l y , a b a s i c l e v e l of s t r e n g t h i s e s s e n t i a l f o r completion of these t e s t s ; however, the r e s u l t s of the Canada F i t n e s s Survey (1983) show t h a t many o l d e r women are probably unable to complete even one s i t u p . In any case, these t e s t s are q u i t e strenuous, and were r e j e c t e d f o r use i n the present study. I s o m e t r i c Methods. By i t s nature, an i s o m e t r i c / c o n t r a c t i o n i s l i m i t e d to one angle, and an i s o m e t r i c measure of s t r e n g t h i s s p e c i f i c to the angle a t which i t i s made (Gardner, 1963). Furthermore, I t has been shown t h a t an Increase i n dynamic s t r e n g t h r e s u l t i n g from t r a i n i n g with f r e e weights does not r e s u l t i n a comparable Increase i n i s o m e t r i c s t r e n g t h (Rutherford & Jones, 1986). Isom e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s are strenuous, and may not be s a f e f o r o l d e r people. For these reasons, Isometric methods were con s i d e r e d i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the present study. I s o k i n e t i c Torque. As measured by the Cybex II Dynamometer, i o s o k i n e t i c torque i s probably the most popular measure c u r r e n t l y used i n s t r e n g t h t e s t i n g . However, because of the s p e c i f i c i t y a t t e n d i n g s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g (Sale & MacDougall, 1981), s t r e n g t h measured by Cybex i s not l i k e l y to i n c r e a s e as a r e s u l t of t r a i n i n g with f r e e weights, i n which both c o n t r a c t i o n method and body p o s i t i o n i n g are d i f f e r e n t . In a d d i t i o n , the r e s u l t s of a p i l o t study (two women) showed t h a t a l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n the amount of weight t h a t c o u l d be l i f t e d a f t e r t r a i n i n g c o u l d not be demonstrated us i n g Cybex. Thus, the method was c o n s i d e r e d u n s u i t a b l e f o r the present study. Weight L i f t i n g (RM). The use of 1RM as a measure was r e j e c t e d f o r reasons s i m i l a r to those i n d i c a t e d f o r i s o m e t r i c methods. However, 6RM avoids the danger of o v e r l o a d , and the f a t i g u e of r e p e a t i n g many s e t s of a l a r g e number of r e p e t i t i o n s (as i n 10RM) when "hunting" f o r the maximum ap p r o p r i a t e weight. 6RM as a measure of s t r e n g t h has the advantage of being i d e n t i c a l with the t r a d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g regime (Berger, 1962) and was the measure used i n the present study (Appendix 1). Only c o n c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s t r e n g t h was 67 t o be m e a s u r e d , a s I s u s u a l , a nd t o h e l p t o I s o l a t e t h e movement ( s a l e & M c D o u g a l l , 1 9 8 2 ) . M e a s u r e s o£ Power I n m a k i n g t h e s e l e c t i o n , t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f d i r e c t m e asurement ( I n a f r e e movement) o f t h e f o r c e a nd v e l o c i t y c o m p o n e n t s o f power was r e c o g n i z e d . The f o l l o w i n g i n d i r e c t m e a s u r e s o f power were c o n s i d e r e d : p e r f o r m a n c e t e s t s , i s o k i n e t i c t e s t s , a n d w e i g h t l i f t i n g . P e r f p y m a n c e Tests. I n d i r e c t m e t h o d s , s u c h a s j u m p i n g , t h r o w i n g , a n d t i m e d p u s h u p s and s i t u p s , g i v e a t b e s t o n l y g r o s s power m e a s u r e s . T h e y c a n n o t be c l e a r l y r e l a t e d t o s p e c i f i c m u s c l e g r o u p s , and h a v e n o t b e e n v a l i d a t e d ( C o n s i d i n e , 1 9 7 1 ) . I n a n y c a s e , t h e y were c o n s i d e r e d t o o s t r e n u o u s t o be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e o l d e r women i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . I s o k i n e t i c T o r q u e . The i s o k i n e t i c method ( u s e d i n m a c h i n e s s u c h a s C y b e x I I ) i s s a i d t o be a b l e t o s i m u l a t e s p e e d o f movement i n a c t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e ( H e y w a r d , 1 9 8 3 ) , b u t n o r m a l movements a r e n o t made a t c o n s t a n t s p e e d . I f t h e a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y i s s e t h i g h , maximum power i s n o t d e v e l o p e d . As t h e s p e e d i s r e d u c e d , t h e i s o k i n e t i c movement a p p r o a c h e s more a n d more c l o s e l y t o a n i s o m e t r i c one and a t z e r o s p e e d becomes i s o m e t r i c . The a p p r o p r i a t e v e l o c i t y f o r maximum power v a r i e s b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l s . The m e a s u r e i s a c c u r a t e o n l y i f t h e C y b e x i s c a l i b r a t e d f o r e a c h c h a n g e i n v e l o c i t y ( S a l e & Norman, 1 9 8 2 ) . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s , t h e method was c o n s i d e r e d u n s u i t a b l e f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . w e i g h t - l i f t i n g (RM). I n w e i g h t l i f t i n g , 1RM w i t h no r e c o r d o f l i f t i n g v e l o c i t y i s t h e commonest measure o f power. I t p r o v i d e s d i r e c t f e e d b a c k a b o u t p r o g r e s s . However, i f a measurement o f v e l o c i t y i s d e s i r e d , i t I s d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n , e v e n w i t h c i n e m a t o g r a p h i c m e t h o d s . S a l e a n d Norman ( 1 9 8 2 ) d i s c u s s e d t h e l a c k o f a means o m e a s u r i n g v e l o c i t y a n d f o r c e i n w e i g h t l i f t i n g . T h e y s u g g e s t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f m o u n t i n g a d i s p l a c e m e n t p o t e n t i o m e t e r on a w e i g h t - l i f t i n g m a c h i n e t o m e a s u r e v e l o c i t y , w i t h a s t r a i n gauge t o m e a s u r e a c t u a l f o r c e . A p r o d u c t i v e a p p r o a c h w o u l d be t o m e a s u r e f o r c e a t v a r i o u s w e i g h t s , w i t h two t o t h r e e t r i a l s a t e a c h w e i g h t , a n d s o t o d e t e r m i n e a f o r c e - a n d p o w e r - v e l o c i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e y s t r e s s e d t h e ne e d f o r a s t a n d a r d i z e d p o s i t i o n a n d r a n g e o f movement a n d f o r u s i n g a n I s o l a t e d c o n c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n t r e d u c e t h e v a r i a b i l i t y c a u s e d b y t h e r e b o u n d e f f e c t . A s i m i l a r i d e a i n d e p e n d e n t l y a r r i v e d a t l e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l dynamometer u s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y ( H a y d o c k , Brown, & R o b e r t s o n , 1 9 8 5 ) . I t i s f u l l y d e s c r i b e d i n A p p e n d i x 2. M e a s u r e s o f M u s c l e B u l k A m e a s u r e o f c h a n g e i n arm m u s c l e s i z e o v e r t i m e was n e e d e d . A n t h r o p o m e t r i c a n d u l t r a s o u n d methods were c o n s i d e r e d . U l t r a s o u n d i s b e l i e v e d t o be a c c u r a t e ( B o o t h , G o d d d a r d , & P a t o n , 1966) b u t r e q u i r e s e x p e n s i v e a p p a r a t u s w h i c h was n o t a v a i l a b l e . A n t h r o p o m e t r i c m e a s u r e m e n t s ( g i r t h a n d s k i n f o l d s ) a r e r e l i a b l e f o r w i t h i n - s u b j e c t c h a n g e s , a nd were c o n s i d e r e d t o be s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , s i n c e a n e x p e r i e n c e d o b s e r v e r a n d a p p r o p r i a t e e q u i p m e n t ( H a r p e n d e n c a l i p e r s ) were a v a i l a b l e ( B u r r & P h i l l i p s , 1984) P h y s i o l o g i c a l Measures Used In the study s t r e n g t h : 6R M. Strength was measured o p e r a t i o n a l l y by determining the maximum weight In kg that the s u b j e c t was prepared to l i f t s i x times and no more, using a biceps c u r l , keeping a steady rhythm and good form (6RM). Weights were used i n increments of .5 kg from 2.5 to 5.5 kg. As a r e s u l t some scores were t r u n c a t e d to the next lower weight, and the average maximum 6RM was probably lower than the t r u e maximum. A s t a n d a r d i z e d p o s i t i o n f o r the s u b j e c t ( l e a n i n g back a g a i n s t the w a l l with the f e e t forward) and a standard p r o t o c a l f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were used (Appendix 1). T h i s t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d by the r e s e a r c h e r . Power. Power was measured u s i n g the experimental dynamometer (Appendix 2) and expressed as the peak power i n W exerted by the s u b j e c t i n r i g h t elbow f l e x i o n averaged over f i v e t r i a l s . The dynamometer was designed u s i n g accepted mechanical and e l e c t r o n i c e n g i n e e r i n g p r i n c i p l e s to r e c o r d instantaneous measures of f o r c e and angular v e l o c i t y . Each s u b j e c t l i f t e d a weight e s t a b l i s h e d (by nine p r e l i m i n a r y t r i a l s a t v a r y i n g loads) as being s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r her (the e s t a b l i s h e d l o a d ) . T h i s was the weight t h a t was heavy enough to slow the movement down and to a l l o w the development of power ( E c k a r t , 1965), but not so heavy as to be almost impossible to l i f t . Weights were used i n increments of .5 kg. Care was taken to f a m i l i a r i z e each s u b j e c t with the equipment before data were recorded; each s u b j e c t completed a t l e a s t 10 p r a c t i c e t r i a l s , and the nine p r e l i m i n a r y t r i a l s which were used determining the a p p r o p r i a t e load f o r her. The dynamometer was a d j u s t e d t o t h e h e i g h t and f o r e a r m l e n g t h o f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l . The t e s t p o s i t i o n was s t a n d a r d i z e d w i t h t h e s u b j e c t l e a n i n g a g a i n s t a b a c k r e s t , a nd s t a b i l i z e d w i t h V e l c r o s t r a p s a r o u n d s h o u l d e r s and u p p e r arm. F o r c e and a n g l e were s a m p l e d o v e r 3 s e c a t 50 Hz and f i l t e r e d a t 6 Hz; peak power was c o m p u t e d f r o m t h e s e d a t a ( A p p e n d i x 4 ) . The t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e a d v i s e r o r r e s e a r c h e r , u s i n g a s t a n d a r d p r o t o c o l . A r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t o p e r a t e d t h e c o m p u t e r . The p r o c e d u r e i s more f u l l y e x p l a i n e d b e l o w ( p . 7 6 ) a n d i n A p p e n d i x 3. F l e x i b i l i t y . The c o n t r o l g r o u p was r e q u i r e d t o c a r r y o u t a f l e x i b i l i t y t r a i n i n g programme c o m p a r a b l e ( i n f r e q u e n c y and i n t i m e i n v o l v e d ) t o t h e s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . F l e x i b i l i t y was m e a s u r e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g and end o f t h e t r a i n i n g p e r i o d a s b e i n g l i k e l y t o m a i n t a i n a d h e r e n c e by t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , r a t h e r t h a n a s a n e x p e r i m e n t a l v a r i a b l e . The d a t a were n o t a n a l y s e d . The s i t a n d r e a c h method d e s c r i b e d b y W e l l s a n d D i l l o n ( 1 9 5 2 ) was u s e d a n d a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . M u s c l e B u l k . The FCA o f b o t h u p p e r arms was e s t i m a t e d b y a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e method u s e d b y M o r i t a n i and de V r i e s ( 1 9 8 0 ) u s i n g two s k i n f o l d s ( b i c e p s and t r i c e p s ) , i n s t e a d o f f o u r . M o s t s t u d i e s w i t h a d u l t s h a v e b e e n c a r r i e d o u t u s i n g o n l y one s k i n f o l d ( t r i c e p s ) ; norms u s i n g t h i s method have b e e n p u b l i s h e d ( B i s h o p , Bowen, & R i t c h e 6 y , 1 9 8 1 ; McEvoy & J a m es, 1 9 8 2 ) . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , o n l y c h a n g e o v e r t i m e was o f i n t e r e s t . A n t h r o p o m e t r i c methods have b e e n u s e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e c h a n g e s i n m u s c l e b u l k r e l a t i n g t o m a t u r a t i o n (Ross & M a r f e l l - J o n e s , 1982) and t r a i n i n g ( M o r i t a n i & de V r i e s , 1980). The method Is c o n s i d e r e d r e l i a b l e i n the hands of an experienced person (Burr & P h i l l i p s , 1984). In the present study a l l anthropometric measures were made by an experienced measurer. C o r r e l a t i o n s I n d i c a t e d the r e l i a b i l i t y of the measurement ( s u b j e c t r e l i a b i l i t y ) . In the combined groups, r i g h t and l e f t FCA were c o r r e l a t e d (r = .91 f o r I n i t i a l t e s t i n g and r = .86 f o r f i n a l t e s t i n g ) . In the c o n t r o l group, i n i t i a l and f i n a l FCA were c o r r e l a t e d r = .91 f o r l e f t FCA and .93 f o r r i g h t FCA. The c a l c u l a t i o n used i s shown i n Appendix 5. The P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measure P h y s i c a l S e l f - e f f i c a c y A p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r c e i v e d s e l f - e f f I c a c y f o r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and s t r e n g t h changes as a r e s u l t of t r a i n i n g was i n v e s t i g a t e d . The p h y s i c a l s e l f - e f f i c a c y s c a l e (PSE) developed by Ryckman e t a l . (1982) has two f a c t o r s : (1) P e r c e i v e d P h y s i c a l A b i l i t y (PPA) which assessed p e r c e p t i o n of p h y s i c a l a b i l i t i e s , s t r e n g t h and f i t n e s s ; and (2) P h y s i c a l S e l f -P r e s e n t a t i o n Confidence (PSPC), which assessed confidence i n the p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n of these a b i l i t i e s . A s e r i e s of s t u d i e s by Ryckman et a l . (1982) showed t h a t the PPA was a b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r of involvement i n s p o r t and of s k i l l performance than PSPC. Other s t u d i e s i n the s e r i e s i n v e s t i g a t e d c o n s i s t e n c y , r e l i a b i l i t y , convergent v a l i d i t y and p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y . They y i e l d e d the f o l l o w i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s : (1) I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c i e s f o r t h e s c a l e s , a s s e s s e d by c o e f f i c i e n t a l p h a ( C r o n b a c h , 1951) were .81 f o r P S E , .84 f o r PPA, a n d .74 f o r PSPC. (2) t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y a f t e r s i x weeks ( r = .80; p < . 0 0 1 ) . (3) c o n v e r g e n t v a l i d i t y , t e s t e d b y e x a m i n i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n PSE a n d o t h e r m e a s u r e s o f p h y s i c a l s e l f -c o n c e p t . The s t r o n g e s t c o r r e l a t i o n was t h a t w i t h t h e T e n n e s s e e P h y s i c a l S e l f - c o n c e p t S c a l e (TPSC) ( r = .58, p = < . 0 0 1 ) . (4) p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s c a l e , i n v e s t i g a t e d b y t h r s t u d i e s : ( a ) r e l a t i n g PSE s c o r e s t o a m e a s u r e o f s p o r t s e x p e r i e n c e r e p o r t e d b y t h e s u b j e c t s (N = 96) a n d o f t h e i r p r e s e n t s p o r t s i n v o l v e m e n t , a nd (b) r e l a t i n g PSE s c o r e s t o p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e same s u b j e c t s on a t e s t o f p h y s i c a l s k i l l ( d a r t s - t h r o w i n g ) . I n b o t h ( a ) and (b) PSE was a b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r t h a n t h e TPSC s u b s c a l e o r t h e H e a l t h L o c u s o f C o n t r o l . ( c ) A f i n a l s t u d y r e l a t e d PSE s c o r e s a nd a t e s t o f r e a c t i o n - t i m e (N = 2 2 ) ; s t u d e n t s whose PSE s c o r e s were f a v o u r a b l e had f a s t e r r e a c t i o n t i m e s ( p < . 0 3 ) . The P h y s i c a l S e l f - e f f I c a c v S c a l e The s c a l e c o n s i s t s o f 22 s t a t e m e n t s ( A p p e n d i x 6) t o w h i c h s u b j e c t s r e s p o n d on a s i x - p o i n t L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e , f r o m 1 ( s t r o n g l y a g r e e ) t o 6 ( s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e ) . H i g h e r s c o r e s r e f l e c t a s t r o n g e r s e n s e o f p h y s i c a l s e l f - e f f i c a c y . To c o n t r o l f o r a c q u i e s c e n c e r e s p o n s e s e t , p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e s r e q u i r e a g r e e m e n t i n h a l f t h e q u e s t i o n s a n d d i s a g r e e m e n t i n h a l f (Ryckman e t a l . , 1 9 8 2 ) . The 9 t h i t e m i n t h e Ryckman 73 s c a l e ("I am n e v e r i n t i m i d a t e d b y t h e t h o u g h t o f a s e x u a l e n c o u n t e r " ) was p u t l a s t I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . D u r i n g p i l o t t e s t i n g i t was o b s e r v e d o l d e r women were o f t e n s t a r t l e d by t h i s i t e m , a n d f r e q u e n t l y d i d n o t r e s p o n d t o I t . I t was f e a r e d t h a t r e a c t i o n t o t h e i t e m m i g h t c a u s e a c h a n g e i n a t t i t u d e d u r i n g m e a s u r e m e n t . T h i s m e asure was a d m i n i s t e r e d b y t h e r e s e a r c h e r , u s i n g a s t a n d a r d p r o t o c o l ( A p p e n d i x 7 ) . A p i l o t s t u d y f o r t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I n w h i c h t h e PSE was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a g r o u p o f 56 o l d e r women, f o u n d t h e s c o r e s (M_ - 88.57, £P_ = 13.6) somewhat l o w e r t h a n , b u t s i m i l a r t o , t h o s e f o u n d b y Ryckman e t a l . i n t h e i r p i l o t s t u d y w i t h 83 m a l e s t u d e n t s (M_ = 9 8 . 5 4 , SP_ = 1 3 . 8 5 ) . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n b y G o d l n a n d S h e p h a r d ( 1 9 8 5 ) i n d i c a t e d l o w e r mean s c o r e s i n women t h a n i n men b u t no e v i d e n c e o f an age e f f e c t . No s t u d i e s r e l a t i n g PSE a n d s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g were f o u n d , b u t G a y t o n , M a t t h e w s a n d B u r c h s t e a d f o u n d PSE s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t i m e s i n m a r a t h o n r a c e s i n 22 men and 11 women ( r = - . 4 7 , p < .01) and E w a r t e t a l . ( 1 9 8 6 ) f o u n d s p e c i f i c s e l f - e f f I c a c y t o be r e l a t e d t o s t r e n g t h g a i n s a f t e r t r a i n i n g i n 20 o l d e r men ( p < . 0 0 1 ) . The r e s u l t s o f t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f c o n v e r g e n t v a l i d i t y r e p o r t e d b y Ryckman e t a l . ( 1 9 8 2 ) were c o n s i d e r e d a d e q u a t e e v i d e n c e o f t e s t v a l i d i t y . As a l r e a d y n o t e d , t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h a t s t u d y were c o l l e g e age s t u d e n t s ; o l d e r women may r e s p o n d d i f f e r e n t l y . To s e e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e two f a c t o r s (PPA and PSPC) r e p o r t e d b y Ryckman e t a l . ( 1 9 8 2 ) were p r e s e n t , t h e i n i t i a l d a t a f r o m t h e 56 s t u d y s u b j e c t s were c o m b i n e d w i t h d a t a f r o m 56 o l d e r women who t o o k p a r t i n a p i l o t s t u d y ( t o t a l N = 1 1 2 ) . P r i n c i p l e c o m p o n e n t s a n a l y s i s w i t h v a r l m a x r o t a t i o n 74 u s i n g t h e BMD p r o g r a m P4M ( D i x o n , 1 9 8 5 , p.480) d i d n o t i d e n t i f y a n y f a c t o r s . I n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e PSE f o r o l d e r women was a s s e s s e d b y c o e f f i c i e n t a l p h a ( C r o n b a c h , 1951) w i t h d a t a f r o m t h e same 112 s u b j e c t s u s e d i n f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . The c o n t r i b u t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l t e s t i t e m s t o t h e v a r i a n c e was e x a m i n e d , s i n c e i t seemed p o s s i b l e t h a t i t e m s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e v a r i a n c e when u s e d w i t h men s u b j e c t s m i g h t n o t do s o when u s e d w i t h o l d e r women. C o e f f i c i e n t a l p h a was i n c r e a s e d f r o m .69 t o .71 by t h e e x c l u s i o n o f two i t e m s ; i n t h e s t u d y b y Ryckman e t a l . ( 1 9 8 2 ) a c o e f f i c i e n t a l p h a o f .81 was o b t a i n e d . The i t e m s e x c l u d e d were i t e m 10 ( I am n o t h e s i t a n t a b o u t d i s a g r e e i n g w i t h p e o p l e b i g g e r t h a n me) a n d i t e m 17 ( S o m e t i m e s I f e e l u n c o m f o r t a b l e s h a k i n g h a n ds b e c a u s e my hands a r e c l a m m y ) . I t seemed r e a s o n a b l e t o s u p p o s e t h a t n e i t h e r o f t h e s e w o u l d be a s i m p o r t a n t t o women, e s p e c i a l l y o l d e r women, a s t o t h e y o u n g men s u b j e c t s i n t h e ( 1 9 8 2 ) s t u d y b y Ryckman e t a l . ; most women a r e a c c u s t o m e d t o b e i n g s m a l l e r t h a n a t l e a s t h a l f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , a n d o l d e r women a r e p r o b a b l y l e s s l i k e l y t h a n men t o c o n s i d e r h a n d s h a k i n g a n i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l h a b i t . A l l t h e o r i g i n a l 22 i t e m s were i n c l u d e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e u s e d , b u t t h e PSE s c o r e f o r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s was t h e sum o f t h e r e s p o n s e s t o 20 i t e m s , i . e . , m i n u s i t e m s 10 and 17. P r o c e d u r e E a c h s u b j e c t was r a n d o m l y a l l o c a t e d t o e x p e r i m e n t a l o r c o n t r o l g r o u p s b e f o r e t h e f i r s t m e e t i n g w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r , b u t was n o t i n f o r m e d w h i c h g r o u p s h e was i n u n t i l i n i t i a l t e s t i n g had b e e n c o m p l e t e d . T h u s , t h e r e w o u l d be no c h a n c e t h a t t h i s k n o w l e d g e c o u l d a f f e c t h e r p e r f o r m a n c e e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e s t r e n g t h a n d power m e a s u r e s ( s h e m i g h t t h i n k t h e m l e s s i m p o r t a n t i f s h e knew s h e was " o n l y " I n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p ) . No way was f o u n d t o c o n t r o l f o r t h i s e f f e c t i n t h e f i n a l m e a s u r e . S u b j e c t s were a r r a n g e d I n f i v e g r o u p s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 12 a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d a y a n d t i m e t h e y were a v a i l a b l e . I n i t i a l M e a s u r e m e n t s E a c h o f t h e f i v e g r o u p s a t t e n d e d a t t h e UBC B i o m e c h a n i c s L a b o r a t o r y , e a c h s u b j e c t on two o c c a s i o n s a week a p a r t . S u b j e c t R e c o r d S h e e t s ( A p p e n d i x 8a & 8b) were m a i n t a i n e d f o r e a c h s u b j e c t a n d a l l d a t a r e c o r d e d t h e r e o n . S t r e e t c l o t h e s c o u l d be w o r n , b u t s u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o wear c o m f o r t a b l e d r e s s , w i t h s h o r t s l e e v e s . F i r s t Day. On t h e f i r s t v i s i t , s u b j e c t s b e g a n b y c o m p l e t i n g PAR-Q ( A p p e n d i x 9 ) , a p h y s i c a l r e a d i n e s s q u e s t i o n n a i r e (B.C. M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h , 1 9 7 8 ) , t o i d e n t i f y t h o s e f o r whom t h e t r a i n i n g m i g h t p o s e a m e d i c a l p r o b l e m . Two s u b j e c t s were a d v i s e d t o w i t h d r a w a t t h i s s t a g e f o r m e d i c a l r e a s o n s . A f t e r g i v i n g i n f o r m e d c o n s e n t ( A p p e n d i x 1 0 ) , s u b j e c t s saw d e m o n s t r a t i o n s o f t h e t r a i n i n g a n d measurement p r o c e d u r e s , i . e . , d u m b e l l t r a i n i n g , measurement o f 6RM, a n d use o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l dynamometer. H e i g h t s a n d w e i g h t s o f t h e s u b j e c t s were m e a s u r e d a n d r e c o r d e d a n d a p p o i n t m e n t s made a t 15 m i n I n t e r v a l s o v e r t h e f o l l o w i n g 3 1/2 h o u r s f o r them t o c o m p l e t e t h e t e s t i n g . A t t h e a p p o i n t e d t i m e s , a n t h r o p o m e t r i c m e a s u r e s were t a k e n o f h e i g h t ( f r o m t h e f l o o r ) o f r a d i a l e a n d d a c t y l i o n . R a d i a l e h e i g h t was u s e d t o a d j u s t t h e p l a t f o r m s e t t i n g , a n d b o t h m e a s u r e s t o c a l c u l a t e t h e l e n g t h o f t h e f o r e a r m ( A p p e n d i x 1 5 ) , a n d f r o m t h a t t o e s t i m a t e t h e c o r r e c t h a n d l e s e t t i n g . E a c h s u b j e c t was f a m i l i a r i z e d w i t h t h e a p p a r a t u s a n d methods t o be u s e d a n d g i v e n c o n s i d e r a b l e p r a c t i c e on t h e dynamometer. Two r e l a t e d m e a s u r e s were d e t e r m i n e d f o r e a c h s u b j e c t : (1) The maximum w e i g h t e a c h was p r e p a r e d t o l i f t a t 6RM; t h i s was t h e d e p e n d e n t measure o f s t r e n g t h . The p r o c e d u r e u s e d i s f u l l y d e s c r i b e d i n A p p e n d i x 1. T h i s w e i g h t m i n u s .5 k g was t h e b e g i n n i n g w e i g h t u s e d d u r i n g d u m b e l l t r a i n i n g b y t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . ( 2 ) The maximum dynamometer w e i g h t e a c h c o u l d l i f t w i t h o u t s t r a i n i n g , a f a c t o r i n t h e d e p e n d e n t measure o f power. The p r o c e d u r e i n c l u d e d t e n p r a c t i c e t r i a l s a n d t h r e e r e c o r d e d t r i a l s a t e a c h o f t h r e e d i f f e r e n t w e i g h t s ( b e g i n n i n g w i t h 6RM m i n u s 1.0 k g ) , and i s f u l l y d e s c r i b e d i n A p p e n d i x 3. The w e i g h t t h u s d e t e r m i n e d was t h e s u b j e c t ' s e s t a b l i s h e d l o a d . On c o m p l e t i o n , a p p o i n t m e n t s were made f o r s u b j e c t s t o r e t u r n a week l a t e r , a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same t i m e o f d a y , t o c o m p l e t e t e s t i n g . I t w o u l d have b e e n q u i t e t i r i n g f o r t h e s u b j e c t s t o c o m p l e t e t h e f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n p r o c e s s ( t e n t r i a l s ) , t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f e s t a b l i s h e d l o a d ( n i n e t r i a l s ) , a n d t h e measurement o f 6RM a n d peak power a l l on t h e same d a y . S e c o n d Day. On t h i s o c c a s i o n , t h e f i n a l one f o r t h e i n i t i a l m e a s u r e m e n t s , e a c h s u b j e c t f i r s t c o m p l e t e d t h e PSE ( A p p e n d i x 6 ) . A s t a n d a r d i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was u s e d ( A p p e n d i x 7 ) . A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l m e a s u r e s were t h e n made: r i g h t a n d l e f t b i c e p s a n d t r i c e p s s k i n f o l d s , r i g h t a n d l e f t a r m g i r t h . Peak power a t t h e e s t a b l i s h e d l o a d on t h e dynamometer, a nd f l e x i b i l i t y were m e a s u r e d . A l m o s t a l l s u b j e c t s were a b l e t o a t t e n d on t h e d a y s a p p o i n t e d , b u t s p e c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s had t o be made f o r t h r e e s t r a g g l e r s . T r a i n i n g P e r i o d On c o m p l e t i o n o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , e a c h s u b j e c t was i n f o r m e d w h e t h e r s h e was i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p o r i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . A l l s u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o b e g i n t r a i n i n g ( a t home) a f t e r a d a y o r two o f r e s t , t h r e e t i m e s a week, e i t h e r Monday, Wednesday a nd F r i d a y , o r T u e s d a y , T h u r s d a y a n d S a t u r d a y , f o r 12 weeks. T h i s was a c o n v e n i e n t p e r i o d , e n d i n g b e f o r e t h e C h r i s t m a s h o l i d a y s , a n d s h o r t e n o u g h t o k e e p s u b j e c t s i n v o l v e d . Some d e p a r t u r e s f r o m t h e t r a i n i n g r e g i m e were a c c e p t e d a s i n e v i t a b l e , b u t t o l e r a b l e s i n c e t h e c o n v e n i e n c e o f t r a i n i n g a t home was e x p e c t e d t o e n c o u r a g e a d h e r e n c e ( G e t t m a n , P o l l o c k , & Ward, 1 9 8 3 ) . An e f f o r t was made t o l i m i t t h e s e d e p a r t u r e s f r o m t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e b y c h e c k i n g e a c h s u b j e c t i n b o t h g r o u p s i n p e r s o n a t l e a s t t h r e e t i m e s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d . The t r a i n i n g f o r t h e two g r o u p s was a s f o l l o w s : E x p e r i m e n t a l G r o u p . The w e i g h t - t r a i n i n g method ( b i c e p s c u r l s i n s e t s o f 6 ) , a l r e a d y p r a c t i c e d d u r i n g measurement o f 6RM, was r e v i e w e d . E a c h member o f t h e g r o u p was g i v e n w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t r a i n i n g ( A p p e n d i x 1 1 ) , a s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g R e c o r d S h e e t on w h i c h t o r e c o r d d a t e s a n d t i m e s o f t r a i n i n g ( A p p e n d i x 12) and a d u m b e l l o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e w e i g h t (6RM 78 l e s s .5 kg). Each person began t r a i n i n g u sing one s e t of s i x r e p e t i t i o n s , and worked up to three s e t s . During the f i r s t week, each s u b j e c t was checked to ensure t h a t the weight was a p p r o p r i a t e . In three cases, the weight was i n c r e a s e d by .5 kg a t t h i s time. During the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d , weights were in c r e a s e d by .5 kg three times, at approximately t h r e e , s i x , and nine weeks; i t was i m p r a c t i c a l to keep e x a c t l y on schedule f o r these changes. Most s u b j e c t s were ready to i n c r e a s e weight on schedule, and a l l except two d i d i n c r e a s e three times. Each s u b j e c t i n the group was seen and t r a i n i n g method checked a t these times. C o n t r o l Group. Each member of the c o n t r o l group was shown how to perform Phase I of the f l e x i b i l i t y t r a i n i n g and given w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s (Appendix 13a), and a f l e x i b i l i t y t r a i n i n g Record Sheet on which to r e c o r d t r a i n i n g (Appendix 14). Each s u b j e c t was contacted i n person or by telephone a t about three weeks and nine weeks to answer que s t i o n s and review p r o g r e s s . Two phases of t r a i n i n g were used to provide p r o g r e s s i o n and maintain i n t e r e s t . At about s i x weeks a l l s u b j e c t s were seen a t a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n , and shown how to do Phase I I . W r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s were provided (Appendix 13b). F i n a l Measurement At the end of the 12 weeks of t r a i n i n g , a l l s u b j e c t s r e t u r n e d , as f a r as p o s s i b l e i n the o r i g i n a l f i v e groups, to the c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n . PSE, 6RM, peak power, s k i n f o l d s , arm g i r t h s , and f l e x i b i l i t y were a l l measured agai n , and weight was recorded. PSE was i n c l u d e d as i n the f i r s t measurement i n order to keep the t e s t c o n d i t i o n s uniform. Although an e f f o r t was made to repeat the t e s t i n g on the same day of the week and a t t h e same t i m e f o r e a c h s u b j e c t , i t was n o t a l w a y s p o s s i b l e . A g a i n some s p e c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s had t o be made f o r s t r a g g l e r s . A l l t r a i n i n g R e c o r d S h e e t s were c o l l e c t e d . S u b j e c t s i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p were o f f e r e d s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g , a n d t h o s e i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p were o f f e r e d f l e x i b i l i t y t r a i n i n g . D a t a A n a l y s i s overview of pata To a s s e s s n o r m a l i t y a n d c h e c k f o r e x t r e m e v a l u e s , d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s a n d h i s t o g r a m s o f a l l m e a s u r e d v a r i a b l e s were c o m p u t e d f o r t h e c o m b i n e d g r o u p s a nd f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s s e p a r a t e l y , u s i n g t h e BMD p r o g r a m P3D ( D i x o n , 1 9 8 5 , p . 9 4 ) . O n l y c o m p l e t e c a s e s were u s e d . I n a d d i t i o n , a m a t r i x o f c o r r e l a t i o n s was c o m p u t e d ( P e a r s o n p r o d u c t - m o m e n t c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ) b e t w e e n a l l v a r i a b l e s ( a n d f o r c h a n g e s c o r e s f o r 6RM and peak power) f o r b o t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , a nd f o r t h e c o m b i n e d g r o u p s . The BMD p r o g r a m P8D ( D i x o n , 1 9 8 5 , p.209) was u s e d . T h e s e m a t r i c e s g ave a g e n e r a l e x p l o r a t o r y v i e w o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e v a r i a b l e s . P h y s i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s M e a s u r e s o f t h r e e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s (6RM, peak power, an d FCA) were u s e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e m u s c l e c h a n g e s o v e r t i m e w i t h t r a i n i n g . B e c a u s e t h e y were p o t e n t i a l l y c o r r e l a t e d , s i g n i f i c a n c e was t e s t e d b y m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (MANOVA), u s i n g t h e BMD p r o g r a m P4V ( D i x o n , 1 9 8 5 , p.388, 3 9 5 ) . One g r o u p i n g f a c t o r ( e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l ) a n d one w i t h i n f a c t o r ( t i m e ) were u s e d , w i t h r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s on t h e t h r e e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . F o r a n a l y s i s t o c o n t i n u e , a s i g n i f i c a n t H o t e l l i n g ' s T2 was r e q u i r e d b e t w e e n g r o u p s . The a n a l y s i s a f t e r a s i g n i f i c a n t MANOVA c o n s i s t e d o f a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r t h e t h r e e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s s e p a r a t e l y . P h y s i c a l s e l f - e f f I c a c y (PSE) The m a t r i x o f c o r r e l a t i o n s a l r e a d y r e f e r r e d t o was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t PSE was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h mean c h a n g e s i n 6RM o r i n peak power. RESULTS The women who t o o k p a r t i n t h e s t u d y f o l l o w e d t h e i r programmes v e r y c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y . A d h e r e n c e ( c a l c u l a t e d f r o m r e c o r d s h e e t s a s t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f p o s s i b l e t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s r e p o r t e d t o have been c o m p l e t e d ) was 9 2 . 4 % i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . T h r e e s u b j e c t s i n t h i s g r o u p d i d n o t r e t u r n r e c o r d s h e e t s , a n d were s c o r e d a s h a v i n g 5 0 % a d h e r e n c e . M ost t r a i n i n g l a p s e s o c c u r r e d i n t h e l a s t week o f t r a i n i n g , d u r i n g w h i c h t e s t i n g was b e g i n n i n g . D a t a were a n a l y s e d u s i n g p < .05 a s t h e c r i t e r i o n f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a l l s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s . A c h a n g e o f 1 0 % I n s t r e n g t h o r power was c o n s i d e r e d o f p r a c t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e . S u c h a c h a n g e i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be o f t h e r a p e u t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e ( W e s s e l , 1 9 8 5 ) . A n i a n s s o n ( 1 9 8 4 ) r e p o r t e d 7 - 1 3 % s t r e n g t h g a i n s i n h e r g r o u p o f o l d e r women a f t e r t e n m o n t h s . An i n c r e a s e o f 5% i n FCA was c o n s i d e r e d t o be o f p r a c t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e . M o r i t a n i a n d de V r i e s r e p o r t e d g a i n s i n FCA o f 9% i n t h e i r y o u n g men s u b j e c t s ; y o u n g women g e n e r a l l y show l e s s h y p e r t r o p h y w i t h t r a i n i n g t h a n men, and 5% was c o n s i d e r e d c o n s e r v a t i v e . When i n i t i a l a n d f i n a l m e a s u r e m e n t s were c o m p a r e d , t h e m a i n f i n d i n g s were a s f o l l o w s : ( 1) S t r e n g t h o f t h e r i g h t a r m i n f l e x i o n i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p a s comp a r e d t o t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . (2) Arm power was s l i g h t l y l o w e r a n d FCA a l m o s t u n c h a n g e d i n b o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s . (3) I n i t i a l s c o r e s on PSE were n o t f o u n d t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e c h a n g e s i n 6RM o r t o peak power. I n t h e f o l l o w i n g , " c o m b i n e d g r o u p s " r e f e r s t o t h e t o t a l s u b j e c t s , e x p e r i m e n t a l p l u s c o n t r o l g r o u p s . D e s c r i p t i o n o f S u b j e c t s The s u b j e c t s were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l l y u p p e r m i d d l e c l a s s a r e a f r o m w h i c h t h e y came. I n a n s w e r t o t h e q u e s t i o n " A r e y o u o v e r age 65 a n d n o t a c c u s t o m e d t o v i g o r o u s e x e r c i s e ? " (PAR-Q. B.C. M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h , 1 9 7 8 ) , o f t h o s e o v e r 6 5, t e n r e p l i e d " Y e s " a n d t e n r e p l i e d "No". S u b j e c t s were s c r e e n e d o n l y f o r c o n t r a -i n d i c a t i o n f o r arm f l e x o r t r a i n i n g , a n d I n c l u d e d women w i t h d i s o r d e r s s u c h a s a r t h r i t i s , o s t e o p o r o s i s , c o n t r o l l e d h y p e r t e n s i o n , c i r c u l a t o r y p r o b l e m s , a n d o b e s i t y . F o r women i n t h e i r age g r o u p , t h e s e a r e " n o r m a l " d i s o r d e r s , b u t a r e o f t h e t y p e o f t e n s c r e e n e d o u t i n p o p u l a t i o n s t u d i e s o f f i t n e s s . The s a m p l e was l a r g e e nough f o r p h y s i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s t o be n e a r t h e p o p u l a t i o n a v e r a g e s f o r C a n a d a . The 68 s u b j e c t s o r i g i n a l l y r e c r u i t e d were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d ( b e f o r e i n t e r v i e w , t o a v o i d e x p e r i m e n t e r b i a s ) t o e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p , 34 i n e a c h g r o u p . T h e r e were 13 d r o p o u t s o r w i t h d r a w a l s , r e d u c i n g t h e t o t a l t o 55: n i n e d i d n o t k e e p t h e f i r s t a p p o i n t m e n t f o r t e s t i n g , two were a d v i s e d t o w i t h d r a w f o r m e d i c a l r e a s o n s a f t e r c o m p l e t i n g PAR-Q ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h ) , a n d two d r o p p e d o u t d u r i n g t r a i n i n g . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , 11 o f t h e s e had been a s s i g n e d t o t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p a n d o n l y two t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . Thus t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p had 23 s u b j e c t s a n d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p 32, a t o t a l o f 55. 83 F i v e o f t h e 55 c a s e s were i n c o m p l e t e , s o t h a t t h e r e were 50 c o m p l e t e c a s e s f o r a n a l y s i s , 30 I n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p and 20 i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . Of t h e 50, 18 had r e p o r t e d m i n o r m e d i c a l d i s o r d e r s , n i n e i n e a c h o f t h e g r o u p s . F o r one s u b j e c t i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , t h e i n i t i a l m e a s ure o f PSE was i n c o m p l e t e , s o t h a t t h e r e were 29 c o m p l e t e c a s e s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p f o r PSE, and 20 i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . The means o f t h e f i v e i n c o m p l e t e c a s e s f o r age (60.2 y e a r s ) , h e i g h t ( 1 6 0 . 5 1 cm), w e i g h t ( 6 6 . 7 3 kg) and PSE ( 9 3 ) were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e c o m b i n e d g r o u p s . A l t h o u g h f l e x i b i l i t y was m e a s u r e d a nd r e c o r d e d t h e d a t a were n o t u s e d i n a n a l y s i s . Age, h e i g h t , a n d w e i g h t d a t a f o r t h e s u b j e c t s i s g i v e n i n T a b l e 2. S u b j e c t s were on a v e r a g e s l i g h t l y t a l l e r t h a n t h e p o p u l a t i o n a v e r a g e o f a b o u t 159 cm f o r women a g e d 6 0 - 6 9 . The e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p was s l i g h t l y l i g h t e r a n d t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p T a b l e 2 Age ( y r s ) , H e i g h t ( c m ) , and Body W e i g h t ( k g ) o f S u b j e c t s B e f o r e T r a i n i n g Mean s d Maximum Minimum E x p t l . Age ( y r s ) 63.3 4.9 76 55 (n=30) H e i g h t (cm) 161.1 5.9 171.5 148.0 W e i a h t ( k a ) 63.0 7.1 79.8 49.0 C o n t r o l Age ( y r s ) 60.8 4 . 7 68 50 n=20 H e i g h t (cm) 161.5 5.2 172.1 151.8 W e i a h t ( k a ) 67.0 11.3 87.5 50.4 T o t a l b Age ( y r s ) 62.3 4.9 76 50 (n=50) H e i g h t (cm) 161.3 5.6 172.1 148.0 W e i a h t ( k a ) 64.6 9.1 87.5 49.0 84 s l i g h t l y h e a v i e r t h a n t h e p o p u l a t i o n a v e r a g e o f a b o u t 64 kg f o r women a g e d 60-69 ( p o p u l a t i o n a v e r a g e s f r o m Canada F i t n e s s S u r v e y , 1 9 8 3 ) . The i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e means f o r a g e , h e i g h t , w e i g h t , FCA a n d PSE ( b o t h f o r m s ) f o r t h e two g r o u p s were n o t f o u n d t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t when a n a l y s e d b y MANOVA. As p a r t o f t h e i n i t i a l a n a l y s i s , t h e L e v e n e t e s t f o r e q u a l i t y o f v a r i a n c e was made b e t w e e n v a r i a b l e s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p a n d t h o s e i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . The v a r i a n c e s were homogeneous e x c e p t t h o s e f o r f i n a l w e i g h t , f o r i n i t i a l l e f t a n d r i g h t FCA, and f o r f i n a l r i g h t FCA ( p > .05 b u t < .10 i n a l l f o u r c a s e s ) . A m o d e r a t e d e p a r t u r e f r o m i h o m e g e n e i t y s u c h a s t h i s s h o u l d n o t s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e ( F e r g u s o n , 1 977, p . 2 4 6 ) . The s u b j e c t s were c o n s i d e r e d t o be a n a p p r o p r i a t e s a m p l e f o r t h i s s t u d y . C o r r e l a t i o n . The c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i c e s f o r a l l v a r i a b l e s ( s e p a r a t e l y c o m p u t e d f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l , c o n t r o l , a n d c o m b i n e d g r o u p s ) i n d i c a t e d no c o r r e l a t i o n s u p p o r t i n g t h e h y p o t h e s e s f o r t h e s t u d y ( T a b l e s 3, 4, a n d 5, p . 8 5 - 8 7 ) . S t r e n g t h . Power a n d FCA: H y p o t h e s e s l r 2 r and 3 Cha n g e s o v e r T i m e . Means a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r 6RM ( k g ) , peak power (W) and ( r i g h t ) FCA ( c m 2 ) , and f o r c h a n g e s i n t h e s e v a r i a b l e s i n t h e c o m b i n e d , e x p e r i m e n t a l , a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p b e f o r e a n d a f t e r t r a i n i n g a r e shown i n . T a b l e 6. T h e s e c h a n g e s were a n a l y s e d b y m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (MANOVA). Table 3: Correlation Matrix for all Variables: Experiaental Group. AGE HEIGHT WT1 WT2 •RM1 RM2 FLEX 1 FLEX2 PEAK 1 PEAK2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 AGE 1 1 . oooo HEIGHT 2 - 0 . .2064 1 . OOOO WT1 3 - 0 . .3638 0. 1555 1 . OOOO WT2 4 - 0 . .3760 0. 0985 0. .9702 1 . .0000 RM1 5 - 0 . .2683 0. 2828 0. .4684 0 .4168 1 , ,0000 RM2 6 - 0 . 3426 0. 2009 0. 4632 0. .4298 0. 5200 1 . OOOO FLEX 1 7 - 0 . 2097 - 0 . 0367 0. 1679 0, ,1117 0, O074 0, .2858 1 . oooo FLEX2 a - 0 . 2762 0. 0444 0. 0380 - 0 . 0504 - 0 . 0003 0, 2408 0. .8898 1 , ,0000 PEAK 1 9 - 0 . 4030 0. 3232 0. 5892 0. . 5881 0. 64 15 0. . 5608 0. 22 10 0. . 1699 1 . OOOO PEAK2 10 -0 .4890 0. .2713 0, .5061 0 5231 0, ,4531 0, .5078 0. .2348 0, . 1562 0. 8582 1 . oooo ARML1 11 - 0 . .0209 - 0 . 1993 0. .6006 0. .6170 0. ,0550 0, .3031 0. . 1705 0, .0434 0. 2645 0. .3393 AMRL2 12 0. . 1273 - 0 . 2148 0, .4501 0 .4657 - 0 . ,0200 0, . 3645 - 0 . .0191 -0 .0682 0. . 1046 O, , 1055 ARMR1 13 0 .0486 - 0 . .2980 0. .5149 0 .5517 - 0 . .0718 0, .2351 0. . 1819 - 0 . .0254 0. 2114 0. .2345 ARMR2 14 -o. 0486 - 0 . 1875 0. 4485 0, .5084 - 0 . 1275 0. .2665 0. . 1625 0. ,0013 0. 1440 0. , 1753 PSE 1 15 -o. . 1976 O. 1418 - 0 . 1078 -o. ,0138 - 0 . .0301 - 0 . .0430 • o. .0017 -o. .0814 O. .2514 0. . 2435 PSE2 16 - 0 . 5023 0. 2407 0. 1075 0, , 1525 0. 2753 0. . 1933 -o. .0676 - 0 . .0968 0. 4851 0. 4319 RM 17 - 0 . , 1671 - 0 . 0060 0. 1383 0. , 1432 - 0 . .2379 0. ,7060 0. 3188 0, .3008 0. 1057 0. ,2017 PEAK 18 o. .0493 - 0 . 2188 - 0 . 3818 - 0 , 3544 - 0 . 5608 - 0 . .3246 - 0 . 0764 - 0 . ,0951 - 0 . 6488 - 0 . 1663 ARML1 AMRL2 ARMR1 ARMR2 PSE1 1 1 12 13 14 15 ARML1 11 1.0000 AMRL2 12 0.7742 1 . OOOO ARMR1 13 0.8177 0. .7736 1.OOOO ARMR2 14 0.7440 0. 7754 0.8653 1.OOOO PSE 1 15 0.0692 - 0 . .0664 0.1680 0.2083 1.0000 PSE2 16 0.0294 - 0 , . 1657 0.0192 0.0932 0.7291 RM 17 0.2990 0. .4311 0.3269 0.4088 -0 .0243 PEAK 18 -0.0051 -0 , .0445 -0 .0585 -0 .0166 -0.0986 i t o b m U t i f l f i a tu Y u l a b l e s A m i L e f t FCA, I n i t i a l PSE1 PSE, I n i t i a l ABHL2 L e f t FCA, F i n a l PSE2 PSE, F i n a l AEKE1 Eig h t FCA, I n i t i a l SHI 6SH Score, I n i t i a l AEH&Z Bight FCA, F i n a l SK2 in Score, F i n a l FLKI1 F l e x i b i l i t y , I n i t i a l Peat D i f f e r e n c e : PEAK2 - PEAK1 FLEX 2 F l e x i b i l i t y , F i n a l RH D i f f e r e n c e : RH2 - RM1 PEAI1 Peat Power, I n i t i a l PEAK 2 Peat Pover, F i n a l PSE2 RM PEAK 16 1.0000 -0.0038 -0 .2510 17 1.OOOO 0.0959 18 1.0000 00 Table 4: Correlation Matrix for all Variables: Control Broup. AGE HEIGHT WT 1 WT2 RM1 RM2 F LEX 1 FLEX2 PEAK 1 PEAK2 10 AGE 1 1 . oooo HEIGHT 2 - 0 . 3119 1 OOOO WT 1 3 - 0 . 0832 -0 .0236 1 WT2 4 - 0 . 0382 -0 .0153 0 RM1 5 -0 3898 -0 .0379 0 RM2 6 -0 3220 O 064 3 0 FLEX 1 7 o. . 1053 0 . 1457 -0 FLEX2 8 o .0403 0 .1251 -0 PEAK 1 9 -0 5256 0 06 13 0 PEAK2 10 -0 .5238 0 . 2074 0 ARML1 1 1 0 .0051 -0 . 0720 0 AMRL2 12 0 .0106 -0 .1231 0 ARMR1 13 0 .1114 -0 . 1904 0 ARMR2 14 -0 . 02 18 - 0 . 1923 0 PSE 1 15 -0 .2631 0. 0192 -0 PSE2 16 -0 . 1280 -o. 2 198 -0 RM 17 0 12 18 O 1556 -0 PEAK 18 0 24 17 0. 3104 -0 oooo 9209 1 . oooo 4697 0. 4680 1 . 0000 4533 0. 4022 0. 7869 1 . oooo 5595 - 0 . 5573 - 0 . 0803 0. 091 1 3579 - 0 . 3980 0. 1368 0. . 1456 5801 0. 4693 o 5869 o. 684 1 5948 0. 4869 0. 6535 0. 7 180 7488 0. 5366 0. 3089 0. 4864 8653 0. 74 1 1 0. 3584 0. 4297 7318 0. 5570 0. 3096 0. 504 3 7894 0. 6209 0. 3949 0. 5189 1054 - 0 . 14 13 0. 1773 0. 2723 0017 -o. 0169 0 0275 0 . 2681 0485 - o . 1227 -0 37 12 0 . 2809 2280 - 0 . 17 13 - 0 . 1 109 - 0 . 2308 1.oooo 0 8498 1 . oooo -o 0591 0. 1953 1 oooo -o. 0344 0. 2 137 0 9378 1 OOOO - 0 . 1346 0. 0650 0 6995 0 6117 -o 29 15 - 0 . 1087 o. 6503 0 5829 -o . 1497 0. 0530 0 6724 0. . 5630 - 0 . 2402 -0 0067 0. 7553 0 6842 0 .2145 0 3537 0 4446 0 4573 -0 .01 13 0 0279 0 3986 0 3685 0 . 2620 0. .0063 0. 1 167 0 0640 0 .0839 - 0 . .0456 - 0 . 5957 - 0 . 2799 ARML 1 AMRL2 ARMR1 ARMR2 PSE 1 PSE2 RM 1 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 ARML 1 1 1 1 .OOOO AMRL2 12 0 .9081 1 . OOOO ARMR 1 13 O .972 1 O. 8849 1 . OOOO ARMR2 14 O 8948 0. 8951 0. 9271 1 . OOOO PSE 1 15 O .0750 0 0696 o. 0421 0. 1502 1 . OOOO PSE2 16 0 . 1422 0 1002 0. 1607 0. 2 129 0. 7632 1 OOOO RM 17 0 . 2514 0. 0893 0. 2773 0 1667 0 1340 0. 3607 1 OOOO PEAK 18 -0 .5192 - 0 . 4498 -0 .5571 - 0 . 5059 - 0 . .1714 -0 .2500 -0.1747 PEAK 18 1.OOOO A b b r e v i a t i o n s f o r V a r i a b l e s A m i L e f t FCA, I n i t i a l mil L e f t FCA, F i n a l AIHB1 E i g h t FCA, I n i t i a l mil l i g h t FCA, F i n a l FL8X1 F l e x i b i l i t y , I n i t i a l FLBX2 F l e x i b i l i t y , F i n a l PEAK! Peat Power., I n i t i a l PEAI2 Peat Power, F i n a l PSE1 PSE, I n i t i a l PS82 PSE, F i n a l RBI (RM Score, I n i t i a l KH2 6RM Score, F i n a l Peak D i f f e r e n c e : PBAK2 - P E M l RM D i f f e r e n c e : IU2 - RBI 00 T a b l e 5: C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x f o r a l l V a r i a b l e s : Contained G r o u p s . AGE HEIGHT WEIGHT RM 1 RM2 FLEX 1 FLEX2 PEAK 1 PEAK2 ARML 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 io AGE 1 1 . oooo HEIGHT 2 - 0 . 2448 1 . OOOO WEIGHT 3 - 0 . . 2593 0 0729 1 . OOOO RM 1 4 - 0 . 3307 0. . 1528 0, 47 17 1 . OOOO RM2 5 - 0 . 1761 0. 1231 0. 281 1 0. 5066 1 . OOOO FLEX 1 6 - 0 . 0752 0. 024 1 - 0 . 1915 - 0 . 0349 0. 2240 1 , OOOO FLEX2 7 - 0 . 1647 0. 0699 - 0 . 13 13 0. 0524 0. 1850 0 8733 1 . OOOO PEAK1 8 -0 . 4751 0 .2181 O. 5928 O. 6196 O. 4519 0 .09 13 0. 174 1 1 . oooo PEAK2 9 - 0 . 5254 0 . 2422 0. 5740 0. 5583 0. 4 149 0 1002 0. 1710 0 9001 1 . OOOO 1 oooo ARML 1 10 - 0 . 0477 - 0 . . 1234 0. 7038 0. 2074 0. 2538 0 .0077 0. 0499 0. 5145 O 5096 AMRL2 1 1 0. 0359 - 0 . . 1602 0. 7090 0. 1937 O. 282 1 -0 15 10 -o. 08 10 0. 4077 o. 3854 O 8586 ARMR 1 12 0. .0269 - 0 . . 2343 0. 6540 0. 1393 0. 2181 0 .0200 0. O081 0. 4634 0. 4313 0 9079 ARMR2 13 -0 . 0684 - 0 . . 1760 0. 6657 0. 1663 0. 261 1 -0 .0373 -o. 0019 0. 4823 0. 4728 0. 8403 PSE 1 14 - 0 . 2224 0. 0844 - 0 . 0984 o. 08 24 O. 0746 o, 097 1 0. 1017 O 3528 o. 3560 0. .0749 PSE2 15 - 0 . .3119 0 .0517 0. 02 16 0. 1458 0. 2444 -0 .0398 - 0 . 0528 0 4055 0 361 1 0 0686 RM 16 0. .0810 0, ,0090 - 0 . 0823 - 0 . 2740 0. 6904 0 . 2791 0. 1674 -o. .0159 -0 0056 0. 1090 PEAK 17 O . 1122 -0 .0496 - 0 . . 2883 - 0 . 377 1 - 0 . 2609 -0 .0229 - 0 . 0802 -o. .6 103 -0 2042 -0 2295 AMRL2 ARMR 1 ARMR2 PSE 1 PSE2 RM PEAK 1 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 AMRL2 1 1 1 . OOOO ARMR 1 12 0. 8380 1 . OOOO ARMR2 13 0. 8497 o. . 9012 1 . OOOO PSE 1 14 0. 0157 0. 0997 0. 1755 1 . OOOO PSE2 15 - 0 . 0396 0. .0668 0. 1351 0. 7314 1 . OOOO RM 16 0. 152 1 0. . 1264 0. 1517 0. 0140 0. 1489 1 OOOO PEAK 17 -0 2154 - 0 . . 2571 - 0 . 2239 - 0 . 1298 - 0 . 2423 0 .0254 1 . OOOO Abbreviations f o r V a r i a b l e s ARHL1 L e f t FCA, I n i t i a l PSE1 PSE, I n i t i a l ARML2 L e f t FCA, F i n a l PSE2 PSE, F i n a l ARMRl Right FCA, I n i t i a l RM1 (RH Score, i n i t i a l ARMR 2 Right FCA, F i n a l RH2 6RH Score, F i n a l FLBX1 F l e x i b i l i t y , I n i t i a l Peak D i f f e r e n c e : PBAK2 - PBAK1 FIB 12 F l e x i b i l i t y , F i n a l RM D i f f e r e n c e : RH2 - RH1 PEARL Peak Pover, I n i t i a l PEAK 2 Peak Pover, F i n a l ro T a b l e 6 6RM, Peak P o w e r , a n d ( R i g h t ) FCA. Means, s t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s , a n d Changes B e f o r e a n d A f t e r T r a i n i n g E x p e r i m e n t a l C o n t r o l N = 30 N = 20 B e f o r e A f t e r Change B e f o r e A f t e r Change 6RM M 4. .28 5. ,46 1 .18 4. ,40 4. ,73 .32 (kg) SD .56 .78 .68 .68 .66 .44 *Peak power M 36. .27 33. .05 -3 .21 40, .66 37 , .35 -3.29 (W) SD 11, .69 9. .02 6 .08 13, .78 11, .53 4.98 Right FCA M 48. .60 49, .57 .97 51, .32 51, .63 .31 cm2) SD 6, .37 5, .94 ** 8, .64 9. .00 ** * Mean o f 5 t r i a l s ** N o t c a l c u l a t e d A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e . T a b l e 7 s u m m a r i z e s t h e MANOVA a n a l y s e s . A r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s 2 x 2 MANOVA ( g r o u p x t i m e ) , w i t h t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s 6RM, peak power a n d ( r i g h t ) FCA, y i e l d e d a n o v e r a l l s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p e f f e c t , F ( 3 , 4 6 ) = 4.9, p < .005; i . e . , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s when t h e sums o f i n i t i a l a n d f i n a l s c o r e s on a l l t h r e e v a r i a b l e s were c o m p a r e d . F o l l o w - u p u n i v a r i a t e t e s t s o f g r o u p e f f e c t a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e o n l y f o r 6RM, F ( 1 , 4 8 ) = 3.15 p < .082, a n d were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t f o r peak p o w e r , F ( 1 , 4 8 ) = 1.87, p > .17, o r f o r FCA, F ( 1 , 4 8 ) = 1.34, p > .25. The MANOVA a l s o showed a s i g n i f i c a n t o v e r a l l t i m e e f f e c t , F ( 3 , 4 6 ) = 30.82, p < .0001; i . e . , t h e ch a n g e o v e r t i m e i n t h e sum o f t h e s c o r e s on a l l t h r e e v a r i a b l e s f o r t h e c o m b i n e d g r o u p s was s i g n i f i c a n t . T h u s , f o l l o w - u p u n i v a r i a t e t e s t s f o r t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s were e x a m i n e d . The u n i v a r i a t e t e s t o f t i m e e f f e c t was s i g n i f i c a n t f o r 6RM, F ( 1 , 4 8 ) = 75.74, p < .0001, a nd f o r peak p o w e r , F ( 1 , 4 8 ) = 15.88, p < .002, b u t n o t f o r FCA, F ( 1 , 4 8 ) = 1.83, p > .18. Peak power c h a n g e d ( d e c r e a s e d ) i n b o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s . FCA d i d n o t c h a n g e i n e i t h e r g r o u p o r d i f f e r e n t i a l l y b e t w e e n g r o u p s . T a b l e 7 Summary o f MANOVA and F o l l o w - u p ANOVAs V a r i a b l e s : 6RM, Peak P o w e r , a n d FCA S o u r c e SS d f F p Bet w e e n G r o u p s : A l l 6RM Peak power FCA W i t h i n Times A l l 6RM Peak power FCA 15.3705 2.31882 455.219 136.995 96.4826 13.5901 253.760 9.90732 interaction. (Time x GEPUP) A H 6RM Peak power FCA 24.982 4.386 .02996 2.5742 3, 46 1, 48 1, 48 1, 48 3, 46 1, 48 1, 48 1, 48 3, 46 1, 48 1, 48 1, 48 4.91 3.15 1.87 1.34 30.82 75.74 15.76 1.83 7.98 24.44 .01 .48 0048 0823 1778 2524 0001 0001 0002 1821 0002 0001 ,9658 4934 The MANOVA o v e r a l l g r o u p b y t i m e i n t e r a c t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t , F ( 3 , 4 6 ) = 7.98, p < .0002; u n i v a r i a t e t e s t s o f t h i s e f f e c t were s i g n i f i c a n t f o r 6RM, F ( 1 , 4 8 ) = 24.44, p < .0001, b u t n o t f o r peak power, F (1, 4 8 ) < 1.00 o r f o r FCA, F (1,48) < 1.00; i . e . , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n cha n g e o v e r t i m e b e t w e e n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s , r e l a t e d o n l y t o 6RM ( F i g u r e 1 ) . TIME X TIME a F i g u r e 1. 6RM: g r o u p b y t i m e i n t e r a c t i o n . The c h a n g e I n mean s c o r e o v e r t i m e f o r 6RM was 1.18 k g (SD = . 6 8 ) . Under t h e t e s t c o n d i t i o n s , some s u b j e c t s d i d n o t c o m p l e t e 6RM a t t h e t r a i n i n g w e i g h t t h e y had b e e n u s i n g , b u t some u s e d a h i g h e r w e i g h t . B e c a u s e o f t h e l a r g e v a r i a n c e , a f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e c h a n g e s was p r e p a r e d . A l t h o u g h l e p t o k u r t i c , i t was o t h e r w i s e n o r m a l ( F i g u r e 2 ) . I n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , i n i t i a l and f i n a l s c o r e s were c o r r e l a t e d .79 . 91 lO , > ( i Z \i 3 a u a u —O _ 3 o O.S 1 _ O l.S 2.0 2.S CHANGE ZN £RM Chca> r F i g u r e 2. F r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r c h a n g e i n 6RM a f t e r 12 weeks t r a i n i n g . P h y a l n a l B e l f - e f f i r.ar.y i H y p o t h e s i s 4 The mean i n i t i a l s c o r e In t h e c o m b i n e d g r o u p s f o r PSE (N = 49) was 92.47 (SD = 12.80) when a l l 22 i t e m s were i n c l u d e d , a n d 81.98 (S.D. =12.78) when i t e m s 10 a n d 17 were e x c l u d e d ( s e e p. 7 4 ) . The f i v e i n c o m p l e t e c a s e s ( e x c l u d e d i n t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s ) had mean i n i t i a l PSE s c o r e s ( a l l 22 i t e m s i n c l u d e d ) o f 92.80 (S.D. = 11.79) a n d ( w i t h i t e m s 10 and 17 e x c l u d e d ) o f 82.60 (S.D.) = 1 1 . 3 5 . Ryckman ( 1 9 8 2 ) r e p o r t e d a mean s c o r e o f 98.54 (SD = 13.85) f o r h i s y o u n g men s u b j e c t s . G o d i n a nd S h e p h a r d ( 1 9 8 5 ) r e p o r t e d a mean PSE s c o r e o f 86.8 f o r o l d e r women. I n i t i a l s c o r e s f o r PSE ( a s amended by d e l e t i o n o f i t e m s 10 and 17) i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y l i n e a r l y r e l a t e d t o c h a n g e s o v e r t i m e i n 6RM, r ( 4 9 ) = .06 p > .10, o r i n peak power ( r (49) = - . 1 0 , p > .10, u s i n g t h e P e a r s o n p r o d u c t - m o m e n t c o r r e l a t i o n . However, t h e r e was a l i n e a r c o r r e l a t i o n i n t h e c o m b i n e d g r o u p s b e t w e e n PSE and peak power: b e t w e e n i n i t i a l PSE and i n i t i a l peak p o w e r , r ( 4 7 ) = .35, p < .01; b e t w e e n i n i t i a l PSE and f i n a l peak p o w e r , r ( 4 7 ) = .36, p < .01; and b e t w e e n f i n a l PSE and f i n a l peak power, r ( 4 7 ) = .36, p < .01. T h e r e was a l s o a c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n f i n a l PSE and i n i t i a l peak power, r (47) = .41, p < .01. T h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e D i s c u s s i o n s e c t i o n . 93 V DISCUSSION The r e s u l t s of the study supported the hypotheses t h a t weight t r a i n i n g would r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d s t r e n g t h as measured by 6RM, but not i n i n c r e a s e d muscle bulk. They d i d not support the hypotheses t h a t such t r a i n i n g would r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d power as measured on the dynamometer or t h a t PSE would be r e l a t e d to changes i n s t r e n g t h or power. St r e n g t h (6RM) Increase with T r a i n i n g S t rength as measured by 6RM i n c r e a s e d i n the experimental group by 1.18 kg, an improvement of 27.5% over the i n i t i a l s c o r e , s i g n i f i c a n t both s t a t i s t i c a l l y as shown by MANOVA (Table 7; p < .0001) and p r a c t i c a l l y . There was an Increase of 7.3% i n the c o n t r o l group. Thus, s t r e n g t h i n c r e a s e d by 20% more i n the experimental group than i n the c o n t r o l group. The change was v e r y s u b s t a n t i a l a f t e r o n l y 12 weeks. In the o n l y e a r l i e r study t h a t r e l a t e d t r a i n i n g to s t r e n g t h improvement i n o l d e r women, Aniansson (1984) r e p o r t e d i n c r e a s e s i n maximum knee extensor torque ( t e s t e d by Cybex) a f t e r 10 months of twice-weekly dynamic t r a i n i n g . Increases v a r i e d from 7-13%, i n v e r s e l y with t e s t i n g v e l o c i t y ; the maximum Increase was observed i n i s o m e t r i c measurement. In the present study, the c l o s e match between t r a i n i n g and measurement method may e x p l a i n the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e i n c r e a s e . Measures of 6RM were a f f e c t e d by the d i s c r e t e nature of the data. The steps of the s c a l e (.5 kg) were r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e , and there were o n l y seven of them, (from -.5 to 2,5 kg). T h i s r e s u l t e d i n some scores being t r u n c a t e d . Thus, the measures of 6RM r e p o r t e d may a c t u a l l y be low and the changes i n 6RM r e p o r t e d e i t h e r low or high, t h e o r e t i c a l l y by n e a r l y .5 kg. I t c o u l d be argued t h a t In the measure of 6RM, "keeping good form" was a matter of judgement, not measurement, and might Introduce experimenter b i a s . However, when the judgements were being made, I t was e v i d e n t t h a t s u b j e c t s knew ver y q u i c k l y , and would comment, when a weight was too heavy or too l i g h t . Furthermore, the mean change i n 6RM as measured was 1.18 kg, although i n most cases the t r a i n i n g weight had incr e a s e d by 1.5 kg. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n 6RM was the r e s u l t of d i f f e r e n c e s between t e s t and home t r a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n s , the t e s t c o n d i t i o n s f o r body p o s i t i o n i n g being more s t r i n g e n t . Body Weight. Age, and Strength Body weight was a p r e d i c t o r of performance, though not of change over time. On i n i t i a l t e s t s i n the combined groups, body weight c o r r e l a t e d .47 with 6RM and .59 with peak power, while 6RM c o r r e l a t e d .62 with peak power. The p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n between 6RM and peak power with the e f f e c t of weight removed was .48, i . e . , weight accounted f o r 40% of the a s s o c i a t i o n . In the combined groups, the c o r r e l a t i o n between i n i t i a l s core f o r 6RM and age was low (r = -.33). There was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n s t r e n g t h measured as 6RM between younger s u b j e c t s and those aged 70. Many s t u d i e s have suggested s t r e n g t h beginning to d i m i n i s h s h a r p l y as e a r l y as age 50 (Aniansson, 1980; F i s h e r & B i r r e n , 1947) and f o r both Isometric and dynamic measures (Larsson, Grimby, & K a r l s s o n , 1979). Most c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d i e s show s t r e n g t h , however measured, c o n t i n u i n g to d e c l i n e with age (Vandervoort et a l . 1986). G r i p s t r e n g t h has been shown to d e c l i n e with age, beginning i n the mid-twenties and c o n t i n u i n g to age 75 a t about 6% a year (Burke et a l . , 1953). Clement (1974) found g r i p s t r e n g t h c o r r e l a t e d (r = -.67) with age i n women (W = 716) aged 16 to 96 years - a much l a r g e r age range. The use In the present study of a more " n a t u r a l " , dynamic movement ra t h e r than an i s o m e t r i c or i s o k i n e t i c one might e x p l a i n the d i f f e r e n c e i n f i n d i n g s . Power and T r a i n i n g . No s t u d i e s of power changes with t r a i n i n g i n o l d e r people were a v a i l a b l e f o r comparison. The measure of power Because an experimental dynamometer was used to measure power, d i s c u s s i o n of some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the measure i t s e l f i s a p p r o p r i a t e . The r e l i a b i l i t y of the measure. Since the c o n t r o l group was t e s t e d twice without i n t e r v e n i n g t r a i n i n g , the c o r r e l a t i o n between i n i t i a l and f i n a l scores a f t e r 12 weeks serves as a measure of r e l i a b i l i t y ( s u b j e c t s t a b i l i t y ) . T h i s was .90. In the o r i g i n a l p i l o t work, the t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y (one week a p a r t ) , f o r ten s u b j e c t s was .96 (Appendix 2). V a r i a b i l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s ' t e s t s c o r e s . Means and standard d e v i a t i o n s of the i n i t i a l and f i n a l f i v e peak power measurements f o r each s u b j e c t were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each s u b j e c t . The o v e r a l l means f o r the combined groups were 37.7 W i n i t i a l l y a n d 34.3 W f i n a l l y . The maximum i n d i v i d u a l s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n was 6.9. F r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e s e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s were p o s i t i v e l y s k e w e d , b u t o t h e r w i s e a p p r o a c h e d n o r m a l i t y . T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h e s t a b i l i t y o f s u b j e c t s ' p e r f o r m a n c e f r o m t r i a l t o t r i a l . V a r i a n c e o f c h a n g e s i n peak power. The s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f c h a n g e s c o r e s f o r peak power was g r e a t e r t h a n t h e mean c h a n g e i t s e l f . T h i s i s p a r t l y e x p l a i n e d b y s e v e r a l " e x t r e m e " n e g a t i v e c h a n g e s . The t h r e e s u b j e c t s (one a g e d 55 two a g e d 65) who had t h e l a r g e s t n e g a t i v e c h a n g e s i n peak power a l s o h a d h i g h e r t h a n a v e r a g e i n i t i a l s c o r e s . The f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c h a n g e s c o r e s ( F i g u r e 3) was r e a s o n a b l y n o r m a l e x c e p t f o r t h e s e s c o r e s . > | 0 .* • l i , z HI HI a s I 1 I I I • • I I • i • • 1 , 1 I 1 L _ J 1 1 L -21 — XT —13 —^3 —S —1 3 7 C H A N G E I N P E A K P O W E R CW> F i g u r e 3. F r e q u e n c y d i s t r i u t i o n f o r c h a n g e i n peak power a f t e r 12 weeks t r a i n i n g . Power a nd FCA I t i s l o g i c a l t h a t FCA, a me a s u r e o f m u s c l e a r e a , s h o u l d be p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h peak power. I n t h e c o m b i n e d g r o u p s , 'the c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n FCA ( r i g h t a n d l e f t ) a n d peak power w e r e : .46 ( r i g h t ) a n d .51 ( l e f t ) i n i t i a l l y , ( p < .01) a nd .47 ( r i g h t ) a n d .39 ( l e f t ) f i n a l l y ( p < . 0 1 ) . Th e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s were l a r g e r t h a n t h o s e b e t w e e n FCA and 6RM, which were not s i g n i f i c a n t . No reason f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e between 6RM and peak power i s o f f e r e d . In the c o n t r o l group, the c o r r e l a t i o n s between FCA and peak power were l a r g e r both i n i t i a l l y and f i n a l l y , (r = .56 and .75, p < .01), than those i n the experimental group, (r = .10 and .26, not s i g n i f i c a n t a t p < .05). A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t the v a r i a b i l i t y i n peak power (W) was l a r g e r i n the c o n t r o l group (M = 40.66, S.D. = 13.78) than i n the experimental group (M = 36.23, S.D. - 11.69). The reason f o r t h i s i s unknown. Power changes a f t e r t r a i n i n g The arm a c t i o n employed on the dynamometer d u r i n g t e s t i n g was s i m i l a r to the arm a c t i o n i n t r a i n i n g ( s p e c i f i c match), and f o r c e was measured d i r e c t l y by means of the s t r a i n gauge. These two f e a t u r e s of the dynamometer were expected to a l l o w any r e a l changes i n peak power to be demonstrated. However, mean peak power a c t u a l l y d e c l i n e d s l i g h t l y i n both experimental and c o n t r o l groups (9.7% f o r the experimental group and 7.9% f o r the c o n t r o l group). The f o l l o w i n g were co n s i d e r e d to be p o s s i b l e causes: (1) The power of a l l s u b j e c t s d e c l i n e d d u r i n g the study f o r some reason (unknown). The most f e a s i b l e of "unknown" reasons was co n s i d e r e d to be: ( l a ) A seasonal e f f e c t ( s h o r t e n i n g days) a f f e c t e d power. (2) Subjects were i n h i b i t e d i n some way other than by the t e s t c o n d i t i o n s from d i s p l a y i n g t h e i r peak power on the second t e s t . (3) A s y s t e m a t i c e r r o r i n o p e r a t i o n of equipment or i n computation occurred which gave a l l s u b j e c t s a constant or p r o p o r t i o n a l l y lower score than otherwise p o s s i b l e . (4) Test a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d i f f e r e d between the two t e s t s e s s i o n s , i . e . , the c o n d i t i o n s of the i n i t i a l t e s t were not as conducive to the e x p r e s s i o n of peak power as those of the f i n a l one. Of these, (1) seemed u n l i k e l y ; ( l a ) seemed u n l i k e l y , s i n c e i t would have meant a seasonal e f f e c t on power d i f f e r e n t from t h a t on 6RM; (2) seemed p o s s i b l e - some f i n a l t e s t i n g was done with the Christmas h o l i d a y approaching and s u b j e c t s may have been preoccupied; (3) seemed p o s s i b l e but u n l i k e l y - the equipment was being used by the r e s e a r c h e r from time to time throughout the study to measure peak power d u r i n g c a l i b r a t i o n and no unex p l a l n a b l e changes i n the measure were n o t i c e d . During the course of the experiment, the mean v a r i a t i o n from f u l l s c a l e d e f l e c t i o n was .13% f o r angle and .4% f o r f o r c e . The dynamometer had been shown to be a v a l i d instrument f o r measurement of f o r c e (by s t a t i c c a l i b r a t i o n ) and of v e l o c i t y (by dynamic c a l i b r a t i o n ) . I t had been shown by dynamic c a l i b r a t i o n to respond a t l e a s t as r a p i d l y and a c c u r a t e l y to changing f o r c e s and v e l o c i t i e s as a K i s t l e r f o r c e p l a t f o r m , and to have e x c e l l e n t t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y (Appendix 2). Avis e t a l . (1985), who a l s o used a dynamometer employing a s t r a i n gauge, r e p o r t e d c o r r e l a t i o n s between t e s t and r e - t e s t r a nging from .88 to .93 (W = 53), i n c r e a s i n g with i n c r e a s i n g l o a d ; (4) seemed p o s s i b l e , s i n c e s u b j e c t s had used the dynamometer d u r i n g p r e l i m i n a r y t e s t i n g a week before the i n i t i a l t e s t of peak power but not before the f i n a l t e s t . Test a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . L i t t l e has been w r i t t e n about the amount o£ f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n r e q u i r e d i n p h y s i c a l t e s t i n g g e n e r a l l y . Cardus (1978) commented " T e s t i n g r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y with the s u b j e c t as p a r t of the system has r e c e i v e d l i m i t e d a t t e n t i o n " (p.48). Heyward (1983) reviewed muscle t e s t i n g without mentioning l e a r n i n g e f f e c t . In the present study, great care was taken to ensure t h a t the same method was used f o r each t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A l l t e s t i n g was c a r r i e d out i n the same l o c a t i o n , with the same pers o n n e l , u s i n g the same equipment, and i n the same c o n d i t i o n s of l i g h t i n g and v e n t i l a t i o n . Subject p o s i t i o n s were s t a n d a r d i z e d and s t a b i l i z e d throughout. The PSE and other t e s t s were completed d u r i n g the second s e s s i o n i n the same order as i n the f i r s t . The o n l y known d i f f e r e n c e was t h a t , on the i n i t i a l t e s t i n g (but not on the f i n a l t e s t i n g ) , each s u b j e c t had used the dynamometer one week e a r l i e r , when the weight she would use as the load d u r i n g t e s t i n g on the dynamometer was being e s t a b l i s h e d . T h i s p o i n t was c o n s i d e r e d when procedure f o r the study was being d e c i d e d . Warshal (1979) found a group of 14 men (mean age 21) showed apparent i n c r e a s e s i n knee extensor s t r e n g t h a f t e r repeated i s o m e t r i c measurement. Three measures on c o n s e c u t i v e days r e s u l t e d i n an 8% i n c r e a s e . A f t e r a one week I n t e r v a l , a f u r t h e r measure showed a f u r t h e r 15% i n c r e a s e over the o r i g i n a l s t r e n g t h . The men were not i n v o l v e d i n other s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g , and the change was a t t r i b u t e d to l e a r n i n g . The p o i n t s of relevance to the present study were: (1) s u b j e c t s improved a f t e r repeated measurement with no t r a i n i n g , and (2) there was a l a r g e i n c r e a s e i n s t r e n g t h a f t e r a one week i n t e r v a l with no t r a i n i n g . So t h a t the f i r s t e f f e c t could be avoided, s u b j e c t s i n the present study were not t e s t e d r e p e a t e d l y on the dynamometer. Repeated t e s t s are o f t e n used i n order to e s t a b l i s h the time course of changes, but the p r a c t i c e i s incompatible with the need to a v o i d l e a r n i n g e f f e c t - a s i n g l e case study using the dynamometer had shown a continued l e a r n i n g e f f e c t over t r i a l s one week ap a r t , beginning to show a p l a t e a u a f t e r 7 weeks. The second e f f e c t was not found d u r i n g the dynamometer r e l i a b i l i t y study, i n which ten women (ages 20 - 60) each completed two s e t s of ten t r i a l s a week ap a r t ; no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n peak power was found (1.4 W or 3%, p > .99). Thus, p r e l i m i n a r y use of the dynamometer a week before the i n i t i a l t e s t was not expected to i n f l u e n c e the second t e s t . A p o s s i b l e reason f o r the d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s r e s u l t and t h a t of Warshal (1979) was t h a t i n her study the measure was s t r e n g t h , while i n the present study i t was power. Why no power i n c r e a s e ? I t seems p o s s i b l e t h a t the v e l o c i t y of the biceps c u r l used i n t r a i n i n g was not high enough t o give a t r a i n i n g e f f e c t f o r power, although s u b j e c t s were encouraged to inc r e a s e speed i n the biceps c u r l as they i n c r e a s e d t r a i n i n g l o a d s . However, i t seemed r i s k y t o pl a c e g r e a t s t r e s s on speed with o l d e r women working unsupervised. For power to i n c r e a s e , e i t h e r f o r c e or v e l o c i t y or both must i n c r e a s e . Increased f o r c e c o u l d r e s u l t from Increased muscle f i b r e area, i n c r e a s e d a c t i v a t i o n , r e l a x a t i o n of i n h i b i t i o n , or improved c o - o r d i n a t i o n , or from some combination of these. V e l o c i t y c o u l d i n c r e a s e o n l y through i n c r e a s e d speed of c o n t r a c t i o n , e i t h e r i n t r i n s i c or the r e s u l t of b e t t e r c o - o r d i n a t i o n . Subjects i n the experimental group were capable of producing more f o r c e - they c o u l d l i f t more weight. However, they were a p p a r e n t l y not able to show t h i s i n c r e a s e d f o r c e by Increased power when l i f t i n g the same ( o r i g i n a l ) weight on the dynamometer. I f the weight t h a t i s l i f t e d i s the same, the o n l y way to d i s p l a y i n c r e a s e d power i s by in c r e a s e d v e l o c i t y . The s t r a i n gauge r i n g used i n the dynamometer was s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to be capable of responding to the r e l a t i v e l y low f o r c e s exerted by o l d e r women, and was shown by t e s t s and r e g u l a r c a l i b r a t i o n to be s e n s i t i v e and r e l i a b l e . T h i s suggests t h a t e i t h e r : (1) s u b j e c t s could not show t h i s i n c r e a s e d f o r c e (which would r e s u l t i n higher v e l o c i t y ) as peak power while u s i n g the dynamometer, or (2) weight t r a i n i n g d i d not r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d muscle c o n t r a c t i o n ^ speed. Weight t r a i n i n g has been r e p o r t e d to improve v e r t i c a l jump height (a measure of power) i n young men, but other s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d the reverse or no e f f e c t ( C l a r k e , 1978). No s t u d i e s d i r e c t l y r e l a t i n g weight t r a i n i n g and power or c o n t r a c t i o n speed were found f o r any age group. Muscle Bulk and T r a i n i n g . As hypothesized, muscle bulk measured as f a t - f r e e c r o s s -s e c t i o n a l area d i d not i n c r e a s e with t r a i n i n g . T h i s agrees with the f i n d i n g s of M o r i t a n i and de V r i e s (1982). I t does not, however, r u l e out the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t there were changes d u r i n g t r a i n i n g i n muscle f i b r e area or i n the r e l a t i v e percentage of f a s t and slow t w i t c h f i b r e s , as found by Aniansson (1980) and Larsson (1979). Changes of t h i s kind are a l s o b e l i e v e d to occur d u r i n g ageing (Aniansson, 1980; Grimby et a l . , 1983). In o l d e r people, the d i s t i n c t i o n between a g e - r e l a t e d s t r e n g t h l o s s (meaning a reduced number of f u n c t i o n a l muscle f i b r e s ) and l o s s caused by i n a c t i v i t y (meaning reduced c o n t r a c t i l e a b i l i t y i n the i n d i v i d u a l f i b r e s ) i s not c l e a r . Presumably o n l y the l a t t e r c o u l d be rev e r s e d by t r a i n i n g . T h i s p o i n t i s c u r r e n t l y under i n v e s t i g a t i o n , e.g., by Aniansson et a l . (1986). Norms f o r FCA vary with the number of s k i n f o l d s , the degree of m u s c u l a r i t y , and the experience of the measurer, and between p o p u l a t i o n s . Burr and P h i l l i p s (1984) r e p o r t e d FCA of 33.50 cm f o r women ( i n South Wales) aged 65 to 69 (N = 53), measuring t r i c e p s s k i n f o l d o n l y . Bishop et a l . (1981) re p o r t e d FCA of 43.68 cm f o r women ( i n the U.S.) aged 55-64 (N = 669) and of 40.31 cm f o r women aged 65-74 (N = 1822) using the same method. However, the use of two or more s k i n f o l d s , r a t h e r than the usual s i n g l e s k i n f o l d ( t r i c e p s ) , g i v e s lower (and more acc u r a t e ) estimates of subcutaneous f a t , and thus a higher FCA. For women i n the present study, the mean FCA was 49.60 cm . In an example, r e c a l c u l a t i o n u s i n g o n l y t r i c e p s s k i n f o l d reduced FCA from 51.50 to 42.1 cm . M o r i t a n i & de V r i e s (1980), u s i n g four s k i n f o l d s , r e p o r t e d FCA of 64.45 cm i n a group of f i v e men aged 67-72, compared with 43.20 cm f o r men aged 65 to 69 (N = 46) rep o r t e d by F r i s a n c h o (1981). The s u b j e c t s i n the present study were probably c l o s e to North American norms f o r FCA. 103 Variances Related to Age and Body Weight. Most o£ the v a r i a b i l i t y was between s u b j e c t s , and co u l d l a r g e l y be e x p l a i n e d by d i f f e r e n c e s i n age and weight. In the combined groups, 6RM was c o r r e l a t e d with body weight (r = .47 i n i t i a l l y and .28 f i n a l l y ) , and there was a weak negative c o r r e l a t i o n between 6RM and age (r = -.33 i n i t i a l l y and -.18 f i n a l l y ) . The lower c o r r e l a t i o n s with the f i n a l measurements of 6RM r e f l e c t e d the i n c r e a s e i n 6RM over time i n the experimental group. Peak power was c o r r e l a t e d with both age and weight. In the combined groups, peak power was c o r r e l a t e d with weight (r = .59 i n i t i a l l y and .57 f i n a l l y ) and n e g a t i v e l y with age (r = -.48 i n i t i a l l y and -.52 f i n a l l y ) . The m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n of i n i t i a l peak power with age and weight was c a l c u l a t e d , and accounted f o r 46% of the v a r i a n c e (R = .68). Height was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with e i t h e r peak power (r = -.22) or 6RM (r = .15), though c o r r e l a t i o n might have been expected i n a p o p u l a t i o n where height and weight were c o r r e l a t e d (Astrand & Rodahl, 1977, p.371). In the present study the c o r r e l a t i o n between he i g h t and weight was low (r = .07). Changes i n 6RM and peak power were u n r e l a t e d e i t h e r to age or to weight. Peak Power and 6RM. 6RM and peak power behaved d i f f e r e n t l y . - 6RM i n c r e a s e d with t r a i n i n g , but peak power d i d not. - Peak power was r e l a t e d to age i n the combined groups, but 6RM was not. - There was a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n i n the combined groups between PSE and peak power, but no c o r r e l a t i o n between PSE and 6RM (see below, p.104). In t h i s study, peak power and 6RM appeared to behave i n some r e s p e c t s as d i f f e r e n t e n t i t i e s , though they are connected with one another by muscle f u n c t i o n and behaviour, and by the i n t e g r a t i v e f u n c t i o n of the nervous system. Understanding these data would r e q u i r e f u r t h e r s t u d i e s . P h y s i c a l S e l f - e f f i c a c y . PSE was not found to be l i n e a r l y r e l a t e d to s t r e n g t h as measured by 6RM, or to changes i n s t r e n g t h or peak power with t r a i n i n g . However, f o r the combined groups, i n i t i a l and f i n a l PSE scores were both l i n e a r l y c o r r e l a t e d with i n i t i a l and f i n a l peak power, r = .35 to .41 (p < .01). No s t u d i e s r e l a t i n g PSE and s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g were found. However, Ewart et a l . (1986) found specific s e l f -e f f i c a c y to be a p r e d i c t o r of improvement i n s t r e n g t h a f t e r t r a i n i n g i n o l d e r men. Tucker (1983), i n a study of weight-l i f t i n g , found t h a t i n g e n e r a l there was a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t r e n g t h r e l a t i v e to body weight and the " g l o b a l s e l f - c o n c e p t " (p.1356) of h i s s u b j e c t s (N = 142, p < .01). Specific p h y s i c a l s e l f - e f f i c a c y (e.g., gynmastic or t r e a d m i l l s e l f - e f f i c a c y ) has been r e p o r t e d to p r e d i c t performance (Ewart e t a l . , 1983; McAuley, 1985), and endurance s t r e n g t h i n young people (Kavanaugh & Hausfeld, 1986, Weinberg et a l . , 1982; Wilkes & Summers, 1982). Ryckman et a l . (1982) r e p o r t e d PSE (a more gen e r a l measure) to be a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r of performance on p h y s i c a l tasks ( d a r t -throwing, v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and c a t c h i n g a b a l l i n a cup) i n young men. Gayton et a l . (1986) found PSE to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with marathon running performance. In the present study, no such r e l a t i o n s h i p s between PSE and the s t r e n g t h measure (6RM) or change i n 6RM with t r a i n i n g were found. (No s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n peak power were found). Bandura's (1982) c l a i m t h a t s e l f - e f f i c a c y i s r e l a t e d to p e r s i s t e n c e and amount of e f f o r t suggested a t h e o r e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l f - e f f i c a c y and adherence, and t h e r e f o r e between s e l f - e f f i c a c y and t r a i n i n g g a i n s . In the present study, the high adherence (92.4% i n the experimental group) may i n p a r t e x p l a i n the lack of l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p found between PSE and change i n 6RM. Gettman et a l . (1983) r e p o r t e d an a t t r i t i o n r a t e of 35% i n an unsupervised e x e r c i s e programme with men age 36 to 42 y e a r s . Only one study was found d e a l i n g with adherence of o l d e r women to e x e r c i s e programmes ( S t i r l i n g , et a l . 1984). These authors emphasized the importance of convenience f o r the s u b j e c t s and of r a p p o r t between the i n s t r u c t o r and the p a r t i c i p a n t s . In the present study, a t t e n t i o n was given to making the t e s t i n g and t r a i n i n g as convenient as p o s s i b l e f o r the s u b j e c t s . Perhaps p a r t l y because the r e s e a r c h e r was i n the same age group as the p a r t i c i p a n t s , they a l s o developed a s t r o n g f e e l i n g of involvement i n her i n v e s t i g a t i o n , which was a f a c t o r i n m a i n t a i n i n g adherence. The p o s s i b l i t y t h a t s u b j e c t s ' p h y s i c a l performances were a f f e c t e d i n some way by the nature of questions i n PSE was c o n s i d e r e d p u r e l y s p e c u l a t i v e . I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t those who were high or low i n p e r c e p t i o n s of s e l f - e f f i c a c y might have had t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s r e i n f o r c e d by c o n s i d e r i n g the t e s t items. T h i s was not expected to have any e f f e c t on changes i n scores over time, s i n c e PSE was administered before both measurement s e s s i o n s . Another p o s s i b i l i t y was th a t the lack of c o r r e l a t i o n between PSE and change i n 6RM or i n peak power was r e l a t e d to the gender or age of the s u b j e c t s . There i s , however, evidence to show t h a t PSE scores do not vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y with age or with the i n t e r a c t i o n of age and gender (Godin & Shephard, 1985). In t h e i r study, women scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower (M = 86.8, S.D. about 12) i n s e l f - e f f i c a c y than men (p < .005); there was no age e f f e c t . Data f o r women were not s e p a r a t e l y analysed by age. In the present study, the mean score f o r PSE us i n g a l l 22 items was 92.47 (S.D. = 12.80), and there was a low c o r r e l a t i o n between age and PSE (r = -.22 i n i t i a l l y and -.31 f i n a l l y , p >.05). Perhaps PSE i s not r e l a t e d to p h y s i c a l performance i n o l d e r women because the items i n PSE have a co n n o t a t i o n f o r them d i f f e r e n t from t h a t f o r young men s u b j e c t s . Ryckman et a l . (1982) al30 found t h a t the s u b j e c t s who scored higher on PSE re p o r t e d more v a r i e d and i n t e n s i v e s p o r t s experience, and more c u r r e n t s p o r t s involvement. Although the r e l a t i o n s h i p between PSE and gener a l p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y was not f o r m a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the present study, i t was known t h a t very few of the s u b j e c t s were a c t i v e l y engaged i n s p o r t s . H i s t o r i c a l , c u l t u r a l , and s o c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s between younger and ol d e r samples are a l s o l i k e l y to a f f e c t r e s u l t s . Ryckman et a l . (1982) have suggested the use of PSE f o r d i a g n o s i s and assessment of o l d e r people. F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n would be necessary to assess the value of PSE f o r these purposes. In the present study, both measures o£ PSE ( i n i t i a l and f i n a l ) i n the combined groups were p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d (p = .01 i n each case) with both measures of peak power ( i n i t i a l PSE, .35 with i n i t i a l peak power and .37 with f i n a l peak power; f i n a l PSE, .41 with i n i t i a l peak power, and .36 with f i n a l peak power). I t might be s p e c u l a t e d t h a t those who were abl e to d i s p l a y a higher peak power ( i . e . , c o u l d move more q u i c k l y ) f e l t more competent and capable of d e a l i n g with t h e i r environment, and thus more s e l f - e f f i c a c i o u s . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . C o n c l u s i o n s . In o l d e r women (aged 50-76): (1) W e i g h t - l i f t i n g a b i l i t y can improve with t r a i n i n g , u s i n g a simple programme c a r r i e d out a t home. (2) The change i n w e i g h t - l i f t i n g a b i l i t y a f t e r twelve weeks t r a i n i n g i s not accompanied by muscular hypertrophy. (3) Muscular power does not i n c r e a s e a f t e r twelve weeks weight t r a i n i n g . (4) Changes i n 6RM are not a s s o c i a t e d with PSE; there i s , however, a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e a r c o r r e l a t i o n between peak power and PSE. (5) Strength (6RM) i s more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with body weight than with age. The o l d e r women i n t h i s study had a f a i r share of the d i s o r d e r s t h a t are "normal" i n t h e i r age group ( d e s c r i b e d i n the R e s u l t s s e c t i o n ) , and the r e s u l t s may be more g e n e r a l i z a b l e than those i n s t u d i e s where s u b j e c t s were more s t r i n g e n t l y screened, such as the Canada F i t n e s s survey (Canada. N a t i o n a l Health & Welfare, 1983). Recommendations When the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g to s t r e n g t h i n o l d e r s u b j e c t s was reviewed, no study using a c o n t r o l group was found. T h i s seems to be a notable d e f i c i e n c y i n r e s e a r c h of t h i s k i n d . Without the c o n t r o l group i n t h i s study, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of data f o r peak power and PSE would have been v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e . F u r t h e r s t u d i e s are r e q u i r e d to c l a r i f y the r e s u l t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The questions needing r e s o l u t i o n are (1) was the lack of p r e l i m i n a r y t r i a l s i n the f i n a l t e s t of peak power r e l a t e d to the decrease i n peak power? (2) would there be a l e a r n i n g e f f e c t from u s i n g the dynamometer f o r t e s t i n g peak power a t i n t e r v a l s , with no t r a i n i n g ? A study to i n v e s t i g a t e both of these questions would i n v o l v e comparison of groups of s u b j e c t s with and without t r a i n i n g between t e s t s , and of groups measured a f t e r f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n with the dynamometer with other groups who had not r e c e i v e d such f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n . The a s s o c i a t i o n between PSE and peak power should a l s o be i n v e s t i g a t e d , and t h i s c o u l d be done i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the study suggested above, by i n c l u d i n g measurement of PSE fo r the groups. F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t r e n g t h and PSE i s a problem, because of the d i f f i c u l t y of measuring s t r e n g t h i n ol d e r women. I t appears t h a t PSE i s not r e l a t e d to gains i n 6RM, and another p e r s p e c t i v e i s r e q u i r e d . I t i s d i f f i c u l t , however, to envisage u s i n g measures such as 1RM bench press or MVC ( e i t h e r of which might be used with men) i n a study with o l d e r women. Two s t u d i e s of importance to the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n ( M o r i t a n i & de V r i e s , 1980; Ryckman, 1982) need supplementation by a d d i t i o n a l work. The study by M o r i t a n i and de V r i e s (1980) Is e x t e n s i v e l y quoted, but appears not to have been r e p l i c a t e d . The study compared a group of o l d e r men and a group of younger ones before and a f t e r s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g . Both i n c r e a s e d i n s t r e n g t h , but o n l y the young group showed hypertrophy. The s t r e n g t h i n c r e a s e i n the o l d e r group was c o n s i d e r e d to r e s u l t from Increased n e u r a l a c t i v i t y . The study should be repeated with l a r g e r groups and with women, s i n c e i t i s known t h a t women respond d i f f e r e n t l y to t r a i n i n g from men. Groups should be l a r g e r than those used by M o r i t a n i & de V r i e s (1980) and c o n t r o l s should be i n c l u d e d . More s t u d i e s of PSE are needed. The study i n which Ryckman et a l . (1982) v a l i d a t e d t h i s measure should be r e p l i c a t e d with o l d e r men, and with both young and o l d e r women, and should i n c l u d e the same performance t e s t s used i n the o r i g i n a l study. The dynamometer used i n t h i s study has many a t t r a c t i v e p o i n t s . In i t s present form, i t allows the i s o l a t i o n of the muscle group i n a simple movement f o r study, but cou l d r e a d i l y be developed f o r use i n other movements, with other muscle groups, and with people of v a r y i n g s t r e n g t h . S t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s t r e n g t h and power co u l d be undertaken, and some i n t e r e s t i n g and fundamental questions examined. Examples i n c l u d e : the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t r e n g t h and power i n younger and o l d e r groups; the e f f e c t of t r a i n i n g on t h e t i m e c o u r s e o f f o r c e and power d e v e l o p m e n t ; t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t r a i n i n g and power i n g r o u p s o f y o u n g e r and o l d e r p e o p l e ( n o n - a t h l e t e s ) ; t h e b e h a v i o u r o f s t r e n g t h and power i n r e l a t i o n t o age, t r a i n i n g and PSE; and d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e f o r c e - v e l o c i t y c u r v e , as a c h e c k a g a i n s t t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l i n v i t r o c u r v e ( W i l k i e , 1950) w h i c h has l o n g been u s e d i n t e a c h i n g . Summary T h i s s t u d y was c o n c e r n e d w i t h q u e s t i o n s a b o u t s t r e n g t h i n o l d e r women: whether o r n o t s t r e n g t h and power would i n c r e a s e w i t h w e i g h t t r a i n i n g , and what t r a i n i n g and measurement methods would be a p p r o p r i a t e . A 2 ( e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l g r o u p s ) x 2 ( t i m e s ) e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n was u s e d ; s u b j e c t s were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d . T h e r e were 30 c o m p l e t e c a s e s f o r a n a l y s i s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p and 20 i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . S u b j e c t s , aged 50 t o 76 y e a r s (M = 6 2 . 3 ) , i n c l u d e d 18 who i n d i c a t e d one or more o f t h e d i s o r d e r s ( s u c h as c o n t r o l l e d h y p e r t e n s i o n , a r t h r i t i s , and o s t e o p o r o s i s ) c o n s i d e r e d " n o r m a l " i n s u c h a p o p u l a t i o n , b u t o f t e n u s e d t o s c r e e n o u t s u b j e c t s f o r a s t u d y . An e x t e n s i v e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e a b o u t s t r e n g t h i n o l d e r p e o p l e and i t s measurement r e v e a l e d some p r o b l e m s . Most s t u d i e s , e s p e c i a l l y l a r g e ones s u c h as t h e Canada F i t n e s s S u r v e y (Canada. H e a l t h and W e l f a r e . 1983), a r e c a r r i e d o u t w i t h s a m p l e s f r o m p o p u l a t i o n s r e s t r i c t e d by s c r e e n i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l s more h e a l t h y and p h y s i c a l l y a c t i v e t h a n a v e r a g e . C r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d i e s a r e u s e d t o p r e d i c t s t r e n g t h l o s s w i t h a g e i n g , w h i c h l e a d s t o c o n f u s i o n . O n l y a s m a l l number of s t u d i e s have been c a r r i e d o u t w i t h o l d e r s u b j e c t s , and v e r y few with o l d e r women. Although c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of s p e c i f i c i t y r e q u i r e t h a t t r a i n i n g and t e s t i n g should be as s i m i l a r as p o s s i b l e , many i n v e s t i g a t o r s have used MVC to measure s t r e n g t h i n c r e a s e s a f t e r dynamic t r a i n i n g ; r e s u l t s must have been a f f e c t e d . D i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s of s t r e n g t h and methods of t e s t i n g i t have been used by d i f f e r e n t workers, so t h a t r e s u l t s of s t u d i e s may not be comparable. None of the e s t a b l i s h e d methods was c o n s i d e r e d s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r t h i s study. Two ways of measuring s t r e n g t h were used: 6RM, and power as measured by an an experimental dynamometer developed and v a l i d a t e d f o r t h i s purpose. Very few s t u d i e s have been concerned with the a s s o c i a t i o n between t r a i n i n g and Increase In power, and none have i n v o l v e d o l d e r women. The dynamometer was expected to a l l o w i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n , and provide more i n f o r m a t i o n than c o u l d be obtained from 6RM a l o n e . R e s u l t s showed t h a t the mean score on 6RM i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the experimental group; however, mean peak power decreased s l i g h t l y i n both groups. Another q u e s t i o n of i n t e r e s t was whether or not o l d e r women who t r a i n e d by w e i g h t - l i f t i n g would g a i n muscle bulk. With the measurement method used, o n l y t o t a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l f a t - f r e e limb area could be assessed, i . e . , not muscle volume ) or composition. I t was not expected to change, and d i d not. I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t p h y s i c a l s e l f - e f f i c a c y would be r e l a t e d to p e r s i s t e n c e i n an a c t i v i t y (e.g., adherence to a t r a i n i n g programme), and thus s c o r e s on the P h y s i c a l S e l f -e f f i c a c y Scale (Ryckman et a l . , 1982) were expected to be a s s o c i a t e d with the amount of i n c r e a s e i n s t r e n g t h and i n power. This was not the case, perhaps because o£ the high (92.4%) adherence i n the experimental group. The measure was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y l i n e a r l y c o r r e l a t e d with peak power i n the combined groups (N = 49). R e f e r e n c e s A l o l a , J . F., Cohn, S. H., O s t u n i , J . A., Cane, R. & E l l i s , K. P r e v e n t i o n o f i n v o l u t i o n a l bone l o s s b y e x e r c i s e . A n n a l s o f  I n t e r n a l M e d i c i n e , 1 9 7 8, 89, 356-358. A n d e r s o n , T. & K e a r n e y , J . T. E f f e c t s o f t h r e e r e s i s t a n c e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s on m u s c u l a r s t r e n g t h a n d a b s o l u t e a n d r e l a t i v e e n d u r a n c e . R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y r 1 9 8 2 , 51, 1-7. A n i a n s s o n , A. M u s c l e f u n c t i o n i n o l d age w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o m u s c l e m o r p h o l o g y , e f f e c t o f t r a i n i n g a n d c a p a c i t y i n a c t i v i t i e s o f d a i l y l i v i n g . G o t e b o r g f U n i v e r s i t y D e p a r t m e n t o f R e h a b i l i t a t i o n M e d i c i n e , 1 9 8 0 . (Ph.D. T h e s i s ) . A n i a n s s o n , A. G r i m b y , G. R u n d g r e n , A., S v a n b o r g , A. & O r l a n d e r , J . P h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g i n o l d men. Age a n d A g e i n g , 1 9 8 0 , 9_, 18 6 - 1 8 7 . A n i a n s s o n , A., H e d b e r g , M., H e n n i n g , G., & G r i m b y , G. M u s c l e m o r p h o l o g y e n z y m a t i c a c t i v i t y , a n d m u s c l e s t r e n g t h i n e l d e r l y men: a f o l l o w - u p s t u d y . M u s c l e & N e r v e , 1 986, 9_, 585-591 . A n i a n s s o n , A., L j u n b e r g , P., R u n d g r e n A., & W e t t e q u i s t , H. E f f e c t o f a t r a i n i n g programme f o r p e n s i o n e r s on c o n d i t i o n and m u s c u l a r s t r e n g t h . A r c h i v e s o f G e r o n t o l o g y a n d  G e r i a t r i c s , 1 9 8 4 , 3, 2 2 9 - 2 4 1 . A r e n b e r g , D. L e a r n i n g f r o m o u r m i s t a k e s i n a g i n g r e s e a r c h . E x p e r i m e n t a l A g i n g R e s e a r c h 1 9 8 2 , 5_, 73-7 5 . A r i e l , G. R e s i s t i v e e x e r c i s e m a c h i n e s . T r a c k a n d F i e l d Q u a r t e r l y  R e v i e w . 1983 ( 1 ) , 2 7-36. A s m u s s e n , E. A f o l l o w - u p l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y o f s e l e c t e d p h y s i o l o g i c f u n c t i o n s i n f o r m e r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s -a f t e r 40 y e a r s . J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n G e r i a t r i c S o c i e t y , 1 9 7 5 , 21, 442-450. A s t r a n d , P-O., & R o d a h l , K. T e x t b o o k o f Work P h y s i o l o g y . 2nd e d . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1977. A t h a , J . S t r e n g t h e n i n g m u s c l e . E x e r c i s e and S p o r t S c i e n c e  R e v i e w s , 1 9 8 1 , 9, 1-73. A v i s , F. J . , H o v i n g , A., & T o u s s a i n t , H. M. A dynamometer f o r t h e measurement o f f o r c e , v e l o c i t y , work a n d power d u r i n g a n e x p l o s i v e l e g e x t e n s i o n . E u r o p e a n J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d  P h y s i o l o g y , 1 9 8 5 , 5_£, 2 1 0 - 2 1 5 . B a n d u r a , A. 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S e l f - e f f i c a c y b e l i e f s a n d t e n n i s p e r f o r m a n c e . C o g n i t i v e T h e r a p y a n d R e s e a r c h , 1 9 8 3 , 7, 265-272. B a s s e y , E. J . Age, i n a c t i v i t y a n d some p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e s p o n s e s t o e x e r c i s e . G e r o n t o l o g y , 1 9 7 8 , 24, 66-77. B a u m g a r t n e r , T. A. & Z u i d e m a , F.A. F a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s t e s t s . R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y . 1 9 72, 1 1 , 4 4 3 - 4 5 0 . B e r a n , J . E x e r c i s e a n d t h e e l d e r l y : o b s e r v a t i o n s on a f u n c t i o n i n g p r o g r a m . O l y m p i c S c i e n t i f i c C o n g r e s s . P r o c e e d i n g s . E u g e n e , O r e . , 1984. V o l . 5, S p o r t & A g i n g , p . 1 1 7 - 1 2 3 . B e r g e r , R. E f f e c t o f v a r i e d w e i g h t t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s on s t r e n g t h . R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 1 9 6 2 , 21, 1 6 8 - 1 7 1 . 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B o s t o n , A l l y n & B a c o n , 19 8 2 . W h i t e , R. W. M o t i v a t i o n r e c o n s i d e r e d : t h e c o n c e p t o f c o m p e t e n c e . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e v i e w ,1959, 6_6_, 2 9 7 - 3 3 3 . W h i t l e y , D. J . & S m i t h , L. E. V e l o c i t y c u r v e s a n d s t a t i c s t r e n g t h - a c t i o n s t r e n g t h c o r r e l a t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e mass moved by t h e arm. R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y 1 9 6 3 , 3_4, 3 7 9 - 3 9 5 . W h i t i n g , H. T. A. T e a c h i n g t h e p e r s i s t e n t non-swimmer. L o n d o n : G. B e l l & S o n s , 1970 , p . 2 2 - 3 3 . W i l k e s , R. L. & Summers, J . J . C o g n i t i o n s , m e d i a t i n g v a r i a b l e s a n d s t r e n g t h p e r f o r m a n c e . J o u r n a l o f S p o r t P s y c h o l o g y . 1984, 6_, 3 5 1 - 3 5 9 . W i l k i e , D. R. The r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n f o r c e a n d v e l o c i t y i n human m u s c l e . J o u r n a l o f P h y s i o l o g y . 1950, 1 2 2 4 9 - 2 8 0 . W l l m o r e , J . H. I n f l u e n c e o f m o t i v a t i o n on p h y s i c a l work c a p a c i t y and p e r f o r m a n c e . J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P h y s i o l o g y . 1 9 6 8 , 2A, 4 5 9 - 4 6 3 . W i s w e l l , R. A. R e l a x a t i o n , e x e r c i s e a n d a g i n g . I n : B i r r e n , J . E. a n d S l o a n e , R. B. ( E d s . ) . Handbook o f m e n t a l h e a l t h a n d A g i n g . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N. J . : P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1 9 8 0 , 9 4 3 - 9 5 8 . W y l i e , R. The s e l f - c o n c e p t : a r e v i e w o f m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a n d m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s ( V o l . 1 ) . Rev. e d . L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y o f N e b r a s k a , 1974. 128 W y l i e , R. The s e l f - c o n c e p t : t h e o r y a n d r e s e a r c h on s e l e c t e d  t o p i c s ( V o l . 2 ) . Rev. e d . L i n c o l n : U n i v e r s i t y o f N e b r a s k a , 1979. Y e a t e r , R. A., & M a r t i n , R. B. S e n i l e o s t e o p o r o s i s ; t h e e f f e c t s o f o f e x e r c i s e . P o s t g r a d u a t e M e d i c i n e , 1984, 7_5_, ( 2 ) , 1 4 7 - 1 5 9 , 163. 129 Appendix X M e a s u r e m e n t o f 6RM The m e a s u r e o f 6RM was d e f i n e d i n one o f two ways: i t c o u l d be e i t h e r : 1) a w e i g h t t h a t t h e s u b j e c t c o u l d l i f t s i x t i m e s b u t n o t more, o r 2) a w e i g h t s u c h t h a t t h e s u b j e c t c o u l d l i f t i t more t h a n s i x t i m e s b u t c o u l d n o t l i f t a h e a v i e r w e i g h t . W e i g h t s . A s e t o f d u m b e l l s w e i g h i n g f r o m 2.5 t o 5.5 k g were u s e d , a n d a 1 k g p r a c t i c e d u m b e l l . The d u m b e l l s were p l a s t i c , w i t h h a n d l e s t h a t c o u l d be s c r e w e d i n t o h o l l o w e n d -p i e c e s f i l l e d w i t h s a n d a nd l e a d s h o t , i n v a r y i n g p r o p o r t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e w e i g h t n e e d e d , s i n c e f o u r w e i g h t s were n e e d e d f o r e a c h women I n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , i t was c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s e x p e n s i v e t o use t h i s method t h a n t o b u y o r d i n a r y d u m b e l l s w i t h a s e r i e s o f m e t a l w e i g h t s . I n a d d i t i o n , w e i g h t s c o u l d be i n c r e m e n t e d b y c h a n g i n g t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f s a n d a nd s h o t I n t h e e n d - p i e c e s . A l a r g e w e i g h s c a l e was u s e d f o r a c c u r a c y when p r e p a r i n g a n d c h a n g i n g w e i g h t s . The maximum w e i g h t ( e n d - p i e c e s f i l l e d e n t i r e l y w i t h l e a d s h o t ) was 7.4 k g . M e t h o d . S u b j e c t s , who knew t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e m e a s u r e , f i r s t w a t c h e d a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h e d u m b e l l l i f t . The s u b j e c t l e a n e d b a c k a g a i n s t t h e w a l l w i t h h e r f e e t a p a r t a n d c o m f o r t a b l y f o r w a r d ( a b o u t 18 i n , v a r y i n g w i t h t h e h e i g h t o f t h e s u b j e c t ) . She t o o k a d u m b e l l w e i g h i n g 1 k g i n t h e r i g h t h a n d , thumb on t o p , and h e l d i t by h e r s i d e , a r m e x t e n d e d b u t n o t s t i f f . F o r p r a c t i c e a n d warm-up, s h e was i n s t r u c t e d a s f o l l o w s : Do 10 l i f t s w i t h t h i s l i g h t w e i g h t . T r y t o k e e p y o u r e l b o w b y y o u r s i d e , a n d b r i n g t h e w e i g h t c l o s e t o y o u r s h o u l d e r . T r y t o m a i n t a i n a s t e a d y r h y t h m a n d b r e a t h e e v e n l y . The s u b j e c t was w a t c h e d a nd c o a c h e d u n t i l t h e t e s t e r was s a t i s f i e d t h a t s h e u n d e r s t o o d what was r e q u i r e d , a n d was p e r f o r m i n g t h e movement c o r r e c t l y . The s u b j e c t was t h e n g i v e n a w e i g h t j u d g e d t o be c l o s e t o h e r maximum, u s u a l l y 3 o r 3.5 k g . By s u c c e s s i v e t r i a l s w i t h good f o r m a n d a one m i n u t e r e s t b e t w e e n t r i a l s , 6RM a s d e f i n e d a b o v e was d e t e r m i n e d . S u b j e c t s had t o be r e m i n d e d n o t t o " c o c k " t h e w r i s t a t t h e t o p o f t h e l i f t . The c r i t e r i a f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r m w e r e : (1) The w e i g h t d i d n o t t o w o b b l e i n t h e h a n d . (2) The e l b o w r e m a i n e d n e a r t h e s i d e , i . e . , t h e s h o u l d e r m u s c l e s were i n v o l v e d a s l i t t l e a s p o s s i b l e . Some s u b j e c t s w i t h p o o r b o d y a w a r e n e s s were i n s t r u c t e d t o h o l d a p i e c e o f p l a s t i c f o am a b o u t a n i n c h t h i c k a g a i n s t t h e w a l l b e h i n d t h e e l b o w t o k e e p i t f r o m c o m i n g f o r w a r d , t h u s r e s t r i c t i n g t h e c o n t r a c t i o n a s f a r a s p o s s s i b l e t o arm f l e x o r s . A l l t r i a l s were r e c o r d e d on t h e R e c o r d S h e e t . The 6RM w e i g h t m i n u s 1 k g was u s e d a s t h e b a s i s f o r t h e i n i t i a l l o a d i n g on t h e dynamometer. The t r a i n i n g w e i g h t was 6RM m i n u s .5 k g . The f i n a l t e s t f o l l o w e d t h e same p r o c e d u r e e x c e p t t h a t w e i g h t s f r o m 3.0 t o 7.5 k g were u s e d ; t h e y were c o d e d f r o m A t o J s o t h a t s u b j e c t s c o u l d n o t t e l l what w e i g h t t h e y were l i f t i n g . A p p e n d i x 2 D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Dynamometer The d e c i s i o n t o d e s i g n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l dynamometer was p r o m p t e d by t h e d e s i r e f o r a m e asure t h a t w o u l d : (1) M e a s u r e f o r c e and v e l o c i t y d u r i n g a d y n a m i c m u s c l e c o n t r a c t i o n . (2) Use a movement t h a t c o u l d be s i m u l a t e d i n t r a i n i n g . ( 3 ) P r e s e n t a c o n s t a n t l o a d a t a l l a n g l e s o f t h e movement. (4) A l l o w i n s t a n t a n e o u s r e c o r d i n g o f d a t a d u r i n g t h e movement. Many dyna m o m e t e r s ( e . g . , g r i p s t r e n g t h dynamometer and t e n s i o m e t e r ) m e a s u r e o n l y s t a t i c s t r e n g t h - v e l o c i t y c a n n o t be m e a s u r e d . T h i s l i m i t a t i o n means t h a t power c a n n o t be m e a s u r e d d i r e c t l y . D e v i c e s f o r measurement u n d e r I s o k i n e t i c o r v a r y i n g c o n d i t i o n s have b e e n d e s c r i b e d ( A r i e l , 1 9 8 3 ) , b u t t h e y a l l h a v e d i s a d v a n t a g e s , e . g . , v e l o c i t y i s n o t m e a s u r e d d i r e c t l y o r i s d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e s e t t i n g o f t h e e q u i p m e n t a s i n C y b e x . S a l e a n d Norman ( 1 9 8 2 ) d i s c u s s e d t h e need f o r a means o f m e a s u r i n g v e l o c i t y and f o r c e i f w e i g h t l i f t i n g were t o be u s e d as a means o f m e a s u r i n g power. I n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a m e asure o f power i n w e i g h t l i f t i n g , a means o f m e a s u r i n g v e l o c i t y o f movement must be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e t e s t a p p a r a t u s . . . . The a c t u a l f o r c e c o u l d be m e a s u r e d b y i n s t r u m e n t i n g t h e a p p a r a t u s w i t h s t r a i n g a u g e s o r a n a c c e l e r o m e t e r ( p . 1 8 - 1 9 ) . The dynamometer u s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was d e v e l o p e d f r o m a s i m i l a r I d e a a r r i v e d a t I n d e p e n d e n t l y . An e a r l y ( 1 9 7 2) a t t e m p t t o d e v e l o p a dynamometer u s i n g t h i s method was u n s u c c e s s f u l b e c a u s e o f d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d a t a r e c o r d i n g ( B r o w n , 1 9 8 5 ) . The p r o b l e m o f m e a s u r i n g s t r e n g t h c o n t i n u o u s l y d u r i n g a m u s c l e c o n t r a c t i o n was d e s c r i b e d b y Doss and K a r p o v i c h ( 1 9 6 5 ) . T h e y d e v e l o p e d a m a c h i n e s i m i l a r i n a p p e a r a n c e t o t h e one u s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , c o n s i s t i n g o f a c a b l e a t t a c h e d t o a l a r g e p u l l e y w h e e l . The c a b l e p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h e p u l l e y o f a s t r a i n gauge b o l t e d t o t h e f l o o r t o a w i n d l a s s o p e r a t e d b y a t e s t e r . The s u b j e c t r o t a t e d t h e w h e e l , w i n d i n g i n t h e c a b l e a g a i n s t r e s i s t a n c e s u p p l i e d by t h e t e s t e r , who a l s o c o n t r o l l e d t h e v e l o c i t y . The a n g u l a r c h a n g e s were m e a s u r e d by a p o t e n t i o m e t e r ( e l e c t r o g o n i o m e t e r ) on t h e a x l e o f t h e w h e e l a n d t h e f o r c e b y t h e s t r a i n g a u g e . The m a c h i n e was a d j u s t a b l e t o t h e v a r y i n g d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e s u b j e c t s , b u t t h e y were n o t s t a b i l i z e d . The m a j o r d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f t h i s a p p a r a t u s a p p e a r t o h ave b e e n t h a t t h e m e a s u r e s c o u l d o n l y have b e e n r e l i a b l e when t h e same t e s t e r was u s e d , a n d t h a t t h e c o n t r a c t i o n t i m e was u n n a t u r a l l y l o n g (18 s ) . A s u p e r f i c i a l l y s i m i l a r method o f s t r e n g t h t e s t i n g was d e s c r i b e d b y B u t l e r and Kempson ( 1 9 8 0 ) . T h e y were c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h p r o v i d i n g c o n s t a n t r e s i s t a n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e r a n g e o f movement, a n d d i d n o t m e asure f o r c e o r a n g l e . A dynamometer f o r measurement o f f o r c e and v e l o c i t y i n l e g e x t e n s i o n was d e s c r i b e d b y A v i s , H o v i n g , and T o u s s a i n t ( 1 9 8 5 ) . V e l o c i t y was m e a s u r e d by a p o t e n t i o m e t e r and f o r c e b y a s t r a i n g a u g e . T h i s m a c h i n e c o u l d be u s e d f o r b o t h s t a t i c a n d d y n a m i c m e a s u r e s ; i n t h e l a t t e r t h e b o d y was d i s p l a c e d a s i n r o w i n g . F o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e p u r p o s e was t o m e a s u r e f o r e a r m f l e x o r power o f o l d e r women b e f o r e and a f t e r w e i g h t t r a i n i n g . The b o d y p o s i t i o n and t h e movement u s e d i n t h e m easurement were t o be a s s i m i l a r a s p o s s i b l e t o t h e t r a i n i n g movement ( a b i c e p s c u r l ) , t h u s m e e t i n g t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r s p e c i f i c i t y o f t e s t i n g a n d t r a i n i n g . The movement was t o be d y n a m i c r a t h e r t h a n i s o m e t r i c o r i s o k i n e t i c . The dynamometer was d e s c r i b e d b y H a y d o c k , Brown, and R o b e r t s o n ( 1 9 8 5 ) . P e s l g i a The d e s i g n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s w e r e : (1) To p r o v i d e a v a r i a b l e l o a d ( f o r p e o p l e o f v a r y i n g s t r e n g t h ) . (2) To m e a s u r e d i r e c t l y t h e v e l o c i t y a n d r e l a t i v e l y l o w f o r c e i n v o l v e d . (3) To s i m u l a t e t h e arm movement o f a b i c e p s c u r l . (4) To r e c o r d d a t a i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y . F i g u r e s 4 and 5 show t h e g e n e r a l a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e d y namometer. I t c o n s i s t s o f a p u l l e y w h e e l , 50 cm i n r a d i u s , mounted v e r t i c a l l y w i t h t h e h o r i z o n t a l a x l e r o t a t i n g i n p r e c i s i o n b e a r i n g s , w i t h a h a n d l e whose d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e c e n t r e i s a d j u s t a b l e t o s u i t t h e f o r e a r m l e n g t h o f e a c h s u b j e c t . A s i m i l a r l y a d j u s t a b l e c o u n t e r p o i s e o p p o s i t e t o t h e h a n d l e b a l a n c e s t h e w h e e l . A s t e e l c a b l e a t t a c h e d t o t h e r i m o f t h e w h e e l p a s s e s o v e r a p u l l e y , 2 i n c h e s ( 5 . 1 cm) i n d i a m e t e r , mounted 8 f t (2.44 m) a b o v e t h e f l o o r a nd 5 f t ( 1 . 5 m) away h o r i z o n t a l l y f r o m t h e c e n t r e o f t h e w h e e l . A t f l o o r 134 F i g u r e 4. General view of dynamometer. 135 Fi g u r e 5. Dynamometer: pa r t s i d e n t i f i e d . l e v e l , d i r e c t l y b e l o w t h e u p p e r p u l l e y , t h e f r e e end o f t h e c a b l e i s a t t a c h e d t o a s t r a i n r i n g , w h i c h i n t u r n c a r r i e s a w e i g h t h o l d e r . L o a d s f r o m .5 t o 4.5 k g c a n be u s e d , i n i n c r e m e n t s o f .5 k g . A p l a t f o r m f o r t h e s u b j e c t c a n be a d j u s t e d v e r t i c a l l y s o t h a t t h e a x i s o f t h e s u b j e c t ' s e l b o w j o i n t i s i n l i n e w i t h t h e c e n t r e o f t h e w h e e l a s s h e s t a n d s w i t h h e r s i d e t o w a r d s i t . The s u b j e c t l e a n s b a c k a g a i n s t a s u p p o r t , w i t h t h e f e e t 17 i n c h e s (43.2 cm) f o r w a r d a g a i n s t a s t o p . W i t h t h e b a c k t h u s s o l i d l y s u p p o r t e d , V e l c r o s t r a p s a r e u s e d t o s t a b i l i z e t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d r i g h t u p p e r arm. An a p p r o p r i a t e l o a d ( i . e . , one t h a t w i l l be h e a v y enough t o a l l o w d e v e l o p m e n t o f o p t i m a l f o r c e ) i s p l a c e d on t h e w e i g h t h o l d e r . F o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h i s w e i g h t was d e t e r m i n e d b y a s e r i e s o f t r i a l s a t d i f f e r e n t w e i g h t s a s d e s c r i b e d b e l o w ( A p p e n d i x 3 ) . The s u b j e c t g r a s p s t h e h a n d l e w i t h arm e x t e n d e d downward and on command f l e x e s t h e arm, r o t a t i n g t h e w h e e l a n d b r i n g i n g t h e h a n d l e c l o s e t o t h e s h o u l d e r ( F i g u r e 6 ) . As t h e w h e e l i s t u r n e d t h e w e i g h t i s l i f t e d ; t h e f o r c e e x e r t e d i s t r a n s m i t t e d t h r o u g h t h e c a b l e t o t h e s t r a i n r i n g , i n w h i c h a v o l t a g e p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e f o r c e i s d e v e l o p e d . A p o t e n t i o m e t e r mounted on t h e a x l e o f t h e w h e e l m e a s u r e s v o l t a g e p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e a n g u l a r d i s p l a c e m e n t . The two m e a s u r e s a r e d i s p l a y e d on a CRT f o r f e e d b a c k t o t h e s u b j e c t . D a t a a r e s a m p l e d a t 50 Hz o v e r 3 s , and a n a l o g - t o - d i g i t a l c o n v e r t e d ; a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y , f o r c e , moment and power a r e co m p u t e d d i g i t a l l y ( A p p e n d i x 4 ) . C u r v e s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e d a t a f o r one s u b j e c t a r e shown i n F i g u r e 7. 137 F i g u r e 6. Dynamometer i n u s e . VELOCITY 0 8 0 5 1.0 1.5 2.0 TIME CS) F i g u r e 7. Instantaneous v a l u e s of angle, angular v e l o c i t y , f o r c e , and power from one t r i a l by the same s u b j e c t , sampled over 2 s a t 50Hz with a load of 2 kg S t r a i n Gauge R i n g The r i n g was d e s i g n e d t o o p e r a t e w i t h an a p p l i e d l o a d o f up t o 25 l b . T h i s a l l o w e d a r a n g e o f l o a d s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e women who were m e a s u r e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . A f u l l W h e a t s t o n e b r i d g e was u s e d t o g i v e maximum s e n s i t i v i t y w i t h t e m p e r a t u r e c o m p e n s a t i o n . F o u r 120 ohm s t r a i n g a u g e s were mounted on t h e I n s i d e o f a n a l u m i n u m r i n g , a n d w i r e d a s shown i n F i g u r e 8. P h y s i c a l s i z e a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s d i d n o t p o s e d e s i g n p r o b l e m s . R e l i a b i l i t y F o r e a r m f l e x o r power a v e r a g e d o v e r 10 t r i a l s was m e a s u r e d i n a g r o u p o f 10 women a g e d 20 t o 60, and r e p e a t e d a f t e r one week; t e s t / r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y was e x c e l l e n t ( r = . 9 6 ) . C a l i b r a t i o n A n g l e a n d f o r c e were c a l i b r a t e d d i r e c t l y . F o r a n g l e , t h e w h e e l was t u r n e d t h r o u g h a c o m p l e t e r o t a t i o n , a n d t h e v o l t a g e d e v e l o p e d b y t h e p o t e n t i o m e t e r was r e c o r d e d e v e r y l O o o f a n g l e . E a c h c h a n g e o f one d e g r e e i n a n g l e r e s u l t e d I n a s c a l e d e f l e c t i o n o f 45 u n i t s . F o r f o r c e , t h e c a b l e was l o a d e d w i t h w e i g h t s i n .5 k g s t e p s f r o m .5 k g t o 4.5 k g , and t h e v o l t a g e s d e v e l o p e d i n t h e s t r a i n gauge were m e a s u r e d . E a c h .5 k g c h a n g e r e s u l t e d i n a s c a l e d e f l e c t i o n o f 28 u n i t s . The c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n v o l t a g e d e v e l o p e d a n d b o t h a n g l e a n d f o r c e was v e r y h i g h ( r = 1 . 0 0 ) . H y s t e r e s i s was .125% o f maximum d e f l e c t i o n f o r a n g l e , a n d .2% f o r f o r c e . R e g u l a r c a l i b r a t i o n c h e c k s d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s t u d y showed a maximum v a r i a t i o n f r o m f u l l - s c a l e d e f l e c t i o n o f .13% f o r a n g l e , a n d .4% f o r f o r c e . 140 F i g u r e 8. Wiring diagram for s t r a i n r i The d y n a m i c r e s p o n s e o f t h e s t r a i n r i n g was c o m p a r e d w i t h t h a t o f a K i s t l e r f o r c e p l a t f o r m . A 20 k g w e i g h t on t h e p l a t f o r m was l i n k e d t o t h e s t r a i n g a u g e , w h i c h was i n t u r n l i n k e d t h r o u g h a c a b l e t o a m e t a l b a r . The b a r was b r i e f l y v i b r a t e d a t a f r e q u e n c y o f a b o u t 7 Hz. V o l t a g e s d e v e l o p e d i n t h e s t r a i n gauge and f o r c e p l a t f o r m were s a m p l e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a t 50 Hz f o r 3 s. T h e r e was a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e r e s p o n s e s f r o m t h e f o r c e p l a t f o r m a n d t h e s t r a i n gauge ( r = . 9 9 5 ) , w i t h m i n i m a l p h a s e l a g and a m p l i t u d e d i s t o r t i o n (< 2 % ) . F i g u r e 9 shows s a m p l e r e s p o n s e c u r v e s . "I ! 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 . 0 0.1 0 . 2 0 . 3 0 . 4 0 . 5 0 . 6 0 . 7 0 . 8 0 . 9 T i m e C s ) F i g u r e 9. Instantaneous values of v i b r a t o r y f o r c e recorded for 1 s at 50 Hz by a K i s t l e r f o r c e p l a t f o r m and the s t r a i n gauge ( t r a n s d u c e r ) . t-» to 143 A p p e n d i x 3 M e a s u r e m e n t o f Power A d j u s t m e n t o f Dynamometer The dynamometer was a d j u s t e d t o e a c h s u b j e c t , u s i n g t h e d i m e n s i o n s a l r e a d y c a l c u l a t e d ( f o r method s e e A p p e n d i x 5) and e n t e r e d on h e r R e c o r d s h e e t ( p . 7 5 ) . 1) The p l a t f o r m h e i g h t was s e t . 2) The h a n d l e l e n g t h was s e t . 3) The c o u n t e r p o i s e was s e t t o b a l a n c e t h e h a n d l e . D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Dynamometer L o a d i n g . P r o c e d u r e was a s f o l l o w s : (1) E a c h s u b j e c t was c o r r e c t l y p o s i t i o n e d . (2) She c o m p l e t e d 10 p r a c t i c e t r i a l s . ( 3 ) The a p p r o p r i a t e l o a d f o r h e r t o u s e I n measurement o f power was e s t a b l i s h e d . P o s i t i o n i n g . H a v i n g s e e n a d e m o n s t r a t i o n , t h e s u b j e c t was a s s i s t e d o n t o t h e p l a t f o r m a n d p o s i t i o n e d l e a n i n g a g a i n s t t h e b a c k r e s t , w i t h f e e t f o r w a r d 17 I n c h e s a g a i n s t a s t o p . The h a n d l e l e n g t h was c h e c k e d f o r c o m f o r t o v e r t h e r a n g e o f f o r e a r m f l e x i o n , a n d a d j u s t e d i f n e c e s s a r y . I n t h i s p o s i t i o n , h e r b a c k was f i r m l y a n d s a f e l y s u p p o r t e d . A d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t a n d s t a b i l i z a t i o n were g i v e n b y V e l c r o s t r a p s , one f a s t e n e d f i r m l y a r o u n d t h e s h o u l d e r s a n d a n o t h e r , c u s h i o n e d on t h e i n s i d e , r o u n d t h e u p p e r arm. The arm s t r a p had t o be f i r m , b u t n o t s o t i g h t a s t o c o n s t r i c t t h e m u s c l e when t h e s u b j e c t b e n t h e r arm. T h i s p r o t o c o l was f o l l o w e d i n a l l s u b s e q u e n t t e s t i n g . 144 P r a c t i c e T r i a l s . The dynamometer was l o a d e d w i t h a 1 kg w e i g h t a nd e a c h s u b j e c t p e r f o r m e d 10 p r a c t i c e t r i a l s , r a i s i n g a n d l o w e r i n g t h e w e i g h t w i t h a d i s t i n c t p a u s e a f t e r e a c h t r i a l . S u b j e c t s were e n c o u r a g e d t o move up q u i c k l y ( f o r maximum f o r c e ) a n d down s l o w l y ( t o a v o i d b a n g i n g w e i g h t s on t h e f l o o r a t t h e e n d ) . D u r i n g t h e movement, s u b j e c t s k e p t t h e i r e y e s on t h e o s c i l l o s c o p e t r a c e s h o w i n g t h e a n g u l a r x d i s p l a c e m e n t o f t h e w h e e l . T h e y were i n s t r u c t e d t o make t h e t r a c e go up a s s t e e p l y a s p o s s i b l e . T h i s n o t o n l y g a ve them f e e d b a c k , b u t a l s o h e l p e d t o e n s u r e s t a n d a r d p o s i t i o n i n g o f t h e h e a d . S u b j e c t s were c o a c h e d f o r t h e i r b e s t e f f o r t s . D e t e r m i n i n g t h e E s t a b l i s h e d L o a d . The dynamometer was t h e n l o a d e d w i t h a p r e d i c t e d w e i g h t 1 k g l e s s t h a n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s 6RM ( A p p e n d i x 2 ) . T h i s a p p r o x i m a t i o n was a r r i v e d a t p r a g m a t i c a l l y d u r i n g p r e l i m i n a r y t e s t i n g o f t h e dynamometer.The t e s t e r s a i d : We w i l l do two p r a c t i c e s w i t h t h i s w e i g h t w h i c h s h o u l d be a b o u t r i g h t f o r y o u . I w i l l s a y " t a k e t h e w e i g h t " - y o u t a k e h o l d o f t h e h a n d l e f i r m l y a n d g e t r e a d y t o p u l l . I w i l l s a y "go" - y o u w i l l p u l l t h e h a n d l e up t o y o u r s h o u l d e r a s q u i c k l y a s y o u c a n , t h e n r e t u r n i t t o t h e b o t t o m a n d r e s t . T r y t o make t h e t r a c e go up s t e e p l y . On t h e command " t a k e t h e w e i g h t " t h e s u b j e c t l i f t e d t h e w e i g h t j u s t o f f t h e f l o o r ( a b o u t l O o o f a n g l e ) , p r e l o a d i n g t h e m u s c l e s a n d p o s i t i o n i n g t h e arm s o t h a t t h e r o t a t o r y c o mponent o f t h e m u s c l e f o r c e c o u l d be e x e r t e d . The t e s t e r s a i d "go" a s s o o n a s t h e s u b j e c t was s t e a d y . F o r some s u b j e c t s , t h e p r e d i c t e d w e i g h t was d e c r e a s e d o r i n c r e a s e d -i f i t was c l e a r l y t o o h i g h ( t h e s u b j e c t c o u l d n o t l i f t i t ) o r t o o l o w ( i t was n o t h e a v y e n o u g h t o s l o w t h e movement down s o t h a t power c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d ) . A f t e r two s u c c e s s f u l p r a c t i c e s , n i n e t r i a l s were c o m p l e t e d , t h r e e a t e a c h o f t h r e e w e i g h t s . The o r d e r o f t r i a l w e i g h t s was: (1) p r e d i c t e d w e i g h t ( a d j u s t e d i f n e c e s s a r y ) . (2) f i r s t w e i g h t p l u s .5 k g . (3) f i r s t w e i g h t m i n u s .5 k g . F o r e x a m p l e , i f t h e p r e d i c t e d w e i g h t was 3.0 k g t h e i n i t i a l w e i g h t w o u l d be 3.0 k g , t h e s e c o n d w o u l d be 3.5 k g and t h e t h i r d 2.5 k g . When t h e dynamometer was c o r r e c t l y l o a d e d , t h e t e s t e r s a i d : Now we w i l l s t a r t r e c o r d i n g d a t a . We w i l l h a v e t h r e e t r i a l s a t e a c h w e i g h t , 40 s e c o n d s a p a r t . Remember, I am g o i n g t o s a y " t a k e t h e w e i g h t " , a n d "go". The t r i a l t h e n c o n t i n u e d a s i n t h e p r a c t i c e t r i a l s . As t h e s u b j e c t b e g a n t o move t h e h a n d l e , t h e c o m p u t e r o p e r a t o r s t a r t e d t h e s a m p l i n g o f a n g l e a n d f o r c e d a t a ( f o r 3 s a t 50 H z ) . Peak power was c o m p u t e d f o r e a c h o f t h e n i n e t r i a l s and a v e r a g e d o v e r t r i a l s f o r e a c h o f t h e t h r e e w e i g h t s . The w e i g h t a t w h i c h t h e a v e r a g e peak power d e v e l o p e d was g r e a t e s t was u s e d a s t h a t s u b j e c t ' s e s t a b l i s h e d - l o a d f o r i n i t i a l a n d f i n a l m e a s u r e s o f power. The M e a s u r e m e n t o f Peak Power F o r t h e i n i t i a l a n d f i n a l power m e a s u r e m e n t s e a c h s u b j e c t c o m p l e t e d : 1. t e n warm-up p r a c t i c e s w i t h a 1 k g w e i g h t , and 2. f i v e r e c o r d e d t r i a l s , a t t h e e s t a b l i s h e d l o a d . Peak power f o r e a c h t r i a l was c o m p u t e d . The a v e r a g e o f t h e f i v e t r i a l s was c a l c u l a t e d a n d r e c o r d e d on t h e R e c o r d S h e e t a s t h e measure o f peak power f o r t h a t s u b j e c t . A p p e n d i x 4 The c a l c u l a t i o n of Power and other D e r i v a t i v e s F o r c e , a n g l e a n d r a d i u s were m e a s u r e d : F o r c e ( F ) I n N. A n g l e ( t h e t a ) I n r a d . r = r a d i u s o f t h e w h e e l . A n g u l a r v e l o c i t y , moment, power, a nd work were c a l c u l a t e d . A n g u l a r v e l o c i t y (omega) = Change o v e r t i m e i n a n g u l a r d i s p l a c e m e n t x t h e t a ( r a d / s ) . Moment (M) = r F (Nm). Power (P) - M.omega (W). Work = sum o f P x d t ( J ) Appendix 5 E s t i m a t i o n of F a t — f r e e C r o s s - s e c t i o n a l Arm Area Measures used: 1. Arm ci r c u m f e r e n c e (maximum, re l a x e d ) . 2. B i c e p s s k i n f o l d 3. T r i c e p s s k i n f o l d . . . . . . . . . . . CO <f 2) Let r» Let r Let A C a c t u a l r a d i u s c o r r e c t e d r a d i u s FCA 27fr' r ' = 277 = V » — r = r r = C 27T 2 f± + f= Area of c i r c l e A =7TV2 S u b s t i t u t i n g <3) A = -ff C - f t + f a 27?" 2 (1) C2) <3) <4) S i n c e the area of bone does not change, any change i n A ( f a t — f r e e c r o s s — s e c t i o n a l area) for an i n d i v i d u a l over time may be c o n s i d e r e d t o repr e s e n t a change i n muscle c r o s s — s e c t i o n a l area. Measures were made by the same i n d i v i d u a l u s i n g the same instrument (Harpenden c a l i p e r s ) . Appendix 6 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e — your p h y s i c a l s e l f _ Ho. T h i s i s a s t a n d a r d i z e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t i n g of statements about how you f e e l about your p h y s i c a l s e l f g e n e r a l l y . You are asked to i n d i c a t e whether you agree or d i s a g r e e with them as they apply to you now. Record your answer a c c o r d i n g to the f o l l o w i n g s c a l e 'from 1 to 6 , i n d i c a t i n g how s t r o n g l y you agree or d i s a g r e e . 1 2 3 4 5 6 s t r o n g l y moderately s t r o n g l y agree agree d i s a g r e e Try t h i s as an example. Score I am s t r o n g e r than most women of my age If you s t r o n g l y agree, you would r e c o r d 1 i n the blank. I f you moderately agree, you might mark 3 or 4. I f you s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e you would mark 6 . Please answer every q u e s t i o n . There should be a number i n each blank when you have f i n i s h e d . Phys i c a l S e l f - e f f i c a c y S c a l e Score 1. I have e x c e l l e n t r e f l e x e s 2. I am not a g i l e and g r a c e f u l 3. I am r a r e l y embarrassed by my v o i c e 4. My physique i s r a t h e r s t r o n g 5. Sometimes I don't h o l d up w e l l under s t r e s s 6. I can't run f a s t 7. I have p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s that sometimes bother me 8. I don't f e e l i n c o n t r o l when I take t e s t s i n v o l v i n g p h y s i c a l d e x t e r i t y 9. People t h i n k n e g a t i v e t h i n g s about me because of my p o s t u r e . 1 0 . I am not h e s i t a n t about d i s a g r e e i n g with people b i g g e r than me 1 1 . I have poor muscle tone 1 2 s t r o n g l y agree 3 4 m o d e r a t e l y agree 5 6 s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 12. I t a k e l i t t l e p r i d e i n my a b i l i t y i n s p o r t 13. A t h l e t i c people u s u a l l y do not r e c e i v e more a t t e n t i o n than me. 14. I am sometimes e n v i o u s of those b e t t e r l o o k i n g than me. 15. Sometimes my laugh embarrasses me. 16. I am not concerned w i t h the i m p r e s s i o n my p h y s i q u e makes on o t h e r s 17. Sometimes I f e e l u n c o m f o r t a b l e s h a k i n g hands because my hands a r e clammy. 18. My speed has h e l p e d me out of some t i g h t s p o t s . 19. I f i n d t h a t I am not a c c i d e n t prone. 20. I have a s t r o n g g r i p . 21. Because of my a g i l i t y , I have been a b l e t o do t h i n g s which many o t h e r s c o u l d not do. 22. I am never i n t i m i d a t e d by the thought of a s e x u a l e x p e r i e n c e . P l e a s e check t o make sure t h a t you have not a c c i d e n t a l l y l e f t any b l a n k s . Appendix 7 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f PSE A f t e r t h e s u b j e c t s had b e e n g r e e t e d a n d shown a r o u n d , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a i d : T h i s i s a s t a n d a r d i z e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t i n g o f s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t how y o u f e e l a b o u t y o u r p h y s i c a l s e l f g e n e r a l l y . You a n s w e r b y i n d i c a t i n g w h e t h e r y o u a g r e e o r d i s a g r e e t h a t t h e s t a t e m e n t s a r e good d e s c r i p t i o n s o f y o u . S c o r e e a c h s t a t e m e n t f r o m 1 t o 6, f r o m s t r o n g l y a g r e e t o s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e . T h e r e i s a p r a c t i c e e x a m p l e w h i c h s a y s : ' I am s t r o n g e r t h a n most women o f my a g e ' . I s t h i s a good d e s c r i p t i o n o f y o u ? I f y o u s t r o n g l y a g r e e y o u w o u l d mark...? Y e s , 1 i s r i g h t . I f y o u s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e , y o u w o u l d mark...? Y e s , 6 t h a t ' s r i g h t . I f y o u f e e l i t i s o n l y p a r t l y l i k e y o u , o r n o t l i k e y o u , c h o o s e one o f t h e o t h e r n u m b ers. I f no s t a t e m e n t e x a c t l y m a t c h e s y o u , c h o o s e t h e c l o s e s t . H e r e ' s a h i n t - y o u r f i r s t r e a c t i o n i s u s u a l l y t h e b e s t . The a d m i n i s t r a t o r d i s t r i b u t e d t h e t e s t , a n d a s k e d t h e s u b j e c t s t o p u t t h e i r c o d e numbers o n l y on t h e f o r m . She t h e n s a i d : P l e a s e do t h e p r a c t i c e e x a m p l e , a n d t h e n go a h e a d . P l e a s e a n s w e r t h em a l l . F e e l f r e e t o a s k q u e s t i o n s . When t h e y h a d f i n i s h e d , t h e y were r e m i n d e d a b o u t p u t t i n g t h e i r c o d e number i n t h e s p a c e a n d t h i s was c h e c k e d a s t h e t e s t s were c o l l e c t e d . T e s t s were s c o r e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e method u s e d b y Ryckman e t a l . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . A p p e n d i x 8a Record Sheet No: Informed consent:__ PAR Q PSE Group -H e i g h t (cms) P l a t f o r m s e t t i n g (1) (2) (3) (fc) (5) R a d i a l e D a c t v l i o n (1) - (2) 75# o f (3) S e t t i n g : 23.2- (k) C o u n t e r p o i s e 6RM wt Kg Dynamometer l o a d i n g Weight (Kg) 2 2.5 3 3-5 ^ -4.5 . 5 5-5 R e p e t i t i o n s Dynamometer: T r i a l 1 T r i a l 2 T r i a l 3 Computer Code: E$TAxxl - 9 (xx i s s u b j e c t ' s number (2) ESTTxxl - 9 (3) E$TRxxl - 9 Measurements Date : i Weight (Kg) S k i n f o l d s (mm) L e f t B i e e p s -T r i c e p s R i g h t BiceDS T r i c e p s Arsv g i r t h (cms) L e f t R i g h t 6RM (Kg) F l e x i b i l i t y ( c ^ s ) Peak power (W) | PSE Score Arm G i r t h L e f t a d j u s t e d 6 ^ 0 R i g h t ! Weight Weight Weight Appendix 8b Record Sheet P a r t 2 No: PSE Date: Dynamometer l o a d i n g : Computer code: E $ C x x l t o E$Cxx5 (xx i s s u b j e c t ' s number) Weight A B C D E F G H i : j : [ ' ' "I R e p e t i t i o n s ! j i ' A - R : L R 2 Measurements Date: Weight (Kg) S k i n f o l d s (mm) L e f t - -s l e e p s T r i c e p s • ! !; R i g h t B i c e p s r . i i - I • T r i c e p s Arv\ e i r t h (cms ) L e f t ! ' \ ; R i e h t !i • : - t • 6RX (Kg) . i . i i • : F l e x i b i l i t y U ^o, Peak power (w) PSE S c a r e Arm C l i r t h L e f t . i a d j u s t e d R i g h t I PHYSICAL ACTIVITY READINESS QUESTIONNAIRE (PAR-Q)* A Self-administered Questionnaire for Adults & YOU P A R - Q is designed to help you help yourself. Many health benefits are associated with regular exerc ise , and the completion of P A R - Q is a sensib le f irst step to take if you are planning to increase the amount of physical act iv i ty in your l i fe. For most people physical act iv i ty should not pose any problem or hazard. P A R - Q has been designed to identify the small number of adults for whom physical act iv i ty might be inappropriate or those who should have medical advice concerning the type of act iv i ty most suitable for them. Common sense is your best guide in answering these few quest ions. P lease read them care-fu l ly and check the 0 Y E S or NO opposite the question if it applies to you. Y E S NO 1. Has your doctor ever said you have heart trouble? 1 1 1 | 2 . Do you frequently have pains in your heart and chest? D O 3 . Do you often feel faint or have spe l ls of severe d i zz i ness? O [D 4. Has a doctor ever sa id your blood pressure was too high? CU C 5- Has your doctor ever told you that you have a bone or joint problem such as arthrit is that has been aggravated by exerc ise , or might be made worse with exerc ise? • • 6 -• • 7 . Are you over age 65 and not accustomed to vigorous exerc ise? Is there a good physical reason not mentioned here why you should not follow an act iv i ty program even if you wanted to? You If you have not recently done so, consult with your personal physic ian by telephone or in person B E F O R E increasing your physical act ivi ty and/or taking a f i tness test. Te l l him what questions you answered Y E S on P A R - Q , or show him your copy. After medical evaluat ion, seek advice from your physician as to your sui tabi l i ty for; ^ unrestricted physical act iv i ty , probably on a gradually increasing bas is . # restricted or supervised activity to meet your spec i f i c needs, at least on an init ial bas is . Check in your community for special programs or se rv ices . If you answered P A R - Q accurately, you have reasonable assurance of your present sui tabi l i ty for: # A G R A D U A T E D E X E R C I S E P R O G R A M -A gradual increase in proper exercise pro-motes good f i tness development while min i -mizing or el iminating discomfort. # A N E X E R C I S E T E S T - Simple tests of f i t-ness (such as the Canadian Home Fi tness Test) or more complex types may be under-taken if you so desire. p o s t p o n e If you have a temporary minor i l l ness , such as a common co ld . • ueveiopea oy the British Columbia Ministry of Health. Conceptualized and critiqued by the Multidisciplinary Advisory Board on Exercise ( M A B E ) , Translation, reproduction and use in its entirety is encouraged. Modifications by written permission only. Not to be used for commercial advertising in order to solicit business from the public. Reference. P A R - Q Validation Report, British Columbia Ministry of Health, May, 1978. * Produced bv the British Columbia Ministry of Health and the Department of National Health & Welfare. Appendi x 10 155 Informed Consent The purpose o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t o examine t h e e f f e c t o f t r a i n i n g on o l d e r women ( o v e r 55)» There w i l l be two g r o u p s , one t r a i n i n g f o r s t r e n g t h i n arm muscles and one f o r f l e x i b i l i t y o f h i p s and back. The i n v e s t i g a t o r i s E l e a n o r Haydock, under the s u p e r v i s i o n o f P r o f e s s o r S t a n l e y Brown, Ph.D. A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the programme o f a c t i v i t i e s i n wh i c h v o l u n t e e r p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l be i n v o l v e d i s a t t a c h e d . We expec t t h e i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i m e n t a l t e s t i n g r e f e r r e d t o w i l l t a k e about h a l f an hour. F r e e p a r k i n g s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e . I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s s t u d y w i l l add s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o know-l e d g e o f the res p o n s e t o t r a i n i n g o f o l d e r women, and a l s o t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l g a i n i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r I n d i v i d u a l c a p a c i t i e s . O ther b e n e f i t s a r e the expected i n c r e a s e i n arm s t r e n g t h o r f l e x i b i l i t y as a r e s u l t o f the t r a i n i n g . The o n l y s i d e e f f e c t s we can f o r e s e e would be muscle s t i f f n e s s i f you t r y t o o h a r d . T h i s s h o u l d n o t happen i f you f o l l o w i n s t r u c t i o n s c a r e f u l l y . You w i l l be asked t o complete a form a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s about y o u r s t a t e o f h e a l t h . I f , a t t h i s p o i n t o r a f t e r the p r e l i m i n a r y t e s t i n g , you do do not f e e l you w i s h t o complete the t r a i n i n g , p l e a s e d i s c u s s the m a t t e r w i t h one o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s , and f e e l f r e e t o withdraw from the s t u d y a t any time w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n and w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e t o f u t u r e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s t u d i e s o f f e r e d by t h e S c h o o l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , and you may r e f u s e t o answer any q u e s t i o n . Data from p e n c i l and paper t e s t s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and measures s t o r e d i n the computer w i l l be a n a l y s e d . Only the i n v e s t i g a t o r s w i l l have a c c e s s t o i t , and anonymity w i l l be p r e s e r v e d by u s i n g c o d i n g . Data w i l l be d e s t r o y e d when t h e y have s e r v e d the purposes o f the s t u d y . Your s i g n a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t you consent t o t a k e p a r t i n the s t u d y and t h a t you have r e c e i v e d a copy o f t h i s document w i t h one s t t a c h m e n t . Date S i g n a t u r e • W i t n e s s A p p e n d i x 1 2 158 Week Day & d a t e jw-f. used Reps S e t s Comments • - 1 ! ,'2 • ;. 3 2 1 • ; 2 3 3 1 1 I 2 1 3 4 1 2 3 5 1 ! 2 3. • i 1 3 8 1 • j 2 j 3 9 . 1 j 1 1 2 - " - j - 1 1 3 'I : 1 I I . i o _ ! i ; ; . ; " • i i 1 • . ? • 1 • ! ! i 1 1 i • . . ] . - ! \ . • 3 ! . 1 ' i 1 • • • 1 2 1 2 j 3 1 A p p e n d i x 13a F l e x i b i l i t y t r a i n i n g f o r back and h i p s PLEASE NOTE: You w i l l get most b e n e f i t from these r o u t i n e s i f you do WOT s t r a i n or s t r u g g l e to r e a c h a g o a l . The movements s h o u l d be e a s l y and p l e a s a n t , and may be v e r y s m a l l . Keep your neck s o f t and l o o s e , and remember t o breathe while moving. Work w i t h your shoes o f f , and s t a r t by d o i n g each movement 10 t i m e s . G r a d u a l l y work up t o 20 t i m e s . Always REST f o r about a minute between each group o f movements. Think about what you are doing. T r y to make the movements s i m p l e r and e a s i e r . Ask y o u r s e l f where the movement s t a r t s -what do you do f i r s t when making the movement. There are two phases o f about s i x weeks each. PHASE I .- v 1) Get i n t o a hands and knees p o s i t i o n , w i t h your knees r i g h t under your h i p s , f e e t a p a r t , t o e n a i l s down, and your hands r i g h t under your s h o u l d e r s . Your head should be i n i t s normal p o s i t i o n , and your eyes l o o k i n g at the f l o o r . T h i s i s the s t a r t p o s i t i o n , t o which you w i l l r e t u r n many times. 2) Now b e g i n t o move yo u r seat i n the d i r e c t i o n o f y o u r h e e l s , keeping your hands i n p l a c e , b r e a t h i n g out, and g o i n g o n l y as f a r as i s c o m f o r t a b l e f o r you. L e t y o u r head hang l o o s e l y and your back be s o f t l y rounded. Return t o the s t a r t p o s i t i o n . Do t h i s movement 10 times to s t a r t w i t h , g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g to 20. Keep b r e a t h i n g . REST f o r a minute. 3) From the s t a r t p o s i t i o n , l i f t your l e f t knee, c a r r y i t behind you, and p l a c e i t t o the r i g h t o f your r i g h t knee. The o u t s i d e of your l e f t l e g i s c l o s e t o the o u t s i d e o f your r i g h t one. Keep your s h o u l d e r s i n p l a c e over your hands. Return to the s t a r t p o s i t i o n . Do t h i s 10 times to s t a r t and g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e to 20 t i m e s . Keep b r e a t h i n g . REST. 4) Repeat the same sequence of movements w i t h the r i g h t knee. Repeat the v e r y f i r s t movement once o r twice - move your s e a t i n the d i r e c t i o n of your h e e l s . I t may be e a s i e r now. P r a c t i c e t h i s phase t h r e e times a week ( p r e f e r a b l y Monday-Wednesday-Friday or Tuesday-Thursday-Saturday). Y o u may f i n d you are coming much c l o s e r t o a c t u a l l y s i t t i n g on your h e e l s . (Adapted from one o f the l e s s o n s of Moshe F e l d e n k r a i s ) A p p e n d i x 14 161 No: Week Day & date F l e x i b i l i t y j Phase I Reps Time 1 T T Comments 1_ 3 1 T T i T T i 2 T i T '3 1 2 T P h a s e ' I I • _1_ 2 T 12 3 , 1 10 _x ; i . 2 i ; : 1 i ; i 1 1 1 1 ' 2 i i i 3 ! 1 3 A p p e n d i x 15 C a l c u l a t i o n o f Dynamometer S e t t i n g s F o r e a c h s u b j e c t , h e i g h t f r o m t h e f l o o r t o r a d i a l e and d a c t y l i o n were m e a s u r e d . A t a b l e r e l a t i n g r a d i a l e h e i g h t and t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s e t t i n g o f t h e a d j u s t a b l e p l a t f o r m was c a l c u l a t e d , and u s e d t o e s t i m a t e t h e p l a t f o r m l e v e l f o r t h e s u b j e c t . To e s t i m a t e t h e h a n d l e s e t t i n g , 7 5 % o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n r a d i a l e and d a c t y l i o n h e i g h t s was u s e d a s a n e s t i m a t e o f t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e a x i s o f t h e e l b o w t o t h e i n s i d e hand g r i p . A t a b l e r e l a t i n g t h i s l e n g t h t o t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e c e n t r e o f t h e w h e e l t o t h e h a n d l e was c a l c u l a t e d , and u s e d t o e s t i m a t e t h e s e t t i n g f o r t h e h a n d l e . A d j u s t m e n t s t o t h e s e e s t i m a t e s were s e l d o m r e q u i r e d . 

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