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Recruitment into the role of professor of teacher education in physical education 1984

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RECRUITMENT INTO THE ROLE OF PROFESSOR OF TEACHER EDUCATION IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION By MURRAY F. MITCHELL B.ED., THE UNIVERSITY OF VICTORIA, 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF (THE SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES MARCH 1984 Murray F. Mitchell, 1984 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y Department of PHYSICAL EDUCATION The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT Research on teacher educators i n physical education has been the exception, rather than the rule, despite t h e i r importance i n teacher preparation programs. Fifteen teacher educators possessing a doctoral degree and experience i n public schools were selected as subjects from four u n i v e r s i t i e s i n an e f f o r t to launch systematic inquiry i n t h i s area of scholarly need. Structured interviews were used to gain information about their recruitment into their professorial roles and their current role orientations. Among the findings was a lack of consensus among them regarding the Ideal teacher, physical education program, teacher educator, and teacher education program, a dominant s o c i a l i z a t i o n pattern i n which biography emerged as more important than formal education, and personal work p r i o r i t i e s that often c o n f l i c t with i n s t i t u t i o n a l reward systems. Five conclusions and their attendant implications emerged from the related findings and signal future research directions. - i i i - TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OP TABLES via LIST OF FIGURES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ix CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1 Teacher Education 2 A three stage model 2 Biography over education 4 Education or training 5 Wash out 8 Graduate education 10 Statement Of The Problem 12 Definitions of Terms 13 Significance Of The Problem 14 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF LITERATURE 17 Occupational Choice 18 Psychological perspective 19 Sociological perspective 21 Career Change 23 Attractors to change 28 - i v - CHAPTER TWO (continued) F a c i l i t a t o r s of change 28 University Professors 29 Perceptions of the role 30 Attractors to the role of professor 31 F a c i l i t a t o r s to the role of professor 33 Additional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 34 Implications 37 CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 42 CHAPTER FOUR FINDINGS 44 Public School Teaching 44 Background biographies 44 Role orientation 46 Role preparation 46 Personal performance perceptions 49 Summary 50 Career Change 51 Leaving public school teaching 51 Pursuit of the professorate 52 Pursuit of the doctorate 54 -v- CHAPTER FOUR (Continued) Feelings about the decision to change 55 Summary 56 The Role of Professor 57 Pre-doctoral perceptions 57 Post-doctoral perceptions 58 Role performance impact on role perceptions 58 Retrospective evaluation of preparation 59 Speci f i c role component perceptions Student teacher supervision 61 Teaching experience 62 Role description 62 Role s a t i s f a c t i o n 63 Evaluation of role performance 64 Perceived ideals 65 Summary 67 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS 73 CHAPTER SIX SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 76 REFERENCES 79 APPENDIX 1: C e r t i f i c a t e of Approval 88 - v i - APPENDIX 2: Letter of Introduction 89 APPENDIX 3: Questionnaire Preamble 91 APPENDIX 4: Questionnaire 92 - v i i - LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1: Possible Attractors to the Role of Professor of Teacher Education i n Physical Education PAGE 38 TABLE 2: Possible F a c i l i t a t o r s to the Role of Professor of Teacher Education i n Physical Education 39 TABLE 3: Additional Characteristics of the Role of Professor of Teacher Education i n Physical Education 41 TABLE 4: Attractors, F a c i l i t a t o r s , and Additional Characteristics of the Role of Professor of Teacher Education i n Physical Education 72 - v i i i - LIST OP FIGURES PAGE FIGURE 1: Typology of Career Changers 25 - i x - ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Through the research and writing of t h i s thesis I have come to r e a l i z e that a great number of people have contributed to thi s f i n a l product. The vast majority of these people are doubtless unaware of their contributions for two main reasons. F i r s t , few of us are aware of the impact we may have on others. Second, few of the people who have had impact upon me would have suspected such a product from me. I hope that at least some might read i t with s a t i s f a c t i o n . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , I wish to express appreciation to a l l of the subjects who participated i n t h i s study. Each subject shared b i t s of the i r l i f e with me and i n return I hope that I have done them a service and ju s t i c e . Lastly, I wish to thank my committee members for sharing their time and expertise. Dr. Gary S i n c l a i r and Dr. Robert Morford have each contributed to a project that I hope we can a l l look on with pride. F i n a l l y , and most importantly, my advisor Dr. Hal Lawson has been p a r t i c u l a r l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n his contributions to my thesis and to my career d i r e c t i o n — h e has done a remarkable job with the very raw material presented to him. Those who can, do. Those who can't, teach. Those who can't teach, teach teachers. Anonymous. This quotation i s used to introduce the ensuing investigation because i t points to the professor of teacher education. The professor occupies a s i g n i f i c a n t position i n teacher education programs, i . e . , i n what students of the profession would c a l l the induction process for new teachers. The position of professor allows some control over entry and exit requirements, course content, and the evaluation of prospective teachers. In other words, the professor may be p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t for the degree and kind of t r a i n i n g received by prospective teachers. Yet, our understanding of the potential and actual impact of teacher educators remains limited. Locke and Dodds (1981) observe that "Teacher educators have been remarkably nonintrospective as a professional group" (p. 15), and their lament i s also an indication of need. Clearly, a l l physical education professors involved with teacher education have some impact upon prospective teachers, and more information about them i s warranted. Some professors i n t h i s area, however, may be more important than others. Of s p e c i f i c interest i n t h i s study i s the group twice-implicated i n the opening quote: namely, former-teachers-turned-professors. Not only i s t h i s group portrayed as unable to perform generally, page 1 b u t m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y , u n a b l e t o t e a c h . W h i l e p u t t i n g a s i d e t h e i s s u e o f t h i s w i t t i c i s m ' s a c c u r a c y , i t d o e s r a i s e i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e s e p r o f e s s o r s . W e r e t h e y e f f e c t i v e t e a c h e r s ? A r e t h e y e f f e c t i v e t e a c h e r e d u c a t o r s ? W h a t w e r e t h e i r m o t i v e s w h e n t h e y o p t e d f o r s u c h a v o c a t i o n ? T h e s e a r e j u s t a f e w o f t h e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h m a y b e r a i s e d a b o u t t h i s g r o u p o f p r o f e s s o r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . M o r e q u e s t i o n s f o l l o w w h e n t h e f o c u s i s o n r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o t h e r o l e o f t e a c h e r e d u c a t o r . A f t e r a l l , t h e s e p r o f e s s o r s r e c e i v e a t l e a s t t h r e e w a v e s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n . B e g i n n i n g w i t h i n i t i a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n t o t h e r o l e o f t e a c h e r , t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s n e x t m o v e t o t h e s c h o o l s t o b e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y s o c i a l i z e d , a n d f i n a l l y g o t h r o u g h s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n t o t h e r o l e o f p r o f e s s o r a s p a r t o f t h e i r g r a d u a t e e d u c a t i o n . Q u e s t i o n s a b o u n d r e g a r d i n g t h e s e p a r a t e a n d r e l a t e d e f f e c t s o f t h e s e t h r e e w a v e s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n o n r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o , a n d s u b s e q u e n t p e r f o r m a n c e i n , t h e r o l e o f p r o f e s s o r . T h e s e q u e s t i o n s b e c o m e c l e a r e r a s e a c h o f t h e s e w a v e s i s p r e v i e w e d u n d e r t w o m a i n h e a d i n g s : t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n a n d g r a d u a t e e d u c a t i o n . T E A C H E R E D U C A T I O N A T h r e e S t a g e M o d e l T h e p r o c e s s o f t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n h a s b e e n c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n t e r m s o f t h r e e r e l a t e d s t a g e s . S u c h a f r a m e w o r k i s g e n e r a l l y page2 based on analyses of the more c l a s s i c professions of medicine and law. S p e c i f i c a l l y applied to physical education, Pooley (1972, 1975), and Lawson (1983) have referred to: recruitment or anticipatory s o c i a l i z a t i o n , university training and professional education, and f i n a l l y , entry into the work force (Lawson, 1983, p.5). A suggestion underlying this framework i s that professional education i s the stage at which individuals come to understand, accept and embrace the norms and values of the profession. Aspiring professionals are then prepared to make what i s presumed to be a more congruous step from this professional education into the r e a l i t i e s of practice. When thi s three stage model i s applied to teacher education, however, more questions surface. A presumed incongruity between recruitment and professional education does not appear i n samples of education subjects (Lortie, 1975, p. 81). In other words, teacher education programs may not act as expected to change the orientations of r e c r u i t s . That this may occur can be attributed not only to dif f e r e n t perceptions of teacher eduction programs, but also, to differences among these programs. These observations are important to the present investigation for three reasons. F i r s t , teachers-turned professors, unless from the same i n s t i t u t i o n , have doubtless received d i f f e r e n t types of training. Second, even the same program may have d i f f e r e n t i a l impacts because of equally dif f e r e n t commitments and perceptions among would-be teachers. page3 The t h i r d p o i n t of i n t e r e s t r e s i d e s i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between teacher education and en t r y i n t o the school., and t h i s p o i n t m e r i t s more d i s c u s s i o n . There are i n f a c t three kinds of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s r egarding the s p e c i f i c r o l e of teacher education programs i n r e l a t i o n to school e n t r y . Each of these kinds of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of teacher education c o n t r i b u t e s to the study of teachers who become teacher educators. Although important on t h e i r own, these p o i n t s become c r u c i a l when considered i n terms of t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to f i n a l r o l e performance as teachers and teacher educators. Of s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s the extent to which the s u b j e c t i v e warrants f o r teaching remain i n t a c t a f t e r teacher education programs and graduate education. Biography Over Education T h i s f i r s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of teacher education programs suggests that a student's understanding of the r o l e of teacher i s shaped l a r g e l y by experiences as a student i n the schools ( L o r t i e , 19975). The approximately twelve years spent p r i o r to u n i v e r s i t y , i t i s suggested, are more i n f l u e n t i a l than the f i v e years of s p e c i f i c education and t r a i n i n g . L o r t i e (1975) suggests that t h i s s c h o o l i n g p e r i o d c o n t r i b u t e s to the formation of a " s u b j e c t i v e warrant" (p. 39), an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n s about a given r o l e . A c c e p t i n g the e x i s t e n c e of such p e r c e p t i o n s leads to two c r u c i a l p o i n t s r a i s e d by Lawson (1983). F i r s t i s the p o i n t that, page4 w h e t h e r h e l d by a s i n g l e p e r s o n o r a g r o u p , t h e s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t " i s o f t e n r i d d l e d w i t h e r r o r " (p. 6 ) : t h e s e c o n d i m p o r t a n t p o i n t i s t h a t s u c h a p e r c e p t u a l b a s e , w h e t h e r a c c u r a t e o r m i s t a k e n , " n o n e t h e l e s s p r o v i d e s t h e b a s i s f o r c a r e e r c h o i c e " ( p . 6 ) . The c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n s a r e t h e n : To what e x t e n t do t h e s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s f o r t e a c h i n g r e m a i n i n t a c t a f t e r t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s ? A f t e r g r a d u a t e e d u c a t i o n ? E d u c a t i o n Or T r a i n i n g The s e c o n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s r e l a t e s t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e u n i v e r s i t y a n d a c t u a l t e a c h i n g . P e r c e p t i o n s o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p may be v i e w e d on a c o n t i n u u m . A t one e n d o f t h e c o n t i n u u m , t h e r o l e o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y i s s e e n a s l e a d i n g a n d i n f o r m i n g t e a c h i n g i n t h e s c h o o l s t h r o u g h t h e o r y a n d r e s e a r c h . I n t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , w o u l d - be t e a c h e r s a r e made aware o f , a n d i n d e e d f o r c e d t o a s k q u e s t i o n s o f what a n d why i n r e g a r d t o t e a c h i n g a n d p r o g r a m d e v e l o p m e n t . S u c h a n o r i e n t a t i o n h a s b e e n i d e n t i f i e d by Lawson (1983a) a s a p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g p e r s p e c t i v e . A t t h e o t h e r e n d o f t h e c o n t i n u u m , t h e r o l e o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y i s s e e n a s r e f l e c t i n g a n d r e i n f o r c i n g a c t u a l t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s c u r r e n t l y e m p l o y e d i n t h e s c h o o l s . S t u d e n t s f r o m t h i s b a c k g r o u n d a r e more commonly aware o f , a n d a s k q u e s t i o n s o f how and how b e s t , i n r e g a r d t o p r o g r a m d e v e l o p m e n t . S u c h a n o r i e n t a t i o n h a s b e e n i d e n t i f i e d by Lawson (1983a) a s a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p e r s p e c t i v e . T h e s e p e r c e p t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d a s a c o n t i n u u m f o r e a s e o f page5 a n a l y s i s , but need not be mutually e x c l u s i v e as program components. Nevertheless, t r a i n i n g i n only the "how-to's" has been s i n g l e d out f o r c r i t i c i s m . An e x c l u s i v e o r i e n t a t i o n to problem-solving i s apparently what Morford (1972) sees as a major step toward t r a i n i n g f o r a c r a f t , r a t h e r than the education f o r a p r o f e s s i o n . Moreover, Dewey (1904) d e s c r i b e d such an o r i e n t a t i o n as a p p r e n t i c e s l e a r n i n g what t h e i r masters d i d such that technique becomes an end i n i t s e l f . The suggestion from both of these authors i s that teaching i n v o l v e s more than mere technique of p r e s e n t a t i o n , and thus, r e q u i r e s an understanding of why 1s i n a d d i t i o n to how's. Teachers with t h i s background are p o t e n t i a l l y more aware of r e p e r c u s s i o n s of what they do and why they do i t . R e l y i n g upon more than b l i n d f a i t h these teachers are grounded i n the t h e o r e t i c a l underpinnings of both the demands and p o t e n t i a l outcomes of t h e i r programs. So, the q u e s t i o n i s : Are teachers educated, t r a i n e d , or both? Tabachnick, Popkewitz and Zeichner (1980) c i t e o b s e r v a t i o n s c o n t r a s t i n g o f f i c i a l u n i v e r s i t y statements with a c t u a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . P r o s p e c t i v e teachers i n i t i a l l y prompted to develop i n d i v i d u a l teaching s t y l e s and to experiment with t e a c h i n g methodologies are subsequently pressed to f i t i n smoothly with ongoing procedures. Such a s c e n a r i o appears to be one of i n t r o d u c i n g students to the e x i s t e n c e of problem-setting at the t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l , with a decided emphasis on problem- s o l v i n g at the a p p l i e d l e v e l . Therefore, i t i s p o s s i b l e to o f f e r page 6 a competing explanation for the effectiveness of teacher education programs. Rather than being i n e f f e c t i v e , the university experience may be quite e f f e c t i v e i n reinforcing e x i s t i n g attitudes and behaviors i n schools, even though this outcome i s contrary to teacher educators' espoused theories of purpose i n the culture of the university (Zeichner & Tabachnick, 1981) . Here, too, then are clues to the importance of teacher educators, their- own s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and their orientations toward teacher education and school practice. Immediately, questions of interest c r y s t a l l i z e . What were the perceptions of teachers- turned-professors during their teacher education? What effect, i f any, did these perceptions have on their subjective warrants for the role of teacher educator? How did these subjective warrants change as roles changed from student to teacher and to graduate student? What types of things i n teacher education were deemed important; which were unimportant? Questions such as these may be central to the understanding of the professor of teacher education. For example, assuming that their own teacher education program was of l i t t l e value, some professors may hold a missionary v i s i o n of the importance of their role, one in which teaching experience i s more important than theory and research. The central questions for individuals with a missionary orientation w i l l d i f f e r from those of individuals who choose the page? r o l e of p r o f e s s o r merely to escape from teaching. D i f f e r e n t a l s o w i l l be the c e n t r a l questions f o r the i n d i v i d u a l s seeking upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , freedom f o r personal research, or perhaps other m o t i v a t i o n s . In any case, an understanding of p e r c e p t i o n s of a r o l e must inform the study of, and indeed, the a c t u a l performance i n , the r o l e of p r o f e s s o r of teacher education. Wash Out The t h i r d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the e f f e c t s of teacher education programs i s that the u n i v e r s i t y experience has no l a s t i n g e f f e c t on students because the experience i s "washed out" by the r e a l i t i e s of the work world of schools (Zeichner & Tabachnick, 1981). Importance i s attached here to the wave of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n which accompanies teaching experience. A common f i n d i n g of s t u d i e s i s that "students become i n c r e a s i n g l y p r o g r e s s i v e i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s d u r i n g the course of t h e i r c o l l e g e education but move i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n toward more t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s when they experience the impact of f u l l - t i m e t e a c h i n g " (Zeichner & Tabachnick, 1981, p. 7). Hence, "wash out" r e f e r s to the e l i m i n a t i o n of p r o g r e s s i v e a t t i t u d e s i n the workplace, and h i g h l i g h t s questions regarding the e f f e c t s of t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n on a teacher's s u b j e c t i v e warrant f o r the r o l e of teacher educator. L o r t i e ' s (1975) rese a r c h l e a d him to an i n t e r e s t i n g suggestion which r e l a t e s to the "wash out" e f f e c t and to student p e r c e p t i o n s of p r o f e s s o r s : pageS The outcome i s evidently frustrating; unable to reach the horizons pointed out to them, students must choose between seeing themselves as incompetent and seeing their prophets as f a l s e . They apparently lean toward the l a t t e r . (p. 69). Whether or not Lortie's suggestion i s accurate, i t does highlight s p e c i f i c areas of inquiry. For example, the perceptions which teachers-turned-professors held of their professors, and hold of themselves as professors now, may be important factors i n the decision to become a professor. This i s especially the case i n l i g h t of the p o t e n t i a l l y low impact of such a role from their own education. To t h i s point, interpretations regarding the role of teacher education programs have been examined because teacher educators, themselves, experienced these programs and entry into schools. These interpretations have been focussed upon three themes which address facets of teacher education: Biography over education; education or training; and, wash out. This discussion has been aimed at uncovering pertinent questions about two waves of s o c i a l i z a t i o n and emphasizing the importance of the professor for t h i s investigation. The f i r s t two waves of s o c i a l i z a t i o n , teacher education and organizational.socialization upon entry into schools, have been presented, al b e i t b r i e f l y . The next section includes a look at the t h i r d wave of s o c i a l i z a t i o n which affects the professor of teacher education: graduate education. Once again the purpose i s to provide a page9 foundation by i d e n t i f y i n g p e r t i n e n t q u e s t i o n s . GRADUATE EDUCATION Graduate education i s posed, i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , as the t h i r d wave of s o c i a l i z a t i o n f o r p r o s p e c t i v e p r o f e s s o r s . Once again, the u n i v e r s i t y i s the agency of i n t e r e s t , but now, i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t . The c u l t u r e of the u n i v e r s i t y , i t s graduate education f o r p r o s p e c t i v e p r o f e s s o r s , the primary f u n c t i o n s of the u n i v e r s i t y , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of these f a c t o r s to recruitment i n t o the p r o f e s s o r s h i p , are of i n t e r e s t . U n i v e r s i t i e s may be viewed as performing three main f u n c t i o n s : teaching, research, and s e r v i c e . Although these may be viewed as e q u a l l y important and compatible, t h e i r r e l a t i v e importance v a r i e s from one u n i v e r s i t y to another. T h e i r importance v a r i e s because u n i v e r s i t i e s , themselves, vary as f u n c t i o n s of s i z e , l o c a l e , sponsorship, c l i e n t e l e , and f r e q u e n t l y composition. Thus, some major u n i v e r s i t i e s , complete with e l a b o r a t e graduate programs, accord more emphasis to research, whereas sma l l e r i n s t i t u t i o n s may c a t e r p r i m a r i l y to undergraduates and emphasize teaching. I t f o l l o w s that recruitment i n t o the r o l e of p r o f e s s o r w i l l be a f f e c t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y by the k i n d of d i r e c t experiences which people have had i n u n i v e r s i t i e s and t h e i r breadth of understanding of u n i v e r s i t i e s and t h e i r c u l t u r e . p a g e l C Glazer - (1974) i s among the a n a l y s t s who have observed some of the dilemmas f a c i n g education f a c u l t i e s i n u n i v e r s i t y c u l t u r e s . Predominant f o r such f a c u l t i e s i s the dilemma of a l l e g i a n c e . Bonds to parent d i s c i p l i n e s such as b i o l o g y , s o c i o l o g y or psychology c o n f l i c t with the more p r a c t i c a l l y a p p l i e d s u b - d i s c i p l i n e s i n the f i e l d of education. Consequently, p r o f e s s o r s of teacher education must choose a balance between the r o l e s of s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n a r i a n researcher and p r a c t i c a l l y a p p l i e d teacher. The balance chosen i s a mixture of i n d i v i d u a l backgrounds of p r o f e s s o r and the demands of u n i v e r s i t y c u l t u r e s . Put d i f f e r e n t l y , some i n d i v i d u a l s may t r a i n f i r s t as p s y c h o l o g i s t s and subsequently, develop an i n t e r e s t i n education. In an education f a c u l t y , such an i n d i v i d u a l would l i k e l y i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f as a rese a r c h e r , a n a l y s t , or p s y c h o l o g i s t with secondary r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to educate others to h i s c a l l i n g . Another i n d i v i d u a l , t r a i n e d f i r s t as a teacher, who l a t e r develops i n t e r e s t and e x p e r t i s e i n the psychology of education may i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n t p r i o r i t i e s . T h i s i n d i v i d u a l i s foremost a teacher, such that p r i n c i p l e s of, and re s e a r c h i n t o , pshchology merely supplement the primary task of teaching. Further, u n i v e r s i t i e s may f i g u r e prominently i n the s t r u c t u r e of the balance between r e s e a r c h e r s and teachers. The i n f l u e n c e of the u n i v e r s i t y i s manifest i n i t i a l l y i n f a c u l t y d e s i g n a t i o n s v i a job d e s c r i p t i o n s and q u a l i f i c a t i o n requirements, and subsequently, i n reward s t r u c t u r e s r e l a t e d to job performance. p a g e I 1 Necessarily, as university f a c u l t i e s vary i n composition of researchers and teachers, so must their programs of graduate education vary. In other words, there are different kinds of programs of graduate education i n equally different u n i v e r s i t i e s . These programs affect recruitment into the professorship and performance i n the role. Important questions surface regarding the induction process of former-teachers-turned-professors. To what extent does graduate education prepare individuals to deal with the three functions of a university: teaching, research, and service? To what extent do individuals choose a university i n regard to these roles? The answers to questions such as these are yet another step toward understanding i n i t i a l l y , the process of recruitment into the role of professor of teacher education, and perhaps subsequent insight into role performance. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The purpose of this investigation i s to explore recruitment into the role of professor of teacher education i n physical education. S p e c i f i c a l l y , why do individuals choose to become a professor? What are perceptions of what a professor does? What kinds of things should a professor do(?); not do? The suggestion to t h i s point, i s that perceptions of this role do exist prior to role occupancy, and that these perceptions include two kinds of pagei2 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . As Van Maanen and Schein (1979) have observed: A l l r o l e s which are created, s u s t a i n e d and t r a n s m i t t e d by people i n c l u d e both content c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( i . e . , what i t i s people should do) and process c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( i . e . , how i t i s they should do i t ) . (p. 226). F u r t h e r , these p e r c e p t i o n s may be important i n understanding a c t u a l performance i n the r o l e . I t i s the goal of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n to g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o these p e r c e p t i o n s of content and process c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r o l e of p r o f e s s o r of teacher education. That these p e r c e p t i o n s may be s i m i l a r i n some ways, yet d i f f e r e n t i n others, may emerge from the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of recruitment p a t t e r n s i n t o the r o l e . D e f i n i t i o n s of Terms P r o f e s s o r of teacher education. For t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h i s t i t l e w i l l i n c l u d e o n l y former-teachers-turned-professors. In other words, t h i s w i l l exclude s u b j e c t s who have a t t a i n e d the d o c t o r a l l e v e l with no time spent as a teacher i n any pre- u n i v e r s i t y i n s t i t u t i o n . F u r t h e r , t h i s t i t l e w i l l i n c l u d e h o l d e r s of e i t h e r the PhD or EdD degrees. Recruitment. In t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the term represents the stage i n which an i n d i v i d u a l formulates a s u b j e c t i v e warrant to a i d i n the s e l e c t i o n of the r o l e of p r o f e s s o r of teacher education. pageI3 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Although r e l a t e d to p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n , t h i s concept i s a l s o d i f f e r e n t . Not merely a s s o c i a t e d with p r o f e s s i o n s , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n occurs whenever an i n d i v i d u a l e n t e r s and indeed, operates i n a work s e t t i n g , i . e . , i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n . Formal and i n f o r m a l mechanisms operate to shape a t t i t u d e s and behaviors of i n d i v i d u a l s toward both intended and unintended ends, and these ends may be at odds wi t h norms of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m . S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Problem A number of authors have i d e n t i f i e d the need f o r r e s e a r c h on teacher educators ( H a l l & Hord, 1981; Locke & Dodds, 1981; Lawson, 1981). The f a c t that there has been l i t t l e work done i n the area has a l r e a d y been noted. Moreover, although a l l authors c i t e d c a l l a t t e n t i o n to the need f o r work i n t h i s area, only one s p e c u l a t e s as to the s i g n i f i c a n c e of such i n q u i r y . T h i s i s perhaps f u r t h e r testimony to both the l a c k of understanding and l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n on teacher educators. Acceptance of such a s c e n a r i o a l s o speaks to the extent to which t a c i t assumptions guide the questions we ask. Put d i f f e r e n t l y , E i s n e r (1979) r e f e r s to the " N u l l Curriculum" (p. 83). In essence the suggestion i s that we come to understand our world not only through the questions we ask, but a l s o through the questions we do not ask. Since no premium has been put on knowledge about teacher educators, we might assume e i t h e r or each of two t h i n g s . page14 F i r s t , teacher educators serve no c r u c i a l r o l e i n the teacher education process; hence, l i t t l e need be known of them. Second, the r o l e of teacher educator i s of such common sense nature that we do not need f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . Both assumptions are open to s u s p i c i o n , f o r i n f a c t , we need to know more of the m o t i v a t i o n s , b e l i e f s and understandings of the p r o f e s s o r of teacher education i f we are to understand b e t t e r the process of teacher education g e n e r a l l y , and the r o l e of the p r o f e s s o r more s p e c i f i c a l l y . Lawson (1981) frames the i n q u i r y i n t o teacher educators, s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t o f ormer-teachers-turned-professors, on a backdrop of "a d i f f i c u l t boundary p o s i t i o n between higher education and the f i e l d " (p. 22) . He d e s c r i b e s t h e i r competing a l l e g i a n c e s between p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n and s c h o l a r l y r esearch, between s c i e n t i f i c r e d u ctionism and the wholes of p r a c t i c e , and between educator and r o l e model. Lawson d e s c r i b e s such a l i s t of r o l e dilemmas as breeding " r o l e s t r e s s , r o l e s t r a i n , and r o l e c o n f l i c t " (p. 23). An understanding of what might a t t r a c t i n d i v i d u a l s to such a r o l e , as w e l l as whether they p e r c e i v e such c o n f l i c t s , and, i f so, how they deal with such, must be i n f o r m a t i v e i n understanding them. Furthermore, an understanding of what people b r i n g to the r o l e stands to shed l i g h t on how they perform i t . Thus there i s a l i n k between t h i s study and questions which surround the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of teacher education programs. P r i o r to s e t t i n g , much l e s s s o l v i n g such questions about e f f e c t i v e n e s s , however, we need to know more about the page15 professor of teacher education. For i t i s d i f f i c u l t i f not impossible to comment on the ef fect iveness of an ind iv idua l without knowing p rec ise l y what i t i s that the ind iv idua l perceives as relevant tasks. page16 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE E n t e r i n g u n i v e r s i t y work as a l i f e career i s very much l i k e e n t e r i n g matrimony: everybody agrees that i t i s an important event but so many i n t a n g i b l e s are i n v o l v e d that nobody knows e x a c t l y how i t happens. (Wilson, 1942, p. 15). The above q u o t a t i o n i s the sentiment of a pioneer, Wilson, embarking upon a new f i e l d of i n q u i r y , and h i s book, The Academic Man, (Wilson, 1942) stands as perhaps the most i n f l u e n t i a l work on u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s . Our understanding of who u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s are, what they do and why they do i t , has not proceeded much beyond t h i s t r e a t i s e of over f o r t y years ago. Work i n the area remains s c a r c e . The q u a l i t y of work s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d to p h y s i c a l education i s noted by Locke (1982): As a body of knowledge and a domain f o r i n q u i r y i n p h y s i c a l education, teacher education remains uneven, unpopular and l a r g e l y unread. (p. i ) . In an e a r l i e r paper, Locke and Dodds (1981) reviewed research p u b l i s h e d between 1960 and 1980 r e l a t e d to teacher education i n p h y s i c a l education. Locke (1982) l a t e r continued t h i s work, reviewing f o r t y a d d i t i o n a l r e p o r t s spanning the p e r i o d from 19S0 to 1982. In t o t a l , four d i s s e r t a t i o n s were l i s t e d r e l a t e d to l e a d e r s h i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Beyond these the authors r a i s e page!" q u e s t i o n s s i m i l a r to those r a i s e d throughout t h i s study, c o n c l u d i n g that any d e f i n i t i v e answer "remains mostly unknown" (Locke & Dodds, 1981, p. 15). Consequently, t h i s review must draw upon a v a r i e t y of divergent d i s c i p l i n e s . There are strengths to t h i s approach. Work done i n other areas on r e l a t e d t o p i c s provides a beginning framework f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , p r o v i d i n g questions to ask and areas to i n v e s t i g a t e . Further, f i n d i n g s from previous work promise to lend meaning to r e s u l t s of the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The p i o n e e r i n g nature of t h i s t o p i c must not be l o s t from view, however, l e s t there r e s u l t an unmediated a p p l i c a t i o n of f i n d i n g s from areas other than p h y s i c a l education to t h i s unique f i e l d . T h i s review i s focussed around three headings. Beginning with Occupational Choice, l i t e r a t u r e i s examined f o r i n s i g h t i n t o the career s e l e c t i o n process. The next s e c t i o n , Career Change, b u i l d s on t h i s base f o r more accurate i n f o r m a t i o n on the s u b j e c t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , f ormer-teachers-turned-professors. The t h i r d s e c t i o n i s the most s p e c i f i c , c o n t a i n i n g the l i t e r a t u r e on U n i v e r s i t y P r o f e s s o r s . OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE Occupational choice, as a subject of i n q u i r y , has e x i s t e d s i n c e approximately the beginning of the twentieth century. I n i t i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s sought l i n k s between t r a i t theory and page!3 subsequent o c c u p a t i o n a l choice ( C a t t e l l , 1890; Yerkes, 1919). As the knowledge base grew i n regard to f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g .to o c c u p a t i o n a l choice, however, so grew the inadequacy of t r a i t theory f o r a complete e x p l a n a t i o n . The search f o r understanding prompted an examination of o c c u p a t i o n a l choice from other vantage p o i n t s . T h i s r e s e a r c h can be grouped under two major headings: That of a p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e and that of a s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . P s y c h o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e Through t h i s l e n s , o c c u p a t i o n a l choice i s viewed as the developmental process of i n d i v i d u a l s . Personal v o l i t i o n and f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g i n d i v i d u a l choice are f o c a l . Prominent i n work from t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i s that of Ginzberg (1951), who i d e n t i f i e s three developmental stages. I n i t i a l l y , c h i l d r e n f u n c t i o n i n the f a n t a s y p e r i o d i n which o c c u p a t i o n a l choice or preference i s based l a r g e l y on s t e r e o - t y p i c a l r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s . In the second stage, l a b e l l e d the t e n t a t i v e p e r i o d , i n d i v i d u a l s become i n c r e a s i n g l y aware of the a c t u a l requirements of jobs. F i n a l l y , the r e a l i s t i c p e r i o d i s presented as the t e r m i n a l stage i n o c c u p a t i o n a l choice development, o c c u r r i n g i n l a t e adolescence. At t h i s p o i n t , i n d i v i d u a l s are assumed to have reached some c o n s i s t e n c y i n terms of personal choice and the r e a l i t y of o c c u p a t i o n a l demands. Ginzberg's work i s i n f l u e n t i a l i n terms of o c c u p a t i o n a l choice r e s e a r c h . The c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h i s study may be minimized p a g e i 9 somewhat by the o c c u p a t i o n a l choice c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s . As that s e c t i o n of t h i s review w i l l suggest, t h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l choice i s g e n e r a l l y made w e l l beyond the adolescent years. Consequently, Ginzberg's work may have more to say about the i n i t i a l c hoice of s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study to teach than t h e i r subsequent s e l e c t i o n of the u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s h i p . Havinghurst (1953) and Super (1953) present t h e o r i e s i n v o l v i n g s i x stages of v o c a t i o n a l development. These t h e o r i e s are more c o n s i s t e n t with f i n d i n g s i n the career change l i t e r a t u r e , which suggest that o c c u p a t i o n a l choice extends beyond the adolescent years. In essence, as i n d i v i d u a l s age, they change. T h i s change-with-age process i s granted time beyond adolescence by these t h e o r i s t s . Within t h i s a d d i t i o n a l time frame, i n d i v i d u a l s may gain more r e a l i s t i c evidence to support or to undermine e a r l i e r p e r c e p t i o n s of occupations. T h i s p e r i o d beyond adolescence i s named by Super (1957) as a f l o u n d e r i n g or t r i a l process i n which a number of occupations are t r i e d . T h i s stage may extend as long as to the age range of 25 to 35. At t h i s stage. Super suggests, an i n d i v i d u a l l o c a t e s a career and works at advancement. Holland's (1959) work ce n t r e s more on t h i s f i n a l choice stage. At t h i s time, an i n d i v i d u a l seeks c o n s i s t e n c y or balance between t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y and the oc c u p a t i o n a l environment. Put d i f f e r e n t l y , the i n t e r a c t i o n between the environment and i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y continues and has a page2 0 s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on o c c u p a t i o n a l choice, even a f t e r the choice .has been made. The i n f l u e n c e of Holland's work w i l l be f u r t h e r examined when moti v a t i o n s f o r career change are di s c u s s e d . In summary, the p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i l l u m i n a t e s a number of f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . Timing of choice may begin as e a r l y as childho o d or as l a t e as the age range from 25 to 35 years of age. Further, c l u e s as to the motiv a t i o n s behind o c c u p a t i o n a l choice may be found i n the pe r c e p t i o n s i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d both of themselves and of the r o l e s they seek to perform. S o c i o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e Through t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , f a c t o r s beyond the immediate c o n t r o l of the i n d i v i d u a l , which impinge upon o c c u p a t i o n a l choice, are examined. Such f a c t o r s as s o c i a l c l a s s , gender, education l e v e l , c u l t u r e , f a m i l y and peer i n f l u e n c e s may be i n t e g r a l i n the eventual o c c u p a t i o n a l s e l e c t i o n . While the r o l e of the i n d i v i d u a l as an a c t i v e agent i n the process of o c c u p a t i o n a l s e l e c t i o n i s not ignored, i t i s not f o c a l . Rather, the f a c t o r s surrounding the choice are s e l e c t e d f o r e x p l a n a t i o n and p r e d i c t i o n . P a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t to t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , from the s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , i s work on p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . As noted e a r l i e r , work on t h i s concept i n education (both teacher education and p h y s i c a l education) i s minimal. E x i s t i n g research page2 i and models are based l a r g e l y upon the medical and l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n s . Consequently, these works mark a beginning p o i n t f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e l i e s not so much i n t h e i r f i n d i n g s about lawyers and doctors, but r a t h e r i n the s t r u c t u r e of t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . For example, Rogoff (1957), T h e i l e n s (1957) and K e i f r i c h (1975) a l l i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n c e s among i n d i v i d u a l s , w i t h i n given p r o f e s s i o n s , i n terms of o c c u p a t i o n a l choice p a t t e r n s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n t i m i n g of choice a s s o c i a t e d with r e l a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the eventual c h o i c e . In another l i g h t , these f i n d i n g s p o i n t to the c o n c l u s i o n that more than one avenue e x i s t s l e a d i n g to any occupation. Put d i f f e r e n t l y , i n d i v i d u a l s may have d i f f e r e n t reasons f o r , and goals i n , choosing to become p r o f e s s o r s of teacher education i n p h y s i c a l education. L o r t i e (1975) r e f e r s to two f a c t o r s of importance i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l s e l e c t i o n process, a t t r a c t o r s and f a c i l i t a t o r s . A t t r a c t o r s are d e f i n e d as "the comparative b e n e f i t s p r o f e r r e d would-be e n t r a n t s " ( L o r t i e , 1975, p. 26). S p e c i f i c a l l y f o r teaching, L o r t i e i d e n t i f i e s both m a t e r i a l b e n e f i t s , such as money, employment, s e c u r i t y , s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , and p s y c h i c or symbolic a t t r a c t o r s , such as p r e s t i g e , power, and s a t i s f a c t i o n . Within t h i s framework, a number of themes aimed at e x p l a i n i n g the o c c u p a t i o n a l choice of teaching are presented. F a c i l i t a t o r s , on the other hand, represent the " s o c i a l page2 2 mechanisms which heip move people i n t o a given occupation" ( L o r t i e , 1975, p. 26). For teaching, important f a c i l i t a t o r s i d e n t i f i e d are such t h i n g s as the i n f l u e n c e of others, an absence of o c c u p a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s , and a s u b j e c t i v e warrant. These f a c t o r s are presented as f a c i l i t a t o r s which may act i n d i v i d u a l l y or i n combination to shape an i n d i v i d u a l ' s eventual o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . To summarize the s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , then, i s to o u t l i n e f a c t o r s extraneous to the i n d i v i d u a l that r e l a t e to oc c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , two major c o n t r i b u t i o n s are made by the resea r c h from t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e . F i r s t i s the r e a l i z a t i o n of the e x i s t e n c e of m u l t i p l e pathways l e a d i n g to any given o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e . Second i s the employment of the c o n s t r u c t s of a t t r a c t o r s and f a c i l i t a t o r s as a means f o r d e s c r i b i n g and comparing these pathways. The d e c i s i o n to become a p r o f e s s o r of teacher education i n p h y s i c a l education a f t e r s e r v i n g as a teacher i s not j u s t a career choice; i t i s a l s o an o c c u p a t i o n a l change. Consequently, r e s e a r c h on t h i s t o p i c has been reviewed, a l b e i t b r i e f l y , f o r p o s s i b l e i n s i g h t s f o r the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n . CAREER CHANGE and Research on o c c a s i o n a l l y career change i s incomplete, o f t e n inadequate, c o n t r a d i c t o r y , but i t must be reviewed f o r page23 i t s p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n i n f u r t h e r i n g the t h e o r e t i c a l framework f o r understanding the recruitment of former-teachers- turned p r o f e s s o r s . Research on w h i t e - c o l l a r career change suggests that the choice i s t y p i c a l l y a v o l u n t a r y d e c i s i o n (Thomas, 1980, p. 173). I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o more p r e c i s e l y why the d e c i s i o n i s made, however, i s l e s s c o n c l u s i v e . In f a c t , Thomas suggests that the number of motives f o r change are almost as v a r i e d as the number of s u b j e c t s one i s w i l l i n g to study (1980, p. 177). F i g u r e 1 i l l u s t r a t e s an i n t e r e s t i n g typology of career changers, developed by Thomas. Th i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme draws a t t e n t i o n to a p a i r of s i g n i f i c a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n the study of career change. F i r s t i s the r e a l i z a t i o n that m o t i v a t i o n s or pressures to change may a r i s e i n t e r n a l l y , e x t e r n a l l y and/or i n combination. Second, as an e x t e n s i o n of t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n , i s the i n s i g h t that to d e s c r i b e career change as one category may mask s i g n i f i c a n t u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r s . T e n t a t i v e l y then, t h i s typology stands as an attempt at such d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . As i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 1, Thomas has i d e n t i f i e d four c a t e g o r i e s of w h i t e - c o l l a r m i d - l i f e career changers. Beginning with the " d r i f t - o u t " category, very l i t t l e i s known about these i n d i v i d u a l s . Beyond the l a c k of any apparent pressure to change, moti v a t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s category e x i s t as more enigmatic than e x p l a i n e d . page24 FIGURE 1 TYPOLOGY OF CAREER CHANGERS Pressure From Environment To Change Pressure From Self To Change LOW HIGH LOW "DRIFT-OUT" "OPT-OUT" HIGH "FORCE-OUT" "BOW-OUT" Source: Thomas, 1980, p. 178, p a g e 25 The "opt-out" category marks a group with high i n t e r n a l pressure to change. Prominent i n t h i s pressure i s a d r i v e f o r harmony between personal values and work. The p u r s u i t of t h i s harmony i s most l i k e l y to u t i l i z e formal education—more l i k e l y than i n any of the other quadrants. In a d d i t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l s c l a s s i f i e d here are h i g h l y l i k e l y to be i n the same p o s i t i o n f i v e years hence and are the most s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r change when compared to i n d i v i d u a l s i n other c l u s t e r s . High i n i t i a l education and a high m o t i v a t i o n to achieve are the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n d i v i d u a l s i n the "bow- out" group. Perhaps r e l a t e d to these f a c t o r s i s the l i k e l i h o o d that as a group these changers s e l e c t the l e a s t r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t career from t h e i r i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n . L a s t l y i n the " f o r c e - o u t " d e s i g n a t i o n , s u b j e c t s most c l o s e l y resemble p a t t e r n s i d e n t i f i e d i n s t u d i e s on b l u e - c o l l a r workers. As a group, these i n d i v i d u a l s begin with the l e a s t education f o r t h e i r i n i t i a l c areer, are l e a s t l i k e l y to r e s o r t to formal education i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e i r change, are l e a s t motivated by d e s i r e s f o r gr e a t e r achievement and make the most r a d i c a l changes of environment when they change. In c o n t r a s t to "opt-outs", t h i s f i n a l group are l e a s t concerned with the harmony of t h e i r p e r s o n a l v a l u e s and the work s e t t i n g . The f a c t o r of harmony or person-environment congruence may have d i f f e r e n t explanatory value f o r d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s . The b a s i c concepts of congruence theory were developed o r i g i n a l l y page26 by H o l l a n d (1959) i n an attempt to e x p l a i n o c c u p a t i o n a l choice. The a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s theory extended beyond mere o c c u p a t i o n a l choice to i n c l u d e career change. As i s the l o t f o r most theory a p p l i e d to unintended phenomena without m o d i f i c a t i o n , Holland's work was shown to have shortcomings (Bobbins, Thomas, Harvey and Kandefer, 1978). In an apparent e f f o r t to combat such c r i t i c i z m , H o l l a nd expanded h i s concepts beyond h i s i n i t i a l p e r s o n a l i t y type and o c c u p a t i o n a l type c o n f l i c t , s t a t i n g : People change jobs because other workers wish them to leave, and f o r other personal and environmental reasons: b e t t e r c l i m a t e , p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y , d i s s a t i s f i e d r e - l a t i v e s , more money and other i n f l u e n c e s . (Holland & Godfredson, 1976, p. 21). T h i s restatement d i f f e r s s u b s t a n t i a l l y from i n i t i a l p r o p o s i t i o n s . The s p e c i f i c i t y of the o c c u p a t i o n a l type v a r i a b l e has v i r t u a l l y been abandoned. There i s no longer any attempt at p r e c i s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of elements i n v o l v e d i n the d e c i s i o n to change c a r e e r s . More a c c u r a t e l y , the i n d i c a t i o n i s that people change car e e r s because of a v a r i e t y of personal and i n d i v i d u a l reasons. Furt h e r a n a l y s i s of the career change l i t e r a t u r e may be aided by a s u b d i v i s i o n i n t o two s u b h e a d i n g s — s p e c i f i c a l l y , the concepts i d e n t i f i e d by L o r t i e (1975) as a t t r a c t o r s and f a c i l i t a t o r s . page2 7 A t t r a c t o r s To Change A t t r a c t o r s may be seen as p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s . These may take the form of e i t h e r or both of m a t e r i a l b e n e f i t s and/or p s y c h i c or symbolic b e n e f i t s . In s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e to reasons f o r change, a number of a t t r a c t o r s have been i d e n t i f i e d . A few of these are: seeking b e t t e r s a l a r y (Hiestand, 1971; Thomas, 1980); seeking personal i n t e l l e c t u a l growth, self-improvement, mere p u r s u i t of i n t e r e s t i n a s u b j e c t f i e l d , and/or power (Hiestand, 1971); p r o b a b i l i t y of another job l e a d i n g to valued outcomes (Snyder, et a l . , 1978); gre a t e r job s e c u r i t y , being l a i d o f f , h e a l t h reasons, f o r more time with the f a m i l y , more r e c r e a t i o n time, and/or f o r a b e t t e r l o c a l e to l i v e i n (Thomas, 1980); general i n t r i n s i c rewards (Hiestand, 1971; Neapolitan, 1980); and, the p u r s u i t of person-environment congruency (Holland & Godfredson, 1976; Neapolitan, 1980; Thomas, 1980; Vaitenas & Wiener, 1977). F a c i l i t a t o r s Of Change F a c i l i t a t o r s have been i d e n t i f i e d as s o c i a l mechanisms which help move people to a c e r t a i n end. A number of f a c i l i t a t o r s have been i d e n t i f i e d i n r e l a t i o n to o c c u p a t i o n a l change. These i n c l u d e : the a v a i l a b i l i t y of o p p o r t u n i t i e s which were not present at a younger age, i n s t a b i l i t y at work, f o r c e d r e l o c a t i o n , d i s r u p t i o n of f a m i l y l i f e , a v a i l a b i l i t y of funds, and e l i g i b i l i t y f o r leave from the present job l e a d i n g to a r e t u r n to education (Hiestand, 1971). In a r e l a t e d v e i n i s a b e l i e f i n f u r t h e r page25 education f o r i t s l i f e enhancing power (Hiestand, 1971; Sarason, 1977; Vandermeulen, 1974)--at l e a s t i n part through the c r e d e n t i a l s to be a c q u i r e d (Hiestand, 1971). Further f a c i l i t a t o r s to change have been i d e n t i f i e d i n the form of p e r c e i v e d ease of l e a v i n g one occupation and the p e r c e i v e d p r o b a b i l i t y of success elsewhere (March & Simon, 1958); a f e a r of f a i l u r e and general l i f e - s t y l e doubts (Vaitenas & Wiener, 1977), and a d e s i r e to seek a r e d e f i n i t i o n of present s t a t u s , develop new s k i l l s and a t t a i n new job assignments or experiences (Snyder et a l . , 1978). In s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e to teachers, f a c i l i t a t o r s f o r change have been i d e n t i f i e d as a d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with what they were doing (Kahnweiler, 1980; Sarason, 1977), and the r e s u l t of f r u s t r a t i o n , boredom or a p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y r e g r e s s i v e o r i e n t a t i o n (Beam, 1981). To summarize, there are a t t r a c t o r s and f a c i l i t a t o r s that help to e x p l a i n career change. The use of these concepts p r o v i d e s i n s i g h t i n t o the reasons why teachers become p r o f e s s o r s , and more i n s i g h t can be d e r i v e d from the l i t e r a t u r e on u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s . UNIVERSITY PROFESSORS Since there i s l i t t l e r e l e v a n t work on p h y s i c a l education p r o f e s s o r s , the more general l i t e r a t u r e must be reviewed. In t h i s way, t e n t a t i v e p e n e t r a t i o n may be gained i n t o p a r t i c u l a r f a c e t s of the r o l e . page29 P e r c e p t i o n s Of The Role L i g h t (1974) i d e n t i f i e s three c l a s s i c models of the academic man. The f i r s t i s the Oxbridge Model i n which mental d i s c i p l i n e i s emphasized. Here, the p r o f e s s o r i s viewed as an i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral teacher with s u b j e c t matter a secondary and l e s s important f a c t o r . The second i s the S c o t t i s h Model, i n which the p r o f e s s o r i s viewed as a subject teacher f i r s t and foremost. The a s c r i b e d r o l e here i s one of imparting knowledge to any who d e s i r e i t . F i n a l l y , the German Model views the p r o f e s s o r as a s c i e n t i s t who a l s o teaches, emphasizing the establishment of new knowledge through r e s e a r c h . Each of these models may be u s e f u l as a means f o r c l a s s i f y i n g p e r c e p t i o n s of the r o l e of p r o f e s s o r as w i l l be shown i n a summary of r e l e v a n t f i n d i n g s . S t u d i e s of how p r o f e s s o r s view themselves and a s s i g n p r i o r i t i e s to the r o l e s they perform are r e v e a l i n g . Most prominent i s the teaching f u n c t i o n , but with some q u a l i f i c a t i o n . For example, teaching may merely occupy the g r e a t e s t amount of time i n a p r o f e s s o r ' s work l i f e (Gustad, 1959; S t e c k l e i n & E c k e r t , 1958); or the u n i v e r s i t y system i s viewed as p r i m a r i l y o r i e n t e d to t e a c h i ng (Bess, 1977; F u l t o n & Trow, 1974). Yet p r o f e s s o r s c i t e t e a c h i n g as the most important f u n c t i o n , followed by c h a r a c t e r development and then research (Eckert, S t e c k l e i n , Sagen, 1959; G i l l i l a n d , 1974; K e l l y & Hart, 1977; Ladd & L i p s e t t , 1975b). In a study i n p h y s i c a l education, p r o f e s s o r s r a t e teaching over research, p u b l i c a t i o n or coaching (Rog, 1979). page30 Another work showed that the o l d e r the respondent, the greater the a t t r a c t i o n to teaching over r e s e a r c h (Baldwin, 1979). L a s t l y , g r e a t e r freedom i n the p l a n n i n g of work and l e s s constant a p p r a i s a l from above was found by Wilson (1942) to be an important p r i o r i t y . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , each of the s t u d i e s c i t e d above may f i t q u i t e a c c u r a t e l y under e i t h e r the S c o t t i s h Model or the Oxbridge Model. In both models the o r i e n t a t i o n i s towards teaching, but from s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s . A t t r a c t o r s To The Role Of P r o f e s s o r Surveys of a t t r a c t o r s to the r o l e of p r o f e s s o r have i d e n t i f i e d a number of p e r c e i v e d b e n e f i t s . The most o f t e n c i t e d f a c t o r i s the opp o r t u n i t y to work with c o l l e g e age students (Brown, 1965; Gustad, 1959; Ness, 1958; S t e c k l e i n & Eckert, 1958; U.S. DOHEW, 1958; Vandermeulen, 1974; Yager, 1964). Next, i s the opp o r t u n i t y to perform r e s e a r c h (Gustad, 1959; Ness, 1958; S t e c k l e i n & Eck e r t , 1958), but with the added suggestion that t h i s a t t r a c t i o n decreases over time (Baldwin, 1979). A f t e r these a t t r a c t o r s i s an exte n s i v e l i s t of l e s s f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d f a c t o r s . These i n c l u d e the opp o r t u n i t y f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l s t i m u l a t i o n and challen g e (Ness, 1958; S t e c k l e i n & Eckert, 1958; U.S. DOKEW, 1958); the op p o r t u n i t y f o r a s s o c i a t i o n with c o l l e a g u e s (Gustad, 1958; S t e c k l e i n & Eckert, 1958); the opp o r t u n i t y to observe young people's growth and success (Brown, 1965; S t e c k l e i n & Eckert, 1958); freedom and independence (Gustad, 1959; Riesman, 1959; page31 V S t e c k l e i n & Eck e r t , 1958; Wilson, 1942); work with s p e c i a l types of s t u d e n t s — e s p e c i a l l y graduate students (Baldwin, 1979; S t e c k l e i n & Eck e r t , 1958); the op p o r t u n i t y to pursue a deep i n t e r e s t i n a s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t (Ness, 1958; U.S. DOHEW, 1958); the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a job o f f e r (Eckert et a i . , 1959; Ness, 1958; U.S. DOHEW,1958); the opp o r t u n i t y to continue study, to help young people, s o c i a l u s e f u l n e s s , to i n f l u e n c e , mould and i n s p i r e youth ( S t e c k l e i n & Eckert, 1958); the s a l a r y (Blau, 1974; Gustad, 1959); c o l l e g e c o u n s e l l o r ' s encouragement (Ness, 1958); the c o n t r i b u t i o n to s o c i e t y (Eckert et a l . , 1959; Ness, 1958); the opp o r t u n i t y to share knowledge (Brown, 1965); the chance to work i n s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d s (Blau, 1974); job c o n d i t i o n s such as secure tenure, avoidance motiva t i o n s , pleasant work and surroundings (Wilson, 1942); and f i n a l l y , p u b l i c esteem (Wilson, 1942), a l s o r e f e r r e d to as fame (Brown, 1965). T h i s l i s t may not be exhaustive, but i t does provide some i n i t i a l i n s i g h t s i n t o the reasons why i n d i v i d u a l s might choose to become a p r o f e s s o r . On a r e l a t e d theme, a number of s t u d i e s have attempted to i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c d e t r a c t o r s to the r o l e of p r o f e s s o r . Among these are the f o l l o w i n g : poor s a l a r y ; c l a s s load that i s too heavy; too many r o u t i n e d u t i e s , i . e . , d u t i e s which c o u l d be performed by a s e c r e t a r y (Eckert et a l . , 1959; S t e c k l e i n & Eckert, 1958; U.S. DOHEW, 1958); too many demands out s i d e teaching ( S t e c k l e i n & Eckert, 1958); i n d i f f e r e n c e or negative a t t i t u d e s of students (U.S. DOHEW, 1958); fear of an i n t e l l e c t u a l pageS2 r u t (Ness, 1958); and fe a r of i v o r y tower detachment (Ness, 1958) . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , there are d i f f e r e n c e s among the a t t r a c t o r s to the r o l e and p e r c e p t i o n s of the r o l e of p r o f e s s o r . Some of these d i f f e r e n c e s are mentioned i n the l i s t of d e t r a c t o r s . P e r c e p t i o n s of the job l a r g e l y favor the teaching aspect while a t t r a c t o r s appear s p l i t between this, f u n c t i o n and research. I t i s p o s s i b l e f o r each of these components to c o e x i s t w i t h i n the r o l e of p r o f e s s o r . At the same time, a c o n f l i c t of t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s may be at i s s u e . Whether or not t h i s c o n f l i c t i s even p e r c e i v e d by teacher educators i n p h y s i c a l education, however, remains to be explored. F a c i l i t a t o r s To The Role Of P r o f e s s o r There are fewer s t u d i e s of f a c i l i t a t o r s than of a t t r a c t o r s . The a v a i l a b l e f i n d i n g s p o i n t to the f o l l o w i n g f a c i l i t a t o r s : high i n t e l l i g e n c e (Gustad, 1959; Wilson, 1979); middle c l a s s background and the i m p l i e d value system a s s o c i a t e d therewith; a developed p r e f e r e n c e f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s t i m u l a t i n g and e s s e n t i a l l y s o l i t a r y a c t i v i t i e s (Gustad, 1959); and classroom teaching experience (Shultz, 1975). Some of these f a c i l i t a t o r s have been p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d as a t t r a c t o r s because i n some inst a n c e s a t t r i b u t e s of a p a r t i c u l a r occupation may f i t both c a t e g o r i e s . For ins t a n c e , d i l a t o r y i n c l i n a t i o n s , avoidance mo t i v a t i o n s (Wilson, 1942); the mere o f f e r of a job, deep i n t e r e s t i n a s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t area (Eckert et a l . , 1959; Ness, page33 1958; U.S. DOHEW, 1958); and a s s o r t e d other f a c t o r s which might i n i t i a l l y make an i n d i v i d u a l aware of the ex i s t e n c e of the r o l e of p r o f e s s o r and subsequently f a c i l i t a t e the m o t i v a t i o n to pursue the lengthy t r a i l l e a d i n g to the p r o f e s s o r s h i p . A d d i t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Presented i n t h i s s e c t i o n are f a c t o r s which have not yet been covered with s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e to p r o f e s s o r s . In many cases, i t i s uncl e a r as to whether the f a c t o r s are f a c i l i t a t o r s to the r o l e or merely d e s c r i p t o r s . T h i s i s the k i n d of quest i o n which t h i s and other i n v e s t i g a t i o n s must explore. The f i r s t a d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e l a t e s to work surrounding the a t t r a c t o r s to, d e t r a c t o r s from, and per c e p t i o n s of, the r o l e of p r o f e s s o r . S t u d i e s suggest that d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n a c t u a l job performance i n r e l a t i o n to the type of i n s t i t u t i o n s t u d i e d (Fulton & Trow, 1974; G i l l i l a n d , 1974; Ladd & L i p s e t t 1975b). Put d i f f e r e n t l y , awareness of the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of background experience i n the form of d i f f e r i n g r o l e models witnessed, and subsequent r o l e p e r c e p t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s must be acknowledged. T h i s f a c t o r gains importance i n l i g h t of the f i n d i n g that a m a j o r i t y of f a c u l t y come from an i n s t i t u t i o n d i f f e r e n t from the one at which they have completed t h e i r d o c t o r a l work (Wilson, 1979). The r a m i f i c a t i o n s of t h i s f i n d i n g may be r e a l i z e d by ste p p i n g beyond the scope of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , b r i e f l y , to examine a performance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c : The p r e s t i g e of the educator i s p r i m a r i l y dependent page34 upon h i s students, that of the sc h o l a r i s independent of h i s students. (Wilson, 1942, p. 194). Where a p r o f e s s o r f i n d s and perhaps more importantly where a pr o f e s s o r looks f o r reinforcement must f i g u r e prominently i n r o l e s e l e c t i o n , r o l e performance and oc c u p a t i o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . A l o g i c a l assumption, t h e r e f o r e , might be that i n d i v i d u a l s would be w e l l informed about the p o s i t i o n to which they a s p i r e . T h i s apparently i s not the case (Brown, 1965; Wilson, 1942,1979). In f a c t , beyond . s a l a r y , rank and teaching load, new r e c r u i t s are " r e l a t i v e l y p o o r l y informed on the more s u b t l e aspects" of the job (Brown, 1965, p. 255). The m a j o r i t y of p r o f e s s o r s are males (Creager, 1971; Huffman, 1968; Ladd & L i p s e t t , 1976; W i l l i e & S t e c k l e i n , 1982). Even though many females pursue graduate study, the m a j o r i t y a p p a r e n t l y do so on nondegree o r i e n t e d programs (Sharp, 1966). Another f a c t o r which might c o n t r i b u t e to the un d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of female f a c u l t y members, i s the f i n d i n g that o l d e r male academics ( i n p o s i t i o n s of power) h o l d negative a t t i t u d e s toward women academics (Jones & Lovejoy, 1980). The p r o p o s i t i o n that, f o r women who enter the ranks of academia, i t i s a process of a c c u l t u r a t i o n r a t h e r than merely s o c i a l i z a t i o n (Jensen, 1982), i s yet another p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n of male domination. C l e a r l y , the male-female i s s u e merits f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Data on the timing o f the d e c i s i o n to become a p r o f e s s o r p o i n t s to a l a t e r d e c i s i o n than that of people i n other page35 p r o f e s s i o n s — b e g i n n i n g s e r v i c e f i v e to ten years l a t e r (Eckert et a l . , 1959; S t e c k l e i n & Eckert, 1958). Moreover, t h i s d e c i s i o n o f t e n i s not made before graduate school (Eckert et a l . , 1959; Ness, 1958; S t e c k l e i n & Eckert, 1958; U.S. DOHEW, 1958; Vandermeulen, 1974; Yager, 1964), and the d e c i s i o n i s o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n a number of ways. These i n c l u d e : " d i l a t o r y i n c l i n a t i o n s " (Wilson, 1942); "more by acc i d e n t than by d e l i b e r a t e design" ( S t e c k l e i n & Eckert, 1958); and a process d e s c r i b e d as " d r i f t " (Gustad, 1959). In other words, "the m a j o r i t y of f a c u l t y had not c o n s c i o u s l y s e l e c t e d the academic career nor f o r m a l l y prepared themselves f o r i t s teaching f u n c t i o n " (Wilkerson, 1977), nor had they r e c e i v e d p r e p a r a t i o n to teach at the c o l l e g e l e v e l (Yager, 1964). O v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n with the d e c i s i o n to become a u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r i s h i g h — a s measured by the response to an " i f you co u l d s t a r t again" type of qu e s t i o n (Ladd & L i p s e t t , 1975a; W i l l i e & S t e c k l e i n , 1982; Yager, 1964). Related to t h i s career d e c i s i o n s a t i s f a c t i o n i s the f e e l i n g of success found by Ladd & L i p s e t t (1975a) i n 93 per cent of t h e i r n a t i o n a l sample of u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s . The l a s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the background of p r o f e s s o r s noted i n t h i s review i s i n regard to the parents. Most commonly, people who become p r o f e s s o r s have parents with comparatively l e s s s c h o o l i n g ( S t e c k l e i n & Eckert, 1958). page36 IMPLICATIONS The answers to questions surrounding the i s s u e of why people, p a r t i c u l a r l y former teachers, choose to become p r o f e s s o r s of teacher education i n p h y s i c a l education are not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . Theories about how and why people choose occupations, change c a r e e r s and s e l e c t a u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s h i p form a r e l e v a n t framework f o r the p u r s u i t of these answers. From i n v e s t i g a t i o n s forming the b a s i s f o r these t h e o r i e s , v a r i a b l e s p e r t i n e n t to t h i s study emerge i n the form of a p o r t r a i t of a t t r a c t o r s , f a c i l i t a t o r s and other r e l a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h i s p o r t r a i t , c o l o u r e d by f a c t o r s from divergent o r i g i n s , p resents a new and unique image. Although incomplete, here i s the most comprehensive p i c t u r e yet a v a i l a b l e of the s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Table 1 i l l u s t r a t e s a c o m p i l a t i o n of a t t r a c t o r s . In r e c o g n i t i o n of the e x i s t e n c e of d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s of the r o l e of p r o f e s s o r , the c l a s s i c models of t h i s r o l e , d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r as the Oxbridge Model, S c o t t i s h Model and German Model, are employed f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n purposes. These models are j o i n e d by a f o u r t h category of a t t r a c t o r s which are not a l r e a d y accounted f o r . Table 2 i s a p r e s e n t a t i o n of f a c i l i t a t o r s which have been i d e n t i f i e d . Presented simply as a l i s t , these f a c t o r s are the extent of what i s c u r r e n t l y known of the p o s s i b l e f a c i l i t a t o r s to the r o l e of p r o f e s s o r of teacher education i n p h y s i c a l education. page37 TABLE 1 POSSIBLE ATTRACTORS TO THE ROLE OF PROFESSOR OF TEACHER EDUCATION IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION OXBRIDGE MODEL Observe young peoples' growth and success S o c i a l usefulness & Help young people ^ Influence, mould, and Inspire youth Make a contribution to society SCOTTISH MODEL Share knowledge GERMAN MODEL Research I n t e l l e c t u a l s t i m u l a t i o n and challenge Association with colleagues Freedom and independence to continue study Work i n s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d s Esteem Or Fame OTHER Associate with c o l l e g e age students Job o f f e r Salary College counselor's encou ragement Secure tenure; being l a i d o ff Pleasant surroundings Health reasons Power P r o b a b i l i t y of a t t a i n i n g value outcomes Increased personal time I n t r i n s i c rewards Better l o c a l e to l i v e i n Pursuit of person-environment congruency TABLE 2 POSSIBLE FACILITATORS TO THE ROLE OF PROFESSOR OF TEACHER EDUCATION IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION High intelligence Middle class background Middle class values Opportunities not present in youth Instability at work Dissatisfaction with present position Frustration with present position Boredom Forced relocation Job offer Perceived ease of leaving present position Perceived probability of success elsewhere Fear of f a i l u r e General l i f e - s t y l e doubts Desire to seek a redefinition of status Desire to develop new s k i l l s and attain new job assignments Desire for new experiences Preference for essentially solitary work Classroom teaching experience Dilatory inclinations Avoidance motivations Deep interest i n a specific f i e l d Psychologically regressive orientation page 39 Table 3 r e p r e s e n t s a d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r o l e of p r o f e s s o r which do not f i t , as y e t , i n t o the previous c a t e g o r i e s . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s such as the present one may serve to f u r t h e r i l l u m i n a t e the p l a c e of these elements. These t a b l e s of a t t r a c t o r s , f a c i l i t a t o r s and a d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s form a base f o r the framework of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Now, meaningful questions can be posed that have a foundation i n the r e a l i t y of p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . In t h i s way, the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n stands as an important step towards b e t t e r understanding of former-teachers-turned-professors of teacher education i n p h y s i c a l education. page40 TABLE 3 ADDITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ROLE OF PROFESSOR OF TEACHER EDUCATION IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION Majority are male Decision to become a professor made late Decision characterized as: Due to dilatory inclinations Accidental Drift Unconscious selection Personally and formally unprepared to teach More educated than parents Not employed at the institution granting the doctorate KnD-- J.i"fctle about the role at the time of employment Satisfaction with this career selection Feelings of success page 41 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The s u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d f o r study were former teachers h o l d i n g a doctorate degree and i n v o l v e d with u n i v e r s i t y courses i n curr i c u l u m , i n s t r u c t i o n and other courses r e l a t e d to pedagogy and school programs i n p h y s i c a l education. In t o t a l , 18 s u b j e c t s meeting the above c r i t e r i a were l o c a t e d and contacted. Of these p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s , two r e f u s e d to p a r t i c i p a t e and one was p r e p a r i n g to leave the country and hence was unable to be i n v o l v e d . T h i s l e f t 15 s u b j e c t s , four females and 11 males, who consented to be interviewed. These s u b j e c t s were i d e n t i f i e d through t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n with s p e c i f i e d courses i d e n t i f i e d i n the most r e c e n t l y a v a i l a b l e u n i v e r s i t y calendars at four l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . These i n s t i t u t i o n s were s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of pr o x i m i t y and t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n s as d i f f e r e n t types of schools: one American s c h o o l , one of i n t e r n a t i o n a l repute, one known as a teacher t r a i n i n g c e n t r e and l a s t l y an experimental i n s t i t u t i o n . Where a p p r o p r i a t e , the department c h a i r p e r s o n was contacted with a l e t t e r of i n t r o d u c t i o n and a l i s t of q u a l i f y i n g f a c u l t y members. Subsequently, permission f o r appointments and data c o l l e c t i o n was obtained. Data f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d by means of a page42 s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w format. A f t e r reviewing r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e , s p e c i f i c a t t r a c t o r s , f a c i l i t a t o r s and other important f a c t o r s surrounding the d e c i s i o n to become a teacher educator i n p h y s i c a l education have been i d e n t i f i e d . Organized i n t o an i n t e r v i e w format, these questions were then f i e l d t e s t e d and r e v i s e d p r i o r to a c t u a l data c o l l e c t i o n . page43 CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS F i n d i n g s i n t h i s chapter are presented under three main event l a b e l s : P u b l i c School Teaching, Career Change, and The Role of P r o f e s s o r . These events represent three d i s t i n c t phases i n the career e v o l u t i o n of the s u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n and f a c i l i t a t e a coherent p r e s e n t a t i o n of the wealth of i n f o r m a t i o n gathered on these i n d i v i d u a l s . P u b l i c School Teaching Background Biographies The l i t e r a t u r e suggests that the m a j o r i t y of u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s are males (Creager, 1971; Huffman, 1968; Ladd & L i p s e t t , 1976; W i l l i e & S t e c k l e i n , 1982). Somewhat s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h i s gender dominance i s evident i n each i n s t i t u t i o n except the American school at which females are dominant—as mentioned e a r l i e r , the sample f o r t h i s study i s composed of 11 males and four females. T h i s gender dominance d i f f e r e n c e i s s u r e l y t i e d to separate, unique h i s t o r i e s of American and Canadian higher education. A l l of the 15 s u b j e c t s interviewed came from middle c l a s s backgrounds, a f i n d i n g that i s c o n s i s t e n t with Gustad's work (1959). page44 C o n s i s t e n t with S t e c k l e i n and E c k e r t ' s (1959) f i n d i n g s , parents of s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study had comparatively l e s s formal e d u c a t i o n — t h e m a j o r i t y n e i t h e r graduating from, nor even attend i n g , u n i v e r s i t y . The d e c i s i o n to become a p h y s i c a l education teacher i n p u b l i c schools was made f o r a v a r i e t y of reasons and only one su b j e c t c o u l d not r e c a l l when or where t h i s d e c i s i o n was made. Two s u b j e c t s decided when they were s t i l l i n elementary school, s i x s u b j e c t s became convinced while high school students and the remaining s i x s u b j e c t s d i d not decide u n t i l e n r o l l e d i n t h e i r undergraduate program. Subjects g e n e r a l l y c i t e d more than one reason f o r t h i s career d e c i s i o n and the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s were named by more than one s u b j e c t : An enjoyment of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y g e n e r a l l y , by three s u b j e c t s ; involvement at the "Y", by three s u b j e c t s ; and the enjoyment of high school p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , again by three s u b j e c t s . The f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s were mentioned, each by two s u b j e c t s : l i k e d s p o r t s , peer i n f l u e n c e , and a d e s i r e to emulate a teacher r o l e model. Subjects i n t h i s study d i d a l l or most of t h e i r p u b l i c school teaching at the secondary l e v e l . S i x s u b j e c t s taught there because they were unaware of any o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r u n i v e r s i t y graduates to work as s p e c i a l i s t s at the elementary l e v e l . Four s u b j e c t s b e l i e v e d secondary l e v e l students to be more s k i l l f u l than younger students, yet s t i l l teachable. Two s u b j e c t s took jobs at t h i s l e v e l f o r the op p o r t u n i t y to coach page4 5 t h i s age group. One s u b j e c t admitted to a l a c k of money at that time, seeking any job opening. Of the two remaining s u b j e c t s , one taught e q u a l l y at the elementary and secondary l e v e l s to a c q u i r e experience at both l e v e l s , expecting to move on, and the f i n a l s u b j e c t p e r c e i v e d the secondary l e v e l to be b e t t e r than the elementary l e v e l at that p o i n t i n time. Role O r i e n t a t i o n In response to a probe of the p e r c e i v e d goals i n d i v i d u a l s h e l d f o r themselves as p h y s i c a l education teachers, s u b j e c t s had a v a r i e t y of answers. Only two s u b j e c t s had no r e c o l l e c t i o n whatsoever. S i x s u b j e c t s were aiming at s k i l l development i n t h e i r students, and two admitted to merely wanting to work at a job they l i k e d . I n d i v i d u a l responses i n c l u d e d a d e s i r e to have some impact upon the p r o f e s s i o n , to enhance the respect of the p r o f e s s i o n , to maximize p a r t i c i p a t i o n , to c r e a t e "astonishment" and thereby f a c i l i t a t e the need to l e a r n more as an i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . L a s t l y , only one subject mentioned any major name i n , t h e f i e l d as an i n f l u e n c e : J.F. W i l l i a m s and the concept of education through the p h y s i c a l . Role P r e p a r a t i o n No obvious consensus appeared i n regard to e i t h e r strengths or weaknesses of the undergraduate education i n terms of p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the job of p h y s i c a l education teacher. Only f i v e s u b j e c t s c i t e d t h e i r methods p r e p a r a t i o n as a program page46 s t r e n g t h , another three s u b j e c t s d e f i n e d the s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e they a c q u i r e d as a s t r e n g t h and a good balance between . theory ' and p r a c t i c e was named by two s u b j e c t s . Four s u b j e c t s r e c a l l e d no weaknesses i n t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n while three others f e l t the theory component was weak. The theory was not adequately l i n k e d to p r a c t i c e f o r two s u b j e c t s and two others d i d not get an adequate s c i e n c e background. Other stre n g t h s and weaknesses appeared to be i d i o s y n c r a t i c to only one program or was at l e a s t i d e n t i f i e d by only one s u b j e c t . When d e s c r i b i n g what was missing from the undergraduate program, i n a d d i t i o n to r e c t i f y i n g weaknesses a l r e a d y mentioned, four s u b j e c t s c o u l d t h i n k of nothing that would have b e t t e r prepared them f o r t h e i r r o l e as a teacher. Three s u b j e c t s f e l t more practicum time would have helped them and others d e s c r i b e d i n d i v i d u a l courses i n areas of personal i n t e r e s t . Subjects were asked when they f e l t that they had acquired t h e i r s k i l l s as a p h y s i c a l education teacher. G e n e r a l l y more than one time and p l a c e was c r e d i t e d with t h i s s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n and out of the 15 s u b j e c t s only s i x c i t e d t h e i r teacher t r a i n i n g and student teaching experience. Experiences i n the community, p a r t i c u l a r l y at the "Y" was c i t e d by f i v e s u b j e c t s ; from high school teachers (as a student), was o f f e r e d by three s u b j e c t s ; and on the job, a c t u a l l y performing as a teacher was a l s o named by three s u b j e c t s . Two s u b j e c t s acquired t h e i r t e a c h i n g s k i l l through t h e i r coaching experiences, one subject was s e l f - t a u g h t page47 through r e a d i n g books and p e r i o d i c a l s and l a s t l y one subject s t a t e d , "You're born with i t . You teach with your p e r s o n a l i t y " . P e r c e i v e d I d e a l s Subjects were asked to express t h e i r views of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an outstanding p h y s i c a l education teacher. From the responses given, no c l e a r p i c t u r e emerges. As d e s c r i p t o r s of an outstanding p h y s i c a l education teacher, the a b i l i t y to help a l l students to improve was mentioned by four s u b j e c t s and the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s were mentioned, each by three s u b j e c t s : shows teaching a b i l i t y , i n s t i l l s a d e s i r e to p a r t i c i p a t e , shows empathy and concern f o r students, and has a good breadth of knowledge. Enthusiasm was mentioned by two s u b j e c t s and one subject f e l t the concept was too complicated to give an adequate, b r i e f summary. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : t r a i t s of i n d i v i d u a l s and goal p e r c e p t i o n s . The t r a i t s can f u r t h e r be d i v i d e d i n t o innate c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c l u d i n g enthusiasm, empathy and concern, and the learned c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of breadth of knowledge and teaching a b i l i t y . The remaining responses are more a c c u r a t e l y goal p e r c e p t i o n s i n h e l p i n g a l l students to improve and to i n s t i l l a d e s i r e to p a r t i c i p a t e . Subjects i n t h i s study expressed d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of outstanding school p h y s i c a l education teachers. D i f f e r e n c e s i n both degree and k i n d . S i m i l a r l y , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an outstanding p h y s i c a l education program were not seen page4 8 u n i f o r m l y . The most popular comment was the p r o v i s i o n of a good v a r i e t y of experiences, mentioned by f i v e s u b j e c t s . F a c i l i t a t i n g the s k i l l development f o r a l l students was mentioned d i r e c t l y by three s u b j e c t s and the f o l l o w i n g components were named, each by two s u b j e c t s : teaches an a c t i v e l i f e s t y l e , allows f o r i n d i v i d u a l i t y , motivates students to p a r t i c i p a t e , i n c l u d e s f i t n e s s and h e a l t h components and l a s t l y , two s u b j e c t s merely c i t e d the B r i t i s h Columbia Curriculum Guide. The d i f f e r e n c e s expressed above i n regard to an outstanding p h y s i c a l education program are d i f f e r e n c e s i n degree more than k i n d . U n d e r l y i n g the m a j o r i t y , of these suggestions i s the concept of s k i l l development. For example, v a r i e t y r e f e r s to a v a r i e t y of s k i l l s , the a c t i v e l i f e s t y l e i s achieved through a s t r o n g base of s k i l l s to draw upon, i n d i v i d u a l i t y of s k i l l p r e s e n t a t i o n , and so on. Personal Performance P e r c e p t i o n s Subjects g e n e r a l l y found what they expected i n the p u b l i c school system and they were a l l happy at that time of t h e i r l i f e i n the r o l e as a p u b l i c school p h y s i c a l education teacher. C o n s i s t e n t with L o r t i e " s (1975) suggestion of personal h i s t o r y being more i n f l u e n t i a l than p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n , one subject suggested that the school system h e l d " p r e t t y much what I'd grown up with", and another s u b j e c t s t a t e d that, "I was never out of s c h o o l , so r e a l l y , I always knew what went on". In a s s e s s i n g t h e i r performance as p u b l i c school teachers, page4S . two s u b j e c t s c o u l d not answer because they f e l t they had no accurate way to measure themselves. Of the remaining s u b j e c t s , two f e l t that they were not outstanding at a l l , while s i x others b e l i e v e d that they were not comfortable to d e s c r i b e themselves as outstanding but co u l d agree to having been good to w e l l above average. L a s t l y , f i v e s u b j e c t s f e l t q u i t e comfortable with the a d j e c t i v e outstanding i n d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e i r p u b l i c school t e a c h i n g experience. These s u c c e s s f u l teachers g e n e r a l l y looked to more than one pl a c e f o r s i g n s of t h e i r s u c c e s s — m o s t common, however, ( c i t e d by seven s u b j e c t s ) , was the respe c t of peers. A l s o mentioned was feedback from and respe c t of students, community and parents. Promotions on the job, student success and maximun student p a r t i c i p a t i o n were a l s o c i t e d . Summary D e t a i l s about the P u b l i c School Teaching phase f o r s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study have been o u t l i n e d . T h e i r background, r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n , p r e p a r a t i o n f o r teaching, views of the i d e a l and r e c o l l e c t i o n s of t h e i r performance i n t h i s r o l e " have been examined. When ap p r o p r i a t e , f i n d i n g s from t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n are l i n k e d to works reviewed e a r l i e r . In general, f i n d i n g s r e f l e c t a broad range of i n d i v i d u a l i t y , q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t with previous works. Now the focus moves to the phase i d e n t i f i e d f o r s u b j e c t s : Career Change. page50 Career Change The d e c i s i o n to change c a r e e r s , f o r s u b j e c t s i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , can be i d e n t i f i e d by two separate but r e l a t e d d e c i s i o n s . F i r s t i s the d e c i s i o n to leave teaching i n the p u b l i c school system and next i s the d e c i s i o n to pursue a p o s i t i o n as a u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r . The o r d e r i n g of these two d e c i s i o n s f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n here i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and not n e c e s s a r i l y c h r o n o l o g i c a l . Leaving P u b l i c School Teaching The d e c i s i o n to leave teaching at the p u b l i c school l e v e l was made by four s u b j e c t s while s t i l l i n t h e i r undergraduate program. The remaining 1 1 s u b j e c t s made t h i s d e c i s i o n e i t h e r d u r i n g or s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e i r master's degree education. The s u b j e c t s were s p l i t i n terms of length of teaching experience, nine with f i v e years or l e s s and s i x s u b j e c t s with more than f i v e years of experience i n the p u b l i c school system. The most common response to why the d e c i s i o n was made to leave t e a c h i n g at the p u b l i c school l e v e l , given by eig h t s u b j e c t s , was the r e s u l t of the o f f e r of a job--an o f f e r which was u n s o l i c i t e d by seven of these e i g h t s u b j e c t s . T h i s p a t t e r n i s most c l o s e l y represented i n Thomas' (I960) typology as the " d r i f t - o u t " category i n which there i s low pressure to change both from w i t h i n and from the environment. The remaining e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s d e c i s i o n were c i t e d l e s s f r e q u e n t l y . page5I Three s u b j e c t s sought i n c r e a s e d mental challenge i n another job, two s u b j e c t s simply c o u l d not f i n d any ap p r o p r i a t e p o s i t i o n s i n the p u b l i c school system and one subj e c t was a f t e r a p o s i t i o n with g r e a t e r s o c i a l impact and grea t e r impact upon the p r o f e s s i o n . Hiestand (1971) found s i m i l a r a t t r a c t o r s to change i n the study of career changers. L a s t l y , the encouragement of a u n i v e r s i t y a d v i s o r was c i t e d as an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r l e a v i n g t e a c h i n g at t h i s l e v e l by one s u b j e c t . Such i n f l u e n t i a l advice was r e p o r t e d e a r l i e r by Ness (1958) i n work on u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s . For the s u b j e c t s i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the reasons c i t e d f o r l e a v i n g p u b l i c school t e a c h i n g are co n t r a r y to f a c i l i t a t o r s f o r change c i t e d e a r l i e r , i n s t u d i e s on teachers. As mentioned, these s u b j e c t s were happy and g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f i e d r a t h e r than d i s s a t i s f i e d (Kahnweiler, 1980; Sarason, 1977). Further, they were g e n e r a l l y s u c c e s s f u l and found what they had expected i n the school system r a t h e r than being f r u s t r a t e d and bored (Beam, 1981). P u r s u i t of The P r o f e s s o r a t e The d e c i s i o n to become a p r o f e s s o r was made, i n the m a j o r i t y of cases, e i t h e r d u r i n g or s h o r t l y a f t e r completing the master's degree. Four s u b j e c t s d i d not make the d e c i s i o n u n t i l they were i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r d o c t o r a l program, and two s u b j e c t s made the d e c i s i o n to become a p r o f e s s o r a f t e r h o l d i n g temporary appointments at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l — o r i g i n a l l y expecting t o page52 r e t u r n to the p u b l i c school system. L a s t l y , one sub j e c t had the r o l e of p r o f e s s o r t a r g e t e d while s t i l l an un d e r g r a d u a t e — t h e only s u b j e c t to f i t Ginzberg's (1951) theory of t i m i n g of oc c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . Otherwise, the tim i n g of t h i s d e c i s i o n f o r s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study was c o n s i s t e n t with other work on u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s (Eckert et a l . , 1959; Ness, 1958; S t e c k l e i n & Eckert, 1958; U.S. DOHEW, 1958; Vandermeulen, 1974; Yager, 1964). For the s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study, reasons c i t e d f o r l e a v i n g teaching were very c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to t h e i r motives f o r choosing to become a p r o f e s s o r . A number of reasons were c i t e d f o r the s e l e c t i o n of t h i s r o l e . The most prominent e x p l a n a t i o n was the mere o f f e r of a job, the s t o r y of seven s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study. T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t with the work of Ness (1958) and a l s o the U.S. DOHEW (1958). Less f r e q u e n t l y mentioned was the advice of a p r o f e s s o r — a l s o found by Ness ( 1 9 5 8 ) — g i v e n by two su b j e c t s and the p e r c e i v e d impact on students from having something to o f f e r t h e m — c o n s i s t e n t with the f i n d i n g s of S t e c k l e i n & Eckert ( 1 9 5 8 ) — a l s o given by two s u b j e c t s . The remaining explanations were c i t e d ^ i n d i v i d u a l l y . One subject admitted to blocked a s p i r a t i o n to another career a l t e r n a t i v e . A l s o c i t e d was the need f o r money, job s e c u r i t y and s t a b i l i t y a s s o c i a t e d with a p r o f e s s o r s h i p , as w e l l as upward m o b i l i t y - - f i n d i n g s mentioned by Wilson (1942). An i n t e r e s t i n the p r o f e s s i o n and the i n t e l l e c t u a l c h a l l e n g e of work at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l were a l s o page53 mentioned, reasons supported by Ness (1958), S t e c k l e i n & Eckert (1958) and the U.S. DOHEW (1958). L a s t l y , the p r e s t i g e of the r o l e of the p r o f e s s o r was mentioned as a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to the d e c i s i o n to become a p r o f e s s o r — a f i n d i n g d e s c r i b e d by Brown (1965) and by Wilson (1942). P u r s u i t of The Doctorate I n t e r e s t i n g l y , with the s u b j e c t s i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , d e c i s i o n s surrounding the doctorate appeared to have l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e over the d e c i s i o n to pursue a p o s i t i o n at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . In f a c t , seven s u b j e c t s decided to pursue the doctorate a f t e r having h e l d a p o s i t i o n i n a u n i v e r s i t y f o r a number of years. Another seven decided d u r i n g or s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e i r master's degree and one s u b j e c t made the d e c i s i o n p r i o r to a t t e n d i n g u n i v e r s i t y , as a high school student. Four responses appeared most f r e q u e n t l y as to why s u b j e c t s d i d pursue the d o c t o r a l degree. Four s u b j e c t s h e l d the p e r c e p t i o n that the doctorate was necessary to advance and maintain job s e c u r i t y at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . E q u a l l y important was a t h i r s t f o r knowledge, expressed by four s u b j e c t s . These ex p l a n a t i o n s were followed c l o s e l y by the e x p e c t a t i o n of a wider range of job o p t i o n s , given by three s u b j e c t s , and the advice and encouragement of a spouse, peers and/or a u n i v e r s i t y advisor, again mentioned by three s u b j e c t s . A l s o mentioned, by i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s , were comments to the e f f e c t that the doctorate was necessary to perform the job adequately, a love f o r u n i v e r s i t y page54 l i f e , to become a change agent i n s o c i e t y and to p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e s e a r c h . The most common reason f o r choosing the i n s t i t u t i o n at which the doctorate was completed was the r e p u t a t i o n of the program; o f f e r e d by nine s u b j e c t s . Other reasons c i t e d were the d e s i r e to work with s p e c i f i c p r o f e s s o r s (three s u b j e c t s ) , the a v a i l a b i l i t y of money and the mere p r o x i m i t y of the s c h o o l . Eleven of the s u b j e c t s a p p l i e d to one school only. In a d d i t i o n to the s e l e c t i o n of the s c h o o l , s u b j e c t s showed a trend i n terms of the type of a doctorate acquired. Eleven s u b j e c t s h o l d PhD's while three hold the EdD and one s u b j e c t holds a DEd. A l l s u b j e c t s r e p o r t g e n e r a l l y high grades i n both t h e i r master's and d o c t o r a l , degree w o r k — a f i n d i n g c o n s i s t e n t with the suggested f a c i l i t a t o r of high i n t e l l i g e n c e , mentioned by both Gustad (1959) and Wilson (1979). C o n s i s t e n t with Wilson's (1979) f i n d i n g s , the m a j o r i t y of f a c u l t y members obtained t h e i r doctorate at i n s t i t u t i o n s other than t h e i r p l a c e of c u r r e n t employment. Only one s u b j e c t i n t h i s study works at the same i n s t i t u t i o n as where the doctorate was obtained. F e e l i n g s About The D e c i s i o n To Change A l l of the s u b j e c t s i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n suggested that they are g e n e r a l l y pleased with t h e i r d e c i s i o n to leave the p u b l i c school system and s a t i s f i e d i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n now at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . T h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the d e c i s i o n to become page55 a u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r was supported by a number of s t u d i e s c i t e d e a r l i e r (Ladd & L i p s e t t , 1975a; W i l l i e & S t e c k l e i n , 1982; Yager, 1964). Beyond t h i s o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n , a number of q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were added. One subject suggested d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the comparatively low pay a s s o c i a t e d with the r o l e — n o t e d e a r l i e r by Eckert et a l . , (1959), S t e c k l e i n & E c k e r t , (1958), and the U.S. DOHEW (1958). Another subject commented on personal shortcomings i n the performance of the job, as w e l l as a l a c k of congruence between personal p e r c e p t i o n s and the o p i n i o n s of decision-makers with r e s p e c t to a job d e s c r i p t i o n . Summary F a c t o r s surrounding the d e c i s i o n to change c a r e e r s have been "presented around the separate but r e l a t e d d e c i s i o n s to leave the p u b l i c s chools, to pursue the p r o f e s s o r a t e , and to o b t a i n a d o c t o r a l degree. These d e c i s i o n s are then j o i n e d by views on the o v e r a l l d e c i s i o n to change c a r e e r s . In t h i s s e c t i o n a number of f i n d i n g s worthy of note a r i s e . The f i r s t such f i n d i n g i s that, c o n t r a r y to what might be i n f e r r e d from the l i t e r a t u r e , s u b j e c t s were happy and g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r p u b l i c school p o s i t i o n r a t h e r than being bored and f r u s t r a t e d . A second f i n d i n g to be commented on i s i n regard to the timing of the d e c i s i o n to become a p r o f e s s o r . While c o n t r a r y to a c l a s s i c theory of o c c u p a t i o n a l choice, s u b j e c t s choosing t h i s career l a t e r than t h e i r age cohort i s q u i t e p r e d i c t a b l e from previous work on u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s . page56 The l a s t f i n d i n g worthy of expansion here i s i n regard to the p u r s u i t of a d o c t o r a l degree. This degree was of l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e over the d e c i s i o n to pursue a p o s i t i o n at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l f o r many of the s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study. T h i s f i n d i n g i s doubtless an a g e - r e l a t e d phenomenon p a r t i c u l a r l y with the c u r r e n t emphasis on the need f o r a d o c t o r a l degree to teach and/or be employed at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . Focus now s h i f t s to the t a r g e t phase f o r s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study; namely: the r o l e of p r o f e s s o r . The Role Of P r o f e s s o r P r e - D o c t o r a l Role Perc e p t i o n s P r i o r to any involvement with a d o c t o r a l program, s u b j e c t s expressed a number of o p i n i o n s as to what the r o l e of the p r o f e s s o r e n t a i l e d . . The most prominent p e r c e p t i o n was that the p r o f e s s o r was f i r s t a teacher who a l s o c a r r i e d on some research. C i t e d by seven s u b j e c t s , t h i s p e r c e p t i o n might f i t e i t h e r the Oxbridge or S c o t t i s h models. Three s u b j e c t s f e l t that the p r o f e s s o r was a researcher with some teaching r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s (the German Model) and another three s u b j e c t s viewed the r o l e as one e x c l u s i v e l y as a teacher. L a s t l y , two s u b j e c t s h e l d no p e r c e p t i o n s at a l l as to what a p r o f e s s o r d i d . Of the s u b j e c t s h o l d i n g o p i n i o n s as to what should be pageST i n v o l v e d i n the r o l e , ten s u b j e c t s f e l t that things were as they should be and two s u b j e c t s b e l i e v e d that, i n f a c t , teaching should come before research. L a s t l y , one s u b j e c t i d e n t i f i e d d i f f e r e n t s c h ools with d i f f e r e n t p r i o r i t i e s , suggesting that some i n s t i t u t i o n s are student centred and the student comes f i r s t while others emphasize knowledge c r e a t i o n and r e s e a r c h i s the f i r s t p r i o r i t y f o r f a c u l t y members. Pos t - D o c t o r a l Role P e r c e p t i o n s The d o c t o r a l programs apparently had l i t t l e i f any impact upon p e r c e p t i o n s of the r o l e of p r o f e s s o r . For 10 of the s u b j e c t s , there was no change i n p e r c e p t i o n s of e i t h e r what the r o l e was or should be. Of the remaining f i v e s u b j e c t s whose pe r c e p t i o n s d i d change, three attached greater importance to the r e s e a r c h component of the r o l e , one h i g h l i g h t e d the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the p r o f e s s o r as a r o l e model i n human r e l a t i o n s and the l a s t s u b j e c t i d e n t i f i e d the burden of committee work to be shared unevenly among f a c u l t y members. Role Performance Impact on Role P e r c e p t i o n s Subjects were s p l i t i n t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n of the impact of the a c t u a l job experience on t h e i r r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s . With no i n s t i t u t i o n a l or gender trends apparent, e i g h t s u b j e c t s f e l t that t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s had not changed with experience and seven s u b j e c t s had changed. Of those changed, three s u b j e c t s reported page5S g r e a t e r emphasis on teaching and r e l a t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to be present i n the performance of t h e i r job. Two s u b j e c t s commented that they d i d more teaching than they wanted to do and l a s t l y , two s u b j e c t s complained of i n c r e a s e d u n i v e r s i t y pressure to r e s e a r c h and to w r i t e papers. Of these seven s u b j e c t s with changed p e r c e p t i o n s , s i x a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r change to the i n s t i t u t i o n at which they were employed and one s u b j e c t suggested the knowledge e x p l o s i o n i n the f i e l d to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p e r c e p t u a l changes. In response to a q u e s t i o n about the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the job as an educator of p h y s i c a l education teachers, three s u b j e c t s f e l t that t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s had not changed s i n c e they had become p r o f e s s o r s . Of the remaining 11, e i g h t s u b j e c t s p e r c e i v e d changed r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o n l y through h o l d i n g d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s beyond t h e i r r o l e as a teacher educator, such as c h a i r i n g departments and committees. Three other s u b j e c t s f e l t they had been transformed from g e n e r a l i s t s to s p e c i a l i s t s and the one remaining s u b j e c t f e l t the i n s t i t u t i o n had r e d e f i n e d i t s e l f from a r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t i o n to a teaching i n s t i t u t i o n . R e t r o s p e c t i v e E v a l u a t i o n of P r e p a r a t i o n When asked f o r the main s t r e n g t h of t h e i r graduate t r a i n i n g i n r espect to the current p o s i t i o n h eld, seven s u b j e c t s page59 i d e n t i f i e d the a c q u i s i t i o n of s k i l l s to perform research. Beyond re s e a r c h s k i l l s , i n d i v i d u a l s ' i d e n t i f i e d the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e i r program, t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n with p r o f e s s o r s , the d i v e r s e background of t h e i r program and the s k i l l s to become b e t t e r t h i n k e r s . While only four s u b j e c t s completed doctorates i n Education and the remaining 11 s u b j e c t s h o l d PhD degrees, only one subject suggested that the doctorate t r a i n i n g h e l d no stren g t h s f o r the p o s i t i o n of teacher educator,, having been done i n another area. In i d e n t i f y i n g weaknesses i n t h e i r graduate programs, s u b j e c t s were g e n e r a l l y very f o r g i v i n g . F i v e s u b j e c t s suggested there were no weaknesses i n t h e i r d o c t o r a l education. Three s u b j e c t s s t a t e d that t h e i r d o c t o r a l t r a i n i n g was not r e l a t e d to t h e i r c u r r e n t p o s i t i o n — s u g g e s t i n g t h i s to be a p o i n t of c l a r i f i c a t i o n r a t h e r than a weakness of the program. Of the remaining s u b j e c t s , two could i d e n t i f y only s p e c i f i c courses i n an otherwise good program, not enough depth i n the course work was i d e n t i f i e d by two other s u b j e c t s while yet two more s u b j e c t s complained of inadequate p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r rese a r c h and p u b l i s h i n g d u t i e s . More courses and emphasis i n pedagogy and methods i n p h y s i c a l education were i d e n t i f i e d by nine s u b j e c t s as t h e missing components i n t h e i r d o c t o r a l education that would have made them b e t t e r teacher educators i n p h y s i c a l education. The remaining s i x s u b j e c t s h e l d d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s . One subject p a g e 5 0 f e l t that more than one a d v i s o r should be i n v o l v e d i n the graduate education f o r a l e s s b i a s e d i n f l u e n c e over a t t i t u d e s formed. Three s u b j e c t s agreed that there should be more o p p o r t u n i t i e s to w r i t e and p u b l i s h papers. L a s t l y , two s u b j e c t s s t a t e d that nothing was missing from t h e i r graduate education which might have b e t t e r prepared them to perform i n t h e i r r o l e n o w — i n f a c t , one sub j e c t s t a t e d that "the doctorate does not t r a i n f o r r o l e s — i t t r a i n s one to t h i n k " . S p e c i f i c Role Component Per c e p t i o n s Student teacher s u p e r v i s i o n . With regard to the s u p e r v i s i o n of student teachers, 10 s u b j e c t s f e l t that a l l f a c u l t y members i n v o l v e d with p h y s i c a l education teacher education should s u p e r v i s e student teachers. Of these s u b j e c t s , e i g h t f e l t that t h i s was one of the best methods a v a i l a b l e f o r p r o f e s s o r s to keep i n touch with the ever changing p i c t u r e of r e a l i t y i n the school system. The two remaining s u b j e c t s f e l t that student teaching was j u s t another l e a r n i n g s e t t i n g i n which i t was v a l u a b l e f o r f a c u l t y members to see t h e i r students perform. The f i v e remaining s u b j e c t s , who f e l t that a l l f a c u l t y members should not n e c e s s a r i l y s u p e r v i s e student teachers, a l l f e l t t h i s way b e l i e v i n g not a l l f a c u l t y members to be q u a l i f i e d f o r such s p e c i a l i z e d d u t i e s . F a c u l t y members were g e n e r a l l y evenly d i s p e r s e d among the i n s t i t u t i o n s , except f o r those at the school designated with a teacher t r a i n i n g focus. At t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n , page 61 f i v e of the s i x p r o f e s s o r s interviewed, b e l i e v e d that a l l f a c u l t y members should s u p e r v i s e student teachers. Teaching experience. In response to a qu e s t i o n about h i r i n g a p h y s i c a l education teacher education f a c u l t y member, without p r i o r teaching experience at e i t h e r the elementary or secondary l e v e l s , f i v e s u b j e c t s s a i d that they would not. The reason given was that such a person would l a c k c r e d i b i l i t y and be out of touch with the demands of the r o l e of the teacher. Three s u b j e c t s hedged somewhat, suggesting that they would look f o r some prev i o u s experience with c h i l d r e n — t h o u g h not n e c e s s a r i l y teaching. The four remaining s u b j e c t s s t a t e d that a l a c k of teaching experience would not block a p o t e n t i a l f a c u l t y member due to the v a r i e t y of r o l e s a v a i l a b l e f o r teacher education f a c u l t y members. There was, however, general consensus that those f a c u l t y members i n v o l v e d d i r e c t l y i n methods courses should have previous teaching experience. Role d e s c r i p t i o n . Faced with the f o l l o w i n g r o l e d e s c r i p t o r s : teaching, coaching, research, and s e r v i c e , a l l s u b j e c t s ranked teaching to be the most important from t h e i r own personal p e r s p e c t i v e — a f i n d i n g c o n s i s t e n t with Rog (1979). In t h i s study, nine s u b j e c t s p e r c e i v e d teaching alone as prime; four s u b j e c t s saw re s e a r c h as e q u a l l y important; one subject viewed teaching as t i e d with the r o l e of coach and one subject viewed teaching and s e r v i c e as premier r o l e d e s c r i p t o r s . From the p e r s p e c t i v e of the u n i v e r s i t y , e i g h t s u b j e c t s page 6 2 b e l i e v e that r e s e a r c h r e c e i v e s the highest degree of importance. F i v e s u b j e c t s see t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y ' s emphasis going to teaching f i r s t and r e s e a r c h second, while two other s u b j e c t s see both r e s e a r c h and teaching emphasized e q u a l l y . In a l l but one case, s e r v i c e ranked t h i r d behind the v a r i a t i o n s of teaching and research, with coaching a d i s t a n t f o u r t h i f i t even made i t on to the s c a l e . Three s u b j e c t s ranked these r o l e d e s c r i p t o r s with the same values that they p e r c e i v e d t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n to r"ank them. Each of these s u b j e c t s was from a d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n . The remaining 12 s u b j e c t s h e l d personal p e r c e p t i o n s at odds with the p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n of employment. Role s a t i s f a c t i o n . In response to the o p p o r t u n i t y to change anything about the r o l e of teacher educator i n p h y s i c a l education, e i g h t s u b j e c t s would change a b s o l u t e l y nothing. Of the remaining seven s u b j e c t s , two would p r e f e r to do more resear c h than they do p r e s e n t l y , three seek more depth and l e s s breadth, p r e f e r r i n g to be i n v o l v e d i n fewer th i n g s , one subject would r a t h e r teach fewer c l a s s e s and f i n a l l y , one subject would p r e f e r more o p p o r t u n i t i e s to help p u b l i c school t e a c h e r s — p e r h a p s through the o f f e r i n g of more i n - s e r v i c e o p p o r t u n i t i e s . S v a l u a t i o n of Role Performance When asked to i d e n t i f y i n s t i t u t i o n a l measures of success, f a c u l t y members from' the same i n s t i t u t i o n were i n general p a g e 6 3 agreement. The American i n s t i t u t i o n rewards teaching f i r s t , r e s e a r c h second and s e r v i c e t h i r d . The teacher t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n weighs teaching and research f i r s t and e q u a l l y , and s e r v i c e i s t h i r d . L a s t l y , the experimental i n s t i t u t i o n operates with an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y f a c u l t y , rewarding teaching and s e r v i c e i n the Education department and l o o k i n g f o r research and p u b l i s h i n g from the Science f a c u l t y . ' In i d e n t i f y i n g personal measures of success, however, r e s u l t s were somewhat d i f f e r e n t . Only one of the 15 s u b j e c t s t e s t e d f e l t u n s u c c e s s f u l . T h i s p e r c e p t i o n was based upon the measuring of the performance of former students as teachers f i v e years i n t o t h e i r c a r e e r — t h e suggestion being that these former students d i d no b e t t e r than t h e i r predecessors and g e n e r a l l y d i d not employ s k i l l s or knowledge 'learned' at the u n i v e r s i t y . The remaining 14 s u b j e c t s p e r c e i v e d themselves as s u c c e s s f u l — a f i n d i n g supported by the work of Ladd & L i p s e t t (1975a). D i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t as to how t h i s success i s measured. Nine s u b j e c t s i d e n t i f i e d course e v a l u a t i o n s and student feedback as the main sources of t h e i r f e e l i n g s of s u c c e s s — W i l s o n (1942) might i d e n t i f y these s u b j e c t s as educators. Two s u b j e c t s c i t e d feedback from peers i n the form of r e c o g n i t i o n of work done i n the f i e l d and requests to present papers at conferences as signs of t h e i r s u c c e s s — W i l s o n (1942) might c l a s s i f y these s u b j e c t s as s c h o l a r s . L a s t l y , three s u b j e c t s c i t e d both student and peer feedback as s i g n s of t h e i r success i n the performance of t h e i r page 64 j o b — t h e s e s u b j e c t s , as d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r by Lawson (1981) f i l l a d i f f i c u l t boundary p o s i t i o n between the s c h o l a r and the educator. None of the s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i d e n t i f i e d these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as breeding any undue s t r e s s , s t r a i n or c o n f l i c t . P e r c e i v e d I d e a l s When asked f o r the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of a s u c c e s s f u l teacher educator i n p h y s i c a l education, p u b l i c school teaching experience was mentioned by 12 s u b j e c t s . A d o c t o r a l degree was l e s s obvious, mentioned by nine s u b j e c t s and two other s u b j e c t s expected at l e a s t a master's d e g ree—one l o o k i n g f o r a degree beyond the master's (perhaps a second master's), and the other su b j e c t was not f u l l y convinced of the need f o r a d o c t o r a l degree. When asked to l i s t the q u a l i t i e s of an outstanding p h y s i c a l education teacher educator, a number of f a c t o r s were named. The lac k of consensus noted i n attempts to i d e n t i f y an outstanding p h y s i c a l education teacher i s a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of attempts to i d e n t i f y the i d e a l teacher educator. D i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n both degree and k i n d of f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d . Subject knowledge was mentioned by nine s u b j e c t s ; teaching a b i l i t y by e i g h t s u b j e c t s ; r e s e a r c h s k i l l s and p u b l i s h i n g a b i l i t y by f i v e s u b j e c t s ; the phrase " p r a c t i c e what you preach", by four s u b j e c t s ; empathy by three s u b j e c t s and the f o l l o w i n g were mentioned , each by two page 55 s u b j e c t s : l e a d e r s h i p , rapport with students, being demanding of students, general enthusiasm, pa t i e n c e , having i d e a l s , and the d e s i r e to help a l l students to improve. A number of other f a c t o r s were ~ a l s o mentioned, but by only one subject i n each case. The f i r s t f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d , s ubject knowledge, teaching ) a b i l i t y , r e s e a r c h s k i l l s and p u b l i s h i n g a b i l i t y are the only s p e c i a l i z e d t a l e n t s named. In each case, these q u a l i t i e s are so general as to s t i l l allow a great deal of d i v e r s i t y . The remaining q u a l i t i e s named are general t r a i t s which d e s c r i b e a very w e l l rounded p e r s o n a l i t y . D e s c r i p t i o n s of an outstanding teacher education program i n p h y s i c a l education a l s o showed a low degree of agreement i n what components belonged. Methods course work was mentioned by f i v e s u b j e c t s ; the o f f e r i n g of theory and p r a c t i c e by three s u b j e c t s ; a s t r o n g s c i e n c e base, a l s o by three s u b j e c t s ; and the f o l l o w i n g components were mentioned, each by two s u b j e c t s : d i s c i p l i n a r y foundations, s e q u e n t i a l , l i n k e d o r d e r i n g of tasks, teach the a b i l i t y to be department head i n the f i r s t y e a r — t h r o u g h the s k i l l s to organize and manage. This d i v e r s i t y of views i s not unexpected. A l l e y (1982) c i t e s r e s u l t s of a study of 230 departments of p h y s i c a l education from which the only course r e q u i r e d i n a l l departments was p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g (p. 185). Consequently, the d i v e r s i t y of programs i n e x i s t e n c e appears to be r e f l e c t i v e of the e q u a l l y page 6 6 d i v e r s e f a c u l t y o p i n i o n s . Summary T h i s chapter h i g h l i g h t s the e x i s t e n c e of a number of dominant trends i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of former-teachers-turned- p r o f e s s o r s . Within these common trends, however, l i e the roots of d i f f e r e n t motives and backgrounds. Beginning with b i o g r a p h i e s , each of the s u b j e c t s i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was r a i s e d by parents with comparatively l e s s education than themselves, i n an e s s e n t i a l l y middle c l a s s background. The d e c i s i o n to be a p h y s i c a l education teacher was made e i t h e r i n high school or at the u n i v e r s i t y — j u s t p r i o r to or du r i n g the e a r l y twenties (years of age). The d e c i s i o n was based on a v a r i e t y of reasons surrounding success and enjoyment i n sport and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i e y . The goal was to teach the more s k i l l f u l secondary l e v e l students, g e n e r a l l y aiming at s k i l l development. Teaching was l a r g e l y what was expected and a happy time. The undergraduate program had few notable strengths or weaknesses. Some methods and some theory was u s e f u l but the l i n k s between t h i s education and a c t u a l teaching were sometimes hazy. S k i l l s as a teacher were acquired i n a v a r i e t y of p l a c e s , ranging from experiences as a high school student to coaching and page 6 7 community i n s t r u c t o r jobs as w e l l as the a c t u a l teacher t r a i n i n g program. While g e n e r a l l y a good teacher at t h i s l e v e l , a c c ording to peer feedback, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an outstanding p h y s i c a l education teacher are not unanimously agreed upon. There does appear to be consensus i n the b e l i e f that s k i l l development i n students i s the major component i n an outstanding school p h y s i c a l education program. These i n d i v i d u a l s have approximately f i v e years of teaching experience at the secondary l e v e l . E i t h e r d u r i n g or s h o r t l y a f t e r - a c q u i r i n g a master's degree, n o t i c e was taken of these i n d i v i d u a l s by u n i v e r s i t y teacher education f a c u l t i e s and s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r a job was o f f e r e d f o r a p o s i t i o n at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . As a r e s u l t of t h i s o f f e r , the m a j o r i t y of s u b j e c t s l e f t the p u b l i c school system and took up p o s i t i o n s i n a u n i v e r s i t y . Here, many r e a l i z e d the need f o r a d o c t o r a l d e g r e e — a t l e a s t to keep the job and at best to be promoted. Others pursued the doctorate to s a t i s f y t h e i r t h i r s t f o r knowledge. The i n s t i t u t i o n s e l e c t e d f o r d o c t o r a l work was s e l e c t e d i n most cases because of the r e p u t a t i o n of i t s program. I n d i v i d u a l s are g e n e r a l l y pleased with t h e i r d e c i s i o n to leave the p u b l i c school system and are r e l a t i v e l y s a t i s f i e d now as u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s . P r i o r to e n r o l l i n g i n the d o c t o r a l program, the r o l e of p r o f e s s o r was p e r c e i v e d to be a c t u a l l y and i d e a l l y , one of a teacher who a l s o researched. The d o c t o r a l education d i d page 63 v i r t u a l l y nothing to a l t e r these p e r c e p t i o n s . Some v a r i a t i o n s of p e r c e p t i o n s might e x i s t due to the reward s t r u c t u r e of i n d i v i d u a l i n s t i t u t i o n s of employment. I t i s i n f o r m a t i v e to note that these p r o f e s s o r s recognize a s t r e n g t h of t h e i r graduate education i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of s k i l l s f o r r e s e a r c h i n g . T h i s s k i l l i s u s e f u l i n the achievement of a work goal i . e . , the attainment of r e f e r e e d j o u r n a l p u b l i c a t i o n s . These p u b l i c a t i o n s are i n t e g r a l i n the e v a l u a t i o n by the u n i v e r s i t y of job performance. The p o t e n t i a l u t i l i t y of these r e s e a r c h s k i l l s i n informing t h e i r own p r a c t i c e , however, was not mentioned. The p r e c i s e r o l e of r e s e a r c h and r e s e a r c h s k i l l s , as viewed by s u b j e c t s , was not e l i c i t e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Here l i e s an i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n worthy of f u r t h e r study. L a s t l y , g r e a t e r emphasis i n pedagogy and teaching methods might have been b e n e f i c i a l , but these were not p a r t of the type of doctorate t a k e n — i n most cases. C r i t e r i a f o r success i n the r o l e of p r o f e s s o r of teacher education i n p h y s i c a l education are g e n e r a l l y c l e a r l y o u t l i n e d by the u n i v e r s i t y and understood by the f a c u l t y . There are v a r i a t i o n s among u n i v e r s i t i e s i n regard to the emphasis upon rese a r c h or teaching but by and l a r g e f e e l i n g s of success i n the performance of t h i s r o l e are measured by responses on course e v a l u a t i o n s and general student feedback. Peer feedback a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s to s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s . T h i s peer feedback takes the form of i n v i t a t i o n s to l e c t u r e and comments on p u b l i c a t i o n s , g e n e r a l l y . page 59 Only one s u b j e c t i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i d e n t i f i e d the performance of former-students-as-teachers to be a measure of the success of a p r o f e s s o r of teacher education. T h i s guage f o r teacher educators i s the mark of a p r o f e s s o r o p e r a t i n g under the S c o t t i s h Model, as i d e n t i f i e d by L i g h t (1974). Subject mastery i s c l e a r l y the key concept here. For others, concerned more with immediate feedback on p r e s e n t a t i o n , preparedness, c l a r i t y and f a i r n e s s i n course work, the emphasis on subject matter i s secondary and f a l l s more a c c u r a t e l y under the Oxbridge Model. Less p r e v a l e n t i n t h i s sample are those with a primary o r i e n t a t i o n toward r e s e a r c h — t h e German Model. Perhaps most a c c u r a t e l y , the s u b j e c t s of t h i s study f i t under the "Other Model". Primary m o t i v a t i o n s , or a t t r a c t o r s , stem from a job o f f e r and a number of other a t t r a c t o r s p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d under t h i s model. S u p e r v i s i n g student t e aching i s viewed as a s k i l l . Subjects s t a t e that i t should be undertaken by those q u a l i f i e d to f i l l the r o l e of p r o f e s s o r of teacher education, such that they might stay i n touch with what t r u l y happens i n the school system. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , those who a s p i r e to teach "how to" courses had b e t t e r have done i t themselves. The q u a l i t i e s of an outstanding teacher educator are seen as s u b j e c t knowledge, teaching a b i l i t y and r e s e a r c h and p u b l i s h i n g a b i l i t y . Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s are seen as previous teaching experience and an advanced degree--probab!y a doctorate. Opinions vary as page 70 to the t r a i t s of an outstanding teacher education program. These d i f f e r e n c e s i n o p i n i o n s of i d e a l s , notwithstanding, s u b j e c t s f e e l that the r o l e of the p h y s i c a l education teacher educator i s f i n e as i t c u r r e n t l y e x i s t s . At t h i s p o i n t , s e l e c t e d a t t r a c t o r s , f a c i l i t a t o r s and a d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d as p o s s i b l e may not be presented as a c u t a l a t t r a c t o r s , f a c i l i t a t o r s and a d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n r e l a t i o n to the recruitment of former-teachers-turned-professors of teacher education i n p h y s i c a l education. These l i s t s appear i n t a b l e 4. page 71 ATTRACTORS Job offer Advice of a professor Potential Impact on students': "I had something to offer" Need for money Job security and st a b i l i t y Upward mobility Potential Impact on the profession Intellectual challenge Prestige FACILITATORS Good grades Middle class background Job offer Classroom teaching experience Deep Interest In a specific f i e l d Blocked aspirations elsewhere TA11LE 4- ADDITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS Majority are male Decision made late Decision: -accidental - d r i f t -unconscious selection Formally unprepared to teach at this level More educated than parents Not employed at the Institution granting the- doctorate L i t t l e agreement in definition of an outstanding: -school physical education teacher -teacher educator -teacher education program Outstanding school physical education programs are essentially s k i l l based Satisfaction vith this career selection Feelings of success CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS A number of important c o n c l u d i n g observations can be made based on the f i n d i n g s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . F i r s t i s the f a c t that many—11 of the 15 s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y — h a v i n g course r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n cu r r i c u l u m , i n s t r u c t i o n , pedagogy and school programs, have no formal t r a i n i n g i n these areas. The second c o n c l u s i o n worthy of note i s i n regard to the three waves of s o c i a l i z a t i o n o r i g i n a l l y hypothesized i n t h i s study. - The undergraduate education, or teacher education program, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n the school system and t h i r d l y the graduate education may now be r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e d . I t would appear that there e x i s t s a s o c i a l i z a t i o n process even e a r l i e r than the undergraduate p r e p a r a t i o n i n the form of exposure to and experiences i n sport and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . C o n s i s t e n t with the f i n d i n g s c i t e d e a r l i e r by L o r t i e (1975), i t would appear that t h i s e a r l i e r stage i s indeed i n f l u e n t i a l . I n f l u e n t i a l at not only the undergraduate, teacher p r e p a r a t i o n l e v e l but a l s o reaching the graduate l e v e l . T h i s background biography or s u b j e c t i v e warrant i s apparently more powerful than both waves of p r o f e s s i o n a l education. I t appears to be a s u b j e c t i v e warrant with a sport o r i e n t a t i o n to s k i l l s teaching i n the s c h o o l s . That i s , s k i l l t eaching at the expense of other page 73 p o t e n t i a l l y important goals i n the c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e domains. The t h i r d c o n c l u s i o n to be drawn from t h i s study e x i s t s as a paradox which can be s t a t e d i n two separate but r e l a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The f i r s t r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between s u b j e c t s of t h i s study and t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s of employment. Products of two l e v e l s of formal p r o f e s s i o n a l education, these s u b j e c t s knowingly h o l d r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s at odds with t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n . As an exte n s i o n of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , s u b j e c t s would hope to impact would-be teachers i n accordance with t h e i r own views but they can not agree upon a d e f i n i t i o n of an outstanding teacher educator, teacher education program or even an outstanding p h y s i c a l education teacher. The f o u r t h c o n c l u s i o n i s a f u r t h e r extension of the f i n d i n g that s u b j e c t s ' r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s are at odds with i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , there e x i s t s some b i t t e r n e s s over the p o l i c i e s r e l a t e d to promotion and tenure. Consequently, questions must a r i s e as to the l i k e l i h o o d of continued success i n such a s e t t i n g . The f i f t h and f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s again t i e d to the r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n of these s u b j e c t s as former- t e a c h e r s - t u r n e d - p r o f e s s o r s . T h i s o r i e n t a t i o n , f o r themselves, as teacher education f a c u l t y members and f o r t h e i r students, as a s p i r i n g teachers, i s of a c u s t o d i a l nature. They are guardians of personal t r a d i t i o n s , both i n t h e i r own r o l e s and i n t h e i r views of s u c c e s s f u l school programs and p u b l i c school p h y s i c a l education teachers. page 75 CHAPTER 6 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH In the past, r e s e a r c h e r s have ne g l e c t e d teacher educators i n p h y s i c a l education. Consequently, any e f f o r t toward t h i s end i s a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n . Based on the f i n d i n g s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , there are a number of p o t e n t i a l l y r i c h areas worthy of f u r t h e r work. C o n f l i c t s have been detected between personal and i n s t i t u t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s of the r o l e of p r o f e s s o r of teacher education. Subjects have suggested that they do more research and p u b l i s h i n g than they wish to do and that they are s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r r o l e as p r o f e s s o r s . They consider themselves, i n many cases, to be a product of i n s t i t u t i o n a l pressure c o n t r a r y to personal i d e a l s . An area worthy of f u r t h e r study i s the extent to which teacher education f a c u l t y do, i n f a c t , do what they say they do i n t h e i r work. Another area worthy of f u r t h e r study i s i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i d e a l teacher education program goals and teacher educator q u a l i t i e s . For c e r t a i n l y , i f teacher education programs are to be s u c c e s s f u l and e f f e c t i v e , there must be some r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Only then can we e f f e c t i v e l y compare programs and evaluate teacher educators. I t seems reasonable to expect, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n times of .page 7 5 a c c o u n t a b i l i t y and c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s management, that p r o f e s s o r s of teacher education i n p h y s i c a l education be capable of i d e n t i f y i n g what i t i s that they do and why they do i t . Furthermore, one would expect a strong concensus of o p i n i o n and u n i t y of purpose. Linked to i d e n t i f y i n g optimal teacher education programs and teacher educator behaviors must be the expansion of current r e s e a r c h underway i n pedagogy to i n c l u d e behaviors f o r teacher education f a c u l t y . When what i s a s p i r e d to can be more a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e d , then the means f o r a c h i e v i n g these ends can be more adequately explored. A l s o of i n t e r e s t i n the study of t h i s p o p u l a t i o n i s in f o r m a t i o n surrounding the questions of gender d i f f e r e n c e s . An is s u e r a i s e d e a r l i e r , the only l i g h t to be shed on t h i s q u e s t i o n from the present study i s support of the preponderance of males i n the r o l e . Why t h i s i s true and whether or not there are any d i f f e r e n c e s between women who a s p i r e to the r o l e of p r o f e s s o r and women who do not remains to be explored. In a d d i t i o n , further. r e s e a r c h i s needed to extend the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n to i n c l u d e more s u b j e c t s from other i n s t i t u t i o n s . While the present study has served to i l l u m i n a t e i n i t i a l trends, work with l a r g e r samples from d i f f e r e n t regions and ,from i n s t i t u t i o n s with d i f f e r e n t r e p u t a t i o n s may uncover a l t e r n a t e dominant trends or perhaps support those already i d e n t i f i e d . In e i t h e r event, such work stands to f u r t h e r enhance cage 77 the understanding of perhaps the most important i n g r e d i e n t i n any teacher education program—the p r o f e s s o r of teacher education i n p h y s i c a l education. Also of i n t e r e s t , subsequently, i s the background and general d e s c r i p t i o n of other s i g n i f i c a n t f a c u l t y members, i . e . , p r o f e s s o r s without former teaching experience i n v o l v e d d i r e c t l y i n the teacher education process and p r o f e s s o r s without the d o c t o r a l degree. In t h i s f a s h i o n , teacher education f a c u l t y stand to become more i n t r o s p e c t i v e and e f f e c t i v e . page / o REFERENCES Alley, L.E. (1982). Two paths to excellence. Quest, 34 (2), 99-108. Baldwin, R.G. (1979). The faculty career process—continuity and change: A study of college professors at 5 stages of academic career. Dissertation Abstracts International, 40, 689-A. Beam, A.L. 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Psychological Review, 26, 83- 149. page 86 Zeichner, K.M., & Tabachnick, R. (1981). Are the effects of university teacher education 'washed out' by school experience? Journal of Teacher Education, 32 (3), 7-11. page 87 A number of prominent physical educators, such as Lawrence Locke, have ca l l e d attention to the need f o r work i n t h i s area. I hope that you w i l l agree that there i s merit i n th i s under- taking. To that end, any assistance you might be able to offe r w i l l be greatly appreciated. Thank you i n advance for your time and consideration i n t h i s matter. I w i l l contact you within the week. I hope to begin shortly after receiving your approval. Sincerely, page 90 QUESTIONNAIRE Preamble You have been selected as a subject for this investigation on the basis of the following c r i t e r i a : 1. You hold a doctorate degree. 2. You are a former teacher at either the elementary or secondary level. 3. At least part of your responsibilities at this university i n - clude instruction in curriculum, instruction and/or other courses related to pedagogy and school programs. Do each of these points describe you? (If NO—Terminate the interview). (If YES) The t i t l e of this investigation i s "Recruitment into the role of professor of teacher education in physical education". Of specific interest in this study, i s information surrounding the general background, professional work experience and education of former teachers-turned-professors. A l l information gathered for this study w i l l remain s t r i c t l y con- fidential. Not even my thesis chairperson w i l l know the identity of in- dividual respondents or their institutions. When the data has been gathered, i t w i l l be presented in such a fashion as to further preserve your anonymity. The results w i l l be retained for analysis in the completion of this study. After that time, the records w i l l be destroyed to further guarantee anonymity.- If at any time I ask you a question you would prefer not to answer, please indicate this and we w i l l move on. Further, i f for any reason you choose to terminate this interview, we w i l l stop. I have structured specific questions to form the basis for this interview. If at any time during this interview, our discussion sparks a thought from you pertinent to this study which I have not specifically asked you, please feel free to add the comment or observation. I would like to take this opportunity to thank you for consenting to participate in this investigation. We w i l l now begin. page 91 Code for Inst. Gender M F The first few questions are aimed at your background: 1. Did your parents: Mother Father Yes No Yes No a. Complete high school? b. Attend university? c. Graduate from university? . 2. What were your parents' occupations during your university education? Mother - ; , Father - 3. With the next question, I am interested in details surrounding each of the degrees you hold. Beginning with your baccalaureate, can you tell me: DEGREE INSTITUTION COMPLETION DATE AGE ST FIN GRADUATING GPA 1 4. After completing your undergraduate degree, did you work full time at a job other than teaching at either the elementary or secondary level? YES NO If Yes, what? when? Did this influence in any way your later return to become a professor? 5. Did you teach at the elementary or secondary level? E S BOTH 6. For how long? Elem. Sec. Total The next few questions are directed to your teaching experience at the (elementary/secondary) level. page 92 7. When did you decide that you wanted to be a physical education teacher? Why did you decide to do this? 8. What attracted you to teaching at the (elementary/secondary) level? 9. What did you hope to accomplish as a physical education teacher? 10. Did you find what you expected in the school system? 11. Were you happy—that i s , did you enjoy teaching at this level? If No, can you comment on why not? 12. In retrospect, what were the strengths of your undergraduate education in relation to your responsibilities as a former (elementary/secondary) physical education teacher? " page 93 Why were these strengths? 13. Again thinking about your teaching responsibilities, what were the weak- nesses of your undergraduate education? Why were these weaknesses? 14. When and where do you feel that you acquired your teaching s k i l l ' 15. What, i f anything, was missing from your education that you feel might have made you a better physical education teacher at the (elem/sec.) level? 16. Were you an outstanding physical education teacher? YES NO (If Yes, what indications did you have of this?) 17. What is the mark of an outstanding physical education teacher' 18. What are the goals of an outstanding school physical education program? page 94 19. When did you decide to leave teaching physical education at the (elem./sec.) level? Why did you decide to leave? . , The next section of questions is directed toward your decision to pursue the doctorate. 20. When did you decide to pursue the doctorate, and why? 21. Why did you choose...(inst. named in quest. 3) for your doctorate? 22" Dies you apply else where.' YES NO Quantity 23. When did you decide to pursue a position as a professor? 24. Was your decision to become a professor based on reasons different from your decision to pursue the doctorate? YZS NO If yes, can you comment on these reasons? The next few questions require you to differentiate between your perceptions of the real and the ideal. 25. Before you began your doctoral program, how did you perceive the role of the professor of teacher education in physical education? page 95 26. Is this what you believed the role should be—at that point of your career? YES NO If No, what did you believe the role should be? 27. Upon completion of your doctoral program, bad your perceptions of the actual role of the professor of teacher education in physical education changed? YES NO If yes, in what ways? . 28. Had your perceptions of what the role should be changed? YES NO If yes, in what way(s)? 29. Do your perceptions of your role differ now from your immediate post-doctoral perceptions? YES NO If yes, in what way(s)? If yes, can you comment on the main influence(s) of this change? 30. Do your perceptions of what your role should be differ now from your post- doctoral perceptions? YES NO If yes, in what way(s)? If yes, can you comment on the main influence(s) of this change? page 96 31. Have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of your job changed since you began work at the university level? YES NO If yes, i n what way(s)? 32. Axe you pleased with your decision to leave teaching at the (elem./sec.) l e v e l for work at the university level? YES NO 33. Are you s a t i s i f i e d in your position now, as a university professor? YES NO 34. Have you always f e l t this way? YES NO If No, can you comment on the main influence(s) of this change? 35. Looking at your present r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s in this university, what were the strengths of your graduate education and why? ; ; 36. Again thinking about your current r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , what were the weaknesses of your graduate education (doctorate) and why? 37. What, i f anything, was missing from your graduate education (doctorate), that you fe e l might have made you a better professor of teacher education in physical education? \ 1 page 97 38. What are the University of (inst. of employment)'s criteria for success for teacher educators in physical education? 39. Are you a successful teacher educator? YES NO What signs do you have of this? 40. What are the specific qualities of a successful teacher educator in physical education? 41. What are the specific qualifications of a successful teacher educator in physical education?- QUALITIES QUALIFICATIONS 42. Do you think that all physical education teacher education faculty members should regularly supervise student teachers? YES NO Why? (or) Why not? 43. Would you recommend the hiring of a physical education teacher education faculty member who did not have actual teaching experience at either the elementary or secondary school levels? YES NO Why? (or) Why not? page 98 44. The following descriptors are commonly used when describing the job you hold: (self) TEACHING COACHING RESEARCH SERVICE (univ) Rank these In order of importance, beginning with the most important from your own personal perspective. Now, rank them from the perspective of the University of (inst of employment). 45. Do you also coach at this university? YES NO 46. Is the role of coach compatible with the responsibilities for teaching at the elem/sec level? At the university level' 47. What are the characteristics of an outstanding physical education teacher education program? 48. If you could change the role you perform now, what, i f anything, would you change? 49. That concludes the questions that I have prepared for this study. Is there anything else that you can think of, that I have not asked, that you feel was significant in your decision to become a university professor? (Use a separate page i f necessary) Thank you again for your time and cooperation in this study. page 99

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