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Recruitment into the role of professor of teacher education in physical education Mitchell, Murray F. 1984

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RECRUITMENT INTO THE ROLE OF PROFESSOR OF TEACHER EDUCATION IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION By MURRAY F. MITCHELL B.ED., THE UNIVERSITY OF VICTORIA, 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (THE SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION) We accept t h i s t h e s i s  as conforming  to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MARCH  1984  Murray F. M i t c h e l l ,  1984  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis  in partial  f u l f i l m e n t of the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of  British  it  freely available  agree t h a t for  Columbia,  I agree that f o r reference  permission  the Library  shall  and study.  I further  f o r extensive copying o f t h i s  understood  that  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  f i n a n c i a l gain  shall  Department o f  PHYSICAL EDUCATION  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3  (3/81)  of this  It is thesis  n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  DE-6  thesis  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my  d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . for  make  Columbia  written  ABSTRACT  Research on teacher educators i n p h y s i c a l education has been the e x c e p t i o n , teacher  preparation  possessing were  r a t h e r than the r u l e , d e s p i t e t h e i r importance i n  a  programs.  Fifteen  teacher  d o c t o r a l degree and experience i n  educators  public  schools  s e l e c t e d as s u b j e c t s from four u n i v e r s i t i e s i n an e f f o r t to  launch  systematic  Structured  inquiry  in  this  area  of  scholarly  need.  i n t e r v i e w s were used to g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about  their  recruitment i n t o t h e i r p r o f e s s o r i a l r o l e s and t h e i r current orientations. them  Among  r e g a r d i n g the I d e a l teacher,  teacher  educator,  socialization important that  the f i n d i n g s was  often  conclusions  and  pattern  than  physical  which  formal education,  education  program,  biography  a  emerged  and personal work  c o n f l i c t with i n s t i t u t i o n a l and  a l a c k of consensus among  teacher education in  role  reward  program, dominant as  priorities  systems.  t h e i r attendant i m p l i c a t i o n s emerged  r e l a t e d f i n d i n g s and s i g n a l f u t u r e r e s e a r c h d i r e c t i o n s .  more  from  Five the  -iii-  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i i  LIST OP TABLES  via  LIST OF FIGURES  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT CHAPTER ONE  ix INTRODUCTION  1  Teacher Education  CHAPTER TWO  2  A three stage model  2  Biography  4  over education  Education or t r a i n i n g  5  Wash out  8  Graduate education  10  Statement Of The Problem  12  D e f i n i t i o n s of Terms  13  Significance  14  Of The Problem  REVIEW OF LITERATURE  17  Occupational Choice  18  Psychological perspective  19  Sociological perspective  21  Career Change Attractors  23 to change  28  -ivCHAPTER TWO  (continued) F a c i l i t a t o r s of change University Professors  28 29  Perceptions of the r o l e  30  A t t r a c t o r s t o the r o l e of p r o f e s s o r  31  F a c i l i t a t o r s t o the r o l e of p r o f e s s o r  33  A d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 34 Implications  37  CHAPTER THREE  METHODOLOGY  42  CHAPTER FOUR  FINDINGS  44  P u b l i c School Teaching  44  Background b i o g r a p h i e s  44  Role o r i e n t a t i o n  46  Role p r e p a r a t i o n  46  Personal performance perceptions Summary Career Change Leaving p u b l i c school teaching P u r s u i t of the professorate P u r s u i t of the doctorate  49 50 51 51 52 54  -vCHAPTER FOUR (Continued) F e e l i n g s about the d e c i s i o n to change  55  Summary  56  The Role of P r o f e s s o r  57  Pre-doctoral perceptions  57  Post-doctoral perceptions  58  Role performance impact on r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s  58  Retrospective evaluation of p r e p a r a t i o n  59  S p e c i f i c r o l e component perceptions Student  teacher  supervision  61  Teaching experience  62  Role d e s c r i p t i o n  62  Role s a t i s f a c t i o n  63  E v a l u a t i o n of r o l e performance Perceived  ideals  Summary  64 65 67  CHAPTER FIVE  CONCLUSIONS  73  CHAPTER SIX  SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH  76  REFERENCES APPENDIX 1:  79 C e r t i f i c a t e of Approval  88  -vi-  APPENDIX 2:  L e t t e r of I n t r o d u c t i o n  89  APPENDIX 3:  Questionnaire Preamble  91  APPENDIX 4:  Questionnaire  92  -vii-  LIST OF TABLES PAGE TABLE 1:  P o s s i b l e A t t r a c t o r s to the Role of Professor Physical  TABLE 2:  of Teacher Education i n Education  Possible F a c i l i t a t o r s  38  to the Role  of P r o f e s s o r of Teacher i n Physical  TABLE 3:  Education  39  A d d i t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Role  of  Professor  Education  TABLE 4:  Education  in  Attractors,  of  Physical  Teacher Education  Facilitators,  41  and  A d d i t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Role  of  Education  Professor in  of  Teacher  P h y s i c a l Education  72  -viii-  LIST OP FIGURES PAGE FIGURE 1:  Typology of Career Changers  25  -ix-  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  Through  the research and w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s I have come  to r e a l i z e that a great number of people have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s f i n a l product.  The vast m a j o r i t y of these people a r e  doubtless  unaware of t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s f o r two main reasons.  F i r s t , few  of us a r e aware of the impact we may have on o t h e r s .  Second, few  of  the people who have had impact upon me would have  such a product from me. with  suspected  I hope that a t l e a s t some might read i t  satisfaction. More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  I wish t o express a p p r e c i a t i o n t o a l l of  the s u b j e c t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study.  Each s u b j e c t  shared  b i t s of t h e i r l i f e w i t h me and i n r e t u r n I hope that I have  done  them a s e r v i c e and j u s t i c e . Lastly, their  I  wish  t o thank my committee members f o r  time and e x p e r t i s e .  Dr. Gary S i n c l a i r  and  Dr.  sharing Robert  Morford have each c o n t r i b u t e d t o a p r o j e c t that I hope we can a l l look on w i t h p r i d e . Dr.  Hal  Lawson  contributions done him.  a  Finally, has been  and most importantly, particularly  t o my t h e s i s and t o my career  my a d v i s o r  influential  inhis  direction—he  remarkable job w i t h the very raw m a t e r i a l  presented  has to  Those who  can,  do.  Those who  can't, teach.  Those who  can't teach, teach teachers. Anonymous.  This  quotation  investigation education. teacher  because The  it  used  introduce  the  professor  occupies a s i g n i f i c a n t  programs,  would  to  p o i n t s to the  professor  education  profession  is  i.e.,  in  what  ensuing  of  teacher  position  students  c a l l the i n d u c t i o n process f o r  new  of  the  teachers.  The p o s i t i o n of p r o f e s s o r allows some c o n t r o l over e n t r y and requirements, teachers.  course content,  In  significant  other  for  the  p r o s p e c t i v e teachers. and  a c t u a l impact  and  Dodds  remarkably  (1981)  the p r o f e s s o r may  degree and k i n d of  be  received  of the  of teacher educators remains that "Teacher  particularly  training  our understanding  observe  exit  and the e v a l u a t i o n of p r o s p e c t i v e  words,  Yet,  in  by  potential  limited.  Locke  educators  have  been  n o n i n t r o s p e c t i v e as a p r o f e s s i o n a l group"  (p.  15),  involved  with  and t h e i r lament i s a l s o an i n d i c a t i o n of need. Clearly,  all  p h y s i c a l education p r o f e s s o r s  teacher education have some impact upon p r o s p e c t i v e teachers, more  information  this  area,  about them i s warranted.  however,  may  Some p r o f e s s o r s  be more important  than  others.  s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t i n t h i s study i s the group t w i c e - i m p l i c a t e d the  opening quote:  namely,  in Of in  former-teachers-turned-professors.  Not only i s t h i s group p o r t r a y e d as unable page 1  and  to perform  generally,  but  more  s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  W h i l e i t  does  p u t t i n g  r a i s e  e f f e c t i v e  What  were  t h i s  the  More  q u e s t i o n s  r o l e  o f at  move  l e a s t  to  go  o f  s e p a r a t e  r o l e  t h e s e  the  of  e d u c a t i o n  s c h o o l s  on  and  when  to  r o l e  T h r e e  S t a g e  The terms  of  be  o f  i s  on  a l l ,  a  v o c a t i o n ?  r a i s e d  about  r e c r u i t m e n t t h e s e  t h e s e  the  r o l e  of and  of  subsequent  two  main  i n d i v i d u a l s  p r o f e s s o r r e g a r d i n g  t h r e e  become  w i t h  s o c i a l i z e d ,  abound  t h e s e  i n t o  p r o f e s s o r s  B e g i n n i n g  t e a c h e r ,  q u e s t i o n s  u n d e r  e d u c a t o r s ?  waves  p e r f o r m a n c e  c l e a r e r h e a d i n g s :  as  e a c h  and as the of i n , of  t e a c h e r  e d u c a t i o n .  EDUCATION  Model  p r o c e s s t h r e e  f o c u s  Q u e s t i o n s  i n t o ,  TEACHER  A  may  Were  e d u c a t i o n .  i n t o  e f f e c t s  p r e v i e w e d  s u c h  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y  e d u c a t i o n .  These  t e a c h e r  s o c i a l i z a t i o n .  s o c i a l i z a t i o n  g r a d u a t e  w h i c h  a c c u r a c y ,  p r o f e s s o r s .  f o r  A f t e r  o f  be  t h e s e  o p t e d  the  w i t t i c i s m ' s  e f f e c t i v e  p h y s i c a l  r e c r u i t m e n t  i s  they t h e y  the  r e l a t e d  t h i s  q u e s t i o n s  waves  i n t o  p r o f e s s o r .  waves  i n  of  about  e d u c a t o r .  g r a d u a t e  and  s o c i a l i z a t i o n  the  f o l l o w  t h r e e  t h r o u g h  t h e i r  when  p r o f e s s o r s  t e a c h e r  i s s u e  A r e  o f  s o c i a l i z a t i o n  f i n a l l y  the  few  o f  i n i t i a l  p a r t  a  t e a c h .  q u e s t i o n s  m o t i v e s  g r o u p  r e c e i v e  n e x t  j u s t  to  the  t e a c h e r s ?  t h e i r  a r e  a s i d e  i m p o r t a n t  t h e y  These  u n a b l e  o f  t e a c h e r  r e l a t e d  e d u c a t i o n  s t a g e s .  page2  S u c h  has a  been  c o n c e p t u a l i z e d  framework  i s  i n  g e n e r a l l y  based on analyses of the more c l a s s i c p r o f e s s i o n s of medicine law.  S p e c i f i c a l l y a p p l i e d to p h y s i c a l education,  1975),  and  Lawson  (1983) have r e f e r r e d  anticipatory socialization, education, p.5).  (1972,  recruitment  or  u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g and p r o f e s s i o n a l  and f i n a l l y , e n t r y i n t o the work f o r c e (Lawson, 1983,  A  suggestion  professional understand,  is  underlying  this  framework  is  that  education i s the stage at which i n d i v i d u a l s come to accept  profession. what  to:  Pooley  and  and  Aspiring presumed  embrace  the norms and  values  p r o f e s s i o n a l s are then prepared  to  be  a  more  congruous  step  of  the  to  make  from  this  p r o f e s s i o n a l education i n t o the r e a l i t i e s of p r a c t i c e . When t h i s three stage model i s a p p l i e d to teacher however,  more questions s u r f a c e .  education,  A presumed i n c o n g r u i t y between  recruitment and p r o f e s s i o n a l education does not appear i n samples of education s u b j e c t s ( L o r t i e ,  1975,  p.  81).  In other words,  teacher education programs may not act as expected o r i e n t a t i o n s of r e c r u i t s . not  That  to change  the  t h i s may occur can be a t t r i b u t e d  only to d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s of teacher eduction  programs,  but a l s o , to d i f f e r e n c e s among these programs. These  observations  investigation professors,  for unless  three  are  important  reasons.  from the same  First,  different  types of t r a i n i n g .  program  may  differential  impacts  the  present  teachers-turned  institution,  received  have  to  Second,  have  doubtless  even the  because  of  same  equally  d i f f e r e n t commitments and p e r c e p t i o n s among would-be teachers. page3  The  t h i r d point of i n t e r e s t  teacher  education  r e s i d e s i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p  and e n t r y i n t o  the  school.,  and  between  this  point  m e r i t s more d i s c u s s i o n . There the  are i n fact  specific  r o l e of teacher  school entry. education  Although  important  o f t e a c h e r s who become  on t h e i r  in  this  i n terms o f t h e i r  investigation  warrants  Biography  Over  This suggests shaped  largely  by  19975).  of s p e c i f i c  that  this  experiences  as a  The a p p r o x i m a t e l y  education  intact  after  which  education  the  teacher  (p.  programs  of the r o l e of teacher i s student  twelve  in  years  and t r a i n i n g .  Lortie  the  schools  spent  p r i o r to  than  the f i v e  (1975)  suggests  a r e more i n f l u e n t i a l  s c h o o l i n g p e r i o d c o n t r i b u t e s to the  " s u b j e c t i v e warrant"  formation  of  3 9 ) , an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n s  a  about  role.  Accepting crucial  to  of teacher  understanding  i t i s suggested,  years  a given  extent  specific  education.  interpretation  that a student's  university,  i s the  Of  final  Education  first  (Lortie,  c o n t r i b u t i o n to  educators.  f o r t e a c h i n g remain  e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s and g r a d u a t e  teacher  own, t h e s e p o i n t s become  r o l e p e r f o r m a n c e a s t e a c h e r s and t e a c h e r  subjective  to  Each of these k i n d s of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of teacher  when c o n s i d e r e d  interest  regarding  e d u c a t i o n programs i n r e l a t i o n  c o n t r i b u t e s to the study  educators. crucial  three kinds of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  the  points raised  e x i s t e n c e o f such by Lawson (1983). page4  perceptions leads First  to  two  i s the p o i n t t h a t ,  whether  held  warrant  " i s often  important or  by  point  mistaken,  (p.  6).  a single riddled  i s that such "nonetheless  The c r u c i a l  subjective  warrants  education  programs?  Education  Or T r a i n i n g  The  second  programs actual on  teaching.  schools be  through  teachers  of  what  Such  questions  After  graduate  seen theory  second accurate choice"  after  of this  of teacher  do t h e teacher  education  between t h e u n i v e r s i t y relationship  In this  has been i d e n t i f i e d  and  may b e v i e w e d  the role  of  teaching  the  i n the  p e r s p e c t i v e , would-  forced to ask questions  t o t e a c h i n g and program by Lawson  At the other  development. (1983a)  as  a  end o f the continuum,  i s seen as r e f l e c t i n g employed  and r e i n f o r c i n g  i n  the  schools.  b a c k g r o u n d a r e more commonly aware o f , a n d a s k  o f how a n d how b e s t ,  Such  orientation  These  whether  intact  of the role  and research.  questions  problem-solving  the  education?  practices currently  this  subjective  To what e x t e n t  as l e a d i n g and informing  of the university  an  a r e then:  a r e made a w a r e o f , a n d i n d e e d  from  6):  A t one end o f t h e continuum,  teaching  Students  (p.  the  the basis f o rcareer  to the relationship  an o r i e n t a t i o n  actual  group,  f o r teaching remain  a n d why i n r e g a r d  role  a  error"  provides  problem-setting perspective. the  or  a p e r c e p t u a l base,  Perceptions  a continuum. i s  with  interpretation  relates  university  person  i n regard  has been i d e n t i f i e d  t o program by Lawson  development. (1983a) a s  a  perspective.  perceptions  are presented page5  as a continuum  f o r ease  of  analysis,  but  components. been  need  out  problem-solving  of  M o r e o v e r , Dewey learning  more  what  r a t h e r than  their  in itself.  and  t o how's.  thus,  outcomes o f t h e i r  both?  Teachers  Tabachnick,  actual  with  contrasting  expectations.  masters The  an  orientation  did  such  s u g g e s t i o n from  faith  these  of both  and  why  that both  of  technique of why s i n 1  potentially t h e y do  i t .  t e a c h e r s are grounded i n  t h e demands and  potential  teaching  methodologies  smoothly w i t h ongoing  Are  and  official  teaching are  Zeichner  university  styles  level,  and  subsequently  procedures.  of i n t r o d u c i n g students theoretical  teachers educated,  trained, (1980)  or cite  statements  with  P r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s i n i t i a l l y prompted  individual  solving  the e d u c a t i o n f o r a  t h i s background are  Popkewitz  develop  the  to  programs.  the q u e s t i o n i s :  observations  orientation  r e q u i r e s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  t h e o r e t i c a l underpinnings  So,  has  (1972) s e e s as a major  aware o f r e p e r c u s s i o n s o f what t h e y do  the  at  exclusive  program  "how-to's"  (1904) d e s c r i b e d s u c h  R e l y i n g upon more t h a n b l i n d  one  o n l y the  as  i s t h a t t e a c h i n g i n v o l v e s more t h a n mere  presentation,  addition  in An  for a craft,  becomes an end  these authors  training  exclusive  i s a p p a r e n t l y what M o r f o r d  apprentices  technique  mutually  for criticism.  s t e p toward t r a i n i n g  as  be  Nevertheless,  singled  profession.  not  to  experiment  pressed  to  to the e x i s t e n c e of  page 6  Therefore,  to  in be  problem-setting  w i t h a d e c i d e d emphasis on  at the a p p l i e d l e v e l .  with  f i t  Such a s c e n a r i o a p p e a r s  to  problem-  i t i s p o s s i b l e to  offer  a  competing  explanation  education  programs.  university  experience  existing outcome  for  the  Rather may  than  be q u i t e  effectiveness being  teacher  ineffective,  effective  a t t i t u d e s and behaviors i n schools, is  of  in  the  reinforcing  even  though  this  c o n t r a r y to teacher educators' espoused t h e o r i e s  purpose i n the c u l t u r e of the u n i v e r s i t y  (Zeichner &  of  Tabachnick,  1981) . Here,  too,  then  educators, their- own  are  c l u e s to the importance  crystallize.  What  Immediately, questions of  were the p e r c e p t i o n s of  t u r n e d - p r o f e s s o r s during t h e i r teacher education? if  any,  for  r o l e of teacher educator?  warrants  deemed  student?  may  teacher  The  How  did  these  subjective to  What types of t h i n g s i n teacher education were which  were unimportant?  be c e n t r a l to the understanding  example, was  missionary teaching  effect,  Questions of the  such  as  professor  of  education.  For program  What  change as r o l e s changed from student to teacher and  important;  these  teachers-  d i d these p e r c e p t i o n s have on t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e warrants  the  graduate  teacher  s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n s toward  teacher education and school p r a c t i c e . interest  of  of  assuming little  some  teacher  education  may  v i s i o n of the importance of t h e i r r o l e ,  one  central  value,  own  professors  experience  orientation  that t h e i r  i s more important  questions  for  than theory and  individuals  with  a  w i l l d i f f e r from those of i n d i v i d u a l s who page?  hold  a  i n which research.  missionary choose the  role  o f p r o f e s s o r m e r e l y t o e s c a p e from t e a c h i n g .  will  be  social  the c e n t r a l mobility,  motivations.  Wash  individuals  seeking  the study  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f , and  indeed,  teacher  also  upward other  of p e r c e p t i o n s of  a  the a c t u a l performance  education.  Out third  programs  students  1981).  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the e f f e c t s of teacher  i s t h a t the u n i v e r s i t y  realities  because  experience  experience of schools  Importance i s a t t a c h e d here  finding  education  studies i n their  but  traditional teaching" to  workplace,  is  no  (Zeichner  out" &  in  the  the and  elimination  opposite  become  1981,  socialization  the r o l e of teacher (1975)  on  the  the  Tabachnick,  p.  7).  A  toward of  Hence,  more  full-time "wash o u t "  attitudes  r e g a r d i n g the e f f e c t s  a teacher's  common  of t h e i r c o l l e g e  impact  progressive  highlights questions  by  increasingly  direction  experience  of  effect  t o t h e wave o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  a t t i t u d e s d u r i n g the course  move  education  lasting  "washed  "students  (Zeichner & Tabachnick,  organizational  suggestion  that  b e l i e f s when t h e y  Lortie's  is  has  which accompanies t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e .  of  progressive  refers  the  o f t h e work w o r l d  socialization  for  case,  the r o l e of p r o f e s s o r of  The  on  f o r the  freedom f o r p e r s o n a l r e s e a r c h , o r p e r h a p s  I n any  r o l e must i n f o r m in,  questions  Different  subjective  in  the  of  this  warrant  educator. research  which r e l a t e s  to the  p e r c e p t i o n s of p r o f e s s o r s :  pageS  lead  him  "wash o u t "  to  an  effect  interesting and  to  student  The outcome i s e v i d e n t l y f r u s t r a t i n g ; unable  to reach the  h o r i z o n s p o i n t e d out to them, students must choose between seeing themselves as incompetent and seeing t h e i r as f a l s e .  prophets  They apparently l e a n toward the l a t t e r .  (p. 69).  Whether or not L o r t i e ' s suggestion i s accurate, i t does h i g h l i g h t s p e c i f i c areas of i n q u i r y .  For example,  the p e r c e p t i o n s  t e a c h e r s - t u r n e d - p r o f e s s o r s h e l d of t h e i r p r o f e s s o r s , themselves  as  p r o f e s s o r s now,  may  d e c i s i o n to become a p r o f e s s o r .  be important  which  and hold of  factors i n  the  T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y the case  l i g h t of the p o t e n t i a l l y low impact  in  of such a r o l e from t h e i r  own  education. To teacher  this  education  educators, schools.  point,  interpretations  programs have  themselves, These  regarding  experienced  of  teacher  these programs and e n t r y i n t o  f a c e t s of teacher education:  education; education or t r a i n i n g ; and, wash out.  upon  three  Biography  over  This discussion  been aimed at uncovering p e r t i n e n t questions about two waves  of s o c i a l i z a t i o n and emphasizing for  role  been examined because  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s have been focussed  themes which address  has  the  this investigation.  teacher  education  The  the importance of the  first  two waves of  The  next  socialization graduate  socialization,  and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l . s o c i a l i z a t i o n  i n t o s c h o o l s , have been presented, a l b e i t section  includes  Once  a look at the  again the purpose i s  page9  upon  entry  briefly. third  which a f f e c t s the p r o f e s s o r of teacher  education.  professor  to  wave  of  education: provide  a  f o u n d a t i o n by i d e n t i f y i n g p e r t i n e n t  questions.  GRADUATE EDUCATION  Graduate e d u c a t i o n i s posed, third  wave  again,  i n this investigation,  of s o c i a l i z a t i o n f o r prospective  the u n i v e r s i t y light.  education  f o r prospective professors,  the  The c u l t u r e  university,  recruitment  and  into  functions: be  may  teaching,  viewed as e q u a l l y  importance  varies  importance  varies  functions of s i z e , composition.  the  be  important from  because locale,  Thus,  and s e r v i c e .  university  major  g r a d u a t e programs,  whereas  smaller  emphasize  significantly  by t h e k i n d o f d i r e c t  universities  universities  and t h e i r  and  to  three  their  of  their  culture. pagelC  main  relative  another.  themselves,  universities,  cater  teaching.  into  in  to  Their vary  as  c l i e n t e l e , and f r e q u e n t l y  may  recruitment  had  role  factors  complete  a c c o r d more emphasis t o  institutions  the  of  A l t h o u g h t h e s e may  compatible,  sponsorship,  some  and  performing  universities,  elaborate  undergraduates  as  and  one  these  functions  are of i n t e r e s t .  viewed  research,  of  in a  i t s graduate  the primary  relationship  Once  b u t now,  of the u n i v e r s i t y ,  the professorship,  Universities  professors.  i s t h e agency o f i n t e r e s t ,  different  as the  professor  research,  primarily  It will  follows be  with  to that  affected  e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h p e o p l e have breadth  of  understanding  of  G l a z e r - (1974) i s among t h e a n a l y s t s who have o b s e r v e d of  the  dilemmas  cultures.  Predominant  allegiance. sociology applied  facing  Bonds or  for  to  sub-disciplines  balance  i n the f i e l d  individual  backgrounds cultures.  of  likely  In  Another  biology,  practically  e d u c a t i o n must c h o o s e a  The b a l a n c e  faculty,  r e s e a r c h e r and  chosen i s a mixture of  professor  responsibilities  individual,  develops  interest  may i d e n t i f y teacher,  trained  and  the  demands  of  some i n d i v i d u a l s may develop  such  train  an i n t e r e s t i n  an i n d i v i d u a l  may  first  priorities.  that p r i n c i p l e s  supplement  t o educate others  would  as  a  teacher,  the  of,  primary  figure  This individual  task  prominently  of  i s manifest  initially  d e s c r i p t i o n s and q u a l i f i c a t i o n reward s t r u c t u r e s r e l a t e d  i n the  later  education  i s foremost  a  pshchology  teaching. structure  Further, of  the  The i n f l u e n c e o f  the  i n faculty designations v i a job  requirements,  to j o b performance. pageI1  who  of  and r e s e a r c h i n t o ,  between r e s e a r c h e r s and t e a c h e r s .  university  to h i s c a l l i n g .  and e x p e r t i s e i n t h e p s y c h o l o g y  different  such  universities balance  as  of  i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f as a r e s e a r c h e r , a n a l y s t , or p s y c h o l o g i s t  secondary  merely  dilemma  more  disciplinarian  Put d i f f e r e n t l y ,  an e d u c a t i o n  such  the  a s p s y c h o l o g i s t s and s u b s e q u e n t l y ,  education.  university  of education.  p r o f e s s o r s of teacher  applied teacher.  with  with  in  i s the  disciplines  between t h e r o l e s o f s t r i c t  university  faculties  faculties  conflict  practically  first  such  parent  psychology  Consequently,  education  some  and s u b s e q u e n t l y ,  in  Necessarily, researchers education  and  as u n i v e r s i t y teachers,  vary.  f a c u l t i e s vary i n composition of  so must t h e i r programs  In other words,  of  graduate  there are d i f f e r e n t kinds  of  programs of graduate education i n e q u a l l y d i f f e r e n t u n i v e r s i t i e s . These  programs  a f f e c t recruitment i n t o  the  professorship  and  performance i n the r o l e . Important of  questions s u r f a c e regarding the i n d u c t i o n process  former-teachers-turned-professors.  graduate  education  To  into  the  the  three  initially,  the process of  r o l e of p r o f e s s o r of teacher  To  i n regard to these  answers to questions such as these are yet  step toward understanding  does  teaching, research, and s e r v i c e ?  what extent do i n d i v i d u a l s choose a u n i v e r s i t y The  extent  prepare i n d i v i d u a l s to deal with  f u n c t i o n s of a u n i v e r s i t y :  roles?  what  education,  another  recruitment and  perhaps  subsequent i n s i g h t i n t o r o l e performance.  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  The into  the  purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n role  of p r o f e s s o r of teacher  i s to explore recruitment education  in  physical  education.  Specifically,  why do i n d i v i d u a l s choose to become a  professor?  What are p e r c e p t i o n s of what a p r o f e s s o r does?  kinds of t h i n g s should a p r o f e s s o r do(?); not do?  What  The suggestion  to t h i s p o i n t , i s that p e r c e p t i o n s of t h i s r o l e do e x i s t p r i o r to r o l e occupancy,  and that these p e r c e p t i o n s i n c l u d e two kinds pagei2  of  characteristics. All by  As Van  people  (i.e., Further,  i n c l u d e both  how  i t i s they  these  is  content  s h o u l d do)  perceptions  the  patterns  into  the  of  of  will  teacher  doctoral  with  level  either  aid  t h e PhD  i n w h i c h an in  no  institution.  Recruitment. stage  the  characteristics  (p.  226).  important  process  education.  in  understanding  to gain i n s i g h t  and  into  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of That  yet d i f f e r e n t  these  the  perceptions  i n o t h e r s , may  classification  education.  include only this will  of  (i.e.,  of  emerge  recruitment  role.  I n o t h e r words,  university  transmitted  Terms  Professor title  and  i n some ways,  identification  Definitions  this  it).  the g o a l of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n  similar  from  be  process  observed:  role.  p e r c e p t i o n s of content  be  and  may  r o l e of p r o f e s s o r of teacher may  (1979) have  characteristics  s h o u l d do  performance i n the  It these  Schein  r o l e s w h i c h a r e c r e a t e d , s u s t a i n e d and  what i t i s p e o p l e  actual  Maanen and  o r EdD  For  investigation,  former-teachers-turned-professors.  exclude time  s u b j e c t s who  spent  Further,  as a  have a t t a i n e d t h e  teacher  this t i t l e  will  in  any  pre-  include holders  degrees.  In t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , individual  selection  this  of  formulates the  education. pageI3  role  of  the  term r e p r e s e n t s  the  a s u b j e c t i v e warrant  to  professor  of  teacher  Organizational professional merely  socialization,  this  whenever an setting,  i.e.,  mechanisms  operate  individuals  toward  ends may  be  individual  Although  concept  associated with professions,  occurs work  socialization.  organizational  teacher  educators  Lawson,  1981).  t h e a r e a has  speculates perhaps lack  to  and  both  attitudes  refers  to  suggestion through do  The  attention as  also  the  not  and  in  a  informal  behaviors  i n t e n d e d and u n i n t e n d e d  ends,  and  of these  Problem  ( H a l l & Hord, fact  that  is  testimony  t h e r e has  speaks  &  Dodds,  been l i t t l e  that  to both  ask.  of  work done i n  Put  inquiry.  Acceptance  to which  ask,  tacit  differently, (p.  83).  come t o u n d e r s t a n d but a l s o  S i n c e no premium has we  such  only  one  This  is  the l a c k of u n d e r s t a n d i n g  Curriculum" we  1981;  Moreover, a l t h o u g h a l l a u t h o r s  to the extent  "Null  teacher educators,  Locke  teacher educators.  t h e q u e s t i o n s we ask.  1981;  to the s i g n i f i c a n c e  q u e s t i o n s we the  t h e need f o r r e s e a r c h on  t o t h e n e e d f o r work i n t h i s a r e a ,  o f i n f o r m a t i o n on  guide  Not  socialization operates  Formal  a l r e a d y been n o t e d .  further  scenario  indeed,  i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n .  A number o f a u t h o r s have i d e n t i f i e d  call  i s also different.  e n t e r s and  shape  to  a t odds w i t h norms o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m .  S i g n i f i c a n c e of the  cited  related  our  through  been p u t  might assume e i t h e r page14  of such  (1979)  essence  world  the  not  only  the q u e s t i o n s  on knowledge  or each  a  assumptions  Eisner In  and  o f two  we  about things.  First,  teacher  educators  education process; the we  r o l e of  s e r v e no  hence,  teacher  little  educator  do n o t n e e d f u r t h e r  f o r i n f a c t , we  beliefs  understandings  if  we  and are  to understand  generally,  and  Lawson  the  (1981) into  backdrop  of  "a  and  the  allegiances  teacher  known o f them.  Second,  common s e n s e n a t u r e  the p r o c e s s  difficult field"  (p.  inquiry  of teacher  and  into  teacher  22) .  describes their  23).  "role  An  He  a role,  and,  informative  i n understanding  if  so,  stress,  scholarly  role  them.  o f what  deal  with  might  F u r t h e r m o r e , an  to the r o l e stands  to shed l i g h t  perform  Thus  there  between  about  Prior  effectiveness,  a link  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  to s e t t i n g , however, page15  of  role  attract  must  such be  understanding  this  of teacher  much l e s s s o l v i n g we  and  such,  and  a list  strain,  bring  which surround  research,  practice,  o f what p e o p l e  is  higher  as whether t h e y p e r c e i v e  they  a  competing  Lawson d e s c r i b e s s u c h  as w e l l how  and  on  between  the wholes of  understanding  conflicts,  programs.  educators,  position  r o l e model.  to such  questions  education  boundary  r e d u c t i o n i s m and  individuals  i t .  education  former-teachers-turned-professors,  dilemmas a s b r e e d i n g (p.  to  motivations,  of the p r o f e s s o r of teacher  better  that  B o t h a s s u m p t i o n s a r e open  between p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n  between e d u c a t o r  conflict"  the  need t o know more o f t h e  frames the  between s c i e n t i f i c  role  i s of such  in  r o l e o f t h e p r o f e s s o r more s p e c i f i c a l l y .  specifically  education  need be  information.  suspicion,  crucial role  such  need t o know more  on how  they  study  and  education questions about  the  professor  of  impossible without  teacher  to  knowing  education.  comment  is difficult  on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  precisely  p e r c e i v e s as r e l e v a n t  For i t  what  tasks.  page16  it  is  that  of  an the  if  not  individual individual  CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF  LITERATURE  E n t e r i n g u n i v e r s i t y work as a l i f e e n t e r i n g matrimony: event but  i t happens.  on  (Wilson,  ( W i l s o n , 1942,  field  1942)  of i n q u i r y ,  professors  Work  are,  what  Our  they  much beyond t h i s in  specifically  the  do  to  15). Wilson,  and h i s book, The  Academic  t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l  and why  treatise  they  of over  scarce.  physical  important  t h a t nobody knows  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f who  a r e a remains  related  p.  i t i s an  like  of a p i o n e e r ,  s t a n d s as p e r h a p s  university professors.  proceeded  that  above q u o t a t i o n i s t h e s e n t i m e n t  e m b a r k i n g upon a new Man,  agrees  so many i n t a n g i b l e s a r e i n v o l v e d  e x a c t l y how The  everybody  c a r e e r i s v e r y much  do  university  i t , has  f o r t y years The  work  quality  education i s noted  not  ago. of by  work Locke  (1982): As a body o f knowledge and education,  t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n remains  l a r g e l y unread. In  an e a r l i e r  published physical reviewing to  1982.  leadership  a domain f o r i n q u i r y  between 1960  forty  Locke and Locke  additional  In t o t a l ,  uneven, u n p o p u l a r  and  (p. i ) .  paper,  education.  in physical  and Dodds 1980  (1981)  related  reviewed  to teacher education  (1982) l a t e r  continued  r e p o r t s spanning  Beyond  page!"  these  this  the p e r i o d  f o u r d i s s e r t a t i o n s were l i s t e d  characteristics.  research  the  work,  from  19S0  related  authors  in  to  raise  questions  similar  to  concluding  t h a t any  definitive  (Locke  & Dodds,  1981,  Consequently, divergent Work  those  p.  disciplines.  investigate.  lend  meaning  There  areas  on  pioneering however,  This with  of  review  Occupational  of  this  third  study,  mostly  draw upon  unknown"  the  present  t o p i c must n o t  of  approach. beginning  t o ask  and  areas  investigation. be  lost  from  an u n m e d i a t e d a p p l i c a t i o n  than p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  literature The  headings.  t h i s b a s e f o r more a c c u r a t e  section,  field. Beginning  Career  i n f o r m a t i o n on  The view,  i s examined f o r i n s i g h t next  the  into  Change, subjects  former-teachers-turned-professors.  s e c t i o n i s t h e most s p e c i f i c ,  c o n t a i n i n g the  to  of f i n d i n g s  to t h i s unique  i s f o c u s s e d around three  investigation,  variety  topics provides a  providing questions  this  Choice,  a  are s t r e n g t h s to t h i s  the c a r e e r s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . b u i l d s on  this  f i n d i n g s from p r e v i o u s work p r o m i s e  there r e s u l t  other  "remains  must  related  r e s u l t s of  nature lest  from a r e a s  Further, to  answer  review  framework f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , to  throughout  15).  this  done i n o t h e r  raised  literature  The on  University Professors.  OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE  Occupational since Initial  choice,  approximately  the  investigations  as a s u b j e c t o f i n q u i r y , beginning  sought page!3  of  the  l i n k s between  has e x i s t e d  twentieth trait  century.  theory  and  subsequent o c c u p a t i o n a l the  knowledge  occupational theory  base choice,  search  choice  be  u n d e r two  perspective  and  Psychological Through  work  function  In the  process  i n the  of  of  This research  can  psychological  perspective.  are  focal.  of  Ginzberg  stages.  the  volition  and  Prominent  in  (1951),  who  Initially,  i n which o c c u p a t i o n a l  on  stereo-typical role  of o c c u p a t i o n a l  i s presented  development,  point,  as  the  individuals  i n terms o f p e r s o n a l  of  terminal  occurring  i n d i v i d u a l s are  or  perceptions.  actual requirements  period  children choice  the  this  The  Personal  as  aware o f  consistency  research.  i s viewed  tentative period,  choice  work  choice  the  reached  choice  trait  examination  labelled  At  Ginzberg's  i s that  fantasy period  adolescence. some  choice  developmental  realistic  occupational  reality  .to  That of a  individuals.  i s based l a r g e l y  the  contributing  an  vantage p o i n t s .  occupational  perspective  increasingly  Finally,  As  inadequacy of  prompted  major h e a d i n g s :  lens,  second stage,  become  in  from o t h e r  this  three  preference  1919).  explanation.  that of a s o c i o l o g i c a l  this  identifies  Yerkes,  to f a c t o r s  so grew the  influencing individual  from  1890;  Perspective  developmental factors  however,  for understanding  occupational grouped  (Cattell,  grew i n r e g a r d  f o r a complete  The  choice  in  assumed t o choice  and  jobs. stage late have the  demands. is  influential  i n terms  c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h i s pagei9  study  of  occupational  may  be  minimized  somewhat by t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s professors.  As t h a t s e c t i o n o f t h i s  occupational  c h o i c e i s g e n e r a l l y made w e l l b e y o n d t h e a d o l e s c e n t  years. the  Consequently,  initial  subsequent  years.  This  Super  by  these  in  this  than  their  present  adolescence  trial  process  stage  may e x t e n d stage.  theories  These t h e o r i e s  the  career  change  that o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e extends In essence,  as i n d i v i d u a l s  process  theorists.  i s granted  Within  i n d i v i d u a l s may g a i n more r e a l i s t i c  beyond  to teach  (1953)  findings  change-with-age  undermine e a r l i e r  this  and  with  which suggest  adolescent  adolescence  to  (1953)  consistent  literature,  frame,  study  s i x s t a g e s of v o c a t i o n a l development.  more  change.  suggest,  s e l e c t i o n of the u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s h i p .  involving  the  will  work may have more t o s a y about  choice of subjects i n t h i s  Havinghurst  are  Ginzberg's  review  of u n i v e r s i t y  perceptions of  this  evidence  time  they beyond time  to support or This  period  (1957) as a f l o u n d e r i n g  i n w h i c h a number o f o c c u p a t i o n s  are t r i e d .  a s l o n g a s t o t h e age r a n g e o f 25  Super s u g g e s t s ,  age,  additional  occupations.  i s named by Super  beyond  an i n d i v i d u a l  to  or  This  35.  At  l o c a t e s a c a r e e r and  works a t advancement. Holland's stage. between  (1959)  At t h i s  time,  their  environment. environment  work c e n t r e s more on an i n d i v i d u a l  occupational Put  and  identity  differently, individual  seeks  the  identity  page2 0  this  final  choice  c o n s i s t e n c y or balance and  the  interaction continues  occupational between and  has  the a  significant choice  influence  on o c c u p a t i o n a l  .has b e e n made.  further  examined  choice,  even  The i n f l u e n c e o f H o l l a n d ' s  when  motivations  for  after  the  work w i l l  career  change  be are  discussed. In  summary,  the  psychological perspective  number o f f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o o c c u p a t i o n a l choice  may  range  from  begin  25 t o 35 y e a r s  motivations  behind  perceptions they  occupational  o r as l a t e  Further, choice  Timing of  as  c l u e s as  may be  a  found  the  age  to  the  in  the  roles  seek t o perform.  Through control  of  choice,  are  education integral the  Perspective this the  perspective, individual,  examined.  level,  individual  as  factors  which  impinge  family  and p e e r  occupational an  active  the choice  the  upon  immediate  occupational  class,  gender,  influences  selection. agent  s e l e c t i o n i s not ignored,  f a c t o r s surrounding  beyond  Such f a c t o r s as s o c i a l  culture,  i n the eventual  occupational the  o f age.  choice.  i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d b o t h o f t h e m s e l v e s and o f t h e  Sociological  of  as e a r l y as c h i l d h o o d  illuminates  in  may  be  While the r o l e the  process  i t i s not f o c a l .  are selected f o r  of  Rather,  explanation  and p r e d i c t i o n . Particularly sociological As  perspective,  noted e a r l i e r ,  education  significant  to t h i s  investigation,  from  the  i s work on p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n .  work on t h i s  concept  and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ) page2 i  i n education  i s minimal.  (both  teacher  E x i s t i n g research  and  models  are  professions. for  based  Consequently,  investigation.  findings  largely  about  upon  these  the  medical  and  legal  works mark a b e g i n n i n g  point  T h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e l i e s n o t so much i n t h e i r  l a w y e r s and d o c t o r s ,  but r a t h e r  i n the s t r u c t u r e  of t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . For (1975)  example,  Rogoff  a l l identify  professions, Differences  in  differences choice.  in  in  (1957),  (1957) and  d i f f e r e n c e s among i n d i v i d u a l s , terms  of  timing  occupational  of  choice  significant  In another  Theilens  light,  factors  these  within  choice  associated  given  patterns.  with  influencing  findings point  Keifrich  the  related eventual  to the c o n c l u s i o n  t h a t more t h a n one avenue e x i s t s l e a d i n g t o any o c c u p a t i o n .  Put  differently,  and  goals  in,  physical  choosing  Attractors would-be  r e f e r s t o two  selection are  reasons  for,  education  Lortie  attractors  1975,  identifies  p.  social  and  in  benefits,  power,  the  proferred  Specifically  mobility,  such as p r e s t i g e ,  in  facilitators.  benefits  26).  both material  security,  attractors,  occupational  process,  (Lortie,  employment,  this  f a c t o r s of importance  d e f i n e d as "the comparative  entrants"  teaching,  Within  have d i f f e r e n t  t o become p r o f e s s o r s o f t e a c h e r  (1975)  occupational  symbolic  may  education.  Lortie  money,  individuals  for  such  as  and p s y c h i c  or  and  satisfaction.  framework, a number o f themes aimed a t e x p l a i n i n g t h e choice  Facilitators,  of teaching on  the  are  other  page2 2  presented.  hand,  represent  the  "social  mechanisms (Lortie,  which 1975,  identified of  heip p.  26).  people i n t o  For teaching,  a  given  occupation"  important  facilitators  a r e such t h i n g s as t h e i n f l u e n c e of o t h e r s ,  occupational  alternatives,  factors are presented or  move  i n combination  an a b s e n c e  and a s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t .  These  a s f a c i l i t a t o r s w h i c h may a c t  individually  t o shape an i n d i v i d u a l ' s e v e n t u a l  occupational  choice. To  summarize  outline  factors  occupational made  by  extraneous  choice.  the  realization given  the s o c i o l o g i c a l  from  this  of the existence  occupational  constructs  to the i n d i v i d u a l  Specifically,  research  of  role.  and  d e s c r i b i n g and comparing these The physical career  choice;  research possible  after  relate  to  First  i s the  is  the  facilitators  employment as  a  of the  means  for  pathways. of teacher  s e r v i n g as a teacher  t o p i c h a s been r e v i e w e d ,  education  is  change. albeit  not  in  just  a  Consequently, briefly,  for  i n s i g h t s f o r the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  CAREER  Research and  perspective.  i t i s a l s o an o c c u p a t i o n a l  on t h i s  that  i s to  two major c o n t r i b u t i o n s a r e  d e c i s i o n t o become a p r o f e s s o r education  then,  o f m u l t i p l e pathways l e a d i n g t o any Second  attractors  perspective,  on c a r e e r  occasionally  CHANGE  change i s i n c o m p l e t e ,  contradictory, page23  often  b u t i t must be  inadequate,  reviewed  for  its  potential  framework  contribution  f o r understanding  in  furthering  the  the recruitment of  theoretical  former-teachers-  turned professors. Research choice  on  w h i t e - c o l l a r c a r e e r change s u g g e s t s  i s typically  Investigation however, number  a voluntary decision  into  more  p r e c i s e l y why t h e  i s less conclusive. of motives  (Thomas,  In f a c t ,  f o r change a r e a l m o s t  that  1980, p. 1 7 3 ) .  decision  is  Thomas s u g g e s t s  o f s u b j e c t s one i s w i l l i n g  to study  illustrates  typology of c a r e e r changers,  by  an i n t e r e s t i n g  p.  177).  made,  that the  as v a r i e d a s t h e  (1980,  the  number  Figure  1  developed  Thomas. This  classification  significant is  internally,  change  factors. such  pair  externally  i s the i n s i g h t  a s one c a t e g o r y may mask  Tentatively  then,  this  may  Second, a s  that to describe  significant  typology stands  First  change  and/or i n combination.  realization,  of  underlying  a s an a t t e m p t  at  differentiation. As  indicated  categories with  to a  that motivations or pressures to  an e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s career  draws a t t e n t i o n  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t h e s t u d y o f c a r e e r change.  the r e a l i z a t i o n  arise  scheme  Figure  1,  Thomas  of w h i t e - c o l l a r m i d - l i f e  the " d r i f t - o u t "  individuals. motivations enigmatic  in  category,  very  has  career changers. little  than  individuals  in  explained. page24  this  pressure  category  exist  four  Beginning  i s known about  Beyond t h e l a c k o f any a p p a r e n t of  identified  these  t o change, as  more  FIGURE 1  TYPOLOGY OF CAREER CHANGERS  Pressure From S e l f To Change  LOW  HIGH  LOW  "DRIFT-OUT"  "OPT-OUT"  HIGH  "FORCE-OUT"  "BOW-OUT"  Pressure From Environment To Change  Source:  page  25  Thomas, 1980, p. 178,  The  "opt-out"  pressure  category  t o change.  marks a g r o u p w i t h  Prominent  i n t h i s pressure  harmony  between p e r s o n a l v a l u e s and work.  harmony  i s most l i k e l y  than  years  here  hence  are highly  High i n i t i a l  distinguishing  out"  group. a  different  resemble  education  of  of i n d i v i d u a l s  to these  factors  select  initial  these  individuals  career,  are  change  i n the  i s the  the  least  "bow-  radically  position.  begin with least  are  likelihood  likely  the l e a s t to  closely workers.  education f o r  resort  to  f o r g r e a t e r a c h i e v e m e n t and make t h e most r a d i c a l  group  The  when  formal  i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e i r change, a r e l e a s t m o t i v a t e d  are  change.  least  factor  have d i f f e r e n t concepts  with  the  harmony  of  of  this their  setting.  o f harmony o r p e r s o n - e n v i r o n m e n t  explanatory  by  changes  In c o n t r a s t to "opt-outs",  concerned  p e r s o n a l v a l u e s and t h e work  basic  their  five  clusters.  changers  from t h e i r  e n v i r o n m e n t when t h e y  final  individuals  t o be i n t h e same p o s i t i o n  characteristics  these  this likely  i n t h e " f o r c e - o u t " d e s i g n a t i o n , s u b j e c t s most  initial  desires  education—more addition,  for  of  p a t t e r n s i d e n t i f i e d i n s t u d i e s on b l u e - c o l l a r  a group,  their  group  i s a drive  and a h i g h m o t i v a t i o n t o a c h i e v e  Perhaps r e l a t e d  career  Lastly  i n other  education  the  as  likely  In  internal  The p u r s u i t  and a r e t h e most s a t i s f i e d w i t h  compared t o i n d i v i d u a l s  As  formal  i n any o f t h e o t h e r q u a d r a n t s .  classified  that  to u t i l i z e  high  value  for different  congruence theory page26  congruence  individuals.  were d e v e l o p e d  may The  originally  by  Holland  The  a p p l i c a t i o n of  choice  (1959) i n an  to i n c l u d e  As  is  this  theory  career  the  lot  attempt  e x t e n d e d beyond mere  for  most  effort  concepts  beyond  type c o n f l i c t ,  his i n i t i a l  and  better  climate,  latives,  for other  restatement  differs  The  s p e c i f i c i t y of  aided  abandoned.  shown t o have 1978).  In  expanded  and  an his  occupational  of  w o r k e r s w i s h them  and  environmental  the  other  influences.  s u b s t a n t i a l l y from occupational  reasons:  is  no  longer  the  any  i n the  (Holland  &  of  the  career  a s u b d i v i s i o n i n t o two by  Lortie  facilitators.  page2 7  initial  propositions.  attempt decision  virtually at  precise  to  change  i n d i c a t i o n i s that people  a v a r i e t y of p e r s o n a l  identified  re-  t y p e v a r i a b l e has  elements i n v o l v e d  analysis  to  21).  There  because of  concepts  p.  More a c c u r a t e l y ,  by  Holland  p e r s o n a l i t y type  personal  more money and  This  Further  Kandefer,  unintended  physical disability, dissatisfied  1976,  careers  to  H o l l a n d ' s work was  because other  Godfredson,  identification  occupational  stating:  leave,  careers.  applied  t o combat s u c h c r i t i c i z m ,  P e o p l e change j o b s  been  theory  ( B o b b i n s , Thomas, H a r v e y and  apparent  choice.  change.  phenomena w i t h o u t m o d i f i c a t i o n , shortcomings  to e x p l a i n o c c u p a t i o n a l  and  change  i n d i v i d u a l reasons.  change l i t e r a t u r e  may  subheadings—specifically, (1975)  as  attractors  be the and  A t t r a c t o r s To  Change  Attractors take  the  psychic for  form  1980); mere  are:  (Hiestand,  of  in  a  growth,  subject  and/or  to  reasons  for  more  time  rewards  1976;  Neapolitan,  Thomas,  self-improvement, power  job l e a d i n g to  valued  job s e c u r i t y , with  the  being  family,  to l i v e  (Hiestand,  1980;  few  and/or  and/or f o r a b e t t e r l o c a l e intrinsic  A  1971;  field,  of another  may  in  1971;  more  (Thomas,  Neapolitan,  congruency  Thomas, 1980;  laid  (Holland  Vaitenas  &  1977).  Facilitators  Of  Change  Facilitators h e l p move p e o p l e  have been i d e n t i f i e d t o a c e r t a i n end.  identified  include:  the  in  relation  availability  a t a y o u n g e r age,  d i s r u p t i o n of for  reference  the p u r s u i t of person-environment  & Godfredson,  present  These  benefits  (Hiestand,  e t a l . , 1978); g r e a t e r  time,  1980); and,  been  In s p e c i f i c  probability  reasons,  general  Wiener,  benefits.  material  intellectual  interest  1971);  health  1980);  of  better salary  personal  (Snyder,  recreation  or both  benefits.  seeking  pursuit  off,  s e e n as p o t e n t i a l  a number o f a t t r a c t o r s have been i d e n t i f i e d .  seeking  outcomes  be  of e i t h e r  or symbolic  change,  of these  may  leave  (Hiestand,  a  mechanisms w h i c h facilitators  occupational opportunities  change. which  a t work, f o r c e d  availability  from t h e p r e s e n t In  of  A number o f  instability  family l i f e ,  1971).  to  as s o c i a l  of  funds,  and  These  were  not  relocation, eligibility  job l e a d i n g to a r e t u r n to  related vein i s a belief page25  have  education in  further  education 1977;  for i t s l i f e  enhancing  Vandermeulen,  credentials  to  facilitators  to  perceived  be  of  of success  failure  general  and  least  acquired  (Hiestand,  have  in  occupation  elsewhere  new  skills  et  al.,  for  1978).  of  orientation To help  (Kahnweiler,  (Beam,  to  more i n s i g h t  form  the  perceived  1958); a f e a r o f 1977),  status,  develop  or  Sarason, a  (Snyder  facilitators  as a d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  1980;  of  1977), and  psychologically  with the  what result  regressive  1981).  explain insight  the  r e f e r e n c e to teachers,  boredom  summarize,  provides and  In s p e c i f i c  frustration,  Further  job assignments or e x p e r i e n c e s  change have been i d e n t i f i e d  t h e y were d o i n g  in  the  ( V a i t e n a s & Wiener,  a d e s i r e t o seek a r e d e f i n i t i o n of p r e s e n t a t t a i n new  through  and  and  and  Sarason,  1971).  (March & Simon,  l i f e - s t y l e doubts  1971;  part  been i d e n t i f i e d  l e a v i n g one  probability  (Hiestand,  1974)--at  change  ease  power  t h e r e a r e a t t r a c t o r s and career  into  change.  the reasons  c a n be  The why  use  facilitators of  these  that  concepts  t e a c h e r s become p r o f e s s o r s ,  d e r i v e d from t h e  literature  on  university  physical  education  professors. UNIVERSITY PROFESSORS  Since  there  professors, this  way,  the  is little  more g e n e r a l  tentative  f a c e t s of the  r e l e v a n t work on  l i t e r a t u r e must be  p e n e t r a t i o n may  role. page29  be  gained  reviewed. into  In  particular  Perceptions  Of  Light man. is  The  The  (1974) i d e n t i f i e s first  i s the  emphasized.  and  Role  moral  teacher  professor  i s v i e w e d as  ascribed  role  scientist  The  who  i s one  of  a l s o teaches,  a means f o r c l a s s i f y i n g  as w i l l  be  priorities  For  of to  i s the  in  how  the  example,  time  roles  teaching  1958);  oriented  to t e a c h i n g cite  character  Sagen,  secondary  first  imparting  and  and  less  i n which  the  perceptions  of  to  models may  The  any  establishment  the  the  foremost.  knowledge  Each of these  professors  teaching  Eckert,  by  teacher  discipline  intellectual  S c o t t i s h Model,  emphasizing  they  1959;  or  may  who  r o l e of  as  of  be  themselves  perform but  are with  m e r e l y o c c u p y the life  a new  useful  professor  (Gustad,  and  assign  revealing. some  Most  qualification.  greatest 1959;  amount  of  Stecklein  &  t h e u n i v e r s i t y s y s t e m i s v i e w e d as p r i m a r i l y (Bess,  teaching  as  1977; the most  d e v e l o p m e n t and Gilliland, a  view  function,  a p r o f e s s o r ' s work  professors  a  an  academic  shown i n a summary o f r e l e v a n t f i n d i n g s .  Studies  prominent  the  t h e German Model v i e w s t h e p r o f e s s o r  knowledge t h r o u g h r e s e a r c h . as  i s the  a subject  Finally,  i s viewed as  s u b j e c t matter  second  here  models o f  O x b r i d g e Model i n w h i c h m e n t a l  with  factor.  i t .  classic  Here, t h e p r o f e s s o r  important  desire  three  1975b).  In  study  teaching  over research,  1974;  Fulton & important  then research Kelly  in physical  & Hart,  1974).  function, (Eckert,  Yet  followed  Stecklein,  Ladd & L i p s e t t ,  1977;  education,  p u b l i c a t i o n or page30  Trow,  professors  coaching  (Rog,  rate 1979).  Another the  work showed t h a t t h e o l d e r t h e r e s p o n d e n t ,  attraction  Lastly,  greater  appraisal  to  above  was  both  different  Surveys identified  of  opportunity Stecklein  to  attractors  1958);  1959;  perform  to  be a n  (Ness,  above may f i t q u i t e  teaching,  the r o l e  t o work w i t h Ness,  1958;  1974;  research  1958),  decreases  i s an e x t e n s i v e  include  but  from  of  over  time  list  college  Yager, (Gustad,  growth and s u c c e s s  (Baldwin,  of less  freedom a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e page31  1964).  cited  students  Next,  i s the  1959; Ness,  1979).  1958;  After  frequently cited  for intellectual  these  factors.  s t i m u l a t i o n and  colleagues  (Gustad,  t o o b s e r v e young  1965; S t e c k l e i n &  (Gustad,  that  1958; U.S. DOKEW,  theopportunity  (Brown,  age  t h e added s u g g e s t i o n  for a s s o c i a t i o n with 1958);  have  The most o f t e n  1958; S t e c k l e i n & E c k e r t ,  S t e c k l e i n & Eckert,  professor  S t e c k l e i n & E c k e r t , 1958;  but with  theopportunity  the opportunity  people's  to  Vandermeulen,  & Eckert,  attraction  challenge  (1942)  Of P r o f e s s o r  attractors  Gustad,  DOHEW, 1958;  1958;  by W i l s o n  t h e S c o t t i s h Model o r t h e O x b r i d g e M o d e l .  i s the opportunity  1958);  constant  a number o f p e r c e i v e d b e n e f i t s .  (Brown, 1965;  These  o f work a n d l e s s  perspectives.  A t t r a c t o r s To The R o l e  this  1979).  m o d e l s t h e o r i e n t a t i o n i s towards  slightly  U.S.  found  (Baldwin,  each o f t h e s t u d i e s c i t e d  a c c u r a t e l y under e i t h e r  factor  research  greater  priority.  Interestingly,  In  over  freedom i n the p l a n n i n g  from  important  teaching  the  1959; Riesman,  Eckert, 1959;  V  Stecklein & Eckert, of  students—especially  Stecklein interest the  &  Eckert,  i na specific  availability  U.S.  youth  subject  (Ness,  contribution opportunity  to society  tenure,  1958);  (Eckert  avoidance  (Blau,  and f i n a l l y ,  referred  to  fame  but  a  deep  DOHEW, 1958);  study,  thesalary  (Brown,  (Blau, (Ness,  1958);  the  1958); t h e  1965); t h e c h a n c e t o work  pleasant  1965).  i t does p r o v i d e  1974; G u s t a d ,  1959; Ness,  such as secure  work a n d  p u b l i c esteem  (Brown,  to help  t o i n f l u e n c e , mould a n d i n s p i r e  et a l . ,  motivations,  1942);  exhaustive,  to continue  1974); j o b c o n d i t i o n s  (Wilson,  as  1958; U.S.  encouragement  t o s h a r e knowledge  specialized fields  t o pursue  1979;  ( E c k e r t e t a i . , 1959; Ness, 1958;  usefulness,  counsellor's  s p e c i a l types  (Baldwin,  the opportunity  the opportunity  social  college  students  1958);  (Stecklein & Eckert,  1959);  1942); work w i t h  graduate  of a job offer  DOHEW,1958);  young p e o p l e ,  in  1958; W i l s o n ,  (Wilson,  This  list  some i n i t i a l  surroundings 1942), may  also  n o t be  insights into  the  r e a s o n s why i n d i v i d u a l s m i g h t c h o o s e t o become a p r o f e s s o r . On  a r e l a t e d theme,  identify  specific  detractors  these a r e the f o l l o w i n g : heavy;  t o o many  performed Eckert,  by  a number o f s t u d i e s have a t t e m p t e d to ther o l e of  poor s a l a r y ;  routine duties,  a secretary  1958; U.S.  (Eckert  DOHEW,  teaching  (Stecklein & Eckert,  attitudes  of students  c l a s s load  that  Among i s too  i . e . , d u t i e s which c o u l d et  1958); 1958);  al.,  1959; S t e c k l e i n  t o o many  demands  indifference or  (U.S. DOHEW, 1958); pageS2  professor.  to  be &  outside negative  f e a r o f an i n t e l l e c t u a l  rut  (Ness,  1958);  and  Interestingly,  there  f e a r o f i v o r y tower  detachment  (Ness,  1958) .  the  r o l e and p e r c e p t i o n s  differences of  the  job l a r g e l y favor  each  these At  orientations  may be a t i s s u e .  even  perceived  aspect  the  by  same  time,  teacher  a  Perceptions  while  and r e s e a r c h .  components t o c o e x i s t  professor.  Some o f t h e s e  of detractors.  the teaching  between t h i s , f u n c t i o n  of  among t h e a t t r a c t o r s t o  of the r o l e of professor.  a r e mentioned i n the l i s t  appear s p l i t for  are differences  attractors  I t i s possible  within  conflict  the of  role  theoretical  Whether o r n o t t h i s c o n f l i c t educators  of  is  in  physical  education,  of f a c i l i t a t o r s  than of  attractors.  however, r e m a i n s t o be e x p l o r e d . Facilitators  To The R o l e Of  Professor  T h e r e a r e fewer s t u d i e s The  available findings point  intelligence  (Gustad,  1959;  background  and t h e i m p l i e d  developed  preference  essentially teaching have  instances  previously attributes For  motivations  (Wilson,  for  1979);  intellectually (Gustad,  1975).  identified  middle  1959);  1942);  and  Some o f t h e s e  the  subject area page33  mere  class a and  classroom  facilitators  as a t t r a c t o r s because  dilatory  high  therewith;  stimulating  of a p a r t i c u l a r occupation  instance,  i n a specific  facilitators:  v a l u e system a s s o c i a t e d  (Shultz,  categories.  interest  Wilson,  solitary activities  experience  been  to the following  in  some  may  f i t both  inclinations,  avoidance  offer of  (Eckert  et a l .,  a  j o b , deep 1959;  Ness,  1958;  U.S.  initially  DOHEW, 1958); and a s s o r t e d  lengthy  Additional  and s u b s e q u e n t l y trail  in  covered  cases,  leading  facilitate  this section  w h i c h t h i s and o t h e r The  first  surrounding  exist  institution  of  the a t t r a c t o r s  studied  1975b).  experience  and  acknowledged. finding different doctoral may  be  from,  to  work  and p e r c e p t i o n s that  differences the  1974; G i l l i l a n d ,  i n t h e form o f d i f f e r i n g  factor  majority the  one  (Wilson,  realized  investigation, The  a  from work  relates  S t u d i e s suggest  subsequent r o l e p e r c e p t i o n This  that  detractors  & Trow,  of question  explore.  performance i n r e l a t i o n to  (Fulton  many  facilitators  i s the kind  characteristic  to,  In  type  of  1974; Ladd &  P u t d i f f e r e n t l y , awareness o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t y  background  witnessed,  job  must  not yet  professors.  This  investigations  additional  actual  to  a s t o whether t h e f a c t o r s a r e  r o l e of professor.  in  Lipsett  the m o t i v a t i o n to pursue  a r e f a c t o r s w h i c h have  with s p e c i f i c reference  i t i s unclear  the  role  to the professorship.  to the r o l e or merely d e s c r i p t o r s .  of,  of the  Characteristics  Presented been  f a c t o r s w h i c h might  make an i n d i v i d u a l aware o f t h e e x i s t e n c e  of p r o f e s s o r the  other  by  briefly,  prestige  gains  a t which  1979).  differences  importance  o f f a c u l t y come they  beyond  from  an  have  the  models must  i n light  of  be the  institution  completed  The r a m i f i c a t i o n s  stepping  role  of t h i s  scope  of  their finding this  t o examine a p e r f o r m a n c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c :  of the educator page34  i s primarily  dependent  upon h i s s t u d e n t s , of h i s students. Where  a  professor  professor  looks  selection, logical well  "relatively job  Even  poorly  though  Another  female  of  professors  members,  i s the  points  to  a  1971;  & S t e c k l e i n , 1982).  study,  the  majority  (Sharp,  that  1966).  1980).  male  The p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t , i ti s a  than merely s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f male  older  a t t i t u d e s toward  process  (Jensen,  domination.  of  1982), i s Clearly,  further investigation.  t h e t i m i n g o f t h e d e c i s i o n t o become later  In  of the  (Creager,  finding  t h e r a n k s o f academia,  the m a l e - f e m a l e i s s u e m e r i t s on  1942,1979).  contribute to the underrepresentation  another p o s s i b l e explanation  Data  a r e males  1976; W i l l i e  (Jones & Lovejoy,  rather  This  255).  ( i n p o s i t i o n s o f power) h o l d n e g a t i v e  women who e n t e r  aspire.  new r e c r u i t s a r e  do s o on n o n d e g r e e o r i e n t e d programs  acculturation yet  they  load,  many f e m a l e s p u r s u e g r a d u a t e  women a c a d e m i c s  A  i n d i v i d u a l s would be  on t h e more s u b t l e a s p e c t s "  Ladd & L i p s e t t ,  faculty  a  i n role  satisfaction.  1965; W i l s o n ,  rank and t e a c h i n g  f a c t o r w h i c h might  academics  for  (Brown,  informed  where  must f i g u r e p r o m i n e n t l y  the p o s i t i o n t o which  .salary,  1968;  apparently  of  about  majority  Huffman,  importantly  t h e r e f o r e , m i g h t be t h a t  (Brown, 1965, p . The  194).  f i n d s a n d p e r h a p s more  i s not the case  beyond  1942, p.  i s independent  p e r f o r m a n c e and o c c u p a t i o n a l  assumption,  informed  fact,  (Wilson,  for reinforcement  role  apparently  that of the scholar  decision page35  than  that  of  a  people  professor in  other  professions—beginning al.,  1959;  often  service five  Stecklein & Eckert,  i s n o t made b e f o r e  Ness,  1958;  1958).  graduate school  Stecklein  &  Eckert,  Vandermeulen,  1974;  characterized  i n a number o f ways.  inclinations" deliberate described  as  majority  of  career  nor  function" to teach  1942);  (Gustad,  formally  professor  often  include: by  could  start  "dilatory  accident  1958); In  and  other  for  than a  by  process  words,  "the  the  academic  its  teaching  received  preparation  1964).  i s high—as  measured by t h e r e s p o n s e t o  an  again"  of question  career  decision satisfaction  & Stecklein,  type  the  1982; Y a g e r ,  decision  to  (Ladd  1964).  &  Related  i s the f e e l i n g of success  (1975a) i n 93 p e r c e n t  of t h e i r  Lipsett, to t h i s  found  by  n a t i o n a l sample o f  professors. last  i n this  characteristic  of the background  review i s i n regard  to the parents.  p e o p l e who become p r o f e s s o r s have p a r e n t s schooling  the d e c i s i o n i s  a  Willie  The  1958;  nor had they  with  a l . , 1959;  become  1975a;  university  U.S.  themselves  (Yager,  (Eckert et  DOHEW,  These  1959).  1977),  satisfaction  Ladd & L i p s e t t  and  "more  prepared  a t the c o l l e g e l e v e l  you  (Eckert et  f a c u l t y had n o t c o n s c i o u s l y s e l e c t e d  (Wilkerson,  university  noted  1964),  later  Moreover, t h i s d e c i s i o n  1958;  (Stecklein & Eckert,  "drift"  Overall  "if  Yager,  (Wilson,  design"  to ten years  (Stecklein & Eckert,  1958).  page36  with  of Most  professors commonly,  comparatively  less  IMPLICATIONS The people, of  answers  to  particularly  teacher  available. change  framework  investigations pertinent attractors,  for  this  facilitators  This portrait, a new  and  and why  people  of  emerge i n t h e other  c o l o u r e d by u n i q u e image.  choose  these  not  readily  form  answers.  a  From  variables  portrait  of  characteristics.  from d i v e r g e n t  Although  origins,  incomplete,  here  the s u b j e c t s  1  illustrates  a  compilation  of  is for  attractors.  r e c o g n i t i o n of the e x i s t e n c e of d i f f e r e n t  p e r c e p t i o n s of the  of p r o f e s s o r ,  role,  the  the c l a s s i c  Oxbridge Model,  employed a  a  investigation. Table  as  why  occupations,  theories,  form o f  related  factors  are  t h e most c o m p r e h e n s i v e p i c t u r e y e t a v a i l a b l e o f this  of  professorship  the b a s i s f o r these  and  issue  c h o o s e t o become p r o f e s s o r s  a university  the p u r s u i t  study  the  p h y s i c a l education  select  forming  to  presents  in  T h e o r i e s about how and  surrounding  former t e a c h e r s ,  education  careers  relevant  questions  models o f t h i s  S c o t t i s h Model and  f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n purposes.  fourth category  described  German  already  role  earlier  Model,  These models a r e  of a t t r a c t o r s which are not  In  are  j o i n e d by accounted  for. Table identified. extent  2  i s a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f f a c i l i t a t o r s w h i c h have Presented  simply  as a l i s t ,  these  been  f a c t o r s are  o f what i s c u r r e n t l y known o f t h e p o s s i b l e f a c i l i t a t o r s  the r o l e of p r o f e s s o r of t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n page37  the to  i n p h y s i c a l education.  TABLE 1  POSSIBLE ATTRACTORS TO THE ROLE OF PROFESSOR OF TEACHER EDUCATION IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION  OXBRIDGE MODEL  SCOTTISH MODEL  GERMAN MODEL  Observe young p e o p l e s ' growth and s u c c e s s  Share knowledge  Research  Social usefulness & Help young ^  people  I n f l u e n c e , mould, and I n s p i r e youth Make a c o n t r i b u t i o n to s o c i e t y  Intellectual stimulation and c h a l l e n g e Association with colleagues Freedom and independence to c o n t i n u e study  OTHER A s s o c i a t e with c o l l e g e age students Job  offer  Salary College counselor's encou ragement Secure  Work i n s p e c i a l i z e d fields Esteem Or Fame  tenure; being l a i d o f f  Pleasant Health  surroundings  reasons  Power Probability of attaining outcomes Increased personal Intrinsic  value  time  rewards  Better l o c a l e to l i v e i n P u r s u i t o f person-environment congruency  TABLE 2 POSSIBLE FACILITATORS TO THE ROLE OF PROFESSOR OF TEACHER EDUCATION IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION High  intelligence  Middle class background Middle class values Opportunities not present i n youth I n s t a b i l i t y at work D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with present Frustration with present  position  position  Boredom Forced  relocation  Job o f f e r Perceived ease of leaving present p o s i t i o n Perceived p r o b a b i l i t y of success  elsewhere  Fear of f a i l u r e General l i f e - s t y l e  doubts  Desire to seek a r e d e f i n i t i o n of status Desire to develop new s k i l l s and a t t a i n new job assignments Desire for new experiences Preference f o r e s s e n t i a l l y s o l i t a r y work Classroom teaching experience Dilatory  inclinations  Avoidance motivations Deep interest i n a s p e c i f i c f i e l d Psychologically  regressive o r i e n t a t i o n  page 39  Table  3 represents additional  p r o f e s s o r w h i c h do n o t Investigations illuminate These  such  tables  investigation. foundation  this  way,  as  the p l a c e of  characteristics  a  fit,  Now,  these  a  base  i n the r e a l i t y  education  of  the p r e v i o u s c a t e g o r i e s .  one  may  serve  to  further  elements.  meaningful  the present  into  the p r e s e n t  facilitators for  the  questions  of  additional of  this  can be p o s e d t h a t have  stands  as an  findings.  In  important  step  former-teachers-turned-professors  i n p h y s i c a l education.  page40  and  framework  of p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h  investigation  towards b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t e a c h e r  as y e t ,  of a t t r a c t o r s , form  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r o l e  TABLE 3 ADDITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ROLE OF PROFESSOR OF TEACHER EDUCATION IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION Majority are male Decision to become a professor made l a t e Decision characterized as: Due to d i l a t o r y Accidental Drift  inclinations  Unconscious s e l e c t i o n Personally and formally unprepared to teach More educated than parents Not employed at the i n s t i t u t i o n granting the doctorate  KnD-- J.i"fctle about the r o l e at the time of employment S a t i s f a c t i o n with t h i s career s e l e c t i o n Feelings of success  page 41  CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY  The a  subjects  doctorate  curriculum, school  s e l e c t e d f o r study  degree  and i n v o l v e d  i n s t r u c t i o n and o t h e r  programs i n p h y s i c a l  In  total,  18  to  participate  hence  with courses  Of t h e s e  specified  university  calendars  institutions reputations one  of  centre  were  a letter  members.  Data  through  country  subjects,  and four  their  association  at  local  four  institutions.  types  of schools:  These  and  one A m e r i c a n  one known a s a  teacher  their  school, training  institution.  t h e department  chairperson  o f i n t r o d u c t i o n and a l i s t  Subsequently,  c o l l e c t i o n was  15  two r e f u s e d  i n t h e most r e c e n t l y a v a i l a b l e  an e x p e r i m e n t a l  Where a p p r o p r i a t e , with  left  the  were  identified  i n t e r n a t i o n a l repute,  and l a s t l y  criteria  s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f p r o x i m i t y  as d i f f e r e n t  in  t o be i n t e r v i e w e d .  were i d e n t i f i e d  courses  to leave  This  f e m a l e s and 11 m a l e s , who c o n s e n t e d  with  above  potential subjects,  a n d one was p r e p a r i n g  subjects  courses  r e l a t e d t o pedagogy and  meeting the  was u n a b l e t o be i n v o l v e d .  These  university  holding  education.  subjects  l o c a t e d and c o n t a c t e d .  were f o r m e r t e a c h e r s  permission  of  was  contacted  qualifying  faculty  f o r a p p o i n t m e n t s and  data  obtained.  for this  i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d by page42  means  of  a  structured  interview  literature, factors  After  education  interview  reviewing  specific attractors, facilitators  surrounding the d e c i s i o n  physical  revised  format.  format,  have been these  p r i o r to actual  and o t h e r  important  t o become a t e a c h e r e d u c a t o r i n  identified.  q u e s t i o n s were  data c o l l e c t i o n .  page43  relevant  Organized  then f i e l d  into  tested  an and  CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS  Findings event  in  labels:  this  Public  Role o f P r o f e s s o r . in  the  career  investigation wealth  c h a p t e r a r e p r e s e n t e d under School  Teaching,  These e v e n t s  evolution and  subjects  a coherent  o f i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d on t h e s e  Public  Change,  School  main  and  represent three d i s t i n c t  of the  facilitate  Career  three  selected  phases  for  presentation  The  of  this the  individuals.  Teaching  Background B i o g r a p h i e s The  literature  professors Lipsett, this  a r e males  1976; W i l l i e  school  earlier,  the  females.  separate,  work  at  (Creager,  the m a j o r i t y  1971;  & Stecklein,  study  are  of  university  1968;  Somewhat  Ladd  except  dominant—as  a finding  that  (1959). page44  and  i s surely  t i e d to  Canadian  higher  and  A l l o f t h e 15 s u b j e c t s i n t e r v i e w e d came from  backgrounds,  the  mentioned  i s composed o f 11 m a l e s  American  &  surprisingly,  institution  T h i s g e n d e r dominance d i f f e r e n c e histories  of  Huffman,  1982).  which females  sample f o r t h i s  unique  education. class  that  g e n d e r dominance i s e v i d e n t i n e a c h  American  four  suggests  i s consistent  with  middle  Gustad's  Consistent parents  with  of s u b j e c t s  education—the  S t e c k l e i n and i n this  majority  study  Eckert's  (1959)  had c o m p a r a t i v e l y  neither  graduating  findings,  less  from,  formal  nor  even  attending, u n i v e r s i t y . The public  decision schools  subject  to  become a p h y s i c a l  when o r where t h i s d e c i s i o n  Two  subjects decided  six  s u b j e c t s became c o n v i n c e d six  undergraduate reason named  activity three  when t h e y  program.  more  while  career than  Subjects  high  subjects;  classes,  the again  until  An  school there  in  teaching because  university level.  subjects;  involvement  enjoyment  of  by  subjects.  three  high  Four  took  study  they  were  unaware  of  b e l i e v e d secondary  than younger s t u d e n t s , jobs  at t h i s  level  page4 5  their one were  physical  a t t h e "Y", by  liked  physical following  sports,  peer  model.  of  Six any  of  The  role  their  public  subjects  taught  opportunities  t o work a s s p e c i a l i s t s  subjects  in  school  d i d a l l o r most  at the secondary l e v e l .  graduates  more s k i l l f u l subjects  this  and t h e  factors  enjoyment  and a d e s i r e t o e m u l a t e a t e a c h e r  Subjects  made. school,  students  enrolled  f a c t o r s were m e n t i o n e d , e a c h by two s u b j e c t s : influence,  was  one  g e n e r a l l y c i t e d more t h a n  one s u b j e c t :  and  school  in  only  i n elementary  d e c i s i o n and t h e f o l l o w i n g  g e n e r a l l y , by t h r e e  education  were s t i l l  s u b j e c t s d i d not decide  for this by  teacher  was made f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s and  c o u l d not r e c a l l  remaining  education  at  level  yet s t i l l  the  elementary  students teachable.  f o r the o p p o r t u n i t y  for  to  to  be Two  coach  this  age  time, one  group.  seeking taught  acquire final  One any  subject  job opening.  e q u a l l y at the  experience  subject  Of  at  t o a l a c k o f money a t the  two  e l e m e n t a r y and  at both l e v e l s ,  perceived  elementary l e v e l  admitted  the  secondary  expecting  secondary  that point  remaining  level  subjects, levels  t o move on,  t o be  that  to  and  the  b e t t e r than  the  i n time.  Role O r i e n t a t i o n In held a  response  of answers.  whatsoever. their  some  the p e r c e i v e d  f o r t h e m s e l v e s as p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  variety  job  to a probe of  Six  students,  they  two  admitted  and  facilitate  the  responsibility.  Lastly,  name i n , t h e f i e l d  as  an  one  influence:  to c r e a t e  subject J.F.  t o work a t  respect  a  have  of  the  "astonishment" an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  m e n t i o n e d any  Williams  in  and  the  major concept  through the p h y s i c a l .  obvious consensus appeared  weaknesses  preparation five  recollection  development  need t o l e a r n more as only  had  Preparation No  or  at s k i l l  t o enhance the  t o maximize p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  Role  no  to merely wanting  profession,  of e d u c a t i o n  subjects  I n d i v i d u a l responses i n c l u d e d a d e s i r e to  impact upon t h e p r o f e s s i o n ,  thereby  individuals  teachers,  s u b j e c t s had  s u b j e c t s were a i m i n g and  liked.  O n l y two  goals  of  f o r the  subjects  cited  the job  i n regard  undergraduate  to  either  education  of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  their  methods  page46  preparation  strengths  in  terms  teacher. as  a  of Only  program  strength,  another  acquired  as  a  practice  was  named by  weaknesses theory to  for  adequate  science  appeared  t o be by  When  prepared  one  and  three was  two  not  felt  adequately  others  t o o n l y one  recalled  others  did  Other s t r e n g t h s  what was  from  t h i n k of n o t h i n g  t i m e and  and  of  out  the  student  on  the  by  three  p l a c e was  15  at  teachers  and  i n areas  job,  the  the  an  weaknesses at  least  undergraduate  felt  coaching  subjects  others  they  five  felt  described  acquired  subjects;  their  three was  more  acquisition  teacher  i n the  a teacher  one  had  skill  o f f e r e d by as  better  Generally  their  acquired  experiences, page47  this  Experiences  a c t u a l l y performing Two  that  six cited  was  have  Three s u b j e c t s  teacher.  c i t e d by  mentioned,  interest.  c r e d i t e d with  was  would  them and  of p e r s o n a l  experience. "Y"  that  a teacher.  (as a s t u d e n t ) ,  subjects. their  as  subjects only  teaching  particularly  role  as a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  t h a n one  get  program o r was  missing  were a s k e d when t h e y  skills  the  linked  not  and  no  subject.  t i m e would have h e l p e d  courses  Subjects  through  background.  could  practicum  school  subjects  them f o r t h e i r  individual  and  Four s u b j e c t s  theory  they  between . t h e o r y ' and  i n a d d i t i o n t o r e c t i f y i n g weaknesses a l r e a d y  subjects  their  The  idiosyncratic  self-confidence  a good b a l a n c e  subjects.  weak.  two  only  the  preparation while  describing  program,  more  two  their  component was  identified  subjects defined  s t r e n g t h and  in  practice  four  three  training  community, from  high  subjects; also  named  teaching  skill  s u b j e c t was  self-taught  through stated,  reading  books and  "You're b o r n  Perceived  were  characteristics the  of  the  subjects:  shows  participate,  given,  students  teaching  These  one  divided  and into  empathy and  of  o f knowledge and  breadth  responses  are  perceptions Differences of  an  in of  this  outstanding  teacher. As the  by  four  e a c h by  three  a  desire  for students,  and  to has  E n t h u s i a s m was  mentioned  the concept  too c o m p l i c a t e d  was  divided into  goal perceptions. innate  concern,  by  a two to  study  two  categories:  The  traits  characteristics  and  the  teaching  to i n s t i l l  outstanding  i n both  the  teacher,  instills  concern  of  emerges.  mentioned  learned  a d e s i r e to  expressed  including  The in  kind.  p h y s i c a l education page4 8  remaining  helping  all  participate.  differences  school p h y s i c a l education  d e g r e e and  can  characteristics  ability.  more a c c u r a t e l y g o a l p e r c e p t i o n s  t o improve and  Subjects  education  education  t o improve was  c a n be  enthusiasm,  students  subject  summary.  individuals be  views  picture  ability,  subject f e l t  characteristics  of  their  clear  physical  empathy and  g i v e an a d e q u a t e , b r i e f  further  no  o f knowledge.  and  express  f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s were m e n t i o n e d ,  shows  breadth  traits  one  teach with your p e r s o n a l i t y " .  an o u t s t a n d i n g p h y s i c a l  to help a l l  subjects  to  o f an o u t s t a n d i n g  s u b j e c t s and  good  You  asked  responses  descriptors ability  it.  lastly  Ideals  Subjects  From  with  p e r i o d i c a l s and  Similarly, program  in  their  teachers.  characteristics were  not  seen  uniformly. variety the  The  most p o p u l a r  of e x p e r i e n c e s ,  skill  development  m e n t i o n e d by  the  two  teaches  individuality, fitness cited  and  The  Underlying  concept  of s k i l l  presentation,  the  the a c t i v e skills  and  so  Personal Performance  in  the  role  Consistent being  up  as  school, In  and  for  includes  subjects  merely  Guide. t o an  outstanding  suggestions  example,  variety  lifestyle  i s achieved  upon,  individuality  than  is  the  refers  to a  through of  a  skill  Perceptions found  what t h e y e x p e c t e d  a public school Lortie"s  t h a t time  physical  (1975) s u g g e s t i o n  than  i n the of t h e i r  education of  public  personal  history  p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n , one  subject stated that,  I a l w a y s knew what went  assessing their  " I was  life  teacher.  subject  s c h o o l s y s t e m h e l d " p r e t t y much what I'd  another  so r e a l l y ,  two  by  allows  participate,  lastly,  t h e y were a l l happy a t  t h a t the  with",  to  each  by  on.  more i n f l u e n t i a l  suggested  For  t o draw  generally  with  lifestyle,  above i n r e g a r d  development.  s y s t e m and  Facilitating  mentioned d i r e c t l y  m a j o r i t y , of these  of  Subjects  subjects.  program a r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n d e g r e e more  of s k i l l s , base  school  students  Columbia C u r r i c u l u m  education  variety  active  h e a l t h components and  kind.  strong  an  d i f f e r e n c e s expressed  physical  five  f o l l o w i n g components were named,  motivates  the B r i t i s h  t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a good  f o r a l l s t u d e n t s was  t h r e e s u b j e c t s and subjects:  comment was  grown  n e v e r out  of  on".  p e r f o r m a n c e as p u b l i c page4S .  school  teachers,  two  subjects  accurate two  could  n o t answer b e c a u s e t h e y  way t o measure t h e m s e l v e s .  felt  they  Of t h e r e m a i n i n g  no  subjects,  felt  t h a t t h e y were n o t o u t s t a n d i n g  at a l l ,  believed  t h a t t h e y were n o t c o m f o r t a b l e  t o d e s c r i b e themselves as  outstanding  but  c o u l d agree t o having  average.  Lastly,  five  adjective  outstanding  teaching experience. to  more t h a n  however, Also  subjects f e l t in  mentioned  well  quite comfortable  d e s c r i p t i o n of  by s e v e n s u b j e c t s ) , was  maximun s t u d e n t  s i x others  their  above  with the  public  school  These s u c c e s s f u l t e a c h e r s g e n e r a l l y l o o k e d  feedback  community and p a r e n t s . and  been good t o  one p l a c e f o r s i g n s o f t h e i r  (cited  while  had  from  success—most  common,  was t h e r e s p e c t o f and  respect  P r o m o t i o n s on t h e j o b ,  p a r t i c i p a t i o n were a l s o  of  student  peers.  students, success  cited.  Summary Details in  this  study  orientation, recollections examined.  about  the P u b l i c School  have  been  preparation of  their  Teaching  outlined.  Their  f o r teaching, performance  in  t o works r e v i e w e d  broad  range  earlier.  of i n d i v i d u a l i t y ,  background,  views of the i d e a l this  When a p p r o p r i a t e , f i n d i n g s from t h i s  linked  phase f o r s u b j e c t s  In general,  r o l e " have  role and been  investigation are findings reflect  quite consistent  with  a  previous  works. Now Career  t h e f o c u s moves t o t h e p h a s e i d e n t i f i e d  Change. page50  f o r subjects:  Career  The  decision  investigation, decisions. school  to  can  First  change  be  f o r subjects  by two s e p a r a t e  i s the d e c i s i o n to leave  here  in  but  teaching  this  related  i n the p u b l i c  i s the d e c i s i o n t o pursue a p o s i t i o n as a  professor.  presentation  careers,  identified  s y s t e m and n e x t  university  Change  The o r d e r i n g o f t h e s e is  organizational  two d e c i s i o n s  and  not  for  necessarily  chronological. Leaving  P u b l i c School  The was  d e c i s i o n to leave  made  by  program. during  Teaching  four subjects while  The or  teaching  remaining  shortly after  at the p u b l i c  still  in  their  their  education.  master's degree  i n terms o f l e n g t h o f  nine with  f i v e years  o r l e s s and s i x s u b j e c t s w i t h  The leave  most  was  unsolicited  is  most  both  at  explanations  p u b l i c school of the o f f e r  by s e v e n o f t h e s e  closely  from  the  the r e s u l t  was  "drift-out"  i n the p u b l i c school  teaching  represented  category within  i n Thomas'  i n which there  and  for this  eight  from  the  decision page5I  The  more t h a n  five  system.  level,  made  given  by  of a job--an o f f e r subjects.  to  eight which  This  pattern  (I960) t y p o l o g y  as the  i s low p r e s s u r e  environment. were  either  experience,  common r e s p o n s e t o why t h e d e c i s i o n was  teaching  subjects,  undergraduate  decision  were s p l i t  of experience  level  1 1 s u b j e c t s made t h i s  subjects  years  school  cited  The less  to  change  remaining frequently.  Three  subjects  sought  two  subjects simply  the  public  with  school  greater  profession.  university  was  could not f i n d  social  of career advisor  at this  reported  i n another j o b ,  any a p p r o p r i a t e  positions  s y s t e m and one s u b j e c t was a f t e r impact  Hiestand  i n t h e study  teaching  i n c r e a s e d mental c h a l l e n g e  and  greater  impact  (1971) f o u n d s i m i l a r changers.  was  level  cited  by  position  upon  the  a t t r a c t o r s t o change  L a s t l y , t h e encouragement o f a as  an  explanation  by one s u b j e c t .  earlier  a  in  Ness  (1958)  for  leaving  Such i n f l u e n t i a l in  work  on  advice  university  professors. For for for  the subjects  i n this  leaving p u b l i c school change c i t e d  these  earlier,  subjects  dissatisfied  investigation,  teaching  are contrary  1980;  Sarason,  1977).  rather  than being  frustrated  As m e n t i o n e d , rather  than  Further,  they  had e x p e c t e d and  cited  facilitators  were happy and g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f i e d  (Kahnweiler,  system  to  i n s t u d i e s on t e a c h e r s .  were g e n e r a l l y s u c c e s s f u l a n d f o u n d what t h e y school  the reasons  bored  i n the (Beam,  1981). Pursuit  o f The P r o f e s s o r a t e  The of cases,  d e c i s i o n t o become a p r o f e s s o r was made, i n t h e m a j o r i t y either during  or s h o r t l y a f t e r  completing  the master's  degree.  F o u r s u b j e c t s d i d n o t make t h e d e c i s i o n u n t i l  they  were  involved  i n their  and two s u b j e c t s  made  the  after  temporary  decision  to  appointments  d o c t o r a l program,  become at  a  professor  holding  the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l — o r i g i n a l l y page52  expecting  to  return  to  subject  the  had  public  the role  undergraduate—the of  only subject  f o r subjects  Yager,  i n t h i s study  i nthis  closely  become a p r o f e s s o r .  selection  of t h i s role.  mere o f f e r  of a job,  finding  the U.S.  cited  aspiration need  given  an  theory  with  other  1959; Ness, 1958; V a n d e r m e u l e n , 1974;  to  leaving  motives f o r  choosing for the  The most p r o m i n e n t e x p l a n a t i o n i nthis  the work o f Ness  was t h e study.  (1958) a n d a l s o  L e s s f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d was t h e a d v i c e (1958)—given  impact o n s t u d e n t s with  by two  from h a v i n g  subjects  something  the f i n d i n g s of S t e c k l e i n &  by two s u b j e c t s . One  The r e m a i n i n g subject  j o b s e c u r i t y and s t a b i l i t y  Also  Eckert  explanations  admitted  alternative.  to  to  blocked  c i t e d was t h e  associated  with  a  a s w e l l a s upward m o b i l i t y - - f i n d i n g s m e n t i o n e d by  (1942).  intellectual  for  A number o f r e a s o n s were c i t e d  another career  f o r money,  reasons c i t e d  r e l a t e d to their  ^individually.  professorship, Wilson  study,  f o u n d by Ness  them—consistent  (1958)—also were  still  (1951)  was c o n s i s t e n t  the s t o r y o f seven s u b j e c t s  DOHEW (1958).  the perceived  offer  while  thetiming of this  (Eckert e t a l . ,  i s consistent with  of a p r o f e s s o r — a l s o and  Otherwise,  1958; U.S. DOHEW, 1958;  thesubjects  t e a c h i n g were v e r y  This  targeted  one  1964).  For  to  Lastly,  to f i t Ginzberg's  choice.  work on u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s Stecklein & Eckert,  system.  of professor  timing of occupational  decision  school  An  challenge  interest  i n the profession  o f work a t the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l page53  and  the  were a l s o  mentioned, (1958) and role the  of  reasons supported t h e U.S.  by  Ness  DOHEW (1958).  t h e p r o f e s s o r was  (1958),  L a s t l y , the p r e s t i g e of  Pursuit  by W i l s o n  o f The  over  university  level.  doctorate  after  number their  decision  In f a c t , having  to  this  appeared  pursue  to  a  explanations  Brown  one  the  during  Four  was  were f o l l o w e d  job options,  encouragement  of  given  a spouse,  m e n t i o n e d by  three  subjects,  were  comments  necessary  to perform  the  expressed  by  three  to pursue  t o why  to the  a  to  by  the  subjects to  held  the  advance  and  Equally  four  important  subjects.  expectation  subjects,  subjects  and  the  A l s o m e n t i o n e d , by effect  job adequately, page54  that  the  a love  These  of a  and  advisor, individual  doctorate for  wider  advice  p e e r s and/or a u n i v e r s i t y  subjects.  for  the  or s h o r t l y a f t e r  necessary  c l o s e l y by  the  decision prior  s e c u r i t y at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . f o r knowledge,  at  student.  degree.  doctorate  little  university  s u b j e c t made the school  have  position  held a position in a  doctoral  that  job  by  investigation,  seven s u b j e c t s decided  Another seven decided  the  a thirst  range of  doctorate  in  r e s p o n s e s a p p e a r e d most f r e q u e n t l y as  pursue  maintain  again  the  subjects  u n i v e r s i t y , as a h i g h  perception  was  the  m a s t e r ' s d e g r e e and  Four did  with  the  of y e a r s .  attending  finding described  to  Doctorate  surrounding  influence  the  (1942).  Interestingly, decisions  Eckert  m e n t i o n e d as a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r  d e c i s i o n t o become a p r o f e s s o r — a  (1965) and  Stecklein &  was  university  life,  t o become a change a g e n t  i n s o c i e t y and  to p a r t i c i p a t e  in  research. The the  most common r e a s o n  doctorate  offered  by  work w i t h of  was  nine  money and  c o m p l e t e d was  subjects.  specific  applied  professors  selection  of  the  to  of a d o c t o r a t e  three  hold  the  suggested Gustad  EdD  Consistent  study  only.  Eleven  works  at  report  a  generally high  of h i g h  Wilson  desire  to  availability  Eleven  of  the  addition  to  the  i n terms o f  the  while  DEd. grades i n  finding  both  their  consistent with  intelligence,  the  m e n t i o n e d by  both  (1979). (1979) f i n d i n g s ,  their  of c u r r e n t the  In  which  program;  s u b j e c t s h o l d PhD's  subject holds  with Wilson's  place  school.  at  the  the  s u b j e c t s showed a t r e n d  members o b t a i n e d  than t h e i r  r e p u t a t i o n of  the  d o c t o r a l , degree w o r k — a  (1959) and  faculty  of  school  one  facilitator  institution  (three s u b j e c t s ) ,  acquired.  and  subjects  m a s t e r ' s and  one  school,  type  the  the  O t h e r r e a s o n s c i t e d were t h e  t h e mere p r o x i m i t y  subjects  All  f o r choosing  doctorate  employment.  same i n s t i t u t i o n  at  the m a j o r i t y  institutions  O n l y one  as where t h e  subject  of  other in  doctorate  this was  obtained. F e e l i n g s About All they public  of  are  the  D e c i s i o n To subjects  generally  school  university  The  level.  in this  pleased  s y s t e m and This  Change  with  satisfied  investigation their  decision  in their  s a t i s f a c t i o n with page55  suggested to  leave  p o s i t i o n now  the  at  that the the  d e c i s i o n t o become  a university professor earlier  was  (Ladd & L i p s e t t ,  1964).  Beyond  s u p p o r t e d by 1975a; W i l l i e  this  overall  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were added. with  the  earlier the  comparatively  by  U.S.  Eckert  low  & S t e c k l e i n , 1982;  satisfaction, subject  pay  studies  a  suggested  associated with  s h o r t c o m i n g s i n the between  decision-makers with  Another subject  performance of personal respect  the  perceptions  the  of  role—noted  as w e l l and  Yager,  dissatisfaction  (1958),  commented on  job,  cited  number  e t a l . , (1959), S t e c k l e i n & E c k e r t ,  DOHEW (1958).  congruence  One  a number o f  personal  as  the  and  a lack  opinions  of of  to a job d e s c r i p t i o n .  Summary Factors "presented public  around  the  schools,  to  doctoral overall  degree.  this  first  inferred  b o r e d and regard  to  separate  but  pursue the  finding  the  with  their  i s that,  of  to  classic  this  to  t h e n j o i n e d by  the  obtain  v i e w s on  the  career  contrary  to  what  a the  p o s i t i o n rather  f i n d i n g t o be  d e c i s i o n to theory later  of  become  than  a  being is in  professor.  occupational age  be  generally  commented on  than t h e i r  q u i t e p r e d i c t a b l e from p r e v i o u s work on page56  arise.  might  s u b j e c t s were happy and  A second  timing  choosing  leave  f i n d i n g s worthy of note  public school  a  and  to  have been  careers.  literature,  frustrated. the  related decisions professorate,  s e c t i o n a number o f  contrary  subjects  d e c i s i o n t o change c a r e e r s  These d e c i s i o n s are  such  from  satisfied  While  the  d e c i s i o n t o change  In The  surrounding  choice,  cohort  university professors.  is  The the  last  pursuit  influence  the  the  level  decision  f o r many o f  i s doubtless  current  a n d / o r be  an  now  Pre-Doctoral Prior  shifts the  a  to the  r o l e of  of  position  in this  at  the  study.  first  This with teach  Scottish  was  perceptions the  R o l e Of  this  Professor  who  subjects  as  t o what  the  also carried  on  t h i s p e r c e p t i o n might  models.  Three s u b j e c t s  with  another  some t e a c h i n g  three  as a t e a c h e r .  a t a l l as  a d o c t o r a l program, role  most p r o m i n e n t p e r c e p t i o n was  a researcher  exclusively  in  professor.  a teacher  seven s u b j e c t s , or  t a r g e t phase f o r s u b j e c t s  opinions  . The  (the German Model) and  Of  subjects  involvement with  number  was  professor  one  a  Perceptions  entailed.  professor  Oxbridge  Role t o any  expressed  by  the  pursue  little  t h e need f o r a d o c t o r a l d e g r e e t o  The  Cited  to  of  a g e - r e l a t e d phenomenon p a r t i c u l a r l y  e m p h a s i s on  namely:  professor  T h i s d e g r e e was  to  employed a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l .  Focus study;  of a d o c t o r a l degree.  over  university finding  f i n d i n g worthy of expansion here i s i n r e g a r d  fit  Lastly,  holding opinions  two  of  the  that  the  research.  either  the  that  the  felt  responsibilities  s u b j e c t s viewed the  t o what a p r o f e s s o r  pageST  some  subjects  subjects  role  as  held  no  did. as  to  what  should  be  involved  i n the r o l e ,  should  be  should  come  different  and  two  research.  schools with are  while  others  first  priority  in  one  priorities,  c e n t r e d and  for faculty  the  fact,  perceptions  of  identified  suggesting  t h a t some  comes  research  o r s h o u l d be.  was  no  p e r c e p t i o n s d i d change,  l i t t l e i f any  professor.  For  identified  Of  the remaining  three attached  the  u n e v e n l y among f a c u l t y  one  five  their  g r e a t e r importance  h i g h l i g h t e d the  s u b j e c t s had  had  changed.  the  whose to  the  significance the be  last shared  Perceptions  in their on  e s t i m a t i o n of the  their  role  o r gender t r e n d s a p p a r e n t ,  perceptions  the  members.  S u b j e c t s were s p l i t experience  of  subjects  b u r d e n o f committee work to  P e r f o r m a n c e Impact on R o l e  institutional  the  impact  10  t h e p r o f e s s o r as a r o l e model i n human r e l a t i o n s and  job  is  change i n p e r c e p t i o n s o f e i t h e r what  r e s e a r c h component o f t h e r o l e ,  actual  first  members.  the r o l e of  role  Role  teaching  subject  student  programs a p p a r e n t l y had  there  subject  they  Perceptions  subjects,  of  that,  emphasize knowledge c r e a t i o n and  doctoral  was  t h a t t h i n g s were as  Lastly,  different  student  Post-Doctoral Role  upon  subjects believed  before  institutions  The  ten subjects f e l t  not Of  changed w i t h  those page5S  impact  perceptions.  of  the  With  no  eight subjects f e l t experience  and  that seven  changed, t h r e e s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d  greater  e m p h a s i s on  present that two  teaching  they  d i d more t e a c h i n g  subjects  complained  and  changed  perceptions,  institution  to  perceptual In  felt  write papers. six  an e d u c a t o r their  their  departments  Of  these  i n the  field  seven  their one  to  subjects  subject  be  lastly,  pressure  change  be  commented  and  university  attributed  responsibilities Of  the  had  remaining  only  as a  to with  to  the  suggested  responsible  for  changed s i n c e they  educator,  Three other  such  subjects  from g e n e r a l i s t s t o s p e c i a l i s t s felt  the  E v a l u a t i o n of  to  11,  i n s t i t u t i o n had  had  as  chairing  felt  they  had  and  the  one  itself  from  redefined  institution.  Preparation  f o r the main s t r e n g t h o f the  subjects  positions  i n s t i t u t i o n to a teaching  respect  not  three  the  through h o l d i n g d i f f e r e n t  a research  When a s k e d  teachers,  of  perceived  subject  Retrospective  responsibilities  eight subjects  teacher  committees.  transformed  the  of p h y s i c a l education  role and  about  remaining  in  subjects  to  changes.  changed r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  been  Two  were employed and  explosion  become p r o f e s s o r s .  beyond  job.  increased  response to a q u e s t i o n  that  responsibilities  t h a n t h e y wanted t o do  of  at which they  knowledge  j o b as  related  i n the performance of t h e i r  research  the  and  current  page59  position  their held,  graduate  training  seven  subjects  identified research  the a c q u i s i t i o n skills,  of s k i l l s  individuals'  o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e i r program, the  in  thinkers.  Education  one  their  suggested  identifying  were  subjects their  professors,  completed  11 s u b j e c t s h o l d PhD doctorate  weaknesses  t o become doctorates  degrees,  training  educator,,  in  stated that  clarification  only  held  having  been  rather  otherwise  was  identified  graduate  no done  this  two c o u l d  good program,  to  only  Three  not r e l a t e d  be  of the  identify  suggested  education.  d o c t o r a l t r a i n i n g was  t h a n a weakness  programs,  Five subjects  doctoral  position—suggesting  subjects,  an  their  their  forgiving.  no weaknesses i n t h e i r  current  remaining  administrative  program and t h e s k i l l s  the  Beyond  area.  s u b j e c t s were g e n e r a l l y v e r y there  the  four subjects  that  research.  a s s o c i a t i o n with  f o r the p o s i t i o n of teacher  another In  While only  and t h e r e m a i n i n g  subject  strengths in  identified  d i v e r s e background of t h e i r  better  to perform  a  point  of  Of  the  program. specific  courses  n o t enough d e p t h i n t h e c o u r s e  by two o t h e r  subjects while  complained of inadequate p r e p a r a t i o n s  y e t two more  for research  to  in  work  subjects  and p u b l i s h i n g  duties. More physical missing made  courses education components  and were  in  identified  in their  them b e t t e r t e a c h e r  remaining  emphasis  pedagogy by n i n e  doctoral education  educators  i n physical  s i x subjects held different page  50  and  methods  subjects that  as  would  education.  perceptions.  One  in the have The  subject  felt  that  graduate  more  than  education  formed.  Three  one a d v i s o r s h o u l d  subjects  agreed  t o w r i t e and p u b l i s h  stated  n o t h i n g was m i s s i n g  which  train  fact,  for r o l e s — i t  S p e c i f i c Role  student  involved  there  papers.  with  supervision. 10  education  teachers.  t h e ever  The  was  another  Of t h e s e  specialized  graduate  education  in  their  that a l l f a c u l t y  teacher  role not  to  see  subjects,  who f e l t  supervise not  duties.  eight f e l t  that  i n the  that student  i n w h i c h i t was students  school  teaching  valuable  perform.  The  for five  t h a t a l l f a c u l t y members s h o u l d n o t  student  a l l faculty  should  f o r p r o f e s s o r s t o keep  subjects f e l t  their  members  education  p i c t u r e of r e a l i t y  learning setting  subjects,  believing  changing  two r e m a i n i n g  members  necessarily  two s u b j e c t s  With regard t o the s u p e r v i s i o n  subjects f e l t  physical  system.  remaining  more  t r a i n s one t o t h i n k " .  teachers,  touch with  faculty  Lastly,  be  " t h e d o c t o r a t e does  t h i s was one o f t h e b e s t methods a v a i l a b l e  just  attitudes  should  them t o p e r f o r m  subject stated that  teacher  supervise student  in  over  i n the  Component P e r c e p t i o n s  Student of  one  that  from t h e i r  might have b e t t e r p r e p a r e d  now—in  involved  for a less biased influence  opportunities that  be  teachers,  members t o be  Faculty  members  a l l felt  this  way  qualified  for  such  were  generally  evenly  d i s p e r s e d among t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  except  f o r those  a t the school  designated with a teacher  focus.  At t h i s  institution,  training  page 61  five  of the s i x p r o f e s s o r s  members s h o u l d Teaching a  supervise  teaching  levels,  five  student  experience.  p h y s i c a l education  prior  interviewed,  b e l i e v e d that a l l f a c u l t y  teachers.  In response to a question  teacher  experience  education  faculty  the  hedged  subjects said  that  demands o f t h e r o l e  somewhat,  previous  they  would n o t .  teaching. teaching due  to  faculty those  The  they  Role  however,  teaching,  subjects  ranked teaching  personal  perspective—a  study,  nine  would  look not  for  lack  of  member  education  consensus  i n methods c o u r s e s  Faced  with  coaching,  the  research,  that should  following  t o be t h e most i m p o r t a n t finding  consistent with  subjects perceived  teaching  as t i e d w i t h  t h e r o l e o f c o a c h and one  perspective  Rog  own  (1979).  In  as prime;  four  one s u b j e c t subject  viewed viewed  role descriptors.  of the page  from t h e i r  alone  teaching  and s e r v i c e a s p r e m i e r  role  and s e r v i c e , a l l  as e q u a l l y important;  the  some  necessarily  faculty  general  saw r e s e a r c h  From  subjects for  teacher  subjects  teaching  given  experience.  description.  descriptors:  Three  a potential  f a c u l t y members i n v o l v e d d i r e c t l y teaching  secondary  subjects stated that a  would n o t b l o c k  T h e r e was,  without  and be o u t o f t o u c h  children—though  remaining  hiring  The r e a s o n  teacher.  v a r i e t y of r o l e s a v a i l a b l e  members.  have p r e v i o u s  this  that  with  four  experience the  of the  suggesting  experience  member,  a t e i t h e r the elementary or  was t h a t s u c h a p e r s o n would l a c k c r e d i b i l i t y with  about  62  university,  eight  subjects  believe Five  that research  subjects  first  and  and  the  with  values  teaching  coaching  subjects  that  these  while  two  importance. to  teaching  other  subjects  see  both  emphasized e q u a l l y .  In a l l  but  one  behind  the v a r i a t i o n s of  teaching  and  a d i s t a n t f o u r t h i f i t even made i t on  they  ranked  perceived  subjects 12  remaining  perceptions  was  anything  of  their  about  education,  their from  remaining  role  of  subjects,  than they  breadth,  p r e f e r r i n g t o be  do  to  When faculty  t o r"ank them.  Each  different  institution.  The  members  perceptions  of  a t odds w i t h  the  employment.  teacher  two  opportunity  educator  would  three  to  in  change  physical  to  prefer  do  s e e k more d e p t h and  i n v o l v e d i n fewer t h i n g s ,  fewer c l a s s e s and  offering  asked  same  institution  presently,  p r e f e r more o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o h e l p  S v a l u a t i o n of Role  the  s u b j e c t s would change a b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g .  seven  teach  descriptors with  I n r e s p o n s e t o the  research  t h r o u g h the  role  a  institution  the  eight  would r a t h e r  these  subjects held personal  Role s a t i s f a c t i o n .  the  d e g r e e of  scale. Three  of  second,  s e r v i c e ranked t h i r d  research,  highest  t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y ' s emphasis g o i n g  research  research case,  see  r e c e i v e s the  finally,  p u b l i c school  one  one  Of more less  subject  subject  would  teachers—perhaps  o f more i n - s e r v i c e o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  Performance to i d e n t i f y from'  the  institutional same  page  measures o f  institution 6 3  were  in  success, general  agreement. research  The second  institution and  American  service  and  p u b l i s h i n g from  were felt  measuring years  remaining finding  their  14  main  might  measures Only  former  their  o r knowledge  exist  by  the  as  t o how  identified sources  course of t h e i r  these peers  i n the  the  field  and  of  their  success—Wilson  requests  Lastly,  of  success,  however,  one  of  subjects  the  15  based  students  as  upon  the  teachers  five  that these and  generally  themselves  work  of  this  Ladd  success  e v a l u a t i o n s and feelings  of  form  as  did  &  Lipsett  is  (1975a).  measured.  student  Two  Nine  feedback  success—Wilson subjects  as  (1942) cited  o f r e c o g n i t i o n of work done papers  at conferences  subjects cited success page  The  successful—a  (1942) m i g h t c l a s s i f y t h e s e  as s i g n s o f t h e i r  former  'learned' at the u n i v e r s i t y .  to present  three  teaching research  s u b j e c t s as e d u c a t o r s .  from  institution  looking for  predecessors  perceived  feedback  feedback  and  equally,  rewarding  T h i s p e r c e p t i o n was  b e t t e r than  subjects  identify  scholars.  faculty,  training  and  experimental  c a r e e r — t h e suggestion being  supported  Differences subjects  the  o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of  into  teacher  first,  faculty.'  personal  unsuccessful.  employ s k i l l s  the  the S c i e n c e  teaching  research f i r s t  somewhat d i f f e r e n t .  s t u d e n t s d i d no not  Lastly,  The  i n the E d u c a t i o n department  identifying  tested  and  interdisciplinary  and  results  third.  teaching  i s third.  w i t h an  In  service  weighs  service  operates  and  i n s t i t u t i o n rewards  64  both  signs  s u b j e c t s as  student  i n the performance  as  in  and of  peer their  job—these  s u b j e c t s , as d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r  by Lawson  (1981) f i l l  a  difficult  b o u n d a r y p o s i t i o n between t h e s c h o l a r and t h e e d u c a t o r .  None  the  of  subjects f o r this  responsibilities  as  breeding  investigation any  undue  identified  stress,  these  strain  or  conflict.  Perceived When educator was  Ideals asked  f o r the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  i n physical  mentioned  by  12 s u b j e c t s .  obvious,  mentioned  expected  at  beyond  by  least  was  not  nine  A  school teaching doctoral  s u b j e c t s and  a master's d e g r e e — o n e  the master's  subject  education, public  of a s u c c e s s f u l  (perhaps  fully  a second  convinced  experience  degree  two  teacher  was  other  subjects  looking f o r a  master's),  o f t h e need  less  degree  and t h e  other  for a  doctoral  t h e q u a l i t i e s o f an o u t s t a n d i n g  physical  degree. When a s k e d  to l i s t  education teacher educator, lack  of  physical  i n attempts  education teacher  identify degree  consensus noted  the i d e a l  a number o f f a c t o r s were named.  i s also  teacher  and k i n d o f f a c t o r s  mentioned research  by n i n e s u b j e c t s ; skills  to i d e n t i f y  characteristic  educator. identified.  of attempts  Subject  by  to  i n both  knowledge  was  by e i g h t s u b j e c t s ;  five  phrase  " p r a c t i c e what y o u p r e a c h " ,  three  s u b j e c t s and t h e f o l l o w i n g were m e n t i o n e d page 55  outstanding  Differences exist  teaching a b i l i t y  and p u b l i s h i n g a b i l i t y  an  The  subjects;  by f o u r s u b j e c t s ; ,  the  empathy by  each  by  two  subjects:  leadership, rapport with  students, desire  general enthusiasm,  to  factors  help  a l l students  were ~ a l s o m e n t i o n e d ,  students,  being  patience,  having  t o improve.  A  but  by  demanding o f  ideals,  number  o n l y one  and  of  subject  the  other  in  each  case. The  first  ) ability,  research  specialized general  factors  skills  and  t a l e n t s named.  as  remaining  identified,  to  still  qualities  s u b j e c t knowledge,  publishing ability  In each case,  allow a  great  are  the  these q u a l i t i e s  deal  named a r e g e n e r a l  teaching  of  traits  only are  diversity. which  so The  describe  a  very w e l l rounded p e r s o n a l i t y . Descriptions physical  education  components  o f an o u t s t a n d i n g  teacher  a l s o showed a low  d e g r e e o f agreement  belonged.  subjects;  Methods c o u r s e  the o f f e r i n g  o f t h e o r y and  a s t r o n g s c i e n c e base,  a l s o by  components were m e n t i o n e d , foundations, ability skills  to  sequential, be  This  and  diversity  cites  results  from  which  work was  linked  two  practice  teaching  programs  in  (p.  disciplinary  o r d e r i n g of t a s k s ,  o f v i e w s i s not  only  five  teach  year—through  the the  manage.  of a study the  what  the f o l l o w i n g  subjects:  first  in  three subjects;  t h r e e s u b j e c t s ; and  e a c h by  program i n  m e n t i o n e d by  p r a c t i c e by  department head i n the  to o r g a n i z e  education  o f 230 course 185).  unexpected.  Alley  (1982)  departments of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n required in Consequently,  e x i s t e n c e a p p e a r s t o be page 6 6  all  departments  the  reflective  of  diversity the  was of  equally  diverse  faculty  opinions.  Summary  This  chapter  highlights  the  existence  dominant t r e n d s i n t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s professors.  Within  of d i f f e r e n t  motives  Beginning  with  investigation education  was  than  of  t h e s e common t r e n d s , and  of  a  number  of  former-teachers-turnedhowever, l i e the  roots  each of the s u b j e c t s i n  this  backgrounds.  biographies, raised  by p a r e n t s  themselves,  in  with  an  comparatively  essentially  less  middle  class  background. The either  decision in  the e a r l y  on  variety  sport  and  skillful  a physical  education  teacher  h i g h s c h o o l or at the u n i v e r s i t y — j u s t  during a  t o be  twenties  (years of age).  of reasons  physical secondary  surrounding  activiey. level  The  students,  The  success  g o a l was  was  prior  made to  d e c i s i o n was and  based  enjoyment  to teach  g e n e r a l l y aiming  or  the  in more  at  skill  happy  time.  development. Teaching The  was  undergraduate  weaknesses. links  Some  between t h i s  hazy.  Skills  ranging  from  l a r g e l y what was program methods  had and  e d u c a t i o n and  expected few  and  notable  some t h e o r y was  strengths useful  but  or the  t e a c h i n g were  sometimes  as a t e a c h e r were a c q u i r e d i n a v a r i e t y  of p l a c e s ,  experiences  actual  a  as a h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t page 6 7  to c o a c h i n g  and  community  instructor  j o b s as w e l l as t h e a c t u a l t e a c h e r  training  program. While peer  g e n e r a l l y a good t e a c h e r  feedback,  education does  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  teacher  appear  development  are  to  not  be  i n students  at  a  level.  a result  As  keep  j o b was  teacher  many r e a l i z e d j o b and  took  at best  f o r d o c t o r a l work was  their  thirst  r e p u t a t i o n o f i t s program. their  satisfied  teacher  to was  who  now  enrolling  skill  outstanding  Either  during  n o t i c e was  of  teaching  or  shortly  taken  faculties at  of and  the  these shortly  university  the m a j o r i t y of s u b j e c t s up  positions in a  university.  Others  f o r knowledge.  left  least  pursued  The  to the  institution  s e l e c t e d i n most c a s e s  because of  I n d i v i d u a l s are g e n e r a l l y pleased system  and  are  as u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s . i n t h e d o c t o r a l program,  p e r c e i v e d t o be also  There  that  i n an  d e c i s i o n to l e a v e the p u b l i c s c h o o l  Prior professor  belief  f i v e years  t o be promoted.  selected  relatively  the  to  physical  upon.  t h e need f o r a d o c t o r a l d e g r e e — a t  to s a t i s f y  with  agreed  education  of t h i s o f f e r ,  doctorate  the  outstanding  offered for a position  p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m and  the  level.  a master's degree,  thereafter  according  program.  the secondary  -acquiring  Here,  in  level,  i s t h e major component  i n d i v i d u a l s by u n i v e r s i t y  the  unanimously  i n d i v i d u a l s have a p p r o x i m a t e l y  experience after  o f an  consensus  school p h y s i c a l education These  at t h i s  a c t u a l l y and  researched. page  The 63  the  ideally,  doctoral  role one  education  of  of a did  virtually  nothing  perceptions  might e x i s t  institutions It  of  their  goal  by  not  This s k i l l the  skills  as  viewed  investigation. further  i n the  attainment  role  are  understood universities  an  integral  i n the  and  by  the  by  role  a r e measured by  perceptions. and  taken—in  faculty. to the  but  most of  T h i s peer  in  are  feedback  variations  evaluations  also the  of for  the u n i v e r s i t y  or  form o f  and  among teaching  and  contributes  comments on p u b l i c a t i o n s , g e n e r a l l y . 59  part  i n the p e r f o r m a n c e o f  feedback takes  page  teaching  in physical  emphasis upon r e s e a r c h  course  of  Criteria  education  o u t l i n e d by  this  worthy  were n o t  cases.  There  r e s p o n s e s on Peer  research  elicited  these  of  however,  and  question  teacher  l a r g e f e e l i n g s of success  feedback.  practice,  not  a  evaluation  potential u t i l i t y  own  was  of  journal  emphasis i n pedagogy and  of p r o f e s s o r  i n regard  The  a  skills  achievement refereed  interesting  generally clearly  but  lecture  lies  of d o c t o r a t e  education  student  subjects,  recognize  a c q u i s i t i o n of  p r e c i s e r o l e of r e s e a r c h  Lastly, greater  i n the  individual  of  their  might have been b e n e f i c i a l ,  type  success  by  Here  study.  methods  The  professors  i s u s e f u l i n the  i n informing  mentioned.  skills,  the  graduate education  These p u b l i c a t i o n s a r e  research  Some v a r i a t i o n s o f  reward s t r u c t u r e of  the u n i v e r s i t y of job performance.  these was  to the  to note that these  i.e.,  publications.  perceptions.  employment.  researching.  work  these  due  i s informative  s t r e n g t h of for  to a l t e r  this  general to  self-  invitations  to  Only  one  subject  in  this  investigation  performance of former-students-as-teachers success  of  teacher  educators  a p r o f e s s o r of teacher education.  S c o t t i s h Model, is  clearly  in  secondary Less  as  concept  and  in  toward  accurately,  the  this  work,  this  For  This  for  guage  Subject  preparedness,  sample  are German  of t h i s  motivations,  clarity  fit  with  is  Model.  a  primary  Perhaps  under  or a t t r a c t o r s ,  and  matter  Oxbridge  Model.  study  mastery  more w i t h  subject  those  the  the  most "Other  stem from  a  job under  model.  state  student  t e a c h i n g i s v i e w e d as a s k i l l .  t h a t i t s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n  by  those  r o l e of p r o f e s s o r of teacher e d u c a t i o n , touch  better  those  have done i t  The subject ability.  qualities knowledge,  who  qualified  such  w i t h what t r u l y happens i n the  specifically,  and  the  a number o f o t h e r a t t r a c t o r s p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d  Supervising  in  a measure o f  others, concerned  t h e emphasis on  research—the  subjects  Primary and  here.  (1974).  f a l l s more a c c u r a t e l y under t h e  orientation  Model".  Light  on p r e s e n t a t i o n ,  course  prevalent  offer  i d e n t i f i e d by  feedback  fairness  the  i s t h e mark o f a p r o f e s s o r o p e r a t i n g under  t h e key  immediate  t o be  identified  to f i l l  t h a t t h e y might  school  a s p i r e to t e a c h  Subjects  "how  system.  to"  the stay More  courses  had  themselves.  o f an  outstanding teacher  teaching a b i l i t y  Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s are seen  and  educator  r e s e a r c h and  as p r e v i o u s t e a c h i n g  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e - - p r o b a b ! y a d o c t o r a t e . page  70  a r e seen  as  publishing experience  Opinions  vary  as  to  the t r a i t s  differences that as  i t currently this  additional be  program.  notwithstanding,  education  point,  selected  teacher  These  subjects  educator  attractors,  characteristics previously as  acutal  feel  is  fine  facilitators  and  characteristics  education.  i d e n t i f i e d as p o s s i b l e  attractors,  i n r e l a t i o n to  former-teachers-turned-professors physical  education  exists.  presented  additional  teacher  i n o p i n i o n s of i d e a l s ,  the r o l e of the p h y s i c a l  At  not  o f an o u t s t a n d i n g  These l i s t s  page  of  facilitators the  71  and  recruitment  of  education  in  teacher  appear i n t a b l e  may  4.  TA11LE 4-  ATTRACTORS  ADDITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS  Majority are male  Job o f f e r Advice of a professor P o t e n t i a l Impact on students': "I had something to o f f e r " Need for money Job security and s t a b i l i t y Upward mobility Potential Impact on the profession I n t e l l e c t u a l challenge  Decision made l a t e Decision: -accidental -drift -unconscious  selection  Formally unprepared t o teach at t h i s l e v e l More educated than parents  Prestige  Not employed at the I n s t i t u t i o n granting the- doctorate FACILITATORS L i t t l e agreement i n d e f i n i t i o n o f an outstanding: Good grades Middle class background Job o f f e r Classroom teaching experience  -school p h y s i c a l education teacher -teacher educator -teacher education program  Deep Interest In a s p e c i f i c f i e l d  Outstanding school p h y s i c a l education programs are e s s e n t i a l l y s k i l l based  Blocked aspirations elsewhere  S a t i s f a c t i o n v i t h t h i s career s e l e c t i o n Feelings o f success  CHAPTER  5  CONCLUSIONS  A  number  of important  based  on t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s  that  many—11  i n curriculum,  p r o g r a m s , have no f o r m a l  three  second  waves  study. program, thirdly would  organizational the graduate  earlier  to  Consistent  but  biography both  and  appear  education,  socialization  a  undergraduate  the f i n d i n g s  that  this  or s u b j e c t i v e warrant  waves  of  professional  schools.  and  earlier  stage  is  is,  this  education and  in  the  by L o r t i e indeed teacher This  I t appears to s k i l l s  even  form  of  activity. (1975),  i t  influential. preparation background  i s a p p a r e n t l y more p o w e r f u l education.  It  process  physical  level.  with a sport orientation  That  the  in  teacher  socialization  r e a c h i n g the graduate  to  reconceptualized.  at not only the undergraduate, also  i s i n regard  i n the s c h o o l system  i n sport  earlier  course  areas.  preparation  cited  fact  pedagogy and s c h o o l  or  e d u c a t i o n may now be  experiences  s u b j e c t i v e warrant the  i n these  made  i s the  o r i g i n a l l y hypothesized  there e x i s t s  the  with  Influential level  that  than  exposure  would  undergraduate  appear  instruction,  training  socialization  First  study—having  c o n c l u s i o n worthy of note  of  - The  investigation.  o f t h e 15 s u b j e c t s i n t h i s  responsibilities  The  c o n c l u d i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s c a n be  to  than be  a  teaching i n  s k i l l t e a c h i n g a t the expense o f page 73  other  potentially  important  goals  in  the  cognitive  and  affective  domains. The  t h i r d c o n c l u s i o n t o be drawn from t h i s s t u d y  paradox  which  can  relationships. this  study  levels hold  of formal  extension  two  separate  exists  education,  a t odds w i t h  this relationship, i n accordance  these  their  education  education  or  fourth  role orientations.  bitterness  over  Consequently, continued The again  with  s u b j e c t s knowingly As  an  impact  t h e i r own v i e w s b u t t h e y c a n  even  an  teacher  educator,  outstanding  physical  success fifth  a r e a t odds w i t h i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y  the p o l i c i e s r e l a t e d  questions  must  i n such  arise  to promotion as t o  c o n c l u s i o n of  orientation  of these  and  some  tenure.  likelihood  of  investigation  is  s u b j e c t s as  This orientation,  education  f a c u l t y members and f o r  aspiring  teachers,  i s of a c u s t o d i a l  traditions,  the  this  teacher  personal  there e x i s t s  a setting.  and f i n a l  t i e d to the r o l e  extension of the f i n d i n g  Not s u r p r i s i n g l y ,  teachers-turned-professors.  of  o f two  s u b j e c t s w o u l d hope t o  conclusion i s a further  subjects' role orientations  defined  Products  teacher.  The that  program  related  institution.  a g r e e upon a d e f i n i t i o n o f an o u t s t a n d i n g  teacher  but  as a  between s u b j e c t s o f  i n s t i t u t i o n s o f employment.  orientations of  in  relationship  professional  would-be t e a c h e r s not  stated  The f i r s t  and t h e i r  role  be  exists  both  nature.  former-  f o r themselves,  their  students,  as as  They a r e g u a r d i a n s  i n t h e i r own r o l e s  and  in  their  views  of  education  s u c c e s s f u l s c h o o l p r o g r a m s and p u b l i c s c h o o l teachers.  page  75  physical  CHAPTER 6 SUGGESTIONS FOR  In the p a s t , physical a  r e s e a r c h e r s have n e g l e c t e d  education.  valuable  Consequently,  contribution.  investigation,  FURTHER RESEARCH  there  are  any  Based  teacher  effort  on  toward t h i s  the  a number o f  educators  findings  potentially  in  end  of  is  this  rich  areas  w o r t h y o f f u r t h e r work. Conflicts institutional education. and in  have  definitions Subjects  p u b l i s h i n g than their  cases, personal  been  role to  have s u g g e s t e d  t h e y w i s h t o do  a product  ideals.  An  of  education  they  work.  in their  Another  area  identification teacher  educator  programs are readily  ideal  t o be  of  do,  in fact,  further  s u c c e s s f u l and  effective,  characteristics. evaluate  research  successful i n many  contrary i s the  do  study  education  and  teacher  themselves,  f u r t h e r study  certainly,  to  do more  that they are  For  compare programs and  reasonable  that they  of  i n s t i t u t i o n a l pressure  teacher  qualities.  identifiable  effectively seems  of  personal  of p r o f e s s o r  They c o n s i d e r  faculty  worthy  between  and  a r e a worthy of  to w h i c h t e a c h e r do  of the r o l e  as p r o f e s s o r s .  be  detected  extent  what t h e y  say  is  the  program i f teacher  in goals  teacher  expect, particularly .page 7 5  then  and  education  t h e r e must be Only  to  some  can  we  educators.  It  in  of  times  accountability of  teacher  and c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s management, t h a t p r o f e s s o r s education  identifying  what  Furthermore,  i n physical  i t is  that  one w o u l d e x p e c t  education  t h e y do  and  be  why  capable they  do  of i t .  a s t r o n g concensus o f o p i n i o n  and  u n i t y of purpose. Linked teacher research  to identifying  educator  behaviors  underway  education  optimal  When  a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e d , then be more a d e q u a t e l y of  from  interest  in  earlier,  the present  the r o l e .  must be t h e  expansion  what  i s aspired  to  In present  in  the  study  study  the questions the only  Why t h i s  not  initial  light  i s support  and  ,from  alternate identified.  for  teacher  can  be  more  ends c a n  of  this  population  o f gender d i f f e r e n c e s . t o be s h e d on t h i s  is An  question  of the preponderance of  males  i s t r u e and whether o r n o t t h e r e a r e any  further.  investigation  to  research include  While the present  trends,  current  o f p r o f e s s o r and  r e m a i n s t o be e x p l o r e d .  addition,  institutions.  of  t h e means f o r a c h i e v i n g t h e s e  d i f f e r e n c e s between women who a s p i r e t o t h e r o l e women who do  programs and  explored.  information surrounding issue raised  education  i n pedagogy t o i n c l u d e b e h a v i o r s  faculty.  Also  teacher  work w i t h  larger  to  extend  subjects  has served  from  to  dominant  or  perhaps  reputations support  e v e n t , s u c h work s t a n d s cage 77  the other  illuminate  samples from d i f f e r e n t  different  In e i t h e r  more  study  i n s t i t u t i o n s with trends  i s needed  regions  may  uncover  those  already  t o f u r t h e r enhance  the u n d e r s t a n d i n g teacher  education program—the  physical  education.  background members,  o f p e r h a p s t h e most i m p o r t a n t  and  Also of  general  i.e.,  involved d i r e c t l y  p r o f e s s o r of  without  teacher  without  the d o c t o r a l degree.  faculty  stand  teacher  former t e a c h i n g  / o  and  fashion, teacher  t o become more i n t r o s p e c t i v e and  page  is  significant  education process  In t h i s  education  subsequently,  d e s c r i p t i o n of other  professors i n the  interest,  ingredient i n  any in the  faculty experience  professors education  effective.  REFERENCES  Alley,  L.E.  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B.E.  colleges classroom  (1975). and  state  teaching  A  The  1 (2), 41-48.  survey of p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s departments of education  experiences.  relating  Dissertation  of to  Abstracts  I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 36, 2754-A. Snyder,  R.A.,  Howard,  A.,  & Hammer, T.H. page 84  (1978).  Mid-career  change i n academia: The d e c i s i o n to become an a d m i n i s t r a t o r . J o u r n a l of V o c a t i o n a l Behavior, S t e c k l e i n , J.E., the  & E c k e r t , R.E.  229-241.  (1958).  An e x p l o r a t o r y study of  f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the choice of c o l l e g e teaching as a  career.  Minnesota:  O f f i c e of Super,  Cooperative  D.E.  (1953).  D.E.  A  (1957).  Harper and Tabachnick,  Research  Programs,  theory  The  of  vocational  development.  185-190. psychology of c a r e e r s .  New  Popkewitz,  T.S.,  & Zeichner,  K.M.  (1980).  Teacher education and the p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s  Theilens, and  teachers.  T.  York:  Brothers.  B.R.,  student  U.S.  Education.  American P s y c h o l o g i s t , 8, Super,  13,  Interchange, 10,  (1957).  law s c h o o l .  (Eds.),  The  (4), 12-29.  Some comparisons of e n t r a n t s to  In R.K.  Merton, G.G.  student p h y s i c i a n .  of  Reader, & P.L. Massachusetts:  medical Kendall Harvard  U n i v e r s i t y Press. Thomas,  L.E.  (1980).  A typology of m i d - l i f e career changers.  J o u r n a l of V o c a t i o n a l Behavior, United  States  (1958). as  Department Factors  a career.  Minnesota, Vaitenas, R.,  1,  of  16,  Health,  173-182. Education  and  Welfare.  i n f l u e n c i n g the choice of c o l l e g e teaching  D i v i s i o n of Higher Education, case  & Wiener, Y.  University  of  22, #8515. (1977).  Developmental, emotional  i n t e r e s t f a c t o r s i n v o l u n t a r y mid-career change. page 85  and  Journal of  Vocational  Behavior, 11, 291-304.  Vandermeulen,  D.S.  aspirations  (1974).  of  recent  higher education.  The  motives,  graduates of  perceptions  doctoral  D i s s e r t a t i o n Abstracts  and  programs i n  I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 35,  7694-A. Van  Maanen,  J . , & Schein,  organizational Behavior. 1, Wilkerson,  L.  socialization.  (1979).  Toward a theory of  Research  in  Organizational  209-264.  (1977).  attitudes.  E.H.  U n i v e r s i t y teaching:  D i s s e r t a t i o n Abstracts  A study of f a c u l t y  I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 38,  1933-  A. W i l l i e , R., & S t e c k l e i n , J.E. of  college  (1982).  faculty  characteristics,  a c t i v i t i e s , and a t t i t u d e s . (1), Wilson,  A three-decade comparison satisfactions,  Research i n Higher Education, 16  81-93. L.  (1942).  The  academic  man.  New  York:  Oxford  U n i v e r s i t y Press. Wilson,  L.  (1979).  York: Yager, B.  Oxford U n i v e r s i t y (1964).  college Abstracts Yerkes,  American academics:  R.M.  National  Then and now.  New  Press.  Some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of women who have chosen  teaching  i n physical  International, (1919).  education.  Dissertation  24, 5182.  Report of the Psychology Committee of the  Research C o u n c i l .  Psychological  149. page 86  Review,  26, 83-  Zeichner,  K.M.,  & Tabachnick,  R.  education  (1981).  university  teacher  experience?  J o u r n a l of Teacher Education, 32 (3), 7-11.  page 87  'washed  Are the e f f e c t s of out'  by  school  A number of prominent p h y s i c a l educators, such as Lawrence Locke, have c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n t o the need f o r work i n t h i s a r e a . I hope t h a t you w i l l agree t h a t there i s merit i n t h i s undert a k i n g . To t h a t end, any a s s i s t a n c e you might be able t o o f f e r w i l l be g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . Thank you i n advance f o r your time and c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s matter. I w i l l contact you w i t h i n the week. I hope to begin s h o r t l y a f t e r r e c e i v i n g your a p p r o v a l . Sincerely,  page 90  QUESTIONNAIRE Preamble You have been selected as a subject f o r this investigation on the basis of the following c r i t e r i a : 1.  You hold a doctorate degree.  2.  You are a former teacher at either the elementary  or secondary  level. 3.  At least part of your r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s at t h i s university i n clude i n s t r u c t i o n i n curriculum, i n s t r u c t i o n and/or other courses related to pedagogy and school programs.  Do each of these points describe you? (If YES)  (If NO—Terminate the interview).  The t i t l e of t h i s investigation i s "Recruitment  professor of teacher education i n physical education".  into the role of  Of s p e c i f i c interest  in t h i s study, i s information surrounding the general background, professional work experience and education of former teachers-turned-professors. A l l information gathered f o r t h i s study w i l l remain s t r i c t l y confidential.  Not even my thesis chairperson w i l l know the i d e n t i t y of i n -  dividual respondents  or t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s .  When the data has been gathered,  i t w i l l be presented i n such a fashion as to further preserve your anonymity. The r e s u l t s w i l l be retained for analysis i n the completion of t h i s study. After that time, the records w i l l be destroyed to further guarantee anonymity.If at any time I ask you a question you would prefer not to answer, please indicate t h i s and we w i l l move on.  Further, i f for any reason you  choose to terminate t h i s interview, we w i l l stop. I have structured s p e c i f i c questions to form the basis f o r this interview. thought  I f at any time during t h i s interview, our discussion sparks a  from you pertinent to t h i s study which I have not s p e c i f i c a l l y asked  you, please f e e l free to add the comment or observation. I would l i k e to take t h i s opportunity to thank you f o r consenting to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s investigation.  We w i l l now begin.  page 91  Code for Inst.  Gender M F  The first few questions are aimed at your background: 1.  Did your parents: Mother Yes No a.  Father Yes No  Complete high school?  b. Attend university? c. 2.  Graduate from university?  .  What were your parents' occupations during your university education? Mother -  ;  ,  Father 3.  With the next question, I am interested in details surrounding each of the degrees you hold. DEGREE  Beginning with your baccalaureate, can you t e l l me:  INSTITUTION  COMPLETION DATE  GRADUATING GPA  AGE ST FIN  1  4. After completing your undergraduate degree, did you work full time at a job other than teaching at either the elementary or secondary level?  YES  NO  If Yes, what? when? Did this influence in any way your later return to become a professor?  5. 6.  Did you teach at the elementary or secondary level? For how long? Elem. Sec. Total  E  S  BOTH  The next few questions are directed to your teaching experience at the (elementary/secondary) level.  page 92  7.  When did you decide that you wanted to be a physical education teacher?  Why did you decide to do this?  8.  What attracted you to teaching at the (elementary/secondary) level?  9.  What did you hope to accomplish as a physical education teacher?  10.  Did you find what you expected i n the school system?  11.  Were you happy—that i s , did you enjoy teaching at this level?  If No, can you comment on why not?  12.  In retrospect, what were the strengths of your undergraduate education in relation to your responsibilities as a former (elementary/secondary) physical education teacher?  "  page 93  Why were these strengths?  13.  Again thinking about your teaching responsibilities, what were the weaknesses of your undergraduate education?  Why were these weaknesses?  14.  When and where do you feel that you acquired your teaching s k i l l '  15.  What, i f anything, was missing from your education that you feel might have made you a better physical education teacher at the (elem/sec.) level?  16.  Were you an outstanding physical education teacher?  YES  NO  (If Yes,  what indications did you have of this?)  17.  What i s the mark of an outstanding physical education teacher'  18.  What are the goals of an outstanding school physical education program?  page 94  19.  When did you decide to leave teaching physical education at the (elem./sec.) level?  Why did you decide to leave?  .  ,  The next section of questions i s directed toward your decision to pursue the doctorate. 20.  When did you decide to pursue the doctorate, and why?  21.  Why did you choose...(inst. named i n quest. 3) for your doctorate?  22"  Dies you apply else where.'  23.  When did you decide to pursue a position as a professor?  24.  Was your decision to become a professor based on reasons different from  YES  NO  your decision to pursue the doctorate?  Quantity  YZS  NO  I f yes, can you comment on  these reasons?  The next few questions require you to differentiate between your perceptions of the real and the ideal. 25.  Before you began your doctoral program, how did you perceive the role of the professor of teacher education in physical education?  page 95  26.  Is this what you believed the role should be—at that point of your career? YES  27.  NO  If No, what did you believe the role should be?  Upon completion of your doctoral program, bad your perceptions of the actual role of the professor of teacher education in physical education changed? YES  28.  NO  If yes, in what ways?  .  Had your perceptions of what the role should be changed?  YES  NO  If yes, in what way(s)?  29.  Do your perceptions of your role d i f f e r now from your immediate post-doctoral perceptions?  YES  NO  If yes, in what way(s)?  If yes, can you comment on the main influence(s) of this change?  30.  Do your perceptions of what your role should be d i f f e r now from your postdoctoral perceptions?  YES  NO  If yes, in what way(s)?  If yes, can you comment on the main influence(s) of this change?  page 96  31.  Have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of your job changed s i n c e you began work at the university level?  32.  YES  NO  I f yes, i n what way(s)?  Axe you pleased w i t h your d e c i s i o n t o leave teaching at the (elem./sec.) l e v e l f o r work at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l ?  YES  33.  Are you s a t i s i f i e d i n your p o s i t i o n now,  34.  Have you always f e l t t h i s way?  YES  NO  NO  as a u n i v e r s i t y professor?  YES  I f No, can you comment on the  main i n f l u e n c e ( s ) of t h i s change?  35.  Looking at your present r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n t h i s u n i v e r s i t y , what were the strengths of your graduate education and why?  36.  ;  ;  Again t h i n k i n g about your current r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , what were the weaknesses of your graduate education (doctorate) and why?  37.  What, i f anything, was missing from your graduate education (doctorate), that you f e e l might have made you a b e t t e r professor of teacher education i n p h y s i c a l education?  \  1  page 97  NO  38. What are the University of (inst. of employment)'s criteria for success for teacher educators in physical education?  39. Are you a successful teacher educator?  YES  NO  What signs do you have  of this?  40.  What are the specific qualities of a successful teacher educator in physical education?  41.  What are the specific qualifications of a successful teacher educator in physical education?QUALITIES  42.  QUALIFICATIONS  Do you think that a l l physical education teacher education faculty members should regularly supervise student teachers?  YES  NO  Why? (or) Why not?  43. Would you recommend the hiring of a physical education teacher education faculty member who did not have actual teaching experience at either the elementary or secondary school levels?  page 98  YES  NO Why? (or) Why not?  44.  The following descriptors are commonly used when describing the job you hold: (self) TEACHING  COACHING  RESEARCH  SERVICE  (univ) Rank these In order of importance, beginning with the most important from your own personal perspective.  Now,  rank them from the perspective of the  University of (inst of employment). 45.  Do you also coach at this university?  YES  NO  46.  Is the role of coach compatible with the responsibilities for teaching at the elem/sec level? At the university level'  47.  What are the characteristics of an outstanding physical education teacher education program?  48.  If you could change the role you perform now, what, i f anything, would you change?  49.  That concludes the questions that I have prepared for this study.  Is there  anything else that you can think of, that I have not asked, that you feel was significant in your decision to become a university professor? (Use a separate page i f necessary) Thank you again for your time and cooperation in this study.  page 99  

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