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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The subjective warrant and recruitment into physical education Dewar, Alison MacKenzie 1983

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THE SUBJECTIVE WARRANT AND RECRUITMENT INTO PHYSICAL EDUCATION by ALISON MACKENZIE J3EWAR B . E d . ( H o n s . ) , D u n f e r m l i n e C o l l e g e o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , S c o t l a n d , 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (S choo l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c on f o rm i ng t o t he r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1983 (c) A l i s o n Mackenz i e Dewar, 1983 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e re q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t th e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s un d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f PHYSICAL gfrVCflnoN AMb R E C f e f l T l . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) 11 Table of Contents A b s t r a c t L i s t o f T a b l e s CHAPTER ONE I n t r o d u c t i o n R e c r u i t m e n t and p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n R e c r u i t m e n t i n a model f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n The s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t and r e c r u i t m e n t i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i D e f i n i t i o n o f t e rms CHAPTER TWO L i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w The g e n e r a l l i t e r a t u r e on o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e The p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e R e c r u i t m e n t i n t o t he p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h f o r the s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n Summary o f the o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s CHAPTER THREE The b e g i n n i n g o f a t h e o r e t i c a l f ramework Hypo theses CHAPTER FOUR Method S u b j e c t s I n s t r umen t P r o c edu r e C o n s t r a i n t s CHAPTER FIVE R e s u l t s and d i s c u s s i o n Gene ra l backg round c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Summary o f g e n e r a l backg round c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s P e r c e p t i o n s o f t he p r o f e s s i o n The dominant p e r c e p t i o n o f the p r o f e s s i o n Non dominant p e r c e p t i o n s o f the p r o f e s s i o n P e r c e p t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s d e c i d e d a g a i n s t a c a r e e r i i i i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n 61 Summary o f r e s u l t s 62 C H A P T E R S I X C o n c l u s i o n s 67 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . 69 B i b l i o g r a p h y 72 Append i x 80 i v A B S T R A C T The pu rposes o f t h i s s tudy were t o r e v i e w and s y n t h e s i z e a w ide v a r i e t y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e and p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e i n o r d e r t o d eve l op and t e s t a t h e o r e t i c a l f ramework f o r t he s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . F o r t y s u b j e c t s f rom s i x s c h o o l s i n the Vancouver Schoo l Board s e r v ed as s u b j e c t s f o r the s t u d y . There were s i x c a t e g o r i e s o f s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y , males and f ema l e s who were d e c i d e d on a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , who were a t t r a c t e d to a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and who were h i g h a c h i e v e r s i n s p o r t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n bu t had d e c i d e d a g a i n s t a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . A w r i t t e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e , wh i ch was d e v e l o p e d f rom the t h e o r e t i c a l f ramework and p i l o t t e s t e d on bo th unde rg r adua t e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ma jo r s and g rade 12 h i g h s choo l s t u d e n t s , was a d m i n i s t e r e d to the s u b j e c t s i n sma l l g r o u p s . The d a t a f rom the s tudy was a n a l y s e d u s i n g c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s and q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h methods . I t was found t h a t f o r a m a j o r i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s t h e r e e x i s t e d a dominan t s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . T h i s s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t was one i n wh i ch a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n was v iewed as a c a r e e r i n t e a c h i n g and c o a c h i n g . A sma l l m i n o r i t y o f s u b j e c t s i n the s tudy had s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s t h a t d i d not v i ew t e a c h i n g and c o a ch i n g as the o n l y c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , i t was found t h a t t he m a j o r i t y o f s u b j e c t s who had r e j e c t e d c a r e e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n had s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s i n wh i ch a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n V was v i ewed as a c a r e e r i n t e a c h i n g and t h i s v i ew o f the p r o f e s s i o n was c i t e d as t he p r i m a r y reason f o r t h e i r r e j e c t i o n o f a c a r e e r i n the p r o f e s s i o n . In c o n c l u s i o n , the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n i s announc ing i t s e l f t o t he m a j o r i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n one way - as o f f e r i n g c a r e e r s i n t e a c h i n g and c o a c h i n g . T h i s dominant p e r c e p t i o n o f the p r o f e s s i o n s e r v e s t o a t t r a c t a m a j o r i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s o r i e n t e d t o c a r e e r s i n t e a c h i n g bu t r e p e l s o t h e r s who, a l t h o u g h not o r i e n t e d t o t e a c h i n g , may be e q u a l l y w e l l s u i t e d t o a l t e r n a t i v e c a r e e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . v i L i s t of Tab les T A B L E ONE The f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n T A B L E TWO P r e d i c t e d p r o f i l e s o f male and f ema le p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n r e c r u i t s T A B L E T H R E E Number o f s u b j e c t s t e s t e d i n each c a t e g o r y by sex v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT T h i s t h e s i s wou ld not have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t he c o o p e r a t i o n o f the Vancouver Schoo l B oa r d , t he p r i n c i p a l s , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s t a f f and s t u d e n t s who v o l u n t e e r e d as s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s s tudy f rom K i l l a r e n y , K i t s i l a n o , E r i c H a r b e r , Lo rd Byng , P o i n t Grey and Temple ton s e conda ry s c h o o l s . To them I e x p r e s s my t h a n k s . Thanks t o Dr . Gary S i n c l a i r , D r . Robert ' M o r f o r d and Mr . J i m App l eby f o r t h e i r encouragement and gu i dance d u r i n g t he w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s . S p e c i a l t h ank s t o Dr . Hal Lawson f o r a l l o f h i s comments, gu i dance and encouragement w i t h o u t wh i ch t he w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s wou ld not have been p o s s i b l e . Those who canno t do , t e a c h Those who canno t t e a c h , t e a c h gym. Woody A l l e n i n Ann i e Ha11. The s u r v i v a l o f a p r o f e s s i o n i s l a r g e l y dependent upon i t s a b i l i t y t o r e c r u i t new members. In t h i s l i g h t , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o unde r s t and why t h e r e has been so l i t t l e c o n c e p t u a l and e m p i r i c a l a t t e n t i o n p a i d i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t o t he p r o c e s s o f r e c r u i t m e n t , g e n e r a l l y , and the c h o i c e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y . Q u e s t i o n s abound. For examp le , what i s the image o f the p r o f e s s i o n ? How i s t h i s t r a n s m i t t e d t o p o t e n t i a l r e c r u i t s ? What e f f e c t does t h i s image have on r e c r u i t m e n t ? Q u e s t i o n s such as t h e s e s e r ve as a p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e f o r the e n s u i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Recru i tment and Profess ional Socia l izat ion I n d i v i d u a l s , a t some p o i n t i n l i f e have t o make an o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . T h i s c h o i c e i s one t h a t i s i n f l u e n c e d by an i n t e r p l a y o f p e r s o n a l , s i t u a t i o n a l and s o c i e t a l f a c t o r s . In an a t t emp t t o unde r s t and the ways i n wh i ch an i n d i v i d u a l i s a t t r a c t e d towards and i n d u c t e d i n t o an o c c u p a t i o n , s o c i o l o g i s t s have l i n k e d the p r o c e s s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e w i t h t he c on cep t o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n . P r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s one s p e c i f i c t ype o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . I t r e f e r s to the i n t e r a c t i o n and l e a r n i n g by means o f wh i ch an i n d i v i d u a l a c q u i r e s the i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e , and the know ledge , s k i l l s and s e n s i t i v i t i e s t h a t a re e s s e n t i a l f o r the pe r f o rmance o f t h i s r o l e . -2-In t he p a s t , some a n a l y s t s have assumed t h a t t h i s p r o c e s s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n b e g i n s when an i n d i v i d u a l e n t e r s a programme o f f o rma l p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . However, t h e p r o c e s s b e g i n s b e f o r e t h i s s t a g e , commencing when the i n d i v i d u a l i s a t t r a c t e d t owards a p a r t i c u l a r p r o f e s s i o n , f o r l e a r n i n g abou t t he c u l t u r e o f a p r o f e s s i o n appea r s t o b eg i n a t t h i s e a r l y s t a g e . I t f o l l o w s t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n can be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as a p r o c e s s t h a t spans an e n t i r e c a r e e r , b e g i n n i n g when an i n d i v i d u a l i s a t t r a c t e d t o a p r o f e s s i o n , and c o n t i n u i n g t h r ough f o rma l e d u c a t i o n and e n t r y i n t o t he w o r k f o r c e . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n a l s o p r o v i d e s one w i t h a u s e f u l h e u r i s t i c d e v i c e f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l c h o i c e as i t a f f o r d s one w i t h a f ramework i n wh i ch a t t r a c t i o n to a p r o f e s s i o n i s v i ewed as t he f i r s t o f t h r e e s t age s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Knowledge about t he dynamics o f t h i s c h o i c e i s . c r u c i a l t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t he who le p r o c e s s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . That i s , a t t r a c t i o n t o a p r o f e s s i o n i s based upon an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f the p r o f e s s i o n , w h i c h , i n t u r n , i n f l u e n c e t he e x t e n t t o wh i ch the i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r n a l i z e s t h e c u l t u r e o f t he p r o f e s s i o n . Recruitment in a Model for .Professional Socialization E a r l y s t u d i e s o f t he m e d i c a l and l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n s l e d t o t he deve lopment o f a t h r e e s t age model f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n ( B e c k e r , 1961; M e r t o n , 1 957 ) . L a t e r s t u d i e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n t e a c h i n g ( L o r t i e , 1975; Western and A n d e r s o n , 1968 ) , and i n the t e a c h i n g o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ( P o o l e y , 1970, 1975; T e m p l i n , 1979; Wood fo rd , 1977) were gu i d ed by t h i s mode l . - 3 -The s t age s i n t he model r e p r e s e n t t h r e e p a r t s o f t he s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s . S tage one i s r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o t he p r o f e s s i o n . S tage two c o m p r i s e s t he f o rma l e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g , t h a t o c c u r s i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s , f o r t he p r o f e s s i o n . S tage t h r e e i s marked by e n t r y i n t o t he w o r k f o r c e . W i t h i n t he f ramework p r o v i d e d by t h i s model i t i s assumed t h a t t h e r e a r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the t h r e e s t a g e s . Between s t age s one and two, r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o t he p r o f e s s i o n and e n t r y i n t o programmes o f f o rma l e d u c a t i o n , i t i s assumed t h a t t h e r e i s d i s c o n t i nu i t y f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . Tha t i s , i t i s assumed t h a t r e c r u i t s have i n a c c u r a t e , i n c o m p l e t e p e r c e p t i o n s o f the c u l t u r e o f the p r o f e s s i o n , and f o rma l e d u c a t i o n makes t h i s i n c o n g r u i t y c l e a r t o them. T h i s i s one o f t he methods used t o i n i t i a t e i n d u c t i o n o f new r e c r u i t s i n t o the p r o f e s s i o n . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l a s t two s t age s o f the mode l , f o rma l e d u c a t i o n and e n t r y i n t o the w o r k f o r c e , i s v i ewed - as hav i ng a h i gh degree o f c o n t i nu i t y f o r t he i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s i s based on the a s sump t i on t h a t t h e r e i s a h i g h deg ree o f c o r r e sponden ce between an i n d i v i d u a l ' s knowledge, s k i l l s and e x p e c t a t i o n s a c q u i r e d d u r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , and the a c t u a l n a t u r e o f t he work and p r o f e s s i o n a l c u l t u r e t h a t e x i s t i n t he w o r k p l a c e . I t i s t h i s c o r r e s ponden ce o r c o n t i n u i t y t h a t marks s u c c e s s f u l s o c i a l i z a t i o n and i n d u c t i o n i n t o the p r o f e s s i o n . T h i s t h r e e s t age model has been used t o gu i d e s t u d i e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n t e a c h i n g (Wes te rn and A n d e r s o n , 1968; L o r t i e , 1975 ) . The f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n o f t h e s e s t u d i e s has , i n t he ma in , been on the second and t h i r d s t age s o f the mode l . Much l e s s a t t e n t i o n has been a f f o r d e d t o t he f i r s t s t age o f the mode l , r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o bo th t e a c h i n g g e n e r a l l y , and f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y . Y e t , i t i s t he r e c r u i t m e n t s t age o f t he - 4 -s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s t h a t may p r o v i d e the key t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the who le p r o c e s s . In o t h e r wo rd s , an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the second s tage o f the mode l , s o c i a l i z a t i o n d u r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , i s c o n t i n g e n t upon an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t he f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the f i r s t s t age o f t he mode l , r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o t he p r o f e s s i o n s . The Subject ive Warrant and Recru i tment into Phys i ca l Educat ion Purpose o f t h e I n v e s t i g a t i o n What a t t r a c t s i n d i v i d u a l s to a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ? How does t he p r o f e s s i o n announce i t s e l f t o p o t e n t i a l r e c r u i t s ? How do t h e s e r e c r u i t s v i ew the p r o f e s s i o n t h ey have chosen t o e n t e r ? These q u e s t i o n s a r e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o t he p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n . They a re i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s t h a t must be answered i n o r d e r t o d e r i v e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t he e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n programmes as s o c i a l i z i n g a g e n c i e s , and s u b s e q u e n t l y t o ensu re t h a t t h e s e programmes a r e e f f e c t i v e . They a l s o have impo r t f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the p r o f e s s i o n p r o p e r . One purpose o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t o d e ve l o p a t h e o r e t i c a l f ramework f o r t he e x a m i n a t i o n o f one a s p e c t o f the r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s s t r u c t u r e d t o d e ve l o p a f ramework f o r the e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n a l , s i t u a t i o n a l and s o c i e t a l f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e the s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s r e c r u i t s have o f t he p r o f e s s i o n and , i n a d d i t i o n , how t h e s e s e r ve to a t t r a c t o r r e p e l r e c r u i t s t o o r f rom the p r o f e s s i o n . A second purpose i s t o b eg i n t o a s s e s s e m p i r i c a l l y the adequacy o f t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l f ramework f o r t he s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t . - 5 -The S u b j e c t i v e War ran t D e f i n e d The s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t r e f e r s t o an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f the s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s n e c e s s a r y f o r e n t r y t o , and pe r f o rmance o f work i n a s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n . I t i s a g a i n s t t h e s e p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t t he i n d i v i d u a l t e s t s p e r s o n a l c o m p e t e n c i e s , a s p i r a t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Lawson ( i n p r e s s ) says o f t he s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t c o n s t r u c t e d on the b a s i s o f p e r s o n a l b i o g r a p h y , t he e f f e c t s o f s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s , s o c i e t a l i n f l u e n c e s , and d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e s i n s c h o o l s i t i s an i n s t r u m e n t f o r i d e n t i t y f o r m a t i o n and s e l f s e l e c t i o n wh i ch i s c r u c i a l t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s e s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , ( p . 7 ) . Mo reove r , Wes te rn and Anderson (1968) sugges t t h a t i n t he p r e - t r a i n i n g phase o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n , d e c i s i o n s t o e n t e r a p r o f e s s i o n a re i n f l u e n c e d by the r e l a t i v e p r e s t i g e a t t r i b u t e d t o the p r o f e s s i o n , the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f c on cep t and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e two f a c t o r s . They a l s o sugges t t h a t the v i s i b i l i t y o f t he p r o f e s s i o n i s i m p o r t a n t i n t h i s p r o c e s s , and t h a t the p e r c e p t i o n s d eve l o ped by the i n d i v i d u a l may be based on l a y c o n c e p t i o n s o f t he p r o f e s s i o n t h a t may be s t e r e o t y p i c a l and g e n e r a l r a t h e r than i n f o rmed and a c c u r a t e . Thus , i t can be seen t h a t the s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t may be a t odds w i t h t he r e a l i t i e s o f work i n the p r o f e s s i o n . I t i s , however , t h e s e s u b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t form the b a s i s f o r the d e c i s i o n t o e n t e r the p r o f e s s i o n , and , as s u ch , .determine the t y p e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e a t t r a c t e d to a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . H e r e i n l i e s an added measure o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t : i t makes more t r a n s p a r e n t a p r o f e s s i o n ' s o t h e r w i s e i n v i s i b l e a t t emp t s t o announce i t s e l f t o new r e c r u i t s . - 6 -Thus , i t can be seen t h a t any i n v e s t i g a t i o n c on ce rned w i t h the s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n must c o n s i d e r t he i n d i v i d u a l i n r e l a t i o n t o bo th p e r s o n a l a b i l i t i e s and s k i l l s , and s i t u a t i o n a l and s o c i e t a l i n f l u e n c e s . P r o f e s s i o n s , moreove r , a r e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d e n t i t i e s , and t h e r e f o r e a s sump t i on s about i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n must a l s o i n f o r m t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n ( B e r g e r and Luckmann, 1966; G i d d e n s , 1979 ) . I t i s o n l y by l i n k i n g t h e s e f a c t o r s i n the f ramework p r o v i d e d by the s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t t h a t one can d i s c o v e r the na t u r e o f the p e r c e p t i o n s about t he p r o f e s s i o n and , u l t i m a t e l y , how t he se i n f l u e n c e r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Definition of Terms The te rms t h a t have been used i n t h i s s t udy a re d e f i n e d i n the f o l 1 o w i n g ways 1. PHYSICAL EDUCATION i s used i n two d i f f e r e n t ways i n t h i s s t u d y . a) I t i s used i n i t s more g e n e r i c sense t o r e f e r t o t he who le spec t rum o f j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n ; b) More s p e c i f i c a l l y i t i s used t o r e f e r t o the programmes o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t h a t a r e t a ugh t i n s e conda ry s c h o o l s . 2. SPORT i s used t o r e f e r to any p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y t h a t o c c u r s o t h e r than s choo l o r g a n i z e d s p o r t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . 3. PROFESSIONAL SOCIALIZATION r e f e r s t o the p r o c e s s by means o f wh i ch i n d i v i d u a l s a c q u i r e t he i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a - 7 -p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e , and the know ledge , s k i l l s and s e n s i t i v i t i e s t h a t a re e s s e n t i a l f o r t he pe r f o rmance o f t h i s r o l e . 4 . RECRUITMENT i s the f i r s t s t age o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n and r e p r e s e n t s - t h e f a c t o r s t h a t s e r ve t o a t t r a c t i n d i v i d u a l s to the p r o f e s s i o n . 5. SUBJECTIVE WARRANT i s a c o n s t r u c t t h a t r e p r e s e n t s the p e r c e p t i o n s an i n d i v i d u a l has o f the s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s n e c e s s a r y f o r e n t r y to and pe r f o rmance o f work i n a s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n . -8-Chapter Two L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W The e a r l i e s t work on o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e stemmed f rom t he c l a s s i c p s y c h o m e t r i c work o f C a t t e l l (1890) and Ye r ke s (1919) i n wh i ch an i n d i v i d u a l ' s d i s p o s i t i o n a l t r a i t s ( e . g . i n t e l l i g e n c e , a p t i t u d e s , p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and i n t e r e s t s ) were matched w i t h j o b r e q u i r e m e n t s . The t a s k o f the s c i e n t i s t was t o o b j e c t i v e l y a s s e s s t h e s e t r a i t s i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e t he j o b p l a cement o f i n d i v i d u a l s . In so d o i n g , s c i e n t i s t s i n t e r e s t e d i n o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e assumed t he r o l e o f s o c i a l ' e n g i n e e r . T h i s work was hampered, however , by the i n h e r e n t l i m i t a t i o n s i n t r a i t t h e o r y , no t the l e a s t o f wh i ch were i t s s t a t i c v i ew o f b e h a v i o u r and i t s o v e r s i m p l i f i e d v i ew o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . The dynamic p e r s o n a l , s i t u a t i o n a l and s o c i e t a l f a c t o r s t h a t emerged as de f a c t o i n f l u e n c e s upon o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e c o u l d no t f i n d accommodat ion i n t he t r a i t measurement app roach o r i t s p a r e n t t h e o r y . F o l l o w i n g t h i s e a r l y work , i n v e s t i g a t o r s began t o s e a r c h f o r a more s a t i s f a c t o r y t h e o r y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . T h e i r e f f o r t s may be c l a s s i f i e d and r e v i ewed under two main h e a d i n g s : t he gene r a l l i t e r a t u r e on o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , and the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t i s s p e c i f i c t o p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . In bo th c a s e s , t he l i t e r a t u r e may be f u r t h e r s u b - d i v i d e d i n t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and s o c i o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . In t h i s l i g h t , t h e a ims o f t h i s r e v i e w a r e t o s y n t h e s i z e t he f i n d i n g s f rom t h i s w ide a r r a y o f l i t e r a t u r e i n o r d e r t o enab l e t he deve lopment o f a f ramework t h a t i l l u m i n a t e s the s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . -9-The Genera l L i t e ra tu re on Occupat iona l Cho ice In v i ew o f t he l i m i t a t i o n s i n t he t r a i t measurement approach t o o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , r e s e a r c h e r s began t o work towards a g e n e r a l t h e o r y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e by a p p r o a c h i n g the p rob lem f rom a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n a r y p e r s p e c t i v e s . O c c u p a t i o n a l Cho i c e : An App roach t o a Gene ra l  Theory ( G i n z b e r g , G i n z b e r g , A x e l r a d & Herma, 1951) e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y app roach to t he p r ob l em . L i m i t a t i o n s c o u l d be l o c a t e d i n t h i s work t o o . Each d i s c i p l i n a r y p e r s p e c t i v e , r a t h e r than c o n t r i b u t i n g towards t he deve lopment o f an i n t e g r a t e d t h e o r e t i c a l f ramework , emphas i zed the d i f f e r e n c e s t h a t e x i s t e d between them. D e s p i t e t h e s e p r ob l ems , t h i s work rema ins i m p o r t a n t . I t p r o v i d e d t he s t i m u l u s f o r f u r t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n t he a r ea o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , r e s e a r c h t h a t i s r e v i ewed l a t e r i n t h i s d i s c u s s i on . The r e s u l t a n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s d e p a r t e d f rom t h i s semina l i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y app roach to o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e i n f a v o u r o f a v a r i e t y o f s i n g l e d i s c i p l i n a r y a pp r o a che s . In the l a t t e r c a s e , a t t e m p t s were made t o d e s c r i b e and e x p l a i n t he p r o c e s s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e w i t h i n t he f ramework p r o v i d e d by the p a r e n t d i s c i p l i n a r y p e r s p e c t i v e . In each case the d i f f e r e n t p rob l ems and app roaches t o o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e r e f l e c t e d the a s s u m p t i o n s , p r i o r i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s o f each d i s c i p l i n e ' s r e s e a r c h e r s . A l t h o u g h a v a r i e t y o f d i s c i p l i n a r y p e r s p e c t i v e s were used to examine o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e most o f t h e r e s e a r c h was gu i d ed by a p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . R e s e a r c h e r s gu i d ed by t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e -10-f o c u s e d upon t he s o c i a l and s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t e d an i n d i v i d u a l ' s d e c i s i o n t o e n t e r a p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Resea r ch on O c c u p a t i o n a l Cho i c e R e s e a r c h e r s gu i d ed by t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e a t t emp ted t o e s t a b l i s h a t h e o r e t i c a l f ramework as a b a s i s f o r t h e i r e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h . The f rameworks t h a t were p roposed a l l r e p r e s e n t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e as a d e ve l o pmen t a l p r o c e s s . R e s e a r c h e r s gu i d ed by t he se f rameworks a t t emp ted to i s o l a t e and measure t he f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the i n d i v i d u a l a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f t h i s p r o c e s s . The r e s u l t o f a l l o f t h i s r e s e a r c h has been the deve lopment o f a number o f d i f f e r e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l m i c r o - t h e o r i e s f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . These t h e o r i e s s t r e s s d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f the d eve l o pmen t a l p r o c e s s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e and d e s c r i b e t h e s e i n r e l a t e d bu t d i f f e r e n t ways . There a r e p rob l ems w i t h t h e s e m i c r o - t h e o r i e s t h a t a r e a t t r i b u t a b l e to t he nar row s e l e c t i v i t y o f t h e i r f o c u s . R e s e a r c h e r s , i n t he deve lopment o f t h e s e t h e o r i e s , have a c c e p t e d and a p p l i e d a s p e c i f i c model f o r t h e i r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t he o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e p r o c e s s . T h i s a p r i o r i a c c ep t an ce and a p p l i c a t i o n o f s i n g u l a r models has p roduced s e l e c t i v e f i n d i n g s . These f i n d i n g s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the model b e i ng a p p l i e d but a r e i n c ong ruou s w i t h o t h e r s b e i n g used t o e x p l a i n the same phenomenon. H e r e i n l i e s one o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f e xam in i ng m i c r o - t h e o r i e s f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e : the s e l f f u l f i l l i n g t endency o f t h e s e t h e o r i e s t o p roduce f i n d i n g s t h a t a re s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e i r p r o p o s i t i o n s l e a d s to the deve lopment o f a s e r i e s o f c o m p e t i n g , o f t e n e q u i v o c a l , models f o r the p r o c e s s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . - 1 1 -The deve l opmen t a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e r e s e a r c h has l a r g e l y been i n f l u e n c e d by the work o f G i n z b e r g e t . a l . , 1951; H a v i n g h u r s t , 1953; H o l l a n d , 1959; Roe, 1956; and Supe r , 1953. The ma jo r t e n e t s o f t h e se t h e o r i e s p r o v i d e a u s e f u l o v e r v i e w o f the n a t u r e and d i r e c t i o n o f t he p s y c h o l o g i c a l o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e r e s e a r c h t o d a t e . To r e t u r n to a p o i n t made e a r l i e r , G i n z b e r g ' s (1951) i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y work bo th a f f e c t e d and s t i m u l a t e d subsequent p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ( H o w e l l , F r e se & So l l i e , 1977; O 'Hara & T iedeman, 1959; and O 'Ha r a , 1962 ) . G i n z b e r g e t . a l . ( 1951) i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e d eve l o pmen t a l s t a ge s i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s o c c u p a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . Du r i n g the f i r s t s t a g e , t he f a n t a s y p e r i o d , t he c h i l d ' s o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s a r e r e f l e c t i o n s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s t e r o t y p e s and an i n t e r e s t i n an o c c u p a t i o n appea r s t o be a s u f f i c i e n t b a s i s f o r c h o i c e . The second s t age i s the t e n t a t i v e p e r i o d and l a s t s f rom the ages o f a round 11 to 17. Du r i n g t h i s s t age the i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o u r i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an i n c r e a s i n g awareness o f the a t t r i b u t e s , bo th p e r s o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l , r e q u i r e d f o r e n t r y i n t o s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n s . Du r i n g the t h i r d and f i n a l s t a g e , c a l l e d the r e a l i s t i c p e r i o d , t he i n d i v i d u a l a t t e m p t s t o work out a v o c a t i o n a l p l a n by s y n t h e s i z i n g bo th s u b j e c t i v e and e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s . T h i s app roach has been summarized as f o l l o w s : G i n z b e r g r e g a r d s the s o c i a l l y d e c i s i v e a c t by wh i ch one u l t i m a t e l y e n t e r s t he w o r l d o f work as the c u l m i n a t i o n o f a s e r i e s o f s e q u e n t i a l l y o r d e r e d d e c i s i o n s wh i ch span a minimum o f s i x o r seven y e a r s and wh i ch u s u a l l y r e q u i r e a t l e a s t t en y e a r s f o r t h e i r c o m p l e t i o n . In w o r k i n g out h i s c h o i c e the i n d i v i d u a l s t ands i n c o n f l i c t between h i s s u b j e c t i v e d e s i r e s ( i . e . p s y c h o l o g i c a l m o t i v e s ) and the demands and r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed by s o c i a l and e conomi ca l r e a l i t y . (Borow, 1966, p . 4 0 0 ) . -12-T h i s p r o c e s s i s , i n G i n z b e r g e t . a l . ' s (1951) v i ew , an i r r e v e r s i b l e one . The i n d i v i d u a l i s assumed t o move t h r ough a s e r i e s o f e v e r n a r r ow i ng c h o i c e s u n t i l a f i n a l d e c i s i o n i s r e a c h e d . The major c o n t r i b u t i o n o f G i n z b e r g e t . a l . ' s (1951) work to the s tudy o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e i s i n h i s d e p i c t i o n o f c h o i c e as a p r o c e s s t h a t b e g i n s i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d and ex t end s i n t o l a t e a d o l e s c e n c e . T h i s t h e o r y has p r o v i d e d the impetus f o r r e s e a r c h w i t h younge r c h i l d r e n i n an a r ea t h a t had f o r m e r l y c o n c e n t r a t e d e x c l u s i v e l y upon young a d u l t s . O the r r e s e a r c h e r s w o r k i n g f rom a d eve l o pmen t a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e rema ined i n the ma ins t r eam t r a d i t i o n o f C a t t e l l (1890) and Y e r k e s ( 1 9 1 9 ) . They were i n t e r e s t e d i n e xam in i ng the r e l a t i o n s h i p between o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e and i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r t r a i t s . They emphas i z ed , i n s h o r t , the impo r t ance o f i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s , r a t h e r than e x t e r n a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s . For examp le , Roe (1956) d e v e l o p e d a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme i n wh i ch she c a t e g o r i z e d o c c u p a t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n to t he n a t u r e o f t he work a c t i v i t y i n v o l v e d i n t he j o b and t he s k i l l and t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e d f o r pe r f o rmance o f the work a c t i v i t y . U s i ng t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme as her b a s i c f ramework , Roe (1956) a t t emp ted t o l i n k the p s y c h o l o g i c a l c l i m a t e o f p a r e n t c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n e a r l y l i f e t o o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . The c e n t r a l t e n e t o f t h i s t h e o r y i s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l seek ou t o c c u p a t i o n s t h a t a r e c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e i r need s t r u c t u r e s and t h a t t h e s e s t r u c t u r e s a r e d e v e l o p e d as a r e s u l t o f p a r e n t c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . There i s l i m i t e d e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e t o s uppo r t Roe ' s (1956) t h e o r y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . T h i s may be a t t r i b u t a b l e , i n p a r t , t o the c o m p l e x i t y o f the c h o i c e p r o c e s s - 1 3 -and t he f a i l u r e o f t h i s t h e o r y t o a c coun t for . any o f t he o t h e r f a c t o r s t h a t may be i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h i s p r o c e s s . In e s s e n c e , p e r s o n a l i t y i s o n l y one o f a v a r i e t y o f f a c t o r s t h a t may i n f l u e n c e o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e and a f ramework t h a t e x c l u d e s e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s and c o n c e n t r a t e s s o l e l y on the i n d i v i d u a l i s o v e r s i m p l i f i e d and i n c o m p l e t e . H o l l a n d ' s (1959) t h e o r y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e t a k e s a b r o a d e r v i ew o f t h i s p r o c e s s and l i n k s p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s t o d i f f e r e n t model e n v i r o n m e n t s . W i t h i n h i s t y p o l o g y H o l l a n d (1959) has i d e n t i f i e d s i x d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s and s i x model e n v i r o n m e n t s . The s i x p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s a r e l a b e l l e d as b e i n g r e a l i s t i c , i n v e s t i g a t i v e , s o c i a l , e n t e r p r i s i n g , c o n v e n t i o n a l and a r t i s t i c . H o l l a n d (1959) assumes t h a t a l l i n d i v i d u a l s f i t i n t o one o f t h e s e t y p e s and when making a c h o i c e an i n d i v i d u a l w i l l s e a r ch f o r an env i r onmen t t h a t i s c o m p a t i b l e and c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r p e r s o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . H o l l a n d ' s (1959) t h e o r y has some i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e s e a r c h on o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . W i t h i n h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme H o l l a n d (1959) i d e n t i f i e s p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s as s o c i a l t y p e s . Tha t i s , i n d i v i d u a l s a t t r a c t e d towards a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a r e d e p i c t e d as h a v i n g an i n t e r e s t i n t he m a n i p u l a t i o n o f o t h e r s by means o f i n f o r m i n g , t r a i n i n g , d e v e l o p i n g , c u r i n g o r e n l i g h t e n i n g . H o l l a n d (1959) a l s o s ugge s t s t h a t s o c i a l t y p e s a r e p r e d i s p o s e d t owards o c c u p a t i o n s i n wh i ch t hey can engage i n p r e f e r r e d a c t i v i t i e s and c ompe t en c i e s and t ho se i n wh i ch i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i s p l a y t e a c h i n g b e h a v i o u r s to he l p o t h e r s . A l t h o u g h H o l l a n d (1959) ' b r o a d l y c l a s s i f i e s a l l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s as s o c i a l t y p e s he makes a d i s t i n c t i o n between p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s and c o a c h e s . He s ugge s t s t h a t t he p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s f o r bo th t e a c h i n g and c o a c h i n g , a l t h o u g h r e l a t e d , i n v o l v e d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n s and b e h a v i o u r s . I t can be seen then - 1 4 -t h a t H o l l a n d (1959) makes a d i s t i n c t i o n between the r o l e s o f bo th t e a c h e r s and coaches i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s u g g e s t i n g t h a t each r e q u i r e s d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n s and w i l l a t t r a c t d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s . I f , as H o l l a n d (1959) a s s e r t s , t h e r e a re s i m i l a r i t i e s between i n d i v i d u a l s i n s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n s and t h a t t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s c r e a t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w o r k i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s , then the e f f e c t o f o c c u p a t i o n a l s t e r o t y p e s on o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e m e r i t s a t t e n t i o n . The na t u r e o f t h i s s t e r o t y p e f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and i t s i n f l u e n c e on the c h o i c e o f t he p r o f e s s i o n as an o c c u p a t i o n i s an i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n t h a t has t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e c h o i c e p r o c e s s f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . H a v i n g h u r s t (1953) and Super (1953) i n t h e i r t h e o r i e s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e emphas ize t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between deve l opmen t a l t a s k s , s e l f c on c ep t and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . The f rameworks d e v e l o p e d by t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s i n c l u d e a s e r i e s o f s i x s t a g e s t h r ough wh i ch i n d i v i d u a l s p r o g r e s s d u r i n g t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l d eve l opmen t . H a v i n g h u r s t (1953) and Super (1953) bo th b e l i e v e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s d e ve l o p an o c c u p a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y o ve r t i m e , an i d e n t i t y t h a t forms the b a s i s f o r t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . Tha t i s , an i n d i v i d u a l d e v e l o p s an o c c u p a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y t h r ough l e a r n i n g by o b s e r v a t i o n , i m i t a t i o n , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s and then seeks ou t o c c u p a t i o n s t h a t h e l p t o v e r i f y and p r e s e r v e t h i s i d e n t i t y . To summarize the p r e c e d i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l work on o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e s e f rameworks d i f f e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e emphas i s t h a t i s a c c o r d ed to d eve l opmen t a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . Super (1953) and H a v i n g h u r s t (1953) f o c u s t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on the p r o c e s s e s l e a d i n g t o an o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , whe reas , Roe - 1 5 -(1956) and H o l l a n d (1959) c o n c e n t r a t e upon the p r o d u c t s o f t h a t c h o i c e . These t h e o r i e s a r e s i m i l a r , however , t o the e x t e n t t h a t t h ey a l l s t r e s s t he impo r t ance o f t he i n d i v i d u a l i n the c h o i c e p r o c e s s . D e s p i t e t he t endency o f t he se t h e o r e t i c a l f rameworks t o h i g h l i g h t the i n d i v i d u a l and t o down p l a y the i n t e r a c t i o n o f t he i n d i v i d u a l w i t h s i t u a t i o n a l and s o c i e t a l f a c t o r s , some i m p o r t a n t i n s i g h t s i n t o o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e may be d e r i v e d f rom them. The impo r t o f t h e s e t h e o r i e s f o r t he deve l opment o f a b r o a d e r f ramework f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . l i e s i n two a r e a s . They i d e n t i f y a p p r o p r i a t e l y t he p r o c e s s l e a d i n g towards o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e and they i d e n t i f y some o f t he l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t i n f l u e n c e the deve lopment o f an o c c u p a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y . I t wou ld appear t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s l e a r n about d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n s t h r ough t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n and i m i t a t i o n o f s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s . T h e r e f o r e , o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e may be based on the s t e r e o t y p i c a l v i ews o f o c c u p a t i o n s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s g a i n f rom t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h , and l e a r n i n g f r om , s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s . S o c i o l o g i c a l Resea r ch on O c c u p a t i o n a l Cho i c e O c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e has a l s o been the f o c u s o f i n t e r e s t f o r r e s e a r c h e r s w o r k i n g f rom a s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , and G i n z b e r g e t . a l ' s (1951) work has been i n f l u e n t i a l here as w e l l . These r e s e a r c h e r s examine the p r o c e s s o f c h o i c e i n r e l a t i o n t o t he i n t e r a c t i o n s between both, i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t a l f a c t o r s . S o c i o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e had, p r i o r t o the work o f G i n z b e r g e t . a l . ( 1 9 5 1 ) , been l i m i t e d t o t h a t wh i ch s t ood t o be i l l u m i n a t e d by a m a c r o s c o p i c a n a l y s i s o f work . The r e s e a r c h f o l l o w i n g the work o f G i n z b e r g e t . a l . ( 1951) marked a change i n f o c u s i n s o c i o l o g i c a l - 1 6 -a n a l y s e s o f work . O c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e became an a r ea o f i n t e r e s t i n i t s own r i g h t and r e s e a r c h e r s a t t emp ted t o d e v e l o p a p u r e l y s o c i o l o g i c a l t h e o r y t o e x p l a i n t h e dynamics o f the p r o c e s s l e a d i n g t o an o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . S o c i a l i z a t i o n became the p i v o t a l c on cep t i n the en su i ng s o c i o l o g i c a l f ramework f o r a n a l y s i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . Resea r ch f ramed by t h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n a t t emp ted t o i d e n t i f y the f a c t o r s , bo th s o c i e t a l and i n d i v i d u a l , t h a t i n f l u e n c e d t h i s c h o i c e and , i n a d d i t i o n , t o examine the n a t u r e o f t h e p r o c e s s l e a d i n g t o an o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e ( E l l i o t t , 1972; G r o s s , 1958; Rogo f f , 1957; T h e i l e n s , 1957 ) . T h i s r e s e a r c h d i f f e r e d f rom the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approach t o o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e i n two s i g n i f i c a n t ways . The f i r s t o f t he se r e s t s i n the d e f i n i t i o n o f t he p r ob l em. U n l i k e t he e a r l i e r work o f G i n z b e r g e t . a l . (1951) t h e r e were more r i g o r o u s a t t e m p t s t o d e l i n a t e the p r ob l em . G i n z b e r g e t . a l . ' s (1951) d e l i n a t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e as the range o f a l l o c c u p a t i o n s w i t h i n a g i v en s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e was c o n s i d e r e d to be t oo g e n e r a l . G r o s s (1958) and E l l i o t t (1972) bo th made the d i s t i n c t i o n between the range o f a l l p o s s i b l e c h o i c e s a v a i l a b l e t o an i n d i v i d u a l and t he a c t u a l range o f c h o i c e s a v a i l a b l e to the i n d i v i d u a l . The l a t t e r subsumes a much s m a l l e r range t h a t i s d e l i m i t e d by f a c t o r s such as s o c i a l c l a s s , gende r , l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n , c u l t u r e and f a m i l y and peer i n f l u e n c e . G r o s s (1958) made t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n c l e a r i n h i s s t a t emen t t h a t i n s h o r t , " c h o i c e " s hou l d be examined i n the c o n t e x t o f t he r e a l i s t i c a l t e r n a t i v e s open t o the i n d i v i d u a l , h i s knowledge o f them, and h i s a c c e s s t o them. ( p . 146) T h i s i m p o r t a n t d i s t i n c t i o n had i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t i n g , o c c u p a t i n a l c h o i c e . - 1 7 -T h i s r e d e f i n i t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e l e d t o t he second s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t he r e s e a r c h r e s u l t i n g f rom a s o c i o l o g i c a l f ramework . S o c i a l i z a t i o n , d e f i n e d as " t h e p r o c e s s e s by wh i ch peop l e s e l e c t i v e l y a c q u i r e t he v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s , the i n t e r e s t , s k i l l s and know l edge - i n s h o r t t he c u l t u r e c u r r e n t i n the g roups o f wh i ch t hey a r e , o r seek t o become members" ( M e r t o n , 1957, p. 287) assumed new i m p o r t a n c e . The p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o v i d e d r e s e a r c h e r s w i t h a f ramework f o r a n a l y s i n g the " r e a l i s t i c " a l t e r n a t i v e s open t o an i n d i v i d u a l . Once s o c i a l i z a t i o n became the a n a l y t i c a l t o o l f o r t he a n a l y s i s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , r e s e a r c h e r s began t o v i ew t h i s c h o i c e as one p a r t o f t he l a r g e r p r o c e s s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . The r e s u l t a n t s t u d i e s a t t e n d e d , i n t he ma i n , t o the med i c a l and l e g a l p r o f e s s i o n s and r e s e a r c h e r s d e v e l o p e d and used models o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n t o gu i de t h e i r r e s e a r c h ( M e r t o n , 1957; Rogo f f , 1957; T h e i l e n s , 1957 ) . The Professional Socialization Literature Resea r ch i n t o o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e as a p a r t o f the r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s has r e c e i v e d v e r y l i t t l e c o n c e p t u a l and e m p i r i c a l a t t e n t i o n i n p r o f e s s i o n s o t h e r than m e d i c i n e and l aw . P r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n r ema ins n e g l e c t e d i n bo th t he t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n and i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . I t i s assumed t h a t t he r e s e a r c h on o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Where t h e r e i s any d a t a f rom s t u d i e s on p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t h i s w i l l be c i t e d bu t i n t he absence o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i t i s u s e f u l t o r e f e r t o the f i n d i n g s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s f rom m e d i c i n e , l aw , d e n t i s t r y and t e a c h i n g . W h o l e s a l e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e - 1 8 -f i n d i n g s i s not b e i n g a d v o c a t e d . R a t h e r , t hey a re t o be v iewed as u s e f u l g u i d e l i n e s f o r r e s e a r c h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . I n i t i a l s t u d i e s i n m e d i c i n e and law t h a t add r e s s ed r e c r u i t m e n t , i n v e s t i g a t e d not o n l y t he ways i n wh i ch i n d i v i d u a l s made c e r t a i n c h o i c e s b u t , a l s o , some o f the r ea sons why t hey made t he se p a r t i c u l a r c h o i c e s . These i n v e s t i g a t i o n s examined bo th t he f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the c h o i c e t o s t udy med i c i n e o r law and the t i m i n g o f t he se c h o i c e s ( R o g o f f , 1957; T h e i l e n s , 1957 ) . Rogo f f ( 1957 ) and T h e i l e n s (1957 ) i d e n t i f y two t y pe s o f c h o i c e p a t t e r n s f o r e n t r a n t s i n t o med i c i n e and l aw . They d i f f e r e n t i a t e between y o u t h f u l and o l d e r d e c i d e r s ( R o g o f f ) and e a r l y and l a t e d e c i d e r s ( T h e i l e n s ) i n t h e i r s t u d i e s . They found e v i d e n c e t o sugges t t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e s e g roups make t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e s i n d i f f e r e n t ways . They found t h a t f o r e a r l y and y o u t h f u l d e c i d e r s p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e and encouragement ( e s p e c i a l l y t h a t o f the f a t h e r ) , t he p r e sence o f , and c o n t a c t w i t h , f a m i l y members who were d o c t o r s o r l awye r s and the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s o f p a r e n t s were a l l s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g towards c a r e e r c h o i c e . O l d e r o r l a t e d e c i d e r s , on the o t h e r hand, a t t r i b u t e d f a c t o r s such as peer i n f l u e n c e and encouragement , the p r e sence p f a r o l e model i n the p r o f e s s i o n and p e r s o n a l academic a ch i evement as i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e s i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s t o e n t e r law o r m e d i c i n e . H e l f r i c h ( 1 9 7 5 ) , i n her r e s e a r c h on d i f f e r e n t pathways o f e n t r y i n t o d e n t a l s c h o o l , i n v e s t i g a t e d the p a t t e r n s o f e v e n t s , s i t u a t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e s t h t c a t e g o r i z e d p a r t i c u l a r pa ths o r r o u t e s o f e n t r y i n t o d e n t a l s c h o o l . She i d e n t i f i e d f o u r d i f f e r e n t pathways and found e v i d e n c e to - 1 9 -sugges t t h a t d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s were s i g n i f i c a n t i n t he c h o i c e o f d e n t i s t r y as a c a r e e r , dependent upon the n a t u r e and t i m i n g o f t h a t c h o i c e . She . d i s t i n g u i s h e d between i n d i v i d u a l s who made t h e i r d e c i s i o n s : d u r i n g h i g h s choo l ( e a r l y s choo l d e c i d e r s ) , d u r i n g c o l l e g e ( l a t e s choo l d e c i d e r s ) , a t work a f t e r h i gh s choo l ( e a r l y work d e c i d e r s ) and a t work a f t e r c o l l e g e ( l a t e work d e c i d e r s ) . She found t h a t t he r e c r u i t s i n the f o u r c a t e g o r i e s d i f f e r e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r s o c i a l o r i g i n s , i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n f l u e n c e s , c o l l e g e e x p e r i e n c e s and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s . The s t u d i e s by H e l f r i c h ( 1 9 7 5 ) , Rogo f f (1957) and T h e i l e n s (1957) a re i m p o r t a n t as t hey mark a move f rom s i n g l e pa th models f o r r o u t e s o f e n t r y i n t o o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d s t o m u l t i p l e pa th models where the passage t h r ough f o rma l e d u c a t i o n i n t o a p r o f e s s i o n i s not a lways assumed t o be i n v a r i a n t and c o n t i n u o u s . In o t h e r wo rd s , t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s do not assume t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s e n t e r p r o f e s s i o n s v i a h i g h l y u n i f o r m pathways i n wh i ch e n t r y i s med i a t ed t h r ough a s e r i e s o f s i m i l a r , s u c c e s s i v e , i n v a r i a n t s t e p s . Ra t he r t h ey acknow ledge t h a t t h e r e may be o t h e r pathways l e a d i n g t o e n t r y i n t o p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l s ( B e c k e r and S t r u a s s , 1956 ) . These r e s u l t s have i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g the f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . They sugges t t h a t t he d e c i s i o n t o e n t e r t he p r o f e s s i o n i s i n f l u e n c e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways f o r d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s depend ing on the t i m i n g and c o n t e x t o f t h e i r d e c i s i on . W h i l s t g r a n t i n g t he se i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s , t h e s e s t u d i e s were not w i t h o u t l i m i t a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h e s e e a r l y s t u d i e s were gu i ded and f ramed by a v i ew o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n , i n v e s t i g a t o r s were not gu i d ed by any - 2 0 -s p e c i f i c f ramework . Thus , i n t he absence o f a f ramework t o l i n k t he f i n d i n g s f rom t he se s t u d i e s , i n v e s t i g a t i o n s exam in i ng r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o the p r o f e s s i o n s rema in d e s c r i p t i v e r a t h e r than e x p l a n a t o r y . I t i s i n t h i s l i g h t t h a t L o r t i e ' s (1975) s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f s choo l t e a c h e r s and t e a c h i n g was a s t ep f o r w a r d . L o r t i e (1975) o u t l i n e d a f ramework f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e and used i t t o examine the p r o c e s s o f r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n . For h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h i s p r o c e s s L o r t i e (1975) i d e n t i f i e s the " r e c r u i t m e n t r e s o u r c e s " o f a p r o f e s s i o n . These a r e d e f i n e d as t he p r o p e r t i e s wh i ch a s s i s t an o c c u p a t i o n i n compet i ng f o r manpower and t a l e n t . ( L o r t i e , 1975, p. 2 6 ) . An i n d i v i d u a l i s , i n t h i s mode l , a t t r a c t e d to an o c c u p a t i o n as a r e s u l t o f t he r e c r u i t m e n t r e s o u r c e s t h a t a r e p r o f f e r e d t o p o t e n t i a l r e c r u i t s . L o r t i e (1975) i d e n t i f i e s two t y p e s o f r e c r u i t m e n t r e s o u r c e s , wh i ch he c a l l s a t t r a c t o r s and f a c i l i t a t o r s . A t t r a c t o r s a r e the c o m p a r a t i v e b e n e f i t s t h a t a r e o f f e r e d p o t e n t i a l r e c r u i t s . These i n c l u d e bo th m a t e r i a l b e n e f i t s (money, j o b s e c u r i t y and s o c i a l m o b i l i t y ) and p s y c h i c o r s y m b o l i c a t t r a c t o r s ( p r e s t i g e , power and s a t i s f a c t i o n ) . F a c i l i t a t o r s a r e t he s o c i a l mechanisms t h a t f a c i l i t a t e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s e n t r y i n t o an o c c u p a t i o n o r p r o f e s s i o n and t h e s e i n c l u d e the i n f l u e n c e o f s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s ( t e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s , f a m i l y and f r i e n d s ) , t he absence o f o c c u p a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s (one may f a i l t o meet t he e n t r y r e q u i r e m e n t s o f o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s ) and f i n a l l y , the s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s o f r e c r u i t s . -21-Recruitment into the Physical Education Profession L o r t i e ' s (1975) model p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r t he a n a l y s i s o f t he r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . To d a t e , t h e r e has been v e r y l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n the p r o c e s s o f r e c r u i t m e n t , e i t h e r c o n c e p t u a l l y o r e m p i r i c a l l y , w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . T e m p l i n , Woodford and M u l l i n g (1982) i n t h e i r r e v i e w o f t he o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e and a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n found o n l y f o u r s t u d i e s t h a t have examined t h i s p r o c e s s ( M u l l i n g , 1981; P o o l e y , 1970; T e m p l i n , 1979; and Wood fo rd , 1 977 ) . The' r e s e a r c h exam in i ng the r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n w i l l be r e v i e w e d i n o r d e r t h a t some o f t he f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the c h o i c e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as a p r o f e s s i o n may be d e t e r m i n e d . L o r t i e ' s (1975) t h e m a t i c s t r u c t u r e p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l method o f o r g a n i z i n g and l i n k i n g the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . The I n t e r p e r s o n a l Theme Both the r o l e s o f t e a c h e r o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and coach i n a s choo l a t h l e t i c s programme i n v o l v e e x t e n s i v e p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h young c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s . G i v en the peop l e c e n t e r e d o r i e n t a t i o n o f the p r o f e s s i o n one m igh t e xpe c t t h a t p o t e n t i a l r e c r u i t s wou ld r e f l e c t such an o r i e n t a t i o n . The d a t a f rom the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n r e s e a r c h s u p p o r t s t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n . There i s e v i d e n c e t o i n d i c a t e t h a t a ma jo r f a c t o r i n r e c r u i t s ' d e c i s i o n s t o e n t e r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s t he d e s i r e t o work w i t h and he l p o t h e r s ( P o o l e y , 1970; T e m p l i n , 1979; Wood fo rd , 1977 ) . - 2 2 -P o o l e y (1970 ) and Woodford (1977 ) bo th found t h a t a p p r o x i a m t e l y 40 p e r c e n t o f the e n t r a n t s s u r v eyed i n t h e i r s t u d i e s a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r c h o i c e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t o t h e d e s i r e t o h e l p o t h e r s . T emp l i n ( 1 9 7 9 ) , found a s i m i l a r t r e n d i n h i s d a t a w i t h a lmos t 30 p e r c e n t o f h i s sample c i t i n g t h a t t he i n t e r p e r s o n a l d imens i o n o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n was a ma jo r f a c t o r i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s t o e n t e r programmes o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . M u l l i n g ( 1 9 8 1 ) , i n a s u r vey o f 21 e n t r a n t s t o a u n i v e r s i t y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme, f ound t h a t 95 p e r c e n t o f her sample chose p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n because o f the o p p o r t u n i t i e s i t p r o v i d e d f o r h e l p i n g o t h e r s . She a l s o found t h a t o f t h i s 95 p e r c e n t 71 p e r c e n t r e v e a l e d a d e s i r e t o work w i t h c h i l d r e n . T h i s f i n d i n g g a i n s s uppo r t f rom the d a t a f rom the N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n ( 1980 -81 ) s tudy on the s t a t u s o f t he Amer i can s c h o o l t e a c h e r . 82 p e r c e n t o f the p r a c t i s i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s su rveyed e n t e r e d the f i e l d as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r d e s i r e t o work w i t h c h i l d r e n . The S e r v i c e Theme L o r t i e (1975) a l s o examined the a t t r a c t i o n o f t e a c h i n g on the b a s i s o f s e r v i c e . He found t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who e n t e r e d t e a c h i n g tended t o v i ew the p r o f e s s i o n as one i n wh i ch i t was p o s s i b l e to p r o v i d e a v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e t o s o c i e t y . There i s e v i d e n c e t h a t t he same f e e l i n g s h o l d t r u e f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n e n t r a n t s ( P o o l e y , 1970; T e m p l i n , 1979; Wood fo rd , 1977 ) . M u l l i n g (1981) a l s o found t h a t f o r 61 p e r c e n t o f her samp le , the o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r o v i d e a v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e t o s o c i e t y was a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s t o e n t e r programmes o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . The d a t a f rom t h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s sugges t t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s v i ew p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as a p r o f e s s i o n t h a t a f f o r d s them w i t h t he o p p o r t u n i t y - 2 3 -t o work w i t h p e o p l e , e s p e c i a l l y young p e o p l e , and t o p r o v i d e a v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e t o s o c i e t y . Whether t h i s i s t r u e i n eve r y case r ema ins a q u e s t i o n . However, t h e s e v i ews o f t he p r o f e s s i o n appear t o s e r ve as i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e s i n t he c h o i c e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as a c a r e e r . The C o n t i n u a t i o n Theme Many o f the i m p r e s s i o n s , v i e w p o i n t s o r f rames o f r e f e r e n c e r e c r u i t s have o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a re d e v e l o p e d and m o d i f i e d i n the l i g h t o f bo th p r i m a r y and seconda ry i n v o l v e m e n t s i n s choo l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . T h i s i s s ugges t ed by the f a c t t h a t Temp l i n (1979) and Woodford (1977) found t h a t t he v a s t m a j o r i t y o f r e c r u i t s i n t h e i r s t u d i e s ( a l m o s t 90 p e r c e n t ) en j oyed t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s i n bo th p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and a t h l e t i c s i n e l e m e n t a r y and se conda ry s c h o o l . P oo l e y ( 1 9 7 0 ) , Temp l i n (1979) and Woodford (1977) a l s o found t h a t r e c r u i t s spen t a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e i r l e i s u r e t ime i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n or s p o r t r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . The d a t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t the ma jo r f o c u s i n t he l i v e s o f the m a j o r i t y o f the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n r e c r u i t s i s s p o r t . In f a c t , bo th Temp l i n (1979) and Woodford (1977) found t h a t 90 p e r c e n t o f the e n t r a n t s i n t h e i r s t u d i e s had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c s p o r t , and f u r t h e r , t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f t he se r e c r u i t s (78 p e r c e n t and 86 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) had been i n v o l v e d i n c o a ch i n g and t e a c h i n g w h i l e a t t e n d i n g s e conda ry s c h o o l . I t wou ld appear t h a t f o r a number o f i n d i v i d u a l s p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programmes may be v i ewed as s p o r t programmes. Programmes, t h a t may, u l t i m a t e l y , p r o v i d e a u s e f u l s t e p p i n g s t one en r o u t e t o c a r e e r s i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s p o r t . T h i s v i ew o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as a c a r e e r c o n t i n g e n c y ( Lawson , i n p r e s s ) r e f l e c t s n o n - a l t r u s t i c - 2 4 -m o t i v e s f o r e n t r y i n t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programmes and must be c o n s i d e r e d i n any e x a m i n a t i o n o f r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o the p r o f e s s i o n . I t wou ld appear then t h a t r e c r u i t s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programmes have e x t e n s i v e p r i m a r y and se conda ry i n v o l v e m e n t s i n s p o r t . They p a r t i c i p a t e i n i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c and agency sponso red s p o r t s , assume t e a c h i n g and c o a c h i n g r o l e s , m a i n t a i n s p e c t a t o r i n t e r e s t and read the s p o r t r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e , a l l o f wh i ch s e r ve t o f o s t e r an i n t e r e s t i n bo th c o a c h i n g and t e a c h i n g as c a r e e r o p t i o n s . The s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s o f t he se r e c r u i t s seem t o be g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by e x p e r i e n c e s i n bo th p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and s p o r t . In a d d i t i o n , i t appea r s t h a t i n t e r e s t and a b i l i t y i n s p o r t and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y form an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h i s r e c r u i t m e n t r e s o u r c e . T h e r e f o r e , i t wou ld seem t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s may e x p e r i e n c e a v a r i e t y o f i n f l u e n c e s t h a t l e a d towards t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n s p o r t and t h e n , as a consequence o f t h i s i n v o l v e m e n t , t h e i r a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s and v i ews o f t he p r o f e s s i o n may be c o n t o u r e d f u r t h e r . Here then i s an i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t u a l and t h e o r e t i c a l l i n k between s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n t o , and s o c i a l i z a t i o n v i a , s p o r t . I t i l l u m i n a t e s f u r t h e r the s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t . Ease o f E n t r a n c e i n t o P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Programmes I t has a l r e a d y been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t e n t r a n t s i n t o programmes o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n v i ew i n t e r e s t and a b i l i t y i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as i m p o r t a n t p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r e n t r y . However, f a c t o r s such as t he a d m i s s i o n s t a n d a r d s and t he a c a d e n i c r i g o u r o f t he programme, the y e a r s spent i n t r a i n i n g and the f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s r e q u i r e d to comp le t e t h i s t r a i n i n g , a re a l l f a c t o r s t h a t may be i m p o r t a n t when c a r e e r c h o i c e s a r e b e i n g made. -25-There i s no i n f o r m a t i o n on the impo r t an ce o f t h e s e f a c t o r s f o r r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programmes o r how t he se f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e t he r e c r u i t s ' d e c i s i o n s when making c ompa r i s on s w i t h o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l programmes. T h i s a s p e c t o f r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n m e r i t s a t t e n t i o n as the n a t u r e o f t h e s e e n t r a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s w i l l d e t e r m i n e , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , t he academic c a l i b r e o f the i n d i v i d u a l s t he p r o f e s s i o n i s a b l e t o a t t r a c t and r e t a i n . The i s s u e o f programme s t a n d a r d s l e a d s t o q u e s t i o n s about t he t ype o f i n d i v i d u a l s who a re a t t r a c t e d t o bo th t e a c h i n g i n g e n e r a l and programmes i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r . T emp l i n e t . a l . (1982) found e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n e n t r a n t s g e n e r a l l y have v e r y med i o c r e r e c o r d s o f h i g h s choo l academic a ch i e vemen t . T h i s , c o u p l e d w i t h the low e n t r a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f many p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programmes, s ugge s t s t h a t pe rhaps p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s one o f the few a l t e r n a t i v e s open t o many e a r l y d e c i d e r s and to l a t e d e c i d e r s w i t h b l o c k e d a s p i r a t i o n s . T h i s p r o p o s i t i o n g a i n s s uppo r t f rom s t u d i e s f rom B o o k w a l t e r (1941) and Kenyon (1965) who bo t h found t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ma j o r s were i n f e r i o r t o o t h e r s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r p e r f o rmance s on t e s t s measu r i ng i n t e l l e c t u a l a p t i t u d e . In e f f e c t , the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n e n t r a n t may be l i m i t e d i n t he o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e i n p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n as a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o meet the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l programmes. T h i s p r o p o s i t i o n g a i n s a d d i t i o n a l s u ppo r t f rom the f i n d i n g s f rom a n a t i o n w i d e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t he academic a b i l i t y i n t he t e a c h i n g f o r c e i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s (Vance & S c h l e c h t y , 1 982 ) . I t was found t h a t t e a c h i n g not o n l y f a i l e d to a t t r a c t the most a b l e c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e s bu t a t t r a c t e d a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e sha re o f t he l e a s t a b l e g r a d u a t e s . Vance and -26-S c h l e c h t y (1982) a t t r i b u t e t h i s t o the l a c k o f r i g o u r i n the e n t r a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f most t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n programmes and the c o n c o m i t a n t l a c k o f r e s p e c t and s t a t u s o f the p r o f e s s i o n . These f i n d i n g s have s e r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o t he who le t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n , i n c l u d i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . These i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e c l e a r l y s p e l l e d ou t by Vance and S c h l e c h t y (1982) when t hey s t a t e t h a t t he f a c t t h a t t e a c h i n g i s u n a t t r a c t i v e t o the more a c a d e m i c a l l y a b l e and d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y a t t r a c t i v e t o the l e s s a b l e c r e a t e s a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s p rob lem f o r the t e a c h i n g o c c u p a t i o n and p r o b a b l y s e r v e s to d i s c o u r a g e many p o t e n t i a l l y competent t e a c h e r s f rom p u r s u i n g c a r e e r s i n t h i s f i e l d , ( p . 2 6 ) . I t can be seen then t h a t t he c o m p a r a t i v e ease o f e n t r y i n t o programmes o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n may se r ve to a t t r a c t r e c r u i t s who have r e l a t i v e l y poor academic r e c o r d s . T h i s may be the o n l y o p t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e s e r e c r u i t s as the e n t r a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l programmes a re more s t r i n g e n t and r e q u i r e h i g h e r l e v e l s o f academic a c h i e v emen t . T h i s has i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t he s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n r e c r u i t s . The l a c k o f r i g o u r i n the s e l e c t i o n o f e n t r a n t s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n seems to imp l y t h a t academic e x c e l l e n c e i s not an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f the p r o f e s s i o n . By unde rm in i ng t h i s a s p e c t o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programmes one m igh t e xpe c t r e c r u i t s t o v i ew the p r o f e s s i o n as a lmos t t o t a l l y s k i l l and pe r f o rmance o r i e n t e d . P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , i n t h i s v i ew , i s p l a y i n g games and l e a r n i n g how t o t e a ch them to o t h e r s . There i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t t h i s i s the b a s i s f o r an o c c u p a t i o n a l s t e r o t y p e . Hendry and W h i t i n g ( 1 9 7 2 ) , f o r examp le , found t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s were v iewed as r e p r e s e n t i n g body r a t h e r than m ind . T h i s image o f - 2 7 -the p r o f e s s i o n , a l t h o u g h s t e r e o t y p i c a l and a t odds w i t h the r e a l i t i e s o f work , fo rms the b a s i s f o r t he c a r e e r c h o i c e s o f many p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n r e c r u i t s . T h i s image may se r ve to a t t r a c t c e r t a i n t y p e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s t o the p r o f e s s i o n , w h i l e f a i l i n g t o a t t r a c t o t h e r s who may be e q u a l l y s u i t e d t o a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . H e r e i n l i e s the impo r t an ce o f the s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t . I t p r o v i d e s an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a c e r t a i n v i ew o f the p r o f e s s i o n and , as s u ch , d e t e r m i n e s the t y p e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s a t t r a c t e d to and , by t he same t o k e n , r e p e l l e d f rom a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . S o c i a l i z i n g Agen t s as F a c i l i t a t o r s The r e s e a r c h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n has c o n c e n t r a t e d upon the i n f l u e n c e s o f s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l s i n t he l i v e s o f r e c r u i t s , name ly , t e a c h e r s , c o a c h e s , p a r e n t s and f a m i l y members. The d a t a f rom t h e s e s t u d i e s has • l a r g e l y been o b t a i n e d from new e n t r a n t s t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programmes who have g e n e r a l l y a l l made the d e c i s i o n t o e n t e r t h e s e programmes w h i l e s t i l l a t h i g h s c h o o l . The s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s f o r t h e s e e a r l y d e c i d e r s ' have been found t o be t e a c h e r s , coaches and immed ia te f a m i l y . The i n f l u e n c e o f a r o l e model such as a t e a c h e r o r coach may be e i t h e r p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e . In the f o rmer case the r e c r u i t e n t e r s t he p r o f e s s i o n w i t h t he i n t e n t o f e m u l a t i n g the mode l . The d e s i r e t o t e a c h o r coach j u s t l i k e a p a r t i c u l a r coach o r t e a c h e r who i s v i ewed as an exemp la r y model i s an i m p o r t a n t a t t r a c t o r to the p r o f e s s i o n f o r many r e c r u i t s . For t he r e c r u i t w i t h a n e g a t i v e r o l e mode l , t he d e s i r e i s t o e n t e r the p r o f e s s i o n i n o r d e r to f o s t e r change . Temp l i n ( 1 9 7 9 ) , f ound examples o f bo th o f t h e s e o r i e n t a t i o n s i n the r e c r u i t s i n h i s s t u d y , t h a t i s t ho se who were commi t ted -28-t o p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t he system and t ho se who b e l i e v e d s t r o n g l y i n the need f o r change . Data f rom the s t u d i e s by Poo l e y ( 1 9 7 0 ) , Temp l i n ( 1 9 7 9 ) , Seagrave (1980) and Woodford (1977) sugges t t h a t f o r the m a j o r i t y o f r e c r u i t s , i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e i r r o l e s as c o a c h e s , r a t h e r than as t e a c h e r s , o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n were most i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s t o e n t e r the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n . For examp le , Poo l ey (1970) found t h a t 41 p e r c e n t o f h i s sample f e l t t h a t t h e i r coaches were most i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s t o e n t e r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , whe reas , o n l y 28 p e r c e n t o f h i s sample a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r e n t r i e s to the i n f l u e n c e o f t e a c h e r s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Seagrave (1980) found t h a t , when g i v e n the c h o i c e between c o a c h i n g and t e a c h i n g , most o f h i s r e s ponden t s chose c o a c h i n g , s p e c i f i c a l l y , c o a c h i n g the s p o r t s i n wh i ch t hey were a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d as a t h l e t e s . The d a t a f rom the Temp l i n (1979) and Woodford (1977) s t u d i e s d i d not d i s t i n g u i s h between p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s and c o a che s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s d a t a s u p p o r t s the f a c t t h a t bo th p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s and coaches a re v i ewed by many e n t r a n t s as b e i n g the most i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s t o e n t e r programmes o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . The d a t a f rom t h e s e s t u d i e s a l s o r e v e a l s s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n c e s between male and f ema le e n t r a n t s on the e x t e n t t o wh i ch p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s and coaches were i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e i r c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s . P oo l e y (1970) found t h a t 58 p e r c e n t o f the males i n h i s sample f e l t t h a t t h e i r coaches were most i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s , whe reas , o n l y 12 p e r c e n t o f the males a t t r i b u t e d the same impo r t an ce t o t h e i r t e a c h e r s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . For t he f ema le e n t r a n t s i n h i s sample the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r was most i n f l u e n t i a l f o r 48 p e r c e n t , whe reas , coaches were o n l y f e l t to be most -29-i n f l u e n t i a l by 23 p e r c e n t . These t r e n d s were a l s o found i n t he d a t a f rom T e m p l i n ' s (1979) and Wood f o r d ' s (1977) s t u d i e s , wh i ch wou ld appear to imp l y t h a t f o r many ma les e n t r y i n t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s med i a t ed by the i n f l u e n c e o f a coach b u t , f o r f e m a l e s , t h i s i n f l u e n c e i s l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t e a c h e r s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . A l t h o u g h gende r d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s o f o c c u p a t i o n s and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e has not been the s u b j e c t o f much e x a m i n a t i o n i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t i n g the p e r c e p t i o n s o f and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f male and fema le p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s ( B a i n and Wendt, i n p r e s s ; L ande r s , 1970) i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e a re s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between them. T h i s f i n d i n g i s a l s o s uppo r t ed by the more g e n e r i c o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e (McLure and P i e l , 1978; O ' B r y a n t , D u r r e t t and Pennebake r , 1978) where t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t ma les and f ema l e s v i ew o c c u p a t i o n s i n d i f f e r e n t ways and o f t e n make v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s on the b a s i s o f d i f f e r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n and i n f l u e n c e s . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s i m p o r t a n t when i n v e s t i g a t i n g the s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s o f p o t e n t i a l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n r e c r u i t s t o have an awareness o f gender d i f f e r e n c e s and d e v e l o p a t h e o r e t i c a l f ramework t h a t a c c oun t s f o r t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s . These f i n d i n g s have o t h e r i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . One m igh t e xpe c t t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s e n t e r i n g programmes t h a t a r e d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t owards t he e d u c a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n wou ld c i t e t e a c h e r s r a t h e r than coaches as most i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e i r c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s . The f a c t t h a t t h i s i s not the case - 3 0 -f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f e n t r a n t s t o t h e s e programmes s ugge s t s ' t h a t t h e s e r e c r u i t s have s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s t h a t do not v i ew p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n as o n l y e d u c a t i o n f o r t e a c h i n g . I t i s p o s s i b l e , on the o t h e r hand, t h a t many r e c r u i t s have not made a d i s t i n c t i o n between c o a c h i n g and t e a c h i n g and may v i ew them as two i n t e r r e l a t e d w o r k i n g r o l e s . B a i n and Wendt ( i n p r e s s ) o b t a i n e d e v i d e n c e t o s uppo r t t h i s v i e w . They found t h a t p r o s p e c t i v e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r s p e r c e i v e d the r o l e s o f t e a c h e r and coach as r e q u i r i n g s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r t i s t i c s and a b i l i t i e s . In a d d i t i o n , they found t h a t 58 p e r c e n t o f the f ema l e s and 45 p e r c e n t o f the males i n t h e i r sample d i s p l a y e d an equa l committment t o bo th t e a c h i n g and c o a c h i n g . Thus , d e s p i t e documented r o l e c o n f l i c t , t h i s shows how t he s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t can be a t odds w i t h r e a l i t i e s . F i n d i n g s f rom s t u d i e s i n m e d i c i n e , l aw , d e n t i s t r y and t e a c h i n g have a l l shown t h a t f a m i l y members e x e r t c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e on c a r e e r c h o i c e ( H e l f r i c h , 1975; L o r t i e , 1975; R o g o f f , 1957; T h e i l e n s , 1957 ) . T h i s i n f l u e n c e i s a l s o a p p a r e n t , bu t t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , i n the d a t a f rom the s t u d i e s on p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n r e c r u i t s . P o o l e y ( 1 9 7 0 ) , Temp l i n (1979) and Woodford (1977) a l l f ound e v i d e n c e t o sugges t t h a t t h e i r e n t r a n t s f e l t t h a t t h e i r f a t h e r s a nd / o r mothers e x e r t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s t o e n t e r programmes o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . The d a t a f rom t he s e s t u d i e s v a r i e d t o t he e x t e n t t h a t they found gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n the degree o f p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e and o n l y Woodford (1977) f ound t h a t h i s e n t r a n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t s i b l i n g s were i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e s . P oo l e y (1970) f ound t h a t 19 p e r c e n t o f t he males i n h i s sample and 8 p e r c e n t o f t he f ema l e s c i t e d t h e i r f a t h e r s as t he most i n f l u e n t i a l i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e i r c h o i c e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as a c a r e e r . -31-He a l s o f ound t h a t 12 p e r c e n t o f t he f ema l e s c i t e d t h e i r mothers as most i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h i s c h o i c e . Woodford (1977) found m in ima l d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e a c r o s s gende r . He found t h a t 18 p e r c e n t o f h i s sample c i t e d t h e i r f a t h e r s as most i m p o r t a n t and 8 p e r c e n t c i t e d t h e i r mothers as most i m p o r t a n t . In a d d i t i o n , 10 p e r c e n t o f h i s sample c i t e d an o l d e r b r o t h e r as be i ng most i n f l u e n t i a l . Temp l i n (1979) found t h a t 16 p e r c e n t o f h i s sample f e l t t h a t t h e i r f a t h e r s were most i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e s and 10 p e r c e n t c i t e d t h e i r mothers i n t h i s r o l e . T h i s d a t a s ugge s t s t h a t the s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s o f r e c r u i t s a re i n f l u e n c e d by the s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s i n t h e i r l i v e s . These i n d i v i d u a l s seem p r i m a r i l y t o be c oa che s , t e a c h e r s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , f a t h e r s , mothers and s i b l i n g s , p a r t i c u l a r l y o l d e r b r o t h e r s . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t the e x t e n t o f t h i s i n f l u e n c e v a r i e s , i n bo th degree and k i n d , between r e c r u i t s and i n r e l a t i o n to the o t h e r f a c t o r s t h a t make up t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s . Implications of this Research for the Subjective Warrant for Physical Education There a re c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s i n the s t u d i e s on o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . F i r s t , and most i m p o r t a n t , Temp l i n e t . a l . ( 1 9 8 2 ) , i n t h e i r a n a l y s i s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e and the a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , adopt i n t o t o L o r t i e 1 s (1975) model f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . W i t h i n t h i s f ramework , the s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s v i ewed as o n l y one o f a number o f r e c r u i t m e n t r e s o u r c e s t h a t s e r ve t o f a c i l i t a t e e n t r y i n t o t he p r o f e s s i o n . On the o t h e r hand , t he s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t emerges i n t h i s a n a l y s e s as a b r oade r c o n s t r u c t , t han L o r t i e ( 1975 ) . f i r s t . e n v i s aged . For examp le , i n t he l i g h t o f - 3 2 -the a n a l y s e s o f a n t i c i p a t o r y s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o v i d e d by Poo l e y ( 1972 ,1975 ) and Wes te rn and Ande rson (1968) and , Lawson ' s ( i n p r e s s ) d i s c u s s i o n o f r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s e s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , the s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t i s the p e r c e p t u a l frame t h r ough wh i ch r e c r u i t s v i ew the p r o f e s s i o n . I t p r o v i d e s a v i s i o n t h a t i s shaped and d e v e l o p e d as a r e s u l t o f a l l t he a t t r a c t o r s and f a c i l i t a t o r s t h a t L o r t i e (1975) i d e n t i f i e s as r e c r u i t m e n t r e s o u r c e s . The s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t , i n t h i s s t u d y , p r o v i d e s the key t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t he p r o c e s s o f r e c r u i t m e n t i n the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n . When v i ewed i n t h i s way the s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t p r o v i d e s a c o n s t r u c t i n wh i ch i t i s p o s s i b l e to l i n k a l l o f t he f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e the p r o c e s s o f r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o t he p r o f e s s i o n . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e a re i n h e r e n t l i m i t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the w h o l e s a l e a p p l i c a t i o n o f L o r t i e ' s ( 1975 ) model t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . . I t s h ou l d a l s o be no ted t h a t a l l o f the r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a , t o d a t e , has been c onduc t ed on i n d i v i d u a l s who have a l r e a d y e n t e r e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programmes. No r e s e a r c h has been c onduc t ed on h i g h s choo l s t u d e n t s who a r e c o n s i d e r i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as a p o s s i b l e c a r e e r o p t i o n . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o g a i n -an i n s i g h t i n t o the s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s b e f o r e t hey e n t e r programmes o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the f o r m a t i o n , c o n t e n t and impac t o f the s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t on the v i s i o n s o f the p r o f e s s i o n h e l d by a l l t y p e s o f r e c r u i t s i s e s s e n t i a l t o a c omp l e t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t he who le p r o c e s s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . I t has become appa r en t d u r i n g t h i s r e v i e w t h a t t h e r e i s no b r o a d l y b a s ed , comprehens i ve t h e o r e t i c a l f ramework t o gu i de r e s e a r c h on r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o t he p r o f e s s i o n . D e s p i t e t he f a c t t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s f rom d i f f e r e n t - 3 3 -d i s c i p i i na ry p e r s p e c t i v e s have i n v e s t i g a t e d the c on cep t o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , the t endency has been t o f o c u s on one s p e c i f i c a s p e c t o f t he p r o c e s s t o t he e x c l u s i o n o f o t h e r s . The en su i ng summary r e v e a l s t h a t t h i s i s , i n d e e d , the c a s e . Summary of the Occupat iona l Choice Research F ind ings P s y c h o l o g i c a l Resea r ch F i n d i n g s R e s e a r c h e r s gu i d ed by a p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e have c o n c e n t r a t e d , p r i m a r i l y , upon the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . T h i s r e s e a r c h has l e d to some i m p o r t a n t f i n d i n g s . These w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n p o i n t form f o r c l a r i t y and ease o f unders tand! ' ng: ( 1 ) O c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e i s a p r o c e s s t h a t s t a r t s i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d and ex t ends to a d u l t h o o d . ( 2 ) I n d i v i d u a l s make o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e s i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e a s se s smen t s o f p e r s o n a l a b i l i t i e s and needs and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , demands and s k i l l s r e q u i r e d o f v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s . ( 3 ) I m p r e s s i o n s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s g a i n about o c c u p a t i o n s t end to be l e a r n e d as a r e s u l t o f the i n t e r a c t i o n and l e a r n i n g f rom s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s . These i m p r e s s i o n s a re o f t e n s t e r e o t y p i c a l i n n a t u r e . ( 4 ) Ma les and f ema l e s v i ew o c c u p a t i o n s i n d i f f e r e n t ways and o f t e n make c h o i c e s on the b a s i s o f d i f f e r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n . - 3 4 -S o c i o l o g i c a l Resea r ch F i n d i n g s S o c i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h has been f o c u s ed on s i t u a t i o n a l and s o c i e t a l f a c t o r s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . R e s e a r c h e r s gu i ded by t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e have found t h a t : ( 1 ) O c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e i s n o t , r e a l i s t i c a l l y , t he range o f a l l p o s s i b l e v o c a t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o an i n d i v i d u a l b u t , i s a sma l l range d e t e r m i n e d by a v a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n a l and s o c i e t a l f a c t o r s . O c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e d e l i m i t e d i n t h i s way i s t he a c t u a l range o f a v a i l a b l e o p t i o n s f o r any i n d i v i d u a l . (2) T h i s range i s d e t e r m i n e d by s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , g ende r , e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s o f f a t h e r and mother , economic v a r i a b l e s and c u l t u r a l v a l u e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . ( 3 ) When p l a c e d i n t he b r o a d e r f ramework o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n , the p r o c e s s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e can be l i n k e d t o t he c o n c e p t o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n . W i t h i n t h i s f ramework o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e becomes one p a r t o f t he f i r s t s t age o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n , r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o the p r o f e s s i o n s . F i n d i n g s f rom the P r o f e s s i o n a l S o c i a l i z a t i o n L i t e r a t u r e The ma jo r c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s l i t e r a t u r e has been the deve lopment o f a t h r e e s t age model f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n t h a t l i n k s r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o the p r o f e s s i o n s w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n and the pe r f o rmance o f wo rk . I t has been found t h a t : - 3 5 -( 1 ) There a r e m u l t i p l e r o u t e s o f e n t r y i n t o the p r o f e s s i o n s . F a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the d e c i s i o n t o e n t e r a p r o f e s s i o n a re r e l a t e d to the t i m i n g and c o n t e x t o f t he d e c i s i o n . E a r l y and l a t e d e c i d e r s may e n t e r a p r o f e s s i o n f o r d i f f e r e n t r ea sons and p o s s e s s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t v i ews o f t he p r o f e s s i o n t hey have chosen t o e n t e r . ( 2 ) An i n d i v i d u a l ' s v i ew o f t he p r o f e s s i o n i s c o n t o u r e d by an i n t e r a c t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l , s i t u a t i o n a l and s o c i e t a l f a c t o r s o u t l i n e d i n t he p r e v i o u s two s u b - h e a d i n g s . ( 3 ) Resea r ch on r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n has h i g h l i g h t e d a v a r i e t y o f f a c t o r s t h a t a r e i n f l u e n t i a l i n the c h o i c e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as a c a r e e r . T h i s d e c i s i o n i s i n f l u e n c e d by , p a r t i c i p a t o r y e x p e r i e n c e s i n s p o r t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s , s t e r e o t y p e s o f the p r o f e s s i o n , a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s about the n a t u r e o f the work i n t he p r o f e s s i o n , ease o f e n t r y i n t o p r o f e s s i o n a l programmes o f e d u c a t i o n , gende r , p e r c e p t i o n s o f p e r s o n a l a b i l i t i e s and s k i l l s and , t h o s e r e q u i r e d f o r the r o l e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r o r coach and c u l t u r a l backg round and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . ( 4 ) The i n d i v i d u a l appea r s t o be f i r s t s o c i a l i z e d i n t o the p r o f e s s i o n and then t h r ough p a r t i c i p a t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e s i n s p o r t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , s o c i a l i z e d v i a t h i s i n v o l v e m e n t . A l t h o u g h i t i s now c l e a r t h a t the s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t v a r i e s among i n d i v i d u a l s and r e s u l t s f rom the i n t e r a c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l , s i t u a t i o n a l and . s o c i e t a l f a c t o r s , t h e r e i s not y e t an adequate t h e o r e t i c a l f ramework f o r i t . The f i n d i n g s t h a t have been summar i zed , n e v e r t h e l e s s , s t and as ' b r i c k s ' f rom wh i ch a t h e o r e t i c a l e d i f i c e may be c o n s t r u c t e d ( F o r s c h e r , 1963 ) . -36-Chap te r Th ree THE BEGINNING OF A T H E O R E T I C A L FRAMEWORK The r e v i e w o f t he l i t e r a t u r e on o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e has r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e i s no comprehens i ve t h e o r e t i c a l f ramework t o gu i de t he r e s e a r c h on r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n . There i s a need f o r such a f ramework t h a t l i n k s f i n d i n g s f rom the r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s f ramework s hou l d p r o v i d e the b a s i s f o r a r e f i n e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f the s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s assumed t h a t any such f ramework w i l l be m o d i f i e d i n the l i g h t o f the e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s g a i n e d f rom the subsequent s t u d y . T h i s i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t he deve lopment o f grounded t h e o r y ( G l a s e r and S t r a u s s , 1975 ) . I t i s p o s s i b l e on the b a s i s o f the f i n d i n g s h i g h l i g h t e d i n the r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e t o i d e n t i f y some o f t he f a c t o r s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e and c o n t r i b u t e to and mark the b e g i n n i n g s o f a t h e o r e t i c a l f ramework f o r t he s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . These f a c t o r s a re p r e s e n t e d i n T ab l e 1. I n s e r t Tab l e 1 About Here -37-Tab le 1 The Factors In f luenc ing and Ind iv idua l ' s Subject ive Warrant for Phys ica l Educat ion Pe r s ona l F a c t o r s S i t u a t i o n a l F a c t o r s S o c i e t a l F a c t o r s S i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s Gender Race, e t h n i c i t y S e l f - c o n c e p t and a s p i r a t i ons S o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s Academic a ch i evement P r ima r y i n v o l v e m e n t s and a ch i evemen t s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c and agency sponso red s p o r t Secondary i n v o l v e m e n t s and a ch i evemen t s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c and agency sponso red s p o r t C u l t u r a l s t e r e o t y p e s f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and s p o r t Impact o f p r o f e s s i o n a l r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e s s e s P e r c e p t i o n s o f : 1) s t a t u s and economic rewards o f t he p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s i on 2) w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s ( j o b s e c u r i t y , hours o f wo r k i n g and v a c a t i o n s ) o f t he p r o f e s s i o n 3) r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r e n t r y i n t o the p r o f e s s i o n O the r r e l a t e d work e x p e r i ence - 3 8 -I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e f a c t o r s i n T ab l e 1 a r e not m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . They may i n t e r a c t bo th w i t h i n and between the c o n c e p t u a l c a t e g o r i e s i n wh i ch t h ey have been o r g a n i z e d . I t can be seen t h a t T ab l e 1 p r o v i d e s a s y n t h e s i s o f the s o c i o l o g i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e and a p p l i e s them d i r e c t l y to p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . From t h i s t a b l e i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e r i v e a number o f hypo theses f o r t he s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t . These hypo the se s form the b a s i s f o r the e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h i n t h i s s t u d y . Hypotheses A t t r a c t i o n t o a C a r e e r i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n ( 1 ) S t u d e n t s w i l l be a t t r a c t e d to a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n because t hey p e r c e i v e t h a t : a) i t p r o v i d e s a c o n t i n u o u s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h s p o r t and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y ; b) i t i n v o l v e s w o r k i n g w i t h p e o p l e ; c ) i t o f f e r s good w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s ; d) i t c o n s t i t u t e s a v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e to s o c i e t y . ( 2 ) S t u d e n t s who a r e a t t r a c t e d t o a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n w i l l : a) have e x t e n s i v e p r i m a r y and seconda ry i n v o l v e m e n t i n s p o r t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ; b) be the top s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s ; -39-c ) p e r c e i v e t h emse l v e s to be h i gh a c h i e v e r s i n i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c s p o r t . The D e c i s i o n t o . E n t e r t he P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n P r o f e s s i o n ( 1 ) Ma le r e c r u i t s who choose p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c a r e e r s w i l l : a) c i t e the i n f l u e n c e s o f t h e i r coaches and f a t h e r s as i m p o r t a n t ; b) have mean o r be low mean grade p o i n t ave rages i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r u n i v e r s i t y e n t r a n t s . ( 2 ) Female r e c r u i t s who choose p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c a r e e r s w i l l : a) c i t e t he i n f l u e n c e s o f t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s , mothers and o l d e r b r o t h e r s as i m p o r t a n t ; b) have g r e a t e r g rade p o i n t a ve r age s than male p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n r e c r u i t s but s i m i l a r g rade p o i n t a ve r ages i n compar i son to o t h e r u n i v e r s i t y e n t r a n t s ; c ) do so as a r e s u l t o f b l o c k e d a s p i r a t i o n s . ( 3 ) R e c r u i t s o r i e n t e d t o t e a c h i n g more than c o a c h i n g w i l l : a) have l i m i t e d i n v o l v e m e n t and a ch i evemen t i n i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c s p o r t ; b) c i t e the i n f l u e n c e o f t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s as i m p o r t a n t ; c ) p o s s e s s c u s t o d i a l o r i e n t a t i o n s i f t hey en j oy and a re h i g h a c h i e v e r s i n t h e i r p r ima r y i n v o l v e m e n t s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ; - 4 0 -d) po s s e s s i n n o v a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s i f t h ey a re h i gh a c h i e v e r s but do not en j o y t h e i r p r i m a r y i n v o l v e m e n t s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . ( 4 ) R e c r u i t s o r i e n t e d to c o a c h i n g more than t e a c h i n g w i l l : a) d e s i r e t o coach the s p o r t s i n wh i ch t hey a r e i n v o l v e d ; b) v i ew p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as a c a r e e r c o n t i n g e n c y ; c ) v i ew p h y s i c a l s k i l l as a p r i m a r y p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r e n t r y t o p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n programmes; d) p o s s e s s c u s t o d i a l r a t h e r than i n n o v a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s . I t i s p o s s i b l e , on the b a s i s o f the i n f o r m a t i o n f rom the r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e and the r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s , t o f o r m u l a t e h y p o t h e t i c a l p r o f i l e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s who a re a t t r a c t e d t o , o r have d e c i d e d upon, a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . These p r o f i l e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T ab l e 2 I n s e r t T ab l e 2 About Here The i n f o r m a t i o n i n the p r o f i l e s has been o r g a n i z e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : r e c r u i t ' s backg round c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p e r c e p t i o n s . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n a l l o w s bo th a c ompa r i s on o f t he d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s who may be a t t r a c t e d t o a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s o f t h e s e r e c r u i t s . These p r o f i l e s p r o v i d e a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r t he a n a l y s i s o f t he d a t a i n t h i s s t u dy because t h ey f a c i l i t a t e a r e f i n e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f the s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . T a b l e 2 P r e d i c t e d P r o f i l e s o f M a l e a n d F e m a l e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n R e c r u i t s T y p e s o f R e c r u i t s BACKGROUND C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S 1) E x t e n s i v e p r i m a r y i n v o l v e m e n t s i n s p o r t a n d p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y 2 ) E x t e n s i v e s e c o n d a r y i n v o l v e m e n t s i n s p o r t and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y 3 ) T op s t u d e n t s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s 4) H i g h a c h i e v e r s i n s p o r t a n d p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y 5 ) Mean o r b e l o w mean g r a d e p o i n t a v e r a g e s 6) Mean o r a b o v e mean g r a d e p o i n t a v e r a g e s Ma I e s A t t r a c t e d X X X X X Dec i d e d X X X X X F e m a I e s A t t r a c t e d X X X D e c i d e d X X X P E R C E P T I O N S V i e w p r o f e s s i o n a s p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o : ) wo r k w i t h p e o p I e i ) h a v e c o n t i n u o u s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h s p o r t a n d p h y s i c a l a c i t i v i t y i i ) p r o v i d e a v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e t o s o c i e t y v ) w o r k i n g o o d c o n d i t i o n s 2 ) O r i e n t a t i o n t o t e a c h i n g r a t h e r t h a n c o a c h i n g 3 ) O r i e n t a t i o n t o c o a c h i n g r a t h e r t h a n t e a c h i n g 4) C u s t o d i a l o r i e n t a t i o n t o r o l e 5 ) I n n o v a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n t o r o l e 6) V i e w p r o f e s s i o n a s s k i l l o r i e n t e d 7) R o I e mode I s a r e i ) f a t h e r s i i ) m o t h e r s i i i ) s i b l i n g s i v ) t e a c h e r s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n v ) c o a c h e s X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X -42-Chap te r Four M E T H O D S u b j e c t s : A t o t a l o f 40 grade 10-12 h i gh s choo l s t u d e n t s s e r v ed as s u b j e c t s . The s u b j e c t s were e n r o l l e d i n s i x seconda ry s c h o o l s i n the Vancouve r s choo l b o a r d . The s u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d f rom E r i c Hanber , K i H a r n e y , K i t s i l a n o , Lord Byng , P o i n t Grey and Tempie ton seconda ry s c h o o l s . S i x c a t e g o r i e s s e r v ed as the b a s i s f o r t he c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s u b j e c t s f rom t he s e s c h o o l s . These c a t e g o r i e s were: 1) Male s t u d e n t s who: a) have d e c i d e d t o pursue a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ( d e c i d e d ) ; b) a r e a t t r a c t e d t o a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ( a t t r a c t e d ) ; c ) a r e h i gh a c h i e v e r s i n s p o r t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n but have d e c i d e d a g a i n s t a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ( n o t a t t r a c t e d ) . 2) Female s t u d e n t s who: a) have d e c i d e d to pursue a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ( d e c i d e d ) ; b) a r e a t t r a c t e d t o a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ( a t t r a c t e d ) ; c ) a r e h i gh a c h i e v e r s i n s p o r t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n but have d e c i d e d a g a i n s t a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ( n o t a t t r a c t e d ) . S u b j e c t s were i d e n t i f i e d by p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s and s choo l c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g s t a f f . Eve ry a t t empt was made t o q u e s t i o n equa l numbers - 4 3 -o f male and fema le s u b j e c t s f o r each c a t e g o r y . The numbers o f s u b j e c t s q u e s t i o n e d i n each o f t he s i x c a t e g o r i e s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e ' 3 I n s e r t T ab l e 3 About Here I n s t r u m e n t : Open and c l o s e ended q u e s t i o n s i n f i v e c a t e g o r i e s were d e v e l o p e d f rom the t h e o r e t i c a l f ramework . The f i v e c a t e g o r i e s were: g e n e r a l backg round i n f o r m a t i o n , g ene r a l s choo l i n f o r m a t i o n , n a t u r e o f s p o r t i n v o l v e m e n t s , a t t r a c t i o n t o the p r o f e s s i o n ( c a r e e r p l a n s ) and the d e c i s i o n to e n t e r the p r o f e s s i o n . These q u e s t i o n s were p i l o t t e s t e d on e i g h t ( f o u r f ema le and f o u r ma le ) U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n unde rg r adua t e and g r adua t e s t u d e n t s . H a l f o f the s u b j e c t s were g i v e n the q u e s t i o n s i n t he form o f a . w r i t t e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the o t h e r h a l f were asked to g i v e v e r b a l r e s pon s e s t o t he q u e s t i o n s i n an i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n . A l l s u b j e c t s were q u e s t i o n e d i n d i v i d u a l l y and asked t o comment on the c l a r i t y , l e n g t h and c o m p l e x i t y o f t he wo rd ing o f t he q u e s t i o n s . - 4 4 -Table 3 Number of Subjects Tested in Each Category by Sex Sex Ca t ego r y Ma les Females Sum o f Ma les and Females De c i d ed 9 7 16 A t t r a c t e d 7 5 12 Not A t t r a c t e d 6 6 12 - 4 5 -The r e s u l t s f rom the p i l o t t e s t r e v e a l e d two s p e c i f i c f i n d i n g s . I t was found t h a t : 1) The c l o s e d , f o r c e d c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s d i r e c t e d the s u b j e c t s ' answers i n s p e c i f i c ways . In t he se q u e s t i o n s the t endency was f o r t he s u b j e c t s t o guess a t t he d e s i r e d r e sponse and choose t h a t as t h e i r answer . The open ended q u e s t i o n s , on the o t h e r hand, r e s u l t e d i n s u b j e c t s h av i ng t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r own r e spon se s and r e f l e c t e d more a c c u r a t e a c c o u n t s o f t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n . 2) The s u b j e c t s who were g i v e n the w r i t t e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e r a t h e r than the i n t e r v i e w f e l t h a p p i e r w i t h t h e i r answers t o the open ended q u e s t i o n s . The i n t e r v i e w s u b j e c t s had p rob lems g i v i n g c l e a r , a c c u r a t e answers t o the q u e s t i o n s and a l l e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e t o be a l l o w e d t o have t ime t o t h i n k about and w r i t e down t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . These f i n d i n g s f rom the p i l o t work l e d t o the deve lopment o f an e x t e n s i v e w r i t t e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e , w i t h p r i m a r i l y open ended q u e s t i o n s , t h a t was f u r t h e r p i l o t t e s t e d on f i v e ( t h r e e ma le , two f ema l e ) h i g h s choo l g rade 11 s t u d e n t s . The r e s u l t s f rom t h i s second p i l o t l e d to m ino r changes i n the wo rd i ng and o r d e r i n g o f some o f t he q u e s t i o n s . The f i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a f t e r two p i l o t t e s t s , c o n s i s t e d o f 28 open ended q u e s t i o n s t h a t r e q u i r e d w r i t t e n r e s pon s e s f rom the s u b j e c t s ; t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e appea r s as Append ix A. P r o c edu r e P e r m i s s i o n t o conduc t the s t udy was sought and g r a n t e d f rom the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia and the Vancouver s choo l boa rd ( s ee Append ix - 4 6 -B ) . N ine s c h o o l s f rom the Vancouver s choo l boa rd were s e l e c t e d as p o t e n t i a l s c h o o l s f rom wh i ch s u b j e c t s c o u l d be d rawn. T h i s s e l e c t i o n was based on d a t a f rom a s u r vey o f the 1982-83 U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia f i r s t y e a r unde rg r adua t e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s t h a t r e v e a l e d the h i g h s c h o o l s a t t e n d e d by t h e s e s t u d e n t s . A l e t t e r o f e x p l a n a t i o n and a r e q u e s t f o r p e r m i s s i o n t o c onduc t t he s t udy was sen t t o t he p r i n c i p a l s o f each o f the n i ne s e l e c t e d se conda ry s c h o o l s ( see Append i x C ) . The p r i n c i p a l s were c o n t a c t e d by t e l e p h o n e one week a f t e r t he d i s p a t c h o f the l e t t e r s and a r rangements were made, where n e c e s s a r y , t o v i s i t the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n depa r tmen t heads o f c o n s e n t i n g s c h o o l s ( s i x o f t he n i n e s c h o o l s ) . The p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r i n c i p a l s were g i v e a copy o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and any q u e s t i o n s o r c on c e r n s about the s tudy were d i s c u s s e d . S u b j e c t s f rom each s choo l were i d e n t i f i e d by the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s t a f f and /o r c a r e e r s c o u n s e l l o r s and appo i n tmen t s were s e t up f o r q u e s t i o n i n g . I n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s tudy were g i v e n a v e r b a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f the n a t u r e and purpose o f the s t udy and the t ime commit tment t h a t was i n v o l v e d as a s u b j e c t . S t u d e n t s i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the s tudy were then a d m i n i s t e r e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e by t he r e s e a r c h e r . S u b j e c t s were g i v e n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e bo th i n d i v i d u a l l y and i n sma l l g r o u p s , t hey were asked t o r ead the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t o f e e l f r e e t o ask any q u e s t i o n s about the s t u d y . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , s u b j e c t s were t o l d t h a t t he d a t a i n the s tudy wou ld be t r e a t e d c o n f i d e n t i a l l y and , i n a d d i t i o n , i t was e x p l a i n e d t h a t t hey were f r e e to w i t h d r aw f rom the s t udy a t any t ime w i t h o u t f e a r o f j e o p a r d i z i n g t h e i r academic g rades o r c l a s s s t a n d i n g . S u b j e c t s were asked t o read the -47-q u e s t i o n s i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e c a r e f u l l y and to answer them t o the be s t o f t h e i r a b i l i t y . Each i n d i v i d u a l spen t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 60 m inu t e s c o m p l e t i n g and c h e c k i n g t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . S u b j e c t s were thanked when t hey had comp le ted t h e i r r e s pon s e s and were g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y to ask any f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s . A f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f a l l o f t he a d m i n i s t e r i n g o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , s choo l p r i n c i p a l s and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s t a f f were c o n t a c t e d and thanked f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t , t ime and c o o p e r a t i o n i n the s t u d y . A copy p f the f i n d i n g s f rom the s tudy were sent to each o f the s c h o o l s . C o n s t r a i n t s There a re s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s t o t h i s s t u d y . F i r s t , the t ime c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by h i g h s c hoo l p r i n c i p a l s on t he r e l e a s e o f s t u d e n t s f o r q u e s t i o n i n g and the e x t e n s i v e n a t u r e o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e n e c e s s i t a t e d l i m i t i n g the sample s i z e t o 40 s u b j e c t s . Second , s choo l p r i n c i p a l s e x p r e s s e d conce rn ove r the t ime i n v o l v e d i n t he r e l e a s e o f s u b j e c t s on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s f o r q u e s t i o n i n g , wh i ch r e s u l t e d i n the use o f a w r i t t e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e and q u e s t i o n i n g i n sma l l g r o u p s , r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l l y . F i n a l l y , the w r i t t e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i d not a l l o w p r o b i n g o r t he f o l l o w up t h a t i s p o s s i b l e when a s u b j e c t i s i n t e r v i e w e d . T h i s p rob lem was met by keep i ng q u e s t i o n s s imp l e and , i n a d d i t i o n , by a s k i n g s u b j e c t s f o r w r i t t e n e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r a l l o f t h e i r an swe r s . -48-Chapter Five RESULTS AND DISCUSSION General Background Characteristics P r i m a r y I nvo l vemen t i n S p o r t and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A l l o f t he s u b j e c t s had some form o f p r i m a r y i n v o l v emen t i n s p o r t o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . 95 p e r c e n t o f the ma les i n t he s tudy p a r t i c i p a t e d i n bo th i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c s p o r t and o r g a n i z e d s p o r t o r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y o t h e r than t h e i r s choo l s p o r t . Of the f ema l e s i n the s t u d y , 72 p e r c e n t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s choo l o r g a n i z e d s p o r t and 94 p e r c e n t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s p o r t and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y o t h e r than s choo l s p o r t . T h i s d a t a s u p p o r t s the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s by Poo l e y ( 1 9 7 0 ) , Temp l i n (1979) and Woodford ( 1 9 7 7 ) , wh i ch sugges t t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s a t t r a c t e d t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c a r e e r s have e x t e n s i v e p r i m a r y i n v o l v e m e n t s i n s p o r t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Seconda ry I nvo l vemen t i n S p o r t and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n 90 p e r c e n t o f the s u b j e c t s had se conda ry i n v o l v e m e n t s i n s p o r t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . 86 p e r c e n t o f t h e ma les and 94 p e r c e n t o f t he f ema l e s were i n v o l v e d i n c o a c h i n g , t e a c h i n g , u m p i r i n g o r r e f e r e e i n g o r had h e l d p ay i n g j o b s r e l a t e d t o s p o r t o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . The m a j o r i t y o f s u b j e c t s , 67 p e r c e n t , were i n v o l v e d i n c o a c h i n g o r t e a c h i n g , 22 p e r c e n t had u m p i r i n g o r r e f e r e e i n g e x p e r i e n c e and 22 p e r c e n t had h e l d p a r t t ime j o b s r e l a t e d t o s p o r t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . - 4 9 -These f i n d i n g s f u r t h e r s uppo r t the d a t a f rom the r e s e a r c h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ( P o o l e y , 1970; T e m p l i n , 1979; and Wood fo rd , 1977) i n wh i ch p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n r e c r u i t s were found t o have e x t e n s i v e se conda ry i n v o l v e m e n t s i n s p o r t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Time Committment t o S p o r t and P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y Fo r bo th t he ma les and f ema l e s a t t r a c t e d to o r d e c i d e d upon a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , 79 p e r c e n t spent 30 o r more hours pe r week i n a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g s p o r t o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . For t he male and f ema le s u b j e c t s who had d e c i d e d a g a i n s t a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o n l y 25 p e r c e n t devo t ed t h i s amount o f t ime t o s p o r t o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . T h i s f i n d i n g s u p p o r t s t he p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s a t t r a c t e d t o a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n have s p o r t o r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as the ma jo r f o cu s i n t h e i r l i v e s ( P o o l e y , 1970; T e m p l i n , 1979; and Wood fo rd , 1977 ) . Fo r the m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s d e c i d e d a g a i n s t a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n i s not s uppo r t ed and f o r t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s s p o r t may be o n l y one o f the i n t e r e s t s i n t h e i r l i v e s . F a m i l y P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n S p o r t and P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y A l l o f t he s u b j e c t s had p a r e n t s and /o r s i b l i n g s t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s p o r t o r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . 85 p e r c e n t o f s u b j e c t s had p a r e n t s t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s p o r t and 93 p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r s i b l i n g s were i n v o l v e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s p o r t and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . Thus , t he m a j o r i t y o f s u b j e c t s have e x t e n s i v e p r i m a r y and se conda ry i n v o l v e m e n t s i n s p o r t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and , i n a d d i t i o n , have f a m i l i e s t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e i n s p o r t and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . - 5 0 -Rank i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C l a s s The male s u b j e c t s a l l r anked t h e m s e l v e s i n the top 15 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , w i t h 82 p e r c e n t r a t i n g t h emse l v e s i n t he top 5 p e r c e n t and 18 p e r c e n t i n the top 15 p e r c e n t o f t he c l a s s . 72 p e r c e n t o f t he f ema le s u b j e c t s r a t e d t h emse l v e s i n the top 15 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . 33 p e r c e n t r a t e d t h emse l v e s i n t h e top 5 p e r c e n t , 39 p e r c e n t i n the top 6-15 p e r c e n t , 22 p e r c e n t i n t he top 20-25 p e r c e n t and 6 p e r c e n t i n the l owe r 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r c l a s s e s . These d i f f e r e n c e s i n r a t i n g s f o r ma les and f ema l e s may be a t t r i b u t a b l e , i n p a r t , t o the f a c t t h a t many o f t he f ema le s u b j e c t s were i n c o - e d u c a t i o n a l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s and r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s a g a i n s t bo th t he ma les and f ema l e s i n the c l a s s . The answer to t h i s q u e s t i o n can o n l y be r e s o l v e d i f , i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h , s u b j e c t s a re asked to r a t e t h emse l v e s a g a i n s t the who le c l a s s , a g a i n s t the ma les o n l y i n the c l a s s , and a g a i n s t t he f ema l e s o n l y i n the c l a s s . Grade P o i n t Ave rage 40 p e r c e n t o f s u b j e c t s had A o r B g rade p o i n t a v e r age s ( g . p . a . ) . The r e m a i n i n g 60 p e r c e n t had C o r C+ g . p . a . ' s . 37 p e r c e n t o f male s u b j e c t s a t t r a c t e d t o , o r d e c i d e d upon and 33 p e r c e n t o f ma les d e c i d e d a g a i n s t a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n had A o r B g . p . a . ' s . For t he f ema l e s i n the s t u d y , 58 p e r c e n t a t t r a c t e d t o o r d e c i d e d upon and 16 p e r c e n t o f t ho se d e c i d e d a g a i n s t a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n had A o r B g . p . a . ' s . These r e s u l t s s u p p o r t , i n p a r t , Temp l i n e t . a l ' s (1982) f i n d i n g s t h a t t he m a j o r i t y o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n e n t r a n t s have, med i o c r e r e c o r d s o f - 5 1 -academic a c h i e v e m e n t . However, t h i s i s o n l y t r u e f o r the male s u b j e c t s i n t h i s sample and not f o r the f e m a l e s , the m a j o r i t y o f whom had above ave rage g . p . a . ' s . T h i s f i n d i n g may be a t t r i b u t a b l e to the f a c t t h a t f o r f ema l e s w i t h b l o c k e d a s p i r a t i o n s p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s v i ewed as an a t t r a c t i v e c a r e e r (McLure and P i e l , 1978; O ' B r y a n t e t . a l . 1978 ) . Summary o f Gene r a l Backg round C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s An a n a l y s i s o f the s u b j e c t s ' backg round c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e v e a l s t h a t t h ey sha r e some common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The m a j o r i t y o f s u b j e c t s have e x t e n s i v e p r i m a r y and se conda ry i n v o l v e m e n t s i n s p o r t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , have s p o r t o r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as t he main f o c u s i n t h e i r l i v e s and have p a r e n t s and s i b l i n g s t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e i n s p o r t and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . Ma le and fema le s u b j e c t s d i f f e r e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r g rade p o i n t a ve r ages and s e l f r a t i n g s o f rank i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . O v e r a l l , t h i s d a t a l e nd s s uppo r t t o H o l l a n d ' s (1959) t h e o r y t h a t o c c u p a t i o n s t end t o a t t r a c t i n d i v i d u a l s who sha re s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Perceptions of the Profession A n a l y s i s o f t he n a t u r e o f t he p e r c e p t i o n s o f the s u b j e c t s a t t r a c t e d t o and d e c i d e d upon a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s bo th a dominan t and s e v e r a l non-dominant p e r c e p t i o n s o f t he n a t u r e o f t he work t h a t e x i s t s and the knowledge and s k i l l s r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s work i n the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n . T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the work o f H e l f r i c h ( 1 9 7 5 ) , Rogo f f (1957) and T h e i l e n s (1957) who a l l f ound e v i d e n c e t o sugges t t h a t t h e r e a re m u l t i p l e p a t h s o f e n t r y i n t o a p r o f e s s i o n , and - 5 2 -the d e c i s i o n t o e n t e r a p r o f e s s i o n i s i n f l u e n c e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways f o r d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s . The r e s u l t s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s e d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s o f the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n . I t i s t he se p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t r e p r e s e n t t he s u b j e c t s ' s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . F i r s t , t he most f r e q u e n t l y e x p r e s s e d , o r dom inan t , v i ew o f the s u b j e c t s a t t r a c t e d t o and d e c i d e d upon a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c a r e e r w i l l be p r e s e n t e d . Second , f o u r d i s t i n c t i v e , non-dominant v i ews o f t he p r o f e s s i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d and , f i n a l l y , t he p e r c e p t i o n s o f the s u b j e c t s who have d e c i d e d a g a i n s t a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n w i l l be examined . The Dominant View of the Profession 68 p e r c e n t o f a l l o f t he s u b j e c t s a t t r a c t e d t o o r d e c i d e d upon a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n sha red s i m i l a r p e r c e p t i o n s o f the p r o f e s s i o n . 64 p e r c e n t o f the f ema l e s and 75 p e r c e n t o f t he males i n t h i s c a t e g o r y had s i m i l a r s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . A t t r a c t i o n to the P r o f e s s i o n T h i s group o f s u b j e c t s were a t t r a c t e d t o c a r e e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n because t hey l o v e d s p o r t , e n j o yed w o r k i n g w i t h and t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n and sought a good wo r k i n g a tmosphere and env i r o nmen t . For 84 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e s u b j e c t s t h e i r l o v e o f s p o r t was the most i m p o r t a n t r eason f o r t h e i r a t t r a c t i o n t o the p r o f e s s i o n . The r e m a i n i n g 16 p e r c e n t c i t e d the d e s i r e t o t e a c h and work w i t h c h i l d r e n as most i m p o r t a n t . T h i s d a t a s uppo r t s the f i n d i n g s by L o r t i e ( 1 9 7 5 ) , M u l l i n g ( 1 9 8 1 ) , P oo l e y ( 1 9 7 0 ) , Temp l i n (1979) and Woodford (1.977) i n wh i ch t.he o p p o r t u n i t y -53-t o work w i t h c h i l d r e n and the a b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n a c o n t i n u o u s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h s p o r t t h r ough p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n were f ound t o be i m p o r t a n t a t t r a c t o r s t o t he t e a c h i n g and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n s . These p e r c e p t i o n s appear t o make up an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h i s s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i on . S i g n i f i c a n t O t he r s The i n d i v i d u a l s p e r c e i v e d by s u b j e c t s as i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e i r a t t r a c t i o n t o a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c a r e e r were t h e m s e l v e s , mo the r s , f a t h e r s , s i b l i n g s , p e e r s , t e a c h e r s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and c o a c h e s . T h i s s u p p o r t s t h e p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t t he s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n r e c r u i t s a r e p r i m a r i l y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s , coaches and immedia te f a m i l y ( P o o l e y , 1970; T e m p l i n , 1979 and Wood fo rd , 1977 ) . The most i n f l u e n t i a l i n d i v i d u a l i n t h i s c h o i c e was p e r c e i v e d by 47 p e r c e n t o f s u b j e c t s t o be t h e m s e l v e s . 11 p e r c e n t c i t e d s i b l i n g s , 11 p e r c e n t t h e i r f a t h e r s , 11 p e r c e n t t h e i r t e a c h e r s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and 4 p e r c e n t v iewed t h e i r coaches i n t h i s r o l e . T h i s d a t a does not s uppo r t the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t male and fema le r e c r u i t s d i f f e r i n t he s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s t h ey p e r c e i v e as i m p o r t a n t ( T e m p l i n , 1979; Wood fo rd , 1977 ) . Thus , a l t h o u g h s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s appear t o e x e r t an i n f l u e n c e upon s u b j e c t s ' s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s t h i s i n f l u e n c e seems to be s i m i l a r f o r bo th male and fema le r e c r u i t s . - 5 4 -P e r c e p t i o n s o f the Na tu re o f the Work o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n P r o f e s s i o n a l s  Ro l e p r e f e r e n c e s 89 p e r c e n t o f s u b j e c t s i n t h i s group s t a t e d a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a combined t e a c h i n g and c o a ch i n g j o b . The r e m a i n i n g 11 p e r c e n t p r e f e r r e d a t e a c h i n g j o b o n l y . These c h o i c e s were s i m i l a r t o bo th male and f ema le s u b j e c t s , 83 p e r c e n t o f f ema l e s and 91 p e r c e n t o f males chose a j o b t h a t combined t e a c h i n g and c o a c h i n g . T h i s d a t a does not s uppo r t S e a g r a v e ' s (1980) f i n d i n g s t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n r e c r u i t s chose c o a c h i n g , r a t h e r than t e a c h i n g , as t h e i r j o b p r e f e r e n c e . I t d oe s , however , l e nd s uppo r t t o Ba i n and Wend t ' s ( i n p r e s s ) f i n d i n g t h a t a lmos t h a l f o f t h e i r s u b j e c t s d i s p l a y e d an equa l committment t o bo th t e a c h i n g and c o a c h i n g . Compar i son o f Ro le Requ i r emen t s f o r Tea che r s o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and  Coaches S u b j e c t s p e r c e i v e d bo th t he r o l e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r and coach as s i m i l a r . Bo th male and fema le s u b j e c t s emphas i zed t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s and coaches shou l d have an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f human anatomy and p h y s i o l o g y and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s to p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and have the a b i l i t y to e x p l a i n and communicate t he s k i l l s b e i n g t a u g h t to a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s o f v a r y i n g a b i l i t i e s and s k i l l s . In a d d i t i o n , s u c c e s s f u l t e a c h e r s and coaches were p e r c e i v e d t o have good i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s , l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s , d e v o t i o n and d e d i c a t i o n to t h e i r j o b and the a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l and d i s c i p l i n e t h e i r s t u d e n t s and a t h l e t e s . - 5 5 -T ea che r s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , s p e c i f i c a l l y , were v i ewed as r e q u i r i n g b a s i c knowledge about a w ide v a r i e t y o f s p o r t s and, i n a d d i t i o n , the a b i l i t y t o demons t r a t e the b a s i c s k i l l s i n t he se s p o r t s . Coaches , on the o t h e r hand, were seen as r e q u i r i n g s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge abou t , and e x p e r i e n c e as a h i gh l e v e l p e r f o r m e r i n , t he s p o r t they a r e c o a c h i n g . T h i s d a t a sugges t s t h a t t he m a j o r i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s a t t r a c t e d to o r d e c i d e d upon a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c a r e e r v i ew the r o l e s o f t e a c h e r and coach as r e q u i r i n g s i m i l a r knowledge and s k i l l s . T h i s f i n d i n g g i v e s s uppo r t t o t he p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t r e c r u i t s ' s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n may be a t odds w i t h r e a l i t i e s ( B a i n and Wendt, i n p r e s s ) . A c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g p r i m a r i l y s k i l l o r i e n t e d and i n v o l v e d w i t h p l a y i n g games and l e a r n i n g how to t e a c h them t o o t h e r s . The s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s o f t he se r e c r u i t s r e f l e c t a s t e r e o t y p i c a l image o f t he p r o f e s s i o n (Hendry and W h i t i n g , 1972) and t h i s appea r s t o s e r ve as an i m p o r t a n t a t t r a c t o r t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n f o r many i n d i v i d u a l s . Ro l e O r i e n t a t i o n s 58 p e r c e n t o f s u b j e c t s (43 p e r c e n t o f f ema l e s and 66 p e r c e n t o f ma l e s ) e x p r e s s e d c u s t o d i a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , t h a t i s t he d e s i r e t o r ep r oduce t h e i r s choo l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programmes. Fo r t he 42 p e r c e n t o f s u b j e c t s e x p r e s s i n g i n n o v a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s , t h a t i s t he w i s h t o i n i t i a t e changes , (57 p e r c e n t o f f ema l e s and 44 p e r c e n t o f ma l e s ) to t h e s e programmes, the d e s i r e was t o ensu re t h a t more emphas i s was p l a c e d on t e a c h i n g i n d i v i d u a l s h i g h e r l e v e l s o f s k i l l e d p e r f o r m a n c e . Thus t h e s e changes were ones o f deg ree r a t h e r than k i n d ; s u b j e c t s b a s i c a l l y wanted more o f what a l r e a d y e x i s t e d but a t a h i g h e r l e v e l . - 5 6 -The d a t a f o r s u b j e c t s ' o r i e n t a t i o n s t o i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c s p o r t programmes showed d i f f e r e n t t r e n d s . 79 p e r c e n t o f s u b j e c t s (85 p e r c e n t o f f ema l e s and 75 p e r c e n t o f ma l e s ) r e f l e c t e d c u s t o d i a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . These s u b j e c t s f e l t t h a t t h e i r s choo l s p o r t programmes were good and wo r thy o f d u p l i c a t i o n . The 21 p e r c e n t o f s u b j e c t s who e x p r e s s e d i n n o v a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s f e l t t h a t programmes s h o u l d be expanded to p r o v i d e more s p o r t s a t a c o m p e t i t i v e l e v e l . A g a i n , t h i s r e f l e c t s changes i n deg ree r a t h e r than k i n d . Thus , the d a t a s u p p o r t s Tempi i n 1 s (1979) f i n d i n g s t h a t r e c r u i t s e n t e r i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n r e f l e c t p r i m a r i l y c u s t o d i a l and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t i n n o v a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s t o t h e s e r o l e s . Non-Dominant Perceptions of the Profession 32 p e r c e n t o f s u b j e c t s r e f l e c t e d d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s and o r i e n t a t i o n s t o c a r e e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . These w i l l be p r e s e n t e d as f o u r s e p a r a t e c a s e s . Case 1: Coach i ng as a C a r e e r i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Three s u b j e c t s ( two male and one f ema l e ) were a t t r a c t e d to c a r e e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n because o f t h e i r l o v e o f s p o r t and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f the o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t e x i s t i n t he p r o f e s s i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t o m a i n t a i n a h i g h l e v e l o f i n v o l v e m e n t i n s p o r t t h r ough c o a c h i n g . Fo r t he se i n d i v i d u a l s the most i m p o r t a n t a t t r a c t o r t o the p r o f e s s i o n was the o p p o r t u n i t y t h a t a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c a r e e r p r o v i d e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l s to rema in p h y s i c a l l y a c t i v e i n h i g h l e v e l s p o r t . A l l o f t h e s e s u b j e c t s p e r c e i v e d t h e m s e l v e s t o be t he most i m p o r t a n t i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s to e n t e r t he p r o f e s s i o n . They s t a t e d t h a t the m o t i v a t i o n and -57-d e s i r e to succeed a t h i gh l e v e l s o f c o m p e t i t i o n gave them the c o n f i d e n c e to pu r sue p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c a r e e r s . A l l o f t he s u b j e c t s s t a t e d a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a c o a c h i n g j o b o n l y and t hey v i ewed the knowledge and s k i l l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t e a c h i n g and c o a ch i n g as r e l a t e d bu t d i f f e r e n t . P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s were seen as r e q u i r i n g t e a c h i n g , commun i ca t i on and i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s , c o u p l e d w i t h a b a s i c knowledge o f d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s , m inor i n j u r i e s and f i r s t a i d . Coaches , on the o t h e r hand, were p e r c e i v e d as r e q u i r i n g d e d i c a t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and l e a d e r s h i p s k i l l s , an e x t e n s i v e s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge o f t he f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g h i gh l e v e l s o f pe r f o rmance and the e x p e r i e n c e as a h i g h l e v e l p e r f o rme r i n t he s p o r t b e i n g c oa ched . I t was a l s o s t r e s s e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s had t o be good d i s c i p l i n a r i a n s and a b l e t o c o n t r o l and command r e s p e c t f rom t h e i r a t h l e t e s i f t hey were t o be s u c c e s s f u l c o a che s . The s u b j e c t s r e f l e c t e d c u s t o d i a l o r i e n t a t i o n s to t h e i r i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c s p o r t programmes and the f ema le s u b j e c t e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e t o change her s choo l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme. She f e l t t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s s h o u l d be s t r a t i f i e d on the b a s i s o f s k i l l i n o r d e r t h a t more a b l e p e r f o r m e r s can be c h a l l e n g e d and t a u g h t h i g h e r l e v e l s o f s k i l l . For a l l o f t he se s u b j e c t s t e a c h i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s v i ewed as a c a r e e r c o n t i n g e n c y ( Lawson , i n p r e s s ) . In o t h e r wo rd s , t e a c h i n g i s v i ewed as the b e s t way o f g a i n i n g a c c e s s t o o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a f u l l t ime c a r e e r i n c o a c h i n g . Case 2: P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n t o S p o r t s M e d i c i n e -58-Three o f t he f ema l e s u b j e c t s i n t he s tudy were a t t r a c t e d t o a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , because o f t h e i r b e l i e f i n t he impo r t an ce o f an e d u c a t i o n f o r h e a l t h t h r ough the s tudy o f s p o r t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . A c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s seen as a t t r a c t i v e to t h e s e s u b j e c t s because i t w i l l a l l o w them to combine knowledge about s c i e n c e and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and w o r k i n g w i t h young p e o p l e . The most i m p o r t a n t a t t r a c t o r t o the p r o f e s s i o n f o r t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s was t h e i r l o v e o f s p o r t and t h e i r own b e l i e f i n t he impo r t an ce o f an e d u c a t i o n about h e a l t h t h r ough p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . S i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s f o r t h e s e s u b j e c t s we re , p a r e n t s , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s , coaches and s p o r t s med i c i n e d o c t o r and c h i r o p r a c t o r . For two o f t he s u b j e c t s t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s and coaches were t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e . For the t h i r d s u b j e c t , her s p o r t s m e d i c i n e d o c t o r a n d - c h i r o p r a c t o r assumed t h i s r o l e . A l l t h r e e s u b j e c t s s t a t e d a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a combined c o a c h i n g and t e a c h i n g j o b as t h i s was seen as one p o s s i b l e way o f g a i n i n g d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e b e f o r e e n t e r i n g the med i c a l p r o f e s s i o n . The knowledge and s k i l l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r bo th t e a c h i n g and c o a c h i n g were v iewed as s i m i l a r by a l l o f the t h r e e s u b j e c t s . They s t r e s s e d t h a t bo th t e a c h e r s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and coaches r e q u i r e d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f human anatomy and p h y s i o l o g y and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , as w e l l as a s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge o f h e a l t h , b i o l o g y and the p r e v e n t i o n and t r e a t m e n t o f s p o r t s i n j u r i e s . I t was a l s o s t r e s s e d t h a t coaches and t e a c h e r s s hou l d keep up t o da t e w i t h any changes i n t he knowledge o f t he f i e l d and a p p l y t h e s e i n s i g h t s t o t h e i r t e a c h i n g and c o a c h i n g . -59-Two o f t he s u b j e c t s r e f l e c t e d i n n o v a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s to t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and I n t e r s c h o l a s t i c s p o r t programmes. They b e l i e v e d i n the need f o r a change i n emphas is o f t he g o a l s o f t h e s e programmes towards more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d , q u a l i t y l e a r n i n g s t r e s s i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t h e r than e x c l u s i on . For t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s v i ewed as b e i n g more than j u s t t e a c h i n g o r c o a c h i n g . They v i ew the s t udy o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as a n e c e s s a r y f i r s t s t ep t owards t he deve lopment o f knowledge about s p o r t and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y n e c e s s a r y f o r a c a r e e r i n s p o r t s m e d i c i n e , where s c i e n t i f i c and med i c a l knowledge can be combined w i t h p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n to promote h e a l t h t h r ough p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . Case 3: P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n as the P l a n n i n g and Imp l emen t a t i o n o f Programmes f o r P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y Two s u b j e c t s (one male and one f ema l e ) were a t t r a c t e d t o c a r e e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as a r e s u l t o f the c h a l l e n g e , i n t e r e s t and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o be d e r i v e d f r o m , the p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f programmes t h a t s e r ve to encourage p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . Bo th o f t he se i n d i v i d u a l s e x p e r i e n c e d d i s c ou r agemen t f rom t h e i r p a r e n t s i n r e l a t i o n to c a r e e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and v i ewed t h emse l v e s as t h e most i m p o r t a n t i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s to e n t e r t he p r o f e s s i o n . Bo th s u b j e c t s had a l s o worked w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d i n t he p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n programmes and c i t e d t h i s e x p e r i e n c e as an i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e i n t h e i r a t t r a c t i o n t o the p r o f e s s i o n . -60-The male s u b j e c t s t a t e d a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a combined c o a c h i n g and t e a c h i n g j o b as t h i s wou ld a l l o w him t o have an impac t i n bo th o f t h e s e a r e a s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . The f ema l e s u b j e c t , on the o t h e r hand, e x p r e s s e d the d e s i r e to be more than a t e a c h e r o r i n s t r u c t o r and wanted i n v o l v e m e n t i n the d e s i g n and p l a n n i n g o f r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes. Both s u b j e c t s v i ewed t e a c h i n g and c o a c h i n g as r e q u i r i n g s i m i l a r knowledge and s k i l l s and t h e s e p e r c e p t i o n s were t he same as t ho se o f the i n d i v i d u a l s i n t he dominan t g r oup . I n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s , t e a c h i n g a b i l i t y , d i s c i p l i n e , c o n f i d e n c e and the a b i l i t y t o d emons t r a t e b a s i c s k i l l s ( t e a c h e r s ) and more complex s k i l l s ( c o a c h e s ) were v i ewed as i m p o r t a n t . Bo th s u b j e c t s r e f l e c t e d i n n o v a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s t o t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and s choo l s p o r t programmes. They s t r e s s e d the impo r t an ce o f t he s e t t i n g up o f g o a l s t h a t emphas i zed c o o p e r a t i o n , en joyment and i n v o l v e m e n t f o r i n d i v i d u a l s o f a l l a b i l i t i e s and l e v e l s o f s k i l l . P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , f o r t h e s e s u b j e c t s , i s not v i ewed as o n l y o f f e r i n g c a r e e r s i n t e a c h i n g and c o a c h i n g . A l t h o u g h t e a c h i n g and c o a c h i n g a r e v i ewed as p r i m a r i l y s k i l l o r i e n t e d , the d e s i r e o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s i s t o change the s y s t em . By becoming i n v o l v e d i n t he p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f programmes t h a t f a c i l i t a t e g r e a t e r i n v o l v e m e n t i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y t h e s e s u b j e c t s v i ew a c a r e e r i n the p r o f e s s i o n as a c h a l l e n g i n g and i n t e r e s t i n g one . Case 4: E a r l y D e c i d e r bu t L a t e E n t r a n t i n t o t he P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n P r o f e s s i on The f i n a l non-dominant case was e x p r e s s e d by one male s u b j e c t who sha r ed the same v i ew o f the p r o f e s s i o n as t he dominant group i n a l l bu t one - 6 1 -way. Fo r t h i s i n d i v i d u a l a t t r a c t i o n t o t he p r o f e s s i o n was based on h i s l o v e o f s p o r t and the d e s i r e to t e a ch c h i l d r e n , w i t h t he f o rmer be i ng the most i m p o r t a n t . T h i s s u b j e c t v iewed a combined t e a c h i n g and c o a ch i n g j o b as i d e a l and d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the knowledge and s k i l l s r e q u i r e d f o r bo th t e a c h i n g and c o a c h i n g . T h i s s u b j e c t a l s o r e f l e c t e d a c u s t o d i a l o r i e n t a t i o n t o bo th h i s s choo l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and i n t e r s c h o l a s t i c s p o r t s programmes, bo th o f wh i ch were c o n s i d e r e d t o be w e l l run and wor thy o f d u p l i c a t i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e , however , between t h i s s u b j e c t and t h o s e i n the dominant group l i e s i n h i s v i ew o f the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r employment as a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t o r . Teach i ng and c o a c h i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s a re v i ewed as e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d i n bo th t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y and s a l a r y r ange . To r e s o l v e t h i s p rob lem the s u b j e c t has d e c i d e d to pu r sue a' b u s i n e s s c a r e e r b e f o r e e n t e r i n g the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n . T h i s i n d i v i d u a l shows c l e a r l y t h a t t h e r e a re a l t e r n a t i v e r o u t e s o f e n t r y i n t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and a l l r e c r u i t s need not n e c e s s a r i l y e n t e r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n d i r e c t l y f rom h i gh s choo l ( H e l f r i c h , 1975; Rogo f f , 1957; and T h e i l e n s , 1957 ) . Percept ions of the Ind iv idua ls who have Dec ided Aga ins t a Caree r in Phys i ca l Educat ion Of the 12 s u b j e c t s who had d e c i d e d a g a i n s t a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . 91 p e r c e n t c i t e d the f a c t t h a t t hey d i d not want to t e a ch as the p r i m a r y r ea son f o r t h i s d e c i s i o n . The o t h e r 8 p e r c e n t (one f ema l e ) had not c o n s i d e r e d a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n because she had a lways wanted to pu r sue a med i c a l c a r e e r . -62-These s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s r e f l e c t the dominant v i ew o f the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n . S u b j e c t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f a l a c k o f a l t e r n a t i v e j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t he p r o f e s s i o n , the low pay and the l i m i t e d l i f e span o f t e a c h e r s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h i s s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t . I t i s t h i s s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t h a t i s p i v o t a l i n t he se s u b j e c t s d e c i s i o n s not to pursue c a r e e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . In e s s e n c e , a l t h o u g h the m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e s u b j e c t s en j o y t h e i r s p o r t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n and r a t e t h emse l v e s i n t he top 15 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , i t i s t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t h a t s e r ve to t u r n them away f rom r a t h e r than a t t r a c t them t o a c a r e e r i n the p r o f e s s i o n . Summary of Results Gene ra l F i n d i n g s 1. I t was found t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f s u b j e c t s i n the s tudy sha red s i m i l a r backg round c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s bu t d i f f e r e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s f o r the p r o f e s s i o n . 2. The m a j o r i t y o f s u b j e c t s had s i m i l a r s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s f o r t he p r o f e s s i o n b u t , i n a d d i t i o n , f o u r non-dominant v i ews o f the p r o f e s s i o n were e x p r e s s e d by a sma l l m a j o r i t y o f s u b j e c t s . 3. S u b j e c t s who d e c i d e d a g a i n s t a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n h e l d u n i f o r m s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . These s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s a l s o p a r a l l e d t h o s e h e l d by the m a j o r i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s a t t r a c t e d t o o r d e c i d e d upon a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . -63-Specific Findings Gene r a l Background C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s I t was found t h a t t he m a j o r i t y o f s u b j e c t s i n the s t u d y : 1. Had e x t e n s i v e p r ima r y and se conda ry i n v o l v e m e n t s i n s p o r t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . . 2. Had p a r e n t s and s i b l i n g s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s p o r t and p h y s i c a l a c i t i v i t y . 3. Spent 30 o r more hours a week i n s p o r t r e l a t e d a c t i v i t y . Fo r t he Ma le s i n t he s t u d y , t he m a j o r i t y : 1. Ranked t h emse l v e s i n the top 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . 2. Had ave rage (C t o C+) g rade p o i n t a v e r a g e s . For t he f ema l e s i n the s t u d y , the m a j o r i t y : 1. Ranked t hemse l v e s i n the top 15 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . 2. Had above ave rage (A t o B) grade p o i n t a v e r a g e s . Subjective Warrants for Physical Education Dominant P e r c e p t i o n s The m a j o r i t y o f s u b j e c t s a t t r a c t e d t o o r d e c i d e d upon a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n : - 6 4 -1. Were a t t r a c t e d t o the p r o f e s s i o n because i t was v iewed as p r o v i d i n g a c o n t i n u o u s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h s p o r t , t he o p p o r t u n i t y t o work w i t h and t e a c h c h i l d r e n and as p o s s e s s i n g a good wo r k i n g a tmosphe re . 2. Were i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r own p e r c e p t i o n s o f the p r o f e s s i o n , c o a che s , t e a c h e r s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , members o f t h e i r immed ia te f a m i l i e s and p e e r s . 3. V iewed the r o l e s o f t e a c h i n g and c o a c h i n g as r e q u i r i n g the same knowledge and s k i l l s . 4. P o s s e s s ed bo th c u s t o d i a l and i n n o v a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s . Those who had i n n o v a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s d e s i r e d t o make changes i n deg ree r a t h e r than k i n d . 5. P o s s e s s ed s i m i l a r v i ews o f the p r o f e s s i o n r e g a r d l e s s o f gende r . 6. V iewed the p r o f e s s i o n as s k i l l o r i e n t e d and c on ce rned w i t h l e a r n i n g how t o p l a y games and t e a c h them to o t h e r s . Non-Dominant Perceptions S u b j e c t s o r i e n t e d t o c o a ch i n g 1. V iewed the p r o f e s s i o n as p r i m a r i l y c once rned w i t h t e a c h i n g h i g h l e v e l s o f s k i l l e d p e r f o r m a n c e . 2. Were a t t r a c t e d to the p r o f e s s i o n as a r e s u l t o f the d e s i r e t o m a i n t a i n a h i g h l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s p o r t . 3. Were i n f l u e n c e d p r i m a r i l y by t h e i r own p e r c e p t i o n s but a l s o by coaches and t e a c h e r s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . 4. V iewed t e a c h i n g as a c a r e e r c o n t i n g e n c y . 5. V iewed the r o l e s o f t e a c h e r and coach as r e q u i r i n g d i f f e r e n t knowledge and s k i l l s . - 6 5 -6. R e f l e c t e d c u s t o d i a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . S u b j e c t s o r i e n t e d t o s p o r t s m e d i c i n e 1. Were a t t r a c t e d to the p r o f e s s i o n because i t p r o v i d e d more c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s than j u s t t e a c h i n g and c o a c h i n g . 2. Were i n f l u e n c e d by t e a c h e r s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , coaches and d o c t o r s s p e c i a l i z i n g i n s p o r t s m e d i c i n e . 3. V iewed knowledge about p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as a n e c e s s a r y p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r e n t r y i n t o s p o r t s m e d i c i n e . 4 . V iewed the r o l e s o f t e a c h e r and coach as s i m i l a r and r e q u i r i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge t o s p o r t and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . 5. P o s s e s s ed i n n o v a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s . S u b j e c t s o r i e n t e d towards the ' p l a n n i n g o f s p o r t programmes 1. V iewed the p r o f e s s i o n as more than t e a c h i n g and c o a c h i n g . 2. Were a t t r a c t e d by the c h a l l e n g e , i n t e r e s t and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the j o b . 3. Were i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r own p e r c e p t i o n s and work e x p e r i e n c e s i n the p l a n n i n g o f r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes. 4. P o s s e s s ed i n n o v a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s . S u b j e c t as an e a r l y d e c i d e r bu t l a t e e n t r a n t to a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n 1. Sha red a s i m i l a r p e r c e p t i o n o f t he p r o f e s s i o n as t hose s u b j e c t s i n t he dominant group but v iewed t e a c h i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o be l i m i t e d i n bo th a v a i l a b i l i t y and s a l a r y r ange . -66-2. P e r c e i v e d t h a t e n t r y t o the p r o f e s s i o n wou ld be b e s t a f t e r the a ch i evemen t o f a s e cu re income t h r ough a c a r e e r i n b u s i n e s s . -67-Chapter Six CONCLUSIONS The p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n appea r s t o a t t r a c t i n d i v i d u a l s who sha re a number o f s i m i l a r backg round c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , namely e x t e n s i v e p r i m a r y and seconda ry i n v o l v e m e n t s i n s p o r t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . These backg round c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p r o v i d e a n e c e s s a r y bu t i n s u f f i c i e n t e x p l a n a t i o n o f t he c h o i c e o f a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c a r e e r f o r many i n d i v i d u a l s . I t i s t he n a t u r e o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s s u b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s abou t t h e p r o f e s s i o n -t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t , t h a t forms the b a s i s f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s c a r e e r c h o i c e . The s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o v i d e s the key to an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n . I t l i n k s t o g e t h e r the f a c t o r s t h a t s e r ve t o bo th a t t r a c t i n d i v i d u a l s t o and f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r e n t r i e s i n t o the p r o f e s s i o n . I t i s t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f the na t u r e o f the knowledge, s k i l l s and s e n s i t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e d f o r e n t r y t o and work i n t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n t h a t a r e p i v o t a l i n t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e s . These s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s s e r ve to e i t h e r a t t r a c t o r r e p e l i n d i v i d u a l s t o o r f rom the p r o f e s s i o n . There e x i s t s , f o r a m a j o r i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s , "a dominant s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . T h i s s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t i s one i n wh i ch a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s v i ewed e x c l u s i v e l y as one o f t e a c h i n g and c o a c h i n g . The e x i s t e n c e o f t h i s dominan t s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n r e f l e c t s the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d n a t u r e o f the p r o f e s s i o n . A way o f -68-v i e w i n g a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n has become t he way. In e s s e n c e , t he p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n i s announc ing i t s e l f t o a m a j o r i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s as o f f e r i n g o n l y a c a r e e r i n t e a c h i n g and c o a c h i n g . T h i s dom inan t , i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t r e f l e c t s a s t e r e o t y p i c a l v i ew o f the na t u r e o f the work i n the p r o f e s s i o n . Y e t , d e s p i t e b e i n g a t odds w i t h t he r e a l i t i e s o f work and the na t u r e o f the c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n t he p r o f e s s i o n , t h i s s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t p r i m a r i l y s e r v e s t o a t t r a c t i n d i v i d u a l s o r i e n t e d to t e a c h i n g and c o a c h i n g and r e p e l I s o t h e r s who, a l t h o u g h not o r i e n t e d to t e a c h i n g , may be e q u a l l y w e l l s u i t e d to a l t e r n a t i v e c a r e e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . There a r e , however , a sma l l m i n o r i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s who have s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s t h a t d i f f e r f rom the dominant p e r c e p t i o n o f t he p r o f e s s i o n . The e x i s t e n c e o f t h e s e non-dominant s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s a t t e s t t o the f a c t t h a t the s o c i a l i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t l e a d towards the deve lopment o f the dominant p e r c e p t i o n s o f the p r o f e s s i o n , a l t h o u g h p o w e r f u l , a re not a u t o m a t i c . The i n d i v i d u a l s p o s s e s s i n g non-dominant s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s were a t t r a c t e d t o c a r e e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n o r d e r t o f o s t e r improvement and change . The p r o f e s s i o n was a t t r a c t i v e t o t h i s m i n o r i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s because they p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e r e was a c h a l l e n g e t o be d e r i v e d f rom i n i t i a t i n g change . T h i s s t u dy has shown t h a t t he p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n announces i t s e l f t o the m a j o r i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n one way. Tha t i s , as o f f e r i n g a c a r e e r i n ' t e a c h i n g and c o a c h i n g . The o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e to i n d i v i d u a l s s e e k i n g c a r e e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a r e o n l y a ppa r en t t o a m i n o r i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s . T h i s m i n o r i t y a l l have s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s i n - 6 9 -wh i c h t e a c h i n g i s v i ewed as one o f a number o f c a r e e r o p t i o n s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n r a t h e r than the o n l y o p t i o n . Implications of this research I f t he p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n c o n t i n u e s to be p e r c e i v e d by a m a j o r i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s as o f f e r i n g o n l y c a r e e r s i n t e a c h i n g and c o a ch i n g i t w i l l p e r s i s t i n a t t r a c t i n g p r i m a r i l y t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s o r i e n t e d t o t e a c h i n g and c o a c h i n g and who po s s e s s c u s t o d i a l o r i e n t a t i o n s t o t h i s r o l e . There i s a r e a l danger i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t h a t the p r o f e s s i o n w i l l r e c r u i t p r i m a r i l y t ho se i n d i v i d u a l s who w i s h p e r p e t u a t e and r ep r oduce the s y s t em , wh i ch w i l l f u r t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e and r e i n f o r c e the dominant p e r c e p t i o n o f the p r o f e s s i o n announced t o p o t e n t i a l r e c r u i t s . T h i s s t a s i s w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n w i l l make more d i f f i c u l t the p r o f e s s i o n s a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h change and , as s u c h , may r e s u l t i n d e p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n . The p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n can beg i n t o a dd r e s s t h i s p o t e n t i a l p rob lem by exam in i ng the ways i n wh i ch i t announces i t s e l f t o p o t e n t i a l r e c r u i t s . I f e f f o r t s a re made to u n d e r s t a n d the impo r t an ce and impac t o f t he s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t on r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o t he p r o f e s s i o n then p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n w i l l not c o n t i n u e t o l o s e out on the s i l e n t c o m p e t i t i o n f o r r e c r u i t s ( L o r t i e , 1975 ) . Suggestions for Further Research The r e s u l t s f rom t h i s s tudy show t h a t i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o i n v e s t i g a t e t he n a t u r e o f i n d i v i d u a l s ' s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r i o r t o t h e i r e n t r i e s i n t o programmes o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . An -70-i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s ' s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s w h i l e t h e y a r e i n s c h o o l s p r o v i d e s one w i t h an i n s i g h t i n t o the f a c t o r s t h a t s e r ve to a t t r a c t and f a c i l i t a t e i n d i v i d u a l s ' e n t r i e s i n t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and , i n a d d i t i o n , e n a b l e s a r e f i n e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f the p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who have r e j e c t e d c a r e e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . The s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t p r o v i d e s one w i t h a t h e o r e t i c a l framework, t h a t g u i d e s r e s e a r c h on r e c r u i t m e n t i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ; r e s e a r c h t h a t can b e g i n w i t h c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l s who have a l r e a d y made t h e i r c a r e e r c h o i c e s . An i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t he ways i n wh i ch t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n announces i t s e l f t o p o t e n t i a l r e c r u i t s t h r ough an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s o f t h e s e r e c r u i t s marks a change i n f o c u s o f t he r e s e a r c h on r e c ru i . t emen t i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . On the b a s i s o f the r e s u l t s f rom t h i s s t udy i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e r e a r e a number o f q u e s t i o n s t h a t must be answered i n o r d e r t o f u r t h e r r e f i n e the t h e o r e t i c a l f ramework f o r the s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t . For examp le , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o i d e n t i f y the na t u r e o f t he r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n d i v i d u a l s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f the p r o f e s s i o n and d i f f e r e n t t y pe s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and s p o r t programmes. In t h i s l i g h t , an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s o f t e a c h e r s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , s choo l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programmes, c u r r i c u l u m mode ls f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and s t u d e n t s ' s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s m e r i t s a t t e n t i o n . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e s e f a c t o r s may pave the way towards a g r e a t e r i n s i g h t i n t o t h e work o f t e a c h e r s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and the impac t o f t h i s work on s t u d e n t s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . - 7 1 -I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o b eg i n t o i n v e s t i g a t e some o f t he r easons f o r t he d i f f e r e n c e s i n the academic g rade p o i n t a ve r ages f o r male and fema le r e c r u i t s . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o b l o c k e d a s p i r a t i o n s a re i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s t h a t must be c o n s i d e r e d when i n v e s t i g a t i n g c a r e e r c h o i c e . F u r t h e r r e s e a r h i n t h i s a r e a must a l s o c o n s i d e r an i n - d e p t h s tudy o f t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h non-dominant s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t s . Case s t u d i e s o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s ' may make p o s s i b l e a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the ways i n wh i c h an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n s a r e s o c i a l i z e d and the impac t o f t h e s e s o c i a l i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s i n s p o r t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n on the s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t . Thus , r e s e a r c h exam in i ng the s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n has t he p o t e n t i a l t o p r o v i d e r e s e a r c h e r s w i t h a f ramework t h a t a l l o w s the e x a m i n a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s ' p e r c e p t i o n s b e f o r e t h ey e n t e r programmes o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , when they a r e e n r o l l e d i n t h e s e programmes and when t hey e n t e r t he w o r k f o r c e . The s u b j e c t i v e w a r r a n t has , t h e n , t he p o t e n t i a l t o a l l o w an e n l i g h t e n e d p e r s p e c t i v e not o n l y on r e c r u i t m e n t i n t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n bu t on the impac t o f p r o f e s s i o n e d u c a t i o n , t he work o f t e a c h i n g i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , r o l e o r i e . n t a t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s and c o a c h e s , c u r r i c u l u m models and mode ls f o r work . 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Mer ton e t . a l . ( Eds ) The s t u d e n t p h y s i c i a n . M a s s a c h u s e t t s : Ha r va rd U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957. - 7 9 -Vance , V . , and S c h l e c h t y , P.C. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f academic a b i l i t y i n t he t e a c h i n g f o r c e : P o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s . Ph i D e l t a Kappan, September 1982, 2 2 - 2 7 . Wa l s h , W.B. , Howard, P .R. , O ' B r i e n , W.F . , S a n t a - M a r i s , M.L . , & Edmondson, C . J . C o n s i s t a n t o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e and s a t i s f a c t i o n s e l f c o n c e p t , s e l f a c c ep t an c e and v o c a t i o n a l m a t u r i t y . J o u r n a l o f V o c a t i o n a l  B e h a v i o u r , 1973, 3^ 453 -463 . W e s t e r n , J . S . and Ande r s on , D.S. E d u c a t i o n and p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n . The A u s t r a l i a n and New Z e a l a n d J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , 1968, 4^ 91 -106 . Wood fo rd , R. The s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f Freshman P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n M a j o r s i n t o  Ro le O r i e n t a t i o n s i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r ' s d i s s e r t a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y o f New M e x i c o , 1977. Y e r k e s , R.M. Repo r t o f the p s y c h o l o g y commi t tee o f the n a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h c o u n c i l . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Rev iew, 1919, 26 , 8 3 - 1 4 9 . Y i n , R. The case s t udy as a s e r i o u s r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g y . Knowledge c r e a t i o n  d i f f u s i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n , 1981, 3 ( 1 ) , 97 -114 . - 8 0 -A P P E N D I X A QUESTIONNAIRE The purpose .o f t h i s s t udy i s t o examine some o f the f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e the c h o i c e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as a c a r e e r . I t i s hoped t h a t by e xam in i ng t h e s e f a c t o r s i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n a more a c c u r a t e , c omp le t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t he r ea sons why i n d i v i d u a l s choose t o e n t e r the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n . The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s a re r e l a t e d to y o u r c a r e e r c h o i c e . P l e a s e read the q u e s t i o n s c a r e f u l l y and w r i t e y o u r answers i n t he space p r o v i d e d . For examp le , i n the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n i f y ou r answer was y e s you wou ld check the y e s r e sponse and then move on t o answer q u e s t i o n s l a ) , b ) , e t c . I f y o u r answer was no then you wou ld check the no r e sponse and then move on t o t he nex t q u e s t i o n , q u e s t i o n 2. Sample q u e s t i o n 1. Do you p l a y b a s k e t b a l l ? Yes a) how l ong have you been p l a y i n g No b) what team do you p l a y f o r - 8 1 -Q u e s t i ons Gene ra l Background I n f o r m a t i o n Sex Grade Schoo l 1) How o l d a re you • 2) What i s y o u r f a t h e r s o c c u p a t i o n :  mothers o c c u p a t i o n 3) How many o l d e r b r o t h e r s do you have c younger b r o t h e r s do you have 4) How many o l d e r s i s t e r s do you have ;  younge r s i s t e r s do you have 5) Has y o u r mother e ve r p a r t i c i p a t e d i n any s p o r t o r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y ? Yes a) What d i d / d o e s she do No b) For each o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s what w a s / i s her l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n ? S p o r t L eve l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n - 8 2 -5) c o n t ' d •  6) Has y o u r f a t h e r e v e r p a r t i c i p a t e d i n any s p o r t o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y ? Yes a) What d i d / d o e s he do No . b) For each o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s what w a s / i s h i s l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n ? S p o r t L eve l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n 7) Do any o f y o u r b r o t h e r s o r s i s t e r s p a r t i c i p a t e i n any s p o r t o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y ? Yes a) What d i d / d o t hey do No . • b) For each o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s what w a s / i s t h e i r l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n ? S p o r t B r o t h e r o r S i s t e r L eve l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n 7) c o n t ' d - 8 3 -Gene ra l Schoo l I n f o r m a t i o n 1) What s u b j e c t s / c o u r s e s a r e you t a k i n g t h i s y e a r ? What i s y o u r f a v o r i t e s u b j e c t ? Why? 3) What i s y o u r o v e r a l 1 . g r a d e p o i n t ave rage f o r t h e s e s u b j e c t s ? 4) Have you eve r been t o see the s choo l c o u n s e l l o r s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about p o s s i b l e c a r e e r c h o i c e s ? Yes a) D i d you f i n d t h i s h e l p f u l i n making y o u r No c a r e e r c h o i c e Yes No b) I f y e s , i n what ways? - 8 4 -5) Does y o u r s choo l have a c a r e e r s programme? Yes a) What does t h i s i n v o l v e No b) Has i s h e l p e d you t o make a c a r e e r c h o i c e Yes No c ) I f y e s , i n what ways? 6) Have you eve r used the c h o i c e s c a r e e r programme to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about c a r e e r c h o i c e s ? Yes a) What c a r e e r s d i d the programme sugges t t h a t No m igh t be s u i t a b l e f o r you? b) D id t h i s h e l p you t o make a c a r e e r c h o i c e ? Yes No c ) I f y e s , i n what ways -85-6) c o n t ' d 7) Do you have a f u t u r e t e a c h e r s c l a s s o r c l u b i n y o u r s c hoo l ? Yes a) Have you eve r t aken t h i s c o u r s e o r been i n v o l v e d No w i t h the c l u b ? Yes No b) I f y e s , what d i d you do i n t h i s c l a s s / c l u b c ) D id t h i s h e l p you to make a d e c i s i o n about a p o s s i b l e c a r e e r i n t e a c h i n g Yes No d) I f y e s , i n what ways A t t r a c t i o n to the P r o f e s s i o n  A. Na tu r e o f S p o r t I nvo l v emen t s 1) Does y o u r s choo l have a r e c r e a t i o n s p o r t program ( i n t r a m u r a l s ) ? Yes a) Do you p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s programme Yes No No b) I f y e s , i n what s p o r t s - 8 6 -c ) I f no, why not 2) Do you p a r t i c i p a t e in ' any s choo l teams t h a t p l a y a g a i n s t o t h e r s c h o o l s ( i n t e r - s c h o l a s t i c s p o r t ) ? Yes _____ a) What t e am(s ) do you p l a y i n ? No b) Fo r each o f t h e s e teams p l e a s e p r o v i d e t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n Team S t a r t e r o r Number o f y e a r s L e ve l o f S u b s t i t u t e on the Team P a r t i c i p a t i o n 3) T h i n k i n g o f a l l o f t he i n d i v i d u a l s i n y ou r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s where wou ld you rank y o u r s e l f i n te rms o f a ch i evement and s k i l l Top 5% Top 6-15% Top 16-25% Top 26-50% Lower 50% 4) Do you p a r t i c i p a t e i n any s p o r t o r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y o u t s i d e y o u r s choo l s p o r t ? Yes -87-a) What do you do No b) For each o f t he a c t i v i t i e s p l e a s e p r o v i d e the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n S p o r t I nvo l vemen t Length o f t ime Leve l o f C o m p e t i t i v e o r you have been p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e c r e a t i o n a l i n v o l v e d 5) For each o f the s p o r t s t h a t you a r e p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n how wou ld you r a t e y o u r s e l f , on a s c a l e o f 1 to 10, as a p e r f o r m e r (10 = e x c e l l e n t p e r f o r m e r , 5 = ave rage p e r f o r m e r , 1 = poor p e r f o r m e r ) . Spo r t R a t i n g S p o r t R a t i n g 6) Do you have any i n v o l v e m e n t s i n s p o r t o r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y o t h e r than y o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a p l a y e r ? Yes - 8 8 -a) What do you do No b) In what s p o r t s o r a c t i v i t i e s c ) How d i d you become i n v o l v e d d) How l ong have you been i n v o l v e d f o r 7) I f you c o n s i d e r a l l o f y o u r s p o r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s , how many hours ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y ) do you spend i n one week: a) p r a c t i c i n g w i t h t he team b) p r a c t i c i n g a l o ne c ) . c o n d i t i o n i n g / t r a i n i n g d) p l a y i n g . e) c o a c h i n g / t e a c h i n g f ) s p e c t a t i n g g) w a t c h i n g i t on t . v . h) r e a d i n g about - 8 9 -7) c o n t ' d i ) p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s t ime j ) o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) 8) Have y o u r e ve r done any v o l u n t e e r work t h a t i s r e l a t e d to s p o r t o r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y Yes a) What w a s / i s i t No b) How d i d you become i n v o l v e d c ) D i d /do you en j o y i t Yes No d) I f y e s , i n what ways e) I f no, why not 9) Have you eve r worked i n a j o b t h a t i s r e l a t e d t o s p o r t o r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y ? Yes . a) What was i t No b) When d i d you do i t - 9 0 -9) c o n t ' d c ) D i d you en j o y i t Yes No d) I f y e s , why e) I f no, why not B. C a r e e r P l a n s 1) Do you p l a n t o go t o c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y Yes a) Where do you p l a n t o go No b) What f a c u l t y do you p l a n t o e n t e r c ) Why have you chosen t h i s c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y d) What do you p l a n t o do 2) Do you know what c a r e e r you p l a n t o pursue? Yes No 3) I f y e s , what i s i t why d i d you make t h i s c h o i c e - 9 1 -3) c o n t ' d 4) I f no, what c a r e e r s a r e you s t i l l c o n s i d e r i n g 5) Have you eve r a t any t ime o r a re you p r e s e n t l y c o n s i d e r i n g a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Yes No 6) I f y e s , what a t t r a c t e d you to t h i s c a r e e r 7) I f no, a) why have you never c o n s i d e r e d a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i on? b) Why do you t h i n k i n d i v i d u a l s may d e c i d e a g a i n s t a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n Thank you f o r y o u r c o o p e r a t i o n i n f i l l i n g i n t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I f you have any q u e s t i o n s p l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o a s k . -92-C. D e c i s i o n t o E n t e r The P r o f e s s i o n 1) Do you have any f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s who a r e i n v o l v e d i n s p o r t o r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y ? ( e g . t e a c h i n g , c o a c h i n g , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n e t c . ) Yes a) F am i l y member s p e c i f y No F r i e n d s R e l a t i v e s s p e c i f y b) what do t hey do 2) Which i n d i v i d u a l s have been most i n f l u e n t i a l i n y o u r d e c i s i o n t o e n t e r the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n 3) Of a l l o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s who has been the most i n f l u e n t i a l In what ways 4) When you f i n i s h y o u r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme a t u n i v e r s i t y what do you p l a n t o do? - 9 3 -5) I f you had a c h o i c e o f a) a c o a c h i n g j o b o n l y b) a t e a c h i n g j o b o n l y c ) a combined t e a c h i n g and c o a c h i n g j o b d) non o f the above a) What wou ld you choose b) Why c ) What do you see t h i s j o b as i n v o l v i n g 6) What q u a l i t i e s do you t h i n k you must p o s s e s s t o be good a t t he j o b you chose i n 5a) 7) What do you t h i n k an i n d i v i d u a l has t o know to be a a) Teache r o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n -94-b) Coach 8) What do you t h i n k an i n d i v i d u a l has t o be a b l e to do t o be a a) Teache r o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n b) Coach 9) T h i n k back t o y o u r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . What d i d you l e a r n ? 10) I f you were g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e s i g n and t e a ch a s choo l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme, wou ld you i ) model t he programme on y o u r s choo l programme i i ) d e s i g n a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t programme w i t h d i f f e r e n t g o a l s - 9 5 -a) Why d i d you make t h i s c h o i c e b) I f you chose i i ) , what wou ld y o u r new g o a l s be 11) I f you had the o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e s i g n and coach a s choo l i n t e r s c h o o l s a t h l e t i c s programme, wou ld you i ) model y o u r programme on y o u r s choo l programme i i ) d e s i g n ' a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t programme w i t h d i f f e r e n t g o a l s a) Why d i d you make t h i s c h o i c e b) I f you chose the second o p t i o n , what wou ld y o u r new g o a l s be -96-12) a) What a re t he most i m p o r t a n t r ea sons f o r y o u r c h o i c e o f a c a r e e r i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n :  b) . I f you chose the second o p t i o n , what wou ld y o u r new g o a l s be 13) When d i d you d e c i d e to e n t e r the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n 14) Have you eve r c o n s i d e r e d any o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s o r o c c u p a t i o n s Yes a) what were t hey No b) Why d i d you chose p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n 15) I f you c o u l d choose any p r o f e s s i o n and be su re o f g a i n i n g e n t r y i n t o i t a) what wou ld you choose •  -97-b) why THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR TIME AND COOPERATION IN FILLING OUT THIS QUESTIONNAIRE 

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