Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

History of sport in British Columbia to 1885: a chronicle of significant developments and events 1977

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
UBC_1977_A7_5 S83.pdf [ 14.71MB ]
UBC_1977_A7_5 S83.pdf
Metadata
JSON: 1.0077339.json
JSON-LD: 1.0077339+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0077339.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0077339+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0077339+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0077339+rdf-ntriples.txt
Citation
1.0077339.ris

Full Text

A H I S T O R Y OF S P O R T I N B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A TO 1 8 8 5 : C H R O N I C L E OF S I G N I F I C A N T D E V E L O P M E N T S AND E V E N T S b y D E R E K A N T H O N Y S W A I N B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 0 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R THE D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF P H Y S I C A L E D U C A T I O N i n THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S S c h o o l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n a n d R e c r e a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A A p r i l , 1 9 7 7 ( c ) D e r e k A n t h o n y S w a i n , 1 9 7 7 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e fo r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permiss ion for e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Depa rtment The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 i i ABSTRACT This paper traces the development of early sporting a c t i v i t i e s i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia. Contemporary newspapers were scanned to obtain a chronicle of the s i g n i - f i c a n t sporting developments and events during the period between the f i r s t Fraser River gold rush of 18 58 and the completion of the transcontinental Canadian P a c i f i c Railway in 188 5. During t h i s period, i t i s apparent that c e r t a i n sports f a c i l i t a t e d a rapid expansion of a c t i v i t i e s when the railway brought thousands of new s e t t l e r s to the province i n the closing years of the century. During the early years of settlement, the physical recreation a c t i v i t i e s of dances and b a l l s , p i c n i c s and sports days, and other f e s t i v i t i e s provided the community with an opportunity to acquaint i t s e l f with new members and customs, while they relaxed i n a common l e i s u r e persuit. The addition of an element of competition into such day to day a c t i v i t i e s as hunting, f i r e - f i g h t i n g , and occupational trade appear to have lent excitement and enthusiasm to f r o n t i e r existence. The almost universal enthusiasm for betting or wagering provided an element of an t i c i p a t i o n to add further zeal to l i f e . The following a c t i v i t i e s attained some degree of organ- i z a t i o n i n the region during the 1860s: B i l l i a r d s , Bowling, Boxing, Canoeing, Gymnastics, Handball, S a i l i n g , Skating i i i and Quoits. By the 188 0s, Curling, Cycling, Lacrosse, S a i l i n g , and Tennis had also become established. The major sports during the period were Baseball, Cricket, Footba l l , Horse Racing, R i f l e Shooting, Rowing, and Track and F i e l d . Competition i n a l l of these sports was i n i t i a t e d i n the early 1860s. With the exception of Baseball, an American derivative of the English 'rounders' these sports were a l l a c t i v e l y promoted by the Royal Navy, stationed at Esquimalt. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the o f f i c e r s of the f l e e t served as models of upper class behaviour and had a marked influence on the emerging c o l o n i a l society. As represent- atives of the gentry of England, these o f f i c e r s provided leadership i n the sports and a c t i v i t i e s which were a part of t h e i r B r i t i s h heritage. Throughout the period, regular p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n sporting a c t i v i t i e s was r e s t r i c t e d to the wealthy, leis u r e d c l a s s . The p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the majority of the population was limited by long hours of work, which were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced u n t i l a f t e r the period. The completion of the transcontinental railway i n 188 5, marked a new era for B r i t i s h Columbia and for the history of sport i n the province. The huge i n f l u x of s e t t l e r s brought new technology and ideas and r a d i c a l l y altered the population d i s t r i b u t i o n within the province. Thus, as the turn of the century approached, many new sports groups were formed to meet the needs of the increased pop- ul a t i o n . X V TABLE OF CONTENTS L i s t of Tables i Acknowledgements i i Preface i i i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 Purpose of the Study 3 Need for the Study 3 Methods and Procedures 4 Limitations 6 Delimitations 7 Definitions 8 II BACKGROUND HISTORY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 10 III INTRODUCTORY FEATURES OF SPORT AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 24 Dancing 24 Hunting 27 Sports Days and Picnics 33 Gambling and Betting 37 General Interest 38 Summary 4 0 IV MINOR SPORTS 41 Archery 41 B i l l i a r d s 41 Bowling 4 3 Croquet 4 4 Handball 44 Tennis 45 Lacrosse 46 Quoits 49 V AQUATIC SPORTS 51 Canoeing 51 Rowing 5 3 S a i l i n g and Yachting 66 Steamboat Racing 69 Swimming 70 Summary 71 V CHAPTER V I BASEBALL 7 6 Summary 72 V I I CRICKET 8 6 Summary 9 6 V I I I CYCLING 101 IX FIGHTS 106 B o x i n g 106 W r e s t l i n g 114 Summary 115 X FOOTBALL 119 Summary 127 XI GYMNASTICS 12 9 Summary 134 X I I HORSE RACING 136 Summary 159 X I I I R I F L E SHOOTING 165 Summary 17 3 XIV TRACK AND F I E L D 177 Summary 190 XV WINTER SPORTS AND A C T I V I T I E S 194 C u r l i n g 194 S l e i g h i n g 194 S n o w b a l l i n g 196 S k a t i n g 197 Summary 203 XVI SOCIAL FEATURES 205 S o c i a l M i x 205 I n d i a n s i n S p o r t 212 C e l e b r a t i o n s 216 The S a b b a t h 217 The E a r l y C l o s i n g Movement ....219 The I n f l u e n c e o f B u s i n e s s 223 I n f l u e n c e o f The Government ...226 I n f l u e n c e o f The M i l i t a r y 227 vi CHAPTER XVI (Cont'd.) Community Groups 228 Inter-Community Rivalry 231 School Competitions 236 Amateur and Professional Status 237 Women i n Sport 238 XVII CONCLUSION 240 Discussion,. 245 Need For Further Study 250 FOOTNOTES . . . . 251 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 291 v i i v /. LIST OF TABLES I D i s t r i b u t i o n of P o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1870-1901 23 II A q u a t i c Sports 73 I I I B a s e b a l l 84 IV C r i c k e t 99 V F i g h t s 118 VI F o o t b a l l 128 VII Gymnastics 135 V I I I Horse Racing 163 IX R i f l e Shooting 175 X Track and F i e l d 193 XI Winter Sports and A c t i v i t i e s 204 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My t h a n k s t o t h e members o f my c o m m i t t e e , P r o f e s s o r R o b e r t O s b o r n e , Dr. P e t e r M u l l i n s , and Dr. L o m e Sawu l a , f o r t h e i r a d v i c e and a s s i s t a n c e i n r e f i n i n g t h i s p a p e r . S p e c i a l t h a n k s t o my c h a i r m a n , Dr. R o b e r t H i n d m a r c h , and my e x t e r n a l a d v i s o r y , Dr. C h a r l e s H u m p hries, who d i r e c t e d and c o r r e c t e d my work. Thanks a l s o t o my c l o s e f r i e n d , Dr. E m i l y G o e t z , whose l o v e and e n c o u r a g e m e n t h e l p e d me t o c o m p l e t e t h i s s t u d y on t i m e . i x PREFACE I n t h e h a s t e and t u r m o i l o f modern s o c i e t y , t h e r e l - e v a n c e o f h i s t o r y may w e l l be o b s c u r e , b u t t h e p a s t i s so o f t e n t h e key t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p r e s e n t . I n d e s c r i b i n g t h e b e n e f i t s o f h i s t o r i c a l s t u d y , W i l c o x s t a t e d t h a t The d i s c i p l i n e i s much more t h a n a f r u s t r a t i n g e f f o r t t o s a t i s f y c u r i o s i t y a b o u t t h e p a s t . I t s v a l u e f o r c o n t e m p o r a r y s o c i e t y i s r e a l i f i n d i r e c t ; i t p r o v i d e s no r e l i a b l e b a s i s f o r e x t r a p o l a t i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f f u t u r e c h a n g e , b u t i t c a n r e v e a l , however i m p r e c i s e l y , t h e f o r c e s o f change t h a t a r e m o l d i n g t h e p r e s e n t ... H i s t o r i c a l i n q u i r y , l i k e any e m p h a t i c engagement w i t h human b e i n g s i n t h e i r f u l l c o m p l e x i t y , has f o r i t s m a i n r e s u l t n o t t h e o r y , b u t a d e e p e n e d a w a r e n e s s . ^ The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s a w a r e n e s s , a h e i g h t e n e d c o n s c i o u s - n e s s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g , c a n b e o f g r e a t v a l u e t o s o c i e t y , p e r m i t t i n g a more s e n s i t i v e and k n o w l e d g e a b l e a p p r a i s a l o f p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s . The v e r y n a t u r e o f s p o r t , w i t h i t s r h y t h m i c , s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n s , a c c e l e r a t e s change w i t h a tempo t h a t t h r u s t s us f r o m one c h a m p i o n s h i p s e r i e s i n t o t h e m i d d l e o f another, deny- i n g a ' t i m e - o u t ' f o r r e f l e c t i o n . In t h e e x c i t e m e n t and a n t i - c i p a t i o n by w h i c h we d e v o u r t h e p r o s p e c t u s f o r t h e f o r t h - c o m i n g s e r i e s , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e v i o u s s e a s o n l o s e t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e and t h e a t t e n t i o n we d e v o t e d t o o u r h e r o e s o f y e s t e r d a y i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o new and s e e m i n g l y b r i g h t e r s t a r s . T h r o u g h t h i s c o n s t a n t p r o c e s s o f t u r n o v e r and c h a n ge, " t h e 2 p a s t and x t s h e r o e s a r e soon l o s t t o t h e c o l l e c t i v e memory". To p r e s e r v e t h e s e memories, i t seems e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e y be p r o p e r l y r e c o r d e d i n t h e p r e s e n t , w h i l e e f f o r t s s h o u l d be made t o r e d i s c o v e r t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f y e a r s gone by. 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The i m p o r t a n c e o f s p o r t w i t h i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t i s e v i d e n c e d by t h e f a c t t h a t p s y c h i a t r i s t s , s o c i o l o g i s t s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y , e d u c a t o r s have r e c o g n i z e d s p o r t as a p a r t o f G7 e v e r y c u l t u r e t h a t has e v e r e x i s t e d . ^ " Thus, s p o r t s and games have been seen t o " p r o v i d e a t o u c h s t o n e f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g how p e o p l e l i v e , work, and t h i n k and may a l s o s e r v e as a barometer o f a n a t i o n s ' s p r o g r e s s i n c i v i l i z a t i o n " . ^ Y e t , t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a r t h o f h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s o f s p o r t . The e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s l a c k o f acknowledgement o f s p o r t as a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y i s s i m p l y due t o t h e n a t u r e o f h i s t o r i c a l i n q u i r y . H i s t o r y i s w r i t t e n and, i n many ways, c r e a t e d t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f p a s t e v e n t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h o s e f a c t o r s w h i c h t h e s c h o l a r c o n s i d e r s s i g n i f i c a n t - and c e r t a i n l y , t h e drama and i n t r i g u e o f t h e p o l i t i c a l a r e n a a r e t h e f a c t o r s t o w h i c h t h e h i s t o r i a n has c o n v e n t i o n a l l y been drawn. Cozens and Stumpf have commented on t h i s phenomenon by s t a t i n g t h a t ...an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e works o f e a r l y h i s t o r i a n s would l e a d t h e r e a d e r t o b e l i e v e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s were b o r n and t h e y d i e d , t h e y earned a l i v i n g , f o u g h t i n wars, and e l e c t e d o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s t o p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e , b u t they never p l a y e d . ^ T h i s g e n e r a l l a c k o f h i s t o r i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s o f our a n c e s t o r s r a i s e s i n t r i g u i n g q u e s t i o n s . F o r example, j u s t what d i d t h e m i n e r s o f t h e g r e a t F r a s e r and C a r i b o o g o l d r u s h e s do t o occupy t h e i r non-working t i m e ? Are we t o be s a t i s f i e d w i t h an a s s u m p t i o n , based on t h e legends o f 2 f r o n t i e r e x i s t e n c e , t h a t r e c r e a t i o n a l t i m e was spen t o n l y i n th e s a l o o n s and a t t h e gambling t a b l e s . Such an assumption would l o g i c a l l y s u ggest a s t e r e o t y p e o f t h e e a r l y m i n e r s as b e i n g a rough and ready l o t w i t h l i t t l e i n t e r e s t o t h e r t h a n a l u s t f o r g o l d and w e a l t h . However, i f we q u e s t i o n t h e s t e r e o - t y p e , we a r e f o r c e d t o r e - a p p r a i s e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e f r o n t i e r s - men and t o ask a g a i n , what d i d th e y do i n t h e i r l e i s u r e t i m e ? And what o f t h e p e o p l e i n t h e c i t i e s ? Were t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s s i m i l a r o r d i d t h e i r urban r e s i d e n c e cause them t o engage i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s ? How were t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e cha n g i n g t i m e s , new t e c h n o l o g y , new s e t t l e r s ? By a s k i n g such q u e s t i o n s we may f i n d answers w h i c h l e a d t o a c o m p l e t e l y new p e r s p e c t i v e i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f o u r c u l t u r e . As S i r A r t h u r Lunn has s a i d , The h i s t o r i a n . . . i s a p t t o f o r g e t t h a t s p o r t i n some form o r o t h e r i s t h e main o b j e c t o f most l i v e s , t h a t some men work i n o r d e r t o p l a y , and t h a t games w h i c h b u l k so l a r g e l y i n t h e l i f e o f an i n d i v i d u a l cannot be n e g l e c t e d i n s t u d y i n g t h e l i f e o f a n a t i o n ^ In s p o r t t h e r e a r e many f a s c i n a t i n g s t o r i e s t o be t o l d . These s t o r i e s w i l l n o t mer e l y r e f l e c t t h e c h r o n o l o g y o f s p o r t - i n g d evelopments, b u t t h e y w i l l i n c r e a s e our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the whole l i f e o f our a n c e s t o r s and o f our h e r i t a g e . 5 T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n B r i t i s h Columbia where, d u r i n g a few s h o r t y e a r s t h e i n f l u x o f d i v e r g e n t e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l groups t r a n s f o r m e d a v a s t w i l d e r n e s s t o s u p p o r t a booming i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y . S i n c e t h e s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f b o t h i n t e g r a t i o n and the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f e t h n i c i t y have been seen t o be p r o f o u n d l y i n f l u e n c e d by r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , 6 t h e s p o r t i n g h i s t o r y 3 o f B r i t i s h Columbia pro m i s e s t o p r e s e n t a f a s c i n a t i n g and c o l o u r f u l image o f a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t o f Canadian l i f e . As W i l l i a m P e r k i n s B u l l has w r i t t e n , The s p i r i t o f a n a t i o n e x p r e s s e s i t s e l f no l e s s i n i t s p l a y t h a n i n i t s work, and no h i s t o r y o f any B r i t i s h p e o p l e would, be complete w i t h o u t a r e f e r e n c e t o sport.7 The f o l l o w i n g paper i s an attempt t o d e s c r i b e a s m a l l p o r t i o n o f Canada's s p o r t i n g h i s t o r y and d e a l s o n l y w i t h the e a r l v , f o r m a t i v e y e a r s o f B r i t i s h Columbian s o c i e t y . Hope- f u l l y , i t w i l l s e r v e as a f o u n d a t i o n f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e p r o v i n c e ' s s p o r t s h e r i t a g e . PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o t r a c e t h e development o f s p o r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d between t h e f i r s t F r a s e r R i v e r g o l d r u s h o f 1858 and t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y i n 1885. The i n t e n t . i s t o o b t a i n a c o n c i s e c h r o n i c l e o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t developments and e v e n t s i n s p o r t as the e a r l y B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s matured t h r o u g h r a p i d e x p a n s i o n toward s t a b i l i t y as a p r o v i n c e i n t h e Dominion o f Canada. NEED FOR THE STUDY 1. A t h e s i s on an a s p e c t o f a n a t i o n ' s c u l t u r e would seem t o need no f u r t h e r j u s t i f i c a t i o n t h a n t h e f a c t t h a t i t c h r o n i c l e s and s u b m i t s t o some a n a l y s i s , a f a s c i n a t i n g and c o l o u r f u l image o f t h a t nation:' s S l i f e . Y e t , an i m p o r t a n t i n s t i t u t i o n such as s p o r t has g e n e r a l l y r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n from 4 h i s t o r i a n s , c a u s i n g a r e c e n t a u t h o r , G.M. L e w i s , t o s t a t e t h a t , S p o r t was and i s such an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e American e x p e r i e n c e t h a t i t s p a s t n e g l e c t as s u i t a b l e s u b j e c t m a t t e r can n o t c o n t i n u e . 2. S i n c e s p o r t i s p a r t o f t h e o v e r - a l l l i f e e x p e r i e n c e o f man, we may be b e t t e r a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f s o c i e t y t h r o u g h t h e s t u d y o f s p o r t . I n t r a c i n g t h e development o f s p o r t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i t s p a t t e r n o f growth may s e r v e as an i n d i c a t o r o f a s h i f t i n i t s p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n s o c i e t y , r e f l e c t i n g a change i n s o c i e t a l v a l u e s . Thus, the h i s t o r y o f t h e c u l t u r e may be i n c o m p l e t e w i t h o u t adequate i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e s p o r t s i n s t i t u t i o n . 3. A knowledge o f our h e r i t a g e w i l l g i v e us a b e t t e r s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how t h e contemporary s p o r t s scene has been e s t a b l i s h e d . 4. The need f o r a s t u d y o f s p o r t i n B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d i s f u r t h e r j u s t i f i e d by L i n d s a y ' s comment t h a t o n l y by f u r t h e r d e l i m i t a t i o n s i n t i m e span and r e g i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n can such a g e n e r a l t o p i c [as h i s t o r y o f s p o r t s i n CanadaJ be more f r u i t f u l l y examined.9 METHODS AND PROCEDURES Background i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e g e n e r a l h i s t o r y o f t h e r e g i o n has been t a k e n from t h e a u t h o r i t a t i v e work o f M a r g a r e t Ormsby, B r i t i s h C olumbia; A H i s t o r y . The i n f o r m a t i o n on s p o r t has been g l e a n e d p r i m a r i l y from contemporary newspapers. The major s o u r c e has been t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t o f V i c t o r i a , w h i l e t h e B r i t i s h Columbian and t h e M a i n l a n d G u a r d i a n o f New 5 W e s t m i n s t e r and t h e C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l o f B a r k e r v i l l e have a l s o been most i n f o r m a t i v e . When a v a i l a b l e , t h e o r i g i n a l news- paper was c o n s u l t e d , b u t t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e r e s e a r c h i n v o l v e d t h e use o f m i c r o f i l m s . The method o f r e s e a r c h i n g t h e s e newspapers was t o q u i c k l y s can t h e pages o f each e d i t i o n , c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e t h i r d page, on w h i c h t h e b u l k o f community news and e v e n t s were g e n e r a l l y r e p o r t e d . However, f o r t h e e d i t i o n s o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t p u b l i s h e d a f t e r 1870, a more e x p e d i e n t method o f r e s e a r c h was employed by r e f e r r i n g t o t h e s p o r t i n g t o p i c s l i s t e d i n t h e i n d e x t o t h a t newspaper, w h i c h i s housed i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s a t V i c t o r i a . The c r i t e r i a f o r e x a m i n a t i o n , o r t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e , o f s p o r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s has been based on t h e major elements o f s p o r t s as c i t e d by Kenyon: forms, p a r t i c i p a n t s , f a c i l i t a t o r s , and s i t u a t i o n s . - 1 - 0 These i n c l u d e such f a c t o r s as t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a c t i v i t y ( i e . d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between t y p e s o f f o o t b a l l - rugby, a s s o c i a t i o n , and Canadian) and t h e commonal- i t y o f r u l e s ; t h e e x t e n t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e l e v e l o f c o m p e t i t i o n , and t h e degree o f s p e c t a t o r a p p e a l ; o u t s t a n d i n g i n d i v i d u a l s and groups; and u n i q u e , p r e s t i g i o u s - j r o r o t h e r w i s e h i s t o r i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t o c c a s i o n s ( i e . t h e f i r s t r e c o r d e d e v e n t ) . By t h e n a t u r e o f h i s t o r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s between d i s c i p l i n e s w i t h i n h i s t o r y i s i n e v i t a b l e . A c c o r d i n g t o Commager, T a c k l e any major problem i n h i s t o r y and you w i l l d i s c o v e r a t once t h a t you can n o t u n d e r s t a n d i t i n i s o l a t i o n , b u t t h a t you a r e i n v o l v e d i n p o l i t i c s , i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s , s c i e n c e , t e c h n o l o g y , economics, p s y c h o l o g y , and m o r a l s . . . The f a c t i s t h a t men and women do n o t l i v e i n compartments l a b e l l e d ' p o l i t i e s ' o r 'law' o r ' r e l i g i o n ' o r 'economies', t h e y l i v e i n a l l s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . . . H i s t o r y i s as a l l embracing as l i f e i t s e l f and t h e mind o f man. 6 C o n s e q u e n t l y , i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n h i s t o r i c a l c o n t i n u i t y and s i g n i f i c a n c e , an attempt has been made, where a p p r o p r i a t e , t o i n c l u d e b r i e f r e f e r e n c e s t o f a c t o r s beyond t h e scope and i n t e n t o f t h i s paper. LIMITATIONS Wedgewood d e s c r i b e d t h e most i m p o r t a n t l i m i t a t i o n p l a c e d on e v e r y h i s t o r i a n when she s a i d t h a t The h i s t o r i a n ought t o be t h e humblest o f men; he i s f a c e d a dozen t i m e s a day w i t h t h e e v i d e n c e o f h i s own i g n o r a n c e ; he i s p e r p e t u a l l y c o n f r o n t e d w i t h h i s own h u m i l i a t i n g i n a b i l i t y t o i n t e r p r e t h i s m a t e r i a l c o r r e c t l y ; he i s , i n a sense t h a t no o t h e r w r i t e r i s , i n bondage t o t h a t m a t e r i a l . - * - 2 The h i s t o r i a n i s t h e v i c t i m o f f o r t u i t y . He must work w i t h whatever m a t e r i a l comes t o hand and o f t e n , much o f t h e r e l e v a n t and e s s e n t i a l m a t e r i a l i s l o s t t o h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n because i t has rtever been c o m p i l e d o r because o f t h e e r o s i o n o f t i m e , whereby v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n has s u f f e r e d from n e g l e c t , n a t u r a l c a u s e s , o r even d e l i b e r a t e d e s t r u c t i o n . A n o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l i n q u i r y i s t h a t o f d i s t o r t i o n . As r e a d i l y e v i d e n c e d i n modern newspapers, what a t t r a c t s t h e r e c o r d - k e e p e r i s t h e d r a m a t i c , b i z a r r e , and c a t a s t r o p h i c . Thus, t h e r e c o r d o f e v e n t s may be c o n t a m i n a t e d by t h e b i a s e s and i n t e r e s t s o f t h e w r i t e r , r e s u l t i n g i n e i t h e r e x a g g e r a t e d n a r r a t i v e o r complete n e g l e c t . A p a r t i c u l a r l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t t h e contemporary newspapers d i d n o t p r o v i d e s y s t e m a t i c o r t h o r o u g h s p o r t s c o v e r a g e , and, due t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f space, o f t e n gave o n l y b r i e f announcements r e g a r d i n g community a c t i v i t i e s . 7 T h i s s t u d y i s f u r t h e r l i m i t e d by t h e i m p r a c t i c a b i l i t y ' o f r e a d i n g t h e contemporary p u b l i c a t i o n s i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y . The sheer volume o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , may w e l l have c o n c e a l e d n o t e s on s p o r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e s t u d y . F u r t h e r m o r e , some s e c t i o n s o f t h e o r i g i n a l newspapers and some o f t h e m i c r o f i l m s were e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o r e a d , t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g t h e p o s s i b l i t y t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d a t a has n o t been uncovered. Such i s t h e problem o f h i s t o r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e r e i s always th e chance o f new i n f o r m a t i o n coming t o l i g h t , new i d e a s , o r new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t o r e w r i t e h i s t o r y . Thus, i t may be s a i d t h a t t h e h i s t o r i a n s ' work i s never complete. DELIMITATIONS 1. T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l be c o n f i n e d t o s p o r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e b a s i c a l l y o f European o r i g i n . A c t i v i t i e s o f t h e i n d i g e n o u s p o p u l a t i o n a r e n o t d i s c u s s e d u n l e s s t h e y can be seen t o have p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e t o t h e development o f s p o r t s w i t h i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia. T h i s does n o t d i s m i s s t h e games and c o n t e s t s o f t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n s as b e i n g i n s i g n i f i c a n t t o B r i t i s h Columbian c u l t u r e , b u t t h e y can n o t be i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e scope o f t h i s paper because a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t method o f r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d t o do more t h a n a s u p e r f i c i a l s u r v e y o f I n d i a n s p o r t . 2. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s c o n f i n e d t o the a r e a known as t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , on t h e w e s t e r n c o a s t o f Canada. 8 3. The t i m e p e r i o d under c o n s i d e r a t i o n ranges r o u g h l y from 1858, t h e y e a r t h e f i r s t contemporary newspapers were p u b l i s h e d , t o t h e y e a r 1885, when B r i t i s h Columbia e n t e r e d a new e r a o f p o p u l a t i o n growth, f o l l o w i n g t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . DEFINITIONS The term s p o r t has many ambiguous c o n n o t a t i o n s . On t h e one hand, i t may be c o n s i d e r e d t o r e f e r t o a game o c c u r r e n c e i n w h i c h elements o f a c t i v i t y , c o m p e t i t i o n , and o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e p r e s e n t . However, i n modern t i m e s , i t may be n e c e s s a r y t o d i s t i n g u i s h between such c o m p e t i t i o n s as a p i c k - u p game o f f o o t b a l l o r s t r e e t hockey and a h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d c o m p e t i t i o n i n a s t a d i u m o r a r e n a . The former i s termed a game and t h e l a t t e r , a s p o r t , t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n b e i n g based on t h e wide d i s c r e p a n c i e s o f c o m p e t i t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n , and s k i l l r e q u i r e - ments, whereby t h e s p o r t g a i n s a marked i n c r e m e n t i n p u b l i c i n t e r e s t and i n f l u e n c e . i n o r d e r t o a v o i d t h e s e d i s t i n c t i o n s , a more encompassing d e f i n i t i o n may be used, such as t h a t p r o v i d e d by Loy, who s a i d t h a t s p o r t r e f e r s t o "the t o t a l i t y o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d games whose outcomes a r e dependent upon p h y s i c a l p r o w e s s " . ^ However, n e i t h e r o f t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n a l e f f o r t s i s c o m p l e t e l y a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f the p e r i o d w i t h w h i c h t h i s paper i s c o n c e r n e d . S i n c e t h e paper d e a l s w i t h a t i m e p e r i o d i n w h i c h t h e s p o r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e r e g i o n were i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l development, c u r r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s o f s p o r t l a c k meaning and c o n t e x t . Thus, f o r t h e purposes o f t h i s s t u d y , 9 sport i s considered to loosely refer to a host of physical recreation and l e i s u r e pursuits which generally involve some form of competition or gross bodily movement. 10 CHAPTER I I BACKGROUND HISTORY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA U n t i l l a t e i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h West l a y u n d i s t u r b e d by t h e w h i t e man. I t was o n l y t h r o u g h t h e need f o r a s h o r t e r r o u t e t o t h e O r i e n t , t r i g g e r i n g t h e s e a r c h f o r a North-West Passage, t h a t t h e European c i v i l i z a - t i o n came t o r e c o g n i z e t h e v a l u e o f t h i s remote r e g i o n . I n 1764, R u s s i a n e x p l o r e r s d i s c o v e r e d t h e r i c h e s o f sea o t t e r f u r , a r o u s i n g t h e c u r i o s i t y o f t h e S p a n i s h , whose s h i p S a n t i a g o , c a p t a i n e d by Juan Joseph P e r e z , g a i n e d t h e f i r s t r e c o r d e d g l i m p s e o f t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s on J u l y 17, 1774. Four y e a r l a t e r , i n 1778, England's C a p t a i n James Cook found n o t o n l y s h e l t e r i n Nootka Sound, but an abundance o f f u r s and s t r o n g t i m b e r s t o r e p a i r h i s s h i p s . I n subsequent y e a r s , R u s s i a n , S p a n i s h , A m e r i c a n , and B r i t i s h v e s s e l s s a i l e d t h e c o a s t i n t h e t w o - f o l d o b j e c t i v e o f o b t a i n i n g f u r s from t h e I n d i a n s , t o be s o l d f o r h i g h p r i c e s i n C h i n a , w h i l e h o p i n g t o stumble on t h e e l u s i v e passage t h r o u g h t h e c o n t i n e n t . Thus, by t h e time C a p t a i n George Vancouver r e a c h e d N o r t h A m e r i c a , i n A p r i l o f 1792, f u r - t r a d e r s had named c o v e s , i s l a n d s and capes a f t e r t h e i r p a t r o n s , s p o n s o r s , and r e l a t i v e s , and had v i s i t e d a l l t h e w e s t e r n i n l e t s between t h e mouth o f t h e Columbia R i v e r and t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s . 1 However, t h e i r h u r r i e d e x c u r s i o n s had f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e an a c c u r a t e knowledge o f t h e c o a s t l i n e , l e a v i n g Vancouver's c h a r t i n g crews t o d i s c o v e r t h a t a North-West passage t h r o u g h t h e c o n t i n e n t d i d n o t e x i s t . 11 Meanwhile, t h e s e a r c h was c o n t i n u i n g from t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n - by l a n d . On J u l y 22, 1793, A l e x a n d e r Mackenzie pushed h i s way o u t o f t h e f o r e s t t o r e a c h B e l l a C o o l a I n l e t , m i s s i n g one o f Vancouver's c h a r t i n g crews by o n l y a month. 2 S u c c e e d i n g voyageurs a l s o p e n e t r a t e d t h e w i l d e r n e s s o f t h e Rocky Mountains and, i n t h e name o f t h e N o r t h West Company, b u i l t s m a l l s t o c k a d e d f o r t s on t h e upper r e a c h e s o f t h e Peace and F r a s e r R i v e r s , t o form t h e n u c l e u s o f t h e f i r s t permanent w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h West. F o r t S t . James, b u i l t on S t u a r t Lake d u r i n g t h e summer o f 1806, became the c a p i t a l o f a r i c h f u r t r a d i n g d i s t r i c t w h i c h t h e e x p l o r e r , F r a s e r , c a l l e d New C a l e d o n i a . On h i s t r a v e l s s o u t h , F r a s e r was a b l e t o r e a c h t h e d e l t a o f t h e t r e a c h e r o u s r i v e r w h i c h b e a r s h i s name. Here he v i s i t e d t h e I n d i a n v i l l a g e o f Musgueam, c o n t a i n i n g a house f i f t e e n hundred f e e t l o n g and n i n e t y f e e t w i d e . Other e x p l o r a t i o n s d i s c o v e r e d t h e l a k e s o f t h e Okanagan v a l l e y and soon, a c h a i n o f f o r t s was e s t a b l i s h e d a l o n g t h e p r i n c i p l e waterways l e a d i n g t o t h e c o a s t . L i f e on t h e s e d i s t a n t f o r t s was u n d o u b t e d l y l o n e l y , b u t on t h e l a r g e r p o s t s , p l e a s a n t d i v e r s i o n s c o u l d be found. A t Spokan House, w h i c h even had a b a l l r o o m , t r a d e r s and c l e r k s s a t down t o a good t a b l e and f i n e w i n e , and e n j o y e d t h e companionship o f a t t r a c t i v e n a t i v e women, music and a s u p p l y o f f a i r l y e n t e r t a i n i n g l i t e r a t u r e . ^ D u r i n g t h e summers, the Canadian t r a d e r s were k e p t busy t r y i n g t o o u t w i t t h e i r American c o u n t e r p a r t s , who were a l s o s t r i v i n g t o c a p t u r e t h e monopoly on b a r t e r i n g w i t h t h e I n d i a n s . However, w i t h t h e i m p o r t a t i o n o f I r o q u o i s and Sandwich I s l a n d e r s , 12 the t r a d e r s had more l e i s u r e t i m e and became alm o s t s e d e n t a r y d u r i n g t h e l o n g w i n t e r months, when t h e major r e c r e a t i o n was " s t r o l l i n g on t h e r o c k y beach o r on t r a i l s c u t t h r o u g h t h e deep f o r e s t " . 5 The t h r u s t o f t h e o v e r l a n d b eaver t r a d e r a p i d l y changed t h e economic o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e g i o n . ̂  T i e s w i t h Canto„n were weakened i n f a v o u r o f t h e l u c r a t i v e European markets v i a San F r a n c i s c o . I n o r d e r t o o f f s e t t h e n a t u r a l i n t r u s i o n o f American i n f l u e n c e i n t o what had been a Canadian f i n a n c e d v e n t u r e o f e x p l o r a t i o n and development, i t became e s s e n t i a l t o e s t a b l i s h a more s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t community. The v e s s e l Beaver was d i s p a t c h e d from Gravesend i n August o f 1835, d e s t i n e d f o r F o r t Vancouver, where i t was t o be f i t t e d as a steamer and f u e l e d tby t h e c o a l d e p o s i t s i n t h e n o r t h o f Vancouver I s l a n d . Here, i t would p r o v i d e a speedy s e r v i c e between such concerns as t h e f l o u r m i l l a t F o r t A l e x a n d e r and t h e f i s h e r y a t F o r t L a n g l e y , as w e l l as e f f i c i e n t l y c a r r y i n g f u r s and t r a d e goods th r o u g h o u t t h e r e g i o n . I n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l o f t h e c o a s t , t h e Hudson's Bay Company, (H.B.C.), w h i c h had r e c e n t l y absorbed t h e North-West Company, c o n t r a c t e d t o s u p p l y f o o d from i t s new a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t s t o t h e n o r t h e r n R u s s i a n p o s t s . Thus, "the p r i c e o f v i c t o r y on t h e sea c o a s t was t h e e x p a n s i o n o f f a r m i n g and t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t i n l a n d " . The t h r e a t o f American e x p a n s i o n c o n t i n u e d i n t h i s a r e a w h i c h , as y e t , had no b o u n d a r i e s . As t h e beaver and marten p o p u l a t i o n s became ra v a g e d , f o r c i n g t h e p r i c e o f p e l t s t o a l e v e l w h i c h London t a s t e s and pocket-books were r e l u c t a n t t o 13 pay, t h e H.B.C. clammered f o r p r o t e c t i o n o f i t s i n d u s t r y from t h e s p r e a d o f American t r a d e r s . To i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s i t u a t i o n , C a p t a i n , t h e Honorable John Gordon, was se n t t o t h e p o s t o f V i c t o r i a , w h i c h had been [ e s t a b l i s h e d on Vancouver I s l a n d on March 3, 1843, by James Dou g l a s , t h e C h i e f F a c t o r o f t h e H.B.C. Here, Gordon was e n t e r t a i n e d by R o d e r i c k F i n l a y s o n , who took him r i d i n g and h u n t i n g i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f Cedar H i l l . The B r i t i s h government was imp r e s s e d by t h e urgency o f h i s r e p o r t and, on June 15, 1846, s i g n e d t h e Oregon Boundary T r e a t y , a g r e e - i n g w i t h t h e American government t o e x t e n d t h e boundary a l o n g t h e 4 9 t h p a r a l l e l . A l t h o u g h t h e agreement was n o t t o t h e l i k i n g o f t h e H.B.C, w h i c h was d e s i r o u s o f a more s o u t h e r n boundary, t h e B r i t i s h d e c i d e d n o t t o p r e s s t h e p o i n t i n l i g h t o f such p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as f e a r o f war w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ( a t a t i m e when r e l a t i o n s w i t h F r a n c e were s t r a i n e d ) , r e s t r i c t e d f i n a n c e s , and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e c e n t r e p e a l o f t h e Corn Laws might b r i n g down t h e c a b i n e t b e f o r e t h e t r e a t y was s e t t l e d . ^ A t l e a s t , t h e t r e a t y p r o v i d e d a r e c o g n i z e d boundary, a s s u r i n g l a n d s o v e r w h i c h t h e H.B.C. had l e g a l a u t h o r i t y . D e s p i t e t h e t r e a t y ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f s o v e r e i g n t y , t h e p r o x - i m i t y o f t h e a r e a t o American s e t t l e m e n t would always h o l d t h e danger o f a b s o r p t i o n by an American p o p u l a t i o n , u n l e s s t h e r e g i o n was p r o p e r l y c o l o n i z e d by B r i t a i n . I n p a r t i c u l a r , . . . t h e need f o r a B r i t i s h f o o t h o l d on an i s l a n d w i t h h a r b o u r s s u i t a b l e f o r n a v a l s t a t i o n s , had a c q u i r e d a new s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h M e x i c o ' s c e s s i o n o f C a l i f o r n i a and o t h e r t e r r i t o r y t o th e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1848.1° Thus, c o n s i s t e n t w i t h i t s p o l i c y o f u s i n g p r i v a t e companies as c o l o n i z i n g a g ents t h r o u g h o u t t h e Empire, t h e B r i t i s h government 14 i s s u e d t h e H.B.C. w i t h p r o p r i e t a r y r i g h t s o v e r t h e new Colony o f Vancouver I s l a n d , on t h e c o n d i t i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t , and a p p o i n t e d Douglas as Governor i n May o f 1851. The development o f Vancouver I s l a n d was i n t e n d e d n o t o n l y as a bulwark a g a i n s t American l a n d - g r a b b e r s , b u t as a c o l o n y o f B r i t i s h l a n d h o l d e r s who would m a i n t a i n t h e s o c i a l and e t h i c a l s t a n d a r d s o f m i d - V i c t o r i a n E n g l a n d . H The E n g l i s h s e t t l e r s and v i s i t i n g n a v a l o f f i c e r s s l o w l y had an impact on the l i f e o f t h e o l d f u r - t r a d e r s , whose I n d i a n women l e a r n e d t h e dance s t e p s t h e y saw aboard A d m i r a l F a i r f a x Moresby's f l a g s h i p , t h e P o r t l a n d , and q u i c k l y a c q u i r e d t h e g r a c e s , manner and speech o f more p o l i t e s o c i e t y . Men who had danced r e e l s , perhaps once a y e a r t o t h e tune o f a f i d d l e a t t h e e x c l u s i v e l y male c e l e b r a t i o n s on New Y e a r ' s Day a t . f u r - t r a d i n g p o s t s , a d j u s t e d t o th e new ways,12 w h i l e t h e i r c h i l d r e n a t t e n d e d s c h o o l and sometimes p i c n i c s h e l d by Mrs. Douglas a t t h e N o r t h D a i r y Farm. Here, t h e y l e a r n e d new games, r e p l a c i n g t h e i r b a r e - f i s t e d s c u f f l e s w i t h I n d i a n boys f o r t h e more g e n t e e l c r i c k e t and r o u n d e r s . The p r o m i s e d w e a l t h o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a G o l d Rush d r a i n e d the l a b o u r s u p p l y o f Vancouver I s l a n d , b u t t h e s t a b l e p o p u l a t i o n o f V i c t o r i a r e a c h e d some f o u r hundred a d u l t s i n 1855. I n March o f t h a t y e a r , t h e C r a i g f l o w e r S c h o o l was opened. R i d i n g p a r t i e s f o r v i s i t i n g mid-shipmen were o r g a n i z e d by t h e p r e t t y d a u g h t e r s o f C a p t a i n L a n g f o r d , and t h e whole community c e l e b r a t e d 13 t h e a n n u a l V i c t o r i a Day w i t h r a c e s a t Beacon H i l l . J A l s o i n t h a t y e a r , a g r e a t p i c n i c was h e l d t o c e l e b r a t e t h e f o u r t h b i r t h d a y o f t h e Governor's son, w h i l e o t h e r e n t e r t a i n m e n t s 15 d u r i n g the y e a r i n c l u d e d t h e a t r i c a l b a l l s and p l a y s performed by the H . B . C . w o r k e r s . In Nanaimo, where c o a l - f i e l d s had been opened by the Company i n 1852, the miners were used to more s i m p l e p l e a s u r e s and fewer c o m f o r t s . Guy Fawkes Day was an o c c a s i o n f o r a g r e a t c e l e b r a t i o n , but a p a r t from t h i s o u t - bur s t o f f r i v o l i t y , the community c e n t r e d i t s a c t i v i t i e s i n the c h u r c h . i 4 In 1857, the economy o f the c o l o n y was once a g a i n dramati-* c a l l y changed. G o l d had been d i s c o v e r e d on the N o r t h Thompson R i v e r and a g r e a t r u s h o f /American g o l d seekers brought new p r o s p e r i t y t o the r e g i o n . F o r some y e a r s , the H . B . C . had been q u i e t l y c o l l e c t i n g g o l d d u s t from I n d i a n s and i t s F r e n c h - Canadian employees . In 1852, i r o n t o o l s and some p r i m i t i v e implements had been p r o v i d e d the Ind ians f o r e a r l y m i n i n g a t t e m p t s , but u n t i l 1856, the amount o f g o l d p r o c u r e d by the Company had been s m a l l . Once news o f the f i n d l e a k e d out o f the c o l o n y , the r u s h was on and some t e n thousand men s t a r t e d up the F r a s e r R i v e r between May 15 and June 1 o f 1857. By the end o f the y e a r , t h a t number had s w e l l e d t o t w e n t y - f i v e thousand The f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g , V i c t o r i a became crowded. /American steam companies c a p i t a l i z e d on the bonanza by r e d u c i n g the f a r e from San F r a n c i s c o t o V i c t o r i a from $75 t o $30 and f i l l e d t h e i r s h i p s to t h r e e t imes t h e i r normal c a p a c i t y . The r u s h brought not o n l y m i n e r s , but merchants and o t h e r peop le o f s t a n d i n g , so t h a t w i t h i n a p e r i o d o f s i x weeks, two hundred and t w e n t y - f i v e b u i l d i n g s , i n c l u d i n g n e a r l y two hundred s t o r e s , were c o n s t r u c t e d The F r a s e r G o l d Rush, one o f the most sudden i n h i s t o r y , 1 6 produced another threat to B r i t i s h sovereignty and the commer- c i a l monopoly of the H.B.C. American enthusiasm for expansion was exemplified by these l i n e s from the newspaper, the Pioneer and Democrat of Olympia, Soon our banner w i l l be streaming, Soon the eagle w i l l be screaming And the l i o n - see i t cowers Hurrah, boys, the r i v e r ' s ours.16 Alarmed by t h i s disrespect for imperial r i g h t s and concerned by the danger of Indian warfare spreading from-Washington T e r r i t o r y i n t o Crown lands, Douglas demanded that miners obtain B r i t i s h permits for t h e i r ventures. To further protect i t s sovereignty, the B r i t i s h government backed up Douglas' demands by est a b l i s h i n g , on August 2, 1858, the new and separate Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia on the mainland. Shortly thereafter, Colonel Moody of the Royal Engineers, dispatched to b u i l d a cummunications system for the colony, to provide m i l i t a r y protection, and to enforce B r i t i s h laws, established the c a p i t a l at the townsite of Queensborough, l a t e r renamed New Westminster. In the ensuing years, the quest for gold pushed farther north, into the Cariboo country, a t t r a c t i n g colonists to es t a b l i s h a g r i c u l t u r a l settlements i n the I n t e r i o r . Large str i k e s at . Keithley Creek and at Antler, where shafts of forty to f i f t y feet were required, forced the miners into formal partnerships i n order to rais e the e s s e n t i a l c a p i t a l . There were often good returns for the investment and by the end of 1862, the Cariboo d i s t r i c t alone produced over $2.5 m i l l i o n of gold. For those miners not so fortunate to f i n d a s t r i k e , good wages could be had by working on the roads. Thus, by 17 t h e end o f 1863, B r i t i s h Columbia was a b l e t o b o a s t an e x t e n s i v e i n l a n d highway and permanent a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t s . ^ The major communities o f t h e new c o l o n y p r o s p e r e d and r a p i d l y advanced t h e i r c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s . I n A p r i l o f 1864, t h e c a p i t a l a t New W e s tminster had a p o p u l a t i o n o f two t o t h r e e hundred p e o p l e and was equipped w i t h a s m a l l p u b l i c s c h o o l , some f i n e c h u r c h e s , and a h o s p i t a l named t h e R o y a l Columbian. The government o f f i c i a l s and o t h e r n o t a b l e c i t i z e n s e n j o y e d amateur t h e a t r i c a l s , m u s i c , l i t e r a t u r e , c a r d - p l a y i n g , t e n n i s , c r i c k e t and b a l l s , such as t h a t h e l d by t h e new Governor, Seymour, i n honour o f t h e P r i n c e o f Wales' b i r t h d a y . Mean- w h i l e , t h e b u s t l i n g n o r t h e r n m i n i n g towns o f Camerontown, R i c h f i e l d , and B a r k e r v i l l e (the l a t t e r soon t o become t e m p o r a r i l y , t h e l a r g e s t c e n t r e o f p o p u l a t i o n west o f C h i c a g o and n o r t h o f 19 San F r a n c i s c o ) s u p p o r t e d numerous s a l o o n s , s u p p l y i n g m e a l s , l i q u o r , c a r d rooms, and dance h a l l s . Communication w i t h t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d was g r e a t l y enhanced by t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e t e l e - g r a p h , r e c e n t l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e A t l a n t i c C a b l e , r e a c h i n g New W e s t m i n s t e r i n A p r i l o f 1865, and soon e x t e n d i n g t o Q u e s n e l . The c i r c u i t y r i d i n g s o f Judge Matthew Be g b i e ensured a j u s t enforcement o f t h e l a w s , e n a b l i n g t h e c o l o n i a l s t o conduct t h e i r a f f a i r s w i t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree o f s e c u r i t y . Thus, surrounded on B r i t i s h s o i l by an overwhelming number o f f o r e i g n o p p o r t u n i s t s , Douglas' prompt a c t i o n on b e h a l f o f h i s Crown and Company "had f i r m l y p l a n t e d B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e i r m i d s t and engendered r e s p e c t f o r B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t y " . 2 0 The s t a b i l i t y o f t h e r e g i o n s e e m i n g l y e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e 18 n e x t s i g n i f i c a n t c o l o n i a l development was t h e u n i o n o f t h e ma i n l a n d w i t h Vancouver I s l a n d . On November 19, 1866, t h e two c o l o n i e s were u n i t e d under t h e s i n g l e name o f B r i t i s h C o l umbia, b u t t h e c o l o n y ' s d e s t i n y as p a r t o f t h e B r i t i s h Empire was s t i l l n o t s e c u r e . Incensed by t h e monopoly o f t h e H.B.C., a group o f businessmen w i t h s t r o n g t i e s t o San F r a n c i s c o , proposed u n i o n w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and even p e t i t i o n e d t h e American P r e s i d e n t f o r a n n e x a t i o n . I n t h e f a c e o f t h i s t h r e a t , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e problem o f i n c r e a s i n g l y e x p e n s i v e c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i t was f i n a l l y agreed t h a t t h e c o l o n y s h o u l d e n t e r t h e r e c e n t Canadian c o n f e d e r a t i o n , i t s e l f l a r g e l y a response t o f e a r o f American a b s o r p t i o n . Thus, on J u l y 20, 1871, B r i t i s h C olumbia became a p r o v i n c e i n t h e Dominion o f Canada. I n t e r n a l d i s c o r d was n o t o n l y e v i d e n t between B r i t i s h and American i n t e r e s t s . W h i l e t h e i n t e r i o r s e t t l e r s had f e l t t h e y were f o r g o t t e n by t h e government o f f i c i a l s i n New We s t m i n s t e r , t h e removal o f t h e c a p i t a l t o V i c t o r i a fanned an a l r e a d y b i t t e r c o m m e r c i a l r i v a l r y between t h e two p o r t s . The e d i t o r i a l exchanges e x e m p l i f i e d t h e tone o f t h e r i v a l r y a s , i n 1867, t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t o f V i c t o r i a d e s c r i b e d t h e F r a s e r R i v e r as a "stream o f l i q u i d mud" and New Wes t m i n s t e r as "a p i m p l e on t h e f a c e o f c r e a t i o n " . Meanwhile, i n New W e s t m i n s t e r , b o t h Governor Seymour and t h e e d i t o r o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbian were quoted as h a v i n g r e f e r r e d t o V i c t o r i a as b e i n g l o c a t e d on a " f r o g pond".2-'- T h i s s e c t i o n a l r i v a l r y f l a r e d a g a i n w i t h t h e d e l i b e r a t i o n o f terms o f B r i t i s h Columbia's e n t r a n c e i n t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n , as t h e m e r i t s o f B u r r a r d I n l e t c l a s h e d w i t h t h o s e 19 o f E s q u i m a l t as a t e r m i n u s f o r t h e proposed t r a n s - c o n t i n e n t a l Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . S i m i l a r l y , t h e a c t o f 1890, s e e k i n g t o e s t a b l i s h a p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y , was c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e c r i p p l i n g p roblem o f where t o l o c a t e - on t h e I s l a n d o r on t h e m a i n l a n d . I n f a c t t h e r i v a l r y was so i n t e n s e t h a t t h e C a p i t a l became pe r m a n e n t l y 'anchored' i n V i c t o r i a o n l y a f t e r t h e c o n s t r u e t i o n o f t h e p a l a t i a l new government b u i l d i n g s i n 189 3. A l o n g w i t h t h e p r o v i n c e ' s i n t e r n a l d i f f e r e n c e s , i t was soon a p p a r e n t t h a t communication and p a r a l l e l development w i t h E a s t e r n Canada would be no easy accomplishment. H i s t o r y and t h e p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y would ensure t h a t s o c i a l , economic, and t e c h n o l o g i c a l advancements o f t h e r a p i d l y expanding N o r t h American s o c i e t y would be c e n t r e d i n t h e e a s t , b e l a t e d l y f i l t e r i n g a c r o s s t h e expanse o f t h e c o n t i n e n t t o t h e P a c i f i c c o a s t . However, B r i t i s h Columbia was s e p a r a t e d from t h e r e s t o f Canada by more t h a n a v a s t sea o f mountains and e n d l e s s p l a i n s . A c c o r d i n g t o Ormsby, The community, p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t h e s o u t h e r n end o f Vancouver I s l a n d , where t h e r e was t h e g r e a t e s t con- c e n t r a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n , had never been a t y p i c a l N o r t h American f r o n t i e r s e t t l e m e n t . Here, i n t h i s "second E n g l a n d on t h e s h o r e s o f t h e P a c i f i c " , l i f e was n o t a d e s p e r a t e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t a h a r s h p h y s i c a l environment.22 The p l e a s a n t c l i m a t e and s u p p l y o f C h i n e s e and I n d i a n l a b o u r p r o v i d e d many B r i t i s h Columbians w i t h a h i g h l y c o m f o r t a b l e l i f e s t y l e , a f f o r d e d them g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e i s u r e p u r s u i t s , and encouraged a s l o w e r pace o f l i f e t h a n t h a t e x p e r i e n c e d i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y . The a r r i v a l o f t h e t e l e g r a p h had g r e a t l y enhanced c o n t a c t w i t h t h e c e n t r e s o f t h e w o r l d and speeded t h e f l o w o f news and 20 i d e a s . The t e l e p h o n e was p r o b a b l y o f s i m i l a r v a l u e f o r l o c a l news once t h e n o v e l t y o f t h e new d e v i c e wore o f f : P a r t i e s w i s h i n g t o use t h e t e l e p h o n e w i l l f i n d t h e e d i t o r ' s room o f t h e C o l o n i s t o f f i c e open a t any r e a s o n a b l e hour day o r n i g h t , and t h e c u r i o u s l i t t l e t r a n s m i t t e r o f t h e human v o i c e on t h e t a b l e a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l . 2 - * However, i t was t h e r a i l r o a d w h i c h would r e a l l y u n i t e B r i t i s h C o lumbia w i t h t h e r e s t o f Canada. The r a p i d i t y o f d i r e c t r a i l t r a v e l would b r i n g B.C. i n t o much more immediate c o n t a c t w i t h p e o p l e from t h e g r e a t c i t i e s o f t h e E a s t . On May 14, 1880, j u s t e i g h t y - s e v e n y e a r s a f t e r A l e x a n d e r M ackenzie r e a c h e d t h e P a c i f i c c o a s t , B r i t i s h Columbia e n t e r e d a new e r a . The dynamite b l a s t t h a t echoed t h r o u g h t h e F r a s e r Canyon a t Y a l e t h a t day, h e r a l d e d t h e s t a r t o f t h e most d i f f i c u l t s t a g e i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e t r a n s - c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l l i n k w i t h t h e r e s t o f Canada. I n t h e n e x t f i v e y e a r s , thousands o f men would work on t h e r o a d and make t h e i r homes i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Among t h e s e new s e t t l e r s were g r e a t numbers o f C h i n e s e , i m p o r t e d by Andrew Onderdonock, t h e c o n t r a c t o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e B.C. s e c t i o n . These d i l i g e n t w o r k ers p r o v i d e d n o t o n l y e s s e n t i a l l a b o u r f o r t h e r a i l w a y , b u t a l s o added d e p t h and c h a r a c t e r t o t h e s o c i a l f a b r i c , as e v i d e n c e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g comment. The scene a t Y a l e on S a t u r d a y beggars d e s c r i p t i o n . A thousand w h i t e men r e c e n t l y employed on t h e r a i l r o a d r u s h e d o u t o f t h e c a r s and i n t o t h e s a l o o n s . I n two hours t h e s t r e e t s were f u l l o f l u n a t i c s . . . T w e l v e hundred C h i n e s e a r r i v e d by t h e same t r a i n and went i n t o t h e woods, and cooked t h e i r r i c e . I t i s amusing t o see t h e d i f f e r e n c e between Pagans and C h r i s t i a n s . 2 5 21 H i g h i n t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n s , on November 7, 1885, t h e l a s t i r o n s p i k e was d r i v e n i n t o t h e t i e s a t C r a i g e l l a c h i e t o u n i t e Canada w i t h a r i b b o n o f s t e e l . The f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g , J u l y 4, 1886, saw t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e f i r s t p assenger t r a i n from M o n t r e a l t o P o r t Moody, f o r m a l l y i n i t i a t i n g t h e n e x t g r e a t wave o f growth f o r t h e p r o v i n c e . The new c i t y o f Vancouver, e s t a b l i s h e d on a s i t e a d j a c e n t t o t h e t i n y town o f G r a n v i l l e , h e l d t h e promise o f becoming t h e f i n a l t e r m i n u s o f t h e r a i l w a y . W i t h i n weeks o f i t s i n c o r p o r a t i o n on A p r i l 6, 1886, i t s p o r t e d e i g h t hundred b u s i n e s s e s and a p o p u l a t i o n o f two t h o usand. By t h e end o f 1887, t h e p o p u l a t i o n had r i s e n t o f i v e thousand and t h e c i t y w h i c h "had sprung t o l i f e w i t h a l l t h e t r a p p i n g s o f t h e i n d u s t - r i a l i s t - c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m " , 2 5 welcomed d i s t i n g u i s h e d v i s i t o r s and more s e t t l e r s w i t h e v e r y a r r i v i n g t r a i n o r b o a t . D e s p i t e t h e f i r e i n 1886, w h i c h d e s t r o y e d a l l b u t two s a w m i l l s , one h o t e l , and a few s h a c k s , w i t h i n two y e a r s o f i t s i n c o r p o r a t i o n , Vancouver's p o p u l a t i o n had e x p l o d e d t o e i g h t thousand c i t i z e n s . T h i s busy c e n t r e now c o n t a i n e d t h i r t y - s i x m i l e s o f graded s t r e e t s and m i l e s o f wooden p a v i n g ; h e l d a waterworks and sewerage; numerous warehouses, f o u n d r i e s , and f a c t o r i e s ; p l u s t h e b u i l d i n g s o f t h e Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y (C.P.R.), i t s wharves, round-houses, o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s , and even a f o u r - s t o r e y h o t e l . 2 6 I n t h e i n t e r i m between t h e d r i v i n g o f t h e l a s t s p i k e and t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , s t a r t l i n g changes too k p l a c e i n t h e p r o v i n c e . V a s t m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s were found i n t h e Kootenay r e g i o n , c r e a t i n g new m i n i n g communities deep i n t h e I n t e r i o r , 22 w h i l e on t h e c o a s t , g r e a t f i s h i n g and l i m b e r i n g i n d u s t r i e s were f l o u r i s h i n g . The merchants d i d a r o a r i n g t r a d e , b e n e f i t t i n g n o t o n l y from t h e i n d u s t r y w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e , but from y e t a n o t h e r g o l d s t r i k e - t h e K l o n d i k e Rush, w h i c h b r o u g h t p r o s p e c t o r s and s e t t l e r s t h r o u g h t h e p r o v i n c e . The c i t y o f Vancouver had mushroomed i n s i z e . Only f i v e y e a r s a f t e r i t s i n c o r p o r a t i o n , i t a c h i e v e d a p o p u l a t i o n o f n e a r l y f o u r t e e n thousand, and t h e n more t h a n d o u b l e d t h a t number by 1901. Meanwhile, i n V i c t o r i a , t h e t e n y e a r s p r e c e d i n g 1891 saw t h e c i t y grow by some e l e v e n thousand c i t i z e n s , r e a c h i n g a t o t a l o f n e a r l y seventeen thousand t h a t y e a r (see T a b l e 1). However, i n t h e f o l l o w i n g decade, w i t h t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e r a i l w a y e v i d e n t , V i c t o r i a grew by o n l y f o u r t h o usand, b e i n g o u t s t r i p p e d by Vancouver, w h i c h had become the most prominent c i t y i n t h e p r o v i n c e . Thus, t h e advent o f t h e r a i l w a y had n o t o n l y promoted a g r e a t surge i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n , b u t i t had r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h a t p o p u l a t i o n , and had d i m i n i s h e d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f V i c t o r i a . By t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , l e s s t h a n f i f t y y e a r s a f t e r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e f i r s t B r i t i s h c o l o n y i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h - w est, B r i t i s h Columbia had become a p r o s p e r o u s p r o v i n c e , s u p p o r t i n g a p o p u l a t i o n o f 178,000 p e o p l e 2 7 and f i r m l y l i n k e d w i t h t h e new and t h r i v i n g Dominion o f Canada. Table 1 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of Population i n B r i t i s h Columbia, lSTTPigOl Population of Major Centres i n B r i t i s h Columbia* Populations of C i t i e s and Towns of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901** 1870 V i c t o r i a & D i s t r i c t (Esquimalt) New Westminster Nanaimo Cariboo Fraser Canyon (Hope, Yale, Lytton, L i l l o e t ) 4,540 V i c t o r i a 1,356 729 1,637 1,385 1871 3,270 New Westminster Nanaimo Vancouver Nelson T r a i l 1881 1891 1901 5,925 16,841 20,919 1,500 1,645 6,678 4,595 13,709 6,499 6,130 29,432 5,273 1,360 to T o t a l Province 178,000 td 3 •Adapted from Census of Canada, Ottawa, 1870/71, V o l . 4, p. 376 **Adapted from Canada Year Book, 1936, Ottawa, p. 125 Table I - Dis t r i b u t i o n of Population in B r i t i s h Columbia, 1870~- 1901 Population of Major Centres in B r i t i s h Columbia* Populations of C i t i e s and Towns of B r i t i s h Columbia, Having Over 5,000 Inhabitants i n 1931, Compared with 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901** 1870 1871 1881 1891 1901 V i c t o r i a & D i s t r i c t 4,540 (Esquimalt) New Westminster Nanaimo Cariboo Fraser Canyon (Hope, Yale, Lytton, L i l l o e t ) 1,356 729 1,637 1,385 V i c t o r i a 3,270 New Westminster Nanaimo Vancouver T r a i l 5,925 16,841 20,919 1,500 1,645 6,678 4,595 6,499 6,130 5,273 1,360 to •Adapted from **Adapted from Census of Canada, Ottawa, Canada Year Book, 1870/71, Vol. 4, p.376 1936, Ottawa, p. 125 24 CHAPTER I I I INTRODUCTORY FEATURES OF SPORT AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA The i n t e n t o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o e n r i c h f u r t h e r t h e background o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o l o n i a l s o c i e t y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s p r o v i d e a l i t t l e more c o l o u r t o h i g h l i g h t t h e growth and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s p o r t s e v e n t s . DANCING A l t h o u g h d a n c i n g was n o n - c o m p e t i t i v e d u r i n g t h e time p e r i o d under d i s c u s s i o n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o make r e f e r e n c e t o i t because o f i t s i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e s o c i a l development o f t h e e a r l y community. The f u r - t r a d e r s had e n j o y e d d a n c i n g r e e l s amongst t h e m s e l v e s , o r w i t h t h e i r n a t i v e women, and had even c o n s t r u c t e d b a l l - r o o m s a t t h e l a r g e r p o s t s , such as t h a t mentioned a t Spokan House.^ W i t h t h e a r r i v a l o f E n g l i s h s e t t l e r s t o i n i t i a t e c o l o n i z a t i o n o f t h e r e g i o n , d a n c i n g became p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t as a means o f s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e , t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e community was t o l e a r n nei* manners and customs. The R o y a l Navy p l a y e d an i n t e g r a l p a r t i n t h i s s o c i a l l i f e by p r o v i d i n g b o t h t h e music o f t h e navy bands and t h e f a c i l i t y f o r d a n c i n g aboard t h e v e s s e l s o f t h e f l e e t . The a r r i v a l o f a s h i p i n p o r t p r o v i d e d ample excuse f o r a dance, and members o f t h e c o l o n y were welcomed aboard such v e s s e l s ? 3 as H.M.S. P o r t l a n d and H.M.S. Ganges. 25 S i n c e d a n c i n g was p r o b a b l y t h e most p o p u l a r p a s t i m e on 4 t h e west c o a s t , i t was a major event o f any c e l e b r a t i o n . News- paper n o t a t i o n s , such as t h e f o l l o w i n g , were common. A b a l l was g i v e n on Tuesday E v e n i n g by t h e o f f i c e r s o f H.M. S h i p s S a t e l l i t e and Plumper, and o f t h e Boundary Commission-, w h i c h was honoured by t h e presence o f H i s ^ E x c e T l e n c y Governor D o u g l a s , and t h e e l i t e o f t h e c i t y . 5 BALL - On t h e r e t u r n o f t h e ' E l i z a A n d e r s o n 7 t h i s e v e n i n g , from t h e e x c u r s i o n t o P o r t Townsend, t h e e x c u r s i o n i s t s w i l l r e p a i r t o Assembly H a l l , and co n c l u d e t h e c e l e b r a t i o n s o f t h e F o u r t h by a B a l l - A l a r g e company and gay t i m e i s a n t i c i p a t e d . 6 GRAND NAVAL BALL - The b a l l g i v e n by Commodore Spencer and t h e o f f i c e r s o f H.M.S. Topaze, on bo a r d t h e i r s h i p i n E s q u i m a l t Harbour, w h i c h t o o k p l a c e on Wednesday e v e n i n g , i s pronounced w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n t o have been the most m a g n i f i c e n t e n t e r t a i n m e n t y e t w i t n e s s e d i n t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e Queen's d o m i n i o n s . 7 Some two hundred and f i f t y p e o p l e were s a i d t o have a t t e n d e d t h i s e v e n t . As n o t e d above, t h e Assembly H a l l o f t h e c o l o n i a l m i l i t i a , as w e l l as t h e v e s s e l s o f t h e f l e e t , were used f o r b a l l s i n V i c t o r i a , b u t t h e f l o o d o f v i s i t o r s and s e t t l e r s f o l l o w i n g t h e g o l d r u s h l e d t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h o t e l s w h i c h a l s o c o n t a i n e d dance f l o o r s . One o f t h e more p o p u l a r h o t e l s was the ' R o y a l ' , w h i c h h e l d a b a l l t o c e l e b r a t e i t s opening i n 1858.** These h o t e l f a c i l i t i e s and o t h e r dance f l o o r s ( i e . Union H o t e l and C o l o n i a l T h eatre) were open t o accommodate t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , b u t t h e d e a r t h o f female p a r t n e r s undoubtedly con- t r i b u t e d t o t h e numerous b r a w l s w h i c h o c c u r r e d . OUT AGAIN - S i n g l e t o n Kimmel, stabbed a t t h e dance house by N e l s o n Hawxhurst, some two weeks s i n c e , i s now a b l e t o walk o u t . H i s escape from d e a t h i s c o n s i d e r e d a l m o s t m i r a c u l o u s . 9 THE DANCE HOUSE - t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n was re-opened on Tuesday n i g h t . A few minutes a f t e r t h e d o o r s were opened, a row commenced; and t h e r e g u l a r and s p e c i a l p o l i c e were c a l l e d i n and c l e a r e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t . ^ u A p a r t from f u l f i l l i n g t h e communal needs o f t h e c o l o n y , dances were used as a means o f r a i s i n g f u n d s . V a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s sponsored b a l l s , such as t h a t o f t h e F i r s t Hebrew B e n e v o l e n t S o c i e t y who, i n 1858, r e a l i z e d a p r o f i t o f $158 from a Thursday n i g h t b a l l , a t whi c h t h e music was s u p p l i e d by t h e band o f H.M.S. T r i b u n e . ^ S i m i l a r l y , a b a l l was " g i v e n i n a i d o f the V i c t o r i a R o y a l H o s p i t a l , on Monday E v e n i n g , October 31".^2 T a l e n t e d i n d i v i d u a l s a l s o used d a n c i n g as a means o f r a i s i n g funds f o r t h e i r p e r s o n a l p r o f i t , as e x e m p l i f i e d by M i s s C a r o l i n e Chapman, who ...dances more a r t i s t i c a l l y and g r a c e f u l l y t h a n many who a r e c a l l e d by t h e m u l t i t u d e s t a r s . She d r e s s e s w i t h a becoming modesty t h a t speaks volumes f o r h e r p a r e n t s and h e r s e l f , and she i s j u s t l y e n t i t l e d t o t h e ap p l a u s e w h i c h g r e e t s h e r a t e v e r y performance. On Wednesday e v e n i n g she has a b e n e f i t . " M i s s Chapman was l a t e r t o t r a v e l t o Nanaimo t o c r e a t e s i m i l a r "amusement".^ As t h e c o l o n y became more s t a b l e , i t s c l u b s and s o c i e t i e s c o u l d a f f o r d t o become more e x c l u s i v e and r e f i n e d . The i n c r e a s i n g s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f such e v e n t s as the Mason's B a l l , i n honor o f t h e i r p a t r o n , S t . J o h n , ! 5 a n < ^ ^he f u n c t i o n s o f t h e Deluge Engine Company,I 6 c r e a t e d a need f o r d a n c i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . Thus, a Mrs. Nunn was a b l e t o open h er "Dancing Academy", o f f e r i n g e i g h t l e s s o n s p e r month, on Wednesday and Sa t u r d a y between 3 p.m. and 6 p.m.^7 By Ja n u a r y o f 1863, t h e c i t y ' s Dancing C l u b was a b l e t o h o l d i t s second "Grand S o i r e e " o f t h e s e a s o n 1 and t h e c o n c e r n f o r p r o p e r d a n c i n g s k i l l s soon 27 l e d t o t h e opening o f a n o t h e r c l a s s . Mrs. Digby Palmer's a d v e r t i s e m e n t s o f f e r e d i n s t r u c t i o n f o r L a d i e s and Gentlemen on Tuesday and F r i d a y e v e n i n g s , a t e i g h t o ' c l o c k , and f o r c h i l d r e n on Wednesday and S a t u r d a y a f t e r n o o n s a t h a l f p a s t t h r e e . 1 ^ Fees f o r her c l a s s e s were " a d u l t s - $5, J u v e n i l e s - $3, P r i v a t e Lessons - $ 8 . 2 0 On t h e m a i n l a n d , d a n c i n g was a l s o p o p u l a r . I n 1858, a C h r i s t m a s B a l l was h e l d a t F o r t Yale"6-1- and, two y e a r s l a t e r , t h e non-commissioned o f f i c e r s o f t h e R o y a l E n g i n e e r s a t New W e s t m i n s t e r "gave a b a l l a t t h e t h e a t r e t h e y have e r e c t e d by p r i v a t e s u b s c r i p t i o n s among t h e m s e l v e s " . I n t h e g o l d f i e l d s , dance h a l l g i r l s performed i n many o f t h e s a l o o n s , but more f o r m a l e v e n i n g s were a l s o h e l d . F o r example, i n a s i n g l e e d i t i o n , t h e C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l r e f e r r e d t o a Grand B a l l a t Camerontown 1s P i o n e e r H o t e l as b e i n g " w e l l a t t e n d e d by l a d i e s 23 and gentlemen from a l l p a r t s o f t h e c r e e k " , w h i l e a l s o a dver- t- i s i n g a f o r t h c o m i n g M i n e r ' s B a l l and C o n c e r t as p a r t o f t h e Queen's B i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s on t h e 24th o f May. HUNTING I t i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h between h u n t i n g f o r p l e a s u r e o r f o r s p o r t and h u n t i n g as a s o u r c e o f provender o r s e c u r i t y . The two o b j e c t i v e s were most l i k e l y i n t e r w o v e n and s o , i t seems l i k e l y t h a t such e v e n t s as t h e t r a c k i n g o f t h e v a r i o u s ' p a n t h e r s ' w h i c h p r o w l e d t h e woods and farms, a l s o s e r v e d t o p r o v i d e a s t r o n g sense o f c a m a r a d e r i e and h e l p e d t o f u l f i l l t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l needs o f some o f t h e members o f t h e community. Thus, th e d e s c r i p t i o n s o u t l i n e d below a r e 28 example c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the t i m e s and a r e used t o p r o v i d e an i n s i g h t i n t o contemporary l i f e . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t from t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t ' i n d i c a t e s t h a t some Of t h e c o l o n i a l s t o o k an i n t e r e s t i n c o l l e c t i n g h u n t i n g t r o p h i e s . LARGE ELK HORNS - We were shown y e s t e r d a y by a game d e a l e r i n O r i e n t a l A l l e y a p a i r o f horns b e l o n g i n g t o an e l k k i l l e d i n one o f t h e G u l f I s l a n d s , w h i c h had 15 s p r o u t s , a l l t o l d , and weighed 31 p o u n d s . 2 4 Perhaps s e n s i t i z e d by t h e r a p i d d e p l e t i o n o f t h e beaver and marten p o p u l a t i o n s by t h e greedy f u r - t r a d e r s , i t appears t h a t t h e c o l o n i a l s q u i c k l y r e c o g n i z e d t h e need t o c o n s e r v e t h e s t o c k o f w i l d l i f e . I n t h e s p r i n g o f 1859, t h e c o l o n i a l government passed an a c t whi c h p r o h i b i t e d t h e t r a f f i c o f game ( b i r d s ) k i l l e d d u r i n g t h e r e s t r i c t e d season. T h i s a c t was l a t e r ammended t o c o m p l e t e l y d i s a l l o w t h e k i l l i n g o f game d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d . The f o l l o w i n g comments a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f the c o n c e r n f o r t h e enforcement o f t h e laws and t h e p r e s e r - v a t i o n o f game. ENFORCEMENT OF GAME LAW - The d e s t r u c t i o n o f game d u r i n g t h e b r e e d i n g season i s as c r u e l as i t i s i n e x p e d i e n t , we t h i n k t h a t a few words i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e m a t t e r may n o t be i n o p p o r t u n e , as s e v e r a l s t o r e s i n prominent s i t u a t i o n s d a i l y e x h i b i t f o r s a l e t h e c o n t r a b a n d a r t i c l e . 2 5 Thursday b e i n g t h e 10th o f August, t h e day upon w h i c h t h e p r o h i b i t i o n a g a i n s t k i l l i n g g r o u s e , and c , e x p i r e d , t h e r e was a g e n e r a l r u s h o f sportsmen, and many a b r a c e o f b i r d s were bagged b e f o r e b r e a k f a s t . We u n d e r s t a n d grouse i s u n u s u a l l y abundant i n t h e f o r e s t back o f t h e c i t y {New Westminster} , p r o b a b l y i n some degree a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e new game l a w . 2 6 Good s h o o t i n g c o u l d a l s o be found i n t h e n o r t h e r n i n t e r i o r , as e v i d e n c e d by t h e r e p o r t t h a t a Mr. W i l l i a m F o r e s t , w h i l e out h u n t i n g on snowshoes, was a b l e t o bag twenty s n i p e i n one d a y . 1 6 0 29 S i m i l a r l y , ducks were so p l e n t i f u l i n t h e s o u t h e r n r e g i o n t h a t a p a r t y o f V i c t o r i a n s , s h o o t i n g a t t h e mouth o f t h e Snohomish R i v e r , " t e l e g r a p h e d t o a f r i e n d t h a t t h e y were ba g g i n g 200 ducks d a i l y " . 2 7 W h i l e h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g were p r i m a r i l y l i f e s u p p o r t a c t i v i t i e s , s e v e r a l p e o p l e p a r t i c i p a t e d m e r e l y f o r r e c r e a t i o n . A p p a r e n t l y , Governor Seymour was a h u n t i n g e n t h u s i a s t . I n t h e f a l l o f 1864, accompanied by t h e Honorable A.N. B i r c h , he t r a v e l l e d t o t h e Sumas p r a i r i e s aboard h i s steam-yacht, t h e L e v i a t h a n , t o "e n j o y a day's s p o r t amongst t h e game w i t h w h i c h t h e marshy l a n d s abound a t t h i s season o f t h e y e a r " . 2 ^ I n V i c t o r i a , t h e Vancouver Times r e p o r t on a n g l i n g was " g l a d t o f i n d t h a t t h e l a k e s i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e town a r e a f f o r d i n g much s p o r t t o t h e l o v e r s o f t h i s a c t " . - * 0 H u n t i n g p a r t i e s were o r g a n i z e d on a s o c i a l and c o m p e t i t i v e n o te as e x e m p l i f i e d by; A HUNTING PARTY w i l l s t a r t from t h e R o y a l Oak H o t e l , S a a n i c h Road, on Thursday n e x t , a t 9% a.m., r e t u r n i n g a t 5 o ' c l o c k p.m. The l o s i n g p a r t y - t h a t i s , t h e man who k i l l s t h e l e a s t game, must pay f o r supper. . A f r e e b a l l w i l l t a k e p l a c e a t t h e h o t e l i n t h e e v e n i n g . S i m i l a r l y , s h o o t i n g c o n t e s t s were a d v e r t i s e d , as i n t h e 1868 grand s h o o t i n g f o r geese w i t h s h o t g u n s , a t Swan Lake, w h i c h was f o l l o w e d by a b a l l . Buses f o r t h i s event were t o l e a v e 32 V i c t o r x a a t a l l hours o f t h e day. L a t e r , c o n t e s t s f o r p i g e o n s h o o t i n g from a t r a p were o r g a n i z e d , such as t h a t h e l d on New Yea r ' s Day, 1875, a t t h e C o s m o p o l i t a n H o t e l , a t D i v e r 33 L a k e , near W e l l i n g t o n (Nanaimo d i s t r i c t ) . Numerous o t h e r s h o o t i n g c o n t e s t s were a l s o h e l d , b u t s i n c e t h e y were l a r g e l y 30 f i x e d t a r g e t c o n t e s t s o r g a n i z e d by t h e m i l i t i a and r i f l e m e n ' s a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r , e n t i t l e d ' R i f l e S h o o t i n g ' . Dogs were i m p o r t e d and t r a i n e d t o a s s i s t w i t h h u n t i n g . The f i r s t grey-hound a r r i v e d aboard th e v e s s e l H e l v e t i a i n 1863^^ and l a t e r , s i x f i n e E n g l i s h h a r r i e r s were s h i p p e d on t h e P r i n c e o f Wales from London, by W i l s o n Brown o f V i c t o r i a , 35 and were t r a i n e d by a c l u b o f gentlemen. The use o f t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r dogs i s not c l e a r , b u t i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e y were used f o r f o x - h u n t i n g because t h e h e a v i l y wooded t e r r a i n o f Vancouver I s l a n d was n o t c o n d u c i v e t o such an e v e n t . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e y were used p r i m a r i l y i n t h e h u n t i n g o f d e e r , as e v i d e n c e d by t h i s s t o r y w h i c h appeared i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t i n 1868. F o l l o w i n g t h e c a p t u r e o f a l i v e s t a g , s p o r t was p r o m i s e d i n t h a t , At 2 o ' c l o c k on Thursday h i s s t a g s h i p w i l l be s e t a t l i b e r t y a t Ogden P o i n t , and l e f t t o r u n f o r h i s dear l i f e , f o l l o w e d by a pack o f t r a i n e d hounds.36 However, the hounds were r e l e a s e d t o o soon and t h e s t a g was q u i c k l y downed, u n h u r t . When r e l e a s e d f o r a second t i m e , and g i v e n a f i f t e e n minute g r a c e , he was o f f and a v o i d e d f u r t h e r c a p t u r e , c a u s i n g t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t t o remark, We don't t h i n k much o f t h a t s t a g h u n t ; we don't t h i n k much o f W i l s o n Brown's hounds, and we t h i n k much l e s s o f t h e management o f t h e whole a f f a i r , w h i c h o t h e r w i s e m ight have ended i n a v e r y a g r e e a b l e day's s p o r t . 3 7 A n o t h e r e v e n t i n v o l v i n g dogs was t h e r a t t i n g match. Our s p o r t i n g r e a d e r s w i l l be g l a d t o l e a r n t h a t a match has been a r r a n g e d between George Baker's dog ' B i l l y ' , and M c D o u g a l l s dog 'Pepper', t o k i l l 50 r a t s f o r t w e n t y - f i v e d o l l a r s a s i d e , t o come o f f a t Joe Eden's. Round t h e C o r n e r s a l o o n on Wednesday e v e n i n g next.38 31 A g a i n a t t h e Round t h e Corner S a l o o n , on L a n g l e y S t r e e t , a sweepstake r a t t i n g match was h e l d i n a t e n f o o t c i r c u l a r p i t . ^ 9 The r e s u l t s were r e p o r t e d i n t h e I s l a n d e r . B a ker's p o o d l e , ' L o l a ' , 6 l b s , 3 r a t s - 2 min. 13 s e c . Howard's dog, ' V i c ' , 19 l b s , 5 r a t s - 33 s e c . ( d e c l a r e d f o u l ) Eden's dog ' R a t t l e r ' , 19 l b s , 6 r a t s - 1 min. C r o c k f o r d ' s ' V i c ' , 20 l b s , 6 r a t s - 54 s e e s . McDougal's dog 'Pepper', 21 l b s , 6 r a t s - 45 s e e s . , S h i r p s e r ' s dog 'Rose', 25 l b s , 6 r a t s - 45 s e e s . S h i r p s e r ' s dog 'Rose' came o f f v i c t o r i o u s . 4 0 I n an attempt t o s t a n d a r d i z e t h e c o m p e t i t i o n , h a n d i c a p s were g i v e n t o dogs a c c o r d i n g t o w e i g h t . F o r example, Mr. J.T. Howard's ' V i c ' , e n t e r e d t h e r i n g l a s t e v e n i n g t o c o n t e s t t h e Champions b e l t w i t h ' L i l l y ' . As she weighed two pounds h e a v i e r , ' V i c ' had t o k i l l two r a t s more w i t h i n t h e t i m e a l l o w e d h e r , b u t she f a i l e d t o d i s p o s e o f number 12 i n l e s s t h a n 2 min. 48s., t h u s l e a v i n g ' L i l l y ' , who k i l l e d 10 r a t s i n lm. 48s., i n u n d i s p u t e d p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e s i l v e r c o l l a r , as t h e Champion r a t t e r o f V i c t o r i a . 4 1 I n a l a t e r c o n t e s t , s e p a r a t e d i v i s i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d by s i z e so t h a t w h i l e S h i r p s e r ' s dog 'Joe' t o o k one minute and t e n seconds t o k i l l e i g h t r a t s , Eden's 'Jock' " d i d t h e same s e r v i c e 42 t o t h e community" i n f i f t y s econds, t o become champion o f t h e heavy w e i g h t s . The dogs were used i n a more t r a d i t i o n a l manner i n t h e I n t e r i o r , where Ormsby r e p o r t s t h a t Clement F r a n c i s C o r n w a l l and h i s b r o t h e r Henry had i n t r o d u c e d fox-hounds f o r c o y o t e - h u n t i n g a t A s h c r o f t M a n o r . ^ However, on Vancouver I s l a n d , where t r a d i t i o n a l f o x - h u n t i n g was v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e because 44 . . o f t h e h e a v i l y wooded t e r r a i n , an i n t e r e s t i n g v a r i a t i o n was employed t o s i m u l a t e t h e hunts o f E n g l a n d . The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t announced: 32 The Paper Hunt - The hares w i l l leave Maplewood (Admiral Hasting's residence) at 2 p.m. to-day. Ladies and Gentlemen who purpose joining i n the hunt w i l l be entertained by Admiral and Mrs. Hastings at lunch at 10 o'clock. We hope that a goodly number of our c i t i z e n s w i l l j o i n i n the sport which the Admiral, with a public spiritedness that does him great c r e d i t , has inaugurated h e r e . 4 5 One of the f i r s t hunts was advertised i n January of 1863 and had such organization that a manager, Mr. Howard, had been appointed. It would appear that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n these hunts was permited,* by s o c i a l standing, since one a r t i c l e re- fers to a hunt being held on Thursday and open to r e s t r i c t e d 47 persons. Another hunt, held on a Wednesday, was said to have attracted t h i r t y p a r t i c i p a n t s , including several ladies, one of whom made the " k i l l " . The object of the hunt was to trace the appointed "hares", r i d e r s who would lead the hunt over i n t e r e s t i n g t e r r a i n , choosing a suitable number of fences 4 8 and other obstacles to jump. Inevitably, such forays led to complaints from the l o c a l farmers, who were distraught about the number of broken fences and unlocked gates which AO freed t h e i r stock. To these complaints, a prompt apology was offered, along with the promise to provide a special r i d e r who would carry out repairs i n a l l future events.^ 0 However, i t i s apparent that proper care was not exercised because farmers were again forced to complain to the p r e s s 5 ^ following a hunt at Clover Point, i n which Wilson Brown's harriers were employed. 5 2 Despite t h i s c o n f l i c t between farmers and r i d e r s , the hunts continued and, during the Royal V i s i t of 1882, a 53 hunt was held for the entertainment of Princess Louise. 33 SPORTS DAYS AND PICNICS The e a r l y c o l o n i s t s e n j o y e d c o m p e t i t i o n i n numerous p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . Among t h e s e were t h e games i n addendum t o o t h e r e v e n t s , such as t h e Horse Races a t Beacon H i l l , where t h e r e was a l s o " l o t s o f f u n , - c a t c h i n g p i g s by t h e t a i l , c l i m b - i n g a g r e a s e d p o l e and r u n n i n g i n s a c k s " . 5 5 Most c e l e b r a t i o n s , r e g a t t a s , r a c e s , e t c . i n c l u d e d s i m i l a r e v e n t s f o r t h e spontan- eous enjoyment o f a d v e n t u r e r s . Other c o m p e t i t i o n s were s c h e d u l e d w i t h a more p r a c t i c a l i n t e n t . The v o l u n t e e r f i r e departments o f t e n e s t a b l i s h e d c o m p e t i t i o n between themselves and w i t h o t h e r f i r e companies, t h e r e b y a d d i n g i n c e n t i v e and f u n t o t h e r i g o r s o f p r a c t i c i n g speedy d r i l l s . The T i g e r and Deluge Companies o f V i c t o r i a engaged i n s e v e r a l c o m p e t i t i o n s s i m i l a r t o an e vent l i s t e d i n B a r k e r v i l l e . The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l r e p o r t e d t h a t p a r t o f t h e 1874 Queen's B i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s , members o f t h e l o c a l F i r e B r i g a d e competed . . . f o r a p u r s e o f $10 f o r the f i r s t w a t e r thrown from 200 f t . o f hose, a t t a c h e d t o t h e upper h y d r a n t . A t t h e t a p o f t h e b e l l , t h e hose c a r r i a g e was t a k e n out o f t h e e n g ine house, t h e hose a t t a c h e d t o t h e h y d r a n t , and w a t e r thrown by b o t h p a r t i e s i n l e s s t h a n two m i n u t e s . 5 5 I n o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s , a major s o c i a l f u n c t i o n d u r i n g t h e summer months was t h e p i c n i c , w h i c h added much z e s t t o l i f e 56 on t h e west c o a s t . P a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g t h e e a r l y p e r i o d o f s e t t l e m e n t , when the development o f s o c i a l c o h e s i o n i n a s m a l l community was e s s e n t i a l , t h e s e g a t h e r i n g s were open t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c and a d v e r t i s e m e n t s appeared i n t h e p r e s s t o s o l i c i t p a r t i c i p a t i o n . However, s i n c e i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t 34 anyone b u t a member o f t h e u p p e r - c l a s s would be i n t h e p o s i - t i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e d u r i n g t h e m i d d l e o f t h e week, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o note t h a t a t t e n d a n c e was o f t e n r e s t r i c t e d by the d a t e o f t h e e v e n t . One such event was an e x c u r s i o n and p i c n i c t o t h e American g a r r i s o n on San Juan I s l a n d , on Thursday, 57 August 27, t V1863. Some 180 l a d i e s and gentlemen, t r a v e l l i n g v i a t h e steamer E n t e r p r i s e , e n j o y e d " A l l k i n d s o f S p o r t s , such as c r i c k e t , base b a l l , f o o t b a l l , q u o i t s , t o g e t h e r w i t h sundry C O games f o r L a d i e s , and Dancing". I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e s e p i c n i c s were o f g r e a t v a l u e t o t h e development o f s p o r t . Such an event was p r o b a b l y th e f i r s t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p e o p l e t o come t o g e t h e r d u r i n g a common t i m e i n w h i c h t h e y c o u l d e n j o y s p o r t s a c t i v i t i e s w i t h t h e i r f e l l o w s . No doubt t h e d i s c o v e r y o f mutual i n t e r e s t s among new a c q u a i n t a n c e s h a s t e n e d more r e g u l a r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . As t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d , s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups a r o s e t o h o l d t h e i r own f u n c t i o n s . P o s s i b l y t h e f i r s t was t h a t o f t h e Independent Order o f Good Templars, whose p i c n i c on Wednesday, September 16, 1863, was a t t e n d e d by p e o p l e who t r a v e l l e d by s t a g e coach t o Oak Grove, Cadboro Bay, t o e n j o y "a • 59 v a r i e t y o f S p o r t s and Amusements";• I n t h e I n t e r i o r , p a r t i c - u l a r s o c i e t i e s were p r o m o t i n g g a t h e r i n g s , as e v i d e n c e d by t h e C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l ' s r e p o r t , t h a t : P i c n i c s a r e t h e r a g e , now, t h e season h a v i n g commenced i n t r u e e a r n e s t . The B r i t i s h B e n e v o l e n t h e l d t h e i r a n n u a l p i c n i c a t S a u c e l i t o on t h e 2 1 s t , and t h e Odd F e l l o w s f o l l o w e d s u i t on t h e 2 6 t h ; b o t h a f f a i r s were e x c e e d i n g l y s u c c e s s f u l . A s u c c e s s i o n o f minor ones f o l l o w d u r i n g t h i s and t h e coming w e e k . 6 0 The p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f t h e s e p i c n i c s i s i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e i r p o p u l a r a p p e a l . A t Nanaimo, upwards o f n i n e t y p e o p l e a t t e n d e d 61 a p i c n i c sponsored by t h e Wesley Sabbath S c h o o l , i n 1865. The V i c t o r i a Firemen's P i c n i c o f 1868 drew s i x hundred s p e c t a t o r s ^ i n what must have been i t s f i r s t a n n u a l e v e n t , s i n c e t h e V i c t o r i a D a i l y S t a n d a r d r e p o r t e d t h e t h i r d a n n u a l a f f a i r i n 1 8 7 0 . 6 3 By t h i s t i m e , t h e p i c n i c s were making a v e r y s p e c i f i c c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e development o f a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a o f s p o r t - T r a c k and F i e l d , w hich w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n a s e p a r a t e c h a p t e r . The most prominent o r g a n i z a t i o n s p o n s o r i n g s p o r t s and games a t i t s g a t h e r i n g s was t h e S t . Andrews and C a l e d o n i a n S o c i e t y . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e V i c t o r i a D a i l y S t a n d a r d ' s r e f e r e n c e t o t h e 6 4 upcoming e i g t h a n n u a l m e e t i n g on J u l y 4, 1871, t h e s o c i e t y a p p a r e n t l y began h o l d i n g a n n u a l meetings i n 1864. The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t d e s c r i b e d one such e v e n t - CALEDONIAN PICNIC - The C a l e d o n i a n S o c i e t y , w i t h a number o f t h e i r f r i e n d s , w i l l go up t h e Arm t h i s morning t o some a v a i l a b l e s p o t , where they w i l l i n d u l g e i n d a n c i n g , a t h l e t i c games, and o t h e r s p o r t s . Mr. S a n d r i e w i l l p r o v i d e t h e m u s i c . The b o a t s w i l l s t a r t from t h e f e r r y from 8 t o 10 o ' c l o c k and a l l i n t e n d i n g t o j o i n t h e p a r t y a r e r e q u e s t e d t o be p u n c t u a l . 6 5 The l i s t o f w i n n e r s i n t h e 1868 C a l e d o n i a n Games, h e l d on the grounds o f J.D. Pemberton, E s q . , i s an example o f t h e k i n d o f a t h l e t i c c o n t e s t s involved'. 150 y d . r u n W i l l i a m T o l m i e 250 y d . r u n W i l l i a m Reynolds Running Leap McCallum Q u o i t s McDougall and A l l e t t Hop, S t e p , and Leap W i l l i a m R o b e r t s o n , W i l l i a m T o l m i e Race f o r Boys B. Durham T o s s i n g t h e Caber A l e x Young 36 66 Other s p o r t s h e l d t h a t y e a r were a r c h e r y and f o o t b a l l . A n other t y p e o f c o m p e t i t i o n was t h a t sponsored by t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l community. As e a r l y as 1863, a ' P l o u g h i n g and Spading Match' was s c h e d u l e d i n t h e f i e l d s near Judge Pemberton's 67 r e s i d e n c e on Tuesday, September 29, a t 9 a.m., b u t was 6 8 c a n c e l l e d due t o l a c k o f c o n t e s t a n t s . A l a t e r a t t e m p t , s c h e d u l e d f o r May 18, 1868, was postponed due t o t h e heavy work l o a d o f s p r i n g p l o w i n g . ^ However, two y e a r s l a t e r , t h e S a a n i c h A g r i c u l t u r a l A s s o c i a t i o n was a b l e t o h o l d an autumn meeting i n w h i c h t h e c o n t e s t was t o plow o n e - h a l f an a c r e i n s i x h o u r s , f o r t h e p r i z e s o f merchandise p l u s $10 f o r a d u l t s 70 and $3 f o r l a d s . A l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h e f e s t i v i t i e s were 71 c r i c k e t , f o o t r a c e s , jumping, and h o r s e r a c e s . As t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l community p r o s p e r e d , more f r e q u e n t and e l a b o r a t e meets were a r r a n g e d . Thus, th e Lake D i s t r i c t P l o u g h i n g Match, a t John Manson's Farm, i n f r o n t o f t h e 'Royal Oak', was a b l e t o o f f e r t h e f o l l o w i n g c o m p e t i t i o n s : Swing Beam Pl o u g h s f o r $14, $10, and $6 Wheel P l o u g h s $10, $ 7, and $4 Amateur P l o u g h i n g $10, $ 7, $5, and $2 Boys - open t o any p l o u g h $7.50, $5, and $2.50 One q u a r t e r a c r e t o be ploughed by each p e r s o n e n t e r i n g ; p l o u g h i n g t o be n i n e by f i v e i n c h e s deep, and t h e q u a r t e r a c r e t o be ploughed i n f i v e h o u r s . 7 2 The same y e a r , 1872, was h o s t t o t h e f i r s t a n n u a l P r o v i n c i a l 7 3 E x h i b i t i o n o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l and H o r t i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y , ' - " w h i c h t h e r e a f t e r sponsored t h e F a l l Horse Races f o r V i c t o r i a . 37 GAMBLING AND BETTING Gi v e n t h e sudden i n f l u x i n number o f a d v e n t u r e r s i n p u r s u i t o f g o l d , i t i s l i t t l e wonder t h a t t h e e a r l y c o l o n i e s had v e r y s t r i c t laws a g a i n s t g a m b l i n g . A p p a r e n t l y t h e s e were w e l l e n f o r c e d i n V i c t o r i a , a l t h o u g h t h e c o m p a r a t i v e l a w l e s s n e s s o f t h e m a i n l a n d a l l o w e d gambling t o f l o u r i s h , as n o t e d i n the V i c t o r i a G a s e t t e ; GAMBLING - There a r e v e r y s t r i n g e n t laws h e r e f o r t h e s u p p r e s s i o n and punishment o f g a m b l i n g . . . H e r e a f t e r t h e r e w i l l be no mercy shown t h e g e n t l e m a n l y b l a c k l e g s who have done so much t o b r i n g d i s g r a c e upon some o f t h e towns w h i c h have sprung i n t o e x i s t e n c e w i t h i n t h e l a s t few months, but who have, so f a r , g i v e n V i c t o r i a a p r e t t y wide b i r t h . 7 4 I n an a r t i c l e headed " P u b l i c Gambling i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia", t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t d e s c r i b e d c o n d i t i o n s i n L a n g l e y . E v e r y game from mente t o euchre has i t s p r o f e s s o r s and i t s v i c t i m s . . . L i f e and p r o p e r t y a r e r e n d e r e d i n s e c u r e . The e x h i b i t i o n o f d e a d l y weapons, and o f t e n t h e i r use, around t h e gambling t a b l e s , a r e t h e o r d e r o f t h e day.75 The newspaper l a t e r r e p o r t e d on t h e s i t u a t i o n a t W i l l i a m s Creek, i n t h e C a r i b o o . A n o t i c e p r o h i b i t t i n g g a m b l i n g , under a p e n a l t y o f $100 f o r each and e v e r y o f f e n c e was s t r u c k up by Commissioner Elwyn, b u t t h e games go on o p e n l y , as b e f o r e . 7 6 However, the r e s t r i c t i o n o f gambling was o n l y l e v i e d on c a r d games. I n o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s , g ambling and b e t t i n g were p a r t o f t h e way o f l i f e and, as w i l l be seen i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s p o r t s , v i r t u a l l y e v e r y event c a r r i e d a wager. Examples o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a r e the f o l l o w i n g : 38 N o t i c e - TO ALL COOPERS A CHALLENGE. The under- s i g n e d i s w i l l i n g t o b e t t h a t he can make more b a r r e l s t h a t w i l l pass t h e i n s p e c t i o n o f judges t h a n any o t h e r cooper i n B r i t i s h Columbia o r Vancouver I s l a n d , i n one day, o r one month, a c c o r - d i n g t o terms o f t h e b e t . I s w i l l i n g t o t a k e from $250 t o $500 on h i s c a p a b i l i t i e s . . . . F . G . O d i n . 7 7 SPORTING - Our o l d f r i e n d L a r r y d e s i r e s t o s t a t e t h a t he has been c h a l l e n g e d by an adept t o throw t h e s t o n e w i t h him f o r $50 a g a i n s t $5 a s i d e . L a r r y has a c c e p t e d i t and i n t e n d s g i v i n g h i s a dver- s a r y a 'merry shake' one o f t h e s e days. B e t t i n g was so much a p a r t o f t h e custom i n t h e s e days t h a t even y o u t h o p e n l y i n d u l g e d i n t h e a c t i v i t y . However, i n t h i s f o l l o w i n g example, t h e i r l a c k o f t h e r e q u i r e d s p o r t s - manship was q u i c k l y reprimanded. I n 1870, t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t r e p o r t e d t h a t a boys' b o a t r a c e was c a l l e d o f f because ...one o f t h e crews and t h e i r f r i e n d s were o f f e r i n g t o b e t v e r y f r e e l y . T h i s a r o u s e d s u s p i c i o n and an i n v e s t i g a t i o n showed t h a t a p i l o t e x i s t e d t h a t t h e crew most l i k e l y t o w i n s h o u l d throw o f f on t h e i r b a c k e r s by a l l o w i n g t h e o t h e r crew t o w i n and d i v i d e t h e s p o i l s w i t h t h e i r opponents. Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , L a c h a p e l l e , d e c l i n i n g t o be a p a r t y t o such i m m o r a l i t y * v e r y p r o p e r l y r e f u s e d t o a l l o w t h e b o a t s t o s t a r t . 9 GENERAL' INTEREST^ The contemporary newspapers h e l d numerous r e p o r t s o f major s p o r t i n g e v e n t s t a k i n g p l a c e i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d , r e f l e c t i n g a h i g h degree o f c o l o n i a l i n t e r e s t i n a t h l e t i c endeavour. I n t h e e a r l y d a y s , news a r r i v e d by steamer from San F r a n c i s c o , and b r i e f n o t e s were i n s e r t e d i n t h e p r e s s . F o r example, i n October o f 1859, t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t r e p o r t e d : "The g r e a t t r o t t i n g match w h i c h came o f f 39 on the 24th near L i v e r p o o l , was won by the E n g l i s h h o r s e on Dan". u L i k e w i s e , when news f i l t e r e d t o the I n t e r i o r , the C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l would r e p o r t on such event s as the A n g l o - American Boat Race between James H a m i l l o f P i t t s b u r g h and Henry K e l l y , the champion o f t h e T h a m e s . 8 1 W i t h t h e comple- t i o n o f the t e l e g r a p h l i n k , the newspapers c a r r i e d more f r e q u e n t , e x t e n s i v e , and up t o da te s t o r i e s o f o u t s i d e s p o r t s e v e n t s , o f t e n u s i n g b o l d t y p e f o r the h e a d l i n e . By the e a r l y 1870s, the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t even deve loped a s p e c i a l l a y o u t f o r major l o c a l e v e n t s , p r o v i d i n g c h a r t s f o r the b a t t i n g and b o w l i n g averages o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c r i c k e t matches and f o r the r i f l e c o m p e t i t i o n between H . M . S . Sparrowhawk and the New Westminster V o l u n t e e r s . 8 3 A n o t h e r source o f communicat ion and e n t e r t a i n m e n t from the o u t s i d e w o r l d was the t r a v e l l i n g c i r c u s . Bartholomew's 84 G r e a t Western C i r c u s seems t o have made an i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to V i c t o r i a ' s s p o r t i n g community by p r o v i d i n g a r i d i n g s c h o o l and gymnasium, which a l s o o f f e r e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n sword, b a y o n e t , and f e n c i n g e x e r c i s e s . 8 5 A p a r t i c u l a r l y c u r i o u s e n t e r t a i n m e n t was p r o v i d e d by James Cooke, a v i s i t i n g ft fi c i r c u s p e r f o r m e r , who rode through the Gorge i n a wash tub p u l l e d by f o u r geese . One hundred and f i f t y peop le watched as the geese were . . . h a r n e s s e d and yoked t o a b o a r d c i r c u l a r i n shape , about f o u r f e e t i n l e n g t h and 2% i n w i d t h , - i n f a c t f o u r h o l e s , each s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t o admit a goose , had been c u t i n the b o a r d and i n these h o l e s the geese s a t and swam, and swam, and swam, ye b o l d n a v i g a t o r , meanwhile , h o l d i n g a padd le i n each hand and w i t h i t d i r e c t i n g h i s ' s t e e d s ' i n the way they s h o u l d g o . 8 7 40 A p p a r e n t l y , C o o k e h a d t r i e d t h i s s t u n t b e f o r e , i n S a n F r a n c i s c o , w h e r e h i s g e e s e w e r e d r o w n e d f o u r m i l e s f r o m s h o r e , f o r c i n g h i m t o p a d d l e w i t h h i s h a n d s f o r s e v e n h o u r s . ^ SUMMARY T y p i c a l o f l i f e i n d e v e l o p i n g c o m m u n i t i e s , t h e p h y s i c a l a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s o f e a r l y B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s f u l f i l l e d b o t h s o c i a l a n d p r a c t i c a l f u n c t i o n s . T h e v a r i o u s d a n c e s , b a l l s , a n d p i c n i c s w e r e e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e c o m m u n i t y t o a c q u a i n t i t s e l f w i t h new members a n d c u s t o m s , w h i l e r e l a x i n g i n a common l e i s u r e l y p u r s u i t . T h e a d d i t i o n o f a n e l e m e n t o f c o m p e t i t i o n i n t o d a y t o d a y a c t i v i t i e s , s u c h a s h u n t i n g , f i r e - f i g h t i n g , a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l t r a d e , l e n t e x c i t e m e n t a n d c r e a t e d e n t h u s i a s m f o r t a s k s w h i c h m i g h t o t h e r w i s e be m o n s t r o u s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e a l m o s t u n i v e r s a l e n t h u s i a s m f o r b e t t i n g o r w a g e r i n g p r o v i d e d a n e l e m e n t o f a n t i c i p a t i o n t o a d d z e a l t o l i f e , a n d t h e e n t e r - t a i n m e n t a t n u m e r o u s e v e n t s a n d s p e c t a c l e s p r o v i d e d t h e p r o m i s e o f f u r t h e r e n j o y m e n t . C o m b i n e d , t h e s e f e a t u r e s g a v e e x p e c t a n c y t o l i f e a n d h e l p e d t h e c o m m u n i t y b u i l d s p i r i t a n d c o h e s i o n . 41 CHAPTER TV MINOR SPORTS ARCHERY The o n l y a p p a r e n t r e f e r e n c e t o a r c h e r y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d i s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e a n n u a l F o r e s t e r s ' P i c n i c on Vancouver I s l a n d . F o r example, d u r i n g t h e 1879 m e e t i n g , th e r e s u l t s o f t h e a r c h e r y c o m p e t i t i o n were: L a d i e s - f i r s t , M i s s M. Randle; second, Mrs. Van Houten. Gentlemen - f i r s t , W. C l a r k e ; second, J . C u r r y . S p e c i a l - f i r s t , James L e w i s . ^ BILLIARDS As e a r l y as 1858, a d v e r t i s e m e n t s appeared i n t h e p r e s s t o promote th e s a l e o f b i l l i a r d t a b l e s i m p o r t e d from San 2 F r a n c i s c o . However, d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , an i n d o o r space s e t 3 a s i d e p r i m a r i l y f o r games was a l u x u r y w h i c h few c o u l d a f f o r d . Those a r e a s w h i c h d i d e x i s t were r u n by commercial i n t e r e s t s , such as t h e S t a r and G a r t e r H o t e l i n V i c t o r i a , w h i c h not o n l y o p e r a t e d a B i l l i a r d S a l o o n , b u t a l s o s e r v e d as agent f o r Jacob 4 S t r a h l e and Company's B i l l i a r d T a b l e s . The number o f adver- t i s e m e n t s f o r t h e s a l e o f t a b l e s (M. Bach's B i l l i a r d F a c t o r y 5 o f San F r a n c i s c o , as a n o t h e r example ) s u g g e s t s t h a t perhaps some p e o p l e were b u y i n g t a b l e s f o r t h e i r p r i v a t e use, b u t u n d o u b t e d l y , most o f t h e s a l e s were t o o t h e r h o t e l s and s a l o o n s . By 1859, t h e game c o u l d be p l a y e d even a t F o r t Hope, where the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t r e p o r t e d : 42 The b i l l i a r d S a l o o n s appear w e l l s u p p o r t e d . M e s s r s . Crowe and Thompson have j u s t completed t h e i r s p a c i o u s B i l l i a r d S a l o o n , w h i c h w i l l v i e f o r c o m f o r t w i t h any i n V i c t o r i a . ^ The B r i t i s h Columbian, commenting on t h e opening o f t h e new C o l o n i a l H o t e l and B i l l i a r d S a l o o n i n New W e s t m i n s t e r , i n 1862, p r o v i d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f a c i l i t y : The B i l l i a r d S a l o o n i s 27 x 70 f e e t w i t h a 17 f o o t c e i l i n g and t h r e e l a r g e s k y - l i g h t s . I t i s f u r n i s h e d w i t h 15 c r y s t a l lamps, t h r e e f i r s t - c l a s s B i l l i a r d t a b l e s , w i t h P h e l a n ' s c o m b i n a t i o n c u s h i o n s , a R o u l e t t e - t a b l e and e v e r y t h i n g t o match. I n t h a t same y e a r , a d o l l a r a game was charged f o r p l a y on t h e two t a b l e s w h i c h were i n s t a l l e d i n a s a l o o n on W i l l i a m s Creek. T h i s f a c t g i v e s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e t o t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e game, because a t t h a t t i m e , a r o a d d i d not e x i s t i n th e a r e a and so goods were c a r r i e d e i t h e r on t h e backs o f mules o r on one-wheeled hand c a r t s . As t h e n o r t h e r n p o p u l a - t i o n i n c r e a s e d and c o n d i t i o n s improved, more t a b l e s were i n s t a l l e d , so t h a t i n 1865, P a t r i c k K i r w i n was a d v e r t i s i n g h i s 9 B i l l i a r d S a l o o n i n R i c h f i e l d and, i n 1867, a B o w l i n g and B i l l i a r d S a l o o n was a d v e r t i s e d i n B a r k e r v i l l e . ^ No doubt t h e commercial v a l u e o f t h e t a b l e s l a y n o t so much i n t h e charge l e v i e d a g a i n s t t h e p l a y e r s , but i n t h e s a l e o f l i q u o r t o t h e numerous e n t h u s i a s t s who p a t r o n i z e d t h e s a l o o n s . The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t p r o v i d e d an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f s p e c i a l games. GREAT BILLIARD MATCH - A game o f b i l l i a r d s was p l a y e d l a s t e v e n i n g between M e s s r s . P.M. Backus and W.H. Robinson - 1,000 p o i n t s a s i d e . Robinson made 633 p o i n t s t o Backus 339, when t h e l a t t e r gentleman made a r u n o f s i x hundred and e i g h t y - e i g h t , and was d e c l a r e d w i n n e r by 367 p o i n t s . Robinson's t r e a t e s t r u n was 42 p o i n t s . B oth gentlemen d i s p l a y e d g r e a t s k i l l d u r i n g t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e game, w h i c h was c l o s e l y watched by a l a r g e number o f p e o p l e . H 43 By 1871, b i l l i a r d tournaments bad been i n a u g u r a t e d and, i n t h a t y e a r , J o s h u a D a v i e s , f o r m e r l y o f V i c t o r i a , won a 12 $175 r i n g i n P o r t l a n d Oregon. L a t e r t h a t y e a r , two champion p l a y e r s , Dion and Rudolph, p l a y e d a s p e c i a l game a t 13 V i c t o r i a ' s Alhambra H a l l . I n t h e same c i t y , f i v e y e a r s l a t e r , t h e A d e l p h i S a l o o n was crowded as W. N e l l e s d e f e a t e d 14 J . Welton f o r a p r i z e o f $200. Two months l a t e r , t h e A d e l p h i was a g a i n t h e s i t e o f a n o t h e r p r o f i t a b l e v i c t o r y f o r N e l l e s . T h i s t i m e he d e f e a t e d a Mr. Da v i s o f P o r t l a n d ( p o s s i b l y Joshua D a v i e s ) , i n a f o u r - b a l l American carom game f o r $100 a s i d e , a g a i n b e f o r e a l a r g e crowd w h i c h exchanged a 15 c o n s i d e r a b l e sum o f money on t h e game. The f i n a l a p p a r e n t r e f e r e n c e t o a b i l l i a r d s c o m p e t i t i o n d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d i s t h a t o f t h e match game f o r $100, between F. T u l l y and D. Morgan, a t Nanaimo's P r o v i n c i a l H o t e l , i n December o f 1 8 8 2 . 1 6 BOWLING B o w l i n g S a l o o n s were n o t as p r e v a l e n t , b u t o f t e n o c c u p i e d t h e same f a c i l i t i e s as t h e b i l l i a r d rooms, as no t e d i n t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t f o r t h e B o w l i n g and B i l l i a r d S a l o o n a t B a r k e r v i l l e , 17 i n 1867. However, o t h e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , such as t h a t on V i c t o r i a ' s Waddington A l l e y , appear t o have s t r i v e n f o r a more r e f i n e d c l i e n t e l e , a d v e r t i s i n g t h e i r f i n e w i n e s , s p i r i t s , 18 l i q u o r s , c i g a r s , and l a t e s t European and A t l a n t i c newspapers. Y e t , i n 1863, w h i l e s u p p o r t i n g a p o p u l a t i o n o f o n l y f o u r 19 hundred w h i t e s , L i l l o e t was r e p o r t e d as h a v i n g a b o w l i n g a l l e y . 44 By 1872, major c h a l l e n g e matches had been o r g a n i z e d , as i n t h e f o l l o w i n g e v e n t r e p o r t e d i n t h e V i c t o r i a D a i l y S t a n d a r d . There w i l l be a match game a t t e n - p i n s , t o be p l a y e d a t t h e Ten- P i n S a l o o n , t h i s e v e n i n g , between a gentleman from t h e o t h e r s i d e fu«S.A.J and one o f th e b e s t p l a y e r s i n town. A f t e r w h i c h , games w i l l be p l a y e d f o r a v a r i e t y o f f a n c y a r t i c l e s , - munschaum p i p e s , e t c . 2 0 CROQUET By n a t u r e , t h e game o f Croquet was a l i g h t - h e a r t e d a c t i v i t y i n wh i c h p e o p l e would i n d u l g e a t garden p a r t i e s and p i c n i c s . Such a game would n o t g e n e r a t e s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r e s t t o r e q u i r e newspaper c o v e r a g e . However, t h e a r r i v a l o f equipment i n June o f 1867 d i d r e s u l t i n an announcement i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t . CROQUET - L o v e r s o f t h i s f a v o r i t e game w i l l f i n d t h e n e c e s s a r y implements a t V i c t o r i a House ( c o r n e r o f F o r t and Douglas s t r e e t s ) , s e v e r a l s e t s h a v i n g been r e c e i v e d p e r P r i n c e s s R o y a l . 2 ! HANDBALL A c c o r d i n g t o L i n d s a y , t h e r e were o n l y two matches o f t h i s game r e p o r t e d i n t h e 1860s p r e s s o f B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a . One o f t h e s e was i n S t . J o h n ' s , New B r u n s w i c k , and t h e o t h e r . 22 i n V i c t o r i a where, i n J a n u a r y o f 1865, t h e Vancouver Times r e p o r t e d : A match o f h a n d - b a l l has been a r r a n g e d between two V i c t o r i a n s and two C a r i b o o i t e s f o r $100 a s i d e , t o be p l a y e d n e x t Monday, i n B u c k l e y ' s B a l l C o u r t . As t h e men a r e e x p e r t s i n t h e manlv game some e x c e l l e n t p l a y may be a n t i c i p a t e d . A l t h o u g h no d e t a i l s o f t h e method o f p l a y were g i v e n , 45 Menke states that u n t i l 1 9 0 0 , the t y p i c a l handball court had four walls, each 22 feet high, with a playing surface of 46 24 feet by 22 feet, and that only a hard handball was used. From the single reference i n the Vancouver Times, i t i s apparent that the game was played regularly i n V i c t o r i a , since not only was there a s p e c i f i c b a l l court, but also "expert" players. The o r i g i n of handball dates back to tenth Century Ireland and i s considered to be a parent of tennis. Often referred to by i t s old name of 'f i v e s ' , derived from the f i v e fingers with which the b a l l was h i t , the game was also played regularly i n New Westminster by 1870, as indicated by a report i n the Mainland Guardian. Interesting Match - A match at fives was played on Tuesday l a s t by one of our crack players against s i x of our ag i l e c i t i z e n s . The a f f a i r created much int e r e s t and resulted i n a victo r y for the adept. 2 5 TENNIS An o f f s p r i n g of handball, tennis became popular i n B r i t i s h Columbia because the small space required for a court was r e l a t i v e l y easy to fin d i n an area "where the dense woods and surrounding mountains made i t d i f f i c u l t to f i n d enough clear space for a number of sports during the early years of s e t t l e - 2 6 ment". In a l e t t e r from V i c t o r i a i n 1 8 8 7 , C l i v e P h i l l i p s - Wolley wrote, 46 I t i s a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e t o b e l i e v e t h a t I am not dreaming. S i t t i n g by t h e open window, t h e drowsy summer a i r comes i n o f f t h e sea and f a n s my f o r e h e a d ; from t h e lawn o u t s i d e I can h e a r , " W e l l p l a y e d " , "Love t h i r t y " , "Deuce", and o t h e r s c r a p s o f t e n n i s j a r g o n from l i p s o f E n g l i s h men and women. I n f a n c y I can see t h e g r e y s t o n e w a l l s o f y o u r o l d E n g l i s h r e c t o r y and i t s wreaths o f b l u e c l e m a t i s ; b u t i f I open my eyes , they l o o k , i t i s t r u e , a c r o s s green t e n n i s - l a w n s and p a s t E n g l i s h p l a y e r s , b u t t h e s k i e s a r e b l u e r t h a n t h o s e s k i e s o f G l o u c e s t e r s h i r e even were; i n s t e a d o f t h e C o t s w o l d h i l l s a r e t h e snow caps o f t h e Olympian M o u n t a i n s . . . The V i c t o r i a Lawn T e n n i s C l u b was formed i n 1885 and 28 o r g a n i z e d i t s f i r s t open tournament i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . Thus, by 1886, t e n n i s had been " e s t a b l i s h e d on a d e f i n i t e f o o t i n g " i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia, w i t h J . Handcock becoming t h e 29 champion. A c l u b was formed i n Vancouver i n 1889 and, i n 30 1890, t h e Cowichan Lawn T e n n i s C l u b was formed. Meanwhile, i n New W e s t m i n s t e r , lawn t e n n i s was a " t e a p a r t y game" d u r i n g t h e e i g h t i e s , b u t became more c o m p e t i t i v e i n t h e n i n e t i e s , w i t h 31 a c l u b f i n a l l y f o r m i n g i n 1900. LACROSSE D u r i n g t h e l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , L a c r o s s e became Canada's most p o p u l a r team s p o r t and was adopted as t h e n a t i o n a l game i n 1867. However, s i n c e i t d i d n o t become p o p u l a r i n B r i t i s h Columbia u n t i l a f t e r 1885, i t i s l i s t e d here as a minor s p o r t and i s b r i e f l y d i s c r i b e d f o r background p u r p o s e s . The game was f i r s t mentioned i n t h e r e g i o n when t h e e d i t o r o f t h e M a i n l a n d G u a r d i a n r e t u r n e d from a t r i p t o t h e e a s t i n 1872. 47 T o r o n t o i s v i v a c i o u s , r a c y f a s t . The game o f La C r o s s e has almost superseded t h e o l d E n g l i s h f a v o r i t e [ c r i c k e t ?J and e v e r y l a d o f 5 w i t h s t r e n g t h enough i s now master o f h i s La C r o s s e ' p i t c h s ' and ' f l i e s ' . You a r e nobody u n l e s s you r u n l i k e an I n d i a n and g e t your o p t i c s d i s c o l o u r e d and framework b a t t e r e d . 3 2 D u r i n g t h e l a t e e i g h t i e s , c l u b s were formed i n V i c t o r i a and Vancouver, b u t p l a y was spasmodic u n t i l t r i a n g u l a r c o m p e t i t i o n c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h a New We s t m i n s t e r c l u b formed i n 1888. The f i r s t l a c r o s s e tournament was h e l d i n Kamloops d u r i n g t h a t y e a r and V i c t o r i a b e a t Vancouver i n t h e 33 f i n a l game. However, i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , b o t h t h e Vancouver and New Wes t m i n s t e r c l u b s made use o f the r a i l w a y t o i m p o r t a q u i c k s u p p l y o f r e - i n f o r c e m e n t s from t h e e a s t i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e d e c i d i n g match o f t h e "Alhambra Cup", emblematic o f B r i t i s h Columbian L a c r o s s e supremacy, which was 35 f i r s t p l a y e d f o r i n 1889. However, t h e game ended i n a 2-2 draw, i n i t i a t i n g an i n t e n s e r i v a l r y between c l u b s t o se c u r e e x p e r i e n c e d p l a y e r s from t h e e a s t , many o f whom were 3 c o f f e r e d w e l l p a y i n g j o b s i n one o f t h e t h r e e c i t i e s . On March 22, 1890, t h e B r i t i s h Columbia Amateur L a c r o s s e 37 A s s o c i a t i o n v/as o r g a n i z e d by t h e t h r e e c o a s t a l teams and from t h a t t i m e , t h e s p o r t r a p i d l y g a i n e d p o p u l a r i t y . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r o f r e g u l a r c o m p e t i t i o n , crowds o f o v e r two thousand a t t e n d e d i n t e r - c i t y matches, f a n n i n g an i n t e n s e and sometimes b i t t e r r i v a l r y , as e v i d e n c e d by t h i s p a r t i s a n comment i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t ; "the V i c t o r i a team would have won t h e game had t h e y been g i v e n f a i r p l a y . But a f a i r , square p l a y w i t h 38 Vancouver i s never l o o k e d f o r " . 48 The New We s t m i n s t e r team, were g i v e n t h e name 'Salmon- b e l l i e s ' by t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s i n 1890, t h e y e a r they won t h e B r i t i s h Columbia championship. Towards t h e end o f t h a t season, t w e l v e members o f t h e team f i n a n c e d t h e i r own t o u r o f t h e e a s t , v i s i t i n g M o n t r e a l and T o r o n t o . They p l a y e d s i x matches i n two weeks, w i n n i n g f i v e and dra w i n g one w i t h T o r o n t o , w h i l e s c o r i n g f o r t y g o a l s w i t h o n l y t h i r t e e n a g a i n s t them d u r i n g t h e 39 t o u r . Three y e a r s l a t e r , t h e V i c t o r i a L a c r o s s e C l u b , b o l s t e r e d by former p l a y e r s from O n t a r i o and Quebec, made a mark i n Canadian l a c r o s s e h i s t o r y on a s i m i l a r e a s t e r n t o u r , d e f e a t i n g M o n t r e a l , Quebec, and t h e T o r o n t o s . A match w i t h t h e 'Shamrocks' was a c r e d i t a b l e t i e and t h e o n l y d e f e a t was 40 by a combined Ottawa team. These two t o u r s c h a l l e n g e d the ar r o g a n c e o f t h e e a s t e r n teams and d i s p e l l e d any doubts about w e s t e r n a b i l i t y . As t h e Winnipeg F r e e P r e s s commented: The r e s u l t o f t h i s t o u r suggest t h e a d v i s a b i l i t y o f i n s t i t u t i n g a Canadian Championship s e r i e s w h i c h s h o u l d embrace Canada as a whole. I t has been shown t h a t t h e west i s n o t b e h i n d t h e e a s t i n t h e n a t i o n a l p a s t i m e , why the n s h o u l d t h e championship o f Canada be c o n f i n e d t o M o n t r e a l , T o r o n t o , Ottawa, and C o r n w a l l ? 5 ^ However, such a championship d i d n o t come about u n t i l May 31, 19 01, when L o r d M i n t o donated t h e cup which b a r e s h i s name. 4 2 I t i s a p p a r e n t , t h e n , t h a t t h e t r a n s - c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y had a v e r y marked i n f l u e n c e on t h e development o f l a c r o s s e , n o t o n l y i n t h e West C o a s t , b u t a c r o s s Canada. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r a i l w a y p l a y e d a prominent r o l e i n t h e p r o m o t i o n o f l o c a l c o m p e t i t i o n on t h e lower m a i n l a n d . The e a r l y r i v a l r y between Vancouver and V i c t o r i a l a c r o s s e c l u b s was r e p l a c e d by a s t r o n g e r r i v a l r y between Vancouver and New We s t m i n s t e r a s , i n 49 1889, t h e Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y began r u n n i n g s p e c i a l t r a i n s t o P o r t Moody t h e n t o New W e s t m i n s t e r , b r i n g i n g hundreds o f s p e c t a t o r s t o t h e matches. By 1890, i n t e r - u r b a n t r a i n s were c a r r y i n g p a s s e n g e r s from Vancouver d i r e c t t o Queen's Par k i n New W e s t m i n s t e r and m u l t i p l e t r a i n s o p e r a t e d when t h e p r o v i n c i a l f i n a l s were p l a y e d i n September o f each y e a r . ^ So g r e a t was t h e i n t e r e s t i n l a c r o s s e and t h e t r a v e l so easy, t h a t f i f t e e n t o twenty thousand p e o p l e a t t e n d e d i m p o r t a n t matches and, on t h e S a t u r d a y a f t e r n o o n s o f t h o s e games, New 44 W e s t m i n s t e r s t o r e s were c l o s e d . QUOITS The e a r l i e s t p r e s s r e p o r t o f q u o i t s b e i n g p l a y e d was a note i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t i n 1860. H i t t i n g a Chinaman w i t h a Q u o i t - A few days ago a p a r t y o f s a i l o r s and m arines were p l a y i n g a t Q u o i t s near a Chinaman's house, a t E s q u i m a l t , when one o f t h e m a r i n e s , named Dennis McEvoy, s t r u c k a C e l e s t i a l w i t h one o f t h e q u o i t s . The Chinaman c o m p l a i n e d t o t h e P o l i c e Judge y e s t e r d a y , b u t McEvoy's o f f i c e r s t a t i n g t o the C o u r t t h a t t h e man had been p u n i s h e d by h i s o r d e r , t h e case was d i s m i s s e d . 4 5 Such a s tatement r a i s e s t h e s u s p i c i o n t h a t t h e laws were not e n f o r c e d e q u i t a b l y , p o s s i b l y d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a g a i n s t r a c e and f a v o u r i n g t h e m i l i t a r y . A q u o i t s match was i n c l u d e d d u r i n g t h e Queen's B i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s a t New W e s t m i n s t e r , i n 1 8 6 2 , 4 6 and i n 1865, f o u r 47 e x p e r i e n c e d p l a y e r s competed a t H e a l y ' s C l o v e r P o i n t House, where t h e C l o v e r P o i n t p l a y e r s were d e f e a t e d by a group from 48 t h e L i o n Brewery. By t h e e a r l y s e v e n t i e s , q u o i t s were a d v e r t i s e d as p a r t o f t h e combined Dominion Day and J u l y 4 50 c e l e b r a t i o n s i n t h e C a r i b o o , where a $20 p r i z e was o f f e r e d f o r c o m p e t i t i o n i n a s i x t e e n y a r d t o s s . 4 9 Q u o i t i n g was p a r t i c u l a r l y p o p u l a r i n Nanaimo, where t h e p r o m i n e n t p l a y e r s o f 1874 were l i s t e d as M e s s r s . James H a r v e y , 50 W i l k e s , and W i l i e r s o n . Two y e a r s l a t e r , i n 1876, a s i l v e r cup was o f f e r e d f o r c o m p e t i t i o n a t e i g h t e e n y a r d s , w i t h p l a y by t h e N o r t h o f E n g l a n d R u l e s , w h i c h were t h e n p o s t e d a t t h e 51 b a r o f t h e B l a c k Diamond H o t e l . By 1880, c o m p e t i t i o n was o f f e r e d i n 21, 18, 14, and 10 y a r d e v e n t s and, i n 1884, t h e most p r e s t i g i o u s match o f t h e p e r i o d came o f f between R o b e r t A i t k e n and R. S h e p l e y , f o r $250 a s i d e a t 18 y a r d s , h e l d a t W a l l ' s W e l l i n g t o n H o t e l . 5 3 To f u r t h e r t h e f e s t i v i t i e s o f t h i s e v e n t , a f o o t r a c e between W. E e v e r i d g e and L. J o n e s was i n c l u d e d , a l o n g w i t h a w r e s t l i n g match i n w h i c h a Mr. Hanson t o o k two o f t h r e e f a l l s o v e r a Mr. L y n c h . 5 4 S i n c e q u o i t s was a s i m p l e game t o p l a y , r e q u i r i n g l i t t l e e q u i p m e n t and o n l y two p l a y e r s , i t c a n be s u r m i s e d t h a t t h e game was w i d e l y e n j o y e d as a p a s t i m e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a l t h o u g h n o t a l w a y s g e n e r a t i n g enough i n t e r e s t t o r e c e i v e p r e s s c o v e r a g e . However, i t was i n c l u d e d i n t h e v a r i o u s f e s t i v i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e , and r e c e i v e d o c c a s i o n a l c o v e r a g e from t h e m a j o r n e w s p a p e r s , i n c l u d i n g t h e Kamloops I n l a n d S e n t i n e l , w h i c h r e p o r t e d q u o i t s as p a r t o f t h e J u l y 4 c e l e b r a t i o n s a t Y a l e , i n 1881. 5 5 51 CHAPTER V AQUATIC SPORTS CANOEING From the f i r s t days o f s e t t l e m e n t , t h e canoe i n f l u e n c e d t h e l i v e s o f p e o p l e t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a . I t s v a l u e was n o t o n l y u t i l i t a r i a n , p r o v i d i n g easy t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of p r o v i s i o n s and f u r s , b u t was a l s o an i n s t r u m e n t o f f u n . No doubt t h e e a r l y t r a d e r s e n j o y e d t h e dangerous, y e t t h r i l l i n g e x p e r i e n c e o f r u n n i n g r a p i d s i n t h e i r canoes, and l a t e r c o l o n i s t s used t h e n a t i v e v e s s e l i n r a c i n g c o m p e t i t i o n s . The f i r s t f o r m a l c o m p e t i t i o n appears t o have been i n 1862. The Queen's B i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s a t Nanaimo t h a t y e a r i n c l u d e d a canoe r a c e f o r w h i t e men, who competed f o r t h e Nanaimo R e g a t t a Cup and a p r i z e o f t h i r t y d o l l a r s . T h i s r a c e was won by t h e canoe named S h o o t i n g S t a r , w h i c h d e f e a t e d two o t h e r s named Stormy P e t r e l and F l y i n g C l o u d . I n a s e p a r a t e event f o r I n d i a n s , p r i z e s o f $13, $7, and $4 were o f f e r e d f o r t h e f i r s t t h r e e p l a c e s o f t h e e l e v e n e n t r i e s from v a r i o u s n e i g h b o u r - i n g t r i b e s . The Comox I n d i a n s were t h e f i r s t group t o c o v e r t h e c o u r s e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e m i l e s , f o l l o w e d i n second and t h i r d p o s i t i o n s by two groups o f Nanaimo I n d i a n s . 1 Canoe r a c e s were p a r t i c u l a r l y p o p u l a r a t Nanaimo and, i n t h e Queen's B i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s o f 1863, t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t r e p o r t e d t h a t : The most e x c i t i n g fo:f c o m p e t i t i o n s ^ were canoe r a c e s , i f any r e l i a n c e can be p l a c e d on t h e shouts which u n i n t e r m i t t e n t l y proceeded from t h e g a l l e r y xv-here t h e d i s c i p l e s o f Bacchus were c o n g r e g a t e d . 2 52 A canoe r a c e was i n c l u d e d on t h e programme of a r e g a t t a a t V i c t o r i a i n 1862^ and, i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , an " I n d i a n R e g a t t a " was h e l d i n t h e c i t y w i t h a r a c e ...round by t h e lumber y a r d s and t h r o u g h t h e b r i d g e i n t o James Bay. The I n d i a n s p a d d l e d i n e x c e l l e n t t i m e , and accompanied t h e i r l a b o u r s w i t h a w i l d s o r t o f boat song, w h i c h had a v e r y p l e a s a n t effect. -**" Canoe r a c e s a l s o became a r e g u l a r event i n t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r c e l e b r a t i o n s o f t h e Queen's b i r t h , b e g i n n i n g by 5 1862. The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n i s p r o v i d e d o f t h e scene i n 1865, when between e i g h t thousand and t e n thousand I n d i a n s were ex p e c t e d t o a t t e n d t h e c e l e b r a t i o n . A f t e r a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f t a l k i n g - and i t was a p e r f e c t b a b b l e , s e v e r a l thousand tongues g o i n g a t once i n f o u r o r f i v e d i f f e r e n t languages - t h e f i r s t r a c e commenced by about 20 l a r g e canoes, c a r r y i n g 21 men each. O f f t h e y s h o t i n s p l e n d i d s t y l e , and r o u n d i n g t h e f l a g on t h e o p p o s i t e s i d e t h e y were back i n v e r y q u i c k t i m e , t h e w i n n e r r e c e i v i n g t h e f i r s t p r i z e o f $44...As each r a c e was o v e r a l l t h e c o m p e t i t o r s , b o t h w i n n e r s and l o s e r s , were p r e s e n t e d w i t h a p l u g o f t o b a c c o each w i t h w h i c h t o r e g a l e t h e m s e l v e s . 7 A n o t h e r c e l e b r a t i o n , t h e A c c e s s i o n Day o f June, 1870, saw I n d i a n canoes r a c e f o r twenty d o l l a r s i n V i c t o r i a . The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t r e p o r t e d t h a t ; Two canoes competed f o r t h i s r a c e , w h i c h as a r a c e , was t h e b e s t o f t h e day; f o r a l o n g t i m e t h e canoes were neck and neck, and i t was d o u b t f u l f o r t h r e e - p a r t s o f t h e r a c e w h i c h would be t h e w i n n e r ; A l t h o u g h t h e S o n g i s h canoe drew ahead and won. 8 Lady D u f f e r i n p r o v i d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f a s p e c i a l r e g a t t a h e l d i n honour o f her husband, th e Governor- G e n e r a l , a t Nanaimo, i n August o f 1876. Here, t w e l v e t r i b e s were r e p r e s e n t e d by n e a r l y f o u r hundred I n d i a n s i n t h i r t y canoes. 53 At twelve o'clock we went i n carriages to see a regatta, which was to be held at the Gorge...Across one end there was a s t r i n g of fla g s , which with the background of mountains, wood and water, looked very gay>.. a number of boats were dotted about, and arranged i n three groups were twenty large canoes, f i l l e d with Indians, and covered from stem to stern with flags...There were some excellent races, four or f i v e of the large canoes i n a race, the men rowing, or rather paddling with a l l t h e i r might - eight strokes a minute - leaving quite a sea behind them. There was, too, a most exc i t i n g squaw race. We rowed alongside most of the way, and saw the women well! One crew consisted of rather nice-looking young ones but these did not win. 0 Around t h i s time, groups of whites were developing an interes t i n canoeing and were attached to the various rowing clubs as they emerged. However, canoeing did not become a regular sport i n B r i t i s h Columbia u n t i l the 1890s, when canoe div i s i o n s were f i n a l l y established within the James Bay At h l e t i c Association, V i c t o r i a , Burrard Inlet, New Westminster, and Vancouver Rowing Clubs. Singles, tandem, and Peterborough canoe races were included i n the rowing regattas from 189 2 u n t i l a f t e r the turn of the ce n t u r y . 1 1 During t h i s period, two Vancouver canoeists, A. Marshall and J . Spencer, dominated . 12 canoe events. ROWING According to Menke, "Canada has produced some of the most s k i l l f u l oarsmen the world has known".^3 since the rowing e l i t e of the period, such as Ned Hanlan, came from the centre of population i n the east, rowing on the West Coast did not appear very s i g n i f i c a n t . However, as the following w i l l show, the history of rowing i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s r i c h with colour and endeavour. 54 The Royal Navy i n i t i a t e d i n t e r e s t i n aquatic competitions i n V i c t o r i a by holding regattas for the t r a i n i n g and entertain- ment of the f l e e t and for the pleasure of the community. The f i r s t newspaper description of such a Navy regatta appeared i n June of 1859, when the B r i t i s h Colonist reported: On Tuesday and Wednesday a regatta took place i n Esquimalt Harbour. The boats engaged were those of H.M.S. Pylades, Tribune, and S a t e l l i t e . On the f i r s t day, the race was with boats rowed, and no pleasurable excitement pervaded the contests. On the second day, the race was between s a i l boats, which were well managed. A large number of spectators were present, among whom were many lad i e s , the varied colors of whose costumes imparted a l i v e l y gaiety to the same. During the f i r s t day's race two punts manned by the coal heavers of the ships, i n grotesque costumes, who used t h e i r coal shovels for paddles, performed some novel and amusing f e a t s . ^ 4 The ships' own boats were used for these contests. Even the launches, each of which car r i e d eighteen oars i n t i e r s , were used i n one of the six rowing events. The launch i s the largest boat of the ship, and during service i s armed with a ten or twelve pound cannon, and used for the conveyance of large bodies of men to the point of attack or l a n d i n g . x 5 In the following year, 1860, another regatta was held at Esquimalt. Along with the boats of the f l e e t , several boats from the United States were involved i n the competitions, which were under the patronage of the Governor. Messrs. Howard and Davis of Esquimalt, considered "old hands at such 16 sports", were to make the arrangements for the events. Throughout the period, contests such as the race between 17 the gunboats Forward and Grappler and the three mile match race for $100 between the cutters of H.M.S. Mutine and 18 Deva st at ion were held by the crews of the f l e e t . In 1868, a major naval regatta had ten rowing races, including a l l 19 classes of vessel (plus a s a i l i n g race). But, probably the most spectacular of the navy contests occurred as part of the Queen's Birthday celebrations of 1870, when V i c t o r i a ' s stores closed early on a Wednesday, and some f i v e thousand spectators watched the competitions between the crews of ten of Her Majesty's warships - the Zealous, Liverpool, L i f l e y , Picone, Pearl, S e y l i a , Charybdis, Endymion, Sparrowhawk, and Boxer. According to the B r i t i s h Colonist, t h i s regatta was "the largest ever held on the American side of the Pacific". Not only did the f l e e t organize regattas for i t s own crews, but many of the o f f i c e r s were leading c i t i z e n s of the community and promoted c i v i l i a n competitions. The c i t y of V i c t o r i a held i t s f i r s t boat race i n the f a l l of 1859. Marine o f f i c e r s , stationed at the James Bay barracks, along with some c i v i l i a n s , competed for a prize of one hundred d o l l a r s over a distance of f i v e miles, " s t a r t i n g at the James Bay bridge, for the mouth of the harbour, then up the arm around Dead Man's 21 Island, and back to the bridge". Several hundred people attended the race to watch the three four-oared boats. The crews were: Speedwell, the c i v i l i a n s - Hicks, Wallace, Stamp, Broderick, and Bushby (coxswain): North Star, o f f i c e r s - Lieutenant Owens, Captain Blake, Henry Bazalgate, ' (coxswain) Rough and Ready, combined o f f i c e r s and c i v i l i a n s - Trutch, Stevenson, Moberly, and C l i f t o n (coxswain) : and the umpires were Captain J.M. Reid and Captain J. Nagle. The marine o f f i c e r s did not appear very adept, losing the race and t h e r e b y h a v i n g t o pay f o r d i n n e r a t t h e C o l o n i a l H o t e l . ^ The y o u t h o f t h e c i t y t r i e d t h e i r hands a t ro w i n g i n 1861. Boys from t h e C o l l e g i a t e S c h o o l were s t a r t e d i n a r a c e by C a p t a i n N a g l e . George L i t t l e ' s b o at won t h e f i r s t r a c e f o r twenty d o l l a r s and, i n t h e second r a c e , L e s t e r ' s b o a t won s i x t e e n d o l l a r s w h i c h bought a k n i f e f o r each o f t h e boys. I n September o f 1862, a "Grand R e g a t t a " was h e l d i n V i c t o r i a h a r b o u r and was open t o a l l c l a s s e s o f b o a t s , i n c l u d - 24 i n g s a i l i n g and c a n o e i n g , as w e l l as r o w i n g e v e n t s . P r i z e money o f some two hundred and f i f t y d o l l a r s was c o l l e c t e d from th e community and p a r t i c i p a n t s competed i n s i x r a c e s . Two weeks l a t e r , a s c u l l i n g match was h e l d i n w h i c h F i t z g e r a l d b e a t " F r e n c h y " . 2 6 S i n c e a f a i r c o m p e t i t i o n between humans c o u l d n o t be a c h i e v e d w i t h b o a t s o f v a r y i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n , contemporary rowers o f t e n had t o exchange v e s s e l s t o prove t h e i r prowess. Such an exchange o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e Queen's B i r t h d a y r a c e s o f 1861, a t New W e s t m i n s t e r , which were no doubt o r g a n i z e d by t h e 27 R e g a t t a . C l u b , formed i n t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r . I n t h i s r a c e , th e crew o f t h e J.T. S c o t t d e f e a t e d t h a t o f t h e Wakeman b u t , ...by way o f t e s t i n g whether t h e v i c t o r y was owing t o a s u p e r i o r i t y i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e boat o r t o t h e b e t t e r oarsmanship o f t h e w i n n i n g crew, an exchange o f crews was made and an o t h e r r a c e r u n , on which o c c a s i o n t h e 'Wakeman' won, which c l e a r l y s e t t l e ^ t h e q u e s t i o n i n f a v o u r o f t h e crew o f t h e J.T. S c o t t . S i m i l a r l y , c o m p e t i t i o n s between v e s s e l s were a r r a n g e d t o reduce t h e human f a c t o r , as the Vancouver Times o f 1864 r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e c a p t a i n o f t h e B l u e Bonnet, d e f e a t e d by t h e W i l l i a m Hunt, o f f e r e d t o back h i s boat f o r up t o one thousand d o l l a r s , 57 provided the boats exchanged crews. 3 In a further attempt to equate competition, rowers of d i f f e r e n t sizes and d i f f e r e n t p u l l i n g advantages tested them- selves i n boats of compensating weight. Thus, the Vancouver Daily Post of 1865 announced a f i f t y d o l l a r race between Reid's Foam and Lachapelle's Surge The Foam i s a l i g h t e r boat than the Surge, and i s manned by l i g h t weights; the crew i s Edward Thain, stroke, T.A. Griggs, Sam. Dougal, Fred. Morrison, and W i l l i e Cameron, coxswain. The Surge w i l l carry heavy weight crew and p u l l a long stroke; t h e i r names are B. Vaux, stroke, J . Lachapelle, H. Howard, ' Urie, J . Anderson, coxswain. Both the crews have been p r a c t i c i n g for some time and there i s no doubt that i t w i l l be a very t i g h t r a c e . 3 0 Lachapelle's vessel, l i s t e d l a t e r as the Glance, was announced the winner. 3 1 By t h i s time, inter e s t i n rowing had grown s u f f i c i e n t l y that an o f f i c i a l rowing club could be formed. According to The Press, e f f o r t s to form such a club had begun as early as 32 1862 and, i n the spring of 1863, there was more ta l k about 33 i t s formation, but no r e a l action u n t i l a concerted e f f o r t towards formalization gathered s i x t y signatures of prospective 34 members, i n August of 186 5. F i n a l l y , at the end of September that year, the B r i t i s h Colonist announced: A meeting of gentlemen who propose to form a Rowing Club, was announced by c i r c u l a r yesterday afternoon, at the o f f i c e of Messrs. Franklin, on Government Street. About twenty gentlemen attended. Capt. Lang, V.R.V. was requested to preside, and Mrs. S.S. Green to o f f i c i a t e as secretary... The association i s to be styled 'The Vancouver Rowing Club'...The rules of the London Rowing Club are to be followed as far as practicable...The Committee w i l l , we understand, fo r t h - with order the construction of two four-oared gigs for models. The Club numbers about 75 members.35 58 W.A. Young, Esq., the Colonial Secretary, was appointed President of the club, ° which was sometimes referred to as the V i c t o r i a Rowing Club. Its o r i g i n a l name of 'Vancouver' should not be mistaken for the l a t e r club of that name, organized i n the c i t y of Vancouver. Probably the f i r s t racing gig b u i l t i n the Colony was that of a Mr. C. Coyle, of Alberni, who had his vessel launched and tested i n the spring of 1864. 3 7 Messrs. Murray 38 and Nagle also b u i l t boats, but Lachapelle was the foremost racing boat builder of the period and i t was he who supplied and maintained the boats for most of the V i c t o r i a races. For example, i n the f i f t y d o l l a r aside match between J . Eden (the tavern owner of 'Ratting Match' fame) and J. Hariman, Lachapelle's boats were used, and again, the next day, when G. Francis beat G. Lawrence for two hundred and f i f t y d o l l a r s . At t h i s time, the boat ordered by the Club from Lachapelle was announced as ready for s e r v i c e . ^ 0 In the following year, Lachapelle b u i l t another boat, ...a b e a u t i f u l four-oared, W h i t e h a l l race boat 20 feet long, by 3 feet 9 inches beam, to be c a l l e d the 'Dart'. She i s copper fastened throughout, and judging from her lin e s we should say she may defy any. boat of her class i n t h e s e waters for speed.^ Just a few weeks l a t e r , the Dart was engaged i n a Good Friday race when four boys raced i t against four men from Spratt and Kriemler's foundry i n another of Lachapelle's boats, the 'old fa v o r i t e ' , the Glance.^ 2 Throughout the period, regattas were held on days of community-wide celebration, allowing large numbers of people 59 to enjoy the competitions. The prominent celebration was, of course, the Queen's Birthday. In 1867, the annual V i c t o r i a regatta of that day had become so prestigious that the prepara- tions included the chartering of a steamer to take spectators along the Gorge, at a price of twenty-five cents per person, while some three hundred Americans were expected to attend, paying six d o l l a r s (including meals and bed) for the t r i p from Olympia. 4 3 The B r i t i s h Colonist announced that, A large number of boats have been entered, and i n addition to our native t a l e n t , 'crack' rowers from the American side have consented to take part i n the sport and exhibit t h e i r muscle. The rowers w i l l dress i n colours. Almost every object that w i l l f l o a t has been engaged for the occasion by pleasure seekers who desire to see the sport - including lumber from Sayward's yard. 4 4 The several races with purse prizes were concluded by a "Hunt the Duck", i n which one person in a flat-bottomed s k i f f was to 45 elude the pursuit of four men in a gig. S i m i l a r l y , i n 1868, the regatta drew some one thousand people to watch a programme of eight rowing races and an Indian canoe race, organized largely by Messrs. Trahey and Lachapelle. Spectators to such events t r a v e l l e d to the Gorge by land and even by barges towed by the Hudson Bay Company's steam vessel, the Leviathan. 4 7 The year 1870 has already been noted as having a s p e c i a l regatta. Organized on Accession Day by the Royal Navy and a t t r a c t i n g some f i v e thousand spectators, the programme included double s c u l l s , four-oared gigs, "Blue Jacket in ships' boats, single s c u l l s , four-oared s h e l l s , canoes, 48 copper punt races, and a "duck hunt". 60 Regatta days were important events and the rowing f r a t - e r n i t y took the impending competition seriously. In regard to the Accession Day regatta i n June of 1870. the B r i t i s h Colonist noted: The crews are i n t r a i n i n g for the Regatta. Outriggers and rowing gigs may be seen darting over the smooth surface of the harbour every evening, and numerous boating-parties are formed d a i l y for the purposes of p r a c t i c e . 4 9 In fact, rowing enthusiasts were even encouraged to dress for the occasion by at lea s t one advertiser. REGATTA HATS - Mr. Adams, of Government Street, has received, per Princess Royal, a splendid assortment of men's and boy's boating and regatta h a t s . 5 0 Rowing had become so popular that i t was not uncommon for people to challenge each other to a meet. Thus occurred such "novel" matches as the race between four old and four young men (also l i s t e d as marrieds vs s i n g l e s ) , which was won by the former on a Sunday, i n May of 1867. 5^ Races between boys were held on a course from the dredger i n V i c t o r i a harbour, around Dead Man's I s l a n d . 5 2 The Chinese community also rowed on occasion and, i n 1872, the Chung Lung crew i n the gig Amateur, defeated a dozen paddlers of the Kwong Sing crew i n the Whitehall boat Glance, causing the B r i t i s h Colonist to remark, In future regattas, the Chinese should be remembered and allowed a share i n the programme; an Indian canoe race might also be a feature of the annual sports of the 24th of May. 5 3 Thus, although Indian canoe races were often part of the celebrations, they had not been scheduled on a regular basis and the Chinese appear to have been excluded completely. In 6 1 l e s s s e r i o u s c o m p e t i t i o n , p o s s i b l y f o r t h o s e l e s s a d e p t a t r o w i n g , t u b r a c e s were a l s o i n c l u d e d as p a r t o f t h e r e g a t t a 5 4 programme, f o r e s h a d o w i n g t h e modern Nanaimo-Vancouver b a t h - t u b r a c e s . I n New W e s t m i n s t e r , r o w i n g was b e c o m i n g f o r m a l i z e d by t h e end o f 1 8 6 9 . The M a i n l a n d G u a r d i a n r e p o r t e d t h a t a " s e l e c t crew" had b e e n p r a c t i c i n g 5 5 i n t h e c i t y c l u b ' s new r a c i n g g i g c a l l e d t h e B r u n e t t e . A few d a y s l a t e r , t h e new v e s s e l was manned by M e s s r s . Bushby, P o o l e y , J o h n s t o n , and R i c h a r d s o n , who were t o compete a g a i n s t C a l d e r ' s b o a t and G e o r g e O d i n ' s g i g . 5 ^ A month l a t e r , two s t a g e s were s c h e d u l e d t o c a r r y s p e c t a t o r s f r o m t h e c i t y t o v i e w a r a c e i n B u r r a r d I n d e t , w h i c h was t o t a k e p l a c e on a Wednesday a t two o ' c l o c k . 5 7 The c o u r s e was between Mr. Moody's and t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d m i l l s , a d i s t a n c e o f two and a h a l f m i l e s . The New W e s t m i n s t e r crew, p u l l i n g w i t h f o u r o a r s , d e f e a t e d t h e 5 8 B u r r a r d crew o f f i v e p a i r s o f s c u l l s . A l t h o u g h a c l u b was o f f i c i a l l y o r g a n i z e d a t B u r r a r d I n l e t i n M a r c h o f 1 8 7 0 , 5 ^ c o m p e t i t i o n on t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d was s p o r a d i c f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . O c c a s i o n a l r a c e s were a r r a n g e d w i t h v i s i t i n g n a v a l v e s s e l s , b u t t h e s h i p s ' b o a t s were u s u a l l y u s e d b e c a u s e " t h e b l u e j a c k e t s a r e n o t w e l l s k i l l e d i n t h e h a n d l i n g o f r a c e - b o a t s " * D u r i n g t h e 1 8 7 2 Queen's B i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s a t New W e s t m i n s t e r , t h e c i t i z e n s o f t h e ' R o y a l C i t y * s u b s c r i b e d a s e v e n t y - f i v e d o l l a r p u r s e , w h i c h was won 61 by t h e i r crew o v e r B u r r a r d I n l e t . A n o t h e r r e p o r t o f t h a t y e a r was o f a match a t B u r r a r d I n l e t i n w h i c h a f o u r - o a r e d 62 racing gig could not match the speed of a canoe paddled by eleven I n d i a n s . ^ Throughout the province, there was l i t t l e , of p a r t i c u l a r note u n t i l 1872, when the v i s i t i n g Lord Dufferin provided the 6 T medals for the annual V i c t o r i a Rowing Club regatta. In the following year, the Hastings M i l l s Regatta was held i n conjunc- t i o n with the Dominion Day celebrations on Burrard Inlet, 64 enticing a number of people from Nanaimo to attend. S t i l l another year l a t e r , an international event saw the boats of H.M.S. Opal and the American ship Lachawanna compete, the 65 American boat winning by f i f t e e n seconds. In 1878, a four- oared crew from V i c t o r i a t r a v e l l e d to Seattle to win a fourth of July race and, i n that same year, a reference appeared to a Moodyville Boat Club, which was said to have a boat c a l l e d Pearl. However, by 1879, the Burrard's Annie Fraser was recognized as having vanquished all-comers, including boats from V i c t o r i a and New Westminster. ° In 1882, the James Bay A t h l e t i c Association was formed i n V i c t o r i a to promote a t h l e t i c s generally, but i t s p r i n c i p l e i n t e r e s t was rowing. However, i t s a c t i v i t i e s were limited during the next decade, u n t i l 1892, when i t entered the North 69 P a c i f i c American Association of Oarsmen. In the I n t e r i o r , a reference to a simple boat race appears i n the Inland Sentinel of 1885, reporting a race for f i f t y d o l l a r s between F. Robinson's Greyhound, with two oars and carrying three persons, and A. McKinnon's Fanny, a larger boat with two oars and carrying 70 seven persons. Back on the coast, a club was formed i n 63 Vancouver i n 1886, but i t experienced l i t t l e competition u n t i l i t merged with Burrard Inlet to form the Vancouver 71 Rowing Club i n 189 0. Meanwhile, the V i c t o r i a Amateur Boating Club was formed 72 i n 1888, with Joshua Davis as President. Perhaps the involve- ment of t h i s club and the James Bay A t h l e t i c Association had detracted from i n t e r e s t i n the old c i t y rowing club because i t appears to have been inactive for some time, causing the editor of the B r i t i s h Colonist to chastise i t s membership i n 1889. The V i c t o r i a Rowing Club are most r e s p e c t f u l l y urged to be up and doing. A meeting was c a l l e d a few days ago, but could not be held. C a l l another. The major rowing inte r e s t of these, times was the single s c u l l events. Most prominent i n the l a t t e r part of the seventies was John (later l i s t e d as William) Cotsford. In 1876, when he was a twenty year old employee of J. Spratt's Albion Foundry, he defeated Alexander McLean i n the Gorge, and - 74 won five, hundred'dollars. Two years l a t e r , he t r a v e l l e d to Seattle and won the July 4 competition. 7 5 The year 1879 saw him compete i n an event which was said to have created more excitement i n V i c t o r i a than any other sporting event i n recent years. Here, Cotsford defeated Henry Stewart for another f i v e hundred d o l l a r s , prompting a Mr. Eugene Flanders, on hand representing the San Francisco Boating Club, to accept a challenge from Cotsford. Cotsford l o s t that race i n San Francisco, but his supporters were confident that he could 77 have won i f the race had been i n f a m i l i a r V i c t o r i a waters. 64 N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t was a p p a r e n t t h a t h i s e f f o r t s t o e a r n p r o f e s s i o n a l fame had f a i l e d . A n o t h e r n o t a b l e s c u l l e r was a Mr. S e e l e y , who had b e e n t r a i n e d by M c D o w e l l , t h e champion amateur w a l k e r o f t h e p r o v i n c e . I n a r a c e w i t h C o t s f o r d , S e e l e y was g i v e n a one 78 m i n u t e h e a d s t a r t , h o l d i n g on t o w i n t h e r a c e by s i x s e c o n d s . S e v e r a l y e a r s l a t e r , i n 1884, S e e l e y p u t on an e x h i b i t i o n i n James Bay w i t h t h e famed Edward H a n l a n , who was on h i s way t o A u s t r a l i a . The s c h o o l s were c l o s e d f o r t h i s e v e n t , t o a l l o w t h e c h i l d r e n t o s e e " t h e m a r v e l l o u s C a n a d i a n who h a s done so 79 much t o b r i n g t h i s , h i s c o u n t r y i n t o n o t i c e a b r o a d " . He and S e e l e y d e m o n s t r a t e d v a r i o u s b a l a n c i n g a c t s ( i e . S e e l e y s t a n d i n g on h i s head i n t h e r a c i n g s h e l l ) , c h a n g e s o f p o s i t i o n i n t h e s h e l l s , as w e l l as s p e e d y r o w i n g . M e a n w h i l e , on t h e same programme, C o t s f o r d was b e a t e n by L e e , a n o t h e r w e l l - k n o w n rower f r o m " a b r o a d " . O t h e r p r o m i n e n t s c u l l e r s i n c l u d e d New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s M i c h a e l Law, who won t h e s i n g l e s c u l l s e v e n t a t t h e a n n u a l 80 D o m i n i o n Day e v e r y y e a r f r o m 1878-85. A n o t h e r r e f e r e n c e , p r o b a b l y i n t e n d i n g t h e same p e r s o n , l i s t s M e s s r s . M a u r i c e and R o b e r t Law as h a v i n g r e c e i v e d , i n 1883, a d o u b l e - s c u l l r a c i n g g i g f r o m V i c t o r i a , w h i c h had b e e n o u t f i t t e d w i t h s l i d i n g s e a t s , a m a j o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l improvement t o t h e s p o r t . M e s s r s . M u r r a y and F r y were a l s o r e p o r t e d t o be b u i l d i n g a s i m i l a r 81 v e s s e l i n New W e s t m i n s t e r . B u r r a r d I n l e t ' s J . Bush was a l s o a s c u l l e r o f n o t e and was r e p o r t e d t o h a v e had many 8 2 s u c c e s s e s f r o m 1880-89. 65 The pride of Vancouver Island was William Paine, the undefeated champion s c u l l e r of B r i t i s h Columbia from 1879-88. J His f i r s t match against an outside competitor was highly publicized and well attended as his opponent, Harry B a l l , was a former member of the famed 'Chatham Four 1 and had recently moved to Vancouver. The match took place on Shawnigan Lake on May 19, 18 88, i n front of a crowd carried by special trains from V i c t o r i a . Paine*s v i c t o r y earned him front page coverage 8 4 in the l o c a l press. However, l i k e Cotsford, his hopes for greater success were soon eliminated. Henry Peterson, a prominent American professional s c u l l e r from San Francisco, beat him on Shawnigan Lake i n June of 1888, i n an event which was 8 5 touted as B.C.'s greatest sporting event to date. B r i t i s h Columbia rowers f i n a l l y achieved recognition i n the east when the Vancouver Rowing Club's four-oared crew 8 6 impressed The Globe by i t s 1890 defeat of Seattle. In the same year, R.N. Johnston won the single s c u l l championships of the Vancouver Rowing Club, proceeding to further successes as an amateur and also as a professional, when he changed his status i n 189 6. In 1892, he defeated an American, Quackenbush, on Lake Washington, thereby winning the American Championship 07 of the P a c i f i c Coast. Then, i n 1898, the c i t i z e n s of Vancouver raised a purse of twenty-five hundred d o l l a r s to finance a match race between Johnston and Jacob Gaudaur, the champion of the world. Gaudaur won that match by two lengths, i n what was considered a very fas t t i m e . 8 8 When Johnston again challenged Gaudaur i n 1900, the match was held at the new c i t y of Nelson, 66 i n the Int e r i o r , which was reputed to have the best course i n 89 Canada. Again, Gaudaur was the winner i n a close f i n i s h . SAILING AND YACHTING As i t had done with rowing, the Royal Navy introduced yachting as competitive recreation i n one of the most bea u t i f u l . . 90 c r u i s i n g and racing areas i n the world. In 1859, the naval regatta at Esquimalt had been a two day event, one for rowing 91 and the other for s a i l i n g competitions. Launches, pinnaces, and cutters were employed, but the races proved to be unexciting 92 due to the lack of wind. Although, s a i l i n g events were included as part of the major regattas, p a r t i c u l a r l y the Queen's Birthday celebrations, they did not gain an enthusiastic following u n t i l late i n the 1880s. As early as 1861, New Westminster included a s a i l i n g event i n i t s Queen's Birthday f e s t i v i t i e s . In that year, the yacht P i l o t defeated the Swallow, Chance, and Coquette over a seven 9 3 mile course. A few weeks l a t e r , a schooner race was recorded i n which the Lallan Rookh defeated the Nanaimo Packet. 9 In the following year, 1862, a yacht race for the Queen's Cup of f i f t y d o l l a r s was won i n Nanaimo by the Gone Coon, defeat- 9 5 ing the Look Out, Dolphin, Monad, Scotland, and the F l o r a . However, a subsequent advertisement seems to dispute t h i s v i c t o r y : "The yacht 'Kelpie', the winner of the Queen's Cup at Nanaimo, i s now offered, for sale at the very low sum of $300. 96 W. Nagle & Co." In V i c t o r i a , a 'Grand Regatta* was held i n early September o f 1862 and i n c l u d e d a s a i l i n g r a c e on t h e programme. y / E i g h t y e a r s l a t e r , t h e g r e a t R o y a l Navy r e g a t t a o f 1870 a t t r a c t e d thousands o f s p e c t a t o r s t o E s q u i m a l t t o see t h e r o w i n g and s a i l i n g matches. Hundreds o f W a s h i n g t o n i a n s a r r i v e d aboard t h e /American steamer Q l y m p i a , j o i n i n g the t h r o n g t o c h e e r r a c e s between v a r i o u s c l a s s e s o f v e s s e l s : c u t t e r s , g a l l e y s , l a u n c h e s , and p i n n a c e s . Of t h e t e n B r i t i s h w a r s h i p s i n p o r t , H.M.S. S c y l l a , Z e a l o u s , Sparrowhawk, and Boxer won most o f t h e e v e n t s , w h i l e t h e s h i p s ' bands urged them on w i t h m a r t i a l music such as ' B r i t i s h G r e n a d i e r s ' Q O and '.Rule B r i t a n n i a ' . Of l a t e r y e a r s , t h e r e i s l i t t l e t o r e p o r t d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d . The no t e d b o a t b u i l d e r , L a c h a p e l l e , b u i l t a 99 s i x t e e n f o o t y a w l f o r Edwin Johnson i n 1872, b u t t h e s w i f t - e s t s a i l b o a t b e l o n g e d t o Thomas J o n e s . I n 1879, h i s v e s s e l Scud d e f e a t e d f o u r o t h e r v e s s e l s t o w i n a s i l v e r cup.^-0^- P e r - haps i t s most i m p r e s s i v e v i c t o r y came i n 1888, when i t won t h e 103 a n n u a l V i c t o r i a r e g a t t a be d e f e a t i n g e l e v e n opponents. A b r i e f r e f e r e n c e appeared i n t h e B r i t i s h Columbian o f 1885, n o t i n g an i n t e r n a t i o n a l r a c e f o r t h e Queen's Cup,l° 4 but t h e r e does n o t appear t o have been any s t a n d a r d i z e d c o m p e t i t i o n u n t i l 1888. A t t h i s t i m e , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t R o y c r o f t , o f V i c t o r i a , donated a t r o p h y f o r c o m p e t i t i o n between y a c h t s o f a 105 s t i p u l a t e d w a t e r l i n e l e n g t h . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , 1889, he o r g a n i z e d a r a c e f o r c r a f t under e i g h t e e n f e e t i n V i c t o r i a 10 6 h a r b o u r . A n n u a l r a c e s f o l l o w e d and, i n 1892, t h e V i c t o r i a Y a c h t C l u b was formed, w i t h such prominent members as t h e p a t r o n , C o l . E.G. P r i o r , Commodore J.G. Cox, J.H. S e e l e y , 68 A. Mulcahy, W.B. C h a r l e s , and H.E. Loewen. The c l u b f l o u n d e r e d around th e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , due t o l a c k o f funds and t h e l o s s o f c l u b h o u s e p r o p e r t y , b u t i n 1908, J.S. Gibbs and o t h e r s r e v i v e d t h e membership t o some one hundred and s e v e n t y - f i v e w i t h t w e l v e y a c h t s . I n t h a t y e a r , a R o y a l C h a r t e r was c o n f e r r e d on t h e c l u b and i t has p r o s p e r e d 107 s i n c e . On t h e m a i n l a n d , R.H. A l e x a n d e r , o f H a s t i n g s Lumber M i l l , was a r e c o g n i z e d s u p p o r t e r and e n t h u s i a s t o f y a c h t i n g d u r i n g t h e 1880s. A t t h e same t i m e , Andy L i n t o n ' s May was r e g a r d e d as t h e l o c a l s p e e d s t e r . Vancouver h e l d i t s f i r s t r e g a t t a on Dominion Day, J u l y 1, 1887, t h e y e a r a f t e r i t s i n c o r p o r a t i o n as a c i t y . By t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , a f t e r the new Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y had b r o u g h t a r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n and w e a l t h , seven s a i l b o a t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e a n n u a l a f f a i r , w h i c h was marred by t h e drowning o f two men o f f t h e c a p s i z e d T h i s t l e . 1 0 8 The c o m p e t i t i o n o f 1889 saw t h e f i r s t o r g a n i z e d r a c e between y a c h t s from Vancouver and 109 V i c t o r i a and, d u r i n g t h e n e x t decade, s e v e r a l c l u b s were s t a r t e d b u t , l i k e t h o s e i n V i c t o r i a , soon f l o u n d e r e d . Henry B e l l - I r v i n g (a f i s h cannery magnate) was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e B u r r a r d I n l e t S a i l i n g Club o f 1887; W a l t e r G r a v e l e y (a r e a l e s t a t e d e a l e r ) w i t h t h e B r i t i s h Columbia Y a c h t R a c i n g A s s o c i a - t i o n o f 1891; and R.Y. E l l i s w i t h t h e Vancouver B o a t i n g C l u b o f 1896. F i n a l l y , i n 1903, t h e Vancouver Y a c h t i n g C l u b was s u c c e s s f u l , w i t h W a l t e r G r a v e l e y as commodore o f one hundred members and t w e n t y - e i g h t y a c h t s . The R o y a l C h a r t e r was c o n f e r r e d on t h e c l u b by t h e B r i t i s h A d m i r a l t y i n 1906. 69 STEAMBOAT RACING A l t h o u g h t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e steamboats was f a r more u t i l i t a r i a n t h a n s p o r t i n g , t h e c o m p e t i t i o n s between t h e v e s s e l s d i d much t o arouse t h e e x c i t e m e n t o f t h e e a r l y communities on t h e West C o a s t . C o m p e t i t i o n s between t h e s e s h i p s c a r r i e d on a t r a d i t i o n a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d by commercial s a i l i n g v e s s e l s as i n 1858, t h e V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e r e p o r t e d : A HEAVY WAGER - We hear i t s t a t e d on t h e s t r e e t t h a t a heavy wager i s p e n d i n g as t o w h i c h v e s s e l - t h e b a r k L i v e Yankee o r t h e schooner Horace, w i l l a r r i v e f i r s t a t San F r a n c i s c o . H I Then, i n 1860, t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t announced: STEAMBOAT RACE - An e x c i t i n g r a c e between t h e steamers Beaver and J u l i a took p l a c e on t h e l a s t t r i p t o New W e s t m i n s t e r . Both v e s s e l s h a v i n g been r e c e n t l y r e p a i r e d and t h e i r machinery t h o r o u g h l y o v e r h a u l e d , t h e r a c e was a t e s t o f t h e i r speed. From t h e moment th e Beaver s i g h t e d t h e J u l i a o f f T r i a l I s l a n d , t h e Beaver ( a l t h o u g h t h e o l d e s t steamboat on t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t , and d r a w i n g t e n f e e t o f w a t e r and u n a b l e t o t a k e advantage o f t h e s h a l l o w s out o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e t i d e ) n ever a l l o w e d t h e J u l i a t o g a i n an i n c h on h e r , and a r r i v e d a t her d e s t i n a t i o n ( H o l b r o o k ' s Wharf, New W e s t m i n s t e r ) 35 m i n u t e s b e f o r e t h e J u l i a . We u n d e r s t a n d t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e money changed hands on t h e o c c a s i o n . H 2 S i m i l a r l y , i n 1867, t h e steamers F i d e l i t e r and D i a n a r a c e d from P o r t Townsend t o V i c t o r i a , t h e F i d e l i t e r c omplet- i n g t h e t r i p i n t h r e e hours and t h i r t y - e i g h t m inutes x*ith t h e Diana o n l y seven minutes b e h i n d . * * 3 G e n e r a l l y , such c o m p e t i - t i o n s were a n a t u r a l o c c u r r e n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d , whenever two v e s s e l s h e l d t h e same d e s t i n a t i o n . 70 SWIMMING The l a c k o f s u i t a b l e swimming a t t i r e , combined w i t h mid- V i c t o r i a n p r u r i e n c e , no doubt i n h i b i t e d t h e enjoyment o f a q u a t i c r e c r e a t i o n and c o m p e t i t i o n . I n 1868, t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t remarked: BATHING - We have h e a r d c o m p l a i n t s , a l s o , i n r e g a r d go t h e h a b i t o f b a t h i n g , by b o t h sexes a t u n r e a s o n a b l e h o u r s , i n o t h e r exposed p o r t i o n s o f t h e h a r b o u r , as w e l l as t h e gorge. We a r e p r e t t y s u r e a newspaper n o t i c e w i l l s u f f i c e t o amend t h e o b j e c t i o n a b l e p r a c t i c e . 1 1 4 Y e t , by 1873, t h e same paper s t a t e d : I t i s a s t o n i s h i n g t h a t a c i t y w i t h t h e p r e t e n s i o n s o f V i c t o r i a can n o t a f f o r d some accomodation f o r b a t h e r s . A few p l a n k s n a i l e d t o g e t h e r a t some c o n v e n i e n t p l a c e i n t h e h a r b o u r would answer t h e purp o s e . B a t h i n g and p a r t i c u l a r l y swimming s h o u l d be t a u g h t and encouraged. A sea p o r t town where young men a r e not e x p e r t swimmers i s an a n o m a l y . 1 1 5 However, t h i s s u p p o r t o f t h e a c t i v i t y d i d n o t condone immodest b e h a v i o u r , as t h i s t e r s e remark i n the paper o f 1876 i n d i c a t e s : Boys bathe i n t h e Arm on Sunday i n f u l l v i e w o f b o a t i n g p a r t i e s . B i r c h 'em.11*' N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e o c c a s i o n a l swimming c o n t e s t d i d o c c u r . One such e v e n t o c c u r r e d i n 1862, when a Frenchman b e a t a Kanaka by t e n f e e t i n a r a c e o v e r two m i l e s and, i n a n o t h e r e v e n t , t h e same man was a b l e t o s t a y i n t h e w a t e r l o n g e r t h a n h i s o p p o n e n t 1 1 I n 1869, a match r a c e f o r twenty d o l l a r s a s i d e was announced between Frank Campbell and W i l l i a m D o lby, t o come o f f a t t h e 118 Gorge i n V i c t o r i a . By 1875, a swimming e v e n t was i n c l u d e d as p a r t o f t h e Dominion Day c e l e b r a t i o n s a t Nanaimo and was won i n t h a t y e a r by James M c G r e g o r . 1 1 9 Swimming c o m p e t i t i o n s d i d n o t become a r e g u l a r e vent i n V i c t o r i a u n t i l i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e Queen's B i r t h d a y r e g a t t a o f 1 8 8 8 . 1 2 0 71 SUMMARY I n many c o a s t a l communities, an i n t e r e s t i n a q u a t i c s p o r t s d e v e l o p s as an o u t g r o w t h o f an economic dependency on the w a t e r . Such was n o t t h e case i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia. A l t h o u g h p a s s e n g e r s and goods were a l l t r a n s p o r t e d by s e a , t h e w h i t e s o c i a l mix o f g e n t r y , merchants, and m i n e r s was not p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e w a t e r . Thus, t h e h a n d l i n g o f w a t e r v e s s e l s was a l i e n t o most o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . I t i s t h e r e f o r e i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h e p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e o f t h e R o y a l Navy, w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y e n t i c e d many members o f t h e community t o t a k e up a q u a t i c s p o r t s . The e a r l y n a v a l r e g a t t a s were a major s o c i a l e v ent f o r t h e Colony o f Vancouver I s l a n d . S e r v i n g t h e d u a l purpose o f t r a i n i n g and e n t e r t a i n i n g t h e crews o f t h e f l e e t , t h e s e r e g a t t a s a l s o p r o v i d e d e x c i t e m e n t f o r t h e c o l o n i a l s . But t h e Navy d i d more t o i n f l u e n c e t h e community. Many o f t h e o f f i c e r s o f t h e f l e e t were a l s o l e a d i n g c i t i z e n s o f V i c t o r i a and, as t h e y d i d w i t h so many o f t h e contemporary s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , t h e y p r o v i d e d i n s p i r a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n t o a s s i s t t h e p a r t i c i p a - t i o n o f t h e c i v i l i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n a q u a t i c s p o r t s . I t was l a r g e l y t h r o u g h t h e i r endeavours t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t group o f V i c t o r i a n s embraced t h e l a b o r i o u s and demanding s p o r t o f r o w i n g . Once i n i t i a t e d , t h i s r o w i n g f r a t e r n i t y was f u r t h e r encouraged by t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e noted E a s t e r n C anadians, such as t h e crew w h i c h c r e a t e d so much e x c i t e m e n t w i t h i t s t r i u m p h i n P a r i s . S i m i l a r l y , i n s a i l i n g , t h e navy was t h e prominent i n f l u e n c e on t h e b e a u t i f u l West C o a s t . The r e g a t t a s i n t r o d u c e d t h e 72 c i v i l i a n s t o t h e g r a c e o f t h e s a i l s o f v a r i o u s c l a s s e s o f v e s s e l s and t h e o f f i c e r s u n d o u b t e d l y l e n t t h e i r e x p e r t i s e t o t h e community. I t i s p r o b a b l y a s a f e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t one s uch o f f i c e r , C a p t a i n N a g l e , who was r e c o g n i z e d f o r p r o m o t i n g r o w i n g , was a l s o t h e p e r s o n who owned t h e y a c h t K e l p i e , w i n n e r o f t h e Nanaimo Queen's Cup y a c h t i n g r a c e o f 1862. However, s a i l i n g v e s s e l s were e x p e n s i v e and few c o u l d a f f o r d them. Thus, i t was n o t u n t i l l a t e i n t h e 1880s, a f t e r t h e r a i l w a y had b r o u g h t a new p r o s p e r i t y t o t h e r e g i o n , t h a t s a i l i n g became f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e r e g i o n . I n t e r e s t i n c a n o e i n g was g e n e r a t e d by t h e I n d i a n s , whose c o l o u r f u l canoes were a welcome a d d i t i o n t o t h e f e s t i v i t i e s o f such major c e l e b r a t i o n s as t h e Queen's B i r t h d a y . Most r e g a t t a s h e l d i n New W e s t minster and V i c t o r i a on t h i s o c c a s i o n , i n c l u d e d I n d i a n canoe r a c e s , b u t had l i t t l e c o m p e t i t i o n f o r w h i t e s . However, t h e c i t i z e n s o f Nanaimo, accustomed t o t h e h a rd work i n t h e c o a l mines, to o k up t h e v i g o r o u s s p o r t as e a r l y as 1862. D e s p i t e t h e b e a u t i f u l c o a s t a l a r e a s o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, swimming was n o t p o p u l a r d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d . Undoubtedly, t h e s o c i a l i n h i b i t i o n s o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y were a major o b s t a c l e t o t h e development o f t h e s p o r t , b u t most l i k e l y , so t o o was t h e w a t e r . The w a t e r s o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h West not b e i n g n o t e d f o r t h e i r warmth, even i n summer. Canoeing 73 T a b l e I I A q u a t i c S p o r t s S a i l i n g 59-RN R e g a t t a 9 1 Swimming 1860 62-Nanaimo Q.B. f i r s t f o r m a l e v e n t f o r w h i t e s 1 - Q.B. a t V i c . & N.W.3'5 I n d i a n e v e n t s 65-N.W. Q.B. "TO",000 I n d i a n s 6 61- N.W. Q.B. 9 3 95 62- Nanaimo Queen *s Cup 62-Frenchman 117 69-$20 match 118 1870 7 6 - D u f f e r i n v i s i t 10 7 2 - L a c h a p e l l e b u i l d s 16' yawl 99 75-Nanaimo Dominion Day 119 79-Scud 100 1880 9 0 s - r e g u l a r i z e d s p o r t as d i v i s i o n o f r o w i n g c l u b s 87- Vancouver f i r s t r e g a t t a 1 0 8 - B u r r a r d C l u b 88- V i c t o r i a Q.B. - R o y c r o f t C u p 1 0 5 . 1 0 9 89- f i r s t Van, v s V i c . 9 2 - V i c t o r i a Y a c h t Clubl°7 1903-Vancouver Y a c h t C l u b H O 06-Royal Van. Y . C . 1 1 0 08-Royal V i c . Y.C. 8 8 - V i c t o r i a Q.B. 120 74 T a b l e I I A q u a t i c S p o r t s (Continued) ROWING 1860 59-RN R e g a t t a s - f i r s t news report-!- 4 - F i r s t c i t y r e g a t t a V i c t o r i a 2 ^ 60- U.S. b o a t s a t V i c t o r i a r e g a t t a 23 61- C o l l e g i a t e S c h o o l r a c e 16 62-'Grand R e g a t t a * a t V i c t o r i a - s a i l i n g , r o w i n g , c a n o e i n g 64- C o y l e * s g i g 3 7 3 5 65- Vancouver ( V i c t o r i a ) Rowing C l u b formed 67-Q.B. R e g a t t a a t V i c t o r i a draws 300 A m e r i c a n s 4 3 69- Tub r a c e a t V i c t o r i a r e g a t t a -New W e s t m i n s t e r c l u b formed 5*" 1870 70- 5,000 s p e c t a t o r s watch 10 s h i p s o f R N 2 0 -New W e s t m i n s t e r v s . B u r r a r d 5 7 . 53 72-Chmese r a c e a t V i c t o r i a 75- D u f f e r i n p r o v i d e s medals f o r V R C 6 3 76- H a s t i n g s M i l l s R e g a t t a 6 4 74 - C o t s f o r d w i n s $500 7 8 - M i c h a e l Law prominent t o 1 8 8 5 8 0 6 7 - P o r t Moody c l u b formed 75 - C o t s f o r d wins i n S e a t t l e 75 T a b l e I I A q u a t i c S p o r t s (Continued) ROWING (c o n t i n u e d ) 7 9 - C o t s f o r d l o s e s i n San F r a n c i s c o 7 7 - P a i n e champion o f B.C. t o 1 8 8 8 8 3 -New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s A n n i e F r a s e r dominant 1880 68 82- James Bay A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n f o r m e d 6 9 83- S l i d i n g s e a t s 84- Hanlan e x h i b i t i o n 7 9 86-Vancouver Rowing C l u b formed 90-Vancouver and B u r r a r d m e r g e 7 1 86 -VRC d e f e a t s S e a t t l e 76 CHAPTER V I BASEBALL B a s e b a l l , o r r o u n d e r s , was p r e d o m i n a n t l y a c h i l d r e n ' s game, p l a y e d by t h e west c o a s t s e t t l e r s as a pa s t i m e d u r i n g the e a r l y 1850s. W i t h t h e i n f l u x o f t h e m i n i n g community, i n t e r e s t i n t h e game r o s e so t h a t by 1862, i t was i n c l u d e d as p a r t o f t h e Queen's B i r t h d a y f e s t i v i t i e s a t New Wes t m i n s t e r . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , i n t e r e s t i n V i c t o r i a caused t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t t o w r i t e : BASE BALL - The f i r s t match o f t h e season o f t h i s game, was p l a y e d on Beacon H i l l on S a t u r d a y l a s t , c h i e f l y by Canadians. I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y an American game, b u t was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o Canada, and has been p r a c t i c e d t h e r e i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y f o r many y e a r s . I t i s somewhat a l l i e d i n i t s n a t u r e t o C r i c k e t , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n t h a t t h e r e a r e no w i c k e t s used, and i n s t e a d o f t h e b a l l b e i n g thrown on t h e ground, i t i s d i r e c t e d towards t h e b a t t e r , who s t r i k e s i t i n t h e a i r . The runs a r e made by t h e pe r s o n s t r i k - i n g t h e b a l l and r u n n i n g round a c i r c l e , t h e r e b e i n g s e v e r a l s t o p p i n g p l a c e s , each o f w h i c h c o u n t s . I f the b a t t e r s t r i k e s a t t h e b a l l and m i s s e s i t , he i s 'out', b u t he may l e t t h e b a l l p a s s him as o f t e n as he p l e a s e s w i t h o u t s t r i k i n g a t i t . Among t h o s e p r a c - t i c i n g on S a t u r d a y , t h e r e were v e r y few a d e p t s , and c o n s e q u e n t l y n o t so much i n t e r e s t e x c i t e d among spec- t a t o r s as would o t h e r w i s e have been t h e c a s e . To t h o s e engaged i n t h e game t h e r e i s always s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r e s t k e p t up t o keep them v i g i l a n t t o g e t an opponent o u t . No doubt t h e r e w i l l be many t r i a l s a t t h i s new s p o r t here on f u t u r e o c c a s i o n s . 2 A week l a t e r , two teams had been o r g a n i z e d , t h e F a s h i o n and Roebucks, who p l a y e d t o a 33-39 s c o r e i n f a v o u r o f t h e l a t t e r . The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t r e p o r t e d : The f i r s t match o f t h e season f t h e p r e v i o u s r e p o r t was o f a p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n } o f t h i s p o p u l a r American game came o f f y e s t e r d a y a t noon on Beacon H i l l . The p l a y e r s were a t b e s t r a t h e r ' r u s t y ' , b u t t h e work improved d u r i n g t h e game owing t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a f f o r d e d t o t h e l e s s s k i l l f u l by Mr. J.C. Keenan. 77 Base b a l l i s n o t an o r i g i n a l American game, b e i n g o n l y a s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n from t h e o l d E n g l i s h 1 r o u n d e r s 1 . 3 D u r i n g t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e s p o r t , b a s e b a l l p l a y e r s o f t e n had c r i c k e t e r s as opponents. I n one o f t h e f i r s t such games, t h e F a s h i o n c l u b won a keg o f l a g e r beer by d e f e a t i n g t h e " V i c t o r i a C r i c k e t e e r s " by a s c o r e o f 42-23. 4 However, t h e c r i c k e t e r s q u i c k l y caught on t o t h e game, a few days l a t e r d e f e a t i n g a group o f b a s e b a l l p l a y e r s 40-34 5 and p r o c e e d i n g t o w i n most o f t h e c o n t e s t s o f t h e e n s u i n g y e a r s . The s p o r t became a l i t t l e more s y s t e m a t i c i n B r i t i s h Columbia when t h e Olympic Base B a l l C l u b was formed i n V i c t o r i a , on Wednesday, September 12, 1866. The e x e c u t i v e c o n s i s t e d o f Mr. G i l l o n ( p r e s i d e n t ) ; Mr. E. McQuade ( s e c r e t a r y - t r e a s u r e r ) ; M e s s r s . T. F o w l e r , J . D a v i e s , and R.H. Adams, J r . ( d i r e c t o r s ) . Membership was l i m i t e d t o t h i r t y , w i t h t w e n t y - f o u r members s i g n e d a t t h e t i m e . The r u l e s o f t h e N a t i o n a l Base B a l l A s s o c i a t i o n o f New York were a d o p t e d , 6 b u t t h e i n c r e a s e d o r g a n i z a t i o n d i d not appear t o enhance t h e prowess o f t h e p l a y e r s . A month a f t e r t h e c l u b was formed, t h e y were 7 b e a t e n 29-17 by t h e V i c t o r i a C r i c k e t C l u b and, i n a l a t e r p c o n t e s t , were d e f e a t e d by t h i r t y r u n s . However, w i t h t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a second team i n V i c t o r i a , t h e C i t y Base B a l l C l u b , t h e Olympics were a b l e t o s c o r e an easy v i c t o r y t h a t y e a r . In an e f f o r t t o improve t h e q u a l i t y o f p l a y , t h e ' O l y m p i c s 1 began p r a c t i c i n g on S a t u r d a y a f t e r n o o n s i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1 8 6 7 . 1 0 Much improvement may n o t have been e v i d e n t t h a t y e a r as t h e team was a g a i n e a s i l y d e f e a t e d by t h e c r i c k e t e r s i n t h e f a l l . 1 - ' - 78 However, d u r i n g t h e n e x t few y e a r s , t h e team was a b l e t o w i n i t s games a g a i n s t o t h e r b a s e b a l l teams. I n 1869, t h e y s c o r e d 81 runs t o 45 ( a l s o r e p o r t e d as 81 t o 3 4 ) , t o d e f e a t t h e C o l l e g i a t e S c h o o l , w h i c h had r e c e n t l y t a k e n up t h e s p o r t . P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e game were: O l y m p i c s - A.F. K e y s e r , R. Lowenberg, Joseph D a v i e s , E.A. McQuade, C. Lombard, S. Dorman, Joshua D a v i e s , F r e d M o r r i s o n , and W.G. M o r r i s o n ; C o l l e g i a t e s - H. Bustow, E. N a g l e , W. T o l m i e , M c A d a i r , A. W r i g h t , C. P e a r s e , J . T o l m i e , D. D a v i e s , and R. Johns; Umpire - E.V. Thome; S c o r e r s - W.B. B u e i l and George Cohen. * Around t h i s t i m e , American i n f l u e n c e was p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g t o promote t h e game. The Anglo-American B a s e b a l l C l u b had met f o r a p r a c t i c e a t two o ' c l o c k on a Wednesday, i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1 8 6 7 1 3 and, a t l e a s t as e a r l y as t h a t y e a r , V i c t o r i a ' s y o u t h were engaged i n c o m p e t i t i v e p l a y . An i n t e r s c h o o l match, i n t h e B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n o f ' r o u n d e r s ' , saw t h e boys o f t h e C o l l e g i a t e S c h o o l d e f e a t S t . L o u i s C o l l e g e by e i g h t r u n s , w i t h one i n n i n g t o space, on Beacon H i l l . 1 4 L a t e r t h a t y e a r , t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t c a r r i e d t h e f o l l o w i n g remark, e m p h a s i z i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e m i n e r s and merchants from s o u t h o f t h e b o r d e r . An e n t h u s i a s t i c base b a l l p l a y e r d e c l a r e s t h a t our ' n a t i o n a l game' Q?] was known i n B i b l e t i m e s ; i n p r o o f o f w h i c h he r e f e r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n i n t h e p a r a b l e o f t h e l e p e r - 'But where a r e t h e n i n e ' ? 1 5 I n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , t h e V i c t o r i a C l u b ( p r o b a b l y a com- b i n e d team) d e f e a t e d members o f t h e crew from t h e U.S. f r i g a t e P e n s a c o l a . 1 6 Then, i n 1869, a few weeks a f t e r i t s v i c t o r y o v e r t h e C o l l e g i a t e S c h o o l , t h e O l y m p i c s p l a y e d a v i s i t i n g A merican team as p a r t o f t h e Queen's B i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s a t 79 Beacon H i l l . The V i c t o r i a O l y m p i c s , "wearing w h i t e f l a n n e l s h i r t s and p a n t s and w h i t e c a p s , w i t h b l u e t r i m m i n g s , and t h e i n i t i a l l e t t e r 'O' on t h e b r e a s t " , 1 7 were d e f e a t e d by a s c o r e o f 45-23, by t h e R a i n i e r C l u b o f Olympia, Washington, who wore w h i t e s h i r t s and dark p a n t s . 18 A new c l u b , t h e Dominion, was formed i n 1869 and, i n i t s f i r s t game i n m i d - J u l y , i t was d e f e a t e d 71-40, by t h e 19 O l y m p i c s . Two o t h e r c l u b s appeared i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g , t h e J u v e n i l e s d e f e a t i n g t h e Union C l u b , 97-51 and p l a y i n g a g a i n 21 i n t h e f a l l , on t h e P r i n c e o f Wales' Day. By 1872, t h e S t a r C l u b had a l s o been formed, b e a t i n g t h e Union C l u b on a F r i d a y 22 a f t e r n o o n a t t h e end o f March. Meanwhile, t h e Dominion C l u b had a p p a r e n t l y become a prominent b a s e b a l l team i n B r i t i s h C o l umbia, l o s i n g by o n l y one r u n t o t h e t o u r i n g San F r a n c i s c o E a g l e s , who were t h e n t r e a t e d t o a d i n n e r a t t h e Dominions' 23 expense. That summer, t h e E a g l e s Mr. F r a s e r h e l p e d r e f i n e l o c a l p l a y by p r o v i d i n g t h e Olympic C l u b w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n i n th e new r u l e s . However, such h e l p does n o t appear t o have rubbed o f f on t h e V i c t o r i a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e team, who were d e f e a t e d 58-28, by t h e Olympia C l u b o f Washington, as p a r t o f ? 5 t h e American f o u r t h o f J u l y c e l e b r a t i o n s . I n a r e t u r n c o n t e s t , a s i m i l a r s c o r e o f 57-32 was produced i n a game 2 6 p l a y e d a t V i c t o r i a . By 1873, c l u b p r a c t i c e s were b e i n g h e l d e v e r y e v e n i n g i n 27 V i c t o r i a , a t t h e c o r n e r o f Y a t e s and Quadra S t r e e t s . Undoubt- e d l y , t h e s e r e g u l a r p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s enhanced t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n so t h a t w i t h i n a few y e a r s , a t l e a s t two new 80 c l u b s were formed. I n 1877, t h e Independent Base B a l l Club 28 was announced and t h e Maple L e a f C l u b was a l s o formed, t h e 29 l a t t e r d e f e a t i n g t h e V i c t o r i a C l u b , 56-43. Two y e a r s l a t e r , t h e s e t h r e e teams were competing ' r o u n d - r o b i n ' s t y l e , each 30 31 32 team w i n n i n g one o f a s e r i e s o f w e e k l y games i n A p r i l . ' ' I n 1882, t h e Independents and re-named Ma y f l o w e r s were s t i l l 3 3 competing ( w i t h a s c o r e o f 14-13 i n f a v o u r o f t h e f o r m e r ) , J b u t t h e V i c t o r i a C l u b appears t o have become more concerned w i t h i n t e r - c i t y p l a y . The c o n t i n u i n g c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h American c i t i e s saw t h e S e a t t l e C l u b j o u r n e y t o V i c t o r i a as p a r t o f t h e Queen's B i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s o f 1877. C o n s i d e r a b l e b e t t i n g was made on the game, i n w h i c h V i c t o r i a l o s t , 1 5 - 7 , 3 4 but a r e t u r n match 35 was a r r a n g e d i n S e a t t l e . Thus, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e c i t y ' s R i f l e V o l u n t e e r s , who were a l s o t r a v e l l i n g t o S e a t t l e t o t a k e p a r t i n t h e J u l y 4 c e l e b r a t i o n s , t h e C i t y C l u b j o u r n e y e d s o u t h f o r a second d e f e a t . However, i n t h e n e x t y e a r , V i c t o r i a was a b l e t o r e p r e s e n t i t s e l f b e t t e r . Under t h e team name, A m i t y , t h e V i c t o r i a C l u b p l a y e d t h e 37 v i s i t i n g S e a t t l e A l k i C l u b t o a 27 a l l draw and l a t e r , d u r i n g 3 p t h e S e a t t l e c e l e b r a t i o n s , was a b l e t o w i n 26-19. ° I n l a t e r c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h S e a t t l e , V i c t o r i a was not a b l e t o do as w e l l , 39 l o s i n g i n t h a t c i t y i n 1882 and t h e n , b e i n g b e a t e n by t h e S e a t t l e U n i v e r s i t y N i n e , 27-24, i n t h e Queen's B i r t h d a y 40 C e l e b r a t i o n s o f 1883. I n t h e n e x t two y e a r s , t h e Amity chose o t h e r American c o m p e t i t i o n , d e f e a t i n g t h e Puget Sound B a s e b a l l C l u b o f P o r t Townsend, 1 7 - 1 6 , 4 1 and t h e P o r t l a n d C l u b , 42 16-12. I t was n o t u n t i l t h e m i d - e i g h t i e s , t h a t t h e V i c t o r i a 81 C l u b was a b l e t o f i n d r e a s o n a b l e c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h o t h e r teams w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e . E lsewhere on t h e I s l a n d , t h e town o f W e l l i n g t o n had two c l u b s i n 1875; t h e B i r d c a t c h e r Club ( p o s s i b l y named a f t e r a l o c a l r a c e h o r s e ) , w i t h J . Brennan as c a p t a i n , and t h e Q u i c k - s t e p C l u b , c a p t a i n e d by J . B e l l . 4 3 I n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , the W e l l i n g t o n Q u i c k s t e p s d e f e a t e d a Nanaimo c l u b by a s c o r e o f 44 16 t o 9, but no o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t c o m p e t i t i o n s seem t o have t a k e n p l a c e . Meanwhile, i n New W e s t m i n s t e r , two c l u b s competed i n e a r l y 1872. The K i - h i e s d e f e a t e d t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r C l u b , 81-40, i n t h e i r f i r s t m e e t i n g ; 4 5 t h e n l o s t by 23 r u n s a week l a t e r ; 4 6 and by t h e f o l l o w i n g month were r e l a t i v e l y even, K i - h i e s s c o r - i n g 22 t o New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s 1 9 . 4 7 Then, i n 1876, the R o y a l C i t y Base B a l l C l u b was formed t o p l a y a g a i n s t t h e men o f t h e 48 army camp, b u t no r e g u l a r c o m p e t i t i o n seems t o have come o f i t . The boys o f t h e New W e s tminster p u b l i c s c h o o l formed t h e A r i t a C l u b , i n 1 8 8 3 , " and l a t e r t h a t y e a r , t h e town g a i n e d a more s t a b l e b a s e b a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e A l p h a C l u b . The membership was l i s t e d a s : P e t e r Grant ( p r e s i d e n t ) , D.S. C u r t i s ( v i c e - p r e s i d e n t ) , T.R. P e a r s o n ( s e c r e t a r y W.J. C o r b e t t , W.A. G r e a v e s , O. W i l k i e , C h r i s . Maker, W i l l i a m Codd, 50 and Robert Wintements. i n i t s f i r s t game, t h e c l u b was 51 b e a t e n , 45-27, by t h e A m ity i n V i c t o r i a . B a s e b a l l had become p o p u l a r i n Kamloops by 1885. I n May o f t h a t y e a r , a t l e a s t two c l u b s had been formed, w i t h t h e 52 K n i c k e r b o c k e r C l u b d e f e a t i n g t h e Kamloops B l u e s . American 82 r a i l w a y w o r kers were l e a d i n g promoters o f t h e game i n t h e I n t e r i o r , c o m p r i s i n g a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e i n l a n d teams. Thus, i n 1884, t h e town o f Kamloops was h o s t t o t h e f i r s t w e l l - r e p r e s e n t e d tournament i n t h e p r o v i n c e , i n v o l v i n g teams from 53 V i c t o r i a , Vancouver, New W e s t m i n s t e r , Donald, and Kamloops. By t h i s t i m e , t h e V i c t o r i a A m i ty had become p r o f e s s i o n a l and were p l a y i n g r e g u l a r c h a l l e n g e matches w i t h U n i t e d S t a t e s and B r i t i s h Columbia teams. I n 1889, Vancouver a l s o formed a p r o f e s s i o n a l team, e n t i c i n g t o p p l a y e r s from E a s t e r n Canada 54 w i t h o f f e r s o f w e l l p a i d j o b s . T h i s p r o m o t i o n o f t h e p r o - f e s s i o n a l game r a i s e d t h e i r e o f t h e e d i t o r o f t h e D a i l y C o l o n i s t , who c h a s t i s e d t h a t , I n a l m o s t e v e r y c i t y o f t h e e a s t , t h e p u b l i c t a k e s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r e s t i n amateur b a s e b a l l t o o f f e r pennants o r t r o p h i e s f o r season c o m p e t i t i o n among l o c a l c l u b s . Why don't t h e y here? I t i s n o t t o o l a t e y e t . 5 5 SUMMARY D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d under d i s c u s s i o n , V i c t o r i a was t h e c e n t r e o f b a s e b a l l i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia. Other s m a l l e r towns had att e m p t e d t o form c l u b s , b u t none o f t h e s e p r o s p e r e d t o r e g u l a r c o m p e t i t i o n . W i t h i n V i c t o r i a , i t appears t h a t v a r i o u s c l u b s p l a y e d from t i m e t o t i m e t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d , b u t t h e q u a n t i t y o f good c a l i b r e p l a y e r s was l i m i t e d . Thus, c i t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e teams, formed f o r s p e c i a l c o m p e t i t i o n d u r i n g such e v e n t s as t h e Queen's B i r t h d a y o r f o u r t h o f J u l y , were u n d o u b t e d l y c o m p o s i t e s o f t h e b e s t l o c a l t a l e n t . These p l a y e r s performed on b e h a l f o f t h e V i c t o r i a Base B a l l C l u b , under t h e e a r l y nickname o f 83 Olympics and l a t e r , t h e 'Amity'. The p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e 'Amity' group combined w i t h t h e r i v a l r y between V i c t o r i a and American c i t i e s , e v e n t u a l l y l e d t h e p l a y e r s t o t u r n p r o f e s s i o n a l , j o i n - i n g many o f t h e c l u b s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a w h i c h s i m i l a r l y , s t r o v e t o c a p i t a l i z e on t h e i r t a l e n t . 84 T a b l e I I I B a s e b a l l 1850's - 'ro u n d e r s ' p l a y e d as a pa s t i m e 62- New W e s t m i n s t e r Queen's B i r t h d a y 1 63- V i c t o r i a F a s h i o n (33) - Roebucks ( 3 9 ) 3 66- Olympic Base B a l l C l u b formed w i t h N.Y.B.B.C. r u l e s O l y mpics (17) - V i c t o r i a C r i c k e t C l u b ( 2 9 ) 7 Olympics l o s e t o V.C.C. by 30 r u n s 8 C i t y Base B a l l C l u b formed and l o s e s t o O l y m p i c s 9 67- S t . L o u i s C o l l e g e l o s e s t o C o l l e g i a t e S c h o o l by 8 r u n s 1 4 A n g l o - A m e r i c a n Base B a l l C l u b p r a c t i c i n g 1 ^ 68- V i c t o r i a C l u b (71) - U.S.A. ' P e n s a c o l a ' ( 4 6 ) 1 6 69- Olympic C l u b (81) - C o l l e g i a t e S c h o o l (45) ( 3 4 ? ) 1 2 Olympics (23) - R a i n i e r C l u b , Washington ( 4 5 ) 1 7 Olympics (71) - New Dominion C l u b ( 4 0 ) 1 9 7 0 - J u v e n i l e s (97) - Union C l u b ( 5 1 ) 2 0 72-Union C l u b d e f e a t e d by New S t a r Club22 Dominion C l u b l o s e s t o S.F. E a g l e s by one r u n 2 3 V i c t o r i a team (28) a t Olympia, Washington (58)25 V i c t o r i a (32) - Olympia (57) i n r e t u r n match26 K i - h i e s (81) - New We s t m i n s t e r ( 4 0 ) 4 5 K i - h i e s l o s e by 23 t o New W e s t m i n s t e r 4 6 K i - h i e s (22) - New We s t m i n s t e r (19)47 75- B i r d c a t c h e r and Q u i c k s t e p s i n W e l l i n g t o n 4 3 76- Q u i c k s t e p s (16) - Nanaimo ( 9 ) 4 4 R o y a l C i t y C l u b formed i n New W e s t m i n s t e r 4 8 77- Independent C l u b f o r m e d 2 8 Maple L e a f s (56) - V i c t o r i a C l u b ( 4 3 ) 2 9 S e a t t l e Club (15) a t V i c t o r i a (7)34 V i c t o r i a l o s e s i n S e a t t l e 3 5 78- V i c t o r i a A m i t y (27) - S e a t t l e A l k i ( 2 7 ) 3 7 - V i c t o r i a A m i ty (26) - S e a t t l e A l k i ( 1 9 ) 3 8 79- Independents (19) - V i c t o r i a C l u b ( 1 6 ) 3 0 Maple L e a f s (33) - Independents ( 1 6 ) 3 1 V i c t o r i a C l u b (31) - Maple L e a f s ( 2 1 ) 3 2 85 T a b l e TV (Continued) B a s e b a l l 1882 - Independents (14) - M a y f l o w e r s ( 1 3 ) 3 3 V i c t o r i a l o s e s i n S e a t t l e 3 4 83- S e a t t l e U n i v e r s i t y N ine (27) - V i c t o r i a ( 2 4 ) 4 0 A r i t a C l u b formed by New Westminster s c h o o l b o y s 4 9 A l p h a C l u b formed i n New W e s t m i n s t e r 5 0 A l p h a (27) a t V i c t o r i a Amity (45) 5 1 84- V i c t o r i a Amity (17) - Puget Sound, P o r t Townsend, (16) 85- V i c t o r i a Amity (16) - P o r t l a n d ( 1 2 ) 4 2 K n i c k e r b o c k e r s (19) - Kamloops B l u e s ( l l ) 5 2 88-Kamloops T o u r n a m e n t 5 3 86 CHAPTER V I I CRICKET C r i c k e t was a p p a r e n t l y f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h West i n 1849, when C a p t a i n W. Colquhon G r a n t a r r i v e d a t F o r t V i c t o r i a front E n g l a n d . He br o u g h t w i t h him a f u l l s e t o f equipment and o f f e r e d h i s s e r v i c e s as teacher.^" A few y e a r s l a t e r , t h e V i c t o r i a P i o n e e r C r i c k e t C l u b was formed, becoming t h e f i r s t s p o r t s o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e r e g i o n . C o m p e t i t i o n s between t h e R o y a l Navy and t h e c o l o n i s t s were common, t h e e a r l i e s t newspaper r e f e r e n c e b e i n g i n 1858, when t h e V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e V i c t o r i a C l u b and v a n q u i s h e d t h e 3 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f H.B.M. S a t e l l i t e , by a s c o r e o f 86-56. I n a r e t u r n match, V i c t o r i a won a g a i n , 107-101, and was t o arr a n g e matches w i t h a n o t h e r o f H.B.M. v e s s e l s , t h e P l u m p e r . 4 S i m i l a r l y , t h e n e x t y e a r , t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t r e p o r t e d : A r e t u r n match between t h e F l e e t and V i c t o r i a P i o n e e r C r i c k e t C l u b s was p l a y e d a t Colwood y e s t e r d a y . I t r e s u l t e d i n f a v o u r o f t h e VPC C l u b , w i t h 17 run s and one i n n i n g s t o s p a r e . Over t h e y e a r s , t h e f l e e t d i d n ot do w e l l a g a i n s t t h e t o w n s f o l k . I n 1860, t h e o f f i c e r s from E s q u i m a l t were b e a t e n by t h e V i c t o r i a C r i c k e t C l u b w i t h e a s e . 6 D u r i n g t h e n e x t season, t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t p r i n t e d a d e t a i l e d s c o r e c a r d on th e f r o n t page t o announce t h e town's 97-51 v i c t o r y o v e r t h e Nav y . 7 I n 1863, t h e band o f H.M.S. Topaze p r o v i d e d music w h i l e t h e s h i p ' s team p l a y e d a V i c t o r i a e l e v e n c o n s i s t i n g o f Me s s r s . W.A.G. Young; W a l l a c e ; C a p t a i n L u a r d ; R.E. Edwards; Wakeman; K u l p e j R i c h a r d o n ; Good; P e n f o l d ; and T i g h e . 8 I n 87 a r e t u r n match V i c t o r i a b e at t h e Topaze by 72 runs as p a r t o f a c o m p e t i t i o n w h i c h a l s o i n v o l v e d teams from H.M.S. S u t l e j and New W e s t m i n s t e r . However, r e s u l t s o f t h e s e matches were no t p r i n t e d i n the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t as the paper e x p l a i n e d , "We r e g r e t t h a t owing t o t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e m a i l steamer we O A C A Q have n o t space f o r t h e s c o r e s " . (see a l s o * D r * ° ) Other matches between V i c t o r i a and t h e f l e e t d u r i n g t h e 1860s i n c l u d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1863 - V i c t o r i a won w i t h t h e h e l p o f o u t s t a n d i n g p l a y e r s such as H a w l e t t , Hemsley, and Y a r d s l e y . 1 0 1866 - F l e e t (102) - V i c t o r i a (101) on P e a t t ' s ground a t Colwood. The c i t y c l u b t r a v e l l e d t o the game by o m n i b u s . 1 1 12 1867 - V i c t o r i a won t h e f i r s t match by seven but i n a r e t u r n match, t h e f l e e t won. The band from H.M.S. M a l a c c a 1 3 and s e v e r a l ' f a i r l a d i e s ' were i n a t t e n d a n c e . I n a t h i r d match, the:' f l e e t a g a i n w o n . 1 4 1868 - V i c t o r i a n s won two games, 111-108 ° and 103-59. The f l e e t n o t o n l y p l a y e d a g a i n s t t h e t o w n s f o l k , b u t competed amongst i t s e l f . The a r r i v a l o f new s h i p s i n p o r t would e v e n t u a l l y l e a d t o a match, o r sometimes a s h i p ' s o f f i c e r s would p l a y a g a i n s t i t s o r d i n a r y hands, as i n t h e f i r s t match o f t h e 1867 season a t V i c t o r i a , when t h e o f f i c e r s 1 7 o f H.M.S. M a l a c c a p l a y e d a g a i n s t t h e s h i p ' s company. A' The Navy made a f u r t h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o c r i c k e t i n t h e a r e a when, i n 1871, i t l e v e l l e d and d r a i n e d l a n d owned by t h e Puget 18 Sound Company, and p r e p a r e d t h e ground f o r p l a y . Once a g a i n , f o l l o w i n g t h e i n i t i a t i v e and en t h u s i a s m o f th e Navy, t h e c o l o n i s t s o f V i c t o r i a d e v e l o p e d a keen i n t e r e s t 88 i n c r i c k e t . I n 1859, "some r a r e s p o r t " 1 9 was a n t i c i p a t e d i n a f r i e n d l y i n t r a - c l u b match and, by 1861, s p e c t a t o r i n t e r e s t and o r g a n i z a t i o n was s u f f i c i e n t t o n e c e s s i t a t e t h e s e r v i n g o f 20 r e f r e s h m e n t s a t t h e c r i c k e t grounds. In t h e f a l l o f 1862, a group o f new a r r i v a l s b o l s t e r e d t h e ra n k s o f t h e V i c t o r i a C l u b . I n a s e r i e s o f S a t u r d a y a f t e r n o o n matches, t h e newcomers, t h o s e who had been i n V i c t o r i a l e s s t h a n t h r e e months, d e f e a t e d t h e V i c t o r i a C l u b w i t h s c o r e s o f 1 1 9 - 1 1 8 , 2 1 1 6 1 - 1 5 5 , 2 2 and 1 3 2 - 1 3 0 . 2 3 Weekly matches c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h o u t O c t o b e r t h a t y e a r , w i t h n o v e l e f f o r t s t o c r e a t e d i f f e r e n t , teams. One method saw teams made up a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a l p h a b e t and, i n t h a t game, 24 th e l a s t h a l f o f t h e a l p h a b e t won, 154-152. S i m i l a r l y , r e c e n t emmigrants who had a r r i v e d on bo a r d t h e Tynemouth were 25 e a s i l y b e a t e n by a V i c t o r i a e l e v e n . A week l a t e r , a 'scrub match' was p l a y e d ° and, on t h e f o l l o w i n g weekend, 'England' 27 d e f e a t e d t h e ' C o l o n i e s ' by a s c o r e o f 95-89. A p a r t i c u l a r l y n o v e l match was a c h a l l e n g e i n w h i c h J.H. Howard o f f e r e d one thousand d o l l a r s f o r c o m p e t i t i o n between h i m s e l f ( w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f two f i e l d e r s , a b a t , and e l e v e n w i c k e t s ) and 2 8 C a p t a i n L a y t o n ' s E l e v e n , who were t o use o n l y b r o o m s t i c k s . The c h a l l e n g e was a c c e p t e d a week l a t e r , b u t t h e s t a k e s were 29 reduced t o s i m p l y a champagne supper. The a c t i v i t y o f l a t e 1862 caused c o n s i d e r a b l e a n t i c i p a t i o n o f a busy season i n t h e n e x t y e a r . Promoters o f t h e game l o o k e d f o r w a r d t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a r e g u l a r team t o r e p l a c e t h e haphazard r o s t e r o f p r e v i o u s s e a s o n s . Thus, t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t wrote i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1863: 89 The f i r s t c r i c k e t match o f t h e season w i l l be p l a y e d tomorrow a t Beacon H i l l . L o v e r s o f t h i s our d i s t i n c - t i v e n a t i o n a l s p o r t a r e r e q u e s t e d t o a t t e n d a s , a f t e r t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f the game, a meeting w i t h a v i e w t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a permanent C r i c k e t C l u b w i l l be h e l d upon the ground. D e t a i l s w i l l a f t e r w a r d s be d i s c u s s e d a t t h e John B u l l H o t e l , Government S t r e e t . 3 0 A week l a t e r , a second match was p l a y e d between t h e o l d and new r e s i d e n t s . A Mr. W a l l a c e was a p a r t i c u l a r l y o u t - s t a n d i n g batsman f o r the o l d s t e r s and, a l o n g w i t h o t h e r p rominent members (F. H a w l e t t , C. Weaver, and A. H a n s l e y ) , s c o r e d 218 runs t o 105 a g a i n s t t h e newcomers, who were l e d by 31 J . Arnoup. I n t h e n e x t match, t h e c l u b s e x p e c t a t i o n s o f f o r m i n g a permanent team were proven premature when an i n s u f f - i c i e n t number o f p l a y e r s t u r n e d up t o p l a y b e f o r e t h e l a r g e crowd g a t h e r e d on Beacon H i l l . The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t remarked, We a r e s u r p r i s e d t h a t a g r e a t e r number o f t h e young men o f t h e c i t y do n o t j o i n i n t h i s manly and n o b l e r e c r e a t i o n . We a r e s o r r y t o see t h a t t h e f u l l number r e q u i r e d on each s i d e c o u l d not be mustered on t h e g r o u n d . 3 2 The e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e i n c o n g r u e n c e between th e a c t i v i t y i n t h e f a l l o f 1862 and t h a t o f t h e s p r i n g o f 1863 p r o b a b l y l i e s i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h o s e new a r r i v a l s . Most l i k e l y t h e y were m i n e r s , w i n t e r i n g i n V i c t o r i a , b u t l e a v i n g f o r t h e g o l d f i e l d s i n e a r l y s p r i n g . I n l a t e October o f 1863, a c h a l l e n g e 33 was a c c e p t e d t o match C a r i b o o vs non-Cariboo p l a y e r s . The "hardy m i n e r s " won e a s i l y , 83-80, w i t h 10 w i c k e t s t o s p a r e . 3 4 By t h e f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g , i n 1864, V i c t o r i a was a b l e t o muster a more r e g u l a r team under t h e o f f i c i a l t i t l e o f t h e (United) V i c t o r i a C r i c k e t C l u b . 3 5 That f a l l , V i c t o r i a s e n t i t s team t o p l a y a g a i n s t t h e Nanaimo C l u b , a g e n e r a l h o l i d a y b e i n g g i v e n f o r t h e o c c a s i o n t o a l l t h e employees o f t h e c o a l 90 companies i n t h a t town.- 3 0 V i c t o r i a won t h a t game 137-135. When t h e C a r i b o o i t e s r e t u r n e d t o V i c t o r i a f o r t h e w i n t e r , t h e y u n d o u b t e d l y found a s t r o n g e r match, b u t s t i l l were a b l e t o b e a t V i c t o r i a , 6 4 - 6 3 . 3 8 Meanwhile, New We s t m i n s t e r had had a c r i c k e t c l u b s i n c e 1860. The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t announced i t s f o r m a t i o n i n A p r i l : CRICKET CLUB - We hear from W. J e f f r a y , E s q . , o f J e f f r a y and Co's E x p r e s s , t h a t t h e W e s t m i n s t e r f o l k have e s t a b l i s h e d a C r i c k e t C l u b . The C r i c k e t ground i s on McLean's Farm, P i t t - R i v e r . 3 9 Mather and McDonald have s t a t e d t h a t t h e P i o n e e r C r i c k e t C l u b 40 was formed i n e a r l y 1861, b u t t h e f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t from t h e B r i t i s h Columbian would seem t o v e r i f y t h a t i t was r e a l l y t h e same c l u b w h i c h had been formed a y e a r e a r l i e r . The f i r s t monthly m e e t i n g o f t h e New We s t m i n s t e r C r i c k e t C l u b f o r t h e y e a r 1861, took p l a c e on Monday 4 t h March, i n t h e P i o n e e r T h e a t r e . 4 1 The o f f i c e r s o f t h e c l u b a t t h a t t ime were: C L . Wylde, c h a i r - man; C. Weaver, v i c e - c h a i r m a n ; J.T. S c o t t , t r e a s u r e r ; and R. D i c k i n s o n , s e c r e t a r y . A c c o r d i n g t o Mather and McDonald, on F e b r u a r y 23, t h e grounds ( s i t u a t e d on t h e p r e s e n t s i d e o f Woodland's S c h o o l , e a s t o f Mc B r i d e B o u l e v a r d ) were p r e p a r e d by a g r e a t " c l e a r i n g bee", i n v o l v i n g 100 E n g i n e e r s , t h e i r band, and a s i m i l a r number o f c i t i z e n s . S u b s c r i p t i o n s were c o l l e c t e d t o a sum o f f i v e hundred and f i f t y d o l l a r s , i n c l u d i n g f i f t y d o l l a r s donated by Governor Douglas. Mather and McDonald c o n t i n u e t o s t a t e t h a t , 91 The f i r s t c r i c k e t ground was o n l y 50 by 30 y a r d s b u t t h e Government gave a g r a n t o f 60, and a C h i n e s e , Koo-Loo, was h i r e d t o c l e a r and grade an a r e a 462 by 100. The n e x t y e a r , t h e c hain-gang r o l l e d t h e ground. 2 I n t h e s p r i n g o f 1862, a match was announced between th e s i n g l e and m a r r i e d members o f t h e R o y a l E n g i n e e r s . The B r i t i s h Columbian too k t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o c h a s t i s e the New W e s t m i n s t e r C l u b f o r i t s i n a c t i v i t y . 4 3 A y e a r l a t e r , t h e R o y a l E n g i n e e r s d e f e a t e d t h e town d u r i n g t h e Queen's B i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s 4 4 b u t , i n a r e t u r n match, were d e f e a t e d by t h e 45 New W e s t m i n s t e r P i o n e e r C r i c k e t C l u b . In June o f 1863, " e l e v e n o f t h e Nev; W e s t m i n s t e r champions o f t h e w i l l o w " 4 6 s a i l e d t o V i c t o r i a , f o r t h e f i r s t i n t e r - c o l o n i a l c r i c k e t match, w h i c h V i c t o r i a won by t h i r t y - t h r e e r u n s . In r e f e r e n c e t o t h e match, th e B r i t i s h Columbian commented t h a t t h e New W e s tminster team "do n o t e n t e r t a i n a v e r y h i g h o p i n i o n o f V i c t o r i a n h o s p i t a l i t y , and p r o m i s e t o show a d i f f e r e n t example s h o u l d a f i t t i n g o p p o r t u n i t y o f f e r " . 4 7 The i n t e r - c o l o n i a l match o f 1865 saw t h e V i c t o r i a c l u b t r a v e l t o New W e s t m i n s t e r aboard th e Hudson Bay Company steamer S i r James Douglas. D r e s s e d i n t h e i r b l a c k and y e l l o w c o l o u r s , t h e 4 R V i c t o r i a n s were a g a i n t h e w i n n e r s , by 59 r u n s . ° I n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , the c o m p e t i t i o n was h e l d i n V i c t o r i a i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a r i f l e match and a g a i n , V i c t o r i a won, 1 3 3 - 8 1 . 4 9 D u r i n g t h e m i d - s i x t i e s , t h e two c l u b s had o t h e r l o c a l c o m p e t i t o r s . I n 1865, New W e s tminster had s u c c e s s a g a i n s t a N a v a l E l e v e n 5 0 and t h e crew o f H.M.S. S u t l e j . 5 1 Then, i n 1866, t h e y d e f e a t e d a C i v i l S e r v i c e t e a m 5 2 and, on two o c c a s i o n s , b e a t a combined team from th e R o y a l E n g i n e e r s camp and H.M.s. Sparrowhawk. Meanwhile, i n V i c t o r i a , t h e V o l u n t e e r R i f l e s c h a l l e n g e d t h e townsmen i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1865, but t h e V i c t o r i a C r i c k e t C l u b won e a s i l y . 5 4 L a t e r t h a t y e a r , a n o t h e r c l u b was formed - t h e C i t y E l e v e n , w i t h Mr. W.R. Gibbons as h o n o r a r y 5 5 s e c r e t a r y . W i t h i n s i x weeks o f i t s f o r m a t i o n , t h i s new c l u b b e a t t h e V i c t o r i a C r i c k e t C l u b , 85-84, w i t h 10 w i c k e t s t o g o . 5 6 I n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , t h e V i c t o r i a C l u b endeavoured t o improve i t s p l a y , a d v e r t i s i n g i t s p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s on Wednesday 57 and S a t u r d a y a f t e r n o o n s , a t t h r e e o ' c l o c k on Beacon H i l l . Towards t h e end o f t h e decade, th e c l u b s were more s t a b l e and b e t t e r o r g a n i z e d . New W e s t m i n s t e r opened i t s 1868 season w i t h a match between ' B a c h e l o r s ' and ' B e n e d i c t s ' . L a t e r i n t h e summer, t h e y t r a v e l l e d t o E s q u i m a l t , where t h e y s u f f e r e d a 59 l o s s t o t h e F l e e t on Thursday, J u l y 31. The n e x t day, t h e Hudson Bay Company's steamer, t h e O t t e r , d e l a y e d i t s s c h e d u l e d s a i l i n g t o New W e s t m i n s t e r , a l l o w i n g t h e ' M a i n l a n d e r s ' t o p l a y a g a i n s t V i c t o r i a . A g a i n , t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r s i d e l o s t , 6 0 b u t t h e i r weekend t r i a l s were n o t o v e r . On t h e f o l l o w i n g Mon- day, t h e F l e e t team t r a v e l l e d t o New W e s t m i n s t e r t o win an easy v i c t o r y . 6 1 That f a l l , t h e V i c t o r i a n s p l a y e d more s i n g l e s v e r s u s m a r r i e d s m a t c h e s 6 2 and spent t h r e e hundred d o l l a r s t o complete a 6 3 new c r i c k e t ground a t Beacon H i l l . However, t h e b i g g e s t c r i c k e t news o f t h e p e r i o d was t h e p r o p o s a l f o r an i n t e r n a t i o n a l match between San F r a n c i s c o and V i c t o r i a . A p p a r e n t l y , a number o f p e o p l e l i v i n g i n San F r a n c i s c o had a l s o l i v e d and p l a y e d i n V i c t o r i a and were eager t o re-new a c q u a i n t a n c e s . The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t n o t e d t h a t "amongst t h e V i c t o r i a p l a y e r s 93 residing below, we see the name of Mr. Powell, of the Bank of B r i t i s h Columbia, honorably mentioned i n some of the la t e matches". ^ In March of 1869, the proposal was formalized with a challenge from the C a l i f o r n i a Cricket Club for a match of "our national game" to take place i n San Francisco i n May, with a return engagement i n V i c t o r i a i n August. Mr. Halloday, owner of the steamship l i n e , was prepared to carry the V i c t o r i a players free of charge and the Cosmopolitan Hotel i n San Francisco offered l i b e r a l terms for t h e i r stay.^^ In regards to the funding of the t r i p , the B r i t i s h Colonist remarked; Of course those gentlemen who are i n a position to do so, w i l l pay t h e i r own expenses; but there are others who are not prepared to meet an extraordinary demand upon t h e i r funds, and for these we must p r o v i d e . 6 6 Whatever f i n a n c i a l arrangements were eventually made i s unclear, but i n early A p r i l , the following Eleven departed for San Francisco - Messrs. Pooley, Richardson, Drake, Guerra, J . Wilson, Barnett, Hemmingway, J . B a l l , Wallace, Tye, and Howard, with J.L. Fisher as umpire. ' Reports of the matches were relayed to V i c t o r i a by telegraph. In the f i r s t match, the C a l i f o r n i a Club won by 11 runs i n a match which caused considerable sums of money to change hands i n b e t s . 6 8 However, the V i c t o r i a Club won the remaining three matches, defeating the St. George's Club by 15 the Pioneer Club by 13, and the C a l i f o r n i a Club by 15 i n a re- match. To round out the f e s t i v i t i e s , they played a f r i e n d l y game of baseball with the San Francisco Eagles Baseball Club, losing heavily to the "Champions of the P a c i f i c Coast". 6 9 94 On t h e i r r e t u r n t o V i c t o r i a , t h e team p l a y e d t h e new ' I n d i g n a n t ' C l u b , formed by l o c a l e n t h u s i a s t s as a r e s u l t o f t h e V i c t o r i a C r i c k e t C l u b ' s l o s s t o t h e C a l i f o r n i a n ' s . The match was p l a y e d 70 i n good humour, t h e V i c t o r i a C l u b w i n n i n g , 188-85. The i n t e n d e d r e t u r n match w i t h C a l i f o r n i a does not appear t o have come o f f u n t i l 1872 b u t , i n the i n t e r i m , V i c t o r i a ' s c r i c k e t e r s were busy. I n 1869, a J u n i o r E l e v e n was formed 71 and d e f e a t e d t h e C o l l e g i a t e S c h o o l b u t prove d no match f o r 72 the crew o f H.M.S. Boxer , i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . I n 1871, the V i c t o r i a C r i c k e t C l u b p u b l i s h e d i t s book o f r u l e s , l i s t i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g e x e c u t i v e : p r e s i d e n t - H i s Honour, L i e u t e n a n t Governor T r u t c h ; v i c e - p r e s i d e n t - S i r Matthew B a i l l i e B e g b i e ; t r e a s u r e r - A. M a x w e l l ; h o n o r a r y s e c r e t a r y - J.E. C u r t i s ; committee - C a p t a i n L a y t o n , C.E. Dawson, A.B. R i t c h i e , A. Rome, 73 and E.C. Bak e r . The B r i t i s h Columbia C r i c k e t C l u b was o r g a n i z e d i n 1872, w i t h M.W.T. Drake, chairman; J.E. C u r t i s , s e c r e t a r y ; C.E. P o o l e y , t r e a s u r e r . 7 4 L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r T r u t c h was p a r t i c u l - a r l y a c t i v e i n c r i c k e t t h a t y e a r , o b s e r v i n g a match between s i n g l e and m a r r i e d p l a y e r s and e v e n t u a l l y p l a y i n g i n a match 75 f o r t h e m a r r i e d s . L a t e r t h a t s p r i n g , t h e V i c t o r i a n s began t o r a i s e t h e n e c e s s a r y money t o b r i n g t h e San F r a n c i s c o team 7 6 t o town and a month l a t e r , t h e v i s i t o r s won two o f the t h r e e games p l a y e d . San F r a n c i s c o d e f e a t e d t h e B r i t i s h Columbia C l u b 118-117, was b e a t e n by t h e V i c t o r i a C l u b , 178-177, and 77 won i t s t h i r d match 137-137. The l o c a l p r e s s made much o f the s e r i e s and t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t even p r i n t e d s o p h i s t i c a t e d c h a r t s t o p r o v i d e an a n a l y s i s o f b a t t i n g and b o w l i n g a v e r a g e s . However, w i t h t h e i n t e r c h a n g i n g r e f e r e n c e t o V i c t o r i a p l a y e r s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h what t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p was between t h e two l o c a l c l u b s . In o t h e r e v e n t s d u r i n g 1872, a Mr. Stephenson and C a p t a i n Kennedy e a s i l y won a s i n g l e w i c k e t match a g a i n s t C o l o n e l • 1 79 S i n g l e t o n and a Mr. S m i t h , t h e umpire o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a team. About t h i s t i m e , a J u v e n i l e C l u b was formed i n V i c t o r i a , w i t h R i c h a r d H a l l , p r e s i d e n t ; W i l l i a m Cameron, s e c r e t a r y ; and E. N a g l e , t r e a s u r e r . 8 0 I n New W e s t m i n s t e r , e f f o r t s were 81 b e i n g made t o form a new C r i c k e t C l u b , w h i l e c o m p e t i t i o n s c o n t i n u e d between m a r r i e d and s i n g l e p l a y e r s on F r i d a y and 8 2 Monday a f t e r n o o n s . D u r i n g t h e remainder o f t h e p e r i o d , i n t e r e s t i n c r i c k e t c o n t i n u e d t o grow and numerous o r g a n i z a t i o n s would p l a y a g a i n s t each o t h e r . By 1875, t h e Independent Order o f Odd F e l l o w s 83 were p l a y i n g a s e r i e s a g a i n s t t h e Masons and, i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , some o f t h e c i t y ' s most r e s p e c t e d c i t i z e n s g o t t o g e t h e r f o r a match, f o r m i n g two teams, t h e ' J o l l y C o r k s ' and t h e 'West o f t h e R o c k i e s ' . A luncheon d u r i n g t h e a f f a i r s e a t e d about one hundred p e o p l e , i n c l u d i n g L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r , t h e Honorable A.N. R i c h a r d s , Judge B e g b i e , t h e American C o n s u l , and the 84 F r e n c h V i c e - C o n s u l . I n 1878, t h e V i c t o r i a C r i c k e t C l u b p u b l i s h e d a n o t h e r r u l e book, l i s t i n g a new e x e c u t i v e o f : S i r M.B. B e g b i e , p r e s i d e n t ; M.W.T. Drake, V i c e - p r e s i d e n t ; A.W. J o n e s , h o n o r a r y s e c r e t a r y - t r e a s u r e r ; . . C a p t a i n L a y t o n , W. Bennet, J o s . W i l s o n , A. Rome, and C . E . P o o l e y , c o m m i t t e e . 0 3 I n t e r n a t i o n a l m a t c h e s i n P o r t l a n d 8 6 w e r e a r r a n g e d t h a t y e a r a n d V i c t o r i a won two e a s y v i c t o r i e s , 87 r e p e a t i n g t h e s u c c e s s e s a t home i n 1 8 7 9 . By t h e t u r n o f t h e d e c a d e , i n t e r - s c h o o l m a t c h e s saw t h e V i c t o r i a H i g h S c h o o l pp o v e r p o w e r t h e C o l l e g i a t e S c h o o l b y s c o r e s o f 1 0 2 - 5 4 a n d 1 3 9 - 6 4 ; 8 9 W i t h t h e a d v e n t o f t h e t r a n s - c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y , m a i n - l a n d t e a m s w e r e a b l e t o d e v e l o p w i t h i n a g r o w i n g p o p u l a t i o n . P l a y e r s a r r i v i n g f r o m t h e e a s t e n a b l e d t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e V a n c o u v e r C r i c k e t C l u b i n 1888 ( w i t h J o h n B o u l t b e e a s p r e s i d e n t ) 9 a n d t h a t s p r i n g , t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r C l u b was a b l e t o b o a s t a 91 m e m b e r s h i p o f t h i r t y - f i v e p l a y e r s . T h u s , b y 1 8 9 0 , t h e r e w e r e s u f f i c i e n t o u t s t a n d i n g p l a y e r s i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e m a j o r c i t i e s t o e n s u r e s t r o n g i n t e r - c i t y c o m p e t i t i o n . SUMMARY O n c e a g a i n , t h e e n t h u s i a s m a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e R o y a l Navy was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s p o r t w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n . B e g i n n i n g w i t h c a p t a i n G r a n t ' s p r o v i s i o n o f c r i c k e t e q u i p m e n t a n d i n s t r u c t i o n i n 1 8 4 9 , V i c t o r i a n s t o o k up t h e game a s a p a s t i m e , e n j o y i n g t h e a c t i v i t y d u r i n g p i c n i c s a n d f e s t i v i t i e s . W i t h i n a f e w y e a r s , t h e V i c t o r i a P i o n e e r C r i c k e t C l u b was f o r m e d a s a l o o s e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f e n t h u s i a s t s , b e c o m i n g t h e f i r s t s p o r t s o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h - W e s t . H o w e v e r , d u e t o t h e f l u c t u a t i n g s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s b r o u g h t a b o u t b y t h e g o l d r u s h , i t s m e m b e r s h i p was u n s t a b l e i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s . 97 V a r i o u s n o v e l methods were used t o make up teams f o r i n t e r n a l c o m p e t i t i o n , w h i l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e teams were s e l e c t e d t o p l a y a g a i n s t t h e F l e e t o r a g a i n s t t h e m i n e r s who w i n t e r e d i n V i c t o r i a . The f i r s t i n t e r - c o l o n i a l match too k p l a c e i n 1863, when a group r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r C r i c k e t Club (formed i n 1860 and a s s i s t e d by t h e R o y a l Army E n g i n e e r s ) , t r a v e l l e d t o V i c t o r i a . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , t h e (United) V i c t o r i a C r i c k e t C l u b became more f o r m a l l y o r g a n i z e d and sent r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o p l a y a g a i n s t t h e Nanaimo C l u b . By 1870, t h e V i c t o r i a C r i c k e t C l u b had become w e l l e s t a b - l i s h e d . S e v e r a l o f t h e C a r i b o o m iners now made t h e c i t y t h e i r permanent home and c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e C l u b . The c i t i z e n s o f V i c t o r i a had i n v e s t e d some t h r e e hundred d o l l a r s i n t h e development o f new grounds a t Beacon H i l l and t h e Cl u b had r e c e n t l y r e t u r n e d from a v e r y s u c c e s s f u l t o u r o f C a l i f o r n i a . The p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e C l u b R u l e s i n 1871 l i s t e d a p r e s t i g i o u s e x e c u t i v e , i n c l u d i n g L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r T r u t c h as p r e s i d e n t and S i r Matthew Be g b i e as v i c e - p r e s i d e n t . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , t h e B r i t i s h Columbia C r i c k e t C l u b was o r g a n i z e d and t h e San , : F r a n c i s c o team p l a y e d a r e t u r n s e r i e s i n V i c t o r i a . Throughout t h e p e r i o d , l o c a l games were o r g a n i z e d w i t h i n t h e c l u b and between v a r i o u s s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups who e n j o y e d r e s p o n d i n g t o a c h a l l e n g e . V i c t o r i a ' s y o u t h were p l a y i n g f o r m a l matches as e a r l y as 1869, when t h e J u n i o r E l e v e n competed w i t h t h e C o l l e g i a t e S c h o o l and, i n 1872, a J u v e n i l e C l u b was formed. The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e c i t y ' s y o u t h u n d o u b t e d l y enhanced t h e c a l i b r e o f c r i c k e t i n t h e c i t y as t h e y o u n g s t e r s matured t o p a r t i c i p a t e as members o f t h e V i c t o r i a C r i c k e t C l u b . 98 By 1880, i n t e r - c i t y c o m p e t i t i o n had been e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h P o r t l a n d and, a few y e a r s l a t e r , good c o m p e t i t i o n c o u l d be found i n o t h e r B r i t i s h Columbian c i t i e s . W i t h t h e a r r i v a l o f new s e t t l e r s on t h e m a i n l a n d , as a r e s u l t o f t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e C.P.R., t h e New W e s tminster C r i c k e t C l u b was b o l s t e r e d by new t a l e n t and, i n 1888, t h e Vancouver C r i c k e t C l u b was formed. Thus, as t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y approached, t h e t h r e e major c i t i e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia were a b l e t o engage i n s t r o n g c r i c k e t c o m p e t i t i o n . 99 Table IV Cricket 1849 - Captain Grant brings equipment to V i c t o r i a 1 2 - V i c t o r i a Pioneer Cricket Club formed - competitions between V.P.C.C. and Royal Navy 1858 - V.P.C.C. (86) - H.B.M. S a t e l l i t e (56) 3 - V.P.C.C. (107) - H.B.M. S a t e l l i t e (101) 4 - V.P.C.C. defeats Fleet by 17 runs 19 59 - mtra-club matches 1860 - V.C.C. e a s i l y defeats RN o f f i c e r s 6 - V.C.C. (97) - RN (51)7 - New Westminster Cricket Club formed 20 61 - refreshments available at V i c t o r i a grounds - New Westminster grounds cleared42 62 - newcomers defeat old V.C.C. (119-118), 2 1 (161-155), 2 2 (132-130) 2 3 - f i r s t half alphabet (154) - l a s t half (152) 4 - emmigrants of 'Tynemouth1 beaten by V.C.C. by 11 r u n s 2 5 - 'England' (95) - 'Colonies' ( 8 9 ) 2 7 - $1,000 offered for novel match 2 8 8 Q 63 - V.C.C. vs H.M.S. Topaze; win next match by 72 runs 9 - newcomers (218) - oldster (105) 3 1 - Cariboo (83) - Non-Cariboo ( 8 0 ) 3 4 44 45 - N.W.P.C.C. vs Royal Engineers s p l i t games ' - V.C.C. defeats N.W.C.C. by 33 runs - f i r s t i n t e r - c o l o n i a l match 5 6 64 - (United) V.C.C. o f f i c i a l t i t l e 3 5 - V.C.C. (137) - Nanaimo (135) 37 - Cariboo (64) - Non-Cariboo ( 6 3 ) 3 8 65 - V.C.C. over N.W.C.C. by 59 - N.W.C.C. defeats Navy 5 0 and H.M.S. S u t l e j 5 1 66 - V.C.C. (101) - Fleet (102) 1 1 - V.C.C. (133) -N.W.C.C. ( 8 1 ) 4 9 - N.W.C.C. over C i v i l S e r v i c e ^ 100 T a b l e IV ( C o n t i n u e d ) Cricket 1966 - (Continued) - N.W.C.C. beats Royal Engineers and H.M.S. Sparrow-hawk 5 3 - V.C. over Volunteer R i f l e s 5 4 - City Eleven formed i n V i c t o r i a 4 8 - City Eleven (85) - V.C.C. ( 8 4 ) 5 6 17 67 - o f f i c e r s of H.M.S. Malacca play ship's company - V.C.C. wins 1 of 3 games with F l e e t 1 2 ' 1 3 ' 1 4 68 - V.C.C. defeats Fleet (111-108) 1 5 and (103-59) 1 6 - N.W.C.C. loses to F l e e t 5 9 ' 6 1 - V.C.C. defeats N.W.C.C. - $300 spent on new grounds at Beacon H i l l 6 3 - proposal for match with C a l i f o r n i a 6 4 69 - V.C.C. wins 3 of 4 games i n San F r a n c i s c o 6 9 - f i r s t i n ternational match - V.C.C. (188) - Indignants ( 8 5 ) 7 0 - Junior Eleven formed and defeat Collegiate School __ 1871 - Navy prepares grounds of Puget Sound Company - Junior Eleven loses to H.M.S. Boxer 7 2 - V.C.C. publishes book of r u l e s 7 3 74 72 - B r i t i s h Columbia Cricket Club organized - San Francisco wins 2 of 3 games in V i c t o r i a (118-117) (177-178), (137-136) 7 7 - single wicket match 7 9 - Juvenile Club formed 8 0 75 - 100F vs Masons 8 3 76 - J o l l y Corks vs West of the Rockies 8 4 78 - V.C.C. publishes another rule book 8 5 - V.C.C. wins two games in P o r t l a n d 8 6 8 7 7 9 - V.C.C. wins two games with Portland „ R - V i c t o r i a High School (102) - Collegiates (54) 1880 - V i c t o r i a High (139) - Collegiates ( 6 4 ) 8 9 88 - Vancouver Cricket Club formed 9 0 - N.W.C.C. boasts 35 members 9 1 101 CHAPTER V I I I CYCLING V i c t o r i a r e c e i v e d i t s f i r s t consignment o f b i c y c l e s o r v e l o c i p e d e s , as t h e e a r l y machines were known, i n F e b r u a r y o f 1869. The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t c a r r i e d t h i s announcement: VELOCIPEDES - Messrs.. G r e l l y and F i t e r r e a r e a d v i s e d o f t h e i r shipment o f an i n v o i c e o f v e l o c i p e d e s from P a r i s t o t h e i r c a r e . Among t h e l o t a r e l a d i e s ' v e l o c i p e d e s , formed l i k e an E n g l i s h pony phaeton. The occupant s e a t s h e r s e l f , t h e f l o o r o f t h e v e l o - c i p e d e i s a l s o the t r e a d l e , t h e s l i g h t e s t p r e s s u r e on w h i c h w i t h t h e f o o t p r o p e l s t h e v e h i c l e a t a l o c o m o t i v e r a t e o f speed o v e r any o r d i n a r y r o a d . T h i s new p r o d u c t o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n caused q u i t e a s t i r i n t h e l o c a l p r e s s . S c h o o l s were r e p o r t e d t o have been opened i n San F r a n c i s c o , o f f e r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e use o f th e v e l o c i p e d e s from t e a c h e r s c a l l e d v e l o c i p e d a g o g u e s . One o f t h e f i r s t o f t h e machines was pu r c h a s e d by Dr. C a r r a l l , t h e M.L.A. f o r t h e C a r i b o o . The l a d i e s v e h i c l e was equ i p p e d w i t h t h r e e w h e e l s , i n s t e a d o f t h e two f o r the men, and one o f t h e consignment was r a f f l e d , w i t h one hundred t i c k e t s b e i n g o f f e r e d a t $2.50 e a c h . 4 W i t h i n two weeks o f t h e i r announced a r r i v a l i n V i c t o r i a , t h e v e l o c i p e d e s were b e i n g " e x e r c i s e d " on Beacon H i l l , where they were r e p o r t e d t o have been making "very good t i m e around t h e c o u r s e " . 5 The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t c o n t i n u e d t o say t h a t "the g r e a t e s t speed a t whi c h t h i s c l a s s o f v e l o c i p e d e has been d r i v e n i s a m i l e i n t h r e e m i n u t e s " , a l t h o u g h a F r e n c h v e l o c i p e d e had su p p o s e d l y k e p t up f o r a s h o r t d i s t a n c e , w i t h a l o c o m o t i v e r u n n i n g a t f u l l speed, near V e r s a i l l e s . However, t h e e a r l y 102 c y c l e was n o t n o t e d f o r i t s speed as an 1869 match r a c e , i n Brampton, saw a r u n n e r f i n i s h w e l l ahead o f a v e l o c i p e d e i n a h a l f - m i l e r a c e . 6 N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t was s u f f i c i e n t l y i m p r e s s e d t o o r d e r s i x o f t h e two-wheelers f o r t h e use o f i t s c a r r i e r s , c o n c l u d i n g t h a t " b e s i d e s , V e l o c i p e d e s never r e q u i r e t o be f e d " . 7 The v e l o c i p e d e caused c o n s i d e r a b l e e x c i t e m e n t on t h e s t r e e t s o f V i c t o r i a , as t h e B r i t i s h Columbian r e p o r t e d t h a t , Q u i t e a d i s p l a y o f t h e s e two wheeled v e h i c l e s was made l a s t e v e n i n g by t h e e x p e r t s i n t h e i r management who had a l i v e l y t i m e i n c r u i s i n g o v e r t h e s i d e w a l k s w i t h lamps a t t a c h e d i n f r o n t , w h i c h , as p a s s i n g t h r o u g h some o f t h e d a r k e r passages o f t h e c i t y gave the appearance o f f l y i n g b a l l s o f f i r e . 8 However, n o t a l l t h e c i t i z e n s were p l e a s e d w i t h t h e use o f t h e v e h i c l e , as i t caused some c o m p l a i n t s . The danger o f a c o l l i s i o n w i t h p e d e s t r i a n s would be l e s s l i k e l y t o o c c u r w i t h a s k i l l f u l d r i v e r t h a n a n o v i c e on a highway two-wheeler. I f p e o p l e want t o p r a c t i c e o r use them l e t them go t o Beacon H i l l , and n o t among f o o t p a s s e n g e r s . 9 V e l o c i p e d e s h a v i n g become "the rage here as w e l l as e l s e - where", 1 0 B r i t i s h Columbians were soon t o r a c e them. I n one V i c t o r i a r e p o r t , a r e c o r d o f f o r t y - t h r e e seconds was s e t i n c r o s s i n g James Bay B r i d g e , b e a t i n g t h e former r e c o r d by seven seconds. However, i t was B a r k e r v i l l e t h a t e s t a b l i s h e d a v e l o c i p e d e r a c e as p a r t o f t h e Dominion Day c e l e b r a t i o n s , where- by A.C. Campbell b e a t J . R i c h i e . 1 1 The V i c t o r i a p r e s s r e p o r t e d t h a t "the v e l o c i p e d e d i s e a s e seems t o have been communicated t o t h e l i e g e s o f B a r k e r v i l l e by a ' c e l e b r a t e d v e l o c i p e d i s t * " . x z S i m i l a r l y , t h e C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l r e p o r t e d : 103 B a r k e r v i l l e may be b e h i n d t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d i n a g e o g r a p h i c a l sense, b u t i n none o t h e r . Mr. R i t c h i e , who had never seen a v e l o c i p e d e , has succeeded i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g one, w h i c h w i t h s l i g h t e x c e p t i o n , i s a complete s u c c e s s . I t o n l y wants a l i t t l e D o c t o r i n g . A c e l e b r a t e d v e l o c i p e d i s t from V i c t o r i a gave i t a p r a c t i c a l t e s t t h e o t h e r day, and a f f o r d e d some amusement t o t h e u n i n i t i a t e d . The n a t i v e s , e s p e c i a l l y , were a s t o n i s h e d . x 3 A n o t h e r r a c e , h e l d on J u l y 4, r e s u l t e d i n t h i s r e p o r t : One out o f t h e o n l y two v e l o c i p e d e s i n B a r k e r v i l l e had been b r o k e n , and c o n t e s t a n t s were o b l i g e d t o use t h e same v e h i c l e , a l t e r n a t e l y . John Pu e t z and J.D. R i t c h i e e n t e r e d . R i t c h i e made t h e d i s t a n c e 250 y a r d s , i n 46^ seconds, and Pu e t z i n 59 s e c o n d s . 1 4 A month l k t e r , B a r k e r v i l l e * s Mr. R i t c h i e p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a n o t h e r e v e n t , r i d i n g from t h e town o f V a n w i n k l e t o Qu e s n e l - mouth i n a d a y . 1 5 D e s p i t e a l l t h i s i n i t i a l e x c i t e m e n t , a y e a r a f t e r i t s a r r i v a l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e new machine was denounced and r e j e c t e d as a t h i n g o f t h e p a s t . I t had o r i g i n a l l y s o l d f o r one hundred and f i f t y d o l l a r s b u t , by 1870, c o u l d be had f o r as l i t t l e as t e n d o l l a r s . I n o b i t u a r y , t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t n o t e d ; EXIT VELOCIPEDES - The b i c y c l e has been s n u f f e d out l i k e a t a l l o w c a n d l e . . . R i d i n g a v e l o c i p e d e i s h a r d work. When you r i d e a h o r s e , the a n i m a l does t h e work and you e n j o y y o u r s e l f . Mounted on a b i c y c l e t h e t o i l and e x e r c i s e i s a l l t h e r i d e r ' s ; t h e machine t a k e s i t easy. Good-bye b i c y c l e . 1 6 I t was n o t u n t i l some twenty y e a r s had p a s s e d , w i t h a g r e a t i n f l u x o f p o p u l a t i o n and f u r t h e r t e c h n o l o g i c a l change, t h a t t h e community d e v e l o p e d a s u s t a i n e d e n t h u s i a s m f o r b i c y c l i n g . As was common w i t h most i n n o v a t i o n s , t h e r e was c o n s i d e r - a b l e debate o v e r t h e m e r i t s o f t h e b i c y c l e . I n 1884, t h e M a i n l a n d G u a r d i a n waged one such argument. 104 CYCLING - In our leader of l a s t week on t h i s Question we drew attention to some of the more s a l i e n t features of the controversy that has l a t e l y been carried on in these columns, and attempted to show what in our opinion were the possible and probable drawbacks and advantages of c y c l i n g as regards i t s influence on the maintenance of health i n those who availed themselves of t h i s mode of t r a v e l l i n g . A l e t t e r dated October 27, from Dr. Strachan, who strenuously opposes the practice, or rather excessive indulgence i n i t , deals with some of the facts bearing upon the occurrence and extent of 'perineal pressure' and concussion of the spine. We have l i t t l e to add to what has already been set forth. There can be no doubt that e v i l consequences may ensue from i n d i s c r e t i o n i n t h i s as i n other pursuits of business and pleasure. Nevertheless, we maintain that i t i s auite within the reach of mechanical s k i l l to fashion an i n s t r u - ment that s h a l l minimize the danger a r i s i n g from pressure on the urethra and j o l t i n g of the body. Moreover, i t behoves us to consider the c o l l e c t i v e gain of the many while discussing the misfortunes of the few; and we hold that were c y c l i n a even with i t s present atten- dant disadvantages, to be altogether discontinued, the public would be robbed of a means of usefulness and enjoy- ment that i t would be d i f f i c u l t to r e p l a c e . 1 7 The f i r s t c y c l i n g organization i n B r i t i s h Columbia appeared with the formation of the Island Wanderers Club, i n 1889. 1 8 The club was a f f i l i a t e d with the Canadian Wheelmen's Association, but i t s a c t i v i t i e s were limited by the lack of a suitable track and the very rough roads. With the establishment of a cinder track at Brockton Point, i n 1891, Vancouver became the main centre of c y c l i n g . This was the s i t e of the province's f i r s t well organized and attended meet, involving competitors from Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , Nanaimo, New Westminster, and Seattle. Two c y c l i s t s dominated the competitions. One was John Lawrence of Vancouver (recently from A u s t r a l i a ) , who claimed to be one of B r i t i s h Columbia's top sportsmen in boxing, wrestling, c r i c k e t , and swimming. The second was C.J. Piper of V i c t o r i a , who pre- ferred to ride on pneumatic tyres, instead of the 'cushions' or 105 • s o l i d s ' p o p u l a r w i t h o t h e r c y c l i s t s . I n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h CWA r u l e s , P i p e r was t o be handicapped by t h r e e hundred y a r d b e h i n d ' c u s h i o n s ' and s i x hundred y a r d s b e h i n d ' s o l i d s ' , i n t h r e e m i l e r a c e . I n s t e a d , he p u t away h i s pneumatics and rode ' s o l i d s ' t o v i c t o r y . A n o t h e r dominant c y c l i s t o f t h e o n 1890s was E.H. P o t t e r . 106 CHAPTER IX F IGHTS BOXING As may be e x p e c t e d i n a f r o n t i e r c o m m u n i t y w h e r e a s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n was q u i c k l y i n f o r m e d o f a r u c k u s b e t w e e n i t s c i t i z e n s , t h e e a r l y B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s w e r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e p r o c e e d i n g s o f a b o u t o f f i s t i c u f f s . H o w e v e r , t h e i r i n t e r e s t was n o t g e n e r a t e d m e r e l y b y t h e e x c i t e m e n t o f t h e s c r a p b u t a l s o b y t h e p r o w e s s a n d s k i l l o f t h e c o m b a t a n t s . T h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t was q u i c k t o d e s c r i b e t h e s o p h i s t i c a t i o n e v i d e n c e d i n a s t r e e t b r a w l . F I S T I C U F F S - L a s t e v e n i n g q u i t e a s p i r i t e d b o u t came o f f o n J o h n s o n S t r e e t , b e t w e e n two I n d i a n s , who f o u g h t f o r n e a r l y h a l f a n h o u r a n d e x h i b i t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e s c i e n c e t h r o u g h o u t . T h e f i g h t a t t r a c t e d a l a r g e c r o w d a n d a f f o r d e d much amusement t o l o o k e r s o n , who s e e m e d t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e S u n d a y amusement k i n d l y p r o v i d e d f o r t h e i r e d i f i c a t i o n w i t h a k e e n i n t e r e s t . 1 P r i z e f i g h t s w e r e a n e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e c o l o n i a l s t o e n g a g e i n v i c a r i o u s s p o r t i n g c o m p e t i t i o n . T h e y d i d n o t n e e d t o f i g h t t h e m s e l v e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e c o n t e s t s b e c a u s e t h e y c o u l d r e a d i l y e n j o y b a n t e r i n g w i t h e a c h o t h e r o v e r t h e m e r i t s o f t h e i r f a v o u r i t e s . A s w i t h o t h e r c o n t e s t s o f t h e t i m e s , t h e s p o r t i n g c o m m u n i t y was a l w a y s r e a d y t o p u t money o n t h e o u t c o m e o f a n e v e n t a n d w e r e e v e n p r e p a r e d t o b a c k c h a m p i o n s i n m a t c h e s a s d i s t a n t a s E n g l a n d . O f t e n news o f s u c h e v e n t s w o u l d a r r i v e i n t h e c o m m u n i t y c o n s i d e r a b l y o u t o f d a t e o r i n a c c u r a t e , p o s i n g p r o b l e m s f o r t h o s e who h a d p l a c e d money o n t h e m a t c h . THE GREAT P R I Z E F IGHT - C o n s i d e r a b l e d o u b t i s t h r o w n o n t h e g e n u i n e s s o f t h e r e p o r t o f t h e p r i z e f i g h t b e t w e e n S a y e r s a n d H e e n a n i n E n g l a n d , a n d many t h i n k t h a t t h e f i g h t n e v e r came o f f a t a l l . I n o l d e n t i m e s , 107 b e f o r e t e l e g r a m s and r a i l r o a d s were i n t r o d u c e d , i t was q u i t e a common occ u r e n c e f o r t h e wags o f a sea- p o r t town t o p r o c u r e t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f a bogus ' e x t r a ' , and s t a r t i t o f f b e f o r e t h e m a i l - h o u r s , on purpose t o s e l l t h e f o l k s i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e c o u n t r y , w i t h l a t e and i m p o r t a n t news o f v a r i o u s t o p i c s . I t may be t h a t t h e same t r i c k has been p l a y e d on t h e C a l i f o r n i a n s . The n e x t steamer w i l l d e c i d e t h e match, however; and we a d v i s e t h o s e who have money s t a k e d on t h e r e s u l t o f t h e c o n t e s t , t o w a i t f o r f u r t h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e from b e l o w . 2 There were t i m e s , however, when i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e c o m p e t i t i o n s was more d i r e c t . An 1866 bout between George W i l s o n and George Bak e r , i n B a r k e r v i l l e , caused so much e x c i t e m e n t i n t h e town t h a t t h e C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l n o t e d : EFFECTS OF THE FIGHT - W i t h i n t h e p a s t c o u p l e o f days we have n o t i c e d more damaged f a c e s , and eyes d r e s s e d i n deep mourning, t h a n i t has been our l o t t o observe a l l t h e season; t h e s e g i f t s can o n l y be acc o u n t e d f o r by t h e deep i n t e r e s t w h i c h t h e v o t a r i e s o f t h e n o b l e s c i e n c e have t a k e n i n t h e r e s u l t o f t h e l a t e m i l l i n g m a t c h . 3 W h i l e o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e c o n t i n e n t were a t t e m p t i n g t o cen s u r e t h e p r i z e f i g h t s , t h e V i c t o r i a n s were i n t e r e s t e d i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h e c o n t e s t s a c c o r d i n g t o s t r i c t r u l e s o f ' s c i e n t i f i c ' b o x i n g . W i t h some a l a r m , t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t r e p o r t e d i n l a t e December o f 1860, t h a t t h e l e g i s l a t u r e o f 4 Vermont was d e l i b e r a t i n g o v e r a b i l l t o p r e v e n t t h e f i g h t s and, by mid-summer, t h e paper r e f l e c t e d t h e c i t i z e n s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f w e l l a d m i n i s t e r e d l o c a l b o u t s . A f i g h t f o r $25 a s i d e t o s e t t l e a l o n g e x i s t i n g d i s p u t e between a c o u p l e o f mechanics o f t h i s c i t y , came o f f on Sa t u r d a y e v e n i n g a t t h e S p r i n g s . Three rounds were fou g h t when one o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s f a i l e d t o come t o t i m e , and t h e o t h e r was d e c l a r e d t h e w i n n e r and t h e s t a k e s handed o v e r t o him. The f i g h t was conducted i n s t r i c t a c cordance w i t h t h e l a t e s t r u l e s o f t h e r i n g , and no g r e a t damage was i n f l i c t e d by e i t h e r o f t h e f i g h t e r s . 5 108 Not a l l t h e f i g h t s i n t h e s e e a r l y days were f o r such low s t a k e s . A bout i n Whatcom, Washington T e r r i t o r y , was r e p o r t e d f o r f i v e hundred d o l l a r s . The f i g h t l a s t e d t h r o u g h f o r t y - s i x r o u n d s , one hour and t h i r t y - f i v e m i n u t e s , d u r i n g w h i c h b o t h combatants were b a d l y c u t up. The v i c t o r , W i l l i a m Pomford, was an E n g l i s h d e s e r t e r from t h e R o y a l Navy. H i s opponent was Tom S h e l d o n , a S c o t . 6 S p a r r i n g c o n t e s t s w h i c h demonstrated t h e b o x e r s ' s k i l l s , r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o w i n , were p a r t i c u l a r l y p o p u l a r i n V i c t o r i a . The Vancouver Times n o t e d one such e v e n t . Ned A l l e n and B i l l y W i l l i a m s w i l l have a s e t - t o t h i s e v e n i n g a t t h e R o y a l H o t e l Tap. S e v e r a l o f t h e s p o r t i n g community w i l l be p r e s e n t , and some e x c e l l e n t s p a r r i n g may be a n t i c i p a t e d . 7 These s p a r r i n g e x h i b i t i o n s were o f t e n performed as a ' b e n e f i t ' f o r a l o c a l f i g h t e r i n an attempt t o d e f r a y h i s expenses f o r t r a i n i n g and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r upcoming p r i z e b o u t s . I n t h e s p r i n g o f 1867, t h e f r i e n d s o f George Baker sponsored one such b e n e f i t t o a s s i s t him p r e p a r e f o r "an unknown g l a d i a t o r from p San F r a n c i s c o " . A p a r t from Baker's own d e m o n s t r a t i o n , a number o f musclemen, presumably gymnasts, were a l s o t o p e r f o r m . The a u d i e n c e was s m a l l , b u t w e l l e n t e r t a i n e d by s e v e r a l f r i e n d - l y b o u t s , and t h e young man who sang a b a l l a d d u r i n g t h e e v e n i n g g was e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y e n c o r e d . George Baker had r e c e n t l y r e t u r n e d from the C a r i b o o , where p r i z e f i g h t i n g was p a r t i c u l a r l y p o p u l a r among t h e s p e c u l a t o r s and m i n e r s . The s i m p l e a g g r e s s i v e n e s s o f t h e s p o r t b l e n d e d w e l l w i t h t h e tough p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l environment o f t h e n o r t h - e r n m i n i n g communities and l e n t i t s e l f more t o f r o n t i e r e n t h u s - iasm t h a n t o t h e c o m p a r a t i v e l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n t e r e s t s o f 109 V i c t o r i a n s . As e a r l y as 1865, t h e C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l r e p o r t e d a p r i z e f i g h t , " a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r u l e s o f t h e E n g l i s h p r i z e r i n g " , w hich took p l a c e on a Wednesday, i n C h a n c e l l o r and Com- pany's Lager Beer S a l o o n , b e f o r e an audie n c e w h i c h even i n c l u d e d a few women. Two Welshmen f o u g h t t o a draw, a f t e r t w e n t y - n i n e r o u n d s , i n a bout w h i c h l a s t e d f o r t y - t w o m i n u t e s . The C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l summed up t h e s p i r i t and e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e s e e v e n t s : The men shook hands and drank t o each o t h e r ' s h e a l t h a f t e r t h e event w i t h as much c o r d i a l i t y as i f t h e y had never been f o e s . V e r i l y C a r i b o o i s g e t t i n g l i v e l y , and B a r k e r v i l l e e x p e c i a l l y . Three f i g h t s on Tuesday and one on Wednesday. 1 0 D u r i n g t h e n e x t two y e a r s , B a r k e r v i l l e was h o s t t o s e v e r a l major b o x i n g e v e n t s . Johnny K n o t t and Ned S t e i n f o u g h t f o r t y - n i n e rounds i n f r o n t o f t h r e e hundred s p e c t a t o r s , i n a bout f o r f o r t y d o l l a r s a s i d e , w h i c h l a s t e d one hour and t w e l v e m i n u t e s . 1 1 Three weeks l a t e r , t h e s e l f - s t y l e d ' C a r i b o o Champion', George W i l s o n , p e r f o r m e d a s p a r r i n g e x h i b i t i o n a t Ross and B a r d i c k ' s S a l o o n , 1 2 w h i c h "was w e l l p a t r o n i z e d by t h e l o v e r s o f t h e manly a r t " . 1 3 However, t h e b i g g e s t f i g h t o f t h e y e a r came o f f between W i l s o n and Ba k e r , g e n e r a t i n g n o t o n l y t h e i n t e n s e 3 i n t e r e s t p r e v i o u s l y mentioned i n B a r k e r v i l l e , b u t a l s o a keen awareness i n V i c t o r i a . I n mid-October, t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t r e l a y e d t h e f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t : PRIZE FIGHT - A match has been a r r a n g e d between George W i l s o n and George Baker f o r $500 a s i d e , w i t h power t o i n c r e a s e t o $2,000 b e f o r e t h e f i g h t comes o f f . A r t i c l e s were s i g n e d l a s t S a t u r d a y and a d e p o s i t made o f $50 a s i d e , t h e b a l a n c e t o be d e p o s i t e d as f o l l o w s : $200 on S a t u r d a y n e x t and $250 on t h e f o l l o w i n g S a t u r d a y ( 2 0 t h ) . The f i g h t t o t a k e p l a c e on Tuesday, t h e 24th i n s t a n t . The men w i l l go i n t o t r a i n i n g t o - d a y : B a k e r w i l l be under t h e a b l e t u i t i o n o f h i s o l d t r a i n e r John T r a c y , w h i l e W i l s o n w i l l be h a n d l e d by F r e d . L i t t l e r . C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l . 1 4 110 I n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e f i g h t , t he combatants were s a i d t o have been "undergoing a d a i l y c o u r s e o f e x e r c i s e " . 1 5 Some one thousand t o t w e l v e hundred s p e c t a t o r s were drawn t o the e v e n t t o watch t h e 156 pound Baker ( d r e s s e d i n y e l l o w ) b a t t l e t h e c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r , 185 pound W i l s o n ( d r e s s e d i n b l u e ) . The f i g h t l a s t e d f o r an hour and a q u a r t e r , d u r i n g w h i c h t h e men s p a r r e d , f e i n t e d , and dodged f o r n e a r l y h a l f an hour b e f o r e a blow was s t r u c k . A f t e r f o u r t e e n rounds had been c o m p l e t e d , Baker was knocked o u t . W i l s o n i m m e d i a t e l y went t o Ba k e r ' s c o r n e r t o s y m p a t h a s i z e w i t h him and a f t e r w a r d s t o o k up a c o l l e c t i o n f o r t h e l o s i n g man. 1 6 W i t h i n a few days s p a r r i n g e x h i b i t i o n s were h e l d a t B a r r y and Cunio's S a l o o n , as b e n e f i t s f o r b o t h f i g h t e r s . No doubt Baker was p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r e c i a t i v e o f t h e b e n e f i t on h i s b e h a l f because he was r e p o r t e d t o have broken h i s a n k l e i n t h e f i g h t and was making p r e p a r a t i o n s t o d e p a r t f o r V i c t o r i a . These f i g h t e r s were not mer e l y l o c a l toughs a t t e m p t i n g t o make e x t r a money t h r o u g h t h e i r p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h . R a t h e r , t h e y were o f t e n s e r i o u s and w e l l seasoned b o x e r s who had e x p e r i e n c e d c o n s i d e r a b l e c o m p e t i t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , t h e s t o u t , b r o a d - s h o u l d e r e d E n g l i s h m a n , W i l s o n , had p r e v i o u s l y "fought and won i n A u s t r a l i a y e a r s ago" However, t h e t e m p t a t i o n a f f o r d e d by t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e p r i z e money l e d t o an i n t e r e s t i n g agreement between W i l s o n and an opponent. I n September o f 1866, a V i c t o r i a s a l o o n k e e p e r named Joe Eden, proposed h i s f i n a l p r i z e f i g h t as a c h a l l e n g e t o George W i l s o n . 1 9 W i t h i n a week, h u s t l e r s were p r o m o t i n g t h e match I l l a n d l a y i n g l a r g e b e t s o n t h e o u t c o m e . F o r e x a m p l e , a Q u e s n e l m o u t h c o r r e s p o n d e n t t o t h e C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l a n n o u n c e d t h e f o l l o w i n g b e t s : 1 s t I w i l l b e t G e o r g e W i l s o n o r a n y o f h i s f r i e n d s $100 t h a t he w i l l make some e x c u s e f o r b a c k i n g o u t , a n d w i l l n o t f i g h t E d e n . 2 n d , I w i l l b e t G e o r g e W i l s o n , t h e s e l f - s t y l e d c h a m p i o n , o r a n y o f h i s b o m b a s t i c f r i e n d s , $500 t h a t i f h e d o e s f i g h t t h e ' n o v i c e ' w i l l w i n t h e f i g h t . 2 0 W i l s o n r e s p o n d e d b y t e n d e r i n g f i f t y d o l l a r d e p o s i t o n t h a t b e t a t t h e F a s h i o n S a l o o n . 2 1 H o w e v e r , h i s f o r m a l a g r e e m e n t w i t h E d e n was d e l a y e d u n t i l t h e f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g when w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s w o u l d make t r a v e l more r e a s o n a b l e . T h a t a g r e e m e n t p r o v i d e d E d e n w i t h two h u n d r e d d o l l a r s t r a v e l l i n g e x p e n s e s f o r a two t h o u s a n d d o l l a r a s i d e b o u t , t o t a k e p l a c e i n B a r k e r v i l l e o n May 1 , 1 8 6 7 . 2 2 F o r some r e a s o n , t h e f i g h t was d e l a y e d u n t i l t h e f a l l , r e - s c h e d u l e d f o r S e p t e m b e r 24 a s a m a t c h f o r o n e t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s w i t h p o w e r t o i n c r e a s e to two thousand 23 d o l l a r s . T h e m a t c h was s o o n t o u t e d a s t h e C h a m p i o n s h i p o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d t h e c o n t e s t a n t s f i n a l i z e d t h e a g r e e m e n t b y p l a c i n g a t h r e e h u n d r e d d o l l a r d e p o s i t a n d p a y i n g t h e r e m a i n d e r a t one h u n d r e d d o l l a r s p e r w e e k . 2 4 I n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e e v e n t , W i l s o n a n n o u n c e d t h a t h e was g o i n g i n t o t r a i n i n g 25 f o r t h r e e w e e k s a t E l m o r e ' s R a n c h , n e a r F o r t A l e x a n d e r . On t h e d a y o f t h e f i g h t , t h e p u r s e was s e t a t t w e l v e h u n d r e d d o l l a r s a s i d e . W i l s o n ( a g e d 33) w e i g h e d i n a t 175 p o u n d s a n d E d e n (27 y e a r s ) w e i g h e d 165 p o u n d s . D u r i n g t h e y e a r s i n c e t h e c h a l l e n g e was f i r s t i s s u e d , i n t e r e s t h a d g rown s o i n t e n s e t h a t some f i f t e e n h u n d r e d p e o p l e w e r e o n h a n d f o r t h e m a t c h a n d t w e l v e t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s was e s t i m a t e d 112 t o h a v e b e e n p l a c e d i n b e t s . A f t e r o n l y t w e n t y r o u n d s , W i l s o n was d i s q u a l i f i e d . He h a d g rown i m p a t i e n t a n d , when he l o s t h i s t e m p e r , he h i t E d e n w h i l e h i s o p p o n e n t was d o w n . A s t h e e d i t o r o f t h e C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l e x p l a i n e d , W i l s o n , o v e r - c o n f i d e n t o f h i m s e l f a n d u n d e r - e s t i m a t i n g h i s a d v e r s a r y , f o u g h t , we t h i n k , t o w i n t h e g l o r y , w h i l e E d e n , o n t h e c o n t r a r y , f u l l y a p p r e c i a t i n g t h e p r o w e s s o f h i s a n t a g o n i s t , f o u g h t t o w i n t h e m o n e y ; h e n c e h i s s y s t e m o f f a l l i n g i n e v e r y r o u n d t o a v o i d t h e p u n i s h m e n t , w h e t h e r he was s t r u c k o r n o t . 2 6 H o w e v e r , i n a l a t e r a r t i c l e , t h e p a p e r e x p o s e d a f r a u d . Rumours t h a t W i l s o n h a d s o l d t h e f i g h t w e r e c o n f i r m e d b y h i m a s he j u s t i f i e d h i s c o n d u c t b y t h e f a c t t h a t " h i s s u p p o r t e r s h a d n o t t r e a t e d h i m r i g h t " . 2 7 I n r e t u r n f o r a s h a r e o f E d e n ' s t a k e s , W i l s o n h a d i n d u c e d s u p p o r t e r s t o b a c k h i m , e n s u r - i n g a l a r g e r sum a v a i l a b l e t o E d e n . A l t h o u g h s u c h c h e a t i n g a n d d o u b l e d e a l i n g w e r e common i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d , t h e C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l was s h o c k e d t h a t s u c h a n o u t r a g e c o u l d h a v e o c c u r r e d i n B a r k e r v i l l e . T h e e d i t o r c o n t i n u e d : I f , we r e p e a t , t h i s i s c o r r e c t , a more b a r e f a c e d p i e c e o f s w i n d l i n g c o u l d n e v e r h a v e b e e n p e r p e t - r a t e d , a n d a l t h o u g h t h e l a w c a n n o t p e r h a p s r e a c h t h e c u l p r i t , s t i l l t h e e x e c r a t i o n o f a n o u t r a g e d c o m m u n i t y c a n n o t f a i l t o b e m e t e d o u t t o s u c h a n u n p r i n c i p l e d w r e t c h . We n e v e r a d m i r e d p u g i l i s t i c e x h i b i t i o n s , a n d we a r e g l a d t o know, f r o m t h e f e e l - i n g t h a t now e x i s t s o n t h i s c r e e k , t h a t s u c h e x h i b i - t i o n s a r e n o t l i k e l y t o r e c e i v e t h e same c o u n t e n a n c e a n d s u p p o r t o n a n y f u t u r e o c c a s i o n , a s t h e y h a v e h e r e t o f o r e . T h e e d i t o r was q u i t e c o r r e c t . D u r i n g t h e l a t e 1 8 6 0 s , p r i z e f i g h t s a n d s p a r r i n g e x h i b i t i o n s seem t o h a v e s w i f t l y f a l l e n f r o m p u b l i c f a v o u r a n d i n t e r e s t was n o t r e v i v e d u n t i l t h e e a r l y 1 8 8 0 s . 1 1 3 On Eden's r e t u r n t o V i c t o r i a , a s p a r r i n g e x h i b i t i o n f o r h i s b e n e f i t matched him a g a i n s t Don McCook f o r a " f r i e n d l y bout w i t h t h e g l o v e s " . 2 8 L a t e r , Eden a d v e r t i s e d h i s accep- t a n c e o f a re-match w i t h W i l s o n , t o come o f f w i t h i n one hundred m i l e s o f V i c t o r i a , f o r a sum not l e s s t h a n $ 2 , 0 0 0 , 2 9 b u t t h e match does n o t appear t o have been made. Less t h a n two y e a r s 30 l a t e r , Joe Eden, "champion p u g i l i s t " , became a s a i l o r and d e p a r t e d V i c t o r i a f o r London. By 1884, B r i t i s h Columbians i n t e r e s t i n t h e f i g h t s had been r e v i v e d and V i c t o r i a was h o s t t o t o u r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l b o x e r s , i n c l u d i n g John L. S u l l i v a n , t h e champion o f t h e w o r l d . I n a c a r d a t t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c H a l l , Mike G i l l e s p i e , a l i g h t - w e i g h t o f B o s t o n , was matched a g a i n s t S t e v e T a y l o r , a heavy- w e i g h t from New York and, i n a n o t h e r b o u t , P e t e McCoy, l i g h t - w e i g h t , was p i t t e d a g a i n s t H e r b e r t S l a d e , 'the M a o r i g i a n t " . L o c a l b o x e r s J a s . S. O ' B r i e n and McCoy f o u g h t , w h i l e Dan Reynolds was t o f i g h t S u l l i v a n , M a r q u i s o f Queensbury R u l e s . R e y n o l d s , a l o c a l c o a l m i n e r , had i n t e n d e d t o s t a n d f o u r - t h r e e minute r o u n d s , but a f t e r v i e w i n g t h e performance o f S u l l i v a n , 31 d i s c r e t i o n p r o v e d t h e b e t t e r p a r t o f v a l o r , and he withdrew. By t h e l a t e 1880s, p r o f e s s i o n a l b o x i n g matches were r e g u l a r f e a t u r e s a t t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c H a l l , w i t h such c o n t e s t s as t h e $100 a s i d e match between Clem A u s t i n , champion l i g h t w e i g h t o f B r i t i s h Columbia and North-West T e r r i t o r i e s , and J i m 32 Gorman, a m i d d l e w e i g h t from T o r o n t o . 114 WRESTLING Forma l w r e s t l i n g c o m p e t i t i o n does n o t appear t o have become p o p u l a r i n B r i t i s h Columbia u n t i l t h e m i d - e i g h t i e s . U n d o u b t e d l y , some c o m p e t i t i o n s d i d o c c u r i n e a r l i e r t i m e s b u t were l i m i t e d . One such example, i n 1864 was d e s c r i b e d i n t h e Vancouver Times. D u r i n g t h e l a s t two days g r e a t i n t e r e s t has been m a n i f e s t e d i n some w r e s t l i n g matches wh i c h have t a k e n p l a c e a t t h e R o y a l H o t e l Tap, i n Johnson S t r e e t . I n t h e c o u r s e o f l a s t e v e n i n g Mr. A l l e n d i s t r i b u t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g p r i z e s : J e s s P i e r c e ( C o r n i s h ) , 1 s t p r i z e , $15 w i t h $5 added; John B r y a n t ( C o r n i s h ) , 2nd p r i z e , $10; W i l l i a m M a n w e l l , ( C o r n i s h ) , 3 r d p r i z e , $5; 4 t h p r i z e , $10, E l i e Q u i c k , ( L a n c a s h i r e ) . There was a numerous a t t e n d a n c e , and t h e p r o c e e d i n g s were c h a r a c t e r i z e d w i t h good humor and d e c o r u m . 3 3 A n o t h e r r e p o r t o f t h e same y e a r was o f a $200 a s i d e match i n Camerontown, i n w h i c h Putman was r e p o r t e d t o have t o s s e d B i g 34 George W i l s o n , t h e b o x e r , two o f t h r e e t i m e s . D u r i n g the remainder o f t h e p e r i o d , t h e r e appears t o have been l i t t l e w r e s t l i n g a c t i v i t y u n t i l 1883, when w r e s t l i n g matches were i n c l u d e d i n t h e A t h l e t i c Tournament o f the S t . Andrews and C a l e d o n i a n S o c i e t y . C o n t e s t s were h e l d i n t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s - S c o t c h b a c k h o l d , C o l l a r and Elbow, and Graeco- Roman e v e n t s . I n 1884, t h e Nanaimo D a i l y F r e e P r e s s r e p o r t e d a match i n t h a t town i n w h i c h Hanson too k two o f t h r e e f a l l s o v e r Lynch. D u r i n g t h e f a l l and w i n t e r months around 1888, p r o f e s s i o n a l w r e s t l i n g a t t r a c t e d l a r g e crowds t o t h e Opera houses o f Vancouver, New W e s t m i n s t e r , and V i c t o r i a . E n t r a n c e p r i c e s were h i g h f o r t h o s e days, w i t h a charge o f $1 f o r r i n g s i d e s e a t s 115 and 50C f o r o t h e r s . 3 7 A l l a l o n g th e West Coast o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , p a r t i c u l a r y i n San F r a n c i s c o , p r o f e s s i o n a l w r e s t l i n g had become v e r y p o p u l a r and appears t o have been v e r y l u c r a t i v e , a t t r a c t i n g a l a r g e number o f Japanese and A u s t r a l i a n w r e s t l e r s . However, i t i s not c l e a r whether t h e s e p e o p l e moved t o t h e West Coa s t p r i m a r i l y t o engage i n w r e s t l i n g , o r i f t h e y had t u r n e d t o p e r f o r m i n g a f t e r f a i l i n g t o f i n d g o l d . 3 8 One o f t h e l o c a l w r e s t l e r s , J . S m i t h ( a l i a s W. Quinn, o f Nanaimo), was an a c t i v e promoter as w e l l as a w r e s t l e r . I n t h e s p r i n g o f 1889, he w rote t o t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , p r o p o s i n g a $100 p e r man sweepstakes tournament between s i x o r seven l o c a l w r e s t l e r s , t o d e c i d e th e championship o f B r i t i s h Columbia. A l t h o u g h he s u g g e s t e d t h a t f i v e s t y l e s o f w r e s t l i n g be employed 39 t o s u i t a l l t h e w r e s t l e r s , most matches d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d were c a r r i e d o u t w i t h e i t h e r Graeco-Roman o r c a t c h - a s - c a t c h - can r u l e s . The p u b l i c seemed t o be w e l l aware t h a t most matches were not genuine c o n t e s t s and were o f t e n r i g g e d so t h a t t h e b e s t man d i d n o t w i n . R e g a r d i n g a V i c t o r i a match between W. Quinn and J . R i c h a r d s o n , t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t w r o t e , The g e n e r a l p u b l i c u n i t e i n e x p r e s s i n g t h e one o p i n i o n t h a t a l l w r e s t l i n g matches a r e f a k e s , o r a t l e a s t t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y , and a square w r e s t l e would be as g r e a t a s u r p r i s e t o t h e f r a t e r n i t y as t o t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d . 4 0 SUMMARY The t e r m p u g i l i s m i s d e r i v e d from the L a t i n ' p u g i l ' , t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f one who f i g h t s w i t h h i s f i s t s . 4 1 A l t h o u g h t h i s t y p e o f s p o r t i n g a c t i v i t y mixed p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l w i t h t h e rough and ready l i f e s t y l e o f f r o n t i e r communities, e n t h u s i a s t s 116 t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were n o t o n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h brawn, b u t w i t h t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f ' s c i e n t i f i c ' s k i l l , i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e c u r r e n t r u l e s o f t h e r i n g . How- e v e r , i t was t h e b e l i e f o f many c o n t e m p o r a r y l e g i s l a t o r s i n B r i t a i n and N o r t h A m e r i c a t h a t t h e London P r i z e R i n g R u l e s were e x c e s s i v e l y b r u t a l b e c a u s e t h e y c a l l e d f o r b a r e - f i s t e d d u e l s . In an e f f o r t t o r e f i n e p u g i l i s m , modern b o x i n g was c r e a t e d and was g o v e r n e d by t h e M a r q u i s o f Q u e e n s b u r y R u l e s , w h i c h c a l l e d f o r g l o v e d hands and r o u n d s o f t h r e e m i n u t e s d u r a t i o n . However, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t r a t h e r t h a n r e d u c i n g t h e harm done t o c o n t e s t a n t s , t h e new r u l e s a c t u a l l y made b o x i n g more b r u t a l and d e v a s t a t i n g t h a n t h e s p o r t had b e e n w i t h b a r e - k n u c k l e r u l e s . As Menke e x p l a i n s , I n t h e o l d d a y s i f a f i g h t e r had t o t a k e more b e a t i n g t h a t he c o u l d a b s o r b , he m e r e l y s l i p p e d t o t h e g r o u n d and t h a t ended t h e r o u n d . H i s s e c o n d s h a u l e d him t o h i s c o r n e r and m i n i s t e r e d t o him, w h i l e he e n j o y e d 30 s e c o n d s o f r e s p i t e . I f he s t i l l happened t o be t o o woozy t o s t a n d up u n d e r a new o n s l a u g h t , he n e e ded o n l y t o t o t t e r t o m i d r i n g f o r t h e n e x t r o u n d and f a l l down a g a i n , w i t h o u t b e i n g h i t . T h a t ended t h e r o u n d , and he was p e r m i t t e d a n o t h e r 30 s e c o n d s o f r e s t ... A f i g h t e r c o u l d c o n - t i n u e t h i s p r o c e d u r e w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o s u f f e r a b l o w f o r any p e r i o d o f t i m e . 4 2 Thus, t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e new r u l e s f o r c e d c o n t e s t a n t s t o e n d u r e a f u l l t h r e e m i n u t e r o u n d o f p u m m e l l i n g , o f t e n r e s u l t i n g i n t e r r i b l e b e a t i n g s and sometimes e v e n d e a t h . The M a r q u i s o f Q u e e n s b u r y R u l e s were n o t a d o p t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a u n t i l n e a r t h e end o f t h e p e r i o d . Thus, most f i g h t s o f c o n c e r n were a c c o r d i n g t o London P r i z e R i n g 117 Rules. The hey-days of these bare-fisted prize f i g h t s in the P a c i f i c North-West were i n the years 1865-67 and the major centre of the sport was i n the Cariboo. As with other sporting events, the colonials were w i l l i n g to wager on the outcome of any prize f i g h t . The s o c i a l environment of the gold mines, with i t s numerous gamblers and entrepreneurs, encouraged speculation and promoted intere s t i n the matches. However, the scandal surrounding the Wilson-Eden f i g h t of 1867, i n which some $12,000 changed hands as the r e s u l t of a rigged match, quickly destroyed i n t e r e s t i n boxing. It was not u n t i l near the end of the period, when the new rules were being imple- mented, that B r i t i s h Columbians again developed an enthus- iasm for the r i n g . In wrestling, early matches appear to have been very limited and the sport did not gain much popularity u n t i l the end of the period. In the early 1880's, wrestling events were included as part of the games of the St. Andrews and Caledonian Society and, within a few years, pro- fessional bouts were regularly held, but the matches were seldom genuine contests. By 1888, professionals i n both boxing and wrestling were touring the c i t i e s of Vancouver, New Westminster, and V i c t o r i a . 118 T a b l e V F i g h t s 1860 - b e t t i n g on m a j o r b o x i n g m a t c h e s a b r o a d - l o c a l f i s t i c u f f s b e c o m i n g more s o p h i s t i c a t e d g 61 - $500 p u r s e i n Whatcom, W a s h i n g t o n T e r r i t o r y 64 - w r e s t l i n g m a t c h e s i n V i c t o r i a 3 3 - Putman o u t w r e s t l e s W i l s o n i n B a r k e r v i l l e 3 5 65 - s p a r r i n g c o n t e s t s 7 - p r i z e f i g h t i n B a r k e r v i l l e 66 - J ohnny K n o t t v s Ned S t e i n i n B a r k e r v i l l e 1 1 - ' C a r i b o o Champion', George W i l s o n 1 2 ' - ' - 3 - George W i l s o n b e a t s G e o r g e B a k e r l 6 2 g 67 - Eden b e a t s W i l s o n 1883 - w r e s t l i n g i n t h e A t h l e t i c Tournament o f t h e S t . Andrews and C a l e d o n i a n S o c i e t y 3 5 84 - p r o f e s s i o n a l b o x e r s i n V i c t o r i a O -| - J o h n L. S u l l i v a n , W o r l d Champion^- 1- - Hanson t a k e s two o f t h r e e f a l l s o v e r L y n c h i n N a n a i m o 3 6 88 - p r o f e s s i o n a l b o x i n g and w r e s t l i n g e v e n t s become r e g u l a r f e a t u r e s i n V a n c o u v e r , New W e s t m i n s t e r , and V i c t o r i a 3 2 119 CHAPTER X FOOTBALL The origins of b a l l games of f o o t b a l l style can be traced back through several centuries and across numerous cultures. However, the leading proponents of the modern sport were from Great B r i t a i n . U n t i l the early nineteenth century, the rules were quite open, being negotiated by team captains before the game commenced and disputed as the game progressed. Generally, the objective was to kick the b a l l . In the early days, a score was achieved simply by kicking the b a l l across the opponents goal l i n e , but the students of Rugby School, who were p a r t i c u l a r l y enthused by the game, required the b a l l to be kicked between two up- right posts to score a goal. Legend- records a further adapta- t i o n i n 1823, when a Rugby schoolboy, William Webb E l l i s , disregarded the rules of the day by picking up the b a l l and running with i t . From that time, two d i s t i n c t forms of f o o t b a l l emerged with t h e i r own s p e c i f i c rules - rugby f o o t b a l l , which allowed the b a l l to be carried, and assoc- i a t i o n f o o t b a l l , or soccer, which required the b a l l to be kicked. Rugby rules were most popular with English school- boys and so, as the children matured to adulthood, rugby became the more prevalent of the two games. Thus, i t i s most probable that the f o o t b a l l of early B r i t i s h Columbia was played according to some version of rugby rules. 120 The f i r s t w r i t t e n r u l e s appeared i n 1846, when a committee of p l a y e r s at Rugby School drew up a set of l a w s . 1 By 1871, a Rugby F o o t b a l l Union had appeared i n London and had accepted the e x i s t i n g s c h o o l r u l e s . At the time, each team c o n s i s t e d of twenty p l a y e r s and only goals c o u l d decide a match. A ' t r y ' , by which the b a l l was c a r r i e d over the g o a l l i n e , d i d not count u n l e s s i t was converted 2 i n t o a g o a l . By 1877, most teams were p l a y i n g with f i f - teen p l a y e r s on each s i d e and i f an equal number of goals had been scored, the r e s u l t s o f the matches were determined by the number of t r i e s o b t a i n e d . A l s o around t h i s time, the s i z e and shape of the b a l l became a l i t t l e more standard- i z e d as the o l d p i g ' s bladder was r e p l a c e d by rubber, which was i n f l a t e d by a pump. However, these changes d i d not appear i n a code of r u l e s u n t i l 1892, when the f i r s t system- . . 3 a t i c r e v i s i o n of the laws was made. F o o t b a l l was probably i n t r o d u c e d to B r i t i s h Columbia by the Royal Navy, s t a t i o n e d at Esquimalt, and by the Royal Engineers, camped at New Westminster. These s o l d i e r s and s a i l o r s may have a c q u i r e d knowledge of the game e i t h e r as p a r t of t h e i r p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g or through t h e i r e d u c a t i o n 4 i n B r i t a i n . A c c o r d i n g to other authors, the f i r s t Rugby games i n B r i t i s h Columbia ... can be t r a c e d back to the year 1876, when re c o r d s show t h a t s i d e s from the Royal Navy played matches a g a i n s t land f o r c e and c i v i l i a n teams from Vancouver I s l a n d on the h i s t o r i c can- teen grounds at E s q u i m a l t . 5 121 A p p a r e n t l y , o n l y two o r t h r e e games were p l a y e d i n O c t o b e r o f t h a t y e a r , b u t p l a n s were made t o meet a n n u a l l y . However, i n 1872, t h e D a i l y S t a n d a r d r e p o r t e d what i t c l a i m e d t o be t h e f i r s t f o o t b a l l match i n t h e p r o v i n c e . L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r T r u t c h was p r e s e n t on B e a c o n H i l l t o o b s e r v e t h e c o n t e s t between t h e o f f i c e r s o f H.M. F l e e t and t h e V i c t o r i a C l u b . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e l i s t o f p l a y e r s i n t h e r e p o r t i n d i c a t e d t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n matches had a l r e a d y b e e n r e s t r i c t e d t o f i f t e e n p l a y e r s p e r team. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e newspaper d e s c r i p t i o n , a game was c o n c l u d e d each, t i m e " a g o a l -was- s c o r e d , b u t a match c o u l d c o n t a i n any number o f s u c h games, u n t i l t i m e was c a l l e d . I n t h i s c o n t e s t , b o t h F l e e t and V i c t o r i a s i d e s s c o r e d one g o a l , o r one game e a c h , t o l e a v e t h e match t i e d . The r e t u r n match two weeks l a t e r was a l s o a draw, b u t a l e t t e r t o t h e e d i t o r o f t h e D a i l y S t a n d a r d e x p l a i n e d t h a t s i n c e t h e Navy had s c o r e d s i x ' r o u g e s ' , t h e y had h e l d t h e a d v a n t a g e . T h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n as t o what c o n s t i t u t e d a 'rouge', p e r h a p s a ' t r y ' . However, c o n t e m p o r a r y r u l e s g c o u n t e d s i x 'rouges': as one g o a l . The n e w s p a p e r ' s r e f e r e n c e t o t h e f i r s t m atch i n t h e p r o v i n c e does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l y t h a t t h e e d i t o r c o n - s i d e r e d t h e game t o be t h e f i r s t i n t h e r e g i o n . R a t h e r , t h e r e f e r e n c e may w e l l have b e e n t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c o l o n y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a had r e c e n t l y become a p r o v i n c e i n t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada. An e a r l i e r r e p o r t o f f o o t b a l l had 122 appeared in the spring of 1868. The B r i t i s h Colonist had reported a match between the Town and Fleet Clubs, 9 which had resulted in a v i c t o r y for the Fleet, 6-2. The announcements were very b r i e f and provide no indicat i o n of the nature of the f o o t b a l l game or the current rules. However, the reference to 'clubs' suggests some form of organization i n V i c t o r i a , at least as early as 1868, although play appears to have been sporadic. It i s probable that the f i r s t f o o t b a l l games played in V i c t o r i a were part of the picnic s which were prominent s o c i a l features during the early period. For example, as early as 1865, the Caledonian Benevolent Society of V i c t o r i a was reported to have included f o o t b a l l i n i t s , . . ... 10 annual p i c n i c a c t i v i t i e s . The e a r l i e s t reference to f o o t b a l l i n the region was in 1862, when the game was l i s t e d as part of the Queen's Birthday celebrations at New Westminster. x x No elaboration was provided but i t i s probable that i n t e r e s t i n the game was i n i t i a t e d by the Royal Engineers, who were recently headquartered i n the town. During the mid-1870s, play between the Fleet and the c i t y of V i c t o r i a was i r r e g u l a r but becoming- more frequent. The following notice appeared i n the B r i t i s h Colonist i n the f a l l of 1877 and i s t y p i c a l of the announcements of that time. A f o o t b a l l match w i l l be played t h i s afternoon at Beacon H i l l between f i f t e e n from H.M. Fleet at Esquimalt and f i f t e e n from V i c t o r i a . Rugby Union rules. One hour's play, commencing at 3 o'clock sharp. The following are the names of the respective teams: 123 Navy - Henderson, Abbott, Burrows, Steele, Chappie, Patey, Sibald, Ward, Corry, Bailey, Ross, Messum, Farewell, Hegan, Gray. V i c t o r i a - J.J. Alexander, A. Maxwell, R. McKenzie, J.C. Keith, J.W. Finlayson, W. Tolmie, Rev. H.H. Mogg, CR. Brodie, J.L. Raymur, S. Wooton, R. Wood, -^2 W.B. McKenzie, Jas. Tolmie, John Tolmie, A.W. Jones. Despite the fact that the Navy had scored two t r i e s , they were not converted into goals and the game was declared a 13 draw. • The most recent system of scoring was apparently not in use in V i c t o r i a at that time. Before 1875, a try did not score any points and kicking a goal was the only way to win a match. In order to score a goal, a player had to ground the b a l l behind the opponents goal-line for a try and then kick the b a l l over the cross bar. In 1875, the Rugby Union i n England assigned a value of one point for a t r y . From that time, a match could be won on t r i e s , but a single goal would win the match against any number of t r i e s . It was not u n t i l 1886 that three t r i e s were con- 14 sidered to be the equivalent of one goal kicked. Near the end of October, 1877, the V i c t o r i a Football Club was o f f i c i a l l y formed. Its newly elected captain, J.C. Keith, requested a return match with the Navy, whose captain, A.C Corry, led his team to v i c t o r y by kicking a drop goal. V i c t o r i a ' s Mayor Drake acted as r e f e r e e . 1 5 A year l a t e r , the c i t y team kicked a goal to defeat a combined f l e e t and country side. The B r i t i s h Colonist reported that "The 'scrimmages' were remarkable for some pleasant and f r i e n d l y hacking, which showed up well before B.C. boot l e a t h e r " . 1 6 124 The c i t y and f l e e t teams continued to oppose each other annually over the next ten years, but f o o t b a l l games were few i n number. A major reason for t h i s was the fact that the number of warships i n port did not remain constant. From one to seven ships were anchored at any given time and 17 some of these vessels stayed for only one or two weeks. However, the formation of the V i c t o r i a Football Club included a s u f f i c i e n t number of enthusiasts to hold occasional i n t r a - club matches. In one such contest in 187 8 ," a side captained by R.C. Cridge defeated the team of J.C. Keith. No goals were scored, but the v i c t o r y was achieved by a single 'touch- 18 down', indi c a t i n g that the new rules regarding t r i e s were now i n force i n V i c t o r i a , three years after t h e i r application in B r i t a i n . During the next few years, an increasing number of people participated i n the sport. In October of 1879, Justice Begbie was elected president of the V i c t o r i a Football 19 Club. Later that year, the youth of the c i t y took up the game and the Collegiate School defeated the High School i n both 1879 2 0 and 1880. 2 1 In 1882, the Vancouver (Victoria) A t h l e t i c Club formed two scrub teams for a match at Beacon H i l l , which involved a Rev. A l l e n and also, Cotsford, the 22 noted oarsman. In other scrub matches, composite teams formed to match such groups as Professionals and Bankers 23 vs Commerce and Schools or Great B r i t a i n vs Colonies. 125 By September of 1885, the V i c t o r i a Football Club numbered some twenty-five members who planned two meetings and two practices i n order to prepare for a series of matches with the Navy. The Cathedral I n s t i t u t e on Blanshard Street was the venue for the meetings and H. Jones was elected as captain. In the following f i v e matches, the Club was successful, defeating H.M.S. Triumph, White Swan, Swiftsure, Pelican, and a combined Fleet f i f t e e n . Beacon H i l l Park was the s i t e of a l l the contests and, during one of them, "the band of H.M.S. Triumph was on the h i l l and played many d e l i g h t f u l a i r s during the progress of the game, 24 adding much to the enjoyment". The c i t i e s of Vancouver and New Westminster formed rugby f o o t b a l l teams for challenge matches, i n the spring of 1887. On Easter Monday, the two sides met on a cleared but sloped and muddy ground on Cambie Street. Playing con- diti o n s for the match were far from i d e a l , with stumps, 25 roots, pot holes, and rocks throughout the f i e l d . Never- theless, the match was en t h u s i a s t i c a l l y contested and 2 6 resulted i n a 3-0 victo r y for Vancouver. The members of that f i r s t Vancouver team were: A. St. G. Hammersley, C.G. Johnson, D. Graves, R.G. Tatlow, F.W. Boultbee, F. Holt, Rev. H.G.F. Clinton, Rev. M. Edwards, R.G. Harvey, A.J. Mowatt, 27 T.F. Watson, S. Black, G. McL. Brown, and F. Johnson. In the following year, New Westminster challenged Vancouver for a return match to take place at the c r i c k e t 126 f i e l d on Royal Avenue. The Daily News-Advertiser carried the following notice: A f o o t b a l l match between Vancouver and N.W., under Rugby Union rules, w i l l take place at the l a t t e r c i t y tomorrow afternoon. A special rate of fare ($1.35 return) has been given by the C.P.R. to the club and those c i t i z e n s of Vancouver who wish to witness the match. They w i l l leave by the 11:46 t r a i n for N.W. and a special t r a i n w i l l leave the l a t t e r place for Vancouver i n the evening. A splendid chance i s thus afforded of seeing the Royal City i n a l l i t s beauty, as the gardens there are a l l i n bloom just now with spring f l o w e r s . 2 8 The Vancouver side were again the v i c t o r s and were composed of: T.F. Watson (captain), Rev. H.F. Clinton, Rev. M. Edwards, S. Black, CG. Johnson, F. Johnson, R.G. Harvey, R.G. Tatlow, F. Boultbee, G. McL. Brown, A.B. Williams, A.J. Mowatt, F. Holt, and D. Graves. For New Westminster: R.B. L i s t e r (captain), W.J. Walker, Wilson, Hamber, Lewis, Parker, Turner, Cunningham, J.M. Clute, Clapcott, Black, Jones, 29 Corbett, and Pxckles. The referee was A. St. G. Hamersley. By the f a l l of 1889, inter e s t in rugby f o o t b a l l had grown to such an extent that a p r o v i n c i a l organization was formed. On October 4, members of Vancouver, New Westminster, Nanaimo, and V i c t o r i a clubs elected A. St. George Hamersley as president of the B r i t i s h Columbia Rugby Union, an organ- i z a t i o n whose main objective was the promotion of i n t e r - 30 cxty matches. P r o v i n c i a l championships were then held 31 i n the followxng year, 1890. Association f o o t b a l l , or soccer, also became popular about th i s time. In 1888, the schools of V i c t o r i a were 32 playxng the game and c i t y matches began a year l a t e r , 127 with the formation of the V i c t o r i a Association Football 33 Club in November, 1889. By the next year, seven more clubs were playing - the United Scots, T h i s t l e s , Y.M.C.A., Chri s t Church Cathedral, V i c t o r i a College, James Bay At h l e t i c Association, and Corrig School. The sport was further stimulated that year when the St. Andrews and Caledonian Society donated medals for a p r o v i n c i a l champion- ship. SUMMARY It i s most probable that rugby f o o t b a l l was f i r s t introduced to the P a c i f i c North West by the o f f i c e r s and men of the Royal Navy and the Royal Engineers, who had experienced the sport i n B r i t a i n . The roughness of the sport undoubtedly r e s t r i c t e d l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the inconsistent s a i l i n g s of the Fleet made competition sporadic over the years. However, the great i n f l u x of s e t t l e r s i n the late 1880s brought several f o o t b a l l enthusiasts of both rugby and association styles so that, by 1890, pro- v i n c i a l championships were held i n both games. 128 Table VI F o o t b a l l 1862 - p a r t of New Westminster Queen's B i r t h d a y a c t i v i t i e s 65 - p a r t of Caledonian Benevolent S o c i e t y p i c n i c 1 ^ 68 - F l e e t (6) - V i c t o r i a ( 2 ) 9 1872 - ' f i r s t f o o t b a l l match i n the p r o v i n c e ' , F l e e t vs V i c t o r i a 6 76 - 5 F l e e t vs V i c t o r i a 77 - 12 F l e e t vs V i c t o r i a , V i c t o r i a F o o t b a l l Club o f f i c i a l l y formed 78 - 16 V i c t o r i a d e f e a t s combined F l e e t and Country 79 - J u s t i c e Begbie p r e s i d e n t of V i c t o r i a F o o t b a l l C l u b 1 9 C o l l e g i a t e School over High S c h o o l 2 1 1880 - 21 C o l l e g i a t e School over High School 82 - Vancouver ( V i c t o r i a ) A t h l e t i c Club f o r m e d 2 2 scrub m a t c h e s 2 3 85 - V i c t o r i a F o o t b a l l Club wins f i v e matches over Fleet24 87 - 2 6 Vancouver (3) - New Westminster (0) 88 - 2 8 Vancouver again d e f e a t s New Westminster V i c t o r i a s c h ools p l a y a s s o c i a t i o n f o o t b a l l 3 2 89 — B r i t i s h Columbia Rugby Union f o r m e d 3 0 V i c t o r i a A s s o c i a t i o n F o o t b a l l Club f o r m e d 3 3 90 - 34 E i g h t a s s o c i a t i o n f o o t b a l l c l u b s i n V i c t o r i a P r o v i n c i a l championships i n both r u g b y 3 1 and a s s o c i a t i o n f o o t b a l l 3 4 129 CHAPTER XI GYMNASTICS E a r l y g y m n a s t i c s t y p e a c t i v i t i e s were o f t e n d i s p l a y s o f s t r e n g t h , p e r f o r m e d e i t h e r by t r a v e l l i n g t r i c k s t e r s o r by c o l o n i a l s r e s p o n d i n g t o a b e t . Two s u c h examples were d e s c r i b e d i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t . The f e a t s o f s t r e n g t h p e r f o r m e d by Mr. E n d t , l a s t e v e n i n g , were r e a l l y a s t o n i s h i n g . T h i s e v e n i n g he a p p e a r s i n some w o n d e r f u l s l i g h t o f hand t r i c k s , amongst w h i c h i s t h e c u t t i n g o f f a man's head and p l a c i n g i t a t h i s f e e t . ! FEAT OF STRENGTH - Q u i t e a crowd c o l l e c t e d i n Y a t e s s t r e e t y e s t e r d a y , t o w i t n e s s Mr. Brown, a p o w e r f u l C a r i b o o m i n e r , p e r f o r m a f e a t o f s t r e n g t h i n c a r r y i n g a bag o f s h o t w e i g h i n g twenty-two pounds i n e a c h hand, f r o m t h e A l b i o n S a l o o n , c o r n e r o f W a d d i n g t o n A l l e y , t o t h e A d e l p h i S a l o o n , c o r n e r o f Government s t r e e t . T h e r e was a b e t d e p e n d i n g on t h e i s s u e , and t h e r e s u l t was i n f a v o r o f Mr. Brown who manful-ly s u c c e e d e d i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e u n d e r t a k i n g . . 2 However, i n t e r e s t i n more r e f i n e d g y m n a s t i c work was a c t u a l l y begun q u i t e e a r l y i n V i c t o r i a ' s h i s t o r y . A r o u n d 1860, t h e Dashaway A s s o c i a t i o n , a g r o u p o f t e e t o t a l l e r s , " w i t h a f o r e t h o u g h t and p u b l i c s p i r i t w h i c h d o e s them 3 g r e a t c r e d i t " , b u i l t a gymnasium n e x t t o t h e i r r e a d i n g room. V 7 i t h i n a s h o r t t i m e , so many p e o p l e were f r e q u e n t i n g t h e h a l l t h a t a s e c o n d gymnasium was opened by a g r o u p o f f o r t y e n t h u s i a s t s , c a l l i n g t h e m s e l v e s t h e E x c e l s i o r C l u b . B o t h o f t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s were e q u i p p e d w i t h a c r o s s - b a r , p a r a l l e l b a r s , s w i n g , c l u b s , and d u m b - b e l l s and were open t o t h e p u b l i c . 130 I n A p r i l o f 1860, t h e E x c e l s i o r s e l e c t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g e x e c u t i v e : J o h n F. Damon, p r e s i d e n t ; J o h n P. Couch, v i c e - p r e s i d e n t ; F r a n c i s P. G e a r y , s e c r e t a r y ; and J . L . S m i t h , 4 t r e a s u r e r . By September, t h e c l u b had s e v e n t y l i s t e d members, w i t h p l a n s f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a b u i l d i n g o f a b o u t t h i r t y f e e t by s e v e n t y f e e t . E a c h member had p a i d a j o i n i n g f e e o f $2.50, p l u s a m o n t h l y s u b s c r i p t i o n o f $1, making t h e c l u b t h e most e x p e n s i v e gymnasium i n N o r t h 5 A m e r i c a . I t s a s p i r a t i o n was t o p r o v i d e t h e f i n e s t p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n on t h e c o a s t , e q u i p p e d n o t o n l y w i t h g y m n a s t i c 6 a p p a r a t u s , b u t a l s o a s p a c i o u s r e a d i n g room and l i b r a r y . By t h e f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g , t h e membership a p p r o a c h e d one 7 h u n d r e d and a b a t h room had been a t t a c h e d t o t h e h a l l . L a t e r t h a t y e a r , t h e E x c e l s i o r s p u t on a " G y m n a s t i c E x h i b i t i o n " w h i c h drew g r e a t a c c l a i m f r o m t h e p r e s s . The p r o g r e s s o f t h e s e a t h l e t i c amusements i s as g r e a t an e v i d e n c e o f e n l i g h t e n m e n t i n a community, as e v e n L i t e r a r y and S c i e n t i f i c I n s t i t u t i o n s , and t h e y s h o u l d o b t a i n an e q u a l amount o f p u b l i c s u p p o r t . N e v e r has an e n t e r t a i n m e n t o f any k i n d b e e n g i v e n i n t h i s c i t y w h i c h has m e r i t e d o r r e c e i v e d so many f l a t t e r i n g e n coniums .... S e v e r a l o f t h e f e a t s were o f t h e most d a r i n g d e s c r i p t i o n and c o n s i s t e d o f s w i n g i n g i n t h e r i n g s , e x e r c i s e s w i t h I n d i a n c l u b s and d u m b - b e l l s , t r a p e z e , s l a c k w i r e , p a r a l l e l b a r s , p y r a m i d s , h o r i z o n t a l b a r s , b o x i n g , f e n c i n g , t u m b l i n g , and c . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f Mr. D e v i n e f t h e i n s t r u c t o r 9 } , t h e members a r e a l l a m a t e u r s , and we t h e r e f o r e do n o t f e e l a t l i b e r t y t o m e n t i o n n a m e s . 1 0 The c l u b c o n t i n u e d t o f u n c t i o n f o r a n o t h e r c o u p l e o f y e a r s , a d v e r t i s i n g t h e u s e o f i t s l i g h t e d f a c i l i t y f o r e v e r y Monday, Wednesday, and F r i d a y , f r o m 7:30 - 9:00 p.m. X ± However, 131 by late 1863, something had gone wrong. Perhaps the club had deluded i t s e l f with the prospect of huge f i n a n c i a l successes as a private i n s t i t u t i o n , but whatever, the h a l l 12 was sold for $3,250 and the club seems to have disappeared. Around th i s time, the Dashaway Association seems to have disappeared as well. If t h i s association i s the same temperance society to which Matthew MacFie refers i n his contempary book on Vancouver Island, the Dashaways broke up as a r e s u l t of a r a c i a l dispute. MacFie states, A white member of a temperance society, which was eminently useful i n the community, proposed the name of a coloured man for admission, i n t e n t i o n a l l y avoiding to disclose at that time any information as to his race, and when i t was discovered that the society had been beguiled, ignorantly into accept- ing a negro as a brother t e e t o t a l l e r , i t broke up. 1 3 By 1864, the V i c t o r i a Turnverein had f i l l e d the void 14 by opening a new h a l l on View Street. However, the Turnverein did not prosper for long. In 1886, the society presented a gold watch and chain, valued at $200, to Mr. Charles Dechant, i n appreciation of his services as t e a c h e r . 1 5 From that time, the society seems to have floundered and V i c t o r i a did not appear to have been very interested i n the a c t i v i t y . By September of that year, the c i t y ' s 'Gymnasium H a l l ' (whether the reference intends the Turnverein i s unclear) was announced as r e f i t t e d - lighted with gas and furnished with seats, but to be used by a Mr. Sommerville's congregation of the St. Andrew's 16 Church. Two years l a t e r , the Gymnastic Society was again 132 on the move, changing locations to the corner of Yates and Broad streets where, i n an e f f o r t to rai s e needed funds, 17 i t sold l i f e memberships at a price of $20. Just a few months l a t e r , i t was off to yet another f a c i l i t y , the 18 Alhambra H a l l and was reported as prosperous. Then, i n 1870, Lewis Stemmler advertised his 'Boys' Gymnasium', for youths ten to sixteen years of age, located on View Street, 19 between Douglas and Blanchard Streets. The Victorian's d i s i n t e r e s t i n gymnastics was deplored by the B r i t i s h Colonist i n 1873. Making reference to an old and l i t t l e used gymnasium, the paper scolded the pop- u l a t i o n for i t s sad physical condition and suggested a sub- s c r i p t i o n to reinstate the Turnverein. And here we are s h r i v e l l e d , cramped, and enfeebled, our shoulders drooping and weeping willows over tombstones, our manly chests contracting into the shape of spoons, our backs hunching up l i k e a dromedary's, and our knees bending and knocking together l i k e an automatons, our youth-and manhood prematurely decaying and presenting a sight : melan- choly enough to draw tears from out the heart of any d r i l l - s a r g e a n t . It i s especially the case with our boys i n school, where nothing i s done to shapen the limbs nor straighten the back. How much the seed of future disease i n the man i s sown i n the misshapen body of the boy, hygiene (which should be r i g h t i n our schools) w i l l show. Gymnastics, i f not a panacea for disease, i s most c e r t a i n l y a strong preventative. The of the body, the easy manly s t r i d e , the well- developed limbs, the head erect, the steady hand, the f i x of the eye, attest to the athlete .... We, there- fore, can not too strongly urge of our fellow c i t - izens the necessity of encouraging a t h l e t i c sports and more p a r t i c u l a r l y of reviving the Turn Verein or Gymnasium.20 A few months l a t e r , the Daily Standard echoed th i s growing concern for health and physical a c t i v i t y . 133 There are few i n s t i t u t i o n s which ought to meet with as hearty support during the approaching winter months as a gymnasium - a place of resort for young V i c t o r i a to indulge i n health and necessary exercise. In t h i s c i t y there i s a lack of v i t a l i t y amongst the class which elsewhere and i n England e s p e c i a l l y , devote a certain portion of th e i r time to manly games, sports and development, but we are sure that a committee composed of active, working members making arrangements for the establishment of a gymnasium would meet with the support the i n s t i t u t i o n should j u s t l y m e r i t . 2 1 Elsewhere i n the province, New Westminster gained a gymnastics school i n 1864, causing the Scorpion to note, We are glad to see that two of our most enterprising young townsmen, with a s p i r i t deserving commend- ation have opened a school of Gymnastics i n the rear of t h e i r premises. The i n s t i t u t i o n i s opened more espe c i a l l y with the view of affording exercise and amusement to the City Fathers, and we under- stand that Councillors Cross, Sharkson and Hamstrung have entered the l i s t s to compete i n ground and l o f t y tumbling. 2 2 The instructors were: J. Aberdeen, self-defence according to the rules of the London Prize Ring; Mr. Seth, ground and l o f t y tumbling; and Sharkson, J r . , pole exercises. The only other apparent reference during the period i s i n 1877, regarding a horizontal bar, erected on a square near 23 Douglas Street.' Gymnastics did not become a formal sport i n North America u n t i l around the turn of the century, when com- p e t i t i v e meets were arranged. However, as early as 1868, B a r k e r v i l l e hosted competitions i n gymnastic feats on the p a r a l l e l bars and " l a Perch", during i t s July 4 celebra- 24 tions. 134 SUMMARY E a r l y g y m n a s t i c a c t i v i t i e s were o f t e n d i s p l a y s o f s t r e n g t h , p e r f o r m e d e i t h e r by t r a v e l l i n g t r i c k s t e r s o r by c o l o n i a l s r e s p o n d i n g t o a b e t . However, more r e f i n e d e x e r c i s e s were p e r f o r m e d i n V i c t o r i a as e a r l y as 1860, u n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e Dashaway A s s o c i a t i o n and t h e p r i v a t e E x c e l s i o r C l u b , t h e l a t t e r soon t o become t h e most e x p e n s i v e o f s u c h c l u b s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . By t h e m i d - s i x t i e s b o t h i n s t i t u t i o n s had f l o u n d e r e d , b u t t h e T u r n v e r e i n was a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h i t s e l f i n 1864, s u c c u m b i n g i t s e l f t o i n s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r e s t some two y e a r s l a t e r . A s c h o o l o f g y m n a s t i c s was opened i n New W e s t m i n s t e r i n 1864 and, i n 1868, B a r k e r v i l l e h e l d g y m n a s t i c t y p e c o m p e t i t i o n s as p a r t o f i t s J u l y 4 f e s t i v i t i e s . I n summary, g y m n a s t i c s was n o t a p r o m i n e n t s p o r t d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d and was u s e d o n l y by a v e r y few p e o p l e as a means o f e n h a n c i n g t h e i r p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n . 135 Table V I I Gymnastics 1,2 - 'feats of strength' performed by early colonials ' 3 1860 - Dashaway Society - Excelsior Club 3" 12 63 - Excelsior Club s e l l s h a l l 14 64 - Turnverein Society opens new h a l l - New Westminster gets school of gymnastics 2 2 15 66 - demise of Turnverein - 'Gymnasium H a l l ' converted to a c h u r c h 1 6 68 - B a r k e r v i l l e July 4th competitions on p a r a l l e l bars 1870 - Boys' gymnasium opened 7 3 - newspaper c r i t i c i s m of physical condition and need and 'La Perch' 1 3 6 C H A P T E R X I I HORSE R A C I N G T h e ' s p o r t o f k i n g s ' w a s e n j o y e d b y e n t h u s i a s t s i n V i c t o r i a a s e a r l y a s 1 8 5 5 , w h e n h o r s e r a c e s w e r e h e l d o n B e a c o n H i l l a s p a r t o f t h e Q u e e n ' s B i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s . 1 S i n c e n e w s p a p e r s w e r e n o t p u b l i s h e d i n t h e a r e a u n t i l l a t e r i n t h e d e c a d e , t h e r e i s l i t t l e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a n n u a l e v e n t s . H o w e v e r , b y 1 8 5 9 , l o c a l p r e s s e s h a d b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d a n d t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t c a r r i e d t h i s r e p o r t o f t h e f e s t - i v i t i e s : T h e Q u e e n ' s B i r t h d a y - T h e R a c e s - Y e s t e r d a y w a s t h e Q u e e n ' s B i r t h d a y a.nd i t w a s g e n e r a l l y o b s e r v e d a s a h o l i d a y . T h e r a c e s c a m e o f f . o n B e a c o n H i l l i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f a l a r g e c o n c o u r s e o f s p e c t a t o r s ; t h e r e n o t b e i n g l e s s t h a n 2 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s p r e s e n t . . . J o s e p h D. P e m b e r t o n , E s q . , a n d C a p t . C o o p e r a c t e d a s j u d g e s , a n d J . W . M c K a y , a n d G . I . W r i g h t a s s t e w a r d s . T h e f i r s t w a s a h u r d l e - r a c e , 1 m i l e h e a t s , b e s t 2 i n 3 f o r $ 1 0 0 , w i t h $ 1 0 e n t r a n c e t o b e a d d e d ; o p e n t o a l l h o r s e s w i t h o u t r e s t r i c t i o n . T h i s r a c e w a s w o n b y M r . H a r r i s ' h o r s e . T h e n e x t r a c e w a s f o r t h e Q u e e n ' s P l a t e , v a l u e $ 2 0 0 , 1 m i l e h e a t s , b e s t 2 i n 3 , $ 1 5 e n t r a n c e , t o b e a d d e d ; o p e n t o a l l h o r s e s r e d u c e d t o w e i g h t n o t l e s s t h a n 8 s t o n e . S e v e r a l s c r u b r a c e s t o o k p l a c e a n d w e r e s m a r t l y c o n t e s t e d . . . A l a r g e n u m b e r o f l a d i e s w e r e p r e s e n t . A d i n n e r t o o k p l a c e i n t h e e v e n i n g a t t h e R o y a l H o t e l , . 2 T h e l a r g e a s s e m b l y w a s u n d o u b t e d l y d u e t o t h e f l o o d o f m i n e r s w h o h a d r e c e n t l y a r r i v e d i n V i c t o r i a . H o w e v e r , t h e V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e i d e n t i f i e d a n o t h e r g r o u p o f s p e c t a t o r s . T h e p a p e r a n n o u n c e d t h a t n e a r l y t h r e e t h o u s a n d p e o p l e h a d a t t e n d e d t h e r a c e s , a n d . . . a b o r i g i n a l t r i b e s , w h o v /e re o u t o n t h i s o c c a s i o n i n f u l l f o r c e a n d a t t i r e d i n a l l t h e h u e s o f t h e r a i n - 137 bow, were s e a t e d m o s t l y on t h e brow o f t h e h i l l where t h e y f a r m e d a gay and p l e a s i n g framework t o t h e p i c t u r e . The r e p o r t c o n t i n u e d t h a t t h e Queen's P l a t e had been won by a h o r s e named 'Moustache'. T h i s l o c a l award i s n o t t o be c o n f u s e d w i t h t h e p r e s t i g i o u s p r i z e o f t h e same name, h e l d i n Lower Canada and r e s t r i c t e d a t t h a t t i m e , t o h o r s e s f r o m t h a t r e g i o n . However, t h e Queen's P l a t e i n V i c t o r i a was t h e m a j o r l o c a l h o r s e r a c i n g p r i z e and was o f f e r e d a g a i n i n t h e autumn o f 1859. A t t h e end o f O c t o b e r , by w h i c h t i m e many o f t h e m i n e r s would p r o b a b l y have r e t u r n e d t o V i c t o r i a f o r t h e w i n t e r , a s e r i e s o f r a c e s was h e l d . I n c l u d e d on t h e programme were t h e Queen's P l a t e , V i c t o r i a S w e e p s t a k e s , H u r d l e Race, a $150 match between Mr. H a r r i s ' 'George' and P a r k e r ' s 'Moustache', and o t h e r s c r u b r a c e s . 4 E v e n t s o f a l i g h t e r n a t u r e were a l s o h e l d on t h e B e a c o n H i l l c o u r s e i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e r a c e s . F o r example, i n A p r i l o f 1859, d r a u g h t h o r s e s were p u t i n t o t r a i n i n g f o r 5 a n o v e l e v e n t and l o t s o f o t h e r f u n was p l a n n e d - c a t c h i n g p i g s by t h e t a i l , c l i m b i n g a g r e a s e d p o l e , and r u n n i n g i n s a c k s . 6 D e s p i t e t h e g a i e t y o f t h e e v e n t , t h e h o r s e r a c e was s t i l l t a k e n q u i t e s e r i o u s l y and t h e V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e r e p o r t e d t h a t i t " d i d n o t r e s u l t t o anybody's s a t i s f a c t i o n , a s d u r i n g a p o r t i o n o f i t > one o f t h e h o r s e s was w i t h o u t a r i d e r . 138 D u r i n g t h e s e e a r l y y e a r s , h o r s e s f o r t h e r e g u l a r com- p e t i t i o n s were p r o b a b l y common s a d d l e p o n i e s . However, i t was n o t l o n g b e f o r e h o r s e s became more n o t e d f o r t h e i r r a c i n g p rowess t h a n f o r t h e i r d a i l y u t i l i t y . I n May o f 1860, t h e v e s s e l Hyack was r e p o r t e d t o have b r o u g h t two g " f a s t h o r s e s " f r o m H o n o l u l u . N e i t h e r t h e names o f t h e h o r s e s o r t h e i r owners a r e a p p a r e n t , b u t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i r a r r i v a l was drawn t o t h e p u b l i c ' s a t t e n t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y must have been c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e l o c a l r a c i n g s c e n e . T h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n as t o t h e i r p a r t i c i p a - t i o n i n t h e Queen's B i r t h d a y r a c e s t h a t y e a r , w h i c h were h e l d u n d e r t h e p a t r o n a g e o f C h i e f J u s t i c e Cameron. The m a j o r w i n n e r s o f t h e s e r a c e s were h o r s e s b e l o n g i n g t o 9 J . P a r k e r and T. H a r r i s . I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t H a r r i s ' h o r s e , 'George', was a d v e r t i s e d i n a l a t e r r a c e as b e l o n g i n g t o G. R i c h a r d s o n , 1 0 i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e h o r s e may have been b o u g h t i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f h i s r a c i n g p o t e n t i a l . D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e Queen's P l a t e was p o s t p o n e d t w i c e t h a t s p r i n g due t o l a c k o f e n t r i e s , by t h e summer, t h e V i c t o r i a r a c i n g f r a t e r n i t y b e g a n t o show s i g n s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n . An a d v e r t i s e m e n t a p p e a r e d i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t u n d e r t h e s i g n a t u r e o f T. H a r r i s , C l e r k o f t h e C o u r s e , and announced a two day s c h e d u l e o f r a c e s . On J u l y 3, a s w e e p s t a k e r a c e p l u s t h e Queen's P l a t e were t o be r u n . P r e v i o u s w i n n e r s o f t h e P l a t e were t o c a r r y t e n 13 9 pounds e x t r a . On J u l y 4, a h u r d l e race and two match races were s c h e d u l e d . 1 1 In subsequent announcements, the f o l l o w i n g o f f i c i a l s were l i s t e d : Stev/ards - G.H. Cary, John C o l e s , and Captain Cooper; Judges - C a p t a i n Gordon, Major F o s t e r , and D.B. Ring. A l l r i d e r s were to wear 12 c o l o u r s . F u r t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n was demonstrated i n l a t e November, when a programme of 'Amateur' races was announced. Once again, r i d e r s were to wear c o l o u r s and the o f f i c i a l s were: Judge - Major F o s t e r ; Stewards - John Coles, M.P., Major de Coucy, J . D'Ewes, and C a p t a i n Torrens; C l e r k s - A. Skinner 13 and Dr. James; S t a r t e r - Mr. H a r r i s . The p a r t i c i p a t i o n of t h i s upper c l a s s of p r o f e s s i o n a l s , m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s , and p o l i t i c i a n s undoubtedly promoted some degree of s o p h i s t - i c a t i o n i n the proceedings. By t h i s time, a judges stand had been e r e c t e d and the band of H.M.S. Topaze was on hand to add to the entertainment of the three hundred s p e c t a t o r s . 1 4 W i t h i n a few weeks, l a r g e wager match races were being promoted and were probably organized i n response to the l a r g e number of people from the gold f i e l d who were w i n t e r i n g i n V i c t o r i a . The f i r s t of these was on Boxing Day, 1860, 1 5 when a race f o r $800 between "two w e l l known f a s t nags" r e s u l t e d i n 'Grey B i l l y ' d e f e a t i n g 'Black P r i n c e ' . A s i m i l a r r e s u l t was obtained i n March when the two horses 17 were re-matched f o r $2,000. In other r a c e s , horses belonging to Messrs. Bowman 18 and H a r r i s were to be matched f o r $1,000, but the race j 140 actually came off with d i f f e r e n t horses. This contest between Mr. F u l l e r ' s 'Butcher Boy1 and Mr. J.A. Rice's 19 'Jim' was p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t because 'Butcher Boy' was d i s q u a l i f i e d i n the race, r a i s i n g considerable i l l - w i l l and controversy over the lack of consistent rules. When a Mr. Roberts' challenge for $2,000, open to a l l 20 horses except 'Butcher Boy', was accepted by Parker, with his horse 'Moustache', the editor of the B r i t i s h Colonist stated: We recommend the adoption of rules to govern t h i s race, as well as a l l others that may i n future occur, to prevent the recurrence of such scenes as took place at the l a s t over the same course.21 Whatever rules were established are not clear, but Roberts' 'cream coloured horse' won ea s i l y and the editor reported that; I t i s computed that some $15,00 0 changed hands on the occasion. Both horses are American bred, and 'Moustache' has heretofore been a great favour- i t e with our sporting men ... There could not have been less than 1,500 persons2present, and great in t e r e s t was evinced by a l l . Racing enthusiasts became more formally related i n mid- March, 1861, when a Jockey Club was organized. Subscriptions amounting to $4 00 were to be spent on the course and the following founding members of the club were to c o l l e c t the funds: Messrs. Thos. Harris, A. Stenhouse, J.D. C a r r o l l , Dr. James, C C . Pendergast, L. Lowenberg, Bowman, and Halsey.' Within a few days, the new association met at the Brown 24 Jug Hotel to adopt a code of rules which was la t e r printed LEAF 141 OMITTED IN PAGE NUMBERING. 142 at the o f f i c e of the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t . When the c l u b p l a c e d an advertisement i n the paper to announce i t s S p r i n g Meeting f o r F r i d a y and Saturday of May 24 and 25, the f o l l o w i n g r u l e s were announced to the p u b l i c . 1. The Stewards' d e c i s i o n to be f i n a l on a l l d e t a i l s connected with the Races. 2. A l l e n t r i e s to be made by s e a l e d l e t t e r s addressed to the 'Honorary S e c r e t a r y of the Jockey Club, Post O f f i c e , V i c t o r i a ' , w i t h the entrance money to be enclosed, on or b e f o r e s i x o ' c l o c k i n the evening of the 21st May. 3. C o l o r s must be d e c l a r e d to the Honorary Sec- r e t a r y a t the same time, or a f i n e of $3 w i l l be l e v i e d t o go to the Race Fund. Any Jockey r i d i n g without c o l o r s w i l l be f i n e d $10. 4. F i v e per cent w i l l be deducted from a l l stakes f o r the expense of the Race Course.26 The advertisement a l s o i n t r o d u c e d the o f f i c i a l s of the c l u b : Patron - His E x c e l l e n c y , Governor Douglas; Stewards - G.T. Gordon, Major D'Ewes, C R . Robson, R.N., T.J. Skinner, and C a p t a i n Venables. Mr. H.B. Campbell was the s e c r e t a r y of the c l u b . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the proposed r a c i n g c a r d i n c l u d e d a " S e l l i n g Stakes" race, i n which a l l the horses entered were to be f o r s a l e . In order to c o n t r o l the asking p r i c e s and to make the c o m p e t i t i o n more f a i r , a system of handicapping was i n t r o d u c e d by which horses with h i g h e r p r i c e s were to c a r r y more weight. The winner of t h i s race was then to be s o l d by a u c t i o n . As the date of the races approached, numerous prepar- a t i o n s were made. The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t r e p o r t e d t h a t A l a r g e number of f i n e animals are i n t r a i n i n g , and the Beacon H i l l course has been surveyed, e n l a r g e d and c l e a r e d of o b s t r u c t i o n s . Among the p r i z e s to be c o n t e s t e d f o r i s an elegant g o l d cup, presented to the Jockey Club by c i t i z e n s of V i c t o r i a - through Mr. A. S t e n h o u s e . 2 7 143 28 S i t e s f o r r e f r e s h m e n t b o o t h s were t o be l e t by t e n d e r and o t h e r c o n s t r u c t i o n on t h e c o u r s e i n c l u d e d an e n c l o s u r e , a g r a n d s t a n d r e p o r t e d by d i f f e r e n t n e w s p a p e r s t o s e a t two hu n d r e d and f o u r h u n d r e d p e o p l e , and a w e i g h i n g room. G e n e r a l a d m i s s i o n t o t h e e n c l o s u r e was by t i c k e t , w i t h a c h a r g e o f f i f t y c e n t s , a l t h o u g h l a d i e s were a d m i t t e d f r e e . 29 A l l a d m i s s i o n t o t h e g r a n d s t a n d c o s t an e x t r a one d o l l a r . The m a j o r e v e n t s were h e l d on t h e f i r s t day o f r a c i n g and o v e r two t h o u s a n d s p e c t a t o r s were i n a t t e n d a n c e . W i n n e r s were: T r i a l S t a k e s - 'Punch'; Queen's P l a t e - ' S i l v e r t a i l ' ; S e l l i n g S t a k e s - ' B l a c k P r i n c e ' ; N a v a l P u r s e - 'Grey A r row', r i d d e n by Commander R o b s o n . 3 0 The S a t u r d a y r a c e s drew a crowd o f o n l y s i x o r s e v e n h u n d r e d p e o p l e t o t h e H u r d l e s , J o c k e y C l u b S t a k e s , and t h e L a d i e s P u r s e r a c e s , w h i c h were won by 'Jim', ' S i l v e r t a i l ' , and ' P e t ' , r e s p e c t - i v e l y . The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t summed up t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e two d a y s and r e c o g n i z e d t h e s o c i a l v a l u e o f t h e r a c e s by s t a t i n g t h a t ... i t i s p l e a s a n t t o w i t n e s s a s c e n e i n w h i c h a l l c l a s s e s u n i t e t o p r e s e n t a p i c t u r e o f e n j o y m e n t ... I t i s s u p e r f l u o u s t o e n l a r g e upon t h e a d v a n t a g e s t h a t t h e town and c o l o n y w i l l u l t i m a t e l y d e r i v e f r o m t h e a n n u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e s e r a c e s . The g r e a t e r i n d u c e m e n t f o r i m p r o v i n g o u r b r e e d o f h o r s e s ; t h e a t t r a c t i o n s i t p r e s e n t s t o o u r n e i g h b o u r s ; So s u c c e s s f u l were t h e r a c e s t h a t a s e c o n d s e r i e s was p r o p o s e d i n t h e autumn. The V i c t o r i a O c t o b e r Race M e e t i n g was a d v e r t i s e d w i t h r a c e s t o i n c l u d e a T r i a l S t a k e s , m a tch r a c e , V i c t o r i a H a n d i c a p , I n n - K e e p e r s ' P l a t e , B e a c o n H i l l and t h e money Sweepstakes, Stewards' P l a t e , Naval Stakes, and a scramble. Admission to both the e n c l o s u r e and the grandstand was s e t at $1, while entrance to the newly c o n s t r u c t e d Stewards' 32 Stand was $5.32. Although t h i s was the l a s t o f f i c i a l r ace of the season f o r the Jockey Club, match races con- t i n u e d . In one such event, 'Black John' defeated *Lady 31 F r a n k l i n ' f o r $1,000 a s i d e . About t h i s time, V i c t o r i a l o s t one of i t s most prominent horse e n t h u s i a s t s . C a p t a i n Robson, R.N., had not o n l y been a promoter of the Jockey Club as one of i t s founding members, but he had a l s o been an a v i d r i d e r and horse owner. In the s p r i n g of 1861, he had accepted a $500 wager i n which he was to r i d e any horse i n the colony over a d i s t a n c e of t h r e e m i l e s , i n a time of seven minutes. He chose Bowman and Halsey's 'Butcher Boy' and completed the run i n s i x minutes and t h i r t y - f i v e seconds. Robson then put h i s $500 34 winnings to good use by purchasing the horse f o r t h a t sum. The degree of Robson's involvement with r a c i n g i s f u r t h e r evidenced by the c a l i b e r of h i s horse 'Grey Arrow', which was r a f f l e d a t the S t a r and G a r t e r H o t e l f o l l o w i n g h i s death. 'Grey Arrow' had won $1,750 i n a J u l y 4 v i c t o r y 35 over 'Jim' and was r e c o g n i z e d as being very f a s t . F u r t h e r - more, i t was s a i d to be "well known on t h i s and the Oregon 3 6 t u r f " , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the top horses i n V i c t o r i a were not mere saddle ponies but were experienced race horses. 145 By early 1862, i t was evident that the fortunes of the V i c t o r i a Jockey Club were to be short l i v e d . According to a l e t t e r to the editor of The Press, the Club had i n i t i a t e d the construction of various f a c i l i t i e s at the Beacon H i l l course and had made several expense commitments on the strength of promised subscriptions. When the Club sub- sequently attempted to c o l l e c t the promised funds, a number of the subscribers refused to pay and many had l e f t the colony. Thus, the Club was unable to make i t s payments and one of i t s creditors was even incarcerated for his . . 37 i n a b i l i t y to pay his b i l l s . A few months l a t e r , a Mr. D i l l o n brought a s u i t against several members of the club i n an attempt to gain the money owed him. Since the Chief Justice was also a member of the club, i t was thought that he might not be able to pass appropriate judgement, so the settlement was postponed. It i s not clear how the matter was f i n a l l y decided, but the editor of the B r i t i s h Colonist seemed pleased with the action as he wrote: So there appears to be some show for honest men to get t h e i r dues from that late select assoc- i a t i o n of 'gentlemen' jockeys, who obtained un- limited c r e d i t on the strength of t h e i r 'reputations' and broke up without s e t t l i n g t h e i r b i l l s . Although the Jockey Club had become a defunct i n s t i t u - t i o n , racing continued i n V i c t o r i a . The Queen's Birthday races of 1862 were held under the sponsorship of a "number 39 of p a t r i o t i c tradesmen" headed by Thos. Harris, a racing 146 e n t h u s i a s t who had p r o m oted t h e e a r l y V i c t o r i a r a c e s and had b een a f o u n d i n g member o f t h e J o c k e y C l u b . W i n n e r s t h a t y e a r were: F l a t Race f o r $5 p e r e n t r y w i t h $50 added, R i c h a r d s o n ' s 'Punch'; Tradesmen's P l a t e f o r $25 p e r e n t r y w i t h $150 added, ' S i l v e r t a i l ' ; L a d i e s P u r s e f o r $100, 40 Shannon's 'Tom'; P o s t H a n d i c a p , Howard's ' P e t ' . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t by November, Thomas H a r r i s had become Mayor o f V i c t o r i a . I t was a g a i n u n d e r 41 h i s d i r e c t i o n t h a t t h e Autumn Races were h e l d t h a t y e a r . I n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t s t h a t y e a r , t h e l o c a l h o r s e ' V o l u n t e e r ' was d e f e a t e d by an unnamed h o r s e w h i c h had 42 r e c e n t l y a r r i v e d f r o m C a l i f o r n i a . I n l a t e November, t h e reknowned ' S i l v e r t a i l ' was b e a t e n by Mr. Shannon's ' P i l g r i m ' and, a l t h o u g h t h e match was o n l y f o r $250, some one t h o u s a n d p e o p l e t u r n e d o u t on a Monday a f t e r n o o n t o 43 watch t h e r a c e . A t t h e end o f t h e y e a r , t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t a nnounced t h e f o l l o w i n g s p e c i a l p l a n s : A NOVELTY IN RACING - Mr. F r e d B e l l , l a t e manager o f t h e V i c t o r i a T h e a t r e , and Max I r w i n , w i l l r u n a c h a r i o t r a c e on t h e Beacon H i l l c o u r s e t o - d a y , a t 2 o ' c l o c k p.m. ... The c h a r i o t s were b r o u g h t f r o m P o r t l a n d , by Mr. B e l l , and a r e i n t e n d e d t o r e s e m b l e t h e o l d Roman c h a r i o t , and t h e r a c e w i l l d o u b t l e s s g i v e some i d e a o f t h e mode o | c o n d u c t i n g s u c h s p o r t s among t h e a n c i e n t s . " I n t h e Queen's B i r t h d a y r a c e s o f 1863, an a t t e m p t was made t o i n c r e a s e t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f l o c a l s t o c k by r e d u c i n g t h e dominance o f f a v o u r e d h o r s e s . The Queen's P l a t e was r e s t r i c t e d t o h o r s e s w h i c h had b een on t h e I s l a n d f o r a t l e a s t s i x t y d a y s and p r e v i o u s w i n n e r s were n o t a l l o w e d t o e n t e r . S i m i l a r l y , Queen's P l a t e w i n n e r s were e x c l u d e d 147 from the Beacon H i l l Sweepstakes and winners of e i t h e r of these races were banned from the Inn Keeper's P l a t e . In a l l events except the Queen's P l a t e , races were to be run i n heats and the b e s t two of t h r e e was to be d e c l a r e d the winner. A new event to V i c t o r i a , a t r o t t i n g match i n harness, was to be conducted a c c o r d i n g to the San F r a n c i s c o Track Rules. Despite these arrangements, attendance at the r a c e s was poor, and two of £he r a c e s , the h u r d l e s and t r o t t i n g events, were the s u b j e c t of some d i s p u t e . F u r t h e r - more, problems with the t r a c k arose as ... i t has been found necessary to make a s l i g h t d e v i a t i o n i n the course, i n consequence of the fence r e c e n t l y e r e c t e d by Mr.^|?atton, encroaching on the l i n e of the o l d t r a c k . In p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the F a l l Races, on Thursday and F r i d a y , November 19 and 20, a s l a t e of o f f i c e r s was again e s t a b l i s h e d . A c t i n g Stewards were the Hon. R.D. L a s c h e l l e s , R.N., J.C. Ridge, and Chas. W. Wallace. C o l o n e l F o s t e r served as Judge, Edward R. Thomas as Honorary T r e a s u r e r , and Robert Bishop and A. Skinner, J r . were C l e r k s of the Course. The r a c i n g card was predominantly one m i l e heats i n a programme which the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t considered to be " c e r t a i n l y the most promising and a t t r a c t i v e y e t o f f e r e d 4 6 to the s p o r t i n g p u b l i c " . Winners were: Thursday - Pony Race, $10 per e n t r y and $100 added, Turgeon's 'Mousey'; V i c t o r i a Purse, $125 per entry and $250 added, Wit t a k e r ' s ' A t t i l a ' ; L a d i e s Purse, $10 per e n t r y and $100 added, 148 Quarles' 'Joe Bowers'; Friday - Beacon H i l l Stakes, $150 purse, Mooney's 'Wake-Up-Jake; Pony Sweepstakes, $10 per entry plus $50 added, Richardson's 'Punch'; Livery Stable Keepers' Purse, $20 per entry plus $100 added, Harris' 'Jim', l a t e r reversed i n favour of Keenan's 'Sir James Douglas' . In 1863, Colonel Foster, M.P., received what was pro- bably the f i r s t thoroughbred horse to be imported to the region from England. The horse arrived aboard the vessel Excelsior and, according to the B r i t i s h Colonist, was " i n splendid order, and speaks well for the care and attention which he must have received during his f i v e months 48 incarceration". Since the horse would require substantial t r a i n i n g after such a voyage, i t would not be expected to become prominent i n the news for some time. Its l a t e r success or f a i l u r e i s not apparent. Throughout the 1860s,,. important match races were gen- e r a l l y contested for stakes of $1,000. An example i s the 1864 race at Peatt's Farm, in which W. Snyder's ' L i z z i e ' 49 defeated Jas. Copland's 'Emigrant Dick'. Such a prize was s u f f i c i e n t to entice competition from south of the border as, i n 1867, "three island horses and a fast mare 50 from the American side". competed for $1,000 i n V i c t o r i a . The interest and p a r t i c i p a t i o n of Americans was even s u f f i c i e n t to cause the Victorians to postpone the Prince of Wales races of 1867. The date was changed to a more convenient 1 4 9 day "so as t o e n a b l e o u r f r i e n d s f r o m t h e o t h e r s i d e t o w i t n e s s t h e s p o r t s " . 5 " ' " I n t h e f e a t u r e r a c e o f t h a t day, 'Greyhound' won $1,000 by d e f e a t i n g ' V o l r e e c e ' and ' B o s t o n 5 2 C o l t ' , Two y e a r s l a t e r , 'Greyhound' d i d n o t f a r e as w e l l , and l o s t a $500 r a c e t o 'Lucy', i n one o f t h e b e s t 5 3 c o n t e s t e d r a c e s e v e r h e l d on t h e I s l a n d . R a c e s were o f t e n m a r r e d by d i s p u t e s due t o t h e l a c k o f p r e c i s e r e g u l a t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g l e n g t h y r e p o r t f r o m t h e D a i l y S t a n d a r d o u t l i n e d a c o n t r o v e r s y d u r i n g t h e P r i n c e o f Wales r a c e s o f 1 8 7 1 and i s t y p i c a l o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e d a y . The t h i r d r a c e was t h e H u r d l e Race, h e a t s o f one m i l e , b e s t two o f t h r e e . The f o l l o w i n g h o r s e s r a n : G r e y J i m , B i r d c a t c h e r , and B u t c h e r Boy. I n t h e f i r s t h e a t , t h e h o r s e s g o t away w e l l , and k e p t c l o s e l y t o g e t h e r t i l l p a s s i n g t h e f i r s t h u r d l e , when B u t c h e r Boy began t o draw ahead, a t t h e s e c o n d h u r d l e G r e y J i m and B i r d c a t c h e r b a u l k e d , w h i c h gave B u t c h e r Boy a l o n g l e a d , however, a t t h e t h i r d h u r d l e , B u t c h e r Boy b a u l k e d , and i t was sometime b e f o r e h i s r i d e r c o u l d g e t him o v e r ; G r e y J i m came i n f i r s t , B i r d c a t c h e r s e c o n d , and B u t c h e r Boy was nowhere. I n t h e s e c o n d h e a t , B u t c h e r Boy came i n f i r s t , G r e y J i m a c a p i t a l s e c o n d , and B i r d c a t c h e r t h i r d . An o b j e c t i o n was made by t h e r i d e r o f G r e y J i m t o B u t c h e r Boy b e i n g d e c l a r e d w i n n e r o f t h e h e a t , on a c c o u n t o f h i s n o t h a v i n g jumped o v e r t h e c e n t r e o f t h e t h i r d h u r d l e , b u t o v e r what i s c a l l e d t h e w i n g , w h i c h i s l o w e r t h a n t h e h u r d l e . The owner o f B u t c h e r Boy c o n t e n d e d t h a t t h e r e b e i n g no f l a g s (as i s u s u a l ) a t e a c h w i n g o f t h e h u r d l e s , t h a t i f t h e h o r s e jumped any p o r t i o n o f i t , i t was s u f f i c i e n t . A f t e r w a s t i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e d i s c u s s i n g t h e q u e s t i o n , and t h e r e b e i n g no S t e w a r d s a t t h e m e e t i n g t o g i v e a d e c i s i o n , i t was d e c i d e d t o l e a v e i t t o t h e J u d g e , who t h o u g h t t h a t t h e b e s t way t o s e t t l e t h e d i s p u t e d p o i n t w o u l d be t o c a l l i t no h e a t and r u n i t o v e r a g a i n . Mr. R e y n o l d o b j e c t e d t o t h i s , c l a i m i n g t h a t he had won t h e r a c e and w i t h d r e w G r e y J i m . B i r d c a t c h e r and B u t c h e r Boy t h e n went o u t and r a n t h e h e a t , w h i c h was a v e r y good one, t h e y k e e p i n g c l o s e t o g e t h e r a r o u n d 150 the course; B i r d c a t c h e r winning by about h a l f a l e n g t h . At the c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s heat, f u r t h e r d i s p u t e s arose, the owner of Butcher Boy main- t a i n e d t h a t B i r d c a t c h e r had no r i g h t to have run again, as he was d i s q u a l i f i e d by not having run f i r s t i n e i t h e r of the f i r s t two heats, and con- tended t h a t the p r e v i o u s heat had been won by h i s horse and the f i r s t one by Grey Jim. As the l a t t e r horse withdrew he claimed the r a c e . How i t w i l l be s e t t l e d we are unable to say . . . 5 4 For some reason, contemporary horsemen d i d not abide by such r a c i n g codes as c o u l d be found i n England, or even San F r a n c i s c o , and had not w r i t t e n a code of r u l e s to i n - c o r p o r a t e r a c i n g d e c i s i o n s . Among the prominent horses i n V i c t o r i a d u r i n g the l a t e 1860 a and e a r l y 1870 s was a Mr. Davies' r a c e r , 'Wake-Up- 55 Jake'. Considered one of the f a s t e s t animals on the I s l a n d , the horse was so w e l l thought of t h a t h i s name was taken to B a r k e r v i l l e where the 'Wake-Up-Jake Saloon' s t i l l stands today. Another c e l e b r a t e d r a c e r was ' C a f e - a u - l a i t ' , the winner of the 1869 Navy P l a t e . In 1870, h i s owner, Mr. Howard of the Union H o t e l , Esquimalt, s o l d him by r a f f l e , o f f e r i n g 150 t i c k e t s a t $2 e a c h . ^ U n t i l the e a r l y 1870s, the major horse r a c i n g events of the r e g i o n were the annual Queen's B i r t h d a y races i n May and the F a l l or P r i n c e of Wales B i r t h d a y races i n November. Both events had r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e support, as evidenced by the r e p o r t t h a t a t l e a s t t w e n t y - f i v e hundred s p e c t a t o r s 57 had attended the Queen's B i r t h d a y races of 1870 and, i n 1871, the P r i n c e of Wales races had been run under the dual sponsorship of L i e u t e n a n t Governor T r u t c h and Admiral 5 8 Farquhar. However, by 137 2 i t had become apparent t h a t t h e g r o w i n g s e t t l e m e n t s i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e m a i n - l a n d had begun t o d e t r a c t f r o m V i c t o r i a ' s p r o m i n e n c e as t h e r e g i o n ' s r a c i n g c e n t r e . I n September o f t h a t y e a r , t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t announced t h e i n c e p t i o n o f r a c e s a t Kamloops and v o i c e d t h e c o n c e r n t h a t t h e m a i n l a n d was 59 g a i n i n g on t h e I s l a n d i n t e r m s o f i n t e r e s t and r a c i n g s t o c k . I n an a t t e m p t t o s t i m u l a t e t h e r a i s i n g o f t h o r o u g h b r e d s by l o c a l f a r m e r s , t h e V i c t o r i a r a c i n g f r a t e r n i t y d e c i d e d t o s c h e d u l e t h e F a l l r a c e s o f 1872 i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e F i r s t A n n u a l P r o v i n c i a l E x h i b i t i o n o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l and H o r t i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y . 6 ^ Mr. Howard's h o r s e s won t h r e e o f t h e f o u r r a c e s as 'Harkaway' won t h e H u r d l e s and ^Champagne C h a r l i e ' won t h e I n n k e e p e r s ' P l a t e and 44 0 y a r d r a c e . I n t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l P u r s e , F. S a u n d e r s ' ' B i r d c a t c h e r ' was t h e v i c t o r . 6 1 The e d i t o r o f t h e D a i l y S t a n d a r d v o i c e d h i s d i s - p l e a s u r e t h a t t h e r e had n o t been any e n t r i e s f o r a t r o t t i n g r a c e . The n e e d f o r new and b e t t e r r a c i n g s t o c k was f u r t h e r 6 2 e m p h a s i z e d when he s t a t e d t h a t " t h e same o l d n a g s " were p a r t o f e v e r y l o c a l r a c i n g c a r d . A l t h o u g h a n n u a l r a c e s were c o n t i n u a l l y h e l d i n V i c t o r i a t h r o u g h t h e r e m a i n d e r o f th e p e r i o d , t h e m a j o r c e n t r e o f h o r s e r a c i n g was soon t o s h i f t t o t h e I n t e r i o r . " P r o b a b l y t h e f i r s t day o f f o r m a l r a c i n g i n t h e I n t e r i o r was a t Y a l e , d u r i n g t h e f o u r t h o f J u l y c e l e b r a t i o n s o f 1861. Her e a Mr. Oppenheimer was t h e s t a r t e r f o r t h e Town P l a t e , D o u g l a s S t r e e t S t a k e s , and t h e L a d i e s P u r s e r a c e s , w h i c h were 152 to be run i n heats. The o r g a n i z a t i o n of the event i n c l u d e d a judge and stewards, w h i l e r i d e r s were expected t o wear c o l o u r s . Even a grandstand had been b u i l t and s e v e r a l 6 3 l a d i e s were r e p o r t e d to have s a t t h e r e . In the f o l l o w i n g year, 1862, Yale was the s i t e of s e v e r a l r a c i n g c a r d s . In e a r l y May, Mr. Willoughby's 64 'Blue Bonnet' de f e a t e d Mr. Kearney's 'Pegs' and, l a t e r t h a t month, a s p r i n g meeting was h e l d as p a r t of the Queen's 65 B i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s . Then, i n September, an a d v e r t i s e - ment appeared i n New Westminster's B r i t i s h Columbian to announce the Yale October Meeting on the eighth-jand-ninth of. the month, i n which the f e a t u r e races were the Town P l a t e f o r $200 and the Douglas S t r e e t Stakes f o r $100. Pigeon shooting and 6 6 "other s p o r t " were to f o l l o w . As the p u r s u i t o f g o l d took the mining community f u r t h e r i n l a n d , the c e n t r e of horse r a c i n g moved with the p o p u l a t i o n . In 1862, the town of L i l l o e t h e l d a day of races on the Queen's B i r t h d a y and o f f e r e d a Queen's Purse of $100, People's Purse of $50, and a Club Purse of $10. In the next year, the event was r e p o r t e d i n a l e t t e r to the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t i n V i c t o r i a . The correspondent s t a t e d t h a t L i l l o e t was "not r e a l l y a s p o r t i n g community, although p o s s e s s i n g the f i n e s t horses i n the Province"-.^ The People's Purse was won by "one of 'Uncle Sam's' condemned a r t i l l e r y horses d r i v e n up here i n a buggy, and owned by a gentleman of Esquimalt". S i m i l a r l y , the Queen's Purse, i n which f i v e 153 horses were entered, was won by a man from Vancouver Island, while the L i l l o e t Stakes was won by a l o c a l . Other events includ ed a "primitive heathen"race (for natives), h e l t e r - s k e l t e r fancy nag race, and a Siwash race i n which white riders were to compete on Cayoosh ponies. The correspondent continued to tease the Island c a p i t a l by commenting that; Quite a number of Victorians were here, and entries unusually large. It was determined on our part to give these 'foreigners 1 as much amusement as possible ... the ' L i l l o e t Stakes' was won by a horse owned in t h i s town, who somehow came ahead of the V.I. foreigners. This, of course, was an error of the horse. It was very ungentlemanly of the r i d e r to win, i f he did i t i n t e n t i o n a l l y , when people venture so far from home to a strange country for sport. The annual races at Ashcroft began i n 1865 and became the major racing venue for several years. The second yearly race was held on October 12 and 13, 1866, and i n - cluded the following events: Friday - 1/2 mile Cayoosh Sweepstakes, Ashcroft Derby, Match race, Chinook Stakes, 300 yard Sweepstakes, and the Lytton Steeplechase; Saturday - Grand Pigeon Race, Thompson River Stakes, Match race, and 69 the Yale Steeplechase. In 1870, the Cariboo Sentinel provided t h i s report of racing action: Ashcroft Races - Mr. James Ward's s o r r e l horse won the Thompson r i v e r stakes i n competition with Doc. English's Oregon horse, T. Buie's mare, and Poole's grey horse Kingbald - mile heats, best two out of three. Kingbald, which was the winner of the President's purse at the races held here on the 4th July l a s t , gave the s o r r e l horse a close r u n . 7 0 During the two day event, some nine races were h e l d . Cash p r i z e s were the t o t a l of e n t r y fees f o r the r a c e , g e n e r a l l y $10-$20 per horse, p l u s an 'added' sum of $40 or $100. 7 1 In 187 2, the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t announced the Seventh Annual Meeting of the A s h c r o f t Races, which appears a t v a r i a n c e with the pr e v i o u s r e p o r t of the second y e a r l y race o c c u r r i n g i n 1866. The d i s c r e p a n c y may be due to a news- paper e r r o r and does not appear to be p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t . However, the 1872 meeting was important because the L i e u t e n a n t - Governor was r e p o r t e d to have been present and horses had been brought from over t h r e e hundred m i l e s t o enter the 72 r a c e s . Such news was c e r t a x n l y of i n t e r e s t to the V i c t o r i a n s who were concerned about t h e i r d w i n d l i n g r a c i n g prowess i n the face of growing c o m p e t i t i o n from the I n t e r i o r . T h e i r concern was undoubtedly i n c r e a s e d as the people of A s h c r o f t s t r o v e t o improve l o c a l stock by proposing to h o l d annual Nursery Stakes f o r two year o l d c o l t s and f i l l i e s which were bred i n the p r o v i n c e . The f i r s t such race was to take 73 p l a c e i n October, 1874. By t h i s time, the i n t e r i o r communities had indeed become very a c t i v e i n horse r a c i n g . In 1870, the town of L y t t o n h e l d races on the f o u r t h of J u l y and the r e s u l t s were as f o l l o w s : Confederate Purse of $150, won by K i r k - p a t r i c k ' s 'Lady K i l u t i n ' , f o l l o w e d by ' N e l l Gynne'; Responsible Purse of $100, won by Cap t a i n Thompson's 'Barney', f o l l o w e d by C o u l t b e l ' s ' B o l t e r ' ; R a i l r o a d Purse of $75, won by Seward's 155 'John B u l l ' . An Indian race for $25 was also included, as was a foot race for the same amount. Apparently betting on the races was r e s t r i c t e d as the Cariboo Sentinel reported: Booking was s t r i c t l y prohibited by the police on the authority of a recent Act of the Imperial Parliament, greatly to the m o r t i f i c a t i o n of the numerous 'sports' who had congregated from a l l parts of the d i s t r i c t . 7 4 In 1872, the P a v i l i o n Mountain Races were held on the farm of Mr. Robert Carson, near Clinton. About $1,000 was offered i n prizes and between twenty and t h i r t y of the d i s t r i c t ' s horses were i n t r a i n i n g for the event. During th i s t r a i n i n g , Carson was reported to be providing room and board for the men and feed for the horses at a price 7 5 of $2.50 per day. Two years l a t e r , the Clinton Races were a two day event incorporating a t o t a l of ten races. Prominent horses at these races were 'Oregon Dick' and 'Bolger Dick'. As implied by the name 'Oregon Dick', i n t e r i o r horse- men were importing horses during the early 1870s. Further evidence i s provided by the following report i n the Daily Standard, during the spring of 1873. 'Grey Eagle' - This very fine grey s t a l l i o n recently imported from the other side of the l i n e , leaves t h i s morning per Enterprise for Cache Creek and the upper country, where he w i l l stand for the season. 7 7 That spring, Lake La Hache began holding races on the Queen's Birthday. The purses for each race ranged as high as $7 00, a t t r a c t i n g a number of horses to the track. 156 Among those i n t r a i n i n g were 'Dexter', 'Cariboo Charlie', 7 8 'Oregon Dick', 'Blaze', and 'Shoo F l y ' . In the f a l l , the Kamloops horsemen claimed to have the best track in the province. Their racing card of October 20 and 21 drew a larger crowd than in the previous year and even outdrew the attendance at the Ashcroft Races. A judges stand had been b u i l t at the track, along with stables to accommodate 79 twenty horses and th e i r t r a i n e r s . Two weeks l a t e r , on November 3 and 4, Keremeos held a race meeting and i t s promoters also claimed the best track i n the province. Such imported horses as Vandervelt's 'Arkansas' and 8 0 A. McConnell's 'Dick Cheatem' were prominent. Here, races were s p e c i f i c a l l y run according to English Jockey Club Rules, the f i r s t apparent reference to formal rules for 81 horse racing i n B r i t i s h Columbia. By 1874, the Bridge Creek Jockey Club was holding i t s 8 2 second annual meeting i n mid-October. Thus, the f a l l racing c i r c u i t i n the Inter i o r would follow the rough 8 3 pattern of the Bridge Creek, Ashcroft, Kamloops, and Clinton or Keremeos races. In 1879, the f i r s t annual meeting 84 at 150 Mile House was held on October 20 and 21 and, three years l a t e r , another two days of races were held at Spence's Bridge. The development of horse racing in the Interior not only reduced the prominence of V i c t o r i a ' s racing c i r c l e , but led to more widespread competition. While horses from Vancouver Island had been lured to compete on the mainland, 157 I n t e r i o r horses l i k e w i s e journeyed to the l a r g e r c e n t r e s of p o p u l a t i o n . For example, at V i c t o r i a ' s Coronation Day Races of June, 1874, a horse named 'Cariboo C h a r l i e ' was the major winner i n a meet reminis'cent of e a r l y r a c i n g days i n the c a p i t a l . 8 ^ S i m i l a r l y , i n 1876, J.T. Howard's 'Reindeer' was defeated i n a $2,000 race by a horse named ' T r i f l e ' . ' T r i f l e ' was owned by a man 8 7 named Dixon, who was probably the owner of 'Oregon Dick' and 'Bolger Dick'. The Cariboo S e n t i n e l had p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d t h a t he had i n t e n t i o n s of going from the Cariboo to V i c t o r i a . While horsemen sought c o m p e t i t i o n throughout the p r o v i n c e , American horses a l s o appeared i n B r i t i s h Columbia r a c e s . One horse of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t was Coggan's 'Osceola', which e a s i l y won the 1874 P r i n c e of Wales race 89 i n V i c t o r i a . In a S e a t t l e race on the f o l l o w i n g New Year's Day, 'Osceola's' t r a i n e r was r e p o r t e d to have been b r i b e d by a "Ring" to p o i s o n h i s horse. Instead, he fed the horse a harmless p i e c e of dough so t h a t i n the ensuing race, the "Ring" was e f f e c t i v e l y cleaned out by 'Osceola's' ' 90 v i c t o r y over 'Tom Merry'. In the f a l l of 1875, Nanaimo was host to a match race between a l o c a l horse and a v i s i t o r from V i c t o r i a . The competitors were W. Akenhead's 'Brown Bread' and F. Saunder's 'Jack Cabe'. Which horse was the l o c a l and which the v i s i t o r i s not c l e a r , but the V i c t o r i a horse was d e c l a r e d • 158 t h e w i n n e r by Nanaimo's Mayor B u t e , who a c t e d as j u d g e . The r a c e was a s i n g l e d a s h o f one m i l e a l o n g Comox Road, 91 f o r a p r i z e o f $100. The c i t y o f New W e s t m i n s t e r was n o t n o t e d a s a r a c i n g c e n t r e . G e n e r a l l y , i t s h o r s e c o m p e t i t i o n was l i m i t e d t o a D o m i n i o n Day m e e t i n g on t h e mai n s t r e e t and was c o m p r i s e d o f s u c h e v e n t s as t h e s e l i s t e d i n 1878: a f i v e h u n d r e d y a r d r a c e , b e s t two o f t h r e e t r i a l s ; a f i v e h u n d r e d y a r d r a c e , s i n g l e d a s h ; a s c r u b r a c e ; and an I n d i a n Pony r a c e , 92 f o r p o n i e s owned and r i d d e n by I n d i a n s . I n September o f t h a t y e a r , a s e c o n d meet was h e l d , b u t was p o o r l y a t t e n d e d . A m a j o r w i n n e r d u r i n g t h a t e v e n t was a Mr. Towndsend, a n o t h e r 94 t o u r i n g C a r i b o o e n t h u s i a s t who was f r o m A s h c r o f t . The e a r l i e s t r a c e i n t h e V a n c o u v e r a r e a was r e p o r t e d t o have o c c u r r e d i n 188 3 . A t t h a t t i m e , "the community was o n l y a t i n y s a w - m i l l camp, b u t a r a c e a p p a r e n t l y t o o k p l a c e 95 on Howe S t r e e t . I n 1885, a j o i n t r a c e c o u r s e was p r o p o s e d t o s e r v e b o t h t h e t o w n s i t e o f G r a n v i l l e and New W e s t m i n s t e r . However, t h e p r o p o s a l was r e j e c t e d b e c a u s e t h e s i t e was 96 c o n s i d e r e d t o have been t o o f a r f r o m G r a n v i l l e . A few y e a r s l a t e r , t h e r a p i d g r o w t h i n p o p u l a t i o n f o l l o w i n g t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e C.P.R. p r o v i d e d a l a r g e and e n t h u s i a s t i c a u d i e n c e f o r h o r s e r a c i n g . Thus, i n 1890, s p e c i a l t r a i n s c a r r i e d between 15,000 - 20,000 s p e c t a t o r s f r o m V a n c o u v e r 97 t o t h e Queen's P a r k r a c e s a t New W e s t m i n s t e r . In o t h e r e q u e s t r i a n c o m p e t i t i o n , t r o t t i n g r a c e s f a i l e d t o g a i n s u p p o r t d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d . As l a t e as 1884, t r o t t i n g and h a r n e s s r a c e s a t t h e V i c t o r i a D r i v i n g P a r k were r e p o r t e d 159 98 to have been poorly attended. Polo matches seem to have gained popularity only after the period. In 1889, matches were reported to have been played almost weekly during the f a l l and winter, between teams of garrison o f f i c e r s 99 and v i s i t i n g English naval o f f i c e r s . The V i c t o r i a Polo Club was organized i n 1892 x^° and, i n August of that year, hosted the Calgary Polo Club i n the only i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l polo match of the nineteenth century. 1 <" ) ± SUMMARY Horse racing was probably the f i r s t formal sporting a c t i v i t y to take place i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Known as the sport of kings, i t s popularity amongst the English a r i s t o - cracy made i t a most desirable a c t i v i t y through which m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s , c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s , and businessmen could emulate the high society of the mother country. The eventual requirement of a considerable f i n a n c i a l commit- ment for the purchase and maintenance of a horse which was kept s p e c i f i c a l l y for racing, lent an a i r of e x c l u s i v i t y to the sport and made the ownership of a race horse a prestigious luxury. Following a pattern which was i d e n t i f i a b l e throughout North America, horse racing soon became a popular spectator sport amongst a l l classes and provided an important oppor- tunity for the greatest s o c i a l mingling of the nineteenth 102 century. Such a trend was f a c i l i t a t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia, where the gold mines often produced quick fortunes and gen- 160 erated prosperity within the community. Thus, rapid s o c i a l mobility was possible i n the f r o n t i e r society and ownership of a race horse was undoubtedly a symbol of that success. However, despite the enthusiastic following of diverse turf fans, the organization of the early races was directed by such V i c t o r i a n gentlemen as Thomas Harris, Colonel Foster, Governor Douglas, Captain Robson, Lieutenant Governor Trutch, and Admiral Farquhar. Rules and regulations to govern the races were con- stantly a source of dispute. In 1861, the V i c t o r i a Jockey Club was formed i n the hope of creating a more formal organ- i z a t i o n of horse racing, but i t s aspirations had been based on the continuing support of a transient population and proved far above the f i n a n c i a l resources of i t s stable supporters. Thus, one year after i t s formation, the club floundered. The races continued and were generally run in heats, the best two of three heats being declared the winner. However, the races were often subject to dispute, e s p e c i a l l y the match races, where stakes were usually set at $1,000. The e a r l i e s t apparent record of standard rules was i n 1873, when the English Jockey Club Rules were employed at Keremeos. Early races had undoubtedly been contested by regular saddle ponies, but horses were soon recognized more for t h e i r speed than for t h e i r d a i l y u t i l i t y . By 1860, 'fast' horses were being imported to the colony, and three years l a t e r , Colonel Foster received what was probably the f i r s t thorough- 161 b r e d t o a r r i v e f r o m E n g l a n d . I n l a t e r y e a r s , more h o r s e s were i m p o r t e d f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w h i l e t h e V i c t o r i a h orsemen t r i e d t o p r omote l o c a l b r e e d i n g by h o l d i n g r a c e s as p a r t o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l E x h i b i t i o n o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l and H o r t i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y . S i m i l a r l y , C a r i b o o horsemen s t r o v e t o e n c o u r a g e improvement i n l o c a l s t o c k by h o l d i n g N u r s e r y S t a k e s f o r two y e a r o l d c o l t s and f i l l i e s b o r n and b r e d i n t h e p r o v i n c e . H o r s e s a p p e a r t o have been r i d d e n by t h e i r owners, and so t h e r e was no o p p o r t u n i t y f o r o u t s t a n d i n g r i d e r s t o become r e c o g n i z e d f o r t h e i r p rowess as j o c k e y s . I n s t e a d , c r e d i t was g i v e n t o t h e h o r s e s . P r o m i n e n t r a c e r s d u r i n g t h e e a r l y y e a r s were: ' G e o r g e 1 , 'Moustache', 'Grey B i l l y ' , ' B l a c k P r i n c e ' , ' S i l v e r - t a i l ' , 'Grey A r r o w 1 , ' J i m ' , ' B u t c h e r Boy', 1 Wake-Up-Jake 1 , ' C a f e - a u - L a i t ' , 'Oregon D i c k ' , ' B o l g e r D i c k ' , and ' C a r i b o o C h a r l i e ' . As e a r l y as 1862, c i t i z e n s o f V i c t o r i a were p a r t i c i - p a n t i n r a c e s on t h e m a i n l a n d . No d o u b t t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e i r j o u r n e y s was n o t j u s t t o r a c e , b u t t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n s e r v e d t o enhance i n t e r - c o m m u n i t y r i v a l r y . By a r o u n d 1870, t h e g r o w i n g c o m m u n i t i e s o f t h e I n t e r i o r were a b l e t o c h a l l e n g e t h e r a c i n g p r o m i n e n c e o f V i c t o r i a . The Queen's B i r t h d a y and P r i n c e o f Wales r a c e s i n t h e c a p i t a l were no l o n g e r t h e most p r e s t i g i o u s r a c e s i n t h e r e g i o n and an I n t e r i o r r a c i n g c i r c u i t , w h i c h i n c l u d e d s u c h c e n t r e s as B r i d g e C r e e k , A s h c r o f t , Kamloops, and Keremeos, p r o v i d e d keen c o m p e t i t i o n among l o c a l horsemen. The s u c c e s s o f I n t e r i o r h o r s e s c a u s e d t h e V i c t o r i a owners g r e a t c o n c e r n , e s p e c i a l l y when C a r i b o o horsemen began t o compete i n t h e c a p i t a l . The p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f s u c h A m e r i c a n h o r s e s as ' O s c e o l a ' p r o v i d e d f u r t h e r s t i m u l u s t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a horsemen and e n c o u r a g e d t h e b r e e d i n g and u p g r a d i n g o f s t o c k t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e . The huge i n f l u x o f p o p u l a t i o n f o l l o w i n g t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e t r a n s - c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y b r o u g h t many h o r s e r a c i n g e n t h u s i a s t s t o t h e p r o v i n c e . Thus, by 1890, crowds o f up t o t w e n t y t h o u s a n d were b e i n g c a r r i e d by r a i l f r o m t h e c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r t o New W e s t m i n s t e r ' s Queen's P a r k r a c e s . S i m i l a r l y , i n c r e a s e d numbers g e n e r a t e d i n t e r e s t i n a n o t h e r e q u e s t r i a n a c t i v i t y and, i n 1892, t h e V i c t o r i a P o l o C l u b was f o r m e d . 163 Table VIII Horse Racina 1855 - Queen's Birthday races at Beacon H i l l 59 - F i r s t newspaper report of Queen's Birthday races at V i c t o r i a 2 - Queen's Plate won by 'Moustache'3 Q 1860 - Two 'fast horses' arrived from Honolulu - Organization for July 3 and 4 r a c e s 1 1 ' 1 2 - 'Amateur' races with o f f i c i a l s 1 3 - 'Grey B i l l y ' over 'Black Prince' for $800 1 6 61 - F u l l e r ' s 'Butcher Boy' d i s q u a l i f i e d i n favour of J.A. Rice's 'Jim' for $1,000 1 7 - 'Grey B i l l y ' over 'Black Prince' for $2,OOO21 - Roberts' horse over Parker's 'Moustache' for $2,OOO/21 $15,000 i n b e t s 2 2 - V i c t o r i a Jockey Club organized 2 3 - Major winners ' S i l v e r t a i l ' , 'Black Prince', 'Grey Arrow', 'Jim', and ' p e t ' 3 0 ' 3 1 - 'Black John' over 'Lady Franklin' for $1,000 3 3 - 'Grey Arrow' over 'Jim* for $1,750 3 5 - Yale 4th of July r a c e s 6 3 62 - V i c t o r i a Jockey Club defunct but races organized by Thomas H a r r i s 3 9 ._ - Shannon's 'Pilgrim' over ' S i l v e r t a i l ' for $250 - Chariot Race 4 4 - Willoughby's 'Blue Bonnet' over Kearney's 'Pegs' - Yale meetings i n spring and f a l l 6 5 ' 6 6 - L i l l o e t Queen's Birthday r a c e s 6 7 4 6 63 - New l i s t of V i c t o r i a o f f i c i a l s - Colonel Foster received thoroughbred from Eng - V i c t o r i a horses at L i l l o e t races land 64 - W. Snyder's ' L i z z i e ' over Jas. Copland's 'Emigrant Dick' for $1,000 4 9 69 65 - F i r s t Annual Ashcroft races 50 6 7 - American competitors i n V i c t o r i a - 'Greyhound' over 'Volreece' and 'Boston Colt' for $1,000 5 2 - 'Lucy' over 'Greyhound' for $500 164 Table VIII (Continued) Horse Racing 1870 - Lytton 4th of July r a c e s 7 4 71 - V i c t o r i a Prince of Wal-es races sponsored by Lieutenant Governor Trutch and Admiral Farquhar 5 8 59 72 - Kamloops Races - F i r s t Annual P r o v i n c i a l Exhibition of A g r i c u l t u r a l and H o r t i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y 6 0 - Howard's 'Harkaway' and 'Champagne Charlie' and F. Saunders' 'Birdcatcher' are major winners^ - Lieutenant Governor at Ashcroft r a c e s 7 2 - Pa v i l i o n Mountain races at C l i n t o n 7 5 77 7 3 - 'Grey Eagle' imported to Cariboo from U.S. - Queen's Birthday races at Lake La Hache 7 8 - Stables b u i l t at Kamloops t r a c k 7 9 g_ - Imported horses 'Arkansas' and 'Dick Cheatem' - English Jockey Club Rules used at Keremeos 8 1 - Bridge Creek Jockey C l u b 8 2 8 6 74 - 'Cariboo Charlie' at V i c t o r i a ' s Coronation Day races - American horse 'Osceola' at Victoria89 . 9 1 75 - Racing at Nanaimo 76 - Dixon's ' T r i f l e ' over Howard's 'Reindeer' for $2,000 92 78 - Races at New Westminster - Ashcroft horsemen, Towndsend, at New Westminster" 79 - F i r s t annual meeting at 150 Mile House 9 4 8 5 1882 - Spence's Bridge meeting 95 83 - Race on Howe Street 9 6 85 - Proposed j o i n t track for Granville and New Westminster 1890 - Crowds of 20,000 Vancouverites at New Westminster r a c e s 9 7 165 CHAPTER XIII RIFLE SHOOTING R i f l e d r i l l was naturally a part of any m i l i t a r y exercise and so, contemporary newspapers often ca r r i e d such reports as: TARGET PRACTICE - The crew of the gunboat Forward were out target-shooting yesterday back of Beacon H i l l . 1 Meanwhile, c i v i l i a n s used r i f l e s i n t h e i r hunting exped- i t i o n s and in various shooting matches. One such event was held on Christmas Day, 1!861, at Beacon H i l l , where con- testants were to shoot r i f l e s off-hand at a distance of one hundred yards. A charge of f i f t y cents per shot was levied and a Kanaka half-breed Indian won the prize of a turkey. 2 R.egular target shooting competitions did not take place u n t i l Volunteer R i f l e or M i l i t i a companies were organized. The f i r s t such group of R i f l e Volunteers was formed by V i c t o r i a ' s black community, who received the loan 3 of muskets from the H.B.C. By early August of 1861, some t h i r t y to s i x t y members were mustered for each d r i l l and J.T. Pidwell had been elected as honorary secretary.' A month l a t e r , the corps announced i t s intention to parade in f u l l uniform before proceeding to Beacon H i l l for target 5 practice. The B r i t i s h Colonist remarked: The number who w i l l d r i l l today w i l l not exceed 24 men. The whole strength of the company i s 45. They w i l l make t h e i r appearance in a d r i l l uniform: blue 166 faced with orange. As i t i s the f i r s t volunteer r i f l e company ever formed here, and as i t i s com- posed wholly of colored men, i t w i l l doubtless a t t r a c t considerable attention. However, the a c t i v i t i e s of the corps were short l i v e d . Following t h e i r appearance as guard of honor, accompanied by their own band, for the i n s t a l l a t i o n of Governor Kennedy, they were forced to disband. The Governor cap- i t u l a t e d to pressure from members of the white community and declared that the corps had no leg a l authority for i t s organization. About t h i s time, the white c i t i z e n s of V i c t o r i a appear to have been tryi n g to form a r i f l e corps themselves. In June of 1861, The Press announced that some two hundred g men had joined the Volunteers but, interest and organization seem' to have lagged far behind that of the coloured volunteers. In October, the B r i t i s h Colonist chastised the group for i t s q non-attendance at d r i l l s " and announced that the Legislature intended to provide ^250 i n support of some forty-seven members of the Vancouver Island R i f l e V olunteers. 1 0 How- ever, i n February of the following year, when Lieutenant J.R. Stewart was elected to captain of the corps, the Legislature's contribution was said to be only £200 for uniforms. 1 1 Regardless of the promised support, i t appears that the group soon disbanded since, in reference to the Prince of Wales celebrations i n November, the B r i t i s h Colonist noted: It i s a matter of regret that no corps of R i f l e Volunteers now exis t s , as a f i e l d day on this occasion 167 w o u l d add a n o t h e r and b r i l l i a n t s p e c t a c l e t o t h e d i s p l a y s o f l o y a l t y on t h i s o c c a s i o n . By 1864, t h e c o r p s was b a c k t o g e t h e r a g a i n and was 13 c o n s t r u c t i n g a r i f l e r a n g e a t C l o v e r P o i n t . The f i r s t a n n u a l c o n t e s t w i t h i n t h e c o r p s was h e l d i n O c t o b e r t h a t y e a r . P r i z e s were p r e s e n t e d by Mrs. Kennedy, t h e w i f e o f t h e G o v e r n o r , and A d j u t a n t V i n t e r was awarded t h e s i l v e r 14 cup d o n a t e d by J.A. M c C r e a . M e a n w h i l e , t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r R i f l e Company was f o r m a l i z e d i n December o f 1863, when t h e G o v e r n o r a p p r o v e d 15 i t s e l e c t i o n o f o f f i c e r s . A y e a r l a t e r , t h e Company awarded a c o n t r a c t f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a d r i l l s hed t o M e s s r s . 16 B o n s a r t and R i c h a r d s , a t a sum o f $1058. I n 1865, t h i s s hed was u s e d t o h o s t a d i n n e r f o r 110 p e o p l e i n h o n o u r o f t h e v i s i t i n g V i c t o r i a n s who h a d b een b a d l y b e a t e n i n t h e 17 f i r s t i n t e r c o l o n i a l r i f l e m a t ch. The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t d e s c r i b e d t h e p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t h e c o n t e s t : I n t e r c o l o n i a l R i f l e M a t c h - The c h o s e n t e n o f t h e V i c t o r i a R i f l e C o r p s went up t o New W e s t m i n s t e r by t h e s t e a m e r E n t e r p r i s e on T h u r s d a y n i g h t ... A f t e r f o r t i f y i n g t h e i n n e r man a t t h e ' C o l o n i a l ' , t h e b u g l e s o u n d e d , and t h e V i c t o r i a n s f e l l i n , ^ g n d marched up t o the^ground headed by t h e i r b a n d... Two weeks l a t e r , t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r ' t e n ' t r a v e l l e d t o 19 V i c t o r i a a t no c h a r g e , c o u r t e s y o f t h e H.B.C. and d e f e a t e d 20 t h e V i c t o r i a V o l u n t e e r s by a s c o r e o f 228-210. I n 1866, t h e V o l u n t e e r R i f l e s o f b o t h towns p r o c e e d e d w i t h a new e n t h u s i a s m . R e g u l a r t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s were announced i n V i c t o r i a . 168 VICTORIA RIFLE CORPS - 1st class f i r i n g , Monday at 3:30 p.m.; 2nd class f i r i n g , Thursday at 3:30 p.m.; 3rd class f i r i n g Wednesday evening at 4 p.m.; squad d r i l l , Tuesday and Friday at 7:30 p.m. By order, J. Gordon Vinter, Lieut, and Adjutant.21 In competition with the Navy, the Volunteers won by 20 points, largely on the marksmanship of Messrs. Newbury, Soar, and Wilson. The competition was over ranges of 100, 300, 400, and 600 yards, with a t o t a l of twenty rounds 22 per person being f i r e d , f i v e rounds at each range. Internal competitions within V i c t o r i a ' s #2 Company in October, saw Sgt. John Woollacott score the highest t o t a l of f i v e shots at each of 200, 400, and 600 yards. In pre- vious competitions, winners had been Sgt. Widdowson (July); 23 Sgt. Woollacott (August); Private. Gerow (September). According to company rules, a person winning three such competitions i n a year was to be awarded a cup and, i n November, Sgt. Woollacott won his t h i r d match to gain the u 24 trophy. Meanwhile, the Volunteers of New Westminster were also active. The corps defeated a team from H.M.S. Sparrowhawk, 25 44 3-324, in July and by October, had s p l i t into three groups for int e r n a l competition. Scores in that event were Seymour A r t i l l e r y Volunteers - 342; New Westminster Volunte 2 6 R i f l e Corps - 4 04; New Westminster Home Guard - 399. In the i n t e r c o l o n i a l competition, held that year on New Westminster's new range at Brunette Butts, V i c t o r i a won, 27 4 62-452. The return match a week l a t e r , enabled the 169 New Westminster team to s p l i t the series, winning t h i s 2 8 match by a score of 443-440. Since t h i s match was considered to be the l a s t of the i n t e r - c o l o n i a l series, due to the impending union of the two colonies, the B r i t i s h Columbian r e f l e c t e d on the value of such competitions. Their importance i s not to be measured by the mere prestige of annual v i c t o r y at the butts; but the healthy interest and emulation which they excite are the best guarantee for the v i t a l i t y and e f f i c - iency of the Volunteer movement i n t h i s young Colony. 2 9 The paper continued that more frequent competitions between l o c a l companies should be encouraged and assisted by the government. Such competition was considered to be essential to the formation of the nucleus of an "army of defence", which had become increasingly e s s e n t i a l since the Imperial Government had refused to supply protection to the colony. However, despite t h e i r importance, the 2nd Company of the V i c t o r i a Volunteer R i f l e s was disbanded i n early 1867, due to 30 a lack of numbers. A year l a t e r , while the Fenian raids were exciting B r i t i s h subjects across the continent, the B r i t i s h Colonist echoed the value of the Volunteers, stating that "'In time of peace prepare for war' i s an axiom that 31 just now strikes us as possessing a peculiar aptness". Thus, the Volunteers were prepared for m i l i t a r y service and, during the spring of 1868, deployed themselves as special 32 constables and night watchmen. 170 Apart from their m i l i t a r y duties, the Volunteers also served ceremonial and s o c i a l functions. For example, in celebration of St. Patrick's Day, "The R i f l e Corps, under Capt. Pearse preceded by t h e i r band, marched out by moon- l i g h t on Saturday evening, i n the d i r e c t i o n of Cadboro 33 Bay". To complete the f e s t i v i t i e s , refreshments were then served at the end of the march. However, special days were not the only times that the volunteers marched and often an afternoon or evening of d r i l l and marching would be reported i n the p r e s s . 3 4 Returning to r i f l e competition of 1867, a shooting match between two individuals was organized i n early January. Mr. Gerow succeeded i n out shooting a Mr. Wade, to win 3 5 a $100 wager i n that contest. The Volunteer Corps, on the other hand, declined to accept a challenge match involving a wager, stating t h e i r p r i n c i p l e s i n a l e t t e r to the B r i t i s h Colonist. We are always glad of the opportunity of having a shooting match against anyone, but, as Volunteers, we do not care to have any money stake involved, t h i s not being customary among Volunteers, who are always supposed to shoot t h e i r best for the honor of t h e i r c o r p s . 3 6 However, monetary prizes for competitions within the company were acceptable and i n one such competition, prizes of $20, 37 $15, and $10 were offered. In other competitions that year, the New Westminster 3 8 R i f l e s defeated a team from the Sparrowhawk in May. However, l a t e r that summer, they were unable to defeat the 171 39 v i s i t i n g V i c t o r i a Volunteers. The l a t t e r Company had at least two matches with the Navy that year, defeating a 40 f l e e t team by 92 points and, l a t e r , defeating a team of 41 o f f i c e r s . In the following year, 1868, a match was 42 arranged between teams from England and B r i t i s h Columbia and i t appears that the teams shot on t h e i r home ranges, relaying the scores by telegraph. In t h i s manner, the V i c t o r i a Volunteers were able to defeat the London R i f l e I 7 , . 4 3 Volunteers. Prizes for competition within each l o c a l volunteer corps were often r i f l e s and, i n V i c t o r i a , marksmen also 44 competed for the J.T. Scott gold medal. The major trophy for competition between the B r i t i s h Columbia groups was the 45 Seymour Cup, won by V i c t o r i a ' s John Wilson i n 1869 and 4 6 4 7 Private Butler, i n 1870 and 1873. Lancaster r i f l e s were used i n the competitions u n t i l 1870, when the Volunteers 48 switched to long E n f i e l d r i f l e s . The only apparent description of the type of targets used was provided by an 1862 advertisement of Ely's Ammunition, o f f e r i n g targets which were twelve feet square, for shooting at f i v e hundred y a r d s . 4 9 By the mid 1870s, p r o v i n c i a l r i f l e competitions seem to have been open to other groups besides the Volunteer R i f l e Corps. A Mr. Welch had opened a shooting g a l l e r y i n 50 V i c t o r i a i n 1870 and, i n 1877, Mr. Warren opened a g a l l e r y at the Star Saloon, where special saloon r i f l e s were pro- 51 vided. The B r i t i s h Columbia. R i f l e Association appears to have gained i t s st a r t in 1873 when a group of parliamentary 172 representatives i n Ottawa organized themselves into an association with a membership which included Amor de Cosmos 52 and Senator Macdonald, the president. In the following year, the f i r s t p r o v i n c i a l meet of t h i s association was 53 held in New Westminster. In 1876, Governor-General Dufferin presented medals to the winners of the t h i r d annual 54 B r i t i s h Columbia R i f l e Association's meet. The f i f t h meeting was held at V i c t o r i a ' s Clover Point i n 1878. A team of sharp-shooters from Nanaimo won three-quarters of 55 the prizes here and were to host the competition the 56 next year. The c i t i z e n s of Nanaimo were no mere novices at r i f l e meets. The town's f i r s t competition was at l e a s t as early as 1863, when shooting matches were l i s t e d as part of t h e i r 57 Queen's Birthday celebrations. The spring of 1875 saw an extension made to the Nanaimo M i l i t i a Shooting Range5^ and, i n the f a l l of that year, a team was sent to compete 59 i n the p r o v i n c i a l championships at V i c t o r i a . In 1880, Captain James Hardy presented the Nanaimo S i l v e r Cup for competition within that tov/n.6^ Beginning in 1874, competitions were held to determine a B r i t i s h Columbia representative to s a i l to England for the annual shooting matches at Wimbledon. Lieutenant Wolfendon was selected and was able to win prizes in the event. Two years l a t e r , i n 1876, the province again had a represent- ative on the National Team. The B r i t i s h Columbia R i f l e 173 A s s o c i a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d to the expenses of Sargeant B u t l e r (#1 V i c t o r i a R i f l e s ) as he t r a v e l l e d to Quebec to j o i n 6 3 Canada's Wimbledon c o n t i n g e n t . The next year, A.P. Kennedy scored w i t h i n the top twenty marksmen at Wimbledon and won a p r i z e of £5. Competition w i t h American c i t i e s was i n i t i a t e d i n 1877, when V i c t o r i a sent both r i f l e and b a s e b a l l teams to 65 S e a t t l e . V i c t o r i a won t h i s match, 456-445, and a l s o the r e t u r n match, 508-483, as p a r t of the Queen's B i r t h d a y c e l e - 66 b r a t i o n s at V i c t o r i a i n 1878. By 1883, New Westminster was a l s o competing with c i t i e s across the border, being defeated i n P o r t Townsend by a score of 314-418. Two years l a t e r , the B r i t i s h Columbian announced a major shooting event i n S e a t t l e . S p o r t i n g Tournament - The f i r s t annual s h o o t i n g tournament of the Sportsman's A s s o c i a t i o n of the North West w i l l be h e l d i n S e a t t l e , W.T., on the 21st, 22nd, 23rd i n s t . Shooting at pigeons, g l a s s b a l l s and c l a y pigeons w i l l form a prominent f e a t u r e of the proceedings. The aggregate p r i z e s amount to $1,000. 6 8 A few days l a t e r , the B r i t i s h Columbian R i f l e A s s o c i a t i o n h e l d i t s t w e l f t h annual meet at the Clover P o i n t Range, „. . . 69 V i c t o r i a , SUMMARY At l e a s t as e a r l y as 1861, some of the c i t i z e n s of V i c t o r i a were p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n r i f l e c o mpetitions such as turkey shoots. However, the f i r s t r e g u l a r i z e d c o m p e t i t i o n was an outgrowth of the m i l i t a r y e x e r c i s e s of the Royal 174 Navy and the R i f l e Volunteers. By early 1864, both the New Westminster R i f l e Company and the V i c t o r i a R i f l e Volunteers had become stable organizations and, i n the following year, held t h e i r f i r s t annual i n t e r - c o l o n i a l shooting matches. Competitions were also held with the various crews of the Fleet and within each m i l i t i a unit, where prizes of r i f l e s , medals, and sometimes cash were offer However, the most prized trophy was the Seymour Cup, which came to be emblematic of the top marksmen in the province. By the mid-1870s, a p r o v i n c i a l body, the B r i t i s h Columbia R i f l e Association, had been formed and was holding annual championships. Competitors were primarily from V i c t o r i a , New Westminster, and Nanaimo, each s t r i v i n g for the honour of representing the province on Canada's National Team, which annually t r a v e l l e d to London for the prestigious shooting tournament at Wimbledon. Towards the end of the decade, V i c t o r i a marksmen were t r a v e l l i n g to Seattle for competition and, within a few years, New Westminster r i f l e - men were also shooting with United States competitors. 175 Table IX R i f l e Shooting 1 L I S 61 - V i c t o r i a turkey shoot' 1860 - Royal Navy target d r i l l s 2 3 - Coloured R i f l e Volunteers' _̂ - Vancouver Island R i f l e Volunteers 62 - Volunteers disbanded 12 63 - New Westminster R i f l e Company formed - Shooting at Nanaimo Queen's B i r t h d a y 5 7 64 - V i c t o r i a Volunteers reformed 1 3 ^ - F i r s t annual contest of V i c t o r i a Volunteers 65 - F i r s t annual i n t e r - c o l o n i a l match, New Westminster defeated V i c t o r i a 1 ' 2Q - Second match, New Westminster (228) - V i c t o r i a (210) 21 66 - Regular t r a i n i n g for V i c t o r i a Volunteers - Navy defeated by V i c t o r i a by 20 p o i n t s 2 ^ - New Westminster (443) - H.M.S. Sparrowhawk (324) - V i c t o r i a (464) - New Westminster (452)^/ - V i c t o r i a (440) - New Westminster (443) 2 8 67 - Gerow defeated Wade for $100 3 5 3 g - Sparrowhawk defeated by New Westminster - New Westminster defeated by V i c t o r i a 3 9 - V i c t o r i a defeats Fleet by 92 p o i n t s 4 ^ 4 3 68 - V i c t o r i a Volunteers defeat London R i f l e Volunteers 45 69 - Seymour Cup won by John Wilson 7 0 - Seymour Cup won by Private Butler" - Long E n f i e l d r i f l e replaces Lancasters - Shooting g a l l e r y opened i n V i c t o r i a by Mr. Welch 4 7 7 3 - Seymour Cup won by Private Butler ^2 - B r i t i s h Columbia R i f l e Association formed 53 74 - F i r s t p r o v i n c i a l meet of B.C.R.A. - Lt. Wolfendon sent to Wimbledon62 54 76 - Lord Dufferin presents medals to B.C.R.A. - Sgt. Butler sent to Wimbledon 6 3 176 Table IX (Continued) R i f l e Shooting 51 1877 - Shooting gall e r y opened i n Star Saloon - A.P. Kennedy sent to Wimbledon 6 4 - V i c t o r i a (456) - Seattle (444) 6 5 78 - V i c t o r i a (508) - Seattle (483) 6 6 - Nanaimo Sharpshooters 5 5 1883 - Port Townsend (418) - New Westminster (314) 6 7 6 R 85 - F i r s t annual tournament i n Seattle 177 CHAPTER XIV TRACK AND FIELD Competition i n t r a c k and f i e l d events began with the e a r l y p i c n i c s or s p o r t s days of c o l o n i a l times. The Queen's B i r t h d a y , h e l d a n n u a l l y i n l a t e May, was the major community-wide f e s t i v i t y i n the e a r l y p e r i o d and enjoyed e n t h u s i a s t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t d e s c r i b e d the a c t i v i t i e s a t the 1859 c e l e b r a t i o n s at Queensborough (New Westminster). The s p o r t s and games went o f f w i t h e c l a t , amid the applause of a l a r g e concourse of people ... The f o l l o w i n g i s the programme of s p o r t s and amuse- ments ... Foot and h u r d l e - r a c e s , p u t t i n g shot, throwing the hammer, high and long jumps, t o s s i n g the caber, bobbing f o r treacle r o l l s , bobbing f o r 'bobs' i n water, w r e s t l i n g and boxing, boat r a c e s , and c., and c., c o n c l u d i n g with a sack race and greasy p o l e : a Blue J a c k e t f s a i l o r j , having succeeded i n a t t a i n i n g the envied grease crowned c r e s t with l i t t l e l e s s d i f f i c u l t y than the Argonauts of a n c i e n t l o r e , r e c e i v e d a l i k e reward.1 In V i c t o r i a , where horse r a c i n g was the major s p o r t i n g event of the Queen's B i r t h d a y , a f o o t race over a d i s t a n c e of f i v e hundred yards was i n c l u d e d i n the programme of 2 1860. However, the event was c a n c e l l e d because one of the c o n t e s t a n t s , C. Wallace, r e f u s e d to race a g a i n s t 3 J . Parker. L a t e r t h a t summer, the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t announced the f o l l o w i n g f e s t i v i t i e s : Race - There w i l l be l o t s of sport a t Beacon H i l l t h i s morning, commencing at 10 o ' c l o c k . Horse- r a c i n g , f o o t r a c e s , running i n sacks, greased p o l e s , wheelbarrows, e t c . , w i l l form the p r i n c i p a l f e a t u r e s . None should f a i l to attend as i t i s the l a s t k i n d of the season. 4 178 D u r i n g t h e n e x t few y e a r s f o o t r a c e s r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r - a b l e a t t e n t i o n f r o m t h e p o p u l a t i o n as 1 P e d e s t r i a n i s m ' became t h e r a g e . I n J a n u a r y o f 1861, t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t r e p o r t e d : A NOVEL FEAT - We u n d e r s t a n d t h a t a wager o f $1,000 has b e e n made between p a r t i e s i n t h i s town, t h a t one Knox, a r e s i d e n t , w i l l be a b l e t o w a l k 100 c o n s e c u t i v e h o u r s w i t h o u t c e s s a t i o n . The money has b een d e p o s i t e d w i t h M e s s r s . W e l l s , F a r g o , and Co. The w a l k i n g w i l l commence on T u e s d a y n e x t , a t t h e A m e r i c a n s a l o o n , Y a t e s s t r e e t . 5 A p p a r e n t l y , Knox had b e e n engaged i n s u c h c o m p e t i t i o n s t v / i c e b e f o r e i n C a l i f o r n i a , w a l k i n g f o r n i n e t y - o n e h o u r s and t w e n t y m i n u t e s on one o c c a s i o n , and e i g h t y - f o u r h o u r s on t h e o t h e r . However, i n V i c t o r i a , he was s u c c e s s f u l , and when he c o n c l u d e d t h e w a l k , he "seemed q u i t e s t r o n g , and 7 h i s l i m b s d i d n o t a p p e a r t o be s w o l l e n " . A few d a y s l a t e r , Knox was i n a n o t h e r c o m p e t i t i o n . T h i s t i m e he was t o r a c e f o r $300 a s i d e on t h e B e a c o n H i l l h o r s e - r a c i n g c o u r s e . The d i s t a n c e was s e t a t e i g h t y y a r d s , b u t Knox was t o g i v e h i s c o m p e t i t o r a f i v e f o o t g s t a r t . A l a t e r r e p o r t i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t i n d i c a t e d t h a t he l o s t t h a t r a c e and was p r e p a r e d f o r a r e m a t c h . On F r i d a y a f t e r n o o n a n o t h e r f o o t r a c e w i l l come o f f between Knox t h e p e d e s t r i a n and t h e ' B u t c h e r Boy' [ a l s o t h e name o f a f a v o u r i t e h o r s e j , f o r $200 a s i d e - e v e n r a c e . Knox does n o t c o n s i d e r t h a t he had a f a i r show i n t h e r u n on T u e s d a y . 9 The r e s u l t o f t h i s s e c o n d match d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o h a v e been r e p o r t e d . The E x c e l s i o r Gymnasium C l u b was p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e i n f o o t r a c e s d u r i n g t h e e a r l y 1860s. L e d by t h e i r 179 t e a c h e r , Mr. P.E. D e v i n e , t h e y were s a i d t o be i n " e x c e e d i n g l y good c o n d i t i o n " as t h e y r e a d i e d t h e m s e l v e s f o r a one m i l e r a c e a t 6:30 i n t h e morning. 1'"' I n one o f t h e i r o u t i n g s , Mr. D e v i n e was r e p o r t e d t o have had t h e b e s t t i m e , h a v i n g c o m p l e t e d t h r e e m i l e s i n twenty-two and a h a l f m i n u t e s . 1 1 E n t h u s i a s m f o r f o o t c o n t e s t s e v e n l e d t o t h e i n v o l v e - ment o f v e r y u n l i k e l y p a r t i c i p a n t s as t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t r e p o r t e d : NOVEL RACE - A match has been made between two w e l l known f a t men o f t h i s town, t o r u n a f o o t - r a c e on t h e Queen's B i r t h d a y , f o r $30 a s i d e . B e a c o n H i l l w i l l s h ake t o i t s v e r y b a s e when t h e s e two g r e a t b o d i e s a r e s e t i n m o t i o n , and i f t h e v i b r a t i o n o f t h e e a r t h does n o t s e r i o u s l y e f f e c t t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f some o f o u r s t r o n g e s t b u i l d i n g s , i t w i l l be a wonder. T i m i d p e r s o n s a r e r e q u e s t e d t o l e a v e town f o r t h e d a y . 1 2 S e v e r a l y e a r s l a t e r , a s i m i l a r r a c e was r e p o r t e d i n w h i c h J o e L o v e t t and F r a n k R i c h a r d s , b o t h o f ,':Falstaf:f i a n - b u i l d , a r o u s e d p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r r a c e on Government S t r e e t , f o r a p u r s e o f $50. RACE BETWEEN HEAVYWEIGHTS - ... The e a r t h seemed t o t r e m b l e b e n e a t h t h e e l e p h a n t i n e t r e a d o f t h e men and t h e w a l l s o f t h e h o u s e s nodded a p l e a s a n t good m o r n i n g t o t h e b u i l d i n g s on t h e o p p o s i t e s i d e o f t h e s t r e e t . S e v e r a l o f t h e s t o r e k e e p e r s , i m a g i n i n g t h a t an e a r t h q u a k e was i n p r o g r e s s , r u s h e d i n t o t h e s t r e e t , w h i c h t h e y r e a c h e d j u s t i n t i m e t o s e e L o v e t t g a i n t h e w i n n i n g - p o s t some t h r e e f e e t i n ad v a n c e o f R i c h a r d s , who a t t r i b u t e s h i s d e f e a t t o h a v i n g s t u b b e d h i s t o e upon a p r o j e c t i n g n a i l , w h i c h , l i k e t o o many o t h e r s , has e s c a p e d t h e eye and hammer o f a D e w s n a p p . 1 3 180 I n o t h e r c o n t e s t s , F r a n k H e w l e t t , t h e ' N o r f o l k H a r e ' , r a c e d two h u n d r e d y a r d s i n t w e n t y - f o u r and a h a l f s e c o n d s , t o b e a t Cameron, t h e ' H i g h l a n d L a d d i e ' , i n a $50 match 14 r a c e i n 1863. The Queen's B i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s a t 15 Nanaimo i n t h a t y e a r i n c l u d e d a f o o t r a c e and, i n V i c t o r i a , a s a c k r a c e w i t h a $10 p r i z e and a f o o t r a c e o f two h u n d r e d y a r d s \re.re r u n . I n t h e l a t t e r r a c e , a Mr. S i l v e r d e f e a t e d f o u r o p p o n e n t s t o w i n a p r i z e b a s e d on t h e $1 e n t r a n c e f e e 16 w i t h $22 added. I n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , W a l t e r Knox was' ba c k i n t h e news and was r e p o r t e d t o have won $20 i n a f i f t y y a r d r a c e w i t h A l l p o r t . B o t h c o n t e s t a n t s i n t e n d e d t o r u n a g a i n , i n c r e a s i n g t h e d i s t a n c e t o one h u n d r e d y a r d s 17 w i t h a b e t o f $50. S i m i l a r l y , D a n i e l McBrown and Mr. Durcom, t h e 'Idaho Boy', announced t h e i r i n t e n t i o n o f 18 r a c i n g f o r $200 o v e r s i x t y y a r d s . A c o r r e s p o n d e n t o f t h e D a i l y E v e n i n g E x p r e s s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e w i n t e r r e s i d e n t s o f t h e C a r i b o o h e l d a s e r i e s o f r a c e d a y s a t t h e end o f 1863. On C h r i s t m a s Day, p r i v a t e r a c e s were h e l d by a R i c h f i e l d g r o u p and, on New Y e a r ' s , p u b l i c r a c e s were p r o m o t e d . An e n t r a n c e f e e o f $5 was c h a r g e d f o r a s e v e n t y y a r d r a c e and p r i z e s o f $100, $60, and $40 were won by F r a n k F u l f o r d , S t i g e r ( a l i a s K e n t u c k ) , and l a w y e r C o u r t n e y r e s p e c t i v e l y . A s i m i l a r s e t o f r a c e s was h e l d t h e n e x t day a t Camerontown, where some f o u r o r f i v e h u n d r e d p e o p l e were i n a t t e n d a n c e . The w r i t e r c o n t i n u e d t h a t o v e r $2,000 had been b e t on a f o r t h c o m i n g r a c e f o r $200 19 a s i d e , between F r a n k F u l f o r d and Cook. 181 Returning to Vancouver Island, one of the popular f e s t i v i t i e s during the 1860s was to j o i n i n the celebra- tions of the fourth of July. In 1864, an excursion was organized to the island of San Juan, where residents of V i c t o r i a enjoyed competition with the American garrison 20 i n foot races and various novel events. At Nanaimo, summer picnics and games were also popular and, i n 1865, upwards of ninety people joined the Wesleyan Sabbath- school outing. Here the ladies were p a r t i c u l a r l y i d e n t i f i e d 21 for t h e i r enthusiastic p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the games. Similar functions were held by private groups. In one case, two V i c t o r i a c i t i z e n s took a few of t h e i r friends on an outing up the Arm, i n order to engage i n some "amateur1 foot races 22 and hurdle events. By f a r the most impressive of the sports days- during the period was the Navy competition of 1868. On Tuesday, July 7, between f i f t e e n hundred and two thousand spectators watched the Fleet perform on the Naval Cricket Ground, Esquimalt Road. The next day, the B r i t i s h Colonist wrote: The public of V i c t o r i a and v i c i n i t y surely f a l l under much obliga t i o n to Admiral and Mrs. Hastings, the Captains and Of f i c e r s of the squadron on t h i s station, for the day's superiod amusement offered them yesterday ... The fete was much after the s t y l e that one witnessed now and then i n the neighbourhood of large naval and m i l i t a r y stations i n the mother country, and yesterday shewed that distance takes aught from the success of s i m i l a r entertainments in the c o l o n i e s . 2 3 Chief Justice Needham and his wife presented prizes to the following winners: Throwing the Hammer (14 lbs.) - J. McCallum - 18 yds. 1 f t . 3 i n . ; B. Diamond - 17 yds. (both from H.M.S. Zealous). Putting the Shot (32 lbs.) - J . Norris - 19 f t . 6 i n . (Scout); J. McCallum (Zealous). Wide Jump Standing - J. McCallum - 9 f t . ; S. G i l l (Scout). Wide Jump Running - J. Endicott - 14 f t . 3 i n . (Zealous); F. Bishop (Scout). High Jump Standing - J. McCallum - 3 f t . 5 i n ; J. Endicott. High Jump Running - R. Jarman - 4 f t . 4 i n . (Zealous); H. Gowler (Scout). Climbing Greasy Pole - Edwin Baker (Zealous), after two hours. 440 yards O f f i c e r s - Mr. Croker (Zealous); Mr. Napier (Zealous). 220 yards Seamen - F. Ault - 28 sees. (Zealous); J. Sparks (Sparrowhawk). Walking 1/2 mile - 4 min. 25 sees. - J. Hurley (Scout); R. Graham (Sparrowhawk); J. Davis (Scout). Running 1/2 mile - 2 min. 40 sees. - J. Roberts, Dalrymple (Scout); J. Plunkett (Sparrowhawk). 440 Hurdles O f f i c e r s - 1 min. 20 sees. - Mr. Pipon, C e c i l , Napier ( a l l from Zealous). 440'Hurdles - 1 min. 23 sees. - R. Burke (Zealous); R. Isaacs and S. G i l l (Scout). 44 0 Non-Com. - 1 min. 15 sees. - A. Payne (Scout; C. Earwaker and W. Baker (Zealous) . 183 220 Boys under 18 - J. Prentice (Sparrowhawk); J. Murphy (Zealous); R. Kelland (Scout). Race for Marines - 32 sees. - F. Bishop (Scout); R. Stevens. 80 yard Hopping - W. Eustis (Zealous); J. Ross (Scout). Pair race legs t i e d - 220 yards - 44 sees. - J. Johnson and S. Long (Zealous); C. Wood and C. Brock (Scout). Hat Race - run backwards 50 yards - 12 sees. - H. Gowler (Scout); W. Eustis (Zealous). Throwing Cricket B a l l - 95 yards - R. Ralph (Scout); M. Su l l i v a n (Sparrowhawk). Sack Race - W. Eustis (Zealous). Best Hornpipe - 36 d i f f e r e n t steps - S. Meddings (Zealous). While the Naval Sports Day was the highlight of the year, other groups throughout the colony were also drawing considerable attention with t h e i r sports days of 1868. In B a r k e r v i l l e , the July 1 Dominion Day sports events drew some one thousand people. Results of that contest were as follows: Three Standing Jumps - $20 - Sam Walker - 3 2 f t . 11 i n . Standing Long Jumps - $20 - Sam Walker - 10 f t . l l h i n . Standing High Jumps - $20 - Edward Ward - 4 f t . 3 i n . Putting Heavy Stone (24 lbs.) - $20 - J. Cameron - 25 f t . 8 i n . Slinging Stone (15 lbs.) - $20 - J. McKay - 36 f t . 10 i n . 184 Long Race (100 y a r d s ) - $30 - Sam W a l k e r - 11 s e e s . S h o r t Race (75 y a r d s ) - $20 - A. Hartman - 8 3/4 s e e s . H u r d l e Race (75 y a r d s - 4 h u r d l e s ) - $20 - D. Shaw. T h r o w i n g Hammer (10 l b s . ) - $20 - F. H u n t e r - 98 f t . T h r o w i n g Heavy S t o n e (31 l b s . ) - $25 - J . G l y n n - 27 f t . 4 i n . An e n t r a n c e f e e o f $1 was c h a r g e d f o r a l l e v e n t s e x c e p t t h e l o n g r a c e , w h i c h had a f e e o f $2.50. A d d i t i o n a l amusements i n c l u d e d 'La P e r c h ' , i n w h i c h Edward Ward p e r f o r m e d s e v e r a l 24 f e a t s a f t e r a s c e n d i n g a p o l e . T h r e e d a y s l a t e r , on t h e f o u r t h o f J u l y , a n o t h e r s p o r t s f e s t i v a l was h e l d a t B a r k e r v i l l e . G y m n a s t i c f e a t s and 'La P e r c h ' c o m p l i m e n t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g e v e n t s : R u n n i n g H i g h Jump - $20 - E. P o o l e y - 4 f t . 6h i n . Hop, S k i p and Jump - $2 0 - S. W a l k e r - 37 f t . 8 i n . F o o t Race (75 y a r d s ) - $75 - A. Hartman - 8% s e e s . 2 H u r d l e Race (100 y a r d s - 4 h u r d l e s ) - $30 - E . P o o l e y . B ack i n V i c t o r i a , t h e F i r e m e n ' s P i c n i c o f 1868 drew s i x h u n d r e d s p e c t a t o r s t o t h e S a t u r d a y e v e n t . The w i n n e r s were: Hammer (16 l b s . ) - A. F o s t e r ; J . L a c h a p e l l e . S h o t (32 l b s . ) - J . Madden; A. F o s t e r . S h o t (16 l b s . ) - W.J. MacDonald; G. R i c h a r d s o n Wide S t a n d i n g Jump - A. F o s t e r ; J . Madden. Wide R u n n i n g Jump - S. Duck; A. F o s t e r . H i g h S t a n d i n g Jump - M. Dodd; G. Maynard. 185 H i g h R u n n i n g L e a d - J.M. Lammon; A. de N e u f . 300 y a r d s - J o s e p h D a v i e s . Boys u n d e r 17 - 150 y a r d s - B. Derham, J r . H o p p i n g - J o s e p h D a v i e s . W a l k i n g - James Holmes. To c o n c l u d e t h e day, t h e N a t i o n a l Anthem was p l a y e d a t a q u a r t e r t o 12 p.m., "so as n o t t o i n f r i n g e upon t h e 2 6 S a b b a t h " . T h i s a p p e a r s t o have been t h e f i r s t o f what became an a n n u a l f e s t i v a l , s i n c e t h e V i c t o r i a D a i l y S t a n d a r d announced t h e t h i r d a n n u a l V i c t o r i a F i r e m e n ' s P i c - N i c i n 27 1870. May Day o f 1871 was t h e d a t e o f a n o t h e r s p e c i a l com- p e t i t i o n f o s t e r e d by t h e Navy. A h a l f - h o l i d a y had b een p r o - c l a i m e d and s e v e r a l c i v i l i a n s e n t e r e d t h e a t h l e t i c c o n t e s t s a t E s q u i m a l t . C h i e f J u s t i c e B e g b i e was t h e a p p o i n t e d j u d g e f o r many o f t h e e v e n t s and t h e G o v e r n o r ' s w i f e , M rs. Musgrave, p r e s e n t e d t h e awards. W i n n e r s were: F l a t Race - 100 y a r d s - L i e u t . W r i g h t . 11 s e e s . F l a t Race - 2 00 y a r d s - Gunner W h e e l e r . H i g h Jump - L i e u t H.T. W r i g h t , 4 f t . 6h i n . F l a t Race - 1/4 m i l e - L i e u t . W r i g h t . 1 m i n . P u t t i n g 24 l b . s h o t - W. A l l m e n , 2 8 f t . 3 i n . H u r d l e Race - 2 00 y a r d s - L i e u t . W r i g h t and T o l m i e , 23 s e e s . T h r o w i n g Hammer - A.B. G r a y , 67 f t . 7 i n . F l a t Race - 1/2 m i l e - B a l l and B r i t t e n . 1 8 6 F l a t R a c e - 1 m i l e - L i e u t . W r i g h t , 5 m i n . 29 s e e s . S a c R a c e - s t r u c k o u t . T h r e e L e g g e d R a c e - C E . P o o l e y a n d W. G i b b o n . F l a t R a c e - 2 0 0 y a r d s - L i e u t . W r i g h t , 22 s e e s . H u r d l e R a c e - 20 0 y a r d s - W h e e l e r a n d B l a c k m o r e . F l a t R a c e - 1/2 m i l e - M r . B r y a n t . 2 8 C o m p e t i t i o n i n t h e s e s p o r t s d a y s w a s s e l d o m o n w h a t m i g h t c u r r e n t l y b e c o n s i d e r e d a n ' a m a t e u r 1 b a s i s . I f c a s h p r i z e s v /e re n o t o f f e r e d , t h e n a n a r r a y o f r e l a t i v e l y e x p e n s i v e a r t i c l e s w e r e p r o v i d e d . F o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e M a y D a y o f 1 8 7 1 , L i e u t e n a n t W r i g h t w o n s i x o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p r i z e s : P e w t e r , M o n e y , F i s h i n g R o d , P i p e a n d K n i f e , F l y B o o k , G o v e r n o r ' s C u p a n d R i n g , W h i p , $ 5 a n d a K e g o f B e e r , 29 F a n c y M u g , Two P e w t e r s , $ 7 , a n d a P e w t e r . T o p a y f o r t h e s e p r i z e s , m o s t c o n t e s t s h a d a n e n t r a n c e f e e . E v e n t h e g a m e s f o s t e r e d b y t h e C a l e d o n i a n B e n e v o l e n t S o c i e t y h a d a n e n t r a n c e c h a r g e w h i c h , i n 1 8 6 9 , w a s a t w e n t y - f i v e 30 c e n t l e v y , w h i l e t h e p r i z e s r a n g e d f r o m $ 2 . 5 0 t o $ 5 . 0 0 . T h e S t . A n d r e w ' s a n d C a l e d o n i a n S o c i e t y a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n t h e f i r s t g r o u p t o h o l d a n n u a l a t h l e t i c c o m p e t i t i o n s i n t h e r e g i o n . I n 1 8 7 1 , t h e D a i l y S t a n d a r d r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e s o c i e t y w a s p r e p a r i n g f o r i t s e i g h t h m e e t i n g o n t h e f o u r t h 3 1 o f J u l y . T h u s , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h i s g r o u p h a d h e l d i t s f i r s t a n n u a l c o m p e t i t i o n b a c k i n 1 8 6 4 . T h e s o c i e t y w a s v e r y d y n a m i c a n d d i d n o t c o n f i n e i t s a c t i v i t i e s m e r e l y t o V i c t o r i a . O t h e r c e n t r e s o f p o p u l a t i o n d e v e l o p e d c h a p t e r s a n d t h e y t o o h e l d a t h l e t i c c o m p e t i t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e s m a l l s e t t l e m e n t a t L a n g l e y h o s t e d a d a y o f C a l e d o n i a n 187 32 Games i n t h e autumn o f 1877. T h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d , most o f t h e Games h e l d t o a t r a d i t i o n a l programme o f e v e n t s , s u c h as t h e s e l i s t e d i n t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r H i g h l a n d Games o f 1884: T h r o w i n g Heavy S t o n e 21 l b s ; T h r o w i n g L i g h t S t o n e l b l b s ; The C a b r e ; P o l e V a u l t i n g ; R u n n i n g Long Jump; R u n n i n g H i g h Jump; H u r d l e Race; Wheelbarrow Race; Sack Race; T h r o w i n g Heavy Hammer - 22 l b s ; T h r o w i n g L i g h t Hammer 17 l b s ; B oys' Race; Q u o i t s ; O l d Man's Race; H i g h l a n d F l i n g ; L a d i e s ' R e e l ; Sword D a n c e . 3 3 I n many o f t h e v a r i o u s c e l e b r a t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e , l o c a l I n d i a n s were a l s o c o m p e t i t o r s i n some o f t h e e v e n t s . A more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s i n c l u d e d l a t e r , u n d e r a s e p a r a t e h e a d i n g , b u t i t seems a p p r o p r i a t e t o make a b r i e f r e f e r e n c e a t t h i s p o i n t . The I n d i a n s ' a t h l e t i c p r owess was o f t e n c o n s i d e r a b l y s u p e r i o r t o t h e i r w h i t e o p p o n e n t s , c a u s i n g t h e o r g a n i z e r s o f t h e games t o make s p e c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r I n d i a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . F o r example, d u r i n g a s p o r t s day a t New W e s t m i n s t e r , i n 187 2, s e p a r a t e e v e n t s were i d e n t i f i e d f o r I n d i a n s , " i n o r d e r t o 34 g i v e t h e p a l e r c o m p e t i t o r s a b e t t e r c h a n c e t o w i n a p r i z e " . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e I n d i a n s were a l s o p a r t i c i p a n t i n match r a c e s , s u c h as t h a t r e p o r t e d by t h e C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l i n t h e summer o f 1875. A f o o t r a c e f o r $100 a s i d e , between t h e O n t a r i o Boy and an I n d i a n named D e e r f o o t , d i s t a n c e 10 0 y a r d s , came o f f y e s t e r d a y . D e e r f o o t won by s i x i n c h e s a f t e r a v e r y e x c i t i n g and e x c e l l e n t r a c e . 3 5 S e v e r a l o t h e r match c o n t e s t s were h e l d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d . I n m i d - F e b r u a r y , 1875, f i v e h u n d r e d p e o p l e g a t h e r e d 188 on V i c t o r i a ' s Beacon H i l l to watch a l o c a l resident, Tod, 3 6 race against Wright of the Cariboo. Another event was a Hop, Step, and Jump competition which took place at the rear of Clay's Store on Johnson Street. Here, Ned Irving covered 37 feet 5 inches to better J. Morley's 37 36 feet for a $25 bet. During the late 1870s, B r i t i s h Columbians became involved with American competitors i n match events. During an 1877, July 4 competition in Seattle, a v i s i t i n g V i c t o r i a n was defeated by a l o c a l Mr. Rudge, who then defeated a Portland contestant, Mann, for $100. Spectators placed 3 8 some $2,000 on the outcome of t h i s match. In the follow- ing year, an American runner named Carr drew great acclaim as a r e s u l t of his performances on Vancouver Island. Follow- ing his defeat of Tod, at Beacon H i l l , and Beaven at Nanaimo, he was touted as one of the fastest runners i n the world. One newspaper reported the rumour that his r e a l name was John Werly Cozad. The story continued that the New York Clipper had stated that t h i s man had run 125 yards 39 in 12 1/2 sees. However, one week l a t e r , Carr was defeated by Gagon, a crew member of H.M.S. Turquoise. In a one hundred yard race at $50 a side, Gagon was given a f i f t e e n foot s t a r t 40 and maintained that distance to the end of the race. In 1879, Nanaimo was again the s i t e of a major race. The hometown runner, Beaven, who had been beaten by Tod i n the previous year, was to race against Rudge, of Seattle 189 fame. The l a t t e r had apparently taken up residence i n 41 Victorxa. The outcome of this match does not appear to have been reported, but i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that some Nanaimo residents were active in a high l e v e l of track and f i e l d competition. Beaven was not the f i r s t l o c a l success. A previous report i n the l o c a l press had announced i n 1874, that "At the sports at Burrard Inlet, Mr. Wm. McGregor of t h i s town, won the Running High Jump and Running Long 42 Jump". The neighbouring townsite of Wellington was also active. Its sports programme on Dominion Day, 1880, included the following events: Boy's Race - 75 yards; 50 yards; G i r l s Race; 120 yard Race; Old Man's Race; Married Women's Race; Potatoe Race; 500 yard Race; Race Around the Lake; Three Legged Race; Swimming; Running Long Jump; Standing Jump; Three Standing Jumps; Hop, Skip, 4 3 and Jump; Quoits - 21, 18, and 14 yards. Pedestrianism, so popular i n the early 1860s, con- tinued to enjoy public support around 1880. V i c t o r i a ' s P a v i l i o n Ha l l was the venue for a ten mile walking match i n September of 1878. The winner, Prodmore, took 1 hour, 26 minutes and 4 5 seconds to complete the distance, and defeated his opponent, Gordon, by one round after having given him 44 an eight round s t a r t . In early November of the following year, A. McDowell was touted as the Champion Amateur Walker 4 5 of the Province and, a few weeks l a t e r , proved his prowess at the Pa v i l i o n Rink. In a six day walking race which 190 included a Mr. Munsell from Portland, McDowell completed 197 miles and four laps to win the Champion of B r i t i s h Columbia b e l t . His nearest competitor was McCarthy, who 4 6 completed 17 0 miles i n the a l l o t t e d time. The newspaper report of the l a s t event suggested that a match between female pedestrians from Portland would soon take place in V i c t o r i a . Whether or not that match came off i s not clear, but by 1884, Nanaimo was hosting match foot races with female contestants. Several bets were placed as a Miss Straube of Nanaimo and Miss Cook of Wellington, "both very f l e e t of foot", competed for $100 a side on Haliburton Street, opposite the Dew Drop Hotel. Miss Cook was the v i c t o r . Numerous sports days were held throughout the remainder of the period i n the major centres of population. Even the smaller communities became participant i n a t h l e t i c endeavours. As construction on the C.P.R. drew an increasing number of workers into the remote parts of the province, the construction communities held a t h l e t i c contests i n conjunction with their celebrations. In one such case of 1883, the fourth of July was celebrated at Yale. Here, the sports events even included a 'high jump with pole', i n which a J. McKinnon and J. MacDonald t i e d for f i r s t p l a c e . 4 8 SUMMARY Various a t h l e t i c competitions were held throughout the region during most days of celebration, beginning at l e a s t as early as 1859, when the Queen's Birthday f e s t i v i t i e s 191 at New Westminster included sporting events. Such other f e s t i v a l s as May Day, Dominion Day, and the fourth of July usually incorporated track and f i e l d competitions as part of the programme. During the summer months, several s o c i a l groups organized outings and picnics where the participants would often engage i n running, jumping and throwing competitions. The most prominent of these groups was the St. Andrew's and Caledonian Society, which began holding annual sports days in the V i c t o r i a area i n 1864. As the society grew, several chapters throughout the province also held annual highland games. Another prominent group was the V i c t o r i a Firemen's Association, which held i t s f i r s t annual pic n i c and games in 1868. In that year, a t h l e t i c contests were p a r t i c u l a r l y popular, perhaps largely due to the promotion of the Naval Sports Day, a major spec- tacle held at Esquimalt. As i n other parts of North America, 'pedestrian' events were popular i n B r i t i s h Columbia during the period. As early as 1861, a recent resident of V i c t o r i a , named Knox, was engaged in a walking contest for $1,000. By 1879, a p r o v i n c i a l championship b e l t was offered for amateur walkers and was won by McDowell in that year. Other events included numerous match races i n walking and running over varying distances, and wagers of $25 to $200 were common. In fact, throughout a l l contests from races to 'novel' events, participants were seldom s t r i c t l y amateur, but 192 competed f o r p r i z e s of money or reasonably expensive a r t i c l e s . Sometimes even the women competed f o r such p r i z e s and, i n one case at Nanaimo, a match race f o r $100 was held between two l o c a l women. 193 Table X Track and F i e l d 1859 - Part of Queen's Birthday at New Westminster 1 1860 - Events held in V i c t o r i a 2 , 4 61 - Knox i n $1,000 v/alking r a c e 5 - Excelsior Gymnasium club active 63 - Frank Howlett wins 200 yards i n 24 1/2 s e e s 1 4 - Part of Queen's Birthday at Nanaimo 1 5 - Winter races in the C a r i b o o 1 9 18 64 - Daniel McBrown vs Mr. Durcom over 60 yards - F i r s t Annual Meeting of St. Andrew's and Caledonian Society 23 68 - Naval Sports Day - B a r k e r v i l l e Dominion Day24 - B a r k e r v i l l e July 4 2 5 « 7 - F i r s t Annual V i c t o r i a Firemen's Picnic and Games 2 8 1871 - Naval competition - Eighth Annual St. Andrew's and Caledonian Games 42 74 - Sports day at Burrard Inlet - Deerfoot defeats 'Ontario Boy' 32 77 - St. Andrew's and Caledonian Games at Langley 39 78 - American, Carr defeats Tod and Beaven - Gagon defeats C a r r 4 0 - Ten mile walking match won by Pridmore 4 4 79 - McDowell becomes champion walker of B r i t i s h Columbia 4 3 1880 - Wellington Dominion Day 48 83 - 'High jump with pole' at Yale 33 84 - New Westminster St. Andrew's and Caledonian Games - Nanaimo host to female match runners 4 7 46 194 CHAPTER XV WINTER SPORTS AND ACTIVITIES CURLING The West Coast climate being too mild to ensure regular opportunity for p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n ice sports, i t is l i t t l e surprise that there was scant organization of curl i n g during the period. The c i t i z e n s of Nanaimo claimed to have established the f i r s t c u r l i n g club on the P a c i f i c Coast in 1873, when cold weather permitted them to play on the frozen swamp just outside the c i t y . 1 Prominent skips during the mid-seventies were Jas. Harvey and Jas. 2 Hamilton. However, the opportunity for the development of c u r l i n g was very limited u n t i l a r t i f i c i a l ice was i n t r o - duced to the coast after the turn of the century. Inland, where the weather ..was suitable for ice sports, c u r l i n g developed in the 1890s as the railway brought new s e t t l e r s to the region. For example, a club was formed in Kaslo i n 1895. In the following year, Nelson, Sandon, and Golden had clubs and i n 1898, the Kootenay Curling Association was formed. The growth of c u r l i n g i n Canada was such that "by 1900, c u r l i n g clubs were established from 3 Halifax to Rossland, B.C." SLEIGHING The inconsistency of cold winter weather made the adapt- 195 a t i o n o f t r a n s p o r t t o snow c o n d i t i o n s more o f an i n c o n v e n i e n c e on t h e West C o a s t t h a n i n o t h e r p a r t s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a . However, t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f snow was e n j o y e d by t h e e a r l y c o l o n i s t s and t h e n e w s p a p e r s h a s t e n e d t o comment on t h e c h a n g e d c o n d i t i o n s . OUT SLEIGHING - As we go t o p r e s s - 12 o ' c l o c k P.M. - we h e a r t h e j i n g l i n g o f b e l l s , and t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p a r t i e s r i d i n g t h r o u g h t h e s t r e e t s i n s l e i g h s . 4 The s l e i g h b e l l s r u n g o u t a m e r r y p e a l y e s t e r d a y , f o r c i b l y r e c a l l i n g happy d a y s i n o t h e r d i s t a n t r e g i o n s . 5 FIRST SNQW - THE WEATHER - On S a t u r d a y m o r n i n g l a s t , a few f l a k e s o f snow came down f r o m above, and awakened f o n d r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f s l e i g h - r i d e s and s n o w b a l l i n g p a r t i e s . 6 SLEIGHING - The f i r s t s l e i g h p a s s e d up Y a t e s s t r e e t y e s t e r d a y a f t e r n o o n , drawn by two h o r s e s w i t h o u t b e l l s . The v e h i c l e c o n t a i n e d h a l f - a - d o z e n m e l a n - c h o l y l o o k i n g men, who seemed h a l f - f r o z e n t o d e a t h . The o c c u p a n t s , as t h e y were drawn s w i f t l y and s i l e n t l y up t h e s t r e e t were e v e r and anon s a l u t e d w i t h a s n o w b a l l t h r o w n i n t o t h e i r m i d s t by g r a c e l e s s u r c h i n s who seemed t o c o n s i d e r them l e g i t i m a t e marks f o r t h e i r u n e r r i n g a i m s . 7 D u r i n g t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f s e t t l e m e n t , b e f o r e t h e c h i l d r e n were e q u i p p e d w i t h s l e i g h s and t o b o g g a n s , t h e y e n j o y e d r u n n i n g and s l i d i n g a c r o s s t h e i c e and snow. Thus, t h e a d v e n t o f m i l d e r w e a t h e r , b r i n g i n g r a i n t o d i s s i p a t e t h e snow, was o f t e n " v e r y much t o t h e d i s g u s t o f s u n d r y u r c h i n s who had t a k e n a d v a n t a g e o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t y a f f o r d e d 8 t o c o n v e r t s e v e r a l o f t h e s i d e w a l k s i n t o s l i d i n g - p o n d s " . When t o b o g g a n s and s l e d s were u s e d by t h e y o u n g s t e r s , t h e i r i n d i s c r e t i o n was l i k e l y t o i n c u r t h e w r a t h o f t h e 196 older generation, who had p e r i o d i c a l l y banned the f r i v o l i t y i n other parts of the continent. Thus, i n 188 3, the Mainland Guardian chastised the youth of New Westminster for t h e i r recklessness. Hints - The boys i n t h i s c i t y require some good advice ... As soon as the snow comes the boys take out the sleds and use the side walks descending to Columbia Street as chutes. Mounted on t h e i r i n - fernal machines they descend with great r a p i d i t y , endangering the l i v e s of persons who are t r a v e l l i n g . On l a s t Saturday evening two ladies narrowly escaped the descending imps. The ladies were about forty yards from Columbia Street, ascending when suddenly f i v e sleighs carrying f i v e boys and no brains, descended'like flashes ... After t h i s notice of the nuisance, which i s c a l l e d amusement, i f any c i t i z e n i s injured by the sleds he v / i l l have the lav/ on his side and we are informed by a lawyer that i n an action against the c i t y fathers he or she w i l l secure damages and c o s t s . 9 SNOWBALLING One of the most popular winter pastimes, which youth of every era seem to have compulsively enjoyed, was snow- b a l l i n g . In 1862, the B r i t i s h Colonist responded to the complaints of l o c a l businessmen who were concerned about the snowballing escapades of parties of boys and men. A good bout of snowballs, where the sport i s not a l l one side, i s health-giving and s p i r i t - r a i s i n g , and i s the best remedy for the 'blues', dyspepsia and i l l temper that we know of ... In future, boys, make soft b a l l s , keep snow out of stores, and don't pe l t anybody except he has a f a i r show to pay you back with i n t e r e s t . 1 0 The next year, the paper described a major snow-battle i n the c i t y streets. 197 The 'boys' were c o l l e c t e d i n f u l l f o r c e y e s t e r d a y on Government and Y a t e s s t r e e t s , f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f e n j o y i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n s n o w - b a l l i n g e a c h o t h e r ; as w e l l as p a y i n g marked a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p a s s e r b y . T h e r e were two b r i g a d e s m a r s h a l l e d a l o n g t h e s i d e w a l k , one a t t h e A d e l p h i c o r n e r and t h e o t h e r on t h e o p p o s i t e s i d e . When some p o o r t e a m s t e r was n o t i n t h e way, m u t u a l e x c h a n g e s f o l l o w e d e a c h o t h e r i n r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n w i t h b o i s t e r - ous c h e e r i n g f r o m b o t h p a r t i e s . When a s l e i g h i n g p a r t y came a l o n g t h e f u n and e x c i t e m e n t r o s e t o t h e h i g h e s t p i t c h , when v o l l e y a f t e r v o l l e y was d i s - c h a r g e d f r o m b o t h s i d e s a t t h e u n f o r t u n a t e o c c u p a n t s . T h e r e was no r e s p e c t o f p e r s o n s o b s e r v e d by t h e crowd, as e v e r y o n e who c h a n c e d t o c r o s s t h e i r p a t h had t o r u n t h e g a u n t l e t and t a k e h i s s h a r e - and sometimes i t was a l a r g e s h a r e - o f t h e showers o f b a l l s w h i c h were l e v e l l e d a t h i s h e a d . N e i t h e r c i v i c d i g n i t a r y , member o f t h e l e g i s l a t u r e , n o r e v e n known t o b e l o n g t o t h e p r e s s , was any s h i e l d f r o m t h e combined a t t a c k o f t h e r i v a l p a r t i e s , - a l l were s e r v e d i n t h e same s t y l e and had t o e n d u r e t h e same t r e a t m e n t . T h e r e was t h e g r e a t e s t good humor m a n i f e s t e d g e n e r a l l y , and w i t h one o r two e x c e p t i o n s , we d i d n o t see anyone w i t h a f r o w n upon h i s f a c e . The crowd q u i e t l y d i s p e r s e d a b o u t an h o u r b e f o r e n i g h t - f a l l . S i m i l a r l y , t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n r e p o r t e d o f New W e s t m i n s t e r t h a t " ' r i p e age' and t h e f a i r s e x a l o n e e n j o y e d immunity f r o m v o l l e y s o f s n o w - b a l l s , w h i c h were f l y i n g t h i c k and 12 f a s t on C o l u m b i a s t r e e t " . However, n o t a l l was f u n and m e r r i m e n t . On t h e s e r i o u s s i d e , i n 1862, t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t c a r r i e d t h e r e p o r t o f an o l d man o f S t e i l a c o o m , who 13 was k i l l e d b y i c e c o n c e a l e d i n a s n o w b a l l . Then, s e v e r a l y e a r s l a t e r , a young man was r e p o r t e d t o have b e e n summoned 14 f o r p e l t i n g a c i t i z e n w i t h s n o w b a l l s . SKATING I n t h e m i l d c l i m a t e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f r o s t and snow were a w i n t e r y t r e a t f o r t h e e n e r g e t i c , who t o o k q u i c k 198 advantage of the formation of i c e . However, sometimes they were a l i t t l e too quick to t e s t the l o c a l ponds, as the Rri t i s h C o l o n i s t of November, 18 59, r e p o r t e d . S k a t i n g - The i n v i g o r a t i n g and e x h i l a r a t i n g e x e r c i s e of s k a t i n g has been ind u l g e d i n by many d u r i n g the l a s t few days, about two m i l e s out of town. While a p a r t y of gentlemen were e n j o y i n g themselves i n t h i s way on Saturday, Mr. A.F. Main had the m i s f o r t u n e to break through the i c e , and escaped o n l y by swimming. The i c e was very t h i n , b e i n g l i t t l e more than an i n c h t h i c k . 1 5 The f i r s t r e c o r d of skates being used i n North America i s de Mont's e x p e d i t i o n to Acadia i n 1604, when skates and 16 snowshoes were used as a means of t r a v e l . The a c t i v i t y o n l y became popular as a pastime i n the mid-nineteenth century and, by 1862, some e i g h t y to one hundred of V i c t o r i a ' s c i t i z e n s were e n j o y i n g the a c t i v i t y on Swan Lake, j u s t two 17 m i l e s out of town. In the f o l l o w i n g year, the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t c a r r i e d t h i s r e p o r t of the a c t i v i t i e s : SPORTS OF THE SEASON - A number of persons a v a i l e d themselves yesterday of the b e a u t i f u l f r o s t y weather, to enjoy the f a v o r i t e pastimes of s l i d i n g and s k a t i n g . P a r t i e s bent upon i n d u l g i n g t h e i r t a s t e f o r t h i s r e c r e a t i o n v i s i t e d n e a r l y every s u i t a b l e p l a c e of water i n the v i c i n i t y of V i c t o r i a ; but Swan Lake, the swamp at the upper p a r t of View s t r e e t , and the e a s t e r n e x t r e m i t y of James Bay, o b t a i n e d the most patronage. The swamp on View s t r e e t was, however, most h i g h l y favored, as two young German l a d i e s , who d o u b t l e s s a c q u i r e d the a r t i n t h e i r n a t i v e land, honored the spot with t h e i r presence, and e x c i t e d the admiration of the beholders by t h e i r g r a c e f u l e v o l u t i o n s upon the i c e i n anything but convenient and a p p r o p r i a t e s k a t e s . 1 8 Commercial ventures soon s t r o v e to cash i n on the pop- u l a r i t y of s k a t i n g . The most popular n a t u r a l spots around V i c t o r i a were Langford's Lake, Skinner's Bottom, H a r r i s ' 199 Pond, and Swan Lake. By 1864, a refreshment house had been established at Swan Lake, to which the stages of the 19 Cosmopolitan Livery Stable ran a l l day. Four years l a t e r , Edward Thomas, of the Bee Hive Saloon, advertised the flooding of an ice surface as part of his business promotion. In description of the endeavour, the B r i t i s h Colonist stated: Should the f r o s t continue a force pump w i l l be taken to Harris' pond and the ice flooded with two or three inches of water, and i f t h i s water freeze over-night there w i l l be a smooth surface for skaters to-day. This plan i s adopted on the skating rinks in Canada. As soon as the l a s t skater has l e f t the rink at night, about two inches of water i s l e t i n , and i n the morning the ice i s as smooth as glass.20 In another attempt to preserve the ice surface for skaters, a party of men would sweep Harris' pond clear of snow, then pass the hat around to skaters f o r a small->:con- 21 t r i b u t i o n . In l a t e r years, hotel owners would c a p i t a l i z e on a c o l d - s p e l l by providing an ice surface in an attempt to a t t r a c t business to their establishments. For example, as early as 1879, the Hastings Hotel on Burrard Inlet advertised, "A skating rink i s attached to the hotel for 22 the accommodation of guests". The c i t i z e n s of New Westminster also enjoyed ice skating when the weather permitted. As early as 1862, Burnaby Lake was recognized as a popular, although considerably distant, 23 spot. In that year, the town even had a resident expert on skating, as the B r i t i s h Columbian announced that W.E. Cormack had written a t r e a t i s e which was to be published 200 24 b y B a i l e y B r o t h e r s o f London. In 1867, d o n a t i o n s were made t o b u i l d a r i n k w i t h i n t h e c i t y , b u t t h e l a t e n e s s o f t h e s e a s o n f o r c e d t h e abandonment o f t h e scheme and t h e 25 s u b s c r i p t i o n s were r e f u n d e d . However, a l o n g c o l d p e r i o d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r a l l o w e d ample e n j o y m e n t o f l o c a l s u r f a c e s . The p r e s s announced t h a t d u r i n g t h e l a s t t e n d a y s , " a l m o s t e v e r y day and e v e r y n i g h t crowds o f p e r s o n s , o f a l l ages and o f b o t h s e x e s , have been o u t upon t h e i c e " , i n c l u d i n g H i s E x c e l l e n c y t h e G o v e r n o r , who "has 2 b e en o u t a l m o s t e v e r y day, e n j o y i n g h i m s e l f w i t h t h e r e s t " . The c o n d i t i o n o f t h e i c e was sometimes i m p r o v e d by t h e l o c a l f i r e company, t h e H y a c k s , who w o u l d t a k e t h e i r "machine t o t h e saw m i l l f o r t h e d u a l p u r p o s e o f p r a c t i c e and t o 27 f l o o d t h e i c e f o r s k a t e r s . The s k a t e r s 1 p r o b l e m s w i t h a s h o r t w i n t e r s e a s o n were r e m e d i e d i n t h e e a r l y s e v e n t i e s by t h e a r r i v a l o f r o l l e r s k a t e s . The V i c t o r i a S k a t i n g A s s o c i a t i o n a d v e r t i s e d i t s f i r s t t e r m o f a s s e m b l i e s i n e a r l y J u l y , 1871, a t t h e S t . N i c h o l a s R i n k , on Government S t r e e t . M u s i c was s u p p l i e d by a b r a s s band and an a d m i s s i o n o f t w e n t y - f i v e c e n t s was c h a r g e d . ' P l i m p t o n ' r o l l e r s k a t e s c o u l d be r e n t e d f o r a 28 s i m i l a r a d d i t i o n a l f e e . W i t h i n t h r e e weeks, t h e r i n k was f i l l e d t o c a p a c i t y by b o t h male and f e m a l e e n t h u s i a s t s , b u t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h i f t h e i n t e r e s t was s o l e i n t h e a c t i v i t y o r i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f g a i n i n g t h e f a v o u r s o f t h e o p p o s i t e s e x . As t h e D a i l y S t a n d a r d n o t e d : 2 0 1 I t i s c u r i o u s t h a t o n o n e e v e n i n g o f t h i s w e e k , g e n t l e m e n h a d s o l e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e f l o o r - i t w a s f u l l . On t h e p r e c e e d i n g e v e n i n g l a d i e s h a d t h e e n t i r e c o n t r o l - f u l l t o o v e r f l o w i n g w i t h t h e l a d i e s . 2 9 A p p a r e n t l y a t t h a t t i m e , t h e r i n k c o u l d h a n d l e a c r o w d 30 o f a b o u t s e v e n t y - f x v e p e o p l e a n d x t s p o p u l a r i t y w a s s o g r e a t t h a t a f t e r l e s s t h a n t h r e e m o n t h s o f o p e r a t i o n , i t w a s t e m p o r a r i l y c l o s e d t o p e r m i t t h e l a y i n g o f a n e w „ 3 1 f l o o r . M e a n w h i l e , i n N e w W e s t m i n s t e r , g e n t l e m e n c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e V i c t o r i a r i n k w e r e p l a n n i n g t o o p e n a s i m i l a r 3 2 f a c i l i t y o n t h e m a i n l a n d . I n A u g u s t o f t h a t y e a r , n e w 33 s k a t e s w e r e o r d e r e d f r o m S a n F r a n c i s c o a n d , i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m o n t h , t h e M a i n l a n d G u a r d i a n a n n o u n c e d t h a t s k a t e r s w e r e m e e t i n g a t t h e t o w n ' s D r i l l S h e d . T o u s , w h o a r e n o t i n i t i a t e d , t h e s k a t e r s r e m i n d e d u s s t r o n g l y o f a n a g i t a t e d l o b s t e r o n e n d , o r t h e p i l g r i m w h o s e b o o t s c o n t a i n e d t h e u n b o i l e d p e a s . I t i s h i g h l y p r o b a b l e t h a t a g r e a t c h a n g e w i l l t a k e p l a c e o n t h e s k a t e r s a f t e r a l i t t l e p r a c t i c e , a n d w e h a v e u n d o u b t e d p r o o f t h a t t h e e x e r c i s e i s s u f f i c i e n t ^ J o c u r e t h e m o s t s t u b b o r n f i t o f d y s p e p s i a . Two d a y s l a t e r , t h e p a p e r c o n t i n u e d : T h e S k a t i n g R i n k - T h i s e x c i t i n g a m u s e m e n t i s n o w i n f u l l s w i n g , a n d a c t i v e y o u n g m e n a r e i n v i t e d t o t a k e a t u r n . T h e d r i l l s h e d i s a b o u t a s g o o d a p l a c e f o r t h e p u r p o s e a s c o u l d b e f o u n d a n y w h e r e . T h e n e c e s s a r y i m p l e m e n t s m a y b e h a d a t t h e r i n k o n h i r e , . o r m a y b e p u r c h a s e d a t H a l b r o o k , F i s h e r a n d C o ' s . 3 5 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h i s e x c e r p t h a s b e e n m i s t a k e n l y i n t e r p r e t e d b y o t h e r a u t h o r s a s r e f e r r i n g t o i c e s k a t i n g . T h e p o p u l a r i t y o f r o l l e r s k a t i n g c o n t i n u e d t o g r o w . I n N o v e m b e r o f 1 8 7 1 , V i c t o r i a ' s s e c o n d r i n k , t h e ' C o s m o p o l i t a n ' , 202 3 6 was opened on Store Street and, in the following year, the press continued to remark on the novelty of the a c t i v i t y . We v i s i t e d the Rink l a s t evening and found a large number present enjoying themselves and exhibiting every degree i n the 'poetry i n motion', while some glided along l i k e swallows on the wing, others r o l l e d l i k e porpoises, or a vessel half seas over i n a gale, and furnished much amusement to the lookers on.37 Another rink was opened in November, 1873, at V i c t o r i a ' s 3 8 Philharmonic H a l l , on Fort Street. Perhaps the most lav i s h f a c i l i t y i n the province was also located on Fort Street, next to the Mechanic's Institute, where B. P e t t i n g h i l l opened his rink i n 1877. Measuring 113 feet by 53 feet and containing two change rooms, the rink had a handsome globe fountain i n the centre of the f l o o r and a band stand which 39 was suspended 10 or 12 feet above the skaters. The fac- i l i t y was so luxurious that i t was also used for the c i t y ' s major dances and b a l l s . Elsewhere i n the province, a r o l l e r skating rink was 4 0 opened i n Nanaimo at the 'Institute H a l l ' , i n 1876 and i n 188 2, another rink was operated three or four nights per week by R. Whitfield, i n a "large building on V i c t o r i a 41 Crescent opposite the P r o v i n c i a l Hotel". In New Westminster, another rink was opened i n 1879 by Insley and Wintemute, at the Good Templar's H a l l , Columbia Street. General admission was twenty-five cents, but ladies were admitted free of charge. 203 SUMMARY W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f i n t e r m i t t e n t c u r l i n g com- p e t i t i o n s i n Nanaimo, b e g i n n i n g a r o u n d 1873, t h e w i n t e r s p o r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d were p r e d o m i n a n t l y t h e p a s t i m e s o f s l e i g h i n g , s n o w b a l l i n g , and i c e s k a t i n g . The m i l d w e a t h e r on t h e w e s t c o a s t l i m i t e d t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s t o a v e r y s h o r t , i r r e g u l a r season', u n t i l t e c h n o l o g y s u p p l i e d e q u i p m e n t f o r y e a r r o u n d s k a t i n g . Thus, s e r i o u s c o m p e t i t i o n i n w i n t e r s p o r t s d i d n o t o c c u r u n t i l l a t e i n t h e c e n t u r y , a f t e r t h e r a i l w a y opened t h e I n t e r i o r t o c o m p a r a t i v e l y e a s y t r a v e l . F o r example, Cox r e f e r s t o a w i n t e r c a r n i v a l a t R o s s l a n d , h e l d i n F e b r u a r y o f 1898, w h i c h p r o v i d e d c o m p e t i t i o n i n s k a t i n g , s k i i n g , s n o w s h o e i n g , c u r l i n g , and h o c k e y . 4 3 204 Table XI Winter Sports and A c t i v i t i e s 12 1862 - some 80 to 100 Victorians skate on Swan Lake - New Westminster's Cormack publishes t r e a t i s e on skating.24 19 64 - refreshments for skaters at Swan Lake 20 68 - hotels flood ice i n V i c t o r i a - New Westminster Hyacks flood i c e 2 7 1871 - V i c t o r i a Skating Association - r o l l e r skates 1 at the St. Nicholas R i n k 2 8 3 g - Cosmopolitan Rink i n V i c t o r i a ^4 35 - N.W. has r o l l e r skating i n D r i l l Shed ' 73 - Nanaimo has f i r s t c u r ling club on P a c i f i c Coast - r o l l e r rink at V i c t o r i a ' s Philharmonic H a l l 3 8 4 0 76 - r o l l e r rink at Nanaimo's Institute 39 77 - l a v i s h r o l l e r rink i n V i c t o r i a 42 79 - another r o l l e r rink i n N.W. 1882 - another r o l l e r rink i n Nanaimo 4 1 1 1890's - c u r l i n g clubs i n the Interior 205 CHAPTER XVI SOCIAL FEATURES THE SOCIAL MIX A u n i q u e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n y on t h e west c o a s t o f N o r t h A m e r i c a was t h e g r e a t r a c i a l d i v e r s i t y o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n d u r i n g t h e e a r l y 1860s, The r a p i d t r a n s i t i o n o