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History of sport in British Columbia to 1885: a chronicle of significant developments and events Swain, Derek Anthony 1977

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A  HISTORY  CHRONICLE  OF  OF  SPORT IN B R I T I S H TO 1 8 8 5 :  SIGNIFICANT  COLUMBIA  DEVELOPMENTS  AND  EVENTS  by DEREK ANTHONY SWAIN University of B r i t i s h Columbia,  B.A.,  A  THESIS THE  SUBMITTED  IN  REQUIREMENTS MASTER  OF  PARTIAL FOR  THE  PHYSICAL  1970  FULFILLMENT DEGREE  OF  OF  EDUCATION  in THE School  of  We  FACULTY Physical  OF  GRADUATE  Education  accept this thesis to the required  THE  UNIVERSITY  OF  Derek  and  Anthony  Recreation  as conforming standard  BRITISH  A p r i l ,  (c)  STUDIES  COLUMBIA  1977  Swain,  1977  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y the L i b r a r y  s h a l l make i t  freely  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree  a v a i l a b l e for  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e  r e f e r e n c e and copying o f t h i s  It  i s understood that copying or  thesis  permission.  Depa rtment The U n i v e r s i t y  o f B r i t i s h Columbia  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  or  publication  o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d without my written  that  study.  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  for  ii  ABSTRACT T h i s paper t r a c e s the development o f e a r l y s p o r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Contemporary  newspapers were scanned to o b t a i n a c h r o n i c l e o f the s i g n i f i c a n t s p o r t i n g developments and events d u r i n g the p e r i o d between the f i r s t F r a s e r R i v e r g o l d rush o f 18 58 and the completion i n 188 5.  o f the t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l Canadian P a c i f i c During t h i s p e r i o d , i t i s apparent  s p o r t s f a c i l i t a t e d a r a p i d expansion  Railway  that certain  o f a c t i v i t i e s when  the r a i l w a y brought thousands o f new s e t t l e r s t o the p r o v i n c e i n the c l o s i n g years o f the c e n t u r y . During the e a r l y years o f settlement, the p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s o f dances and b a l l s , p i c n i c s and s p o r t s days, and other f e s t i v i t i e s provided the community w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o acquaint i t s e l f w i t h new members and customs, w h i l e they r e l a x e d i n a common l e i s u r e p e r s u i t .  The  a d d i t i o n of an element o f c o m p e t i t i o n i n t o such day t o day a c t i v i t i e s as hunting, f i r e - f i g h t i n g , and o c c u p a t i o n a l t r a d e appear t o have l e n t excitement existence.  and enthusiasm  The almost u n i v e r s a l enthusiasm  to frontier  f o r b e t t i n g or  wagering p r o v i d e d an element o f a n t i c i p a t i o n t o add f u r t h e r zeal to l i f e . The  f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s a t t a i n e d some degree o f organ-  i z a t i o n i n the r e g i o n d u r i n g the 1860s: Boxing,  Canoeing, Gymnastics, Handball,  Billiards, Sailing,  Bowling,  Skating  iii  and  Quoits.  S a i l i n g , and  By the 188 0s, C u r l i n g , C y c l i n g , Tennis had  Lacrosse,  a l s o become e s t a b l i s h e d .  The  major s p o r t s d u r i n g the p e r i o d were B a s e b a l l , C r i c k e t , F o o t b a l l , Horse Racing, R i f l e Shooting, and  Rowing, and  Track  Field. Competition i n a l l of these s p o r t s was  the e a r l y 1860s.  With the e x c e p t i o n  American d e r i v a t i v e of the E n g l i s h  initiated in  of Baseball,  an  'rounders' these  sports  were a l l a c t i v e l y promoted by the Royal Navy, s t a t i o n e d a t Esquimalt. served  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the o f f i c e r s of the  as models of upper c l a s s behaviour and  i n f l u e n c e on the emerging c o l o n i a l s o c i e t y .  had As  of t h e i r B r i t i s h  a marked represent-  a t i v e s of the gentry of England, these o f f i c e r s l e a d e r s h i p i n the s p o r t s and  fleet  provided  a c t i v i t i e s which were a p a r t  heritage.  Throughout the p e r i o d , r e g u l a r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s p o r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s was The  r e s t r i c t e d to the wealthy, l e i s u r e d c l a s s .  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the m a j o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n was  limited  by long hours of work, which were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced u n t i l a f t e r the p e r i o d .  The  r a i l w a y i n 188 5, marked a new  completion of the t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l era f o r B r i t i s h Columbia  f o r the h i s t o r y of s p o r t i n the p r o v i n c e . of s e t t l e r s brought new  technology and  The  Thus, as the t u r n o f the century  huge i n f l u x  ideas and  a l t e r e d the p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n the  and  radically  province.  approached, many new  sports  groups were formed to meet the needs of the i n c r e a s e d population.  X V  TABLE OF CONTENTS  L i s t of Tables  i  Acknowledgements Preface CHAPTER I  i i i i i  INTRODUCTION Purpose o f the Study Need f o r the Study Methods and Procedures Limitations Delimitations Definitions  II III  V  3 3 4 6 7 8  BACKGROUND HISTORY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  10  INTRODUCTORY FEATURES OF SPORT AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  24  Dancing Hunting Sports Days and P i c n i c s Gambling and B e t t i n g General I n t e r e s t Summary IV  1  24 27 33 37 38 40  MINOR SPORTS  41  Archery Billiards Bowling Croquet Handball Tennis Lacrosse Quoits  41 41 43 44 44 45 46 49  AQUATIC SPORTS  51  Canoeing Rowing S a i l i n g and Y a c h t i n g Steamboat Racing Swimming Summary  51 53 66 69 70 71  V  CHAPTER VI  BASEBALL  76  Summary VII  72  CRICKET  86  Summary VIII IX  X  XI  XII  96  CYCLING  101  FIGHTS  106  Boxing  106  Wrestling  114  Summary  115  FOOTBALL  119  Summary  127  GYMNASTICS  12 9  Summary  134  HORSE R A C I N G  136  Summary XIII  RIFLE  159  SHOOTING  165  Summary XIV  TRACK AND  17 3 FIELD  177  Summary XV  WINTER  SPORTS AND  Curling  XVI  Sleighing Snowballing Skating Summary SOCIAL FEATURES  190 ACTIVITIES  194 194 194 196 197 203 205  S o c i a l Mix 205 Indians i n Sport 212 Celebrations 216 The S a b b a t h 217 T h e E a r l y C l o s i n g M o v e m e n t ....219 The I n f l u e n c e o f B u s i n e s s 223 I n f l u e n c e o f T h e G o v e r n m e n t ...226 I n f l u e n c e o f The M i l i t a r y 227  vi  CHAPTER XVI (Cont'd.) Community Groups Inter-Community R i v a l r y School Competitions Amateur and P r o f e s s i o n a l Status Women i n Sport XVII  CONCLUSION  240  Discussion,. Need For F u r t h e r Study FOOTNOTES  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  228 231 236 237 238  245 250 ....  251  291  vii v /.  L I S T OF TABLES  I  Distribution Columbia,  II III  Aquatic  of Population i n B r i t i s h  1870-1901  Sports  23 73  Baseball  84  Cricket  99  Fights  118  Football  128  Gymnastics  135  Horse Racing  163  IX  Rifle  Shooting  175  X  Track  and F i e l d  193  IV V VI VII VIII  XI  Winter  Sports  and A c t i v i t i e s  204  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  My  thanks  to  Professor  Robert  Dr.  Sawula,  in  Lome  refining  this  the  m e m b e r s o f my  Osborne,  Dr.  for their paper.  Peter Mullins,  a d v i c e and  Special  chairman,  Dr.  Robert  advisory,  Dr.  C h a r l e s Humphries,  corrected  my  Dr.  work.  Emily Goetz,  helped  me  to  Hindmarch,  Thanks  whose  complete  love this  committee,  also and study  assistance  thanks and  my  who  and  to  my  external  directed  t o my  close  and friend,  encouragement on  time.  ix  PREFACE  In  the  evance  of  often the  haste  and  history  the  key  to  turmoil of  may  w e l l be  modern  obscure,  understanding  benefits of  historical  the  study,  society, but  the  present. Wilcox  the  rel-  past  is  so  In d e s c r i b i n g  stated  that  The d i s c i p l i n e i s much more t h a n a f r u s t r a t i n g effort to s a t i s f y c u r i o s i t y about the past. Its value for contemporary s o c i e t y i s r e a l i f i n d i r e c t ; i t provides no r e l i a b l e b a s i s f o r e x t r a p o l a t i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f f u t u r e change, but i t can r e v e a l , however i m p r e c i s e l y , the f o r c e s o f change t h a t are molding the p r e s e n t ... H i s t o r i c a l i n q u i r y , l i k e any e m p h a t i c engagement w i t h human b e i n g s i n t h e i r f u l l c o m p l e x i t y , h a s f o r i t s main r e s u l t not theory, but a deepened awareness.^ The  development  ness  and  of  this  awareness,  understanding,  permitting  a more  can  be  sensitive  of  and  a heightened great  value  conscious-  to  knowledgeable  society,  appraisal  of  present conditions. The  very  variations, from ing  one a  nature  championship  cipation  by  yesterday Through  we  the  and  series  devour  results  the  the of  i t s rhythmic,  constant  to  In  tempo  that  middle  of  the  devoted  and  of  thrusts another,  f o r the  previous  we  seasonal  excitement  prospectus  new  process  a  the  the  attention  is transferred  this  into  for reflection.  which  series,  significance  sport, with  a c c e l e r a t e s change w i t h  'time-out'  coming  of  season to our  seemingly  turnover  and  us deny-  and  anti-  forthlose  their  heroes  brighter change,  of stars. "the  2 past To  and  xts  preserve  properly made  to  heroes these  recorded  are  soon  memories, i n the  r e d i s c o v e r the  lost  to  i t seems  present,  experiences  the  essential  while of  collective that  efforts  years  gone  memory". they  should by.  be  be  1  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The  importance  of s p o r t w i t h i n the h i s t o r i c a l context i s  e v i d e n c e d by t h e f a c t t h a t p s y c h i a t r i s t s ,  sociologists,  and  p a r t i c u l a r l y , e d u c a t o r s h a v e r e c o g n i z e d s p o r t as a p a r t o f G7  e v e r y c u l t u r e t h a t has e v e r e x i s t e d . ^ "  T h u s , s p o r t s and  have been seen t o " p r o v i d e a t o u c h s t o n e  f o r understanding  people  l i v e , w o r k , and t h i n k and may  a l s o s e r v e as a  of a nations's progress i n c i v i l i z a t i o n " . ^  historical  inquiry.  barometer  The e x p l a n a t i o n  l a c k o f a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t o f s p o r t as a  f a c t o r i n c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y i s s i m p l y due  significant  t o the nature  H i s t o r y i s w r i t t e n and,  how  Yet, there i s a  great dearth of h i s t o r i c a l analysis of sport. for this  games  of  i n many w a y s ,  created through the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of past events according to those f a c t o r s which  the s c h o l a r considers s i g n i f i c a n t -  c e r t a i n l y , t h e drama and the f a c t o r s t o which drawn.  C o z e n s and  and  i n t r i g u e of the p o l i t i c a l arena  are  t h e h i s t o r i a n has c o n v e n t i o n a l l y been S t u m p f h a v e commented on t h i s phenomenon by  stating that ...an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e w o r k s o f e a r l y h i s t o r i a n s w o u l d l e a d t h e r e a d e r t o b e l i e v e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s were b o r n and t h e y d i e d , t h e y e a r n e d a l i v i n g , f o u g h t i n w a r s , and e l e c t e d other i n d i v i d u a l s t o p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e , but they never p l a y e d . ^ This general lack of h i s t o r i c a l consideration of  the  l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s of our a n c e s t o r s r a i s e s i n t r i g u i n g q u e s t i o n s . F o r example, j u s t what d i d t h e miners  of the great F r a s e r  C a r i b o o g o l d r u s h e s do t o o c c u p y t h e i r n o n - w o r k i n g we  t o be s a t i s f i e d w i t h an a s s u m p t i o n ,  based  and  time?  on t h e l e g e n d s  Are of  2  f r o n t i e r e x i s t e n c e , t h a t r e c r e a t i o n a l t i m e was s p e n t o n l y i n the s a l o o n s and a t t h e gambling would l o g i c a l l y  suggest  b e i n g a r o u g h and ready  tables.  Such an a s s u m p t i o n  a s t e r e o t y p e o f t h e e a r l y miners as l o t w i t h l i t t l e i n t e r e s t other than a  l u s t f o r g o l d and w e a l t h .  H o w e v e r , i f we q u e s t i o n t h e s t e r e o -  t y p e , we a r e f o r c e d t o r e - a p p r a i s e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e f r o n t i e r s men a n d t o a s k a g a i n , w h a t d i d t h e y d o i n t h e i r l e i s u r e And  what o f t h e p e o p l e  i n the c i t i e s ?  Were t h e i r  time?  activities  s i m i l a r o r d i d t h e i r u r b a n r e s i d e n c e c a u s e them t o e n g a g e i n significantly different activities? i n f l u e n c e d by t h e changing By  How w e r e t h o s e  t i m e s , new t e c h n o l o g y ,  activities  new  settlers?  a s k i n g s u c h q u e s t i o n s we may f i n d a n s w e r s w h i c h l e a d t o a  c o m p l e t e l y new p e r s p e c t i v e i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f o u r c u l t u r e . Sir  As  A r t h u r Lunn has s a i d , The h i s t o r i a n . . . i s a p t t o f o r g e t t h a t s p o r t i n some form o r o t h e r i s t h e main o b j e c t o f most l i v e s , t h a t some men w o r k i n o r d e r t o p l a y , a n d t h a t games w h i c h b u l k s o l a r g e l y i n t h e l i f e o f an i n d i v i d u a l c a n n o t be n e g l e c t e d i n s t u d y i n g t h e l i f e o f a n a t i o n ^ In  s p o r t t h e r e a r e many f a s c i n a t i n g s t o r i e s t o b e t o l d .  These s t o r i e s w i l l ing  n o t merely  r e f l e c t the chronology  developments, but they w i l l  the whole l i f e  of sport-  increase our understanding of  o f o u r a n c e s t o r s and o f o u r h e r i t a g e .  5  This i s  p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n B r i t i s h Columbia where, d u r i n g a few s h o r t y e a r s t h e i n f l u x o f d i v e r g e n t e t h n i c and c u l t u r a l transformed society.  a vast wilderness t o support  a booming  Since the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f both  groups industrial  i n t e g r a t i o n and  the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f e t h n i c i t y have been seen t o be p r o f o u n d l y i n f l u e n c e d by r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ,  6  the sporting history  3 of B r i t i s h Columbia promises t o present  a f a s c i n a t i n g and  c o l o u r f u l image o f a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t o f C a n a d i a n l i f e .  As  W i l l i a m P e r k i n s B u l l has w r i t t e n , The s p i r i t o f a n a t i o n e x p r e s s e s i t s e l f no l e s s i n i t s p l a y t h a n i n i t s w o r k , a n d no h i s t o r y o f a n y B r i t i s h p e o p l e would, b e c o m p l e t e w i t h o u t a reference t o sport.7 The f o l l o w i n g p a p e r i s a n a t t e m p t t o d e s c r i b e a s m a l l p o r t i o n o f Canada's s p o r t i n g h i s t o r y and d e a l s o n l y w i t h t h e earlv, formative years fully,  i t will  serve  into the province's  o f B r i t i s h Columbian s o c i e t y . as a f o u n d a t i o n  f o rfurther  Hope-  research  sports heritage.  PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y sporting a c t i v i t i e s  i s t o t r a c e t h e development o f  i n B r i t i s h Columbia during t h e p e r i o d  b e t w e e n t h e f i r s t F r a s e r R i v e r g o l d r u s h o f 1858 a n d t h e completion intent  o f the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway  i n 1885.  The  . i s t o obtain a concise chronicle of the s i g n i f i c a n t  developments and e v e n t s i n s p o r t as t h e e a r l y B r i t i s h  colonies  matured t h r o u g h r a p i d e x p a n s i o n toward s t a b i l i t y as a p r o v i n c e in  t h e Dominion o f Canada.  NEED FOR THE STUDY 1.  A t h e s i s on an a s p e c t  o f a n a t i o n ' s c u l t u r e w o u l d seem t o  n e e d no f u r t h e r j u s t i f i c a t i o n t h a n t h e f a c t t h a t i t c h r o n i c l e s and  s u b m i t s t o some a n a l y s i s , a f a s c i n a t i n g a n d c o l o u r f u l  image o f t h a t n a t i o n : ' s S l i f e .  Y e t , an i m p o r t a n t  such as s p o r t has g e n e r a l l y r e c e i v e d l i t t l e  institution  a t t e n t i o n from  4 h i s t o r i a n s , causing  a recent  author,  G.M.  Lewis,  to state  that, S p o r t was a n d i s s u c h a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e American experience t h a t i t s p a s t n e g l e c t as s u i t a b l e subject matter can not continue. 2.  Since  sport i s part of the o v e r - a l l  life  experience  of  man, we may be b e t t e r a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s t r u c t u r e a n d f u n c t i o n o f s o c i e t y through the study  of sport.  In tracing  the development o f s p o r t i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t s p a t t e r n o f g r o w t h may s e r v e  as an i n d i c a t o r o f a s h i f t i n i t s p o s i t i o n s  within society, reflecting  a change i n s o c i e t a l v a l u e s .  t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e c u l t u r e may be i n c o m p l e t e investigation of the sports 3.  adequate  institution.  A knowledge o f o u r h e r i t a g e w i l l  understanding  without  Thus,  g i v e us a b e t t e r  and a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  self-  o f how t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y  s p o r t s scene has been e s t a b l i s h e d . 4.  The n e e d f o r a s t u d y  o f sport i n B r i t i s h Columbia  this  p e r i o d i s f u r t h e r j u s t i f i e d by L i n d s a y ' s  comment  during that  o n l y by f u r t h e r d e l i m i t a t i o n s i n t i m e span and r e g i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n c a n such a g e n e r a l t o p i c [as h i s t o r y o f s p o r t s i n C a n a d a J be more f r u i t f u l l y examined.9 METHODS AND PROCEDURES Background i n f o r m a t i o n  f o r the general  history of the  r e g i o n has been t a k e n from t h e a u t h o r i t a t i v e work o f M a r g a r e t Ormsby, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ;  A History.  The i n f o r m a t i o n o n  s p o r t has been g l e a n e d p r i m a r i l y from contemporary newspapers. The  major s o u r c e has been t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t o f  Victoria,  w h i l e t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n a n d t h e M a i n l a n d G u a r d i a n o f New  5  Westminster and t h e Cariboo S e n t i n e l been most i n f o r m a t i v e .  o f B a r k e r v i l l e have  When a v a i l a b l e ,  also  t h e o r i g i n a l news-  p a p e r was c o n s u l t e d , b u t t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e r e s e a r c h involved  t h e use o f microfilms.  The method o f r e s e a r c h i n g  t h e s e n e w s p a p e r s was t o q u i c k l y  scan t h e pages o f each  edition,  c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e t h i r d page, on w h i c h t h e b u l k o f community news a n d e v e n t s w e r e g e n e r a l l y editions  reported.  of the B r i t i s h Colonist  However, f o r t h e  p u b l i s h e d a f t e r 1870,  a more  e x p e d i e n t m e t h o d o f r e s e a r c h was e m p l o y e d b y r e f e r r i n g t o t h e sporting  topics  listed  i n the index t o that  newspaper, which  i s housed i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l a r c h i v e s a t V i c t o r i a . The  criteria  for examination, o r the determinants o f  significance, of sporting  a c t i v i t i e s h a s been based on t h e  major elements o f s p o r t s as c i t e d by Kenyon: facilitators,  and s i t u a t i o n s . - 1  0  forms,  These i n c l u d e  such  as  the nature of the a c t i v i t y ( i e . distinguishing  of  f o o t b a l l - rugby, a s s o c i a t i o n ,  ity of rules;  outstanding  and u n i q u e , prestigious-jr o r o t h e r w i s e  important occasions  ( i e . the f i r s t recorded  the nature o f h i s t o r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,  relationships  between t y p e s  the extent of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the l e v e l of  i n d i v i d u a l s and groups;  By  factors  a n d C a n a d i a n ) a n d t h e commonal-  c o m p e t i t i o n , and t h e degree o f s p e c t a t o r a p p e a l ;  historically  participants,  between d i s c i p l i n e s w i t h i n  history  event).  the interi s inevitable.  A c c o r d i n g t o Commager, T a c k l e any major problem i n h i s t o r y and y o u w i l l d i s c o v e r a t once t h a t y o u c a n n o t u n d e r s t a n d i t i n i s o l a t i o n , b u t that you are involved i n p o l i t i c s , i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s , s c i e n c e , t e c h n o l o g y , economics, p s y c h o l o g y , and m o r a l s . . . The f a c t i s t h a t men a n d women do n o t l i v e i n c o m p a r t m e n t s l a b e l l e d ' p o l i t i e s ' o r 'law' o r ' r e l i g i o n ' o r ' e c o n o m i e s ' , they l i v e i n a l l s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . . . H i s t o r y i s as a l l embracing a s l i f e i t s e l f a n d t h e m i n d o f man.  6 Consequently, i n order  to maintain  h i s t o r i c a l c o n t i n u i t y and  s i g n i f i c a n c e , an a t t e m p t h a s b e e n made, w h e r e a p p r o p r i a t e , t o include b r i e f references of t h i s  t o f a c t o r s beyond t h e scope and i n t e n t  paper.  LIMITATIONS Wedgewood d e s c r i b e d t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t on e v e r y  limitation  placed  h i s t o r i a n when s h e s a i d t h a t  The h i s t o r i a n o u g h t t o b e t h e h u m b l e s t o f men; he i s f a c e d a d o z e n t i m e s a d a y w i t h t h e e v i d e n c e o f h i s own ignorance; he i s p e r p e t u a l l y c o n f r o n t e d w i t h h i s own humiliating inability to interpret h i s material correctly; he i s , i n a s e n s e t h a t no o t h e r w r i t e r i s , i n bondage t o t h a t m a t e r i a l . - * 2  The  historian i s the victim of fortuity.  He m u s t w o r k w i t h  w h a t e v e r m a t e r i a l comes t o h a n d a n d o f t e n , much o f t h e r e l e v a n t and it  e s s e n t i a l m a t e r i a l i s l o s t t o h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n because has rtever been c o m p i l e d  o r because o f t h e e r o s i o n o f time,  whereby v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n has s u f f e r e d from n e g l e c t , n a t u r a l c a u s e s , o r even d e l i b e r a t e d e s t r u c t i o n . Another l i m i t a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l i n q u i r y i s that o f distortion.  As r e a d i l y e v i d e n c e d  a t t r a c t s the record-keeper catastrophic. by  i n modern n e w s p a p e r s , w h a t  i s the dramatic,  b i z a r r e , and  T h u s , t h e r e c o r d o f e v e n t s may b e c o n t a m i n a t e d  t h e b i a s e s and i n t e r e s t s o f t h e w r i t e r , r e s u l t i n g i n e i t h e r  exaggerated n a r r a t i v e o r complete n e g l e c t . l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s study did not provide  A particular  i s t h a t t h e contemporary newspapers  systematic  o r t h o r o u g h s p o r t s c o v e r a g e , a n d , due  t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f space, o f t e n gave o n l y b r i e f regarding  community  activities.  announcements  7 This study  i s f u r t h e r l i m i t e d by t h e i m p r a c t i c a b i l i t y ' o f  reading the contemporary p u b l i c a t i o n s i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y . s h e e r v o l u m e o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , may on  w e l l have c o n c e a l e d  s p o r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s which are s i g n i f i c a n t t o the  The notes  study.  F u r t h e r m o r e , some s e c t i o n s o f t h e o r i g i n a l n e w s p a p e r s and o f the m i c r o f i l m s were e x t r e m e l y  d i f f i c u l t to read,  i n c r e a s i n g t h e p o s s i b l i t y t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t d a t a has uncovered.  Such i s the problem o f h i s t o r i c a l  i n w h i c h t h e r e i s a l w a y s t h e c h a n c e o f new t o l i g h t , new T h u s , i t may  i d e a s , o r new be  some  thereby not  been  investigation  i n f o r m a t i o n coming  interpretationsto rewrite history.  s a i d t h a t the h i s t o r i a n s ' work i s n e v e r  complete.  DELIMITATIONS 1.  This investigation w i l l  be c o n f i n e d t o s p o r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s  which are b a s i c a l l y o f European o r i g i n . indigenous  A c t i v i t i e s of  p o p u l a t i o n a r e n o t d i s c u s s e d u n l e s s t h e y c a n be  t o have p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e t o the development o f w i t h i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  insignificant  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n c u l t u r e , b u t t h e y c a n n o t be the scope of t h i s paper because a c o m p l e t e l y  The  and  to  included within  d i f f e r e n t method  o f r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d t o do more t h a n a s u p e r f i c i a l  2.  seen  sports  T h i s d o e s n o t d i s m i s s t h e games  c o n t e s t s o f t h e n a t i v e I n d i a n s as b e i n g  of Indian  the  survey  sport. i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s c o n f i n e d t o t h e a r e a known a s  P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , on t h e w e s t e r n c o a s t o f  the  Canada.  8 3.  The  1858,  time p e r i o d under c o n s i d e r a t i o n ranges roughly  from  the y e a r the f i r s t contemporary newspapers were p u b l i s h e d ,  t o t h e y e a r 1885,  when B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e n t e r e d a new  p o p u l a t i o n growth, f o l l o w i n g the completion Pacific  of the  era of  Canadian  Railway.  DEFINITIONS The one  term  s p o r t h a s many a m b i g u o u s c o n n o t a t i o n s .  h a n d , i t may  be c o n s i d e r e d t o r e f e r t o a game  On  the  occurrence  i n w h i c h e l e m e n t s o f a c t i v i t y , c o m p e t i t i o n , and o r g a n i z a t i o n are present.  H o w e v e r , i n m o d e r n t i m e s , i t may  be  necessary  t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n s u c h c o m p e t i t i o n s a s a p i c k - u p game o f f o o t b a l l o r s t r e e t h o c k e y and i n a stadium or arena.  The  a highly organized former  competition  i s t e r m e d a game and  the  l a t t e r , a s p o r t , t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n b e i n g b a s e d on t h e w i d e d i s c r e p a n c i e s o f c o m p e t i t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n , and  s k i l l require-  ments, whereby t h e s p o r t g a i n s a marked increment  in public  i n t e r e s t and  distinctions,  influence.  i n order to avoid these  a more e n c o m p a s s i n g d e f i n i t i o n may by L o y , who  be u s e d , s u c h a s t h a t p r o v i d e d  s a i d t h a t s p o r t r e f e r s t o "the t o t a l i t y  of  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d games whose o u t c o m e s a r e d e p e n d e n t u p o n physical prowess".^  However, n e i t h e r o f t h e s e  definitional  e f f o r t s i s completely a p p r o p r i a t e t o the a c t i v i t i e s of the p e r i o d w i t h which t h i s paper i s  concerned.  Since the paper deals w i t h a time p e r i o d i n which  the  s p o r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s o f the r e g i o n were i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s  of  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l development, c u r r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s of s p o r t l a c k m e a n i n g and  context.  Thus, f o r the purposes of t h i s  study,  9 s p o r t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o l o o s e l y r e f e r t o a host o f p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n and l e i s u r e p u r s u i t s which g e n e r a l l y form o f c o m p e t i t i o n o r gross b o d i l y movement.  involve  some  10 CHAPTER I I BACKGROUND HISTORY OF  B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  U n t i l l a t e i n the eighteenth century, the P a c i f i c West l a y u n d i s t u r b e d by t h e w h i t e man.  I t was  only  North through  the need f o r a s h o r t e r r o u t e t o t h e O r i e n t , t r i g g e r i n g search f o r a North-West Passage, t h a t the European  the  civiliza-  t i o n came t o r e c o g n i z e t h e v a l u e o f t h i s r e m o t e r e g i o n . 1764,  In  Russian e x p l o r e r s d i s c o v e r e d the r i c h e s of sea o t t e r f u r ,  a r o u s i n g t h e c u r i o s i t y o f t h e S p a n i s h , whose s h i p c a p t a i n e d by J u a n J o s e p h P e r e z , g a i n e d glimpse  the f i r s t  Santiago, recorded  o f t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s on J u l y 17,  year l a t e r ,  i n 1778,  1774.  Four  E n g l a n d ' s C a p t a i n James Cook f o u n d  not  o n l y s h e l t e r i n N o o t k a S o u n d , b u t an a b u n d a n c e o f f u r s  and  strong timbers to repair h i s ships. In  subsequent y e a r s , Russian, Spanish, American,  and  B r i t i s h v e s s e l s s a i l e d the coast i n the two-fold o b j e c t i v e of o b t a i n i n g f u r s f r o m t h e I n d i a n s , t o be China, while hoping the c o n t i n e n t . reached  sold for high prices i n  t o s t u m b l e on t h e e l u s i v e p a s s a g e  through  T h u s , by t h e t i m e C a p t a i n G e o r g e V a n c o u v e r  North America,  i n A p r i l of  1792,  f u r - t r a d e r s had named c o v e s , i s l a n d s and c a p e s a f t e r t h e i r p a t r o n s , s p o n s o r s , and r e l a t i v e s , and h a d v i s i t e d a l l t h e w e s t e r n i n l e t s between t h e mouth o f t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r and t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s . 1 H o w e v e r , t h e i r h u r r i e d e x c u r s i o n s had  f a i l e d to provide  an  a c c u r a t e knowledge o f the c o a s t l i n e , l e a v i n g Vancouver's c h a r t i n g crews t o d i s c o v e r t h a t a North-West passage the c o n t i n e n t d i d not  exist.  through  11 M e a n w h i l e , t h e s e a r c h was d i r e c t i o n - by  land.  p u s h e d h i s way  out of the  m i s s i n g one Succeeding  and  J u l y 22,  1793,  Mackenzie  f o r e s t to reach B e l l a Coola  voyageurs a l s o penetrated  small stockaded  Inlet,  the wilderness of  settlement  2  the  i n t h e name o f t h e N o r t h West Company, f o r t s on t h e u p p e r r e a c h e s o f t h e  F r a s e r R i v e r s , t o form the nucleus  white  Alexander  opposite  o f V a n c o u v e r ' s c h a r t i n g c r e w s by o n l y a m o n t h .  Rocky M o u n t a i n s and, built  On  c o n t i n u i n g from the  of the f i r s t  i n the P a c i f i c N o r t h West.  Peace  permanent  F o r t S t . James,  b u i l t on S t u a r t L a k e d u r i n g t h e summer o f 1806,  became  the  c a p i t a l of a r i c h f u r t r a d i n g d i s t r i c t which the e x p l o r e r , F r a s e r , c a l l e d New was  able to reach  bears  h i s name.  Caledonia.  On  h i s t r a v e l s south,  the d e l t a of the treacherous H e r e he v i s i t e d  river  which  t h e I n d i a n v i l l a g e o f Musgueam,  c o n t a i n i n g a h o u s e f i f t e e n h u n d r e d f e e t l o n g and wide.  Fraser  ninety feet  Other e x p l o r a t i o n s d i s c o v e r e d the lakes of the  v a l l e y and  s o o n , a c h a i n o f f o r t s was  p r i n c i p l e waterways l e a d i n g t o the L i f e on t h e s e d i s t a n t f o r t s was  e s t a b l i s h e d along  a  the  coast. undoubtedly l o n e l y , but  t h e l a r g e r p o s t s , p l e a s a n t d i v e r s i o n s c o u l d be S p o k a n H o u s e , w h i c h e v e n had  Okanagan  found.  on  At  ballroom,  t r a d e r s a n d c l e r k s s a t down t o a g o o d t a b l e and f i n e w i n e , and e n j o y e d t h e c o m p a n i o n s h i p o f a t t r a c t i v e n a t i v e women, m u s i c and a s u p p l y o f f a i r l y e n t e r t a i n i n g literature.^ During  the  summers, t h e C a n a d i a n t r a d e r s w e r e k e p t b u s y  t o o u t w i t t h e i r A m e r i c a n c o u n t e r p a r t s , who to capture  were a l s o  t h e m o n o p o l y on b a r t e r i n g w i t h t h e  H o w e v e r , w i t h t h e i m p o r t a t i o n o f I r o q u o i s and  trying  striving  Indians. Sandwich I s l a n d e r s ,  12 t h e t r a d e r s h a d more l e i s u r e t i m e a n d became a l m o s t  sedentary  d u r i n g t h e l o n g w i n t e r m o n t h s , when t h e m a j o r r e c r e a t i o n was " s t r o l l i n g on t h e r o c k y beach o r on t r a i l s c u t t h r o u g h forest". The  t h e deep  5  t h r u s t of the overland beaver trade r a p i d l y  the economic o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e g i o n . ^  changed  T i e s w i t h Canto„n w e r e  weakened i n f a v o u r o f t h e l u c r a t i v e European m a r k e t s v i a San  Francisco.  In order t o o f f s e t the n a t u r a l i n t r u s i o n  of  American i n f l u e n c e i n t o what had been a Canadian f i n a n c e d venture  o f e x p l o r a t i o n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t , i t became e s s e n t i a l t o  e s t a b l i s h a more s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t c o m m u n i t y .  The v e s s e l  B e a v e r was d i s p a t c h e d f r o m G r a v e s e n d i n A u g u s t o f 1 8 3 5 , d e s t i n e d f o r F o r t V a n c o u v e r , w h e r e i t was t o b e f i t t e d  as a steamer and  f u e l e d tby t h e c o a l d e p o s i t s i n t h e n o r t h o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . Here, i t would p r o v i d e a speedy s e r v i c e between such as t h e f l o u r m i l l a t F o r t A l e x a n d e r Langley,  concerns  and t h e f i s h e r y a t F o r t  as w e l l as e f f i c i e n t l y c a r r y i n g f u r s and t r a d e goods  throughout  the region.  In order t o maintain control of the  c o a s t , t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company, (H.B.C.), w h i c h h a d r e c e n t l y absorbed  t h e N o r t h - W e s t Company, c o n t r a c t e d t o s u p p l y f o o d  i t s new a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t s t o t h e n o r t h e r n R u s s i a n  from  posts.  T h u s , " t h e p r i c e o f v i c t o r y o n t h e s e a c o a s t was t h e e x p a n s i o n o f f a r m i n g and t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t The which,  t h r e a t o f American expansion  a s y e t , h a d no b o u n d a r i e s .  p o p u l a t i o n s became r a v a g e d ,  inland".  continued  i n this  area  As t h e b e a v e r and m a r t e n  forcing the price of pelts to a  l e v e l w h i c h London t a s t e s and p o c k e t - b o o k s were r e l u c t a n t t o  13 pay,  t h e H.B.C. c l a m m e r e d f o r p r o t e c t i o n o f i t s i n d u s t r y f r o m  the spread  o f American t r a d e r s .  To i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s i t u a t i o n ,  C a p t a i n , t h e H o n o r a b l e J o h n G o r d o n , was s e n t t o t h e p o s t o f V i c t o r i a , w h i c h had been [ e s t a b l i s h e d on Vancouver I s l a n d on M a r c h 3, 1 8 4 3 , b y James D o u g l a s , t h e C h i e f F a c t o r o f t h e H.B.C. H e r e , G o r d o n was e n t e r t a i n e d b y R o d e r i c k him  r i d i n g and h u n t i n g  F i n l a y s o n , who t o o k  i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f Cedar H i l l .  The  B r i t i s h g o v e r n m e n t was i m p r e s s e d b y t h e u r g e n c y o f h i s r e p o r t and,  on June 15, 1846, s i g n e d t h e Oregon Boundary T r e a t y ,  i n g w i t h t h e American government t o e x t e n d t h e boundary the 49th p a r a l l e l .  Although  along  t h e a g r e e m e n t was n o t t o t h e  l i k i n g o f t h e H . B . C , w h i c h was d e s i r o u s o f a more boundary, t h e B r i t i s h decided  agree-  not t o press  southern  the point i n light  of such p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as f e a r o f war w i t h t h e U n i t e d States  ( a t a t i m e when r e l a t i o n s w i t h F r a n c e w e r e s t r a i n e d ) ,  restricted  f i n a n c e s , and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e c e n t r e p e a l o f t h e  C o r n Laws m i g h t b r i n g down t h e c a b i n e t b e f o r e settled.^  At least, the treaty provided  t h e t r e a t y was  a recognized  boundary,  a s s u r i n g l a n d s o v e r w h i c h t h e H.B.C. h a d l e g a l a u t h o r i t y . Despite  t h e t r e a t y ' s r e c o g n i t i o n o f sovereignty, t h e prox-  i m i t y o f t h e area t o American settlement would always h o l d t h e danger o f a b s o r p t i o n by an American p o p u l a t i o n , u n l e s s was  p r o p e r l y c o l o n i z e d by B r i t a i n .  the region  In particular,  ...the need f o r a B r i t i s h f o o t h o l d on an i s l a n d w i t h h a r b o u r s s u i t a b l e f o r n a v a l s t a t i o n s , h a d a c q u i r e d a new s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h Mexico's c e s s i o n o f C a l i f o r n i a and o t h e r t e r r i t o r y t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1848.1° Thus, c o n s i s t e n t w i t h i t s p o l i c y o f u s i n g p r i v a t e companies as c o l o n i z i n g agents throughout t h e Empire, t h e B r i t i s h  government  14 i s s u e d t h e H.B.C. w i t h p r o p r i e t a r y r i g h t s o v e r  t h e new C o l o n y  o f Vancouver I s l a n d , on t h e c o n d i t i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t , and a p p o i n t e d D o u g l a s a s G o v e r n o r i n May o f 1 8 5 1 . The  d e v e l o p m e n t o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d was i n t e n d e d n o t o n l y  as a b u l w a r k a g a i n s t A m e r i c a n l a n d - g r a b b e r s ,  b u t as a colony o f  B r i t i s h l a n d h o l d e r s who w o u l d m a i n t a i n t h e s o c i a l a n d e t h i c a l standards and  of mid-Victorian England.H  visiting  The E n g l i s h  settlers  n a v a l o f f i c e r s s l o w l y had an impact on t h e l i f e o f  t h e o l d f u r - t r a d e r s , whose I n d i a n women l e a r n e d t h e d a n c e they and  steps  saw a b o a r d A d m i r a l F a i r f a x M o r e s b y ' s f l a g s h i p , t h e P o r t l a n d , q u i c k l y a c q u i r e d t h e g r a c e s , manner a n d s p e e c h o f more  polite society. Men who h a d d a n c e d r e e l s , p e r h a p s o n c e a y e a r t o t h e tune o f a f i d d l e a t t h e e x c l u s i v e l y male c e l e b r a t i o n s on New Y e a r ' s Day a t . f u r - t r a d i n g p o s t s , a d j u s t e d t o t h e new w a y s , 1 2 while t h e i r c h i l d r e n attended h e l d by Mrs.  s c h o o l and sometimes  Douglas a t t h e North  D a i r y Farm.  picnics  Here,  they  l e a r n e d new games, r e p l a c i n g t h e i r b a r e - f i s t e d s c u f f l e s  with  I n d i a n b o y s f o r t h e more g e n t e e l c r i c k e t a n d r o u n d e r s . The the  promised wealth  o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a G o l d Rush d r a i n e d  labour supply o f Vancouver I s l a n d , b u t t h e s t a b l e p o p u l a t i o n  of V i c t o r i a reached  some f o u r h u n d r e d a d u l t s i n 1855.  March o f t h a t y e a r ,  t h e C r a i g f l o w e r S c h o o l was o p e n e d .  In Riding  p a r t i e s f o r v i s i t i n g mid-shipmen were o r g a n i z e d by t h e p r e t t y daughters o f Captain Langford,  and t h e whole community c e l e b r a t e d 13  the annual  V i c t o r i a Day w i t h r a c e s a t B e a c o n H i l l .  J  Also i n  t h a t y e a r , a g r e a t p i c n i c was h e l d t o c e l e b r a t e t h e f o u r t h b i r t h d a y o f t h e Governor's son, w h i l e o t h e r  entertainments  15  d u r i n g the by  the  year  H.B.C.  included theatrical balls  workers.  b e e n opened by t h e  an  occasion  burst of church.  and f e w e r  for a great  frivolity,  the  performed  coal-fields  had  t h e m i n e r s were u s e d  comforts.  celebration,  Guy Fawkes Day was  but a p a r t from t h i s  community c e n t r e d  its  1857,  the  changed.  economy o f  the  G o l d had been d i s c o v e r e d  on t h e  region.  to  been q u i e t l y  the  collecting  Canadian employees. implements attempts,  but u n t i l  colony,  The  F o r some y e a r s ,  gold dust  I n 1852,  the  1856,  the  small.  Indians  amount o f  Once news o f  the  year,  that  c a p i t a l i z e d on t h e  f r o m San F r a n c i s c o t o V i c t o r i a to  three  times t h e i r  not only miners,  and i t s  within a period of  buildings, The  six  find  to  one  of  By  $30  thousand  and f i l l e d  fare their  The r u s h b r o u g h t  people  of  two h u n d r e d and  t h e most  the  /American  i n c l u d i n g n e a r l y two h u n d r e d s t o r e s ,  F r a s e r Gold Rush,  1857.  b o n a n z a by r e d u c i n g t h e  and o t h e r  of  started  twenty-five  crowded.  the  leaked out  t h o u s a n d men  f r o m $75 t o  weeks,  French-  for e a r l y mining  normal c a p a c i t y .  but merchants  had  and some p r i m i t i v e  the  number had s w e l l e d  s p r i n g , V i c t o r i a became  new  g o l d p r o c u r e d by  r u s h was on and some t e n  steam c o m p a n i e s  that  tools  H.B.C.  F r a s e r R i v e r between May 15 and J u n e 1 o f  following  ships  the  from I n d i a n s  iron  had been p r o v i d e d t h e  Company had b e e n  end o f  the  N o r t h Thompson  prosperity  the  in  c o l o n y was o n c e a g a i n d r a m a t i - *  r u s h o f /American g o l d s e e k e r s b r o u g h t  up  out-  activities  R i v e r and a g r e a t  the  to  i 4  In cally  I n N a n a i m o , where  Company i n 1852,  more s i m p l e p l e a s u r e s  and p l a y s  standing,  so  twenty-five  were  sudden i n  constructed history,  16  produced another t h r e a t t o B r i t i s h s o v e r e i g n t y and the commerc i a l monopoly o f the H.B.C.  American enthusiasm f o r expansion  was e x e m p l i f i e d by these l i n e s from the newspaper, the P i o n e e r and Democrat o f Olympia, Soon our banner w i l l be streaming, Soon the e a g l e w i l l be screaming And the l i o n - see i t cowers Hurrah, boys, the r i v e r ' s ours.16 Alarmed by t h i s d i s r e s p e c t f o r i m p e r i a l r i g h t s and concerned by the danger of Indian warfare s p r e a d i n g from-Washington T e r r i t o r y i n t o Crown l a n d s , Douglas demanded t h a t miners o b t a i n B r i t i s h permits f o r t h e i r v e n t u r e s .  To f u r t h e r p r o t e c t i t s  s o v e r e i g n t y , the B r i t i s h government backed up Douglas' demands by e s t a b l i s h i n g , on August 2, 1858, the new of  B r i t i s h Columbia on the mainland.  and separate Colony  Shortly  thereafter,  C o l o n e l Moody of the Royal E n g i n e e r s , d i s p a t c h e d t o b u i l d a cummunications  system f o r the c o l o n y , t o p r o v i d e m i l i t a r y  p r o t e c t i o n , and t o e n f o r c e B r i t i s h laws, e s t a b l i s h e d the c a p i t a l at  the t o w n s i t e o f Queensborough, In  l a t e r renamed New  Westminster.  the ensuing y e a r s , the quest f o r g o l d pushed  farther  n o r t h , i n t o the Cariboo c o u n t r y , a t t r a c t i n g c o l o n i s t s t o e s t a b l i s h a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t s i n the I n t e r i o r . strikes at  Large  . K e i t h l e y Creek and a t A n t l e r , where s h a f t s o f  f o r t y t o f i f t y f e e t were r e q u i r e d , f o r c e d the miners i n t o formal p a r t n e r s h i p s i n o r d e r t o r a i s e the e s s e n t i a l c a p i t a l .  There  were o f t e n good r e t u r n s f o r the investment and by the end o f 1862, the C a r i b o o d i s t r i c t alone produced over $2.5 m i l l i o n o f gold.  F o r those miners not so f o r t u n a t e t o f i n d a s t r i k e ,  good wages c o u l d be had by working on the roads.  Thus, by  17 t h e end  o f 1863,  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was  i n l a n d h i g h w a y and The  able to boast  permanent a g r i c u l t u r a l  m a j o r c o m m u n i t i e s o f t h e new  W e s t m i n s t e r had  t h r e e hundred people some f i n e c h u r c h e s , The  and was and  extensive  settlements.^  colony prospered  r a p i d l y advanced t h e i r c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s . t h e c a p i t a l a t New  an  and  In A p r i l of  a p o p u l a t i o n o f two  1864, to  equipped w i t h a small p u b l i c s c h o o l ,  a h o s p i t a l named t h e R o y a l  g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s and  Columbian.  other notable c i t i z e n s  enjoyed  amateur t h e a t r i c a l s , music, l i t e r a t u r e , c a r d - p l a y i n g , t e n n i s , cricket  and  balls,  s u c h as t h a t h e l d by t h e new  Governor,  Seymour, i n h o n o u r o f t h e P r i n c e o f W a l e s ' b i r t h d a y . w h i l e , the b u s t l i n g northern mining R i c h f i e l d , and  Barkerville  Mean-  towns o f Camerontown,  ( t h e l a t t e r s o o n t o become t e m p o r a r i l y ,  t h e l a r g e s t c e n t r e o f p o p u l a t i o n w e s t o f C h i c a g o and  north  of  19 San  Francisco)  supported  l i q u o r , c a r d r o o m s , and o u t s i d e w o r l d was  numerous s a l o o n s , s u p p l y i n g m e a l s ,  dance h a l l s .  Communication w i t h  g r e a t l y e n h a n c e d by t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e  graph, r e c e n t l y connected w i t h the A t l a n t i c Cable, New  W e s t m i n s t e r i n A p r i l o f 1865,  The  circuity  and  the tele-  reaching  soon e x t e n d i n g  to Quesnel.  r i d i n g s of Judge Matthew B e g b i e ensured a  just  enforcement of the laws, e n a b l i n g the c o l o n i a l s t o conduct t h e i r a f f a i r s w i t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree of s e c u r i t y . s u r r o u n d e d on B r i t i s h s o i l by  Thus,  an o v e r w h e l m i n g number o f f o r e i g n  o p p o r t u n i s t s , D o u g l a s ' p r o m p t a c t i o n on b e h a l f o f h i s Crown Company "had and  firmly planted B r i t i s h  institutions  engendered r e s p e c t f o r B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t y " . The  s t a b i l i t y of the r e g i o n seemingly  in their  and  midst  2 0  e s t a b l i s h e d , the  18 n e x t s i g n i f i c a n t c o l o n i a l d e v e l o p m e n t was t h e u n i o n mainland w i t h Vancouver I s l a n d . two  ofthe  On November 1 9 , 1 8 6 6 , t h e  c o l o n i e s w e r e u n i t e d u n d e r t h e s i n g l e name o f B r i t i s h  Columbia, b u t t h e colony's E m p i r e was s t i l l  d e s t i n y as p a r t o f t h e B r i t i s h  not secure.  I n c e n s e d by t h e monopoly o f t h e  H.B.C., a g r o u p o f b u s i n e s s m e n w i t h s t r o n g t i e s t o S a n F r a n c i s c o , proposed union  with the United  S t a t e s and even p e t i t i o n e d t h e  American P r e s i d e n t f o r annexation. coupled  In the face of t h i s  w i t h the problem o f i n c r e a s i n g l y expensive  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i t was f i n a l l y  f e a r o f American absorption. C o l u m b i a became a p r o v i n c e  itself  American i n t e r e s t s .  should  enter  l a r g e l y a response t o  Thus, on J u l y 20, 1871, B r i t i s h  i n t h e Dominion o f Canada.  I n t e r n a l d i s c o r d was n o t o n l y e v i d e n t b e t w e e n and  colonial  agreed t h a t t h e colony  the recent Canadian c o n f e d e r a t i o n ,  threat,  British  W h i l e t h e i n t e r i o r s e t t l e r s had f e l t  they were f o r g o t t e n by t h e government o f f i c i a l s  i n New W e s t m i n s t e r ,  the removal o f t h e c a p i t a l t o V i c t o r i a fanned an a l r e a d y c o m m e r c i a l r i v a l r y b e t w e e n t h e two p o r t s .  bitter  The e d i t o r i a l  exchanges e x e m p l i f i e d t h e tone o f t h e r i v a l r y a s , i n 1867, t h e B r i t i s h Colonist of V i c t o r i a described  t h e F r a s e r R i v e r as a  " s t r e a m o f l i q u i d mud" a n d New W e s t m i n s t e r a s "a p i m p l e o n t h e face of c r e a t i o n " .  M e a n w h i l e , i n New W e s t m i n s t e r , b o t h  G o v e r n o r Seymour a n d t h e e d i t o r o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n w e r e quoted as having  r e f e r r e d t o V i c t o r i a as being  " f r o g pond". -'-  This s e c t i o n a l r i v a l r y  2  l o c a t e d on a  f l a r e d again with the  d e l i b e r a t i o n o f terms o f B r i t i s h Columbia's entrance Confederation,  as t h e m e r i t s o f B u r r a r d  into  Inlet clashed with  those  19 of Esquimalt  as a t e r m i n u s f o r t h e p r o p o s e d t r a n s - c o n t i n e n t a l  Canadian P a c i f i c Railway. to  S i m i l a r l y , t h e a c t o f 1890,  e s t a b l i s h a p r o v i n c i a l u n i v e r s i t y , was  confronted  c r i p p l i n g p r o b l e m o f w h e r e t o l o c a t e - on t h e mainland.  I n f a c t t h e r i v a l r y was  became p e r m a n e n t l y  seeking  with  I s l a n d o r on  construe  g o v e r n m e n t b u i l d i n g s i n 189 3.  Along w i t h the province's  i n t e r n a l d i f f e r e n c e s , i t was  a p p a r e n t t h a t c o m m u n i c a t i o n and E a s t e r n C a n a d a w o u l d be  the  so i n t e n s e t h a t t h e C a p i t a l  'anchored' i n V i c t o r i a o n l y a f t e r the  t i o n o f t h e p a l a t i a l new  the  no  soon  p a r a l l e l development w i t h  easy accomplishment.  History  and  the p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y would ensure t h a t s o c i a l , economic, t e c h n o l o g i c a l advancements o f t h e r a p i d l y expanding A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y w o u l d be f i l t e r i n g across coast.  centred  plains.  North  i n the east, b e l a t e d l y  the expanse of the c o n t i n e n t t o the  H o w e v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was  o f C a n a d a by more t h a n a v a s t According  and  separated  Pacific  from the  s e a o f m o u n t a i n s and  rest  endless  t o Ormsby,  The c o m m u n i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t h e s o u t h e r n end o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , w h e r e t h e r e was t h e g r e a t e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n , had n e v e r b e e n a t y p i c a l North American f r o n t i e r settlement. Here, i n t h i s " s e c o n d E n g l a n d on t h e s h o r e s o f t h e P a c i f i c " , l i f e was n o t a d e s p e r a t e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t a h a r s h p h y s i c a l environment.22 The  pleasant  c l i m a t e and  supply  o f C h i n e s e and  p r o v i d e d many B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s w i t h a h i g h l y life  Indian  comfortable  s t y l e , a f f o r d e d them g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r  p u r s u i t s , and experienced The  encouraged a slower  i n other p a r t s of the  pace of l i f e  and  than  leisure that  country.  a r r i v a l o f t h e t e l e g r a p h had  w i t h the centres of the world  labour  g r e a t l y enhanced  contact  s p e e d e d t h e f l o w o f news  and  20  ideas.  The  telephone  was  probably of s i m i l a r value f o r l o c a l  news o n c e t h e n o v e l t y o f t h e new  d e v i c e wore o f f :  P a r t i e s w i s h i n g t o use t h e t e l e p h o n e w i l l f i n d t h e e d i t o r ' s room o f t h e C o l o n i s t o f f i c e o p e n a t any r e a s o n a b l e h o u r d a y o r n i g h t , and t h e c u r i o u s l i t t l e t r a n s m i t t e r o f t h e human v o i c e on t h e t a b l e a t t h e i r disposal. -* 2  H o w e v e r , i t was  the r a i l r o a d which would r e a l l y u n i t e  C o l u m b i a w i t h t h e r e s t o f Canada. t r a v e l w o u l d b r i n g B.C. people  14,  1880,  Mackenzie reached new  era.  The  rail  rail  East.  j u s t eighty-seven years a f t e r  Alexander  the P a c i f i c coast, B r i t i s h Columbia entered  dynamite b l a s t t h a t echoed through  Canyon a t Y a l e t h a t day, difficult  r a p i d i t y of d i r e c t  i n t o much more i m m e d i a t e c o n t a c t w i t h  from the g r e a t c i t i e s of the  On May  The  British  the  a  Fraser  h e r a l d e d t h e s t a r t o f t h e most  stage i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the t r a n s - c o n t i n e n t a l  l i n k w i t h t h e r e s t o f Canada.  t h o u s a n d s o f men  years,  w o u l d w o r k on t h e r o a d and make t h e i r homes i n  B r i t i s h Columbia. of Chinese,  In the next f i v e  imported  Among t h e s e new  s e t t l e r s w e r e g r e a t numbers  by A n d r e w O n d e r d o n o c k , t h e c o n t r a c t o r  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e B.C.  section.  These d i l i g e n t  workers  provided not only e s s e n t i a l labour f o r the r a i l w a y , but added d e p t h  and  c h a r a c t e r t o t h e s o c i a l f a b r i c , as  also  evidenced  by t h e f o l l o w i n g comment. The s c e n e a t Y a l e on S a t u r d a y b e g g a r s d e s c r i p t i o n . A t h o u s a n d w h i t e men r e c e n t l y e m p l o y e d on t h e r a i l r o a d r u s h e d o u t o f t h e c a r s and i n t o t h e s a l o o n s . I n two h o u r s t h e s t r e e t s were f u l l o f l u n a t i c s . . . T w e l v e h u n d r e d C h i n e s e a r r i v e d by t h e same t r a i n and w e n t i n t o t h e w o o d s , and c o o k e d t h e i r r i c e . I t i s amusing t o s e e t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n P a g a n s and C h r i s t i a n s . 2 5  21 H i g h i n t h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n s , on November 7, i r o n s p i k e was  saw  the  the a r r i v a l of the  The  following spring, July  f i r s t passenger t r a i n from  f o r the province.  becoming the its  The  new  1887,  c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , e s t a b l i s h e d on  f i n a l terminus of the r a i l w a y .  and  6,  and  more s e t t l e r s w i t h e v e r y  the  fire  i n 1886, a few  By  t h e end  T h i s b u s y c e n t r e now  a l l b u t two years  indust-  sawmills,  contained  t h i r t y - s i x miles of  one  citizens.  graded  held a waterworks  and  factories;  p l u s the b u i l d i n g s of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway i t s w h a r v e s , r o u n d - h o u s e s , o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s , and  (C.P.R.),  even a  four-  2 6  i n t e r i m between the d r i v i n g of the l a s t s p i k e  the t u r n of the century, province.  city  Despite  exploded t o e i g h t thousand  m i l e s o f wooden p a v i n g ;  storey h o t e l .  of  of i t s i n c o r p o r a t i o n ,  s e w e r a g e ; n u m e r o u s w a r e h o u s e s , f o u n d r i e s , and  In the  the  a r r i v i n g t r a i n or boat.  w i t h i n two  V a n c o u v e r ' s p o p u l a t i o n had  s t r e e t s and  thousand.  welcomed d i s t i n g u i s h e d v i s i t o r s  2 5  which destroyed shacks,  s t a r t l i n g changes took p l a c e i n  V a s t m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s were found i n the  r e g i o n , c r e a t i n g new  mining  of  i t sported e i g h t hundred  r i s e n t o f i v e t h o u s a n d and  system",  a  W i t h i n weeks o f  sprung t o l i f e w i t h a l l the trappings of the  rialist-capitalist  h o t e l , and  1886,  a p o p u l a t i o n o f two  t h e p o p u l a t i o n had  w h i c h "had  growth  t o t h e t i n y town o f G r a n v i l l e , h e l d t h e p r o m i s e  i n c o r p o r a t i o n on A p r i l  businesses  4,  Montreal  t o P o r t Moody, f o r m a l l y i n i t i a t i n g t h e n e x t g r e a t wave o f  s i t e adjacent  last  d r i v e n i n t o the t i e s at C r a i g e l l a c h i e to u n i t e  Canada w i t h a r i b b o n o f s t e e l . 1886,  1885,  c o m m u n i t i e s deep i n t h e  and the  Kootenay Interior,  22  w h i l e on t h e c o a s t , g r e a t flourishing.  The  not o n l y from the  f i s h i n g and  merchants d i d a r o a r i n g t r a d e , b e n e f i t t i n g i n d u s t r y w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e , but  another gold s t r i k e - the Klondike and  achieved  The  Only f i v e years  yet  prospectors  c i t y of Vancouver  had  after i t s incorporation,  a p o p u l a t i o n o f n e a r l y f o u r t e e n t h o u s a n d , and  more t h a n d o u b l e d t h a t number by  1901.  the ten years  t h e c i t y grow by  preceding  1891  thousand c i t i z e n s , reaching that year  from  Rush, which brought  s e t t l e r s through the p r o v i n c e .  mushroomed i n s i z e . it  l i m b e r i n g i n d u s t r i e s were  ( s e e T a b l e 1).  saw  then  Meanwhile, i n V i c t o r i a , some  eleven  a t o t a l of n e a r l y seventeen However, i n t h e  thousand  f o l l o w i n g decade, w i t h  t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e r a i l w a y e v i d e n t , V i c t o r i a g r e w by o n l y t h o u s a n d , b e i n g o u t s t r i p p e d by V a n c o u v e r , w h i c h had most p r o m i n e n t c i t y i n t h e p r o v i n c e . r a i l w a y had  not o n l y promoted a g r e a t  p o p u l a t i o n , but  i t had  t h a t p o p u l a t i o n , and By  diminished  the t u r n of the century,  establishment  of the  become  the  Thus, the advent of  the  surge i n the  the i n f l u e n c e of  l e s s than f i f t y years  f i r s t B r i t i s h colony  w e s t , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a had  and  t h r i v i n g Dominion of  2 7  and  Canada.  of  Victoria.  after  i n the P a c i f i c  become a p r o s p e r o u s  s u p p o r t i n g a p o p u l a t i o n o f 178,000 p e o p l e w i t h t h e new  provincial  r a d i c a l l y a l t e r e d the d i s t r i b u t i o n  had  four  the North-  province, firmly linked  T a b l e 1 - D i s t r i b u t i o n of P o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, l S T T P i g O l  P o p u l a t i o n s of C i t i e s and Towns of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901**  P o p u l a t i o n of Major C e n t r e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia* 1870 Victoria & District (Esquimalt)  4,540  Victoria  New  1,356  New  Westminster  Nanaimo  729  1,637  F r a s e r Canyon (Hope, Y a l e , Lytton, Lilloet)  1,385  1881  3,270  Westminster  Nanaimo Vancouver  Cariboo  1871  1891  1901  5,925  16,841  20,919  1,500  6,678  6,499  1,645  4,595  6,130  13,709  Nelson  5,273  Trail  1,360  178,000  T o t a l Province  •Adapted from Census of Canada, Ottawa, 1870/71, V o l . 4, p. 376  29,432  **Adapted from Canada Year Book, 1936, Ottawa, p. 125  to  td  3  Table I - D i s t r i b u t i o n o f P o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1870~-  Populations o f C i t i e s and Towns o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Having Over 5,000 I n h a b i t a n t s i n 1931, Compared with 1871, 1881, 1891, 1901**  P o p u l a t i o n o f Major Centres i n B r i t i s h Columbia*  1870 Victoria & District (Esquimalt)  4,540  Victoria  New  1,356  New  Westminster  Nanaimo  729  Cariboo  1,637  F r a s e r Canyon (Hope, Y a l e , Lytton, Lilloet)  1,385  •Adapted from Census o f Canada, Ottawa, 1870/71, V o l . 4, p.376  1901  1901  16,841  20,919  1,500  6,678  6,499  1,645  4,595  6,130  1881  3,270  5,925  Westminster  Nanaimo  1891  1871  Vancouver  5,273  Trail  1,360  **Adapted from Canada Year Book, 1936, Ottawa, p. 125  to  24 CHAPTER I I I INTRODUCTORY FEATURES OF SPORT AND PHYSICAL A C T I V I T Y I N B R I T I S H COLUMBIA The  i n t e n t o f t h i s chapter  background o f t h e developing Columbia.  i s to enrich further the  colonial  society i n B r i t i s h  The f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s p r o v i d e  a l i t t l e more  c o l o u r t o h i g h l i g h t t h e growth and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s p o r t s events. DANCING A l t h o u g h d a n c i n g was n o n - c o m p e t i t i v e d u r i n g t h e t i m e u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o make r e f e r e n c e  period  to i t  because o f i t s importance t o t h e s o c i a l development o f t h e e a r l y community.  The f u r - t r a d e r s h a d e n j o y e d d a n c i n g r e e l s  amongst t h e m s e l v e s , o r w i t h t h e i r n a t i v e women, a n d h a d e v e n constructed  ball-rooms  a t thelarger posts,  mentioned a t Spokan House.^ settlers  such as t h a t  With the a r r i v a l o f English  t o i n i t i a t e c o l o n i z a t i o n o f t h e r e g i o n , d a n c i n g became  particularly  important  a s a means o f s o c i a l  intercourse,  t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e c o m m u n i t y was t o l e a r n nei* m a n n e r s a n d customs.  T h e R o y a l Navy p l a y e d  an i n t e g r a l  part i nthis  social  l i f e by p r o v i d i n g b o t h t h e music o f t h e navy bands and t h e facility  f o rdancing aboard the v e s s e l s o f t h e f l e e t .  a r r i v a l o f a ship i n port provided and  members o f t h e c o l o n y  as H.M.S. P o r t l a n d  ?  The  ample e x c u s e f o r a dance,  were welcomed aboard such  a n d H.M.S. G a n g e s .  3  vessels  25 S i n c e d a n c i n g was p r o b a b l y t h e m o s t p o p u l a r p a s t i m e o n 4  the west c o a s t ,  i t was a m a j o r e v e n t o f a n y c e l e b r a t i o n .  News-  p a p e r n o t a t i o n s , s u c h a s t h e f o l l o w i n g , w e r e common. A b a l l was g i v e n o n T u e s d a y E v e n i n g b y t h e o f f i c e r s o f H.M. S h i p s S a t e l l i t e a n d P l u m p e r , a n d o f t h e B o u n d a r y Commission-, w h i c h was h o n o u r e d b y t h e p r e s e n c e of H i s ^ E x c e T l e n c y Governor Douglas, and t h e e l i t e o f the c i t y . 5  BALL - On t h e r e t u r n o f t h e ' E l i z a A n d e r s o n t h i s e v e n i n g , f r o m t h e e x c u r s i o n t o P o r t Townsend, t h e e x c u r s i o n i s t s w i l l r e p a i r t o Assembly H a l l , and conclude t h e c e l e b r a t i o n s o f t h e Fourth by a B a l l A l a r g e company a n d g a y t i m e i s a n t i c i p a t e d . 7  6  GRAND NAVAL B A L L - The b a l l g i v e n b y Commodore S p e n c e r and t h e o f f i c e r s o f H.M.S. T o p a z e , o n b o a r d t h e i r s h i p i n E s q u i m a l t H a r b o u r , w h i c h t o o k p l a c e o n Wednesday e v e n i n g , i s pronounced w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n t o have been t h e most m a g n i f i c e n t e n t e r t a i n m e n t y e t w i t n e s s e d i n t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e Queen's d o m i n i o n s . 7  Some t w o h u n d r e d this  and f i f t y  p e o p l e were s a i d t o have a t t e n d e d  event. As n o t e d a b o v e , t h e A s s e m b l y  H a l l of thec o l o n i a l  militia,  as w e l l a s t h e v e s s e l s o f t h e f l e e t , were used f o r b a l l s i n Victoria, but the flood of visitors  and s e t t l e r s f o l l o w i n g t h e  gold rush l e d t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f hotels which c o n t a i n e d dance f l o o r s . the  also  One o f t h e more p o p u l a r h o t e l s was  'Royal', which held a b a l l t o c e l e b r a t e i t s opening i n  1858.**  These h o t e l f a c i l i t i e s and o t h e r dance f l o o r s  ( i e . Union  H o t e l a n d C o l o n i a l T h e a t r e ) w e r e o p e n t o accommodate t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c , b u t t h e d e a r t h o f female p a r t n e r s undoubtedly  con-  t r i b u t e d t o t h e numerous b r a w l s w h i c h o c c u r r e d . OUT AGAIN - S i n g l e t o n K i m m e l , s t a b b e d a t t h e d a n c e h o u s e b y N e l s o n H a w x h u r s t , some t w o weeks s i n c e , i s now a b l e t o walk out. H i s escape from death i s c o n s i d e r e d almost miraculous. 9  THE DANCE HOUSE - t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n was r e - o p e n e d o n Tuesday n i g h t . A few minutes a f t e r t h e doors were o p e n e d , a r o w commenced; a n d t h e r e g u l a r a n d s p e c i a l p o l i c e were c a l l e d i n and c l e a r e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t . ^  u  A p a r t f r o m f u l f i l l i n g t h e communal n e e d s o f t h e c o l o n y , d a n c e s w e r e u s e d a s a means o f r a i s i n g f u n d s .  Various  o r g a n i z a t i o n s sponsored b a l l s , such as t h a t o f the  First  Hebrew B e n e v o l e n t S o c i e t y who, i n 1858, r e a l i z e d a p r o f i t o f $158  from a Thursday n i g h t b a l l ,  a t w h i c h t h e m u s i c was  s u p p l i e d b y t h e b a n d o f H.M.S. T r i b u n e . ^ was  Similarly, a ball  " g i v e n i n a i d o f t h e V i c t o r i a R o y a l H o s p i t a l , o n Monday  E v e n i n g , O c t o b e r 31".^  2  Talented individuals also  used  d a n c i n g a s a means o f r a i s i n g f u n d s f o r t h e i r p e r s o n a l p r o f i t , a s e x e m p l i f i e d b y M i s s C a r o l i n e Chapman, who . . . d a n c e s more a r t i s t i c a l l y a n d g r a c e f u l l y t h a n many who a r e c a l l e d b y t h e m u l t i t u d e s t a r s . She d r e s s e s w i t h a becoming modesty t h a t speaks volumes f o r h e r p a r e n t s and h e r s e l f , and she i s j u s t l y e n t i t l e d t o t h e applause which g r e e t s h e ra t every performance. On Wednesday e v e n i n g s h e h a s a b e n e f i t . " M i s s Chapman was l a t e r t o t r a v e l t o Nanaimo t o c r e a t e  similar  "amusement".^ As t h e c o l o n y became more s t a b l e , i t s c l u b s a n d s o c i e t i e s c o u l d a f f o r d t o become more e x c l u s i v e a n d r e f i n e d .  The  i n c r e a s i n g s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f s u c h e v e n t s a s t h e Mason's i n honor o f t h e i r p a t r o n , S t . J o h n , ! t h e Deluge Engine Company,I instruction.  6  5 a n <  Ball,  ^ ^he f u n c t i o n s o f  c r e a t e d a need  f o r dancing  T h u s , a M r s . Nunn was a b l e t o o p e n h e r " D a n c i n g  Academy", o f f e r i n g e i g h t l e s s o n s p e r m o n t h , o n Wednesday a n d S a t u r d a y b e t w e e n 3 p.m. a n d 6 p.m.^  7  B y J a n u a r y o f 1863, t h e  c i t y ' s D a n c i n g C l u b was a b l e t o h o l d i t s s e c o n d of the season  1  "Grand  Soiree"  and the concern f o r proper dancing s k i l l s  soon  27 led  t o the opening of another c l a s s .  Mrs. Digby  a d v e r t i s e m e n t s o f f e r e d i n s t r u c t i o n f o r L a d i e s and  Palmer's Gentlemen  on T u e s d a y and F r i d a y e v e n i n g s , a t e i g h t o ' c l o c k , and f o r c h i l d r e n on Wednesday a n d S a t u r d a y a f t e r n o o n s a t h a l f three.1^  past  Fees f o r h e r c l a s s e s were " a d u l t s - $5, J u v e n i l e s -  $3, P r i v a t e L e s s o n s -  $8.  2 0  On t h e m a i n l a n d , d a n c i n g was C h r i s t m a s B a l l was  also popular.  I n 1858,  h e l d a t F o r t Yale" - - a n d , two y e a r s 6  later,  1  the non-commissioned o f f i c e r s of the Royal Engineers a t Westminster  a  New  "gave a b a l l a t t h e t h e a t r e t h e y h a v e e r e c t e d by  p r i v a t e s u b s c r i p t i o n s among t h e m s e l v e s " . dance h a l l g i r l s performed  In the gold f i e l d s ,  i n many o f t h e s a l o o n s , b u t more  f o r m a l e v e n i n g s were a l s o h e l d .  For example, i n a  single  e d i t i o n , the C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l r e f e r r e d t o a Grand B a l l  at  C a m e r o n t o w n s P i o n e e r H o t e l a s b e i n g " w e l l a t t e n d e d by  ladies  1  23 and g e n t l e m e n  from a l l p a r t s o f the creek",  while also  adver-  t-  ising  a f o r t h c o m i n g M i n e r ' s B a l l and C o n c e r t a s p a r t o f t h e  Queen's B i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s on t h e 2 4 t h o f  May.  HUNTING I t i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h between h u n t i n g f o r p l e a s u r e o r f o r s p o r t and h u n t i n g a s a s o u r c e o f or and  security.  The  two  o b j e c t i v e s were most l i k e l y  interwoven  s o , i t seems l i k e l y t h a t s u c h e v e n t s a s t h e t r a c k i n g  t h e v a r i o u s ' p a n t h e r s ' w h i c h p r o w l e d t h e woods and s e r v e d t o p r o v i d e a s t r o n g sense o f camaraderie fulfill of  provender  t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l and  t h e community.  farms,  of also  and h e l p e d t o  s o c i a l n e e d s o f some o f t h e members  Thus, the d e s c r i p t i o n s o u t l i n e d below are  28 example  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e t i m e s and a r e used t o p r o v i d e  an i n s i g h t i n t o c o n t e m p o r a r y l i f e .  For instance, the following  e x c e r p t f r o m t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t ' i n d i c a t e s t h a t some Of t h e c o l o n i a l s took an i n t e r e s t i n c o l l e c t i n g h u n t i n g t r o p h i e s . LARGE ELK HORNS - We w e r e shown y e s t e r d a y b y a game d e a l e r i n O r i e n t a l A l l e y a p a i r o f horns b e l o n g i n g to an e l k k i l l e d i n one o f t h e G u l f I s l a n d s , w h i c h h a d 15 s p r o u t s , a l l t o l d , a n d w e i g h e d 31 p o u n d s . 2 4  Perhaps s e n s i t i z e d by t h e r a p i d d e p l e t i o n o f t h e b e a v e r and m a r t e n p o p u l a t i o n s b y t h e g r e e d y f u r - t r a d e r s , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e c o l o n i a l s q u i c k l y r e c o g n i z e d t h e need t o c o n s e r v e t h e stock of w i l d government  life.  I n t h e s p r i n g o f 1859, t h e c o l o n i a l  p a s s e d a n a c t w h i c h p r o h i b i t e d t h e t r a f f i c o f game  (birds) k i l l e d during the r e s t r i c t e d  season.  T h i s a c t was  l a t e r ammended t o c o m p l e t e l y d i s a l l o w t h e k i l l i n g o f game during that period. the  The f o l l o w i n g comments a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f  concern f o r t h e enforcement o f t h e laws and t h e p r e s e r -  v a t i o n o f game. ENFORCEMENT OF GAME LAW - The d e s t r u c t i o n o f game d u r i n g t h e b r e e d i n g season i s as c r u e l as i t i s i n e x p e d i e n t , we t h i n k t h a t a f e w w o r d s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e m a t t e r may n o t be i n o p p o r t u n e , a s s e v e r a l stores i n prominent s i t u a t i o n s d a i l y e x h i b i t f o r sale t h e contraband a r t i c l e . 2 5  T h u r s d a y b e i n g t h e 1 0 t h o f A u g u s t , t h e d a y upon which t h e p r o h i b i t i o n a g a i n s t k i l l i n g grouse, and c , e x p i r e d , t h e r e was a g e n e r a l r u s h o f s p o r t s m e n , and many a b r a c e o f b i r d s w e r e b a g g e d b e f o r e b r e a k f a s t . We u n d e r s t a n d g r o u s e i s u n u s u a l l y a b u n d a n t i n t h e f o r e s t b a c k o f t h e c i t y {New W e s t m i n s t e r } , p r o b a b l y i n some d e g r e e a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e new game l a w . 2 6  Good s h o o t i n g c o u l d a l s o b e f o u n d i n t h e n o r t h e r n i n t e r i o r , as e v i d e n c e d by t h e r e p o r t t h a t a Mr. W i l l i a m F o r e s t , w h i l e o u t h u n t i n g on snowshoes,  was a b l e t o b a g t w e n t y s n i p e i n one d a y .  1 6 0  29 S i m i l a r l y , ducks were so p l e n t i f u l i n t h e s o u t h e r n r e g i o n a party of V i c t o r i a n s , shooting River, "telegraphed ducks  daily".  that  a t t h e mouth o f t h e S n o h o m i s h  t o a f r i e n d t h a t t h e y w e r e b a g g i n g 200  2 7  While hunting  and f i s h i n g were p r i m a r i l y l i f e  support  activities,  several people p a r t i c i p a t e d merely f o r r e c r e a t i o n .  Apparently,  G o v e r n o r Seymour was a h u n t i n g  the  fall  enthusiast.  In  o f 1 8 6 4 , a c c o m p a n i e d b y t h e H o n o r a b l e A.N. B i r c h , he  t r a v e l l e d t o t h e Sumas p r a i r i e s a b o a r d h i s s t e a m - y a c h t , t h e Leviathan,  t o " e n j o y a d a y ' s s p o r t amongst t h e game w i t h  the marshy l a n d s  abound a t t h i s s e a s o n o f t h e y e a r " . ^  which In  2  V i c t o r i a , t h e V a n c o u v e r T i m e s r e p o r t o n a n g l i n g was " g l a d t o f i n d that the lakes i n the v i c i n i t y much s p o r t t o t h e l o v e r s o f t h i s  o f t h e town a r e a f f o r d i n g  act".-*  H u n t i n g p a r t i e s were o r g a n i z e d  0  on a s o c i a l and  competitive  n o t e a s e x e m p l i f i e d by; A HUNTING PARTY w i l l s t a r t f r o m t h e R o y a l Oak H o t e l , S a a n i c h R o a d , o n T h u r s d a y n e x t , a t 9% a.m., r e t u r n i n g a t 5 o ' c l o c k p.m. The l o s i n g p a r t y - t h a t i s , t h e man who k i l l s t h e l e a s t game, must p a y f o r s u p p e r . . A free b a l l w i l l take place a t the h o t e l i n t h e evening. Similarly,  shooting  grand shooting  c o n t e s t s w e r e a d v e r t i s e d , a s i n t h e 1868  f o r g e e s e w i t h s h o t g u n s , a t Swan L a k e , w h i c h  was f o l l o w e d b y a b a l l .  Buses f o r t h i s e v e n t were t o l e a v e 32  V i c t o r x a a t a l l hours o f t h e day. pigeon shooting  Later, contests f o r  from a t r a p were o r g a n i z e d ,  such as t h a t  held  on New Y e a r ' s Day, 1 8 7 5 , a t t h e C o s m o p o l i t a n H o t e l , a t D i v e r 33 Lake, near Wellington shooting  (Nanaimo d i s t r i c t ) .  Numerous  other  c o n t e s t s were a l s o h e l d , b u t s i n c e t h e y were l a r g e l y  30 fixed target contests organized a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e y w i l l be entitled  'Rifle  the m i l i t i a  discussed  and  in a later  riflemen's  chapter,  Shooting'.  Dogs w e r e i m p o r t e d and The  by  trained to assist with  hunting.  f i r s t grey-hound a r r i v e d aboard the v e s s e l H e l v e t i a i n  1 8 6 3 ^ ^ and  later,  s i x f i n e E n g l i s h h a r r i e r s were shipped  t h e P r i n c e o f W a l e s f r o m L o n d o n , by W i l s o n B r o w n o f 35 and  w e r e t r a i n e d by  a club of gentlemen.  p a r t i c u l a r dogs i s not  c l e a r , but  The  Victoria,  use  of  b e c a u s e t h e h e a v i l y wooded t e r r a i n  V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d was  not  c o n d u c i v e t o s u c h an e v e n t .  t h i s s t o r y which appeared i n the  was  Following  the capture  of It is  p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e y were used p r i m a r i l y i n t h e h u n t i n g  C o l o n i s t i n 1868.  these  i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e y were  used f o r f o x - h u n t i n g  as e v i d e n c e d by  on  of  deer,  British  of a l i v e  stag,  sport  promised i n that, A t 2 o ' c l o c k on T h u r s d a y h i s s t a g s h i p w i l l be s e t a t l i b e r t y a t Ogden P o i n t , and l e f t t o r u n f o r h i s d e a r l i f e , f o l l o w e d by a p a c k o f t r a i n e d h o u n d s . 3 6  However, t h e hounds were r e l e a s e d t o o q u i c k l y downed, u n h u r t . given  causing  the  stag  was  When r e l e a s e d f o r a s e c o n d t i m e ,  a f i f t e e n minute grace,  capture,  s o o n and  he was  o f f and  avoided  and  further  the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t t o remark,  We d o n ' t t h i n k much o f t h a t s t a g h u n t ; we d o n ' t t h i n k much o f W i l s o n B r o w n ' s h o u n d s , and we t h i n k much l e s s o f t h e management o f t h e w h o l e a f f a i r , w h i c h o t h e r w i s e m i g h t have ended i n a v e r y a g r e e a b l e day's s p o r t . 3 7 A n o t h e r e v e n t i n v o l v i n g d o g s was  the r a t t i n g  match.  Our s p o r t i n g r e a d e r s w i l l be g l a d t o l e a r n t h a t a m a t c h h a s b e e n a r r a n g e d b e t w e e n G e o r g e B a k e r ' s dog ' B i l l y ' , and M c D o u g a l l s dog ' P e p p e r ' , t o k i l l 50 r a t s f o r t w e n t y - f i v e d o l l a r s a s i d e , t o come o f f a t J o e E d e n ' s . Round t h e C o r n e r s a l o o n on Wednesday e v e n i n g n e x t . 3 8  31 Again  a t t h e Round t h e C o r n e r S a l o o n ,  a s w e e p s t a k e r a t t i n g m a t c h was pit.^  The  9  on L a n g l e y  held i n a ten foot  Street,  circular  r e s u l t s were r e p o r t e d i n t h e I s l a n d e r .  B a k e r ' s p o o d l e , ' L o l a ' , 6 l b s , 3 r a t s - 2 m i n . 13 s e c . Howard's d o g , ' V i c ' , 19 l b s , 5 r a t s - 33 s e c . ( d e c l a r e d f o u l ) E d e n ' s dog ' R a t t l e r ' , 19 l b s , 6 r a t s - 1 m i n . C r o c k f o r d ' s ' V i c ' , 20 l b s , 6 r a t s - 54 s e e s . M c D o u g a l ' s dog ' P e p p e r ' , 21 l b s , 6 r a t s - 45 s e e s . , S h i r p s e r ' s dog 'Rose', 25 l b s , 6 r a t s - 45 s e e s . Shirpser's dog 'Rose' came o f f v i c t o r i o u s . 4 0  In  an a t t e m p t t o s t a n d a r d i z e t h e c o m p e t i t i o n ,  were g i v e n t o dogs a c c o r d i n g t o w e i g h t .  For  handicaps  example,  Mr. J.T. Howard's ' V i c ' , e n t e r e d t h e r i n g l a s t e v e n i n g t o c o n t e s t t h e Champions b e l t w i t h ' L i l l y ' . As she w e i g h e d two p o u n d s h e a v i e r , ' V i c ' had t o k i l l two r a t s more w i t h i n t h e t i m e a l l o w e d h e r , b u t she f a i l e d t o d i s p o s e o f number 12 i n l e s s t h a n 2 m i n . 4 8 s . , t h u s l e a v i n g ' L i l l y ' , who k i l l e d 10 r a t s i n l m . 4 8 s . , i n u n d i s p u t e d p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e s i l v e r c o l l a r , as t h e Champion r a t t e r o f V i c t o r i a . 4 1  In  a l a t e r contest, separate  so t h a t w h i l e S h i r p s e r ' s dog seconds t o k i l l  d i v i s i o n s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d by 'Joe'  took  one  e i g h t r a t s , Eden's 'Jock'  m i n u t e and  size  ten  " d i d t h e same s e r v i c e  42 to  t h e community"  heavy  in fifty  s e c o n d s , t o become c h a m p i o n o f  the  weights. The  d o g s w e r e u s e d i n a more t r a d i t i o n a l manner i n t h e  I n t e r i o r , w h e r e Ormsby r e p o r t s t h a t C l e m e n t F r a n c i s  Cornwall  and  coyote-  h i s b r o t h e r H e n r y had  hunting  i n t r o d u c e d fox-hounds f o r  at Ashcroft Manor.^  H o w e v e r , on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d ,  w h e r e t r a d i t i o n a l f o x - h u n t i n g was 44 o f t h e h e a v i l y wooded t e r r a i n ,  virtually an  interesting variation  employed t o s i m u l a t e the hunts o f England. Colonist  announced:  impossible because . .  The  British  was  32 The Paper Hunt - The hares w i l l leave Maplewood (Admiral Hasting's residence) a t 2 p.m. to-day. L a d i e s and Gentlemen who purpose j o i n i n g i n the hunt w i l l be e n t e r t a i n e d by Admiral and Mrs. Hastings a t lunch a t 10 o ' c l o c k . We hope t h a t a goodly number of our c i t i z e n s w i l l j o i n i n the s p o r t which the Admiral, w i t h a p u b l i c s p i r i t e d n e s s t h a t does him g r e a t c r e d i t , has inaugurated h e r e . 4 5  One  of the f i r s t hunts was  a d v e r t i s e d i n January of  1863  and had such o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t a manager, Mr. Howard, had been appointed. hunts was  I t would appear t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n these  permited,* by s o c i a l s t a n d i n g , s i n c e one a r t i c l e r e -  f e r s t o a hunt being h e l d on Thursday  and open t o r e s t r i c t e d  47 persons.  Another hunt, h e l d on a Wednesday, was  s a i d to  have a t t r a c t e d t h i r t y p a r t i c i p a n t s , i n c l u d i n g s e v e r a l one of whom made the " k i l l " .  ladies,  The o b j e c t of the hunt was  t r a c e the appointed "hares", r i d e r s who  to  would l e a d the hunt  over i n t e r e s t i n g t e r r a i n , choosing a s u i t a b l e number of fences 48 and other o b s t a c l e s t o jump.  I n e v i t a b l y , such f o r a y s l e d  t o complaints from the l o c a l farmers, who  were d i s t r a u g h t  about the number of broken fences and unlocked gates which  AO  freed t h e i r stock. To these complaints, a prompt apology was o f f e r e d , along w i t h the promise t o p r o v i d e a s p e c i a l r i d e r who would c a r r y out r e p a i r s i n a l l f u t u r e e v e n t s . ^ However, i t i s apparent t h a t proper care was not e x e r c i s e d because 0  farmers were again f o r c e d t o complain t o the p r e s s ^ f o l l o w i n g 5  a hunt at C l o v e r P o i n t , i n which Wilson Brown's h a r r i e r s were employed.  52  Despite t h i s c o n f l i c t between farmers and  riders,  the hunts continued and, d u r i n g the Royal V i s i t of 1882, a 53 hunt was h e l d f o r the entertainment of P r i n c e s s L o u i s e .  33  SPORTS DAYS AND The  PICNICS  e a r l y c o l o n i s t s enjoyed competition  physical activities. to other events, t h e r e was  i n numerous  Among t h e s e w e r e t h e games i n addendum  s u c h as t h e H o r s e R a c e s a t B e a c o n H i l l ,  a l s o " l o t s o f f u n , - c a t c h i n g p i g s by  i n g a g r e a s e d p o l e and  running  in sacks".  5 5  the t a i l ,  The  volunteer  were s c h e d u l e d  w i t h a more p r a c t i c a l  f i r e departments o f t e n e s t a b l i s h e d  c o m p e t i t i o n b e t w e e n t h e m s e l v e s and w i t h o t h e r thereby  a d d i n g i n c e n t i v e and  speedy d r i l l s .  The  1874  The  T i g e r and  Cariboo  fire  fun t o the r i g o r s of Deluge Companies o f  engaged i n s e v e r a l c o m p e t i t i o n s Barkerville.  companies, practicing Victoria  s i m i l a r t o an e v e n t l i s t e d  Sentinel reported that part of  Queen's B i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s , members o f t h e  Brigade  spontan-  adventurers.  Other competitions intent.  climb-  Most c e l e b r a t i o n s ,  r e g a t t a s , r a c e s , e t c . i n c l u d e d s i m i l a r events f o r the eous enjoyment o f  where  local  in the  Fire  competed  . . . f o r a p u r s e o f $10 f o r t h e f i r s t w a t e r t h r o w n f r o m 200 f t . o f h o s e , a t t a c h e d t o t h e u p p e r h y d r a n t . At t h e t a p o f t h e b e l l , t h e h o s e c a r r i a g e was t a k e n o u t o f the engine house, the hose a t t a c h e d t o the h y d r a n t , and w a t e r t h r o w n by b o t h p a r t i e s i n l e s s t h a n two minutes. 5 5  In other a c t i v i t i e s , summer m o n t h s was  a major s o c i a l f u n c t i o n d u r i n g  t h e p i c n i c , w h i c h a d d e d much z e s t t o  the  life  56 on  the west c o a s t .  P a r t i c u l a r l y during the e a r l y p e r i o d  s e t t l e m e n t , when t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s o c i a l c o h e s i o n c o m m u n i t y was  e s s e n t i a l , these  g e n e r a l p u b l i c and  gatherings  advertisements  solicit participation.  in a  were open t o  appeared i n the press  However, s i n c e i t i s u n l i k e l y  of  small  the to that  34 a n y o n e b u t a member o f t h e u p p e r - c l a s s w o u l d be i n t h e  posi-  t i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e d u r i n g t h e m i d d l e o f t h e week, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o n o t e t h a t a t t e n d a n c e was the  date of the event.  One  p i c n i c t o the American  often restricted  s u c h e v e n t was  by  an e x c u r s i o n and  g a r r i s o n on San J u a n I s l a n d , o n  Thursday,  57 August via  27, 1863. tV  Some 180  l a d i e s and g e n t l e m e n ,  travelling  the steamer E n t e r p r i s e , enjoyed " A l l k i n d s o f S p o r t s , such  as c r i c k e t , base b a l l ,  foot b a l l ,  quoits, together with  sundry  C O  games f o r L a d i e s , and  Dancing".  I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t t h e s e p i c n i c s were o f g r e a t v a l u e t o t h e development the  first  of sport.  S u c h an e v e n t was  probably  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p e o p l e t o come t o g e t h e r d u r i n g a  common t i m e i n w h i c h t h e y c o u l d e n j o y s p o r t s a c t i v i t i e s their  fellows.  among new  No d o u b t t h e d i s c o v e r y o f m u t u a l  a c q u a i n t a n c e s h a s t e n e d more r e g u l a r  with  interests  participation.  As t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d , s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t  groups  a r o s e t o h o l d t h e i r own  functions.  t h a t of the Independent  O r d e r o f Good T e m p l a r s , whose p i c n i c  Wednesday, S e p t e m b e r 16, 1 8 6 3 , was t r a v e l l e d by s t a g e c o a c h t o Oak  P o s s i b l y the f i r s t  a t t e n d e d by p e o p l e  Grove, Cadboro Bay, • 59  v a r i e t y o f S p o r t s and Amusements";•  was  who  to enjoy  In the I n t e r i o r ,  "a  partic-  u l a r s o c i e t i e s w e r e p r o m o t i n g g a t h e r i n g s , a s e v i d e n c e d by Cariboo Sentinel's report, that: P i c n i c s a r e t h e r a g e , now, t h e s e a s o n h a v i n g commenced in true earnest. The B r i t i s h B e n e v o l e n t h e l d t h e i r a n n u a l p i c n i c a t S a u c e l i t o on t h e 2 1 s t , and t h e Odd F e l l o w s f o l l o w e d s u i t on t h e 2 6 t h ; b o t h a f f a i r s w e r e exceedingly successful. A s u c c e s s i o n o f minor ones f o l l o w d u r i n g t h i s and t h e c o m i n g w e e k . 6 0  on  the  The  p r o l i f e r a t i o n of these p i c n i c s i s i n d i c a t i v e of  popular appeal.  their  A t Nanaimo, upwards o f n i n e t y p e o p l e a t t e n d e d 61  a p i c n i c s p o n s o r e d by t h e W e s l e y  Sabbath  The V i c t o r i a F i r e m e n ' s P i c n i c o f 1868  School, i n  1865.  drew s i x hundred  spectators^  i n w h a t must h a v e b e e n i t s f i r s t a n n u a l e v e n t , s i n c e t h e D a i l y Standard reported the t h i r d annual a f f a i r  i n 1870.  t h i s t i m e , t h e p i c n i c s were making a v e r y s p e c i f i c to  the development  F i e l d , which w i l l  Victoria By  6 3  contribution  of a p a r t i c u l a r area of sport - Track  and  be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n a s e p a r a t e c h a p t e r .  The most p r o m i n e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s p o n s o r i n g s p o r t s and at  i t s g a t h e r i n g s was  games  t h e S t . A n d r e w s and C a l e d o n i a n S o c i e t y .  According t o the V i c t o r i a D a i l y Standard's reference to the 64 u p c o m i n g e i g t h a n n u a l m e e t i n g on J u l y 4, 1 8 7 1 , a p p a r e n t l y began h o l d i n g a n n u a l meetings  i n 1864.  the  society The  British  C o l o n i s t d e s c r i b e d one s u c h e v e n t CALEDONIAN P I C N I C - The C a l e d o n i a n S o c i e t y , w i t h a number o f t h e i r f r i e n d s , w i l l go up t h e Arm t h i s m o r n i n g t o some a v a i l a b l e s p o t , w h e r e t h e y w i l l i n d u l g e i n d a n c i n g , a t h l e t i c games, and o t h e r s p o r t s . Mr. S a n d r i e w i l l p r o v i d e t h e m u s i c . The b o a t s w i l l s t a r t f r o m t h e f e r r y f r o m 8 t o 10 o ' c l o c k and a l l i n t e n d i n g t o j o i n t h e p a r t y a r e r e q u e s t e d t o be punctual.65 The the of  list  grounds  o f w i n n e r s i n t h e 1868  o f J.D.  C a l e d o n i a n Games, h e l d  P e m b e r t o n , E s q . , i s an e x a m p l e o f t h e  kind  a t h l e t i c c o n t e s t s involved'. 150 y d . r u n  William  Tolmie  250 y d . r u n  William  Reynolds  Running  Leap  McCallum  Quoits  McDougall  and  Hop, S t e p , and L e a p Race f o r Boys  W i l l i a m Robertson, W i l l i a m B. Durham  T o s s i n g the Caber  A l e x Young  on  Allett Tolmie  36 Other  s p o r t s h e l d t h a t y e a r w e r e a r c h e r y and Another  t y p e o f c o m p e t i t i o n was  a g r i c u l t u r a l community. Spading  football.  t h a t sponsored  As e a r l y a s 1863,  a  66  by  the  'Ploughing  and  M a t c h ' was  s c h e d u l e d i n the f i e l d s near Judge Pemberton's 67 r e s i d e n c e on T u e s d a y , S e p t e m b e r 29, a t 9 a.m., b u t was 68 c a n c e l l e d due scheduled  to lack of contestants.  f o r May  18,  1868,  was  work l o a d o f s p r i n g p l o w i n g . ^  postponed  i n which  due  attempt,  t o t h e heavy  H o w e v e r , two y e a r s  S a a n i c h A g r i c u l t u r a l A s s o c i a t i o n was meeting  A later  t h e c o n t e s t was  a b l e t o h o l d an  later,  the  autumn  t o p l o w o n e - h a l f an a c r e i n  s i x hours, and  f o r t h e p r i z e s o f m e r c h a n d i s e p l u s $10 f o r a d u l t s 70 $3 f o r l a d s . A l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h e f e s t i v i t i e s were 71  cricket,  f o o t r a c e s , jumping,  and h o r s e  races.  As t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i t y p r o s p e r e d , more f r e q u e n t and  e l a b o r a t e meets were a r r a n g e d .  Thus, the Lake  District  P l o u g h i n g M a t c h , a t J o h n Manson's F a r m , i n f r o n t o f t h e Oak',  was  'Royal  able t o o f f e r the f o l l o w i n g competitions:  S w i n g Beam P l o u g h s  for  $14,  $10,  and  $6  Wheel Ploughs  $10,  $ 7, and  $4  Amateur P l o u g h i n g  $10,  $ 7,  $5, and  $2  B o y s - o p e n t o any p l o u g h $ 7 . 5 0 , $ 5 , and $2.50 One q u a r t e r a c r e t o be p l o u g h e d by e a c h p e r s o n e n t e r i n g ; p l o u g h i n g t o be n i n e by f i v e i n c h e s d e e p , and t h e q u a r t e r a c r e t o be p l o u g h e d i n f i v e h o u r s . The same y e a r , 1872, was h o s t t o t h e f i r s t a n n u a l P r o v i n c i a l 7 3 7 2  E x h i b i t i o n o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l and which  t h e r e a f t e r sponsored  H o r t i c u l t u r a l Society,'-"  t h e F a l l Horse Races f o r V i c t o r i a .  37 GAMBLING AND Given  BETTING  t h e s u d d e n i n f l u x i n number o f a d v e n t u r e r s  in  p u r s u i t o f g o l d , i t i s l i t t l e wonder t h a t t h e e a r l y c o l o n i e s had  very s t r i c t  w e l l enforced  i n V i c t o r i a , although  of the mainland Victoria  laws a g a i n s t gambling.  allowed gambling  Apparently these  the comparative  were  lawlessness  t o f l o u r i s h , as n o t e d  i n the  Gasette;  GAMBLING - T h e r e a r e v e r y s t r i n g e n t l a w s h e r e f o r t h e s u p p r e s s i o n and p u n i s h m e n t o f g a m b l i n g . . . H e r e a f t e r t h e r e w i l l be no m e r c y shown t h e g e n t l e m a n l y b l a c k l e g s who h a v e done so much t o b r i n g d i s g r a c e u p o n some o f t h e towns w h i c h have sprung i n t o e x i s t e n c e w i t h i n t h e l a s t few m o n t h s , b u t who h a v e , so f a r , g i v e n V i c t o r i a a p r e t t y wide b i r t h . 7 4 I n an a r t i c l e h e a d e d " P u b l i c G a m b l i n g i n B r i t i s h the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t described c o n d i t i o n s i n E v e r y game f r o m mente t o e u c h r e has and i t s v i c t i m s . . . L i f e and p r o p e r t y insecure. The e x h i b i t i o n o f d e a d l y o f t e n t h e i r use, around the gambling the o r d e r o f the day.75 The  Columbia",  Langley.  i t s professors are rendered w e a p o n s , and t a b l e s , are  n e w s p a p e r l a t e r r e p o r t e d on t h e s i t u a t i o n a t W i l l i a m s  Creek, i n the  Cariboo.  A n o t i c e p r o h i b i t t i n g gambling, under a p e n a l t y o f $100 f o r e a c h and e v e r y o f f e n c e was s t r u c k up by C o m m i s s i o n e r E l w y n , b u t t h e games go on o p e n l y , as before.76 However, t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o f g a m b l i n g c a r d games.  In other a c t i v i t i e s ,  p a r t o f t h e way  of l i f e  and,  was  gambling  as w i l l  be  on  and b e t t i n g w e r e  seen i n the d i s c u s s i o n  of i n d i v i d u a l s p o r t s , v i r t u a l l y every event Examples o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a r e the  only levied  c a r r i e d a wager.  following:  38 N o t i c e - TO ALL COOPERS A CHALLENGE. The u n d e r s i g n e d i s w i l l i n g t o b e t t h a t he c a n make more b a r r e l s t h a t w i l l pass the i n s p e c t i o n of judges t h a n any o t h e r c o o p e r i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o r V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , i n one d a y , o r one m o n t h , a c c o r d i n g t o terms of the bet. I s w i l l i n g t o take from $250 t o $500 on h i s c a p a b i l i t i e s . . . . F . G . O d i n . 7 7  SPORTING - Our o l d f r i e n d L a r r y d e s i r e s t o s t a t e t h a t he h a s b e e n c h a l l e n g e d b y an a d e p t t o t h r o w t h e s t o n e w i t h h i m f o r $50 a g a i n s t $5 a s i d e . L a r r y has a c c e p t e d i t and i n t e n d s g i v i n g h i s a d v e r s a r y a 'merry s h a k e ' one o f t h e s e d a y s . B e t t i n g was  so much a p a r t o f t h e c u s t o m i n t h e s e  t h a t even y o u t h openly in this  indulged  f o l l o w i n g example, t h e i r  m a n s h i p was  q u i c k l y reprimanded.  i n the a c t i v i t y .  days  However,  l a c k of the r e q u i r e d s p o r t s I n 1870,  the  C o l o n i s t r e p o r t e d t h a t a b o y s ' b o a t r a c e was  British  called  off  because ...one o f t h e c r e w s and t h e i r f r i e n d s w e r e o f f e r i n g t o bet very f r e e l y . T h i s a r o u s e d s u s p i c i o n and an i n v e s t i g a t i o n showed t h a t a p i l o t e x i s t e d t h a t t h e c r e w m o s t l i k e l y t o w i n s h o u l d t h r o w o f f on t h e i r b a c k e r s by a l l o w i n g t h e o t h e r c r e w t o w i n and d i v i d e the s p o i l s w i t h t h e i r opponents. Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , L a c h a p e l l e , d e c l i n i n g t o be a p a r t y t o such i m m o r a l i t y * very p r o p e r l y r e f u s e d to a l l o w the boats to s t a r t . 9  GENERAL' INTEREST^ The  c o n t e m p o r a r y n e w s p a p e r s h e l d numerous r e p o r t s  major s p o r t i n g events t a k i n g place i n other p a r t s of world,  of  the  r e f l e c t i n g a high degree o f c o l o n i a l i n t e r e s t i n  a t h l e t i c endeavour. s t e a m e r f r o m San the press.  I n t h e e a r l y d a y s , news a r r i v e d by  F r a n c i s c o , and  b r i e f n o t e s were i n s e r t e d i n  F o r e x a m p l e , i n O c t o b e r o f 1859,  Colonist reported:  "The  the  British  g r e a t t r o t t i n g m a t c h w h i c h came o f f  39 on t h e  24th near L i v e r p o o l ,  was won by t h e  English  horse  on Dan".  L i k e w i s e , when news f i l t e r e d  u  Cariboo S e n t i n e l  to  the  would r e p o r t on such e v e n t s as t h e  A m e r i c a n B o a t Race b e t w e e n James H a m i l l o f Henry K e l l y , tion of  the  frequent, events, early  batting  extensive,  link,  the the  and up t o  using b o l d type the  Thames.  f o r the  rifle  competition  New W e s t m i n s t e r Another source  comple-  c a r r i e d more outside  headline.  By  B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t even developed providing charts  and b o w l i n g a v e r a g e s o f  Anglo-  With the  8 1  newspapers  the  P i t t s b u r g h and  date s t o r i e s of  f o r major l o c a l e v e n t s ,  and f o r t h e  the  champion o f  telegraph  1870s,  layout  the  the  often  Interior,  international  between H . M . S .  a  sports  the  special  for  the  cricket  matches  Sparrowhawk and  Volunteers. o f communication and e n t e r t a i n m e n t 8 3  o u t s i d e w o r l d was t h e  travelling circus.  from  Bartholomew's  84 Great Western C i r c u s contribution riding in  school  sword,  curious  seems t o  to V i c t o r i a ' s s p o r t i n g  important  community by p r o v i d i n g a  and gymnasium, w h i c h a l s o o f f e r e d  bayonet,  and f e n c i n g  e n t e r t a i n m e n t was ft fi  circus performer,  exercises.  8 5  instruction  A particularly  p r o v i d e d by James C o o k e ,  who r o d e t h r o u g h t h e  p u l l e d by f o u r g e e s e . as  have made an  a  visiting  Gorge i n a wash  One h u n d r e d and f i f t y  people  watched  t h e g e e s e were . . . h a r n e s s e d and y o k e d t o a b o a r d c i r c u l a r i n s h a p e , a b o u t f o u r f e e t i n l e n g t h and 2% i n w i d t h , - i n f a c t f o u r h o l e s , each s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e to admit a goose, h a d b e e n c u t i n t h e b o a r d and i n t h e s e h o l e s t h e g e e s e s a t a n d swam, and swam, and swam, ye b o l d n a v i g a t o r , m e a n w h i l e , h o l d i n g a p a d d l e i n e a c h hand and w i t h i t d i r e c t i n g h i s ' s t e e d s ' i n t h e way t h e y should g o . 8 7  tub  40  Apparently, Francisco, shore,  Cooke had t r i e d where  forcing  his  this  geese were  him to  stunt  before,  drowned  paddle with  his  four  hands  in  San  miles for  from  seven  hours.^  SUMMARY  Typical and  of  life  recreational  fulfilled  both  social  balls,  for  community  customs,  while  addition  of  and p i c n i c s to  trade,  excitement  otherwise  universal element tainment promise gave and  in  an element o f such  might  at of  numerous further  expectancy cohesion.  itself  to  Columbians  to  add and  enjoyment.  or  zeal  various  day  to  and  the  occupational tasks  to  and the  the  which  almost  provided  Combined,  The  day  wagering life,  and  pursuit.  enthusiasm for  spectacles  and h e l p e d  The  new m e m b e r s  into  Similarly,  physical  opportunities  fire-fighting,  betting  events  life  with  competition  and c r e a t e d  the  functions.  excellent  be m o n s t r o u s .  anticipation  British  a common l e i s u r e l y  hunting,  enthusiasm for  of  early  were  acquaint  relaxing  as  of  communities,  and p r a c t i c a l  activities, lent  developing  activities  dances, the  in  provided these  community  an enter-  the  features build  spirit  41 CHAPTER  TV  MINOR SPORTS ARCHERY The  only apparent reference to archery during t h i s  i s i n connection w i t h the annual Vancouver I s l a n d .  Foresters' Picnic  F o r e x a m p l e , d u r i n g t h e 1879  period  on  meeting,  the  r e s u l t s of the a r c h e r y c o m p e t i t i o n were: L a d i e s - f i r s t , M i s s M. G e n t l e m e n - f i r s t , W. Special - f i r s t ,  Randle;  Clarke;  James  second, Mrs. second, J .  Van  Houten.  Curry.  Lewis.^  BILLIARDS As to  e a r l y as  1858,  advertisements  appeared i n the  promote the s a l e o f b i l l i a r d t a b l e s imported  from  press San  2 Francisco.  H o w e v e r , d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , an i n d o o r s p a c e  set 3  aside primarily  f o r games was  a l u x u r y w h i c h few  could  T h o s e a r e a s w h i c h d i d e x i s t w e r e r u n by c o m m e r c i a l s u c h as t h e S t a r and operated  a Billiard  S t r a h l e and tisements o f San  interests,  Garter H o t e l i n V i c t o r i a , which not Saloon,  but a l s o served 4  Company's B i l l i a r d  Tables.  F r a n c i s c o , as a n o t h e r were b u y i n g  The  number o f  example ) suggests  1859,  adver-  Factory  t h a t perhaps  t a b l e s f o r t h e i r p r i v a t e use,  but  u n d o u b t e d l y , m o s t o f t h e s a l e s w e r e t o o t h e r h o t e l s and By  only  as a g e n t f o r J a c o b  f o r t h e s a l e o f t a b l e s (M. B a c h ' s B i l l i a r d 5  some p e o p l e  afford.  saloons.  t h e game c o u l d be p l a y e d e v e n a t F o r t Hope, w h e r e  the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t r e p o r t e d :  42 The b i l l i a r d S a l o o n s a p p e a r w e l l s u p p o r t e d . Messrs. Crowe a n d Thompson h a v e j u s t c o m p l e t e d t h e i r s p a c i o u s B i l l i a r d S a l o o n , w h i c h w i l l v i e f o r c o m f o r t w i t h any in Victoria.^ The  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n , c o m m e n t i n g o n t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e new  Colonial Hotel provided  and B i l l i a r d  S a l o o n i n New W e s t m i n s t e r , i n 1 8 6 2 ,  the following description of the f a c i l i t y :  The B i l l i a r d S a l o o n i s 27 x 70 f e e t w i t h a 17 f o o t c e i l i n g and t h r e e l a r g e s k y - l i g h t s . I t i s furnished w i t h 15 c r y s t a l l a m p s , t h r e e f i r s t - c l a s s B i l l i a r d t a b l e s , with Phelan's combination cushions, a R o u l e t t e - t a b l e and e v e r y t h i n g t o match. I n t h a t same y e a r , on  a d o l l a r a game was c h a r g e d f o r  t h e two t a b l e s w h i c h were i n s t a l l e d  Creek.  This  fact gives  on W i l l i a m s  further evidence t o the p o p u l a r i t y  o f t h e game, b e c a u s e a t t h a t t i m e , the  i n a saloon  play  a road d i dnot e x i s t i n  a r e a and so goods were c a r r i e d e i t h e r on t h e b a c k s o f  mules o r on one-wheeled hand c a r t s . t i o n increased installed,  and c o n d i t i o n s  As t h e n o r t h e r n  popula-  i m p r o v e d , more t a b l e s w e r e  s o t h a t i n 1 8 6 5 , P a t r i c k K i r w i n was a d v e r t i s i n g h i s 9  Billiard  Saloon i n R i c h f i e l d  Billiard  S a l o o n was a d v e r t i s e d  a n d , i n 1867, a B o w l i n g and in Barkerville.^  No d o u b t t h e c o m m e r c i a l v a l u e much i n t h e c h a r g e l e v i e d a g a i n s t  o f t h e t a b l e s l a y n o t so the players, but i n the sale  o f l i q u o r t o t h e numerous e n t h u s i a s t s who p a t r o n i z e d t h e saloons. The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t p r o v i d e d p o p u l a r i t y o f s p e c i a l games.  an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e  GREAT B I L L I A R D MATCH - A game o f b i l l i a r d s was p l a y e d l a s t e v e n i n g b e t w e e n M e s s r s . P.M. B a c k u s a n d W.H. R o b i n s o n - 1,000 p o i n t s a s i d e . R o b i n s o n made 633 p o i n t s t o B a c k u s 3 3 9 , when t h e l a t t e r g e n t l e m a n made a r u n o f s i x h u n d r e d a n d e i g h t y - e i g h t , a n d was d e c l a r e d w i n n e r b y 367 p o i n t s . R o b i n s o n ' s t r e a t e s t r u n was 42 points. Both gentlemen d i s p l a y e d great s k i l l during t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e game, w h i c h was c l o s e l y w a t c h e d b y a l a r g e number o f p e o p l e . H  43 By  1871,  billiard  tournaments bad been i n a u g u r a t e d and,  i n t h a t year, Joshua Davies,  f o r m e r l y o f V i c t o r i a , won a 12  $175  r i n g i n P o r t l a n d Oregon.  L a t e r t h a t y e a r , two  c h a m p i o n p l a y e r s , D i o n a n d R u d o l p h , p l a y e d a s p e c i a l game a t 13 Victoria's  Alhambra H a l l .  I n t h e same c i t y ,  five  l a t e r , t h e A d e l p h i S a l o o n was c r o w d e d a s W. N e l l e s  years  defeated  14 J . Welton f o r a p r i z e  o f $200.  Two m o n t h s l a t e r , t h e  A d e l p h i was a g a i n t h e s i t e o f a n o t h e r  profitable  victory f o r  Nelles.  T h i s t i m e he d e f e a t e d  a Mr. D a v i s o f P o r t l a n d  (possibly  J o s h u a D a v i e s ) , i n a f o u r - b a l l A m e r i c a n c a r o m game  f o r $100 a s i d e , a g a i n b e f o r e a l a r g e c r o w d w h i c h e x c h a n g e d a 15 c o n s i d e r a b l e sum o f money o n t h e game. The  f i n a l apparent reference t o a b i l l i a r d s  competition  d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d i s t h a t o f t h e m a t c h game f o r $ 1 0 0 , b e t w e e n F.  Tully  a n d D. M o r g a n , a t N a n a i m o ' s P r o v i n c i a l H o t e l , i n  December o f 1 8 8 2 . BOWLING Bowling  1 6  S a l o o n s were n o t as p r e v a l e n t , b u t o f t e n  t h e same f a c i l i t i e s advertisement 17 i n 1867.  as t h e b i l l i a r d  f o r the Bowling  rooms, as n o t e d  and B i l l i a r d  However, o t h e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ,  Saloon  clientele, advertising  i n the  at Barkerville,  such as t h a t on  V i c t o r i a ' s Waddington A l l e y , appear t o have s t r i v e n refined  occupied  t h e i r fine wines,  f o r a more  spirits, 18  liquors, cigars,  and l a t e s t European and A t l a n t i c  newspapers.  Y e t , i n 1863, w h i l e s u p p o r t i n g a p o p u l a t i o n o f o n l y  four 19  h u n d r e d w h i t e s , L i l l o e t was r e p o r t e d a s h a v i n g  a bowling  alley.  44 By in  1872, m a j o r c h a l l e n g e matches had been o r g a n i z e d , as  t h e f o l l o w i n g event  reported i n the V i c t o r i a Daily  Standard.  T h e r e w i l l be a m a t c h game a t t e n - p i n s , t o be p l a y e d a t t h e Ten-Pin S a l o o n , t h i s e v e n i n g , between a g e n t l e m a n f r o m t h e o t h e r s i d e fu«S.A.J a n d one o f the b e s t p l a y e r s i n town. A f t e r w h i c h , games w i l l be p l a y e d f o r a v a r i e t y o f f a n c y a r t i c l e s , - munschaum pipes, e t c . 2 0  CROQUET By n a t u r e , t h e game o f C r o q u e t was a l i g h t - h e a r t e d activity  i n w h i c h people would i n d u l g e a t garden p a r t i e s and  picnics. to  S u c h a game w o u l d n o t g e n e r a t e  r e q u i r e newspaper coverage.  sufficient  interest  However, t h e a r r i v a l o f  e q u i p m e n t i n J u n e o f 1867 d i d r e s u l t i n a n a n n o u n c e m e n t i n t h e British Colonist. CROQUET - L o v e r s o f t h i s f a v o r i t e game w i l l f i n d t h e n e c e s s a r y i m p l e m e n t s a t V i c t o r i a House ( c o r n e r o f F o r t and Douglas s t r e e t s ) , s e v e r a l s e t s h a v i n g been r e c e i v e d p e r P r i n c e s s R o y a l . ! 2  HANDBALL A c c o r d i n g t o L i n d s a y , t h e r e were o n l y two matches o f t h i s game r e p o r t e d i n t h e 1860s p r e s s o f B r i t i s h N o r t h One  o f t h e s e was i n S t . J o h n ' s ,  New B r u n s w i c k ,  America.  and t h e o t h e r  . 22 in Victoria  where, i n January  o f 1865, t h e Vancouver Times  reported: A match o f h a n d - b a l l has been a r r a n g e d between two V i c t o r i a n s a n d t w o C a r i b o o i t e s f o r $100 a s i d e , t o b e p l a y e d n e x t Monday, i n B u c k l e y ' s B a l l C o u r t . As t h e men a r e e x p e r t s i n t h e m a n l v game some e x c e l l e n t p l a y may be a n t i c i p a t e d . Although  no d e t a i l s o f t h e method o f p l a y were g i v e n ,  45 Menke s t a t e s t h a t u n t i l 1 9 0 0 , the t y p i c a l h a n d b a l l c o u r t had f o u r w a l l s , each 22 f e e t h i g h , w i t h a p l a y i n g s u r f a c e o f 46 24 f e e t by 22 f e e t , and t h a t o n l y a hard h a n d b a l l was used. From the s i n g l e r e f e r e n c e i n the Vancouver Times, i t i s apparent t h a t the game was played r e g u l a r l y i n V i c t o r i a , not only was t h e r e a s p e c i f i c b a l l c o u r t , but a l s o  since  "expert"  players. The and  o r i g i n o f h a n d b a l l dates back t o t e n t h Century I r e l a n d  i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a parent o f t e n n i s .  Often r e f e r r e d t o  by i t s o l d name o f ' f i v e s ' , d e r i v e d from the f i v e f i n g e r s with which t h e b a l l was h i t , the game was a l s o played r e g u l a r l y i n New Westminster by 1870, as i n d i c a t e d by a r e p o r t i n t h e Mainland Guardian. I n t e r e s t i n g Match - A match a t f i v e s was played on Tuesday l a s t by one o f our crack p l a y e r s a g a i n s t s i x of our a g i l e c i t i z e n s . The a f f a i r c r e a t e d much i n t e r e s t and r e s u l t e d i n a v i c t o r y f o r the a d e p t . 2 5  TENNIS An o f f s p r i n g o f h a n d b a l l , t e n n i s became popular  i n British  Columbia because the small space r e q u i r e d f o r a c o u r t was r e l a t i v e l y easy t o f i n d i n an area surrounding  "where the dense woods and  mountains made i t d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d enough c l e a r  space f o r a number o f s p o r t s d u r i n g t h e e a r l y years o f s e t t l e 26 ment".  In a l e t t e r from V i c t o r i a i n 1 8 8 7 , C l i v e  Wolley wrote,  Phillips-  46 I t i s a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e t o b e l i e v e t h a t I am n o t dreaming. S i t t i n g b y t h e open window, t h e drowsy summer a i r comes i n o f f t h e s e a a n d f a n s my f o r e h e a d ; from t h e lawn o u t s i d e I c a n h e a r , " W e l l p l a y e d " , "Love t h i r t y " , "Deuce", a n d o t h e r s c r a p s o f t e n n i s j a r g o n f r o m l i p s o f E n g l i s h men a n d women. I n fancy I can see t h e g r e y s t o n e w a l l s o f y o u r o l d E n g l i s h r e c t o r y and i t s w r e a t h s o f b l u e c l e m a t i s ; b u t i f I o p e n my e y e s , t h e y l o o k , i t i s t r u e , a c r o s s green t e n n i s - l a w n s and p a s t E n g l i s h p l a y e r s , but the s k i e s are b l u e r than those s k i e s o f G l o u c e s t e r s h i r e even were; instead of the C o t s w o l d h i l l s a r e t h e snow c a p s o f t h e O l y m p i a n Mountains... The  V i c t o r i a Lawn T e n n i s C l u b was f o r m e d i n 1885 a n d 28  organized i t s f i r s t  open tournament i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  year.  Thus, by 1886, t e n n i s had been " e s t a b l i s h e d on a d e f i n i t e footing" i n British  Columbia,  w i t h J . Handcock becoming t h e  29 champion. 1890, in  A c l u b was f o r m e d i n V a n c o u v e r i n 1889 a n d , i n 30  t h e C o w i c h a n Lawn T e n n i s  New W e s t m i n s t e r ,  C l u b was f o r m e d .  Meanwhile,  l a w n t e n n i s was a " t e a p a r t y game" d u r i n g  t h e e i g h t i e s , b u t became more c o m p e t i t i v e i n t h e n i n e t i e s , 31 a c l u b f i n a l l y f o r m i n g i n 1900.  with  LACROSSE During the l a t t e r  half of the nineteenth century,  Lacrosse  became C a n a d a ' s m o s t p o p u l a r t e a m s p o r t a n d was a d o p t e d n a t i o n a l game i n 1 8 6 7 . popular i n B r i t i s h  as t h e  H o w e v e r , s i n c e i t d i d n o t become  Columbia u n t i l a f t e r 1885, i t i s l i s t e d  as a m i n o r s p o r t and i s b r i e f l y  here  d i s c r i b e d f o r background  purposes. The of  game was f i r s t m e n t i o n e d i n t h e r e g i o n when t h e e d i t o r  the Mainland Guardian  1872.  r e t u r n e d from a t r i p t o t h e e a s t i n  47 Toronto i s v i v a c i o u s , racy f a s t . The game o f L a C r o s s e h a s a l m o s t s u p e r s e d e d t h e o l d E n g l i s h f a v o r i t e [ c r i c k e t ?J and e v e r y l a d o f 5 w i t h s t r e n g t h e n o u g h i s now m a s t e r o f h i s L a C r o s s e ' p i t c h s ' and ' f l i e s ' . Y o u a r e nobody u n l e s s y o u r u n l i k e an I n d i a n a n d g e t y o u r o p t i c s d i s c o l o u r e d and framework b a t t e r e d . 3 2 During and  t h e l a t e e i g h t i e s , c l u b s were formed i n V i c t o r i a  V a n c o u v e r , b u t p l a y was s p a s m o d i c u n t i l t r i a n g u l a r  competition  c o u l d b e e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h a New W e s t m i n s t e r  formed i n 1888.  The f i r s t  Kamloops d u r i n g t h a t y e a r  club  l a c r o s s e t o u r n a m e n t was h e l d i n  and V i c t o r i a beat Vancouver i n t h e  33 f i n a l game.  However, i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , b o t h t h e  V a n c o u v e r a n d New W e s t m i n s t e r c l u b s made u s e o f t h e r a i l w a y to  import  a quick  supply  of re-inforcements  from t h e east i n  p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e d e c i d i n g match o f t h e "Alhambra Cup", emblematic o f B r i t i s h Columbian Lacrosse 35 first  played  f o r i n 1889.  s u p r e m a c y , w h i c h was  H o w e v e r , t h e game e n d e d i n a  2-2 d r a w , i n i t i a t i n g a n i n t e n s e r i v a l r y b e t w e e n c l u b s t o secure  experienced  p l a y e r s f r o m t h e e a s t , many o f whom w e r e  o f f e r e d w e l l p a y i n g j o b s i n one o f t h e t h r e e c i t i e s . On M a r c h 2 2 , 1 8 9 0 , t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A m a t e u r  3c  Lacrosse 37  A s s o c i a t i o n v/as o r g a n i z e d  b y t h e t h r e e c o a s t a l teams  that time, the sport r a p i d l y gained first  year  attended  popularity.  and from  During t h e  o f r e g u l a r c o m p e t i t i o n , crowds o f o v e r two t h o u s a n d  i n t e r - c i t y matches, f a n n i n g an i n t e n s e and sometimes  b i t t e r r i v a l r y , a s e v i d e n c e d b y t h i s p a r t i s a n comment i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t ; " t h e V i c t o r i a t e a m w o u l d h a v e won t h e game had t h e y b e e n g i v e n f a i r p l a y . But a f a i r , square p l a y w i t h 38 Vancouver i s never looked f o r " .  48 The bellies'  New W e s t m i n s t e r t e a m , w e r e g i v e n t h e name by t h e i r  'Salmon-  s u p p o r t e r s i n 1 8 9 0 , t h e y e a r t h e y won t h e  B r i t i s h Columbia championship.  Towards t h e end o f t h a t  season,  t w e l v e members o f t h e t e a m f i n a n c e d t h e i r own t o u r o f t h e e a s t , v i s i t i n g Montreal  and Toronto.  two w e e k s , w i n n i n g  They p l a y e d s i x m a t c h e s i n  f i v e and drawing  one w i t h T o r o n t o ,  while  s c o r i n g f o r t y g o a l s w i t h o n l y t h i r t e e n a g a i n s t them d u r i n g t h e 39 tour.  Three years l a t e r , t h e V i c t o r i a Lacrosse  b o l s t e r e d by f o r m e r  Club,  p l a y e r s f r o m O n t a r i o a n d Q u e b e c , made a  mark i n C a n a d i a n l a c r o s s e h i s t o r y o n a s i m i l a r e a s t e r n t o u r , d e f e a t i n g M o n t r e a l , Quebec, and t h e T o r o n t o s . the  A match w i t h  ' S h a m r o c k s ' was a c r e d i t a b l e t i e a n d t h e o n l y d e f e a t was 40  by a c o m b i n e d O t t a w a t e a m . arrogance  T h e s e two t o u r s c h a l l e n g e d t h e  o f t h e e a s t e r n teams a n d d i s p e l l e d a n y d o u b t s a b o u t  western a b i l i t y . As t h e W i n n i p e g F r e e P r e s s commented: The r e s u l t o f t h i s t o u r s u g g e s t t h e a d v i s a b i l i t y o f i n s t i t u t i n g a Canadian Championship s e r i e s which should embrace Canada as a w h o l e . I t h a s b e e n shown t h a t t h e west i s n o t behind t h e e a s t i n t h e n a t i o n a l pastime, why t h e n s h o u l d t h e c h a m p i o n s h i p o f C a n a d a b e c o n f i n e d t o M o n t r e a l , T o r o n t o , Ottawa, and C o r n w a l l ? ^ 5  H o w e v e r , s u c h a c h a m p i o n s h i p d i d n o t come a b o u t u n t i l May 3 1 , 19 0 1 , when L o r d M i n t o d o n a t e d t h e c u p w h i c h b a r e s h i s n a m e . I t i s apparent, had  4 2  then, that the t r a n s - c o n t i n e n t a l railway  a v e r y marked i n f l u e n c e on t h e development o f l a c r o s s e ,  n o t o n l y i n t h e West C o a s t , b u t a c r o s s C a n a d a .  Furthermore,  the r a i l w a y played a prominent r o l e i n the promotion c o m p e t i t i o n on t h e lower m a i n l a n d . Vancouver and V i c t o r i a  of local  The e a r l y r i v a l r y  between  l a c r o s s e c l u b s was r e p l a c e d b y a  s t r o n g e r r i v a l r y b e t w e e n V a n c o u v e r a n d New W e s t m i n s t e r a s , i n  49 1889,  the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y began r u n n i n g  t r a i n s t o P o r t Moody t h e n t o New of spectators  t o the matches.  special  Westminster, b r i n g i n g hundreds By  1890,  inter-urban  trains  w e r e c a r r y i n g p a s s e n g e r s f r o m V a n c o u v e r d i r e c t t o Queen's P a r k i n New  W e s t m i n s t e r and m u l t i p l e t r a i n s o p e r a t e d when  p r o v i n c i a l f i n a l s were p l a y e d So g r e a t was  the  i n September o f each  i n t e r e s t i n l a c r o s s e and  on  the Saturday afternoons  year.^  t h e t r a v e l so  t h a t f i f t e e n t o twenty thousand people attended matches and,  the  easy,  important  o f t h o s e games,  New  44 W e s t m i n s t e r s t o r e s were c l o s e d . QUOITS The  e a r l i e s t press  report of q u o i t s being  played  was  a  n o t e i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t i n 1860. H i t t i n g a C h i n a m a n w i t h a Q u o i t - A few d a y s ago a p a r t y o f s a i l o r s and m a r i n e s w e r e p l a y i n g a t Q u o i t s n e a r a C h i n a m a n ' s h o u s e , a t E s q u i m a l t , when one o f t h e m a r i n e s , named D e n n i s M c E v o y , s t r u c k a C e l e s t i a l w i t h one o f t h e q u o i t s . The C h i n a m a n c o m p l a i n e d t o t h e P o l i c e Judge y e s t e r d a y , but McEvoy's o f f i c e r s t a t i n g t o t h e C o u r t t h a t t h e man had b e e n p u n i s h e d by h i s o r d e r , t h e c a s e was dismissed. 4 5  Such a statement r a i s e s the enforced  laws were  not  e q u i t a b l y , p o s s i b l y d i s c r i m i n a t i n g against race  and  favouring the  s u s p i c i o n t h a t the  military.  A q u o i t s m a t c h was c e l e b r a t i o n s a t New  included during  t h e Queen's  Westminster, i n 1862,  4 6  and  Birthday  i n 1865,  four  47 experienced  players  where the C l o v e r  competed a t H e a l y ' s C l o v e r P o i n t  P o i n t p l a y e r s were d e f e a t e d  by  a group  House, from  48 the L i o n Brewery.  By  a d v e r t i s e d as p a r t o f t h e  the e a r l y s e v e n t i e s , q u o i t s were c o m b i n e d D o m i n i o n Day  and  July 4  50 celebrations competition  i n the Cariboo, in a  Quoiting prominent  sixteen  was  players  where  yard  a  toss.  $20 4  offered for  9  particularly  popular  o f 1874  listed  were  p r i z e was  i n Nanaimo, as M e s s r s .  where  James  the  Harvey,  50 Wilkes,  and W i l i e r s o n .  cup  offered  by  was  the North  Two  years  f o r competition  of England  Rules,  later,  i n 1876,  at eighteen which  were  yards,  then  a  silver  with  posted  play  at the  51 bar  of the Black  offered most  i n 21,  Diamond  18,  14,  and  Wall's  Wellington  this  R.  event,  included, took  two  a  equipment  quoits and  race  with  of three  widely  although  not always  throughout major  To  5 3  over  i t was  the province, newspapers,  which  reported  quoits  Yale,  i n 1881.  55  i n 1884,  came o f f b e t w e e n  of  Eeveridge  Lynch.  i t c a n be  received  a Mr.  Hanson  requiring  surmised  little  that  the  in British  Columbia  interest  to receive  i n the various occasional  of the July  was  5 4  game t o p l a y ,  enough  and L. Jones  i n which  i n c l u d i n g t h e Kamloops as p a r t  Robert  further the f e s t i v i t i e s  included  and  the  at  as a pastime  generating  However,  and,  was  held  a Mr.  players,  enjoyed  competition  $250 a s i d e a t 18 y a r d s ,  a simple  two  1880,  events  a w r e s t l i n g match  was  only  yard  b e t w e e n W.  falls  game was  coverage.  for  Hotel.  foot  10  By  of the period  Shepley,  along  Since  the  and  p r e s t i g i o u s match  Aitken  Hotel.  festivities  coverage  Inland  press  from  Sentinel,  4 celebrations at  51 CHAPTER V AQUATIC SPORTS CANOEING From t h e f i r s t  days o f s e t t l e m e n t , t h e canoe i n f l u e n c e d  the l i v e s of people throughout v a l u e was  not only u t i l i t a r i a n , f u r s , b u t was  B r i t i s h North America.  Its  p r o v i d i n g easy t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  of  p r o v i s i o n s and  a l s o an i n s t r u m e n t o f  No  doubt the e a r l y t r a d e r s enjoyed  fun.  the dangerous, yet  experience o f running r a p i d s i n t h e i r canoes,  and  thrilling  later  c o l o n i s t s used the n a t i v e v e s s e l i n r a c i n g c o m p e t i t i o n s . The The  first  f o r m a l c o m p e t i t i o n appears t o have been i n  Queen's B i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s a t Nanaimo t h a t y e a r i n c l u d e d  a c a n o e r a c e f o r w h i t e men, R e g a t t a Cup  and  who  c o m p e t e d f o r t h e Nanaimo  a p r i z e of t h i r t y d o l l a r s .  T h i s r a c e was  by t h e c a n o e named S h o o t i n g S t a r , w h i c h  d e f e a t e d two  named S t o r m y P e t r e l and F l y i n g C l o u d .  In a separate  for  I n d i a n s , p r i z e s o f $13,  first ing  1862.  $7, and  others event  $4 w e r e o f f e r e d f o r t h e  t h r e e p l a c e s o f the e l e v e n e n t r i e s from v a r i o u s  tribes.  The  Comox I n d i a n s w e r e t h e f i r s t  neighbour-  group t o  cover  the course of approximately three m i l e s , followed i n  second  and t h i r d p o s i t i o n s by two  1  g r o u p s o f Nanaimo I n d i a n s .  Canoe r a c e s w e r e p a r t i c u l a r l y p o p u l a r a t Nanaimo a n d , t h e Queen's B i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s o f 1863, reported  won  in  the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t  that:  The m o s t e x c i t i n g fo:f c o m p e t i t i o n s ^ w e r e c a n o e r a c e s , i f any r e l i a n c e c a n be p l a c e d on t h e s h o u t s w h i c h u n i n t e r m i t t e n t l y p r o c e e d e d f r o m t h e g a l l e r y xv-here t h e d i s c i p l e s o f Bacchus were c o n g r e g a t e d . 2  52 A c a n o e r a c e was at  V i c t o r i a i n 1862^  R e g a t t a " was  i n c l u d e d on t h e programme o f a r e g a t t a and,  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , an  h e l d i n the c i t y w i t h a  "Indian  race  . . . r o u n d by t h e l u m b e r y a r d s and t h r o u g h t h e b r i d g e i n t o James Bay. The I n d i a n s p a d d l e d i n e x c e l l e n t t i m e , and a c c o m p a n i e d t h e i r l a b o u r s w i t h a w i l d s o r t o f b o a t s o n g , w h i c h had a v e r y p l e a s a n t effect. **" -  Canoe r a c e s a l s o became a r e g u l a r e v e n t  i n the  New  W e s t m i n s t e r c e l e b r a t i o n s o f t h e Queen's b i r t h , b e g i n n i n g  by  5  1862. 1865,  The  f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n i s p r o v i d e d of the scene i n  when b e t w e e n e i g h t t h o u s a n d and  t e n thousand I n d i a n s were  expected t o attend the c e l e b r a t i o n . A f t e r a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f t a l k i n g - and i t was a p e r f e c t babble, s e v e r a l thousand tongues going a t once i n f o u r o r f i v e d i f f e r e n t languages - the f i r s t r a c e commenced by a b o u t 20 l a r g e c a n o e s , c a r r y i n g 21 men e a c h . O f f t h e y s h o t i n s p l e n d i d s t y l e , and r o u n d i n g t h e f l a g on t h e o p p o s i t e s i d e t h e y w e r e b a c k i n very quick time, the winner r e c e i v i n g the f i r s t p r i z e o f $44...As e a c h r a c e was o v e r a l l t h e c o m p e t i t o r s , b o t h w i n n e r s and l o s e r s , w e r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h a p l u g o f tobacco each w i t h which t o r e g a l e t h e m s e l v e s . 7  A n o t h e r c e l e b r a t i o n , t h e A c c e s s i o n Day I n d i a n canoes r a c e f o r twenty d o l l a r s  o f J u n e , 1870,  in Victoria.  The  saw British  Colonist reported that; Two c a n o e s c o m p e t e d f o r t h i s r a c e , w h i c h as a r a c e , was t h e b e s t o f t h e day; f o r a l o n g t i m e t h e canoes were n e c k and n e c k , and i t was d o u b t f u l f o r t h r e e - p a r t s o f t h e r a c e w h i c h w o u l d be t h e w i n n e r ; Although the Songish c a n o e d r e w a h e a d and w o n . 8  Lady D u f f e r i n p r o v i d e d the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f s p e c i a l r e g a t t a h e l d i n honour of her husband, the G e n e r a l , a t N a n a i m o , i n A u g u s t o f 1876.  Governor-  Here, twelve  tribes  w e r e r e p r e s e n t e d by n e a r l y f o u r h u n d r e d I n d i a n s i n t h i r t y canoes.  a  53  At twelve o'clock we went i n c a r r i a g e s t o see a r e g a t t a , which was t o be h e l d a t the Gorge...Across one end there was a s t r i n g of f l a g s , which w i t h the background of mountains, wood and water, looked very gay>.. a number o f boats were dotted about, and arranged i n three groups were twenty l a r g e canoes, f i l l e d w i t h Indians, and covered from stem t o s t e r n w i t h f l a g s . . . T h e r e were some e x c e l l e n t r a c e s , f o u r o r f i v e o f the l a r g e canoes i n a race, the men rowing, o r r a t h e r p a d d l i n g w i t h a l l t h e i r might - e i g h t s t r o k e s a minute - l e a v i n g q u i t e a sea behind them. There was, t o o , a most e x c i t i n g squaw r a c e . We rowed a l o n g s i d e most o f the way, and saw the women w e l l ! One crew c o n s i s t e d o f r a t h e r n i c e - l o o k i n g young ones but these d i d not win. 0  Around t h i s time, groups o f whites were developing an interest  i n canoeing and were attached  c l u b s as they emerged.  t o the v a r i o u s  rowing  However, canoeing d i d not become a  r e g u l a r s p o r t i n B r i t i s h Columbia u n t i l t h e 1890s, when canoe divisions  were f i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n the James Bay  A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , Burrard and Vancouver Rowing Clubs.  I n l e t , New Westminster,  S i n g l e s , tandem, and Peterborough  canoe races were i n c l u d e d i n the rowing r e g a t t a s u n t i l a f t e r t h e t u r n o f the c e n t u r y . two Vancouver c a n o e i s t s , A. M a r s h a l l  from 189 2  During t h i s  1 1  period,  and J . Spencer, dominated  . 12 canoe events. ROWING According  t o Menke, "Canada has produced some o f the most  s k i l l f u l oarsmen the world has known".^  3  s i n c e the rowing  e l i t e o f t h e p e r i o d , such as Ned Hanlan, came from the c e n t r e of p o p u l a t i o n appear very  i n the e a s t , rowing on the West Coast d i d not  significant.  However, as the f o l l o w i n g w i l l show,  the h i s t o r y o f rowing i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s r i c h w i t h and  endeavour.  colour  54 The  Royal Navy i n i t i a t e d  i n t e r e s t i n a q u a t i c competitions  i n V i c t o r i a by h o l d i n g r e g a t t a s f o r the t r a i n i n g and e n t e r t a i n ment o f the f l e e t and f o r the p l e a s u r e o f the community.  The  f i r s t newspaper d e s c r i p t i o n o f such a Navy r e g a t t a appeared i n June o f 1859,  when the B r i t i s h  Colonist reported:  On Tuesday and Wednesday a r e g a t t a took p l a c e i n Esquimalt Harbour. The boats engaged were those o f H.M.S. Pylades, T r i b u n e , and S a t e l l i t e . On the f i r s t day, the race was w i t h boats rowed, and no p l e a s u r a b l e excitement pervaded the c o n t e s t s . On the second day, the race was between s a i l boats, which were w e l l managed. A l a r g e number o f s p e c t a t o r s were p r e s e n t , among whom were many l a d i e s , the v a r i e d c o l o r s o f whose costumes imparted a l i v e l y g a i e t y t o the same. During the f i r s t day's race two punts manned by the c o a l heavers o f the s h i p s , i n grotesque costumes, who used t h e i r c o a l shovels f o r paddles, performed some n o v e l and amusing f e a t s . ^ 4  The s h i p s ' own boats were used f o r these c o n t e s t s .  Even t h e  launches, each o f which c a r r i e d eighteen oars i n t i e r s , were used i n one o f the s i x rowing  events.  The launch i s the l a r g e s t boat o f the s h i p , and d u r i n g s e r v i c e i s armed with a t e n o r twelve pound cannon, and used f o r the conveyance o f l a r g e bodies o f men t o the p o i n t o f a t t a c k o r l a n d i n g . x 5  In the f o l l o w i n g year, 1860, Esquimalt.  another r e g a t t a was h e l d a t  Along w i t h the boats o f the f l e e t , s e v e r a l boats  from the U n i t e d S t a t e s were i n v o l v e d i n the c o m p e t i t i o n s , which were under the patronage  o f the Governor.  Messrs.  Howard and Davis o f Esquimalt, c o n s i d e r e d " o l d hands a t such 16 sports",  were t o make the arrangements f o r the events.  Throughout the p e r i o d , c o n t e s t s such as the race between 17 the gunboats Forward and G r a p p l e r  and the t h r e e m i l e match  race f o r $100 between the c u t t e r s o f H.M.S. Mutine and 18 Deva s t at i o n  were h e l d by the crews o f the f l e e t .  In 1868,  a major n a v a l r e g a t t a had t e n rowing r a c e s , i n c l u d i n g a l l 19 c l a s s e s o f v e s s e l (plus a s a i l i n g r a c e ) .  But, probably the  most s p e c t a c u l a r o f the navy c o n t e s t s o c c u r r e d as p a r t o f the Queen's B i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s o f 1870, when V i c t o r i a ' s s t o r e s c l o s e d e a r l y on a Wednesday, and some f i v e thousand s p e c t a t o r s watched the competitions between the crews o f t e n o f Her Majesty's warships  - the Zealous, L i v e r p o o l , L i f l e y ,  Picone,  P e a r l , S e y l i a , Charybdis, Endymion, Sparrowhawk, and Boxer. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , t h i s r e g a t t a was "the l a r g e s t ever h e l d on the American s i d e o f t h e P a c i f i c " . Not o n l y d i d the f l e e t o r g a n i z e r e g a t t a s f o r i t s own crews, but many o f the o f f i c e r s were l e a d i n g c i t i z e n s o f the community and promoted c i v i l i a n c o m p e t i t i o n s .  The c i t y of  V i c t o r i a h e l d i t s f i r s t boat race i n the f a l l o f 1859.  Marine  o f f i c e r s , s t a t i o n e d a t the James Bay b a r r a c k s , along w i t h some c i v i l i a n s , competed f o r a p r i z e o f one hundred d o l l a r s over a d i s t a n c e o f f i v e m i l e s , " s t a r t i n g a t the James Bay b r i d g e , f o r the mouth o f the harbour,  then up the arm around Dead Man's 21  I s l a n d , and back t o the b r i d g e " .  S e v e r a l hundred  people  attended the race t o watch the t h r e e f o u r - o a r e d b o a t s . crews were:  Speedwell,  B r o d e r i c k , and Bushby  the c i v i l i a n s - H i c k s , Wallace,  (coxswain):  The Stamp,  North S t a r , o f f i c e r s -  L i e u t e n a n t Owens, Captain Blake, Henry B a z a l g a t e ,  '  (coxswain)  Rough and Ready, combined o f f i c e r s and c i v i l i a n s - T r u t c h , Stevenson, Moberly,  and C l i f t o n  (coxswain) :  umpires were Captain J.M. Reid and Captain J . Nagle. marine o f f i c e r s d i d not appear v e r y adept,  and the The  l o s i n g the race and  t h e r e b y h a v i n g t o pay f o r d i n n e r a t t h e C o l o n i a l  Hotel.^  The y o u t h o f t h e c i t y t r i e d t h e i r h a n d s a t r o w i n g i n 1 8 6 1 . Boys from t h e C o l l e g i a t e S c h o o l were s t a r t e d i n a r a c e by Captain Nagle.  G e o r g e L i t t l e ' s b o a t won t h e f i r s t  race f o r  t w e n t y d o l l a r s a n d , i n t h e s e c o n d r a c e , L e s t e r ' s b o a t won s i x t e e n d o l l a r s which bought In  a k n i f e f o r each o f t h e boys.  S e p t e m b e r o f 1 8 6 2 , a "Grand  R e g a t t a " was h e l d i n  V i c t o r i a h a r b o u r a n d was open t o a l l c l a s s e s o f b o a t s , i n c l u d 24 ing  s a i l i n g and c a n o e i n g , as w e l l as r o w i n g e v e n t s .  money o f some t w o h u n d r e d the  and f i f t y  d o l l a r s was c o l l e c t e d  community and p a r t i c i p a n t s competed i n s i x r a c e s .  w e e k s l a t e r , a s c u l l i n g m a t c h was h e l d i n w h i c h beat  Prize  "Frenchy".  from Two  Fitzgerald  2 6  S i n c e a f a i r c o m p e t i t i o n b e t w e e n humans c o u l d n o t b e achieved with boats of varying construction, rowers o f t e n had t o exchange S u c h an e x c h a n g e  contemporary  v e s s e l s t o prove t h e i r  prowess.  o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e Queen's B i r t h d a y r a c e s o f  1 8 6 1 , a t New W e s t m i n s t e r , w h i c h w e r e no d o u b t o r g a n i z e d b y t h e 27 R e g a t t a . C l u b , formed i n t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r . In this race, t h e c r e w o f t h e J . T . S c o t t d e f e a t e d t h a t o f t h e Wakeman b u t , ...by way o f t e s t i n g w h e t h e r t h e v i c t o r y was o w i n g to a s u p e r i o r i t y i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e boat o r t o t h e b e t t e r o a r s m a n s h i p o f t h e w i n n i n g c r e w , an e x c h a n g e o f c r e w s was made a n d a n o t h e r r a c e r u n , o n w h i c h o c c a s i o n t h e 'Wakeman' won, w h i c h c l e a r l y s e t t l e ^ the q u e s t i o n i n f a v o u r o f t h e crew o f t h e J.T. S c o t t . S i m i l a r l y , c o m p e t i t i o n s between v e s s e l s were a r r a n g e d t o r e d u c e t h e human f a c t o r , a s t h e V a n c o u v e r  T i m e s o f 1864 r e p o r t e d  t h a t t h e c a p t a i n o f t h e B l u e Bonnet, d e f e a t e d by t h e W i l l i a m H u n t , o f f e r e d t o b a c k h i s b o a t f o r up t o one t h o u s a n d  dollars,  57 p r o v i d e d the boats exchanged  crews.  3  In a f u r t h e r attempt t o equate c o m p e t i t i o n , rowers of d i f f e r e n t s i z e s and d i f f e r e n t p u l l i n g advantages t e s t e d thems e l v e s i n boats of compensating weight. D a i l y Post of 1865 announced  Thus, the Vancouver  a f i f t y d o l l a r r a c e between Reid's  Foam and L a c h a p e l l e ' s Surge The Foam i s a l i g h t e r boat than the Surge, and i s manned by l i g h t weights; the crew i s Edward T h a i n , s t r o k e , T.A. G r i g g s , Sam. Dougal, F r e d . M o r r i s o n , and W i l l i e Cameron, coxswain. The Surge w i l l c a r r y heavy weight crew and p u l l a long s t r o k e ; their names are B. Vaux, s t r o k e , J . L a c h a p e l l e , H. Howard, ' U r i e , J . Anderson, coxswain. Both the crews have been p r a c t i c i n g f o r some time and there i s no doubt t h a t i t w i l l be a v e r y t i g h t r a c e . 3 0  L a c h a p e l l e ' s v e s s e l , l i s t e d l a t e r as the Glance, was the w i n n e r .  announced  3 1  By t h i s time, i n t e r e s t i n rowing had grown s u f f i c i e n t l y t h a t an o f f i c i a l rowing c l u b c o u l d be formed.  A c c o r d i n g to  The P r e s s , e f f o r t s t o form such a c l u b had begun as e a r l y as 32 1862  and, i n the s p r i n g of 1863, t h e r e was more t a l k about  33 i t s formation, but no r e a l a c t i o n u n t i l a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t towards f o r m a l i z a t i o n gathered s i x t y s i g n a t u r e s of p r o s p e c t i v e 34 members, i n August o f 186 5. F i n a l l y , a t the end of September t h a t y e a r , the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t announced: A meeting of gentlemen who propose t o form a Rowing Club, was announced by c i r c u l a r y e s t e r d a y a f t e r n o o n , a t the o f f i c e of Messrs. F r a n k l i n , on Government Street. About twenty gentlemen attended. Capt. Lang, V.R.V. was requested t o p r e s i d e , and Mrs. S.S. Green t o o f f i c i a t e as s e c r e t a r y . . . The a s s o c i a t i o n i s t o be s t y l e d 'The Vancouver Rowing Club'...The r u l e s of the London Rowing Club are t o be f o l l o w e d as f a r as p r a c t i c a b l e . . . T h e Committee w i l l , we understand, f o r t h w i t h o r d e r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f two four-oared g i g s f o r models. The Club numbers about 75 members. 35  58 W.A. Young, Esq., the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , was appointed P r e s i d e n t o f the c l u b , ° which was sometimes r e f e r r e d t o as the V i c t o r i a Rowing Club. should not be mistaken  I t s o r i g i n a l name o f 'Vancouver'  f o r t h e l a t e r c l u b o f t h a t name,  organized i n the c i t y o f Vancouver. Probably  the f i r s t  r a c i n g g i g b u i l t i n the Colony was  t h a t o f a Mr. C. Coyle, o f A l b e r n i , who had h i s v e s s e l launched  and t e s t e d i n the s p r i n g o f 1 8 6 4 . 38  37  Messrs. Murray  and Nagle a l s o b u i l t boats, but L a c h a p e l l e was the foremost r a c i n g boat b u i l d e r o f the p e r i o d and i t was he who s u p p l i e d and maintained  the boats f o r most o f the V i c t o r i a r a c e s .  For  example, i n t h e f i f t y d o l l a r a s i d e match between J . Eden (the t a v e r n owner o f ' R a t t i n g Match' fame) and J . Hariman, L a c h a p e l l e ' s boats were used,  and again, the next day, when G. F r a n c i s  beat G. Lawrence f o r two hundred and f i f t y d o l l a r s .  At t h i s  time, the boat ordered by the Club from L a c h a p e l l e was announced as ready f o r s e r v i c e . ^ 0  In the f o l l o w i n g year, L a c h a p e l l e b u i l t another  boat,  ...a b e a u t i f u l f o u r - o a r e d , W h i t e h a l l race boat 20 f e e t l o n g , by 3 f e e t 9 inches beam, t o be c a l l e d the 'Dart'. She i s copper f a s t e n e d throughout, and judging from her l i n e s we should say she may defy any. boat o f her c l a s s i n t h e s e waters f o r s p e e d . ^ J u s t a few weeks l a t e r , the Dart was engaged i n a Good F r i d a y race when f o u r boys raced i t a g a i n s t f o u r men from S p r a t t and K r i e m l e r ' s foundry  i n another  f a v o r i t e ' , the G l a n c e . ^  o f L a c h a p e l l e ' s boats, the ' o l d  2  Throughout t h e p e r i o d , r e g a t t a s were h e l d on days o f community-wide c e l e b r a t i o n , a l l o w i n g l a r g e numbers o f people  59 t o enjoy the c o m p e t i t i o n s .  The prominent c e l e b r a t i o n was,  course, the Queen's B i r t h d a y .  In 1867,  the annual  of  Victoria  r e g a t t a of t h a t day had become so p r e s t i g i o u s t h a t the  prepara-  t i o n s i n c l u d e d the c h a r t e r i n g of a steamer t o take s p e c t a t o r s along the Gorge, a t a p r i c e of t w e n t y - f i v e cents per w h i l e some t h r e e hundred Americans were expected paying s i x d o l l a r s Olympia.  43  ( i n c l u d i n g meals and bed)  person,  to attend,  f o r the t r i p  from  The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t announced t h a t ,  A l a r g e number of boats have been entered, and i n a d d i t i o n to our n a t i v e t a l e n t , 'crack' rowers from the American s i d e have consented t o take p a r t i n the s p o r t and e x h i b i t t h e i r muscle. The rowers w i l l dress i n c o l o u r s . Almost every o b j e c t t h a t w i l l f l o a t has been engaged f o r the o c c a s i o n by p l e a s u r e seekers who d e s i r e t o see the s p o r t - i n c l u d i n g lumber from Sayward's y a r d . 4 4  The  s e v e r a l r a c e s w i t h purse p r i z e s were concluded by a "Hunt  the Duck", i n which one person  i n a f l a t - b o t t o m e d s k i f f was  to  45 elude the p u r s u i t of f o u r men S i m i l a r l y , i n 1868,  in a gig.  the r e g a t t a drew some one  thousand  people t o watch a programme of e i g h t rowing races and an Indian canoe r a c e , organized l a r g e l y by Messrs. Trahey and L a c h a p e l l e . S p e c t a t o r s t o such events t r a v e l l e d to the Gorge by land and even by barges towed by the Hudson Bay Company's steam v e s s e l , the L e v i a t h a n .  4 7  The year 1870  a special regatta.  Organized  has a l r e a d y been noted as on A c c e s s i o n Day by the  having  Royal  Navy and a t t r a c t i n g some f i v e thousand s p e c t a t o r s , the programme i n c l u d e d double  s c u l l s , four-oared g i g s , "Blue J a c k e t  i n s h i p s ' boats, s i n g l e s c u l l s , f o u r - o a r e d s h e l l s , canoes, 48 copper punt r a c e s , and a "duck hunt".  60  Regatta days were important  events and t h e rowing  e r n i t y took t h e impending c o m p e t i t i o n s e r i o u s l y .  frat-  In r e g a r d  t o t h e A c c e s s i o n Day r e g a t t a i n June o f 1870. the B r i t i s h Colonist  noted:  The crews a r e i n t r a i n i n g f o r the Regatta. Outriggers and rowing g i g s may be seen d a r t i n g over the smooth s u r f a c e o f t h e harbour every evening, and numerous b o a t i n g - p a r t i e s are formed d a i l y f o r the purposes o f practice. 4 9  In f a c t , rowing e n t h u s i a s t s were even encouraged t o dress f o r the o c c a s i o n by a t l e a s t one a d v e r t i s e r . REGATTA HATS - Mr. Adams, o f Government S t r e e t , has r e c e i v e d , p e r P r i n c e s s Royal, a s p l e n d i d assortment of men's and boy's b o a t i n g and r e g a t t a h a t s . 5 0  Rowing had become so popular t h a t i t was not uncommon f o r people t o c h a l l e n g e each other t o a meet.  Thus o c c u r r e d  such  " n o v e l " matches as the race between f o u r o l d and f o u r young men ( a l s o l i s t e d as marrieds vs s i n g l e s ) , which was won by the former on a Sunday, i n May o f 1867. ^ 5  were h e l d on a course from the dredger around Dead Man's I s l a n d .  5 2  Races between boys  in Victoria  The Chinese  harbour,  community a l s o rowed  on o c c a s i o n and, i n 1872, the Chung Lung crew i n the g i g Amateur, defeated a dozen p a d d l e r s o f the Kwong Sing crew i n the W h i t e h a l l boat Glance, c a u s i n g the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t t o remark, In f u t u r e r e g a t t a s , t h e Chinese should be remembered and allowed a share i n the programme; an Indian canoe race might a l s o be a f e a t u r e o f the annual s p o r t s o f the 24th o f M a y . 53  Thus, although Indian canoe races were o f t e n p a r t of the c e l e b r a t i o n s , they had not been scheduled on a r e g u l a r b a s i s and the Chinese  appear t o have been excluded completely.  In  61  less  serious  rowing,  tub  competition, races  were  p o s s i b l y f o r those  also  included  as  less  part  of  adept  the  at  regatta  54  programme, tub  foreshadowing  modern Nanaimo-Vancouver  bath-  races. In  the  New  end  of  "select  Westminster, 1869.  crew"  The  had  gig  called  the  vessel  was  manned  by  Richardson, George  Odin's  carry  Indet,  who  were  which  The  course  and  Vancouver  The  New  to  was  to  compete  from  the  take  place  Mr.  crew,  few  to  on  a  view  distance  pulling  with  new new and  boat  and  stages  were  scheduled  a  in  the of  a  the  Johnston,  race  a Wednesday and  by  club's  Calder's  two  that  later,  Pooley,  later,  city  city  days  against  Moody's  Island mills,  Westminster  A  formalized  reported  i n the  5 5  Bushby,  A month  between  becoming  Guardian  practicing  Messrs.  5  was  was  Brunette.  gig. ^  spectators  rowing  Mainland  been  racing  to  the  at  two  British two  four  and  oars,  Burrard o'clock. Columbia  a  half  miles.  defeated  the  5 8  Burrard  crew  of  Although in  March  sporadic  of  pairs of  c l u b was  1870, ^ 5  sculls.  officially  competition  for several years.  with  visiting  used  because  handling  a  five  of  naval "the  on  jackets  race-boats"*  the  the  are  races  the  Burrard  were  ships' boats  not  During  at  lower mainland  Occasional  v e s s e l s , but  blue  organized  well  Queen's  Inlet  was arranged  were  skilled  1872  in  usually the  Birthday  c e l e b r a t i o n s a t New W e s t m i n s t e r , t h e c i t i z e n s City* subscribed a seventy-five d o l l a r purse, 61  of the 'Royal w h i c h was won  by t h e i r y e a r was  report of that a four-oared  crew over B u r r a r d I n l e t . of a match a t B u r r a r d I n l e t  Another i n which  5 7  62 r a c i n g g i g c o u l d not match the speed of a canoe paddled by eleven I n d i a n s . ^ Throughout  the p r o v i n c e , t h e r e was  l i t t l e , of p a r t i c u l a r  note u n t i l 1872, when the v i s i t i n g Lord D u f f e r i n p r o v i d e d the 6 T  medals f o r the annual V i c t o r i a Rowing Club r e g a t t a . f o l l o w i n g year, the Hastings M i l l s Regatta was  In the  h e l d i n conjunc-  t i o n w i t h the Dominion Day c e l e b r a t i o n s on B u r r a r d I n l e t , 64 e n t i c i n g a number of people from Nanaimo t o a t t e n d .  Still  another year l a t e r , an i n t e r n a t i o n a l event saw the boats of H.M.S. Opal and the American  ship Lachawanna compete, the 65  American boat winning by f i f t e e n seconds.  In 1878,  a four-  oared crew from V i c t o r i a t r a v e l l e d t o S e a t t l e t o win a f o u r t h of  J u l y race  and, i n t h a t same year, a r e f e r e n c e appeared t o  a M o o d y v i l l e Boat Club, which was Pearl.  However, by 1879,  s a i d t o have a boat  called  the Burrard's Annie F r a s e r  was  recognized as having vanquished a l l - c o m e r s , i n c l u d i n g boats from V i c t o r i a and New In  1882,  Westminster.  °  the James Bay A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n was  formed i n  V i c t o r i a t o promote a t h l e t i c s g e n e r a l l y , but i t s p r i n c i p l e i n t e r e s t was  rowing.  However, i t s a c t i v i t i e s were l i m i t e d  d u r i n g the next decade, u n t i l 1892, when i t e n t e r e d the North 69  P a c i f i c American A s s o c i a t i o n of Oarsmen.  In the I n t e r i o r , a  r e f e r e n c e t o a simple boat race appears i n the Inland S e n t i n e l of  1885,  r e p o r t i n g a race f o r f i f t y d o l l a r s between F.  Robinson's  Greyhound, w i t h two oars and c a r r y i n g t h r e e persons, and A. McKinnon's Fanny, a l a r g e r boat w i t h two oars and  carrying  70 seven persons.  Back on the c o a s t , a c l u b was  formed i n  63 Vancouver i n 1886,  but i t experienced l i t t l e  competition  u n t i l i t merged w i t h B u r r a r d I n l e t t o form the Vancouver 71 Rowing Club i n 189 0. Meanwhile, the V i c t o r i a Amateur Boating Club was  formed  72 i n 1888,  w i t h Joshua Davis as P r e s i d e n t .  Perhaps the i n v o l v e -  ment of t h i s c l u b and the James Bay A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n had d e t r a c t e d from i n t e r e s t i n the o l d c i t y rowing c l u b because i t appears  t o have been i n a c t i v e f o r some time, c a u s i n g the  e d i t o r of the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t t o c h a s t i s e i t s membership i n The V i c t o r i a Rowing Club are most r e s p e c t f u l l y urged t o be up and d o i n g . A meeting was c a l l e d a few days ago, but c o u l d not be h e l d . Call another. The major rowing s c u l l events. s e v e n t i e s was 1876,  i n t e r e s t of these, times was  the  1889.  single  Most prominent i n the l a t t e r p a r t of the John ( l a t e r l i s t e d as William) C o t s f o r d .  when he was  In  a twenty year o l d employee of J . S p r a t t ' s  A l b i o n Foundry, he defeated Alexander McLean i n the Gorge, and - 74 won  five, hundred'dollars.  S e a t t l e and won  Two  years l a t e r , he t r a v e l l e d t o  the J u l y 4 c o m p e t i t i o n .  him compete i n an event which was excitement years.  7 5  The year 1879  saw  s a i d t o have c r e a t e d more  i n V i c t o r i a than any other s p o r t i n g event i n r e c e n t  Here, C o t s f o r d d e f e a t e d Henry Stewart  hundred d o l l a r s , prompting  a Mr.  f o r another  five  Eugene F l a n d e r s , on hand  r e p r e s e n t i n g the San F r a n c i s c o Boating Club, t o accept a c h a l l e n g e from C o t s f o r d .  C o t s f o r d l o s t t h a t race i n San  F r a n c i s c o , but h i s supporters were c o n f i d e n t t h a t he c o u l d 77 have won i f the race had been i n f a m i l i a r V i c t o r i a waters.  64 Nevertheless, professional  by  apparent  fame h a d  Another trained  i t was  province.  In  a  his efforts  to  earn  failed.  notable sculler  McDowell,  that  the  was  a Mr.  champion  race with  S e e l e y , who  amateur w a l k e r  Cotsford,  S e e l e y was  had  of  been  the  given  a  one  78 minute  head  Several James  start,  years  Bay  later,  with  the  Australia.  The  the  to  children  holding  t o win  i n 1884,  famed  the  r a c e by  Seeley put  Edward  schools see  on  were  Hanlan,  closed  on  an  who  exhibition  was  for this  "the marvellous Canadian  s i x seconds.  on  h i s way  event, who  in  to  has  to  allow  done  so  79 much and  to bring  h i s country into  Seeley demonstrated  standing in  this,  the  on  h i s head  shells,  i n the  as w e l l  same p r o g r a m m e ,  various  as  Cotsford  balancing  racing  speedy was  notice  acts  shell),  by  from "abroad". Other prominent s c u l l e r s included M i c h a e l Law, who won t h e s i n g l e s c u l l s  He  ( i e . Seeley  changes  rowing.  beaten  abroad".  of  Meanwhile,  Lee,  another  position on  the  well-known  rower  New Westminster's event at the annual  80 Dominion  Day  probably  intending  Robert gig  Law  every year  as  1878-85.  same p e r s o n ,  having received,  from V i c t o r i a ,  a major  the  from  which  technological F r y were  had  improvement  Murray  and  also  vessel also a  i n New W e s t m i n s t e r . s c u l l e r o f n o t e and  lists  i n 1883,  been  reported  Another Messrs.  t o be  Maurice  a double-scull  outfitted to the  reference,  with  building  racing  sliding  sport.  and  seats,  Messrs. a  similar  81  successes  from  1880-89.  82  was  B u r r a r d I n l e t ' s J . B u s h was r e p o r t e d t o h a v e h a d many  65 The p r i d e of Vancouver I s l a n d was W i l l i a m Paine, the undefeated champion s c u l l e r of B r i t i s h Columbia from 1879-88. His f i r s t match a g a i n s t an o u t s i d e competitor was  highly  p u b l i c i z e d and w e l l attended as h i s opponent, Harry B a l l , a former member o f the famed moved t o Vancouver. May  'Chatham F o u r  1  was  and had r e c e n t l y  The match took p l a c e on Shawnigan Lake on  19, 18 88, i n f r o n t of a crowd c a r r i e d by s p e c i a l  from V i c t o r i a .  J  trains  Paine*s v i c t o r y earned him f r o n t page coverage 84  i n the l o c a l p r e s s .  However, l i k e C o t s f o r d , h i s hopes f o r  g r e a t e r success were soon e l i m i n a t e d .  Henry Peterson, a  prominent American p r o f e s s i o n a l s c u l l e r from San F r a n c i s c o , beat him on Shawnigan Lake i n June o f 1888, i n an event which was 85 touted as B.C.'s g r e a t e s t s p o r t i n g event t o date. B r i t i s h Columbia rowers f i n a l l y achieved r e c o g n i t i o n i n the e a s t when the Vancouver Rowing Club's four-oared crew 86  impressed The Globe by i t s 1890 d e f e a t of S e a t t l e . same year, R.N.  In the  Johnston won the s i n g l e s c u l l championships o f  the Vancouver Rowing Club, proceeding t o f u r t h e r successes as an amateur and a l s o as a p r o f e s s i o n a l , when he changed h i s s t a t u s i n 189 6.  In 1892, he defeated an American, Quackenbush,  on Lake Washington, thereby winning the American Championship 07  of the P a c i f i c Coast.  Then, i n 1898, the c i t i z e n s of Vancouver  r a i s e d a purse o f t w e n t y - f i v e hundred d o l l a r s t o f i n a n c e a match race between Johnston and Jacob Gaudaur, the champion of the w o r l d .  Gaudaur won t h a t match by two l e n g t h s , i n what was  c o n s i d e r e d a very f a s t t i m e .  8 8  When Johnston again c h a l l e n g e d  Gaudaur i n 1900, the match was h e l d at the new c i t y of Nelson,  66 i n the I n t e r i o r , which was  reputed to have the b e s t course i n 89  Canada.  Again, Gaudaur was  SAILING AND  the winner i n a c l o s e f i n i s h .  YACHTING  As i t had done w i t h rowing, the Royal Navy i n t r o d u c e d y a c h t i n g as c o m p e t i t i v e r e c r e a t i o n i n one of the most b e a u t i f u l . . 90 c r u i s i n g and r a c i n g areas i n the world. In 1859, the n a v a l r e g a t t a a t Esquimalt had been a two day event, one f o r rowing 91 and the other f o r s a i l i n g c o m p e t i t i o n s . Launches, pinnaces, and c u t t e r s were employed, but the races proved t o be u n e x c i t i n g 92 due t o the l a c k of wind.  Although,  s a i l i n g events were  i n c l u d e d as p a r t of the major r e g a t t a s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the Queen's B i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s , they d i d not g a i n an e n t h u s i a s t i c f o l l o w i n g u n t i l l a t e i n the 1880s. As e a r l y as 1861,  New  Westminster i n c l u d e d a s a i l i n g  i n i t s Queen's B i r t h d a y f e s t i v i t i e s .  event  In t h a t year, the yacht  P i l o t d e f e a t e d the Swallow, Chance, and Coquette  over a  seven  93 m i l e course.  A few weeks l a t e r , a schooner  race  was  recorded i n which the L a l l a n Rookh d e f e a t e d the Nanaimo P a c k e t . In the f o l l o w i n g year, 1862, of f i f t y d o l l a r s was  won  a yacht race f o r the Queen's Cup  i n Nanaimo by the Gone Coon, d e f e a t 95  i n g the Look Out, Dolphin, Monad, S c o t l a n d , and the F l o r a . However, a subsequent advertisement victory:  "The  yacht  seems t o d i s p u t e t h i s  ' K e l p i e ' , the winner of the Queen's Cup  at  Nanaimo, i s now offered, f o r s a l e at the very low sum of $300. In V i c t o r i a , a 'Grand Regatta* was h e l d i n e a r l y September 96 W. Nagle & Co."  9  o f 1862 a n d i n c l u d e d a s a i l i n g r a c e o n t h e p r o g r a m m e .  y /  E i g h t y e a r s l a t e r , t h e g r e a t R o y a l Navy r e g a t t a o f 1870 a t t r a c t e d thousands o f s p e c t a t o r s t o Esquimalt t o see t h e rowing  and s a i l i n g matches.  a r r i v e d aboard  Hundreds o f  Washingtonians  t h e /American s t e a m e r Q l y m p i a ,  j o i n i n g the  t h r o n g t o cheer r a c e s between v a r i o u s c l a s s e s o f v e s s e l s : c u t t e r s , g a l l e y s , l a u n c h e s , and p i n n a c e s . B r i t i s h warships  i n p o r t , H.M.S. S c y l l a ,  Of t h e t e n Zealous,  Sparrowhawk,  and B o x e r won m o s t o f t h e e v e n t s , w h i l e t h e s h i p s ' b a n d s urged  them o n w i t h m a r t i a l m u s i c s u c h a s ' B r i t i s h  Grenadiers'  Q O  and  '.Rule Of  period.  Britannia'.  l a t e r years, there i s l i t t l e  to report during the  The n o t e d b o a t b u i l d e r , L a c h a p e l l e , b u i l t a 99  s i x t e e n f o o t yawl  f o r Edwin Johnson i n 1872,  e s t s a i l boat belonged  t o Thomas J o n e s .  but the swift-  I n 1879, h i s v e s s e l  S c u d d e f e a t e d f o u r o t h e r v e s s e l s t o w i n a s i l v e r cup.^- ^-  Per-  0  h a p s i t s m o s t i m p r e s s i v e v i c t o r y came i n 1 8 8 8 , when i t won t h e 103 a n n u a l V i c t o r i a r e g a t t a be d e f e a t i n g e l e v e n  opponents.  A b r i e f r e f e r e n c e appeared i n the B r i t i s h Columbian o f 1885,  n o t i n g a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l r a c e f o r t h e Queen's C u p , l ° b u t 4  t h e r e does n o t appear t o have been any s t a n d a r d i z e d c o m p e t i t i o n until  1888.  At t h i s time, Superintendent  Roycroft, of  V i c t o r i a , donated  a t r o p h y f o r c o m p e t i t i o n between y a c h t s o f a 105 stipulated waterline length. I n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , 1889,  he o r g a n i z e d a r a c e f o r c r a f t u n d e r e i g h t e e n f e e t i n V i c t o r i a 10 6 harbour. Yacht  Annual  r a c e s f o l l o w e d and, i n 1892, t h e V i c t o r i a  C l u b was f o r m e d , w i t h s u c h p r o m i n e n t  members a s t h e  p a t r o n , C o l . E.G. P r i o r , Commodore J . G . C o x , J . H . S e e l e y ,  68 A.  M u l c a h y , W.B.  C h a r l e s , and  H.E.  Loewen.  The  f l o u n d e r e d a r o u n d t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , due funds  and  J.S.  the l o s s of clubhouse  p r o p e r t y , but  club  to lack of in  1908,  G i b b s and o t h e r s r e v i v e d t h e m e m b e r s h i p t o some  h u n d r e d and  seventy-five w i t h twelve yachts.  a R o y a l C h a r t e r was  c o n f e r r e d on t h e c l u b and  one  In that year, i t has  prospered  107 since. On Mill,  the mainland,  was  R.H.  Alexander,  a r e c o g n i z e d s u p p o r t e r and  d u r i n g the 1880s. regarded  Lumber  enthusiast of yachting  A t t h e same t i m e , Andy L i n t o n ' s May  as t h e l o c a l s p e e d s t e r .  r e g a t t a on D o m i n i o n Day,  the year a f t e r i t s  By t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , a f t e r  Canadian P a c i f i c Railway  off  a f f a i r , w h i c h was  the f i r s t  i n the  m a r r e d by t h e d r o w n i n g o f two  the capsized T h i s t l e .  the  had b r o u g h t a r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n  p o p u l a t i o n and w e a l t h , s e v e n s a i l b o a t s p a r t i c i p a t e d annual  was  Vancouver h e l d i t s f i r s t  J u l y 1, 1887,  i n c o r p o r a t i o n as a c i t y . new  of Hastings  The  1 0 8  men  c o m p e t i t i o n o f 1889  saw  o r g a n i z e d r a c e between y a c h t s from Vancouver  and  109 Victoria  and,  d u r i n g t h e n e x t decade, s e v e r a l c l u b s were  s t a r t e d but, l i k e those Bell-Irving  in Victoria,  (a f i s h c a n n e r y  soon f l o u n d e r e d .  magnate) was  B u r r a r d I n l e t S a i l i n g C l u b o f 1887;  Henry  associated with  Walter  Graveley  the  (a r e a l  e s t a t e dealer) w i t h the B r i t i s h Columbia Yacht Racing A s s o c i a t i o n o f 1891; o f 1896.  and  Finally,  R.Y.  i n 1903,  successful, with Walter members and  Ellis  w i t h the Vancouver B o a t i n g the Vancouver Y a c h t i n g Club  Graveley  twenty-eight yachts.  as commodore o f one The  Royal Charter  c o n f e r r e d on t h e c l u b by t h e B r i t i s h A d m i r a l t y i n  Club was  hundred was  1906.  69  STEAMBOAT RACING A l t h o u g h t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e s t e a m b o a t s was utilitarian  f a r more  t h a n s p o r t i n g , t h e c o m p e t i t i o n s between  the  v e s s e l s d i d much t o a r o u s e t h e e x c i t e m e n t o f t h e e a r l y c o m m u n i t i e s on t h e West C o a s t .  C o m p e t i t i o n s between  s h i p s c a r r i e d on a t r a d i t i o n a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d by  these  commercial  s a i l i n g v e s s e l s a s i n 1858, t h e V i c t o r i a G a z e t t e r e p o r t e d : A HEAVY WAGER - We h e a r i t s t a t e d o n t h e s t r e e t t h a t a h e a v y w a g e r i s p e n d i n g as t o w h i c h v e s s e l - t h e b a r k L i v e Yankee o r t h e schooner Horace, w i l l a r r i v e f i r s t a t San F r a n c i s c o . H I T h e n , i n 1860, t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t  announced:  STEAMBOAT RACE - An e x c i t i n g r a c e b e t w e e n t h e s t e a m e r s B e a v e r and J u l i a t o o k p l a c e on t h e l a s t t r i p t o New Westminster. B o t h v e s s e l s h a v i n g been r e c e n t l y r e p a i r e d and t h e i r m a c h i n e r y t h o r o u g h l y o v e r h a u l e d , t h e r a c e was a t e s t o f t h e i r s p e e d . F r o m t h e moment the Beaver s i g h t e d the J u l i a o f f T r i a l I s l a n d , the B e a v e r ( a l t h o u g h t h e o l d e s t s t e a m b o a t on t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t , a n d d r a w i n g t e n f e e t o f w a t e r and u n a b l e t o t a k e advantage o f the s h a l l o w s out o f the i n f l u e n c e o f the t i d e ) n e v e r a l l o w e d t h e J u l i a t o g a i n an i n c h on h e r , and a r r i v e d a t h e r d e s t i n a t i o n ( H o l b r o o k ' s W h a r f , New W e s t m i n s t e r ) 35 m i n u t e s b e f o r e t h e J u l i a . We u n d e r s t a n d t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e money c h a n g e d h a n d s on the occasion. H 2 S i m i l a r l y , i n 1867, t h e s t e a m e r s F i d e l i t e r a n d r a c e d f r o m P o r t Townsend t o V i c t o r i a , t h e F i d e l i t e r ing the t r i p  Diana complet-  i n t h r e e h o u r s and t h i r t y - e i g h t m i n u t e s x * i t h t h e  Diana o n l y seven minutes b e h i n d . * *  3  G e n e r a l l y , such competi-  t i o n s were a n a t u r a l o c c u r r e n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d , whenever two v e s s e l s h e l d t h e same d e s t i n a t i o n .  70 SWIMMING The  l a c k o f s u i t a b l e swimming a t t i r e ,  combined w i t h m i d -  V i c t o r i a n p r u r i e n c e , no d o u b t i n h i b i t e d t h e e n j o y m e n t o f a q u a t i c r e c r e a t i o n and c o m p e t i t i o n . Colonist  I n 1868, t h e B r i t i s h  remarked:  BATHING - We h a v e h e a r d c o m p l a i n t s , a l s o , i n r e g a r d go the h a b i t o f b a t h i n g , by both sexes a t unreasonable hours, i n o t h e r exposed p o r t i o n s o f t h e harbour, as w e l l as t h e gorge. We a r e p r e t t y s u r e a n e w s p a p e r n o t i c e w i l l s u f f i c e t o amend t h e o b j e c t i o n a b l e p r a c t i c e . 1 1 4  Y e t , b y 1 8 7 3 , t h e same p a p e r s t a t e d : It i s astonishing that a c i t y with the pretensions of V i c t o r i a c a n n o t a f f o r d some a c c o m o d a t i o n f o r b a t h e r s . A f e w p l a n k s n a i l e d t o g e t h e r a t some c o n v e n i e n t p l a c e i n t h e h a r b o u r would answer t h e p u r p o s e . B a t h i n g and p a r t i c u l a r l y swimming s h o u l d b e t a u g h t a n d e n c o u r a g e d . A s e a p o r t t o w n w h e r e y o u n g men a r e n o t e x p e r t swimmers i s an a n o m a l y . 1 1 5  However, t h i s s u p p o r t behaviour,  o f t h e a c t i v i t y d i d n o t c o n d o n e immodest  a s t h i s t e r s e r e m a r k i n t h e p a p e r o f 1876 i n d i c a t e s :  B o y s b a t h e i n t h e Arm o n Sunday i n f u l l v i e w o f b o a t i n g parties. B i r c h 'em. *' 11  Nevertheless,  t h e o c c a s i o n a l swimming c o n t e s t d i d o c c u r .  One s u c h e v e n t o c c u r r e d  i n 1 8 6 2 , when a F r e n c h m a n b e a t a K a n a k a  by t e n f e e t i n a r a c e o v e r t w o m i l e s a n d , i n a n o t h e r  event, the  same man was a b l e t o s t a y i n t h e w a t e r l o n g e r t h a n h i s o p p o n e n t  1 1  I n 1 8 6 9 , a m a t c h r a c e f o r t w e n t y d o l l a r s a s i d e was a n n o u n c e d b e t w e e n F r a n k C a m p b e l l a n d W i l l i a m D o l b y , t o come o f f a t t h e 118 Gorge i n V i c t o r i a .  By 1 8 7 5 , a swimming e v e n t was i n c l u d e d  a s p a r t o f t h e D o m i n i o n Day c e l e b r a t i o n s a t Nanaimo a n d was won i n t h a t y e a r b y James M c G r e g o r .  Swimming c o m p e t i t i o n s d i d n o t  1 1 9  become a r e g u l a r e v e n t i n V i c t o r i a u n t i l Queen's B i r t h d a y r e g a t t a o f 1 8 8 8 .  1 2 0  introduced into the  71 SUMMARY I n many c o a s t a l c o m m u n i t i e s , an i n t e r e s t s p o r t s d e v e l o p s a s a n o u t g r o w t h o f an e c o n o m i c the water.  S u c h was  i n aquatic dependency  not the case i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  A l t h o u g h p a s s e n g e r s and goods were a l l t r a n s p o r t e d w h i t e s o c i a l mix o f g e n t r y , personally  therefore  alien  interesting  by s e a , t h e  m e r c h a n t s , and m i n e r s was  involved with the water.  w a t e r v e s s e l s was  on  not  Thus, t h e h a n d l i n g  t o most o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n .  of  It is  t o note the powerful i n f l u e n c e of the  R o y a l N a v y , w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y e n t i c e d many members o f t h e c o m m u n i t y t o t a k e up a q u a t i c The  early naval  sports.  r e g a t t a s were a major s o c i a l event f o r  the Colony of Vancouver  Island.  Serving  the dual purpose  training  and e n t e r t a i n i n g t h e c r e w s o f t h e f l e e t , t h e s e  regattas  also provided  excitement f o r the c o l o n i a l s .  Navy d i d more t o i n f l u e n c e t h e c o m m u n i t y . o f t h e f l e e t were a l s o l e a d i n g c i t i z e n s did with  s o many o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y  provided  inspiration  largely  i n aquatic  through t h e i r endeavours  officers  and, as t h e y  s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , they  and o r g a n i z a t i o n t o a s s i s t t h e  t i o n of the c i v i l i a n population  But the  Many o f t h e  of V i c t o r i a  of  sports.  that a significant  participaI t was group  of  V i c t o r i a n s embraced t h e l a b o r i o u s and demanding s p o r t o f r o w i n g . Once i n i t i a t e d , t h i s r o w i n g f r a t e r n i t y was by t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e noted E a s t e r n crew which c r e a t e d Similarly, on t h e b e a u t i f u l  encouraged  C a n a d i a n s , s u c h as t h e  s o much e x c i t e m e n t w i t h  i n s a i l i n g , t h e n a v y was West C o a s t .  further  i t s triumph i n P a r i s .  the prominent  The r e g a t t a s  introduced  influence the  72 c i v i l i a n s t o the grace of the v e s s e l s and the  classes  of  the o f f i c e r s undoubtedly l e n t t h e i r e x p e r t i s e  community.  N a g l e , who  a l s o t h e p e r s o n who  N a n a i m o Queen's Cup  yachting  was  not  new  p r o s p e r i t y t o the  recognized  race  few  l a t e i n the  e s t a b l i s h e d i n the  was  f o r promoting  such rowing,  owned t h e y a c h t K e l p i e , w i n n e r o f  v e s s e l s w e r e e x p e n s i v e and until  to  I t i s p r o b a b l y a s a f e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t one  o f f i c e r , Captain was  s a i l s of various  o f 1862.  could  However,  a f f o r d them.  the  sailing  Thus, i t  1880s, a f t e r t h e r a i l w a y had  brought  r e g i o n , t h a t s a i l i n g became f i r m l y  region.  I n t e r e s t i n c a n o e i n g was  g e n e r a t e d by  the  Indians,  whose  c o l o u r f u l c a n o e s w e r e a welcome a d d i t i o n t o t h e  festivities  s u c h m a j o r c e l e b r a t i o n s a s t h e Queen's B i r t h d a y .  Most  regattas  h e l d i n New  included  Indian  whites.  e a r l y as  W e s t m i n s t e r and  canoe r a c e s , but  swimming was  c o a l m i n e s , t o o k up  being  competition  the vigorous  sport  the b e a u t i f u l c o a s t a l areas of B r i t i s h not  popular during  s o c i a l i n h i b i t i o n s of the  t o o was  little  this  of  occasion, for the  as  1862.  Despite  obstacle  had  V i c t o r i a on  However, t h e c i t i z e n s o f Nanaimo, accustomed t o  h a r d work i n t h e  the p e r i o d .  nineteenth  t o the development of the the water.  a  The  century  Columbia,  Undoubtedly,  the  were a major  s p o r t , but most l i k e l y ,  w a t e r s o f t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h West  n o t e d f o r t h e i r w a r m t h , e v e n i n summer.  so not  73  Table I I Aquatic Sports Canoeing  Sailing  Swimming  59-RN R e g a t t a 1860  6 1 - N.W.  62-Nanaimo Q.B. f i r s t formal event f o r w h i t e s - Q.B. a t V i c . & N.W. ' Indian events 3  93  95 62- Nanaimo Queen *s Cup  62-Frenchman  117  5  65-N.W. Q.B. "TO",000 I n d i a n s  6  1870  76-Dufferin  1  Q.B.  9 1  69-$20 m a t c h 118  72-Lachapelle 99 b u i l d s 16' y a w l v i s i t 10  75-Nanaimo 119 D o m i n i o n Day 7 9 - S c u d 100  1880  87- V a n c o u v e r first regatta - Burrard Club 88- V i c t o r i a Q.B. - Roycroft C u p  90s-regularized sport as division of rowing clubs  1 0 8  8 8 - V i c t o r i a Q.B. 1 0 5  .  109  89- f i r s t V a n , v s V i c . 92-Victoria Clubl°7  Yacht  1903-Vancouver Y a c h t ClubHO 06-Royal Van. Y . C . 0 8 - R o y a l V i c . Y.C.  1 1 0  120  74 Table I I Aquatic Sports  (Continued)  ROWING 59-RN R e g a t t a s - f i r s t news report-!1860  - F i r s t c i t y regatta  4  Victoria ^ 2  r e g a t t a 16  60- U.S. b o a t s a t V i c t o r i a  23 61- C o l l e g i a t e S c h o o l r a c e 62-'Grand R e g a t t a * a t V i c t o r i a - s a i l i n g , r o w i n g , 64- C o y l e * s  gig  3 7  3 5  65- V a n c o u v e r  (Victoria)  Rowing C l u b  formed  67-Q.B. R e g a t t a a t V i c t o r i a d r a w s 300 69- Tub  race a t V i c t o r i a  -New W e s t m i n s t e r  club  Americans  regatta formed *" 5  1870 70- 5,000 s p e c t a t o r s w a t c h 10 s h i p s o f R N -New W e s t m i n s t e r  vs. Burrard  5 7  . 53 72-Chmese race a t V i c t o r i a 75- D u f f e r i n p r o v i d e s m e d a l s f o r V R C 76- H a s t i n g s M i l l s  Regatta  6 4  74 -Cotsford wins  $500  7 8 - M i c h a e l Law p r o m i n e n t  to 1885 67  - P o r t Moody c l u b - C o t s f o r d wins  formed  i n Seattle  75  8 0  6 3  2 0  4 3  canoeing  75 Table Aquatic Sports ROWING  II (Continued)  (continued)  79-Cotsford -Paine -New  l o s e s i n San  c h a m p i o n o f B.C.  Francisco to  1888  7 7  8 3  W e s t m i n s t e r ' s A n n i e F r a s e r d o m i n a n t 68  1880 82- James Bay 83- S l i d i n g 84- H a n l a n  Athletic Association formed  seats exhibition  7 9  86-Vancouver Rowing C l u b  formed  9 0 - V a n c o u v e r and B u r r a r d m e r g e 86 -VRC  defeats Seattle  7 1  6 9  76 CHAPTER V I BASEBALL B a s e b a l l , o r r o u n d e r s , was p r e d o m i n a n t l y  a children's  game, p l a y e d b y t h e w e s t c o a s t s e t t l e r s a s a p a s t i m e the e a r l y 1850s.  With  the i n f l u x of the mining  during  community,  i n t e r e s t i n t h e game r o s e s o t h a t b y 1 8 6 2 , i t was i n c l u d e d a s p a r t o f t h e Queen's B i r t h d a y f e s t i v i t i e s a t New In  Westminster.  t h e f o l l o w i n g year, i n t e r e s t i n V i c t o r i a caused t h e B r i t i s h  Colonist to write: BASE B A L L - The f i r s t m a t c h o f t h e s e a s o n o f t h i s game, was p l a y e d o n B e a c o n H i l l o n S a t u r d a y l a s t , c h i e f l y by Canadians. I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y an American game, b u t was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o C a n a d a , a n d h a s b e e n practiced there i n various parts of the country f o r many y e a r s . I t i s somewhat a l l i e d i n i t s n a t u r e t o C r i c k e t , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n t h a t t h e r e a r e no w i c k e t s u s e d , and i n s t e a d o f t h e b a l l b e i n g thrown on t h e g r o u n d , i t i s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s t h e b a t t e r , who s t r i k e s i t i n the a i r . The r u n s a r e made b y t h e p e r s o n s t r i k ing t h e b a l l and r u n n i n g round a c i r c l e , t h e r e b e i n g s e v e r a l stopping p l a c e s , each o f which counts. If t h e b a t t e r s t r i k e s a t t h e b a l l a n d m i s s e s i t , he i s ' o u t ' , b u t h e may l e t t h e b a l l p a s s h i m a s o f t e n a s he p l e a s e s w i t h o u t s t r i k i n g a t i t . Among t h o s e p r a c t i c i n g on S a t u r d a y , t h e r e were v e r y few a d e p t s , and c o n s e q u e n t l y n o t s o much i n t e r e s t e x c i t e d among s p e c t a t o r s as would o t h e r w i s e have been t h e c a s e . To t h o s e e n g a g e d i n t h e game t h e r e i s a l w a y s s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r e s t k e p t up t o k e e p t h e m v i g i l a n t t o g e t a n opponent out. No d o u b t t h e r e w i l l be many t r i a l s a t t h i s new s p o r t h e r e o n f u t u r e o c c a s i o n s . 2  A week l a t e r , and  two teams h a d b e e n o r g a n i z e d , t h e F a s h i o n  R o e b u c k s , who p l a y e d t o a 33-39 s c o r e i n f a v o u r o f t h e  latter.  The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t r e p o r t e d :  The f i r s t m a t c h o f t h e s e a s o n f t h e p r e v i o u s r e p o r t was o f a p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n } o f t h i s p o p u l a r A m e r i c a n game came o f f y e s t e r d a y a t n o o n o n B e a c o n H i l l . The p l a y e r s were a t b e s t r a t h e r ' r u s t y ' , b u t t h e work i m p r o v e d d u r i n g t h e game o w i n g t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a f f o r d e d t o t h e l e s s s k i l l f u l by Mr. J.C. Keenan.  77 B a s e b a l l i s n o t an o r i g i n a l A m e r i c a n game, b e i n g o n l y a s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n from the o l d E n g l i s h rounders .3 1  1  During the e a r l y years of the s p o r t , b a s e b a l l p l a y e r s o f t e n had  c r i c k e t e r s as opponents.  games, t h e F a s h i o n c l u b won  I n one  of the f i r s t  a keg o f l a g e r b e e r by d e f e a t i n g  t h e " V i c t o r i a C r i c k e t e e r s " by a s c o r e o f 4 2 - 2 3 .  4  However, t h e  c r i c k e t e r s q u i c k l y c a u g h t on t o t h e game, a few d a y s d e f e a t i n g a group of b a s e b a l l p l a y e r s 40-34 w i n most o f t h e c o n t e s t s o f t h e e n s u i n g The  and p r o c e e d i n g  Gillon T.  (president);  Mr.  1866.  The  E. McQuade  F o w l e r , J . D a v i e s , and  M e m b e r s h i p was  R.H.  formed i n V i c t o r i a ,  executive consisted of (secretary-treasurer); Adams, J r .  (directors).  l i m i t e d t o t h i r t y , w i t h t w e n t y - f o u r members  signed at the time. A s s o c i a t i o n o f New  The  r u l e s o f t h e N a t i o n a l Base  York were a d o p t e d ,  beaten  formed, t h e y were 7 by t h e V i c t o r i a C r i c k e t C l u b and, i n a l a t e r p  c o n t e s t , w e r e d e f e a t e d by t h i r t y r u n s . f o r m a t i o n o f a second Club, the Olympics  However, w i t h t h e  team i n V i c t o r i a , t h e C i t y Base  Ball  w e r e a b l e t o s c o r e an e a s y v i c t o r y t h a t y e a r .  an e f f o r t t o i m p r o v e t h e q u a l i t y o f p l a y , t h e  b e g a n p r a c t i c i n g on S a t u r d a y Much i m p r o v e m e n t may t e a m was  the  A month a f t e r t h e c l u b was  29-17  In  Ball  but the increased  6  o r g a n i z a t i o n d i d not appear t o enhance t h e prowess o f players.  to  s p o r t became a l i t t l e more s y s t e m a t i c i n B r i t i s h  on Wednesday, S e p t e m b e r 12,  Messrs.  5  later  years.  C o l u m b i a when t h e O l y m p i c B a s e B a l l C l u b was  Mr.  such  'Olympics  afternoons i n the s p r i n g of  n o t have been e v i d e n t t h a t y e a r as  a g a i n e a s i l y d e f e a t e d by t h e c r i c k e t e r s i n t h e  1867.  1 0  the fall. -'1  1  78 However, d u r i n g t h e n e x t  few y e a r s , t h e t e a m was  i t s games a g a i n s t o t h e r b a s e b a l l t e a m s . 81 r u n s  t o 45  I n 1869,  r e c e n t l y t a k e n up  P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e game w e r e :  O l y m p i c s - A.F.  S.  Dorman, J o s h u a D a v i e s , F r e d M o r r i s o n , and W.G.  U m p i r e - E.V.  B u s t o w , E. N a g l e , W.  Pearse, J . Tolmie, Thome;  D.  Morrison;  McAdair,  D a v i e s , and B u e i l and  A r o u n d t h i s t i m e , A m e r i c a n i n f l u e n c e was  the  Lombard,  Tolmie,  S c o r e r s - W.B.  scored  Keyser,  L o w e n b e r g , J o s e p h D a v i e s , E.A.  C o l l e g i a t e s - H.  McQuade, C.  win  the s p o r t .  R.  C.  they  ( a l s o r e p o r t e d a s 81 t o 3 4 ) , t o d e f e a t  C o l l e g i a t e S c h o o l , w h i c h had  A. W r i g h t ,  able to  R.  Johns;  George Cohen. *  particularly  s t r o n g t o p r o m o t e t h e game.  The  had met  o ' c l o c k on a Wednesday, i n t h e  f o r a p r a c t i c e a t two  spring of 1 8 6 7  1 3  and,  Anglo-American B a s e b a l l  a t l e a s t as e a r l y as t h a t y e a r ,  y o u t h were engaged i n c o m p e t i t i v e p l a y . i n the B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n of  'rounders',  An saw  Club  Victoria's  i n t e r s c h o o l match, the boys of  the  C o l l e g i a t e S c h o o l d e f e a t S t . L o u i s C o l l e g e by e i g h t r u n s , w i t h one  i n n i n g t o space,  on B e a c o n H i l l .  1  4  Later that year,  the  B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t c a r r i e d the f o l l o w i n g remark, emphasizing i n f l u e n c e o f t h e m i n e r s and m e r c h a n t s f r o m s o u t h o f t h e  the  border.  An e n t h u s i a s t i c b a s e b a l l p l a y e r d e c l a r e s t h a t o u r ' n a t i o n a l game' Q?] was known i n B i b l e t i m e s ; in p r o o f o f w h i c h he r e f e r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n i n t h e p a r a b l e o f t h e l e p e r - 'But w h e r e a r e t h e n i n e ' ? 1 5  In the f o l l o w i n g year, the V i c t o r i a Club  ( p r o b a b l y a com-  b i n e d team) d e f e a t e d members o f t h e c r e w f r o m t h e U.S. Pensacola.  1 6  T h e n , i n 1869,  frigate  a few w e e k s a f t e r i t s v i c t o r y  over the C o l l e g i a t e School, the Olympics played a  visiting  A m e r i c a n team as p a r t o f t h e Queen's B i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s a t  79 Beacon H i l l .  The V i c t o r i a O l y m p i c s , " w e a r i n g w h i t e f l a n n e l  s h i r t s and p a n t s and w h i t e c a p s , w i t h b l u e initial  letter  'O' o n t h e b r e a s t " ,  1 7  t r i m m i n g s , and t h e  were d e f e a t e d  by a  score  o f 4 5 - 2 3 , b y t h e R a i n i e r C l u b o f O l y m p i a , W a s h i n g t o n , who wore w h i t e s h i r t s and dark  pants.  18  A new c l u b , t h e D o m i n i o n , was f o r m e d i n 1869 its  f i r s t game i n m i d - J u l y ,  i t was d e f e a t e d  and, i n  71-40, by t h e  19 Olympics.  Two o t h e r  c l u b s appeared i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g ,  the J u v e n i l e s d e f e a t i n g t h e Union Club, in  97-51  21 t h e f a l l , o n t h e P r i n c e o f W a l e s ' Day.  Club had a l s o been formed, b e a t i n g  and p l a y i n g  again  By 1 8 7 2 , t h e S t a r  t h e U n i o n C l u b on a F r i d a y  22 afternoon had  a t t h e end o f March.  apparently  Meanwhile, t h e Dominion Club  become a p r o m i n e n t b a s e b a l l t e a m i n B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , l o s i n g by o n l y one r u n t o t h e t o u r i n g San F r a n c i s c o Eagles, expense.  who w e r e t h e n t r e a t e d t o a d i n n e r 23  a t t h e Dominions'  T h a t summer, t h e E a g l e s M r . F r a s e r h e l p e d  refine  l o c a l p l a y by p r o v i d i n g t h e Olympic C l u b w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e new r u l e s .  However, s u c h h e l p does n o t appear t o have  r u b b e d o f f o n t h e V i c t o r i a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t e a m , who w e r e defeated  58-28, by t h e O l y m p i a C l u b o f W a s h i n g t o n , as p a r t o f ? 5  the American f o u r t h o f J u l y c e l e b r a t i o n s . In a return c o n t e s t , a s i m i l a r s c o r e o f 57-32 was p r o d u c e d i n a game 26 played a t V i c t o r i a . By 1 8 7 3 , c l u b p r a c t i c e s w e r e b e i n g h e l d e v e r y e v e n i n g i n 27 V i c t o r i a , a t the corner  o f Y a t e s and Quadra S t r e e t s .  edly, these regular p r a c t i c e sessions for  Undoubt-  enhanced t h e o p p o r t u n i t y  p a r t i c i p a t i o n s o t h a t w i t h i n a few y e a r s ,  a t l e a s t t w o new  80 c l u b s were formed.  I n 1877,  the Independent Base B a l l  Club  28 was  announced  t h e M a p l e L e a f C l u b was a l s o f o r m e d , 29 l a t t e r d e f e a t i n g t h e V i c t o r i a C l u b , 56-43. Two y e a r s  these  and  t h r e e teams were c o m p e t i n g  'round-robin'  style,  the later,  each 30  team w i n n i n g In  1882,  one  31  o f a s e r i e s o f w e e k l y games i n A p r i l .  t h e I n d e p e n d e n t s and  re-named M a y f l o w e r s w e r e  32  '  '  still 3 3  competing but  ( w i t h a s c o r e o f 14-13  the V i c t o r i a Club  i n favour of the former),  J  a p p e a r s t o h a v e become more c o n c e r n e d  with i n t e r - c i t y play. The  c o n t i n u i n g c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s saw  S e a t t l e Club  journey  t o V i c t o r i a a s p a r t o f t h e Queen's  B i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s o f 1877. on t h e game, i n w h i c h V i c t o r i a 35 was  arranged  in Seattle.  R i f l e V o l u n t e e r s , who  Considerable lost, 15-7,  was  able to represent  3 4  b e t t i n g was but  made  a r e t u r n match  Thus, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the  were a l s o t r a v e l l i n g t o S e a t t l e t o  part i n the J u l y 4 c e l e b r a t i o n s , the C i t y f o r a second d e f e a t .  the  Club  journeyed  However, i n t h e n e x t y e a r ,  city's  take south  Victoria  itself better.  U n d e r t h e t e a m name, A m i t y , t h e V i c t o r i a C l u b p l a y e d v i s i t i n g S e a t t l e A l k i Club  t o a 27 a l l draw  37  and  3 p  later,  the during  t h e S e a t t l e c e l e b r a t i o n s , was a b l e t o w i n 2 6 - 1 9 . ° In l a t e r c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h S e a t t l e , V i c t o r i a was n o t a b l e t o do a s w e l l , 39 l o s i n g i n t h a t c i t y i n 1882 and t h e n , b e i n g b e a t e n by t h e S e a t t l e U n i v e r s i t y N i n e , 2 7 - 2 4 , i n t h e Queen's B i r t h d a y 40 C e l e b r a t i o n s o f 1883. I n t h e n e x t two y e a r s , t h e A m i t y c h o s e o t h e r A m e r i c a n c o m p e t i t i o n , d e f e a t i n g t h e P u g e t Sound B a s e b a l l C l u b o f P o r t Townsend, 1 7 - 1 6 , 16-12.  42  I t was  4 1  and  the P o r t l a n d  not u n t i l the m i d - e i g h t i e s , t h a t the  Club,  Victoria  81 C l u b was  able to f i n d reasonable  w i t h i n the  competition with other  teams  province.  E l s e w h e r e on t h e I s l a n d , t h e t o w n o f W e l l i n g t o n h a d c l u b s i n 1875;  the B i r d c a t c h e r Club  ( p o s s i b l y named a f t e r  l o c a l r a c e h o r s e ) , w i t h J . B r e n n a n as c a p t a i n , and s t e p C l u b , c a p t a i n e d by J . B e l l . the W e l l i n g t o n Quicksteps 44 16 t o 9, taken  a Nanaimo c l u b by  b u t no o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t  Quick-  competitions  a score  of  seem t o h a v e  place. M e a n w h i l e , i n New  1872. in  the  a  In the f o l l o w i n g year,  4 3  defeated  two  The  their  W e s t m i n s t e r , two  K i - h i e s defeated  f i r s t meeting;  4 5  t h e New  then  c l u b s competed i n e a r l y  Westminster Club,  l o s t by  23 r u n s a week  81-40, later;  4 6  and  by t h e f o l l o w i n g month w e r e r e l a t i v e l y e v e n , K i - h i e s s c o r -  ing  22 t o New  Westminster's 1 9 .  T h e n , i n 1876,  4 7  the  Royal  C i t y B a s e B a l l C l u b was f o r m e d t o p l a y a g a i n s t t h e men o f t h e 48 army camp, b u t no r e g u l a r c o m p e t i t i o n seems t o h a v e come o f it.  The  b o y s o f t h e New  A r i t a Club,  i n 1 8 8 3 , " and  Westminster p u b l i c s c h o o l formed l a t e r t h a t y e a r , the town g a i n e d  more s t a b l e b a s e b a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h t h e f o r m a t i o n o f Alpha  Club.  The  ( p r e s i d e n t ) , D.S. W.J.  C o r b e t t , W.A.  m e m b e r s h i p was  l i s t e d as:  Peter  C u r t i s ( v i c e - p r e s i d e n t ) , T.R. G r e a v e s , O.  the a  the  Grant  Pearson (secretary  W i l k i e , C h r i s . Maker, W i l l i a m Codd,  50 and  Robert Wintements.  beaten,  in its first  game, t h e c l u b 51  was  4 5 - 2 7 , by t h e A m i t y i n V i c t o r i a .  B a s e b a l l h a d become p o p u l a r o f t h a t y e a r , a t l e a s t two Knickerbocker  i n Kamloops by  c l u b s had  1885.  In  May  been formed, w i t h the 52 C l u b d e f e a t i n g t h e Kamloops B l u e s . American  82 r a i l w a y w o r k e r s w e r e l e a d i n g p r o m o t e r s o f t h e game i n t h e I n t e r i o r , comprising  a l a r g e p a r t o f t h e i n l a n d teams.  i n 1 8 8 4 , t h e t o w n o f K a m l o o p s was h o s t t o t h e f i r s t represented  tournament i n t h e p r o v i n c e ,  Thus,  well-  i n v o l v i n g teams f r o m 53  V i c t o r i a , V a n c o u v e r , New W e s t m i n s t e r , D o n a l d , a n d K a m l o o p s . By  t h i s time,  t h e V i c t o r i a A m i t y h a d become p r o f e s s i o n a l  and  were p l a y i n g r e g u l a r c h a l l e n g e  and  B r i t i s h Columbia teams.  matches w i t h U n i t e d  States  I n 1889, Vancouver a l s o formed a  p r o f e s s i o n a l team, e n t i c i n g t o p p l a y e r s from E a s t e r n  Canada  54  with offers of w e l l paid jobs.  This promotion o f the pro-  f e s s i o n a l game r a i s e d t h e i r e o f t h e e d i t o r o f t h e D a i l y C o l o n i s t , who c h a s t i s e d t h a t , In almost every c i t y o f t h e east, t h e p u b l i c take s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r e s t i n amateur b a s e b a l l t o o f f e r p e n n a n t s o r t r o p h i e s f o r s e a s o n c o m p e t i t i o n among local clubs. Why d o n ' t t h e y h e r e ? I t i s not too l a t e y e t . 5 5  SUMMARY D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n , V i c t o r i a was t h e c e n t r e of b a s e b a l l i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  O t h e r s m a l l e r towns had  a t t e m p t e d t o f o r m c l u b s , b u t none o f t h e s e p r o s p e r e d t o r e g u l a r competition. played  Within V i c t o r i a ,  i t appears t h a t v a r i o u s  clubs  from time t o time throughout t h e p e r i o d , b u t t h e q u a n t i t y  o f g o o d c a l i b r e p l a y e r s was l i m i t e d .  Thus, c i t y  teams, formed f o r s p e c i a l c o m p e t i t i o n  during  representative  such events as t h e  Queen's B i r t h d a y o r f o u r t h o f J u l y , w e r e u n d o u b t e d l y of the best  local talent.  composites  These p l a y e r s performed on b e h a l f  of t h e V i c t o r i a Base B a l l Club,  under t h e e a r l y nickname o f  83  O l y m p i c s and l a t e r , t h e ' A m i t y ' .  The p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e  group combined w i t h t h e r i v a l r y between V i c t o r i a cities,  and  'Amity'  American  eventually l e d the players t o turn p r o f e s s i o n a l , j o i n -  i n g many o f t h e c l u b s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a w h i c h s i m i l a r l y , to c a p i t a l i z e  on t h e i r  talent.  strove  84 Table I I I Baseball 1850's - ' r o u n d e r s ' p l a y e d as a p a s t i m e 62- New W e s t m i n s t e r Queen's  Birthday  1  63- V i c t o r i a F a s h i o n (33) - R o e b u c k s ( 3 9 )  3  66- O l y m p i c B a s e B a l l C l u b f o r m e d w i t h N.Y.B.B.C. r u l e s O l y m p i c s (17) - V i c t o r i a C r i c k e t C l u b ( 2 9 ) O l y m p i c s l o s e t o V.C.C. b y 30 r u n s C i t y Base B a l l C l u b formed and l o s e s t o O l y m p i c s 7  8  9  67- S t . L o u i s C o l l e g e l o s e s t o C o l l e g i a t e S c h o o l b y 8 r u n s Anglo-American Base B a l l Club p r a c t i c i n g ^ 1  68- V i c t o r i a C l u b  (71) - U.S.A.  'Pensacola'  (46)  1 6  69- O l y m p i c C l u b (81) - C o l l e g i a t e S c h o o l (45) ( 3 4 ? ) O l y m p i c s (23) - R a i n i e r C l u b , W a s h i n g t o n (45) O l y m p i c s (71) - New D o m i n i o n C l u b ( 4 0 ) 1 7  1 9  70-Juveniles  (97) - U n i o n C l u b  (51)  2 0  7 2 - U n i o n C l u b d e f e a t e d b y New S t a r C l u b 2 2 D o m i n i o n C l u b l o s e s t o S.F. E a g l e s b y one r u n V i c t o r i a t e a m (28) a t O l y m p i a , W a s h i n g t o n ( 5 8 ) 2 5 V i c t o r i a (32) - O l y m p i a (57) i n r e t u r n m a t c h 2 6 2 3  K i - h i e s (81) - New W e s t m i n s t e r ( 4 0 ) K i - h i e s l o s e b y 23 t o New W e s t m i n s t e r K i - h i e s (22) - New W e s t m i n s t e r ( 1 9 ) 4 7 4 5  75- B i r d c a t c h e r  4 6  and Q u i c k s t e p s i n W e l l i n g t o n  4 3  76- Q u i c k s t e p s (16) - N a n a i m o ( 9 ) R o y a l C i t y C l u b f o r m e d i n New W e s t m i n s t e r 4 4  77- I n d e p e n d e n t C l u b f o r m e d M a p l e L e a f s (56) - V i c t o r i a C l u b ( 4 3 ) S e a t t l e C l u b (15) a t V i c t o r i a ( 7 ) 3 4 V i c t o r i a loses i n S e a t t l e 2 8  2 9  3 5  78- V i c t o r i a A m i t y - V i c t o r i a Amity  (27) - S e a t t l e A l k i (26) - S e a t t l e A l k i  (27) (19)  79- I n d e p e n d e n t s (19) - V i c t o r i a C l u b ( 1 6 ) M a p l e L e a f s (33) - I n d e p e n d e n t s (16) V i c t o r i a C l u b (31) - M a p l e L e a f s ( 2 1 ) 3 1  3 2  3 0  3 7 3 8  4 8  1 2  1 4  85 T a b l e TV  (Continued)  Baseball 1882 - I n d e p e n d e n t s (14) - M a y f l o w e r s V i c t o r i a loses i n S e a t t l e  (13)  3 3  3 4  8 3 - S e a t t l e U n i v e r s i t y N i n e (27) - V i c t o r i a ( 2 4 ) A r i t a C l u b f o r m e d by New W e s t m i n s t e r s c h o o l b o y s A l p h a C l u b f o r m e d i n New W e s t m i n s t e r A l p h a (27) a t V i c t o r i a A m i t y (45) 4 0  4 9  5 0  5 1  84- V i c t o r i a A m i t y  (17) - P u g e t S o u n d , P o r t T o w n s e n d , (16)  85- V i c t o r i a A m i t y Knickerbockers  (16) - P o r t l a n d (12) (19) - K a m l o o p s B l u e s  88-Kamloops T o u r n a m e n t  5 3  4 2  (ll)  5  2  86 CHAPTER V I I CRICKET C r i c k e t was a p p a r e n t l y f i r s t  introduced t o the P a c i f i c  N o r t h West i n 1 8 4 9 , when C a p t a i n W. C o l q u h o n G r a n t Fort Victoria  front E n g l a n d .  arrived at  He b r o u g h t w i t h h i m a f u l l s e t  o f equipment and o f f e r e d h i s s e r v i c e s as teacher.^"  A few y e a r s  l a t e r , t h e V i c t o r i a P i o n e e r C r i c k e t C l u b was f o r m e d , b e c o m i n g the f i r s t  sports organization i n the region.  Competitions  b e t w e e n t h e R o y a l Navy a n d t h e c o l o n i s t s w e r e common, t h e e a r l i e s t newspaper r e f e r e n c e b e i n g  i n 1 8 5 8 , when t h e V i c t o r i a  Gazette r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e V i c t o r i a Club and vanquished t h e 3 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f H.B.M. S a t e l l i t e , b y a s c o r e o f 86-56. I n a r e t u r n m a t c h , V i c t o r i a won a g a i n , 1 0 7 - 1 0 1 , a n d was t o arrange  matches w i t h another  o f H.B.M. v e s s e l s , t h e P l u m p e r .  4  S i m i l a r l y , t h e next year, the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t reported: A r e t u r n match between t h e F l e e t and V i c t o r i a P i o n e e r C r i c k e t C l u b s was p l a y e d a t C o l w o o d yesterday. I t resulted i n favour o f t h e VPC C l u b , w i t h 17 r u n s a n d o n e i n n i n g s t o s p a r e . Over t h e y e a r s , t h e f l e e t d i d n o t do w e l l a g a i n s t t h e townsfolk.  I n 1860, t h e o f f i c e r s  by t h e V i c t o r i a season,  from E s q u i m a l t were b e a t e n  C r i c k e t Club w i t h ease.  6  During  t h e next  t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t p r i n t e d a d e t a i l e d s c o r e c a r d on  t h e f r o n t page t o announce t h e town's 97-51 v i c t o r y o v e r t h e Navy.  7  I n 1 8 6 3 , t h e b a n d o f H.M.S. T o p a z e p r o v i d e d m u s i c  w h i l e t h e s h i p ' s team p l a y e d a V i c t o r i a Messrs. Wakeman;  W.A.G. Y o u n g ; Kulpej  Wallace;  Richardon;  eleven consisting o f  Captain Luard;  Good;  Penfold;  R.E. E d w a r d s ; and T i g h e .  8  In  87 a r e t u r n m a t c h V i c t o r i a b e a t t h e T o p a z e b y 72 r u n s a s p a r t o f a c o m p e t i t i o n w h i c h a l s o i n v o l v e d teams f r o m H.M.S. S u t l e j and  New W e s t m i n s t e r .  However, r e s u l t s o f t h e s e matches were  not p r i n t e d i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t as t h e paper e x p l a i n e d , "We r e g r e t t h a t o w i n g t o t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e m a i l s t e a m e r we  AC AQ  O  have n o t space f o r t h e s c o r e s " .  (see a l s o  *  D  r * ° )  Other matches between V i c t o r i a and t h e f l e e t d u r i n g t h e 1860s i n c l u d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1863 - V i c t o r i a won w i t h t h e h e l p o f o u t s t a n d i n g such as H a w l e t t , Hemsley, and Y a r d s l e y . 1866 - F l e e t (102) - V i c t o r i a Colwood.  players  1 0  (101) o n P e a t t ' s g r o u n d a t  T h e c i t y c l u b t r a v e l l e d t o t h e game b y o m n i b u s . 12  1867 - V i c t o r i a won t h e f i r s t m a t c h b y s e v e n r e t u r n m a t c h , t h e f l e e t won.  1 1  but i n a  T h e b a n d f r o m H.M.S. M a l a c c a 1 3  and  several 'fair  l a d i e s ' were i n a t t e n d a n c e .  match, the:' f l e e t a g a i n  won.  1 4  1868 - V i c t o r i a n s won t w o games, 111-108 The f l e e t n o t o n l y p l a y e d c o m p e t e d amongst i t s e l f .  In a third  ° a n d 103-59.  against the townsfolk, but  The a r r i v a l o f new s h i p s i n p o r t  would e v e n t u a l l y l e a d t o a match, o r sometimes a s h i p ' s o f f i c e r s would p l a y a g a i n s t i t s o r d i n a r y hands, as i n t h e f i r s t m a t c h o f t h e 1867 s e a s o n a t V i c t o r i a , when t h e o f f i c e r s 1 7  o f H.M.S. M a l a c c a p l a y e d  a g a i n s t t h e s h i p ' s company. ' A  The  Navy made a f u r t h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o c r i c k e t i n t h e a r e a when, in  1871, i t l e v e l l e d and d r a i n e d  l a n d owned b y t h e P u g e t 18  Sound Company, a n d p r e p a r e d t h e g r o u n d f o r p l a y . Once a g a i n , f o l l o w i n g t h e i n i t i a t i v e a n d e n t h u s i a s m o f t h e Navy, t h e c o l o n i s t s o f V i c t o r i a d e v e l o p e d a keen i n t e r e s t  88 in cricket.  I n 1 8 5 9 , "some r a r e s p o r t "  1 9  was a n t i c i p a t e d i n  a f r i e n d l y i n t r a - c l u b match a n d , by 1861, s p e c t a t o r and  interest  o r g a n i z a t i o n was s u f f i c i e n t t o n e c e s s i t a t e t h e s e r v i n g o f 20  refreshments  a t t h e c r i c k e t grounds.  I n t h e f a l l o f 1862,  a g r o u p o f new a r r i v a l s b o l s t e r e d t h e r a n k s o f t h e V i c t o r i a Club.  I n a s e r i e s o f Saturday  a f t e r n o o n m a t c h e s , t h e newcomers,  t h o s e who h a d b e e n i n V i c t o r i a l e s s t h a n t h r e e  months,  defeated the V i c t o r i a Club w i t h scores o f 119-118, and  132-130.  2 1  161-155,  2 2  2 3  Weekly matches c o n t i n u e d throughout  October t h a t year,  w i t h n o v e l e f f o r t s t o c r e a t e d i f f e r e n t , teams.  One method  saw teams made up a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a l p h a b e t  a n d , i n t h a t game, 24 t h e l a s t h a l f o f t h e a l p h a b e t won, 1 5 4 - 1 5 2 . Similarly, r e c e n t e m m i g r a n t s who h a d a r r i v e d o n b o a r d t h e Tynemouth w e r e 25 e a s i l y b e a t e n by a V i c t o r i a e l e v e n . A week l a t e r , a ' s c r u b m a t c h ' was p l a y e d ° a n d , o n t h e f o l l o w i n g w e e k e n d , 'England' 27 d e f e a t e d t h e ' C o l o n i e s ' by a s c o r e o f 95-89.  A particularly  n o v e l m a t c h was a c h a l l e n g e i n w h i c h J . H . Howard o f f e r e d one thousand d o l l a r s  f o r c o m p e t i t i o n between h i m s e l f  (with the  a s s i s t a n c e o f two f i e l d e r s , a b a t , and e l e v e n w i c k e t s ) and 28 C a p t a i n L a y t o n ' s E l e v e n , who w e r e t o u s e o n l y b r o o m s t i c k s . The c h a l l e n g e was a c c e p t e d a week l a t e r , b u t t h e s t a k e s w e r e 29 reduced  t o s i m p l y a champagne  supper.  The a c t i v i t y o f l a t e 1862 c a u s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e o f a busy season i n t h e next y e a r .  anticipation  P r o m o t e r s o f t h e game l o o k e d  f o r w a r d t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a r e g u l a r team t o r e p l a c e t h e haphazard r o s t e r o f previous seasons. C o l o n i s t w r o t e i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1863:  Thus, t h e B r i t i s h  89 The f i r s t c r i c k e t m a t c h o f t h e s e a s o n w i l l be p l a y e d tomorrow a t Beacon H i l l . Lovers of t h i s our d i s t i n c t i v e n a t i o n a l sport are requested to attend as, a f t e r t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e game, a m e e t i n g w i t h a v i e w t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a p e r m a n e n t C r i c k e t C l u b w i l l be h e l d upon t h e g r o u n d . D e t a i l s w i l l a f t e r w a r d s be d i s c u s s e d a t t h e J o h n B u l l H o t e l , Government S t r e e t . 3 0  A week l a t e r , a s e c o n d m a t c h was and  new  residents.  A Mr.  p l a y e d between the o l d  W a l l a c e was  a particularly  s t a n d i n g batsman f o r the o l d s t e r s and,  along with  p r o m i n e n t members ( F . H a w l e t t , C. W e a v e r , and A. s c o r e d 218  r u n s t o 105  a g a i n s t t h e n e w c o m e r s , who  out-  other Hansley), w e r e l e d by  31 J . Arnoup.  In the next match, the c l u b s e x p e c t a t i o n s of  f o r m i n g a p e r m a n e n t t e a m w e r e p r o v e n p r e m a t u r e when an  insuff-  i c i e n t number o f p l a y e r s t u r n e d up t o p l a y b e f o r e t h e l a r g e c r o w d g a t h e r e d on B e a c o n H i l l . The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t r e m a r k e d , We a r e s u r p r i s e d t h a t a g r e a t e r number o f t h e y o u n g men o f t h e c i t y do n o t j o i n i n t h i s m a n l y and n o b l e recreation. We a r e s o r r y t o s e e t h a t t h e f u l l number r e q u i r e d on e a c h s i d e c o u l d n o t be m u s t e r e d on t h e ground. 3 2  The  e x p l a n a t i o n of the incongruence  in  the f a l l  in  the occupations  were m i n e r s ,  o f 1862  and  between the  t h a t o f t h e s p r i n g o f 1863  o f t h o s e new  arrivals.  w i n t e r i n g i n V i c t o r i a , but  fields i n early spring.  activity  probably  lies  Most l i k e l y  they  l e a v i n g f o r the  gold  I n l a t e O c t o b e r o f 1863,  a  challenge 33  was  accepted  t o match C a r i b o o vs n o n - C a r i b o o p l a y e r s .  "hardy miners" By  won  easily,  83-80,  w i t h 10 w i c k e t s t o  t h e f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g , i n 1864,  V i c t o r i a was  m u s t e r a more r e g u l a r team u n d e r t h e o f f i c i a l (United) V i c t o r i a its  Cricket Club.  3 5  title  The spare.  able of  That f a l l , V i c t o r i a  3 4  to  the sent  team t o p l a y a g a i n s t t h e Nanaimo C l u b , a g e n e r a l h o l i d a y  b e i n g g i v e n f o r the o c c a s i o n t o a l l the employees o f the c o a l  90 companies  i n t h a t town.-  V i c t o r i a won t h a t game 1 3 7 - 1 3 5 .  30  When t h e C a r i b o o i t e s r e t u r n e d t o V i c t o r i a f o r t h e w i n t e r , t h e y undoubtedly found a s t r o n g e r match, b u t s t i l l were a b l e to  beat V i c t o r i a , Meanwhile,  1860.  64-63.  3 8  New W e s t m i n s t e r h a d h a d a c r i c k e t c l u b  since  The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t a n n o u n c e d i t s f o r m a t i o n i n A p r i l :  CRICKET CLUB - We h e a r f r o m W. J e f f r a y , E s q . , o f J e f f r a y and Co's E x p r e s s , t h a t t h e W e s t m i n s t e r f o l k have e s t a b l i s h e d a C r i c k e t C l u b . The C r i c k e t g r o u n d i s on McLean's Farm, P i t t - R i v e r . 3 9  Mather and McDonald have s t a t e d t h a t t h e P i o n e e r C r i c k e t C l u b 40 was  formed  i n e a r l y 1861,  B r i t i s h Columbian would  b u t t h e f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t from t h e  seem t o v e r i f y t h a t i t was r e a l l y t h e  same c l u b w h i c h h a d b e e n f o r m e d a y e a r e a r l i e r . The f i r s t m o n t h l y m e e t i n g o f t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r C r i c k e t Club f o r t h e y e a r 1861, took p l a c e on Monday 4 t h M a r c h , i n t h e P i o n e e r T h e a t r e . 4 1  The o f f i c e r s o f t h e c l u b a t t h a t t i m e w e r e : man;  C. W e a v e r , v i c e - c h a i r m a n ;  R. D i c k i n s o n ,  C L . Wylde, c h a i r -  J.T. S c o t t , t r e a s u r e r ;  and  secretary.  A c c o r d i n g t o Mather and McDonald, on February 23, t h e grounds  ( s i t u a t e d on t h e p r e s e n t s i d e o f Woodland's S c h o o l ,  e a s t o f M c B r i d e B o u l e v a r d ) were p r e p a r e d by a g r e a t " c l e a r i n g bee",  i n v o l v i n g 100 E n g i n e e r s , t h e i r b a n d , a n d a s i m i l a r  number o f c i t i z e n s . f i v e hundred  and f i f t y d o l l a r s ,  by G o v e r n o r D o u g l a s . that,  S u b s c r i p t i o n s w e r e c o l l e c t e d t o a sum o f  Mather  including f i f t y  dollars  donated  and McDonald c o n t i n u e t o s t a t e  91 The f i r s t c r i c k e t g r o u n d was o n l y 50 by 30 y a r d s b u t t h e G o v e r n m e n t g a v e a g r a n t o f 60, and a C h i n e s e , K o o - L o o , was h i r e d t o c l e a r and g r a d e an a r e a 462 by 100. The n e x t y e a r , t h e c h a i n - g a n g r o l l e d t h e g r o u n d . In  t h e s p r i n g o f 1862,  a m a t c h was  announced between  s i n g l e and m a r r i e d members o f t h e R o y a l E n g i n e e r s .  Royal Engineers celebrations  for i t s i n a c t i v i t y . defeated  A year  4 3  New  later,  the  t h e t o w n d u r i n g t h e Queen's B i r t h d a y  b u t , i n a r e t u r n match, were d e f e a t e d  4 4  the  The  B r i t i s h Columbian took the o p p o r t u n i t y t o c h a s t i s e the Westminster Club  2  by  the  45 New  Westminster Pioneer C r i c k e t Club. In  J u n e o f 1863,  of the w i l l o w "  4 6  " e l e v e n o f t h e Nev; W e s t m i n s t e r c h a m p i o n s  sailed to V i c t o r i a ,  c r i c k e t m a t c h , w h i c h V i c t o r i a won  f o r the f i r s t  inter-colonial  by t h i r t y - t h r e e r u n s .  In  r e f e r e n c e t o t h e m a t c h , t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n commented t h a t t h e New  W e s t m i n s t e r t e a m "do  not e n t e r t a i n a very h i g h  o f V i c t o r i a n h o s p i t a l i t y , and p r o m i s e t o show a example s h o u l d  a f i t t i n g opportunity o f f e r " .  c o l o n i a l m a t c h o f 1865  saw  different The  4 7  inter-  the V i c t o r i a club t r a v e l to  W e s t m i n s t e r a b o a r d t h e H u d s o n Bay Douglas.  opinion  New  Company s t e a m e r S i r James  D r e s s e d i n t h e i r b l a c k and y e l l o w c o l o u r s , t h e 4  V i c t o r i a n s were a g a i n t h e w i n n e r s ,  by  f o l l o w i n g y e a r , t h e c o m p e t i t i o n was c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a r i f l e m a t c h and  I n 1865,  Naval  Eleven  they  defeated  5 0  and  New  c l u b s had  W e s t m i n s t e r had  Service team  In  the in  a g a i n , V i c t o r i a won,  5 2  and,  a combined team from t h e R o y a l E n g i n e e r s  other  success  t h e c r e w o f H.M.S. S u t l e j .  a Civil  °  held i n Victoria  D u r i n g t h e m i d - s i x t i e s , t h e two competitors.  59 r u n s .  R  5 1  on two camp and  133-81.  4 9  local against  a  Then, i n  1866,  occasions,  beat  H.M.s.  Sparrowhawk.  Meanwhile, i n V i c t o r i a ,  the V o l u n t e e r  c h a l l e n g e d t h e townsmen i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1865, C r i c k e t C l u b won  easily.  but the  L a t e r t h a t year, another  5 4  f o r m e d - t h e C i t y E l e v e n , w i t h Mr.  W.R.  Rifles  G i b b o n s as  Victoria club  was  honorary  55 secretary. club beat go.  W i t h i n s i x weeks o f i t s f o r m a t i o n , t h i s  new  t h e V i c t o r i a C r i c k e t C l u b , 8 5 - 8 4 , w i t h 10 w i c k e t s  to  In the f o l l o w i n g y e a r , the V i c t o r i a Club endeavoured  5 6  to  i m p r o v e i t s p l a y , a d v e r t i s i n g i t s p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s on Wednesday 57 and  Saturday  a f t e r n o o n s , a t t h r e e o ' c l o c k on B e a c o n  Hill.  T o w a r d s t h e end o f t h e d e c a d e , t h e c l u b s w e r e more s t a b l e and b e t t e r o r g a n i z e d .  New  W e s t m i n s t e r o p e n e d i t s 1868  w i t h a m a t c h b e t w e e n ' B a c h e l o r s ' and  'Benedicts'.  season  Later i n  t h e summer, t h e y t r a v e l l e d t o E s q u i m a l t , w h e r e t h e y s u f f e r e d a 59 l o s s t o t h e F l e e t on T h u r s d a y , J u l y H u d s o n Bay  Westminster,  against V i c t o r i a .  day,  A g a i n , t h e New  marrieds  On  to play lost,  6 0  t h e f o l l o w i n g Mon-  Westminster t o win  an  T h a t f a l l , t h e V i c t o r i a n s p l a y e d more s i n g l e s  matches  6 2  and  spent  c r i c k e t ground a t Beacon H i l l .  m a t c h b e t w e e n San number o f p e o p l e  However, t h e  t h e p r o p o s a l f o r an  F r a n c i s c o and V i c t o r i a . living  i n San  F r a n c i s c o had  p l a y e d i n V i c t o r i a and w e r e e a g e r t o r e - n e w B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t noted  easy versus  t h r e e hundred d o l l a r s t o complete 63  c r i c k e t news o f t h e p e r i o d was  The  the  i t s scheduled  Westminster side  t h e F l e e t t e a m t r a v e l l e d t o New 6 1  n e x t day,  allowing the'Mainlanders'  t h e i r weekend t r i a l s were n o t o v e r .  victory.  new  The  Company's s t e a m e r , t h e O t t e r , d e l a y e d  s a i l i n g t o New  but  31.  a  biggest international  Apparently, also lived  a and  acquaintances.  t h a t "amongst t h e V i c t o r i a p l a y e r s  93 r e s i d i n g below, we see the name o f Mr. Powell, o f the Bank o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  honorably mentioned i n some o f t h e l a t e  matches". ^ In March o f 1869, t h e p r o p o s a l was f o r m a l i z e d w i t h a c h a l l e n g e from the C a l i f o r n i a C r i c k e t Club f o r a match o f "our n a t i o n a l game" t o take p l a c e i n San F r a n c i s c o i n May, w i t h a r e t u r n engagement i n V i c t o r i a i n August. owner o f t h e steamship  Mr. H a l l o d a y ,  l i n e , was prepared t o c a r r y the V i c t o r i a  p l a y e r s f r e e o f charge and the Cosmopolitan  H o t e l i n San  F r a n c i s c o o f f e r e d l i b e r a l terms f o r t h e i r s t a y . ^ ^  In regards  to t h e funding o f the t r i p , t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t remarked; Of course those gentlemen who are i n a p o s i t i o n t o do so, w i l l pay t h e i r own expenses; b u t there a r e o t h e r s who a r e not prepared t o meet an e x t r a o r d i n a r y demand upon t h e i r funds, and f o r these we must p r o v i d e .  6 6  Whatever f i n a n c i a l arrangements were e v e n t u a l l y made i s u n c l e a r , but i n e a r l y A p r i l , the f o l l o w i n g E l e v e n departed f o r San F r a n c i s c o - Messrs. Pooley, Richardson, Drake, Guerra, J . Wilson, B a r n e t t , Hemmingway, J . B a l l , Wallace, Tye, and Howard, w i t h J . L . F i s h e r as umpire. ' Reports o f t h e matches were r e l a y e d t o V i c t o r i a by telegraph.  In t h e f i r s t match, the C a l i f o r n i a Club won by  11 runs i n a match which caused c o n s i d e r a b l e sums o f money t o change hands i n b e t s .  6 8  However, the V i c t o r i a Club won the  remaining t h r e e matches, d e f e a t i n g the S t . George's Club by 15 the Pioneer Club by 13, and the C a l i f o r n i a Club by 15 i n a r e match.  To round out the f e s t i v i t i e s , they p l a y e d a f r i e n d l y  game o f b a s e b a l l w i t h t h e San F r a n c i s c o Eagles B a s e b a l l Club, l o s i n g h e a v i l y t o the "Champions o f the P a c i f i c  Coast".  6 9  94 On t h e i r r e t u r n t o V i c t o r i a , t h e t e a m p l a y e d t h e new  'Indignant'  C l u b , f o r m e d by l o c a l e n t h u s i a s t s a s a r e s u l t o f t h e V i c t o r i a C r i c k e t Club's  loss t o the C a l i f o r n i a n ' s .  The m a t c h was  played  70 i n g o o d humour, t h e V i c t o r i a C l u b w i n n i n g ,  188-85.  The i n t e n d e d r e t u r n m a t c h w i t h C a l i f o r n i a d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o h a v e come o f f u n t i l  1872 b u t , i n t h e i n t e r i m ,  Victoria's  c r i c k e t e r s were busy.  I n 1 8 6 9 , a J u n i o r E l e v e n was f o r m e d 71 and d e f e a t e d t h e C o l l e g i a t e S c h o o l b u t p r o v e d no m a t c h f o r 72 t h e c r e w o f H.M.S. B o x e r ,  i n the following year.  I n 1871,  t h e V i c t o r i a C r i c k e t C l u b p u b l i s h e d i t s book o f r u l e s , the f o l l o w i n g executive: Governor T r u t c h ;  p r e s i d e n t - H i s Honour, L i e u t e n a n t  v i c e - p r e s i d e n t - S i r Matthew B a i l l i e  t r e a s u r e r - A. M a x w e l l ;  listing  honorary  Begbie;  s e c r e t a r y - J.E. C u r t i s ;  c o m m i t t e e - C a p t a i n L a y t o n , C.E. Dawson, A.B. R i t c h i e , A. Rome, 73 and E.C. B a k e r . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C r i c k e t C l u b was o r g a n i z e d i n 1872, w i t h M.W.T. D r a k e , c h a i r m a n ; Pooley, t r e a s u r e r .  7 4  J.E. C u r t i s , s e c r e t a r y ;  Lieutenant-Governor  T r u t c h was  C.E. particul-  a r l y a c t i v e i n c r i c k e t t h a t y e a r , o b s e r v i n g a match between s i n g l e a n d m a r r i e d p l a y e r s and e v e n t u a l l y p l a y i n g i n a m a t c h 75 for the marrieds. L a t e r t h a t s p r i n g , t h e V i c t o r i a n s began t o r a i s e t h e n e c e s s a r y money t o b r i n g t h e San F r a n c i s c o t e a m 76 t o t o w n a n d a month l a t e r , t h e v i s i t o r s won two o f t h e t h r e e games p l a y e d .  San F r a n c i s c o d e f e a t e d t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  C l u b 1 1 8 - 1 1 7 , was b e a t e n by t h e V i c t o r i a C l u b , 1 7 8 - 1 7 7 , a n d 77 won i t s t h i r d m a t c h 1 3 7 - 1 3 7 .  The l o c a l p r e s s made much o f  t h e s e r i e s and t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t even p r i n t e d  sophisticated  c h a r t s t o p r o v i d e an a n a l y s i s o f b a t t i n g and b o w l i n g  averages.  However, w i t h t h e i n t e r c h a n g i n g r e f e r e n c e t o V i c t o r i a p l a y e r s , it  i sdifficult  t o d i s t i n g u i s h what t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p was  between t h e two l o c a l c l u b s . In  other events  d u r i n g 1872, a Mr. Stephenson and C a p t a i n  K e n n e d y e a s i l y won a s i n g l e w i c k e t m a t c h a g a i n s t C o l o n e l • 1  S i n g l e t o n and a Mr. S m i t h ,  t h e umpire o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a  team.  A b o u t t h i s t i m e , a J u v e n i l e C l u b was f o r m e d i n V i c t o r i a , Richard H a l l , president; E. N a g l e ,  treasurer.  8 0  W i l l i a m Cameron, s e c r e t a r y ; I n New W e s t m i n s t e r ,  efforts  79  with  and were  81 b e i n g made t o f o r m a new C r i c k e t C l u b ,  while  competitions  c o n t i n u e d between m a r r i e d and s i n g l e p l a y e r s on F r i d a y and 82 Monday  afternoons.  During t h e remainder o f t h e p e r i o d , i n t e r e s t i n c r i c k e t c o n t i n u e d t o grow a n d numerous o r g a n i z a t i o n s w o u l d p l a y a g a i n s t each o t h e r .  B y 1 8 7 5 , t h e I n d e p e n d e n t O r d e r o f Odd F e l l o w s 83  w e r e p l a y i n g a s e r i e s a g a i n s t t h e Masons  and, i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  y e a r , some o f t h e c i t y ' s m o s t r e s p e c t e d c i t i z e n s g o t t o g e t h e r for  a match, f o r m i n g two teams, t h e ' J o l l y C o r k s '  of the Rockies'. one A.N.  A luncheon  hundred people,  In  during the a f f a i r seated  i n c l u d i n g Lieutenant-Governor, the  R i c h a r d s , Judge Begbie, 84  French  a n d t h e 'West about Honorable  t h e American C o n s u l , and t h e  Vice-Consul. 1878, t h e V i c t o r i a C r i c k e t Club p u b l i s h e d another  book, l i s t i n g  a new e x e c u t i v e o f :  M.W.T. D r a k e , V i c e - p r e s i d e n t ;  rule  S i r M.B. B e g b i e ,  president;  A.W. J o n e s , h o n o r a r y  secretary-  t r e a s u r e r ; . . C a p t a i n L a y t o n , W. B e n n e t , J o s . W i l s o n , A. Rome, a n d  C.E.  Pooley,  were  arranged  repeating the  committee.  the  decade,  that  year  International  0 3  and V i c t o r i a  successes  at  inter-school  home i n  matches  won  1879.  saw  matches two 87  the  in  easy By  Portland  victories,  the  Victoria  turn  High  86  of  School  pp overpower 139-64;  the  Collegiate  the  advent  S c h o o l by  l a n d teams were Players  able  arriving  Vancouver and t h a t  of  the  to  develop  from the  Cricket spring,  Club the  of  sufficient  outstanding  in  1888  (with John  thirty-five  players  Once  again,  the  cricket the  game a s  and  festivities.  Cricket becoming  the  was  However,  in  with  establishment captain  enjoying  formed  to  about  early  a few  as  sports  due  brought the  the  Within  first  as  was  to  able  by  the  the president)  boast  a  1890, there  three  major  were cities  competition.  and i n s t r u c t i o n  a pastime,  Club  conditions  in  Beginning  equipment  each of  of  Boultbee  Thus,  main-  population.  formation  e n t h u s i a s m and o r g a n i z a t i o n  instrumental  region.  in  the  Club  players.  inter-city  unstable  and  railway,  a growing  enabled  strong  was  within  east  to ensure SUMMARY  West.  102-54  trans-continental  New W e s t m i n s t e r 91  membership  the  of  8 9  With  Navy  scores  a  in  the  Grant's  activity  by  years.  fluctuating the  a sport provision  the  gold  in  within of took  up  picnics  Victoria  Pioneer  the  social  rush,  Royal  during  organization  organization  the  the  1849, V i c t o r i a n s  years,  loose  of  of  its  of  enthusiasts,  Pacific and  North-  economic  membership  was  9  97 Various  n o v e l m e t h o d s w e r e u s e d t o make up teams f o r  i n t e r n a l c o m p e t i t i o n , w h i l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e teams w e r e s e l e c t e d to  p l a y a g a i n s t t h e F l e e t o r a g a i n s t t h e m i n e r s who  in  Victoria.  1863, Club  The f i r s t  wintered  i n t e r - c o l o n i a l match took p l a c e i n  when a g r o u p r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e New W e s t m i n s t e r C r i c k e t ( f o r m e d i n 1860 a n d a s s i s t e d b y t h e R o y a l Army E n g i n e e r s ) ,  travelled to Victoria.  In the f o l l o w i n g year,  t h e (United)  V i c t o r i a C r i c k e t C l u b became more f o r m a l l y o r g a n i z e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o p l a y a g a i n s t t h e Nanaimo By  and sent  Club.  1 8 7 0 , t h e V i c t o r i a C r i c k e t C l u b h a d become w e l l  lished.  Several of the Cariboo  estab-  m i n e r s now made t h e c i t y  their  p e r m a n e n t home a n d c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e C l u b . The in  c i t i z e n s o f V i c t o r i a h a d i n v e s t e d some t h r e e h u n d r e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new g r o u n d s a t B e a c o n H i l l  had  recently returned  from a very  The  p u b l i c a t i o n o f the Club Rules  and t h e Club  successful tour of C a l i f o r n i a . i n 1871 l i s t e d  executive, i n c l u d i n g Lieutenant-Governor and  S i r Matthew B e g b i e as v i c e - p r e s i d e n t .  Trutch  a prestigious as p r e s i d e n t  In the following  y e a r , t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C r i c k e t C l u b was o r g a n i z e d San  ,:  F r a n c i s c o team p l a y e d  dollars  and t h e  a return series i n Victoria.  T h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d , l o c a l games w e r e o r g a n i z e d  within  t h e c l u b a n d b e t w e e n v a r i o u s s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t g r o u p s who e n j o y e d responding  t o a challenge.  V i c t o r i a ' s y o u t h were p l a y i n g  f o r m a l m a t c h e s a s e a r l y a s 1 8 6 9 , when t h e J u n i o r E l e v e n with the C o l l e g i a t e School formed.  competed  a n d , i n 1 8 7 2 , a J u v e n i l e C l u b was  The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e c i t y ' s y o u t h u n d o u b t e d l y  enhanced t h e c a l i b r e o f c r i c k e t i n t h e c i t y as t h e youngsters m a t u r e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e a s members o f t h e V i c t o r i a C r i c k e t  Club.  98 By  1880,  inter-city  w i t h P o r t l a n d and, be  c o m p e t i t i o n had  a few y e a r s  later,  been e s t a b l i s h e d  good c o m p e t i t i o n  found i n o t h e r B r i t i s h Columbian c i t i e s .  o f new  settlers  on  the mainland,  o f t h e C.P.R., t h e New by new formed.  t a l e n t and,  as a r e s u l t o f t h e  W e s t m i n s t e r C r i c k e t C l u b was  i n 1888,  t h r e e major c i t i e s of B r i t i s h competition.  arrival  completion bolstered  the Vancouver C r i c k e t Club  T h u s , as t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y  strong cricket  With the  could  approached,  was the  C o l u m b i a were a b l e t o engage i n  99 Table IV Cricket 1849  - C a p t a i n Grant b r i n g s equipment t o V i c t o r i a  1  2 - V i c t o r i a Pioneer C r i c k e t  Club formed  - competitions between V.P.C.C. and Royal Navy 1858 - V.P.C.C. (86) - H.B.M. S a t e l l i t e ( 5 6 ) - V.P.C.C. (107) - H.B.M. S a t e l l i t e (101) - V.P.C.C. d e f e a t s F l e e t by 17 runs 19 59 - m t r a - c l u b matches 1860 - V.C.C. e a s i l y d e f e a t s RN o f f i c e r s - V.C.C. (97) - RN (51)7 - New Westminster C r i c k e t Club formed 3  4  6  20 61 - refreshments a v a i l a b l e a t V i c t o r i a grounds - New Westminster grounds cleared42 62 - newcomers d e f e a t o l d V.C.C. ( 1 1 9 - 1 1 8 ) , (161-155), (132-130) - f i r s t h a l f alphabet (154) - l a s t h a l f (152) - emmigrants o f 'Tynemouth beaten by V.C.C. by 11 runs - 'England' (95) - 'Colonies' ( 8 9 ) - $1,000 o f f e r e d f o r novel m a t c h 21  22  23  4  1  2 5  2 7  2 8  8 Q 63 - V.C.C. vs H.M.S. Topaze; win next match by 72 r u n s - newcomers (218) - o l d s t e r (105) - Cariboo (83) - Non-Cariboo ( 8 0 ) 44 45 - N.W.P.C.C. vs Royal Engineers s p l i t games ' - V.C.C. d e f e a t s N.W.C.C. by 33 runs - f i r s t i n t e r colonial match 9  3 1  3 4  5 6  64 - (United) V.C.C. o f f i c i a l t i t l e - V.C.C. (137) - Nanaimo (135) 7 - Cariboo (64) - Non-Cariboo ( 6 3 )  3 5  3  3 8  65 - V.C.C. over N.W.C.C. by 59 - N.W.C.C. d e f e a t s N a v y and H.M.S. S u t l e j 5 0  66 - V.C.C. (101) - F l e e t ( 1 0 2 ) - V.C.C. (133) -N.W.C.C. ( 8 1 ) - N.W.C.C. over C i v i l S e r v i c e ^ 1 1  4 9  5 1  100 Table  IV  (Continued)  Cricket 1966  - (Continued) - N.W.C.C. beats Royal Engineers and H.M.S. Sparrowhawk - V.C. over V o l u n t e e r R i f l e s - C i t y Eleven formed i n V i c t o r i a - C i t y Eleven (85) - V.C.C. ( 8 4 ) 53  5 4  4 8  5 6  17 67 - o f f i c e r s o f H.M.S. Malacca p l a y s h i p ' s company - V.C.C. wins 1 o f 3 games w i t h F l e e t ' ' 1 2  68 -  1 3  1 4  V.C.C. d e f e a t s F l e e t (111-108) and ( 1 0 3 - 5 9 ) N.W.C.C. l o s e s t o F l e e t ' V.C.C. d e f e a t s N.W.C.C. $300 spent on new grounds a t Beacon H i l l p r o p o s a l f o r match w i t h C a l i f o r n i a 15  5 9  16  6 1  6 3  6 4  69 - V.C.C. wins 3 o f 4 games i n San F r a n c i s c o - f i r s t i n t e r n a t i o n a l match - V.C.C. (188) - Indignants ( 8 5 ) - J u n i o r Eleven formed and d e f e a t C o l l e g i a t e School 6 9  7 0  __  1871  - Navy prepares grounds o f Puget Sound Company - J u n i o r E l e v e n l o s e s t o H.M.S. B o x e r - V.C.C. p u b l i s h e s book o f r u l e s 7 2  7 3  74 72 - B r i t i s h Columbia C r i c k e t Club organized - San F r a n c i s c o wins 2 o f 3 games i n V i c t o r i a (177-178), (137-136) - s i n g l e wicket m a t c h - J u v e n i l e Club f o r m e d  (118-117)  77  7 9  80  75 - 100F vs M a s o n s  83  76 - J o l l y Corks vs West o f the R o c k i e s  8 4  78 - V.C.C. p u b l i s h e s another r u l e b o o k - V.C.C. wins two games i n P o r t l a n d  8 5  8 6  87 7 9 - V.C.C. wins two games w i t h P o r t l a n d „ - V i c t o r i a High School (102) - C o l l e g i a t e s (54) 1880  - V i c t o r i a High  (139)  - Collegiates  88 - Vancouver C r i c k e t Club f o r m e d - N.W.C.C. boasts 35 members 91  90  (64)  8 9  R  101 CHAPTER V I I I CYCLING Victoria received i t s f i r s t  consignment o f b i c y c l e s o r  v e l o c i p e d e s , a s t h e e a r l y m a c h i n e s w e r e known, i n F e b r u a r y o f 1869.  The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t c a r r i e d t h i s  announcement:  VELOCIPEDES - M e s s r s . . G r e l l y a n d F i t e r r e a r e a d v i s e d of t h e i r shipment o f an i n v o i c e o f v e l o c i p e d e s from Paris t o t h e i r care. Among t h e l o t a r e l a d i e s ' v e l o c i p e d e s , f o r m e d l i k e a n E n g l i s h pony p h a e t o n . The o c c u p a n t s e a t s h e r s e l f , t h e f l o o r o f t h e v e l o cipede i s a l s o the t r e a d l e , the s l i g h t e s t pressure on w h i c h w i t h t h e f o o t p r o p e l s t h e v e h i c l e a t a l o c o m o t i v e r a t e o f speed over any o r d i n a r y r o a d . T h i s new p r o d u c t a stir  o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n caused q u i t e  i n the l o c a l press.  Schools  were r e p o r t e d t o have been  opened i n San F r a n c i s c o , o f f e r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e use o f the velocipedes  from teachers  c a l l e d velocipedagogues.  One o f  t h e f i r s t o f t h e m a c h i n e s was p u r c h a s e d b y D r . C a r r a l l , t h e M.L.A. f o r t h e C a r i b o o .  The l a d i e s v e h i c l e was e q u i p p e d w i t h  t h r e e w h e e l s , i n s t e a d o f t h e t w o f o r t h e men, a n d one o f t h e c o n s i g n m e n t was r a f f l e d , w i t h o n e h u n d r e d t i c k e t s b e i n g o f f e r e d at  $2.50 e a c h .  4  W i t h i n t w o weeks o f t h e i r a n n o u n c e d a r r i v a l the v e l o c i p e d e s were b e i n g  i n Victoria,  " e x e r c i s e d " on B e a c o n H i l l , w h e r e  they were r e p o r t e d t o have been making "very good t i m e the course".  5  The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t c o n t i n u e d  around  t o say that "the  g r e a t e s t speed a t which t h i s c l a s s o f v e l o c i p e d e has been d r i v e n is  a mile i n three minutes", although  supposedly running  kept  a French  v e l o c i p e d e had  up f o r a s h o r t d i s t a n c e , w i t h a  a t f u l l speed, near V e r s a i l l e s .  locomotive  However, t h e e a r l y  102 c y c l e was  not noted  B r a m p t o n , saw  a runner  half-mile race. sufficiently use  f o r i t s s p e e d a s an 1869  match r a c e , i n  f i n i s h w e l l ahead o f a v e l o c i p e d e  Nevertheless, the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t  6  impressed  to order  in a  was  s i x of the two-wheelers f o r the  of i t s c a r r i e r s , concluding t h a t "besides, Velocipedes  r e q u i r e t o be The  fed".  never  7  v e l o c i p e d e caused c o n s i d e r a b l e excitement  on  the  s t r e e t s o f V i c t o r i a , as t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n r e p o r t e d t h a t , Q u i t e a d i s p l a y o f t h e s e two w h e e l e d v e h i c l e s was made l a s t e v e n i n g by t h e e x p e r t s i n t h e i r management who h a d a l i v e l y t i m e i n c r u i s i n g o v e r t h e s i d e w a l k s w i t h l a m p s a t t a c h e d i n f r o n t , w h i c h , as p a s s i n g t h r o u g h some o f t h e d a r k e r p a s s a g e s o f t h e c i t y g a v e t h e appearance of f l y i n g b a l l s of f i r e . 8  However, n o t a l l t h e c i t i z e n s were p l e a s e d w i t h t h e use o f v e h i c l e , a s i t c a u s e d some  the  complaints.  The d a n g e r o f a c o l l i s i o n w i t h p e d e s t r i a n s w o u l d be l e s s l i k e l y t o occur w i t h a s k i l l f u l d r i v e r than a n o v i c e on a h i g h w a y t w o - w h e e l e r . I f p e o p l e want t o p r a c t i c e o r u s e t h e m l e t them go t o B e a c o n H i l l , and n o t among f o o t p a s s e n g e r s . 9  Velocipedes where",  1 0  h a v i n g become " t h e r a g e h e r e as w e l l a s  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s w e r e s o o n t o r a c e them.  V i c t o r i a r e p o r t , a r e c o r d o f f o r t y - t h r e e s e c o n d s was c r o s s i n g James Bay seconds.  Campbell beat J . R i c h i e .  t h a t "the v e l o c i p e d e disease the  set i n seven  1 1  The  c e l e b r a t i o n s , where-  V i c t o r i a press  reported  seems t o h a v e b e e n c o m m u n i c a t e d  l i e g e s o f B a r k e r v i l l e by a  S i m i l a r l y , the Cariboo  one  Barkerville that established a  v e l o c i p e d e r a c e a s p a r t o f t h e D o m i n i o n Day by A.C.  In  B r i d g e , b e a t i n g t h e f o r m e r r e c o r d by  H o w e v e r , i t was  else-  'celebrated v e l o c i p e d i s t * " .  Sentinel reported:  x z  to  103 B a r k e r v i l l e may be b e h i n d t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d i n a g e o g r a p h i c a l s e n s e , b u t i n none o t h e r . Mr. R i t c h i e , who h a d n e v e r s e e n a v e l o c i p e d e , h a s succeeded i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g one, w h i c h w i t h s l i g h t e x c e p t i o n , i s a complete success. I t o n l y wants a l i t t l e Doctoring. A c e l e b r a t e d v e l o c i p e d i s t from V i c t o r i a gave i t a p r a c t i c a l t e s t t h e o t h e r day, and a f f o r d e d some amusement t o t h e u n i n i t i a t e d . The n a t i v e s , e s p e c i a l l y , were a s t o n i s h e d . x 3  A n o t h e r r a c e , h e l d on J u l y 4, r e s u l t e d i n t h i s  report:  One o u t o f t h e o n l y two v e l o c i p e d e s i n B a r k e r v i l l e had b e e n b r o k e n , a n d c o n t e s t a n t s w e r e o b l i g e d t o u s e t h e same v e h i c l e , a l t e r n a t e l y . J o h n P u e t z and J.D. R i t c h i e e n t e r e d . R i t c h i e made t h e d i s t a n c e 250 y a r d s , i n 46^ s e c o n d s , a n d P u e t z i n 59 s e c o n d s . A month  l k t e r , B a r k e r v i l l e * s Mr. R i t c h i e p a r t i c i p a t e d i n  another  event,  riding  mouth i n a d a y .  f r o m t h e town o f V a n w i n k l e t o Q u e s n e l -  1 5  Despite a l l t h i s arrival  1 4  initial  excitement,  a year  after i t s  i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e new m a c h i n e was d e n o u n c e d and  r e j e c t e d as a t h i n g o f t h e p a s t . one h u n d r e d a n d f i f t y as l i t t l e  I t had o r i g i n a l l y  sold for  d o l l a r s b u t , by 1 8 7 0 , c o u l d be h a d f o r  as t e n d o l l a r s .  In obituary, the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t  noted; E X I T VELOCIPEDES - The b i c y c l e h a s b e e n s n u f f e d o u t l i k e a t a l l o w candle...Riding a velocipede i s hard work. When y o u r i d e a h o r s e , t h e a n i m a l d o e s t h e work and y o u e n j o y y o u r s e l f . M o u n t e d on a b i c y c l e t h e t o i l and e x e r c i s e i s a l l t h e r i d e r ' s ; t h e machine takes i t easy. Good-bye b i c y c l e . 1 6  It  was n o t u n t i l some t w e n t y y e a r s h a d p a s s e d , w i t h a g r e a t  i n f l u x o f p o p u l a t i o n and f u r t h e r t e c h n o l o g i c a l change, t h a t t h e community d e v e l o p e d  a sustained enthusiasm f o r b i c y c l i n g .  As was common w i t h most i n n o v a t i o n s , t h e r e was able debate over the m e r i t s o f the b i c y c l e . Mainland  Guardian  waged one s u c h a r g u m e n t .  consider-  I n 1884, t h e  104 CYCLING - In our leader of l a s t week on t h i s Question we drew a t t e n t i o n to some of the more s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s of the c o n t r o v e r s y t h a t has l a t e l y been c a r r i e d on i n these columns, and attempted to show what i n our o p i n i o n were the p o s s i b l e and probable drawbacks and advantages of c y c l i n g as regards i t s i n f l u e n c e on the maintenance of h e a l t h i n those who a v a i l e d themselves of t h i s mode of t r a v e l l i n g . A l e t t e r dated October 27, from Dr. Strachan, who s t r e n u o u s l y opposes the p r a c t i c e , or r a t h e r e x c e s s i v e indulgence i n i t , d e a l s w i t h some of the f a c t s b e a r i n g upon the occurrence and extent of ' p e r i n e a l p r e s s u r e ' and concussion of the s p i n e . We have l i t t l e t o add t o what has a l r e a d y been s e t f o r t h . There can be no doubt t h a t e v i l consequences may ensue from i n d i s c r e t i o n i n t h i s as i n o t h e r p u r s u i t s of business and p l e a s u r e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , we m a i n t a i n t h a t i t i s a u i t e w i t h i n the reach of mechanical s k i l l t o f a s h i o n an i n s t r u ment t h a t s h a l l minimize the danger a r i s i n g from pressure on the u r e t h r a and j o l t i n g of the body. Moreover, i t behoves us t o c o n s i d e r the c o l l e c t i v e g a i n of the many while d i s c u s s i n g the misfortunes o f the few; and we h o l d t h a t were c y c l i n a even w i t h i t s present a t t e n dant disadvantages, t o be a l t o g e t h e r d i s c o n t i n u e d , the p u b l i c would be robbed o f a means of u s e f u l n e s s and enjoyment t h a t i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o r e p l a c e . 1 7  The  f i r s t c y c l i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia  appeared  with the formation of the I s l a n d Wanderers Club, i n 1 8 8 9 . The c l u b was  18  a f f i l i a t e d with the Canadian Wheelmen's A s s o c i a t i o n ,  but i t s a c t i v i t i e s were l i m i t e d by the l a c k of a s u i t a b l e t r a c k and the very rough roads.  With the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a c i n d e r  t r a c k at Brockton P o i n t , i n 1891, centre of c y c l i n g .  T h i s was  Vancouver became the main  the s i t e of the p r o v i n c e ' s  w e l l organized and attended meet, i n v o l v i n g competitors Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , Nanaimo, New Two of  Westminster, and  c y c l i s t s dominated the c o m p e t i t i o n s . Vancouver ( r e c e n t l y from A u s t r a l i a ) , who  One was  first from  Seattle. John Lawrence  claimed t o be one  of  B r i t i s h Columbia's top sportsmen i n boxing, w r e s t l i n g , c r i c k e t , and swimming.  The  second was  C.J. P i p e r of V i c t o r i a , who  f e r r e d to r i d e on pneumatic t y r e s , i n s t e a d of the  pre-  'cushions' or  105 •solids' popular with other c y c l i s t s . CWA  rules,  behind  P i p e r was  'cushions'  three mile race. rode ' s o l i d s ' 1890s was  E.H.  In compliance w i t h  t o be h a n d i c a p p e d by t h r e e h u n d r e d  and  s i x hundred yards behind  'solids',  I n s t e a d , he p u t away h i s p n e u m a t i c s  to victory. Potter.  on  Another dominant c y c l i s t of  yard in and the  106 CHAPTER  IX  FIGHTS  BOXING  As  may b e  population the of  early  of  generated  quick  in  a  skill  describe  frontier  informed  of  Columbians were  fisticuffs.  merely  and  to  quickly  British  a bout  prowess  was  expected  by  the  of the  a ruckus  between  interested  However, excitement  the  community where  their of  the  combatants.  the  scrap  was  but  in  citizens,  proceedings not  also  British  evidenced  small  its  interest  The  sophistication  in  a  by  the  Colonist  was  a  street  brawl.  F I S T I C U F F S - L a s t e v e n i n g q u i t e a s p i r i t e d b o u t came o f f o n J o h n s o n S t r e e t , b e t w e e n t w o I n d i a n s , who f o u g h t f o r n e a r l y h a l f an hour and e x h i b i t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e science throughout. The f i g h t a t t r a c t e d a l a r g e crowd a n d a f f o r d e d m u c h a m u s e m e n t t o l o o k e r s o n , who s e e m e d t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e Sunday amusement k i n d l y provided f o r t h e i r e d i f i c a t i o n w i t h a keen i n t e r e s t . 1  Prize to  engage  to  fight  fights in  vicarious  themselves  could  readily  their  favourites.  sporting  enjoy  to  an e v e n t  As  as  distant  in  the  and were as  for  sporting  with  Often  to to  news of  put  h a d p l a c e d money o n  colonials  They  did  not  because  the  the  or  they of  the  the  outcome  in  matches  champions events  need  merits  times,  money on  such  date  the  over  of  back  of  for  contests  contests  ready  out  the  each other  prepared  considerably  t h o s e who  in  with  other  always  opportunity  competition.  participate  even  England.  community  an e x c e l l e n t  bantering  c o m m u n i t y was  of  problems  were  would  arrive  inaccurate,  posing  the  match.  THE GREAT P R I Z E F I G H T - C o n s i d e r a b l e d o u b t i s t h r o w n on t h e g e n u i n e s s o f t h e r e p o r t o f the p r i z e fight b e t w e e n S a y e r s a n d H e e n a n i n E n g l a n d , a n d many t h i n k t h a t t h e f i g h t n e v e r came o f f a t a l l . In o l d e n t i m e s ,  107 b e f o r e t e l e g r a m s and r a i l r o a d s were i n t r o d u c e d , i t was q u i t e a common o c c u r e n c e f o r t h e wags o f a s e a p o r t town t o p r o c u r e t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f a bogus ' e x t r a ' , a n d s t a r t i t o f f b e f o r e t h e m a i l - h o u r s , on purpose t o s e l l t h e f o l k s i n the i n t e r i o r o f the c o u n t r y , w i t h l a t e a n d i m p o r t a n t news o f v a r i o u s topics. I t may be t h a t t h e same t r i c k h a s b e e n p l a y e d on t h e C a l i f o r n i a n s . The n e x t s t e a m e r w i l l d e c i d e t h e m a t c h , h o w e v e r ; a n d we a d v i s e t h o s e who h a v e money s t a k e d on t h e r e s u l t o f t h e c o n t e s t , t o w a i t f o r f u r t h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e from below. 2  T h e r e w e r e t i m e s , h o w e v e r , when i n v o l v e m e n t c o m p e t i t i o n s was more d i r e c t . W i l s o n and George Baker, excitement  i n the  An 1866 b o u t b e t w e e n G e o r g e  i n Barkerville,  c a u s e d s o much  i n t h e town t h a t t h e C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l  noted:  EFFECTS OF THE FIGHT - W i t h i n t h e p a s t c o u p l e o f d a y s we h a v e n o t i c e d more damaged f a c e s , a n d e y e s d r e s s e d i n deep m o u r n i n g , t h a n i t has been o u r l o t t o o b s e r v e a l l t h e season; t h e s e g i f t s c a n o n l y be accounted f o r by t h e deep i n t e r e s t w h i c h t h e v o t a r i e s o f t h e n o b l e s c i e n c e have t a k e n i n t h e r e s u l t o f t h e l a t e m i l l i n g match. 3  While censure  o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e c o n t i n e n t were a t t e m p t i n g t o  the prize  f i g h t s , the Victorians  were i n t e r e s t e d  in  maintaining the contests according t o s t r i c t rules of ' s c i e n t i f i c ' boxing.  With  some a l a r m , t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t  r e p o r t e d i n l a t e December o f 1 8 6 0 , t h a t t h e l e g i s l a t u r e o f 4 V e r m o n t was d e l i b e r a t i n g  over a b i l l  by mid-summer, t h e p a p e r r e f l e c t e d well  administered l o c a l  t o prevent  the fights  the citizens appreciation of  bouts.  A f i g h t f o r $25 a s i d e t o s e t t l e a l o n g e x i s t i n g d i s p u t e b e t w e e n a c o u p l e o f m e c h a n i c s o f t h i s c i t y , came o f f on Saturday evening a t the Springs. Three rounds were f o u g h t when one o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s f a i l e d t o come t o t i m e , a n d t h e o t h e r was d e c l a r e d t h e w i n n e r a n d t h e s t a k e s handed o v e r t o him. The f i g h t was c o n d u c t e d i n s t r i c t accordance w i t h the l a t e s t rules o f the r i n g , and no g r e a t damage was i n f l i c t e d b y e i t h e r o f t h e fighters. 5  and,  108 Not a l l the f i g h t s stakes. for  A bout  i n t h e s e e a r l y days were f o r such  i n Whatcom, W a s h i n g t o n T e r r i t o r y , was  f i v e hundred  dollars.  The  f i g h t l a s t e d through  reported forty-six  r o u n d s , one h o u r a n d t h i r t y - f i v e m i n u t e s , d u r i n g w h i c h combatants  w e r e b a d l y c u t up.  The  low  both  v i c t o r , W i l l i a m Pomford,  was  an E n g l i s h d e s e r t e r f r o m t h e R o y a l N a v y .  Tom  Sheldon, a S c o t .  H i s opponent  was  6  S p a r r i n g contests which  demonstrated  the boxers'  r a t h e r than t h e i r d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o w i n , were popular i n V i c t o r i a .  The  Vancouver  skills,  particularly  T i m e s n o t e d one  such  event.  Ned A l l e n and B i l l y W i l l i a m s w i l l h a v e a s e t - t o t h i s e v e n i n g a t t h e R o y a l H o t e l Tap. Several o f t h e s p o r t i n g c o m m u n i t y w i l l be p r e s e n t , and some e x c e l l e n t s p a r r i n g may b e a n t i c i p a t e d . 7  These s p a r r i n g e x h i b i t i o n s were o f t e n performed for  a l o c a l f i g h t e r i n an a t t e m p t  as a  t o d e f r a y h i s expenses  t r a i n i n g and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r upcoming p r i z e b o u t s . s p r i n g o f 1867,  'benefit'  In the  t h e f r i e n d s o f G e o r g e B a k e r s p o n s o r e d one  b e n e f i t t o a s s i s t h i m p r e p a r e f o r "an unknown g l a d i a t o r p San F r a n c i s c o " .  A p a r t f r o m B a k e r ' s own  number o f m u s c l e m e n , p r e s u m a b l y The  for  a u d i e n c e was  from  demonstration, a  gymnasts, were a l s o t o p e r f o r m .  s m a l l , b u t w e l l e n t e r t a i n e d by s e v e r a l  l y b o u t s , a n d t h e y o u n g man  who  such  friend-  sang a b a l l a d d u r i n g the  evening  g  was  enthusiastically  encored.  George B a k e r had r e c e n t l y r e t u r n e d from t h e C a r i b o o , where p r i z e f i g h t i n g was and m i n e r s .  The  p a r t i c u l a r l y p o p u l a r among t h e s p e c u l a t o r s simple aggressiveness of the sport blended  w e l l w i t h t h e t o u g h p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t ern  mining communities  and  of the n o r t h -  l e n t i t s e l f more t o f r o n t i e r  iasm than t o the comparatively s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n t e r e s t s  enthusof  109 Victorians.  As e a r l y a s 1865, t h e C a r i b o o S e n t i n e l r e p o r t e d  a prize fight, r i n g " , which  "according t o the rules o f the English  prize  t o o k p l a c e o n a Wednesday, i n C h a n c e l l o r a n d Com-  pany's Lager Beer S a l o o n , b e f o r e an audience w h i c h even i n c l u d e d a f e w women. rounds,  Two Welshmen f o u g h t t o a d r a w , a f t e r  i n a bout which  l a s t e d forty-two minutes.  S e n t i n e l summed up t h e s p i r i t  and enthusiasm  twenty-nine The C a r i b o o  f o r these  events:  The men s h o o k h a n d s a n d d r a n k t o e a c h o t h e r ' s h e a l t h a f t e r t h e e v e n t w i t h a s much c o r d i a l i t y a s i f t h e y h a d n e v e r been f o e s . V e r i l y Cariboo i sg e t t i n g l i v e l y , and B a r k e r v i l l e e x p e c i a l l y . Three f i g h t s on Tuesday and o n e o n W e d n e s d a y . 1 0  D u r i n g t h e n e x t t w o y e a r s , B a r k e r v i l l e was h o s t t o s e v e r a l major boxing events.  Johnny K n o t t and Ned S t e i n f o u g h t  forty-  n i n e rounds i n f r o n t o f t h r e e hundred s p e c t a t o r s , i n a bout f o r f o r t y d o l l a r s a s i d e , which  l a s t e d one h o u r and t w e l v e  T h r e e weeks l a t e r , t h e s e l f - s t y l e d Wilson, performed Saloon, art".  1 3  1 2  which  minutes.  ' C a r i b o o Champion', George  a s p a r r i n g e x h i b i t i o n a t Ross and B a r d i c k ' s  "was w e l l p a t r o n i z e d b y t h e l o v e r s o f t h e m a n l y  H o w e v e r , t h e b i g g e s t f i g h t o f t h e y e a r came o f f  between W i l s o n and Baker, g e n e r a t i n g n o t o n l y t h e i n t e n s e 3  i n t e r e s t p r e v i o u s l y mentioned awareness i n V i c t o r i a .  i nBarkerville,  I n mid-October,  b u t a l s o a keen  the B r i t i s h  Colonist  relayed the following report: P R I Z E FIGHT - A m a t c h h a s b e e n a r r a n g e d b e t w e e n G e o r g e W i l s o n a n d G e o r g e B a k e r f o r $500 a s i d e , w i t h p o w e r t o i n c r e a s e t o $2,000 b e f o r e t h e f i g h t comes o f f . A r t i c l e s were s i g n e d l a s t S a t u r d a y and a d e p o s i t made o f $50 a s i d e , t h e b a l a n c e t o be d e p o s i t e d a s f o l l o w s : $200 o n S a t u r d a y n e x t a n d $250 o n t h e f o l l o w i n g S a t u r d a y ( 2 0 t h ) . The f i g h t to t a k e p l a c e on Tuesday, t h e 24th i n s t a n t . The men w i l l go i n t o t r a i n i n g t o - d a y : Baker w i l l be under t h e a b l e t u i t i o n o f h i s o l d t r a i n e r John Tracy, w h i l e W i l s o n w i l l be h a n d l e d by F r e d . L i t t l e r . Cariboo S e n t i n e l . 1 4  1 1  110 I n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e f i g h t , t h e combatants were t o have been "undergoing a d a i l y c o u r s e  of exercise".  said 1 5  Some o n e t h o u s a n d t o t w e l v e h u n d r e d s p e c t a t o r s w e r e d r a w n t o t h e e v e n t t o w a t c h t h e 156 p o u n d B a k e r  (dressed i n yellow)  b a t t l e t h e c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r , 185 p o u n d W i l s o n blue).  (dressed i n  The f i g h t l a s t e d f o r an h o u r a n d a q u a r t e r ,  during  w h i c h t h e men s p a r r e d , f e i n t e d , a n d d o d g e d f o r n e a r l y h a l f a n hour before  a b l o w was s t r u c k .  A f t e r f o u r t e e n rounds had  b e e n c o m p l e t e d , B a k e r was k n o c k e d o u t .  Wilson  immediately  went t o B a k e r ' s c o r n e r t o s y m p a t h a s i z e w i t h h i m and a f t e r w a r d s took  up a c o l l e c t i o n f o r t h e l o s i n g m a n .  1 6  W i t h i n a few d a y s  s p a r r i n g e x h i b i t i o n s were h e l d a t B a r r y and C u n i o ' s S a l o o n , as b e n e f i t s f o r both  fighters.  No d o u b t B a k e r was  particularly  a p p r e c i a t i v e o f t h e b e n e f i t o n h i s b e h a l f b e c a u s e he was r e p o r t e d t o have broken h i s a n k l e preparations t o depart  i n t h e f i g h t a n d was m a k i n g  for Victoria.  These f i g h t e r s were n o t m e r e l y l o c a l toughs t o make e x t r a money t h r o u g h  attempting  their physical strength.  Rather,  t h e y w e r e o f t e n s e r i o u s a n d w e l l s e a s o n e d b o x e r s who h a d experienced  considerable competition.  According  B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , the s t o u t , broad-shouldered W i l s o n , had p r e v i o u s l y "fought However, t h e t e m p t a t i o n  t o the  Englishman,  a n d won i n A u s t r a l i a y e a r s a g o "  a f f o r d e d by t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e  money l e d t o a n i n t e r e s t i n g a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n W i l s o n  prize and an  opponent. I n September o f 1866, a V i c t o r i a  saloonkeeper  named J o e  Eden, proposed h i s f i n a l p r i z e f i g h t as a c h a l l e n g e t o George Wilson.  1 9  W i t h i n a week, h u s t l e r s w e r e p r o m o t i n g t h e m a t c h  Ill and  laying  large  bets  on the  Quesnelmouth correspondent the  following  outcome.  to  the  For  Cariboo  example,  Sentinel  a  announced  bets:  1 s t I w i l l b e t George W i l s o n o r any o f h i s friends $100 t h a t h e w i l l m a k e some e x c u s e f o r b a c k i n g o u t , and w i l l not f i g h t Eden. 2nd, I w i l l bet George W i l s o n , t h e s e l f - s t y l e d c h a m p i o n , or any o f h i s b o m b a s t i c f r i e n d s , $500 t h a t i f h e d o e s f i g h t the ' n o v i c e ' w i l l win the fight. 2  Wilson  responded  bet  the  at  with  Fashion  E d e n was  conditions provided a  two  until one  Saloon.  would  the  the  a  side  dollars  dollars to  some r e a s o n ,  with  his  for  power  spring  the  place  September to  agreement  That  fight  that  when  travelling take  on  formal  reasonable.  bout,  re-scheduled  deposit  following  more  hundred  For  2 2  fall,  thousand  two  dollar  However,  2 1  until  dollar  1867.  fifty  make t r a v e l  Eden w i t h  1,  tendering  delayed  thousand  o n May  by  0  agreement  expenses in  was  24 a s  weather  for  Barkerville delayed  a match  for  t o two thousand  increase  23 dollars. British by  The  Columbia and the  placing  remainder for  the  for  three  a three at  year  grown hand  so for  day  dollars  hundred  the  dollar  dollars  of  the  a  side.  the  Wilson  (27 y e a r s ) challenge  that  per  Ranch,  fight,  match and twelve  Championship  (aged  first  going  Fort was 33)  In  2 4  h e was  near  the  the  preparation into  training 25  Alexander. set  at  weighed  165 p o u n d s . issued,  hundred  of  agreement  and p a y i n g  week.  purse  some f i f t e e n  the  finalized  weighed  was  as  deposit  announced t h a t  Elmore's  the  intense  contestants  at  and Eden  since  soon touted  hundred  Wilson  weeks  175 p o u n d s the  one  event,  On t h e hundred  m a t c h was  in  at During  interest  people  thousand d o l l a r s  twelve  was  were  had on  estimated  112 to  have  Wilson lost the  been p l a c e d was  his  bets.  disqualified.  temper,  editor  in  of  he  the  hit  After  only  He h a d g r o w n Eden w h i l e  Cariboo  his  Sentinel  twenty  rounds,  impatient opponent  and,  was  when  down.  he As  explained,  W i l s o n , o v e r - c o n f i d e n t o f h i m s e l f and u n d e r - e s t i m a t i n g h i s a d v e r s a r y , f o u g h t , we t h i n k , t o w i n t h e g l o r y , w h i l e E d e n , on the c o n t r a r y , f u l l y a p p r e c i a t i n g the prowess o f h i s a n t a g o n i s t , f o u g h t t o win t h e money; hence h i s system of f a l l i n g i n every round t o a v o i d t h e p u n i s h m e n t , w h e t h e r he was s t r u c k o r not. 2  However, Rumours as  he  Eden's a  the  takes, larger  had  article, sold  conduct  him r i g h t " .  Wilson  had  Sentinel  occurred  in  was  the by  2  the  exposed  were  a  to  shocked that  fraud.  parts  share  such of  him  supporters of  back him,  Although  other  The  "his  for  supporters  common i n  a  c o n f i r m e d by  that  return  Eden.  Barkerville.  paper  fact  In  7  to  the fight  induced  sum a v a i l a b l e  d e a l i n g were  Cariboo  have  later  his  treated  and double  a  Wilson  justified  had not  ing  that  in  6  ensur-  cheating  the  such  an o u t r a g e  editor  continued:  world, could  If, we r e p e a t , t h i s i s c o r r e c t , a m o r e b a r e f a c e d p i e c e o f s w i n d l i n g c o u l d never have been p e r p e t r a t e d , and a l t h o u g h t h e law cannot perhaps r e a c h the c u l p r i t , s t i l l t h e e x e c r a t i o n o f an o u t r a g e d community c a n n o t f a i l t o be meted o u t t o s u c h an unprincipled wretch. We n e v e r a d m i r e d p u g i l i s t i c exhibitions, a n d we a r e g l a d t o k n o w , f r o m t h e feeli n g t h a t now e x i s t s o n t h i s c r e e k , t h a t s u c h e x h i b i t i o n s a r e n o t l i k e l y t o r e c e i v e t h e same c o u n t e n a n c e and s u p p o r t on any f u t u r e o c c a s i o n , as t h e y have heretofore. The  editor  fights  and  was  sparring  from p u b l i c early  quite  1880s.  favour  correct. exhibitions  and i n t e r e s t  During  the  late  seem t o  have  was  revived  not  1860s,  swiftly until  prize  fallen the  113  On E d e n ' s r e t u r n t o V i c t o r i a , a s p a r r i n g e x h i b i t i o n f o r h i s b e n e f i t m a t c h e d h i m a g a i n s t Don bout w i t h the g l o v e s " .  2 8  McCook f o r a  "friendly  L a t e r , Eden a d v e r t i s e d h i s a c c e p -  t a n c e o f a r e - m a t c h w i t h W i l s o n , t o come o f f w i t h i n one miles of V i c t o r i a ,  f o r a sum  not l e s s than $2,000,  m a t c h d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n made.  hundred  but the  2 9  L e s s t h a n two y e a r s  30  l a t e r , Joe Eden, "champion p u g i l i s t " , departed V i c t o r i a  became a s a i l o r  and  i n t e r e s t i n the f i g h t s  had  f o r London.  By 1884, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s b e e n r e v i v e d a n d V i c t o r i a was  host to touring  professional  b o x e r s , i n c l u d i n g J o h n L. S u l l i v a n , t h e c h a m p i o n o f t h e w o r l d . In a c a r d a t the P h i l h a r m o n i c H a l l , Mike G i l l e s p i e , a  light-  w e i g h t o f B o s t o n , was  heavy-  w e i g h t f r o m New w e i g h t , was  matched a g a i n s t Steve T a y l o r , a  Y o r k a n d , i n a n o t h e r b o u t , P e t e McCoy,  p i t t e d a g a i n s t H e r b e r t S l a d e , 'the M a o r i g i a n t " .  L o c a l b o x e r s J a s . S. O ' B r i e n and McCoy f o u g h t , w h i l e R e y n o l d s was  light-  Dan  t o f i g h t S u l l i v a n , Marquis o f Queensbury R u l e s .  R e y n o l d s , a l o c a l c o a l m i n e r , had i n t e n d e d t o s t a n d f o u r - t h r e e minute rounds, but a f t e r v i e w i n g the performance of d i s c r e t i o n p r o v e d t h e b e t t e r p a r t o f v a l o r , and he By t h e l a t e 1 8 8 0 s , p r o f e s s i o n a l b o x i n g m a t c h e s w e r e  Sullivan, 31 withdrew. regular  f e a t u r e s a t t h e P h i l h a r m o n i c H a l l , w i t h s u c h c o n t e s t s as t h e $100 a s i d e m a t c h b e t w e e n C l e m A u s t i n , c h a m p i o n l i g h t w e i g h t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and N o r t h - W e s t T e r r i t o r i e s , and J i m Gorman, a m i d d l e w e i g h t f r o m T o r o n t o .  32  114 WRESTLING Formal w r e s t l i n g c o m p e t i t i o n does n o t appear t o have become p o p u l a r i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Undoubtedly,  u n t i l the m i d - e i g h t i e s .  some c o m p e t i t i o n s d i d o c c u r i n e a r l i e r t i m e s  were l i m i t e d .  One  s u c h e x a m p l e , i n 1864  was  but  described i n the  Vancouver Times. D u r i n g t h e l a s t two d a y s g r e a t i n t e r e s t h a s b e e n m a n i f e s t e d i n some w r e s t l i n g m a t c h e s w h i c h h a v e t a k e n p l a c e a t t h e R o y a l H o t e l Tap, i n J o h n s o n Street. I n t h e c o u r s e o f l a s t e v e n i n g Mr. A l l e n d i s t r i b u t e d the following p r i z e s : Jess Pierce ( C o r n i s h ) , 1 s t p r i z e , $15 w i t h $5 a d d e d ; John B r y a n t ( C o r n i s h ) , 2nd p r i z e , $10; W i l l i a m Manwell, ( C o r n i s h ) , 3 r d p r i z e , $5; 4 t h p r i z e , $10, E l i e Quick, (Lancashire). T h e r e was a numerous a t t e n d a n c e , and t h e p r o c e e d i n g s w e r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d w i t h g o o d humor a n d d e c o r u m . 3 3  Another  r e p o r t o f t h e same y e a r was  Camerontown, i n w h i c h  Putman was  o f a $200 a s i d e m a t c h i n  r e p o r t e d t o have t o s s e d B i g 34  G e o r g e W i l s o n , t h e b o x e r , two During the remainder have been l i t t l e  of three times.  o f the p e r i o d , t h e r e appears  wrestling activity until  1883,  to  when w r e s t l i n g  matches were i n c l u d e d i n t h e A t h l e t i c Tournament o f the S t . A n d r e w s and C a l e d o n i a n S o c i e t y .  C o n t e s t s were h e l d i n t h r e e  c a t e g o r i e s - S c o t c h b a c k h o l d , C o l l a r and E l b o w , and Roman e v e n t s .  I n 1884,  t h e Nanaimo D a i l y F r e e P r e s s r e p o r t e d  a m a t c h i n t h a t t o w n i n w h i c h H a n s o n t o o k two over  Graeco-  of three  falls  Lynch. During the f a l l  and w i n t e r m o n t h s a r o u n d  1888,  professional  w r e s t l i n g a t t r a c t e d l a r g e crowds t o t h e Opera houses o f V a n c o u v e r , New  Westminster,  and V i c t o r i a .  h i g h f o r those days, w i t h a charge  E n t r a n c e p r i c e s were  o f $1 f o r r i n g s i d e  seats  115 and  50C  for others.  A l l a l o n g the West C o a s t o f  3 7  North  A m e r i c a , p a r t i c u l a r y i n San  Francisco,  had  appears t o have been v e r y l u c r a t i v e ,  become v e r y p o p u l a r and  professional  a t t r a c t i n g a l a r g e number o f J a p a n e s e and However, i t i s not  wrestling  Australian  wrestlers.  c l e a r w h e t h e r t h e s e p e o p l e moved t o t h e  C o a s t p r i m a r i l y t o engage i n w r e s t l i n g , o r i f t h e y had to performing a f t e r f a i l i n g to f i n d One  of the  l o c a l w r e s t l e r s , J . Smith  N a n a i m o ) , was  an  the  1889,  s p r i n g of  a $100  per  man  turned  3 8  ( a l i a s W.  Quinn,  a c t i v e p r o m o t e r as w e l l as a w r e s t l e r . he  wrote to the  British Colonist,  sweepstakes tournament between s i x or  local wrestlers, A l t h o u g h he  gold.  West  to decide the  suggested that  of In  proposing seven  championship of B r i t i s h  f i v e s t y l e s o f w r e s t l i n g be  Columbia. employed  39  to s u i t a l l the w r e s t l e r s , were c a r r i e d out  with  most m a t c h e s d u r i n g  e i t h e r Graeco-Roman o r  the  period  catch-as-catch-  can  rules. The p u b l i c seemed t o be w e l l a w a r e t h a t m o s t m a t c h e s w e r e  not  genuine contests  man  d i d not  and  J . Richardson, the  win.  and  were o f t e n  rigged  so t h a t  the  best  R e g a r d i n g a V i c t o r i a m a t c h b e t w e e n W. British Colonist  Quinn  wrote,  The g e n e r a l p u b l i c u n i t e i n e x p r e s s i n g t h e one opinion t h a t a l l w r e s t l i n g matches are f a k e s , o r a t l e a s t the g r e a t m a j o r i t y , and a s q u a r e w r e s t l e w o u l d be as g r e a t a s u r p r i s e t o t h e f r a t e r n i t y as t o t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d .  4 0  SUMMARY The  term pugilism  d e s c r i p t i o n o f one type of  sporting  r o u g h and  who  i s derived fights with  from the  Latin  his f i s t s .  4 1  'pugil',  Although t h i s  a c t i v i t y mixed p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l w i t h  ready l i f e  s t y l e of  the  f r o n t i e r communities,  the  enthusiasts  116  throughout  British  brawn,  with  in  accordance  ever, in  but  i t was  Britain  Rules fisted  not  demonstration the  belief  North  only  of  o f many  America  of  the  the  they  skill, How-  legislators  London  because  with  ring.  contemporary  that  brutal  concerned  'scientific'  current rules  excessively  an  created Rules,  effort  and  was  which  minutes rather  the  the  were  Prize  called  Ring for  bare-  duels.  In  rules  the  with  and  were  Columbia  to  governed  called  duration. than  by  had  However,  the  with  Marquis hands  of  and  boxing  done  to  rounds  of  three  to note  that  c o n t e s t a n t s , the  more b r u t a l  bare-knuckle  was  Queensbury  i t is interesting  harm  made b o x i n g been  p u g i l i s m , modern  for gloved  reducing the  actually  sport  refine  and  new  devastating  rules.  As  than  Menke  explains, In t h e o l d d a y s i f a f i g h t e r had t o t a k e more b e a t i n g t h a t he c o u l d a b s o r b , he m e r e l y slipped to t h e g r o u n d and t h a t ended t h e r o u n d . His seconds h a u l e d him t o h i s c o r n e r and m i n i s t e r e d t o him, w h i l e h e e n j o y e d 30 s e c o n d s o f r e s p i t e . I f he s t i l l h a p p e n e d t o be t o o w o o z y t o s t a n d up u n d e r a new o n s l a u g h t , h e n e e d e d o n l y t o t o t t e r t o m i d r i n g for t h e n e x t r o u n d a n d f a l l down a g a i n , w i t h o u t b e i n g h i t . T h a t e n d e d t h e r o u n d , a n d h e was p e r m i t t e d a n o t h e r 30 s e c o n d s o f r e s t ... A f i g h t e r c o u l d c o n tinue t h i s procedure without having to suffer a b l o w f o r any p e r i o d o f t i m e . 4 2  Thus,  the  endure  a  full  resulting The British most  adoption  of  Marquis Columbia of  new  three minute  in terrible  fights  the  of  rules  round  beatings  Queensbury  forced  of  and  pummelling, sometimes  Rules end  contestants  were  until  near  the  of  concern  were  according to  not  the  to  often  even  death.  adopted  period.  London  in  Thus,  Prize  Ring  117 Rules.  The hey-days of these b a r e - f i s t e d p r i z e f i g h t s  i n the P a c i f i c North-West were i n the years 1865-67 and the major c e n t r e o f the sport was i n the Cariboo. with other  As  s p o r t i n g events, the c o l o n i a l s were w i l l i n g  to wager on the outcome of any p r i z e f i g h t .  The s o c i a l  environment o f the gold mines, with i t s numerous gamblers and  e n t r e p r e n e u r s , encouraged s p e c u l a t i o n and promoted  i n t e r e s t i n the matches.  However, the scandal  surrounding  the Wilson-Eden f i g h t of 1867, i n which some $12,000 changed hands as the r e s u l t of a r i g g e d match, q u i c k l y destroyed end  i n t e r e s t i n boxing.  I t was not u n t i l near the  of the p e r i o d , when the new r u l e s were being  imple-  mented, t h a t B r i t i s h Columbians again developed an enthusiasm f o r the r i n g . In w r e s t l i n g , e a r l y matches appear to have been very l i m i t e d and the s p o r t d i d not gain much p o p u l a r i t y the end o f the p e r i o d .  until  In the e a r l y 1880's, w r e s t l i n g  events were i n c l u d e d as p a r t o f the games o f the S t . Andrews and Caledonian S o c i e t y and, w i t h i n a few years,  pro-  f e s s i o n a l bouts were r e g u l a r l y h e l d , but the matches were seldom genuine c o n t e s t s .  By 1888, p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n both  boxing and w r e s t l i n g were t o u r i n g the c i t i e s of Vancouver, New Westminster, and V i c t o r i a .  118 Table  V  Fights  1860  - b e t t i n g on m a j o r - local fisticuffs  boxing matches abroad becoming more s o p h i s t i c a t e d  g 61 - $500 p u r s e 64  i n Whatcom, W a s h i n g t o n  Territory  - w r e s t l i n g matches i n V i c t o r i a - Putman o u t w r e s t l e s W i l s o n i n B a r k e r v i l l e 3  65  -  sparring contests prize fight in Barkerville  66  -  J o h n n y K n o t t v s Ned 'Cariboo Champion', George W i l s o n beats  3  3  5  1  1  7  Stein in B a r k e r v i l l e George Wilson '-'George B a k e r l 1 2  3  6  2g 67  1883  - Eden  beats  Wilson  - w r e s t l i n g i n the A t h l e t i c Tournament S t . Andrews and C a l e d o n i a n Society  of  the  3 5  84  - professional -  boxers  in Victoria O -|  J o h n L . S u l l i v a n , W o r l d Champion^- H a n s o n t a k e s two o f t h r e e f a l l s o v e r Nanaimo 1  Lynch  in  3 6  88  -  p r o f e s s i o n a l b o x i n g and w r e s t l i n g e v e n t s become r e g u l a r f e a t u r e s i n V a n c o u v e r , New Westminster, and Victoria 3  2  119 CHAPTER X FOOTBALL The o r i g i n s o f b a l l games o f f o o t b a l l s t y l e can be t r a c e d back through cultures.  s e v e r a l c e n t u r i e s and across numerous  However, the l e a d i n g proponents of the modern  sport were from Great B r i t a i n .  U n t i l the e a r l y  nineteenth  century, the r u l e s were q u i t e open, being n e g o t i a t e d by team c a p t a i n s b e f o r e the game commenced the game progressed. the b a l l .  and d i s p u t e d as  G e n e r a l l y , the o b j e c t i v e was t o k i c k  In the e a r l y days, a score was achieved  simply  by k i c k i n g the b a l l across the opponents g o a l l i n e , but the students o f Rugby School, who were p a r t i c u l a r l y  enthused  by the game, r e q u i r e d the b a l l t o be k i c k e d between two upr i g h t posts to score a g o a l . tion  Legend- r e c o r d s a f u r t h e r adapta-  i n 1823, when a Rugby schoolboy,  W i l l i a m Webb E l l i s ,  d i s r e g a r d e d the r u l e s o f the day by p i c k i n g up the b a l l and running w i t h i t .  From t h a t time, two d i s t i n c t  forms  of f o o t b a l l emerged with t h e i r own s p e c i f i c r u l e s - rugby f o o t b a l l , which allowed the b a l l t o be c a r r i e d , and associ a t i o n f o o t b a l l , or s o c c e r , which r e q u i r e d the b a l l t o be kicked.  Rugby r u l e s were most popular with E n g l i s h s c h o o l -  boys and so, as the c h i l d r e n matured t o adulthood, became the more p r e v a l e n t o f the two games. most probable  rugby  Thus, i t i s  t h a t the f o o t b a l l of e a r l y B r i t i s h  Columbia  was played a c c o r d i n g t o some v e r s i o n of rugby r u l e s .  120 The  first  written rules  appeared  c o m m i t t e e o f p l a y e r s a t Rugby S c h o o l By  1871,  had  a Rugby F o o t b a l l U n i o n had  accepted  the e x i s t i n g  drew up  school rules.  over  a match.  A  'try',  the goal l i n e ,  At  unless  laws.  i n London the time,  only goals  by w h i c h t h e b a l l  d i d not count  when a  a set of  appeared  team c o n s i s t e d o f t w e n t y p l a y e r s and decide  i n 1846,  1  and each  could  was  carried  i t was  converted  2 into  a goal.  By  t e e n p l a y e r s on had by  1877,  most teams were p l a y i n g w i t h  e a c h s i d e and  i f an e q u a l  b e e n s c o r e d , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e m a t c h e s were t h e number o f t r i e s  the  size  ized was  and  obtained.  shape o f t h e b a l l  by  a pump.  .  atic  the Royal  part  time,  However, t h e s e 1892,  standard-  rubber,  changes d i d  which  not  when t h e f i r s t  system-  3  of the  F o o t b a l l was  s a i l o r s may  r e p l a c e d by  .  revision  Engineers,  determined  A l s o around t h i s  as t h e o l d p i g ' s b l a d d e r was inflated  goals  became a l i t t l e more  a p p e a r i n a code o f r u l e s u n t i l  by  number o f  fif-  laws was  probably  made.  introduced to B r i t i s h  Navy, s t a t i o n e d a t E s q u i m a l t ,  camped a t New  Westminster.  and  by  Columbia the  These s o l d i e r s  have a c q u i r e d knowledge o f t h e game e i t h e r  of t h e i r  physical  training  or through  their  Royal and as  education  4 in B r i t a i n . A c c o r d i n g t o o t h e r a u t h o r s , t h e f i r s t Rugby games i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ... c a n be t r a c e d b a c k t o t h e y e a r 1876, when r e c o r d s show t h a t s i d e s f r o m t h e R o y a l Navy p l a y e d m a t c h e s a g a i n s t l a n d f o r c e and c i v i l i a n teams f r o m V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d on t h e h i s t o r i c c a n teen grounds a t E s q u i m a l t . 5  121  Apparently, of  that  only  year,  but plans  However, it  claimed  two o r t h r e e were  t o be t h e f i r s t  observe  between  the contest  and  the V i c t o r i a  the  list  a  of players matches  was  could  According  called.  scored The  one g o a l ,  r e t u r n match  letter since  any number  In this  contest,  advantage. 'rouge',  had scored  There  a  o f such both  later  games,  Fleet  British  to  fifteen  was a l s o  until  time sides  t h e match  a draw,  Standard  they  tied.  but a  explained  that  had h e l d t h e  as t o what  However,  but a  and V i c t o r i a  to leave  s i x 'rouges',  'try'.  that  g o a l -was- s c o r e d ,  i s no i n d i c a t i o n  perhaps  t o note  restricted  o r o n e game e a c h , two weeks  Fleet  indicated that  to the editor of the Daily t h e Navy  o f H.M.  to  t o t h e newspaper d e s c r i p t i o n ,  each, t i m e " a  contain  i n the province.  I t i s interesting  been  what  on Beacon H i l l  the officers  had already  p e r team.  reported  match  was p r e s e n t  i n October  annually.  Standard  i n the report  game w a s c o n c l u d e d  match  a  Club.  played  t o meet  football  Trutch  players  made  i n 1872, t h e D a i l y  Lieutenant-Governor  Columbian  games w e r e  constituted  contemporary r u l e s  g counted The province sidered the of  s i x 'rouges': a s o n e g o a l . newspaper's does  British  Dominion  to the f i r s t  n o t n e c e s s a r i l y imply  t h e game  reference  reference  t o be t h e f i r s t  may w e l l  Columbia  o f Canada.  have been  that  to the fact  report  i nthe  the editor  i n the region.  h a d r e c e n t l y become An e a r l i e r  match  con-  Rather,  that  a province of football  the colony i nthe had  122 appeared i n the s p r i n g of 1868. had  reported  The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t  a match between the Town and F l e e t  Clubs, 9  which had r e s u l t e d i n a v i c t o r y f o r the F l e e t , 6-2. announcements were very b r i e f and provide  The  no i n d i c a t i o n  of the nature of the f o o t b a l l game or the c u r r e n t r u l e s . However, the r e f e r e n c e  t o 'clubs' suggests some form of  o r g a n i z a t i o n i n V i c t o r i a , a t l e a s t as e a r l y as 1868, although p l a y appears t o have been It  i s probable t h a t the f i r s t  sporadic. f o o t b a l l games played  i n V i c t o r i a were p a r t o f the p i c n i c s which were prominent s o c i a l features during  the e a r l y p e r i o d .  For example,  as e a r l y as 1865, the Caledonian Benevolent S o c i e t y of V i c t o r i a was r e p o r t e d t o have i n c l u d e d f o o t b a l l i n i t s , . . ... 10 annual p i c n i c a c t i v i t i e s . The e a r l i e s t r e f e r e n c e in  t o f o o t b a l l i n the r e g i o n  was  1862, when the game was l i s t e d as p a r t of the Queen's  Birthday  c e l e b r a t i o n s a t New W e s t m i n s t e r .  was provided  xx  No e l a b o r a t i o n  but i t i s probable t h a t i n t e r e s t i n the game  was i n i t i a t e d by the Royal Engineers, who were r e c e n t l y headquartered i n the town. During the mid-1870s,  p l a y between the F l e e t and the  c i t y of V i c t o r i a was i r r e g u l a r but becoming- more frequent. The f o l l o w i n g n o t i c e appeared i n the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t i n the f a l l of 1877 and i s t y p i c a l of the announcements of that time. A f o o t b a l l match w i l l be played t h i s afternoon a t Beacon H i l l between f i f t e e n from H.M. F l e e t a t Esquimalt and f i f t e e n from V i c t o r i a . Rugby Union rules. One hour's p l a y , commencing a t 3 o'clock sharp. The f o l l o w i n g are the names of the r e s p e c t i v e teams:  123 Navy - Henderson, Abbott, Burrows, S t e e l e , Chappie, Patey, S i b a l d , Ward, Corry, B a i l e y , Ross, Messum, F a r e w e l l , Hegan, Gray. V i c t o r i a - J . J . Alexander, A. Maxwell, R. McKenzie, J.C. K e i t h , J.W. F i n l a y s o n , W. Tolmie, Rev. H.H. Mogg, C R . B r o d i e , J.L. Raymur, S. Wooton, R. Wood, -^2 W.B. McKenzie, Jas. Tolmie, John Tolmie, A.W. Jones. Despite  the f a c t t h a t the Navy had  were not converted  i n t o goals and  scored two  tries,  they  the game was  declared a  • The most r e c e n t system of s c o r i n g was  apparently  13 draw.  not i n use  i n V i c t o r i a at t h a t time.  Before  1875,  did  not score any p o i n t s and k i c k i n g a g o a l was  way  to win  had  to ground the b a l l behind  t r y and  a match.  the opponents g o a l - l i n e f o r a  then k i c k the b a l l over the c r o s s bar.  a try.  the only  In order to score a g o a l , a p l a y e r  the Rugby Union i n England assigned for  In  1875,  a value of one  point  From t h a t time, a match could be won  but a s i n g l e g o a l would win  the match a g a i n s t any  of t r i e s .  1886  I t was  not u n t i l  Near the end of October, 1877,  J.C.  officially  formed.  K e i t h , requested  captain, A.C  Corry,  on  tries,  number  t h a t three t r i e s were 14  s i d e r e d to be the e q u i v a l e n t of one  Club was  a try  goal  con-  kicked.  the V i c t o r i a F o o t b a l l  I t s newly e l e c t e d c a p t a i n ,  a r e t u r n match with the Navy, whose l e d h i s team to v i c t o r y by k i c k i n g a  drop g o a l .  V i c t o r i a ' s Mayor Drake acted as r e f e r e e .  year l a t e r ,  the c i t y team k i c k e d a g o a l to d e f e a t a combined  f l e e t and "The  country  side.  The  British  C o l o n i s t reported  'scrimmages' were remarkable f o r some p l e a s a n t  f r i e n d l y hacking, leather".  1 6  1 5  which showed up w e l l before B.C.  and boot  A  that  124 The c i t y and  f l e e t teams continued to oppose each  other a n n u a l l y over the next ten years, but f o o t b a l l games were few i n number.  A major reason  t h a t the number of warships From one  f o r t h i s was  the  fact  i n p o r t d i d not remain constant.  to seven s h i p s were anchored at any g i v e n time  and 17  some of these v e s s e l s stayed f o r o n l y one or two weeks. However, the formation of the V i c t o r i a F o o t b a l l Club i n c l u d e d a s u f f i c i e n t number of e n t h u s i a s t s to hold o c c a s i o n a l i n t r a c l u b matches. by R.C.  In one  such c o n t e s t i n 187 8 ," a s i d e c a p t a i n e d  C r i d g e defeated the team of J.C. K e i t h .  were scored, but the v i c t o r y was  No  goals  achieved by a s i n g l e  'touch-  18 down', now  i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the new  r u l e s r e g a r d i n g t r i e s were  i n f o r c e i n V i c t o r i a , t h r e e years a f t e r t h e i r  application  in  Britain. During the next few y e a r s , an i n c r e a s i n g number of people p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the s p o r t . In October of 1879, J u s t i c e Begbie was  e l e c t e d p r e s i d e n t of the V i c t o r i a  Football  19 Club.  L a t e r t h a t year, the youth of the c i t y took up  the  game and the C o l l e g i a t e School defeated the High School i n both 1 8 7 9  20  and  1880.  21  A t h l e t i c Club formed two  In 1882,  the Vancouver  (Victoria)  scrub teams f o r a match at Beacon  H i l l , which i n v o l v e d a Rev.  A l l e n and a l s o , C o t s f o r d , the  22 noted oarsman. In other scrub matches, composite teams formed to match such groups as P r o f e s s i o n a l s and Bankers 23 vs Commerce and Schools or Great B r i t a i n vs C o l o n i e s .  125 By September  o f 1885, the V i c t o r i a F o o t b a l l Club  numbered some t w e n t y - f i v e members who planned two meetings and two p r a c t i c e s i n order t o prepare f o r a s e r i e s o f matches w i t h the Navy.  The C a t h e d r a l I n s t i t u t e on Blanshard  S t r e e t was the venue f o r the meetings and H. Jones was e l e c t e d as c a p t a i n .  In the f o l l o w i n g f i v e matches, the  Club was s u c c e s s f u l , d e f e a t i n g H.M.S. Triumph, White Swan, S w i f t s u r e , P e l i c a n , and a combined F l e e t f i f t e e n .  Beacon  H i l l Park was the s i t e o f a l l the c o n t e s t s and, d u r i n g one of  them, "the band o f H.M.S. Triumph was on the h i l l and  played many d e l i g h t f u l a i r s d u r i n g the progress o f t h e game, 24 adding much t o the enjoyment". The c i t i e s o f Vancouver and New Westminster formed rugby f o o t b a l l teams f o r c h a l l e n g e matches, i n the s p r i n g of but  1887.  On E a s t e r Monday, the two s i d e s met on a c l e a r e d  sloped and muddy ground on Cambie S t r e e t .  d i t i o n s f o r the match were f a r from i d e a l , w i t h  P l a y i n g constumps, 25  r o o t s , pot h o l e s , and rocks throughout the f i e l d .  Never-  t h e l e s s , the match was e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y c o n t e s t e d and 26 r e s u l t e d i n a 3-0 v i c t o r y f o r Vancouver. t h a t f i r s t Vancouver team were:  The members o f  A. S t . G. Hammersley,  C.G. Johnson, D. Graves, R.G. Tatlow, F.W. Boultbee, F. H o l t , Rev. H.G.F. C l i n t o n , Rev. M. Edwards, R.G. Harvey, A . J . Mowatt, 27 T.F. Watson, S. Black, G. McL. Brown, and F. Johnson. In  the f o l l o w i n g year, New Westminster c h a l l e n g e d  Vancouver f o r a r e t u r n match t o take p l a c e a t the c r i c k e t  126 f i e l d on Royal Avenue. the f o l l o w i n g  The D a i l y News-Advertiser c a r r i e d  notice:  A f o o t b a l l match between Vancouver and N.W., under Rugby Union r u l e s , w i l l take p l a c e at the l a t t e r c i t y tomorrow a f t e r n o o n . A s p e c i a l r a t e of f a r e ($1.35 return) has been g i v e n by the C.P.R. to the c l u b and those c i t i z e n s of Vancouver who wish to witness the match. They w i l l leave by the 11:46 t r a i n f o r N.W. and a s p e c i a l t r a i n w i l l leave the l a t t e r p l a c e f o r Vancouver i n the evening. A s p l e n d i d chance i s thus a f f o r d e d of seeing the Royal C i t y i n a l l i t s beauty, as the gardens there are a l l i n bloom j u s t now w i t h s p r i n g f l o w e r s . 2 8  The Vancouver of:  s i d e were again the v i c t o r s and were composed  T.F. Watson ( c a p t a i n ) , Rev. H.F.  S. B l a c k , C G .  C l i n t o n , Rev. M. Edwards,  Johnson, F. Johnson, R.G.  F. Boultbee, G. McL.  Tatlow,  Brown, A.B. W i l l i a m s , A . J . Mowatt,  F. H o l t , and D. Graves. ( c a p t a i n ) , W.J.  Harvey, R.G.  For New  Westminster:  R.B.  Lister  Walker, Wilson, Hamber, Lewis, Parker,  Turner, Cunningham, J.M.  C l u t e , C l a p c o t t , B l a c k , Jones, 29  C o r b e t t , and P x c k l e s .  The r e f e r e e was A. S t . G.  By the f a l l of 1889,  Hamersley.  i n t e r e s t i n rugby f o o t b a l l had  grown t o such an extent t h a t a p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n formed.  On October 4, members of Vancouver, New  Nanaimo, and V i c t o r i a c l u b s e l e c t e d A. S t . George  was  Westminster, Hamersley  as p r e s i d e n t o f the B r i t i s h Columbia Rugby Union, an organi z a t i o n whose main o b j e c t i v e was  the promotion of i n t e r -  30 c x t y matches.  P r o v i n c i a l championships were then h e l d 31  i n the followxng year, 1890. A s s o c i a t i o n f o o t b a l l , or soccer, a l s o became popular about t h i s time.  In 1888,  the schools of V i c t o r i a were  32 playxng the game  and c i t y matches began a year l a t e r ,  127 w i t h the formation  o f the V i c t o r i a A s s o c i a t i o n F o o t b a l l 33  Club i n November, 1889.  By the next year, seven more  c l u b s were p l a y i n g - the United C h r i s t Church C a t h e d r a l ,  Scots, T h i s t l e s , Y.M.C.A.,  V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e , James Bay  A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n , and C o r r i g School. further stimulated  The s p o r t was  t h a t year when the S t . Andrews and  Caledonian S o c i e t y donated medals f o r a p r o v i n c i a l  champion-  ship. SUMMARY I t i s most probable t h a t rugby f o o t b a l l was f i r s t introduced  t o the P a c i f i c North West by the o f f i c e r s and  men o f the Royal Navy and the Royal Engineers, who had experienced the s p o r t i n B r i t a i n .  The roughness o f the  sport undoubtedly r e s t r i c t e d l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n  and the  i n c o n s i s t e n t s a i l i n g s o f the F l e e t made competition over the years. the l a t e 1880s  However, the great  sporadic  influx of s e t t l e r s i n  brought s e v e r a l f o o t b a l l e n t h u s i a s t s o f  both rugby and a s s o c i a t i o n s t y l e s  so t h a t , by 1890, pro-  v i n c i a l championships were held i n both games.  128 Table  VI  Football  1862  - p a r t o f New W e s t m i n s t e r Queen's B i r t h d a y a c t i v i t i e s  65  - part of Caledonian Benevolent Society  68  - Fleet  1872  (6) - V i c t o r i a  1  9  - ' f i r s t f o o t b a l l match i n t h e p r o v i n c e ' , F l e e t Victoria  6  76  - F l e e t vs V i c t o r i a5  77  -  78  (2)  picnic ^  -  79  12 F l e e t vs V i c t o r i a Victoria Football  , Club o f f i c i a l l y  formed 16  Victoria  defeats  combined  Fleet  and  Country  J u s t i c e Begbie p r e s i d e n t of V i c t o r i a Club C o l l e g i a t e School over High S c h o o l  Football  1 9  1880 82  -  2 1  21 Collegiate  School over High School  - Vancouver scrub  (Victoria) matches  85  - Victoria Football  87  -  88 89  90  Fleet24  —  -  Athletic  Club  formed  2 2  2 3  C l u b wins  f i v e matches o v e r 26  Vancouver  (3) - New  Westminster  (0)  28 V a n c o u v e r a g a i n d e f e a t s New W e s t m i n s t e r V i c t o r i a schools play association f o o t b a l l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Rugby U n i o n f o r m e d V i c t o r i a A s s o c i a t i o n F o o t b a l l Club f o r m e d  3 2  3 0  3 3  34 Eight association football clubs i n V i c t o r i a P r o v i n c i a l championships i n both r u g b y and association f o o t b a l l 3 1  3 4  vs  129  CHAPTER  XI  GYMNASTICS  Early  gymnastics  of  strength,  or  by  were  type a c t i v i t i e s  performed  colonials described  either  by  were  travelling  responding to a bet. i n the B r i t i s h  often  Two  displays  tricksters  such  examples  Colonist.  The f e a t s o f s t r e n g t h p e r f o r m e d b y Mr. Endt, l a s t e v e n i n g , were r e a l l y a s t o n i s h i n g . This e v e n i n g h e a p p e a r s i n some w o n d e r f u l s l i g h t o f hand t r i c k s , amongst w h i c h i s t h e c u t t i n g o f f a man's h e a d and p l a c i n g i t a t h i s f e e t . ! F E A T OF S T R E N G T H - Q u i t e a c r o w d c o l l e c t e d i n Y a t e s s t r e e t y e s t e r d a y , t o w i t n e s s Mr. B r o w n , a powerful Cariboo miner, perform a feat of strength i n c a r r y i n g a bag o f shot w e i g h i n g twenty-two pounds i n each hand, from the A l b i o n S a l o o n , c o r n e r of Waddington A l l e y , t o the A d e l p h i Saloon, c o r n e r of Government s t r e e t . T h e r e was a b e t d e p e n d i n g o n t h e i s s u e , a n d t h e r e s u l t was i n f a v o r o f Mr. B r o w n who m a n f u l - l y s u c c e e d e d i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of the undertaking.. 2  However, actually  interest  begun  1860,  the  "with  a  quite  i n more  early  refined  in Victoria's  Dashaway A s s o c i a t i o n ,  f o r e t h o u g h t and  gymnastic  public  a group spirit  work  history. of  was  Around  teetotallers,  which  does  them  3 great  credit",  room.  V7ithin  the  hall  forty Both  a gymnasium  a  short  time,  a  second  enthusiasts, of  these  parallel to  that  built  the  bars,  public.  institutions swing,  s o many  gymnasium  calling  next  clubs,  and  their  p e o p l e were  was  themselves were  to  opened  by  reading frequenting a group  the E x c e l s i o r  equipped  with  dumb-bells  a  and  of  Club.  cross-bar, were  open  130 In  April  executive:  o f 1860, t h e E x c e l s i o r s e l e c t e d  John  president;  F . Damon,  Francis  president;  P. G e a r y ,  John  secretary;  the following  P. C o u c h ,  vice-  and J . L . Smith,  4 treasurer. members, about  By S e p t e m b e r ,  with  thirty  joining making  plans feet  had seventy  f o r the construction  by seventy  f e e o f $2.50, p l u s the club  the club  t h e most  feet.  expensive  of a building of  Each  a monthly  listed  member  had paid  a  s u b s c r i p t i o n o f $1,  gymnasium  i n North  5 America. I t s a s p i r a t i o n was t o p r o v i d e t h e f i n e s t p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n on t h e coast, equipped n o t only with gymnastic  6 apparatus, By  but also  the following  a spacious  spring,  reading  t h e membership  room  and  library.  approached  one  7 hundred  and a bath  Later Exhibition"  that  room  year,  which  had been  attached  to the hall.  t h e E x c e l s i o r s p u t on a  drew  great  acclaim  from  "Gymnastic  the press.  The p r o g r e s s o f t h e s e a t h l e t i c amusements i s a s g r e a t an e v i d e n c e o f e n l i g h t e n m e n t i n a community, as e v e n L i t e r a r y and S c i e n t i f i c I n s t i t u t i o n s , and t h e y s h o u l d o b t a i n a n e q u a l amount o f p u b l i c support. Never has an e n t e r t a i n m e n t o f any k i n d been g i v e n i n t h i s c i t y which has m e r i t e d o r r e c e i v e d so many f l a t t e r i n g e n c o n i u m s . . . . S e v e r a l o f t h e f e a t s were o f t h e most d a r i n g d e s c r i p t i o n and c o n s i s t e d of swinging i n the r i n g s , e x e r c i s e s with Indian c l u b s and dumb-bells, trapeze, s l a c k wire, parallel bars, pyramids, h o r i z o n t a l bars, boxing, fencing, t u m b l i n g , and c . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f Mr. D e v i n e f t h e i n s t r u c t o r } , t h e members a r e a l l a m a t e u r s , a n d we t h e r e f o r e d o n o t f e e l a t l i b e r t y t o m e n t i o n names. 9  1 0  The  club  continued  advertising Wednesday,  to function  f o r another  the use of i t s l i g h t e d f a c i l i t y and F r i d a y ,  from  7:30  - 9:00  couple  of  f o r every  p.m.  X ±  years, Monday,  However,  131 by l a t e 1863, had deluded  something had gone wrong.  Perhaps the c l u b  i t s e l f w i t h the prospect of huge f i n a n c i a l  successes as a p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n , but whatever, the h a l l 12 was  s o l d f o r $3,250  and the c l u b seems to have disappeared.  Around t h i s time, the Dashaway A s s o c i a t i o n seems to have disappeared as w e l l .  I f t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s the same  temperance s o c i e t y to which Matthew MacFie r e f e r s i n h i s contempary book on Vancouver I s l a n d , the Dashaways broke up as a r e s u l t of a r a c i a l d i s p u t e . MacFie s t a t e s , A white member of a temperance s o c i e t y , which was eminently u s e f u l i n the community, proposed the name of a c o l o u r e d man f o r admission, i n t e n t i o n a l l y a v o i d i n g to d i s c l o s e at t h a t time any i n f o r m a t i o n as t o h i s r a c e , and when i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the s o c i e t y had been b e g u i l e d , i g n o r a n t l y i n t o accepti n g a negro as a b r o t h e r t e e t o t a l l e r , i t broke u p . By 1864,  the V i c t o r i a T u r n v e r e i n had  filled  1 3  the v o i d  14 by opening  a new  h a l l on View S t r e e t .  T u r n v e r e i n d i d not prosper f o r l o n g .  However, the In 1886,  the  society  presented a g o l d watch and c h a i n , valued at $200, to Mr.  C h a r l e s Dechant, i n a p p r e c i a t i o n of h i s s e r v i c e s as  teacher.  1 5  From t h a t time, the s o c i e t y seems to have  floundered and V i c t o r i a d i d not appear t o have been very i n t e r e s t e d i n the a c t i v i t y . the c i t y ' s  'Gymnasium H a l l '  By September of t h a t year, (whether the r e f e r e n c e intends  the T u r n v e r e i n i s unclear) was  announced as r e f i t t e d -  l i g h t e d w i t h gas and f u r n i s h e d w i t h s e a t s , but to be by a Mr.  Sommerville's  used  congregation of the St. Andrew's  16 Church.  Two  years l a t e r , the Gymnastic S o c i e t y was  again  132 on the move, changing l o c a t i o n s to the corner of Yates and Broad s t r e e t s where, i n an e f f o r t to r a i s e needed funds, 17 it  s o l d l i f e memberships at a p r i c e of $20.  months l a t e r , i t was  J u s t a few  o f f to y e t another f a c i l i t y ,  the  18 Alhambra H a l l and was 1870,  r e p o r t e d as prosperous.  Then, i n  Lewis Stemmler a d v e r t i s e d h i s 'Boys' Gymnasium', f o r  youths ten to s i x t e e n years of age, l o c a t e d on View S t r e e t , 19 between Douglas and Blanchard S t r e e t s . The V i c t o r i a n ' s d i s i n t e r e s t i n gymnastics was d e p l o r e d by the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t i n 1873.  Making r e f e r e n c e to an  o l d and l i t t l e used gymnasium, the paper s c o l d e d  the pop-  u l a t i o n f o r i t s sad p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n and suggested a subs c r i p t i o n t o r e i n s t a t e the T u r n v e r e i n . And here we are s h r i v e l l e d , cramped, and e n f e e b l e d , our shoulders drooping and weeping w i l l o w s over tombstones, our manly c h e s t s c o n t r a c t i n g i n t o the shape o f spoons, our backs hunching up l i k e a dromedary's, and our knees bending and knocking together l i k e an automatons, our youth-and manhood prematurely decaying and p r e s e n t i n g a s i g h t : melanc h o l y enough to draw t e a r s from out the h e a r t of any drill-sargeant. I t i s e s p e c i a l l y the case w i t h our boys i n s c h o o l , where nothing i s done t o shapen the limbs nor s t r a i g h t e n the back. How much the seed of f u t u r e d i s e a s e i n the man i s sown i n the misshapen body of the boy, hygiene (which should be r i g h t i n our schools) w i l l show. Gymnastics, i f not a panacea f o r d i s e a s e , i s most c e r t a i n l y a s t r o n g p r e v e n t a t i v e . The of the body, the easy manly s t r i d e , the w e l l developed limbs, the head e r e c t , the steady hand, the f i x of the eye, a t t e s t to the a t h l e t e .... We, t h e r e f o r e , can not too s t r o n g l y urge of our f e l l o w c i t i z e n s the n e c e s s i t y of encouraging a t h l e t i c s p o r t s and more p a r t i c u l a r l y of r e v i v i n g the Turn V e r e i n or Gymnasium. 20  A few months l a t e r , the D a i l y Standard echoed growing  concern f o r h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l  activity.  this  133 There are few i n s t i t u t i o n s which ought t o meet w i t h as hearty support d u r i n g the approaching w i n t e r months as a gymnasium - a p l a c e of r e s o r t f o r young V i c t o r i a to i n d u l g e i n h e a l t h and necessary exercise. In t h i s c i t y there i s a l a c k of v i t a l i t y amongst the c l a s s which elsewhere and i n England e s p e c i a l l y , devote a c e r t a i n p o r t i o n of t h e i r time to manly games, s p o r t s and development, but we are sure t h a t a committee composed of a c t i v e , working members making arrangements f o r the establishment of a gymnasium would meet with the support the i n s t i t u t i o n should j u s t l y m e r i t . 2 1  Elsewhere gymnastics  i n the p r o v i n c e , New  s c h o o l i n 1864,  Westminster gained a  causing the Scorpion to note,  We are g l a d t o see t h a t two of our most e n t e r p r i s i n g young townsmen, with a s p i r i t d e s e r v i n g commenda t i o n have opened a school of Gymnastics i n the r e a r of t h e i r premises. The i n s t i t u t i o n i s opened more e s p e c i a l l y w i t h the view of a f f o r d i n g e x e r c i s e and amusement to the C i t y F a t h e r s , and we understand t h a t C o u n c i l l o r s Cross, Sharkson and Hamstrung have entered the l i s t s to compete i n ground and lofty tumbling. 2 2  The  i n s t r u c t o r s were:  J . Aberdeen, s e l f - d e f e n c e a c c o r d i n g  to the r u l e s of the London P r i z e Ring; Mr. and l o f t y tumbling;  and Sharkson,  The only other apparent 1877,  Seth, ground  J r . , pole e x e r c i s e s .  r e f e r e n c e d u r i n g the p e r i o d i s i n  r e g a r d i n g a h o r i z o n t a l bar, e r e c t e d on a square  near  23  Douglas Street.' Gymnastics d i d not become a formal s p o r t i n North America u n t i l around the t u r n of the century, when comp e t i t i v e meets were arranged.  However, as e a r l y as  B a r k e r v i l l e hosted competitions i n gymnastic p a r a l l e l bars and 24 tions.  f e a t s on  1868, the  " l a Perch", d u r i n g i t s J u l y 4 c e l e b r a -  134 SUMMARY  Early strength, by  gymnastic performed  colonials  exercises under  responding  were  sixties  o f such  both  able  insufficient  of  gymnastics  in  1868,  by  travelling  Club,  the latter  clubs  i n North  to establish  opened  Barkerville  of i t sJuly a prominent  a very  condition.  had  itself  interest  was  held  few p e o p l e  of  tricksters  or  However,  more  as e a r l y  soon  refined  as  Association  1860,  and t h e  t o become  America.  i n 1864,  some t w o i n New  By  t h e most  the mid-  succumbing  years  type  itself A  school  i n 1864  and,  c o m p e t i t i o n s as  I n summary,  the period  a s a means  later.  Westminster  gymnastic  during  displays  floundered, but the Turnverein  4 festivities. sport  often  in Victoria  institutions  to  not  by  to a bet.  performed  Excelsior  expensive  part  either  were  t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e Dashaway  private  was  activities  gymnastics  a n d was  of enhancing  used  their  was  only  physical  135  Table V I I Gymnastics  1860  ' f e a t s of s t r e n g t h ' performed  - Dashaway S o c i e t y - E x c e l s i o r Club "  by e a r l y c o l o n i a l s 1 ,'2  3  3  12 63 - E x c e l s i o r Club s e l l s  hall 14  64 - T u r n v e r e i n S o c i e t y opens new h a l l - New Westminster gets s c h o o l of g y m n a s t i c s 15 66 - demise of T u r n v e r e i n - 'Gymnasium H a l l ' converted to a c h u r c h 68 - B a r k e r v i l l e J u l y 4th competitions on p a r a l l e l 22  1 6  and 'La P e r c h '  1870  bars  - Boys' gymnasium opened  7 3 - newspaper c r i t i c i s m of p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n and need  136  CHAPTER  HORSE  The  'sport  Victoria Beacon Since in  as  as  decade,  there  B r i t i s h  of  by  not  horse  Queen's published  l i t t l e  1859,  Colonist  enjoyed  when  the  is  RACING  was  1855,  were  However,  the  as  part  newspapers  the  kings'  early  H i l l  events. and  of  XII  by  enthusiasts  races  Birthday in  carried  presses this  held  on  celebrations.  the  area  description  local  were  in  of  had  report  until  the been of  1  later  annual established  the  fest-  i v i t i e s : The Q u e e n ' s B i r t h d a y - The Races - Y e s t e r d a y was t h e Q u e e n ' s B i r t h d a y a.nd i t w a s g e n e r a l l y observed as a h o l i d a y . The r a c e s came o f f . on B e a c o n H i l l in the presence of a large concourse of spectators; t h e r e not b e i n g l e s s than 2,000 persons p r e s e n t ... J o s e p h D. P e m b e r t o n , E s q . , a n d C a p t . C o o p e r acted as j u d g e s , and J.W. McKay, and G.I. Wright as stewards. The f i r s t was a h u r d l e - r a c e , 1 m i l e h e a t s , b e s t 2 i n 3 f o r $ 1 0 0 , w i t h $10 e n t r a n c e t o b e a d d e d ; open t o a l l horses w i t h o u t r e s t r i c t i o n . This race was won b y M r . H a r r i s ' h o r s e . The n e x t r a c e was for the Queen's P l a t e , v a l u e $200, 1 m i l e heats, best 2 i n 3, $15 e n t r a n c e , t o be a d d e d ; o p e n t o a l l h o r s e s reduced to weight not less than 8 stone. S e v e r a l s c r u b r a c e s t o o k p l a c e and were smartly c o n t e s t e d . . . A l a r g e number of l a d i e s were p r e s e n t . A dinner took place i n the evening at the Royal Hotel,. 2  The miners  who  Victoria The  large  paper  attended  had  assembly  was  recently  arrived  Gazette  in  i d e n t i f i e d another  announced the  undoubtedly  races,  that  nearly  due  to  Victoria. group  three  of  thousand  the  flood  However,  of  the  spectators. people  had  and  . . . a b o r i g i n a l t r i b e s , who v/ere o u t o n t h i s occasion i n f u l l f o r c e and a t t i r e d i n a l l t h e hues of t h e rain-  137  bow, w e r e s e a t e d m o s t l y where t h e y farmed a gay the p i c t u r e . The  report  won  by  a horse  not  t o be  continued named  confused  with  i n Lower  time,  to horses  from  Plate  in Victoria  of  was  offered  October,  have was  which  the prestigious  prize  of  Canada  Victoria  time  Sweepstakes,  Harris'  scrub  Hill  'George'  races.  region.  many  local of  t h e programme Hurdle  and  Race,  Parker's  a  Queen's  At  the miners  is  that  racing  1859.  been  the  at  the  horse  f o r the winter, a  prize  the  would  series  end  probably of  races  were  t h e Queen's  $150  match  'Moustache',  Plate,  between and  other  4  of  course  i n conjunction with  of  restricted However,  of  Events  April  and  i n t h e autumn  on  had  award  the major  again  Plate  local  that  was  Included  t h e Queen's This  returned to Victoria held.  Mr.  by  that  'Moustache'.  same name, h e l d  and  on t h e brow o f t h e h i l l and p l e a s i n g framework t o  a  1859,  lighter  draught  nature  horses  were  also  held  the races.  were  put  on  the  Beacon  F o r example,  into  training  in  for  5 a  novel  pigs  by  sacks. was  event  the t a i l , Despite  6  still  reported as a  and  taken that  lots  .  f u n was  climbing a greased the gaiety  quite  of the  seriously  and  i t "did not r e s u l t  during a portion rider  of other  of  i t > one  planned  pole,  event,  and  - catching  running  the horse  the V i c t o r i a  t o anybody's  of the horses  in  race  Gazette  satisfaction, was  without  138  During petitions was  not  racing  these  were  long  probably  before  prowess  1860,  the  early  horses  for  common  saddle  ponies.  horses  than  vessel  years,  for  became more  their  H y a c k was  daily  reported  the  regular  However,  noted  for  utility.  In  to  have  comi t  their May  of  brought  two  g "fast  horses"  horses  or  arrival they  their  was  must  racing  scene.  in  the  held  under  Honolulu.  owners  drawn  have  tion  major  from  to  been  the  Queen's  winners  public's  i s no  these  the  but  of  attention  significant  races Chief  races  names  the  i n d i c a t i o n as  Birthday  patronage of  apparent,  considered  There  the  are  Neither  that  were  fact  to  that  the  their that  local  their  year,  horses  the  indicates to  Justice  of  participa-  which  were  Cameron.  The  belonging  to  9 J.  Parker  to  note  later the  and  that  race  horse  T.  Harris.  Harris'  as may  It  horse,  is particularly  'George',  belonging  to  have  bought  been  G.  was  advertised  Richardson, in  interesting in  indicating  1 0  a n t i c i p a t i o n of  his  a that  racing  potential. Despite twice the  that  the  fact  spring  Victoria  racing  organization.  An  Colonist  the  Course, July be  3,  run.  under and a  due  to  the  lack  Queen's of  fraternity  signature  sweepstake  a  two  race  winners  of  to  T.  day  the  in  Harris,  schedule the  by  show  appeared  of  plus  Plate  entries,  began  advertisement  announced  Previous  that  of  Queen's  Plate  were  was  postponed  the  summer,  signs the  of  British  Clerk  of  races. Plate to  the On  were  carry  to ten  13 9 pounds e x t r a .  On  July  r a c e s were s c h e d u l e d . following o f f i c i a l s John C o l e s ,  and  4,  were l i s t e d :  D.B.  r a c e and  two  match  I n s u b s e q u e n t announcements,  1 1  Captain  M a j o r F o s t e r , and  a hurdle  Stev/ards  - G.H.  Cary,  Cooper; Judges - C a p t a i n Ring.  the  Gordon,  A l l r i d e r s were t o wear  12 colours. F u r t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n was when a programme o f again,  demonstrated  'Amateur' r a c e s was  r i d e r s were t o wear c o l o u r s and  in late  November,  announced.  Once  the o f f i c i a l s  Judge - M a j o r F o s t e r ; S t e w a r d s - J o h n C o l e s , M.P., de  C o u c y , J . D'Ewes, and  Captain  Torrens;  were:  Major  C l e r k s - A.  Skinner  13 and  Dr.  James; S t a r t e r - Mr.  of t h i s upper c l a s s and  politicians  ication had  u n d o u b t e d l y promoted  i n the proceedings.  to the  Within promoted  and  By  in Victoria.  this  officers,  some d e g r e e o f s o p h i s t time,  a judges  of the  stand on  from the  The  first  organized gold  field  of these  hand  t h r e e hundred s p e c t a t o r s .  weeks, l a r g e wager match r a c e s were  were p r o b a b l y  number o f p e o p l e  participation  t h e band o f H.M.S. T o p a z e was  entertainment  a few  The  of p r o f e s s i o n a l s , m i l i t a r y  b e e n e r e c t e d and  t o add  Harris.  was  i n response who on  being  t o the  large  were w i n t e r i n g Boxing  Day,  1860, 15  when a r a c e  f o r $800 between  resulted  'Grey B i l l y '  similar  in  result  was  "two  defeating  obtained  w e l l known f a s t 'Black P r i n c e ' .  i n M a r c h when t h e 17  were r e - m a t c h e d f o r $2,000. In o t h e r r a c e s , h o r s e s b e l o n g i n g and  H a r r i s were t o be matched  two  1 4  nags" A horses  t o M e s s r s . Bowman 18 f o r $1,000, but the race  j  140 a c t u a l l y came o f f with d i f f e r e n t horses. between Mr. F u l l e r ' s  'Butcher Boy  1  This contest  and Mr. J.A. Rice's  19 'Jim'  was p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t because  'Butcher  Boy' was d i s q u a l i f i e d i n the r a c e , r a i s i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e i l l - w i l l and c o n t r o v e r s y over t h e l a c k o f c o n s i s t e n t rules.  When a Mr. Roberts' c h a l l e n g e f o r $2,000, open t o a l l 20  horses except with h i s horse  'Butcher Boy',  was accepted by Parker,  'Moustache', the e d i t o r of the B r i t i s h  Colonist stated: We recommend the adoption of r u l e s t o govern t h i s r a c e , as w e l l as a l l o t h e r s t h a t may i n f u t u r e occur, t o prevent the r e c u r r e n c e o f such scenes as took p l a c e a t the l a s t over the same course.21 Whatever r u l e s were e s t a b l i s h e d are not c l e a r , but Roberts' 'cream c o l o u r e d horse' won e a s i l y and the e d i t o r r e p o r t e d that; I t i s computed t h a t some $15,00 0 changed hands on the o c c a s i o n . Both horses are American bred, and 'Moustache' has h e r e t o f o r e been a g r e a t favouri t e w i t h our s p o r t i n g men ... There c o u l d not have been l e s s than 1,500 persons2present, and g r e a t i n t e r e s t was e v i n c e d by a l l . Racing e n t h u s i a s t s became more f o r m a l l y r e l a t e d i n midMarch, 1861, when a Jockey Club was o r g a n i z e d .  Subscriptions  amounting t o $4 00 were t o be spent on the course and the f o l l o w i n g founding members o f the c l u b were t o c o l l e c t the funds:  Messrs. Thos. H a r r i s , A. Stenhouse, J.D. C a r r o l l ,  Dr. James, C C . Pendergast,  L. Lowenberg, Bowman, and Halsey.'  Within a few days, the new a s s o c i a t i o n  met a t the Brown  24 Jug H o t e l t o adopt a code of r u l e s  which was l a t e r  printed  LEAF 141 OMITTED IN PAGE NUMBERING.  142  at  the o f f i c e  of the B r i t i s h  placed  an a d v e r t i s e m e n t  Meeting  f o r F r i d a y and  following 1.  3.  4. The  Patron  S t e w a r d s - G.T. Skinner,  Saturday  o f May  24  and  card  also  the  public.  i n t r o d u c e d the o f f i c i a l s  - H i s E x c e l l e n c y , Governor  G o r d o n , M a j o r D'Ewes, C R .  and  Captain Venables.  is interesting  to note  included a "Selling  horses  e n t e r e d were t o be  asking p r i c e s  and  Mr.  Robson, H.B.  of  Douglas; R.N.,  Campbell  t h a t the proposed  Stakes"  racing  r a c e , i n which a l l the  for sale.  In o r d e r  to  control  t o make t h e c o m p e t i t i o n more  a system of h a n d i c a p p i n g  was  i n t r o d u c e d by w h i c h  w i t h h i g h e r p r i c e s were t o c a r r y more w e i g h t . of  25,  the s e c r e t a r y of the c l u b . It  the  club  i n t h e p a p e r t o announce i t s S p r i n g  r u l e s were announced t o t h e  advertisement  the c l u b :  was  When t h e  The S t e w a r d s ' d e c i s i o n t o be f i n a l on a l l d e t a i l s connected w i t h the Races. A l l e n t r i e s t o be made by s e a l e d l e t t e r s a d d r e s s e d t o t h e 'Honorary S e c r e t a r y o f t h e J o c k e y C l u b , P o s t O f f i c e , V i c t o r i a ' , w i t h t h e e n t r a n c e money t o be e n c l o s e d , on o r b e f o r e s i x o ' c l o c k i n t h e e v e n i n g o f t h e 2 1 s t May. C o l o r s must be d e c l a r e d t o t h e H o n o r a r y S e c r e t a r y a t t h e same t i m e , o r a f i n e o f $3 w i l l be l e v i e d t o go t o t h e Race F u n d . Any J o c k e y r i d i n g w i t h o u t c o l o r s w i l l be f i n e d $10. F i v e p e r c e n t w i l l be d e d u c t e d f r o m a l l s t a k e s f o r t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e Race C o u r s e . 2 6  2.  T.J.  Colonist.  then  As  the date  o f t h e r a c e s a p p r o a c h e d , numerous British  by  The  r a c e was  The  sold  horses  this  a t i o n s were made.  t o be  fair,  winner  auction.  Colonist  prepar-  reported that  A l a r g e number o f f i n e a n i m a l s a r e i n t r a i n i n g , and t h e B e a c o n H i l l c o u r s e has b e e n s u r v e y e d , e n l a r g e d and c l e a r e d o f o b s t r u c t i o n s . Among t h e p r i z e s t o be c o n t e s t e d f o r i s an e l e g a n t g o l d cup, p r e s e n t e d t o t h e J o c k e y C l u b by c i t i z e n s o f V i c t o r i a - t h r o u g h Mr. A. S t e n h o u s e . 2 7  143  Sites and a  f o r refreshment  other  construction  grandstand  were  t o be l e t by  on t h e c o u r s e  r e p o r t e d by d i f f e r e n t  hundred  and f o u r  General  admission  charge  booths  of fifty  hundred  people,  included  although  to seat  and a w e i g h i n g  were  two  room.  by t i c k e t ,  ladies  28  an e n c l o s u r e ,  newspapers  t o t h e e n c l o s u r e was  cents,  tender  with  admitted  a  free. 29  All  admission The  and  over  Winners  t o the grandstand  major  events  two t h o u s a n d were:  Trial  were  cost  held  on t h e f i r s t  s p e c t a t o r s were Stakes  -  Selling  'Grey  Arrow',  r i d d e n b y Commander  races  drew  the  Hurdles,  which  were  ively. two  of only  Jockey  won  by  stating  Club  -  'Black  day o f  -  Prince';  Naval  Purse  The  3 0  hundred  and t h e L a d i e s  summed  and r e c o g n i z e d t h e s o c i a l  racing  Plate  Robson.  'Silvertail',  Colonist  dollar.  Queen's  s i x o r seven  Stakes,  'Jim',  The B r i t i s h  days  Stakes  one  i n attendance.  'Punch';  'Silvertail';  a crowd  an e x t r a  and  Saturday people Purse  'Pet',  to races,  respect-  up t h e s u c c e s s value  of the  o f t h e r a c e s by  that  ... i t i s p l e a s a n t t o w i t n e s s a s c e n e i n w h i c h a l l c l a s s e s u n i t e t o p r e s e n t a p i c t u r e o f e n j o y m e n t ... I t i s s u p e r f l u o u s t o e n l a r g e upon t h e advantages t h a t t h e town and c o l o n y w i l l u l t i m a t e l y d e r i v e from t h e annual e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f these r a c e s . The g r e a t e r inducement f o r improving our breed o f horses; the attractions i t presents to our neighbours; and t h e money So proposed was  successful  the races  i n t h e autumn.  advertised  race,  were  Victoria  with  races  Handicap,  that  The V i c t o r i a to include Inn-Keepers'  a second October  a Trial Plate,  -  series  Race  Meeting  Stakes, Beacon  was  match Hill  Sweepstakes, Admission at  Stewards'  to both  Plate,  Naval  t h e e n c l o s u r e and  Stakes,  and  a  scramble.  the grandstand  $1, w h i l e e n t r a n c e t o t h e n e w l y c o n s t r u c t e d  was  set  Stewards'  32 S t a n d was  $5.32.  Although  race of the season tinued.  I n one  Franklin'  f o r the Jockey  such event,  f o r $1,000 a  About t h i s horse  been a promoter  to r i d e  any  lost  one  Halsey's  minutes  and  *Lady  o f i t s most  C l u b as one  a l s o been an a v i d he had  horse  prominent  not o n l y  of i t s founding and  horse  owner.  a c c e p t e d a $500 wager i n w h i c h  i n the colony over a d i s t a n c e of  ' B u t c h e r Boy' thirty-five  had  rider  t h r e e m i l e s , i n a time of seven minutes. and  defeated  con-  side.  o f the Jockey  o f 1861,  official  C l u b , match r a c e s  C a p t a i n Robson, R.N.,  members, b u t he had  he was  the l a s t  'Black John' 31  time, V i c t o r i a  enthusiasts.  In t h e s p r i n g  t h i s was  and  completed  seconds.  He  chose  Bowman  the run i n s i x  Robson t h e n p u t h i s $500 34  winnings  t o good use by p u r c h a s i n g t h e h o r s e  The  degree  evidenced was  by  raffled  death.  o f Robson's i n v o l v e m e n t  the c a l i b e r  of h i s horse  a t t h e S t a r and  'Grey  A r r o w ' had  won  for that  with racing  'Grey A r r o w ' ,  sum.  i s further which  Garter Hotel following h i s $1,750 i n a J u l y  4  victory  35 over  'Jim'  more, i t was  and said  was  r e c o g n i z e d as b e i n g v e r y  t o be  " w e l l known on  this  fast.  and  the  FurtherOregon  36 turf",  indicating  that  the top horses  in Victoria  were  n o t mere s a d d l e p o n i e s b u t were e x p e r i e n c e d r a c e h o r s e s .  145 By e a r l y 1862,  i t was  evident  t h a t the fortunes of  V i c t o r i a Jockey Club were to be short l i v e d . a l e t t e r to the e d i t o r of The the c o n s t r u c t i o n of v a r i o u s course and  Press, the Club had  facilities  and  one .  at the Beacon H i l l the  When the Club sub-  attempted to c o l l e c t the promised funds, a number  of the s u b s c r i b e r s refused to pay colony.  to  initiated  had made s e v e r a l expense commitments on  s t r e n g t h of promised s u b s c r i p t i o n s . sequently  According  the  and many had  left  the  Thus, the Club was  unable to make i t s payments  of i t s c r e d i t o r s was  even i n c a r c e r a t e d f o r h i s  .  i n a b i l i t y to pay h i s  bills.  37  A few months l a t e r , a Mr.  D i l l o n brought a s u i t  against  s e v e r a l members of the c l u b i n an attempt to g a i n the money owed him.  Since the C h i e f J u s t i c e was  the c l u b , i t was appropriate  a l s o a member of  thought t h a t he might not be able to pass  judgement, so the settlement  i s not c l e a r how  the matter was  was  postponed.  f i n a l l y decided,  but  e d i t o r of the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t seemed pleased with  It  the  the  a c t i o n as he wrote: So there appears to be some show f o r honest men to get t h e i r dues from t h a t l a t e s e l e c t associ a t i o n of 'gentlemen' jockeys, who obtained unl i m i t e d c r e d i t on the s t r e n g t h of t h e i r ' r e p u t a t i o n s ' and broke up without s e t t l i n g t h e i r b i l l s . Although the Jockey Club had t i o n , r a c i n g continued races of 1862  become a defunct  in Victoria.  The  institu-  Queen's B i r t h d a y  were held under the sponsorship  of a "number  of p a t r i o t i c tradesmen" headed by Thos. H a r r i s ,  39  a racing  146  enthusiast  who  had  founding  been  that  a  year  were:  Richardson's $150  with  had  promoted member  Flat  added,  of  early  the  per  Tradesmen's  'Silvertail';  Victoria  Jockey  f o r $5  Race  'Punch';  the  Club.  entry  $50  with  Purse  and  Winners  f o r $25  Plate  Ladies  races  added,  per  entry  $100,  for  40 Shannon's It Harris  'Tom'; P o s t  Handicap,  is interesting had  to  become Mayor  note  of  Howard's t h a t by  Victoria.  'Pet'.  November, I t was  Thomas  again  under  41 his  direction In  that  other  'Volunteer'  the  Autumn  significant  was  defeated  Races were  events by  an  held  that year,  unnamed  that  the  horse  year.  local  which  horse  had  42 recently the  arrived  reknowned  'Pilgrim' one  California.  'Silvertail'  and,  thousand  from  although  people  was  the  turned  beaten  match out  In  on  was  by  late  November,  Mr.  Shannon's  only  a Monday  $250,  for  some  afternoon  to  43  watch the r a c e . A t t h e end o f t h e y e a r , t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t announced the f o l l o w i n g s p e c i a l p l a n s : A NOVELTY IN RACING - Mr. F r e d B e l l , l a t e m a n a g e r o f t h e V i c t o r i a T h e a t r e , a n d Max Irwin, w i l l run a c h a r i o t r a c e on t h e B e a c o n H i l l c o u r s e to-day, a t 2 o ' c l o c k p.m. ... T h e c h a r i o t s w e r e brought f r o m P o r t l a n d , by Mr. B e l l , and a r e i n t e n d e d t o r e s e m b l e t h e o l d Roman c h a r i o t , a n d t h e r a c e w i l l d o u b t l e s s g i v e some i d e a o f t h e mode o | c o n d u c t i n g s u c h s p o r t s among t h e a n c i e n t s . "  made  In  the  to  i n c r e a s e the  reducing Plate for to  at  was  Queen's  the  of  1863,  an  participation  of  local  stock  dominance  restricted  least  enter.  races  Birthday  sixty  of  to  days  Similarly,  favoured  horses and  horses.  which  previous  Queen's  had  The  been  winners  P l a t e winners  attempt by  Queen's  on were  were  was  the not  Island allowed  excluded  147 from the Beacon H i l l these all  S w e e p s t a k e s and  r a c e s were banned  events  except  i n heats  and  winner.  A new  harness,  was  Track  trotting  event  t o be  Keeper's P l a t e .  o f t h r e e was  to V i c t o r i a ,  conducted  Despite  these  p o o r , and  events,  Inn  were t h e  more, p r o b l e m s w i t h  the  declared  a trotting  match i n  to the  San  o f £he  the  Francisco  arrangements, attendance  two  run  t o be  according  at  races, the h u r d l e s  s u b j e c t o f some d i s p u t e .  track arose  of In  t h e Queen's P l a t e , r a c e s were t o be  t h e b e s t two  Rules.  t h e r a c e s was  from the  winners of e i t h e r  and  Further-  as  ... i t has b e e n f o u n d n e c e s s a r y t o make a s l i g h t d e v i a t i o n i n the course, i n consequence o f the f e n c e r e c e n t l y e r e c t e d by Mr.^|?atton, encroaching on t h e l i n e o f t h e o l d t r a c k . In p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the F a l l Friday,  November 19  established. R.N.,  J.C.  served and  and  20,  Course.  Ridge,  Bishop  The  a slate  o f o f f i c e r s was  A c t i n g S t e w a r d s were t h e Hon. and  C h a s . W.  as J u d g e , Edward R.  Robert  R a c e s , on T h u r s d a y  and  A.  Wallace.  R.D.  Skinner,  r a c i n g c a r d was  Foster  Treasurer,  J r . were C l e r k s o f  predominantly  one  mile  in  a programme w h i c h t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t c o n s i d e r e d  be  "certainly  t h e most p r o m i s i n g  again  Laschelles,  Colonel  Thomas as H o n o r a r y  and  and  attractive  the heats to  yet offered  46 to  the  sporting public".  Race, $10 Victoria 'Attila';  per  e n t r y and  Purse,  $125  per  Ladies Purse,  W i n n e r s were: $100  added, T u r g e o n ' s  e n t r y and $10  Thursday  per  $250 added,  e n t r y and  $100  - Pony  'Mousey'; Wittaker's added,  148 Quarles'  'Joe Bowers'; F r i d a y - Beacon H i l l  Stakes,  purse, Mooney's 'Wake-Up-Jake; Pony Sweepstakes, $10 e n t r y p l u s $50  added, Richardson's  Keepers' Purse, 'Jim',  $150 per  'Punch'; L i v e r y S t a b l e  $20 per e n t r y p l u s $100  added, H a r r i s '  l a t e r r e v e r s e d i n favour of Keenan's ' S i r James  Douglas' . In 1863,  C o l o n e l F o s t e r , M.P.,  bably the f i r s t  thoroughbred  r e g i o n from England. E x c e l s i o r and,  r e c e i v e d what was  horse to be imported  The horse a r r i v e d aboard  to the  the v e s s e l  a c c o r d i n g to the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , was  s p l e n d i d order, and  pro-  "in  speaks w e l l f o r the care and a t t e n t i o n  which he must have r e c e i v e d d u r i n g h i s f i v e months 48 incarceration".  Since the horse would r e q u i r e s u b s t a n t i a l  t r a i n i n g a f t e r such a voyage, i t would not be expected become prominent i n the news f o r some time. success or f a i l u r e i s not  to  Its later  apparent.  Throughout the 1860s,,. important match races were gene r a l l y c o n t e s t e d f o r stakes of $1,000. 1864  race a t P e a t t ' s Farm, i n which W.  defeated J a s . Copland's was  'Emigrant Dick'.  'Lizzie'  Such a p r i z e  "three i s l a n d horses and a f a s t mare 50  from the American side".  to  Snyder's 49  s u f f i c i e n t to e n t i c e competition from south of the  border as, i n 1867,  The  An example i s the  competed f o r $1,000 i n V i c t o r i a .  i n t e r e s t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n of Americans was  even s u f f i c i e n t  cause the V i c t o r i a n s to postpone the P r i n c e of Wales  r a c e s of 1867.  The date was  changed to a more convenient  149  day  "so as t o e n a b l e  witness  our f r i e n d s from  t h e sports". "'" 5  'Greyhound'  won  In the feature  $1,000 b y d e f e a t i n g  the other race  side to  o f that day,  'Volreece'  and  'Boston  52 Colt', well,  Two  years  and l o s t  a  later,  'Greyhound'  $500 r a c e  t o 'Lucy',  d i d not fare  as  i n one o f t h e b e s t 53  contested  races  Races were of the of the  precise Daily Wales  ever often  held  marred  regulations. Standard  races  on t h e I s l a n d . by d i s p u t e s  The f o l l o w i n g  outlined  lengthy  a controversy  o f 1 8 7 1 and i s t y p i c a l  due t o t h e l a c k report  during  from  the Prince  o f the problems o f  day. T h e t h i r d r a c e was t h e H u r d l e R a c e , h e a t s o f o n e m i l e , b e s t two o f t h r e e . The f o l l o w i n g h o r s e s ran: Grey J i m , B i r d c a t c h e r , and B u t c h e r Boy. In t h e f i r s t h e a t , t h e h o r s e s g o t away w e l l , a n d k e p t closely together t i l l passing the f i r s t hurdle, when B u t c h e r Boy b e g a n t o draw a h e a d , a t t h e s e c o n d h u r d l e Grey J i m and B i r d c a t c h e r b a u l k e d , which gave B u t c h e r Boy a l o n g l e a d , however, a t t h e t h i r d h u r d l e , B u t c h e r B o y b a u l k e d , a n d i t was s o m e t i m e b e f o r e h i s r i d e r c o u l d g e t h i m o v e r ; G r e y J i m came i n f i r s t , B i r d c a t c h e r s e c o n d , a n d B u t c h e r B o y was nowhere. I n t h e s e c o n d h e a t , B u t c h e r B o y came i n f i r s t , Grey J i m a c a p i t a l second, and B i r d c a t c h e r third. A n o b j e c t i o n w a s made b y t h e r i d e r o f G r e y J i m t o B u t c h e r Boy b e i n g d e c l a r e d w i n n e r o f t h e h e a t , on a c c o u n t o f h i s n o t h a v i n g jumped o v e r t h e c e n t r e o f t h e t h i r d h u r d l e , b u t o v e r what i s c a l l e d t h e wing, which i s lower than t h e hurdle. The owner o f B u t c h e r Boy c o n t e n d e d t h a t t h e r e b e i n g no f l a g s (as i s u s u a l ) a t e a c h w i n g o f t h e h u r d l e s , t h a t i f t h e h o r s e j u m p e d a n y p o r t i o n o f i t , i t was s u f f i c i e n t . A f t e r wasting c o n s i d e r a b l e time d i s c u s s i n g the question, and t h e r e b e i n g no S t e w a r d s a t t h e m e e t i n g t o g i v e a d e c i s i o n , i t was d e c i d e d t o l e a v e i t t o t h e J u d g e , who t h o u g h t t h a t t h e b e s t w a y t o s e t t l e t h e d i s p u t e d p o i n t w o u l d be t o c a l l i t no h e a t and r u n i t o v e r again. Mr. R e y n o l d o b j e c t e d t o t h i s , c l a i m i n g t h a t h e h a d won t h e r a c e a n d w i t h d r e w G r e y J i m . Birdcatcher and B u t c h e r Boy t h e n went o u t and r a n t h e h e a t , w h i c h was a v e r y g o o d o n e , t h e y k e e p i n g c l o s e t o g e t h e r around  150 t h e c o u r s e ; B i r d c a t c h e r w i n n i n g by a b o u t h a l f a length. At the c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s heat, f u r t h e r d i s p u t e s a r o s e , t h e owner o f B u t c h e r Boy m a i n t a i n e d t h a t B i r d c a t c h e r had no r i g h t t o h a v e r u n a g a i n , as he was d i s q u a l i f i e d by n o t h a v i n g r u n f i r s t i n e i t h e r o f t h e f i r s t two h e a t s , and c o n t e n d e d t h a t t h e p r e v i o u s h e a t had b e e n won by h i s h o r s e and t h e f i r s t one by G r e y J i m . As t h e l a t t e r h o r s e w i t h d r e w he c l a i m e d t h e r a c e . How i t w i l l be s e t t l e d we a r e u n a b l e t o say ... 5 4  For by  some r e a s o n , c o n t e m p o r a r y  such r a c i n g  San  codes  F r a n c i s c o , and  corporate  as c o u l d be  had  racing  and  found  i n England,  n o t w r i t t e n a code o f r u l e s  abide or  even  to i n -  decisions.  Among t h e p r o m i n e n t 1860 a  horsemen d i d n o t  early  1870 s  horses was  in Victoria  a Mr.  d u r i n g the  Davies' racer,  late  'Wake-Up55  Jake'.  C o n s i d e r e d one  t h e h o r s e was to  winner  Another of the  the Union  150  tickets Until  of  celebrated  1869  a t $2  r a c e r was  Navy P l a t e .  the  taken  still  'Cafe-au-lait',  In 1870,  Island,  stands the  h i s owner, Mr. by  raffle,  Howard  offering  each.^  the e a r l y  1870s,  the major horse r a c i n g  events  Queen's B i r t h d a y r a c e s i n  May  o r P r i n c e o f W a l e s B i r t h d a y r a c e s i n November.  e v e n t s had  the r e p o r t  on  o f t h a t h i s name was  H o t e l , E s q u i m a l t , s o l d him  the F a l l  Both  animals  'Wake-Up-Jake S a l o o n '  t h e r e g i o n were t h e a n n u a l  and  by  thought  B a r k e r v i l l e where t h e  today.  of  so w e l l  of the f a s t e s t  received  at least  evidenced  spectators 57 had a t t e n d e d t h e Queen's B i r t h d a y r a c e s o f 1870 and, i n 1871, t h e P r i n c e o f Wales r a c e s had b e e n r u n u n d e r t h e dual  that  c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t , as t w e n t y - f i v e hundred  s p o n s o r s h i p of L i e u t e n a n t Governor  T r u t c h and  Admiral  58 Farquhar.  However, by  137 2 i t had  become  apparent  that  the growing  land  had begun  the  region's  the  British  at  settlements  to detract  racing  Kamloops  from  centre.  Colonist  i n the interior  V i c t o r i a ' s prominence  I n September  announced  and v o i c e d  of the main-  of that  the inception  the concern  that  of  as  year,  races  the mainland  was 59  gaining  on the I s l a n d  In  an attempt  by  local  to  schedule  First and of  the Victoria  the F a l l  races  the  races  won  pleasure race.  6  the Innkeepers'  that  there  The need  when  he  part  of every  were  continually period,  shift  local  Here  racing  held  decided  that  a n d 44 0 y a r d  won  and  'Birdcatcher'  Standard  racing  i n Victoria  Although through  ^Champagne In  was t h e  voiced  his dis-  for a  stock  three  race.  trotting  was f u r t h e r 62  " t h e same o l d n a g s "  card.  centre  with the  horses  any e n t r i e s  and b e t t e r  stated  thoroughbreds  the Hurdles  F. S a u n d e r s '  had n o t been  t h e major  annual  were races  t h e remainder o f  of horse  racing  was  soon t o  day o f formal  racing  i n the Interior  to the Interior.  " Probably was  Plate  stock.  of the A g r i c u l t u r a l  won  of the Daily  f o r new  of  fraternity  Mr. Howard's  'Harkaway'  The e d i t o r  1  emphasized  the  as  A g r i c u l t u r a l Purse,  victor.  racing  Provincial Exhibition 6  Charlie'  the raising  o f 1872 i n c o n j u n c t i o n  Horticultural Society. ^ the four  o f i n t e r e s t and r a c i n g  to stimulate  farmers,  Annual  i n terms  a t Yale,  the f i r s t during  the fourth  a Mr. O p p e n h e i m e r  Douglas  Street  Stakes,  was  of July  celebrations  o f 1861.  the starter  f o r t h e Town  Plate,  and t h e L a d i e s  Purse  races,  which  were  152  to  be r u n i n h e a t s .  a judge  The o r g a n i z a t i o n  and s t e w a r d s ,  colours.  of the event  w h i l e r i d e r s were e x p e c t e d  Even a grandstand  had b e e n b u i l t  and  included  t o wear  several  63 l a d i e s were r e p o r t e d t o h a v e s a t t h e r e . In  the following year,  several  racing  ment  I n e a r l y May,  the s i t e of  Willoughby's 64 'Blue B o n n e t ' d e f e a t e d Mr. K e a r n e y ' s 'Pegs' and, l a t e r t h a t month, a s p r i n g m e e t i n g was h e l d as p a r t o f t h e Queen's 65 Birthday  cards.  1862, Y a l e was  celebrations.  appeared  i n New  the Yale October  Mr.  Then, i n September, an  Westminster's  Meeting  British  Columbian  "other  Street  Stakes  f o r $100. 66  inland,  s h o o t i n g and  took the mining  the centre of horse  Queen's B i r t h d a y and o f f e r e d People's  Purse  Colonist  in Victoria.  was  "not r e a l l y  the  finest  a Queen's P u r s e  The c o r r e s p o n d e n t  horses  Esquimalt".  In the  to the B r i t i s h  stated  that  Lilloet  community, a l t h o u g h p o s s e s s i n g  i n t h e P r o v i n c e " - . ^ The P e o p l e ' s  by "one o f ' U n c l e Sam's' condemned  d r i v e n up h e r e  o f $100,  o f $10.  reported i n a letter  a sporting  further  a day o f r a c e s on t h e  o f $50, and a C l u b P u r s e  n e x t y e a r , t h e e v e n t was  community  r a c i n g moved w i t h t h e p o p u l a t i o n .  1862, t h e town o f L i l l o e t h e l d  was won  Pigeon  f o r $200 and  s p o r t " were t o f o l l o w .  As t h e p u r s u i t o f g o l d  In  t o announce  on t h e e i g h t h - j a n d - n i n t h of. t h e month,  i n w h i c h t h e f e a t u r e r a c e s were t h e Town P l a t e the Douglas  advertise-  Purse  a r t i l l e r y horses  i n a buggy, and owned by a g e n t l e m a n o f  Similarly,  t h e Queen's P u r s e ,  i n which  five  153 horses were entered, was  won  by a man  I s l a n d , w h i l e the L i l l o e t Stakes was  from Vancouver won  by a l o c a l .  events i n c l u d e d a " p r i m i t i v e heathen"race  Other  (for natives),  h e l t e r - s k e l t e r fancy nag r a c e , and a Siwash race i n which white r i d e r s were to compete on Cayoosh p o n i e s .  The  correspondent continued to tease the I s l a n d c a p i t a l  by  commenting that; Quite a number of V i c t o r i a n s were here, and e n t r i e s unusually large. I t was determined on our p a r t to g i v e these ' f o r e i g n e r s as much amusement as p o s s i b l e ... the ' L i l l o e t Stakes' was won by a horse owned i n t h i s town, who somehow came ahead of the V . I . f o r e i g n e r s . T h i s , of course, was an e r r o r of the horse. I t was very ungentlemanly of the r i d e r to win, i f he d i d i t i n t e n t i o n a l l y , when people venture so f a r from home to a strange country for sport. 1  The annual races a t A s h c r o f t began i n 1865 the major r a c i n g venue f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . y e a r l y race was  h e l d on October  cluded the f o l l o w i n g events:  and became  The  second  12 and 13, 1866,  F r i d a y - 1/2  and i n -  m i l e Cayoosh  Sweepstakes, A s h c r o f t Derby, Match race, Chinook Stakes, 300 yard Sweepstakes, and the L y t t o n Steeplechase; Saturday Grand Pigeon Race, Thompson R i v e r Stakes, Match r a c e , and 69 the Yale Steeplechase.  In 1870,  p r o v i d e d t h i s r e p o r t of r a c i n g  the Cariboo  Sentinel  action:  A s h c r o f t Races - Mr. James Ward's s o r r e l horse won the Thompson r i v e r stakes i n c o m p e t i t i o n with Doc. E n g l i s h ' s Oregon horse, T. Buie's mare, and Poole's grey horse Kingbald - m i l e heats, b e s t two out of t h r e e . K i n g b a l d , which was the winner of the P r e s i d e n t ' s purse a t the races h e l d here on the 4th J u l y l a s t , gave the s o r r e l horse a c l o s e r u n . 7 0  -  During  t h e two day e v e n t ,  p r i z e s were t h e t o t a l $10-$20 p e r h o r s e , I n 187 2,  variance with occurring  r a c e s were h e l d .  p l u s an  'added' sum o f $40 o r $ 1 0 0 .  o f t h e A s h c r o f t Races, which appears a t the previous  i n 1866.  r e p o r t o f the second y e a r l y race  The d i s c r e p a n c y may  t h e 1872 m e e t i n g was  G o v e r n o r was  7 1  C o l o n i s t announced t h e S e v e n t h  be due t o a news-  p a p e r e r r o r and d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y However,  Cash  of entry fees f o r the race, g e n e r a l l y  the B r i t i s h  Annual Meeting  some n i n e  important  because the L i e u t e n a n t -  r e p o r t e d t o have b e e n p r e s e n t  been brought from over  significant.  t h r e e hundred m i l e s  and h o r s e s  had  to enter the  72 races.  Such news was c e r t a x n l y o f i n t e r e s t  who  were c o n c e r n e d  the  f a c e o f growing c o m p e t i t i o n  concern  about t h e i r  was u n d o u b t e d l y  s t r o v e t o improve l o c a l Nursery bred place  Stakes  i n October, By t h i s  become v e r y  time, active  from t h e I n t e r i o r .  s t o c k by p r o p o s i n g old colts  The f i r s t 73  such  patrick's Purse by  Coultbel's  to hold  r a c e was  annual w h i c h were  to take  1874. the i n t e r i o r i n horse  communities  racing.  Confederate  'Lady K i l u t i n ' ,  o f $100, won  Their  of Ashcroft  and f i l l i e s  Purse  indeed  and t h e r e s u l t s  o f $150, won  f o l l o w e d by  by C a p t a i n  had  I n 1870, t h e town o f  L y t t o n h e l d r a c e s on t h e f o u r t h o f J u l y were as f o l l o w s :  r a c i n g prowess i n  i n c r e a s e d as t h e p e o p l e  f o r two y e a r  i n the province.  dwindling  to the V i c t o r i a n s  ' N e l l Gynne';  Thompson's  ' B o l t e r ' ; R a i l r o a d Purse  by K i r k -  'Barney',  o f $75, won  Responsible followed by Seward's  155  'John B u l l ' . as was  An Indian race f o r $25 was  a f o o t race f o r the same amount.  on the races was  also included, Apparently  betting  r e s t r i c t e d as the Cariboo S e n t i n e l r e p o r t e d :  Booking was s t r i c t l y p r o h i b i t e d by the p o l i c e on the a u t h o r i t y of a r e c e n t Act of the I m p e r i a l Parliament, g r e a t l y to the m o r t i f i c a t i o n of the numerous ' s p o r t s ' who had congregated from a l l p a r t s of the d i s t r i c t . 7 4  In 1872, farm of Mr. was  the P a v i l i o n Mountain Races were h e l d on the  Robert Carson,  near C l i n t o n .  About $1,000  o f f e r e d i n p r i z e s and between twenty and t h i r t y of the  d i s t r i c t ' s horses were i n t r a i n i n g f o r the event. t h i s t r a i n i n g , Carson was and board  f o r the men  During  r e p o r t e d t o be p r o v i d i n g room  and feed f o r the horses at a p r i c e  75 of $2.50 per day.  Two  years l a t e r , the C l i n t o n Races  were a two day event i n c o r p o r a t i n g a t o t a l of ten r a c e s . Prominent horses a t these races were 'Oregon Dick'  and  'Bolger Dick'. As i m p l i e d by the name 'Oregon Dick', i n t e r i o r men  horse-  were importing horses d u r i n g the e a r l y 1870s.  Further  evidence i s p r o v i d e d by the f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t i n the D a i l y Standard, d u r i n g the s p r i n g of 1873. 'Grey Eagle' - T h i s very f i n e grey s t a l l i o n r e c e n t l y imported from the other s i d e of the l i n e , leaves t h i s morning per E n t e r p r i s e f o r Cache Creek and the upper country, where he w i l l stand f o r the season. 7 7  That s p r i n g , Lake La Hache began h o l d i n g races on the Queen's B i r t h d a y .  The purses f o r each race ranged  as h i g h  as $7 00, a t t r a c t i n g a number of horses to the t r a c k .  156 Among those i n t r a i n i n g were 'Dexter', 'Cariboo C h a r l i e ' , 78 'Oregon Dick', 'Blaze', and  'Shoo F l y ' .  In the f a l l ,  the  Kamloops horsemen claimed to have the b e s t t r a c k i n  the  province.  T h e i r r a c i n g card o f October 20 and 21 drew  a l a r g e r crowd than i n the p r e v i o u s year and even the  attendance a t the A s h c r o f t Races.  outdrew  A judges stand had  been b u i l t a t the t r a c k , along w i t h s t a b l e s to accommodate 79 twenty horses and t h e i r t r a i n e r s .  Two weeks l a t e r ,  on November 3 and 4, Keremeos h e l d a race meeting and i t s promoters a l s o claimed the b e s t t r a c k i n the p r o v i n c e . Such imported horses as V a n d e r v e l t ' s 'Arkansas' and 80 A. McConnell's  'Dick Cheatem' were prominent.  Here,  races were s p e c i f i c a l l y run a c c o r d i n g to E n g l i s h Jockey Club Rules, the f i r s t  apparent r e f e r e n c e t o formal r u l e s f o r 81 horse r a c i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia. By 1874, the B r i d g e Creek Jockey Club was h o l d i n g i t s 82 second annual meeting i n mid-October. Thus, the f a l l r a c i n g c i r c u i t i n the I n t e r i o r would f o l l o w the rough 83 p a t t e r n of the B r i d g e Creek, A s h c r o f t , Kamloops, and C l i n t o n or Keremeos r a c e s . In 1879, the f i r s t annual meeting 84 at  150 M i l e House was  h e l d on October 20 and 21  and, t h r e e  years l a t e r , another two days o f r a c e s were h e l d a t  Spence's  Bridge. The development  of horse r a c i n g i n the I n t e r i o r not  only reduced the prominence but  of V i c t o r i a ' s racing  l e d to more widespread c o m p e t i t i o n .  Vancouver  circle,  While horses from  I s l a n d had been l u r e d to compete on the mainland,  157 Interior of  horses  l i k e w i s e journeyed  population.  For  Races o f J u n e ,  was  the major winner  1874,  a horse  a horse  'Reindeer'  named  'Cariboo  Similarly,  8  by  named  was  defeated  'Trifle'.  'Trifle'  centres  Coronation  i n a meet r e m i n i s ' c e n t o f  r a c i n g days i n the c a p i t a l . ^ Howard's  larger  example, a t V i c t o r i a ' s  Day  J.T.  to the  in  Charlie'  early 1876,  i n a $2,000 was  race  owned by  a  man  87 named D i x o n , and  was  'Bolger Dick'.  reported to  who  t h a t he  probably  The  had  t h e owner o f  Cariboo  'Oregon  Dick'  S e n t i n e l had p r e v i o u s l y  intentions  of going  from  the  Cariboo  Victoria. While  horsemen s o u g h t  p r o v i n c e , American horses races.  One  'Osceola',  horse  competition throughout also  appeared  of p a r t i c u l a r  w h i c h e a s i l y won  in British  i n t e r e s t was  the  1874  the Columbia  Coggan's  P r i n c e o f Wales  race  89 in Victoria. Year's  Day,  bribed  by  In a S e a t t l e 'Osceola's'  a "Ring"  r a c e on  trainer  was  the  following  r e p o r t e d t o have been  to poison h i s horse.  I n s t e a d , he  the horse  a harmless  p i e c e o f dough so t h a t i n t h e  race,  " R i n g " was  effectively 90  the  victory In  over the  'Tom fall  between a l o c a l competitors 'Jack  Cabe'.  visitor  New  c l e a n e d o u t by  fed  ensuing  'Osceola's'  '  Merry'. o f 1875,  horse  were W.  and  Nanaimo was a visitor  Akenhead's  Which h o r s e  i s not c l e a r ,  but  was  host  from  t o a match  Victoria.  'Brown B r e a d ' the  local  the V i c t o r i a  and  and which  h o r s e was  race  The  F.  Saunder's  the declared •  158 the  winner  The  race  by Nanaimo's Mayor  was a s i n g l e  dash  Bute,  who  o f one m i l e  acted along  as  judge.  Comox  Road,  91 for  a prize The  centre. a  city  such  yard  o f New W e s t m i n s t e r i t s horse  Day m e e t i n g  events  race,  race,  $100.  Generally,  Dominion  of  of  single  listed  two o f t h r e e  dash;  competition  on the main  as these  best  was n o t n o t e d  a scrub  street  i n 1878:  trials;  race;  was  as a r a c i n g limited  a n d was a five  a five  comprised  hundred  hundred  and an I n d i a n  to  yard  Pony  race,  92 for of A  ponies  owned  that year, major  and r i d d e n  a second  winner  by I n d i a n s .  m e e t was h e l d ,  during  that  event  was  I n September  b u t was p o o r l y  attended.  a Mr. Towndsend,  another  94 touring The  Cariboo  e n t h u s i a s t who w a s  earliest  have  occurred  only  a tiny  race  i n the Vancouver  i n 188 3 .  saw-mill  from  At that  camp,  time,  but a race  Ashcroft. area  was r e p o r t e d t o  "the c o m m u n i t y apparently  was  took  place  95 on  Howe  to  serve  However,  Street. both  I n 1885,  the townsite  the proposal  a joint  race  of Granville  course a n d New  was r e j e c t e d b e c a u s e  was  proposed  Westminster.  the site  was  96 considered years  later,  completion audience carried to  t o have  the rapid  t o o f a r from growth  o f t h e C.P.R.  f o r horse between  other  i n population  provided  racing.  Granville.  Thus,  a large i n 1890,  races  equestrian  a t New  A few  following the  and e n t h u s i a s t i c special  15,000 - 20,000 s p e c t a t o r s f r o m 97  t h e Queen's Park In  been  trains  Vancouver  Westminster.  competition,  trotting  races  failed  to gain support during the period. A s l a t e a s 1884, trotting and h a r n e s s r a c e s a t t h e V i c t o r i a D r i v i n g P a r k were r e p o r t e d  159 98 to have been p o o r l y attended. gained p o p u l a r i t y only a f t e r  Polo matches seem t o have the p e r i o d .  In 1889, matches  were r e p o r t e d t o have been played almost weekly d u r i n g the f a l l and winter, between teams o f g a r r i s o n o f f i c e r s 99 and v i s i t i n g E n g l i s h n a v a l o f f i c e r s .  The V i c t o r i a  Polo  Club was organized i n 1 8 9 2 ^ ° and, i n August o f t h a t year, x  hosted  the C a l g a r y Polo Club i n the only  polo match of the n i n e t e e n t h century. " SUMMARY 1<  Horse r a c i n g was probably  inter-provincial  )±  the f i r s t  formal s p o r t i n g  a c t i v i t y t o take p l a c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Known as the  sport o f k i n g s , i t s p o p u l a r i t y amongst the E n g l i s h a r i s t o c r a c y made i t a most d e s i r a b l e a c t i v i t y through military  officers, colonial  officials,  which  and businessmen  c o u l d emulate the high s o c i e t y of the mother country. eventual requirement  of a c o n s i d e r a b l e f i n a n c i a l  The  commit-  ment f o r the purchase and maintenance of a horse which was kept s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r r a c i n g , l e n t an a i r o f e x c l u s i v i t y t o the s p o r t and made the ownership of a race horse a p r e s t i g i o u s luxury. F o l l o w i n g a p a t t e r n which was i d e n t i f i a b l e North America, horse r a c i n g soon became a popular  throughout spectator  s p o r t amongst a l l c l a s s e s and provided an important  oppor-  t u n i t y f o r the g r e a t e s t s o c i a l m i n g l i n g of the n i n e t e e n t h 102 century.  Such a t r e n d was f a c i l i t a t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  where the g o l d mines o f t e n produced quick f o r t u n e s and gen-  160 e r a t e d p r o s p e r i t y w i t h i n the community.  Thus, r a p i d  social  m o b i l i t y was p o s s i b l e i n the f r o n t i e r s o c i e t y and ownership of  a race horse was undoubtedly a symbol of t h a t success.  However, d e s p i t e the e n t h u s i a s t i c f o l l o w i n g of d i v e r s e t u r f fans, the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the e a r l y races was d i r e c t e d by such V i c t o r i a n gentlemen as Thomas H a r r i s , C o l o n e l F o s t e r , Governor Douglas, C a p t a i n Robson, L i e u t e n a n t Governor T r u t c h , and Admiral  Farquhar.  Rules and r e g u l a t i o n s to govern the races were cons t a n t l y a source of d i s p u t e .  In 1861, the V i c t o r i a  Jockey  Club was formed i n the hope of c r e a t i n g a more formal  organ-  i z a t i o n o f horse r a c i n g , but i t s a s p i r a t i o n s had been based on the c o n t i n u i n g support of a t r a n s i e n t p o p u l a t i o n and proved  f a r above the f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s of i t s s t a b l e  supporters.  Thus, one year a f t e r i t s formation, the c l u b  floundered.  The races continued and were g e n e r a l l y run  i n heats, the best two of three heats being d e c l a r e d the winner.  However, the races were o f t e n s u b j e c t t o dispute,  e s p e c i a l l y the match r a c e s , where stakes were u s u a l l y s e t at  $1,000.  The e a r l i e s t apparent  r e c o r d of standard  was i n 1873, when the E n g l i s h Jockey  rules  Club Rules were  employed a t Keremeos. E a r l y races had undoubtedly been contested by r e g u l a r saddle ponies, but horses were soon r e c o g n i z e d more f o r t h e i r speed than f o r t h e i r d a i l y u t i l i t y . were being imported  By 1860, ' f a s t '  t o the colony, and three years  C o l o n e l F o s t e r r e c e i v e d what was probably the f i r s t  horses  later, thorough-  161  bred  to  arrive  were  imported  horsemen as  part  and  tried of  to  Nursery  to  the  promote  outstanding as  'George ,  'Grey  and  so  racers  'Grey  'Oregon  Dick',  opportunity  been  for  given  Boy',  'Bolger  born  no  their to  years  'Black  'Butcher  holding  have  early  Billy',  by  to  recognized  the  horsemen  fillies  was  races  Agricultural  stock  was  credit  Victoria  Cariboo  and  horses  holding  the  appear  there  during  'Jim',  1  colts  become  Instead,  Arrow ,  'Cafe-au-Lait',  old  more  the  by  in local  Horses  to  of  Similarly,  year  'Moustache',  1  tail',  jockeys.  Prominent  breeding  improvement  riders  years,  while  Exhibition  Society.  owners,  later  States  local  province.  their  In  United  f o r two  i n the  horses.  the  encourage  by  prowess  England.  Provincial  Stakes  bred  ridden for  from  Horticultural  strove  and  from  the were:  Prince', 1  'Silver-  Wake-Up-Jake  Dick',  and  1  ,  'Cariboo  Charlie'. As pant  early  as  1862,  i n races  on  the  their served  journeys to  was  enhance  mainland.  not  growing  the  racing  prominence  and  Prince  of  the  most  among  communities  Wales  local  of  to  Victoria  No  doubt  race,  Interior  i n the  region  such  Keremeos, The  The  capital  i n the  included  and  horsemen.  the  but  were  the  success  were  Queen's  centres  provided of  around  able  were  an as  keen  to  1870, challenge  Birthday  no  Interior  of  participation  By  and  partici-  purpose  their  rivalry.  Victoria.  races  which  Kamloops,  of  races  prestigious  circuit,  Ashcroft,  just  of  inter-community  the  racing  citizens  longer Interior  Bridge  Creek,  competition horses  caused  the  Victoria  horsemen of  such  owners  began  great  t o compete  American  horses  stimulus  to British  breeding  and upgrading  The of  huge  to  twenty  city  'Osceola'  Columbia  influx  o f Vancouver  railway brought  were t o New  being  Westminster's  i n c r e a s e d numbers  equestrian  activity  formed.  further  generated  the  the province.  the completion  many  horse  by 1890, crowds  carried  Cariboo  participation  and encouraged  of population following  Similarly,  was  The  throughout  Thus,  when  provided  horsemen  of stock  to the province.  thousand  especially  i n the capital.  as  the trans-continental  enthusiasts  concern,  by r a i l  o f up  from the  Queen's interest  and, i n 1892, t h e V i c t o r i a  racing  Park  races.  i n another Polo  Club  163 Table V I I I Horse Racina 1855  - Queen's B i r t h d a y races a t Beacon H i l l  59 - F i r s t newspaper r e p o r t o f Queen's B i r t h d a y races at V i c t o r i a - Queen's P l a t e won by 'Moustache' 2  3  Q  1860  -  Two ' f a s t horses' a r r i v e d from Honolulu O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r J u l y 3 and 4 r a c e s ' 'Amateur' races w i t h o f f i c i a l s 'Grey B i l l y ' over 'Black P r i n c e ' f o r $ 8 0 0 1 1  1 2  1 3  16  61 - F u l l e r ' s 'Butcher Boy' d i s q u a l i f i e d i n favour o f J.A. R i c e ' s 'Jim' f o r $ 1 , 0 0 0 - 'Grey B i l l y ' over 'Black P r i n c e ' f o r $2,OOO - Roberts' horse over Parker's 'Moustache' f o r $2,OOO/ $15,000 i n b e t s - V i c t o r i a Jockey Club o r g a n i z e d - Major winners ' S i l v e r t a i l ' , 'Black P r i n c e ' , 'Grey Arrow', 'Jim', and ' p t ' ' - 'Black John' over 'Lady F r a n k l i n ' f o r $ 1 , 0 0 0 - 'Grey Arrow' over 'Jim* f o r $ 1 , 7 5 0 - Yale 4th o f J u l y r a c e s 17  21  21  2 2  2 3  3 0  3 1  e  33  35  6 3  62 - V i c t o r i a Jockey Club defunct but races organized by Thomas H a r r i s ._ - Shannon's ' P i l g r i m ' over ' S i l v e r t a i l ' f o r $250 - Chariot Race - Willoughby's 'Blue Bonnet' over Kearney's 'Pegs' - Yale meetings i n s p r i n g and f a l l ' - L i l l o e t Queen's B i r t h d a y r a c e s 3 9  4 4  6  5  6  6  6 7  46 63 - New l i s t o f V i c t o r i a o f f i c i a l s - C o l o n e l F o s t e r r e c e i v e d thoroughbred - V i c t o r i a horses a t L i l l o e t races  from Eng land  64 - W. Snyder's ' L i z z i e ' over J a s . Copland's Dick' f o r $ 1 , 0 0 0  'Emigrant  49  69 65 - F i r s t Annual A s h c r o f t races 50 6 7 - American competitors i n V i c t o r i a - 'Greyhound' over 'Volreece' and 'Boston C o l t ' f o r $1,000 - 'Lucy' over 'Greyhound' f o r $500 52  164 Table V I I I (Continued) Horse Racing 1870 - L y t t o n 4th of J u l y  races  7 4  71 - V i c t o r i a P r i n c e of Wal-es races sponsored by L i e u t e n a n t Governor Trutch and Admiral F a r q u h a r 5 8  59 72 - Kamloops Races - F i r s t Annual P r o v i n c i a l E x h i b i t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r a l and Horticultural Society - Howard's 'Harkaway' and 'Champagne C h a r l i e ' and F. Saunders' ' B i r d c a t c h e r ' are major w i n n e r s ^ - L i e u t e n a n t Governor a t A s h c r o f t r a c e s - P a v i l i o n Mountain races a t C l i n t o n 77 7 3 - 'Grey Eagle' imported to Cariboo from U.S. - Queen's B i r t h d a y races at Lake La H a c h e - S t a b l e s b u i l t a t Kamloops t r a c k g_ - Imported horses 'Arkansas' and 'Dick Cheatem' - E n g l i s h Jockey Club Rules used at K e r e m e o s - B r i d g e Creek Jockey C l u b 86 74 - 'Cariboo C h a r l i e ' a t V i c t o r i a ' s C o r o n a t i o n Day races - American horse 'Osceola' at V i c t o r i a 8 9 .91 75 - Racing at Nanaimo 76 - Dixon's ' T r i f l e ' over Howard's 'Reindeer' f o r $2,000 6 0  7 2  7 5  78  7 9  81  8 2  92 78 - Races at New Westminster - A s h c r o f t horsemen, Towndsend, at New  Westminster"  79 - F i r s t annual meeting at 150 M i l e H o u s e  94  85 1882 - Spence's Bridge meeting 95 83 - Race on Howe S t r e e t 96 85 - Proposed j o i n t t r a c k f o r G r a n v i l l e and New 1890 - Crowds of 20,000 V a n c o u v e r i t e s at New races 9 7  Westminster  Westminster  165 CHAPTER XIII RIFLE SHOOTING R i f l e d r i l l was e x e r c i s e and  n a t u r a l l y a p a r t of any  military  so, contemporary newspapers o f t e n c a r r i e d  such r e p o r t s as: TARGET PRACTICE - The crew of the gunboat Forward were out t a r g e t - s h o o t i n g yesterday back of Beacon Hill. 1  Meanwhile, c i v i l i a n s used r i f l e s i n t h e i r hunting expedi t i o n s and was  i n v a r i o u s shooting matches.  h e l d on Christmas  Day,  One  such  1!861, at Beacon H i l l ,  event where con-  t e s t a n t s were t o shoot r i f l e s off-hand a t a d i s t a n c e of hundred yards.  A charge of f i f t y  and a Kanaka h a l f - b r e e d Indian won  cents per shot was  one  levied  the p r i z e of a t u r k e y .  R.egular t a r g e t shooting competitions d i d not  2  take  p l a c e u n t i l Volunteer R i f l e or M i l i t i a companies were organized.  The  first  such group of R i f l e V o l u n t e e r s  formed by V i c t o r i a ' s b l a c k community, who  was  r e c e i v e d the loan  3  of  muskets from the H.B.C.  By e a r l y August of 1861,  some  t h i r t y to s i x t y members were mustered f o r each d r i l l J.T. P i d w e l l had been e l e c t e d as honorary  and  secretary.'  A  month l a t e r , the corps announced i t s i n t e n t i o n to parade in  f u l l uniform before proceeding to Beacon H i l l f o r 5 practice. The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t remarked: The number who w i l l d r i l l today w i l l not exceed men. The whole s t r e n g t h of the company i s 45. w i l l make t h e i r appearance i n a d r i l l uniform:  target  24 They blue  166 faced with orange. As i t i s the f i r s t v o l u n t e e r r i f l e company ever formed here, and as i t i s composed wholly of c o l o r e d men, i t w i l l doubtless a t t r a c t considerable attention. However, the a c t i v i t i e s of the corps were short Following  lived.  t h e i r appearance as guard of honor, accompanied  by t h e i r own band, f o r the i n s t a l l a t i o n o f Governor Kennedy, they were f o r c e d to disband. itulated and  t o pressure  declared  The Governor cap-  from members of the white community  t h a t the corps had no l e g a l a u t h o r i t y f o r i t s  organization. About t h i s time, the white c i t i z e n s of V i c t o r i a to have been t r y i n g  appear  to form a r i f l e corps themselves.  In  June o f 1861, The Press announced t h a t some two hundred g men had j o i n e d the Volunteers  but, i n t e r e s t  and o r g a n i z a t i o n  seem' to have lagged f a r behind t h a t o f the c o l o u r e d  volunteers.  In October, the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t c h a s t i s e d the group f o r i t s q  non-attendance a t d r i l l s " intended  and announced t h a t the L e g i s l a t u r e  to provide ^250 i n support of some  forty-seven  members o f the Vancouver I s l a n d R i f l e V o l u n t e e r s .  How-  1 0  ever, i n February of the f o l l o w i n g year, when Lieutenant Stewart was e l e c t e d to c a p t a i n of the corps, c o n t r i b u t i o n was s a i d  J.R.  the L e g i s l a t u r e ' s  to be only £200 f o r u n i f o r m s .  1 1  Regardless o f the promised support, i t appears that the group soon disbanded s i n c e , i n r e f e r e n c e  to the P r i n c e o f  Wales c e l e b r a t i o n s i n November, the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t noted: I t i s a matter o f r e g r e t t h a t no corps o f R i f l e V o l u n t e e r s now e x i s t s , as a f i e l d day on t h i s o c c a s i o n  167 w o u l d add a n o t h e r and b r i l l i a n t s p e c t a c l e t o d i s p l a y s o f l o y a l t y on t h i s o c c a s i o n . By  1864,  the  corps  was  back  together  again  the  and  was  13 constructing  a  rifle  range  annual  contest within  year.  Prizes  of  Governor,  the  were  the  at  corps  presented  and  Clover  by  Adjutant  was  Point. held  Mrs.  The  first  i n October  Kennedy,  V i n t e r was  the  awarded  that  wife the  silver  14 cup  donated  by  J.A.  Meanwhile, formalized  the  McCrea. New  i n December  Westminster of  1863,  Rifle  when  the  Company  was  Governor  approved  15 i t s election of o f f i c e r s . A year l a t e r , a c o n t r a c t f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a d r i l l  16  Bonsart shed the  and  was  Richards,  used  to  at  host  a  a  sum  dinner  visiting Victorians  who  had  of  $1058.  f o r 110 been  t h e Company a w a r d e d shed t o Messrs.  1865,  In  people  badly  this  i n honour  beaten  in  of  the  17 f i r s t i n t e r c o l o n i a l r i f l e match. The B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t d e s c r i b e d the p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r the c o n t e s t : Intercolonial R i f l e M a t c h - The c h o s e n t e n o f t h e V i c t o r i a R i f l e C o r p s w e n t u p t o New W e s t m i n s t e r b y t h e s t e a m e r E n t e r p r i s e o n T h u r s d a y n i g h t ... A f t e r f o r t i f y i n g t h e i n n e r man at the ' C o l o n i a l ' , the bugle s o u n d e d , a n d t h e V i c t o r i a n s f e l l i n , ^ g n d m a r c h e d up t o the^ground headed by t h e i r band... Two  weeks  later,  the  New  Westminster  'ten'  travelled  to  19 Victoria  at  no  charge,  courtesy  of  the  H.B.C.  and  defeated  20 the  Victoria In  with  a  1866, new  announced  Volunteers the  Volunteer  enthusiasm. in  by  Victoria.  a  score  of  228-210.  Rifles  of  both  Regular  training  towns  sessions  proceeded were  168 VICTORIA RIFLE CORPS - 1st c l a s s f i r i n g , Monday at 3:30 p.m.; 2nd c l a s s f i r i n g , Thursday at 3:30 p.m.; 3rd c l a s s f i r i n g Wednesday evening at 4 p.m.; squad d r i l l , Tuesday and F r i d a y at 7:30 p.m. By o r d e r , J . Gordon V i n t e r , L i e u t , and Adjutant.21 In c o m p e t i t i o n with the Navy, the V o l u n t e e r s won  by  20  p o i n t s , l a r g e l y on the marksmanship of Messrs. Newbury, Soar, 100,  and Wilson. 300,  400,  and  The  competition was  over ranges of  600 yards, with a t o t a l of twenty rounds 22  per person being f i r e d , f i v e rounds at each range. I n t e r n a l competitions w i t h i n V i c t o r i a ' s #2 Company i n October,  saw  Sgt. John W o o l l a c o t t score the h i g h e s t  of f i v e shots a t each of 200,  400,  and  600 yards.  total In pre-  v i o u s competitions, winners had been Sgt. Widdowson Sgt. W o o l l a c o t t  (August); Private. Gerow  (September).  A c c o r d i n g to company r u l e s , a person winning competitions  i n a year was  (July); 23  three  to be awarded a cup and,  such in  November, Sgt. W o o l l a c o t t won h i s t h i r d match to gain the u 24 trophy. Meanwhile, the V o l u n t e e r s of New Westminster were a l s o active.  The  corps defeated a team from H.M.S. Sparrowhawk, 25  44 3-324, i n J u l y  and by October,  groups f o r i n t e r n a l c o m p e t i t i o n .  had  split  Scores  Seymour A r t i l l e r y V o l u n t e e r s - 342;  New  i n t o three  i n t h a t event were Westminster  Volunte 26  R i f l e Corps - 4 04; New Westminster Home Guard - 399. In the i n t e r c o l o n i a l competition, h e l d t h a t year on New Westminster's new  range a t Brunette B u t t s , V i c t o r i a  won,  27 4 62-452.  The  r e t u r n match a week l a t e r , enabled  the  169 New  Westminster team to s p l i t the s e r i e s , winning  this  28 match by a score of 443-440. Since t h i s match was i n t e r - c o l o n i a l s e r i e s , due two of  c o n s i d e r e d to be the l a s t of the to the impending union of the  c o l o n i e s , the B r i t i s h Columbian r e f l e c t e d on the value such c o m p e t i t i o n s . T h e i r importance i s not to be measured by the mere p r e s t i g e of annual v i c t o r y at the b u t t s ; but the h e a l t h y i n t e r e s t and emulation which they e x c i t e are the b e s t guarantee f o r the v i t a l i t y and e f f i c i e n c y of the Volunteer movement i n t h i s young Colony. 2 9  The paper continued t h a t more frequent competitions between l o c a l companies should be encouraged and a s s i s t e d by government. to  Such competition was  considered to be  the  essential  the formation of the nucleus of an "army of defence",  which  had become i n c r e a s i n g l y e s s e n t i a l s i n c e the Imperial Government had  r e f u s e d to supply p r o t e c t i o n to the  colony.  However, d e s p i t e t h e i r importance, the 2nd Company of the V i c t o r i a V o l u n t e e r R i f l e s was 30 a l a c k o f numbers.  disbanded  i n e a r l y 1867,  A year l a t e r , while the Fenian  due  to  raids  were e x c i t i n g B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s across the c o n t i n e n t , the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t echoed the value of the V o l u n t e e r s , t h a t "'In time of peace prepare j u s t now  f o r war'  i s an axiom t h a t 31  s t r i k e s us as p o s s e s s i n g a p e c u l i a r  Thus, the V o l u n t e e r s were prepared  stating  aptness".  for military service  and, d u r i n g the s p r i n g of 1868, deployed 32 c o n s t a b l e s and n i g h t watchmen.  themselves as  special  170 Apart  from t h e i r m i l i t a r y d u t i e s , the V o l u n t e e r s  a l s o served ceremonial  and  social functions.  i n c e l e b r a t i o n of St. P a t r i c k ' s Day, Capt. Pearse preceded l i g h t on Saturday  "The  For example,  R i f l e Corps,  under  by t h e i r band, marched out by moon-  evening,  i n the d i r e c t i o n of Cadboro  33 Bay".  To complete the f e s t i v i t i e s ,  then served a t the end of the march.  refreshments  were  However, s p e c i a l days  were not the o n l y times t h a t the v o l u n t e e r s marched and o f t e n an a f t e r n o o n or evening of d r i l l r e p o r t e d i n the p r e s s . Returning  a  3 4  to r i f l e c o m p e t i t i o n of 1867,  match between two Mr.  and marching would be  i n d i v i d u a l s was  a shooting  organized i n e a r l y  January.  Gerow succeeded i n out shooting a Mr. Wade, to win 35 $100  wager i n t h a t c o n t e s t .  The Volunteer  Corps,  on the o t h e r hand, d e c l i n e d to accept a c h a l l e n g e match i n v o l v i n g a wager, s t a t i n g t h e i r p r i n c i p l e s i n a l e t t e r to the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t . We are always g l a d of the o p p o r t u n i t y of having a s h o o t i n g match a g a i n s t anyone, but, as V o l u n t e e r s , we do not care to have any money stake i n v o l v e d , t h i s not being customary among V o l u n t e e r s , who are always supposed to shoot t h e i r best f o r the honor of t h e i r corps. However, monetary p r i z e s f o r competitions w i t h i n the company 3 6  were a c c e p t a b l e and  i n one  such c o m p e t i t i o n , p r i z e s of  $20,  37 $15,  and  $10 were o f f e r e d .  In other competitions  t h a t year, the New  Westminster 38  R i f l e s defeated a team from the Sparrowhawk i n However, l a t e r t h a t summer, they were unable  May.  to d e f e a t the  171 39 v i s i t i n g V i c t o r i a Volunteers. The l a t t e r Company had at l e a s t two matches w i t h the Navy t h a t year, d e f e a t i n g a 40 f l e e t team by 92 p o i n t s  and,  l a t e r , d e f e a t i n g a team of  41 officers.  In the f o l l o w i n g year, 1868,  a match  was 42  arranged and  between teams from England  and B r i t i s h Columbia  i t appears t h a t the teams shot on t h e i r home ranges,  r e l a y i n g the scores by t e l e g r a p h .  In t h i s manner, the  V i c t o r i a V o l u n t e e r s were able to d e f e a t the London R i f l e , . 43 Volunteers. P r i z e s f o r c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h i n each l o c a l v o l u n t e e r I7  corps were o f t e n r i f l e s  and,  i n V i c t o r i a , marksmen a l s o 44  competed f o r the J.T. S c o t t g o l d medal. for  The major trophy  c o m p e t i t i o n between the B r i t i s h Columbia groups was  the  45 by V i c t o r i a ' s John Wilson i n 1869 and 46 47 P r i v a t e B u t l e r , i n 1870 and 1873. Lancaster r i f l e s were used i n the competitions u n t i l 1870, when the V o l u n t e e r s Seymour Cup,  won  48 switched  to long E n f i e l d r i f l e s .  The only  d e s c r i p t i o n of the type of t a r g e t s used was an 1862  advertisement  which were twelve yards.  provided  by  of E l y ' s Ammunition, o f f e r i n g t a r g e t s  f e e t square,  f o r shooting at f i v e hundred  4 9  By the mid to  apparent  1870s,  p r o v i n c i a l r i f l e competitions  seem  have been open to o t h e r groups besides the V o l u n t e e r  R i f l e Corps.  A Mr. Welch had opened a shooting g a l l e r y i n 50 V i c t o r i a i n 1870 and, i n 1877, Mr. Warren opened a g a l l e r y at  the S t a r Saloon, where s p e c i a l saloon r i f l e s were pro51  vided.  The B r i t i s h Columbia. R i f l e A s s o c i a t i o n appears to  have gained  i t s s t a r t i n 1873  when a group of p a r l i a m e n t a r y  172 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n Ottawa organized themselves i n t o  an  a s s o c i a t i o n with a membership which i n c l u d e d Amor de Cosmos 52 and  Senator Macdonald, the p r e s i d e n t .  In the f o l l o w i n g  year, the f i r s t p r o v i n c i a l meet of t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n was 53 h e l d i n New  Westminster.  In 1876,  Governor-General  D u f f e r i n presented medals to the winners of the t h i r d  annual  54  B r i t i s h Columbia R i f l e A s s o c i a t i o n ' s meet. meeting was  The  fifth  h e l d at V i c t o r i a ' s C l o v e r P o i n t i n 1878.  team of sharp-shooters 55 the p r i z e s here  from Nanaimo won  A  t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of  and were to host the competition  the  56 next  year. The c i t i z e n s of Nanaimo were no mere novices at r i f l e  meets.  The  as 1863,  town's f i r s t  competition was  at l e a s t as e a r l y  when shooting matches were l i s t e d as p a r t of 57  Queen's B i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n s .  The  s p r i n g of 1875  an e x t e n s i o n made to the Nanaimo M i l i t i a Shooting and, in  i n the f a l l of t h a t year, a team was  saw  Range ^ 5  sent to compete 59  the p r o v i n c i a l championships a t V i c t o r i a .  Captain James Hardy presented  their  In  1880,  the Nanaimo S i l v e r Cup  for  c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h i n t h a t tov/n. ^ 6  Beginning  i n 1874,  competitions were h e l d to determine  a B r i t i s h Columbia r e p r e s e n t a t i v e to s a i l annual  shooting matches a t Wimbledon.  was  selected  and was  Two  years l a t e r , i n 1876,  to England  f o r the  L i e u t e n a n t Wolfendon  able to win p r i z e s i n the  event.  the p r o v i n c e again had a r e p r e s e n t -  a t i v e on the N a t i o n a l Team.  The B r i t i s h Columbia  Rifle  173 Association  c o n t r i b u t e d to the expenses of Sargeant  (#1 V i c t o r i a  Rifles)  as he  travelled  t o Quebec t o  Butler  join  63 Canada's Wimbledon c o n t i n g e n t .  The  n e x t y e a r , A.P.  Kennedy  s c o r e d w i t h i n t h e t o p t w e n t y marksmen a t Wimbledon and a prize  of  £5.  C o m p e t i t i o n w i t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s was 1877,  won  when V i c t o r i a  also in  at V i c t o r i a  competing  the B r i t i s h  i n 1878.  with c i t i e s  P o r t Townsend by  rifle  in  b a s e b a l l teams t o 65 Seattle. V i c t o r i a won t h i s m a t c h , 456-445, and a l s o t h e r e t u r n m a t c h , 508-483, as p a r t o f t h e Queen's B i r t h d a y c e l e 66 brations  sent both  initiated  and  By  1883,  New  Westminster  across the border, being  a s c o r e o f 314-418.  Two  defeated  years  later,  C o l u m b i a n announced a m a j o r s h o o t i n g e v e n t  in  Seattle. S p o r t i n g Tournament - The f i r s t a n n u a l s h o o t i n g tournament o f the Sportsman's A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e N o r t h West w i l l be h e l d i n S e a t t l e , W.T., on t h e 2 1 s t , 22nd, 2 3 r d i n s t . Shooting at pigeons, glass b a l l s and c l a y p i g e o n s w i l l f o r m a p r o m i n e n t f e a t u r e of t h e p r o c e e d i n g s . The a g g r e g a t e p r i z e s amount to $ 1 , 0 0 0 . 6 8  A few held  days l a t e r , i t s twelfth  the B r i t i s h  Columbian R i f l e  Association  a n n u a l meet a t t h e C l o v e r P o i n t Range,  „. . . 69 Victoria, SUMMARY  At  least  as e a r l y  as  V i c t o r i a were p a r t i c i p a t i n g turkey was  shoots.  an o u t g r o w t h  1861,  some o f t h e c i t i z e n s  in rifle  However, t h e f i r s t of the m i l i t a r y  of  competitions such  regularized  as  competition  e x e r c i s e s of the  was  Royal  174 Navy and the R i f l e V o l u n t e e r s . New  By e a r l y 1864,  Westminster R i f l e Company and  Volunteers  the V i c t o r i a  both Rifle  had become s t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s and,  f o l l o w i n g year, h e l d t h e i r f i r s t shooting matches.  Competitions  annual  i n the  inter-colonial  were a l s o h e l d with  v a r i o u s crews of the F l e e t and w i t h i n each m i l i t i a where p r i z e s of r i f l e s ,  medals, and  However, the most p r i z e d trophy was  the unit,  sometimes cash were o f f e r the Seymour Cup,  came to be emblematic of the top marksmen i n the By the mid-1870s,  the  a p r o v i n c i a l body, the  province.  British  Columbia R i f l e A s s o c i a t i o n , had been formed and was annual championships. V i c t o r i a , New  Competitors  which  holding  were p r i m a r i l y from  Westminster, and Nanaimo, each s t r i v i n g f o r  the honour of r e p r e s e n t i n g the p r o v i n c e on Canada's N a t i o n a l Team, which a n n u a l l y t r a v e l l e d to London f o r the p r e s t i g i o u s shooting tournament at Wimbledon.  Towards the end of the  decade, V i c t o r i a marksmen were t r a v e l l i n g to S e a t t l e f o r c o m p e t i t i o n and, men  w i t h i n a few y e a r s , New  were a l s o shooting with United States  Westminster  rifle-  competitors.  175 Table IX Rifle 1860  Shooting  - Royal Navy t a r g e t d r i l l s  1  LIS  2 61 - V i c t o r i a turkey shoot' 3 - Coloured R i f l e Volunteers' ^_ - Vancouver I s l a n d R i f l e V o l u n t e e r s 62 - V o l u n t e e r s  disbanded 12  63 64 -  New Westminster R i f l e Company formed Shooting a t Nanaimo Queen's B i r t h d a y V i c t o r i a Volunteers r e f o r m e d ^ F i r s t annual c o n t e s t of V i c t o r i a V o l u n t e e r s 5 7  1 3  65 - F i r s t annual i n t e r - c o l o n i a l match, New Westminster defeated V i c t o r i a ' 2Q - Second match, New Westminster (228) - V i c t o r i a (210) 1  66 67 -  21 Regular t r a i n i n g f o r V i c t o r i a V o l u n t e e r s Navy d e f e a t e d by V i c t o r i a by 20 p o i n t s ^ New Westminster (443) - H.M.S. Sparrowhawk V i c t o r i a (464) - New Westminster (452)^/ V i c t o r i a (440) - New Westminster ( 4 4 3 ) Gerow d e f e a t e d Wade f o r $ 1 0 0 Sparrowhawk defeated by New Westminster New Westminster defeated by V i c t o r i a V i c t o r i a d e f e a t s F l e e t by 92 p o i n t s ^ 2  (324)  2 8  35  3 g  3 9  4  43 68 - V i c t o r i a V o l u n t e e r s d e f e a t London R i f l e V o l u n t e e r s 45 69 - Seymour Cup won by John Wilson 7 0 - Seymour Cup won by P r i v a t e B u t l e r " - Long E n f i e l d r i f l e r e p l a c e s L a n c a s t e r s - Shooting g a l l e r y opened i n V i c t o r i a by Mr. 73 74 76 -  47 Seymour Cup won by P r i v a t e B u t l e r ^2 B r i t i s h Columbia R i f l e A s s o c i a t i o n formed 53 F i r s t p r o v i n c i a l meet of B.C.R.A. L t . Wolfendon sent to Wimbledon62 54 Lord D u f f e r i n presents medals to B.C.R.A. Sgt. B u t l e r sent to Wimbledon 63  Welch  176 Table IX Rifle 1877  (Continued) Shooting  - Shooting g a l l e r y opened i n S t a r Saloon - A.P. Kennedy sent to Wimbledon - V i c t o r i a (456) - S e a t t l e ( 4 4 4 )  51  64  6 5  78 - V i c t o r i a (508) - S e a t t l e - Nanaimo S h a r p s h o o t e r s  (483)  6 6  55  1883  - P o r t Townsend  (418)  - New  Westminster 6  85 - F i r s t annual tournament i n S e a t t l e  R  (314)  6 7  177 CHAPTER  XIV  TRACK AND  Competition the  i n t r a c k and  e a r l y p i c n i c s or  Queen's B i r t h d a y ,  field  events began  annually  festivity  i n l a t e May, i n the  enthusiastic participation.  described  the  Queensborough  activities (New  with  s p o r t s days of c o l o n i a l times.  held  m a j o r community-wide enjoyed  FIELD  a t the  the  early period The  1859  was  The  British  and  Colonist  celebrations  at  Westminster).  The s p o r t s and games went o f f w i t h e c l a t , amid t h e a p p l a u s e o f a l a r g e c o n c o u r s e o f p e o p l e ... The f o l l o w i n g i s t h e programme o f s p o r t s and amusements ... F o o t and h u r d l e - r a c e s , p u t t i n g s h o t , t h r o w i n g t h e hammer, h i g h and l o n g jumps, t o s s i n g the caber, bobbing f o r treacle r o l l s , bobbing f o r 'bobs' i n w a t e r , w r e s t l i n g and b o x i n g , b o a t r a c e s , and c . , and c . , c o n c l u d i n g w i t h a s a c k r a c e and greasy pole: a Blue Jacket f s a i l o r j , having s u c c e e d e d i n a t t a i n i n g t h e e n v i e d g r e a s e crowned c r e s t w i t h l i t t l e l e s s d i f f i c u l t y than the Argonauts o f a n c i e n t l o r e , r e c e i v e d a l i k e reward.1 In V i c t o r i a , event of the of  where h o r s e r a c i n g was  Queen's B i r t h d a y ,  f i v e hundred yards  was  the major  a foot race  included  i n the  over  a  sporting distance  programme  of  2 1860. the J.  However, t h e  e v e n t was  c a n c e l l e d b e c a u s e one  of  c o n t e s t a n t s , C. W a l l a c e , r e f u s e d t o r a c e a g a i n s t 3 Parker. L a t e r t h a t summer, t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t  announced t h e  following  festivities:  Race - T h e r e w i l l be l o t s o f s p o r t a t B e a c o n H i l l t h i s m o r n i n g , commencing a t 10 o ' c l o c k . Horser a c i n g , f o o t races, running i n sacks, greased p o l e s , wheelbarrows, e t c . , w i l l form the p r i n c i p a l features. None s h o u l d f a i l t o a t t e n d as i t i s t h e l a s t k i n d of the s e a s o n . 4  178 During able  the  next  a t t e n t i o n from  became  the  rage.  few the  In  years  foot  population  January  of  races as  1  1861,  received  consider-  Pedestrianism'  the  British  Colonist  reported: A N O V E L F E A T - We u n d e r s t a n d t h a t a w a g e r o f $1,000 h a s b e e n made b e t w e e n p a r t i e s i n t h i s t o w n , t h a t one Knox, a r e s i d e n t , w i l l be a b l e t o w a l k 100 consecutive hours without c e s s a t i o n . The money has been d e p o s i t e d w i t h M e s s r s . W e l l s , Fargo, and Co. T h e w a l k i n g w i l l commence o n T u e s d a y n e x t , at the American saloon, Yates street. 5  Apparently, tv/ice  before  and  twenty  the  other.  when  Knox  he  had  been  engaged  in California,  minutes  on  one  However,  concluded  walking  walk,  he  competitions  for ninety-one  occasion,  in Victoria,  the  i n such  and he  e i g h t y - f o u r hours  was  "seemed  hours  successful,  quite  strong,  and and  7 his  limbs A  d i d not  few  days  later,  This  time  Hill  horse-racing  yards, start. that  he  but  g  he  A  appear  was  to  lost  for  course. to  race  his  i n the and  swollen". i n another  competition.  $300 a s i d e o n  The  give  report  that  be  K n o x was  race  K n o x was later  to  was  d i s t a n c e was competitor British  the  Beacon  set  at  a  five  Colonist  prepared  for a  eighty foot  indicated  rematch.  On F r i d a y a f t e r n o o n a n o t h e r f o o t r a c e w i l l c o m e o f f b e t w e e n Knox t h e p e d e s t r i a n and t h e ' B u t c h e r [ a l s o t h e name o f a f a v o u r i t e h o r s e j , f o r $200 a s i d e - even r a c e . Knox does n o t c o n s i d e r t h a t he h a d a f a i r show i n t h e r u n o n T u e s d a y .  Boy'  9  The  result  been  this  second  match  does  not  appear  to  have  reported. The  in  of  foot  Excelsior races  Gymnasium  during  the  Club  early  was  1860s.  particularly Led  by  active  their  on  179  teacher,  Mr. P.E. D e v i n e ,  "exceedingly for of  a one m i l e their  best a  good  time,  half  having  minutes.  Enthusiasm ment  of very  were  said  c o n d i t i o n " as they  race  outings,  they  a t 6:30  Mr. D e v i n e completed  t o be i n  readied  i n t h e morning. '"' 1  was  reported  three  themselves I n one  t o have  had t h e  miles  i n twenty-two and  even  l e d to the involve-  1 1  f o r foot  unlikely  contests  participants  as the B r i t i s h  Colonist  reported: N O V E L RACE - A m a t c h h a s b e e n m a d e b e t w e e n t w o w e l l k n o w n f a t men o f t h i s t o w n , t o r u n a f o o t - r a c e o n t h e Q u e e n ' s B i r t h d a y , f o r $30 a s i d e . Beacon H i l l w i l l s h a k e t o i t s v e r y b a s e when t h e s e two g r e a t b o d i e s a r e s e t i n motion, and i f t h e v i b r a t i o n o f the e a r t h does n o t s e r i o u s l y e f f e c t t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f some o f o u r s t r o n g e s t b u i l d i n g s , i t w i l l b e a wonder. T i m i d p e r s o n s a r e r e q u e s t e d t o l e a v e town for the d a y . 1 2  Several Joe  Lovett  aroused for  years  later,  a similar  race  was  and Frank  Richards,  both  o f ,':Falstaf:f i a n - b u i l d ,  public interest  a purse  i n their  race  reported  i n which  on Government  Street,  o f $50.  RACE BETWEEN HEAVYWEIGHTS - ... T h e e a r t h s e e m e d t o t r e m b l e b e n e a t h t h e e l e p h a n t i n e t r e a d o f t h e men and t h e w a l l s o f t h e h o u s e s nodded a p l e a s a n t good morning t o t h e b u i l d i n g s on t h e o p p o s i t e s i d e o f the s t r e e t . Several of the storekeepers, imagining t h a t a n e a r t h q u a k e was i n p r o g r e s s , r u s h e d into the s t r e e t , which they reached j u s t i n time t o see Lovett gain the winning-post some t h r e e f e e t i n a d v a n c e o f R i c h a r d s , who a t t r i b u t e s h i s d e f e a t t o h a v i n g stubbed h i s t o e upon a p r o j e c t i n g n a i l , w h i c h , l i k e t o o many o t h e r s , h a s e s c a p e d the eye a n d hammer o f a D e w s n a p p . 1 3  180  In raced to  other  c o n t e s t s , Frank  two hundred  beat  Cameron,  yards  Hewlett,  t h e'Norfolk  i ntwenty-four  t h e 'Highland  and a h a l f  Hare',  seconds,  i n a $50 m a t c h  Laddie',  14 i n 1863.  race  Nanaimo a  sack  yards four  T h e Queen's  i nthat year race  \re.re  run.  opponents  celebrations  at  15  included a footrace  a $10 p r i z e  with  Birthday  and, i n V i c t o r i a ,  and a f o o t r a c e o f two hundred  In the l a t t e r  t owin a p r i z e  race,  a Mr.  Silver  defeated  o n t h e $1 e n t r a n c e  based  fee  16 with  $22  back  i n t h e news  fifty to  added.  yard  race  run again,  In the following year,  Allport.  increasing  Knox was'  t o h a v e w o n $20  a n d was r e p o r t e d with  Walter  Both  contestants  i n a  intended  the d i s t a n c e t o one hundred  yards  17 w i t h a b e t o f $50. S i m i l a r l y , D a n i e l McBrown a n d Mr. Durcom, t h e 'Idaho B o y ' , a n n o u n c e d t h e i r i n t e n t i o n o f  18  racing  f o r $200 o v e r  sixty  A  correspondent  o f the Daily  that of  the winter  race  races  days  were  public charged  by a Richfield  were  promoted.  f o r a seventy  yard  and  $40 w e r e w o n b y F r a n k  and  lawyer  was  held  Courtney  the next  five  hundred  that  over  a  side,  group  hadbeen  between Frank  a  Fulford,  Stiger  Day,  o f $100, (alias  A similar where  i nattendance.  private  and Cook.  Kentuck),  some  four o r  Thew r i t e r  19  $60,  set o f races  bet on a forthcoming  Fulford  series  f e e o f $5 w a s  andp r i z e s  respectively.  were  held  reported  a n d , o n New Y e a r ' s ,  An entrance race  Express  On C h r i s t m a s  d a y a t Camerontown,  people  $2,000  Evening  residents o f the Cariboo  a t t h e e n d o f 1863.  held  races  yards.  race  continued f o r $200  181 Returning to Vancouver I s l a n d , one of the popular f e s t i v i t i e s d u r i n g the 1860s was t i o n s of the f o u r t h of J u l y .  to j o i n i n the c e l e b r a -  In 1864,  an e x c u r s i o n  was  organized t o the i s l a n d of San Juan, where r e s i d e n t s of V i c t o r i a enjoyed c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h the American g a r r i s o n  20 i n f o o t races and v a r i o u s n o v e l events.  At Nanaimo,  summer p i c n i c s and games were a l s o popular and, upwards of n i n e t y people school o u t i n g .  in  1865,  j o i n e d the Wesleyan Sabbath-  Here the l a d i e s were p a r t i c u l a r l y  identified 21  f o r t h e i r e n t h u s i a s t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the games. f u n c t i o n s were h e l d by p r i v a t e groups.  In one case,  Similar two  V i c t o r i a c i t i z e n s took a few of t h e i r f r i e n d s on an o u t i n g up the Arm,  i n order to engage i n some "amateur 22 and h u r d l e events.  1  foot races  By f a r the most impressive of the s p o r t s days- d u r i n g the p e r i o d was  the Navy c o m p e t i t i o n of 1868.  J u l y 7, between f i f t e e n hundred and two  On Tuesday,  thousand  spectators  watched the F l e e t perform on the Naval C r i c k e t Ground, Esquimalt Road. The next day, the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t wrote: The p u b l i c of V i c t o r i a and v i c i n i t y s u r e l y f a l l under much o b l i g a t i o n t o Admiral and Mrs. H a s t i n g s , the C a p t a i n s and O f f i c e r s of the squadron on t h i s s t a t i o n , f o r the day's s u p e r i o d amusement o f f e r e d them y e s t e r d a y ... The f e t e was much a f t e r the s t y l e t h a t one witnessed now and then i n the neighbourhood of l a r g e naval and m i l i t a r y s t a t i o n s i n the mother country, and yesterday shewed t h a t d i s t a n c e takes aught from the success of s i m i l a r entertainments i n the c o l o n i e s . C h i e f J u s t i c e Needham and h i s w i f e presented p r i z e s to the 2 3  following  winners:  Throwing the Hammer (14 l b s . ) - J . McCallum - 18 yds. 1 f t . 3 i n . ; B. Diamond - 17 yds. (both from H.M.S. Z e a l o u s ) . P u t t i n g the Shot  (32 l b s . ) - J . N o r r i s - 19 f t . 6 i n .  (Scout); J . McCallum Wide Jump Standing  (Zealous).  - J . McCallum - 9 f t . ; S. G i l l  (Scout).  Wide Jump Running - J . E n d i c o t t - 14 f t . 3 i n . (Zealous); F. Bishop  (Scout).  High Jump Standing J.  - J . McCallum - 3 f t . 5 i n ;  Endicott.  High Jump Running - R. Jarman - 4 f t . 4 i n . (Zealous); H. Gowler Climbing  Greasy Pole - Edwin Baker  two 440  (Scout). (Zealous), a f t e r  hours.  yards O f f i c e r s - Mr. Croker  (Zealous); Mr. Napier  (Zealous). 220  yards J.  Seamen - F. A u l t - 28 sees.  Sparks  (Zealous);  (Sparrowhawk).  Walking 1/2 m i l e - 4 min. 25 sees. - J . Hurley R. Graham (Sparrowhawk); J . Davis  (Scout);  (Scout).  Running 1/2 m i l e - 2 min. 40 sees. - J . Roberts, Dalrymple 440  (Scout); J . P l u n k e t t  (Sparrowhawk).  Hurdles O f f i c e r s - 1 min. 20 sees. - Mr. Pipon, C e c i l , Napier  ( a l l from  Zealous).  440'Hurdles - 1 min. 23 sees. - R. Burke R. Isaacs and S. G i l l  (Zealous);  (Scout).  44 0 Non-Com. - 1 min. 15 sees. - A. Payne C. Earwaker and W. Baker  (Zealous) .  (Scout;  183 220  Boys under 18 - J . P r e n t i c e J . Murphy  (Sparrowhawk);  (Zealous); R. K e l l a n d  (Scout).  Race f o r Marines - 32 sees. - F. Bishop R.  (Scout);  Stevens.  80 yard Hopping - W.  E u s t i s (Zealous); J . Ross  P a i r race legs t i e d - 220 and  (Scout).  yards - 44 sees. - J . Johnson  S. Long (Zealous); C. Wood and C.  Brock  (Scout). Hat  Race - run backwards 50 yards - 12 sees. H. Gowler (Scout); W.  Eustis  (Zealous).  Throwing C r i c k e t B a l l - 95 yards - R. Ralph M.  Sullivan  Sack Race - W.  -  (Scout);  (Sparrowhawk).  Eustis  (Zealous).  Best Hornpipe - 36 d i f f e r e n t steps - S. Meddings (Zealous). While the Naval Sports Day year, other  was  the h i g h l i g h t of  groups throughout the colony were a l s o drawing  considerable  a t t e n t i o n with t h e i r s p o r t s days of 1868.  B a r k e r v i l l e , the J u l y 1 Dominion Day some one  the  thousand people.  In  s p o r t s events drew  R e s u l t s of t h a t c o n t e s t were  as f o l l o w s : Three Standing  Jumps - $20  - Sam  Walker - 3 2 f t . 11 i n .  Standing  Long Jumps - $20  - Sam  Standing  High Jumps - $20  - Edward Ward - 4 f t . 3 i n .  P u t t i n g Heavy Stone 25 f t .  (24 l b s . ) - $20  - J . Cameron -  8 in.  S l i n g i n g Stone 10 i n .  Walker - 10 f t . l l h i n .  (15 l b s . ) - $20  - J . McKay - 36 f t .  184 Long  Race  Short  (100 y a r d s )  - $30  - Sam W a l k e r  - 11  (75 y a r d s )  - $20  - A. H a r t m a n  - 8 3/4  Race  Hurdle  Race  (75 y a r d s  Throwing  Hammer  Throwing  Heavy  - 4 hurdles)  (10 l b s . ) Stone  - $20  - $20  - D.  - F. Hunter  (31 l b s . ) - $25  sees. sees.  Shaw.  - 98  f t .  - J . Glynn  - 27 f t . 4 i n . An  entrance  long  f e e o f $1 w a s c h a r g e d  race, which  included  had a  'La P e r c h ' ,  fee of  i n which  f o ra l l events  $2.50.  Edward  except the  Additional  Ward  amusements  performed  several  24 feats  after Three  festival Perch'  ascending days  later,  was h e l d  on t h e f o u r t h  at Barkerville.  complimented  Running  a pole.  High  Gymnastic  the following Jump  - $20  Hop,  Skip  a n d Jump  Foot  Race  (75 y a r d s )  of July,  feats  sports  and 'La  events:  - E. Pooley  - $2 0 - S. W a l k e r - $75  another  - 4  f t . 6h i n .  - 37  - A. H a r t m a n  f t . 8  - 8%  i n .  sees.  2 Hurdle Back six  Race  (100 y a r d s  i n Victoria,  hundred  - 4 hurdles)  the Firemen's  - $30  Picnic  spectators t o the Saturday  - E.  o f 1868  event.  The  were: Hammer  (16 l b s . )  - A. F o s t e r ; J . L a c h a p e l l e .  Shot  (32 l b s . ) - J . M a d d e n ;  Shot  (16 l b s . )  Wide  Standing  Wide  Running  High  Standing  A. F o s t e r .  - W.J. M a c D o n a l d ; Jump  Jump Jump  G.  Richardson  - A. F o s t e r ; J . Madden. - S. D u c k ; - M.  Dodd;  A. F o s t e r . G.  Maynard.  Pooley. drew winners  185 High 300  Running yards  Boys  To  -  under  Lead Joseph  17  -  -  Joseph  Walking  -  James  the  day,  quarter  to  12  p.m.,  Lammon;  A.  de  Neuf.  Davies.  150  Hopping  conclude  - J.M.  yards  - B.  Derham, J r .  Davies. Holmes. the  "so  National as  not  A n t h e m was  to  played  infringe  upon  been  first  at  a  the  26 Sabbath". became  an  announced  This annual the  appears  to  festival,  third  have  since  annual  the  Victoria  the  Victoria  of  what  Daily  Firemen's  Standard  Pic-Nic  in  27 1870. May  Day  petition claimed at for  of  1871  fostered and  several  Esquimalt. many  presented  of  by  the  the  date  the  Navy.  civilians  Chief  the  was  Justice  events  awards.  and  of  A  Begbie  Winners  -  100  yards  - Lieut.  Flat  Race  -  2 00  yards  -  High  Jump  - Lieut  Flat  Race  -  Putting Hurdle  24 Race  23  -  2 00  yards  the  Race  Hammer -  1/2  wife,  pro-  contests  Mrs.  judge Musgrave,  Lieut.  11  4  f t . 6h  Wright.  Allmen, - Lieut.  Gray,  mile  Ball  sees.  Wheeler.  Wright,  - A.B. -  been  appointed  Wright.  Gunner  - W.  athletic  28  1  in. min.  f t . 3 in.  Wright  and  sees.  Throwing Flat  l b . shot  -  was  had  com-  were:  Race  mile  the  Governor's  Flat  1/4  special  half-holiday  entered  the  H.T.  another  67 and  f t . 7 in. Britten.  Tolmie,  186  Flat Sac  Race Race  Three Flat  -  Hurdle  -  -  -  might cash  currently prizes  expensive Day  of  prizes: Book,  be  mile  were  Money,  Governor's  Lieut. -  Cup  5 min.  and  and  Bryant.  sports  days  an  W.  29  sees.  2  was  an  22  sees.  Blackmore.  8  'amateur  then  Gibbon.  Wright,  Wheeler  Mr.  offered,  Lieutenant  Pewter,  -  -  these  not  Wright,  Pooley  considered  a r t i c l e s  1871,  C E .  20 0 y a r d s  in  v/ere  -  yards  1/2  Competition  Lieut.  out.  Race 200  Race  Race  -  struck  Legged Race  Flat  1 mile  seldom  on  what  basis.  1  array  of  If  r e l a t i v e l y  provided.  For  example,  Wright  six  of  the  following  Pipe  and  Knife,  Fly  Keg  Beer,  won  Fishing  and  Ring,  Rod, Whip,  $5  and  a  in  the  of  May  29 Fancy  Mug,  these  prizes,  the  games  had  an  cent  most  fostered  levy,  have  Pewters,  entrance  The  in  Two  been  the  the  was  a  contests  had  an  by  the  the  f i r s t In  which,  and  preparing  in  to  hold  the  for  i t s  was  from  fee.  a  Society  eighth  Even Society  to  $5.00.  appears  athletic  Standard  for  twenty-five 30  $2.50  annual  Daily  pay  Benevolent  1869,  ranged  To  entrance  Caledonian  group 1871,  Pewter.  Caledonian  prizes  Andrew's  region.  society  and  charge  while  St.  $7,  to  competitions  reported  meeting  on  the  that fourth  31 of  July.  f i r s t very  annual dynamic  Victoria. and  Thus,  they  small  appears  that  competition back and  Other too  i t  held  settlement  did  not  centres  confine of  athletic at  in  Langley  this  group  1864. i t s  The  society  developed  competitions. a  held  day  For of  its  was  a c t i v i t i e s merely  population  hosted  had  to  chapters  example,  Caledonian  the  the  187 32 Games  i n the  autumn  most  of  the  such  as  these  of  1877.  Games h e l d listed  to  Throughout  a  traditional  i n the  New  the  period,  programme  Westminster  of  events,  Highland  Games  1884:  of  T h r o w i n g H e a v y S t o n e 21 l b s ; T h r o w i n g L i g h t S t o n e l b l b s ; The C a b r e ; P o l e V a u l t i n g ; R u n n i n g L o n g Jump; R u n n i n g H i g h Jump; H u r d l e R a c e ; W h e e l b a r r o w R a c e ; S a c k R a c e ; T h r o w i n g H e a v y Hammer - 22 l b s ; T h r o w i n g L i g h t Hammer 17 l b s ; B o y s ' R a c e ; Q u o i t s ; O l d Man's Race; H i g h l a n d F l i n g ; L a d i e s ' R e e l ; Sword Dance. 3 3  In  many o f  province, the is  the  local  events.  A  Indians more  included later,  appropriate  to  various  athletic  to  their  white  to  make  were  under a  a  prowess  competitors  d i s c u s s i o n of  separate  brief  often  causing  at  the  a t New  a  s p o r t s day  separate  events  were  identified  participation i t seems  point.  organizers of  for Indian  during  of  The  considerably superior  arrangements  example,  but  this  the  i n some  their  heading,  reference  was  opponents,  special  also  detailed  make  Indians'  c e l e b r a t i o n s throughout  participation.  Westminster,  for  the  Indians,  i n 187  " i n order  games For 2, to  34 give  the  paler competitors  Furthermore, races, the  the  such  summer  as of  Indians  that  a  b e t t e r chance  were  reported  also by  to  win  participant in  the  Cariboo  a  prize".  match  Sentinel in  1875.  A f o o t r a c e f o r $100 a s i d e , between the O n t a r i o B o y a n d a n I n d i a n n a m e d D e e r f o o t , d i s t a n c e 10 0 y a r d s , came o f f y e s t e r d a y . D e e r f o o t won b y s i x i n c h e s a f t e r a v e r y e x c i t i n g and e x c e l l e n t r a c e . 3 5  Several period.  other  match  In mid-February,  c o n t e s t s were 1875,  five  held  hundred  during people  the gathered  188 on V i c t o r i a ' s Beacon H i l l  to watch a l o c a l r e s i d e n t , Tod, 36  race a g a i n s t Wright of the Cariboo. was at Ned  a Hop,  the r e a r of C l a y ' s Store on Johnson S t r e e t . I r v i n g covered  37 f e e t 5 inches to b e t t e r J . 37 bet.  During the l a t e 1870s,  an 1877,  Here, Morley's  B r i t i s h Columbians became  i n v o l v e d with American competitors  i n match events.  July 4 competition i n Seattle, a v i s i t i n g  defeated by a l o c a l Mr.  Rudge, who  P o r t l a n d c o n t e s t a n t , Mann, f o r $100.  year, an American runner  During Victorian  then defeated a Spectators placed 38  some $2,000 on the outcome of t h i s match. ing  event  Step, and Jump competition which took p l a c e  36 f e e t f o r a $25  was  Another  In the f o l l o w -  named Carr drew g r e a t a c c l a i m  as a r e s u l t of h i s performances on Vancouver I s l a n d . ing  h i s d e f e a t of Tod,  at Beacon H i l l ,  Follow-  and Beaven at  Nanaimo, he was  touted as one of the f a s t e s t runners i n  the world.  newspaper r e p o r t e d the rumour t h a t h i s r e a l  name was New in  One  John Werly Cozad.  York C l i p p e r had 39 12 1/2  sees.  The  s t o r y continued t h a t the  s t a t e d t h a t t h i s man  had run 125  However, one week l a t e r , Carr was  by Gagon, a crew member of H.M.S. Turquoise. yard race a t $50 and maintained In 1879,  a s i d e , Gagon was  yards defeated  In a one  hundred  given a f i f t e e n f o o t s t a r t 40  t h a t d i s t a n c e to the end of the r a c e . Nanaimo was  again the s i t e of a major r a c e .  The hometown runner, Beaven, who the p r e v i o u s year, was  had been beaten by Tod i n  to race a g a i n s t Rudge, of S e a t t l e  189  fame.  The l a t t e r had apparently taken up r e s i d e n c e i n 41  Victorxa.  The outcome of t h i s match does not appear to  have been r e p o r t e d , but i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t some Nanaimo r e s i d e n t s were a c t i v e i n a high l e v e l of t r a c k and f i e l d competition.  Beaven was not the f i r s t  l o c a l success.  A  previous r e p o r t i n the l o c a l press had announced i n 1874, t h a t "At the s p o r t s at B u r r a r d I n l e t , Mr. Wm.  McGregor  of t h i s town, won the Running High Jump and Running Long 42 Jump".  The neighbouring  also active.  townsite of W e l l i n g t o n was  I t s s p o r t s programme on Dominion Day,  i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g events:  1880,  Boy's Race - 75 yards;  50 yards; G i r l s Race; 120 yard Race; Old Man's Race; Married Women's Race; Potatoe  Race; 500 yard Race; Race  Around the Lake; Three Legged Race; Swimming; Running Long Jump; Standing Jump; Three Standing Jumps; Hop, 43  Skip,  and Jump; Quoits - 21, 18, and 14 yards. Pedestrianism,  so popular  i n the e a r l y 1860s,  t i n u e d t o enjoy p u b l i c support around 1880.  Victoria's  P a v i l i o n H a l l was the venue f o r a ten m i l e walking i n September of 1878.  con-  match  The winner, Prodmore, took 1 hour,  26 minutes and 4 5 seconds to complete the d i s t a n c e , and defeated h i s opponent, Gordon, by one round a f t e r having g i v e n him 44 an e i g h t round s t a r t . In e a r l y November of the f o l l o w i n g year, A. McDowell was touted as the Champion Amateur Walker 45 of the Province  and, a few weeks l a t e r , proved  a t the P a v i l i o n Rink.  h i s prowess  In a s i x day walking race which  190 i n c l u d e d a Mr. 197  m i l e s and  Munsell  from P o r t l a n d , McDowell completed  four laps to win  Columbia b e l t .  His nearest  the Champion of  competitor  was  British  McCarthy,  who  46 completed 17 0 m i l e s i n the a l l o t t e d  time.  The newspaper r e p o r t of the l a s t event suggested t h a t a match between female p e d e s t r i a n s take p l a c e i n V i c t o r i a .  Whether or not t h a t match came  o f f i s not c l e a r , but by 1884, f o o t races with  from P o r t l a n d would soon  Nanaimo was  female c o n t e s t a n t s .  h o s t i n g match  S e v e r a l bets were placed  as a Miss Straube of Nanaimo and Miss Cook of "both very  f l e e t of f o o t " , competed f o r $100  H a l i b u r t o n S t r e e t , opposite was  the  the Dew  Wellington, a s i d e on  Drop H o t e l .  Miss Cook  victor.  Numerous s p o r t s days were held throughout the remainder of the p e r i o d i n the major c e n t r e s of p o p u l a t i o n .  Even the  smaller communities became p a r t i c i p a n t i n a t h l e t i c endeavours. As c o n s t r u c t i o n on the C.P.R. drew an i n c r e a s i n g number of workers i n t o the remote p a r t s of the p r o v i n c e , communities h e l d a t h l e t i c c o n t e s t s celebrations. was  In one  a 'high jump with p o l e ' , tied for f i r s t  place.  construction  i n c o n j u n c t i o n with  such case of 1883,  c e l e b r a t e d at Y a l e .  the  their  the f o u r t h of J u l y  Here, the s p o r t s events even i n c l u d e d i n which a J . McKinnon and  J . MacDonald  4 8  SUMMARY Various  a t h l e t i c competitions  were h e l d throughout  r e g i o n d u r i n g most days of c e l e b r a t i o n , beginning as e a r l y as 1859,  when the Queen's B i r t h d a y  at  the  least  festivities  191 at New  Westminster i n c l u d e d s p o r t i n g events.  f e s t i v a l s as May  Day,  Dominion Day,  and the f o u r t h of  J u l y u s u a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d t r a c k and f i e l d as p a r t of the programme.  Such other  competitions  During the summer months,  s e v e r a l s o c i a l groups organized o u t i n g s and p i c n i c s where the p a r t i c i p a n t s would o f t e n engage i n running, jumping throwing was  competitions.  and  The most prominent of these groups  the St. Andrew's and Caledonian S o c i e t y , which began  h o l d i n g annual s p o r t s days i n the V i c t o r i a area i n As the s o c i e t y grew, s e v e r a l chapters throughout p r o v i n c e a l s o h e l d annual h i g h l a n d games. group was  1864.  the  Another prominent  the V i c t o r i a Firemen's A s s o c i a t i o n , which h e l d  i t s f i r s t annual p i c n i c and games i n 1868.  In t h a t year,  a t h l e t i c c o n t e s t s were p a r t i c u l a r l y popular, perhaps l a r g e l y due to the promotion  of the Naval Sports Day,  a major  spec-  t a c l e h e l d at Esquimalt. As i n other p a r t s of North America,  'pedestrian'  events were popular i n B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g the p e r i o d . As e a r l y as 1861, Knox, was 1879,  a r e c e n t r e s i d e n t of V i c t o r i a , named  engaged i n a walking c o n t e s t f o r $1,000.  a p r o v i n c i a l championship b e l t was  walkers and was  won  o f f e r e d f o r amateur  by McDowell i n t h a t year.  Other  i n c l u d e d numerous match races i n walking and running v a r y i n g d i s t a n c e s , and wagers of $25 In  f a c t , throughout  By  events over  to $200 were common.  a l l c o n t e s t s from races to 'novel'  events, p a r t i c i p a n t s were seldom s t r i c t l y amateur, but  192 competed f o r p r i z e s o f money o r r e a s o n a b l y e x p e n s i v e articles.  Sometimes even t h e women competed f o r such  p r i z e s and, i n one case a t Nanaimo, a match r a c e f o r $100 was h e l d between two l o c a l women.  193 Table X Track and F i e l d 1859 - P a r t o f Queen's B i r t h d a y a t New Westminster 1860 - Events  held i n V i c t o r i a  1  2 , 4  61 - Knox i n $1,000 v/alking r a c e - E x c e l s i o r Gymnasium c l u b a c t i v e 5  63 - Frank Howlett wins 200 yards i n 24 1/2 s e e s - P a r t of Queen's B i r t h d a y a t N a n a i m o - Winter races i n the C a r i b o o  1 4  15  1 9  18 64 - D a n i e l McBrown vs Mr. Durcom over 60 yards - F i r s t Annual Meeting o f S t . Andrew's and Caledonian S o c i e t y 23 68 - Naval Sports Day - B a r k e r v i l l e Dominion Day24 - Barkerville July 4 « - F i r s t Annual V i c t o r i a Firemen's P i c n i c and Games 2 5  7  28 1871 - Naval c o m p e t i t i o n - E i g h t h Annual S t . Andrew's and Caledonian Games 42 74 - Sports day a t B u r r a r d I n l e t - Deerfoot d e f e a t s 'Ontario Boy' 32 77 - S t . Andrew's and Caledonian Games a t Langley 39 78 - American, Carr d e f e a t s Tod and Beaven - Gagon d e f e a t s C a r r - Ten m i l e walking match won by P r i d m o r e 79 - McDowell becomes champion walker o f B r i t i s h Columbia 46 4 0  44  43 1880 - W e l l i n g t o n Dominion Day 48 83 - 'High jump with p o l e ' a t Yale 84 - New Westminster S t . Andrew's and Caledonian Games - Nanaimo host t o female match r u n n e r s 4 7  33  194 CHAPTER XV WINTER SPORTS AND ACTIVITIES CURLING The West Coast c l i m a t e being regular opportunity  too m i l d to ensure  f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i c e sports, i t  i s l i t t l e s u r p r i s e t h a t there was scant o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c u r l i n g during  the p e r i o d .  The c i t i z e n s of Nanaimo  to have e s t a b l i s h e d the f i r s t  c u r l i n g c l u b on the P a c i f i c  Coast i n 1873, when c o l d weather permitted on the f r o z e n swamp j u s t o u t s i d e skips during 2 Hamilton.  claimed  the c i t y .  them to p l a y 1  Prominent  the mid-seventies were Jas. Harvey and J a s . However, the o p p o r t u n i t y  of c u r l i n g was very  f o r the development  limited until a r t i f i c i a l  i c e was i n t r o -  duced to the coast a f t e r the t u r n o f the century. Inland, where the weather ..was s u i t a b l e f o r i c e s p o r t s , c u r l i n g developed i n the 1890s s e t t l e r s t o the r e g i o n . i n Kaslo and  i n 1895.  as the r a i l w a y brought new  For example, a club was formed  In the f o l l o w i n g year, Nelson, Sandon,  Golden had c l u b s and i n 1898, the Kootenay C u r l i n g  A s s o c i a t i o n was formed.  The growth o f c u r l i n g i n Canada  was such t h a t "by 1900, c u r l i n g c l u b s were e s t a b l i s h e d from 3 H a l i f a x to Rossland, B.C." SLEIGHING The  i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f c o l d winter weather made the adapt-  195  ation on  of  the  transport to  West  However,  the  colonists changed  Coast  snow  than  i n other  appearance  and  the  c o n d i t i o n s more  of  parts  s n o w was  newspapers  of  North  enjoyed  hastened  to  of  by  an  inconvenience  America. the  comment  early  on  the  conditions.  OUT S L E I G H I N G - A s we g o t o p r e s s - 12 o ' c l o c k - we h e a r t h e j i n g l i n g o f b e l l s , a n d t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p a r t i e s r i d i n g through the s t r e e t s i n sleighs.  P.M.  4  The s l e i g h b e l l s r u n g o u t a m e r r y p e a l f o r c i b l y r e c a l l i n g happy days i n o t h e r regions.  yesterday, distant  5  F I R S T SNQW - THE WEATHER - On S a t u r d a y m o r n i n g l a s t , a f e w f l a k e s o f s n o w came down f r o m a b o v e , a n d awakened f o n d r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f s l e i g h - r i d e s and snowballing parties. 6  SLEIGHING - The f i r s t s l e i g h p a s s e d up Y a t e s street y e s t e r d a y a f t e r n o o n , d r a w n b y two h o r s e s without bells. The v e h i c l e c o n t a i n e d h a l f - a - d o z e n m e l a n c h o l y l o o k i n g men, who seemed h a l f - f r o z e n t o d e a t h . The o c c u p a n t s , as t h e y were drawn s w i f t l y and s i l e n t l y up t h e s t r e e t w e r e e v e r and a n o n s a l u t e d w i t h a s n o w b a l l t h r o w n i n t o t h e i r m i d s t by g r a c e l e s s u r c h i n s who seemed t o c o n s i d e r them l e g i t i m a t e marks f o r t h e i r u n e r r i n g a i m s . 7  During children enjoyed  the  were  advent  the  s n o w , was  urchins  who  of  years  equipped  running  the  early  and  sliding  milder often  had  with  of  sleighs across  weather, "very  taken  settlement, and the  to  advantage  the  of  the  toboggans, i c e and  bringing rain  much  before  to  snow.  Thus,  dissipate  d i s g u s t of  the  they  sundry  opportunity  afforded 8  to  convert When  their  several of toboggans  indiscretion  the  and was  sidewalks  s l e d s were likely  to  into used  incur  sliding-ponds". by  the  the  youngsters,  wrath  of  the  196  o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n , who  had p e r i o d i c a l l y banned the  i n o t h e r p a r t s o f the c o n t i n e n t .  Thus, i n 188 3, the  Mainland Guardian c h a s t i s e d the youth of New for their  frivolity  Westminster  recklessness.  H i n t s - The boys i n t h i s c i t y r e q u i r e some good advice ... As soon as the snow comes the boys take out the s l e d s and use the s i d e walks descending to Columbia S t r e e t as chutes. Mounted on t h e i r i n f e r n a l machines they descend with g r e a t r a p i d i t y , endangering the l i v e s of persons who are t r a v e l l i n g . On l a s t Saturday evening two l a d i e s narrowly escaped the descending imps. The l a d i e s were about f o r t y yards from Columbia S t r e e t , ascending when suddenly f i v e s l e i g h s c a r r y i n g f i v e boys and no b r a i n s , d e s c e n d e d ' l i k e f l a s h e s ... A f t e r t h i s n o t i c e of the nuisance, which i s c a l l e d amusement, i f any c i t i z e n i s i n j u r e d by the s l e d s he v / i l l have the lav/ on h i s s i d e and we are informed by a lawyer t h a t i n an a c t i o n a g a i n s t the c i t y f a t h e r s he or she w i l l secure damages and c o s t s . 9  SNOWBALLING One of the most popular w i n t e r pastimes, which  youth  of every era seem to have c o m p u l s i v e l y enjoyed, was  snow-  balling.  In 1862,  the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t responded  complaints of l o c a l businessmen  who  to the  were concerned  the snowballing escapades of p a r t i e s of boys and  about  men.  A good bout o f snowballs, where the s p o r t i s not a l l one s i d e , i s h e a l t h - g i v i n g and s p i r i t - r a i s i n g , and i s the b e s t remedy f o r the 'blues', dyspepsia and i l l temper t h a t we know of ... In f u t u r e , boys, make s o f t b a l l s , keep snow out of s t o r e s , and don't p e l t anybody except he has a f a i r show to pay you back with i n t e r e s t . 1 0  The next year, the paper d e s c r i b e d a major snow-battle i n the c i t y  streets.  197  The 'boys' were c o l l e c t e d i n f u l l f o r c e y e s t e r d a y on G o v e r n m e n t and Y a t e s s t r e e t s , f o r t h e p u r p o s e of enjoying themselves i n snow-balling each o t h e r ; as w e l l as p a y i n g marked a t t e n t i o n t o t h e passerby. T h e r e w e r e two b r i g a d e s m a r s h a l l e d a l o n g t h e s i d e w a l k , one a t t h e A d e l p h i c o r n e r and t h e o t h e r on t h e o p p o s i t e s i d e . When some p o o r t e a m s t e r was n o t i n t h e way, mutual exchanges followed each other i n r a p i d succession with b o i s t e r ous c h e e r i n g from b o t h p a r t i e s . When a s l e i g h i n g p a r t y came a l o n g t h e f u n a n d e x c i t e m e n t r o s e t o t h e h i g h e s t p i t c h , w h e n v o l l e y a f t e r v o l l e y was discharged from both s i d e s a t the u n f o r t u n a t e occupants. T h e r e was n o r e s p e c t o f p e r s o n s o b s e r v e d b y t h e c r o w d , a s e v e r y o n e who chanced to cross t h e i r path had t o r u n t h e g a u n t l e t and t a k e h i s s h a r e - and s o m e t i m e s i t was a l a r g e s h a r e - o f t h e s h o w e r s o f b a l l s which were l e v e l l e d a t h i s head. Neither civic d i g n i t a r y , member o f t h e l e g i s l a t u r e , nor e v e n k n o w n t o b e l o n g t o t h e p r e s s , was any shield from the combined a t t a c k o f the r i v a l p a r t i e s , - a l l w e r e s e r v e d i n t h e same s t y l e a n d h a d t o e n d u r e t h e same t r e a t m e n t . T h e r e was t h e g r e a t e s t g o o d humor m a n i f e s t e d g e n e r a l l y , a n d w i t h o n e o r two exceptions, we d i d n o t s e e a n y o n e w i t h a f r o w n u p o n h i s f a c e . The c r o w d q u i e t l y d i s p e r s e d a b o u t an h o u r b e f o r e night-fall. Similarly,  the  that  "'ripe  age'  from  volleys  of  British  and  the  Columbian  fair  snow-balls,  sex  reported  alone  which were  of  enjoyed flying  New  Westminster  immunity  thick  and  12 fast  on  Columbia  merriment. Colonist  On  street".  the  carried  However,  serious  the  side,  report of  an  not  i n 1862, o l d man  a l l was the of 13  was k i l l e d b y i c e c o n c e a l e d i n a s n o w b a l l . y e a r s l a t e r , a y o u n g man was r e p o r t e d t o h a v e for  pelting  a  citizen  with  snowballs.  fun  and  British Steilacoom,  who  Then, s e v e r a l b e e n summoned  14  SKATING  In  the  snow w e r e  mild  climate of  a wintery  treat  British  f o r the  Columbia,  frost  e n e r g e t i c , who  and  took  quick  198 advantage o f the  formation  t h e y were a l i t t l e the  Rri t i s h  too  of  quick  ice.  However,  to test  the  C o l o n i s t o f November, 18 59,  sometimes  local  ponds,  as  reported.  S k a t i n g - The i n v i g o r a t i n g and e x h i l a r a t i n g e x e r c i s e o f s k a t i n g has b e e n i n d u l g e d i n by many d u r i n g t h e l a s t few d a y s , a b o u t two m i l e s o u t o f town. W h i l e a p a r t y o f g e n t l e m e n were e n j o y i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n t h i s way on S a t u r d a y , Mr. A.F. M a i n had t h e m i s f o r t u n e t o b r e a k t h r o u g h t h e i c e , and e s c a p e d o n l y by swimming. The i c e was v e r y t h i n , b e i n g l i t t l e more t h a n an i n c h t h i c k . 1 5  The is  first  record of  skates being used  de Mont's e x p e d i t i o n t o A c a d i a  i n 1604,  i n North  America  when s k a t e s  and  16 snowshoes were u s e d as a means o f t r a v e l . o n l y became p o p u l a r century  and,  by  as  1862,  a pastime  i n the  some e i g h t y t o one  The  activity  mid-nineteenth hundred of  Victoria's  citizens  were e n j o y i n g t h e a c t i v i t y on Swan L a k e , j u s t two 17 m i l e s o u t o f town. In t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , t h e B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t c a r r i e d t h i s r e p o r t of the a c t i v i t i e s : SPORTS OF THE SEASON - A number o f p e r s o n s a v a i l e d themselves y e s t e r d a y o f the b e a u t i f u l f r o s t y weather, to enjoy the f a v o r i t e pastimes of s l i d i n g and s k a t i n g . P a r t i e s b e n t upon i n d u l g i n g t h e i r t a s t e f o r t h i s r e c r e a t i o n v i s i t e d n e a r l y every s u i t a b l e p l a c e of water i n the v i c i n i t y of V i c t o r i a ; b u t Swan L a k e , t h e swamp a t t h e u p p e r p a r t o f V i e w s t r e e t , and t h e e a s t e r n e x t r e m i t y o f James Bay, o b t a i n e d t h e most p a t r o n a g e . The swamp on V i e w s t r e e t was, however, most h i g h l y f a v o r e d , as two y o u n g German l a d i e s , who d o u b t l e s s a c q u i r e d t h e art i n t h e i r n a t i v e land, honored the spot with t h e i r p r e s e n c e , and e x c i t e d t h e a d m i r a t i o n o f t h e b e h o l d e r s by t h e i r g r a c e f u l e v o l u t i o n s upon t h e i c e i n a n y t h i n g b u t c o n v e n i e n t and a p p r o p r i a t e s k a t e s . 1 8  Commercial v e n t u r e s ularity  of  skating.  The  V i c t o r i a were L a n g f o r d ' s  soon s t r o v e t o cash most p o p u l a r  i n on  n a t u r a l spots  Lake, S k i n n e r ' s  Bottom,  the  pop-  around  Harris'  199 Pond, and  Swan Lake.  By  1864,  a refreshment house  had  been e s t a b l i s h e d at Swan Lake, to which the stages of  the  19 Cosmopolitan L i v e r y S t a b l e ran a l l day. l a t e r , Edward Thomas, of the Bee the f l o o d i n g of an i c e s u r f a c e  Four years  Hive Saloon,  advertised  as p a r t of h i s business  promotion. In d e s c r i p t i o n of the endeavour, the Colonist stated:  British  Should the f r o s t continue a f o r c e pump w i l l be taken to H a r r i s ' pond and the i c e f l o o d e d w i t h two or three inches of water, and i f t h i s water f r e e z e o v e r - n i g h t there w i l l be a smooth s u r f a c e f o r s k a t e r s to-day. T h i s p l a n i s adopted on the s k a t i n g r i n k s i n Canada. As soon as the l a s t skater has l e f t the r i n k at n i g h t , about two inches of water i s l e t i n , and i n the morning the i c e i s as smooth as