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The effects of electrical stimulation on muscular strength and endurance of the extensor muscles of the… Goldsmid, Bruce C 1978

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THE EFFECTS OF  ELECTRICAL  STIMULATION  ON MUSCULAR STRENGTH AND  ENDURANCE  OF THE EXTENSOR MUSCLES O F T B I HAND  by ERUCf C., GOLDSMID  B.P.E., U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1975  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR TfiE  DEGREE OF  MASTERS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION in THE FACULTY  CF GRADUATE  SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL WE  IDUCATIGN  STUDIES  AND  RECREATION  ACCEPT THIS THESIS AS CONFORMING TO THE REQUIRED STANDARD  University  Of B r i t i s h  Columbia  July,1978  T)BRUCE  CLAY GOLDSMID, 1S78  In  presenting  this  thesis  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e the I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  shall  at  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  that  for  freely  permission  purposes  thesis  written  may  is  financial  of  of  Columbia,  British  available  of  Physical  The U n i v e r s i t y  of  British  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  July  1978  for  for extensive  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment  by  understood  gain  shall  that  not  Education  Columbia  the  requirements I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  t h e Head o f  permission.  Department  Date  it  representatives.  this  in p a r t i a l  of  or  that  study.  this  thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ABSTBACT  The in  main  p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o o b s e r v e  muscular  the  hand  strength  after  the  and e n d u r a n c e o f t h e e x t e n s o r  the  arm  had  been  exposed  to  changes  muscles o f electrical  stimulation. Twenty-four The  subjects  to  make  Voluntary  u n i v e r s i t y students  were d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e  each  group  Iscitetric  were c h o s e n f o r t h i s s t u d y . groups o f eight,,  homogeneous w i t h  Contraction  respect  of the extensor  attempting  to t h e i r muscles  Maximal of  the  a t 150 d e g r e e s  with  1 (ES) r e c e i v e d  five  hand. All respect  subjects  were t r a i n e d w i t h  t o the forearm  minutes o f e l e c t r i c a l forearm the  each  electrodes  below  ( P o s i t i o n 1) . G r o u p  stimulation t o the dorsal surface  weekday  for a four  The i n t e n s i t y o f  the subjects  pain  i i  of  the  week p e r i o d . The p l a c e m e n t o f  were a t t h e m u s c u l o t e n d o n o u s  m u s c l e s o f t h e hand. was j u s t  the hand  the  threshold.  area  of the extensor  faradic  stimulation  Each c o n t r a c t i o n  elicited  by  msec, and Group  the  the  2  (VI)  performed  the  week f o r a f o u r training  Subjects Contraction  were  subjects  f a t i g u e curve.  relative done  the  any  and  at  Significant the  Pre  The  period)  e n d u r a n c e . The  training,  for a duration  of e i g h t  and  Group  was  place,  gains Mid*Iost  iii  four  occured  (ES+VIj  weeks.  {180  Voluntary  degrees  calculated  t i m e i n s e c o n d s to  took  3  Maximal  Position 2  used  Voluntary  and  2 for four  Endurance  was  Maximal  msec.  Monday, S e d n e s d a y ,  their  d u r a t i c r of the  strength test  1 and  1030  880  of  week d u r a t i o n .  for  was  of  held f o r a duration  as  65%  a  t e s t i n g of strength  training the  the  Groups 1 and  forearm).  testing  before  between  of  i n both P o s i t i o n  to  each  sets  tested  respect  (for  four  T r a i n i n g t o o k p l a c e on  of each  performed  was  where e a c h c o n t r a c t i o n was  seconds.  Friday  stimulation  r e l a x a t i o n between e a c h c o n t r a c t i o n  Contractions, two  electrical  of  with  on  the  their  MVC  measure o f  and after  their  endurance  was  two  of  weeks  week p e r i o d . ,  in  a l l  i n P o s i t i o n 1 and  three  groups  Position  2.  During  the  significant both  Mid-Post  strength gains  period  only  t h e ES+VI g r o u p had  i n P o s i t i o n 1; whereas i n P o s i t i o n  t h e ES and ES+VI g r o u p s y i e l d e d s i g n i f i c a n t  It and  VI  that  one  another  was i l l u s t r a t e d  that individual  strength  2  gains.  s t r e n g t h g a i n s i n t h e ES  g r o u p s were n o t a d d i t i v e i n e i t h e r p o s i t i o n t e s t e d , and training  method  when o b s e r v i n g  During  the  four  muscles d i d n o t a l t e r all  training  three  is  not  significantly  than  mean s t r e n g t h  gains  week t r a i n i n g  p e r i o d t h e endurance o f t h e  significantly  groups.  iv  over  better  time.  when l o c k i n g a t t h e mean  of  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTIR I II  PAGE INTRODUCTION  . ... ....,. . .... ... ......... ... ... , 1  BEVI EH OF L I T EB ATO BE Isometric  Training  Electrical  METHODS  IV  RESULTS  AND AND  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13  Stimulation  Muscle Hypertrophy III  13  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17  . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . 21  PROCEDURE . . .... ...» DISCUSSION  ..... *V« . • • 25 .34  Section  1 ................,...............35  Section  2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..........47  S e c t i o n 3 ................................49 V  SUMMARY AND  CONCICSIONS  ..............,.......56  REFERENCES  ...................................60  APPENDICIES  . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . ...............,..67  L I S T OF TABLES  TABLE  PAGE  3:1  Training  Schedule  3:2  Orthogonal  4:1  Subject  4:2  Force Exerted  4:3  ANOVA S t r e n g t h  4:4  Preplanned  4:5  Force  Exerted  4:6  ANDVA  (Strength i n P o s i t i o n  4:7  Preplanned  4:8  Pre-Post  4:9  CELL  4:10  CELL MEANS  4:11  ANOVA  (Endurance;  Eosition  1)  .......,.v ,v.*51  4:12  ANOVA  (Endurance;  Position  2)  .................54  Contrasts  Data  ...........33  ................. i n Position  1  i n Position  Contrasts  Contrasts  .34 ......35  1 ................«.37  (Position  i n Position  Strength  MEANS  .............................32  1) .............38  2 .••,•....,.vv.«•* '*,»v? 2)  43  (Position  2) .............44  Cains  .......47  (ENDUBANCE; POSITION 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 (ENDURANCE; POSITION 2)  vi  ,50 r  L I S T OF FIGOSES  FIGURE  PAGE  1:1  Faradic Current  Pulse  8  1:2  S u p e r f i c i a l M u s c l e s c f Forearm  1:3  Deep M u s c l e s o f F o r e a r m  2:1  Current  3:1  T e s t i n g A p p a r a t u s ..............* ..............28  4:1  Strength  Graph  ( P o s i t i o n 1)  4:2  Strength  Graph  (Position  4:3  E n d u r a n c e Graph  (Position  1)  4:4  E n d u r a n c e Graph  (Position  2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53  ................  9  .......................11  P a t h s o f S t i m u l a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16  vii  36  2)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 ..................52  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I  would  K. C o u r t s , their  like  Dr. B. S c h u t z ,  guidance  also l i k e electrical  t o t h a n k a l l t h e members c f my c o m m i t t e e , D r .  to  and  thank  patience Mrs.  stimulator  methodological  D r . P. Vaughn, and Dr. T.  6.  and  Rhodes  for  during t h i s  e n t i r e study.  I  0*Sullivan  for  me  the  during  some  lending  f o r g i v i n g me d i r e c t i o n  p r o b l e m s . T h a r k God i t ' s f i n i s h e d ! !  viii  would  Chapter 1  INTRODUCTION  Numerous a u t h o r s that  isometric  Myres  {1967}  isometric specific In  Basch  programs i n c r e a s e e t a l . (1961)  increases  in  that  training  further  are by  Knew  precisely  required  Hettinger for  strength  to bring and  unrelated  increases  w i t h i n t h e muscle t i s s u e i n v o l v e d . oxygen d e f i c i t  was  guantity  deVries  and  the  and  (1968)  Morehouse  guality  effect.  suggested  was a r e s u l t  n o t the s t i m u l u s  1  to  u n d o u b t e d l y be g r e a t l y  (1953)  ;  that  intensities  about a t r a i n i n g  Kuller  strength.  reported  various  could  what  stated  trained.  increases,  procedures  have  isometric  o f muscle c o n t r a c t i o n s a r e r e q u i r e d .  stimulus  that  1961)  muscles  a t w h i c h i t was  order t o get s t r e n g t h  i f we  stimulus  and  muscle l e n g t h  improved  studies  training  strength  durations states  (Hansen, 1961; B a s c h ,  Early  that  of oxygen  the  deficit  (1971:149)  f o r strength  of  felt  increases,  2  but  felt  i t was  due  to  golgi  tendon d e i n h i b i t i o n .  He  stated:  "since the end point of a b r i e f maximal s t r e n g t h e f f o r t can be set by inhibitory functions, training should be directed toward reducing the responsiveness of inhibitory controls. This lessening of i n h i b i t o r y s e n s i t i v i t y would p e r m i t a h i g h e r degree of t e n s i o n to o c c u r thus increasing t h e s t r e n g t h c f t h e movement.  Morehouse is  due  to  altering the  a  morphological a l t e r a t i o n  the  training  (CHS)  and  (1971) t h e o r i z e d t h a t  a  discharge  training  to  been  effect  effects  of  golgi  in  the  central  brought  the  in  He  nervous  about  pyramidal  inhibition  muscle t i s s u e ,  tendon organs.  i n the was  decrease  by  thus  felt  that  system  a reduction  system  upon  of  lower  neurons. The  be  the  stimulus resided  normal i n h i b i t o r y motor  of  the  only  record  valid  golgi  subjected  experiment researchers Morehouse's  such  tendon organ  tc as  have had  a  testing  activity after  strength this to  Morehouse's t h e o r y  has  look at  training not  been  indirect  the  program. carried  luscle  had  Ss  an  out,  evidence to  would  yet  thus  comment  on  theory.  Some w o r k e r s trained  method of  muscles  ( l u i and  lewey,  1947  causing  involuntary  ; Ncwakcwska, 1962) contractions  have  initiated  by  3  electrical has  stinsulation.  on muscle s t r e n g t h  comments  on s t u d i e s  supports  the  The e f f e c t which e l e c t r i c a l is  controversial,  and  stimulation  Devries  (1968)  s i m i l a r t c t h e s e and f e e l s t h a t t h e e v i d e n c e  theory  that  the  s t r e n g t h r e s i d e s b o t h i n t h e CNS  effect  on.increasing  and t h e m u s c l e t i s s u e  muscular itself.,  A c a u s e and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p seems t o be a p p a r e n t . cause  seems  connective an  to  be  tissue)  increase  r e l a t e d t o t h e muscle  The  (with  changes i n the  a f f e c t i n g g o l g i tendon o u t p u t .  The e f f e c t i s  i n strength  indirectly  regulated  by CMS  output.  Statement - of the Problem  The changes  purpose in  of  this  isometric  investigation  strength  m u s c l e s o f t h e hand a f t e r a  four  electrical  stimulation, voluntary  combination  o f both  techniques.  and week  i s  to  quantify  the  endurance o f t h e e x t e n s o r training  isometric  period  contractions,  using and a  The in  subprcblem  isometric  the  hand  of t h i s e x p e r i m e n t  strength  i s t o observe the changes  and endurance o f t h e e x t e n s o r  at a different  muscle l e n g t h  other  muscles  of  than the length a t  w h i c h i t was t r a i n e d . ,  Significance  To  date the e f f e c t  electrical intends  of increasing isometric  stimulation  to quantify  endurance using  c f t h e Study  alter  has  n o t been  the ext€nt  with  the  demonstrated.  t o which i s o m e t r i c  use  strength  /  This  strength  cf a specific training  e l e c t r i c a l s t i m u l a t i o n t o i n i t i a t e muscular  using study and  program  contractions.  Hypotheses Following  a f o u r week t r a i n i n g  1) I s o m e t r i c significantly stimulation,  strength  of  increases and v o l u n t a r y  the when  program: extensor voluntary  isemetrie  •  muscles  of  the  hand  isometric, e l e c t r i c a l electrical  stimulation  5  training  methods  occurs  both  2)  at  are  stimulation  isometric strength  by  described  voluntary  experience  as compared  to the  3)  increase i n isometric strength  hand  using  and  electrical  increases This  4)  a combination stimulaticc  brought  occurs  at  both  a b o u t by muscle  not i n c r e a s e  due  muscle l e n g t h s  to  any  tested. ,  of  This  contraction  greatest  ether  and  increase  techniques.  in This  tested.  of the  extensor  of i s c m e t r i c v o l u n t a r y are  less  than  each t r a i n i n g  lengths  R e l a t i v e endurance of the  iscmetric the  at  the  muscle l e n g t h s  in t h i s study.  tested.  occurs  The  both  as  muscle l e n g t h s  Muscles t r a i n e d both  electrical  used  the  technique  muscles  of  contraction sum  of  the  separately.  tested.  extensor  the t h r e e  uuscles training  of the  hand  techniques  at  does both  6  Delimitations 1} I n f e r e n c e s from t h i s  with  2)  s t u d y s h o u l d be l i i i t e d  normally innervated  The  skeletal  been c a l c u l a t e d ; t h u s , c o n c l u s i o n s training  subjects  muscles.  energy requirements c f each t r a i n i n g  different  t o male  t e c h n i q u e have n o t  as t o the e f f i c i e n c y  of  the  degree  than  t e c h n i q u e s c a n n o t be made.  Limitations 1}  Superficial  the  deeper  muscles a r e s t i m u l a t e d  muscles  and  thus  will  to a greater have  a  more  pronounced  contraction. 2)  The i n t e n s i t y  each s u b j e c t  due  v a r i a t i o n s i n pain  of e l e c t r i c a l stimulation to  variations  in  differs slightly for  resistance  of  skin  and  threshold.  Definitions ELECTRICAL STIMULATION study  was  a faradic  : The e l e c t r i c a l current.  stimulation  The f a r a d i c c u r r e n t  used i n t h i s was  produced  7  by a f a r a d i c fall  coil  of unidirection  88 p e r s e c o n d . millisecond rapid  (direct)  The r i s i n g  recurrence which  of  period  ENDURANCE:  d u r i n g each  o f 1030 msec.  throws  in  880  and  from  86-  i s less than  one  13 msec. The  and  msec  holds  the  contraction. and  has  a  ( F i g 1:1)  this  study i s a r e l a t i v e  subject*s fatigue  testing  ( F i g 1:2  impulses  rise  ranged  i s approximately  f o r a duration of  curve i n r e l a t i o n  measurement to t h e i r  MVC  period.  EXTENSOR MUSCLES OF THE are:  Impulses  i t s t i m u l a t e s i n continued tetanic  Endurance  t a k e n f r o m each  of a rapid  phase o f t h e i m p u l s e  these  current i s applied  guiescent  current.  and t h e r e c o v e r y phase  sarcomeres The  and t h e c u r r e n t c o n s i s t e d  HAND:  The  primary  ; 1:3)  1) E x t e n s o r C a r p i  Radialis Brevis  2) E x t e n s o r C a r p i R a d i a l i s 3) E x t e n s o r C a r p i 4) E x t e n s o r  Ulnaris  Digitorum  Longus  muscles  stimulated  8  TIME  DIVISION  2msec  FIG 1:1 OSCfLI S C O P E FARADIC.  TRACING OF O N E PULSE  9  FIG 1:2 DORSAL SURFACE OF F O R E A R M SUPERFICIAL  MUSCLES  10  SUPERFICIAL  1) T r i c e p s  Braichi  2)  Braichioradialis  3)  lateral  4)  Extensor C a r p i  5)  Anconeus  6)  Extensor Digitcrum  7)  Extensor C a r p i  Epicondile  8) E x t e n s o r C a r p i 9)  MUSCLES  Extensor D i g i t i  Radialis  Longus  Ulnar i s Radialis  Brevis  Minimi  10)  Abductor P o l l i c u s  Longus  11)  Extensor P o l l i c i s  Longus  12)  Extensor P o l l i c u s  Longus  DEEP  MUSCLES  12 BEIP MUSCLES  1)  Humerus  2) L a t e r a l  Epicondile  3)  Olecranon  4)  Supinator  5)  Flexor  Carpi  Ulnaris  6)  Flexor  Digitorua  7) A d d u c t o r P o l l i c u s  Ulnaris Longus  8)  Extensor C a r p i  Eadialis  Brevis  9)  Extensor Carpi  Eadialis  Longus  10}  Extensor P o l l i c u s  Brevis  11)  Extensor P o l l i c u s  Longus  12)  Extensor Indie i s  13)  Extensor Carpi  Ulnaris  13  Chapter  E J I I I l g 91  II  LITSBATUBE  ISCMETBIC TB JUNING  athletes techniques groups. form  to  non-athletes  to increase strength Isometric  of s t r e n g t h  Hettinger that  and  and  training  training fluller  and  a  following  (1953).  significant  endurance of v a r i o u s  became r e c o g n i z e d early and  two-thirds  increase  as an  Muller MVC  was  another  group  at  100% flVC. , L a t e r , W a l t e r s e t a l . , (1S60)  similar  findings using  specific  joint  controversial  of  angle subject  demonstrated  flexors.  strength increases isometrically for  sufficient little  trained  question  for  by  that  was  elbow  gains  effective  demonstrated  i n s t r e n g t h , and  strength  muscle  experiments  difference  The  observed i n  the  Hettinger  a s i x second c o n t r a c t i o n of yield  have a l w a y s b e e n i n t e r e s t e d i n  years,  occurring only  trained and  has  authors  at  the  been  a  have  had  14  conflicting  results  their  experiments.  male  students  at  175  degrees.  at  the  that  degrees that  angle  trained  significant  a  was measured  Significant  specific  isometrically  (1962) t r a i n e d  Following  strength  65  Boileau  determined  by t h e methodology o f t h e elbow  a t t w o - t h i r d s MVC f o r s i x s e c o n d s  degrees.  isometric  , primarily  two  at j o i n t  trained.  session,  a n g l e s o f 175, 115, and  Meyers  were o n l y et al.,  t h e arm e x t e n s o r s a t 165 d e g r e e s  increases  in  strength These  of  w i t h t h e elbow  training  increases i n strength  and n o t a t 125 d e g r e e s .  isometric  month  flexors  two  found (1963)  and f o u n d  o c c u r r e d o n l y a t 165 experiments  suggest  s t r e n g t h gains occur only at the s p e c i f i c  angle  trained. There Boileau  (1962)  continued trained yielded  and  investigating isometrically  quite  performed group  a r e some s t u d i e s  different  three  performed  MVC, 20 MVC,  which  contradict  the  Meyers  et a l . ,  (1963).  this  problem  and  for  a  results each each  Meyers  found  s i x week d u r a t i o n than  of  (1967)  arm  flexors  a t 170  degrees  were e x p e c t e d .  f o r s i x seconds.  findings  One  group  The e x p e r i m e n t a l  held f o r s i x seconds.  When  tested  15  for  isometric  strength  showed s i g n i f i c a n t as  the  first  degrees..  isometrically at Significant and  135  and  degrees, the  a t both angles  (1961)  gains  tested,  strength  gains  trained  elbow  90 d e g r e e s f o r s i x weeks, t h r e e were f o u n d  with  the  second  group where-  only a t  170  extensors  t i m e s per elbow a t  week.  45,  90,  degrees.  to  is s t i l l  joint  the  above l i t e r a t u r e  specificity,  one  a controversial subject,  the  s p e c i f i c s of  each e x p e r i m e n t  It  seems  both  the  intensity  strength  90  demonstrated  et a l . ,  strength  In v i e w i n g regard  170  strength gains  group  Sasch  at  from  Meyers  of t r a i n i n g  on  isometric training  would have t o c o n c l u d e and  only  could  (1967) and  any  to  joint  angles  that i t  observations  conclusion  Rasch's  i s a controlling  increases specific  after  with  be  (1961) work  f a c t o r when trained.  on  made. that  observing  16  FIG  2:1  COURSE  OF C U R R E N T  BIPOLAR  PATHS  STIMULATION  WITH  17  ELECTHICAL STIMULATION  Stillwell similar  to  nerves,  the  (1967)  nerves  and  current,  the  muscle  contraction  to  muscle  and  nerve  impulses/second the  allow  for  electrical  e n t i r e auscle  motor n e r v e s a r e the  muscles  therefore,  i f  from  With  causing with  freguency i s tetanic.  continued  sensory ).  2:1  stimulated  a  optinal current  recovery  ( Fig  they supply.  at  quickly  stimulation  experiment s t i m u l a t e s  muscle c o n t r a c t i o n  place  seme  the  stimulation  the  muscle t a k e s  elicited;  that  method u s e d i n t h i s  motor  sufficient  mentions  direct  above  50  Fatigue  in  stimulation  i s a pulsating current  the  previous  a  is to  contractions  ( S t i l l w e l l (1967)) . Electrical c h a n g e s as in  the  stimulation  associated  requirement  needed f o r removal  with  to  a muscle causes s i m i l a r  voluntary  for nutrients of  waste  contraction.  occurs,  products.  as  w e l l as  An an  Stillwell  states:  "If a m u s c l e c o n t r a c t s a s u f f i c i e n t number o f t i m e s a g a i n s t a r e s i s t a c c e o f an a d e q u a t e l o a d t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e i n t h e b u l k o f t h e  vascular increase increase  (1967:127)  18  muscle fibers and the muscle is strengthened. There i s some d o u b t whether the muscle contraction caused by faradic stimulation can produce these e f f e c t s , but presumably i f s u f f i c i e n t contractions are p r o d u c e d a g a i n s t a r e s i s t a n c e o f an a d e g u a t e l o a d i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o do s o " Stillwell stimulation Very  muscular The  Guttman  to strength  on human s u b j e c t s ;  (1942),  noticed  that  decrease  peripheral  nerves a f t e r exposed  human s t u d i e s  electrical retarded was a l m o s t time".  stimulation atrophy  during  completely  stimulation.  atrophy  Jackson to  in  humans  to electrical  and Seddon "the  small  the f i r s t  effective  rabbit  regarding  studies.  as a s t i m u l u s  denervated  revealed  muscle.  on t h e u s e o f e l e c t r i c a l  by numerous a u t h o r s .  to e l e c t r i c a l in  i n skeletal  from animal  stimulation  h a s been s t u d i e d  of e l e c t r i c a l  t h u s , some i m p l i c a t i o n s  h a d t o be a p p l i e d  use o f e l e c t r i c a l  when e x p o s e d  other  increases  e v i d e n c e h a s been g a t h e r e d  activity  retardation  less  pertaining  little  stimulation  was i n some d o u b t a s t o t h e e f f e c t s  f o r atrophy Guttman  muscle  atrophied  Osbourne with  and  (1951)  lesions  of  stimulation.  In  (1945) d e m o n s t r a t e d  that  muscles  of  the  hand  100 days o f d e n e r v a t i o n and  i n preventing  wasting a f t e r  this  19  O t h e r a u t h o r s have not atrophy,  but  and  (1947) u s e d e l e c t r i c a l  Lewey  illustrated  only  with  a  freguency  daily  f o r a month.  in eight  patients  Osbourne poliomyelitis  of  Eight showed  using  a  Hore r e c e n t strength  gains  at  50%  i t s maximal f o r c e .  The  the  duration.  muscular f o r c e  flexors  The  wave) minutes muscles  subjects  with  m i n u t e s a day,  remained hand  were s t i m u l a t e d  by  Peckham  (1 976)  and  quadriplegic an  patients  intramuscular  was  contraction  n e r v e s and  was on  The  from  direct  2.5  in  a locked to  muscle  s e c o n d s and  three  the  muscle  primarily that  o f f f o r the  a  by  only  stimulation.  p o s i t i o n and hours  when  electrode  i t i s estimated  for  f o r two  was  of  illustrated  m u s c l e n e r v e s which s t i m u l a t e d  of i n t r a m u s c u l a r  stimulation  f o r ten  Lui  i n volume.  stimulation,  within  of  the  in  planted  5%  in  muscle.  denervated  stimulated  literature  was  excitation  the  decrease  were d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e c i r c u m f e r e n c e s  to e l e c t r i c a l  of  second  twenty-two  increase  a  (sinusoidal  s i n u s o i d a l wave f o r t e n  the  subjected  c y c l e s per  of the an  stimulation  et al.,(1950)  increases  significant  hypertrophy within  eight  significant limbs.  a  demonstrated  the  day  same  finger for  30  20  weeks.  Even  after  strength  gains  were o b s e r v e d .  Electrical causes  in  order  Hines  in  tension that  (1956)  conditions  which  polor  up  would  group  stimulated.  maximum  of the origin  from t h e o n s e t  describes  using b i - p o l o r  similar  by S h a f f e r mandatory  appearance  alter.  conclusions.  He  p o s i t i o n and under  tension  development i n  study  was  a b i -  size  were  applied  where two e l e c t r o d e s o f e g u a l  area  (1957)  with  stimulation i n this  to t h e g e n e r a l  permeated  t h e m u s c l e was  which  s t i m u l a t i o n be a t optimum c o n d i t i o n s . , The  of e l e c t r i c a l  be  I t was i l l u s t r a t e d  within  yield  significant  prerequisite  t h e muscle be i n a s t r e t c h e d  technigue  to  stimulation,  weight and h i s t o l o g i c  came  electrical  application  of  muscle.  development  also  that  that  the  muscle  recommended  order  weeks  s t i m u l a t i o n i s not the only  changes  (1956) t h a t  four  this  and i n s e r t i o n  In t h i s  by a  manner  maximum  method a s b e i n g  techniques,  of  the  muscle  t h e e n t i r e muscle i s  current  density.  t h e most e f f e c t i v e  as  current  passes  of  stimulation  Thorn  when  longitudinally  through t h e muscle.  The  optimal  duration  has been s t u d i e d by  21  numerous a u t h o r s wakim  et  e t a l . , 1943;  a l . , 1955)., I t was  stimulation Stillwell and  (Solandt  was  as  concluded that  e f f e c t i v e as  (1967) m e n t i o n s t h a t  adequate  stimulation  tension i s no  can  Kowarschik,  no  a long  1952;  a brief duration  period  of  be  of  stimulation.  when f a t i g u e becomes  longer  and  predominant  developed,  electrical  longer b e n e f i c i a l .  HUSCLE HYPEBTEOPHX  The  contractile  coupled  to  muscle  takes  Hith  the  the  aid  aminoisobutric across  the  This relevant illustrate  activity  s i z e of place of  the  muscle.  protein  uptake  nonmetabolized  (AIE)  and  studies the  of  the  been  of  amino  muscle has  is  been  hypertrophy  increases amino  directly  within  within  acid  acid,  the  muscle.  analog  the  the  alpha-  protein  uptake  observed.  literature  concerning effects  a  B-orotic  m u s c l e membrane has  portion  of  review acid  electrical  comments  uptake  in  stimulation  on order on  the to the  hypertrophy o f s k e l e t a l Studies rat  by A r v i l  (1967)  on i s o l a t e d  demonstrated a s i g n i f i c a n t  when s u b j e c t e d in 60  muscle.  to e l e c t r i c a l  increase  levator  a n i muscle  of a  i n AIB-14C i n t h e m u s c l e  s t i m u l a t i o n . , The g r e a t e s t  AIB was d e m o n s t r a t e d when t h e m u s c l e r e c e i v e d  increase  stimulation a t  i m p u l s e s / m i n u t e , a l t h o u g h AIB u p t a k e was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t  30  impulses/minute.  similar  Kendric  f i n d i n g s using  frog  and  when t h e muscle  contractile  initiated  Goldberg that  (1974)  an e l e c t r i c a l  adequate  to yield  u p t a k e were e v e n beyond the  studying  significant  greater  at a constant  would  yield  an i s o m e t r i c  that  r a t hemidiaphragm  Protein  duration  cf  synthesis  to  repeated  stimulation.  hemidiaphragm  demonstrated  s i x minutes  catabolism.  was s t r e t c h e d  t h u s any e l e c t r i c a l  contraction.  Goldberg  had a more p r o n o u n c e d r a t e  on AIB  t o 10-15$  The s t r e t c h i n g o f t h e muscle  length,  was  G o l d b e r g went  of e l e c t r i c a l stimulation  when t h e muscle  i t s resting length.  muscle  rat  protein  the effects  demonstrated  was s u b j e c t e d  by e l e c t r i c a l  stimulation  on t o c o n c l u d e t h a t  (1967)  s a r t o r i u s muscle.  was s e e n t o i n c r e a s e activity  Jones  at  holds  stimulation  (1974)  found  o f AIB u p t a k e  23  when c o n t r a c t i n g i s c m e t r i c a l l y  a s opposed  h e m i d i a p h r a g m s t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t AIB  t o zero l o a d .  I n some  increase i n the rate  of  u p t a k e w i t h t h e muscle c o n t r a c t i n g a t z e r o l o a d .  T h i s p o i n t supports Goldberg's  (1974:307)  conclusion:  "that t h e c o n t r a c t i l e work r a t h e r t h a n t h e freguency of the a c t i o n potentials or t h e release of neurotransmitter i s t h e major s i g n a l f o r AIB uptake. These experiments strongly suggest t h a t t h e same b i o c h e m i c a l conseguence o f the c o n t r a c t i l e process and not a neural event affects the rate of muscle h y p e r t r o p h y . "  In  o r d e r t h a t muscles hypertrophy,  must be g r e a t e r t h a n controlled influence  by  of  protein  that  of  degradation  activity  and  by J a t e l e c k i  acid  yielding  protein  uptake  suggesting that tension stretch  i n t h e muscle  a l l amino a c i d t r a n s p o r t . (1973) used  H-orctic acid  uptake w i t h i n t h e muscle.  amino  tissues  level  the over  A study  protein  muscle  uptake a  is  He  primairly  production  of  clearly within  a s a measure demonstrated  the connective  extracellular  collagenous  matrix. From mentioned  unpublished t h a t BNA  observations,  synthesis  is  Goldberg  concentrated  at  (1974) the  also distal  portions the  of  the  muscle.  muscle c l o s e s t t o  Both the  (1974) i n d i r e c t l y of s t r e n g t h  any  f i n d i n g s of J a t e l e c k i  support  Morehouse*s  of  tension  postulated, the  within  a  connective  t i s s u e of the  Golgi  discharge  organs  would  muscle.  The  t o t h e CNS  i n strength  electrical  s t i m u l a t i o n , hypertrophy connective  would dampen t h e  yielding  a  increased  output  in  decreased  t e n s i o n output  t c the from  of the  training,  Goldberg  If this  decreased the  thus  act  stretch  tendon  as  a  i s so,  g o l g i tendon organs  be  i t voluntary  a  The  of the  increase  and  elicit braking  the  m u s c l e from  the  CNS  imposed place  i n the  g o l g i tendon  to  muscle.,  or  i s seen to take  inhibition  the  training  muscle p e r c e i v i n g the s t r e t c h . ,  tissue. output  place.  within  and  Therefore,  tissue  output  strength  yield  located  to  and  the  during  mechanism  muscle  (19:73) and  of  (1965) d e i n h i b i t i o n t h e o r y  t i s s u e takes  muscle  to  inhibitory  that  connective  stimulus  an  musculotendinous area  training.,  Morehouse thickening  the  CNS  by  in  the  connective  organs  thus  ; therefore,  causing  an  an  increase  25  Chapter  3  METHODS AND PBOCIDOBE  Twenty-four Columbia ranged  male,  summer  s t u d e n t s were used i n t h i s in  age  from  18  training  program  And  Each  position  The to  the  The  A l l subjects form  of  subjects were  arm  right  strength  the experiment.  had h i s humerus i n a f l e x e d of  the  with  shoulder. t h e hand  and was s e c u r e d t o t h e t e s t i n g  the d i s t a l  any  of B r i t i s h  Equipment  hand a t t h e l e v e l  flat  in  prior t o or during  subject  extended  University  experiment.  t o 31 y e a r s .  handed and none were p a r t a k i n g  Testing  school,  The  pronated.  position  forearm  was  The e n t i r e  t a b l e by s t r a p s  with t h e in  an  arm l a y  located  at  e n d s o f t h e f o r e a r m and humerus.  hand was i n a f l e x e d forearm  (Position  position, 1} .  150 d e g r e e s  The hand  with  respect  (palm s i d e down) was  26  secured  t o a padded b o a r d  with four  t h e back o f t h e f i n g e r s and The testing  hand  board  table,  and  positioned  over the  Secured l o n g , 2 mm  to  cable. (model  The  cable  over  which a t t a c h e d t o  process  to  the used  was  of  which  t u r n b u c k l e was  of  the  the  was  used  hand b o a r d attached  t o take  turnbuckle  was  up  the  ulna  was  was  to  a  a  14 .5  cm cm  the s l a c k i n t h e  a D a t r o n i c Load  t o measure t h e f o r c e e l i c i t e d  Cell  by  the  )  was  f o r t h e l o a d c e l l and t h e o u t p u t  from  A Datronic amplifier  power s o u r c e  transducer  on a h i n g e  styloid  straps  3:1).  (Fig  underside  the hand.  the  inch nylon  hinge.  2500) which was  as  the  the  the  Secured  e x t e n s i o n of used  pivoted  diameter  turnbuckle.  hand  one  calibrated  and  ( IIode 1 720  recorded  on  an  M.F.£.  Beeorder. The extension angle as  of  same  apparatus  was  used  t o measure t h e f o r c e  o f t h e hand when t h e h a n d b c a r d 180  Position  stimulation  and  hand  was  degrees  with r e s p e c t t o t h e forearm, t h i s  2.  apparatus  was  The an  MBI  faradic  used  t o a d m i n i s t e r the  stimulator  (Model  800).  was  of  the  at  an  known  electrical  PROCEDURES  All Students  testing were  and t r a i n i n g initially  endurance o f t h e extensor  was  done  using  the  tested to acquire their  left  arm.  MVC a s w e l l a s  m u s c l e s o f t h e hand.  HVC was measured a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s ; < Caldwell, 1)  Static  for  four  1974) . ,  s t r e n g t h was a s s e s s e d  a steady  maximal e x e r t i o n  seconds.  2) The t r a n s i e n t steady  during  period of  one  second  before  and  after  the  e x e r t i o n was d i s r e g a r d e d .  3)  Strength  datum was t h e mean s c o r e r e c o r d e d  two  seconds of the steady e x e r t i o n .  4)  The f o r c e was e x p r e s s e d  5)  The mean s c o r e o f t h e twc t r i a l s  6) One m i n u t e was g i v e n  during  i n kilograms.  between  was used  trials.  as datum.  t h e middle  28  straps  hand b o a r d  load cell  r—c1  amplif i e r  recorder FIG  3:1 ESTING  APPARATUS  ( P O S I T I O N 1)  I s o m e t r i c e n d u r a n c e was 1)  S u b j e c t s were i n s t r u c t e d  the 2)  hand m a x i m a l l y Paper speed  3)  on  i n an the  The  below 65%  «as  MFE  recorder  The datum  first  was  isometric similar  the  day  then,  the  pretest  subjects  strength  (with  four  procedures  with  their  the  E x p e r i m e n t a l Group  a t 20  when t h e  subjects  hand  was  of  board. cm/min.  iscmetric  a  tension  subjects  (strength  out  the  fatigue  ratings  initial  received  1.  MVC  minute r e s t  the  The  following  day  2.  were p l a c e d  Position  in Position  (ES)  on  two  for Position  at  to  MVC  in Position  r a t i n g s b e l o w 8.60  1  muscles  endurance.  out  MVC  respect  were c a r r i e d  set  hand  calculated.  the  stronger subjects  groups  extensor  the  following  c u r v e s were  to  equate  of  o f t e s t i n g , the  groups a c c o r d i n g  with  65%  p r o c e d u r e s were c a r r i e d  Following  the  manner:  MVC.,  measure o f  collected; fatigue  was  to r e l a x  of t h e i r  used as  following  attempt to l i f t  time i n seconds to  curve  i n the  to c o n t r a c t  S u b j e c t s were i n s t r u c t e d  dropped 4)  measured  1. kg)  into  Four  three weaker  were i n a  above 8.60  strength.,  kg)  group to  A l l training  1.  electrical  stimulation  30  as  a  training  method.  d o r s a l s i d e of the charts,  when  anatomical of the  forearm.  Stillwell  achieved  ventral  One  muscle  group  The  other  suggests that  cleaned and the  decrease then  appropriate  The  p o s i t i o n s and  an  time  the  below  the  remaining  the  acclimatization,  increased  during  intensity  of  subject's 4.75  manner once a  min. day,  the  secured  the  first  Monday t h r o u g h  is  the  of  basis  origin  f o r e a r m on  placed  end  of  the  the  s k i n the  the  near  the  muscle. forearm the  was  forearm  pads were t h e n p l a c e d to  the  intensity fifteen was  arm  by  in  elastic  of s t i m u l a t i o n  seconds.  increased  threshold,  Each s u b j e c t  point  ends.  stimulation pain  motor  the  stimulation  spread over  stimulation  with v e l c r c f a s t e n i n g  As slowly  pads.  on  over the  cf the  was  of  Redux p a s t e was  on  placed  end  distal  of  optimal  was  electrode the  use  placed  (proximal  resistance  water and  stimulating  straps  the  are  electrode  musculotendonous j u n c t i o n a t To  p a d s were p l a c e d  Bather than the  electrodes  knowledge.  side).  stimulating  r  (1968)  the  extensor  The  and  to a l e v e l  continued  i n G r o u p 1 was Friday  After  was this just  for  the  trained in  this  f o r twenty  sessions.  31  The  second  experimental  Wednesday and F r i d a y MVCs. out  A  weeks u s i n g  cadence.  Pea*  tension  seconds, the r e l a x a t i o n p e r i o d  for  <VI)  metronome was u s e d i n o r d e r  a regular  two  f o r four  group  a duration  o f two s e c o n d s .  between each s e t o f e i g h t The  third  electrical  four  that  sets  subjects  c f each  Monday,  of  eight  could  MVCs was  carry  held  for  between e a c h c o n t r a c t i o n minute  cf rest  was  was  allotted  MVC.  experimentel  stimulation  One  was t r a i n e d  group  training  <ES*VI)  program  received  t h e same  a s e x p e r i m e n t a l Group  On t h e Monday, Wednesday and F r i d a y  following  a  rest  performed  t h e same  isometric  a l s o had a  duration  period,  training of  four MVC  same  a s Group 2.  subjects  This  training  program  minute  weeks. and e n d u r a n c e  procedures; four  the  fifteen  1.  after  week t r a i n i n g  data  was c o l l e c t e d  two weeks c f t r a i n i n g , program.  prior  t o any  and a t t h e e n d  training of  the  32  TABLE 3:1 TRAINING SCHEDULE  i  1—  1—-  I  I HON  ,  j  I  3  TUES  J  |  • 1  E.S.  |  -i  -i—  JGBOUP 2 j V . I .  }  |  i  +  -i  I  i  JGROUP 3 | ES+VI  |  i  i  :  E.S.  |  3  |  E.S.  V.I.  ES+VI  J  second  J  FBI  E.S.  1 .j  J  E.S.  1  -i—•  -1  ^  |  |  V.I. J  -i  +"  |  E.S.  i  J  ... n  i  ES + VI J ..  _J  - E S  VOLUNTARY ISOMETRIC TBAIN1NG  Four  T  .,  1  ELECTRICAL STIMULATION  Statistical  THUBS  H  a  L_  SEEK  1  WED  j  +  |GEODP 1 J E.S.  FOB ONE  - V I  Analysis  separate  factor  3x3  were u s e d  1) ANOVA 1 - MVC  ANCVAS  with  repeated  t o a n a l y s e t h e MVC  POSITION 1  2) ANOVA 2 - ENDURANCE POSITION 1  m e a s u r e s on t h e  and e n d u r a n c e  data.  33  3) AN OVA 3 - MVC POSITION 2 **) AN OVA 4 - EN DURANCE POSITION 2  On e a c h s e t o f d a t a contrasts, orthogonal location  f o l l o w i n g t h e f o u r ANOVAS t h r e e s e t s o f  t o e a c h o t h e r were u s e d  to  test  f o r the  of significance. TABLE 3:2 ORTHOGONAL CONTRASTS  1—  1  I I  1 i  j  E.S.  j  PRE  |  2  I  i j I i }  V.I.  I  1  ES+VI  i I I  i  I  1 1  ]  POST  i  -1  J  -1  -1  |  2  0  J I i I +1 I  -1  I I I  J  I  2  0 i  I  L  ~%  I I  I  1 + 1  1-1 I 1+1  -1  -  1 I  I i I i  11 -1  }  1 1 I  I  I  I  I  I 1  i  MID  0  1  :  I  I  —1  I 1  1  ~s—  -  1  1-1  1  I +  1  1  1 1 I  I 1 i  1 ;  ,  1  34  Chapter RESULTS  Twenty-four study.  Subject  AKD  17  DISSCUSSION  male s u b j e c t s v o l u n t e e r e d d a t a i s summarized  i n Table  t o take  part i n t h i s  4:1.  TABLE 4:1 SUEJECT DATA  GBOUP  AGE  (YEABS)  X 1 Electrical 2 Voluntary  S t i m u l a t i o n (ES) Isometric  (VI)  3 E l e c t r i c a l Stimulation* V o l u n t a r y I s o m e t r i c (ES+VI)  The  results  relating Hypothesis  to  hypothesis,  1, which o b s e r v e s  experimental  conditions  sd  3,  and  compares  X  sd  3.14  76.00  8.58  24.25  2.96  72.75  13.98  24.62  2.92  82.00  13.18  the  are divided i n t o first  section  o v e r a f o u r week t r a i n i n g  the  strength  both  changes  sections deals  t h e s t r e n g t h changes o f  second s e c t i o n of t h e d i s c u s s i o n i n t e g r a t e s and  (KG)  24.60  c f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n  each  HEIGHT  with  a l l three  period.  The  Hypothesis of  the  2  three  experimental the  c o n d i t i o n s t o cue a n o t h e r .  discussion  deals  with  The  final  section  of  t h e endurance changes o f a l l t h r e e  experimental conditions. SECTION 1 P o s i t i o n J. Table  4:2 r e v e a l s t h e c e l l  the t h r e e experimental illustrates Position  the  groups t e s t e d i n P o s i t i o n  improvement  1 , and T a b l e  means f o r i s o m e t r i c s t r e n g t h f o r  trend  4:3 i l l u s t r a t e s  ANOVA f o r t h e s t r e n g t h d a t a  for  1,  Figure  isometric strength i n  the r e s u l t s  of  for subjects i n Position TABLE  the  1.  4:2  FORCE (KG) EXERTED WHILE HAND I N POSITION 1  GROUP  PRE X  MID  POST  sd  X  sd  X  sd  1) ES  8.31  1.72  11.57  2.06  11.79  1.85  2) V I  9.04  1.83  12.05  3.03  12.58  1.80  3)  9.02  2. 32  12.39  2.34  13.95  2.24  ES+VI  4:1  3x3  15  FIG 4;1  STRENGTH  DATA  POSITION 1  37  TABLE 4:3 ANOVA FOB STRENGTH DATA AT POSITION 1  SOURCE  df  Conditions  (C)  SwC Trials  2  9.04  0.80  .46  21  11.27  2  106.88  74.76  < .01  4  1.61  1.12  .35  42  1.41  <Tr)  CxTr SwCxTr  The  ANCVA  MS  reveals  that  Conditions  x Trials effect  concluded  that  gains was  over the three observed  confidence the  To  the  three testing  e f f e c t and  t h u s i t must  groups e x h i b i t e d e q u i v a l e n t periods.  Very thus,  a significant strength strength  Conditions  are not s i g n i f i c a n t ,  i n the T r i a l s e f f e c t ,  that  Pre-Post  training  three  the  both  measures  in  high  strength  significance  i t c a n be s t a t e d  increase one  be  occurs  with  between  p r more o f t h e t h r e e  conditions. test  sets  f o r the  location  of  preplanned  two  of  significant  contrasts,  trials  orthogonal  effect, t o each  38  other,  were used,  whether, or  the  Mid-Post  Table  fhis  allowed  significance  training  the  cccured  periods.  researcher  to  ascertain  between t h e P r e a n d E i d + P o s t  The r e s u l t s  are  illustrated  on  4:4.  ;  TABLE  4:4  PREPLANNED CONTRASTS ON TB.IALS EFFECT  CONDITIONS  PRE VS M i l + POST F p  MID VS POST F p  ES  63.60  < .01  1.42  NS  VI  59.63  < .01  0.79  NS  ES + VI  96.46  <  6.76  Table the  most s i g n i f i c a n t  test  and  significant the  4:4 r e v e a l s  the  Crit Crit  F I  that  i n a l l three  increases  Mid+Post.  strength  .01  gain  .05=4.07 .01=7.27  experimental  i n strength  During  occur  the f i n a l  two week  between t h e P r e  i s s e e n i n the ES+VI g r o u p ,  period.  conditions  t h e Mid-Post p e r i o d  ES a n d t h e VI g r o u p s show no s i g n i f i c a n t  during  < .05  strength  the only and  both  increases  Various 1953;  and  strength as  a  authors  Boilleau,1962) increases  training  exemplify  this  been  as  of  used  been  a  Stillwell c a u s e d by This  method. point.  (1967)  had  hand  eyes  doubt  i s locked  strength feels  f a c t o r which c o n t r o l s increases  is  contractions  i n t h i s study isometric  further  training  AIB  not  of  various  whether  has  contractions  produce s t r e n g t h  i n an  use  researchers.  muscle  stimulation  has  increases.  y i e l d s adequate  isometric  position,  gains.  that  f i n d i n g s i n t h i s study support same b i o c h e m i c a l  group  significant  method o f i n c r e a s i n g s t r e n g t h  the  some  (1974)  that  isometric  voluntary  suggests that e l e c t r i c a l  Goldberg  strength  VI  faradic stimulation could  study  {fuller,19.53; W a l t e r s ,  t r a i n i n g technique s u c c e s s f u l l y , the  in  produce s i g n i f i c a n t  major  The  s t i m u l a t i o n as a  contractions,when the to  voluntary  Although  guestion  and  have a l l i l l u s t r a t e d  occur using  a strength  electrical  long  {Hettinger  the  c o n t r a c t i l e work i s  uptake,and t h a t  c o n t r o l l e d by Goldberg's  consequence i n the  VI  and  the  the  cause  for  a neural  event.  The  possibly  the  theory; ES  groups are  causing  40  the  strength  stimulation  Both  t h e ES a n d VI  electrical  contraction.  an  The  experimental  entirely  in  order  contractions  different permeates  stimulated  contract  as m e n t i o n e d yielded  elicit  to  are  different  by  different  cause  muscular  originated  by  normal  This  leveling  method. the  above t h e ES+VI g r o u p strength  effect  administered  over a f o u r  the  contractile  same  separately, significant  yet  stimulation  m u s c l e , and t h e s a r c o m e r e s  gains  data i l l u s t r a t e s off  Indirect  from  which a r e  i n a t e t a n i c manner.,  significant  periods.  that  groups  and b o t h a r e i n i t i a t e d  impulse  VI  the form o f e l e c t r i c a l  c o n t r o l from t h e CNS. , The ES c o n t r a c t i o n s o r i g i n a t e f r o m  electrodes  a  of  or e x t e r n a l .  of c o n t r a c t i l i t y  of  neural  regardless  , be i t i n t e r n a l  guantities forms  increases  only  strength  when  in  that  same  week p e r i o d .  during  occur.  the  the  first  training  as s t r e n g t h  more c o n t r a c t i l e work i s r e q u i r e d  have i s  VI  group  each  group  weeks  increases  i n order  testing  method  and  within two  which  increases  I n t h e ES  existed  group  Mid-Post  the strength  the  stimulus  was t h e o n l y  did  any  i t i s evident  that  significant  41  strength to  have  gains is  increases continue adeguate  continued  t o o c c u r . „• The ES+VX g r o u p  contractile  to cccur.,  stimulus  The r a t i o n a l e  i n order behind  continued  that  this  strength phenomena  d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 2.  Position 2 Table the  three  strength the  4:5 r e v e a l s t h e c e l l experimental  groups  results f o r Position  exception  means f o r i s o m e t r i c s t r e n g t h f o r  of t h e Mid-Post o r t h o g o n a l  FORCE  2)  VI  3)  ES + VI  Position  2.  The  1  with  contrast.>  4:5  (KG) EXERTED WHILE HAND I N POSITION 2  GROUP  ES  i n  2 are s i m i l a r to Position  TABLE  1)  tested  PRE  MID  POST  X  sd  X~  sd  X~  sd  10. 19  2.70  12.07  2.05  13.64  3.58  10.78  1.91  12.95  2.29  14.13  2.78  10.49  1.81  13.23  1.88  14.50  2.94  PRE F!G 4:2  M!D STRENGTH  POST DATA  POSITION  2  43  Figure strength the  4:2 i l l u s t r a t e s  t h e improvement t r e n d  i n P o s i t i o n 2, and T a b l e  ANOVA  for isometric  strength  4:6 i l l u s t r a t e s  f o r isometric the r e s u l t s o f  i n P o s i t i o n 2.  TABLE 4:6 ANOVA FOR STRENGTH DATA AT POSITION 2  SOURCE  df  Conditions  <C)  SwC Trials  (TR)  CxTr SwCxTr  The  ANOVA  Pre-Post place  within  Position  0.26  .77  21  15.83  2  79.69  52.93  < .01  4  0.46  0.30  .87  42  1.51  the C o n d i t i o n s  i n the T r i a l s  a significant or  that both  effect are not s i g n i f i c a n t . ,  was o b s e r v e d  one  p  4.18  x Trials  trials  F  2  table reveals  the C o n d i t i o n s significance  MS  strength  more o f t h e t h r e e  e f f e c t and Very  high  e f f e c t , thus within the training training  effect  takes  conditions i n  2.  Two s e t s o f  three  preplanned  contrasts  were  calculated  44  similar  to  summarized  the  method  on T a b l e  used  f o r P o s i t i o n 1.  The r e s u l t s a r e  4:7. TABLE 4:7  PREPLANNED CONTRASTS CN TBIALS EFFECT  CONDITIONS  PEE VS MID+POST F p  HID ¥S POST F p  ES  37.91  < .01  6.53  VI  40.49  < .01  3.81  ES+VI  80.34  < .01  4.27  Crit Crit  Table  test  period gains. during  and  only The  < .05  most  significant  conditions occurred  test.  During  VI  the second  group d i d n e t y i e l d s i g n i f i c a n t  strength  length  at  strength  between t h e  t h e ES+VI and t h e V I g r o u p had s i g n i f i c a n t  t h e Mid-Post t r a i n i n g  muscle  the  training  the Hid • Post  Significant the  NS  .05=4.07 .01=7.27  4:7 i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t  increases f o r a l l three Pre  F F  < .05  two week strength  strength  gains  period.  gains which  a r e seen t o o c c u r i t  was  trained  not but  only  at  also at a  45  different strength that  muscle l e n g t h . increases  a l l  gains,  three  with  Mid+Post. {1961)  Beyers  This  within and  ES  to  experimental  and  ES+VI  i n Chapter  muscle  attempting  further  seem  to  increase conditions  strength  gains  period.  In  are  not  increase.  period.  The  significant  test  et a l . ,  iscmetric  training  than  which  i t  the  not  trained..,  muscle  i n t e n s i t y and  the  strength.  as  the  Position  2  both  strength  gains  strength  the  ES  during  increase  the  all  three  Pre  ES+VI G r o u p y i e l d  of  when  training  i n the  gains  factors In  Mid-Post  was  length  duration  controlling  the  and  Basch  at  during  ES+VI G r o u p have s i g n i f i c a n t  Pre  groups  as e v i d e n t  In  strength  that strength  2 the  the  illustrate  illustrates  isometric  P o s i t i o n 1 only  4:7  of  voluntary other  significant  experience  work  w h i c h was  be  Table  between t h e  the  that  a muscle l e n g t h  mentioned  working  strength  gains  a t a muscle l e n g t h  study  the at  (1967)  and  conditions  most s i g n i f i c a n t  strength  trained.  As  i n P o s i t i o n 2,  experimental  the  and  trained  4 : 6 . i l l u s t r a t e s that  These f i n d i n g s support  increases  occur  occur  Table  and  a  sessions Mid+Post  significant Group and the  i n the  the  Mid-Post  ES+VI G r o u p  could  be e x p l a i n e d  by t h e a d d i t i o n o f c o n t r a c t i l e work  when  using  techniques*  explanation strength is  both  why i n P o s i t i o n  increases  There  findings  Significant  yet i n P o s i t i o n 2 a s i g n i f i c a n t  in  strength  conditions a f t e r a four lengths  tested.,  t o be no r a t i o n a l  1 t h e ES G r o u p y i e l d s no  found i n t h e Mid-Post t e s t i n g The  seems  this gains week  required  significant  strength  gain  Hypothesis  1.  periods.  study occur  support in  training  a l l three period  at  experimental both  muscle  SECTION Table for  4:8  2  r e v e a l s t h e mean i n c r e a s e s  iscmetric strength  at bcth  between t h e P r e - P o s t  positions  TABLE  tested.  4:8  MEAN INCREASES BETWEEN PEE-POST PERIOD  GROUP  POSITION  1  {KG)  POSITION  ES  3.48  3.45  VI  3. 54  3. 35  ES+VI  4.93  4.01  The  summation  o f mean s t r e n g t h  G r o u p s i n P o s i t i o n 1 i s 7.02 ES+VI Group i s o n l y the  summation  4.93  period  kg.  kg. thus.  increases  The  mean  Hypothesis  o f t h e mean i n c r e a s e s  2  f o r t h e ES and V I increase  for  the  3 i s s u p p o r t e d , as  i n strength  f o r t h e ES and  VI G r o u p s i s l e s s t h a n t h e ES+VI Group.  S i m i l a r r e s u l t s a r e found with  t h e hand i n P o s i t i o n 2.  summation o f t h e ES and VI Groups i s 6.80  kg.  This  i s  The  greater  48  than  when b o t h  The  ES+VI G r o u p , a l t h o u g h  VI  techniques  are administered performing  Groups s e p a r a t e l y , d i d n o t y i e l d  which  linearly, The  t h e work o f b o t h  the increase  were a d d i t i v e o f t h e two g r o u p s Strength  increases  within  and can be e x p l a i n e d  stimulus  is  the  study  illustrates  accelerating  contractile  proportion before  &NGVA  effect  significant groups over  do  not  significant; among  response  curve.  intensity  required  by t h e  in  strength. is  reveal  that  force i n  i s  required  the Conditions  therefore,  strength  there  increases  is  X no  of the three  H y p o t h e s i s 2.  on t h e i n t e n s i t y in  This  positively  or c o n t r a c t i l e  (1974) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s t i m u l u s  The s u b j e c t s  increase  occur.  and  dependent  not  two weeks t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n  4:6  strength  stimulus  more s t i m u l u s  increases  t h e ES and  of the  stimulus-response  time, thus supporting  is  contraction.  is  muscle  increase  4:3  difference  Goldberg strength  strength  Tables  the  much  t o the f i r s t  similar  Trials  that  and t h a t  a  subjects.  separately.  a  by  m u s c l e s , and t h e r e s p o n s e i s t h e  t o t h e same  the  ES+VI  for  and d u r a t i o n Group  increasing of muscle  require  more  contractile  activity  program  either  than  augmented  that  deinhibition concluded the  could  a l l  the  ES  or  VI  d u r a t i o n of t r a i n i n g sufficient  groups  their  to  Groups.  The  within the  ES+VI  yield  training  training  significant  techniques.  increased  in  t o the n a t u r e o f t h i s study i t cannot  be  gains  significantly  are  due  to  an  increased  g o l g i t e n d e r a s Morehouse s u g g e s t s ; n o r  that i t i s caused  muscle  be  c a r r y - out  t h e o t h e r two  strength  by  to  in  be  three  s t r e n g t h , due  concluded  in  tc  i n c r e a s e s over  isometric  be  and  seem  Although  order  subjects  intensity  Group does not strength  in  as  suggested  r e l a t e d t o the  by  an  increase i n protein  by G o l d b e r g  can i t uptake  (1974) a l t h o u g h  they  cause.  SECTION 3 Tables  4:9  endurance Positions  and  4:10  reveal  the  cell  means  for  isometric  i n a l l t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s w i t h t h e hand i n 1 and  2  respectivly.  50  TABLE 4:9 ENDURANCE CELL MEANS POSITION  GROUP  PEE  1 {SECS TO 65% OF  MID  X  sd  X  1} ES  28.70  10.25  24.05  2) VI  29.90  12.57  3)  33.57  16.92  ES+VI  MAX)  POST sd  X  sd  12.58  29.30  16.92  22. 32  8.31  28.2 1  12.54  31.70  15.60  32.98  12.64  T A E L E 4:10 ENDURANCE CELL MEANS POSITION 2 (SECS TO 6 5 % OF  GBOUP  PEE  MID  X  sd  X  1) ES  32.72  10.51  20.87  2) VI  27.32  8. 35  3)  22.71  7.29  ES + VI  figure endurance and  4:3 a n d  4:4  in Position  4:12 r e v e a l  POST X  sd  10.24  32.02  15.07  26.94  8.39  24.73  1-1.70  26.50  9.26  27.55  9.82  illustrate  1 and P o s i t i o n  the results  MAX)  sd  the  trend  for  2 respectivlv.  o f t h e ANOVA  isometric T a b l e 4:11  for isometric  endurance  51  w i t h t h e hand i n P o s i t i o n  1 and P o s i t i o n 2. TABLE 4:11  ANOVA  f OR ENDUE JINCE DATA AT  SOURCE  df  Conditions  <C)  SwC  POSITION 1  f  P  0.80  .46  ES  9.04  2  11.27  21  T r i a l s (Tr)  2  158.10  1.48  . 23  CxTr  4  20.91  0.20  .93  SwCxTr  The  42  ANOVA t a b l e s  f o r isometric  2  iscmetric  e n d u r a n c e between t h e v a r i o u s  i n t h i s study.  interaction  (CxTr)  that  endurance i n P o s i t i o n  Position  (T)  reveal  106.36  It  and  t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n  alsc  exists  1  Conditions  illustrates in either  T h e s e r e s u l t s s u p p o r t H y p o t h e s i s 4.  that  Position  no  (C) c r T r i a l s significant  1 o r P o s i t i o n 2.  H G 4:4  ENDURANCE  DATA  POSITION  2  54  TABLE 4:12 ANOVA FOR ENDUR1NCE DATA AT POSITION 2  SOURCE  df  Conditions  MS  f  2  77.04  21  134.33  T r i a l s (Tr)  2  CxTr  CC)  SwC  SwCxTr  0.57  .57  56.60  0.62  .54  4  174.02  1.89  .12  42  90.?4  The VI group c o n t r a c t e d t h e i r total  time of c o n t r a c t i o n  period. and the  P  muscles  maximally  «as only 96 seconds f o r each  and t h e training  The ES group had o n l y 2.5 minutes o f c o n t r a c t i n g  the  high  freguency o f s t i m u l a t i o n  motor u n i t s and f i b r e s  both t r a i n i n g  time,  pronably s t i m u l a t e d a l l  w i t h i n t h e muscle.  The  duration  of  methods a r e s h o r t and p o s s i b l y c o u l d be one reason  f o r t h e non s i g n i f i c a n t  endurance  findings.  The measurement o f endurance i s a r e l a t i v e measurement, taken a t 65%  cf  t h e MVC a t each t e s t i n g  must a l t e r  with r e s p e c t t o  each  p e r i o d , thus the endurance time new  MVC  in  order  to  alter  endurance. The  electrical  facilitate fibers,  stimulation  a tetanic contraction  and h i g h  tension  permeating  thus  development  recruiting  not  twitch  fibres  for  a  expect  to  observe  although stimulated  short  period  of time  is  not adequate t o y i e l d  of  s t i m u l a t i o n had  the  'size  1  predominant; thus, and  endurance  observed.  training  endurance i n c r e a s e s . would y i e l d  lew  endurance a l t e r a t i o n s .  twitch  This  type  and  one  The s l o w  tension  I f the  and t h e i n t e n s i t y l o w e r  than  fibres strength  would  have  changes  been  and  regime  duration possibly  c f mctor r e c r u i t s e n t would h a v e been  slow t w i t c h  rather  fast  (2.5 m i n ) , and t h i s t r a i n i n g  been l o n g e r  principle  sarcomeres  i s predominant,  o f c o n t r a c t i o n i s not c o n d u c i v e to endurance should  the  more  trained  would have  been  56  CHAPTER V SUM8ABY  AND  CONCLUSIONS  Summary This  study  three  took twenty-four  groups  to i n i t i a l four  extensor  the  muscles of t h e i r  2  trained  contraction was  (Position  It  indirect  three  times  a  electrical  sets  of  a week. Group  o f t h e muscle was t e s t e d  minute  eight  MVCs  The  a t which  a  duration. and  each  training  performed t h e strength  a t t h e muscle l e n g t h  1) as w e l l a t m u s c l e l e n g t h s  For  training  This  Group t h r e e 2.  respect  s t i m u l a t i o n on  seconds.  1 and  into  trained the  different  forearm f o r a f i v e  four  procedures o f both  endurance  trained  using  using  was f o r a d u r a t i o n o f two  performed  training  hand e a c h  of their  m u s c l e s o f t h e hand.  each group i s c m e t r i c a l l y  Group 1 r e c e i v e d  dorsal surface  Group  period  and d i v i d e d them  t o equate groups with  of the extensor  training  technique.  subjects  cf eightjattempting  strength  week  aale  they  and  trained  were  not  (Position 2).,  was  hypothesized  that  a l l three  training  conditions  would  yield  yielded  significant  in  respect  the  ES  strength  and  VI  t o t h e ES+VI g r o u p .  endurance  of  significantly  the  the  Position  2.  g r o u p s would  muscles  of  gains  o c c u r ed.  first  two  weeks  of  During  t h e s e c o n d two week  the  and  ES  Position  than  During the  both  would  not  VI  that  ES  in  groups  P o s i t i o n 1 and period  only the  i n P o s i t i o n 1; ES+VI  that the i n d i v i d u a l  groups  are  one method o f  groups  where yielded  not  additive  training  was  strength  gains  in  i n either position not  significantly  another.  t h e f o u r week  muscles d i d not a l t e r  groups.  the  gains.  was i l l u s t r a t e d  tested,and better  2  strength  and  hand  with  that  a l l three  training  as  the  the  training  gains  It  n o t be a d d i t i v e  in  strength  significant  gains  increase.  ES+VI g r o u p had s i g n i f i c a n t in  strength  I t was a l s o h y p o t h e s i z e d ,  extensor  Significant strength during  gains,yet  training  p e r i o d t h e mean e n d u r a n c e o f  significantly  in  a l l of  the  three  58  Conclusions 1) is  Electrical a  good  extensor 2) not  method  iscmetric  experiment  strength  as  The  used i n t h i s use  of  does not  techniques  ES,VI,and  the  than  training  voluntary  is  isometric  experiment.  voluntary yield  training gains  +  electrical  of  the  two  separately.  ES+VI t r a i n i n g the  iscmetric  additive strength  when u s e d  s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s on  of  hand.  a b e t t e r form o f s t r e n g t h t r a i n i n g  training  the  increasing  muscles of the  stimulation  4)  of  method o f t h i s  E l e c t r i c a l s t i m u l a t i o n used a s a f o r m o f s t r e n g t h  training 3)  s t i m u l a t i o n , used i n t h e  as  used i n t h i s e x p e r i m e n t  endurance of the  extensor  have  muscles  no of  hand.  Suggestions This of the  study  extensor  training. postulations  was  For  designed  muscles  of  Although s t r e n g t h can  be  made as  Further  Research  to observe the the  hand  changes i n  using  changes o c c u r r e d to  the  ES,VI only  morphological  ABC  strength ES+VI  hypothetical alterations  w i t h i n the muscles t r a i n e d . this  work  is  morphologically measurement extent  of  conclusions be made.  to  due  The  what  to the  next question  extent various  did training  o f n o n m e t a b c l i z e d amino a c i d the as  protein  uptake  within  to the e f f i c i e n c y  t o be answered  the  muscle  the  change  procedures?  AIB would  The  quantify  muscle,  in  the  and  then  o f each t r a i n i n g regime  could  60  BEFERENCES  Arvil,  A.  1967.  Relationships  C o n t r a c t i o n and  I n s u l i n on t h e  Levator  A n i Muscle  Suppl.  122:27-41.  Astrand,  P.O.  and  Physiology.  Boileau,  R.A.  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Phychiatr  Stillwell,  The  on t h e C o u r s e o f  Stimulation  and H y p e r t r o p h y .  and  19:18.  et a l . ,  Stimulation Ph y s j .  of  Effects of Static  and  2nd E d i t i o n .  Electrical Ultraviolet  Stimulation i n Radiation.  Newhaven, C o n n e t i c u t .  :105-  66  Thorn,  fl.  1957.  Treatment  Progressive  Sakim,  K.G.,  Currents.  and  Electrical  cf  Paralysis  grit.  Krusen,  Stimulation  C.E. , e t a l .  I s c m e t r i c and Strength  and  A  1955.  on t h e Hork O u t p u t Arch^  (1960).  Isotonic Endurance.  The  Influence  and  Endurance o f  Phys..  E f f e c t s of Contractions  Am  ±  J.  Exponentially  Phy_s. ,. M e d , 2 0 : 4 9 . ) s  F.H.  Denervated S k e l e t a l Muscle.  waiters,  J.  with  Phys.  Med. .  of  36:370.)s  Short  Bouts o f  on  Muscular  Med^.  39:131-141.  67  APPENDICIES  Jil  Strength  Sub # 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24  (kg) P o s i t i o n  DATA  1  Pre  Mid  Post  6.82 7.38 6.25 6.66 9. 50 9.77 10.80 9.37 6. 30 8.60 8.24 7. 30 9. 16 11.53 11.26 10. 00 6. 47 7.81 6.89 6.82 11. 83 10.75 12.06 9.54  10.38 9. 19 9.31 13.44 10.72 11. 64 14.98 12.91 11.78 9.39 10.69 13.21 8.46 16.28 16.47 10.11 12.46 10,65 8.92 10.34 16.01 14.60 13.37 12.79  11.23 8. 99 10.72 12.74 10.S8 11. 97 15.40 12.33 11.22 12.79 12.26 11. 11 11.11 13.96 16.32 11.87 13.33 13. 67 10.30 11.26 15.55 15.36 15.55 16.59  Endurance  Pre 42. 9 39.0 24.3 18.3 21.3 15.6 36.9 3 1. 2 4 9.8 32.7 17.7 18.0 18.6 36. 9 22.2 43. 2 30.3 35.7 65.1 10.2 45.0 20.7 39.0 22. 5  (sec) P o s i t i o n  Mid  Post  14.9 62.7 12.3 28.8 15.9 8.7 27.0 22.5 14. 1 35.4 22.5 12.0 28*8 28.5 22.5 19.7 21.6 50.7 55.5 15.9 29.4 42.0 19.2 19.2  19.8 51.0 30.0 43.8 35.4 10.8 26.7 16.8 44.4 19.2 20. 1 26.7 12.0 33.9 22. 2 47.1 17.6 33.9 55.8 26.0 24.3 42.3 30.6 13.2  1  68  BAB  Strength  Sun  01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24  #  Pre  8. 53 7.05 6. 84 10. 26 11. 54 10.23 14.78 12. 26 8. 6 3 11.38 9. 19 9. 44 14.42 11.87 12. 33 8. 98 9. 80 8. 17 8. 96 8.83 15. 63 10. 49 15.32 10.76  <kg)  DATA  Posit ice 2  Endurance  (sec)  Position  Mid  Post  Pre  Mid  Post  10.38 10.03 10.88 13.86 11.95 11.45 15.86 12. 56 9.35 13.67 11.34 11.49 12.33 14. 17 16.70 14.59 13.03 10.65 10.15 11.11 17.62 11.87 16.24 15. 17  12. 56 10.77 13.79 13.86 15.09 12. 18 16.62 14. 25 12.84 15. 63 11. 22 13.52 12.72 15. 70 15. 85 14.63 15.17 14.36 10.38 10.72 19.40 14.09 16.38 15.47  36. 6 53. 1 20.1 30.3 34.5 37.8 27.6 21. 6 17.7 38.4 35.1 9.9 18.6 19.0 14.7 14. 4 25.5 48.0 52.2 10.0 4 3.5 29. 4 31. 5 15.9  35.7  33.0 21.0 21.0 30.6 25.2 9.3 19.5 21.9 19.2 16.2 39.0 27.9 8.3 23.4 23.7 41.7 39.9 36.3 20.7 23. 1 22.8 32. 8 17.9 11,7  ii.o  36.9 21.6 34.2 15.2 32.4 21.3 40.5 27,3 12.6 25.2 20.7 30.0 25.2 33.9 13.4 30.0 42.3 5.4 23. 3 20.7 28.2 14.7  2  

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