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Status and influence of sport and physical recreational activities in British Columbia during the Depression… Arnold, Trevor Charles 1973

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THE STATUS AND INFLUENCE OF SPORT AND PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL A C T I V I T I E S I N B R I T I S H COLUMBIA DURING THE DEPRESSION AND WORLD WAR I I  by TREVOR CHARLES ARNOLD B.P.E., U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h Columbia,  1972  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the School of PHYSICAL EDUCATION and RECREATION  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA September,  1973  In p r e s e n t i n g an  thesis  in partial  f u l f i l m e n t of the  advanced degree at the  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree  the  Library  this  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r extensive for  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  be  g r a n t e d by  thesis for financial  written  permission.  gain  Department  Date  3.  O&r&lteA  the  Head o f my  Columbia  s h a l l not  be  for  that  study.  copying of t h i s  thesis  Department  I t i s understood that copying or  of t h i s  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  requirements  or  publication  allowed without  my  ABSTRACT The  Depression  and  World War  I I were two  s o c i o l o g i c a l e r a s i n the 20th c e n t u r y . p e r i o d s p l a y e d dramatic  develop-  T h i s r e s e a r c h examined s p o r t  p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , t o demonstrate the  s t a t u s and two  these  r o l e s i n the h i s t o r y and  ment of B r i t i s h Columbia. and  Both of  distinct  i n f l u e n c e t h a t these  p e r i o d s of s o c i a l and The  r e s e a r c h was  a c t i v i t i e s had  c a r r i e d out by r e v i e w i n g  the e f f e c t these  d i s c u s s i o n s had the time.  on the  these  economic t u r m o i l .  documents r e l a t e d t o t h i s e r a and then r e v i e w i n g  during  this field  government  of study,  and  government a c t s , debates  s p o r t and  Newspaper r e p o r t s and  and  r e c r e a t i o n programmes of historical  sketches  of  v a r i o u s s p o r t s and r e c r e a t i o n programmes were the main source  f o r g a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n of these I t was  d u r i n g the D e p r e s s i o n  activities.  t h a t both the  British  Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Government and  the F e d e r a l Government  first  f o r s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n .  The  introduced  financial  B r i t i s h Columbia Government inaugurated  a c t i v i t y programme i n 1934 1937  support  saw  and  i t s Pro-Rec  the Youth T r a i n i n g Act  of  the f i r s t F e d e r a l Government f i n a n c e a l l o c a t e d f o r  leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s .  In 1943,  d u r i n g World War  I I the  Canadian Government passed the N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Act  which supported and funded s p o r t and p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as f i n a n c i a l l y a i d i n g the p r o v i n c i a l programmes of Pro-Rec. The  D e p r e s s i o n y e a r s saw a d e f i n i t e r i s e i n t h e  s t a t u s of s p o r t . t i o n , increased  T h i s was d i s p l a y e d spectator  i n increased p a r t i c i p a -  attendance, and i n c r e a s e d  i n newspapers and on the r a d i o .  T h i s same i n c r e a s e  coverage was a l s o  noted i n r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the programmes of Pro-Rec, the YMCA, the YWCA and such programmes as the Sunday S c h o o l A c t i v i t y Leagues. the  schools  subjects.  P h y s i c a l education i n  was improved i n s t a t u s t o equal a l l other  school  The D e p r e s s i o n y e a r s a l s o saw t h e b i r t h of such  sport and r e c r e a t i o n a s s o c i a t i o n s as the B r i t i s h Columbia branch of the Canadian P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e Vancouver Elementary S c h o o l s P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n  Association  f o r Women and t h e Vancouver Elementary S c h o o l s P h y s i c a l Education A s s o c i a t i o n . S p o r t and p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s the  life  of many p e o p l e .  was being promoted t o f i l l  influenced  I t was the type of a c t i v i t y  that  t h e long i d l e hours of unemployment.  Promotion was undertaken by many a g e n c i e s , t h e most prominent b e i n g t h e B r i t i s h Columbia Government w i t h i t s Pro-Rec programmes. The  war y e a r s t h a t f o l l o w e d ,  however, saw a r e v e r s a l  i n t h e s t a t u s of these a c t i v i t y programmes.  With the war  e f f o r t consuming so many workers and so many hours, very few people had t h e time t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n , o r g a n i z e or a d m i n i s t e r  sport  and r e c r e a t i o n .  A l l areas of sport  and  recreation  seemed t o s u f f e r i n t h e number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h e standard of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . i n the schools  education  education  and u n i v e r s i t y a l s o d e t e r i o r a t e d ;  programmes i n t r o d u c e d disregarded  S p o r t and p h y s i c a l  i n the Depression years  or discontinued teachers.  t h e new  being  because of a l a c k of p h y s i c a l  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The completion of t h i s t h e s i s would not have been a t a l l p o s s i b l e without the guidance and e n t h u s i a s t i c a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n by v a r i o u s people. Osborne, my committee chairman, i n v a l u a b l e h e l p and the generous t h a t has been a f f o r d e d me.  To P r o f e s s o r R. F.  I extend thanks f o r the amount of p r e c i o u s time  To the other members of my  committee, M i s s P. B. S c h r o d t , Dr. E. F. Broom and Dr. M. L a z e r s o n , I a l s o extend thanks f o r the time taken t o a s s i s t me w i t h my p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h i s work would a l s o have been d i f f i c u l t t o accomplish without the e n t h u s i a s t i c encouragement t h a t I r e c e i v e d from both of my p a r e n t s i n A u s t r a l i a , and the p a t i e n c e d i s p l a y e d by my w i f e Diane. people I d e d i c a t e t h i s  thesis.  To these t h r e e  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I.  Page INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM  1  Statement of the Problem  4  Subproblems  4  • • • • •  Definitions Delimitations  '5 . . . . .  6  S i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e Study  . . . . . .  Method o f P r o c e d u r e II. III.  6 7  REVIEW OF RELATED L I T E R A T U R E  9  THE ROLE OF THE GOVERNMENT I N SPORT AND PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL  ACTIVITIES  DURING THE DEPRESSION AND WORLD WAR  II .  13  G o v e r n m e n t ' s P r o - R e c Programme. . .  13  B r i t i s h Columbia  Provincial  Youth Training Act. •  18  The  22  Depression Years  The N a t i o n a l The  War Y e a r s  Physical Fitness Act . .  23 27  Chapter IV.  Page SPORT AND PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES DURING THE DEPRESSION YEARS  28  S p o r t i n B r i t i s h Columbia  During  the D e p r e s s i o n  29  R e c r e a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia During the D e p r e s s i o n  37  S p o r t and R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n s and S o c i e t i e s During the D e p r e s s i o n Years  42  S p o r t and P h y s i c a l R e c r e a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s i n the E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s During the D e p r e s s i o n Years  44  V. SPORT AND PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES DURING WORLD WAR  II  49  Sport i n B r i t i s h Columbia  During  World War I I  50  R e c r e a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia During World War I I . . . . . . . . .  54  S p o r t and R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n s and S o c i e t i e s During  World War I I . . .  . 61  Sport and P h y s i c a l R e c r e a t i o n a l Activities  i n the E d u c a t i o n a l  I n s t i t u t i o n s During World War I I . • .  62  Chapter VI.  Page SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  65 7 2  Recommendations BIBLIOGRAPHY  7 4  APPENDIX  7 9  A.  An A c t t o Provide f o r the T r a i n i n g of Young People t o f i t them f o r G a i n f u l 7 9  Employment B.  An A c t t o E s t a b l i s h a N a t i o n a l  Council  f o r the Purpose of Promoting 8 2  Physical Fitness C.  An A c t t o Enable t h e Government t o E n t e r i n t o Agreement w i t h the Dominion Pursuant t o "The N a t i o n a l  Physical  F i t n e s s A c t " b e i n g Chapter TwentyNine of t h e S t a t u t e s 1943  of Canada, 8 6  LIST OF TABLES Page I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX.  Pro-Rec P a r t i c i p a n t s 1934-1937  15  T o t a l Number of Pro-Rec Employees  16  Number of Pro-Rec C e n t r e s  18  Pro-Rec S t a t i s t i c s f o r 1937-1938  21  Annual Attendance a t Vancouver Playgrounds .  39  R e c r e a t i o n Equipment A v a i l a b l e  55  t o Youths . .  Time A l l o c a t i o n t o R e c r e a t i o n  56  Games and S p o r t s P l a y e d by Youths  57  Games and S p o r t s i n which an I n t e r e s t was C r e a t e d i n Youths. . . . . . . . . . .  58  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO  Sport  and  THE  PROBLEM  physical recreational a c t i v i t i e s  vary  a g r e a t d e a l between s o c i e t i e s as w e l l as v a r y i n g  within  any  said  one  that  s o c i e t y over a p e r i o d of time.  I t can be  sport or p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y " r e f l e c t s the v e r y  that f o s t e r s i t . "  (Van Dalen §t  During the p e r i o d from 1925 Columbia e x p e r i e n c e d  a l . , 1956,  to 1945  p.  society  589).  the people of B r i t i s h  some r a t h e r d r a s t i c economic  and  s o c i o l o g i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s , which were r e f l e c t e d forms of s o c i a l behaviour i n c l u d i n g sport and recreational  in a l l  physical  activities.  In the 1920's B r i t i s h Columbia was  enjoying  her  share of a s p i r a l l i n g North American economic boom (Ormsby, 1958,  p. 405-434).  Industry  i n B r i t i s h Columbia  responding t o the i n c r e a s e i n new  p l a n t s and  the many  workers b e i n g t r a i n e d i n v a r i o u s forms of s k i l l . months of 1929  saw  r e p o r t s of v a r i o u s s p o r t s (Cosentino,  McNulty, 1968;  new  The  early  almost a l l p r e v i o u s B r i t i s h Columbian  r e c o r d s f o r economic endeavour surpassed. and  was  S a v e l i e f f , 1972;  Williams,  Historical 1969;  essays  Johns,  1965;  1967.) a l s o r e p o r t  t h a t at t h i s stage a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s of a l l forms were a l s o booming, b o t h i n the number of p a r t i c i p a n t s and standard  of performance and  administration.  i n the  2 When the New October,  1929,  Columbia was  York stock market c o l l a p s e d i n  the economy of the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h  among the v i c t i m s .  With a new  and  developing  industrial  system, she was  t r a d e , and  p a r t i c u l a r l y upon the export of g r a i n and  semi-finished products.  h e a v i l y dependent upon f o r e i g n  New  t a r i f f s and  international  c u r r e n c y f l u c t u a t i o n s l e d t o the c a n c e l l a t i o n of many l a r g e overseas  o r d e r s f o r salmon, lumber and m i n e r a l s .  Waterfront  a c t i v i t y became minimal because of the l a c k of B r i t i s h Columbian and  p r a i r i e exports.  unemployed workers.  I t was  Vancouver became a c i t y  only a few months a f t e r the  York f i n a n c i a l c o l l a p s e b e f o r e many people Columbia were a f f e c t e d .  " B r e a d - l i n e s were forming  of unemployed t r a n s i e n t s (Lane, 1966)  work, and of mass m i g r a t i o n t o the c i t i e s , Vancouver (Ormsby, 1958; out the  New  in British outside  the C i t y R e l i e f O f f i c e by December." (Ormsby, 1958, Reports  of  p.  442).  looking for  particularly  P o w e l l , 1967), are e v i d e n t  through-  literature. F e d e r a l r e l i e f funds were necessary  to a s s i s t  the  p r o v i n c e s i n overcoming the many d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the following years. p r o j e c t s and  These funds came i n the form of work  d i r e c t unemployment f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e .  of these p r o j e c t s had recreational  One  a d i r e c t b e a r i n g on B r i t i s h Columbia's  activities.-  3 In the p e r i o d 1937-44 the Government p r o v i d e d a v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g program f o r unemployed males and females aged 16-30 y e a r s . Conceived o r i g i n a l l y as a d e p r e s s i o n measure t o develop employment s k i l l s , the program was expanded t o i n c l u d e r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s because e x p e r i e n c e r e v e a l e d t h a t many of those r e t r a i n e d persons were having d i f f i c u l t y i n s t i c k i n g to t h e i r jobs. Lack of stamina and a d e f i c i e n c y of c o n s t r u c t i v e l e i s u r e - t i m e i n t e r e s t s were found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s . (Osborne, 1961, p. 16) Pro-Rec, as the B r i t i s h Columbia programme named, was  a relief  programme which i n v o l v e d  by the P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l Governments. time being a v a i l a b l e , sport  joint  was financing  With so much i d l e  and p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l  activi-  t i e s would appear t o be one of the many s u i t a b l e methods of consuming the i n c r e a s i n g  number of u n p r o d u c t i v e hours.  The  type of a c t i v i t y t h a t would have been a v a i l a b l e t o the people would of course be r e s t r i c t e d by the c o s t s  involved  and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of equipment, f i e l d s ,  and arenas.  courts  Consequently, the Pro-Rec programmes would a l s o l o g i c a l l y  be  of the low-cost v a r i e t y . The economy was  still  embedded i n a s t a t e of  d e p r e s s i o n , but was at l e a s t making a slow r e c o v e r y , when the n a t i o n went t o war i n September, 1939. was  soon t o change.  plane c o n s t r u c t i o n The i n c r e a s i n g  The economic s i t u a t i o n  Vancouver s h i p - b u i l d i n g y a r d s and aeroi n d u s t r i e s were back t o f u l l  production.  need f o r lumber, m i n e r a l s and e l e c t r i c i t y f o r  war p r o d u c t i o n , p l u s the need f o r m i l i t a r y servicemen had  4 stimulated province  employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  had completely  The economy of the  reversed.  With the newly r e v i v e d  economy, more money became  a v a i l a b l e f o r consumers and consequently a wider range of products and a c t i v i t i e s were able t o be purchased and enjoyed.  B r i t i s h Columbia's Pro-Rec programme was  functioning,  and w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g number of people now  able t o a f f o r d s p o r t an i n c r e a s e  still  and p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l  activities,  i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n t e r e s t c o u l d be expected,  u n l e s s war involvement caused u n n a t u r a l t e n d e n c i e s . Statement of the Problem The  purpose of t h i s study i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e the  s t a t u s and i n f l u e n c e of s p o r t and p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g  the D e p r e s s i o n and  World War I I . Subproblems I t i s hoped t h a t the i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l 1.  The use t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s made of sport r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s during  2.  3.  and p h y s i c a l  t h i s period.  The use t h a t the government made of s p o r t r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s during  display:  and p h y s i c a l  t h i s period.  The government's involvement w i t h sport and p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s during  t h i s period.  5  Any  4.  significant  physical  present  recreational  inaugurated  day  aspects  activities  or developed  of  that  in this  sport have  and  a  basis  period.  Definitions Sport w i l l nature.  Physical  programmes  of  gymnastics, were  refer  competition  recreation  purely being  as  of  sport  other  individuals  by t h e  expenditure on s p o r t of  will  include  activity,  or p r e s e n t  only  time.  It  This  on such  activities  and p h y s i c a l  these  government.  expenditure  on o t h e r  of  recreational  activities  be  shown by  spectators  activities  attracted,  as w e l l  as by t h e  amount  that  activities  received  The will  i n newspapers,  influence  be e x a m i n e d  of  i n two  sport ways:  of  activities programmes  can a l s o  and i n p u b l i c a t i o n s  can  and  number o f  journals,  in  recreational  and t h e  in  that  with  numbers p a r t i c i p a t i n g  these  dance,  training  acceptance  and by t h e  by g o v e r n m e n t  periods  competitive  athletics,  and p h y s i c a l  by  at  a  manner.  activities  or e x p e n d i t u r e  of  or p h y s i c a l  non-existent,  w i l l be d i s p l a y e d  compared w i t h  form of  a leisure-time  activities  be d e m o n s t r a t e d  activities  i n the  either  status  athletics  and e x e r c i s e  a m i n o r and s e c o n d a r y The  all  recreational  aquatics  devised  to  this  of  the these coverage  on t h e  radio,  period.  and r e c r e a t i o n a l  activities  6 1.  The  i n f l u e n c e of sport and  physical recreational  a c t i v i t i e s on the people and  government d u r i n g  this  period. 2.  The  i n f l u e n c e the programmes of t h i s p e r i o d had  later  on  programmes.  Delimitations Because of l i m i t e d time and  resources,  the  i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d t o B r i t i s h Columbia. Newspapers, j o u r n a l s and available f o r research  government p u b l i c a t i o n s t h a t  are  are p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h t h i s  province. Other l i m i t s w i l l be  set by the r e s e a r c h  method.  Evidence w i l l be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r s p o r t s and t h a t r e c e i v e d newspaper coverage. be r e s e a r c h e d records  Other a c t i v i t i e s can  sources i n the form of t h e s e s , obtained  S i g n i f i c a n c e of the  at the use  c r i t i c i s m has  secondary  e s s a y s , r e p o r t s and  similar  and s c r u t i n i z e d .  Study  C r i t i c i s m always has, be v o i c e d  only  i f such documents as minutes of meetings,  or scorebooks can be reviewed, u n l e s s  papers can be  recreations  and  most probably always w i l l ,  made of government f u n d s .  o f t e n been heard i n regard  This  t o the use  government makes of funds a l l o c a t e d t o sport and Perhaps a r e v i e w of the b a s i c i d e a behind the  the  recreation.  original  7 a l l o c a t i o n of money f o r s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n , which occurred  during  the p e r i o d of the D e p r e s s i o n ,  a l l p o i n t s of view i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e .  could  bring  T h i s may then r e s u l t  i n some r e - t h i n k i n g and perhaps a r e - a l l o c a t i o n of government money t o these a c t i v i t y programmes. it  Conversely,  may r e v e a l t h a t the changes were f o r the b e t t e r and t h a t  a r e - a l l o c a t i o n of funds i s not warranted. With t h e unstable present,  economy t h a t i s b e i n g  and which c o u l d be f a c e d  understanding of the philosophy  f a c e d at  again i n t h e f u t u r e , an  and value  of the s p o r t and  p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y programmes t h a t were administered  d u r i n g the D e p r e s s i o n and World War I I c o u l d  be b e n e f i c i a l  f o r present  day and f u t u r e  Such a study c o u l d r e v e a l the success,  administrators.  or f a i l u r e , o f such  programmes and p o s s i b l y c o u l d r e v e a l f a c t s t h a t should be reconsidered  i f f u t u r e use i s t o be made of such programmes  i n p e r i o d s of economic and s o c i a l t u r m o i l . Method of Procedure The  method i n v o l v e d a review of s e l e c t e d r e l e v a n t  government documents f o r the p e r i o d from 1925 t o 1945. These  included:  1.  Statutes  of Canada;  2.  Statutes  of the P r o v i n c e  3.  J o u r n a l s of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia.  of B r i t i s h Columbia; and  8 This  revealed,  or  at  least referred to  debates, d i s c u s s i o n s , and  well  of the  as  D e p r e s s i o n and  a r e v i e w of  government a c t i o n s , it  i s from these  on  sport  and The  a c t s had their  physical was  and  on  the  effect,  should  i n d i v i d u a l sports,  p h y s i c a l education  score  This  interviews  that  involved  minutes of and and  as  influence  policies  or  sport and a  and  institutions  survey  of record  sources i n  s i m i l a r documents. other  recreation that or  these  research,  meetings,  secondary  papers a l s o d i s c l o s e d  governmental p o l i c i e s  on  as  institutions  associations  r e v i e w of t h e s e  t o the  these  educational  essays, reports  and  f o r the  the  review,  based  governmental  form of t h e s e s ,  developments i n sport  was  sport  evident.  research  journal reports, books,  be  This  programmes, and  recreational activity  n e w s p a p e r and  any  affected  II.  that  a basis  or n o n - e f f e c t  also displayed.  books,  as  documents t h a t  recreation  that  W o r l d War  literature  served  Acts,  answers r e g a r d i n g  physical recreational activities  period  and  question  a l l the  actions.  the A  significant  were not  related  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE  S p o r t , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n i n Canada have been reviewed by many authors (Van V l i e t Howell and Howell, 1969; w i t h i n Canada. 1956,  Ted.],  1965;  C o s e n t i n o and Howell, 1971)  from  Other i n t e r n a t i o n a l authors (Van Dalen, e i a l . .  p. 523-528) have a l s o attempted  t o p r e s e n t the  overall  h i s t o r i c a l development i n Canada as a minor p a r t of the complete  global picture.  Most of these  documentations,  however, attempt t o review the e n t i r e h i s t o r y of Canadian s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e very l i t t l e d e t a i l i s p r e s e n t i n these books or a r t i c l e s t h a t s p e c i f i c a l l y to  b o t h B r i t i s h Columbia Other  relates  and t o the s t a t e d p e r i o d of t i m e .  authors (Semotiuk,  1970;  Broom, 1971), have  b r i e f l y reviewed the h i s t o r i c a l development of government i n t e r v e n t i o n and c o - o p e r a t i o n i n sport and r e c r e a t i o n . a g a i n both of these authors p r e s e n t an o v e r a l l  Once  Canadian  review, but because  of the nature of the r e s e a r c h i n v o l v e d ,  they do not produce  a full  h i s t o r i c a l p i c t u r e of t h i s  p a r t i c u l a r p r o v i n c e or t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d i n h i s t o r y . More s p e c i f i c  s t u d i e s r e g a r d i n g government  inter-  v e n t i o n have been recorded but these s t u d i e s tend t o be r e s t r i c t e d t o p a r t i c u l a r a c t s or p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d s i n time  10. r a t h e r than a f u l l h i s t o r i c a l review.  Some of t h e s e  s t u d i e s which p e r t a i n t o the s t a t e d time and p r o v i n c e include Leadership i n Recreation i n B r i t i s h  Columbia  (Osborne, 1956), The F e d e r a l Government and L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g f o r R e c r e a t i o n (Osborne, 1961) and C a n a d a s 1  N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s A c t ( E i s e n h a r d t , 1945). of  these a r t i c l e s g i v e s a b r i e f o u t l i n e of government  involvement i n r e c r e a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h e Pro-Rec the  The f i r s t  from t h e  programme t o the involvement o f  N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s A c t and i t s e f f e c t on t h i s  province.  The second a r t i c l e r e l a t e s t o the aims of t h e  Youth T r a i n i n g A c t and the s p e c i f i c e f f e c t t h i s A c t had on B r i t i s h Columbia;  i t a l s o r e f e r s t o the N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l  F i t n e s s A c t and the e f f e c t s t h i s a c t had, as from 1943. E i s e n h a r d t * s study, as t h e name i m p l i e s , i s d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h the aims, p h i l o s o p h y and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e N a t i o n a l Physical Fitness Act. One  o t h e r study, and one which has a d i r e c t aim of  p o r t r a y i n g government sponsored r e c r e a t i o n programmes i n B r i t i s h Columbia, was completed by E. S. Dakin (1950). H i s study, Government Sponsored R e c r e a t i o n i n t h e P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, c o n t a i n s a complete development Pro-Rec programmes i n t h i s p r o v i n c e from 1934.  of the  His research  shows the e f f e c t t h a t the o r i g i n a l programmes had on the p o p u l a t i o n and t h e i n c r e a s i n g e f f e c t as i t developed and  11 r e c e i v e d F e d e r a l Government support through  t h e Youth  T r a i n i n g A c t i n 1937 and the N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s A c t i n 1943. Sport and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n the s c h o o l s of B r i t i s h Columbia has been w e l l reviewed  i n a study  called  A H i s t o r y of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s of B r i t i s h Columbia from 1918 t o 1967. study e n t a i l s a broad the D e p r e s s i o n it  (Hunt, 1967).  This  coverage of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g  and World War I I , but as s t a t e d i n the t i t l e ,  i s l i m i t e d t o the p u b l i c s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n .  Other  information regarding p h y s i c a l education i n the schools i s a v a i l a b l e i n such documents as t h e Annual Report  of t h e  P u b l i c S c h o o l s and t h e v a r i o u s Programme of S t u d i e s ment of E d u c a t i o n , 1927, 1930 and 1933) t h a t took  (Depart-  effect  during t h i s p e r i o d . The degrees.  i n d i v i d u a l s p o r t s have been r e s e a r c h e d  i n varying  Some, i n c l u d i n g l a c r o s s e ( S a v e l i e f f , 1972),  hockey (Boyd, 1970), and Women's f i e l d  hockey  (Greater  Vancouver Women's G r a s s Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n , 1956) have been surveyed  on a province-wide  scale.  A p p r o p r i a t e data was  obtained from these a r t i c l e s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e p e r i o d of the D e p r e s s i o n conducted  and World War I I .  Other s t u d i e s have been  w i t h some s p o r t s i n s p e c i f i c  institutions,  such  as t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia ( B a r t l e t t , 1962; Johns, 1965; McNulty, 1968), S c h o o l s of the p r o v i n c e  12. ( G r e a t e r Vancouver Women's G r a s s Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n , 1956), the Y.M.C.A. (Ross, 1951), the Y.W.C.A. (Harshaw,  1966) and  s p e c i f i c leagues (Greater Vancouver Women's G r a s s Hockey Association,  1956).  Broader r e s e a r c h has been undertaken i n some s p o r t s on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e . 1968;  These s p o r t s i n c l u d e f o o t b a l l  (Currie,  C o s e n t i n o , 1969), l a c r o s s e (McTaggart, 1951) and  women's f i e l d  hockey ( W i l l i a m s ,  1967).  Each of these s t u d i e s  i n c l u d e a l a r g e s e c t i o n on t h e p e r i o d under study. Recreation studied. are  Studies  i sa field  t h a t has o n l y been  such as t h a t undertaken by Howard  s p e c i f i c t o Vancouver and i t s p l a y g r o u n d s .  Recreation  (Canadian Youth Commission,  Organizations  sparsely  i n Canada  Youth and  1946) and Youth  (Canadian Youth Commission, 1946)  are two s t u d i e s w i t h no r e f e r e n c e over a p e r i o d of t i m e .  (1936)  t o time, or t o changes  The only r e c r e a t i o n a l s t u d i e s t h a t  d i s p l a y development over a p e r i o d a r e those r e l a t e d t o Government-sponsored  r e c r e a t i o n , as p r e v i o u s l y  mentioned.  B a s i c a l l y a study of s p o r t and p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g  the D e p r e s s i o n and  World War I I i s a t present e i t h e r n o n - e x i s t e n t o r s c a t t e r e d i n an i s o l a t e d f a s h i o n throughout the l i t e r a t u r e .  Although  many s t u d i e s have presented an o v e r a l l h i s t o r i c a l development i n Canada, none have been s p e c i f i c a l l y focused on B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g instability.  t h i s p e r i o d of s o c i a l and economic  CHAPTER I I I THE ROLE OF THE GOVERNMENT IN SPORT AND PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES DURING THE DEPRESSION AND WORLD WAR I I  B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Government's Pro-Rec Programme On November 9, 1934, the B r i t i s h Columbia  Provincial  Government i n a u g u r a t e d a P r o v i n c i a l R e c r e a t i o n Programme operated by t h e R e c r e a t i o n a l and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Branch of the Department of E d u c a t i o n .  The Honourable Dr. G.M.  M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, o b t a i n e d an Order  Weir,  through  i n C o u n c i l , the sum of $12,500 which was t o be used  f o r the express purpose of p r o v i d i n g l e a d e r s h i p and f a c i l i t i e s f o r p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and a d u l t e d u c a t i o n (Dakin, 1950, p . l . ) . The  P r o v i n c i a l Government on t h i s date took the l e a d i n  Canada, i n assuming t h a t r e c r e a t i o n was a government responsibility. The B r i t i s h Columbia  P r o v i n c i a l R e c r e a t i o n Programme,  more commonly r e f e r r e d t o as "Pro-Rec," was o r g a n i z e d i n an attempt  t o sponsor the l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s of the popula-  t i o n d u r i n g t h e t r y i n g economic and s o c i a l p e r i o d of the Depression.  The major o b j e c t i v e of Pro-Rec was t o c r e a t e  p u b l i c programmes as an emergency measure.  Programmes and  a c t i v i t i e s were d e v i s e d t o keep the i n c r e a s i n g number of  14. unemployed people occupied d u r i n g the long u n p r o d u c t i v e hours of each day.  Pro-Rec was  i n t r o d u c e d as a p u b l i c  r e c r e a t i o n scheme. . . . . . t o p r o t e c t youths of B r i t i s h Columbia from d e g e n e r a t i n g e f f e c t s caused by e n f o r c e d i d l e n e s s , and t o b u i l d up the morale and c h a r a c t e r which r e s t on a good p h y s i c a l base. (Annual Report of the P u b l i c S c h o o l s , 1934-1935, p. S75). In a d d i t i o n , the Pro-Rec programmes attempted  to provide  r e c r e a t i o n t o s a t i s f y the needs of a l l o t h e r members of the community, and not s o l e l y the unemployed Mr.  Ian E i s e n h a r d t was  sector.  employed as the  original  D i r e c t o r of the scheme and w i t h h i s a s s i s t a n t s , was  charged  w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of d e v i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s t h a t would • . . c a t e r f o r those not able t o a f f o r d Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A., church c l u b s or p r i v a t e gymnasiums. (Annual Report of the P u b l i c S c h o o l s . 1934-1935, p. S 7 5 . ) . A c c o r d i n g t o W.A.R. Orban (Van V l i e t  ted.3,  1965,  p. 238.), Pro-Rec "not only s u r v i v e d the D e p r e s s i o n e r a but flourished."  T h i s f a c t i s p r o b a b l y best observed by n o t i n g  the growth i n the number of people u s i n g the programme c e n t r e s from 1934  t o 1937  and the growth i n the number of  people employed i n the e n t i r e programme from 1934  to  1940.  15.  Table 1.  Pro-Rec P a r t i c i p a n t s  Season  Registration  1934 - 1937 Aggregate Attendance  Spectator Attendance  2,768  26,513  13,980  1935  985  6,738  5,550  Winter 1935- -1936  4,535  42,855  11,443  Summer  1936  1,371  11,055  40,407  Winter 1936- -1937  10,489  108,430  63,411  Winter 1934- -1935 Summer  (Annual Report of the P u b l i c S c h o o l s 1936-1937, p . I 7 9 . ) . Table 1 shows a d e f i n i t e i n c r e a s e i n both r e g i s t r a t i o n and aggregate attendance every year i n comparison t o the c o r r e s p o n d i n g season the p r e v i o u s y e a r . p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t when comparing  T h i s growth i s  the f i g u r e s f o r the  w i n t e r s e s s i o n of 1936-1937 t o a l l p r e v i o u s attendance figures. The  i n c r e a s i n g numbers t h a t attended and p a r t i c i p a t e d  i n t h e province-wide movement was a l s o r e f l e c t e d  i n the number  of people needed t o a d m i n i s t e r the i n d i v i d u a l programmes. T a b l e 2 r e v e a l s t h a t d u r i n g the year 1934-1935 an o v e r a l l t o t a l of f o r t y - n i n e people were employed t o conduct both the w i n t e r and summer programmes. one hundred  T h i s f i g u r e had i n c r e a s e d t o  and e i g h t y by the year 1939-1940.  16.  T a b l e 2.  T o t a l Number of Pro-Rec  Winter  Summer  Employees Total  1934-1935  37  1935  12  1934-1935  49  1935-1936  31  1936  20  1935-1936  51  1936-1937  53  1937  28  1936-1937  81  1937-1938  117  1938  43  1937-1938  160  1938-1939  120  1939  45  1938-1939  165  1939-1940  135  1940  45  1939-1945  180  ( J o u r n a l s of the. L e g i s l a t i v e . Assembly of the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia from 29th October t o 6 t h December, S e s s i o n 1940, Volume LXX, 1940, p. 4 5 ) . These f i g u r e s , as shown i n T a b l e 2, were r e v e a l e d when . . .: Mr. Paton asked the Honourable, the P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y , the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s :  1 2.  How many were employed ( . . . by Pro-Rec . . .) d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940?  3 ( J o u r n a l s of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, from 29th October t o 6 t h December, S e s s i o n 1940, Volume LXX, 1940, p.45). The Honourable  Dr. G. M. W i r e  replied to t h i s ,  and the o t h e r  17. f i v e q u e s t i o n s i n r e f e r e n c e t o Pro-Rec, on November 18th, 1940.  The f i g u r e s he quoted  are presented i n a t a b u l a t e d  form. The  f i g u r e s show t h a t the t o t a l number of  i n d i v i d u a l s employed by t h e Government's Pro-Rec o r g a n i z a t i o n i n c r e a s e d every y e a r . programme  The w i n t e r s e s s i o n of t h e 1935-1936  saw a d e c l i n e i n t h i s number compared w i t h the  p r e v i o u s w i n t e r s e s s i o n , and the summer programme of 1940 allowed f o r a s i m i l a r number of employees (45) as the summer programme o f 1939.  However, i n both cases, t h e t o t a l  number  employed over t h e whole year was an i n c r e a s e over the year preceding.  Every other s e s s i o n , both w i n t e r and summer, saw  a c o n t i n u a l i n c r e a s e i n t h e number of employees needed t o a d m i n i s t e r and conduct the numerous programmes. The Pro-Rec employees c o n s i s t e d of a wide v a r i e t y of people, but a g r e a t percentage of them were unemployed t e a c h e r s who were t r a i n e d by the programme's f u l l - t i m e They were t r a i n e d i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and conduct  staff.  of low-cost  a c t i v i t i e s such as c r o s s - c o u n t r y r a c e s , b o x i n g , swim meets, b a l l l e a g u e s and d i s p l a y s . people used i n c l u d e d halls In  The v a r i o u s c e n t r e s t h a t these  s c h o o l gymnasiums, church h a l l s , r e n t e d  and swimming p o o l s as w e l l as l o c a l parks and playgrounds.  i t s f i r s t year of e x i s t e n c e the programme had a t o t a l of  n i n e t e e n d i f f e r e n t c e n t r e s i n o p e r a t i o n throughout the  18 province.  These were l o c a t e d  minster ( 3 ) , N o r t h Vancouver Victoria  a t Nanaimo ( l ) , New West( 2 ) , Vancouver ( 8 ) ,  (3) and West Vancouver  ( 2 ) . (Annual Report of  the P u b l i c S c h o o l s . 1934-1935, p. S 7 5 ) .  By the w i n t e r  s e s s i o n of 1936-1937 t h i s t o t a l had grown t o 58.  Table 3.  Number of Pro-Rec C e n t r e s Season  Number  Winter  1934 - 1935  19  Summer  1935  15  Winter  1935 - 1936  24  Summer  1936  23  Winter  1936 - 1937  58  (Annual Report of the P u b l i c S c h o o l s , 1936-1937, p. I 7 9 ) .  Yputh T r a i n i n g Aqt In a d d i t i o n t o the i n c r e a s e d  interest  and p a r t i c i p a -  t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , an o v e r a l l  . . .  . . . awareness o f , and subsequent i n t e r e s t i n , p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s on a n a t i o n a l l e v e l began d u r i n g the D e p r e s s i o n y e a r s . (Orban, Van V l i e t [ e d J , 1965, p. 238.).  19. Orban s t a t e s t h a t t h i s awareness was  brought about because  youths were unable  to apply new  l e v e l of f i t n e s s .  Other r e s e a r c h e r s (Broom, 1971;  Van V l i e t , Ced.VI , 1965; t h a t i t was  s k i l l s due  Osborne, 1961)  t o an  inadequate Munro,  agree w i t h Orban i n  a t t h i s time t h a t . . .  • . . the forward - t h i n k i n g l e a d e r s of t h i s f i e l d r e a l i z e d that p h y s i c a l education could do much f o r the s i t u a t i o n . (Munro, p. 6 ) .  Van V l i e t , [ed.2 ,  1965,  The v a r i o u s communities of the Dominion were f a c e d with s i m i l a r e f f o r t was  problems and they r e a l i z e d  necessary  that a concerted  to s t r e n g t h e n and expand worthwhile  programmes which c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o e n r i c h e d l i v i n g . western of what British centres  In comparison t o e a s t e r n Canada, however, the p r o v i n c e s seemed t o have a b e t t e r understanding p o s s i b i l i t i e s e x i s t e d t o h e l p the unemployed. Columbia l e d the way w i t h youth t r a i n i n g i n which r e c r e a t i o n a l programs were emphasized. (Cosentino and Howell, p. 51.)  The r e s u l t  of t h i s "awareness" and  t h i n k i n g l e a d e r s " was  "the forward  19th, 1939.  ( S t a t u t e s of  P a r t s I - I I , F o u r t h S e s s i o n of the  P a r l i a m e n t , Chapter  -  the p a s s i n g , by the F e d e r a l Government  of the Youth T r a i n i n g A c t on May Canada. 1939,  1971,  35, p. 269  Eighteenth  - 27l).  The u t i l i t a r i a n purpose of the programme a u t h o r i z e d by the A c t , which was terminated i n 1942, and the V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g C o - o r d i n a t i o n A c t which superceded i t , was to p r o v i d e t r a i n i n g . . . f o r employment. (Broom,  1971,  p.  35-6)  20. The  programme was o r i g i n a l l y d e v i s e d t o c a t e r f o r a l l  unemployed males and females between the ages of 16 and 30 y e a r s . Conceived o r i g i n a l l y as a d e p r e s s i o n measure t o develop employment s k i l l s , the program was expanded t o i n c l u d e r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s because e x p e r i e n c e r e v e a l e d t h a t many of these r e - t r a i n e d persons were having d i f f i c u l t y i n s t i c k i n g t o t h e i r j o b s . Lack of stamina and a d e f i c i e n c y of c o n s t r u c t i v e l e i s u r e - t i m e i n t e r e s t s were found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s . Consequently, e l e c t i v e c o u r s e s were p r o v i d e d i n p r o v i n c e s which expressed a c o o p e r a t i v e i n t e r e s t t o c o n d i t i o n t h e t r a i n e e s p h y s i c a l l y and t o develop v a r i o u s recreational s k i l l s . (Osborne, 1961, p. 16) The Youth T r a i n i n g A c t meant t h a t t h e F e d e r a l Government would e n t e r a c o s t - s h a r i n g agreement w i t h t h e provinces.  The p a s s i n g of t h e A c t made $4.5 m i l l i o n  a v a i l a b l e , w i t h t h e grant t o each p r o v i n c e not t o exceed the amount p a i d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l P r o v i n c i a l Governments. B r i t i s h Columbia was able t o use the grant t o c o n t i n u e , a to  a large extent,  expand  t h e programmes of t h e a l r e a d y  e s t a b l i s h e d Pro-Rec o r g a n i z a t i o n .  Pro-Rec i n B r i t i s h  Columbia then became an " . . . o u t s t a n d i n g example . . • of  a programme " . . . which i n v o l v e d j o i n t  the P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l Governments." p. 1 6 ) . T h i s f i n a n c i n g was processed  f i n a n c i n g by  (Osborne, 1961,  through  British  Columbia's Department of E d u c a t i o n and the Department of Labour of the F e d e r a l Government.  Table 4. Number of Centres 32  Pro-Rec S t a t i s t i c s , f o r Registration Male Female  District  Vancouver  Attendance Total Total Number Average Male Female r e g i s t r a - - A t t e n d - of s e s - A t t e n d . tion ance sions per held Session  2,609  6,219  18,865  43,078  8,828  61,943  1,392  44  523  2,007  2,821  13,348  2,530  16,169  415  39  9  Victoria  3  New Westminster and D i s t r i c t  519  605  5,915  7,657  1,124  13,572  203  67  5  North Shore  472  763  2,742  4,919  1,235  7,661  247  31  3  Burnaby  324  239  4,566  3,103  563  7,669  199  39  5  Mid-Island  396  573  3,616  5,747  969  9,363  381  21  9  Upper F r a s e r V a l l e y  654  740  8,747  11,409  1,394  20,196  836  24  9  Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y  396  480  3,293  4,610  876  7,303  364  20  14  Southern  Interior  812  1,015  10,424  13,026  1,827  23,950  825  28  3  Northern  B.C.  278  380  2,668  3,073  658  5,741  241  24  6,938  13,021  63,697  109,370 20,004  173,067  5,103  34  92  & Dist.  1937 - 1938  TOTAL  (Annual Report  of t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s .  1937 - 1938,  p. J 7 9 . ) .  ro  22. Table 4 shows how  the i n c r e a s e d  support  was  to c a t e r f o r a g r e a t e r number of Pro-Rec c e n t r e s B r i t i s h Columbia, and  able  throughout  a much g r e a t e r number of p a r t i c i p a n t s .  With the i n c r e a s e d f i n a n c i a l  support  as a r e s u l t  of  the  Youth T r a i n i n g A c t , an i n c r e a s e i n attendance i s e v i d e n t the year 1937-1938, as compared w i t h Table  in  1 (page 14),  and  i n the number of Pro-Rec c e n t r e s , as compared w i t h Table (page 17).  The  y e a r s t h a t were t o f o l l o w a l s o showed an  i n c r e a s e i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  c e n t r e s due,  i n c r e a s e i n f i n a n c e a v a i l a b l e now  i n part, to  F e d e r a l Governments were c o n t r i b u t i n g (Dakin,  The  Depression Years  developing and  the  t h a t both the P r o v i n c i a l  and  The  3  1950,  p.8).  D e p r e s s i o n Y e a r s undoubtedly were a milestone a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the governments and  r e c r e a t i o n i n Canada.  The  sport  B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l  Government's Pro-Rec o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t r o d u c e d  i n 1934,  followed  by the F e d e r a l Government's Youth T r a i n i n g Act i n 1937 the o r i g i n a l  steps made by any Canadian Government t o  take an i n t e r e s t i n , or c o n t r i b u t e t o sport and r e c r e a t i o n schemes.  in  saw assist,  physical  P r i o r t o t h i s time r e c r e a t i o n had  not  been a governmental c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Of  course i t must be r e a l i z e d t h a t both of these  governmental programmes were simply the p h i l o s o p h y  a means to an end.  behind these programmes, and  t o conduct them were a r e f l e c t i o n of the  Both  the methods used  "hungry  thirties."  23 These two  schemes presented a p i c t u r e of  r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes c r e a t e d measure.  purely  public  as an emergency  Both of them were a c r e a t i o n simply  encourage the  population  unproductive and  t o advantageously use  unwanted hours of i d l e n e s s .  other hand i t must a l s o be f i r s t time t h a t  to their On  r e a l i z e d t h a t t h i s was  such terms and  phrases as  r e c r e a t i o n . . . ";  " . . .  p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g programmes t o  m a i n t a i n h e a l t h and  " . . .  i d l e n e s s . . . ";  l a c k of stamina and  of c o n s t r u c t i v e • • . had  morale . . .  degenerating e f f e c t s caused  enforced  by  and a deficiency  leisure-time  ever been c o n s i d e r e d  the  . . .  " . . .  " . . .  the  interests  . . . "  by any Canadian Government,  as a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o be f a c e d , whether r e f e r r i n g t o and  p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y as an end  in itself,  or  Pro-Rec movement i n B r i t i s h Columbia, aided  by  as a means to an The  National The  sport  end.  Physical Fitness  the Youth T r a i n i n g Act  and  Act  i t s subsequent f i n a n c i a l  c o n t i n u e d t o f u n c t i o n adequately and aims t h a t i t wished t o accomplish. f o r those enduring the  long  to f u l f i l l It supplied  i d l e hours of the  support,  a l l of  the  recreation  Depression  24. Years.  I t a l s o s u p p l i e d programmes which were d e v i s e d  i n such a way fitness.  as t o encourage a c e r t a i n l e v e l of p h y s i c a l  With the outbreak  of World War  w i t h Canada's e n t r y i n t o the war new  measures were necessary.  I I i n 1939,  and  i n September of t h a t y e a r ,  The Pro-Rec programmes were  o n l y producing a l e v e l of f i t n e s s adequate f o r D e p r e s s i o n living.  A p a r t from t h i s , A l b e r t a was  the o n l y other p r o v i n c e  of Canada w i t h an e q u i v a l e n t r e c r e a t i o n programme, having i n t r o d u c e d the scheme the p r e v i o u s year i n 1938.  Evidence  of  an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s w i t h i n the Canadian n a t i o n was  seen i n the l a r g e number of r e j e c t s ,  male and female, f o r m i l i t a r y  service.  With so many people being u n f i t f o r a c t i v e the F e d e r a l Government, on J u l y 24, National Physical Fitness Act.  1943,  service,  i n t r o d u c e d the  ( S t a t u t e s of Canada. 1943-1944,  F o u r t h S e s s i o n of the N i n e t e e n t h P a r l i a m e n t , Chapter p. 157-160). Mr.  The A c t was  1, 1943.  29,  i n t r o d u c e d by the Honourable  Power, M i n i s t e r of Pensions  e f f e c t on October  both  and N a t i o n a l H e a l t h , and  On March 15, 1944,  took  British  Columbia became a p a r t i c i p a n t when the P r o v i n c i a l Government passed An A c t t o enable the Government t o e n t e r i n t o Agreements w i t h the Dominion pursuant t o "The N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s A c t , " b e i n g Chapter Twenty-nine of the S t a t u t e s of Canada, 1943." ( S t a t u t e s of the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, T h i r d S e s s i o n of the Twentieth P a r l i a m e n t , 1944, p. 133).  25 The was  o b j e c t of the N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s A c t  . • . . . . t o promote the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s of the people of Canada through the e x t e n s i o n of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n s c h o o l s , u n i v e r s i t i e s and other i n s t i t u t i o n s i n c l u d i n g i n d u s t r i a l establishments; to t r a i n teachers, l e c t u r e r s and demonstrators; and t o o r g a n i z e s p o r t s and a t h l e t i c s on a n a t i o n wide s c a l e . The o b j e c t i v e i n c l u d e s the c r e a t i o n of a d e s i r e i n persons of a l l ages f o r the w e l l being a s s o c i a t e d with p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , to strengthen morale through a nation-wide program; and t o e n l i s t the support of o r g a n i z e d p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s agencies and t h a t of i n d i v i d u a l volunteers. The program i n c l u d e s games, a t h l e t i c s and s p o r t s , rhythmics, swimming, a q u a t i c s and l i f e s a v i n g , outdoor a c t i v i t i e s such as camping and h i k i n g , everyday a c t i v i t i e s and s k i l l s . (Eisenhardt, On February 15,  P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s was of the A c t .  p. 186-7)  the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l  appointed  The C o u n c i l was  representative Eisenhardt,  1944,  1945,  t o h e l p w i t h the  administration  to comprise a D i r e c t o r and  from each p a r t i c i p a t i n g p r o v i n c e .  who  had  on  so s u c c e s s f u l l y o r g a n i z e d  and  Mr.  Ian  administered  the o r i g i n a l Pro-Rec programme i n B r i t i s h Columbia appointed  a  was  as the f i r s t D i r e c t o r of N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s .  To a l l o w the C o u n c i l t o f u n c t i o n , a N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Fund was the p r o v i n c e s , $225,000.  established.  T h i s fund  made a v a i l a b l e t o  on a c o s t s h a r i n g b a s i s , the annual sum  of  ( S t a t u t e s of Canada. 1943-1944, F o u r t h S e s s i o n  the N i n e t e e n t h P a r l i a m e n t , I t was  Chapter 29,  p. 157-160).  the duty of the C o u n c i l to a d m i n i s t e r  by using the funds . . •  of  the  Act  26 ... t o a s s i s t i n the e x t e n s i o n of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ; t o encourage and c o r r e l a t e a l l a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t i n g t o p h y s i c a l education; t o formulate p l a n s f o r t r a i n i n g t e a c h e r s , l e c t u r e r s and i n s t r u c t o r s ; and to c o r r e l a t e e f f o r t s of the p r o v i n c e s t o organize a c t i v i t i e s , t o promote s p o r t s and t o co-operate i n the a m e l i o r a t i o n of p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s amenable t o improvement through physical education. ( E i s e n h a r d t , 1945, Both the Act  187)  and the C o u n c i l c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y  t o the Canadian people.  However, there were l i m i t a t i o n s  brought about by the t i t l e  of the Act and  a d i r e c t o r f o r a long p e r i o d of time. Howell, 1971,  p.  p. 56).  by the l a c k of  (Cosentino  and  Other l i m i t a t i o n s r e s u l t e d from the  problem of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e c h n i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l terms.  The  r e c r e a t i o n , r e c r e a t i o n and  r e l a t i o n s h i p between f i t n e s s s p o r t s , and  c o u l d not be r e c o n c i l e d t o the Government (Osborne, 1956, however, success  was  s p o r t s and  pastimes  s a t i s f a c t i o n of the  p. 18).  more e v i d e n t  Federal  In B r i t i s h Columbia, than i n other p a r t s of  Canada, because the N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s A c t was t o supplement and philosophies  and  and  complement the a l r e a d y  able  established  programmes of the Pro-Rec movement.  An example of the F e d e r a l Government's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o B r i t i s h Columbia i s e v i d e n t year B r i t i s h Columbia had  a population  the t o t a l Canadian p o p u l a t i o n (Haegarty, 1944,  p.  7.).  i n the 1944  and  figures.  In t h a t  of 817,861, 7.118% of  thus r e c e i v e d $16,015.75  27. The War  Years The y e a r 1943 saw s i m i l a r a c t i o n  to that  taken  by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a G o v e r n m e n t o f 1934 and t h e Federal  Government of 1937.  Government  introduced  recreational such a c t i o n .  Once a g a i n t h e C a n a d i a n  an A c t i n v o l v i n g  activity  - but with  Physical  and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  w i t h i n the national  population.  F i t n e s s A c t was demonstrat-  l e v e l of f i t n e s s  T h i s a c t i o n was  about because of e v i d e n c e r e v e a l e d t h a t w e r e u n f i t f o r war s e r v i c e .  physical  emergency,  b e c a u s e o f e v i d e n c e t h a t was f o u n d  i n g an i n f e r i o r  of  and  a d i f f e r e n t reason f o r  The c a u s e t h i s t i m e was war  although at l e a s t the N a t i o n a l introduced  sport  by t h e l a r g e  brought numbers  A t l e a s t i t had a s one  i t s m o t i v e s t h e improvement of t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l of  physical fitness.  CHAPTER IV SPORT AND  PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES  DURING THE  The  DEPRESSION YEARS  l a t e 1920's and  the  c o n t i n u a l growth i n sport and activities. (Cosentino, 1972;  1969;  i n the  Johns, 1965; 1967)  physical recreational  growth i n the  and  was  McNulty, 1968; evident,  sport  Savelieff,  not  o n l y by  an  numbers p a r t i c i p a t i n g , but  a l s o by  an  improvement i n the  the  a  T h i s growth appeared i n most f i e l d s of  Williams,  increase  e a r l y 1930*s saw  standard of performances a c h i e v e d .  The  l a t e 1920's c o r r e l a t e s w i t h a steady r i s e  economy and  in  i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g r i s e i n the o v e r a l l  standard of l i v i n g .  The  continuing  growth d u r i n g  the  early  1930*5, however, came at a time when incomes were at a minimum, unemployment was  and  the  c o s t of  living  was  rising.  the  purchase of e s s e n t i a l commodities would p r e s e n t a  h a r d s h i p , and  At  prevalent  a time l i k e t h i s i t would seem l o g i c a l  would c e r t a i n l y take precedence over expend-  i t u r e on r e c r e a t i o n and  l e i s u r e time i n t e r e s t s .  y e a r s of the D e p r e s s i o n , t h a t a keen i n t e r e s t and  i s the  The  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n sport  i t s benefits to  society.  later  l a t e 1930*s, a l s o and  saw  physical  r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as an i n c r e a s i n g of s p o r t and  that  recognition  29. R e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d a steady rise  i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n throughout  the Depression.  This i s  r e v e a l e d i n s t a t i s t i c s d i s p l a y e d i n Table 1 (page 1 4 ) . These t a b l e s show the i n c r e a s i n g number of people making use of Pro-Rec a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e y e a r s of t h e Depression. S p o r t i n B r i t i s h Columbia  During the D e p r e s s i o n  P r e - D e p r e s s i o n days were more than f r u i t f u l f o r almost a l l s p o r t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Statements  such a s :  "Canadian f o o t b a l l was c o n t i n u i n g t o grow i n p o p u l a r i t y i n the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia." ( C o s e n t i n o , 1969, p. 63-4.) "...  hockey once more took r o o t . " ( G r e a t e r Vancouver Women's G r a s s Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n , 1956, p. 5.)  "Even though the g i r l s were s t i l l hampered by l a c k of p r a c t i c e and game areas, t h e number of p a r t i c i p a n t s continued t o increase." (Johns, 1965, p. 12.) are not uncommon throughout typical  the h i s t o r i c a l  studies.  These  q u o t a t i o n s d i s p l a y t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t , t h e growth and  the i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t and a t t e n t i o n being focused on a l l s p o r t s throughout The  the whole p r o v i n c e .  D e p r e s s i o n t h a t f o l l o w e d the e r a of i n i t i a l  growth d i d not appear t o hamper t h e expansion  of s p o r t .  30. I t was u n l i k e l y t h a t the d e p r e s s i o n a f f e c t e d a t h l e t i c s too s e r i o u s l y , judging by newspaper coverage of contemporary events. (Hunt, 1968, These r e p o r t s of growth and  as i s d i s p l a y e d by one  Province,  87.)  i n t e r e s t were not  r e s t r i c t e d t o Vancouver, V i c t o r i a and but  p.  other  specifically  major  centres,  such column i n the Sunday  a l s o came from the  i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia.  One of the l a r g e s t crowds i n the h i s t o r y of l o c a l b a s e b a l l watched R e v e l s t o k e d e f e a t Kelowna 6 - 0 i n the opening game of the newly formed I n t e r i o r b a s e b a l l l e a g u e .  t h a t d i d not d i s p l a y any  outward s i g n s of s u f f e r i n g from a  l a c k of f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e .  I t was  noted t h a t  • • • d e s p i t e the s c a r c i t y of money, T r a c k F i e l d , as w e l l as other s p o r t s f l o u r i s h e d . (McNulty, 1968, Most s p o r t i n g teams d i d not schedules,  p.  seem t o have t o  15.) re-organize  decrease the number of long road t r i p s or d e f a u l t  games through a l a c k of f i n a n c e or equipment. concern f o r , or l a c k of n e c e s s i t y t o cope w i t h , economy i s p r o b a b l y e x h i b i t e d best of l e n g t h y the  and  and  literature.  c o s t l y excursions  T h i s l a c k of the  Depression  of a l l by the l a r g e number  t h a t are recorded  throughout  31. In 1932  and  1936  the Squamish I n d i a n l a c r o s s e  team became the B r i t i s h Columbian champions.  T h i s then  meant t r a v e l l i n g E a s t , on both o c c a s i o n s , t o compete as B r i t i s h Columbia's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f o r the Mann Cup (Savelieff, The league  1972,  p.  16.).  Kimberley  i n 1934,  Dynamiters hockey team won  their  then defeated the Vancouver Quakers i n the  B r i t i s h Columbia - A l b e r t a f i n a l ,  and the Regina P a t s ,  b e f o r e b e i n g beaten by F o r t W i l l i a m i n the Western Canadian Amateur Championship f i n a l .  The Dynamiters repeated  e x c u r s i o n i n a more s u c c e s s f u l way A l l a n Cup. to,  T h i s success was  i n winning  P r i n c e A l b e r t , F o r t W i l l i a m , and Sudbury. the Kimberley  the 1935-1936  brought about a f t e r  and d e f e a t i n g the teams of such towns and The  their  travelling  c i t i e s as  Trail,  f o l l o w i n g year  team toured Canada i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e i r  t r i p t o Europe (Boyd, 1970, In 1938  p.  36.).  the T r a i l Smoke E a t e r s d e f e a t e d the  F l y e r s t o win the A l l a n Cup.  Consequently  Cornwall  the f o l l o w i n g  year the team went on a s i x month t o u r of Europe " t h a t was monumental success."  (Boyd, 1970,  p.  a  27.).  Another example of the extent t o which t r a v e l l i n g expenses showed l i t t l e  r e g a r d f o r the D e p r e s s i o n  l e v e l s of c o m p e t i t i o n , was t r a c k and f i e l d  e r a , at a l l  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia  team's schedule  f o r the year  1938.  32. U.B.C. was able t o get seven meets i n t o t h e Track and F i e l d programme which i n c l u d e d t r i p s t o Bellingham, Puget Sound and P o r t l a n d . (McNulty, 1968, p. 16.) T h i s e x p e n d i t u r e on t o u r i n g a t h l e t i c teams was not j u s t r e s t r i c t e d t o men's a t h l e t i c s .  In 1936 i n t e r - c i t y games  i n v o l v i n g Vancouver and V i c t o r i a were scheduled by the Lower Mainland Women's G r a s s Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n . a l s o i n the autumn of 1936 t h a t  I t was  . . .  . . . t h e g r e a t e s t event i n the h i s t o r y of f i e l d hockey i n Vancouver o c c u r r e d . ( G r e a t e r Vancouver Women's G r a s s Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n , 1956, p. 6.) .  . . when the A u s t r a l i a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Women's f i e l d  hockey team t r a v e l l e d v i a Vancouver on t h e i r way t o Philadelphia.  The A u s t r a l i a n women played  Vancouver a g a i n s t  one game i n  the l o c a l Vancouver Reps., and one on  Vancouver I s l a n d a g a i n s t Duncan A l l - S t a r s . In 1925 i t was r e a l i z e d t h a t  . . .  Canadian f o o t b a l l was c o n t i n u i n g t o grow i n p o p u l a r i t y i n t h e p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. Officials from the v a r i o u s c l u b s i n t h a t p r o v i n c e asked t o be admitted t o t h e W.C.R.U. i n order t o compete f o r t h e Western Canadian Championship. A f t e r i n i t i a l l y t u r n i n g down the request because of c o s t s and d i s t a n c e s i n v o l v e d , i t was decided t o a l l o w t h e B r i t i s h Columbian winners t o compete. (Cosentino, It  seems r a t h e r i r o n i c a l t h a t i n 1925,  1969, p. 63-4.) when the economy was  booming and money f o r s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n was more p l e n t i f u l , that  distances  and the c o s t s i n v o l v e d  t o t r a v e l these  33. long d i s t a n c e s were f a c t o r s t o be c o n s i d e r e d . the 1930*s, when the D e p r e s s i o n was on money from a l l sources,  However, i n  exerting f u l l  t r a v e l f o r s p o r t was  pressure  much more  prevalent. The was  p o p u l a r i t y of a l l s p o r t s d u r i n g  reflected  i n the  the  Depression  s p e c t a t o r attendance at the  s p o r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s and  events.  p o p u l a r i t y are numerous.  various  Statements r e f l e c t i n g  this  C o s e n t i n o s t a t e s t h a t i n 1934  . . .  F o o t b a l l i n Canada seemed t o be g a i n i n g p o p u l a r i t y everywhere, but p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the West. (Cosentino,  1969,  pp.  Another i n d i c a t i o n of f o o t b a l l ' s s t a t u s i n 1937 t o by  C o s e n t i n o when he  101-2)  i s referred  says t h a t • . .  The p o p u l a r i t y of the f o o t b a l l played i n the West was e v i d e n t . Attendance had r i s e n t o the p o i n t where crowds of f i v e or s i x thousand were becoming the r u l e r a t h e r than the e x c e p t i o n . ( I b i d . , p. B a s e b a l l a l s o showed s i g n s of i n c r e a s e d Sunday P r o v i n c e  r e p o r t i n g the  112.) i n t e r e s t , with  the  • • .  . • . l a r g e s t crowd i n the h i s t o r y of l o c a l b a s e b a l l • . • (Sunday P r o v i n c e , p. 24.) The  i n t e r e s t i n sport was  attendances at f o o t b a l l and  19,  1936,  22,  b a s e b a l l games.  Lacrosse  t h a t appeared i n the Vancouver Sun  i n the t h i r d  also  displayed i n on  which s t a t e d t h a t the Braves e l i m i n a t e d  Salmonbellies  1932,  not only r e f l e c t e d i n  a t t r a c t e d l a r g e numbers of s p e c t a t o r s , as was the h e a d l i n e  May  s t r a i g h t game b e f o r e  September the  a "packed-jam  34. forum."  (Vancouver Sun, September 19, 1936, p. 24.) I t was not only the male a t h l e t e s who a t t r a c t e d  the  fans but from 1929 t o 1939 a four-team women's l a c r o s s e  league e x i s t e d .  I t comprised of Richmond Milkmaids,  Vancouver P i r a t e s , Burnaby Cougars and a New Westminster team.  These f o u r teams seemed t o c r e a t e q u i t e a d e a l of  spectator  interest.  ... a t some games the g i r l s would a t t r a c t one thousand f a n s . (Savelieff, A women's team was l a t e r c r e a t e d  over  1972, p. 18.)  i n Nanaimo and a t one of  the games between the i s l a n d team and one of the lower mainland teams " s e v e r a l hundred i s l a n d f a n s  attended."  ( I b i d . , p. 18.) The other  e a r l y D e p r e s s i o n y e a r s a l s o brought about one  s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e , an i n f l u e n c e t h a t changed the  whole game of l a c r o s s e . The f a l l of 1931 saw t h e l a s t of f i e l d l a c r o s s e as Canada's N a t i o n a l Game. F o r i n September of t h a t y e a r , t h e Canadian L a c r o s s e A s s o c i a t i o n adopted Box Lacrosse as t h e i r o f f i c i a l game a t the Annual Meeting h e l d i n New Westminster. ( I b i d . . p. 15.) The  interest  participation  i n s p o r t was r e p r e s e n t e d i n  and d i r e c t  as t h i s , i t was e v i d e n t b r o a d c a s t s of v a r i o u s  spectator  attendance, but as w e l l  through the wide range of r a d i o  sporting events.  f a r t h e most broadcasted s p o r t d u r i n g  L a c r o s s e was by the D e p r e s s i o n  years,  35 but  the o v e r a l l b r o a d c a s t s were q u i t e v a r i e d .  b r o a d c a s t s was of the f i e l d  One of the  hockey game between the  A u s t r a l i a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Women's team and the Vancouver Reps. . . . . . which was broadcast by Vancouver's Ace S p o r t s Announcer, Leo N i c h o l s o n . ( G r e a t e r Vancouver Women's G r a s s Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n , 1956, p. 6.) Leo N i c h o l s o n was employed by Vancouver r a d i o i n the 1930's.  s t a t i o n CJOR  A l t h o u g h he was employed p r i m a r i l y t o  b r o a d c a s t l a c r o s s e games, he covered most of t h e major s p o r t i n g events i n B r i t i s h Columbia a t t h e time ( S a v e l i e f f , 1972; G r e a t e r Vancouver Women's G r a s s Hockey  Association,  1956.). The growth and e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s p o r t was n o t i c e a b l e at a l l l e v e l s , b o t h amateur and p r o f e s s i o n a l , and i n both men's and women's s p o r t s .  The students at t h e U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h Columbia had a l s o made t h e i r presence f e l t i n many s p o r t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o o t b a l l , where they became Hardy Cup winners f o r t h r e e y e a r s from 1932 t o 1934, rugby ( U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A t h l e t i c Department and t r a c k on f i e l d  records)  (McNulty, 1968).  In t h e year 1930-1931 the women a t h l e t e s of the university established their f i r s t Block Club.  official  Women's B i g  36. The f o r m a t i o n of the B i g B l o c k Club was i n d i c a t i v e of t h e p o s i t i o n of Women's A t h l e t i c s on campus. G r e a t e r numbers were p a r t i c i p a t i n g and a t h l e t i c s were b e i n g c a r r i e d on w i t h a keener sense of competition. (Johns, 1962, p. 17.) The felt  growth of s p o r t d u r i n g  i n minor s p o r t s  the D e p r e s s i o n was a l s o  such as c r i c k e t .  The i n c r e a s e was  not j u s t r e s t r i c t e d t o what have become known as the major a t h l e t i c events and a c t i v i t i e s . cricket new  Accounts of t h e growth of  show t h a t because of t h e i n c r e a s e i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  teams had t o be formed t o c a t e r f o r a l l p l a y e r s  ( B e r r i d g e , 1967, B u r r a r d C r i c k e t C l u b , 1954; Locke, 1967). The  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l sports, the large  o f t e n t r a v e l l e d t o compete, the  distances  l a r g e number of s p e c t a t o r s  t h a t attended s p o r t i n g e v e n t s , p l u s the l a r g e coverage sport r e c e i v e d few  i n newspapers and on the r a d i o , a r e j u s t a  methods o f d i s p l a y i n g t h e s t a t u s of s p o r t .  example i s p o r t r a y e d  by t h e women a t h l e t e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h Columbia and the f o r m a t i o n Club.  Another  of t h e i r Big Block  A t a time when incomes were low,  jobs uncertain  and a  knowledge of from where the next meal was t o come o f t e n not known, sport  seemed not o n l y t o continue but a c t u a l l y t o  flourish. D e p r e s s i o n may be g e n e r a l throughout the b u s i n e s s world, b u t not i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Amateur Basketball Association. T h i s body enjoyed t h e most s u c c e s s f u l season i n i t s h i s t o r y i n t h e season j u s t closed. (Sunday P r o v i n c e ,  May 1, 1932, p.29.)  Reports such as the one p r e c e d i n g exemplify t h e p o s i t i o n and  s t a t u s of s p o r t during  the unstable years of the  Depression. Recreation  i n B r i t i s h Columbia During the D e p r e s s i o n  The  increasing interest i n physical recreational  a c t i v i t i e s during  the D e p r e s s i o n y e a r s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the  P r o v i n c i a l Government's Pro-Rec programmes. displayed centres  Tables  i n Chapter I I I r e v e a l the growth i n r e c r e a t i o n  (Table  3, p. 1 8 ) .  Another b a s i c i n c r e a s e p a r t i c i p a t i o n was evident ships d u r i n g  i n physical  i n Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. member-  the D e p r e s s i o n y e a r s .  remarkable i n c r e a s e  recreation  The Y.M.C.A. showed a  i n memberships over t h i s  period.  A l t h o u g h independent B r i t i s h Columbia f i g u r e s are not r e c o r d e d , s t a t i s t i c s r e v e a l i n g the numbers r e g i s t e r e d i n the p h y s i c a l departments on a n a t i o n a l  s c a l e show t h a t i n 1920  there were 11,407 members, i n 1930 there were 23,196, but by 1940  the number had reached 987,100.  (Ross, 1951, p. 3 6 1 ) .  B r i t i s h Columbia has always been a major Y.M.C.A. c e n t r e and contributor to national s t a t i s t i c s ,  and i t may be assumed  t h a t the n a t i o n a l growth a l s o r e f l e c t s a growth i n the memberships of t h i s p r o v i n c e The period  (Caryll,  1973).  programme o f f e r e d by t h e Y.M.C.A. d u r i n g  included  . . .  this  33 Swimming and l i f e saving programmes, l a r g e gymnasium c l a s s e s , a t h l e t i c teams, gymnastics, w r e s t l i n g and games such as b a s k e t b a l l and handball, (Ross, 1951, p. 361.) One  s i g n i f i c a n t development  over t h i s p e r i o d was t h e  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of L e i s u r e Time Leagues.  These  leagues  were scheduled throughout t h e d a y l i g h t hours t o h e l p individuals f i l l  t h e i r days o f e n f o r c e d l e i s u r e time.  In t h e hungry t h i r t i e s t h e Y.W.C.A. was deeply engrossed i n t h e needs of unemployed g i r l s . s i o n y e a r s brought about a need  The depres-  f o r a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of  programme and s e r v i c e (Harshaw, 1966, p. 127).  The  Y.W.C.A.'s answer t o t h e problem was: A programme of l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s , camping and a c t i v i t i e s f o r t e e n a g e r s .  swimming,  ( I b i d . . p. 133.) The programmes o f t h e D e p r e s s i o n y e a r s brought about an i n c r e a s e i n t h e use of Y.W.C.A. f a c i l i t i e s in staff  and an i n c r e a s e  members. Pro-Rec, Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. programmes a l l saw  a d e f i n i t e increase i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  Different  patterns,  however, are r e v e a l e d i n s t a t i s t i c s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e number of playgrounds and t h e attendance a t these playgrounds i n the Vancouver  area.  Table 5.  Annual Attendance a t Vancouver  Playgrounds  Attendance Taken T h r i c e D a i l y  Year  Number of Playgrounds  1925  6  287,274  1926  6  361,269  1927  7  350,093  1928  8  390,483  1929  12  819,332  1930  12  494,406  1931  13  651,209  1932  15  449,313  1933  15  368,426  1934  14  329,684  (Howard, 1936, p. 73.)  40 An  explanation  not c e r t a i n .  f o r the d e c l i n e i n attendance i s  I t must be r e a l i z e d t h a t p a r t of  s e r v i c e t h a t these playgrounds provided the  s e r v i c e provided  was  by Pro-Rec programmes.  of the o l d e r p a r t i c i p a n t s , those i n the  the  s i m i l a r to Perhaps some  16 t o 30 year  age  group, were l a t e r t o become i n v o l v e d i n Pro-Rec programme activities  r a t h e r than be accounted f o r i n Vancouver  Playground Attendance S t a t i s t i c s .  Howard a l s o  gives  another r e a s o n f o r the d e c l i n e by mentioning  population  and  . . .  housing d e n s i t y growth.  He  stated that  . . . c o n d i t i o n s have a r i s e n which demonstrate t h a t playgrounds administered by the parks board have not been able t o meet the r e c r e a t i o n a l needs of more than t e n per cent of the urban population. (ibid.,  p.  66.)  Howard's study a l s o examined how w i t h other  c i t i e s of l i k e  concluded t h a t  Vancouver compared  s i z e on the c o n t i n e n t .  He  . . .  . . . the f a c i l i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s p r o v i d e d by the Vancouver Parks Board are of v e r y h i g h standard i n c h o i c e , i n number, i n l o c a t i o n , i n v a r i e t y . In some f e a t u r e s one f i n d s t h a t Vancouver not o n l y e q u a l s but even surpasses a g r e a t many c i t i e s of l i k e p o p u l a t i o n . I t surpasses most of the c i t i e s i n the p r o v i s i o n of a t h l e t i c f i e l d s , b a t h i n g beaches, g o l f c o u r s e s and t e n n i s c o u r t s . I t i s c l o s e t o the average i n the p r o v i s i o n of b a s e b a l l diamonds and wading p o o l s . Outdoor swimming p o o l s are w e l l p r o v i d e d f o r . ( I b i d . , p.  68.)  With a l l these f a c i l i t i e s at t h e i r d i s p o s a l , and w i t h such an i n c r e a s e  i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n organized  sport,  another  41. r e a s o n f o r the d e c l i n e i n attendance  at the playgrounds  was t h a t people were becoming more i n v o l v e d i n organized a c t i v i t i e s r a t h e r than i n semi-organized  and unorganized  recreation. Many reasons have been advanced f o r t h e d e c l i n e i n playground p a r t i c i p a t i o n , 1.  namely:  Increase i n Pro-Rec o r g a n i z e d r e c r e a t i o n f o r the 16 t o 30 year age group as from 1934;  2.  I n c r e a s e i n Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. memberships;  3.  Increase i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n almost a l l o r g a n i z e d s p o r t s ; and  4.  The inadequate  l o c a t i o n of playgrounds  and playground  f a c i l i t i e s due t o the i n c r e a s e i n the d e n s i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n and housing i n some areas, as mentioned by Howard. These are o n l y some suggested  e x p l a n a t i o n s , hypothesized by  the w r i t e r as no d e f i n i t e e x p l a n a t i o n c o u l d be o b t a i n e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e or by r e s e a r c h . One other source of r e c r e a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e t o the youths of B r i t i s h Columbia  d u r i n g the D e p r e s s i o n y e a r s and  t h a t was i n t h e form of a c t i v i t i e s o r g a n i z e d by the Sunday S c h o o l R e c r e a t i o n League.  The Sunday S c h o o l League was  o r i g i n a l l y o r g a n i z e d as a youth a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the l o c a l community churches.  By the 1930's, however, t h i s small  r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y had expanded t o become a l a r g e p r o v i n c e wide i n t e r - c h u r c h league.  An example of the s i z e of the  42 league i s e x e m p l i f i e d by the f a c t t h a t i n 1932, Vancouver, Intermediate "B" G i r l s won  the B r i t i s h  Sunday School League B a s k e t b a l l Championship. champions they had t o d e f e a t teams from New Courtenay  and Salmon Arm.  The of how  S t . Mark's Columbia  To become  Westminster,  (Sunday P r o v i n c e . May  2,  1932.).  Sunday School League became an e x c e l l e n t  example  semi-organized r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s grew i n t o  provincial-wide leagues.  I t i s a l s o another example of  how  s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n overcame the D e p r e s s i o n by b e i n g able t o complete  a schedule, i n 1932,  i n v o l v i n g teams from  distant  p a r t s of the p r o v i n c e , f o r c i n g h i g h expenditure on t r a n s p o r t a tion  costs.  Spopt and R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n s and S o c i e t i e s During the Depression  Years  The D e p r e s s i o n Y e a r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the l a t e 1930's, were the y e a r s of " p r o f e s s i o n a l awakening." (Hunt, I t appeared  p.  t o be the time when the p r o f e s s i o n a l p h y s i c a l  e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n B r i t i s h  Columbia  became more o r g a n i z e d and gained more group c o n t r o l their field  1967,  of e x p e r t i s e .  Three very d i s t i n c t  over  groups were  formed or r e - o r g a n i z e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t o perform d u t i e s i n a more adequate manner. B r i t i s h Columbia  These groups i n c l u d e d the  branch of the Canadian  A s s o c i a t i o n (C.P.E.A.),  their  Physical Education  the Vancouver Elementary  Schools  97.)  43. P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Women and the Vancouver Elementary S c h o o l s P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n . The  f o r m a t i o n of t h e B r i t i s h Columbia branch o f  the C P . E . A . came about i n February, 1938. the  Fred Corey was  o r i g i n a l chairman of t h i s group of p h y s i c a l educators  which e v e n t u a l l y  hosted t h e n a t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n i n 1939  ( I b i d . , P. 97.) In 1938 the Vancouver Elementary S c h o o l s P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Women was formed. Association  aimed t o encourage and develop an i n t e r e s t by  women i n g i r l s * The  This  s p o r t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ( i b i d . , p. 9 7 . ) .  t h i r d major a s s o c i a t i o n was a reformed group under a new  title.  The Vancouver P u b l i c S c h o o l s A t h l e t i c  became r e - o r g a n i z e d  and began t o f u n c t i o n under t h e new t i t l e  of the Vancouver Elementary S c h o o l s P h y s i c a l Association The  Association  Education  (Ibid.., p. 9 7 . ) . f o r m a t i o n and r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n  t i o n s showed a d e f i n i t e r e c o g n i t i o n ,  o f these  on b e h a l f  Associa-  o f the members,  of t h e need t o promote and c e n t r a l l y o r g a n i z e t h e f i e l d of sport and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . saw a need t o a d m i n i s t e r  I t i n d i c a t e s t h a t these people  t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s under a u n i f i e d  body w i t h a composite p h i l o s o p h y , r a t h e r than as i s o l a t e d individuals.  44. S p o r t and P h y s i c a l R e c r e a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s During  i n the  the D e p r e s s i o n  Years  P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n the s c h o o l s of the p r o v i n c e had  p r e v i o u s l y come of age d u r i n g the mid 1920*s.  s t a t e d i n 1925 t h a t an informed futility  I t was  p u b l i c r e c o g n i z e s the  . . .  . . . of attempting t o e r e c t a v i g o r o u s i n t e l l e c t u a l s t r u c t u r e on a weak p h y s i c a l f o u n d a t i o n . (Putman and Weir, 1925, p. 47.) A s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e and p h i l o s o p h y towards p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n was repeated  i n 1933 when i t was s a i d  . . .  There i s probably no g r e a t e r means p l a c e d i n the hands of e d u c a t i o n i s t s f o r f o s t e r i n g and s t r e n g t h e n ing worthy a t t i t u d e s than a w e l l conducted programme of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . (Programme of S t u d i e s f o r High S c h o o l s of B r i t i s h Columbia* 1933, p. 46.) The  t e a c h e r s of the p r o v i n c e a l s o saw a need f o r p h y s i c a l  e d u c a t i o n and f o r q u i t e some time had been u r g i n g the Department of E d u c a t i o n t o develop education curriculum f o r t h e i r  a distinct physical  students.  They had been  i n s t r u c t e d t o t e a c h a programme based on m i l i t a r y d r i l l and cadet t r a i n i n g .  They wanted p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t o be  separated from t h i s m i l i t a r y background and m a i n t a i n an independent  identity.  In B r i t i s h Columbia, i n 1924, t e a c h e r s asked f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n team games, an o b l i q u e r e f e r e n c e d i r e c t e d t o the i n s t r u c t i o n provided by t h e m i l i t i a o f f i c e r s . (Putman and Weir, 1925, p. 229.)  45. A statement  by H. N. MacCorkindale,  of Schools i n Vancouver, a decade l a t e r ,  Superintendent sums up  the  r e s u l t s of y e a r s of u r g i n g by the t e a c h e r s and the d e s i r e s of the survey.  In the middle  of the D e p r e s s i o n ,  MacCorkindale  said: For y e a r s we have been engaging s p e c i a l t e a c h e r s t o t e a c h s p e c i a l s u b j e c t s such as A r t , F r e n c h , mathematics and music. A t l e a s t we have progressed t o the p o i n t where s p e c i a l t e a c h e r s w i t h s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s are r e q u i r e d t o t e a c h physical education. T h i s s u b j e c t i s no l o n g e r the C i n d e r e l l a of our c u r r i c u l u m . (Annual Report of the P u b l i c S c h o o l s . 1935-1936, p. H 85.) With the new  s p e c i a l i s t t e a c h e r s , who  were t r a i n e d w i t h a  background of the o l d c a l i s t h e n i c s mixed w i t h a " s m a t t e r i n g " of group games (Putman and Weir, 1925, c u r r i c u l u m had  p. 225.), a  new  t o be devised t h a t would de-emphasize the  military training.  The  p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s changed  w i t h the p r o d u c t i o n of each of t h r e e new programmes of study i n seven y e a r s .  c u r r i c u l a or  These r e v i s i o n s were  contained i n : !•  Programme of S t u d i e s f o r the J u n i o r High S c h o o l s of B r i t i s h Columbia, p u b l i s h e d i n  2.  New  1927;  Programme of S t u d i e s f o r the High and  Technical  S c h o o l s of B r i t i s h Columbia, p u b l i s h e d i n 1930; 3.  and  Programme of S t u d i e s f o r High S c h o o l s , p u b l i s h e d i n 1933.  46 These new programmes i n t r o d u c e d significant for  innovations  some dramatic and  and changes.  i n s t a n c e , was the f i r s t  The 1930 programme,  p h y s i c a l education  curriculum,  produced i n B r i t i s h Columbia, t o have made s p e c i f i c of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  for girls.  The r e f e r e n c e  was made by  s t r e s s i n g such a c t i v i t i e s as r h y t h m i c s , bouncing a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Swedish d r i l l , games.  mention  movements  f o l k dancing and minor  The 1933 programme emphasized the f a c t t h a t p h y s i c a l  education  c l a s s e s should  be based on r e c r e a t i o n  activities  " s i n c e the f u t u r e promises more l e i s u r e t i m e . ( I b i d . . p. 44.) The  1933 Programme  also stated that  . . .  The P r o v i s i o n of adequate p l a y i n g f i e l d s and s u i t a b l e gymnasia i s q u i t e as important f o r the e d u c a t i o n o f our youth as the p r o v i s i o n of c l a s s rooms and l a b o r a t o r i e s . (Ibid,., p. 46.) However, because of the hard times and l a c k of f i n a n c e by t h e D e p r e s s i o n , t h e r e was v e r y at  all,  little  gymnasium c o n s t r u c t i o n  and an i n c r e a s i n g amount of use was made of the s c h o o l  grounds f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  c l a s s e s (Hunt, 1968, p. 2 . ) .  There i s d e f i n i t e evidence t h a t p h y s i c a l was d e v e l o p i n g  i n r e c o g n i t i o n and s t a t u s .  Peace R i v e r area  Increased games.  education  Even from the remote  o f Pouce Coupe came the view of  W. Ray MacLeod, t h a t and  caused  Inspector  . . .  i n t e r e s t i s being  (Annual  Schools.  taken i n a t h l e t i c s Report o f the P u b l i c 1932-1933, p. M.37.)  47 Three y e a r s l a t e r the I n s p e c t o r of Schools  i n the P r i n c e  George D i s t r i c t , W. G. Gamble, s t a t e d t h a t the i n c r e a s e d emphasis p l a c e d on sport and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n the s c h o o l s was due t o the f a c t t h a t t e a c h e r s were being  asked  t o g i v e l e s s o n s i n h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as w e l l as having  c l a s s e s present p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  d u r i n g i n s p e c t o r a l v i s i t s . (Annual Report  demonstrations of the P u b l i c  S c h o o l s . 1935-1936, p. H.41.). P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n had not only taken  steps  forward  i n the s c h o o l s of B r i t i s h Columbia but had a l s o gained a great d e a l of ground i n the u n i v e r s i t y .  In 1936 Maurice  Van V l i e t and G e r t r u d e Mo;;re were appointed  as i n s t r u c t o r s  i n the Men's and Women's D i v i s i o n of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  The programmes t h a t  they presented t o t h e students were based on tumbling, c o r r e c t i v e e x e r c i s e s and f o l k dance.  As w e l l as t e a c h i n g  these a c t i v i t i e s , the two i n s t r u c t o r s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e i n t r a - m u r a l s p o r t s programme, and f o r t h e t r a i n i n g of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s f o r the B r i t i s h Columbian High S c h o o l s . The  (Hunt, 1968.).  i n t r o d u c t i o n of these p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  i n s t r u c t o r s t o the u n i v e r s i t y came at a time when i n t e r e s t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i n t r a - m u r a l and extra-mural  athletics  was a t an a l l - t i m e h i g h ( B a r t l e t t , 1962; Johns, 1965; McNulty, 1968).  With such a l a r g e and i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t  48 i n b o t h men's a n d women's Division first  of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n  basic  of P h y s i c a l Faculty  a t h l e t i c s , the  initial  began t o grow f r o m i t s  f o r m a t i o n i n 1936 t o t h e p r e s e n t  School  E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n w i t h i n t h e  of Education.  CHAPTER V SPORT AND  PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL  ACTIVITIES  DURING WORLD WAR I I  Unlike definite  t h e D e p r e s s i o n , W o r l d War I I seemed t o c a u s e  s e t b a c k s and a d v e r s e e f f e c t s on s p o r t  recreational  activities  of a l l c a t e g o r i e s  whole of B r i t i s h Columbia. w e r e many and v a r i e d . large a  and p h y s i c a l  throughout the  The r e a s o n s f o r s u c h  influences  The most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r was t h e  number o f men e n l i s t e d i n t h e a c t i v e  services,  leaving  s h o r t a g e o f m a l e b o d i e s a t "home" t o p a r t i c i p a t e .  was b y f a r t h e most o b v i o u s i n f l u e n c e .  The number o f women  who e n l i s t e d , p l u s t h e l a r g e  number who c o n t r i b u t e d  war e f f o r t b y w o r k i n g l o n g e r  hours than usual  sport pants.  and r e c r e a t i o n a l s o  severely  short  This  left  of a c t i v e  to the women's partici-  W i t h an a l l - o u t e f f o r t b e i n g made t o w a r d s t h e w a r ,  v e r y f e w p e o p l e had t h e t i m e o r e n e r g y t o o r g a n i z e and administer  sport  was t h e i n c r e a s e d the  war p e r i o d  enjoyment. noticeable by  or recreation. emphasis placed  rather  Another c o n t r i b u t i n g  on p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s f o r  t h a n on s p o r t  The i n f l u e n c e  factor  and r e c r e a t i o n f o r  on p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s was most  i n t h e type of a c t i v i t i e s  and programmes  r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s such as t h e Pro-Rec c e n t r e s ,  offered the  50  Y.M.C.A. and the Y.W.C.A., as w e l l as the type  of  programmes and changes t h a t were being i n t r o d u c e d the s c h o o l s and the  university.  P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s was was  into  of paramount importance as  e v i d e n t by the F e d e r a l Government's i n t r o d u c t i o n of  the N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s A c t i n 1943. i n p h i l o s o p h y and o b j e c t i v e having  With the  stress  s h i f t e d from p a r t i c i p a -  t i o n f o r the sake of a p r o d u c t i v e l e i s u r e - t i m e i n t e r e s t  to  p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r f i t n e s s , i t would seem t h a t some s p o r t s might s u f f e r .  However, r e c r e a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those  the strenuous  e x e r c i s e or b o d y - b u i l d i n g type, seemed t o  of  gain i n status. Sport i n B r i t i s h Columbia During World War Sport numbers and period.  saw  II  a d e f i n i t e d e c l i n e i n both  participation  i n the standard of performance d u r i n g the  P r o b a b l y the only s p o r t t h a t d i d not  comply w i t h t h i s statement  was  seem t o  war fully  hockey.  When World War I I exploded on mankind many hockey p l a y e r s t r a d e d skates f o r marching b o o t s , hockey sticks for r i f l e s . But i t seemed t h a t f o r every western p l a y e r who went away w i t h the armed f o r c e s , an e a s t e r n e r was posted here and some of the most e n t e r t a i n i n g hockey ever seen on the c o a s t was p r o v i d e d by the s e r v i c e teams. (Boyd, 1970, All  p.  42.)  other s p o r t s were f a c e d w i t h l e s s f a v o u r a b l e r e p o r t s  and the consequent setbacks i n p r o g r e s s .  51  F o o t b a l l had been growing at a phenomenal r a t e d u r i n g the D e p r e s s i o n . was  The  number of teams, i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  i n c r e a s i n g r a p i d l y and crowds were at a peak.  growth c o n t i n u e d i n the e a r l y y e a r s of the war.  This In  1941  the Western I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l F o o t b a l l Union expanded  and  i n v i t e d Vancouver G r i z z l i e s coached by Greg Kabat t o j o i n them, but • . . . . . as the i n t e n s i t y of the war i n c r e a s e d Canada's commitment i n c r e a s e d , and as a r e s u l t more teams dropped out of c o m p e t i t i o n . ( C o s e n t i n o , 1969, In  1942,  p.  122.).  however, f o o t b a l l o p e r a t i o n s were at a minimum  i n the e s t a b l i s h e d l e a g u e s .  I t was  i n the same year t h a t  the Western I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l F o o t b a l l Union f i n a l l y cease o p e r a t i o n . The  ( I b i d . . p.  The  II.  c o n s i s t i n g of New  the 1938  because of the war.  same f a t e was  saw  a gradual d e t e r i o r a t i o n .  the Adanacs, a new  team  Mann Cup  f i n a l but disbanded  ( S a v e l i e f f , 1972,  p. 20.).  in  The  t o come t o the N o r t h Shore I n d i a n s and many of  the other teams who the  d i s c o n t i n u e d at the s t a r t of  Westminster S a l m o n b e l l i e s breakaways.  The Adanacs reached  of  f l o u r i s h e d i n the p r e v i o u s  The men's league  f i r s t team t o s u f f e r was  1939  123.)  The women's league was  World War  to  s p o r t of l a c r o s s e s u f f e r e d i n both the men's  and women's leagues t h a t had years.  had  Depression.  had been so s u c c e s s f u l d u r i n g the y e a r s  52 The but  crowds t h a t attended the games a l s o  even so, they would s t i l l  n i g h t s a week a t the forum." teams a l s o s u f f e r e d  declined,  r e a c h t o t a l s of "2,000 two ( I b i d . , p. 2 5 . ) .  Lacrosse  another setback caused by t h e war,  when they l o s t t h e use of t h e i r primary f a c i l i t y . Forum, which became the home of B r i t i s h Columbia after fire  The lacrosse  had d e s t r o y e d t h e Denman Arena i n 1936, was  converted i n t o one of the many armouries e s t a b l i s h e d i n the Vancouver area t o s t o r e m i l i t a r y equipment.  T h i s meant  t h a t the l a c r o s s e p l a y e r s had t o move and use C a l l i s t e r Park as t h e i r main base.  ( I b i d . . p. 2 6 . ) .  With so many women e n l i s t i n g f o r s e r v i c e and w i t h so many of t h e p r e v i o u s l y unemployed women t a k i n g jobs  and o t h e r forms of employment, brought about by the war,  women's s p o r t  also suffered a great  l a c r o s s e league, as p r e v i o u s l y Women's f i e l d the  over men's  deal.  The women's  s t a t e d , ceased t o f u n c t i o n .  hockey a l s o d e t e r i o r a t e d t o t h e s t a t e where  . . . P r e s i d e n t , Miss Myrne Nevison . . . d i d much t o i n c r e a s e hockey enthusiasm and devoted a great d e a l of time and e f f o r t t o t h e t a s k 'of h o l d i n g - t h e league-together.' ( G r e a t e r Vancouver Women's Gr.a.ss Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n , 1956, p. 8.)  Other women's f i e l d  hockey leagues were not as f o r t u n a t e and  were unable t o even continue p a r t i c i p a t i o n on a minor s c a l e .  53 In 1942 the P a c i f i c Northwest Women's F i e l d Hockey Conference h e l d t h e i r f i r s t  tournament.  However, i t was  noted t h a t . . . Tournament p l a y was resumed i n 1944 a f t e r a one-year l a y - o f f because of t h e war. (.Ib_id., P. 20.) A t h l e t i c s f o r women a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia decreased t o t h e stage t h a t t h e r e beside f i e l d 1965, and  hockey, b a s k e t b a l l  p. 17.).  was l i t t l e  and badminton.  else  (Johns,  With t h e decrease i n the number of teams  athletes p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n outside  l e a g u e s , a consequent  i n c r e a s e was noted i n t h e numbers p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i n t r a mural a c t i v i t i e s and p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s ( I b i d . . pp.  17-18.).  B a r t l e t t (1962, p. 13) a l s o r e p o r t s  that  Women's A t h l e t i c s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia during  t h e War • . •  ... sank t o a low ebb and t h e emphasis was placed on p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . A s i m i l a r tendency i s noted i n the Men's A t h l e t i c programme a t the U n i v e r s i t y . A l l s p o r t s had t o r e s t r i c t t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s when C.O.T.C. became compulsory. (McNulty, 1968, p. 19.) McNulty a l s o p o i n t s out, Johns (1965), t h a t  i n agreement with B a r t l e t t (1962) and  student i n t e r e s t was on t h e war e f f o r t and  consequently i n t r a - m u r a l  a c t i v i t i e s and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s  54 c l a s s e s were t h e recreational  o f s p o r t and  at a l l l e v e l s  s u f f e r e d as a r e s u l t  With a l l energies being  e f f o r t , t h e r e was organize  little  or a d m i n i s t e r  time  of  the  f u n n e l l e d towards the  war  o r manpower t o  s p o r t , a s t h e r e had  excessive c a p a c i t y , during the preceding The it war  s t a t u s of  a c t i v i t i e s was  t o h e l p i m p r o v e and  o f f i t n e s s f o r t h e C a n a d i a n war  best  recreation.  shown by  I n 1946  Organizations  maintain  an a d e q u a t e  level  effort. W o r l d War  the Canadian Commission  a c t i v i t i e s of the youth  II.  published  of Canada.  Recreation  of  and  Two  of  Youth  These r e p o r t s were p u b l i s h e d as a r e s u l t  conducted d u r i n g the they  participation  i n Canada,, w e r e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o r e c r e a t i o n -  activities.  Although  the  the p o p u l a t i o n i n a l l forms  r e p o r t s , n a m e l y Y o u t h and  surveys  position  During  displayed i n t a b l e s r e v e a l i n g the  r e p o r t s on t h e  al  years.  s t a t u s of p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i s  i n t e r e s t being  these  Depression  physical recreational  Recreation i n B r i t i s h Columbia During  and  b e e n , i n an  of the D e p r e s s i o n .  t h e m a j o r p u r p o s e o f s p o r t and  probably  participate,  s p o r t dropped c o n s i d e r a b l y from the  held during the years  The  physical  activities.  Sport war.  main source  preceding  years:  t h e war  a r e b a s e d on a C a n a d a - w i d e s u r v e y ,  according to s t a t i s t i c a l Columbian youth  t h e o r y , be  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  as w e l l , p a r t i c u l a r l y  d i v i d e d i n t o E n g l i s h and  French  they  of  years. would, British  the t a b l e s t h a t were  speaking  youths.  T a b l e 6.  R e c r e a t i o n Equipment A v a i l a b l e t o Youths What Play Equipment Do You Own All Youth 16-20* 21-25* Male  or Have Easy A c c e s s To?  Female  Farm  City  At School  Working  Radio  86  86  86  83  87  81  89  88  83  Skates  81  89  75  85  77  81  79  88  79  67  7  2  65  63  71  62  69  75  64  Bicycle  63  75  48  69  57  59  65  77  61  Pools  41  45  36  63  22  46  40  44  42  Tennis Racquet  40  39  36  39  40  18  54  50  36  Skis  37  38  34  39  34  26  43  43  35  or F i s h - 19 ing Golf Clubs 18  24  14  29  12  7  21  28  16  18  17  22  15  5  27  25  15  Summer Cottage  15  16  12  17  13  7  20  21  13  Boat  15  11  13  19  11  9  13  19  13  Musical  Inst.  Camping  (Youth and R e c r e a t i o n , 1946, p. 215.)  56. The f i r s t  of the t a b l e s ( T a b l e 6) r e v e a l s t h a t 81%  of a l l the youth had easy a c c e s s t o skates and 63% had access t o a b i c y c l e , w i t h 40% having had access t o a t e n n i s r a c q u e t , 37% s k i s , 19% camping and f i s h i n g equipment, and 18% g o l f clubs. was  T h i s of course i s not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f how much use  made of t h i s equipment.  However, i f an examination i s  made of t h e t a b l e t h a t asked t h e youths t h e a c t i v i t i e s a t which they spent more than one hour a day ( T a b l e 7) i t can be noted t h a t  T a b l e 7.  Time A l l o c a t i o n t o R e c r e a t i o n  Check Those of the F o l l o w i n g on Which You Spend More Than One Hour Per Day All French English Speaking Speaking Youth Talking  40  38  49  L i s t e n i n g t o Radio  33  33  30  Reading  24  26  19  Dating  22  21  26  Making Things  17  13  22  Dancing  16  * 18  7  Loafing  11  10  14  Team Games  8  *  9  4  Individual Sports  8  *  9  5  Q u i e t Games  5  4  11  (Youth and R e c r e a t i o n . 1946,  p. 219)  Table 8.  Games and S p o r t s Played by Youths Which of the F o l l o w i n g Games and S p o r t s Do You P l a y ? All Youth 71  16-20*  20-25*  Male*  72 58 54  74 69 61  Farm  City  66 62 55  55 52 37  79 69 68  42 21 20 27  63 69 46  21 11 30 10 18 18  36 39 27  9 2  18 19  9  11  5 5  12 16  Female*  Cards Skating Swimming  62 57  69 73 65  Checkers Bowling Boating  55 46 36  64 47 40  53 48 37  60 52 42  56 44 35  Tobogganing  34  43  26  36  33  Skiing Tennis Horseback R i d i n g  33 29 26  36 27  29 27  34  23  28 25 25  Gymnasium S p o r t s B i l l i a r d s and Pool  25 24  31 29  Horse Shoes  23 16 13 11  33  14 18 17  37 29 33 32 44 38  23 13 17  7 16  25 20  6  22  10 10  17 12  5 8  23 17  Track and F i e l d Golf Boxing Wrestling Chess  15 6 14 7 10 2 1 5  *Team Games are Not I n c l u d e d . (Youth and R e c r e a t i o n , 1946, p.218)  35  38 28 19  Table 9.  Games and S p o r t s i n Which an I n t e r e s t was C r e a t e d i n Youths Which of the F o l l o w i n g Games and S p o r t s Would You L i k e t o P l a y , i f the Opportunity were O f f e r e d ? All Youth  16-20*  20-25*  Male*  Female*  Farm  City  Tennis Bowling Skiing Horseback R i d i n g Golf  26 16 16 16 16  28 21 19 19 22  21 9 13 13 12  18 12 13 12 17  30 18 19 19 17  29 23 15 8 15  20 7 18 12 17  Boating  15 14  18  11  19  12  13 16  15 15  15 21  14 7  13 12 8  19 13  9 11  16 10  10 14  13 17  9  6  6  9  9  15 8 8  Skating  7  6  5  5  7  8  Boxing B i l l i a r d s and Pool Track and F i e l d  6 6 6  10 9 9  4 3 3  12 6 9  2 6 4  6 5 7  6 6 8 7  Wrestling  5 4 4 2  7  3 3 3 2  9 2 4 2  1 4 4 2  5 4 5 3  3 2 4 2  Gymnasium S p o r t s Chess Swimming Tobogganing  Cards Horse Shoes Checkers  3 5 3  *Team Games are not I n c l u d e d . (Youth and R e c r e a t i o n . 1946, p.219)  59.  18%  of the E n g l i s h speaking youths s t a t e d dancing,  c i t e d team games and The  (Table  checkers, 24% The  i n d i v i d u a l sports.  t a b l e t h a t r e v e a l s games and  youth played  chess.  9%  8)  shows t h a t 71%  b i l l i a r d s and  f i g u r e s f o r the  a wide range from 62%  p o o l , 23%  and  activities ranking  physical a c t i v i t i e s  i n the  opportunity. surpass the  10%  also  cover 10%  range, than  (13 as compared w i t h 5 ) .  f i n a l s t a t i s t i c s quoted (Table  relatively  55%  horse shoes and  9) r e v e a l games  s p o r t s t h a t the youths would l i k e t o p l a y  o f f e r e d the  the  f o r skating to wrestling with  non-physical categories The  sports that  stated cards,  but w i t h much more p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s the  9%  i f they were  Once a g a i n p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l  non-physical,  high on the  w i t h o n l y chess  (13%)  list.  In B r i t i s h Columbia these s t a t i s t i c s , which r e v e a l a d e f i n i t e i n t e r e s t i n p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n , were a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n the p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n the programmes of various r e c r e a t i o n agencies. Pro-Rec programme was  still  The  p r o v i n c i a l government's  i n progress.  a shortage of competent i n s t r u c t o r s and  I t suffered  and  women.  Pro-Rec c e n t r e s  during  the war  from the D e p r e s s i o n days but of the  The  from  administrators,  many of the p r e v i o u s l y t r a i n e d i n s t r u c t o r s were now the e n l i s t e d men  the  as  among  programmes o f f e r e d by  the  years were q u i t e d i f f e r e n t  were comparable t o the  other r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s .  B a s i c a l l y the  programmes  change  was  60  t h a t they now f o l l o w e d  the d e s i r e s of the N a t i o n a l  P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s A c t . A s a r e s u l t of t h i s A c t p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and n a t i o n a l morale were of prime concern, and r e c r e a t i o n as a l e i s u r e - t i m e i n t e r e s t was o n l y of secondary importance. A s i m i l a r shortage of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s was f a c e d  i n the Sunday School R e c r e a t i o n  Columbia.  and i n s t r u c t o r s  Leagues of B r i t i s h  The e f f e c t was so severe t h a t , although t h e  d e s i r e f o r r e c r e a t i o n programmes was s t i l l administrative  present, the  h e l p , the time, and the a b i l i t y t o a l l o c a t e  f a c i l i t i e s f o r the R e c r e a t i o n  League were not as e v i d e n t .  T h i s l e d t o some o f the churches o f the p r o v i n c e or even c u r t a i l i n g t h e i r programmes. continued  restricting  A l t h o u g h the Leagues  t o f u n c t i o n , i t was on a minor s c a l e and w i t h  fewer teams than the p r e v i o u s The  Depression  years.  programmes of the Y.W.C.A. were designed t o c a t e r  for a "greater  p h y s i c a l and emotional s t r a i n "  (Harshaw, 1966,  p. 132).  The programmes were based on a t o t a l h e a l t h  foundation  w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of b u i l d i n g " a l l round  ( I b i d . . p. 132) through a programme i n body c o - o r d i n a t i o n , centres  health"  of swimming and t r a i n i n g  posture and h e a l t h .  The number of  and the number of new members a t each c e n t r e  r a p i d l y during  education  the war and i t was during  increased  these y e a r s t h a t  Many communities approached the N a t i o n a l Y.W.C.A. to e s t a b l i s h an A s s o c i a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e 1940-45 p e r i o d . (Ibid.., p. 86)  . ..  61 The  a c t i v i t i e s of t h e Y.M.C.A. i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  however, d i d not f a r e so w e l l .  The Y.M.C.A. c o n t i n u e d t o  f u n c t i o n , and even continued t o grow, but i t s a c t i v i t i e s were c e n t r e d on the war e f f o r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h the servicemen  i n the f i e l d .  Servicemen were o f f e r e d  membership and r e g i s t r a t i o n i n Y.M.C.A. c e n t r e s all  free throughout  of Canada, but w i t h the m a j o r i t y of the Y.M.C.A.  i n s t r u c t o r s and members being overseas, the programmes i n B r i t i s h Columbia were not v e r y f u n c t i o n a l . as the daytime L e i s u r e Time Leagues ceased  Such programmes t o e x i s t and  the programmes t h a t d i d continue were aimed a t p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s r a t h e r than c o m p e t i t i o n . S p o r t and R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n s and S o c i e t i e s During World War I I I t was s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y (Chapter 4, p. 42) t h a t t h e B r i t i s h Columbia branch  of t h e C.P.E.A.was formed i n  February, 1938, and t h a t i t then hosted t h e n a t i o n a l convent i o n i n 1939.  T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n a l s o played a s i g n i f i c a n t  r o l e i n the c r e a t i o n of the N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s A c t . The  1942 C.P.E.A. conference was h e l d i n M o n t r e a l .  The B r i t i s h Columbia d e l e g a t i o n a t t h i s c o n f e r e n c e ,  along  w i t h d e l e g a t i o n s from a few of the other p r o v i n c e s ,  complained  about youth f i t n e s s .  As a r e s u l t  of t h i s complaint  and the  d i s c u s s i o n s t h a t f o l l o w e d , a r e s o l u t i o n was sent t o the Honourable Ian MacKenzie, who a t t h a t time was M i n i s t e r of  62 the Department of Pensions  and N a t i o n a l H e a l t h .  The  f o l l o w i n g year the N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s A c t was passed w i t h one of i t s primary  o b j e c t i v e s being t o combat  a l a c k of an adequate l e v e l of f i t n e s s .  The r e s o l u t i o n  sent by the C P . E . A . was of course not the only reason f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of the A c t , but when a n a t i o n a l body  sends a s u g g e s t i o n t o the government i t must c a r r y some weight.  The r e s o l u t i o n t h e r e f o r e c o u l d have been c o n s i d e r e d  as at l e a s t p a r t of the reason behind the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the F i t n e s s A c t . S p o r t and P h y s i c a l R e c r e a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s i n the E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s During World War I I Sport and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n the s c h o o l s of B r i t i s h Columbia d u r i n g World War I I was i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o the programmes developed Depression years.  i n the s c h o o l s d u r i n g the  The programmes took a d e f i n i t e  step back-  wards and were comparable w i t h the programmes of the e a r l y 1920*s t h a t the t e a c h e r s of the Depression y e a r s had so d e s p e r a t e l y fought t o have a l t e r e d . With the outbreak  of World War I I many of the  p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s were c a l l e d f o r a c t i v e The  service.  s c h o o l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programmes were taken over and  taught by c i v i l i a n s and consequently  the c a l i s t h e n i c s t h a t  they were r a i s e d on d u r i n g t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s became the b a s i s of the s c h o o l programmes. Howell,  1971, p. 5 1 . ) .  (Cosentino and  6,3  The p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programs changed i n c h a r a c t e r , w i t h the s t r e s s on f o r m a l c a l i s t h e n i c s , o b s t a c l e courses and endurance and other programs r e q u i r i n g no equipment. (Munro, Van V l i e t 1965, p. 8.) Another d e t r i m e n t a l step was  [ed.l ,  the r e t u r n of the  cadet programme which the t e a c h e r s of the D e p r e s s i o n had  strived  so v i g o r o u s l y t o remove from the p h y s i c a l  education curriculum.  The  w i t h the c a l i s t h e n i c s and  p h y s i c a l education  programmes,  cadet background, became the  p r e p a r a t i o n ground f o r w a r r i o r s . One  era  (Hunt, 1968,  p.  91.).  of the main problems once a g a i n , as i n the  D e p r e s s i o n y e a r s , was  a shortage  of equipment and  gymnasia.  A l l m i l i t a r y bases, both i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and  i n the  r e s t of Canada, had  hours of  a p r i o r i t y f o r equipment, man  l a b o u r and f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e .  Consequently,  there  was  a d e f i n i t e d e c l i n e i n the type, the standard and the amount of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and s c h o o l s of the The  equipment o f f e r e d t o the  province.  s c h o o l s were not the o n l y e d u c a t i o n a l  t i o n s to be e f f e c t e d by the war.  The  institu-  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia a l s o had t o a l t e r i t s a t h l e t i c s programme.  Most  types of a t h l e t i c s were r e s t r i c t e d t o i n t r a m u r a l s f o r two basic reasons. and the war  The  primary  reason was  the s t r e s s on  fitness  e f f o r t r a t h e r than on a t h l e t i c s f o r enjoyment.  Compulsory C.O.T.C. p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r males a l s o r e s t r i c t e d  64. t h e h o u r s t h e s t u d e n t s had f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  recreational  activities.  S p o r t and p h y s i c a l s c h o o l s and u n i v e r s i t y society.  just  education suffered  i n the  a s i t had i n t h e r e s t  The war had c e r t a i n l y  most p r o g r a m m e s .  i n athletics  of  had a s e r i o u s e f f e c t  on  CHAPTER V I SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The War y e a r s periods  Depression  p e r i o d f r o m 1 9 2 9 t o 1 9 3 9 and t h e  f r o m 1939 t o 1945 were two d e f i n i t e  i n history.  I n both of these  s o c i a l f a c t o r s showed d i f f e r e n t  and d i s t i n c t  e r a s , economic and  i n f l u e n c e s on s p o r t and  physical recreational activities. The  Depression  years  saw t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a n  e n t i r e l y new a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s s p o r t a n d r e c r e a t i o n . status of these was  evident  a c t i v i t i e s took a d e f i n i t e  rise.  rise t o the  study  (p.5).  most s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r was t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n  of t h e Governments. and  This  i n many d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s t h a t c o r r e s p o n d  method o f d i s p l a y i n g s t a t u s a s s e t o u t i n t h i s The  The  The P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t , i n 1 9 3 4 ,  t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t , i n 1 9 3 7 , made t h e i r  c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n .  first  The p r i m a r y  financial  objective  o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a G o v e r n m e n t was t o k e e p t h e many people s u p p l i e d w i t h i n t e r e s t i n g G o v e r n m e n t , on t h e o t h e r  activities.  hand, i n t r o d u c e d  idle  The F e d e r a l  the recreation  programmes i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e Y o u t h T r a i n i n g A c t ; t h e a i m was t o c r e a t e a n i n t e r e s t  i n r e c r e a t i o n so t h a t t h e  r e - t r a i n e d y o u t h s would have a p a s t i m e t o l o o k f o r w a r d t o during  their  l e i s u r e hours.  W i t h b o t h t h e P r o v i n c i a l and  66. Federal  Government's programmes, t h e major  was t o s u p p l y  the public with  sport  objective  and r e c r e a t i o n  b e c a u s e t h e e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n had made i t d i f f i c u l t to  supply  them a l l w i t h  so d e s p e r a t e l y  the s p e c i f i c  jobs that  they  desired.  The g r o w t h i n p o p u l a r i t y o f s p o r t  and r e c r e a t i o n  was a n o t h e r f a c t o r t h a t d e m o n s t r a t e d a r i s e  i n the  status of these a c t i v i t i e s .  This growth i n p o p u l a r i t y  was e x e m p l i f i e d  participation,  spectator  by i n c r e a s e d  increased  a t t e n d a n c e and t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f r a d i o  broadcasts of selected such an i n c r e a s e r e a s o n was t h a t  sporting events.  The r e a s o n s f o r  i n popularity are v a r i e d . sport  One  major  and r e c r e a t i o n w e r e a v a i l a b l e t o  most p e o p l e t o h e l p t h e m p a s s t h e t i m e o f d a y . Increased by  p a r t i c i p a t i o n c a n a l s o be  explained  t h e i n c r e a s i n g number o f programmes t h a t w e r e  offered.  P r o - R e c , f o r i n s t a n c e , was now  programmes f o r men t i o n was a l s o parts  and women o f a l l a g e s .  supplying  of t h e p r o v i n c e  catered  to with  sport  that  being  supplying The  organiza-  and r e c r e a t i o n i n some  had n o t p r e v i o u s l y  been  such programmes.  The i n c r e a s e d  spectator  a t t e n d a n c e c a n be  a c c o u n t e d f o r b y t h e l a r g e r number o f s p o r t i n g t h a t w e r e now t a k i n g p l a c e .  Pro-Rec arranged  events numerous  67. d i s p l a y s and (Table  4,  competitions  p. 2 l ) .  i n f l u e n c e d the The  The  t h a t a t t r a c t e d l a r g e numbers  rise  i n the  s p e c t a t o r s and  standard  caused i n c r e a s e d  also  attendance.  W e s t e r n C a n a d i a n Rugby U n i o n p r o m o t e d more  in football.  The  formation  I n t e r i o r B a s e b a l l League w i t h an  increased  of new  ( p . 30)  l e a g u e s s u c h as  was  number o f e v e n t s t o  However, t h e D e p r e s s i o n s o c i e t y t o the  needed t o .attend  d i d not  unable t o attend  The  some  Another f a c t o r that  quantities. funds being  An  with access  available  the  shows an  t h a t was  but  p e r h a p s some e x p l a n a t i o n s  the  limited  of  costs  increase  i n status i s  u n d e r t a k e n by  n o t be  n e c e s s i t i e s of  The  travelling literature,  hypothesized.  With would  c o s t of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  t h e r e f o r e have been r e d u c e d t o a t t r a c t  life  in limited  found i n the  c o u l d be  sporting  amount o f money a v a i l a b l e , f e w e r p e o p l e  have b e e n a b l e t o t r a v e l .  such  to a radio.  r e a s o n f o r such e x t e n s i v e could  money  broadcasts.  a v a i l a b l e , or a v a i l a b l e o n l y exact  had  radio broadcasts  t e a m s a t a t i m e when money f o r some o f t h e e i t h e r not  events.  e v e n t s because of the  i n v o l v e d c o u l d have l i s t e n e d t o  t h e amount o f t r a v e l l i n g  spectator  attend.  many s t i l l  e v e n t s were a v a i l a b l e t o a l l t h o s e Even t h o s e  interest  d r a s t i c a l l y a f f e c t a l l people  same e x t e n t , and such events.  team  the  supplying the  A d m i s s i o n c o s t s were a f a c t o r a t  was  sport  i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Vancouver G r i z z l i e s f o o t b a l l  i n t o the  in  of  more p e o p l e .  may Perhaps  68  lower  r a t e s were a l s o a v a i l a b l e t o l a r g e g r o u p s such  s p o r t i n g t e a m s , t h u s m a k i n g t h e c o s t s more and  a c c e s s i b l e t o such The  growth or f o r m a t i o n of t h r e e d i s t i n c t  B r i t i s h Columbia i s another  increased  factor exemplifying the  s t a t u s , i n f l u e n c e and i n t e r e s t  s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n b e i n g  sport,  s o c i e t i e s and a s s o c i a t i o n s  recreation during the Depression. in  reasonable  teams.  r e c r e a t i o n and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n in  i n s p o r t and  The n e w l y added  involvement  t a k e n by t h e p o p u l a t i o n and by  t h e G o v e r n m e n t s , a s w e l l a s t h e new e m p h a s i s b e i n g physical education  i n the education  s u c h p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p s t o become Sport  i n the education  b u t had a l s o  taken  system of the p r o v i n c e . subject of  I n s p e c t o r s w e r e now a s k i n g t e a c h e r s t o  s t a g e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n l e s s o n s and d e m o n s t r a t i o n s inspectoral visits. now i n e x i s t e n c e . been a p p o i n t e d  caused  i n status i n  P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n was no l o n g e r t h e " C i n d e r e l l a " the c u r r i c u l u m .  on  active.  and r e c r e a t i o n had n o t o n l y r i s e n  steps forward  placed  system would have  t h e eyes o f t h e Governments and t h e p e o p l e , great  as  during  S p e c i a l i s t t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g courses Two p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  t o the U n i v e r s i t y  were  i n s t r u c t o r s had  of B r i t i s h Columbia t o  a d m i n i s t e r t h e programmes o f t h e Men's a n d Women's D i v i s i o n o f Physical  Education.  These f a c t o r s d e m o n s t r a t e t h e r i s e  s t a t u s o f s p o r t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t i o n at both  the school l e v e l  i n the f i e l d  and t h e u n i v e r s i t y .  i n the  of educa-  69. The needs of  society.  assistance taking  school  an  to  sport  increased  al activities,  programmes n a t u r a l l y s h o u l d r e f l e c t With the and  governments g r a n t i n g  r e c r e a t i o n , and  i n t e r e s t i n sport  i t w o u l d be  only  programmes w o u l d a l s o r e f l e c t  with  and  financial  the  population  physical  n a t u r a l that the  a new  interest in  the  recreationschool  physical  education. The  War  y e a r s saw  a d i f f e r e n t status for sport  physical recreational activities during and  the  Depression.  S p o r t and  e n j o y m e n t became m i n i m a l , and  sport  and  w h i c h was  recreation for the  i n s u c h an  purposes.  emergency s i t u a t i o n .  This  now  Fitness  n e e d e d t o w o r k f o r much l o n g e r  been accustomed t o i n the Most s p o r t s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s and  and  numbers t h a t  recreations  a decline  or a t t e n d longer  the  could  sporting  national natural  programmes for  workers  hours than they  suffered  i n both a  i n attendances.  and  women, had  Active  led to a  p a r t i c i p a t e i n sport  e v e n t s t h a t were s t i l l  and  had  brought about a decrease i n the  lack military  decrease recreation,  presented.  w o r k i n g h o u r s t h a t w e r e b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n had  recreation.  of  past.  s e r v i c e , i n v o l v i n g b o t h men i n the  competition  seems a  w o u l d h a v e b e e n n e e d e d f o r s e r v i c e m e n , as w e l l as who  evident  major o b j e c t i v e s  r e c r e a t i o n became p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and  m o r a l e , s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r war step  from that  and  The  also  time a v a i l a b l e f o r sport  and  70.  Physical during the  the  large  enlisted  War  e d u c a t i o n i n the  years.  One  was  In  the  left  to  less  was  were  physical  qualified  serve i n the  amount o f p h y s i c a l  r e d u c e d because of the  progress  reasons for t h i s  some s c h o o l s  w e r e b e i n g t a u g h t by  t e a c h e r s t h a n t h o s e who schools,  basic  to  e d u c a t i o n i n s t r u c t o r s who  armed f o r c e s .  education classes  In other  of the  number of p h y s i c a l i n the  schools f a i l e d  armed  education  l a c k of q u a l i f i e d  forces. taught  specialist  teachers. The and on  major c o n t r i b u t i o n  physical physical  Fitness Act  T h i s stems from the  of  Since that  1943.  some i n f l u e n c e to  sport  f o r enjoyment t o p h y s i c a l  demonstrate the  influence  recreation.  detrimental The involved  physical of t h e  This influence,  Physical  fitness  or  recreation. shift  fitness,  on  i n emphasis from  and  education War  has  the  lack  of  programmes,  the  status  h o w e v e r , was  of  sport  p r i m a r i l y of  a  type. programmes o f t h e  competition,  and  t o a much w i d e r r a n g e o f s c h o o l s were i n n o v a t i v e students.  National  sport  placed  upon government a g e n c i e s  l a c k of p a r t i c i p a n t s , the  school  emphasis  time, physical  or p h y s i c a l  progress i n the  and  the  fitness.  acts r e l a t i n g  sport  years towards  r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s was  always exerted  The  o f t h e War  on  Depression period the  varied,  whole were i n t e n d e d t o  interests. and  were  The  programmes o f  seemed t o be  more p l e a s i n g  W i t h s p e c i a l i s t s now  graduating  from the  cater the to  the  university  71. with  some b a c k g r o u n d c o u r s e s  i n physical education,  i d e a s w o u l d have been c r e a t e d , t h u s making t h e  fresh  sport  r e c r e a t i o n programmes o f t h i s p e r i o d more s a t i s f y i n g  and to  the  participants. The  War  year  p r o g r a m m e s , h o w e v e r , seemed t o be  varied, less competitive,  and  most l i k e l y  only catered  t h e w i s h e s of a s m a l l g r o u p of p e o p l e w i t h an body-building t h a t the  and  fitness.  programmes, i d e a s  p e r i o d r a t h e r than those for  physical education, limited  unless  innovations  o f W o r l d War  changed a g r e a t The  but  The  an  of the  important  and  Depression basis  physical recreational  one  participation  content  of t h e  p a r t of  i n these  type  few  some  war-time  today's  programmes i s competitive  o f programme have a l s o  deal.  Depression  s p o r t s and  still  in  I I would form the  i t i s in association with  sports t r a i n i n g .  to  and  F i t n e s s programmes a r e  developments t h a t are  to  I t seems q u i t e n a t u r a l , t h e r e f o r e ,  p o s t - w a r d e v e l o p m e n t s i n s p o r t and  activities.  interest  less  e r a , h o w e v e r , c o n t r i b u t e d more i n f l u e n c e s  r e c r e a t i o n t h a t are  Governments s t i l l  contribute to  still  i n e f f e c t today.  s p o r t and  The  r e c r e a t i o n , through  direct  g o v e r n m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h as S p o r t C a n a d a , f o r m e d  by  F e d e r a l Government i n 1971,  the  support Sports  of  such i n d i v i d u a l  Federation.  or t h r o u g h the  provincial  o r g a n i z a t i o n s as t h e B r i t i s h  Other Depression  prominent today are q u i t e v a r i e d .  Columbia  i n n o v a t i o n s that are  Radio broadcasts  of  still  sporting  72 events are  still  popular.  The  three  sport  and  education  a s s o c i a t i o n s that developed during  continued  to influence  years. other  A l l three  sport  and  physical  the  Depression  recreation during  later  s o c i e t i e s have e i t h e r amalgamated  a s s o c i a t i o n s o r now  f u n c t i o n u n d e r new  with  titles.  The  C a n a d i a n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , was fore-runner  of the  present Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n for  P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and national  sport, f i e l d  change i n 1931. administrators lacrosse.  This  Recreation  (C.A.H.P.E.R.).  the  Health, Canada's  l a c r o s s e , u n d e r w e n t i t s most d r a m a t i c  I t was  at t h i s time t h a t the  d e c i d e d t o change f r o m f i e l d innovation  is still  lacrosse  lacrosse to  i n existence  box  today.  Recommendations Further how  the  should  be  c a r r i e d out  s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s of o t h e r  W o r l d War of the  research  I, influenced  people l i v i n g  the  sports  eras,  and  i n these s p e c i f i c  periods.  i n f l u e n c e t h a t were r e f l e c t e d i n t h e  War  I I periods  contributed s p o r t and  their  quite d i f f e r e n t . own  for  example, involvement The  Perhaps other  the  specific  i n s t i t u t i o n s and  have  present  day  activities.  i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s very  h i s t o r y of p a r t i c u l a r s p o r t s  World  eras  Recorded h i s t o r y i n sport, p h y s i c a l education recreation  status  D e p r e s s i o n and  unique d e v e l o p m e n t s t o our  physical recreational  demonstrate  recreation  and  are  to  and  limited.  and  Studies  of  r e c r e a t i o n s , as w e l l  s o c i e t i e s and  their contribution  as to  73  sport  and  the study province.  r e c r e a t i o n , w o u l d be  of i n v a l u a b l e  o f t h e h i s t o r y of p h y s i c a l  assistance  education i n t h i s  to  BIBLIOGRAPHY  B a r t l e t t , N. 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Programme o f S t u d i e s f o r H i g h King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1933.  19.  . Annual Report o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s . 19341935 t o 1 9 4 3 - 1 9 4 4 . King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a .  20.  21.  Schools.  Dominion o f Canada. S t a t u t e s o f Canada. 1939 P a r t s I - I I , Fourth Session of the Eighteenth Parliament. K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, Chapter 3 5 , pp. 269-271. . S t a t u t e s o f Canada. 1943-1944. Fourth Session of the Nineteenth Parliament. King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, C h a p t e r 2 9 , pp. 157-160.  22.  E i s e n h a r d t , I . "Canada's N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s A c t . " J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h . P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n . A p r i l 1 9 4 5 , p. 1 8 6 .  23.  G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r Women's G r a s s H o c k e y A s s o c i a t i o n . J u b i l e e B o o k l e t . Vancouver, 1956.  76 24.  H a r s h a w , J . P . When Women Work T o g e t h e r : A H i s t o r y Of t h e YWCA Q l £anesliLji82Q=la&&. R y e r s o n Press, Toronto, 1966.  25.  Heagerty, J . J . D i r e c t o r of P u b l i c Health S e r v i c e s , Department o f P e n s i o n s and N a t i o n a l H e a l t h . "The N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s A c t . " Report o f t h e M e e t i n g o f t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s . May 2 3 - 2 4 , 1 9 4 4 . K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1944. pp. 5-7.  26.  H o w a r d , A.M. "The O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of C i t y P l a y g r o u n d A c t i v i t y w i t h S p e c i a l Reference t o Vancouver." U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. thesis. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1936.  27.  H o w e l l , M.L. a n d N. H o w e l l . S p o r t a n d Games i n C a n a d i a n L i f e , 1700 t o P r e s e n t . MacMi11an o f Canada, Toronto, 1969.  28.  H u n t , E.A. "A H i s t o r y o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a From 1918 t o 1967." U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1967.  29.  J o h n s , M.L. "A H i s t o r y o f Women A t h l e t e s at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia from 1915 t o 1965." U n p u b l i s h e d g r a d u a t i n g e s s a y , B.P.E. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965.  30.  L a n e , M.E. "Unemployment D u r i n g t h e D e p r e s s i o n : The P r o b l e m o f t h e S i n g l e Unemployed T r a n s i e n t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1930-1938." B.A. ( H o n s . ) graduating essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966.  31.  L o c k e , T. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M a i n l a n d L e a g u e C a n a d i a n C e n t e n n i a l Handbook, Vancouver, 1967.  32.  L o w e r , A.R. C o l o n y t o N a t i o n : Penguin Books, 1969.  33.  M c N a u g h t , K. The P e l i c a n H i s t o r y o f C a n a d a . Books, 1969.  34.  McNulty,  A H i s t o r y of Canada. Penguin  W.B. "A S h o r t H i s t o r y o f T r a c k a n d F i e l d a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m 1 9 1 5 t o 1968 W i t h P a r t i c u l a r R e f e r e n c e t o C e r t a i n R e c o r d s and P e r f o r m a n c e s . Unpublished graduati n g e s s a y , B.P.E., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968. 1 1  77. 35.  M c T a g g a r t , A.C., "A H i s t o r y o f t h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f L a c r o s s e i n Canada." Unpublished graduating e s s a y , B.P.E., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1951.  36.  M u n r o , I . "The E a r l y Y e a r s . " P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n Canada. (Van V l i e t , e d . ) . Prentice Hall i n C a n a d a , T o r o n t o , 1 9 6 5 , p. 1 - 1 1 .  37.  N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l Y.W.C.A. The S t o r y o f t h e YWCA i n Canada. Bryant P r e s s , Toronto, 1933.  38.  O r b a n , W.A.R. "The F i t n e s s Movement." Physical E d u c a t i o n i n Canada. (Van V l i e t , e d . ) , P r e n t i c e H a l l i n Canada, Toronto, 1965, pp. 2 3 8 - 2 4 8 .  39.  Ormsby, M.A. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A History. i n Canada, Vancouver, 1958.  40.  O s b o r n e , R.F. " L e a d e r s h i p i n R e c r e a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia." Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Health. P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n . V o l . 2 3 , No. 1. S e p t . 1 9 5 6 .  MacMillan  41.  . "The F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t a n d L e a d e r s h i p Training f o r Recreation." Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h . P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n . V o l u m e 2 8 No. 2 , D e c . 1 9 6 1 .  42.  . "Origins of Physical Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia." Paper presented a t t h e F i r s t C a n a d i a n S y m p o s i u m on t h e H i s t o r y o f S p o r t a n d P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , E d m o n t o n . May 1 3 - 1 6 , 1 9 7 0 .  43.  P o w e l l , M.P. " R e s p o n s e t o t h e D e p r e s s i o n : Three R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Women's G r o u p s i n B.C." Unpubl i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967.  44.  Putman, J . H . a n d G.M. W e i r . Survey of t h e School System. King's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1925.  45.  R o s s , M.G. The Y.M.C.A. i n C a n a d a . Toronto, 1951.  46.  S a v e l i e f f , D.S. A H i s t o r y o f t h e S p o r t o f L a c r o s s e i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver, 1972.  Ryerson  Press,  78 47.  Semotiuk, D.M. "The Development of a T h e o r e t i c a l Framework f o r A n a l y z i n g the Role of N a t i o n a l Government Involvement i n Sport and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and i t s A p p l i c a t i o n t o Canada." Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1970.  48.  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A t h l e t i c s Department, Unpublished r e c o r d s .  49.  Vancouver P r o v i n c e .  1929-1945.  50. 51.  Vancouver Sun. 1929-1945. Van Dalen, D.B., E. D. M i t c h e l l and B.L. Bennett. A World H i s t o r y of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . P r e n t i c e H a l l , New J e r s e y , 1956.  52.  Van V l i e t , M.L. ( e d . ) . P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n Canada. P r e n t i c e H a l l i n Canada, Toronto, 1965.  53.  W i l l i a m s , L.M. "The Growth and Development of Women's F i e l d Hockey i n Canada." Unpublished graduating essay, B.P.E., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967.  79. APPENDIX A AN  ACT  TO PROVIDE FOR  PEOPLE TO FIT (Assented  THE  THEM FOR  TRAINING OF YOUNG  GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT  t o by H i s Majesty, 19th May,  3.939)  H i s Majesty, by and w i t h the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Commons of Canada, e n a c t s as f o l l o w s : SHORT TITLE 1. T h i s A c t may 1939.  be c i t e d as The Youth T r a i n i n g A c t .  Short title  INTERPRETATION In t h i s A c t the e x p r e s s i o n " M i n i s t e r " means the M i n i s t e r of Labour; "Department" means the Department of Labour; " p r o v i n c e " means and i n c l u d e s each of the p r o v i n c e s of Canada, but not the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s or the Yukon T e r r i t o r y ; (d) "unemployed young people" means male or female i n d i v i d u a l s between s i x t e e n and t h i r t y y e a r s of age, i n c l u s i v e , not g a i n f u l l y employed and whose f a m i l i e s are not i n a p o s i t i o n t o pay the f u l l c o s t of t h e i r t r a i n i n g ; and who a r e , ( i ) r e g i s t e r e d f o r employment w i t h the Employment S e r v i c e of Canada; or ( i i ) c e r t i f i e d as e l i g i b l e by the C l e r k of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s home M u n i c i p a l i t y or by an a p p r o p r i a t e p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t y ; or ( i i i ) d e s e r v i n g t r a n s i e n t s c e r t i f i e d as e l i g i b l e by an a p p r o p r i a t e p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t y .  Definitions "Minister" "Departme nt "province"  3. For the purpose of promoting and a s s i s t i n g i n the t r a i n i n g of unemployment i n Canada, the f o l l o w i n g sums aggregating f o u r m i l l i o n f i v e hundred thousand d o l l a r s , s h a l l be a p p r o p r i a t e d and paid out of the c o n s o l i d a t e d Revenue Fund of Canada during each f i s c a l year f o r the p e r i o d of three years beginning w i t h the year ending the t h i r t y - f i r s t day of March one thousand nine hundred and f o r t y , namely:  Sums appropriated f o r the training of unemployed young people  2. a) b) ! c)  "unemployed young people"  80. d u r i n g the f i s c a l year ending the t h i r t y - f i r s t day o f M a r c h , one t h o u s a nd n i n e h u n d r e d and f o r t y , one m i l l i o n f i v e h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d dollars; ( b ) d u r i n g t h e f i s c a l y e a r en d i n g t h e t h i r t y - f i r s t d a y o f M a r c h , one t h o u s a nd n i n e h u n d r e d and f o r t y - o n e , t h e sum o f on e m i l l i o n f i v e h u n d r e d thousand d o l l a r s ; ( c ) d u r i n g t h e f i s c a l y e a r en d i n g t h e t h i r t y - f i r s t day o f M a r c h , one t h o u s a nd n i n e h u n d r e d and f o r t y - t w o t h e sum o f one m i l l i o n f i v e h u n d r e d thousand d o l l a r s . (a)  4.  Any p o r t i o n o f a n y a p p r o p r i a t i o n a u t h o r i z e d u n d e r t h i s A c t w h i c h may r e m a i n u n e x p e n d e d a t t h e e x p i r a t i o n o f any o f t h e s a i d f i s c a l y e a r s , s h a l l be c a r r i e d f o r w a r d and r e m a i n a v a i l a b l e a c c o r d i n g t o i t s appointment f o r the purposes of t h i s A c t d u r i n g any one o r more o f t h e s u c c e e d i n g f i s c a l years: P r o v i d e d t h a t no p o r t i o n o f t h e s a i d f o u r m i l l i o n f i v e hundred thousand d o l l a r s s h a l l be p a i d t o a n y p r o v i n c e a f t e r t h e t h i r t y f i r s t d a y o f M a r c h , one t h o u s a n d n i n e h u n d r e d and forty-three.  Unexpended moneys t o be carried forward.  5. T h i s A c t s h a l l n o t a p p l y t o any p r o v i n c e u n l e s s and u n t i l t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f s u c h p r o v i n c e h a s , by O r d e r i n C o u n c i l , s i g n i f i e d i t s a g r e e ment t o c o - o p e r a t e w i t h t h e M i n i s t e r i n c a r r y i n g i t s provisions into effect.  Application to provinces.  6. The g r a n t p a y a b l e t o any p r o v i n c e i n a n y y e a r u n d e r t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s A c t s h a l l be d e t e r mined by t h e G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l : Provided that t h e amount a l l o t t e d t o a p r o v i n c e s h a l l n o t e x c e e d a n amount e q u i v a l e n t t o t h a t w h i c h t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s h a l l a g r e e t o e x p e n d on p r o j e c t s u n d e r t a k e n under t h e p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s A c t w i t h i n such year.  Grants to be d e t e r mined by Governor in Council  7. The G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l may a p p o i n t a s u p e r v i s o r o f y o u t h t r a i n i n g who s h a l l h o l d o f f i c e f o r s u c h p e r i o d o f t i m e and u p o n s u c h t e r m s and c o n d i t i o n s a s may be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e G o v e r n o r in Council.  Superv i s o r of youth training.  8. P a y m e n t s made t o a n y p r o v i n c e u n d e r t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s A c t s h a l l be c o n d i t i o n a l u p o n an a g r e e m e n t b e i n g e n t e r e d i n t o b e t w e e n t h e M i n i s t e r and t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f t h e p r o v i n c e a s  Agreements with provinces.  81  t o t h e t e r m s , c o n d i t i o n s and p u r p o s e s o f and f o r w h i c h p a y m e n t s a r e t o be made a n d a p p l i e d , a n d s u c h a g r e e m e n t s s h a l l be s u b j e c t i n a l l c a s e s t o the approval of t h e Governor i n C o u n c i l 9. The G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l may make a l l s u c h o r d e r s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s a s may be deemed n e c e s s a r y o r d e s i r a b l e t o c a r r y o u t t h e p u r p o s e s and intentions of t h i s A c t .  Orders and regulations.  10. T h i s A c t s h a l l be a d m i n i s t e r e d Department o f Labour.  Adminis tration of A c t .  by t h e  11. A r e p o r t c o n t a i n i n g a f u l l a n d c o r r e c t s t a t e m e n t o f moneys e x p e n d e d a n d o b l i g a t i o n s c o n t r a c t e d u n d e r t h i s A c t s h a l l be l a i d b e f o r e P a r l i a m e n t w i t h i n t h i r t y days a f t e r t h e end o f each f i s c a l y e a r o r , i f Parliament i s then not i n s e s s i o n , s h a l l b e p u b l i s h e d a n d made a v a i l a b l e f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n by t h e Department o f Labour.  Report t o be laid before Parliament.  82 APPENDIX B AN ACT TO E S T A B L I S H A NATIONAL COUNCIL THE PURPOSE OF PROMOTING  FOR  PHYSICAL F I T N E S S  (Assented t o 24th J u l y ,  1943.)  H i s M a j e s t y , b y a n d w i t h t h e a d v i c e and c o n s e n t o f t h e S e n a t e a n d H o u s e o f Commons o f C a n a d a , e n a c t s as f o l l o w s : 1. T h i s A c t may be c i t e d Fitness Act.  a s The N a t i o n a l  Physical  Short title.  2. In t h i s A c t unless the context otherwise requires, ( a ) " C o u n c i l " means t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on Physical Fitness; ( b ) " D i r e c t o r " means t h e N a t i o n a l D i r e c t o r o f Physical Fitness; ( c ) " F u n d " means The N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Fund e s t a b l i s h e d by t h i s A c t ; ( d ) " M i n i s t e r " means t h e M i n i s t e r o f P e n s i o n s a n d National Health.  Definitions. "Council"  3. ( l ) T h e r e s h a l l be a c o u n c i l t o be c a l l e d t h e " N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s " w h i c h s h a l l c o n s i s t o f n o t l e s s t h a n t h r e e members a n d n o t more t h a n t e n members who s h a l l be a p p o i n t e d b y t h e Governor i n C o u n c i l . ( 2 ) The members s h a l l h o l d o f f i c e f o r a p e r i o d of three y e a r s , provided t h a t of those f i r s t a p p o i n t e d , t h r e e members s h a l l be a p p o i n t e d t o r e t i r e i n one y e a r , t h r e e members i n t w o y e a r s a n d t h e r e m a i n i n g members, i f a n y , i n t h r e e y e a r s . (3) A n y r e t i r i n g member s h a l l be e l i g i b l e f o r re-appointment. (4) E a c h member s h a l l h o l d o f f i c e d u r i n g g o o d behaviour f o r t h e period of h i s appointment, but may be r e m o v e d f o r c a u s e a t a n y t i m e b y t h e Governor i n C o u n c i l . (5) I n t h e e v e n t o f a c a s u a l v a c a n c y o c c u r r i n g i n t h e C o u n c i l , t h e G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l may a p p o i n t a person t o f i l l such vacancy f o r t h e b a l a n c e o f t h e t e r m o f t h e member r e p l a c e d .  Constitut i o n of Council.  "Director" "Fund" "Minister"  Tenure of Office of members. Removal for cause. Filling casual vacancy.  83 ( 6 ) The G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l s h a l l d e s i g n a t e one o f t h e members t o be c h a i r m a n o f t h e C o u n c i l who s h a l l be known a s , and b e a r t h e t i t l e o f " N a t i o n a l D i r e c t o r of P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s " . ( 7 ) No member o f t h e C o u n c i l , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e D i r e c t o r , s h a l l r e c e i v e any payment o r emolument f o r h i s s e r v i c e s , b u t e a c h member s h a l l be e n t i t l e d t o r e c e i v e and be p a i d o u t o f t h e F u n d h i s a c t u a l disbursements f o r expenses n e c e s s a r i l y i n c u r r e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the d i s c h a r g e of h i s d u t i e s under t h i s A c t . ( 8 ) The D i r e c t o r s h a l l be p a i d o u t o f t h e F u n d s u c h a n n u a l s a l a r y as may be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e Governor i n C o u n c i l . ( 9 ) The h e a d q u a r t e r s o f t h e C o u n c i l s h a l l be a t t h e C i t y of O t t a w a , i n t h e p r o v i n c e of O n t a r i o , and t h e C o u n c i l s h a l l meet a t s u c h t i m e s and p l a c e s a s t h e M i n i s t e r may a p p o i n t , b u t n o t l e s s t h a n t w i c e y e a r l y , i n t h e s a i d C i t y of O t t a w a . ( 1 0 ) S u c h p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l and o t h e r o f f i c e r s , c l e r k s and e m p l o y e e s a s may be r e q u i r e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s A c t s h a l l be a p p o i n t e d o r e m p l o y e d i n t h e manner a u t h o r i z e d by l a w . ( 1 1 ) The C o u n c i l may make r u l e s f o r r e g u l a t i n g i t s p r o c e e d i n g s and t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f i t s functions. 4. ( l ) I t s h a l l be t h e d u t y o f t h e C o u n c i l t o promote the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s of the people of C a n a d a and i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f s u c h d u t y i t may (a) a s s i s t i n the e x t e n s i o n of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n a l l e d u c a t i o n a l and o t h e r establishments; ( b ) e n c o u r a g e , d e v e l o p and c o r r e l a t e a l l a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t i n g to p h y s i c a l development o f t h e p e o p l e t h r o u g h s p o r t s , a t h l e t i c s and other s i m i l a r p u r s u i t s ; ( c ) t r a i n t e a c h e r s , l e c t u r e r s and i n s t r u c t o r s i n t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and physical fitness; (d) o r g a n i z e a c t i v i t i e s d e s i g n e d t o promote p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and t o p r o v i d e f a c i l i t i e s t h e r e f o r ; and ( e ) c o - o p e r a t e w i t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h as i n d i c a t e d i n s e c t i o n seven engaged i n t h e development of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s i n the a m e l i o r a t i o n of p h y s i c a l defects through p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e . ( 2 ) The C o u n c i l s h a l l c a r r y o u t s u c h o t h e r d u t i e s a s a r e r e q u i r e d by t h i s A c t o r r e g u l a t i o n s made h e r e u n d e r .  Chairman. Expenses o f members,  Salary of Director. Headquarters of Council. Employment o f staff. Power t o make rules. Duties and powers of Council  Idem.  84  5. The D i r e c t o r s h a l l be t h e c h i e f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r o f t h e C o u n c i l and s h a l l p e r f o r m such o f t h e d u t i e s and e x e r c i s e s u c h o f t h e p o w e r s o f the C o u n c i l as a r e from time t o time imposed upon o r d e l e g a t e d t o h i m by t h e C o u n c i l and, i f a u t h o r i z e d b y t h e C o u n c i l , he may e x e c u t e i n s t r u m e n t s a n d d o c u m e n t s on i t s b e h a l f .  Director as c h i e f executive officer.  6. ( l ) With the approval of the M i n i s t e r , the C o u n c i l may e n t e r i n t o c o n t r a c t s and a c q u i r e p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y on b e h a l f o f H i s M a j e s t y f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e C o u n c i l , b u t no c o n t r a c t s h a l l be e n t e r e d i n t o b y t h e C o u n c i l i n v o l v i n g an e x p e n d i t u r e i n e x c e s s o f f i v e t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s u n l e s s a u t h o r i z e d by t h e G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l . (2) R e a l p r o p e r t y may be a c q u i r e d on b e h a l f of H i s M a j e s t y p u r s u a n t t o t h i s A c t w i t h t h e approval of the Governor i n C o u n c i l .  Powers respecting contracts generally. Real property,  7. Where a p r o v i n c e e s t a b l i s h e s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r t h e purpose of c o - o p e r a t i n g w i t h t h e C o u n c i l i n c a r r y i n g o u t t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s A c t , and such province undertakes t o develop a p l a n of physical f i t n e s s satisfactory t o the M i n i s t e r , t h e M i n i s t e r may, w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l , e n t e r i n t o an a g r e e m e n t c o v e r i n g any p e r i o d w i t h s u c h p r o v i n c e t o p r o v i d e out of t h e Fund, f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r t h e purpose of assisting such p r o v i n c e i n c a r r y i n g out s u c h p l a n , b u t t h e amount o f s u c h f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n a n y y e a r s h a l l n o t e x c e e d a sum w h i c h b e a r s t h e same p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e sum o f two hundred and t w e n t y - f i v e t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s as t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f s u c h p r o v i n c e a s shown by t h e l a s t d e c e n n i a l census b e a r s t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n of Canada a s shown b y s u c h c e n s u s , o r an amount e q u a l t o o n e - h a l f o f t h e moneys a c t u a l l y e x p e n d e d b y s u c h p r o v i n c e i n c a r r y i n g out such p l a n , whichever i s the l e s s .  Power o f Minister t o make agreement with province to give f inancial assistance.  8. T h e r e s h a l l be a s p e c i a l a c c o u n t i n t h e C o n s o l i d a t e d R e v e n u e F u n d t o be known a s "The N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s F u n d " t o w h i c h s h a l l be c r e d i t e d a l l sums o f money w h i c h may be a p p r o p r i a t ed b y P a r l i a m e n t f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s A c t , a n d a l l sums o f money r e c e i v e d b y way o f g r a n t , bequest, donation or otherwise f o r the purposes o f o r on b e h a l f o f t h e C o u n c i l .  "The National Fitness Fund."  85. 9. N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f The C o n s o l i d a t e d Revenue and A u d i t A c t , 1 9 3 1 . t h e M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e may, s u b j e c t t o t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s A c t , make d i s b u r s e m e n t s f r o m t h e F u n d o n the r e q u i s i t i o n of the C o u n c i l f o r the f o l l o w i n g u r p o s e s , o r a n y o f them; a) t h e p a y m e n t o f t h e s a l a r i e s o f a l l p e r s o n s a p p o i n t e d o r employed under o r p u r s u a n t t o the p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s A c t ; ( b ) t h e payment o f a l l sums o f money r e q u i r e d by t h e C o u n c i l f o r t h e c a r r y i n g o u t o f i t s d u t i e s and t h e e x e r c i s e o f i t s powers under t h i s Act, together with a l l necessary expenses i n connection therewith; (c) s u c h o t h e r p a y m e n t s a s may be a u t h o r i z e d b y this Act. 10. The M i n i s t e r may, f r o m t i m e t o t i m e , r e f e r t o t h e C o u n c i l f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n and a d v i c e , s u c h matters r e l a t i n g t o t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h i s A c t as he t h i n k s f i t , a n d t h e C o u n c i l s h a l l i n v e s t i g a t e and r e p o r t t h e r e o n t o t h e M i n i s t e r . 11. The C o u n c i l s h a l l , o n o r b e f o r e t h e t h i r t i e t h day o f A p r i l i n e a c h y e a r , s u b m i t a r e p o r t t o t h e M i n i s t e r upon a l l a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e C o u n c i l d u r i n g t h e l a s t p r e c e d i n g f i s c a l y e a r , a n d s h a l l , whene v e r so r e q u i r e d by t h e M i n i s t e r , f u r n i s h t h e M i n i s t e r w i t h s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n and r e p o r t s a s he may r e q u i r e . 12. T h i s A c t s h a l l be a d m i n i s t e r e d of P e n s i o n s and N a t i o n a l H e a l t h .  by t h e M i n s t e r  Power o f Minister of F i n a n c e t o make disbursements on requisit i o n on Council 1931, c.27.  Power o f Minister to r e f e r matters to c o u n c i l for investigation and report. A n n u a l and other reports of Council to Minister. Administrat i o n of Act,  13. The M i n i s t e r s h a l l , a s s o o n a s p o s s i b l e , b u t n o t l a t e r t h a n t h r e e months a f t e r t h e t e r m i n a t i o n of each f i s c a l y e a r , submit an annual r e p o r t t o Parliament covering the administration of t h i s A c t f o r s u c h f i s c a l y e a r , and s u c h r e p o r t s h a l l c o n t a i n a s t a t e m e n t o f a l l amounts p a i d i n t o o r c r e d i t e d t o t h e Fund and a l l d i s b u r s e m e n t s t h e r e f r o m and s h a l l i n c l u d e t h e r e g u l a t i o n s made u n d e r this Act.  Report t o Parliament.  14. The G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l may make r e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e purpose of g i v i n g e f f e c t t o t h i s A c t .  Regulations.  15. T h i s A c t s h a l l come i n t o f o r c e o n a d a t e t o be f i x e d b y p r o c l a m a t i o n o f t h e G o v e r n o r i n Council.  Proclamation.  86 APPENDIX C An A c t t o enable the Government t o e n t e r i n t o Agreem e n t s w i t h t h e D o m i n i o n p u r s u a n t t o "The N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Act," being Chapter Twenty-nine of t h e S t a t u t e s of Canada, 1943, (Assented  t o 1 5 t h March, 1944.)  WHEREAS "The N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s A c t , 1 9 4 3 , " o f the Dominion p r o v i d e s t h a t the M i n i s t e r of Pensions and N a t i o n a l H e a l t h may, w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l , e n t e r i n t o an a g r e e m e n t w i t h any Province to provide f i n a n c i a l assistance f o r the purposes mentioned i n the s a i d Act:  Preamble  And w h e r e a s i t i s e x p e d i e n t t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t be a u t h o r i z e d t o e n t e r i n t o any a g r e e m e n t p u r s u a n t t o the s a i d A c t of the Dominion: T h e r e f o r e , H i s M a j e s t y , by and w i t h t h e a d v i c e and consent of t h e L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , e n a c t s as f o l l o w s : 1. T h i s A c t may be c i t e d Fitness Enabling Act."  as t h e  "National Physical  2. The G o v e r n m e n t i s a u t h o r i z e d t o e n t e r i n t o an agreement o r agreements w i t h the M i n i s t e r of P e n s i o n s and N a t i o n a l H e a l t h o f t h e D o m i n i o n ( o r o t h e r M i n i s t e r d u l y a u t h o r i z e d by t h e D o m i n i o n ) f o r any o f t h e p u r p o s e s m e n t i o n e d i n The N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s A c t , 1 9 4 3 , " o f t h e D o m i n i o n ; and t h e M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n of the P r o v i n c e i s a u t h o r i z e d t o execute and d e l i v e r on b e h a l f o f t h e P r o v i n c e any a g r e e m e n t so e n t e r e d i n t o .  Short title, Power to enter into agreement.  

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