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Status and influence of sport and physical recreational activities in British Columbia during the Depression… Arnold, Trevor Charles 1973

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THE STATUS AND INFLUENCE OF SPORT AND PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA DURING THE DEPRESSION AND WORLD WAR I I by TREVOR CHARLES ARNOLD B.P.E., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n t h e S c h o o l of PHYSICAL EDUCATION and RECREATION We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1973 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p urposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date 3. O&r&lteA ABSTRACT The Depression and World War II were two d i s t i n c t s o c i o l o g i c a l eras i n the 20th century. Both of these periods played dramatic roles i n the h i s t o r y and develop-ment of B r i t i s h Columbia. This research examined sport and physical r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , to demonstrate the status and influence that these a c t i v i t i e s had during these two periods of s o c i a l and economic turmoil. The research was c a r r i e d out by reviewing government documents r e l a t e d to t h i s era and t h i s f i e l d of study, and then reviewing the e f f e c t these government acts, debates and discussions had on the sport and recreation programmes of the time. Newspaper reports and h i s t o r i c a l sketches of various sports and recreation programmes were the main source for gaining information of these a c t i v i t i e s . I t was during the Depression that both the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Government and the Federal Government f i r s t introduced f i n a n c i a l support for sport and recreation. The B r i t i s h Columbia Government inaugurated i t s Pro-Rec a c t i v i t y programme i n 1934 and the Youth Training Act of 1937 saw the f i r s t Federal Government finance allocated f o r leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s . In 1943, during World War II the Canadian Government passed the National Physical Fitness Act which supported and funded sport and physical r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s as well as f i n a n c i a l l y aiding the p r o v i n c i a l programmes of Pro-Rec. The Depression years saw a d e f i n i t e r i s e i n the status of sport. This was displayed i n increased p a r t i c i p a -t i o n , increased spectator attendance, and increased coverage i n newspapers and on the radio. This same increase was also noted i n re c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the programmes of Pro-Rec, the YMCA, the YWCA and such programmes as the Sunday School A c t i v i t y Leagues. Physical education i n the schools was improved i n status to equal a l l other school subjects. The Depression years also saw the b i r t h of such sport and rec r e a t i o n associations as the B r i t i s h Columbia branch of the Canadian Physical Education Association, the Vancouver Elementary Schools Physical Education Association for Women and the Vancouver Elementary Schools Physical Education A s s o c i a t i o n . Sport and physical r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s influenced the l i f e of many people. It was the type of a c t i v i t y that was being promoted to f i l l the long i d l e hours of unemployment. Promotion was undertaken by many agencies, the most prominent being the B r i t i s h Columbia Government with i t s Pro-Rec programmes. The war years that followed, however, saw a reversal i n the status of these a c t i v i t y programmes. With the war e f f o r t consuming so many workers and so many hours, very few people had the time to pa r t i c i p a t e i n , organize or administer s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n . A l l a r e a s of s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n seemed t o s u f f e r i n t h e number of p a r t i c i p a n t s and the s t a n d a r d of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . S p o r t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e s c h o o l s and u n i v e r s i t y a l s o d e t e r i o r a t e d ; t h e new programmes i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e D e p r e s s i o n y e a r s b e i n g d i s r e g a r d e d o r d i s c o n t i n u e d because of a l a c k of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s . ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The completion of t h i s t h e s i s would not have been at a l l possible without the guidance and enthusiastic assistance given by various people. To Professor R. F. Osborne, my committee chairman, I extend thanks for the invaluable help and the generous amount of precious time that has been afforded me. To the other members of my committee, Miss P. B. Schrodt, Dr. E. F. Broom and Dr. M. Lazerson, I also extend thanks for the time taken to a s s i s t me with my presentation. This work would also have been d i f f i c u l t to accomplish without the enthusiastic encouragement that I received from both of my parents i n A u s t r a l i a , and the patience displayed by my wife Diane. To these three people I dedicate t h i s t h e s i s . TABLE OF CONTENTS C h a p t e r Page I . INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM 1 Stateme n t of t h e P r o b l e m 4 Subproblems • • • • • 4 D e f i n i t i o n s ' 5 D e l i m i t a t i o n s . . . . . 6 S i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e Study . . . . . . 6 Method of P r o c e d u r e 7 I I . REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 9 I I I . THE ROLE OF THE GOVERNMENT IN SPORT AND PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES DURING THE DEPRESSION AND WORLD WAR I I . 13 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l Government's Pro-Rec Programme. . . 13 Y o u t h T r a i n i n g A c t . • 18 The D e p r e s s i o n Y e a r s 22 The N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s A c t . . 23 The War Y e a r s 27 Chapter Page IV. SPORT AND PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES DURING THE DEPRESSION YEARS 28 Sport i n B r i t i s h Columbia During the Depression 29 Recreation i n B r i t i s h Columbia During the Depression 37 Sport and Recreation Associations and S o c i e t i e s During the Depression Years 42 Sport and Physical Recreational A c t i v i t i e s i n the Educational I n s t i t u t i o n s During the Depression Years 44 V. SPORT AND PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES DURING WORLD WAR II 49 Sport i n B r i t i s h Columbia During World War II 50 Recreation i n B r i t i s h Columbia During World War I I . . . . . . . . . 54 Sport and Recreation Associations and S o c i e t i e s During World War II . . . . 61 Sport and Physical Recreational A c t i v i t i e s i n the Educational I n s t i t u t i o n s During World War I I . • . 62 Chapter Page VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 65 Recommendations 7 2 BIBLIOGRAPHY 7 4 APPENDIX 7 9 A. An Act to Provide f o r the Training of Young People to f i t them for G a i n f u l Employment 7 9 B. An Act to Est a b l i s h a National Council f o r the Purpose of Promoting Physical Fitness 8 2 C. An Act to Enable the Government to Enter into Agreement with the Dominion Pursuant to "The National Physical Fitness Act" being Chapter Twenty-Nine of the Statutes of Canada, 1943 8 6 LIST OF TABLES Page I. Pro-Rec Participants 1934-1937 15 I I . T o t a l Number of Pro-Rec Employees 16 I I I . Number of Pro-Rec Centres 18 IV. Pro-Rec S t a t i s t i c s f o r 1937-1938 21 V. Annual Attendance at Vancouver Playgrounds . 39 VI. Recreation Equipment Available to Youths . . 55 VII. Time A l l o c a t i o n to Recreation 56 VIII. Games and Sports Played by Youths 57 IX. Games and Sports i n which an Interest was Created i n Youths. . . . . . . . . . . 58 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM Sport and physical r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s vary a great deal between s o c i e t i e s as well as varying within any one society over a period of time. It can be said that sport or physical a c t i v i t y " r e f l e c t s the very society that f o s t e r s i t . " (Van Dalen §t a l . , 1956, p. 589). During the period from 1925 to 1945 the people of B r i t i s h Columbia experienced some rather d r a s t i c economic and s o c i o l o g i c a l reconstructions, which were r e f l e c t e d i n a l l forms of s o c i a l behaviour including sport and physical r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . In the 1920's B r i t i s h Columbia was enjoying her share of a s p i r a l l i n g North American economic boom (Ormsby, 1958, p. 405-434). Industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia was responding to the increase i n new plants and the many new workers being trained i n various forms of s k i l l . The early months of 1929 saw almost a l l previous B r i t i s h Columbian records for economic endeavour surpassed. H i s t o r i c a l essays and reports of various sports (Cosentino, 1969; Johns, 1965; McNulty, 1968; S a v e l i e f f , 1972; Williams, 1967.) also report that at t h i s stage a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s of a l l forms were also booming, both i n the number of p a r t i c i p a n t s and i n the standard of performance and administration. 2 When the New York stock market collapsed i n October, 1929, the economy of the province of B r i t i s h Columbia was among the victims. With a new and developing i n d u s t r i a l system, she was heavily dependent upon foreign trade, and p a r t i c u l a r l y upon the export of grain and semi-finished products. New t a r i f f s and i n t e r n a t i o n a l currency f l u c t u a t i o n s led to the c a n c e l l a t i o n of many large overseas orders for salmon, lumber and minerals. Waterfront a c t i v i t y became minimal because of the lack of B r i t i s h Columbian and p r a i r i e exports. Vancouver became a c i t y of unemployed workers. I t was only a few months af t e r the New York f i n a n c i a l collapse before many people i n B r i t i s h Columbia were affected. "Bread-lines were forming outside the C i t y R e l i e f O f f i c e by December." (Ormsby, 1958, p. 442). Reports of unemployed transients (Lane, 1966) looking for work, and of mass migration to the c i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Vancouver (Ormsby, 1958; Powell, 1967), are evident through-out the l i t e r a t u r e . Federal r e l i e f funds were necessary to a s s i s t the provinces i n overcoming the many d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the following years. These funds came i n the form of work projects and d i r e c t unemployment f i n a n c i a l assistance. One of these projects had a d i r e c t bearing on B r i t i s h Columbia's rec r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . -3 In the period 1937-44 the Government provided a vocational t r a i n i n g program for unemployed males and females aged 16-30 years. Conceived o r i g i n a l l y as a depression measure to develop employment s k i l l s , the program was expanded to include r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s because experience revealed that many of those retrained persons were having d i f f i c u l t y i n s t i c k i n g to t h e i r jobs. Lack of stamina and a deficiency of constructive leisure-time i n t e r e s t s were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s . (Osborne, 1961, p. 16) Pro-Rec, as the B r i t i s h Columbia programme was named, was a r e l i e f programme which involved j o i n t financing by the P r o v i n c i a l and Federal Governments. With so much i d l e time being a v a i l a b l e , sport and physical r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i -t i e s would appear to be one of the many suitable methods of consuming the increasing number of unproductive hours. The type of a c t i v i t y that would have been available to the people would of course be r e s t r i c t e d by the costs involved and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of equipment, f i e l d s , courts and arenas. Consequently, the Pro-Rec programmes would also l o g i c a l l y be of the low-cost v a r i e t y . The economy was s t i l l embedded i n a state of depression, but was at le a s t making a slow recovery, when the nation went to war i n September, 1939. The economic s i t u a t i o n was soon to change. Vancouver ship-building yards and aero-plane construction i n d u s t r i e s were back to f u l l production. The increasing need for lumber, minerals and e l e c t r i c i t y for war production, plus the need for m i l i t a r y servicemen had 4 stimulated employment opportunities. The economy of the province had completely reversed. With the newly revived economy, more money became available f o r consumers and consequently a wider range of products and a c t i v i t i e s were able to be purchased and enjoyed. B r i t i s h Columbia's Pro-Rec programme was s t i l l functioning, and with an increasing number of people now able to afford sport and physical r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , an increase i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and in t e r e s t could be expected, unless war involvement caused unnatural tendencies. Statement of the Problem The purpose of t h i s study i s to investigate the status and influence of sport and physical r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia during the Depression and World War I I . Subproblems It i s hoped that the i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l display: 1. The use that i n d i v i d u a l s made of sport and physical r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s during t h i s period. 2 . The use that the government made of sport and physical r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s during t h i s period. 3. The government's involvement with sport and physical r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s during t h i s period. 5 4. Any s i g n i f i c a n t p r e s e n t day a s p e c t s o f s p o r t and p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t have a b a s i s i n a u g u r a t e d o r d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s p e r i o d . D e f i n i t i o n s S p o r t w i l l r e f e r t o a l l a t h l e t i c s o f a c o m p e t i t i v e n a t u r e . P h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s w i l l i n c l u d e programmes o f r e c r e a t i o n i n t h e f o r m o f a t h l e t i c s , d a n c e , g y m n a s t i c s , a q u a t i c s and e x e r c i s e o r p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g t h a t were d e v i s e d p u r e l y as a l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t y , w i t h c o m p e t i t i o n b e i n g e i t h e r n o n - e x i s t e n t , or p r e s e n t o n l y i n a minor and s e c o n d a r y manner. The s t a t u s o f s p o r t and p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be d i s p l a y e d by t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s by i n d i v i d u a l s and by t h e g o v e r n m e n t . T h i s c a n be d e m o n s t r a t e d by government e x p e n d i t u r e on s u c h a c t i v i t i e s compared w i t h e x p e n d i t u r e on o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s and programmes or e x p e n d i t u r e on s p o r t and p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s a t o t h e r p e r i o d s o f t i m e . I t c a n a l s o be shown by t h e numbers p a r t i c i p a t i n g and t h e number o f s p e c t a t o r s t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s a t t r a c t e d , as w e l l as by t h e amount of c o v e r a g e t h a t t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s r e c e i v e d i n n e w s p a p e r s , on t h e r a d i o , i n j o u r n a l s , and i n p u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s p e r i o d . The i n f l u e n c e o f s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be examined i n two ways: 6 1. The influence of sport and physical r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s on the people and government during t h i s period. 2. The influence the programmes of t h i s period had on l a t e r programmes. Delimitations Because of l i m i t e d time and resources, the i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d to B r i t i s h Columbia. Newspapers, journals and government publications that are available f o r research are primarily concerned with t h i s province. Other l i m i t s w i l l be set by the research method. Evidence w i l l be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e for sports and recreations that received newspaper coverage. Other a c t i v i t i e s can only be researched i f such documents as minutes of meetings, records or scorebooks can be reviewed, unless secondary sources i n the form of theses, essays, reports and s i m i l a r papers can be obtained and s c r u t i n i z e d . Significance of the Study C r i t i c i s m always has, and most probably always w i l l , be voiced at the use made of government funds. This c r i t i c i s m has often been heard i n regard to the use the government makes of funds allocated to sport and recreation. Perhaps a review of the basic idea behind the o r i g i n a l 7 a l l o c a t i o n of money for sport and recreation, which occurred during the period of the Depression, could bring a l l points of view into perspective. This may then r e s u l t i n some re-thinking and perhaps a r e - a l l o c a t i o n of government money to these a c t i v i t y programmes. Conversely, i t may reveal that the changes were f o r the better and that a r e - a l l o c a t i o n of funds i s not warranted. With the unstable economy that i s being faced at present, and which could be faced again i n the future, an understanding of the philosophy and value of the sport and physical r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y programmes that were administered during the Depression and World War II could be b e n e f i c i a l for present day and future administrators. Such a study could reveal the success, or f a i l u r e , of such programmes and possibly could reveal f a c t s that should be reconsidered i f future use i s to be made of such programmes i n periods of economic and s o c i a l turmoil. Method of Procedure The method involved a review of selected relevant government documents for the period from 1925 to 1945. These included: 1. Statutes of Canada; 2. Statutes of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia; and 3. Journals of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. 8 T h i s r e v e a l e d , or at l e a s t r e f e r r e d t o a l l the A c t s , debates, d i s c u s s i o n s , q u e s t i o n and answers r e g a r d i n g s p o r t and p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a f f e c t e d the p e r i o d of the D e p r e s s i o n and World War I I . T h i s review, as w e l l as a r eview of the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t was based on these government a c t i o n s , served as a b a s i s f o r the r e s e a r c h , as i t i s from these documents t h a t any governmental i n f l u e n c e on s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n should be e v i d e n t . The e f f e c t , or n o n - e f f e c t t h a t these p o l i c i e s or a c t s had on i n d i v i d u a l s p o r t s , e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programmes, and s p o r t and p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y a s s o c i a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s was a l s o d i s p l a y e d . T h i s r e s e a r c h i n v o l v e d a survey of newspaper and j o u r n a l r e p o r t s , minutes of meetings, r e c o r d books, score books, i n t e r v i e w s and secondary sources i n the form of t h e s e s , essays, r e p o r t s and s i m i l a r documents. A review of these papers a l s o d i s c l o s e d other s i g n i f i c a n t developments i n s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n t h a t were not r e l a t e d t o the governmental p o l i c i e s or a c t i o n s . CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Sport, physical education and recreation i n Canada have been reviewed by many authors (Van V l i e t Ted.], 1965; Howell and Howell, 1969; Cosentino and Howell, 1971) from within Canada. Other i n t e r n a t i o n a l authors (Van Dalen, e i a l . . 1956, p. 523-528) have also attempted to present the o v e r a l l h i s t o r i c a l development i n Canada as a minor part of the complete global p i c t u r e . Most of these documentations, however, attempt to review the entire h i s t o r y of Canadian sport and recreation, and therefore very l i t t l e d e t a i l i s present i n these books or a r t i c l e s that s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e s to both B r i t i s h Columbia and to the stated period of time. Other authors (Semotiuk, 1970; Broom, 1971), have b r i e f l y reviewed the h i s t o r i c a l development of government intervention and co-operation i n sport and recreation. Once again both of these authors present an o v e r a l l Canadian review, but because of the nature of the research involved, they do not produce a f u l l h i s t o r i c a l picture of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r province or t h i s p a r t i c u l a r period i n h i s t o r y . More s p e c i f i c studies regarding government i n t e r -vention have been recorded but these studies tend to be r e s t r i c t e d to p a r t i c u l a r acts or p a r t i c u l a r periods i n time 10. rather than a f u l l h i s t o r i c a l review. Some of these studies which pertain to the stated time and province include Leadership i n Recreation i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Osborne, 1956), The Federal Government and Leadership  Training for Recreation (Osborne, 1961) and Canada 1s  National Physical Fitness Act (Eisenhardt, 1945). The f i r s t of these a r t i c l e s gives a b r i e f outline of government involvement i n recreation i n B r i t i s h Columbia from the introduction of the Pro-Rec programme to the involvement of the National Physical Fitness Act and i t s e f f e c t on t h i s province. The second a r t i c l e r e l a t e s to the aims of the Youth Training Act and the s p e c i f i c e f f e c t t h i s Act had on B r i t i s h Columbia; i t also r e f e r s to the National Physical Fitness Act and the e f f e c t s t h i s act had, as from 1943. Eisenhardt*s study, as the name implies, i s d i r e c t l y concerned with the aims, philosophy and administration of the National Physical Fitness Act. One other study, and one which has a d i r e c t aim of portraying government sponsored recreation programmes i n B r i t i s h Columbia, was completed by E. S. Dakin (1950). His study, Government Sponsored Recreation i n the Province of  B r i t i s h Columbia, contains a complete development of the Pro-Rec programmes i n t h i s province from 1934. His research shows the e f f e c t that the o r i g i n a l programmes had on the population and the increasing e f f e c t as i t developed and 11 received Federal Government support through the Youth Training Act i n 1937 and the National Physical Fitness Act i n 1943. Sport and physical education i n the schools of B r i t i s h Columbia has been well reviewed i n a study c a l l e d A History of Physical Education i n the Public Schools of  B r i t i s h Columbia from 1918 to 1967. (Hunt, 1967). This study e n t a i l s a broad coverage of physical education during the Depression and World War I I , but as stated i n the t i t l e , i t i s l i m i t e d to the public school s i t u a t i o n . Other information regarding physical education i n the schools i s available i n such documents as the Annual Report of the  Public Schools and the various Programme of Studies (Depart-ment of Education, 1927, 1930 and 1933) that took e f f e c t during t h i s period. The i n d i v i d u a l sports have been researched i n varying degrees. Some, including lacrosse ( S a v e l i e f f , 1972), hockey (Boyd, 1970), and Women's f i e l d hockey (Greater Vancouver Women's Grass Hockey Association, 1956) have been surveyed on a province-wide scale. Appropriate data was obtained from these a r t i c l e s pertaining to the period of the Depression and World War I I . Other studies have been conducted with some sports i n s p e c i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n s , such as the University of B r i t i s h Columbia ( B a r t l e t t , 1962; Johns, 1965; McNulty, 1968), Schools of the province 12. (Greater Vancouver Women's Grass Hockey Association, 1956), the Y.M.C.A. (Ross, 1951), the Y.W.C.A. (Harshaw, 1966) and sp e c i f i c leagues (Greater Vancouver Women's Grass Hockey Association, 1956). Broader research has been undertaken i n some sports on a national scale. These sports include f o o t b a l l (Currie, 1968; Cosentino, 1969), lacrosse (McTaggart, 1951) and women's f i e l d hockey (Williams, 1967). Each of these studies include a large section on the period under study. Recreation i s a f i e l d that has only been sparsely studied. Studies such as that undertaken by Howard (1936) are s p e c i f i c to Vancouver and i t s playgrounds. Youth and  Recreation (Canadian Youth Commission, 1946) and Youth  Organizations i n Canada (Canadian Youth Commission, 1946) are two studies with no reference to time, or to changes over a period of time. The only r e c r e a t i o n a l studies that display development over a period are those related to Government-sponsored recreation, as previously mentioned. B a s i c a l l y a study of sport and physical r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia during the Depression and World War II i s at present either non-existent or scattered i n an i s o l a t e d fashion throughout the l i t e r a t u r e . Although many studies have presented an o v e r a l l h i s t o r i c a l develop-ment i n Canada, none have been s p e c i f i c a l l y focused on B r i t i s h Columbia during t h i s period of s o c i a l and economic i n s t a b i l i t y . CHAPTER III THE ROLE OF THE GOVERNMENT IN SPORT AND PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES DURING THE DEPRESSION AND WORLD WAR II B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Government's Pro-Rec Programme On November 9, 1934, the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Government inaugurated a P r o v i n c i a l Recreation Programme operated by the Recreational and Physical Education Branch of the Department of Education. The Honourable Dr. G.M. Weir, Minister of Education for B r i t i s h Columbia, obtained through an Order i n Council, the sum of $12,500 which was to be used for the express purpose of providing leadership and f a c i l i t i e s for physical f i t n e s s and adult education (Dakin, 1950, p . l . ) . The P r o v i n c i a l Government on t h i s date took the lead i n Canada, i n assuming that recreation was a government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Recreation Programme, more commonly referred to as "Pro-Rec," was organized i n an attempt to sponsor the leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s of the popula-t i o n during the t r y i n g economic and s o c i a l period of the Depression. The major objective of Pro-Rec was to create public programmes as an emergency measure. Programmes and a c t i v i t i e s were devised to keep the increasing number of 14. unemployed people occupied during the long unproductive hours of each day. Pro-Rec was introduced as a public recreation scheme. . . . . . to protect youths of B r i t i s h Columbia from degenerating e f f e c t s caused by enforced idleness, and to b u i l d up the morale and character which rest on a good physical base. (Annual Report of the Public Schools, 1934-1935, p. S75). In addition, the Pro-Rec programmes attempted to provide recreation to s a t i s f y the needs of a l l other members of the community, and not solely the unemployed sector. Mr. Ian Eisenhardt was employed as the o r i g i n a l Director of the scheme and with his ass i s t a n t s , was charged with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of devising a c t i v i t i e s that would • . . cater f o r those not able to afford Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A., church clubs or private gymnasiums. (Annual Report of the Public Schools. 1934-1935, p. S75.). According to W.A.R. Orban (Van V l i e t ted.3, 1965, p. 238.), Pro-Rec "not only survived the Depression era but f l o u r i s h e d . " This fa c t i s probably best observed by noting the growth i n the number of people using the programme centres from 1934 to 1937 and the growth i n the number of people employed i n the entire programme from 1934 to 1940. 15. Table 1. Pro-Rec Pa r t i c i p a n t s 1934 - 1937 Season Registration Aggregate Spectator Attendance Attendance Winter 1934- -1935 2,768 26,513 13,980 Summer 1935 985 6,738 5,550 Winter 1935- -1936 4,535 42,855 11,443 Summer 1936 1,371 11,055 40,407 Winter 1936- -1937 10,489 108,430 63,411 (Annual Report of the Public Schools 1936-1937, p.I 79.). Table 1 shows a d e f i n i t e increase i n both r e g i s t r a -t i o n and aggregate attendance every year i n comparison to the corresponding season the previous year. This growth i s p a r t i c u l a r l y evident when comparing the f i g u r e s for the winter session of 1936-1937 to a l l previous attendance f i g u r e s . The increasing numbers that attended and par t i c i p a t e d i n the province-wide movement was also r e f l e c t e d i n the number of people needed to administer the i n d i v i d u a l programmes. Table 2 reveals that during the year 1934-1935 an o v e r a l l t o t a l of forty-nine people were employed to conduct both the winter and summer programmes. This figure had increased to one hundred and eighty by the year 1939-1940. 16. Table 2. Tota l Number of Pro-Rec Employees Winter Summer Total 1934-1935 37 1935 12 1934-1935 49 1935-1936 31 1936 20 1935-1936 51 1936-1937 53 1937 28 1936-1937 81 1937-1938 117 1938 43 1937-1938 160 1938-1939 120 1939 45 1938-1939 165 1939-1940 135 1940 45 1939-1945 180 ( J o u r n a l s of the. Legislative. Assembly of the Province of  B r i t i s h Columbia from 29th October to 6th December, Session 1940, Volume LXX, 1940, p. 45). These f i g u r e s , as shown i n Table 2, were revealed when . . .: Mr. Paton asked the Honourable, the P r o v i n c i a l Secretary, the following questions: 1 2. How many were employed ( . . . by Pro-Rec . . .) during the years 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940? 3 (Journals of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, from 29th October to 6th December, Session 1940, Volume LXX, 1940, p.45). The Honourable Dr. G. M. W eir r e p l i e d to t h i s , and the other 17. f i v e questions i n reference to Pro-Rec, on November 18th, 1940. The fi g u r e s he quoted are presented i n a tabulated form. The figures show that the t o t a l number of in d i v i d u a l s employed by the Government's Pro-Rec organization increased every year. The winter session of the 1935-1936 programme saw a decline i n t h i s number compared with the previous winter session, and the summer programme of 1940 allowed f o r a si m i l a r number of employees (45) as the summer programme of 1939. However, i n both cases, the t o t a l number employed over the whole year was an increase over the year preceding. Every other session, both winter and summer, saw a continual increase i n the number of employees needed to administer and conduct the numerous programmes. The Pro-Rec employees consisted of a wide v a r i e t y of people, but a great percentage of them were unemployed teachers who were trained by the programme's f u l l - t i m e s t a f f . They were trained i n the organization and conduct of low-cost a c t i v i t i e s such as cross-country races, boxing, swim meets, b a l l leagues and displays. The various centres that these people used included school gymnasiums, church h a l l s , rented h a l l s and swimming pools as well as l o c a l parks and playgrounds. In i t s f i r s t year of existence the programme had a t o t a l of nineteen d i f f e r e n t centres i n operation throughout the 18 province. These were located at Nanaimo ( l ) , New West-minster (3), North Vancouver (2), Vancouver (8), V i c t o r i a (3) and West Vancouver (2). (Annual Report of  the Public Schools. 1934-1935, p. S 75). By the winter session of 1936-1937 t h i s t o t a l had grown to 58. Table 3. Number of Pro-Rec Centres Season Number Winter 1934 - 1935 19 Summer 1935 15 Winter 1935 - 1936 24 Summer 1936 23 Winter 1936 - 1937 58 (Annual Report of the Public Schools, 1936-1937, p. I 79). Yputh Training Aqt In addition to the increased i n t e r e s t and p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s province, an o v e r a l l . . . . . . awareness of, and subsequent i n t e r e s t i n , physical f i t n e s s on a national l e v e l began during the Depression years. (Orban, Van V l i e t [ e d J , 1965, p. 238.). 19. Orban states that t h i s awareness was brought about because youths were unable to apply new s k i l l s due to an inadequate l e v e l of f i t n e s s . Other researchers (Broom, 1971; Munro, Van V l i e t , Ced.VI , 1965; Osborne, 1961) agree with Orban i n that i t was at t h i s time that . . . • . . the forward - thinking leaders of t h i s f i e l d r e a l i z e d that physical education could do much for the s i t u a t i o n . (Munro, Van V l i e t , [ed.2 , 1965, p. 6). The various communities of the Dominion were faced with si m i l a r problems and they r e a l i z e d that a concerted e f f o r t was necessary to strengthen and expand worthwhile programmes which could contribute to enriched l i v i n g . In comparison to eastern Canada, however, the western provinces seemed to have a better understanding of what p o s s i b i l i t i e s existed to help the unemployed. B r i t i s h Columbia led the way with youth t r a i n i n g centres i n which r e c r e a t i o n a l programs were emphasized. (Cosentino and Howell, 1971, p. 51.) The r e s u l t of t h i s "awareness" and "the forward -thinking leaders" was the passing, by the Federal Government of the Youth Training Act on May 19th, 1939. (Statutes of Canada. 1939, Parts I - I I , Fourth Session of the Eighteenth Parliament, Chapter 35, p. 269 - 2 7 l ) . The u t i l i t a r i a n purpose of the programme authorized by the Act, which was terminated i n 1942, and the Vocational Training Co-ordination Act which superceded i t , was to provide t r a i n i n g . . . for employment. (Broom, 1971, p. 35-6) 20. The programme was o r i g i n a l l y devised to cater for a l l unemployed males and females between the ages of 16 and 30 years. Conceived o r i g i n a l l y as a depression measure to develop employment s k i l l s , the program was expanded to include rec r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s because experience revealed that many of these re-trained persons were having d i f f i c u l t y i n st i c k i n g to t h e i r jobs. Lack of stamina and a deficiency of constructive leisure-time i n t e r e s t s were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s . Consequently, e l e c t i v e courses were provided i n provinces which expressed a cooperative i n t e r e s t to condition the trainees p h y s i c a l l y and to develop various r e c r e a t i o n a l s k i l l s . (Osborne, 1961, p. 16) The Youth Training Act meant that the Federal Government would enter a cost-sharing agreement with the provinces. The passing of the Act made $4.5 m i l l i o n a v a i l a b l e , with the grant to each province not to exceed the amount paid by the i n d i v i d u a l P r o v i n c i a l Governments. B r i t i s h Columbia was able to use the grant to continue, a to a large extent, expand the programmes of the already established Pro-Rec organization. Pro-Rec i n B r i t i s h Columbia then became an " . . . outstanding example . . • of a programme " . . . which involved j o i n t financing by the P r o v i n c i a l and Federal Governments." (Osborne, 1961, p. 16). This financing was processed through B r i t i s h Columbia's Department of Education and the Department of Labour of the Federal Government. Table 4. Pro-Rec S t a t i s t i c s , for 1937 - 1938 Number of Centres D i s t r i c t Registration Attendance Total Total Number Average Attend. per Session Male Female Male Female registra-t i o n - Attend-ance of ses-sions held 32 Vancouver 2,609 6,219 18,865 43,078 8,828 61,943 1,392 44 9 V i c t o r i a & Di s t . 523 2,007 2,821 13,348 2,530 16,169 415 39 3 New Westminster and D i s t r i c t 519 605 5,915 7,657 1,124 13,572 203 67 5 North Shore 472 763 2,742 4,919 1,235 7,661 247 31 3 Burnaby 324 239 4,566 3,103 563 7,669 199 39 5 Mid-Island 396 573 3,616 5,747 969 9,363 381 21 9 Upper Fraser Valley 654 740 8,747 11,409 1,394 20,196 836 24 9 Lower Fraser Valley 396 480 3,293 4,610 876 7,303 364 20 14 Southern I n t e r i o r 812 1,015 10,424 13,026 1,827 23,950 825 28 3 Northern B.C. 278 380 2,668 3,073 658 5,741 241 24 92 TOTAL 6,938 13,021 63,697 109,370 20,004 173,067 5,103 34 (Annual Report of the Public Schools. 1937 - 1938, p. J 79.). ro 22. Table 4 shows how the increased support was able to cater for a greater number of Pro-Rec centres throughout B r i t i s h Columbia, and a much greater number of p a r t i c i p a n t s . With the increased f i n a n c i a l support as a r e s u l t of the Youth Training Act, an increase i n attendance i s evident i n the year 1937-1938, as compared with Table 1 (page 14), and i n the number of Pro-Rec centres, as compared with Table 3 (page 17). The years that were to follow also showed an increase i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and centres due, i n part, to the increase i n finance available now that both the P r o v i n c i a l and Federal Governments were contributing (Dakin, 1950, p.8). The Depression Years The Depression Years undoubtedly were a milestone i n developing a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the governments and sport and recreation i n Canada. The B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Government's Pro-Rec organization introduced i n 1934, followed by the Federal Government's Youth Training Act i n 1937 saw the o r i g i n a l steps made by any Canadian Government to a s s i s t , take an i n t e r e s t i n , or contribute to sport and physical recreation schemes. Prior to t h i s time recreation had not been a governmental consideration. Of course i t must be r e a l i z e d that both of these governmental programmes were simply a means to an end. Both the philosophy behind these programmes, and the methods used to conduct them were a r e f l e c t i o n of the "hungry t h i r t i e s . " 23 These two schemes presented a picture of public r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes created purely as an emergency measure. Both of them were a creation simply to encourage the population to advantageously use t h e i r unproductive and unwanted hours of idleness. On the other hand i t must also be r e a l i z e d that t h i s was the f i r s t time that such terms and phrases as . . . " . . . recreation . . . "; " . . . physical t r a i n i n g programmes to maintain health and morale . . . " . . . degenerating e f f e c t s caused by enforced idleness . . . "; and " . . . lack of stamina and a deficiency of constructive leisure-time i n t e r e s t s . . . " • • . had ever been considered by any Canadian Government, as a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to be faced, whether r e f e r r i n g to sport and physical r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y as an end i n i t s e l f , or as a means to an end. The National Physical Fitness Act The Pro-Rec movement i n B r i t i s h Columbia, aided by the Youth Training Act and i t s subsequent f i n a n c i a l support, continued to function adequately and to f u l f i l l a l l of the aims that i t wished to accomplish. It supplied recreation for those enduring the long i d l e hours of the Depression 24. Years. It also supplied programmes which were devised i n such a way as to encourage a c e r t a i n l e v e l of physical f i t n e s s . With the outbreak of World War II i n 1939, and with Canada's entry into the war i n September of that year, new measures were necessary. The Pro-Rec programmes were only producing a l e v e l of f i t n e s s adequate f o r Depression l i v i n g . Apart from t h i s , Alberta was the only other province of Canada with an equivalent recreation programme, having introduced the scheme the previous year i n 1938. Evidence of an unsatisfactory l e v e l of physical f i t n e s s within the Canadian nation was seen i n the large number of r e j e c t s , both male and female, for m i l i t a r y service. With so many people being u n f i t f o r active service, the Federal Government, on J u l y 24, 1943, introduced the National Physical Fitness Act. (Statutes of Canada. 1943-1944, Fourth Session of the Nineteenth Parliament, Chapter 29, p. 157-160). The Act was introduced by the Honourable Mr. Power, Minister of Pensions and National Health, and took e f f e c t on October 1, 1943. On March 15, 1944, B r i t i s h Columbia became a participant when the P r o v i n c i a l Government passed An Act to enable the Government to enter into Agreements with the Dominion pursuant to "The National Physical Fitness Act," being Chapter Twenty-nine of the Statutes of Canada, 1943." (Statutes of the Province of  B r i t i s h Columbia, Third Session of the Twentieth Parliament, 1944, p. 133). 25 The object of the National Physical Fitness Act was . • . . . . to promote the physical f i t n e s s of the people of Canada through the extension of physical education i n schools, u n i v e r s i t i e s and other i n s t i t u t i o n s including i n d u s t r i a l establishments; to t r a i n teachers, l e c t u r e r s and demonstrators; and to organize sports and a t h l e t i c s on a nation wide scale. The objective includes the creation of a desire i n persons of a l l ages for the well being associated with physical f i t n e s s , to strengthen morale through a nation-wide program; and to e n l i s t the support of organized physical f i t n e s s agencies and that of i n d i v i d u a l volunteers. The program includes games, a t h l e t i c s and sports, rhythmics, swimming, aquatics and l i f e -saving, outdoor a c t i v i t i e s such as camping and hiking, everyday a c t i v i t i e s and s k i l l s . (Eisenhardt, 1945, p. 186-7) On February 15, 1944, the National Council on Physical Fitness was appointed to help with the administration of the Act. The Council was to comprise a Director and a representative from each p a r t i c i p a t i n g province. Mr. Ian Eisenhardt, who had so successfully organized and administered the o r i g i n a l Pro-Rec programme i n B r i t i s h Columbia was appointed as the f i r s t Director of National Physical F i t n e s s . To allow the Council to function, a National Physical Fitness Fund was established. This fund made available to the provinces, on a cost sharing basis, the annual sum of $225,000. (Statutes of Canada. 1943-1944, Fourth Session of the Nineteenth Parliament, Chapter 29, p. 157-160). It was the duty of the Council to administer the Act by using the funds . . • 26 . . . to a s s i s t i n the extension of physical education; to encourage and correlate a l l a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t i n g to physical education; to formulate plans for t r a i n i n g teachers, l e c t u r e r s and i n s t r u c t o r s ; and to correlate e f f o r t s of the provinces to organize a c t i v i t i e s , to promote sports and to co-operate i n the amelioration of physical defects amenable to improvement through physical education. (Eisenhardt, 1945, p. 187) Both the Act and the Council contributed greatly to the Canadian people. However, there were l i m i t a t i o n s brought about by the t i t l e of the Act and by the lack of a d i r e c t o r f o r a long period of time. (Cosentino and Howell, 1971, p. 56). Other l i m i t a t i o n s resulted from the problem of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between te c h n i c a l and philosophical terms. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between f i t n e s s and recreation, recreation and sports, and sports and pastimes could not be reconciled to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the Federal Government (Osborne, 1956, p. 18). In B r i t i s h Columbia, however, success was more evident than i n other parts of Canada, because the National Physical Fitness Act was able to supplement and complement the already established philosophies and programmes of the Pro-Rec movement. An example of the Federal Government's contribution to B r i t i s h Columbia i s evident i n the 1944 f i g u r e s . In that year B r i t i s h Columbia had a population of 817,861, 7.118% of the t o t a l Canadian population and thus received $16,015.75 (Haegarty, 1944, p. 7.). 27. The War Y e a r s The y e a r 1943 saw s i m i l a r a c t i o n t o t h a t t a k e n by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Government o f 1934 and t h e F e d e r a l Government of 1937. Once a g a i n the C a n a d i a n Government i n t r o d u c e d an A c t i n v o l v i n g s p o r t and p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y - but w i t h a d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n f o r such a c t i o n . The cause t h i s t i m e was war emergency, a l t h o u g h a t l e a s t the N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s A c t was i n t r o d u c e d because of e v i d e n c e t h a t was found d e m o n s t r a t -i n g an i n f e r i o r and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l of f i t n e s s w i t h i n t h e n a t i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s a c t i o n was b r o u g h t about because of e v i d e n c e r e v e a l e d by t h e l a r g e numbers t h a t were u n f i t f o r war s e r v i c e . A t l e a s t i t had as one of i t s m o t i v e s t h e improvement of t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . CHAPTER IV SPORT AND PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES DURING THE DEPRESSION YEARS The late 1920's and the early 1930*s saw a continual growth i n sport and physical r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . This growth appeared i n most f i e l d s of sport (Cosentino, 1969; Johns, 1965; McNulty, 1968; S a v e l i e f f , 1972; Williams, 1967) and was evident, not only by an increase i n the numbers p a r t i c i p a t i n g , but also by an improvement i n the standard of performances achieved. The growth i n the l a t e 1920's co r r e l a t e s with a steady r i s e i n the economy and i t s corresponding r i s e i n the o v e r a l l standard of l i v i n g . The continuing growth during the early 1930*5, however, came at a time when incomes were at a minimum, unemployment was prevalent and the cost of l i v i n g was r i s i n g . At a time l i k e t h i s i t would seem l o g i c a l that the purchase of e s s e n t i a l commodities would present a hardship, and would c e r t a i n l y take precedence over expend-i t u r e on recreation and l e i s u r e time i n t e r e s t s . The l a t e r years of the Depression, that i s the late 1930*s, also saw a keen i n t e r e s t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n sport and physical r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s as well as an increasing recognition of sport and i t s benefits to society. 29. Recreational a c t i v i t i e s also experienced a steady r i s e i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n throughout the Depression. This i s revealed i n s t a t i s t i c s displayed i n Table 1 (page 14). These tables show the increasing number of people making use of Pro-Rec a c t i v i t i e s during the years of the Depression. Sport i n B r i t i s h Columbia During the Depression Pre-Depression days were more than f r u i t f u l f o r almost a l l sports i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Statements such as: "Canadian f o o t b a l l was continuing to grow i n popularity i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia." (Cosentino, 1969, p. 63-4.) " . . . hockey once more took root." (Greater Vancouver Women's Grass Hockey Association, 1956, p. 5.) "Even though the g i r l s were s t i l l hampered by lack of practice and game areas, the number of pa r t i c i p a n t s continued to increase." (Johns, 1965, p. 12.) are not uncommon throughout the h i s t o r i c a l studies. These t y p i c a l quotations display the establishment, the growth and the increasing i n t e r e s t and attention being focused on a l l sports throughout the whole province. The Depression that followed the era of i n i t i a l growth did not appear to hamper the expansion of sport. 30. I t was u n l i k e l y that the depression affected a t h l e t i c s too seriously, judging by news-paper coverage of contemporary events. (Hunt, 1968, p. 87.) These reports of growth and i n t e r e s t were not s p e c i f i c a l l y r e s t r i c t e d to Vancouver, V i c t o r i a and other major centres, but as i s displayed by one such column i n the Sunday Province, also came from the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. One of the largest crowds i n the h i s t o r y of l o c a l baseball watched Revelstoke defeat Kelowna 6 - 0 i n the opening game of the newly formed I n t e r i o r baseball league. that did not display any outward signs of s u f f e r i n g from a lack of f i n a n c i a l assistance. It was noted that • • • despite the s c a r c i t y of money, Track and F i e l d , as well as other sports f l o u r i s h e d . Most sporting teams did not seem to have to re-organize schedules, decrease the number of long road t r i p s or default games through a lack of finance or equipment. This lack of concern f o r , or lack of necessity to cope with, the Depression economy i s probably exhibited best of a l l by the large number of lengthy and c o s t l y excursions that are recorded throughout the l i t e r a t u r e . (McNulty, 1968, p. 15.) 31. In 1932 and 1936 the Squamish Indian lacrosse team became the B r i t i s h Columbian champions. This then meant t r a v e l l i n g East, on both occasions, to compete as B r i t i s h Columbia's representatives for the Mann Cup ( S a v e l i e f f , 1972, p. 16.). The Kimberley Dynamiters hockey team won t h e i r league i n 1934, then defeated the Vancouver Quakers i n the B r i t i s h Columbia - Alberta f i n a l , and the Regina Pats, before being beaten by Fort William i n the Western Canadian Amateur Championship f i n a l . The Dynamiters repeated t h e i r excursion i n a more successful way i n winning the 1935-1936 A l l a n Cup. This success was brought about a f t e r t r a v e l l i n g to, and defeating the teams of such towns and c i t i e s as T r a i l , Prince A l b e r t , Fort William, and Sudbury. The following year the Kimberley team toured Canada i n preparation f o r t h e i r t r i p to Europe (Boyd, 1970, p. 36.). In 1938 the T r a i l Smoke Eaters defeated the Cornwall Fly e r s to win the A l l a n Cup. Consequently the following year the team went on a six month tour of Europe "that was a monumental success." (Boyd, 1970, p. 27.). Another example of the extent to which t r a v e l l i n g expenses showed l i t t l e regard for the Depression era, at a l l l e v e l s of competition, was the University of B r i t i s h Columbia track and f i e l d team's schedule for the year 1938. 32. U.B.C. was able to get seven meets into the Track and F i e l d programme which included t r i p s to Bellingham, Puget Sound and Portland. This expenditure on touring a t h l e t i c teams was not just r e s t r i c t e d to men's a t h l e t i c s . In 1936 i n t e r - c i t y games involving Vancouver and V i c t o r i a were scheduled by the Lower Mainland Women's Grass Hockey Association. It was also i n the autumn of 1936 that . . . . . . the greatest event i n the history of f i e l d hockey i n Vancouver occurred. . . . when the A u s t r a l i a n International Women's f i e l d hockey team t r a v e l l e d v i a Vancouver on t h e i r way to Philadelphia. The Au s t r a l i a n women played one game i n Vancouver against the l o c a l Vancouver Reps., and one on Vancouver Island against Duncan A l l - S t a r s . In 1925 i t was r e a l i z e d that . . . Canadian f o o t b a l l was continuing to grow i n popular-i t y i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia. O f f i c i a l s from the various clubs i n that province asked to be admitted to the W.C.R.U. i n order to compete for the Western Canadian Championship. A f t e r i n i t i a l l y turning down the request because of costs and distances involved, i t was decided to allow the B r i t i s h Columbian winners to compete. It seems rather i r o n i c a l that i n 1925, when the economy was booming and money f o r sport and recreation was more p l e n t i -f u l , that distances and the costs involved to t r a v e l these (McNulty, 1968, p. 16.) (Greater Vancouver Women's Grass Hockey Association, 1956, p. 6.) (Cosentino, 1969, p. 63-4.) 33. long distances were factors to be considered. However, i n the 1930*s, when the Depression was exerting f u l l pressure on money from a l l sources, t r a v e l for sport was much more prevalent. The popularity of a l l sports during the Depression was r e f l e c t e d i n the spectator attendance at the various sporting a c t i v i t i e s and events. Statements r e f l e c t i n g t h i s popularity are numerous. Cosentino states that i n 1934 . . . Football i n Canada seemed to be gaining popularity everywhere, but p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the West. (Cosentino, 1969, pp. 101-2) Another i n d i c a t i o n of f o o t b a l l ' s status i n 1937 i s referred to by Cosentino when he says that • . . The popularity of the f o o t b a l l played i n the West was evident. Attendance had r i s e n to the point where crowds of f i v e or six thousand were becoming the rule rather than the exception. ( I b i d . , p. 112.) Baseball also showed signs of increased i n t e r e s t , with the Sunday Province reporting the • • . . • . largest crowd i n the h i s t o r y of l o c a l baseball • . • (Sunday Province, May 22, 1932, p. 24.) The i n t e r e s t i n sport was not only r e f l e c t e d i n attendances at f o o t b a l l and baseball games. Lacrosse also attracted large numbers of spectators, as was displayed i n the headline that appeared i n the Vancouver Sun on September 19, 1936, which stated that the Braves eliminated the Salmonbellies i n the t h i r d s t r a i g h t game before a "packed-jam 34. forum." (Vancouver Sun, September 19, 1936, p. 24.) It was not only the male athletes who attracted the fans but from 1929 to 1939 a four-team women's lacrosse league existed. It comprised of Richmond Milkmaids, Vancouver P i r a t e s , Burnaby Cougars and a New Westminster team. These four teams seemed to create quite a deal of spectator i n t e r e s t . . . . at some games the g i r l s would a t t r a c t over one thousand fans. ( S a v e l i e f f , 1972, p. 18.) A women's team was l a t e r created i n Nanaimo and at one of the games between the isl a n d team and one of the lower mainland teams "several hundred island fans attended." ( I b i d . , p. 18.) The early Depression years also brought about one other s i g n i f i c a n t influence, an influence that changed the whole game of lacrosse. The f a l l of 1931 saw the l a s t of f i e l d lacrosse as Canada's National Game. For i n September of that year, the Canadian Lacrosse Association adopted Box Lacrosse as t h e i r o f f i c i a l game at the Annual Meeting held i n New Westminster. ( I b i d . . p. 15.) The i n t e r e s t i n sport was represented i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and d i r e c t spectator attendance, but as well as t h i s , i t was evident through the wide range of radio broadcasts of various sporting events. Lacrosse was by far the most broadcasted sport during the Depression years, 35 but the o v e r a l l broadcasts were quite varied. One of the broadcasts was of the f i e l d hockey game between the Aus t r a l i a n International Women's team and the Vancouver Reps. . . . . . which was broadcast by Vancouver's Ace Sports Announcer, Leo Nicholson. (Greater Vancouver Women's Grass Hockey Association, 1956, p. 6.) Leo Nicholson was employed by Vancouver radio station CJOR i n the 1930's. Although he was employed primarily to broadcast lacrosse games, he covered most of the major sporting events i n B r i t i s h Columbia at the time ( S a v e l i e f f , 1972; Greater Vancouver Women's Grass Hockey Association, 1956.). The growth and establishment of sport was noticeable at a l l l e v e l s , both amateur and professional, and i n both men's and women's sports. The students at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia had also made t h e i r presence f e l t i n many sports, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o o t b a l l , where they became Hardy Cup winners f o r three years from 1932 to 1934, rugby (University of B r i t i s h Columbia A t h l e t i c Department records) and track on f i e l d (McNulty, 1968). In the year 1930-1931 the women athletes of the univ e r s i t y established t h e i r f i r s t o f f i c i a l Women's Big Block Club. 36. The formation of the Big Block Club was i n d i c a t i v e of the p o s i t i o n of Women's A t h l e t i c s on campus. Greater numbers were p a r t i c i p a t i n g and a t h l e t i c s were being c a r r i e d on with a keener sense of competition. (Johns, 1962, p. 17.) The growth of sport during the Depression was also f e l t i n minor sports such as c r i c k e t . The increase was not j u s t r e s t r i c t e d to what have become known as the major a t h l e t i c events and a c t i v i t i e s . Accounts of the growth of cr i c k e t show that because of the increase i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , new teams had to be formed to cater for a l l players (Berridge, 1967, Burrard C r i c k e t Club, 1954; Locke, 1967). The p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l sports, the large distances often t r a v e l l e d to compete, the large number of spectators that attended sporting events, plus the large coverage sport received i n newspapers and on the radio, are just a few methods of displaying the status of sport. Another example i s portrayed by the women athletes at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia and the formation of t h e i r Big Block Club. At a time when incomes were low, jobs uncertain and a knowledge of from where the next meal was to come often not known, sport seemed not only to continue but a c t u a l l y to f l o u r i s h . Depression may be general throughout the business world, but not i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Amateur Basketball Association. This body enjoyed the most successful season i n i t s history i n the season just closed. (Sunday Province, May 1, 1932, p.29.) Reports such as the one preceding exemplify the pos i t i o n and status of sport during the unstable years of the Depression. Recreation i n B r i t i s h Columbia During the Depression The increasing i n t e r e s t i n physical r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s during the Depression years i s r e f l e c t e d i n the P r o v i n c i a l Government's Pro-Rec programmes. Tables displayed i n Chapter I I I reveal the growth i n recreation centres (Table 3, p. 18). Another basic increase i n physical recreation p a r t i c i p a t i o n was evident i n Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. member-ships during the Depression years. The Y.M.C.A. showed a remarkable increase i n memberships over t h i s period. Although independent B r i t i s h Columbia figures are not recorded, s t a t i s t i c s revealing the numbers registered i n the physical departments on a national scale show that i n 1920 there were 11,407 members, i n 1930 there were 23,196, but by 1940 the number had reached 987,100. (Ross, 1951, p. 361). B r i t i s h Columbia has always been a major Y.M.C.A. centre and contributor to national s t a t i s t i c s , and i t may be assumed that the national growth also r e f l e c t s a growth i n the memberships of t h i s province ( C a r y l l , 1973). The programme offered by the Y.M.C.A. during t h i s period included . . . 33 Swimming and l i f e saving programmes, large gymnasium classes, a t h l e t i c teams, gymnastics, wrestling and games such as basketball and handball, (Ross, 1951, p. 361.) One s i g n i f i c a n t development over t h i s period was the establishment of Leisure Time Leagues. These leagues were scheduled throughout the daylight hours to help i n d i v i d u a l s f i l l t h e i r days of enforced l e i s u r e time. In the hungry t h i r t i e s the Y.W.C.A. was deeply engrossed i n the needs of unemployed g i r l s . The depres-sion years brought about a need for a d i f f e r e n t kind of programme and service (Harshaw, 1966, p. 127). The Y.W.C.A.'s answer to the problem was: A programme of leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s , swimming, camping and a c t i v i t i e s f o r teenagers. (I b i d . . p. 133.) The programmes of the Depression years brought about an increase i n the use of Y.W.C.A. f a c i l i t i e s and an increase i n s t a f f members. Pro-Rec, Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. programmes a l l saw a d e f i n i t e increase i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . D i f f e r e n t patterns, however, are revealed i n s t a t i s t i c s representing the number of playgrounds and the attendance at these playgrounds i n the Vancouver area. Table 5. Annual Attendance at Vancouver Playgrounds Year Number of Playgrounds Attendance Taken Thrice Daily 1925 6 287,274 1926 6 361,269 1927 7 350,093 1928 8 390,483 1929 12 819,332 1930 12 494,406 1931 13 651,209 1932 15 449,313 1933 15 368,426 1934 14 329,684 (Howard, 1936, p. 73.) 40 An explanation for the decline i n attendance i s not c e r t a i n . It must be r e a l i z e d that part of the service that these playgrounds provided was similar to the service provided by Pro-Rec programmes. Perhaps some of the older p a r t i c i p a n t s , those i n the 16 to 30 year age group, were l a t e r to become involved i n Pro-Rec programme a c t i v i t i e s rather than be accounted f o r i n Vancouver Playground Attendance S t a t i s t i c s . Howard also gives another reason f o r the decline by mentioning population and housing density growth. He stated that . . . . . . conditions have arisen which demonstrate that playgrounds administered by the parks board have not been able to meet the r e c r e a t i o n a l needs of more than ten per cent of the urban population. ( i b i d . , p. 66.) Howard's study also examined how Vancouver compared with other c i t i e s of l i k e size on the continent. He concluded that . . . . . . the f a c i l i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s provided by the Vancouver Parks Board are of very high standard i n choice, i n number, i n l o c a t i o n , i n v a r i e t y . In some features one f i n d s that Vancouver not only equals but even surpasses a great many c i t i e s of l i k e population. It surpasses most of the c i t i e s i n the provision of a t h l e t i c f i e l d s , bathing beaches, golf courses and tennis courts. I t i s close to the average i n the provision of baseball diamonds and wading pools. Outdoor swim-ming pools are well provided f o r . ( I b i d . , p. 68.) With a l l these f a c i l i t i e s at t h e i r disposal, and with such an increase i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n organized sport, another 41. reason for the decline i n attendance at the playgrounds was that people were becoming more involved i n organized a c t i v i t i e s rather than i n semi-organized and unorganized recreation. Many reasons have been advanced f o r the decline i n playground p a r t i c i p a t i o n , namely: 1. Increase i n Pro-Rec organized recreation f o r the 16 to 30 year age group as from 1934; 2. Increase i n Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. memberships; 3. Increase i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n almost a l l organized sports; and 4. The inadequate l o c a t i o n of playgrounds and playground f a c i l i t i e s due to the increase i n the density of the population and housing i n some areas, as mentioned by Howard. These are only some suggested explanations, hypothesized by the writer as no d e f i n i t e explanation could be obtained i n the l i t e r a t u r e or by research. One other source of recreation was available to the youths of B r i t i s h Columbia during the Depression years and that was i n the form of a c t i v i t i e s organized by the Sunday School Recreation League. The Sunday School League was o r i g i n a l l y organized as a youth a c t i v i t y within the l o c a l community churches. By the 1930's, however, t h i s small recreation a c t i v i t y had expanded to become a large province-wide inter-church league. An example of the size of the 42 league i s exemplified by the f a c t that i n 1932, St. Mark's Vancouver, Intermediate "B" G i r l s won the B r i t i s h Columbia Sunday School League Basketball Championship. To become champions they had to defeat teams from New Westminster, Courtenay and Salmon Arm. (Sunday Province. May 2, 1932.). The Sunday School League became an excellent example of how semi-organized r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s grew into provincial-wide leagues. It i s also another example of how sport and recreation overcame the Depression by being able to complete a schedule, i n 1932, involving teams from distant parts of the province, fo r c i n g high expenditure on transporta-t i o n costs. Spopt and Recreation Associations and S o c i e t i e s During the  Depression Years The Depression Years, p a r t i c u l a r l y the l a t e 1930's, were the years of "professional awakening." (Hunt, 1967, p. 97.) It appeared to be the time when the professional physical education teachers and administrators i n B r i t i s h Columbia became more organized and gained more group control over t h e i r f i e l d of expertise. Three very d i s t i n c t groups were formed or re-organized during t h i s period, to perform t h e i r duties i n a more adequate manner. These groups included the B r i t i s h Columbia branch of the Canadian Physical Education Association (C.P.E.A.), the Vancouver Elementary Schools 43. Physical Education Association for Women and the Vancouver Elementary Schools Physical Education Associ a t i o n . The formation of the B r i t i s h Columbia branch of the CP.E.A. came about i n February, 1938. Fred Corey was the o r i g i n a l chairman of t h i s group of physical educators which eventually hosted the national convention i n 1939 (Ibid., P. 97.) In 1938 the Vancouver Elementary Schools Physical Education As s o c i a t i o n for Women was formed. This Association aimed to encourage and develop an int e r e s t by women i n g i r l s * sport and physical education ( i b i d . , p. 97.). The t h i r d major association was a reformed group under a new t i t l e . The Vancouver Public Schools A t h l e t i c Association became re-organized and began to function under the new t i t l e of the Vancouver Elementary Schools Physical Education Association (Ibid.., p. 97.). The formation and re-organization of these Associa-tions showed a d e f i n i t e recognition, on behalf of the members, of the need to promote and c e n t r a l l y organize the f i e l d of sport and physical education. It indicates that these people saw a need to administer t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s under a un i f i e d body with a composite philosophy, rather than as is o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s . 44. S p o r t and P h y s i c a l R e c r e a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s i n t h e Educational I n s t i t u t i o n s During the Depression Years Physical Education i n the schools of the province had previously come of age during the mid 1920*s. It was stated i n 1925 that an informed public recognizes the f u t i l i t y . . . . . . of attempting to erect a vigorous i n t e l l e c t u a l structure on a weak physical foundation. (Putman and Weir, 1925, p. 47.) A sim i l a r attitude and philosophy towards physical education was repeated i n 1933 when i t was said . . . There i s probably no greater means placed i n the hands of educationists for fostering and strengthen-ing worthy attitudes than a well conducted programme of physical education. (Programme of Studies f o r High  Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia* 1933, p. 46.) The teachers of the province also saw a need f o r physical education and f o r quite some time had been urging the Department of Education to develop a d i s t i n c t physical education curriculum for t h e i r students. They had been instructed to teach a programme based on m i l i t a r y d r i l l and cadet t r a i n i n g . They wanted physical education to be separated from t h i s m i l i t a r y background and maintain an independent i d e n t i t y . In B r i t i s h Columbia, i n 1924, teachers asked for i n s t r u c t i o n i n team games, an oblique reference directed to the i n s t r u c t i o n provided by the m i l i t i a o f f i c e r s . (Putman and Weir, 1925, p. 229.) 45. A statement by H. N. MacCorkindale, Superintendent of Schools i n Vancouver, a decade l a t e r , sums up the r e s u l t s of years of urging by the teachers and the desires of the survey. In the middle of the Depression, MacCorkindale said: For years we have been engaging special teachers to teach s p e c i a l subjects such as Art, French, mathe-matics and music. At l e a s t we have progressed to the point where special teachers with s p e c i a l t r a i n -ing and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s are required to teach physical education. This subject i s no longer the C i n d e r e l l a of our curriculum. (Annual Report of the Public Schools. 1935-1936, p. H 85.) With the new s p e c i a l i s t teachers, who were trained with a background of the old c a l i s t h e n i c s mixed with a "smattering" of group games (Putman and Weir, 1925, p. 225.), a new curriculum had to be devised that would de-emphasize the m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g . The physical education courses changed with the production of each of three new c u r r i c u l a or programmes of study i n seven years. These r e v i s i o n s were contained i n : !• Programme of Studies f o r the Junior High Schools of  B r i t i s h Columbia, published i n 1927; 2. New Programme of Studies for the High and Technical Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, published i n 1930; and 3. Programme of Studies for High Schools, published i n 1933. 46 These new programmes introduced some dramatic and s i g n i f i c a n t innovations and changes. The 1930 programme, for instance, was the f i r s t physical education curriculum, produced i n B r i t i s h Columbia, to have made s p e c i f i c mention of physical education for g i r l s . The reference was made by stressing such a c t i v i t i e s as rhythmics, bouncing movements associated with Swedish d r i l l , f o l k dancing and minor games. The 1933 programme emphasized the f a c t that physical education classes should be based on recreation a c t i v i t i e s "since the future promises more l e i s u r e time. ( I b i d . . p. 44.) The 1933 Programme also stated that . . . The Provision of adequate playing f i e l d s and suitable gymnasia i s quite as important f o r the education of our youth as the provision of c l a s s -rooms and la b o r a t o r i e s . (Ibid,., p. 46.) However, because of the hard times and lack of finance caused by the Depression, there was very l i t t l e gymnasium construction at a l l , and an increasing amount of use was made of the school grounds for physical education classes (Hunt, 1968, p. 2.). There i s d e f i n i t e evidence that physical education was developing i n recognition and status. Even from the remote Peace River area of Pouce Coupe came the view of Inspector W. Ray MacLeod, that . . . Increased i n t e r e s t i s being taken i n a t h l e t i c s and games. (Annual Report of the Public Schools. 1932-1933, p. M.37.) 47 Three years l a t e r the Inspector of Schools i n the Prince George D i s t r i c t , W. G. Gamble, stated that the increased emphasis placed on sport and physical education i n the schools was due to the fac t that teachers were being asked to give lessons i n health and physical education as well as having classes present physical education demonstrations during i n s p e c t o r a l v i s i t s . (Annual Report of the Public  Schools. 1935-1936, p. H.41.). Physical education had not only taken steps forward i n the schools of B r i t i s h Columbia but had also gained a great deal of ground i n the un i v e r s i t y . In 1936 Maurice Van V l i e t and Gertrude Mo;;re were appointed as i n s t r u c t o r s i n the Men's and Women's D i v i s i o n of Physical Education at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. The programmes that they presented to the students were based on tumbling, corrective exercises and f o l k dance. As well as teaching these a c t i v i t i e s , the two in s t r u c t o r s were responsible f o r administering the intra-mural sports programme, and f o r the tr a i n i n g of physical education teachers for the B r i t i s h Columbian High Schools. (Hunt, 1968.). The introduction of these physical education in s t r u c t o r s to the un i v e r s i t y came at a time when in t e r e s t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n intra-mural and extra-mural a t h l e t i c s was at an all- t i m e high ( B a r t l e t t , 1962; Johns, 1965; McNulty, 1968). With such a large and increasing i n t e r e s t 48 i n b o t h men's and women's a t h l e t i c s , D i v i s i o n of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n began f i r s t b a s i c f o r m a t i o n i n 1936 t o t h e of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n . t h e i n i t i a l t o grow from i t s p r e s e n t S c h o o l w i t h i n t h e CHAPTER V SPORT AND PHYSICAL RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES DURING WORLD WAR I I U n l i k e t h e D e p r e s s i o n , World War I I seemed t o cause d e f i n i t e s e t b a c k s and a d v e r s e e f f e c t s on s p o r t and p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s of a l l c a t e g o r i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e whole of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The r e a s o n s f o r such i n f l u e n c e s were many and v a r i e d . The most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r was the l a r g e number of men e n l i s t e d i n t h e a c t i v e s e r v i c e s , l e a v i n g a s h o r t a g e of male b o d i e s a t "home" t o p a r t i c i p a t e . T h i s was by f a r t h e most o b v i o u s i n f l u e n c e . The number of women who e n l i s t e d , p l u s t h e l a r g e number who c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e war e f f o r t by w o r k i n g l o n g e r h o u r s t h a n u s u a l l e f t women's s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n a l s o s e v e r e l y s h o r t of a c t i v e p a r t i c i -p a n t s . W i t h an a l l - o u t e f f o r t b e i n g made to w a r d s t h e war, v e r y few p e o p l e had the t i m e or energy t o o r g a n i z e and a d m i n i s t e r s p o r t o r r e c r e a t i o n . A n o t h e r c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r was t h e i n c r e a s e d emphasis p l a c e d on p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s f o r the war p e r i o d r a t h e r t h a n on s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n f o r enjoyment. The i n f l u e n c e on p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s was most n o t i c e a b l e i n t h e t y p e of a c t i v i t i e s and programmes o f f e r e d by r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s such as t h e Pro-Rec c e n t r e s , t h e 50 Y.M.C.A. and the Y.W.C.A., as well as the type of programmes and changes that were being introduced into the schools and the u n i v e r s i t y . Physical f i t n e s s was of paramount importance as was evident by the Federal Government's introduction of the National Physical Fitness Act i n 1943. With the stress i n philosophy and objective having shifted from p a r t i c i p a -t i o n f o r the sake of a productive leisure-time i n t e r e s t to p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r f i t n e s s , i t would seem that some sports might s u f f e r . However, recreations, p a r t i c u l a r l y those of the strenuous exercise or body-building type, seemed to gain i n status. Sport i n B r i t i s h Columbia During World War II Sport saw a d e f i n i t e decline i n both p a r t i c i p a t i o n numbers and i n the standard of performance during the war period. Probably the only sport that did not seem to f u l l y comply with t h i s statement was hockey. When World War II exploded on mankind many hockey players traded skates f o r marching boots, hockey s t i c k s f o r r i f l e s . But i t seemed that f o r every western player who went away with the armed forces, an easterner was posted here and some of the most entertaining hockey ever seen on the coast was provided by the service teams. (Boyd, 1970, p. 42.) A l l other sports were faced with l e s s favourable reports and the consequent setbacks i n progress. 51 Football had been growing at a phenomenal rate during the Depression. The number of teams, i n p a r t i c u l a r , was increasing rap i d l y and crowds were at a peak. This growth continued i n the early years of the war. In 1941 the Western I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l Football Union expanded and i n v i t e d Vancouver G r i z z l i e s coached by Greg Kabat to j o i n them, but • . . . . . as the i n t e n s i t y of the war increased Canada's commitment increased, and as a r e s u l t more teams dropped out of competition. (Cosentino, 1969, p. 122.). In 1942, however, f o o t b a l l operations were at a minimum i n the established leagues. It was i n the same year that the Western I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l Football Union f i n a l l y had to cease operation. ( I b i d . . p. 123.) The sport of lacrosse suffered i n both the men's and women's leagues that had f l o u r i s h e d i n the previous years. The women's league was discontinued at the st a r t of World War I I . The men's league saw a gradual d e t e r i o r a t i o n . The f i r s t team to suffer was the Adanacs, a new team consisting of New Westminster Salmonbellies breakaways. The Adanacs reached the 1938 Mann Cup f i n a l but disbanded i n 1939 because of the war. ( S a v e l i e f f , 1972, p. 20.). The same fate was to come to the North Shore Indians and many of the other teams who had been so successful during the years of the Depression. 52 The crowds that attended the games also declined, but even so, they would s t i l l reach t o t a l s of "2,000 two nights a week at the forum." (Ibid., p. 25.). Lacrosse teams also suffered another setback caused by the war, when they l o s t the use of t h e i r primary f a c i l i t y . The Forum, which became the home of B r i t i s h Columbia lacrosse a f t e r f i r e had destroyed the Denman Arena i n 1936, was converted into one of the many armouries established i n the Vancouver area to store m i l i t a r y equipment. This meant that the lacrosse players had to move and use C a l l i s t e r Park as t h e i r main base. ( I b i d . . p. 26.). With so many women e n l i s t i n g f or service and with so many of the previously unemployed women taking over men's jobs and other forms of employment, brought about by the war, women's sport also suffered a great deal. The women's lacrosse league, as previously stated, ceased to function. Women's f i e l d hockey also deteriorated to the state where the . . . President, Miss Myrne Nevison . . . did much to increase hockey enthusiasm and devoted a great deal of time and e f f o r t to the task 'of holding-the-league-together.' (Greater Vancouver Women's Gr.a.ss Hockey Association, 1956, p. 8.) Other women's f i e l d hockey leagues were not as fortunate and were unable to even continue p a r t i c i p a t i o n on a minor scale. 53 In 1942 the P a c i f i c Northwest Women's F i e l d Hockey Conference held t h e i r f i r s t tournament. However, i t was noted that . . . Tournament play was resumed i n 1944 af t e r a one-year l a y - o f f because of the war. ( .Ib_id. , P. 20.) A t h l e t i c s for women at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia decreased to the stage that there was l i t t l e else beside f i e l d hockey, basketball and badminton. (Johns, 1965, p. 17.). With the decrease i n the number of teams and athletes p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n outside leagues, a consequent increase was noted i n the numbers p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i n t r a -mural a c t i v i t i e s and physical t r a i n i n g classes ( I b i d . . pp. 17-18.). B a r t l e t t (1962, p. 13) also reports that Women's A t h l e t i c s at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia during the War • . • . . . sank to a low ebb and the emphasis was placed on physical f i t n e s s . A s i m i l a r tendency i s noted i n the Men's A t h l e t i c programme at the University. A l l sports had to r e s t r i c t t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s when C.O.T.C. became compulsory. (McNulty, 1968, p. 19.) McNulty also points out, i n agreement with B a r t l e t t (1962) and Johns (1965), that student i n t e r e s t was on the war e f f o r t and consequently intra-mural a c t i v i t i e s and physical f i t n e s s 54 c l a s s e s were t h e main sou r c e o f s p o r t and p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . S p o r t a t a l l l e v e l s s u f f e r e d as a r e s u l t of t h e war. W i t h a l l e n e r g i e s b e i n g f u n n e l l e d t o w a r d s t h e war e f f o r t , t h e r e was l i t t l e t i m e or manpower t o p a r t i c i p a t e , o r g a n i z e or a d m i n i s t e r s p o r t , as t h e r e had been, i n an e x c e s s i v e c a p a c i t y , d u r i n g t h e p r e c e d i n g D e p r e s s i o n y e a r s . The s t a t u s o f s p o r t dropped c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m t h e p o s i t i o n i t h e l d d u r i n g t h e y e a r s of t h e D e p r e s s i o n . D u r i n g t h e war t h e major purpose of s p o r t and p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s was t o h e l p improve and m a i n t a i n an adequate l e v e l o f f i t n e s s f o r t h e C a n a d i a n war e f f o r t . R e c r e a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D u r i n g World War I I . The s t a t u s o f p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i s p r o b a b l y b e s t d i s p l a y e d i n t a b l e s r e v e a l i n g t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n t e r e s t b e i n g shown by t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n a l l forms of r e c r e a t i o n . I n 1946 t h e C a n a d i a n Commission p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t s on t h e a c t i v i t i e s of t h e y o u t h of Canada. Two of t h e s e r e p o r t s , namely Y o u t h and R e c r e a t i o n and Y o u t h  O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Canada,, were d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o r e c r e a t i o n -a l a c t i v i t i e s . These r e p o r t s were p u b l i s h e d as a r e s u l t o f s u r v e y s c o n d u c t e d d u r i n g t h e p r e c e d i n g y e a r s : t h e war y e a r s . A l t h o u g h t h e y a r e based on a Canada-wide s u r v e y , t h e y w o uld, a c c o r d i n g t o s t a t i s t i c a l t h e o r y , be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n y o u t h as w e l l , p a r t i c u l a r l y the t a b l e s t h a t were d i v i d e d i n t o E n g l i s h and F r e n c h s p e a k i n g y o u t h s . Table 6. Recreation Equipment Available to Youths What Play Equipment Do You Own or Have Easy Access To? A l l At Youth 16-20* 21-25* Male Female Farm C i t y School Working Radio 86 86 86 83 87 81 89 88 83 Skates 81 89 75 85 77 81 79 88 79 Musical Inst. 67 72 65 63 71 62 69 75 64 Bicycle 63 75 48 69 57 59 65 77 61 Pools 41 45 36 63 22 46 40 44 42 Tennis Racquet 40 39 36 39 40 18 54 50 36 Skis 37 38 34 39 34 26 43 43 35 Camping or F i s h - 19 24 14 29 12 7 21 28 16 ing Golf Clubs 18 18 17 22 15 5 27 25 15 Summer Cottage 15 16 12 17 13 7 20 21 13 Boat 15 11 13 19 11 9 13 19 13 (Youth and Recreation, 1946, p. 215.) 5 6 . The f i r s t of the tables (Table 6) reveals that 81% of a l l the youth had easy access to skates and 63% had access to a b i c y c l e , with 40% having had access to a tennis racquet, 37% skis, 19% camping and f i s h i n g equipment, and 18% golf clubs. This of course i s not representative of how much use was made of t h i s equipment. However, i f an examination i s made of the table that asked the youths the a c t i v i t i e s at which they spent more than one hour a day (Table 7) i t can be noted that Table 7. Time A l l o c a t i o n to Recreation Check Those of the Following on Which You Spend More Than One Hour Per Day A l l Youth English Speaking French Speaking Talking 40 38 49 Listening to Radio 33 33 30 Reading 24 26 19 Dating 22 21 26 Making Things 17 13 22 Dancing 16 * 18 7 Loafing 11 10 14 Team Games 8 * 9 4 Individual Sports 8 * 9 5 Quiet Games 5 4 11 (Youth and Recreation. 1946, p. 219) Table 8. Games and Sports Played by Youths Which of the Following Games and Sports Do You Play? A l l Youth 16-20* 20-25* Male* Female* Farm C i t y Cards 71 69 72 74 66 55 79 Skating 62 73 58 69 62 52 69 Swimming 57 65 54 61 55 37 68 Checkers 55 64 53 60 56 42 63 Bowling 46 47 48 52 44 21 69 Boating 36 40 37 42 35 20 46 Tobogganing 34 43 26 36 33 27 35 Skiing 33 36 29 37 28 21 36 Tennis 29 27 27 29 25 11 39 Horseback Riding 26 34 23 33 25 30 27 Gymnasium Sports 25 31 14 32 15 10 38 B i l l i a r d s and Pool 24 29 18 44 6 18 28 Horse Shoes 23 33 17 38 14 18 19 Track and F i e l d 16 23 7 25 7 9 18 Golf 13 13 16 20 10 2 19 Boxing 11 17 6 22 2 9 11 Wrestling 10 17 5 23 1 5 12 Chess 10 12 8 17 5 5 16 *Team Games are Not Included. (Youth and Recreation, 1946, p.218) Table 9. Games and Sports i n Which an Interest was Created i n Youths Which of the Following Games and Sports Would You Like to Play, i f the Opportunity were Offered? A l l Youth 16-20* 20-25* Male* Female* Farm C i t y Tennis 26 28 21 18 30 29 20 Bowling 16 21 9 12 18 23 7 Skiing 16 19 13 13 19 15 18 Horseback Riding 16 19 13 12 19 8 12 Golf 16 22 12 17 17 15 17 Boating 15 18 11 13 15 15 14 Gymnasium Sports 14 19 12 16 15 21 7 Chess 13 19 9 16 10 13 15 Swimming 12 13 11 10 14 17 8 Tobogganing 8 9 6 6 9 9 8 Skating 7 6 5 5 7 8 6 Boxing 6 10 4 12 2 6 6 B i l l i a r d s and Pool 6 9 3 6 6 5 8 Track and F i e l d 6 9 3 9 4 7 7 Wrestling 5 7 3 9 1 5 3 Cards 4 3 3 2 4 4 2 Horse Shoes 4 5 3 4 4 5 4 Checkers 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 *Team Games are not Included. (Youth and Recreation. 1946, p.219) 59. 18% of the English speaking youths stated dancing, 9% c i t e d team games and 9% i n d i v i d u a l sports. The table that reveals games and sports that the youth played (Table 8) shows that 71% stated cards, 5 5 % checkers, 24% b i l l i a r d s and pool, 23% horse shoes and 10% chess. The figures for the physical a c t i v i t i e s also cover a wide range from 62% for skating to wrestling with 10% but with much more physical a c t i v i t i e s i n the range, than the non-physical categories (13 as compared with 5 ) . The f i n a l s t a t i s t i c s quoted (Table 9) reveal games and sports that the youths would l i k e to play i f they were offered the opportunity. Once again physical r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s surpass the non-physical, with only chess (13%) ranking r e l a t i v e l y high on the l i s t . In B r i t i s h Columbia these s t a t i s t i c s , which reveal a d e f i n i t e i n t e r e s t i n physical recreation, were also r e f l e c t e d i n the p a r t i c i p a t i o n within the programmes of the various recreation agencies. The p r o v i n c i a l government's Pro-Rec programme was s t i l l i n progress. I t suffered from a shortage of competent i n s t r u c t o r s and administrators, as many of the previously trained i n s t r u c t o r s were now among the e n l i s t e d men and women. The programmes offered by the Pro-Rec centres during the war years were quite d i f f e r e n t from the Depression days but were comparable to the programmes of the other recreation agencies. B a s i c a l l y the change was 6 0 that they now followed the desires of the National Physical Fitness Act. As a r e s u l t of t h i s Act physical f i t n e s s and national morale were of prime concern, and recreation as a leisure-time i n t e r e s t was only of secondary importance. A s i m i l a r shortage of administrators and in s t r u c t o r s was faced i n the Sunday School Recreation Leagues of B r i t i s h Columbia. The e f f e c t was so severe that, although the desire f o r recreation programmes was s t i l l present, the administrative help, the time, and the a b i l i t y to al l o c a t e f a c i l i t i e s f or the Recreation League were not as evident. This led to some of the churches of the province r e s t r i c t i n g or even c u r t a i l i n g t h e i r programmes. Although the Leagues continued to function, i t was on a minor scale and with fewer teams than the previous Depression years. The programmes of the Y.W.C.A. were designed to cater for a "greater physical and emotional s t r a i n " (Harshaw, 1966, p. 132). The programmes were based on a t o t a l health education foundation with the intention of building " a l l round health" ( I b i d . . p. 132) through a programme of swimming and t r a i n i n g i n body co-ordination, posture and health. The number of centres and the number of new members at each centre increased r a p i d l y during the war and i t was during these years that . . . Many communities approached the National Y.W.C.A. to e s t a b l i s h an Association, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the 1940-45 period. (Ibid.., p. 86) 61 The a c t i v i t i e s of the Y.M.C.A. i n B r i t i s h Columbia, however, did not fare so we l l . The Y.M.C.A. continued to function, and even continued to grow, but i t s a c t i v i t i e s were centred on the war e f f o r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y with the servicemen i n the f i e l d . Servicemen were offered free membership and r e g i s t r a t i o n i n Y.M.C.A. centres throughout a l l of Canada, but with the majority of the Y.M.C.A. inst r u c t o r s and members being overseas, the programmes i n B r i t i s h Columbia were not very f u n c t i o n a l . Such programmes as the daytime Leisure Time Leagues ceased to ex i s t and the programmes that did continue were aimed at physical f i t n e s s rather than competition. Sport and Recreation Associations and S o c i e t i e s During  World War II It was stated previously (Chapter 4, p. 42) that the B r i t i s h Columbia branch of the C.P.E.A.was formed i n February, 1938, and that i t then hosted the national conven-t i o n i n 1939. This association also played a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the creation of the National Physical Fitness Act. The 1942 C.P.E.A. conference was held i n Montreal. The B r i t i s h Columbia delegation at t h i s conference, along with delegations from a few of the other provinces, complained about youth f i t n e s s . As a r e s u l t of t h i s complaint and the discussions that followed, a res o l u t i o n was sent to the Honourable Ian MacKenzie, who at that time was Minister of 62 the Department of Pensions and National Health. The following year the National Physical Fitness Act was passed with one of i t s primary objectives being to combat a lack of an adequate l e v e l of f i t n e s s . The re s o l u t i o n sent by the CP.E.A. was of course not the only reason for the establishment of the Act, but when a national body sends a suggestion to the government i t must carry some weight. The r e s o l u t i o n therefore could have been considered as at lea s t part of the reason behind the establishment of the Fitness Act. Sport and Physical Recreational A c t i v i t i e s i n the Educational  I n s t i t u t i o n s During World War II Sport and physical education i n the schools of B r i t i s h Columbia during World War II was i n d i r e c t contrast to the programmes developed i n the schools during the Depression years. The programmes took a d e f i n i t e step back-wards and were comparable with the programmes of the early 1920*s that the teachers of the Depression years had so desperately fought to have a l t e r e d . With the outbreak of World War II many of the physical education teachers were c a l l e d f or active service. The school physical education programmes were taken over and taught by c i v i l i a n s and consequently the c a l i s t h e n i c s that they were raised on during t h e i r physical education classes became the basis of the school programmes. (Cosentino and Howell, 1971, p. 51.). 6 , 3 The physical education programs changed i n character, with the stress on formal c a l i s -thenics, obstacle courses and endurance and other programs requiring no equipment. (Munro, Van V l i e t [ed.l , 1965, p. 8.) Another detrimental step was the return of the cadet programme which the teachers of the Depression era had str i v e d so vigorously to remove from the physical education curriculum. The physical education programmes, with the c a l i s t h e n i c s and cadet background, became the preparation ground f o r warriors. (Hunt, 1968, p. 91.). One of the main problems once again, as i n the Depression years, was a shortage of equipment and gymnasia. A l l m i l i t a r y bases, both i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and i n the rest of Canada, had a p r i o r i t y f o r equipment, man hours of labour and f i n a n c i a l assistance. Consequently, there was a d e f i n i t e decline i n the type, the standard and the amount of physical education f a c i l i t i e s and equipment offered to the schools of the province. The schools were not the only educational i n s t i t u -tions to be effected by the war. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia also had to a l t e r i t s a t h l e t i c s programme. Most types of a t h l e t i c s were r e s t r i c t e d to intramurals f o r two basic reasons. The primary reason was the stress on f i t n e s s and the war e f f o r t rather than on a t h l e t i c s for enjoyment. Compulsory C.O.T.C. p a r t i c i p a t i o n for males also r e s t r i c t e d 64. t h e hours t h e s t u d e n t s had f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a t h l e t i c s and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . S p o r t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s u f f e r e d i n the s c h o o l s and u n i v e r s i t y j u s t as i t had i n t h e r e s t of s o c i e t y . The war had c e r t a i n l y had a s e r i o u s e f f e c t on most programmes. CHAPTER V I SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The D e p r e s s i o n p e r i o d f rom 1929 t o 1939 and t h e War y e a r s f r o m 1939 t o 1945 were two d e f i n i t e and d i s t i n c t p e r i o d s i n h i s t o r y . I n b o t h of t h e s e e r a s , economic and s o c i a l f a c t o r s showed d i f f e r e n t i n f l u e n c e s on s p o r t and p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . The D e p r e s s i o n y e a r s saw t h e development of an e n t i r e l y new a t t i t u d e towards s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n . The s t a t u s of t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s t o o k a d e f i n i t e r i s e . T h i s r i s e was e v i d e n t i n many d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s t h a t c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e method of d i s p l a y i n g s t a t u s as s e t out i n t h i s s t u d y ( p . 5 ) . The most s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r was t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h e Governments. The P r o v i n c i a l Government, i n 1934, and the F e d e r a l Government, i n 1937, made t h e i r f i r s t f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n . The p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e of the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Government was t o keep t h e many i d l e p e ople s u p p l i e d w i t h i n t e r e s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The F e d e r a l Government, on the o t h e r hand, i n t r o d u c e d t h e r e c r e a t i o n programmes i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the Y o u t h T r a i n i n g A c t ; the aim was t o c r e a t e an i n t e r e s t i n r e c r e a t i o n so t h a t t h e r e - t r a i n e d y o u t h s would have a pastime t o l o o k f o r w a r d t o d u r i n g t h e i r l e i s u r e h o u r s . With b o t h t h e P r o v i n c i a l and 66. F e d e r a l Government's programmes, t h e major o b j e c t i v e was t o s u p p l y t h e p u b l i c w i t h s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n because t h e economic s i t u a t i o n had made i t d i f f i c u l t t o s u p p l y them a l l w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c j o b s t h a t t h e y so d e s p e r a t e l y d e s i r e d . The growth i n p o p u l a r i t y of s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n was a n o t h e r f a c t o r t h a t demonstrated a r i s e i n t h e s t a t u s o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s growth i n p o p u l a r i t y was e x e m p l i f i e d by i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n c r e a s e d s p e c t a t o r a t t e n d a n c e and t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s o f s e l e c t e d s p o r t i n g e v e n t s . The r e a s o n s f o r such an i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a r i t y a r e v a r i e d . One major r e a s o n was t h a t s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n were a v a i l a b l e t o most p e o p l e t o h e l p them pass t h e time of day. I n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n can a l s o be e x p l a i n e d by t h e i n c r e a s i n g number of programmes t h a t were b e i n g o f f e r e d . Pro-Rec, f o r i n s t a n c e , was now s u p p l y i n g programmes f o r men and women of a l l ages. The o r g a n i z a -t i o n was a l s o s u p p l y i n g s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n i n some p a r t s of t h e p r o v i n c e t h a t had not p r e v i o u s l y been c a t e r e d t o w i t h such programmes. The i n c r e a s e d s p e c t a t o r a t t e n d a n c e can be accounted f o r by t h e l a r g e r number of s p o r t i n g e v e n t s t h a t were now t a k i n g p l a c e . Pro-Rec a r r a n g e d numerous 67. d i s p l a y s and c o m p e t i t i o n s t h a t a t t r a c t e d l a r g e numbers ( T a b l e 4, p. 2 l ) . The r i s e i n t h e s t a n d a r d of s p o r t a l s o i n f l u e n c e d t h e s p e c t a t o r s and caused i n c r e a s e d a t t e n d a n c e . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h e Vancouver G r i z z l i e s f o o t b a l l team i n t o t h e Western C a n a d i a n Rugby Union promoted more i n t e r e s t i n f o o t b a l l . The f o r m a t i o n of new l e a g u e s such as t h e I n t e r i o r B a s e b a l l League (p. 30) was s u p p l y i n g t h e s p e c t a t o r w i t h an i n c r e a s e d number of e v e n t s t o a t t e n d . A d m i s s i o n c o s t s were a f a c t o r a t some e v e n t s . However, t h e D e p r e s s i o n d i d not d r a s t i c a l l y a f f e c t a l l p e o p l e i n s o c i e t y t o t h e same e x t e n t , and many s t i l l had t h e money needed t o .attend such e v e n t s . The r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s of such e v e n t s were a v a i l a b l e t o a l l t h o s e w i t h a c c e s s t o a r a d i o . Even t h o s e u n a b l e t o a t t e n d e v e n t s because of the c o s t s i n v o l v e d c o u l d have l i s t e n e d t o b r o a d c a s t s . A n o t h e r f a c t o r t h a t shows an i n c r e a s e i n s t a t u s i s t h e amount of t r a v e l l i n g t h a t was u n d e r t a k e n by s p o r t i n g teams a t a t i m e when money f o r some of t h e n e c e s s i t i e s of l i f e was e i t h e r not a v a i l a b l e , or a v a i l a b l e o n l y i n l i m i t e d q u a n t i t i e s . An e x a c t r e a s o n f o r such e x t e n s i v e t r a v e l l i n g f unds b e i n g a v a i l a b l e c o u l d not be found i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , but perhaps some e x p l a n a t i o n s c o u l d be h y p o t h e s i z e d . W i t h the l i m i t e d amount of money a v a i l a b l e , fewer p e o p l e would have been a b l e t o t r a v e l . The c o s t of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n may t h e r e f o r e have been reduced t o a t t r a c t more p e o p l e . Perhaps 68 l o w e r r a t e s were a l s o a v a i l a b l e t o l a r g e groups such as s p o r t i n g teams, t h u s making t h e c o s t s more r e a s o n a b l e and a c c e s s i b l e t o such teams. The growth or f o r m a t i o n of t h r e e d i s t i n c t s p o r t , r e c r e a t i o n and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s o c i e t i e s and a s s o c i a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s a n o t h e r f a c t o r e x e m p l i f y i n g t h e i n c r e a s e d s t a t u s , i n f l u e n c e and i n t e r e s t i n s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n d u r i n g t h e D e p r e s s i o n . The newly added i n v o l v e m e n t i n s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n b e i n g t a k e n by the p o p u l a t i o n and by the Governments, as w e l l as t h e new emphasis b e i n g p l a c e d on p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e e d u c a t i o n system would have caused such p r o f e s s i o n a l groups t o become a c t i v e . S p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n had not o n l y r i s e n i n s t a t u s i n t h e eyes o f t h e Governments and the p e o p l e , but had a l s o t a k e n g r e a t s t e p s f o r w a r d i n t h e e d u c a t i o n system of the p r o v i n c e . P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n was no l o n g e r t h e " C i n d e r e l l a " s u b j e c t of t h e c u r r i c u l u m . I n s p e c t o r s were now a s k i n g t e a c h e r s t o stage p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n l e s s o n s and d e m o n s t r a t i o n s d u r i n g i n s p e c t o r a l v i s i t s . S p e c i a l i s t t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s were now i n e x i s t e n c e . Two p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n s t r u c t o r s had been a p p o i n t e d t o the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e programmes of the Men's and Women's D i v i s i o n of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . These f a c t o r s demonstrate t h e r i s e i n the s t a t u s of s p o r t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e f i e l d of educa-t i o n a t b o t h t h e s c h o o l l e v e l and t h e u n i v e r s i t y . 69. The s c h o o l programmes n a t u r a l l y s h o u l d r e f l e c t t h e needs of s o c i e t y . W i t h th e governments g r a n t i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n , and w i t h t h e p o p u l a t i o n t a k i n g an i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n s p o r t and p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n -a l a c t i v i t i e s , i t would be o n l y n a t u r a l t h a t t h e s c h o o l programmes would a l s o r e f l e c t a new i n t e r e s t i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . The War y e a r s saw a d i f f e r e n t s t a t u s f o r s p o r t and p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s from t h a t w h i c h was e v i d e n t d u r i n g t h e D e p r e s s i o n . S p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n f o r c o m p e t i t i o n and enjoyment became m i n i m a l , and the major o b j e c t i v e s of s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n became p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and n a t i o n a l m o r a l e , s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r war p u r p o s e s . T h i s seems a n a t u r a l s t e p i n such an emergency s i t u a t i o n . F i t n e s s programmes would have been needed f o r s e r v i c e m e n , as w e l l as f o r w o r k e r s who now needed t o work f o r much l o n g e r h o u r s t h a n t h e y had been accustomed t o i n t h e p a s t . Most s p o r t s and r e c r e a t i o n s s u f f e r e d i n b o t h a l a c k of p a r t i c i p a n t s and a d e c l i n e i n a t t e n d a n c e s . A c t i v e m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e , i n v o l v i n g b o t h men and women, had l e d t o a d e c r e a s e i n t h e numbers t h a t c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n , or a t t e n d t h e s p o r t i n g e v e n t s t h a t were s t i l l p r e s e n t e d . The l o n g e r w o r k i n g h o u r s t h a t were b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n had a l s o b r o u g h t about a d e c r e a s e i n the time a v a i l a b l e f o r s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n . 70. P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n the s c h o o l s f a i l e d t o p r o g r e s s d u r i n g t h e War y e a r s . One of t h e b a s i c r e a s o n s f o r t h i s was t h e l a r g e number of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n s t r u c t o r s who were e n l i s t e d i n t h e armed f o r c e s . I n some s c h o o l s p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s were b e i n g t a u g h t by l e s s q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s t h a n t h o s e who l e f t t o s e r v e i n t h e armed f o r c e s . I n o t h e r s c h o o l s , t h e amount of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t a u g h t was r e d u c e d because of t h e l a c k of q u a l i f i e d s p e c i a l i s t t e a c h e r s . The major c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e War y e a r s towards s p o r t and p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s was t h e emphasis p l a c e d on p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . T h i s stems from t h e N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s A c t of 1943. S i n c e t h a t t i m e , p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s has a l ways e x e r t e d some i n f l u e n c e upon government a g e n c i e s or a c t s r e l a t i n g t o s p o r t or p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n . The l a c k of p a r t i c i p a n t s , t h e s h i f t i n emphasis f r o m s p o r t f o r enjoyment t o p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , and t h e l a c k of p r o g r e s s i n t h e s c h o o l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programmes, demonstrate the i n f l u e n c e of t h e War on t h e s t a t u s o f s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n . T h i s i n f l u e n c e , however, was p r i m a r i l y of a d e t r i m e n t a l t y p e . The programmes of t h e D e p r e s s i o n p e r i o d were v a r i e d , i n v o l v e d c o m p e t i t i o n , and on t h e whole were i n t e n d e d t o c a t e r t o a much w i d e r range of i n t e r e s t s . The programmes of t h e s c h o o l s were i n n o v a t i v e and seemed t o be more p l e a s i n g t o t h e s t u d e n t s . W i t h s p e c i a l i s t s now g r a d u a t i n g from the u n i v e r s i t y 71. w i t h some background c o u r s e s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , f r e s h i d e a s would have been c r e a t e d , t h u s making t h e s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n programmes of t h i s p e r i o d more s a t i s f y i n g t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . The War y e a r programmes, however, seemed t o be l e s s v a r i e d , l e s s c o m p e t i t i v e , and most l i k e l y o n l y c a t e r e d t o t h e w i s h e s of a s m a l l group of p e o p l e w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n b o d y - b u i l d i n g and f i t n e s s . I t seems q u i t e n a t u r a l , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e programmes, i d e a s and i n n o v a t i o n s of t h e D e p r e s s i o n p e r i o d r a t h e r t h a n t h o s e of World War I I would form t h e b a s i s f o r p o st-war developments i n s p o r t and p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . F i t n e s s programmes are one of t h e few war-time developments t h a t a r e s t i l l an i m p o r t a n t p a r t of t o d a y ' s p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , but p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s e programmes i s l i m i t e d u n l e s s i t i s i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h some c o m p e t i t i v e s p o r t s t r a i n i n g . The c o n t e n t and t y p e of programme have a l s o changed a g r e a t d e a l . The D e p r e s s i o n e r a , however, c o n t r i b u t e d more i n f l u e n c e s t o s p o r t s and r e c r e a t i o n t h a t a r e s t i l l i n e f f e c t t o d a y . The Governments s t i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n , t h r o u g h d i r e c t government o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as S p o r t Canada, formed by t h e F e d e r a l Government i n 1971, or t h r o u g h t h e p r o v i n c i a l s u p p o r t of such i n d i v i d u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s as t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S p o r t s F e d e r a t i o n . O t h e r D e p r e s s i o n i n n o v a t i o n s t h a t a r e s t i l l p r ominent t o d a y a r e q u i t e v a r i e d . R a d i o b r o a d c a s t s of s p o r t i n g 72 e v e n t s a r e s t i l l p o p u l a r . The t h r e e s p o r t and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g t h e D e p r e s s i o n c o n t i n u e d t o i n f l u e n c e s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n d u r i n g l a t e r y e a r s . A l l t h r e e s o c i e t i e s have e i t h e r amalgamated w i t h o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s or now f u n c t i o n under new t i t l e s . The C a n a d i a n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , f o r example, was t h e f o r e - r u n n e r of t h e p r e s e n t C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n (C.A.H.P.E.R.). Canada's n a t i o n a l s p o r t , f i e l d l a c r o s s e , underwent i t s most d r a m a t i c change i n 1931. I t was a t t h i s t i m e t h a t t h e l a c r o s s e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s d e c i d e d t o change from f i e l d l a c r o s s e t o box l a c r o s s e . T h i s i n n o v a t i o n i s s t i l l i n e x i s t e n c e t o d a y . Recommendations F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be c a r r i e d out t o d emonstrate how t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s of o t h e r e r a s , f o r example, World War I , i n f l u e n c e d t h e s p o r t s and r e c r e a t i o n i n v o l v e m e n t of t h e p e o p l e l i v i n g i n t h e s e s p e c i f i c p e r i o d s . The s t a t u s and i n f l u e n c e t h a t were r e f l e c t e d i n t h e D e p r e s s i o n and World War I I p e r i o d s a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . P e r h a p s o t h e r e r a s have c o n t r i b u t e d t h e i r own unique developments t o our p r e s e n t day s p o r t and p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . R ecorded h i s t o r y i n s p o r t , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s v e r y l i m i t e d . S t u d i e s of t h e h i s t o r y of p a r t i c u l a r s p o r t s and r e c r e a t i o n s , as w e l l as s p e c i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n s and s o c i e t i e s and t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o 73 s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n , would be of i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e s t u d y o f t h e h i s t o r y of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . BIBLIOGRAPHY B a r t l e t t , N. "A History of Women's A t h l e t i c s at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1915-1961." Unpublished graduating essay, B.P.E., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962. Berridge, G. B r i t i s h Columbia Mainland C r i c k e t League Canadian Centennial Handbook. Vancouver, 1967. Blackstock, C.R., "The Canadian Association f o r Health, Physical Education and Recreation." Physical  Education i n Canada. (Van V l i e t ed.). Prentice H a l l i n Canada, Toronto, 1965. p. 279-291. Boyd, D. "History of Hockey i n B r i t i s h Columbia." Vancouver Canuck Hockey Magazine. Canucks Publishing Co., Vancouver,. 1970. B r i t i s h Columbia. Journals of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. From 29 October to 6 December, both dates i n c l u s i v e , Session 1940. V o l . LXX. King's Printer, V i c t o r i a , 1940. Statutes of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. 3rd Session of the Twentieth Parliament of B.C. Begun and Holden at V i c t o r i a on 1st February, 1944 and ending on 15th March, King's Printer,- V i c t o r i a , 1944. Broom, E.F. "A Comparative Analysis of the Central Administrative Agencies of Amateur Sport and Physical Recreation i n England and Canada." Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of I l l i n o i s : , 1971. Cricket 1905-1954. Vancouver, 1954. Canadian Youth Commission. Youth and Recreation. Ryerson Press. Toronto, 1946. .. Youth Organizations i n Canada. Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1946. Burrard Cricke t Club. 75 11. C a r y l l , N.B. Vancouver Y.M.C.A., Membership Department, i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e w r i t e r , J u l y 26, 1973. 12. C o s e n t i n o , F. C a n a d i a n F o o t b a l l . The Grey Cup Y e a r s . Musson Book Co. L t d . , T o r o n t o , 1969. 13. , and M.L. H o w e l l . A H i s t o r y of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n Canada. G e n e r a l P u b l i s h i n g Co. T o r o n t o , 1971. 14. C u r r i e , G. 100 Y e a r s of C a n a d i a n F o o t b a l l . P a g u r i a n P r e s s L t d . , T o r o n t o , 1968. 15. D a k i n , E.S. "Government Sponsored R e c r e a t i o n i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " U n p u b l i s h e d g r a d u a t i n g e s s a y , B.P.E. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1950. 16. Department o f E d u c a t i o n . Programme of S t u d i e s f o r t h e J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : 1927-1928. K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1927. 17. . New Programme of S t u d i e s f o r t h e H i g h and T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1930. 18. . Programme o f S t u d i e s f o r H i g h S c h o o l s . K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1933. 19. . A n n u a l R e p o r t of t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s . 1934-1935 t o 1943-1944. K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a . 20. Dominion o f Canada. S t a t u t e s o f Canada. 1939 P a r t s I - I I , F o u r t h S e s s i o n of t h e E i g h t e e n t h P a r l i a m e n t . K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , O ttawa, C h a p t e r 35, pp. 269-271. 21 . . S t a t u t e s o f Canada. 1943-1944. F o u r t h S e s s i o n of t h e N i n e t e e n t h P a r l i a m e n t . K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, C h a p t e r 29, pp. 157-160. 22. E i s e n h a r d t , I . "Canada's N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s A c t . " J o u r n a l of H e a l t h . P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n . A p r i l 1945, p. 186. 23. G r e a t e r Vancouver Women's G r a s s Hockey A s s o c i a t i o n . J u b i l e e B o o k l e t . Vancouver, 1956. 76 24. 25. Harshaw, J.P. When Women Work T o g e t h e r : Of t h e YWCA Q l £anesliLji82Q=la&&. P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1966. A H i s t o r y R y e r s o n 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. H e a g e r t y , J . J . D i r e c t o r o f P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e s , Department of P e n s i o n s and N a t i o n a l H e a l t h . "The N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s A c t . " Report of t h e Me e t i n g o f t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s . May 23-24, 1944. K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1944. pp. 5-7. Howard, A.M. "The O r g a n i z a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of C i t y P l a y g r o u n d A c t i v i t y w i t h S p e c i a l R e f e r e n c e t o Vancouver." U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1936. H o w e l l , M.L. and N. H o w e l l . S p o r t and Games i n C a n a d i a n L i f e , 1700 t o P r e s e n t . MacMi11an o f Canada, T o r o n t o , 1969. Hunt, E.A. "A H i s t o r y of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a From 1918 t o 1967." U n p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, 1967. Jo h n s , M.L. "A H i s t o r y of Women A t h l e t e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m 1915 t o 1965." U n p u b l i s h e d g r a d u a t i n g e s s a y , B.P.E. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1965. Lane, M.E. "Unemployment D u r i n g the D e p r e s s i o n : The Prob l e m of t h e S i n g l e Unemployed T r a n s i e n t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1930-1938." B.A. (Hons.) g r a d u a t i n g e s s a y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1966. L o c k e , T. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M a i n l a n d League C a n a d i a n  C e n t e n n i a l Handbook, Vancouver, 1967. Lower, A.R. C o l o n y t o N a t i o n : A H i s t o r y of Canada. P e n g u i n Books, 1969. McNaught, K. The P e l i c a n H i s t o r y of Canada. Pe n g u i n Books, 1969. McNu l t y , W.B. "A S h o r t H i s t o r y of T r a c k and F i e l d a t The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a from 1915 t o 1968 W i t h P a r t i c u l a r R e f e r e n c e t o C e r t a i n R e c ords and Performances. 1 1 U n p u b l i s h e d g r a d u a t -i n g e s s a y , B.P.E., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1968. 77. 35. McTaggart, A.C., "A H i s t o r y of t h e Development of L a c r o s s e i n Canada." U n p u b l i s h e d g r a d u a t i n g e s s a y , B.P.E., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1951. 36. Munro, I . "The E a r l y Y e a r s . " P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n Canada. (Van V l i e t , e d . ) . P r e n t i c e H a l l i n Canada, T o r o n t o , 1965, p. 1-11. 37. N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l Y.W.C.A. The S t o r y of t h e YWCA i n Canada. B r y a n t P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1933. 38. Orban, W.A.R. "The F i t n e s s Movement." P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n Canada. (Van V l i e t , e d . ) , P r e n t i c e H a l l i n Canada, T o r o n t o , 1965, pp. 238-248. 39. Ormsby, M.A. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A H i s t o r y . M a c M i l l a n i n Canada, Vancouver, 1958. 40. Osborne, R.F. " L e a d e r s h i p i n R e c r e a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h . P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n . V o l . 23, No. 1. S e p t . 1956. 41. . "The F e d e r a l Government and L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g f o r R e c r e a t i o n . " C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n  f o r H e a l t h . P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n . Volume 28 No. 2, Dec. 1961. 42. . " O r i g i n s of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " Paper p r e s e n t e d a t t h e F i r s t C a n a d i a n Symposium on t h e H i s t o r y of S p o r t and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , Edmonton. May 13-16, 1970. 43. P o w e l l , M.P. "Response t o t h e D e p r e s s i o n : Three R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Women's Groups i n B.C." Unpub-l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1967. 44. Putman, J.H. and G.M. Wei r . Survey of t h e S c h o o l System. K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1925. 45. Ross, M.G. The Y.M.C.A. i n Canada. R y e r s o n P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1951. 46. S a v e l i e f f , D.S. A H i s t o r y of t h e S p o r t of L a c r o s s e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Vancouver, 1972. 78 47. Semotiuk, D.M. "The Development of a Theoretical Framework for Analyzing the Role of National Government Involvement i n Sport and Physical Education and i t s Application to Canada." Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Ohio State University, 1970. 48. University of B r i t i s h Columbia A t h l e t i c s Department, Unpublished records. 49. Vancouver Province. 1929-1945. 50. Vancouver Sun. 1929-1945. 51. Van Dalen, D.B., E. D. M i t c h e l l and B.L. Bennett. A World History of Physical Education. Prentice H a l l , New Jersey, 1956. 52. Van V l i e t , M.L. (ed.). Physical Education i n Canada. Prentice H a l l i n Canada, Toronto, 1965. 53. Williams, L.M. "The Growth and Development of Women's F i e l d Hockey i n Canada." Unpublished graduat-ing essay, B.P.E., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967. 79. APPENDIX A AN ACT TO PROVIDE FOR THE TRAINING OF YOUNG PEOPLE TO FIT THEM FOR GAINFUL EMPLOYMENT (Assented to by His Majesty, 19th May, 3.939) His Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows: SHORT TITLE 1. This Act may be c i t e d as The Youth Training Act. 1939. INTERPRETATION 2. In t h i s Act the expression !a) "Minister" means the Minister of Labour; b) "Department" means the Department of Labour; c) "province" means and includes each of the provinces of Canada, but not the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s or the Yukon T e r r i t o r y ; (d) "unemployed young people" means male or female i n d i v i d u a l s between sixteen and t h i r t y years of age, i n c l u s i v e , not g a i n f u l l y employed and whose f a m i l i e s are not i n a p o s i t i o n to pay the f u l l cost of t h e i r t r a i n i n g ; and who are, ( i ) r egistered for employment with the Employ-ment Service of Canada; or ( i i ) c e r t i f i e d as e l i g i b l e by the Clerk of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s home Municipality or by an appropriate p r o v i n c i a l authority; or ( i i i ) deserving transients c e r t i f i e d as e l i g i b l e by an appropriate p r o v i n c i a l authority. 3. For the purpose of promoting and a s s i s t i n g i n the t r a i n i n g of unemployment i n Canada, the following sums aggregating four m i l l i o n f i v e hundred thousand d o l l a r s , s h a l l be appropriated and paid out of the consolidated Revenue Fund of Canada during each f i s c a l year for the period of three years beginning with the year ending the t h i r t y - f i r s t day of March one thousand nine hundred and f o r t y , namely: Short t i t l e D e f i n i -t i o n s "Minister" "Depart-me nt "province" "unemploy-ed young people" Sums appro-priated for the t r a i n i n g of un-employed young people 80. ( a ) d u r i n g t h e f i s c a l y e a r e day of March, one t h o u s a f o r t y , one m i l l i o n f i v e d o l l a r s ; (b) d u r i n g t h e f i s c a l y e a r e day of March, one t h o u s a f o r t y - o n e , t h e sum of on thousand d o l l a r s ; ( c ) d u r i n g t h e f i s c a l day of March, one f o r t y - t w o t h e sum thousand d o l l a r s . y e a r e t h o u s a of one n d i n g t h e t h i r t y - f i r s t nd n i n e hundred and hundred thousand n d i n g t h e t h i r t y - f i r s t nd n i n e hundred and e m i l l i o n f i v e hundred n d i n g t h e t h i r t y - f i r s t nd n i n e hundred and m i l l i o n f i v e hundred 4. Any p o r t i o n of any a p p r o p r i a t i o n a u t h o r i z e d under t h i s A c t w h i c h may r e m a i n unexpended a t t h e e x p i r a t i o n o f any of t h e s a i d f i s c a l y e a r s , s h a l l be c a r r i e d f o r w a r d and r e m a i n a v a i l a b l e a c c o r d i n g t o i t s appointment f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s A c t d u r i n g any one or more of t h e s u c c e e d i n g f i s c a l y e a r s : P r o v i d e d t h a t no p o r t i o n of t h e s a i d f o u r m i l l i o n f i v e hundred thousand d o l l a r s s h a l l be p a i d t o any p r o v i n c e a f t e r t h e t h i r t y -f i r s t day o f March, one thousand n i n e hundred and f o r t y - t h r e e . 5. T h i s A c t s h a l l not a p p l y t o any p r o v i n c e u n l e s s and u n t i l t h e Government of such p r o v i n c e h as, by O r d e r i n C o u n c i l , s i g n i f i e d i t s a g r e e -ment t o c o - o p e r a t e w i t h t h e M i n i s t e r i n c a r r y i n g i t s p r o v i s i o n s i n t o e f f e c t . 6. The g r a n t p a y a b l e t o any p r o v i n c e i n any y e a r under t h e p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s A c t s h a l l be d e t e r -mined by t h e G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l : P r o v i d e d t h a t t h e amount a l l o t t e d t o a p r o v i n c e s h a l l not exceed an amount e q u i v a l e n t t o t h a t w h i c h t h e p r o v i n c i a l government s h a l l agree t o expend on p r o j e c t s under-t a k e n under t h e p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s A c t w i t h i n such y e a r . 7. The G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l may a p p o i n t a s u p e r -v i s o r of y o u t h t r a i n i n g who s h a l l h o l d o f f i c e f o r such p e r i o d of t i m e and upon such terms and c o n d i t i o n s as may be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l . 8. Payments made t o any p r o v i n c e under t h e p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s A c t s h a l l be c o n d i t i o n a l upon an agreement b e i n g e n t e r e d i n t o between t h e M i n i s t e r and t h e government of the p r o v i n c e as Unexpend-ed moneys t o be c a r r i e d f o r w a r d . A p p l i c a -t i o n t o p r o v i n c e s . G r a n t s t o be d e t e r -mined by G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l S uper-v i s o r of y o u t h t r a i n i n g . A gree-ments w i t h p r o v i n c e s . 81 t o t h e t e r m s , c o n d i t i o n s and pur p o s e s of and f o r w h i c h payments a r e t o be made and a p p l i e d , and such agreements s h a l l be s u b j e c t i n a l l c a s e s t o t h e a p p r o v a l of t h e Governo r i n C o u n c i l 9. The G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l may make a l l such o r d e r s and r e g u l a t i o n s as may be deemed n e c e s -s a r y o r d e s i r a b l e t o c a r r y out t h e pur p o s e s and i n t e n t i o n s o f t h i s A c t . 10. T h i s A c t s h a l l be a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e Department o f La b o u r . 11. A r e p o r t c o n t a i n i n g a f u l l and c o r r e c t s tatement of moneys expended and o b l i g a t i o n s c o n t r a c t e d under t h i s A c t s h a l l be l a i d b e f o r e P a r l i a m e n t w i t h i n t h i r t y days a f t e r t h e end o f each f i s c a l y e a r o r , i f P a r l i a m e n t i s t h e n not i n s e s s i o n , s h a l l be p u b l i s h e d and made a v a i l -a b l e f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n by t h e Department of La b o u r . O r d e r s and r e g u l a -t i o n s . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of A c t . R e p o r t t o be l a i d b e f o r e P a r l i a -ment. 82 APPENDIX B AN ACT TO ESTABLISH A NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR THE PURPOSE OF PROMOTING PHYSICAL FITNESS ( A s s e n t e d t o 2 4 t h J u l y , 1943.) H i s M a j e s t y , by and w i t h t h e a d v i c e and c o n s e n t of th e Senate and House of Commons of Canada, e n a c t s as f o l l o w s : 1. T h i s A c t may be c i t e d as The N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l  F i t n e s s A c t . 2. I n t h i s A c t u n l e s s t h e c o n t e x t o t h e r w i s e r e q u i r e s , ( a ) " C o u n c i l " means t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s ; (b) " D i r e c t o r " means t h e N a t i o n a l D i r e c t o r of P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s ; ( c ) "Fund" means The N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Fund e s t a b l i s h e d by t h i s A c t ; (d) " M i n i s t e r " means t h e M i n i s t e r o f P e n s i o n s and N a t i o n a l H e a l t h . 3. ( l ) There s h a l l be a c o u n c i l t o be c a l l e d t h e " N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s " w h i c h s h a l l c o n s i s t of not l e s s t h a n t h r e e members and not more t h a n t e n members who s h a l l be a p p o i n t e d by t h e Gov e r n o r i n C o u n c i l . (2) The members s h a l l h o l d o f f i c e f o r a p e r i o d o f t h r e e y e a r s , p r o v i d e d t h a t of t h o s e f i r s t a p p o i n t e d , t h r e e members s h a l l be a p p o i n t e d t o r e t i r e i n one y e a r , t h r e e members i n two y e a r s and t h e r e m a i n i n g members, i f any, i n t h r e e y e a r s . (3) Any r e t i r i n g member s h a l l be e l i g i b l e f o r r e - a p p o i n t m e n t . (4) Each member s h a l l h o l d o f f i c e d u r i n g good b e h a v i o u r f o r t h e p e r i o d of h i s a p p o i n t m e n t , b u t may be removed f o r cause a t any t i m e by t h e Gov e r n o r i n C o u n c i l . (5) I n t h e event of a c a s u a l v a c a n c y o c c u r r i n g i n t h e C o u n c i l , t h e Governor i n C o u n c i l may a p p o i n t a p e r s o n t o f i l l such vacancy f o r t h e b a l a n c e o f t h e t e r m of t h e member r e p l a c e d . S h o r t t i t l e . D e f i n i -t i o n s . " C o u n c i l " " D i r e c t -o r " "Fund" " M i n i s t e r " C o n s t i t u -t i o n o f C o u n c i l . Tenure of O f f i c e of members. Removal f o r c a u s e . F i l l i n g c a s u a l v acancy. 83 (6) The G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l s h a l l d e s i g n a t e one C h a i r -of t h e members t o be c hairman of t h e C o u n c i l who man. s h a l l be known a s , and bear t h e t i t l e of " N a t i o n a l D i r e c t o r of P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s " . (7) No member of t h e C o u n c i l , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n Expens-of t h e D i r e c t o r , s h a l l r e c e i v e any payment or es o f emolument f o r h i s s e r v i c e s , b u t each member s h a l l members, be e n t i t l e d t o r e c e i v e and be p a i d out of t h e Fund h i s a c t u a l d i s b u r s e m e n t s f o r expenses n e c e s s a r i l y i n c u r r e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e d i s c h a r g e of h i s d u t i e s under t h i s A c t . (8) The D i r e c t o r s h a l l be p a i d out o f t h e Fund S a l a r y such a n n u a l s a l a r y as may be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e o f G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l . D i r e c t o r . (9) The h e a d q u a r t e r s of t h e C o u n c i l s h a l l be a t t h e C i t y of Ottawa, i n t h e p r o v i n c e of O n t a r i o , Head-and t h e C o u n c i l s h a l l meet a t such t i m e s and q u a r t e r s p l a c e s as t h e M i n i s t e r may a p p o i n t , but not l e s s of t h a n t w i c e y e a r l y , i n t h e s a i d C i t y of Ottawa. C o u n c i l . (10) Such p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l and o t h e r o f f i c e r s , c l e r k s and employees as may be r e q u i r e d Employ-f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of t h i s A c t s h a l l be a p p o i n t e d ment of or employed i n t h e manner a u t h o r i z e d by l a w . s t a f f . (11) The C o u n c i l may make r u l e s f o r r e g u l a t i n g Power t o i t s p r o c e e d i n g s and t h e p erformance o f i t s make f u n c t i o n s . r u l e s . 4. ( l ) I t s h a l l be t h e d u t y of t h e C o u n c i l t o promote the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s o f t h e p e o p l e of Canada and i n t h e performance of such d u t y i t may (a) a s s i s t i n t h e e x t e n s i o n of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n a l l e d u c a t i o n a l and o t h e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ; (b) encourage, d e v e l o p and c o r r e l a t e a l l a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t i n g t o p h y s i c a l development of t h e p e o p l e t h r o u g h s p o r t s , a t h l e t i c s and o t h e r s i m i l a r p u r s u i t s ; ( c ) t r a i n t e a c h e r s , l e c t u r e r s and i n s t r u c t o r s i n t h e p r i n c i p l e s of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s ; (d) o r g a n i z e a c t i v i t i e s d e s i g n e d t o promote p h y s i -c a l f i t n e s s and t o p r o v i d e f a c i l i t i e s t h e r e f o r ; and (e) c o - o p e r a t e w i t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as i n d i c a t e d i n s e c t i o n seven engaged i n t h e development of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s i n t h e a m e l i o r a t i o n of p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s t h r o u g h p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e . (2) The C o u n c i l s h a l l c a r r y out such o t h e r d u t i e s as a r e r e q u i r e d by t h i s A c t or r e g u l a t i o n s made h e r e u n d e r . D u t i e s and powers o f C o u n c i l Idem. 84 5. The D i r e c t o r s h a l l be t h e c h i e f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r of t h e C o u n c i l and s h a l l p e r f o r m such of t h e d u t i e s and e x e r c i s e such of t h e powers of t h e C o u n c i l as a r e from t i m e t o time imposed upon or d e l e g a t e d t o him by t h e C o u n c i l and, i f a u t h o r i z e d by t h e C o u n c i l , he may e x e c u t e i n s t r u m e n t s and documents on i t s b e h a l f . 6. ( l ) W i t h t h e a p p r o v a l of t h e M i n i s t e r , t h e C o u n c i l may e n t e r i n t o c o n t r a c t s and a c q u i r e p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y on b e h a l f of H i s M a j e s t y f o r th e p u r p o s e s of t h e C o u n c i l , b u t no c o n t r a c t s h a l l be e n t e r e d i n t o by t h e C o u n c i l i n v o l v i n g an e x p e n d i t u r e i n e x c e s s of f i v e thousand d o l l a r s u n l e s s a u t h o r i z e d by t h e G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l . (2) R e a l p r o p e r t y may be a c q u i r e d on b e h a l f of H i s M a j e s t y p u r s u a n t t o t h i s A c t w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e Go v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l . 7. Where a p r o v i n c e e s t a b l i s h e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r t h e purpose of c o - o p e r a t i n g w i t h t h e C o u n c i l i n c a r r y i n g out t h e p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s A c t , and such p r o v i n c e u n d e r t a k e s t o d e v e l o p a p l a n of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s s a t i s f a c t o r y t o t h e M i n i s t e r , t h e M i n i s t e r may, w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l of t h e Governor i n C o u n c i l , e n t e r i n t o an agreement c o v e r i n g any p e r i o d w i t h such p r o v i n c e t o p r o v i d e out of t h e Fund, f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r t h e purpose of a s s i s t i n g such p r o v i n c e i n c a r r y i n g out such p l a n , b u t t h e amount of such f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n any y e a r s h a l l not exceed a sum w h i c h b e a r s t h e same p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e sum of two hundred and t w e n t y - f i v e t h o usand d o l l a r s as t h e p o p u l a t i o n of such p r o v i n c e as shown by t h e l a s t d e c e n n i a l c e n s u s b e a r s t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n of Canada as shown by such c e n s u s , or an amount e q u a l t o o n e - h a l f of t h e moneys a c t u a l l y expended by such p r o v i n c e i n c a r r y i n g out such p l a n , w h i c h e v e r i s t h e l e s s . 8. There s h a l l be a s p e c i a l a c c o u n t i n t h e C o n s o l i d a t e d Revenue Fund t o be known as "The N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Fund" t o w h i c h s h a l l be c r e d i t e d a l l sums of money w h i c h may be a p p r o p r i a t -ed by P a r l i a m e n t f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s A c t , and a l l sums of money r e c e i v e d by way of g r a n t , b e q u e s t , d o n a t i o n o r o t h e r w i s e f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of o r on b e h a l f of t h e C o u n c i l . D i r e c t o r as c h i e f e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r . Powers r e s p e c t -i n g con-t r a c t s g e n e r a l -l y . R e a l p r o p e r t y , Power of M i n i s t e r t o make ag r e e -ment w i t h p r o v i n c e t o g i v e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t -ance. "The N a t i o n a l F i t n e s s Fund." 85. (c) 9. N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the p r o v i s i o n s of The  C o n s o l i d a t e d Revenue and A u d i t A c t , 1931. t h e M i n i s t e r of F i n a n c e may, s u b j e c t t o t h e p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s A c t , make d i s b u r s e m e n t s f r o m the Fund on t h e r e q u i s i t i o n of t h e C o u n c i l f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g u r p o s e s , o r any of them; a) t h e payment of t h e s a l a r i e s of a l l p e r s o n s a p p o i n t e d o r employed under o r p u r s u a n t t o t h e p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s A c t ; (b) t h e payment of a l l sums of money r e q u i r e d by t h e C o u n c i l f o r t h e c a r r y i n g out o f i t s d u t i e s and t h e e x e r c i s e of i t s powers under t h i s A c t , t o g e t h e r w i t h a l l n e c e s s a r y expenses i n c o n n e c t i o n t h e r e w i t h ; such o t h e r payments as may be a u t h o r i z e d by t h i s A c t . 10. The M i n i s t e r may, f r o m t i m e t o t i m e , r e f e r t o t h e C o u n c i l f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n and a d v i c e , such m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h i s A c t as he t h i n k s f i t , and t h e C o u n c i l s h a l l i n v e s t i g a t e and r e p o r t t h e r e o n t o t h e M i n i s t e r . 11. The C o u n c i l s h a l l , on or b e f o r e the t h i r t i e t h day of A p r i l i n each y e a r , submit a r e p o r t t o t h e M i n i s t e r upon a l l a c t i v i t i e s of t h e C o u n c i l d u r i n g t h e l a s t p r e c e d i n g f i s c a l y e a r , and s h a l l , when-e v e r so r e q u i r e d by t h e M i n i s t e r , f u r n i s h t h e M i n i s t e r w i t h such i n f o r m a t i o n and r e p o r t s as he may r e q u i r e . 12. T h i s A c t s h a l l be a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e M i n s t e r of P e n s i o n s and N a t i o n a l H e a l t h . Power of M i n i s t e r of F i n a n c e t o make d i s b u r s e -ments on r e q u i s i -t i o n on C o u n c i l 1931, c.27. Power of M i n i s t e r t o r e f e r m a t t e r s t o c o u n c i l f o r i n v e s -t i g a t i o n and r e p o r t . A n n u a l and o t h e r r e p o r t s o f C o u n c i l t o M i n i s t e r . A d m i n i s t r a -t i o n o f A c t , 13. The M i n i s t e r s h a l l , as soon as p o s s i b l e , but not l a t e r t h a n t h r e e months a f t e r t h e t e r m i n a t i o n of each f i s c a l y e a r , submit an annual r e p o r t t o P a r l i a m e n t c o v e r i n g t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h i s A c t f o r such f i s c a l y e a r , and such r e p o r t s h a l l c o n t a i n a s t a t e m e n t of a l l amounts p a i d i n t o o r c r e d i t e d t o t h e Fund and a l l d i s b u r s e m e n t s t h e r e -f r o m and s h a l l i n c l u d e t h e r e g u l a t i o n s made under t h i s A c t . R e p o r t t o P a r l i a m e n t . 14. The Governo r i n C o u n c i l may make r e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e purpose of g i v i n g e f f e c t t o t h i s A c t . 15. T h i s A c t s h a l l come i n t o f o r c e on a d a t e t o be f i x e d by p r o c l a m a t i o n of t h e Governo r i n C o u n c i l . R e g u l a -t i o n s . P r o c l a m a -t i o n . 86 APPENDIX C An A c t t o e n a b l e t h e Government t o e n t e r i n t o A g r e e -ments w i t h t h e Dominion p u r s u a n t t o "The N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s A c t , " b e i n g C h a p t e r Twenty-nine of t h e S t a t u t e s of Canada, 1943, ( A s s e n t e d t o 1 5 t h March, 1944.) WHEREAS "The N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s A c t , 1943," of t h e Dominion p r o v i d e s t h a t t h e M i n i s t e r o f P e n s i o n s and N a t i o n a l H e a l t h may, w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l of t h e G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l , e n t e r i n t o an agreement w i t h any P r o v i n c e t o p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r t h e p u r p o s e s mentioned i n t h e s a i d A c t : And whereas i t i s e x p e d i e n t t h a t t h e Government be a u t h o r i z e d t o e n t e r i n t o any agreement p u r s u a n t t o t h e s a i d A c t of t h e Dominion: P r e -amble T h e r e f o r e , H i s M a j e s t y , by and w i t h t h e a d v i c e and c o n s e n t of t h e L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , e n a c t s as f o l l o w s : -1. T h i s A c t may be c i t e d as t h e " N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l S h o r t F i t n e s s E n a b l i n g A c t . " t i t l e , 2. The Government i s a u t h o r i z e d t o e n t e r i n t o an Power agreement o r agreements w i t h t h e M i n i s t e r of P e n s i o n s t o and N a t i o n a l H e a l t h o f t h e Dominion ( o r o t h e r e n t e r M i n i s t e r d u l y a u t h o r i z e d by t h e Dominion) f o r any o f i n t o t h e p urposes mentioned i n The N a t i o n a l P h y s i c a l agree-F i t n e s s A c t , 1943," of t h e Dominion; and t h e M i n i s t e r ment. of E d u c a t i o n of t h e P r o v i n c e i s a u t h o r i z e d t o e x e c u t e and d e l i v e r on b e h a l f of t h e P r o v i n c e any agreement so e n t e r e d i n t o . 

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