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Attitudes of elementary school teachers held toward physical activity as manifest in sports and games Chester, Neil Paul Wayne 1973-12-31

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ai ATTITUDES OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS HELD TOWARD PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AS MANIFEST IN SPORTS AND GAMES  BY NEIL CHESTER A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION  i n the School of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A u g u s t , 1973  In p r e s e n t i n g an the  this  thesis in partial  advanced degree at the Library  University  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  f u l f i l m e n t of the  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r extensive for  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  be  g r a n t e d by  thesis for financial  written  permission.  gain  s h a l l not  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  the  Head o f my  Columbia  be  for  that  study.  copying of t h i s  thesis  Department  I t i s understood t h a t copying or  of t h i s  Department  requirements  or  publication  allowed without  my  ABSTRACT  A s u b s t a n t i a l amount o f e v i d e n c e e x i s t s w h i c h s t r o n g l y suggests t h a t elementary  s c h o o l t e a c h e r s p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the s o c i a l -  i z a t i o n p r o c e s s through the i n c u l c a t i o n o f v a l u e and a t t i t u d e systems i n t h e i r students.  F u r t h e r , i t i s the t e a c h e r ' s own p e r s o n a l s e t o f a t t i t u d e s  and b e l i e f s t h a t a r e e i t h e r k n o w i n g l y  o r unknowingly communicated.  In  t h i s r e g a r d , the r e s e a r c h e r undertook the s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y o f a t t i t u d e s h e l d by Vancouver elementary  s c h o o l t e a c h e r s toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y  as  m a n i f e s t i n s p o r t s and games, i n an e f f o r t t o g a i n some u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of  t h e r o l e p l a y e d by the elementary  s c h o o l system i n i n f l u e n c i n g v a l u e s  h e l d by c h i l d r e n f o r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y .  A sample o f 135 n o n - s p e c i a l i s t , elementary was  s c h o o l , classroom  drawn from the Vancouver P u b l i c S c h o o l system.  Each s u b j e c t  teachers was  r e q u e s t e d to complete and r e t u r n t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r , a copy o f "Kenyon's A t t i t u d e Inventory."  The d a t a gleaned from the completed i n v e n t o r i e s was  s t a t i s t i c a l l y a n a l y z e d through u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e  techniques  t o determine what, i f any, d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d i n t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s h e l d toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , as a f u n c t i o n of t h e i r s e x , age and grade l e v e l s taught.  W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n s o f an age x l e v e l i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t f o r the  a s c e t i c subdomain f o r female t e a c h e r s and a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e h e l d by o l d e r as opposed t o younger female toward the v e r t i g o subdomain, t h e a t t i t u d e s h e l d by Vancouver  teachers elementary  s c h o o l t e a c h e r s toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y f a i l e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e x , age, and grade l e v e l s taught  criteria.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES CHAPTER I  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Introduction Statement of the Problem Subproblem Definitions Delimitations of the Study Limitations Significance of the Study  II  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The Development of Scales for the Measurement of Attitudes Held Toward Specific Components of the Physical A c t i v i t y Domain  III  THE PROCEDURE Research Design Selection of the Sample D i s t r i b u t i o n and C o l l e c t i o n of the Inventories The Attitude Inventory Data Treatment  IV  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Results Attitude Differences for Female Teachers as a Function of Their Age. Attitude Differences for Female Teachers as a Function of Grade Levels Taught Age X Level Interaction Attitude Differences for Male Teachers as a Function of Their Age Attitude Differences Between Male and Female Elementary School Teachers Expressed Toward Each Physical A c t i v i t y Subdomain Attitudes Held Toward Physical A c t i v i t y by Vancouver Elementary School Teachers Discussion  V  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary Conclusions  1 1 3 3 3 4 4 4 6  19 24 24 24 25 26 28 30 30 30 32 32 35 36 37 38 43 43 44  REFERENCES APPENDICES A.  L e t t e r of Authorization From Vancouver School Board  B.  L e t t e r To the Teachers From Vancouver School Board  C.  Physical A c t i v i t y Inventory  D.  Raw Scores  iii  LIST OF TABLES  Table  Page  I  A t t i t u d e Differences For Female Subjects For Each Subdomain As A Function of Their Age  II  A t t i t u d e Differences For Female Subjects For Each Subdomain As A Function of Grade Levels Taught  30  Univariate Analysis of Variance of Age X Level Interaction For Female Teachers For Each Subdomain  30  A t t i t u d e Differences For Male Subjects For Each Subdomain As a Function of Their Age  32  A t t i t u d e Differences Between Male and Female Subjects Expressed Toward Each Physical A c t i v i t y Subdomain  33  A t t i t u d e Differences of Vancouver Elementary School Teachers Expressed Toward Each Physical A c t i v i t y Subdomain  34  III  IV V VI  28  iv  LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure I :  Age X L e v e l I n t e r a c t i o n F o r Female S u b j e c t s  34  CHAPTER  T  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM  Introduction  Physical a c t i v i t y as manifest i n sports and games may be viewed as a c u l t u r a l phenomenon occupying i t s own s p e c i f i c niche i n the c u l t u r a l hierarchy.  Since the existence of a hierarchy implies evaluation, and  evaluation connotes values, a concensus regarding the value of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as a c u l t u r a l element exists f o r this society, as i t does f o r a l l societies.  Compared to the Soviet Union, the Scandinavian countries, and indeed, a host of European nations, the s i g n i f i c a n c e of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y i n the Canadian society i s somewhat lacking.  I f we assume - and many i n this  country do - that increased l e v e l s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n sports, games, and sundry p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s by both adults and youth, i s a desirable objective, then i t i s reasonable to conclude that the attainment of this objective i s i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d to achieving an increased s i g n i f i c a n c e of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , f o r each s o c i e t a l member.  A recent and e f f e c t i v e attempt to understand the c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of physical a c t i v i t y i n our s o c i e t y , was made by Gerald S. Kenyon i n a study conducted i n 1968.  Kenyon reasoned that i f the importance of p h y s i c a l  a c t i v i t y was to be understood, i t would be necessary to consider the values held f o r i t .  Such values were believed to be revealed, at least i n part,  2  through the amount of involvement  i n , and the attitudes expressed toward,  various forms of physical a c t i v i t y .  In t h i s regard, a multidimensional  scale was devised f o r the express purpose of measuring attitudes held f o r physical a c t i v i t y .  The manifest concern of t h i s research i s to gain some understanding of the r o l e played by the elementary  school system, i n influencing the values  held by c h i l d r e n for physical a c t i v i t y .  I t i s known that the process of  s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s l a r g e l y responsible f o r the i n c u l c a t i o n of values and attitudes (Krathwohl, 1964).  The elementary school, a l b e i t only one of  many powerful s o c i a l i z i n g agencies, s i g n i f i c a n t l y influences the development of these value systems i n c h i l d r e n (Dreeben, 1967).  The teacher, through  h i s d a i l y v i s - a - v i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s p u p i l s , assumes a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i o n i n the l i v e s of most of the students whom he teaches (Yee, 1968). In this respect, the teacher's behavior i s held to be i n f l u e n t i a l i n a f f e c t i n g the a t t i t u d e s , opinions and value systems of h i s students (Brophy, 1970).  Since a substantial portion of the knowledge transmitted by  classroom teachers i s noncognitive and often unintentional (Silberman, 1969), i t i s reasonable to conclude that the attitudes held by teachers toward p a r t i c u l a r elements of culture s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t s the information transmitted and hence the kind of a f f e c t i v e learning taking place within t h e i r respective classrooms  (Stephens, 1968).  The researcher undertook then, a systematic study of the attitudes  3  held by elementary  school teachers toward physical a c t i v i t y , as a v i a b l e  approach to understanding the values for physical a c t i v i t y fostered by the elementary  school system.  Statement of the Problem  The purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s to ascertain the attitudes held by Vancouver elementary school teachers toward physical a c t i v i t y as manifest i n sports and games, and as revealed by the Kenyon A t t i t u d e Inventory,  Subproblem  To determine whether or not attitudes held by Vancouver elementary school teachers vary as a function of t h e i r sex, age or grade l e v e l s taught.  Definitions  Attitude:  A latent or nonobservable, complex, but r e l a t i v e l y stable  behavioral d i s p o s i t i o n r e f l e c t i n g both d i r e c t i o n and i n t e n s i t y of f e e l i n g toward a p a r t i c u l a r object, whether i t i s concrete or a b s t r a c t .  Vancouver elementary school teachers:  Those teachers who  are f u l l -  time, classroom teachers, teaching grade l e v e l s one to seven, i n the c i t y  4  of Vancouver's public school system.  Delimitations of the Study  The study i s l i m i t e d to examining only those a t t i t u d e s of Vancouver elementary school teachers who meet the requirements Part-time teachers, administrators, non-teaching  of the above d e f i n i t i o n .  resource persons,  p e r i p a t e t i c remedial s p e c i a l i s t s having no s p e c i f i c a l l y defined  and  classroom  function, have been excluded from t h i s study.  Limitations  1.  Because of e x i s t i n g school board p o l i c y , the names of the teachers  selected i n the sample were not made a v a i l a b l e to the researcher.  In t h i s  regard, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of both research inventories and follow-ups to the inventory, were conducted through the p r i n c i p a l s of the schools selected for the study (refer to 'The D i s t r i b u t i o n and C o l l e c t i o n of the Inventories').  2.  Since the r a t i o s of male-to-female teachers i n the Vancouver  elementary school system was unavailable, i t was found i n the sample was  assumed that the r a t i o  representative of the e n t i r e population.  Significance of the Study  1.  Since there has been no previous attempt at using the Kenyon scale  5  to measure the attitudes of elementary school teachers  toward sport and  physical a c t i v i t y , this study w i l l e s t a b l i s h norm tables upon which the findings of future studies may be compared„  2.  I t i s hoped that the findings of the study w i l l y i e l d some  i n d i c a t i o n concerning  the extent, d i r e c t i o n and perceived f u n c t i o n a l i t y  or value of sport and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , as seen by the elementary school teacher.  This knowledge has the following important implications; (a) Since the school system i s the formal s o c i a l i z a t i o n agency of society which exists f o r the express purpose of s o c i a l i z i n g children into society, i t i s imperative  that some attempt be  made to determine whether or not the information  communicated  by the elementary school teacher i n the classroom, i s consistent with the expectations  of the curriculum.  (b) I t i s possible that the knowledge gained from this and future studies of the same nature could have implications f o r both teacher  t r a i n i n g and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g programs.  CHAPTER I I  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  Background of the Study  The research conducted  by the author and reported i n t h i s paper  concerning the a t t i t u d e s held by elementary  school teachers toward p h y s i c a l  a c t i v i t y , was prompted by the recognition of two highly s a l i e n t and extremely ubiquitous themes which permiate the l i t e r a t u r e examining the s o c i o l o g i c a l aspects of the formal education system.  These themes or  premises hold that:  Elementary  school teachers exert a s i g n i f i c a n t influence on the values  and a t t i t u d e development of t h e i r students. and The personal matrix of the teacher's opinions, b e l i e f s , value systems, and a t t i t u d e s , dictates what information i s communicated, either knowingly or unknowingly, to t h e i r students.  That elementary  school teachers exert a s i g n i f i c a n t influence on the  values and a t t i t u d e s developed by t h e i r students, has often been aluded to i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  This i s not to imply that a l l teachers are n e c e s s a r i l y  powerful agents of s o c i a l i z a t i o n .  I t i s indeed obvious that every teacher  does not have the same impact on h i s students, and while many teachers function as highly e f f e c t i v e agents of society, others do not.  What i s  emphasized however, i s that i n most instances, the influence exerted by the  7  teacher i s quite recognizable, and i n some cases, i t i s profound.  In this regard, Talcott Parsons (1959), expanding h i s f u n c t i o n a l i s t approach to sociology to incorporate the school system, advances the theory that the school classroom may be treated as an agency of s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n which i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s are trained to be m o t i v a t i o n a l l y and techn i c a l l y adequate i n the performance of adult r o l e s .  Although Parsons  recognizes the existence of other powerful s o c i a l i z a t i o n agencies such as the family and the peer group, he believes that during the period of time extending from entry into the f i r s t grade u n t i l entry into the labour force or marriage,  the school classroom i s the f o c a l s o c i a l i z i n g agency.  E l k i n (1960) maintains that the import of teachers as agents of s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s not so much a t t r i b u t a b l e to the content of the curriculum they teach, but i s contingent upon the models or " s i g n i f i c a n t others" they become.  Despite the current popularity of p r o j e c t i n g a pejorative  image of teachers, E l k i n holds that students are expected to defer to t h e i r teachers and often i n f a c t , form strong emotional attachments to them. Though the range of a teacher's influence i s seen to vary from t r i v i a l to extremely s i g n i f i c a n t , t h i s influence In a l l cases, e x i s t s .  The student  then, may merely adopt a f a v o r i t e idiosyncrasy of h i s teacher, or he may regard the teacher as one worthy of admiration and emulation.  Dreeben (1968) c r e d i t s the school system with inculcating c e r t a i n necessary values and attitudes which he contends, no other s o c i a l i z i n g  8  agency i s capable of doing as e f f e c t i v e l y .  He holds that the school system,  acting through the medium of the classroom teacher,  countermands many  family influences which hinder the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process i n regard to c i t i z e n s h i p and work-world norms.  The teacher accomplishes t h i s task l a r g e l y  through the development of appropriate universalism, s p e c i f i c i t y , achievement and independence a t t i t u d e s i n h i s  students.  Jules Henry (1963) concurs with the thesis that teachers  i n the  elementary school system play an important r o l e i n the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process.  In discussing the elementary school classroom - the environment i n  which the teacher functions - Henry makes the following comment;  While i t i s true that attitudes and f e e l i n g s are bent toward s o c i a l goals even from e a r l i e s t infancy, many i n s t i t u t i o n s combine to organize these a t t i t u d e s and feelings so that ultimately a s o c i a l steady state w i l l be maintained. The elementary school classroom i n our culture i s one of the most powerful instruments i n this e f f o r t , f o r i t does not merely sustain attitudes that have been created i n the home, but reinforces some, de-emphasizes others, and makes i t s own contribution. In t h i s way i t prepares the conditions f o r and contributes toward the ultimate organization of peer-and parent-structure, supportive of the c u l t u r e . (Henry; 1963, p. 254).  Jackson (1968) holds that c e r t a i n processes inherent i n the teaching s i t u a t i o n , function to s i g n i f i c a n t l y increase the e f f i c a c y of the teacher as a s o c i a l i z i n g agent. important of these  "Evaluation" i s held to be one of the most  processes.  9  L o g i c a l l y , evaluation i n the classroom might be expected to be limited c h i e f l y to the student's attainment of educational objecti v e s . And, c l e a r l y these l i m i t s seem to hold insofar as most o f f i c i a l evaluations go - the ones that are communicated to parents and entered on school records. But there are at l e a s t two other referents of evaluation quite common i n elementary classrooms. One has to do with the student's adjustment to educational expectations; the other with h i s possession of s p e c i f i c character t r a i t s . Indeed the smiles and frowns of teachers and classmates often provide more information of these seemingly peripheral aspects of the student's behavior than they do about h i s academic progress. Moreover, even when the student's mastery of c e r t a i n knowledge or s k i l l s i s allegedly the object of evaluation, other aspects of h i s behavior are commonly being judged at the same time. (Jackson; 1968, p. 22)  The chief source of evaluation i n the classroom i s obviously the teacher. He i s c a l l e d upon continuously to make judgements of students work and behavior and to communicate that judgement to the students i n question and to others. No one who has observed an elementary classroom f o r any length of time can have f a i l e d to be impressed by the vast number of times the teacher performs t h i s function. T y p i c a l l y , i n most classrooms students come to know when things are r i g h t or wrong, good or bad, pretty or ugly, l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t of what the teacher t e l l s them. (Jackson; 1968, p. 20)  The second premise, that the teacher's own personal matrix of opinions, beliefs, value systems and attitudes dictates what information i s communicated, either knowingly or unknowingly, to their students, also generates a unanimity of a f f i r m a t i v e opinion i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  In t h i s regard, Broom (1963) argues that the communication by a teacher of h i s own personal values and a t t i t u d e s , often occurs i n an and completely unpremeditated  manner.  unconscious  He maintains that teacher's attitudes  10  are so much a part of t h e i r personal make-up, they often f a i l to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between personal value systems and universal b e l i e f s .  These a t t i t u d e s then,  are communicated to the c h i l d both through the overt expression of f e e l i n g s such as statements of approval and disapproval, and through more subtle but equally e f f e c t i v e postural c l u e s .  Further, Broom holds that these i m p l i c i t  values and unverbalized a t t i t u d e s can be the most important elements of s o c i a l i z a t i o n when manifest i n behavior toward the c h i l d .  In the same vein, Clausen (1968) points to the lack of general agreement concerning the goal o r i e n t a t i o n of many of society's s o c i a l i z i n g agents, as the prime factor leading to the p r o j e c t i o n by teachers, of their own personal needs which have evolved from t h e i r reactions to t h e i r own s o c i a l i z a t i o n experiences.  Henry (1963) recognized the unconscious needs of the teacher and the projection of t h e i r personal problems into the classroom s i t u a t i o n , as a powerful influence a f f e c t i n g the c r e a t i v i t y and supportive p o s s i b i l i t i e s of t h e i r students.  Stephens (1967) holds that the teacher i s the most c r u c i a l factor i n the educational process since the e f f e c t i v e curriculum i s determined actual i n t e r e s t s .  In t h i s l i g h t , minute-by-minute classroom  by h i s  activities  are not subject to e f f e c t i v e control by others, but stem instead, from tendencies deeply ingrained within the teacher.  11  Stephens s u c c i n c t l y discusses the process i n which he believes teachers unconsciously communicate t h e i r values and a t t i t u d e s :  In another category we f i n d extremely powerful but unpremeditated tendencies to communicate; i n spontaneous, unthinking fashion we f i n d ourselves t e l l i n g others of our i n t e r e s t s or experiences. Quite spontaneously we react to the way others behave i n matters that i n t e r e s t us. Our reaction may consist of spontaneous applause or an i l l - c o n c e a l e d shudder; we may be compelled to correct someone or to supply the s o l u t i o n or the word for which someone else i s groping. The tendencies responsible for behavior that has l i t t l e immediate s u r v i v a l value are widespread and powerful. So are the p r i m i t i v e tendencies to communicate. The tendencies i n both categories often function without the a i d of elaborate r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . Indeed, they often function when r a t i o n a l decisions say, "No". (Stephens; 1967, p. 8)  These automatic or nondeliberative reinforcements are by no means confined to the chance adult who lacks the i n t e n t i o n to teach. They probably play an enormous r o l e i n the everyday work of the " i n t e n t i o n a l " teacher. For every time that any teacher marks a question r i g h t or wrong or administers an overt expression of approval or disapproval, there are scores of occasions when h i s face shows a look of surprise, bafflement, i n c r e d u l i t y , patient waiting, or r e l i e v e d acceptance. These subtle grimaces, these shadows and l i g h t s , these nuances i n tone of v o i c e , are i n play day i n and day out as the teacher faces the c l a s s . They are very e f f e c t i v e reinforcements. They come and go with very l i t t l e deliberate r a t i o n a l e on the part of teachers. And yet, i t i s quite possible that they contribute enormously to educational growth. (Stephens; 1967, p. 64)  It has been noted with some degree of i n t e r e s t , that i n those instances where teachers purposely attempt  to influence the a f f e c t i v e learning of  t h e i r students, i t i s usually intended that the values inculcated w i l l remain long a f t e r the school experience has culminated.  As was  the case with unconscious communications, the form and d i r e c t i o n  12  of the a f f e c t i v e learning attempted, w i l l be i n e x t r i c a b l y related to the values and attitudes held by the teacher.  In t h i s regard Jackson (1968) states:  The problem turns, i t would seem, on the d i s t i n c t i o n between the teacher's primary concern and h i s ultimate concern, on the thoughts and practises dominating h i s immediate actions with students, as contrast with h i s hopes and expectations concerning the long term achievement of i n d i v i d u a l s within his c l a s s . Teachers, p a r t i c u l a r i l y i n the lower grades, seem to be more a c t i v i t y oriented than learning oriented. That i s they commonly decide on a set of a c t i v i t i e s which they believe w i l l have a desirable outcome and then focus t h e i r energies on achieving and maintaining student involvement In those a c t i v i t i e s . Learning i s important, to be sure, but when the teacher i s a c t u a l l y i n t e r a c t i n g with h i s students i t i s a c t u a l l y at the periphery of h i s attention, rather than at the focus of h i s v i s i o n . (Jackson; 1968, p. 162)  We see then, a rather s a l i e n t concensus emerging  from the l i t e r a t u r e  regarding the nature and mechanism of a t t i t u d e and value transmission i n the classroom.  An examination of the empirical evidence i n this regard,  would appear to support this  concensus.  A study of the e f f e c t s of teacher expectations on pupils was from 1964 through 1966 by Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968). t h i s study formed the basis f o r the book "Pygmalion In The  conducted  The r e s u l t s of Classroom,"  published i n 1968.  In May of 1964, the researchers administered Flanagan's "Tests Of General A b i l i t y " to a l l students i n kindergarten and grades one to s i x i n  13  a selected elementary  school.  I t was suggested  to the teachers that t h i s  test would enable the researchers to determine which students were most l i k e l y to show an academic spurt i n the coming year.  In the f a l l of  1964,  20% of the students were randomly chosen as "spurters", and each teacher received a l i s t of names i d e n t i f y i n g those spurters who class. May,  would be i n h i s  The general a b i l i t i e s tests were re-administered i n January,  1965,  and May,  1966.  I t was  1965,  found that the students revealed to the  teachers as being supposed academic spurters, experienced gains on the general a b i l i t i e s test and i n I.Q.  significant  The researchers concluded:  That teachers' favorable expectations can be responsible f o r gains i n t h e i r p u p i l ' s I.Q.'s and, f o r the lower grades, that these gains can be quite dramatic.  The findings of the Rosenthal study have come under a great deal of attack i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  Although most c r i t i c s agree that the basic  premise of the study could be sound ( i . e . , that teacher expectations function as s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecies), methodological d e f i c i e n c i e s and  unacceptable  data analysis, preclude any p o s s i b i l i t y of the data providing tangible support f o r the researcher's hypothesis.  A study of elementary  school teachers conducted  assumed the existence of an expectancy how  (Snow; 1969,  Thorndike;  1968)  by Brophy (1970)  e f f e c t , and focussed on determining  d i f f e r e n t i a l teacher expectations were communicated to children i n such  a way  that would tend to cause children to produce r e c i p r o c a l behavior.  For  the purposes of h i s study, Brophy hypothesized the existence of the following  14  conceptual model:  (a) The teacher forms d i f f e r e n t i a l expectations f o r student performance; (b) He then begins to treat children d i f f e r e n t l y i n accordance with h i s d i f f e r e n t i a l expectations; (c) The c h i l d r e n respond d i f f e r e n t i a l l y to the teacher because they are being treated d i f f e r e n t l y by him; (d) In responding to the teacher, each c h i l d tends to exhibit behavior which compliments and r e i n f o r c e s the teacher's p a r t i c u l a r expectations f o r him; (e) As a r e s u l t , the general academic performance of some children w i l l be enhanced while that of others w i l l be depressed, with changes being i n the d i r e c t i o n of teacher expectations; (f) These e f f e c t s w i l l show up i n the achievement tests given at the end of the year, providing support f o r the " s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy" notion, (p. 365-366)  The research was conducted  i n four f i r s t - g r a d e classrooms  i n which  neither teaching aids, intern teachers, nor any other type of i n s t r u c t i o n a l assistants were u t i l i z e d .  The four teachers involved were asked to rank  t h e i r students i n order of t h e i r academic achievement.  The ranking i n s t r u c t i o n s  were d e l i b e r a t e l y kept vague i n order to e l i c i t subjective judgements from the teachers. teacher's expectancy  These rankings were then used as a measure of the f o r each p u p i l ' s academic achievement.  Students at  the two extremes of the teacher's rankings were selected as subjects. It was reasoned  that because the subjects were chosen i n this manner,  d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment of the p u p i l s by the teacher would be maximized. Since the school employed an achievement tracking system i n grouping  their  students, i t was assumed that objective support f o r the v a l i d i t y of the teacher's expectations would be minimized.  An observation technique using  a coding system f o r recording dyadic interactions between the subjects and the teacher was  employed.  15  Brophy succeeded  In Isolating c e r t a i n verbal interactions varying  in q u a l i t y , and quantity, and which d i f f e r e n t i a t e d according to high or low teacher expectations.  He concludes:  When the l a t t e r differences are s t a t i s t i c a l l y controlled through the used of percentage measures, i t i s seen that the teachers systematically discriminate i n favor of the highs over the lows ( i . e . , high and low expectancies) i n demanding and r e i n f o r c i n g q u a l i t y performance. Teachers do, i n f a c t , communicate d i f f e r e n t i a l performance expectations to d i f f e r e n t children through t h e i r classroom behavior, and the nature of t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment i s such as to encourage the children to begin to respond In ways which would confirm teacher expectancies. In short, the data confirm the hypothesis that teacher's expectations function as s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecies, and they indicate some of the intervening behavioral mechanisms involved i n the process. (p. 373)  Regarding  the nature of the communication of d i f f e r e n t i a l teacher  expectations, Brophy further concludes:  Teachers are frequently unaware of the subtle differences i n t h e i r behavior i n such s i t u a t i o n s , yet i t i s i n such s i t u a t i o n s that teachers systematically communicate d i f f e r e n t i a l expectations to d i f f e r e n t students, (p. 374)  In a s i m i l a r study, Silberman (1969) attempted  to determine i f the  teacher's attitudes toward h i s students were revealed i n h i s classroom behavior.  In assessing their a t t i t u d e s , teacher interviews were conducted  by the researcher.  A systematic observation technique using a coded system  f o r recording pupil-teacher interactions was employed i n the classroom, to ascertain d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment of students by teachers, as a function of the attitudes held by the teachers. then conducted  Interviews with the students were  i n order to f i n d out whether or not they were aware of t h e i r  16  teacher's d i f f e r e n t i a l behavior toward them.  The researcher uncovered  three major findings:  1.  Teachers' a t t i t u d e s are generally revealed i n t h e i r actions i n  s p i t e of many forces operating to contain t h e i r expression.  2.  D i f f e r e n t attitudes are translated into action i n d i f f e r e n t  ways, such that teachers given some of t h e i r attitudes clearer expression than they give others.  3.  Students who receive them are aware of most behavioral expressions  of t h e i r teacher's a t t i t u d e s .  In addition, many such behaviors aimed at  i n d i v i d u a l students are v i s i b l e to other students i n the c l a s s , as w e l l .  Silberman sums up h i s f i n d i n g s :  Thus, I t i s l i k e l y that the d a i l y classroom experience of r e c i p i e n t students i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y altered by teachers' actions which express t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . These actions not only serve to communicate to students the regard i n which they are held by a s i g n i f i c a n t adult, but they also guide the perceptions o f , and behavior toward, these students by t h e i r peers, (p. 407)  An overview of the l i t e r a t u r e presented In t h i s section, strongly suggests that the classroom behavior of the teacher i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y influenced by h i s personal needs, idiosyncrancies, attitudes and value systems.  Further, i t would appear that attitudes and values of the teacher  are communicated to the student whether or not I t i s the intent of the  17  teacher to do so.  Having been transmitted, these values and attitudes often  profoundly a f f e c t the student's behavior, and the a f f e c t i v e learning he internalizes.  The Development of Scales f o r the Measurement of Attitudes Held Toward S p e c i f i c Components of the Physical A c t i v i t y Domain.  A scale f o r measuring  the attitudes of college students toward  physical f i t n e s s and exercise was devised and reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e by Richardson (1960).  One of two c l a s s i c a l techniques f o r a t t i t u d e measurement,  the Thurstone method of equal-appearing i n t e r v a l s (Thurstone and Chave; 1929), was used by Richardson i n developing h i s scale.  Test items f o r the  equal-appearing i n t e r v a l s scale were selected on the basis of judgements made by a panel of experts.  A c o l l e c t i o n of 72 attitude-opinion statements concerning physical f i t n e s s and exercise were compiled i n t u i t i v e l y , from l i t e r a t u r e sources, and from o r a l statements. twenty judges who  These statements were submitted to a panel of  rated each statement on a f i v e point scale.  The  statements  were then grouped according to t h e i r assigned ratings and the median and Q, the distance between the 25th and 75th p e r c e n t i l e s , were calculated f o r each frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n generated.  These s t a t i s t i c s provided the basis  upon which the Richardson a t t i t u d e scale was constructed.  18  The median represents the scale value of the item as r e f l e c t e d by i t s p o s i t i o n accorded i n the five-point rating system.  The i n t e r q u a r t i l e  range (Q), i s considered to be a measure of ambiguity i n the a t t i t u d e statement.  A low Q represents a high agreement among judges about the  p o s i t i o n of the statement on the attitude continuum, while a high Q indicates a low agreement.  Two test forms consisting of 19 Items each were derived  by choosing those items which were evenly scaled (with median values 0.2 points apart) and which had small Q values.  The v a l i d i t y of the a t t i t u d e scale as an instrument of measure was established using the "logical-judgement concensus" approach.  Repetition  and p a r a l l e l forms were used i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a s a t i s f a c t o r y measure of r e l i a b i l i t y of the scale.  Adams (1963) developed and reported two scales for measuring attitudes held toward physical education by teachers' college students using a technique s i m i l a r to that employed by Richardson, and described above.  Two sets of 20 items each were devised which could be combined with either a L i k e r t or Thurstone-Chave rating scale, to gauge attitudes held by teachers' college students toward physical education.  In selecting the  test items, 150 statements concerning physical education were from a v a r i e t y of sources.  accumulated  Of these, 40 of the most appropriate were selected  by a panel of 50 judges, composed of f i r s t and second year u n i v e r s i t y  19  psychology and education students. statement  The judges assessed each a t t i t u d e  according to an eleven point scale (extending from "most favorable"  to "most unfavorable") which represented a continuum of statements  reflecting  attitudes held toward p h y s i c a l education.  This assessment resulted i n the formation of eleven groups of a t t i t u d e statements  Two  spaced by "equally-appearing i n t e r v a l s " .  c r i t e r i a were used i n s e l e c t i n g suitable scale items from the  o r i g i n a l 150  1.  statements:  The degree of agreement between the judges on the placing of  i n d i v i d u a l items.  2.  The necessity f o r a balanced s e l e c t i o n of items r e f l e c t i n g a l l  shades of a t t i t u d e along the continuum.  To provide an assessment of the scale's r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y , the inventories were administered to 245 teachers' college students. of  the scales as an instrument of measure was  The v a l i d i t y  established by comparison  to other t e s t s , and i t s r e l i a b i l i t y was demonstrated through the a p p l i c a t i o n of a s p l i t - h a l v e s technique.  One of the most extensively used Inventories for measuring a t t i t u d e s held toward p h y s i c a l education, was developed by Carlos Wear (1951).  20  Unlike the Richardson inventory previously reviewed i n this study, Wear selected the L i k e r t format ( L i k e r t ; 1932)  as opposed to Thurston's format,  as a basis for the construction of his scale.  Unlike the Thurston technique,  the L i k e r t method does not require an evaluation of test items by a panel of judges, nor does i t assign a d e f i n i t e scale value to the statements. The responses to each statement are a r b i t r a r i l y rated and an i n d i v i d u a l ' s score on a L i k e r t inventory constitutes the sum of the scores made on  the  various statements.  The s e l e c t i o n of items f o r the inventory was  accomplished by  formulating  a s e r i e s of statements r e f l e c t i n g commonly perceived outcomes of p h y s i c a l education.  I t was  reasoned that statements related to these outcomes were  probably more relevant than any others i n evaluating attitudes toward physical education.  Eight categories of outcomes or perceived f u n c t i o n a l i t y  were i d e n t i f i e d by Wear. the context  These deal with physical education  within  of:  (a) P h y s i c a l well-being  (b) muscular strength and  co-ordination  (c) t o t a l p h y s i c a l and muscular endurance (d) a c q u i s i t i o n of neuromuscular s k i l l s (e) resources time now  for recreation, for use of l e i s u r e  and i n l a t e r l i f e (f) mental health, emotional c o n t r o l  and poise*(g)  s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s (h) safety aspects, providing for  better c o n t r o l of body and better use of safety measures,  (p.  116)  21  Statements which might represent verbal expressions of feelings concerning the value of these outcomes and the extent to which p h y s i c a l education was believed to bring about t h e i r attainment, was s o l i c i t e d from graduate and undergraduate students i n physical education c l a s s e s , as well as from the l i t e r a t u r e .  These procedures produced 289 such statements.  One hundred and twenty-two of the t o t a l 289 statements were selected for the inventory on the basis of the following c r i t e r i a :  (a) The attitude statement must be debatable - not a statement of fact.  (b) A l l statements must belong to the same attitude  (3) A statement must not be susceptible pretation,  to more than one i n t e r -  (d) Avoid "double-barreled" statements,  should be short.  (f)  variable.  (e)  Statements  Each statement should be complete i n denoting  a d e f i n i t e attitude toward a s p e c i f i c issue, contain only one complete thought.  (g) Each statement should  (d) Avoid grouping two or more  complete sentences as one attitude statement, be clear-cut and d i r e c t .  (j)  (i)  Statements should  Use with care and moderation such  words as " o n l y " , "mere", " j u s t " ( i n the sense of o n l y ) , "merely", etc.  (k) Avoid c o l o r l e s s expressions or statements lacking  effect.  (1) Whenever p o s s i b l e , write i n the form of a simple instead of compound or complex sentence.  (m) Use a complex rather than a compound sentence,  (n) It i s usually better to use active voice rather than passive, (o) In general use the term of the Issue as the subject of the sentence, (p) Avoid high sounding words, uncommon words or expressions, technical terms not o r d i n a r i l y understood, e t c .  (p.  116)  22  The 122 items thus selected were administered to 75 college students and the responses generated were submitted to item analysis procedures. Following these procedures, a revised l i s t of 120 items was generated  and  these items, i n conjunction with the L i k e r t rating system, were c a l l e d the "Physical Education A t t i t u d e Inventory."  The P h y s i c a l Education A t t i t u d e Inventory was sample of 472 i n d i v i d u a l s .  then administered to a  The data generated i n 272 inventories randomly  removed from the i n i t i a l sample, was  submitted to further item analysis and  a short-form inventory consisting of 40 items was derived.  V a l i d i t y of both forms of the attitude inventory was established by comparing t h e i r r e s u l t s to those of a s p e c i a l l y designed a t t i t u d e questionnaire. R e l i a b i l i t y of the inventories was demonstration through s p l i t - h a l v e s reliability  procedures.  Although the a t t i t u d e inventories reviewed i n t h i s section have been c a r e f u l l y compiled and demonstrate acceptable r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y l e v e l s , each focuses on the measurement of only one dimension of the physical a c t i v i t y domain.  For the purposes of this study then, this unidimensional  f a c t o r precludes the use of any one of the afore mentioned a t t i t u d e scales as the instrument of measure, since i t i s not inconceivable that an elementary school teacher could devaluate physical f i t n e s s and exercise, and s t i l l hold strong p o s i t i v e attitudes toward physical a c t i v i t y when perceived i n another functional context; or, that he devaluate physical education on the basis of personal experience with poor or inadequate programs, while  23  s t i l l maintaining high p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward sports, games, and other and sundry manifestations of the physical a c t i v i t y domain.  To overcome t h i s problem, a multidimensional attitude scale devised by Gerald S. Kenyon (1968) f o r purposes of determining a t t i t u d e s held toward physical a c t i v i t y as manifest i n sports and games, was adopted f o r use i n t h i s study.  At present, t h i s a t t i t u d e inventory  has been used i n two major studies -  once by Kenyon (1968) i n a massive c r o s s - c u l t u r a l study testing attitudes held toward physical a c t i v i t y by secondary school students i n four d i f f e r e n t countries, and once by Alderman (1968) i n a study of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c a l i b e r Canadian athletes.  In addition i t has been employed several times i n  various doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n s .  For a d e s c r i p t i o n of the "Kenyon Inventory", we r e f e r the reader to the section e n t i t l e d "The Attitude Inventory", located i n Chapter I I I , and to Appendix C of t h i s study.  CHAPTER  III  THE PROCEDURE  Research Design  Survey Method.  An a t t i t u d e inventory was d i s t r i b u t e d to  teachers i n seven selected schools i n the Vancouver elementary system.  classroom school  The data c o l l e c t e d was analyzed to obtain information regarding  the nature of a t t i t u d e s held f o r sports and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y by  elementary  school teachers, within the context of sex, age and grade l e v e l s  taught.  Selection of the Sample  A c l u s t e r sampling study.  technique was  employed i n drawing subjects f o r t h i s  Seven of the t o t a l population of seventy schools comprising  Vancouver elementary  school system, were non-randomly selected.  possible that the a t t i t u d e s held by elementary  the  Since i t i s  school teachers toward  physical a c t i v i t y could vary as a function of the l o c a t i o n of the school (Yee, 1968), a balanced d i s t r i b u t i o n i n which a l l areas of the c i t y were represented, was deemed a d e s i r a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the sample.  In t h i s  regard, the schools selected f o r study i n t h i s research were drawn on the basis of t h e i r l o c a t i o n i n the c i t y .  A l l teachers meeting the c r i t e r i a s t i p u l a t e d i n the " D e f i n i t i o n s " and "Delimitations of the Study" sections of t h i s paper, and who one of the selected elementary  taught i n  schools, were chosen as subjects f o r the study.  25 Each sample school contained at least one non-teaching  administrator,  and i n some instances remedial s p e c i a l i s t s having no s p e c i f i c  classroom  assignment were found to be l i s t e d among the school's teaching personnel. In conjunction with the school board's research department, reference to f i l e s kept by the school board concerning the function of each teacher revealed information which eliminated from the sample those i n d i v i d u a l s not meeting the c r i t e r i a established to q u a l i f y them as subjects f o r the study.  Out of a t o t a l population of 1,346 elementary school teachers i n the Vancouver school system, 135 teachers or approximately  10% of the t o t a l  population, were drawn i n the sample.  D i s t r i b u t i o n and C o l l e c t i o n of the Inventories The exact number of subjects to be drawn from each of the seven sample schools was determined from the personnel f i l e of the Vancouver school board  (refer to the preceeding section "Selection of the Sample"), and a  corresponding number of inventories were sent to each p r i n c i p a l of the selected schools.  Along with the i n v e n t o r i e s , each p r i n c i p a l received a  l e t t e r of "authorization" from the school board's research department containing information regarding which of h i s s t a f f members were e l i g i b l e as subjects f o r this study  (refer to Appendix A).  The p r i n c i p a l s were then  charged with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of personally d i s t r i b u t i n g the attitude inventories to each e l i g i b l e member of h i s teaching s t a f f .  In addition to  the l e t t e r of authorization sent to each p r i n c i p a l by the Vancouver p u b l i c school board's research department, a second cover l e t t e r urging the teacher's cooperation i n the study, accompanied the inventories d i s t r i b u t e d to each  26 subject (refer to Appendix B),  A stamped envelope addressed to the researcher was inventory.  Return of the data then, was  attached to each  accomplished v i a the mails.  Since the names of the schools i n which the inventories were d i s t r i b u t e d was  a f f i x e d to each inventory p r i o r to t h e i r being sent out, the return rate  for each school was  readily calculable.  Schools e x h i b i t i n g unsatisfactory  i n i t i a l return rates were contacted by the researcher, and t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s were urged to s o l i c i t the return of the completed inventories by t h e i r teaching s t a f f .  The Attitude Inventory  An inventory developed by Gerald S. Kenyon f o r measuring attitudes toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as manifest i n sports and games, was sample i n this study.  administered  to the  The inventory, evolved from a conceptual model developed  by Kenyon over a period of years  (Kenyon, 1964a, 1964b, 1965a, 1965b), has  as i t s base, a l o g i c a l analysis of the perceived f u n c t i o n a l i t y of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y i n contemporary s o c i e t y . ^  Six perceived functions or  subdomains  of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as i d e n t i f i e d by Kenyon, and each i s used to form a separate scale of the attitude inventory.  The s i x subdomains  A seventh subdomain, "physical a c t i v i t y as manifest i n games of chance," was  l a t e r added by Kenyon to the inventory but was  study i n deference  to school board p o l i c y .  not included i n this  27  are as follows:  1.  Physical a c t i v i t y as a s o c i a l experience.  2.  P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y for health and  3.  Physical a c t i v i t y as the pursuit of v e r t i g o .  4.  Physical a c t i v i t y as an aesthetic experience.  5.  Physical a c t i v i t y as c a t h a r s i s .  6.  P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as an a s c e t i c experience.  In completing the inventory,  fitness.  each respondent i s required to rate  six conceptual subdomains with respect to h i s a t t i t u d e toward them.  the The  r a t i n g i s accomplished through a s e r i e s of eight d e s c r i p t i v e semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l scales, each based on seven a l t e r n a t e Likert-type, summated ratings format. The most p o s i t i v e r a t i n g possible f o r a subdomain of physical a c t i v i t y for any given d e s c r i p t i v e semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l then, i s seven, while the most negative r a t i n g scores  one.  The Kenyon inventory was  selected for use i n t h i s study for  two  primary reasons; f i r s t l y , other a v a i l a b l e instruments (Wear, 1955;  Adams,  1963  believes  to be  and Richardson, 1960)  f a i l to account for what the researcher  the l i k e l y multidimensional nature of the p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y domain,  secondly, the Kenyon inventory has demonstrated an acceptable degree of s t a b i l i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y .  Items held to be representative of the  f u n c t i o n a l dimensions of physical a c t i v i t y have been evaluated  perceived  by item and  factor analysis procedures, and have generated Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t i e s ranging from .72 to .89 for the s i x s c a l e s .  The  s t a b i l i t y of the instrument  was  28  demonstrated by comparative measures of v a r i a b i l i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y , and c e n t r a l tendency between two s i m i l a r populations.  For  the purposes of t h i s study, a general information sheet was added  to the Kenyon inventory which provided the researcher with data regarding the age, sex, and grade l e v e l s taught f o r each respondent.  For  a more comprehensive view of the a t t i t u d e inventory, r e f e r to  Appendix C.  Data Treatment  Total scores f o r each subject i n each of the s i x a t t i t u d e subdomains were determined from t h e i r responses to the t o t a l 48 items.  From t h i s data,  d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s consisting of the mean, rank, and standard deviation of  the e n t i r e group were calculated f o r each a t t i t u d e  subdomain.  Univariate analysis of variance procedures were employed the  the  to analyze  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the differences e x i s t i n g between the following:  1.  The mean scores f o r each subdomain f o r the t o t a l sample.  2.  The mean scores f o r each subdomain as a function of the sex of  subjects.  3.  The mean scores f o r each subdomain for female teachers as a function  of their age and the grade l e v e l s  4.  taught.  The mean scores f o r each subdomain f o r male teachers as a function  of t h e i r age.  (Since the sample f a i l e d to y i e l d any instance of a male  subject teaching i n the lower grade l e v e l s , a comparison of mean scores f o r male teachers as a function of grade l e v e l s taught was not possible.)  For the purposes of t h i s study, two categories of teaching l e v e l s higher and lower teaching l e v e l s - and two age groups of teachers - younger and older teachers - were a r b i t r a r i l y established by the researcher. terms are o p e r a t i o n a l l y defined as follows:  Older teacher: Younger teacher:  40 years of age and o l d e r . 39 years of age and younger.  Higher teaching l e v e l s : Lower teaching l e v e l s :  those teaching grades 4 - 7 . those teaching grades 1 - 3 .  These  CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND  DISCUSSION  Results  One  hundred and  t h r e e o f the sample 135  t e a c h e r s e l e c t e d to complete and  results discussed i n this  f o r the t o t a l sample s e l e c t e d .  from the r e t u r n e d i n v e n t o r i e s generated  76 r e p r e s e n t e d the r e m a i n i n g  i n v e n t o r i e s completed and  the responses  as a F u n c t i o n o f T h e i r  o f female elementary  39 y e a r s o f age t e a c h e r " group  into  school teachers, while Of the  the "younger t e a c h e r " c a t e g o r y  and u n d e r ) , w h i l e 24 i n v e n t o r i e s f e l l ( t e a c h e r s 40 y e a r s o f age  and  Age.  r e t u r n e d to the r e s e a r c h e r ,  i n v e n t o r i e s were completed by male t e a c h e r s .  group, 52 i n v e n t o r i e s f e l l  the  chapter.  A t t i t u d e D i f f e r e n c e s f o r Female Teachers Of the t o t a l o f 103  school  r e t u r n the Kenyon A t t i t u d e I n v e n t o r y .  T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a r e t u r n r a t i o n o f 76.3% A n a l y s i s o f the d a t a gleaned  Vancouver elementary  female  ( i . e . teachers  i n t o the " o l d e r  older).  The mean i n v e n t o r y s c o r e f o r each o f the s i x a t t i t u d e subdomains c a l c u l a t e d f o r both  the "younger" and  " o l d e r " teacher  subdomain was  ranked  In accordance  w i t h the summated r a t i n g s p r o c e d u r e  on the semantic  groups, and  was  each  i n b o t h groups on the b a s i s o f these mean s c o r e s . used i n the Kenyon  Inventory  d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e , a h i g h s c o r e r e p r e s e n t s a more p o s i t i v e  a t t i t u d e toward the subdomain than does a low  score.  31  As indicated i n Table I , the mean scores range from a high of 49.21 for the aesthetic subdomain i n the "older teacher" group, to a low mean score of 32.35 for the a s c e t i c subdomain i n the "younger teacher" group. In both groups, the rank order of each subdomain i s i d e n t i c a l , with the aesthetic subdomain recording the highest mean score, and with c a t h a r t i c , s o c i a l , f i t n e s s , vertigo and ascetic subdomains following r e s p e c t i v e l y i n descending  order.  For each subdomain, the mean scores are higher i n the "older teacher" group.  Despite this consistency, univariate  analysis of variance  techniques  i n d i c a t e that this difference i s s i g n i f i c a n t only f o r the v e r t i g o subdomain (p <.01, Table I ) .  TABLE I Attitude Differences For Female Subjects For Each Subdomain As A Function of Their Age  Subdomain  Younger Teachers (n=52) Mean  Rank  Older Teachers (n=24) Mean  F Ratio  P  Rank  Social  46.38  3  47.04  3  0.2468  0.6209  Fitness  43.65  4  44.75  4  0.4357  0.5114  Vertigo  34.27  5  40.17  5  7.1430  0.0094  Aesthetic  47.75  1  49.21  1  1.0020  0.3202  Cathartic  47.29  2  47.71  2  0.0665  0.7973  Ascetic  32.35  6  35.42  6  2.2990  0.1339  32  Attitude Differences f o r Female Teachers as a Function of Grade Levels Taught.  Half (38) of the female subjects i n this study f e l l into the "upper  l e v e l " category ( i . e . teachers of grades 4 to 7), while the remaining 38 f e l l into the "lower l e v e l " category ( i . e . teachers of grades 1 to 3).  As indicated i n Table I I , the mean scores f o r each subdomain i n both " l e v e l " categories range from a high of 48.24 f o r the aesthetic subdomain i n the "lower l e v e l " group, to a low mean score of 32.21 f o r the a s c e t i c subdomain, also i n the "lower l e v e l " group.  The rank order of each subdomain  i s the same i n both "upper" and "lower" l e v e l categories and i s i d e n t i c a l to  that exhibited i n the two previously discussed "age" categories (refer  to  Table I ) .  A comparison of the mean scores f o r each subdomain i n the two  " l e v e l " categories shows a higher mean score f o r s o c i a l , f i t n e s s , vertigo and aesthetic subdomains i n the "lower l e v e l " category than i n the "upper l e v e l " category.  Cathartic and a s c e t i c subdomains however, exhibit higher  mean scores i n the "upper l e v e l " category.  As the p values i n Table I I  i n d i c a t e , none of these observed differences are s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  Age X Level Interaction.  Univariate Analysis of Variance procedures  y i e l d s a p value of 0.0001 f o r the a s c e t i c subdomain, i n d i c a t i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t age x l e v e l i n t e r a c t i o n (see Figure 1).  As indicated by the p values  l i s t e d i n Table I I I , an age x l e v e l i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t f o r the remaining f i v e subdomains, i s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  apparent.  Table I I A t t i t u d e D i f f e r e n c e s F o r Female S u b j e c t s Subdomain as a F u n c t i o n  Subdomain  o f Grade L e v e l s Taught  Lower L e v e l Teacher (n=38)  Mean  F o r Each  Upper L e v e l Teachers (n=38)  Rank  Mean  F  Ratio  P  Rank  Social  46.61  3  46.58  3  0.0189  0.8911  Fitness  44.18  4  43.82  4  0.1588  0.6915  Vertigo  36.34  5  35.92  5  0.6924  0.4082  Aesthetic  48.24  1  48.18  1  0.0743  0.7860  Cathartic  46.97  2  47.87  2  0.2990  0.5862  Ascetic  32.21  6  34.42  6  0.7276  0.3966  Table I I I Univariate  A n a l y s i s of Variance  o f Age X L e v e l I n t e r a c t i o n F o r  Female Teachers F o r Each Subdomain  Subdomain  F  Social  0.0147  0.9039  Fitness  1.2590  0.2656  Vertigo  1.9698  0.1648  Aesthetic  0.4516  0.5038  Cathartic  0.3112  0.5787  20.7615  0.0001  Ascetic  Ratio  P  34  FIGURE I  Younger  Older Age Groups  35  Attitude Differences For Male Teachers as a Function of Their Age, the 27 male respondents to the attitude inventory administered i n t h i s 18 male elementary school teachers (i.e.  those teachers  f e l l into the "younger teachers"  Of study,  category  39 years of age and younger) while 9 f e l l into the  "older teachers" c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  (i.e.  those teachers 40 years of age and  older).  As indicated i n Table IV, the scores for each subdomain i n each of the two groups range from a high score of 48.22 for the aesthetic subdomain i n the "older teachers" group, to a low score of 37.17 for the vertigo subdomain i n the "younger teachers" group.  With the exception of the  a s c e t i c subdomain, the scores for each subdomain were higher i n the "older teachers" group than they were i n the "younger teachers" group.  Univariate Analysis of Variance techniques indicate that the  differences  e x i s t i n g between the scores for each subdomain i n each of the two groups are not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  (refer to Table I V ) .  The rank order of the subdomains i n both the "younger" and " o l d e r " teachers groups ranked the aesthetic and cathartic subdomains as 1 and 4 r e s p e c t i v e l y , while the rankings of the remaining 4 subdomains varied  36  between the two groups (refer to Table IV).  TABLE  IV  Attitude Differences For Male Subjects For Each Subdomain As a Function of Their Age  Subdomain  Younger Teachers (n=18)  Older Teachers (n=9)  Mean  Mean  Rank  Rank  F Ratio  P  Social  45.67  2  46.11  3  0.0322  0.8590  Fitness  45.22  3  46.89  2  0.3543  0.5571  Vertigo  37.17  6  37.67  5  0.0213  0.8851  Aesthetic  46.72  1  48.22  1  0.2777  0.6029  Cathartic  44.11  4  44.67  4  0.0183  0.8935  Ascetic  37.28  5  35.11  6  0.6163  0.4399  Attitude Differences Between Male and Female Elementary School Teachers Expressed Toward Each Physical A c t i v i t y Subdomain.  Table V reveals the mean  scores f o r each p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y subdomain f o r both male (n=27) and female (n=76) sample groups.  These scores range from a high of 48.21 f o r the  aesthetic subdomain i n the female group, to a low score of 33.32, also i n the female group.  In both sex groups, the aesthetic subdomain ranks f i r s t ,  the vertigo subdomain f i f t h , and the a s c e t i c subdomain s i x t h , while the  37  rankings of the remaining three subdomains vary between groups.  Univariate  Analysis of Variance procedures f a i l to attach s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e to the differences e x i s t i n g between the mean scores f o r each subdomain i n each of the two groups (refer to Table V ) .  Table  V  Attitude Differences Between Male and Female Subjects Expressed Toward Each Physical A c t i v i t y Subdomain  Males (n=27)  Females (n=76)  Mean  Rank  Mean  Social  45.81  2  46.59  Fitness  45.78  3  Vertigo  37.33  Aesthetic  Subdomain  F Ratio  P  3  0.4057  0.5256  44.00  4  1.4017  0.2392  5  36.13  5  0.3501  0.5554  47.22  1  48.21  1  0.5184  0.4732  Cathartic  44.30  4  47.42  2  3.4491  0.0662  Ascetic  36.56  6  33.32  6  2.7711  0.0991  Rank  Attitudes Held Toward Physical A c t i v i t y by Vancouver Elementary School Teachers.  In order to determine a representative set of scores f o r each  a t t i t u d e subdomain f o r Vancouver elementary school teachers as a group, the mean score f o r each subdomain was calculated from the responses of a l l subjects selected i n the sample (n=103).  These scores ranged from a high  of 47.95 f o r the aesthetic subdomain, to a low of 34.17 f o r the a s c e t i c  38 subdomain.  The mean scores and rankings for the s i x subdomains are l i s t e d  i n Table VI.  Table VI Attitude Differences of Vancouver Elementary School Teachers Expressed Toward Each Physical A c t i v i t y Subdomain  Subdomain  Mean  Rank  Social  46.39  3  5.4470  Fitness  44.47  4  6.7022  Vertigo  36.45  5  9.0657  Aesthetic  47.95  1  6.1269  Cathartic  46.60  2  7.5099  Ascetic  34.17  6  5.4470  Standard Deviation  Discussion Attitude Differences as a Function of  Age  Differences i n attitudes held toward physical a c t i v i t y by male and female elementary school teachers as a function of t h e i r age were anticipated by the researcher.  Since physical education programs and the  organization,  administration, and coaching of various and sundry e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r sports,  39 games, and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s a r e commonly thought to f a l l w i t h i n o f t h e younger t e a c h e r , and a r e t h e r e f o r e  often  of  that  t h i s group, t h e r e s e a r c h e r a n t i c i p a t e d  held  left  the domain  to the r e c o g n i z a n c e  a difference i n attitudes  toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y would e x i s t between younger and o l d e r  teachers,  w i t h younger t e a c h e r s e x p r e s s i n g a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e i n t h i s r e g a r d . With one e x c e p t i o n , t h e r e s e a r c h expectation.  conducted h e r e i n  No s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d  d i d not s u p p o r t t h i s  toward a more p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e  a t t i t u d e e x p r e s s e d toward t h e i n v e n t o r y  subdomains f o r e i t h e r the younger  o r o l d e r groups o f male and female t e a c h e r s was uncovered.  The older  reasons f o r t h e more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e found t o be e x p r e s s e d by  as opposed to younger female t e a c h e r s toward the v e r t i g o  remains l a r g e l y i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e .  T h a t t h e age o f a female t e a c h e r i s a  f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g h e r a t t i t u d e toward t h i s s i n g l e p h y s i c a l subdomain, demands f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h  subdomain,  activity  i f a s a t i s f a c t o r y explanation  for this  phenomenon i s t o be advanced.  The  most i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g r e s u l t i n g from t h e comparison o f a t t i t u d e s  toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y h e l d by younger and o l d e r differences The  teachers i s not the  t h a t e x i s t between the two age groups, b u t t h e l a c k o f d i f f e r e n c e s .  i d e n t i c a l r a n k i n g s f o r each subdomain i n t h e two age groups f o r female  t e a c h e r s , and t h e f r a c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s  i n mean s c o r e s c o n t r i b u t i n g  to t h e  s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n i n r a n k i n g s f o r t h e male age groups, a t t e s t s t o t h e homogeneity among groups o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e a t t i t u d e s h e l d by elementary  school  t e a c h e r s toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , when grouped a c c o r d i n g t o t h e age c r i t e r i o n .  AO  Attitude Differences as a Function of Grade Levels Taught  No s i g n i f i c a n t differences were found between the attitudes held by "upper" and "lower" l e v e l teachers toward the s i x physical a c t i v i t y subdomains. Like the "age" groups discussed above, the two " l e v e l " groups are remarkably homogeneous when the c o l l e c t i v e attitudes of one group are compared with those of the other.  On the basis of the findings i n t h i s study then, i t  would appear that the attitudes held by elementary school teachers toward physical a c t i v i t y , do not d i f f e r e n t i a t e as a function of the grade l e v e l s taught.  Age X Level Interaction The research conducted to date i n both t h i s study and i n related studies does not permit the researcher to speculate with any degree of authority on the s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n a t t i t u d e toward the a s c e t i c domain which exists f o r female elementary school teachers when t h e i r ages and grade l e v e l s taught are considered simultaneously.  Further study i n this  regard i s warranted.  Attitude Differences as a Function of Sex Since the t r a d i t i o n a l view i n our society holds that males are generally more p o s i t i v e l y oriented toward physical a c t i v i t y as manifest i n sports and games than are females, the researcher anticipated a s i g n i f i c a n t l y more p o s i t i v e response to the subdomains on the Kenyon Inventory f o r males than for females.  This supposition was not born out by the r e s u l t s of the study.  Although some v a r i a t i o n was  found to e x i s t i n the ranking of the subdomains  by the two sexes, the mean scores on each subdomain for both sexes f a i l e d to d i f f e r e n t i a t e .  On t h i s basis then, i t would appear that the comparison  of male and female grouped elementary school teachers reveals a p r e v a i l i n g attitude toward physical a c t i v i t y as manifest i n sports and games which i s r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous.  Homogeneity of Attitudes  An examination  of the o v e r a l l r e s u l t s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e that while  some a t t i t u d e s held by Vancouver elementary school teachers are r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous, others are not.  Despite the lack of s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  differences e x i s t i n g between the s i x a t t i t u d e subdomains when the t o t a l compliment of subjects drawn i n the sample are considered as a group, the r e l a t i v e l y large standard deviations found i n the v e r t i g o , f i t n e s s and c a t h a r t i c subdomains are i n d i c a t i v e of s u b s t a n t i a l i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s i n attitudes held toward these three a t t i t u d i n a l sets (refer to Table VI). By v i r t u e of the more moderate standard deviations found for the s o c i a l , aesthetic and a s c e t i c subdomains, a t t i t u d e s held by elementary school teachers toward these perceived functions of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y are r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous.  Extending these findings then,the researcher suggests that the  c h i l d entering the elementary school system i s confronted with divergent attitudes held toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y when viewed within some f u n c t i o n a l contexts, while i n others, the attitudes projected are rather homogeneous. Since the homogeneity of information transmitted by s o c i a l i z i n g agents has long been recognized as a c r i t i c a l factor i n the s o c i a l i z i n g process, i t i s quite possible that the elementary school system i s more instrumental i n  42 modifying a t t i t u d e s held  toward p h y s i c a l  a c t i v i t y when viewed i n the s o c i a l ,  a e s t h e t i c and a s c e t i c subdomains then when c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n contexts o f f i t n e s s ,  c a t h a r s i s and v e r t i g o .  the f u n c t i o n a l  CHAPTER  V  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  Summary  P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as manifest i n sports and games, when viewed i n a c u l t u r a l context, occupies i t s own s p e c i f i c niche i n the c u l t u r a l hierarchy of a given s o c i e t y , as do a l l other c u l t u r a l elements.  Each c u l t u r a l  element achieves i t s respective h i e r a r c h i a l p o s i t i o n through the consensus which exists i n that society.  New s o c i e t a l members are introduced to this  consensus by a v a r i e t y of s o c i a l agents and agencies whose combined actions constitute the process of s o c i a l i z a t i o n .  A s u b s t a n t i a l amount of research has been conducted,  the r e s u l t s of  which strongly suggest that reachers - and more s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  elementary  school teachers - often function as extremely e f f e c t i v e agents i n the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process.  Further empirical evidence indicates that the  information communicated by teachers often occurs u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y , and that this information conforms to the teacher's own personal values and a t t i t u d e s , biases and b e l i e f s .  In the l i g h t of these findings then, i t i s l o g i c a l l y concluded that the r o l e played by the school system i n determining the value ascribed to physical a c t i v i t y as a c u l t u r a l element, i s r e f l e c t e d at least i n p a r t , by the personal values and attitudes held by i t s teachers.  Operating within this framework then, the essence of this study was to gain some i n s i g h t i n t o the actual values and attitudes held by elementary  44  school teachers toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as manifest i n sports and games. Toward this end,  the Kenyon Attitude Inventory was  administered to a  sample group of elementary school teachers i n the Vancouver Public School system.  On the basis of the data gleaned from the completed inventories,  a norm table of attitudes held by elementary school teachers toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y was  established for the purpose of comparison with other groups,  and f o r use i n future  research.  The p o s s i b i l i t y of e x i s t i n g differences i n attitudes held toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y among elementary school teachers as a function of t h e i r age, sex and grade l e v e l s taught, was  also inventigated.  The  study  determined that these three factors did not generate s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t i t u d i n a l differences i n teachers, and that the attitudes held by teachers as a group toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y varied toward the f i t n e s s , c a t h a r t i c and vertigo subdomains, but were f a i r l y consistent toward the s o c i a l , aesthetic and a s c e t i c subdomains.  Since consistency  agents of s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n the a f f e c t i v e information  among  they communicate i s  believed to be one of the prime factors i n determining the e f f i c a c y of the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process, both the consistencies and inconsistencies i n the projected attitudes noted above are deemed to be s i g n i f i c a n t findings i n this study.  Conclusions  In addition to e s t a b l i s h i n g norm tables f o r elementary school teachers  45  on  t h e Kenyon A t t i t u d e  1.  I n v e n t o r y , t h i s study c i t e s two major  The a t t i t u d e s o f elementary s c h o o l  a c t i v i t y as m a n i f e s t i n s p o r t s t h e i r age, s e x o r grade l e v e l  2.  physical  and games do n o t vary as a f u n c t i o n o f taught.  The c o l l e c t i v e a t t i t u d e o f elementary s c h o o l  physical activity  as m a n i f e s t i n s p o r t s  teachers  and games i s s u b j e c t  i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s when c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n catharsis  t e a c h e r s toward  findings:  toward  to s u b s t a n t i a l  the f u n c t i o n a l contexts of f i t n e s s ,  and v e r t i g o , b u t a r e more homogeneous when viewed i n a s o c i a l ,  aesthetic or ascetic  context.  46  References  Adams, R.S. "Two scales for measuring a t t i t u d e toward physical Research Quarterly, 34:91-94, March, 1963.  education,"  Alderman, R.B. "A sociopsychological assessment of a t t i t u d e toward physical a c t i v i t y i n shampion a t h l e t e s , " Research Quarterly, V o l . 41, No. 1, 1968. Amidon, E. "Teacher-pupil 35:130, A p r i l , 1965.  i n t e r a c t i o n , " Review of Educational Research,  Back, K. 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" S t u d e n t a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m and t e a c h e r a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m as f a c t o r s i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e and a t t i t u d e s , " J o u r n a l of E x p e r i m e n t a l E d u c a t i o n , 38:83-87, No. 4, Summer, 1970. Wheeler, S. "The s t r u c t u r e of f o r m a l l y o r g a n i z e d s o c i a l i z a t i o n s e t t i n g s , " S o c i a l i z a t i o n A f t e r C h i l d h o o d : Two E s s a y s , New Y o r k : John W i l e y and Sons, I n c . , 1966. W h i t t a k e r , J . " A t t i t u d e change and communication - a t t i t u d e J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 65:141-147, 1965. Yee,  discrepancy,"  A. "Source and d i r e c t i o n o f c a u s a l i n f l u e n c e i n t e a c h e r - p u p i l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , " J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 59:275-282, No. 1968.  4,  53  APPENDIX  A  L e t t e r o f A u t h o r i z a t i o n From Vancouver S c h o o l Board  55  APPENDIX B  L e t t e r To The Teachers From Vancouver S c h o o l Board  57  APPENDIX  Physical Activity  C  Inventory  58  PHYSICAL ACTIVITY  Age  INVENTORY  Sex_  Grade L e v e l ( s ) P r e s e n t l y Taught  NOTE:  Being  THIS QUESTIONNAIRE CAN BE.COMPLETED IN FIFTEEN - TWENTY MINUTES.  59  (Do  Not Mark T h i s  (using  Page)  INSTRUCTIONS d i r e c t response)  SEM. D. SCALES OF ATPA and B I  i:)  (Project  The purpose o f t h i s i n v e n t o r y i s t o measure the meaning f o r you o f c e r t a i n c o n c e p t s o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y by j u d g i n g them against a s e r i e s of d e s c r i p t i v e scales. In t a k i n g t h i s t e s t , p l e a s e make y o u r judgements on the b a s i s o f what these t h i n g s mean to y o u . On each page o f the b o o k l e t y o u w i l l f i n d a d i f f e r e n t i d e a o r c o n c e p t t o be judged and b e n e a t h i t a s e t o f s c a les. You a r e t o r a t e the c o n c e p t on each o f these s c a l e s i n o r d e r i n w h i c h they a r e g i v e n . Here i s how y o u a r e t o use these  scales:  I f y o u f e e l t h a t the c o n c e p t i n t h e box a t the t o p o f t h e page, f o r example "REFEREE , i s v e r y c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o one end o f t h e s c a l e , you s h o u l d p l a c e y o u r check-mark as f o l l o w s : ,,  REFEREE fair  x  :  I  : 2  : 3  : 4 .  :  :  5  unfair  7  6~~  or fair  :  fair  :  x unfair 1 2 3, 4 5 6 7 I f you f e e l t h a t the c o n c e p t i s q u i t e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to one o r the o t h e r end o f t h e s c a l e (but n e t e x t r e m e l y ) , you s h o u l d p l a c e y o u r check-mark: as f o l l o w s :  I  x  _:  :  :  :  :  :  :  :  __:  __:  2  3  4  5  unfair  6  7  or fair  :_  I  2  : 3  : 4  : 5  x 6  :  unfair  7  INSTRUCTIONS  (Cont'd)  I f the c o n c e p t seems o n l y s l i g h t l y r e l a t e d opposed to the o t h e r s i d e (but i s not n e u t r a l ) , check as f o l l o w s : fair  :  :  2  I  x  :  3  :  4  :  5  to one s i d e as then you s h o u l d  :  6  unfair  7  or fair  :  :  2  I  :  3  :  x  :  5  4  :  6  unfair  7  The d i r e c t i o n toward which you check, o f c o u r s e , depends upon which o f the two ends o f the s c a l e seem most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the t h i n g you a r e j u d g i n g . I f you c o n s i d e r the c o n c e p t to be n e u t r a l on the s c a l e ( t h a t i s , b o t h s i d e s o f the s c a l e seem e q u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c o n c e p t ) , o r i f the s c a l e makes no sense, ( t h a t i s , i t i s u n r e l a t e d to the c o n c e p t ) t h e n you shou l d p l a c e y o u r check-mark i n the m i d d l e s p a c e : safe  : 1  IMPORTANT:  (1)  : 2  : 3  x  4  :  :  :  6  5  dangerous  7  P l a c e y o u r check-mark i n the m i d d l e o f s p a c e s , n o t on the b o u n d a r i e s : THIS  NOT  THIS  (2)  Be sure you c h e c k . e v e r y s c a l e f o r e v e r y cept do n o t omit any.  con-  (3)  Never p u t more than one gle scale.  sin-  (4)  The numbers under each s c a l e are m e r e l y to a s s i s t i n a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a by computers. You do n o t need to pay any a t t e n t i o n to them.  check-mark on a  Sometimes you may f e e l as though you've had the same i t e m b e f o r e on the t e s t . T h i s w i l l not be the c a s e , so do not l o o k back and f o r t h t h r o u g h the i t e m s . Do not t r y to remember how you checked s i m i l a r items e a r l i e r i n the t e s t . Make each i t e m a s e p a r a t e and independent judgement. Work a t a f a i r l y h i g h speed t h r o u g h the t e s t . Do n o t worry o r p u z z l e o v e r i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s . It i s y o u r f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n s , the immediate " f e e l i n g s " about the items t h a t we want. On the o t h e r hand, p l e a s e do not be c a r e l e s s bewe want y o u r t r u e i m p r e s s i o n s .  61  U s i n g the S c a l e s Below, E x p r e s s on the Answer Sheet What the Concept i n the Box Cleans t o  You  PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AS A SOCIAL EXPERIENCE S p o r t s , games and o t h e r forms o f p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n whose p r i m a r y purpose i s to p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; t h a t i s , to meet new p e o p l e and continue personal f r i e n d s h i p s .  As you p r o c e e d , the box. 1.  2.  good  always  I  worthless  :  :  4.  pleasant  I-  sour  :  : 1  5.  b»  7.  nice  sad  I  2  2  2  I  :  : 3  3  4  2  5 :  2  :  3  5  :  dirty  1  6  :  5  happy 7  :  :  4  : 6  : 4"  7  : 5  :  awful  :  6  :  sweet 7  ;  5  :  : 6  :  unpleasant 7  : 5  .• 4  ;  : 6  : 4  worthwhile 7  : 5  : 3  :  ; I  4  : 6  :  bad 7  : 5  : 3  2 :  relaxed  :  : 6  : 4  i d e a or concept i n  : 5  : 3  the  : 4  :  I8.  : 3  :  ^  clean  :  2  ~~T  3.  2  be t h i n k i n g about  tense  ;  6  7  62  -2-  P H Y S I C A L A C T I V I T Y F O K H E A L T H AND F I T N E S S Participating i n physical activity p r i m a r i l y to improve one's.health and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s .  A s you proceed, always the box. 1.  2.  3.  4.  5»  6.  7.  good  worthless  pleasant  sour  nice  1  1  1  1  1  • •  • •  • #  • *  •  2  2  2  2  *  sad  1  • •  • •  • *  • •  about  4  3  4  3  4 • •  3  »  5  •  4  5  1  5  4  3  4  5 • •  •  7 •  ' 7'  6 • •  * •  6  6  •  5  7  6  5  4  •  2  •  •  4  7  6 • •  *  •  •  *  •  3  i n  7  6  5  ••  3  concept  bad  • •  clean  relaxed  idea or  6  5  •  3  2  the  »  3  •  2  1 8.  2  be t h i n k i n g  • •  * •  unpleasant  sweet  awful  happy  7  7  •  b  worthwhile  7  dirty  tense  63  -3-  PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AS A THRILL BUT INVOLVING SOME RISK P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s p r o v i d i n g , a t some r i s k to the p a r t i c i p a n t , t h r i l l s and e x c i t e m e n t t h r o u g h speed, a c c e l e r a t i o n , sudden change o f d i r e c t i o n , and exposure to dangerous s i t u a t i o n s .  As you p r o c e e d , the box.  1.  2.  good  always  worthless  the i d e a or concept  sour  5.  nice  6 :  ;  :  2  :  3  3  :  5  :  worthwhile  7~~  6  unpleasant  5  "5 :  T  2  :  3  :  3  :  5  ;  5  T :  7~  sad  clean  :  T~  ~~I 8.  relaxed  :  : J  ~^ :  g.  :  4 ;  3  5 :  ^  :  sweet  awful  happy  6 7.  in  bad  pleasant  4.  6.  t h i n k i n g * , about  T  T 3.  be  :  1  dirty  7~ :  tense  T~  64 -4-  PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AS THE BEAUTY IN HUMAN MOVEMENT P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s which a r e thought o f as p o s s e s s i n g beauty or c e r t a i n a r t i s t i c q u a l i t i e s such as b a l l e t , g y m n a s t i c s o r figure skating.  As y o u p r o c e e d , always be t h i n k i n g about the box*  the i d e a o r c o n c e p t i n  1.  good  2.  worthless  worthwhile  3.  pleasant  unpleasant  4.  sour  sweet  5.  nice  awful  sad  _happy  7.  clean  _dirty  8.  relaxed  tense  6.  bad  65 -5-  PHYSICAL ACTIVITY FOR THE RELEASE OF TENSION The p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( o r w a t c h i n g others p a r t i c i p a t e ) i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s t o g e t away from the problems o f modern l i v i n g ; to p r o v i d e a r e l e a s e from "pent up emotions".  As you p r o c e e d , always be t h i n k i n g about the box. 1.  good  :  ~~I 2.  3,  pleasant  sour  5.  nice  \  "3  T  sad  ______  -  5  eT  sweet  "3  z  T  awful  happy  •  3  5"  clean  relaxed  7~  unpleasant  "5 8.  bad  T  »  3  :  worthwhile  IT m  S  :  T  "5  "2  :  5  "5  "I 7.  2  :  worthless  4.  6.  ;  the i d e a o r c o n c e p t i n  r  dirty  tense  66  -6-  P H Y S I C A L A C T I V I T Y AS PROLONGED AND STRENUOUS T R A I N I N G P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s which require long p e r i o d s o f s t r e n u o u s and o f t e n p a i n f u l t r a i n i n g ; which involve s t i f f competit i o n a n d demands t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l g i v e up a number o f p l e a s u r e s f o r a p e r i o d o f time.  A s y o u p r o c e e d , a l w a y s be t h i n k i n g a b o u t t h e i d e a the box. 1.  good  :  I 2.  worthless  pleasant  5.  nice  :  I 6.  sad  ;  clean  :  relaxed  ;  I  3 _;  2  3  :  :  :  4  7 dirty  :  T~~  6 :  5  happy  :  6  5  awful  7  :  : 4  : 6  5  sweet 7  :  :  : 2  7  6  5  4  unpleasant  :  :  : 3  worthwhile  : 6  5  4  : 2  I 8.  3  7 "~*  7  :  :  bad  :  : 5  4  : 2  I 7.  3  5  6  :  :  :  : 5  4  : 2  :  : 3  : 5  4  :_  :  I  : 3  2  : 4  :  :  sour  : 3  2  I 4. -  2  :  I 3.  :  or concept i n  : 6  .tense 7 -  67  APPENDIX  D  Raw Scores  68 RAW  SCORES  Female Young Lower Subs.  Asc.  1  34  2  Cath.  Aesth.  Vert.  Fit.  Soc  45  48  44  46  49  29  44  46  25  39  47  3  16  40  47  38  43  46  4  32  56  47  42  50  47  5  22  50  53  37  28  45  6  44  56  56  32  56  56  7  22  42  47  20  41  40  8  42  56  52  53  54  55  9  53  53  53  33  53  54  10  11  56  51  12  32  50  11  20  46  41  44  38  32  12  17  48  56  49  56  56  13  38  34  47  23  38  40  14  24  37  42  32  32  46  15  29  44  40  44  48  44  16  27  54  56  33  46  45  17  30  34  50  11  33  53  18  31  50  39  39  53  46  19  36  53  45  39  43  37  20  36  56  56  42  46  48  21  34  43  50  32  46  46  22  25  42  46  31  42  44  23  26  47  44  34  43  50  24  28  46  49  35  44  47  25  30  46  48  31  44  45  26  29  50  48  30  40  42  27  24  44  44  35  41  47  28  31  48  48  31  43  47  29  27  46  49  38  43  45  30  30  49  47  37  42  46  69 Female Young Upper Subs.  Asc.  Cath.  Aesth.  1  31  47  A5  2  38  55  3  32  A  Vert.  Fit.  Soc  36  A6  Al  53  52  51  55  A3  A5  53  A8  A5  AO  51  56  18  A2  5A  5  29  A8  A3  35  A5  A9  6  A8  56  32  38  A8  A8  7  A8  56  56  19  50  A8  8  38  3A  A6  35  A8  AA  9  A5  56  56  A2  A6  A2  10  39  52  55  36  50  56  11  15  A8  A5  15  25  Al  12  3A  A3  A2  31  A3  AA  13  36  Al  A7  30  AO  A6  1A  38  AO  32  32  32  32  15  AO  A3  55  A5  A9  51  16  27  38  A3  35  39  A2  17  33  35  37  A6  AO  A3  18  38  5A  52  30  AA  A8  19  AO  55  50  29  A6  A9  20  39  50  53  31  AA  A7  21  AO  51  A7  33  A7  A7  22  37  A8  A8  35  AA  A5  70 Female O l d e r Lower  Subs.  Asc.  Cath.  Aesth.  1  41  51  53  2  56  56  3  39  4  Vert.  Fit.  Soc.  51  47  44  56  56  56  56  44  47  32  44  48  38  35  39  39  41  40  5  37  49  45  40  43  43  6  48  46  44  38  42  39  7  39  45  52  49  51  54  8  49  44  52  50  52  52  71  Female O l d e r Upper  Subs.  Asc.  Cath.  Aesth.  Vert.  Fit.  Soc,  1  28  47  53  44  36  47  2  40  55  56  46  56  53  3  39  44  50  45  44  45  4  14  56  53  35  33  44  5  36  52  56  53  56  53  6  40  55  52  32  51  52  7  41  54  54  35  49  54  8  16  44  43  23  38  40  9  32  30  32  30  32  36  10  30  53  48  41  48  49  11  14  56  56  40  50  51  12  41  46  48  36  37  45  13  38  42  44  38  40  44  14  33  44  49  36  41  47  15  29  48  50  37  43  46  16  32  49  49  38  44  47  72  Male Older Upper Cath.  Aesth.  Vert.  Fit.  1  35  32  38  41  38  50  2  33  51  41  38  46  50  3  33  43  44  34  33  44  4  47  26  56  32  55  50  5  23  56  56  37  56  56  6  32  49  59  41  56  38  7  44  48  47  45  48  49  8  33  51  46  33  43  33  9  36  46  47  38  47  45  M a l e Young Upper  Subs.  Asc.  Cath.  Aesth.  Vert.  Fit.  Soc.  1  35  32  42  33  42  44  2  46  37  47  21  50  39  3  49  50  47  48  54  51  4  35  56  50  42  42  47  5  37  36  44  27  44  51  6  36  49  51  40  50  44  7  44  56  54  48  55  50  8  34  56  54  48  55  50  9  27  35  56  27  35  33  10  40  53  48  47  45  56  11  36  44  28  32  39  44  12  30  50  47  24  36  52  13  28  46  43  22  47  45  14  43  52  51  46  47  45  15  49  17  43  46  40  41  16  31  45  51  50  48  45  17  35  40  37  38  40  39  18  36  40  46  37  44  46  

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