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Attitudes of elementary school teachers held toward physical activity as manifest in sports and games 1973

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ai ATTITUDES OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS HELD TOWARD PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AS MANIFEST IN SPORTS AND GAMES BY NEIL CHESTER A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the School of P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1973 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT A s u b s t a n t i a l amount of evidence e x i s t s which s t r o n g l y suggests that elementary school teachers p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the s o c i a l - i z a t i o n process through the i n c u l c a t i o n of value and a t t i t u d e systems i n t h e i r students. F u r t h e r , i t i s the teacher's own personal set of a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s t h a t are e i t h e r knowingly or unknowingly communicated. In t h i s regard, the researcher undertook the systematic study of a t t i t u d e s h e l d by Vancouver elementary school teachers toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as manifest i n sports and games, i n an e f f o r t to gain some understanding of the r o l e played by the elementary school system i n i n f l u e n c i n g values h e l d by c h i l d r e n f o r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . A sample of 135 n o n - s p e c i a l i s t , elementary s c h o o l , classroom teachers was drawn from the Vancouver P u b l i c School system. Each subject was requested to complete and r e t u r n to the researcher, a copy of "Kenyon's A t t i t u d e Inventory." The data gleaned from the completed i n v e n t o r i e s was s t a t i s t i c a l l y analyzed through u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of variance techniques to determine what, i f any, d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d i n teacher a t t i t u d e s h e l d toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , as a f u n c t i o n of t h e i r sex, age and grade l e v e l s taught. With the exceptions of an age x l e v e l i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t f o r the a s c e t i c subdomain f o r female teachers and a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e h e l d by o l d e r as opposed to younger female teachers toward the v e r t i g o subdomain, the a t t i t u d e s h e l d by Vancouver elementary school teachers toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y f a i l e d to d i f f e r e n t i a t e according to the sex, age, and grade l e v e l s taught c r i t e r i a . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 Introduction 1 Statement of the Problem 3 Subproblem 3 Definitions 3 Delimitations of the Study 4 Limitations 4 Significance of the Study 4 II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 6 The Development of Scales for the Measurement of Attitudes Held Toward Specific Components of the Physical Ac t iv i ty Domain 19 III THE PROCEDURE 24 Research Design 24 Selection of the Sample 24 Distr ibution and Collect ion of the Inventories 25 The Attitude Inventory 26 Data Treatment 28 IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 30 Results 30 Attitude Differences for Female Teachers as a Function of Their Age. 30 Attitude Differences for Female Teachers as a Function of Grade Levels Taught 32 Age X Level Interaction 32 Attitude Differences for Male Teachers as a Function of Their Age 35 Attitude Differences Between Male and Female Elementary School Teachers Expressed Toward Each Physical Act iv i ty Subdomain 36 Attitudes Held Toward Physical Act iv i ty by Vancouver Elementary School Teachers 37 Discussion 38 V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 43 Summary 43 Conclusions 44 REFERENCES APPENDICES A. Letter of Authorization From Vancouver School Board B. Letter To the Teachers From Vancouver School Board C. Physical Activity Inventory D. Raw Scores i i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page I Attitude Differences For Female Subjects For Each 28 Subdomain As A Function of Their Age II Attitude Differences For Female Subjects For Each Subdomain As A Function of Grade Levels Taught 30 III Univariate Analysis of Variance of Age X Level Interaction For Female Teachers For Each Subdomain 30 IV Attitude Differences For Male Subjects For Each Subdomain As a Function of Their Age 32 V Attitude Differences Between Male and Female Subjects Expressed Toward Each Physical Activity Subdomain 33 VI Attitude Differences of Vancouver Elementary School Teachers Expressed Toward Each Physical Activity Subdomain 34 i v LIST OF FIGURES Page Fig u r e I : Age X L e v e l I n t e r a c t i o n For Female Subjects 34 CHAPTER T STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Introduction Physical activity as manifest in sports and games may be viewed as a cultural phenomenon occupying i t s own specific niche in the cultural hierarchy. Since the existence of a hierarchy implies evaluation, and evaluation connotes values, a concensus regarding the value of physical activity as a cultural element exists for this society, as i t does for a l l societies. Compared to the Soviet Union, the Scandinavian countries, and indeed, a host of European nations, the significance of physical activity in the Canadian society i s somewhat lacking. If we assume - and many i n this country do - that increased levels of participation in sports, games, and sundry physical activities by both adults and youth, i s a desirable objective, then i t i s reasonable to conclude that the attainment of this objective i s inextricably linked to achieving an increased significance of physical activity, for each societal member. A recent and effective attempt to understand the cultural significance of physical activity in our society, was made by Gerald S. Kenyon i n a study conducted in 1968. Kenyon reasoned that i f the importance of physical activity was to be understood, i t would be necessary to consider the values held for i t . Such values were believed to be revealed, at least in part, 2 through the amount of involvement in, and the attitudes expressed toward, various forms of physical a c t i v i t y . In this regard, a multidimensional scale was devised for the express purpose of measuring attitudes held for physical activity. The manifest concern of this research i s to gain some understanding of the role played by the elementary school system, i n influencing the values held by children for physical a c t i v i t y . It i s known that the process of socialization i s largely responsible for the inculcation of values and attitudes (Krathwohl, 1964). The elementary school, albeit only one of many powerful socializing agencies, significantly influences the development of these value systems in children (Dreeben, 1967). The teacher, through his daily vis-a-vis relationship with his pupils, assumes a significant position i n the lives of most of the students whom he teaches (Yee, 1968). In this respect, the teacher's behavior i s held to be influential i n affecting the attitudes, opinions and value systems of his students (Brophy, 1970). Since a substantial portion of the knowledge transmitted by classroom teachers i s noncognitive and often unintentional (Silberman, 1969), i t i s reasonable to conclude that the attitudes held by teachers toward particular elements of culture significantly affects the information transmitted and hence the kind of affective learning taking place within their respective classrooms (Stephens, 1968). The researcher undertook then, a systematic study of the attitudes 3 held by elementary school teachers toward physical activity, as a viable approach to understanding the values for physical a c t i v i t y fostered by the elementary school system. Statement of the Problem The purpose of this investigation i s to ascertain the attitudes held by Vancouver elementary school teachers toward physical a c t i v i t y as manifest in sports and games, and as revealed by the Kenyon Attitude Inventory, Subproblem To determine whether or not attitudes held by Vancouver elementary school teachers vary as a function of their sex, age or grade levels taught. Definitions Attitude: A latent or nonobservable, complex, but relatively stable behavioral disposition reflecting both direction and intensity of feeling toward a particular object, whether i t is concrete or abstract. Vancouver elementary school teachers: Those teachers who are f u l l - time, classroom teachers, teaching grade levels one to seven, i n the c i t y 4 of Vancouver's public school system. Delimitations of the Study The study is limited to examining only those attitudes of Vancouver elementary school teachers who meet the requirements of the above definition. Part-time teachers, administrators, non-teaching resource persons, and peripatetic remedial specialists having no specifically defined classroom function, have been excluded from this study. Limitations 1. Because of existing school board policy, the names of the teachers selected in the sample were not made available to the researcher. In this regard, the distribution of both research inventories and follow-ups to the inventory, were conducted through the principals of the schools selected for the study (refer to 'The Distribution and Collection of the Inventories'). 2. Since the ratios of male-to-female teachers i n the Vancouver elementary school system was unavailable, i t was assumed that the ratio found in the sample was representative of the entire population. Significance of the Study 1. Since there has been no previous attempt at using the Kenyon scale 5 to measure the attitudes of elementary school teachers toward sport and physical activity, this study w i l l establish norm tables upon which the findings of future studies may be compared„ 2. It i s hoped that the findings of the study w i l l y i e l d some indication concerning the extent, direction and perceived functionality or value of sport and physical activity, as seen by the elementary school teacher. This knowledge has the following important implications; (a) Since the school system i s the formal socialization agency of society which exists for the express purpose of socializing children into society, i t i s imperative that some attempt be made to determine whether or not the information communicated by the elementary school teacher in the classroom, i s consistent with the expectations of the curriculum. (b) It i s possible that the knowledge gained from this and future studies of the same nature could have implications for both teacher training and in-service training programs. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Background of the Study The research conducted by the author and reported in this paper concerning the attitudes held by elementary school teachers toward physical activity, was prompted by the recognition of two highly salient and extremely ubiquitous themes which permiate the literature examining the sociological aspects of the formal education system. These themes or premises hold that: Elementary school teachers exert a significant influence on the values and attitude development of their students. and The personal matrix of the teacher's opinions, beliefs, value systems, and attitudes, dictates what information i s communicated, either knowingly or unknowingly, to their students. That elementary school teachers exert a significant influence on the values and attitudes developed by their students, has often been aluded to in the literature. This i s not to imply that a l l teachers are necessarily powerful agents of socialization. It i s indeed obvious that every teacher does not have the same impact on his students, and while many teachers function as highly effective agents of society, others do not. What i s emphasized however, i s that in most instances, the influence exerted by the 7 teacher i s quite recognizable, and in some cases, i t i s profound. In this regard, Talcott Parsons (1959), expanding his functionalist approach to sociology to incorporate the school system, advances the theory that the school classroom may be treated as an agency of socialization in which individual personalities are trained to be motivationally and tech- ni c a l l y adequate in the performance of adult roles. Although Parsons recognizes the existence of other powerful socialization agencies such as the family and the peer group, he believes that during the period of time extending from entry into the f i r s t grade u n t i l entry into the labour force or marriage, the school classroom i s the focal socializing agency. Elkin (1960) maintains that the import of teachers as agents of socialization i s not so much attributable to the content of the curriculum they teach, but i s contingent upon the models or "significant others" they become. Despite the current popularity of projecting a pejorative image of teachers, Elkin holds that students are expected to defer to their teachers and often in fact, form strong emotional attachments to them. Though the range of a teacher's influence i s seen to vary from t r i v i a l to extremely significant, this influence In a l l cases, exists. The student then, may merely adopt a favorite idiosyncrasy of his teacher, or he may regard the teacher as one worthy of admiration and emulation. Dreeben (1968) credits the school system with inculcating certain necessary values and attitudes which he contends, no other socializing 8 agency i s capable of doing as effectively. He holds that the school system, acting through the medium of the classroom teacher, countermands many family influences which hinder the socialization process in regard to citizenship and work-world norms. The teacher accomplishes this task largely through the development of appropriate universalism, specificity, achievement and independence attitudes in his students. Jules Henry (1963) concurs with the thesis that teachers in the elementary school system play an important role in the socialization process. In discussing the elementary school classroom - the environment i n which the teacher functions - Henry makes the following comment; While i t i s true that attitudes and feelings are bent toward social goals even from earliest infancy, many institutions combine to organize these attitudes and feelings so that ultimately a social steady state w i l l be maintained. The elementary school classroom i n our culture i s one of the most powerful instruments in this effort, for i t does not merely sustain attitudes that have been created i n the home, but reinforces some, de-emphasizes others, and makes i t s own contribution. In this way i t prepares the conditions for and contributes toward the ultimate organization of peer-and parent-structure, supportive of the culture. (Henry; 1963, p. 254). Jackson (1968) holds that certain processes inherent in the teaching situation, function to significantly increase the efficacy of the teacher as a socializing agent. "Evaluation" is held to be one of the most important of these processes. 9 Logically, evaluation in the classroom might be expected to be limited chiefly to the student's attainment of educational object- ives. And, clearly these limits seem to hold insofar as most o f f i c i a l evaluations go - the ones that are communicated to parents and entered on school records. But there are at least two other referents of evaluation quite common in elementary classrooms. One has to do with the student's adjustment to educational expectations; the other with his possession of specific character t r a i t s . Indeed the smiles and frowns of teachers and classmates often provide more information of these seemingly peripheral aspects of the student's behavior than they do about his academic progress. Moreover, even when the student's mastery of certain knowledge or s k i l l s i s allegedly the object of evaluation, other aspects of his behavior are commonly being judged at the same time. (Jackson; 1968, p. 22) The chief source of evaluation in the classroom is obviously the teacher. He i s called upon continuously to make judgements of students work and behavior and to communicate that judgement to the students in question and to others. No one who has observed an elementary classroom for any length of time can have failed to be impressed by the vast number of times the teacher performs this function. Typically, in most classrooms students come to know when things are right or wrong, good or bad, pretty or ugly, largely as a result of what the teacher t e l l s them. (Jackson; 1968, p. 20) The second premise, that the teacher's own personal matrix of opinions, beliefs, value systems and attitudes dictates what information i s communicated, either knowingly or unknowingly, to their students, also generates a unanimity of affirmative opinion in the literature. In this regard, Broom (1963) argues that the communication by a teacher of his own personal values and attitudes, often occurs in an unconscious and completely unpremeditated manner. He maintains that teacher's attitudes 10 are so much a part of their personal make-up, they often f a i l to differentiate between personal value systems and universal beliefs. These attitudes then, are communicated to the child both through the overt expression of feelings such as statements of approval and disapproval, and through more subtle but equally effective postural clues. Further, Broom holds that these implicit values and unverbalized attitudes can be the most important elements of socialization when manifest in behavior toward the child. In the same vein, Clausen (1968) points to the lack of general agreement concerning the goal orientation of many of society's socializing agents, as the prime factor leading to the projection by teachers, of their own personal needs which have evolved from their reactions to their own socialization experiences. Henry (1963) recognized the unconscious needs of the teacher and the projection of their personal problems into the classroom situation, as a powerful influence affecting the creativity and supportive p o s s i b i l i t i e s of their students. Stephens (1967) holds that the teacher i s the most crucial factor in the educational process since the effective curriculum is determined by his actual interests. In this light, minute-by-minute classroom a c t i v i t i e s are not subject to effective control by others, but stem instead, from tendencies deeply ingrained within the teacher. 11 Stephens succinctly discusses the process in which he believes teachers unconsciously communicate their values and attitudes: In another category we find extremely powerful but unpremeditated tendencies to communicate; in spontaneous, unthinking fashion we find ourselves t e l l i n g others of our interests or experiences. Quite spontaneously we react to the way others behave in matters that interest us. Our reaction may consist of spontaneous applause or an ill-concealed shudder; we may be compelled to correct someone or to supply the solution or the word for which someone else i s groping. The tendencies responsible for behavior that has l i t t l e immediate survival value are widespread and powerful. So are the primitive tendencies to communicate. The tendencies in both categories often function without the aid of elaborate rational decisions. Indeed, they often function when rational decisions say, "No". (Stephens; 1967, p. 8) These automatic or nondeliberative reinforcements are by no means confined to the chance adult who lacks the intention to teach. They probably play an enormous role in the everyday work of the "intentional" teacher. For every time that any teacher marks a question right or wrong or administers an overt expression of approval or disapproval, there are scores of occasions when his face shows a look of surprise, bafflement, incredulity, patient waiting, or relieved acceptance. These subtle grimaces, these shadows and lights, these nuances in tone of voice, are in play day in and day out as the teacher faces the class. They are very effective reinforcements. They come and go with very l i t t l e deliberate rationale on the part of teachers. And yet, i t i s quite possible that they contribute enormously to educational growth. (Stephens; 1967, p. 64) It has been noted with some degree of interest, that in those instances where teachers purposely attempt to influence the affective learning of their students, i t is usually intended that the values inculcated w i l l remain long after the school experience has culminated. As was the case with unconscious communications, the form and direction 12 of the affective learning attempted, w i l l be inextricably related to the values and attitudes held by the teacher. In this regard Jackson (1968) states: The problem turns, i t would seem, on the distinction between the teacher's primary concern and his ultimate concern, on the thoughts and practises dominating his immediate actions with students, as contrast with his hopes and expectations concerning the long term achievement of individuals within his class. Teachers, particularily in the lower grades, seem to be more activity oriented than learning oriented. That is they commonly decide on a set of a c t i v i t i e s which they believe w i l l have a desirable outcome and then focus their energies on achieving and maintaining student involvement In those a c t i v i t i e s . Learning is important, to be sure, but when the teacher i s actually interacting with his students i t i s actually at the periphery of his attention, rather than at the focus of his vision. (Jackson; 1968, p. 162) We see then, a rather salient concensus emerging from the literature regarding the nature and mechanism of attitude and value transmission i n the classroom. An examination of the empirical evidence in this regard, would appear to support this concensus. A study of the effects of teacher expectations on pupils was conducted from 1964 through 1966 by Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968). The results of this study formed the basis for the book "Pygmalion In The Classroom," published i n 1968. In May of 1964, the researchers administered Flanagan's "Tests Of General A b i l i t y " to a l l students in kindergarten and grades one to six in 13 a selected elementary school. It was suggested to the teachers that this test would enable the researchers to determine which students were most l i k e l y to show an academic spurt in the coming year. In the f a l l of 1964, 20% of the students were randomly chosen as "spurters", and each teacher received a l i s t of names identifying those spurters who would be i n his class. The general a b i l i t i e s tests were re-administered in January, 1965, May, 1965, and May, 1966. It was found that the students revealed to the teachers as being supposed academic spurters, experienced significant gains on the general a b i l i t i e s test and in I.Q. The researchers concluded: That teachers' favorable expectations can be responsible for gains in their pupil's I.Q.'s and, for the lower grades, that these gains can be quite dramatic. The findings of the Rosenthal study have come under a great deal of attack i n the literature. Although most c r i t i c s agree that the basic premise of the study could be sound (i.e., that teacher expectations function as s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecies), methodological deficiencies and unacceptable data analysis, preclude any po s s i b i l i t y of the data providing tangible support for the researcher's hypothesis. (Snow; 1969, Thorndike; 1968) A study of elementary school teachers conducted by Brophy (1970) assumed the existence of an expectancy effect, and focussed on determining how di f f e r e n t i a l teacher expectations were communicated to children in such a way that would tend to cause children to produce reciprocal behavior. For the purposes of his study, Brophy hypothesized the existence of the following 14 conceptual model: (a) The teacher forms d i f f e r e n t i a l expectations for student performance; (b) He then begins to treat children differently in accordance with his d i f f e r e n t i a l expectations; (c) The children respond d i f f e r e n t i a l l y to the teacher because they are being treated differently by him; (d) In responding to the teacher, each child tends to exhibit behavior which compliments and reinforces the teacher's particular expectations for him; (e) As a result, the general academic performance of some children w i l l be enhanced while that of others w i l l be depressed, with changes being in the direction of teacher expectations; (f) These effects w i l l show up i n the achievement tests given at the end of the year, providing support for the " s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy" notion, (p. 365-366) The research was conducted in four first-grade classrooms in which neither teaching aids, intern teachers, nor any other type of instructional assistants were u t i l i z e d . The four teachers involved were asked to rank their students i n order of their academic achievement. The ranking instructions were deliberately kept vague in order to e l i c i t subjective judgements from the teachers. These rankings were then used as a measure of the teacher's expectancy for each pupil's academic achievement. Students at the two extremes of the teacher's rankings were selected as subjects. It was reasoned that because the subjects were chosen in this manner, dif f e r e n t i a l treatment of the pupils by the teacher would be maximized. Since the school employed an achievement tracking system in grouping their students, i t was assumed that objective support for the v a l i d i t y of the teacher's expectations would be minimized. An observation technique using a coding system for recording dyadic interactions between the subjects and the teacher was employed. 15 Brophy succeeded In Isolating certain verbal interactions varying in quality, and quantity, and which differentiated according to high or low teacher expectations. He concludes: When the latter differences are s t a t i s t i c a l l y controlled through the used of percentage measures, i t is seen that the teachers systematically discriminate in favor of the highs over the lows (i.e., high and low expectancies) in demanding and reinforcing quality performance. Teachers do, i n fact, communicate d i f f e r e n t i a l performance expectations to different children through their classroom behavior, and the nature of this d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment is such as to encourage the children to begin to respond In ways which would confirm teacher expectancies. In short, the data confirm the hypothesis that teacher's expectations function as s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecies, and they indicate some of the intervening behavioral mechanisms involved in the process. (p. 373) Regarding the nature of the communication of d i f f e r e n t i a l teacher expectations, Brophy further concludes: Teachers are frequently unaware of the subtle differences i n their behavior in such situations, yet i t i s i n such situations that teachers systematically communicate d i f f e r e n t i a l expectations to different students, (p. 374) In a similar study, Silberman (1969) attempted to determine i f the teacher's attitudes toward his students were revealed in his classroom behavior. In assessing their attitudes, teacher interviews were conducted by the researcher. A systematic observation technique using a coded system for recording pupil-teacher interactions was employed in the classroom, to ascertain d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment of students by teachers, as a function of the attitudes held by the teachers. Interviews with the students were then conducted in order to find out whether or not they were aware of their 16 teacher's d i f f e r e n t i a l behavior toward them. The researcher uncovered three major findings: 1. Teachers' attitudes are generally revealed in their actions i n spite of many forces operating to contain their expression. 2. Different attitudes are translated into action in different ways, such that teachers given some of their attitudes clearer expression than they give others. 3. Students who receive them are aware of most behavioral expressions of their teacher's attitudes. In addition, many such behaviors aimed at individual students are vi s i b l e to other students in the class, as well. Silberman sums up his findings: Thus, It i s l i k e l y that the daily classroom experience of recipient students i s significantly altered by teachers' actions which express their attitudes. These actions not only serve to communicate to students the regard in which they are held by a significant adult, but they also guide the perceptions of, and behavior toward, these students by their peers, (p. 407) An overview of the literature presented In this section, strongly suggests that the classroom behavior of the teacher i s significantly influenced by his personal needs, idiosyncrancies, attitudes and value systems. Further, i t would appear that attitudes and values of the teacher are communicated to the student whether or not It is the intent of the 17 teacher to do so. Having been transmitted, these values and attitudes often profoundly affect the student's behavior, and the affective learning he internalizes. The Development of Scales for the Measurement of Attitudes Held Toward Specific Components of the Physical Activity Domain. A scale for measuring the attitudes of college students toward physical fitness and exercise was devised and reported in the literature by Richardson (1960). One of two classical techniques for attitude measurement, the Thurstone method of equal-appearing intervals (Thurstone and Chave; 1929), was used by Richardson i n developing his scale. Test items for the equal-appearing intervals scale were selected on the basis of judgements made by a panel of experts. A collection of 72 attitude-opinion statements concerning physical fitness and exercise were compiled in t u i t i v e l y , from literature sources, and from oral statements. These statements were submitted to a panel of twenty judges who rated each statement on a five point scale. The statements were then grouped according to their assigned ratings and the median and Q, the distance between the 25th and 75th percentiles, were calculated for each frequency distribution generated. These s t a t i s t i c s provided the basis upon which the Richardson attitude scale was constructed. 18 The median represents the scale value of the item as reflected by i t s position accorded i n the five-point rating system. The interquartile range (Q), i s considered to be a measure of ambiguity in the attitude statement. A low Q represents a high agreement among judges about the position of the statement on the attitude continuum, while a high Q indicates a low agreement. Two test forms consisting of 19 Items each were derived by choosing those items which were evenly scaled (with median values 0.2 points apart) and which had small Q values. The v a l i d i t y of the attitude scale as an instrument of measure was established using the "logical-judgement concensus" approach. Repetition and par a l l e l forms were used i n establishing a satisfactory measure of r e l i a b i l i t y of the scale. Adams (1963) developed and reported two scales for measuring attitudes held toward physical education by teachers' college students using a technique similar to that employed by Richardson, and described above. Two sets of 20 items each were devised which could be combined with either a Likert or Thurstone-Chave rating scale, to gauge attitudes held by teachers' college students toward physical education. In selecting the test items, 150 statements concerning physical education were accumulated from a variety of sources. Of these, 40 of the most appropriate were selected by a panel of 50 judges, composed of f i r s t and second year university 19 psychology and education students. The judges assessed each attitude statement according to an eleven point scale (extending from "most favorable" to "most unfavorable") which represented a continuum of statements reflecting attitudes held toward physical education. This assessment resulted in the formation of eleven groups of attitude statements spaced by "equally-appearing intervals". Two c r i t e r i a were used in selecting suitable scale items from the original 150 statements: 1. The degree of agreement between the judges on the placing of individual items. 2. The necessity for a balanced selection of items reflecting a l l shades of attitude along the continuum. To provide an assessment of the scale's r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y , the inventories were administered to 245 teachers' college students. The v a l i d i t y of the scales as an instrument of measure was established by comparison to other tests, and i t s r e l i a b i l i t y was demonstrated through the application of a split-halves technique. One of the most extensively used Inventories for measuring attitudes held toward physical education, was developed by Carlos Wear (1951). 20 Unlike the Richardson inventory previously reviewed in this study, Wear selected the Likert format (Likert; 1932) as opposed to Thurston's format, as a basis for the construction of his scale. Unlike the Thurston technique, the Likert method does not require an evaluation of test items by a panel of judges, nor does i t assign a definite scale value to the statements. The responses to each statement are a r b i t r a r i l y rated and an individual's score on a Likert inventory constitutes the sum of the scores made on the various statements. The selection of items for the inventory was accomplished by formulating a series of statements reflecting commonly perceived outcomes of physical education. It was reasoned that statements related to these outcomes were probably more relevant than any others in evaluating attitudes toward physical education. Eight categories of outcomes or perceived functionality were identified by Wear. These deal with physical education within the context of: (a) Physical well-being (b) muscular strength and co-ordination (c) total physical and muscular endurance (d) acquisition of neuro- muscular s k i l l s (e) resources for recreation, for use of leisure time now and in later l i f e (f) mental health, emotional control and poise*(g) social relationships (h) safety aspects, providing for better control of body and better use of safety measures, (p. 116) 21 Statements which might represent verbal expressions of feelings concerning the value of these outcomes and the extent to which physical education was believed to bring about their attainment, was so l ic i ted from graduate and undergraduate students in physical education classes, as well as from the l i tera ture . These procedures produced 289 such statements. One hundred and twenty-two of the total 289 statements were selected for the inventory on the basis of the following c r i t e r i a : (a) The attitude statement must be debatable - not a statement of fact. (b) A l l statements must belong to the same attitude variable. (3) A statement must not be susceptible to more than one inter- pretation, (d) Avoid "double-barreled" statements, (e) Statements should be short. (f) Each statement should be complete in denoting a definite attitude toward a specific issue, (g) Each statement should contain only one complete thought. (d) Avoid grouping two or more complete sentences as one attitude statement, (i) Statements should be clear-cut and direct . (j) Use with care and moderation such words as "only" , "mere", " just" (in the sense of only) , "merely", etc. (k) Avoid colorless expressions or statements lacking effect. (1) Whenever possible, write in the form of a simple instead of compound or complex sentence. (m) Use a complex rather than a compound sentence, (n) It i s usually better to use active voice rather than passive, (o) In general use the term of the Issue as the subject of the sentence, (p) Avoid high sounding words, uncommon words or expressions, technical terms not ordinari ly understood, etc. (p. 116) 22 The 122 items thus selected were administered to 75 college students and the responses generated were submitted to item analysis procedures. Following these procedures, a revised l i s t of 120 items was generated and these items, in conjunction with the Likert rating system, were called the "Physical Education Attitude Inventory." The Physical Education Attitude Inventory was then administered to a sample of 472 individuals. The data generated i n 272 inventories randomly removed from the i n i t i a l sample, was submitted to further item analysis and a short-form inventory consisting of 40 items was derived. Validity of both forms of the attitude inventory was established by comparing their results to those of a specially designed attitude questionnaire. R e l i a b i l i t y of the inventories was demonstration through split-halves r e l i a b i l i t y procedures. Although the attitude inventories reviewed in this section have been carefully compiled and demonstrate acceptable r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y levels, each focuses on the measurement of only one dimension of the physical ac t i v i t y domain. For the purposes of this study then, this unidimensional factor precludes the use of any one of the afore mentioned attitude scales as the instrument of measure, since i t i s not inconceivable that an elementary school teacher could devaluate physical fitness and exercise, and s t i l l hold strong positive attitudes toward physical activity when perceived in another functional context; or, that he devaluate physical education on the basis of personal experience with poor or inadequate programs, while 23 s t i l l maintaining high positive attitudes toward sports, games, and other and sundry manifestations of the physical activity domain. To overcome this problem, a multidimensional attitude scale devised by Gerald S. Kenyon (1968) for purposes of determining attitudes held toward physical activity as manifest in sports and games, was adopted for use in this study. At present, this attitude inventory has been used in two major studies - once by Kenyon (1968) i n a massive cross-cultural study testing attitudes held toward physical a c t i v i t y by secondary school students in four different countries, and once by Alderman (1968) in a study of international caliber Canadian athletes. In addition i t has been employed several times in various doctoral dissertations. For a description of the "Kenyon Inventory", we refer the reader to the section entitled "The Attitude Inventory", located in Chapter III, and to Appendix C of this study. CHAPTER III THE PROCEDURE Research Design Survey Method. An attitude inventory was distributed to classroom teachers i n seven selected schools i n the Vancouver elementary school system. The data collected was analyzed to obtain information regarding the nature of attitudes held for sports and physical a c t i v i t y by elementary school teachers, within the context of sex, age and grade levels taught. Selection of the Sample A cluster sampling technique was employed in drawing subjects for this study. Seven of the total population of seventy schools comprising the Vancouver elementary school system, were non-randomly selected. Since i t is possible that the attitudes held by elementary school teachers toward physical a c t i v i t y could vary as a function of the location of the school (Yee, 1968), a balanced distribution i n which a l l areas of the c i t y were represented, was deemed a desirable characteristic of the sample. In this regard, the schools selected for study i n this research were drawn on the basis of their location in the c i t y . A l l teachers meeting the c r i t e r i a stipulated in the "Definitions" and "Delimitations of the Study" sections of this paper, and who taught i n one of the selected elementary schools, were chosen as subjects for the study. 25 Each sample school contained at least one non-teaching administrator, and in some instances remedial specialists having no specific classroom assignment were found to be l i s t e d among the school's teaching personnel. In conjunction with the school board's research department, reference to f i l e s kept by the school board concerning the function of each teacher revealed information which eliminated from the sample those individuals not meeting the c r i t e r i a established to qualify them as subjects for the study. Out of a total population of 1,346 elementary school teachers in the Vancouver school system, 135 teachers or approximately 10% of the total population, were drawn in the sample. Distribution and Collection of the Inventories The exact number of subjects to be drawn from each of the seven sample schools was determined from the personnel f i l e of the Vancouver school board (refer to the preceeding section "Selection of the Sample"), and a corresponding number of inventories were sent to each principal of the selected schools. Along with the inventories, each principal received a letter of "authorization" from the school board's research department containing information regarding which of his staff members were e l i g i b l e as subjects for this study (refer to Appendix A). The principals were then charged with the responsibility of personally distributing the attitude inventories to each e l i g i b l e member of his teaching staff. In addition to the letter of authorization sent to each principal by the Vancouver public school board's research department, a second cover letter urging the teacher's cooperation i n the study, accompanied the inventories distributed to each 26 subject (refer to Appendix B), A stamped envelope addressed to the researcher was attached to each inventory. Return of the data then, was accomplished via the mails. Since the names of the schools in which the inventories were distributed was affixed to each inventory prior to their being sent out, the return rate for each school was readily calculable. Schools exhibiting unsatisfactory i n i t i a l return rates were contacted by the researcher, and their principals were urged to s o l i c i t the return of the completed inventories by their teaching staff. The Attitude Inventory An inventory developed by Gerald S. Kenyon for measuring attitudes toward physical activity as manifest in sports and games, was administered to the sample i n this study. The inventory, evolved from a conceptual model developed by Kenyon over a period of years (Kenyon, 1964a, 1964b, 1965a, 1965b), has as i t s base, a logical analysis of the perceived functionality of physical activity i n contemporary society.^ Six perceived functions or subdomains of physical activity as identified by Kenyon, and each is used to form a separate scale of the attitude inventory. The six subdomains A seventh subdomain, "physical activity as manifest in games of chance," was later added by Kenyon to the inventory but was not included i n this study in deference to school board policy. 27 are as follows: 1. Physical ac t i v i t y as a social experience. 2. Physical a c t i v i t y for health and fitness. 3. Physical a c t i v i t y as the pursuit of vertigo. 4. Physical a c t i v i t y as an aesthetic experience. 5. Physical a c t i v i t y as catharsis. 6. Physical a c t i v i t y as an ascetic experience. In completing the inventory, each respondent i s required to rate the six conceptual subdomains with respect to his attitude toward them. The rating i s accomplished through a series of eight descriptive semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l scales, each based on seven alternate Likert-type, summated ratings format. The most positive rating possible for a subdomain of physical ac t i v i t y for any given descriptive semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l then, i s seven, while the most negative rating scores one. The Kenyon inventory was selected for use in this study for two primary reasons; f i r s t l y , other available instruments (Wear, 1955; Adams, 1963 and Richardson, 1960) f a i l to account for what the researcher believes to be the l i k e l y multidimensional nature of the physical a c t i v i t y domain, secondly, the Kenyon inventory has demonstrated an acceptable degree of s t a b i l i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y . Items held to be representative of the perceived functional dimensions of physical ac t i v i t y have been evaluated by item and factor analysis procedures, and have generated Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t i e s ranging from .72 to .89 for the six scales. The s t a b i l i t y of the instrument was 28 demonstrated by comparative measures of v a r i a b i l i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y , and central tendency between two similar populations. For the purposes of this study, a general information sheet was added to the Kenyon inventory which provided the researcher with data regarding the age, sex, and grade levels taught for each respondent. For a more comprehensive view of the attitude inventory, refer to Appendix C. Data Treatment Total scores for each subject i n each of the six attitude subdomains were determined from their responses to the total 48 items. From this data, descriptive s t a t i s t i c s consisting of the mean, rank, and standard deviation of the entire group were calculated for each attitude subdomain. Univariate analysis of variance procedures were employed to analyze the significance of the differences existing between the following: 1. The mean scores for each subdomain for the total sample. 2. The mean scores for each subdomain as a function of the sex of the subjects. 3. The mean scores for each subdomain for female teachers as a function of their age and the grade levels taught. 4. The mean scores for each subdomain for male teachers as a function of their age. (Since the sample failed to yield any instance of a male subject teaching i n the lower grade levels, a comparison of mean scores for male teachers as a function of grade levels taught was not possible.) For the purposes of this study, two categories of teaching levels - higher and lower teaching levels - and two age groups of teachers - younger and older teachers - were a r b i t r a r i l y established by the researcher. These terms are operationally defined as follows: Older teacher: 40 years of age and older. Younger teacher: 39 years of age and younger. Higher teaching levels: those teaching grades 4 - 7 . Lower teaching levels: those teaching grades 1 - 3 . CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Results One hundred and three of the sample 135 Vancouver elementary school teachers elected to complete and return the Kenyon A t t i t u d e Inventory. This represents a return r a t i o n of 76.3% for the t o t a l sample selected. Analysis of the data gleaned from the returned inventories generated the r e s u l t s discussed i n t h i s chapter. A t t i t u d e Differences f o r Female Teachers as a Function of Their Age. Of the t o t a l of 103 i n v e n t o r i e s completed and returned to the researcher, 76 represented the responses of female elementary school teachers, while the remaining inventories were completed by male teachers. Of the female group, 52 inventories f e l l i nto the "younger teacher" category ( i . e . teachers 39 years of age and under), while 24 i n v e n t o r i e s f e l l i n t o the "older teacher" group (teachers 40 years of age and o l d e r ) . The mean inventory score f o r each of the s i x a t t i t u d e subdomains was c a l c u l a t e d f o r both the "younger" and "older" teacher groups, and each subdomain was ranked i n both groups on the basis of these mean scores. In accordance with the summated ratings procedure used i n the Kenyon Inventory on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e , a high score represents a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward the subdomain than does a low score. 31 As indicated in Table I, the mean scores range from a high of 49.21 for the aesthetic subdomain in the "older teacher" group, to a low mean score of 32.35 for the ascetic subdomain i n the "younger teacher" group. In both groups, the rank order of each subdomain i s identical, with the aesthetic subdomain recording the highest mean score, and with cathartic, so c i a l , fitness, vertigo and ascetic subdomains following respectively in descending order. For each subdomain, the mean scores are higher i n the "older teacher" group. Despite this consistency, univariate analysis of variance techniques indicate that this difference i s significant only for the vertigo subdomain (p <.01, Table I). TABLE I Attitude Differences For Female Subjects For Each Subdomain As A Function of Their Age Subdomain Younger Teachers (n=52) Older Teachers (n=24) F Ratio P Mean Rank Mean Rank Social 46.38 3 47.04 3 0.2468 0.6209 Fitness 43.65 4 44.75 4 0.4357 0.5114 Vertigo 34.27 5 40.17 5 7.1430 0.0094 Aesthetic 47.75 1 49.21 1 1.0020 0.3202 Cathartic 47.29 2 47.71 2 0.0665 0.7973 Ascetic 32.35 6 35.42 6 2.2990 0.1339 32 Attitude Differences for Female Teachers as a Function of Grade Levels Taught. Half (38) of the female subjects in this study f e l l into the "upper leve l " category (i.e. teachers of grades 4 to 7), while the remaining 38 f e l l into the "lower lev e l " category (i.e. teachers of grades 1 to 3). As indicated i n Table I I , the mean scores for each subdomain in both "level" categories range from a high of 48.24 for the aesthetic subdomain in the "lower level" group, to a low mean score of 32.21 for the ascetic subdomain, also i n the "lower level" group. The rank order of each subdomain is the same i n both "upper" and "lower" level categories and is identical to that exhibited i n the two previously discussed "age" categories (refer to Table I). A comparison of the mean scores for each subdomain i n the two "leve l " categories shows a higher mean score for social, fitness, vertigo and aesthetic subdomains i n the "lower l e v e l " category than i n the "upper level" category. Cathartic and ascetic subdomains however, exhibit higher mean scores i n the "upper level" category. As the p values i n Table II indicate, none of these observed differences are s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. Age X Level Interaction. Univariate Analysis of Variance procedures yields a p value of 0.0001 for the ascetic subdomain, indicating a significant age x level interaction (see Figure 1). As indicated by the p values l i s t e d in Table III, an age x level interaction effect for the remaining five subdomains, is not s t a t i s t i c a l l y apparent. Table II At t i t u d e Differences For Female Subjects For Each Subdomain as a Function of Grade Levels Taught Subdomain Lower Level Upper Level F Ratio P Teacher (n=38) Teachers (n=38) Mean Rank Mean Rank S o c i a l 46.61 3 46.58 3 0.0189 0.8911 Fitness 44.18 4 43.82 4 0.1588 0.6915 Vertigo 36.34 5 35.92 5 0.6924 0.4082 Aesthetic 48.24 1 48.18 1 0.0743 0.7860 Cathartic 46.97 2 47.87 2 0.2990 0.5862 As c e t i c 32.21 6 34.42 6 0.7276 0.3966 Table I I I Univariate Analysis of Variance of Age X Level I n t e r a c t i o n For Female Teachers For Each Subdomain Subdomain F Ratio P S o c i a l 0.0147 0.9039 Fitness 1.2590 0.2656 Vertigo 1.9698 0.1648 Aesthetic 0.4516 0.5038 Cathartic 0.3112 0.5787 As c e t i c 20.7615 0.0001 34 FIGURE I Younger Older Age Groups 35 Attitude Differences For Male Teachers as a Function of Their Age, Of the 27 male respondents to the attitude inventory administered in this study, 18 male elementary school teachers f e l l into the "younger teachers" category ( i . e . those teachers 39 years of age and younger) while 9 f e l l into the "older teachers" c las s i f icat ion ( i . e . those teachers 40 years of age and older) . As indicated in Table IV, the scores for each subdomain in each of the two groups range from a high score of 48.22 for the aesthetic subdomain i n the "older teachers" group, to a low score of 37.17 for the vertigo subdomain in the "younger teachers" group. With the exception of the ascetic subdomain, the scores for each subdomain were higher in the "older teachers" group than they were in the "younger teachers" group. Univariate Analysis of Variance techniques indicate that the differences existing between the scores for each subdomain in each of the two groups are not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ignif icant (refer to Table IV). The rank order of the subdomains in both the "younger" and "older" teachers groups ranked the aesthetic and cathartic subdomains as 1 and 4 respectively, while the rankings of the remaining 4 subdomains varied 36 between the two groups (refer to Table IV). TABLE IV Attitude Differences For Male Subjects For Each Subdomain As a Function of Their Age Subdomain Younger Teachers (n=18) Older (n=9) Teachers F Ratio P Mean Rank Mean Rank Social 45.67 2 46.11 3 0.0322 0.8590 Fitness 45.22 3 46.89 2 0.3543 0.5571 Vertigo 37.17 6 37.67 5 0.0213 0.8851 Aesthetic 46.72 1 48.22 1 0.2777 0.6029 Cathartic 44.11 4 44.67 4 0.0183 0.8935 Ascetic 37.28 5 35.11 6 0.6163 0.4399 Attitude Differences Between Male and Female Elementary School Teachers Expressed Toward Each Physical Activity Subdomain. Table V reveals the mean scores for each physical a c t i v i t y subdomain for both male (n=27) and female (n=76) sample groups. These scores range from a high of 48.21 for the aesthetic subdomain i n the female group, to a low score of 33.32, also i n the female group. In both sex groups, the aesthetic subdomain ranks f i r s t , the vertigo subdomain f i f t h , and the ascetic subdomain sixth, while the 37 rankings of the remaining three subdomains vary between groups. Univariate Analysis of Variance procedures f a i l to attach s t a t i s t i c a l significance to the differences existing between the mean scores for each subdomain in each of the two groups (refer to Table V). Table V Attitude Differences Between Male and Female Subjects Expressed Toward Each Physical Activity Subdomain Subdomain Males (n=27) Females (n=76) F Ratio P Mean Rank Mean Rank Social 45.81 2 46.59 3 0.4057 0.5256 Fitness 45.78 3 44.00 4 1.4017 0.2392 Vertigo 37.33 5 36.13 5 0.3501 0.5554 Aesthetic 47.22 1 48.21 1 0.5184 0.4732 Cathartic 44.30 4 47.42 2 3.4491 0.0662 Ascetic 36.56 6 33.32 6 2.7711 0.0991 Attitudes Held Toward Physical Activity by Vancouver Elementary School Teachers. In order to determine a representative set of scores for each attitude subdomain for Vancouver elementary school teachers as a group, the mean score for each subdomain was calculated from the responses of a l l subjects selected in the sample (n=103). These scores ranged from a high of 47.95 for the aesthetic subdomain, to a low of 34.17 for the ascetic 38 subdomain. The mean scores and rankings for the six subdomains are l i s t e d in Table VI. Table VI Attitude Differences of Vancouver Elementary School Teachers Expressed Toward Each Physical Activity Subdomain Subdomain Mean Rank Standard Deviation Social 46.39 3 5.4470 Fitness 44.47 4 6.7022 Vertigo 36.45 5 9.0657 Aesthetic 47.95 1 6.1269 Cathartic 46.60 2 7.5099 Ascetic 34.17 6 5.4470 Discussion Attitude Differences as a Function of Age Differences in attitudes held toward physical activity by male and female elementary school teachers as a function of their age were anticipated by the researcher. Since physical education programs and the organization, administration, and coaching of various and sundry extra-curricular sports, 39 games, and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s are commonly thought to f a l l w ithin the domain of the younger teacher, and are therefore often l e f t to the recognizance of t h i s group, the researcher a n t i c i p a t e d that a d i f f e r e n c e i n at t i t u d e s held toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y would e x i s t between younger and older teachers, with younger teachers expressing a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e i n t h i s regard. With one exception, the research conducted herein did not support t h i s expectation. No s i g n i f i c a n t trend toward a more p o s i t i v e or negative a t t i t u d e expressed toward the inventory subdomains f o r e i t h e r the younger or older groups of male and female teachers was uncovered. The reasons f o r the more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e found to be expressed by older as opposed to younger female teachers toward the v e r t i g o subdomain, remains l a r g e l y incomprehensible. That the age of a female teacher i s a fa c t o r i n determining her a t t i t u d e toward t h i s s i n g l e p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y subdomain, demands fu r t h e r research i f a s a t i s f a c t o r y explanation f o r t h i s phenomenon i s to be advanced. The most i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g r e s u l t i n g from the comparison of a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y held by younger and olde r teachers i s not the di f f e r e n c e s that e x i s t between the two age groups, but the lack of d i f f e r e n c e s . The i d e n t i c a l rankings f o r each subdomain i n the two age groups f or female teachers, and the f r a c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n mean scores c o n t r i b u t i n g to the s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n i n rankings f o r the male age groups, a t t e s t s to the homogeneity among groups of the c o l l e c t i v e a t t i t u d e s held by elementary school teachers toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , when grouped according to the age c r i t e r i o n . A O Attitude Differences as a Function of Grade Levels Taught No significant differences were found between the attitudes held by "upper" and "lower" level teachers toward the six physical activity subdomains. Like the "age" groups discussed above, the two "le v e l " groups are remarkably homogeneous when the collective attitudes of one group are compared with those of the other. On the basis of the findings in this study then, i t would appear that the attitudes held by elementary school teachers toward physical activity, do not differentiate as a function of the grade levels taught. Age X Level Interaction The research conducted to date in both this study and in related studies does not permit the researcher to speculate with any degree of authority on the significant difference i n attitude toward the ascetic domain which exists for female elementary school teachers when their ages and grade levels taught are considered simultaneously. Further study i n this regard i s warranted. Attitude Differences as a Function of Sex Since the traditional view in our society holds that males are generally more positively oriented toward physical activity as manifest in sports and games than are females, the researcher anticipated a significantly more positive response to the subdomains on the Kenyon Inventory for males than for females. This supposition was not born out by the results of the study. Although some variation was found to exist in the ranking of the subdomains by the two sexes, the mean scores on each subdomain for both sexes failed to differentiate. On this basis then, i t would appear that the comparison of male and female grouped elementary school teachers reveals a prevailing attitude toward physical activity as manifest i n sports and games which is relatively homogeneous. Homogeneity of Attitudes An examination of the overall results of this study indicate that while some attitudes held by Vancouver elementary school teachers are relatively homogeneous, others are not. Despite the lack of s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant differences existing between the six attitude subdomains when the total compliment of subjects drawn in the sample are considered as a group, the relatively large standard deviations found in the vertigo, fitness and cathartic subdomains are indicative of substantial individual variations in attitudes held toward these three attitudinal sets (refer to Table VI). By virtue of the more moderate standard deviations found for the social, aesthetic and ascetic subdomains, attitudes held by elementary school teachers toward these perceived functions of physical activity are relatively homogeneous. Extending these findings then,the researcher suggests that the child entering the elementary school system i s confronted with divergent attitudes held toward physical activity when viewed within some functional contexts, while in others, the attitudes projected are rather homogeneous. Since the homogeneity of information transmitted by socializing agents has long been recognized as a c r i t i c a l factor in the socializing process, i t i s quite possible that the elementary school system i s more instrumental in 42 modifying a t t i t u d e s held toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y when viewed i n the s o c i a l , a e s t h e t i c and a s c e t i c subdomains then when considered within the f u n c t i o n a l contexts of f i t n e s s , c a t h a r s i s and v e r t i g o . CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary Physical activity as manifest in sports and games, when viewed in a cultural context, occupies i t s own specific niche in the cultural hierarchy of a given society, as do a l l other cultural elements. Each cultural element achieves i t s respective hierarchial position through the consensus which exists i n that society. New societal members are introduced to this consensus by a variety of social agents and agencies whose combined actions constitute the process of socialization. A substantial amount of research has been conducted, the results of which strongly suggest that reachers - and more sp e c i f i c a l l y , elementary school teachers - often function as extremely effective agents in the socialization process. Further empirical evidence indicates that the information communicated by teachers often occurs unintentionally, and that this information conforms to the teacher's own personal values and attitudes, biases and beliefs. In the light of these findings then, i t i s logically concluded that the role played by the school system in determining the value ascribed to physical activity as a cultural element, i s reflected at least in part, by the personal values and attitudes held by i t s teachers. Operating within this framework then, the essence of this study was to gain some insight into the actual values and attitudes held by elementary 44 school teachers toward physical activity as manifest in sports and games. Toward this end, the Kenyon Attitude Inventory was administered to a sample group of elementary school teachers in the Vancouver Public School system. On the basis of the data gleaned from the completed inventories, a norm table of attitudes held by elementary school teachers toward physical activity was established for the purpose of comparison with other groups, and for use i n future research. The p o s s i b i l i t y of existing differences in attitudes held toward physical activity among elementary school teachers as a function of their age, sex and grade levels taught, was also inventigated. The study determined that these three factors did not generate s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant attitudinal differences i n teachers, and that the attitudes held by teachers as a group toward physical activity varied toward the fitness, cathartic and vertigo subdomains, but were f a i r l y consistent toward the social, aesthetic and ascetic subdomains. Since consistency among agents of socialization i n the affective information they communicate is believed to be one of the prime factors in determining the efficacy of the socialization process, both the consistencies and inconsistencies i n the projected attitudes noted above are deemed to be significant findings i n this study. Conclusions In addition to establishing norm tables for elementary school teachers 45 on the Kenyon A t t i t u d e Inventory, t h i s study c i t e s two major f i n d i n g s : 1. 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Jacobson, 'Pygmalion I n The Classroom'," American E d u c a t i o n a l Research J o u r n a l , 5:708-711, 1968. Turk, H. "The e x p e c t a t i o n of s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e , " J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Psychology, 58:23-39, 1962. Utech, D. "Parents and peers as competing i n f l u e n c e s i n the d e c i s i o n s of c h i l d r e n of d i f f e r i n g ages," J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Psychology, 78:267-274, 1969. Vreeland, R. " C l a s s i f y i n g u n i v e r s i t y departments: An approach to the a n a l y s i s of t h e i r e f f e c t s upon undergraduate's values and a t t i t u d e s , " S o c iology of Education, 39:237, No. 3, 1966. Wear, C L . " C o n s t r u c t i o n of e q u i v a l e n t forms of an a t t i t u d e s c a l e , " Research Q u a r t e r l y , 26:113-19, March, 1955. Weiss, R. "Student a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m and teacher a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m as f a c t o r s i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of student performance and a t t i t u d e s , " J o u r n a l of Experimental Education, 38:83-87, No. 4, Summer, 1970. Wheeler, S. "The s t r u c t u r e of f o r m a l l y organized s o c i a l i z a t i o n s e t t i n g s , " S o c i a l i z a t i o n A f t e r Childhood: Two Essays, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1966. Whittaker, J . " A t t i t u d e change and communication - a t t i t u d e d i s c r e p a n c y , " J o u r n a l of S o c i a l Psychology, 65:141-147, 1965. Yee, A. "Source and d i r e c t i o n of c a u s a l i n f l u e n c e i n t e a c h e r - p u p i l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , " J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 59:275-282, No. 4, 1968. 53 APPENDIX A L e t t e r of A u t h o r i z a t i o n From Vancouver School Board 55 APPENDIX B L e t t e r To The Teachers From Vancouver School Board 57 APPENDIX C P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y Inventory 58 PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INVENTORY Age Sex_ Grade Level(s) Presently Being Taught NOTE: THIS QUESTIONNAIRE CAN BE.COMPLETED IN FIFTEEN - TWENTY MINUTES. 59 (Do Not Mark This Page) INSTRUCTIONS (using d i r e c t response) SEM. D. SCALES OF ATPA and BI (Project i:) The purpose of t h i s inventory i s to measure the meaning f o r you of c e r t a i n concepts of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y by judging them against a s e r i e s of d e s c r i p t i v e s c a l e s . In taking t h i s t e s t , please make your judgements on the basis of what these things mean to you. On each page of the booklet you w i l l f i n d a d i f f - erent idea or concept to be judged and beneath i t a set of sca- l e s . You are to rate the concept on each of these sca l e s i n order i n which they are given. Here i s how you are to use these s c a l e s : I f you f e e l that the concept i n the box at the top of the page, f o r example "REFEREE,,, i s very c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to one end of the s c a l e , you should place your check-mark as f o l l o w s : REFEREE f a i r x : : : : : : u n f a i r I 2 3 4 . 5 6~~ 7 or f a i r : _: : : : : x u n f a i r 1 2 3, 4 5 6 7 I f you f e e l that the concept i s quite c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to one or the other end of the scale (but net extremely), you sh- ould place your check-mark: as f o l l o w s : f a i r : x : : : __: __: u n f a i r I 2 3 4 5 6 7 or fair :_ : : : x : u n f a i r I 2 3 4 5 6 7 INSTRUCTIONS (Cont'd) I f the concept seems only s l i g h t l y r e l a t e d to one side as opposed to the other side (but i s not n e u t r a l ) , then you should check as f o l l o w s : f a i r : : x : : : : u n f a i r I 2 3 4 5 6 7 or f a i r : : : : x : : u n f a i r I 2 3 4 5 6 7 The d i r e c t i o n toward which you check, of course, depends upon which of the two ends of the scale seem most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the thing you are judging. I f you consider the concept to be n e u t r a l on the scale (that i s , both sides of the scale seem equally associated with the concept), or i f the scale makes no sense, (that i s , i t i s unrelated to the concept) then you sho- u l d place your check-mark i n the middle space: safe : : : x : : : dangerous 1 IMPORTANT: (1) (2) (3) (4) Sometimes you may f e e l as though you've had the same item before on the t e s t . This w i l l not be the case, so do not look back and f o r t h through the items. Do not t r y to remember how you checked s i m i l a r items e a r l i e r i n the t e s t . Make each item a separate and independent judgement. Work at a f a i r l y high speed through the t e s t . Do not worry or puzzle over i n d i v i d u a l items. It i s your f i r s t impressions, the immediate " f e e l i n g s " about the items that we want. On the other hand, please do not be c a r e l e s s be- we want your true impressions. 2 3 4 5 6 7 Place your check-mark i n the middle of spaces, not on the boundaries: THIS NOT THIS Be sure you check.every scale f o r every con- cept do not omit any. Never put more than one check-mark on a s i n - gle s c a l e . The numbers under each scale are merely to a s s i s t i n a n a l y s i s of the data by computers. You do not need to pay any a t t e n t i o n to them. 61 Using the Scales Below, Express on the Answer Sheet What the Concept i n the Box Cleans to You PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AS A SOCIAL EXPERIENCE Sports, games and other forms of p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n whose primary purpose i s to provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; that i s , to meet new people and continue personal f r i e n d s h i p s . As you proceed, always be t h i n k i n g about the idea or concept i n the box. 1. good : : : : : : bad I 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. worthless : : : : : : worthwhile ~ ~ T 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. pleasant : : : : : : unpleasant I- 2 3 4 5 6 7 4. sour : : : : : : sweet 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5 . nice : ; . • : ; : awful I 2 3 4 5 6 7 b» sad ^ : : : : : happy I 2 3 4 5 6 7 7. clean : : : : : : d i r t y I- 2 5 4" 5 6 1 8. relaxed ; : : : : ; tense I 2 3 4 5 6 7 62 - 2 - P H Y S I C A L A C T I V I T Y FOK HEALTH AND F I T N E S S P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y p r i m a r i l y t o i m p r o v e o n e ' s . h e a l t h a n d p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . A s you p r o c e e d , t h e b o x . a l w a y s be t h i n k i n g a b o u t t h e i d e a o r c o n c e p t i n 1. g o o d • • • • » b a d 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. w o r t h l e s s • • • • • » • w o r t h w h i l e 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. p l e a s a n t • • # * • * • u n p l e a s a n t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4. s o u r • • * • • • • • • • • s w e e t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5» n i c e • • • • • • a w f u l 1 2 3 4 5 6 ' 7' 6. sad * • • • • • h a p p y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7. c l e a n * * * • • d i r t y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. r e l a x e d • • • • • • t e n s e 1 2 3 4 5 b 7 63 -3- PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AS A THRILL BUT INVOLVING SOME RISK P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s providing, at some r i s k to the p a r t i c i p a n t , t h r i l l s and excitement through speed, a c c e l e r a t i o n , sudden change of d i r e c t i o n , and expo- sure to dangerous s i t u a t i o n s . As you proceed, always be thinking*, about the idea or concept i n the box. 1. good T 6 bad 2. worthless : ; : : : : worthwhile T 2 3 3 5 6 7~~ 3 . pleasant unpleasant 4. s o u r "5 5 T sweet 5. nice : : : : ; : awful T 2 3 3 5 5 7 ~ 6 . sad 6 happy 7. clean : : : : : d i r t y ~ ~ I T~ ~^ 4 5 1 7~ 8. relaxed : : ; : : tense J g. 3 ^ T~ 64 - 4 - PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AS THE BEAUTY IN HUMAN MOVEMENT Ph y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s which are thought of as possessing beauty or c e r t a i n a r t i s t i c q u a l i t i e s such as b a l l e t , gymnastics or fi g u r e s k a t i n g . As you proceed, always be think i n g about the idea or concept i n the box* 1. good bad 2. worthless worthwhile 3 . pleasant unpleasant 4. sour sweet 5. nice awful 6 . sad _happy 7. clean _dirty 8. relaxed tense 65 -5- PHYSICAL ACTIVITY FOR THE RELEASE OF TENSION The p a r t i c i p a t i o n (or watching others p a r t i c i p a t e ) i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s to get away from the problems of modern l i v i n g ; to provide a release from "pent up emotions". As you proceed, always be th i n k i n g about the idea or concept i n the box. 1. good : ; : : : : bad ~~I 2 5 \ 5 eT 7 ~ 2. worthless "3 T worthwhile 3 , p l e a s a n t "5 T unpleasant 4. s o u r "5 T sweet 5. nice "2 IT "3 z T a w f u l 6 . sad ______ - m » • "I S 3 3 5" happy 7. c l e a n "5 r d i r t y 8. relaxed t e n s e 66 - 6 - PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AS PROLONGED AND STRENUOUS TRAINING P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h r e q u i r e l o n g p e r i o d s o f s t r e n u o u s and o f t e n p a i n f u l t r a i n i n g ; w h i c h i n v o l v e s t i f f c o m p e t i - t i o n and demands t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l g i v e up a number o f p l e a s u r e s f o r a p e r i o d o f t i m e . As y o u p r o c e e d , a l w a y s be t h i n k i n g a b o u t t h e i d e a o r c o n c e p t i n th e box. 1. good : : : : : : bad I 2 3 4 5 5 7 "~* 2. w o r t h l e s s : : : : : : w o r t h w h i l e I 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. p l e a s a n t : :_ : : : : u n p l e a s a n t I 2 3 4 5 6 7 4. - s o u r : : : : : sweet I 2 3 4 5 6 7 5. n i c e : : : : : : a w f u l I 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 . s a d ; : : : : : happy I 2 3 4 5 6 7 7. c l e a n : : : : : d i r t y I 2 3 4 5 6 T~~ 8. r e l a x e d ; _ ; : : : : .tense I 2 3 4 5 6 7 - 67 APPENDIX D Raw Scores 68 RAW SCORES Female Young Lower Subs. Asc. Cath. Aesth. V e r t . F i t . Soc 1 34 45 48 44 46 49 2 29 44 46 25 39 47 3 16 40 47 38 43 46 4 32 56 47 42 50 47 5 22 50 53 37 28 45 6 44 56 56 32 56 56 7 22 42 47 20 41 40 8 42 56 52 53 54 55 9 53 53 53 33 53 54 10 11 56 51 12 32 50 11 20 46 41 44 38 32 12 17 48 56 49 56 56 13 38 34 47 23 38 40 14 24 37 42 32 32 46 15 29 44 40 44 48 44 16 27 54 56 33 46 45 17 30 34 50 11 33 53 18 31 50 39 39 53 46 19 36 53 45 39 43 37 20 36 56 56 42 46 48 21 34 43 50 32 46 46 22 25 42 46 31 42 44 23 26 47 44 34 43 50 24 28 46 49 35 44 47 25 30 46 48 31 44 45 26 29 50 48 30 40 42 27 24 44 44 35 41 47 28 31 48 48 31 43 47 29 27 46 49 38 43 45 30 30 49 47 37 42 46 Subs. Asc. 69 Female Young Upper Cath. Aesth. V e r t . F i t . Soc 1 31 47 A5 36 A6 Al 2 38 55 53 52 51 55 3 32 A3 A5 53 A8 A5 A AO 51 56 18 A2 5A 5 29 A8 A3 35 A5 A9 6 A8 56 32 38 A8 A8 7 A8 56 56 19 50 A8 8 38 3A A6 35 A8 AA 9 A5 56 56 A2 A6 A2 10 39 52 55 36 50 56 11 15 A8 A5 15 25 Al 12 3A A3 A2 31 A3 AA 13 36 Al A7 30 AO A6 1A 38 AO 32 32 32 32 15 AO A3 55 A5 A9 51 16 27 38 A3 35 39 A2 17 33 35 37 A6 AO A3 18 38 5A 52 30 AA A8 19 AO 55 50 29 A6 A9 20 39 50 53 31 AA A7 21 AO 51 A7 33 A7 A7 22 37 A8 A8 35 AA A5 Subs. Asc. 70 Female Older Lower Cath. Aesth. V e r t . F i t . Soc. 1 4 1 5 1 5 3 5 1 47 44 2 56 56 56 56 56 56 3 3 9 44 47 32 44 4 8 4 38 3 5 39 39 4 1 4 0 5 37 4 9 4 5 4 0 4 3 4 3 6 4 8 4 6 44 38 4 2 3 9 7 3 9 4 5 52 4 9 51 54 8 4 9 44 52 5 0 52 52 71 Female Older Upper Subs. Asc. Cath. Aesth. V e r t . F i t . Soc, 1 28 47 53 44 36 47 2 40 55 56 46 56 53 3 39 44 50 45 44 45 4 14 56 53 35 33 44 5 36 52 56 53 56 53 6 40 55 52 32 51 52 7 41 54 54 35 49 54 8 16 44 43 23 38 40 9 32 30 32 30 32 36 10 30 53 48 41 48 49 11 14 56 56 40 50 51 12 41 46 48 36 37 45 13 38 42 44 38 40 44 14 33 44 49 36 41 47 15 29 48 50 37 43 46 16 32 49 49 38 44 47 72 Male Older Upper Cath. Aesth. Vert. F i t . 1 35 32 38 41 38 50 2 33 51 41 38 46 50 3 33 43 44 34 33 44 4 47 26 56 32 55 50 5 23 56 56 37 56 56 6 32 49 59 41 56 38 7 44 48 47 45 48 49 8 33 51 46 33 43 33 9 36 46 47 38 47 45 Male Young Upper Subs. Asc. Cath. Aesth. V e r t . F i t . Soc. 1 35 32 42 33 42 44 2 46 37 47 21 50 39 3 49 50 47 48 54 51 4 35 56 50 42 42 47 5 37 36 44 27 44 51 6 36 49 51 40 50 44 7 44 56 54 48 55 50 8 34 56 54 48 55 50 9 27 35 56 27 35 33 10 40 53 48 47 45 56 11 36 44 28 32 39 44 12 30 50 47 24 36 52 13 28 46 43 22 47 45 14 43 52 51 46 47 45 15 49 17 43 46 40 41 16 31 45 51 50 48 45 17 35 40 37 38 40 39 18 36 40 46 37 44 46

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