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The relationship between high density living and fitness performance of elementary school age children MacKenzie, G. Robin 1976

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THE  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIGH DENSITY LIVING AND FITNESS PERFORMANCE OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN by G. Robin MacKenzie B.P.E., U n i v e r s i t y o f Calgary, 1971  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF• THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION  i n t h e School o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1976  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  an advanced degree at the I  Library  shall  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  written  make  freely available  that permission  It  for financial  for  Columbia,  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f  i s understood that copying o r gain shall  not  P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  April  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and this  23, 1976  Columbia  Recreation  for  that  study. thesis or  publication  be allowed without my  permission.  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  D a t e  it  the requirements  purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department  thesis  Department of The  fulfilment of  the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  representatives.  this  in p a r t i a l  ii  ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was performance  t o compare the motor  and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s o f c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n a h i g h  d e n s i t y area t o t h a t of c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n a low d e n s i t y a r e a . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t c h i l d r e n from the West End s c o r e lower than c h i l d r e n from Vancouver  Vancouver and  children  from Canada on the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n of Health, P h y s i c a l Education, and R e c r e a t i o n (CAHPER) F i t n e s s Performance  Test;  t h a t c h i l d r e n from apartment f l o o r s f o u r t o twenty s c o r e lower than c h i l d r e n l i v i n g below the f o u r t h f l o o r on the CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance t e s t and the Crawford and  Virgin  t e s t s ; and t h a t t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e between the motor performance  s c o r e s o f the c h i l d r e n from the West End and the  motor performance  scores of the c h i l d r e n from North York.  The elementary school p o p u l a t i o n of the West End d i s t r i c t was  s e l e c t e d t o be t e s t e d on motor p e r f o r -  mance and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s t e s t items. Performance  Vancouver  The CAHPER F i t n e s s  T e s t and a b a t t e r y of t e s t s p r e v i o u s l y used by  Crawford and V i r g i n i n North York O n t a r i o were used i n the testing.  The s c o r e s r e c o r d e d were then compared t o the  Vancouver  CAHPER norms, the Canadian CAHPER norms and the  test  s c o r e s r e c o r d e d by Crawford and V i r g i n i n t h e i r North  York study.  The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t West End elementary  s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n score lower than Vancouver  elementary  school age c h i l d r e n on the CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance  test;  iii t h a t the c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n the West End peers i n Vancouver i n l e g power and seven and  speed between the ages of  twelve; t h a t the g i r l s from the West End  develop i n t h e i r a g i l i t y and normal r a t e ; t h a t t h e r e was  do  not  c a r d i o v a s c u l a r endurance at a no d i f f e r e n c e between the  of the c h i l d r e n l i v i n g on f l o o r s one achieved  f a l l behind t h e i r  t o three  and  the  scores scores  by c h i l d r e n l i v i n g on f l o o r s f o u r to twenty; t h a t  d i f f e r e n c e was  found i n the motor performance scores  c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n the West End  and  the  scores  grows o l d e r at l e a s t t o the age  males score h i g h e r mance t e s t a t the  level.  improve  of twelve; and  than females on the CAHPER F i t n e s s same age  of  of the c h i l d r e n  from North York; t h a t the F i t n e s s Performance scores as a c h i l d  no  that  Perfor-  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES  vi  . .  LIST OF FIGURES  V  i i  Chapter I  INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM  1  Introduction  II  III  . . . . . . . .  1  Statement o f the problem  2  Sub problems  2  Definitions  2  Delimitations  4  Assumptions and l i m i t a t i o n s  4  Hypothesis  4  S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Study  4  REVIEW OF LITERATURE  6  Quality of L i f e  10  Values o f P l a y  13  METHODS AND PROCEDURES The Sample  19 ..  19  f  West End Vancouver  19 . . . . .  20  Canada  2  0  North York  2  0  T e s t i n g Procedures CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance T e s t  •  2  1  2  1  v Chapter  Page Reliabilities  . .  Crawford and V i r g i n T e s t Items  23  Reliabilities The Design  24  c  24  The S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s IV  25  RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS  28  Results . . . . . . . . .  28  Hypothesis I  45  Hypothesis 2  48  Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 4 Discussion V  22  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  . . . . .  48 48 48 54  Summary  54  Conclusions  55  Suggestions  55  REFERENCES  57  APPENDICES  6  1  vi  LIST OF TABLES Table 1.  Page Vancouver West End P o p u l a t i o n by area  Density 12  2.  The One Minute Speed Sit-Up  29  3.  The Standing  29  4.  The S h u t t l e Run  30  5.  The F l e x e d Arm Hang  30  6.  The 50 Yard Run  31  7.  The 300 Yard Run  31  8.  Crawford and V i r g i n Table o f Means Grade 1  43  Crawford and V i r g i n Table Grade 5 . . . . .  43  9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.  Broad Jump  o f Means  M u l t i v a r i a t e and U n i v a r i a t e F - r a t i o s f o r a l l Comparisons  44  Crawford and V i r g i n T e s t s by F l o o r L e v e l Grade 1  46  Crawford and V i r g i n Tests by F l o o r L e v e l Grade 5 . . .  46  CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance T e s t by F l o o r L e v e l Age 7  47  CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance T e s t by F l o o r L e v e l Age 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47  vii  LIST OF FIGURES Figure  ~ Page  1.  Combined Male and Female S i t Ups . . . . . .  32  2.  Combined Male and Female Broad Jump  32  3.  S i t Ups - Female  33  4.  S i t Ups - Male  33  5.  Broad - -'Female  34  6.  Broad - Male  7.  Combined Male and Female S h u t t l e Run . . . .  35  8.  Combined Male and Female F l e x e d Arm Hang . .  35  9..  S h u t t l e Run - Female  36  10.  S h u t t l e Run - Male  36  11.  F l e x e d Arm Hang - Female  37  12.  F l e x e d Arm Hang - Male  37  13.  Combined Vancouver, West End and Canada S h u t t l e Run  38  14.  . . . .  -  34  Combined Vancouver, West End and Canada F l e x e d Arm Hang  38  15.  Combined Male and Female - 50 Yard Run . . .  39  16.  Combined Male and Female - 300 Yard Run  3  17.  50 Yard Run - Female  40  18.  50 Yard Run - Male  40  19.  300 Yard Run - Female  41  20.  300 Yard Run - Male  41  21.  Combined Vancouver, West End and Canada 50 Yard Run Combined Vancouver; West End and Canada 300 Yard Run  42  22.  . .  9  42  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o express my thanks  t o Dr. W h i t t l e who  p r o v i d e d t h e spark which i n i t i a t e d t h e work on t h i s s u b j e c t . I would l i k e t o thank t h e members o f my committee whose p a t i e n c e and wise c o u n s e l l i n g h e l p e d me i n t h e t a s k .  I must  a l s o thank my f e l l o w s t a f f a t t h e downtown YMCA who h e l p e d in the t e s t i n g . One member o f my committee, Dr. Cora Paton/ who through v e r y u n f o r t u n a t e p e r s o n a l circumstances was unable t o a t t e n d my f i n a l o r a l ,  I would l i k e t o thank f o r k i n d l i n g an i n t e r e s t  i n t h e p h y s i c a l development o f young c h i l d r e n . I must mention Dr. Bob Schutz and express a f e e l i n g of deep g r a t i t u d e f o r h i s c o n c i e n t i o u s work w i t h myself and a l l other graduate  students.  I b e l i e v e t h e s t r e n g t h t h i s man  c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia School o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n graduate program i s tremendous.  He has c e r t a i n l y a f f e c t e d my l i f e i n a v e r y p o s i t i v e  manner. Finally,  I would l i k e t o thank my w i f e Bev whose  support and understanding was t e r r i f i c .  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO THE  PROBLEM  Introduction In r e c e n t y e a r s many f a m i l i e s have been moving i n t o m u l t i p l e u n i t d w e l l i n g s which are b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h i n easy access  t o t h e i r p l a c e s of work.  Vancouver i s no e x c e p t i o n ; the Vancouver West End  96.8  percent  The  near or  c i t y of  of the r e s i d e n c e s  are m u l t i p l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s .  This  i n c r e a s e i n the p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y of the West End has taxed the few  parks and  playgrounds w i t h i n the area.  of  heavily There-  f o r e , many c h i l d r e n r a i s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n of the c i t y have d i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g an adequate p l a y environment. I t has  been s t a t e d t h a t parents  who  l i v e i n apartments  are o f t e n h e s i t a n t about p e r m i t t i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o go and p l a y unaccompanied  (Darke and Darke, 1970).  The  distance  the f a m i l y l i v e s above the ground i s a f a c t o r i n t h i s as the methods used t o get t o the ground. w i t h more than t h r e e  out  are  Apartment b u i l d i n g s  s t o r i e s are equipped with e l e v a t o r s  and  t h e r e f o r e the use o f the s t a i r s by the r e s i d e n t s i s l i m i t e d . In a r e c e n t  study, Crawford and V i r g i n (1971) found i n the  C i t y of North York t h a t c h i l d r e n from h i g h r i s e apartments showed l e s s development than t h e i r peers from s i n g l e f a m i l y dwellings,  on  s e v e r a l fundamental motor t a s k s .  I f c h i l d r e n are f o r c e d t o l i v e a more r e s t r i c t e d  1  life  2 i n terms o f p l a y experiences and overcrowded environments inhibit  p l a y (Holme and Massie, 1970), one c o u l d assume t h a t  the motor performance and g e n e r a l f i t n e s s l e v e l s o f the c h i l d r e n would be r e t a r d e d . T h i s study,  then, w i l l d e a l w i t h t h e present  fitness  and motor performance l e v e l s o f Vancouver's West End Element a r y school c h i l d r e n .  Statement o f t h e problem The purpose o f t h i s study was t o compare t h e motor performance and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s o f c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n a h i g h d e n s i t y area t o t h a t o f c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n a low d e n s i t y a r e a . Sub problems 1.  To compare t h e CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance t e s t  scores  achieved by c h i l d r e n from t h e West End w i t h t h e Vancouver norms f o r t h e CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance t e s t . 2.  To compare t h e CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance t e s t  scores  achieved b y c h i l d r e n from t h e West End w i t h the Canadian norms f o r t h e CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance 3.  test.  To compare t h e F i t n e s s and motor performance scores o f  c h i l d r e n l i v i n g below the f o u r t h f l o o r t o t h e scores o f c h i l d r e n l i v i n g on and above the f o u r t h f l o o r . 4.  To compare t h e motor performance scores from t h e West End  w i t h the scores from North York. Definitions West End - t h a t area i n the c i t y o f Vancouver bounded by  B u r r a r d S t r e e t , Robson S t r e e t , and CAHPER - The t i o n and  S t a n l e y Park  Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n of Health, P h y s i c a l Educa-  Recreation.  CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance T e s t - a s i x item t e s t designed  to  measure p h y s i c a l and motor f i t n e s s . Motor Performance - i s a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t term aspect  of  movement b e h a v i o r marked by movement o r i e n t e d toward t h e e x e c u t i o n of an i d e n t i f i a b l e t a s k .  I t i s goal-centered  p u r p o s e f u l , measurable, observable movement behavior  of  r e l a t i v e l y short d u r a t i o n . Crawford and V i r g i n Test Items - s t o r k stand, a g i l i t y  run,  b a l l throw, jump and c l a p , a l t e r n a t e w a l l t o s s , and toe North York - a m u n i c i p a l i t y n o r t h of  touch.  Toronto.  High r i s e b u i l d i n g - a b u i l d i n g which i s over t h r e e f l o o r s i n h e i g h t and c o n t a i n s an e l e v a t o r . YMCA - Young Men's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n . S i n g l e Family D w e l l i n g - a b u i l d i n g where o n l y one l i v e s under one  family  roof.  M u l t i p l e Family D w e l l i n g - a b u i l d i n g where more than f a m i l y l i v e s under one  roof.  M u l t i p l e Unit Dwellings l i v i n g u n i t under one  - a b u i l d i n g c o n t a i n i n g more than  roof.  High D e n s i t y Area - a r e s i d e n t i a l area where more than persons l i v e on one Low  100  acre.  D e n s i t y Area - a r e s i d e n t i a l area where fewer than  persons l i v e on one  one  acre.  50  one  4 Delimitations The sample w i l l c o n s i s t o f t h e students o f L o r d Roberts Elementary School and School Annex i n t h e C i t y o f Vancouver. Assumptions  and l i m i t a t i o n s  The t e s t items o f Crawford and V i r g i n  (1971) w i l l be  assumed t o be r e l i a b l e . I t i s assumed t h a t t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e West End l i v e i n m u l t i p l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s . Hypothesis 1*  C h i l d r e n from t h e West End score lower than c h i l d r e n from  Vancouver 2.  on t h e CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance  C h i l d r e n from t h e West End score lower than c h i l d r e n from  Canada' on t h e CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance 3.  test.  test.  C h i l d r e n from apartment f l o o r s f o u r t o twenty score lower  than c h i l d r e n l i v i n g below t h e f o u r t h f l o o r on t h e CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance t e s t . a n d t h e Crawford and V i r g i n 4.  There i s no d i f f e r e n c e between t h e motor  tests.  performance  scores o f the c h i l d r e n from t h e West End and t h e motor p e r formance  s c o r e s o f t h e c h i l d r e n from North York.  S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e Study The study c o u l d have some important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the  need o f b e t t e r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n the immediate  area o f m u l t i p l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s and perhaps b r i n g out some severe disadvantages o f h a v i n g f a m i l i e s l i v e i n such b u i l d i n g s .  The d e v e l o p e r s of these complexes might be i n t e r e s t e d i n what e f f e c t t h e i r s t r u c t u r e s are h a v i n g on the c h i l d r e n r a i s e d within their walls. initiate  The  schools i n these areas may  have t o  s p e c i a l programs t o compensate f o r the i n f l u e n c e of  the environment.  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the F e d e r a l  Government  would be i n t e r e s t e d i n the f i n d i n g s and r e q u i r e c e r t a i n adequate p l a y areas f o r every "X"  number of f a m i l i e s .  p a r e n t s l i v i n g i n such complexes may  be very i n t e r e s t e d i n  the i m p l i c a t i o n s a t t a c h e d t o l i v i n g i n m u l t i p l e u n i t dwellings.  Also,  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF LITERATURE In t h e p a s t t e n years t h e h o u s i n g t r e n d s  i n North  American c i t i e s a r e f o r c i n g f a m i l i e s t o seek l i v i n g  accommo-  d a t i o n i n m u l t i p l e u n i t forms o f accommodation (Katz, 1963).  I t has been p r e d i c t e d t h a t i n the P r o v i n c e  R.D.,  of B r i t i s h  Columbia i n t h e near f u t u r e most new home c o n s t r u c t i o n w i l l be o f t h e m u l t i p l e u n i t nature due t o the p r e s s i n g and  ecological situations.  financial  With t h i s i n c r e a s e d premium on  open space o r a v a i l a b l e land w i t h i n urban areas t h e q u e s t i o n a r i s e s r e g a r d i n g the e f f e c t t h i s s t y l e o f l i f e w i l l have on the i n d i v i d u a l s l i v i n g i n such environments. Much concern i s b e i n g expressed r e c e n t l y on t h e h o u s i n g o f f a m i l i e s w i t h young c h i l d r e n i n h i g h f l a t s i n r e l a t i o n t o lack of s o c i a l contacts, health, future and  s t r a i n on f a m i l y l i f e .  I t i s i n t h e area o f motor and  p h y s i c a l development t h i s review s h a l l concern "The  well-being  e m p i r i c a l evidence i s q u i t e sparse  itself.  . . . most o f the  comment i s pure s p e c u l a t i o n and t h e r e i s an urgent need f o r c a r e f u l research  i n t o the e f f e c t s o f h i g h b u i l d i n g s , e x p e c i a l l y  i f t h e s e a r e going t o form t h e b a s i s o f f u t u r e h o u s i n g p o l i c y i n i n n e r areas o f c i t i e s " .  (Darke, J . and Darke R., 1970,  p. 7 ) . C i t i e s g e n e r a l l y have not kept up i n p r o v i d i n g parks  6  and  playgrounds and other  open spaces t o compensate f o r t h e  absence o f usable open space f o r t h e c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n multiple unit dwellings "Generally rise),  b u i l t on small  lots.  i n t h e development o f such p r o j e c t s  no c o n s i d e r a t i o n has been g i v e n t o s c h o o l i n g ,  grounds, shopping c e n t e r s ,  and other  play-  community s e r v i c e s  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f a m i l y accommodation." Design C o u n c i l ,  (high  (Canadian Housing  1964, p. 4 ) . T h i s means t h a t "both t h e  c h i l d r e n and t h e i r p a r e n t s a r e u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d when t h e c h i l d r e n do not have d i r e c t and immediate access t o t h e ground, playgrounds o f adequate s i z e and b a s i c equipment, and some s h e l t e r e d p l a y space w i t h i n a t t r a c t i v e range . . . the h i g h r i s e b u i l d i n g does have i t s m e r i t s , children"  but not f o r a c t i v e  (Dodge, 1958, p. 1 6 ) .  The  advantages and disadvantages o f h i g h r i s e  living  as summed up by Townsend (1970, p. 7)~; Kamenka (1947, p. 113) and  Dodge (1958, p. 18) a r e as f o l l o w s : Advantages  Disadvantages  b e t t e r views  no access t o open space  privacy  isolation  l e s s noise  children's safety 1. b a l c o n i e s ( r a i l s t o o low) 2. l i f t s  fresh a i r organized  . c h i l d welfare  3. s t a i r c a s e s  f a v o r s group a c t i v i t i e s  l a c k o f r e c r e a t i o n space  fine lighting  and a d i f f i c u l t y of  f e e l i n g o f space  supervision  I t can be seen t h a t t h e r e a r e both advantages and  8 disadvantages  t o l i v i n g i n h i g h r i s e accommodations.  Some  w r i t i n g s even s t a t e t h a t small f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n under the age of two do not need the same access t o the  out-of-doors  as o l d e r f a m i l i e s and apartments are s u p e r i o r f o r them (Dodge, 1958,  p. 18).  T h i s may  ments w i l l accept  w e l l be the case but how  families?  In a M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto (1961) i t was  many a p a r t -  study, Toronto,  Ontario  r e p o r t e d t h a t 75 percent of the b u i l d i n g s would  rent to f a m i l i e s with c h i l d r e n .  A l s o 25 percent of a l l a p a r t -  ment households are occupied by f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n and percent of apartments occupied by f a m i l i e s w i t h  children  i n c r e a s e s s t e a d i l y w i t h the d i s t a n c e from the c i t y The mean number of c h i l d r e n per 100 percent b e i n g p r e - s c h o o l age, school age  center.  s u i t e s i s 33 w i t h  40 percent b e i n g  and 13 percent b e i n g of secondary  the  47  elementary  school  age  (Metro Toronto P l a n Board Apartment Survey, 1961). In Vancouver a survey of the West End D i s t r i c t  (1971)  i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were 2,050 c h i l d r e n between the ages of 0 and 14 y e a r s out of a p o p u l a t i o n of 37,728. 5.4  percent of the West End p o p u l a t i o n compared t o 27.2  cent of the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n ( S t a t i s t i c s o c c u p i e d by 0-14  year o l d s .  apartment b l o c k s as  percent o f a l l r e s i d e n c e s are apartments. l i v i n g u n i t s are s i n g l e detached  families.  Canada,  per-  1974)  The p l a c e of r e s i d e n c e f o r the  m a j o r i t y of these c h i l d r e n was  all  This represents  Only  96.8  2 p e r c e n t of  homes o c c u p i e d by s e v e r a l  However the West End Housing Agency i n d i c a t e s t h a t  there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t  decrease  i n the numbers of a v a i l a b l e  s u i t e s f o r parents w i t h c h i l d r e n and p r e s e n t l y (October  1975)  they are aware o f o n l y two t o t h r e e b u i l d i n g s which w i l l r e n t to parents with c h i l d r e n .  A spot check on the numbers of  s u i t e s a v a i l a b l e r e v e a l e d e i g h t out of 80  (10 percent)  accept c h i l d r e n but w i t h r e s t r i c t i o n s on age and . New  will  number.  p l a n n i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s have been passed by Vancou-  ver C i t y C o u n c i l and f u t u r e development w i l l be much more a c c e p t a b l e f o r f a m i l i e s p l a n n i n g t o l i v e i n the West However w i t h these new  restrictions,  c o n t r a c t o r s tend t o  p r e f e r not t o b u i l d r e s i d e n c e s but opt t o b u i l d b u i l d i n g s i n the c i t y c e n t e r . cant decrease age. was  One  End.  T h i s has  led  office  to a s i g n i f i -  i n the number of c h i l d r e n of elementary school  elementary school on the border of the West End  c l o s e d i n 1971  sending a l l c h i l d r e n t o Lord Roberts  Elementary School and Annex and i f the t r e n d c o n t i n u e s , f a m i l i e s w i t h elementary school age c h i l d r e n may f o r c e d out of the West  be  completely  End.  P r e s e n t l y the l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e i n each u n i t i s of short d u r a t i o n :  -  -  r e s i d e n c e l e s s than one year  40.4  percent  r e s i d e n c e one t o two years  23.4  percent  residence three to f i v e years  14.5  percent  r e s i d e n c e s i x t o t e n years  13.0  percent  8.7  percent  r e s i d e n c e over ten years  However, i n t e r area moves r e v e a l a t r u e r i d e a of how people l i v e  i n the a r e a :  long  10 no i n t e r area move i n f i v e y e a r s  57.4 percent  one  i n t e r area move i n f i v e y e a r s  18.5 percent  two  t o t h r e e i n t e r area moves i n f i v e years  15.0 percent  f o u r o r more i n t e r area moves i n f i v e years  9.1 percent  These f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e s e v e r a l t h i n g s : 1.  Most people p r e f e r t o s t a y i n t h e West End and move  w i t h i n t h e area t o a more p r e f e r r e d s u i t e or u n i t . 2.  There i s a good number o f moves t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h i n  the community. 3. it  While t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s mobile first  i t i s more s t a t i c  than  appears.  Quality of L i f e The q u a l i t y o f l i f e  i n a h i g h r i s e complex i s d i r e c t l y  a f f e c t e d by d e n s i t y , b u i l d i n g type, and s i z e .  As a r u l e , as  d e n s i t y i n c r e a s e s , i n d i v i d u a l p r i v a c y decreases. Katz  (1963) s t a t e s t h a t b u i l d i n g s can be used as b u f f e r s  a g a i n s t heavy t r a f f i c  and t h e r e f o r e p r o v i d e safe and q u i e t  p l a y areas w i t h i n c o u r t y a r d s . for  However,  He a l s o mentions t h e need  adequate l i g h t and f r e s h a i r f o r a l l u n i t s .  This i s  something we see b e i n g emphasized more and more i n s t r u c t u r e s these days. The  number of i n d i v i d u a l s per acre i s an accepted  guide f o r d e n s i t y and w h i l e t h e r e a r e not s t r i c t f i g u r e s from 25 persons  per acre t o 400 persons  standards, per acre a r e  'quoted i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e ; f o r example, a town 1.25 m i l e s i n r a d i u s a t 35 persons  per acre would house 60,000 people;  a town 0.94 m i l e s i n r a d i u s a t 160 persons  per acre  11 c o u l d accommodate the  same 60,000 people.  (Jensen,  l o n g ago  1966,  p. 12)  net i n the r e s i d e n t i a l areas. c i t i e s have set between 200 maximum d e s i r a b l e d e n s i t y  accepted  Le  300  Corbusier  persons per  P r e s e n t l y many North American  and  300  persons per a c r e as  (Milwaukee, Toronto, New  P h i l a d e l p h i a , Winnipeg, S e a t t l e , Sacramento and The  Vancouver West End has  acre  their  York,  Vancouver).  a d e n s i t y number of 149  (1973)  per acre and p l a n s i n the f u t u r e i n d i c a t e t h i s f i g u r e  should  not change s i g n i f i c a n t l y . (Table I ) . I t i s mentioned by Brechenridge and Lee  (1966) t h a t  the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of h e a l t h y h o u s i n g can be put  under  a) meeting p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i o l o g i c a l i n d i v i d u a l needs, b) p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t contagion, accidents.  "Meeting p h y s i o l o g i c a l needs i n v o l v e s temperature  regulation, ventilation, noise,  and  childrens  1  c) p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t  light  protection against  excessive  p r o v i s i o n of adequate space f o r e x e r c i s e and  for  play"  Most  (Brechenridge  of these can be achieved  and Lee,  p. 173).  i f proper p l a n n i n g precedes the  b u i l d i n g development, however, i t was observations  1966,  found from m e d i c a l  t h a t c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n f l a t s had  twice  the  i n c i d e n c e of r e s p i r a t o r y i n f e c t i o n s as c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n houses ( H i r d , 1966;  Darke, J . and Darke, R.,  H i r d a l s o observed a small but  (Darke, J . and  T h i s supported H i r d ' s h y p o t h e s i s t o the open a i r .  Further  p.  11).  steady i n c r e a s e i n r a t e of  r e s p i r a t o r y i n f e c t i o n incidence above the ground"  1970,  "...  with i n c r e a s i n g h e i g h t  Darke, R.,  1970,  p.  of people's need of  evidence by H i r d r e v e a l e d  11). access lower  12  Table 1  v.  Vancouver West End P o p u l a t i o n D e n s i t y by Area  Neighbourhood Areas'  1973 Population  Net Residential Acres  1973 Density.  Proposed Maximum D e n s i t y 1988  S t a n l e y Park  8, 700  50  174/acre  200/acre  Coal Harbour  2, 300  32  71/acre  100/acre  K i n g George  3, 300  23  143/acre  150/acre  L o r d Roberts  6, 050  45  134/acre  150/acre  Alexandra Park  5, 050  26  194/acre  200/acre  New C r y s t a l  Pool 7, 250  49  148/acre  175/acre  Nelson Park  , 2,550  15  170/acre  150/acre  Robson International  5, 450  34  160/acre  200/acre  Total  40,650  274  x = 149/acre  x = 166/acre  (West End P l a n n i n g Team, Aug. 1973)  p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y among f l a t d w e l l e r s R.,  1970,  p. 11).  (Darke, J . and  I t i s s t a t e d i n many s t u d i e s t h a t much of  what i s good or bad  about l i v i n g i n apartments depends  s p e c i f i c a l l y on the people i n r e s i d e n c e .  The  socializing  agent may  be the s t r u c t u r a l d e s i g n  residence  but more o f t e n than not the s o c i a l norms of  apartment are i n f l u e n c e d by one families. valuable  or the l e n g t h o f time of  or two  an  i n d i v i d u a l s or  They tend to set the norms and  can perform a  leadership role i n stimulating social interaction  and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y among the other r e s i d e n t s . "The  Darke,  important t h i n g i s t o r e c o g n i s e  However,  t h a t the b e n e f i c i a l  s o c i a l e f f e c t s of good h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s can be l a r g e l y c a n c e l l e d out i f t h e r e to play" p.  i s nowhere c h i l d r e n f i n d i t  enjoyable  ( M i n i s t e r of Housing and L o c a l Government,  1959,  44).  Values o f  Play  Lawrence R a r i c k today who  question  s t a t e d "There are few  the v a l u e  the l i f e of the c h i l d and These v a l u e s he  lists  informed persons  of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and  adolescent"  (Rarick,  1961,  play i n p.  4).  as:  1.  s a t i s f a c t i o n of the urge f o r a c t i v i t y  2.  stimulant  3.  promotion of o r g a n i c  4.  development of a r e p e r t o i r e of neuro-muscular  5.  b r o a d e n i n g o n e s concept of  6.  p r o v i s i o n of a medium f o r  t o p h y s i c a l growth vigor  1  self  socialization.  skills  14 E l i z a b e t h Hurlock  (1964) s t a t e s t h a t p l a y :  1.  h e l p s the c h i l d develop as a person  2.  promotes muscular development  3.  i s an o u t l e t f o r energy  4.  i s an education  5.  i s a socialization  t o o l i n motor development experience.  P l a y f o r c h i l d r e n i s important development.  However we  and  very c r u c i a l i n t h e i r  total  i n c i t y c e n t e r s are p r e s e n t l y a s k i n g  o u r s e l v e s where can our c h i l d r e n p l a y ? A g o a l t o work towards i s "The spaces must be one  p r o v i s i o n of p l a y  of the f i r s t c a l l s on the a v a i l a b l e space  around d w e l l i n g s i n m u l t i - s t o r y have gardens of t h e i r own,  developments which do  though i t i s u s u a l l y i m p r a c t i c a l  f o r major playgrounds, such as are p r o v i d e d t o be  not  i n c l u d e d on a h i g h d e n s i t y e s t a t e "  and L o c a l Government, 1958,  p. 44).  i n p u b l i c parks,  ( M i n i s t r y of Housing  This i s d e f i n i t e l y a  g o a l t o work towards as a study conducted i n London, England by J . M a i s e l s mentions " . . .  seventy  of the sample  (200)  made d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o the d i f f i c u l t i e s c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y i n f l a t s and  f i f t y - e i g h t percent  sample thought t h a t t h e i r present t o mother and c h i l d "  environment was  (Darke, J . and Darke, R.,  by r e s t r i c t i n g t h e i r p l a y experience areas.  and  of  of  the  detrimental  1970,  pp  8-9)  a v a i l a b i l i t y t o open  A l s o , o f the p o p u l a t i o n of c h i l d r e n under f o u r years,  o n l y 5 percent were allowed  downstairs  alone but  lower f l o o r mothers allowed t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o go alone more o f t e n .  i t was  found  downstairs  I t i s very i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t  15 "a q u a r t e r o f the comments were t h a t c h i l d r e n c o u l d not downstairs  alone"  (/Darke, J . and Darke, R.,  1970,  p. 8 ) .  Thus the s m a l l c h i l d r e n went out o n l y when accompanied mother and p l a y e d r a r e l y with other c h i l d r e n . p r e v i o u s dayJ a c t i v i t i e s i t was  found t h a t few  play  Upon  by  checking  c h i l d r e n had  been out t o p l a y , one  i n e i g h t had  not l e f t the f l a t  most of those who  gone out had  done so f o r a s h o r t time  and had i t was  had  done so w i t h mother when she went shopping. found t h a t seven years was  and  Generally  the age when mothers  c h i l d r e n t o p l a y o u t s i d e unsupervised.  allowed  However i t has been  s t a t e d t h a t i t i s the f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e and the  individual  mother i n v o l v e d which determines whether the c h i l d goes out t o p l a y no matter what f l o o r he or she l i v e s on fiftieth).  (first  T h i s study and o t h e r s i n d i c a t e t h a t the  or  child  w i l l get adequate s o c i a l i z a t i o n d e s p i t e the d e f i c i e n c i e s of the h o u s i n g  environment i f the mother's concept o f her  role  i s such t h a t she o f t e n takes her c h i l d o u t s i d e t o p l a y . Some comments on the p l a y o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n multiple unit  housing:-  " P l a y i s a constant happening, a constant c r e a t i o n i n the mind o r i n p r a c t i c e . The s m a l l e r the c h i l d , the more narrow the c i r c l e i n which i t moves but even o l d e r c h i l d r e n spend most of t h e i r p l a y i n g time w i t h i n a r a d i u s of r a r e l y more than 300 meters from home. Remember t h a t when p l a n n i n g f o r playgrounds t h a t playgrounds must be w i t h i n easy r e a c h (Bengtsson, 1970, p. 24). "Young c h i l d r e n , under e i g h t or so, l i v i n g i n h i g h d e n s i t y areas, run two major r i s k s : l o n e l i n e s s and the p e r i l s of motor t r a f f i c (Lady A l l e n of Hurtwood, 1968, p. 12). 1970,  p.  "Small c h i l d r e n soon become b i g c h i l d r e n " (Bengtsson, 47).  -16 "The g r e a t e s t r e s p e c t i s accorded i n Lady A l l e n of Hurtwood, 1968,  (Cocteau  what i s most b o r i n g p. 15).  "Tensions d e s t r o y p l a y and overcrowding, congested environments are l i k e l y t o produce t e n s i o n s . Such e n v i r o n ments are c o n t i n u o u s l y f o r c i n g c h i l d r e n , i n t o s i t u a t i o n s , both i n s i d e and o u t s i d e the home, which i n h i b i t p l a y . An environment which p r o v i d e s more o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p l a y must be a b e t t e r environment (Holme, and Massie, 1970, p. 68). " C h i l d r e n who tend t o be nervous and h i g h s t r u n g i n e v i t a b l y have l e s s c o n t r o l over t h e i r movements than those who are more r e l a x e d (Hurlock, 1964, p. 201). Motor S k i l l  Development  The  development o f motor s k i l l s i n c h i l d r e n f o l l o w a  f a i r l y p r e d i c t a b l e sequence at f a i r l y p r e d i c t a b l e times i f the c h i l d has  o p p o r t u n i t y t o experiment and d i s c o v e r i n i t s  environment.  The  "The  child  United Nations  Declaration P r i n c i p l e  #7:  s h a l l have f u l l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p l a y and r e c r e a t i o n  which should be d i r e c t e d t o the same purpose as (Bengtsson, 1970,  p.  Mike E l l i s ,  education"  89). E x - d i r e c t o r of the U n i v e r s i t y of  Illinois  C h i l d r e n ' s Research Center Motor Performance and P l a y Research Laboratory  at the Urbana-Champaign campus s t a t e d i n a r e c e n t  newspaper a r t i c l e t h a t he b e l i e v e s the s t u d i e s show t h a t  the  e a r l y p l a y environment i s of c r u c i a l importance f o r c h i l d r e n . He b e l i e v e s c h a l l e n g i n g p l a y surroundings  appear t o be a  n e c e s s i t y f o r the b e s t p o s s i b l e development of Rarick  (1961, p. 4) and Hurlock  youngsters.  (1964) support  i n t h e i r w r i t i n g s on the v a l u e s of p l a y and C l a r k e Clarke  (1963, p. 115)  w r i t e t h a t "The  Ellis  and  elements t h a t c o n t r i b u t e  t o neuromuscular s k i l l are p r i n c i p a l l y strength, power, speed agility,  accuracy,  form, rhythm, and balance."  Participation  17 i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y i s necessary t o develop the above elements and o n l y w i t h p r a c t i c e can the sequence o f the components which make up the motor s k i l l be l e a r n e d . (1963) f u r t h e r w r i t e t h a t c h i l d r e n who  C l a r k e and  Clarke  do not have t h e  p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s t o l e a r n the s k i l l s through r e q u i r e d  prolonged  p r a c t i c e are unable r e a d i l y to l e a r n and are i n " d i f f i c u l t y i n day t o day p e r s o n a l adjustments w i t h o t h e r s and a c t i v e s o c i a l h a b i t s and a t t i t u d e s " (p. 105).  i n developing However, e x t r a  p r a c t i c e b e f o r e a c h i l d ' s nervous system i s developed  will  permit him  before  t o walk, s i t , t a l k or a c q u i r e other s k i l l s  the n e u r a l development takes p l a c e . i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of s k i l l s may  "On  not  the other hand d e l a y  be caused by d e p r i v i n g the  c h i l d of o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o p r a c t i c e them when s u f f i c i e n t maturation  has o c c u r r e d "  ( I l l e n g w o r t h i n Lady A l l e n ,  1960,  p.  12). I t i s between the ages of two  t o s i x t h a t a l l of the  g e n e r a l locomotor p a t t e r n s are p e r f e c t e d and a number of handeye c o o r d i n a t i o n a c t i o n s are l e a r n e d 1967).  (Espenshade and  Eckert,  For example: Walking  -  age f o u r a d u l t s t y l e walk  Running  -  age f o u r - f i v e stop,  Jumping  -  age two  start,  and one h a l f , two  age t h r e e - s t a n d i n g broad Throwing -  turn f e e t t o take o f f jump  age f o u r - 20 percent throw w e l l age f i v e - 74 percent throw w e l l age  Catching -  six  - 84 percent throw w e l l  age f o u r - 29 percent c a t c h w e l l  18 age f i v e - 56 p e r c e n t c a t c h w e l l age  six  - 63 p e r c e n t c a t c h w e l l (Espenshade and E c k e r t , 1967).  It i s c r i t i c a l  t h a t c h i l d r e n have a c q u i r e d a b a s i c  r e p e r t o i r e of motor a b i l i t i e s the y e a r s s i x t o twelve,  b e f o r e the s i x t h year as d u r i n g  slow developmental  change occurs but  times of r a p i d l e a r n i n g take p l a c e (Goodenough, 1945).  Body  p r o p o r t i o n s a l s o remain r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e between ages s i x t o twelve  so the c h i l d can c o n c e n t r a t e on p e r f e c t i n g motor  s k i l l s d u r i n g these years when these s k i l l s r o l e i n h i s acceptance Research  play a s i g n i f i c a n t  w i t h h i s peers.  shows t h a t most of l i f e ' s  important motor  s k i l l development i s r e f i n e d i n the elementary and i t i s t h e r e f o r e c r i t i c a l  t o p r o v i d e c h i l d r e n of t h i s  w i t h adequate environments f o r these s k i l l s developed.  school years  t o be  fully  age  CHAPTER I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURES The  Sample  West End A s i n g l e sampling was conducted  o f an elementary  i n L o r d Roberts  v e r West End D i s t r i c t . o n l y elementary  school population  School and Annex i n t h e Vancou-  Lord Roberts  School and Annex a r e t h e  s c h o o l s i n t h e West End and t h e r e f o r e c o n t a i n  the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f elementary West End D i s t r i c t  s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n .  The  i s a densely populated area w i t h 96.8 percent  of t h e r e s i d e n c e s b e i n g apartments.  I t o f f e r e d an e x c e l l e n t  p o p u l a t i o n o f students t o survey s i n c e the i n v e s t i g a t o r was i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i v i n g i n a h i g h d e n s i t y area and t h e f i t n e s s and performance scores  achieved  by t h e students l i v i n g t h e r e . The data was c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g t h e s c h o o l ' s p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s time i n t h e f a l l and w i n t e r o f 1972 by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r and two A s s o c i a t e P h y s i c a l D i r e c t o r s o f t h e Vancouver Downtown YMCA.  The equipment used f o r t h e t e s t i n g  was s u p p l i e d by t h e YMCA and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia School o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n .  The  p o p u l a t i o n o f L o r d Roberts School and Annex numbered 600 and 477 students from grades two t o seven were t e s t e d on t h e f i t n e s s performance t e s t .  There were 99 c h i l d r e n from grade 19  20 one and 68 c h i l d r e n from grade f i v e who completed t h e Crawf o r d and V i r g i n t e s t b a t t e r y .  The age range o f t h e c h i l d r e n  t e s t e d was s i x t o twelve. Vancouver The Vancouver  sample c o n s i s t e d o f CAHPER F i t n e s s  Performance T e s t r e s u l t s o f 480 elementary s c h o o l students randomly chosen from a s e t o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10,000 r e s u l t s . There were 40 r e s u l t s randomly taken f o r each age l e v e l and sex u s i n g a mathematical random t a b l e  (Selby, 1967).  10,000 r e s u l t s belonged t o t h e YMCA s c h o o l t e s t i n g which i s a y e a r l y s e r v i c e t h e YMCA o f f e r s t o each elementary s c h o o l . the p r e v i o u s s p r i n g .  The r e s u l t s sampled had been  The  program Vancouver  completed  There was no p r e v i o u s data i n Vancouver  on the Crawford and V i r g i n t e s t items. Canada The Canadian data was gained from the CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance T e s t Manual.  T h i s manual was w r i t t e n i n 1965-  1966 and r e p r e s e n t e d a random sample o f f i t n e s s and performance t e s t scores o f Canadian c h i l d r e n between t h e ages o f 7 t o 17 y e a r s .  There were a p p r o x i m a t e l y 500 boys and 500  g i r l s t e s t e d i n each age group and t h e norms were e s t a b l i s h e d on t h i s base.  T h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r used t h e 50th p e r c e n t i l e  score as t h e mean score f o r comparison purposes (CAHPER, 1966). North York Motor performance scores were a v a i l a b l e from Crawford and V i r g i n  (1971) on elementary school age c h i l d r e n grades one  21 to f i v e .  I t was f e l t t h a t t e s t r e s u l t s gained from t h e West  End p o p u l a t i o n would be o f i n t e r e s t because o f t h e h i g h d e n s i t y nature o f the West End.  A l s o t h e North York data was t h e o n l y  study t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r c o u l d f i n d o f a s i m i l a r nature.  It  was f o r t h i s reason t h a t t h e t e s t s were repeated on t h e elementary Testing  s c h o o l c h i l d r e n o f t h e West End.  Procedures  CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance T e s t  (1966)  The CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance T e s t was chosen because o f t h e Dominion wide norm data which was r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r comparative  purposes  and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e  t e s t items a r e t e s t s o f f i t n e s s performance.  In f a c t t h e  CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance T e s t has been used f o r f i v e  years  by t h e Canadian Department of H e a l t h and Welfare as p a r t o f a N a t i o n a l awards program t o p r o v i d e f i t n e s s data and t o motivate Canadian c h i l d r e n t o develop and m a i n t a i n good lifetime fitness habits.  T h i s program has been wide spread  and has proven a r e a l b e n e f i t t o p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s programs i n Canada.  T h e r e f o r e t h e t e s t items were f a m i l i a r t o t h e students  of Lord Roberts  School because o f t h e c i t y wide YMCA t e s t i n g  program i n i t i a t e d i n 1971. w i t h each c l a s s , demonstration The gymnasiums  However, p r e c e d i n g each t e s t  item  a complete d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e t e s t and a  o f each t e s t item was g i v e n .  f o l l o w i n g t e s t items were a d m i n i s t e r e d i n t h e t h e one  minute speed  s i t - u p s , t h e s t a n d i n g broad  jump, t h e s h u t t l e run, and t h e f l e x e d arm hang.  The 50 y a r d  run and t h e 300 y a r d run were a d m i n i s t e r e d i n t h e s c h o o l y a r d .  22 The  t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n took t h r e e gym p e r i o d s per c l a s s ; one  for  the one minute speed s i t - u p s , the broad  jump and t h e  s h u t t l e run; one f o r t h e f l e x e d arm hang, t h e 50 y a r d r u n and the 300 y a r d run, and one t o t e s t those m i s s i n g a p r e v i o u s p e r i o d due t o absence. In the one minute speed s i t - u p s the p a r t n e r and t h e p a r t i c i p a n t both counted  the number o f s i t - u p s completed by  the p a r t i c i p a n t and the t e s t e r observed  r a t e s and methods o f  e x e c u t i o n making comments when necessary.  A l l other  procedures  as per t h e CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance T e s t Manual were f o l l o w e d (see Appendix A f o r d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s and equipment). Reliabilities The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance T e s t a r e :  s i t - u p s 0.861, s t a n d i n g broad  0.899, s h u t t l e r u n 0.776 Klesius sit-ups,  f  50 y a r d dash 0.792 ( F i e l d ,  (1968) found r e l i a b i l i t y  jump 1964).  v a l u e s o f 0.57 f o r speed  0.68 f o r t h e s h u t t l e run, 0.94 f o r t h e s t a n d i n g  broad  jump, and 0.86 f o r the 50 y a r d dash.  Field  s t a t e d t h a t t h e t e s t s a r e more r e l i a b l e i f t h e c o r r e c t  number of t r i a l s reliabilities s t a n d i n g broad  a r e used.  Crawford  Both K l e s i u s and  and Mason (1974) r e p o r t  o f 0.86 f o r the speed s i t - u p s ,  0.83 f o r the  jump, 0.71 f o r t h e f l e x e d arm hang, 0.68 f o r  the 50 y a r d run, and 0.42 f o r t h e 300 y a r d r u n . two runners  However when  a r e on p a r a l l e l 300 y a r d r u n courses they r e p o r t  that the r e l i a b i l i t y  i n c r e a s e s t o 0.82.  Crawford and V i r g i n T e s t Items The  Crawford and  V i r g i n t e s t items (Appendix B)  are  as f o l l o w s : Grade  One Test The  Item  Measurement  Agility  Run  Speed, a g i l i t y ,  judgement of  distance. Throwing  Hand-eye c o o r d i n a t i o n , t o throw i n t o a given  Stork  Stand  Jump and  Static  Clap'  ability area.  balance.  Hand f o o t c o o r d i n a t i o n ,  timing.  Grade F i v e Agility  Run  Speed, a g i l i t y ,  judgement of  distance. A l t e r n a t e Wall Toss  Hand eye c o o r d i n a t i o n ,  ability  t o use both hands t o c a t c h . Soccer B a l l Throw  Accuracy, arm eye  End  coordination  Agility,  flexibility  Touch  The  i n v e s t i g a t o r used these t e s t items on the West the o n l y p r e v i o u s  used i n t e s t i n g c h i l d r e n from a h i g h d e n s i t y The  and  Crawford and  students  test  battery  area.  V i r g i n t e s t items were not  of Lord Roberts Elementary School  familiar  and  i n s t r u c t i o n s were given to each p a r t i c i p a n t b e f o r e  t e s t was  hand-  Toe  c h i l d r e n because i t was  t o the  strength,  administered.  The  t e s t i n g was  Annex the  conducted i n the  24 gymnasium with two t e s t items b e i n g a d m i n i s t e r e d i n each period.  gym  I t was n e c e s s a r y t o take t h r e e p e r i o d s t o complete  the t e s t i n g : one f o r t h e a g i l i t y run and s t o r k stand (grade 1) or t h e a g i l i t y run and a l t e r n a t e w a l l t o s s (grade 5), one f o r the b a l l throw and jump and c l a p (grade 1) or one f o r t h e soccer b a l l throw and t o e touch t e s t those who missed  (grade 5) and one p e r i o d t o  a previous t e s t i n g period.  The i n v e s t i -  gator used students as b a l l chasers when b a l l s s t r a y e d from the p a r t i c i p a n t . Reliabilities I t was d i f f i c u l t t o accept t h a t the Crawford and V i r g i n t e s t items were v a l i d t e s t s o f speed,  agility,  judge-  ment o f d i s t a n c e , hand-eye c o o r d i n a t i o n , s t a t i c balance, handf o o t c o o r d i n a t i o n , t i m i n g , a b i l i t y t o use both hands, arm s t r e n g t h , and f l e x i b i l i t y .  accuracy,  The i n v e s t i g a t o r was not  f a m i l i a r w i t h t h i s t e s t b a t t e r y and c o u l d f i n d no s u p p o r t i n g evidence i n t h e Crawford and V i r g i n r e p o r t r e g a r d i n g background i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e t e s t  items.  The r e l i a b i l i t i e s of t h e t e s t items were a l s o  diffi-  c u l t t o f i n d as t h e y were not w r i t t e n up i n Crawford and V i r g i n ' s study.  However the i n v e s t i g a t o r found a r e l i a b i l i t y  of 0.87 f o r t h e s t o r k stand r e p o r t e d by Johnson and Nelson (1969).  However, the t e s t b a t t e r y was used as i t was the o n l y  p r e v i o u s study of a s i m i l a r nature. The  Design  The d e s i g n was a 6 x 2 x 3 randomized  groups d e s i g n  w i t h 10 dependent v a r i a b l e s per s u b j e c t . Independent V a r i a b l e s : 1.  Age 6 l e v e l s :  7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 y e a r s .  The  age r e c o r d e d was t h a t o f t h e f i r s t day o f t h e t e s t . 2.  Sex:  2 l e v e l s - male and female.  3.  L i v i n g Area:  3 l e v e l s - West End, Vancouver, and  Canada. Dependent V a r i a b l e s : CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance T e s t 1.  Sit-ups  2.  S t a n d i n g Broad Jump  3.  S h u t t l e Run  4.  F l e x e d Arm Hang  5.  50 Yard Dash  6.  300 Yard Run  Crawford  and V i r g i n T e s t  Scores  Scores Grade 5  Grade 1 7.  A g i l i t y Run  7.  A g i l i t y Run  8.  Throwing  8.  A l t e r n a t e Wall  9.  Stork Stand  9.  Soccer B a l l Throw  10. The  Jump and Clap  Toe  10.  Toss  Touch  S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis The data f o r grades two t o seven on the F i t n e s s  Performance T e s t items was c o l l e c t e d on t h e CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance Test score cards A b i l i t y t e s t score c a r d s  (Appendix  (Appendix  C) and t h e Motor  D) were used i n c o l l e c t i n g  26 the data f o r grade 1 and grade 5 on the Crawford t e s t items.  The t e s t scores, age and  and  sex were then  Virgin entered  on F o r t r a n c o d i n g sheets and then punched onto the computer cards. The data submitted f o r a n a l y s i s were the means, standard d e v i a t i o n s , and conditions  (6 age  sample s i z e s o f each of the  l e v e l s by 2 sex l e v e l s by 3 area  36  levels).  The data f o r the Canadian sample were based on the CAHPER norms w i t h sample s i z e of 50 s u b j e c t s per c e l l . a c t u a l sample s i z e was 500),  i t was  much l a r g e r than t h i s  Although  (approximately  n e c e s s a r y t o m a i n t a i n r e l a t i v e l y equal  sample  s i z e s a c r o s s a l l c e l l s f o r the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . net e f f e c t of t h i s reduced  sample s i z e was  the  The  t o make the t e s t  s l i g h t l y more c o n s e r v a t i v e . Data A n a l y s i s The  CAHPER data was  analyzed by a 6 x 2 x 3 m u l t i -  v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e through the use of computer program FINN (1968).  This provided m u l t i v a r i a t e F - r a t i o s f o r  t e s t i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e between mean v e c t o r s f o r 1 and 2, as w e l l as u n i v a r i a t e and  hypotheses  step-down F's f o r each  dependent v a r i a b l e f o r each h y p o t h e s i s .  An  orthogonal  breakdown of the area main e f f e c t p r o v i d e d two  independent  tests: 1.  West Area versus Vancouver area  2.  the average  of West End and Vancouver versus Canada.  As i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o t e s t h y p o t h e s i s 2 i n d e p e n d e n t l y of  27 h y p o t h e s i s 1, these two  orthogonal c o n t r a s t s p r o v i d e d  f o r s u p p o r t i n g or r e j e c t i n g these The  evidence  hypotheses.  a n a l y s e s a l s o p r o v i d e d the f o l l o w i n g comparisons  f o r f u r t h e r data e x p l a n a t i o n : 1.  sex d i f f e r e n c e s  2.  age  3.  sex by area  4.  age by a r e a i n t e r a c t i o n - t o t e s t i f the change i n  differences interaction  performance over age  ( i . e . motor development) was  same f o r West End as f o r Vancouver.  the  CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Results The 477  s i x item CAHPER t e s t  (1966) was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o  students and t h e f o u r item Crawford  and V i r g i n b a t t e r y  (1971) was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 167 students o f the L o r d Elementary  School and Annex.  Roberts  The age range o f t h e s u b j e c t s  t e s t e d was from 7 t o 12 years on t h e CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance T e s t and age 6 y e a r s and 10 y e a r s on t h e Crawford  and V i r g i n  Test Battery. The t e s t i n g was s u c c e s s f u l w i t h some data b e i n g c o l l e c t e d on every student a t t e n d i n g t h e s c h o o l .  Several  CAHPER score c a r d s had o n l y one o r two p i e c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n on them and were e l i m i n a t e d from t h e a n a l y s i s .  The boys  CAHPER score c a r d s were analysed w i t h o n l y 14 percent one or two m i s s i n g s c o r e s .  having  The g i r l s CAHPER score cards were  a n a l y s e d w i t h 10 p e r c e n t h a v i n g m i s s i n g data on one o r two t e s t items. quencies.  (Refer t o Appendix G f o r CAHPER t e s t c e l l The Crawford  fre-  and V i r g i n score sheets were v e r y  complete w i t h o n l y one c a r d m i s s i n g two scores i n t h e grade one  sample and seven cards m i s s i n g one score i n the grade  f i v e sample.  The r e s u l t s c a l c u l a t e d from t h e data a r e t h e r e -  f o r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e sample p o p u l a t i o n tested.  Refer t o Appendix E f o r t h e CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance  T e s t raw scores and t o Appendix F f o r the Crawford t e s t b a t t e r y raw s c o r e s . 28  and V i r g i n  T a b l e s of means are presented f o r t h e CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance scores by t e s t item, l i v i n g area, age and sex. (Tables  2 t o 7 ).  These t a b l e s i l l u s t r a t e t h e r e s u l t s  achieved by elementary school age c h i l d r e n on t h e CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance T e s t . Table 2 The One Minute Speed S i t - U p  Age  7 8 9 10 11 12 X  Canadian Male Female  West End Male Female  Vancouver Male Female  Group Male Female X X  20 24 26 27 29 30  17 19 20 22 25 22  22.5 21.8 29.2 32.4 33.7 34.3  19.8 19.2 26.0 28.1 29.5 25.3  25.1 30.8 36.5 34.2 44.4 45.1  28.3 28.6 31.0 35.0 35.0 40.6  22.5 23.9 30.6 31.2 35.7 36.5  21.7 22.4 25.1 28.4 29.8 29.3  26  21  28.9  24.6  36.0  33.0  30.0  26.1  Table 3 The Standing Broad Jump  Age  Canadian Male Female  7 8 9 10 11 12 X  3.75 3.92 4.33 4.50 4.83 5.00 4.39  3.50 3.83 4.00 4.25 4.58 4.66 4.14  West End Male Female  Vancouver Male Female  3.40 3.56 4.06 4.20 4.28 4.64  2.97 3.20 3.61 3.97 4.20 4.06  3.80 4.37 4.90 4.86 5.57 5.99  4.02 4.08 4.68 4.98 5.15 5.80  4.02  3.67  4.92  4.79  Group Male Female X X 3.65 3.95 4.43 4.52 4.89 5.21 4.44  3.50 3.70 4.10 4.40 4.64 4.84 4. 20  30 Table  4  The S h u t t l e Run  Age  Canadian Male Female  West End Male Female  Vancouver Male Female  7 8 9 10 11 12  14.0 13.3 12.7 12.6 12.2 12.0  14.7 14.0 13.5 13.0 12.8 12.8  13.87 13.42 12.32 12.37 12.54 12.51  13.48 13.12 12.39 12.58 11.92 11.45  X  12.8  13.5  12.84 13.67  15.00 14.39 13.76 13.49 12.86 12.52  Table  13.74 13.47 13.00 12.28 12.65 12.36  12.49 12.92  Group Male Female X X 13.78 13.28 12.47 12.52 12.22 11.98  14.48 13.95 13.42 12.92 12.77 12.56  12.70 13.35  5  The Flexed Arm Hang Canadian Male Female  West End Male Female  11.35 14.44 17.60 23.43 25.21 27.31  7 8 9 10 11 12  18 23 27 27 31 ~ 35  11 13 14 17 16 14  17.12 17.92 30.04 32.67 35.46 39.21  X  27  14  28.74 19.89  Vancouver Male Female  23.57 28.85 38.16 28.87 37.47 42.19  18.46 20.90 25.65 21.30 22.35 29.92  33.19 23.10  Group Male Female X X 19.56 23.26 31.73 29.51 34.64 38.80  13.60 16.11 19.08 20.58 21,19 23.74  29.58 19.05  31 Table  6  The 50 Yard Run  Age  Canadian Male Female  7 8 9 10 11 12  10.0 9.5 9.1 8.8 8.4 8.3  10.5 9.9 9.5 9.0 8.7 8.5  X  9.0  9.4  West End Male Female  Vancouver Male Female  Group Male Female X X  9.88 10.49 9.57 9.89 9.17 9.71 9.42 8.93 8.77 9.00 8.95 8.76  9.67 10.47 9.52 9.96 8.92 9.34 8.72 8.95 7.82 8.78 7.91 8.11  9.85 10.49 9.92 9.53 9.52 9.06 8.82 9.12 8.83 8.33 8.32 8.52  8.76  8.99  9.18  9.58  9.27  9.40  Table 7 The 300 Yard Run  Age  Canadian Male Female  7 8 9 10 11 12  84 78 75 72 70 67  85 80 • 77 75 72 71  X  74  77  West End Male Female  84.79 79.70 78.59 74.68 71.97 72.45  88.18 84.53 81.84 77.55 75.60 75.57  77.03 80.55  Vancouver Male Female  Group Male Female X X  75.78 72.82 65.86 68.42 61.99 61.89  81.52 76.84 73.15 71.70 67.99 67.11  71.45 71.38 70.37 69.47 67.51 64.16  67.79 69.06  81.54 . 78.64 76.40 74.00 71.70 70.24  73.05 75.40  Corresponding f i g u r e s t o the above t a b l e s f o l l o w . T a b l e s o f means a r e presented f o r t h e Crawford and V i r g i n t e s t b a t t e r y items by grade, l i v i n g area, t e s t item and sex (Tables 8 & 9 ).  These t a b l e s i l l u s t r a t e the r e s u l t s achieved  by North York and West End c h i l d r e n on t h e Crawford and V i r g i n test battery.  32 Figure  1  Combined Male and Female Sit  Ups  Figure  2  Combined Male and Female Broad Jump  age  33  Figure  3  S i t Ups - Female  Vancouver - -West End  45 1  _  40 35 *  age  Figure  4  S i t Ups - Male  15  -I  7  ,  ,  -  8  9  10  i  age  1  1  1  11  12  13  Figure 5 Broad Jump - Female  Vancouver - - West End Canada  i  i  1  7  8  9  1  1  «  10  11  12  age  Figure 6 Broad Jump - Male  Vancouver - - West End Canada  - r -  8  — i —  10 age  — i —  11  12  13  Figure 7 Combined Male and Female S h u t t l e Run  14.5 -  Vancouver West End Canada ---  14.0 13.5 13.0 12.5 12.0  A  11.5  10  8  11  12  age  Figure  8  Combined Male and Female F l e x e d Arm Hang  40 1  10 -I 7  1  :  8  9  J  10 age  :  1  11  r 12  Figure  9  S h u t t l e Run - F e m a l e  Vancouver West End Canada -••  age  Figure  10  S h u t t l e Run - Male  Vancouver West End Canada —  age  37  F i g u r e 11 F l e x e d Arm  Hang - Female  F i g u r e 13 Combined Vancouver, West End and Canada S h u t t l e Run  14.5 4  Male Female  14.0 13.5 13.0 12.5 -j  \  12.0 -j 11.5 8  9  10  11  12  age  Figure  14  Combined Vancouver, West End and Canada F l e x e d Arm Hang  |  i  i  7  8  9  i  10 age  i  11  r  12  Figure  15  Combined Male and Female 50 Yard Run  11.0  1  7  8  9  age  10  Figure  11  12  16  Combined Male and Female 300 Yard Run  40  Figure  17  50 Yard Run - Female  Figure  18  50 Yard Run - Male  41  Figure  20  300 Yard Run - Male  age  Figure Combined Vancouver, 50  21 West End and Canada  Yard Run  8.0 7.5 » 7  1  1  8  9  1  «•  11  12  '  10 age  F i g u r e 22 Combined Vancouver,  West End and Canada  300 Yard Run  Table  8  Crawford and V i r g i n Table o f Means Grade 1  West End Male  Female  North York Single Family Male Female  North York High R i s e Male Female  A g i l i t y Run  9,.84  9..69  8..6  9..0  9..2  9..3  Throwing  5.,20  4..09  7..5  5..7  7..7  5..4  12..15 10..80  11..0  11-.9 •  6..8  9..5  Jump and Clap 11.,51 15.,58  14..4  17..6  15..7  21..3  S t o r k Stand  Table  9  Crawford and V i r g i n T a b l e o f Means Grade 5 West End  North York Single Family Male Female  North York High R i s e Male Female  Male  Female  A g i l i t y Run  7.48  7.99  9.0  9.5  9.25  9.75  Alternate W a l l Toss  8. 28  4.03  10.2  9.6  8.00  9.30  Soccer Throw  4.24  4.31  4.2  2.5  4.00  2.00  3.00  2.53  *  *  *  *  Ball  Toe Touch  '* M i s s i n g Data  44 T a b l e 10 M u l t i v a r i a t e and U n i v a r i a t e F R a t i o s f o r a l l Comparisons Comparisons  Multivariate F P Situps F Broad Jump F P S h u t t l e Run F P Flexed Arm Hang F P 50 Yard Run F P 300 Yard Run F P  West End vs Vancouver  West End & Vancouver vs Canada  105.6 < 0.0001  42.9 • 0.0001  91.2 0.0001  133.8 0.0001  236.1 0.0001  West End vs Vancouver x age l i n e a r  West End v s Vancouver x sex  10.1 < 0.0001  3.5 0.0019  5.8 0.016  0.65 0.4209  1.3 0.2377  11.2 0.0009  3.4 0.0664  37.5 0.0001  26.2 0.0001  0.04 0.8406  6.6 0.0101  10.3 0.0014  0.35 0.5548  3.8 0.0509  0.06 0.8118  23.9 0.0001  8.9 0.0030  15.9 0.0001  0.6 0.4331  385.1 0.0001  91.8 0.0001  1.3 0.2471  5.0 0.0262  45 Hypothesis I s t a t e s t h a t c h i l d r e n from the West score lower than c h i l d r e n from Vancouver on the Performance t e s t .  As  End  CAHPER F i t n e s s  seen on t a b l e 10 f o r items of the CAHPER  F i t n e s s Performance Test t h e r e was  a significant  difference  between West End  and  scores  (P<  which i s shown g r a p h i c a l l y i n f i g u r e s 1,  9,  17,  10,  0.01 18).  Vancouver CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance t e s t  To f u r t h e r examine the nature o f the  ences comparisons t h r e e and  l i n e a r change over  age  t h a t f o r a l l v a r i a b l e s except the broad jump and  y a r d dash the End  differ-  f o u r of t a b l e 10 were examined.  Comparison t h r e e which looks at the reveals  2,  l i n e a r trend  c h i l d r e n as  over age  i s the  50  same f o r the West  i t i s f o r the Vancouver c h i l d r e n .  In the broad jump the d i f f e r e n c e between the West and  the Vancouver seven year o l d s was  the d i f f e r e n c e between the West End year o l d s was In the  f e e t whereas  the Vancouver twelve  feet  ( t a b l e 3,  figure  50 y a r d dash the d i f f e r e n c e between the West End 0.12  the d i f f e r e n c e between the West End year o l d s was  0.85  and  the Vancouver .twelve figure  17).  Vancouver times sex  shows t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between West End  couver c h i l d r e n was v a r i a b l e s except the  constant f o r males and s h u t t l e run  and  the  0.4  and  Van-  females on a l l  300  y a r d run.  of a second i n comparison t o  d i f f e r e n c e between the West End  inter-  and  s h u t t l e run the d i f f e r e n c e between the West End  Vancouver males was  and  of a second whereas  of a second ( t a b l e 6,  Comparison four, West End  the  and  over t w i c e t h a t at 1.55  the Vancouver seven year o l d s was  action,  0.72  End  and  In the  the  the Vancouver females  2).  46  Table  11  Crawford and V i r g i n T e s t s by F l o o r L e v e l Grade 1 Floors  0-3 Female  Male  Floors 4 - 2 0 Male  Female  X N  9.4 16  9.9 11  10.1 32  9.7 21  Throwing  X N  5.2 13  2.9 10  5.0 31  4.7 21  S t o r k Stand  X N  10.8 16  9.8 11  12.2 32  9.8 19  Jump & Clap  X N  14.1 16  13.7 11  10.1 32  17.7 19  Agility  Run  Table 12 Crawford and V i r g i n T e s t s by F l o o r L e v e l Grade 5 Floors Male Agility  Run  X N  0-3 Female  Floors Male  4-20 Female  7.4  7.7  15  7.5 17  10  15  7.5  Alternate W a l l Toss  X N  6.9 15  3.3 12  11.9 10  4.9 13  Soccer Throw  X N  4.0 15  3.9 17  5.6 10  4.6 15  X N  4.7 10  2.3 16  4.5 10  2.5 15  Ball  Toe Touch  47  Table  13  CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance T e s t by F l o o r L e v e l Age  7 Floors 4 - 2 0  Floors 0 - 3 Male  Female  Female  Male  S i t Ups  X N  18 12  22 11  23. 19  16 21  S h u t t l e Run  X N  13.5 11  14.9 11  14.1 18  14.9 18  50 Yard Run  X N  9.8 8  10.4 9  9.9 17  10.6 17  300 Yard Run  X N  83.3 8  88.4 8  87.2 15  93.5 18  Table  14  CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance T e s t by F l o o r  Level  Age 10 Floors 0 - 3 Male  Female  Floors Male  4-20 Female  S i t Ups  X N  39 10  27 17  33 10  27 11  S h u t t l e Run  X N  12.3 10  13.8 17  12.3 10  13.7 14  50 Yard Run  X N  9.0 10  9.3 15  8.9 10  9.5 13  300 Yard Run  X N  72.2 10  82.6 14  74.5. 10  83.9 12  48 0.8 o f a second  ( t a b l e 4, f i g u r e s 11, 12). On t h e 300 y a r d  run the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e West End and t h e Vancouver  males  was 9.2 seconds and t h e d i f f e r e n c e between the West End and the Vancouver  females was 11.5 seconds.  H y p o t h e s i s 2 s t a t e s t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n from t h e West End score lower than the c h i l d r e n from Canada on the CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance T e s t . available.  T h i s i s not evident  There i s a t r e n d towards lower scores by West  End c h i l d r e n but t h e d i f f e r e n c e tables  from t h e data  i s not great  as seen i n  2 t o 7 and f i g u r e s 1, 2, 9, 10, 17 and 18. H y p o t h e s i s 3 s t a t e s t h a t the c h i l d r e n from  f l o o r s f o u r t o twenty score lower than the c h i l d r e n  apartment living  below t h e f o u r t h f l o o r on t h e CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance This  Test.  i s not apparent from t h e data as t h e r e were v e r y few  d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e scores achieved by c h i l d r e n  living  below t h e f o u r t h f l o o r and t h e scores achieved by c h i l d r e n l i v i n g on and above t h e f o u r t h f l o o r on b o t h t h e CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance t e s t and t h e Crawford and V i r g i n t e s t s ( t a b l e s 11, 12, 13, 14). Hypothesis 4 s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e . between t h e motor performance scores o f t h e c h i l d r e n from t h e West End and t h e motor performance scores o f t h e c h i l d r e n from North York.  This  i s evident  as can be seen i n t a b l e s  8 and 9.  Discussion The c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n the West End scored lower on t h e CAHPER t e s t than t h e c h i l d r e n from  significantly  Vancouver  ( t a b l e 10).  T h i s supports h y p o t h e s i s I which s t a t e s t h e  scores o f t h e c h i l d r e n from t h e West End a r e lower than t h e Vancouver s c o r e s on t h e CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance t e s t . There a r e many c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s which would  directly  i n f l u e n c e t h e scores on t h e CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance  test  such as socio-economic background, o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a t t i t u d e s h e l d by p a r e n t s towards p h y s i c a l  activity,  p r a c t i c e o f t h e t e s t items, and t h e p l a y environment.  It is  contended i n t h i s study t h a t i t i s p r i m a r i l y t h e o p p o r t u n i t y for  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  t h e p l a y environment which was been  the  major c o n t r i b u t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e lower scores by West  End elementary school age c h i l d r e n on the CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance  test.  The c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n the West End have access t o o n l y one park w i t h i n t h e West End b e s i d e s t h e b a r r e n t a r y school p l a y g r o u n d . the  elemen-  This fact reveals that c h i l d r e n i n  West End w i s h i n g t o p l a y out o f t h e way o f t r a f f i c and  w i t h s u i t a b l e p l a y space must go t o Nelson Park o r one o f t h e two s c h o o l grounds.  I t can be.seen t h a t f o r a p o p u l a t i o n o f  1100 c h i l d r e n t h e p l a y f a c i l i t i e s a r e t o t a l l y inadequate. S t a n l e y Park surrounds two s i d e s o f t h e West End and o f f e r s space, s a f e t y and adequate p l a y f a c i l i t i e s . to the  However, a c c e s s  S t a n l e y Park i s d i f f i c u l t f o r young c h i l d r e n because o f traffic  and t h e Park i s f e l t an unsafe environment f o r  o l d e r c h i l d r e n because o f t h e other i n d i v i d u a l s o f q u e s t i o n a b l e c h a r a c t e r and m o r a l s .  The Park i s o n l y minutes  from downtown Vancouver; a p o r t c i t y not without i t s u n d e s i r a b l e  50 elements.  T h e r e f o r e c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n t h e West End r e a l l y  have o n l y one park and two school from t h e i r r e s i d e n c e . population  grounds w i t h i n  C o n s i d e r i n g t h e elementary  safe  distance  school  i s approximately 700, the f a c i l i t i e s appear  totally  inadequate. Comparison three,  t a b l e 10, r e v e a l e d  that the l i n e a r  change over age was t h e same f o r West End and Vancouver  chil-  dren f o r a l l v a r i a b l e s except the broad jump and t h e 50 y a r d dash.  The f i n d i n g t h a t the West End c h i l d r e n d i d not improve  at the same r a t e as t h e Vancouver c h i l d r e n i n the broad jump which i s a measure o f l e g muscle power i n d i c a t e s t h a t as the c h i l d r e n o f the West End aged t h e i r performance decreased r e l a t i v e t o t h e Vancouver c h i l d r e n .  The broad jump t e s t  r e s u l t s alone would i n d i c a t e t h a t as c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n t h e West End age the development o f t h e i r l e g power i s r e t a r d e d r e l a t i v e t o the other t e s t items where the l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p was h e l d . a s i m i l a r trend.  However t h e 50 y a r d dash scores a l s o  follow  The 50 y a r d dash d i f f e r e n c e between t h e  seven year o l d s was 0.12 o f a second whereas the d i f f e r e n c e between the twelve year o l d s was 0.85 o f a second  ( t a b l e 6,  f i g u r e 17). The 50 y a r d dash i s a t e s t o f l e g muscle power and  speed.  T h i s would i n d i c a t e t h a t c h i l d r e n i n the West End  f a l l behind i n l e g power and speed between t h e ages o f seven and  twelve.  Taking i n t o consideration  t h e c h i l d r e n from t h e  West End, t h e l i v i n g environment and a l l i t s i n f l u e n c e s , the type o f f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n the West End, and programs the c h i l d r e n are i n v o l v e d  i n , the i n v e s t i g a t o r f e e l s the lower  51 scores  i n the l e g power and speed items are due t o the l a c k  of o p p o r t u n i t y  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i v i t i e s  which develop  these a s p e c t s of f i t n e s s . Comparison four, t a b l e 10, which looks at West End Vancouver by sex i n t e r a c t i o n showed t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between the West End and Vancouver c h i l d r e n was constant f o r boys and g i r l s on a l l v a r i a b l e s except the s h u t t l e run and the 300 y a r d r u n .  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e shows t h a t the g i r l s i n  the West End d i d not develop i n t h e i r a g i l i t y and  cardiovas-  c u l a r endurance t o the same degree as the boys from the West End r e l a t i v e t o the Vancouver boys and g i r l s . for  the g i r l s b e i n g r e t a r d e d  The reasons  i n t h e i r development on the  a g i l i t y and 300 y a r d run t e s t items are d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r mine.  I t i s f e l t by the i n v e s t i g a t o r t h a t a g i l i t y and c a r d i o -  vascular  endurance are more s p e c i a l i z e d aspects of f i t n e s s  and can be improved by p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s  which l e n d  themselves t o the development o f these f i t n e s s q u a l i t i e s more than p r a c t i c e of power, speed, abdominal strength, strength.  and arm  T h i s i s not t o say t h a t p r a c t i c e o f a c t i v i t i e s  improve the l a t t e r  to  f i t n e s s q u a l i t i e s w i l l have no e f f e c t but  r a t h e r t h a t a g i l i t y and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r  endurance  activities  r e q u i r e more p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o improve ones performance.  The  g i r l s of the West End, i t would appear, spend l e s s time participating vascular  in activities  which d e v e l o p a g i l i t y and c a r d i o -  endurance than the g i r l s o f Vancouver whereas the  boys show no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n h a b i t s .  It  i s not p o s s i b l e t o determine why whis i s so from t h i s study  52 except t o suggest t h a t boys are i n v o l v e d i n more out of doors a c t i v i t y where a g i l i t y and The  cardiovascular  endurance are  c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n the West End  scored the  required. same as  the Canadian normative data on the CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance test.  T h i s i s an i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g which means t h a t  average c h i l d l i v i n g i n the West End Canadian c h i l d .  the  i s as f i t as the  Several e x p l a n a t i o n s  average  the i n v e s t i g a t o r can make  t o support t h i s f i n d i n g are as f o l l o w s .  One,  to i n d i c a t e that  even though the c h i l d r e n l i v e i n a r e s t r i c t e d environment  the  f a c t t h a t t h e y can p l a y at summer a c t i v i t i e s a l l year round i n Vancouver has norms.  enabled them t o score  Further,  on a par w i t h the  the c h i l d r e n from the West End had  exposure t o the t e s t items p r e v i o u s  six  y e a r s o l d e r than the West End  t o be  had  some  t o the r e s u l t s b e i n g  c o l l e c t e d whereas the Canadian data came from the f i r s t exposure t o the t e s t items.  Canadian  childrens  A l s o the Canadian data i s data and  should be  expected  lower. I t was  higher  f e l t by t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r t h a t c h i l d r e n l i v i n g  up i n a b u i l d i n g would score  lower on f i t n e s s and  motor s k i l l a c t i v i t i e s than c h i l d r e n l i v i n g c l o s e r t o ground.  There would be  w i t h more than t h r e e  s e v e r a l reasons f o r t h i s .  s t o r i e s must p r o v i d e  the  Apartments  an e l e v a t o r  and  t h e r e f o r e i n these b u i l d i n g s the c h i l d r e n would tend t o  use  the e l e v a t o r r a t h e r than walk up t o t h e i r s u i t e s e s p e c i a l l y i f they l i v e d above the t h i r d f l o o r . have o n l y t h r e e  s t o r i e s and p r o v i d e  mean the c h i l d r e n would use the derive a high  Lower b u i l d i n g s tend t o no e l e v a t o r s which would  s t a i r s because of n e c e s s i t y  l e v e l of a c t i v i t y from the use  of the  stairs.  and  53 A l s o the p r o x i m i t y t o the ground should be an a s s e t i n g e t t i n g the  children  out t o p l a y .  T h i s was not t h e case as t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e between f l o o r l e v e l s 0 t o 3 and 4 t o 20 on t h e CAHPER Performance t e s t and the Crawford and V i r g i n t e s t  shown  Fitness  items.  On the Crawford and V i r g i n t e s t items t h e r e was l i t t l e evidence of d i f f e r e n c e North York s c o r e s . h o u s i n g the c h i l d r e n  between the West End s c o r e s and  T h i s was a n t i c i p a t e d were drawn from.  because o f the s i m i l a r  CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . . Summary T h i s study looked a t t h e f i t n e s s and motor performance of  c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n a h i g h d e n s i t y area and compared t h e i r  t e s t scores t o t e s t age  scores recorded on c h i l d r e n o f t h e same  l i v i n g i n a low d e n s i t y a r e a .  T h i s was done t o i n v e s t i -  gate the i n f l u e n c e s o f h i g h d e n s i t y l i v i n g on elementary s c h o o l aged c h i l d r e n ' s f i t n e s s and motor performance. The  elementary school p o p u l a t i o n o f the Vancouver  West End d i s t r i c t was s e l e c t e d t o be t e s t e d on motor performance and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s t e s t items.  The CAHPER F i t n e s s  Performance T e s t and a b a t t e r y of t e s t s p r e v i o u s l y used by Crawford and V i r g i n i n North York O n t a r i o were used i n t h e testing.  The scores recorded were then compared t o t h e  Vancouver CAHPER norms, t h e Canadian CAHPER norms and t h e t e s t scores r e c o r d e d by Crawford and V i r g i n i n t h e i r North York study.  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t West End c h i l d r e n  score lower than Vancouver c h i l d r e n and t h e r e a r e d e f i n i t e disadvantages  t o l i v i n g i n t h e Vancouver West End D i s t r i c t ;  the p l a y space f o r c h i l d r e n i s l i m i t e d and the scores  recorded  on s e v e r a l t e s t items a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y below t h e Vancouver norms.  54  Conclusions The c o n c l u s i o n s which can be formed from t h e f i n d i n g s of t h i s study a r e : 1.  West End Elementary s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n score lower  than Vancouver elementary s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n on t h e CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance t e s t .  T h i s agrees w i t h H i r d ' s  of lower p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y by f l a t d w e l l e r s Darke and Darke, 2.  (Hird,  finding 1966,  1970).  The c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n t h e West End f a l l behind t h e i r  peers i n Vancouver i n l e g power and speed between the ages of seven and t w e l v e . 3.  The g i r l s from the West End do not develop i n t h e i r  a g i l i t y and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r endurance at a normal r a t e . 4.  There was no. d i f f e r e n c e between the scores o f the  c h i l d r e n l i v i n g on f l o o r s 1-3 and the scores achieved by c h i l d r e n l i v i n g on f l o o r s 5.  4-20.  The CAHPER F i t n e s s Performance scores  improve  as a c h i l d grows o l d e r at l e a s t t o the age o f t w e l v e . 6.  Males score h i g h e r than females on the CAHPER  F i t n e s s Performance t e s t a t the same age  level.  Suggestions The i n v e s t i g a t o r would l i k e t o recommend f u r t h e r i n q u i r y i n t o t h i s f i e l d o f study.  This further  inquiry  should be o f a more pure r e s e a r c h nature w i t h s m a l l e r groups of c h i l d r e n .  I t i s q u i t e e v i d e n t t h a t the West End c h i l d r e n  are .lacking i n f i t n e s s performance when compared t o t h e i r  peers i n g r e a t e r Vancouver and i n q u i r y should t r y t o f o c u s i n on t h e cause.  I t i s recommended t h a t s e v e r a l o t h e r  cities  w i t h s i m i l a r housing c o n d i t i o n s be i n c l u d e d i n such s t u d i e s . Secondly,  programs should be developed  t o improve  the present s t a t e o f f i t n e s s o f these c h i l d r e n through t h e addition of  a) a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t and  b) i n c r e a s e d q u a n t i t y o f t r u e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n time i n the gym f o r c h i l d r e n i n grades  one on up.  T h i r d l y and f i n a l l y t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r would recommend t o t h e C i t y o f Vancouver t h a t t h e y move forward w i t h new concepts environment.  and p l a n s t o make t h e West End a more  their  livable  REFERENCES A d l e r , S o l . The H e a l t h and E d u c a t i o n of the E c o n o m i c a l l y Deprived C h i l d . Warren H. Green Inc., S t . L o u i s , 1968. Allen  (Lady) of Hurtwood. P l a n n i n g f o r P l a y . Hudson, London, 1968.  Thames and  Astrand, P e r - O l o f . "The C h i l d i n Sport and P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y , Physiology". (A p a p e r ) . Department of P h y s i o l o g y , Stockholm, Sweden, 1974. B a i l e y , D.A. "Exercise, the Growing C h i l d N a t i o n a l Conference A c t i v i t y , Kingston,  F i t n e s s and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r A Concern". Presented t o the on the C h i l d i n Sport and P h y s i c a l May 13-18, 1973.  Bengtsson, A r v i d . 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Holme, Anthea and Massie, P e t e r . of Needs and O p p o r t u n i t i e s . England, 1970.  C h i l d r e n ' s P l a y : A Study M i c h a e l Joseph L t d . , London  Hotson, Norman. "Open Space" A p o l i c y o u t l i n e f o r the West End. Don Vaughan and A s s o c i a t e s L t d . , Vancouver, 1973. Hurlock, E l i z a b e t h B. C h i l d Development. Co., 4th Ed., N.Y., 1964. Jensen, R o l f . High D e n s i t y L i v i n g , N.Y., 1966.  McGraw-Hill Book  F r e d r i c k A. Praeger Inc.  Johnson, Barry. L. P r a c t i c a l Measurements i n P h y s i c a l Education, Burgess, M i n n e a p o l i s , 1969. Kamenka, H.  Flats.  Crosby, Lockwood and Son, L t d . , 1947.  Katz, Robert D. " I n t e n s i t y of Development and L i v a b i l i t y o f M u l t i - F a m i l y Housing P r o j e c t s " T e c h n i c a l Study TS 7.14 Sup. of Documents, U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, January 1963. K l e s i u s , S.E. R e l i a b i l i t y of t h e AAHPER youth f i t n e s s t e s t items and r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y of the performance measures. Research Q u a r t e r l y 39: 809-811, 1968. Kraus, Hans; Raab, Wilhelm and White, Paul D. H y p o k i n e t i c D i s e a s e . C h a r l e s C. Thomas, S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s . MacKenzie, Jack. "The Vanwes Experiment i n E d u c a t i o n " Regina Board of E d u c a t i o n . M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto P l a n n i n g Board, Apartment C i t y P l a n n i n g Dept., 1961.  A paper  Survey,  M i n i s t r y of Housing and L o c a l Government, " F l a t s and Her M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , London, 1958.  Houses"  Pendakur, V. S e t t y . "High R i s e L i v i n g " T r a n s p o r t Development Agency, M i n i s t r y of Transport, M o n t r e a l , J u l y , 1972. R a r i c k , -G. Lawrence. Motor Development D u r i n g I n f a n c y and C h i l d h o o d . C o l l e g e P r i n t i n g and T y p i n g Co. Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, 1961.  60 R a r i c k , G. Lawrence. "Concepts o f Motor L e a r n i n g : I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r S k i l l Development i n C h i l d r e n " A paper, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley. S e e f e l d t , Vern. "Concerns of the P h y s i c a l Educator f o r Motor Development" Presented a t a M u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y Conf e r e n c e - Perceptual-Motor Development. Cincinnati, Ohio, October 1-3, 1970. Selby, Samuel M. Standard Mathematical T a b l e s . Rubber Co, C l e v e l a n d , Ohio, 1967.  The Chemical  Vancouver S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department. West End P o l i c y G u i d e l i n e s , C i t y of Vancouver, August, 1972. West End P l a n n i n g Team. "West End P l a n " ( f i r s t C i t y of Vancouver, August 23, 1973.  draft),  West End P l a n n i n g Team. "West End P l a n " (second d r a f t ) , C i t y of Vancouver, November 27, 1973.  1  .61  APPENDICES  62 APPENDIX A DESCRIPTION OF THE  The  One  Minute Speed  Equipment: Start:  Gym  mat  CAHPER FITNESS-PERFORMANCE TEST  Sit-Ups and  stop-watch or  timer.  The s u b j e c t assumes a b a c k - l y i n g p o s i t i o n on the mat, f i n g e r s i n t e r l a c e d behind h i s head. The knees are bent and the f e e t are h e l d f l a t on the f l o o r by a partner.  Performance: The s u b j e c t s i t s up and touches both elbows t o h i s knees. Then he r e t u r n s t o the s t a r t i n g position. Scoring:  The movement s i t - u p and r e t u r n i s counted as one e x e c u t i o n . The t o t a l score i s the number of complete executions performed i n 60 seconds. Count when the elbows touch the knees. Allow one t r i a l .  C o n t r o l s : The p a r t n e r k n e e l s s t r a d d l i n g the performer's f e e t . He p l a c e s h i s hands on the c a l v e s o f the s u b j e c t ' s l e g s j u s t below the back of the knee t o prevent the s u b j e c t from s l i d i n g and t o m a i n t a i n the s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n of the l e g s throughout the test. Only the shoulders have t o touch the f l o o r . The s i t - u p s do not need to be performed c o n t i n u ously. The  Standing  Broad Jump  Equipment: A 10 f o o t tumbling mat c l o t h tape measure. Start:  i s recommended and a  The s u b j e c t assumes a p o s i t i o n with the f e e t s l i g h t l y a p a r t and the toes behind the t a k e - o f f line.  Performance: The h i p s , knees and ankles should be bent enough so t h a t the s u b j e c t can v i g o r o u s l y push w i t h h i s l e g s , and swing h i s arms t o jump as f a r f o r ward as p o s s i b l e . Scoring:  Measurement i s i n terms of inches t o the i n c h from the t a k e - o f f l i n e t o the h e e l of f o o t n e a r e s t the t a k e - o f f l i n e .  nearest the  63 C o n t r o l s : The suggested t a k e - o f f angle should be between 30 and 45 degrees. Two v a l i d t r i a l s are allowed, the b e t t e r t r i a l recorded. I f any p a r t of the body touches behind the h e e l s , the jump w i l l be considered i n v a l i d . Two o r t h r e e p r a c t i c e t r i a l s w i l l be allowed. The  Shuttle  Run  Equipment: Two wooden b l o c k s (2" x 3" x 3") and a stopwatch c a l i b r a t e d t o one-tenth of a second. Start:  The s u b j e c t l i e s f a c e down, hands at the s i d e o f the chest and the forehead on the s t a r t i n g l i n e .  Performance: On the s i g n a l , the s u b j e c t jumps t o h i s f e e t and runs 30 f e e t t o the l i n e . He p i c k s up one b l o c k of wood, r e t u r n s t o the s t a r t i n g l i n e , and p l a c e s the b l o c k behind t h i s l i n e . He r e t u r n s t o the i n i t i a l l i n e , p i c k s up the second b l o c k of wood, and runs back a c r o s s the f i n i s h l i n e . Scoring:  Measurement i s i n terms of seconds t o the n e a r e s t t e n t h of a second from the s t a r t i n g s i g n a l u n t i l the s u b j e c t ' s chest c r o s s e s the f i n i s h l i n e .  C o n t r o l s : The t e s t should be taken i n gym shoes or b a r e f o o t . A 'ready' warning s i g n a l i s given p r i o r t o the s t a r t i n g s i g n a l . Two t r i a l s w i t h s u f f i c i e n t r e s t between are allowed and the b e t t e r t r i a l i s recorded. The  F l e x e d Arm  Hang  Equipment: A doorway gym bar or h o r i z o n t a l bar p l a c e d 6 f e e t from the f l o o r ; a bench and a timer or stopwatch. Start:  The s u b j e c t takes a r e v e r s e grasp on the bar (palms towards f a c e ) . He i s a s s i s t e d t o the p o s i t i o n on the bar so t h a t h i s eyes are at the l e v e l of the bar. The arms are f u l l y bent.  Performance: The s u b j e c t h o l d s h i m s e l f i n t h i s hanging p o s i t i o n as l o n g as he i s a b l e . Scoring:  The t o t a l p e r i o d of time t h a t the s u b j e c t can m a i n t a i n the exact p o s i t i o n i s determined t o the nearest second.  64 C o n t r o l s : The s u b j e c t must keep t h e eyes the b a r . When t h e s u b j e c t ' s head bar, t h e t e s t i s t e r m i n a t e d . One The t e s t e r counts the seconds out  at the l e v e l of drops below t h e t r i a l i s allowed. loud.  The 50 Yard Run Equipment: A 50 y a r d straightaway w i t h markers t o stakes p l a c e d a t t h e s t a r t and t h e f i n i s h l i n e ; a s t o p watch c a l i b r a t e d t o one-tenth o f a second and a starting flag. Start:  A r a c i n g crouch s t a r t o r a s t a n d i n g p o s i t i o n may be assumed.  Performance: On t h e s t a r t i n g s i g n a l 'ready', 'go', t h e s t a r t e r drops t h e f l a g and the runner s p r i n t s t h e 50 y a r d d i s t a n c e as f a s t as he can. Scoring:  The e l a p s e d time from t h e s t a r t i n g s i g n a l t o the passage o f t h e runner's c h e s t a c r o s s the f i n i s h l i n e i s scored t o t h e n e a r e s t t e n t h o f a second.  C o n t r o l s : The t e s t i s taken i n gym shoes. Only one runner i s t e s t e d a t a time on a course, b u t one t e s t e r may time two runners on adjacent c o u r s e s w i t h a s p l i t timer o r two stop-watches. The 300 Yard Run Equipment: A 50 y a r d straightaway w i t h markers or stakes p l a c e d a t t h e s t a r t and t h e f i n i s h l i n e , a s t o p watch and a s t a r t i n g f l a g . Start:  A r a c i n g crouch s t a r t o r a s t a n d i n g p o s i t i o n may be assumed.  Performance: On t h e s t a r t i n g s i g n a l t h e s u b j e c t runs s t r a i g h t up and around t h e stake marker and back over t h e 50 y a r d straightaway. The c i r c u i t i s r u n 3 times t o make up t h e 300 y a r d s . Scoring:  The e l a p s e d time from t h e s t a r t i n g s i g n a l t o t h e passage of t h e runner's c h e s t a c r o s s the f i n i s h l i n e i s scored t o the n e a r e s t second.  C o n t r o l s : The t e s t i s taken i n gym shoes. Only one runner i s t e s t e d a t a time on a course, but one t e s t e r may time two runners-on adjacent courses w i t h a s p l i t t i m e r o r two stop watches.  65 APPENDIX B CRAWFORD AND VIRGIN TEST Grade 1 A g i l i t y Run T h i s t e s t i s s e t up t o t e s t speed, a g i l i t y and judgement of d i s t a n c e . Four cone markers a r e s e t a t t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s t a n c e s from a s t a r t i n g l i n e : 10', 9%', 7', 6'. Each p u p i l i s given t h e f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s : 'Stand behind t h e s t a r t i n g l i n e and f a c e the markers. Weave around each marker going up and back; c r o s s t h e f i n i s h l i n e going as f a s t as you can. Make sure t h a t you don't h i t any o f t h e markers. Ready] Go.' The score r e c o r d e d i s t h e time i n seconds t o t h e nearest t e n t h of a second from the s i g n a l "Go" u n t i l t h e p u p i l crosses the f i n i s h l i n e . I f a p u p i l h i t s a cone, one second i s added t o h i s score; i f a cone i s knocked over, two seconds are added t o t h e s c o r e . Each p u p i l i s p e r m i t t e d two t r i a l s , w i t h t h e f a s t e s t time taken as h i s score f o r t h i s t e s t . Throwing T h i s t e s t i s designed t o a s s e s s hand-eye c o - o r d i n a t i o n and a b i l i t y t o throw i n t o a given a r e a . A l i n e i s drawn p a r a l l e l t o the wall at a distance of eight f e e t . A large h u l a hoop i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e w a l l so t h a t i t s lowest p o i n t i s f o u r f e e t from t h e f l o o r . The f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e g i v e n t o each p u p i l : 'Stand behind the white l i n e and see how many times you can throw t h e bean bag i n t o the c e n t e r o f the target. You have t e n t r i e s . Take your t i m e ! The t e s t e r hands the p u p i l one bean bag a t a time. The score r e c o r d e d i s the number o f s u c c e s s f u l throws out o f ten t r i e s . H i t t i n g the r i m i s not counted as a ' s u c c e s s f u l ' throw. 1  S t o r k Stand T h i s i s a t e s t f o r ' s t a t i c ' b a l a n c e . Each p u p i l i s given the f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s : 'Leave your r i g h t f o o t on the ground and p l a c e t h e bottom o f your l e f t f o o t on t h e i n s i d e of t h e r i g h t knee ( i f the students don't know r i g h t from l e f t , the t e s t e r touches t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f o o t ) . C l o s e your eyes and b a l a n c e i n t h a t p o s i t i o n f o r as l o n g as possible. Put your f o o t down. T h i s time, stand on your l e f t f o o t and put your r i g h t f o o t up i n t h e same p o s i t i o n , c l o s e your eyes, and b a l a n c e i n t h a t p o s i t i o n f o r as l o n g as p o s s i b l e . ' ( T e s t e r times l e n g t h o f balance).  66 The score recorded i s t h e l e n g t h o f time i n seconds t o t h e n e a r e s t t e n t h o f a second t h a t the student balances, w i t h h i s eyes c l o s e d , h i s b a l a n c i n g f o o t remains i n one p l a c e on t h e f l o o r and h i s r a i s e d f o o t touches t h e knee. The c l o c k i s s t a r t e d when the student has r a i s e d t h e l e g and c l o s e d h i s eyes, not on a s p e c i f i c s i g n a l g i v e n by t h e t e s t e r . Each student i s given two t r i a l s w i t h the r i g h t f o o t remaining on t h e f l o o r and two t r i a l s with the l e f t f o o t remaining on t h e f l o o r , a l t e r n a t i n g f e e t each time. The l o n g e s t b a l a n c i n g time on each f o o t i s added together t o g i v e the f i n a l score f o r t h e student. A maximum o f t h i r t y seconds i s set. f o r each f o o t . Jump and Clap T h i s t e s t i s developed t o t e s t hand-foot c o - o r d i n a t i o n and t i m i n g . The i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n a r e : 'Jump, and c l a p your hands each time your f e e t h i t the ground (demonstration as w e l l ) . Keep going u n t i l I t e l l you t o stop'. The score r e c o r d e d i s the l e n g t h o f time i n seconds t o t h e nearest t e n t h o f a second t h a t the p u p i l keeps h i s c l a p s c o - o r d i n a t e d w i t h h i s l a n d i n g s . The c l o c k i s s t a r t e d a f t e r t h r e e jumps so t h a t the student has a chance t o g e t o r i e n t a t e d . The maximum time allowed i s t h i r t y seconds. Grade 5 A g i l i t y Run T h i s t e s t i s s i m i l a r t o the one d e s c r i b e d f o r t h e Grade 1 p u p i l s , w i t h one e x c e p t i o n . In t h i s instance, f i v e as opposed t o f o u r cone markers a r e s e t up a t the f o l l o w i n g d i s t a n c e s from a s t a r t i n g l i n e : 10', 9%', 5^', 4', 1'. The score i s the time i n seconds t o the nearest t e n t h o f a second from the s i g n a l "Go" u n t i l t h e p u p i l c r o s s e s t h e f i n i s h l i n e . As i n Grade 1, each p u p i l i s allowed two t r i a l s , w i t h the, f a s t e s t time taken as h i s score f o r t h e t e s t . A l t e r n a t e Wall Toss T h i s t e s t i s s e t up t o assess hand-eye c o - o r d i n a t i o n and the a b i l i t y t o use both hands t o c a t c h . A l i n e i s marked p a r a l l e l t o t h e w a l l a t a d i s t a n c e o f seven f e e t . A box w i t h f o u r e x t r a b a l l s i s p l a c e d t o the s i d e o f the p u p i l ' s r i g h t foot. The d i r e c t i o n s given a r e : 'Stand behind the white l i n e and f a c e t h e w a l l . Throw t h e b a l l w i t h your r i g h t hand and c a t c h i t w i t h your l e f t hand, without l e t t i n g i t h i t the ground; throw w i t h your l e f t hand, c a t c h with your r i g h t hand.  67 (demonstration) Keep doing t h i s u n t i l I t e l l you t o stop. I f you l o s e a b a l l , p i c k up one from the box t o your r i g h t . Ready] Go. 1  The score r e c o r d e d i s the number of ' s u c c e s s f u l ' catches i n t h i r t y seconds. To be a ' s u c c e s s f u l ' c a t c h , i t must be thrown by the o p p o s i t e hand t o the hand which caught i t , i t must be caught b e f o r e h i t t i n g the f l o o r , and i t must be caught without the use of the body as a t r a p p i n g mechanism. Soccer B a l l Throw T h i s t e s t measures the accuracy, arm s t r e n g t h and handeye c o - o r d i n a t i o n of the p u p i l . A l i n e i s drawn p a r a l l e l t o t h e w a l l and as a d i s t a n c e of f i v e f e e t from the w a l l . A rectangle (the b o r d e r s are marked i n red) i s drawn on the w a l l f i v e f e e t from the f l o o r and with s i d e s measuring 9" by 12". The i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n t o each p u p i l a r e : ' S i t down w i t h your l e g s s t r a i g h t out, and h e e l s on the white l i n e . Make sure you are s t r a i g h t i n f r o n t of the t a r g e t . You have ten t r i e s . Take your time and see how many times you can throw the b a l l o v e r hand i n t o the c e n t e r of the t a r g e t . ' A r e d u n t i l i t y b a l l i s used. The score r e c o r d e d i s the number of times out of the t e n t r i a l s t h a t the student throws the b a l l so i t lands i n s i d e the t a r g e t a r e a . Toe Touch T h i s t e s t i s designed t o assess a g i l i t y and f l e x i b i l i t y ' A mat i s r e q u i r e d f o r l a n d i n g . The i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n t o each pupil are: •Jump up and touch your t o e s keeping your l e g s straight. (A demonstration i s given as w e l l ) . You have f i v e t r i e s . Take your t i m e . The score r e c o r d e d i s t h e number of times t h a t the student completes the a c t i o n t o u c h i n g both h i s t o e s and not bending h i s knees t o more than 45 degrees. 1  APPENDIX C CAHPER FITNESS PERFORMANCE TEST CARD  DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL HEALTH A N D  WELFARE  MINISTERE DE LA SANTE NATIONAIE ET DU BIEN-ETRE SOCIAL  C A N A D A FITNESS AWARD—LE PRIX CANADIEN D'EFFICIENCE GOVERNMENT C F CANADA  .  PHYSIQUE  GOUVERNEMENT DU C A N A D A  i  i  i  i  i  I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I ADDRESS (Number 8> street; P.O. Box or R.R. No.) ADRESSE (No et rue; Case postale ou No de R.R.I  I  I  TEST RECORD  I I  FICHE des RESULT ATS NAME O F INSTITUTION (Please Print—En letlres moulees)  I  •I  1  I I I (City, Ville)  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  NAME O F PARTICIPANT—NOM  I  I  I  i  i  i  DU  I I I I I (Zone—Zone postale)  i i  i  i  i  1  1  1  L'lNSTITUTION  I  I  I  I  i  i  i  i  I I I (Province)  I .  I  I  i  i  i  i  1  1  1  i  i  PARTICIPANT  i 1 ! 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ! 1 DATE O F I IRTH SEX—SEXE (VI DATE DE r•IAISSANCE I 1 MALE Day-Jour Yr.-Annee Mth.-Mois 1 CIRCLE THE NUMBER  N O M DE  J  j  HOMME I  1 ! 1 1 1 1 1 1 A G E AS OF TEST DATE ' 1 A G E IE JOUR DU TEST 1 FEMALE 1  1 FEMME  O F YEARS Y O U HAVE PARTICIPATED  Ans"  (including this year)  ENCERCLEZ IE NUMERO INDIQUANT V O S ANNEES C O M M E PARTICIPANT, Y COMPRIS CETTE ANNEE.  1  2  3  4  5  6  TESTS—EPREUVES  SPEED SIT-UPS REDRESSEMENTS  ASSIS  STANDING BROAD JUMP SAUT EN LONGUEUR  9  PERCENT POURCENTAGE  FLEXED ARM H A N G SUSPENSION A LA BARRE  (Sec.)  50 YARD RUN COURSE DE 50  (Sec.)  COCHER M  LE PRIX G A G N E  EXTENDED ATTEINTS  07  7o  POURCENTAGES  SILVER  CHECK (v'l A W A R D EARNED  3 (9-70)  MEILLEURS %  k V  PERCENTAGES  M O Y E N N E DES QUATRE MEILLEURS O U DES SIX  FAS  II  BEST % ' S  (Sec.) 1 ! i  TOTAL O F FOUR BEST, OR ALL SIX PERCENTAGES TOTAL DES QUATRE MEILLEURS O U DES SIX POURCENTAGES  AVERAGE O F FOUR BEST OR ALL SIX  10  IFI.-ln.) (Pi.-Po.) (Sec.)  300 YARD RUN COURSE DE 300 VERGES  8  (No.) (Nombre)  SHUTTLE RUN COURSE—NAVETTE  VERGES  7  RAV/ SCORE COMPTE BRUT  !_J BRONZE  ARGENT  69 APPENDIX D ' MOTOR ABILITY TEST SCORE CARD GRADES 1, 2, AND 3  Name  Age  Agility  Run:  Throw:  Trials  T r i a l #1 1  , 2  Height  Weight  T r i a l #2 , 3  , 4  , 5  Score , 6  , 7  , 8  , 9  Score S t o r k Stand:  Jump and C l a p :  T r i a l #1  left  right_  #2  left  right_  Score  Time  Score  MOTOR ABILITY TEST SCORE CARD GRADES 4 AND 5  Name A g i l i t y Run:  Age T r i a l #1  Height  Weight  T r i a l #2  Score  A l t e r n a t e Wall Toss 30 second score Soccer b a l l throw  Trials  1  Score  , 2__, 3  , 4  ,  Score  6 _ , 7__, 8 _ , 9 _ , 1 0 _ Toe touch t r i a l s : #1  , #2  , #3  , #4  ,. #5 Score  ,  10_  70 APPENDIX E CAHPER FITNESS PERFORMANCE TEST SCORES GIRLS iGE  6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7  STANDING SHUTTLE SIT-UPS BROAD JUMP RUN 15 0 33 20 29 22 03 09 11 14 31 20 35 19 04 12 15 10 06 25 0 21 15 30 23 .28 12 15 13 30 49 20 05 30 50 14 13 25 15 20 30 05 18 7  34 36 25 49 34 37 33 36 44 33 48 55 49 48 32 38 44 46 26 40 44 43 42 41 48 51 31 51 40 42 50 34 43 39 49 35 38 49 45 38 43 31 38 31  16.1 14.8 17.4 14.1 15.7 14.4 15.5 15.0 14.5 15.3 14.2 12.5 13.8 13.9 15.4 14.3 14.0 15.0 15.8 14.7 13.9 15.5 13.6 14.8 13.1 16.2 16.1 14.5 14.5 14.7 15.2 14.5 14.5 14.2 14.3 14.3 16.2 14.1 15.3 15.0 17.2 15.1 17.0  50 FLEXED ARM HANG YARD RUN 2.1 7.3 8.8 12.5 5.1 19.2 10.2 1.1 11.0 1.0 6.3 13.1 17.8 7.2 0.0 7.5 8.7 9.0 10.0 5.6 29.5 7.5 30.5 12.5 6.2 15.1 21.5 13.5 18.1 9.7 28.5 7.8 5.5 12.2 26.2 8.9 15.3 11.3 21.3 9.0 9.5 2.3 19.2 1.0  300 YARD Rt  11.4  93.0  11.1 9.6 12.1 10.8 11.1 11.8 11.4  96.4 84.1 90.3 93.2 93.1 99.9 88.2  10.5  88.0  10.2 10.8 11.2  83.7 93.0 93.8  11.5 10.5 10.0 9.6 9.6 9.8  98.2 87.0 78.1 83.2 84.6 82.2  9.6 9.3 11.0 10.5 9.6 9.7  79.0 82.3 99.9 83.5 95.5 75.0  10.4 10.0 10.3 9.0 11.4 10.4 10.0 10.2 11.1 10.0 11.4 9.8 11.8  91.0 86.5 90.0 79.9 96.1 89.2 92.2 91.1 93.0 86.8 92.5 82.1 99.8  71 CAHPER FITNESS PERFORMANCE TEST SCORES, Continued  iGE 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8. 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8  STANDING SHUTTLE S IT-UPS BROAD JUMP RUN 24 12 07 20 28 15 23 19 31 20 16 14 23 24 31 40 21 . 10 19 18 22 06 0 18 25 30 12 12 27 14 31 10 26 23 20 23 18 01 23 30 16 04 22 23 0 08 17 08 18 28  34 27 32 38 38 47 32 35 43 30 36 54 45 52 56 47 43 34 32 47 41 31 37 40 33 44 44 51 43 53 46 42 47 38 41 46 41 40 50 59 38 24 52 55 37 42 49 34 44 42  15.2 16.8 17.0 17.5 14.5 15.5 14.6 16.8 16.8 14.1 13.0 14.2 15.4 13.9 14.9 15.2 14.0 14.3 16.2 17.4 17.1 14.5 15.8 13.5 14.6 12.9 12.4 12.7 12.8 14.8 13.9 15.8 13.6 13.2 15.5 15.1 13.3 12.2 14.7 17.8 13.8 11.9 16.0 14.4 12.8 16.3 15.8 14.5  FLEXED 50 ARM HANG YARD RUN  300 YARD Rl  1.8 13.3 4.2 11.0 0.0 5.4 8.8 7.1 2.6 5.8 0.0 24.0 29.0 32.0 41.5  13.2 11.6 11.4  99.7 91.2 97.2  9.9  84.2  10.8 10.5 10.3  80.1 78.0 86.9  10.3 9.5 10.1 9.2  92. 3 83.2 90.3 82.3  4.5 0.0  10.5 10.2 10.2 9.2 10.5 11.6 11.7 11.0  91.0 82.6 - 79.5 90.0 97.5 96.5 99.5  9.8 9.5 9.6 9.1 9.4 9.3 9.7 9.4 9.4 10.0 9.5 10.2 9.7 9.5 8.7 10.8 10.2 9.6 9.2 10.8  80.3 99.9 85.4 75.3 78.5 78.5 85.3 76.4 83.5 85.6 76.1 81.3 99.9 77.1 73.2 91.5 83.8 82.5 77.5 79.2  10.7 10.3 9.5  98.9 84.5 83.0  33.4 12.1 4.2 4.2 4.1 12.2 7.3 3.2 6.6 22.7 12.1 18.2 1.0 25.3 11.1 25.7 14.8 21.2 1.0 22.0 9.2 16.8 7.5 28.5 15.0 2.8 4.2 4.2 5.7 8.5  72 CAHPER FITNESS PERFORMANCE TEST SCORES, Continued  AGE 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9  STANDING SHUTTLE SIT-UPS BROAD JUMP RUN 13 17 23 30 01 17 17 28 24 16 22 23 25 04 24 25 30 38 33 28 21 21 28 21 13 48 25 25 22 27 22 25 27 26 30 44 35 25 25 30 30 18 15 30 30 18  37 58 39 52 38 49 53 39 26 33 54 49 59 49 38 50 38 50 55 36 51 52 37 45 50 43  13.8 13.1 14.7 12.7 15.0 14.5 12.2 15.3 12.8 15.0 14.6 13.8 12.4 12.5  64 49 39 52  12.8 13.8 12.6 11.8 14.8 13.1 13.1 15.5 13.1 12.8 14.5 13.2 14.3 14.0 15.0 15.2 15.0 13.0 12.8 11.9 13.4 13.5 13.5 14.0 11.7 13.2 15.3 13.3  62 59 40  12.7 13.0 15.2  52 55 43 38 44 50 56 54 45 52 45  FLEXED 50 ARM HANG YARD RUN25.2 8.1 6.3 36.0 1.0 25.1 9.5 15.4 13.0 12.5 22.3 . 11.5 17.0 14.2 23.0 17.0 3.0 15.2 53.0 1.0 4.0 11.2 1.0 11.5 35.0 11.0 3.0 33.0 7.0 6.2 53.0 11.0 20.0 54.0 9.1 13.0 13.0 1.0 43.0 5.0 13.0 22.0 20.0 26.0 3.0  300 YARD Rl  9.8 8.7  75.9 85.5  9.5  76.5  9.6 9.2 10.9 9.8 9.4 10.5 10.4 9.8 9.4 11.0 9.4 10.4 8.6  73.5 92.8 80.5 79.1 78.3 77.8 75.7 80.4 85.0 86.0 86.2 67.2  10.0 9.0  85.1 76.0  11.5  99.3  10.4  85.0  8.3 10.0 10.5  77.0 80.0  11.5 8.9 8.5 8.5 9.8  98.5 73.0 93.0 78.5 78.6 72.9 97.2  11.1 8.4 9.5 8.5  ' 82.8 71.5 88.0 77.2  9.8 10.1 8.1 10.9  99.0 77.6 68.8 85.0  73 CAHPER FITNESS PERFORMANCE TEST SCORES, Continued  AGE 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 ' 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10  STANDING SHUTTLE SIT-UPS BROAD JUMP RUN 33 35 35 04 24 36 36 20 18 41 28 22 52 22 31 20 31  30 29 35 10 15 31 34 22 38 21 25 21 30 32 31 35 16 20 16 31 34 45 16 25 39  FLEXED 50 ARM HANG YARD RUN  47 35 35  13.5 14.7 14.8  13.0 11.5 7.0  63 51 44 57 65 52 62 62 40  15.0 15.8 14.8 14.0 11.6 13.5 13.5 12.5 13.2  58.0 24.0 7.0 98.0 15.0 12.2 21.5 76.0 14.0  56 53 48 52 44 50 53  12.3 12.5  14.0 11.0 9.0 23.0 7.5 35.6 10.8  39 55 57 55 48 54 53 63 51 39 55 49 53 36 54 38 58 61 57 50 54 47  13.5 14.4 14.7 .13.9 17.0 13.3 12.8 13.4 14.6 12.8 13.5 13.0 13.5 15.0 13.0 13.4 12.4 13.7 18.0 15.3 13.3 15.5 12.8 12.7 11.9 13.9 12.2 11.6  60.0 12.8 35.0 20.0 31.5 1.0 51.0 17.0 6.0 14.0 9.0 51.0 1.0 22.5 1.0 15.0 34.0 8.5 28.0 19.0 17.0  9.7 10.0 9.8 8.6 9.4 9.0 9.0 8.2 8.2 9.1 9.2 9.4 10.0  300 YARD RUN 80.0 74.6 93.0 82.0 72.5  67.4 83.6 83.4 74.1 83.4 74.5  9.0  77.0  8.3 8.7 9.5 10.0 8.4 9.1 10.1 9.5 7.7 8.8 8.6 10.8 9.0 9.8 8.2 9.9 9.4 12.1 9.7 12.0 8.6 8.6  82.0 81. 2 91.0 74.0 88.0 77.4 88.1  10.5 10.4  84.2 75.4 82.5 95.5 . 73.0 84.0 78.7 87.0 79.1 94.0 86.3 99.0 81.0 87.0 83.0  74 CAHPER FITNESS PERFORMANCE TEST SCORES, Continued  AGE 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11  STANDING SHUTTLE SIT-UPS BROAD JUMP RUN 30 37 26 25 33 29 25 28 29 24 25 30 18 45 56 17 29 28 35 34 30 44 29 34 46 30 23 30 27 45 39 27 32 19 25 35 31 15 31 17 27 24 30 27  48 43 51 57 57 45 55 60 59 56 38 58 52 56 59 67 43 58 53 61 56 67 74 73 59 62 57 54 51 63 52 31 60 52 49 52 52 59 39 57 59 59 67 66  14.0 14.4 12.2 12.1 12.0 14.0 12.5 12.6 14.0 13.2 14.4 12.6 14.2 13.2 12.0 11.7 14.5 1.13 14.6 13.2 12.5 12.4 10.6 12.5 11.9 12.2 13.0 13.7 13.3 12.7 12.4 13.8 12.8 12.3 13.8 14.3 11.9 12.5 12.4 13.4 12.6 13.0 12.1 12.6 12.0 12.7  FLEXED 50 ARM HANG YARD RUN 11.5 25.0 6.5 36.0 33.0 18.0 30.0 19.1 12.0 11.5 2.0 26.5 2.0 1.0 56.0 61.0 20.6 20.0 21.0 27.0 13.5 62.0 39.0 39.0 14.1 20.0 23.0 60.0 16.2 54.0 12.0 51.0 12.1 55.0 9.8 1.0 37.0 22.0 24.0 1.0 39.0 24.0 22.0 16.0 20.0 20.0  300 YARD RUN  10.0 12.1 8.1  81.9 86.0 70.0  9.2 9.1 8.6 8.6 9.1  81.6 77.8 71.7 82.9 74.5  8.0 9.5 9.0 8.4 7.5 10.6 7.6 9.1 8.5 9.7 8.4 7.2 8.4 8.9 8.1 9.1 8.6 9.4 8.6 9.2  76.8 89.5 87.9 70.2 67.8 82.0 75.4 71.5 80.3 60.5 79.6 61.5 75.5 71.0 76.9 71.0 81.5  9.0 10.2 8.7 9.0 10.6 9.0 9.0 9.3 11.1 8.6 8.8 8.8 9.9 9.2 9.7  69.0 88.5 69.6  76.2 72.4  89.6 68.0 72.0 75.9 93.0 76.2 74.5 71.5 76.2 70.0  75 CAHPER FITNESS PERFORMANCE TEST SCORES, Continued  AGE  STANDING SHUTTLE SIT-UPS BROAD JUMP RUN 30 18 25 33 22 22 21 37 31 07 27 22 31 30  11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12  /  54 40 54 58 59 50 40. 59 64 53 57 49  13.0 12.6 13.7 12.0 12.4 13.5 13.6 11.4 11.3 14.1 13.0 13.4 11.7 12.7  50 FLEXED ARM HANG YARD RUN 26.0 16.0 23.0 35.0 11.0 14.0 1.0 63.0 39.0 9.0 25.0 16.0 53.0 26.0  9.3 9.1 9.0 9.0 8.5 10.5 10.0 8.5 7.8 10.1 8.5 8.2 9.1 10.1  300 YARD RUN 78.8 65.0 70.0 79.3 80.1 99.8 66.0 64.5 71.0 78.1 80.2  76 CAHPER FITNESS PERFORMANCE TEST SCORES BOYS AGE 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 •7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7  STANDING SHUTTLE SIT-UPS BROAD JUMP RUN 02 . 20 0 24 21 12 19 26 18 10 25 19 36 22 • 31 13 24 41 25 29 31 36 28 21 31 17 04 0 i9 21 06 25 19 24 24 42 12 29 25 27 22 32 20 10 • 0 24  26 53 30 47 47 45 41 55 43 44 49 35 40 51 43 47 54 37 51 41 49 52 49 43 43 42 40 38 35 45 40 46 40 41 51 63 58 40 37 41 43 42 60 42 55 41  16.0 18.8 16.0 12.5 13.4 15.3 12.5 14.5 12.8 13.0 15.7 12.5 12.6 13.6 14.3 13.5 12.4 13.5 14.6 14.1 13.2 12.2 15.2 13i9 15.6 13.6 13.6 16.5 14.1 13.7 14.1 14.2 14.5 13.8 15.1 14.5 15.4 14.8 12.4 12.6 15.0 13.0 13.0 14.5  FLEXED 50 ARM HANG YARD RUN  300 YARD RUN  14.3  10.8 9.3  99.9 77.5  11.0 9.2 2.8 5.2 12.7 9.0 41.0 54.5 5.5 39.8 14.0 11.5 10.5 19.0 5.2 18.0 30.0 16.5 14.8 19.7 14.5 9.5 13.8 10.2 6.2 9.2 10.7 8.8  9.7 10.4 9.5 9.4  95.0 80.5 88.7 93.3  9.2 10.0 9.3  82.7 90.5 77.0  9.3 9.5 10.2 10.7 9.4 9.4 10.1 10.8 9.0  74.5 79.8 96.2 83.2 82.4 78.1 96.2 92.8 73.9  9.8 10.3 9.8 10.0 11.2  80.3 88.0 80.1 83.9 98.5  11.2 9.7 11.0  97.2 80.9 83.8  4.5 54.0 17.1 63.0 15.8 16.5  11.3  93.9  9.6 9.3 9.5 9.2 10.6 9.5 9.8 9.8 9.8 11.0 9.7  78.9 89.1 81.2 80.9 84.5 85.6 80.5 99.8 76.9 87.4 75.8  26.0 2.3 7.5 1.0 10.5 54.0  77 CAHPER FITNESS PERFORMANCE TEST SCORES, Continued  AGE 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 .8 8 8  STANDING SHUTTLE RUN SIT-UPS BROAD JUMP 23 15 14 40 27 17 40 15 21 40 32 12 18 26 27 04 31 44 27 28 24 03 21 12 10 04 27 39 23 20 33 15 31 21 11 17 23 18 19 16 21 06 32 04 20 18  '  FLEXED 50 ARM HANG YARD RUN 18.2 26.5  47 56 48 50 54 55 64 48 37 54 44 46 49 51 51 32 41 61 53 44 43 49  13.1 14.5 12.8 12.6 12.6 12.8 11.6 13.0 15.9 12.3  42 49 52 55 42 52 32 56 47 57  14.0 14.2 12.7 14.2 13.5 12.7 11.4 12.5 12.8 14.2  12.9 11.6  53 42 37 43 43 51 52 54 38 38 45 40 40 41  13.4 14.7 11.6 13.8 13.0 12.0 12.8 12.6 13.8 12.7 13.5 15.8 16.0 14.5  9.3 8.9 19.1 5.1 26.5 30.6 15.0  13.7 12.8 13.1 12.0 15.8 14.5 12.5 14.3 13.7 13.4 14.7  25.0 26.4 65.5 12.4 15.3 22.3 32.0 19.2 15.8 11.2 13.8 7.2 14.7 34.5 3.2 6.0 19.8 3.8  4.3 6.3 11.8 47.0 49.1  14.8 16.0 9.2 4.0 13.4  300 YARD Ru  10.0 9.5 7.6 8.9 9.2 9.8 9.1 9.0 9.5 10.5 8.8 10.3  83.9 76.4  10.4 9.4 11.7  82.6 85.3 84.7  8.5 9.8  72.0 83.5  9.0 9.2 9.0 10.3 10.1 9.3 10.0 11.8 8.4 8.9 9.0 9.0 8.7 9.8 8,8 10.6  71.8 90.9 79.8 82.1 82.7 74.5 84.8 96.5 71.0 72.8 73.1 79.5 68.5 .82.5 73.3 88.0  10.3 9.3 8.9  85.2 75.6 76.9  9.4 9.7  81.1 82.3  10.3 9.4  81.5 83.2  78.3 77.0 72.0 76.4 82.5 74.0 77.2 86.3  78 CAHPER FITNESS PERFORMANCE TEST SCORES, Continued  AGE 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10  STANDING SHUTTLE SIT-UPS BROAD JUMP RUN 29 30 44 57 27 30 20 41 33 24 28 01 31 39 04 30 28 24 26 20 20 25 32 38 30 42 23 31 28 47 15 32 35 29 05 41 26 30 42 19 55 14 31 18 27 23 39  53 62 67 70 41 44 61 66 43 63 55 35 57 57 42 64 44 56 32 54 48 53 57 58 48 56 56 52 65 62 51 56 52 58 51 54 48 51 57 70 57 59 53 56 52 52  11.9 12.0 11.8 11.5 12.6 14.0 11.2 11.5 13.9 11.6 12.0 14.6 13.7 12.8 .13.3 11.5 12.8 12.2 12.5 12.0 13.2 12.0 14.0 11.7 11.5 10.8 12.5 12.-3 11.7 12.5 11.5 13.1 13.2 12.1 11.1 12.1 11.1 12.6 12.7 12.2 12.1 13.5 13.0 13.9 12.2  FLEXED 50 ARM HANG YARD RUN 19.5 12.0 65.7 40.3 10.4 4.5 91.5 37.4 15.8 13.5 9.1 0 15.0 17.2 5.1 29.7 21.0 7.5 2.8 27.3 9.6 7.0 9.3 34.6 14.5 62.0 45.0 42.0 68.0 22.0 18.0 57.4 62.7 92.0 17.5 35.7 59.5 9.2 9.2 57.0 18.0 44.0 18.4 36.0 22.0 31.0  8.0 8.2 8.0 9.1 9.8 9.3 9.0 9.5 9.3 10.8 10.4 8.7 10.2 10.4 9.3 8.7 9.5 10.1 8.5 8.8 9.6 9.3 8.7 8.1 9.5 9.0 9.5 8.5 8.3 9.5 8.3 9.2 10.0 9.6 8.5 9.4 8.7 9.0 9.2 10.4 9.0 10.0 9.0 8.3 9.0  300 YARD RUN 75.0 72.8 69.4 79.6 72.1 92.0 73.6 94.1 70.0 77.0 99.8 89.0 70.0 87.5 76.4 75.5 70.0 78.7 81.4 78.1 76.8 75.0 77.2 76.8 73.4 72.0 72.4 79.3 83.4 86.6 86.0 79.2 77.0 85.0 76.0 72.1 76.0 80.2 75.6 73.5 75.0 73.0 76.6 78.8 81.4 72.5  79 CAHPER FITNESS PERFORMANCE TEST SCORES, Continued  AGE 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 '  STANDING SHUTTLE SIT-UPS BROAD JUMP RUN 48 35 38 30 23 55 19 10 45 23 35 27 41 28 44 37 33 30 56 29 27 41 38 33 45 11 21 43 35 50 16 30 52 34 41 38 21 30 30 25 46 33  66 66 60 46 50 55 31 32 55 48  12.0 9.9 12.5 11.6 12.8 12.2 13.8  65 . 58 59 68 61 63 52 60 56 48 70 53 46 38 47 54 63 63 73 33 48 60 62 65 54 53 60 40 62 50 61  12.0 12.1 12.5 11.0 12.6 12.2 13.6 11.8 12.0 12.9 12.0 12.3 12.9 12.6  30 39 30 28  58 58 48 61  12.5 11.9  13.0 11.8 11.9 11.5 13.2 13.5 12.7 12.8 12.1 13.5 13.2 13.3 12.1 12.3 12.6 11.8 13.0 11.7 13.4 13.1 12.3  FLEXED 50 ARM HANG YARD RUN 18.9 16.5 7.7.3 48.0 65.1 26.5 3.7 1.0 27.0 8.5 20.0 29.5 8.0 70.0 48.0 39.0 9.3 73.9 26.0 62.9 44.8 30.0 14.0 64.3 9.0 13.5 35.5 70.0 60.0 6.0 12.5 80.5 44.0 39.0 81.0 3.5 14.0 13.0 10.0 14.0 20.5 41.0 35.0 60.0 42.5  300 YARD Rl  8.6 7.6 . 9.5 8.1 9.7 10.0 9.2 8.7 7.9 8.5 9.1 8.8 9.0 8.5 8.5 10.0 8.3 9.0 8.1 9.0  75.0 68.0 75.2 73.0 77.6 71.4 79.9 96.5 73.0 76.4 78.2 75.8 69.0 80.0 70.0 70.1 73.0 76.4 55.2 71.0  8.0 7.7 8.3 9.5  65.2 70.7 75.2 73.0  9.0 7.6 9.5 8.8 10.5 9.3 8.0 8.1 8.0 9.0 10.0 9.2 9.0 10.0 8.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 8.5 9.0  73.5 68.2 72.0 67.7 88.0 77.0 64.0 64.0 71.8 75.3 78.8 74.3 73.4 72.7 69.2 75.0 74.5 69.4 71.1 68.8 67.5  80 CAHPER FITNESS PERFORMANCE TEST SCORES, Continued  AGE 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12  STANDING SHUTTLE SIT-UPS BROAD JUMP RUN 38 24 34 35 41 25 40 32 40 20 62 39 30 18 47 42 33 55 33 34 42 22 25 39 18 23 25 36 38 27 36 30 43 35 36 30 45 15 50  55 59 54 63 55 78 61 56 64 56 78 67 60 58 52 67 57 66 64 63 56 63 65 64 55 5072 48 49 48 61 47 66 53 64 54 53 42 78  11.8 11.8 12.7 14.0 11.2 11.9 12.8 10.0 13.0 13.2 12.5 13.5 12.4 12.8 12.1 12.4 12.3 11.8 12.5 12.0 12.5 12.6 12.1 12.7 15.0 11.2 13.4 10.9 12.3 11.9 12.4 15.3 12.6 12.8  FLEXED 50 ARM HANG YARD RUN 29.0 81.8 31.0 29.0 55.0 61.0 53.0 24.0 11.0 76.0 20.2 12.8 11.0 26.0 12.1 82.5 23.0 50.0 11.8 40.5 34.1 18.0 15.8 15.8 33.2 40.1 83.0 21.0 39.9 40.9 31.8 61.0 44.0 92.0 0.0 75.0  300 YARD RUN  9.0 8.0 9.0 8.5 8.0  67.0 74.3 72.2 77.5 67.9  8.7 9.6 9.0  70.3 67.8 68.9  7.2 9.0 11.0 9.2 9.6 8.0 9.0 7.8 8.2 8.0 8.6 8.5 9.0 8.5 9.0 9.1 8.2 9.0  59.0 71.2 75.3 75.0 80.0 62.0 77.5 62.4 77.9 68.6 70.3 70.0 72.5 71.2 72.0 84.0 66.3 77.3  8.2 9.3 10.0 8.7 8.0  73.6 75.1 79.0 70.5 70.0  8.1 8.4 10.0 8.2 8.6  72.2 70.0 97.0 64.2 75.0  APPENDIX F CRAWFORD AND VIRGIN MOTOR ABILITY TEST RAW SCORES 6 YEAR OLD GIRLS AGILITY RUN  THROW  STORK STAND  JUMP AND CLAP  9.0 8.8 9.2 8.9 9.2 9.8 11.2 9.8 9.7 9.6 8.6 9.2 8.5 10.8 9.9 9.8 9.8 10.2 10.5 14.8 10.2 11.3 10.7 9.8 10.0 8.9 9.8 10.1 10.2 9.1 10.0 10.2 10.4 9.2 10.0 9.5 8.8 7.5 8.4 9.5 10.2 9.0 9.3  4 1 6 7 1 5 4 1 2 4 0 0 3 5 10 • 0 4 1 4 3 5 4 9 6 3 8 5 0 5 9 3 6 6 4 0 5 4 4 3 4 7 2 9  8.6 9.0 14.0 9.0 8.0 9.0 5.3 4.9 7.4 7.0 11.0 8.0 5.0 11.0 .21.0 9.3 5.3 12.1 5.5 6.5 8.3 6.2 6.7 6.4 8.0 10.0 5.0 28.0 10.0 13.2 40.0 4.0 5,0 8.0 7.5 11.0 13.0 5.0 9.0 34.4 18.5 13.9  30.0 4.0 11.0 21.0 3.0 23.0 6.5 6.0 6.0 1.0 30.0 27.0 30.0 13.0 5.0 21.0 6.0 5.5 1.2 17.0 2.0 4.2 6.8 30.0 18.0 8.0 17.0 12.4 30.0 30.0 11.4 22.0 26.0 13.0 30.0 13.0 19.0 8.0 16.0 30.0 10.5 30.0  82 CRAWFORD AND VIRGIN MOTOR ABILITY TEST RAW SCORES, Continued 6 YEAR OLD BOYS AGILITY RUN 10.9 7.3 9.3 10.0 13.4 13.5 11.8 9.0 10.0 9.8 10.1 9.6 9.3 9.4 9.4 9.8 11.9 10.7 10.9 10.2 9.3 10.4 11.4 11.8 8.7 8.8 * 7.8 9.8 8.0 9.4 10.6 9.2 9.4 8.2 9.2 9.3 10.8 9.1 9.2 9.8 10.0 9.3 10.8 10.8 8.2 10.6  THROW 8 10 8 3 1 6 3 5 10 8 9 5 6 5 8 7 8 10 3 . 8 2 7 5 3 4 2 9 0 3 5 4 10 6 9 5 5 3 2 6 3 5 8 2 0 6 0  STORK STAND  JUMP AND CLAP  11.4 46.1 40.3 5.0 3.8 8.3 13.8 11.6 6.6 7.1 8.0 6.6 14.2 5.4 15.9 10.1 4.6 33.0 11.1 10.3 16.9 8.5 6.5 18.5 21.0 19.0 16.0 6.0 7.0 32.0 8.5 5.9 4.8 20.2 11.1 17.0 33.0 4.5 6.0 7.0 7.0 7.5 7.0 7.0 7.5 3.0  30.0 22.7 9.0 5.0 11.0 13.0 8.0 30.0 7.0 4.0 6.0 1.0 3.0 1.9 12.3 2.0 4.0 30.0 8.0 25.7 30.0 1.8 15.4 26.0 5.0 20.0 8.5 14.8 3.4 3.0 2.3 12.2 6.3 5.0 2.3 4.3 4.8 8.7 19.7 14.0 8.2 27.0 13.0 6.0 11.0 16.0  CRAWFORD AND VIRGIN MOTOR ABILITY TEST RAW SCORES, Continued 6 YEAR OLD BOYS, Continued AGILITY RUN 11.2 9.3 9.0 8.5 10.5 7.4 11.6 8.1 10.8 8.6  THROW  STORK STAND  JUMP AND CLAP  3 0 2 6 3 4 6 5 9 8  32.0 6.0 3.0 10.0 4.0 14.0 4.0 6.3 10.4 9.0  4.0 19.5 4.0 27.0 6.0 24.0 6.0 2.0 5.9 24.0  84 CRAWFORD AND VIRGIN MOTOR ABILITY TEST RAW  SCORES, Continued  10 YEAR OLD GIRLS AGILITY RUN 6.9 7.4 7.4 7.3 7.0 7.8 8.5 6.0 7.1 8.2 9.0 7.3 7.7 7.5 7.8 6.7 9.8 7.7 8.6 7.3 6.8 6.0 7.0 6.8 7.0 8.0 7.4 7.3 7.5 7.1 8.8 8.2 7.5 7.4 7.7 8.5 7.1 8.5 6.8  ALTERNATE . WALL TOSS  SOCCER BALL THROW  5  2 .3 4 1 8 5 3 5 3 4 5 3 0 7 6 8 3 5 2 5 6 8 2 8 4 6 6 2 4 2 2 0 0 6 2 6 7 4 7  7 3 5 8 6 7 2 11 1 2 0 8 0 3 1 1 •0 4 15 9 2 .3 3 7 0 1 2 3 8 0 0  TOE TOUCH 5 5 5 2 5 5 0 4 4 5 4 3 5 0 2 0 1 0 0 3 1 5 5 4 4 5 0 0 5 0 0 3 4 0 0 0 5 0  CRAWFORD AND VIRGIN MOTOR ABILITY TEST RAW  85 SCORES, Continued  10 YEAR OLD BOYS AGILITY RUN 7.2 7.5 7.2 7.5 7.7 8.2 10.0 8.0 8.0 6.6 7.0 8.0 6.8 6.7 7.8 6.3 7.0 6.2 7.2 7.0 7.5 9.0 7.8 6.7 7.7 8.2 7.4 6.8 8.0  ALTERNATE WALL TOSS  SOCCER BALL THROW .  TOE TOUCH  16 12 16 20 14 6 12 2 1 9 12 0 4 9 3 3 8 9 12 15 9 2 8 15 •7 4 0 10 2  6 .3 5 6 9 6 8 3 1 3 6 2 5 6 5 5 4 4 5 6 6 3 3 6 1 1 0 8 1  5 1 5 5 5 3 0 0 2 5 3 5 3 5 5 4 1 5 5 4 4 2 4 5 5 1 5 5 3  V.  86  APPENDIX G C e l l Numbers f o r CAHPER R e s u l t s  Male  Female  Age  West End  VanCouver  Canada  7  40  32  50  8  39  34  9  38  10  West End  VanCouver  Canada  . 42  32  50  50  46  32  50  32  50  40  33  50  . 28.  34  50  38  35  50  11  30  34  50  43  35  50  12  32  36  50  12  36  50  

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