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A Case study of progressive reinforcement training McNulty, William Brian 1970

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A CASE STUDY OF PROGRESSIVE REINFORCEMENT TRAINING b y WILLIAM BRIAN McNULTY B.P.E., University of Br i t i s h Columbia, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FUI»FILLMENT OP THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OP MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the School of Physical Education and Recreation We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1970 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Depar tment o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Depar tment o f Physical Education The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada Date August, 1970. ABSTRACT The purpose of the investigation was to study a programme of Progressive Reinforcement Training and to note the changes i n performance i n running 800 metres. Two secondary purposes were: 1. To study several physiological variables and to note changes after the Progressive Reinforcement Training. 2. To note certain psychological characteristics of the subjects. Nine students of a major secondary school i n Vancouver participated i n the study. The group trained on a Progressive Reinforcement Training Programme for seven weeks. The Cattell Junior-Senior High School Personality Questionnaire was administered to each individual of the group. The group was pre and post-tested on the following items: v e r t i c a l jump; isometric leg strength; treadmill performance time; acid-base balance prior to and after the f i r s t and last training sessions. Time t r i a l s were recorded prior to, during and after the training programme. The results of the Personality Factor Questionnaire indicated that the runners tended to be happy-go-lucky, conscientious, doubting and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . A l l members of the group were c l a s s i f i e d as positive achievers. The results showed that there was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant improvement i n the v e r t i c a l jump score (t=0.076). Tnere were s i g n i f i c a n t differences at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e on the following isometric strength scores: L e f t Knee F l e x i o n (t=5.69); Right Knee F l e x i o n (t=4.4l); L e f t Hip F l e x i o n (t=2.58); Right Hip Fl e x i o n (t=5.30); L e f t Hip Extension (t=7-32); Right Hip Extension (t=4.98). However, no s i g n i f i c a n t gains were made on the L e f t Knee Extension (t=2.07) or Right Knee Extension (t=2 .15). Within the Progressive Reinforcement t r a i n e d group, i t was found that t r e a d m i l l performance times were s i g n i f i c a n t l y increased (t=9.02). The r e s u l t s of the "blood analyses i n d i c a t e d that a general trend existed i n which the pH values decreased s i g n i f i c a n t l y as a r e s u l t of t r a i n i n g . A f t e r the Progressive Reinforcement Training, i t was noted that there were s i g n i f i c a n t improvements i n times f o r running 800 metres (t=6.84). ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author wishes to express his sincere appreciation to Mr. Andrew Bakogeorge, chairman, for his guidance, cooperation and consideration throughout the study. Gratitude i s also due to Dr. Kenneth Coutts, co-chairman, for his assistance i n this study and to Dr. Donald Sampson for his assistance with the psychological variables. Finally, I would l i k e to acknowledge, with a very special thank you, Mr. D. Lionel Pugh for his idea of Progressive Reinforcement Training, for without his idea, this study never would have existed. DEDICATION To Mr. D. Lionel Pugh, Associate Professor and Head Track and Field Coach, at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia and Head Coach., Canadian National Track and Fie l d Team For his efforts and dedication i n developing Track and Field and the Olympic ideals i n Canada. "Citius, Altius, Fortius" - the Olympic Motto. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 The Problem 1 Subsidiary Problems 1 Assumptions 1 Limitations 2 Delimitations . . . . . 2 Definitions 2 I I . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 6 Physiological Aspects of Training 6 Interval Training 6 Psychological Aspects of Training 22 Personality 22 Level of Aspiration 35 I I I . METHODS AND PROCEDURE 47 Subjects 47 Experimental Design 4-7 Training Programme 49 Apparatus 52 Procedures 54-Psychological Measurements 54-Anthropometrical Measurements 55 Physiological Measurements 55 Analysis of Data 61 CHAPTER PAGE 17. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 62 Results 62 Case Study Reports 79 Discussion 120 Case Study Discussion 14-1 V. SUMMARY AND FINDINGS .145 Summary 14-5 Findings 147 Recommendations 148 BIBLIOGRAPHY 149 APPENDICES 164 A S t a t i s t i c a l Treatment 165 B Jr.-Sr. H.S.P.Q. Test and Instructions - Form A . 167 C Training Schedules 176 D Raw Scores 213 E Tensiometer Calibration Chart 234 F Heart Rate Calibration Chart 236 LIST OP TABLES TABLE PAGE I. Comparison of Ozolin's Three Methods of Training 8 I I . Results of E l f i n o v ' s Experiment 10 I I I . Means, Standard Deviation and Ranges of the Sample 62 IV. P e r s o n a l i t y Factor Questionnaire S t a t i s t i c s . 64 V. Percentage of Achievement 65 VI. Comparison of Pre and Post-Training Means f o r the V e r t i c a l Jump (m.) 66 VII. Comparison of Pre and Post-Training Means f o r the Strength Variables (kgs.) 67 VIII. Pre and Post-Treadmill Performance Times (sec.) 68 IX. S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Difference Between the Means of the Treadmill Performance Times of the Sample (sec.) 68 X. Mean, Standard Deviation and Ranges of the Time T r i a l s of the Sample 69 XI. S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Difference Between the Means of the Time T r i a l s of the Sample . . . 76 XII. Means, and Standard Deviations of the A c i d -Base Parameters f o r A r t e r i a l Blood (at 37°C.) 77 X I I I . Comparison of Mean pH Values f o r the Sample. 78 XIV. Description of the Fourteen H.S.P.Q. Per s o n a l i t y Factors 121 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. Mean Personality Scores of the Sample 63 2. Mean Times For 800 Metre Run 70 3. Individual Time Versus Mean Time for 800 Metre Run Subject R.D 71 4. Individual Time Versus Mean Time for 800 Metre Run Subject S.V 71 5. Individual Time Versus Mean Time for 800 Metre Run Subject C G 72 6. Individual Time Versus Mean Time for 800 Metre Run Subject G.N 72 7. Individual Time Versus Mean Time for 800 Metre Run Subject I.P 73 8. Individual Time Versus Mean Time for 800 Metre Run Subject S.C 73 9. Individual Time Versus Mean Time for 800 Metre Run Subject N.W 74 10. Individual Time Versus Mean Time for 800 Metre Run Subject D.M 74 11. Individual Time Versus Mean Time for 800 Metre Run Subject J.S 75 12. Individual Sten Scores - Subject R.D 80 13. Individual Sten Scores - Subject S.V 85 14. Individual Sten Scores - Subject C G 89 15. Individual Sten Scores - Subject G.N 93 16. Individual Sten Scores - Subject I.P 98 17. Individual Sten Scores - Subject S.C 103 18. Individual Sten Scores - Subject N.W 107 19. Individual Sten Scores - Subject D.M 113 20. Individual Sten Scores - Subject J.S 117 CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The Problem The purpose of this investigation was to study a programme of Progressive Reinforcement Training and to note the changes i n performance i n running 800 metres. Subsidiary Problems In direct relation to the purpose of this study, there were two subsidiary problems: 1. To study several physiological variables and to note changes after the Progressive Reinforcement Training. 2. To note certain psychological characteristics of the subjects. Assumptions In order to carry out this study, i t was necessary to make the following assumptions: 1. The change i n physiological variables was due primarily to the training method employed and was not due to potential learning effects of the testing. This assumption appeared to be tenable as the physiological tests were separated by considerable periods of time and were performed only twice. 2. A l l standardized measurements were reliable estimates of the subject's true score. 2 3 ) The subjects participated only i n Progressive Reinforcement Training and school Physical Education classes during the experimental situation. 4 ) A l l subjects had a desire to improve their running performance. Limitations The results and conclusions drawn from this study were limited by several factors: 1) The nine subjects were drawn from the Physical Education classes of a major secondary school i n Vancouver. 2) The training programme was three times per week for a seven week period. 3 ) The methods and instruments employed by the investigator. 4 ) The s t a t i s t i c a l procedures used to analyze the data. 5 ) The magnitude of experimental error by the investigator. Delimitations The scope of this study was concerned only with the physiological and psychological variables selected with direct reference to nine subjects from a major secondary school i n Vancouver and their performance on the selected physiological and psychological variables. 3 D e f i n i t i o n s Endurance. The a b i l i t y o f the body t o p e r s i s t i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and t o r e s i s t muscular f a t i g u e (47:322). L e v e l of A s p i r a t i o n . A person's e x p e c t a t i o n o f how he w i l l p e r f o r m a t a s k (101:107). P e r s o n a l i t y . A l l the main n o n - p h y s i c a l dimensions a l o n g which people can d i f f e r a c c o r d i n g t o b a s i c a n a l y t i c r e s e a r c h (33:2). pH. The measure o f a c i d i t y o f a system. The c o n v e n t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f pH has pH equal t o the n e g a t i v e l o g a r i t h m t o the base t e n of the Hydrogen i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n gram m o l e c u l a r weight (4-7:130). Power. The r a t e of d o i n g work o r the r a t i o o f work t o t i m e . P r o g r e s s i v e Reinforcement T r a i n i n g . A system o f t r a c k t r a i n i n g i n v e n t e d and used by L i o n e l Pugh (117) i n the t r a i n i n g o f many B r i t i s h I n t e r n a t i o n a l r u n n e r s . I t i s a system d e s i g n e d t o e f f e c t p h y s i c a l , mental and e m o t i o n a l changes i n a middle d i s t a n c e runner such t h a t d e s i r e d t a r g e t times become more r e a d i l y a t t a i n a b l e and w i t h a g r e a t e r degree of c e r t a i n t y . S p e c i f i c i t y i s one of the most prominent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s method and u t i l i z e s a form o f i n t e r v a l t r a i n i n g as a f o u n d a t i o n . I t d i f f e r s from orthodox i n t e r v a l r u n n i n g t o the e x t e n t t h a t the programme i s governed and d i r e c t e d more by the a t h l e t e t h a n the coach. 4 The main m o t i v a t i o n towards improvement w i l l stem from the a t h l e t e h i m s e l f who must l e a r n t o r e l y on h i s own f e e l i n g s r e l a t i n g t o an e s s e n t i a l feedback o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g h i s own e f f o r t o u t p u t . Thus, t h e r e i s more mental and emo t i o n a l involvement t o s i m u l a t e the a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s s u b s e q u e n t l y t o be e x p e r i e n c e d i n c o m p e t i t i o n . One b a s i c assumption i s t h a t s t r e n g t h , power and endurance a r e , t o no s m a l l e x t e n t , l e a r n e d . With t h i s i n mind, m e a n i n g f u l i n f o r m a t i o n i s c o n s t a n t l y p r o v i d e d i n the form o f almost i n s t a n t - f e e d b a c k . Another b a s i c assumption i s t h a t , t o a degree, success i s t he u l t i m a t e m o t i v a t i o n ("nothing succeeds l i k e s u c c e s s " ) . Thus, r e i n f o r c e m e n t i s " b u i l t - i n " t o the system by always g u a r a n t e e i n g a " s u c c e s s f u l " c o n c l u s i o n t o the t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n . C o n f i d e n c e based on p r a c t i c e , the r e s u l t s o f which are known, i n t u r n p r o v i d e t h e r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f s a t i s f a c t i o n , and m o t i v a t e s the a t h l e t e towards even g r e a t e r performance. I n t h i s way an a t h l e t e approaches c o m p e t i t i o n not so much " i n the dark", but armed w i t h the c o m f o r t i n g knowledge o f what h i s minimal performance might be. A n y t h i n g b e t t e r t h a n t h i s performance would, o f co u r s e , be p r o v i d e d by the normal m o t i v a t i o n a l p r o c e s s o f c o m p e t i t i o n f o r which he i s now b e t t e r p r e p a r e d (117). I s o m e t r i c S t r e n g t h . The c a p a c i t y t o e x e r t maximum t e n s i o n a g a i n s t an immovable r e s i s t a n c e . 5 Terminal Heart Rate. A predetermined heart rate f o r termination of exercise. In t h i s study, the terminal heart rate was three consecutive recordings of heart rates of 170 beats per minute. Time T r i a l . The time, to the nearest tenth of one second, taken by the subject to run 800 metres. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Physiological Aspects of Training Interval Training. The literature reviewed was primarily-empirical i n nature, as few s c i e n t i f i c studies have investigated the comparative merits of different training methods. The review of literature for interval training has "been organized into the following areas: stress sectors, recovery sectors, number of repetitions and general studies. Stress Sectors. Empiricism demanded that the stress sectors should be long enough to bring i n some sustained effort at the correct racing rhythmn, yet short enough to permit a l i t t l e faster than racing speed (49). However, no r i g i d adherence to single distances meets a l l needs, as the distance depends so much on individual needs. Each fraction of the racing distance has i t s own values and limitations for a given athlete. The only prerequisite i s that the distance chosen must be of sufficient length to create an adequate physical and mental stress. The distances used are only a r b i t r a r i l y defined. For example, Doherty (48) c l a s s i f i e d the distances according to the effect required. He reported the following schedule: Speed Faster than race pace Race pace Slower than race pace 50 - 220 yards 330 - 880 yards 440 - 1 mile 660 yards - 1% miles 7 I f short distances are used, i t i s assumed that the c o n d i t i o n u s u a l l y aimed at was one i n which the runner w i l l l e a r n to s u f f e r p r o g r e s s i v e l y increasing concentrations of anaerobic metabolites many times during any t r a i n i n g session. The athlete's muscles should become adapted to the continual c r e a t i o n of, and work i n , an oxygen d e f i c i e n t environment, so leading to an improved oxygen debt capacity (49). Mihaly I g l o i (107) used a s e r i e s of short intensive runs (50-100 m.) which produced a high oxygen debt, the idea being to develop the a b i l i t y to t o l e r a t e greater oxygen debt. Hanson (49) substantiated I g l o i ' s theories with h i s distance runners at North Carolina, claiming that the short distance runs used most e f f e c t i v e l y imbued the mechanics of e f f i c i e n t running when moving at around race pace or a l i t t l e f a s t e r . Such methods were also employed by Gerschler (62) and A l l e n (49). Using longer distances at a correspondingly slower pace, c o l l a b o r a t i o n between r e s p i r a t i o n and the functioning of i n t e r n a l organs can be so expedient as to induce the most e f f i c i e n t aerobic a c t i o n . The use of longer distances co n s t i t u t e s a d i f f e r e n t kind of s t r e s s , i n which the supply of glycogen and u t i l i z a t i o n of oxygen by the t i s s u e s are of prime importance, as opposed to the runner's oxygen debt capacity. Stampfl (136) argued f o r the longer distances at a slower than competitive pace u n t i l s u f f i c i e n t mileage was covered, then, and only then, would he increase speed. 8 Ozolin (113) conducted experiments with sixteen groups of g i r l s (285 people) a l l of whom were i n good p h y s i c a l condition, "but were not s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d f o r running. He compared three methods of t r a i n i n g ; gradual drawing up, r e p e t i t i o n and standard. The subjects were pre and post-tes t e d on a 100 m. run and an 800 m. run. In a l l three methods, t r a i n i n g was held twice a week a f t e r a general warm up f o r everyone. In the gradual drawing up method, the subjects i n the f i r s t stage ran lengthened distances (600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400, 1600, 2000 metres) at the same slow pace ( 7 0 seconds per 200 metres). In the second stage, they ran shorter and shorter distances i n each workout (1800, 1600, 1400, 1200, 1000, 800 metres) while gradually increasing the pace. In the r e p e t i t i o n methods, the workout consisted of 4 x 200 metres with f i v e minute r e s t between each run. The standard method consisted of putting everyone through an 800 metre run every workout s t r i v i n g f o r best times. The basic r e s u l t s of t h i s study are presented i n the following t a b l e . TABLE I Comparison of Ozolin's Three Methods of Training Training Number of 100 metre run 800 metre run Subjects (Average im- (Average im-provement ) provement) Gradual drawing up Rep e t i t i o n Standard 87 7 1 127 + 1.16 sec. + 1.84 sec. + 0.90 sec. + 1 9 . 9 sec. + 11.4 sec. - 4.5 sec. 9 The r e s u l t s of the study showed that the r e p e t i t i o n method produced greatest gain i n the 100 metre run, while the gradual drawing up method produced the greatest improvement i n the 800 metre run. Webb (143) studied three i n t e r v a l t r a i n i n g programmes and t h e i r e f f e c t s on selected p h y s i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s . He incorporated a programme of short distances, r e p e t i t i v e running (55 to 220 yards), long distances (660 to 1320 yards) and a combination of short and long distances. He used 23 men whom he placed i n three groups, on the basis of maximum oxygen intake as determined by a f i v e minute r i d e on the b i c y c l e ergometer. The subjects were pre and post-tested on maximum oxygen intake, oxygen debt, exercise heart r a t e , recovery heart r a t e , forward step t e s t , and the army p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s t e s t . The r e s u l t s showed that the short distance programme had produced the greatest c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s followed by the mixed distance and long distance programmes. In summing up the advantages and disadvantages of using short or long distance r e p e t i t i o n s , i t can be concluded that short distances would be employed when the athletes main concern i s the development of anaerobic sources of energy, as i n the s p r i n t races. In the longer distances the athletes concern would be to develop a greater oxygen capacity (49). Consideration of the speed of the stress sectors i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d i n p r a c t i c e to t h e i r length. Most recognized a u t h o r i t i e s (48, 49, 113) are of the opinion that the speed of the s t r e s s r e p e t i t i o n s should eventually be s l i g h t l y f a s t e r 10 than the aimed target speeds, but such b e l i e f s are by no means undisputed. Elfimov (51) combined laboratory experiments and observations i n p r a c t i c e and showed the pace i n t r a i n i n g should be s l i g h t l y f a s t e r than race pace. He measured the amount of endurance developed i n three groups of middle distance runners: the f i r s t group had run i n place at an average pace (230 steps per minute); another group had run at an increased pace (260 steps per minute); and a t h i r d group at a maximum e f f o r t (300 steps per minute). Their pulse rates and breathing rates were measured before and a f t e r t r a i n i n g . The average r e s u l t s of the experiments are given i n the following t a b l e . TABLE I I Results of Elfimov's Experiment Test Training Pace Duration of Run to Limit % Increase Group (Steps/Min.) at Pace of 230 Steps/Min. i n Work Capacity P r i o r to Post Training Training 1 230 52.3 sec. 72.3 sec. 38.3 2 300 52.0 sec. 98.6 sec. 89.6 3 260 54-.3 sec. 106.3 sec. 95.8 The athletes ran to the l i m i t which meant to the point where fatigue i n t e r f e r e d with normal movements. Thus, the greatest increases i n working capacity were attained by the groups which t r a i n e d at a f a s t e r than race pace, but not at a maximum e f f o r t . 11 Ozolin (113) reconfirmed Elfimov's experiments (51) that the speed of the repetitions should not he all-out. Experiments by A.A. Pagachevski (113) with 800 metre runners showed that they f a i l e d to improve performances "by doing workouts such as 15 to. 20 repetitions of 100 metres at nearly maximum effort. Edwards, Brouha and Johnson (50) indicated that after a given training programme had been followed for a few weeks, a plateau which varied from individual to individual was reached. If the duration of the daily training was then increased, the work rate remaining the same, no additional improvement was made. If , on the other hand, the work rate (speed) was increased, the standard test (re: a race) could very rapidly be performed more e f f i c i e n t l y as shown by lower heart and respiratory rates and by a reduced amount of blood l a c t i c acid. Consideration of the speed of the repetitions i s obviously closely related i n practice to their length, and, therefore much of what was said under that heading concerning the relative merits or weakness of aerobic work i s equally applicable. It can be concluded that most recognized authorities are of the opinion that the speed of the stress sectors should eventually be s l i g h t l y faster than the target racing speeds (49). Recovery Sectors. Most coaches work on the principle that the recovery should be just, and only just, sufficient to permit the required speed and number of fast repetitions 12 at the prescribed distance (49). This implies only " p a r t i a l recovery", according to Ecker (49) and though no exact s c i e n t i f i c means has yet proven f u l l y successful i n computing the c o r r e c t recovery period f o r each i n d i v i d u a l i n the various types of i n t e r v a l t r a i n i n g workout proposed, not only w i l l the athletes f i n d that the time needed f o r adequate recovery n a t u r a l l y decreases as he becomes more f i t , but as he senses t h i s , he must c u r t a i l h i s r e s t i n t e r v a l . In t r a i n i n g , Lehmann (49) contended that many short r e s t pauses should e f f e c t a more favourable recovery than longer, but fewer, r e s t pauses. The Russian school has concentrated on a short recovery aspect. Their runners have been known to cover some 60 or so 400 metre r e p e t i t i o n s i n one session, with as l i t t l e as a 100 metre jog - recovery i n t e r v a l of 3 0 seconds duration (148). The recovery sectors can be based on recovery pulse count (49, 54, 62, 86). This i s s t i l l a theory only, as much of the material i n the l i t e r a t u r e i s only of a quasi-s c i e n t i f i c nature, r e v o l v i n g i n the main around the number of heart beats during the recovery i n t e r v a l and the most favourable a c t i v i t y f o r the organism to commence the next run a f t e r the i n t e r r u p t i o n of the previous e f f o r t (49). Diem (49) contended that the recovery be prolonged u n t i l the breathing and heart have calmed down and a f e e l i n g of freshness was f e l t , while Stampfl (136) recognized that breathing should r e t u r n to normal, and used the post-exercise 13 pulse count to indicate stress levels. Holmer (49) claimed that every repetition should raise the heart rate to above three times i t s resting level (assuming that i t was 60 or under at rest) and that recovery i s sufficient when the rate has dropped hack to within 20 heats of the normal resting rate. Nocker (54) maintained that i t was the recuperation phase rather than the effort of the runs themselves that were the principle stimulus "behind modern training methods. He advocated computing one-third of the difference between the pulse at rest and the pulse during exertion, and subtracting the quotient from the maximum pulse rate during exercise. Thus, an athlete with a resting pulse of 55 and an immediate post-exercise rate of 170 i s allowed a recuperation phase as long as i t takes his pulse to reduce to 132 beats. Nocker claimed that this was the figure at which, after a sudden drop, the heart rate tends to stabilize or descend more slowly, and was the point at which the next effort should be begun. Karvonen (86) stated that the pulse rate must be raised more than 60 percent of one's maximum increase above the resting level i n all-out running for there to be any cardiorespiratory endurance increase. By examining some 3,000 subjects over the years,including both world class performers and mere "rabbits", Gerschler (62) established some physiological laws with Dr. Hans Eeindell (118). They concluded that the stimulus imposed by average 14 interval training sessions terminated i n a pulse frequency of about 180 beats per minute, a stimulus which Beindell (118) demonstrated would result i n the most favorable increase i n capacity for effort with the exception of c l i n i c a l controls. A law was then enunciated stating that "the stimulus of effort of interval training i s correctly proportioned when the heart rate i s around 180" (62). Gerschler (62) further indicated that this rate lasted i n most cases for only five seconds after exercise, sometimes ten seconds, but never f i f t e e n seconds, and suggested that this should be a positive consideration when planning the interval training intensity, adding that neither the distances covered - be i t 100, 200, 400 metres etc., nor the number of repetitions run modified the frequency. Down (49) concluded that whichever authority one was prepared to accept, i t was apparent that the c r i t i c a l range was from 120-180 beats per minute. To claim a more precise threshold was surely presumptuous. Gerschler (62) was adamant that this controlled recovery phase was the key to strengthening the heart, actually increasing the volume by as much as one-fifth, and so improving endurance markedly. By r i g i d adhearence to this system, he claimed the stroke volume of the heart would remain elevated and f a i r l y constant throughout the workout. A study by Asmussen and Nielson (7) showed that when the heart rate rises above 120 beats per minute the stroke volume reaches i t s maximum i n most people, remaining steady 15 with any further r i s e i n heart rate. However, i f the heart rate drops below 120, the stroke volume i s reduced. By keeping the stroke volume up at a rate of 120-140 beats per minute, according to Eeindell (118), the heart was induced to transport i t s total volume of blood through the a r t e r i a l system, whose capillary network remains continuously dilated. This, as Hollman confirmed, maintains the stimulus on the heart while the skeletal musculature was recovering, so enabling the next effort to be resumed aerobically, and almost at once, the l a c t i c acid level also remains r e l a t i v e l y low. Reindell and Hollman (49) both believed that i n this way the heart muscle received a far more beneficial effect than from the steady form of endurance work, i n addition to providing a strong stimulus for the development of more ca p i l l a r i e s i n the skeletal musculature. Hollman was actually able to increase the heart volume by more than 100 cubic centimeters i n a period of six weeks interval training controlled i n this way. Simple physiological fact has indicated that the most effective way of promoting recovery was to keep moving i n order to f a c i l i t a t e venous return (49). Cassinis (49) cited i n an a r t i c l e that Brandis, Garkin and Posner a l l spoke out against complete rest between periods of heavy work, and advocated, instead, light work which did not bring about any oxygen debt, pulse acceleration, or increase i n blood pressure. This they claimed, not only 16 expediated recovery, but actually improved efficiency. Down (4-9) claims that easy jogging would stimulate venous return by the "milking" or massaging effect of contracting muscles, as well as putting the athlete i n a relaxed, but prepared frame of mind for the next repetition. On the other hand, i f the athlete merely stands s t i l l , the recovery process i s l i a b l e to be only p a r t i a l l y accomplished on both counts. The temptation to walk was always great, and often yielded to, as Huntsman's survey indicated (75). He stated further that much depended upon the intensity of the workout being undertaken, but he f e l t that walking broke the rhythm of running too much. Ta t a r e l l i (4-9) attached great importance to the factor of rhythm i n determining the onset and accumulation of fatigue. He talked of an interval from rhythm or from work, and actually concluded that the period of relative rest between the fast sectors was the most important element i n interval training. According to Wilt (14-9), walking i s the best recovery action on the basis of pulse rate and energy expenditure. The recovery i s twice as rapid by walking as by jogging. However, the physical motions of jogging bear l i t t l e , i f any, relationship to the movements used i n the fast running sectors than do those used i n walking, while the quicker recovery action of walking also enables more actual work time i n any given period. 17 From the existing evidence, we cannot conclude whether jogging or walking i s preferable or more desirable from a training viewpoint i n either fast or slow training (49). Whatever the best course of action, lying down i s probably the least effective method, according to Gerschler (62), for the pulse rate drops more quickly (45-90 seconds jogging; 30-70 seconds lying). Whatever the length or a c t i v i t y during the recovery period, i t i s evident that coaches work on the concept of p a r t i a l recovery. That means that the work period i s long enough to stress the athlete and the recovery period short enough so that the athlete never recovers completely. The more specific the recovery i s to the actual workout, such as walking or jogging, the more valuable to the athlete (49). Repetitions. Zatopek (148), the propagator of modern interval training, was known to run 400 metre repetitions at a 75-90 second pace, and the number he ran was almost beyond the comprehension of even his most fervent contemporaries - as many as 60 repetitions. Stampfl (136), also, seemed to favour this approach. He recommended numerous repetitions at a slower than racing speed, i f necessary. Nett (148, 149) favoured continued increment of the number of repetitions, on the grounds that few repetitions at too fast a pace tend to break down the young athlete's process of adaptation rather than building them up to a higher l e v e l . 18 With particular reference to interval training, Mole (104-) suggested that when the duration of the run ( i e . i t s length) was adequate for maximal circulatory and respiratory response, adaptation of these systems depends on t o t a l work output - that i s , the t o t a l number of repetitions. Mole, i n his study of the influence of interval training on the aerobic metabolism and endurance performance of four young men, when emphasizing a progressive increment i n the number of repetitions done, indicated that aerobic metabolism, running e f f i c i e n t l y , endurance performance, and oxygen requirement for the all-out treadmill run tended to improve as the total workout increased. Sherman (127), in. a similar study with young boys, gradually increased the number of 440 yard sectors, run at a constant pace and interspersed with 3 minutes of light jogging, and was able to show that adjustment to sub-maximal exercise improved significantly as measured by the sum of post-exercise pulse counts. He also found that there was some increment i n all-out 440 yards performance. There i s not sufficient uniform experimental evidence to y i e l d any s t r i c t rule for this variable. Leclerq (93) stated that every repetition of effort after the sixth i s questionable as regards to efficiency of training adaptation. We must bear i n mind that the other variables implicated w i l l always influence the number of repetitions undertaken, and ultimately limit them, foremost amongst these being the 1 9 distance of the race the athlete i s preparing for, the speed of the fast runs, the time needed for recuperation "between each fast sector, and the training goal (4-9). It can be concluded that, i f the number of repetitions was continually increased while holding the other variables constant, progressively more work must be accomplished (121). Finally, the practice involved has been to cover twice the amount of fast running as the racing distance. General Studies on Interval Training. Noon (49) reported work on the effects of "speed" and "over distance" type of interval training on the performance of high school middle distance runners between the ages of 14-17 years. One group was put on a schedule which involved repeated short distance runs (SO, 110, 220, 330 or 440 yards), with equivalent length jog recoveries and at a pace considerably faster than competition speed. A second group did a composite "over distance" - "constant speed" type of programme, including repeat runs {% mile, & mile, 1 mile, 2 miles) and long steady stints of from 5-15 miles at 7-8 minute mile pace - a walk recovery equal to the time of the run being u t i l i z e d . Both groups covered a distance of between 25 and 45 miles during the 12 week record of the study. The results showed that the speed training appeared to produce more pronounced and more rapid changes i n most of the physiological indicies measured. The overdistance training had a more marked effect on the actual a b i l i t y to run 5,000 metres. 20 The effects of interval and developmental training were compared "by sackett (123) on the physiological and performance functions of college freshmen. Forty-six freshmen trained for f i f t e e n weeks for two hours per week. However, the results showed that there were no significant differences i n the training methods i n any physiological functions or any performance functions. Stamp (135) studied the effect of an interval running programme on circulorespiratory efficiency, body adipose tissue, and body weight of college freshmen women. She used t h i r t y physical education students and had them tr a i n for six weeks. The results showed that the method of interval training employed by this study appeared to be an effective method of increasing circulorespiratory efficiency for women. The programme reduced body weight, adipose tissue and increased endurance. Mathur and Vanketeshwaralu (99) studied the influence of interval training on blood sugar l e v e l . Two groups, control and experimental, consisting of f i f t e e n males between 15 and 21 years of age, were studied for twelve weeks. The experimental group was put to interval training. Blood sugar levels were estimated every three weeks, i n both groups, under fasting conditions. The data showed that the blood sugar level i n the experimental group decreased more than that of the control group. The decline i n blood sugar level i n the experimental group was attributed to increased conversion of blood glucose into glycogen i n the muscle. 21 The studies show that no one type of i n t e r v a l t r a i n i n g programme was "best. I t seemed that i t was most probable that appropriate combinations of t h i s m u l t i v a r i a t e s e t t i n g have t h e i r own p e c u l i a r a p p l i c a b i l i t y . At the same time, i t would be scar c e l y defensible to attempt to undermine the e x i s t i n g p h y s i o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s among these many t r a i n i n g modules. The f a c t that there are such differences to account f o r should be an incentive to fu r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n (49). 22 Psychological Aspects P e r s o n a l i t y . P e r s o n a l i t y was examined from the point of view of athletes versus non-athletes and s p e c i f i c a l l y the pe r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of athletes as a group. Sp e r l i n g (134-) studied a t h l e t e s , intramural groups and non-athletes i n P h y s i c a l Education classes using the B e l l Adjustment Inventory and the Clark Thurstone Scale. He in d i c a t e d that there were s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y adjustment scores of ascendance and extroversion i n the intramural group and a t h l e t i c group. The study also i n d i c a t e d that the athletes were more s i g n i f i c a n t l y motivated by a desire f o r power and, to a l e s s e r extent, by a s o c i a l love f o r people. Trackmen had a high objective score i n extroversion and a low economic i n t e r e s t score. Thune (140) compared 100 Oakland Y.M.C.A. male weight l i f t e r s to 100 other Y.M.C.A. male athletes (non-weight l i f t e r s ) . He found that weight l i f t e r s are shy and lacked s e l f confidence, f e l t more masculine than other men and wanted to be strong and dominant, emulating other strong men. Also, weight l i f t e r s had consequent f e e l i n g s of r e j e c t i o n and f e l t an i n a b i l i t y to cope with t h e i r environment. La Place (91) examined the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of p r o f e s s i o n a l baseball players. The purpose of h i s study was to determine whether s p e c i f i c p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s are associated with success i n p r o f e s s i o n a l b a s e b a l l . He used the Minnesota Multiphasic 23 P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory and a "biographical data sheet. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that the major league players were better able than minor league players t o : (1) apply t h e i r strong " d r i v e " towards a d e f i n i t e object by e x e r c i s i n g s e l f d i s c i p l i n e . (2) adjust to occupations r e q u i r i n g s o c i a l contact and g e t t i n g along with people. (3) exercising i n i t i a t i v e . In a study by Plannigan (57), fencers were found to be more ascendent and feminine than other groups, e s p e c i a l l y basketball p l a y e r s . The r e s u l t s f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e that badminton players appeared to be more extroverted than v o l l e y b a l l players who i n t u r n were more unstable emotionally than basketball p l a y e r s . The d i f f e r e n c e s between the mean scores were s i g n i f i c a n t only f o r fencers and boxers i n t h i s study. According to a study by Weber (144), a r e l a t i o n s h i p existed between p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and grade point averages. The c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n was 0.4-1 which was at the one percent l e v e l of confidence. His f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d that good p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , as measured by the Iowa Physical E f f i c i e n c y P r o f i l e , tended to accompany achievement of academic success during the year. However, Weber f a i l e d to f i n d any r e l a t i o n s h i p between being p h y s i c a l l y f i t and having stable p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , as measured by the Minnesota Multiphasic P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory. The p e r s o n a l i t i e s of twelve All-American athletes selected from a v a r i e t y of sports - f o o t b a l l , b a s k e t b a l l , v o l l e y b a l l , 24 gymnastics and track and f i e l d were measured by two projective tests: the Rorschach and House Tree Perception (84). The results showed that these athletes exhibited the following five characteristics: extreme aggression, uncontrolled affect (emotions lacking s t r i c t control), high and generalized anxiety, a high level of i n t e l l e c t u a l aspiration, and an exceptional feeling of self assurance. Biddulph (18) studied athletic achievement and the personal and social adjustment of high school boys. The results indicated that the superior athletic group of boys showed a higher degree of personal adjustment than the low ranking groups on the California test of Personality, the Henman-Nelson Intelligence test and two subjective rating scales. Aggression was studied by Husman (81) using the Bosenzweig Physical Education Study, Selected Thermatic Apperception Test (TAT) and a sentence completion test. He found that cross country runners tended to express their aggression more outwardly (extra-punitiveness) than boxers did. The runners also tended to possess more ego defense and to protect the ego more than the boxers. Booth (20) compared the personality t r a i t s of 63 freshmen i n athletics and 7 1 freshmen non-athletes on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. The results indicated that the non-athlete scored higher on the "interest" and "anxiety" variables while athletes scored higher on the "dominance" 25 variables. College athletes participating i n individual sports scored higher on the "depression" variable than any of the groups studied. Keogh (88) administered the California Personality Inventory to one hundred sixty-seven junior and senior males at Pomona College i n California. The purpose of the study was to find the relationship of motor a b i l i t y and athletic participation i n certain standardized personality measures. He found no significant relationship between either motor a b i l i t y or athletic participation and the eighteen separate scales of the California Personality Inventory. Heusner (74) gave the Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire to forty-one leading B r i t i s h and American champions at the 1952 Olympic Games and compared them to normal American males. He found significant differences on four primary factors: greater ego strength or freedom from general neurotic tendencies; more dominant or assertive; more outgoing or less easily inhibited; showed less g u i l t proneness or l i a b i l i t y to worry. Merriman (103) gave the California Personality Inventory to eight hundred and eight high school boys and correlated the results with P h i l l i p s Jump, Chin, Run Motor A b i l i t y Test. He found significantly positive correlations on four variables; poise, ascendance, intelligence and interest. Parsons (114) administered Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire to t h i r t y - f i v e champion swimmers who were 26 named to represent Canada at the B r i t i s h Empire and Commonwealth Games at Perth, Australia i n 1962. He found that only i n factor A (Aloof, cold versus warm, sociable) was there a difference between the study population and the group mean score for the general population. However, the difference was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. He also made a comparison between female and male champion swimmers. The results showed that the females were more dominant (Factor E), showed more emotion and s t a b i l i t y (Factor C), exhibited sensitivity, more convention (Factor M) and were more conservative (Factor Q-^ )« In a study by Slusher (132), selected high school athletes were compared with non athletes from the same population for differences i n selected p r o f i l e scales as indicated by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (M.M.P.I.) and intelligence quotients. "Femininity" and "intelligence" were significantly lower i n a l l athletic groups when compared to non athletic groups. The t r a i t "hypochondriasis" was significantly lower for a l l athletes. whiting and Stembridge (146) used the Maudsley Personality Inventories on University male non swimmers. Two categories of non swimmers were used i n the study: Category I, those who received instruction and s t i l l could not swim; and category II, those who never received any previous instruction. They found that those who received instruction had a lower extroversion mean. There was no significant difference i n neuroticism. 27 They also tested persistent non swimmers aged eleven and twelve with the Junior Maudsley Personality Inventory. The results showed significant differences i n their neuroticism and extroversion mean scores when compared with swimmers of the same population, being both more introverted and more neurotic. Johnson and Hutton (83) administered the Rorschach and House Tree Projective tests to twelve national champion wrestling athletes before a meet. The results indicated that the group possessed extreme aggression, emotions lacking s t r i c t control, high and generalized anxiety, a high level of in t e l l e c t u a l aspiration and exceptional feelings of self assurance. The evidence suggested that i n these subjects, being a champion was a matter of psychological necessity. Tillman (14-1), l i k e Weber (144), examined the relationship between physical fitness and personality. He used a battery of three personality tests (A.S. Reaction Study of Allport, Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire and the Kuder Performance Record-Form C) and a physical fitness test (A.A.H.P.E.R. Youth Fitness t e s t ) . He administered the test to three hundred eighty-six high school junior and senior boys. The boys who finished i n the upper f i f t e e n percent of the fitness test were compared with the boys who were i n the lower f i f t e e n percent. The upper group was more dominant, extroverted, so c i a l l y oriented, and more interested i n people and group interaction than the lower group. 28 K r o l l and Petersen ( 9 0 ) selected five collegiate football teams to provide data on winning and losing teams. He examined one hundred t h i r t y - f i v e athletes on Cattell*s Sixteen Personality Pactor Questionnaire. The results indicated there was significant discrimination between teams with the highest contributors to the derived discriminant function being Pactor B (intelligence), Pactor H (shy versus bold), Pactor 0 (confident versus worrying) and Factor Q^  (casual versus controlled). A study by Schendel (124) compared athletes to non athletes i n ninth and twelfth grades, and i n college, on the California Psychological Inventory. He found that ninth and twelfth grade athletes generally possessed more desirable personal - social psychological characteristics than non athletes. However, at college level, the non athletes generally possessed more desirable characteristics than the athlete. Gottheil and Werner (64) studied personality development and athletic participation with four hundred f i f t y - s i x cadets entering the U.S. Military Academy. Two groups, those designated as athletes and those designated as non participants, were administered the Ca t t e l l Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire once after entering the academy and again prior to graduation from the academy. The entering cadet athletes were significantly different from the non participants on seven of the sixteen personality factor scales. The results further indicated that the proportion of athletes who graduated from the academy 29 were significantly greater than the proportion of non participants. If participation i n athletics i n college had any affect on personality structure, the effect would he expected to he greater on individuals with l i t t l e previous athletic participation than on accomplished athletes. However, despite four years of regular athletic participation, the designated non participant group was not found to change i n personality as measured by the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire: a) to a greater extent than the athletes; b) i n a different pattern than the athletes; c) nor so as to become more l i k e the athletes. He concluded that no evidence was found to support the view that college athletics s i g n i f i c a n t l y influenced personality structure. K r o l l (89) examined ninety-four wrestlers using Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. When compared to norms for the general population, there was a significant departure from average on Factor I, indicating tough mindedness, self-reliance and masculinity. No evidence of a neurotic p r o f i l e was found i n the results obtained from the wrestlers. Olson (112) discerned the personality differences among sixty-three outstanding male tennis players. He found that the champions appeared to be more purposeful, intense and serious. Their aggressiveness was directed toward a recognizable external object while the near greats seemed to focus on something inside themselves, not easily recognized by others. In games, the near 3 0 greats were aware of the crowd's reaction to a greater degree than the champions. The champions seldom appeared bothered during a match. They expressed a great desire and need for extreme emotion of "great exhilaration" after a win, and "deep depression" after a loss. The near greats seemed to feel a burden of being expected to win while the champions did not. According to the study, the champion tennis player i s inner-directed, an extrovert and a pragmatist. Leithwood (94) studied the personality of three groups of university weight trainers using Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. Fifteen subjects trained as a conditioning a c t i v i t y for a sport, f i f t e e n subjects trained to improve their physique and f i f t e e n subjects trained to increase their strength for weight l i f t i n g . The results indicated that there were no significant differences i n personality t r a i t s among the three groups and thus weight trainers are a r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous group. A similar study was carried out by Murray (109) on university basketball, football and ice hockey players. He used forty-five subjects competing i n intercollegiate athletics. The results showed that the t o t a l number of athletes tested scored significantly lower on the factors involving shrewdness and apprehensiveness, and significantly higher on the intelligence factor i n comparison with college norms. The ice hockey group was more radical, more c r i t i c a l , l i b e r a l , analytic 3 1 and free thinking than the football players. The ice hockey group also scored higher than college norms on three factors, namely, intelligence, tough mindedness and radicalism. Chipman (37) administered the Gordon Personal Prof i l e and the Gordon Personal Inventory to varsity athletes i n individual and team sports. He found that varsity participants i n individual sports were more original i n thinking than varsity participants i n team sports. With the exception of the varsity wrestlers, varsity participants i n team sports were generally more sociable and ascendant than the varsity participants i n individual sports. Cooper (42) summarized the major findings of athletics and personality i n a review of literature. He reported that between athletes and non athletes there was no i n t e l l e c t u a l differences. However, the personality features of athletes pointed to a greater emotional adjustment and ascendancy and a higher emotional s t a b i l i t y . Athletes seemed to be more achievement oriented and very strong competitors. Singer (131) reported that baseball and tennis coaches at Ohio State University ranked their respective players (N=69) i n performance at the end of the 1965 season. The Edwards Personal Preference schedule was administered to a l l players before the season began. Using multiple discriminant analysis, no significant differences i n personality profiles were observed between the tennis and baseball groups or between the highest 20 and the lowest 20 ranked baseball 32 players. When making between and within athletic group comparisons with normative data on each of 15 personality t r a i t s , a few t r a i t s , such as achievement, intraception and dominance, emerged as significant. Bruner (25) administered the Adjective Check Li s t and questionnaire to sixty adult Caucasians. The men were divided into two equal groups; participants and non participants i n vigorous physical a c t i v i t y . The results disclosed significant difference between the groups on eight scales. The participants scored significantly higher on Intraception, Number of Favorable adjectives checked, Defensiveness, Achievement, Dominance and Self Confidence, whereas as non participants were superior on Succordance and Counselling Readiness. The participants revealed more extroverted t r a i t s and the non participants were more introverted. Berger and L i t t l e f i e l d (17) determined whether differences i n personality, as measured by the California Psychological Inventory, existed between 30 outstanding football athletes, 30 non outstanding football athletes, and 30 non athletes after controlling for scholastic aptitude, as measured by the Scholastic Aptitude Test. The analysis of variance found no significant difference at the .01 level between them or any of the 18 items of the California Psychological Inventory nor on a composite score. A study by Hunt (80) investigated the differences i n four 33 personality t r a i t s between negro and white athletes and non athletes u t i l i z i n g the Gordon Personal P r o f i l e . Six hypotheses, a l l stated i n the nu l l form, were used i n comparing the different groups. A total of 111 subjects were divided into four groups based upon their ethnic background and athletic a b i l i t y . The results produced seven significant differences at the . 0 5 l e v e l : three between white athletes and white non athletes; one between negro varsity athletes and negro non athletes; and three between white varsity-athletes and negro non athletes. The results suggested that white varsity athletes were significantly different and ranked i n Ascendancy, Responsibility, and Emotional S t a b i l i t y t r a i t s when compared to negro and white non athletes. They also suggested that negro varsity athletes were significantly different and ranked higher i n Responsibility when compared to negro non athletes. Uo significant differences occurred when white varsity athletes and negro varsity athletes were compared; when negro varsity athletes and white non athletes were compared; or when negro non athletes and white non athletes were compared. Wilson (14-7) conducted a study for the purpose of determining the relationship between specific factors of personality adjustment and levels of motor achievement i n a select group of junior and senior high school boys. Pertinent scales from the 16 Personality Pactor Questionnaire and the 34-Guilford Zimmerman Temperament Survey were administered to 154- subjects for the purpose of determining existing personality characteristics. The motor achievement data was collected from administration of the McCloy General Motor A b i l i t y and Motor Capacity Test. The data was s t a t i s t i c a l l y analyzed through the use of the Pearson product moment correlation technique, the t test, and the multiple regression technique. The study concluded that (a) individual group dependence was a factor i n extent of exhibited motor achievement and (b) that levels of motor achievement were predictable with the use of grouped measured personality characteristics. In summary, perhaps Cattell (30:4-7) put his finger on the problem when he wrote: There may be people around who have the physical potential to make even better Olympic records than those who have, but whose neurotic personalities would reduce them to nervous wrecks i n training and competitive situations. Generally, the personality features of athletes as reported i n the literature show them to have greater social adjustment and ascendancy, greater motivation to achieve, higher emotional s t a b i l i t y , as well, they are more outgoing, more aggressive, more dominant, and more socially confident as compared to non athletes. 35 Level of Aspiration. In a review of level of aspiration research literature, three areas of emphasis seemed pertinent to this study: the use of (a) selected groups (b) motor tasks and (c) prearranged conditions of f a i l u r e . Gould (65), i n a study found l i t t l e relationship "between exp l i c i t goal strivings and the expressed level of aspiration. Her measuring was done through a battery of six unrelated tests: a verbal test, a symbol-digit substitution test, steadiness, target cancellation and addition. Sears (126) studied academically successful and unsuccessful children as measured by their school standings. She observed that academically successful subjects tended to consistently set levels of aspiration above preceeding performances i n mathematical and verbal tasks. Academically unsuccessful subjects, however, expressed inconsistent levels of aspiration i n relation to past performances. Chapman and Volkmann (60) found that knowledge of the performance of others has no effect on the height of the level of aspiration i f the subject knows his own past level of performance i n the task. In another study, Hilgard and Sait (76) found l i t t l e effect between level of aspiration as a determinant to the next performance using the tasks of card sorting and keeping the t i p of a pointer on a revolving three-quarter brass target. She was interested i n three discrepancies: the estimate of past-performance and actual-performance, the estimate of 36 future-performance and actual-performance, and the estimate Of future-performance and actual-future-performance. Preston and Bayton (116) present the aspects of level of aspiration as three possible steps: Maximum level of aspiration - presenting the alternate Actual level of aspiration - w i l l probably achieve on the next t r i a l Minimum level of aspiration - certain he w i l l not f a l l below this level Pestinger (56) investigated the effects of reference groups and reference scores on the expressed levels of aspiration under conditions of success and f a i l u r e . In one experiment the subjects were forced to express a r e a l i s t i c level of aspiration i n terms of the score they expected to make. In the second experiment, the subjects expressed a level of aspiration i n terms of the scores they hoped to achieve. In each experiment, the subjects were given the average estimate of performance for one of three groups: high school students, college students, or graduate students. One-half of the subjects i n each experiment were made to score above the reference group's score and one-half below the reference group's score. Those subjects who behaved r e a l i s t i c a l l y (expectation group) raised their discrepancy scores when scoring below a group and lowered their discrepancy scores when scoring above a group. Their magnitude of change was directly related to the prestige value of the reference group. Those subjects who behaved u n r e a l i s t i c a l l y 37 (hope-to-achieve group) lowered their discrepancy scores when scoring above a comparison group and when placed below the graduate group. For the other two comparisons, this group raised their discrepancy scores. Tacorznski (151) experimented with the level of aspiration and maintained that the degree of effort was important and related inversely to the level of aspiration. The phrasing of the question to the subjects i n requesting his aspiration has received a considerable amount of discussion (116). Are "try" to do and "expect" to do the same(ll6)? Irwin and Mintzer (82) found a higher discrepancy score when the question was phrased what w i l l you "try" to score compared with "expect" to score. The term "expect" i s most commonly used (116). Child and Whiting (36) developed a questionnaire and administered i t to one hundred and f i f t y undergraduate men i n the attempt to analyze the determinents of the level of aspiration i n three incidents of the subjects' l i v e s . The subjects were required to write a description of the following three incidents i n their l i v e s : ( l ) an incident involving complete frustration i n that a goal was never reached (2) an incident i n which a period of frustration was f i n a l l y followed by attainment of the goal and (3) an incident i n which the subject experienced simple goal attainment without any appreciable frustration. Through an analysis of the questionnaires, the following generalizations of experimental 38 level of aspiration studies were confirmed: 1. Success resulted i n an increased level of aspiration and f a i l u r e resulted i n a decreased level of aspiration. 2. The probability of a ri s e i n the level of aspiration i s greatest when the success i s strongest, and the probability of a lowering i n the level of aspiration i s greatest when the f a i l u r e i s strongest. 3 . Shifts i n the level of aspiration are partly a function of the subject's confidence i n his a b i l i t y to attain goals. 4. The effects of fail u r e on level of aspiration are more varied than those of success. This statement was confirmed for ego-involved tasks, but not necessarily confirmed for tasks lacking ego involvement. Smith (133) investigated the influence of athletes* success and failure on the number of minutes the members of a university freshman football squad thought they would play i n the immediate game. He found that the quantitative measure of the level of aspiration varied according to the immediate accomplishment or that the amount of time the subject played i n one game influenced his level of aspiration for the next game. There was the tendency for the successful individuals to raise their level of aspiration and for the unsuccessful individuals to lower their level of aspiration. Butledge (125) u t i l i z e d a motor task involving performance on a balance beam i n which he concluded that deaf subjects had lower levels of aspiration than normal subjects. 3 9 Hoc-ley ( 7 9 ) studied different levels of aspiration between the best and poorest performances among elementary and high school g i r l s . The tasks consisted of jumping and throwing events which involved power and control. By examining the results of her study, Hooley did not find any consistent patterns i n her subjects' level of aspiration. The best high school performers and the poor elementary performers tended to set their levels of aspiration beyond their last performance and they often f a i l e d to attain their scores. The reverse was true for the poor performing high school g i r l s and the best performing elementary school g i r l s . When fail u r e was experienced, a l l groups shifted to positive levels of aspiration. After success, most of the high school g i r l s tended to make a negative bid while there was no consistent pattern among the elementary school g i r l s . Hesse ( 7 1 ) did a study on the effects of self-competition and team competition upon the motor performance of sixth, eighth, and ninth grade g i r l s . The tasks used i n the study were the standing broad jump, and thirty-yard dash. In t r i a l s involving self-competition, Hesse found that the greatest frequency of high scores occurred. There were no significant differences i n mean performance scores under any of the conditions, however. Successful subjects tended to raise or maintain their levels of aspiration after success and unsuccessful subjects tended to maintain or lower their bids after f a i l u r e . More r e a l i s t i c goals were set by the mature subjects. 40 de Cunbia Pereira (116) found two types of factors governing the setting of the level of aspiration, the situation and general cultural factor. As for the situation factor, she found that the order of presentation of the tasks weighed heavily on the success or fa i l u r e of the task and that the standing within the social class, "because of success or f a i l u r e , strongly decided the level of aspiration. Kaiser and Blake (85) attempted to produce changes i n the leve l of aspiration and to study the consequent effects of performance under conditions of a simulated group atmosphere. The task consisted of obtaining an accurate count of auditory signals that arose simultaneously from two different sources, one metal, the other wood. After each set of signals, the subject was given the following information: his own performance, the average performance of the group, the individual performances of the other four subjects i n his group, and the actual number of signals for the immediately prior series. The information given to the subject was contained i n such a way that a successful condition or a fa i l u r e condition occurred. Subjects i n the successful condition were led to believe that their counts were i n close agreement with both the group average and the actual number of sounds. Subjects i n the fa i l u r e condition were led to believe that their counts deviated markedly from both the average and the actual number of sounds. For the success condition, the level of aspiration was surpassed 41 for a l l except two sets. For the failure condition, the level of aspiration overshot the announced achievement for a l l except two sets. The results showed that the level of aspiration increased under the success condition and decreased under the f a i l u r e condition. The errors i n counting signals increased i n frequency and magnitude under the failure condition or an imparement i n performance resulted from the fa i l u r e condition. The behavior of the subjects i n the post-experimental situation indicated the willingness of the subjects i n the success condition to participate i n other studies and the displeasure of the unsuccessful subjects with their i n e f f i c i e n t performance. Davies and White (44) observed the effects of success and fa i l u r e on expressed levels of aspiration. They found that normal children's level of aspiration increased sign i f i c a n t l y more i n encountering success than emotionally disturbed children's did. When the subjects encountered f a i l u r e , the emotionally disturbed children lowered their level of aspiration more than the normal subjects did. The study showed that various abnormal physical, mental and emotional conditions of the subjects may have affected their level of aspiration i n given tasks. The select groups i n this study were high and low s k i l l e d boys as defined by their performance i n the Iowa Brace Test. 42 Kausler (87) investigated the relationship "between an expressed level of aspiration and the subsequent levels of performance on a simple arithmetic test. Both sexes of college students were selected as subjects for the study. One group, the C group, did not express a level of aspiration for the test; a second group, the L group, expressed a level of aspiration for the test; and the third group, the LR group, expressed a level of aspiration for the test i n reference to a specified minimal score that had to be obtained i f the subject were to receive credit for the test. Kausler found that the expression of the level of aspiration increased the level of performance on the test, but there was a low correlation between the magnitude of the level of aspiration and the magnitude of the level of performance. In the comparison of the groups L and LE, Kausler did not find a significant difference i n the mean performance score although the level of aspiration measure was greater i n the LR group. Price (116) investigated the relationship between the level of aspiration and the level of performance i n eight selected motor tasks: basketball throw, wall pass, S o f t b a l l throw, v e r t i c a l p u l l , jump reach, standing long jump, arm level and penny cup toss. She found evidence to indicate that a definite relationship existed between the level of aspiration and performance of the task. The relationship between attempted achievement and actual achievement was significant and positive. 43 Clarke and Clarke (41) investigated goal setting behavior and i t s relation to select physical factors of nine year old boys. Three measures of grip strength were taken for each of the ninety-eight subjects. On each of the last two performances, the subjects gave a prediction of their new scores. These predictions were based upon the f i r s t performance. The analysis of the test results showed that those boys who expressed the higher levels of aspiration were physically superior i n size and strength to those boys who f a i l e d to express either an increase or a decrease i n their aspiration discrepancy scores. The authors f e l t that the selection of the level of aspiration seemed to r e f l e c t previous success or fa i l u r e conditions which the boys associated with the task. Leshner (95) u t i l i z e d muscle action potentials as the dependent variable i n a level of aspiration experiment designed to investigate the effects of r e a l i s t i c or unrealistic aspiration statements and achievement or nonachievement of a solution for sets of figure-pattern problems on muscular tensions. The results indicated that the effect of the realism of aspiration on muscular tension depended upon the subject's success or failure and the rate of tension increase was significantly greater i n the subjects who stated expectations ( r e a l i s t i c ) and f a i l e d than i n the subjects who stated hopeful (unrealistic) aspirations and f a i l e d . For the successful subjects, the results were 44 opposite from the above results with the unrealistic aspiration group having higher muscle action potentials than the r e a l i s t i c group. Regardless of the hopefulness or expectancy of the aspiration, the tension levels produced during work decreased i n the successful subjects and increased i n the unsuccessful subjects. E l l i s ( 5 3 ) used twenty-four grade seven and twenty-four grade nine g i r l s to study the effects of knowledge of results and the level of aspiration on measures of strength and motor performances. The sample was divided into three groups. One group performed without knowledge of results, one group performed with knowledge of results, and one group with knowledge of results supplemented with verbal expression of level of aspiration. The sample was measured on grip strength and long jump. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the scores of the three groups. Strong ( 1 3 8 ) investigated the effect of six motivating conditions on the performance of sixth-grade children on seven physical fitness tests. The motivating conditions consisted of group competition, competition with classmates of equal a b i l i t y , competition with classmates of different a b i l i t y , competition with a l l classmates i n the attempt to establish a class record, competition with self, and a condition involving a stated level of aspiration for the immediate performance. The findings warranted the following conclusions: ( l ) the level of aspiration and the team 45 competition motivating conditions were more effective than other motivating conditions; (2) the boys' performance showed greater improvement than the g i r l s ' performance; (3) the v a l i d i t y of the measures of the physical fitness test were dependent upon the motivating conditions employed i n the test administration. Stephens (137) studied the relative effectiveness of combination of mental and physical practice on performance scores and level of aspiration scores for accuracy task. The results of the study revealed no significant findings. Schultz and Levitt (125) examined the stated levels of aspiration of high-skilled and low-skilled boys to determine i f they differed under prearranged conditions of fa i l u r e i n a simple motor task. Subjects were selected on the basis of their performance on a modified form of the Iowa Brace Test. The subjects used were twenty-three f i f t h and sixth grade boys. The motor task consisted of moving small blocks from one board to another. Preceding each of three t r i a l s , the subject stated how many blocks he reasonably thought he could move i n the succeeding 30-second t r i a l . After a universal performance level was established, failure was induced by systematically stopping the subject before he attained his level of aspiration. The results indicated that f a i l u r e had a significant effect on both groups. The high-skilled subjects expressed higher levels of aspiration than did low-skilled groups. 46 Boyd (22) investigated the relationship between s e l f -concept, aspiration level and competitive performance using t h i r t y - s i x members of the University of Florida track and f i e l d team. Using the sematic d i f f e r e n t i a l as a measure of self-concept, he found no s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant relationship with aspiration level and performance. However, certain trends emerged from the study. The successful performers seemed to indicate a positive self-concept. The competitive situation had l i t t l e influence upon the athletes' aspirations. It appeared that the biggest single factor influencing performance prediction was how well one was currently performing. The investigator found that i n using the same instruments with high school tracksters, there was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant positive correlation between self-concept and track and f i e l d performance. CHAPTER III METHODS AND PROCEDURE Subjects Nine male subjects from a major secondary school i n Vancouver with a mean age of 14.75 years, a mean weight of 60.22 kilograms, and a mean height of 1.731 metres were used. Experimental Design Por this investigation, the case study method as outlined by Clarke and Clarke (40) was u t i l i z e d . The primary purpose of the case study method was to provide detailed information about an individual and to note apparent trends, physiologically and psychologically. The nine subjects were given the Cattell Junior-Senior High School Personality Questionnaire "before the experiment began. A l l the subjects were then pre-tested over a period of two consecutive days i n the following physiological areas: i ) Vertical jump: three t r i a l s were administered. The results were recorded i n inches, converted to metres, and the best jump was used for comparative purposes. i i ) Isometric leg strength: hip flexion and extension, and knee flexion and extension. The testing consisted of administering three t r i a l s for each one of the four areas. The results were converted to kilograms of tension and the mean of the two best scores employed for comparative purposes. 48 i i i ) Blood analysis: Three samples of pre and post-exercise blood were taken from the subject's ear while at rest and immediately following exercise, respectively. iv) Heart rates: pre, during and post-exercise heart rates were taken for each subject during a treadmill run. The heart rates were taken at the following times: a) Resting: the last ten seconds of each minute for two minutes. b) Warm up: the last ten seconds of each minute for five minutes. c) Sitting resting: the last ten seconds of each minute for two minutes. d) Exercise: taken continuously during exercise u n t i l three consecutive recordings of 170 beats per minute were reached. e) Recovery: the last ten seconds of each minute for three minutes. Following the testing procedure, the subjects took part i n a Progressive Reinforcement Training Programme for a period of seven weeks. The i n i t i a l week was c l a s s i f i e d as a learning period. Time t r i a l s i n running 800 metres were taken prior to and following the training programme, as well as every two weeks during the entire training programme. At the end of the training programme, the subjects were retested i n each of the aforementioned variables. 49 Training Programme The training programme was conducted during the months of March, Apr i l and May, 1970. Each member of the group underwent a seven week training period i n which training schedules for each subject were ide n t i c a l . The sessions were conducted three times a week, Monday, Wednesday and Friday and were held at the Harry Logan Track at the University of Bri t i s h Columbia. There were four schedules i n the programme and each schedule was repeated six times to provide a basis for comparison of differences i n performance on different training schedules. The following are the training schedules used i n the Progressive Beinforcement Training Programme for this study (117): Schedule I 4 repetitions of 2 minutes running ( l minute easy, 1 minute fast) with 4 minutes rest between each repetition Best 6 minutes 6 x 20 seconds with 30 second jog after each Schedule II 4 repetitions of 1 minute running with V/i minute jog after each repetition Jog 4 minutes 4 x 1 minute with 1% minute jog after each repetition Jog 4 minutes Rest 10 minutes 4 x 20 seconds with 1 minute walk after each repetition Rest 3 minutes 4 x 20 seconds with 1 minute walk after each repetition Schedule III 2 repetitions of 75 seconds running with 1 minute rest after each repetition 4 minutes rest 2 x 75 seconds with 1 minute rest after each repetition 4 minutes rest 2 x 75 seconds with 1 minute rest after each repetition 10 minute rest 4-6 x 30 seconds striding, 15 seconds very fast Schedule IV 4 repetitions of 45 seconds running with 2% minute rest after each repetition 4 minute rest 2 x 45 seconds with 2$. minute rest after each repetition 8 minute rest ? x 12 seconds with 1# minute rest after each repetition 50 As stated i n the definition ( 1 1 7 ) , Progressive Reinforcement Training u t i l i z e s a form of interval running as i t s foundation. It dif f e r s from orthodox interval running as follows. In interval training, the subject sets a target time for running a specified distance. His performance i s evaluated by comparing his actual time with his target time. In Progressive Reinforcement Training the subject, with guidance as to the tot a l volume of repetitions (work) to be done, sets his "effort" for a given time and notes the distance actually covered which now becomes his "target" for following repetitions. Thus, there i s emphasis on learning to sustain effort i n training. The subject runs his effort distance with the "rhythm", "competitive effort" and same "feeling" to get the f u l l physiological effects of training. In training, distance i s equal to running time x effort. In Progressive Reinforcement Training, repeated distance i s equal to running time x an even greater effort. Thus, the athlete learns i n a more concerned effort to repeat the same distance i n the same time. It i s this "repeated effort" which i s the key and i s so evident of success or fail u r e i n Progressive Reinforcement Training. Here the subject experiences the different "effort-feelings". Por example, the subject runs an i n i t i a l time t r i a l for 800 metres with s p l i t s of (67.0;82.8). Sp l i t times of this nature are common i n novice middle distance runners. As a result of learning to sustain effort i n Progressive Reinforcement Training, his sp l i t s may be ( 6 7.2 ; 7 1.l). 5 1 Thus, the variable factors i n interval training and Progressive Reinforcement Training are time and distance, respectively. In an interval running schedule, an athlete may do a coach directed workout of 4 - 6 repetitions of 400 metres with a target time of 60 seconds for each repetition. Once this schedule i s successfully completed, a new target time of 5 9 seconds may be set, whereas i n Progressive Reinforcement Schedule I, the athlete would run 4 repetitions of 2 minutes with a target distance of 6 7 0 metres. On succeeding workouts, assuming the same conditions, the distance should increase relative to the time i f the athlete's "condition" has changed and he i s ready to go faster or further. The succeeding distances could be 680, 6 9 5 and 7 0 5 metres. Thus, the target distance would be approaching the ultimate goal of an 800 metres run i n 2 minutes. This format i s repeated with the remaining schedules II, III and IV with times of 4 5 , 60 and 7 5 seconds, respectively. Hence, for these shorter times one would expect faster than "target pace". Thus, i n having learned to sustain effort i n Progressive Reinforcement Training and having obtained confidence and results i n practice, the athlete then approaches competition armed with the comforting knowledge of what his minimal performance for 800 metres might be. 5 2 Apparatus Isometric Strength Testing. The Clarke-Schopf Cable-Tension Strength Test ( 3 9 ) was used to determine the isometric strength of the right and l e f t legs for knee flexion and extension and hip flexion and extension. A Cable Tensiometer (Model T5-6007-207-00, Serial Number 15482) manufactured by the Pacific Scie n t i f i c Company i n Anaheim, California, was used i n conjunction with a testing table t h i r t y inches high. A canvas stirrup and adjustable chain connected a 3/32 inch cable to the tested leg and to a hook on the lower support of the testing table. The Cable-Tensiometer was calibrated before both the pre-testing and the post-testing sessions at the Mechanical Engineering Department of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia and was found to be consistent with the calibration table provided by the manufacturer. Measuring Knee Angle. An adjustable steel goniometer made by the J.Sklar Manufacturing Company i n Long Island City, New York, was used to measure a l l knee angles. Heart Bate Testing. Each subject was f i t t e d with a Parks Transmitter (Model 2 7 - 1 ) attached to a belt by a metal c l i p . The subject was then prepared for the attachment of two Beckman electrodes. The electrodes were connected to the transmitter which relayed the signal via radio-frequency waves to a Parks Telemetry Receiver (Model R B - 2 7 ) . The receiver was connected to a Sanborn Viso-Cardiette Electrocardiograph (Model 5 0 0 ) . 53 Endurance Testing. A Quinton Motor Driven Treadmill (Model #24—72) manufactured by the W.E.Quinton Instrument Company i n Seattle, Washington was employed i n this study. Blood Analysis Test. A l l the analyses of the blood were carried out using the Astrup Radiometer micro equipment, Radiometer AME I. The micro equipment included a temperature-controlled microtonometer Radiometer AME I allowing for the simultaneous equilibration of two samples at both high and low carbon dioxide tensions, a temperature controlled electrode system consisting of a replaceable capillary glass electrode Radiometer G297 and a calomel reference electrode Radiometer K 4 9 7 , and a pH meter Radiometer PHM22. Carbon dioxide - oxygen gas mixtures used for the equilibration were fed into the tonometer via temperature-controlled humidifiers. The micro equipment, at a thermostatically controlled temperature of 38°C. was accurately calibrated at the beginning of each testing situation using the precision buffer solutions, Radiometer S1500, pH 6 . 8 4 0 at 38°C. and Radiometer S151O, pH 7 - 3 8 1 at 38°C. A stock of buffer solution, pH 7.190 at 38°C. was used for the routine calibration of the instrument. The blood acid-base nomogram constructed by Siggard Andersen and Engle (130) and later revised by Siggard Andersen (129) was used. The equilibrated pH values were plotted on the nomogram and the following parameters were read from the 54-nomogram: PCO21 Base Excess, Buffer Base, Standard Bicarbonate, and Total C0 2. Timing. For a l l instances of timing, an Omega Split Time stop watch, manufactured by the Omega Watch Company i n Switzerland was used. Procedures Psychological Measurements Personality Testing. The personality characteristics of each subject were determined by administering Cattell's Jr.-Sr. High School Personality Questionnaire, Form A, (Appendix B) which included measures for the characteristics shown i n Table XIV. The test was administered individually. Simple and clear instructions were printed for the examinee on the cover page of the test booklet. Although the test can be v i r t u a l l y self-administered, an attempt was made to establish a rapport with the subjects. Furthermore, the instructions were reinforced by orally stating the importance of the examinee i n answering the questionnaire frankly and honestly. The tests were handscored and the raw data prepared i n table form (Appendix D) and graphed i n sten scores (Figures 1 2 , 1 3 , 14, 1 5 , 16, 1 7 , 18, 1 9 , 20). Level of Aspiration. The level of aspiration of each subject's prediction of how he would perform on the workout t r i a l s was recorded. The percentage of achievement of each subject was also recorded. At the beginning of each workout, 55 each subject set his own goals and tried to achieve these marks. The percentage of achievement was a measure of how many-times the subjects achieved their aspired goals against the total number of t r i a l s . The results were compiled i n table form and the subjects were c l a s s i f i e d as achievers or non achievers. As well, subjective notes were made on the subjects during some of the workouts. Anthropometrical Measurements Weight and Height. A Detecto-Medic Spring Scale, made by Detecto Scales Inc., Brooklyn, New York, was used to weigh each subject who dressed i n a T-shirt, gym shorts and running shoes. Weight was recorded to the nearest half pound and converted to kilograms. An anthropometer, calibrated i n inches and attached to the Detecto-Medic Spring Scale, was employed i n measuring the erect body length from the soles of the feet, in. running shoes, to the vertex of the s k u l l . Height was measured to the nearest quarter of an inch, then converted to metres and recorded. Physiological Measurements i ) Vertical Jump Testing. (98) The subjects stood beside a v e r t i c a l jump board on a marked line i n front of the board. With the index finger of the right hand chalked, the subject reached as high as possible with heels kept on the floor and made a mark on the board with his chalked finger. Then the subject swung his arms downward and backward, taking a crouch 56 position with knees bent at approximately a right angle. The subject paused i n this position then leaped upward as high as possible, swinging his arms forward and upward, marking the board at the height of the jump. The distance from the top of the reach mark was recorded as the score. Measurement was taken to the nearest quarter inch. The subjects were allowed three t r i a l s with t h i r t y seconds rest between each. The best score was used for comparison. The administrator stood alongside the board so that the readings were taken at eye level, insuring a greater degree of accuracy. After each reading was recorded, chalk marks were erased from the board with a damp cloth. i i ) Isometric Strength Testing. Instructions for the Clarke-Schopf Cable-Tension Strength Test for knee flexion and extension and hip flexion and extension as put forth by Clarke (39) were followed e x p l i c i t l y . Measurements were taken three times for each of the four different muscle groupings with a one minute rest period between t r i a l s . The arithmetic mean of the highest two scores was calculated and used as the subject's isometric strength score after being converted to kilograms of tension. a) Knee Extension. In the knee extension, the subjects were seated on the testing table i n a backward leaning position, arms extended to the rear, hands grasping the sides of the table so the lower legs were hanging down at right angles from the thighs. A folded towel was placed under the 57 tested knee to afford padding. The stirrup was placed around the calf midway between the knee and ankle. The cable was then attached to the stirrup and table so that the subject's knee angle was exactly 120 degrees. After the knee angle was set at 120 degrees, one of the test operators held the subject's leg down while the other operator attached a tensiometer to the cable and motivated the subject to extend his knee as hard as possible. b) Knee Flexion. In knee flexion, the subject was i n a prone lying position with the patella just at the edge of the table and the subject's head resting on folded arms. The stirrup was placed around the leg midway between the knee and ankle joint. The cable was then attached to the stirrup and table so that the subject's knee on the side tested was flexed at 165 degrees. Then the subject, as above, was asked to flex his knee. c) Hip Flexion. In hip flexion, the subject was i n a supine lying position with the hip and knee of his free leg flexed comfortably with his foot resting f l a t on the table and his arms folded on his chest. The hip and knee of the leg being tested were f u l l y extended over the table s l i t . The stirrup was placed around the lower third of the thigh between the hip and knee joints and the cable attached to the stirrup di r e c t l y below the leg. d) Hip Extension. In hip extension, the test was performed i n the same manner as hip flexion except the subject 58 was i n a prone lying position with arms along his sides. L i f t i n g of the hips was prevented by bracing. i i i ) Blood Analysis Testing. Each subject had three samples of capillary blood taken from him during resting before the treadmill run and immediately after the run. In order to draw blood to the surface of the subject's ear, a hot towel was applied to the ear for a few minutes, then blood was drawn from a puncture i n the fleshy lobe of the warmed ear into three heparinized capillary tubes, Radiometer D 5 5 1 . These were sealed so that the blood was i n an anaerobic condition, and mixed with a s t i r r i n g rod and magnet to mix i n the heparin anticoagulant. By means of a micrometer, the samples of heparinized blood were equilibrated at known carbon dioxide tensions, namely 3.95% carbon dioxide, and 8.27% carbon dioxide. The pH of the blood was measured following the attainment of equilibrium. The calculated Pco2and pH values were then plotted on the Siggard-Andersen revised nomogram, a log PCO2/PH diagram. The position of the PCO2/PH line defined the acid-base parameters of the blood, other than that of the actual PCO2 of the blood which was read directly from the nomogram at the point corresponding to the actual pH of the blood. iv) Heart Rate Testing. Each subject was f i t t e d with a Park's Transmitter (Model 27-1) attached to a belt by a metal c l i p . The subject was then prepared for the attachment of 5 9 two Beckman electrodes. The skin areas were cleansed with rubbing alcohol and hair was shaved from the chest area to provide a good contact and therefore prevent a r t i f a c t s . Adhesive discs were attached to the electrodes and chloride j e l l y was forced into the holes of the electrodes with a hypodermic syringe to assure a better contact. The electrodes were placed i n position and secured with adhesive tape, one strapped to the manubrium of the sternum and the other to the f i f t h intercostal space to the l e f t of the sternum i n the midclavicular l i n e . The electrodes were then connected to the transmitter and to prevent accidental pulling, the excess electrode wire was secured with adhesive tape to the dorsal region of the subject. From the record of the electrocardiogram, which i s a graphic record of certain electrophysiological phenomena manifested by the heart during the phases of contraction and relaxation transmitted through the electrocardiograph, the heart rate was calculated i n beats per minute. Using the aforementioned method, the heart rates were recorded at specific times. These were: 1) Resting, s i t t i n g heart rate. Heart rate was taken during the last ten seconds of each minute for two minutes. 2 ) Warm up heart rate. Heart rate was taken while the subject walked for five minutes at a zero percent grade at a speed of 5 . 5 miles per hour. Heart rate was recorded for the last ten seconds of each minute 6 0 for five minutes. 3) Two minute s i t t i n g rest. Heart rate was taken while the subject was seated, and was recorded for the last ten seconds of each minute rest for two minutes. 4) Exercise heart rate. Heart rate was taken continuously during a run at 10 miles per hour with a zero percent grade u n t i l three consecutive recordings of 170 beats per minute were reached. 5) Recovery heart rate. Heart rate was taken while the subject was seated during the last ten seconds of each minute during recovery. The heart rate from the E.C.G. was determined by the measurement of the distance of three consecutive heart beat recordings on the graph paper. This was based on the formula:, heart rate = paper speed x 60 x 3 number of millimeters Most graphic recorders run at a speed of 25 millimeters per second, and three beats i n 25 millimeters represent a heart rate of 180 beats per minute. A table l i s t i n g a l l heart rates from 55-265 beats per minute can be found i n Appendix F. Performance Time. Performance time was the time taken from the beginning of the exercise to the termination of the exercise recorded to the nearest tenth of a second. Exercise was terminated for a l l subjects at a heart rate of 170 beats per minute - three similar sonsecutive heart rate readings of 170 beats per minute. 61 Time T r i a l Testing. 800 metre time t r i a l s were taken prior to, every second week during training, and following the entire training programme. Thus, there were four 800 metre time t r i a l s i n a l l . Times were recorded to the nearest 1/10 of a second and 400 metre s p l i t times were noted. A l l the time t r i a l s were performed at the Harry Logan Track at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Analysis of Data The data collected from a l l testing was recorded and analyzed as case studies for the various subjects. The data was recorded such that one could note the change i n each subject. Graphs and figures were employed to i l l u s t r a t e the individual and group effects of pre and post-training values. In this study, descriptive tables were compiled. A t test for correlated samples was used to determine the significance of the difference between the means of the pre-training and post-training physiological variables and to determine i f significant changes within the variables took place i n the group of runners. CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Results Descriptive S t a t i s t i c s The s t a t i s t i c s descriptive of the sample population have been summarized i n Table III. The raw data for a l l observations are presented i n detail i n Appendix D. TABLE III Means, Standard Deviation and Ranges of the Sample (N=9) Variable Mean Standard Range Deviation Age (yrs.) 14.75 2.47 14.42 - 15.08 Height (m.) 1.731 0.07 1.556 - 1.790 Weight (kgs.) 60.22 7-71 40.36 - 67-02 The subjects were i n the age range of 14.42 to 15.08 years, with a mean age of 14.75 years - 2.47 months. The mean height was 1.731 - 0.07 metres, with a range of 1.556 to 1.790 metres. The mean weight was 60.22 - 7*71 kilograms, with a range of 40.36 to 67.02 kilograms. Personality Factors A B C D E P G H I J 0 Mean Boys Form A Norms (Paw Scores) 9-5 7-3 9.7 10.1 9 .7 10.5 10.9 10.1 7.6 8.4 10.0 10.2. 10.5 8.9 Mean Scores of Sample (Raw Scores) 8.5 7.4 11.2 10.1 10.7 11.8 12.0 10.5 7.3 10.9 8.6 11.6 11.4 8.6 P r o f i l e s (Sten Scores) A B C D E F G H I J 0 °-2 % 4^ 10 . 9 . 8 . 7 • 6 . 5 -4 . 3 . 2 . 1 . FIGURE I MEAN PERSONALITY SCORES OF THE SAMPLE 64 Personality Factors The s t a t i s t i c s of the Cattell's Junior-Senior High School Personality Questionnaire Form A, 1963 have been summarized i n Table IV. The raw data for a l l observations are presented i n detail i n Appendix D. TABLE IV Personality Factor Questionnaire Sta t i s t i c s (N=9) Personality Mean Standard Range Factor Raw Deviation Scores A 8.5 5.03 2-16 B 7.4 1.22 5- 9 C 11.2 3.39 7-17 D 10.1 4.25 3-19 E 10.7 4.44 4-20 F 11.8 2.42 5-16 G 12.0 2.40 7-15 H 10.5 2.36 7-15 I 7.3 1.62 5-11 J 10.9 1.79 9-14 0 8.6 2.38 7-12 2^ % 11.6 2.78 8-18 11.4 3.23 4-15 8.6 2.40 3-12 Percentage of Achievement The percentage of achievement for each athlete during the workouts was calculated. This was done by taking the number of successful t r i a l s divided by the t o t a l number of t r i a l s expected to be accomplished for that individual, excluding the workouts missed. The results were then converted into 65 percentage as shown i n Table V. The raw data for percentage of achievement are presented i n detail i n Appendix D. TABLE V Percentage of Achievement (N=9) Subject Number of Successful Trials Total Number of Trials Expected Percentage Achieved R.D. 74 128 57.81 S.V. 122 194 62.88 CG. 161 186 80.65 G.N. 150 200 75.00 I.P. 211 268 78.73 S.C. 135 186 72.58 N.V. 164 216 75.92 D.M. 161 222 77.03 J.S. 154 212 72.60 Group Means 148 201 72.57 Test of Significance For Vertical Jump A " t " test for correlated samples was used to determine the significance of the difference between the means of the subjects pre and post-test scores, (55). The significance of the difference between the scores was determined at the .05 level of significance. The results are l i s t e d i n Table VI. 6 6 TABLE VI Comparison of Pre and Post-training Means For The Vertical Jump (m.) (N -9) Test N Mean Mean Variance df t-ratio X l X 2 SD2 ( N - 1 ) Vertical 9 Jump . 5 1 4 . 5 2 3 . 7 4 3 8 . 0 7 6 There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant difference at the .05 level of significance for the v e r t i c a l jump scores as indicated, i n Table VI. Comparison of Means of Strength Scores A " t " test between the mean of the means of the strength scores was performed. The mean of the means for the sample was found by calculation of the means of the two highest t r i a l s for each subject. The means were then summed and divided by N . A t value equal to or greater than 2 . 3 1 at the .05 level of significance was u t i l i z e d . 67 TABLE VII Comparison of Pre and Post-Training Means for the Strength Variables (kgs.) (N=9) Test N Mean Mean Variance df t-ratio X2 SD2 (N-1) Lt. Knee Flexion 9 16.88 23.38 10.89 8 5-69* Et. Knee Flexion 9 17.49 27.22 21.61 8 4.41* Lt. Knee Extension 9 91.13 101.59 26.52 8 2.07 Et. Knee Extension 9 103.64 109.09 10.24 8 2.15 Lt. Hip Flexion 9 69.11 77.32 4.80 8 2.58* Et. Hip Flexion 9 79.09 89.99 7.92 8 5-30* Lt. Hip Extension 9 44.54 68.92 17.32 8 7.32* Et. Hip Extension 9 50.86 73.63 27.16 8 4.98* * t - 2.31; s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant at the .05 level of significance. With a t-ratio - 2.31 at .05 level of significance, the following strength scores were s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant: Left and Eight Knee Flexion; Left and Eight Hip Flexion; Left and Eight Hip Extension. Treadmill Performance Times The means and standard deviations of the pre and post-training performance times on the treadmill test were calculated and a summary of results has been presented i n Table VIII. The data for the observations have been presented i n detail i n Appendix D. 68 TABLE VIII Pre and Post-Treadmill Performance Times (sec.) (N=9) T r i a l Mean Standard Range (sec.) Deviation Pre-training 64.9 24.9 32.2 - 120.0 Post-training 203.6 41.3 111.8 - 246.5 The means of the pre-training performance time for the sample was 64.9 - 24.9 seconds. The mean of the post-training performance time for the sample was 203.6 - 41.3 seconds. A " t " test was performed on the mean of the means for the sample's performance times, and a t value of 2.31 was required for a s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant difference at the .05 level of significance. TABLE IX Significance of the Difference Between the Means of the Treadmill performance Times of the Sample (sec.) (N=9) Test Mean Mean Variance df t-ratio X l X2 SD2 (N-1) Treadmill Run 64.9 203.6 221.36 8 9.02* * t - 2.31; s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant at the .05 level of significance. 69 Test of Significance of Time Trials The means and standard deviations of the time t r i a l s for each t r i a l were calculated, and a summary of the results i s presented i n Table X. The data for the observations are presented i n Appendix D. TABLE X Mean, Standard Deviation and Ranges of the Time Trials of the Sample (min.) U=9)  T r i a l Mean Standard Range Deviation 1 2:36.9 3.63 2:29.8 - 2:43.9 2 2:32.4 4.32 2:28.3 - 2:43.3 3 2:29.6 4.39 2:26.3 - 2:39-9 4 2:24.7 4.39 2:18.3 - 2:32.8 The means of the time t r i a l s for the sample were 2:36.9 - 3-63, 2:32.4 - 4.32, 2:29-6 - 4.39 and 2:24.7 ± 4.39 seconds respectively. A " t " test was performed on the mean of the means for the sample's time t r i a l s , and a t ratio of 2.31 was required for a s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant difference at the .05 level of significance. 70 2:45 -2:42 2:39 ~ 2:36 -2:33 2:30 -2:27 " 2:24 -2:21 -2:18 v2:36.9 2:32.4 2:29.6 2:24.7 2 3 Tr i a l s (No.) -r 4 FIGURE 2 MEAN TIMES FOR 800 METRE RUN 2:39 2:36 -2:33 ' 2:30 -2:27 -2:24 -2:21 -2:18 Key : Mean 71 Subject 2:29.8 2:18.3 1 2 3 Tria l s (No.) FIGURE 3 INDIVIDUAL TIME VERSUS MEAN TIME FOR 800 METRE RUN - SUBJECT R.D. 4 2 : 3 9 -2 : 3 6 -2 : 3 3 -2 : 3 0 -2:27 -2:24 -2:21 -2:18 Key : Mean Subject 2:34.8 2:32.4 2 3 Trials (No.) T 4 FIGURE 4 INDIVIDUAL TIME VERSUS MEAN TIME FOR 800 METRE RUN - SUBJECT S.V. T r i a l s (No.) FIGURE 5 INDIVIDUAL TIME VERSUS MEAN TIME FOR 800 METRE RUN - SUBJECT C.G. 2:39 " 2:36 -2:33 2:30 -2:27 -2:24 -2:21 -2:18 2:38.2 Key : Mean Subject •2:21.8 2 3 T r i a l s (No.) i 4 FIGURE 6 INDIVIDUAL TIME VERSUS MEAN TIME FOR 800 METRE RUN - SUBJECT G.N. 2:42 -2 : 39 -2 : 3 6 -2 :33 -2 : 3 0 -2 : 27 • •2:24 -2:21 -2:18 .« 73 Key : Mean Subject 2 : 3 1 . 6 2:24.3 T" 2 T" 3 4 T r i a l s (Ko.) FIGURE 7 INDIVIDUAL TIME VERSUS MEAN TIME FOR 800 METRE RUN - SUBJECT I.P. 2:24-2:21 -2:18 -i 1 1 1 r 1 2 3 4 Tria l s (No.) FIGURE 8 INDIVIDUAL TIME VERSUS MEAN TIME FOR 800 METRE RUN - SUBJECT S.C. 2:39 -2:36 ~ 2:33 2:30 2:27 " 2:24 -2:21 2:18 .2:38.8 Key : -- Mean 74 Subject 1 2 3 T r i a l s (No.) FIGURE 9 INDIVIDUAL TIME VERSUS MEAN TIME FOR 800 METRE RUN - SUBJECT N.W. 2:21.3 4 2:45 • 2:42 2:39-2:36" 2:33" 2:30 2:27-2:24-2:21" 2.18* 2:43.9 Key : Mean Subject 2:32.8 1 , , 1 2 3 Trials (No.) FIGURE 10 INDIVIDUAL TIME VERSUS MEAN TIME FOR 800 METRE RUN - SUBJECT D.M. 75 • 2:45 2:42 -2:39 " 2:36 -2:33 2:30 -2:27 -2:24 -2:21 -2:18 Key : -— Mean Subject 2:37.5 - T — 1 2:24.5 3 T r i a l s (No.) FIGURE 11 INDIVIDUAL TIME VERSUS MEAN TIME FOR 800 METRE RUN - SUBJECT J.S. 76 TABLE XI Significance of the Difference Between the Means of the Time Trials of the Sample (min.) (N=9) Trials N Mean Mean Variance df t-ratio SD2 (N-1) Tl versus T2 9 2:36.9 2 :32.4 9.00 8 4.25* T2 versus T3 9 2:32.4 2 :29.6 7.99 8 1.85 T3 versus T4 9 2:29.6 2 :24.7 11.30 8 4.91* T l versus T4 9 2:36.9 2 :24.7 33.21 8 6.84* * t - 2.31; s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant at the .05 level of significance. With a t-ratio - 2 .31, the following time t r i a l s showed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant improvement at the .05 level of significance: T l versus T2; T3 versus T4; Tl versus T4. Comparison of Acid-Base Parameters The s t a t i s t i c s descriptive of the pre and post-training acid-base parameters have been summarized i n Table XII. The raw data for a l l observations are presented i n detail i n Appendix D. 77 TABLE XII Means and Standard Deviations of the Acid-Base Parameters Por A r t e r i a l Blood (at 37°C.) (N=9) Blood Acid-Base Pre-training Post-training Parameters Before After Before After Exercise Exercise Exercise Exercise pH , 7.307 . 7.241 7.265 . 7.157 - 0.028 - 0.060 i 0.020 - 0.027 Pco~ (mm. Hg.) 40.0 M 35-5 M 34.50 . 29.4 * - 6.51 - 4.23 - 5.22 - 5.74-Standard . 19-50 , 15.5 . 16.40 . 12.3 Bicarbonate - 0.291 - 1.78 - 0.178 - 1.14 (m. equ./L.) Base Excess 6.50 12.2 . 11.4 19.3 (m. equ./L.) - 1.46 - 3.08 ± 1.50 - 3-33 Buffer Base , 46.2 . 38.8 .41.4 . 34.5 (m. equ./L.) - 2.81 - 4.76 - 6.28 ± 1.92 78 TABLE XIII Comparison of Mean pH Values For The Sample (N=9) Variable Standard Deviation SD 2 df (N-1) t-ratio Pre-training Before Exercise versus Pre-training After Exercise 0.005338 8 2.67* Post-training Before Exercise versus Post-training After Exercise 0.001575 8 7-70* Pre-training Before Exercise versus Post-training Before Exercise 0.00880 8 1.33 Pre-training After Exercise versus Post-training After Exercise 0.002453 8 5.55* Pre-training Before Exercise versus Post-training After Exercise 0.001691 8 10.55* Pre-training After Exercise versus Post-training Before Exercise 0.007335 8 0.80 * t — 2.31; s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant at the .05 level of significance. The comparison of pre and post-exercise mean values of the variables taken from Table XII and Table XIII showed that the following were s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant: pre-training before exercise versus post-training before exercise; pre-training after exercise versus post-training after exercise; pre-training after exercise versus post-training before exercise. 79 Case Study Reports  Subject: R.D. Age.: 15.08 years Height: 1.790 metres Weight: 63.63 kilograms The results of R.D.'s personality p r o f i l e indicated that he scored highest among the group on Factor A. He obtained a sten score of nine which i s obtained by only 4.4 percent of the teenage population. This factor describes him as outgoing, warm hearted, easy going and participating. R.D. also scored high on Factors B and J which indicated him to be more intelligent, abstract thinking, bright and doubting, obstructive, i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , internally restrained, reflective and unwilling to act. His sten score of eight on both factors places him i n a group of which only 9.2 percent of the teenage population obtain this score. On Factor B, he scored higher than the remainder of the sample. R.D. scored above the mean of the teenage population on Factors F, G, Q4. Obtaining sten scores of seven on each of the preceding factors indicated R.D. to be happy-go-lucky, impulsively l i v e l y , conscientious, persevering, tense and frustrated. On Factor 0, which revealed an individual to be placid, self assured, confident and serene, subject R.D. obtained a sten score of four which was below the teenage mean. On the remaining Factors D, E, H, I, Q2 and Q3, the subject remained within the mean range of the teenage population. Personality Factors A B C D E G H 0 Q3 0-2 ^3 Mean Boys Form A Norms (Paw Scores) 9.5 7.3 9.7 10.1 9.7 10.5 10.9 10.1 7.6 8.4 10.0 10.2 10.5 Mean Scores of Sample (Raw Scores) 8 .5 7.4 11.2 10.1 10.7 H.8 12.0 10.5 7*3 10.9 8.6 11.6 11.4 Prof i l e s (Sten Scores) A B C D E F G H I J 0 Q 2 Q , 10 9 FIGURE 12 INDIVIDUAL STEN SCORES - SUBJECT R.D. 81 Subject R.D. did not aspire to do his best i n the training program. He was at a possible disadvantage because he was i n i t i a l l y , the fastest runner i n the program. He tended to run i n a manner which was reflective of how he f e l t and thus did not partake i n every t r i a l or workout. R.D. missed 11 out of 21 workouts and had a percentage of achievement of 57.8. Of the 11 missed, five were because of the f l u , three because of sore knees and three because he did not f e el like running on those particular days. R.D. generally had a poor attitude during the workouts. He complained that he had too far to run. This was true but at the same time he was better than the rest and covered more distance i n the same amount of time. From an observer's point of view, i t appeared that R.D. was l i v i n g on his past performances. He knew how good he was and r e a l l y did not do any more than he had to i n order to be the best i n the group. When asked a series of questions, R.D. replied, "I'm not worried about the workouts I missed. I know I could do more and improve more i f I trained harder. I don't li k e hard work so I don't put a f u l l effort into each workout". On the v e r t i c a l jump, R.D. obtained an i n i t i a l score of 0.546 metres. At the end of training he had improved 0.012 metres and had a f i n a l score of 0.558 metres. On the strength variable, R.D.'s greatest gain was on the Left and Right Hip Extension. His individual percentage was 55.0 and 58.4 percent respectively. On the Left and 82 Eight Knee Flexion scores, his improvement was 44.6 and 50.4 percent. From the i n i t i a l to f i n a l t r i a l s , R.D. improved 4.69 and 13.9 percent on the Left and Right Hip Flexion respectively. The subject made l i t t l e or no gain on the Left and Right Knee Flexion with improvement percentages of 0.00 and 1.92 respectively. In a l l strength measures, R.D.*s scores were above the mean on both the i n i t i a l and f i n a l t r i a l s . R.D. recorded the best i n i t i a l score on the treadmill performance run. His score of 120 seconds was well above the mean of 64.9 - 24.9 seconds. On the f i n a l run the subject ranked third i n the group with a f i n a l score of 238.0 seconds which i s s t i l l above the mean of 206.3 - 41.3 seconds. However, his improvement of 118 seconds was below the mean improvement of 141.3 seconds. On the time t r i a l variable, R.D. showed that he was the fastest i n the sample with an i n i t i a l time of 2 minutes, 29.8 seconds (67.0; 82.8). However on the second time t r i a l , the subject hobbled i n at 2 minutes, 31-7 seconds (64.7; 87.0). This increase i n time of 1.9 seconds may be accounted for by the fact that the subject had injured his leg the previous Sunday and could not keep up with the pace set i n the t r i a l . Between the second and third time t r i a l s , the subject competed for his school i n a series of t r i meets at Eric Hamber School i n Vancouver and recorded times i n the 440 of 59.8, 58.8, 57.5 seconds and 26.3 seconds i n the 220 -winning a l l four events. 83 In the third time t r i a l , R.D. ran 2 minutes, 26.3 seconds (74.7; 71.6). The subject did not run this race evenly as he ran a poor f i r s t lap and had to make up i n the second lap with 300 yards to go. His improvement of 5.4 seconds made him the fastest runner i n the sample at this time. In the Vancouver Inter - High School eliminations, R.D. competed i n the 440 and placed second with a time of 57.8 seconds. In the f i n a l time t r i a l , R.D. was motivated by two factors; this was the last time t r i a l , and also he had previously aspired to break 2 minutes, 20 seconds for 800 metres. He ran 2 minutes, 18.3 seconds (67.2; 71.1). This was an improvement of 8 seconds over t r i a l three and a total improvement of 11.5 seconds which was the fourth highest improvement i n the sample. If subject R.D. had trained hard i n practice and made a l l the workouts, he possibly could have reduced his time down to 2 minutes, 10 seconds for 800 metres. The subject's acid-base parameters followed the response of the sample. The tendency of the sample was to decrease following pre and post-training. R.D.'s pH went from a pre-training value of 7-296 before exercise to a value of 7.240 after exercise. His post-training pH before exercise was 7.273 and decreased to 7.135 after exercise. The subject's values were a l l near the mean of the sample. 84 Subject: S.V. Age.: 14.41 years Height: 1.556 metres Weight: 40.36 kilograms This subject tended to be an emotionally stable, excitable and assertive individual as a result of his scores on Factors C, D and E. On these scores, S.V. obtained sten scores of eight which placed him among 9.2 percent of the teenage population. He was above the teenage population mean on Factors F, 0 and Q4 with a sten score of seven. This individual tended to be happy-go-lucky, apprehensive and tense. He scored highest i n the sample on apprehensiveness and tenseness. His p r o f i l e indicated him to be below the mean on Factor B, (lower scholastic mental capacity), with a sten score of three. About 9.2 percent of the teenage population obtain this score. S.V. also tended to be more tough minded, se l f - r e l i a n t and r e a l i s t i c than the other members i n the sample. On the remaining Factors G, H and Q2, the subject did not deviate from the mean of the sample. Subject S.V. was not too conscientious about his participation i n the program. He missed 8 out of 21 practices and had a percentage achievement of 62.8. During the workouts many times he lacked enthusiasm i n achieving his goals. One reason for this poor attitude was that he r e a l l y did not want to run. He did not know why he was i n the program i n the f i r s t place. He said he was not working as hard as he could i n the Personality Factors A B C D E P G H 0 Q3 °-2 ^ ^4 Mean Boys Porm A Norms (Raw Scores) 9 . 5 7 - 3 9 - 7 10.1 9 . 7 10 . 5 10 . 9 10.1 7.6 8.4 10.0 10.2 10.5 8 . 9 Mean Scores of Sample (Raw Scores) 8 . 5 7.4 11.2 10.1 10 . 7 11.8 12.0 10 . 5 7 . 3 10 . 9 8.6 11.6 11.4 8.6 Pro f i l e s (Sten Scores) A B C D E F G H I J O 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 FIGURE 1 3 INDIVIDUAL STEN SCORES - SUBJECT S.V. Co 86 workouts although he f e l t he could increase his distances, and i n the sprints he f e l t that he was near his maximum. However, as the program neared the end, he gave i t a good effort and became perturbed when he f a i l e d . S.V. said that he did not "like to f a i l " . In the ve r t i c a l jump, S.V. increased his i n i t i a l jump of metres by 0.025 metres to obtain a f i n a l score of 0.457 metres. Both scores were below the mean of the sample. On the strength scores, the subject started out at a low level on a l l scores but at the end of the program had increased a l l scores. On the Left and Right Knee Flexion scores, S.V. improved 5 1 .8 and 9 1 .3 percent. The Left and Right Hip Extension improved 78.8 and 72.5 percent. The improvement on the Left and Right Knee Extension and Left and Right Hip Flexion scores were: 20.3; 17-7; 4 . 8 9 ; and 21.7 percent respectively. Despite the improvement, S.V. was s t i l l below the mean i n a l l measures. On the treadmill performance run, S.V. showed the least improvement i n the sample. His i n i t i a l time of 51•2 seconds was well below the sample mean of 64.9 seconds. His f i n a l time showed that he had increased his performance time to 111.8 seconds which was s t i l l below the sample mean. His overall improvement of 60 seconds was well below the sample mean of 141.3 seconds. This subject, i n the time t r i a l s , showed the least improvement of any member of the sample with an overall time 87 improvement of 2.4 seconds. He improved s l i g h t l y on h i s f i r s t two time t r i a l s with times of 2 minutes, 34.8 seconds (78.7; 76.1) and 2 minutes, 33.8 seconds (72.7; 81.1). The improvement "between t r i a l s one and two was one second. In t r i a l three, he increased h i s time by 0.4 seconds with a time of 2 minutes, 34.2 seconds (74.7; 79.5). The f i n a l time t r i a l showed the subject running 800 metres i n 2 minutes, 32.4 seconds (71.7; 80.7). This was an improvement of 1.8 seconds over t r i a l three. On the acid-base parameters the subject followed the trend of the sample. His pH values were a l l near the mean. The subject's r e s t i n g pH before t r a i n i n g was 7.292 and a f t e r exercise was 7.260. The p o s t - t r a i n i n g r e s t i n g value was 7.268 and a f t e r exercise 7-202. 88 Subject: C.G. Age: 14 . 5 0 years Height: 1.803 metres Weight: 64 . 0 0 kilograms The subject's personality p r o f i l e indicated that C.G. was the most assertive, independent, aggressive and stubborn person i n the sample. He obtained a sten score of ten on Factor F. A score of this nature i s attained by only 2.3 percent of the teenage population. He was also the highest i n the group on Factor F which describes him as being happy-go-lucky, impulsively l i v e l y , gay and enthusiastic. His sten score of nine i s reached by only 4.4 percent of the teenage population. C.G. ranked high i n intelligence (B) and i n self-sufficiency (02). The subject was further characterized by tending to be out-going, warm-hearted (A), emotionally stable with high ego strength (C), and venturesome(H). The subject did not deviate from the mean on Factors D ( e x c i t a b i l i t y versus phlegmatic), G (conscientious versus expediency), J (doubting versus vigorous) as he had a sten score of six. On Factors I (tough minded versus tender minded), 0 (placid versus apprehensiveness), and Q2 (group dependency versus self sufficiency), the subject obtained sten scores of f i v e . C.G. was the highest achiever i n the sample with an achievement percentage of 80 . 6 5 . Despite missing six workouts out of twenty one, C.G. usually gave a good effort. In spite Personality Factors A B C D E F G H I J 0 0^ % • % Mean Boys Form A Norms (Raw Scores) 9.5 7-3 9.7 10.1 9.7 10.5 10.9 10.1 7.6 8.4 10.0 10.2 10.5 8.9 Mean Scores of Sample (Raw Scores) 8.5 7.4 11.2 10.1 10.7 11.8 12.0 10.5 7.3 10.9 8.6 11.6 11.4 8.6 Prof i l e s (Sten Scores) A B C D E F G H I J 0 Q 2 % Q4 FIGURE 14 co vO INDIVIDUAL STEN SCORES - SUBJECT C.G. 9 0 of th i s , he f e l t that he was not working to capacity and could aspire to do better. He set his goals so that he could beat subject R.D. on the f i n a l time t r i a l . As he achieved his goals, subject C.G. tended to re-evaluate his goals and to set them higher for each succeeding workout. With this attitude toward his goals and the training program, subject C.G. could be classed as a positive achiever. This subject improved his v e r t i c a l jump score 0.069 metres (2.75 inches) which was the greatest increase i n the sample. C.G.'s i n i t i a l jump was 0.464 metres which was below the sample mean, and his f i n a l effort was 0.546 metres which was above the sample mean. Subject C.G. improved on a l l of his strength scores. The greatest improvement came i n the Left and Right Knee Flexion scores - 58-8 and 53•8 percent improvement respectively. The least improvement came i n the Right Knee Extensions (5«06 percent) and Left Hip Flexion (2.25 percent) scores. Improvement percentages of 15-4, 15«3* 23.2, and 47.1 came on Left Knee Extension, Right Hip Flexion, Left Hip Extension, and Right Hip Extension, respectively. Subject C.G. had the shortest pre-training time of 32.2 seconds on the treadmill performance run. At the conclusion of the study, the subject had the second longest time - 240.2 seconds. His improvement of 218 seconds was the highest i n the sample. This was possibly due to the subject's efforts i n the workouts by always completing the endurance t r i a l s . 91 In the time t r i a l s , C.G.'s performance was varied. Overall, he had the greatest improvement within the sample -17.7 seconds. His i n i t i a l time of 2 minutes, 37*5 seconds (79«7; 77-8) was above the sample mean of 2 minutes, 36.9 seconds. On time t r i a l two, the subject showed a rapid improvement with a time of 2 minutes, 28.8 seconds (73.7; 75.1), an improvement of 8.7 seconds. His pattern was interrupted when he ran a dismal third t r i a l i n 2 minutes, 33-3 seconds (76.7; 86.6) which was a loss of 3.5 seconds and was significantly above the mean at this point. In the Vancouver Inter-High School Eliminations, C.G. recorded a time of 26.3 seconds for 220 yards. On the f i n a l time t r i a l , G.G. regained his composure and recorded a time of 2 minutes, 19.8 seconds (69.7; 70.1), second only to subject R.D. i n the sample. His improvement from t r i a l s three to four was 13.5 seconds. On the acid-base parameters, C.G. did not follow the general trend of the sample. On the pre-training pH parameter, C.G.'s resting pH was 7-305 and after exercise i t was recorded as 7.312, an increase of 0.007. His post exercise pH was considerably above the mean of the sample. His post-training values followed the sample trend. However, his resting pH of 7.230 was lower than the sample mean of 7*265 and his post exercise pH of 7*185 was higher than the group mean of 7*157-9 2 Subject: G.N. Age: 1 4 . 6 7 years Height: 1 . 6 8 9 metres Weight: 5 6 . 0 8 kilograms G.N.'s personality p r o f i l e indicated him to be a venturesome, socially bold, uninhibited and spontaneous person. Furthermore, he was se l f - s u f f i c i e n t and resourceful. These characteristics are descriptive of Factors H and Q 3 . The subject obtained the highest scores of the sample on these two Factors. His sten score of eight on these two Factors placed him within 9 * 2 percent of the teenage population. In addition, his results revealed him to be more emotionally stable and calm (Factor C) and he was not affected by his feelings or easily upset. C.G. tended to be more happy-go-lucky, l i v e l y , gay, enthusiastic and was least l i k e l y to be sober, prudent or serious. He appeared to be more conscientious (Factor G) with a strong super ego strength. He was also s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , preferred his own decisions, and was resourceful as opposed to a group-dependency. The subject scored low on Factor A which indicated that he was more reserved, detached, c r i t i c a l , and cool as opposed to being outgoing, warmhearted and participating. On this Factor, a sten score of three placed him among.9.2 percent of the teenage population. On Factor 0 , he obtained the lowest score of the sample. A sten score of two, which he obtained, was obtained by only 2 . 3 percent of the teenage population. Factor 0 described a placid, self assured, confident, serene individual as opposed to an Personality Pactors A B C D E P G H I J 0 0^ % Mean Boys Form A Norms (Paw Scores) 9.5 7-3 9.7 10.1 9.7 10.5 10.9 10.1 7.6 8.4 10.0 10.2 10.5 8.9 Mean Scores of Sample (Raw Scores) 8.5 7.4 11.2 10.1 10.7 11.8 12.0 10.5 7*3 10.9 8.6 11.6 11.4 8.6 Pro f i l e s (Sten Scores) FIGURE 15 INDIVIDUAL STEN SCORES - SUBJECT G.N 94-apprehensive, worrying, depressive and troubled individual. On Factor D (phlegmatic versus excitable), H (shy versus venturesome), I (toughminded versus tenderminded), J (vigorous versus doubting), and Q4- (relaxed versus tense), the subject remained within the mean. Concerning level of aspiration, G.N. tended to aspire high and was successful for the most part. As he accomplished his goals each workout, he set further goals which he knew he could attain. He had an achievement percentage of 75 on sixteen workouts. G.N. worked very hard with effort and determination. His attitude was always positive toward each t r i a l and workout. While running, he seemed to push everyone else and never hesitated taking the lead while running or forcing the pace. He ran with 'a lot of guts' as on the schedules he seemed to be reaching somewhere near his maximum with every t r i a l . In the v e r t i c a l jump, he improved his performance by 0.025 metres. He recorded an i n i t i a l jump of 0.521 metres and a f i n a l score of 0.54-6 metres. His i n i t i a l and f i n a l scores were above the sample mean. G.N.'s strength scores did not improve as much as other subjects and i n two cases, the subject obtained lower scores than his original scores. On Left and Right Knee Flexion, the subject improved 22.2 and 27.1 percent. He f a i l e d to show any improvement on the Left and Right Knee Extension test with a change i n scores of -2.62 and -0.89 percent. This could have been due to errors i n experimental procedure or the fact 95 that the subject had a "bad" day. His improvement on Left and Right Hip Flexion and on Left and Right Hip Extension scores, was 13.3? 15*6, 32.8 and 17.4 percent respectively. On the i n i t i a l treadmill performance, this subject had the second best score - 94.8 s e c . After the training, G.N. obtained a score of 246.5 sec. which was a 151-7 sec. improvement and the best performance time for a l l subjects. A l l his scores were considerably above the mean. It must be noted that on the subject's f i n a l treadmill run his heart rate reached 170 at 4 minutes, 6.5 seconds, but he continued to run on the treadmill for twelve minutes and his heart rate never surpassed 173. In the 800 metre t r i a l s , G.N. obtained the third best improvement i n the sample - 16.4 seconds. He improved very steadily from his original time t r i a l of 2 minutes, 38.2 seconds (76.7; 81.5). This score was sl i g h t l y above the sample mean time of 2 minutes 36.9 seconds. However, G.N. ran below the mean time on the second t r i a l , recording a time of 2 minutes, 31.8 seconds (70.7; 81.5) which was an improvement of 5-1 seconds. An improvement of 3.5 seconds was made on t r i a l three with a time of 2 minutes, 28.3 seconds (72.7; 75-6). On his f i n a l time t r i a l , G.N. ranked fourth i n the sample with a time of 2 minutes, 21.8 seconds (68.2; 75.6) -an improvement of 5.6 seconds. One week later, competing for his High School i n the Vancouver Inter-High School eliminations, he recorded the best time of any member of the sample i n the 96 800 metre event - 2 minutes, 16.5 seconds (65.0; 71.5). This time resulted i n a fourth place f i n i s h for the juvenile age group and appeared to indicate that he was now the fastest member of the group and had improved a total of 22.5 seconds from his i n i t i a l 800 metre t r i a l at the beginning of the Progressive Reinforcement Program. As far as his acid-base parameters were concerned, G.N. did not follow the pattern set by the sample. His pre-training resting pH was 7.260 which was well below the sample mean of 7.307, and his post exercise value rose to 7*271, again well above the group mean of 7*24-1. On the post-training, G.N. followed the pattern of the group as his pH scores dropped to values of 7.255 and 7*115 for resting and post-exercise respectively. 97 Subject: I.P. Age: 14.75 years Height: 1.708 metres Weight: 60.90 kilograms This subject might be described as being very reserved, detached, c r i t i c a l and cool as opposed to outgoing, warm and easy going. He obtained a sten score of two on Factor A which put him among 4.4 percent of the teenage population. On Factor C, the subject had a maximum sten score of ten which described him as being very emotionally stable, calm and having a high ego strength. A score of this nature was obtained by 2.3 percent of the teenage population. I.P.'s score was the highest i n the sample as was his score on Factor J. Here again the subject had a maximum sten score of ten characterizing him as a very doubting, obstructive, i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , restrained, reflective and unwilling to act individual. To complete the subject's p r o f i l e , he was described as being s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , preferred his own decisions, and being resourceful (Q2 - sten score of nine). Obtaining a sten score of eight on Factor 03, he was described as being controlled, socially precise, self disciplined, and compulsive. A similar score was recorded on Factor G, which implied a conscientious, persevering, rule bound individual. A low score on this Factor would indicate an expedient person with weak super ego strength. This subject tended to be phlegmatic, deliberate, inactive, and stodgy (Factor D) as Personality Factors A B C D E F G H I J O 0^ % • % Mean Boys Form A Norms (Haw Scores) 9.5 7-3 9.7 10.1 9.7 10.5 10.9 10.1 7.6 8.4 10.0 10.2 10.5 8.9 Mean Scores of Sample (Raw Scores) 8.5 7.4 11.2 10.1 10.7 11.8 12.0 10.5 7.3 10.9 8.6 11.6 11.4 8.6 Prof i l e s (Sten Scores) FIGURE 16 Co INDIVIDUAL STEN SCORES - SUBJECT I.P. 99 well as relaxed, tranquil, torpid and unf rust rated (Factor Q4-). On both the aforementioned factors, the subject obtained sten scores of four. On the remaining four Factors F,H,I and 0, the subject recorded scores near the mean of the teenage population. Subject I.P. was the only subject to participate i n a l l the workouts. His percentage of achievement was 78.3 which could c l a s s i f y the subject as a positive achiever. The subject claimed that the workouts 'were d i f f i c u l t for him' but was always willing to try one more repetition i f asked to do so. If I.P. did not pace himself i n a t r i a l , then he was able to quickly readjust himself so that he could complete the succeeding t r i a l s . At a l l times the subject displayed a positive attitude towards training and never complained of the volume of work to be accomplished. He always gave a 100 percent effort on every t r i a l and i n every workout despite wanting to stop i n the middle of a workout. He maintained that he l e f t the workouts 'very sa t i s f i e d on what he had accomplished each day'. I.P., appearing to be somewhat of a perfectionist, was the only grade nine student to receive grades of A i n a l l subjects at School. In the ve r t i c a l jump, subject I.P. recorded no change i n his performance. His i n i t i a l and f i n a l scores were 0.54-6 metres which were above the mean scores of the sample. On the strength items, subject I.P. showed his greatest improvement i n the Left and Right Knee Flexion tests - 56.8 100 and 70.5 percent respectively. Significant gains were also recorded i n each of the following: Left Knee Extension - 25.0 percent, Left Hip Extension - 44.8 percent and Eight Hip Extension - 16.8 percent. However, only slight gains were attained on the following: Eight Knee Extension - 1.93 percent and Eight Hip Flexion - 1.88 percent. No improvement was made on the Left Hip Flexion score. On the treadmill performance run, the subject's i n i t i a l time of 43.2 seconds was well below the sample mean of 64.9 i 24.9 seconds. At the end of the training program, I.P. showed the second largest improvement (177*0 seconds) with a f i n a l time of 220.2 s e c . This improvement score was well above the mean of the sample which was 141.3 seconds. Throughout the Progressive Eeinforcement Training, I.P. showed a gradual increase i n the 800 metre time t r i a l s . His results were always better than the sample mean. The subject's overall time improvement was 7«3 seconds. His original time t r i a l was 2 minutes, 31.6 seconds (69.7; 81.9). He improved 2.1 seconds on the second 800 metre t r i a l with a time of 2 minutes, 29.5 seconds (69.7; 79.8). while competing for his school i n a tri-meet, the subject recorded a time of 61.8 seconds for 440 yards. The subject was pleased with his third performance when he reached a time of 2 minutes, 27.3 seconds (71.7; 75.6), an increase of 2.2 seconds. On May 1, 1970 the subject ran 61.2 seconds for 440 yards i n a tri-meet. On his f i n a l t r i a l , I.P. recorded a time of 2 minutes, 24.3 seconds (68.2; 76.1) for the f i f t h fastest time i n the group. This 101 performance was an increase of four seconds over time t r i a l three. The subject's acid-base parameters are i n accordance with the trend of the sample. His pre-training values at rest were 7.299 and. after exercise, 7.292. The post-training pH values were 7.24-5 at rest and 7.157 after exercise. 102 Subject: S.C. Age: 14.67 years Height: 1.754 metres Weight: 67.02 kilograms This subject's personality p r o f i l e described him as a sel f - s u f f i c i e n t individual who preferred his own decisions and was resourceful (Factor Q2).. These qualities were opposed to a person who can be described as a group depender, joiner and sound follower. His sten score of eight on this Factor was above the teenage population mean. S.C. tended to be outgoing, warm-hearted, easy going, and participating (Factor A). He also tended to be happy-go-lucky, impulsively l i v e l y , gay and enthusiastic as indicated by his sten score on Factor F. S.C. was further described on Factor H, as a venturesome, socially bold, uninhibited and spontaneous type of individual as opposed to a shy, restrained, diffident and timid person. On Factors A,F, and H, S.C. acquired a sten score of seven which described him as being outgoing, happy-go-lucky and venturesome. He scored the lowest i n the sample on Factor G. A low score on Factor G indicated the subject to be expedient, evading rules, and one who feels few obligations. A sten score of four on Factor 0 showed that S.C. leaned toward being placid, self assured, confident and serene. The results of a sten score of four on Factor Q4 indicated that he was more relaxed, tranquil, torpid and unfrustrated, than tense, frustrated, driven and overwrought. On the remaining personality factors, S.C. Personality Factors A B C D E j? G H 0 Q2 ^3 ^ Mean Boys Form A Norms (Raw Scores) 9-5 7-3 9.7 10.1 9.7 10.5 10.9 10.1 7.6 8.4 10.0 10.2 10 .5 8 .9 Mean Scores of Sample (Saw Scores) 8 .5 7.4 11.2 10.1 10 .7 11.8 12.0 10.5 7.3 10.9 8.6 11.6 11.4 8.6 Prof i l e s (Sten Scores) FIGURE 17 INDIVIDUAL STEN SCORES - SUBJECT S.C. o 104 scored within the teenage population mean with sten scores of five and six. This subject appeared to give a good effort i n a l l endeavours of the training programme. He had a positive attitude and trained to the best of his a b i l i t y . If he f a i l e d i n a t r i a l , he was not worried as he knew that he had done his best. His achievement percentage was 72.58. S.C. never complained about the workouts and displayed a positive attitude. He appeared to be more mature than the other members of the sample and tended to concentrate more on what he was doing i n each t r i a l . If he missed a workout or was going to, he always mentioned this fact to the investigator. S.C. improved his i n i t i a l v e r t i c a l jump score of 0.476 metres by 0.032 to 0.508 metres. In both cases his scores were below the sample mean. On the strength variable, the subject had gains i n a l l his items. He improved 27.0 and 42.0 percent on the Left and Right Knee Flexion scores respectively. Scores of 19.0 and 19.3 percent improvement were recorded on the Left and Right Knee Extension. The Left and Right Hip Flexion scores improved 2.18 and 31.9 percent respectively. Finally, i n the Left and Right Hip Extension test items, significant gains of 42.0 and 25 percent were obtained. The subject's i n i t i a l treadmill performance run was 94.0 seconds and his f i n a l time was 209-0 seconds. Both scores were above the sample means. However, his improvement of 115 105 seconds was below the mean obtained by the sample. In the 800 metre t r i a l s , the subject showed a gradual and progressive improvement. S.C. bettered his i n i t i a l time by 11.0 seconds at the end of the Progressive Reinforcement Training programme. His successive time t r i a l scores were: 2 minutes, 38.3 seconds (77.2; 81.1); 2 minutes, 33.2 seconds (72.2; 81.0); 2 minutes, 31.8 seconds (73.6; 78.1) and 2 minutes, 27.3 seconds (68.3; 80.0). These times were above the sample mean i n a l l four t r i a l s . The subject's acid-base values showed that he did not deviate from the trend set by the sample. His pre-training values dropped as did the sample values. His resting pH was 7.331 and post exercise pH was 7.293, both above the mean of the sample. After the Progressive Reinforcement Training Programme, his resting pH value was 7*270 and his post-exercise value was 7*181, both s l i g h t l y above the sample mean. 106 Subject: N.W. Age: 14.88 years Height: 1.778 metres Weight: 60.01 kilograms The results of N.W.'s personality p r o f i l e indicated that he obtained sten scores of ten on Factors D and Q2. A high score on Factor D revealed N.W. to be excitable, impatient, demanding and overactive. Factor Q2 described the subject as self - s u f f i c i e n t , preferring his own decisions and resourceful. N.W.'s scores on these two Factors were the highest scores obtained by any member of the sample. Only 2.3 percent of the teenage population obtained sten scores of this magnitude. On Factors I and J, he scored higher than any other member of the sample. A sten score of eight on Factor I characterized N.W. as being tender minded, dependent, over-protected and sensitive. The subject's sten score of nine on Factor J indicated that he was doubting, obstructive, i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , internally restrained, reflective and unwilling to act. N.W. attained sten scores of one on both Factors A and 03. These scores were the lowest obtained by any member of the sample. His low score on Factor A described him as being reserved, detached, c r i t i c a l and cool; while his low score on Factor Q3 characterized him as having undisciplined s e l f - c o n f l i c t , following his own urges and being careless of protocol. The scores obtained by N.W. on Factors A and Q3 are obtained by only 2.3 percent of the teenage population. Sten scores of four were obtained on Factors B, C, and I. Personality Factors A B C D E F G H I J O Q ^ Q ^ Q ^ Mean Boys Form A Norms (Raw Scores) 9-5 7-3 9.7 10.1 9.7 10.5 10.9 10.1 7.6 8.4 10.0 10.2 10.5 8.9 Mean Scores of Sample (Raw Scores) 8.5 7.4 11.2 10.1 10.7 11.8 12.0 10.5 7.3 10.9 8.6 11.6 11.4 8.6 Prof i l e s (Sten Scores) A B C D E F G H I J O Q 2 % 10 . 9 . 8 . 7 . 6 . 5 . 4 . 3 . 2 . 1 J FIGURE 18 o INDIVIDUAL STEN SCORES - SUBJECT N.W. 108 The low score description of Factor B indicated that N.W. tended to he less intelligent and concrete thinking as opposed to being more intelligent and bright. A low score on Factor C showed that the subject was affected by his feelings, was emotionally less stable, easily upset and changeable. Factor I described him as tending to be tough-minded, sel f - r e l i a n t and r e a l i s t i c as opposed to an individual who i s tender minded, dependent, over-protected and sensitive. On the remainder of the Factors, the subject scored near the mean of the teenage population. The level of aspiration of the subject always tended to be high. As he achieved success i n his goals, he tended to raise them i n each succeeding workout. He attained an achievement percentage of 75«9« N.W. always approached the workouts with a positive attitude and a willingness to work. At the beginning of the training programme, the subject appeared to be one of the fastest runners i n the group. To the investigator, N.W. appeared to be shy, withdrawn, and somewhat of a loner. He was not 'in' socially with the group. This was brought out i n his personality p r o f i l e i n Factor H (shy versus venturesome). As well, i n the beginning while running the t r i a l s , he ran near the end of the pack. As the training continued, the subject gained more confidence i n himself and of what he was able to do. Now, he ran stronger and fought to lead each t r i a l i n the workout. When he did lead the t r i a l , he led with authority and always forced a 109 strong pace. The subject reported that when he was not successful i n a t r i a l , he thought of what he did wrong before proceeding to the next one. At the end of the training session, he appeared to be near his "potential" time for his age and maturity. ' On the v e r t i c a l jump test item, N.W. recorded an i n i t i a l score of 0.521 metres which was above the mean of the sample. However, on the f i n a l t r i a l , the subject recorded the same score of 0.521 metres which was sli g h t l y below the mean of the sample. On the strength scores, the subject made significant gains on the following: Left Knee Flexion (56.8 percent); Left Hip Extension (40.0 percent). Other changes were an 0.88 percent increase on the Bight Knee Flexion, 8 percent increase on the Left Knee Extension, 12.7 percent increase on the Left Hip Flexion and a 2.46 percent increase on the Right Hip Flexion. On the Right Knee Extension, N.W. recorded a drop of 2 tensiometer points for a 3.48 percent decrease on the f i n a l t r i a l . On the treadmill performance t r i a l s , the subject obtained an i n i t i a l time of 53.8 seconds and a f i n a l time of 170.8 seconds. This was an improvement of 117.0 seconds. A l l his scores were considerably below the sample means. On the time t r i a l s , N.W."s pattern showed a significant overall improvement of 17*5 seconds. This was the second best improvement i n the sample. His i n i t i a l time of 2 minutes 38.8 seconds (79.6; 79.1) was above the group mean of 2 minutes 36.9 seconds for the 800 metre run. However, the subject's 110 time dropped sharply on the second time t r i a l when he recorded a time of 2 minutes 28.3 seconds (68.7; 79.6) which was an increase of 10.5 seconds over the original t r i a l . Following t h i s , the subject competed for his High School i n two T r i Meets at Eric Hamber School on Apri l 9, 1970 and Apri l 17, 1970 where he recorded times of 2 minutes 25.4 seconds and 2 minutes 28.5 seconds (75.9; 72.6) respectively for 800 metres. His third time t r i a l improved one second over t r i a l two with a time of 2 minutes 27.3 seconds (71.7; 75.6). At a later date, i n another school meet at Point Grey School, the subject competed and recorded a time of 2 minutes 27.8 seconds (69.7; 78.1) for 800 metres. On the f i n a l time t r i a l , the subject reported that he was very nervous, tense and serious before the t r i a l . He recorded a time of 2 minutes 21.3 seconds (68.2; 73.1) which was an improvement of six seconds over t r i a l three. N.W. finished the track session by running a 800 metre race i n the Vancouver Inter-High School eliminations and placed third i n a time of 2 minutes 22.5 seconds (67.7; 74.8). This time was s l i g h t l y off his personal best time that he recorded i n time t r i a l four. On the acid-base parameters, the subject followed the general trend of the sample. On the pre-training values, N.W. obtained a resting pH of 7-365 which was considerably above the sample mean of 7-307 - 0.028. His post-exercise pH of 7.168 was considerably below the sample mean of 7-241 -0.060. However, on the post-training results, the subject I l l appeared to approximate the mean a l i t t l e more. His resting pH of 7.278 was only s l i g h t l y above the sample mean of 7-265 -0.020 and his post exercise pH of 7-122 was below the sample mean of 7-157 - 0.027-112 Subject: D.M. Age: 15.0 years Height: 1.727 metres Weight: 59.00 kilograms The results of D.M.'s personality profile indicated that he obtained the lowest scores on Factors C, D, and Q4- of any member of the sample. On Factor G, the subject recorded a sten score of four, descriptive of a person who i s affected by his feelings, i s emotionally less stable, easily upset and changeable. His sten score of one on Factor D i s obtained by only 2.3 percent of the teenage population. This Factor characterized him as phlegmatic, deliberate, inactive and stodgy as opposed to a type that i s excitable, impatient, demanding, and overactive. A sten score of two on Factor Q4-described him as tending to be relaxed, tranquil, torpid, and unfrustrated as opposed to a tense, frustrated and overwrought person. Sten scores of nine were obtained by D.M. on both Factors A and E. These Factors described him as tending to be outgoing, participating, assertive, independent, aggressive, and stubborn. Factor G showed that the subject was more conscientious, persevering, staid, rule bound, than expedient, evading rules and having few obligations. A sten score of seven was recorded by the subject on Factors F and J which indicated that the subject tended to be a happy-go-lucky, impulsively gay, enthusiastic type of person. Furthermore, he tended to be doubting, obstructive, i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , internally Personality Factors A B C D E F G E I J O 0^ % • % Mean Boys Form A Norms (Paw Scores) 9.5 7-3 9.7 10.1 9.7 10.5 10.9 10.1 7-6 8 . 4 10.0 10.2 10.5 8.9 Mean Scores of Sample (Raw Scores) 8.5 7 .4 11.2 10.1 10.7 11.8 12.0 10.5 7.3 10.9 8 . 6 11.6 11.4 8 .6 P r o f i l e s (Sten Scores) FIGURE 1 9 INDIVIDUAL STEN SCORES - SUBJECT D.M. M VX 114 restrained, reflective and unwilling to act. On the remaining Factors, subject D.M. approximated the mean of the teenage population. Subject D.M. recorded an achievement percentage of 77.0 which was the second highest among the group. However, i t must be noted that the subject's goals appeared not to be as high as anyone else and, resultingly, were easier to achieve. When the subject reached his goals, he never appeared to re-evaluate them for future workouts. This subject seemed to possess a sulky, sober and bitter attitude while i n the programme, as indicated i n his personality p r o f i l e . He was very quiet and never said much. When asked questions, he never gave any answers or talked about himself or his work. The only thing he ever said was 'a bad day'. His actions cannot be explained by the author. He was never r e a l l y 'in' with the group so c i a l l y . D.M. did not change his v e r t i c a l jump results on the pre and post-training tests. His i n i t i a l and f i n a l scores of 0.546 metres were above the mean of the sample. During the cable tensiometer tests for strength, this subject seemed lethargic and acted as i f he was not r e a l l y trying although he improved considerably on several variables. Positive gains were made on the following: Left and Eight Knee Flexion - 18.8 and 93 percent respectively; Left and Eight Knee Extension scores - 2.4 and 0.92 percent; Left and Eight Hip Flexion, 13.2 and 2.5 percent; Left and Eight Hip 115 Extension scores showed improvements of 25.0 and 12.7 percent respectively. Subject D.M. improved his i n i t i a l treadmill performance run of 75»5 seconds to 174.0 seconds on the f i n a l testing. This gain of 88.5 seconds was well below the mean gain of the group - 141.3 seconds. In the 800 metre time t r i a l s , the subject never r e a l l y came close to the sample means. His i n i t i a l time of 2 minutes 43.9 seconds (76.7; 87.2) was the slowest i n the group. D.M. improved very s l i g h t l y (0.6 seconds) on time t r i a l two with a time of 2 minutes 43.3 seconds (74.7; 88.6). A further improvement of 3.4 seconds was recorded on t r i a l three with a time of 2 minutes 39.9 seconds (77.7; 83.6). While running i n a school t r i meet at Eric Hamber High School, the subject ran 800 metres i n 2 minutes 34.1 seconds (72.2; 81.9). On the f i n a l time t r i a l , an improvement over t r i a l three of 7.1 seconds was recorded. His time of 2 minutes 32.8 seconds (71.7; 81.1) was 11.1 seconds faster than his original time. The subject's pH values were indicative of the sample. His pre-training resting pH value was 7.305 and his post-exercise value was 7.119. The resting group mean was 7.307 - 0.028 and post exercise 7.241 ± 0.060. On the post-training testing, his pH values for the resting and post-exercise situations were 7.309 and 7-156 respectively. The group means were 7-265 - 0.020 and 7-157 - 0.027 respectively. 116 Subject: J.S. Age: 14.84 years Height: 1.772 metres Weight: 65.04 kilograms This subject obtained the lowest scores of any member of the sample on Factors E, F, and H. His sten score of two on Factors E and F described him as being obedient, mild, conforming, sober, prudent, serious and taciturn. The subject's results on Factors E and F are obtained by only 4.4 percent of the teenage population. Factor H described J.S. as shy, restrained, diffident, timid, as opposed to being venturesome, socially bold, uninhibited and spontaneous. The subject obtained a sten score of three on Factor A which described him as being reserved, detached, cool and c r i t i c a l as opposed to being outgoing, warmhearted, easy going and participating. The subject tended to be phlegmatic, deliberate, inactive and stodgy as a result of his score on Factor D. Factor G indicated J.S. to be a conscientious, persevering, staid and rule bound type of individual. Factor J showed the subject to be doubting, obstructive, i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , internally restrained, reflective and unwilling to act as opposed to a person who i s vigorous, zestful, and given to action. Factor Q3 characterizes J.S. as being controlled, s o c i a l l y precise, self-disciplined and compulsive. The subject's sten score on each of the above Factors (G,J,Q3) was eight. On Factor Q2 and Q4, he recorded respective sten Personality Factors A B C D E P G H I J 0 % • %. Mean Boys Form A Norms (Raw Scores) 9 - 5 7 - 3 9 . 7 10.1 9 . 7 10 . 5 10 . 9 10.1 7 . 6 8.4-10.0 10.2 10 . 5 8 . 9 Mean Scores of Sample (Raw Scores) 8 . 5 7-4 11.2 10.1 10 . 7 11.8 12.0 10 . 5 7 . 3 10 . 9 8.6 11.6 11.4- 8.6 P r o f i l e s (Sten Scores) A B C D E F G H I J 0 Qg Q 4 10 . 9 . 8 . 7 . 6 . 5 3 J 2 . 1 . FIGURE 20 M S 3 INDIVIDUAL STEN SCORES - SUBJECT J.S. 118 scores of seven. These two factors described him as a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , resourceful, tense and frustrated type of individual. J.S.'s scores on the remaining personality Factors were near the means of the teenage population. J.S. appeared to possess a high level of aspiration at the beginning of the programme. However, a pinched nerve i n his back prevented him from attending a l l workouts. Despite not participating i n four workouts, the subject voluntarily attended and assisted the investigator. His percentage of achievement was 72.6. The subject had a good attitude toward the workouts and always gave a good effort, especially i n the sprints. It must be noted that the investigator would not allow the subject to participate, following the four workouts missed, u n t i l medical approval was obtained. Furthermore, when the subject's condition appeared to bother him, he was told to stop as a precaution against aggravating a serious situation or risk permanent damage. There was no change i n his v e r t i c a l jump scores as a result of the programme. He recorded i n i t i a l and f i n a l scores of 0.495 metres which were both below the sample mean. On the strength items, the subject significantly increased his Left and Eight Knee Flexion scores and his Left and Eight Hip Extension scores - 34.8, 43.8, 43.8 and 37.0 percent respectively. Minor gains were recorded on the Left and Eight Knee Extension scores - an improvement of 1.87 soad 10.4 119 percent. A decrease of 2.31 percent was made on the Left Hip Flexion score while an increase of 13.5 percent was made on the Right Hip Flexion score. On the treadmill performance variable, his i n i t i a l score of 60 seconds was sl i g h t l y below the sample mean of 64.9 - 24.9 seconds. The subject increased his score to 212.5 seconds on his f i n a l test which was s l i g h t l y above the sample mean of 203.6 - 41.3 seconds, his gain of 152.5 seconds was the third best improvement i n the sample and was above the mean gain of 141.3. In the time t r i a l s , J.S. made an overall improvement of 13.0 seconds. His i n i t i a l t r i a l for 800 metres was 2 minutes 37.5 seconds (72.7; 84.8). This time was s l i g h t l y above the sample mean of 2 minutes 36.9 seconds. His second time t r i a l improved 8.0 seconds with a time of 2 minutes 29.5 seconds (72.7; 76.8). This time was below the group mean of 2 minutes, 32.4 seconds. On the third t r i a l , an improvement of 2.3 seconds was recorded with a performance time of 2 minutes 27-3 seconds (73.7; 73.6). The f i n a l time t r i a l saw a leveling off of J.S.'s pattern when a f i n a l time of 2 minutes 24.5 seconds (68.7; 75.8) was recorded. This was an improvement of 2.8 seconds over t r i a l three. In the Vancouver Inter High School eliminations, the subject ran a 440 i n 58.2 seconds. On the acid-base parameters, the subjects results followed the general trend of the sample. His pre-training resting pH was 7.330 and post-exercise was 7.222. The post training resting pH was 7.264 and the post-exercise value was recorded as 7.160. 120 Discussion Personality, The group of runners i n this study were evaluated on the Cattell Junior-Senior High School Personality Questionnaire Form A-Second Edition (1963). The personalities of the subjects were examined and col l e c t i v e l y compared to the teenage population. The results indicated that the sample scored highest on Factor J and Q2. Factor J described a doubting, obstructive, i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , r e f l e c t i v e , internally restrained, and unwilling to act person. The runners 1 mean score of 10.9 - 1.79 was above the teenage population's score of 8.4 - 2.9 i l l u s t r a t i n g that, as a group they were more ind i v i d u a l i s t i c and more internally restrained. The runners tended to be s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , preferred to make their own decisions and to be resourceful as shown by their scores on Factor Q2. The mean of the runners was 11.6 - 2.78 as compared to the teenage population mean of 10.2 - 2.60. The sample scored higher than the mean of the teenage population on Factors F and G. Factor F indicated a happy-go-lucky, gay, enthusiastic and impulsively l i v e l y type of individual. A mean score of 11.8 - 2.42 was obtained on this factor as compared to the teenage,population mean of 10.5 - 3.10. Factor G characterized the conscientious, perservering, staid, rule-bound, and stronger super-ego strength individuals. 121 TABLE XIV Description of the Fourteen HSPQ Personality Factors Low Sten Score Description (1-3) Alphabetic Designation of Factor High Sten Score Description (8-10) A boy or g i r l with low score i s : A boy or g i r l with high score i s : RESERVED, detached, c r i t i c a l , A cool (Sizothymia) LESS INTELLIGENT, concrete- B thinking, of lower scholastic mental capacity AFFECTED BY FEELINGS, emotion- C a l l y less stable, easily upset, changeable, of lower ego strength PHLEGMATIC, deliberate, inactive,D stodgy (Phlegmatic temperament) E F G H OBEDIENT, mild, conforming, submissive SOBER, prudent, serious taciturn (Desurgency) EXPEDIENT, evades rules, feels few obligations, has weaker superego strength SHY, restrained, diffident, timid (Threctia) TOUGH-MINDED, self-reliant I r e a l i s t i c , no-nonsense (Harria) VIGOROUS, goes readily with J froup, zestful, given to action Zeppia) PLACID, self-assured, confident 0 serene (Untroubled adequacy) GROUP-DEPENDENT, a "joiner" and Q2 sound follower (group adherence) UNDISCIPLINED SELF-CONFLICT, Q3 careless of protocol, follows own urges, has low integration RELAXED, tranquil, torpid, Q4 unfrustrated (Low ergic tension) OUTGOING, warmhearted, easygoing, participating (Affectothymia, formerly cyclothymia) MORE INTELLIGENT, abstract-thinking, bright, of higher scholastic mental capacity EMOTIONALLY STABLE, faces r e a l i t y , calm, of higher ego strength (Not the same as "egotistical") EXCITABLE, impatient, demanding, overactive (Excitability) ASSERTIVE, independent, aggressive, stubborn, dominant HAPPY-GO-LUCKY, gay. enthusiastic, impulsively l i v e l y (Surgency) CONSCIENTIOUS, persevering, staid, rule-bound, has stronger superego strength VENTURESOME, socially bold, uninhibited, spontaneous (Parmia) TENDER-MINDED, dependent, sensitive, over-protected (Premsia) DOUBTING, obstructive, in d i v i d u a l i s t i c , r e f l e c t i v e , internally restrained, unwilling to act (Coasthenia) APPREHENSIVE, worrying, depressive, troubled,guilt prone SELF-SUFFICIENT, prefers own decisions, resourceful (Self-sufficiency) CONTROLLED, socially-precise, self-discipline, compulsive, has high self-concept control TENSE, frustrated, driven, over-wrought (High ergic tension) 122 These results tend to support the findings of Heusner (74) and K r o l l and Petersen (90). Heusner showed that Olympic champions showed less g u i l t proneness or l i a b i l i t y to worry, while Kroll and Petersen found that winning football athletes were more confident than non-winning football athletes. On the remaining personality factors the runners scored higher than the teenage population on Factors C, E , and ©3. Factor C characterized them as being emotionally stable, facing r e a l i t y , calm and having a higher ego strength. Cooper (4-2) found that athletes had a higher emotional s t a b i l i t y than non athletes. The runners tended to be assertive, independent, aggressive, stubborn and dominant. Sperling (134), Merriman (103), and others (20, 37, 42, 131, 141) found athletes to rank higher i n ascendance and dominance than non athletes. Factor Q3 described the sample as being controlled, so c i a l l y precise, self disciplined, compulsive and having a high concept of self control. Bruner (25), i n his study of participants versus non participants, lends support to this finding. Other related studies (18, 103, 124, 132, 144) have shown that athletes of high school age are more active, ascendent, sociable and emotionally stable than non participants. As well, athletes show a higher degree of personal adjustment and feeling of self assurance than non athletes (18, 83). Finally, the results of the personality profiles tend 123 to be supported by Heusner's earlier findings involving Olympic champions and normal American males. He found significant differences on four primary factors: greater ego strength or freedom from general neurotic tendencies - Factor C; more dominant or assertive - Factor E; more outgoing or less easily inhibited - Factor A; showed less g u i l t proneness or l i a b i l i t y to worry - Factor 0. Level of Aspiration. In this study, the level of aspiration was defined as "a persons expectations of how he w i l l perform on a task" (101:107). This investigation has been patterned after other studies that have used only simple tasks with an unidimensional quantitative scale of d i f f i c u l t y , namely: a series of similar tasks (mazes or pegboards) graded as to complexity (60) or simple repetitive tasks with an achievement scale of speed or accuracy (60). The subject indicates his level of aspiration with the f i r s t type of task by choosing a task of a given degree of complexity; and with the second by stating verbally or i n writing, the point on the achievement scale he intends to reach. The level of achievement of this type of task i s defined only as accomplishment at a given level of complexity (60). The percentage of achievement during the workouts was calculated for the group and for each individual. This was obtained by taking the number of successful t r i a l s divided by the t o t a l number of t r i a l s expected to be accomplished for that individual. The workouts missed were not included. The 124 results were then converted into percentages. The mean percentage of achievement was calculated to be 72.57 percent for the group. With a percentage of this nature, i t was assumed that the members of the group could be c l a s s i f i e d as achievers as compared to non-achievers. Within the group, some members were higher achievers than others. These were the following: C.G., I.P., D.M., N.W. and G.N.. During the Progressive Reinforcement Training Programme, several factors emerged which influenced the level of aspiration of the runners. These factors also tended to agree with the results on level of aspiration reported i n the lit e r a t u r e . Macdonald (101) reported that the following factors influenced a persons level of aspiration: success or f a i l u r e ; knowledge of performance; and knowledge of other runners performance. It was found that when an athlete was not successful - f a i l e d , they knew that they were not trying hard enough and tended to push themselves on the next t r i a l to accomplish their goal. However, they tended to f a i l again after each t r i a l , u n t i l the next sequence of runs - sprints. With the successful t r i a l s , the athletes became more confident i n the distances they could achieve. A combination of success and knowledge of results of themselves and their counterparts tended to make each individual athlete aspire higher than he did i n the previous workout. As a result, the athletes continually aspired to achieve more distance i n the allotted 125 times and i n some cases they were doing their potential maximum on every repetition. Studies have shown (36> 128) that success generally leads to a r i s i n g of the level of aspiration, and fail u r e to a lowering. The stronger the success, the greater i s the probability of a ri s e i n the level of aspiration; the stronger the f a i l u r e , the greater i s the probability of lowering. As well, shifts i n level of aspiration are i n part a function of changes i n the subject's confidence i n his a b i l i t y to attain goals. Failure i s more l i k e l y to lead to withdrawal i n the form of avoiding setting a level of aspiration. Finally, effects of failure on level of aspiration are more varied than those of success. In this study, the knowledge of others results did not appear to affect the individual level of aspiration as indicated by Macdonald (101). Chapman and Volkmann (35) found that knowledge of the performance of others has no effect on the height of the level of aspiration i f the subject knows his own past level of performance i n the task. Of the literature reviewed, there appears to be a tendency to associate level of aspiration with personality patterns (34, 60). However, these studies and others have yet to find any significant relationship. The nature of the Progressive Reinforcement Training Programme appeared to have considerable influence on each of the athlete's levels of aspiration. This type of programme enabled the athlete to 126 gain a knowledge of himself and what he was capable of doing. Consequently, the subjects were able to successfully apply this knowledge to competitive race conditions as the results indicated i n the time t r i a l s . Vertical Jump. For many years, v e r t i c a l jumping has been recognized as an a c t i v i t y which typifies movements of muscular power i n the human body. McCloy (100) indicated that the v e r t i c a l jump was probably the best measure we have of predicting explosive energy. Several other authors (23, 38, 63, 66, 67) also regard i t as the best index of power. A 111" test between the means of each of the v e r t i c a l jump t r i a l s resulted i n no s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant differences between t r i a l means as shown i n Table VI - t ratio = 0.076. From the investigation, i t appears that the Progressive Reinforcement Training Programme had l i t t l e effect on an individual's a b i l i t y to perform the ve r t i c a l jump. Since there was no added conditioning effect on the results, then the slight improvement found could be due merely to chance. As well, a learning effect might have taken place and increased each jumper's efficiency. As indicated by the training programme, there were no provisions made sp e c i f i c a l l y for the improvement of power i n v e r t i c a l jumping. Thus, one can surmise that the actions of running 800 metres and training for i t does not require or build power as needed i n the 100 metres or high jump. 127 It appears that one's performance i n v e r t i c a l jumping can only he improved through specific training. Many studies (27, 28, 63, 66, 67) have shown that v e r t i c a l jump performances have increased by training on specific weight programmes or developing specific segments of the lower extremities. Thus, the concept of s p e c i f i c i t y i n training between sports and sports s k i l l s could account for the lack i n significant improvement on the v e r t i c a l jump variable i n this study (24). Strength. The Schopf-Clarke Cable Tensiometer test (39) was used i n this investigation to measure the isometric muscular strength of several muscle groups which are relative to running. They were: Left and Eight Knee Flexion; Left and Eight Knee Extension; Left and Eight Hip Flexion; Left and Eight Hip Extension. The purpose of the tests was to determine the effect of the Progressive Eeinforcement Training Programme upon the strength of the muscle groups involved. To determine the aforementioned, a t test for correlated samples between the mean of the means of the strength scores was performed. A t-ratio of 2.31 was necessary for a significant difference at the .05 level of significance. The mean increase on each of the following measurements was s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant at the .05 level of significance: Left Knee Flexion (t = 5.69); Eight Knee Flexion (t = 4-.41); Left Hip Extension (t = 7.32); Eight Hip Extension (t = 4.98); Left Hip Flexion (t = 2.58); Eight Hip Flexion (t = 5.30). 128 The Left and Eight Knee Extension mean scores with a t ratio of 2.07 and 2.15 respectively showed slight improvement. However, this improvement was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant at the .05 level of significance. To indicate the significance of these strength gains i n a more meaningful manner, the values were expressed i n terms of a percentage. The percentage of overall improvement -mean improvement score / mean i n i t i a l score x 100 - i n the isometric strength for the sample was 56.2 percent. A percentage improvement of this magnitude i n strength, following a seven week training programme, must he considered quite economical as far as time i s concerned, and would seem to he quite valuable to those interested i n strength training. With respect to individual strength items, the mean improvements were recorded as follows: Eight Hip Extension (63.8 percent); Left Hip Extension (54.7 percent); Eight Knee Flexion (53*9 percent); Left Knee Flexion (38.5 percent); Left Hip Flexion (13-7 percent); Eight Hip Flexion (11.8 percent); Left Knee Extension (11.5 percent); Eight Knee Extension (5.2 percent). The results tend to indicate that those primary muscle groups used most i n running seemed to improve the most. However, since the plantar flexors and plantar extensors are used i n running i t would have been worth while to measure them to note any changes as a result of Progressive Eeinforcement Training. 129 In this study, the tensiometer tests (39) were used to measure the potential change i n strength of a group that trained dynamically. Many studies i n the literature (16, 92) have used static strength tests to measure change due to static training and not dynamic training. Berger (16) has stated that a s t a t i c a l l y trained group w i l l show more improvement on a static test than w i l l a dynamically trained group. He further f e l t that dynamic and static strengths were different and concluded that there was no relationship between improvement i n static and dynamic strength. By the fact that the runners increased their isometric strength through a dynamic form of training involving running points the way for more experimental studies dealing with dynamic strength and dynamic strength tests. The reason for the improvement of strength may be found i n the theory of s p e c i f i c i t y of training (24). Morehouse (105) claimed that repetition of one type of movement does not increase the strength of the performance of a different type of movement. The pattern of movement must he duplicated to achieve the best training effect. The principle of s p e c i f i c i t y applies not only to the type of movement but to the posture i n which the movement i s performed. The answer for strength improvement may be i n the concept of the stimulus for strength training. On one hand there are investigators (12, 13, 39, 46, 73, 108) who believe tension 130 i s a major factor for increasing strength. Clarke and Clarke (40:165) found that: the amount of tension developed i n a muscle i s a major factor i n determining strength improvement and that the work done per unit of time i s the factor essential i n the extension of muscular strength and muscular endurance performances. The results of this study may support this theory and suggest other factors as well. The Progressive Reinforcement group trained dynamically and may have imposed some tension on their leg muscles. While these tensions appeared to produce a significant and meaningful group improvement effect i n isometric strength, they were almost completely unrelated to the tensions developed during running i n Progressive Reinforcement Training. Therefore, i t might he assumed that other factors i n conjunction with induced tensions contribute to strength improvements. G r i f f i n (68) theorized that increasing the amount of tension produced within a muscle for certain periods and sometimes over a certain range of motion was the basis for the overload system which i s used i n a l l strength development programmes. Rosch and Morehouse (121), Hettinger (73), Buchtal and Kaiser (26), and Banister (12, 13) a l l agree that muscle tension seems to be the important point i n muscle training. In addition, i t has been suggested that the development of complex motor neuron patterns i s a prerequisite, as well as a large factor i n determining the development of strength. 131 Morehouse (105) cited that we now perceive the training stimulus as residing i n the central nervous system. From this viewpoint then, strength development could be viewed as similar to the development of a motor s k i l l , (for which there are also large neuromotor patterns). If this comparison i s va l i d , the s p e c i f i c i t y of strength improvement as reported i n the present experiment could be explained i n a similar way to the s p e c i f i c i t y of motor s k i l l s . Henry (72:127) has stated: Repetition of a motor act improves the specific s k i l l that i s practised but individual differences i n a b i l i t y to p rofit by practice are specific to that s k i l l and definitely do not predict the a b i l i t y to improve by practice i n some other s k i l l . Lotter (96:57) found that: Neuromotor or task s p e c i f i c i t y implies that individual a b i l i t i e s i n performing a specified motor task with a particular group of muscles tend to have only a low correlation with individual a b i l i t i e s i n performing a different task using largely the same group of muscles. It appears that for each motor s k i l l there exists a neuromotor pattern that determines the speed, coordination, et cetera of that s k i l l . These neuromotor patterns are completely specific and are not related to any other patterns, thus making motor s k i l l s highly specific. In this respect, dynamic strength can be thought of as being determined, i n a large part, by specific neuromotor patterns that are unrelated to each other (92). These patterns determine the a b i l i t y of the subject to coordinate his muscles i n a maximal contraction and therefore determine 132 the amount of tension brought to bear on a contraction. Since these neuromotor patterns are specific, i t follows that the amount of tension i n isometric or dynamic contractions w i l l also be specific. Thus i t might be concluded that there are at least two factors both i n t r i n s i c a l l y responsible for increases i n strength. One i s the amount of tension produced by a training programme which may produce important physiological effects i n the muscle that contribute to maximum physiological strength. The other factor i s the development of neuromotor patterns which may enable subjects to effectively coordinate their muscles to exert tension. Since these neuromotor patterns are specific to the type of contraction performed, i t i s expected that the a b i l i t y to produce tension isometrically w i l l not be related to the a b i l i t y to produce tension dynamically (92). Treadmill Performance Time. The treadmill test u t i l i z e d i n this study was fashioned after the Balke Treadmill Test (10, 11). The test consisted of walking for 5 minutes at 3.5 miles per hour at zero percent grade for a warm-up, followed by a two minute s i t t i n g rest, and then, by an all-out run at 10 miles per hour at zero percent grade u n t i l a terminal heart rate of three consecutive recordings of 170 beats per minute were obtained. The test was adapted to suit a group of young boys with a mean age of 14.75 years and to measure i n a standardized 133 maimer their running endurance. The terminal heart rate was adapted to suit the 'subjects, based on the work of Balke (10, 11) and others (19, 14-5). A p i l o t project was carried out to obtain the adapted treadmill test. An average time for a 14 year old to run 800 metres was taken and expressed i n miles per hour. This time was 2 minutes 25 seconds and was calculated to be 12.3 miles per hour. This value of 12.3 miles per hour was used as a basis for experimentation on the treadmill test. Three varsity athletes (K.F.; R.C; S.D.) were used i n the experiment. The athletes ran at speeds of 15, 13.5, 12, 10 and 8 miles per hour and their heart rates and performance times were recorded respectively. It was found that at 12 miles per hour the athletes recorded heart rates of 170 by 1 minute 50 seconds. However, since the varsity athletes were much older than the sample and their performance did not seem long enough, an approximation was used so that suitable results could be obtained with the sample. As a result, a value of 10 miles per hour was u t i l i z e d . Balke, et a l (10, 11, 145) have found that during muscular work on a treadmill test, several discernable physiologic alterations occurred. The respiratory exchange ratio reached and exceeded unity; the pulse pressure and oxygen pulse became maximal; the alveolar carbon dioxide tension dropped suddenly; the respiratory rate and minute volume rose sharply i n a disproportionate manner. In most 134 instances, these findings appeared at or about the same time at which the heart rate reached 180 beats per minute (8). Results were also reported by Wells, et a l (145) that, at about this same heart rate, blood lactate levels begin to rise sharply. Therefore, men's aerobic capacity for physical work was reported i n terms of performance time - time taken for the heart to reach 180 beats per minute. B i l l i n g s , et a l (19) have also supported the findings of Balke and colleagues concerning the fact that functional limitations occur at a heart rate of 180 beats per minute. Studies involving children by Wahlund (142), Bengtsson (15) and Adams (3, 4) have shown that a heart rate of 170 beats per minute was su f f i c i e n t l y adequate to produce their maximum work capacity. The results of this investigation indicated that the runners made a significant improvement over their pre-training performance time on the treadmill after taking part i n the Progressive Reinforcement Training Programme. A t-ratio of 9.02 between the performance means was obtained and was s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant at the .05 level of significance. The sample recorded a mean performance time of 203.6 - 41.3 seconds which was nearly three times longer than the i n i t i a l t r i a l of 64.9 - 24.9 seconds. It appeared that the nature of the Progressive Reinforcement Training with respect to the times and distances covered by the athletes i n the training workouts was 135 physically taxing i n terms of endurance development. Within the training schedules, there were provisions to improve both speed and endurance. The times of 45, 60, 75 and 120 seconds were i n fact related to actual distances covered when running 800 metres. That i s , the distances covered by the athletes i n these times were sp e c i f i c a l l y related to the total distance of 800 metres. The programme brings out the concept of s p e c i f i c i t y of training as enunciated by Brouha (24) and others (43). Cureton (43) reinforced this idea by contending that working at a slower pace would not t r a i n the body as effectively as at a faster pace. The time duration of the stress sectors of 45, 60, 75 and 120 seconds agree, to some extent, with those reported i n the lit e r a t u r e . Mole (104), i n fact, found that a minimum duration of 90 seconds was needed to overload the circulation and respiration s u f f i c i e n t l y to y i e l d an improvement i n aerobic capacity. In spite of Mole's findings, Mateef (97) claimed that repetition of short sprints builds endurance at a quicker speed than training at longer distances, which exert a similar effect but at a slower rate. However, Nocker (54) concluded that the work periods must not exceed 30 seconds, and the prolongation beyond 90 seconds was of no additional benefit. Christensen (49), Gerschler (62), Hollman (49), and Eiendell (118) reported similar findings. These aforementioned studies were not s p e c i f i c a l l y dealing with 800 metres, per se. However, the time of the 136 stress sectors i n Progressive Reinforcement Training are somewhere i n between the short and long durations as reported by the litera t u r e . Thus, i n this particular study, the result of specific training, namely Progressive Reinforcement Training had enabled the athletes to increase their endurance performance times as measured by this adapted treadmill test. Acid-Base Parameters. The pre-training before exercise versus pre-training after exercise was s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant at the .05 level of significance (t = 2.67). The mean pre-training pre-exercise pH value was found to be 7.307 - 0.028. After exercise the pH value decreased to 7.241 - 0.060. The mean decrease of 0.066 was significant. As a result of taking part i n training, the post-training values were s t a t i s t i c a l l y significantly lower than the pre-training values. In comparing the post-training before exercise values with the post-exercise values, there was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant decrease (t = 7«70). The mean value for the before exercise pH was 7*265 - 0.020 and the post-exercise value was 7.157 - 0.027. This was a decrease i n pH of 0.108 which was significant at the .05 level of significance. Thus, there was a general trend i n the group i n which the pH values decreased significantly as a result of training and also decreased as a result of exercise. This result appeared to be due to l a c t i c acid being formed and tended 137 to drive the pH downward (47). The buffer system of the body tended to maintain the balance. The l a c t i c acid was exchanged for a weak acid and the tendency for the l a c t i c acid to lower the pH of the blood was greatly lessened by the buffering action of the carbonic acid, bicarbonate system (69). These results tend to agree with those i n the lit e r a t u r e . There has been general agreement that the pH of blood remains more or less the same during mild exercise, that i t f a l l s s l i g h t l y during moderate exercise, and that during severe exercise i t f a l l s steeply (21, 69, 70, 77, 139). Heusner and Bernaurer (49) reported typical differences between untrained subjects and highly trained athletes on the pH variable. They found that the blood pH before exercise for both trained and untrained people was 7.4. However, the blood pH after exercise for untrained subjects dropped to 7.2 while trained athletes pH dropped to as much as 6.7. VonAaken ( l ) tends to agree with this acid - alkaline shift i n the blood as a result of exercise and training. The TQQ of the group followed the trend of the group's 2 .^ pH. The pre-training before exercise mean value was 40.0 -6.51 and after exercise i t shifted downward to 35 »5 - 4.23, a drop of 4.5. After training the pre exercise mean value was lower than the pre-training value. The mean value was 34.50 - 5-25. The post exercise mean value was 29.4 - 5-74. It appears that training diminishes the rate of l a c t i c acid formation i n moderate exercise so the blood lactate 1 3 8 concentration was lower than i n untrained subjects. As well, during exhausting exercise, trained subjects can withstand considerably higher concentrations of blood lactate ( l , 1 0 6 ) . The trained subject has a better alkaline reserve than the untrained subject. Investigators ( 4 7 , 6 9 ) have shown an increased a b i l i t y to tolerate metabolites (mainly l a c t i c acid) after a period of training ( 4 7 , 4 9 ) . There has, however, been disagreement over the effects of exercise on P Q Q of blood. Some authors ( 4 6 , 7 8 ) have found that upon exercise the P Q Q rose, other authors ( 1 4 , 2 1 , 70), have found that the P f a l l s , and yet others have discovered CO2 no change i n the P Q Q upon exercise ( 9 ) . In addition, Teraslinna and McLoed ( 1 3 9 ) found that the P Q Q f e l l during the early stages of exercise, and then rose as exercise continued. Holmgren and Svanborg.(78) attributed these differences i n findings to differences i n the types of exercise used, and differences i n methodologies and measuring techniques used and to sampling errors. The group results on the standard bicarbonate concentration, base excess concentration and buffer base concentration variables agree with those reported i n the litera t u r e . There i s a concensus that the three variables above f a l l s l i g h t l y with mild and moderate exercise, and f a l l more steeply with severe exercise ( 2 1 , 4 5 , 70). Thus the results of the particular investigation agreed 139 with those reported i n the literature. It can he concluded that Progressive Reinforcement Training produced similar changes on the acid-base parameters as other forms of endurance training. Time T r i a l s . The purpose of this study was to determine i f this particular programme had any effect on performance i n running 800 metres. The distance was selected for a number of reasons, the primary one being that the programme was designed for middle distance* runners. Other factors were the a v a i l a b i l i t y as well as the age and physical capabilities of the subjects. Time t r i a l s were taken prior to, during and after the Progressive Reinforcement Training Programme. A test for correlated samples between the mean of the means of the time t r i a l s was performed. A mean improvement of 4.7 seconds between t r i a l one and t r i a l two resulted i n a t-ratio of 4.25 which was significant at the .05 level of significance. The range of improvement between the two t r i a l s was from -1.9 to 10.5 seconds. Between t r i a l s two and three, there was a mean improvement of 2.6 seconds which resulted i n a t-ratio of 1.85. This value was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant at the .05 level of significance. The range of improvement was from 1.0 to 5*4 seconds. A t-ratio of 4.91 was obtained between the performance means of time t r i a l s three and four which was s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant at the .05 level of significance. A mean 140 improvement of 4.9 seconds between the time t r i a l s resulted and was the largest improvement between any two successive time t r i a l s . This result may be indicative that, i n employing such a programme as Progressive Reinforcement Training, the potential beneficial effects only r e a l l y begin to emerge after a seven week period. , A t-ratio of 6.84 was obtained between the f i r s t and last time t r i a l which was s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant at the .05 level of significance. An overall mean improvement of 12.2 seconds was attained during the training programme with a range of improvement from 2.4 to 17.7 seconds. One plausible explanation for the apparent improvement i n running 800 metres by this group seems to be that the nature of the programme employs the principle of s p e c i f i c i t y (24). The training programme dictates running time intervals of 45, 60, 75 £ind 120 seconds. The distances covered i n these time intervals are directly related to running 800 metres. Additionally, speed and endurance specific to the race were required as a result of the short and long stress sectors. The athletes trained i n a manner such that they governed their own distances covered i n the particular times. Furthermore, the athletes knew their results after each t r i a l and were being "reinforced" and "motivated" to increase their performance on succeeding t r i a l s . These distances and times were being related to their target times for running 800 metres i n competition. On the time t r i a l performances, the 141 athletes were confident i n what they were capable of doing and could nearly predict what their individual performance would be. Each subject's success was determined by the fact that he trained as hard or as easy as he f e l t on that particular day and knew what his volume of work was and i t s relation to 800 metre running. Further investigation of the Progressive Reinforcement Training Programme with respect to running and the exact amount of running duration appears to be warranted. Case Study Discussion. Employing the 800 metre performance times as a focal reference point i n examining the case studies as a group, several pertinent trends appeared to emerge. An imaginary time t r i a l improvement cutoff point of 11 .5 seconds between time t r i a l one and four was u t i l i z e d to divide the sample into two groups. In regard to the personalities of the subjects who attained the fastest 800 metre times, there appears to be some characteristic s i m i l a r i t i e s . The two subjects (R.D.; C.G.) who recorded the two fastest times both scored high on Factor A and are described as outgoing, warmhearted, easy-going and participating. Studies (25? 74, 141) have shown that athletes are much more outgoing than non athletes. Sperling ( 1 3 4 ) , i n his particular study reported that trackmen were very extroverted. The subjects (N.W.; G.N.; J.S.) recording the next three fastest times scored low on Factor A and are described as 14-2 reserved, c r i t i c a l , detached and cool. These characteristics have not been supported by previous investigations (4-2, 74-, 112) and may indicate that subjects N.W., G.N., and J.S. do not f a l l into that category reserved for athletes. Other si m i l a r i t i e s occur on Factor C as subjects (R.D.; G.N.; J.S.) scored well and are characterized as emotionally stable and have a higher ego strength. Heusner (74-) found this result on his study of Olympic athletes. Other investigators (37, 4-2) as well, have indicated similar results. Factor F tended to separate R.D., C.G., and G.N. from the other members of the group as they were shown to be very happy-go-lucky. Of the fastest members, R.D., G.N., and J.S. appeared to be the most conscientious as shown by Factor G. However, R.D. revealed that he was not as conscientious as measured by his attitude and performance i n the training programme. For the most part, C.G., G.N., and J.S. were more controlled and had a higher self concept than the other members. This finding was supported by Heusner (74-). In the personalities of those runners who had an overall improvement of less than 11.5 seconds and ran slower times, there also seems to be s i m i l a r i t i e s . They (I.P.; S.C.; S.V.; D.M.) a l l scored high on Factor F indicating that they were happy-go-lucky. I.P., S.C. and D.M. were very outgoing (A) and relaxed (Q4-). Subjects I.P. and D.M. were very phlegmatic (D) and conscientious (G). The most assertive (E) were S.V. and D.M. and the subjects which showed more emotional 143 s t a b i l i t y (C) were I.P. and S.V. The subjects who recorded faster times tended to score higher on the percentage of achievement and had a higher level of aspiration. It also seemed to follow that those with the highest percentage of achievement continued to re-evaluate and to establish new levels of aspiration at a much higher l e v e l . Those who had slower times had lower levels of aspiration and lower percentages of achievement. They also tended to f a i l i n succeeding t r i a l s u n t i l the next sequence where a new goal was set. No real relationship could be established between the v e r t i c a l jump and the performance times. Improvements that were attained were very slight and were found to be non-significant. Three out of the fastest times showed slight improvement on this score whereas two out of four of the slower individuals showed no improvement. However, on the strength scores, those with the fastest times tended to show larger strength gains on the individual items than did those subjects who obtained slower times. For the most part, those with the fastest times started with a higher level of strength and improved more than the slower members of the group. During the testing situation, the investigator subjectively examined his group and i t became apparent that the more motivated subjects were the faster members of the group. In the competitive situations, these individuals 144 tried, harder and were competing against themselves as well as the group. This fact became very apparent i n the workouts and also i n the time t r i a l s . There was a relationship between the treadmill performance run and the 800 metre times. Those subjects (R.D.; C.G.; N.W.; G.N.; and J.S.) who ran the longest on the treadmill and recorded the greatest improvements on i t also recorded the fastest 800 metre times and recorded the most improvement. It appeared that the subjects who ran faster times did a greater volume of work at a faster rate. The results of the acid-base parameters showed no real trends with regard to performance. The only trend indicated was that the pH levels dropped as a result of training (47). In this investigation, the case study method was employed to investigate the potential effects of Progressive Reinforcement Training i n running. As the study progressed i t became more and more apparent that to determine the true effects of Progressive Reinforcement Training on performance i n running an experiment must employ the s c i e n t i f i c method and be very sound i n design. CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND FINDINGS Summary The purpose of the investigation was to study a programme of Progressive Reinforcement Training and to note the changes i n performance i n running 800 metres. The subsidiary problems were: 1. To study physiological variables and to note changes after the Progressive Reinforcement Training. 2. To note certain psychological characteristics of the subjects. Nine subjects from a major secondary school i n Vancouver participated i n this study. Age, weight and height measurements were obtained for a l l subjects. The Cattell Junior-Senior High School Personality Questionnaire was administered. The group was pre and post-tested on the following items: v e r t i c a l jump, b i l a t e r a l strength of the l e f t and right knee flexors and extensors, hip flexors and extensors; performance time on a treadmill run; blood analysis; performance time i n running 800 metres. In addition, pre, post and exercise heart rates were recorded for the treadmill test. The Progressive Reinforcement Training Programme took place three times a week for a period of seven weeks. The main problem data was analysed by t-ratios which provided means, standard deviations and a significance of the difference between correlated samples at the . 0 5 level of significance. 146 The results of the Personality Pactor Questionnaire indicated the sample of runners to he happy-go-lucky, conscientious, doubting and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . A l l the members of the group were c l a s s i f i e d as being achievers as a result of their efforts i n each workout. A non significant t-ratio of 0.076 was obtained between the i n i t i a l and f i n a l scores of the v e r t i c a l jump, thus indicating very l i t t l e improvement after the Progressive Reinforcement Training. After the Progressive Reinforcement Training Programme, i t was noted that there were significant isometric strength gains. The amount of improvement from i n i t i a l to f i n a l testing on the isometric strength scores was 36.0 percent. Within the Progressive Reinforcement trained group, i t was also found that the treadmill run performance time was significantly increased (t=9.02). The results of the blood analyses indicated that a general trend existed i n which the pH values decreased significantly as a result of training. After Progressive Reinforcement Training, i t was noted that there were significant improvements i n times for running 800 metres. The t-ratio between the i n i t i a l time t r i a l and the f i n a l one was 6.84 which was significant at the .05 level of significance. Thus, from the above physiological results, i t seems apparent that Progressive Reinforcement Training produces similar changes i n the same direction as other methods of training such as interval and fartlek training. 147 Findings On the basis of the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis and within the limitations of this study, the following findings appeared and were noted as follows: 1. Personality differences did exist i n the sample when compared to the norms for the Cattell Junior-Senior High School Personality Questionnaire. 2. A l l the members of the sample were c l a s s i f i e d as positive achievers. 3. After Progressive Reinforcement Training, i t was noted that there were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant changes i n the v e r t i c a l jump scores. 4. After Progressive Reinforcement Training, i t was noted that there were significant isometric leg strength improvements. They were: Left and Right Knee Flexors; Left and Right Hip Flexors and Extensors. 5. 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Johnson, W.R., Hutton, B.C., Johnson, G.B., "Personality Traits of Some Champion Athletes As Measured By Two Projective Tests: Rocharch and H-T-P", Research  Quarterly, v o l . 25 (March 1 9 5 4 ) , pp. 4 8 4 - 4 8 5 . 8 5 . Kaiser, R.L., Blake, R.R., "Aspiration and Performance i n a Simulated Group Atmosphere", Journal of Social Psychology, v o l . 4 2 (November 1 9 5 5 ) , PP. 193-202. 8 6 . Karvonen, M.J., "Problems of Training of the Cardio-vascular System", Ergonomics, vol. 2 (January 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 2. 8 7 - Kausler, D.H., "Aspiration Level as a Determinant of Performance", Journal of Personality, v o l . 27 (September 1959), pp. 346-351. 158 88. Keogh, J., "Relationship of Motor A b i l i t y and Athletic Participation i n Certain Standardized Personality Measures", Research Quarterly, vol. 50 (December 1959), pp. 438-44-5. 89. K r o l l , W., "Sixteen Personality Factor Profiles of Collegiate Wrestlers", Research Quarterly, v o l . 38 (March 1967), pp. 49-52. 90. K r o l l , W., Peterson, K.H., "Personality Factor Profiles of College Football Teams", Research Quarterly, v o l . 36 (December 1965), pp. 433-440. 91. La Place, J., "Personality and i t s Relationship to Success i n Professional Baseball", Research Quarterly, v o l . 25 (October 1954), pp. 313-319. 92. Laycoe, R.R., "The Effects of Isometric and Eccentric Strength Training Programs on Isometric Leg Strength", Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969. 93. Leclerg, J., "L 1entrainement Fractionne Dans l'Athletisme De Competition", Medicine. Education Physique et Snort, v o l . 35 (April - June, 1961), pp. 57-62. 94. Leithwood, K.A., "The Personality Characteristics of Three Groups of Weight - Trainers", Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967. 95. Leshner, S.S., "Effects of Aspiration and Achievement on Muscular Tensions", Journal of Experimental  Psychology, v o l . 61 (February 1961), pp. 135-137-96. Lotter, W.S., "Specificity or Generality of Speed of Systematically Related Movements", Research Quarterly, v o l . 32 (March 1961), pp. 55-62. 97. Mateef, D., "Excitation, Inhibition, Fatigue i n Recovery", Sechenov Physiological Journal of the U.S.S.R., vo l . 47 (September 1961), pp. 1282-1289. 98. Mathews, D.K., Measurement In Physical Education,. 2nd ed., Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1963. 159 99. Mathur, D.N., Vanketeshwaralu, K., "Influence of Interval Training on Blood Sugar Level", Track Technique, vol . 35 (March 1969), pp. 1096-1100. 100. McGloy, O.H., "Recent Studies on the Sargent Jump", Research Quarterly, v o l . 3 (May 1952), pp. 235-242. 101. McDonald, P.J., Educational Psychology. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company Inc., 1959. 102. Mellerowicz, H., Meller, W., Muller, J., "Comparative Study of the Effect of Intermittent Versus Continuous Training Programmes With Equal Amount of Total Work Load", Arbeitsohysiologie, v o l . 18 (1961), pp. 376-385-103. Merriman, J.B., "Relationship of Personality Traits to Motor A b i l i t y " , Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, State University of Iowa, 1959, Microcard. 104. Mole, P.A., "The Influence of Interval Running on the Aerobic Metabolism and Endurance Performance of Pour Young Men", Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , 1962. 105. Morehouse, L.E., "Physiological Basis of Strength Development", Exercise and Fitness, I l l i n o i s : Athletic Institute, I960, pp. 193-199. 106. Morehouse, L.E., Mi l l e r , A.T., Physiology of Exercise. 5th ed., St. Louis: The C.V. Mosby Company, 1967. 107. Mulak, J., "Mihaly Igloi's Training Methods", Track  Technique. v o l . 8 (June 1962), pp. 228-232. 108. Muller, E.A., "Training Muscle Strength", Ergonomics, v o l . 2 (February 1959), pp. 216-222. 109. Murray, N.H., "The Personality Characteristics of Three Groups of Athletes", Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968. 110. Honweiler, T., "The Work Production of Man; Studies on Racing Cyclists", Journal of Physiology, v o l . 141 (January 1958), pp. 8-9. 111. Ogilvie, B.C., Tutko, T.A., Problem Athletes and How  To Handle Them, London: Pelham Books, 1966. 160 112, Olson, E.C, "Identification of Personality Differences Among Male Tennis Champions", Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, Ohio State University, 1966, Microcard. 11$. Ozolin, W.G., "Developing Stamina i n Athletes", Run Run Bun, Los Altos, California: Track and F i e l d Hews, 1964, pp. 141-149. 114. Parsons, D.R., "Personality Traits of National Representative Swimmers", Unpublished Master's Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963. 115. 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APPENDIX APPENDIX A STATISTICAL TEEATMENT 166 STATISTICAL IEEATMENT Significance of the Difference A " t " test for correlated samples was used to determine the significance "between tests i n this study. The formulae for calculation were: 1. Group Mean, using original scores X » £ x where N = number of subjects | j - X = raw scores 2. The Mean Difference between raw scores D = ZD where D » difference between Tp paired scores N * number of subjects 3 . The Variance of the difference SD* = i.Dx- D^ where D* • squared difference * r - _ ^  between paired scores D = square mean difference N « number of subjects 4-. An estimate of the variance of the sampling distribution of D SD3 » SD* where SDa= the variance of the ips- difference H - number of subjects 5. The appropriate t ratio t « D » D where D = the mean difference SD* « the estimate of the ^ D /SD 5 - variance ^ " number of subjects APPENDIX B JE.-SE. H.S.P.Q. TEST AND INSTEUGTIONS - POEM A Jr.-Sr. H. S. P. Q F O R M A Second Edition (1963) W H A T T O DO: You have a Booklet and an Answer Sheet, the Answer Sheet where it tells you to. Write your name, age, etc., on We want to know what sort of a person you are. The paper before you has questions about your interests and your likes and dislikes. First, we shall give you two examples so that you will know exactly what to do. After each question there are three answers. Although you are to read the questions in this Booklet, you must put your answers on the Answer Sheet, alongside the same number as in the Booklet. Read the following examples and mark an x for your answers on the Answer Sheet where indicated: EXAMPLES: 1. Which would you rather do: a. visit a zoo, b. uncertain, c. go up in an a irplane? If you have a quarrel, do you make friends again quickly ? a. yes, b. in between, c. no. (or uncertain) As you see from these examples, there are usually no right and wrong answers. Each person is different and has only to say what is true for him. You can always find one answer that suits you a little better than the others, so never leave a question without marking one of the answers. Inside you will find more questions like the ones above. When you are told to turn the page, begin with number 1 and go on until you finish all the questions. In answering them, please keep these four points in mind: 1. Answer the questions frankly and truthfully. There is no advantage in giving the wrong impression. Never give an untrue answer about yourself because you think it is the "right thing to say." There are ways of detecting such unfair answers. 2. Please answer the questions as quickly as you can. Do not spend time puzzling over them. Give the first, natural answer as it comes to you. Some questions are a bit similar to others but no two are exactly alike and your answers will often differ in these cases. 3. Use the middle answer only when it is absolutely impossible to lean toward one or the other of the answer choices. In other words, the "yes" (or "a") or the "no" (or "c") answer should be used for most cases. 4. Do not skip any questions. Occasionally a statement may not seem to apply to you or your interests, but answer every question, somehow. If there is anything you want to ask about what you have to do, ask now. If there is nothing now, but you meet a word later on you do not understand, stop and ask then. DO NOT TURN PAGE UNTIL TOLD TO DO SO Copyright © by The Institute for Personality & Ability Testing, 1968, 1962, 1963. International copyright in all countries under the Berne Union, Buenos Aires, Bilateral, and Universal Copyright Conventions. All property rights reserved by The Institute for Person-ality & Ability Testing, 1602-04 Coronado Drive, Champaign, Illinois, U.S.A. Printed in U.S.A. HSPQ-Atb-7BB 1. Have you understood the instructions? a. yes, b. uncertain, c. no. 2. At a picnic would you rather spend some time: a. exploring the woods alone, b. uncertain, c. playing around the campfire with the crowd? 3. When you write an essay about your personal thoughts and feelings, do you: a. enjoy telling about yourself, b. uncertain, c. prefer to keep some ideas to yourself? 4. When you do a foolish thing, do you feel so badly that you wish the earth would just swallow you up? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 5. Do you find it easy to keep an exciting secret? a. yes, b. sometimes, c. no. 6. Compared to other people, do you make up your mind: a. with hesitation, b. in between, c. with certainty? 7. When things go wrong and upset you, do you believe in: a. just smiling, b. in between, c. making a fuss? 8. If friends' ideas differ from yours, do you keep from saying yours are better, so as not to hurt their feelings? a. yes, b. sometimes, c. no. 9. Do you laugh with your friends more in class than other people do? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 10. Do most people seem to enjoy your company? a. yes, a lot, b. just average, c. no. 11. Which of these says better what you are like? a. a dependable leader, b. in between, c. charming, good looking. 12. Do you sometimes feel, before a big party or outing, that you are not so interested in going? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 13. When you rightly feel angry with people, do you think it's all right for you to shout at them? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 14. When classmates play a joke on you, do you usually enjoy it as much as others without feel-ing at all upset? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 15. Are there times when you think, "People are so unreasonable, they can't even be trusted to look after their own good" ? a. true, b. perhaps, c. false. 16. Can you always tell what your real feelings are, for example, whether you are tired or just bored? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 17. Do you think there is a fair chance that you will be a well-known, popular figure when you grow up? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 18. When you are given higher grades than you usually make, do you feel that the teacher might have made a mistake? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 19. Would you rather be: a. a traveling T V actor, b. uncertain, c. a medical doctor? 20. Do you think that life has been a bit happier and more satisfying for you than for many other people? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 21. Do you have trouble remembering someone's joke well enough to tell it yourself? a. yes, b. sometimes, c. no. (End, column 1 on answer sheet.) 2 22. Have you enjoyed being in drama, such as school plays ? a. yes, b. uncertain, c. no. 23. "Mend" means the same as: a. repair, b. help, c. patch. 24. "Truth" is the opposite of: a. fancy, b. falsehood, c. denial. 25. Do you completely understand what you read in school ? a. yes, b. usually, c. no. 26. When chalk screeches on the blackboard does it make you feel odd? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 27. When something goes badly wrong, do you get very angry with people before you start to think what can be done about it ? a. often, b. sometimes, c. seldom. 28. When you finish school, would you like to: a. do something that will make people like you, though you are poor, b. uncertain, c. make a lot of money? 29. Do you dislike going into narrow caves or climb-ing to high places ? a. yes, b. sometimes, c. no. 30. Are you always ready to show, in front of every-one, how well you can do things compared with others ? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 31. Do you like to tell people to follow proper rules and regulations? a. yes, b. sometimes, c. no. 32. Can you talk to a group of strangers without stammering a little or without finding it hard to say what you want to ? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 33. Do some types of movies upset you? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 34. Would you enjoy more watching a boxing match than a beautiful dance? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 35. If someone has been unkind to you, do you soon trust him again and give him another chance? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 36. Do you sometimes feel you are not much good, and that you never do anything worthwhile? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 37. In the first grade, did you^ . always go to school without your mother's having to make you ? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 38. Do you tend to be quiet when out with a group of friends? a. yes, b. sometimes, c. no. 39. Do people say that you are a person who can always be counted on to do things exactly and methodically (carefully) ? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 40. If someone puts on noisy music while you are trying to work, can you still go on working? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 41. Would you rather spend some spare pocket money on: a. a popular dance record, b. uncertain, c. a book to show how you can earn more pocket money? (End, column 2 on answer sheet.) 3 42. Do you feel hurt if people borrow your things without asking you ? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 43. "Firm" is the opposite of: a. hard, b. kind, c. loose. 44. "Rich" is to "money" as "sad" is to: a. trouble, b. friends, c. land. 45. Have you always got along really well with your parents, brothers, and sisters? a. yes, b. in between, c. no. 46. If your friends leave you out of something they are doing, do you: a. think they made a mistake, b. in between, c. feel hurt and angry? 47. Do people say you are sometimes careless and un-tidy, though they think you are a fine person? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 48. Have you ever told your parents that some teach-ers are too old-fashioned to understand modern young people like you and your friends ? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 49. Which would you rather be: a. the most popular person in school, b. uncertain, c. the person with the best grades? 50. In a group of people, are you generally one of those who tells jokes and funny stories? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 51. Are you usually patient with people who speak very fast or very slowly? a. yes, b. sometimes, c. no. 52. Are your feelings easily hurt? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 53. In a play, would you rather act the part of a famous teacher of art than a tough pirate? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 54. Which course would you rather take: a. practical mathematics, b. uncertain, c. foreign language or drama? 55. Would you rather spend free time: a. by yourself, on a book or stamp collection, b. uncertain, c. working under others in a group project? 56. Do you feel that you are getting along well, and that you do everything that could be expected of you? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 57. Do you find yourself humming tunes someone else started ? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 58. When a new fad starts, for example, in dress or way of speaking, do you: a. start early and go along with it, b. uncertain, c. wait and watch before deciding if you will follow it? 59. Would you like to be extremely good-looking, so that people would notice you wherever you go? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 60. Do you feel that most of your wants are reason-ably well satisfied ? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 61. When you read an adventure story, do- you: a. get bothered whether it is going to end happily, b. uncertain, c. just enjoy the story as it goes along? (End, column 3 on answer sheet.) 4 62. In dancing or music, do you pick up a new rhythm easily? a. yes, b. sometimes, c. no. 63. "Picture" is to "scenery" as "novel" is to: a. locality, b. history, c. book. 64. If Joan's mother is my father's sister, what relation is Joan's father to me? a. father, b. brother, c. uncle. 65. Do you often make big plans and get excited about them, only to find that they just won't work out? a. yes, b. occasionally, c. no. 66. Can you work hard on something, without being bothered if there's a lot of noise around you? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 67. Do you often remember things differently from other people, so that you have to disagree, about what really happened? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 68. Do you prefer having teachers tell you how things should be done? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 69. When you are ready for a job, would you like one that: a. is steady and safe, even if it needs hard work, b. uncertain, c. has lots of change and meetings with lively people? 70. In group activities, which do you prefer? a. to be a good leader, b. in between, c. to be a good follower. 71. If you found another pupil doing a job you had been told to do, would you: a. ask him to let you do it, b. uncertain, c. let him keep on until the teacher could come to decide? 72. Can you work just as well, without making more mistakes, when people are watching you? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 73. When you see something very sad in a play, do you: a. find it hard to keep the tears away, b. in between, c. say, "Oh, this is just a lot of make-believe"? 74. Would you rather spend an afternoon by a lake: a. watching dangerous speed boat racing, b. uncertain, c. walking by the lovely shore with a friend? 75. When you are in a group, do you spend more time: a. enjoying the friendship, b. uncertain, c. watching what happens? 76. Which of these changes in school would you rather vote for: a. putting slow people in classes of their own, b. uncertain, c. doing away with unnecessary punishment? 77. When things are going wonderfully, do you: a. actually almost "jump for joy," b. uncertain, c. feel good inside, while appearing calm? 78. Would you rather be: a. a builder of bridges, b. uncertain, c. a member of a traveling circus? 79. When something is bothering you, do you think it's better to: a. try to hold it until you're in a calmer state, b. uncertain, c. blow off steam? 80. Do you sometimes say silly things, just to see what people will say? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 81. When you do badly in an important game, do you: a. say, "This is just a game," b. uncertain, c. get angry and "kick yourself"? (End, column 4 on answer sheet.) 5 82. Do you go out of your way to avoid crowded buses and streets? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 83. "Usually" means the same as: a. sometimes, b. always, c. generally. 84. If all firs are coniferous trees, and all coniferous trees are evergreens, which of the following is true? a. all firs are evergreens, b. all evergreens are firs, c. all coniferous trees are firs. 85. Are you satisfied that you come up to what people expect from someone of your age? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 86. If you keep breaking and accidentally wasting things when you are making something, do you keep calm just the same? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no, I get furious. 87. Do you tell schoolmates who are getting too noisy to keep quiet? a. often, b. sometimes, c. seldom. 88. In a trip with naturalists, would you find it more fun to: a. catch birds and preserve them in a collection, b. uncertain, c. make artistic photos and paintings of birds on the wing? 89. Would you rather: a. read a story of wild adventure, b. uncertain, c. actually have wild adventures happen to you? 90. Are you "steady and sure" in what you do? a. seldom, b. sometimes, c. always. 91. With people who take a long time to answer a question, do you: a. let them take their own time, however long, b. in between, c. try to hasten their answer, and get cross if they take a long time? 92. Do you sometimes feel unwilling to try some-thing, though you know it is not really danger-ous? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 93. Do you stand up before class without looking nervous and ill-at-ease ? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 94. Which would you rather watch on a fine eve-ning: a. car racing, b. uncertain, c. an open-air musical play? 95. Have you ever thought what you would do if you were the only person left in the world ? a. yes, b. not sure, c. no. 96. When you have to wait in line, do you often: a. wait patiently, b. uncertain, c. fidget and think of going away instead of waiting? 97. Do you wish you could learn to be more carefree and light-hearted about your school work? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 98. Are you, like a lot of people, slightly afraid of lightning? a. yes, b. perhaps. c. no. 99. Do you ever suggest to the teacher a new sub-ject for the class to discuss? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 100. Would you rather spend a break between morn-ing and afternoon classes in: a. a card game, b. uncertain, c. catching up on homework? 101. When you are walking in a quiet street in the dark, do you often get the idea you are being followed? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. (End, column 5 on answer sheet.) 6 102. In talking with your classmates, do you dislike telling your most private feelings ? a. yes, b. sometimes, c. no. 103. When you go into a new group, do you: a. quickly feel you know everyone, b. in between, c. take a long time to get to know people? 104. Look at these five words: mostly, gladly, chiefly, mainly, highly. The word that does not belong with the others is: ~~ a. mostly, b. gladly, c. highly. 105. Do you sometimes feel happy and sometimes feel depressed without real reason? a. yes, b. uncertain, c. no. 106. When people around you laugh and talk while you are listening to radio or TV: a. can you listen without being bothered, b. in between, c. does it spoil things and annoy you? 107. If you accidentally say something odd in com-pany, do you stay uncomfortable a long time, and .find it hard to forget? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 108. Are you known among your friends for going "all out" for things that take your fancy? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 109. Are you best regarded as a person who: a. thinks, b. in between, c. acts? 110. Do you spend most of your allowance each week for fun (instead of saving much of it for future needs)? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 111. Do other people often get in your way? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 112. How would you rate yourself? a. inclined to be moody, b. in between, c. not at all moody. 113. In school, do you feel your teachers: a. approve of you, b. uncertain, c. hardly know you are there? 114. Do your interests: a. roam widely over many things, b. in between, c. settle strongly on one or two important things? 115. Do you get in trouble more often through say-ing to a group wanting to do something: a. "Let's go!" b. uncertain, c. "I'd rather not join in"? 116. When you were growing up, did you expect the world to be: a. more kind and considerate than it is, b. uncertain, c. more tough and hard than it is? 117. Do you find it easy to go up and introduce your-self to an important person ? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 118. Do you think that the average committee of your classmates often makes poorer decisions than one person would do and also takes too much time ? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 119. Do you usually: a. follow your own ideas of what is right, b. uncertain, c. do the same as other people? 120. Do you sometimes go on and do something you very much want to do, even though you feel a bit ashamed of yourself? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 121. When someone is disagreeing with you, do you: a. let him say all he has to say, b. uncertain, c. tend to interrupt before he finishes? (End, column 6 on answer sheet.) 7 122. Would you rather live: a. in a deep forest, with only the song of birds, b. uncertain, c. on a busy street corner, where a lot hap-pens? 123. When a new teacher comes to your class, does he or she soon notice who you are and remem-ber you? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 124. Look at these five words: below, beside, above, behind, between. The word that does not belong with the others is: a. below, b. between, c. beside. 125. If someone asks you to do a new and difficult job, do you: a. feel glad and show what you can do, b. in between, c. feel you will make a mess of it? 126. When you raise your hand to answer a question in class, and many others raise their hands too, do you get excited? a. sometimes, b. not often, c. never. 127. In school would you rather be: a. a librarian, looking after the reading books, b. uncertain, c. an athletic coach? 128. On your birthday, do you prefer: a. to be asked beforehand, so that you can choose the present you want, b. uncertain, c. to have the fun of getting a present as a complete surprise? 129. Are you very careful not to hurt anyone's feel-ings or startle anyone, even in fun ? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 130. If you were working with groups in class, would you rather: a. walk around to carry things from one per-son to another, b. uncertain, c. specialize in showing people how to do one difficult part? 131. Do you take trouble to be sure you are right be-fore you say anything in class? a. always, b. generally, c. not usually. 8 132. Are you so afraid of consequences that you avoid making decisions one way or the other? a. often, b. sometimes, c. never. 133. Do you have periods of feeling just "run down"? a. seldom, b. sometimes, c. often. 134. When a close friend prefers someone else's company to yours on a special day, do you: a. complain to him for neglecting you, b. in between, c. take it in a "matter of fact" way? 135. Would you like better, when in the country: a. running a class picnic, b. uncertain, c. learning to know all the different trees in the woods? 136. In group discussions, do you often find yourself: a. taking a lone stand, b. uncertain, c. agreeing with the group? 137. Do your feelings get so bottled up that you feel you could burst? a. often, b. sometimes, c. seldom. 138. Which kind of friends do you like? Those who like to: a. "kid around," b. uncertain, c. be more serious? 139. If you were not a human being, would you rather be: a. an eagle on a far mountain, b. uncertain, c. a seal, in a seal colony by the seashore? 140. Do you think that to be polite you must learn to control your feelings? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 141. Do small troubles sometimes "get on your nerves" even though you know that they are not very important? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. 142. Are you sure you have answered every question ? a. yes, b. perhaps, c. no. APPENDIX C TRAINING SCHEDULES Schedule I TRAINING SGHEDULE - Subject R.D. Workout 1 Workout 4 Workout 8 Workout 12 Workout 16 Workout 20 4x2 min.Cl min.easy 1 min. fast )with 4 min. rest between 1 i l l n e s s 2 3 4 Rest 6 min. 6x20 sec.(30 sec.jog) 663 yds. 670 yds. 671 yds. 667 yds. 1 150 yds. jog 100 yds. 2 141 yds. jog 100 yds. 3 145 yds. jog 100 yds. 4 144 yds. jog 100 yds. 5 140 yds. jog 100 yds. 6 mm missed 695 yds. 689 yds. 669 yds. 683 yds. 142 yds. jog 100 yds. 142 yds. jog 100 yds. 143 yds. jog 100 yds. 144 yds. jog 100 yds. 142 yds. jog 100 yds. 142 yds. jog 100 yds. 683 yds. missed 550 yds. knee hurt didn't f i n i s h Schedule II Workout 2 Workout 5 4x1 min.(l)£ min. jog) Jog 4 min, 1 325 yds. 341 yds. jog 200 yds.jog 160 yds, 2 330 yds. 354 yds. jog 200 yds.jog 160 yds, 3 333 yds. 351 yds. jog 200 yds.jog 160 yds, 4 358 yds. 348 yds. jog 200 yds.jog 160 yds, 1015 yds. 880 yds. 4x1 min. (lj£ min. jog) 1 311 yds. 351 yds. jog 200 yds.jog 160 yds, 2 341 yds. 351 yds. jog 200 yds.jog 160 yds, 3 369 yds. 352 yds. jog 200 yds.jog 160 yds. 4 339 yds. 351 yds. jog 200 yds.jog 160 yds, Jog 4 min. Rest 10 min. 970 yds. 880 yds, Workout 9 Workout 13 Workout 17 Workout 21 missed 345 yds. i l l n e s s missed jog 160 yds. 345 yds. jog 160 yds. 342 yds. jog 160 yds. 340 yds. jog 160 yds. 880 yds. 345 yds. jog 160 yds. 345 yds. jog 160 yds. 346 yds. jog 160 yds. 349 yds. jog 160 yds. 880 yds. Schedule II cont. Workout 2 Workout 5 Workout 9 Workout 1$ Workout 17 Workout 21 4x20 sec.(l min. walk after each) 1 144 yds. 147 yds. 144 yds. 2 153 yds. 149 yds. 144 yds. 3 149 yds. 152 yds. 142 yds. 4 Rest 3 min. 150 yds. 152 yds. 146 yds. 4x20 sec.(l min. walk after each) 1 157 yds. 149 yds. 142 yds. 2 137 yds. 150 yds. 142 yds. 3 152 yds. 148 yds. 140 yds. 4 155 yds. 151 yds. 140 yds. Schedule III Workout 3 Workout 6 Workout 10 Workout 14 Workout 18 2x75 sec.Cl min. rest) 1 2 4 min. rest 2x75 sec. 1 440 yds. 466 yds. 425 yds. missed leg knee bothered problem him i l l n e s s 2 437 yds. 4 min. rest 2x75 sec. 1 ill n e s s 2 10 min. rest Schedule III cont. Workout 3 Workout 6 Workout 10 Workout 14 Workout 18 30 sec. 15 sec. (4-6) stride, very fast 1 2 3 4 5 6 Schedule IV Workout 7 Workout 11 Workout 15 Workout 19 4x45 sec.(2# min. rest) 1 304 yds. 311 yds. 310 yds. i l l n e s s 2 317 yds. 295 yds. 310 yds. 3 310 yds. 296 yds. 307 yds. 4 227 yds. 285 yds. 314 yds. 4 min. rest 2x45 sec.(2# min. rest) , 8 min. rest - xl2 sec.(lj£ min rest) 311 yds. 315 yds. 294 yds, 298 yds. 312 yds. 310 yds. 1 77 yds. 80 yds. 79 yds. 2 head ache 83 yds. 78 yds. 3 dropped out 86 yds. 79 yds. 4 100 yds. 79 yds. 5 86 yds. 79 yds. 6 100 yds. 79 yds. 7 100 yds. Schedule I TRAINING SCHEDULE - Subject S.V. Workout 1 Workout 4 Workout 8 Workout 12 Workout 16 Workout 20 4x2 min.(l min.easy 1 min.fast)with 4 min. rest between 1 583 yds. missed 2 637 yds. 3 619 yds. 4 597 yds. Rest 6 min. 6x20 sec.C$0 sec.jog) 1 129 yds. jog 100 yds, 2 122 yds. jog 100 yds. 3 136 yds. jog 100 yds. 4 134 yds. jog 100 yds. 5 129 yds. jog 100 yds. 6 136 yds. jog 100 yds. missed missed 590 yds. missed 580 yds. 588 yds. 590 yds. 131 yds. jog 100 yds. 132 yds. jog 100 yds. 133 yds. jog 100 yds. 131 yds. jog 100 yds. 133 yds. jog 100 yds. 131 yds. jog 100 yds. Schedule II Workout 2 Workout 5 Workout 9 Workout 13 Workout 17 Workout 21 4x1 min.(lj£ min. jog) 1 300 yds. 322 yds. 330 yds. jog 200yds. jog 160yds. jog 110yds. 2 329 yds. 343 yds. 327 yds. jog 200yds. jog 160yds. jog 110yds. 3 321 yds. 334 yds. 323 yds. jog 200yds. jog 160yds. jog 110yds. 4 326 yds. 329 yds. 325 yds. jog 200 yds.jog 160yds. jog 110yds. Jog 4 min. 4x1 min.(l)& min. jog) 311 yds. jog 200yds. 306 yds. jog 200yds. 318 yds. jog 200 yds 326 yds. jog 200yds. 334 yds. jog 160yds. 333 yds. jog 160yds. 334 yds. .jog 160yds. 335 yds. jog 160yds. 328 yds. jog 110yds. 329 yds. jog 110yds. 333 yds. jog 110yds. 335 yds. jog 110yds. Jog 4 min. Best 10 min. 955 yds. 770 yds. 750 yds. missed i l l n e s s missed Schedule II cont. Workout 2 Workout 5 Workout 9 Workout 13 Workout 17 Workout 21 4x20 sec.(l min. walk after each) 1 140 yds. 137 yds. 134 yds. 2 147 yds. 134 yds. 135 yds. 3 136 yds. 136 yds. 135 yds. 4 141 yds. 139 yds. 137 yds. fiest 3 min. 4x20 sec.(l min. walk after each) 1 151 yds. 128 yds. 133 yds. 2 131 yds. 135 yds. 137 yds. 3 141 yds. 130 yds. 135 yds. 4 140 yds. 145 yds. 130 yds. Schedule III Workout 3 Workout 6 Workout 10 Workout 14 Workout 18 2x75 s e e d min. rest) ^ 412 yds. missed missed 431 yds. 424 yds. 2 436 yds. 420 yds. 420 yds. 4 min. rest 2x75 s e e 435 yds. 425 yds. 425 yds. 2 406 yds. 410 yds. 417 yds. 4 min. rest 2x75 sec. 423 yds. 1 414 yds. 412 yds. 2 417 yds. - 413 yds. 10 min. rest Schedule III cont. Workout 3 Workout 6 Workout 10 Workout 14 Workout 18 (4-6) 30 sec. stride, 15 sec. very fast 1 2 4 5 6 110;86 yds. 110;83 yds. 110;85 yds. 110;88 yds. 110;86 yds. 110;88 yds. 110;90 yds. 110;93 yds. 110;92 yds. 110;94 yds. 110;92 yds. 110;86 yds. 110;92 yds. 110;92 yds. 110;92 yds. 110;92 yds. Schedule IV Workout 7 Workout 11 Workout 15 Workout 19 4x45 sec.{2% min. rest) ^ 2 3 4 4 min. rest 2x45 sec.(2J£ min. rest) -i 8 min. rest - xl2 sec.(1)6 min. rest) 299 yds. 284 yds. 300 yds. 310 yds. 284 yds. 294 yds. 294 yds. 291 yds. 292 yds. 300 yds. 290 yds. 290 yds. 289 yds. 289 yds. 289 yds. 284 yds. 290 yds. missed 1 74 yds. 84 yds. 73 yds. 2 75 yds. 84 yds. 77 yds. 3 74 yds. 99 yds. 79 yds. 4 66 yds. 94 yds. 71 yds. 5 73 yds. 99 yds. 70 yds. 6 80 yds. 99 yds. 65 yds. 7 81 yds. 94 yds. -Schedule I TRAINING SCHEDULE - Subject C.G. Workout 1 Workout 4 Workout 8 Workout 12 Workout 16 Workout 20 4x2 min.(1 min.easy 1 min.fast)with 4 min. rest between 1 592 yds. 640 yds. 2 626 yds. 658 yds. 3 633 yds. 642 yds. 4 608 yds. 641 yds. Rest 6 min. 6x20 sec.(30 sec.jog) missed 659 yds. 680 yds. 663 yds. 676 yds. 649 yds. 649 yds. 649 yds. 621 yds. 1 133 yds. 149 yds. 159 yds. 165 yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. 2 125 yds. 140 yds. 167 yds. 160 yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. 3 133 yds. 142 yds. 164 yds. 160 yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. 4 131 yds. 140 yds. 163 yds. 158 yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. 5 139 yds. 142 yds. 173 yds. — jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. 6 145 yds. 150 yds. - -jog 100yds. jog 100yds. dentist Schedule II Workout 2 Workout 5 Workout 9 Workout 13 Workout 17 Workout 21 4x1 min.(l}£ min. jog) Jog 4 min, 4x1 min.(l# min. jog) 1 1 290 yds. went missed 304 yds. 314 yds. jog 200 yds. skiing jog 110yds. jog 110yds. 2 318 yds. 304 yds. 322 yds. jog 200 yds. jog 110yds. jog 110yds. 3 299 yds. 306 yds. 324 yds. jog 200 yds. jog 110yds. jog 110yds. 4 208 yds. 305 yds. 333 yds. jog 200 yds. jog 110yds. jog 110yds. 760 yds. 880 yds. 890 yds. 2 3 4 Jog 4 min. Eest 10 min. 282 yds. jog 200 yds. 311 yds. jog 200 yds. 306 yds. jog 200 yds. 222 yds. jog 200 yds. 890 yds. 308 yds. jog 110yds. 304 yds. jog 110yds. 305 yds. jog 110yds. 307 yds. jog 110yds. 880 yds. 330 yds. jog 110yds, 338 yds. jog 110yds, 337 yds. jog 110yds, 337 yds. jog 110yds, 885 yds. missed Schedule II cont. Workout 2 Workout 5 Workout 9 Workout 13 Workout 17 Workout 21 4x20 sec.(l min. walk after each) 1 125 yds. 135 yds. 154 yds. 2 126 yds. 135 yds. 147 yds. 3 130 yds. 134 yds. 146 yds. 4 138 yds. 135 yds. 147 yds. Rest 3 min. 4x20 sec.(l min. walk after each) 1 132 yds. 135 yds. 147 yds. 2 129 yds. 134 yds. 147 yds. 3 148 yds. 135 yds. 147 yds. 4 153 yds. 138 yds. 150 yds. Schedule III Workout 3 Workout 6 Workout 10 Workout 14 Workout 18 2x75 sec.(l min. rest) ^ 435 yds. 405 yds. 444 yds. 439 yds. 444 yds. 2 455 yds. 441 yds. 439 yds. 439 yds. 450 yds. 4 min. rest 2x75 sec. 424 yds. 430 yds. 440 yds. 438 yds. 447 yds. 2 4 min. rest 432 yds. 437 yds. 437 yds. 433 yds. 445 yds. 2x75 sec. 430 yds. 433 yds. 429 yds. 426 yds. 445 yds. 2 415 yds. - 439 yds. 431 yds. 445 yds. 10 min. rest Schedule III cont. Workout 3 Workout 6 Workout 10 Workout 14 Workout 18 30 sec. stride, 15 sec. very fast (4-6) x 110;90 yds. 110;100yds. UO; 101yds. 110;101yds. 2 110;93 yds. 110;100yds. 110;103yds. 110;104yds. 3 110;110yds. 110;100yds. 110;102yds. 110;109yds. 4 110;120yds. 110;100yds. 110;101yds. 110;106yds. 5 110;100yds. 110;101yds. 6 110;100yds. 110;105yds. Schedule IV Workout 7 Workout 11 Workout 15 Workout 19 4x45 see.(2)4 min. rest) ^ missed 277 yds. 301 yds. 301 yds. 2 279 yds. 300 yds. 305 yds. 3 277 yds. 302 yds. 301 yds. 4 4 min. rest 2x45 sec.(2)^ min. rest) 279 yds. 299 yds. 306 yds. 277 yds. 303 yds. 304 yds. 2 8 min. rest - xl2 sec.(1)6 min. rest) 1 2 3 4 5 6 271 yds. 95 yds. 95 yds. 100 yds. 95 yds. 103 yds. 105 yds. 300 yds. 97 yds. 98 yds. 96 yds. 96 yds. 97 yds. 100 yds. 301 yds. 97 yds. 97 yds. 97 yds. 97 yds. 97 yds. 99 yds. TRAINING SCHEDULE - Subject G.N. Schedule I Workout 1 Workout 4 Workout 8 Workout 12 Workout 16 Workout 20 4x2 min.Cl min.easy 1 min.fast)with 4 min. rest between 1 61$ yds. 2 591 yds. 5 62? yds. 4 645 yds. Rest 6 min. 6x20 sec.(30 sec.jog) 1 127 yds. jog 100yds. 2 122 yds. jog 100yds. 3 123 yds. jog 100yds. 4 134 yds. jog 100yds. 5 133 yds. jog 100yds. 6 132 yds. jog 100yds. 655 yds. 648 yds. 656 yds. 650 yds. 141 yds. jog 100yds. 134 yds. jog 100yds. 137 yds. jog 100yds. 136 yds. jog 100yds. 133 yds. jog 100yds. 142 yds. jog 100yds. 648 yds. 661 yds. 657 yds. 644 yds. 133 yds. jog 100yds. 137 yds. jog 100yds. 135 yds. jog 100yds. 134 yds. jog 100yds. 137 yds. jog 100yds. 137 yds. jog 100yds. missed 620 yds. 560 yds. 620 yds. 642 yds. 143 yds. jog 100yds. 137 yds. jog 100yds. 138 yds. jog 100yds. 139 yds. jog 100yds. 141 yds. jog 100yds. 151 yds. jog 100yds. 673 yds, 676 yds. 662 yds. 670 yds. 151 yds. jog 100yds. 145 yds. jog 100yds. 152 yds. jog 100yds. 140 yds. jog 100yds. 149 yds. jog 100yds. 165 yds. jog 100yds. Schedule II Workout 2 Workout 5 4x1 min. (1)6 min. jog) Jog 4 min. 4x1 min. (1)6 min. jog) 1 1 290 yds. 317 yds. jog 200yds. jog 160yds. 2 319 yds. 338 yds. jog 200yds. jog 160yds. 3 306 yds. 327 yds. jog 200yds. jog 160yds. 4 318 yds. 325 yds. jog 200yds. jog 160yds. 895 yds. 880 yds. 2 3 4 Jog 4 min. Best 10 min. 304 yds. jog 200yds. 299 yds. jog 200yds. 212 yds. jog 200yds. 221 yds. jog 200yds. 347 yds. jog 160yds. 324 yds. jog 160yds. 327 yds. jog 160yds. 326 yds. jog 160yds. 955 yds. 880 yds. Workout 9 Workout 13 Workout 17 Workout 21 sore legs 328 yds. jog 110yds. 333 yds. jog 110yds. 330 yds. jog 110yds. 335 yds. jog 110yds. 890 yds. i l l n e s s 347 yds. QOg 150yds. 360 yds. Jog 150yds. 356 yds. jog 150yds. 364 yds. jog 150yds. 760 yds. 330 yds. jog 110yds. 330 yds. jog 110yds. 329 yds. jog 110yds. 326 yds. jog 110yds. 915 yds. 369 yds. jog 150yds. 360 yds. jog 150yds. 371 yds. jog 150yds. 367 yds. dog 150yds. 1040 yds. Schedule II cont. Workout 2 Workout 5 Workout 9 Workout 13 Workout 17 Workout 21 4x20 sec.(l min. walk; after each) 1 142 yds. 138 yds. 140 yds. 141 yds. 2 151 yds. 143 yds. 140 yds. 142 yds. 3 144 yds. 144 yds. 143 yds. 140 yds. 4 Eest 3 min. 146 yds. 144 yds. 140 yds. 154 yds. 4x20 s e e d min. walk after each) 1 154 yds. 143 yds. 139 yds. 140 yds. 2 135 yds. 146 yds. 142 yds. 142 yds. 3 151 yds. 145 yds. 142 yds. 141 yds. 4 155 yds. 147 yds. 146 yds. 143 yds. Schedule III Workout 3 Workout 6 Workout 10 Workout 14 Workout 18 2x75 s e e d min. rest) 1 430 yds. 429 yds. 436 yds. bruised 443 yds. 2 4 min. rest 433 yds. 433 yds. 427 yds. h e e l 432 yds. 2x75 sec. ^  420 yds. 420 yds. 417 yds. 435 yds. 2 4 min. rest 428 yds. 405 yds. 409 yds. 414 yds. 2x75 sec. ^  428 yds. 399 yds. 403 yds. 432 yds. 2 410 yds. - 421 yds. 422 yds. 10 min. rest Schedule III cent. Workout 3 Workout 6 Workout 10 Workout 14 Workout 18 30 sec. stride, 15 sec. very fast (4-6) 1 110;86 yds. 110;90 yds. 110;101 yds. 2 110;89 yds. 110;90 yds. 110;101 yds, 3 110;91 yds. 110;90 yds. 110; 99 yds. 4 110;96 yds. 110;90 yds. 110;100 yds. Schedule IV Workout 7 Workout 11 Workout 15 Workout 19 4x45 sec.(2# min. r e s t ) 1 301 yds. blisters 2 313 yds. 3 301 yds. 4 316 yds. 4 min. rest 2x45 sec.(2# min. r e s t ^ 1 312 yds. 2 309 yds. 8 min. rest - xl2 sec.(l)£ min. r e s t ^ 1 89 yds. 2 91 yds. 3 90 yds. 4 83 yds. 5 87 yds. 6 85 yds. on feet 310 yds. 281 yds. 310 yds. 287 yds. 312 yds. 287 yds. 306 yds. 285 yds. 312 yds. 285 yds. 312 yds. 285 yds. 89 yds. 90 yds. 90 yds. 89 yds. 90 yds. 90 yds. 90 yds. 87 yds. 90 yds. 90 yds. 91 yds. 90 yds. Schedule I TRAINING SCHEDULE - Subject I.P. Workout 1 Workout 4- Workout 8 Workout 12 Workout 16 Workout 20 4x2 min.(l min.easy 1 min.fast)with 4 min. rest between 1 696 yds. 2 524 yds. 3 634 yds. 4 571 yds. Rest 6 min. 6x20 sec.(30 sec.jog) 1 133 yds. jog 100yds. 2 121 yds. jog 100yds. 3 122 yds. jog 100yds. 4 120 yds. jog 100yds. 5 127 yds. jog 100yds. 6 143 yds. jog 100yds, 767 yds. 525 yds. 622 yds. 608 yds. 133 yds. jog 100yds. 123 yds. jog 100yds. 129 yds. jog 100yds. 127 yds. jog 100yds. 129 yds. jog 100yds. 136 yds. jog 100yds. 662 yds. 658 yds. 636 yds. 628 yds. 680 yds. 679 yds. 670 yds. 660 yds. 130 yds. 141 yds. jog 100yds.jog 100yds. 132 yds. 139 yds. jog 100yds.jog 100yds. 129 yds. jog 100yds 129 yds. 138 yds. jog 100yds.jog 100yds 129 yds. jog 100yds. 131 yds. jog 100yds, 126 yds. ,jog 100yds. 145 yds. jog 100yds, 667 yds. 632 yds. 635 yds. 638 yds. 140 yds. jog 100yds, 137 yds. jog 100yds, 138 yds. jog 100yds, 138 yds. jog 100yds, 141 yds. jog 100yds. 138 yds. jog 100yds. 687 yds. 682 yds. 673 yds. 643 yds. 147 yds. jog 100yds. 145 yds. jog 100yds. 142 yds. jog 100yds. 140 yds. jog 100yds. 140 yds. jog 100yds. 158 yds. jog 100yds. Schedule II Workout 2 Workout 5 Workout 9 Workout 13 Workout 17 Workout 21 4x1 min.(l#min. jog) 1 2 Jog 4 min. 4x1 min.(l#min. 1 3 4 Jog 4 min. Rest 10 min. 295 yds. jog 200yds, 300 yds. jog 200yds, 297 yds. jog 200yds« 313 yds. jog 200yds, 770 yds. jog) 276 yds. jog 200yds, 299 yds. jog 200yds, 297 yds. jog 200yds, 362 yds. jog 200yds, 344 yds. jog 160yds, 333 yds. jog 160yds. 335 yds. jog 160yds, 338 yds. jog 160yds, 350 yds. jog 160yds. 337 yds. jog 160yds. 340 yds. jog 160yds. 338 yds. jog 160yds. 336 yds. jog 160yds. 336 yds. jog 160yds. 334 yds. jog 160yds. 336 yds. jog 160yds. 740 yds. 740 yds. 710 yds. 331 yds. jog 160yds. 331 yds. jog 160yds. 332 yds. jog 160yds. 343 yds. jog 160yds. 326 yds. jog 160yds. 345 yds. jog 160yds. 336 yds. jog 160yds. 348 yds. jog 160yds. 334 yds. jog 160yds. 334 yds. jog 160yds. 337 yds. jog 160yds. 338 yds. jog 160yds. 309 yds. jog 150yds. 310 yds. jog 150yds. 309 yds. jog 150yds. 307 yds. jog 150yds. 740 yds. 305 yds. jog 150yds, 310 yds. jog 150yds, 306 yds. jog 150yds, 306 yds. jog 150yds, 351 yds. jog 150yds. 361 yds. jog 150yds. 362 yds. jog 150yds. 361 yds. jog 150yds. 710 yds. 367 yds. jog 150yds. 360 yds. jog 150yds. 366 yds. jog 150yds. 372 yds. jog 150yds. 830 yds. 740 yds. 740 yds. 730 yds. 760 yds. 880 yds, Schedule II cont. Workout 2 Workout 5 Workout 9 Workout 13 Workout 17 Workout 21 4x20 s e e d min. walk after each) 1 119 yds. 139 yds. 2 123 yds. 128 yds. 3 128 yds. 134 yds. 4 133 yds. 133 yds. Eest 3 min. 4x20 sec.(l min. walk after each) 1 124 yds. 137 yds. 2 123 yds. 135 yds. 3 131 yds. 139 yds. 4 164 yds. 149 yds. 137 yds. 137 yds. 142 yds. 157 yds. 137 yds. 137 yds. 144 yds. 137 yds. 137 yds. 137 yds. 141 yds. 137 yds. 137 yds. 136 yds. 142 yds. 137 yds. 133 yds. 135 yds. 140 yds. 137 yds. 136 yds. 135 yds. 139 yds. 137 yds. 133 yds. 136 yds. 140 yds. 137 yds. 137 yds. 137 yds. 145 yds. 137 yds. Schedule III Workout 3 Workout 6 Workout 10 Workout 14 Workout 18 2x75 s e e d min. rest) 1 431 yds. 410 yds. 420 yds. 422 yds. 450 yds. 2 446 yds. 419 yds. 416 yds. 421 yds. 440 yds. 4 min. rest 2x75 sec. ± 4 1 g y d s > 4 0 4 y d s # w y d s > 4 2 0 y d s > 4 5 6 y d s # 2 426 yds. 401 yds. 410 yds. 410 yds. 415 yds. 4 min. rest 2x75 s e e x 5 6 1 y d s # 4 0 2 y d g # 4 0 O y y d s # 4 1 1 y d s # 4 2 1 y d g # 2 394 yds. - 406 yds. 415 yds. 402 yds. 10 min. rest Schedule III cont. Workout 3 Workout 6 Workout 10 Workout 14 Workout 18 30 sec. stride, 1 5 sec. very fast ^ 4~ 6^ 1 110;81 yds. 110;90 yds. 110;90 yds. 110;98 yds. 2 110;83 yds. 110;90 yds. 110;92 yds. 110;98 yds. 3 110;97 yds. 110;90 yds. 110;90 yds. 110;91 yds. 4 110;98 yds. 110;90 yds. 110;90 yds. 110;92 yds. 5 110;93 yds. 6 110;95' 7ds. Schedule IV Workout 7 Workout 11 Workout 15 Workout 1 9 4x45 sec.(2)6 min. -rest) 1 3 0 3 yds. 297 yds. 300 yds. 3 0 1 yds. 2 314 yds. 2 9 1 yds. 302 yds. 301 yds. ; 3 304 yds. 287 yds. 3 0 2 yds. 295 yds. 4 311 yds. 280 yds. 3 0 5 yds. 287 yds. 4 min. rest 2x45 sec.(2)6 min. rest) ^ 288 yds. 3 1 9 yds. 3 0 0 yds. 2 7 9 yds. 2 283 yds. 292 yds. 3 0 1 yds. 282 yds. 8 min. rest - xl2 sec.(1)6 min. rest) 1 79 yds. 77 yds. 80 yds. 80 yds. 2 7 6 yds. 81 yds. 80 yds. 79 yds. 3 79 yds. 82 yds. 78 yds. 79 yds. 4 76 yds. 81 yds. 79 yds. 79 yds. 5 83 yds. 80 yds. 81 yds. 6 83 yds. 80 yds. 84 yds. TRAINING SCHEDULE - Subject S.C. Schedule I Workout 1 Workout 4 Workout 8 Workout 12 Workout 16 Workout 20 4x2 min.(l min.easy 1 min.fast)with 4 min. rest between 1 612 yds. 646 yds. 649 yds. 2 601 yds. 62$ yds. 649 yds, $ 605 yds. 618 yds. 645 yds, 4 608 yds. 609 yds. 6$$ yds. Rest 6 min. 6x20 sec.($0 sec.jog) missed 651 yds. 614 yds. 617 yds. 629 yds. 1 128 yds. 1$$ yds. 1$5 yds. 1$$ yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. 2 117 yds. 12$ yds. 135 yds. 1$6 yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. 5 109 yds. 126 yds. 129 yds. 1$2 yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. 4 122 yds. 120 yds. 129 yds. 1$2 yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. 5 117 yds. 127 yds. 129 yds. 1$4 yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. 6 124 yds. 14$ yds. 1$$ yds. 1$4 yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. i l l n e s s vO Schedule II Workout 2 Workout 5 4x1 min. (1)6 min. jog) 1 i l l n e s s 2 3 4 Jog 4 min. 4x1 min. (1)6 min. jog) 1 2 3 4 Jog 4 min. Rest 10 min. 332 yds. jog 160 yds. 325 yds. jog 160 yds. 339 yds. jog 160 yds. 342 yds. jog 160 yds. 880 yds. 339 yds. jog 160 yds. 339 yds. jog 160 yds. 335 yds. jog 160 yds. 335 yds. jog 160 yds. 880 yds. Workout 9 Workout 13 Workout 17 Workout 21 missed 330 yds. missed 362 yds. jog 110 yds. jog 110 yds, 332 yds. 352 yds. jog 110 yds. jog 110 yds, 335 yds. 352 yds. jog 110 yds. jog 110 yds, 337 yds. 352 yds. jog 110 yds. jog 110 yds, 730 yds. 760 yds. 335 yds. jog 110 yds. 337 yds. jog 110 yds. 337 yds. jog 110 yds. 340 yds. jog 110 yds. 710 yds. 350 yds. jog 110 yds. 350 yds. jog 110 yds. 345 yds. jog 110 yds. 358 yds. jog 110 yds. 1060 yds. (—1 vO CO Schedule II cont. Workout 2 Workout 5 Workout 9 Workout 13 Workout 17 Workout 21 4x20 sec.(l min. walk after each) 1 138 yds. 134 yds. 140 yds. 2 131 yds. 134 yds. 133 yds. 3 134 yds. 134 yds. 132 yds. 4 136 yds. 134 yds. 135 yds. Best 3 min. 4x20 s e e d min. walk after each) 1 138 yds. 136 yds. 133 yds. 2 127 yds. 134 yds. 135 yds. 3 137 yds. 134 yds. 132 yds. 4 138 yds. 139 yds. 133 yds. Schedule III Workout 3 Workout 6 Workout 10 Workout 14 Workout 18 2x75 s e e d min. rest?) 1 405 yds. 413 yds. 422 yds. 428 yds. 427 yds. 2 4 min. rest 431 yds. 427 yds. 419 yds. 416 yds. 422 yds. 2x75 sec. 1 422 yds. 410 yds. 421 yds. 416 yds. 428 yds. 2 4 min. rest 403 yds. 418 yds. 405 yds. 405 yds. 421 yds. 2x75 sec. ^  405 yds. 405 yds. - 400 yds. 410 yds. 2 414 yds. - - 413 yds. 10 min. rest Schedule III cont. Workout 3 Workout 6 Workout 10 Workout 14- Workout 18 30 sec. stride, 15 sec. very fast ^*~ O J 1 110;83 yds. 110;90 yds. 110;90 yds. 110; 100 yds. 2 110;86 yds. 110;90 yds. 110;91 yds. 110;100 yds. 3 110;93 yds. 110;90 yds. 110;90 yds. 110;98 yds. 4 110;98 yds. 110;90 yds. 110;92 yds. 110;97 yds. 5 110;91 yds. 6 110;90 yds. Schedule IV Workout 7 Workout 11 Workout 15 Workout 19 4x45 sec.(2)£ min. r e s t ) 1 298 yds. 292 yds. 300 yds. missed 2 3 4 4 min. rest 2x45 sec.(2)£ min. rest) ^ 2 8 min. rest -xl2 sec.(l>& min. rest)  s.  s. s. 304 yds. 291 yds. 303 yds. 294 yds. 287 yds. 304 yds. 301 yds. 277 yds. 304 yds. 302 yds. 300 yds. 299 yds. 300 yds. 1 81 yds. 98 yds. 86 yds. 2 89 yds. 94 yds. 86 yds. 3 89 yds. 94 yds. 85 yds. 4 78 yds. 92 yds. 85 yds. 5 84 yds. 96 yds. 84 yds. 6 84 yds. 94 yds. 84 yds. 7 83 yds. 84 yds. TRAINING Schedule I Workout 1 Workout 4 4x2 min.Cl min.easy 1 min. fast)with 4 min. rest between 1 609 yds. 2 592 yds. 3 610 yds. 4 592 yds. Rest 6 min. 6x20 sec.(30 sec.jog) 631 yds. 612 yds. 604 yds. 607 yds. 1 121 yds. 130 yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. 2 106 yds. 118 yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. 3 106 yds. 121 yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. 4 118 yds. 115 yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. 5 117 yds. 118 yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. 6 129 yds. 132 yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. SCHEDULE - Subject N.W. Workout 8 Workout 12 Workout 16 Workout 20 holidays 646 yds. 647 yds. 634 yds. 645 yds. 638 yds. 606 yds. 577 yds. 638 yds. 690 yds. 691 yds. 668 yds. 654 yds. 150 yds. jog 100yds. 153 yds. jog 100yds. 143 yds. jog 100yds. 154 yds. jog 100yds. 165 yds. jog 100yds. 145 yds. jog 100yds. 136 yds. jog 100yds. 137 yds. jog 100yds. 133 yds. jog 100yds. 156 yds. jog 100yds. 141 yds. jog 100yds. 158 yds. jog 100yds. 149 yds. jog 100yds. 155 yds. jog 100yds. 161 yds. jog 100yds. 159 yds. jog 100yds. 152 yds. jog 100yds. workout 2 Workout 5 Schedule II jog) 294 yds. jog 200yds. 294 yds. jog 200yds. 294 yds. jog 200yds. 304 yds. jog 200yds. 765 yds. jog) 277 yds. jog 200yds. 297 yds. jog 200yds. 297 yds. jog 200yds. 324 yds. jog 200yds. 850 yds. 320 yds. jog 160yds. 317 yds. jog 160yds. 316 yds. jog 160yds. 320 yds. jog 160yds. 740 yds. 317 yds. jog 160yds. 318 yds. jog 160yds. 309 yds. jog 160yds. 313 yds. jog 160yds. 740 yds. 4x1 min.(lj£ min. 1 2 3 4 Jog 4 min. 4x1 min.(lj£ min. 1 2 3 4 Jog 4 min. Rest 10 min. Workout 9 Workout 13 Workout 17 Workout 21 holidays 314 yds. jog 110 yds. 317 yds. jog 110yds. 319 yds. jog 110yds. 320 yds. jog 110yds. 330 yds. jog 110 yds. 357 yds. jog 150yds, 322 yds. jog 110yds. 320 yds. jog 110yds. 332 yds. jog 110yds. 347 yds. jog 150yds, 347 yds. jog 150yds, 350 yds. jog 150yds. 740 yds. 730 yds. 740 yds. 317 yds. jog 110yds. 316 yds. jog 110yds. 319 yds. jog 110yds. 322 yds. jog 110yds. 710 yds. 324 yds. jog 110yds. 332 yds. jog 110yds. 324 yds. jog 110yds. 331 yds. jog 110yds. 775 yds. 350 yds. jog 150yds. 352 yds. jog 150yds. 352 yds. jog 150yds. 352 yds. jog 150yds. 1010 yds. o Schedule II cont. Workout 2 Workout 5 Workout 9 Workout 13 Workout 17 Workout 21 4x20 walk sec.(l min. after each) 1 117 yds. 124 yds. 127 yds. 148 yds. 144 yds. 2 120 yds. 124 yds. 127 yds. 153 yds. 147 yds. 3 127 yds. 124 yds. 126 yds. 156 yds. 142 yds. 4 128 yds. 121 yds. 129 yds. 153 yds. 143 yds. Rest 3 min. 4x20 walk s e e d min. after each) 1 120 yds. 128 yds. 127 yds. 148 yds. 136 yds. 2 119 yds. 121 yds. 127 yds. 143 yds. 134 yds. 3 127 yds. 131 yds. 128 yds. 148 yds. 139 yds. 4 136 yds. 147 yds. 129 yds. 153 yds. 142 yds. Schedule III Workout 3 Workout 6 Workout 10 Workout 14 Workout 18 429 yds. 427 yds. 426 yds. 427 yds. 418 yds. 431 yds. 398 yds. 428 yds. 392 yds. 433 yds. 426 yds. 2x75 s e e d min. rest) - i 425 yds. holidays 425 yds. 2 443 yds. 416 yds. 4 min. rest 2x75 sec. ± ^ y d s > 4 1 0 y d g > 2 394 yds. 411 yds. 4 min. rest 2x75 sec. x 4 Q 4 y d s > 2 414 yds. 10 min. rest Schedule III cont. Workout 3 Workout 6 Workout 10 Workout 14 Workout 18 30 sec. stride, 15 sec. very fast (4-6) x 2 3 4 5 6 110;80 yds. 110;90 yds. 110;90 yds. 110;80 yds. 110;91 yds. 110;95 yds. 110;80 yds. 110;90 yds. 110;90 yds. 110;80 yds. 110;90 yds. 110;92 yds. 110;92 yds. 110;90 yds. Schedule IV Workout 7 Workout 11 Workout 15 Workout 19 4x45 sec.(2^ min. rest) 1 holidays 272 yds. 285 yds. 290 yds. 2 275 yds. 285 yds. 286 yds. 3- 279 yds. 286 yds. 287 yds. 4 279 yds. 283 yds. 290 yds. 4 min. rest 2x45 sec.(23^ min. rest) ^ 280 yds. 280 yds. 291 yds. 2 278 yds. 286 yds. 280 yds. 8 min. rest -xl2 sec.(l)£ min. rest; ^ 86 yds. 95 yds. 94 yds. 2 95 yds. 93 yds. 91 yds. 3 96 yds. 94 yds. 88 yds. 4 96 yds. 95 yds. 90 yds. 5 96 yds. 97 yds. 87 yds. 6 101 yds. 94 yds. 94 yds. Schedule I TRAINING SCHEDULE - Subject D.M. Workout 1 Workout 4 Workout 8 Workout 12 Workout 16 Workout 20 4x2 min.(l min.easy 1 min.fast)with 4 min. rest between 1 608 yds. 2 591 yds. 3 594 yds. 4 571 yds. Rest 6 min. 6x20 sec.(30 sec.jog) missed 6 3 3 yds. 6 0 2 yds. 5 9 2 yds. 5 6 3 yds. 643 yds. 632 yds. 615 yds. 616 yds. 608 yds, 538 yds, 568 yds, 610 yds, 632 yds. 629 yds. 629 yds. 619 yds. 1 124 yds. 119 yds. 141 yds. 136 yds. 148 yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. 2 113 yds. 12? yds. 133 yds. 144 yds. 151 yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. 3 110 yds. 116 yds. 132 yds. 136 yds. 149 yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. 4 121 yds. 116 yds. 133 yds. 135 yds. 156 yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. 5 130 yds. — 141 yds. 139 yds. 144 yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. 6 125 yds. — — 137 yds. 166 yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. jog 100yds. Schedule II Workout 2 Workout 5 Workout 9 4x1 min. (1)6 min. jog) Jog 4 min. 4x1 min. (1)6 min. jog) 1 293 yds. 338 yds. 349 yds. jog 200yds. jog 160yds. jog 150yds. 2 298 yds. 328 yds. 336 yds. jog 200yds. jog 160yds. jog 150yds. 3 296 yds. 328 yds. 335 yds. jog 200yds. jog 160yds. jog 150yds. 4 304 yds. 329 yds. 332 yds. jog 200yds. jog 160yds. jog 150yds. 780 yds. 570 yds. 730 yds. 2 3 4 Jog 4 min. Rest 10 min. 281 yds. jog 200yds, 302 yds. jog 200yds, 296 yds. jog 200yds, 331 yds. jog 200yds, 325 yds. jog 160 yds, 328 yds. jog 160yds. 323 yds. jog 160yds. 330 yds. jog 160yds. 319 yds. jog 150yds, 339 yds. jog 150yds, 299 yds. jog 150yds, 329 yds. jog 150yds, 845 yds. 570 yds. 730 yds. Workout 13 Workout 17 Workout 21 327 yds. jog 110yds. 332 yds. jog 110yds. 329 yds. jog 110yds. 335 yds. jog 110yds. 740 yds. 329 yds. jog 110yds. 329 yds. jog 110yds. 324 yds. jog 110yds. 324 yds. jog 110yds. 770 yds. 364 yds. jog 150yds. 364 yds. jog 150yds. 359 yds. jog 150yds. 337 yds. jog 150yds. 760 yds. 324 yds. 350 yds. jog 110 yds.jog 150yds. 324 yds. 340 yds. jog 110yds. jog 150yds. 322 yds. 337 yds. jog 110yds. jog 150yds. 329 yds. 342 yds. jog 110yds. jog 150yds. 328 yds. jog 110yds. 328 yds. jog 110yds. 330 yds. jog 110yds. 326 yds. jog 110yds. 740 yds. 840 yds. 1040 yds. ro o Schedule II cont. Workout 2 Workout 5 Workout 9 Workout 13 Workout 17 Workout 21 4x20 sec.(l min. walk after each) 1 118 yds. 129 yds. 145 yds. 137 yds. 138 yds. 127 yds. 2 123 yds. 125 yds. 140 yds. 134 yds. 140 yds. 125 yds. 3 126 yds. 129 yds. 140 yds. 137 yds. 140 yds. 122 yds. 4 133 yds. 127 yds. 141 yds. 140 yds. 140 yds. 132 yds. Rest 3 min. 4x20 sec.(l min. walk after each) 1 126 yds. 134 yds. 135 yds. 135 yds. 142 yds. 128 yds. 2 121 yds. 129 yds. 144 yds. 139 yds. 140 yds. 128 yds. 3 127 yds. 131 yds. 137 yds. 133 yds. 146 yds. 125 yds. 4 152 yds. 142 yds. 144 yds. 132 yds. 140 yds. 132 yds. Schedule III Workout 3 Workout 6 Workout 10 Workout 14 Workout 18 2x75 sec.(l min. rest) ^ 428 yds. 410 yds. 409 yds. guitar 413 yds. 2 429 yds. 416 yds. 403 yds. lessons 405 yds. 4 min. rest 2x75 sec. 400 yds. 393 yds. 401 yds. 406 yds. 2 4 min. rest 483 yds. 360 yds. 395 yds. 393 yds. 2x75 sec. ^  373 yds. 365 yds. 391 yds. 391 yds. 2 10 min. rest 378 yds. - 390 yds. 380 yds. Schedule III coht. Workout 3 Workout 6 Workout 10 Workout 14- Workout 18 30 sec. stride, IS sec. very fast (-4"6*) 1 110;73 yds. 110;77 yds. 110;87 yds. 2 110;68 yds. 110;77 yds. 110;88 yds. 3 110;80 yds. 110;77 yds. 110;87 yds. 4- 110;86 yds. 110;77 yds. 110;92 yds. Schedule IV Workout 7 Workout 11 Workout 15 Workout 19 4x4-5 sec.(2# min. r e s t ) 1 missed 286 yds. 289 yds. missed 2 278 yds. 290 yds. 3 278 yds. 290 yds. 4 277 yds. 284 yds. 4 min. rest 2x45 sec.(2# min. r e s t ) 1 276 yds. 291 yds. 2 280 yds. 283 yds. 8 min. rest - xl2 sec.(l>£ min. rest) 1 90 yds. 95 yds. 2 96 yds. 95 yds. 3 95 yds. 94 yds. 4 95 yds. 92 yds. 5 93 yds. 90 yds. 6 91 yds. 90 yds. 7 95 yds. TRAINING SCHEDULE - Subject J.S. Schedule I Workout 1 Workout 4 Workout 8 Workout 12 Workout 16 Workout 20 4x2 min.(l min.easy 1 min.fast)with 4 min. rest between 1 2 3 4 Rest 6 min. 6x20 sec.(30 sec.jog) 574 yds. 612 yds. 602 yds. 580 yds. 124 yds. jog 100yds. 122 yds. jog 100yds. 125 yds. jog 100yds. 128 yds. jog 100yds. 124 yds. jog 100yds. 145 yds. jog 100yds. 618 yds. 614 yds. 620 yds. 122 yds. jog 100yds. 119 yds. jog 100yds. 123 yds. jog 100yds. 122 yds. jog 100yds. 127 yds. jog 100yds. 148 yds. jog 100yds. 630 yds. 550 yds. 587 yds. 124 yds. jog 100yds. 126 yds. jog 100yds. 125 yds. jog 100yds, 126 yds. jog 100yds, 125 yds. jog 100yds. 145 yds. jog 100yds. 640 yds, 639 yds, 621 yds, 627 yds. 125 yds. jog 100yds. 126 yds. jog 100yds, 122 yds. jog 100yds, 128 yds. jog 100yds, 125 yds. jog 100yds, 129 yds. jog 100yds, 632 yds. 643 yds. 545 yds. 128 yds. jog 100yds. 130 yds. jog 100yds. 130 yds. jog 100yds. 132 yds. jog 100yds. 134 yds. jog 100yds. 161 yds. jog 100yds. 640 yds. 636 yds. 635 yds. 637 yds. 131 yds. jog 100yds. 128 yds. jog 100yds. 130 yds. jog 100yds, 128 yds. jog 100yds. 130 yds. jog 100yds. 144 yds. jog 100yds. ro o vO Schedule II Workout 2 Workout 5 Workout 9 Workout 13 Workout 17 Workout 21 4x1 min. (1)6 min. jog) hack injury hack injury Jog 4 min. 4x1 min.(1)6 min. jog) 1 Jog 4 min. Rest 10 min. 343 yds. jog 110yds. 335 yds. jog 110yds. 343 yds. jog 110yds. 344 yds. jog 110yds. 335 yds. jog 110yds. 340 yds. jog 110yds. 340 yds. jog 110yds. 333 yds. jog 110yds. 340 yds. jog 110yds. 340 yds. jog 110yds. 341 yds. jog 110yds. 338 yds. jog 110yds. 354 yds. jog 150yds. 352 yds. jog 150yds. 351 yds. jog 150yds. 352 yds. jog 150yds. 440 yds. 640 yds. 565 yds. 640 yds. 327 yds. jog 110yds. 347 yds. jog 110yds. 338 yds. jog 110yds. 337 yds. jog 110yds. 337 yds. jog 110yds. 339 yds. jog 110yds. 335 yds. jog 110yds. 342 yds. jog 110yds. 305 yds. jog 110yds. 340 yds. jog 110yds. 353 yds. j o g 150yds, 352 yds. dog 150yds, 343 yds. dog 150yds, 337 yds. dog 150yds, hack injury 640 yds. 590 yds. 660 yds. Schedule II cont. Workout 2 Workout 5 Workout 9 Workout IJ Workout 1? Workout 21 4x20 s e e d min. walk after each) 1 2 3 4 Rest 3 min. 4x20 s e e d min. walk after each) 1 2 3 4 134 yds. 133 yds. 138 yds. 138 yds. 136 yds. 136 yds. 136 yds. 140 yds. 142 yds. 142 yds. 141 yds. 142 yds. 142 yds. 142 yds. 142 yds. 146 yds. 128 yds, 120 yds. 122 yds. 120 yds. 129 yds, 12? yds, 124 yds, 130 yds, Schedule III Workout 3 Workout 6 Workout 10 Workout 14 Workout 18 2x75 s e e d min rest) -1 4 min. rest 2x75 sec. ^  2 4 min. rest 2x75 s e e 10 min. rest 409 yds. 438 yds. 430 yds. 397 yds. 374 yds. 418 yds. back injury 418 yds. 399 yds. back injury 419 yds. 415 yds. 415 yds. 414 yds. 399 yds. 417 yds, 414 yds. 417 yds. 409 yds. 409 yds, 388 yds, Schedule III cont. Workout 3 Workout 6 Workout 10 Workout 14 Workout 18 30 sec, 15 sec, (4-6) stride, very fast 1 2 3 4 5 6 110;90 yds. 110;92 yds. 110;90 yds. 110;92 yds. 110;90 yds. 110;91 yds. 110;90 yds. 110;91 yds. 110;90 yds. 110;92 yds. Schedule IV Workout 7 Workout 11 Workout 15 Workout 19 4x45 sec.(2# min. rest) back 264 yds. 278 yds. 280 yds. 2 injury ^ yds. 278 yds. 283 yds. 3 265 yds. 275 yds. 281 yds. 4 266 yds. 278 yds. 280 yds. 4 min. rest 2x45 sec.(2# min. rest) ^ 268 yds. 280 yds. 281 yds. 2 275 yds. 282 yds. 282 yds. 8 min. rest - xl2 sec.(l# min. rest) 1 81 yds. 93 yds. 89 yds. 2 83 yds. 93 yds. 91 yds. 3 84 yds. 96 yds. 93 yds. 4 85 yds. 96 yds. 80 yds. 5 100 yds. 93 yds. 85 yds. 6 100 yds. 100 yds. 80 yds. 7 100 yds. APPENDIX D PAW SCOPES 214 DESCRIPTIVE DATA OP THE SAMPLE Subject Age Height Weight Years, months Inches, metres Pounds, kilograms R.D. 15 1 70.50 1.790 140.0 63.63 S.V. 14 5 61.25 1.556 96.0 40.36 C.G. 14 6 71.00 1.805 141.0 64.00 G.N. 14 8 66.50 1.689 125.0 56.08 I.P. 14 9 67.25 1.708 134.0 60.90 S.C. 14 8 69.25 1.759 148.0 67.02 N.W. 14 11 70.00 1.778 145.5 66.01 D.M. 15 0 68.00 1.727 130.0 59.00 J.S. 14 10 69.75 1.772 144.0 65.04 215 PERSONALITY SCORES OP THE SAMPLE Subjects H.S.P.Q. Personality Factors A B C D E P G H I J 0 Q 2 % R.D. 16 9 13 11 11 13 13 10 7 12 7 9 10 9 S.V. 8 5 14 14 13 12 10 9 5 9 12 10 9 12 C.G. 12 9 12 11 20 16 12 12 6 9 10 8 14 10 G.N. 5 8 13 9 10 12 13 15 6 9 4 11 15 10 I.P. 3 8 17 7 8 13 15 10 8 13 10 14 15 7 S.C. 13 7 11 9 8 13 7 13 7 9 8 12 12 7 N.W. 2 6 7 19 8 10 10 8 11 14 11 18 4 9 D.M. 15 7 6 3 15 13 14 11 8 10 7 11 10 3 J.S. 5 8 8 8 4 5 14 7 8 13 9 12 14 11 PERCENTAGES GP ACHIEVEMENT Subjects Workouts 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 R.D. - 15 2 6 16 - 7 - - - 7 12 0 - 8 1 S.V. 9 14 11 - 15 - 8 - 12 - 4 8 12 9 5 6 - 9 - - -C.G. 8 14 8 10 - 6 - - - 12 11 12 15 12 12 1 16 12 12 - -G.N. 6 12 8 10 15 8 8 7 - 10 - - 8 - 15 6 - 10 4 10 13 I.P. 5 10 8 8 15 8 10 10 12 11 7 11 9 12 12 6 16 10 6 9 16 S.C. 5 - 11 9 11 7 10 12 - 3 6 - 12 9 12 7 - 11 - - 11 N.W. 6 8 10 10 14 - - - - 8 12 12 9 9 12 2 16 12 7 9 8 D.M. 4 15 7 - 15 7 - 8 14 12 7 12 3 — 10 6 11 11 - 9 10 J.S. 8 - 10 8 - - - 9 4 2 12 12 10 10 12 8 14 9 8 10 8 Total T r i a l s 1G 16 12 10 16 12 12 12 16 12 12 12 16 12 12 10 16 12 12 10 16 VERTICAL JUMP SCORES (Metres) Subject X l Pre-training X2 Z3 Post-Z l -training X2 X 3 R.D. .508 .546 .546 .533 .533 .558 S.V. .419 .381 .432 .457 .457 .457 C.G. .457 .457 .464 .495 .508 .533 G.N. .483 .457 .521 .533 .546 .533 I.P. .546 .546 .508 .457 .457 .546 S.C. .406 .457 .476 .483 .483 .508 N.W. .483 .457 .521 .521 .521 .521 D.M. .508 .533 .546 .546 .508 .521 J.S. .419 .495 .432 .457 .483 .495 ISOMETRIC STRENGTH SCORES Left Knee Flexion Scores (Kilograms) Subject Pre -training Post--training X l X 2 X l X 2 R.D. 32.75 38.64 40.91 63.66 54.55 ' 59.00 S.V. 14.77 21.58 22.71 35.22 32.95 34.09 C.G. 45.45 43.18 40.91 77.27 81.82 72.73 G.N. 45.45 43.18 50.00 50.00 56.81 63.66 I.P. 36.36 38.64 35.22 60.13 63.66 68.18 S.C. 32.95 20.45 27.27 40.91 38.64 40.91 N.W. 36.36 35.22 36.36 63.66 56.18 60.13 D.M. 47.77 45.45 45.45 5^.55 51.23 56.81 J.S. 51.23 50.00 50.00 68.18 72.73 70.04 Eight Knee Flexion Scores (Kilograms) Subject Pre-training X l Z2 h R.D. 36.36 35.22 45.45 S.V. 20.45 15.91 18.18 C.G. 50.00 35.22 45.45 G.N. 38.64 51.23 52.27 I.P. 38.64 36.36 31.82 S.C. 32.95 32.95 32.95 N.W. 47.77 51.23 50.00 D.M. 36.36 35.22 35.22 J.S. 51.23 45.45 50.00 Post-training Z l X2 Z3 77.27 38.64 84.09 68.18 77.27 50.00 56.18 81.82 77.2? 60.13 35.22 72.73 61.36 68.18 43.18 52.27 81.82 77-27 56.81 34.09 81.82 77.27 50.00 45.45 51.23 75-00 77.27 Left Knee Extension Scores (Kilograms) Subject Pre-training X l *2 H R.D. 106.82 113.63 113.63 S.V. 61.36 52.27 52.27 C.G. 50.00 56.81 59.00 G.N. 122.72 118.18 113.63 I.P. 81.82 95.45 84.08 S.C. 61.36 54.55 88.38 N.W. 100.00 100.23 113.63 D.M. 100.00 100.23 109.09 J.S. 122.72 113.63 118.18 Post-training X2 X3 X l 100.00 68.18 45.45 113.63 127.27 84.09 109.09 109.09 129.55 113.63 77.27 61.36 109.09 113.63 102.28 118.18 106.82 118.18 113.63 70.04 81.82 102.28 127.27 95.45 127.27 109.09 109.09 Eight Knee Extension Scores (Kilogr Subject Pre-training X l X2 h B.D. 111.36 109.09 118.18 S.V. 52.27 47.77 47.77 G.G. 47.77 75.00 77.27 G.N. 150.00 159.09 152.28 I.P. 113.63 113.63 111.36 S.G. 68.18 68.18 84.09 N.W. 140.91 129.55 131.82 D.M. 129.55 113.63 118.18 J.S. 113.63 109.09 95.45 Post-training X l X2 X3 113.63 59.00 77.27 129.55 118.18 88.63 127.27 129.55 140.91 122.72 52.27 81.82 113.63 118.18 95.45 129.55 109.09 113.63 113.63 61.36 84.09 131.82 113.63 100.00 122.72 122.72 122.72 Left Hip Flexion Scores (Kilograms) Subject Pre-training *1 X2 Z3 B.D* 95.18 52.27 90.91 S.V. 59.00 54.55 56.81 G.G. 88.38 90.91 88.63 G.H. 54.55 51.23 51.23 I.P. 54.55 70.04 75.00 S.O. 56.81 59.00 52.27 1T.W. 54.55 56.81 54.55 D.M. 51.23 54.55 52.27 J.S. 88.63 84.09 88.38 Po st-training X 2 Z 3 100.00 61.36 88.38 56.81 68.18 61.36 63.66 63.66 88.63 93.48 61.36 88.38 61.36 63.66 61.36 63.66 61.36 81.82 109.09 54.55 102.28 61.36 77.27 59.00 68.18 56.81 77.27 Bight Hip Flexion Scores (Kilograms) Subject Pre-training Z l 'h Z3 B. D. 84.09 88.63 84.09 S.V. 52.27 56.81 45.45 C. G. 84.09 88.38 77.27 G.N. 72.73 72.73 61.56 I.P. 102.28 88.63 95.45 S.C. 47.77 45.25 72.73 N.W. 75-00 63.66 63.66 D. M. 72.73 72.73 75.00 J.S. 88.63 90.91 88.63 Post-training Z l Z2 Z3 106.82 72.73 109.09 88.38 88.63 90.91 72.73 77.27 102.28 88.63 63.66 84.09 88.63 111.36 81.82 75.00 75.00 109.09 106.82 72.73 102.28 88.63 102.28 77.27 72.73 77.27 111.36 Left Hip Extension Scores (Kilograms Subject Pre-training h X2 h R.D. 38.64 S.V. 22.71 C.G. 51.23 G.N. 47.77 I.P. 34.09 S.C. 38.64 N.W. 40.91 D.M. 50.00 J.S. 52.27 40.91 43.18 21.58 22.71 47.77 36.36 40.91 50.00 38.64 59.00 45.45 35.22 36.36 32.95 50.00 50.00 56.81 59.00 Post-training X l X2 X3 72.73 43.18 59.00 63.66 90.91 70.04 63.66 68.18 102.28 61.36 43.18 68.18 70.04 75.00 59.00 63.66 59.00 88.38 72.73 38.64 59.00 68.18 56.81 56.81 56.81 61.36 93.18 Right Hip Extension Scores (Kilograms) Subject Pre-training Z l Z2 X3 R.D. 47.77 36.36 45.45 S.V. 32.95 35.22 32.95 C.G. 40.91 43.18 45.45 G.N. 54.55 51.23 59.00 I.P. 56.18 61.36 50.00 S.C. 47.77 52.27 52.27 N.W. 38.64 50.00 47.77 D.M. 40.91 47.77 50.00 J.S. 75.00 61.36 52.27 Po st-training Z l Z2 *3 77.27 54.55 72.73 60.13 70.04 70.04 68.18 54.55 109.09 70.04 59.00 70.04 70.04 61.36 70.04 72.73 54.55 106.82 84.09 68.18 56.81 72.73 77.27 72.73 75.00 52.27 109.09 226 TREADMILL PERFORMANCE RUN TIME (Sec.) Subject Pre-training Post-training Z l X2 R.D. 120.0 238.0 S.V. 51.2 111.8 C.G. 52.2 240.2 G.N. 94.8 246.5 I.P. 4-3.2 220.2 S.C. 94.0 209.0 N.W. 53.8 170.8 D.M. 75.5 174.0 J.S. 60.0 212.5 TREADMILL RUN HEART RATES (Beats/minute) Pre-training Subject Resting Warm Up Sitting Treadmill Run Recovery-Resting R.D. 68,68 116,114,114,116,108 91, 96 180,170,180 146,122,115 S.V. 72,77 105,106,110,116,118 78,104 192,192,192 112, 82,85 C.G. 70,83 101, 92, 94, 97, 92 70, 83 175,176,176 132,115,105 G.N. 72,80 100,114,105,108,118 91, 96 182,180,182 122,118,115 I.P. 72,76 94, 91, 89, 92, 88 70, 79 173,170,170 100, 91, 87 S.C. 70,69 105, 99, 92,101,107 73, 71 182,182,187 82, 71, 70 N.W. 75,75 117,115,115,113,118 76, 91 204,204,204 132,129,110 D.M. 72,72 114,110,110,105,115 80, 74 190,190,180 108, 95, 88 J.S. 75,88 111,102,103, 99, 99 75, 79 187,180,173 98, 88, 90 TREADMILL RUN HEART RATES (Beats/minute) Po s t-training Subject Resting Warm Up Sitting Treadmill Run Recovery Resting R.D. 72,73 110,108,108,102,107 84, 99 184,178,176 169,148,132 S.V. 78,76 118,114,117,111,111 78, 89 187,187,187 130,117,114 C.G. 78,78 110,103, 87,101,105 83, 87 170,170,184 138,120,113 G.W. 75,76 102, 96, 99, 97, 92 66, 70 180,180,184 168,145,132 I.P. 74,74 102, 91, 90,103, 95 77, 84 187,187,187 123,105,101 S.C. 88,83 111,108,107,104,108 85, 79 184,184,184 138,113,110 N.W. 76,75 123,123,120,123,120 86, 102 187,187,187 129,110,110 D.M. 68,76 107,108,101,105,101 83, 73 173,209,209 136,120,111 J.S. 73,85 108,118,117,114,105 80, 80 187,187,187 132,115,107 Subject h TIME TEIA1S z 2 R.D. 2:29.8 ( 6 7 . 0;82 . 8 ) 2 : 3 1 . 7 (64 . 7 ; 8 7 . 0 ) S.V. 2 : 3 4 . 8 ( 7 8 . 7 ; 7 6 . 1 ) 2 : 3 3 . 8 ( 7 2 . 7;81 . 1 ) C.G. 2 : 3 7 . 5 ( 7 9 . 7 ; 7 7 . 8 ) 2:28.8 ( 7 3 . 7 ; 7 5 . D G.N. 2 : 3 8 . 2 ( 7 6 . 7;81 . 5 ) 2 : 3 1 . 8 ( 7 0 . 7;81 . 1 ) I.P. 2 : 3 1 . 6 ( 6 9 . 7;81 . 9 ) 2 : 2 9 . 5 ( 6 9 . 7 ; 7 9 . 8 ) S.C. 2 : 3 8 . 3 ( 7 7 . 2;81 . 1 ) 2 : 3 3 . 2 ( 7 2 . 2;81 . 0 ) N.W. 2 : 3 8 . 8 ( 7 9 . 6 ; 7 9 . D 2:28.3 ( 6 8 . 7 ; 7 9 . 6 ) D.M. 2 : 4 3 . 9 ( 7 6 . 7 ; 8 7 . 2 ) 2 : 4 3 . 3 ( 7 4 . 7 ; 8 8 . 6 ) J.S. / 2 : 3 7 . 5 ( 7 2 . 7;84 . 8 ) 2 : 2 9 . 5 ( 7 2 . 7 ; 7 6 . 8 ) 800 METRES Number X3 X 4 2:26 .3 2:18 .3 ( 7 4 . 7 ; 7 1 . 6 ) ( 6 7 . 2 ; 7 L 1 ) 2 : 3 4 . 2 2 : 3 2 . 4 ( 7 4 . 7 ; 7 9 . 5 ) ( 7 l . 7;80 . 7 ) 2 : 3 3 . 3 2 : 1 9 . 8 ( 7 6 . 7 ; 8 6 . 6 ) ( 6 9 . 7 ; 7 0 . l ) 2:28.3 2 : 2 1 . 8 ( 7 2 . 7 ; 7 5 . 6 ) ( 6 8 . 2 ; 7 5 . 6 ) 2 : 2 7 . 3 2:24.3 ( 7 1 . 7 ; 7 5 . 6 ) ( 6 8 . 2 ; 7 6 . 1 ) 2 : 3 1 . 8 2 : 2 7 . 3 ( 7 3 . 6 ; 7 8 . 1 ) ( 6 8 . 3;80 . 0 ) 2 : 2 7 . 3 2 : 2 1 . 3 ( 7 l . 7 ; 7 5 . 6 ) ( 6 8 . 2 ; 7 3 . 1 ) 2 : 3 9 . 9 2 : 3 2 . 8 ( 7 7 - 7;82 . 2 ) (71 . 7;81 . 1 ) 2 : 2 7 . 3 2:24.5 ( 7 3 . 7 ; 7 3 . 6 ) ( 6 8 . 7 ; 7 5 . 8 ) ACID-EASE PARAMETERS Pre-training - Pre-exercise Values Subjects Actual pH High Pc©2 Low PCO2 Actual Pcc>2 Base Excess Buffer Base Standard Bicarbonate Actual Bicarbonate Total c o 2 (mm.Hg.)( ^m.equ. /L.) (m.equ. /I.) (m.equ./L.) (m.equ./L.) (m.equ, A . ) R.D. 7 . 2 9 6 7 . 3 9 7 7 . 2 5 8 4 7 . 0 - 5 . 0 " " 4 8 . 5 2 0 . 5 2 9 . 0 3 4 . 4 4 S.V. 7.292 7 . 3 8 8 7 . 2 0 8 4 1 . 5 - 6 . 6 4 2 . 0 19.0 2 1 . 5 2 2 . 7 6 C.G. 7 . 3 0 5 7 . 3 4 2 7 . 2 1 2 30.0 - 9 . 9 4 6 . 7 17.5 1 0 . 8 1 1 . 7 0 G.N. 7 . 2 6 0 7 . 3 7 3 7 . 2 2 3 4 8 . 9 - 6 . 9 4 5 . 0 1 9 . 2 3 1 . 0 3 2 . 4 9 I.P. 7 . 2 9 9 7 . 3 8 9 7 . 2 6 0 4 7 . 0 - 5 . 0 4 9 . 3 2 0 . 5 2 9 . 0 3 0 . 4 3 S.C. 7.331 7 . 3 5 6 7 . 2 1 9 3 3 . 0 - 7 . 6 4 5 . 5 1 8 . 7 1 1 . 6 1 2 . 6 0 N.W. 7 . 3 6 5 7 . 4 1 0 7 . 2 1 4 3 3 . 1 - 5 . 5 4 2 . 0 19.9 1 0 . 6 1 1 . 6 0 D.M. 7.305 7 . 3 8 9 7 . 2 3 8 4 1 . 5 - 6 . 0 4 6 . 0 19.7 2 2 . 0 2 3 . 2 6 J.S. 7.330 7 . 3 7 8 7 . 2 6 1 3 8 . 0 - 5 . 7 50.5 2 0 . 2 1 8 . 5 1 9 . 6 6 AGIB-BASE PARAMETERS Pre-training - Post-exercise Values Subjects Actual pH Hign Pco 2 low Pco 2 Actual PcOp Base Excess Buffer Base Standard Bicarbonate Actual Bicarbonate Total G0 2 (mm.Hg.)(m.equ. /L.) (m.equ. /L.) (m.equ./L.) (m.equ./L.) (m.equ. /L.) R.D. 7.240 7.303 7.161 38.1 -11.4 40.0 16.2 14.6 15.76 S.V. 7.260 7.319 7.183 37.3 -10.2 41.0 16.8 14.2 15.34 C.G. 7.312 7.322 7.170 29.7 - 9.9 40.3 17.0 8.4 9.30 G.N. 7.271 7.308 7.202 36.0 -10.5 45.8 16.3 14.5 16.50 I.P. 7.292 7.316 7.148 31.0 -10.5 37.6 16.3 8.0 8.94 S.C. 7.293 7.347 7.172 33.1 - 9.5 34.0 16.4 6.0 7.00 N.W. 7.168 7.210 7.093 35.5 -17.0 36.0 13.3 11.0 12.08 D.M. 7.119 7.160 7.020 34.4 -18.5 30.0 11.5 8.4 9.45 J.S. 7.222 7.281 7.185 45.0 -12.3 44.8 16.4 19.5 20.87 ro H ACID-BASE PARAMETERS Post-training - Pre-exercise Values Subjects Actual Hign Low Actual Base Buffer Standard Actual Total pH Pc©2 ^ c o 2 ^cog Excess Base Bicarbonate Bicarbonate CO2 (mm.Hg.)(m.equ. (m.equ. (m.equ./L.) (m.equ./L.) (m.equ. /!*•) A . ) /!>.) R.D. 7.273 7.298 7.213 28.5 -13.6 49.0 16.7 10.8 11.67 S.V. 7.268 7.330 7.191 35.0 -10.0 33.8 16.0 8.4 9.47 C.G. 7.230 7.316 7.200 44.0 -12.0 46.5 16.7 19.8 21.14 G.N. 7.255 7.313 7.182 33.3 -12.5 44.0 16.1 12.0 13.01 I.P. 7.24-5 7.330 7.191 43.0 - 9.3 42.0 17.5 21.0 22.30 S.C. 7.270 7.275 7.201 29.0 -12.7 49.0 16.7 10.8 11.48 N.W. 7.278 7.308 7.182 33.5 -10.5 42.0 16.8 11.8 12.82 D.M. 7.309 7.361 7.061 33.0 - 9.4 29.2 15.5 19.5 20.50 J.S. 7.264 7.321 7.168 31.0 -12.4 42.0 16.0 10.5 11.44 ACID-BASE PARAMETERS Post-training - Post-exercise Values Subjects Actual pH High Pcog Low Pcog Actual Pco 2 Base Excess Buffer Base Standard Bicarbonate Actual Bicarbonate Total G0 2 (mm.Hg.)( !m.equ. /L.) (m.equ. /L.) (m.equ./L.) (m.equ./L.) (m.equ /L.) R.D. 7.135 7.135 7.046 21.5 -23.0 34.8 11.2 19.5 20.15 S.V. 7.202 7.228 7 . H 3 33.0 -15.4 36.0 14.0 10.0 11.09 C.G. 7.185 7.234 7.078 36.5 -14.5 33.0 13.6 10.8 11.90 G.N. 7 . H 5 7.127 7.021 24.0 -23.0 31.5 10.8 17.0 17.07 I.P. 7.157 7.169 7.070 31.5 -18.7 34.3 12.5 8.4 9.36 S.C. 7.181 7.219 7.104 36.0 -15.8 36.2 13.8 11.4 12.40 N.W. 7.122 7.148 7.040 34.0 -19.4 31.8 11.8 8.8 9.84 D.M. 7.156 7.161 7.081 23.5 -22.5 37.4 11.2 6.2 6.90 J.S. 7.160 7.175 7.070 24.5 -21.2 35.5 12.0 6.0 6.75 APPENDIX E TENSIOMETER CALIBRATION CHART 235 TENSIOMETER CALIBRATION CHART Tensiometer Model T 5 - 6 0 0 7 - 2 0 7 - 0 0 Serial # 15535 Tensiometer Calibration kg. Tensiometer Calibration kg. Instrument Instrument 8 30 13.64 50 240 109.09 10 35 1 5 . 9 1 53 260 118.18 14 50 22.71 55 280 1 2 7 . 2 7 16 60 2 7 . 2 7 57 300 131.82 18 70 31.82 59 320 145.04 20 75 34 .09 62 340 154.55 22 80 36.36 64 360 163.64 23 85 38.64 66 380 172 .71 24 90 40.91 68 400 181.82 25 95 43.18 7 1 450 204.55 26 100 45.45 75 500 227.27 31 120 54.55 78 550 250.00 35 140 63.66 82 600 272.73 38 160 72.73 84 650 295.45 41 180 81.82 87 700 318.18 45 200 9 0 . 9 1 89 750 340 .91 47 220 100.00 91 800 363.64 APPENDIX P HEART RATE CALIBRATION CHART 237 HEART RATE CALIBRATION CHART Heart Rate From ECG - Rate - 25/mm/sec. Distance Heart Distance Heart Distance Heart of 6 beats Rate of 6 beats Rate of 6 beats Rate 34 265 73 35 257 74 36 250 75 37 243 76 38 237 77 39 231 78 4-0 225 79 4-1 220 80 4-2 214 81 43 209 82 44 204 83 45 200 84 46 195 85 47 191 86 48 187 87 49 184 88 50 180 89 51 176 90 52 173 91 53 170 92 54 167 93 55 164 94 56 161 95 57 158 96 58 155 97 59 153 98 60 150 99 61 148 100 62 145 101 63 143 102 64 141 103 65 138 104 66 136 105 67 134 106 68 132 107 69 130 108 70 129 109 71 127 110 72 125 111 123 112 80 122 113 80 120 114 79 118 115 78 117 116 78 115 117 77 114 118 76 113 119 76 111 120 75 110 121 74 108 122 74 107 123 73 105 124 73 104 125 72 103 126 71 102 127 71 101 128 70 100 129 70 99 130 69 98 131 69 97 132 68 96 133 68 95 134 67 94 135 67 93 136 66 92 137 66 91 138 65 90 139 65 89 140 64 88 142 63 87 144 62 87 146 61 86 148 61 85 150 60 84 152 60 83 154 59 83 156 58 82 158 57 81 160 55 

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