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The effects of isometric and eccentric strength training programs on isometric leg strength Laycoe, Robert Richardson 1969

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THE EFFECTS OF ISOMETRIC AND ECCENTRIC STRENGTH TRAINING PROGRAMS ON ISOMETRIC LEG STRENGTH  by Robert R i c h a r d s o n Laycoe B.S., L i n f i e l d C o l l e g e , 1968  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION in  the School of  Physical  Education and  Recreation We a c c e p t t h i s required  thesis  as c o n f o r m i n g  to the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A u g u s t , 1969  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e I further agree that permission  f o r extensive  I agree  that  and Study.  copying of this  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  It i s understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n  of this thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l written  permission.  Department o f  PHYSICAL EDUCATION  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a Date  g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  July 7  f  1968  Columbia  ABSTRACT The  purpose o f t h i s  s t u d y was t o compare t h e e f f e c t s  of  strength  t r a i n i n g by e c c e n t r i c and i s o m e t r i c  in  relation  to isometric  r i g h t l e g strength.  contractions  A secondary  p u r p o s e was t o d e t e r m i n e i f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n e c c e n tric in  strength  isometric  gains  strength  Forty-five assigned  t o three  were b a l a n c e d The  were r e l a t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s gains.  volunteer  subjects  i n terms o f i n i t i a l  conditions.  isometric  as a c o n t r o l . before  isometric  The  E c c e n t r i c Group was a l s o t e s t e d during  training  sessions  The  con-  and t h e l a s t  f o r isometric  and a f t e r a s i x week t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m .  the f i r s t  and l a s t  took p l a c e  maximal c o n t r a c t i o n s  t o e x p e r i m e n t a l and  The g r o u p s were t e s t e d  strength  groups  l e g strength.  contractions  leg  strength  these  One g r o u p t r a i n e d w i t h e c c e n t r i c  t r a c t i o n s , another with acted  systematically  g r o u p s i n s u c h a manner t h a t  g r o u p s were t h e n r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d  control  tric  were  three  f o r eccentric leg training sessions.  t i m e s p e r week and t h r e e  were p e r f o r m e d d u r i n g  each  session..  r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that both i s o m e t r i c  t r a i n i n g produced  significant  The  isometric  and e c c e n -  strength  gains  ( t = 7.13, 6.64 r e s p e c t i v e l y , p < .05) when compared t o t h e Control  Group.  However, t h e r e  between t h e s t r e n g t h  gains  ( t = .49, p > . 0 5 ) . W i t h i n  was no s i g n i f i c a n t  o f t h e two e x p e r i m e n t a l  difference groups  the e c c e n t r i c a l l y trained  group  it  was  also  improved  found that  due  to  i m p r o v e m e n t was provement  eluded  that  mately  equal was  training  (t  strength  = 5.52,  uncorrelated  (r  =  p  .27)  was  < .05) with  significantly but  that  isometric  this im-  scores.  Within  there  eccentric  the  limitations  isometric  no  and e c c e n t r i c  value  in  of  this  and e c c e n t r i c increasing  relationship  between  improvement  scores.  study,  training  isometric isometric  it  was  were  of  strength.  con-, approxiFurther,  improvement  scores  - i i i -  i  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.  PAGE STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM. Introduction The Problem S u b s i d i a r y Problem Need f o r the Study Limitations Delimitations N u l l Hypotheses Definitions References  II.  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Isometric Strength Training E c c e n t r i c Strength T r a i n i n g . Muscle Tension and Strength Development . . . . Measuring Leg Strength S p e c i f i c i t y o f Strength Improvement References.  III.  IV.  1 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 6 8 8 23 25 27 32 34  METHODS AND PROCEDURE  40  Subjects. . Experimental Design Apparatus Procedures. A n a l y s i s o f Data References. .  40 40 40 43 45 51  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.  52  Results Discussion. . References. V.  1  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary . . . . . . . Conclusions Recommendations  52 60 67 69 69 71 71  BIBLIOGRAPHY  73  APPENDICES  80 A. B. C.  S t a t i s t i c a l Treatment Raw Scores. C a l i b r a t i o n Chart . .  81 83 88  - iv LIST OF TABLES TABLE I. II. III. IV.  V. VI. VII. „ VIII. IX. X.  PAGE Experimental Design  42  Mean P h y s i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Experimental and C o n t r o l Groups  52  I n i t i a l and F i n a l Group Strength Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s  54  A n a l y s i s o f Variance of I n i t i a l  Strength  Scores  55  A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f F i n a l Strength Scores. .  55  Comparison of Group Means of F i n a l Scores.  56  . . .  Comparison o f I n i t i a l and F i n a l Mean E c c e n t r i c S t r e n g t h Scores f o r the E c c e n t r i c Group. . . . . 5 5 6 Reliability  o f E c c e n t r i c S t r e n g t h Scores  . . . .  57  R e l i a b i l i t y o f I s o m e t r i c Strength Scores  . . . .  58  C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s of E c c e n t r i c Group Strength S c o r e s .  59  - v LIST  OF  FIGURES  FIGURE 1.  PAGE Isometric Cable  2.  Testing  with  A  Tensiometer  Isometric Cable  Strength  Strength  47 Testing with  A  Tensiometer  48  3.  Isometric  Training  4.  Eccentric Exotronic  Training with Ergometer  5.  Pre  and P o s t  Strength  with  G r o u p Means  Isometric  Apparatus.  Carlin-Banister  of  .  .  49  50  Isometric 53  CHAPTER  STATEMENT  I  OF T H E  PROBLEM  Introduction Finding has  long been  b e e n many  develop  muscle  or  factor  isotonic  pared was  no  developing  studies  differences  have  isotonic  showing  and  rate  of  a type  of as  tension  In  1953,  the  value  ex(1)  contractions  reto  the  Hettinger of  in  in  an  static-  comparing  effort  superior  studies  studies  difference  of  concerned with  programs  these  isometric  Other  been  result  Several  strength. in  of  Von G e r t t e n  strength.  training  results  significant  increasing  type  contractions.  compatible.  isotonic  is  have  strength  De L o r m e  considered muscle  method would  The  which  strength  There  for  isotonic  strength.  published a paper  which  best  contractions.  used  and  educators.  on t h e  training,  improve  isometric  development.  muscle  (2:315)  recent  and  determine  and n o t  to  in  isometric Many  improving muscular  method i s  emphasis  strength  (3)  which  resistance  Josenhans  and M u l l e r  to  concentric  training,  effective  type  as  early  used progressive  v i e w e d by  method o f  a p r o b l e m among p h y s i c a l  with  using  isotonic  best  opinions  development ercise  the  have  (4,5,6,7,8)  strength been  varied  have  training  and  shown t h a t  between  the  two m e t h o d s  studies  strength  have  shown  improvement  to  comthere in  significant  between  the  two  - 2 -  t y p e s o f K r u s e  t r a i n i n g .  i s o t o n i c  (11) a n d R a s c h a n d M o r e h o u s e  t r a i n i n g  F o r  i n  t o n i c u s e b e e n  s h o w n  a n  f o r  i s o m e t r i c )  w e r e  b e  f o r c e d  c o n t r a c t i o n s  m o r e e f f e c t i v e t h a t  i n c r e a s i n g  o p i n i o n  c o u l d  a n d  (12) s h o w e d  g e n e r a l  w a s t h e  d e v e l o p e d .  e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h  D o s s  a h i g h e r  d u r i n g  a n d  i n v o l v i n g  b y  e f f e c t i v e  t h e  s t r e n g t h  e c c e n t r i c  d e v e l o p  y e a r s ,  r e c e n t l y  m e t h o d  o f  m o r e  ( i s o t o n i c  w h i c h  ( 1 3 ) h a s  w a s  a f e w  m e t h o d s  w a y s  (9) a n d M a t h e w s  (10) c o n c l u d e d t h a t s t a t i c t r a i n i n g w a s  a n d M e a d o w s  t w o  L i b e r s o n a n d A s a  s t r e n g t h .  t h a t o n l y  t h e s e f e a s i b l e  H o w e v e r ,  a v a r i a t i o n  o f  t h e  e c c e n t r i c  c o n t r a c t i o n s .  w a s  o n  b a s e d  t h e  f a c t ,  a n d K a r p o v i c h (14) , t h a t a m u s c l e  t e n s i o n  i s o m e t r i c  o r  d u r i n g  a n  c o n c e n t r i c  e c c e n t r i c  B a n i s t e r i s o T h e a s  h a d  w i l l  c o n t r a c t i o n  c o n t r a c t i o n .  M a n y  t h a n  r e s e a r c h -  e r s i n c l u d i n g C l a r k e a n d C l a r k e (15:165), H e t t i n g e r a n d  B a n i s t e r (13:1) m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e  s i o n  u s e d  m u s c u l a r  T h e  s o  b e  p u r p o s e  a s p e c i f i c  s p e c i f i c t o  b e s t  o f  p r i m e  m u s c u l a r  s t r e n g t h  w h i c h  m e t h o d  i m p o r t a n c e  d e v e l o p m e n t ,  d e v e l o p s o f  t e n s i o n  t h e  s t r e n g t h  m o s t  o f  m u s c l e  f o r h a s i t  t h e b e e n  g a i n  i n  c o n -  f o l l o w s  m u s c u l a r  t e n -  t h a t  t e n s i o n  d e v e l o p m e n t .  P r o b l e m T h e  o f  i n  p r o g r a m  t h e  w a s  B e c a u s e  i m p o r t a n t  t r a i n i n g  s h o u l d  t r a i n i n g  s t r e n g t h .  s i d e r e d t h e  i n  a m o u n t  (16:75)  i s o m e t r i c  e c c e n t r i c  i m p r o v e m e n t s  o f  i n  l e g  t h i s l e g  s t u d y  s t r e n g t h  s t r e n g t h  i s o m e t r i c  w a s  l e g  t o  c o m p a r e  t r a i n i n g  t r a i n i n g  p r o g r a m  p r o g r a m  s t r e n g t h .  t h e  i n  e f f e c t s t o  a  r e l a t i o n  - 3 Subsidiary A between  Problem  secondary  p r o b l e m was  to  determine  the  individual  differences  in  isometric  leg: strength  provements strength  and  individual  improvements  of  differences an  in  relationship  eccentric  eccentrically  im-  leg  strength  trained  group.  Need  for  the  Study  Strength of  physical  been  associated  "What  studies  have  the  way  has  value  in in  to  been  a basic  strength fitness  skills.  compared i s o m e t r i c  and t h e i r  strength  motor  best  experimentation  programs,  considered  improvements  specific  is  been  Improvements  with  in  arisen,  little  often  fitness.  improvements  of  has  The  develop  component  have  as  usually  well  as  question  has  strength?"  Many  and i s o t o n i c . p r o g r a m s . done w i t h  eccentric  when c o m p a r e d t o  the  with  Very  training  proven  methods  development.  Limitations  limited  The  results  by  several  1.  and c o n c l u s i o n s  forty-five  the  Physical the  from t h i s  study  were  factors:  The  of  drawn  volunteer  Education  University  of  subjects  were  and R e c r e a t i o n  British  Columbia.  drawn  from  Department  - 4 2.  No r e s t r i c t i o n s were p l a c e d on s l e e p , d i e t and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s although the s u b j e c t s were r e s t r i c t e d from p a r t i c i p a t i n g scholastic  3.  Strength  s p o r t s and weight  in. i n t e r -  training.  t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e d an e f f o r t on the  p a r t o f the s u b j e c t s  and t h e r e f o r e was i n f l u -  enced by m o t i v a t i o n . 4.  The study was composed o f a six-week, three times per week t r a i n i n g program..  5.  An i s o m e t r i c t e s t was used t o measure  strength  increases. Delimitations The effects  scope o f the study was concerned o n l y with the  o f a s p e c i f i c i s o m e t r i c and s p e c i f i c e c c e n t r i c t r a i n -  i n g program upon i s o m e t r i c and e c c e n t r i c l e g s t r e n g t h . Null  Hypotheses  i)  H :  V  Q  y  H^  = y  l  x  where y2  H : o  p = 0  H :  P  1  ?0  u  u  =  mean i s o m e t r i c s t r e n g t h due t o an i s o m e t r i c t r a i n i n g program  2  ±  3  f  3  mean i s o m e t r i c s t r e n g t h due t o an eccent r i c t r a i n i n g program  =  =  2)  = y  2  mean i s o m e t r i c s t r e n g t h o f a c o n t r o l group.  - 5 where  p =  t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t b e t w e e n mean i s o m e t r i c s t r e n g t h a n d mean e c c e n t r i c s t r e n g t h due t o an e c c e n t r i c training program.  Definitions Isometric  1) tion not  in  which  allowed  to  tion  in  which  load  or  the  to  contract.  eccentric  shorten  the  load  them,  concentric  muscle  Isotonic  2)  stretch  the  muscle  is  even The  fibers  to  any  muscle  muscle  contraction.  contraction. are  the type  and  the  able  is  contract  A muscular to  either  but  the  contracmove  the  fibers  and  continually  contraction  latter  to  contrac-  extent.  overcome  muscle of  A muscular  stimulated  meaningful  enough t o  though  contraction  are  fibers  great  former  contraction.  type  is  is  stimulated  called  called  an  a  -  6  -  REFERENCES 1.  De Lorme, F.L. , " R e s t o r a t i o n o f M u s c l e - P o w e r by HeavyR e s i s t a n c e E x e r c i s e s , " J o u r n a l Of Bone and J o i n t S u r g e r y , v o l . 2 7 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 4 5 ) , pp. 645-667.  2.  J o s e n h a n s , W.K., "An E v a l u a t i o n o f Some Methods o f I m p r o v i n g M u s c l e S t r e n g t h , " Revue C a n a d i e n n e de B i o l o g i e , v o l . 21 (September 1 9 6 2 ) , pp. 315-323.  3.  H e t t i n g e r , T., M u l l e r , E.A., "Muskelleistung und M u s k e l t r a i n i n g , " A r b e i t s p h y s i o l o g i e , v o l . 15 ( 1 9 5 3 ) , p p . 111-116. B e r g e r , R.A., " C o m p a r i s o n o f S t a t i c and Dynamic S t r e n g t h I n c r e a s e s , " R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , , v o l . 33 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 6 2 ) , pp. 329-333.  4.  5.  D a r c u s , H.D., S a l t e r , W., " E f f e c t of Repeated Muscular E x e r t i o n on M u s c l e S t r e n g t h , " J o u r n a l of. P h y s i o l o g y , . v o l . 129 (August 1 9 5 5 ) , pp. 325-336.  6.  D e n n i s o n , J.D., H o w e l l , M.L., M o r f o r d , W.R., "Effect of I s o m e t r i c and I s o t o n i c E x e r c i s e Programs upon M u s c u l a r E n d u r a n c e , " R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 32 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 6 1 ) , pp. 348-352.  7.  R o g e r s , D.P., "Development o f S t r e n g t h by Means o f S t a t i c and C o n c e n t r i c M u s c l e C o n t r a c t i o n s , " U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa, 1956.  8.  S a l t e r , N., " E f f e c t on M u s c l e S t r e n g t h o f Maximum I s o m e t r i c and I s o t o n i c C o n t r a c t i o n s a t D i f f e r e n t R e p e t i t i o n R a t e s , " J o u r n a l o f P h y s i o l o g y , v o l . 130 (October 1955) , pp. 109-113.  9.  L i b e r s o n , W.T., A s a , M.M., "Further Studies of B r i e f I s o m e t r i c E x e r c i s e s , " A r c h i v e s o f P h y s i c a l M e d i c i n e and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , v o l . 40 (May 1 9 5 9 ) , pp. 330-336.  10.  Mathews, D.K., K r u s e , R., " E f f e c t s o f I s o m e t r i c and I s o t o n i c E x e r c i s e s on E l b o w F l e x o r M u s c l e Groups,"; R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 28 (March, 1 9 5 7 ) , pp. 26-37.  11.  Meadows, P., " E f f e c t o f I s o t o n i c and I s o m e t r i c M u s c l e C o n t r a c t i o n T r a i n i n g on S p e e d , F o r c e , and S t r e n g t h , " Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Illinois, 1959.  -  7  -  12.  Rasch, P.J., Morehouse, L . E . , " E f f e c t o f S t a t i c and Dynamic E x e r c i s e s on M u s c u l a r S t r e n g t h and H y p e r t r o p h y , " J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P h y s i o l o g y , v o l . 11 ( J u l y , 1957), pp. 29-34.  13.  Banister, W.E., "Theories of Strength T r a i n i n g , " Royal Canadian L e g i o n ' s Coaching Review, v o l . 4 (September 1966) , p p . 1-4.  14.  Doss, W.S., Karpovich, P.O., "A C o m p a r i s o n o f C o n c e n t r i c , E c c e n t r i c , and I s o m e t r i c S t r e n g t h o f Elbow F l e x o r s , " J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P h y s i o l o g y , v o l . 20 ( M a r c h , 1965), pp. 351-353.  15.  C l a r k e , H.H.> C l a r k e , D . H . , D e v e l o p m e n t a l and A d a p t e d P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n / New J e r s e y : Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1963.  16.  Hettinger, T . , Physiology of C. Thomas, P u b l i s h e r , 1961.  Strength",  Illinois:  Charles  CHAPTER I I  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The  related  literature  has been c l a s s i f i e d  1)  Isometric Strength Training  2)  E c c e n t r i c Strength Training  3)  Muscle Tension  4)  Measuring Leg Strength  5)  Specificity  into  five  areas:  and S t r e n g t h  of Strength  Development  Improvement  Isometric Strength Training T h e r e h a s b e e n a g r e a t d e a l o f r e s e a r c h done i n t h e a r e a o f i s o m e t r i c s and t h e i r  i n f l u e n c e on s t r e n g t h .  s e c t i o n has been d i v i d e d i n t o 1)  Isometrics  2)  Isometrics versus  3)  L e n g t h and F o r c e  Isometrics. (1:46), ing  three  This  areas:  Isotonics of Isometric Training  I n 1946, H e l l e b r a n d t as r e p o r t e d by R a s c h  c h a l l e n g e d the assumptions u n d e r l y i n g i s o t o n i c  techniques,  m i g h t be g a i n e d  and s u g g e s t e d  train-  t h a t i n t h e o r y more s t r e n g t h  by t h e use o f i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s , s i n c e a  . . . m u s c l e d e v e l o p s maximum t e n s i o n when t h e l o a d i s so heavy t h a t i t i s n o t a l l o w e d t o s h o r t e n at a l l . Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s t h e m u s c l e m a i n t a i n s i t s optimum l e n g t h f o r maximum e n e r g y p r o duction throughout the p e r i o d o f e x e r t i o n .  -  9  -  D u v a l l , e t a l . (2), Darcus (4),  disagreed  significant  Hellebrandt  and  the  value  and  Muller  and  spring  any  from the p r a c t i c e  (5) p u b l i s h e d  holding s c a l e by  a pre-determined c o n t r a c t i n g the  Training occurred  a  study  O v e r an  eighteen  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n seventy-one  experiments, i n which t r a i n i n g  forearm.  to demonstrate  of i s o m e t r i c t r a i n i n g .  month p e r i o d , n i n e m a l e s u b j e c t s  ing  failed  Darcus  training.  1953, Hettinger  dealing with  separate  S a l t e r and  improvement i n m u s c u l a r s t r e n g t h  of i s o m e t r i c In  with  ( 3 ) , and  took the  form o f  pull-  amount o f t e n s i o n a g a i n s t f l e x o r s and  a  extensors  of  the  Monday t h r o u g h F r i d a y and  on  each  Saturday a maximal i s o m e t r i c s t r e n g t h  r e c o r d i n g was  concluded  greatly increase  that isometric training  can  made.  They  muscular  s t r e n g t h measured i s o m e t r i c a l l y . Steinhaus felt  the  cause of the  isometric nor  the  be  i n which the  Muller  intensity  of a muscle  oxygen s u p p l y  of the  fiber,  to a muscle  but  (5) to  contraction rather  fiber  a  ceases  enough f o r i t s n e e d s .  by M c C l o y  f i n d i n g s of H e t t i n g e r ( 7 : 3 ) as h a v i n g  entire field Liberson  and  and  i n i s o m e t r i c s t r e n g t h due  n e i t h e r the  degree of exhaustion  The  the  that Hettinger  increase  t r a i n i n g was  condition to  (6) r e p o r t e d  Muller  ( 5 ) were  lauded  . . tremendous s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r  of p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g . " and  Asa  found H e t t i n g e r  and  mature.  ".  and  They p o i n t e d  (8)  studied brief  Muller's  out  isometric  (5) c o n c l u s i o n s  t h a t the  strength  exercises  t o be  pre-  of a muscle i s  - 10 a t . a maximum w h e n normal  resting  muscle  approaches  tently  and  isometric length while of  the  serve  its  very  the  blood  it  isotonic  resting  may b e  exercise  This  more  spite  of  (9)  gave  of  to  length  only  at  may  its  They  result  e x p l a i n e d why than  a  during  that  obstruction perhaps  found  single  an  optimal  strains  and M u l l e r ' s  the  found  in  they  its  intermit-  time,, whereas  isometric  effective  at  contractions,  period.  strain  Hettinger  contract  contracted  intermittent  exercises in  induced  periods  isometric  b l o o d pumps.  isometric exercise  brief  entire  flow,  is  During normal  contraction  continued  as  muscle  length.  for  during a  the  repeated  bout  assertions  of to  the  contrary. Kroll isometric five rest. that level  wrist  seconds  of  Analysis there of  muscular  was  thirty  male  flexion  on each  maximal  exertion  of  variance  of  no b i o l o g i c a l l y  isometric  muscular  subjects  arm.  The  followed  fatigue fixed  twenty trials  trials  of  consisted  by  thirty  seconds'  curve  trends  suggested  and c o n s t a n t  t e n s i o n which  intensity  occluded  intra-  circulation.  Banister  (10:2)  described  static  of  training  as  that  in  which . . . the l o a d i s l a r g e enough t o p r e v e n t s h o r t e n i n g even w i t h a l l the muscle f i b e r s a c t i v a t e d s y n c h ronously (tetanic stimulation). High i n t r a m u s c u l a r t e n s i o n s c a n be e x e r t e d w i t h t o t a l innervation (excitation) o f a l l the m u s c l e f i b e r s and a good t r a i n i n g e f f e c t p r o d u c e d .  -  static three  11 -  Isometrics  versus Isotonics.  s i x second  contractions  Lorback  a t t w o - t h i r d s maximum  t i m e s a week f o r e i g h t weeks p r o v i d e d  creases  i n isometric  differences  strength.  strength  significant  and t h o s e o b t a i n e d by a  resistance exercise  program.  Baer, e t a l . (12), d i v i d e d s i x t y - t h r e e subjects six  into  groups: 1)  High r e s i s t a n c e i s o t o n i c tractions/min.  2)  f o r four  High r e s i s t a n c e i s o t o n i c tractions/min.  3)  f o r four  4)  Very high  5)  exercises,  30  con-  weeks. exercises,  6)  Medium  f o r four  exercises,  resistance isotonic  exercised  t i m e s a week.  weeks. con-  e x e r c i s e s , 10  con-  f o r s i x weeks.  right  upper  extremities  one p e r i o d  T h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t  among i s o m e t r i c s t r e n g t h  10  f o r s i x weeks.  tractions/min. Each group  10  f o r s i x weeks.  H i g h r e s i s t a n c e i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e s , 10 tractions/min.  from h i g h  con-  weeks.  resistance isotonic  contractions/min.  training  e x e r c i s e s , 10  Low r e s i s t a n c e complex m o t i o n contractions/min.  five  that  significant i n -  He a l s o f o u n d no  between such i n c r e a s e s  similar progressive  (11) f o u n d  improvements p r o d u c e d  programs, a l t h o u g h the g r e a t e s t resistance isotonic  training.  a day  differences by  different  improvements r e s u l t e d  - 12 Salter  (13) d i v i d e d h e r s u b j e c t s  E a c h g r o u p was  trained i n supination  of the f o l l o w i n g 1)  i n t o groups o f  of the l e f t  four.  hand by  one  systems:  I s o m e t r i c a l l y a t the r a t e of f i f t e e n per  2)  -  contractions  minute.  I s o m e t r i c a l l y a t t h e r a t e o f two  contractions  per  minute. 3)  I s o t o n i c a l l y a t the r a t e of f i f t e e n per  4)  contractions  minute.  I s o t o n i c a l l y a t t h e r a t e o f two  contractions  per  minute. The  r e s u l t s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t  methods o f t r a i n i n g Darcus training or  thirty  They  i n their  and S a l t e r  sessions  which  effect  on i s o m e t r i c  (14) s t u d i e d  four  strength.  the e f f e c t s of  consisted of either t h i r t y  isotonic contractions  concluded that  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e  a t i n t e r v a l s o f one  daily  isometric minute.  (14:336):  B o t h t y p e s o f t r a i n i n g r e s u l t e d i n an i n c r e a s e i n the s t r e n g t h measured b o t h i s o t o n i c a l l y o r i s o m e t r i c a l l y , although the e f f e c t s of s t a t i c t r a i n i n g were n o t i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t . Rasch exercises  and M o r e h o u s e  (three  (15) f o u n d t h a t i n e l b o w  i s o m e t r i c elbow  flexion  flexions for fifteen  seconds  e a c h a t t w o - t h i r d s maximum s t r e n g t h w i t h t h r e e m i n u t e s between) t h e r e was strength.  I n arm  as i n t h e e l b o w  no s i g n i f i c a n t  increase  i n isometric  elevation exercises with conditions  flexion  rest  e x e r c i s e s , the i s o m e t r i c group  t h e same showed  a  significant  mean  increase  who p e r f o r m e d i s o t o n i c greater  gain  subjects  in  who  Wallace three  groups  (16)  subjects  ing  program and  between  were  groups Petersen  concentric females  before  results  the  (17)  adult  females  a  period  from twenty  one  daily  isometric tions a  or  bicycle  of  the  of  one  following  eccentric  of  daily  heavy  minutes  ergometer).  The  g r o u p s was and  maximum i s o m e t r i c strength  six  of  females.  The  males.  the  The  ten  increased control  had  daily  isometric  adult  in  the  of  Their exercise:  maximum  muscle  contrac-  work  isometric  (riding strength  group  showed  that  no e f f e c t  of one  on t h e  maximum i s o m e t r i c of  muscles,  strength  showed no  ex-  underwent  daily  control  strength  isometric  group  a  results  contraction  strength.  days.  dynamic  on t h e  compared t o  muscles,  increased  dynamic work  effects  ten  train-  static,  forms  daily  daily  and  the  by  thirty-six  ten  females  heavy  to  flexion  males  contractions,  trained  tractions  seventeen  into  differences  participated  contraction,  fifteen  did  control).  four-week  Twenty-four  maximum i s o m e t r i c  seven  metric  of  and  a  training  males  women  training,  elbow  contractions.  twenty-three  consisted  than  significant  of  compared muscle  of  college  after  showed no  Seventeen  training  significantly  isotonic  and  periment. training  a  Subjects  and h y p e r t r o p h y  improvements  and e c c e n t r i c  and  strength.  thirty-three  training,  tested  in  showed  strength  divided  the  isometric  isometrically.  (isometric  The  in  -  exercises  isometric  trained  13  in  conand  both  significant  iso-  males  change.  Berger three  times  same  varied  training  bouts  of  was  training  bouts  but  bouts  of  as  six  training  for  (19)  studied  the  upon the  movements.  to  one  three  A control  male  subjects.  Eight  than the  a  gains rapid  cable  made b y dynamic slow  Belka using trol of  static,  the  at  for  which  two  that different  isometric for  strength  one  dynamically  dynamic,  six  bouts  and  to  with  subjects  (isometric,  g r o u p was  composed o f  scores  for  and  speed of  groups  two  three  each  were  dynamic,  twenty-four subject  group were  not  significantly  isotonic  group  significantly  assigned  rapid  showed  and t h a t  dynamic  execution  results  were  that  gains  greater  gains  greater  made than  by gains  group. four  equated  combination  compare  of  isometric  The  trained  to  of  strength  strength  dynamic  dominant w r i s t .  performed  trained  showed  repetitions  training  method were  (20)  procedures  the  two  students  contractions.  also  results  increasing  tensiometer.  isometric  made by. t h e  were  seconds  effects  experimental  dynamic).  the  The  Seventy-two male  slow  made b y  as  static  contractions  eight  in  college  repetitions.  single  with  to  with  effective  of  taken  dynamic  effective  exercises  of  six  dynamically  not  Chui  with  students  and r e p e t i t i o n s .  more  male  t w e l v e weeks w i t h  time  statically  positions than  for  -  fifty-seven  and s e v e n t y - s e v e n  length  in  trained  a week  One h u n d r e d the  (18)  14  groups  of  five  static-dynamic,  and  effects  on s t r e n g t h  of  static  and dynamic  groups  The three  repetitions  daily  for  subjects  the  conflexors each  five  weeks.  - 15  -  The  c o m b i n a t i o n group completed t h r e e  and  static  three  training.  angles  significant in  Maximum dynamic and  were r e c o r d e d  static  Compared w i t h  the  and  after  strengths  training.  strength  significantly  i n one  Force  summarized H e t t i n g e r  dominant w r i s t  percent  o r more s p e c i f i c  of Isometric  and  Muller's  Muscle strength  little  of the  c o n t r o l groups, a l l experimental  L e n g t h and  1)  before  static  dynamic  flexors. groups test.  Steinhaus  (6)  (5) f i n d i n g s :  increases  p e r week when t h e as  groups  strength  Training.  at  No  d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d among e x p e r i m e n t a l  developing  improved  bouts each of  an  average of  training  o n e - t h i r d o r even l e s s  five  load i s  as  o f maximal  strength. 2)  Muscle s t r e n g t h intensity  i n c r e a s e s more r a p i d l y as  of the  training  about t w o - t h i r d s this, no 3)  increased  intensity  p r a c t i c e p e r i o d per  was  held  Beyond  of t r a i n i n g  load  has  According  day  i n which  i n strength  as  longer  and  more  periods.  to Howell  (21)  many o f t h e  early findings  i s o m e t r i c t r a i n i n g were m o d i f i e d (24).  tension  f o r s i x s e c o n d s r e s u l t e d i n as much  increase  frequent  Hettinger  to  effect.  o f an  and  o f maximal s t r e n g t h .  One  dealing with  l o a d goes up  the  He  reviewed Hettinger's  by M u l l e r (24)  (22,23)  findings:  1)  -  T h e maximum t r a i n i n g by  2)  16  using  only  forty  effect to  mum s t r e n g t h  in  No  strength  change  twenty  in  to  fifty  voluntary  thirty  possible  percent  percent  isometric  was  was of  the  muscle  maxi-  contraction.  o b s e r v e d when of  achieved  only  strength  was  used. 3)  Gradual  losses  when l e s s was 4)  of  only  two  one  to  training only  seconds  stimulus.  is  When t h e  two-thirds  of  to  six  T h e maximum i n c r e a s e with  Several  one  the  average  found 1.2  to  sessions  be  in  gained in  1.79  percent.  strength  than  were h e l d  strength  through  strength percent  provide in-  per  was  once  a  was  per  ob-  day. are  no  one. each  eighty  a day  increases with  only only  the  approximately  maximum c o n t r a c t i o n s  increase  strength  for  stimulus  strength, increase  When t r a i n i n g day,  muscle  training  repeated for  in  to  for  maximum s t r e n g t h ,  seconds.  of  strength  contraction  four  The  observed  muscle  sufficient  s h o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d  of  were  contraction  contraction  better  8)  percent  a maximum i s o m e t r i c  tained  7)  twenty  strength  used.  volves  6)  than  muscle  Maintaining  a  5)  in  second  percent  training. week  standard  was  deviation  Taylor a maximum p u l l seconds,  a  two-thirds 1)  (25)  compared  for  twelve  two-thirds  -  four  isometric  seconds,  for  No o n e  of  the  better  for  of  muscles  six  four  for  twelve  seconds.  methods  increasing  training  a maximum p u l l  maximum p u l l  maximum p u l l  the  17  the  involved  He  was  for  six  seconds, found  and  that:  significantly  contractile  in  programs;  right  strength  wrist  dorsal-  flexion. 2)  The  training  for  six  the  five  method o f  seconds percent  maximum p u l l the in 3)  All  was  contractile right of  hip  the  thirds  than  twelve  training  maximum p u l l  the  of  methods for  except  twelve  increasing involved  the  seconds  in  strength  right  wrist  dorsal  same  strength  the  at  rotation.  improvement  compared w i t h  in  muscles  significant of  better  pull  two-thirds  seconds  strength  outward  maximum  significantly  level  for  two-thirds  the  twoproduced  contractile flexion of  when  a  control  twelve  seconds  group. 4)  Two m e t h o d s , and  maximum p u l l  two-thirds  produced outward pared  maximum p u l l  significant rotation  with  a  for  improvement  contractile  control  for  group.  six in  seconds, right  strength  when  hand com-  a  5)  The  difference  group  over  the  significant higher  Asa twenty,  in  in  for  (26)  found that  a  tric  than  a  single  contraction  a  day,  strength  creases  all in  subjects  isometric  Wolbers for  strength  eight  week  jected The  to  static  subjects  experimental  than  the  ation  control  groups will  six  (11)  a week  isometric  for  was  a group  isometric four  higher  days  group a week  degree  of  showed  for  doing for  isome-  group doing one,  a week,  groups  once  six  twelve  weeks.  significant  as  strength.  tests the  a day  twenty  male  in-  before  and a f t e r  subjects  for  six  subjects  were  seconds  under m o t i v a t i o n .  significantly  greater  strength,  combined g r i p  It  was  isometric  eight  measured  Ten of  static  second contractions  times in  group.  increase  days  and t r a i n e d  lift  tested,  Lorback  (27)  period.  daily  leg  daily,  isometric  g r o u p made  strength,  there  always  experimental  isometric  both  exercises  met  life  muscle  four  training  the  not  strength.  and S i l l s  with  case  repetitive  four  experimental  g r o u p was  significantly  in  the  group.  second contractions gained  However,  for  a  of  every  control  twelve weeks,  second  favor  g r o u p mean  than  six  -  control  but  the  18  and  concluded that  contractions strength  of  two-thirds  weeks  provided  for  six  subeach. The  in  back  strength the  second  dur-  significantly.  mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , at  gains  an  found that  maximum s t r e n g t h , significant  static three  increases  Liberson daily  isometric  times  daily  and A s a  contraction were  contractions  for  Walters,  al.  exercises  exercises  with  effective  in  Rarick single mal  six  higher  longer  static  muscular  of  experimental  the  control  group  tension  levels  frequent daily,  six  one  for  percent  charge, jumps  greater  the  ten  than  bouts  (31) weeks  of  tested  the  contraction  were in  not  found  at  speed of  force  of  the  charge,  and  with  tension in  of  showed  to  a  maxi-  held  for  developing the  higher  strength than  indicated  the  the  that  more  single,  strength.  isometrically  three  improvement  offensive in  the  two-thirds  isometric  the  methods  maximum w i t h  significant  the  isometric  two.  also  superior  subjects  in  lift.  data  programs,  effectiveness  day  two-thirds  and  the  Results  The  single  Both  significantly  level  and back  each  building  trained  and  isometric  boys.  training.  than  strength,  better  groups were  second bout  Meadows a week  after  of  twenty  Repetitive  resistance.  periods  single  and a  isometric  resistance  of  a  improvement.  isometric  levels  time  efficient  c o m p a r e d two  (30)  strength  exercise  seconds.  maximal  second i s o m e t r i c  progressively  six  method the  and L a r s e n  tension with  for  increasing  maximum r e s i s t a n c e  seconds  six  with maximal  two-thirds  programs,  for  strength  (29)  two  held  be more  isometric et  -  studied  held  found to  isometric  were  (28)  contraction  contractions  19  chins,  at  days the  football dips,  vertical  -  Perkins  and K a i s e r  second maximal Twenty  isometric  subjects  training  three  approximately  with  an  times fifty  20  -  (32) studied exercise  average  weekly. percent  effects  on t h r e e  age  The in  the  of  of  muscle  a  groups.  7 3 . 6 ,performed  results  resistance  the  showed  a gain  at  time  the  six  of  of  plateau. Adamson training  program i n v o l v i n g  intervals spine in  (33) administered  using  training  per  trained  Forty-four  isometric  strength  being  most  the  for of the  of  five the  weeks by  exercised  extremity. isometric  gains  the  the  elbow  training  three,  the  ten  second  flexion  a significant  the  four,  subjects five  and  increase  program.  results  subjects  sixty  with  at  consecutive  Sixty  (35) studied  maximal  symmetric  of  isometric  six  maxi-  divided five  made  times  a  second  were and  of  into  times  significant  per  week  program  beneficial.  Mayberry percent  showed  three  two,  week  for  (34) analyzed  contractions.  groups which week.  adapted  following  and Kruse  four  maximum p u l l s  subjects  program i n v o l v i n g  isometric  four  The  strength  Mathews  mal  dynamometers  extension.  isometric  six  a  static the  and r e l a t e d  analysis  strength  exercised wrist  of  one  muscles of  of  Mayberry  maximal  the  that  on  the  no  exercised  indicated  fifty  daily strength  extremity  opposite  indicated  the  and  performed once  of  of  results  of  extremity  muscles  improvement  flexors.  effects  contractions  muscles  and r e l a t e d  The  the  and  unexercised significant  or  that  nona  single  - 21 static  c o n t r a c t i o n o f a muscle  sufficient isometric  amount o f e x e r c i s e strength  to result  o f the exercised  H o w e l l and Shaw (1.7) .  done once a day i s n o t a  l e n t g r o u p s on t h e b a s i s  the findings of Petersen  b o y s were p l a c e d  of isometric  strength  into  equiva-  scores  The e x p e r i m e n t a l  on a  tensiometer with grip  attachment.  p e r f o r m e d one maximum  isometric  forearm f l e x o r s  f o r s i x s e c o n d s o v e r a f o u r week  daily  contraction  A dynamometer was u s e d by t h e e x e r c i s e d o f b o t h g r o u p s once w e e k l y . statistically the of  significant  one p e r c e n t  level  Results  increases  i n isometric  there  there  in. i s o m e t r i c  were s t a t i s t i c a l l y  strength  were  arms  Each  group  and r e s u l t s  significant  between t h e groups i n f a v o r  e x p e r i m e n t a l group a t t h e end o f t h e f i r s t ,  limbs  strength at  and u n e x e r c i s e d  a t t h e e n d o f e a c h week o f t r a i n i n g  showed t h a t  period.  and u n e x e r c i s e d  showed t h a t  i n the exercised  group  of the r i g h t  t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p a t t h e e n d o f f o u r weeks.  was t e s t e d  i nthe  muscle.  (36) examined  Two g r o u p s o f n i n e t e e n  i n an i n c r e a s e  third  differences of the and f o u r t h  weeks. Because isometric the  of the inconsistency  contractions, Muller  of results  and Rohmert  (37) i n v e s t i g a t e d  r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n w o r k l o a d and d u r a t i o n  and i s o m e t r i c  strength  increase  i n static  t y p e s o f t r a i n i n g were a d m i n i s t e r e d ; contractions  as l o a d b u t v a r y i n g  o f s t u d i e s on  of contractions  training.  Five  f o u r w i t h maximum  i n duration  static  and f r e q u e n c y  - 22per day (one second-one per day, four seconds-ten per day, six  seconds-five  p e r day, one second-one per week) and one  i n v o l v i n g s i x t y - s e v e n percent o f maximum f o r c e f o r t y - f i v e seconds-one p e r d a y ) .  (five to  The progress o f the sub-  j e c t s was p l o t t e d and the r a t e o f i n c r e a s e per week became s m a l l e r as the s u b j e c t s approached t h e i r maximal s t r e n g t h level.  The f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s were summarized from the  above mentioned r e s u l t s : 1)  The l a r g e r the r a t i o between s t a t i c l o a d and i n i t i a l maximal f o r c e , the g r e a t e r the r a t e of i n c r e a s e i n s t r e n g t h .  2)  The s m a l l e r the r a t i o between the i n i t i a l maximal f o r c e and the (estimated) maximum s t r e n g t h  level,  the g r e a t e r i s the r a t e o f i n c r e a s e i n s t r e n g t h . 3)  The maximum s t r e n g t h l e v e l and r a t e o f s t r e n g t h i n c r e a s e become l a r g e r when the d u r a t i o n o f the maximal s t a t i c c o n t r a c t i o n i s changed from one to f i v e seconds.  4)  Contractions training  5)  below a c e r t a i n f o r c e l e v e l have no  effect.  Repeating a s h o r t maximal c o n t r a c t i o n s e v e r a l times a day does not i n c r e a s e the t r a i n i n g  6)  effect.  A s i n g l e maximal t r a i n i n g c o n t r a c t i o n a c t s as a g r a d u a l l y d i m i n i s h i n g stimulus  f o r strength i n -  crease f o r a p e r i o d o f seven days.  - 23 McGlynn  (38) d i v i d e d s i x t y s u b j e c t s  groups, c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l . before gauge. days.  i n t o two equal  Each group was t e s t e d  and a f t e r a twenty day t r a i n i n g p e r i o d w i t h a s t r a i n The experimental group, was a l s o t e s t e d every  five  T r a i n i n g f o r the experimental group c o n s i s t e d o f  h o l d i n g two minute i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s  twice a day. I t  was concluded t h a t a two minute maximal i s o m e t r i c  exercise  repeated twice a day f o r a p e r i o d o f f i v e days w i l l l e a d t o a large gain i n i n i t i a l ing in  continued initial  isometric strength.  Isometric  a f t e r f i v e days produced no s i g n i f i c a n t  isometric strength.  Isometric  training  traingains  continued  after, f i f t e e n days r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t decreases i n i n i t i a l isometric  strength.  Banister  (10:2) s a i d o f i s o m e t r i c t r a i n i n g :  Recommendation o f o n e - t h i r d , o n e - h a l f , . o r two-thirds maximum e f f o r t as the b e s t t r a i n i n g stimulus seems t h e o r e t i c a l l y t o have l i t t l e b a s i s s i n c e , i n order to r e a l i z e f u l l s t r e n g t h p o t e n t i a l , t o t a l i n n e r v a t i o n of a l l motor u n i t s a t the maximum f i b e r t e n s i o n should be p r a c t i s e d . E c c e n t r i c Strength The  Training  f i r s t published  completed by P e t e r s e n been r e p o r t e d  study on e c c e n t r i c t r a i n i n g was  (17) whose methodology and r e s u l t s have  i n the previous  section.  Although Petersen d i d  not produce s i g n i f i c a n t s t r e n g t h gains w i t h an e c c e n t r i c t r a i n i n g program, he d i d say o f e c c e n t r i c  contractions(17:409):  - 24 The maximum t e n s i o n r e g i s t e r e d d u r i n g t h i s f o r m o f c o n t r a c t i o n was a b o u t t w e n t y t o t h i r t y p e r c e n t h i g h e r t h a n t h a t d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g t h e t r a i n i n g by maximum i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s . Banister during an  (1) t r a i n e d s e v e n O l y m p i c  a three  month, t h r e e  e c c e n t r i c ergometer.  centric  and European  t i m e s a week t r a i n i n g s c h e d u l e on  They combined b o t h e c c e n t r i c and c o n -  t r a i n i n g and a t t h e e n d o f t h e t h r e e  made s i g n i f i c a n t Banister  rowers  eccentric strength  months h a d a l l  increases.  (39:8) s a i d o f e c c e n t r i c  contractions:  I n d i v i d u a l m u s c l e f i b e r s a r e made t o o b t a i n more o f t h e i r f u l l c o n t r a c t i l e p o t e n t i a l and, a l t h o u g h fewer f i b e r s n e e d t o be i n n e r v a t e d t o a c h i e v e t h e e q u i v a l e n t amount o f work as i s done i n a c o n c e n t r i c movement, i t o n l y r e m a i n s t o i n c r e a s e t h i s work l o a d d r a s t i c a l l y t o i n c l u d e a l l t h e f i b e r s once more. Merton  (40:557)  stated:  . . . c a s e s where a t h l e t e s and o t h e r s snap t h e i r t e n d o n s o r knee c a p s a r e p r o b a b l y t o be e x p l a i n e d by. t h e f o r c e s , c o n s i d e r a b l y i n e x c e s s o f t h e n o r m a l m a x i m a l t e t a n i c t e n s i o n , t h a t m u s c l e s c a n be s u b j e c t e d t o i f they a r e s t r e t c h e d during a c o n t r a c t i o n . Hill  a n d Howarth  (41:170) f o u n d  that:  . . . c o n t r a c t i n g m u s c l e s r e s i s t an a p p l i e d s t r e t c h v e r y s t r o n g l y , w i t h a f o r c e w h i c h may be t w i c e t h a t o f a maximal i s o m e t r i c f o r c e . Asmussen in  (42) f o u n d t h a t when a m u s c l e f i b e r w h i c h was  a state of isometric  during  continuous  stimulation, the i s o t o n i c strength  w e l l below t h e i s o m e t r i c when t h i s was  well  c o n t r a c t i o n was a l l o w e d t o c o n t r a c t  strength  f i b e r was l e n g t h e n e d above t h e i s o m e t r i c  curve.  forceably,  curve.  c u r v e was  On t h e o t h e r the tension  hand, curve  - 25 Doss and e c c e n t r i c , and  Karpovich  (43)  made a s t u d y o f t h e  isometric strength  seven p h y s i c a l education were t e s t e d t h r e e  of elbow f l e x o r s .  t i m e s on e a c h o f t h r e e  t e s t s t o measure  eccentric  contractions.  r e s u l t s showed t h a t e c c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s  m u s c l e p r o d u c e d 13.5 contractions  and  percent greater  concentric  Clarke  and  Strength Clarke  of the  force than  contractions  twenty-three percent smaller M u s c l e T e n s i o n and  Thirty-  s t u d e n t s from S p r i n g f i e l d C o l l e g e  f o r c e i n c o n c e n t r i c , i s o m e t r i c and The  concentric,  isometric  produced a  than isometric  same  force  contractions.  Development  (44:165) f o u n d  that:  H y p o t h e s e s h a v e b e e n s u p p o r t e d t h a t t h e amount o f t e n s i o n developed i n a muscle i s a major f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g s t r e n g t h i m p r o v e m e n t and t h a t t h e w o r k done p e r u n i t o f t i m e i s t h e f a c t o r e s s e n t i a l i n t h e e x t e n s i o n o f m u s c u l a r s t r e n g t h and m u s c u l a r endurance performances. Griffin  (45)  t h e o r i z e d t h a t i n c r e a s i n g the  amount o f  t e n s i o n produced w i t h i n a muscle f o r a c e r t a i n p e r i o d s o m e t i m e s o v e r a c e r t a i n r a n g e o f m o t i o n was overload  system which i s used i n a l l s t r e n g t h  and  the b a s i s  for  the  development  programs. R a s c h and  Morehouse  ment i n u n e x e r c i s e d  limbs  (15:33) e x p l a i n e d  strength  improve-  by s t a t i n g :  Observations of the s u b j e c t s d u r i n g the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d s u g g e s t e d t h a t w i t h b o t h i s o t o n i c and i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e t h e r e t e n d e d t o be more o r l e s s t e n s i o n i n t h e c o n t r a l a t e r a l arm d u r i n g  - 26  -  u n i l a t e r a l e x e r c i s e , such t e n s i o n appearing to i n c r e a s e as the e x e r c i s e became more d i f f i c u l t f o r them. In e f f e c t , t h i s may be c o n s i d e r e d a form of i s o m e t r i c e x e r c i s e which p o s s i b l y was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s l i g h t i n c r e a s e s i n hypertrophy i n the c o n t r a l a t e r a l arm. Hettinger  (24) reviewed many of the e a r l y s t u d i e s  the r o l e of a t r a i n i n g stimulus strength.  He  i n i n c r e a s i n g muscular  agreed t h a t an i n c r e a s e i n muscle t e n s i o n above  t h a t p r e v i o u s l y demanded of a muscle i s the stimulus i n c r e a s e i n muscle s t r e n g t h . Hettinger  on  f o r an  In the summary of h i s book,  (24:75) s t a t e d :  I t has been shown t h a t muscle t e n s i o n , i . e . the t r a i n i n g s t r e n g t h , seems t o be the important p o i n t i n muscle t r a i n i n g . Buchtal  and K a i s e r  (46:350) used a myograph to study  the mechanical changes t a k i n g p l a c e with contractions.  i s o t o n i c and  isometric  They found:  The c o n d i t i o n s under which t r a i n i n g takes p l a c e 'determine the degree of i n c r e a s e i n muscle subs t a n c e . . . One must presume t h a t t e n s i o n i s the d e c i d i n g f a c t o r i n the growth of the muscle's physiological cross-section. Banister  (39:5) s a i d :  The problem of t r a i n i n g muscle s t r e n g t h i s to make the muscle able to r e a l i z e I t s f u l l potent i a l so t h a t a l l the f i b e r s are able to be i n n e r v a t e d and a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r maximum tension. Wolbers and S i l l s s i z e and  (27)  found t h a t a muscle develops i n  s t r e n g t h only as i t i s overloaded,  t h a t i s as i t i s  r e q u i r e d to e x e r t f o r c e a g a i n s t g r e a t e r r e s i s t a n c e than i t normally  does.  Muller strength the  found that  development:  length  number  (47)  of  muscular  of  27  time  the  for  contractions  three  force  which per  -  of  the  Leg  In  day.  Banister  1938, Carpenter  lifts  at  six  according  to  angles  six  were chain  were  leg times  lift.  held,  (10:1)  and  said  the  of  t r a i n i n g methods that the t e n s i o n i m p o r t a n t as the  links.  angles.  were  the  use  of  were  the  The  results  showed  the  of  above  definitely  was  tensometers  most  angles  perfor-  with  the  performed  Physical  varying  about  By  lifts  on l e g  students  days,  by  (49)  strength  study  eighteen  The  and Hathaway  leg  a  college  from Rogers*  Angles  measuring  found  for  124 d e g r e e s ,  attained.  Everts  published Twenty  a day  adjusted  to  115 d e g r e e s  (50:286)  (48)  instructions  115 d e g r e e s  scores below  of  different  to  various  from  is  contraction,  Strength  and measurement  Knee  training  maximum  tension:  Measuring  knees  the  influence  contraction  . . . any r e v i e w o f w e i g h t i n v o l v e s the b a s i c premise generated i n the muscle i s stress factor in training.  med l e g  factors  Capacity  attachment that  of  at  and  high of  inferior.  found the 130  best  angle  for  degrees.  on c a d a v e r  limbs,  bar  angles  consistently  139 d e g r e e s  a  Tests.  Haxton  that:  . . . i n the knee and elbow j o i n t s the leverage o f the a c t i o n o f the e x t e n s o r muscles on the j o i n t s becomes g r e a t e r as t h e j o i n t s a r e e x t e n d e d from the f l e x e d p o s i t i o n s .  He  found that  the  between  improvement  percent  of  the  in  were  placed  hip-jjoint was knee was  of  for a  each  angle  measures  the  right  mean p u s h e x e r t e d as  the  dropped  sharply  the  on  knee as  the  the  at  in  of  the  the  foot  of  five  three two  the  different  similar  angle  read-  showed  no  only  tables.  the  The  found to  160 d e g r e e s  knee  pedal  maximum  and t h e r e f o r e  to  the  push and knee  subjects  in  pedal  The  seat.  p e d a l was  increased  push  the  each  the  A  position  as  least  of  legs  of  limb  same p l a n e  between  were u s e d  angle  the  for  isometric  angle  of  subjects.  mean  between  legs  positions  Maximum l e g  subject  The mean p u s h e s  differences  q u a d r i c e p s *Was 4 2 . 2  and on  recorded  and  the  effects  male  relationships  significant  sharply  the  positions  subject  taken.  of  six seat  different  150 d e g r e e  muscles.  experimental  Each  of  of  of  and  degrees.  studied  of  and the  found.  was  the  degree  sixty  force  front  in  angles  efforts ings  in  mounted  at  recorded  -  leverage  (51)  contractile  results was  the  figure  Hugh-Jones on t h e  sixty  28  rise  and  went beyond  then  160  degrees. cT.e.  Clarke  (52)  studied  cable-tension  strength  investigators  to  product-moment tween the  correlations  tests  sixty-four  coefficient  scores were  the  obtained called  results  administered students  of by  of  two  objectivity,  separately  chosen  correlation the  twenty-eight  at  was  testers.  by.  random. computed The  coefficients.  two A be-  resulting The  co-  efficient  for  indicating  knee  degrees also of  the  (53)  that  upper  .94.  objectivity  was  recommended t h e  when p e r f o r m i n g  stated  -  e x t e n s i o n was  desirable  McCloy  29  it  thigh  is or  leg-lifts best  to  The  found to  use  of  with  rest  be  standard  .90.  a knee-angle  of  a dynamometer.  the  upon a pad o f  accepted  bar  soft  on the  cloth  on  120  He  bare the  skin  upper  thigh. Horitz dynamometer knee of  to  flexion  in  the  seven  of  the  of  degrees. knee  angle  a  effect  fifty  of  specially of  posture  eight  years  of  through  a  constructed on the  females  Three  range  of  sitting,  supine  position  the  subjects  were  to  table afford  was  used  a n d a p a d was padding. as  the  degree  The  top  strength  of  135  degrees.  (55:142)  strength  tests  put  at  increments score  described when he  instructed  in  the  from  the the  of  three  grasp  of  end  maximal  positions to  recorded  development  were  positions. to  75 d e g r e e s  p o u n d s was  effort  distal  seven  of  ages  motion,  and p r o n e  under  each  strength  maximal  knee  The mean o f  score  muscle  between the  age.  the  fifteen  Clarke tension  used  in  the  contractions in  and  females  thigh  varying  the  positions  sitting  edge  (54)  and e x t e n s i o n  performed by the  al.  study  twenty-three  tests  In  et  the  stated:  More r e c e n t l y , C l a r k e a d a p t e d t h e tensiometer, an i n s t r u m e n t d e s i g n e d t o measure t h e t e n s i o n of a i r c r a f t control cable, for testing the strength of i n d i v i d u a l muscle groups. Cable t e n s i o n i s determined from the f o r c e needed t o  165 at  a  cable-  - 30 c r e a t e o f f s e t on a r i s e r i n a c a b l e stretched b e t w e e n two s e t p o i n t s , o r s e c t o r s . This t e n s i o n c a n be c o n v e r t e d i n t o pounds on a calibration chart. Kennedy tuting back  the  and  (56)  relatively  leg  The  of  dynamometer.  ments  on a  means  if  tensiometer  two  possibility  cable  the" R o g e r s calibrated  tests  Physical against  scores  tensiometer  .92  pattern  to  were  agreement.  in  determine  obtained with' the  and  .95  for  the  of  tensiometer  the  back  by  substifor  Fitness  C o l l e g e men p e r f o r m e d w i t h  between s t r e n g t h were  in  was  test-retest  the  the  inexpensive  dynamometer  Test. the  investigated  Index  criterion  both  instru-  correlation  The  correlations  dynamometer and  the  leg  and  lifts  res-  pectively. Clarke Tests They  for  and C l a r k e  measuring  found Clarke  articles tension  (52,  57,  strength  the  (44)  strength  had  reported  58,  59).  test  reviewed of  his  Tbey  Clarke's  individual findings  also  in  Cable  Tension  muscle  groups.  a  described  series the  of  knee  (44:92):  s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n (a) subject in s i t t i n g , backward l e a n i n g p o s i t i o n ; arms e x t e n d e d t o r e a r , hands grasping sides of t a b l e , (b) k n e e o n s i d e tested i n 115 d e g r e e e x t e n s i o n . attachments (a) r e g u l a t i o n s t r a p a r o u n d l e g m i d way b e t w e e n k n e e a n d a n k l e j o i n t s , (b) pulling a s s e m b l y a t t a c h e d t o nook a t l o w e r end o f t a b l e . precautions (a) p r e v e n t vent f l e x i n g arms.  lifting  buttocks,  (b)  pre-  ex-  Lindeburg leg  strength  angles 140°,  of to  in  the  (60) an  leg  on the the  ciency.  Reliability  extended  their  ing from  100 d e g r e e s  on t h e  the knee  and  strength  of  vals  nine  repeated  strength tension the  showed degrees 120  until  and  position  thigh,  100°,  110°,  best  angle  140 d e g r e e s ,  twenty  measured with  middle  of  the  high,  (61)  at  angles  (80-160  the  strength  scores  strength  tests  were  decreasing  of  the  strength  little  change  the  scores  when  of  was  no  the  angles.  ten  inter-  test  each  was  angle.  knee-extension  explicitly  strength  tibia  signifi-  degree  directions in  angles.  angles  the  extension  at  at  ranging  protractor  stabilized  joint  exert-  angles  a  knee  between  e f f i -  head  of  at  and  subjects  Each  followed  in  one  Clarke's  varying  130°,  degrees).  appeared  angles.  the there  measured  joint  relationship  any  measured  subjects  degrees  for  various  The  starting  ankle,  a n d Wehr  exceptions  the  the  strength  at  120°,  were h i g h .  of  leg  s c h o o l boys  optimum m u s c u l a r  bone  joint  but  for  Between  the  this  cablestudy  Results  larger  from e i g h t y  for  than  120  degrees  to  degrees. Meyers  tension Twelve push  in  high  press  approximately  forty-two  curvilinean  with  the  difference  for  to  thirty-seven  coefficients  malleolus  Campney  A  legs  -  leg  a maximum c o n t r a c t i o n .  between  cant  tested  inverted  determine  31  up  and P i s c o p o  strength senior  testing  men w e r e  strength  once  (62) to  made  a  study  Manuometer  Push  comparing  cable-  Apparatus.  used  as  subjects  and were  a day  at  one week  intervals  tested for  for  three  weeks. and  They  three  mean o f  with  the  indicated means  of  performed  that  the  with  push  knee  angles: The  a goniometer.  design  and  nificant when k n e e between scores  angles  the  Specificity Many tests  of  in  between  training. strengths increase  Berger were in  test  arithmetic  score.  the  Results  more  reliable  leg  male  dynomometer  subjects  125°-134°,  position of  an  of  the  knee  comparison t e s t the  was  of  variance no  one p e r c e n t Knee  lower  angles  leg  strength  Improvement 15,  changes  due  to  both  dynamic  and  static  felt  that  dynamic  and  static  (64:329)  in  tested  seventy-eight  and,  strength  strength male  before  sig-  level  13,  crease  145°-  measured  revealed  135-164 d e g r e e s . significantly  five  135°-144°,  analysis  at  at  to  level.  different  static  The  tests  (11,  dynamic  and d y n a m i c a l l y  gave  percent  studies  the  a  performance  Strength  to measure  twenty  angular  were  one  of  used  115°-124°,  115-134 d e g r e e s at  (63)  multiple  differences  caMLe-tension  push apparatus.  Application  a Scheffe  with  strength.  strength  155°-164°.  trials  t e n s i o n method i s  and R a r i c k  leg  -  constituted  cable  measuring  different 154°,  trials  the  Linford measure  three  a manuometer  three  32  and  has  34)  " . . .  have  the  guarantees not  been  university after  a  used  static  strength  assumption that a proportionate  substantiated."  students  t w e l v e week  both  an inHe  statically  training  pro-  gram. with  The three  other  with  subjects  were  maximum s i x eight  to  weekly,.Monday, both the  groups static  dynamic  Wednesday  group  the in  increment each  group  were  - 0 . 0 89 f o r  the  between  actual  significant, between  the  improvement  the  training  The both  static  three  results  showed  strengths strength  static  with  and  the  final The  group  coand  The  correlation  strength  was  .622 w h i c h  there  and dynamic  was  no  and  testing  group.  concluded that  that  strength  to  trained  times  Correla-  relationships.  statically  the  repetitions  strength. in  and  trained  from i n i t i a l  trained  static  isotonic  groups  in  one  contractions  increment  and dynamic  in  groups,  dynamic  significant  dynamically  Berger  in  in  strength  for  static  more  more  dynamic  0.178  two  and F r i d a y .  between  showed no  efficients  Both  significantly  increasing  in  into  consecutive  increasing  tionscoefficients  -  second i s o m e t r i c  effort.  increased  group  split  twelve  w i t h maximum m u s c u l a r  33  was  relationship  strength.  - 34 R E F E R E N C E S 1.  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T . , "The Use o f a B e l t t o Measure Leg S t r e n g t h Improves the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Physical Fitness T e s t s , " Research Quarterly, v o l . 9 (Oct. 1938), pp. 62-69.  50.  H a x t o n , H . , "A Comparison o f the A c t i o n o f the Knee and Elbow J o i n t s i n M a n , " Anatomy 93 ( N o v . 1 9 4 5 ) , p p . 2 7 9 - 2 8 6 .  51.  Hugh-Jones, S u b j e c t s on Contractile Physiology,  52.  Clarke, H.H., "Objective Strength Tests of Affected Muscle Groups Involved i n Orthopedic D i s a b i l i t i e s , " Research Q u a r t e r l y , , v o l . 19 ( M a y , 1 9 4 8 ) , p p . 1 1 8 - 1 4 7 .  53.  M c C l o y , C . H . , Young, M . D . , T e s t s and Measurements in H e a l t h a n d P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , New Y o r k : AppletonCentury-Crofts Inc., 1954, p. 50.  54.  H o r i t z , S.J., Lebow, M . J . , Beyer, F.R., "Effects of P o s t u r e on S t r e n g t h o f the Knee F l e x o r and E x t e n s o r Muscles," Journal of Applied Physiology, v o l . 11 (Nov. 1 9 5 7 ) , p p . 4 7 5 - 4 8 0 .  55.  C l a r k e , H . H . , A p p l i c a t i o n o f Measurement' t o H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , New J e r s e y : Prentice-Hall Inc., 1959, p. 142.  56.  Kennedy, F . T . , " S u b s t i t u t i o n of the Tensiometer f o r Dynamometer i n Back and L e g L i f t T e s t i n g , " Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 30 ( M a y , 1 9 5 9 ) , p p . 1 7 9 - 1 8 8 .  57.  Clarke, H.H., "Improvement o f O b j e c t i v e S t r e n g t h Tests o f M u s c l e Groups by C a b l e - T e n s i o n M e t h o d s , " Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 21 ( D e c . 1 9 5 0 ) , p p . 3 9 9 - 4 1 9 .  58.  Clarke, H.H., Bailey, J.L., S h a y , C . T . , "New Objective S t r e n g t h T e s t s by C a b l e - T e n s i o n M e t h o d s , " Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 23 ( M a y , 1 9 5 2 ) , p p . 1 3 6 - 1 4 8 .  Extension of Record, v o l .  P., " E f f e c t o f Limb P o s i t i o n i n S e a t e d T h e i r A b i l i t y t o U t i l i z e t h e Maximum F o r c e o f the Limb M u s c l e , " J o u r n a l o f v o l . 105 ( J a n . 1947), pp. 332-334.  the  H.H., Manual: S t u a r t Murphy  39  -  59.  Clarke, Haven:  Cable-Tension Strength P u b l i s h e r , 1953.  Tests,  New  60.  Lindeburg, F.A., "Leg A n g l e and M u s c u l a r " E f f i c i e n c y in t h e I n v e r t e d L e g P r e s s , " R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 35 (May 1 9 6 4 ) , p p . 1 7 9 - 1 8 3 .  61.  Campney, H . K . , Wehr, R.W., "An I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Strength Differences Associated with Varying Angles of P u l l , " R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 36 ( D e c . 1965), pp. 403-42.  62.  Meyers, C.R., Piscopo, J . , " R e l i a b i l i t y Study of Cable T e n s i o n S t r e n g t h T e s t i n g as Compared t o Manuometer Push A p p a r a t u s , " R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 35 ( M a y , 1964), pp. 213-214.  63.  Linford, A., Rarick, L.G., "The E f f e c t o f Knee A n g l e on the Measurement o f ' L e g S t r e n g t h o f C o l l e g e M a l e s , " R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 39 ( O c t . 1 9 6 8 ) , p p . 5 8 2 - 5 8 6 .  64.  Berger, R.A., " C o m p a r i s o n o f S t a t i c and Dynamic Strength Increases," R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 33 ( O c t . 1962), pp. 329-333.  CHAPTER  METHODS AND  III  PROCEDURE  Subjects Forty-five Education British of  volunteer  and R e c r e a t i o n  Columbia with  Department  from the of  the  Physical  University  of  a mean age  of  21.8 y e a r s ,  mean  weight  1 6 8 . 2 p o u n d s , a n d mean h e i g h t  of  70.6  were  used.  Experimental  metric  forty-five  leg  strength  ting the  it  of  to  taking  pounds o f  subjects  were  subjects  of  the  the  ranked  strength  three  groups  numerical  gave  a  three  initial then  by  groups  randomly  training.  Group  two  a one m i n u t e  rest  of  extensors.  three  After  trials  the  They were  order  one  with  after  leg  with  the  acted was  as  order  trio  The  control  of  in  between,  for  the  groups  subjects. the  This  same  groups  or  group  were  control and  underwent  group and  five six  test,  to  program c o n s i s t i n g of approximately  conver-  assigned  of  three  an e x p e r i m e n t a l  of  testing  to  then  experimental a  iso-  according  approximately  strength. either  The and  forty-five  each  for  pre-training  scores.  training  contractions  knee  pre-tested  to  subjects  Group one  all  f r o m one  assigned to  an e c c e n t r i c  eccentric with  of  of  mean i s o m e t r i c  conditions.  went  factor  right  tension.  isometric in  were  average  their  rotated  inches  Design  The  consisted  no  subjects  three  seconds  weeks,  under-  in  three  maximal length times  per  week  on Monday,  an  experimental  also  program  following  the  exception  six  seconds. At  the  group  again  tested  knee  extensors.  The  and F r i d a y .  training  isometric  the  for  -  and underwent  same  each  end o f  were  Table  Wednesday  the  that  41  an  schedule  program,  isometric  experimental  leg  three  isometric as  contraction  training  the  Group  all  is  two  held  the  strength  design  training  group  was  was  with  for  subjects  of  the  summarized  right in  1.  Apparatus Isometric Tension  Strength  isometric 118-00,  leg  with A  Test  knee  cable  port  of  before  the both  Mechanical British  to  table.  calibration  on  leg  pre-testing  Engineering  Isometric  inches  and t o  found both  table  that  the  p r o v i d e d by. t h e Training.  allowed  very  The  a  on t h e  to  determine T5-6007-  along 1 and  2).  one-sixteenth lower  sup-  calibrated sessions  University  times  Cable-  Pacific  used  connected  a hook  of  the  (Figures  and p o s t - t e s t i n g  Department  Strength  a device  chain  high  to  Model  was  T h e C a b l e - T e n s i o m e t e r was  C o l u m b i a a n d was  the  trained  tested  by  California,  and a d j u s t a b l e  the  the  thirty  used  Tensiometer,  manufactured  Anaheim,  table  The C l a r k e - S c h o p f  e x t e n s i o n was  A Cable  15482,  Company i n  stirrup  inch  for  Number  a quadriceps  canvas  with  Testing.  strength.  Serial  Scientific  Strength  be  at  the.  of  consistent  manufacturer.  Isometric  little  Group  apparent  muscular  -  42  -  TABLE  I  EXPERIMENTAL  Training  Pre-Test Group I Control  1.  Group II Specific Eccentric Training  tensiometer  1.  Group III Specific Isometric Training  shortening  tensiometer  during  with  a hook  in  its  that  the  distance  ting  the  number  of  Eccentric trained Serial  on the Number  metal  of  l e n g t h 6 weeks methods 3-6 s e c o n d c o n tractions isometrically 3 t i m e s p e r week  (Figure  in  the  the  Training  British  There  by  was  piston a  of  a  a wooden b a r the  two  varied  also  hooks  by  The E c c e n t r i c Ergometer,  Exotronic (Figure  attached  chain  tensiometer  so  adjus-  hooks.  Exotronic  Columbia  an h y d r a u l i c  platform.  the  tensiometer  consisted  and  c o u l d be  and T e s t i n g .  101, manufactured  It  connected  hooks  between  3).  center  A chain  Carlin-Banister  New W e s t m i n s t e r , consisted  1. 2.  center.  links  tensiometer  l e n g t h 6 weeks methods 3 maximum e c c e n t r i c contractions 3 t i m e s p e r week  a hook  between  Post-Test  1. 2.  contraction  wooden p l a t f o r m w i t h  Program  None  tensiometer  1.  DESIGN  to  Model  Systems  4).  The the  permanently  Group  Ltd.  4000, in  instrument  center  of  a  attached  to  the  - 43 top of the p i s t o n . attached was  a t any  given  of the  between t h e b e l t attached  o t h e r end  the  Foam r u b b e r  A graduated  instrument  was  u s e d by  pressure  Y o r k , was  Timing.  and  the  metal  strapped u s e d as A push  the  bar  around  padding button  subject to  An  activate  c o n t r o l box  adjustable steel  of  A Kodak T i m e r m a n u f a c t u r e d by  training  New  goniometer  Company i n L o n g I s l a n d  u s e d t o measure a l l knee  Kodak Company i n R o c h e s t e r , intervals  was  gauge on  the J . S k l a r Manufacturing  C i t y , New  The  be  showed pounds o f r e s i s t a n c e p r e s s u r e .  M e a s u r i n g Knee A n g l e . made by  bar.  subject's waist.  t o a c o n t r o l box  the p i s t o n .  chain could  a large leather belt  subject. and  of the  link,, to a metal  held i n place with  the w a i s t  the  The  Y o r k , was  angles. the  Eastman  used t o time  rest  times.  Procedures Isometrie Clarke-Schopf as p u t  Strength Testing.  Cable-Tension  f o r t h by  Clarke  the  lower  thighs.  S t r e n g t h T e s t f o r knee  (1) were f o l l o w e d e x p l i c i t l y  e x c e p t i o n o f knee a n g l e . quadriceps  I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the  The  t a b l e with both  s u b j e c t s were s e a t e d  knee j o i n t s  a t the  l e g s were h a n g i n g down a t r i g h t A  f o l d e d t o w e l was  a f f o r d padding.  The  s t i r r u p was the  attached  t a b l e so t h a t t h e  to the  stirrup  and  ankle.  on  from  the  the so  the  t e s t e d knee  p l a c e d around the  midway b e t w e e n t h e knee and  with  t a b l e edge  angles  p l a c e d under the  extension  right  to calf  The "cable w a s , t h e n s u b j e c t ' s knee  -  angle use  was  of  and a  exactly  a knee review  approximately degrees,  one  down w h i l e cable  one m i n u t e  tests  was  the  after  being  rest  knee  angle  operators  held  the  between  as  the  attached  to  that  angle was  as  tested  isometric  as  three  The a v e r a g e  pounds o f  set  of  leg to  the  times the  a  120  possible  strength  tension with  be at  subjects'  hard  lifts  to  a tensiometer  pull  was  tests.  subject's  converted  to  subject  the  when p e r f o r m i n g l e g  the  subject  Each  recommended  shown  operator the  (2)  has  After  test  2).  used  120 d e g r e e s  best.  other  1 and  McCloy  literature  and m o t i v a t e d  (Figures a  the  the  of  the  of  -  120 d e g r e e s .  angle of  44  with  three  score calibration  table. Isometric platform with directly held  at  feet  between the  c h a i n was  top  degrees.  was  told  the  would  always  doing  three  one m i n u t e  Banister  feet.  the so  correct be  at  maximal rest  in  the  first  chain  the six  Exotronic  the  were  correct  to  flexed  use  angle.  so  (3:3) .  He  Ergometer  that  The  contractions, The  an  session,  training  use  and  of  subject  involved  training  with  the  a  session.  m e t h o d u s e d was  stated:  The  knees  contractions  showed a d i a g r a m o f in  each  his  bar  3).  angle  training  each  hook  and the  (Figure at  wooden  platform  flexed  hands  second i s o m e t r i c  between  and the  were  training  link  s t o o d on the  apart,  with  knees  Training.  Banister  subjects  The knees  thighs  During the  Eccentric by  of  The  shoulder width  the  adjusted  120  tioned  Training.  men-  Carlin-  - 45 A f o r c e g r e a t e r t h a n 3000 p o u n d s d r a w s t h e down a g a i n s t t h e s u b j e c t s r e s i s t a n c e i n a n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n of the l e g e x t e n s o r s . The  subjects  metric  were  training  placed  with  in  the  and a b e l t  The  degree  knee  angle  of  work  of  because  the  increase  sharply  and t h e n  drop  was  held  by  was  mechanically  ward p u l l squat  to  the  the  then  until  at  released  The  scores  average  he  the  to  pounds by  were  as  the  first  multiplying  and p o s t  (Figure  degrees  4).  position push  was  to  reached button  depressed i t , - t h e  piston  subject h e was  resisted pulled  the  by  to  a  downfull  The  piston  back  the  contractions  last  the  button.  one m i n u t e  and  160  control  such a  iso-  of  starting  The  and b r o u g h t  Three  the  found leg  160  released  period with  of  pre  until  in  angle  place  the  angle.  The  himself  converted  were  rest  training  in  up  per-  between.  periods  a  constant  of  eccentric  strength  scores  2.83  were and  for  subject.  Analysis  of  Data  A onerway differences final  down.  time  in  who  of  a n d when he  position.  training  angle  beyond that  which  bar  (4)  as  a knee  c h o s e n as  a knee  pulled  formed each  each  was  of  the  Hugh-Jones  subject  starting  used  hold  w i t h maximum f o r c e  position  subject  used to  sharply  same p o s i t i o n  exceptions  degrees 160  the  piston eccen-  analysis  among t h e  isometric  of  three  scores.  variance groups  Where  the  was  existed F  for  used  to  determine  in  both  initial  between  groups  was  if and  -  significant,  46 -  a t - t e s t was u s e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e  differences.  The mean s q u a r e e r r o r  between group  from t h e a n a l y s i s  iance  was u s e d as a p o o l e d e s t i m a t e o f t h e v a r i a n c e  three  groups. To  strength  determine i f s i g n i f i c a n t took p l a c e  within  i n the eccentric  the e c c e n t r i c  p u t e d between improvements i n improvements i n e c c e n t r i c this  correlation indicated  g r o u p , a t - t e s t was  i-'som^gifsv l e g s t r e n g t h and"The m a g n i t u d e o f  t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e two i m B e c a u s e some o f t h e a n a l y s e s  dealt with  c o r r e l a t i o n s between s c o r e s ,  efficients  of individual differences  computed.  strength.  g r o u p , a c o r r e l a t i o n was com-  l e g strength.  p r o v e m e n t s c o r e s were r e l a t e d .  also  of the  improvements i n e c c e n t r i c  computed on t h e improvement s c o r e s i n e c c e n t r i c Further,  of var-  the r e l i a b i l i t y co-  i n t h e s e s c o r e s were  -  47  -  -  Figure  2.  Isometric Strength  48  -  T e s t i n g w i t h A Cable  Tensiometer.  -  Figure  3.  49  -  Isometric Training with Isometric  Apparatus.  - 50  Figure  4.  -  Eccentric Training with Carlin-Banister Exotronic Ergometer.  -  51  -  REFERENCES  1.  C l a r k e , H . H . , C l a r k e , D . H . , D e v e l o p m e n t a l and Adapted P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , New J e r s e y : Prentice-Hall Inc., 1963, p p . 73-98.  2.  M c C l o y , C . H . , Y o u n g , M . D . , T e s t s and Measurements in H e a l t h a n d P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , New Y o r k : AppletonCentury-Crofts, Inc., 1954.  3.  Banister, E.W., "Theories of Strength T r a i n i n g , " Canadian L e g i o n ' s Coaching Review, v o l . 4 (Sept. pp. 1-4.  4.  Hugh-Jones, S u b j e c t s on Contractile Physiology,,  Royal 1966),  P., " E f f e c t o f Limb P o s i t i o n i n Selected T h e i r A b i l i t y t o U t i l i z e t h e Maximum F o r c e o f the Limb M u s c l e , " J o u r n a l o f v o l . 105 ( J a n . 1 9 4 7 ) , p p . 3 3 2 - 3 3 4 .  CHAPTER  IV  R E S U L T S AND D I S C U S S I O N Results A istics in for  statistical  of  Table  the  subjects  II.  age,  d e s c r i p t i o n of in  Inspection  height  each of  and w e i g h t  of  the  the  the  means  revealed  physical  three  character-  groups  is  and s t a n d a r d  no g r e a t  presented  deviations  variations  be-  tween g r o u p s . TABLE Mean P h y s i c a l  II  Characteristics and C o n t r o l  Age X  (yrs.)  of  Experimental  Groups  Height(ins.)  SD  X  SD  Weight(lbs.) X  SD  2 1 . 07  2 . 55  70 . 5 3  3 . 35  170 . 3 3  16 . 1 6  Eccentric Group  2 2 . 40  1. 67  70 . 7 6  1. 05  170 . 6 0  14 . 4 5  Isometric Group  2 2 . 00  3 . 48  70 . 4 6  2 . 65  163 .53  13 . 9 2  Control  Group  The and  final  interest initial  g r o u p means scores  was  the  scores  of  are  and s t a n d a r d  presented  apparent the  two  in  deviations  Table  improvement experimental  III  of  for  the  initial  and F i g u r e  final  scores  groups while  5. over  the  Of the  Control  LEGEND  Isometric Group Eccentric Group Control Group 300  CQ  r-l  o  2.50  co  •ri W  C  CD rH  200 '  PRE  POST Mean  Strength  FIGURE 5 PRE AND POST GROUP  MEANS OF ISOMETRIC STRENGTH  Group  failed  to  interpretation vations  was  Group.  This  that  the  show of  any  further  was  Control  essentially  the  -  significant analysis,  computed on the t  54  same  over  the  Control  Group  of  the  the  and  strength  aid  paired  of  = .64)  To  obser-  Control  indicated remained  experiment.  III  Group  and S t a n d a r d  Strength  Means  Deviations  SD^  1  for  scores  leg  course  and F i n a l  M  t-test  ( t  isometric  TABLE Initial  a  difference  nonsignificant  Group's  improvement.  M  SD  2  2  242.45  45.05  244.26  45.04  Eccentric  Group  239.75  42.37  280.60  38.44  Isometric  Group  241.37  35.00  283.26  39.57  The mine  if  sulted the  one-way  the in  initial  of  the  between cant  three  variance  that  g r o u p means  F-ratio groups  were  (Table  in  was  their  used  to  different,  IV).  This  initial  deterre-  indicated  isometric  scores.  An a n a l y s i s strength  of  strength  a nonsignificant  equality  strength  analysis  of  g r o u p means groups  difference  variance (Table  indicated among t h e  was  V).  that  The  there  three  p e r f o r m e d on the significant was  group  at  least  means.  final  F-ratio one  for  signifi-  -  55  -  TABLE Analysis  of Variance  of  df  Source Between Within  Groups Groups  IV  Initial  Mean  Square  2  27.72  42  1683.18  TABLE Analysis  of  Source Between Within  Groups Groups  To were  determine  computed and  final  scores  the  two  the  final  cant.  of  experimental scores  of  df  Mean  of  Final  42  1690.56  differences  groups the  t's  P >.05  (p  < .05)  VI).  experimental  Scores  F  among t h e  Group were (Table  Strength  Square  7121.65  Control  F .02  2  the  Scores  V  Variance  significant  the  Strength  P  4,21  <.05  groups,  t-tests  resulted  compared to The  when  those  difference  g r o u p s was.'  not  the of  between  signifi-  -  56  -  TABLE Comparison of  Group  VI  Group Means  Comparison  M  M  1  of  Final  i  M  2  Scores  _  M  2  t-value  Isometric-Control  283.26  244.26  39.00  7.13*  Eccentric-Control  280.60  244.26  36.34  6.64*  Isometric-Eccentric  283.26  280.60  2.66  *  Significant 42 d f .  The  at  the  initial  and  Eccentric  Group were  A  of  t-value  (Table  5.52  5 percent  final  level  eccentric  analyzed with  was  of  found to  be  a  .49  significance  strength  t-test  for  significant  with  scores  of  matched  at  the  the  pairs.  .05  level  VII).  TABLE Comparison  of  Strength  M  Eccentric  9  0  1  Initial  Scores  l  m  S D  2  and F i n a l  for  1  116.90  VII  the  M  Mean  Eccentric  2  S D  1281.0  Eccentric Group  2  M  2~ 1  277.10  M  S  D  M " 2  S  D  Ml  373.8  262.40  significance  with  value 5.52*  Strength *  Significant  Since tween s c o r e s ,  at  the  some o f it  was  5 percent  the  level  analyses  necessary  to  of  dealt  with  determine  correlations the  14  df.  be-  reliability  of  individual  differences  improvement score of  of  the  score of  the  three  the  individual  eccentric ficant  strength  all  dual the (r  in  three  groups  Control = -.12  Eccentric  Group  and  final  (Table  IX).  The  while  the  isometric  reliable  (r  third score  these  im-  reliability  of  improvement  found  isometric  for  individual  of  improvement  individual  signi-  strength  reliability  Group were  strength  and  amounts  Statistically  also  strength  Isometric  Reliability  Eccentric  were  and  isometric  third  of  score  the  significant  final  (Table V I I I ) .  scores  indiviscores  of  differences  improvement  in  the  s c o r e s were  VIII  Eccentric  Strength  Scores  for  nonsignificant  = ,.69). TABLE  Group  revealed  initial  and  .20),  Group's  significantly  of  the  second  second  from the  of  two  improvement.  initial,  coefficients  the  differences  in  scores  reliability  differences of  differences  the  subtracting  Correlations  strength  groups  from the  and by  estimates  coefficients  all  subtracting  contractions  represented in  by  For  contractions  three  differences  individual  calculated  contractions.  Reliability of  scores.  contractions,  three  scores  -  these  three  initial  final  provement  were  initial  final of  the  scores  in  57  Scores  r  x x  Initial  0.79  Final  0.97  Improvement  0.81  -  58 -  TABLE IX Reliability  of Isometric Strength  . Group Control  Scores  Scores  r  Initial  0.86  Final  0.97 -0.12  Improvement  Eccentric  Isometric  xx  Initial  0.9 4  Final  0.95  Improvement  0.69  Initial  0.92  Final  0.59  Improvement  0.20  A c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was  calculated  t o determine  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s  i n isometric  and  eccentric  Group.  This  isometric  strength  improvement s c o r e s i n t h e E c c e n t r i c  c o e f f i c i e n t showed l i t t l e  strength  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  improvement and e c c e n t r i c  ment w i t h a n o n s i g n i f i c a n t  r olf  strength  .27 b e i n g o b t a i n e d  Other i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s , while not having implications zed  improve-  (Table  X) .  direct  f o r t h e m a i n p r o b l e m s o f t h i s s t u d y , a r e summari-  i n T a b l e X and were as  follows:  -  59 -  TABLE X Correlation  Strength  Coefficients of Eccentric  Group S t r e n g t h  r  r  Scores  Isometric + Eccentric  Improvement  Scores  x 100  2  0 .27  7 .10  Initial  + Final  Isometric  0 .87*  75 .90  Initial  + Final  Eccentric  0 .33  11 .12  Initial  Isometric +  0 .09  .88  -0 .05  .26  Final  Isometric +  Eccentric  Eccentric  * S i g n i f i c a n t a t the 5 percent  1)  level  of s i g n i f i c a n c e .  T h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between i n i t i a l  and f i n a l  eccentric  scores,  initial  isometric  and e c c e n t r i c  scores,  and f i n a l  isometric  strength  and e c c e n t r i c  strength strength  scores. 2)  T h e r e was initial  a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between  and f i n a l  While s t a t i s t i c a l  isometric  strength  scores.  s i g n i f i c a n c e i s a guide to  analyzing  t h e s e d a t a , i n t h e p r e s e n t c a s e where t h e amount  of r e l a t i o n -  ship  (amount o f  between two. v a r i a b l e s  common v a r i a n c e ) , statistically  the only  was  t a k e n as r  2  x 100  m e a n i n g f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p was t h e  s i g n i f i c a n t one.  -  60  -  Discussion The  results  significantly  indicated  increased  isometric  and e c c e n t r i c  scores  the  of  the  their  of  The  Isometric cent  testing  initial Group  percent)  the  for  score  trained  program,  quite  would  interested The metric  due  isometric  to  the  strength constant  thus  demonstrating  (i.e.,  mean  improvement  isometric  G r o u p was figures,  be  (six)  quite  when t a k e n  f o u n d by  week  following  twenty a six  far  meaningful  as  the  17.4  as  per-  percent  week—were  t  (1.79  Hettinger  An almost  as  per  for  (1)  1.2  for  percent  week time  training is  a n d of./value  contbothose  training.  the  through  respectively  improvement p e r  strength  strength  3 percent  economical aspects  that  who  of  strength  strength  eccentric  subjects  in  subjects.  seem t o  fact  (2)  100)  These  initial  strength  Petersen lowing  in  x  percentage  in  cerned,  strength  groups  periods  improvement  week—approximately  improvement  of  of  isometric  isometrically  of  The  and t r a i n i n g  and E c c e n t r i c  improvement per to  isometric  training.  and 1 7 . 0 p e r c e n t .  similar  experimental  training.  percentage  score/mean  their  both  C o n t r o l Group remained r e l a t i v e l y  throughout lack  that  Eccentric eccentric  f o u n d no training. used by  increase  Group  training in  However, Petersen  increased did  isometric the  their  iso-  agree  with  strength  fol-  not  extremely  made h i s  results  low  number  questionable.  - 61 The  increased  through repeated several earlier these data  on  studies  (3, 4,  the  duration  of  5,  isometric training undoubtedly  apparent problem l e f t  quantify  strength  of the  Isometric  maximal i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s  of t r a i n i n g w i l l only  isometric  -  and  Taken  type  isometric strength.  to research  will  increase  t o the  with  collectively,  demonstrate t h a t t h i s  increase  amount o f s t r e n g t h training  6).  agreed  Group  initial  be  to  further  in relation strength  The  of  to  the  the  subjects. Many c o n c l u s i o n s that there strength pared.  was  no  significant  s c o r e means o f t h e  d i f f e r e n c e when t h e  two  experimental  disagree  with  factor i n strength  Hettinger  (1) who  g r o u p s were com-  The  e q u a l i t y of the  is  not  development which would  found muscle t e n s i o n  important f a c t o r i n muscle  fact  final  I t c o u l d have i n d i c a t e d t h a t m u s c l e t e n s i o n  the most i m p o r t a n t  the  c o u l d have b e e n drawn f r o m t h e  to  be  training.  two  experimental  have i n d i c a t e d t h a t e c c e n t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s  groups c o u l d d i d not  also  produce  g r e a t e r muscle t e n s i o n  than i s o m e t r i c c o n t r a c t i o n s which would  disagree  Karpovich  with  Doss and  c o n t r a c t i o n s produced  13.5  muscles than d i d i s o m e t r i c The  fact  t h a t an  (7).  percent  They f o u n d e c c e n t r i c  greater  force within  contractions.  i s o m e t r i c t e s t was  u s e d t o measure  improvement o f a g r o u p t h a t t r a i n e d e c c e n t r i c a l l y b e e n an  a d d i t i o n a l r e a s o n why  more o f an  increase  the  the  i n strength  could  have  E c c e n t r i c Group d i d n o t  per  se.  Berger  (8) has  show  stated  - 62 that a  a  statically  static  test  The in  than w i l l  reliability  isometric  meaningful.  over  eighty  were  Isometric ability there  was  there in  reason as  in  the  the  The  for  the  zero  strength  improvement  very  low  reliability A scatter  improvement score)  score  revealed  indicated  the  no  the  the  for  coeffi-  for low  understood.  the r e l i -  Because  Control Group,  in  thus these  scores  Isometric  in  which The  G r o u p was  improvement  against  all  resulting  coefficients.  significant  considerable  indicated  accounted  for  diagram of  plotted  generally  improvements  reliability in  differences  reliability  scores  differences  low  low  easily in  were  was  The r e a s o n  the  explained.  which  only  on  group.  coefficients  variance  improvement  individual  caused  first  effect)  total  isometric  little  had near  provement  the  improvement  individual  scores  present  C o n t r o l G r o u p was  very  easily  (the  the  differences.  b e i n g no  turn  of  trained  of  strength  and C o n t r o l G r o u p s .  of  subjects  Most  show m o r e  a dynamically coefficients  percent' of  individual  cients  group w i l l  and e c c e n t r i c  very  by  trained  the  trend  second  (a  variability  not  scores im-  "shotgun" of  these  scores. An i m p o r t a n t coefficients  point  reported  in  to  c o n s i d e r was  the  results  minimum v a l u e s .  The m a j o r i t y  the  average  basis  of  the  reliability  coefficients  The  of  average  several  of  of  three  were  scores  the  of  that  the  the  present  results  were  contractions  a higher  study  were  computed  on  whereas  computed from s i n g l e has  reliability  the  scores.  reliability  than  - 63 the  separate single Correlation  and  eccentric  average scores differences reported metric  scores. c o e f f i c i e n t s computed  scores of the E c c e n t r i c and t h e r e f o r e  Thus  and e c c e n t r i c  strength  improvements was  that  i n eccentric  This and  eccentric  41.2  work o f B e r g e r  (8) who  (r = 0 . 1 8 ) between strength  isometric  percent  and  f i n d i n g agreed with the  strength  improvements  strength  of i n t e r e s t included the i n i t i a l  scores,  and f i n a l  of the i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s  are not r e l a t e d  ment o f s t r e n g t h  and  dynamic  nonsignificant  isometric  and t h a t  (9:25) have  high  of these scores.  eccentric  and  and reliaIt  isometric  t h e r e i s more t o t h e d e v e l o p -  than j u s t muscle t e n s i o n .  Henry and W h i t l e y  the  e v e n t h o u g h t h e r e was  w o u l d seem f r o m t h e s e r e s u l t s t h a t  as  in  strength.  improvements.  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  strength  necessarily  f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s  isometric  Other f i n d i n g s  eccentric  This  iso-  suggested'  d i d not  17.0  actual  the  i n isometric  were s u b s t a n t i a l ;  percent respectively.  bility  strength  e v e n t h o u g h g r o u p improvements strength  from  n o t due t o  t h e low c o r r e l a t i o n s  i n a c o r r e s p o n d i n g improvement  resulted  than the  t h e low r e l a t i o n s h i p between  Therefore  an improvement  isometric  Group were computed  i n t h e s e s c o r e s were more r e l i a b l e  values.  the  as m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , i n d i v i d u a l  low r e l i a b i l i t i e s .  result  between  Possibly,  suggested:  Even maximal s t a t i c c o n t r a c t i o n v o l u n t a r i l y i n i t i a t e d i s v i s u a l i z e d as a n e u r o m o t o r c o o r d i n a t i o n , c a p a b l e o f b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d by m o t i v a t i o n and a v a r i e t y oif o t h e r f a c t o r s .  i tis  - 64  -  The n e u r o m o t o r i n t e g r a t i o n p a t t e r n o f s u c h a s t a t i c c o n t r a c t i o n m i g h t be e x p e c t e d t o be d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e more c o m p l i c a t e d p a t t e r n f o r m a x i m a l c o n t r a c t i o n d u r i n g movement. Morehouse as with  reported  H e n r y and  by  Whitley  Elliot  and  (10:35) has  somewhat a g r e e d  hypothesized:  The t r a i n i n g s t i m u l u s r e s i d e s i n t h e c e n t r a l n e r v o u s s y s t e m and t h e e f f e c t o f t r a i n i n g may be a r e d u c t i o n o f t h e i n h i b i t i o n i n t h e n e r vous d i s c h a r g e s which produce c o n t r a c t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e t h e s u b j e c t s g e t u s e d t o e x e r t i n g maximum f o r c e i n t h i s manner. Elliot  (10:45) has  a l s o concluded  that  . . . s t r e n g t h i n a complex and u n f a m i l i a r .task i s s u b j e c t t o c o n s i d e r a b l e improvement as a r e s u l t o f the l e a r n i n g t h a t r e s u l t s from practice. These statements would i n d i c a t e t h a t t h o u g h t must be strength (1,  11,  training. 12)  increasing dicting  given  who  to the  On  the  strength.  doubtedly  The  The  great  tensions  almost completely  factors,  present  s u g g e s t an  tensions  are i n v e s t i g a t o r s  results while additional  imposed on  their  produced a s i g n i f i c a n t  g r o u p improvement e f f e c t  isometric  hand, t h e r e  for  not  contra-  important  E c c e n t r i c Group w h i c h t r a i n e d e c c e n t r i c a l l y  had  While these  one  stimulus  b e l i e v e t h a t t e n s i o n i s a major f a c t o r f o r  t h i s viewpoint  factor.  concept of the  considerable  contractions.  l e g muscles.  and  meaningful  i n i s o m e t r i c s t r e n g t h , they  unrelated  t o the  tensions  Therefore,  i n conjunction with  induced  were  developed  i t must be  un-  that  during  other  tension, contribute  to  strength  improvement.  earlier motor in  patterns  then,  the  large the  is the  specificity  likely the  of  development  of  a motor  patterns).  it  is  as  could  (for  this  experiment  c o u l d be  explained  skills.  been  neuro-  large  factor,  a  From t h i s  viewed which  as  in  Henry  as  there is  are  also  valid,  similar  (13:127)  view-  similar  reported  a  suggested  complex  comparison  improvement  motor  of as  be  strength  of  has  strength.  skill If  well  of  specificity  as  development  development  strength  neuromotor  that  -  a prerequisite,  development  present the  10:35)  determining  point to  (9:25,  Most  65  in way  has  the to  stated:  R e p e t i t i o n of a motor act improves the specific s k i l l that is p r a c t i c e d but i n d i v i d u a l differences i n a b i l i t y t o p r o f i t by p r a c t i c e are s p e c i f i c t o t h a t s k i l l and d e f i n i t e l y do n o t p r e d i c t the a b i l i t y t o improve by p r a c t i c e in some o t h e r skill. Lotter  (14:57)  found  that:  Neuromotor or task s p e c i f i c i t y i m p l i e s t h a t individual a b i l i t i e s in performing a specified motor task with a p a r t i c u l a r group of muscles t e n d t o have o n l y a low c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h i n d i vidual a b i l i t i e s in performing a different t a s k u s i n g l a r g e l y t h e same g r o u p o f m u s c l e s . It  appears  motor of  that  pattern  that  and  not  In  are  skills  this  thought  as  skill the  neuromotor related  highly  respect, of  motor  determines  These  making motor  be  that  each  skill.  specific  can  for  to  speed, patterns  any  other  exists  a  neuro-  coordination, are  etc.  completely  patterns  thus  specific.  isometric  being  there  and e c c e n t r i c  determined,  in  a  large  strength part,  by  - 66 specific These  neuromotor  patterns  his  muscles  the  amount  these  of  of  be  is may  contraction  tension  it  amount  produce  factor  is  subjects  to  are  of  a  each to  and t h e r e f o r e  bear  or  to  subject  in  a  other.  coordinate  determine  contraction.  specific,.it  isometric  is  seen  to  to  of  that  follows  eccentric  there  responsible  tension  important  the  tension. of  brought  patterns in  ability  unrelated  Since  that  the  contractions  will  specific.  contribute  type  a maximal  intrinsically  the  are  the  tension  Thus both  that  determine  neuromotor  amount also  in  patterns  for  physiological  development.of  effectively these  contraction  at  least  increases  p r o d u c e d by  maximum p h y s i o l o g i c a l  Since  a  two  in  training  effects  in  strength.  coordinate  their  neuromotor patterns  program  muscle  The  other  performed  it  tension  isometrically  ability  produce  tension  is  expected  will  not  eccentrically.  be  which to  exert  the  related  that  enable  specific that  One  which  the  muscles are  factors,  strength.  neuromotor patterns  to.produce to  are  to  the  ability to  the  -  67  -  REFERENCES 1.  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D . , " R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n S t r e n g t h , Speed and Mass i n an Arm M o v e m e n t , " R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 31 ( M a r c h , 1 9 6 0 ) , •pp. 2 4 - 3 3 .  10.  E l l i o t , G . M . , "The L e a r n i n g Component o f S t a t i c Strength i n R e l a t i o n to Task C o m p l e x i t y , " Unpublished M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y , June, 1968.  11.  C l a r k e , H . H . , C l a r k e , D . H . , D e v e l o p m e n t a l and A d a p t e d P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , New J e r s e y : Prentice-Hall Inc., 1963, p, 165.  -  12.  1965),  pp.  409-425.  H e n r y , F.M., " S p e c i f i c i t y vs. Generality i n Learning Motor S k i l l s , " C o l l e g e P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n Proceedings  14.  -  M u l l e r , E.A., " P h y s i o l o g i c a l Methods o f I n c r e a s i n g Human P h y s i c a l Work C a p a c i t y , " E r g o n o m i c s , v o l . : 8 (Oct.  13.  68  (1958),  pp.  126-128.  L o t t e r , W.S., " S p e c i f i c i t y o r G e n e r a l i t y o f Speed o f S y s t e m a t i c a l l y R e l a t e d Movements," R e s e a r c h ' Q u a r t e r l y , vol.  32  (March,  1961),  pp.  55-62.  CHAPTER  SUMMARY  AND  V  CONCLUSIONS  Summary Physical development the  best  educators  a n d many  method o f  muscular  tension  ment  also  est  and  amount  study  was  of  muscular  strength  training  training  would also  three  before  to  control  was  also  Exotronic  in  to  of  determine  studies  strength  this,  the  contraction  better  isometric  strength  found  develop-  produced the  than  The p r o b l e m o f  three  then  university groups  leg  great-  present strength  an  isometric  whether  eccentric  and e c c e n t r i c  One g r o u p  six  such  trained  strength  Ergometer.  with  training  training  and the all  took  a  place  and  conlast  tested isometric  The E c c e n t r i c with  the  These  eccentric  program f o r  strength  that  experimental  The g r o u p s were  eccentric The  to  system-  equal.  contractions  a Cable-Tensiometer.  for  a manner  were  assigned  isometric  week  in  students, were  strengths  randomly  with  a  with  tested  Because  strength  conditions.  after  strength  importance  eccentric  related  isometric  another  leg  Earlier  contractions  if  volunteer  conditions.  and  undertaken  in  studied.  groups were  followed  see  program.  assigned  tractions,  prime  leg  produce  initial  control  to  interested  strength.  tension.  develop  Forty-five  group's  of  long been  have been  found e c c e n t r i c  would  atically  be  undertaken  was  studies  developing  to  training  gains  have  Group  Carlin-Banister three  times  per  week  and  three  each  training The  tric  the  results  with  final  tively  contractions  indicated  programs  t*s  of  scores  were  were  both  and  the  compared to  6.64  (p  < .05)  Group.  final  testing  for  G r o u p s was  due  Within strength  was  p  with  < .05)  this  group  found  for  tively,  scores  of  isometric  significantly an  improvement  were  coefficients  .79, of  scores,  strength  scores  tionship  between  of  such  group  scores.  of  > .05)  to  groups  between  the  eccentric  training  (t  occurring.  .94,  .95  and  =  .69  scores,  were  respec-  corresponding scores  .97,  and  .81.  between  thus  of  5.52,  For  the  -0.05,  was  training.  group,  due  (p  17.0  and  respectively, this  difference  improvement  0.09,  relationships  .49  and  respec-  experimental  40 p e r c e n t  and  strength  of  two  trained  of  final  t  and e c c e n t r i c  coefficients  initial,  the  the  increased  improvement  strength  17.4 percent  little  eccentrically  isometric  for  very  of  of  to  A nonsignificant  reliability  correlation tained  the  the  eccentric  to  when  Control  and C o n t r o l  improvements  obtained  the  Isometric  compared i n d i c a t i n g  being  strength  scores  final  the  final  isometric  eccen-  the  from i n i t i a l  respectively.  and  Groups  improvement  when t h e  isometric  and E c c e n t r i c  of  were  during  Isometric  amount  obtained  the  produced s i g n i f i c a n t  7.13 of  that  The  percent  performed  session.  training  gains  maximal  70  for  Nonsignificant  and  0.27  initial, isometric  were  final, and  demonstrating  ob-  and  eccentric  little  rela-  -  71  -  Conclusions Within ing  the  conclusions 1)  limitations  were  Both  isometric  Eccentric than leg  3)  and e c c e n t r i c  isometric  training  isometric  Eccentric  leg  was  training  strength  not  training  training  strength  follow-  produced  improvements.  significantly  for  increasing  better  isometric  each  increase  in  training  did  were  isometric  subject  eccentric not  increase  There  produced s i g n i f i c a n t  eccentric  improvements.  Treating  ding 5)  the  strength.  leg 4)  study  justified:  significant 2)  imposed on t h i s  no  on an  individual  strength  necessarily  in  isometric  significant  strength  scores  due  lead  basis,  to to  an  eccentric a  correspon-  strength. relationships  between  and e c c e n t r i c  strength  scores.  Recommendations 1)  More of are  2)  experimental  eccentric needed  general strength  and  contractions  using  The q u e s t i o n  studies  of  various the  dealing on  strength  training  specificity  specifically  improvements  the  needs  with  the  value  improvement  schedules.  of  strength  specificity further  in  of  investigation.  -  3)  The  theory  greatly be  that  -  neuromuscular  influence  considered in  72  strength further  coordination  improvement  can  should  investigations  of  strengthtraining. 4)  A similar  study  undertaken  in  eccentrically This  would  isometric similar  eccentric  the  which  all  determine strength  in  present  the  as  if  to the  to  should  are  be  tested  isometrically.  transfer  eccentric transfer  present  strength  one  subjects  and t r a i n e d  fashion  observed  to  study  occurs  from  strength  in  of  (i.e.  isometric  strength from  strength).  a  B I B L I O G R A P H Y  -  74  -  Adamson, G.T., " E f f e c t s o f I s o m e t r i c and I s o t o n i c E x e r c i s e on E l b o w F l e x o r and S h o u l d e r E x t e n s o r M u s c l e G r o u p s , " H e a l t h and F i t n e s s i n t h e Modern W o r l d ( 1 9 6 1 ) , pp. 1 7 2 - 1 7 9 . 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M u l l e r , E.A., " P h y s i o l o g i c a l Methods o f I n c r e a s i n g Human P h y s i c a l Work C a p a c i t y , " E r g o n o m i c s , v o l . 8 ( O c t . 1 9 6 5 ) , 409-425.  pp.  M u l l e r , E.A., " T r a i n i n g M u s c l e S t r e n g t h , " E r g o n o m i c s , v o l . 2 (Feb.  1959) , pp.  216-222.  -  ., / .  M u l l e r , E.A., V e t t e r , K., B l u m e l , E . , " T r a n s p o r t by M u s c l e Power O v e r S h o r t D i s t a n c e s , " E r g o n o m i c s , v o l . 1 (May 1 9 5 8 ) , pp.  222-225.  M u l l e r , E.A., Rohmert, W., " D i e G e s c h w i n d i g k e i t d e r M u s k e l k r a f t Zunahme b e i I s o m e t r i s c h e m T r a i n i n g , " I n t . Z. angew. P h y s i o l , e i n s c h l e A r b e i t s p h y s l o l . , v o l . 19 ( 1 9 6 3 ) , p p . 4 0 3 - 4 1 9 . P e r k i n s , L.C., K a i s e r , H.L., " R e s u l t s o f S h o r t - T e r m I s o t o n i c and I s o m e t r i c E x e r c i s e Programs i n P e r s o n s O v e r S i x t y , " The P h y s i c a l T h e r a p y R e v i e w , v o l . 41 ( S e p t . 1 9 6 1 ) , pp.  633-635.  P e t e r s e n , T.B., " M u s c l e T r a i n i n g b y S t a t i c , C o n c e n t r i c and Eccentric Contractions," Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, vol.  48  (1960),  pp.  406-416.  P i e r s o n , W.R., R a s c h , P . J . , " E f f e c t o f Knowledge o f R e s u l t s on I s o m e t r i c S t r e n g t h S c o r e s , " R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 35  (Oct. 1 9 6 4 ) ,  pp.  313-315.  -  79  -  Rarick, G.L., Larsen, G.L., " O b s e r v a t i o n s on F r e q u e n c y and Intensity of Isometric Muscular E f f o r t in Developing S t a t i c Muscular Strength i n Post-Pubescent Males," R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 29 ( O c t . 1 9 5 8 ) , p p . 3 3 3 - 3 4 1 . Rasch, P.J., "Progressive Resistance Exercise: Isotonic and Isometric: A Review," J o u r n a l of the A s s o c i a t i o n f o r P h y s i c a l a n d M e n t a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , v o l . 15 ( M a r c h 1 9 6 1 ) , pp. 46-50. Rasch, P.J., Morehouse, L . E . , " E f f e c t o f S t a t i c and Dynamic E x e r c i s e s on M u s c u l a r S t r e n g t h and H y p e r t r o p h y , " J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P h y s i o l o g y , v o l . 11 ( J u l y 1 9 5 7 ) , pp. 29-34. Rogers, D.P., " D e v e l o p m e n t o f S t r e n g t h by Means o f S t a t i c Concentric Muscle C o n t r a c t i o n s , " Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa, 1956.  and  S a l t e r , N . , " T h e E f f e c t o n M u s c l e S t r e n g t h o f Maximum I s o m e t r i c and I s o t o n i c C o n t r a c t i o n s a t D i f f e r e n t R e p e t i t i o n Rates," J o u r n a l o f P h y s i o l o g y , v o l . 130 ( O c t . 1 9 5 5 ) , p p . 1 0 9 - 1 1 3 . S t e i n h a u s , A . H . , " S t r e n g t h From Morpurgo t o M u l l e r - a H a l f Century of Research," Journal of Association for Physical a n d M e n t a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , v o l . 9 ( S e p t . 1 9 5 5 ) ," p p . 1 4 7 - 1 8 0 . Taylor, W.E., "A S t u d y C o m p a r i n g t h e E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f F o u r S t a t i c C o n t r a c t i o n T r a i n i n g Methods f o r I n c r e a s i n g the C o n t r a c t i l e S t r e n g t h o f Two B o d y M o v e m e n t s , " U n p u b l i s h e d Master's Thesis, Pennsylvania State University, August, 1954. Wallace, J . , "The D e v e l o p m e n t o f M u s c u l a r S t r e n g t h and M u s c u l a r E n d u r a n c e T h r o u g h I s o t o n i c a n d I s o m e t r i c E x e r c i s e , " New Z e a l a n d J o u r n a l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , v o l . 14 ( A p r i l 1 9 5 8 ) pp. 3-9. Walters, C . E . , S t e w a r t , C . L . , Le C l a i r e , J . F . , "Effect of S h o r t Bouts o f I s o m e t r i c and I s o t o n i c C o n t r a c t i o n s on M u s c u l a r S t r e n g t h and E n d u r a n c e , " A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P h y s i c a l M e d i c i n e , v o l . 39 ( A u g . 1 9 6 0 ) , p p . 1 3 1 - 1 4 1 . Wolbers, C P . , S i l l s , F.D., "Development of Strength i n High S c h o o l Boys by S t a t i c Muscle C o n t r a c t i o n s , " Research : Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 27 ( D e c . 1 9 5 6 ) , p p . 4 4 6 - 4 8 0 .  A P P E N D I C E S  A P P E N D I X  A  -  82 -  STATISTICAL A)  t-test  TREATMENT  f o r between groups t = S  where  l"  X  P N  X  +  x  2 N  2  = mean o f g r o u p  1  .= mean o f g r o u p 2 S = MS p E 2  T  S  ="VMS_, ' E  p  MS = mean s q u a r e w i t h i n g r o u p s f r o m a n a l y s i s o f E  variance N B)  t-test  = number o f s u b j e c t s w i t h i n g r o u p f o rpaired t=  observations E  s  d N  where d s  =  mean o f d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n p a i r e d  -d =-Ys  2  d  ;  2  S N  d  = :variance =  of the differences  number o f p a i r e d  observations  observations  A P P E N D I X  B  RAW Control  Group  Isometric  , . o UD ] 6 C t  SCORES  Scores  Initial v  X  l  v  X  2  Final v X  3  Y X  .l  V  X  2  V X  3  A.C.  370.7  353.8  345.5  345.5  362.0  334.0  B.L.  294.7  284.5  268.0  287.2  290.0  276.5  J.M.  272.5  268.0  301.5  301.5  268.0  2268.0  G.J.  256.0  276.5  290.0  272.5  263.0  272.5  T.H.  253.0  253.0  270.5  250.0  276 . 5  268.0  G.R.  250.0  256.0  246.0  276.5  268.0  268.0  K.F.  240.2  256.0  246.0  233.0  256.0  253.0  B.W.  236.5  217.8  248.0  240.2  246.0  223.0  B.L.  205.0  223.5  256.0  256.0  256.0  253.0  K.B.  217.8  171.8  250.0  197.4  201.2  223.5  G.J.  197.4  217.8  212.2  217.8  208.6  206.8  D.B.  197.4  217.8  201.2  201.2  197.4  201.2  F.H.  212.2  182.8  187.0  223.5  197.4  192.7  C S .  184.9  161.7  184.9  163.4  163.4  171.8  A.B.  244.0  217.8  227.5  223.5  212.2  227.5  E c c e n t r i c Group Isometric  Scores Final  Initial  Subject X  l  X  2  X  3  X  l  X  2  X  3  L.C.  326.8  319.5  313.8  308.0  326.8  345.5  J.P.  308.0  284.5  297.0  326.8  326.8  362.0  D.B.  256.0  284.5  290.0  326.8  326.8  326.8  H.W.  276.5  246.0  292.3  301.5  276.5  305.2  H.G.  290.0  246.0  263.0  345.5  308.0  334.0  B.K.  256.0  248.0  244.0  250.0  268.0  272.5  L.B.  244.0  250.0  246.0  265.5  284.5  301.5  W.S.  250.0  233.0  233.0  326.8  308.0  294.7  M.I.  240.2  217.8  223.5  272.5  272.5  276.5  B.M.  229.5  217.8  210.4  263.0  256.0  256 .0  D.C.  192.7  233.0  233.0  256.0  272.5  272.5  A.N.  197.4  197.4  229.5  217.8  272.5  268.0  M.S.  201.2  199.3  212.2  223.5  208.6  217.8  L. K.  208.6  201.2  195.5  250.0  227.5  240.2  N.M.  182.8  143.5  146.1  256.0  212.2  233.0  I s o m e t r i c Group I s o m e t r i c  Scores Final  Initial  Subject X  l  .  X  2  X  3  X  l  X  2  X  3  R.M.  308.0  308.0  308.0  368.5  339.8  294.7  R.M.  274.5  290.0  294.7  319.5  326.8  362.0  L.B.  276.5  284.5  284.5  326.8  326.8  326.8  L.M.  287.2  280.0  272.5  319.5  319.5  301.5  J.S.  256.0  256.0  276.5  319.5  308.0  319.5  G.C.  276.5  246.0  233.0  276.5  284.5  345.5  K.B.  233.0  240.2  256.0  284.5  272.5  276.5  E.F.  208.6  244.0  256.0  326.8  308.0  301.5  R.P.  233.0  227.5  233.0  294.7  287.2  301.5  J.W.  212.2  210.7  233.0  227.5  250.0  263.0  R.M.  201.2  223.5  227.5  223.5  263.0  280.0  B.H.  208.6  212.2  208.6  256.0  265.5  274.5  L.C.  210.4  217.8  182.8  240.2  263.0  225.5  B.T.  192.7  199 .3  206.8  227.5  227.5  227.5  R.E.  208.6  192.7  182.8  205.0  223.5  225.5  E c c e n t r i c Group E c c e n t r i c  Scores Initial  Subject X  l  x  2  Final X  3  x  l  X  2  X  3  L.C.  849.0  990.5  1018.8  1627 .2  1485 .8  1627 .2  J.P..  990.5  919.8  990.5  1415 .0  1457 .4  1556 .5  D.B.  919.8  849.0  919.8  919. 8  9919 .8  919 .8  H.W..  849.0  495.2  707.5  849. 0  877 .3  849 .0  H.G.  636.8  792.4  820.7  1132 .0  1132 .0  1202 .8  B.K.  919.8  1103.7  905.6  1188 .6  1018 .8  1132 .0  L.B.  905.6  919.8  905.6  1132 .0  1061 .2  1089 .6  W.S.  990.5  1061.2  1202.8  1344 .2  1415 .0  1386 .7  M.I.  707.5  990.5  990.5  1160 .3  1188 .6  1273 .5  B.M.  849.0  849.0  1061.2  1202 .8  1202 .8  1132 .0  D.C.  849.0  1061.2  1132.0  2051 .8  1768 .8  1981 .0  A.N.  990.5  1061.2  1061.2  1132 .0  1202 .8  1216 .9  M.S.  778.2  849.0  849.0  1273 .5  1103 .7  1103 .7  L.K.  849.0  919.8 •  990.5  1372 .6  1344 .2  1316 .0  N.M.  707.5  707.5  735.8  1698 .0  1415 .0  1627 .2  A P P E N D I X  C  -  89 -  CALIBRATION  Tensiometer lensiometer  27  Calibration Instrument(lbs.)  77  CHART  Tensiometer ° e  t  e  r  Calibration Instrument(lbs.)  68.5  244.0  38  111.5  70.0  250.0  39.5  118.5  71.0  256.0  42  126.5  72.0  263.0  44  134.5  73.5  270.5  46  143.5  75.0  276.5  49.5  152.5  76.0  284.5  51  160.0  77.0  290.0  53.5  168.5  78.5  297.0  55.0  178.5  79.0  301.5  57.0  187.0  80.0  308.0  58.5  195.5  81.0  319.5  61.0  205.0  83.0  334.0  63.5  214.0  84.0  345.5  64.5  221.5  89.0  375.0  66.5  229.5  90.0  390.0  67.5  236.5  92.0  401.0  

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