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The energy demands of a 2,000 meter race simulation for national level oarswomen Young, Ingrid Victoria 1988

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THE ENERGY DEMANDS OF A 2,000 METER RACE SIMULATION FOR NATIONAL LEVEL OARSWOMEN BY INGRID VICTORIA YOUNG B.Sc The University of Waterloo, 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES..^ School of Physical Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MAY 1988 (T)lNGRID VICTORIA YOUNG, 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. 1 further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) - ( i i ) -ABSTRACT THE ENERGY DEMANDS OF A 2,000 METER RACE SIMULATION FOR NATIONAL LEVEL OARSWOMEN-I.V. YOUNG The purpose of t h i s study was to assess the energy demands of a 2,000 meter race simulation (RS) for national l e v e l oarswomen; as evaluated on a rowing ergometer (RE). A Progressive Intensity Test (P.I.T.) was also performed on the RE to further evaluate the RS. Six national l e v e l oarswomen (X values: age= 24.5 yrs., ht= 179 cm, wt= 75 kg), a l l current national team candidates (1988), p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s investigation. A 6 1/2 minute tape recorded water race was used to execute a 2,000 meter RS on a Dr. Gjessing Ergorow ergometer. The tape recording was an actual race tape that was r e s p l i c e d to l a s t exactly 6 1/2 minutes. Metabolic and respiratory exchange variables were continuously monitored by an open c i r c u i t method, u t i l i z i n g a Beckman Metabolic Measurement Cart interfaced on-line with a Hewlitt Packard 3052A data a c q u i s i t i o n system. The energy demands were calculated from metabolic variables, t o t a l oxygen cost and the analysis of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (recovery V0 2). - C i i i ) -Results indicated a mean V02max. of 3.85 l.min - , mean net V0 2 of 24.48 1 and a mean recovery V0 2 of 4.92 1. This represented the aerobic cost of the event at approximately 80% or 4/5ths of the t o t a l energy cost while the anaerobic contribution was approximately 20% of l/5th of the t o t a l energy cost. During the RS, V0 2 values r a p i d l y increased to 90% of mean V02max. (3.85 l.min - 1) i n the f i r s t two minutes. Mean max. V E (BTPS) RS value was 122.4 l . m i n - 1 . V E plateaued a f t e r two minutes and remained around 90% of P.I.T. mean max. V E for the f i n a l 4 1/2 minutes. Mean max. excess C0 2 for RS was 19.81 ml.kg - 1.min - 1. The average maximal heart rate, as recorded i n the RS was 192.8 bpm. The re s u l t s of t h i s study indicate the high aerobic demands and tremendous exercise i n t e n s i t y involved i n the 2,000 meter RS. - ( i v ) -TABLE OF CONTENTS: PAGE ABSTRACT _ . i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF TABLES v LIST OF FIGURES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION & PROPOSAL 1 CHAPTER TWO - REVIEW OF LITERATURE 17 CHAPTER THREE - METHODOLOGY 41 CHAPTER FOUR - RESULTS & DISCUSSION 49 CHAPTER FIVE - SUMMARY & RECOMMENDATIONS 88 PROGRESSIVE INTENSITY CONSENT FORM 9 3 RACE SIMULATION CONSENT FORM . . 96 BIBLIOGRAPHY 9 8 APPENDIX A - P.I.T. PROTOCOL 104 APPENDIX B - EXERCISE METABOLISM 105 APPENDIX C - TABLE II CALCULATIONS 106 APPENDIX D - STATISTICAL CALCULATIONS 107 LIST OF TABLES PAGE Table I - Physical C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Subjects 51 Table II - Race & P.I.T. Physiological Parameters ... 5 2 Table III - V0 o Totals fo Race Simulation 54 - C v i ) -LIST OF FIGURES PAGE Figure 1 - Absolute V0 2 vs Time (RS) 56 Figure 2 - Relative %V02max. vs Time (RS) .. 58 Figure 3 - HR vs Time (RS) 60 Figure 4 - Mean Excess C0 2 vs Time (RS) 61 Figure 5 - V E vs Time (RS) 6 3 Figure 6 - RER vs Time (RS) 64 Figure 7 - Blood Lactate (subj.E) vs Time (RS) 66 Figure 8 - Blood Lactate (subj. B & E) vs Time (P.I.T.) 67 - ( v i i ) -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to thank my graduate and thesis advisor Dr. T.E. Rhodes for his assistance and continued encouragement i n the preparation of my thesis. Thank-you to the six oarswomen who offered t h e i r time and energy for the execution of t h i s project. Special thanks to Dr. Sue Hopkins for her generosity and assistance. To Tr i s h , Kathryn and Jessica, thank-you for your unfaultering support and encouragement over th i s seemingly endless road. This paper i s dedicated to my wonderful family (Mom, Dad, Deb & Greg) for a l i f e t i m e of support and encouragement. CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION PROPOSAL -2-INTRODUCTION The sport of rowing has been recognized i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y since 1893 with the staging of the World Rowing Championships yearly (with a few exceptions). Rowing has been an exclusively male a t h l e t i c event up u n t i l the year 1954 when women were introduced to international competition. I t was i n t h i s year that women competed i n the F.I.S.A. (Federation internationale des Societes d'Aviron) Championships for the f i r s t time. However, i t was not u n t i l 1976 that women's rowing events were added to the Olympic Games roster. With the inception of women's rowing to the 1976 Olympic Games has come a substantial increased i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and enthusiasm (CATCH, sp e c i a l issue, summer 1984). For the f i r s t 30 years (1954-1984), women raced over 1,000 meters , one h a l f the 2,000 meter racing distance of t h e i r male counterparts. Following the 1984 Olympics at Lake Casetas, Los Angeles, the oarswomen's racing distance was increased to 2,000 meters. With the two f o l d increase i n t h e i r racing distance, i t i s obvious that the physical demands w i l l be altered. As a r e s u l t , t r a i n i n g programs and emphasis must be re-evaluated and adjusted to meet the 2,000 meter racing demands. There i s a very l i m i t e d supply of information (data) available on the physiological p r o f i l e s and responses to the demands of the old 1,000 meter race. To the best of -3-our knowledge , there i s currently no published data on the females responses to the 2,000 meter race (6 to 7 minutes maximal rowing). In contrast, there has been quite a substantial volume of data c o l l e c t e d on the oarsman's phy s i o l o g i c a l p r o f i l e s and responses to the 2,000 meter race (5 1/2 to 6 minutes max. exercise). A combination of the 1,000 meter women's data and the 2,000 meter men's data can a s s i s t i n the predictions of the oarswomen's physi o l o g i c a l adjustments to the 2,000 meter race. For women to race 2,000 meters i n the various boat sizes (8+,4+,2-,lx,2x,4x), the race duration w i l l be approximately 6 to 8 minutes. In comparison, the 1,000 meter races, lasted between 3 and 4 minutes. Obviously, a far greater portion of the energy supply w i l l have to be provided by the aerobic system i n the 2,000 meter race because of the duration of the event. Furthermore, the longer race w i l l allow for the achievement of a steady state l e v e l of oxygen consumption, a state not attainable i n the shorter, s p r i n t l i k e 1,000 meter race. With a greater emphasis being placed on the aerobic energy system more t r a i n i n g time must be devoted to the enhancement of t h i s systems e f f i c i e n c y . By evaluating the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems contributions to the 2,000 meter race i t should be possible to j u s t i f y modifications i n the females t r a i n i n g regimens. At the present time, we have a very accurate method of measuring the body's t o t a l aerobic metabolic rate by determining the -4-oxygen uptake during the exercise period. However, superior methods f o r quantifying the anaerobic energy y i e l d are not currently available (Astrand & Rodahl, 1977, p.30).Consequently, methods such as c a l c u l a t i o n of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption or oxygen d e f i c i t are used. Under the exercise conditions of t h i s investigation, excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) w i l l be the method of choice for predicting the anaerobic energy y i e l d . -5-PROPOSAL -6-INTRODUCTION: In recent years, many studies have examined the phy s i o l o g i c a l demands of rowing for the competitive athlete (Hagerman & Lee, 1971; Jackson & Secher, 1976; Mahler, 1984; Mackenzie & Rhodes, 1982). Most of the l i t e r a t u r e focuses on oarsmen with only a li m i t e d number of studies directed toward oarswomen (Hagerman, 1975; Hagerman, e t . a l . . 1979; Hebbelick, e t . a l . . 1980). U n t i l the year 1985, women had raced over 1,000 meters while t h e i r male counterparts raced 2,000 meters. However, the 1985 racing season began with a race a l t e r a t i o n for oarswomen. Presently, oarswomen and oarsmen share the 2,000 meter racing distance and the 1,000 meter race has been eliminated from competition. As a consequence of t h i s a l t e r a t i o n , analysis of an oarswoman's response to the energy demands of 2,000 meter racing i s necessary. Such an analysis could permit j u s t i f i a b l e t r a i n i n g modifications. Previous research on the rowing ergometer (RE) with oarswomen performing a 3-minute maximal te s t indicates that the r e l a t i v e proportions of aerobic and anaerobic energy contribution were 60-65% and 30-35% respectively (Hagerman, e t . a l . . 1978; Hagerman, 1984). Hagerman (1975 & 1979) reported, i n studies with oarsmen, that the aerobic/anaerobic energy contribution costs of a 6 minute RE t e s t were i n the range of approximately 70% aerobic and -7-20-3 0% anaerobic respectively. Based on these previous findings, i t would be expected that the energy requirements of a 6 1/2 minute race simulation (RS) for oarswomen would require more aerobic and less anaerobic energy contributions than for a 3 minute RE t e s t . Furthermore, the 6 1/2 minute RS should have an energy cost which cl o s e l y resembles that of the men's 6-minute ergometer t e s t {based on Astrand & Rodahl (1977)}. Current l i t e r a t u r e on the female's physiological responses to a 1,000 meter race simulation indicates that there i s an i n s u f f i c i e n t amount of time i n the 3-minute exercise for the body to e s t a b l i s h a steady state (Hagerman, e t . a l . , 1979 & Hagerman, 1984). In contrast, as indicated i n t e s t i n g oarsmen over 6-minutes, there i s s u f f i c i e n t time i n the 2,000 meter race to permit the establishment of a steady state. The purpose of the present study i s to predict the contributions of the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems during a 2,000 meter rowing race for national l e v e l oarswomen i n an eight oared s h e l l . Determination of the response of the energy systems w i l l be based on phys i o l o g i c a l measurements made before, during and a f t e r a 6 1/2 minute rowing ergometer race simulation. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study w i l l a i d i n a better understanding of the requirements of the sport. Furthermore, findings could provide some rationale for t r a i n i n g modifications to the current oarswomen's programs. -8-PURPOSES: a) To determine each individual's maximal aerobic power through the administration of a progressive i n t e n s i t y t e s t (PIT) on the rowing ergometer (Dr. Gjessing, Ergorow). Results of t h i s procedure enable the researcher to predict the work capacity of national l e v e l oarswomen i n a 2,000 meter race. The race simulation i n t e n s i t y could then be expressed i n r e l a t i v e terms (as a % of the oarswoman's VC>2 max.) a f t e r obtaining the maximal oxygen consumption (V0 2 max.) values for each subject. b) To determine the aerobic/anaerobic energy systems contributions to a 2,000 meter rowing race i n an eight oared s h e l l (8+) with national l e v e l (Canadian National Team) oarswomen. These findings would provide information regarding the physiological demands of 2,000 meter racing. Consequently, t r a i n i n g program modifications could be proposed that could f a c i l i t a t e performance improvements. c) To examine the blood lactate p r o f i l e s of the oarswomen during a 2,000 meter race. These p r o f i l e s w i l l be developed through s e r i a l blood l a c t a t e measures taken each minute of the 6 1/2 minute RS. These r e s u l t s could also provide further metabolic/physiological data to be incorporated into the design of s p e c i f i c aerobic and anaerobic exercise sessions to meet individual/crew t r a i n i n g needs. d) To compare maximum V0 2, V E, HR and blood lactates of the PIT and the 6 1/2 minute RS. These comparisons w i l l -9-provide an in d i c a t i o n of the i n t e n s i t y of the RS. DELIMITATIONS: This study i s delimited by: a) The subject sample siz e (n=6), b) The sample type (Canadian National Team candidates), c) The t e s t i n g period r e l a t i v e to the oarswomen's t r a i n i n g schedule ( i e . competitive or t r a n s i t i o n a l phase of program). LIMITATIONS: The r e s u l t s of t h i s study are lim i t e d by: a) The data c o l l e c t i o n c a p a b i l i t i e s of the Beckman Metabolic Measurement Cart and the Hewlitt Packard Data A c q u i s i t i o n System interfaced with the Beckman, b) The race simulation protocol's s i m i l a r i t y to an actual 2,000 meter water race, c) The oarswomen's metabolic responses to the protocols of the study, -10-ASSUMPTIONS: SIMULATION TEST DURATION: 6 1/2 minutes i s a vi a b l e racing time for an 8+ rowed by national l e v e l oarswomen. SIMULATION TEST INTENSITY: The i n t e n s i t y of the simulation race i s comparable to that of a 2,000 meter water race i n an 8+. RECOVERY CURVE The excess post-exercise oxygen consumption i s representative of the anaerobic energy contribution. JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY: The 2,000 meter racing distance i s new for women as of the 1985 racing season, therefore, there i s no current l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e on oarswomen's responses to 2,000 meter racing (physiological/metabolic). Without any precise information pertaining to the energy demands, t r a i n i n g programs may be d e f i c i e n t i n c e r t a i n aspects ( i e . not enough aerobic emphasis i n the e x i s t i n g t r a i n i n g programs). The findings w i l l be valuable to coaches and athletes a l i k e (at the national level) i n t h e i r understanding and preparation for the 2,000 meter rowing race i n an 8+. This study i s j u s t i f i e d i n that i t examines a facet i n the performance of national l e v e l oarswomen which has not yet been investigated. -11-HYPOTHESES: 1) 80% or 4/5ths of the energy required for a 2,000 meter national l e v e l women's 8+ race i s contributed by the aerobic energy system. Rationale: The rationale for t h i s predicted energy contribution i s p a r t i a l l y based on the reported findings of Hagerman.et.al.(1978). In a study examining the ENERGY EXPENDITURE DURING SIMULATED ROWING an energy contribution was estimated as contributing 70% to the t o t a l energy released. In a p i l o t study by the present researcher involving oarswomen performing a 7-minute ergometer t e s t , the aerobic metabolism was estimated as contributing 85% of the energy required. Considering these findings and other l i t e r a t u r e on the energy demands of various work durations of maximal exercise (Astrand Rodahl, p.316, 1977). Eighty percent of the energy demand of a 2,000 meter national l e v e l women's 8+ race w i l l be contributed by the aerobic energy system. 2) 20% or l/5th of the energy required for a 2,000 meter national l e v e l e l i t e women's 8+(6 1/2 minute RS) race i s contributed by the anaerobic energy system. Rationale: The rationale for t h i s prediction i s again p a r t i a l l y based on Hagerman, et.al.(1978) reported findings. Anaerobic energy contribution was estimated -12-by c a l c u l a t i n g 0 2 debt (post-exercise) as measured during the 30-minute recovery period. Anaerobiosis (0 2 debt) was calculated as providing 30% of the energy for the 6-minute ergometer t e s t among oarsmen. The 1985 study by the present researchers (7-minute ergometer t e s t involving oarswomen) estimated anaerobiosis asbeing responsible for 15% of the energy requirement.Based on these findings and Astrand and Rodahl's l i t e r a t u r e on emergy demands of maximal work times (1977), 20% of the energy required for a 2,000 meter national l e v e l women's 8+ race w i l l be contributed by the anaerobic energy system. 3) The national l e v e l oarswomen involved w i l l perform the race simulation t e s t at an i n t e n s i t y equivalent to 95-98% of t h e i r V0 2 max.(as measured i n a PIT on the RE) for the f i n a l 5 minutes of the 6 1/2 minute t e s t . Rationale: Previous research findings suggest that oarsmen can work at 95-98% of t h e i r maximal aerobic capacity during the l a s t 5 minutes of a 6-minute RE t e s t (Hagerman, e t . a l . , 1978). The 1985 study of the present researchers reported that c o l l e g i a t e oarswomen worked at 96% of t h e i r V0 2 max. i n the l a s t 4 1/2 minutes of the simulation. -13-METHODOLOGY: SUBJECTS: Six candidates for the 1988 Women's Canadian National Rowing Team, currently t r a i n i n g i n Vancouver w i l l serve as subjects for t h i s study. Each subject w i l l perform a progressive i n t e n s i t y t e s t and a 6 1/2 minute race simulation. Both tests w i l l be conducted on the Dr. Gjessing Ergorow ergometer. The subjects age range i s from 21 to 27 years. The subjects w i l l be instructed to warm-up p r i o r to a r r i v i n g for t e s t i n g , to ensure an adequate preparation for the exercise. At the lab, body weight and height s h a l l be measured. Following t h i s the ECG (electrocardiogram) leads w i l l be placed i n the LV5 arrangement. At t h i s time the attending physician w i l l administer catheter and draw a res t i n g blood sample. Subjects w i l l then be given the opportunity to warm-up on the te s t i n g ergometer. EQUIPMENT: Beckman Metabolic Measurement Cart(BMMC) Hewlett-Packard 3052A data a c q u i s i t i o n system Dr. Gjessing Ergorow rowing ergometer(with variable resistance adjustment) Hans-Rudolph valve ECG surface electrodes (Meditrace electodes) Lactate analyzer (Kontron 640) Electrocardiogram -14-Stroke rate watch (& stop watch) Catheter (Jelco 2 0 gauge 1 1/4 inch f l e x i b l e catheter) Blood c o l l e c t i o n v i a l s with hemolyzing agent Heparin, l c c & 3cc syringes, s a l i n e (0.9% NaCl), tape, s u r g i c a l gloves, d i l u t i n g solution, extension tubing, Alcohol swabs, tournoque PROGRESSIVE INTENSITY TEST (PIT): The purpose of t h i s t e s t i s to determine each oarswoman's maximal oxygen capacity during rowing. From these values, the RS i n t e n s i t y can be predicted r e l a t i v e to each in d i v i d u a l ' s V0 2 max.. The s t a r t i n g resistance on the flywheel for the PIT w i l l be 1.25 kg and the stroke rate approximately 30 strokes per minute (Cunningham, e t . a l . , 1975). Subjects are required to maintain a power output that w i l l y i e l d a 600 revolutions per minute score on the ergometer tachometer. The resistance on the flywheel w i l l be progressively increased as outlined i n Appendix A. Subjects are required to maintain the 600 revolutions per minute score u n t i l the end of the 6th minute of the PIT (loading - 2.5kg). At t h i s time, there w i l l be no further increase i n the resistance and subjects w i l l be required to increase power output such that the revolutions per minute are increased by 20 revolutions per minute (approx. 3% increase). Stroke rate w i l l be set by the i n d i v i d u a l rather than the researchers to allow each oarswoman to work -15-at a pace that i s most e f f i c i e n t for her. I t i s expected that the stroke rate w i l l range from 28 to approximately 32 strokes per minute. The subject s h a l l continue the t e s t u n t i l a V0 2 plateau or decrease, v o l i t i o n a l fatigue or continual decrease i n power output necessitates termination. Stroke rates w i l l be monitored with a stroke watch or stop watch while the flywheel revolutions w i l l be monitored and recorded by an e l e c t r o n i c d i g i t a l recorder. RACE SIMULATION CRS): The 6 1/2 minute race protocol i s designed to simulate the duration, i n t e n s i t y and stroke rate of an actual 2,000 meter race i n a women's national l e v e l eight oared s h e l l . The Dr. Gjessing Ergorow ergometer w i l l be used with a load s e t t i n g of 2.5 kg on the flywheel. A tape recorded water race of a female coxswain w i l l lead the oarswomen through the RS by administering verbal commands, stroke rate feedback and r e l a t i v e distances covered. P r i o r to the s t a r t of the race, the oarswomen w i l l s i t relaxed on the ergometer such that a 3-minute pre-test V0 2 can be determined. At the conclusion of the 3-minute rest period the simulated race w i l l begin. Therefore, at 2:45 minutes the rower w i l l be instructed to sit-up at 3/4 s l i d e i n preparation for the s t a r t i n g commands. On completion of the simulation, subjects s h a l l discontinue rowing and remain seated on the ergometer for a 30-minute -16-post exercise v e n t i l a t o r y measurement periods. During recovery, excess post-exercise oxygen consumption w i l l be analyzed and used to predict the anaerobic energy component. Distance/time relationships for the race simulation w i l l be as follows: 500 meters - 1:37 min. 1000 meters - 3:14 min. 1500 meters - 4:51 min. 2000 meters - 6:30 min. CALCULATIONS: (See appendix B) The excess post-exercise oxygen consumption, as calculated by recovery V0 2 values, w i l l c o n s i t i t u t e the anaerobic component of the simulation (Devries, 1986). Matched p a i r s t - t e s t s w i l l be employed to t e s t for s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the maximum mean heart rates, maximum mean V E, maximum mean excess C0 2 and maximum mean V0 2 values between the race simulation and the PIT. CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF LITERATURE -18-ESTIMATING THE RELATIVE CONTRIBUTION OF AEROBIC AND  ANAEROBIC METABOLIC CONTRIBUTIONS In 1985, the oarswomen's racing distance increased from i t s previous 1,000 meters to 2,000 meters, the equivalent of the oarsmen's races. As a r e s u l t of t h i s recent a l t e r a t i o n , there i s no current published l i t e r a t u r e on the oarswomen's physiological responses to t h i s exercise. In fact, there i s a rather l i m i t e d composite of data a v a i l a b l e from t e s t i n g at the 1,000 meter distance (Hagerman, e t . a l . . 1979; Secher, e t . a l . . 1983; Hagerman, e t . a l . . 1984). Data on these athletes i s l i m i t e d to studies involving rowing ergometer tests of 3 to 4 minutes the equivalent of an on water 1,000 meter race i n a rowing s h e l l . In contrast, there i s a rather extensive pool of data a v a i l a b l e on oarsmen and t h e i r metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses to the 2,000 meter race (Hagerman, e t . a l . . 1978; Mahler, e t . a l . . 1984; Secher, e t . a l . . 1982; Mackenzie & Rhodes, 1982; Secher, e t . a l . . 1983). Incorporating a l i t e r a t u r e review of oarswomen's responses at 1,000 meters and oarsmen's responses at 2,000 meters, hypotheses on phy s i o l o g i c a l responses of oarswomen racing 2,000 meters may be formulated. Hagerman, et.al.,(1979) have evaluated e l i t e oarswomen's (n=40) physiological responses to rowing. In a 3-minute race simulation on a Stanford side p u l l rowing ergometer, the aerobic metabolic contribution was found to -19-be 55%. Continuous expiratory gas analysis during a30-minute recovery period permitted an oxygen debt c a l c u l a t i o n which revealed a 45% r e l a t i v e contribution of the anaerobic metabolic pathway. Later, i n 1984, Hagerman, e t . a l . . conducted another ergometer t e s t with oarswomen, employing a 4-minute race simulation. Results of these tests indicated a 70% aerobic metabolic pathway contribution and a 30% anaerobic contribution to the race. The anaerobic component was further divided into an a l a c t i c (10%) and a l a c t i c (20%) portion based on an analysis of the V0 2 recovery curve (oxygen debt p a r t i t i o n i n g ) . These findings are i n agreement with the values of Astrand and Rodahl (1977) (table 9-1) which l i s t a 70%/30% aerobic/anaerobic energy contribution r a t i o for a maximal e f f o r t of 4 minutes. In a 1982 study by Secher and h i s colleagues, through oxygen d e f i c i t c a l culations, a 23% anaerobic contribution to a 4-minute rowing ergometer performed by female rowers was presented. Presumably, i f the anaerobic contribution i s 23%, the remaining 77% of energy i s provided by the aerobic system. This 23% anaerobic value i s somewhat less than the value of Hagerman, e t . a l . (1984), and Astrand and Rodahl (1977) (table 9-1), referred to previously. In a study by Young and Rhodes (1986), 5 c o l l e g i a t e oarswomen were evaluated during a 7-minute, 2,000 meter race simulation on a Gjessing rowing ergometer. The data c o l l e c t e d suggested an 83% aerobic contribution, as -20-determined through the continuous evaluation of V0 2throughout the exercise and recovery periods (similar to Hagerman, e t . a l . , 1979). During the recovery, the respiratory gases were continuously c o l l e c t e d and evaluated u n t i l V0 2 values reached pre-exercise l e v e l s . With these values, a pred i c t i o n of oxygen debt was made. Based on the assumption that oxygen debt i s a v a l i d measure of anaerobic metabolism, Young and Rhodes predicted a 17% anaerobic contribution. Referring to Astrand and Rodahl's (1977) maximal e f f o r t table, a 10-minute maximal e f f o r t exercise i s suggested as having a 10-15% anaerobic and an 85% to 90% aerobic contribution. A paper by Gollnick and Hermansen (1973) o f f e r s r e l a t i v e percent contribution values contrary to Astrand and Rodahl's. They indicate a 9% anaerobic and 91% aerobic contribution to a 10-minute maximal work period. Furthermore, they suggest a 5-minute maximal e f f o r t as having a 20% anaerobic and an 80% aerobic d i s t r i b u t i o n . The c o l l e g i a t e oarswomen's r e s u l t s of Young and Rhodes c l o s e l y resemble Gollnick and Hermansen's percentages. Hagerman (1979) makes reference to a doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n by Connors (1974) e n t i t l e d , *An Energetic Analysis of Rowing'. In t h i s study, the contribution of the anaerobic energy system was calculated by evaluating the post-exercise blood lactat e l e v e l s i n the oarsmen. Results credited the anaerobic system with 22.2% of the energy supply for the 6-minute ergometer race. I t i s -21-assumed that the remainder of the energy requirements aresupplied by aerobic metabolism (77.8%). These r e s u l t s are i n discrepancy with the findings of other investigators examining oarsmen's responses to a 6-minute rowing ergometer exercise (Hagerman, e t . a l . . 1979; Secher, e t . a l . . 1982 ;....)• Szoby and Cherebetiv (1974), investigating the physical work capacity of male rowers, conducted a 6-minute progressive i n t e n s i t y t e s t on a b i c y c l e ergometer. The i n t e n s i t y of the te s t was designed to exhaust the rowers by the end of the 6th minute of exercise. Calculating an oxygen d e f i c i t for each athlete (required V0 2 - actual V0 2 = 0 2 d e f i c i t ) , a percentage r a t i o between exercise V0 2 and oxygen d e f i c i t was employed to represent the aerobic and anaerobic r a t i o of the exercise. Mean percentage r a t i o s for the rowers were found to be 68.4% aerobic and 31.6% anaerobic. Given that the mode of exercise was not s p e c i f i c to the rowing athlete's sport, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that these percentages vary from r e s u l t s on a rowing ergometer. In contrast to the r e s u l t s of the previous two papers reviewed, Hagerman (1975), i n a three year longitudinal study on oarsmen, presents data i n d i c a t i n g a 75%/25% aerobic/anaerobic energy contribution. This study involved a more appropriate means of evaluating oarsmen by employing a rowing ergometer for a 6-minute exercise (constant load) t e s t . Later, i n 1978, Hagerman and h i s associates -22-the energy expenditure of oarsmen during simulated rowingusing the 6-minute race simulation on the rowing ergometer. Calculating the aerobic cost of the exercise from the t o t a l net V0 2 of the work period, i t was concluded that 70% of the r e l a t i v e energy contribution was supplied by aerobic metabolism. Oxygen consumption values c o l l e c t e d during a 30-minute recovery period were used to calc u l a t e an oxygen debt. The value calculated, believed to represent the anaerobic energy component, indicated a 30% contribution. Secher.et.al. (1982), calculated the anaerobic energy contribution to the oarsmen's 6-minute rowing ergometer race simulation based on oxygen d e f i c i t . Calculations revealed a 14% anaerobic contribution, a percentage that i s i n discrepancy with e a r l i e r researchers conclusions. The experience of the oarsmen examined or simply the c a l c u l a t i o n methods may explain the discrepancy here. Many of the e a r l i e r papers discussed have implemented oxygen debt (recovery V0 2) as the means for evaluating anaerobic metabolism while t h i s study employed oxygen d e f i c i t . In view of the following findings: 1) 6-minute RE race for oarsmen = 70%/30% aerobic/anaerobic energy r a t i o (Hagerman, e t . a l . . 1978), 2) 7-minute RE race for c o l l e g i a t e oarswomen = 85%/15% aerobic/anaerobic r a t i o (Young & Rhodes, 1986), 3) 4-minute RE race for e l i t e oarswomen = 70%/30% aerobic/anaerobic r a t i o (Hagerman, e t . a l . , -23-1984(ab)), the energy contributions of a 6 1/2 -minute rowing ergometer race simulation for national l e v e l oarswomen can be hypothesized. OXYGEN DEBT AS A METHOD OF EVALUATING ANAEROBIC METABOLISM Numerous methods are u t i l i z e d to evaluate anaerobic capacity due to a lack of standardization i n accurately estimating anaerobic energy reserves. There are l i m i t a t i o n s to the measurements of anaerobic capacity regardless of the method used. Factors e x i s t which are unrelated to the replenishment of depleted energy stores ( i e . oxygen cost of breathing) may influence the estimation and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of oxygen debt (Welch, e t . a l . . 1970). In 1970, investigating the r e l a t i o n s h i p between oxygen debt and oxygen d e f i c i t , Whipp, e t . a l . . found evidence for the equality of oxygen debt and oxygen d e f i c i t i n exercise of 4 to 6 minutes duration. The equations used to ca l c u l a t e oxygen d e f i c i t and oxygen debt were as follows: oxygen d e f i c i t = V0 2ss - V0 2 actual(dt) oxygen debt = V0 2 recovery - V0 2 unloaded cycling(dt) {ss = steady state; dt = derivative of time) The i n t e n s i t y of the exercise used was such that a steady state i n V0 2 was achieved. Therefore, the r e s u l t s may be interpreted to suggest that 0 ? d e f i c i t and 07 debt -24-are equivalent i n steady state exercise l a s t i n g 4 to 6 minutes. Hagerman, e t . a l . (1979) instigated a hypothesis that 0 2 d e f i c i t may i n fa c t be a more accurate representation of anaerobic metabolism during rowing, due to the nature of the sport. However, there i s no explanation given as to what i s meant by xthe nature of rowing'. In the data presented, both oxygen d e f i c i t and oxygen debt values for males and females were given. Oxygen debt values were found to be 40% greater than the oxygen d e f i c i t values i n both groups. The mean net oxygen debt for oarswomen (3-minute RE simulation) was 10.2 + 5.5L while the mean oxygen d e f i c i t value was 6.4 + 3.6L. In maximal exercise, the oxygen d e f i c i t of an i n d i v i d u a l cannot be estimated with certainty because of the lack of a precise value of the oxygen requirement. I t i s p a r t l y f o r t h i s reason that investigators have attempted the use of oxygen debt as a measure of anaerobic metabolism during exercise (Brooks & Fahley, 1984). However, the mechanisms of oxygen debt are quite complex and d i f f i c u l t to use i n estimating energy metabolism during exercise. Hagerman, e t . a l . . (1979), studying oarsmen i n a 6-minute RE race simulation, found a mean oxygen debt of 13.4L. Although the simulation appeared to be of a severe steady state type (except during i n i t i a l minute), fluctuations i n the average V0 2 values prohibited the assessment and accurate c a l c u l a t i o n of oxygen d e f i c i t . -25-Computing the anaerobic component from post-exercise l a c t a t e production also appears questionable, due to the inaccuracies which may e x i s t with the energy equivalents associated with lactat e production. Despite the controversy surrounding the use of oxygen debt, oxygen d e f i c i t and blood lactates, i n estimations of the anaerobic energy contribution to s p e c i f i c exercises, the r e l a t i v e contribution of t h i s energy system i n 2,000meter rowing appears to rest between 20 and 30 percent (Hagerman, et.al..1978). Oxygen d e f i c i t may possibly be a more accurate measure of the anaerobic metabolism. However, 0 2 d e f i c i t i s based on c a l c u l a t i o n s rather than on d i r e c t measurements (Secher, 1983a). Furthermore, with the d i f f i c u l t i e s involved i n making an accurate c a l c u l a t i o n of oxygen d e f i c i t , i t i s r a r e l y employed (Hagerman, 1984). Hermansan and Medbo (1984) have presented data i n d i c a t i n g an upper l i m i t to the oxygen d e f i c i t based on the duration of the exercise. When maximal exercise duration was increased from 15 seconds to 2 minutes, there was an increase i n oxygen d e f i c i t from 30 to 83 mL 0 2/kg. However, with a further increase i n maximal exercise duration to 4 minutes, no further or a n e g l i g i b l e increase i n oxygen d e f i c i t . These r e s u l t s suggest that oxygen d e f i c i t may not be t h e l most appropriate method for measuring the anaerobic energy contribution to a 6 1/2 minute race simulation. - 2 6 -BASELINE V0 2 AND RECOVERY PERIODS Values reported for recovery oxygen vary when d i f f e r e n t recovery baselines are used (Stainsby & Barclay (1970); Hagerman, e t . a l . . (1978)). To date, three seperate baselines have been used i n recovery oxygen examinations. The f i r s t baseline i s that of the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR). Complications with t h i s measure are inherent due to i t s s e n s i t i v i t y . Achieving a BMR requires s p e c i f i c r e s t i n g conditions which are very d i f f i c u l t to achieve under laboratory conditions p r i o r to an exercise performance. Furthermore, re-establishing the BMR post-exercise requires a l o t of time a f t e r intense and long duration exercise. F i n a l l y , the values recorded tend to be quite large. Due to the tediousness of achieving the BMR, i t i s r a r e l y used as a baseline V0 2. The second and most commonly used baseline i s that of res t i n g metabolic rate (RMR). However, there i s question as to the components of recovery that are a c t u a l l y measured when RMR i s the baseline. When measuring the RMR, the conditions that created t h i s value are presumed to continue unchanged throughout the exercise and recovery periods. This i s an u n l i k e l y presumption as a n t i c i p a t i o n of the coming exercise alone may a r t i f i c a l l y a l t e r the re s t i n g metabolic rate before the actual exercise. Furthermore, i t i s quite u n l i k e l y that t h i s same anticipatory response w i l l continue into the exercise and recovery periods (Stainsby & -27-Barclay, 1970). The t h i r d baseline V0 2 i s that of a working V0 2 baseline. This method i s presumed to y i e l d the smallest recovery V0 2. The question i s whether some of the recovery components from the exercise t e s t are precluded i f a c t i v i t y i s continued ( i e . ion & metabolic replacement). In conclusion, i t i s quite evident that the baseline l e v e l of oxygen uptake used for c a l c u l a t i o n of recovery oxygen has a profound e f f e c t on the s i z e of the recovery oxygen. Therefore, the choice of baseline must be considered c a r e f u l l y (Stainsby & Barclay, 1970; Hermansan, et.al..1984). In the many studies reviewed by t h i s researcher, the use of r e s t i n g and mild exercise V0 2 baselines have dominated. Whipp, e t . a l . F (1970), examining oxygen debt and oxygen d e f i c i t r elationships employed an 8-minute unloaded c y c l i n g period (0 kg-m/min) at 60rpm p r i o r to an abrupt increase i n work rate to 685 kg-m/min. Following the exercise phase (of between 1 & 6 minutes) the subject was required to cycle at 60 rpm at a 0 kg.m/min. loading for a 3 5 minute recovery period. Results indicated that at the conclusion of 15 minutes of unloaded c y c l i n g , recovery to pre-exercise V0 2 (as measured during unloaded cycling) was attained, i n d i c a t i n g a rapid oxygen debt repayment. Cowan and Solandt, i n 1937, also used mild exercise on a b i c y c l e ergometer to achieve a recovery baseline V0 2 value. The strenuous exercise involved running on the -28-for 30 seconds as fa s t as possible. Following t h i s e x e r c i s e phase, subjects remounted the cycle-ergometer and cycled at the same pre-exercise i n t e n s i t y u n t i l baseline V 0 2 / s were achieved. Recovery was completed 20 to 45 minutes post-exercise. Recently, a rowing study i n 1978 (Hagerman, et.al.) also used a mild exercise V0 2 as a baseline for oxygen debt c a l c u l a t i o n s . Using a 1kg loading on a Gjessing rowing ergometer, oarsmen performed a 10-minute exercise bout at a stroke rate of 26 spm. Following the 6-minute ergometer t e s t , a 30-minute recovery period of rowing at 26spm with a 1kg loading was performed. In t h e i r analysis, the investigators of t h i s study stated that l i g h t exercise during recovery may have enhanced l a c t a t e resynthesis. Examining the aerobic recovery a f t e r anaerobiosis i n r e s t and work, Asmussen (1946) used a r e s t i n g V0 2 baseline. The subject involved was seated i n a r e c l i n i n g chair f i t t e d to a cycle ergometer. With such a set-up no energy would be required by the subject to get on and o f f the b i c y c l e , reducing the p r o b a b i l i t y of f a l s e l y i n f l a t i n g the recovery V0 2. Later, i n 1964, Margaria, e t . a l . . also used a r e s t i n g V0 2 as the baseline. Measurements were made while subjects stood on the t e s t i n g treadmill p r i o r to a 5-30 second work bout. On completion of the work bout, subjects again stood on the treadmill as gas analysis continued. Rowing s p e c i f i c studies by Hagerman, e t . a l . (1979) and Young and -29-Rhodes (1986) employed s i m i l a r r e s t i n g V0 2 c o l l e c t i o n s to evaluate oxygen debt. Oxygen consumption was measured during r e s t i n g state, pre-exercise, while subjects sat on the rowing ergometer (Young & Rhodes, 1985). Following completion of the a l l - o u t ergometer simulation subjects remained seated on the ergometer as gas c o l l e c t i o n continued for a period of 15 to 30 minutes. Regardless of the baseline V0 2 implemented, most of the l i t e r a t u r e examining oxygen debt employs a 30-minute recovery period with which to evaluate the subject. Among these studies are: Hagerman, e t . a l . , 1978; Hagerman, 1984; Hermansen & Vaage, 1977; Evans & Cureton, 1983; Welch, e t . a l . , 1970. Although some investigators have found recovery V0 2 reaches baseline l e v e l s p r i o r to the end of a 30-minute recovery period (Cowan &Solandt, 1937; Hagerman, e t . a l . , 1978), t h i s duration appears to be r e l a t i v e l y standard practice. PULMONARY VENTILATION During constant-rate exercise there are three response phases of the v e n t i l a t i o n rate. The i n i t i a l or f i r s t phase i s an immediate increase with the i n i t i a t i o n of exercise. The second phase i s a slower increase to a steady-state l e v e l , while the t h i r d phase i s a steady state l e v e l . In heavy exercise, the i n i t i a l response w i l l be a smaller f r a c t i o n of the phase III response. Sometimes, phase II -30-l a s t s longer, never reaching a steady state l e v e l ( i e . 3 to4 minute race simulation). I t i s well documented that when metabolic acidosis occurs, there i s an increase i n v e n t i l a t i o n , predominantly the r e s u l t of an elevation i n r e s p i r a t i o n rate, out of proportion with the elevation of V0 2. The v e n t i l a t o r y response to exercise has been found to be an excellent index of the a b i l i t y of subjects ph y s i o l o g i c a l gas transport mechanisms to meet c e l l u l a r oxygen requirements. Cunningham, e t . a l . (1975) suggested that a reduced VE/VG"2 (ventilatory ratio) during simulated rowing was pr i m a r i l y due to the cramped body p o s i t i o n of the oarsman at the catch phase of the rowing stroke. These investigators f e l t that t h i s body posture may provide s i g n i f i c a n t impairment of excursion of the diaphragm. I t i s further suggested that the c y c l i c a l breathing of the rower further decreases the pulmonary v e n t i l a t o r y volume (ie . two breaths/stroke at maximal exertion). In contrast, Hagerman and Lee (1971) found V E (BTPS) for oarsmen during a race simulation to be r e l a t i v e l y high. In fact, on comparing V £ (BTPS) values for the same subjects when tested on a 20% grade maximal treadmill run, the V E rowing was 161 L while the V E running was 40L le s s at 121L. Furthermore, investigators{Hagerman, e t . a l . (1978), Bouchant, e t . a l . (1983), and Mahler, e t . a l . (1987)} examining oarsmen and oarswomen found no evidence to support the hypothesis of pulmonary v e n t i l a t o r y -31-impairment during maximal work on a rowing ergometer aspreviously suggested by Cunningham, e t . a l . (1975). Investigating the physiological p r o f i l e s of e l i t e oarsmen and oarswomen i n 1979, Hagerman, e t . a l . . reported values of 190 L/min (+11.3)[BTPS] and 165 L/min (+15.6)[BTPS] respectively, during race simulation. These researchers suggest that i t i s not unusual for oarswomen to maintain an average V E of over 170 L/min [BTPS] for a 3 to 4 minute maximal rowing e f f o r t . In contrast, Young and Rhodes (1986), examining c o l l e g i a t e oarswomen's physi o l o g i c a l responses during a 7-minute race simulation, found a s u b s t a n t i a l l y lower mean maximal V E [BTPS], 138.62 L/min (+13.22). Although both race simulations were of maximal i n t e n s i t y , the 7-minute simulation would allow the attainment of a steady state which a 3 to 4 minute t e s t would not. Consequently, the ve n t i l a t o r y response of the 7-minute race i s lower since the l e v e l s attained are maintained f o r a longer duration. I t i s also possible that variance i n subject c a l i b e r , influences the maximal V E attained. The les s experienced subjects v e n t i l a t o r y c a p a b i l i t i e s could be r e s t r i c t e d by lack of volume of rowing s p e c i f i c cardiorespiratory t r a i n i n g (Young & Rhodes, (1986), Mahler, e t . a l . (1987)). I t i s also possible that the physical s i z e difference i n the subject pools of these studies may p a r t i a l l y account for some of the discrepancy. Bouchant, e t . a l . (1983), investigated cardiorespiratory responses to b i c y c l e and rowing -32-ergometer exercise i n oarsmen. The data c o l l e c t e d provided no evidence to indicate an impairment of pulmonary v e n t i l a t i o n during maximal R.E. e f f o r t . Comparing the rel a t i o n s h i p between pulmonary v e n t i l a t i o n (VE) and oxygen uptake f o r the b i c y c l e ergometer t e s t and the rowing ergometer t e s t , V E was s l i g h t l y higher on the rowing ergometer [150 (±10)L/min R.E. vs. 149 (±12)l/min B.E.]. Even with the control group of t h i s study, only small non-significant differences were found between the B.E. and R.E. maximal pulmonary v e n t i l a t i o n . "Energy expenditure during simulated rowing" by Hagerman, e t . a l . (1978), involved a race simulation on a rowing ergometer l a s t i n g 6-minutes. Metabolic data was co l l e c t e d throughout the exercise period. A s i g n i f i c a n t response was noted i n the pulmonary v e n t i l a t i o n with the mean maximal v e n t i l a t o r y volume at 190 L/min [BTPS]. No evidence was found to indicate any impairment of pulmonary v e n t i l a t i o n during the rowing sequence, despite the occurence of i n s p i r a t i o n at the catch p o s i t i o n (cramped body p o s i t i o n ) . Furthermore, the ve n t i l a t o r y equivalents measured i n t h i s t e s t , although lower than the values reported by Cunningham, e t . a l . ' s (1975), suggest an excellent cardiorespiratory e f f i c i e n c y . BLOOD LACTATE RESPONSES TO ROWING RACES Research findings indicate an association between high -33-muscle and blood lactat e l e v e l s with both fatigue and a reduction of exhaustive exercise performance time (Koutedakis & Sharp, 1985). Lactate ions d i f f u s e f r e e l y between tissues and blood as evidenced by a prompt appearance and a rapid decrease i n the concentration of la c t a t e as blood passes through an inactive area of the body. I t i s assumed that the blood l a c t a t e concentration i s proportional to the amount of lactat e i n the body (ie.muscles) (Margaria, e t . a l . f 1933).{An exception to t h i s would be i n the case of such a rapid change i n the l a c t i c a cid production that equilibrium between [ l a c t i c acid] i n tissues and blood has not been achieved.) Research findings of Graham, e t . a l . (1976) demonstrate that, depending on the time of blood sampling, blood l a c t a t e may or may not be i n d i c a t i v e of muscle l a c t a t e . Despite the inherent d i f f i c u l t i e s i n determining the d i s t r i b u t i o n volume fo r l a c t a t e , blood and/or muscle lactate have previously been used i n the assessment of anaerobic metabolism. Gollnick and Hermansen (1973), i n a review of anaerobic metabolism, presented findings i n d i c a t i v e of an approximately equal concentration of muscle lactate a f t e r maximal exercise even when the durations of exercise were varied. For example, the concentration of lactat e i n the muscles a f t e r 2 to 3 minutes of maximal exercise (1,000 meters) i s approximately equal to the concentration found a f t e r 7 minutes of exercise (2,000 meters). Consequently, -34-i t i s quite possible that the peak blood l a c t a t e concentration measured a f t e r a 3 or 4 minute rowing ergometer race simulation (women's 1,000 meters) w i l l be s i m i l a r to the peak values i n a 6 1/2 minute race simulation. In fact, blood lactates measured a f t e r a 7 minute R.E. race simulation with c o l l e g i a t e oarswomen (Young & Rhodes, 1986) do not indicate substantial v a r i a t i o n from the blood lactat e values reported by Hagerman, e t . a l . (1979) for a women's 3 minute R.E. race simulation. In 1978, Hagerman, e t . a l . , measured blood l a c t a t e l e v e l s i n oarsmen at rest, 5 and 30 minutes following a 6 minute race simulation. In comparing these r e s u l t s with the r e s u l t s of a randomly terminated 6 minute ergometer t e s t (investigators stopped subjects at 1,2,...& 5 min. into the 6 minute simulation), i t was concluded that 90% of the lactates were formed during the f i r s t minute of the 6 minute t e s t . Furthermore, the lactate l e v e l s peaked at 2 minutes into the t e s t . Lactates were found to remain elevated and r e l a t i v e l y stable u n t i l the conclusion of the work period. These r e s u l t s suggest that l i t t l e or no lac t a t e resynthesis occurs during the 6 minute exercise t e s t . I t i s hypothesized (Hagerman, e t . a l . , 1978) that g l y c o l y s i s diminishes a f t e r a steady state i s achieved and that the l a c t i c acid accumulated p r i o r to t h i s state remains constant unless exercise i n t e n s i t y i s increased. Post-simulation blood l a c t a t e values reported i n t h i s 1978 -35-study were 168 mg/100 mL blood, attes t i n g to the severity of the exercise and the contribution from the anaerobic system (Astrand & Rodahl, 1977). The formation of la c t a t e i n the body may be related to the in t e n s i t y of exercise as well as to the metabolic p r o f i l e of the contracting muscles. I t has been suggested that the appearance of lact a t e i n muscle and blood i s related to an i n s u f f i c i e n t supply of molecular oxygen i n the contracting muscles. However, even i n the presence of adequate molecular oxygen, the s p e c i f i c recruitment of the type II muscle f i b e r s may lead to an excess lactate formation (Sjodin, et.al..1979). In 1982, Mackenzie and Rhodes examined the lac t a t e p r o f i l e s of e l i t e oarsmen (n=8) during a 5:45 minute R.E. te s t . The r e s u l t s of t h e i r study indicated a s i g n i f i c a n t and rapid increase i n blood lactat e l e v e l s 1 minute into the ergometer t e s t . The serum lactate l e v e l s continued to r i s e throughout the exercise period peaking at 14.7 mmol/L. At two minutes into the recovery period, the recovery value measured 13.85 mmol/L. These r e s u l t s were not expected as serum lactate l e v e l s generally contiunue to increase during the i n i t i a l few minutes of recovery. The investigators attributed these r e s u l t s to the p o s s i b i l i t y of the highly trained athletes involved to oxidize l a c t i c a cid within the s k e l e t a l muscle. Employing a 6 minute R.E. t e s t to determine oarsmens maximal aerobic capacity, Secher, e t . a l . (1982) also c o l l e c t e d blood samples at 3 and 5 minutes post-exercise. -36-The mean blood la c t a t e reported was 12.5 mmol/L. Later, i n 1985, Koutedakis and Sharp examined oarsmen's blood lactates following a 2,000 meter on-water race. Finger t i p blood samples drawn 1 minute post-exercise revealed blood lactates ranging from 12.22±1.09 mmol/1 to 12.61=*=0.94 mmol/L. These on-water values c l o s e l y resemble the ergometer t e s t lactates of Secher, e t . a l . (1982). However, Koutedakis and Sharp's samples were made e a r l i e r i n the post-exercise period and therefore, the l e v e l s reported may be lower than a 3-minute post-exercise sample might reveal. Examining the physiological p r o f i l e s of e l i t e rowers, Hagerman, e t . a l . (1979) reported values of l49mg/100mL (=*= 14.2) and l68mg/100mL (=•= 15.6) for women and men respectively. The magnitude of these values i s i n d i c a t i v e of the large demand placed on the anaerobic energy system during a rowing race (1,000 or 2,000 meters). Later, i n 1984, when Hagerman, e t . a l . f studied the oarswoman's responses to a 4-minute (1000 meter race simulation) ergometer t e s t , a 3 minute post-exercise l a c t a t e of 130.6 mg/lOOmL was found. Again these r e s u l t s also indicate a heavy taxing of the anaerobic energy system. A portion of the discrepancy i n the [ l a c t i c acid] values of the two studies may be due to a c a l i b e r v a r i a t i o n i n the subject pools examined. -37-PROGRESSIVE INTENSITY EXERCISE When t e s t i n g the V0 2 max. of highly trained athletes, the movement patterns of the te s t should be as p r e c i s e l y matched to the subjects mode of t r a i n i n g and racing as possible (Thaden, e t . a l . (1982) (chapter 4) & Stromme, e t . a l . (1977)). A poten t i a l problem with the rowing ergometer that has been evident i n the past, i s that the oarswomen may begin t h e i r t e s t at more that 60% of t h e i r V0 2 max.. However, because of the good f e a s i b i l i t y of the rowing ergometer and the importance of sports s p e c i f i c exercise (Steinocher, e t . a l . (1983)), t h i s t e s t i n g apparatus seems to be the most appropriate choice for inves t i g a t i n g p hysiological responses of oarspersons. In support of t h i s , Fiegenbaum, e t . a l . (1983) examined c y c l i s t s and oarsmen i n progressive i n t e n s i t y t e s t s (PIT) on a b i c y c l e ergometer and a Gjessing rowing ergometer. Their r e s u l t s indicated a dependence of exercise e f f i c i e n c y measured i n the lab on the mode of s t r a i n and sp o r t s - s p e c i f i c d e x t e r i t i e s of the sportsmen's t r a i n i n g . Further, Hagerman and Staron (1983), evaluating seasonal v a r i a t i o n s among physiological variables i n e l i t e oarsmen, found that there are most d e f i n i t e l y s p e c i f i c aerobic t r a i n i n g e f f e c t s from on-water rowing. Even though the oarsmen trained rigorously year long i n an aerobic conditioning program of running, cross-country s k i i n g and rowing ergometer work, i t was the rowing s p e c i f i c in-season -38-t r a i n i n g that yielded a comparatively higher V0 2 max.. Droghetti, i n 1986, used the Gjessing R.E. to evaluate the VC>2 max. of 20 men and 1 woman, a l l members of the I t a l i a n National Rowing Team . The loading on the flywheel and the stroke rate were kept constant (women 2.5kg/ men 3.0kg). Work output was increased by increasing the number of flywheel revolutions each minute. For the oarswoman tested, increases varied from 8 to 12 watts each minute (approx. 7 revs/ min.). With such small increments i n power output, i t may have been d i f f i c u l t for the athletes to monitor t h e i r power application, even with feedback. Rationale for the use of a rowing ergometer, versus a treadmill or cycle ergometer, i n evaluating rowers has been exemplified i n past research with these athletes. I t has been suggested that maximal aerobic power of the athlete may be the l i m i t i n g factor i n rowing performance. These conclusions are based on the data c o l l e c t e d and extrapolations made by Secher, 1971 (as referenced by Astrand & Rodahl, 1977) and Secher, 1982a. Secher found a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between the average V0 2 of men's crews and t h e i r placings i n international competition. Examining f i v e oarsmen of the Harvard crew, Carey, e t . a l . (1974) found a non-significant difference i n the treadmill V0 2 max. and the RE V0 2 max. tests (p<.025). Based on t h e i r findings, they concluded that ei t h e r t e s t i n g apparatus could be used to assess the oarsmen's working -39-capacity. R o s i e l l o , et..al. (1987) further concluded that V0 2 max. on the cycle ergometer and the Concept II R.E. were i d e n t i c a l . However, i n conducting a PIT with oarsmen of varying experience l e v e l s , the c a l i b r e of the rowers being examined should not be overlooked. I f the athlete i s inexperienced (<3 years) a non-significant difference between t e s t i n g apparatus i s more l i k e l y the r e s u l t of a lack of rowing s p e c i f i c biomechanical and phy s i o l o g i c a l adaptations. Mahler, e t . a l . (1987), examining oarswomen, concluded that sport s p e c i f i c (rowing) t e s t i n g was l i m i t i n g . Using a b i c y c l e ergometer and a Concept II variable resistance rowing ergometer, the maximal oxygen consumptions of trained and untrained females were evaluated. Results were i n d i c a t i v e of a lower V0 2 max. on the R.E. as a s i g n i f i c a n t difference appeared between the b i c y c l e ergometer and R.E. V0 2 max. i n both trained and untrained subjects. Once again, the c a l i b r e or experience of the c o l l e g i a t e oarswomen i n the invest i g a t i o n must be considered. I f , as i n Carey, e t . a l . (1974), the oarswomen have not been rowing for at le a s t a few years, a lack of rowing s p e c i f i c adaptations to the phy s i o l o g i c a l workings of the athlete may explain the r e s u l t s . Furthermore, the protocol and t e s t i n g apparatus could be questioned as to t h e i r r e l i a b i l i t y and ease of t e s t i n g . In 1977, Stromme, e t . a l . . tested eight e l i t e male rowers, both on the water and on the treadmill (20 degrees u p h i l l grade). Testing involved maximal e f f o r t s of -40-approximately 4 minutes. Results were i n d i c a t i v e of a s i g n i f i c a n t difference (4.2%) between rowing and running, rowing y i e l d i n g the higher V0 2 max.. Note that the c a l i b r e of athlete involved was national ( e l i t e ) , presumably with many years of rowing s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g . In conclusion, Stromme, e t . a l . (1977) emphasized that the type of V0 2 max. t e s t i s an important factor to consider i n the evaluation of s p e c i f i c a l l y trained athlete's maximal aerobic power. Measuring a national l e v e l oarswoman's maximal aerobic power on a R.E. appears to be the best method for such an evaluation. I f the athlete i s s t r i v i n g for excellence i n rowing, t r a i n i n g adaptations should be such that a d i r e c t e f f e c t on physiological variables i s indicated through sport s p e c i f i c t e s t i n g . Furthermore, i f a comparison i s to be made between an oarswoman's V0 2 max. and her performance V0 2 during a 2,000 meter race i t i s l o g i c a l to evaluate her maximal capacity (V0 2 max.) on the same apparatus as her racing performance i s evaluated ( i e . rowing ergometer). CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY -42-METHODOLOGY SUBJECTS Six candidates for the 1988 Canadian National Women's Rowing Team, currently t r a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l serve as subjects for t h i s research study (some subjects have been members of the team i n previous years). Each subject was required to perform two exercise t e s t s on the Dr. Gjessing Ergorow rowing ergometer. The f i r s t t e s t w i l l be a 6 1/2 minute race simulation (SIM) and the second tes t , a progressive i n t e n s i t y t e s t (PIT). Physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the subjects are l i s t e d i n Table I. PROCEDURES Following a r r i v a l at the laboratory, subjects height and weight was recorded and a consent form signed. Three electrocardiograph (ECG) leads were then placed i n an LV5 arrangement on the subjects chest. At t h i s time, a Jelco IV 20 gauge 1 1/4 inch f l e x i b l e catheter was inserted, under s t e r i l e conditions, i n the cephalic vein of the ri g h t arm by attending physician. Once the catheter was secured, a pre-warm-up sample was drawn and placed i n a v i a l containing a hemolyzing agent. At t h i s time, subjects were required to perform the pre-set ergometer warm-up (PIT=5min. at 2kg; RS=10min. at 2kg). On completion of the warm-up, a 3-minute post-exercise blood lactat e was drawn. Approximately, 5 -43-minutes post warm-up the corresponding exercise t e s t began. Blood samples were l a t e r analyzed using an automated enzymatic technique (Kontron 640). P r i o r to analysis of each subjects blood samples, the l a c t a t e analyzer was c a l i b r a t e d with l.Ommol/L and 0.5mmol/L standard solutions. A 18 to 1 d i l u t i o n factor was used for the 20 micro l i t r e blood samples. Metabolic parameters were measured with a Bechman Metabolic Measurement Cart (BMMC), interfaced with a Hewlett-Packard 3052A data a c q u i s i t i o n system. The data a c q u i s i t i o n system allowed for rapid on-line feedback every 15 seconds on the respiratory gas exchange va r i a b l e s . RACE SIMULATION The 6 1/2 minute race simulation (RS) was designed to simulate the duration, i n t e n s i t y and stroke r a t i n g of an actual 2,000 meter race i n a national l e v e l women's eight. The Dr. Gjessing Ergorow rowing ergometer was used with a load s e t t i n g of 2.5 kg (standard National Team t e s t i n g load; Droghetti, 1986) on the flywheel. A taped recording of an actual 2,000 meter on-water race provided the oarswomen with f a m i l i a r race commands and sound e f f e c t s (distance, crew positions, power pieces, e t c . ) . The subject l i s t e n e d to the recording on the headphones of a portable tape cassette player. -44-The coxswain began verbal assistance 45 seconds p r i o r to the s t a r t of the race, i n preparation for the race. During a 3-minute relaxed period, p r i o r to the s t a r t of the race, metabolic monitoring proceeded. The race o f f i c i a l (on the tape) gave the s t a r t i n g commands while the coxswain provided the race commands. No verbal assistance was given by the investigators during the simulation, i n an e f f o r t to standardize a l l simulations. At the completion of the race simulation, subjects discontinued rowing and remained seated on the ergometer for a 30-minute post-exercise blood and metabolic measurement period. This recovery period allowed for the examination of anaerobic metabolism could be made. Blood samples were drawn every minute during the 6 1/2 minute simulation enabling blood lactat e p r o f i l e s to be determined. During the recovery phase, blood samples were drawn each minute up to the 15 minute point (1/2 of the volume of lac t a t e i s expected to be removed i n 15 minutes, Margaria, e t . a l . (1933)). The speed of removal of lac t a t e i n recovery i s proportional to the concentration of l a c t i c a cid and i s an exponential function of time. Blood lactates were l a t e r analyzed i n duplicate. PROGRESSIVE INTENSITY TEST The s t a r t i n g resistance on the flywheel for the PIT was set at 1.25kg, and the stroke r a t i n g at approximately 30 spm (Cunningham, e t . a l . . 1975). Subjects were required -45-to maintain a power output that yielded a 600 revolution per minute score on the tachometer of the ergometer. The resistance applied to the flywheel was then progressively increased (as outlined i n appendix A). Power output was to be maintained at 600 revolutions per minute (300revs/30seconds) as resistance increased, u n t i l the completion of the 6th minute. At t h i s time, the resistance remained at the 2.5 kg set t i n g and the subject increased her power output such that the number of revolutions completed per minute increased by approximately 20. The stroke rates employed were set by the i n d i v i d u a l h e r s e l f to allow the athlete to row at the pace most e f f i c i e n t for her. I t was assumed that these athletes were well attuned to t h e i r most e f f i c i e n t stroke rate. Stroke rates were expected to range between 28 and 32 strokes per minute (the higher rates occuring l a t e r i n the t e s t ) . (These predictions were based on p i l o t study r e s u l t s by the current investigator.) The PIT was discontinued when any of the following c r i t e r i a were met: V02 plateau or decreased, v o l i t i o n a l fatigue , power output drop (consistantly over 2 to 3 minutes. Stroke rates were monitored with a stroke watch so that feedback could be given to the oarswomen. Flywheel tachometer readings were monitored and recorded by an el e c t r o n i c d i g i t a l recorder at 15 second i n t e r v a l s . Athletes could see the v i s u a l display of revolutions ( i f they desired t o ) , to aid t h e i r power output monitoring. -46-Verbal assistance was also given to the athlete (revs. & stroke rate) to further aid her monitoring. I t has been acknowledged that there are d i f f i c u l t i e s with respect to power output for t h i s study which are inherent i n the design of the rowing ergometer and the mechanics of the rowing stroke. At the completion of the PIT, subjects removed mouthpiece and nose c l i p s . Venous blood samples were drawn each minute during the f i r s t f i v e minutes of the recovery, a f t e r which the catheter was removed. To ensure an adequate and consistent pre-test warm-up, a 5-minute warm-up period on the ergometer was required by each subject. The loading on the ergometer was 2.0kg. The d i g i t a l counter was connected to allow subjects to f a m i l i a r i z e themselves with i t s operation. Venous blood samples were drawn pre-warm-up and 5-minutes post-warm-up v i a the indwelling catheter. During the t e s t and recovery, blood was drawn and heart rates recorded i n the l a s t 10 seconds of each minute. CALIBRATIONS Pri o r to the s t a r t of each te s t , the Bechman Metabolic Measurement Cart was c a l i b r a t e d . Room temperature and barometric pressures were recorded and entered into the data a c q u i s i t i o n system. Bechman mixing chamber temperature was checked p r i o r to each subjects t e s t . Gas samples of 15.99% 0 2 and 3.96% C0 2were processed -47-through the machine to c a l i b r a t e the gas analyzers. Volume transducer gain adjustment was c l i b r a t e d with a 1.1 L syringe. Ten f u l l strokes of the syringe were used to c a l i b r a t e the volume transducer. CALCULATIONS {see appendix B} POST-EXERCISE V02 -calculated as the difference between t o t a l V02 of the recovery period and the oxygen uptake attributed to baseline conditions during that period. -based on c a l c u l a t i o n procedures of Devries, 1986. RESTING V0 2 -baseline V0 2 value w i l l be obtained by averaging the V0 2 measures recorded during the pre-exercise period (3 minutes){provided the V E values are consistent}. TOTAL OXYGEN UPTAKE -calculated as the t o t a l V0 2 of work and recovery periods during the RS and recovery period minus V0 2 for equivalent period of rest. . AEROBIC EXERCISE COMPONENT -calculated as the difference between the t o t a l V0 2 of the exercise and recovery periods and that of the exercise recovery period alone. - t h i s value w i l l also be expressed as a percentage r e l a t i v e to t o t a l V0 o. -48-EXERCISE V0 2 = % aerobic TOTAL V0 2 POST-EXERCISE VQ 2 = % anaerobic TOTAL V0 2 -EXCESS CQ2 = VC0 2 - RESTING RQ(V02) {RESTING RQ = 0.70} STATISTICAL TREATMENT Matched pa i r s t - t e s t s were used to determine the existence of s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the RS and PIT maximal values. CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS & DISCUSSION -50-RESULTS In table I, the physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s i x national l e v e l oarswomen are presented. The age range of the group was 21 to 27 years, the average age being 24.5 years (+2.4). Body weights varied from a low of 65.2 kg to a high of 90.5 kg. The group's average weight was 75.14 kg (+9.5), probably a s l i g h t l y i n f l a t e d value due to the weight of the largest subject. Heights of the oarswomen averaged at 178.72 cm (±9.02). Both the height and weight standard deviation values are quite large, given the i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y and sample siz e (n=6). The heaviest athlete was also the t a l l e s t of the group, while the l i g h e s t and shortest individuals were two d i f f e r e n t oarswomen. PROGRESSIVE INTENSITY TEST VS RACE SIMULATION The r e s u l t s of the progressive i n t e n s i t y t e s t (PIT) and the race simulation (RS) are presented i n table I I . V0 2 values are expressed i n absolute terms (L/min) to best represent the oarswomen's aerobic capacity i n a weight supported sport such as rowing. The PIT, designed to stimulate maximal cardiorespiratory responses from the oarswomen, e l i c i t e d a mean V02max. of 3.89 L/min (+0.27). Maximal oxygen consumption values for each athlete's RS were also recorded (average of the 4 highest V0 2 values i n RS), y e i l d i n g an average maximal value of 3.85 L/min (+0.24). Two subjects e l i c i t e d higher V02max. values -51-TABLE I PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS SUBJECT AGE(years) WEIGHT(kg) HEIGHT(cm) A 21 78.5 179.5 B 24 65.5 172 .5 C 23 73.3 168.4 D 27 77.0 186.9 E 25 65.1 173.4 F 27 90. 5 191.6 Tt 24.5 75.1 178.7 s ±2.4 ±9.5 ±9.02 - 5 2 -TABLE II RACE & P.I.T. PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS SUBJECT MAX. AVERAGE MAX. MAX. MAX. AVERAGE MAX. V02 V02 VE HR EXCESS REVS. RER (1/min)(1/min) (1/min) (bpm) C02 PER MIN a (ml/kg/min) A RS 4.02 3.83 122.4 189 18.5 555 1. 07 PIT 3.89 125.9 185 23.9 1. 18 B RS 3.48 3.32 106. 1 205 21.39 528 1. 09 PIT 3 . 56 120. 2 204 25.24 1.18 C RS 3.92 3.74 124.9 190 22.69 572 1.13 PIT 3 . 88 132.2 194 27.29 1.23 D RS 3 . 60 3 .53 111.68 .195 15.84 506 1. 04 PIT 3 . 64 116. 6 200 19.92 1.16 E RS 3.90 3 .85 136.2 188 21.17 594 1. 06 PIT 4.06 140.7 188 22.66 1. 08 F RS 4 . 07 3.98 133.4 190 19.24 617 1. 11 PIT 4 . 30 144.4 185 24.16 1.19 X RS 3.85 3.71 122.4 192.8 19.81 562 1.09 PIT 3.89 129.99 192.7 23.86 1. 17 s RS + 0.24 + 0.24 +11.83 +6.43 + 2 . 47 + 0.03 PIT +0. 27 +11.11 +8. 04 + 2 . 48 + 0. 05 [NB: AVER. VO, = average V0 2 from 3rd to 6 1/2 min. of RS] RS = race simulation PIT = progressive intensity test -53-during the RS than i n the PIT. However, s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of the V02max. values from the PIT and RS (matched p a i r s t-test) indicates a non-significant difference between the two tests (p>.01). Maximal heart rates (HR) reported i n the PIT and RS averaged 193 bpm i n both t e s t s with no measurable s i g n i f i c a n t difference (p>.01). The mean maximal v e n t i l a t o r y values of the PIT, 130 L/min (+11.1) and of the RS, 122.4 L/min (±11.8) are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (p<.01). Furthermore, a s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the max. excess C0 2 of the PIT and RS i s also evident. Mean max. excess C0 2 of the PIT was 23.86 mL/kg/min (+2.48) and i n RS was 19.81 mL/kg/min (+2.47). A l l s i x of the oarswomen exhibit higher VEmax. and max. excess C0 2 values i n the PIT than i n the RS. Maximum RER's recorded for the RS, a f t e r severe steady state l e v e l attained, averaged at 1.09 (+0.03) amongst the s i x subjects. RER data from the f i r s t minute i s not included i n mean max. RER calculations, as values are f a l s e l y elevated through a probable hyperventilation versus a true metabolic responses. RACE SIMULATION Individual and mean values for resting, exercise, recovery and t o t a l (exercise +recovery) oxygen consumption (V0 2) are l i s t e d i n table I I I . Equations and sample ca l c u l a t i o n s of these values are reported i n appendices B and C. The average resting V0 2 for the s i x oarswomen -54-TABLE III V02 TOTALS FOR RACE SIMULATION SUBJECT RESTING EXERCISE RECOVERY TOTAL V02(L) V02(L) V02(L) V02(L) A 0.42 20.26 4.88 25.14 (80.6%) (19.4%) (100%) B 0.35 17.74 4.38 22 .12 (80.2%) (19.8%) (100%) C 0.47 19.69 5.57 25.26 (78%) (22%) (100%) D 0.34 18.72 4.86 23.58 (79.4%) (20.6%) (100%) E 0.45 20. 38 4.39 24.77 (82%) (18%) (100%) F 0.47 20.66 5.41 26. 07 (79.3%) (20.75%) (100%) X 0.42 19.56 4.92 24.48 (79.9%) (20.1%) (100%) s +0.06 + 1.13 +0.498 +1.43 -55-was 0.42 L/min (+0.06) with values ranging from 0.34 to 0.47L/min. The mean exercise V0 2 of 19.56L (+1.13) was evaluated as being representative of the aerobic energy systems contribution i n the RS. Expressing the mean exercise V0 2 as a proportion of the mean t o t a l V0 2 [24.48L (+1.43)], a 4/5ths or 80% contribution was concluded.Since the t o t a l V0 2 value i s hypothesized to represent the t o t a l energy requirement (aerobic + anaerobic) of the RS, the f r a c t i o n a l contribution indicates that the aerobic energy system contributes approximately 80% of the energy for the RS. The recovery V0 2 mean value of 4.92L (+0.498), considered to represent the anaerobic contribution to the RS, equates to 20% or l/5th of the t o t a l V0 2 requirement (recovery V 0 2 / t o t a l V0 2). Recovery V0 2 was evaluated through the oxygen consumption of the oarswomen from the end of the RS u n t i l the pre-exercise r e s t i n g V0 2 l e v e l was achieved. For c a l c u l a t i o n purposes, the V02max. used for each subject was the highest V0 2 recorded during the RS or PIT. A s t e r i c s i n table II indicate the V02max. value used for each i n d i v i d u a l . The mean V02max. of the s i x oarswomen, calculated with each athletes personal V02max., was 3.92L/min. Referring to Figure 1 (absolute V0 2 vs time), the oarswomen's oxygen consumption increases rapi d l y over the i n i t i a l 2 minutes of the RS before achieving a r e l a t i v e l y steady l e v e l . Each subject's average V0 2 during t h i s 4.500 4.000-3.500-3.000-2.500-2.000-^ 1.500 •> 1.000 0.5004 REST EXERCISE RECOVERY LEGEND O subject A Asubject B • subject C V subject D Osubject E ^subject F 0.000 H—«— i— '— I— i—•—•—I——i— i— i— i— i— i—»— «—«—|— i— i— i—h 0 ^ 4 8 Z 12 16 20 24 TIME (MIN) FIGURE 1: ABSOLUTE V02 VS TIME i Ln I -57-steady l e v e l portion of the RS (evaluated from s t a r t of 3rd to end of 6 1/2 min of RS) i s presented i n table I I . The mean value for the group was 3.71L/min (4-0.24). This race average V0 2, expressed as a percentage of the groups mean V02max. (3.92L/min), represents an average race i n t e n s i t y equivalent to 94.6% (+1.26) of t h e i r maximal oxygen consumption, during the f i n a l 4 1/2 minutes. Individual average race i n t e n s i t i e s ranged from 92.48% to 95.72% corresponding to an absolute V0 2 range of 3.32 to 3.98L/min. This average race i n t e n s i t y implies that these oarswomen race at approximately 95% of t h e i r maximum capacity (V02max.) during the l a s t 4 1/2 minutes of the RS. During the 3rd to 6th minute of the RS, the average V0 2 values of the 6 subjects increased s l i g h t l y each minute from 3.6 L/min (91.9%V02max.) to 3.8 L/min (96.7%V02max.). The increases ranged from a mean of 0.04 to 0.08 L/min. In the f i n a l 1/2 minute of the RS, a an average decrease of 0.03L/min was evident. Figure 2 i l l u s t r a t e s each athletes oxygen consumption p r o f i l e during the RS as a percentage of her maximal oxygen capacity (represents each oarswoman's RS p r o f i l e r e l a t i v e to her own phy s i o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s ) . In figure 2, i t i s evident that at 2 minutes into the RS most of the oarswomen have reached an approximate 90% V02max. i n t e n s i t y l e v e l . In the recovery portions of figures 1 and 2, oxygen consumption values rapid l y decreased for approximately 2 1/2 minutes, immediately following the completion of the TIME (MIN) FIGURE 2: %V02MAX VS TIME -59-RS. This rapid decline i s followed by a slower decrease over the remaining recovery period to pre-test r e s t i n g V0 2 l e v e l s . Heart rate (HR) p r o f i l e s of the RS are i l l u s t r a t e d i n figure 3. One minute a f t e r the s t a r t of the RS, the mean HR increased to 176 bpm, equivalent to 92% of the mean max. HR. For the remainder of the RS, the heart rates gradually increased to an average maximum value of 192 bpm. Results c l e a r l y indicate a rapid adjustment of heart rates to a severe steady l e v e l which averaged 189 bpm (+4.7) during the f i n a l 4 1/2 minutes of the RS. The response patterns of Excess C0 2 (ml/kg/min) during and a f t e r the RS are presented i n figure 4. The excess C0 2 responses demonstrated the greatest v a r i a b i l i t y between the oarswomen of any of the parameters evaluated. A hyperventilatory response at the i n i t i a t i o n of the RS ( f i r s t 3 0 seconds) i s evidenced by the high excess C0 2 l e v e l s . Following t h i s , there was a readjustment and subsequent drop i n excess C0 2 over the l a s t 30 seconds of the f i r s t minute of exercise. At the end of the f i r s t minute of exercise, excess C0 2 l e v e l s r a p i d l y increased again, a t t a i n i n g near maximal l e v e l s by the end of the second minute of exercise with most subjects.Throughout the remainder of the RS there was a plateauing i n excess C0 2 values, suggesting a steady production and elimination of carbon dioxide. At the cessation of exercise, with some in d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y , 210 TIME (MIN) FIGURE 3: HEART RATE VS TIME EXCESS C02 (ML/KG/MIN) -T9--62-the excess C0 2 recovery trend was an exponential decay for approximately 2 1/2 minutes followed by a slow decline to below pre-exercise l e v e l s . The v e n t i l a t o r y responses of the national l e v e l oarswomen evaluated, increased for the i n i t i a l 2 minutes of the RS followed by a s l i g h t r i s e i n the remaining 4 1/2 minutes (figure 5). The mean max.VE value for the RS was 122.44L/min (±11.83) (BTPSj. Individual max.VE values represent the average of the 4 highest VE's recorded i n the RS. During the f i n a l 4 1/2 minutes, average VE values were approximately 117L/min (+12.9), representing 90% of the max.VE for the group. Following the RS recovery p r o f i l e seen i n V0 2, excess C0 2 and HR, VE exhibits an exponential decay and subsequent gradual tapering to pre-exercise l e v e l s . The mean respiratory exchange r a t i o (RER) values recorded during the RS indicate a substantial elevation i n the f i r s t 30 seconds (1.43) proceeded by a rapid drop i n the following 30 seconds (0.87). From t h i s point, the RER climbs up again to a value greater than 1.0. For the remainder of the RS (end of the 2nd to end of the 6 1/2 min. of RS) a steady state RER was attained at 1.08. In the f i r s t 2 1/2 minutes of the recovery period, the mean RER values increase, reaching a peak of 1.47. Af t e r t h i s peak, there i s a gradual decay i n the RER values. Results are i l l u s t r a t e d i n figure 6. 0 " ^ 4 8 T 12 16 20 24 TIME (MIN) FIGURE 5: VENTILATION VS TIME 1.800 1,700 1.600 1.500 1.400 1.300 1.200-1.100-1.000 0.900 0.800 + 0.700 REST EXERCISE RECOVERY L E G E N D : O s u b j e c t A A. s u b j e c t B • s u b j e c t C y s u b j e c t D 0 s u b j e c t E 4 s u b j e c t F „ 1 'START ' ' ' * END' 1 I 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 I 1 0 RS 4 8 Rs 12 16 20 24 TIME (MIN) FIGURE 6: RER VS TIME -65-A blood l a c t a t e p r o f i l e for subject E, the only RS blood l a c t a t e p r o f i l e available, i s presented i n figure 7. Lactate l e v e l s were rapid l y elevated within the i n i t i a l two minutes of the RS, as was evident i n VE and V0 2 RS responses. Subject E's blood lactates increased from 2.43 mmol/1 at one minute, to 5.95 mmol/1 at the end of the second minute. At t h i s point, blood lactates gradually plateaued. A peak lactate measure (9.81 mmol/1) was found 30 seconds a f t e r the cessation of exercise. PIT la c t a t e p r o f i l e s for subjects B and E are i l l u s t r a t e d i n figure 8. Post-exercise peak values of 17.29 mmol/1 (1 min. post) and 8.93 mmol/1 (5 min. post) were recorded for subjects B and E respectively. Ld O 3 Q O O _ l DQ O E E 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 REST 4- o EXERCISE ,(f(_3-min. post warm-up 3ECOVERY cN>-o 0 T 4 i I i—I—I—I—i—H-i—*—t—| 1 1 1 | 1 1 1 1 1 1 h— HS -r 8 ^ 12 16 20 24 TIME (min) FIGURE 7: BLOOD LACTATE VS TIME (SUBJECT B) 18 TIME (min) FIGURE 8: BLOOD LACTATE VS TIME (PIT - SUBJ.B & E) -68-HYPOTHESIS 1) The mean exercixe oxygen consumption for the s i x national l e v e l oarswomen tested i s 19.56 L i t r e s (+1.13). With a t o t a l V0 2 of 24.48 L (+1.43), the average energy contribution equates to 79.9%. These findings support our o r i g i n a l hypothesis that the aerobic system supplies 80% of the energy required for national l e v e l oarswomen's execution of a 2,000 meter RS. 2) The average recovery oxygen consumption for t h i s group of athletes was recorded as 4.93 L (+0.498). Expressed as a percentage of the t o t a l oxygen consumption a 20.1% contribution i s found. These findings support the hypothesis that the anaerobic energy system w i l l supply 20% of the necessary energy for the 2,000 meter RS performance. 3) By approximately 2 minutes into the race simulation, the oarswomen's V02max. plateaued at a r e l a t i v e l y steady state l e v e l . The average V02max. percentage during t h i s plateau was 94.6% (+1.26). These values are calculated from each oarswoman's exercise V0 2, as averaged from end of the second minute to the end of the RS (6 1/2 min. mark). Individual values ranged from 92.5% to 95.7% of 3.32L/min. to 3.98 L/min.. -69-DISCUSSION -70-PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS I t i s d i f f i c u l t to develop a p r o f i l e on the physical a t t r i b u t e s of oarswomen (national l e v e l or otherwise) due to the paucity of l i t e r a t u r e examining these athletes. Hebbelinck, M. et.al.(1981) examining 51 oarswomen at the 1976 Olympics concluded that these athletes tend to be t a l l e r and heavier than those i n a non-athletic and Canadian u n i v e r s i t y female student sample. The mean height and weight of t h e i r oarswomen was 174.3cm (+4.71) and 67.4 kg (+5.28). Hagerman, et.al.(1979) and Mahler, et.al.(1985) evaluating e l i t e and Collegiate l e v e l oarswomen respectively report average body weights of 68 to 70 kg and average heights of 172 to 173cm. These researchers further supported Hebbelinck's conclusion that oarswomen tend to be lean t a l l athletes. The national l e v e l oarswomen involved i n t h i s research presented a larger body weight average and a greater height average than has preiously been reported. Recruiting tends to focus on the t a l l e r muscular individuals, based on the b e l i e f that these body types are best suited for the biomechanical and physiological demands of the sport, which may p a r t i a l l y explain the physical consistencies. RACE SIMULATION Attempts have been made i n the past to evaluate the -71-energy demands and cardiorespiratory responses of rowing on on oarsmen, both on and o f f the water (Carey, e t . a l . , 1974;Hagerman, e t • a l . . 1972; Jackson & Secher, 1976; Mickelson & Hagerman, 1982; Secher, 1983b; Steinacher, e t . a l . . 1983; Williams, 1976). The on-water research does not allow the sophisticated and det a i l e d analysis that the laboratory evaluations do. The mean V02max. measured i n the RS was 3.85 L/min (+0.24), a value not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from that reported i n the P.I.T. (3.89 L/min (+0.27))(p>.01). Relative to e a r l i e r data on e l i t e and c o l l e g i a t e oarswomen, our r e s u l t s are approximately mid-range. Hagerman, et.al.(1979), reported a mean peak V0 2 for e l i t e oarswomen of 4.1 L/min (+0.4) i n a 3-minute RE t e s t . Later, Young and Rhodes (1985), examining c o l l e g i a t e oarswomen i n a 7-minute RS t e s t found a mean V02max. of 3.51 L/min (+0.2). Considering the d i f f e r e n t c a l i b r e of athlete tested i n these studies and the inc l u s i o n of a lightweight rower i n the 1985 sample, the range i n V02max. i s not surp r i s i n g . RECOVERY OXYGEN ANALYSIS Recovery oxygen analysis involves measuring the difference between r e s t i n g V0 2 of a recovery period and post-exercise V0 2 for that same period (Keele, e t . a l . , 1982). The measurement of t h i s v a r i able i s believed to -72-r e f l e c t the magnitude of anaerobic energy stores available during muscular work (Welch, e t . a l . . 1970). The oxygen consumption during the recovery phase (excess post-exercise oxygen consumption) i s hypothesized to restore muscle phosphagen and glycogen stores, replenish myoglobin with oxygen, and remove l a c t i c acid from muscle and blood (Fox, 1979). However, excess post-exercise oxygen consumption i s a very complex mechanism ( Brooks & Fahley, 1984) and there are several other factors which may elevate V0 2 during recovery. Some of these factors include, hyperventilation, metabolite turnover and synthesis, and ion r e d i s t r i b u t i o n (Na +,Ca +,K +) (Stainsby & Barclay, 1970).Despite of the possible l i m i t a t i o n s of measuring recovery V0 2 and using i t i n anaerobic metabolism analysis, excess post-exercise oxygen consumption i s s t i l l the best av a i l a b l e method for estimation of the RS anaerobic component at t h i s time. Other methods used i n the estimation of the anaerobic systems contribution include oxygen d e f i c i t and blood (or muscle) la c t a t e analysis. Computation of the anaerobic component through oxygen d e f i c i t c alculations i s not appropriate i n t h i s study since there i s no c l e a r steady state l e v e l during the RS from which a required V0 2 could be estimated. Without a computed oxygen requirement for the RS, the oxygen d e f i c i t equation cannot be solved (Brooks & Fahley, 1984). Attempts to assess the anaerobic component of an exercise bout from post-exercise blood or -73-muscle la c t a t e concentrations are also questionable given the possible d i f f i c u l t i e s i n determining the d i s t r i b u t i o n volume for l a c t a t e (Margaria, e t . a l . , 1963). AEROBIC CONTRIBUTION The aerobic energy system's contribution to a 2,000 meter RS f o r national c a l i b r e oarswomen i s approximately 80% or 4/5th's of the t o t a l energy requirement. This high f r a c t i o n a l aerobic contribution indicates the tremendous aerobic demand of the 2,000 meter race simulation (RS)(calculations based on Devries, 1986 (see appendix}). In the 1,000 meter race, the oarswoman's aerobic energy system supplied somewhere between 55% and 65% (up to 3/5th's) of the t o t a l energy (Mahler, e t . a l . , 1984; Hagerman, e t . a l . , 1979; Hagerman, 1984), understandably lower than the 2,000 meter RS. Since s i m i l a r contributions of aerobic/anaerobic metabolic pathways for maximal exercise of comparable durations have been reported (Astrand & Rodahl, 1977; Berger, 1982), the energetics exhibited i n the 2,000 meter RS were expected. There i s a d e f i n i t e lack of research pertaining to oarswomen racing over 1,000m. At the 2,000m distance there i s presently only one other known study involving oarswomen (Young & Rhodes, 1986). Consequently, to advance t h i s analysis, data from research on oarsmen rowing 2,000m (6 min.) on a (RE) (Hagerman, e t . a l . . 1975; Mahler, e t . a l . . -74-1984), and from oarswomen rowing a 2,000 meter RS (7 min.)(Young & Rhodes, 1986) were reviewed. Young and Rhodes (1986) reported an 84% aerobic contribution i n a 7-minute RS with c o l l e g i a t e oarswomen. Considering the s l i g h t l y greater exercise duration (30 seconds) ( i e . lower c a l i b r e of athlete tested, i e . longer race duration), these r e s u l t s appear to be comparable to the present findings. Both studies evaluated the aerobic energy (NET 0 2 INTAKE) component by employing the formula of Devries (1986)(see appendix). Some of the data avai l a b l e on oarsmen executing a 6 minute RE t e s t suggests that 70% to 78% of the energy contribution i s supplied by the aerobic energy system (Hagerman, 1975; Hagerman, e t . a l . . 1979; Mahler, e t . a l . . 1984). In comparison to the oarswomen, male rowers incorporate a smaller f r a c t i o n of t h e i r aerobic energy system to meet the high metabolic demands of the shorter 6-minute RE t e s t . The oarsmen and oarswomen are able to maximally tax aerobic system i n the 2,000m race (evidenced by the 95% V02max. race intensity) by incorporating an unusual pacing strategy (Hagerman, e t . a l . . 1972). The race commences with a sprin t , at a high stroke frequency or rate, l a s t i n q approximately 50 seconds to 1 minute (250m on water). The sp r i n t s t a r t i s executed i n an attempt to advance the crew into the lead enabling the rowers to see t h e i r competitors ( i e . psychological b e n e f i t ) . Secher, et.al.(1976). as referenced by Astrand and Rodahl (1977), -75-found that the large energy expenditure early i n a 6-minute simulated race on a b i c y c l e ergometer lead to a more rapid increase i n oxygen uptake then when sp r i n t s t a r t i s not performed. During the f i n a l 250 m or 1 minute of the 2,000m race, another s p r i n t i s executed i n an attempt to elevate the boat speed. Considering the high l e v e l of energy output the athlete i s working at (95% of V0 2 max.), a further increase i n output stimulates production of any remaining f r a c t i o n of possible energy from the aerobic and anaerobic systems (primarily from the anaerobic system, Fox (1979)). ANAEROBIC ENERGY CONTRIBUTION In the f i r s t two minutes of the race simulation, while the athlete's aerobic system attempts to meet the body's energy requirements, the anaerobic system ( a l a c t i c / l a c t i c ) provides a large part of the energy needed (Keul, J . , 1973). This stage requires substantial output from the anaerobic system. A consequence of t h i s early anaerobic (maximal) contribution i s a rapid elevation of blood & muscle lactate l e v e l s , ultimately r e s u l t i n g i n muscular fatigue. An estimation of the anaerobic system's contribution to the RS (with acknowledged l i n i t a t i o n s ) was made through the evaluation of the recovery oxygen uptake (V0 2) during the post-exercise period of the RS (referred to as excess -76-post-exercise oxygen consumption). The excess post-exercise oxygen consumption of the oarswomen's RS was approximately 4.92L (+0.498) or 2 0% of the t o t a l oxygen uptake. (These values were based on c a l c u l a t i o n procedures of Devries (1986) (see appendix B}). Comparatively, Young and Rhodes (1986) reported a mean recovery oxygen consumption of 4.18L (+1.43) for c o l l e g i a t e oarswomen performing a 7-minute RS, using the same Devries (1974) c a l c u l a t i o n methods. In contrast to these reports, Hagerman, et.al.(1978), found a mean oxygen debt value of 13.4L (+6.3) fo r oarsmen performing a 6-minute RE t e s t . Later, i n 1979, a mean oxygen debt value of 10.2L (+5.5) was reported f o r oarswomen i n a 3-minute RE t e s t by Hagerman, et.al..using an exercise V0 2 baseline for oxygen debt analysis. These values, proposed to be representive of absolute anaerobic contribution, are s u b s t a n t i a l l y larger than the national l e v e l oarswomen's evaluated here. The procedures followed f o r evaluating the recovery V0 2 (to estimate the r e l a t i v e anaerobic contribution) are not provided i n the l i t e r a t u r e (Hagerman, e t . a l . . 1978 & 1979), preventing c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the discrepant values between the studies. The oxygen debt values for maximal exercise l a s t i n g from 4 to 6 minutes have been found to be approximately the equal (Whipp, et.al..1970). Consequently, the discrepancy i n the present r e s u l t s and Young and Rhodes (1986) with those of Hagerman, et.al.(1978 & 1979), i s u n l i k e l y simply -77-the r e s u l t of v a r i a b i l i t y i n exercise duration ( i e . exercise being of maximal i n t e n s i t y ) . I t i s possible that these discrepancies are a consequence of an inappropriate evaluation of the recovery oxygen consumption. Furthermore, Secher (1983) states that oxygen debt values are smaller i n beginners than i n well-trained oarsmen. This implies that the c a l i b e r of the athlete may account for the differences seen. RACE SIMULATION INTENSITY Calculation of the racing i n t e n s i t y l e v e l of the national c a l i b r e oarswomen involves representing an absolute V0 2 value as a percentage of an absolute V02max. value. Two minutes a f t e r the RS started, f i v e of the s i x oarswomen achieved an i n t e n s i t y l e v e l demanding more than a 90% contribution from the aerobic systems maximum capacity. These findings are i n d i c a t i v e of a high l e v e l of oxygen u t i l i z a t i o n . The time required to achieve a high steady l e v e l V0 2 during the men's 6-min. RE t e s t i s approximately 2 minutes a f t e r the s t a r t (Mahler, e t . a l . . 1984). Support for these e a r l i e r findings i s provided by the approximate 92% mean V02max. recorded at the end of the second minute of the present RS. The average i n t e n s i t y of exertion (from end of 2nd min. to end of 6 1/2 min.) i n the RS i s equivalent to approximately 95% (+1.26) of the mean V02max.. -78-Comparatively, Young and Rhodes (1986) reported a 96% mean V02max. i n t e n s i t y l e v e l during the f i n a l 4 1/2 minutes of a 7-minute RS for c o l l e g i a t e oarswomen. Oarsmen evaluated i n a 6-minute RE t e s t , exercised at an i n t e n s i t y l e v e l equivalent to 96%-98% of mean V02max. i n the f i n a l portion of a rowing t e s t (Bouchant, et.al.,1983 & Hagerman, et.al..1978). The present r e s u l t s c l e a r l y agree with those of e a r l i e r research. Examination of race i n t e n s i t y i n r e l a t i v e percentages allows comparisons between experience l e v e l s of the oarsmen and oarswomen to be made. Rowing on an ergometer may be somewhat s i m i l a r to intermittent work since athletes usually row at 32 to 3 6 spm (Carey, e t . a l . 1974). Comparatively, running i s considered to be a continuous type of work (Carey, et.al..1974). Cunningham, et.al.(1975). hypothesize that although work rate i s dependent on number of revolutions of the flywheel, i t i s independent of the number of strokes rowed per minute. A l l 6 of the present subjects raced with the same tape recorded race simulation (stroke rate c a l l s , commands, et c . ) , providing minimal v a r i a b i l i t y i n the stroke ratings from one athlete to another. Stroke rates ranged from approximately 32 to 35 spm during the steady state portion of the RS. Considerable subject v a r i a b i l i t y was found i n the number of flywheel revolutions during the RS. Work rate, hypothetically dependent on the number of flywheel revolutions (Cunningham, et.al.(1975)), i s d e f i n i t e l y v a r i a ble i n the RS. The range of average -79-flywheel revolutions per minute i n RS was from 506 to 617. HEART RATE Heart rate measures are a valuable t o o l for evaluation and monitoring of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s exercise i n t e n s i t y . Maximal heart rates are i d e n t i f i e d when, with a continued increase i n workload there i s no further increase i n HR. The average maximal heart rate (bpm) for both the RS and PIT was approximately 193 bpm (RS= +6.43 & PIT=±8.04). There i s a rapid increase i n HR at the i n i t i t a t i o n of RS as the body adjusts to meet the demands placed upon i t . By the completion of the second minute of the RS, mean HR attains a high steady state l e v e l s and continues to r i s e by approximately 2% each minute u n t i l the completion of the RS. These r e s u l t s c l o s e l y resemble the findings of Young and Rhodes (1986). In t h e i r study with c o l l e g i a t e oarswomen maximal RS heart rates were 186 bpm. The heart rate p r o f i l e they reported indicated a rapid increase with the i n i t i a t i o n of the RS with a plateauing at the end of the second minute. The present findings v e r i f y the maximal demands of the RS on the cardiac functioning. EXCESS CO2 Measurement of excess C0 2 serves as a possible i n d i c a t o r of the magnitude of g l y c o l y t i c production of -80-la c t a t e through g l y c o l y s i s (Volkov, e t . a l . . 1975). Furthermore, excess C0 2 r e f l e c t s the state of the buffer reserves of the athlete (Volkov, et.al.,1975). In evaluating the energy demands of the 6 1/2 minute RS, excess C0 2 data was analyzed as a possible representive of the per c e n t i l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of anaerobic processes i n t o t a l energy expenditure. Figure 4 (excess C0 2 vs time) i l l u s t r a t e s the d e f i n i t i v e involvement of the anaerobic energy system during the RS. In the f i r s t 30 seconds of t h i s severe steady state exercise, there i s an abrupt increase i n excess C0 2 as a r e s u l t of hyperventilation (increase i n lung v e n t i l a t i o n rate beyond that needed for ex i s t i n g metabolic rate (Devries, 1986}). Within the following 30 seconds (l a s t 1/2 of f i r s t minute) excess C0 2 drops (approx. 1/2 of l e v e l i t was i n i n i t i a l 3 0 seconds) because the hyperventilation outstrips the metabolic C0 2 production (Devries, 1986).During the second minute of the RS, excess C0 2 increases again and continues to increase, reaching a plateau near the end of the t h i r d minute. This response i s the body's attempt to deal with the increase i n carbon dioxide that i s being produced i n part by the buffering of the l a c t i c acid being produced by the muscles. (The anaerobic threshold has been exceeded a f t e r the f i r s t minute of the RS necessitating the continual involvement of the anaerobic system throughout the exercise.) A plateau i n excess C0 2 i s achieved when a constant l e v e l of l a c t i c acid production and removal (no -81-further increase i n rate of l a c t i c acid production) i s reached, therefore, the C0 2 produced through buffering becomes constant. The elevated excess C0 2 l e v e l i s thought to indicate the magnitude of lact a t e production v i a g l y c o l y s i s , and the state of the buffer reserve of the i n d i v i d u a l (MacKenzie & Rhodes, 1983). VENTILATION (V E) There i s no one single factor that can be held f u l l y accountable for the v e n t i l a t o r y response to exercise. Consequently, much of the v e n t i l a t o r y response i s unexplained (Levitzky, M.G., 1982). A great deal of controversy surrounds the mechanisms involved i n the increase i n v e n t i l a t i o n seen i n muscular work (Astrand & Rodahl, 1977). In spite of these problems, the v e n t i l a t o r y response to exercise i s acknowledged as an excellent index of the a b i l i t y of the body's gas transport mechanisms to meet the c e l l u l a r oxygen requirements (Wasserman, K., 1978). Furthermore, V E may r e f l e c t metabolic acidosis and l e v e l of cardiovascular f i t n e s s (Wasserman, e t . a l . f 1973) . For the i n i t i a l two minutes of the race simulation, the oarswomen's V E increased markedly from 77.59 L/min to 102.1 L/min (measured at the end of the 1st & 2nd min. r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . In the remaining 4 1/2 minutes, the v e n t i l a t i o n plateaued at an average of 116.9 L/min (BTPS) -82-(averages ranged from 101.5 to 133.2 L/min). This average plateau value represents 95% of the mean RS max.VE (as measured during RS) and 90% of the mean max.VE reached i n the P.I.T.. The apparent delay i n reaching t h i s plateau i s a r e s u l t of a necessary adjustment period for the body. Davies, et.al.(1972), indicate that V E increases at a slower rate when an i n d i v i d u a l moves from rest to heavy work, then when moving from rest to l i g h t work. Wilmore (1979) hypothesizes that the more intense the exercise, the more time i t w i l l take to achieve a steady state or plateau (Secher (1976), i n Astrand & Rodahl, 1977). The elevation i n v e n t i l a t i o n during exercise i s a r e s u l t of the necessity to supply oxygen and eliminate the metabolic waste product of C0 2. At the cessation of exercise, v e n t i l a t i o n values exhibit an exponential decay. Within 30 seconds of the end of the race, v e n t i l a t i o n s dropped to 82% of the RS mean max.Ve. By the 1 1/2 minute mark, post RS, the V E dropped to 62% of the RS mean max.VE. The current findings provide no i n d i c a t i o n of a pulmonary (V E) impairment. Many other researchers have also found no evidence to support the occurence of any impairment or r e s t r i c t i o n (Bouchant, e t . a l . . 1983; Hagerman, e t . a l . . 1971; Hagerman, e t . a l . . 1978; Mahler, e t . a l . . 1987). Cunningham, et.al.(1975), hypothesized that a reduced v e n t i l a t o r y r a t i o , V E/V0 2 during simulated rowing i s primarily due to the cramped -83-body p o s i t i o n of the oarsman at the catch (start) of the stroke cycle. I t was thought that the sudden f o r c e f u l e f f o r t at the catch may induce a valsalva maneuver e f f e c t which would reduce venous return and cardiac output, thereby reducing the oxygen consumption. However, without any other support for t h i s hypothesis pulmonary impairment cannot be substantiated.In 1979, Hagerman, e t . a l . . t e s t i n g e l i t e oarswomen i n a 3-minute t e s t on a RE reported max.VE values of 165 L/min (+15.6)(BTPS). Young and Rhodes (1986) found lower values with a c o l l e g i a t e group, the mean max.VE being 138.6 L/min (+13.22)(BTPS) i n a 7-minute RS. The range of V E's previously reported can be expanded further by examining the recorded mean max.VE of 113 L/min (±17)(BTPS) of R o s i e l l i , et.al.(1987). This 1987 study involved a P.I.T. on a Concept II rowing ergometer, and female subjects with a tremendous range i n a b i l i t y and experience i n rowing. With the re s u l t s of the present study reporting a mean max.VE of 122.4 L/min (+11.8)(BTPS) i n the RS and 129.99 L/min (±11.1)(BTPS) i n the P.I.T., discrepancies i n the l i t e r a t u r e are quite evident. The re s u l t s of Ro s i e l l o , et.al.(1987), probably r e f l e c t a lack of experienced rowing subjects, indicated by the very low mean maximal v e n t i l a t i o n s . Comparing data from RE te s t s of d i f f e r e n t durations ( i e . 3,4,6 1/2 & 7 min.) and subject pools ( i e . experience), inconsistencies i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures are to be expected. A shorter -84-t e s t may be executed with the same in t e n s i t y (%V02max.) but peak or maximum responses ( i e . V E, excess C0 2) may be higher. In the longer t e s t s , a high steady l e v e l of output must be maintained for a few minutes, while i n the shorter t e s t s no steady l e v e l i s achieved. For example, the v e n t i l a t o r y responses of the present study reach maximal l e v e l s at approximately 2 minutes into the RS which, i n a 3-minute RE t e s t , would be equivalent to the point at which the oarswoman begins her sp r i n t for the f i n i s h (probably further elevating her V E) (Wasserman, 1978) . BLOOD LACTATE An attempt to catheterize each oarswoman for blood la c t a t e analysis i n the RS was unsuccessful. Placement of a catheter was only successful i n 3 of the 6 subjects involved. Unfortunately, of the s i x sample sets c o l l e c t e d only three rendered any meaningful r e s u l t s . Due to possible i n s u f f i c i e n t mixing of blood i n the c o l l e c t i o n v i a l s (containing hemolyzing agent), anaerobiosis continued following blood removal, f a l s e l y i n f l a t i n g the blood lactates measured. With only one RS and two P.I.T. blood p r o f i l e s , no j u s t i f i a b l e conclusions can be made. The RS blood p r o f i l e did follow a s i m i l a r pattern to the oarsmen's i n the studies of MacKenzie and Rhodes (1982) and Hagerman, e t . a l . , (1978). A rapid elevation was -85-evident i n the f i r s t 2 minutes (2.43 mmo./L (1st. min.) to 5.95 mmol/L (end of 2nd min.)), followed by a steady upward plateauing to a 7.1 mmol/L l e v e l . Within 1 1/2 minutes post-RS, lactates began to gradually decline. A peak la c t a t e value was measured 30 seconds post-RS (9.81 mmol/L). With the rapid decline i n lactates post-exercise, as seen i n our subject and the oarsmen of MacKenzie and Rhodes (1982), i t appears that the athletes high l e v e l of t r a i n i n g may enable them to oxidize l a c t i c acid within the s k e l e t a l muscle (MacKenzie & Rhodes, 1982). The exercise i t s e l f may provide a sort of oxidizing of l a c t a t e during the t e s t period. Hagerman, e t . a l . (1978), hypothesized that g l y c o l y s i s diminishes a f t e r a steady state i s attained and the l a c t i c acid accumulated thus f a r remains constant unless the exercise i n t e n s i t y increases. The P.I.T. l a c t a t e values of the two subjects recorded show substantial i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n . One subject peaked at 8.93 mmol/L at 1 minute post-exercise. Both subjects p r o f i l e s i n the P.I.T. followed a gradual elevation during the exercise, but again exhibited quite d i f f e r e n t post-exercise recovery patterns. Without any other data, i t would be pointless to attempt further analysis or explanation. RESPIRATORY EXCHANGE RATIO "The respiratory exchange r a t i o (RER) i s a r a t i o of -86-the rate of C0 2 output to the rate of 0 2 uptake by thelungs during a given period of time. 1 1 (Slonim & Hamilton, 1981). At the s t a r t of exercise, the RER increases as a consequence of the hyperventilation that preceeds the achievement of a steady state. During exercise, with the development of a metabolic acidosis, there i s an increase i n C0 2 output (disproportionate to the increase i n 0 2 uptake) and a subsequent increase i n RER. Exercise e l i c i t i n g V02max. i s reported to r e s u l t i n RER values of 1.0 to 1.4 with a mean of approximately 1.15 (Mole, P.A., 1983) leading to the notion that CHO u t i l i z a t i o n i s dramatically elevated with increased exercise i n t e n s i t y (especially above the lactate threshold). A rapid increase and rapid decrease i n RER values are evident within the f i r s t 60 seconds of the RS ( f i g . 6). The i n i t i a l increase to 1.43 i s in d i c a t i v e of the hyperventilatory response to the exercise, which increases C0 2 output exhalation disproportionately from V0 2. The following decrease to 0.87 i n the l a s t h a l f of the f i r s t minute i s the r e s u l t of v e n t i l a t i o n outstripping C0 2 production p r i o r to the attainment of a steady state. In the remaining minutes of the RS, RER increases to reach a steady state l e v e l at an RER of 1.08, f a l l i n g within the exercise RER range predicted by Mole (1983). On cessation of exercise, RER values i n RS increase f o r the f i r s t 2 1/2 minutes to reach an average peak of 1.47, before gradually decaying. This post-exercise increase i s -87-induced by a continued high C0 2 output i n d i c a t i v e of l a c t i c acid metabolism, while oxygen uptake drops, i n f l a t i n g the RER. CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY & RECOMMENDATIONS -89-SUMMARY & RECOMMENDATIONS The aerobic/ anaerobic contribution i n a 2,000 meter race simulation for national l e v e l oarswomen appears to be 80% and 20% respectively. The l e v e l of in t e n s i t y at which these oarswomen can execute the 6 1/2 minute, 2.000 meter race simulation i s equivalent to approximately 95% of t h e i r V02max. (V02max. being the highest V0 2 value recorded for each subject i n eithe r the PIT or RS on the Gjessing ergometer). The current study provides an analysis of the bioenergetics of the 2,000 meter race simulation for national l e v e l oarswomen. Based on the present findings the energy requirements of an actual "on-water" race can confidently be predicted. With an 80% aerobic and 20% anaerobic energy contribution, the athlete's maximal oxygen capacity i s a s i g n i f i c a n t performance factor at the 2,000 meter race distance. Obviously, with the increased aerobic energy component i n the 2,000 meter versus the 1,000 meter race, i t i s necessay to modify old t r a i n i n g programs. The oarswomen race for approximately 6 1/2 minutes (in an eight), and spend between 4 1/2 and 5 minutes of t h i s time at an in t e n s i t y l e v e l that corresponds to approximately 95% of t h e i r V02max.. The f i r s t 1 1/2 to 2 minutes of the race (at start) time the anaerobic energy system works maximally to provide the majority of the energy necessary to execute the race strategy. Of course, none of the energy systems work e n t i r e l y alone, as there i s -90-always some in t e r a c t i o n (Keul, J . , 1973). Judging by the i n t e n s i t y l e v e l of exercise, i t i s apparent that a high aerobic capacity complimented with a high v e n t i l a t o r y threshold would be most b e n e f i c i a l i n racing 2,000 meters (Droghetti, 1986). The production and accumulation of lactat e may be reduced (less) with a higher v e n t i l a t o r y threshold as compared to a low v e n t i l a t o r y threshold. This could ultimately reduce the detrimental e f f e c t s of high lactates on performance (ie . early muscle fatigue). A high aerobic capacity i s important because of the high percentage of absolute V02max. the oarswoman rows the majority of the race at. The present findings may provide athletes and coaches with a better understanding of the metabolic demands of the 2,000 meter race such that t r a i n i n g regimens and racing strategies no longer have to be hypothetical guess work. One of the most fascinating findings i n t h i s study i s that a l l of the 6 athletes work outputs (as measured by the # of flywheel revolutions) were far below that achieved i n a standard rowing ergometer t e s t . The standard t e s t i s 7 minutes i n length and incorporates a loading of 2.5 kp on the flywheel. This t e s t i s used to compare and evaluate oarswomen by giving them an absolute score i n # of revolutions. The pacing strategy of the standard t e s t varies from that i n a race or race simulation. In the standard t e s t , the athlete executes a few short strokes (3 or 4) to get the flywheel spinning, and then immediately -91-s e t t l e s into a steady state output. During t h i s t e s t proceedure, feedback regarding flywheel revolutions i s usually given ve r b a l l y every 30 seconds. Oarswomen s t r i v e to maintain consistent s p l i t s throughout the t e s t . In contrast, the race simulation or water race e n t a i l s a fa s t s p r i n t s t a r t l a s t i n g approximately 45 to 60 seconds. This s p r i n t i s followed by a s e t t l i n g (decreasein stroke rate -increase i n stroke length) into a steady state output. The f i n i s h of the race again involves the execution of a s p r i n t for approximately 45 to 60 seconds. By recording the t o t a l number of flywheel revolutions i n each race simulation, average minute s p l i t s were determined (table I I ) . Relative to the oarswomen's standard rowing ergometer t e s t s p l i t s , the race simulation s p l i t s were from 70 to 120 revolutions per minute lower. Reflecting on t h i s discrepancy i t could be hypothesized that the lower scores are a r e s u l t of e i t h e r lack of verbal feedback (regarding s p l i t s ) during the race simulation, a r e s u l t of poor racing strategy, or a combination of the two. I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to examine these two t e s t s i n an attempt to determine what the l i m i t i n g factors of the race simulation are. An a l t e r a t i o n i n the on-water race strategy would be to approach the pacing as i t i s executed on the rowing ergometer. Rather than s p r i n t i n g i n the f i r s t minute of the race, a rapid s e t t l e into a steady state output could be implimented. Future research, comparing the physiological responses between the standard t e s t and the race simulation -92-approach may provide strong evidence i n favour of a racing strategy adjustment.would d e f i n i t e l y be b e n e f i c i a l to the oarswoman's racing performance. -93-PROGRESSIVE INTENSITY TEST INFORMED CONSENT FOR ELITE OARSWOMEN You w i l l perform a graded exercise t e s t on the Dr. Gjessing rowing ergometer. The purpose of the t e s t i s to examine the response of your cardiovascular and respiratory systems to rowing. The t e s t consists of rowing the ergometer for approximately 8 to 12 minutes during which time the loading on the flywheel w i l l be progressively increased to a maximum of 2.5 kp.. During the t e s t v e n t i l a t o r y gases w i l l be recorded with the use of a mouthpiece, head gear,metabolic measurement cart and data a c q u i s i t i o n system. Heart rates w i l l be monitored with an ECG and blood samples made v i a cathaterization of the r i g h t arm cephalic vein (inserted and monitored by a medical doctor). Catheterization may cause some s l i g h t bruising the day following the t e s t . As the name of the tes t suggests, i t i s progressive. You w i l l s t a r t the t e s t with a loading of 1.25kp. and p u l l hard enough to maintain a 300 revolution s p l i t every 30seconds. Each minute the load w i l l be increased by .25kp. u n t i l 2.5kp. i s reached (maintaining the 300 rev/30sec s p l i t s throughout). Afte r rowing for 1 minute at 2.5kp., you w i l l be required to increase your work output such that your revs, increase by 20 each minute following. -94-You may row at what ever stroke rate you wish and a l t e r i t as you see f i t . The t e s t w i l l be discontinued when a plateau i n your oxygen uptake values i s reached (indicating maximum capacity), you cannot continue or your work output drops by a substantial margin. Following the completion of the t e s t you w i l l be required to remain seated on the ergometer with a l l t e s t i n g gear attached so that recovery values may be c o l l e c t e d (no cool down w i l l be permitted u n t i l the data c o l l e c t i o n i s completed). At any time before or during the t e s t i n g you may withdraw from t h i s study i f you are not pleased with what i s taking place. Every e f f o r t w i l l be made to ensure you do not experience any unnecessary discomfort. I f you wish to ask any questions of the researcher and t h i s study f e e l free to do so. In signing t h i s consent form you state that you have read and understand the description of the t e s t and p o t e n t i a l complications. You enter t h i s t e s t w i l l i n g l y and may with draw at any time. Consent I have read the above comments and understand the explanation, and I wish to proceed with the t e s t s . In agreeing to such an examination, I waive any l e g a l recourse against the members of the s t a f f of the John M. Buchanan -95-Exercise Science Lab from any and a l l claims r e s u l t i n g from personal i n j u r i e s sustained during these t e s t s . date:  subject(signature) :  witness:  -96-PROTOCOL AND CONSENT FORM RACE SIMULATION (ROWING ERGOMETER 6:30 MIN. TEST) The purpose of t h i s t e s t i s to measure the amount of oxygen that you u t i l i z e while rowing i n a simulated race. As well, the t e s t w i l l be used to measure the amount of l a c t i c acid produced by the muscles during the simulation. You w i l l be given time to warm-up on the t e s t i n g ergometer before the commencement of t e s t i n g procedures. A f t e r you f e e l adequately warm a technician w i l l tape 3 electrodes to your chest such that your heart rate can be recorded. At t h i s time the, attending physician w i l l i n s e r t the f l e x i b l e catheter into the cephalic vein of your r i g h t arm. The vein w i l l be kept open with the use of heparinized s a l i n e solution. There w i l l be l i t t l e discomfort associated with t h i s procedure; there may, however be s l i g h t bruising at the point of the vein puncture. Once you have remounted the ergometer a gas c o l l e c t i o n mouthpiece w i l l be placed i n your mouth and secured through the a i d of head gear. The f i n a l required apparatus i s a walkman which w i l l be clipped to the back of your shorts. The t e s t i n g weight w i l l be 2.5kp (standard t e s t i n g weight). You w i l l not receive any feedback as to revolutions or stroke rates. The only voice you w i l l hear w i l l be that of the coxswain on the tape recording. Blood -97-samples w i l l be drawn every minute during the exercise and for the 15 minutes of recovery. I t i s expected that you w i l l complete t h i s t e s t without complications. Because of the very common, unpredictable response of some individ u a l s to exercise, unforeseen d i f f i c u l t i e s may ari s e which would necessitate treatment. Complications have been few during exercise t e s t s amd these usually c l e a r quickly with l i t t l e or no treatment. You are asked to report any unusual symptoms during the t e s t i n g procedures. You w i l l be able to stop exercising at any time because of feelings of fatigue or discomfort. Every e f f o r t w i l l be made to conduct the tests i n such a way as to minimize discomfort and r i s k . In signing t h i s consent form you state that you have read and understand the description of te s t s , and the possible complications involved. 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Energy Demands of 2,000 meter Rowing Race for Collegiate Oarswomen. Med. S c i .  Sport Exer.. Vol.11. No.4.(1986).(abstract). -104-APPENDIX A PROGRESSIVE INTENSITY TEST PROTOCOL TIME (min) LOAD (kp) 0- 1 1- 2 2- 3 3- 4 4- 5 5- 6 6- 7 7- 8 8- 9 9- 10 etc. 1.25 1.5 1.75 2.0 2 2 2 2 2 2 25 50 50 50 50 50 REVOLUTION (revs/min) 600 600 600 600 600 600 620 640 660 680 -105-APPENDIX B EXERCISE METABOLISM CALCULATIONS RESTING VO2 = mean V0 2 as measured during the resting period p r i o r to RS DEVRIES (1986) (pq. 221) 1) TOTAL GROSS 0 2 COST = 02EXERCISE + O^ECOVERY 2) TOTAL NET 02COST = 02EXERCISE + 02RECOVERY -[V02 for equal rest period] 3) NET 0 COST PER MIN. EXERCISE = TOTAL NET 0 COST EXERCISE TIME 4) NET 0~INTAKE EXERCISE = 0 EXERCISE - 0 EQUIVALENT FOR REST PERIOD 5) NET 0 ?INTAKE EXERCISE(PER MIN.) = NET 0 INTAKE EXERCISE TIME 6) "0„DEBT" INCURRED PER MIN. = NET ONCOST PER MIN. OF EXERCISE - NET 0»INTAKE EXERCISE PER MIN. 7) TOTAL "OpDEBT" INCURRED = EXERCISE TIME x O-DEBT PER ^ MIN. EXCESS POST-EXERCISE V0 2 = Recovery VO„ minus VO„ for equal period of rest -106-APPENDIX C TABLE II CALCULATIONS EXERCISE VO- X = 117.45/6 = 19.56L s = m x - x i = T] > n-l ] Ulx-x)  T 5 . 4 0 4 5 5 = +1.13L RECOVERY VO- X" = 29.49 = 4.92L 6 s = 1.2403 = ±0.498L vl 5 TOTAL VO- X = 146.94 = 24.48L 6 s = 10.2417 = +1.43L RESTING VO- X = 0.42L s = T O . O r / a = +0.06L -107-APPENDIX D MATCHED PAIRS T-TESTS: (df = 5, 0.01) FORMULA USED D =sum of D/n S D=sq.root {D2 - (sum of D) 2/n}/n(n-1) S^Sp/sq.root of n t= D/Sg EXCESS C0 2 0.56 0.23 17.65 (p<.01) V02MAX. 0.05 0.021 2.59 (p>.01) MAX.V 1.7 0.695 10.86 (p<.01) MAX.HR 1. 66 -0.68 0.25 (p>.01) 

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