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Locus of control and adherence to exercise programs McCready, Marina Loi 1984

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LOCUS OF CONTROL AND ADHERENCE TO EXERCISE PROGRAMS by MARINA LOI MCCREADY B.A., U n i v e r s i t y Of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976 B.P.E., U n i v e r s i t y Of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1979  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE Physical  We accept t h i s  STUDIES  Education  t h e s i s as conforming  to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April  ©  Marina  1984  L o i McCready, 1984  In  presenting  this  thesis  in  partial  fulfilment  of  requirements for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of Columbia,  I  available  for  permission  agree  for  purposes may or  her  that  the  Library  shall  reference  and  study.  I  extensive  be granted by  representatives.  allowed without my  Department of  written  Physical  Date:  5 April  1984  the Head of my is  for  it  freely  agree  Department or  understood  financial  permission.  Education  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  further  British  that  copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y  It  p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s  make  the  Columbia  gain  that  by  his  copying or  shall  not  be  ii  Abstract Many  e x e r c i s e adherence s t u d i e s have attempted  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d with dropout these have  been  investigation  grounded  was  in  to i d e n t i f y  behavior, however few of  theory.  The  purpose  of  to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x e r c i s e  program adherence and the s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t , of  control.  be  As a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l concept,  described  as  a person's  powerful of  (internal  g e n e r a l i z e d expectancy  other people  control);  Social developed, value  learning  theory,  (chance out  emphasizes the importance  along  with  to p e r c e i v e  own  under  behavior  or  control  of  the  (powerful others c o n t r o l ) ; or  f o r c e s beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l  locus  locus  l o c u s of c o n t r o l may  reinforcements as being: dependent upon t h e i r characteristics  this  the  result  control).  of  which  l o c u s of c o n t r o l  of measuring  reinforcement  of c o n t r o l when p r e d i c t i n g  behavior.  C o n s i s t e n t with t h i s concept, e x e r c i s e adherence was expected to be g r e a t e s t among those who h i g h l y value one reinforcements  (e.g.,  locus of c o n t r o l will  result  expected  ( i . e . , a high expectancy  i n the r e i n f o r c e m e n t ) .  value  others or chance). situational  factors  more  exercise  r e l e a s e of t e n s i o n ) and have an i n t e r n a l  to.be n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o  reinforcement  or  and  external  A number  of  that  their  behavior  In c o n t r a s t , adherence was the locus  combined  effects  of c o n t r o l  demographic,  of  (powerful  behavioral,  and  were a l s o examined i n r e l a t i o n to e x e r c i s e  adherence. The  s u b j e c t s were 61 females  (48 r e g i s t e r e d and 13 drop-in)  aged 15-57, (M=28) who had v o l u n t a r i l y e l e c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n  8-12  week a e r o b i c  employed  fitness  in this  s t u d y were: t h e  Chance S c a l e s ;  the  developed  the  by  programs.  Exercise  Findings  Objectives  investigator;  with values  held  to  multiple  regression  best  subjects  exercise  at  attitude  toward  continuing  social  •participating  significant  order  support,  the  of  Adherence  data  sheets. c o n t r o l measures are  not  that  two  adherence.  In  p r o g r a m , had in  combined  very  Results  strongly  of  stepwise  attitudes  were  general,  those  a less  physical  s t r e s s and  that  there  positive  activity  for  toward  tension—tended  percent  nonleisure  enrolling  with  or  enrollments  previous  is  between e x e r c i s e  status,  exercise  Children's  to  attendance.  indicated  program  and  Scales,  a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e  reduce  v a r i a b l e s : age,  participation,  goal  to  relationship  of  of  r e l a t i o n s and  smoking, employment  desirability,  exercise  Control  inventory.  revealed  outset  instruments  Revised  adherence.  participating  also  following  number  of  percent  Findings  family  analyses  the  in  have a h i g h e r  the  program  predictors who,  locus  the  toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y  related  the  that  L o c u s of  and  from c l a s s a t t e n d a n c e suggest  primary  I n t e r n a l , Powerful Others,  A t t i t u d e s Toward P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y were d e t e r m i n e d  The  individual  no  a d h e r e n c e and  leisure exertion,  expected  these  r e s u l t s and  of  activity, support,  friend,  previous  completions,  sports  a  exercise  goals,  time  any  spouse  without or  statistically  success  habits, and  social  success  in  attainment. Implications  adherence  studies  of were  discussed.  suggestions  for  future  iv  Table of Contents  ABSTRACT  •  i i  LIST OF TABLES  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  vii  INTRODUCTION  1  REVIEW OF LITERATURE  6  Locus Of C o n t r o l  6  T h e o r e t i c a l Background  6  E x e r c i s e Adherence  8  Participation  In P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y  Behaviors Related  To E x e r c i s e Adherence  Change In Locus Of C o n t r o l Over Time A d d i t i o n a l E x e r c i s e Adherence Research  '.  10 13 17 19  Psychological Factors  20  Behavior And Demographics  23  Situational Factors  25  E x e r c i s e Adherence  Rates And Measurement  METHOD Subjects  26 28  And S e t t i n g  28  Measures  28  Procedure  29  Data A n a l y s i s  31  RESULTS Questionnaire  35 Return  35  Descriptive S t a t i s t i c s  35  MANOVA Analyses  36  V  Stepwise M u l t i p l e Regression  37  Chi Square A n a l y s i s  39  DISCUSSION  40  REFERENCES  46  APPENDIX A  65  Development  Of The E x e r c i s e O b j e c t i v e s Locus Of C o n t r o l  Scales  65  APPENDIX B  68  D e s c r i p t i o n Of Measures  68  I n t e r n a l , Powerful Others, And Chance Scales Revised  C h i l d r e n ' s A t t i t u d e Toward P h y s i c a l  Inventory M-C  71 Scale  E x e r c i s e O b j e c t i v e s Locus Of C o n t r o l S c a l e s Appendix  Activity 69  1(10) Scale  Causal Dimension  68  71 72  C  73  Questionnaires  73  Initial  74  Informed Consent  Background  Questions  75  CATPA I n s t r u c t i o n s  76  E x e r c i s e Goals And Goal Attainment  77  EOLOC S c a l e s  . . .78  Followup Informed Consent  79  Followup Questions  80  vi  List  of Tables  I.  D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s of Attendance Data  II.  Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s of Dependent V a r i a b l e s  56  58  I I I . Stepwise M u l t i p l e Regression R e s u l t s ( P r e d i c t o r s : IPC and CATPA) IV.  Stepwise M u l t i p l e Regression R e s u l t s ( P r e d i c t o r s : IPC, CATPA, and I n t e r a c t i v e  V.  C o r r e l a t i o n s of Dependent and Other S e l e c t e d  VI.  59  Variables)....60  Variables  Factors  61  Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n s of S e l e c t e d Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data  62  vi i  Acknowledgements I wish to express members  of my  her outstanding thesis  and  freely  most  committee: Dr. support  and  sincere  appreciation  l e a d e r s h i p in a l l  so  much  Michael  statistical  Passer  the for this  of h i s time to t h i s study;  and many h e l p f u l comments as w e l l as t h e i r  for t h e i r  Dr. and Dr. time  f l e x i b i l i t y when time  at a premium. I  would  s u b j e c t s who fitness  like  to acknowledge the c o n t r i b u t i o n made by  p a r t i c i p a t e d in t h i s study  organization  from  T h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n was  and  whence  the  time  and  energy  questionnaires  and  for  thankyou  to my  that I do.  goes  and  the  staff  of  the the  the s u b j e c t s were d e r i v e d .  i s greatly appreciated.  I would a l s o l i k e to thank my for  of  in the face of d e a d l i n e s ;  Sharon w h i t t a k e r - B l e u l e r and Dr.  was  aspects  f o r h i s guidance i n a l l matters  devoting  to  Bonita Long, the c h a i r p e r s o n ,  f o r her a v a i l a b i l i t y  Robert Schutz, for  my  her  she  dearest devoted  continuous  f r i e n d Penelope  Long  to h e l p i n g me  prepare  support.  special  mother for her p a t i e n c e and  A  support  in a l l  1  Introduction Concern programs  over  has  high  given  rise  w h i c h have a t t e m p t e d dropout have  behavior.  been  theory.  use  in  basic  complete  could  facilitate examine the  the  serve  study  as  of  The  being  either or  (external  control).  has  described that  powerful forces In  other  beyond order  to  behavior,  m e a s u r e d e i t h e r as  in  turn  conceived  the  (Rotter,  and  1966)  as  reinforcements  as  behavior  (internal  beyond  one's  work of  Levenson  upon t h e i r  control);  control  own  c o n t r o l may  dependent  to to  program adherence  be  more  control  others  own  under  the  c o n t r o l ) ; or  (1974,  accurately  concept, wherein people  perceive  behavior  or  control  of  the  result  (chance c o n t r o l ) .  behavior,  a generalized  situation specific  a more  i n v e s t i g a t i o n was  to p e r c e i v e  of  by  psychological  which  forces  locus  predict  than  the  upon  (powerful  their  speculation  provide  one's  (internal people  with  investigations  social  this  of  control.  More r e c e n t l y ,  reinforcements are:  s t u d i e s , many  a d h e r e n c e may  upon  a multidimensional  characteristics  of  expectancy  that  exercise  f o r more e f f e c t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n s  originally  contingent  indicated as  of  locus  dependent  control),  1981)  relevant  p u r p o s e of  theoretical construct, c o n t r o l was  adult  these  philosophical  exercise  basis  a person's generalized  a  by  most of  understanding the  in  characteristics associated  r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x e r c i s e  L o c u s of  of  identify  conceptually  adherence.  the  attrition  t o numerous a d h e r e n c e  more  of  theories and  to  of  Unfortunately,  guided  The  rates  expectancy.  locus  reinforcement The  of  c o n t r o l may  expectancy,  relative  or  importance  be as of  2  these  expectancies i s dependent upon the amount of experience a  person has are  in a particular  more important  situation.  Generalized  expectancies  i n s i t u a t i o n s that are n o v e l , while  expectancies are more important  in f a m i l i a r s i t u a t i o n s  specific (Rotter,  1975) . The  locus  of  l e a r n i n g theory  control  construct  (Rotter, 1954;  will  is  a  function  out of  R o t t e r , Chance, & Phares,  T h i s theory p o s t u l a t e s that the occur  developed  potential  for  of both the expectancy  a  1975).  adherence value one  is  Consistent  expected  or more  to  with be  exercise  this  1972).  behavior  that the  lead to a reinforcement and the value of that  (Rotter,  to  behavior  reinforcement  concept,  exercise  g r e a t e s t among those who  reinforcements  social  (e.g.,  highly  release  of  t e n s i o n or f i t n e s s ) and have an i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l  (i.e.,  a  i n the  high  expectancy  that  their  behavior  will  result  reinforcements). Initial has  been  support  obtained  Gettman, 1980) Scale  f o r the e f f i c a c y of t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l in  an  e x e r c i s e adherence study  which used the  Health  (Wallston, W a l l s t o n , Kaplan,  measure  of  health  and  Locus  of  HLC  s o l e l y on HLC  scores were  fitness  value  combined  (Kenyon, 1968a).  scores,  it  i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l and scores  were  significantly  and  Results dropouts  However, when median s p l i t s  with  median  was  (HLC)  & Maides, 1976), along with a  f i t n e s s value  scores.  (Dishman &  Control  showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between adherers based  model  found  high  splits that  health  more l i k e l y  of  health  subjects and  of the  fitness  and  with an value  to adhere than s u b j e c t s  3  with an e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l and value  low  health  and  fitness  scores. Use  of  a  health  specific  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned study was health  based  i s the primary reinforcement  assumption may  important etc.).  than  health  As a r e s u l t ,  relationship of  (e.g.,  or  achieve  control which  a  Although  perceive  important  other  even  more  and  takes with  a  stronger  adherence using a into  account  exercise.  generalized  locus  Such  which case the numerous reinforcements of  exercise  in  which case the  focus of the  measures  in  such measures.  specific  been made of g e n e r a l i z e d  studies  of  exercise  locus  of  program adherence, usefulness  (Moore, 1980), and  (Bonds, 1980;  evidence  exists  adherence to women's to  participation  However,  one  in  Sontroem & Walker, 1973). regarding  the  use  locus of c o n t r o l measures i n connection  adherence.  exercise  S i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s have been  i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e sports  Little  of  inventory.  found between i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l and  physical a c t i v i t y  locus  reinforcements of  r e s u l t s of r e l a t e d s t u d i e s demonstrate the p o t e n t i a l of  an  control  Although no mention has control  the  of  measure,  would be the  this  that  would not matter; or a s p e c i f i c e x e r c i s e reinforcement control  that  looking better, f e e l i n g better,  associated  either:  assumption  of e x e r c i s e .  as  of  instrument  instrument c o u l d be in  the  be p o s s i b l e to  locus  reinforcements  measure,  just  i t may  between  control  multiple  on  be t r u e , some i n d i v i d u a l s may  e x e r c i s e reinforcements are  locus  locus of c o n t r o l s c a l e i n the  such inventory,  of  exercise  with  exercise  the E x e r c i s e Locus of  4  C o n t r o l Scale  (EXLOC), was  developed  (Noland, 1981)  and  examine the e x e r c i s e behavior of women (N=215) i n two (25-45 y r s , 46-65 y r s ) . a  significant  positive  e x e r c i s e behavior, and behavior title  The  and  relationship  a negative  the Chance and  study  suggest  examining locus of closer  control  rather  reinforcements. the  basic  assumption  expectancy v a r i a b l e . develop  and  inventory  and  an  test  the  While  the  findings  of  adherence  for  study,  instrument r e v e a l s that the s c a l e s of what  controls  their  that locus of c o n t r o l i s a Consequently, i t was  deemed  are  exercise  of what c o n t r o l s  words, the EXLOC does not  and  exercise  be a p p r o p r i a t e  exercise  than t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s In other  groups  internality  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  the EXLOC may  in  aimed at people's p e r c e p t i o n s behavior,  between  Powerful Others s c a l e s .  that  i n s p e c t i o n of the  age  to  f i n d i n g s for the o l d e r group showed  of t h i s e x e r c i s e s p e c i f i c  Noland's  used  their  conform  to  reinforcement necessary  a more t h e o r e t i c a l l y sound e x e r c i s e  to  specific  inventory. The  main  relationships  objective between  combined e f f e c t s of values locus  of  Powerful  specific  exercise  (Exercise Objectives by  the  this  exercise  study  was  program  held  toward  a  generalized  control--using  Internal,  developed  of  Others,  &  Chance  reinforcement Locus of C o n t r o l author).  I t was  to  adherence  physical measure  [IPC]  locus  examine  of  and  the  activity  and  (Levenson's  Scales), control  and  and  values  a  measure  [EOLOC] S c a l e s , which  was  hypothesized that adherence  would be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the combined e f f e c t s of locus control  the  of  h e l d toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , when locus of  5  control  was measured by t h e I n t e r n a l  inventories. be  In a d d i t i o n ,  negatively  related  i t was e x p e c t e d  to  the  and v a l u e s h e l d  control  was measured by t h e P o w e r f u l  Supplementary psychometric developed which studies  objectives  properties  been  (e.g.,  behavior).  The  physical  effects  activity,  Others  and  potential  and a s s e s s m e n t  found social  of the study  would  of l o c u s of  when l o c u s  of  and Chance s c a l e s o f  to  be  support,  exercise  related goal  behavior  of  t o t h e i r q u i t t i n g or completion  dropout's  attributions  of t h e i r  included: efficacy  t e s t i n g the o f t h e newly  of a v a r i e t y  subsequent  examined.  adherence  inventories.  EOLOC S c a l e s ;  have  toward  o f t h e IPC and EOLOC that  combined  control  t h e IPC and EOLOC  scales  reasons  of  to adherence attainment, dropouts of the  factors i n other previous  and a d h e r e r s program,  and  f o r q u i t t i n g were  also  6  Review of L i t e r a t u r e Locus of C o n t r o l Theoretical  Background  Locus of c o n t r o l i s an social  learning  1972);  a  theory  (Rotter,  personality  stimulus-response psychology. behavior  expectancy  and  derived  1966;  that  from  Rotter et a l . ,  integrates  cognitive  theories  the  of s o c i a l  In s o c i a l l e a r n i n g theory, "the general formula f o r  i s that the p o t e n t i a l  f o r a behavior to  specific psychological situation that  1954,  theory  theories  variable  behavior  will  occur  i n any  i s a f u n c t i o n of the expectancy  lead to a p a r t i c u l a r  reinforcement  s i t u a t i o n and the value of that reinforcement"  i n that  ( R o t t e r , 1975, p.  57) . Underlying several of  the  important  social  that that  model  reinforcement  that a c e r t a i n event  same reinforcement  expectancy  more  increase result in  own  a  behavior  own  situations  experiences. as  reinforcement it  expectancies  similar,  will  Third,  result,  his  generalize  or  when  a  her  somewhat  individual's  person  expectancies  across  act  in  conjunction  with  based  perceives about  situations.  i s p o s t u l a t e d that people have s i t u a t i o n which  will  that i s seen as  d i f f e r e n t b e l i e f s about c o n t r o l of reinforcements  on t h e i r  Finally,  to  Second, a reinforcement  than a reinforcement As  are  Most b a s i c  or behavior w i l l  i n the f u t u r e .  being r e l a t e d to e x t e r n a l f o r c e s . develop  behavior  serves  i s p e r c e i v e d as being r e l a t e d to one's  increase  of  assumptions ( R o t t e r , 1966, 1975).  these i s the idea that a  one's expectancy  learning  specific  generalized  7  e x p e c t a n c i e s to determine behavior. The  locus  generalized believe  of  control  expectancy regarding  that  their  or  upon  behavior  construct  forces  prompted  Internal-External  (I~E)  research  the  (IPC) the  been  The  (Levenson, 1974)  external  orientation  differ  has  powerful others  and  chance.  that  believe their  world i s u n p r e d i c t a b l e  This  which  (1966)  has  highly and  generalized  from the I-E  been s p l i t  This s p l i t  was  Chance  s c a l e in  i n t o two based  that  dimensions,  on  the  idea  reinforcements to be c o n t r o l l e d by  differently and  the  instrument  I n t e r n a l , Powerful Others, and  Scales  powerful people behave  them.  own  ( S t r i c k l a n d , 1977).  multidimensional  those who  to  scale,  More r e c e n t l y , a developed.  people  locus of c o n t r o l c o n s t r u c t  development of subsequent s c a l e s  has  which  development of R o t t e r ' s  control  on  to  seen as a  are dependent on t h e i r  external the  originally  degree  reinforcements  conceptualization  influenced  the  was  than  unordered.  those  In the  believing  former case,  the there  i s at l e a s t p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n t r o l (Levenson, 1981). Locus  of  expectancy. 1976)  and  c o n t r o l can  The  Health  a l s o be  Locus of C o n t r o l  the M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l  (Wallston,  Wallston,  &  generalized behaviors  to h e a l t h ,  expectancy and  health  Health  deVellis,  developed to measure b e l i e f s While s p e c i f i c  seen as a s i t u a t i o n s p e c i f i c Scale  Locus 1978),  (Wallston  et a l . ,  Control  Scales  of for  example,  in c o n t r o l of h e a l t h  these  scales  measures, related  are  cutting  settings.  reinforcement.  still across A  were  relatively a v a r i e t y of  number  s p e c i f i c expectancy measures have a l s o been developed.  of  more  Examples  8  of  these  1978) which  include  and  purport  The  predictability  specific  in  generalized  importance  and  specific  depending  A  on  generalized  exercise  expectancy  the  level  measure  where  predictability  is  1975).  of e x e r c i s e behavior improving  Since may  prime  be more b e n e f i c i a l  the  important need  for  (Phares,  in the  clinical  exists  level.  importance,  increased p r e d i c t a b i l i t y  provide  adherence,  of  of  allows  a wide range of s i t u a t i o n s , but at a low  measures of expectancy may  Rotter,  specific  of  required.  in  In s i t u a t i o n s  1981),  (Noland,  respectively.  varies  prediction  Scale  to measure b e l i e f s in weight c o n t r o l and  usefulness  measures  for  Weight Locus of C o n t r o l Scale ( S a l t z e r ,  the E x e r c i s e Locus of C o n t r o l  reinforcements  1976;  the  area  advantages an  exercise  locus of c o n t r o l measure.  As mentioned expectancies according  previously,  combined with  to  prediction  social  of  a  measures  of  reinforcement  learning  behavior.  r e l a t i o n to e x e r c i s e adherence and  of  control  value measures  theory, This  locus  contribute  notion has exercise  should, to  the  been examined i n  participation.  E x e r c i s e Adherence The  studies  adherence  using  unsuccessful. theoretical, Ikes and study  which a  have  locus  attempted  However, these s t u d i e s have methodological  involving  66  adult  including health  predict  exercise  of c o n t r o l measure have been l a r g e l y  or  20-week  males. locus  had  statistical  Morgan (1980) conducted a  variables,  to  A of  problems nature.  exercise  of  a  Dishman, adherence  number of p s y c h o l o g i c a l control  were  examined,  9  however,  only  self-motivation  r e l a t e d to adherence.  factors.  population  found  t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y  The f a i l u r e of h e a l t h locus of c o n t r o l to  d i s c r i m i n a t e between adherers several  was  First,  and dropouts may have been due  the  s u b j e c t s were not a homogeneous  i n terms of h e a l t h ; 45 were a p p a r e n t l y  21 were s u f f e r i n g from coronary  heart d i s e a s e .  h e a l t h locus of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n of these been  different.  control  Second,  measure  activity  as  a  reinforcement  social  experience  only be expected  or c a t h a r s i s .  Some, was  reanalyzed  this  health s p e c i f i c views  locus of physical  i n other realms,  such  when h e a l t h i s the T h i r d , a measure of  showed  f o r the  by  when  u s i n g t h i s concept  validity Dishman  combining  of and  these  l a t t e r two  Gettman  median s p l i t s fitness  (Rotter,  (1980)  f o r the HLC  value  scores.  that s u b j e c t s with an e x t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l  low h e a l t h and f i t n e s s value 52.4%  when  a step which i s p o s t u l a t e d as e s s e n t i a l  supplied data  as  As a r e s u l t , the HLC Scale can  Scale with median s p l i t s of h e a l t h and  adhere,  two groups may have  to p r e d i c t e x e r c i s e behavior  support  the  whereas some may f e e l that the  to p r e d i c t behavior  criticisms  and  while  value was not i n c l u d e d with locus of c o n t r o l  when attempting  Results  healthy,  As a r e s u l t  everyone  of e x e r c i s e l i e s  data were analyzed;  1975).  a  value a s s o c i a t e d with the a c t i v i t y .  reinforcement the  of  that  h e a l t h behavior,  primary  primary  use  presupposes  to  (11  out  scores  of 21), than  were  less  likely  to  s u b j e c t s with an i n t e r n a l  locus of c o n t r o l and high h e a l t h value s c o r e s , 81.8% (18 out of 22). O'Connell and P r i c e (1982) used the M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l  Health  10  Locus  of  Control  Scales  i n an attempt to i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n c e s  between p a r t i c i p a n t s , dropouts, and corporate one-way  f i t n e s s program. analysis  Internal Scale, <.05  level.  Although, i t was  of v a r i a n c e  in f a c t  nonparticipants  was  reported  significant  s i g n i f i c a n c e was  not obtained  and  though there were 102 Two  results.  In  a  versus  discovery.  only  to  between  the IPC  significant  the  college  play  Scales  their  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher  dropped out.  women  in other  between equivocal  athletes  in  team  sport through the c o m p e t i t i v e  who  season  on the I n t e r n a l s c a l e than those Kampper (1980) found  who no  r e l a t i o n s h i p between scores on B i a l e r ' s (1961) locus  However, i n a  that they had and  had  running  follow-up  volunteered  and  adherence  among grade seven  interview  many  and  dropouts  i n i t i a l l y as a r e s u l t of peer  subsequently q u i t because of t h e i r  a t h l e t i c events or school  Participation The  sex—even  found that a t h l e t e s  In c o n t r a s t , Sonstroem and  eight boys.  pressure  of  d i f f e r e n c e s in locus of  i t was  f l a g - f o o t b a l l or c r o s s - c o u n t r y  reported  p_ use  measure  relationship  of c o n t r o l s c a l e (a s c a l e designed f o r c h i l d r e n ) to  the  19 males. the  assessing  the  i n d i v i d u a l s p o r t s , Moore (1980) made a c o r o l l a r y  Using  continued  a  adherence to s p o r t s have achieved  study  control orientation  scored  females and  at  of an a n a l y s i s by  s t u d i e s which have assessed  locus of c o n t r o l and  sports  absence  the  i n c l u d e : the  of a h e a l t h s p e c i f i c expectancy measure, lack of value,  that  for scores on  P o s s i b l e reasons for t h i s r e s u l t  reinforcement  i n a 10-week  involvement  activities.  in P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  locus  of  control  and  reported  11  physical  a c t i v i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been s t u d i e d by a number of  investigators.  Results  have  generally  shown  a  positive  r e l a t i o n s h i p between these two f a c t o r s . In  the Sonstroem  and  s c a l e and Kenyon's (1968b) (ATPA)  inventory  Walker  Attitude  (1973) study, R o t t e r ' s I-E Toward  Physical  Activity  were examined i n r e l a t i o n t o c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y  f i t n e s s and reported  voluntary  exercise.  The  sample  of  102  males was d i v i d e d i n t o four groups by combining median s p l i t s of the  I-E  scores  found that toward  with median s p l i t s of the ATPA s c o r e s .  internal  physical  activity  physical exercise scores  subjects  and  with  reported  obtained  more  favorable  attitudes  greater amounts of v o l u n t a r y  significantly  better . f i t n e s s  than the r e s t of the sample.  Bonds  (1980)  examined  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  s c a l e and s e v e r a l aspects of behavior i n a sample and  I t was  31 men, aged 65-86.  be p o s i t i v e l y  related  between the I-E of  69  women  I n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l was found t o to  the number  of  reported  hours  of  r e c r e a t i o n a l e x e r c i s e engaged i n per week. Noland  (1981)  participation  i n r e g u l a r , vigorous  including: exercise activity;  studied  the  relationship  e x e r c i s e and s e v e r a l f a c t o r s ,  locus of c o n t r o l ; a t t i t u d e s toward  values  held  physical fitness;  and  between  physical  toward h e a l t h , p h y s i c a l appearance, and perceived  barriers  to  exercise.  The  sample which comprised 215 women from a number of women's c l u b s , was  divided  into  2  age groups.  group, f i n d i n g s revealed  In the 46 t o 65 year o l d age  p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  e x e r c i s e behavior and i n t e r n a l i t y on the EXLOC S c a l e s ,  reported attitude  12  toward  p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s v a l u e .  Negative  r e l a t i o n s h i p s were d i s c o v e r e d between e x e r c i s e behavior Chance  and  Powerful  Others s c a l e s of the EXLOC.  45-year age group, e x e r c i s e behavior related  In the 25 t o  t o be  positively  t o a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , h e a l t h value, and  physical f i t n e s s value.  A negative  between e x e r c i s e behavior In  a  Isenberg health  recent (1983)  locus  perceived  of  (using  of  the I n t e r n a l  exercise,  significant  physical  amount  of  reported  between  Health Locus of C o n t r o l S c a l e s ) and  positive  activity  importance of p h y s i c a l between  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  control  a  was  24-65), L a f f r e y and  during  activity.  internal  Scale health  reported  in leisure-time physical a c t i v i t y .  revealed  amount  of 70 women (aged  examined  importance  participation  relationship  and p e r c e i v e d b a r r i e r s t o e x e r c i s e .  study  of  Multidimensional  study  was found  and the  However,  value,  amount  of  R e s u l t s of the  relationship leisure  of the  and  between perceived  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  l e i s u r e - t i m e p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and I n t e r n a l  Health Locus of C o n t r o l or h e a l t h value were not s i g n i f i c a n t  at  the p_<.05 l e v e l .  When the combined e f f e c t s of i n t e r n a l l o c u s of  control,  value,  health  a c t i v i t y were examined procedure,  and using  perceived a  importance of p h y s i c a l  stepwise  p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of the v a r i a n c e  multiple  regression  i n amount of p h y s i c a l  a c t i v i t y during l e i s u r e was e x p l a i n e d by p e r c e i v e d importance of exercise.  The  failure  of  h e a l t h locus of c o n t r o l and h e a l t h  value t o p r e d i c t e x e r c i s e p a r t i c i p a t i o n attributable  to  in this  case,  may  be  the use of h e a l t h - s p e c i f i c measures.  That i s ,  the women i n the sample may not have p e r c e i v e d l e i s u r e  exercise  13  as being  p r i m a r i l y a h e a l t h promoting m o d a l i t y .  Several  researchers  generalized  locus  competitive  sports.  significant  difference  orientations  Gilliland,  1969;  McKelvie  1974; &  control Results  between  1973;  reported  of  have examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  in  and  generalized  athletes  and  Kildea,  1980;  Huband,  in  1980).  locus  nonathletes Lynn, An  Clarke  control  (Di & Raymond,  Phelan,  exceptional  &  Kiker,  finding  was  (1979) in a study of  20  these  swimmers were more i n t e r n a l , as measured by the C h i l d r e n ' s  Locus  peers.  S c a l e , than p u b l i s h e d  Possible  i n c l u d e : the use age  range  of  adolescents,  explanations  In  Results  norms for  for  their  this contrasting  the and  sample—comprising  the use  both  of a c h i l d r e n ' s s c a l e .  used  high  school  and  large  The  and  previously  college  samples  with g e n e r a l i z e d a d u l t locus of c o n t r o l measures. general,  results  self-reported  among high  to date i n d i c a t e that among a d u l t s a  participation  school and  between  locus  research  i s required  of  c o l l e g e students there  control in order  and  control  relationship Further  to gain a b e t t e r understanding  Behaviors Related  to E x e r c i s e  Adherence  to  a  gain  i s no  sports p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  findings.  order  of  i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y ; whereas  these seemingly c o n t r a d i c t o r y  In  discovery  children  p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between i n t e r n a l locus and  nonathletic  of norms rather than a c o n t r o l group, the  mentioned s t u d i e s a l l together  aged 7 to 17.  of  no  showed that  of C o n t r o l  swimmers,  participation  have c o n s i s t e n t l y demonstrated  by M o r r i s , Vaccaro, and  competitive  actual  broader  understanding  of  of  the  14  r e l a t i o n s h i p between locus is useful locus  of c o n t r o l and e x e r c i s e  to examine the r e s u l t s  of  control  of  studies  adherence, i t  which  Medical Compliance.  taking,  to  desired  a  keeping).  positive  behaviors,  compliance  to  Wallston,  be  would  Although  and  more  investigators to  relationship  make  sense  beliefs  have  studies  medical  (Wallston  compliance  i f the e x t e r n a l  construct  and being the  s c a l e which i n c l u d e s  only  of c o n t r o l  have  &  used  Thus, i t seems that  between medical compliance and locus  studies  shown  between  unidimensional H e a l t h Locus of C o n t r o l powerful o t h e r s item.  few  have  external  This  a  between i n t e r n a l i t y and  measured was powerful o t h e r s , but most  one  of c o n t r o l b e l i e f s  relationship  related  1981).  externality  locus  have focused  medical regimens (e.g., d i e t c o n t r o l , medication  appointment  demonstrated  programs.  A number of i n v e s t i g a t o r s  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between h e a l t h  compliance  used  measures to assess such r e l a t e d behaviors as  compliance to medical regimens or weight reduction  on  have  the r e l a t i o n s h i p requires  further  study. Weight Reduction. Wallston  et  programs.  weight r e d u c t i o n external The between  subjects  Ross  (1975)  and success i n d i f f e r e n t types of This  indicates  that  and locus  weight  s e l f - c o n t r o l and group  programs may be more e f f e c t i v e f o r i n t e r n a l and respectively.  r e s u l t s of three s t u d i e s locus  and  a l . , 1976) have found a r e l a t i o n s h i p between  of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n reduction  Studies by Balch  have  shown  no  of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n and s u c c e s s f u l  (Monahan, 1972; Tobias &  MacDonald,  1977;  relationship weight  Wallston,  loss  et a l . ,  15  1976).  One  possible explanation  of s p e c i f i c i t y of studies  used  f o r these  the expectancy  results  i s the lack  used.  A l l three  measures  R o t t e r ' s g e n e r a l i z e d I-E s c a l e , while Wallston et  a l . a l s o used the HLC  scale.  weakened  the f a c t that Tobias and MacDonald a l s o  somewhat  by  u t i l i z e d a weight s p e c i f i c however,  Saltzer  This  locus  of  specificity  control  Saltzer Locus  of  (1982)  Control  administered  to  appearance  Subjects  were  value  a medical  categorized  as  and those  (noncompleters).  Median  who dropped out i n l e s s splits  were  used  those  scales  and to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between those  values on h e a l t h  and p h y s i c a l  appearance.  than  6  to divide  s u b j e c t s i n t o i n t e r n a l s and e x t e r n a l s on the v a r i o u s  low  Health  a t l e a s t 6 w e e k s — a t t e n d i n g r e g u l a r l y for 39 days  or more (completers),  control  scale  reduction.  115 female s u b j e c t s v o l u n t a r i l y beginning  remained  weeks  specific  (MHLC) S c a l e s and the Weight Locus of C o n t r o l  weight r e d u c t i o n program. who  is  Recently  the M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l  (WLOC) Scale along with a h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l survey,  scale.  (1978) developed a w e i g h t - l o s s  which has been s u c c e s s f u l a t p r e d i c t i n g weight  argument  locus  of  with high or The a n a l y s i s  r e v e a l e d that s u b j e c t s c a t e g o r i z e d as i n t e r n a l on the WLOC s c a l e were  more l i k e l y  t o be completers than were WLOC e x t e r n a l s .  r e l a t i o n s h i p was found completion.  between  the MHLC  scales  No  and program  I t was a l s o found that WLOC i n t e r n a l s who placed a  high value on h e a l t h or p h y s i c a l appearance were more s u c c e s s f u l in a c h i e v i n g t h e i r weight l o s s goals than were WLOC Furthermore,  the highest  externals.  c o r r e l a t i o n between the i n t e n t i o n to  l o s e weight and a c t u a l l y l o s i n g  weight  was  obtained  by WLOC  16  internals  who placed a high value  than h e a l t h . indication  Saltzer interpreted that  f o r some  i n f l u e n t i a l weight explain  the  loss  on p h y s i c a l appearance  rather  this  as an  people  latter  health  reinforcement.  finding  may not be the most This  idea  may  also  f a i l u r e of the h e a l t h s p e c i f i c MHLC and HLC s c a l e s  to p r e d i c t adherence or weight l o s s . Smoking Reduction. relationship In g e n e r a l ,  Numerous  studies  have  between smoking and g e n e r a l i z e d  assessed  locus of c o n t r o l .  these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have shown that nonsmokers  individuals  who  were  able  the  and  t o stop smoking were more i n t e r n a l  than smokers ( S t r i c k l a n d , 1978). Several to  s t u d i e s have used h e a l t h locus of c o n t r o l  p r e d i c t success i n reducing  smoking c e s s a t i o n programs. HLC  smoking i n b e h a v i o r a l l y - o r i e n t e d  Kaplan and Cowles (1978) found that  i n t e r n a l s with high h e a l t h values  other  subjects  measures  i n reducing  were more s u c c e s s f u l  smoking  than  over a 15-week treatment  p e r i o d and i n maintaining  t h i s behavior change over a 3  month  S i m i l a r l y , Wildman, Rosenbaum, Framer,  and  followup  period.  Johnson ( c i t e d i n Wallston  i n t e r n a l s smoked s i g n i f i c a n t l y end  of  period. Wallston  a  7-week  program  In a study using &  Wallston,  & Wallston,  the MHLC  externals  a t the  throughout a 21-month  followup  scales,  Preventive studies  have  Shipley  1981) found smoking abstinence  a f t e r treatment to be r e l a t e d t o high s c a l e and low scores  1981) showed that HLC  l e s s than HLC  and  t o 5.5  scores  on  (cited  in  s i x months  the  Internal  on the Chance s c a l e .  Health  Behaviors.  demonstrated  The  positive  results  of a number of  relationships  between  17  generalized  internal  locus  of  control  behaviors such as going to the d e n t i s t immunization, (Strickland,  wearing  seat b e l t s ,  1977, 1978).  and p r e v e n t i v e  for check ups,  obtaining  and p r a c t i c i n g b i r t h  In c o n t r a s t ,  several  health  control  studies  using  h e a l t h locus of c o n t r o l measures have f a i l e d to s u b s t a n t i a t e the expected r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e r n a l i t y or  preventive  behaviors  (Wallston  &  and h e a l t h maintenance Wallston,  r e s u l t s of some of these s t u d i e s may have been if  the  their  investigators  1981).  more  The  predictive  had i n c l u d e d measures of h e a l t h value  in  analyses.  Change in Locus of C o n t r o l O r i e n t a t i o n Over Time A number of s t u d i e s control  orientation  have  as a r e s u l t  an important f a c t o r to take test-retest  examined  reliability  scores obtained p r i o r  a  in  locus  of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y .  into  of  changes  account  when  This  examining  of is the  l o c u s of c o n t r o l m e a s u r e — u s i n g  to and f o l l o w i n g  a  program  of  physical  act i v i t y . Changes  in  locus  of  control  orientation  d i r e c t i o n have been reported in two 12-week (1977)  students  (50 male and 50 female) were s i g n i f i c a n t l y following  conditioning c l a s s .  that  the  participation  group  scores of  in  a  (n=50).  intervention  study  with  post-infarct  male s u b j e c t s  different In  a  very  a  studies.  100 u n i v e r s i t y lower  12-week  Among the male p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  score were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y control  I-E  exercise  Jeffers  internal)  found  in an i n t e r n a l  (more  physical  changes in  from the changes in  rather small  complex sample  I-E the  behavioral  comprising  6  (3 Type A p e r s o n a l i t i e s and 3 Type B  18  personalities), scores  of  i t was found that the Health  the  Type  B's  became  f o l l o w i n g a 12-week c a r d i a c  Locus  significantly  rehabilitation  of  Control  more i n t e r n a l  program  (Wellwood,  Kennedy, & S h a r r a t t , 1982). Several control  studies  orientation  participation. control  have  following a control,  following  Howley  scores  as  a  period  of  exercise  (1982) found no change i n h e a l t h locus of  among  3-week  f a i l e d t o show a change i n locus of  31  disabled  training  measured  and  program.  by  the  able-bodied  subjects  Generalized  Adult  locus  of  Nowicki-Strickland  I n t e r n a l - E x t e r n a l C o n t r o l S c a l e , remained unchanged by  exercise  in  heart  patients  1980), and i n a 10-week study of 54 u n f i t  students  both  a  (Cunningham, in  6-week  jogging  and  study  of  volleyball  45  coronary  classes  S i m i l a r l y , the r e s u l t s of a study by support  the  hypothesis  would experience  (Blackinton,  Wieman  that s u b j e c t s  a change i n locus of  (1980)  1981).  failed  to  (N=63) i n a jogging c l a s s control  in  an  internal  di rect ion. The  findings  of  these  s t u d i e s have been i n c o n s i s t e n t , a  r e s u l t which may be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the use of g e n e r a l i z e d of c o n t r o l measures, as w e l l as d i v e r s e  time  and  i s necessary before any  sample  conclusions orientation research expectancy  sizes.  Further  research  can be drawn on whether changes  might  as  benefit  a  result  from  or  periods,  locus  not  locus  of  samples  control  of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y .  using  an  exercise  measure, which would t h e o r e t i c a l l y  more s e n s i t i v e to change i n an e x e r c i s e  (Rotter,  setting  than  Such  specific 1975) be would  a  19  generalized The  instrument.  relationship  chronological  age  In a study using 1981)  found  has  d i d not  age.  findings  (1975) i n a study of  100  (aged 21-79).  The  fifties while  had the  for  Lao  efficacy  were  using  college  increased  students  IPC  the c o l l e g e  group (70-79).  were  least  of  40 year age  groups scored lower on  people who  were e i t h e r older  that  30  the  predictable  and  and  40  olds  s t a b l e than the  Since there appears to be locus  Additional Exercise of  adherence has  the  research  the  felt  other age  Chance  others,  This  scale  that 30  than  i n d i c a t e s perhaps  their  l i v e s were more  groups d i d . and  should  with a sample of v a r y i n g  be  ages.  Adherence Research  concerned  pertinent  not  Subjects i n the  with  exercise  sought to i d e n t i f y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and  most  adults  A d u l t s in t h e i r  f a c t o r s which d i s t i n g u i s h dropouts from adherers. variables  383  students were  of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n , t h i s i s a v a r i a b l e that  Much  old  sample  some r e l a t i o n s h i p between age  taken i n t o account when d e a l i n g  the  The  l i k e l y to b e l i e v e  or younger.  year  or  Malikioski  powerful  other people were in c o n t r o l of t h e i r l i v e s . and  middle  scales.  b e l i e f in c o n t r o l  septuagenerians  from youth to  although t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was  o l d e s t age  the highest  Levenson,  (aged 17-20) and  r e s u l t s showed that  the  in  extended by Ryckman and  Levenson's  and  investigators.  (cited  decrease s i g n i f i c a n t l y in  l e s s i n t e r n a l than the a d u l t s , significant  by a number of  scale,  personal  adulthood and  consisted  been s t u d i e d  R o t t e r ' s I-E  that  These  between l o c u s of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n  A  program  situational review  of  to t h i s study i s p r o v i d e d i n  the  20  following discussion. Psychological  Factors  Attitude. a  number  and  A t t i t u d e s toward e x e r c i s e have been measured  of  adherence s t u d i e s using a v a r i e t y of  subjective questionnaires.  measures  of  In  general,  a t t i t u d e have shown l i t t l e  standardized  the  or no  in  standardized  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  adherence, while s e l f - r a t i n g s of a t t i t u d e s have  demonstrated  a  p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p with adherence. Sonstroem Attraction activity  (1978)  Scales and  developed  to  assess  Physical  one's  one's e s t i m a t i o n  the a c t i v i t y .  the  Estimation  attraction  to  physical  of a c h i e v i n g personal  success in  These s c a l e s have been u n s u c c e s s f u l  in p r e d i c t i n g  adherence among 66 adult male  exercisers  (Dishman  1980)  seven  eight  or  among  181  grade  and  and  &  Gettman,  male  athletes  a  cardiac  (Sonstroem & Kampper, 1980). In  a  study  rehabilitation  program,  dropout rate was about  the  involving  greater  program  value  of e x e r c i s e  that  adherence  639  subjects  Andrew  et  among those who  and/or  d i d not  for t h e i r h e a l t h . was  al.  significantly  from  (1981) found that  were  not  have a strong Ho  et a l .  the  enthusiastic belief  (1981)  i n the  reported  p r e d i c t e d by p o s i t i v e r a t i n g s  of elementary school p h y s i c a l education  experiences,  in a  group  of 48 males. Based  on  a  conceptual  model  characterizing  physical  a c t i v i t y as having a number of dimensions, Kenyon (1968a, 1968b, 1968c)  developed  an  inventory  to  assess  attitudes  toward  21  physical  activity  for s o c i a l one's  as:  a s o c i a l experience  i n t e r a c t i o n s ) , h e a l t h and  h e a l t h and  for a  (demanding  long  and  release  as chance  and  adherers and  less  value  tension),  an  a  catharsis  of  experience  gratification),  luck).  Among  dropouts (Dishman & Gettman, 1980;  Cox  1980).  However,  found that dropouts p l a c e d  on c a t h a r s i s and  that  (providing  higher  subdomains  value There  of ATPA may  This  in adherence. one  of  Motivation  Low  their  motivation  main  on e x e r c i s e as a game has  also  been  Jones, as  1978;  measured  1981) and  &  has  Stewart,  p r e d i c t adherence when  in  Bruce,  Oldridge,  the S e l f - M o t i v a t i o n  a  (Dishman et a l . , 1980)  Gettman, study.  important  i s commonly c i t e d by  Frederick,  1978;  proven s u c c e s s f u l  adherers  appears to be an  &  factor  dropouts  as  group and  among 66  1976;  Self-motivation  Inventory  in d i s t i n g u i s h i n g of 64  Fisher,  Wicks, Hanley, Sutton, &  S t o v e l , B a i l e y , & Cumming, 1970). by  some  reasons f o r d i s c o n t i n u i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n in  e x e r c i s e programs (Bruce, Faulkner  191  significantly  f i n d i n g w i l l be examined f u r t h e r in t h i s  Motivation.  Massie  among  combined with a measure of locus of c o n t r o l (Dishman & 1980) .  men,  does not appear to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between  of chance, than d i d high a d h e r e r s . indication  an  ascetic delayed  to  (providing  movement),  an  element  Shephard & Cox,  women, Shephard and  in  hard t r a i n i n g and  (possessing  & Shephard, 1971;  (contributing  experience  beauty  of  Kenyon's ATPA inventory exercise  aesthetic  experiencing  (providing  fitness  f i t n e s s ) , the p u r s u i t of v e r t i g o  element of r i s k or t h r i l l ) , medium  ( p r o v i d i n g a medium  (Dishman & between  Ikes,  dropouts  female i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e rowers men  in  20-week  medically  22  prescribed  exercise  f i n d i n g has  been supported by the  have and  programs  (Dishman & Gettman, 1980).  used a l t e r n a t e m o t i v a t i o n Shephard  (1971) reported  of r e g u l a r e x e r c i s e Motivation  Foss, and  Rubenfire  poor  related  (1982) in a study,  compliance in c a r d i a c  to  a  motivation, behavior,  significantly  Quiz than d i d adherers.  i n t e r n a l locus number  such  gratification  of  full  control  program,  Danielson  participants  who  Another  of and  did  out at a s i g n i f i c a n t l y to  this,  Ho  81 males was and  et a l .  studying  subjects,  been  found  to  s i t u a t i o n s , and was  deemed  of  dropouts  Wanzel  (1977)  i s an  with  delaying  redundant  to  important exercise  adherence  objectives.  from a company reported  exercise  that  those  not a t t a i n t h e i r e x e r c i s e g o a l s ,  dropped  f a s t e r rate than those who  did.  Related  (1981) found that e x e r c i s e adherence among  l i k e l i h o o d of  Consequently,  important v a r i a b l e to  adherence.  be  study.  seemingly  attainment 254  be  achievement  p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with s e t t i n g long-term  expectations.  attainment  160  behavior,  in t h i s  n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with the  unmet  has  of  ( S t r i c k l a n d , 1977), i t  survey  the  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programs to  advantage  i s the s e t t i n g and a  on  Snyder, F r a n k l i n ,  involving  goal-directed  Goal attainment.  Following  lower  index.  measure or c o n t r o l for m o t i v a t i o n  factor  Massie  of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s often a s s o c i a t e d  as  taking  which  that dropouts from a 28-week course  a s s o c i a t e d with a low motivation Since  studies  measurement instruments.  (n=52) scored  Shephard  found  r e s u l t s of two  This  it  quitting  appears  measure  goals,  or  that control  with goal in  23  Personality. establish  a  been  and  found  extroversion,  Type  B  exercise  to  1982;  been  between  Ho  Contrasting  on  that  (Blumenthal,  Williams,  et a l . , 1981;  Massie &  1980).  exercise dropouts  program  pattern,  competitiveness,  adherence. from  (N=163)  a chronic  by  not been supported by  other  (Shephard  &  Cox,  Wellwood, Kennedy, & S h a r r a t t , characterizing  the  Oldridge  to  findings Snyder  The  samples (e.g.,  healthy  Alternatively,  i t may  versus c a r d i a c  of  this  approach  controlling Behavior and Smoking  findings  may  precludes  measures,  a  and  differing  rehabilitation patients).  Regardless, the  the  be  of a v a r i e t y of  be that p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s are not  p r e d i c t o r s of adherence behavior.  1982;  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  i n c l u d i n g the use  subjective  several  discrepant, with  A  However,  et a l . ,  result  instruments,  Type  of  personality variables  standardized  a  aggression,  between e x e r c i s e adherence and factors,  et a l . cardiac  have  ambition,  the  dealing  versus  four-year  1980;  1982).  literature  several  A  sense of time urgency.  t h i s r e s u l t has studies  a  tended  characterized  and  results  introversion-  s t u d i e s have examined the e f f e c t of Type  rehabilitation  of  unable to personality  social  self-image  Shephard & Cox,  reported  personality  and  J r , & Needles,  personality  (1978)  have  adherence.  respect  anxiety,  Shephard, 1971;  studies  relationship  with  Wallace, W i l l i a m s  Several  general,  systematic  characteristics have  In  of  inconsistency measuring  or  be r e l a t e d to e x e r c i s e adherence.  It  f o r such f a c t o r s in t h i s  necessity  useful  study.  Demographics appears  to  24  has  been found to p r e d i c t f i t n e s s program  healthy  exercisers  (Massie  &  Shephard,  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s (Oldridge, 1981;  Oldridge The  has  1971) and  1979; O l d r i d g e  & Spencer, 1983; O l d r i d g e  examined  by  a  number  r e s u l t s have been i n c o n s i s t e n t . compliance  both  cardiac  &  Jones,  et a l . , 1978).  to  a  cardiac  by blue or white c o l l a r  (Oldridge,  1979'; O l d r i d g e  reported  workers.  of r e s e a r c h e r s ,  Snyder  unaffected  1983)  among  r e l a t i o n s h i p between socioeconomic s t a t u s and adherence  been  that  dropouts  et  al.  however, the (1982)  rehabilitation  program  s t a t u s ; whereas other  & Jones,  found  1981; O l d r i d g e  &  was  studies Spencer,  that more dropouts than adherers were blue  collar  A study by Friedman and H e l l e r s t e i n (1973) showed that  adherence rate was i n v e r s e l y c o r r e l a t e d with annual income among 173  upper-middle c l a s s Jewish businessmen and p r o f e s s i o n a l s . Findings  compliance  of - s e v e r a l  among  studies  cardiac  being  have  exercise  related  to  i n a c t i v e during  Oldridge  & Jones, 1981; O l d r i d g e  indicated  program  that  participants  poor is  l e i s u r e time ( O l d r i d g e , 1979;  & Spencer, 1983; Snyder et a l . ,  1982). The  relationship  registration  fees  has  between received  exercise  adherence  l i t t l e attention.  Shephard (1971) found that adherence was much g r e a t e r class an  (52.6%)  and  Massie and in a  YMCA  where p a r t i c i p a n t s p a i d a fee of $60.00, than i n  i n d i v i d u a l program (18.2%) the c o s t of which was a $1.00 copy  of a book. discrepancy  However, i t i s not was  a  result  of  known  whether  financial  this  adherence  i n c e n t i v e i n the YMCA  group, lack of support i n the i n d i v i d u a l group,  or  some  other  25  spurious  factor.  Since  previous  behavior  would  seem  to  be  p r e d i c t o r of present behavior, i t i s s u r p r i s i n g  that  involving  no  362  males,  Dishman  (1981)  found  between s e l f - r e p o r t e d p r e v i o u s involvement and  program  Snyder  adherence.  and Baber  demonstrated  This  (1979) that  more  physical a c t i v i t y  interest  and  with  college  study  relationship activity  the f i n d i n g of  athletes  involvement  than former n o n a t h l e t i c  logical  in a  in physical  contrasts  former  a  in  (n=233)  sports  and  students (n=l90).  Situational Factors Social Factors. cardiac  Andrew  et  al.  (1981)  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s who  i n d i f f e r e n t or negative toward likely  to  Similarly,  dropout  than  felt  reported  that  t h e i r spouses were  the program were three times more  those  who  support. Bagley  (1970) found that e x e r c i s e r s with s u p p o r t i v e spouses were  twice  likely  spouses.  to  have  good  195 men,  spouse  Heinzelmann and  as  i n a study i n v o l v i n g  felt  adherence  Faulkner and Stewart  as those with unsupportive  (1978) r e p o r t e d t h a t , f o l l o w i n g a  10-week e x e r c i s e program, female s u b j e c t s (N=149) commonly c i t e d in  a  questionnaire  important  that  spouse  and  friend  influence  were  f o r adherence.  Two  studies  have  reported  significantly  lower  r a t e s among those e x e r c i s i n g alone than among group (Massie & Shephard, 1971; Wilhelmsen  almost  90%  of  195  Heinzelmann  (1970)  indicated  that they p r e f e r r e d to e x e r c i s e with o t h e r s .  Related  f i n d i n g s of a study i n v o l v i n g 302 males and 58  females,  this,  that  participants  and Bagley  to  found  et a l . , 1975).  adherence  exercisers  26  showed that support was activity  level  12  significantly  Program F a c t o r s .  et  al.  (seven  difficult.  exercise  The  study was  convenience and  was  1708)  who  programs  accessiblity  greater  rate  in  a  Program  p a r t i c i p a n t s who al.,  among those who located  and  dropout  felt  relationship  adherence has  nearer  the  rates  impersonal and Although factors  parking  than  also  &  those  Koskela,  been greater among  l i k e the t r a i n i n g  time  (Mann,  Garrett,  1969).  between  program  attention  and  personnel and  Andrew et a l . that  that  they  exercise  (1981) found had  received  the program s t a f f were  unreceptive. the  mentioned  behavioral,  demographic,  in the above d i s c u s s i o n  and  lack the  situational explanatory  power of t h e o r e t i c a l l y based v a r i a b l e s , they are n e v e r t h e l e s s interest  to measure in r e l a t i o n to e x e r c i s e E x e r c i s e Adherence Rates and  In order  the  to attend on time (Andrew et  r a r e l y been r e p o r t e d .  individual  that  f i n d i n g that  facilities  have  that more dropouts than adherers f e l t little  Andrew  found  supported by an e a r l i e r  found i t d i f f i c u l t  F a r h i , Murray, & B i l l i n g s , The  the  i n d i c a t e d a w i l l i n g n e s s to p a r t i c i p a t e in  lived  1981), or d i d not  of  longitudinal  u n w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e ( T e r a s l i n n a , Partanen, Oja, 1970).  surgery  important adherence f a c t o r s .  inconveniently  T h i s r e s u l t was  (N=  exercise  1983).  (1981) found that the dropout  e x e r c i s e center  subjects  & Pollock,  s e t t i n g seem to be  year)  of  months a f t e r coronary a r t e r y bypass  (Knapp, Gutmann, S q u i r e s ,  program  predictive  of  adherence.  Measurement  to determine average dropout and  attendance r a t e s ,  27  as  well  as  adherence and  21  methods  studies,  dealing  f o r measuring  adherence,  35  exercise  i n c l u d i n g 14 i n v o l v e d with healthy  with  coronary  subjects  heart  disease  patients,  were  used  healthy  samples  (e.g.,  1978; Massie & Shephard, 1971), the  dropout  reviewed. Among  the  studies  Faulkner & Stewart,  which  r a t e s ranged from 9% to 75%, with a mean of 33% (over an average time  span  studies  (e.g.,  reported 44%  of  eight  months).  Twenty  Blumenthal et a l . ,  dropout  rates  ranging  cardiac  1982;  Bruce  et  al.,  1976)  from 3% to 87%, with a mean of  (over an average time p e r i o d of 26 months).  attendance which was reported  rehabilitation  Average  i n s i x s t u d i e s of healthy  percent subjects  ranged from 42% to 80.5%, with a mean of 59%; whereas among f i v e cardiac  s t u d i e s , the mean attendance rate was 73%, with a  range  of 58.5% to 85%. Information  on  the methods used f o r determining adherence  was gathered from 22 s t u d i e s . subjects of  i n adherence c a t e g o r i e s  attendance  data,  stopped a t t e n d i n g and  eight  defined  techniques across  s i x studies  based on s u b j e c t i v e  described  dropouts  dropouts  according  The i n c o n s i s t e n c y  to  studies.  to the e q u i v o c a l  as  research.  those who  the  program,  some predetermined  of adherence measurement  results  often  difficult  obtained  Adherence measurement i s an area  to be examined i n future  placed  inspections  s t u d i e s makes comparison of f i n d i n g s  may c o n t r i b u t e  adherence  eight  these,  any time p r i o r to completion of  attendance c r i t e r i a .  and  Of  in  that needs  28  Method Subjects The  and S e t t i n g s u b j e c t s were 61 females,  aged 15 to 57 (M=28), who had  v o l u n t a r i l y e l e c t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n 8-12 week f i t n e s s programs o f f e r e d at v a r i o u s schools and community c e n t e r s throughout Greater  Vancouver and Fraser V a l l e y areas.  programs were sponsored by a l o c a l maintains  uniformity  difficulty  across  programs,  which  of  fitness  instruction,  programs.  These  organization  were  per  per  which  l e v e l of from  14  met two or three times per week f o r one hour.  class,  class.  and  taken  R e g i s t e r e d p a r t i c i p a n t s (n=48) were r e q u i r e d to $1.50  coeducational  content,  Subjects  the  while d r o p - i n  The  programs  pay  a  fee of  (n=l3) p a r t i c i p a n t s p a i d $2.00 were  designed  to  increase  c a r d i o v a s c u l a r endurance, f l e x i b i l i t y ,  s t r e n g t h , body awareness,  and  also  movement  control.  cool-down, and some  Each  exercises  class  f e a t u r e d a warm-up,  considered  beneficial  f o r the  back. Measures Two locus  locus  of  control  Powerful  Objectives  and  measured Chance  were used.  using  of  Control  (Appendix A ) . using the Revised  Activity  (CATPA) Inventory  measure  of  social  Generalized  Levenson's  (IPC) S c a l e s  Internal,  (1974, 1981), while  locus of c o n t r o l was assessed  Locus  researcher  c o n t r o l instruments was  Others,  exercise s p e c i f i c  measured  of  by the  Exercise  (EOLOC) S c a l e s , developed by the  Values  held  towards  exercise  were  C h i l d r e n ' s A t t i t u d e s Toward P h y s i c a l (Schutz,  Smoll,  &  d e s i r a b i l i t y was obtained  Wood,  1981a).  using a  A  shortened  29  v e r s i o n of the Marlowe-Crowne S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l i t y &  Marlowe,  1960),  Gerbashi, 1972). Scales  were  called  the  M-C  1(10)  Scale  scale  (Strahan  T h i s measure t e s t e d whether or not  contaminated  (Crowne  by s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l t y .  the  &  EOLOC  The r e c e n t l y  developed Causal Dimension S c a l e  (Russel,  determine  s t a b i l i t y , and c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y  of  the l o c u s of c a u s a l i t y ,  1982)  was  used  to  the reasons dropouts gave f o r d i s c o n t i n u i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  the program.  A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of each of  these  measures  i s provided i n Appendix B. Adherence data were determined maintained  by  the  were r e q u i r e d t o attended a c l a s s . attendance  sign  attendance  instructors.  one  of  these  Drop-in  sheets  sheets  participants  each  time  they  R e g i s t e r e d p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked to sign an  sheet  i n s t r u c t o r checked  program  from c l a s s attendance  in  some  o f f the  programs, dates  r e c o r d s were forwarded  while  which  in  they  others  attended.  the All  t o the head o f f i c e where they  were made a v a i l a b l e to the r e s e a r c h e r . Procedure P r i o r to the s t a r t of were  given  packages  the  fitness  containing  the  programs, first  instructors  questionnaire,  c o v e r i n g l e t t e r , a p e n c i l , and a prestamped envelope address of the i n v e s t i g a t o r asked  to  distribute  (Appendix  year.  a  in  bearing the  The i n s t r u c t o r s  these packages to r e g i s t e r e d  who had not p r e v i o u s l y been e n r o l l e d following  C).  the  a  were  participants  program  nor  been  r e g u l a r regimen of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y over the l a s t  N e i t h e r the i n s t r u c t o r s nor the  subjects  that adherence was the focus of the study.  were  informed  30  The  covering  comprised  a brief  letter  d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e s t u d y ,  form, and g e n e r a l questionnaire. others made  i n s t r u c t i o n s on how Subjects  when c o m p l e t i n g that  summary reward  were  would  asked  of the study  be  questionnaire  an i n f o r m e d  not  kept  results  each  consent  t o c o m p l e t e and r e t u r n t h e  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  a l l data  report  to collaborate and  assurances  strictly was  with were  confidential.  offered  as  a  A  small  for participation.  The  first  questionnaire  first  section pertained  such  as:  age,  employment exercise CATPA asked  which accompanied  spouse  behavior.  of  and  three),  expectancy  EOLOC  Scales  followed  they  of s i x s e c t i o n s .  and  behavioral  leisure  and work  family  t h e M-C  the goals  their  and  T h i s was  Inventory,  maximum  t o demographic  s e x , smoking h a b i t s ,  status,  to l i s t  consisted  support,  most  wanted  to  the  final  and  previous  section  Revised  were  achieve,  of of  then  (to  Likert-type  of s u c c e s s f u l l y o b t a i n i n g e a c h up  activity,  Subjects  and t o r a t e on a 5 - p o i n t  made  factors  by t h e IPC S c a l e s ,  1(10) S c a l e .  The  scale  them. this  a  The  13-page  questionnaire. A total order  to  requested since  promote  attendance,  Two  120 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  more  t o put t h e i r  names  telephone  o f about  were  names on  needed  in  responses, the order  and q u e s t i o n n a i r e  three  weeks  programs, the r e s e a r c h e r  distributed. subjects  to  number  trace  of each  following termination  contacted  by t e l e p h o n e ,  However,  subjects'  to record  In  were n o t  questionnaires.  t h e i n s t r u c t o r s were r e q u e s t e d  number, to  candid  were  the  daily name,  subject. of the f i t n e s s  63  of  the  66  31  subjects not  for  be r e a c h e d  Those  who  whom n a m e s w e r e a v a i l a b l e .  The o t h e r  because  were  not  i f they  would  were  telephone  contacted  followup  questionnaire.  request,  and  subsequently covering  had  mailed  of  the  second  followup  test-retest measured  and  questionnaire  stability  by  this  these  dropouts  and  continued groups  of  later,  goals.  locus  those  a  this was  again,  envelope  were  a  were  subjects  who  c a l l e d and  of  orientation  exercise  subjects  classes until  then  asked  In a d d i t i o n ,  program  were a s k e d  to identify  and t o rate  control  a distinction  this  the  questions  goals  those  had been a t between  or not they terminated. subsequent  who h a d n o t f i n i s h e d  t h e main  reason  their  each  provided  w a s made  program  as  that  were  whether  about  (Appendix  a measure o f t h e  questionnaire  asking  behavior.  attending  parts  to obtain  The  Finally,  to attend  three  t o r a t e how s u c c e s s f u l t h e y  adherers--by  were  i n order  exercise  reason  on t h e C a u s a l  they  the  had stopped  Dimension  Scale.  Analysis In  exercise first  stamped  comprised  i n the f i r s t  were asked  achieving  Data  to  Once  questionnaire  instrument.  had recorded  subjects  Both  complete  agreed  homes.  return  One m o n t h  provided.  t h e second q u e s t i o n n a i r e  their  and  T h e EOLOC w a s i n c l u d e d  subject  subjects  could  t o do s o .  The  had  t o each pencil  returned  reminded  C).  Sixty-two  i n t h e package.  not  were a s k e d  a package c o n t a i n i n g  letter,  included  numbers  three  keeping  with  adherence  method  subjects  the was  exploratory  measured  were d i v i d e d  nature  using into  three  three  of  this  methods. groups  study In the  based  on  32  the  percentage  of  c l a s s e s attended out of the t o t a l number of  p o s s i b l e attendances. to  the  following  classification:  moderate attendance These  cut-off  &  down  low attendance  (50%-74%), and high attendance  percentages  equal group s i z e s . Dishman  These groups were broken  were  1980;  previous  measuring  (over  74%).  Massie  &  studies  Shephard,  c a t e g o r i z e d adherers and dropouts a c c o r d i n g to they attended u n t i l  (under 50%),  chosen to y i e l d approximately  Since a number of  Gettman,  according  (e.g.,  1971)  whether  have  or  the end of t h e i r program, a second method of  adherence  was  used i n which s u b j e c t s were c l a s s i f i e d  i n t o three groups a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r attendance d u r i n g the s i x f i t n e s s c l a s s e s i n t h e i r program. those  who  did  not  attend  any  than  six  One  consisted  than  The t h i r d group  final  were  felt  that there was  to  exercise  in  chosen because  degree  of  one  of The and  comprised  attended the l a s t c l a s s of the program and  at l e a s t three other c l a s s e s of the so  final  six classes.  attended more  of the l a s t c l a s s e s .  those i n d i v i d u a l s who  group  of the l a s t  second group i n c l u d e d s u b j e c t s who less  not  i t was  commitment  six.  These  groups  a difference  between  these  classifications. The  third  technique  percent attendance of  the  total  adherence  was  (based on the number of c l a s s e s attended  out  number  deviations, variable.  measuring  measured on an i n t e r v a l  scale  categories.  statistics  ranges,  for  possible)  rather than by d i s c r e t e Descriptive  used  and  including  frequencies  means,  standard  were c a l c u l a t e d  In a d d i t i o n , a m i s s i n g value c o r r e l a t i o n  f o r each  matrix  was  33  determined as o t h e r cases  f o r the dependent  variables  with  estimating  data the  for  of IPC  (3  of  interest.  the  IPC  Two  CATPA  the their  expectancy  with  in  three  were  were  used  to  low,  m o d e r a t e , and  high  the  f o l l o w i n g two  sets  CATPA  (8  scores);  CATPA was  used  in  both  learning  theory,  the  also  was  used  last-six-classes  EOLOC and  order  of to  primary test  adherence  CATPA s c o r e s ,  is lost  and  the  groups  on  on  social  for  a  and  to determine  (i.e.,  to  reinforcement  their  others,  locus  and  Social  attendance  occur value,  of  attendance analyses  or not  a  linear  and  the  two  sets  CATPA, IPC  and  CATPA).  t h e o r y which p o s t u l a t e s t h a t  the  three  whether  EOLOC and  learning  behavior  by c l a s s i f y i n g  multiple regression  between p e r c e n t  variables  by  (MANOVA)  interrelationship  Each  multiplied  in  social  examined u s i n g s t e p w i s e  powerful  used  s c o r e s ) and  were a l s o of  those  were  the  c a t e g o r i e s , stepwise  relationship exists  potential  only  well  variables  (8 s c o r e s ) .  information  conducted  Based  CATPA  (3  s e p a r a t e MANOVAs  some  predictor  as  scores.  into discrete  of  variables,  procedure  MANOVAs used  EOLOC  i n keeping  between  Since  were  and  s t r e n g t h of  and  among  control-CATPA  difference  both  of v a r i a n c e  Separate  variables:  scores)  locus  In t h i s  for  differences  MANOVAs b e c a u s e  on  analyses  groups.  dependent  independent  correlations.  any  attendance  interest.  present  Multivariate test  of  and  is  a  function  of  several interactive  the both  effects  multiple regression analyses. control  c h a n c e ) of  subdomains  t h e EOLOC and  C o n t i n u a t i o n and  IPC  Catharsis--the  (internal, S c a l e s were two  CATPA  34  variables result,  that c o r r e l a t e d highest six  product  of  new an  interactive the  joint  with  percent  v a r i a b l e s were c r e a t e d ,  expectancy  variables effect  score  and  were c r e a t e d  of  expectancy  As  e a c h of w h i c h was  a  value  to t e s t  and  attendance.  score.  the  value  extent  the  These to  affects  a  which  exercise  adherence. Frequency determine  the  tables d e g r e e of  questionnaire attendance these  data  (low,  the  IPC  item  (e.g.,  were  A)  mean.  to  Scales  in  an  i n d i c a t e s mid-point  of  semantic  differential  scale.  inventory  incorrectly,  resulting  subdomains.  subjects  were n o t  Missing questionnaire  responses data  i n any from  were not  with  the  categories  in  to  bring  the  the  Six  EOLOC  (see group each  of  this  15,  since  5 bipolar adjectives completed  in missing.values replaced  and  items  the  for a l l  these  w h i c h u s e d CATPA  demographic  altered.  from  (2 s u b j e c t s  subjects  were not  analyses  and  values  corresponding  a value  r e s p o n s e s on  These v a l u e s used  and  Missing  from CATPA subdomains  score  eight  scaled  etc.)  effort  value)  with  1 subdomain) were r e p l a c e d  CATPA  the  values.  missed  the  of  1 missing  were r e p l a c e d  Data m i s s i n g  nominally  to  5.  missing  e a c h had  were u s e d  spouse s u p p o r t ,  Many  collapsed up  analyses  between  smoking,  for handling  (5 s u b j e c t s  Appendix  Square  relationship  frequencies  Procedure  Chi  moderate, h i g h ) .  variables  expected^ c e l l  and  and  six  scores. other  35  Results Questionnaire Of  Return  the  distributed,  120  (approximately)  91 were returned  initial  questionnaires  f o r a response r a t e of about 76%.  Since only four of these q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were completed by males, they were e l i m i n a t e d , thereby fitness the  reducing  the number t o  87.  Some  i n s t r u c t o r s d i d not record the names of s u b j e c t s t o whom  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were handed out.  As a r e s u l t only 66 of the  returned q u e s t i o n n a i r e s had names t o match them.  A t o t a l of 62  followup  which  questionnaires  returned--a  were  response rate of  distributed, 85%.  of  Attendance  data  53 were were not  a v a i l a b l e f o r 5 of the 66 s u b j e c t s f o r whom names were a v a i l a b l e thereby to  the number of usable  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was reduced  61 .  Descriptive Table  Statistics I  presents  attendance data. a  initial  mean  the d e s c r i p t i v e  Percent  attendance  rate  were absent from the f i n a l participants  statistics  of 60%. A t o t a l of 16 s u b j e c t s (26%) s i x c l a s s e s of the program, while  (46%) attended  one t o f i v e of the l a s t subjects  to  dropout percentages reported similar  length  (Epstein,  the mean in exercise  Wing,  percent  &  six classes  six.  These  attendance and  adherence  Thompson,  28  (28%) attended  the l a s t c l a s s and a t l e a s t three others of the l a s t are comparable  the  attendance ranged from 6% t o 100% with  e x c l u d i n g the very l a s t c l a s s , and 17  results  of  studies  Griffin,  of  1980;  O'Connell & P r i c e , 1982). The  means of the primary dependent v a r i a b l e s  (EOLOC, IPC,  36  and  CATPA)  presented and  in  each  of  i n Table I I .  the  adherence  classifications  A l s o i n c l u d e d are the t o t a l group  means  standard d e v i a t i o n s f o r each v a r i a b l e . In  general,  the sample tended  to be i n t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d .  The average i n t e r n a l score on the IPC was approximately of  are  a  37, out  maximum of 48, compared to the average e x t e r n a l scores of  20 and 21. possible  S i m i l a r l y , the i n t e r n a l average  30,  on  the  EOLOC  the  comment  made  27,  out  of  a  was s u b s t a n t i a l l y higher than the  e x t e r n a l s c a l e s ' average scores of supports  of  by  10  and  Levenson  11.  This  finding  (1981) that s u b j e c t s  engaged i n h e a l t h - r e l a t e d a c t i v i e s tend to be more i n t e r n a l .  In  t h i s study,  s u b j e c t s a l s o tended  on  the  Scales  EOLOC  than  t o score more homogeneously  on the IPC S c a l e s .  This i s especially  t r u e . o f the I n t e r n a l Scale of the EOLOC where i t i s 72% of the s u b j e c t s scored e i t h e r The  mean  CATPA  scores  with  the  were  a l l very p o s i t i v e with the subdomains.  f i n d i n g of an e a r l i e r  Wood, 1981b) i n which 215 young female have  considerably  less  positive  that  29 or 30 out of 30.  exception of the V e r t i g o and A s c e t i c agrees  seen  study  result  (Schutz, Smoll, &  athletes  attitudes  This  were  about  seen these  to two  v a r i a b l e s than about other CATPA v a r i a b l e s . MANOVA  Analyses  M u l t i v a r i a t e analyses of v a r i a n c e r e v e a l e d difference  among  low,  moderate,  EOLOC and CATPA scores, (F<1.0); scores,  (F(22,84)=1.24,  p_<.25).  and or  separate MANOVAs showed no s i g n i f i c a n t  significant  high a t t e n d e r s on t h e i r  on  In  no  their  IPC  and  CATPA  a d d i t i o n , r e s u l t s of two difference  between  the  37  three l a s t - s i x - c l a s s e s adherence groups on the s t r e n g t h EOLOC and  (F ( 22 , 84 ) = 1 . 1 1 , p_<.40); or on t h e i r IPC  and CATPA scores,  CATPA scores,  results  (F(22,84)=1.13, p<.35).  indicate  that  using  of c o n t r o l  orientation  of  the  relationship  stepwise as  multiple  predictors,  2.0,  (F(3,51)=5.07,  Social  Continuation,  F i t n e s s : Value c o n t r i b u t e d second  multiple  predictors, the  CATPA  Inclusion  regression  of  equation  variables  c o r r e l a t i o n of .54 (adjusted variance  accounted  Catharsis  (adjusted  only  22%  for  R_^=.16).  of the v a r i a n c e  c o n s i d e r e d strong  was  equation.  due  In  (See  Social  Since these  a  entered  p_=<.0l) f o l l o w i n g the Table in  However,  to  and  IPC and CATPA as  resulted  R_^=.22).  set  Health  of c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s  above  percent  F-to-Enter  using  (F(5,49)=4.13,  five  significant  and  prediction  v a r i a b l e s , mentioned these  With the  analysis, locus  a  procedure,  p_< . 0 1 ) between  Catharsis,  to the  the two e x t e r n a l  regression  three  attitudes  regression  revealed  attendance and three CATPA v a r i a b l e s . at  or  among  Regression  EOLOC and CATPA  linear  nonsignificant  activity.  Stepwise M u l t i p l e Results  These  there i s e s s e n t i a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e  adherence groups i n locus toward p h y s i c a l  of t h e i r  III).  a  multiple  most  of  the  C o n t i n u a t i o n and  factors  account  for  i n percent attendance, they cannot be  predictors.  In  general,  individuals  with  higher percent attendance tended at the beginning of the f i t n e s s program to have l e s s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l as  a  means of c o n t i n u i n g  and  f i t n e s s , more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s  activity  s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and a c h i e v i n g toward  physical  health  activity  38  for  release  of  reinforcements stronger  CATPA, a s Others,  using small was  Chance S c a l e s  regression  IPC but  and  following  CATPA  as  Social  of  multiple .24.  increased  slightly  Continuation  and  Catharsis  several  V  comprises  v a r i a b l e s and  other  Age subscales  did  not  nor  with  i s no  orientation,  linear  and  the  the  repeated  variables, a  to  the  Continuation.  .56,  with  accounted  a  social  of  of of  of  desirability,  the  Scale  e x e r c i s e adherence.  to  examine  a  subdomains).  l o c u s of c o n t r o l  and  and  as  major as  This  r e l a t i o n s h i p between age  the  well  the  adherence measures.  as  the  R_^  result  a  2  Dimension  age  Others  R =.16).  matrix  any  the  As  adjusted  variables,  (age,  with  an  in  analysis,  f o r was  (adjusted  Causal  (Table  C a t h a r s i s , Powerful  adherence  interest  p_<.C)1),  equation  v a r i a b l e s i n the  and  previously  variables  regression  correlation  correlate  or age  unnecessary  a the  f a c t o r s of  EOLOC r e t e s t s c o r e s ,  the  five  and  Powerful  p r o c e d u r e was  Internal x Social  variance  dependent  deemed  entered  the  Table  EOLOC  Catharsis  six interactive  a t t e n d a n c e and  a  lives. using  in  and  r e l a t i o n s h i p (F(5,49)=4 . 39,  A g a i n most of  Social  there  When t h i s  including interactive  R was  their  change  Continuation,  x C a t h a r s i s , Chance, and result  no  their  people,  variables (Internal,  w e l l as  linear  variables  order:  other  that  were e a c h m u l t i p l i e d by  equation.  significant  These  belief  regression analyses  revealed  f o u n d between p e r c e n t  IV).  powerful  six interactive  Continuation)  described  weaker  chance elements a f f e c t  a multiple  w e l l as  a  c o n t r o l l e d by  that  of  and  Social  are  belief  Results  tension,  indicates  that  l o c u s of c o n t r o l  As  a  result  factor  in  it  was the  39  multivariate analyses. Social  desirabilty  was  not  correlated  i n d i c a t i n g that i n d i v i d u a l s with high scores adhere social  more  those  s u b j e c t s who  did  adherence  not  tend  were l e s s concerned  to with  desirability.  The and  than  with  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two  the  attributions  of  dropouts,  Dimension Scale subdomains, were Causality  s c a l e of the EOLOC (£=-.57). s t a t e d that t h e i r reason tended  to  have  a  c o n t r o l l e d by other  of  control  scales  as measured by the Causal  nor  s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the subscales correlated  of  examined.  (internal-external)  Controllability  locus  Neither  Stability  the  IPC  or  Locus  correlated the  EOLOC.  n e g a t i v e l y with the Powerful  Others  T h i s suggests that i n d i v i d u a l s  for  dropping  weaker b e l i e f  out  was  that t h e i r  of  who  controllable,  reinforcements are  people.  Chi Square Analyses The by  high,  Chi Square analyses showed that adherence, as moderate, and  low attendance,  was  independent  of any of the nominally s c a l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e v a r i a b l e s percent Only  leisure  smoking and  -time  measured (p_>.10) such  as  a c t i v i t y , e n r o l l i n g with a f r i e n d , e t c .  spouse support approached s i g n i f i c a n c e  Table VI p r e s e n t s the means and  (p_<.lO).  frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s  of  all  of the c o l l a p s e d demographic, s i t u a t i o n a l , and b e h a v i o r a l data. Of  those  program u n t i l continue  subjects  claimed  i t ended (n=35), 88%  exercising  83% s a i d they  who  regularly  intended to e n r o l l  to  have remained i n the  s t a t e d that they  intended  (2-3 times per week). i n another  Of  fitness class.  to  these, The  40  s e c o n d most p o p u l a r activities skiing.  choice  such as j o g g i n g , A  total  discontinued  of  15  among t h i s  biking,  g r o u p was  swimming, and  subjects  stated  aerobic  cross-country  that  they  had  p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r i o r t o t h e end o f t h e p r o g r a m .  these,  only  after  leaving  these  subjects  mentioned  activity  38% c l a i m e d  that  t h e y h a d been e x e r c i s i n g  program.  The  had  doing  been  primary  types  were  the  Of  regularly  of e x e r c i s e s  aerobic  that  activities  above. Discussion  In of  general,  are  adherence. than  very  the generalized true.  Results  demographic, only  attitude Social  related  show  values  between and  appear  behavioral  adherence  better  to  predict  held  toward  and  the reverse  statistically any  variables  of  the  measured.  adherence  are  two  physical activity for  study p r o v i d e  exercise  adherence  very  weak  internal  held  activity.  toward  physical  does n o t a p p e a r  support  for  i s p o s i t i v e l y related to  e f f e c t s of g e n e r a l i z e d  small  program  i s no  adherence  physical  and C a t h a r s i s .  that  by i t s e l f  while a very  that  locus  to exercise  there  f i n d i n g s of t h i s  and  to predict  that  toward  also  variables--values  combined  held  i n d i c a t e that  f a c t o r s which  the  suggest  IPC however, d a t a  situational,  hypothesis  control  strongly  relationship  Continuation  The the  not  The EOLOC was e x p e c t e d  significant  The  study  c o n t r o l measures combined w i t h v a l u e s  activity  is  the f i n d i n g s of t h i s  in either  locus  of  control  Internal  locus of  regression  equation;  p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s e e n between  a t t e n d a n c e and t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f i n t e r n a l l o c u s  percent  of c o n t r o l  and  41  attitude  toward S o c i a l C o n t i n u a t i o n .  i s however, a very only  of  interactive variable  weak p r e d i c t o r of adherence,  3% of the t o t a l explained Results  This  the  accounting  for  variance.  multiple  r e g r e s s i o n analyses  provide  weak  support f o r the hypothesis that e x e r c i s e adherence i s n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d to a  generalized  combined  with  multiple  regression  relationship  belief  exercise  between  exists  between  Powerful  reinforcement  analysis  values.  (Table  variables.  percent  respective  4%  regression  of e x e r c i s e The  the  hypothesis exists  with  positively  is  (Table  social  behavior  reinforcement It  variance  negative  attendance i n relationship  IV).  However, since  each  account  explained  they are very  not  between  values  in  poor  toward  for their  predictors  is  a  Chance  exercise.  negative  orientation  Although Chance i t i s seen to  r e l a t e d to adherence  Again t h i s f i n d i n g does not  l e a r n i n g theory occur  that  r e g r e s s i o n equations,  rather than n e g a t i v e l y  to  supported  generalized  held  attendance) as p r e d i c t e d .  a  total  equations,  appears i n both m u l t i p l e  with  of a  adherence.  relationship combined  of  a  negative  Powerful Others and the i n t e r a c t i v e v a r i a b l e about  Results  I I I ) show  A  control  attendance and the i n t e r a c t i o n of  Powerful Others b e l i e f and C a t h a r s i s  only'  Others  Powerful Others and percent  combination with 3 CATPA also  in  be  (percent coincide  which p o s i t s that the p o t e n t i a l f o r lower  when  belief  i s more e x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d  i s not r e a d i l y e x p l a i n a b l e  among s u b j e c t s with a stronger  in  (Rotter,  control  of  1966, 1975).  why adherence tends to be greater general  belief  that luck, chance,  42  or f a t e c o n t r o l t h e i r chance  reinforcements.  T h i s c o u l d p o s s i b l y be  finding.  Data  indicate  exercise s p e c i f i c Therefore,  that  locus  a l l three  there  of  i s no  control  hypotheses  relationship  and  exercise  regarding  EOLOC to p r e d i c t adherence can be r e j e c t e d . not  a  support  measures  the suggestion  made e a r l i e r  adherence.  the a b i l i t y of the This  finding  that s p e c i f i c  does  expectancy  may be more b e n e f i c i a l than g e n e r a l i z e d instruments i n  s i t u a t i o n s where p r e d i c t a b i l t y 1976;  between  Rotter,  1975;  i s of prime  S a l t z e r , 1982).  importance  One p o s s i b l e  (Phares,  explanation  for the f a i l u r e of EOLOC to p r e d i c t adherence i s that the scores on the s u b s c a l e s , and i n p a r t i c u l a r  the  Internal  Scale,  were  q u i t e homogeneous. A  possible explanation  EOLOC S c a l e s their  i s that the s u b j e c t s are homogeneously p o s i t i v e i n  beliefs  case,  f o r the r e l a t i v e homogeneity of the  about e x e r c i s e locus of c o n t r o l .  I f t h i s i s the  the problem c o u l d p o s s i b l y be r e c t i f i e d by i n c r e a s i n g  number  of  p o s i t i v e l y worded responses.  Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s  that the items i n EOLOC, and i n p a r t i c u l a r the require  some  revisions  With l i t t l e v a r i a b i l i t y  Internal  to make them l e s s s i m i l a r to e x p l a i n — i t  the  is difficult  Scale,  i n wording. to achieve a  high c o r r e l a t i o n between v a r i a b l e s . Two a t t i t u d e v a r i a b l e s — S o c i a l C o n t i n u a t i o n are  seen  to  be  attendance.  outset  of  participating  Catharsis  r e l a t e d to e x e r c i s e adherence, as measured by  percent  the  and  In g e n e r a l ,  program,  in  physical  had  those a  subjects  who,  at the  l e s s p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward  activity  for  continuing  social  43  relations  and  more  positive  order to reduce s t r e s s and percent  attendance.  The  attitude  toward p a r t i c i p a t i n g in  tension—tended positive  to  have  a  r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x e r c i s e  adherence and C a t h a r s i s has been reported p r e v i o u s l y . and  Cox  (1980)  found  that female dropouts from an  f i t n e s s program p l a c e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y than  did  adherers.  The  negative  less  value  that  been  adherence created  variable  studies. recently  Experience  The  has  Social  (Schutz et a l .  domain of CATPA i n t o  not  1981a) by s p l i t t i n g  two  on  possible  separate  r e l a t i o n s h i p between percent i t c o u l d be that those with  friends'  social  are  attendance and  i n d i v i d u a l s who  disappointed  tend  i t may  to p a r t i c i p a t e  be that those  a  friend  whereas those  with  C o n t i n u a t i o n may to be  fitness  i n d i v i d u a l s with  and  to a  Social  in  the  the  negative  Continuation, order  to  be  class  more  and  as  a  Alternatively,  positive  attitudes  have a greater tendency to e n r o l l  attend less  the  was  people).  Social  l e s s or to dropout.  toward S o c i a l C o n t i n u a t i o n may  fact  dimensions,  for  enroll,  the  by the lack of o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  i n t e r a c t i o n during an a e r o b i c  result  with  reasons  Social  subdomain  other dimension being S o c i a l Growth (to meet new Speculating  Catharsis  used in previous  Continuation r  industrial  r e l a t i o n s h i p between in l i g h t of  attitude  Shephard  on  C o n t i n u a t i o n and adherence i s i n t e r e s t i n g this  higher  only  positive  when the f r i e n d attitude  toward  attends; Social  have more of a tendency to a t t e n d alone and  not  i n f l u e n c e d by the attendance p a t t e r n s of o t h e r s . A  between  number  of  exercise  investigators adherence  and  have  reported  demographic,  relationships situational  or  44  behavior percent set,  factors. leisure  expected  time  success  Findings  of  activity,  employment  and  exertion,  family support,  previous  number  participation, desirability, was  of  they  leaving  do  research are Since  engage  of  of  exercise  in  full  sports  and  spouse  do  behavior is  seldom  continue  social There support  j o g g i n g , and  swimming.  in  physical  regular  of  dropouts  reported.  to e x e r c i s e a f t e r  program,  scale.  for  have  specific  pursuing  future  primarily Most  in  dropouts  activity  exercise  demonstrated  l o c u s of c o n t r o l  the development  Adjustments to the  r e s e a r c h , may  predict  behaviors  improve  in physical  after  activity  further  adherence  for Social  attention.  As  potential  measures,  of  this  it  exercise locus  EOLOC S c a l e s combined  the a b i l i t y activity  of an  the  instrument  with to  settings.  r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x e r c i s e a d h e r e n c e and  toward p h y s i c a l deserves  friend,  adherence.  the  studies  situation  worthwhile  control  The  a  below.  further  2.  with  goals  nonleisure  or c o m p l e t i o n s ,  exercise  programs  suggestions  listed other  usefulness  of  without  of  age,  a program.  A number  be  or  those  the  exercise  as b i k i n g ,  not  s t a t u s , types  exercise behavior,  t h a t some d r o p o u t s  such  with  that  attendance.  discontinue participation  however,  may  individual  regarding  to l e a v i n g  indicate  activities  1.  enrolling  f o r nonsmokers and  Information  indicate  in goal attainment,  are a l l u n r e l a t e d to  t o have g r e a t e r p e r c e n t  Data  success  study  program e n r o l l m e n t s  previous  a tendency  subsequent  this  Continuation  and  values  held  Catharsis  mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , S o c i a l  45  Continuation  i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t , as t h i s  t o be t h e s t r o n g e s t has not been  used  3.  It i s also  to  examine  leaving  a  exercise  suggested that  the  exercise  program. may  4.  Since  that  the r a t h e r  in  the problem  Since  of  a  statistical larger  adherence of  dropouts  h a p h a z a r d methods  it  studies  undertake  dropouts subsequent who  engage  of  in  i s very  of  measuring  of r e s u l t s d i f f i c u l t ,  of m e a s u r i n g a d h e r e n c e  number  to  regular dropouts  adherence  i t i s recommended  be e x a m i n e d .  Adherence  comparison  of r e s u l t s  difficult. adherence  often  requires  v a r i a b l e s and c o n c o m i t a n t  techniques to deal  sample  s t u d y and  regularly.  t h e s t u d y of e x e r c i s e  large  i s seen  previously.  i n so many d i f f e r e n t ways t h a t  the l i t e r a t u r e  5.  future  behavior  Those  comparisons  i s measured  studies  in this  be more s i m i l a r t o a d h e r e r s t h a n t o o t h e r  do not e x e r c i s e  the  of a d h e r e n c e  i n adherence  who  makes  predictor  variable  s i z e s be o b t a i n e d  w i t h them, in future  it is  t h e use  multivariate  suggested  studies.  that  46  References Andrew,  G.M.,  Oldridge,  Rechnitzer,  P.A.,  Shephard,  Science  Balch,  P.,  as  a  unidimensional Consulting  and  by  42,  exercise  Locus  R.S.,  T.L.,  variables  Journal  of  moods  as  and  Dissertation  in  patients  (1980).  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A controlled t r i a l infarction.  of p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g  P r e v e n t i v e Medicine,  4,  TABLE I  D e s c r i p t i v e S t a t i s t i c s of Attendance Data (rounded to nearest whole number)  M  SD  22  6  18  No. a c t u a l attendances  1 3  6  7  Percent  60%  26%  83%  Var i a b l e s  No. p o s s i b l e  attendances  attendance  Mode  KEY TO VARIABLE ABBREVIATIONS  USED IN SUBSEQUENT TABLES  IPCIN  IPC(Internal)  IPCPO  IPC(Power£ul  IPCCH  I PC (Chance)  SOCIALG  CATPA(Social Growth)  SOCIALC  CATPA(Social  VERTI GO  CATPA (Ve r t i go)  H&FUSE  CATPA(Health & F i t n e s s :  Value)  H&FENJ  CATPA(Health & F i t n e s s :  Enjoyment)  AESTHET  CATPA ( A e s t h e t i c )  CATHARS  CATPA ( C a t h a r s i s )  ASCETIC  CATPA ( A s c e t i c )  EOLOCIN  EOLOC ( I n t e r n a l )  EOLOCPO  EOLOC (Powerful Others)  EOLOCCH  EOLOC (Chance)  EOLOC2IN  Followup EOLOC (I n t e r n a l )  EOLOC2PO  Followup EOLOC(Powerful  EOLOC2CH  Followup EOLOC (Chance)  LOFCAUS  CDS(Locus of  CONTROL  Others)  Continuation)  Others)  Causality)  CDS(Controllability)  STABIL  CDS ( S t a b i l i t y )  PERCATT.  Percent Attendance  ATTL6  Attendance During L a s t 6 C l a s s e s  58  TABLE II  Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s  % Attendance  Variable  of Dependent V a r i a b l e s  A t t . Last  6 Classes  Low  Mod  High  Low  Mod  High  M  M  M  M  M  M  Total M  SD  IPCIN  36., 1 36.,2  36.,8  36., 2 37.,8  37.,2  37.,3  5., 1  IPCPO  23., 1 19.,4  19.,8  23., 1 19.,9  20., 1  20.,4  6.,0  IPCCH  20.,5  22.,8  20.,7  20.,3  22.,2  20.,2  20.,6  6.,4  SocialG  23.,2  22., 1 22., 1  21 ,9 .  22..2  22.,5  22., 1 2.,9  Soc i a l C  23.,2  22.,6  20..9  23.,5  22.,4  20., 1  22.,3  3.,3  Vert igo  14..7  12.,3  16..7  14..5  14..2  16.,4  14.,6  5.,8  H&F:Use  9..9  9..7  9..8  10..0  9..9  9.,6  9..9  0.,5  H&F:Enjoy  13..5  13..0  13..0  13,.5  13,.2  12..8  13..3  2.,2  Aesthet i c  21 .5 .  20..7  21 .5 ,  22,.0  21 .0 ,  21 .0  21 . ,4  3.,5  Catharsi s  21 .7 ,  22,. 1 23,. 1  22,.4  22,.2  22..5  22,.4  3..2  Ascetic  14,.4  1 1,1,  15,.6  13,.4  13,.6  15..9  14,.0  4..9  EOLOCIN  26,.5  27,. 1 27,.6  27,.3  26,.6  28..0  27,.3  3,.0  EOLOCPO  10,.6  9,.0  9,.5  10,.8  9,.9  8,.3  EOLOCCH  1 1.4 ,  1 1.9 ,  10,.9  10,.5  12,.5  10.. 1  9.6 11,.3  3.2 4,.2  59  TABLE I I I  Stepwise M u l t i p l e Regression  Results  (Predictors=IPC and CATPA)  Adj Step No.  Variable  Entered  F-To-Enter  R  SEE  2  0  27.110  1  S o c i a l Continuation  7.53  .1 1  25.606  2  Catharsis  4.28  .16  24.847  3  Health & Fitness:Value  2.55  .18  24.485  4  IPC Powerful  2.15  .20  24.215  5  IPC Chance  2.45  .22  23.872  Others  ANOVA TABLE  Source  Regression Residual  df  Mean Square  5  2353.11  49  569.85  MR equation: Percent  F  4.13  attendance=-2.51(Social  2.92(Catharsis)-9..0(Health  p  <.01  Continuation)*  & Fitness:  Value)-  1.23(Powerful Others)+0.94(Chance)+143.89  60  TABLE IV  Stepwise M u l t i p l e Regression R e s u l t s (Predictors=IPC,CATPA,  Step No.  and I n t e r a c t i v e V a r i a b l e s )  V a r i a b l e Entered  F-To-Enter  R  SEE  2  0  27. 110  1  Social Continuation  7.53  .11  25.606  2  Catharsis  4.28  .16  24.847  3  PO x C a t h a r s i s  2.81  .19  24.426  4  IPC Chance  2.84  .22  23.996  5  IN x Soc. Cont.  2.48  .24  23.648  _  ANOVA TABLE  Source  DF  Regression Residual  Mean Square  5  2457.11  49  559.24  F  4.39  P  <.01  MR Equation:Percent attendance=-3.90(Social C o n t i n u a t i o n ) + 3.50(Catharsis)-0.07(POxCatharsis)+1.29(Chance)+ 0.04(INxSocial  Continuation)+34.96  61  TABLE V  C o r r e l a t i o n s of Dependent V a r i a b l e s and Other S e l e c t e d F a c t o r s  1 AGE IPCIN IPCPO IPCCH SOCIALG SOCIALC VERTIGO HiFUSE H&FENJ AESTHET CATHARS ASCETIC SOCDE5  EOLOCIN EOLOCPO EOLOCCH EOLOC2IN EOLOC2P0 EOLOC2CH LOFCAUS STABIL CONTROL PERCATT ATTL6  1 2  3 4 5 6 7  a 9 10  11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21  22 23 2-1  1 .0000 0 . 1476 0 .0399 - 0 . 1547 0 .0111 - 0 .0117 - 0 . 1800 0 .0301 - 0 .0869 0 . 1572 0 .0726 0 .0854 0 .0779 - 0 . 0978 -0..0788 - 0 . 1446 - 0 . 1620 0 .0127 0 . 1537 0 .0434 0 . 2365 -0..0485 0..0650 0. 051 1 CATHARS 1 1  CATHARS ASCETIC SOCDES EOLOCIN EOLOCPO EOLOCCH EOLOC21N EOLOC2PO EOLOC2CM LOFCAUS STABIL CONTROL PERCATT ATTL6  1 1 12  13 14 15  16 17 16 19 20 21  22 23 24  1 .OOOO . 0. 1708 -0. 014 1 0 4061 0. OOS7 -0. 2054 0 2231 0. 0469 -0. 2240 -0. 18 1 1 0. 2779 -0. 5438 2307 0. 0338  CONTROL PERCATT ATTL6  Critical  o  2 1 OOOO .0771 .3090 . 1432 .0317 .0633 -0 . 1664 - 0 . 1362 - 0 .0912 0 . 1539 0 . 2937 0 3342 0 .0699 . 1208 -0 . 1951 - 0 .0527 0 . 1514 -0 .0273 -0 . 1357 0 .2004 0143 0 .0934 0 .0346 -0 -0 0 0 0  -o  o  ASCETIC 12 1 OOOO -0 .0372 0 0025 -0. 1372 -0. 2973 0 2 195 -0. 2748 1758 -0. 5362 0. 0077 07 10 0724 0. 1853  -o. -o o  -0.4130 -0.3202 -O.3573  1 .0000 0.4087 0.4090  r values: .05; ;55-  Causal Dimension S c a l e . . . -r  .201 .279  05; 05; 13 ' -  .514  4  3  1 OOOO .4453 .0485 . 1495 .0163 .0390 .0550 . 1750 0 .0026 - 0 ,0495 - 0 .2536 0 . 1604 0 .3856 0 . 1306 - 0 .1431 0 . 3295 0 .2687 0 . 1509 -0 .2088 -0 .0503 -0 . MS91 -0.. 1579 0 -0 0 -0 0 0 0  SOCDES 13  1 OOOO -0 .0773 0. 0546 0 0319 -0 0630 0. 1381 -0. 0745 0. 1727 0. 2286 -0. 2215 0 0705 0 .0727  1.0000 0.6225  1 .0000 -0 .2498 - 0 . 1308 - 0 . 1239 - 0 .0893 0 1017 - 0 .0721 - 0 . 1438 - 0 .2645 -0 .2518 -0 .0107 0..2740 0 4163 -0 0913 0 2078 0 3929 -0 0607 -0. 4423 0 2673 0 148 1 0 0262 EOLOCIN 14  1 .OOOO -0. 1422 -0 3978 0. 3230 -0. 0478 -0. 2046 0 4099 0. 1505 0. 0154 1498 0. 1089  o  5  1 .0000 0 .4053 0 . 1025 0 .0756 0 .0101 0 .2486 0 .3644 0 .2246  .2047 .0563 -0 . 1865 - 0 0060 0 . 1396 - 0 .0734 0 .0173 - 0 .6283 0 2633 - 0 .5059 0 .0444 0 . .0754 -0 0  EOLOCPO 15  1 OOOO 0 .4000 -0 3886 0. 7 194 0 2B30 -0. 24 90 -0. 1800 -0. 5745 - 0 1010 -0. 2609  6  1 .0000 016J 0439 . 1046 .34 30 .114 1 .0711 1500 OS 70 0317 2478 0422 0434 0374 - 0 04 15 1O08 - 0 1988 - 0 . 3342 - 0 . 3248 -0 0 0 0 0 0 -0 -0 0 -0 -0 0  -o o.  EOLOCCH 16  1 . OOOO -0 2526 0 . 4243 0 5980 4492 - 0 1953 - 0 . 1929  -o  Ofi4S o 0 01*5  8  7  1 ,0000 .0777 0 .0524 0 .2374 0. 1493 0 3951 -0. 1326 0. 0926 0. 0207 -0. 122 1 0 .0839 -0.. 109R -0 0269 0 3307 -0 0562 0. 3196 0. 1623 0 0834 -0  E0L0C2IN 17  1 OOOO . -0 5882 5427 0. 1482 0. 1949 0. 422 1 17 17 0. 2593  -o'.  o  1 .0000 0 3484 0 2074 0 36 1 1 0. 0076 0. C4 19 0. 2094 0. C338 0 C033 0. 2320 -0. 0267 -0. 1 4 8 5 0. 2nan 0. 1029 -0. 2356 C995 -0. 2288  -o.  9  1 .0000 0 .2910 0 . 1721 0 . 2994 -0 . 1083 0 .0733 .0766 0 .0127 0 . 1622 -0 .0452 0 .073 1 -0 . 1892 -0 .8915 0 .3017 -0 .0-145 -0 .0862  o  EOLOcrt-c 18  E0L0C2CH 19  1. OOOO 0. J54Q -0. 1473 -0. C' 03 -0. 6510 -0. 1923 -0. 2"QC  1 OOOO -0. 134 1 -0. 0463 -0. 2092 0 .0166 -0 .0295  10  1 . OOOO 0 .4784 0 . 2660 -0 .0521 0 .3064 -0 .0507 -0 . 3478 0 . 2283 -0 .04 10 -0 . 2608 0 .3192 0 .0186 -0 . 1231 0 02 96 -0 0761 LOFCAUS 20  1 . OOOO 0. 2206 0. 4004 -0. 1869 -0. 4 206  TABLE VI  Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n s of S e l e c t e d Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  Data  (N=61 )  Percent low  Attendance mod  high  Age 1 5-26  13  7  11  26-57  7  10  13  20-60%  11  9  11  60-95%  9  8  13  5-35%  9  8  13  35-95%  11  9  11  6  9  5  14  8  19  8  10  15  12  7  8  15  16  18  5  1  6  Inactive leisure  Active leisure  time  time  Smoking smoker nonsmoker Employment  status  employed not employed Nonleisure  exertion  some to great minimal Spouse  support  deal  not  full  support  full  support  Family  support  not  full  full Who  support  support  enrolled  1 o r more no  with friend/relatives  friends/relatives  P r e v i o u s program one  enrollments  o r more  none P r e v i o u s program one  completions  o r more  never/NA Participated  school sports  yes no Participated  post  school sports  yes no Participating  sports currently  yes no Previously on  own yes no  exercised  regularly  Primary  exercise  goal  health/fitness/feel weight  loss/look  Second e x e r c i s e  better/other  goal  health/fitness/feel weight Third  loss/look  exercise  Expected  goal  loss/look success  unsuccessful quite Expected  quite Expected  quite  success  goal  2  t o moderate  to very  to very  goal 1  successful  successful  Success achieved  quite  3  t o moderate  to very  unsuccessful  goal  successful  Success achieved  quite  2  t o moderate  to very  unsuccessful  goal  successful  Success achieved  quite  goal 1  t o moderate  to very  unsuccessful  better/other  successful  success  unsuccessful  better  t o moderate  to very  unsuccessful  better  better/other  health/fitness/feel weight  better  goal  3  t o moderate successful  65  Appendix Development The  of the E x e r c i s e O b j e c t i v e s Locus  EOLOC S c a l e s were m o d e l e d a f t e r  multidimensional dimensions:  PO,  of  the  statements. correctly  of  same and  24  f o r each  classes.  These  average  the  15 months  a c t e d as  pool  was  i n v e n t o r y was p r e s e n t e d t o 10  judges  in and  associated  by a l l o f t h e  assessing the  response  UBC  clarity  while  i n the c o r r e c t  on  a  responses  c a t e g o r y was a l s o to  eliminate  Aquatic  90%  Center  which  years).  favorable,  the None  17 t o 55  the  fitness  (M=30).  On  i n the c l a s s e s f o r responded  to  A "do n o t u n d e r s t a n d "  i n order  to  determine  the  s u b j e c t s d i d n o t comprehend t h e i t e m s , and t o  the ambiguity  of the midpoint  response  of  "undecided".  An i t e m a n a l y s i s  o f t h e raw d a t a was  then completed.  Based  the  correlations,,  lowest  from  item-total  the  (50 f e m a l e s  aerobic  Subjects  format.  included  of  grouping.  were  i n age from  5-point L i k e r t  of  face  t o be u n c l e a r .  s u b j e c t s had been p a r t i c i p a t i n g day t o 4.5  the  w i t h 22 o f t h e i t e m s were  judges,  by t h e j u d g e s  two  chance  o f t h e t h r e e subdomains ( I N ,  structure  s u b j e c t s ranged  (range=1  item  extent  This  test  i t e m s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 60 p a r t i c i p a n t s from  distinct  items  S i n c e the judges  10 m a l e s )  each  three  developed,  the other 2 items  1.  assess  1981)  24-item  t h e i t e m s were deemed Study  which  (1974,  a  The d i m e n s i o n s  placed  Levenson's  Scales  and  factor  identified  of C o n t r o l  powerful others e x t e r n a l i t y ,  above.  s t u d e n t s who  validity  judges  eight  mentioned  graduate  Scales  Initially,  included CH)  IPC  internality,  externality. which  A  subdomain were d e l e t e d .  the  In a s u b s e q u e n t  two i t e m s  analysis,  on each  a l l remaining  66  i t e m - t o t a l c o r r e l a t i o n s were g r e a t e r than  .60, .45, and .15 f o r  the  Cronbach's alphas were  IN, PO, and CH S c a l e s r e s p e c t i v e l y .  calculated items  f o r each subdomain  and  values  obtained.  of  .86  following (IN), .79  Since the CH S c a l e had the lowest alpha  remaining  .20,  two new chance items were developed  Study  2.  in  and  had  i n the  voluntarily  elected  to  1  missing  value  and  a l l missing 2  replaced  values  (7  s u b j e c t s had 2'missing by  the  corresponding  item mean. . Based on the r e s u l t s of an item a n a l y s i s , the  items i n the Chance S c a l e which c o r r e l a t e d the total  remaining  were  deleted.  The  item-total  18 items were a l l g r e a t e r than  lowest  with  c o r r e l a t i o n of the  .30.  .79, .69, and .75 were obtained f o r the  Others, and Chance S c a l e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . of  included  8-12 week f i t n e s s programs sponsored by a l o c a l  v a l u e s ) from the raw data were  of  of  organization.  subjects  the  two  The r e v i s e d 20-item EOLOC was a d m i n i s t e r e d to 87  P r i o r to a n a l y z i n g the i n v e n t o r y ,  two  and  study.  females, aged 15 to 57 (M=30), who had participate  the s i x  items i n i t had i t e m - t o t a l c o r r e l a t i o n s l e s s than  EOLOC f o r the subsequent  group  of  (PO), and .57 (CH) were  the  fitness  deletion  Cronbach's alphas  Internal,  A positive  Powerful  correlation  .402 was found between the Powerful Others and Chance S c a l e s ,  while  a  negative  correlation  Chance and I n t e r n a l S c a l e s . Scales  were  of  -.40  The I n t e r n a l  and  Powerful  Others  found to be u n r e l a t e d with a c o r r e l a t i o n of -.14.  The c o r r e l a t i o n between the IPC and EOLOC .07,  was found between the  Internal  Scales  i n d i c a t i n g no r e l a t i o n s h i p between these s c a l e s .  was  However,  67  the Powerful Others and Chance  Scales  of  the  EOLOC  and  IPC  c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y .39 and .42, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Test-retest s c a l e s were .32 (Chance), highly  (Internal),  indicating  locus  of  participating  .72  to  4  months)  (Powerful  I n t e r n a l Scale  Another p o s s i b l e  1(10)  in  a  of the three  Others),  and  .60  i n p a r t i c u l a r i s not explanation  is  that  changed as a r e s u l t  p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y program as seen i n a  ( J e f f e r s , 1977).  Correlations  not  (3  of c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n of s u b j e c t s  previous study  Scales  that  s t a b l e over time.  the  M-C  correlations  Scale  of -.07, .05, and .03 were found and  of the EOLOC.  between  the  the I n t e r n a l , Powerful Others and Chance  These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that  contaminated by s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y .  the  EOLOC  is  68  .Appendix B D e s c r i p t i o n of Measures I n t e r n a l , Powerful Generalized  Others, and Chance S c a l e s l o c u s of c o n t r o l was  IPC S c a l e s (1974, 1981) presented  as  under  the  responses  method  of  subjects  they  a total rating  are  felt  concern  score was differs  asked  number ranging  was  by  subscales  Subjects r a t e d each placing  most  a  checkmark  appropriate.  from  to respond  Levenson's  they  (strongly  format  to each statement  S c o r i n g was  that s u b j e c t s would be if  These  computed for each s u b s c a l e .  from -3 to +3.  statements  negative  items.  8-item  were scored from 1 ( s t r o n g l y disagree) to 6  and  with  three  Likert-type scale,  heading  agree)  was  which comprise  a u n i f i e d s c a l e of 24  item, on a 6-point  measured using Levenson's  less  attached  a  This  in  which  by c i r c l i n g a  a l t e r e d because there inclined  to  disagree  negative connotation  numbers.  I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y estimates of the IPC S c a l e s have moderate, for  ranging  from: .51  the P s c a l e , and  .73  to .67  to .79  reliabilities  the  and C s c a l e s r e s p e c t i v e l y .  I,P,  were i n the  .60  to .79  f o r the I s c a l e ,  f o r the C s c a l e .  split-half  IPC  were r e p o r t e d at .62,  anticipated  positive and  through  have shown low-order measures (Levenson,  negative  convergent  1981).  .66,  and  .64  V a l i d i t y of  relationships  .82  for  the  theoretically with  other  and d i s c r i m i n a n t methods which  c o r r e l a t i o n s with other 1981).  to  Test-retest r e l i a b i l i t i e s  range (Levenson,  and  .72  been  Spearman-Brown  s c a l e s has p r i m a r i l y been e s t a b l i s h e d through  variables  to  locus  of  control  69  Revised C h i l d r e n ' s A t t i t u d e Toward P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y Values  held  toward  p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y were measured using  the Revised CATPA inventory (Schutz, et a l . , were r e q u i r e d to r a t e seven 5-point  semantic  adjectives.  Inventory  1981a).  Subjects  subdomains of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y  differential  scale  which  used  five  on a  bipolar  A score ranging from 5 to 25 was obtained f o r  each  subdomain with the exception of H e a l t h and F i t n e s s which had two scores—one  for  the  three word p a i r s . CATPA  al.,  two word p a i r s and one f o r the l a s t  I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y estimates of the r e v i s e d  inventory  high—with  first  have  been  reported  as  Cronbach's alphas ranging from  being  relatively  .77 t o .94 (Schutz et  1981a). Kenyon's A t t i t u d e Toward P h y s i c a l  Activity  from which CATPA was d e r i v e d , was not used reasons.  First,,  the  makes the statements  simplified  CATPA  was  considered  psychometrically superior to These j u s t i f i c a t i o n s  be ATPA  study f o r two  reducing the p o s s i b i l i t y of  interpretation. to  in this  (ATPA),  wording i n the r e v i s e d CATPA  c l e a r e r thereby  ambiguous or i n c o n s i s t e n t  Scale  Second,  more  time  (Schutz,  the  revised  efficient  et  and  a l . , 1981a).  are expanded i n the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n of  the development of CATPA and r e v i s e d CATPA. The adapted (1968b).  original  CATPA  from the semantic This  inventory  (Simon  & Smoll,  d i f f e r e n t i a l v e r s i o n of Kenyon's  adaptation  mainly  involved  wording, while the form and content of Kenyon's followed  closely.  i n v e n t o r i e s was  The  later  1974) was  equivalence tested  by  of  Schutz  the and  ATPA  simplifying  the  inventory  were  CATPA Smoll  and  ATPA  (1977).  70  Findings  showed  equivalent  with  consistently adult  the  the  two  exception  higher  scores  inventories that  on  the  CATPA  were  essentially  yielded  small  but  a s c e t i c subdomain t h a n d i d  the  inventory. Recently,  was  that  a  developed,  N=1,895).  r e v i s e d CATPA b a s e d on  This  the  inventory  r e s u l t s of  inventory  (Schutz, two  e t a l . , 1981a)  studies  includes  the  (N=1,752  and  following  six  modifications: 1.  Three  of  the  dirty-clean,  The  5 - p o i n t s based  3-.  An  added  for on  do  in order  frequency  not to  to  pairs  eliminated  the  other  e a c h word p a i r was  of M a t t e l l and "I  adjective  were  weak compared  scale  findings  eight  steady-nervous)  psychometrically 2.  original  understand  as  they  were  five.  reduced  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  Jacoby  (bitter-sweet,  from  7-points  responses  and  to the  (1971). this  reduce ambiguity  idea"  response category  when i n t e r p r e t i n g a  was  midpoint  response. 4.  An  the  phrase  5.  The  Growth  action  element  "Taking  part  was  added  in p h y s i c a l  S o c i a l subdomain was ( t o meet new  to each  split  p e o p l e ) and  statement  by  including  activity". i n t o two  dimensions:  Social Continuation  Social  ( t o be  with  friends). 6.  The  scores Health  Health are  derived  and  useful-of comprises  and  Fitness on  Fitness  no  use  the  the  subdomain was basis  Value  is  of  two  made  left  sets  of  up  of  word p a i r s , w h i l e H e a l t h  and  word p a i r s p l e a s a n t - n o t  intact  but  adjective the  pleasant,  pairs.  good-bad  Fitness  two  and  Enjoyment  nice-awful,  and  71  happy-sad. M-C  1(10)  Scale  S o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y was (Strahan  &  Gerbashi,  measured using the M-C  1972)  shortened  length.  Subjects  answering keyed  true  and  or  false.  were  set.  Scale  used to a v o i d e x c e s s i v e  responded to  half  acquiescence was  s c a l e was  Scale  which i s a 10-item v e r s i o n of  33-item Marlowe-Crowne S o c i a l D e s i r a b i l t i t y This  1(10)  each Half  positively  A score of one  of  the  (M-C  the  SDS).  questionnaire  scales  items  by  of the  items were n e g a t i v e l y  keyed  as  was  given  a  control  for  f o r each item which  answered in a s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e d i r e c t i o n . The  M-C  1(10)  scale  Ruder-Richardson  formula  from .59  The  to .70.  was 20  reported  reliability  to  have  coefficients  c o r r e l a t i o n s between the M-C  s h o r t e r s c a l e were a l l in the  .80s  and  .90s  moderate  SDS  (Strahan  &  ranging  and  this  Gerbashi,  1972). Causal  Dimension  Three  dimensions  were assessed Subjects  Scale of  using Russel's  who  did  not  the  c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n s of dropouts  Causal  continue  Dimension  attending  Scale  classes  (1982). until  r e g i s t r a t i o n p e r i o d ended were asked to s t a t e t h e i r main for  discontinuing  r a t e t h i s reason of  three  participation.  3-item  subscales  (internal-external), controllability  stability  reason  They were then requested  on the Causal Dimension S c a l e , measuring  which  locus  of  the  to  consists causality  (stable-unstable),  and  ( c o n t r o l l a b l e - u n c o n t r o l l a b l e ) . T h i s s c a l e uses  a semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l  format with a 9-point  scale.  A  score  72  for  each  subscale was  three items indicated  i n each of them. that  internal,  .73  reason  High  scores  high  for  dropping  with  (Russel,  1982).  p e r c e i v e d as  subscales  and  Although  the  been  were  .87,  .84,  controllability validity  established  of the  in  real-  c o n s i d e r e d to be more accurate  the researcher s u b j e c t i v e l y  out  the  stability,  s e t t i n g s , t h i s measure was  dropping  out was  subscales  r e p o r t e d alpha c o e f f i c i e n t s of  Causal Dimension Scale has not yet  than having  these  to the  controllable.  for l o c u s of c a u s a l i t y ,  respectively  world  on  i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y estimates of  moderately and  the  s t a b l e , and  The  o b t a i n e d by summing the responses  translate  reasons  for  into causal a t t r i b u t i o n s .  E x e r c i s e O b j e c t i v e s Locus of C o n t r o l S c a l e s Exercise  specific  l o c u s of c o n t r o l was  measured using  the  E x e r c i s e O b j e c t i v e s Locus of C o n t r o l (EOLOC) S c a l e s developed  by  the i n v e s t i g a t o r  of  three was  (see Appendix A).  The  EOLOC S c a l e s c o n s i s t  6-item subscales presented as a u n i f i e d s c a l e .  rated on a 5-point L i k e r t - t y p e format,  agree (5) to s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e  (1).  30  subscale.  was  obtained  for  each  ranging from s t r o n g l y  A score ranging Internal  e s t i m a t e s , obtained as p a r t of t h i s study, Cronbach's Powerful  alphas  Others,  the EOLOC has  of  .79,  .69,  and Chance S c a l e s  and  .75  were for  respectively.  not been e s t a b l i s h e d y e t .  Each item  from  6  to  consistency  moderate the  with  Internal,  Validity  of  Appendix C Quest ionna i res  74  Initial  Informed  Consent  We a r e c o n d u c t i n g a r e s e a r c h s t u d y a s s e s s i n g some a s s o c i a t e d with p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n exercise programs.  aspects  F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y we a r e i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n t h o s e p e o p l e who h a v e NOT b e e n e x e r c i s i n g r e g u l a r l y (2 o r 3 t i m e s p e r week) o v e r t h e l a s t y e a r , e i t h e r i n o r g a n i z e d p r o g r a m s or i n d i v i d u a l l y . I f you f i t t h i s c a t e g o r y ( i e . i f you have not b e e n e x e r c i s i n g c o n s i s t e n t l y o v e r t h e l a s t y e a r ) , we w o u l d like 20 m i n u t e s o f y o u r t i m e t o c o m p l e t e t h i s set of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . A l l i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d from your p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l k e p t s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l , a n d w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d o n l y b y number. A summary r e p o r t o f t h e s t u d y ' s f i n d i n g s a v a i l a b l e on r e q u e s t t o t h o s e who participate  w i l l be in this  be  made study.  Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study i s c o m p l e t e l y v o l u n t a r y , a n d y o u may w i t h d r a w a t any t i m e w i t h o u t p e n a l t y o f any k i n d . I f the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s are completed i t w i l l be a s s u m e d t h a t c o n s e n t has been g i v e n t o use t h e d a t a from y o u r responses.  INSTRUCTIONS Please complete r e t u r n i t by m a i l i n  the the  following addressed  set and  o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and stamped e n v e l o p e , p r o v i d e d .  When y o u r e s p o n d t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , p l e a s e do s o w i t h o u t d i s c u s s i n g the items with o t h e r s . We w a n t o n l y y o u r own opinions and a n s w e r s . Also, please t r y to respond to a l l statements and questions. F o r y o u r c o n v e n i e n c e , a p e n c i l has been e n c l o s e d f o r use c o m p l e t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . We a s k t h a t y o u r e t u r n the p e n c i l along with the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . a  in  Y o u r c o o p e r a t i o n i s v e r y s i n c e r e l y a p p r e c i a t e d , as i t makes d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e o v e r a l l s u c c e s s o f t h i s s t u d y . .We thank you.  Primary Under  researcher:  the  direction  Marina of:  Dr.  McCready B.  Long  (graduate  student)  Background Questions  3. G e n d e r  (aale  or fea«le)_  >. E s t i m a t e w h i t p e r c e n t a g e o r engaged In compulsory  o f y o u r 1 * 1 m r « t l a e (when a c t i v i t i e s ) jot) s p e n d :  a.  physically  ictctlv*  %  b.  physically  active  %  (NOTE: t h a i *  should  net working  a d d up t o 1 0 0 % )  P L E A S E READ THE T0I.L0VIKG STATEMENTS ADD C I R C L E T H E L E T T E R B E S I D E T H E RESPONSE WHICH IS MOST A P P R O P R I A T E TOR YOU. TOR EXAMPLE, I T TOU ARE A SMOKER YOU WOULD C I R C L E THE L E T T E R " a " IH QUESTION | * .  ».  I ••: a.  a  b.  an o c c a s i o n a l  c.  a  5. X a n  aaoker  currently:  a.  employed  b.  unemployed  c.  retired  d.  a  housewife  e.  a  student  6. My n o r m a l require:  non-leisure  a.  a treat  b.  some  c.  alnlasl  7. T h e most r e l e t ive  6. Ry  11.  a c t i v i t i e s (work  of physical  or compulsory  activities)  eaertlon  exertion  physical  important etc.) :  exertion  person  not support  i s ay l i f e  ( e g . , spouse,  a.  dees  b.  i s eoaewhet  c.  Is i n d i f f e r e n t  t o ay p a r t i c i p a t i o n  d.  siy p a r t i c i p a t i o n  fully  ay p a r t i c i p a t i o n  supportive  aupports  i s this  program  i n this  prograa  o f ay p a r t i c i p a t i o n In t h i s  l a this  aete,  exercise  prograa  prograa  family; a.  does  b.  i s »onewhat  c.  i s indifferent  d.  fully  not support  in this  a friend  b.  aore  c.  no f r i e n d s  1 have  t o ay p a r t i c i p a t i o n  one f r i e n d  twice  c.  three  d.  never  exercise  prograa  in this  prograa  i n This  i n this  prograa  prograa  with:  or r e l a t i v e s  or relatives  previously  once  t.  ay p a r t i c i p a t i o n prograa  In t h i s  o f ay p a r t i c i p a t i o n  or relative  than  a.  ay p a r t i c i p a t i o n  supportive  supports  a.  or aore  been  enrolled  In an ergar.lxed  fitness  class  tlaes  Of t h e f i t n e s s c l o s e t 1 have p r e v i o u s l y been I c o m p l e t e d t h e p r o g r a a from s t a r t t o f i n i s h a.  12.  deal  physical  9. I e n r o l l e d  10.  saoker  nonsaoker  enrolled  in  once  b.  twice  c.  three  d.  not  I used  o r more  tlaes  applicable-  to participate  1) d u r i n g  ay s c h o o l  i n organised  sport:  years  a. yes b. il)  no  after  leaving  school  a. yes b. 13.  no  I aa c u r r e n t l y  participating  In o r g a n i s e d  sport:  a. yes  It.  I have p r e v i o u s l y e x e r c i s e d (swimming, j o g g i n g , c y c l i n g , e t c . ) on a r e g u l a r b a s i s ( 2 o r 3 t l a e s p e r w e a k ) o n a y own: a. yes b.  no  7 6  CATPA I n s t r u c t i o n s  feel  The f o l l o w i n g about c e r t a i n  questionnaire i s designed to f i n d aspects of physical activity.  out  how  you  At t h e t o p o f each page i n t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e r e i s a box c o n t a i n i n g an i d e a . Down b e l o w t h e b o x a r e f i v e different p a i r s of words. You a r e b e i n g a s k e d t o mark e a c h o f t h e s e word p a i r s t o s h o w how y o u f e e l a b o u t t h e i d e a . T h e r e a r e no r i g h t o r wrong a n s w e r s . Here  i s how  you  are  t o use  these  scales:  R e a d t h e i d e a i n t h e b o x , s a y f o r e x a m p l e , RUNNING. g o down t o t h e f i r s t p a i r o f w o r d s - - G o o d - B a d . T h i n k how f e e l about r u n n i n g . If as  you t h i n k follows:  running good  i s very : :  good :  If you t h i n k r u n n i n g i s p r e t t y p l a c e a check-mark as f o l l o w s :  you would p l a c e : bad  good but good  not :  a  super :  Now you  check-mark  good :  you :  would bad  I f you t h i n k r u n n i n g i s n e i t h e r good n o r bad ( i e . , a neutral f e e l i n g ) you would put a check-mark i n the m i d d l e s p a c e as follows: good : : y / : : bad I f you t h i n k r u n n i n g i s s o r t o f bad but p l a c e a check-mark as f o l l o w s : good If as  you t h i n k follows:  If in  you the  do do  not not  running good  i s very : :  understand understand  the box  not :  r e a l l y bad : :  bad you would p l a c e : : bad  a  you :  would bad  check-mark  i d e a i n t h e box p u t a c h e c k - m a r k on t h e m i d d l e o f t h e p a g e .  I t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r y o u t o remember s e v e r a l t h i n g s . First o f a l l , p u t y o u r c h e c k - m a r k s i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e s p a c e , n o t on top of the dots. S e c o n d , n e v e r p l a c e more t h a n one check-mark on a s i n g l e s c a l e . T h i r d , t h e r e a r e f i v e p a i r s o f w o r d s on e a c h p a g e ; do n o t o m i t a n y . Read t h e i d e a i n t h e box a t t h e t o p o f t h e page and f i l l i n how y o u f e e l a b o u t a l l o f t h e w o r d p a i r s b e f o r e y o u go o n t o the next page . Do n o t go b a c k t o a p a g e a f t e r y o u h a v e finished i t , a n d do n o t t r y t o r e m e m b e r how y o u a n s w e r e d t h e o t h e r p a g e s . T h i n k a b o u t e a c h w o r d p a i r by i t s e l f . Work f a i r l y quickly through t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; do n o t w o r r y o r t h i n k t o o l o n g a b o u t any word pair. M a r k t h e f i r s t t h i n g t h a t c o m e s i n t o y o u r m i n d , b u t do n o t be c a r e l e s s . R e m e m b e r , t h e i d e a i n t h e b o x i s a new i d e a , s o think only about that idea.  77  E x e r c i s e Goals and Goal  SETTING  EXERCISE GOALS  Using w o u l d most maximum number you,  Attainment  the blank like  of three  spaces below, l i s t  to achieve goals  one c o r r e s p o n d s  in this  ranked  exercise  i n order  to the goal  the goal  o r g o a l s you  program.  of importance,  that  i s most  List a so t h a t  important to  and so o n .  1.  2. 3 .  Indicate  how s u c c e s s f u l  g o a l C s ) by p l a c i n g seen below. reflects  your  approximates  1  Goal 2 Goal 3  a check-mark  I f you f i n d opinion,  that  check  under  t o be a t a c h i e v i n g  the appropriate  none o f t h e h e a d i n g s t h e one t h a t  most  these  heading  totally  closely  t h e way you f e e l .  unsuccessful feoal  you expect  slightly successful  moderately successful  quite successful  very successful  78  EOLOC  Scales  The s t a t e m e n t s l i s t e d b e l o w a r e commonly h e l d o p i n i o n s . You a r e b e i n g asked t o i n d i c a t e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h y o u agree or disagree with these statements. T h e r e a r e no r i g h t o r wrong a n s w e r s . F i r s t impressions are best. Read e a c h s t a t e m e n t c a r e f u l l y , d e c i d e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h y o u a g r e e o r d i s a g r e e , and t h e n p l a c e a c h e c k - m a r k u n d e r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e h e a d i n g . G I V E YOUR OPINION ON EVERY STATEMENT. I f y o u f i n d t h a t t h e h e a d i n g s do n o t a d e q u a t e l y r e f l e c t y o u r o p i n i o n , u s e t h e one t h a t i s c l o s e s t t o t h e way you f e e l . I f y o u do n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h e s t a t e m e n t , p l a c e a c h e c k - n a r k u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g "Do N o t U n d e r s t a n d " . Thank y o u .  Strongly Agree  Agree  Undecided  Disagree  _____  _____  _____  _____  _____  _____  _____  _____  _____  _____  ______  1.  W h e t h e r o r n o t I r e a c h my e x e r c i s e o b j e c t i v e s i s d e p e n d e n t on c i r c u m s t a n c e s b e y o n d my c o n t r o l .  2.  My own a c t i o n s w i l l a c h i e v e my e x e r c i s e  3.  I f i t ' s meant t o b e , I w i l l objectives.  U.  W h e t h e r o r n o t I o b t a i n my e x e r i s e d e p e n d s m o s t l y on my own b e h a v i o r .  5.  W h e t h e r o r n o t I a c h i e v e my e x e r c i s e o b j e c t i v e s i s l a r g e l y a m a t t e r o f good o r bad f o r t u n e .  6.  The e n c o u r a g e m e n t I g i v e m y s e l f w i l l g r e a t l y a f f e c t w h e t h e r o r n o t I r e a c h my e x e r c i s e objectives.  _____  _____  _____  _____  7.  I f I do n o t a t t a i n my e x e r c i s e p e o p l e w i l l be t o b l a m e .  ______  _____  _____  ______  8.  F o r t h e most p a r t , o t h e r p e o p l e a r e i n c o n t r o l o v e r w h e t h e r o r n o t I a t t a i n my e x e r c i s e g o a l s .  _____  '  _____  _____  9.  Whether o r is largely My a c t i o n s nothinp, t o my e x e r c i s e  _____  _____  _____  _____  _____  ______  _____  _____  _____  _____  _____  ____  _____  _____  _____  _____  _____  _____  _____  _ — —  _____  _____  _____  10.  determine whether o r not I objectives. reach  my  _____  _____ _____  ________  ________  —  —  other  n o t I a c h i e v e my e x e r c i s e o b j e c t i v e s a matter of fate. o r t h e a c t i o n s o f o t h e r p e o p l e have do w i t h w h e t h e r c r n o t I a c c o m p l i s h goals.  11.  I t i s e n t i r e l y up t o o t h e r p e o p l e w h e t h e r o r n o t I a c c o m p l i s h my e x e r c i s e g o a l s .  12.  Whether o r n o t I a c c o m p l i s h d e p e n d s on how l u c k y I am.  13.  I am d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r w h e t h e r o r n o t I r e a c h my e x e r c i s e g o a l s .  1 •+.  A c h i e v i n g my e x e r c i s e o b j e c t i v e s w i l l on how f o r t u n a t e I am.  15.  Whether o r n o t I a c c o m p l i s h i s e n t i r e l y up t o me.  16.  Whether o r n o t I r e a c h d e p e n d s on t h e a c t i o n s  17.  O t h e r p e o p l e h a v e t h e p o w e r t o make c e r t a i n I a c c o m p l i s h my e x e r c i s e o b j e c t i v e s .  IB.  Not a c h i e v i n g my e x e r c i s e m a t t e r o f bad f o r t u n e .  19.  The b e h a v i o r o f o t h e r p e o p l e w i l l g r e a t l y I n f l u e n c e w h e t h e r o r n o t I r e a c h my e x e r c i s e objectives.  20.  Do N o t Understand  exercise  objectives  goals,  •  Strongly Disagree  my e x e r c i s e  _____ _____  _____  ______  goals _ — _  _____  depend  my e x e r c i s e  goals  my e x e r c i s e o b j e c t i v e s of c e r t a i n other people.  objectives w i l l  _____ _____  _____  that _____  be a  I am p r i m a r i l y i n c o n t r o l o v e r w h e t h e r o r n o t I r e a c h my e x e r c i s e o b j e c t i v e s .  •  _  —  _____  . ,  _____  _____  _____  ____  _____  .  —  —  79  Followup Informed Consent  We h a v e b e e n c o n d u c t i n g a r e s e a r c h s t u d y ( o f w h i c h y o u h a v e b e e n a v a l u a b l e p a r t ) a s s e s s i n g some a s p e c t s a s s o c i a t e d with p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n fitness classes. I f y o u v o l u n t e e r once a g a i n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study, y o u w i l l be a s k e d t o f i l l o u t t h e a t t a c h e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h w i l l take about t e n minutes t o complete. A l l i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be k e p t s t r i c t l y c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i l l be d e s t r o y e d i s anonymously s t o r e d i n a computer.  c o n f i d e n t i a l and a l l once t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  Y o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s s t u d y i s s t r i c t l y v o l u n t a r y , and y o u may w i t h d r a w a t any t i m e w i t h o u t p e n a l t y o f any k i n d . I f the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s c o m p l e t e d i t w i l l be assumed t h a t c o n s e n t has b e e n g i v e n t o u s e t h e d a t a f r o m y o u r r e s p o n s e s .  INSTRUCTIONS by  P l e a s e complete t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e and r e t u r n i t m a i l i n t h e a d d r e s s e d and stamped e n v e l o p e p r o v i d e d .  When y o u r e s p o n d t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , p l e a s e do s o w i t h o u t d i s c u s s i n g t h e items w i t h o t h e r s . We want o n l y y o u r own o p i n i o n s and a n s w e r s . A l s o p l e a s e t r y t o r e s p o n d t o a l l s t a t e m e n t s and questions. has you  Y o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n h a s b e e n v e r y s i n c e r e l y a p p r e c i a t e d , and made a d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e o v e r a l l s u c c e s s o f t h i s s t u d y . Thank v e r y much. Happy New Y e a r !  Primary  researcher:  Under t h e d i r e c t i o n  M a r i n a McCready of:  Dr. B o n i t a  (graduate Long  student)  80  Followup  to  Questions  L i s t e d b e l o w a r e t h e g o a l s you s t a t e d a c h i e v e by a t t e n d i n g f i t n e s s c l a s s e s .  that  you  most w a n t e d  1. 2. 3.  I n d i c a t e how s u c c e s s f u l you f e e l y o u were a t a c h i e v i n g t h e s e g o a l s — b y p l a c i n g a check-mark u n d e r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e h e a d i n g below. I f y o u f i n d t h a t none o f t h e h e a d i n g s t o t a l l y r e f l e c t s y o u r o p i n i o n , c h e c k t h e one t h a t most c l o s e l y a p p r o x i m a t e s t h e way you feel. unsuccessful goal  1  goal  2  goal  3  D i d you (circle  continue to Yes o r No)  slightly successful  attend  moderately successful  classes  until  the  program  ended?  ignore  the  following  Yes  (answer q u e s t i o n s  b.  No  (go  1.  Now t h a t you h a v e c o m p l e t e d t h i s e x e r c i s e p r o g r a m do y o u intend t o c o n t i n u e e x e r c i s i n g r e g u l a r l y ( i e . , 2 o r 3 t i m e s per week)? a.  Yes  b.  No  c.  Not  to the  3 below and  very successful  a.  directly  1 to  quite successful  following page—ignore  questions  page)  1 to  3)  sure  2.  I f y o u do i n t e n d t o c o n t i n u e e x e r c i s i n g r e g u l a r l y , what a r e m a i n t y p e s o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y y o u w i l l be d o i n g ?  3.  I f y o u do n o t i n t e n d t o c o n t i n u e e x e r c i s i n g r e g u l a r l y , what i s y o u r main reason?  the  81  Followup Questions Continued  THIS 4.  PAGE IS FOR  THOSE WHO  DID NOT  ATTEND UNTIL  PROGRAM COMPLETION  S i n c e you stopped a t t e n d i n g c l a s s e s have you been e x e r c i s i n g r e g u l a r l y ( i e . , 2 o r 3 t i m e s p e r week)? a.  Yes  b.  No  5.  I f y o u h a v e been e x e r c i s i n g r e g u l a r l y , what o f a c t i v i t i e s you have been d o i n g ?  6.  I f y o u have n o t b e e n e x e r c i s i n g reason?  7. What i s t h e main  regularly,  reason you stopped  a r e t h e main  what  i s your  a t t e n d i n g ENERFIT  types  main  classes?  T h i n k o f t h e r e a s o n y o u h a v e w r i t t e n i n number 7 a b o v e . The i t e m s below concern your i m p r e s s i o n s or o p i n i o n s o f t h i s cause. CIRCLE one number f o r e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s c a l e s .  

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