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A psychometric analysis of the Simon and Smoll children’s attitude toward physical activity inventory Wood, Terence Michael 1979

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A PSYCHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE SIMON AND SMOLL CHILDREN'S ATTITUDE TOWARD PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INVENTORY by TERENCE MICHAEL WOOD 8. A. , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1971 B.P.E., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School o f P h y s i c a l Education and R e c r e a t i o n We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1979 (c) Terence Michael Wood, 1979 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t n f PHvsTr . f l i F n n r . A T T O N A N D R F C R F A T T O N The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 D a t e i i ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o examine the psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of the Simon and Smoll (1974) semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e f o r a s s e s s i n g c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y (CATPA) i n v e n t o r y , i n l i g h t of the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r d i s c r e p a n c y c o n t r o v e r s y . Data a n a l y s i s was composed of two p a r t s . , Data a n a l y s i s Part I examined the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , item d i s c r i m i n a t i n g power, item frequency of the n e u t r a l / u n c e r t a i n response, and f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e of CATPA f i e l d t e s t data c o l l e c t e d from 2,035 male and female s u b j e c t s aged 10-15 years. R e s u l t s of data a n a l y s i s Part I r e v e a l e d high i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y f o r each of the s i x CATPA subdomains, which compared f a v o r a b l y to other i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . C o n s i s t e n t l y lower item d i s c r i m i n a t i n g power f o r the word p a i r s steady-nervous and d i r t y - c l e a n under each i n v e n t o r y subdomain was found, although a l l word p a i r s were judged t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y adequate d i s c r i m i n a t o r s . A n a l y s i s of the n e u t r a l / u n c e r t a i n response frequency showed c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r frequency of t h i s response f o r the b i t t e r - s w e e t word p a i r over a l l subdomains. F a c t o r a n a l y s i s confirmed the s i x - f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e employed by Simon and Smoll (1974); however, the h e a l t h f a c t o r y i e l d e d high l o a d i n g s on only s i x o f e i g h t word p a i r s , i n d i c a t i n g a dichotomous response to t h i s f a c t o r . . In order t o determine i f maximizing the psychometric p r o p e r t i e s o f the CATPA i n v e n t o r y would i i i i n c r e a s e the power of the i n v e n t o r y to detect an a t t i t u d e -behavior r e l a t i o n s h i p , data a n a l y s i s Part I I compared c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s performed on three r e l a t e d data s e t s . Each data s e t c o n s i s t e d of one of a p r i o r i CATPA data, CATPA data r e v i s e d a c c o r d i n g to the r e s u l t s of data a n a l y s i s P a r t I , or CATPA f a c t o r s c o r e s ; and b e h a v i o r a l data. The r e s t r u c t u r e d and f a c t o r score CAT PA data s e t s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s over the a p r i o r i CATPA data, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t f o r the measures employed, maximizing ths psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of the CATPA i n v e n t o r y d i d not improve d e t e c t i o n of an a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r r e l a t i o n s h i p . Based upon the r e s u l t s of data a n a l y s i s Part I and Part I I , i t was concluded that the Simon and Smoll CATPA in v e n t o r y i s a p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y sound instrument f o r measuring c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e toward the domain of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . However, i t was recommended t h a t the word p a i r s b i t t e r - s w e e t , d i r t y - c l e a n , and steady-nervous be d e l e t e d from the i n v e n t o r y and t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h be i n i t i a t e d r e g a r d i n g the s t r u c t u r e of the i n v e n t o r y and the a t t i t u d e -behavior r e l a t i o n s h i p . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ............................. . . . . , . , , . . . . . . . . . . i i LIST OF TABLES , . - . . v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT x CHAPTER I The Problem ................................. 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n ....................................... . 1 Statement Of The Problem ........................... 6 D e f i n i t i o n s Of Terms 7 CHAPTER I I Review Qf The L i t e r a t u r e ................... . 9 The A t t i t u d e - B e h a v i o r Discrepancy Controversy , 9 A-B Measurement. ................................. 13 R e d e f i n i n g The A-B Problem.. .......................18 Antecedent Determinants Of Behavior., ,...,,....,.....18 S i t u a t i o n a l F o r c es. ............................ 20 Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l i n g Techniques 21 S e l e c t i o n Of SD Sca l e s , , ........................ 26 The N e u t r a l Reponse Category,. .................. 30 Other Problems. ................................. 31 Development And Ose Of The CATPA Inventory ......... 32 Development Of The ATPA Inventory.. .............32 Development Of The CATPA Inventory. ............ 37 Research F i n d i n g s Using The CATPA Inventory. ... 41 Su b j e c t i v e Views On CATPA A d m i n i s t r a t i o n And Sc o r i n g . .................................... 4 6 Summary 49 V CHAPTER I I I Subject And Data C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s -. 51 B e l l e v u e , Washington (Simon 6 Smoll, 1974) ......... 53 Be l l e v u e , Washington (Smoll, Et A l . , 1976) ,. 54 Richmond And Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia (Schutz & Wood, 1 976) ....... 56 B r i t i s h Columbia (Wood, Schutz, & Smoll, 1977) ..... 57 Summary ............................................ 5 8 CHAPTER IV Methods And R e s u l t s „ 60 Data A n a l y s i s P a r t I ............... ... ............. 61 A P r i o r i Data Set. 61 . . . . i A P r i o r i Reweighted Data. 78 Item Deleted A P r i o r i Data.. .................... 86 Item Deleted Reweighted Data Set. ............... 90 F a c t o r A n a l y s i s . . ...................102 Data A n a l y s i s Part I I 114 CHAPTER V D i s c u s s i o n 120 I n t e r n a l C o n s i s t e n c y ................................ 120 Item A n a l y s i s ......................................121 Fac t o r A n a l y s i s .................................... 122 C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n s ............................. 123 Conclusi o n s ............... ......................... 125 Recommendations ....................................125 CHAPTER VI Summary ....................................127 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..........................................131 APPENDIX ., .............. 142 LIST OF TABLES Table 1 - Data A n a l y s i s Part I : Subject Age, Sex, And L o c a t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ........................... 52 Table 2 - Hoyt R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s : A P r i o r i Data A l l S u bgroups ...................................... 62 Table 3 - Maximized Hoyt R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s : A P r i o r i Data S e l e c t e d Subgroups ..................... .64 Table 4 - Derived Weights AS Generated By The Method Of R e c i p r o c a l Averages: Age Group 10-12 Years ...... 65 Table 5 - Derived Weights As Generated By The Method Of R e c i p r o c a l Averages: Age Group 13-15 Years ...... 67 Table 6 - Item-Test C o r r e l a t i o n s In The S o c i a l Subdomain: A P r i o r i Data S e l e c t e d Subgroups ........ ,70 Table 7 - Item-Test C o r r e l a t i o n s In The Health Subdomain: A P r i o r i Data S e l e c t e d Subgroups ...........71 Table 8 - Item-Test C o r r e l a t i o n s In The V e r t i g o Subdomain: A P r i o r i Data S e l e c t e d Subgroups ........ 72 Table 9 - Item-Test C o r r e l a t i o n s In The A e s t h e t i c Subdomain: A P r i o r i Data S e l e c t e d Subgroups ,.,,.,,,,,73 Table 10 - Item-Test C o r r e l a t i o n s In T h e . C a t h a r s i s Subdomain: A _ P r i o r i Data S e l e c t e d Subgroups ........74 Table 11 - Item-Test C o r r e l a t i o n s In The A s c e t i c Subdomain: A P r i o r i Data S e l e c t e d Subgroups ........ 75 Table 12 - Frequency Of N e u t r a l Response In The S o c i a l i Subdomain: A P r i o r i Data S e l e c t e d Subgroups ........ 79 v i i T able 13 - Frequency Of Ne u t r a l Response In The Health Subdomain: A P r i o r i Data S e l e c t e d Subgroups ........ 80 Table 14 - Frequency Of N e u t r a l Response In The V e r t i g o Subdomain: &,„Priori Data S e l e c t e d Subgroups .......... .81 Table 15 - Frequency Of N e u t r a l Response In The A e s t h e t i c Subdomain: A - P r i o r i Data S e l e c t e d Subgroups .......................................... 82 Table 16 - Frequency Of N e u t r a l Response In The C a t h a r s i s Subdomain: A P r i o r i Data S e l e c t e d Subgroups ........................... .......... ..... ... 83 Table 17 - Frequency Of N e u t r a l Response In The A s c e t i c Subdomain: A P r i o r i Data S e l e c t e d Subgroups ........ 84 Table 18 - Hoyt R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s : A _ P r i g r i Reweighted Data A l l Subgroups ...................... 85 Table 19 - Hoyt R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s : Item Deleted A P r i o r i Data A l l Subgroups ........................ 88 Table 20 - Maximized Hoyt R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s : Item Deleted A P r i o r i Data S e l e c t e d Subgroups ....... 89 Table 21 - Derived Weights As Generated By The Method Of R e c i p r o c a l Averages: Item Deleted A P r i o r i Data Age Group 10-12 . ...............91 Table 22 - Derived Weights As Generated By The Method Of R e c i p r o c a l Averages: Item Deleted A P r i o r i Data Age Group 13-15 93 Table 23 - Hoyt R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s : Item Deleted Reweighted Data A l l Subgroups ...................... 95 Table 24 - Item-Test C o r r e l a t i o n s In The S o c i a l v i i i Subdomain: Item Deleted Reweighted Data S e l e c t e d Subgroups ..........................................96 Table 25 - Item-Test C o r r e l a t i o n s In The Health Subdomain: Item Deleted Reweighted Data S e l e c t e d Subgroups ..................... ..................... 97 Table 26 - Item-Test Correlations In The V e r t i g o Subdomain: Item Deleted Reweighted Data S e l e c t e d Subgroups .......................................... 98 Table 27 - Item-Test C o r r e l a t i o n s In The A e s t h e t i c Subdomain: Item Deleted Reweighted Data S e l e c t e d Subgroups ..........................................99 Table 28 - Item-Test C o r r e l a t i o n s In The C a t h a r s i s Subdomain: Item Deleted Reweighted Data S e l e c t e d Subgroups 100 Table 29 - Item-Test C o r r e l a t i o n s In The A s c e t i c Subdomain: Item Deleted Reweighted Data S e l e c t e d Subgroups ...................................101 Table 30 - F a c t o r S t r u c t u r e Of The CATPA Inventory: A P r i o r i Data 107 Table 31 - F a c t o r S t r u c t u r e Of The CATPA Inventory: A P r i o r i Reweighted Data ..............................108 Table 32 - F a c t o r S t r u c t u r e Of The CATPA Inventory: Item Deleted A P r i o r i Data ...,...,.....,.,,,,.......109 Table 33 - F a c t o r S t r u c t u r e Of The CATPA Inventory: Item Deleted Reweighted Data Age Group 10-12 .......110 Table 34 - Fa c t o r S t r u c t u r e Of The CATPA Inventory: Item Deleted Reweighted Data Age Group 13-15 ,110 Table 35 - Communality S t a t i s t i c s For Each CATPA Word P a i r : ft P r i o r i Data F a c t o r S t r u c t u r e ...................112 Table 36 - Ccmmunality S t a t i s t i c s For Each CATPA Word P a i r : Item Deleted Reweighted Data Factor S t r u c t u r e 113 Table 37 - C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n s Between CATPA And Involvement-Performance: Comparisons Between Three Data Sets .......................................... 116 Table 38 - C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n s Between CATPA And Involvement: Comparisons Between Three Data Sets ...117 Table 39 - C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n s Between CATPA And Performance: Comparisons Between Three Data Se t s ...118 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENT An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h i s magnitude i s seldom the product of one person's e f f o r t . . The author i s t h e r e f o r e indebted t o s e v e r a l people f o r t h e i r guidance and a s s i s t a n c e i n completing t h i s study. To Dr. Robert Schutz, my committee chairman, teacher, and, above a l l , f r i e n d ; I owe so much. H i s encouragement and i n t e r e s t throughout my academic career i s l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . , To the other members of my committee, Dr. Alex C a r r e , Dr. Seong-Soo Lee, and Dr. Frank Smoll, I extend s p e c i a l thanks., In p a r t i c u l a r , t o Dr., Smoll, whose enthusiasm i n the search f o r knowledge provided a constant focus f o r the author. 1 CHAPTER I The Problem IntroduGtion The shortcomings of a t t i t u d e s c a l e s a v a i l a b l e a t the time p r e c i p i t a t e d the development of Kenyon's (1968 a,b,c) m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l a t t i t u d e i n v e n t o r y as an instrument f o r a s s e s s i n g c r o s s n a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y (ATPA) among ad o l e s c e n t s . Previous s c a l e s had f a i l e d t o account f o r the p o s s i b l e and l i k e l y m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l i t y of the domain of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , were seldom c o n s t r u c t e d a c c o r d i n g to proper t e s t c o n s t r u c t i o n procedures, and were too narrow i n d e l i n e a t i n g the domain of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . Kenyon's ATPA i n v e n t o r y was based upon a c o n c e p t u a l model c h a r a c t e r i z i n g p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s o c i o - ^ p s y c h o l o g i c a l phenomenom (Kenyon, 1968a, 1968b). In developing the model, i t was assumed t h a t the domain of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y c o u l d be reduced t o l o g i c a l subsets (subdomains) formulated upon the b a s i s o f p e r c e i v e d i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y . The s i x subsets or dimensions i d e n t i f i e d by Kenyon were p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as a s o c i a l experience, f o r h e a l t h and f i t n e s s , as the p u r s u i t of v e r t i g o , as an a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e , as c a t h a r s i s , and as an a s c e t i c experience, . ATPA with r e s p e c t t o each subdomain was 2 q u a n t i f i e d through the use of a 7-point semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e f o r each of e i g h t b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e s . The a v a i l a b i l i t y of Kenyon's instrument i n i t i a t e d a dramatic i n c r e a s e i n the number of s t u d i e s concerning a t t i t u d e toward s p o r t and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . Researchers u t i l i z i n g the i n v e n t o r y have i n v e s t i g a t e d such areas of endeavor as comparisons of a t t i t u d e w i t h i n and between a t h l e t i c groups (Alderman, 1970; B l a i r S K i z e r , 1971), comparisons between p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a t h l e t i c s (Eastgate, 1975), f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g a t t i t u d e change (Tolson & Ch e v r e t t e , 1974), and r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y (ATPA) and other p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s such as p e r s o n a l i t y (Sonstroem, 1974). In order t o provide a means of a s s e s s i n g ATPA dur i n g i t s f o r m a t i v e years, Simon and Smoll (1974) adapted Kenyon's ATPA inv e n t o r y f o r use.with c h i l d r e n i n grades f o u r through s i x , thus widening the i n v e s t i g a t i v e scope. Simon and Smoll c l o s e l y adhered t o the format and content of Kenyon's s c a l e s i n order to preserve the i n t e g r i t y of t h e i r concepts; however, s u b s t a n t i a l changes i n wording made the Simon and Smoll semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e f o r a s s e s s i n g c h i l d r e n ' s ATPA (CATPA) a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the reading competencies of f o u r t h through s i x t h - g r a d e c h i l d r e n . . Schutz and Smoll (1977) confirmed the e q u i v a l e n c y of Simon and Smoll's CATPA and Kenyon's ATPA inventory. However, the psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of the CATPA inv e n t o r y have not been 3 v a l i d a t e d with f i e l d t e s t data. The " a c c e p t a b l e " degree o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e p o r t e d by Simon and Smoll (1974) needs to be confirmed with f i e l d t e s t data. . The extent to which each b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e p a i r d i s c r i m i n a t e s between p o s i t i v e and ne g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s has not yet been determined f o r the CATPA i n v e n t o r y . S i m i l a r l y , the frequency of the n e u t r a l / u n c e r t a i n response f o r each word p a i r must be eval u a t e d i n order t o determine i f each b i p l a r word p a i r i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r use with c h i l d r e n . The o r i g i n a l s i x - f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e o f Kenyon"s ATPA i n v e n t o r y has never been v a l i d a t e d f o r young c h i l d r e n and may not be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r use with c h i l r e n aged 10 through 12 years. T h e r e f o r e , f a c t o r a n a l y s i s should be performed on f i e l d data to t e s t the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e of the CATPA i n v e n t o r y . Research employing the CATPA in v e n t o r y has focused on the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r r e l a t i o n s h i p as well as f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the development o f CATPA. Smoll, Schutz and Keeney (1976) f a i l e d to d i s c o v e r any s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s among CATPA , degree of primary involvement i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , and p h y s i c a l motor performance, while Smoll, Schutz, Wood, and Cunningham (1979) found an absence of h y p othesized r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s toward and involvement i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s , and the a t t i t u d e s and behaviors of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The l a c k of s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the a t t i t u d i n a l and b e h a v i o r a l components i n the Smoll, et a l . s t u d i e s suggest the f o l l o w i n g : 4 a. there i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p between CATPA. and c e r t a i n b e h a v i o r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , or b. the s t r u c t u r e of the CATPA i n v e n t o r y i s not powerful enough to adequately d e t e c t the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r r e l a t i o n s h i p due t o unsound psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of the instrument and/or l a c k of congruency between a t t i t u d i n a l p r e d i c t o r s and b e h a v i o r a l c r i t e r i o n . While most r e s e a r c h e r s would agree that a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between a t t i t u d e and behavior (Ajzen & F i s h b e i n , 1977; T r i a n d i s , 1971) few agree upon the nature and s t r e n g t h of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . Ajzen and F i s h b e i n t y p i f y a r e v i v a l of i n t e r e s t i n the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r q u e s t i o n . A f t e r d e f i n i n g both a t t i t u d i n a l and b e h a v i o r a l e n t i t i e s i n terms of f o u r e l e m e n t s ( a c t i o n , t a r g e t at which the a c t i o n i s d i r e c t e d , c o n t e x t i n which the a c t i o n i s performed, and the time at which i t i s performed), Ajzen and F i s h b e i n propose the theory t h a t "low and i n c o n s i s t e n t a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r r e l a t i o n s are. a t t r i b u t a b l e to low or p a r t i a l correspondence between a t t i t u d i n a l and b e h a v i o r a l e n t i t i e s " and " t o p r e d i c t behavior from a t t i t u d e , the i n v e s t i g a t o r has to ensure.high correspondence between at l e a s t the t a r g e t and a c t i o n elements of the measures he employs" (p. 913) . The A j z e n - F i s h b e i n theory holds great promise f o r e x p l a i n i n g t h e l a c k o f correspondence between CATPA and motor be h a v i o r reported i n the Smoll, e t a l . (1976) r e s e a r c h . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a p p l i c a t i o n of the A j z e n - F i s h b e i n 5 theory to CATPA-behavior r e s e a r c h must wait u n t i l the psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of the i n v e n t o r y have been eva l u a t e d u t i l i z i n g f i e l d t e s t data, f o l l o w e d by subsequent m o d i f i c a t i o n of the inventory where deemed necessary. I f the CATPA i n v e n t o r y must be m o d i f i e d , then changes i u the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r correspondence must wait u n t i l these m o d i f i c a t i o n s are made. Only a f t e r the. psychometric p r o p e r t i e s ( i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , item d i s c r i m i n a t i n g power, item frequency, and f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e ) of the CATPA i n v e n t o r y have been e v a l u a t e d can changes i n a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r correspondence have a reasonable chance of s u c c e s s . . T h e r e f o r e , a two-stage i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s i n order. The f i r s t stage i s of a methodological nature and forms the b a s i s of the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n . , T h i s stage i s composed of two p a r t s . Part I o f the data a n a l y s i s i s concerned with e v a l u a t i n g the psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of CATPA f i e l d t e s t data f o l l o w e d by a r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the CATPA i n v e n t o r y , while Part I I i s concerned with r e a n a l y z i n g the a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o r a l data from the Smoll, e t a l . (1976) study t o determine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the r e s t r u c t u r e d i n v e n t o r y ( s ) from Part I i n d e t e c t i n g an a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r r e l a t i o n s h i p . The second stage, to be completed at a l a t e r date, w i l l be concerned with t e s t i n g the A j z e n - F i s h b e i n theory v i a matching the a t t i t u d i n a l and b e h a v i o r a l e n t i t i e s i n CATPA s t u d i e s f o l l o w e d by the a n a l y s i s of an adequate data base, , 6 Statement of the Problem The psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of the Simon and Smoll CATPA i n v e n t o r y have not been confirmed using f i e l d t e s t data, and, i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r r e l a t i o n s h i p employing the. CATPA i n v e n t o r y have r e p o r t e d i n c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s , . Therefore the purpose.of the present study i s to examine the psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of the Simon and Smoll CATPA inven t o r y , i n l i g h t of the problem of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s and behavior. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e purposes of the study are as f o l l o w s : 1. To maximize the degree of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h i n each of the s i x CATPA subdomains v i a rew e i g h t i n g the a p r i o r i assignments i n each of e i g h t b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e p a i r s within each subdomain.. 2. To examine the. d i s c r i m i n a t i n g power of each of the e i g h t b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e p a i r s i n the s i x CATPA subdomains with the aim of d e l e t i n g some p a i r s i f necessary. 3. To examine the frequency of a n e u t r a l or u n c e r t a i n response i n each of the e i g h t b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e p a i r s under each of the s i x CATPA subdomains with the aim of d e l e t i n g some p a i r s i f necessary. 4. To analyze the o r i g i n a l s i x - f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e of the CATPA inventory.. 5. To r e s t r u c t u r e the CATPA i n v e n t o r y as d i c t a t e d by the above f i n d i n g s and reana l y z e the a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o r a l data from the Smoll, e t al..(1976) study t o determine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the r e s t r u c t u r e d i n v e n t o r y ( s ) 7 i n d e t e c t i n g an a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r r e l a t i o n s h i p . D e f i n i t i o n s of Terms The f o l l o w i n g terms, as d e f i n e d by Kenyon (1968a) and adopted by Simon and Smoll (1974), w i l l be u t i l i z e d i n the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n . A t t i t u d e . A complex, but r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e ; b e h a v i o r a l d i s p o s i t i o n r e f l e c t i n g both d i r e c t i o n and i n t e n s i t y of f e e l i n g toward a p a r t i c u l a r p s y c h o l o g i c a l o b j e c t , whether i t be c o n c r e t e o r a b s t r a c t . P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y . Organized (structured) n o n - u t i l i t a r i a n ( i n an o c c u p a t i o n a l or maintenance sense) gross human movement, u s u a l l y manifested i n a c t i v e games, s p o r t s , c a l i s t h e n i c s , and dance. P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y as a S o c i a l Experience. Those p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s whose primary purpose i s to provide a medium f o r s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e ; t h a t i s , to meet new people and to perpetuate e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s . P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y f o r Health and Fitness,. : P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y c h a r a c t e r i z e d p r i m a r i l y by i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the improvement of one's h e a l t h and f i t n e s s . , P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y as the P u r s u i t o f V e r t i g o . Those p h y s i c a l experiences p r o v i d i n g , a t some r i s k t o the p a r t i c i p a n t , an element o f t h r i l l through the medium of speed, a c c e l e r a t i o n , sudden change of d i r e c t i o n , or exposure to dangerous s i t u a t i o n s , with the p a r t i c i p a n t u s u a l l y remaining i n 8 c o n t r o l . . P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y an an Aesthetic-Experience.: - Physica 1 a c t i v i t y p e r c e i v e d as having a e s t h e t i c value f o r the i n d i v i d u a l — t h a t i s , a c t i v i t i e s are conceived of as p o s s e s s i n g beauty or c e r t a i n a r t i s t i c q u a l i t i e s . P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y as C a t h a r s i s . P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y p e r c e i v e d as p r o v i d i n g a r e l e a s e of t e n s i o n p e r c i p i t a t e d by f r u s t r a t i o n through some v i c a r i o u s means. P h y s c i a l A c t i v i t y as an A s c e t i c Experience.. P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y which i s l o n g , strenuous, and o f t e n p a i n f u l t r a i n i n g and s t i f f c o m p e t i t i o n demanding a deferment of many g r a t i f i c a t i o n s . 9 CHAPTER I I Review of t h e - L i t e r a t u r e T h i s chapter serves as a background f o r the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n and as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n t o the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r d i s c r e p a n c y problem., D i s c u s s i o n s are centered upon r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r discrepancy c o n t r o v e r s y with emphasis upon the l a c k of sound psychometric analyses of a t t i t u d e measures; the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l i n g technique; and the development and use of the CATPA i n v e n t o r y . The A t t i t u d e - B e h a v i o r Discrepancy Controversy The a t t i t u d e area i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a g r e a t deal of c o n c e p t u a l a m b i g u i t i e s and methodological d e f i c i e n c i e s . , We knew at the o u t s e t t h a t i n v e s t i g a t o r s tend t o pay l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i r dependent v a r i a b l e s , and we a l s o expected to f i n d inadequate a n a l y s i s and unwarranted c o n c l u s i o n s . What we d i d not a n t i c i p a t e , but what we are now convinced may be one of the most s e r i o u s problems, i s t h a t a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of r e s e a r c h i n the a t t i t u d e area i s b a s i c a l l y r e a c t i v e and nomological i n nature. A r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number of assumptions or hypotheses continue t o p e r s i s t i n the face of repeated f a i l u r e s to support t h e i r v a l i d i t y . I n stead o f q u e s t i o n i n g these assumptions, i n v e s t i g a t o r s w i l l d i s c o v e r weaknesses i n previous s t u d i e s and hypothesize t h a t by making a few changes they can strengthen the procedures and i n c r e a s e the p r o b a b i l i t y of c o n f i r m i n g the " t r u e " h y p o t h e s i s . ( F i s h b e i n & Ajzen, 1972, p. 531) Since i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o the l i t e r a t u r e i n the 1 0 middle of the nineteenth century, the term a t t i t u d e has assumed a multitude of d e f i n i t i o n s . . A l l p o r t (1935) d e s c r i b e d a t t i t u d e as "a neurophysic s t a t e of r e a d i n e s s f o r mental and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y " (p., 799).. The notion of enduring o r g a n i z a t i o n was i n c l u d e d i n the d e f i n i t i o n s of Krech, C r u t c h f i e l d , and B a l l a c h e y (1962) and Rokeach (1968). The l a t t e r viewed a t t i t u d e as "a l e a r n e d and r e l a t i v e l y enduring o r g a n i z a t i o n of b e l i e f s about an o b j e c t or s i t u a t i o n d i s p o s i n g a person toward some p r e f e r r e d response" (Sokeach, 1 968, p. 115).. The concept of a t t i t u d e s as p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s to Eespond was i n c l u d e d i n the d e f i n i t i o n s of F i s h b e i n (1967), Newcomb (1950), Osgood (1967), and T r i a n d i s (1971). As d e f i n e d by T r i a n d i s (1971), "an a t t i t u d e i s an i d e a charged with emotion which pre d i s p o s e s a c l a s s of a c t i o n s to a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s of s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s " (P. 2). B e w i l d e r i n g as t h i s p l e t h o r a of d e f i n i t i o n s may seem, each employs one or more p r i n c i p a l a t t i t u d i n a l components. T r i a n d i s (1971), i n h i s comprehensive work A t t i t u d e and A t t i t u d e Change, s y n t h e s i z e d the almost f o u r decades of a t t i t u d i n a l research s i n c e A l l p o r t ' s (1935) p i o n e e r i n g work. The U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s r e s e a r c h e r separated a t t i t u d e i n t o c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e , and b e h a v i o r a l components i n order to allow f o r both the component development s t y l e of a t t i t u d e t h e o r i s t s and f o r the e x p l i c i t o p e r a t i o n a l measurement of unidimensional c o n s t r u c t s . T r i a n d i s d e s c r i b e d h i s t h r e e components as f o l l o w s : 11 a. the c o g n i t i v e component, or the i d e a , b e l i e f , or p e r c e p t i o n a s s o c i a t e d with the a t t i t u d e o b j e c t , b. the a f f e c t i v e component, or the emotion which charges the i d e a , and c- the b e h a v i o r a l component, or a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o a c t i o n ( T r i a n d i s , 1971, p. 3).. A b a s i c tenet of those who s u b s c r i b e to the preceding c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of components, g e n e r a l l y d e s c r i b e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e as the " t r i a d " , i s the i n t e r r e l a t i o n among components, Krech, et a l . (1962) s t a t e d that "the c o g n i t i o n s of an i n d i v i d u a l about an o b j e c t are i n f l u e n c e d by h i s f e e l i n g s and a c t i o n t e ndencies toward t h a t o b j e c t and a change i n h i s c o g n i t i o n s about the o b j e c t w i l l tend to produce changes i n h i s f e e l i n g s and a c t i o n t e ndencies toward i t " (p. 139-140), Much e f f o r t has been d i r e c t e d toward i n v e s t i g a t i n g the c o n s i s t e n c y between the t r i a d i c components (Harding, Kutner, Proshansky, & Chein, 1954; Insko & Schloper, 1967; Ostrom, 1969), o f t e n with ambiguous r e s u l t s . An i m p l i c i t assumption r e l a t e d to the notion of t r i a d i c c o n s i s t e n c y i s t h a t a t t i t u d e s cause, r e f l e c t , or c o r r e l a t e with b e h a v i or s t h a t are not e l i c i t e d by formal measurement procedures (Schuman & Johnson, 1976). That i s , to understand a person's a t t i t u d e s i s to be able to understand and p r e d i c t h i s behavior. T h i s assumption and r e a c t i o n s to i t have led t o what has been r e f e r r e d to i n the past decade as the a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r (A-B) d i s c r e p a n c y c o n t r o v e r s y . 12 D e s p i t e e a r l y c h a l l e n g e s to the assumption of a strong p r e d i c t i v e A-B r e l a t i o n s h i p (LaPiere, 1934), i t was not u n t i l the l a t e 1960's t h a t the A-B discrepancy c o n t r o v e r s y came under the c a r e f u l s c r u t i n y of s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s . Wicker (1969) reviewed 46 s t u d i e s d e a l i n g with v e r b a l and o v e r t b e h a v i o r a l responses to a t t i t u d e o b j e c t s and concluded t h a t "taken as a whole, these s t u d i e s suggest t h a t i t i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more l i k e l y t h a t a t t i t u d e s w i l l be u n r e l a t e d or only s l i g h t l y r e l a t e d to o v e r t b e h a v i o r s " (p, 65). . Two years l a t e r i n an examination of the "other v a r i a b l e s " e x p l a n a t i o n of K-rB i n c o n s i s t e n c y , Wicker s t a t e d , concerning h i s 1969 review: Measured a t t i t u d e s were o f t e n u n r e l a t e d or only s l i g h t l y r e l a t e d to o v e r t b e h a v i o r s , and r a r e l y were a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s above .30; t h a t i s , only very i n f r e q u e n t l y d i d a t t i t u d e s account f o r more than 10% of the v a r i a n c e i n the o v e r t b e h a v i o r a l measures. (Wicker, 1971, p. 18) According t o Schuman and Johnson (1976), Wicker's c o n c l u s i o n s l e d s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s to e x p l o r a t i o n s i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: a. improvement of a t t i t u d i n a l and b e h a v i o r a l measures, b. r e d e f i n i n g the A-B problem, c. a d d i t i o n of n o n - a t t i t u d i n a l measures to the p r e d i c t i o n of behavior, and d. . i n v e s t i g a t i o n of s i t u a t i o n a l f o r c e s hampering the A-B r e l a t i o n s h i p . An overview of these o r i e n t a t i o n s w i l l now be presented. 13 & T B measurement. Improvement of a t t i t u d i n a l measuring d e v i c e s as r e l a t e d t o the A - B problem focuses on two g e n e r a l areas: psychometric refinement of i n v e n t o r i e s , and remodeling i n v e n t o r i e s to improve A - B congruence. The d i s r e p u t a b l e l a c k of sound psychometric p r a c t i c e s i n the measurement of a t t i t u d e s i s w e l l documented. F i s h b e i n and Ajzen (1 972) i n t h e i r review o f t h e o r e t i c a l and methodological problems i n a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h remarked t h a t "one cannot f a i l t o be impressed by the widespread mistreatment of dat a , abuse of s t a t i s t i c a l procedures, and the frequency with which i n v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s are drawn" (p. 489) . Alwin (1976) s t a t e d t h a t " s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s o f t e n overlook the assumptions i n v o l v e d i n app l y i n g c l a s s i c a l t e s t theory to a t t i t u d e measurement" (p. 377) and suggested the use of congeneric t e s t s which do not have the l i m i t a t i o n s of such r e s t r i c t i v e assumptions while t a k i n g i n t o account the - b i a s o f measurement e r r o r and a t t i t u d e change i n the A - B r e l a t i o n s h i p . Rambo (1970) pointed to a study by Shaw and Wright (1967) which i n d i c a t e d t h a t o f 176 a t t i t u d e s c a l e s reviewed, only 27 e s t a b l i s h e d p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y and approximately one^-third made no mention of any type o f v a l i d i t y . Rambo concluded t h a t "a l o g i c a l remedy f o r t h i s s c a l i n g d e f i c i e n c y appears to r e g u i r e t h a t c o n v e n t i o n a l a t t i t u d e - s c a l i n g procedures be augmented by a s y s t e m a t i c approach t o s e l e c t i n g and weighting items on the b a s i s of t h e i r p r e d i c t i v e c a p a b i l i t i e s " (p.. 44). . The l a c k of refinement i n 14 i d e n t i f y i n g and accounting f o r s u b j e c t s with p o o r l y developed or weak a t t i t u d e s i s pointed out by Sample and Warland (1973). T h i s t o p i c i s d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y below under the heading S e m a n t i c _ D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l i n g Techniques.. I t i s apparent t h a t the random and o f t e n misguided psychometric development of a t t i t u d e assessment instruments so common i n the 1950*s and 1960's i s no longer a c c e p t a b l e i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l psychology. Weigel and Newman (1976) s t a t e d t h a t : I t seems reas o n a b l e to demand t h a t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s p u r p o r t i n g to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e and a c t i o n should e x p l i c i t l y provide evidence of the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of the a t t i t u d e measure f o r the c u r r e n t sample as w e l l as some evidence of the measure's v a l i d i t y d e r i v e d from an independent sample. Without these data the guestion of how f r e g u e n t l y poor q u a l i t y a t t i t u d e measures have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r low a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r c o r r e l a t i o n s remains unanswered but p r o v o c a t i v e . . (p. 795) T h e r e f o r e , j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of the CATPA i n v e n t o r y i s c l e a r l y evident. Improving the psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of a t t i t u d e assessment instruments i s d i s c o v e r i n g the t r u e . n a t u r e second approach i n v o l v e s o n l y one o f many ste p s toward of the: A-B r e l a t i o n s h i p . A improving the congruence and s p e c i f i c i t y o f a t t i t u d e and behavior measures, F i s h b e i n and Ajzen's (1974) i n v e s t i g a t i o n e x e m p l i f i e s t h e popular h y p o t h e s i s t h a t measuring a t t i t u d i n a l and b e h a v i o r a l e n t i t i e s at t h e same l e v e l of s p e c i f i c i t y w i l l improve A-B c o n s i s t e n c y . The r e s e a r c h e r s argued t h a t l i t t l e i s to be 15 gained by f u r t h e r refinement of p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e a t t i t u d e assessment t e c h n i q u e s . Instead, they delve i n t o an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of b e h a v i o r a l c r i t e r i o n , d i s t i n g u i s h i n g s i n g l e - a c t from m u l t i p l e - a c t c r i t e r i a . A. s i n g l e - a c t c r i t e r i o n , the s i n g l e o b s e r v a t i o n of a s i n g l e a c t , o f t e n i n d i c a t e s no r e l a t i o n s h i p to a t t i t u d e s , while m u l t i p l e - a c t c r i t e r i a , i n v o l v i n g s i n g l e or repeated measures o f d i f f e r e n t b e h a v i o r s , r e v e a l a more c o n s i s t e n t A-B r e l a t i o n s h i p . F i s h b e i n and Ajzen concluded t h a t : A person's a t t i t u d e towards an o b j e c t need not be r e l a t e d to any s i n g l e b ehavior t h a t may be performed with r e s p e c t t o the o b j e c t ( i . e . , may not permit p r e d i c t i o n of s i n g l e - a c t c r i t e r i o n ) . . However, i t s h o u l d be r e l a t e d to the o v e r a l l p a t t e r n of h i s behaviors ( i . e . , i t should p r e d i c t m u l t i p l e - a c t c r i t e r i a ) , , (p. 61) Furthermore, F i s h b e i n and Ajzen suggested t h a t where the behavior i s a s i n g l e a c t , the a t t i t u d i n a l measure should be s p e c i f i c t o t h a t act and the more gen e r a l the a t t i t u d e the g r e a t e r the number of b e h a v i o r a l c r i t e r i a measures ( m u l t i p l e - a c t c r i t e r i a ) t h a t are r e g u i r e d t o o b t a i n A-B c o n s i s t e n c y . Ajzen and F i s h b e i n (1977) l a t e r expanded t h e i r n o t i o n of s p e c i f i c i t y t o i n c l u d e c orresponding p r e d i c t o r and b e h a v i o r a l c r i t e r i a . D e s c r i b i n g a t t i t u d i n a l p r e d i c t o r s i n terms of t a r g e t , a c t i o n , time, and c o n t e x t u a l elements, they concluded t h a t , "the r e l a t i o n s between a t t i t u d e and behavior tend to i n c r e a s e i n magnitude as the a t t i t u d i n a l and b e h a v i o r a l e n t i t i e s come to correspond more c l o s e l y i n terms of t h e i r t a r g e t and a c t i o n elements" ( p . . 911), S e v e r a l s t u d i e s have attempted t o e m p i r i c a l l y support the 16 s p e c i f i c i t y hypothesis (Perry, 1976; Weigel & Newman, 1976; Weigel & Vernon, 1974; Wicker & Pomazal, 1971) with encouraging but i n c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s , due l a r g e l y to m e t h o d o l o g i c a l inadequacies i n a t t i t u d e assessment (Schuman & Johnson, 1976) . Yet another aspect of the s p e c i f i c i t y h y p o thesis was forwarded by F i s h b e i n and Ajzen (1972) and Rokeach and K l i e j u n a s (1972). Ajzen and F i s h b e i n proposed t h a t a t t i t u d e toward an o b j e c t ( t i e t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e measure) has no necessary r e l a t i o n to any p a r t i c u l a r behavior s i n c e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r behavior are not c l e a r . , Instead, they argue, " b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n " should be measured. B e h a v i o r i a l i n t e n t i o n i s held to be "determined e n t i r e l y by the sum o f two p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s : a t t i t u d e . toward the behavior i n question and b e l i e f s about the . normative e x p e c t a t i o n s of s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s " (Schuman & Johnson, 1976, p. 172). S i m i l a r l y , Rokeach and K l i e j u n a s d i s t i n g u i s h e d between a t t i t u d e - t o w a r d - o b j e c t and a t t i t u d e -t o w a r d - s i t u a t i o n and concluded t h a t " p r e d i c t i o n of behavior with r e s p e c t to an o b j e c t w i t h i n a s i t u a t i o n , w i l l be more accurate when based on knowledge of the c o g n i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n between a t t i t u d e - t o w a r d - o b j e c t and a t t i t u d e -t o w a r d - s i t u a t i o n than when based on knowledge o f . e i t h e r a t t i t u d e a l o n e " (Rokeach & K l i e j u n a s , 1972, p.. 200-20 1).. The improvements i n s p e c i f i c i t y and congruency ; of a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o r a l measures hold great promise f o r e x p l a i n i n g the nature o f the A-B r e l a t i o n s h i p . , Yet s e v e r a l 17 p r e c a u t i o n s are necessary. F i r s t , a middle ground must be reached between s p e c i f i c i t y and g e n e r a l i t y of a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o r a l measures s i n c e measures which are too s p e c i f i c may not ±>e a p p l i c a b l e t o any other s i t u a t i o n , while too g e n e r a l a measure may f a i l to r e v e a l the.A-B r e l a t i o n s h i p (Schuman and Johnson, 1976). Second, preoccupation with improvements i n s p e c i f i c i t y and congruence may l e a d t o a c o n t i n u i n g debasement of r e s e a r c h i n t o the. psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of a t t i t u d i n a l and b e h a v i o r a l measures., Sample and Warland (1973) suggested t h a t a t t i t u d e measurement can be improved by the use of "moderator v a r i a b l e s " t o " d i v i d e an aggregation of people i n t o more homogeneous groups so t h a t the i n i t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n between p r e d i c t o r and c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s are improved" (p.. 293). Employing a measure of c e r t a i n t y o f each item of a 15-item L i k e r t s c a l e , the r e s e a r c h e r s d i v i d e d t h e i r sample i n t o high and low c e r t a i n t y subgroups and d i s c o v e r e d a .47 A-B c o r r e l a t i o n f o r the high c e r t a i n t y group and a .06 A-B c o r r e l a t i o n i n the low c e r t a i n t y group,. Regan and F a z i o (1977) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t s u b j e c t s who form t h e i r a t t i t u d e s on the b a s i s of d i r e c t b e h a v i o r a l i n t e r a c t i o n with the a t t i t u d e o b j e c t form a t t i t u d e s which are more c l e a r l y , c o n f i d e n t l y , and s t a b l y maintained. Although these . r e s e a r c h e r s admittedly employed "crude" measures of a t t i t u d e and b ehavior, they concluded t h a t " i n attempting to p r e d i c t subsequent behavior from an a t t i t u d i n a l measure, i t would be h e l p f u l to know whether the i n d i v i d u a l has based h i s 18 a t t i t u d e on d i r e c t p e r s o n a l experience with the a t t i t u d e o b j e c t " (Regan and F a z i o , 1977, p. 43). C l a r i t y or i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of a g i v e n a t t i t u d e , measured by c o r r e l a t i n g a f f e c t i v e and c o g n i t i v e components of a given a t t i t u d e response (Rosenberg, 1960), provides yet another moderator v a r i a b l e . attending to such v a r i a b l e s w i l l a i d i n i n c r e a s e d measurement r e l i a b i l i t y . R e d e f i n i n g the -A-B-problem. Most s t u d i e s c o n c erning the A-B r e l a t i o n h i p have viewed the A-B problem from the a t t i t u d i n a l h a l f of the r e l a t i o n s h i p (Schuman and Johnson, 1976). Much has been s a i d and done about the methodological and c onceptual a s p e c t s of a t t i t u d e s and a t t i t u d e measures, while . the b e h a v i o r a l h a l f of the r e l a t i o n s h i p has, u n t i l r e c e n t l y , gone unnoticed.. Attempts t o r e c t i f y t h i s s i t u a t i o n have r e s u l t e d i n r e s e a r c h concerning s i n g l e - a c t and m u l t i p l e - a c t c r i t e r i a ( F i s h b e i n & Ajzen, 1974) , b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n s ( F i s h b e i n & Ajzen, 1972), a t t i t u d e toward s i t u a t i o n (Rokeach & K l i e j u n a s , 1972), and the p r e d i c t i o n of a t t i t u d e from b e l i e f and behavior (Bruvold, 1972). The major t h r u s t of these s t u d i e s has been to r e d e f i n e the A-B r e l a t i o n s h i p from an a t t i t u d i n a l and b e h a v i o r a l s t a n d p o i n t r a t h e r than from an a t t i t u d i n a l viewpoint alone. Antecedent determinants;of_behayipr.- Another avenue of e x p l c r a t o n i n A-B r e l a t i o n s h i p s t u d i e s i s the a d d i t i o n of n o n - a t t i t u d i n a l measures to the p r e d i c t i o n of 19 behavior. Among the v a r i a b l e s i n c o r p o r a t e d are c o n f l i c t i n g a t t i t u d e s , norms, demographic v a r i a b l e s , o p p o r t u n i t i e s , a b i l i t i e s , and p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s . While i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of such v a r i a b l e s may a i d i n e x p l a i n i n g A-B r e l a t i o n s , r e s e a r c h e r s must be aware t h a t because the number of these v a r i a b l e s i s i n f i n i t e , methods must be developed f o r sampling on l y those v a r i a b l e s t h a t are necessary and s u f f i c i e n t (Schwartz S T e s s l e r , 1972). E m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h concerning antecedent determinants of behavior and the A-B r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i n c o n c l u s i v e . . Sample and Warland (1973) i n an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of v o t i n g behavior reported t h a t measurement of a d d i t i o n a l p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s f a i l e d to markedly improve behavior p r e d i c t i o n . The r e s e a r c h e r s used antecedent v a r i a b l e s such as contact w i t h government, knowledge of candidate, past vote, d i s c u s s i o n , f r i e n d ' s behavior, compliance m o t i v a t i o n , and o r g a n i z a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n along with the moderating v a r i a b l e ' c e r t a i n i t y of a t t i t u d e response. Wicker (1971), however, reported that the " a d d i t i o n o f other v e r b a l p r e d i c t o r s to a t t i t u d e d i d s i g n i f i c a n t l y improve p r e d i c t i o n s of the b e h a v i o r s " (p. 18). I t should be noted that Wicker's study u t i l i z e d antecedent v a r i a b l e s t h a t may i n f a c t have been p a r t i a l measures of a t t i t u d e toward the behavior i n q u e s t i o n (Schuman & Johnson, 1976). Wicker used the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e antecedent v a r i a b l e s : perceived consequences o f behavior, e v a l u a t i o n of behavior, and judged i n f l u e n c e of extraneous 20 events on behavior; along with a measure of a t t i t u d e toward church i n p r e d i c t i n g three, b e h a v i o r a l c r i t e r i o n ; Sunday worship attendance, monetary c o n t r i b u t i o n s , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n church a c t i v i t i e s . S i t u a t i o n a l f o r c e s . Inherent i n the measurement o f the A-B r e l a t i o n s h i p are i m p e r f e c t i o n s i n the measurement s i t u a t i o n . . S e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have gathered e m p i r i c a l evidence concerning such s i t u a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s as presence of s i g n i f i c a n t others (Wicker 6 Pomazal, 1971), p r e s c r i p t i o n s of proper behavior (Albrecht & Carpenter, 1976), and the processes g i v i n g r i s e to p u b l i c - p r i v a t e response d i f f e r e n c e s (Perry, 1977) . P e r r y r e p o r t e d t h a t A-B c o n s i s t e n c y was g r e a t e r i n p r i v a t e r a t h e r than i n p u b l i c r e p o r t i n g c o n d i t i o n s ; a d d i t i o n a l l y , f o r accurate p r e d i c t i o n t a r g e t behavior observed i n a p u b l i c s e t t i n g must be accompanied by a measure of normative b e l i e f . . The presence of a s i g n i f i c a n t other di d not a f f e c t the A-B r e l a t i o n s h i p a c c o r d i n g to Wicker and Pomazal,. However the i n v e s t i g a t o r s admitted t h a t t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t other, a f a c u l t y member, may not have been perceived as s i g n i f i c a n t to student s u b j e c t s , A l b r e c h t and Carpenter reported t h a t the measurement of normative b e l i e f s d i d not improve p r e d i c t i o n of the behavior measured but concluded t h a t n o r m a t i v e . b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s i n t e r r e l a t e t o v a r y i n g degrees depending on the s i t u a t i o n . Future r e s e a r c h t a k i n g such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t o account i s warranted. 21 Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l S c a l i n g Techniques Inherent i n the. assessment of p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s , such as a t t i t u d e , i s the problem of i n d i r e c t measurement. That i s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s are assessed i n d i r e c t l y v i a i n f e r e n c e s from measures of o v e r t behavior. Although a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h e r s have employed measures of p h y s i o l o g i c a l responses (eg., g a l v a n i c s k i n response, heart r a t e ) , observance of behavior i n a c o n t r o l l e d s i t u a t i o n , and w r i t t e n and v e r b a l statements, the most widely used method of a t t i t u d e assessment i s the a t t i t u d e s c a l e . An a t t i t u d e s c a l e i s a p a p e r - p e n c i l type instrument which " r e p r e s e n t s an attempt to measure an i n d i v i d u a l ' s d i s p o s i t i o n toward a given i s s u e by asking him to express h i s degree of agreement or disagreement t o a group of statements" (Dubois & Burns, 1975, p. 869-870).. The most popular a t t i t u d e s c a l e s i n use today are Thurstone's method of equal-appearing i n t e r v a l s , Guttman's scalogram, L i k e r t ' s method of summated r a t i n g s , and Osgood's semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l i n g t e c h nique. Since the CATPA i n v e n t o r y employs the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l i n g technique (SD) only t h e SD w i l l be presented here. The d i s c u s s i o n w i l l i n c l u d e an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the technique and problems a s s o c i a t e d with i t s use. S i n c e the development of the SD by Osgood, S u c i , and Tannenbaum (1957), the technique has been used i n v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h areas ranging from communications r e s e a r c h to p s y c h o l o g i c a l measurement of a t t i t u d e and p e r s o n a l i t y . 22 Yet d e s p i t e the many a p p l i c a t i o n s of the SD, i t s o r i g i n a l f u n c t i o n was as a measure of the "meaning" of a concept f o r an i n d i v i d u a l and o f the p s y c h o l o g i c a l dimensions of meaning. In t h e i r p i o n e e r i n g work concerning the SD f Osgood, et a l . d e s c r i b e d the technique as: e s s e n t i a l l y a combination of c o n t r o l l e d a s s o c i a t i o n and s c a l i n g procedures. We p r o v i d e the s u b j e c t with a concept to be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and a s e t o f b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v a l s c a l e s a g a i n s t which t o do i t , h i s o n l y task being to i n d i c a t e , f o r each item ( p a i r i n g of a concept with a scale) , the d i r e c t i o n of h i s a s s o c i a t i o n and i t s i n t e n s i t y on a seven-step s c a l e . (p, 20) The measurement technique was developed i n a " t o p s y - l i k e " manner s e p a r a t e l y and p r i o r t o the development of t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s t o e x p l a i n the connection of the SD to the t h e o r e t i c a l conception of meaninq as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l mediation process. Herein l i e s a fundamental problem with the technique. While Osgood, et a l . , re c o g n i z e d the gap between the development of the measurement device and the t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r i t , going so f a r as to d e s c r i b e t h e i r work as "a progress r e p o r t and not any f i n a l statement" (p. 318) , subsequent r e s e a r c h e r s have adopted the SD as a panancea f o r measurement i n a d e q u a c i e s . The e x t e n s i v e use of the SD l e d Tannenbaum t o comment that the instrument i s one of "the most misused" i n the f i e l d ( C a r t e r , Ruggels, & Chaffee, 1968) . The g r e a t e r part of the Osgood, e t a l . (1957) volume, The Measurement of Meaning, i s given to p o s t u l a t i n g the c o n n e c t i o n between the SD and the t h e o r e t i c a l conception 23 of meaning. Osgood, e t a l . p o s t u l a t e d a r e g i o n of unknown d i m e n s i o n a l i t y , E u c l i d e a n i n c h a r a c t e r , which they l a b e l e d semantic space . Each semantic b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v a l s c a l e r e p r e s e n t s a v e c t o r which passes through the o r i g i n of the semantic space, and a l a r g e sample of such v e c t o r s c r e a t e s a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l space. U t i l i z i n g f a c t o r a n a l y s i s the r e s e a r c h e r s attempted to d e f i n e the minimum number of o r t h o g o n a l dimensions which would d e f i n e the semantic space. That i s , assuming t h a t most b i p o l a r s c a l e s f a l l i n s e v e r a l well d e f i n e d dimensions i n the semantic space, these dimensions (or axis) could be determined v i a f a c t o r a n a l y t i c procedures. F a c t o r a n a l y s i s of numerous b i p o l a r s c a l e s r e s u l t e d i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of nine dimensions i n the semantic space, three of which accounted f o r a major p o r t i o n of the t o t a l v a r i a n c e . . These three f a c t o r s are the e v a l u a t i v e f a c t o r (good-bad) ,accounting f o r roughly 50% of the e x t r a c t a b l e v a r i a n c e ; the p o t e n c y ; f a c t o r ( h a r d - s o f t ) , accounting f o r about h a l f as much v a r i a n c e as the e v a l u a t i v e f a c t o r ; and the a c t i v i t y f a c t o r ( a c t i v e - p a s s i v e ) . accounting f o r an equal or l e s s amount of v a r i a n c e than the potency f a c t o r , . Osgood, et a l . (1957) pointed out t h a t other f a c t o r s are i d e n t i f i a b l e and one must be c a u t i o u s of s u b j e c t - s c a l e and c o n c e p t - s c a l e i n t e r a c t i o n s (discussed more f u l l y below) when s e l e c t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e s c a l e s . , Semantic d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was d e f i n e d as "the s u c c e s s i v e . a l l o c a t i o n of a concept to a p o i n t i n the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l semantic space by s e l e c t i o n from among a set of given s c a l e d semantic 24 a l t e r n a t i v e s " (p. 26). The d i f f e r e n c e i n meaning between two concepts, then, i s a f u n c t i o n of the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l d i s t a n c e between the two p o i n t s i n semantic space. I n t e n s i t y of r e a c t i o n becomes the d i s t a n c e of the p o i n t from the o r i g i n — t h e c l o s e r t o the o r i g i n , the l e s s the i n t e n s i t y - - w h i l e q u a l i t y of^meaning i s determined by the d i r e c t i o n of the p c i n t from the o r i g i n . The o r i g i n i s c o n sidered t o be a n e u t r a l p o i n t . . Osgood, et al..emphasized t h a t t h e i r r a t i o n a l e f o r c o n s i d e r i n g the SD as an index of meaning i s " s p e c u l a t i v e " and s t a t e d t h a t : I t i s an awkward and somewhat embarassing s t a t e of a f f a i r s to e n t e r t a i n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a t h e o r e t i c a l c o nception of the. nature of meaning and a procedure f o r measuring i t which have no r e l a t i o n to each other. Whether t h i s attempt at r e s o l v i n g t h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s has reduced t h i s awkwardness i s another matter. (p.. 30) D espite the s p e c u l a t i v e nature of the r a t i o n a l e behind th e SD the u t i l i t y of the technique as a measurement instrument i s almost l i m i t l e s s s i n c e "meaninq i s one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t p i v o t a l v a r i a b l e s i n human behavior" (p. 329). Osgood, e t a l . (1957) emphasized t h a t the SD i s a very g e n e r a l i z e d measurement technigue which must be adapted to each unique measurement problem. T h e r e f o r e , the s e l e c t i o n of s c a l e s becomes a very important aspect of the technique. As a g e n e r a l r u l e the authors suggested s e l e c t i o n of t h r e e s c a l e s t o r e p r e s e n t each of the three major dimensions ( e v a l u a t i v e , potency, and a c t i v i t y ) , each s c a l e being maximally loaded on t h a t f a c t o r and minimally on o t h e r s . S e v e r a l forms of the SD are presented by Osgood, e t 25 a l . (1957). However, the form employed i n the CATPA inv e n t o r y was the form suggested by the authors f o r ease of s c o r i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The concept ( a t t i t u d e o b j e c t i n the CATPA inventory) i s w r i t t e n at the top of the page above the b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e s c a l e s (numbering e i g h t i n the CATPA i n v e n t o r y ) . Each s c a l e i s designed with an a d j e c t i v e at the end of a 7-space continuum. The a d j e c t i v e s are p o l a r o p p o s i t e s i n meaning. To minimize response acquiescence by s u b j e c t s , h a l f the s c a l e s are desiqned with the p o s i t i v e terms t o the r i g h t end of the continuum and h a l f with the p o s i t i v e terms on the l e f t s i d e . I n t e n s i t y of response i s determined by the p o s i t i o n of the respondent's checkmark along the continuum. Reading from the negative pole along the 7-space continuum, the respondent c o u l d check one of the f o l l o w i n g : (1) extremely unfavorable,. (2) q u i t e u n f a v o r a b l e , (3) s l i g h t l y u n f avorable, (4) n e u t r a l , (5) s l i g h t l y f a v o r a b l e , (6) q u i t e f a v o r a b l e , (7) extremely f a v o r a b l e . Summing the s c a l e s g i v e s a measure of o v e r a l l i n t e n s i t y of f e e l i n g toward the concept. E s t a b l i s h i n g the c o n n e c t i o n between a t t i t u d e and the SD was a l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n f o r Osgood, et a l . (1957). By c h a r a c t e r i z i n g a t t i t u d e as "a l e a r n e d i m p l i c i t process which i s p o t e n t i a l l y b i p o l a r , v a r i e s i n i n t e n s i t y , and mediates e v a l u a t i v e behavior", the i n v e s t i g a t o r s made i t part of the i n t e r n a l m e d i a t i o n a l process which operates between s t i m u l u s and response p a t t e r n s (p.. 190). Once e s t a b l i s h e d as p a r t of the m e d i a t i o n a l process, a t t i t u d e 26 c o u l d then be i n f e r r e d as p a r t of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s semantic space and t h e r e f o r e measurable by the SD u t i l i z i n g s c a l e s which have high l o a d i n g s on the e v a l u a t i v e , f a c t o r and n e g l i g i b l e l o a d i n g s on other f a c t o r s . Examples c i t e d by Osgood, e t a l . i n d i c a t e d t h a t the e v a l u a t i v e , f a c t o r i s reasonably v a l i d based upon face v a l i d i t y , and comparisons with both Thurstone and Guttman s c a l e s were h i g h l y f a v o r a b l e . Subsequent i n v e s t i g a t i o n s confirmed these r e s u l t s (Jaccard, Weber, & Lundemark, 1975; T a y l o r , 1971). Osgood, e t a l . concluded: The e v a l u a t i v e f a c t o r of the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l i s an index of a t t i t u d e . I t i s moreover, a method of a t t i t u d e assessment t h a t i s r e l a t i v e l y easy t o a d m i n i s t e r and easy t o s c o r e . Although i t does not tap much of the content of an a t t i t u d e . i n the d e n o t a t i v e sense (e.g., the s p e c i f i c r e l a t i o n s which people having v a r i o u s a t t i t u d e might make, the s p e c i f i c statements t h a t they might a c c e p t ) , i t does seem to provide an index t o the l o c a t i o n of the a t t i d u d e o b j e c t along a g e n e r a l e v a l u a t i v e continuum. (p. 195) Although the SD as an a t t i t u d e measurement device has many advantages, such as ease and speed of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , manifest numerical e q u i v a l e n c i e s , s e n s i t i v i t y , v e r s a t i l i t y , and r e l i a b i l i t y ( C a r t e r , et a l , , 1968), t h e r e remain s e v e r a l problems a s s o c i a t e d with the technique. The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n c e n t e r s on a number of these problems. S e l e c t i o n of SD s c a l e s . Perhaps the most important and most d i f f i c u l t phase i n c o n s t r u c t i n g an SD instrument i s the s e l e c t i o n of b i p o l a r s c a l e s . S e v e r a l problems may occur i n the s e l e c t i o n of such s c a l e s . Maguire (1973) summarized 27 the c r i t e r i a f o r s e a l e s e l e c t i o n as f o l l o w s : The s c a l e s must be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the a t t i t u d e s i n the domain; they must be w e l l d e f i n e d f o r the p o p u l a t i o n of i n t e r e s t ; they must be a p p r o p r i a t e to the concepts i n the domain; and they must be p o l a r o p p o s i t e s . . (p, 297) Osgood, e t al..(1957) admitted a "high degree" of c o n c e p t - s c a l e i n t e r a c t i o n i n the.SD; t h a t i s , "the meanings of s c a l e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s t o other s c a l e s vary c o n s i d e r a b l y with the concept being judged" (p. . 187). In terms of a t t i t u d e measurement the problem i s magnified s i n c e e v a l u a t i v e s c a l e s are the most s u s c e p t a b l e t o concepts-scale i n t e r a c t i o n . . S e v e r a l s o l u t i o n s to the. c o n c e p t - s c a l e i n t e r a c t i o n problem have been presented i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Komorita and Bass (1967) d i f f e r e n t i a t e d the e v a l u a t i v e f a c t o r i n t o a d d i t i o n a l e v a l u a t i v e dimensions, t h e r e f o r e making the dimension comparable a c r o s s more concepts. V i d a l i (1976) r e p o r t e d high r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the SD d e s p i t e c o n c e p t - s c a l e i n t e r a c t i o n , but suggested that "best r e s u l t s are obtained using b i p o l a r s c a l e s and concepts i n the domain r e l e v a n t to those s c a l e s " (p. 585).. A psychometric approach to the problem was given by Brynner and Romney (1972) who suggested f a c t o r a n a l y z i n g across concepts and within concepts i n order t o b e t t e r make comparisons between concepts i n terms of f a c t o r s . . Levy (1972) c r i t i c i z e d Brynner's and Romney's s o l u t i o n on the grounds t h a t v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n o f f a c t o r l o a d i n g s was the method used f o r determining v a l i d i t y of matching f a c t o r s and concepts. Levy s t a t e d t h a t " t h e i r s o l u t i o n c r e a t e s the. c o n s i d e r a b l e 28 c o nceptual problem of i d e n t i f y i n g the presence of common f a c t o r s and c o n c e p t - s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s across f i v e s e p a r a t e l y r o t a t e d analyses, which are l i n k e d only by i n s p e c t i o n " (p. 235). Heaps (1972) warned t h a t the t h r e e dimensions o u t l i n e d by Osgood, e t a l r . ( 1 9 5 7 ) may be s t a b l e i n a g e n e r a l c o n t e x t only and concluded t h a t s c a l e s should be s e l e c t e d a f t e r f a c t o r a n a l y s i s on one's own data. Osgood, et a l . a l s o noted t h i s may be the u l t i m a t e s o l u t i o n , s t a t i n g t h a t " i n the l a s t a n a l y s i s i t may prove necessary to c o n s t r u c t separate measuring instruments f o r each c l a s s of concepts being judged" (p., 188). Other problems with the SD are a s s o c i a t e d with s u b j e c t - s c a l e i n t e r a c t i o n ; t h a t i s , the meaning of t h e s c a l e s may be d i f f e r e n t f o r d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t groups. However, to date, the research i n t h i s area has found s u b j e c t - s c a l e i n t e r a c t i o n to be minimal.. Osgood, et a l . (1957) found s u b j e c t - s c a l e i n t e r a c t i o n t o be "minimal" i n r e p o r t i n g s t u d i e s concerning f o r e i g n exchange students, an i n d i v i d u a l with t r i p l e p e r s o n a l i t y , and a random sample of i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s . Benel and Benel (1976) reported t h a t "the v e r a c i t y of a g e n e r a l sex d i f f e r e n c e on the SD appears t o be extremely q u e s t i o n a b l e " (p. . 438), d i s c o u n t i n g the sex d i f f e r e n c e s found i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s as being c r e a t e d by the c o n t e x t of the p a r t i c u l a r experiment. In a psychometric approach t o the problem, Nordenstreng (1970) admitted t h a t "we are at most d e a l i n g with very s u b t l e phenomena, which, compared to the i n v a r i a n t component, are 29 almost n e g l i g i b l e , or a t any rate marginal" (p. 235)., Yet, d e s p i t e the l a c k o f evidence f o r s i g n i f i c a n t s u b j e c t - s c a l e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s , f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n t h i s area i s e s s e n t i a l s i n c e the SD i s being employed with a wide v a r i e t y of s u b j e c t s i n an e q u a l l y wide v a r i e t y o f e x p e r i m ental s i t u a t i o n s . The CATPA i s a c l a s s i c example,. L i t t l e r e s e a r c h i s e v i d e n t concerninq the use of the SD with young c h i l d r e n . Do the s c a l e s have a commmon meaning f o r c h i l d r e n ? Do c h i l d r e n understand the concept of p o l a r i t y ? Are the dimensions i n the semantic space the same f o r c h i l d r e n as f o r a d u l t s ? The l e n g t h of the s c a l e continuum f o r c h i l d r e n has been i n v e s t i g a t e d o n l y i n d i r e c t l y . Osgood, et al..(1957) mentioned t h a t "grade-school c h i l d r e n seem t o work b e t t e r with a 5-step s c a l e and there i s some r e l a t i o n here t o i n t e l l i g e n c e d i f f e r e n c e s " (p, 85),. Oles (1973), i n an unconvincing e f f o r t a t using the SD with t h i r d through f i f t h g r a d e r s , employed a 5-step s c a l e but r e p o r t e d no r a t i o n a l e for i t s use. Another aspect r e l a t e d to s c a l e s e l e c t i o n i s the s e l e c t i o n o f dimensions,, Although Osgood, et a l . (1957) a s s o c i a t e d the e v a l u a t i v e dimension with a t t i t u d e measurement, they noted that a combination of i n f o r m a t i o n from s e v e r a l dimensions should improve p r e d i c t i o n of behavior from a t t i t u d e . R e s u l t s of a p i l o t study by Tannenbaum supported t h i s hypothesis; however, f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d . 30 The n e u t r a l reponse category, Problems concerning the n e u t r a l (midpoint) response category i n the SD evolve from a m b i g u i t i e s i n the meaning of t h i s c a t e g o r y to respondents. G e n e r a l l y the meaning of t h i s category i s e i t h e r one of ambivalence or i n d i f f e r e n c e . An ambivalent s u b j e c t has " p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e sentiments concentrated on the same o b j e c t and cannot make up h i s mind as to whether he agrees or d i s a g r e e s " , while an i n d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t has "minimal concern f o r t h e . t o p i c i n v o l v e d i n the statement" (Dubois & Burns, 1975, p. 871). In the i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the SD, Osgood, e t a l . (1957) d e s c r i b e the midpoint response as " n e i t h e r X nor Y; e g u a l l y X and Y" (p.. 29).. S i n c e one and only one checkmark i s allowed f o r each s c a l e , a check mark at the midpoint does not d i s t i n g u i s h between ambivalent and i n d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s i n the SD.. Kaplan (1972) argued t h a t the d i s t i n c t i o n between ambivalence and i n d i f f e r e n c e i s an important aspect o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a t t i t u d e s . T h i s argument was supported by Fink (1971) who r e p o r t e d t h a t "use of a t t i t u d e s c a l e s with n e u t r a l c a t e g o r i e s , as compared to a nonneutral s c a l e , i n c r e a s e d the p r o b a b i l i t y of s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between the judgements of r e a l groups with other r e a l groups" and furthermore "the use of nonneutral s c a l e s diminished the number of s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s betweem groups" (p. 365).. Kaplan o f f e r e d a "component" model f o r c o r r e c t i n g t h i s inadequacy i n the SD. By combining two s i n g l e a d j e c t i v e s c a l e s to measure ambivalence and i n d i f f e r e n c e toward each SD b i p o l a r 31 s c a l e Kaplan employed the n e u t r a l response category as a moderator v a r i a b l e . W h i l e . t h i s approach i s encouraging, the a d d i t i o n of two s c a l e s t o each b i p o l a r s c a l e : would reduce the p r a c t i c a l i t y of using many SD a t t i t u d e instruments. Dubois and Burns (1975) pointed out t h a t other f a c t o r s c o u l d account f o r use o f the n e u t r a l response categ o r y by s u b j e c t s . Such f a c t o r s i n c l u d e r e f u s a l t o r e v e a l t r u e f e e l i n g s , l a c k o f understanding of the a t t i t u d i n a l statement, and f a i l u r e . o f respondents to f e e l s u f f i c i e n t l y informed to take a p o s i t i o n . Dubois and Burns emphasized t h a t " r e s e a r c h e r s should be more c a r e f u l i n s p e c i f y i n g the meaning of the category r a t h e r than j u s t n a i v e l y assuming t h a t i t i n d i c a t e s an average p o s i t i o n " (p. . 883),, Another approach to the problem i s one taken by C a r t e r , e t a l . (1968) who suggested t h a t s u b j e c t s i g n o r e s c a l e s on which they would not or could not ev a l u a t e a given o b j e c t . S t i l l other r e s e a c h e r s (Worthy, 1969) argued that the midpoint response, f a r from l a c k i n g i n extremeness, i s " p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y s i m i l a r t o an extreme response since i t r e p r e s e n t s a c o n c r e t e , unambiguous p o s i t i o n " (p., 189). Other problems. Osgood, e t a l . . (1957) make c e r t a i n assumptions about the SD s c a l e s . . Equal i n t e r v a l s w i t h i n s c a l e s are assumed, along with the the midpoint f a l l i n g a t the c e n t r o i d of each scale,. . Although the i n v e s t i g a t o r s provided evidence i n d i c a t i n g a s l i g h t i n e q u a l i t y o f i n t e r v a l s w i t h i n s c a l e s , these i n e q u a l i t i e s appeared constant a c r o s s s c a l e s l e a d i n g t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t with 32 "an approximate e q u a l i t y of i n t e r v a l s between s c a l e s and a s i m i l a r placement of o r i g i n s a c r o s s s c a l e s , i t seems reasonable t o conclude t h a t the s c a l i n g p r o p e r t i e s assumed with the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l have some b a s i s other than mere assumption" (p.. 152). Other assumptions which remain to be t e s t e d are common o r i g i n of s c a l e s ( i . e . , common i n t e r s e c t i o n i n semantic space), l i n e a r i t y of s c a l e s i n semantic space, and the assumption t h a t p o l a r a d j e c t i v e s i n a s c a l e are i n o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s and e q u i d i s t a n t from the common o r i g i n (Osgood, e t a l . , 1957). Maguire (1973) noted t h a t a symptom of v i o l a t i o n of the l a t t e r assumption may be the attempt o f respondents to pl a c e two checkmarks i n d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s on one s c a l e . Development and Use . of the .-G ft TP A. Inventory Since the CATPA i n v e n t o r y i s an adaptation o f Kenyon's (1968 a,b,c) ATPA i n v e n t o r y , the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n w i l l focus on the f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s : development of the Kenyon ATPA i n v e n t o r y , development and a p p l i c a t i o n o f the CATPA i n v e n t o r y , and problems a s s o c i a t e d with the CATPA inv e n t o r y . Development of the ATPA i n v e n t o r y . Kenyon's ATPA i n v e n t o r y was the end product of two developmental phases. The i n i t i a l phase (Kenyon, 1965; Kenyon, 1968a) was concerned with the development of a c o n c e p t u a l model f o r c h a r a c t e r i z i n g p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as a s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l 33 phenomenon*. Kenyon's r a t i o n a l e f o r attempting such a complex task was the shortcomings of a t t i t u d e s c a l e s a v a i l a b l e a t t h a t time. Previous s c a l e s f a i l e d t o account f o r the p o s s i b l e and l i k e l y m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l i t y of the domain of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , were seldom c o n s t r u c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o proper t e s t c o n s t r u c t i o n procedures, and were too narrow i n d e l i n e a t i n g the domain of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y ( i . e . , the s c a l e s c h a r a c t e r i z e d r e s t r i c t e d domains such as " p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n " or " s p o r t s " ) . To surmount these shortcomings, Kenyon p o s t u l a t e d t h a t the l a r g e domain of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y c o u l d be l o g i c a l l y reduced to subsets based upon the perceived i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y of each subdomain. E m p i r i c a l t e s t s o f the.model c o n s i s t e d of s u b j e c t responses to statements thought t o r e p r e s e n t each of the p o s t u l a t e d subdomains, f o l l o w e d by t e s t s of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y and subdomain independence. I t was hypothesized t h a t responses should c o r r e l a t e w i t h i n but not between dimensions. In a l l , t h r e e h y p o t h e t i c a l models were p o s t u l a t e d . The f i r s t model c o n s i s t e d of the f o l l o w i n g s i x subdomains: p h y s i c a l h e a l t h , mind-body dichotomy, c o o p e r a t i o n - c o m p e t i t i o n , mental h e a l t h , s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e , and p a t r i o t i s m . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s and i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s on data c o l l e c t e d from 756 a d u l t s and 100 c o l l e g e students provided l i t t l e evidence of a meaningful s t r u c t u r e . T h e r e f o r e , a second six-subdomain model was proposed c o n s i s t i n g of the f o l l o w i n g dimensions: p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as a s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e , f o r h e a l t h and f i t n e s s , as the p u r s u i t of v e r t i g o , as an a e s t h e t i c experience, as a 34 r e c r e a t i o n a l experience, and as a competitive experience (Kenyon, 1968a) . Seventy-three judge-rated L i k e r t - s t y l e a t t i t u d e statements were administered to 176 c o l l e g e students. F a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the i t e m - i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n matrix i n d i c a t e d m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l i t y. M l but the r e c r e a t i o n a l and competitive experience subdomains provided f a v o r a b l e r e s u l t s , t h e r e f o r e , a t h i r d and f i n a l model was p o s t u l a t e d with s i x subdomains as f o l l o w s : p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as a s o c i a l experience, f o r h e a l t h and f i t n e s s , as the p u r s u i t of v e r t i g o , as an a e s t h e t i c experience, as c a t h a r s i s , and as an a s c e t i c experience (Kenyon, 1968a) . The subdomains were chosen t o some extent based upon the w r i t i n g s of C a i l l o i s (1961) ( s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e , p u r s u i t of vertigo) and Berkowitz (1962) ( c a t h a r s i s ) ; e m p i r i c a l evidence; and i n t u i t i o n (Kenyon, 1968a). L i k e r t - s t y l e data acquired from over 500 male and female c o l l e g e freshmen were item analyzed and checked f o r i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y u s i n g Hoyt's (1941) AN OVA approach. Separate forms were administered to males and females. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y f o r both forms was lowest i n the s o c i a l subdomain (Hoyt r = .72) and h i g h e s t i n the v e r t i g o subdomain (Hoyt r = ,89) (Kenyon, 1968a),. The r e l a t i v e independence of subdomains was a l s o deemed s a t i s f a c t o r y with no two f a c t o r s s h a r i n g more than 32% of the v a r i a n c e . Kenyon concluded t h a t with the exception of the c a t h a r s i s subdomain, the ATPA i n v e n t o r y was v a l i d and r e l i a b l e . , At the s u g g e s t i o n of John W. Loy a seventh subdomain, p h y s i c a l 35 a c t i v i t y as games of chance, was l a t e r added t o the model. The second phase i n the development of the ATP & i n v e n t o r y was the combination of Kenyon's c o n c e p t u a l model f o r c h a r a c t e r i z i n g p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y with an adequate measurement device f o r a s s e s s i n g a t t i t u d e (Kenyon, 1968b; Kenyon, 1968c). As part of the development of the t h i r d and f i n a l c o n c e p t u a l model, Kenyon developed a second r e v i s i o n of the i n v e n t o r y — Form C (CW-women, CM-men)--consisting of the s i x subdomains accompanied by seven a l t e r n a t i v e L i k e r t -s t y l e a t t i t u d e statements f o r each subdomain,. As noted above, the measures of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y and subdomain independence f o r Form C were s a t i f a c t o r y , based upon data c o l l e c t e d from approximately 500 c o l l e g e freshmen,, From the r e s e a r c h of Form C a subsequent r e v i s e d e d i t i o n of the i n v e n t o r y was developed and named Form D. Form D was f i r s t used i n a study of 351 grammar sc h o o l and secondary students from Newcastle Upon Tyne, England and 576 high school students from Milwaukee, Wisconsin (Kenyon, 1968c).. T h i s r e s e a r c h was the f i r s t o f two p i l o t s t u d i e s i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r Kenyon's (1968c) major i n v e s t i g a t i o n e n t i t l e d Values-Held f o r Ph y s i c a l A c t i v i t y by S e l e c t e d Urban Secondary School. Studeni:s_in Canada, A u s t r a l i a , England, and the. U n i t e d S t a t e s . . Designed to t e s t the u t i l i t y of c e r t a i n concepts when used c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y , the Newcastle-Milwaukee study employed Forms DW and DM f o r a s s e s s i n g ATPA p l u s an i n v e n t o r y t o assess involvement i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . , Kenyon d i s c o v e r e d i n t h i s study t h a t 36 "the concepts found t o be meaningful i n t h e ; U n i t e d S t a t e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those c h a r a c t e r i z i n g p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y a c c o r d i n g t o perceived i n s t r u m e n t a l value, were a l s o meaningful i n England" (p. . 11).. A second p i l o t study o f 245 high s c h o o l students i n J a n e s v i l l e , Wisconsin l e d to the adoption of the SD f o r use with the seven subdomains of the ATPA i n v e n t o r y . Six i n v e n t o r i e s i n c l u d i n g the B. A. T. . i n v e n t o r y (a semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l a d a p t a t i o n of Form D) to assess a t t i t u d e and body image, and the P. A, T. i n v e n t o r y (the o r i g i n a l L i k e r t - s t y l e Form D ATPA inventory) were administered with the aim of determining the most e f f i c i e n t procedures and most p l a u s i b l e v a r i a b l e s t o use i n the subsequent major study concerning c r o s s - c u l t u r a l ATPA. Kenyon concluded t h a t the "semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l approach would be best f o r a s s e s s i n g a t t i t u d e s i n c e i t was q u i c k e r , more e f f i c i e n t , and y i e l d e d higher r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s than the L i k e r t - t y p e i n v e n t o r y " (p. 13). U t i l i z i n g the r e c i p r o c a l averages procedure, Kenyon reported maximized i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t s (Hoyt's procedure) f o r the SD-style i n v e n t o r y ranging from a high of .871 f o r the chance subdomain t o a low of .784 f o r the s o c i a l subdomain. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o note t h a t Kenyon did not o u t l i n e the procedures and r a t i o n a l e f o r s e l e c t i n g the e i g h t SD b i p o l a r s c a l e s used i n the r e v i s e d ATPA i n v e n t o r y . Zaichkowsky (1978) confirmed the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e and i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of the ATPA i n v e n t o r y . Zaichkowsky reported Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r the subdomains ranging from 37 .80 t o .90 and a seven f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e which accounted f o r 89,5% of the v a r i a n c e . However, although the seven f a c t o r s were almost an exact d u p l i c a t i o n of those reported by Kenyon, i n the h e a l t h subdomain only s i x of the e i g h t a d j e c t i v a l p a i r s loaded on t h i s f a c t o r . . The two o u t l y i n g word p a i r s (good-bad, worthless-worthwhile) were e x t r a c t e d as a unique f a c t o r . . Development of the CATPA i n v e n t o r y . In 1973 J u l i e Simon, under the s u p e r v i s i o n of Dr., Frank Smoll at the U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, S e a t t l e , Washington, completed a Waster of Science t h e s i s e n t i t l e d Assessing C h i l d r e n ' s  A t t i t u d e s Toward P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y . : Development of an Instrument i n which she adapted the ATPA i n v e n t o r y f o r use with c h i l d r e n i n grades four through s i x . . Simon's f i n d i n g s were pu b l i s h e d (Simon & Smoll, 1974) and subsequent i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have examined the e q u i v a l e n c y o f the ATPA and CATPA i n v e n t o r i e s (Schutz & Smoll, 1977); the r e l a t i o n s h i p among CATPA, degree, of primary involvement i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , and p h y s i c a l motor performance of c h i l d r e n (Smoll, e t a l . , 1976); the . r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s toward and involvement i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s , and the a t t i t u d e s and behaviors of t h e i r c h i l d r e n (Smoll, e t a l . , 1979); and the p e r c i e v e d meaning of the CATPA i n v e n t o r y subdomains (Wood, et a l . , 1977).,. The present d i s c u s s i o n d e s c r i b e s the methods by which Simon and Smoll developed the CATPA i n v e n t o r y , the subseguent a p p l i c a t i o n s of the i n v e n t o r y , and problems a s s o c i a t e d with the i n v e n t o r y . 38 Simon's r a t i o n a l e f o r attempting the task o f developing the CATPA i n v e n t o r y was twofold._ P r i m a r i l y she wanted t o f i l l the void l e f t by a l a c k o f such a t e s t i n g instrument f o r an age group i n which b a s i c a t t i t u d e formation takes p l a c e . Kenyon's ATPA i n v e n t o r y had o n l y been t e s t e d with h i g h s c h o o l and c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s and was deemed a p p r o p r i a t e only f o r s u b j e c t s aged 15 years or o l d e r . . Secondly, Simon argued t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n gained from a knowledge o f CATPA would g r e a t l y c o n t r i b u t e to the development of c u r r i c u l a aimed at improving CATPA i n both s c h o o l p h y s i c a l education and community r e c r e a t i o n programs. Simon's i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of two stages.. Stage one was gi v e n to c o n s t r u c t i o n of a CATPA i n v e n t o r y based l a r g e l y upon Kenyon's ATPA i n v e n t o r y , while stage two examined the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , r e l a t i v e independence of each subdomain, between-day r e l i a b i l i t y f o r each subdomain s c a l e , and sex by grade r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the CATPA in v e n t o r y . Stage two employed data c o l l e c t e d from 992 male and female s u b j e c t s i n grades four through s i x . The methods used by Simon and Smoll i n c o n s t r u c t i n g the CATPA i n v e n t o r y were i n g e n i o u s l y simple. Evidence from Kenyon's J a n e s v i l l e p i l o t study demonstrated the u t i l i t y o f the SD format f o r use with the ATPA i n v e n t o r y , t h e r e f o r e , Simon and Smoll r e t a i n e d the e i g h t b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e s c a l e format f o r the CATPA i n v e n t o r y . In order to maintain the i n t e g r i t y of Kenyon's con c e p t u a l model f o r c h a r a c t e r i z i n g p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y the U n i v e r s i t y of 39 Washington r e s e a r c h e r s c l o s e l y adhered to the content of the ATPA i n v e n t o r y , the only major change being the d e l e t i o n of the chance subdomain because " c h i l d r e n have not experienced p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as chance as d e f i n e d by Kenyon" (Simon, 1973, p. 43). Thus the CATPA i n v e n t o r y c o n s i s t e d of the same subdomain s t r u c t u r e (minus the chance subdomain) as the ATPA i n v e n t o r y with an e i g h t s c a l e SD format (see Appendix). Once the s t r u c t u r e and format of the CATPA i n v e n t o r y were decided upon the next s t e p was to make s u b s t a n t i a l changes i n the wording of the instrument to make.it a p p r o p r i a t e . f o r the r e a d i n g competencies of f o u r t h through s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n . . U t i l i z i n g Thorndike and Lorge's (1944) Teachers Word Book of 30.000 Words and C a r r o l l ' s (1971) Word Frequency Book each word i n the ATPA i n v e n t o r y was o b j e c t i v e l y e v a l u a t e d and ranked on the b a s i s of frequency of occurrence at the grade three l e v e l . . With the exception of the a s c e t i c subdomain a l l subdomain t i t l e s i n the CATPA i n v e n t o r y remained the same as i n the ATPA i n v e n t o r y . The a s c e t i c subdomain t i t l e was a l t e r e d from P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y as -Prolonged and.Strenuous-Training to P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y as Long and Hard T r a i n i n g . The e x p l a n a t i o n s of the subdomains were a l t e r e d to make them as simple as p o s s i b l e . For example, the e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the s o c i a l subdomain was changed from "Sports, games and o t h e r forms of p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n whose primary purpose i s to provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; t h a t i s , to meet new people and continue p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s h i p s " to " P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s which 40 give you a chance t o meet new people and be with your f r i e n d s . " The b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e p a i r s were s i m i l a r l y e v a l u a t e d , ranked, and r e p l a c e d i f a s u i t a b l e : r e p l a c e m e n t c o u l d be found. Four of Kenyon's o r i g i n a l e i g h t a d j e c t i v e p a i r s remained u n a l t e r e d (good-bad, n i c e - a w f u l , sad-happy, c l e a n - d i r t y ) ; i n two p a i r s only one a d j e c t i v e was a l t e r e d ( pleasant-unpleasant was changed to p l e a s a n t - n o t p l e a s a n t , and sweet-sour was changed t o s w e e t - b i t t e r ) ; and i n two p a i r s both a d j e c t i v e s were changed (worthless-worthwhile was changed to of no u s e - u s e f u l , and r e l a x e d - t e n s e was changed to steady-nervous) . As i n the ATPA i n v e n t o r y a 7-point continuum was placed between the a d j e c t i v e p a i r s . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of CATPA data c o l l e c t e d from 992 males and females i n grades f o u r through s i x i n f i v e B e l l e v u e , Washington elementary s c h o o l s confirmed the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s (see Chapter I I I f o r a more d e t a i l e d account of t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s ) . Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t i e s ( i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y ) were e s s e n t i a l l y the same r e g a r d l e s s of age or sex and ranged from .89 f o r the a e s t h e t i c subdomain to .80 f o r the two subdomains s o c i a l , and h e a l t h and f i t n e s s . C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s c a l c u l a t e d between subdomains f o r a l l s u b j e c t s combined i n d i c a t e d t h a t the s i x subdomains were r e l a t i v e l y independent. The a e s t h e t i c and v e r t i g o subdomains r e v e a l e d the highest degree of independence, while the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s o c i a l and h e a l t h and f i t n e s s subdomains 41 accounted f o r the l a r g e s t amount o f v a r i a n c e , 23%. Between day r e l i a b i l i t y (N=407 and time p e r i o d between t e s t s was s i x weeks) r e s u l t e d i n Pearson Product-Moment c o r r e l a t i o n s ranging from a high of .62 f o r the a e s t h e t i c subdomain t o a low of .44 f o r the h e a l t h and f i t n e s s and c a t h a r s i s subdomains. Grade f o u r s u b j e c t s e x h i b i t e d the lowest c o e f f i c i e n t s i n a l l subdomains but the a e s t h e t i c subdomain. Examination of mean scores and rankings o f the subdomains f o r the t e s t - r e t e s t population evidenced i d e n t i c a l rankings and s l i g h t l y h igher means f o r the i n i t i a l t e s t i n d i c a t i n g "the s u b j e c t s , as a group, responded s i m i l a r l y on both the i n i t i a l t e s t and the r e t e s t " (p. 68). The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f sex and grade t o CATPA was examined v i a a two-way f a c t o r i a l ANQVA (Sex X Grade) f o r each of the s i x subdomains. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t grade main e f f e c t or sex by grade i n t e r a c t i o n . G e n e r a l l y , both sexes e x h i b i t e d p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward a l l subdomains with females i n d i c a t i n g more f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e s than males i n fo u r of the. s i x subdomains ( s o c i a l , h e a l t h and f i t n e s s , a e s t h e t i c , and a s c e t i c ) . . Simon and Smoll concluded t h a t "the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l CATPA instrument i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r group t e s t i n g with f o u r t h through s i x t h grade c h i l d r e n " (Simon & Smoll, 1974, p. 413). Low between day r e l i a b i l i t y s c o r e s negate the use of the CATPA i n v e n t o r y f o r a c c u r a t e l y determining the a t t i t u d e of i n d i v i d u a l s . Research f i n d i n g s -using,the-CATPA i n v e n t o r y . : Research employing the CATPA i n v e n t o r y has co n c e n t r a t e d on 42 two areas; i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of A-B r e l a t i o n s h i p s and i n v e s t i g a t i o n s concerning the t h e o r e t i c a l and s t a t i s t i c a l v a l d i t y o f the i n v e n t o r y i t s e l f . Schutz and Smoll (1977) examined the degree to which the ATPA and CATPA i n v e n t o r i e s measured the same c o n s t r u c t s . , Both i n v e n t o r i e s were administered to 22 0 c o l l e g e students during a s i n g l e s e s s i o n , the order of p r e s e n t a t i o n being counterbalanced w i t h i n each sex group. A 2 X 2 MANOVA (sex by inventory) with repeated measures on the second f a c t o r i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t i n v e n t o r y main e f f e c t ( £ < -001) but no s i g n i f i c a n t sex by i n v e n t o r y i n t e r a c t i o n . F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t the . s i g n i f i c a n t i n v e n t o r y e f f e c t was p r i m a r i l y due to higher CATPA inv e n t o r y values i n the a s c e t i c subdomain and to a l e s s e r degree i n the h e a l t h and f i t n e s s subdomain. These f i n d i n g s accompanied by a more d e t a i l e d c r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n a n a l y s i s of SD s c a l e s c o r e s l e d the r e s e a r c h e r s t o the c o n c l u s i o n that the eighth SD s c a l e , i n each i n v e n t o r y (steady^nervous and relaxed-tense) were not i n t e r p r e t e d i n the same way f o r the a s c e t i c subdomain, , High c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between the i n v e n t o r i e s (.66 to .86) and Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t i e s ranging from .71 to .92 a l s o suggested a s t r o n g degree of e quivalence between the i n v e n t o r i e s . Schutz and Smoll concluded t h a t the CATPA and ATPA i n v e n t o r i e s were e s s e n t i a l l y e q u i v a l e n t ; however, "caution must be e x e r c i s e d when i n t e r p r e t i n q s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the a s c e t i c subdomain, as the c h i l d r e n ' s i n v e n t o r y y i e l d s s m a l l but c o n s i s t e n t l y higher values than 43 the a d u l t ' s i n v e n t o r y i n t h i s case" (p. 1034). In an attempt to glean a b e t t e r understanding of how c h i l d r e n p e r c e i v e the domain of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , t h r e e data s e t s were c o l l e c t e d by Wood, et a l . (1977): CATPA data, data from a r e v i s e d CATPA in v e n t o r y designed to measure a t t i t u d e toward a s p e c i f i c s p o r t as r e l a t e d to each of the s i x subdomains, and data from an instrument designed to e l i c i t responses i n d i c a t i n g the p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s each s u b j e c t a s s o c i a t e d with each of the s i x CATPA subdomains. The s u b j e c t s were 379 males and 268 females ages 9-15 y ears p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s p o r t s camps p e r t a i n i n g to seven s p e c i f i c s p o r t s and one general-type s p o r t s camp throughout the province of B r i t i s h Columbia. A 2 X 8 MANOVA (inventory by s p o r t camp) i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the CATPA and r e v i s e d CATPA i n v e n t o r i e s (£ < ,0001) with higher scores on the r e v i s e d i n v e n t o r y i n a l l but the c a t h a r s i s subdomain.. The presence o f a s i g n i f i c a n t s p o r t by i n v e n t o r y i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t (j? < .02) r e v e a l e d t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e i n i n v e n t o r i e s may vary between s p o r t s groups, however, subsequent u n i v a r i a t e ANOVA showed t h a t the. d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c a t h a r s i s subdomain accounted f o r the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t . P r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s of p o s s i b l e age e f f e c t s i n two s p o r t s , hockey and soccer, y i e l d e d only n o n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s . Frequency analyses of the s p e c i f i c a t t i t u d e r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s i n v e n t o r y i n d i c a t e d t h a t respondents a s s o c i a t e d t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s p o r t with most subdomains; and whenever they d i d not a s s o c i a t e t h e i r s p o r t with a 44 subdomain, a great v a r i a b i l i t y i n response was evidenced. The i n v e s t i g a t o r s concluded t h a t c h i l d r e n aged 9^15 years do not p e r c e i v e the g e n e r a l c o n s t r u c t of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , but i n s t e a d , r e l a t e to the s p e c i f i c s p o r t i n which they are most i n t e r e s t e d cr i n v o l v e d . Two s t u d i e s have used the CATPA i n v e n t o r y i n i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of A-B r e l a t i o n s h i p s . . Smoll, e t a l r (1976) i n a study of r e l a t i o n s h i p s among c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s , involvement, and p r o f i c i e n c y i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s , c o l l e c t e d CATPA, motor performance, and degree of primary involvement data from 127 boys and 137 g i r l s a t t e n d i n g grades four through s i x (see Chapter I I I f o r a more d e t a i l e d account of the s u b j e c t and data c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r t h i s s t u d y ) . C a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s , which y i e l d s a s t a t i s t i c i n d i c a t i n g the s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between two composite l i n e a r v a r i a b l e s e t s , r e v e a l e d the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s : a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between CATPA and the combined involvement and performance measures; a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between CATPA and involvement; and no r e l a t i o n s h i p between CATPA and performance even when the s u b j e c t s were s t r a t i f i e d on the b a s i s of high and low performance and high and low a t t i t u d e . Although these r e s u l t s must be i n t e r p r e t e d with c a u t i o n due to the s m a l l sample s i z e , the r e s e a r c h e r s deduced t h a t while a t t i t u d e and involvement are r e l a t e d , the i n c l u s i o n of motor performance does not a i d i n accounting f o r a t t i t u d e v a r i a b i l i t y . . T h e r e f o r e , the popular b e l i e f t h a t improvement 45 of c h i l d r e n ' s motor performance w i l l enhance t h e i r ATPA was not supported. P a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s r e g a r d i n g p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , a t t i t u d e s , and b e h a v i o r s were examined by Smoll, et a l . (1979).. CATPA, involvement, and motor performance data were c o l l e c t e d from 61 boys and 60 g i r l s i n grades f o u r through s i x along with data from t h e i r parents r e f l e c t i n g ATPA, frequency of p e r s o n a l involvement, and frequency of shared involvement with t h e i r c h i l d . C h i l d r e n ' s data were c o l l e c t e d i n the same manner d e s c r i b e d by ,Smoll, et a l . (1976) (see Chapter I I I ) . P a r e n t a l data c o n s i s t e d of s i x s c o r e s from the ATPA i n v e n t o r y , and two t o t a l s c o r e s r e p r e s e n t i n g personal and shared involvement,, The p a r e n t a l involvement scores were d e r i v e d by having respondents i n d i c a t e t h e i r own frequency of p e r s o n a l and shared involvement f o r each of 56 p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s alonq a s c a l e designated "every day", " a t l e a s t once i n a week ", "once or tw i c e i n a month", and " l e s s o f t e n or never".. T h i s procedure y i e l d e d two p o s s i b l e responses (personal, shared) f o r each a c t i v i t y . The number of a c t i v i t i e s f o r which the s u b j e c t responded t o each s c a l e category were t o t a l e d and m u l t i p l i e d by 5, 2, .5, and 0 f o r the s c a l e : components (e.g., "every day" = 5 ) . T h i s was taken t o r e p r e s e n t the approximate number of times per week the parent was i n v o l v e d i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . These fo u r products were then summed p r o v i d i n g a s i n g l e s c o r e f o r p e r s o n a l involvement and a s i n g l e score f o r shared involvement.. In order to t e s t f o r 46 p o s s i b l e age e f f e c t s , the. male and female c h i l d r e n were dichotomized on the b a s i s of age. C a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t there was no a s s o c i a t i o n between parent ATPA and t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s or involvement or performance. G e n e r a l l y n o n s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found between the parent involvement domain and the c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s , involvement, or performance. Supporting these r e s u l t s , a 2 X 2 MANOVA showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n CATPA between c h i l d r e n whose parents returned completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and those whose parents f a i l e d t o r e t u r n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Yet, the r e s u l t s suggested t h a t i f parent involvement i s a f a c t o r of consequence with r e s p e c t to c h i l d r e n ' s p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y a t t i t u d e s and behaviors, then i t i s the degree of shared r a t h e r than p e r s o n a l involvement which may be of importance. S u b j e c t i v e views on CATPA a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s c o r i n g . The l a c k of c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d above have c a s t doubts upon the u t i l i t y of the CATPA and ATPA i n v e n t o r i e s as measures of a t t i t u d e . Researchers a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia and at the U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, S e a t t l e , Washington have t h e r e f o r e begun to design i n v e s t i g a t i o n s examining the psychometric and t h e o r e t i c a l s t r u c t u r e of these i n v e n t o r i e s . In p a r t , t h i s avenue o f e x p l o r a t i o n was s t i m u l a t e d by o b s e r v a t i o n s noted by t h i s author d u r i n g four years of f i e l d t e s t i n g with both i n v e n t o r i e s . The f o l l o w i n g i s a summary 47 of problems a s s o c i a t e d with the s t r u c t u r e and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the CATPA i n v e n t o r y based upon these o b s e r v a t i o n s . S e v e r a l problems appear to be a s s o c i a t e d with the s t r u c t u r e o f the CATPA i n v e n t o r y . . Lack of s p e c i f i c i t y i n the t a r g e t , a c t i o n , c o n t e x t u a l , and time elements of the s i x subdomains coupled with an even g r e a t e r lack of s p e c i f i c i t y i n the c o r r e s p o n d i n g b e h a v i o r a l c r i t e r i o n may have accounted f o r the poor A-B r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n CATPA s t u d i e s . Subjects were g e n e r a l l y aware of the t a r g e t and a c t i o n elements (e.g.. P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y as a S o c i a l Experience) but o f t e n complained that the time and c o n t e x t u a l elements v a r i e d . A s s o c i a t e d with t h i s problem i s t h a t of meaningfulness of the subdomains to younger age groups. C h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y i n grade f o u r , may not r e l a t e to the term p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y l e t alone the c a t h a r s i s and a s c e t i c subdomains. Even when the subdomains are understood the:problems of c o n c e p t - s c a l e and s u b j e c t - s c a l e i n t e r a c t i o n may a r i s e . . C h i l d r e n o f t e n i n t e r p r e t the word p a i r c l e a n - d i r t v. to mean s o i l i n g one's c l o t h e s or person while p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . The word p a i r s s w e e t - b i t t e r and steady-nervous to many c h i l d r e n seem to be incomprehensible within the context of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . . Another p o t e n t i a l source of c o n f u s i o n concerns the code numbers placed under the 7-space continuum s e p a r a t i n g each b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e p a i r . Removal of these numbers would p r o h i b i t respondents from a s s o c i a t i n g them with s c o r e s on the s c a l e s . . I t i s a l s o suggested that a 5^ p o i n t s c a l e be adopted because the 5-point s c a l e may 48 d i s c r i m i n a t e as w e l l as the 7-point s c a l e . I t i s a l s o important to adapt the n e u t r a l p o i n t on each s c a l e i n order to d i s t i n g u i s h between those s c a l e s and concepts which are not understood by s u b j e c t s from those t h a t are being scored as a n e u t r a l or cannot-decide response. Problems a s s o c i a t e d with a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the CATPA i n v e n t o r y are few. The major problem i s the f a i l u r e to u t i l i z e the standard a d m i n i s t r a t i o n procedures. I r o n i c a l l y , the ease of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the i n v e n t o r y i s l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f c r t h i s problem.. Anyone can d i s t r i b u t e the i n v e n t o r y , and with few i n s t r u c t i o n s have a group of s u b j e c t s f i l l i t i n . Yet the: s u b j e c t s may not f u l l y understand the c a t e g o r i e s of the 7-point continuum, t h i n k too hard about t h e i r responses, r e f e r back t o p r e v i o u s pages, use the coding numbers as s c o r i n g numbers, m i s i n t e r p r e t e the aim o f the i n v e n t o r y , e t c . ... In order to maximize the u s e f u l n e s s of the i n v e n t o r y and a l l o w v a l i d and r e l i a b l e comparisons between i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s such as those employed by Simon and Smoll (1974) should be f o l l o w e d . Another a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s the t e s t s e t t i n g . Many i n v e s t i g a t i o n s used the i n v e n t o r y i n a formal classroom s e t t i n g (Simon & Smoll, 1974; Smoll, et a l . , 1976), while o t h e r s used an i n f o r m a l s e t t i n g , such as a gymnasium f l o o r or pool deck (Wood, et a l . , 1977). The l a t t e r s e t t i n g i s perhaps not as e f f i c i e n t or r e l i a b l e as the formal s e t t i n g , s i n c e the s u b j e c t s are more concerned with f u r t h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e immediate 49 p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y than with completing a six-page i n v e n t o r y . A l s o , l y i n g or s i t t i n g on a hard gymnasium f l o o r may not be conducive t o the task. Summ ary Although numerous d e f i n i t i o n s of the a t t i t u d e concept are a v a i l a b l e , each employs one or more i n t e r r e l a t e d a t t i t u d i n a l components such as the c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e , and b e h a v i o r a l component " t r i a d " proposed by T r i a n d i s (1971). An i m p l i c i t assumption r e l a t e d to the n o t i o n of t r i a d i c c o n s i s t e n c y i s t h a t a t t i t u d e s cause, r e f l e c t , or c o r r e l a t e with behavior. Reactions to t h i s assumption have l e d to what has been coined i n the past decade as the a t t i t u d e -behavior discrepancy c o n t r o v e r s y . .. S t i m u l a t e d by the p i o n e e r i n g work o f Wicker (1969), who concluded t h a t a t t i t u d e s are o f t e n u n r e l a t e d t o b e h a v i o r , s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s delved i n t o such areas of e x p l o r a t i o n as improvement of a t t i t u d i n a l and b e h a v i o r a l measures, r e d e f i n i n g the A-B problem, a d d i t i o n of n o n - ^ a t t i t u d i n a l measures to the p r e d i c t i o n of b e h a v i o r , and i n v e s t i g a t i o n of s i t u a t i o n a l f o r c e s hampering the A-B r e l a t i o n s h i p . The most widely used method of a t t i t u d e assessment i s the a t t i t u d e s c a l e . Although s e v e r a l types of a t t i t u d e s c a l e s are popular i n c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h , only the S-D (Osgood, et a l . , 1957) i s d i s c u s s e d . O r i g i n a l l y developed as a measure of the meaning of a concept f o r an i n d i v i d u a l , the SD i s one of the most popular and misused r e s e a r c h 50 t o o l s . , The r a t i o n a l e f o r c o n s i d e r i n g the technique as an index of meaning i s s p e c u l a t i v e , and the technique must be adapted to each unique measurement problem. , The SD as an a t t i t u d e measurement device has many advantages (e.g., ease and speed of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , manifest numerical e q u i v a l e n c i e s , s e n s i t i v i t y , v e r s a t i l i t y , and r e l i a b i l i t y ) . However, there are s e v e r a l problems a s s o c i a t e d with the t e chnique, such as s e l e c t i o n of proper s c a l e s to minimize c o n c e p t - s c a l e and s u b j e c t - s c a l e i n t e r a c t i o n s , a m b i g u i t i e s r e g a r d i n g the n e u t r a l response category, and the t h e o r e t i c a l assumptions concerning the s c a l e as a measure of meaning. Both Kenyon's (1 968c) ATPA i n v e n t o r y and the Simon and Smoll (1974) CATPA i n v e n t o r y employ the SD format i n measuring respondent's a t t i t u d e toward the m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l domain o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . . S ince t h e i r development, over 50 s t u d i e s have employed the ATPA and CATPA i n v e n t o r i e s ; yet i n v e s t i g a t i o n s concerning the. s t a t i s t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s o f the instruments are few. S t u d i e s have i n s t e a d focused upon other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s such as p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s , race, socioeconomic s t a t u s , r e l i g i o u s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and s k i l l performance i n a d d i t i o n to the examination of a t t i t u d e s . Lack of s i g n i f i c a n t A-B r e l a t i o n s h i p s concerning CATPA and involvement and performance i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y have l e d i n v e s t i g a t o r s a t U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and U n i v e r s i t y of Washington to study the problems a s s o c i a t e d with the t h e o r e t i c a l and psychometric s t r u c t u r e o f the CATPA i n v e n t o r y . . 51 CHAPTER I I I Subject a n d . D a t a : C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s T h i s chapter p r e s e n t s a d e s c r i p t i o n of s u b j e c t and data c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . C o n s i d e r a t i o n i s given t o sample s i z e ; s u b j e c t age, sex, and l o c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; t e s t instruments and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; and data c o l l e c t i o n and s c o r i n g procedures. Since data f o r the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n were c o l l e c t e d from f o u r s t u d i e s spanning the p e r i o d 1973 t o 1977 i n B e l l e v u e , Washington and throughout the p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, s u b j e c t and data c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r each i n v e s t i g a t i o n are d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y . Data from a t o t a l of 2,035 male and female s u b j e c t s aged 10 through 15 years were u t i l i z e d i n the present study. Because the: data c o l l e c t i o n and t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n procedures were s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r the B e l l e v u e and B r i t i s h Columbia s u b j e c t s , they were grouped a c c o r d i n g to age, sex, and l o c a t i o n of data c o l l e c t i o n . A t o t a l of 23 subgroups r e s u l t e d from t h i s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n (Table 1) . 52 Table 1 Data A n a l y s i s Part I Subject Age, Sex, and L o c a t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Group N Group N T o t a l N Males Females 10 259 10 241 500 11 316 11 309 625 12 328 12 299 627 10-12 903 10- 12 849 1752 13-15 133 13-15 150 283 Bellevue 611 Belle v u e 646 1257 B.C. 425 B. C. 353 778 T o t a l 1036 T o t a l 999 2035 53 B e l l e v u e , Washington (Simon S Smoll, 1974) The t o t a l sample o f the o r i g i n a l CATPA i n v e n t o r y development study was comprised of 483 males and 509 females i n grades f o u r through s i x i n B e l l v u e , Washington (a suburb of S e a t t l e ) elementary s c h o o l s . A f t e r r e c e i v i n g p a r e n t a l p e r m i s s i o n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the. study, s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d i n a c o l l e c t i v e manner i n t h e i r classrooms d u r i n g h a l f - h o u r t e s t i n g p e r i o d s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r (Simon) administered the i n v e n t o r i e s during a l l but t h r e e of the h a l f - h o u r t e s t i n g p e r i o d s . For those s e s s i o n s , a t r a i n e d graduate student administered the instrument.. Each c h i l d responded to a seven-page mimeographed b o o k l e t , which i n c l u d e d a cover sheet f o r s u b j e c t i n f o r m a t i o n and the s i x -page CATPA inventory,. To i n s u r e i n d i v i d u a l i t y of s u b j e c t responses and t o i n s u r e that the same domain was not always l a s t , the booklet pages were r o t a t e d i n s i x d i f f e r e n t r o t a t i o n o r d e r s . With the a i d of a l a r g e poster d e p i c t i n g a sample page, s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s were r e c i t e d to the s u b j e c t s . Age (months), sex, and grade c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were recorded f o r each s u b j e c t along with a t o t a l o f 48 CATPA raw s c o r e s , ( i . e . , e i g h t semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e scores from each of the s i x CATPA subdomains). A p r i o r i weightings of "one" f o r n e g a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s and "seven" f o r p o s i t i v e a d j e c t i v e s were assigned t o the a d j e c t i v e p a i r s . Scores f o r a d j e c t i v e p a i r s one, f i v e , s i x , and e i g h t were reversed i n the i n v e n t o r y to reduce response acguiescence by s u b j e c t s . 54 A r e v e r s e order s c o r i n g program (Robert W,. Schutz, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia) was employed t o score these a d j e c t i v e p a i r s and r e p l a c e missing data i n a l l a d j e c t i v e p a i r s with the number " f i v e " , A p r e l i m i n a r y data a n a l y s i s had r e v e a l e d t h a t the mean response-to each a d j e c t i v e p a i r was f i v e ; t h e r e f o r e , the s m a l l amount of missing data i n the study was r e p l a c e d with the average response,. Standardized s c o r i n g procedures r e s u l t e d i n a t o t a l score f o r each of the s i x subdomains c o n s i s t i n g o f the sum of the e i g h t semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l scores. Maximum and minimum scores f o r any one subdomain were r e s p e c t i v e l y , 56 and e i g h t . , For the purposes o f the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n , only the age, sex, and 48 semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l raw scores a f t e r reversed s c o r i n g are employed as a component of the data set f o r Part I data a n a l y s i s . B e l l e v u e , Washington (Smoll, et a l . , 1976) In an examination of r e l a t i o n s h i p s among c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s , involvement, and p r o f i c i e n c y i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s 127 males and 137 females i n grades f o u r through s i x were t e s t e d i n a B e l l e v u e , Washington elementary s c h o o l . P a r e n t a l p e r m i s s i o n was obtained f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study and a l l data c o l l e c t i o n was administered under the s u p e r v i s i o n o f the i n v e s t i g a t o r s . . The f o l l o w i n g data were c o l l e c t e d : a. CATPA i n v e n t o r y data were c o l l e c t e d along with s u b j e c t age and sex c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s using the 55 s t a n d a r d i z e d c o l l e c t i o n and s c o r i n g procedures o u t l i n e d i n the preceding developmental study, the o n l y e x c e p t i o n being t h a t the i n v e n t o r y pages were not r o t a t e d , , The 48 raw s c o r e s ( a f t e r reverse order scoring) are i n c l u d e d i n data a n a l y s i s Part I of the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n , while the s i x t o t a l s c o r e s (one from each subdomain) are employed i n data a n a l y s i s P a r t I I . b. The degree of primary or a c t u a l involvement i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y was measured by a f o r c e d c h o ice q u e s t i o n n a i r e designed to r e f l e c t the frequency of involvement i n each o f the s i x dimensions of Kenyon's co n c e p t u a l model f o r c h a r a c t e r i z i n g p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y (see Appendix), For each dimension, s u b j e c t s were asked to i n d i c a t e t h e i r freguency of i n v o l v e m e n t — " e v e r y day", "at l e a s t once i n a week", "once or twice i n a month", " l e s s o f t e n or n e v e r " - - r e s u l t i n g i n s i x involvement scores per s u b j e c t . The maximum score f o r any one dimension was a value of " f o u r " , i n d i c a t i n g primary involvement "every day", while the minimum score was a value of "one", i n d i c a t i n g " l e s s o f t e n or never". The involvement q u e s t i o n n a i r e was administered with the CATPA i n v e n t o r y i n h a l f - h o u r classroom s e s s i o n s , . The involvement data are i n c l u d e d i n P a r t I I data a n a l y s i s of the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n . c. Motor performance data c o n s i s t e d of mean scores on the 50-yard dash (two t r i a l s ) , s t a n d i n g long jump (three t r i a l s ) , and s o f t b a l l throw f o r d i s t a n c e ( f i v e t r i a l s ) . . The measurement procedures were those d e s c r i b e d i n 56 the AAHPER Youth F i t n e s s Test-Manual (19 65) and by Baumgartner and Jackson (1970),. These data are i n c l u d e d i n data a n a l y s i s Part I I of the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n , . Richmond and Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia (Schutz & Wood, 1976) As a s i s t e r p r o j e c t t o the Smoll, e t a l . (1976) study, 145 males and 136 females i n grades f o u r through s i x were administered i n v e n t o r i e s i n two Richmond, B r i t i s h Columbia elementary schools, and 31 males and e i g h t females i n grades f o u r through s i x were t e s t e d at t h e . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Youth Summer Sports Camp., P a r e n t a l permission was obtained f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study. A l l data were c o l l e c t e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r s with the e x c e p t i o n of the motor performance measures i n the Richmond s c h o o l s . The f o l l o w i n g data were c o l l e c t e d : a. CATPA i n v e n t o r y data, age, and sex c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were c o l l e c t e d u sing the s t a n d a r d i z e d c o l l e c t i o n and s c o r i n g procedures o u t l i n e d i n the CATPA developmental study. I t should be noted, however, t h a t while the Richmond s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d i n a formal classroom s e t t i n g , the s p o r t s camp su b j e c t s were t e s t e d i n a more i n f o r m a l s e t t i n g , such as a gymnasium. A l s o , b o o k l e t pages were net r o t a t e d , and a s t a n d a r d i z e d s e t of i n s t r u c t i o n s were not r e c i t e d to e i t h e r group, although the important p o i n t s o f the s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s composed by Simon and Smoll (1974) were given v e r b a l l y to a l l 57 s u b j e c t s . The 48 raw s c o r e s ( a f t e r reverse order s c o r i n g ) are u t i l i z e d i n the data a n a l y s i s P a r t I of the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n . b.. Measurements of the degree of primary involvement i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and s i x motor performance items (CAHPER, 1976) were a l s o c o l l e c t e d ; however, these data are not used i n the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n . B r i t i s h Columbia (Wood,..Schutz, &.. Smoll, 1977) In an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of how c h i l d r e n aged nine through 15 years p e r c e i v e the domain of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as d e l i n e a t e d by Kenyon (1 968a), 249 males and 209 females were surveyed i n s p o r t s camps throughout B r i t i s h Columbia. The s p o r t s camps surveyed were v o l l e y b a l l , b a s k e t b a l l , swimming, i c e hockey, f i g u r e s k a t i n g , s o c c e r , outdoor p u r s u i t s , and a g e n e r a l s p o r t s camp. No p a r e n t a l p e r m i s s i o n was obtained f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the t e s t i n g program, except f o r the g e n e r a l s p o r t s camp s u b j e c t s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s administered the t e s t during one-hour p e r i o d s at the end of a d a i l y s e s s i o n d u r i n g the camp program. In more d e t a i l , the f o l l o w i n g CATPA data were c o l l e c t e d : CATPA i n v e n t o r y data, age, and sex c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were c o l l e c t e d using the s t a n d a r d i z e d c o l l e c t i o n and s c o r i n g procedures o u t l i n e d i n the CATPA developmental study with the f o l l o w i n g e x c e p t i o n s : 1. booklet pages were not r o t a t e d , 2. the t e s t s e t t i n g was i n f o r m a l , i e . , on a gymnasium f l o o r , pool deck, or beside t h e ; s k a t i n g r i n k , 58 3. . s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s were not r e c i t e d , however the important p o i n t s i n c l u d e d i n Simon's (1974) i n s t r u c t i o n s were always covered (eg., no missing data was allowed, " n e u t r a l " or " u n c e r t a i n " responses recorded i n the middle of the s c a l e : a s a " f o u r " ) . For the purposes o f the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n only the 48 semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c o r e s ( a f t e r reverse order scoring) from the CATPA i n v e n t o r y are i n c l u d e d as a component of t h e data a n a l y s i s Part I data s e t . , Summary CATPA data from a t o t a l of 2,035 male and female, s u b j e c t s aged 10 through 12 ye a r s were c o l l e c t e d from f o u r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s spanning the pe r i o d 1973 t o 1977 i n B e l l e v u e , Washington and throughtout the province o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Comprising t h i s t o t a l were 992 s u b j e c t s from the o r i g i n a l Simon and Smell (1974) CATPA i n v e n t o r y developmental study, 264 s u b j e c t s from the Smoll, e t a l . . (1976) i n v e s t i g a t i o n , 320 s u b j e c t s from the Schutz and Wood (1976) res e a r c h , and 459 s u b j e c t s from the Wood, et a l . (1977) study. F o r data a n a l y s i s P a r t I of the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the data c o n s i s t s of t h e 48 raw CATPA in v e n t o r y scores a f t e r r e verse order s c o r i n g f o r each of the 2,035 s u b j e c t s . The t o t a l sample was d i v i d e d i n t o 23 subgroups according t o age, sex, and l o c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r P a r t I. _ Since data a n a l y s i s Part I I of the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s concerned with r e a n a l y s i s of data from the Smoll, et a l . . (1976) study 59 a c c o r d i n g t o the f i n d i n g s i n Part I , Part I I data c o n s i s t s of the CATPA , degree of primary involvement, and motor performance data from a l l 264 s u b j e c t s i n the Smoll, et a l . (1976) r e s e a r c h . 60 CHAPTER IV Methods and_Results The e x p l o r a t o r y nature of the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n has r e s u l t e d i n s e v e r a l unique problems. Although a formal s t r u c t u r e f o r e x p l o r i n g the psychometric p r o p e r t i e s o f the CATPA in v e n t o r y was presented i n Chapter I, the r e s u l t s at any one stage of that s t r u c t u r e were u n p r e d i c t a b l e . Furthermore, r e s u l t s at any given stage determined the outcome of subsequent stages of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , the i n v e s t i g a t o r took an e m p i r i c a l r a t h e r than a t h e o r e t i c a l approach to the ana l y s e s . A l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s t a t i s t i c a l analyses along with a l a r g e measure of i n t u i t i o n and previous experience with the CATPA i n v e n t o r y was used i n determining the method of proceeding from one stage of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n to another. To promote c l a r i t y , the methods and r e s u l t s have been combined i n a s i n g l e c h a p t e r f o l l o w e d by a separate chapter d e a l i n g with the d i s c u s s i o n of r e s u i t s . The present chapter i s concerned with a step by step d e s c r i p t i o n of the methods and r e s u l t s f o r both data a n a l y s i s Part I (eval u a t i o n of the psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of CATPA f i e l d t e s t data) and data a n a l y s i s Part I I ( r e a n a l y s i s of a t t i t u d e and behavior data from the Smoll, et 61 a l - (1976) study u t i l i z i n g Part I ) . , Data A n a l y s i s P a r t I the r e s u l t s from data a n a l y s i s A p r i o r i data s e t . The a p r i o r i data s e t f o r the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of 48 CATPA raw s c o r e s c o l l e c t e d i n s i n g l e s e s s i o n group a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s over a f i v e year peri o d from each of 2,035 male and female s u b j e c t s . The data were grouped on the b a s i s of age, sex, and l o c a t i o n o f data c o l l e c t i o n (Bellevue, Washington or B r i t i s h Columbia) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . To assess the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h i n each subdomain s c a l e , Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t i e s (Hoyt, 1941) were determined u t i l i z i n g the L a b o r a t o r y of E d u c a t i o n a l Research Test A n a l y s i s Package (LERTAP) (Education Research S e r v i c e Centre, 1978; Nelson, 1974). Hoyt's technique c a l c u l a t e s r e l i a b i l i t i e s v i a the formula C? 2 t r u e / cr" 2 obtained i n d i c a t i n g the c o n s i s t e n c y of w i t h i n s u b j e c t responses t o the a d j e c t i v e p a i r s w i t h i n each subdomain s c a l e . Table 2 presents Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r each of the 24 age, sex, and l o c a t i o n subgroups. The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s range from .71 to .90. G e n e r a l l y , the s o c i a l subdomain and the h e a l t h subdomain y i e l d e d the lowest c o e f f i c i e n t s (ranging from .71 to .82) while the a e s t h e t i c subdomain (ranging from .82 to .90) y i e l d e d the highest c o e f f i c i e n t s . There was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between age, sex, and l o c a t i o n subgroups. 62 TABLE 2 Hoyt R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Each of S i x CATPA Sca l e s A P r i o r i D a t a — A l l Subgroups Subdomain Group Soc Hea Ver Aes Cat Asc Males 10 .79 .73 .85 .88 . 83 .87 11 . 76 .80 .81 .88 . 84 .84 12 .80 83 .83 .88 .83 .84 10-1 2 .79 i79 . 83 .88 .83 .85 13-15 .81 .78 .78 . 89 . 84 . 83 T o t a l .79 -79 . 83 .88 . 83 . 85 Females 10 .82 .77 .87 . 84 . 85 .89 11 . 80 .81 .89 -84 .85 . .87 12 . 80 .82 .84 .82 . 86 .84 10-12 .80 .80 . 87 .83 .85 .87 13-15 .71 .79 .85 . 87 . 87 .85 T o t a l • 79 .80 .87 .84 . 86 .86 Age 10 .80 .75 . 86 .88 .83 . 88 11 . 78 .80 . 85 .89 . 86 .85 12 .80 .82 .84 .88 . 84 ,. 84 10-12 .80 .80 . 85 . 88 .84 .86 13-15 .79 179 i .82 , 90 . 86 .84 Be l l e v u e Males .79 ;79 .83 . 88 ,82 .84 Females .82 .81 .87 ,. 83 ,. 85 .87 T o t a l .81 .80 . 85 .88 . 84 .85 B.C. Males .77 .79 . 82 .89 .85 .85 Females .72 .79 . 86 .85 . 86 . 86 T o t a l .77 .79 . 84 .89 . 86 .85 T o t a l Group .80 .80 . 85 . 89 .. 84 .85 63 The F o r t r a n Test A n a l y s i s Package - R e c i p r o c a l Averages Program (FORTAP—RAVE) (Baker, 1969) was employed t o maximize the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of the a p r i o r i s c o r e s by rew e i g h t i n g the 7-point s c a l e . The FORTAP-RAVE procedure "employs an a p r i o r i s e t of item response weights assigned by the i n v e s t i g a t o r t o i n i t i a t e an i t e r a t i o n process which converges t o a weighting scheme which maximizes the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of the instrument. The set of item response weights y i e l d e d by the f i n a l i t e r a t i o n i s used t o o b t a i n a weighted t o t a l s c o r e f o r each person ... " (p. 8). . In t h i s case the a p r i o r i weights were 1,2,3,4,5,6,7. The rewe i g h t i n g a l t e r e d these t o a s e t such as 1,1,2,2,3,5,7. FORTAP-RAVE was run on a l l subgroups but because no age, sex, o r l o c a t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s were noted i n the r e s u l t s , o n l y maximized Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r s e l e c t e d subgroups are presented i n Table 3,. G e n e r a l l y , the g r e a t e s t improvement o c c u r r e d i n the s o c i a l and h e a l t h subdomains. The improvements, however, were s m a l l ranging from i n c r e a s e s of .01 t o .05. FORTAP-RAVE a l s o outputs derived item response weights. T a b l e s 4 and 5 present the d e r i v e d weights f o r the age 10-12 years and age 13-15 years subgroups r e s p e c t i v e l y . The r e w e i g h t i n g schemes f o r these two subgroups were chosen as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the t o t a l subgroup s t r u c t u r e and were subsequently employed i n c r e a t i n g a second data s e t l a b e l l e d the a p r i o r i reweighted data s e t , d e s c r i b e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . 64 Table 3 Maximized Hoyt R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Each of Six CATPA S c a l e s A P r i o r i Data--Selected Subgroups Subdomain Group Soc Hea Ver Aes Cat Asc Mai es 10-12 . 83 .81 . 84 .88 ,. 84 .85 Females 10-12 .84 .82 .87 .85 . 85 .87 Age 10 .84 .79 . 86 .89 84 , 88 11 .83 .83 . 86 . 89 . 85 .86 12 .84 .82 .85 .88 •A 8 5 ;84 10-12 .83 .81 . 85 .89 . 84 .86 13-15 . 83 .82 .83 .91 .87 .84 Bell e v u e T o t a l .84 .81 . 85 .89 . 84 .85 B.C. T o t a l .81 .81 . 85 . 89 .86 .85 T o t a l Group .83 .81 . 85 .89 . 85 .86 65 Table 4 Derived Weights f o r CATPA S c a l e s as Generated from A P r i o r i Weights by the Method of R e c i p r o c a l Averages Age Group 10-12 Years Subdomain Word P a i r A P r i o r i Weights Derive d Weights S o c i a l G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A A-S D T C S-N 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1112357 2333467 1123467 2325667 1223467 1213467 4445567 5455567 Health G-B 0-U N-P E-S N-A A-S D-C S-N 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1122356 1213467 2234567 2335677 1124567 1124567 4344567 3345567 V e r t i g o G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A A-S D-C S-N 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1224567 1233466 1234567 1334577 1124567 1124567 2334567 2345567 (Continued) 66 Table 4 Derived Weights f o r CATPA. S c a l e s Age Group 10-12 Years (Continued) Word P a i r A P r i o r i Weights Derived Weights C a t h a r s i s G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A A-S D-C S-N G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A A-S D-C S-N 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1224467 1235567 1133567 1223567 1334467 2454567 1123457 1133467 1224567 1235667 1224567 1234567 2434567 3345567 A s c e t i c G-B o - u N-P B-S N-A A-S D-C S-N 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1224567 1123456 1234567 1335677 1234567 1224567 2334567 1434567 67 Table 5 Derived Weights f o r CATPA Scales as Generated from A _ P r i o r i Weights by the Method of R e c i p r o c a l Averages Age Group 13-15 Years Subdomain Word P a i r A P r i o r i Weights Derive d Weights S o c i a l G-B 0-U N-P B-S N-A A-S D-C S-N 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1122346 2523456 2213467 3025677 21 13367 1123567 4435567 5445467 Health G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A A-S D-C S-N 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 0011236 4011346 3322567 3325567 1123467 2113557 4524567 4424566 Ve r t i g o G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A A-S D-C S-N 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1122456 1133466 1134567 2235677 1224567 1223567 3345567 3444577 (Continued) 68 Table 5 Derived Weights f o r CATPA S c a l e s Age Group 13-15 Years (Continued) Subdomain Word P a i r A P r i o r i Weights Derived Weights Aesthet i c C a t h a r s i s A s c e t i c G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A A-S D-C S-N G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A A-S D-C S-N G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A A-S D-C S-N 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1223567 2344567 1333567 1134567 1223567 1214567 2134567 3324567 1123467 1423457 1124567 3224667 2123567 1234567 3145567 3354567 1223466 ,1122456 2245677 2335677 1334577 1134577 1344566 1234556 69 Although the Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were s a t i s f a c t o r i l y high, i n d i c a t i n g an a c c e p t a b l e , degree of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , the r e w e i g h t i n g schemes presented i n Tables 4 and 5 suggested t h a t some. items d i d not d i s c r i m i n a t e w e l l . I n order to i d e n t i f y those.items which d i d not d i s c r i m i n a t e w e l l , with the aim of d e l e t i n g the items from the i n v e n t o r y , item a n a l y s i s procedures were employed v i a LEBTAP., Tables 6 to 11 present i t e m - t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r each of the e i g h t b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e p a i r s i n each of the s i x CATPA subdomains. The. item-rtest c o r r e l a t i o n , a c o r r e l a t i o n between each word p a i r score and the t o t a l s c o r e f o r the given subdomain, i s an item d i s c r i m i n a t i o n index which t e s t s how w e l l a word p a i r d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between s u b j e c t s who score high and those who s c o r e low on a subdomain ! f D i s c r i m i n a t i n g scores c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y with t h e subdomain t o t a l s c o re., The f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a , as o u t l i n e d i n P r i n c i p l e s of E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l T e s t i n g (Brown, 1976), were employed t o judge the d i s c r i m i n a t i n g power o f the c o e f f i c i e n t s : a. the . c o r r e l a t i o n must be s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than zero, and b. the. c o r r e l a t i o n must be .20 or h i g h e r . A l l c o e f f i c i e n t s presented i n Tables 6 to 11 meet these c r i t e r i a and a l l word p a i r s are t h e r e f o r e judged as s t a t i s t i c a l l y adeguate d i s c r i m i n a t o r s . O v e r a l l , c o r r e l a t i o n s ranged from .23 to .81 with a p_ < .01 that the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were gre a t e r than zero. . 70 Table 6 Item-Test C o r r e l a t i o n s f o r Each of E i g h t B i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e P a i r s i n the S o c i a l Subddomain A P r i o r i D a t a — S e l e c t e d Subgroups Word P a i r Group G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A H-S D-C S-N Males 10 . 53 .53 .63 .51 . 58 .64 .45 .31 11 . 55 .40 .56 .54 .64 .59 , 35 .31 12 .59 ,.56 .63 .61 .64 .61 .31 . 38 13-15 .58 .42 .69 .57 ,65 .63 .41 .29 T o t a l . 56 .48 ,62 .55 . 63 . 62 .37 .32 Females 10 .57 ,.44 .61 ,61 . 66 .66 ,51 .42 11 . 59 .48 .55 .58 . 60 .68 . 48 .35 12 . 54 i 51 . 63 .56 .66 .64 , 33 .41 13-15 .35 .37 .59 .48 . 58 ,57 .32 . 24 T o t a l .54 .46 .59 .57 . 62 .64 .42 .37 Age 10 . 55 . 49 .63 .55 .61 .65 .48 . 36 11 . 57 .44 . 56 .56 .63 .64 .42 .32 12 .57 .54 .63 .59 .65 ,62 .32 .38 13-15 . 54 iU3 .68 .55 .64 .62 .40 .27 Be l l e v u e Males . 57 . 50 ,64 .57 .65 .63 .34 .37 Females .61 . 51 . 62 .59 .66 .66 .48 .41 B.C. Males . 53 .44 .58 .50 . 58 .59 .39 ,28 Females .39 .35 .54 .51 . 55 .60 .30 .29 T o t a l Group .56 .48 ,62 .57 .63 .63 .40 .34 71 Table 7 Item-Test C o r r e l a t i o n s f o r Each of Eight B i p o l a r A d j e c t i v e P a i r s i n the Health Subddomain A P r i o r i D a t a — S e l e c t e d Subgroups Word P a i r Group G-B 0-U N-P B-S N-A H-S D-C S-N Males 10 .38 .31 .59 .47 . 53 .51 .33 .37 11 .46 .34 .60 .54 .66 .58 . 44 . 50 12 .46 .41 .63 ;61 .71 '.68 .44 .52 13-15 .37 .36 .54 .54 .63 .67 .44 .41 T o t a l . 43 . 36 .60 .54 .64 .61 .42 .46 Females 10 . 42 . 35 .59 .55 .58 . 52 . 44 .38 11 . 52 . 52 . 60 .57 .68 .58 . 42 .44 12 .45 .41 .65 .63 .69 .71 .38 . 48 13-15 .31 I 23 .59 .62 .69 .64 ,. 53 .49 T o t a l . 44 .41 .62 .59 .66 .61 . 43 .45 Age 10 .39 .33 ;59 .50 . 55 . 52 . 38 .37 11 .49 .42 ,.60 .56 .67 .58 . 44 .46 12 .45 * 41 . 64 .62 -70 .69 .42 .50 13-15 .35 .31 .57 .58 .66 .66 . 49 .44 Bell e v u e Males .43 .35 .59 .56 .65 .63 .40 .45 Females .46 .45 .62 .62 .68 .61 . w . 44 B.C. Males .43 .38 ,^ 61 .52 .61 .57 . 45 .48 Females . 39 . 33 .59 , .53 .61 .61 .48 . 47 T o t a l Group .43 .38 .61 .56 .65 .61 .42 .45 1 72 Table 8 Item-Test C o r r e l a t i o n s f o r Each of E i g h t B i p o l a r A d j e c t i v e P a i r s i n the V e r t i g o Subddomain A P r i o r i D a t a — S e l e c t e d Subgroups Word P a i r Group G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A H-S D-C S-N Wales 10 .61 . 56 .59 .63 .71 .68 .53 .44 11 - 60 .47 .62 . 49 .66 .64 .26 .53 12 . 61 .55 .66 .60 .76 . 63 . 35 .42 13-15 ,. 43 . 52 i 54 .55 .67 .54 . 37 .29 T o t a l .59 ,.52 •61 .57 .70 .64 :38 . 44 Females 10 . 66 .62 ;71 . 63 . 75 .71 . 54 .40 11 .73 .62 .77 .73 .78 .73 .55 .55 12 . 62 . 62 .68 .56 .76 .63 .46 .37 13-15 .64 .60 .64 .63 .75 .71 . 43 .41 T o t a l .66 .61 4 72 .64 .76 .70 . 50 .44 Age 10 .63 .59 .65 .63 .73 .69 .53 .42 11 . 66 .54 . 70 .59 .73 .69 .38 .54 12 .61 .58 .67 .58 .76 .63 .38 . 39 13-15 .55 .57 .58 .58 .71 .62 .40 .36 B e l l e v u e Males .61 . 53 .61 .59 .71 .67 .33 .45 Females .68 .61 . 74 .65 .77 .70 .51 .43 B.C. . Males . 55 . 52 . 62 .54 .69 .58 . 47 .43 Females .62 .63 .68 .64 . 75 .69 .47 .47 T o t a l Group .62 .57 .66 .60 .73 .67 .42 .44 73 Table 9 Item-Test C o r r e l a t i o n s f o r Each of E i g h t B i p o l a r A d j e c t i v e P a i r s i n the A e s t h e t i c Subddomain A P r i o r i Data^—-Selected Subgroups Word P a i r Group G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A H-S D-C S-N Males 10 .69 .64 .76 .71 .76 .73 . 50 .41 11 .70 .64 .79 .69 .78 . 73 . 48 .42 12 . 78 i 6 5 . 78 .74 .81 .70 .44 ,34 13-15 .79 .57 .77 :71 .81 .73 . 43 . 59 T o t a l . 73 .63 .77 .71 .79 .72 .46 .41 Females 10 . 59 . 54 .70 .62 .75 .69 . 53 .33 11 .67 .60 .70 .64 .67 .59 ,52 .39 12 .62 .49 .68 .60 .70 .63 . 35 .32 13-15 . 64 . 57 .75 .71 .75 .56 . 57 .51 T o t a l .63 .55 , 7 0 .63 .71 .62 , 48 . 37 Age 10 .69 .63 .77 .71 .78 ,74 . 53 .38 11 .73 .67 .79 .71 .78 .71 .52 .43 12 .78 ,65 .79 .73 .81 w70 .44 .35 13-15 .76 .61 • 78 .73 .81 .69 >. 53 .59 Be l l e v u e Males .72 .64 .78 .73 ,80 .72 .44 .38 Females .63 .55 .70 .59 . 7 2 .62 .. 50 .34 B, C. . M a l e s .75 .62 .78 .69 .78 .73 , 53 .47 Females .62 .54 .69 ,6 9 .70 .61 . 46 .44 T o t a l Group .74 . 64 • 78 .72 .79 .71 . 50 .41 74 Table 10 Item-Test C o r r e l a t i o n s f o r Each of E i g h t B i p o l a r A d j e c t i v e P a i r s i n the C a t h a r s i s Subddomain A P r i o r i D a t a — S e l e c t e d Subgroups Word P a i r Group G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A H-S D-C S-N Males 10 .65 .56 .60 .55 .62 .64 .49 .32 11 . 58 . 55 . 62 .63 .74 .64 .41 ,47 12 .50 .54 .65 .61 .68 .60 .41 . 50 13-15 .60 . 52 .67 .60 .69 .65 .44 .49 T o t a l . 58 .54 .63 .60 .68 .63 . 44 .43 Females 10 .63 .56 :65 .64 . 63 .66 .54 -39 11 . 64 .64 .62 .62 .74 .66 . 44 .40 12 . 62 .59 . 68 .55 .68 .70 . 52 .51 13-15 .64 .63 .68 .63 .67 .68 :55 . 53 T o t a l .63 .61 . 66 .61 .69 .67 .50 .45 Age 10 .64 . 56 , 62 .59 .62 .65 .51 . 35 11 .61 .59 .62 .63 .74 .65 .43 .43 12 . 56 .56 .66 .58 . 68 .65 .46 .50 13-15 .62 . 58 . 68 .62 .68 .67 -50 .51 B e l l e v u e Males .56 .54 .60 .60 .67 .61 . 39 .45 Females .63 . 59 .65 .59 .70 .66 .48 .43 B.C. Males .62 .55 .67 .60 .69 .66 .51 .40 Females .64 .63 .66 • 65 . 67 .69 .52 .49 T o t a l Group .61 • 5 7 .64 .60 .68 .65 . 46 • 44 75 Table 11 Item-Test C o r r e l a t i o n s f o r Each of Eig h t B i p o l a r A d j e c t i v e P a i r s i n the A s c e t i c Subddomain A P r i o r i D a t a — S e l e c t e d Subgroups Word P a i r Group G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A H-S D-C S-N Males 10 .68 .61 .74 *65 .74 .78 . 47 .37 11 .61 .47 .69 .61 .72 .69 1 32 . 49 12 . 62 . 52 .68 .62 .71 .66 .33 .42 13-15 .57 .39 ,63 .58 .70 .71 : 48 .39 T o t a l -62 .51 i 70 .62 .72 -71 .38 .42 Females 10 .74 .65 ,68 .71 .72 .72 . 60 .47 11 .67 . 52 . 72 .65 .76 .73 . 46 .51 12 .58 .56 .70 .54 .75 .71 . 34 . 39 13-15 .70 .57 .69 ,62 .70 .62 .40 .49 T o t a l .67 .57 .69 .63 .74 .70 . 46 .46 Age 10 .71 .63 .71 .68 .73 .74 .52 .41 11 , 63 .49 .70 .62 .74 .71 .37 .50 12 . 60 „ 53 .69 .59 .73 ,68 . 34 .40 13-15 .63 .47 .66 .60 .70 .67 . 44 . 44 Be l l e v u e Males .63 .55 .71 . 63 .71 .70 .33 .39 Females .67 .58 -70 .62 .74 .72 .45 .47 B.C. Males . 62 .45 .68 .60 .74 .73 .47 .46 Females . 66 '. 54 .68 .66 .72 .67 .46 .43 T o t a l Group . 64 .53 -70 .62 -73 .71 .41 .44 76 However, the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e . s e v e r a l t r e n d s and r e v e a l t h a t v a r i o u s word p a i r s under c e r t a i n subdomains are not n e a r l y as powerful d i s c r i m i n a t o r s as o thers, For example, i n the s o c i a l subdomain c o r r e l a t i o n s between the steady_-nervous word p a i r and the subdomain t o t a l score range from . 24 to .4 2, and c o r r e l a t i o n s between the d i r t y - c l e a n word p a i r and subdomain t o t a l score range from ,30 t o ,51.. C o r r e l a t i o n s between the s i x remaining word p a i r s and the subdomain t o t a l score range from .35 to .69, with most c o r r e l a t i o n s f a l l i n g above .50. In the h e a l t h subdomain, g e n e r a l l y low c o r r e l a t i o n s are evidenced between the good-bad, o f no use-u s e f u l , d i r t y - c l e a n , and steady-nervous word p a i r s and the subdomain t o t a l s c o r e . In the v e r t i g o , a e s t h e t i c , c a t h a r s i s , and a s c e t i c subdomains r e l a t i v e l y low c o r r e l a t i o n s appear between the subdomain t o t a l score and d i r t y - c l e a n and steady-nervous word p a i r s . G e n e r a l l y , the h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s appear i n the a e s t h e t i c subdomain while the lowest appear i n the h e a l t h subdomain.. There were no d i s c e r n i b l e p a t t e r n s o f d i f f e r e n c e s between subgroups. Because the word p a i r s d i r t y . - c l e a n and steady-nervous r e v e a l e d r e l a t i v e l y low i t e m - t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s over a l l subdomains, these items should be d e l e t e d from the CATPA i n v e n t o r y . Standard CATPA t e s t procedures r e g u i r e the respondent to s c o r e i n the midpoint of the.SD s c a l e i f he f e e l s n e u t r a l toward the word p a i r or i f he does not understand the word p a i r . In order to o b t a i n an i n d i c a t i o n 77 of which word p a i r s are g e n e r a l l y not understood by s u b j e c t s , item frequency of the n e u t r a l / u n c e r t a i n response was c a l c u l a t e d f o r each item. I t i s important to note t h a t t h i s a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e s only an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t c e r t a i n word p a i r s a r e not understood s i n c e the n e u t r a l / u n c e r t a i n response i s dichotomous i n meaninq, Frequency (percent) of a n e u t r a l / u n c e r t a i n response f o r each of the eight word p a i r s i n each o f the s i x subdomains are presented i n T a b l e s 12 t o 17. In a l l subdomains the b i t t e r - s w e e t word p a i r i n d i c a t e d the h i g h e s t percentage of response ranging from 18 58 to 4 3% over a l l subgroups. Most of these percentages f e l l i n the 30% to 40% range. In the s o c i a l subdomain and h e a l t h subdomain, the d i r t y - c l e a n and to a l e s s e r extent the steady-nervous word p a i r s evidenced higher frequency response; while i n the v e r t i g o subdomain,the d i r t y - c l e a n - a n d happy-sad word p a i r s e x h i b i t e d h i g h e r percentages although g e n e r a l l y higher percentages were c a l c u l a t e d f o r a l l word p a i r s w i t h i n t h i s subdomain. The happy-sad, d i r t y . - c l e a n , and steady-nervous word p a i r s r e v e a l e d high percentages w i t h i n the a e s t h e t i c , c a t h a r s i s , and a s c e t i c subdomains. A l s o , i n the c a t h a r s i s and a s c e t i c subdomains hi g h e r percentages were recorded f o r the:not - p l e a s a n t - p l e a s a n t word p a i r . Only s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s occurred between age, sex, and l o c a t i o n subgroups and no d i s c e r n i b l e p a t t e r n of d i f f e r e n c e s was noted. Item frequency a n a l y s i s of the n e u t r a l / u n c e r t a i n response supported the d e l e t i o n of the word p a i r s d i r t y - c l e a n and steady-nervous from the CATPA 78 i n v e n t o r y and provided evidence f o r the d e l e t i o n of the word p a i r b i t t e r - s w e e t . A p r i o r i . r e w e i g h t e d data. The FORTAP—RAVE r o u t i n e p r o v i d e s , along with a maximized Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t , the reweighted s c o r e s f o r each item. Tables 4 and 5 present these program-derived weights f o r the age 10-12 and age 13-15 subgroups f o r a l l subdomains. I t should be noted t h a t although a l l subgroups were analyzed v i a the FORTAP—RAVE procedure, t h e r e appeared to be l i t t l e age, sex, or l o c a t i o n d i f f e r e n c e between subgroups except f o r the age 13-15 group. Therefore to o f f s e t computer time and c o s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s the age 10-12 and age 13-15 subgroups were chosen as most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the sample.. The d e r i v e d maximized weights presented i n Tables 4 and 5 were employed to c r e a t e a second data s e t — t h e a p r i o r i reweighted data s e t . A computer program was developed which a l t e r e d the o r i g i n a l a p r i o r i data s e t a c c o r d i n g t o the reweighted s c o r i n g schemes d e r i v e d from the FORTAP-RAVE procedure. A l l data from s u b j e c t s f a l l i n g i n the age 10-12 range were reweighted a c c o r d i n g to the d e r i v e d weights i n Table 4, while a l l data from s u b j e c t s aged 13-15 were reweighted a c c o r d i n g t o the d e r i v e d weights i n Table 5. The a p r i o r i , reweighted data s e t was then analyzed f o r i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y v i a the LERTAP program. Table 18 presents Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r a l l subdomains and subgroups i n the a p r i o r i reweighted data s e t , . The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s range from .67 t o ,91. 79 Table 12 Frequency (Percent) of N e u t r a l Response f o r Each of E i g h t B i p o l a r A d j e c t i v e P a i r s i n the S o c i a l Subddomain A P r i o r i D a t a — S e l e c t e d Subgroups Word P a i r Group G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A H-S D-C S-N M a l es 10 5 8 8 32 8 11 20 13 11 5 9 7 30 8 11 24 18 12 2 6 6 29 8 11 22 21 13-15 3 5 11 40 14 14 26 20 T o t a l 4 7 8 31 9 11 23 18 Females 10 5 10 11 27 4 11 17 23 11 3 5 4 30 2 9 25 21 12 3 5 7 25 4 9 31 22 13-15 2 3 8 35 10 7 23 21 T o t a l 3 6 7 29 5 9 24 22 Age 10 5 9 9 29 6 11 18 18 11 4 7 6 30 5 10 25 20 12 3 6 7 27 6 10 26 22 13-15 3 4 9 37 12 10 24 21 B e l l e v u e Males 4 7 5 26 8 10 22 17 Females 3 5 7 26 3 9 26 22 B.C. Males 5 8 11 38 9 13 23 19 Females 4 7 8 33 7 10 22 21 T o t a l Group 4 7 7 30 7 10 23 20 80 Table 13 Frequency (Percent) of N e u t r a l Response f o r Each of E i g h t B i p o l a r A d j e c t i v e P a i r s i n the Health Subddomain A P r i o r i D a t a — S e l e c t e d Subgroups Word P a i r Group G-B O-U N-P B-S N-A H-S D-C S-N M a l e s 10 3 4 10 31 7 13 18 17 11 3 3 13 29 11 15 22 1 8 12 2 1 10 31 13 13 21 17 13-15 2 5 14 41 19 20 22 20 T o t a l 2 3 11 32 11 14 21 18 Females 10 5 3 12 30 10 11 22 20 11 3 3 11 32 7 15 26 20 12 2 2 12 37 11 17 29 22 13-15 0 1 9 31 14 17 25 17 T o t a l 3 2 11 33 10 15 26 20 Age 10 4 3 11 30 8 12 20 18 11 3 3 12 30 9 15 24 19 12 2 2 11 34 12 15 2 5 20 13-15 1 3 11 35 16 18 23 1 9 B e l l e v u e Males 2 1 11 29 10 15 22 18 Females 3 2 12 35 9 16 28 22 B.C. Males 3 5 13 36 13 13 19 17 Females 3 3 10 28 12 13 22 1 8 T o t a l Group 3 3 11 32 11 15 23 19 81 Table 14 Frequency (Percent) of N e u t r a l Response f o r Each of E i g h t B i p o l a r A d j e c t i v e P a i r s i n the V e r t i g o Subddomain A P r i o r i D a t a — S e l e c t e d Subgroups Word P a i r Group G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A H-S D-C S-N Mai es 10 14 14 16 29 16 19 21 19 11 13 13 15 35 16 18 24 17 12 8 12 13 31 16 23 35 19 13-15 7 8 19 32 28 23 26 14 T o t a l 11 12 15 32 18 20 24 18 Females 10 21 17 22 28 18 22 24 1 9 i i 19 21 19 42 16 24 33 17 12 14 15 20 43 17 29 39 26 13-15 13 14 19 41 18 29 39 22 T o t a l 17 17 20 39 17 25 33 21 Age 10 17 16 19 29 17 20 22 19 11 16 17 17 39 16 21 28 1 7 12 11 13 16 37 17 26 32 23 13-15 10 11 19 37 23 23 33 18 B e l l e v u e Males 11 11 15 30 17 21 24 18 Females 17 17 21 40 18 26 34 20 B,C. . Males 11 14 16 34 19 19 23 17 Females 18 17 17 38 15 25 31 22 T o t a l Group 14 15 17 35 18 23 28 19 82 Table 15 Frequency (Percent) of N e u t r a l Response f o r Each of E i g h t B i p o l a r A d j e c t i v e P a i r s i n the A e s t h e t i c Subddomain A P r i o r i D a t a — S e l e c t e d Subgroups Word P a i r Group G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A H-S D-C S-N Males 10 17 10 11 22 10 20 14 18 11 11 13 11 29 10 20 17 19 12 14 12 12 26 13 25 12 17 13-15 17 22 22 29 16 28 20 20 T o t a l 14 13 13 26 12 23 15 18 Females 10 3 8 9 17 6 8 15 19 11 6 5 8 19 6 13 16 15 12 6 5 7 22 5 15 16 1 9 13-15 7 15 9 18 6 16 15 17 T o t a l 6 7 8 19 6 13 16 18 Age 10 11 9 10 19 8 14 14 18 11 9 9 10 24 8 17 17 17 12 10 9 10 24 9 20 14 18 13-15 12 18 15 23 11 22 17 1 8 B e l l e v u e Males 14 12 11 25 10 22 13 17 Females 4 5 7 20 6 12 16 1 7 B.C. Males 15 15 16 28 14 23 17 21 Females 9 10 9 18 6 14 15 18 T o t a l Group 10 10 11 23 9 18 15 18 83 Table 16 Frequency (Percent) of N e u t r a l Response f o r Each of E i g h t B i p o l a r A d j e c t i v e P a i r s i n t h e : C a t h a r s i s Subddomain A P r i o r i D a t a — S e l e c t e d Subgroups Word P a i r Group G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A H-S D-C S-N Mai es 10 12 10 17 31 15 23 23 22 11 10 10 16 30 15 17 28 19 12 7 8 14 30 13 20 27 18 13-15 5 11 19 32 22 25 29 23 T o t a l 9 10 16 31 15 21 27 20 Females 10 19 12 21 36 17 21 24 22 11 10 11 19 35 12 18 30 27 12 11 9 19 41 15 18 35 29 13-15 8 7 13 23 9 15 25 22 T o t a l 12 10 19 35 14 18 29 26 Age 10 15 11 19 33 16 22 23 22 11 10 11 17 33 13 18 29 23 12 9 9 17 35 14 19 31 23 13-15 6 9 16 27 15 20 27 22 B e l l e v u e Males 11 9 15 31 14 19 27 19 Females 13 11 19 40 15 19 31 27 B,C. . Males 7 11 17 30 17 23 26 22 Females 11 9 18 27 11 18 26 23 T o t a l Group 11 10 17 33 15 19 28 23 84 Table 17 Frequency (Percent) of Neu t r a l Response f o r Each of Eiqht B i p o l a r A d j e c t i v e P a i r s i n the A s c e t i c Subddomain A P r i o r i D a t a — S e l e c t e d Subqroups Word P a i r Group G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A H-S D-C S-N Males 10 12 10 17 36 13 21 22 22 11 10 7 14 36 17 22 28 20 12 10 8 16 31 18 31 31 21 13-15 6 10 14 35 33 35 32 29 T o t a l 10 8 15 34 18 26 28 22 Females 10 18 11 17 34 20 20 28 23 11 14 16 21 41 18 27 32 23 12 14 10 15 38 18 27 36 28 13-15 14 11 21 33 25 25 29 24 T o t a l 15 12 18 37 20 25 32 25 Age 10 15 10 17 35 16 20 25 22 11 12 11 18 39 17 24 30 21 12 12 9 15 34 18 29 33 24 13-15 10 11 18 34 29 29 30 27 Belle v u e Males 11 8 16 34 16 27 29 20 Females 14 13 20 40 20 26 34 25 B, C . Males 9 8 14 35 21 25 27 25 Females 15 11 16 33 19 23 27 24 T o t a l Group 12 10 17 36 19 26 30 23 85 Table 18 Hoyt R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Each of Six CATPA S c a l e s A P r i o r i Reweighted D a t a — A l l Subgroups Subdomain Group Soc Hea Ver Aes Cat Asc Males 10 , 83 .75 . 85 ,88 . 84 .87 11 .82 .81 . 82 .89 .85 . 84 12 .83 .83 .85 .88 .83 . 84 10-1 2 .82 .80 . 84 .88 . 84 .85 13-15 .84 .82 .80 ,90 . 86 ; 83 T o t a l .83 .81 . 83 .89 . 84 .85 Females 10 .85 .79 .87 . 85 . 85 .89 11 . 83 .83 .89 ,85 .85 ,87 12 .83 .83 .85 .82 . 85 .84 10-12 .84 ,82 .87 .84 -85 .87 13-15 .78 .81 . 86 .88 . 89 . 86 T o t a l .83 .82 .87 .85 . 86 .86 Age 10 .84 .77 . 86 ,88 .84 . 88 11 . 83 .82 . 86 .89 . 85 .85 12 .83 .83 .85 .88 . 84 ,84 10-12 .83 .81 . 85 .89 . 84 ,86 13-15 .83 .82 .83 .91 . 87 .84 Be l l e v u e Males .83 .80 . 84 .88 , 83 .85 Females .85 .83 .87 .84 . 85 .86 T o t a l .84 181 .85 -89 . 84 ,85 B.C. Males .81 .82 . 83 .89 .85 .85 Females .77 .81 . 87 .86 .87 .86 T o t a l .80 .82 .85 • 89 . 86 . 86 T o t a l Group .83 .81 . 85 .89 .85 .85 86 G e n e r a l l y , the s o c i a l subdomain (ranging from .11 to .85) and the h e a l t h subdomain (ranging from .67 to .83) r e v e a l e d the lowest Hoyt c o e f f i c i e n t s , although the c o e f f i c i e n t s i n ' a l l subdomains were very h i g h . . Compared to the a p r i o r i data set Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s presented i n Table 2, 60S? of the c o e f f i c i e n t s were i n c r e a s e d , but the average i n c r e a s e was only .02. Item d e l e t e d a p r i o r i ; . d a t a . A t h i r d data s e t l a b e l l e d the item d e l e t e d a_£riori data s e t was c r e a t e d based upon the r e s u l t s of item a n a l y s i s of the o r i g i n a l a p r i o r i data s e t . . Item a n a l y s i s of the. a p r i o r i data g e n e r a l l y r e v e a l e d that over a l l subdomains, the item d i s c r i m i n a t i n g power of the word p a i r s d i r t y - c l e a n and steady-nervous was r e l a t i v e l y low compared to the other word p a i r s , and the item frequency of the n e u t r a l / u n c e r t a i n response was high i n the word p a i r s b i t t e r - s w e e t , d i r t y -c l e a n , and s t e ady-ne r vo us. In order t o determine the e f f e c t of removing these items from the data on the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of the instrument, the item d e l e t e d a, p r i o r i data set was c o n s t r u c t e d . T h i s data s e t c o n s i s t e d of the same data as i n the a p r i o r i data s e t minus data f o r the items b i t t e r - s w e e t , d i r t y - c l e a n # and steady-nervous under each subdomain. Each s u b j e c t ' s datum was thus reduced from 48 to 30 items. I t should be noted t h a t the item d i s c r i m i n a t i n g power and frequency of the n e u t r a l / u n c e r t a i n response v a r i e d w i t h i n each subdomain. . However, i n order t o maintain the s i m p l i c i t y and i n t e g r i t y of the o r i g i n a l CATPA 87 i n v e n t o r y format, the r e s u l t s were g e n e r a l i z e d over a l l subdomains. D e l e t i n g the d i r t y - c l e a n and steady-nervous word p a i r s was an obvious choice d i c t a t e d by low i t e m - t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s and r e l a t i v e l y high item frequency of the n e u t r a l / u n c e r t a i n response over a l l subdomains. The b i t t e r - sweet word p a i r was a more d i f f i c u l t c h o i c e . T h i s word p a i r evidenced the h i g h e s t frequency of the n e u t r a l / u n c e r t a i n response ever a l l subdomains, yet i t a l s o evidenced r e l a t i v e l y high i t e m - t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s . . However, s i n c e the item frequency of the n e u t r a l / u n c e r t a i n response f o r t h i s item was e x c e p t i o n a l l y high over a l l subdomains, i t was d e l e t e d from the data. To determine the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f the item d e l e t e d a p r i o r i data, Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s (Table 19) were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each subdomain and subgroup. The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s ranged from .67 to .91 and i n d i c a t e d the same t r e n d s as the a p r i o r i and a p r i o r i reweighted data s e t s . , The s o c i a l and health subdomains evidenced the lowest c o e f f i c i e n t s ; the h e a l t h subdomain i n d i c a t i n g the lowest c o e f f i c i e n t s of the three data s e t s analyzed. Compared to the a p r i o r i reweighted data s e t c o e f f i c i e n t s , 65% o f the item d e l e t e d a p r i o r i Hoyt c o e f f i c i e n t s showed an average decrease of .03. L i t t l e or no improvement was shown compared to the a p r i o r i data s e t . U t i l i z i n g the FORTAP-RAVE procedure, maximized Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t i e s and d e r i v e d weights were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each subdomain. 88 Table 19 Hoyt R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Each of Six CAT PA S c a l e s Item Deleted A P r i o r i D a t a — A l l Subgroups Subdomain Group Soc Hea Ver Aes Cat Asc M a l es 10 , 82 .67 ,83 .89 . 82 .88 11 .78 .74 . 82 .89 .82 ,84 12 .82 .79 .85 . 90 , 80 . 83 10-12 .81 .75 . 83 .89 . 82 , 85 13-15 .81 .74 ,77 .89 . 82 .79 T o t a l .81 .74 .83 .89 .85 .85 Females 10 . 80 .73 .86 ,85 ,82 . 87 11 .82 .80 .89 .84 L 86 .86 12 .83 .80 . 86 .85 i 85 .85 10-12 .81 .78 .87 .84 .84 .86 13-15 .74 472 .85 .84 . 85 i85 T o t a l .81 .78 .87 .84 . 86 .86 Age 10 .81 .70 .84 .89 .82 .88 11 .80 -77 . 86 .89 . 84 .85 12 .83 .80 .85 .91 . 82 .84 10-12 .81 .76 .85 .90 . 83 .86 13-15 .81 .74 .82 ,89 .84 . 82 B e l l e v u e Males .83 .75 .84 .89 ,81 .85 Females . 83 .7.9 .87 .85 . 84 . 86 T o t a l .83 .77 . 86 .90 ,82 .86 B.C. Males . 77 .74 .81 .89 .83 . 84 Females .74 .74 . 86 . 83 . 84 -84 T o t a l .77 .74 .83 .88 . 84 -84 T o t a l Group ,81 .76 . 85 .89 . 83 -85 89 Table 20 Maximized Hoyt R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Each of Six CATPA S c a l e s Item Deleted A P r i o r i D a t a — S e l e c t e d Subgroups Subdomain Group Soc Hea Ver Aes Cat Asc Males 10-12 .81 .75 . 83 .89 . 82 .85 Females 10-12 . 82 .79 .87 .85 . 84 .86 Age 10 .82 .74 .85 . 89 » 82 .87 11 .81 .79 , 86 .89 . 84 .84 12 ,. 83 .79 .85 . 91 . 83 . 83 10-12 .82 .77 . 85 . 90 . 83 .85 13-15 .82 .75 .81 .89 . 84 .82 Bell e v u e T o t a l .84 .78 , 86 .90 .83 .85 B.C. T o t a l . 78 -75 . 83 .89 .84 .83 T o t a l Group .82 .76 .85 -90 . 83 .85 90 Table 20 g i v e s the maximized Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r s e l e c t e d subgroups. L i t t l e or no improvement i n Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s was i n d i c a t e d , and no d i f f e r e n c e s were noted between age, sex, and l o c a t i o n subgroups.. Item d e l e t e d reweighted data., s e t . FOE TAP-RAVE d e r i v e d weights c a l c u l a t e d from the item d e l e t e d a p r i o r i data are g i v e n i n T a b l e s 21 and 22. Again, s i n c e only the age 13-15 subgroup e x h i b i t e d a unique weighting scheme, only the age 13-15 and age 10-12 subgroups are presented here., A f o u r t h data s e t was c o n s t r u c t e d by a l t e r i n g the item d e l e t e d a p r i o r i data set a c c o r d i n g t o the reweighted s c o r e s d e r i v e d from the FORTAP-RAVE procedure. A l l data from s u b j e c t s f a l l i n g i n the age 10-12 range were reweighted a c c o r d i n g to the d e r i v e d weights i n Table 21, while a l l data from s u b j e c t s aged 13-15 were reweighted according to the d e r i v e d weights i n Table 22. T h i s f o u r t h data s e t was l a b e l l e d the item d e l e t e d reweighted data s e t . Via LERTAP the item d e l e t e d reweighted data was analyzed f o r i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y (Table 23). Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s r e v e a l e d the same p a t t e r n and ranges as the previous data s e t s with the s o c i a l and h e a l t h subdomains e x h i b i t i n g the lowest c o e f f i c i e n t s and the a e s t h e t i c subdomain the h i g h e s t . No age, sex, or l o c a t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s were noted. I t e m - t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r each subdomain i n the item d e l e t e d reweighted data s e t are presented i n T a b l e s 24 to 29, O v e r a l l the c o r r e l a t i o n s ranged from .33 to .83. 91 Table 21 Derived Weights f o r CATPA S c a l e s as Generated from A - P r i o r i Weights by the Method of R e c i p r o c a l Averages Item Deleted A P r i o r i Data—Age Group 10-12 Years Subdomain Word P a i r A P r i o r i Weights Derived Weights S o c i a l G-B 0-0 N_p. B-S N-A A-S D-C S-N 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1214467 2334567 1234567 1234567 1325567 Health G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A A-S D-C S-N 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1123457 1324467 2345567 1234567 1235667 V e r t i g o G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A A-S D-C S-N 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1334567 1234567 1234567 1224567 (Continued) 92 Table 21 Derived Weights f o r CATPA S c a l e s Item Deleted Data Age Group 10-:12 Years (Continued) Subdomain Word P a i r A P r i o r i Weights Derived e i g h t s A e s t h e t i c G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A A-S D-C S-N 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1334567 1234567 1234567 1224567 C a t h a r s i s G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A A-S D-C S-N 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1224567 1234567 1334567 1234567 1234567 A s c e t i c G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A A-S D-C S-N 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1223466 1345577 1234567 1234567 93 Table 22 Derived Weights f o r CATPA Sca l e s as Generated from A _ P r i o r i Weights by the Method of R e c i p r o c a l Averages Item Deleted A P r i o r i D ata—Age Group 13-15 Years Subdomain Word P a i r A P r i o r i Weights Derived Weights S o c i a l G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A A-S D-C S-N 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1133457 2424567 2334557 2125567 1134667 Health G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A A-S D-C S-N 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 0011246 20 1 2 3 56 2334567 1244566 3124557 V e r t i g o G-B o-o N-P B-S N-A A-S D-C S-N 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1123467 1234567 2244567 1335567 1234567 (Continued) 94 Table 22 Derived Weights f o r CATPA S c a l e s Item Deleted Data Age Group 13-15 Years (C ont inued) Subdomain Word P a i r A P r i o r i Weights Derived Weights A e s t h e t i c G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A A-S D-C S-N 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1123567 3344567 1334567 1224567 1224567 C a t h a r s i s G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A A-S D-C S-N 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1123467 1433567 1324567 2134567 2245567 A s c e t i c G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A A-S D-C S-N 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1234567 1224457 1123456 2345667 1335677 1234567 95 Table 23 Hoyt R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Each of Six CATPA Sc a l e s Item Deleted Reweighted D a t a — r A l l Subgroups Subdomain Group Soc Hea Ver Aes Cat Asc Males 10 .82 .68 .83 . 89 . 82 . 88 11 .79 .74 .82 .89 .82 . 83 12 .82 i79 , 85 .90 .80 .82 10-1 2 .81 .75 .83 .89 . 82 .85 13-15 . 83 .75 . 77 .90 . 82 ,79 T o t a l .82 .76 .83 .39 .82 . 84 Females 10 .80 i75 . 87 .85 i 82 .86 11 .82 .81 .89 .84 . 85 . 86 12 .83 .79 . 86 .85 185 .84 10-1 2 .82 .79 .87 .85 . 84 .85 13-15 . 74 .73 .84 .85 . 85 .85 T o t a l . 81 .79 .87 .85 .84 .85 Age 10 .81 i71 .85 .89 . 82 .87 11 .81 .78 .86 .89 . 84 ,84 12 , 83 .79 .85 .91 . 82 .83 10-1 2 .82 .77 .85 .90 . 83 .85 13-15 . 82 .75 .81 .89 - 84 .82 B e l l e v u e Males . 83 .75 .84 .89 . 81 .85 Females .84 .80 ,87 ,85 : 84 .86 T o t a l .84 .78 . 36 ,90 i 82 .85 B.C. Males .79 .76 .81 . 89 . 83 .83 Females . 73 .75 ,86 .84 .85 .84 T o t a l .78 .76 .83 .89 . 84 .89 T o t a l Group .82 ?77 .85 . 90 , 83 .85 96 Table 24 Item^Test C o r r e l a t i o n s f o r Each o f Six B i p o l a r A d j e c t i v e P a i r s i n the S o c i a l Subddomain Item Deleted Reweighted Data—-Selected subgroups Word P a i r Group G-B O-tT N-P B-S N-A H-S D-C S-N Males 10 ,.64 .56 .70 . 57 .64 11 .60 .49 .63 .60 .57 12 .63 : 60 .61 .67 .51 13-15 . 68 .49 L67 .70 .62 T o t a l .64 .54 ;66 .63 .60 Females 10 . 60 . 47 .61 .62 .64 11 . 66 . 53 .57 ,64 .67 12 . 63 .55 .64 .70 .60 13-15 . 46 . 42 . 53 .53 .60 T o t a l .61 •51 .60 .64 .63 Age 10 .62 .52 .67 . 59 .64 11 .63 .51 .61 .62 .61 12 .63 . 58 .63 .69 .59 13-15 .64 .50 .65 .66 .63 Bellevue Males .64 .58 .70 .65 .61 Females .67 .55 .65 .69 .64 B. C. Males .60 .47 .58 ;59 .57 Females ,48 .39 . 48 .53 . 60 T o t a l Group .63 .64 .64 .61 97 Table 25 Item-Test C o r r e l a t i o n s f o r Each o f Six B i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e P a i r s i n the Health Subddomain Item Deleted Reweighted D a t a — S e l e c t e d Subgroups Word P a i r Group G-B 0-U N-P B-S N-a H-S D-C S-N Males 10 .39 .33 .51 .46 . 46 11 .54 .39 .55 .57 .49 12 . 53 . 53 .64 .60 .60 13-15 .44 .48 ,.58 .52 .58 T o t a l . 52 . 46 ^57 .55 .55 Females age 10 ,58 . 48 .56 .53 .43 11 . 57 .61 .61 .69 ,52 12 .51 .49 .65 .62 : 64 13-15 . 43 . 34 -66 ,55 .58 T o t a l .55 .52 .60 .62 .55 10 .48 .40 .53 . 49 . 44 11 .56 .49 .58 .63 .50 12 . 52 .51 .64 .61 .61 13-15 .44 .43 .62 . 53 . 58 Be l l e v u e Males .49 .42 .56 Females .57 .54 .63 .57 .65 .58 55 B.C. Males . 52 .48 .60 Females .48 .45 .56 . 52 .56 50 56 T o t a l Group .53 49 58 . 58 55 98 Table 26 Item-Test C o r r e l a t i o n s f o r Each o f Six B i p o l a r A d j e c t i v e P a i r s i n t h e . V e r t i g o Subddomain Item Deleted Reweighted D a t a — S e l e c t e d Subgroups Word P a i r Group G-B 0-U N-P B-S N-A H~S D-C S-N Males 10 .66 .56 .60 .69 .63 11 . 66 .48 .65 . 65 .63 12 169 . 58 1 71 .72 .60 13-15 .47 .58 .48 . 55 .62 T o t a l .65 . 54 i 63 .68 .62 Females 10 . 68 .64 .70 .75 .67 11 . 75 .63 .77 . 76 .71 12 . 63 .63 .70 .76 .65 13-15 . 68 .61 .59 .72 .71 T o t a l .69 .63 .71 .75 .68 Age 10 .67 .60 .64 .72 .65 11 .72 .55 .71 .71 . 68 12 .66 . 60 .70 .74 . 63 13-15 .59 .60 .53 .64 . 66 Bell e v u e Males .66 .54 .66 .69 .64 Females .70 .63 .74 . 76 • 69 B. C. . Males .63 .55 .60 ,65 . 59 Females .68 - 64 .64 .74 . 66 T o t a l Group . 67 . 59 .67 .71 .65 99 Table 27 Item-Test C o r r e l a t i o n s f o r Each o f Six B i p o l a r A d j e c t i v e P a i r s i n the A e s t h e t i c Subddomain Item Deleted Reweighted D a t a — S e l e c t e d Subgroups Word P a i r Group G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A H-S D-C S-N Males 10 .71 .65 .77 . 80 .74 11 .76 .66 .76 .79 .70 12 .83 . 68 i 81 .81 .66 13-15 .81 .65 .78 .81 .71 T o t a l .77 .66 -78 . 79 .70 Females Age 10 . 65 . 56 . 72 .75 .65 11 .70 . 58 . 68 .69 .56 12 .67 .5 9 .76 . 70 .60 13-15 . 65 . 65 . 75 .74 .55 T o t a l .67 .59 .72 .71 .59 10 .72 .64 .78 ,79 .73 11 .78 .67 .77 .79 .69 12 .82 . 70 . 83 .81 .67 13-15 .77 .67 .70 . 80 .67 Bell e v u e Males .77 .65 .78 Females .68 .57 .72 .81 .73 70 59 B. C. . Males .78 .67 .78 Females .64 .60 .71 .77 .67 .70 .59 T o t a l Group . 78 67 79 .80 .69 100 Table 28 Item-Test C o r r e l a t i o n s f o r Each o f Six B i p o l a r A d j e c t i v e P a i r s i n the C a t h a r s i s Subddomain Item Deleted Reweighted D a t a — S e l e c t e d Subgroups Word P a i r Group G-B 0x0 N-P B-S N-A H-S D-C S-N Males 10 .68 .59 .60 .62 ,60 11 .60 . 60 .63 .69 .58 12 . 56 .59 .64 . 60 . 54 13-15 .66 . 63 . 71 .63 .51 T o t a l .62 .60 .64 .63 .56 Females Age 10 ,65 ,55 .63 .61 .61 11 .67 .66 .64 .74 .64 12 .66 i 60 i69 .66 .65 13-15 .70 .68 .69 .64 . 66 T o t a l . 67 . 62 .66 .67 .64 10 . 66 . 57 .61 .61 .60 11 .63 . 63 .63 .71 .61 12 .61 .60 .67 .63 .59 13-15 .68 .65 .70 .64 ..59 B e l l e v u e Males .60 .58 .60 Females .67 .60 .66 62 ,69 .55 .62 B.C. . Males . 63 . 62 . 68 Females .66 .65 ,66 65 64 .58 .66 T o t a l Group .64 61 ,65 65 ,60 10 1 Table 29 Item-Test C o r r e l a t i o n s f o r Each of Six B i p o l a r A d j e c t i v e P a i r s i n the A s c e t i c Subddomain Item Deleted Reweighted D a t a — S e l e c t e d Subgroups Word P a i r Group G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A H-S Mai es 10 .73 .61 .73 .76 .75 11 .62 .46 .66 .73 .68 12 .66 . 50 .62 .69 .64 13-15 . 57 .40 .58 .65 .64 T o t a l . 66 . 51 . 66 .71 .69 Females 10 .74 .63 .66 *69 .70 11 . 68 . 54 . 69 .75 ,70 12 .64 . 56 .67 .73 .68 13-15 .76 .62 i 58 .69 ,67 T o t a l .69 .58 .66 .71 .69 Age 10 .73 .61 .70 .72 .73 11 .65 .50 .67 .74 . 69 12 .65 . 53 . 65 .70 .66 13-15 .66 .51 ,59 .68 . 66 Bell e v u e Males . 66 .56 :68 .72 .67 Females .69 .58 .68 • 72 .69 B.C. Males . 66 .43 .64 . 70 .71 Females .71 . 57 .61 .69 .68 T o t a l Group .68 , 54 . 66 .71 .69 D-C S-N 102 C o r r e l a t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y lowest i n the h e a l t h (range .33 to .66) and s o c i a l (.39 to .70) subdomains and highest i n the a e s t h e t i c subdomain (range .55 to .83). Compared to the a p r i o r i data s e t i t e m - t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s , s l i g h t improvement was i n d i c a t e d i n the word p a i r s good-bad and of, no, use-u s e f u l over a l l subdomains; the not p l e a s a n t - p l e a s a n t word p a i r improved s l i g h t l y i n the: s o c i a l , a e s t h e t i c , and c a t h a r s i s subdomains; the n i c e - a w f u l word p a i r i n d i c a t e d s l i g h t l y decreased c o r r e l a t i o n s i n a l l but the a e s t h e t i c subdomain; and the ha ppy-sad word p a i r showed lower c o r r e l a t i o n s over a l l subdomains. Fa c t o r a n a l y s i s . In c o n s t r u c t i n g the CATPA i n v e n t o r y Simon and Smoll (1974) accepted the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e of the domain of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y p o s t u l a t e d by Kenyon. However, Kenyon's ATPA i n v e n t o r y was developed f o r respondents aged 15 years and o l d e r while the CATPA in v e n t o r y was developed f o r c h i l d r e n aged 10 through 12 years. Although the equivalency of the CATPA and ATPA i n v e n t o r i e s was proven with c o l l e g e aged s u b j e c t s by Schutz and Smoll (1977), the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e p o s t u l a t e d by Kenyon has not been v a l i d a t e d with c h i l d r e n aged 10-12 y e a r s . T h e r e f o r e , the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n examined the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e of the f o u r CATPA data s e t s d e s c r i b e d below. The p r e c e d i n g analyses y i e l d e d f o u r data s e t s ; an a p r i o r i data s e t , an a _ p r i o r i reweighted data s e t , an item d e l e t e d data s e t , and an item d e l e t e d reweighted data s e t . Except f o r the age 13-15 subgroup, which evidenced a unique 103 r e w e i g h t i n g s t r u c t u r e , a n a l y s i s of the f o u r data s e t s r e v e a l e d l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between age, sex, and l o c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h e r e f o r e , from t h i s p o i n t onward the data was d i v i d e d on the b a s i s of only two general subgroups--age 10-12 years and age 13-15 y e a r s . Two methods of f a c t o r i n g were employed to determine the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e of the data s e t s ; p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s and maximum l i k e l i h o o d a n a l y s i s . In order to determine the b a s i c f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e i n each subgroup, p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s was f i r s t performed v i a the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s program i n the S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (SPSS) (Nie, e t a l . , 1975). This step i n the a n a l y s i s was designed to determine the b a s i c component s t r u c t u r e of the data s e t s i n o r d e r to save computer time and c o s t when determining subsequent maximum l i k e l i h o o d s o l u t i o n s . P r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s r e q u i r e s l e s s computer time and e x t r a c t s components from h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s . . The method transforms a given s e t of v a r i a b l e s i n t o l i n e a r s e t s of v a r i a b l e s ( p r i n c i p l e components) which are o r t h o g o n a l t o each other and account f o r more v a r i a n c e i n the data than any o t h e r l i n e a r combination. For each subgroup, the number of components r e t a i n e d was based upon a minimum eigenvalue c r i t e r i o n of g r e a t e r than or equal to u n i t y . P r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s on the a„priori and reweiqhted data s e t s y i e l d e d 10 f a c t o r s with e i g e n v a l u e s gre a t e r than u n i t y f o r the age 10-12 subgroup and 13 f a c t o r s 104 f o r the age 13-15 subgroup., A n a l y s i s o f the item d e l e t e d data s e t r e s u l t e d i n seven and nine ; f a c t o r s with eigenvalues g r e a t e r than u n i t y f o r the age 10-12 and age 13-15 subgroups r e s p e c t i v e l y , while seven and 10 f a c t o r s r e s u l t e d from a n a l y s i s of the age 10-12 and age 13-15 subgroups i n the item d e l e t e d reweighted data s e t . The f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e ( i . e . , number of components) f o r each subgroup r e s u l t i n g from p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s p rovided a b a s i s f o r determining f i n a l f a c t o r s o l u t i o n s based upon a maximum l i k e l i h o o d s o l u t i o n . U t i l i z i n g the A l b e r t a General F a c t o r A n a l y s i s Program (AGFAP) (Hakstian and Bay, 1973) the age 10-12 and age 13-15 subgroups i n each data s e t were f a c t o r analyzed v i a a maximum l i k e l i h o o d s o l u t i o n f o l l o w e d by varimax r o t a t i o n . The maximum l i k e l i h o o d method was chosen because i t i s an exp l a n a t o r y and c o n c e p t u a l l y powerful a n a l y s i s which i n c l u d e s a l i k e l i h o o d r a t i o t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e a s s e s s i n g the f i t o f k f a c t o r s to the observed data.. In a d d i t i o n to the s i g n i f i c a n c e t e s t of k common f a c t o r s AGFAP outputs Tucker and Lewis (Hakstian & Bay, 1973) r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s r e p r e s e n t i n g a r a t i o of e x p l a i n e d (by the k f a c t o r s ) c o v a r i a t i o n to t o t a l c o v a r i a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , the AGFAP maximum l i k e l i h o o d method prese n t s a f a c t o r s o l u t i o n from a s t a t i s t i c a l l y sound viewpoint. Because the simple s t r u c t u r e of the data was c l e a r , varimax r o t a t i o n s were employed s i n c e t h i s o r t h o g o n a l s o l u t i o n i s widely used and giv e s the same i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s as other orthogonal s o l u t i o n s 105 when the simple s t r u c t u r e i s known (Gorsuch, 1974), For each subgroup AGFAP estimated f a c t o r s c o r e s . These f a c t o r s c o r e s formed the b a s i s f o r subsequent data s e t s d e s c r i b e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . T a b les 30 to 34 p r e s e n t the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s based upon a maximum l i k e l i h o o d s o l u t i o n f o l l o w e d by varimax r o t a t i o n f o r each o f the four data s e t s . I t i s important to note t h a t T a b l e s 30 to 34 i n c l u d e only n o n - t r i v i a l f a c t o r s , t h a t i s , those f a c t o r s with a t l e a s t two or t h r e e l o a d i n g s of .4 and above, and with a unique set of d e f i n i n g v a r i a b l e s (Gorsuch, 1974) . . However, the goodness of f i t s t a t i s t i c s which are presented i n each t a b l e were c a l c u l a t e d from f i n a l f a c t o r s o l u t i o n s based upon the minimum eigenvalue c r i t e r i o n . . Thus i n Table 30 e i g h t n o n - t r i v i a l f a c t o r s are p resented, yet the goodness of f i t s t a t i s t i c s are c a l c u l a t e d on a f i n a l f a c t o r s o l u t i o n of 10 f a c t o r s f o r the age 10-12 subgroup and 13 f a c t o r s f o r the age 13-15 subgroup. F a c t o r s are l a b e l l e d F (F1,F2,F3, etc.) while the v a r i a b l e s (word p a i r scores) i n c l u d e d i n each f a c t o r are l a b e l l e d V (V1-8,V9-10, e t c . ) . For the:a p r i o r i and reweighted data s e t s (Tables 30 and 31) V1-8 correspond to the e i g h t word p a i r s i n the s o c i a l subdomain, V9-16 t h e : e i g h t word p a i r s i n the h e a l t h subdomain, V17-24 the e i g h t word p a i r s i n the v e r t i g o subdomain, V25-32 the e i g h t word p a i r s i n the a e s t h e t i c subdomain, V33-40 the e i g h t word p a i r s i n the c a t h a r s i s subdomain, and V41-48 the e i g h t word p a i r s i n the a s c e t i c subdomain. In T ables 32 to 34 V1-5 correspond to the f i v e 106 word p a i r s i n the s o c i a l subdomain, V6-10 t h e : f i v e word p a i r s i n the h e a l t h subdomain, V11-15 the five.word p a i r s i n the v e r t i g o subdomain, V16-20 the f i v e word p a i r s i n the a e s t h e t i c subdomain, V21-25 the f i v e word p a i r s i n the c a t h a r s i s subdomain, and V26-30 the f i v e word p a i r s i n the a s c e t i c subdomain. The r e s u l t s of the f a c t o r a n a l y i s r e v e a l e d s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r e s f o r a l l data s e t s and a l l subgroups e x c e p t i n g the age 13-15 subgroup from the item d e l e t e d reweighted data s e t . Goodness of f i t s t a t i s t i c s r e v e a l e d high Tucker r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s r a n g i n g from .88 i n the item d e l e t e d reweighted data s et age 13-15 subgroup to approximately .94 i n the age 10-12 subgroups i n a l l data s e t s , s u p p o r t i n g t h e v a l i d i t y of the o r i g i n a l s i x - f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e . The l i k e l i h o o d r a t i o t e s t o f k common f a c t o r s y i e l d e d s i g n i f i c a n c e (JD < .001) i n a l l c a ses. The s i x f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e employed by Simon and Smoll (1974) i s evidenced i n a l l data s e t s ; however, i n the a p r i o r i and reweighted data s e t s (Tables 30 and 31) an e x t r a f a c t o r (F8) appeared with r e l a t i v e l y high l o a d i n g s on the djj:tv_-e^ean word p a i r . Removal o f the item d i r t y - c l e a n from the item d e l e t e d data s e t s r e s u l t e d i n a more d e f i n i t i v e f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e as presented i n Tables 33 and 34. Thus f a c t o r a n a l y s i s provided f u r t h e r support f o r removal of the dir-t-y-c l e a n word p a i r from the C&TP& i n v e n t o r y . In a l l data s e t s the good-bad and o f no u s e - u s e f u l word p a i r s under the h e a l t h f a c t o r y i e l d e d l o a d i n g s of l e s s than ,3 on F3. 107 Table 30 F a c t o r S t r u c t u r e of the CATPA Inventory A P r i o r i Data F a c t o r F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 77,15,23 V1-8 V9-10 V11-16 V17-24 V25-32 V33-40 V41-48 31,49,47 Age Group 10-12 .634 .565 .717 ,798 .66 2 ,694 .525 .509 .602 .599 .678 .617 .569 .638 .656 .652 .720 :848 .688 .761 . 493 .552 .608 .632 . 743 .617 .652 .243 .720 .705 .799 . 851 .730 .784 . 472 . 681 .602 .717 . 735 . 669 .741 .536 .304 .2 81 .409 .449 .424 , 342 .275 . 323 .445 . 356 .402 .380 Goodness of F i t : df = 693, X2 = 2123.09, p < .001, Tucker R = . 93 Age Group 13 -15 . 592 . 493 .617 . 800 .664 .470 . 596 .383 .830 .624 , 648 . 534 .257 , 558 .746 .593 .658 .807 .674 .728 . 333 .565 .607 .619 . 755 .659 .709 .214 .788 .750 .774 . 873 .714 .798 .415 .660 .596 .701 .715 .740 .630 .263 .261 .411 .493 . 525 .313 . 190 . 247 .410 .553 .511 .340 Goodness of F i t : df = 582, X2 = 853. 73, 2 < .001, Tucker R = . 91 108 Table 31 F a c t o r S t r u c t u r e of the CATPA Inventory A P r i o r i Reweighted Data Fa c t o r F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 V7,15,23 V1-8 V9-10 V11-16 V17-24 V25-32 V33-40 V41-48 31,49,47 Age Group 10-12 .643 .583 .721 . 804 .660 .687 . 521 .528 .584 .597 .680 .622 .557 .613 .668 .642 .721 . 828 .688 . 763 . 497 .534 .602 .614 . 747 .604 .638 .245 .721 .695 .786 .83 9 .728 . 784 . 489 .671 .607 .710 .717 .664 .738 .534 .345 .307 .417 :451 .426 .353 . 339 .339 .445 . 377 .403 .397 Goodness of F i t : df = 693, X2 = 2050. 11, p_ < .001, Tucker R = .94 Age Group 13 -15 .618 .657 ,636 .798 . 684 . 542 .538 .492 .636 .684 . 660 .615 .320 .433 .738 .605 .582 .793 .691 .759 . 289 .592 .580 .505 .756 .657 .669 .154 .770 .771 .739 .856 . 737 .799 .417 .670 .6 28 .724 . 705 .753 .660 .357 .384 .432 .366 .4 97 . 524 .409 .351 .405 .472 . 607 .532 .375 Goodness of F i t : df = 582, xz = 773. 82, p_ < .001, Tucker R = .93 109 Table 32 F a c t o r S t r u c t u r e of the CATPA Inventory Item Deleted A _ P r i o r i Data F a c t o r F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 V1-5 76-7 V8-10 V11-15 V16-20 V21-25 V26-30 Age Group 10-12 .665 .592 .739 .815 .701 .712 .540 .604 .613 , 686 .652 .578 .656 .61 9 .726 . 842 ,687 . 754 .711 .708 . 788 . 846 .696 .785 .674 .632 .707 . 732 i.649 .744 Goodness of F i t : df = 246, X 2 = 1028. 23, p < .001, Tucker R = .94 Age Group 13-15 .637 .448 ,649 .824 ,778 .711 .409 .944 .661 .66 1 . 660 .502 .756 . 636 .585 .816 .771 . 708 .737 .664 .751 .852 .663 . 753 .686 .7 13 .749 . 702 .614 .695 Goodness of F i t : df = 201, X 2 = 354.72, £ < .001, Tucker R = .91 110 Table 33 F a c t o r S t r u c t u r e of the CATPA Inventory Item Deleted Reweighted Data—Age Group 10-12 Fa c t o r F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 V1-5 V6-7 V8-10 V11-15 V16-20 V21-25 V26-30 .666 .620 .741 .816 .797 .709 .557 ,630 .615 . 688 .650 .565 .659 .624 .726 . 841 .690 .733 .707 .714 .787 .844 .699 .784 .671 .598 .704 .729 .649 .746 Goodness of F i t : df = 246, X_2 = 992. 51, p_ < .001, Tucker R = .94 Table 34 Fa c t o r S t r u c t u r e of the CATPA Inventory Item Deleted Reweighted Data—Age Group 13-15 ... .i . . . . , . -- >• -Factor F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 V1-5 V6-7 V8-10 V11-15 V16-20 V21-22 V23-25 V26-27 V28-3 .679 .512 .643 .826 .781 .639 .493 .948 . 649 .684 .719 .674 .726 . 699 .598 .816 . 549 . 668 .756 .6 26 .7 39 , 835 .6 39 . 870 .681 . 627 .747 .709 . 758 .619 Goodness of F i t : df = 223, X2 = 433. 36, £ < .001, Tucker R = .88 111 These two word p a i r s provided the b a s i s f o r a unique f a c t o r (F2) i n a l l cases. I t appears t h a t s u b j e c t s , r e g a r d l e s s of age, dichotomize t h e i r f e e l i n g s about the h e a l t h subdomain based upon the values s o c i e t y p l a c e s upon h e a l t h and f i t n e s s (good-bad, of no use-useful) and upon personal enjoyment (pleasant-not pleasant, b i t t e r - s w e e t , n i c e - a w f u l , happy-sad, d i r t y - c l e a n , steady-nervous) ; or based upon the h e a l t h component versus the f i t n e s s component. The value/enjoyment dichotomy appears i n threa subdomains (health, c a t h a r s i s , a s c e t i c ) f o r the age group 13-15 i n Table 34. Data from t h i s age group were taken from s k i l l e d and h i g h l y motivated a t h l e t e s who, perhaps more, than n o n - a t h l e t e s , could view d i f f i c u l t t r a i n i n g and long p r a c t i c e as both e s s e n t i a l f o r top c a l i b r e performance but unpleasant to experience. The f a c t o r s i n order of s i z e of e i g e n v a l u e s were f o r the age 10-12 subgroup in a l l data s e t s : a e s t h e t i c , v e r t i g o , a s c e t i c , c a t h a r s i s , s o c i a l , h e a l t h . In the age 13-15 subgroup the order of the s i z e of the e i g e n v a l u e s v a r i e d among data s e t s yet in a l l subgroups the a e s t h e t i c f a c t o r evidenced the h i g h e s t value and the h e a l t h f a c t o r the lowest. Communalities f o r each CATPA word p a i r f o r the a p r i o r i data and item d e l e t e d reweighted data f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e s are presented i n Tables 35 and 36., Communality of a v a r i a b l e i s t h e . t o t a l variance accounted f o r by the combination of a l l common f a c t o r s and i n d i c a t e s the amount of v a r i a n c e of a v a r i a b l e t h a t i s shared by at l e a s t one other v a r i a b l e i n the s e t . 112 Table 35 Communality S t a t i s t i c s f o r Each CATPA Word P a i r A P r i o r i Data F a c t o r S t r u c t u r e Age Group 10-12 Word P a i r Subdomain G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A H-S D-C S-N S o c i a l .47 .36 .51 .54 . 60 .56 .43 . 34 Health . 47 . 46 . 54 .58 .61 ,49 .54 .43 V e r t i g o .57 .40 .56 .50 .69 . 57 .46 .31 A e s t h e t i c .65 .51 .74 .63 . 75 ,58 .31 .31 C a t h a r s i s .47 .43 : s i .53 .60 .51 .45 .37 A s c e t i c . 53 .41 i63 .55 .70 .61 .46 .40 Age Group 13-15 S o c i a l .45 .44 ,66 .59 ,76 .64 . 48 . 29 Health . 38 . 80 .59 .58 ,74 .67 .56 .49 V e r t i g o . 45 .52 .52 ,63 . 71 . 62 .37 .26 A e s t h e t i c . 69 .50 .72 .74 .81 . 62 . 46 .45 C a t h a r s i s . 76 .61 . 56 .56 .63 ,66 .55 .38 A s c e t i c .74 .52 .66 .62 .77 .62 . 42 .34 113 Table 36 Co minimality S t a t i s t i c s f o r Each CATPA Word Pair Item Deleted Reweighted Data F a c t o r S t r u c t u r e Age Group 10-12 Word P a i r Subdomain G-B 0-0 N-P B-S N-A H-S D-C S-N S o c i a l .50 .39 .51 . 59 ,52 Health . 54 . 49 .51 .61 .43 V e r t i g o . 58 .42 .57 . 67 .54 A e s t h e t i c . 68 .52 .73 .74 .56 C a t h a r s i s .51 . 47 .52 .56 .47 A s c e t i c .54 . 38 A 58 .69 L.60 Age Group 13-15 S o c i a l .51 .40 .59 . 66 , 66 Health . 37 .99 .70 .58 .63 V e r t i g o .46 .51 .45 .61 .63 A e s t h e t i c .73 .54 .74 .75 .63 C a t h a r s i s .74 . 69 ,61 .63 .66 A s c e t i c .68 .58 .52 .81 . 58 114 G e n e r a l l y low communality f o r the steady-nervous and dirty.-c l e a n word p a i r s over a l l subdomains of the a p r i o r i data f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e (Table 35) provides evidence f o r d e l e t i n g these word p a i r s . S i m i l a r low values f o r the of no_use-u s e f u l word p a i r f o r the age 10-12 subgroup only, i n d i c a t e the p o s s i b l e d e l e t i o n of t h i s word p a i r . An i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t of the communality a n a l y s i s i s the g e n e r a l l y h i g h c o e f f i c i e n t s over a l l subdomains f o r the b i t t e r - s w e e t - word p a i r , most n o t a b l y i n t h e age 13-15 subgroup. The n o t i c e a b l y higher values f o r the of no u s e - u s e f u l and b i t t e r - s w e e t word p a i r s i n the o l d e r group may be an i n d i c a t i o n of s u b j e c t - s c a l e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s . That i s , the younger respondents may not understand the:word p a i r s or may r e l a t e t o them i n a d i f f e r e n t manner than the o l d e r respondents, Communalities f o r the 30 v a r i a b l e s of the item d e l e t e d reweighted f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e (Table 36) i n d i c a t e a g e n e r a l but s m a l l improvement i n variance accounted f o r , except f o r the happy-sad word p a i r i n the age 10-12 subgroup. Data A n a l y s i s Part I I Part I I of the data a n a l y s i s compared the c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s reported by Smoll, et a l . (1976) with two data s e t s developed from the Smoll, et a l , data and adapted a c c o r d i n g to the r e s u l t s of data a n a l y s i s P a r t I. The f i r s t of these two adapted data s e t s was developed 115 v i a the same methods used to c o n s t r u c t the item d e l e t e d reweighted data s e t r e p o r t e d above. That i s , the scores f o r the word p a i r s b i t t e r - s w e e t , d i r t y - c l e a n , and steady-nervous were d e l e t e d from the o r i g i n a l Smoll, e t a l , data and the remaining s c o r e s were reweighted according t o the rewe i g h t i n g scheme f o r the age 10-12 subgroup presented i n Table 21. The second data s e t c o n s i s t e d of f a c t o r s cores c a l c u l a t e d by i n p u t i n g the o r i g i n a l Smoll, et a l , data i n t o AGFAP. Factor s c o r e s are raw sc o r e s weighted a c c o r d i n g to a s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e . . I t was p o s t u l a t e d by t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r t h a t f a c t o r s c o r e s would provide a data s e t with a more d e f i n i t i v e and p r e c i s e : f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e r e s u l t i n g i n higher c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r CATPA with involvement and performance v a r i a b l e s . The f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e of the item d e l e t e d reweighted data f o r the age 10-12 subgroup was chosen as the model f o r the f a c t o r s c o r e s s i n c e i t had a high Tucker r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t (. 94) , high f a c t o r l o a d i n g s , and a d e f i n i t i v e subdomain s t r u c t u r e . C a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s was performed on each data s e t s e p a r a t e l y u t i l i z i n g the SPSS-CANNCORR su b r o u t i n e . Tables 37 to 39 present c a n o n i c a l . c o r r e l a t i o n analyses of CATPA with involvement and performance v a r i a b l e s combined, CATPA with involvement v a r i a b l e s , and CATPA with performance v a r i a b l e s f o r sex and grade groups i n the t h r e e data s e t s . For a complete d e s c r i p t i o n of the s u b j e c t and data c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the o r i g i n a l Smoll, et a l . data r e f e r to Chapter I I I (p. 54) . 116 Table 37 C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n s Between CATPA and Involvement- Performance Comparisons Between Three Data Sets Smoll, et a l . (1976) Data — S e x X Grade Groups (N) Males 4 (44) 5 (41) 6 (42) T o t a l (127) Females 4 (43) 5 (45) 6 (49) T o t a l (137) T o t a l N (264) EC AP IE FS AP X2 IB FS E (df (54, 54, 63) AP IB FS . 02 ,04 .10 .02 .02 .01 i04 .08 .06 * * * . 16 .40 .24 .09 . 15 . 23 . 01 * * .01 ,01 * * * — — — — — — • — - — — — — — — — — — .76 .77 .75 78.7 7 3.9 78,0 . 82 .80 .82 79.0 77.0 90. 1 . 78 • 77 . 79 72.9 69.6 80.7 .51 .50 .52 101.8 95.3 108. 31 , 73 .68 .68 64, 5 55. 9 70,6 .77 . 76 :78 68.4 64.7 71.2 . 77 .79 .81 81. 1 88. 4 97.5 .49 .49 .49 79.7 83. 6 9 3. 5 .53 .53 .54 1 58.4 160.0 179.9 * £ < .01 117 Table 38 Ca n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n s Between CATPA and Involvement Comparisons Between Three Data Sets Smoll, et a l . (1 976) Data — S e x X Grade 2 Ec X2 (df (36, 36, 42) Groups (N) AP IB~ FS AP~ IE i s AP IE' FS Males 4 (44) .68 .66 .71 54. 4 49.0 54.7 .03 ,07 .09 5 (41) .73 .77 .76 49.6 57.0 60.7 .07 .01 .03 6 (42) . 77 .73 . 78 62.8 53- 6 63.0 * .03 ,02 T o t a l (127) .50 .47 .49 86.8 76. 1 81. 3 * * * Females 4 (43) .70 .61 .65 44.0 37. 2 43.7 . 17 .41 .40 5 (45) , 74 .74 .77 50.8 48. 7 54. 1 .05 .08 ,10 6 (49) . 65 . 66 . 75 44.8 48 .6 59.4 - 15 .09 .04 T o t a l (137) .44 .46 .48 56.8 58.7 63.5 .02 .01 .02 T o t a l N (264) .49 -48 .49 126.2 121. 3 133,0 * * * * p_ < .01 1 1 8 Table 3 9 C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n s Between CATPA and Performance Comparisons Between Three Data Sets Smoll, et a l . ( 1 9 7 6 ) Data — S e x X Grade E -R G X 2 (df ( 1 8 , 1 8 , 2 1 ) • 1 - . • - . . . _ . « — — — W . Groups ( N ) AP I R FS AP I R FS AP I R FS Males 4 ( 4 4 ) . 6 2 . 5 5 . 5 4 2 1 . 8 1 7 . 8 2 0 . 4 . 2 4 . 4 7 . 5 0 5 ( 4 1 ) . 7 0 . 6 7 . 7 0 3 1 . 5 2 9 . 9 3 9 . 6 . 0 3 . 0 4 . 0 1 6 ( 4 2 ) . 4 4 . 4 5 . 5 1 1 2 . 2 1 2 . 8 1 5 . 9 . 8 4 . 8 0 . 7 8 T o t a l ( 1 2 7 ) . 3 4 . 3 6 . 4 5 1 7 . 6 2 2 . 8 3 2 . 3 . 4 8 . 2 0 . 0 5 Females 4 ( 4 3 ) . 5 4 . 4 8 . 5 1 1 6 . 2 1 1 . 3 1 7 . 0 . 5 8 . 8 9 . 7 1 5 ( 4 5 ) . 5 2 . 5 1 . 5 4 2 2 . 6 2 1 . 8 2 5 . 6 . 2 1 . 2 4 . 2 2 6 ( 4 9 ) . 6 7 . 6 8 . 6 6 4 0 . 3 4 2 . 3 4 0 . 0 ' * * . 0 1 T o t a l ( 1 3 7 ) . 3 2 . 3 3 . 3 6 2 4 . 1 2 7 . 7 3 4 . 0 . 1 5 . 0 7 . 0 4 T o t a l N ( 2 6 4 ) . 3 7 . 4 1 . 4 3 5 0 . 8 6 3 . 4 7 1 . 7 * * * * £ < . 0 1 119 In each t a b l e AP r e p r e s e n t s the o r i g i n a l Smoll, e t a l . d a t a , IR r e p r e s e n t s the item d e l e t e d reweighted data, and FS r e p r e s e n t s the data set r e s t r u c t u r e d as f a c t o r scores. G e n e r a l l y , n e i t h e r the FS nor the IR data s e t s r e s u l t e d i n l a r g e improvements i n s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s . However, the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that s m a l l improvements occurred i n the grade f i v e males and grade s i x females groups i n a l l but one case. (CATPA and performance-grade s i x f e m a l e s ) . Grade fo u r females i n a l l cases showed s u b s t a n t i a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n of s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s i n both adapted data s e t s . 120 CHAPTER V D i s c u s s i o n The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n of r e s u l t s i s s t r u c t u r e d i n l i g h t o f the f i v e purposes o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I. I n t e r n a l Consistency A n a l y s i s of the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of CATPA f i e l d t e s t data mi r r o r s the f i n d i n g s of Simon and Smoll (1974). , Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r each of the s i x s c a l e s i n each of the f o u r data s e t s (a p r i o r i , a p r i o r i reweighted, item d e l e t e d a_£riori, and item d e l e t e d reweighted) were g e n e r a l l y high and compared f a v o r a b l y to the f i n d i n g s of Kenyon (1968c), Simon and Smoll (1974), and Zaichkowsky (1978). The a e s t h e t i c subdomain e x h i b i t e d the h i g h e s t Hoyt c o e f f i c i e n t s i n a l l cases, while the h e a l t h and s o c i a l subdomains were found t o be the l e a s t i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t . For each subdomain w i t h i n each data s e t , the c o e f f i c i e n t s were e s s e n t i a l l y the same over a l l subgroups i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the degree of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y was approximately the same r e g a r d l e s s of the s u b j e c t s 1 age, sex, or t e s t l o c a t i o n . Maximizing the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of the a p r i o r i and item analyzed a p r i o r i data s e t s v i a FORTAP-RAVE 121 evidenced only s l i g h t improvement i n most cases. T h i s was due i n part t o the a l r e a d y high l e v e l of the c o e f f i c i e n t s and i s s i m i l a r t o the f i n d i n g s of Kenyon (1968c),, Based upon i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y alone, the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the reweighted a p r i o r i and a • p r i o r i data s e t s are the most i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t although a l l data s e t s evidenced r e l a t i v e l y high Hoyt c o e f f i c i e n t s . Because the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of the CATPA i n v e n t o r y i s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y h i g h , the r e w e i g h t i n g of sc o r e s v i a the FORTAP-RAVE procedure i s not recommended f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h u s i n g the instrument. Item ,Analysis Item-test c o r r e l a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t i n a l l cases, however, over a l l subdomains the word p a i r s steadv.-nervous and d i r t ^ - c l e a n y i e l d e d the lowest c o e f f i c i e n t s . The h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s appeared i n the a e s t h e t i c subdomain while the lowest appeared i n the h e a l t h subdomain, No age, sex, or t e s t l o c a t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s were noted, . These f i n d i n g s , coupled with t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n experiences of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r , give evidence o f a degree of s u b j e c t - s c a l e i n t e r a c t i o n . Many s u b j e c t s r e p o r t that, to them, d i r t y - c l e a n , when r e l a t e d to a subdomain, means to d i r t y one's c l o t h i n g while p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , while steady-nervous has l i t t l e meaning at a l l f o r some respondents. Freguency (percent) of a n e u t r a l / u n c e r t a i n response f o r each of the e i g h t word p a i r s i n each of the s i x 122 subdomains support the above f i n d i n g s . . Over a l l subdomains the b i t t e r - s w e e t word p a i r i n d i c a t e d the highest percentage of response while the word p a i r s d i r t y - c l e a n - and stead y-nervous e x h i b i t e d r e l a t i v e l y high percentages.. I t appears t h a t s u b j e c t s are l e s s c e r t a i n i n t h e i r response to the b i t t e r - s w e e t , steady-nervous, and d i r t y - c l e a n word p a i r s . , Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g o f the item analyses was t h a t the d e l e t i o n of the b i t t e r - s w e e t , di£ty.-c l e a n , and steady-nervous items had l i t t l e e f f e c t on the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y or the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e of the CATPA i n v e n t o r y . These items c o u l d be delet e d thus c r e a t i n g a s h o r t e r and t h e r e f o r e more: a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y e f f e c t i v e instrument. The r e l a t i v e l y high frequency of the n e u t r a l / u n c e r t a i n response t o a l l word p a i r s under the v e r t i g o subdomain provides evidence f o r the f u t u r e rewording f o r the concept of v e r t i g o . F a c t o r A n a l y s i s The s i x f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e of the domain of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y adopted by Simon and Smoll (1974) from Kenyon's (1968c) seven f a c t o r model i s supported by the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n . However, s i m i l a r to the. f i n d i n g s o f Zaichkowsky*s (1978) f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of ATPA f i e l d t e s t data, o n l y s i x of the e i g h t a d j e c t i v a l p a i r s loaded on the h e a l t h subdomain., The word p a i r s good-bad and of no use-u s e f u l were e x t r a c t e d as a unique f a c t o r with an eigenvalue 123 g r e a t e r than u n i t y f o r a l l data s e t s and subgroups,. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note than Zaichkowsky repo r t e d e i g e n v a l u e s of l e s s t han u n i t y f o r t h i s f a c t o r . Tables 30-31 a l s o r e v e a l n o t i c e a b l y lower l o a d i n g s f o r the d i r t y - c l e a n and steady-nervous word p a i r s f o r a l l subdomains. Also the word p a i r d i r t y - c l e a n f o r a l l subdomains combines t c form a unique f a c t o r F8. These f i n d i n g s support the d e l e t i o n of the d i r t y 7 c l e a n and steady-nervous word p a i r s from each subdomain and suggest a p o s s i b l e r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the h e a l t h subdomain. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t because the h e a l t h subdomain c o n s i s t s of a h e a l t h component and a f i t n e s s component, respondents r e l a t e the good-bad and of no u s e - u s e f u l word p a i r s to the f i t n e s s component and the remaining s i x word p a i r s to the h e a l t h component or v i c e - v e r s a . Perhaps t h i s subdomain should be d i v i d e d i n t o two unique subdomains; a h e a l t h subdomain and a f i t n e s s subdomain. Another f e a s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the dichotomous response to the h e a l t h f a c t o r i s a value/enjoyment dichotomy. Subje c t s respond t o the good-bad and of no u s e - u s e f u l items i n the context of s o c i e t a l v a l u e s , while responses to the remaining items are made i n the context of p e r s o n a l enjoyment,, C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n s The l a c k o f s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s between the o r i g i n a l Smoll, et a l . _ (1976) data and the r e s t r u c t u r e d Smoll, e t a l . data can be a t t r i b u t e d to 124 s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . Most important i s the f a c t t h a t the r e s t r u c t u r e d data s e t s were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the o r i g i n a l data s e t i n terms of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , item d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e . The reweighting process performed i n c o n s t r u c t i n g the item d e l e t e d reweighted data s e t was shown i n Chapter IV t o r e s u l t i n only s l i g h t i n c r e a s e s i n Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s . The i t e m - t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s i n the a p r i o r i and the item d e l e t e d reweighted data s e t s again showed only s l i g h t i n c r e a s e s i n f a v o r of the item d e l e t e d reweighted data. F a c t o r a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t a l l data sets had the same f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e , t h e r e f o r e , f a c t o r s c o r e s would r e s u l t i n l i t t l e , change i n c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s . I t appears, then, t h a t the l a c k of A-B correspondence r e p o r t e d by Smoll, et a l . i s not a r e f l e c t i o n of the psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of the instrument which are judged to be sound by the r e s u l t s of the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n . S i n c e the psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of the i n v e n t o r y have been proven s a t i s f a c t o r y , the next step i s a n a l y s i s of the congruence and s p e c i f i c i t y of the a t t i t u d i n a l and b e h a v i o r a l measures as suggested by Ajzen and F i s h b e i n (1977) and Rokeach and K l i e j u n a s (1972) f o l l o w e d by i n v e s t i g a t i o n of antecedent determinants of behavior as o u t l i n e d by Schwartz and T e s s l e r (1972) and s i t u a t i o n a l f o r c e s , such as those i n v e s t i g a t e d by Perry (1977) and Wicker and Pomazal (1971). 125 C o n c l u s i o n s Based upon the r e s u l t s of the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i t may be concluded t h a t the Simon and Smoll (1974) CATPA i n v e n t o r y possesses an acceptable degree of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , i s c o n s t r u c t e d mainly of items which r e v e a l an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l of item d i s c r i m i n a t i n g power, and r e v e a l s a f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e which compares f a v o r a b l y to t h a t of Kenyon's (1 968c) ATPA i n v e n t o r y . . Thus the CATPA i n v e n t o r y i s deemed a p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y sound instrument f o r measuring c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e toward the domain of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . However, the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e v e a l s t h a t the h e a l t h subdomain i s composed of two u n i q u e : f a c t o r s and t h a t the word p a i r s b i t t e r - s w e e t , d i r t y - c l e a n , and steady-nervous may be deleted from the i n v e n t o r y without d e l e t e r i o u s a f f e c t s on the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , item d i s c r i m i n a t i n g power, or f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e of the CATPA i n v e n t o r y . Recommendations In l i g h t of the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g recommendations are made: 1. The word p a i r s b i t t e r - s w e e t , d i r t y - c l e a n , and steady-nervous be d e l e t e d from a l l subdomains. 2. F u r t h e r research be i n i t i a t e d i n t o the dichotomous nature o f the h e a l t h subdomain with the aim of r e s t r u c t u r i n g t h a t subdomain. 126 3. The v e r t i g o subdomain concept be reworded to b e t t e r match the understanding of c h i l d r e n i n grades f o u r through s i x . 4. The n e u t r a l response category be d i v i d e d i n t o two components; one component f o r a n e u t r a l response and one component f o r an i n d i f f e r e n t response, 3 5. Fur t h e r r e s e a r c h be i n i t i a t e d concerning the CATPA i n v e n t o r y and the l a c k of A-B correspondence with s p e c i a l emphasis g i v e n t o the A j z e n - F i s h b e i n theory. 127 CHAPTER VI Summary The main purpose of the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n was to examine the psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of the Simon and Smoll (1974) CATPA i n v e n t o r y i n l i g h t of the a t t i t u d e -behavior discrepancy c o n t r o v e r s y . Data a n a l y s i s was composed of two p a r t s . Part I was concerned with e v a l u a t i n g the psychometric p r o p e r t i e s of CATPA f i e l d t e s t data and r e s t r u c t u r i n g the i n v e n t o r y based upon the subsequent r e s u l t s . . Part I I of the data a n a l y s i s reanalyzed the CATPA, involvement, and performance data from the Smoll, et a l . . (1976) study to determine the e f f e c t of the r e s t r u c t u r e d i n v e n t o r i e s from Part I on the d e t e c t i o n of an A-B r e l a t i o n s h i p . Part I o f the data a n a l y s i s examined the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , item d i s c r i m i n a t i n g power, item frequency of the n e u t r a l / u n c e r t a i n response, and f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e of the CATPA i n v e n t o r y . Data were c o l l e c t e d over the p e r i o d 1973-1977 from 2,035 male and female s u b j e c t s aged 10-15 years i n B e l l e v u e , Washington and B r i t i s h Columbia.. Subjects were d i v i d e d on the b a s i s of age, sex, and t e s t l o c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Four data s e t s were developed i n data a n a l y s i s 128 Part I : the o r i g i n a l or a p r i o r i data s e t ; the a p r i o r i reweighted data s e t based upon maximized i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y weights f o r each item i n the a p r i o r i - data s e t ; the item d e l e t e d a p r i o r i data s e t based upon item a n a l y s i s of the a p r i o r i data s e t ; and the item d e l e t e d reweighted data s e t comprised of the maximized reweighted items remaining a f t e r item a n a l y s i s . The i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of each data set was determined by c a l c u l a t i n g Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r each subdomain. R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s ranged from .67 to .91, with the a e s t h e t i c subdomain e v i d e n c i n g the g r e a t e s t degree o f i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y i n each data s e t . . G e n e r a l l y , the a p r i o r i and a p r i o r i reweighted data s e t s i n d i c a t e d the h i g h e s t degree of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . However, the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y was not reduced by item d e l e t i o n . The r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s compared f a v o r a b l y to those reported by Kenyon (1968c), Simon and Smoll (1974), and Zaichkowsky (1978) , and revealed r e v e a l e d no age, sex, or t e s t l o c a t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s . Item d i s c r i m i n a t i n g power, c a l c u l a t e d v ia item-t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , was determined f o r the a p r i o r i and item d e l e t e d reweighted data sets o n l y . C o e f f i c i e n t s ranged from ,23 to .83 and were judged to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y adequate d i s c r i m i n a t o r s . However, over a l l subdomains the word p a i r s steady-nervous and d i r t y - c l e a n y i e l d e d c o n s i s t e n t l y lower c o e f f i c i e n t s . T h e r e f o r e , these two items were removed, y i e l d i n g the item d e l e t e d a_£riori 129 and item d e l e t e d reweighted data s e t s . G e n e r a l l y , the item d e l e t e d reweighted data s e t y i e l d e d higher c o e f f i c i e n t s than the a p r i o r i data s e t and no age, sex, or t e s t l o c a t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s were noted, Item frequency (percent) of the neutr a l / u n c e r t a i n response was c a l c u l a t e d from the a p r i o r i data s e t . The word p a i r b i t t e r - s w e e t y i e l d e d the h i g h e s t frequency o f response i n each subdomain while the word p a i r s steady-nervous and d i r t y - c l e a n e x h i b i t e d r e l a t i v e l y high response frequency. T h e r e f o r e , the word p a i r b i t t e r - s w e e t was removed from the item dele t e d a p r i o r i and item d e l e t e d reweighted data s e t s . No age, sex, or t e s t l o c a t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s were found. U t i l i z i n g a p r i n c i p a l components s o l u t i o n f o l l o w e d by a maximum l i k e l i h o o d s o l u t i o n and an accompanying varimax r o t a t i o n , the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e of the.C&TPA i n v e n t o r y was determined f o r each of the f o u r data s e t s . . The s i x f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e employed by Simon and Smoll was evidenced i n a l l data s e t s . However, the h e a l t h f a c t o r i n a l l cases y i e l d e d high l o a d i n g s i n a l l but two word p a i r s which formed a unique f a c t o r i n d i c a t i n g dichotomy of response to t h i s subdomain. , F a c t o r a n a l y s i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d the weakness of the d i r t y - c l e a n word p a i r v i a a separate f a c t o r c o n s i s t i n g of l o a d i n g s on t h i s word p a i r alone. In a l l cases the a e s t h e t i c subdomain evidenced the highest e i g e n v a l u e s i n d i c a t i n g the g r e a t e s t v a r i a n c e accounted f o r while the h e a l t h subdomain evidenced th e lowest eigenvalue. 130 Pa r t I I of the data a n a l y s i s compared c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s e s performed on three r e l a t e d data s e t s : an a p r i o r i data s e t c o n s i s t i n g of the o r i g i n a l data from the Smoll, e t a l . (1976) study; a data s e t composed of the a p r i o r i data f a c t o r scores; and a data s e t c o n s t r u c t e d from the a p r i o r i data by d e l e t i n g the: items b i t t e r - s w e e t , dirty.-c l e a n , and steady- nervous f o l l o w e d by r e w e i g h t i n g the remaining items according to weights provided by a r e c i p r o c a l averages procedure. Data was taken from 127 males and 137 females i n grades f o u r through s i x from B e l l e v u e , Washington. The r e s u l t s of data a n a l y s i s P a r t I I i n d i c a t e d only s l i g h t improvements i n s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s f o r grade f i v e males and grade s i x females i n the f a c t o r score and item d e l e t e d reweighted data s e t s as compared to the a p r i o r i d ata s e t . . Grade four females showed s u b s t a n t i a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n of s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l s i n the f a c t o r score and item d e l e t e d reweighted data s e t s . 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Paper presented at the Ninth Annual Symposium of the Canadian Psycho-Motor Learning and Sports Psychology Committee, Banff, September 1 977. Worthy, M. Note on s c o r i n g midpoint responses i n extreme response-style.scores,„ P s y c h o l o g i c a l Reports, 1969, 24 (1) , 189-190. Zaichkowsky, L. The f a c t o r i a l v a l i d i t y of Kenyon's a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y i n v e n t o r y . Canadian J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d Sport S c i e n c e s , 1978, 3, 144-146., 142 APPENDIX The Simon and Smoll CATPA Inventory This CATPA instrument has been deposited with the National Auxilary Publications Service (NAPS document #02297). Order from ASIS/NAPS C/O Microfiche 1 4 3 Reproductions, 305 E 46th St., New York, New York 10017. DO NOT COPY What does the Idea in the Box Mean to You? PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AS A SOCIAL EXPERIENCE Physical a c t i v i t i e s which give you a chance to meet new people and be with your friends. Always Think About the Idea in the Box good bad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 of no use 1 2 3 useful 5 6 7 3. not pleasant 1 2 4 5 6 7 pleasant 4. 5. 6. bitter nice happy • • • • 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 • • * sweet awful sad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7. dirty clean 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. steady nervous 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 144 DO NOT COPY What does the Idea in the Box Mean to You? PHYSICAL ACTIVITY FOR HEALTH AND FITNESS Taking part in physical ac t i v i t i e s to make your health better and to get your body in better con-dition. Always Think About the Idea in the Box good • • • • • bad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 of no use useful 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. not pleasant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 pleasant 4. 5. bitter nice t • • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 sweet awful 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6. happy sad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7. dirty clean 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. steady nervous 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DO NOT COPY 145 What does the Idea in the Box Mean to You? PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AS A THRILL BUT INVOLVING SOME RISK Physical a c t i v i t i e s that are dangerous. They also can be exciting because you move very fast and must change directions quickly. "Always Think About the Idea in the Box good • • • • • • bad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 of no use useful 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. not pleasant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 pleasant 4„ 5. bitter nice 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 sweet awful 6, happy sad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7. dirty • » • clean 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. steady • • nervous 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 146 DO NOT COPY What does the Idea in the Box Mean to You? PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AS THE BEAUTY IN HUMAN MOVEMENT Physical a c t i v i t i e s which have beautiful movements. Examples are ballet - dancing, gymnastics - tumb-ling , and figure skating on ice. Always Think About the Idea in the Box 1. good 2. o f no use 3. not plea&sjit bitter nice 6e 7. happy dirty steady 1 2 » 3 4 * • 5 * • 6 7 > 2 • 3 4 5 • 6 7 > 2 • 3 4 5 • 6 7 > 2 3 4 • • * 5 • 6 7 • ~ i O 4. * * 3 4 • • 5 • 6 7 l 2 4 4 -> 4 * • 5 • 6 7 l < 2 < 3 4 • • • • 5 • 6 • • 7 i 2 3 4 5 6 7 bad useful pleasant sweet awful sad clean nervous DO NOT COPY 147 What does the Idea in the Box Mean to You? PHYSICAL ACTIVITY FOR THE RELEASE OF TENSION Taking part in physical ac t i v i t i e s to get away from problems you might have. You can also get away from problems by watching other people in physical a c t i -v i t i e s . -Always Think About the Idea in the Box good 9 • bad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 of no use 1 2 3 useful 5 6 7 3. not pleasant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 pleasant 4. 5. bitter nice • * * • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 sweet awful 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6. happy 1 2 sad 4 5 6 7 7. dirty clean 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. steady nervous 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DO NOT COPY 148 What does the Idea in the Box Mean to You? PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AS LONG AND HARD TRAINING Physical a c t i v i t i e s that have long and hard prac-tices. To spend time in practice you need to give up other things you like to do. Always Think About the Idea in the Box 1. good bad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. of no use useful 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. not pleasant • • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 pleasant 4. bitter 5. nice 9 • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 sweet awful 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6. happy sad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7. dirty • * • • 1 2 3 4 clean 6 7 8. steady nervous 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 

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