Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Field estimation of cardiorespiratory fitness in young females, eight to eleven years of age McCreight, Geraldine Ann 1982

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1982_A7_5 M23.pdf [ 3.57MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0077279.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0077279-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0077279-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0077279-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0077279-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0077279-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0077279-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0077279-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0077279.ris

Full Text

FIELD ESTIMATION OF CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS IN YOUNG FEMALES, EIGHT TO1 ELEVEN YEARS OF AGE by GERALDINE ANN MCCREIGHT B.P.E., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF: PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n THE SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1982 -0 Geraldine Ann McCreight, 1982 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) - i i -ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was twofold: 1. To determine the v a l i d i t y of the 9 minute and 12 minute timed runs and the 1600 metre distance run as p r e d i c t o r s of peak oxygen uptake and t h e r e f o r e as measures of c a r d i o -r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s in. g i r l s 8 to 11 years of age. 2. To determine the r e l i a b i l i t y of the 9 minute and 12 minute timed runs and the 1600 metre distance run as measures of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y endurance. Hypotheses were formulated from these two major purposes as w e l l as from a d d i t o n a l problems which in c l u d e d : ( i ) st u d y i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the timed/distance runs and peak oxygen uptake as the distance and time components of the runs incre a s e d , ( i i ) determining the i n t e r c o r r e l a t o n s between two d i f f e r e n t timed or distance runs with'respect to the distance and the length of time spent running. S i x t y female subjects from Crofton House School and St. P a t r i c k ' s Elementary School, Vancouver, B.C., were t e s t e d on the three timed/distance runs, the 9 minute, 12 minute and,1600 metre runs and a peak oxygen uptake t r e a d m i l l t e s t . Anthropometric measures (height, weight and percent body f a t ) were a l s o taken. P r i o r to the timed/distance run t e s t i n g a l l of the subjects were taught the concept of paced running and had four p r a c t i s e runs to p r a c t i s e t h i s concept. Twenty of the subjects completed a l l the t e s t i n g . The v a l i d i t i e s of the 9 minute, the 12 minute and the 1600 metre runs as p r e d i c t o r s of peak oxygen uptake and the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a l l the v a r i a b l e s were determined by developing a c o r r e l a t i o n matrix. Stepwise m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n analyses were conducted to s e l e c t the independent - i i i -variables (age, height, weight, percent body f a t , 9 minute timed run, 12 minute timed run and the 1600 metre distance run) that best predicted the dependent v a r i a b l e , peak oxygen uptake. The r e l i a b i l i t i e s of the 9 minute, the 12 minute and the 1600 metre runs were determined by developing t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . The r e s u l t s indicated that a l l three timed/distance runs were s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with peak oxygen uptake. The 9 minute timed run exhibited the highest c o r r e l a t i o n with peak oxygen uptake followed by the 1600 metre distance run and the 12 minute timed run. Both the 1600 metre distance run and the 12:minute timed.run showed s i g n i f i c a n t t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n s , therefore were r e l i a b l e p redictors of peak oxygen uptake i n g i r l s 8 to 11 years-of age. The:'intercorrelations between the timed and distance runs showed the 9 minute timed run and the 1600 metre distance run having the highest degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p followed by the 1600 metre distance run and the 12 minute timed run and f i n a l l y the 9 minute and 12 minute timed runs. In conclusion both the 1600 metre distance run and the 12 minute timed run were considered to be r e l i a b l e f i e l d tests and predicted peak oxygen uptake i n g i r l s 8 to 11 years of age. The 1600 metre distance run exhibited higher v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n s and therefore would be the preferred f i e l d t e s t of cardiorespiratory f i t n e s s i n g i r l s 8 to 11 years of age. - i v -TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE.OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF TABLES . . v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .. .. • v i i Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM A. I n t r o d u c t i o n .. ... 1 B. Statement of the Problem 2 C. Hypotheses 2 D. Sub-Hypotheses 3 E. L i m i t a t i o n s 3 > F. D e l i m i t a t i o n s 3 G. D e f i n i t i o n s 3 H. J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the Study 5a Chapter 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE A. Rationale-'for F i e l d Tests that Measure Cardio-r e s p i r a t o r y Capacity 6 B. Types of F i e l d Tests 7 C. The V a l i d i t y of Short Distance versus Long Distance -^Running Tests. 12 D. Factors A f f e c t i n g Running Performance..: 14 E. Research Conducted on Young Female C h i l d r e n 16 Chapter 3 METHODS AND PROCEDURES A. I n t r o d u c t i o n 18 B. Procedures 18 C. S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s and Research Design 22 - V -Chapter 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A. D e s c r i p t i v e Data 25 B. Results - - . •. -.^JL - - —~ •1. V a l i d i t y : 26 2. Test-Retest R e l i a b i l i t y '33 C. D i s c u s s i o n 1. V a l i d i t y . 34 2. Test-Retest R e l i a b i l i t i e s 44 Chapter' 5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS A. Summary 46 B. Conclusions 47 C. Recommendations 48 BIBLIOGRAPHY 50 APPENDIX 1 CONSENT FORMS 57 APPENDIX 2 DATASHEETS • 63 - v i -LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Required C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s to Reach S i g n i f i c a n c e a t the .05 and .01 Levels 23 2 Required C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s at the .05 and .01 Levels o f . S i g n i f i c a n c e 24 3 Required t Values to Reach S i g n i f i c a n c e a t the .05 and .01 Levels 24 4 D e s c r i p t i v e Data of the Subjects 27 5 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x 28 6 Regression Equation to P r e d i c t Peak Oxygen Uptake (ml-kg" 1-min" 1) 30 7 P a r t i a l C o r r e l a t i o n s of Independent V a r i a b l e s ...... 30 8 Regression Equation to P r e d i c t Peak Oxygen Uptake (1-min" 1) 33 9 Test-Retest R e l i a b i l i t y and R e p r o d u c i b i l i t y 34 TO Comparison of T r e a d m i l l P r o t o c o l s 38 IT Observed versus P r e d i c t e d Peak Oxygen Uptake Values Using t h e . P r e f e r r e d Regression Equation 43 - v i i -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to thank the members of her t h e s i s committee, Dr. R.E. Mosher (Thesis Advisor and Chairman), Dr.T. Rhodes, Dr. C.E.H. Venables, Dr. S.R. Brown and Dr.D. W h i t t l e . A s p e c i a l thanks to Dr. Mosher f o r h i s support and encouragement throughout the i n i t i a l and f i n a l stages of t h i s t h e s i s . F i n a l l y , thank you t o Crofton. House School and St. P a t r i c k ' s Elementary School f o r a l l o w i n g the author to work w i t h t h e i r students.,' Chapter I INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM A. Introduction Cardiorespiratory f i t n e s s i s "unquestionably one of the key components of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , and to some educators i t i s the single.most i n d i c a t i v e measure of a person's physical condition" (Johnson and Nelson, 1974). Cardiorespiratory f i t n e s s can be defined as the e f f i c i e n c y of the oxygen transport system ( i . e . , the heart, the lungs, and the blood vessels) i n supplying oxygen and removing waste materials from the body's c e l l s . It has generally been accepted that the most suitable measure of cardiorespiratory f i t n e s s i s maximal oxygen uptake (mVI^) which measures the amount of oxygen consumed per kilogram of body weight per minute of exercise (Krahenbuhl, Pangrazi, Petersen, Burkett and Schneider, 1978; Johnson and Nelson, 1974). Unfortunately t h i s measurement i s very time consuming and requires the use of s p e c i a l , expensive equipment i n a laboratory s e t t i n g . Consequently measurement,of maximal oxygen uptake i s not f e a s i b l e f or the general p u b l i c . A f i e l d test that could accurately p r e d i c t maximal oxygen uptake would provide a v a l i d measure of the e f f i c i e n c y of the oxygen transport system, i . e . cardiorespiratory f i t n e s s . Many f i e l d tests have been developed to measure cardiorespiratory f i t n e s s but unfortunately there i s l i t t l e information i n t h i s area r e l a t i n g to younger age groups and p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r g i r l s below the age of 18 years. Currently the American A l l i a n c e f or Health, Physical Educa-r t i o n and Recreation l i s t s no test of cardiorespiratory f i t n e s s f or c h i l d r e n under 10 years of age (Krahenbuhl, Pangrazi, Burkett, Schneider and Petersen, 1977). Recently the B r i t i s h Columbia Physical Education Learning Assessment (1979) showed that v a l i d and r e l i a b l e tests to measure cardiorespiratory f i t n e s s were p r a c t i c a l l y non-existent for young child r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y young females. There are few studies i n t h i s area and the r e s u l t s are contradictory. More in f o r m a t i o n regarding t h i s problem i s necessary. ,B.- Statement of the Problem The purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e : 1. The v a l i d i t y of the 9 minute and 12 minute timed runs and the 1600 metre distance run as p r e d i c t o r s of peak oxygen uptake and t h e r e f o r e as measures of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i n g i r l s 8 to 11 years of age. 2. The r e l i a b i l i t y of the 9 minute and 12 minute timed runs and the 1600 metre d i s t a n c e run as measures of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y endurance. C. Hypotheses 1. The 9 minute and 12 minute timed runs and the 1600 metre d i s t a n c e run w i l l be v a l i d f i e l d measures of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i n g i r l s 8 to 11 years of age. (a) the performance of g i r l s 8 to 11 years of age on timed and distance runs i s r e l a t e d to peak oxygen uptake and i s t h e r e f o r e a p r e d i c t o r of peak oxygen uptake. (b) as the distance and time components of a run i n c r e a s e , the r e l a t i o n s h i p to peak oxygen uptake a l s o incresesy t h e r e f o r e ( i ) the 12 minute timed run w i l l have the highest c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h peak oxygen uptake (ml/kg. min); ( i i ) the 1600 metre d i s t a n c e run w i l l have the second highest c o r r e l a t i o n with peak oxygen uptake (ml/kg. min); ( i i i ) the 9 minute timed run w i l l have the lowest c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h peak oxygen uptake (ml/kg. min). 2. Both timed and distance runs, s p e c i f i c a l l y the 9 minute, the 12 minute and the 1600 metre run, are r e l i a b l e f i e l d measures of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i n g i r l s 8 to 11 years of age. Sub-Hypothesis 1. The c o r r e l a t i o n between two d i f f e r e n t timed or distance runs w i l l increase as the runs become closer i n the distance and the length of time spent running, therefore (a) the 12 minute timed run and the 1600 metre distance run w i l l have the highest c o r r e l a t i o n ; (b) the 1600 metre distance run and the 9 minute timed run w i l l have the second highest c o r r e l a t i o n ; (c) the 12 minute and the 9 minute timed runs w i l l have the lowest c o r r e l a t i o n . Limitations 1. The motivation of the subjects to perform i n each of the tests may a f f e c t t h e i r scores; 2. Weather changes may a f f e c t the performances of the subjects on any one day; 3. The condition of the f i e l d where the run i s to be conducted may a f f e c t the performance of the subjects; and 4. The a b i l i t y of each subject to understand and p r a c t i c e the concept of pacing may a f f e c t the scores. Delimitations 1. This study i s delimited to .8 to 11 year old g i r l s . 2. The subjects i n t h i s study are not representative of a random sample. D e f i n i t i o n s 1. Maximal Oxygen Uptake (max Vt^) ml/Kg.- min This measurement r e f e r s to the largest volume of oxygen uptake possible as determined by the e f f i c i e n c y and capacity of the heart, lungs and the blood v e s s e l s (the c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y system). Maximal oxygen uptake i s u s u a l l y expressed: i n m i l l i l i t r e s / kilogram-minute (ml/kg-min). C a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y F i t n e s s This can be defined as the a b i l i t y of the body to endure at a high metabolic l o a d i n g and i s a f f e c t e d by the e f f i c i e n c y of the oxygen transport system (the h e a r t , the lungs, the blood v e s s e l s ) i n sup-p l y i n g oxygen and removing matabolites from the body's c e l l s . The most s u i t a b l e measure of t h i s known to date i s maximal oxygen uptake (ml/kg-min).. Aerobic Working Capacity The word " a e r o b i c " means "with oxygen," t h e r e f o r e , aerobic working capacity can be considered to r e f l e c t the c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y c o n d i t i o n . Peak Oxygen Uptake Due to the controversy i n determining i f a subject has a c t u a l l y ob-t a i n e d h i s / h e r true maximal oxygen uptake the i n v e s t i g a t o r i n the present study has chosen to use peak oxygen uptake as the c r i t e r i o n measure. Peak oxygen uptake w i l l be defined as the highest oxygen uptake ob-ta i n e d by the subject over the l a s t two workloads of the t r e a d m i l l t e s t . V a l i d i t y The v a l i d i t y of a t e s t may be defined as the accuracy w i t h which the t e s t measures that which i t i s used to measure, or as the degree to which i t approaches i n f a l l i b i l i t y i n measuring that which i t purports to measure ( S a f r i t , 1973). A t e s t i s v a l i d f o r a p a r t i c u l a r purpose or i n a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n - i t i s not g e n e r a l l y v a l i d . - 4a -There are d i f f e r e n t types of v a l i d i t y , however i n t h i s study the i n v e s t i g a t o r was concerned w i t h c r i t e r i o n - r e l a t e d v a l i d i t y . - 5 -There are two types.of c r i t e r i o n - r e l a t e d v a l i d i t y : (a) P r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y P r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y i s the degree to which a c r i t e r i o n behar v i o u r i s p r e d i c t e d from p r e d i c t o r scores. A person's expected fu t u r e performance i s p r e d i c t e d from a t e s t and the usefulness of the t e s t score i s judged against the c r i t e r i o n . P r e d i c t o r s are t e s t s or v a r i a b l e s that p r e d i c t c r i t e r i o n behaviour ( S a f r i t , 1973). (b) Concurrent V a l i d i t y Concurrent V a l i d i t y i n v o l v e s the comparison of a given t e s t w i t h another t e s t that has an e s t a b l i s h e d v a l i d i t y but i s e x c e s s i v e l y time-consuming o r . c o s t l y to administer. The proven t e s t w i t h an e s t a b l i s h e d v a l i d i t y could be the c r i t e r i o n ( S a f r i t , 1973). 6. C r i t e r i o n A c r i t e r i o n i s a standard of judging that which i s a known and accepted measure of whatever the author wishes to t e s t . The c r i t e r i o n may be another t e s t which has proven i t s worth or i t may be some score determined s u b j e c t i v e l y such as that provided by a r a t i n g ( S a f r i t , 1973). The c r i t e r i o n i s the y a r d s t i c k against which the t e s t i n question i s to be measured. Therefore i t i s important that the c r i t e r i o n i s a p p r o p r i a t e . 7. R e l i a b i l i t y R e l i a b i l i t y r e f e r s to the p r e c i s i o n and consistency of a measure. The r e l i a b i l i t y of a t e s t r e f e r s to the d e p e n d a b i l i t y of scores, t h e i r r e l a t i v e freedom from e r r o r s . I t i s the tendency toward consistency e x h i b i t e d by a given i n d i v i d u a l ' s repeated performance of one behaviour. - 5a -A t e s t can be r e l i a b l e without being v a l i d , but a v a l i d t e s t must a l s o be - r e l i a b l e ; ( S a f r i t , 1973). In t h i s study the i n v e s t i g a t o r w i l l be concerned s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y . H. J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the Study Measurement i s an important component i n any school program. Measurements a l l o w a teacher to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups and to formulate goals and programs that w i l l meet the needs f o r each i n d i v i d u a l . a n d f o r each group. E v a l u a t i o n can help inform teachers of b e n e f i c i a l changes that occur f o r each,'.student and u l t i m a t e l y f o r s o c i e t y (Johnson and Nelson, 1974). S p e c i f i c a l l y c a r d i o -r e s p i r a t o r y t e s t s are important f o r : 1;. a s s e s s i n g the s t a t u s and improvement of students as they progress through-a p h y s i c a l education program; 2. screening students f o r p o s s i b l e c a r d i a c and/or r e s p i r a t o r y problems. I t i s important to n o t e . t h a t - t h i s should not be considered as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r a medical examination; and 3. use as an educational l e a r n i n g experience f o r the students i n v o l v e d i n the t e s t i n g . C a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y t e s t s can be very e f f e c t i v e f o r t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s and f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n that i s derived from the body's reactons to e x e r c i s e , s p e c i f i c a l l y the c i r c u l a t o r y , r e s p i r a t o r y and thermoregulation systems. I f s i g n i f i c t o t c o r r e l a t i o n s are obtained between peak oxygen uptake and the timed and d i s t a n c e runs the r e s u l t s of the present study w i l l be a p o s i t i v e step i n the development of a v a l i d f i e l d t e s t to measure c a r d i o -r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s , i n young g i r l s 8 to 11 years of age. In a d d i t i o n , the i n f o r m a t i o n and data obtained from t h i s t h e s i s w i l l - 5b -add t o the s c a n t body of knowledge p r e s e n t l y e x i s t i n g r e g a r d i n g the p h y s i o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s o f 8 t o 11 y e a r o l d g i r l s . - 6 -Chapter I I REVIEW OF LITERATURE A.- R a t i o n a l e f o r F i e l d Tests That Measure C a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y Capacity Canadians are becoming aware of the importance of being i n good p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n . This a t t i t u d e i s r e f l e c t e d i n the i n c r e a s i n g number of p a r t i c i -pants i n Young Men C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n (YMCA) and Young Women C h r i s t i a n (YWCA) programs, employee f i t n e s s , community centre and i n d i v i d u a l jogging programs. In recent y e a r s , p h y s i c a l education programs have a l s o r e f l e c t e d a renewed i n t e r e s t i n the development of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s (Jackson and Coleman, 1976). These concerns shown by the p u b l i c are due to a v a r i e t y of reasons I n c l u d i n g the p o p u l a r i t y of Cooper's Aerobic Program (1968) and the growing body.of s c i e n t i f i c research l i n k i n g endurance f i t n e s s t o h e a l t h and p h y s i o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g (Fox and Skinner, 1964). Health concerns such as coronary heart disease are major issues con-f r o n t i n g the medical p r o f e s s i o n and s o c i e t y as a whole. More Canadians die from heart disease than a l l other causes combined (B.C. Heart Foundation, excerpt from the Programme f o r F i t n e s s i n the 80's, 1980). I t i s now recognized that coronary heart disease, which r e s u l t s i n a r t e r i a l damage long before the f i r s t overt symptoms appear, i s mainly of p e d i a t r i c o r i g i n (Wilmore and McNamara, 1977; Krahenbuhl, Pangrazi, Petersen, Burkett and Schneider, 1978). . Several of the r i s k f a c t o r s f o r coronary heart disease have been i d e n t i f i e d i n adults and the incidence of these r i s k f a c t o r s i n c h i l d r e n has been s t u d i e d (Drash, 1972; Friedman, 1972; G i l l i a m , Katch, Thorland and Weitman, 1977; Kannel and Dawber, 1972; Lauer, Conner, Leaverton, R e i t e r and C l a r k , 1975). In f a c t , the prevalence of coronary heart disease r i s k f a c t o r s i n c h i l d r e n , 7 to 12 years of age, seems to be. q u i t e high (Krahenbuhl, Pangrazi, Petersen, Burkett and Schneider, 1978). According to Astrand and Rodahl (1970) 5 the t r a i n i n g and e f f i c i e n c y of the oxygen transport system i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important as: a r i s k r e d u c t i o n measure f o r coronary heart disease (Krahenbuhl, Pangrazi, Petersen, Burkett and Schneider, 1978). These renewed i n t e r e s t s i n h e a l t h concerns have been instrumental i n the improvement of measurement procedures to evaluate p h y s i c a l ' f i t n e s s s t a t u s . Exercise p h y s i o l o g i s t s agree that the best p h y s i o l o g i c a l measurement f o r determining one's c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y endurance or aerobic power i s maximal oxygen uptake, that i s , the maximal c a p a c i t y of the c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y system to take-up, t r a n s p o r t and give o f f oxygen to the t i s s u e s (Astrand and Rodahl, 1970; M i t c h e l l , Sproule and Chapman, 1958; Shephard, 1966; T a y l o r , B u s k i r k , and H e n s c h e l l , 1955). Some'people s t i l l question.the use of t h i s measurement" as a s u i t a b l e i n d i c a t i o n of one's c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s e . status (Cureton, B o i l e a u , Lohman and Misner, 1978). Nevertheless, c a r d i o -r e s p i r a t o r y endurance i s widely accepted'ks;' a" component of f i t n e s s .and f o r ; many people i t i s considered the most important ( G e t c h e l l , K i r k e n d a l l and Robbins, 1978). There have been s e v e r a l techniques developed f o r measuring maximal oxygen uptake. •<•' 'Moat' of these require- expensive" and' time consuming l a b o r a t o r y procedures which are not f e a s i b l e f o r mass t e s t i n g i n a p u b l i c s i t u a t i o n . Consequently, researchers have attempted to develop v a l i d f i e l d t e s t s that can p r e d i c t l a b o r a t o r y determined maximal oxygen consumption. B> ^Types of F i e l d Tests Generally f i e l d t e s t s to measure aerobic endurance have been e i t h e r step t e s t s , timed or distance runs. During World War I I , Brouha (1943) developed the Harvard Step Test as a f i e l d measure to p r e d i c t maximal oxygen uptake i n c o l l e g e aged men. This t e s t r e q u i r e d a subject to e x e r c i s e on a 20-inch bench at a cadence of 30 steps per minute f o r as long as p o s s i b l e , up to a maximum of 5 minutes. The - 8 -post e x e r c i s e pulse r a t e was recorded 3 times during recovery.: from 1 to 1.5 minutes, from 2 to 2,5 minutes and from 3 to 3.5 minutes. The sum of the pulse counts i n the three recovery periods and the time spent stepping measured i n seconds were a p p l i e d to a formula from which the index of p h y s i c a l e f f i c i e n c y was determined. Meyers (1969) reported r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of 0.77 f o r c o l l e g e aged males and 0.65 f o r grade 8 males using the Harvard Step Test. Metz and Alexander (1970) i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between various p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s t e s t items and maximal oxygen uptake "'in boy's 12 to 15 years o l d . A c o r r e l a t i o n of 0.54 was obtained between the Harvard Step Test and maximal oxygen uptake i n 30 of the boys, ages 12 to 13 years. This c o r r e l a t i o n decreased when the o l d e r boys, ages 14 to 15 years, were test e d (r =0.42). Both.of these c o r r e l a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . However, a 2 m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.70 or l a r g e r (r =.50 approximately) was accepted as the c r i t e r i o n f o r the es t i m a t i o n of maximal oxygen uptake.: This c r i t e r i o n was decided upon by the i n v e s t i g a t o r s so that no more than approximately 50% of the v a r i a b i l i t y would be unaccounted f o r . Consequently, s i n c e the r e g r e s s i o n equations f o r es t i m a t i n g maximal oxygen uptake from the Harvard Step Test score produced m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of 0.54 and 0.42, the Harvard Step Test was considered inadequate f o r e s t i m a t i n g maximal oxygen uptake. • • The Harvard Step Test was g e n e r a l l y c r i t i c i z e d f o r i t s strenuousness. r e s u l t i n g i n f a t i g u e and cramps i n the la r g e l e g muscles. As a r e s u l t of t h i s c r i t i c i s m , the Harvard Step Test was modified i n 1969 (Kurucz, Fox and Matthews, 1969) and renamed the Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y (0SU) Step Test. This t e s t u t i l i z e d a s p l i t l e v e l bench w i t h step heights of 15 and 20 inches, along w i t h a handbar. The t e s t c o n s i s t e d of three phases w i t h s i x innings i n each. An i n n i n g c o n s i s t e d of 30 seconds of stepping and a 20 second r e s t - 9 -per i o d d u ring which a 10 second pulse count was taken between the 5 to 15th second. Each of the three phases had a d i f f e r e n t workload: phase one - 6 innings a t 24 steps per minute on a 15 inch bench; phase two - 6 innings at 30 steps per minute on a 15 inch bench; phase three - 6 innings a t 30 steps per minute on a 20 i n c h bench. The t e s t .terminated at the end of the 18th i n n i n g (phase three) or whenever the pulse r a t e reached 150 beats per minute. This t e s t was developed f o r men between the ages of 18 and 60 years. A v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.94 was obtained w i t h the Balke T r e a d m i l l Test as the c r i t e r i o n measure. The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was 0.94. Cotten (1971) modified the Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y (OSU) Step Test f u r t h e r to make i t a p p l i c a b l e f o r high school p h y s i c a l education students. This t e s t was designed to be given on bleacher steps which are u s u a l l y 17 inches high. The t e s t procedures are i d e n t i c a l to the OSU Step Test except a 17 inch step was used, no handbar was required and the stepping cadence i n Phase three was 36 steps per minute. Cotten (1971) reported a v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.84 with the Balke T r e a d m i l l Test, using male students i n grades 9 to 12. The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l a i b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were 0.95 f o r male p h y s i c a l education majors, and 0.75 f o r male high school students, grades 9 to 12. Witten (1973) developed a step t e s t f o r c o l l e g e females between the ages of 18 to 22 years. The t e s t c o n s i s t e d of stepping f o r 30 seconds followed by a 20 second r e s t a t a cadence of 24 steps per minute on a 14 i n c h step and progressing to a cadence of 30 steps per minute on a 17 inch bench. The t e s t was scored by counting the number of innings r e q u i r e d to r a i s e the heart r a t e to 168 beats per minute. A v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.85 was obtained when the t e s t was c o r r e l a t e d to the Balke T r e a d m i l l Test. Martens (1978) compared four d i f f e r e n t f i e l d t e s t s to measure c a r d i o -v a s c u l a r f i t n e s s i n c h i l d r e n , grades 4 to 6. The four t e s t s , the one mile run, the 9 minute run, P h y s i c a l Work Capacity w i t h the heart r a t e at 170 - 10 -beats per minute and the A c t i o n B,C, Children's Aerobic Step Test, were i n t e r -c o r r e l a t e d f o r the t o t a l group of subjects and then i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d separately f o r both the boys and the g i r l s . The c o r r e l a t i o n between the 9 minute run and the 1 m i l e run was s i g n i f i c a n t (r =-0.834)' at the 0.001 l e v e l . The c o r r e l a t i o n between the step t e s t and the m i l e run was s i g n i f i c a n t (r =0,377) at the .05 l e v e l . However, t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n was not h i g h enough f o r p r e d i c t i v e purposes because i t l e f t approximately 80% of the v a r i a b i l i t y unaccounted f o r . The other c o r r e l a t i o n s between.the four t e s t s were not s i g n i f i c a n t . Although the f o u r f i e l d t e s t s were not v a l i d a t e d w i t h maximal oxygen uptake, Martens (1978) concluded that s i n c e the 9 minute run had been shown i n previous studies to be a v a l i d c a r d i o v a s c u l a r t e s t f o r t h i s age group, both the 9 minute run and the 1 m i l e run ( c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the 9 minute run, r =0.834) were v a l i d c a r d i o -v a s c u l a r t e s t s f o r elementary school c h i l d r e n . Martens (1978) s t a t e d f u r t h e r that both the P h y s i c a l . Work Capacity (PWC-170) and the A c t i o n B.C. Step Test were not v a l i d or r e l i a b l e c a r d i o v a s c u l a r t e s t s f o r elementary school c h i l d r e n when the 9 minute run was used as the c r i t e r i o n of c a r d i o v a s c u l a r f i t n e s s . From the data presented i t appears that r e s u l t s from the Harvard Step Test and m o d i f i c a t i o n s of i t become l e s s r e l i a b l e and l e s s c o n s i s t e n t as the ages of the subjects decrease. The sources of e r r o r and i n c o n s i s t e n c y appear to e x i s t mainly i n the counting of pulses and the i n a b i l i t y of the subjects to maintain the cadence and.proper stepping a c t i o n . Due to the l i m i t e d number of s u b j e c t s that can p a r t i c i p a t e at one time (equipment) and the number of a s s i s t a n t s needed to ensure proper technique and pulse counting, the step t e s t does not appear to be the most, e f f i c i e n t f i e l d t e s t to measure c a r d i o -r e s p i r a t o r y endurance i n a mass t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n . A l s o the data a v a i l a b l e u s i n g t h i s type of t e s t on young c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y young g i r l s , i s non-e x i s t e n t . Since Balke's work i n 1963, walkr-run t e s t s f o r distance have been the f i e l d t e s t s most o f t e n recommended (Jackson and Coleman, 1976). - 11 -Balke (1963) reported the existence of a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between running v e l o c i t i e s and oxygen requirements when expressed per u n i t of body weight. The oxygen cost of running speeds has compared w e l l w i t h maximal oxygen uptake values when the distance runs were 10 to 20 minutes i n dur a t i o n . This r e l a t i o n s h i p was r e i n f o r c e d by f i n d i n g s i n f u r t h e r s t u d i e s which i n v o l v e d prolonged running (over 10 minutes) and r e s u l t e d i n high c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h maximal oxygen uptake. Cooper (1968) reported a c o r r e l a t i o n of r =0.897 between a 12 minute distance run and maximal oxygen uptake i n males ages 17 to 52 years. Using a rank order c o r r e l a t i o n , D o o l i t t l e and Bigbee (1968) obtained a c o r r e l a t i o n of r =0.90 f o r nine grade 9 boys using the 12 minute run. Burke (1976) reported a s i m i l a r c o r r e l a t i o n of r=0.90 between the 12 minute run and=maximal oxygen uptake f o r males, ages 17 to 30 years. Gregory (1970) obtained a c o r r e l a t i o n of r =0.66 f o r c o l l e g e age males when comparing the 12 minute run to maximal oxygen uptake. Kearney and Byrnes (1974) i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between running performance and p r e d i c t e d maximal oxygen uptake i n male p h y s i c a l education majors. C o r r e l a t i o n . c o e f f i c i e n t s were obtained f o r three d i f f e r e n t d i s t a nce runs i n c l u d i n g a c o r r e l a t i o n of r=0.30 f o r a h a l f m ile run and a c o r r e l a t i o n of r =-0.59 f o r a 1 m i l e run and a c o r r e l a t i o n of r=0.64 f o r a 12 minute run. Katch (1970, 1972) conducted two d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between running performance and maximal oxygen uptake. In the f i r s t study (1970), a comparison between the 12 minute run and maximal oxygen uptake was i n v e s t i g a t e d i n c o l l e g e age males, r e s u l t i n g i n a c o r r e l a t i o n of r=0.54. I n the second study (1972), using the same age group, a comparison between a 2 m i l e run and maximal oxygen uptake revealed a c o r r e l a t i o n of r =0.55. Wiley and Shaver (1972) conducted a s i m i l a r study r e p o r t i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s of r =-0.43 and r =-0.47 between maximal oxygen uptake and 2 and 3 m i l e runs, r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n c o l l e g e men. - 12 -R i b i s l and Kachadorian (1969) obtained c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r = ^0.79 between maximal oxygen uptake,and a 1 m i l e run and r=-0.85 between maximal oxygen uptake and a 2 m i l e run i n c o l l e g e males. A c o r r e l a t i o n of r =-0.86 was reported between maximal oxygen uptake and a 2 m i l e run when using middle age : men as s u b j e c t s . The c o r r e l a t i o n s reported i n the R i b i s l and Kachadorian (1969) study were higher than the c o r r e l a t i o n s obtained by Wiley and Shaver (1972). For a 2 m i l e run, Wiley and Shaver (1972) reported r =-0.43 compared to a c o r r e l a t i o n of r=-0.85 reported by R i b i s l and Kachadorian (1969) f o r the same age group. The Wiley and Shaver (1972) study used untrained men as subjects whereas R i b i s l and'Kachadorian (1969) used t r a i n e d , conditioned men who were experienced i n long d i s t a n c e running. A c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p has been ; shown between maximal oxygen uptake and performance i n endurance running events f o r t r a i n e d a t h l e t e s ( C o s t i l l , Thomason and Roberts, 1973). Daniels (1974) supported these f i n d i n g s f o r runners and Foster and Daniels (1975) noted, s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t r a i n e d c y c l i s t s . C; The V a l i d i t y of Short Distance versus Long Distance Running Tests The s h o r t e r distance runs such as the 600 yard walk-run t e s t used by the American A s s o c i a t i o n of Heal t h , P h y s i c a l Educaton and Recreation (AAHPER), e x h i b i t s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h maximal oxygen uptake, but have a r e l a t i v e l y low v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t when compared to the longer running events. F a l l s , I s m a i l and MacLeod (1966) and Olree, Stevens, Nelson, Agnevik and Clark,(1965) have i n v e s t i g a t e d : the v a l i d i t y of estimatingimaximal oxygen uptake from the AAHPER Youth F i t n e s s Test items. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s obtained f o r p r e d i c t i n g maximal oxygen uptake from the 600 yard run times were r=0.64 ( F a l l s , I s m a i l and MacLeod, 1966) and r = 0.53 (Olree, Stevens, Nelson, Agnevik and C l a r k , 1965). Vodak and Wilmore (1974) s t u d i e d the v a l i d i t y of a 6 minute jog-walk and the 600 yard run-walk i n e s t i m a t i n g - 13 -endurance c a p a c i t y i n boys 9 to 12 years of age. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t obtained f o r the 600 yard run time and maximal oxygen uptake was r=0.50 w h i l e a c o r r e l a t i o n o f . r =0.49 was reported f o r the 6 minute jog-walk. D o o l i t t l e and Bigbee (1968) reported a c o r r e l a t i o n of r=0.62 between the 600 yard run and maximal oxygen uptake f o r adolescent boys. A c o r r e l a t i o n of r=0.66 was obtained f o r 12 and 13 year o l d c h i l d r e n w h i l e a c o r r e l a t i o n of r=0.27 was obtained f o r the ol d e r 14 and 15 year o l d c h i l d r e n . The r e s u l t s from these s t u d i e s suggest that t e s t runs of a short d u r a t i o n (such as the 600 yard run) measure aerobic c a p a c i t y to some extent, but other f a c t o r s such as the running speed and general a t h l e t i c s k i l l are a l s o measured i n t h i s type of t e s t ( G e t c h e l l , K i r k e n d a l l and Robbins, 1978). In a d d i t i o n , some f a c t o r a n a l y t i c s t u d i e s by Disch, Frankiewicz and Jackson (1975) and Jackson and Coleman (1976) have i l l u s t r a t e d that runs of 800 metres or 6 minutes and l e s s i n d u r a t i o n c l u s t e r w i t h t e s t s of running speed and running endurance. Distance runs of at l e a s t one m i l e and runs l a s t i n g f o r more than 9 minutes were found to form a distance run f a c t o r (Morrow, Jackson and B e l l , 1978). These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that a common source of v a r i a t i o n u n d e r l i e s measures of long distance running which i s d i f f e r e n t from short distance, runs. Jackson and Coleman (1976) examined the construct v a l i d i t y , that i s , the va r i a n c e s t r u c t u r e of va r i o u s distance run t e s t s (50 yard, 3 minute, 6 minute, 9 minute and.12 minute runs) using alpha f a c t o r a n a l y s i s and canon i c a l f a c t o r a n a l y s i s followed by a varimax r o t a t i o n to an orthogonal s o l u t i o n . Both the alpha and .'canonical:'; f a c t o r a n a l y s i s supported the use of 9 and 12 minute runs as f i e l d t e s t s f o r elementary school boys and g i r l s . One f a c t o r was recovered w i t h the 50 yard run and the 3 minute run and a second f a c t o r was i s o l a t e d w i t h the 9 and 12 minute runs. The 6 minute run was complex and e x h i b i t e d s u b s t a n t i a l loadings on both f a c t o r s . Concurrent v a l i d i t y of the 9 and 12 minute runs was estimated using maximal oxygen uptake as the c r i t e r i a . The study concluded that both, the 9 and 12 minute run t e s t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h maximal oxygen uptake. However, running the a d d i t i o n a l 3 minutes i n the 12 minute run t e s t d i d not s i g n i f i -c a n t l y improve the concurrent v a l i d i t y . Consequently, the data supported the use of a 9 minute run t e s t w i t h elementary school boys and g i r l s . This study a l s o i n d i c a t e d that d i s t a n c e runs provided a r e l i a b l e f a c t o r to measure distance running a b i l i t y . Martens (1978) study, as mentioned e a r l i e r , compared four d i f f e r e n t f i e l d t e s t s to~measure c a r d i o v a s c u l a r f i t n e s s i n c h i l d r e n , grades 4 to 6. The r e s u l t s of the study concluded that both the 9 minute run and the one m i l e run were v a l i d c a r d i o v a s c u l a r t e s t s f o r elementary school c h i l d r e n . Krahenbuhl, P a n g r a z i , Petersen,.' Burkett.and Schneider, (1978) stud i e d f i e l d t e s t i n g of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i n primary school c h i l d r e n and concluded that' the r e l a t i o n s h i p of maximal oxygen uptake w i t h performance on a timed run improved as the d i s t a n c e of the run increased f o r both males and females. The 1200 metre and the 1600 metre d i s t a n c e runs were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to maximal oxygen uptake. Di- -Factors Affecting'Running Performance Aerobic working ca p a c i t y has been shown t o increase w i t h age up to approximately 20 years (Astrand, 1970;). Since distance running performance i s known to-be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h aerobic working c a p a c i t y , onewould expect to f i n d improvements i n running a b i l i t y as a f u n c t i o n of age. G i l l i a m , Sady, Thor-land and Weltman (1978) found that as c h r o n o l o g i c a l age increases from 6. to 13 years, c h i l d r e n have a greater a b i l i t y to consume more oxygen. These d i f f e r e n c e s among age groups do not e x i s t when body weight i s taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Astrand (1976) reported a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n peak oxygen consumption (ml/Kg B.W.) from ages 6 to 8 years f o r both sexes and a l e v e l l i n g o f f from ages 8 to 14 f o r boys and a decrease, f o r g i r l s . - 15 -During puberty, boys, due to an increase i n the l e v e l of testosterone i n the blood, tend to i n c r e a s e the proportion, of muscle to f a t , w h i l e g i r l s , due to an i n c r e a s e i n the l e v e l s of estrogen and progesterone i n the blood, tend to i n c r e a s e the proportion, of f a t to muscle. Fat i s m e t a b o l i c a l l y i n e r t and noncontributory during heavy work compared to muscle which i s m e t a b o l i c a l l y a c t i v e and c o n t r i b u t o r y during heavy work. Consequently, a higher p r o p o r t i o n of muscle/fat would r e s u l t i n a higher metabolic r a t e and oxygen use. Peak oxygen consumption appears to develop p r o p o r t i o n a l l y to the development of body mass. Cureton, B o i l e a u , Lohman and Misner (1978) conclude that low maximal oxygen uptake (ml/Kg B.W.-min) and poor distance running performance due to excess body f a t was not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t i v e of poor c a r d i o v a s c u l a r r e s p i r a t o r y f u n c t i o n due to i n a c t i v i t y or pathology. C a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y capacity was only one important determinant of distance running performance and v a r i a t i o n s i n the a b i l i t y to run f a s t , body fatness and body s i z e were other important determinants i n d i s t a n c e running t e s t s . Cureton, B o i l e a u , Lohman and'Misner (1978) suggested that i t was important to d i s t i n g u i s h between the metabolic i n f l u e n c e of per cent f a t on prolonged running per-formance (which i n f l u e n c e i s p r i m a r i l y to increase the energy cost of running at a given speed) and the c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y c a p a c i t y (as i n d i c a t e d by the aerobic capacity expressed r e l a t i v e to the appropriate reference standard of a c t i v e muscle mass) because the two have d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n s . Morrow, Jackson and B e l l (1978) reported that distance run performance did not improve c o n s i s t e n t l y : w i t h age. The 12 minute run performance f o r g i r l s showed that the decrease i n performance as a f u n c t i o n of age could be due to body composition. As the g i r l s were g e t t i n g older t h e i r body mass index (BMI) was i n c r e a s i n g , which suggests that'they were ga i n i n g higher - 16 -amounts of f a t weight i n p r o p o r t i o n to t o t a l weight. (The BMI i s a measure of r e l a t i v e weight and has been found to have a high c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h weight and a d i p o s i t y , but a low c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h height.) This apparent change i n body composition appeared to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the decreased running per-formance and suggests that the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s l e v e l of the g i r l s was decreasing. E.- .Research Conducted : Oh Young Female C h i l d r e n Due to the s p a r s i t y of data on young c h i l d r e n many p u b l i c schools have gen e r a l i z e d the f i n d i n g s obtained.from.research on a d u l t populations to elementary school age populations. This p r a c t i s e of g e n e r a l i z i n g r e s u l t s v i o l a t e s ^he b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of. r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . Tests that are v a l i d and r e l i a b l e f o r one populaton may or may not be v a l i d and r e l a i b l e f o r other populations (Jackson;.and Coleman, 1976). The American A l l i a n c e f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l Education and R e c r e a t i o n (Hunsicker and. R e i f f , 1976).currently l i s t s no t e s t of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s f o r c h i l d r e n under 10. years.of age. Since coronary heart disease r i s k f a c t o r s commonly appear i n childhood i t would be d e s i r a b l e to develop a t e s t of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s f o r c h i l d r e n . Since c h i l d r e n develop and mature at d i f f e r e n t r a t e s during the growing years I t i s extremely important that studies are conducted w i t h s p e c i f i c age and sex groups. As mentioned e a r l i e r , the p h y s i c a l work capacity of c h i l d r e n has been reported, to increase s i g n i f i c a n t l y (as much as ei g h t times) from ages 6 through 13 ( G i l l i a m , Sady, Thorland and Weltman, 1978; Adams, 1973). Consequently, data from a s l i g h t l y o l d e r group may not adequately represent the younger groups of c h i l d r e n . The few studies that have been conducted on young c h i l d r e n suggest that r e l i a b l e measurements of both d i s t a n c e run performance (Jackson and Coleman, 1976; Krahenbuhl, Pangrazi, B u r k e t t , Schneider and Petersen, 1977; - 17 -Krahenbuhl, Pangrazi, Petersen, Burkett and Schneider, 1978) and maximal oxygen uptake (Cunningham, MacFarlane Van Waterschoot, Paterson, Lefcoe and Sangal, 1977; Wilmore and S i g e r s e t h , 1967) are p o s s i b l e . Furthermore, previous s t u d i e s have shown that the r e s u l t s of di s t a n c e run t e s t s provide a u s e f u l index of r e l a t i v e c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i f the s u b j e c t s ' experience and s k i l l are s i m i l a r (Krahenbuhl, P a n g r a z i , Petersen, Burkett and Schneider, 1978; Cumming, 1971; G u t i n , Fogle and Steward, 1976; Metz and Alexander, 1970). - 18 -Chapter I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURES A. I n t r o d u c t i o n The data f o r t h i s study were c o l l e c t e d at two d i f f e r e n t schools over a two year p e r i o d . To c l a r i f y the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the subjects the s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d 'Subjects' w i l l be d i v i d e d i n two p a r t s . The methods and procedures f o r both groups of subjects were i d e n t i c a l , t h e r e f o r e the d e s c r i p t i o n w i l l be s t a t e d once. B. Procedures 1. Subjects (a) Group I Forty subjects i n grades 4 and 5 who were between the ages of 8 to 11 years at Crofton House School, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, were asked to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study during May, 1979. (b) Group I I Twenty subjects i n grades 3,4 and 5 who were between the ages of 8 to 11 years at St. P a t r i c k ' s Elementary School, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, were asked to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s study during A p r i l , 1980. The i n i t i a l contact f o r the study was done by personal appearance, f o l -lowed by a l e t t e r and a consent form to the parents of the c h i l d r e n who wished to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study. P a r e n t a l consent and medical clearance were ob-tained f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . Each subject was informed v e r b a l l y of the exact nature of the tasks she was expected to perform, i . e . , a 9 minute, a 12 minute, and a 1600 metre run, a maximal oxygen uptake t r e a d m i l l t e s t along w i t h measures of h e i g h t , weight and bddy f a t assessment. 2. T e s t i n g Procedures The t e s t i n g procedures w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o two stages. - 19 -(a) Stage 1 A l l of the t e s t i n g i n t h i s stage was conducted at the two schools, Crofton House and St. P a t r i c k ' s Elementary School. During the two weeks p r i o r to the a c t u a l t e s t i n g , the subjects p r a c t i s e d running f o r approximately 10 minutes at the beginning of four p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s . The concept of pacing was explained to the c h i l d r e n before each p r a c t i s e run. A pacer ran w i t h the c h i l d r e n and emphasized the concept of paced running. The f i e l d t e s t runs were conducted i n the two week p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g the two weeks> p r a c t i s e runs. The subjects were test e d on three distance runs i n c l u d i n g 9 minutes,,12 minutes, and 1600 metre runs. A l l of the runs were conducted during school hours and, where p o s s i b l e , i n p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s . At the end of the two week t e s t i n g p e r i o d , one p h y s i c a l education c l a s s was devoted to r e t e s t i n g the students from Crofton House i n the 9 minute, the 12 minute and the 1600 metre distance runs. (b) . Stage 2 A l l of the t e s t i n g i n t h i s stage was conducted at the J.M. Buchanan F i t n e s s and Research Centre, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Each student attended one t e s t i n g s e s s i o n l a s t i n g approximately one hour. Four measures were obtained at t h i s time; peak oxygen uptake, h e i g h t , weight and body f a t assessment. 3. T e s t i n g P r o t o c o l s As s t a t e d i n the review of l i t e r a t u r e , the use of step t e s t s w i t h c h i l d r e n has not been very s u c c e s s f u l , t h e r e f o r e i n t h i s study timed and distance runs were chosen as f i e l d t e s t s . The 12 minute timed run was chosen because Balke (1963) o r i g i n a l l y reported that a run l a s t i n g 12 to 15 minutes was needed to tax the c a r d i -- 19a -r e s p i r a t o r y system to I n d i c a t e how these body systems reached and adjusted to being placed under a metabolic workload. Distance runs of a s h o r t e r length were thought to r e l y too h e a v i l y on running a b i l i t y and s k i l l r a t h e r than the a b i l i t y , of the. oxygen t r a n s p o r t system t o do work. Further researchlsby Cooper (1968) i n t h i s area has shown the 12 minute run to be a s u i t a b l e length as a f i e l d t e s t f o r a d u l t s . The 9 minute timed run. and the. 1600 metre d i s t a n c e run have been used r e c e n t l y i n s t u d i e s f o r elementary and h i g h school age boys. Reasonably high c o r r e l a t i o n s have been reported between these runs and maximal oxygen uptake (ml/kg-min). In view of the above i n f o r m a t i o n , three runs were chosen as f i e l d t e s t s : the 9 minute timed run, the 12 minute timed run and the 1600 metre distance run. (a) Timed Distance Runs Each student performed distance runs of 9 minutes, 12 minutes, and 1600 metres. The distance runs were performed on a two hundred metre grass track marked o f f i n f i v e metre gradations by orange parking cones. A l l of the runs were s t a r t e d and f i n i s h e d w i t h the blow of a w h i s t l e . - 20 -The subj ects were d i v i d e d by grades i n i t i a l l y and then each grade was d i v i d e d i n t o two groups, w i t h 10 subjects i n each. The order of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the running tests'were randomly assigned to each of the groups. One group ran at a time w h i l e the other group acted as s p e c t a t o r s . Each subject was i d e n t i f i e d by a coloured numbered b i b . There was one lap counter/timer f o r every three s u b j e c t s . Verbal encouragement was given to each subject by both the lap counters and the classmates who were i n the spectator group. . The d i s t a n c e covered i n both the 9 minute and the 12 Lu minute runs were recorded, to the nearest metre. The time f o r the 1600 metre run was recorded to the nearest second. <(b) R e t e s t i n g the Distance Runs i ) Group I : Crofton House School F i f t e e n Grade 4 and f i f t e e n Grade 5 g i r l s were randomly s e l e c t e d to be r e t e s t e d on the three distance runs. The f i f t e e n g i r l s i n each grade were d i v i d e d i n t o three groups of f i v e g i r l s each. Each group was r e t e s t e d on one of the distance runs. This gave a t o t a l of ten r e t e s t scores on each of the three distance runs. i i ) Group I I : St. P a t r i c k ' s Elementary School I t was deemed not necessary to r e t e s t the subjects due to the small number of s u b j e c t s . '(c) Peak Oxygen Uptake P r i o r to the a c t u a l t r e a d m i l l t e s t , the subjects p r a c t i s e d g e t t i n g on and o f f the t r e a d m i l l , as w e l l as walking and running at v a r i o u s speeds and grades on the t r e a d m i l l . Each subject was given two p r a c t i s e s of approximately f i v e to ten minutes each. The e x e r c i s e t e s t c o n s i s t e d of a three minute warm-up walking at zero per cent grade, followed by a two minute r e s t . The subject then ran at 4.5 m.p.h. at three per cent grade. Throughout the t e s t the speed was h e l d - 21 -constant w i t h three per cent grade increments every three minutes u n t i l v o l u n t a r y f a t i g u e . P r i o r to the warm-up, the subject was connected to a Cardioguard 4000 Electrocardiogram machine.. Three elect r o d e s were attached to the su b j e c t s ' s k i n at three d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s : i ) , r i g h t m i d a x i l l a r y l i n e a t the l e v e l of the f i t h i n t e r c o s t a l ; i i ' ) d i r e c t l y over the manubrium; and i i i ) l e f t m i d a x i l l a r y l i n e over a r i b . These electrodes were plugged i n t o the Electrocardiogram (ECG) v i a a b e l t worn around the subject's w a i s t . A r e s t i n g ECG was obtained w h i l e the subject was v e r b a l l y informed, of the exact procedure of the t e s t . The warm-up f o r the e x e r c i s e t e s t consisted of walking at 3.5 m.p.h. on the t r e a d m i l l at zero per cent grade f o r three, minutes. During t h i s time the heart r a t e was recorded and the ECG t r a c i n g monitored. Following the warm-up, the subject was given a two minute r e s t w h i l e the breathing apparatus was connected. The tubing that c o l l e c t e d the exhaled a i r was fed i n t o a Beckman. Metabolic Measurement, Cart which analyzed the per cent oxygen, per cent carbon d i o x i d e , and oxygen uptake i n m i l l i l i t r e s . This i n f o r m a t i o n was simultaneously fed i n t o a computer which tabulated the r e s u l t s every f i f t e e n seconds throughout the e x e r c i s e t e s t , c o o r d i n a t i n g the time, the speed of the t r e a d m i l l , the grade of the t r e a d m i l l , the heart r a t e , the volume of oxygen, the volume of carbon d i o x i d e , oxygen p u l s e , r e s p i r a t o r y q u o t i e n t , v e n t i l a t i o n r a t e , per cent oxygen and per cent carbon d i o x i d e . A f t e r the r e s t p e r i o d , the grade of the t r e a d m i l l was increased to three per cent: and the subject s t a r t e d walking on the t r e a d m i l l . Gradually the speed was increased to four and one-half (4.5) m.p.h. at which p o i n t the time c l o c k s t a r t e d . Throughout the r e s t of the t e s t the speed was hel d constant w i t h three per cent grade increments every three minutes u n t i l - 22 -voluntary f a t i g u e . Since the subjects were e x e r c i s i n g t o exhaustion, the peak oxygen.uptake was taken to be the maximal oxygen uptake. Other c r i t e r i a such as the r e s p i r a t o r y - q u o t i e n t approaching a value of 1.0, a pla t e a u i n both the oxygen uptake and the heart r a t e were a l s o used to decide i f the subject had i n f a c t reached maximal oxygen uptake (Cunningham, MacFarlane Van Waterschoot, Paterson, Lefcoe and Sangal, 1977). (d) Anthropometric Measures The height measures were taken to the nearest centimetre and the weight measures were taken to the nearest 0.5 kilogram on a Detecto Weight Scale. The body, f a t measures were.taken a t four body s i t e s , the b i c e p s , t h e . t r i c e p s ; subscapular and s u p r a i l i a c . These measures were then s u b s t i t u t e d i n t o a formula derived by Durnin and Rahaman (1967) . The s k i n f o l d c a l i p e r s were manufactured by Harpenden. C. S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s and. Research Design 1. V a l i d i t y The BMD P2R Computer Program was used to determine the degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p between the seven independent v a r i a b l e s and the c r i t e r i o n or dependent v a r i a b l e t e s t e d i n t h i s study. The seven independent v a r i a b l e s included age, h e i g h t , weight, percentage body f a t , 9 minute run, the 12 minute run and the 1600 metre run. Peak oxygen uptake.(inl/kg-min) was chosen as the dependent, c r i t e r i o n measure. The means and standard d e v i a t i o n s of the v a r i a b l e s were c a l c u l a t e d . A zero order c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x was obtained t o i n v e s t i g a t e the i n t e r r e l a t i o n -ship between a l l the v a r i a b l e s when no v a r i a b l e s were h e l d constant. The data was a l s o entered i n t o both forward and backward stepwise m u l t i p l e l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n analyses.to select, the v a r i a b l e s and subsequent r e g r e s s i o n equations that provided the optimal p r e d i c t i o n of peak oxygen uptake. P a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s of the v a r i a b l e s were obtained through t h i s process. - 23 -To determine the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the c o r r e l a t i o n s the n u l l hypothesis was a p p l i e d . In a p p l y i n g the n u l l hypothesis, the amount of c o r r e l a t i o n needed f o r r e j e c t i o n at a given l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e was determined. In t h i s case the n u l l hypothesis sta t e d that the p o p u l a t i o n n i s i n f a c t zero, and any c o r r e l a t i o n obtained was due to sampling, e r r o r . A t a b l e was used to o b t a i n r values needed to r e j e c t the n u l l hypothesis at the .05 and .01 l e v e l s of s i g n i f i c a n c e . The sample s i z e was very important i n the s i g n i f i c a n c e of c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ; the s m aller the sample s i z e (and t h e r e f o r e the degrees of freedom) , the higher the c o r r e l a t i o n must be f o r i t to be s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 and .01 l e v e l s . Consequently, any d i s -c u s s i o n of c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s as being h i g h or low are meaningless without reference to the c o r r e l a t i o n needed f o r the number of subjects which the c o r r e l a t i o n was based on. (Clarke and C l a r k e , 1970, p. 230). Table I shows the required r values when n =20 and df =18, to reach s i g n i f i c a n c e at the .05 l e v e l and the .01 l e v e l . Table 1 Required C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s to Reach S i g n i f i c a n c e at the .05 and .01 Levels Degress of Freedom (n-2) Levels of S i g n i f i c a n c e .05 .01 18 .444 .561 n =20 Taken from: Clarke and C l a r k e , p. 231, Table 19. 2. R e l i a b i l i t y The SIMCORT Computer Program (U.B.C.) was used to determine the - 24 -t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (r) between T r i a l 1 and T r i a l 2 on each of the timed and distance runs; the 9 minute, the 12 minute and the 1600 metre run. In addition, the r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y of the mean scores of the 9 minute, 12 minute and 1600 metre runs achieved i n T r i a l l i a n d T r i a l 2 were determined by a two t a i l e d t test for correlated means. Table 2 shows the value r must be when n =10 and degrees of freedom = 8 to reach s i g n i f i c a n c e at the .05 and .01 l e v e l s . Table 3 shows the value t must be when n =10 and degrees of freedom = 9 to reach s i g n i f i c a n c e at the .05 and .01 l e v e l s . Table 2 Required Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s at the .05 and .01 Levels of Significance Degrees of Freedom (n-2) Levels of .05 Significance .01 8 .632 .765 ri =10 Table 3 Required t Values to at the .05 and Reach Significance .01 Levels Degrees of Freedom (n-1) Levels of .05 Significance .01 9 2.26 3.25 n =10 - 25 -Chapter IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The purpose of t h i s study was twofold: 1. to determine the.degree of v a l i d i t y of timed and di s t a n c e runs, the 9 minute, the 12 minute and the 1600 metre runs, as p r e d i c t o r s of peak oxygen uptake as determined by a maximal t r e a d m i l l t e s t ; 2. to determine the t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y of the three d i s t a n c e runs. A. D e s c r i p t i v e Data S i x t y female subjects e n r o l l e d at Crofton House School and St. P a t r i c k ' s Elementary School i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study. A l l of the subjects were e n r o l l e d i n grades f o u r , f i v e and s i x at the two schools. The data was c o l l e c t e d over a 1 year period from May 1979 to June 1980. Forty of the s i x t y subjects were from Crofton House School and fourteen of these subjects (35%) completed a l l the t e s t s . . The remaining twenty subjects'.were from St. P a t r i c k ' s Elementary School and seven of these su b j e c t s (35%) completed a l l the t e s t s g i v i n g a t o t a l of twenty-one subjects w i t h complete data. Three-quarters of the subjects with incomplete data (n=29) did not r e c e i v e p a r e n t a l consent f o r the maximal oxygen uptake t e s t i n g and one-quarter of the subjects (n =10) were unable to attend some of the f i e l d t e s t i n g sessions due to various reasons. The b a s i c d e s c r i p t i v e data f o r the sub j e c t s w i t h complete data i s summarized.in Table 4. The age range of the sub j e c t s v a r i e d from eight to eleven years w i t h an average age of ten years. The mean weight of the subjects was 34.5 kilograms w i t h an average of 24 per cent or 8.35 kilograms of body f a t . The s u b j e c t s ranged from 18.3 to 33.4 percentage body f a t and from 27.0 to 49.2 kilograms of body weight. • - 26 -B. Results 1. V a l i d i t y As seen i n the c o r r e l a t i o n matrix there was a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between age and weight (r =.44, p <0.05), age and height ( r =.60, p <0.01), weight and height (r -.69, p <0.01) and weight and percentage body f a t (r = .78 p<0.01). The average value f o r peak oxygen uptake was 1.6499 1/min-, w i t h values - ranging from \ 1.446 to 1. 8195'•1/min.-. .The c r i t e r i a used i n " determining: peak oxygen uptake included heart r a t e , v e n t i l a t i o n , r e s p i r a t o r y quotient and the presence of a p l a t e a u . i n oxygen uptake values over the l a s t two workloads of the t r e a d m i l l t e s t . I t should be noted that peak oxygen uptake was chosen as the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e r a t h e r than maximal oxygen uptake. Therefore the highest oxygen uptake value obtained by the subject i n additon to the other c r i t e r i a mentioned e a r l i e r , was chosen as the peak oxygen uptake. The mean heart r a t e , r e s p i r a t o r y quotient and v e n t i l a t i o n values a t t a i n e d at peak oxygen uptake were 203 beats per minute, 0.89 and 58.16 1/min (BTPS), r e s p e c t i v e l y . The average distance run i n the 9 minute run was 1598 metres, w i t h a range from 1290 to 1945 metres. In the 12 minute run the average d i s t a n c e covered was, 2022.8 metres w i t h a range from 1650 to 2566 metres. The amount of time.taken to run the 1600 metres ranged from 424 seconds or 7 minutes and 6 seconds to 754 seconds or 12 minutes and 56 seconds w i t h a mean time of 565.86 seconds or 9 minutes and 43 seconds. The highest c o r r e l a t i o n was found between the 9 minute run and peak oxygen uptake (ml/kg-min), r =.82. This was followed by percentage body f a t and peak oxygen.-uptake (ml/kg-min), r =-.79, the 1600 metre run and peak oxygen uptake (ml/kg-min), r=-.75 and f i n a l l y the 12 minute run and peak oxygen uptake (ml/kg-min), r = .73. - 27 -Table 4 D e s c r i p t i v e Data of the Subjects (n=21) V a r i a b l e Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n Age (months) 121.86 7.11 Age (years) 10.1 .60 Height (cm) 138.91 6.09 Weight (kg) 34.54 6.37 Percentage Body Fat 24.23 4.38 Peak V0 2 (ml'kg - 1'min" 1) 48.58 7.86 Peak V0 2 ( l ' m i n - 1 ) 1.6499 0.2505 Heart Rate (bpm"at peak VO )•' 203 RQ (at peak VOp 0.89 R.E.R. 0.93 V^ (BTPS)(1 min" 1) Ei 58.16 9 minute run (metres) 1598.1 188.1 12 minute run (metres) 2022.8 264.8 1600 metre run (seconds) 565.86 85.7 1600 metre run (minutes) 9 min. 43 sec. 1.43 The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between the three timed/distance runs were s i g n i f i c a n t l y high w i t h the 9 minute run and the 1600 metre run e x h i b i t i n g the highest r e l a t i o n s h i p , r=-.90, accounting f o r 81% of the v a r i a n c e . The 1600 metre run and the 12 minute run ranked second w i t h a c o r r e l a t i o n of r=-.87, accounting f o r 79% of the var i a n c e . The lowest i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n was between the 9 minute run and the 12 minute run w i t h r =.79, accounting f o r 69% of the v a r i a n c e . Table 5 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x V a r i a b l e s Age Weight Height %Body Fat V0 2(ml) 9 min 12 min 1600 V 0 2 ( l i t e r s ) Age- 1.000 Weight 0.4384 1.000 Height 0.60l'6b-; 0.6935 b 1.000 % Body Fat 0.0665 0.7765 b ' 0.1819 1.000 V0 2 (ml) 0.0850 -0.6116 b -0.1500 -0.7934 b 1.000 9 minute 0.0505 • -0.5495 a -0.1164 -0.7702 b. 0.8179 b 1.000 12 minute 0.1891 -0.5079 a 0.0734 ; 40.7540 b ; 0.7307 b 0.7877 b 1. 000 1600 metre -0.2239 +0.4670* -0.0984 > +0.7431 b' -0.7465 b -0.8953 b ' 8696 b 1.000 V0 ( l i t e r s ) 0.5347 3 0.5347 3 • 0.5988 b -0.0055 0.4264 0.2726 0-. 1877 -0.25.13 ;/000 a S i g n i f i c a h t at the .05 l e v e l s b S i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l - 29 -The c o r r e l a t i o n s between percentage body fat. and the three timed/ distance runs were s i g n i f i c a n t but not as high as the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between the three timed/distance runs. The c o r r e l a t i o n between the 9 minute : run and percentage body f a t was r =-.77/ followed by the 12 minute run w i t h a c o r r e l a t i o n of r=-.75 and f i n a l l y the 1600 metre run w i t h a c o r r e l a t i o n of r =.74. Body weight was a l s o . s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the three timed/distance runs. The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n between body weight and the 9 minute run was the highest w i t h r =-.55, followed by body weight and the 12 minute run w i t h a c o r r e l a t i o n of r=-.51 and body weight and the 1600 metre run w i t h a c o r r e l a t i o n of r = .47. Age and height were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d w i t h any of the three timed/distance runs. In a d d i t i o n to the d e s c r i p t i v e data and the c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x , the data was a l s o entered i n t o both forward.and backward stepwise m u l t i p l e l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n analyses to s e l e c t the independent v a r i a b l e s that provided the best p r e d i c t i o n of peak oxygen uptake. In the stepwise r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s the independent v a r i a b l e s were entered one at a time to formulate r e g r e s s i o n equations to p r e d i c t peak oxygen uptake (ml'kg "''•min "^J. The 9 minute run was entered f i r s t and a r e g r e s s i o n equation was developed producing a standard e r r o r of estimate i n p r e d i c t i n g peak oxygen uptake equal to 4.648 ml/kg'min. The m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n f o r t h i s r e g r e s s i o n equation u t i l i z i n g one v a r i a b l e was R =0.8179 which accounts f o r 66.9% of the 2 va r i a n c e . Table 6 l i s t s these values aa w e l l as an adjusted R that considers the number of subjects and v a r i a b l e s used i n the d e r i v a t i o n of the 2 2 r e g r e s s i o n equation. The adjusted R i s s l i g h t l y lower than the R (Adjusted R 2 =0.6506; R 2 =0.6690). - 30 -Table 6 Regression Equation to P r e d i c t Peak Oxygen Uptake (ml'kg "'"'min Step V a r i a b l e s M u l t i p l e R M u l t i p l e R 2 Adjusted R 2 Standard E r r o r of Estimate 1 9 minute timed run 0.8179 0.6690 0.6506 4.6480 2 Percentage body f a t 0.8571 0.7347 0.7035 4.2822 3 Age 0.8616 0.7423 0.6940 4.3500 4 Body weight 0.8683 0.7539 0.6882 4.3908 5 1600 metre d i s t a n c e run 0.8706 0.7580 0.6715 4.5071 6 Height 0.8730 0.7621 0.6522 4.6374 7 12. minute timed run 0.8738 0.7634 0.6255 4.8126 Peak Oxygen Uptake = 0.02287 (9 minute run) -0.71217 (Percent Body Fat) + 29. 78812 Table 7 P a r t i a l C o r r e l a t i o n s of Independent V a r i a b l e s With 9 Minute Run Removed V a r i a b l e C o r r e l a t i o n Age 0.07614 Weight -0.33732 Height -0.09579 Percent Body Fat -0.44535 12 minute run 0.24385 1600 metre run -0.05538 With 9 Minute Run and Per Cent Body Fat Removed V a r i a b l e Age Weight Height 12 minute run 1600 metre run C o r r e l a t i o n 0.16966 -0.06275 -0.01160 0.09265 0.03250 With the 9 minute run removed, or h e l d constant, the p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s of the remaining v a r i a b l e s changed. The 12 minute run and the 1600 metre run e x h i b i t e d p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s of r =0.2438 and r =-0.0553 r e s p e c t i v e l y . (Table 7). These c o r r e l a t i o n s were low. and not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from zero. These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e that the variances of the 12 minute run and the 1600 metre run. that were not i n common w i t h the 9 minute run, were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to peak oxygen, uptake. In step two of the stepwise r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s the v a r i a b l e percentage body f a t was added. Percentage body f a t as seen i n Table 7 showed a p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n of r =-0.44535 accounting f o r 22% of the varia n c e that was not i n common w i t h the 9 minute run but was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to peak oxygen uptake. The a d d i t i o n of percentage body f a t to the equation increases the i 2 2 m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t o n to R =0.8571. Both the values fbriR and the adjusted R increase as seen i n Table 6. The Standard E r r o r of Estimate f o r p r e d i c t i n g peak oxygen uptake i s lower than the value reported when the s i n g l e v a r i a b l e , the 9 minute run, was used f o r the r e g r e s s i o n equation. As noted i n Table 7, with both the 9 minute run and percentage body f a t p a r t i a l l e d out or h e l d constant, none of the: remaining v a r i a b l e s e x h i b i t e d s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s . In step three, the v a r i a b l e age was added to the r e g r e s s i o n equation. 2 The m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n R and R increased s l i g h t l y . However the adjusted 2 R decreased s l i g h t l y and the Standard E r r o r of Estimate increased (Table 6). Based on these f i n d i n g s , the r e g r e s s i o n equation to p r e d i c t peak oxygen uptake (ml/kg*min) would be: Peak Oxygen Uptake = 0.02287 (9 minute run) -0.71217 (Percentage Body Fat) +29.78812 Standard E r r o r of Estimate = +4.2822 ml/kg*min. When peak oxygen uptake was considered i n l i t r e s per minute (1/min.) without body weight accounted f o r , the c o r r e l a t i o n s between, the 7 independent v a r i a b l e s and t h i s v a r i a b l e d i f f e r e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y . The two v a r i a b l e s age and height e x h i b i t e d s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h peak oxygen uptake ' (1/min.). However, peak oxygen uptake was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to the 9 minute and 12 minute timed runs or the 1600 metre d i s t a n c e run. Con-sequently 'when these v a r i a b l e s were entered i n t o the stepwise r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s the r e s u l t a n t r e g r e s s i o n equation was q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . In step one, body height was entered f i r s t g i v i n g a m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n 2 2 of R =0.5988. The m u l t i p l e R and adjusted R were reasonably c l o s e i n value. The Standard E r r o r of Estimate was 0.2061 1/minute. In step two, the 9 minute run was entered i n t o the r e g r e s s i o n equation r e s u l t i n g i n a m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n of R =0.6909. The Standard E r r o r of Estimate was 0.1915 1/min. In step t h r e e , body weight was entered i n t o the equation causing the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n (R) to increase even more, R =0.7741. The Standard 2 E r r o r of Estimate was 0.1728 1/min. and the adjusted R increased to 0.5241. The subsequent a d d i t i o n of v a r i a b l e s i n steps 4 and 5 were only able 2 to" m a r g i n a l l y ' i n c r e a s e the adjusted m u l t i p l e R and c o n c u r r e n t l y lower the Standard E r r o r of Estimate as seen i n Table 8. Therefore the i n v e s t i g a t o r decided that the amount of e f f o r t r e q u i r e d to c o l l e c t the e x t r a data needed f o r the 5 v a r i a b l e s was not warranted. Consequently the f i r s t three v a r i a b l e s were r e t a i n e d to formulate the r e g r e s s i o n equation. The best equation to p r e d i c t peak oxygen uptake (1/min.) was: I Peak Oxygen Uptake =0.02458 (Body Weight) +0.00932 (Height) + 0.00093368 (9 minute run) -1.96845 Standard E r r o r of Estimate = + 0.1728 (l'min . - 33 -. Table 8 Regression Equation to P r e d i c t Peak Oxygen Uptake (1*min ^) Step V a r i a b l e M u l t i p l e :R, ? M u l t i p l e R Adjusted R Standard E r r o r of Estimate 1 Height 0.5988 •y; 0.3585 0.3229 0.2061 2 9 minute timed run 0.6909 0.4773 0.4158 0.1915 3 Body weight 0.7741 0.5992 0.5241 0.1728 4 1600 metre d i s t a n c e run 0.7904 0.6247 0.5246 0.1727 5 Age 0.8069 0.6510 0.5264 0.1724 6 Percent Body Fat 0.8111 0.6580 0.5001 0.1771 7 12 minute timed run 0.8112 0.6580 0.4585 0.1843 Best Equation t o P r e d i c t Peak Oxygen Uptake (1/min) = 0.02458 (Body weight) +0.00932 (Height) +0.00093368 (9 minute run) + 1.96845 B. Test-Retest R e l i a b i l i t y As demonstrated i n Table 9, the 12 minute run and the 1600 metre run e x h i b i t e d t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s that were s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . The 9 minute run t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was not s i g n i f i c a n t . In a d d i t i o n to the r e l i a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n s , a t t e s t f o r c o r r e l a t e d means was performed t o determine whether there was a d i f f e r e n c e between the mean scores of each timed/distance run at T r i a l 1 and T r i a l 2. The t r a t i o s were not s i g n i f i c a n t f o r T r i a l s 1 and 2 of the 12 minute run, the 9 minute run and the 1600 metre run, the r e f o r e the n u l l hypothesis was - 34 -accepted. The n u l l hypothesis concluded that the given difference between the two means from T r i a l 1 and 2, may be due to sampling error and that no r e a l or d e f i n i t e d i f f e r e n c e existed. Table 9-Test-Retest R e l i a b i l i t y and Reproducibility Test M Standard Corre- t t . Means _ . , t ratxo P r o b a b i l i t y Deviation l a t i o n T r i a l 1 9 minute run 1438 .30 162 .556 0 .5507 0 .005 0. 9958 T r i a l 2 1438 .70 173 .246 T r i a l 1 12 minute run 2158 .00 207 .976 0 .8154a 0 .215 0. 8323 T r i a l 2 2177 .00 187 .071 T r i a l 1 1600 metre run 586 .799 91 .4571 0 .9772a -0 .467 0. 6460 T r i a l 2 568 .800 80 .5258 S i g n i f i c a n t (p < .01) C .'• Discussion 1. V a l i d i t y . The f i r s t objective of t h i s study was to determine i f timed and distance runs, s p e c i f i c a l l y the 9 minute, the 12 minute and the 1600 metre runs, were adequate predictors of peak oxygen uptake and therefore v a l i d tests to use i n determining the cardiorespiratory f i t n e s s of g i r l s ages 8 to 11 years. The peak oxygen uptake values obtained by the subjects i n t h i s study were s l i g h t l y higher than the peak oxygen uptake values reported i n other s t u d i e s f o r females of t h i s age (Krahenbuhl, Pangrazi, Petersen, Burkett and Schneider, 1978). Studies on c h i l d r e n conducted before 1970 show maximal oxygen uptake values averaging 48 to 50 ml/kg-min f o r young males w i t h female values being s l i g h t l y lower (Krahenbuhl, P a n g r a z i , Petersen, Burkett and Schneider, 1978). The l i t e r a t u r e has shown that i t was d i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n r e l i a b l e maximal oxygen uptake values i n young c h i l d r e n . The p r o t o c o l f o r the t r e a d m i l l t e s t that was used to e l i c i t peak oxygen uptake i n the present study d i f f e r e d from the p r o t o c o l s used i n some of the other s t u d i e s f o r c h i l d r e n . In the present study the grade of the t r e a d m i l l s t a r t e d at 3% and was r a i s e d 3% every three minutes u n t i l the subject was exhausted. In some other s t u d i e s (Krahenbuh,, Pangrazi, Petersen, Burkett and Schneider, 1978) the grade s t a r t e d at 0% and was r a i s e d 2 1/2 % every minute or two minutes u n t i l the subject was exhausted. For a ten minute t e s t , both the p r o t o c o l i n t h i s study using the 3% grade increments every three minutes and the p r o t o c o l using 2 1/2% grade increments every two minutes would have reached s i m i l a r grade increments at.the conclusion of a ten minute t e s t . The study using 2 1/2% grade increments every minute would have reached a s i m i l a r grade increment at the end of f i v e minutes. This was q u i t e a notable d i f f e r e n c e f o r the t o t a l t e s t time. The average time the subjects i n the present study ran on the t r e a d m i l l was 10.00 minutes w i t h a range of 5.00 to 12.30 minutes. One of the c r i t e r i a t h a t had been used i n recent s t u d i e s to determine i f a true and r e l i a b l e measure of maximal oxygen uptake was a t t a i n e d by the subjects was the presence of a pl a t e a u i n the oxygen uptake values. This plateau.should occur over the l a s t two workloads of the t r e a d m i l l t e s t (which v a r i e d from two to four minutes) a l l o w i n g f o r an in c r e a s e of only 2.1 ml/kg-min or l e s s i n oxygen uptake values during t h i s time.(Cunningham, - 36 -MacFarlane,,. Van Waterschoot, Paterson, Lefcoe and Sangal, p, 211, 1977'). Krahenbuhl, Pa n g r a z i , Petersen, Burkett and Schneider (1978) used a t e s t p r o t o c o l to e l i c i t maximal oxygen uptake that increased the grade by 2 1/2% every minute. The r e s u l t s showed that the group of subjects who a t t a i n e d a plateau i n maximal oxygen uptake had higher values i n oxygen uptake, heart r a t e , v e n t i l a t i o n , r e s p i r a t o r y quotient and v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s between three d i s t a n c e runs. However, the group of subjects who d i d not a t t a i n a p l a t e a u i n maximal oxygen uptake achieved lower values i n the same v a r i a b l e s , but these values followed a s i m i l a r trend to the group who a t t a i n e d a pl a t e a u . In a d d i t i o n , c o r r e l a t i o n s obtained between maximal oxygen uptake without a pl a t e a u and maximal oxygen uptake w i t h a pla t e a u and the 1600 metre run were both s i g n i f i c a n t (p < ,01) f o r males and females. Cunningham, MacFarlane, Van Waterschoot, Paterson, Lefcoe and Sangal (1977) found that maximal oxygen uptake i n young boys was r e p r o d u c i b l e whether a pl a t e a u i n the maximal oxygen uptake values was reached or not. However, the r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t appeared to depend upon whether a plateau was reached. In a d d i t i o n , comparable l e v e l s of maximal oxygen uptake were a t t a i n e d whether a p l a t e a u was reached or not. The d i f f e r e n c e s i n the subjects who a t t a i n e d a p l a t e a u and those who d i d not appeared to be i n f a c t o r s that were i n d i c a t i v e of the l e v e l of anaerobic metabolism. The maximal heart r a t e and minute v e n t i l a t i o n s a t t a i n e d were not dependent upon the presence of a pl a t e a u i n maximal oxygen uptake. Before the existence of a plateau i n maximal oxygen uptake can be used asa c r i t e r i o n f o r determining whether the true maximal oxygen uptake was a t t a i n e d i n c h i l d r e n , more research needs to be done. Other c r i t e r i a used to determine i f maximal oxygen uptake was a t t a i n e d included h i g h l e v e l s of heart r a t e that l e v e l l e d o f f , r e s p i r a t o r y exchange - 37 -r a t i o approaching a value of 1,0 and a h i g h v e n t i l a t i o n r a t e . In the present study the mean heart r a t e reached at peak oxygen uptake was higher than values reported f o r other c h i l d r e n , i n c l u d i n g those who reached plateaus i n oxygen uptake values (Krahenbuhl, P a n g r a z i , Petersen, Burkett and Schneider, 1978; Cunningham, MacFarlane, Van Waterschool, Paterson, Lefcoe and Sangal, 1977). The mean r e s p i r a t o r y quotient reached at peak oxygen uptake was lower than that reported i n other s t u d i e s , w h i l e the r e s p i r a t o r y exchange r a t i o was equivalent to those i n other s t u d i e s . The average v e n t i l a t i o n r a t e achieved at peak oxygen uptake was much higher than values reported by Krahenbuhl, P a n g r a z i , Petersen, Burkett and Schneider (1978), but lower than values reported by Cunningham, MacFarlane, Van Waterschoot, Paterson, Lefcoe and Sangal (1977), Consequently the r e s u l t s obtained by the young g i r l s i n the present study demonstrated that they e x e r c i s e d on the t r e a d m i l l u n t i l they were exhausted and achieved high work l e v e l s . Due to the controversy regarding the achievement of a true maximal oxygen uptake v a l u e , the i n v e s t i g a t o r of the present study chose to use peak oxygen uptake r a t h e r than maximal oxygen uptake i n the v a l i d a t i o n of the distance runs. Upon examination of the data c o l l e c t e d during the t r e a d m i l l t e s t i t appeared that many of the young g i r l s may have been able to achieve higher oxygen uptake values i f they could have continued to run on the t r e a d m i l l . This was demonstrated by the 5 t o 10 ml/kg-min increases that occurred i n oxygen uptake over the 3 minute i n t e r v a l s a f t e r the grade increment had been increased. The 3 minute time i n t e r v a l between grade increases was chosen to a l l o w the subject time to p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y adjust to the new workload before i t was increased again. However t h i s time i n t e r v a l a l s o considerably increased the t o t a l time of the t e s t r a t h e r than the workload imposed on the su b j e c t s . P o s s i b l y by decreasing the time i n t e r v a l between grade changes - 38 -from 3 to 2 minutes, the t o t a l time of the t e s t would be decreased w h i l e a higher percent grade increment and therefore p h y s i o l o g i c a l workload would be present e a r l i e r (see Table 10 f o r comparison). This shorter t r e a d m i l l t e s t might enable a higher percentage of subjects to a t t a i n t h e i r true peak oxygen uptake. Table 10 Comparison of T r e a d m i l l P r o t o c o l s Test P r o t o c o l Used i n Present Study Proposed New P r o t o c o l Time Grade Speed Time Grade Speed (minutes) (percent) (m.p.h.) (minutes) (percent) (m.p.h.) 0 3 4.5 0 3 4.5 1 3 4.5 1 3 4.5 2 3 4.5 2 6 4.5 3 6 4.5 3 6 4.5 4 6 4.5 4 > 9 4.5 5 6 4.5 5 9 4.5 6 9 4.5 6 12 4.5 7 9 4.5 7 12 4.5 8 9 4.5 8 15 4.5 9 12 4.5 9 15 4.5 10 12 4.5 10 18 4.5 11 12 4.5 11 18 4.5 :'" - - As .seen i n Table 5 a l l Three timed" distance runs , the -9 minute run, . the'1.2 minute run-and ,j±ie:1600' metre run;-were s i g n i f i c a n t l y - r e l a t e d to .peak . oxygen uptake. : :The »9Tninute run e x h i b i t e d .the. highest- c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h peak oxygen uptake, followed by the 1600 metre run and then the 12 minute run. The high i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between the three/timed d i s t a n c e runs i l l u s t r a t e d that the three runs were l i k e l y to be measuring " s i m i l a r f a c t o r s . In the m u l t i p l e l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , the 12 minute run and the 11600 metre run e x h i b i t e d very low p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s when the 9 minute run was p a r t i a l l e d out ( r = 0.24385, and r =0.05538, r e s p e c t i v e l y } . This, showed that the variance, accounted f o r by both" the 12 minute run and the 1600 metre run that was not i n common with, the 9 minute run, was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to peak oxygen uptake. Likewise the varia n c e accounted f o r by the 12 minute, and 1600 metre runs that was i n common w i t h the 9 minute run was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to peak oxygen uptake. Conse^ quently, i t appeared from these r e s u l t s that the 9 minute run was the most v a l i d of the three t e s t s w i t h respect to the p r e d i c t i o n of peak oxygen uptake. The stepwise m u l t i p l e l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n analyses allowed the i n v e s t i g a t o r to examine a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s , i n the p r e d i c t i o n of peak oxygen uptake. The v a r i a b l e of percentage body f a t e x h i b i t e d the second highest c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h peak oxygen uptake when compared to a l l the other v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d i n g the 3 timed/distance runs. Few studies to date have u t i l i z e d percentage body f a t as a d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c i n the f i e l d e s t i m a t i o n of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i n c h i l d r e n . Consequently i t was d i f f i c u l t to discuss both body weight and percentage body f a t of the subjects i n r e l a t i o n to norm values and to peak oxygen uptake. I n determining percentage body f a t , s k i n f o l d readings were taken at 4 body s i t e s ; t r i c e p s , b i c e p s , subscapular and s u p r a i l i a c . The body d e n s i t y was determined by a re g r e s s i o n equation produced by Durnin and Rahaman (1967);; and the percentage of body f a t was c a l c u l a t e d using a formula derived by S i r i (1956). S i m i l a r body d e n s i t y values were produced when the re g r e s s i o n equations derived by Par i z k o v a (1961) were used. However Parizkova (19.61) expressed the s k i n f o l d thickness r e s u l t s i n den s i t y u n i t s and d i d not use them to p r e d i c t body f a t percentages. In the t h e o r e t i c a l d e r i v a t i o n of percentage Body f a t from measurements of body de n s i t y there, were no s p e c i a l equations a v a i l a b l e f o r use w i t h c h i l d r e n and adolescents. - 40 -This was due mainly to the l a c k of knowledge of the body composition of c h i l d r e n , s p e c i f i c a l l y i n regard t o the d i f f e r e n c e s i n muscle composition, bone and ske l e t o n composition and t h e i r r e l a t i v e mass i n r e l a t i o n to body f a t . I t was f e l t , however, that since the c o r r e l a t i o n between body density and s k i n f o l d thickness was h i g h , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between body de n s i t y and percentage of f a t i n c h i l d r e n would be very c l o s e t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p found i n a d u l t s (Parizkova, 1961). Under t h i s assumption, the i n v e s t i g a t o r of the present study converted body d e n s i t y values i n t o percentage body f a t f o r ease of comparison and meaningfulness. As seen i n the zero-order c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x , the percentage body f a t was s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p < •.01.) r e l a t e d to body weight (r=0.7;8), peak oxygen uptake ( r = - 0 . 7 9 ) , the 9 minute run (r = -0.73) , the 12 minute run (r=-0,75) and the 1600 metre run (r = 0.74). Body weight was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to peak oxygen uptake ( r = - 0 . 6 1 ) , the 9 minute run ( r = - 0 . 5 5 ) , the 12 minute run (r = -0.51) and the 1600 metre run (r=0.47).. > Since ;body weight and percentage, body f a t were q u i t e h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d ( r = 0 . 7 8 ) , accounting f o r 60% of the v a r i a n c e , they were e s s e n t i a l l y c o n t r i b u t i n g s i m i l a r i n f o r m a t i o n . The percentagef.bodyv,fat had a c o n s i s t e n t l y higher c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h peak oxygen uptake and the three timed/distance runs, therefore i t was reasonable to choose percentage body f a t over body weight as the v a r i a b l e that would c o n t r i b u t e more informa t i o n i n p r e d i c t i n g peak oxygen uptake and c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y endurance. Krahenbuhl, P a n g r a z i , B u r k e t t , Schneider and Petersen (1977) and Mayhew and G i f f o r d (1975) found that body f a t represented by s k i n f o l d measurements c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the p r e d i c t i o n of maximal oxygen uptake (ml/kg-min) i n c h i l d r e n . The negative c o r r e l a t i o n between peak oxygen uptake and percentage body f a t ( r =-0.79) i l l u s t r a t e d that as the percentage of body f a t increa s e d , - 41 -peak oxygen uptake decreased and as peak oxygen uptake incre a s e d , the percentage of body f a t decreased. Body weight was a l s o n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d to peak oxygen uptake. This r e s u l t was i n agreement w i t h most of the s t u d i e s completed using adults as s u b j e c t s . Cureton, B o i l e a u , Lohman and Misner (1978) s t a t e d however that "low maximal oxygen uptake (ml/kg-B.W.*min) and poor distance running performance c a p a b i l i t y due to excess body f a t was not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t i v e of poor c a r d i o v a s c u l a r -r e s p i r a t o r y f u n c t i o n due to i n a c t i v i t y or pathology" (pi. 277). Morrow, Jackson and B e l l (1978) reported that the body mass index (B.M.I.) which was a f i e l d method of measuring body composition,.;was r e l a t e d to distance running performance i n both the .9 minute and the 12 minute runs f o r boys and g i r l s ages 10 to 12 years. I t was concluded that the "B.M.I, was a more important determinant of distance running performance than age" (Morrow, Jackson and B e l l , 1978, p.495). For the female subjects t e s t e d i n the 12 minute run, the B.M.I, accounted f o r the negative age-performance r e l a t i o n s h i p , that i s , as age incre a s e d , running performance decreased. These f i n d i n g s seem to support the work of Cureton, B o i l e a u , Lohman and Misner (1978). Percentage body f a t was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h chrono-l o g i c a l age or body height but was s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h body weight. Body weight represented the t o t a l body composition of muscle, bone, connective t i s s u e and body f a t . Therefore i t i s reasonable that body weight was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h age, h e i g h t , and percentage body f a t . Body weight was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to peak oxygen uptake and the 3 runs, however c h r o n o l o g i c a l age and body height were not. I t has been demonstrated i n a d u l t s that age was n e g a t i v e l y weighted w i t h maximal oxygen uptake showing a decrease i n maximal oxygen uptake w i t h - 42 -age. In s t u d i e s on c h i l d r e n , age, height and weight have been p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h maximal oxygen uptake and each other. This was i n agreement w i t h the l i t e r a t u r e which s t a t e d that maximal oxygen uptake increased pro-p o r t i o n a t e l y w i t h growth and maturation, to a c e r t a i n age (Astrand and Rodahl, 1970; Bonen, Heyward, Cureton, B o i l e a u and Massey, 1979). In the present study, age was p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h peak oxygen uptake, weight and he i g h t , but weight and height were n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h peak oxygen uptake. Therefore, as the sub j e c t s were g e t t i n g o l d e r , t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r oxygen uptake was i n c r e a s i n g but at the same time as t h e i r weight and height increased t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r oxygen uptake was decreasing. I t would appear,from these r e s u l t s that anthropometric v a r i a b l e s play an important r o l e i n the oxygen uptake ca p a c i t y of young g i r l s . In a d d i t i o n to.the c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x , the data was a l s o entered i n t o m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n procedures to develop p r e d i c t i o n equations of peak oxygen uptake f o r young g i r l s . . These procedures s e l e c t e d p r e d i c t o r s from a mathematical r a t h e r than a p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Comparisons between d i f f e r e n t p r e d i c t i o n s were not based only on the s i z e of the e o r r e l a t i o n ^ c o e f f i c i e n t s s i n c e these could be i n f l u e n c e d by the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the data. Instead comparisons'were done on the b a s i s of the p r e d i c t i o n accuracy as r e f l e c t e d by the standard e r r o r of estimate (S.E.E.). An a d d i t o n a l measure of p r e d i c t i o n accuracy that was reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e (Bonen, Heyward, Cureton, B o i l e a u and' Massey, 1979) was the c a l c u l a t i o n of the c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n (C.V. = x/S.E.E. xlOO). Based on the standard e r r o r of estimate, the r e g r e s s i o n equation shown i n Table 6 was the p r e f e r r e d equation f o r p r e d i c t i n g peak oxygen uptake. The p r e d i c t i o n accuracy of- t h i s equation was= s i m i l a r - t o those.reported ift~previous s t u d i e s u s i n g . d i f f e r e n t , subjects (Bonen, Heyward, Cureton, B o i l e a u and M a s s e y 1 9 7 9 ) . - 43 -The r e g r e s s i o n equation as seen i n •Table/..61i-^'Hligh:tly.;vunderestimated the s u b j e c t s w i t h h i g h peak oxygen uptake, but overestimated the subjects w i t h low peak oxygen uptake (Table 11) . Table 11 • Observed versus P r e d i c t e d Peak Oxygen Uptake Values Using the P r e f e r r e d Regression Equation Peak Oxygen Uptake (ml/kg-min) Subject No. Observed Values P r e d i c t e d Values Residual (ml/kg-min) (ml/kg-min) (ial/kg-min) 11 60.050 56.5.9 3.46 10 57.090 54.46- '2.62 1 55.730 54.36 1.37 / 12 55.720 53.48 2.23 15 55.070 53.10 1.96 18 54.570 53.45 ' ' 1 .01 . 17 53.140 55.17 -2.03 ' 20 51.700 48.42 3.27 13 51.540 48.10 2.43 8 50.600 57.00 -6.40 7 19 50.090 51.14 -1.05 14 48.320 45.90 "2.42 ' 3 48.000 50.62 -2.62 4 47.400 ' 41.90 5.49 16 46.790 • 49.70 -2.91 ' 7 41.260 43.95 -2.69 • • 6 40.760 35.50 5.26 9 38.500 41.77 -3.27 2 35.200 34,86 0.34 .; 5 30.010 41.00 - -10.99"-- 4 4 -I t i s important to note that owing to the s m a l l sample, caution should be taken when.using the equations to p r e d i c t peak oxygen uptake, owing to the s p e c i f i c i t y of the group of s u b j e c t s . However the r e s u l t s based on t h i s sample demonstrated that the development of r e g r e s s i o n equations to p r e d i c t peak oxygen uptake was f e a s i b l e and the r e s u l t a n t equations were q u i t e accurate. 2. Test-Retest R e l i a b i l i t i e s The second o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study was to determine i f timed/distance runs were r e l i a b l e f i e l d t e s t s i n p r e d i c t i n g peak oxygen uptake. The 12 minute run and the 1600 metre run e x h i b i t e d s i g n i f i c a n t t e s t -r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s w h i l e the 9 minute run d i d not. The 1600 metre run had the highest r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t . During the a c t u a l t e s t i n g of the three timed/distance runs i t was observed by the i n v e s t i g a t o r that many of the young female subjects were able to p r a c t i c e the concept of pacing i n the 1600 metre run more e f f i c i e n t l y and c o n s i s t e n t l y than i n the 9 and 12 minute runs. In the 1600 metre run, the s u b j e c t s knew they had e i g h t l a p s of a 200 metre t r a c k to complete. However i n both the 9 and 12 minute timed runs time was i n t a n g i b l e , not concrete, and the subjects appeared to f i n d d i f f i c u l t y i n r e l a t i n g the time to t h e i r running. This a b i l i t y to r e l a t e to concrete i n f o r m a t i o n , the d i s t a n c e i n the 1600 metre run, versus i n t a n g i b l e i n f o r m a t i o n , the time i n the 9 and 12 minute runs, was r e f l e c t e d i n the high r e l i a b i l i t y of the 1600 metre run. Krahenbuhl, P a n g r a z i , Petersen, Burkett and Schneider (1978) a l s o reported a h i g h t e s t -r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r young.males and females i n the 1600 metre run. In the 9 minute timed d i s t a n c e run there was a smaller d i s p e r s i o n of scores compared to the 12 minute timed run as noted by the means and standard d e v i a t i o n s reported i n T r i a l 1 and 2 (Table 9). I t was noted by the i n v e s t i -gator that the subjects ran i n c l o s e r groups i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t e s t , there-f o r e the i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s among the sub j e c t s d i d not show as much. Therefore, because of the smaller d i s p e r s a l of scores i n the 9 minute timed run, one would expect a lower t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y . The e x t r a three minutes run i n the 12 minute timed run appeared s u f f i c i e n t to increase the spread of the subjects i n t h e i r running performance thereby c r e a t i n g a l a r g e r d i s p e r s i o n of scores a t t a i n e d . This was r e f l e c t e d i n the higher t e s t -r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y score. To date, no s t u d i e s on the t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y of the 9 minute run and the 12 minute run have been performed on young female s u b j e c t s . Previous s t u d i e s (Maksud and Coutts, 1971; D o o l i t t l e and Bigbee, 1968) reported high t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r boys 11 to 14 years i n the 12 minute run. The present study reported a r e l i a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n of r =0.8154 f o r the young female s u b j e c t s . The low r e l i a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n of the 9 minute run was unexpected. No stud i e s to date have examined the t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y of the 9 minute run i n young c h i l d r e n . The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n i s very s e n s i t i v e and can be a f f e c t e d by s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . One of the major f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h i s measure was the sample s i z e . In the present study the sample s i z e was very s m a l l . The addition'of even one more subject could change the r e l i a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y (Clarke and C l a r k e , 1970). R e l i a b i l i t y can a l s o be i n f l u e n c e d by other extraneous f a c t o r s such as a t t i t u d e and mo t i v a t i o n of the s u b j e c t s , weather c o n d i t i o n s , the time of day and equipment. Many of these f a c t o r s were d i f f i c u l t to c o n t r o l although, e f f o r t s were made during the t e s t i n g to e l i m i n a t e as many extraneous f a c t o r s as p o s s i b l e . In a l l 3 time/distance runs there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the means of T r i a l 1 and T r i a l 2 as measured by the t t e s t f o r c o r r e l a t e d means. This demonstrated t h a t the mean scores of a l l 3 timed/distance runs on T r i a l 1 were repr o d u c i b l e on T r i a l 2, - 46 -Chapter V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS A. Summary Renewed i n t e r e s t i n h e a l t h concerns has been instrumental i n the improvement of measurement procedures to evaluate p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s s t a t u s . C a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i s a key component of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and i s seen as an important r i s k reduction, measure f o r coronary heart disease. While maximal oxygen uptake i s the most s u i t a b l e , l a b o r a t o r y measure of c a r d i o -r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s , measurement of maximal oxygen uptake i s not f e a s i b l e f o r the general p u b l i c . Although f i e l d t e s t s that p r e d i c t maximal oxygen uptake have been developed for-most of the adul t p o p u l a t i o n , l i t t l e research has been i n i t i a t e d i n t h i s a r e a ' f o r young c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r young females. The purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e : 1. The v a l i d i t y of the 9 minute and 12 minute timed runs and the 1600 metre distance run as p r e d i c t o r s . o f peak oxygen uptake and therefore as measures of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i n g i r l s 8 to 11 years of age. 2. The r e l i a b i l i t y of the 9 minute and 12 minute timed runs and the 1600 metre d i s t a n c e run as measures of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y endurance. S i x t y female-subjects from Crofton House School and St. P a t r i c k ' s Elementary School, Vancouver, B.C. were t e s t e d on the 3 timed d i s t a n c e runs, the 9 minute, 12 minute and 1600 metre runs and a maximal oxygen uptake t r e a d m i l l t e s t . Anthropometric measures (height, weight, percentage body f a t ) were a l s o taken. Twenty of the subjects completed a l l of the t e s t i n g . The v a l i d i t y of the 9 minute, the 12 minute and the 1600 metre runs as p r e d i c t o r s of peak oxygen uptake and the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a l l the v a r i a b l e s were determined by developing a c o r r e l a t i o n matrix. Stepwise - 47 -m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n analyses were conducted to s e l e c t the independent v a r i a b l e s (age, h e i g h t , weight, percentage body f a t , 9 minute run, 12 minute run and the 1600 metre run), that best p r e d i c t e d the dependent v a r i a b l e , peak oxygen uptake. The p r e f e r r e d r e g r e s s i o n equation was: r Peak Oxygen Uptake ( m l ' k g - 1 - m i n - 1 ) = 0.02287 (9 minute run) -0.71217 (Percent Body Fat) +29.788. The r e l i a b i l i t y of the 9 minute, the 12.minute and the 1600 metre runs was determined by developing t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . The r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y of the mean scores of the 9 minute, 12 minute and the 1600 metre runs from T r i a l 1 to T r i a l 2 was determined by a t t e s t f o r c o r r e l a t e d means. B. Conclusions On the b a s i s of the s t a t i s t i c a l analyses and w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s and d e l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s study, the f o l l o w i n g conclusions appear to be j u s t i f i e d : 1. With respect to Hypothesis One, the 9 minute and 12 minute timed runs and the 1600 metre distance run showed s i g n i f i c a n t v a l i d i t y c o r r e l a t i o n co-e f f i c i e n t s and t h e r e f o r e are v a l i d f i e l d measures of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i n g i r l s 8 to 11 years of age. 2. With respect to Hypothesis One, p a r t ( a ) , the 9 minute and 12 minute timed runs and the 1600 metre d i s t a n c e run were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to peak oxygen uptake. Therefore the performance of g i r l s , 8 to 11 years of age, on any of the three s p e c i f i e d timed/distance runs could be used to p r e d i c t peak oxygen uptake. 3. With respect to Hypothesis One, part ( b ) , the r e s u l t s of t h i s study d i d not support t h i s hypothesis. The 9 minute timed run demonstrated the h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n , w i t h peak oxygen uptake, followed' by the 1600 metre d i s t a n c e run and then the 12 minute timed run. 4. With respect to Hypothesis Two,, the r e s u l t s of t h i s study p a r t i a l l y support t h i s hypothesis i n that both the 12 minute timed run and the 1600 metre distance run e x h i b i t e d s i g n i f i c a n t t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s and t h e r e f o r e are r e l i a b l e f i e l d measures of c a r d i o -r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i n 8 to 11 year o l d g i r l s . The 9 minute timed run d i d not e x h i b i t a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t . 5. With respect to Sub-Hypothesis One, p a r t s ( a ) , (b) and ( c ) , the r e s u l t s of t h i s study p a r t i a l l y support t h i s hypothesis. The 9 minute timed run and the 1600 metre distance run demonstrated the highest i n t e r -c o r r e l a t i o n , followed by the 12 minute timed run and the 1600 metre distance run and then the 9 minute and 12 minute timed runs. In c o n c l u s i o n both, the 1600 metre d i s t a n c e run and the 12 minute timed run were v a l i d and r e l i a b l e f i e l d t e s t s to p r e d i c t peak oxygen uptake i n g i r l s 8 to 11 years of age. However the 1600 metre distance run demonstrated higher v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s and the r e f o r e would be the p r e f e r r e d f i e l d t e s t to measure c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i n g i r l s 8 to 11 years of age. C. Recommendations Due to the s m a l l amount of research i n the area of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i n young g i r l s there are many unanswered questions and few d e f i n i t e conclusions concerning t h e i r response to c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y e x e r c i s e . The -majority of research i n the area of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s has been performed on a d u l t males and young boys, t h e r e f o r e i t i s important that researchers study the female to ensure that the p h y s i o l o g i c a l response of a male i s not g e n e r a l i z e d to the female. The research t h a t has been done w i t h young g i r l s has demonstrated .that they respond d i f f e r e n t l y than t h e i r male counterparts; to p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e , both q u a n t i t a t i v e l y and q u a l i t a t i v e l y . - 49 -The f o l l o w i n g areas need to be stud i e d mora c l o s e l y with, the young female: 1. The attainment of a true maximal oxygen uptake and the c r i t e r i a used to determine t h i s , such as, a p l a t e a u i n oxygen uptake v a l u e s , heart r a t e , r e s p i r a t o r y r a t e , r e s p i r a t o r y q u o t i e n t , r e s p i r a t o r y exchange r a t i o , ,etc. 2. The r e l i a b i l i t y of maximal oxygen uptake and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to a t t a i n i n g a true maximal oxygen uptake. 3. The t r e a d m i l l t e s t p r o t o c o l used to e l i c i t maximal oxygen uptake, 4. The r e l a t i o n s h i p of anthropometric measurements, s p e c i f i c a l l y percentage body f a t , w i t h maximal oxygen uptake, running a b i l i t y and c a r d i o -r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s . In the p r e d i c t i o n of peak oxygen uptake, per-centage body f a t played a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e as demonstrated by i t s high c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h peak oxygen uptake and i t s i n c l u s i o n i n the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n equation (Table 6 ) , 5. The f u r t h e r development of m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n equations to p r e d i c t maximal oxygen uptake, In t h i s study the p r e f e r r e d m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n equation f o r p r e d i c t i n g peak oxygen uptake i n 8 to 11 year o l d g i r l s u t i l i z e d the 9 -minute timed run score and percentage body f a t . However, s i n c e the 1600 metre distance run demonstrated a high degree of t e s t -r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y , a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n equation should be developed u t i l i z i n g i t as one of the v a r i a b l e s i n the equation. - 50 -BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, F.H. Factors a f f e c t i n g the working capacity of c h i l d r e n and adolescents, i n P h y s i c a l . A c t i v i t y : Human Growth and Development, ed i t e d by G.L. R a r i c k . New York: Academic Press, 1973, pp.89-90. Astrand, P.O. The c h i l d i n sport and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y - physiology, i n iJ.G., A l b i n s o n and G.M.Andrew, C h i l d i n Sport and P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y . Baltimore: U n i v e r s i t y Park P r e s s , 1976. Astrand, P.O., and K. Rodahl. Textbook of Work Physiology. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970, p. 314. Balke, B. A Simple f i e l d t e s t f o r the assessment of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , i n F e d e r a l A v i a t i o n Agency, C i v i l Aeromedical Research I n s t i t u t e , CARI Report. OklahomaCity, A p r i l 1963. Balke, B., and R.W. Ware. An Experimental study of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s of A i r Force personnel. U.S. Armed Forces Medical Journal, v o l . 10, no. 6, 1959. Bonen, A., V.H. Heyward, R.J. Cureton, R.A. B o i l e a u and B.H. Massey. P r e d i c t i o n of maximal oxygen uptake i n boys, ages 7-15 years. Medicine and Science i n Sport, v o l . 11, no.1, 1979, pp.24-29. B r i t i s h Columbia Heart Foundation. Dr. Ken Cooper F i t n e s s Seminars, F i t n e s s i n the 80's. L i f e Underwriters A s s o c i a t i o n of Vancouver, October, 1980. Brouha, L. The Step t e s t : A Simple method of measuring f i t n e s s f o r muscular work i n young men. Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 47, March 1976, pp. 31-35. Burke, E.J. V a l i d i t y of s e l e c t e d l a b o r a t o r y and f i e l d t e s t s of p h y s i c a l working c a p a c i t y . Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 47, March 1976, pp. 95-104. - 51 -Cl a r k e , D.H., and. H.H. Cla r k e . Research Processes i n P h y s i c a l Education, Recreation and Health. New Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1970. Cooper, K.H. A Means of assess i n g oxygen i n t a k e . J o u r n a l of the American Medical A s s o c i a t i o n , v o l . 203, 1968, pp. 201-204. C o s t i l l , D.L., H. Thomason and E. Roberts. F r a c t i o n a l u t i l i z a t i o n of the aerobic c a p a c i t y during distance running.. Medicine and Science i n Sports,, v o l . 5, 1973, pp. 248-252. Cotten, D.J. A Modified step t e s t f o r group c a r d i o v a s c u l a r t e s t i n g . Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 42, no. 1, 1971, pp. 91-95. Cumming, G.R. C o r r e l a t i o n of p h y s i c a l performance w i t h l a b o r a t o r y measures of f i t n e s s , i n F r o n t i e r s of F i t n e s s , e d i t e d by R.J. Shephard. S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s : C.C. Thomas, 1971, pp. 271-272. Cunningham, D.A., B. MacFarlane Van Waterschoot, D.H. Paterson, M. Lefcoe and S.P. Sangal. R e l i a b i l i t y and r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y of maximal oxygen uptake, measurement i n c h i l d r e n . Medicine and Science i n Sport, v o l . 9 no. 2, 1977, pp. 104-108. Cureton, K.J., R.A. B o i l e a u , T.G. Lohman and J.E. Misner. Determination of distance running performance i n c h i l d r e n : A n a l y s i s of a path model. Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 48, no. 2, 1978, p^ .. 270. Custer, S.J., and E.C. Chaloupka. R e l a t i o n s h i p s : between p r e d i c t e d maximal oxygen consumption and running performance of c o l l e g e females. Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 48, no. 1, 1977-78, p. 47. Da n i e l s , J . P h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of champion'male a t h l e t e s . Research Qu a r t e r l y , v o l . 45, December 1974, pp. 342-348. D a n i e l s , J . , N. Oldridge, F. Nagle and B. White. D i f f e r e n c e and changes i n oxygen, uptake among young runners 10 to 18 years. of. age. Medicine and.Science i n Sports, v o l . 10, no. 3, 1978, pp. 200-203. - 52 -Di s c h , J'., R. Frankiewicz and A. Jackson. Construct v a l i d a t i o n of distance run t e s t s . Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 46, 1975, pp. 169-176. D o o l i t t l e , T.L., and R. Bigbee. The Twelve minute run-walk: A Test of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s of adolescent boys. Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 39, October 1968, pp. 491-495. Drash, A. A t h e r o s c l e r o s i s , c h o l e s t e r o l and the p e d i a t r i c i a n . J o u r n a l of P e d i a t r i e s , v o l . 80, 1972, pp. 693-696. Durnin, J.V.G. and M.M. Rahaman. The.Assessment of the amount of body f a t i n . t h e human body from measurements of s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of N u t r i t i o n , v o l . 21, 1967, p.681. Durnin, J.V., and I. Womersley. Body f a t assessed from t o t a l body density and i t s e s t i m a t i o n from s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s : Measurements on 481 men and women aged 16 to 72 years. B r i t i s h J o u r n a l of N u t r i t i o n , v o l . 32, 1974, p. 77. F a l l s , H.B., H.A. I s m a i l and F.D. MacLeod. E s t i m a t i o n of maximal oxygen uptake i n a d u l t s from A.A.H.P.E.R. Youth F i t n e s s Test items. Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 37, 1966, pp. 192-201. Forbes, G.B., and G.H. Amirhakimi. S k i n f o l d thickness and body f a t i n c h i l d r e n . Human B i o l o g y , v o l . 42, 1970, p. 401. F o s t e r , C., and I.T. Da n i e l s . Aerobic power of competitive c y c l i s t s . A u s t r a l i a n Journal: o f Sports Medicine, v o l . 7, October/November/December, 1975, pp. 111-112. Fox, S.M., and J.S. Skinner. ''Vtyysiahl, a c t i v i t y and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r h e a l t h . American J o u r n a l of Cardiology, v o l . 14, 1964, pp. 731-746. Friedman, G.A. A P e d i a t r i c i a n looks at r i s k f a c t o r s in^ather.osclerdti'c heart disease. C l i n i c a l Research, v o l . 20, 1972, pp. 250-257. G e t c h e l l , L.H. , D. K i r k e n d a l l and G. Robbins. P r e d i c t i o n of maximal oxygen uptake i n young,adult women joggers. Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . no. 1, 1978, p. 61. G i l l i a m , T.B., S. Sady, W. Thorland and A. Weltman. Comparison of peak performance measures i n c h i l d r e n ages 6 to 8, 9 to 10, and 11 to 13 years. Research Quarterly., v o l . 48, no. 4, 1978, p. 695. G i l l i a m , T.B.,, V.L. Katch, W. Thorland and A. Weltman. Prevalence of coronary heart disease r i s k f a c t o r s i n a c t i v e c h i l d r e n , 7 to 12 years of age. Medicine and Science i n Sports, v o l . 9, 1977, pp. 21-25. Gregory, J . The R e l a t i o n s h i p of the twelve minute run to maximal oxygen i n t a k e s Masters Thesis, Mankato State C o l l e g e , 1970. Guti n , B., R.K. Fogle and K. Stewart. R e l a t i o n s h i p among submaximal heart r a t e , aerobic power, and running performance i n c h i l d r e n . Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 47, no. 3, 1976, p. 536. Hunsicker., P., and G.G. R e i f f . Youth f i t n e s s t e s t manual. Washington, D.C. A.A.H.P.E.R. P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1976. Jackson, A.S., and A.E. Coleman. V a l i d a t i o n of distance run t e s t s f o r elementary school c h i l d r e n . Research Quarterly v o l . 97, 1976, pp. 86-94. Johnson, B.L., and J.K. Nelson. P r a c t i c a l Measurement f o r E v a l u a t i o n i n P h y s i c a l Education (2nd ed.) Minneapolis: Burgess Pub. Co., 1974. Kannel, W.B., and T.R. Dawber. A t h e r o s c l e r o s i s as a p e d i a t r i c problem. J o u r n a l of P e d i a t r i c s , v o l . 80, 1972, pp. 544-554. Katch, V.L. The Role of maximal oxygen i n t a k e i n endurance performance. Paper presented at the N a t i o n a l Conference of the A.A.H.P.E.R., S e a t t l e , Washington, 1970. . The Role of maximal oxygen debt i n p r e d i c t i n g running .performance. Paper presented at the N a t i o n a l Convention of A.A.H.P.E.R., Houston Texas, 1972. - 54 -Kearney, J.T., and W.C. Byrnes. R e l a t i o n s h i p between running performance and p r e d i c t e d maximum oxygen uptake among divergent a b i l i t y groups. Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 45, March 1974, pp. 9-15. K l i m t , F. T r e a d m i l l e x e r t i o n i n c h i l d r e n aged f i v e . Acta P a e d i a t r i c a Scandinavica- Supplement, v o l . 217, 1971, pp.32-34. Krahenbuhl, G.S., R.P. Pangrazi, L.N. Bu r k e t t , M.J. Schneider and G. Petersen. F i e l d e s t i m a t i o n of VC^ max i n c h i l d r e n e i g h t years of age. Medicine and Science i n Sport, v o l . 9, no. 1, 1977, pp. 37-40. Krahenbuhl, G.S. , R.P. Pa n g r a z i , G.W. Petersen, L.N. Burkett and r M.J. Schneider. F i t n e s s i n primary school c h i l d r e n . Medicine and Science i n Sport., v o l . . 10, no. 3, 1978, pp. 208-213. Kurucz, R.L., E.L. Fox and D.K. Matthews. Construction of a submaximal c a r d i o v a s c u l a r step t e s t . Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 40, no. 1, 1969, pp. 115-122. Lauer, R.M. , W.E. Conner, P.E., Leaverton, M. R e i t e r and W.R. Cl a r k . Coronary heart d i s e a s e . r i s k f a c t o r s i n school c h i l d r e n : The Muscatine study. J o u r n a l of P e d i a t r i c s , v o l . 86, 1975, pp. 697-706. Mayhew, J.L., and P.B. G i f f o r d . P r e d i c t i o n of maximal oxygen uptake i n pre-adolescent boys.from anthropometric parameters. Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 46, 1975, pp. 302-311. Maksud, M.G., and K.D. Coutts. A p p l i c a t i o n of the Cooper Twelve Minute Run-Walk Test to young males. Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 42, 1971, pp. 54-59. Martens, F.L. R e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l e c t e d p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s t e s t s f o r elementary school c h i l d r e n . C.A.H.P.E.R., v o l . 44, no. 5, May/June 1978, pyj.27. Metz, K.F., and J.F. Alexander. An I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between maximum aerobic work capacity.and p h y s i c a l work capacity i n 12 to 15.year o l d boys. Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 41, no. 1, 1970, p. 75. Meyers, C.R. A Study of the r e l i a b i l i t y of the Howard step' t e s t . Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 40, no. 2, 1969, p. 423. M i t c h e l l , J . , B.J. Sproule and C P . Chapman. The P h y s i o l o g i c a l meaning of the maximal oxygen i n t a k e t e s t . J o u r n a l of C l i n i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n , v o l . 37, 1958, p. 538. Morrow, J.R., A.S. Jackson and J.A. B e l l . The Function of age, sex.and body mass on distance running. Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 49, no.4, 1978, pp. 491-497. Olree, H.L., C. Stevens, T. Nelson, G. Agnevik and R.T. Cl a r k . E v a l u a t i o n of the A.A.H.P.E.R.! Youth F i t n e s s Test. J o u r n a l of Sports Medicine and.Physical F i t n e s s , v o l . 5, 1965, pp. 67-71. P a r i z k o v a , J . T o t a l body f a t and s k i n f o l d thickness i n c h i l d r e n . Metabolism, v o l . 10, 1961,pp. 794. Paterson, D.H., and D. A. Cunningham. Maximal oxygen uptake i n c h i l d r e n : comparison of t r e a d m i l l p r o t o c o l s at v a r i e d speeds.. Canadian Journa l of A p p l i e d Sport Sciences, v o l . 3. R i b i s l , P.M., and W. A. Kachadorian. Maximal oxygen i n t a k e i n young and middle-aged males. J o u r n a l of Sports Medicine and P h y s i c a l Fitness., v o l . 9, March 1969, pp. 17-22. S a f r i t , M.J. E v a l u a t i o n i n P h y s i c a l Education Assessing-Motor Behaviour. New Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , B - , : I n C i , 1973,:veh.-9, p. 203. Shephard, R.J. World standards of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y performance. Archives of Environmental. H e a l t h , v o l . 13, 1966, pp. 664-672. - 56 -S i r i , W.E. The Gross composition of the body. In Advances i n B i o l o g i c a l and Medical P h y s i c s , J.H. Lawrence and C.A. Tobias, e d i t o r s . London & New York: Academic Press, 1956, v o l . IV. T a y l o r , H.L., E. Buskirk and A. Henschell. Maximal oxygen uptake as an o b j e c t i v e measure of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y performance. J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d Physiology, v o l . 8, 1955, pp. 73- 80. Vodak, P.A., and J.H. Wilmore. V a l i d i t y of the 6 minute jog-walk and the 600 yard run-walk i n e s t i m a t i n g endurance capacity i n boys, 9 t o 12 years of age. Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 46, May,1974, pp. 230-234. Wiley, J.F., and L.G. Shaver. P r e d i c t i o n of maximal oxygen i n t a k e from running performances of untrained young men. Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 43, March 1972, p. 89. Wilmore, J.H., and J . J . McNamara. Prevalence of coronary heart disease r i s k f a c t o r s i n boys, ei g h t to twelve years of age. J o u r n a l of P e d i a t r i c s , v o l . 84, 1977, pp. 527-533. Wilmore, J.H., and P.O. S i g e r s e t h . P h y s i c a l work capacity of young g i r l s , 7 to 13 years of age.. J o u r n a l of Applied Physiology, v o l . 22, no. 5, 1967, pp. 923-928. Witten, C. C o n s t r u c t i o n of a sub-maximal c a r d i o v a s c u l a r step t e s t f o r c o l l e g e females. Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 44, March 1973, pp. 46-50. - 57 -APPENDIX 1: Consent Forms THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Informed Consent f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n G. McCreight's P h y s i c a l Education Study Dear Parent/Guardian: The students i n Grades 3 and 4 at St. P a t r i c k ' s Elementary School w i l l be asked to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a p h y s i c a l education study conducted by G e r i McCreight, a graduate student i n P h y s i c a l Education at U.B.C. and Dr. R. Mosher, a professor i n the School of P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation at U.B.C. This study w i l l be d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h the measurement of c a r d i o -r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i n young ; g i r l s . The study w i l l take approximately one month to complete. The i n i t i a l p a r t of the study w i l l be conducted w i t h the cooperation of the p r i n c i p a l and teachers a t St. P a t r i c k ' s Elementary School. Each student w i l l be asked to perform 5 to 10 minutes of long distance running on 4 separate days.during the time p e r i o d of A p r i l 9 to A p r i l 15, 1980. These same students w i l l perform 3 d i f f e r e n t timed/distance: runs (9 minutes, 12 minutes and a 1600 metre run) between A p r i l 16 and A p r i l 24, 1980. A l l of t h i s w i l l occur during the normal c l a s s time. The f i n a l stage of t h i s study w i l l be t e s t i n g conducted at U.B.C. during the l a s t week of A p r i l 1980. During t h i s week each student w i l l attend 1 t e s t i n g s e s s i o n at. the J.M. Buchanan F i t n e s s and Research Centre at U.B.C. This t e s t i n g s e ssion w i l l be arranged during school hours. In the U.B.C. t e s t i n g s e s s i o n each c h i l d w i l l perform a graded e x e r c i s e t e s t on a motor-driven t r e a d m i l l . The ex e r c i s e t e s t c o n s i s t s of running f o r 3 minutes a t 4.5 m.p.h. at 3% grade followed by increases i n the grade every 3 minutes to the poi n t of voluntary f a t i g u e . Heart r a t e , blood pressure, oxygen consumption and expired carbon d i o x i d e w i l l be monitored throughout the t e s t . The height and weight of each c h i l d w i l l a l s o be recorded along w i t h an e s t i m a t i o n of per cent body f a t . - 59 -CONSENT FORM PLEASE SIGN AND RETURN THIS SHEET: TO YOUR CHILD"S TEACHER AS SOON AS POSSIBLE. I have read the enclosed consent form and I understand a l l of the test procedures that my c h i l d w i l l , be asked to perform. (Please SIGN ONE of the following) I give my consent for to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the (name of ch i l d ) t e s t i n g conducted at St. Patrick's School and U.B.C. SIGNATURE OF PARENT/GUARDIAN: I do not give my consent for to p a r t i c i p a t e (name of child ) i n the t e s t i n g conducted at St. Patrick's School and U.B.C. SIGNATURE OF PARENT/GUARDIAN: DATE: ADDRESS: . TELEPHONE: CHILD'S MEDICAL BACKGROUND Does your c h i l d have any h i s t o r y of heart or lung re l a t e d disease? Are there any other problems that you think we should know about? -.60 -THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Informed Consent f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n G. McCreight's P h y s i c a l Education Study Dear Parent/Guardian: The students i n Grade 4 and 5 at Crofton House School w i l l be asked to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a p h y s i c a l education study conducted by G e r i McCreight, a graduate student i n P h y s i c a l Education a t U.B.C. and Dr. R. Mosher, a prof e s s o r i n the School of P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation,at U.B.C. This study w i l l be d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h the measurement of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i n young g i r l s . The study w i l l take approximately one month to complete. The i n i t i a l p art of the study w i l l be conducted w i t h the cooperation of Miss Addison and the p h y s i c a l education teachers at Crofton House School. Each student w i l l . b e asked to perform 5 to 10 minutes of long d i s t a n c e running on 4 separate days during the week of May 28 to June 1, 1979. During the weeks of June 4 to June 15, 1979, these same students w i l l perform 3 d i f f e r e n t timed/distance runs (9 minute, 12 minute, and a 1600 metre run). A l l of th i s , w i l l occur during the normal P h y s i c a l Education c l a s s time, at Crofton House. The f i n a l stage of t h i s study w i l l be t e s t i n g conducted at U.B.C. i n the l a s t 2 weeks of June (18-29), 1979. During t h i s 2 week p e r i o d , each student w i l l be asked t o attend 1 t e s t i n g s e s s i o n l a s t i n g approximately -1 hour at the J.M. Buchanan F i t n e s s and Research Centre at U.B.C. This t e s t i n g s e s s i o n w i l l be arranged a f t e r school hours at both the student's and parent's convenience. An a t t e m p t . w i l l be made to t e s t students i n groups of twos and threes. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i l l be a v a i l a b l e f o r those who need i t . I n the U.B.C. t e s t i n g s e s s i o n each c h i l d w i l l perform a graded e x e r c i s e t e s t on a motor-driven t r e a d m i l l . The e x e r c i s e c o n s i s t s of running f o r 3 minutes a t 4.5 m.p.h. at 3 per cent grade followed by increases i n the grade every 3 minutes t o the p o i n t of voluntary f a t i g u e . Heart r a t e , blood pressure, oxygen consumption and expired carbon d i o x i d e w i l l be monitored throughout the t e s t . The height and weight of each c h i l d w i l l - 62 -CONSENT FORM PLEASE SIGN AND RETURN THIS SHEET TO YOUR CHILD'S TEACHER AS SOON AS POSSIBLE. I have read the enclosed consent form and I understand a l l of the t e s t procedures that my c h i l d w i l l be asked to perform. (Please SIGN ONE of the f o l l o w i n g ) I give my consent f o r . to p a r t i c i p a t e i n (name of c h i l d ) the t e s t i n g conducted a t Crofton House and the t e s t i n g s e s s i o n a t U.B.C. SIGNATURE OF PARENT/GUARDIAN: I do not give my consent, f o r to p a r t i c i p a t e (name of c h i l d ) i n the t e s t i n g conducted at Crofton House and the t e s t i n g s e s s i o n at U.B.C. SIGNATURE OF PARENT/GUARDIAN,: DATE: - ADDRESS: TELEPHONE: CHILD'S MEDICAL BACKGROUND Does your c h i l d have any h i s t o r y of heart or lung r e l a t e d disease? Are there any other problems that you.think we should know about? - 63 -• ' APPENDIX 2 TIMED AND DISTANCE RUN DATA SHEETS Group 1 Tester's Name: ••  Test: School: Date: I n d i v i d u a l A d d i t i o n a l Code Laps Completed Distance 1 . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 .14 15 + 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + -i 11 1. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 15 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 16 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 18 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 19 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 21 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 22 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 115 + 23 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 25 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 26 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 27 1 2 3 .4 5. 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 28 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 29 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + TIMED AND DISTANCE RUN DATA SHEETS Group 1 Test: _ Date: Tester's Name: School: I n d i v i d u a l Code Laps Completed A d d i t i o n a l Distance 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 32 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 33 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 34 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 35 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12- 13 14 15 : 1. + 36 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 : 15 + 37 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 38 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 39 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 40 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 41 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 42 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 43 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 44 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 45 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 46 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 47 1 2 3 4 5 6 < 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 48 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 49 : i 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 50 l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 51 l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 52 l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 53 l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 54 l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 55 l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 56 i 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 57 l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 58 l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 59 l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + 60 l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 + ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA SHEET I n d i v i d u a l Subject Code: Name: _2_ B i r t h d a t e School: Group: " Date: Heigth: cm. Weight: kg. S k i n f o l d s : T r ± a l ± T r ± a l 2 T r i a l 3 Triceps (mm) Biceps (mm) Subscapular (mm) S u p r a i l i a e (mm) _ _ _ _ _ T o t a l = 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0077279/manifest

Comment

Related Items