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Field estimation of cardiorespiratory fitness in young females, eight to eleven years of age McCreight, Geraldine Ann 1982

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FIELD ESTIMATION OF CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS IN YOUNG FEMALES, EIGHT TO ELEVEN YEARS OF AGE 1  by  GERALDINE ANN MCCREIGHT B.P.E., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia, 1977  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF: PHYSICAL EDUCATION  in THE  SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION  We accept  this  t h e s i s as  to the r e q u i r e d  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April  0  conforming  1982 -  G e r a l d i n e Ann McCreight,  1982  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may department or by h i s or her  be granted by  the head o f  representatives.  my  It is  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6  (3/81)  written  - ii  -  ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s s t u d y was 1.  twofold:  To determine the v a l i d i t y of t h e 9 minute and 12 minute timed runs and the 1600 metre d i s t a n c e r u n as p r e d i c t o r s of peak oxygen uptake and t h e r e f o r e as measures o f c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i n . g i r l s 8 t o 11 y e a r s of age.  2.  To determine t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f the 9 minute and 12 minute timed runs and t h e 1600 metre d i s t a n c e r u n as measures of cardiorespiratory  endurance.  Hypotheses were f o r m u l a t e d from t h e s e two major purposes as w e l l as from a d d i t o n a l problems which i n c l u d e d : ( i ) s t u d y i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the t i m e d / d i s t a n c e runs and peak oxygen uptake as the d i s t a n c e and time components o f the runs i n c r e a s e d , ( i i ) d e t e r m i n i n g the i n t e r c o r r e l a t o n s between two d i f f e r e n t timed o r d i s t a n c e runs w i t h ' r e s p e c t t o the d i s t a n c e and t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e spent r u n n i n g . S i x t y female s u b j e c t s from C r o f t o n House S c h o o l and S t . P a t r i c k ' s Elementary S c h o o l , Vancouver, B.C., were t e s t e d on the t h r e e t i m e d / d i s t a n c e r u n s , the 9 m i n u t e , 12 minute and,1600 metre runs and a peak oxygen treadmill test.  uptake  A n t h r o p o m e t r i c measures ( h e i g h t , w e i g h t and p e r c e n t body  f a t ) were a l s o t a k e n .  P r i o r t o t h e t i m e d / d i s t a n c e r u n t e s t i n g a l l of the  s u b j e c t s were taught the concept o f paced r u n n i n g and had f o u r p r a c t i s e runs t o p r a c t i s e t h i s c o n c e p t .  Twenty o f t h e s u b j e c t s completed a l l  the  testing. The v a l i d i t i e s of the 9 minute, the 12 minute and the 1600 metre runs as p r e d i c t o r s o f peak oxygen uptake and t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a l l t h e v a r i a b l e s were determined by d e v e l o p i n g a c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x .  Stepwise  m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s were conducted t o s e l e c t the independent  - i i i variables  (age, h e i g h t , weight, p e r c e n t body f a t ,  9 minute timed r u n , 12  minute timed run and t h e 1600 metre d i s t a n c e run) t h a t b e s t p r e d i c t e d the dependent v a r i a b l e , peak oxygen uptake. The r e l i a b i l i t i e s  of the 9 minute, the 12 minute and the 1600 metre  runs were determined by d e v e l o p i n g t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y  correlation  coefficients. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l l t h r e e t i m e d / d i s t a n c e runs were significantly  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h peak oxygen uptake.  The 9 minute timed r u n  e x h i b i t e d the h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h peak oxygen uptake f o l l o w e d by the 1600 metre d i s t a n c e r u n and the 12 minute timed r u n .  Both the 1600 metre  d i s t a n c e r u n and the 12:minute timed.run showed s i g n i f i c a n t reliability  test-retest  c o r r e l a t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e were r e l i a b l e p r e d i c t o r s of peak oxygen  uptake i n g i r l s  8 t o 11 y e a r s - o f age.  T h e : ' i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between the  timed and d i s t a n c e runs showed the 9 minute timed r u n and the 1600 metre d i s t a n c e r u n h a v i n g t h e h i g h e s t degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p  f o l l o w e d by the  1600 metre d i s t a n c e run and the 12 minute timed run and f i n a l l y  the 9  minute and 12 minute timed r u n s . In run  c o n c l u s i o n both the 1600 metre d i s t a n c e run and t h e 12 minute timed  were c o n s i d e r e d t o be r e l i a b l e f i e l d  uptake i n g i r l s  8 to 11 y e a r s of age.  h i g h e r v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y preferred age.  field  t e s t s and p r e d i c t e d peak oxygen  The 1600 metre d i s t a n c e run e x h i b i t e d  c o r r e l a t i o n s and t h e r e f o r e would be the  t e s t of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i n g i r l s  8 to 11 y e a r s of  - iv TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE.OF CONTENTS  iv  LIST OF TABLES . .  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .. Chapter 1  .. •  INTRODUCTION TO THE  v i i  PROBLEM  A.  Introduction  B.  Statement of the Problem  2  C.  Hypotheses  2  D.  Sub-Hypotheses  3  E.  Limitations  3  Delimitations  3  G.  Definitions  3  H.  J u s t i f i c a t i o n of t h e Study  5a  > F.  Chapter 2 A.  1  REVIEW OF LITERATURE R a t i o n a l e - ' f o r F i e l d T e s t s t h a t Measure r e s p i r a t o r y Capacity  B. C.  .. ...  Cardio6  Types of F i e l d T e s t s The V a l i d i t y of Short D i s t a n c e -^Running Tests.  7 v e r s u s Long  Distance 12  D.  F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g Running Performance..:  14  E.  Research Conducted on Young Female C h i l d r e n  16  Chapter 3  METHODS AND  PROCEDURES  A.  Introduction  18  B.  Procedures  18  C.  S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s and Research D e s i g n  22  -  Chapter 4  V  -  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  A.  D e s c r i p t i v e Data  B.  Results  C.  -  25 - .  •. -.^JL  •1.  Validity  2.  Test-Retest R e l i a b i l i t y  -  -  —~  :  26 '33  Discussion  Chapter' 5  1.  Validity  .  2.  Test-Retest R e l i a b i l i t i e s  34 44  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  A.  Summary  46  B.  Conclusions  47  C.  Recommendations  48  BIBLIOGRAPHY  50  APPENDIX 1  CONSENT FORMS  APPENDIX 2  DATASHEETS  57 •  63  - vi -  LIST OF TABLES Table 1  R e q u i r e d C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s t o Reach S i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e .05 and .01 L e v e l s  2  23  R e q u i r e d C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s a t t h e .05 and .01 L e v e l s o f . S i g n i f i c a n c e  3  24  R e q u i r e d t V a l u e s t o Reach S i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e .05 and .01 L e v e l s  24  4  D e s c r i p t i v e Data o f t h e S u b j e c t s  27  5  Correlation Matrix  28  6  R e g r e s s i o n E q u a t i o n t o P r e d i c t Peak Oxygen Uptake ( m l - k g " - m i n " ) 1  30  1  7  Partial  C o r r e l a t i o n s o f Independent V a r i a b l e s  8  R e g r e s s i o n E q u a t i o n t o P r e d i c t Peak Oxygen  ......  30  Uptake ( 1 - m i n " )  33  T e s t - R e t e s t R e l i a b i l i t y and R e p r o d u c i b i l i t y  34  TO  Comparison of T r e a d m i l l P r o t o c o l s  38  IT  Observed v e r s u s P r e d i c t e d Peak Oxygen Uptake  1  9  Values Using the.Preferred  Regression Equation  43  - vii -  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The a u t h o r wishes t o thank t h e members o f h e r t h e s i s  committee,  Dr. R.E. Mosher ( T h e s i s A d v i s o r and Chairman), Dr.T. Rhodes, Dr. C.E.H. V e n a b l e s , Dr. S.R. Brown and Dr.D. W h i t t l e .  A s p e c i a l thanks t o Dr. Mosher  f o r h i s s u p p o r t and encouragement throughout t h e i n i t i a l and f i n a l s t a g e s of t h i s  thesis.  F i n a l l y , thank y o u t o C r o f t o n . House S c h o o l and S t . P a t r i c k ' s Elementary S c h o o l f o r a l l o w i n g t h e a u t h o r t o work w i t h t h e i r students.,'  Chapter  I  INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM A.  Introduction C a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i s "unquestionably  of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , and measure of a person's  to some e d u c a t o r s  physical condition"  one  of the key  i t i s the s i n g l e . m o s t (Johnson  and N e l s o n ,  components indicative  1974).  C a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s can be d e f i n e d as the e f f i c i e n c y of the oxygen t r a n s p o r t system ( i . e . , the h e a r t , the l u n g s , and s u p p l y i n g oxygen and  the b l o o d v e s s e l s ) i n  removing waste m a t e r i a l s from the body's c e l l s .  g e n e r a l l y been accepted  t h a t the most s u i t a b l e measure of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y  f i t n e s s i s maximal oxygen uptake  (mVI^) which measures the amount of oxygen  consumed p e r k i l o g r a m of body weight per minute of e x e r c i s e P a n g r a z i , P e t e r s e n , B u r k e t t and  Schneider,  U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s measurement i s v e r y time of s p e c i a l , expensive  I t has  1978;  (Krahenbuhl,  Johnson and Nelson,  consuming and r e q u i r e s the  equipment i n a l a b o r a t o r y s e t t i n g .  1974). use  Consequently  measurement,of maximal oxygen uptake i s not f e a s i b l e f o r the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . A field  t e s t t h a t c o u l d a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t maximal oxygen uptake would  p r o v i d e a v a l i d measure of the e f f i c i e n c y of the oxygen t r a n s p o r t system, i . e . cardiorespiratory fitness.  Many f i e l d  t e s t s have been developed  c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s but u n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e i s l i t t l e t h i s a r e a r e l a t i n g to younger age age  of 18 y e a r s .  groups and p a r t i c u l a r l y  to measure  information i n  f o r g i r l s below the  C u r r e n t l y the American A l l i a n c e f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l Educa-r  t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n l i s t s no t e s t o f c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s f o r c h i l d r e n under 10 y e a r s of age 1977).  (Krahenbuhl,  P a n g r a z i , B u r k e t t , Schneider  and  Petersen,  R e c e n t l y the B r i t i s h Columbia P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n L e a r n i n g Assessment  (1979) showed t h a t v a l i d and  r e l i a b l e t e s t s to measure c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y  f i t n e s s were p r a c t i c a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t f o r young c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y young females.  There a r e few  s t u d i e s i n t h i s a r e a and  the r e s u l t s are c o n t r a d i c t o r y .  More i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h i s problem i s n e c e s s a r y . ,B.- Statement o f the Problem The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e : 1.  The v a l i d i t y of the 9 minute and 12 minute timed runs and the 1600 metre d i s t a n c e r u n as p r e d i c t o r s of peak oxygen uptake and t h e r e f o r e as measures o f c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i n g i r l s 8 t o 11 y e a r s o f age.  2.  The r e l i a b i l i t y  o f t h e 9 minute and 12 minute timed runs and the  1600 metre d i s t a n c e r u n as measures of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y endurance. C. Hypotheses 1.  The 9 minute and 12 minute timed r u n s and t h e 1600 metre d i s t a n c e run  w i l l be v a l i d f i e l d measures  girls (a)  of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i n  8 t o 11 y e a r s o f age.  t h e performance of g i r l s  8 t o 11 y e a r s o f age on timed and  d i s t a n c e runs i s r e l a t e d t o peak oxygen uptake and i s t h e r e f o r e a p r e d i c t o r o f peak oxygen uptake. (b)  as the d i s t a n c e and time components of a r u n i n c r e a s e , the r e l a t i o n s h i p t o peak oxygen uptake a l s o i n c r e s e s y t h e r e f o r e ( i ) the 12 minute timed r u n w i l l have t h e h i g h e s t  correlation  w i t h peak oxygen uptake (ml/kg. m i n ) ; ( i i ) t h e 1600 metre d i s t a n c e r u n w i l l have the second h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h peak oxygen uptake (ml/kg. m i n ) ; ( i i i ) t h e 9 minute timed r u n w i l l have t h e l o w e s t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h peak oxygen u p t a k e (ml/kg. m i n ) . 2.  Both timed and d i s t a n c e r u n s , s p e c i f i c a l l y the 9 m i n u t e , the 12 minute and the 1600 metre r u n , a r e r e l i a b l e f i e l d measures of cardiorespiratory fitness i n g i r l s  8 t o 11 y e a r s of age.  Sub-Hypothesis 1.  The c o r r e l a t i o n between two d i f f e r e n t timed or d i s t a n c e runs w i l l i n c r e a s e as the runs become c l o s e r i n the d i s t a n c e and the l e n g t h of time spent r u n n i n g , t h e r e f o r e (a) the 12 minute  timed run and the 1600 metre d i s t a n c e run w i l l  have the h i g h e s t  correlation;  (b) the 1600 metre d i s t a n c e run and the 9 minute have the second h i g h e s t  timed run w i l l  correlation;  (c) the 12 minute and the 9 minute  timed runs w i l l have the lowest  correlation.  Limitations 1.  The m o t i v a t i o n affect  2.  affect  the performances  of the s u b j e c t s on  any  day;  The c o n d i t i o n of the f i e l d where the r u n i s to be conducted a f f e c t the performance  4.  may  scores;  Weather changes may one  3.  their  o f the s u b j e c t s t o p e r f o r m i n each of the t e s t s  The a b i l i t y  may  of the s u b j e c t s ; and  of each s u b j e c t to understand and p r a c t i c e the concept  of p a c i n g may  affect  the s c o r e s .  Delimitations 1.  T h i s study i s d e l i m i t e d to .8  to 11 year o l d g i r l s .  2.  The s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study a r e not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a random sample.  Definitions 1.  Maximal Oxygen Uptake (max Vt^) ml/Kg.- min T h i s measurement r e f e r s to the l a r g e s t volume of oxygen uptake p o s s i b l e as determined by the e f f i c i e n c y and c a p a c i t y of the h e a r t ,  lungs and the b l o o d v e s s e l s (the c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y s y s t e m ) . Maximal oxygen uptake i s u s u a l l y expressed: i n m i l l i l i t r e s / k i l o g r a m - m i n u t e (ml/kg-min). Cardiorespiratory Fitness T h i s can be d e f i n e d as the a b i l i t y o f t h e body t o endure a t a h i g h m e t a b o l i c l o a d i n g and i s a f f e c t e d by the e f f i c i e n c y o f the oxygen t r a n s p o r t system ( t h e h e a r t , the l u n g s , the b l o o d v e s s e l s ) i n supp l y i n g oxygen and removing m a t a b o l i t e s from t h e body's c e l l s .  The  most s u i t a b l e measure of t h i s known t o date i s maximal oxygen uptake (ml/kg-min).. A e r o b i c Working C a p a c i t y The word " a e r o b i c " means " w i t h oxygen," t h e r e f o r e , a e r o b i c w o r k i n g c a p a c i t y can be c o n s i d e r e d t o r e f l e c t the c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y c o n d i t i o n . Peak Oxygen Uptake Due t o t h e c o n t r o v e r s y i n d e t e r m i n i n g i f a s u b j e c t has a c t u a l l y  ob-  t a i n e d h i s / h e r t r u e maximal oxygen uptake the i n v e s t i g a t o r i n the p r e s e n t study has chosen t o use peak oxygen uptake as the c r i t e r i o n measure. Peak oxygen uptake w i l l be d e f i n e d as t h e h i g h e s t oxygen uptake obt a i n e d by the s u b j e c t over the l a s t two w o r k l o a d s of the t r e a d m i l l test. Validity The v a l i d i t y of a t e s t may be d e f i n e d as the a c c u r a c y w i t h w h i c h t h e t e s t measures t h a t which i t i s used t o measure, o r as the degree t o which i t approaches i n f a l l i b i l i t y i n measuring t h a t w h i c h i t p u r p o r t s to measure ( S a f r i t , 1973). A t e s t i s v a l i d f o r a p a r t i c u l a r purpose or i n a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n - i t i s not g e n e r a l l y v a l i d .  - 4a There a r e d i f f e r e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r was  types o f v a l i d i t y , however i n t h i s s t u d y the  concerned w i t h c r i t e r i o n - r e l a t e d  validity.  - 5 There a r e two t y p e s . o f c r i t e r i o n - r e l a t e d (a)  validity:  Predictive validity P r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y i s t h e degree t o which a c r i t e r i o n behar v i o u r i s p r e d i c t e d from p r e d i c t o r s c o r e s .  A person's expected  f u t u r e performance i s p r e d i c t e d from a t e s t and t h e u s e f u l n e s s of are  t h e t e s t s c o r e i s judged a g a i n s t the c r i t e r i o n .  Predictors  t e s t s or v a r i a b l e s that p r e d i c t c r i t e r i o n behaviour  ( S a f r i t , 1973). (b) C o n c u r r e n t V a l i d i t y Concurrent V a l i d i t y i n v o l v e s the comparison of a g i v e n t e s t w i t h a n o t h e r t e s t t h a t has an e s t a b l i s h e d v a l i d i t y b u t i s e x c e s s i v e l y time-consuming o r . c o s t l y t o a d m i n i s t e r .  The  proven t e s t w i t h an e s t a b l i s h e d v a l i d i t y c o u l d be the c r i t e r i o n ( S a f r i t , 1973). 6.  Criterion A c r i t e r i o n i s a s t a n d a r d of j u d g i n g t h a t w h i c h i s a known and a c c e p t e d measure o f whatever the author wishes t o t e s t .  The  c r i t e r i o n may be a n o t h e r t e s t w h i c h has proven i t s w o r t h o r i t may be some s c o r e determined s u b j e c t i v e l y such as t h a t p r o v i d e d by a r a t i n g ( S a f r i t ,  1973).  The c r i t e r i o n i s the y a r d s t i c k a g a i n s t w h i c h the t e s t i n q u e s t i o n i s t o be measured.  T h e r e f o r e i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t the c r i t e r i o n  is appropriate. 7.  Reliability R e l i a b i l i t y r e f e r s t o the p r e c i s i o n and c o n s i s t e n c y of a measure. The r e l i a b i l i t y  of a t e s t r e f e r s t o the d e p e n d a b i l i t y of s c o r e s ,  t h e i r r e l a t i v e freedom from e r r o r s .  I t i s the tendency toward  c o n s i s t e n c y e x h i b i t e d by a g i v e n i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e p e a t e d performance of  one b e h a v i o u r .  - 5a A t e s t can be r e l i a b l e w i t h o u t b e i n g v a l i d , but a v a l i d must a l s o be - r e l i a b l e ( S a f r i t , ;  1973).  In t h i s s t u d y t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r w i l l be concerned with test-retest H.  J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the  test  specifically  reliability.  Study  Measurement i s an i m p o r t a n t component i n any s c h o o l program. Measurements a l l o w a t e a c h e r to e v a l u a t e the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups and to f o r m u l a t e g o a l s and programs t h a t w i l l meet t h e needs f o r each i n d i v i d u a l . a n d f o r each group.  E v a l u a t i o n can h e l p  i n f o r m t e a c h e r s o f b e n e f i c i a l changes t h a t o c c u r f o r each,'.student u l t i m a t e l y f o r s o c i e t y (Johnson and N e l s o n , 1974).  Specifically  and cardio-  r e s p i r a t o r y t e s t s are important f o r : 1;.  a s s e s s i n g t h e s t a t u s and improvement of s t u d e n t s as they p r o g r e s s through-a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n program;  2.  s c r e e n i n g s t u d e n t s f o r p o s s i b l e c a r d i a c and/or r e s p i r a t o r y  problems.  I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e . t h a t - t h i s s h o u l d not be c o n s i d e r e d as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r a medical examination; 3.  and  use as an e d u c a t i o n a l l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r the s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d i n the t e s t i n g .  C a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y t e s t s can be v e r y e f f e c t i v e f o r  t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s and f o r the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s d e r i v e d from the body's r e a c t o n s to e x e r c i s e , s p e c i f i c a l l y c i r c u l a t o r y , r e s p i r a t o r y and t h e r m o r e g u l a t i o n  the  systems.  I f s i g n i f i c t o t c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e o b t a i n e d between peak oxygen uptake and t h e timed and d i s t a n c e runs t h e r e s u l t s of the p r e s e n t study w i l l be a p o s i t i v e s t e p i n t h e development of a v a l i d f i e l d t e s t t o measure c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s , i n young g i r l s 8 t o 11 y e a r s of  age.  In a d d i t i o n , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n and data o b t a i n e d from t h i s t h e s i s w i l l  - 5b add  t o the scant  physiological  body  of knowledge  capabilities  presently  o f 8 t o 11 y e a r  existing  old girls.  regarding  the  - 6 -  Chapter  II  REVIEW OF LITERATURE A.-  R a t i o n a l e f o r F i e l d Tests That Measure C a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y C a p a c i t y Canadians a r e becoming aware of the importance  condition.  o f b e i n g i n good p h y s i c a l  T h i s a t t i t u d e i s r e f l e c t e d i n the i n c r e a s i n g number of p a r t i c i -  pants i n Young Men  C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n (YMCA) and Young Women C h r i s t i a n  (YWCA) programs, employee f i t n e s s , community c e n t r e and i n d i v i d u a l j o g g i n g programs. I n r e c e n t y e a r s , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programs have a l s o r e f l e c t e d a renewed i n t e r e s t i n t h e development of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s ( J a c k s o n and 1976).  These concerns  shown by the p u b l i c are due  t o a v a r i e t y of  I n c l u d i n g the p o p u l a r i t y of Cooper's A e r o b i c Program (1968) and the  Coleman,  reasons growing  body.of s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h l i n k i n g endurance f i t n e s s t o h e a l t h and p h y s i o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g (Fox and S k i n n e r , 1964). H e a l t h concerns  such as coronary h e a r t d i s e a s e a r e major i s s u e s con-  f r o n t i n g t h e m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n and s o c i e t y as a whole.  More Canadians d i e  from h e a r t d i s e a s e than a l l o t h e r causes combined (B.C. Heart e x c e r p t from the Programme f o r F i t n e s s i n the 80's, 1980).  Foundation,  I t i s now  r e c o g n i z e d t h a t coronary h e a r t d i s e a s e , which r e s u l t s i n a r t e r i a l damage l o n g b e f o r e t h e f i r s t o v e r t symptoms appear, i s m a i n l y of p e d i a t r i c (Wilmore and McNamara, 1977;  Krahenbuhl,  origin  P a n g r a z i , P e t e r s e n , B u r k e t t and  S c h n e i d e r , 1978). . S e v e r a l of t h e r i s k f a c t o r s f o r coronary h e a r t d i s e a s e have been i d e n t i f i e d i n a d u l t s and  the i n c i d e n c e of these r i s k f a c t o r s i n  c h i l d r e n has been s t u d i e d (Drash, 1972; Thorland and Weitman, 1977; R e i t e r and C l a r k , 1975).  Friedman, 1972;  K a n n e l and Dawber, 1972;  Gilliam,  Katch,  L a u e r , Conner, L e a v e r t o n ,  I n f a c t , t h e p r e v a l e n c e of c o r o n a r y h e a r t d i s e a s e  r i s k f a c t o r s i n c h i l d r e n , 7 t o 12 y e a r s of age, seems to be. q u i t e h i g h (Krahenbuhl, P a n g r a z i , P e t e r s e n , B u r k e t t and S c h n e i d e r , 1978).  According to  A s t r a n d and Rodahl  (1970)  5  the t r a i n i n g and e f f i c i e n c y of the oxygen t r a n s p o r t  system i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t as: a r i s k r e d u c t i o n measure f o r c o r o n a r y h e a r t d i s e a s e ( K r a h e n b u h l , P a n g r a z i , P e t e r s e n , B u r k e t t and S c h n e i d e r , 1978). These renewed i n t e r e s t s i n h e a l t h concerns have been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the improvement of measurement p r o c e d u r e s t o e v a l u a t e p h y s i c a l ' f i t n e s s  status.  E x e r c i s e p h y s i o l o g i s t s agree t h a t the b e s t p h y s i o l o g i c a l measurement f o r d e t e r m i n i n g one's c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y endurance o r a e r o b i c power i s maximal oxygen u p t a k e , t h a t i s , the maximal c a p a c i t y of the c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y  system  to take-up, t r a n s p o r t and g i v e o f f oxygen t o t h e t i s s u e s ( A s t r a n d and  Rodahl,  1970; M i t c h e l l , S p r o u l e and Chapman, 1958; and H e n s c h e l l , 1955).  Shephard, 1966;  Taylor, Buskirk,  Some'people s t i l l q u e s t i o n . t h e use of t h i s  measurement" as a s u i t a b l e i n d i c a t i o n of one's c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s e . s t a t u s ( C u r e t o n , B o i l e a u , Lohman and M i s n e r , 1978).  Nevertheless, cardio-  r e s p i r a t o r y endurance i s w i d e l y accepted'ks;' a" component of f i t n e s s .and f o r ; many p e o p l e i t i s c o n s i d e r e d the most i m p o r t a n t ( G e t c h e l l , K i r k e n d a l l Robbins,  and  1978).  There have been s e v e r a l t e c h n i q u e s developed f o r measuring oxygen uptake. •<•' 'Moat' of t h e s e  maximal  require- expensive" and' time consuming  l a b o r a t o r y p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h a r e not f e a s i b l e f o r mass t e s t i n g i n a p u b l i c situation.  C o n s e q u e n t l y , r e s e a r c h e r s have attempted  t o develop v a l i d  t e s t s t h a t can p r e d i c t l a b o r a t o r y determined maximal oxygen  field  consumption.  B> ^Types o f F i e l d T e s t s G e n e r a l l y f i e l d t e s t s t o measure a e r o b i c endurance have been e i t h e r s t e p t e s t s , timed o r d i s t a n c e r u n s . D u r i n g World War  I I , Brouha (1943) developed the H a r v a r d Step Test as  a f i e l d measure to p r e d i c t maximal oxygen uptake i n c o l l e g e aged men.  This  t e s t r e q u i r e d a s u b j e c t t o e x e r c i s e on a 2 0 - i n c h bench a t a cadence of 30 s t e p s p e r minute f o r as l o n g as p o s s i b l e , up t o a maximum of 5 minutes.  The  - 8 p o s t e x e r c i s e p u l s e r a t e was r e c o r d e d 3 times d u r i n g recovery.: from 1 t o 1.5 m i n u t e s , from 2 t o 2,5 minutes and from 3 t o 3.5 m i n u t e s .  The sum of the  p u l s e counts i n t h e t h r e e r e c o v e r y p e r i o d s and the time s p e n t s t e p p i n g measured i n seconds were a p p l i e d t o a f o r m u l a from which t h e i n d e x o f p h y s i c a l e f f i c i e n c y was determined. Meyers (1969) r e p o r t e d r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s o f 0.77 f o r c o l l e g e aged males and 0.65 f o r grade 8 males u s i n g t h e H a r v a r d Step T e s t .  Metz and  A l e x a n d e r (1970) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between v a r i o u s p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s t e s t i t e m s and maximal oxygen uptake "'in boy's 12 t o 15 y e a r s o l d . A c o r r e l a t i o n o f 0.54 was o b t a i n e d between t h e H a r v a r d Step T e s t and maximal oxygen uptake i n 30 o f the b o y s , ages 12 t o 13 y e a r s .  This c o r r e l a t i o n  decreased when t h e o l d e r b o y s , ages 14 t o 15 y e a r s , were t e s t e d ( r =0.42). B o t h . o f these c o r r e l a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l .  However, a  2 m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f 0.70 o r l a r g e r ( r =.50 a p p r o x i m a t e l y ) was a c c e p t e d as t h e c r i t e r i o n f o r t h e e s t i m a t i o n o f maximal oxygen uptake.: T h i s c r i t e r i o n was d e c i d e d upon by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s so t h a t no more than a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50% o f t h e v a r i a b i l i t y would be unaccounted f o r .  Consequently,  s i n c e t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s f o r e s t i m a t i n g maximal oxygen uptake from the Harvard Step Test s c o r e produced m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o f 0.54 and 0.42, t h e Harvard Step Test was c o n s i d e r e d i n a d e q u a t e f o r e s t i m a t i n g maximal oxygen uptake. •  •  The Harvard Step T e s t was g e n e r a l l y c r i t i c i z e d f o r i t s strenuousness. r e s u l t i n g i n f a t i g u e and cramps i n t h e l a r g e l e g muscles.  As a r e s u l t o f  t h i s c r i t i c i s m , t h e H a r v a r d Step Test was m o d i f i e d i n 1969 ( K u r u c z , Fox and Matthews, 1969) and renamed the Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y (0SU) Step T e s t .  This  t e s t u t i l i z e d a s p l i t l e v e l bench w i t h s t e p h e i g h t s o f 15 and 20 i n c h e s , a l o n g w i t h a handbar. i n each.  The t e s t c o n s i s t e d o f t h r e e phases w i t h s i x i n n i n g s  An i n n i n g c o n s i s t e d o f 30 seconds o f s t e p p i n g and a 20 second  rest  - 9 p e r i o d d u r i n g w h i c h a 10 second p u l s e count was taken between t h e 5 t o 1 5 t h second.  Each o f the t h r e e phases had a d i f f e r e n t w o r k l o a d : phase one - 6  i n n i n g s a t 24 s t e p s p e r minute on a 15 i n c h bench; phase two - 6 i n n i n g s a t 30 s t e p s p e r minute on a 15 i n c h bench; phase t h r e e - 6 i n n i n g s a t 30 s t e p s p e r minute on a 20 i n c h bench.  The t e s t .terminated a t the end o f the 1 8 t h  i n n i n g (phase t h r e e ) o r whenever t h e p u l s e r a t e reached minute.  T h i s t e s t was developed  150 b e a t s p e r  f o r men between t h e ages o f 18 and 60 y e a r s .  A v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f 0.94 was o b t a i n e d w i t h t h e B a l k e T r e a d m i l l Test as the c r i t e r i o n measure.  The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was 0.94.  C o t t e n (1971) m o d i f i e d t h e Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y (OSU) Step  Test  f u r t h e r t o make i t a p p l i c a b l e f o r h i g h s c h o o l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s . T h i s t e s t was designed t o be g i v e n on b l e a c h e r s t e p s w h i c h a r e u s u a l l y 17 inches high.  The t e s t procedures  a r e i d e n t i c a l t o t h e OSU Step Test  except  a 17 i n c h s t e p was used, no handbar was r e q u i r e d and t h e s t e p p i n g cadence i n Phase t h r e e was 36 s t e p s p e r minute.  C o t t e n (1971) r e p o r t e d a v a l i d i t y  c o e f f i c i e n t o f 0.84 w i t h t h e B a l k e T r e a d m i l l T e s t , u s i n g male s t u d e n t s i n grades 9 t o 12.  The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l a i b i l i t y  c o e f f i c i e n t s were 0.95 f o r male  p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n majors, and 0.75 f o r male h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , grades 9 t o 12. W i t t e n (1973) developed ages o f 18 t o 22 y e a r s .  a s t e p t e s t f o r c o l l e g e females between t h e  The t e s t c o n s i s t e d o f s t e p p i n g f o r 30 seconds  f o l l o w e d by a 20 second r e s t a t a cadence o f 24 s t e p s p e r minute on a 14 i n c h s t e p and p r o g r e s s i n g t o a cadence o f 30 s t e p s p e r minute on a 17 i n c h bench. The  t e s t was s c o r e d by c o u n t i n g the number of i n n i n g s r e q u i r e d t o r a i s e the  h e a r t r a t e to 168 b e a t s p e r minute.  A v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f 0.85 was  o b t a i n e d when t h e t e s t was c o r r e l a t e d t o t h e B a l k e T r e a d m i l l T e s t . Martens (1978) compared f o u r d i f f e r e n t f i e l d v a s c u l a r f i t n e s s i n c h i l d r e n , grades 4 t o 6.  t e s t s t o measure c a r d i o -  The f o u r t e s t s , the one m i l e  r u n , t h e 9 minute r u n , P h y s i c a l Work C a p a c i t y w i t h the h e a r t r a t e a t 170  - 10 b e a t s per m i n u t e and correlated  the A c t i o n B,C,  1 m i l e run was  the g i r l s .  The  then i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d  the m i l e run was  However, t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n was  because i t l e f t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80%  separately  c o r r e l a t i o n between the 9 minute run  s i g n i f i c a n t ( r =-0.834)' a t the 0.001  between the s t e p t e s t and level.  C h i l d r e n ' s A e r o b i c Step T e s t , were i n t e r -  f o r the t o t a l group of s u b j e c t s and  f o r b o t h the boys and the  -  level.  The  correlation  s i g n i f i c a n t ( r =0,377) a t the  not h i g h enough f o r p r e d i c t i v e  significant.  .05  purposes  of the v a r i a b i l i t y unaccounted f o r .  o t h e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between.the f o u r t e s t s were not  and  The  Although  the  f o u r f i e l d t e s t s were not v a l i d a t e d w i t h maximal oxygen u p t a k e , Martens (1978) c o n c l u d e d t h a t s i n c e the 9 minute run had a v a l i d cardiovascular 1 m i l e run  t e s t f o r t h i s age  been shown i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s group, b o t h the 9 minute run and  ( c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the 9 minute r u n , r =0.834) were v a l i d  v a s c u l a r t e s t s f o r elementary school c h i l d r e n .  when the 9 m i n u t e r u n was  the A c t i o n B.C.  the  further  Step Test  t e s t s f o r elementary s c h o o l  used as the c r i t e r i o n of c a r d i o v a s c u l a r  be  cardio-  Martens (1978) s t a t e d  t h a t b o t h the P h y s i c a l . Work C a p a c i t y (PWC-170) and were not v a l i d or r e l i a b l e c a r d i o v a s c u l a r  to  children  fitness.  From the d a t a p r e s e n t e d i t appears t h a t r e s u l t s from the H a r v a r d Step Test and  modifications  of i t become l e s s r e l i a b l e and  ages of the s u b j e c t s d e c r e a s e . t o e x i s t m a i n l y i n the  The  s o u r c e s of e r r o r and  c o u n t i n g of p u l s e s and  the  of s u b j e c t s t h a t can p a r t i c i p a t e a t one  respiratory  t o the  time (equipment) and  a s s i s t a n t s needed t o ensure p r o p e r t e c h n i q u e and appear t o be  Due  the most, e f f i c i e n t f i e l d  as  inconsistency  i n a b i l i t y of the  to m a i n t a i n the cadence and.proper s t e p p i n g a c t i o n .  does not  less consistent  the  appear  subjects  l i m i t e d number  the number of  p u l s e c o u n t i n g , the s t e p t e s t  t e s t to measure  endurance i n a mass t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n .  cardio-  A l s o the d a t a  available  u s i n g t h i s type o f t e s t on young c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y young g i r l s , i s nonexistent. S i n c e B a l k e ' s work i n 1963,  walkr-run t e s t s f o r d i s t a n c e have been  f i e l d t e s t s most o f t e n recommended (Jackson and  Coleman, 1976).  the  - 11 B a l k e (1963) r e p o r t e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p  between  r u n n i n g v e l o c i t i e s and oxygen r e q u i r e m e n t s when expressed p e r u n i t o f body weight.  The oxygen c o s t o f r u n n i n g speeds has compared w e l l w i t h maximal  oxygen uptake v a l u e s when t h e d i s t a n c e runs were 10 t o 20 minutes i n duration.  T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was r e i n f o r c e d  which involved  by f i n d i n g s i n f u r t h e r  p r o l o n g e d r u n n i n g (over 10 m i n u t e s ) and r e s u l t e d  c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h maximal oxygen uptake.  studies  i n high  Cooper (1968) r e p o r t e d a c o r r e l a t i o n  of r =0.897 between a 12 minute d i s t a n c e r u n and maximal oxygen uptake i n males ages 17 t o 52 y e a r s .  U s i n g a rank o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n , D o o l i t t l e and  Bigbee (1968) o b t a i n e d a c o r r e l a t i o n o f r =0.90 f o r n i n e grade 9 boys u s i n g the 12 minute r u n .  Burke (1976) r e p o r t e d a s i m i l a r c o r r e l a t i o n o f r = 0 . 9 0  between t h e 12 m i n u t e r u n and=maximal oxygen uptake f o r m a l e s , ages 17 t o 30 y e a r s .  Gregory (1970) o b t a i n e d a c o r r e l a t i o n o f r =0.66 f o r c o l l e g e age  males when comparing t h e 12 minute r u n t o maximal oxygen u p t a k e . Kearney and Byrnes (1974) i n v e s t i g a t e d running  performance and p r e d i c t e d  education majors.  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between  maximal oxygen uptake i n male  physical  C o r r e l a t i o n . c o e f f i c i e n t s were o b t a i n e d f o r t h r e e d i f f e r e n t  d i s t a n c e runs i n c l u d i n g a c o r r e l a t i o n o f r = 0 . 3 0 f o r a h a l f m i l e r u n and a c o r r e l a t i o n o f r =-0.59 f o r a 1 m i l e r u n and a c o r r e l a t i o n o f r = 0 . 6 4 f o r a 12 m i n u t e r u n . K a t c h (1970, 1972) conducted two d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s  d e a l i n g w i t h the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between r u n n i n g performance and maximal oxygen u p t a k e .  I n the  f i r s t s t u d y (1970), a comparison between t h e 12 minute r u n and maximal oxygen uptake was i n v e s t i g a t e d c o r r e l a t i o n of r=0.54.  i n c o l l e g e age m a l e s , r e s u l t i n g i n a  I n t h e second study (1972), u s i n g the same age  group, a comparison between a 2 m i l e r u n and maximal oxygen u p t a k e r e v e a l e d a c o r r e l a t i o n o f r =0.55. reporting  correlations  W i l e y and Shaver (1972) conducted a s i m i l a r study  o f r =-0.43 and r =-0.47 between maximal oxygen  uptake and 2 and 3 m i l e r u n s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  i n college  men.  - 12 R i b i s l and K a c h a d o r i a n (1969) o b t a i n e d c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r = ^0.79 between maximal oxygen uptake,and a 1 m i l e r u n and r = - 0 . 8 5 maximal oxygen u p t a k e and a 2 m i l e r u n i n c o l l e g e males.  between  A c o r r e l a t i o n of  r =-0.86 was r e p o r t e d between maximal oxygen u p t a k e and a 2 m i l e r u n when u s i n g m i d d l e age men as s u b j e c t s . :  The c o r r e l a t i o n s r e p o r t e d i n t h e R i b i s l and K a c h a d o r i a n (1969) study were h i g h e r t h a n the c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d by W i l e y and Shaver (1972).  For  a 2 m i l e r u n , W i l e y and Shaver (1972) r e p o r t e d r =-0.43 compared t o a c o r r e l a t i o n o f r = - 0 . 8 5 r e p o r t e d by R i b i s l and K a c h a d o r i a n (1969) f o r the same age group.  The W i l e y and Shaver (1972) study used u n t r a i n e d men as  s u b j e c t s whereas R i b i s l a n d ' K a c h a d o r i a n (1969) used t r a i n e d , c o n d i t i o n e d men who were e x p e r i e n c e d i n l o n g d i s t a n c e r u n n i n g .  A c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p has  been shown between maximal oxygen uptake and performance i n endurance ;  r u n n i n g events f o r t r a i n e d a t h l e t e s ( C o s t i l l , Thomason and R o b e r t s , 1973). D a n i e l s (1974) s u p p o r t e d t h e s e f i n d i n g s f o r r u n n e r s and F o s t e r and D a n i e l s (1975) noted, s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t r a i n e d  C;  cyclists.  The V a l i d i t y o f S h o r t D i s t a n c e v e r s u s Long D i s t a n c e Running T e s t s The s h o r t e r d i s t a n c e r u n s such as t h e 600 y a r d w a l k - r u n t e s t used by  t h e American A s s o c i a t i o n o f H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l Educaton and R e c r e a t i o n (AAHPER), e x h i b i t s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h maximal oxygen u p t a k e , b u t have a r e l a t i v e l y low v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t when compared t o the l o n g e r running events.  F a l l s , I s m a i l and MacLeod  (1966) and O l r e e , S t e v e n s , N e l s o n ,  A g n e v i k and C l a r k , ( 1 9 6 5 ) have i n v e s t i g a t e d : the v a l i d i t y o f e s t i m a t i n g i m a x i m a l oxygen u p t a k e from t h e AAHPER Youth F i t n e s s Test i t e m s .  The c o r r e l a t i o n  c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d f o r p r e d i c t i n g maximal oxygen u p t a k e from the 600 y a r d r u n times were r = 0 . 6 4 ( F a l l s , I s m a i l and MacLeod, 1966) and r = 0.53 S t e v e n s , N e l s o n , A g n e v i k and C l a r k , 1965).  (Olree,  Vodak and Wilmore (1974) s t u d i e d  the v a l i d i t y o f a 6 minute j o g - w a l k and t h e 600 y a r d run-walk i n e s t i m a t i n g  - 13 endurance c a p a c i t y i n boys 9 t o 12 y e a r s o f age. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o b t a i n e d f o r t h e 600 y a r d r u n time and maximal oxygen uptake was r = 0 . 5 0 w h i l e a c o r r e l a t i o n o f . r =0.49 was r e p o r t e d f o r t h e 6 minute j o g - w a l k . D o o l i t t l e and Bigbee (1968) r e p o r t e d a c o r r e l a t i o n o f r = 0 . 6 2 between the 600 y a r d r u n and maximal oxygen uptake f o r a d o l e s c e n t boys.  A c o r r e l a t i o n of  r = 0 . 6 6 was o b t a i n e d f o r 12 and 13 y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n w h i l e a c o r r e l a t i o n o f r = 0 . 2 7 was o b t a i n e d f o r t h e o l d e r 14 and 15 y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n . The r e s u l t s from t h e s e s t u d i e s suggest t h a t t e s t runs o f a s h o r t d u r a t i o n (such as the 600 y a r d run) measure a e r o b i c c a p a c i t y t o some e x t e n t , but o t h e r f a c t o r s such as t h e r u n n i n g speed and g e n e r a l a t h l e t i c s k i l l a r e a l s o measured i n t h i s t y p e o f t e s t ( G e t c h e l l , K i r k e n d a l l and R o b b i n s , 1978). I n a d d i t i o n , some f a c t o r a n a l y t i c s t u d i e s by D i s c h , F r a n k i e w i c z and J a c k s o n (1975) and J a c k s o n and Coleman (1976) have i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t runs o f 800 metres o r 6 minutes and l e s s i n d u r a t i o n c l u s t e r w i t h t e s t s o f r u n n i n g speed and r u n n i n g endurance.  D i s t a n c e runs o f a t l e a s t one m i l e and runs l a s t i n g  f o r more than 9 minutes were found t o form a d i s t a n c e r u n f a c t o r J a c k s o n and B e l l , 1978).  (Morrow,  These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t a common s o u r c e o f  v a r i a t i o n u n d e r l i e s measures o f l o n g d i s t a n c e r u n n i n g which i s d i f f e r e n t from s h o r t d i s t a n c e , r u n s . J a c k s o n and Coleman (1976) examined  the construct v a l i d i t y , that i s ,  the v a r i a n c e s t r u c t u r e o f v a r i o u s d i s t a n c e r u n t e s t s (50 y a r d , 3 m i n u t e , 6 m i n u t e , 9 minute and.12 minute r u n s ) u s i n g a l p h a f a c t o r a n a l y s i s and c a n o n i c a l f a c t o r a n a l y s i s f o l l o w e d by a v a r i m a x r o t a t i o n t o an o r t h o g o n a l solution.  Both t h e a l p h a and .'canonical:'; f a c t o r a n a l y s i s s u p p o r t e d the use  of 9 and 12 minute r u n s as f i e l d t e s t s f o r elementary s c h o o l boys and g i r l s . One f a c t o r was r e c o v e r e d w i t h t h e 50 y a r d r u n and t h e 3 minute r u n and a second f a c t o r was i s o l a t e d w i t h t h e 9 and 12 minute r u n s .  The 6 minute r u n  was complex and e x h i b i t e d s u b s t a n t i a l l o a d i n g s on b o t h f a c t o r s .  Concurrent  v a l i d i t y o f t h e 9 and 12 minute runs was e s t i m a t e d u s i n g maximal  oxygen  uptake as t h e c r i t e r i a . run  The s t u d y c o n c l u d e d t h a t both, the 9 and 12 minute  t e s t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h maximal oxygen u p t a k e .  However,  r u n n i n g t h e a d d i t i o n a l 3 minutes i n t h e 12 minute r u n t e s t d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y improve t h e c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y . the  Consequently, the data supported  use o f a 9 minute r u n t e s t w i t h e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l boys and g i r l s .  This  s t u d y a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t d i s t a n c e runs p r o v i d e d a r e l i a b l e f a c t o r t o measure distance running  ability.  Martens (1978) s t u d y , as mentioned e a r l i e r , compared f o u r d i f f e r e n t f i e l d t e s t s to~measure c a r d i o v a s c u l a r f i t n e s s i n c h i l d r e n , grades 4 t o 6. The r e s u l t s o f the study c o n c l u d e d t h a t b o t h the 9 minute r u n and the one m i l e r u n were v a l i d c a r d i o v a s c u l a r t e s t s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . K r a h e n b u h l , P a n g r a z i , Petersen,.' B u r k e t t . a n d S c h n e i d e r , (1978) s t u d i e d f i e l d t e s t i n g o f c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i n p r i m a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n and concluded that' t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f maximal oxygen u p t a k e w i t h performance on a timed r u n improved as t h e d i s t a n c e o f the r u n i n c r e a s e d f o r b o t h males and f e m a l e s .  The 1200 metre and the 1600 metre d i s t a n c e runs were found t o  be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o maximal oxygen u p t a k e . Di- - F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g ' R u n n i n g Performance A e r o b i c w o r k i n g c a p a c i t y has been shown t o i n c r e a s e w i t h age up t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 y e a r s ( A s t r a n d , 1970;).  S i n c e d i s t a n c e r u n n i n g performance  i s known to-be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a e r o b i c w o r k i n g c a p a c i t y , onewould expect t o f i n d improvements i n r u n n i n g a b i l i t y  as a f u n c t i o n o f age.  G i l l i a m , Sady, Thor-  l a n d and Weltman (1978) found t h a t as c h r o n o l o g i c a l age i n c r e a s e s from 6. t o 13 y e a r s , c h i l d r e n have a g r e a t e r a b i l i t y  t o consume more oxygen.  These  d i f f e r e n c e s among age groups do not e x i s t when body w e i g h t i s t a k e n i n t o consideration.  A s t r a n d (1976) r e p o r t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n peak  oxygen consumption (ml/Kg B.W.)  from ages 6 t o 8 y e a r s f o r b o t h sexes and  a l e v e l l i n g o f f from ages 8 t o 14 f o r boys and a decrease, f o r g i r l s .  - 15 D u r i n g p u b e r t y , b o y s , due to an i n c r e a s e i n the l e v e l of t e s t o s t e r o n e i n the b l o o d , tend t o i n c r e a s e the p r o p o r t i o n , of muscle to f a t , w h i l e due  to an i n c r e a s e i n the l e v e l s of e s t r o g e n and p r o g e s t e r o n e  tend t o i n c r e a s e the p r o p o r t i o n , of f a t t o muscle. i n e r t and n o n c o n t r i b u t o r y m e t a b o l i c a l l y a c t i v e and  girls,  i n the b l o o d ,  Fat i s m e t a b o l i c a l l y  d u r i n g heavy work compared to muscle w h i c h i s c o n t r i b u t o r y d u r i n g heavy work.  Consequently, a  h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of m u s c l e / f a t would r e s u l t i n a h i g h e r m e t a b o l i c r a t e oxygen use.  and  Peak oxygen consumption appears t o develop p r o p o r t i o n a l l y t o  the development of body mass. Cureton,  B o i l e a u , Lohman and M i s n e r  (1978) c o n c l u d e t h a t low maximal  oxygen uptake (ml/Kg B.W.-min) and poor d i s t a n c e r u n n i n g performance due excess body f a t was  not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t i v e o f poor c a r d i o v a s c u l a r  r e s p i r a t o r y f u n c t i o n due c a p a c i t y was  to  t o i n a c t i v i t y or p a t h o l o g y .  o n l y one i m p o r t a n t  Cardiorespiratory  d e t e r m i n a n t of d i s t a n c e r u n n i n g  performance  and v a r i a t i o n s i n the a b i l i t y t o run f a s t , body f a t n e s s and body s i z e were other important  determinants  i n distance running  Lohman and'Misner (1978) suggested t h a t i t was between the m e t a b o l i c  tests.  important  Cureton,  Boileau,  to d i s t i n g u i s h  i n f l u e n c e of p e r cent f a t on prolonged  running  per-  formance (which i n f l u e n c e i s p r i m a r i l y t o i n c r e a s e the energy c o s t o f r u n n i n g a t a g i v e n speed) and the c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y c a p a c i t y (as i n d i c a t e d by the a e r o b i c c a p a c i t y expressed standard  r e l a t i v e to the a p p r o p r i a t e  reference  o f a c t i v e muscle mass) because the two have d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e -  tations. Morrow, J a c k s o n and B e l l (1978) r e p o r t e d t h a t d i s t a n c e r u n performance d i d not improve c o n s i s t e n t l y : w i t h age.  The  12 minute r u n performance f o r  g i r l s showed t h a t the d e c r e a s e i n performance as a f u n c t i o n of age due t o body c o m p o s i t i o n . index  (BMI) was  could  As the g i r l s were g e t t i n g o l d e r t h e i r body mass  i n c r e a s i n g , w h i c h s u g g e s t s that'they were g a i n i n g h i g h e r  be  - 16 amounts of f a t weight  i n p r o p o r t i o n to t o t a l weight.  (The BMI  i s a measure  of r e l a t i v e weight and has been found t o have a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h weight and a d i p o s i t y , b u t a low c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h h e i g h t . )  T h i s apparent  body c o m p o s i t i o n appeared t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the decreased formance and suggests  change i n  running per-  t h a t the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s l e v e l of the g i r l s  was  decreasing.  E.- .Research Due  Conducted : Oh Young Female C h i l d r e n  t o the s p a r s i t y of d a t a on young c h i l d r e n many p u b l i c s c h o o l s have  g e n e r a l i z e d the f i n d i n g s obtained.from.research elementary  s c h o o l age p o p u l a t i o n s .  on a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n s t o  This p r a c t i s e of g e n e r a l i z i n g r e s u l t s  v i o l a t e s ^he b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of. r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . v a l i d and r e l i a b l e f o r one p o p u l a t o n may f o r o t h e r p o p u l a t i o n s (Jackson;.and  or may  Tests that are  not be v a l i d and  relaible  Coleman, 1976).  The A m e r i c a n A l l i a n c e f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n ( H u n s i c k e r and. R e i f f , 1 9 7 6 ) . c u r r e n t l y l i s t s no t e s t of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s f o r c h i l d r e n under 10. y e a r s . o f age.  Since coronary heart disease  r i s k f a c t o r s commonly appear i n c h i l d h o o d i t would be d e s i r a b l e t o  develop  a t e s t of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s f o r c h i l d r e n . S i n c e c h i l d r e n develop and mature a t d i f f e r e n t r a t e s d u r i n g the growing y e a r s I t i s extremely i m p o r t a n t t h a t s t u d i e s a r e conducted s p e c i f i c age and sex groups.  with  As mentioned e a r l i e r , the p h y s i c a l work  c a p a c i t y of c h i l d r e n has been r e p o r t e d , t o i n c r e a s e s i g n i f i c a n t l y  (as much  as e i g h t times) from ages 6 through 13 ( G i l l i a m , Sady, T h o r l a n d and Weltman, 1978;  Adams, 1973).  not a d e q u a t e l y  Consequently,  d a t a from a s l i g h t l y o l d e r group  may  r e p r e s e n t the younger groups of c h i l d r e n .  The few s t u d i e s t h a t have been conducted  on young c h i l d r e n  suggest  t h a t r e l i a b l e measurements of b o t h d i s t a n c e r u n performance (Jackson Coleman, 1976;  Krahenbuhl,  P a n g r a z i , B u r k e t t , Schneider and P e t e r s e n ,  and 1977;  - 17 Krahenbuhl,  P a n g r a z i , P e t e r s e n , B u r k e t t and S c h n e i d e r , 1978) and maximal  oxygen uptake (Cunningham, MacFarlane Van W a t e r s c h o o t , P a t e r s o n , L e f c o e and S a n g a l , 1977;  Wilmore and S i g e r s e t h , 1967) a r e p o s s i b l e .  Furthermore,  p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s have shown t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f d i s t a n c e r u n t e s t s p r o v i d e a u s e f u l index of r e l a t i v e c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i f the s u b j e c t s ' e x p e r i e n c e and s k i l l a r e s i m i l a r ( K r a h e n b u h l , P a n g r a z i , P e t e r s e n , B u r k e t t and S c h n e i d e r , 1978; and A l e x a n d e r ,  1970).  Cumming, 1971;  G u t i n , F o g l e and Steward, 1976;  Metz  - 18 Chapter I I I METHODS AND A.  PROCEDURES  Introduction The d a t a f o r t h i s s t u d y were c o l l e c t e d a t two d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s over  a two y e a r p e r i o d . entitled  To c l a r i f y the d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e s u b j e c t s the s e c t i o n  ' S u b j e c t s ' w i l l be d i v i d e d i n two p a r t s .  The methods and p r o c e d u r e s f o r b o t h groups of s u b j e c t s were i d e n t i c a l , t h e r e f o r e the d e s c r i p t i o n w i l l be s t a t e d B.  once.  Procedures 1.  Subjects (a) Group I F o r t y s u b j e c t s i n grades 4 and 5 who were between the ages of 8 to  11 y e a r s a t C r o f t o n House S c h o o l , Vancouver, B r i t i s h  were asked to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s s t u d y d u r i n g May,  Columbia,  1979.  (b) Group I I Twenty s u b j e c t s i n grades 3,4 and 5 who were between the ages o f 8 t o 11 y e a r s a t S t . P a t r i c k ' s Elementary S c h o o l , Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, were asked t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s s t u d y d u r i n g April,  1980.  The i n i t i a l c o n t a c t f o r t h e s t u d y was done by p e r s o n a l appearance, lowed by a l e t t e r and a consent form t o t h e p a r e n t s of the c h i l d r e n who to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s t u d y . tained f o r a l l subjects.  wished  P a r e n t a l consent and m e d i c a l c l e a r a n c e were ob-  Each s u b j e c t was i n f o r m e d v e r b a l l y of the e x a c t  n a t u r e of the t a s k s she was  expected t o p e r f o r m , i . e . , a 9 m i n u t e , a 12 minute,  and a 1600 metre r u n , a maximal oxygen uptake t r e a d m i l l t e s t a l o n g w i t h measures o f h e i g h t , w e i g h t and bddy f a t assessment. 2.  fol-  T e s t i n g Procedures  The t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o two s t a g e s .  - 19 (a) Stage  1  A l l of t h e t e s t i n g i n t h i s s t a g e was  conducted  s c h o o l s , C r o f t o n House and S t . P a t r i c k ' s Elementary  a t the  two  School.  D u r i n g t h e two weeks p r i o r t o t h e a c t u a l t e s t i n g , the s u b j e c t s p r a c t i s e d r u n n i n g f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 minutes a t the b e g i n n i n g of f o u r p h y s i c a l education classes.  The concept o f p a c i n g was  c h i l d r e n b e f o r e each p r a c t i s e r u n .  e x p l a i n e d t o the  A pacer r a n w i t h the c h i l d r e n and  emphasized the concept o f paced r u n n i n g . The f i e l d t e s t runs were conducted the two weeks>  p r a c t i s e runs.  i n the two week p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g  The s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d on t h r e e d i s t a n c e  r u n s i n c l u d i n g 9 minutes,,12 m i n u t e s , and 1600 metre r u n s . were conducted  A l l o f the runs  d u r i n g s c h o o l hours and, where p o s s i b l e , i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  classes. A t the end of t h e two week t e s t i n g p e r i o d , one p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s was minute,  devoted t o r e t e s t i n g the s t u d e n t s from C r o f t o n House i n the 9  the 12 minute and t h e 1600 metre d i s t a n c e r u n s . (b) . Stage 2  A l l of the t e s t i n g i n t h i s stage was F i t n e s s and Research  conducted  a t the J.M.  C e n t r e , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  a t t e n d e d one t e s t i n g s e s s i o n l a s t i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y one hour. were o b t a i n e d a t t h i s t i m e ;  Buchanan  Each s t u d e n t Four measures  peak oxygen uptake, h e i g h t , w e i g h t and body f a t  assessment. 3.  Testing Protocols As s t a t e d i n t h e r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e , the use o f s t e p t e s t s w i t h  c h i l d r e n has not been v e r y s u c c e s s f u l , t h e r e f o r e i n t h i s study timed d i s t a n c e runs were chosen as f i e l d The 12 minute timed run was  and  tests. chosen because B a l k e (1963) o r i g i n a l l y  r e p o r t e d t h a t a run l a s t i n g 12 t o 15 minutes was needed t o t a x the c a r d i -  - 19a r e s p i r a t o r y system t o I n d i c a t e how  t h e s e body systems reached and a d j u s t e d  to b e i n g p l a c e d under a m e t a b o l i c w o r k l o a d .  D i s t a n c e runs of a s h o r t e r  l e n g t h were thought t o r e l y too h e a v i l y on r u n n i n g a b i l i t y  and s k i l l  rather  than the a b i l i t y , o f the. oxygen t r a n s p o r t system t o do work. F u r t h e r researchlsby Cooper run  (1968) i n t h i s a r e a has shown t h e 12 minute  t o be a s u i t a b l e l e n g t h as a f i e l d t e s t f o r a d u l t s . The 9 minute timed run. and the. 1600 metre d i s t a n c e run have been used  r e c e n t l y i n s t u d i e s f o r elementary and h i g h s c h o o l age boys.  Reasonably h i g h  c o r r e l a t i o n s have been r e p o r t e d between these runs and maximal oxygen  uptake  (ml/kg-min). In view of t h e above i n f o r m a t i o n , t h r e e runs were chosen as f i e l d the  9 minute timed r u n , the 12 minute timed r u n and the 1600 metre  tests:  distance  run. (a)  Timed D i s t a n c e Runs Each s t u d e n t performed d i s t a n c e runs of 9 m i n u t e s , 12 m i n u t e s ,  and 1600 metres.  The d i s t a n c e runs were performed on a two hundred metre g r a s s  t r a c k marked o f f i n f i v e metre g r a d a t i o n s by orange p a r k i n g cones. runs were s t a r t e d and f i n i s h e d w i t h the blow of a w h i s t l e .  A l l of the  - 20 The subj e c t s were d i v i d e d by grades i n i t i a l l y and then each grade d i v i d e d i n t o two groups, w i t h 10 s u b j e c t s i n each.  was  The o r d e r of  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e r u n n i n g t e s t s ' w e r e randomly a s s i g n e d t o each of the groups.  One  group r a n a t a time w h i l e the o t h e r group a c t e d as s p e c t a t o r s .  Each s u b j e c t was  i d e n t i f i e d by a c o l o u r e d numbered b i b .  c o u n t e r / t i m e r f o r every t h r e e s u b j e c t s .  There was  V e r b a l encouragement was  each s u b j e c t by b o t h t h e l a p c o u n t e r s and t h e c l a s s m a t e s who  one  lap  given to  were i n the Lu  s p e c t a t o r group. . The d i s t a n c e covered i n b o t h the 9 minute and the 12 minute runs were recorded, t o the n e a r e s t metre. r u n was  The  time f o r the 1600  metre  r e c o r d e d t o the n e a r e s t second. <(b) R e t e s t i n g t h e D i s t a n c e Runs i ) Group I : C r o f t o n House S c h o o l F i f t e e n Grade 4 and f i f t e e n Grade 5 g i r l s were randomly  s e l e c t e d to be r e t e s t e d on t h e t h r e e d i s t a n c e r u n s .  The f i f t e e n g i r l s i n  each grade were d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e groups of f i v e g i r l s each. was  r e t e s t e d on one o f the d i s t a n c e r u n s .  Each group  T h i s gave a t o t a l of t e n r e t e s t  s c o r e s on each of the t h r e e d i s t a n c e r u n s . i i ) Group I I : S t . P a t r i c k ' s Elementary I t was  deemed not n e c e s s a r y  School  t o r e t e s t the s u b j e c t s due  to  the s m a l l number of s u b j e c t s . '(c) Peak Oxygen Uptake P r i o r t o the a c t u a l t r e a d m i l l t e s t , the s u b j e c t s p r a c t i s e d g e t t i n g on and o f f t h e t r e a d m i l l , as w e l l as w a l k i n g and r u n n i n g a t v a r i o u s speeds and grades on the t r e a d m i l l .  Each s u b j e c t was  g i v e n two p r a c t i s e s of  a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e t o t e n m i n u t e s each. The e x e r c i s e t e s t c o n s i s t e d o f a t h r e e minute warm-up w a l k i n g a t zero p e r cent grade, f o l l o w e d by a two minute r e s t . m.p.h. a t t h r e e p e r cent grade.  The  s u b j e c t then r a n a t  Throughout the t e s t the speed was  held  4.5  - 21 -  c o n s t a n t w i t h t h r e e p e r cent grade increments  every t h r e e minutes u n t i l  voluntary fatigue. P r i o r t o t h e warm-up, t h e s u b j e c t was connected 4000 E l e c t r o c a r d i o g r a m machine.. subjects' s k i n a t three d i f f e r e n t  t o a Cardioguard  Three e l e c t r o d e s were a t t a c h e d t o the locations:  i ) , r i g h t midaxillary l i n e a t the l e v e l of the f i t h  intercostal;  i i ' ) d i r e c t l y over t h e manubrium; and iii)  l e f t m i d a x i l l a r y l i n e over a r i b .  These e l e c t r o d e s were plugged  i n t o t h e E l e c t r o c a r d i o g r a m (ECG) v i a a b e l t  worn around t h e s u b j e c t ' s w a i s t .  A r e s t i n g ECG was o b t a i n e d w h i l e t h e  s u b j e c t was v e r b a l l y informed, o f t h e e x a c t procedure  of the t e s t .  The warm-up f o r t h e e x e r c i s e t e s t c o n s i s t e d o f w a l k i n g a t 3.5 m.p.h. on t h e t r e a d m i l l a t z e r o p e r c e n t grade f o r three, minutes.  During  time t h e h e a r t r a t e was r e c o r d e d and t h e ECG t r a c i n g m o n i t o r e d .  this  Following  the warm-up, t h e s u b j e c t was g i v e n a two minute r e s t w h i l e t h e b r e a t h i n g apparatus was connected.  The t u b i n g t h a t c o l l e c t e d t h e e x h a l e d a i r was f e d  i n t o a Beckman. M e t a b o l i c Measurement, C a r t which a n a l y z e d t h e p e r cent oxygen, p e r cent carbon d i o x i d e , and oxygen uptake i n m i l l i l i t r e s .  This  i n f o r m a t i o n was s i m u l t a n e o u s l y f e d i n t o a computer which t a b u l a t e d t h e r e s u l t s every f i f t e e n seconds throughout  the exercise t e s t , coordinating the  t i m e , t h e speed o f t h e t r e a d m i l l , t h e grade o f the t r e a d m i l l , t h e h e a r t r a t e , t h e volume o f oxygen, t h e volume o f carbon d i o x i d e , oxygen p u l s e , r e s p i r a t o r y q u o t i e n t , v e n t i l a t i o n r a t e , p e r cent oxygen and p e r cent carbon d i o x i d e . A f t e r t h e r e s t p e r i o d , t h e grade o f t h e t r e a d m i l l was i n c r e a s e d t o t h r e e p e r cent: and t h e s u b j e c t s t a r t e d w a l k i n g on t h e t r e a d m i l l . t h e speed was i n c r e a s e d t o f o u r and o n e - h a l f time c l o c k s t a r t e d .  Gradually  (4.5) m.p.h. a t w h i c h p o i n t t h e  Throughout t h e r e s t o f t h e t e s t t h e speed was h e l d  c o n s t a n t w i t h t h r e e p e r cent grade increments  every t h r e e minutes u n t i l  - 22 voluntary fatigue.  S i n c e t h e s u b j e c t s were e x e r c i s i n g t o e x h a u s t i o n , the  peak oxygen.uptake was t a k e n t o be the maximal oxygen uptake.  Other  c r i t e r i a such as t h e r e s p i r a t o r y - q u o t i e n t a p p r o a c h i n g a v a l u e o f 1.0, a p l a t e a u i n b o t h t h e oxygen uptake and t h e h e a r t r a t e were a l s o used t o d e c i d e i f t h e s u b j e c t had i n f a c t reached maximal oxygen uptake MacFarlane  Van Waterschoot, (d) A n t h r o p o m e t r i c  P a t e r s o n , L e f c o e and S a n g a l ,  (Cunningham,  1977).  Measures  The h e i g h t measures were taken t o t h e n e a r e s t c e n t i m e t r e and the w e i g h t measures were taken t o the n e a r e s t 0.5 k i l o g r a m on a D e t e c t o Weight S c a l e .  The body, f a t measures w e r e . t a k e n a t f o u r body s i t e s , t h e  biceps, the.triceps;  s u b s c a p u l a r and s u p r a i l i a c .  These measures were then  s u b s t i t u t e d i n t o a f o r m u l a d e r i v e d by D u r n i n and Rahaman (1967) . The s k i n f o l d c a l i p e r s were manufactured  C.  by Harpenden.  S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s and. Research 1.  Design  Validity  The BMD P2R Computer Program was used t o determine r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e seven independent dependent v a r i a b l e t e s t e d i n t h i s s t u d y .  t h e degree o f  v a r i a b l e s and t h e c r i t e r i o n o r The seven independent  variables  i n c l u d e d age, h e i g h t , w e i g h t , percentage body f a t , 9 minute r u n , t h e 12 minute r u n and t h e 1600 metre r u n .  Peak oxygen uptake.(inl/kg-min) was chosen  as the dependent, c r i t e r i o n measure. The means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e v a r i a b l e s were c a l c u l a t e d .  A  z e r o o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x was o b t a i n e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between a l l t h e v a r i a b l e s when no v a r i a b l e s were h e l d c o n s t a n t .  The  d a t a was a l s o e n t e r e d i n t o b o t h f o r w a r d and backward s t e p w i s e m u l t i p l e l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s . t o s e l e c t , t h e v a r i a b l e s and subsequent r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s t h a t p r o v i d e d t h e o p t i m a l p r e d i c t i o n of peak oxygen uptake. c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e v a r i a b l e s were o b t a i n e d through t h i s p r o c e s s .  Partial  - 23  -  To d e t e r m i n e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the c o r r e l a t i o n s was  applied.  the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s  I n a p p l y i n g the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s , the amount of  needed f o r r e j e c t i o n a t a g i v e n l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e was  correlation  determined.  t h i s case the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e d  t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n n i s i n f a c t  and  to sampling, e r r o r .  any  c o r r e l a t i o n o b t a i n e d was  due  A t a b l e was  In zero, used  to o b t a i n r v a l u e s needed to r e j e c t the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s a t the  .05 and  l e v e l s of s i g n i f i c a n c e .  the  The  sample s i z e was  very important i n  s i g n i f i c a n c e of c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ; the s m a l l e r the sample s i z e t h e r e f o r e the degrees of freedom) , the h i g h e r the c o r r e l a t i o n must be i t t o be s i g n i f i c a n t a t the  .05  and  .01  levels.  C o n s e q u e n t l y , any  .01  (and for  dis-  c u s s i o n of c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s as b e i n g h i g h or low are m e a n i n g l e s s w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o the c o r r e l a t i o n needed f o r the number of  subjects  w h i c h the c o r r e l a t i o n was  p.  based on.  T a b l e I shows the r e q u i r e d s i g n i f i c a n c e at the  .05  l e v e l and  (Clarke  the  .01  1970,  and  230).  df =18,  to r e a c h  level.  1  Required C o r r e l a t i o n a t the  Coefficients .05  Degress of Freedom  n  Clarke,  r v a l u e s when n =20  Table  to Reach S i g n i f i c a n c e  and  and  .01  Levels  L e v e l s of  Significance  (n-2)  .05  .01  18  .444  .561  =20  Taken from: C l a r k e and  2.  C l a r k e , p.  231,  Table  19.  Reliability The  SIMCORT Computer Program (U.B.C.) was  used to determine  the  - 24 test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y Trial and  c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (r) between T r i a l 1 and  2 on each of the timed and d i s t a n c e runs; the 9 minute, the 12 minute  the 1600 metre run.  In a d d i t i o n ,  of the 9 minute, 12 minute and 2 were determined  by a two  1600  the r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y of the mean s c o r e s  metre runs achieved i n T r i a l l i a n d T r i a l  t a i l e d t t e s t f o r c o r r e l a t e d means.  T a b l e 2 shows the v a l u e r must be when n =10 = 8 to reach s i g n i f i c a n c e a t the .05 and  of freedom  .01 l e v e l s .  T a b l e 3 shows the v a l u e t must be when n =10 = 9 t o reach s i g n i f i c a n c e a t the .05 and  and degrees  and degrees  of freedom  .01 l e v e l s .  Table 2 Required  Correlation Coefficients  a t the .05 and  .01 L e v e l s of  Degrees of Freedom  Significance  L e v e l s of S i g n i f i c a n c e  (n-2) 8  .05  .01  .632  .765  ri =10  Table 3 Required  t Values  a t the  Degrees of Freedom  n  =10  .05  to Reach  Significance  and .01 L e v e l s  L e v e l s of S i g n i f i c a n c e  (n-1)  .05  .01  9  2.26  3.25  - 25 Chapter IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t w o f o l d : 1.  t o determine the.degree o f v a l i d i t y o f timed and d i s t a n c e r u n s , the 9 m i n u t e , t h e 12 minute and t h e 1600 metre r u n s , as p r e d i c t o r s o f peak oxygen uptake as determined by a maximal t r e a d m i l l  2. A.  t o determine t h e t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y  test;  of the three distance runs.  D e s c r i p t i v e Data S i x t y female s u b j e c t s e n r o l l e d a t C r o f t o n House S c h o o l and S t . P a t r i c k ' s  Elementary S c h o o l i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the s t u d y . A l l o f t h e s u b j e c t s were e n r o l l e d i n grades f o u r , f i v e and s i x a t the two schools.  The d a t a was c o l l e c t e d over a 1 y e a r p e r i o d from May 1979 t o  June 1980. F o r t y o f t h e s i x t y s u b j e c t s were from C r o f t o n House S c h o o l and f o u r t e e n of t h e s e s u b j e c t s (35%) completed a l l the t e s t s . . The r e m a i n i n g twenty subjects'.were from S t . P a t r i c k ' s Elementary S c h o o l and seven o f t h e s e s u b j e c t s (35%) completed a l l the t e s t s g i v i n g a t o t a l o f twenty-one w i t h complete d a t a .  subjects  T h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f the s u b j e c t s w i t h i n c o m p l e t e d a t a  ( n = 2 9 ) d i d n o t r e c e i v e p a r e n t a l consent f o r t h e maximal oxygen uptake t e s t i n g and o n e - q u a r t e r of t h e s u b j e c t s (n =10) were u n a b l e t o a t t e n d some of  t h e f i e l d t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s due t o v a r i o u s r e a s o n s . The b a s i c d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a f o r t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h complete d a t a i s  summarized.in Table 4. The age range o f t h e s u b j e c t s v a r i e d from e i g h t t o e l e v e n y e a r s w i t h an average age o f t e n y e a r s .  The mean w e i g h t o f the s u b j e c t s was 34.5  k i l o g r a m s w i t h a n average o f 24 p e r c e n t o r 8.35 k i l o g r a m s o f body f a t . The s u b j e c t s ranged from 18.3 t o 33.4 p e r c e n t a g e body f a t and from 27.0 t o 49.2 k i l o g r a m s o f body w e i g h t .  • B.  - 26 -  Results 1. V a l i d i t y As seen i n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t  c o r r e l a t i o n between age and w e i g h t ( r =.44, p <0.05), age and h e i g h t ( r =.60, p <0.01), w e i g h t and h e i g h t ( r - . 6 9 , p <0.01) and w e i g h t and p e r c e n t a g e body f a t ( r = .78  p<0.01).  The average v a l u e f o r peak oxygen uptake was 1.6499 1/min-, w i t h v a l u e s r a n g i n g from \ 1.446 -  t o 1. 8195'•1/min. . .The c r i t e r i a used i n " -  d e t e r m i n i n g : peak oxygen uptake i n c l u d e d h e a r t r a t e , v e n t i l a t i o n ,  respiratory  q u o t i e n t and t h e presence o f a p l a t e a u . i n oxygen uptake v a l u e s o v e r t h e l a s t two w o r k l o a d s o f t h e t r e a d m i l l t e s t .  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t peak oxygen  uptake was chosen as t h e c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e r a t h e r than maximal uptake.  oxygen  T h e r e f o r e t h e h i g h e s t oxygen uptake v a l u e o b t a i n e d by t h e s u b j e c t  i n a d d i t o n t o t h e o t h e r c r i t e r i a mentioned e a r l i e r , was chosen as t h e peak oxygen u p t a k e .  The mean h e a r t r a t e , r e s p i r a t o r y q u o t i e n t and v e n t i l a t i o n  v a l u e s a t t a i n e d a t peak oxygen uptake were 203 b e a t s p e r m i n u t e , 0.89 and 58.16  1/min (BTPS), r e s p e c t i v e l y . The average d i s t a n c e r u n i n t h e 9 minute r u n was 1598 m e t r e s , w i t h a  range from 1290 t o 1945 metres.  I n t h e 12 minute r u n t h e average d i s t a n c e  covered was, 2022.8 metres w i t h a range from 1650 t o 2566 metres.  The  amount o f t i m e . t a k e n t o r u n t h e 1600 metres ranged from 424 seconds o r 7 minutes and 6 seconds t o 754 seconds o r 12 minutes and 56 seconds w i t h a mean time o f 565.86 seconds o r 9 minutes and 43 seconds. The h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n was found between t h e 9 minute r u n and peak oxygen uptake (ml/kg-min), r =.82. and peak oxygen.-uptake  T h i s was f o l l o w e d by p e r c e n t a g e body f a t  (ml/kg-min), r =-.79, t h e 1600 metre r u n and peak  oxygen uptake (ml/kg-min), r = - . 7 5 and f i n a l l y t h e 12 minute r u n and peak oxygen uptake (ml/kg-min), r = .73.  - 27 Table 4 D e s c r i p t i v e Data of t h e S u b j e c t s Variable Age  (months)  Age  (years)  Height  (n=21) Standard Deviation  Mean 121.86  7.11  10.1  .60  (cm)  138.91  6.09  Weight (kg)  34.54  6.37  P e r c e n t a g e Body F a t  24.23  4.38  48.58  7.86  Peak V 0  2  (ml'kg 'min" )  Peak V 0  2  (l'min )  -1  1  - 1  Heart Rate (bpm"at peak VO )•' RQ ( a t peak  VOp  1.6499  0.2505  203 0.89  R.E.R.  0.93  V^ (BTPS)(1 m i n " ) 1  Ei  58.16  9 minute r u n (metres)  1598.1  188.1  12 minute r u n (metres)  2022.8  264.8  1600 metre r u n (seconds)  565.86  1600 metre r u n (minutes)  9 min. 43 s e c .  85.7 1.43  The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e t h r e e t i m e d / d i s t a n c e runs were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h w i t h t h e 9 minute r u n and t h e 1600 metre r u n e x h i b i t i n g the h i g h e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p , r = - . 9 0 , a c c o u n t i n g f o r 81% o f t h e v a r i a n c e .  The  1600 metre run and t h e 12 minute r u n ranked second w i t h a c o r r e l a t i o n o f r = - . 8 7 , a c c o u n t i n g f o r 79% of t h e v a r i a n c e .  The l o w e s t i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n  was between t h e 9 minute r u n and t h e 12 minute run w i t h r =.79, f o r 69% o f t h e v a r i a n c e .  accounting  Table 5 Correlation Matrix Variables  Age  Weight  Height  Age-  1.000  Weight  0.4384  1.000  Height  0.60l'6 -;  0.6935  % Body F a t  0.0665  0.7765 '  V0  0.0850  -0.6116  9 minute  0.0505 •  12 minute  2  (ml)  1600 metre V0  (liters)  b  b  %Body Fat  V0 (ml) 2  1.000  b  -0.1500  -0.7934  -0.5495  a  -0.1164  -0.7702 .  0.8179  b  0.1891  -0.5079  a  40.7540  ;  0.7307  b  -0.2239  +0.4670*  -0.0984 >  +0.7431 '  -0.7465  b  0.5347  • 0.5988  -0.0055  0.5347  3  3  a  S i g n i f i c a h t a t the .05 l e v e l s  b  S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l  1600  V0 (liters) 2  1.000 0.1819  b  12 min  9 min  0.0734  1.000  b  b  ;  b  b  b  0.4264  1.000 0.7877  b  -0.8953 ' b  0.2726  1. 000 8696 0-.1877  b  1.000 -0.25.13  ;/000  - 29 The c o r r e l a t i o n s between percentage body f a t . and the t h r e e  timed/  d i s t a n c e runs were s i g n i f i c a n t b u t n o t as h i g h as t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e t h r e e t i m e d / d i s t a n c e r u n s .  The c o r r e l a t i o n between the 9 minute :  run and percentage body f a t was r =-.77 f o l l o w e d by t h e 12 minute r u n w i t h /  a c o r r e l a t i o n o f r = - . 7 5 and f i n a l l y t h e 1600 metre r u n w i t h a c o r r e l a t i o n of r =.74. Body weight was a l s o . s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e t h r e e timed/distance runs.  The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n between body weight  and t h e 9  minute r u n was t h e h i g h e s t w i t h r =-.55, f o l l o w e d by body weight minute r u n w i t h a c o r r e l a t i o n of r = - . 5 1 and body weight  and t h e 12  and t h e 1600 metre  run w i t h a c o r r e l a t i o n of r = .47. Age and h e i g h t were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d w i t h any of t h e three timed/distance runs. In a d d i t i o n t o t h e d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a and t h e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x , t h e d a t a was a l s o e n t e r e d i n t o b o t h forward.and  backward s t e p w i s e m u l t i p l e l i n e a r  r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s t o s e l e c t t h e independent v a r i a b l e s t h a t p r o v i d e d t h e b e s t p r e d i c t i o n o f peak oxygen uptake. In t h e s t e p w i s e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s t h e independent v a r i a b l e s were e n t e r e d one a t a time t o f o r m u l a t e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s t o p r e d i c t peak oxygen uptake (ml'kg "''•min "^J. The 9 minute r u n was e n t e r e d f i r s t and a r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n was developed  p r o d u c i n g a s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f e s t i m a t e i n p r e d i c t i n g peak oxygen  uptake e q u a l t o 4.648 ml/kg'min. The m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n f o r t h i s r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n u t i l i z i n g one v a r i a b l e was R =0.8179 w h i c h accounts  f o r 66.9% o f t h e 2  variance.  T a b l e 6 l i s t s these v a l u e s aa w e l l as an a d j u s t e d R  that  c o n s i d e r s t h e number o f s u b j e c t s and v a r i a b l e s used i n the d e r i v a t i o n of the regression equation. R  2  =0.6506;  R  2  The a d j u s t e d R  =0.6690).  2  i s s l i g h t l y lower than t h e R  2  (Adjusted  - 30 Table 6 R e g r e s s i o n E q u a t i o n t o P r e d i c t Peak Oxygen Uptake (ml'kg "'"'min Step  Variables  Multiple R  Multiple  R  2  Adjusted  R  2  Standard E r r o r of Estimate  1  9 minute timed r u n  0.8179  0.6690  0.6506  4.6480  2  P e r c e n t a g e body f a t  0.8571  0.7347  0.7035  4.2822  3  Age  0.8616  0.7423  0.6940  4.3500  4  Body w e i g h t  0.8683  0.7539  0.6882  4.3908  5  1600 metre  d i s t a n c e run 0.8706  0.7580  0.6715  4.5071  6  Height  0.8730  0.7621  0.6522  4.6374  7  12. minute timed r u n  0.8738  0.7634  0.6255  4.8126  Peak Oxygen Uptake = 0.02287 (9 minute run) -0.71217 ( P e r c e n t Body F a t ) + 29. 78812  Table 7 P a r t i a l C o r r e l a t i o n s of Independent  W i t h 9 M i n u t e Run Removed Variable Age  W i t h 9 M i n u t e Run and P e r Cent Body F a t Removed  Correlation 0.07614  Variables  Variable Age  Correlation 0.16966  Weight  -0.33732  Weight  -0.06275  Height  -0.09579  Height  -0.01160  P e r c e n t Body F a t  -0.44535  12 minute r u n  0.09265  1600 metre r u n  0.03250  12 minute r u n 1600 metre r u n  0.24385 -0.05538  W i t h t h e 9 minute r u n removed, o r h e l d c o n s t a n t , c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e r e m a i n i n g v a r i a b l e s changed. 1600  the p a r t i a l  The 12 minute r u n and the  metre r u n e x h i b i t e d p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s o f r =0.2438 and r =-0.0553  r e s p e c t i v e l y . (Table 7). d i f f e r e n t from z e r o .  These c o r r e l a t i o n s were low. and n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y  These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e v a r i a n c e s  of the  12 minute r u n and t h e 1600 metre run. t h a t were n o t i n common w i t h t h e 9 minute r u n , were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o peak oxygen, uptake. I n step two o f t h e s t e p w i s e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s t h e v a r i a b l e p e r c e n t a g e body f a t was added.  P e r c e n t a g e body f a t as seen i n T a b l e 7 showed a p a r t i a l  c o r r e l a t i o n o f r =-0.44535 a c c o u n t i n g f o r 22% o f t h e v a r i a n c e  t h a t was n o t i n  common w i t h t h e 9 minute r u n b u t was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o peak oxygen uptake.  T h e a d d i t i o n o f p e r c e n t a g e body f a t t o t h e e q u a t i o n i n c r e a s e s t h e  m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t o n t o R =0.8571. i n c r e a s e as seen i n T a b l e 6.  i  Both t h e v a l u e s f b r i R  2  and t h e a d j u s t e d R  2  The Standard E r r o r of E s t i m a t e f o r p r e d i c t i n g  peak oxygen uptake i s lower than t h e v a l u e r e p o r t e d when t h e s i n g l e v a r i a b l e , the 9 minute r u n , was used f o r t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n .  As n o t e d i n T a b l e 7,  w i t h b o t h t h e 9 minute r u n and p e r c e n t a g e body f a t p a r t i a l l e d o u t o r h e l d constant,  none o f the: r e m a i n i n g v a r i a b l e s e x h i b i t e d s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s .  I n step t h r e e , t h e v a r i a b l e age was added t o t h e r e g r e s s i o n  equation.  2 The m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n R and R  increased  slightly.  However t h e a d j u s t e d  2 R  d e c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y and t h e S t a n d a r d E r r o r o f E s t i m a t e i n c r e a s e d  (Table 6 ) .  Based on t h e s e f i n d i n g s , t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n t o p r e d i c t peak oxygen uptake (ml/kg*min) would be: Peak Oxygen Uptake = 0.02287 (9 minute run) -0.71217 ( P e r c e n t a g e Body F a t ) +29.78812 Standard E r r o r o f E s t i m a t e = + 4 . 2 8 2 2 ml/kg*min.  When peak oxygen uptake was w i t h o u t body w e i g h t accounted  c o n s i d e r e d i n l i t r e s p e r minute (1/min.)  f o r , the c o r r e l a t i o n s between, t h e 7  v a r i a b l e s and t h i s v a r i a b l e d i f f e r e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y .  independent  The two v a r i a b l e s  and h e i g h t e x h i b i t e d s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h peak oxygen uptake (1/min.).  However, peak oxygen uptake was  age '  not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o the  9 minute and 12 minute timed runs o r the 1600 metre d i s t a n c e r u n .  Con-  s e q u e n t l y 'when t h e s e v a r i a b l e s were e n t e r e d i n t o the s t e p w i s e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s the r e s u l t a n t r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n was In  s t e p one, body h e i g h t was  entered f i r s t g i v i n g a m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n  2 of R =0.5988.  The m u l t i p l e R  2 and a d j u s t e d R  The S t a n d a r d E r r o r o f E s t i m a t e was In  quite different.  were r e a s o n a b l y c l o s e i n v a l u e .  0.2061 1/minute.  s t e p two, t h e 9 minute r u n was  e n t e r e d i n t o the r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n  r e s u l t i n g i n a m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n of R =0.6909. E s t i m a t e was  The  Standard E r r o r of  0.1915 1/min.  In s t e p t h r e e , body w e i g h t was  e n t e r e d i n t o the e q u a t i o n c a u s i n g the  m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n (R) t o i n c r e a s e even more, R =0.7741. The Standard 2 E r r o r o f E s t i m a t e was 0.1728 1/min. and the a d j u s t e d R i n c r e a s e d to 0.5241. The subsequent a d d i t i o n of v a r i a b l e s i n s t e p s 4 and 5 were o n l y a b l e 2 to" m a r g i n a l l y ' i n c r e a s e the a d j u s t e d m u l t i p l e R  and c o n c u r r e n t l y lower  the  Standard E r r o r of E s t i m a t e as seen i n T a b l e 8.  Therefore the i n v e s t i g a t o r  d e c i d e d t h a t the amount of e f f o r t r e q u i r e d t o c o l l e c t the e x t r a d a t a needed for  t h e 5 v a r i a b l e s was  not w a r r a n t e d .  Consequently  the f i r s t three v a r i a b l e s  were r e t a i n e d to f o r m u l a t e t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n . The b e s t e q u a t i o n t o p r e d i c t peak oxygen uptake I  (1/min.) was:  Peak Oxygen Uptake =0.02458 (Body Weight) +0.00932 ( H e i g h t ) + 0.00093368 (9 minute run) -1.96845 Standard E r r o r o f E s t i m a t e = + 0.1728 ( l ' m i n  .  - 33 . Table 8 Regression Equation to Predict  Step  Variable  Peak Oxygen Uptake (1*min ^)  M u l t i p l e :R, ?  Multiple R  Adjusted R  Standard Error of Estimate  1  Height  0.5988 •y;  0.3585  0.3229  0.2061  2  9 minute timed r u n  0.6909  0.4773  0.4158  0.1915  3  Body w e i g h t  0.7741  0.5992  0.5241  0.1728  4  1600 metre d i s t a n c e r u n 0.7904  0.6247  0.5246  0.1727  5  Age  0.8069  0.6510  0.5264  0.1724  6  P e r c e n t Body F a t  0.8111  0.6580  0.5001  0.1771  7  12 minute timed r u n  0.8112  0.6580  0.4585  0.1843  Best E q u a t i o n t o P r e d i c t  Peak Oxygen Uptake (1/min) =  0.02458 (Body w e i g h t ) +0.00932 ( H e i g h t ) +0.00093368 (9 minute run) + 1.96845  B.  Test-Retest  Reliability  As demonstrated i n T a b l e 9, t h e 12 minute r u n and t h e 1600 metre r u n exhibited  test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y  c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s t h a t were  s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e .  The 9 minute r u n t e s t - r e t e s t  r e l i a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . In a d d i t i o n  t o the r e l i a b i l i t y  correlations, a t test f o r correlated  means was performed t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e  between t h e  mean s c o r e s of each t i m e d / d i s t a n c e r u n a t T r i a l 1 and T r i a l 2.  The t r a t i o s  were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t f o r T r i a l s 1 and 2 of t h e 12 minute r u n , t h e 9 minute run and t h e 1600 metre r u n , t h e r e f o r e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was  - 34 accepted.  The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s concluded  the two means from T r i a l 1 and  2, may  t h a t the g i v e n d i f f e r e n c e between  be due  t o sampling  e r r o r and  t h a t no  r e a l or d e f i n i t e d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d .  T a b l e 9T e s t - R e t e s t R e l i a b i l i t y and  Test  Trial 1  9 minute run  Trial 2  Trial 1  12 minute run  Trial 2  Trial 1  1600  metre run  Trial 2  Significant  Reproducibility  Means  Standard _ . Deviation  Corre, lation  1438 .30  162 .556  0 .5507  1438 .70  173 .246  2158 .00  207 .976  2177 .00  187 .071  M  586 .799  91 .4571  568 .800  80 .5258  t  . t ratxo t  Probability  0 .005  0. 9958  0 .8154  a  0 .215  0. 8323  0 .9772  a  -0 .467  0. 6460  (p < .01)  C .'• D i s c u s s i o n 1.  Validity.  The f i r s t  o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study was  to determine  i f timed  d i s t a n c e runs, s p e c i f i c a l l y the 9 minute, the 12 minute and runs, were adequate p r e d i c t o r s o f peak oxygen uptake and  and  the 1600  metre  therefore v a l i d  t e s t s t o use i n d e t e r m i n i n g the c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s of g i r l s ages 8 to 11 y e a r s . The peak oxygen uptake v a l u e s o b t a i n e d by the s u b j e c t s i n t h i s  study  were s l i g h t l y h i g h e r than the peak oxygen uptake v a l u e s r e p o r t e d i n other  s t u d i e s f o r females o f t h i s age ( K r a h e n b u h l , P a n g r a z i , P e t e r s e n , B u r k e t t and S c h n e i d e r , 1978).  S t u d i e s on c h i l d r e n conducted b e f o r e 1970 show  maximal oxygen uptake v a l u e s a v e r a g i n g 48 t o 50 ml/kg-min  f o r young  males  w i t h female v a l u e s b e i n g s l i g h t l y l o w e r ( K r a h e n b u h l , P a n g r a z i , P e t e r s e n , B u r k e t t and S c h n e i d e r , 1978). The l i t e r a t u r e has shown t h a t i t was d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n r e l i a b l e maximal oxygen uptake v a l u e s i n young c h i l d r e n .  The p r o t o c o l f o r the  t r e a d m i l l t e s t t h a t was used t o e l i c i t peak oxygen uptake i n the p r e s e n t study d i f f e r e d f r o m t h e p r o t o c o l s used i n some of t h e o t h e r s t u d i e s f o r children.  I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t h e grade of the t r e a d m i l l s t a r t e d a t 3%  and was r a i s e d 3% every t h r e e minutes u n t i l t h e s u b j e c t was e x h a u s t e d .  In  some o t h e r s t u d i e s (Krahenbuh,, P a n g r a z i , P e t e r s e n , B u r k e t t and S c h n e i d e r , 1978) t h e grade s t a r t e d a t 0% and was r a i s e d 2 1/2 % e v e r y minute o r two minutes u n t i l t h e s u b j e c t was e x h a u s t e d .  F o r a t e n minute t e s t , b o t h  the p r o t o c o l i n t h i s study u s i n g t h e 3% grade i n c r e m e n t s every t h r e e minutes and t h e p r o t o c o l u s i n g 2 1/2% grade i n c r e m e n t s every two minutes would have reached s i m i l a r grade i n c r e m e n t s a t . t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f a t e n minute test.  The s t u d y u s i n g 2 1/2% grade i n c r e m e n t s e v e r y minute would have  reached a s i m i l a r grade increment a t t h e end o f f i v e m i n u t e s . q u i t e a n o t a b l e d i f f e r e n c e f o r the t o t a l t e s t time.  T h i s was  The average time t h e  s u b j e c t s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y r a n on t h e t r e a d m i l l was 10.00 minutes w i t h a range o f 5.00 t o 12.30 m i n u t e s . One o f t h e c r i t e r i a t h a t had been used i n r e c e n t s t u d i e s t o determine i f a t r u e and r e l i a b l e measure o f maximal oxygen uptake was a t t a i n e d by t h e s u b j e c t s was t h e p r e s e n c e o f a p l a t e a u i n t h e oxygen uptake v a l u e s . p l a t e a u . s h o u l d o c c u r over t h e l a s t two w o r k l o a d s of t h e t r e a d m i l l  This  test  (which v a r i e d from two t o f o u r minutes) a l l o w i n g f o r an i n c r e a s e o f o n l y 2.1 ml/kg-min o r l e s s i n oxygen u p t a k e v a l u e s d u r i n g t h i s  time.(Cunningham,  - 36 MacFarlane,,. Van W a t e r s c h o o t , P a t e r s o n , L e f c o e and S a n g a l , p, 211, 1977'). K r a h e n b u h l , P a n g r a z i , P e t e r s e n , B u r k e t t and S c h n e i d e r (1978) used a t e s t p r o t o c o l t o e l i c i t maximal oxygen uptake t h a t i n c r e a s e d t h e grade by 2 1/2% every minute.  The r e s u l t s showed t h a t t h e group o f s u b j e c t s who  a t t a i n e d a p l a t e a u i n maximal oxygen uptake had h i g h e r v a l u e s i n oxygen u p t a k e , h e a r t r a t e , v e n t i l a t i o n , r e s p i r a t o r y q u o t i e n t and v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s between t h r e e d i s t a n c e r u n s .  However, the group o f s u b j e c t s  who d i d n o t a t t a i n a p l a t e a u i n maximal oxygen uptake a c h i e v e d lower v a l u e s i n t h e same v a r i a b l e s , b u t t h e s e v a l u e s f o l l o w e d a s i m i l a r t r e n d t o t h e group who a t t a i n e d a p l a t e a u .  I n a d d i t i o n , c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d between  maximal oxygen u p t a k e w i t h o u t a p l a t e a u and maximal oxygen u p t a k e w i t h a p l a t e a u and t h e 1600 metre r u n were b o t h s i g n i f i c a n t (p < ,01) f o r males and females. Cunningham, M a c F a r l a n e , Van W a t e r s c h o o t , P a t e r s o n , L e f c o e and S a n g a l (1977) found t h a t maximal oxygen uptake i n young boys was r e p r o d u c i b l e whether a p l a t e a u i n t h e maximal oxygen uptake v a l u e s was reached o r n o t . However, t h e r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t appeared t o depend upon whether a p l a t e a u was r e a c h e d .  I n a d d i t i o n , comparable l e v e l s of maximal oxygen  uptake were a t t a i n e d whether a p l a t e a u was reached o r n o t .  The d i f f e r e n c e s  i n t h e s u b j e c t s who a t t a i n e d a p l a t e a u and those who d i d n o t appeared t o be i n f a c t o r s t h a t were i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e l e v e l of a n a e r o b i c m e t a b o l i s m .  The  maximal h e a r t r a t e and minute v e n t i l a t i o n s a t t a i n e d were n o t dependent upon t h e p r e s e n c e o f a p l a t e a u i n maximal oxygen u p t a k e . B e f o r e t h e e x i s t e n c e of a p l a t e a u i n maximal oxygen uptake can be used a s a c r i t e r i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g whether t h e t r u e maximal oxygen uptake was a t t a i n e d i n c h i l d r e n , more r e s e a r c h needs t o be done. Other c r i t e r i a used t o d e t e r m i n e i f maximal oxygen uptake was a t t a i n e d i n c l u d e d h i g h l e v e l s o f h e a r t r a t e t h a t l e v e l l e d o f f , r e s p i r a t o r y exchange  - 37 r a t i o approaching  a v a l u e o f 1,0 and a h i g h v e n t i l a t i o n r a t e .  I n the  p r e s e n t study t h e mean h e a r t r a t e reached a t peak oxygen uptake was h i g h e r than v a l u e s r e p o r t e d f o r o t h e r c h i l d r e n , i n c l u d i n g those who reached p l a t e a u s i n oxygen uptake v a l u e s (Krahenbuhl, P a n g r a z i , P e t e r s e n , B u r k e t t and S c h n e i d e r , 1978; Cunningham, M a c F a r l a n e , L e f c o e and S a n g a l , 1977).  Van W a t e r s c h o o l ,  Paterson,  The mean r e s p i r a t o r y q u o t i e n t reached a t peak  oxygen uptake was lower than t h a t r e p o r t e d i n o t h e r s t u d i e s , w h i l e the r e s p i r a t o r y exchange r a t i o was e q u i v a l e n t t o those i n o t h e r s t u d i e s .  The  average v e n t i l a t i o n r a t e a c h i e v e d a t peak oxygen uptake was much h i g h e r than v a l u e s r e p o r t e d by K r a h e n b u h l , Schneider  P a n g r a z i , P e t e r s e n , B u r k e t t and  (1978), b u t lower than v a l u e s r e p o r t e d by Cunningham,  Van W a t e r s c h o o t , P a t e r s o n , L e f c o e and Sangal  (1977),  MacFarlane,  Consequently the  r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by t h e young g i r l s i n t h e p r e s e n t study demonstrated t h a t they e x e r c i s e d on t h e t r e a d m i l l u n t i l h i g h work l e v e l s .  they were exhausted  and a c h i e v e d  Due t o the c o n t r o v e r s y r e g a r d i n g t h e achievement of a  t r u e maximal oxygen uptake v a l u e , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r o f the p r e s e n t  study  chose t o use peak oxygen uptake r a t h e r than maximal oxygen uptake i n the v a l i d a t i o n of the d i s t a n c e runs. Upon e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g the t r e a d m i l l t e s t i t appeared t h a t many o f the young g i r l s may have been a b l e t o a c h i e v e h i g h e r oxygen uptake v a l u e s i f they c o u l d have c o n t i n u e d t o r u n on t h e t r e a d m i l l . T h i s was demonstrated by t h e 5 t o 10 ml/kg-min i n c r e a s e s t h a t o c c u r r e d i n oxygen uptake over t h e 3 minute i n t e r v a l s a f t e r t h e grade increment had been increased.  The 3 minute time i n t e r v a l between grade i n c r e a s e s was chosen  to a l l o w t h e s u b j e c t time t o p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y a d j u s t t o t h e new w o r k l o a d b e f o r e i t was i n c r e a s e d a g a i n .  However t h i s time i n t e r v a l a l s o c o n s i d e r a b l y  i n c r e a s e d t h e t o t a l time o f t h e t e s t r a t h e r than the w o r k l o a d subjects.  imposed on t h e  P o s s i b l y by d e c r e a s i n g t h e time i n t e r v a l between grade changes  - 38 from 3 t o 2 m i n u t e s , t h e t o t a l time o f t h e t e s t would be d e c r e a s e d w h i l e a h i g h e r p e r c e n t grade i n c r e m e n t and t h e r e f o r e p h y s i o l o g i c a l w o r k l o a d would be p r e s e n t e a r l i e r  (see T a b l e 10 f o r c o m p a r i s o n ) .  This shorter  treadmill  t e s t might e n a b l e a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f s u b j e c t s t o a t t a i n t h e i r t r u e peak oxygen u p t a k e .  T a b l e 10 Comparison  of Treadmill Protocols  T e s t P r o t o c o l Used i n P r e s e n t Study  Time (minutes) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11  Grade (percent)  Speed (m.p.h.)  3 3 3 6 6 6 9 9 9 12 12 12  4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5  '" - - As .seen i n T a b l e 5  Proposed New P r o t o c o l  Time (minutes) 0 1 2 3 4 > 5 6 7 8 9 10 11  Grade (percent)  Speed (m.p.h.) 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5  3 3 6 6 9 9 12 12 15 15 18 18  a l l Three timed" d i s t a n c e runs , the -9 minute r u n ,  :  . the'1.2 minute run-and ,j±ie 1600' metre run;-were s i g n i f i c a n t l y - r e l a t e d t o .peak . :  oxygen u p t a k e . The »9Tninute r u n e x h i b i t e d .the. h i g h e s t - c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h peak :  :  oxygen u p t a k e , f o l l o w e d by t h e 1600 metre r u n and then the 12 minute r u n .  The  h i g h i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e t h r e e / t i m e d d i s t a n c e runs i l l u s t r a t e d  that  the t h r e e runs were l i k e l y t o be measuring " s i m i l a r f a c t o r s .  In the  m u l t i p l e l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , the 12 minute r u n and the 11600 metre r u n e x h i b i t e d v e r y low p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s when the 9 minute r u n was p a r t i a l l e d o u t ( r = 0.24385, and r = 0 . 0 5 5 3 8 , r e s p e c t i v e l y } .  This, showed t h a t t h e v a r i a n c e , accounted f o r by both" t h e 12 minute r u n and the 1600 metre r u n t h a t was n o t i n common w i t h , t h e 9 m i n u t e r u n , was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o peak oxygen uptake.  Likewise the variance  accounted f o r by t h e 12 minute, and 1600 metre r u n s t h a t was i n common w i t h the 9 m i n u t e r u n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o peak oxygen u p t a k e .  Conse^  q u e n t l y , i t appeared from t h e s e r e s u l t s t h a t t h e 9 minute r u n was t h e most v a l i d o f t h e t h r e e t e s t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f peak oxygen uptake. The s t e p w i s e m u l t i p l e l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s  allowed  the i n v e s t i g a t o r  t o examine a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s , i n t h e p r e d i c t i o n of peak oxygen u p t a k e . The v a r i a b l e o f p e r c e n t a g e body f a t e x h i b i t e d t h e second h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h peak oxygen uptake when compared t o a l l t h e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d i n g the 3 timed/distance  runs.  Few s t u d i e s t o date have u t i l i z e d  percentage body f a t as a d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c i n t h e f i e l d e s t i m a t i o n o f cardiorespiratory fitness i nchildren.  Consequently i t was d i f f i c u l t t o  d i s c u s s b o t h body w e i g h t and p e r c e n t a g e body f a t o f t h e s u b j e c t s i n r e l a t i o n t o norm v a l u e s and t o peak oxygen u p t a k e . In determining 4 body s i t e s ;  p e r c e n t a g e body f a t , s k i n f o l d r e a d i n g s were t a k e n a t  t r i c e p s , biceps, subscapular  and s u p r a i l i a c .  The body d e n s i t y  was determined by a r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n produced by D u r n i n and Rahaman (1967);; and t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f body f a t was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g a f o r m u l a d e r i v e d by S i r i  (1956).  r e g r e s s i o n equations Parizkova  S i m i l a r body d e n s i t y v a l u e s were produced when t h e  d e r i v e d by P a r i z k o v a  (1961) were used.  However  (19.61) e x p r e s s e d t h e s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s r e s u l t s i n d e n s i t y u n i t s  and d i d n o t use them t o p r e d i c t body f a t p e r c e n t a g e s .  In the t h e o r e t i c a l  d e r i v a t i o n o f p e r c e n t a g e Body f a t from measurements o f body d e n s i t y there, were no s p e c i a l equations  a v a i l a b l e f o r use w i t h c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s .  - 40 T h i s was due m a i n l y t o t h e l a c k o f knowledge o f the body c o m p o s i t i o n of c h i l d r e n , s p e c i f i c a l l y i n r e g a r d t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n muscle c o m p o s i t i o n , bone and s k e l e t o n c o m p o s i t i o n and t h e i r r e l a t i v e mass i n r e l a t i o n t o body fat.  I t was f e l t , however, t h a t s i n c e t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between body d e n s i t y  and s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s was h i g h , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between body d e n s i t y and p e r c e n t a g e o f f a t i n c h i l d r e n would be v e r y c l o s e t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p found i n a d u l t s ( P a r i z k o v a , 1961).  Under t h i s a s s u m p t i o n , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r o f  t h e p r e s e n t study c o n v e r t e d body d e n s i t y v a l u e s i n t o p e r c e n t a g e body f a t f o r ease o f comparison and m e a n i n g f u l n e s s . As seen i n t h e z e r o - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x , t h e p e r c e n t a g e body f a t was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  (p < •.01.) r e l a t e d t o body w e i g h t (r=0.7;8), peak oxygen  uptake ( r = - 0 . 7 9 ) , t h e 9 minute r u n ( r = -0.73) , t h e 12 minute r u n ( r = - 0 , 7 5 ) and t h e 1600 metre r u n ( r = 0.74). Body w e i g h t was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y  related  t o peak oxygen uptake ( r = - 0 . 6 1 ) , t h e 9 minute r u n ( r = - 0 . 5 5 ) , the 12 minute r u n ( r = -0.51) and t h e 1600 metre r u n (r=0.47).. > S i n c e ;body w e i g h t and percentage, body f a t were q u i t e h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d  (r=0.78), accounting  f o r 60% o f t h e v a r i a n c e , they were e s s e n t i a l l y c o n t r i b u t i n g information.  similar  The percentagef.bodyv,fat had a c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n  w i t h peak oxygen uptake and t h e t h r e e t i m e d / d i s t a n c e r u n s , t h e r e f o r e i t was r e a s o n a b l e t o choose p e r c e n t a g e body f a t over body w e i g h t as t h e v a r i a b l e t h a t would c o n t r i b u t e more i n f o r m a t i o n i n p r e d i c t i n g peak oxygen uptake and c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y endurance. K r a h e n b u h l , P a n g r a z i , B u r k e t t , S c h n e i d e r and P e t e r s e n (1977) and Mayhew and G i f f o r d (1975) found t h a t body f a t r e p r e s e n t e d by s k i n f o l d measurements c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the p r e d i c t i o n o f maximal oxygen uptake (ml/kg-min) i n c h i l d r e n . The n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between peak oxygen uptake and p e r c e n t a g e body f a t ( r =-0.79) i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t as t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f body f a t i n c r e a s e d ,  - 41 peak oxygen uptake d e c r e a s e d and as peak oxygen uptake i n c r e a s e d , the p e r c e n t a g e o f body f a t d e c r e a s e d .  Body w e i g h t was a l s o n e g a t i v e l y  c o r r e l a t e d t o peak oxygen uptake.  T h i s r e s u l t was i n agreement w i t h most  of the s t u d i e s completed u s i n g a d u l t s as s u b j e c t s .  Cureton, B o i l e a u ,  Lohman and M i s n e r (1978) s t a t e d however t h a t "low maximal oxygen uptake (ml/kg-B.W.*min) and poor d i s t a n c e r u n n i n g performance c a p a b i l i t y due t o excess body f a t was not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t i v e o f poor c a r d i o v a s c u l a r r e s p i r a t o r y f u n c t i o n due t o i n a c t i v i t y o r p a t h o l o g y " (pi. 277).  Morrow,  J a c k s o n and B e l l (1978) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e body mass i n d e x (B.M.I.) w h i c h was a f i e l d method of measuring body composition,.;was r e l a t e d t o d i s t a n c e r u n n i n g performance i n b o t h the .9 minute and the 12 minute runs f o r boys and g i r l s ages 10 t o 12 y e a r s .  I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t the "B.M.I, was a  more i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t of d i s t a n c e r u n n i n g performance than age" (Morrow, J a c k s o n and B e l l , 1978, p.495).  F o r the female s u b j e c t s t e s t e d  i n the 12 minute r u n , t h e B.M.I, accounted f o r the n e g a t i v e age-performance r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h a t i s , as age i n c r e a s e d , r u n n i n g performance d e c r e a s e d . These f i n d i n g s seem t o s u p p o r t the work o f C u r e t o n , B o i l e a u , Lohman and M i s n e r (1978). P e r c e n t a g e body f a t was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h chronol o g i c a l age o r body h e i g h t b u t was weight.  s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h body  Body w e i g h t r e p r e s e n t e d t h e t o t a l body c o m p o s i t i o n of m u s c l e , bone,  c o n n e c t i v e t i s s u e and body f a t . T h e r e f o r e i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t h a t body w e i g h t was  found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h age, h e i g h t , and  p e r c e n t a g e body f a t .  Body w e i g h t was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o peak  oxygen uptake and the 3 r u n s , however c h r o n o l o g i c a l age and body h e i g h t were n o t . I t has been demonstrated i n a d u l t s t h a t age was n e g a t i v e l y w e i g h t e d w i t h maximal oxygen uptake showing a d e c r e a s e i n maximal oxygen uptake w i t h  - 42 age.  I n s t u d i e s on c h i l d r e n , age, h e i g h t and w e i g h t have been p o s i t i v e l y  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h maximal oxygen uptake and each o t h e r .  T h i s was i n agreement  w i t h t h e l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h s t a t e d t h a t maximal oxygen uptake i n c r e a s e d  pro-  p o r t i o n a t e l y w i t h growth and maturation, t o a c e r t a i n age ( A s t r a n d and R o d a h l , 1970;  Bonen, Heyward, C u r e t o n , B o i l e a u and Massey, 1979).  In the present  s t u d y , age was p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h peak oxygen u p t a k e , w e i g h t and h e i g h t , b u t w e i g h t and h e i g h t were n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h peak oxygen uptake.  Therefore,  as t h e s u b j e c t s were g e t t i n g o l d e r , t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r  oxygen uptake was i n c r e a s i n g b u t a t t h e same time as t h e i r w e i g h t and h e i g h t increased  t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r oxygen uptake was  decreasing.  I t would appear,from t h e s e r e s u l t s t h a t a n t h r o p o m e t r i c v a r i a b l e s p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e oxygen uptake c a p a c i t y o f young g i r l s . In a d d i t i o n t o . t h e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x ,  the d a t a was a l s o e n t e r e d  into  m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n p r o c e d u r e s t o d e v e l o p p r e d i c t i o n e q u a t i o n s o f peak oxygen uptake f o r young g i r l s . .  These p r o c e d u r e s s e l e c t e d p r e d i c t o r s from  a mathematical r a t h e r than a p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  Comparisons  between d i f f e r e n t p r e d i c t i o n s were n o t based o n l y on t h e s i z e o f t h e e o r r e l a t i o n ^ c o e f f i c i e n t s s i n c e t h e s e c o u l d be i n f l u e n c e d by t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e d a t a .  Instead  comparisons'were done on t h e b a s i s o f t h e p r e d i c t i o n  a c c u r a c y as r e f l e c t e d by t h e s t a n d a r d  error of estimate  (S.E.E.).  An  a d d i t o n a l measure o f p r e d i c t i o n a c c u r a c y t h a t was r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e (Bonen, Heyward, C u r e t o n , B o i l e a u and' Massey, 1979) was t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f the c o e f f i c i e n t o f v a r i a t i o n (C.V. = x/S.E.E. x l O O ) . Based on t h e s t a n d a r d  error of estimate,  i n T a b l e 6 was t h e p r e f e r r e d e q u a t i o n  the r e g r e s s i o n equation  f o r p r e d i c t i n g peak oxygen uptake.  p r e d i c t i o n a c c u r a c y of- t h i s e q u a t i o n was= s i m i l a r - t o t h o s e . r e p o r t e d studies using.different, subjects Massey1979) .  shown The  ift~previous  (Bonen, Heyward, C u r e t o n , B o i l e a u and  - 43 The r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n as seen i n •Table/..6 i-^'Hligh:tly.; underestimated 1  v  the s u b j e c t s w i t h h i g h peak oxygen u p t a k e , b u t o v e r e s t i m a t e d the s u b j e c t s w i t h l o w peak oxygen uptake ( T a b l e  11) .  Table 11 • Observed v e r s u s P r e d i c t e d Peak Oxygen Uptake V a l u e s Using the P r e f e r r e d Regression Equation Peak Oxygen Uptake (ml/kg-min)  S u b j e c t No.  Observed V a l u e s (ml/kg-min)  Predicted Values (ml/kg-min)  Residual (ial/kg-min)  11  60.050  56.5.9  3.46  10  57.090  54.46-  '2.62  1  55.730  54.36  1.37 /  12  55.720  53.48  2.23  15  55.070  53.10  1.96  18  54.570  53.45 '  ' 1 .01 .  17  53.140  55.17  -2.03 '  20  51.700  48.42  3.27  13  51.540  48.10  2.43  8  50.600  57.00  -6.40  19  50.090  51.14  -1.05  14  48.320  45.90  "2.42 '  3  48.000  50.62  -2.62  4  47.400  ' 41.90  5.49  46.790 •  49.70  -2.91  7  41.260  43.95  -2.69 • •  6  40.760  35.50  5.26  9  38.500  41.77  -3.27  2  35.200  34,86  5  30.010  41.00 -  16  7  '  0.34 .; -10.99"-  -  44-  I t i s i m p o r t a n t to n o t e t h a t owing t o the s m a l l sample, c a u t i o n s h o u l d be t a k e n when.using t h e e q u a t i o n s t o p r e d i c t peak oxygen u p t a k e , owing t o the s p e c i f i c i t y of the group of s u b j e c t s .  However the r e s u l t s based on  this  sample demonstrated t h a t the development o f r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s t o p r e d i c t peak oxygen u p t a k e was  f e a s i b l e and the r e s u l t a n t e q u a t i o n s were q u i t e  accurate.  2.  Test-Retest  Reliabilities  The second o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s s t u d y was  to determine  i f timed/distance  runs were r e l i a b l e f i e l d t e s t s i n p r e d i c t i n g peak oxygen uptake. The 12 minute r u n and the 1600 metre r u n e x h i b i t e d s i g n i f i c a n t  test-  r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s w h i l e the 9 minute r u n d i d n o t . The  1600 metre run had  the h i g h e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t .  t h e a c t u a l t e s t i n g o f the t h r e e t i m e d / d i s t a n c e runs i t was  During  observed by  the  i n v e s t i g a t o r t h a t many of t h e young female s u b j e c t s were a b l e t o p r a c t i c e t h e concept o f p a c i n g i n the 1600  metre r u n more e f f i c i e n t l y and  than i n t h e 9 and 12 minute r u n s .  I n t h e 1600 metre r u n , the s u b j e c t s knew  they had e i g h t l a p s of a 200 metre t r a c k t o complete. 9 and 12 minute timed runs time was s u b j e c t s appeared t o f i n d d i f f i c u l t y This a b i l i t y  consistently  However i n both  i n t a n g i b l e , not c o n c r e t e , and  the  the  i n r e l a t i n g t h e time to t h e i r r u n n i n g .  t o r e l a t e t o c o n c r e t e i n f o r m a t i o n , the d i s t a n c e i n t h e  1600  metre r u n , v e r s u s i n t a n g i b l e i n f o r m a t i o n , the time i n the 9 and 12 minute r u n s , was  r e f l e c t e d i n the h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y of the 1600 metre r u n .  P a n g r a z i , P e t e r s e n , B u r k e t t and Schneider  Krahenbuhl,  (1978) a l s o r e p o r t e d a h i g h t e s t -  r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t f o r young.males and females i n the 1600  metre  run. I n t h e 9 m i n u t e timed d i s t a n c e r u n t h e r e was  a s m a l l e r d i s p e r s i o n of  s c o r e s compared t o the 12 minute timed r u n as noted by the means and  standard  d e v i a t i o n s r e p o r t e d i n T r i a l 1 and 2 (Table 9 ) .  investi-  I t was  noted by the  g a t o r t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s r a n i n c l o s e r groups i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t e s t ,  there-  f o r e t h e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e s u b j e c t s d i d n o t show as much. Therefore,  because o f t h e s m a l l e r d i s p e r s a l o f s c o r e s i n t h e 9 minute timed  r u n , one would expect a lower t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y .  The e x t r a  three  minutes r u n i n t h e 12 minute timed r u n appeared s u f f i c i e n t t o i n c r e a s e t h e spread of the s u b j e c t s i n t h e i r running l a r g e r d i s p e r s i o n of scores a t t a i n e d . retest r e l i a b i l i t y  performance thereby c r e a t i n g a T h i s was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e h i g h e r  score.  To d a t e , no s t u d i e s on t h e t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y and  test-  o f t h e 9 minute r u n  t h e 12 minute r u n have been performed on young female s u b j e c t s .  Previous  s t u d i e s (Maksud and C o u t t s , 1971; D o o l i t t l e and B i g b e e , 1968) r e p o r t e d test-retest r e l i a b i l i t y run.  high  c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r boys 11 t o 14 y e a r s i n the 12 minute  The p r e s e n t s t u d y r e p o r t e d a r e l i a b i l i t y  c o r r e l a t i o n o f r =0.8154 f o r  the young female s u b j e c t s . The  low r e l i a b i l i t y  c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e 9 minute r u n was unexpected.  s t u d i e s t o d a t e have examined t h e t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y run i n young c h i l d r e n .  The t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y  s e n s i t i v e and can be a f f e c t e d by s e v e r a l f a c t o r s . a f f e c t i n g t h i s measure was t h e sample s i z e . s i z e was very reliability  small.  No  of t h e 9 minute  c o r r e l a t i o n i s very One o f t h e major f a c t o r s  I n t h e p r e s e n t study t h e sample  The a d d i t i o n ' o f even one more s u b j e c t c o u l d change t h e  correlation significantly  ( C l a r k e and C l a r k e , 1970).  Reliability  can a l s o be i n f l u e n c e d by o t h e r extraneous f a c t o r s s u c h as a t t i t u d e and m o t i v a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t s , weather c o n d i t i o n s , t h e time o f day and equipment. Many o f t h e s e f a c t o r s were d i f f i c u l t  t o c o n t r o l although, e f f o r t s were made  d u r i n g t h e t e s t i n g t o e l i m i n a t e as many e x t r a n e o u s f a c t o r s as p o s s i b l e . In a l l 3 time/distance  runs t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between  the means o f T r i a l 1 and T r i a l 2 as measured by t h e t t e s t f o r c o r r e l a t e d means.  T h i s demonstrated t h a t t h e mean s c o r e s o f a l l 3 t i m e d / d i s t a n c e  on T r i a l 1 were r e p r o d u c i b l e on T r i a l 2,  runs  - 46 -  Chapter V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS A.  Summary Renewed i n t e r e s t i n h e a l t h concerns has been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the  improvement o f measurement p r o c e d u r e s t o e v a l u a t e p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s s t a t u s . C a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i s a key component o f p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and i s seen as an i m p o r t a n t r i s k r e d u c t i o n , measure f o r c o r o n a r y h e a r t d i s e a s e .  While  maximal oxygen u p t a k e i s t h e most s u i t a b l e , l a b o r a t o r y measure o f c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s , measurement o f maximal oxygen uptake i s n o t f e a s i b l e for the general public.  A l t h o u g h f i e l d t e s t s t h a t p r e d i c t maximal  oxygen  uptake have been developed f o r - m o s t o f t h e a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n , l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been i n i t i a t e d i n t h i s a r e a ' f o r young c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r young females. The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e : 1.  The v a l i d i t y o f t h e 9 minute and 12 minute timed runs and the 1600 metre d i s t a n c e r u n as p r e d i c t o r s . o f peak oxygen uptake and t h e r e f o r e as measures o f c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i n g i r l s 8 t o 11 y e a r s o f age.  2.  The r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e 9 minute and 12 minute timed runs and t h e 1600 metre d i s t a n c e r u n as measures o f c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y  endurance.  S i x t y f e m a l e - s u b j e c t s from C r o f t o n House S c h o o l and S t . P a t r i c k ' s Elementary S c h o o l , Vancouver, B.C. were t e s t e d on the 3 timed d i s t a n c e r u n s , the 9 m i n u t e , 12 minute and 1600 metre runs and a maximal oxygen uptake treadmill test.  A n t h r o p o m e t r i c measures ( h e i g h t , w e i g h t , p e r c e n t a g e body  f a t ) were a l s o t a k e n .  Twenty o f the s u b j e c t s completed a l l o f the t e s t i n g .  The v a l i d i t y o f t h e 9 m i n u t e , t h e 12 minute and t h e 1600 metre runs as p r e d i c t o r s o f peak oxygen uptake and t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a l l the v a r i a b l e s were determined by d e v e l o p i n g a c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x .  Stepwise  - 47 m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s were conducted to s e l e c t the  independent  v a r i a b l e s (age, h e i g h t , w e i g h t , p e r c e n t a g e body f a t , 9 minute r u n , 12 minute r u n and the 1600 metre run), t h a t b e s t p r e d i c t e d the dependent v a r i a b l e , peak oxygen uptake.  The p r e f e r r e d r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n was: r  Peak Oxygen Uptake  (ml'kg -min ) - 1  = 0.02287 (9 minute run) -0.71217 ( P e r c e n t  - 1  Body F a t ) +29.788. The r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e 9 m i n u t e , the 12.minute and the 1600 metre runs was  determined by d e v e l o p i n g t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n  coefficients.  The r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y o f the mean s c o r e s o f the 9 m i n u t e , 12 minute and the 1600 metre runs from T r i a l 1 t o T r i a l 2 was determined by a t t e s t f o r c o r r e l a t e d means. B.  Conclusions On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s and w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s and  d e l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s s t u d y , t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s appear t o be 1.  With r e s p e c t t o H y p o t h e s i s One,  justified:  the 9 minute and 12 minute timed runs and  t h e 1600 metre d i s t a n c e r u n showed s i g n i f i c a n t v a l i d i t y c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s and t h e r e f o r e a r e v a l i d f i e l d measures of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i n g i r l s 8 t o 11 y e a r s o f age. 2.  With r e s p e c t t o H y p o t h e s i s One, p a r t ( a ) , the 9 minute and 12 minute timed runs and t h e 1600 metre d i s t a n c e r u n were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o peak oxygen uptake.  T h e r e f o r e the performance of g i r l s , 8 to 11 y e a r s of age,  on any o f t h e t h r e e s p e c i f i e d t i m e d / d i s t a n c e runs c o u l d be used t o p r e d i c t peak oxygen uptake. 3.  W i t h r e s p e c t t o H y p o t h e s i s One, p a r t ( b ) , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y d i d not support t h i s h y p o t h e s i s .  The 9 minute timed r u n demonstrated  the  h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n , w i t h peak oxygen u p t a k e , f o l l o w e d ' by the 1600 metre d i s t a n c e r u n and then the 12 minute timed r u n .  4.  With r e s p e c t t o H y p o t h e s i s Two,, the r e s u l t s of t h i s study p a r t i a l l y s u p p o r t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i n t h a t b o t h the 12 minute timed run and 1600 metre d i s t a n c e r u n e x h i b i t e d s i g n i f i c a n t t e s t - r e t e s t  the  reliability  c o e f f i c i e n t s and t h e r e f o r e a r e r e l i a b l e f i e l d measures o f c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i n 8 t o 11 y e a r o l d g i r l s . did 5.  not e x h i b i t a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l i a b i l i t y  W i t h r e s p e c t to Sub-Hypothesis of  The 9 minute timed r u n  coefficient.  One, p a r t s ( a ) , (b) and  t h i s study p a r t i a l l y support t h i s h y p o t h e s i s .  and the 1600 metre d i s t a n c e r u n demonstrated  ( c ) , the r e s u l t s  The 9 minute timed run  the h i g h e s t i n t e r -  c o r r e l a t i o n , f o l l o w e d by the 12 minute timed r u n and the 1600 metre d i s t a n c e r u n and t h e n t h e 9 minute and 12 minute timed r u n s . In c o n c l u s i o n both, t h e 1600 metre d i s t a n c e r u n and t h e 12 minute timed r u n were v a l i d and r e l i a b l e f i e l d t e s t s to p r e d i c t peak oxygen uptake in girls  8 t o 11 y e a r s o f age.  demonstrated  However t h e 1600 metre d i s t a n c e r u n  h i g h e r v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s  and  t h e r e f o r e would be t h e p r e f e r r e d f i e l d t e s t t o measure c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i n g i r l s 8 t o 11 y e a r s of age.  C.  Recommendations Due  to the s m a l l amount of r e s e a r c h i n the a r e a of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y  f i t n e s s i n young g i r l s t h e r e are many unanswered q u e s t i o n s and  few  d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r response t o c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y exercise.  The -majority of r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y  has been performed  on a d u l t males and young b o y s , t h e r e f o r e i t i s i m p o r t a n t  t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s s t u d y the female t o ensure t h a t the p h y s i o l o g i c a l of a male i s not g e n e r a l i z e d t o the female.  response  The r e s e a r c h t h a t has been  done w i t h young g i r l s has demonstrated .that they respond d i f f e r e n t l y t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s ; t o p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e , b o t h q u a n t i t a t i v e l y qualitatively.  fitness  and  than  - 49 The f o l l o w i n g a r e a s need t o be s t u d i e d mora c l o s e l y w i t h , the young female: 1.  The a t t a i n m e n t o f a t r u e maximal oxygen uptake and t h e c r i t e r i a used t o d e t e r m i n e t h i s , such a s , a  p l a t e a u i n oxygen u p t a k e v a l u e s , h e a r t  r a t e , r e s p i r a t o r y r a t e , r e s p i r a t o r y q u o t i e n t , r e s p i r a t o r y exchange r a t i o , ,etc. 2.  The r e l i a b i l i t y o f maximal oxygen uptake and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a t t a i n i n g a t r u e maximal oxygen u p t a k e .  3.  The t r e a d m i l l t e s t p r o t o c o l used t o e l i c i t maximal oxygen u p t a k e ,  4.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p of a n t h r o p o m e t r i c measurements, s p e c i f i c a l l y p e r c e n t a g e body f a t , w i t h maximal oxygen u p t a k e , r u n n i n g a b i l i t y and c a r d i o respiratory fitness.  I n t h e p r e d i c t i o n of peak oxygen u p t a k e , p e r -  centage body f a t p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e as demonstrated by i t s h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h peak oxygen u p t a k e and i t s i n c l u s i o n i n t h e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n (Table 6 ) , 5.  The f u r t h e r development of m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s t o p r e d i c t maximal oxygen u p t a k e ,  I n t h i s s t u d y the p r e f e r r e d m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n  e q u a t i o n f o r p r e d i c t i n g peak oxygen uptake i n 8 t o 11 y e a r o l d g i r l s u t i l i z e d t h e 9 -minute timed r u n s c o r e and p e r c e n t a g e body f a t .  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P r e d i c t i o n o f maximal oxygen uptake i n  pre-adolescent boys.from anthropometric  parameters.  Research  Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 46, 1975, pp. 302-311. Maksud, M.G., and K.D. C o u t t s .  A p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e Cooper Twelve M i n u t e  Run-Walk T e s t t o young males. pp.  Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 42, 1971,  54-59.  M a r t e n s , F.L.  R e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l e c t e d p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s t e s t s f o r  elementary 1978,  school children.  pyj.27.  C.A.H.P.E.R., v o l . 44, no. 5, May/June  Metz, K.F., and J.F. A l e x a n d e r .  An I n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  between maximum a e r o b i c work c a p a c i t y . a n d i n 12 t o 15.year o l d b o y s . 1970,  p h y s i c a l work c a p a c i t y  Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 4 1 , no. 1,  p. 75.  Meyers, C.R.  A Study of t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e Howard step' t e s t .  Research  Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 40, no. 2, 1969, p. 423. M i t c h e l l , J . , B . J . S p r o u l e and C P . Chapman. the maximal oxygen i n t a k e t e s t . vol.  Journal of C l i n i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n ,  37, 1958, p. 538.  Morrow, J.R., A.S. J a c k s o n and J.A. B e l l . body mass on d i s t a n c e r u n n i n g . 1978,  The P h y s i o l o g i c a l meaning o f  The F u n c t i o n o f age, sex.and  Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 49, no.4,  pp. 491-497.  O l r e e , H.L., C. S t e v e n s , T. N e l s o n ,  G. A g n e v i k and R.T. C l a r k .  of t h e A.A.H.P.E.R.! Y o u t h F i t n e s s T e s t .  Evaluation  J o u r n a l of S p o r t s M e d i c i n e  a n d . P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s , v o l . 5, 1965, pp. 67-71. Parizkova, J .  T o t a l body f a t and s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s i n c h i l d r e n .  M e t a b o l i s m , v o l . 10, 1961,pp. 794. P a t e r s o n , D.H., and D. A. Cunningham.  Maximal oxygen uptake i n c h i l d r e n :  comparison o f t r e a d m i l l p r o t o c o l s a t v a r i e d speeds..  Canadian J o u r n a l  of A p p l i e d Sport S c i e n c e s , v o l . 3. R i b i s l , P.M., and W. A. K a c h a d o r i a n . middle-aged males. vol.  Maximal oxygen i n t a k e i n young and  J o u r n a l o f Sports M e d i c i n e and P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s . ,  9, March 1969, pp. 17-22.  S a f r i t , M.J.  E v a l u a t i o n i n P h y s i c a l Education Assessing-Motor Behaviour.  New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , - , : I n C i , 1973, eh.-9, p. 203. :  B  Shephard, R . J . World s t a n d a r d s  v  o f c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y performance.  o f Environmental. H e a l t h , v o l . 13, 1966, pp. 664-672.  Archives  - 56 S i r i , W.E.  The  Gross c o m p o s i t i o n  and M e d i c a l P h y s i c s , J.H. London & New T a y l o r , H.L.,  of the body.  Lawrence and  C.A.  Y o r k : Academic P r e s s , 1956,  E. B u s k i r k and A. H e n s c h e l l .  I n Advances i n B i o l o g i c a l Tobias,  v o l . IV.  Maximal oxygen uptake as  o b j e c t i v e measure of c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y performance. A p p l i e d P h y s i o l o g y , v o l . 8, 1955, Vodak, P.A.,  and J.H.  Wilmore.  editors.  pp.  73-  Journal  an  of  80.  V a l i d i t y of the 6 minute j o g - w a l k  and  the 600 y a r d run-walk i n e s t i m a t i n g endurance c a p a c i t y i n b o y s , 9 t o 12 y e a r s of age. pp.  R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 46, May,1974,  230-234.  W i l e y , J.F., and L.G.  Shaver.  P r e d i c t i o n of maximal oxygen i n t a k e from  r u n n i n g performances of u n t r a i n e d young men. v o l . 43, March 1972, Wilmore, J.H.,  p.  Research Q u a r t e r l y ,  89.  and J . J . McNamara.  Prevalence  of c o r o n a r y h e a r t  r i s k f a c t o r s i n b o y s , e i g h t to t w e l v e y e a r s of age. P e d i a t r i c s , v o l . 84, 1977, Wilmore, J.H.,  and P.O.  Sigerseth.  7 t o 13 y e a r s of age.. 1967, W i t t e n , C.  pp.  pp.  disease  J o u r n a l of  527-533. P h y s i c a l work c a p a c i t y of young g i r l s ,  J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d P h y s i o l o g y , v o l . 22, no.  5,  923-928.  C o n s t r u c t i o n of a sub-maximal c a r d i o v a s c u l a r s t e p t e s t f o r  c o l l e g e females.  Research Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 44, March 1973,  pp.  46-50.  - 57 APPENDIX 1: Consent Forms  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Informed Consent f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n G. M c C r e i g h t ' s P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Study  Dear P a r e n t / G u a r d i a n : The s t u d e n t s i n Grades 3 and 4 a t S t . P a t r i c k ' s Elementary  School  w i l l be asked t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n study conducted by G e r i M c C r e i g h t , a graduate s t u d e n t i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n a t U.B.C. and Dr. R. Mosher, a p r o f e s s o r i n t h e S c h o o l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n at U.B.C. T h i s study w i l l be d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e measurement o f c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i n young ; g i r l s .  The study w i l l t a k e a p p r o x i m a t e l y one  month t o complete. The i n i t i a l p a r t o f t h e s t u d y w i l l be conducted w i t h t h e c o o p e r a t i o n of  t h e p r i n c i p a l and t e a c h e r s a t S t . P a t r i c k ' s Elementary  S c h o o l . Each  s t u d e n t w i l l be asked t o p e r f o r m 5 t o 10 minutes of l o n g d i s t a n c e r u n n i n g on 4 s e p a r a t e d a y s . d u r i n g t h e time p e r i o d o f A p r i l 9 t o A p r i l 15, 1980. These same s t u d e n t s w i l l p e r f o r m 3 d i f f e r e n t t i m e d / d i s t a n c e : runs (9 m i n u t e s , 12 minutes and a 1600 metre run) between A p r i l 16 and A p r i l 24, 1980. A l l o f t h i s w i l l o c c u r d u r i n g t h e normal c l a s s t i m e . The f i n a l s t a g e o f t h i s study w i l l be t e s t i n g conducted a t U.B.C. d u r i n g t h e l a s t week o f A p r i l 1980.  D u r i n g t h i s week each s t u d e n t w i l l  a t t e n d 1 t e s t i n g s e s s i o n a t . the J.M. Buchanan F i t n e s s and Research at U.B.C. In  Centre  T h i s t e s t i n g s e s s i o n w i l l be a r r a n g e d d u r i n g s c h o o l h o u r s . t h e U.B.C. t e s t i n g s e s s i o n each c h i l d w i l l p e r f o r m a graded e x e r c i s e  t e s t on a m o t o r - d r i v e n t r e a d m i l l .  The e x e r c i s e t e s t c o n s i s t s o f r u n n i n g f o r  3 minutes a t 4.5 m.p.h. a t 3% grade f o l l o w e d by i n c r e a s e s i n t h e grade 3 minutes  t o the p o i n t o f v o l u n t a r y f a t i g u e .  oxygen consumption the t e s t .  every  Heart r a t e , b l o o d p r e s s u r e ,  and e x p i r e d carbon d i o x i d e w i l l be m o n i t o r e d  throughout  The h e i g h t and w e i g h t o f each c h i l d w i l l a l s o be r e c o r d e d a l o n g  w i t h an e s t i m a t i o n o f p e r cent body f a t .  -  59 -  CONSENT FORM PLEASE SIGN AND RETURN THIS SHEET: TO YOUR CHILD"S TEACHER AS SOON AS POSSIBLE.  I have read t h e e n c l o s e d consent form and I understand a l l o f the t e s t procedures t h a t my c h i l d w i l l , be asked t o perform. ( P l e a s e SIGN ONE of the f o l l o w i n g )  I g i v e my consent f o r  t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the (name o f c h i l d )  t e s t i n g conducted a t S t . P a t r i c k ' s S c h o o l and U.B.C. SIGNATURE OF PARENT/GUARDIAN:  I do n o t g i v e my consent f o r  to p a r t i c i p a t e (name o f c h i l d )  i n the t e s t i n g  conducted a t S t . P a t r i c k ' s School and U.B.C.  SIGNATURE OF PARENT/GUARDIAN:  DATE: ADDRESS:  .  TELEPHONE:  CHILD'S MEDICAL BACKGROUND Does your c h i l d have any h i s t o r y o f h e a r t or l u n g r e l a t e d d i s e a s e ?  Are t h e r e any o t h e r problems that you t h i n k we s h o u l d know about?  -.60  -  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Informed Consent f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n G. M c C r e i g h t ' s P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Study  Dear P a r e n t / G u a r d i a n : The s t u d e n t s i n Grade 4 and 5 a t C r o f t o n House S c h o o l w i l l be asked to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n study conducted by G e r i M c C r e i g h t , a graduate s t u d e n t i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n a t U.B.C. and Dr. R. Mosher, a p r o f e s s o r i n t h e S c h o o l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , a t U.B.C. T h i s s t u d y w i l l be d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e measurement o f c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y f i t n e s s i n young g i r l s .  The s t u d y w i l l take a p p r o x i m a t e l y  one month t o complete. The i n i t i a l p a r t o f t h e s t u d y w i l l be conducted w i t h t h e c o o p e r a t i o n of M i s s Addison and t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s a t C r o f t o n House S c h o o l . Each s t u d e n t w i l l . b e asked t o p e r f o r m 5 t o 10 minutes o f l o n g d i s t a n c e r u n n i n g on 4 s e p a r a t e days d u r i n g t h e week o f May 28 t o June 1, 1979. D u r i n g t h e weeks o f June 4 t o June 15, 1979, these same s t u d e n t s w i l l p e r f o r m 3 d i f f e r e n t t i m e d / d i s t a n c e runs (9 m i n u t e , 12 m i n u t e , and a 1600 metre r u n ) .  A l l o f t h i s , w i l l occur d u r i n g t h e normal P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n  c l a s s time, a t C r o f t o n House. The f i n a l s t a g e o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l be t e s t i n g conducted a t U.B.C. i n t h e l a s t 2 weeks o f June (18-29), 1979. D u r i n g t h i s 2 week p e r i o d , each s t u d e n t w i l l be asked t o a t t e n d 1 t e s t i n g s e s s i o n l a s t i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 hour a t t h e J.M. Buchanan F i t n e s s and Research C e n t r e a t U.B.C.  This  t e s t i n g s e s s i o n w i l l be arranged a f t e r s c h o o l hours a t b o t h t h e s t u d e n t ' s and p a r e n t ' s convenience. groups o f twos and t h r e e s .  An a t t e m p t . w i l l be made t o t e s t s t u d e n t s i n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i l l be a v a i l a b l e f o r those who  need i t . In  t h e U.B.C. t e s t i n g s e s s i o n each c h i l d w i l l p e r f o r m a graded  e x e r c i s e t e s t on a m o t o r - d r i v e n t r e a d m i l l . for  The e x e r c i s e c o n s i s t s o f r u n n i n g  3 minutes a t 4.5 m.p.h. a t 3 p e r cent grade f o l l o w e d by i n c r e a s e s i n  the grade e v e r y 3 minutes t o t h e p o i n t o f v o l u n t a r y f a t i g u e . b l o o d p r e s s u r e , oxygen consumption m o n i t o r e d throughout t h e t e s t .  Heart  rate,  and e x p i r e d carbon d i o x i d e w i l l be  The h e i g h t and w e i g h t o f each c h i l d  will  - 62 CONSENT FORM PLEASE SIGN AND RETURN THIS SHEET TO YOUR CHILD'S TEACHER AS SOON AS POSSIBLE. I have r e a d t h e e n c l o s e d consent form and I understand a l l o f t h e t e s t p r o c e d u r e s t h a t my c h i l d w i l l be asked t o p e r f o r m . ( P l e a s e SIGN ONE o f t h e f o l l o w i n g ) I g i v e my consent f o r .  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n (name o f c h i l d )  the t e s t i n g conducted a t C r o f t o n House and the t e s t i n g s e s s i o n a t U.B.C. SIGNATURE OF PARENT/GUARDIAN: I do not g i v e my consent, f o r  to p a r t i c i p a t e (name o f c h i l d )  i n t h e t e s t i n g conducted a t C r o f t o n House and the t e s t i n g s e s s i o n a t U.B.C. SIGNATURE OF PARENT/GUARDIAN,: DATE:  -  ADDRESS:  TELEPHONE:  CHILD'S MEDICAL BACKGROUND Does y o u r c h i l d have any h i s t o r y o f h e a r t o r l u n g r e l a t e d d i s e a s e ?  A r e t h e r e any o t h e r problems t h a t y o u . t h i n k we s h o u l d know about?  - 63 • ' APPENDIX 2 TIMED AND DISTANCE RUN DATA SHEETS Group 1  T e s t e r ' s Name:  Test:  School:  ••  Date: Individual Code  -i  Additional Distance  Laps Completed  1.  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  2  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  3  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  4  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  5  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  6  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13 .14  15  +  7  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  8  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  9  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  10  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  11  1. 2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  12  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  13  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  14  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  15  1  2  3  4  5  6  7. 8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  16  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  17  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  18  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  19  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  20  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  21  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  22  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14 115  +  23  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  24  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  25  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  26  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  27  1  2  3 .4  5. 6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  28  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  29  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  30  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  TIMED AND DISTANCE RUN DATA SHEETS Group 1  T e s t e r ' s Name:  Test:  School:  _  Date: Individual Code  Additional Distance  Laps Completed  31  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  32  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  33  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  34  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  35  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12- 13  14  15  :1. +  36  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14 : 15  +  37  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  38  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  39  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  40  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  41  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  42  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  43  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  44  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  45  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  46  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  47  1  2  3  4  5  6< 7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  48  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  49  :i  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  50  l  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  51  l  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  52  l  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  53  l  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  54  l  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  55  l  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  56  i  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  57  l  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  58  l  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  59  l  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  60  l  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  +  ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA SHEET  I n d i v i d u a l S u b j e c t Code: Name: _2_  Birthdate  School: Group:  "  Date:  Heigth:  cm.  Weight:  kg.  Skinfolds:  T  r  ±  a  l  ±  T  r  ±  a  l  2  T  r  i  a  l  3  T r i c e p s (mm) B i c e p s (mm) S u b s c a p u l a r (mm) S u p r a i l i a e (mm)  _____  Total =  

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