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A case study to assess the effects of training in gross motor and fine motor skills on the reading readiness… McGill, Robert G. 1970

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A CASE STUDY TO ASSESS THE EFFECTS OF TRAINING IN GROSS MOTOR AND FINE MOTOR SKILLS ON THE READING READINESS OF A SELECTED GROUP OF GRADE ONE STUDENTS by ROBERT G. McGILL B.P.E., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the School of PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION We accept t h i s t hesis as conforming to the required standard: THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July, 1970 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to assess the effects that a specialized program in which emphasis was placed on fine and gross motor s k i l l training had on the reading readiness of a group of grade one boys and g i r l s deficient in perceptual-motor s k i l l s . Ten grade one students were selected from the Sir Richard McBride Elementary School in Vancouver. These pupils were chosen on the basis of their low scores recorded on the Metropolitan Reading Readiness Test, Form R and the Winter Haven  Perceptual Copy Forms Test. A group of ten pupils, which would act as a control group, was selected from Laura Secord Elementary School. The two groups were matched according to age, sex, the results of the reading readiness test, and the perceptual forms test. The experimental group received eighteen weeks of special motor training which was carried on for sixty minutes a day, five days a week. The control group received regular classroom instruction during this same sixty minute interval. At the completion of the training period a l l subjects were given the Metropolitan Reading Readiness Test Form S and the Winter Haven Perceptual Copy Forms Test. Descriptive relationships were also drawn from data obtained from the parents* interview, homeroom teacher's questionnaire, personal observation and an 8mm. film. The results of the reading readiness and perceptual form tests of the control and the experimental groups involved in the study were not statistically significant from each other and there was no real difference in reading readiness between the groups at the end of the study. The results of the interviews indicated that the majority of parents of the children in the experimental and control groups were either semi or unskilled workers, were not involved in community organizations or clubs, and had a relatively low educational level. They did not participate in physical or recreational activities themselves or with their child and did not encourage their children to participate in sports activities. Similarly these parents spent most of their time watching television, reading l i t t l e , and regarded education solely as a means of obtaining a decent job. Although most of the children in the study had easy access to recreational facilities, l i t t l e use was made of them due to the restrictions placed on the child by their parents. The majority of the children in the study, moreoever, were classed by their partents as being extremely hypo or hyper active, having an extremely short attention span, having few close friends, and experiencing sibling rivalty. They did not participate in any form of organized sport. The results of the homeroom teacher's questionnaire showed that the majority of students in the experimental group changed a great deal in relation to their attitude and interaction within the class. They improved in their ability to work and play within the classroom, with their teacher, and with their classmates. The students i n the control group, however, were less willing to participate effectively within the classroom. That i s , their attitude towards their teacher, school work, and school mates had changed l i t t l e over the eighteen weeks of the study. Finally, i t was noted that towards the end of the training session the subjects in the experimental group improved their fine and gross motor s k i l l s . Moreover, as these children met with unaccustomed success their attitude reflected a more aggressive and confident nature which appeared to carry over to their speech, mannerisms, dress, and reaction within the class. Their attitude and interaction to the class changed markedly, they were willing to participate i n class a c t i v i t i e s , they were able to work for longer periods of time independently, and their new found confidence carried over into a l l phases of classroom activity. The subjects in the control group, however, had not improved their fine and gross motor s k i l l s . They were much less aggressive and confident than those subjects in the experimental group. They were unwilling to participate in class a c t i v i t i e s , or work independently for any length of time effectively. It was therefore concluded that the socio-economic status of the childs' parents, as well as, the parents' attitude towards education may have hindered the normal development of their child. Similarly, i t was also concluded that the program of special motor training given to the experimental group may have accounted for the improvement in s k i l l s involving laterality, directionality, balance, coordination, and various perceptual skills. This improvement in turn, increased the aggressiveness and confidence of the slow learner interacting with his class, and his classroom activity. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e to express my sincere appreciation to my advisor, Dr. H.D. Whittle, f or h i s advice and suggestions. They were invaluable i n preparing t h i s study. To the members of my Advisory Committee, Dr. R.G. Marteniuk, Dr. H.M. C o v e l l , and Mr. A.P. Bakogeorge, I would also l i k e to express my appreciation. I would l i k e to thank Mr. C.W. McLachlan, P r i n c i p a l of Sr. Richard McBride Elementary School, and Mrs. E. Sharpe, i n charge of the perceptual-motor program at McBride School, for t h e i r help. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 8 I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURE 43 IV RESULTS 53 V DISCUSSION 107 VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 129 BIBLIOGRAPHY 135 APPENDICES 145 A. STATISTICAL TREATMENT 145 B. RAW SCORES 147 C. MEDICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINATION REPORTS . . 155 D. AN EXAMPLE OF A LESSON PLAN, AND OUTLINE OF EXERCISES USED 158 E. COPIES OF WINTER HAVEN PERCEPTUAL FORM TESTS . . 182 F. INTERVIEW WITH PARENTS, AND QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS 193 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I Differences between the Control and Exper-imental Groups on Age, Reading Readiness and Perceptual Form Test, Before Motor Tr a i n i n g 54 I I Differences between the Control and Exper-imental Groups on Reading Readiness and Perceptual Form Test, A f t e r Eighteen Weeks of Motor T r a i n i n g 55 II I Results Obtained by the Experimental Group on Reading Readiness Before Motor Tr a i n i n g . . . . 147 IV Results Obtained by the Control Group on Reading Readiness Before Motor Tr a i n i n g . . . . 148 V Results Obtained by the Experimental Group on Perceptual Form Test Before Motor Tr a i n i n g . . . 149 VI Results Obtained by the Control Group on Per-ceptual Form Test Before Motor T r a i n i n g . . . . 150 VII Results Obtained by the Experimental Group on Reading Readiness A f t e r Motor T r a i n i n g . . . . 151 VIII Results Obtained by the Control Group on Read-ing Readiness A f t e r Motor T r a i n i n g 152 IX Results Obtained by the Experimental Group on Perceptual Form Test A f t e r Motor T r a i n i n g . . . 153 TABLE PAGE X Results Obtained by the Control Group on Perceptual Form Test A f t e r Motor Tr a i n i n g 154 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. Socio-Economic Status of the Parents 57 2. The Parents of the Children i n the Experi-mental and Control Groups 60 3. The Children i n the Experimental and Control Group 173 CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Introduction. Children come in t o schools often lacking i n basic perceptual-motor s k i l l s . As a r e s u l t of t h i s , they do not r e a d i l y become ac t i v e c l a s s members i n such a c t i v i t i e s as reading and w r i t i n g and therefore, are l e s s able to learn from these. Hence, they lag behind t h e i r classmates i n these learning a c t i v i t i e s . Although many of these slow learners have normal hearing, v i s i o n and i n t e l l i g e n c e , t h e i r performance i s c o n s i s t e n t l y below average and they are unable to learn to read with normal p r o f i c i e n c y . This condition i s c a l l e d a s p e c i f i c reading d i s a b i l i t y (1) and these c h i l d r e n are l a b e l l e d as slow-learners, lazy, immature, emotionally disturbed or spoiled. Since the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge depends i n part on the a b i l i t y to read, any condition i n t e r f e r i n g with the a b i l i t y to read may be considered detrimental. Moreover, since 90 percent of a pu p i l ' s school time c o n s i s t s of reading (2), and because advanced education i s more i n demand than ever before, a poor reader has d i f f i c u l t y i n meeting the requirements f o r entrance into c o llege or t e c h n i c a l school. Purpose. The general purpose of t h i s study was to assess the e f f e c t s that a s p e c i a l i z e d program i n which emphasis was placed on f i n e and gross motor s k i l l t r a i n i n g had on the reading readiness of a group of grade one boys and g i r l s d e f i c i e n t i n perceptual-motor s k i l l s . T h i s s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g was given to ten grade one p u p i l s who scored low on the Metropolitan Readiness Test Form R, and the Winter 2 Haven Perceptual Copy Forms Test, and were found by a team of psychologists and doctors of the Vancouver School Board to have perceptual-motor problems. Limitations. The major limiting factors of this investigation were: 1. The lack of s t r i c t laboratory control over the subject's motor experiences and a c t i v i t i e s outside of the classroom. Some students in the control group may obtain extra tutoring and participate more in athletic a c t i v i t i e s than the students in the research group. 2. Home and socio-economic environment may have resulted in differing motivation patterns for the subject. 3. There has been no attempt to control the 'Hawthorne' or 'extra attention effect'. 4. The students in the control and experimental group came from different schools. Justification of the Problem. Since most children in British Columbia start school at age six and begin reading a c t i v i t i e s in grade one i t is assumed that these children are ready to learn to read. Few parents at least understand that this kind of readiness i s learned behavior rather than inherent. It i s indirectly expected, therefore, that the child entering school has the necessary perceptual and motor s k i l l s to allow him to learn to read. It i s now known, however, that many children age six have not adequately acquired the cooordination and neuromuscular control essential for reading. Eye movement s k i l l s , the physiological maturities of the visual mechanisms, and the integration of vision, learning and speech 3 necessary for success in reading have not been found present in many f i r s t grade students. Gettaan (3:34) makes the following statement regarding this point: The free and easy, play as I wish, preschool years do not, in and of themselves, provide what the child needs for the cultural activity known as reading. Kindergarten when available to a child gives him some chance to organize and acquire a few of the above s k i l l s , but even the most advanced activity program assumes that most of the basic development s k i l l s are present. Therefore, "the free play" of the preschool years often f a i l to provide pertinent learning experiences. Excluding youngsters with physical or emotional handicaps, many children who have missed these free play learning a c t i v i t i e s may become the so called non-readers and slow learners. During maturation a child undergoes an extensive process of sensory-motor development. In some children, however, the developmental process has broken down. The breakdown i n the developmental sequence may be due to the result of environmental deprivation, injuries, defects in the organism, or emotional pressure with which a child has been unable to cope (4). Freeman (5), Kersher (6),and Robbins (7) in reviewing the work of Doman and Delacato indicate that when such a breakdown does occur and one of these stages i s skipped over or passed through improperly, the neurological organization of the individual may be faulty and the individual may experience certain perceptual and/or motor d i f f i c u l t i e s . Concerning this subject, Piaget (6:627) states: Each of the stages of learning i s essential for the development of the following stages. This isn't simply a linear order i n which you could 4 jump over one stage and s t i l l get to the next one. Each step integrates the preceeding stage and prepares the way f o r the following one. Many of these perceptual-motor problems reveal themselves i n the early elementary grades through d i f f i c u l t i e s i n learning and low academic achievement. I t has been established by Kephart (8), Slobodian (9), and F e l l e r (10) that perceptual-motor d i f f i c u l i t i e s are r e l a t e d to problems of school achievement. During the past two decades a great deal of research and c l i n i c a l experience has proven that the basic s k i l l s acquired i n the f i r s t h a l f dozen years of l i f e are not e n t i r e l y the r e s u l t of maturation. In f a c t , there i s much evidence now to support the premise that every c h i l d d e f i c i e n t i n h i s motor sensory area can benefit, to some degree from meaningful f i n e and gross motor a c t i v i t i e s and experiences, which develop the v i s u a l s k i l l s that can lead the c h i l d towards improving h i s reading a b i l i t y . Thus, no one i s i n a p o s i t i o n of authority at t h i s time to state d e f i n i t e l y that slow learners cannot gain reading readiness s k i l l s (3:21). For the treatment of such i n d i v i d u a l s , Williams (LI) suggests a s e r i e s of manipulated or patterned movements such as creeping and crawling. These a c t i v i t i e s are purportedly designed to reproduce the normal a c t i v i t y of undeveloped parts of the brai n . Kephart (8:13) indicates that the early simple games of the c h i l d are intended to develop h i s sense organs and h i s motor system. The c h i l d experiments with things, looks at them, f e e l s them from a l l angles, smells them, and taps them to produce sound. Such a c t i v i t i e s can be c a l l e d acts of experience. By the manipulation of things and 5 the movement of his body in relation to other objects, he i s perfecting the sensory motor process and i s learning to march sensory data to motor data. He i s building up an adaptive perceptual motor process which w i l l allow him to f i t his behavior to the varied demands of the situation in which he w i l l later find himself. Today, however, too many youngsters are observers of their world. Our society provides so many experiental short cuts via movie, television, and radio that children do not become involved in the many act i v i t i e s which could furnish the important opportunities to learn through personal participation. The dilemma which arises i s that our c i v i l i z a t i o n demands more of the child than ever before and i t s requirements are increasing daily. However, the very c i v i l i z a t i o n which i s increasing i t s demands i s decreasing the opportunity which i t offers the child for the very necessary experimentation with basic s k i l l s . I f a child twenty years ago wanted to run he did so. Today, this is impossible for many children because of the proximity of houses and busy highways. Children kept in playpens often attempt to pull themselves up, thereby passing over the creeping and crawling stage. Normal motor eye-hand coordinations in this situation are often underdeveloped. Whereas, children who are not confined are on the floor flexing their muscles, setting up counter balancing patterns and f i n a l l y moving across the floor towards a target, developing eye-hand coordination (12). Getman (3:40) indicates that retarded children rarely do any creeping in late infancy. This i s evident in their general lack of coordination. 6 Modern homes contain many technical gadgets such as, electric coffee percolator, electric clocks and toys which has replaced the simpler and earlier forms which allowed complete examination and experimentation. In this way the child could learn useful perceptual relations - of inside and outside, smaller and larger, f u l l and empty, upside down and right side up. Today, however, i f these specific items are experimented with they w i l l break and are expensive to repair. The purpose of this study i s to provide ten slow learners with a graded physical education program in which emphasis i s placed on fine and gross motor s k i l l s to see what effects these a c t i v i t i e s may have on the reading a b i l i t y of the students. Definitions. 1. Reading Readiness: Refers to the readiness of a child to learn to read. Moreover, this preparedness to learn to read i s based on the previous learning of numerous psychomotor, postural-perceptual s k i l l s . 2. Laterality: Awareness of le f t and right etc., within one's own body; also, differentiating between one's lef t side and one's right side. Laterality develops earlier than "directionality" and serves as i t s underpinning. 3. Directionality: Awareness of l e f t , right-front, back-up, down-etc, in the world around one. This awareness stems from the internal sense of direction developed earlier known as laterality. 4. Perceptual-motor: Includes input (sensory or perceptual activities) and output (motor or muscular a c t i v i t i e s ) . The total perceptual-motor process should be considered in every learning activity which i 6 set up for the child. 7 5 . Motor s k i l l s : Muscular movement or motion of body required for successful execution of a desired act. 6. Gross Motor s k i l l s : Neuromuscular coordination which involves vigorous contraction of large muscles and u s u a l l y movement of the whole body for example, r o l l i n g , s i t t i n g , crawling, walking, throwing, jumping, skipping and dancing. 7. Fine Motor s k i l l : Neuromuscular coordination, p r e c i s i o n oriented and often r e f e r r i n g to hand-eye coordination f o r example, drawing, t r a c i n g , p r i n t i n g and wri t i n g . REFERENCES 1. Duggan, A.E., "The E f f e c t of Special T r a i n i n g i n Motor S k i l l s on the Reading A b i l i t y of Grade Two P u p i l s with S p e c i f i c Reading D i s a b i l i t y , " Unpublished Master's Thesis, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1967. 2. Goldenson, R.M., Helping Your C h i l d to Read Better, New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1957, p. 9. 3. Getman, G.N., How to Develop Your C h i l d ' s I n t e l l i g e n c e , Luverne, Minnesota: The Announcer Press, 1962. 4. Welch, D., "The E f f e c t of Tr a i n i n g i n Gross Motor and Fine Motor S k i l l s on the Improvement of Reading i n a Selected Group of Grade One Students." Unpublished Master's Thesis, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1968. 5. Freeman, R.D., "Controversy Over Patterning As Treatment for Brain Damage i n Children," Journal of the American Medical  Ass o c i a t i o n, v o l . 202 (May 1967), pp. 83-86. 6. Kerschner, J.R., "Doman-Delcato 1s Theory of Neurological Organ-i z a t i o n Applied with Retarded Children," Exceptional Children, v o l . 36 (Feb. 1968), pp. 441-443. 7. Robbins, M.P., "Test of the Doman-Delcato Rationale with Retarded Readers," Journal of the American Medical As s o c i a t i o n, v o l . 202 (Sept. 1967), pp. 87-92. 8. Kephart, N.C., The Slow Learner i n the Classroom, Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. M e r r i l l Books, Inc., 1960, pp. 121. 9. Slobodian, J . , Campbell, P., "Do Children's Perceptions Influence Beginning Reading Achievement?", Elementary School  Journal, v o l . 67 (May 1967), pp. 423-427. 10. F u l l e r , G.B., Ende, R., "The Ef f e c t i v e n e s s of V i s u a l Perception, I n t e l l i g e n c e and Reading Understanding i n P r e d i c t i n g Reading Achievement i n Junior High School Children," Journal of  Educational Research, v o l . 60 (Feb. 1967), pp. 280-282. 11. Williams, G.H., "Learning," Journal of Health, P h y s i c a l  Education and Recreation, v o l . 39 (Nov.-Dec. 1968), pp. 28-31. 12. Sutphin, F.E., A Perceptual Testing and T r a i n i n g Handbook for  F i r s t Grade Teachers, Winter Haven Lions Club: Boyd Brothers, Inc., 1964, pp. 7. CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF LITERATURE The l i t e r a t u r e of c h i l d development i s quite voluminous e s p e c i a l l y i n the developmental f i e l d . At the same time, however, there appear to be few s c i e n t i f i c a l l y constructed studies or updated experimentation being reported on primary school c h i l d r e n i n the s p e c i a l areas of perceptual-motor development. Th i s review attempts to show some of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of many of the problem areas, such as; motor development, l a t e r a l i t y and d i r e c t i o n a l i t y , handedness, personality, i n t e l l i g e n c e , v i s u a l defects, auditory defects, and sex, and what e f f e c t they may have on the general areasof perceptual-motor t r a i n i n g and reading readiness. 1. Motor Development In e a r l y childhood, mental and physical a c t i v i t i e s are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d , and motor a c t i v i t i e s play a major r o l e i n i n t e l l e c t u a l development (1). To a large extent, so-called higher forms of behavior develop out of and have t h e i r roots i n motor learning. T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s described by Sherrington (2:169) as follows: As we look along the scale of l i f e . . . muscle i s there before nerve and nerve i s there before mind . . . . The motor act, mechanically integ r a t i n g the i n d i v i d u a l , would seem to have started mind on i t s road to r e c o g n i z a b i l i t y . The great c o l l a t e r a l branch of l i f e , the plant . . . has never, i n any event, developed an animal-like locomotor reaction, nor a muscle, nor a nerve. I t has likewise remained without recognizable mind. Foundational to every i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y of the human being, therefore, i s the s k i l l of motor con t r o l and coordination (3). 9 The integration of a l l body movements i s also a prerequisite for the refined motions so necessary to reading and writing. Movement patterns of the whole arm lead to lower arm freedom; lower arm freedom leads to finger coordinations and dexterities. As arm-hand-finger controls are established, the feeling of straight line movements w i l l contribute to the straight line action of eyes moving across a line of words and phrases on the printed page. Growth, in the area of motor control tends to proceed from gross over-all body activity to the more specific refined movements. McCandles (4), Zubeck and Solberg (5), indicates that much of the early behavior of infants involves movement activity of the total organism, And specific movement of isolated parts develop out of the generalized pattern of total movement. If gross motor control i s lacking or inadequate, the more refined, special movements w i l l be restricted or inadequate. Perceptually-motor deficient children w i l l have great d i f f i c u l t y in visually following the line of printed words. They skip words, or lines, and lose their place on the page because they have not developed the coordinated, rhythmical eye movements necessary for reading (3:39-40). During the past two decades a great deal of research and c l i n i c a l experimentation has shown that the basic s k i l l s acquired in the f i r s t half dozen years of l i f e are not entirely the result of maturation. Instead, they can be significantly improved or, where entirely missing, learned. 10 Thus, each s k i l l i s acquired by a combination of natural maturation on the one hand and learning on the other. Getman (3:21) states: No one is in the position of authority at this time to state definitely that the slow learner cannot gain reading s k i l l s . Radler and Kephart (6:36) indicate that motor development i s the basis upon which i s built the child's a b i l i t y to control his body. Each movement made by a developing child i s in i t s e l f an experience which contributes to the basic store of information held by the brain. In other words movements are not only output; they are input as well. What a child does today effects what he w i l l be able to do tomorrow. A l l behavior i s movement of one kind or another and that the movements made by a developing child consti-tute learning units that contribute to his total store of knowledge. Having developed awareness of his own body and having learned to control and integrate i t s parts, the child then goes on to build up a picture of the world around him. He begins by relating a l l ideas of form to himself and his own body. For example, the directions he learns f i r s t are "towards himself" and "away from himself". This i s followed by ideas of up and down, and le f t and right. Schilder (7) and Bender (8) have emphasized the importance of this awareness or body image. They point out that i t is necessary for the i n i t i a t i o n of any movement. Thus, Schilder (7:17) writes: When the knowledge of our own body i s incomplete and faulty, a l l actions for which this particular knowledge is necessary w i l l be faulty too. We need the body image in order to start movements. 11 The c h i l d next becomes aware of the vast space outside himself. His f i r s t clue comes from the spot i n which he i s standing; the locomotion of a l l external objects i s r e l a t e d to h i s own p o s i t i o n i n space. Again development i s from the c e n t r a l nucleus (which i s the c h i l d himself) outward. The f i r s t space world develops within arms reach. Beyond t h i s point a l l space i s e s s e n t i a l l y v i s u a l and demands l e f t - r i g h t and up-down o r i e n t a t i o n , distance judgements and even the v i s u a l i z a t i o n of areas that cannot be seen. Schilder (7:16) has pointed out that a f a u l t i n the body image w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n the perception of outside objects. Experiences i n pathology show c l e a r l y that when our o r i e n t a t i o n concerning l e f t and r i g h t i s l o s t , i n regard to our own body, there i s a l s o a loss of o r i e n t a t i o n i n regards to the bodies of other persons. The postural model of our own body i s connected with the postural model of the body of others. 2. L a t e r a l i t y and D i r e c t i o n a l i t y A c h i l d ' s reading a b i l i t y can function no better than the basic motor a b i l i t i e s upon which i t i s based. I t i s not enough that the functions of muscles be developed from a program of motor development. Rather i t i s d e s i r a b l e that the functions of muscle groups be developed for purposes of o v e r a l l usefulness. The concern, therefore, i s not with the development of s p e c i f i c s k i l l s , but with the development of c e r t a i n general a c t i v i t i e s i n the c h i l d . Chief among these a c t i v i t i e s are the development of l a t e r a l i t y and d i r e c t i o n a l i t y for preparing a c h i l d to read. 12 There are no objective d i r e c t i o n s i n space. The d i r e c t i o n s r i g h t and l e f t , up and down, before and behind, are a t t r i b u t e d to external space on the basi s of a c t i v i t i e s which take place within the organism. The body does not receive from outside any d i r e c t information concerning d i r e c t i o n . The f i r s t d i r e c t i o n that seems to develop i s that of l a t e r a l i t y (9). T h i s i s because the body i s designed to be an excellent r i g h t - l e f t detector. There are two eyes, two ears, two arms, two legs and so f o r t h . As H i l d r e t h (10:197-200) indi c a t e s : The human body i s b i l a t e r a l l y symmetrical. One side mirrors the other. In a motor performance such as walking the limbs move c o n t r a l a t e r a l l y . T h i s l a t e r a l symmetry of the body contributes to balanced motor adjustment. Neurologically, the nerve pathways innervating each of the sides of the body remain p r i m a r i l y separate. There i s a minimum crossing over to permit feedback and matching, but e s s e n t i a l l y there are two r e l a t i v e l y independent systems, one for the l e f t and one for the r i g h t . T h i s independence makes the body a f i n e l e f t - r i g h t detector. L a t e r a l i t y must be learned. Only by experimenting with the two sides of the body and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to each other does the c h i l d begin to d i s t i n g u i s h between the two systems (9:43). The primary pattern out of which t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n develops i s that of balance. When experimenting with the balancing problem, the c h i l d must learn r i g h t and l e f t , f o r he must learn to innervate one side against the other, how to detect which side has to move, and how i t has to move, i n order to execute the proper movements as h i s balance v a r i e s from one side to the other. Out of these and s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s , 13 he learns to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the r i g h t side from the l e f t side. There are several stages i n the learning which the c h i l d can be stopped and can s t i l l make responses which appear adequate. Two of these stages are of p a r t i c u l a r importance. The f i r s t i s one i n which the c h i l d learns that as long as he responds equally from both sides he can avoid the problem of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g l a t e r a l p o s i t i o n s . Thus, h i s movements and h i s responses w i l l be organized so that both sides of the body are performing the same act at the same time: he w i l l reach for a toy with h i s r i g h t hand, simultaneously making a useless reaching movement with h i s l e f t . Such a c h i l d has no need to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the sides because they always perform the same movements. The opposite problem i s one i n which the c h i l d becomes completely one-sided. In every a c t i v i t y , he performs with one side and merely drags the other side along. Frequently, where he must use both sides of h i s body, one side w i l l lead and the other w i l l follow along without taking an a c t i v e part i n the performance. In these two cases the c h i l d has not gained an adequate appreciation of r i g h t and l e f t within himself. Confronted with problems of r i g h t and l e f t i n external space, he might r e f l e c t h i s d i f f i c u l t y through reversals. For example, he might read 'd' as 'b', 'saw' as 'was1, and so f o r t h . Once the c h i l d has developed h i s body image so as to be aware of the r i g h t and l e f t sides of h i s body, he can project these d i r e c t i o n a l concepts i n t o space around him. By experimenting with movement patterns dir e c t e d towards objects i n space, he learns that to reach an object he must make a movement, say, to the r i g h t . From 14 this deduction he develops the concept of an object to the right of himself. Through a number of such experiences he learns to translate the right-left discrimination within himself into a right-left discrimination among objects outside himself. Thus, he has to develop an external awareness of direction, which i s directionality. Directionality i s derived from the kinesthetic awareness in the body. As the kinesthetic awareness i s taking place, spatial concepts are being built and visual information relating to direction i s received (9:46). When the child has developed laterality and directionality, he then tends to develop one side as the dominant side. This eventually leads to handedness which normally develops in children after two years of age. 3. Handedness and Right, Left Dominance Laterality must be distinguished from handedness and from the meaning of right and l e f t . It i s probable that when the child has learned the sides, he s t i l l has to solve the problem of keeping their relationships straight. It seems possible that he learns to do this by developing one side as the leading side and consistently leading with this dominant side. Such a learning process may lead to dominance and handedness. Studies of young children by Gessell (12:25) and others have shown that handedness develops gradually, usually appearing somewhere around the age of two years. Handedness then, i s probably an inclination that an internal awareness has been created, although i t can appear in some cases as the result 15 of inadequate l a t e r a l i t y . Handedness and l a t e r a l i t y , therefore, are linked, but they are not one and the same thing. Dearborne (11), and Munroe (12) found i n t h e i r studies a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p of l a t e r a l dominance and sidedness to reading d i s a b i l i t y . They indicated that the a b i l i t y to d i s t i n g u i s h between l e f t and r i g h t and a c l e a r preference for one hand develops slowly i n a s i g n i f i c a n t l y larger percentage of r e a d i n g . d i s a b i l i t y cases than i n unselected c h i l d r e n . They a t t r i b u t e these findings to the presence of a s p e c i a l kind of slowness i n maturation p o s s i b l y neurological i n nature. Ha r r i s (13) indicates that the r e l a t i o n s h i p of l a t e r a l dominance or sidedness to reading d i s a b i l i t y has been a problem i n research for years. In h i s study he found that at the age of seven, poor readers showed much greater confusion i n i d e n t i f y i n g l e f t and r i g h t than d i d the good readers. He also noted that c h i l d r e n with reading d i s a b i l i t i e s developed much slower than c h i l d r e n with normal reading a b i l i t y i n being able to d i s t i n g u i s h between l e f t and r i g h t and to develop a c l e a r preference f or hand. Bender (14) working with the V i s u a l Gestalt Test, found that f a i l u r e to e s t a b l i s h consistent dominance by school age leads to confusion i n acquiring psychomotor s k i l l s and speech. I t i s reasonable to assume that i n such cases reading s k i l l s would also be affe c t e d . Smith (15) indicated that change of handedness has been experienced by more retarded readers than reading achievers. 16 Retarded readers made significantly more reversals than did reading achievers. Hildreth (10:197-220) found that the right dominant person compared with the lef t dominant person i s less apt to have speech and spatial orientation d i f f i c u l t i e s . In contrast to the previous studies mentioned, Balow (16) working with three hundred and two grade one children, found that a group of children with mixed hand dominance scored equally as high as a group with consistent hand dominance, on each measure of reading achievement administered. He also found that having the dominant hand and eye on the same side of the body, on the opposite sides of the body, or having mixed hand dominance had no significant effect on reading achievement. In conclusion he stated that the children who were confused about right and lef t at the beginning of the year achieved as much in reading as the children who knew right and l e f t . Leavell and Fults (17) attempted to determine the relationship of lateral dominance of eye, hand, and foot to reading achievement. However, the impartiality of dominance reflected very l i t t l e in reading a c t i v i t i e s . Whether the difference between right and lef t handedness affects reading a b i l i t y i s s t i l l very controversial. Therefore, i t would seem advisable to pay some attention to questions connected with the pattern of handedness, when studying individual children with special reading d i s a b i l i t i e s . 17 4. Motor Training of the Slow Learner Physical education act i v i t i e s have assumed an increasingly important role in programs designed to enhance the cognitive or intellectual development of the slow learner. The assumption behind the involvement of physical activity in such programs i s that i t i s principally through appropriate motor experiences that patterns of perceptual-motor concepts are established in the sensory-motor cortex and that only when such perceptual organization i s achieved can the individual realize his f u l l intellectual potential. Consequently, physical activity has come to be regarded as an essential tool, indeed a primary tool, in inducing optimal mental dev elopment (18). It has been indicated by Kephart, Getraan, Doman-Delacato, Stuphin, and Frostig and Horne (19), that through training in motor development many slow learners w i l l be able to achieve success in reading. Slow learners have shown significant improvement in motor s k i l l s when given special training or instruction in systematized programs of physical education (20, 21). Dramatic gains in i n t e l l e c t -ual efficiency of the perceptually-motor deficient as a result of participation in programs of physical activity have also been noted. (20: 357-364). Doll (22) and Tredgold (23), moreover, claim that intelligence and motor proficiency are related. Sloan (24), using a group of twenty institutionalized mental defectives and normal children matched 18 for sex and age, presented data confirming this. Oliver (21:155-165) reported a study involving two groups of perceptually-motor deficient children. In the experimental group a motor development program replaced a few academic subjects for a ten week period. The control group followed the normal academic achedule. The experimental group improved significantly in a l l measures of fitness and athletic achievement and made reasonable and significant changes in emotional stability, medical evaluation, personality adjustments and in I.Q. Corder (20:357-364) undertook what was essentially a replication of Oliver's study with the addition of a so-called Hawthorne group. He attempted to control for the so-called "Hawthorne" or extra attention effect, by singling out a group of boys who were to be excused from regular school routines to perform special jobs but were not to participate in any organized form of physical activity. In his results he found, as Oliver had, significant differences in favor of experimental group in both I.Q. and physical fitness growth as compared to the control, and Hawthorne groups. Troth (25) indicated that, as a result of training in both gross and fine motor coordination tasks, mentally retarded individuals show a definite increase i n the length of attention span, as well as an observable improvement in the a b i l i t y to recognize certain geometric and perceptual forms. There i s some evidence to suggest that mild forms of exercise may have a significant and positive effect upon the learning and 19 and performance of certain fine hand-eye coordination s k i l l s in mildly or severely retarded individuals. Harrison et a l (26) reported for example, that a group of non verbal retardates improved significantly in their a b i l i t y to unbutton a row of buttons, after a four week period of planned physical exercise. Similar findings have been reported by Corder (20:360), who found that exposure to programs of physical activity had a positive influence upon the young child's a b i l i t y to perform such fine perceptual-motor s k i l l s as drawing figures, copying complex geometric forms and reading. Howe (27) compared educable mentally retarded children in public school and normal children with respect to their performance on a variety of motor task s k i l l s . After ten days of motor instruction the normal subjects remained superior in their scores, but both groups showed similar improvement patterns. McCormick (28) used a central group, a second group that received extra physical edcuation training and a f i n a l group that received perceptual-motor training involving fine and gross motor exercises. After seven weeks of training the experimental group was found to have made s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant gains in reading achieve-ment while the other two groups had made no such gains. Welch (29) investigated the effects of special motor training in two groups of grade one pupils who were having d i f f i c u l t y in reading. The experimental group received sixteen weeks of special motor training. The control group did not receive this motor training. At the end of the study i t was concluded from results obtained on 20 reading readiness and perceptual forms tests that the program of special motor training given to the experimental group, resulted in significant improvement in their reading a b i l i t y . Stein (30) indicated that much of the child's success in reading i s determined by his a b i l i t y to understand and manipulate verbal symbols. Because the perceptually-motor deficient child i s non verbal many of them have known nothing but frustration and failure in school. This condition results in poor learning, inadequate social adjustment and delayed achievement. Programs and a c t i v i t i e s in which the child can express himself in non verbal concrete symbolic and meaningful ways take on even greater meaning. Important contributions to emotional and psychological s t a b i l i t y are made through cathartic values of activity and movement. Benoit (18:29) found that appropriate planning of physical activity for the slow learner can effect their personnel capacity for thought and action. By raising their degree of well being, alertness, and interest in reality and action, the child's attention span expands with the result that he w i l l have the benefit of more awareness and more associative perception. Instead of focusing on symbolic learnings, i t appeals to his sensory motor capacity, to his large muscle activity and to his fine eye-hand coordination s k i l l s . The development of adequate form perception necessary for reading depends upon the adequate learning of basic sensory-motor s k i l l s (9:87). This implies that there must be a definite relationship 21 between perceptual and motor a b i l i t i e s . A study by Gallahue (31), supports t h i s premise. He randomly selected eighty kindergarten c h i l d r e n and administered one of four figure-ground v a r i a t i o n s of a motor task i n order to determine the e f f e c t s of the various patterns on the performance of a task. S i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found between the a b i l i t y to perform the gross motor task and components of the F r o s t i g t e s t . I t would appear then, that figure-ground perceptual a b i l i t y i s an important aspect of a kindergarten c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y to perform a gross motor task accurately. Objections may be r a i s e d at t h i s point that many previous studies comparing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c a p a c i t i e s with i n t e l l e c t u a l achievement have shown l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p (9:40). In l i k e manner, the development of high degrees of motor s k i l l through t r a i n i n g , as i n the sensory-motor t r a i n i n g of I t a r d (32), and Sequin (33), seems to have had r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e e f f e c t on i n t e l l e c t u a l competence. Results of recent studies by Kershner (34), and Robbins (35), c a r e f u l l y designed to test the Doman-Delacato, Radler-Kephart r e t i o n a l e with retarded readers, through the use of both c o n t r o l and placebo groups and a large sample c o n t r o l of subjects, revealed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between c o n t r o l , placebo, and treatment groups i n terras of observable changes i n reading performance. The program of patterned a c t i v i t i e s had l i t t l e or no e f f e c t on the reading c a p a c i t i e s of retarded readers involved i n the program. Three other recent studies i n which the emphasis was placed on developing s p e c i a l motor s k i l l s i n an attempt to improve reading 22 a b i l i t y are those of Duggan (36), Brown (37), and Alley and Carr (38). Duggan (36) investigated the effects of special training in motor a b i l i t y s k i l l s on the reading a b i l i t y of grade two pupils who were a l l poor readers. His experimental group received f i f t y minutes of training everyday for thirteen weeks. The control group did not receive this training. At the conclusion of the training the groups were tested and the results indicated that the motor a b i l i t y group showed no significant improvement in reading. However, i t was shown that this group improved in reading a b i l i t y as much as the control group and special reading group. Brown's study (37) consisted of an experimental and control group of forty-eight grade one pupils i n each group. These students were reading below grade level. The youngsters in the experimental group were given sixty minutes of motor training a week throughout the school year. At the end of the year, the results of the Stanford Achievement Test indicated that there was not a significant difference in reading between the experimental and control groups. Alley and Carr (35) attempted to determine i f educable mentally retarded subjects could make significant improvements in sensory, motor, visual, perceptual, concept formation, and reading a c t i v i t i e s . The control group spent time in regular specialized classroom ac t i v i t i e s not involving gross motor s k i l l s . The experimental group received Kephart's sensory-motor training program. On the basis of the f ratio no significant differences were evident, and no advantages were found 23 to be derived by educable mentally retarded c h i l d r e n receiving a systematic sensory motor program. There appears to be considerable p o s i t i v e opinion with regard to the stimulating e f f e c t s of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y upon c e r t a i n i n t e l l e c t u a l - c o g n i t i v e performances of the i n d i v i d u a l . However, a c a r e f u l look at the a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e reveals that there i s l i t t l e i f any systematic research which q u a n t i f i e s , i n a clear and precise way, the e f f e c t s of exercise or programs of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y upon the perceptual-cognitive i n t e l l e c t u a l functioning of either the normal or the perceptually-motor d e f i c i e n t i n d i v i d u a l . Thus, c l e a r cut proof of the benefits of a planned motor development program of patterned a c t i v i t y upon cognitive or i n t e l l e c t u a l development i n the i n d i v i d u a l has yet to be established. 5. P e r s o n a l i t y of the Perceptually-Motor D e f i c i e n t Not only i s the poor reader at a disadvantage i n h i s a b i l i t y to achieve i n many school subjects, but also he often develops f e e l i n g s of inadequacy and a negative s e l f concept which may lead to even lower l e v e l s of achievement and p o s s i b l y to serious emotional problems (39). That i s , by school age, the c h i l d should have engaged i n a gamut of motor experiences such as crawling, running, jumping, hopping, climbing, skipping, and hanging. A l s o the c h i l d should have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a c t i v i t i e s that f o s t e r hand-eye coordination, d i r e c t i o n a l i t y , s p a t i a l awareness, dynamic and s t a t i c balance. Children who miss these basic experiences show one or more of the t y p i c a l abnormalities as follows: h y p e r a c t i v i t y , lack of 24 d i r e c t i o n a l i t y , withdrawl, a n t i s o c i a l behavior such as aggressiveness or mistrust, i n a b i l i t y to recognize and discriminate between simple symbols such as numbers or l e t t e r s , and the concept of the s e l f being weak, lacking i n confidence. Spache (40) using the Rosenwerg P i c t u r e F r u s t r a t i o n study with c h i l d r e n i n a reading c l i n i c found a consistent pattern d i s t i n g u i s h i n g retarded readers from Rosenwerg's normative group. Retarded readers appeared to be more obviously aggressive, s i g n i f i -cantly less i n s i g h t f u l , and less apt to accept or to acknowledge blame, or to admit that they are at f a u l t . There are strong tendencies for the retarded reader to be less tolerant and acceptant i n s i t u a t i o n s of c o n f l i c t , and a tendency for them to attempt to work out or to press for s o l u t i o n of the problem i n c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s . Because of these common s o c i a l maladjustments present i n the slow learners, Spache concludes that the average retarded readers are candidates for programs of motor development, p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , and play therapy. Dehirsh (41) indicated that slow learners have d i f f i c u l t y i n patterning motor and behavioral responses and have trouble at every l e v e l of i n t e g r a t i o n often being hyperactive and aggressive. Gates (42) estimated that seventy-five percent of marked reading d i s a b i l i t y cases show per s o n a l i t y maladjustments, and that the more serious the reading retardation, the greater i s the p o s s i b i l i t y that maladjustment also e x i s t s . 25 Durkin (43) on the other hand, prepared case studies for si x pupils throughout f i r s t grade. She found that the tendency to be passive, and lacking i n s e l f confidence seemed to decrease reading progress. Gann (44) i n a study involving three groups of readers; poor, medium, and good, measured the personality t r a i t s of a l l three groups by the Rorschach Test, and the P i n t e r s Aspect or P e r s o n a l i t y Test. She found that poor readers exhibited more negative personality t r a i t s , more negative a t t r i b u t e s , and poorer emotional adjustment than the other two reading groups. As opposed to the findings of these previous studies, Holmes (45), i n an extended study of major reading d i s a b i l i t i e s , gave three t e s t s of p e r sonality adjustment to two d i f f e r e n t groups of slow learners. He concluded that a d i f f e r e n t i a l a n alysis of the personality t r a i t s d i d not reveal any d i s t i n c t i v e patterns of behavior. S i e g e l (46) was impressed by the high incidence of emotional disturbances amoung ch i l d r e n with reading d i s a b i l i t y . He t r i e d to determine i f any s i n g l e personality pattern was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of reading f a i l u r e . His major fin d i n g was that there was no t y p i c a l or d i s c r e t e p e r s o n a l i t y pattern which could be considered c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of e i t h e r group. There were c h i l d r e n who provided records suggesting marked t i m i d i t y , withdrawl, fear and anxiety. There were others who showed aggressiveness and h o s t i l i t y with fear and anxiety. In conclusion, F r o s t i g , Kephart, O l i v e r and Rabin (47) f e e l that a sound p h y s i c a l education program involving a l l of the 26 basic experiences, presented i n an e f f e c t i v e challenging and progres-sive manner i s conducive to remediation f o r many slow learners with perceptual-motor d e f i c i e n c i e s which may have contributed to t h e i r emotional and per s o n a l i t y disorders. Such a program w i l l r e s u l t i n an achievement l e v e l much higher than o r i g i n a l l y thought pos s i b l e . T h i s motor development program, i f successful, w i l l r e f l e c t i n t h e i r increased awareness of themselves and t h e i r surroundings, as well as, a better performance i n the classroom with respect to at t i t u d e s , d i s c i p l i n e , and achievement. Reading i s not a sing l e act but i s a complex a c t i v i t y made up of many i n t e r r e l a t e d s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s (48). These a b i l i t i e s are motor, sensory or i n t e l l e c t u a l i n nature. Thus, there are numerous conditions which may contribute to a c h i l d experiencing d i f f i c u l t y with reading. Reference has already been made to the perceptual-motor d e f i c i e n c i e s experienced by some slow learners. Other causes of slowness to read are given below. 6. Congenital Word Blindness Congenital word blindness i s a medical term used to describe a weakness i n reading. The errors i n reading and s p e l l i n g are of a s p e c i a l q u a l i t a t i v e character. The c h i l d experiences d i f f i c u l t y i n reading c e r t a i n l e t t e r s that are s i m i l a r to one another, f o r example "b" and "d" are confused and words such as "was" and "saw" appear reversed. I t therefore appears that the c h i l d has not developed the sense of l a t e r a l i t y and d i r e c t i o n a l i t y (31:16). However, i t i s believed by the medical profession that t h i s f a u l t 27 i s the r e s u l t of a serious p a t h o l o g i c a l condition i n c h i l d r e n whose brains are otherwise normal and i n t a c t . General i n t e l l i g e n c e , observational a b i l i t y , and reasoning a b i l i t y are e i t h e r normal or above normal i n many actual cases of word blindness and auditory memory i s also at least average (48). W a l l i n (49) was one of the f i r s t to draw att e n t i o n to the fundamental nature of reading d i s a b i l i t y . He d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between mild cases of d i s a b i l i t y which he c a l l e d v i s u a l aphasia. He c l a s s i f i e d them as word blindness because they were defects i n the perception of words. He a t t r i b u t e d them to o r i g i n a t i n g c o n g e n i t a l l y or caused by b i r t h i n j u r y . Orton (50) indicated that word blindness was the loss of the a b i l i t y to read as the r e s u l t of i n j u r y or disease i n the p a r i e t a l lobe of the major hemisphere. The medical hypothesis that defects of an hereditary nature to s p e c i a l regions of the brain are the s p e c i f i c and primary cause of reading d i f f i c u l t i e s , termed "congenital word blindness", has not been adequately v e r i f i e d . Gates (51), Burt (53), Witty and Kopel (54), even throw doubt upon the existence of "congenital word blindness". At any rate i t i s not considered possible, with the means at our d i s p o s a l , to diagnose and d i f f e r e n t i a t e a group, i n the f i e l d of reading d i f f i c u l t i e s , which i s s u f f e r i n g from t h i s s p e c i f i c d i s a b i l i t y . In educational psychology less attention has been paid to cerebral pathology. I t i s held that the main causes of retardation, 28 in the majority of cases, should be looked for in another direction. On the basis of experimental studies, i t has been concluded that a large number of factors may be associated with reading d i s a b i l i t i e s . 7. Intelligence and Reading A b i l i t y With very few exceptions, the investigators, who have studied experimentally the relationship between general intelligence and reading a b i l i t y , give positive correlation coefficients as an expression of the connection between these factors (55). However, as Schonell (56:18) has pointed out: The relationship between reading a b i l i t y and degree of general intelligence i s by no means absolute. There are not a few intelligent children who f a i l to make normal progress in reading, and numerous examples of rather d u l l pupils who can read fluently. Deputy (57) and Hayes (58) considered that intelligence was the most important of the factors connected with reading. They obtained a correlation of +.70 between the results of reading tests in the f i r s t grade and scores previously achieved for the Pinter-Cunningham Primary Mental Test. They concluded that intelligence was the most significant factor when predicting the results in reading a child would achieve during his f i r s t school year. Moreover, after analyzing a survey of a number of studies on the relationship between intelligence and reading a b i l i t y , Tinker (59:293) reached the following conclusion: "The most important determinant of reading a b i l i t y i s , without doubt, general intelligence." Vernon (60) indicated that a child with low intelligence i s handicapped in learning to read. His vocabulary i s smaller than that 29 of the child of normal intelligence and, therefore, he may not know the meaning of the words he i s trying to read. However, there are a considerable number of average intelligent and above average intelligent children who suffer from reading d i s a b i l i t i e s . Lennon (61) emphasized the importance of taking into consideration the great differences in the correlation between reading a b i l i t y and intelligence which occurs at various grade levels. In his investigations he found continuously increasing correlations from the second grade to the eighth grade. Durrell (62) in a study of 1,000, 100, and thirty children in the sixth grade, attempted to find out whether success in reading is related to the child's intellectual capacity, and whether reading a b i l i t y influences to a significant extent, the results of intelligence tests. The results of Durrell's studies show that intelligence quotients which were obtained by means of group tests appeared to vary to a significant degree with reading a b i l i t y . He also considers that the presence of a reading factor in the intelligence tests i s the cause of many poor readers being classified as d u l l , who in real i t y are normal or highly intelligent. Bond and Fay (63) found that children in the fourth, f i f t h , and sixth grade, whose reading age was below thier mental age, tended to be handicapped by their poor reading a b i l i t y with regard to items on the Stanford Binet Tests, which were of a verbal nature. In conclusion, Gates (42:81) indicated that a pupil must possess a certain minimum of general intelligence i f he i s to succeed 30 at a l l in learning to read. The lower the limit of intelligence level for the acquirement of anything approaching a f a i r l y satisfactory a b i l i t y in reading, i s , according to Gates, an I.Q. of 65. As Gates (42:82) indicates: "It i s a remarkable achievement to teach any child of less than sixty-five I.Q. to read new material unassisted." 8. Reading Di s a b i l i t i e s Related to Visual Defects Reading i s presented through visual channels and a very natural inference i s that i f the visual system i s defective reading must be impeded (49:246). Monroe (12:80) considered that visual defects may impede the development of reading a b i l i t y in the child. She indicates: If the retinal image is blurred, the child may not be able to distinguish the pattern of letters presented, and may confuse patterns which are similar, such as band, hand, or oat, cat, eat, etc. In certain individuals of our reading defect groups we found lack of visual acuity was apparently a contributing cause to the reading defect. Monroe was unable to find, however, that lack of adequate visual acuity was a particularly usual cause of reading d i s a b i l i t i e s . She did not succeed in detecting any significance between reading defect groups and other groups of children who did not have reading d i s a b i l i t i e s . Park and Burri (64), found a positive correlation between reading d i s a b i l i t i e s and visual defects in their studies of an unselected population of 225 school children in grades one through eight. 31 Eames (65) working with a group of 114 cases of reading d i s a b i l i t i e s , and a control group of 143, found that the visual acuity of the group with reading d i s a b i l i t i e s was somewhat less, than that of the control group. He found that there was definite tendency for poor readers to have a greater degree of exophoria both for distance vision and at reading distances. Farris (66) found in his studies of 1,685 pupils in the seventh grade that 44 per cent had visual defects of one kind or another. This investigation also showed that visual defects do not always lead to reading d i f f i c u l t i e s . There were many good readers who had visual defects. Dalton (67) studied 5,000 school children in grades three through twelve. She came to the conclusion that there was either no relation or only slight relation between visual d i f f i c u l i t i e s and failure in succeeding at school. Edson, Bond and Cook (68) working with 128 children in the fourth grade from four schools found no significant difference in reading between children with normal vision and those with defective vision. It appears that there i s considerable controversy over whether the different visual defects affect reading a b i l i t y . Therefore, i t would seem advisable to pay some attention to visual defects when studying individual children with special reading d i s a b i l i t i e s . 32 9. Reading D i s a b i l i t i e s Through Auditory Defects Bond, et a l (63:479), found in his investigation of sixty-four children with reading d i s a b i l i t i e s , who were compared with a control group consisting of the same number of normal readers, that significant differences existed between the two groups with regards to auditory acuity, blending, auditory perception techniques and in auditory discrimination. In a l l these factors poor readers were inferior to good readers. Although a few of the earlier studies devoted to investigating the relationship between auditory defects and reading d i s a b i l i t i e s reported a low but positive relation between the two as shown by Bond, recent research has been unable to detect any significant correlation between these two variables. In her study of 433 subjects at different school levels, Kennedy (69) did not find any significant correlation between auditory acuity and the level of reading a b i l i t y . Reynolds (70), used the same group of 188 grade four pupils that Edson, Bond and Cook used and found that there was no significant relation between hearing acuity and reading a b i l i t y . In Malmquist's study (49:255) of 399 subjects in grade one, only three were regarded as cases of auditory defects. These three belonged to the group of medium readers. A follow-up study of 202 children of this group, who were now in grade three, was made. The results showed only five had auditory defects to any appreciable extent. These five were distributed in the reading groups as follows: two boys and two g i r l s in the group of medium readers; one g i r l in 33 the group of good readers. There were no pupils with auditory defects in the group of poor readers. These latter four studies indicate that the relationship between reading d i s a b i l i t i e s and auditory defects are insignificant and relatively unimportant. 10. Sex Differences Another factor relating to reading d i s a b i l i t y i s i t s apparently greater incidence in boys than in g i r l s . Most of the earlier invest-igations of the relationship between boys and g i r l s regarding reading readiness at preschool level and reading achievement during the f i r s t grades in the elementary school report that g i r l s show a certain superiority over boys. The records of reading c l i n i c s and special classes for children with reading d i s a b i l i t i e s also show that, practically without exception, the majority of cases are boys (49:255). Anderson, Hughes, and Dixon (71) in a study of 142 boys and 175 g i r l s found that g i r l s tended to learn to read earlier than boys, and that there were fewer extreme delays in reading among g i r l s than in boys. Konski (73) and Prescott (74), on the other hand, made an investigation into the reading readiness of twelve selected readiness areas on entering the f i r s t grade. They found no significant d i f f e r -ences between boys and g i r l s i n any of the twelve readiness areas studied. At the end of the f i r s t grade, however, the g i r l s obtained significantly better results for four tests in reading achievement than boys. 34 11. Socio-Economic Background of Poor Readers Gray (50:84) believes that the socio-economic environment of the home, and the intelligence and education of the parents exerts a strong influence on the development of the child's reading a b i l i t y . A child that has grown up i n an environment where there are plenty of books and books are treated with respect, has a better prospect of becoming a good reader than children who grow up in homes where the inmates are not at a l l book minded (48:85). Sheldon and C a r r i l l o (75) in a study of 868 pupils from eight schools, showed a positive relation existed between interest in reading in the home expressed in the number of books the child possessed, and the interest he displays at school. "As the number of books in the home increases, the percentage of good readers increases and the percentage of average and of poor readers decreases," (75:268). The same study showed also a positive relation between the formal educational level and the occupational status of the parents and the success of their children in reading at school. Malmquist (49:226) verified the following points as being significant in the relationship between reading d i s a b i l i t i e s and home background; joint taxable income of the parents, father's occupation, mother's occupation; parent's social status; number of books in the home; size of dwelling; child's disposal of his own room. Bennett (48:194) compared a group of poor readers with a control group consisting of the same number of normal children. The data given did not reveal any characteristic differences with regard 35 to the home environment of the two groups, in respect of the father's occupation, the education of the parents, the general economic status of the family or the number of books in the home as a measure of the general cultured atmosphere of the home. These findings are in keeping with those obtained by Anderson and Kelley (49:193). Robinson (76) made a survey of studies in the relations between reading d i s a b i l i t i e s and such factors as the parents education, the socio-economic status of the home, foreign language spoken at home, and certain attitudes in the home towards the school. She showed that there was a very slight relation between the reading d i s a b i l i t i e s and the variables studied. The child's reading success, therefore, appears to be closely related to the socio-economic background of his family. In conclusion i t can be seen therefore, that there are many factors which govern a child's a b i l i t y to read. His development in reading must not be regarded as an isolated, technical educational problem, but as an aspect of the child's total development; and as such, closely integrated with this total development. There i s interplay of the child's general physical, intellectual, emotional, and social development, and the development of his a b i l i t y in reading. Educators have tended to consider the physical or sensory-motor aspects of reading relatively unimportant or at least of less importance than the intellectual or mental aspects of reading. However, now because of the high incidence of slow learners who appear to have perceptual-motor deficiencies, training in motor development 36 i s believed to be a very important contributing factor towards improving a child's reading readiness performance. It was with this belief that this research was conducted. REFERENCES 1. J e r s i l d , A . T . , Child Psychology, Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice H a l l , Inc . , 1954, pp. 3. 2. Sherrington, C , Man on His Nature, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1951. 3. Getman, G . N . , How to Develop Your Chi ld 's Intelligence, Luverne, Minnesota: The Announcer Press, 1962, pp. 39. 4. McCandles, B .R . , Children and Adolescents, New York: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, Inc . , 1961, pp. 46. 5. Zubek, J . P . , Solberg, P . A . , Human Development, New York: McGraw-H i l l Book Co. , 1954, pp. 133-4. 6. Radler, D . H . , Kephart, N . C . , Success Through Play, New York: Harper and Brothers, 1960, pp. 11. 7. 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Troth, W.B. , "Procedures and Generalizations for Remediation in Motor Coordination and Perceptual Training for the Mentally Retarded," Training School Bul le t in , v o l . 64 (May 1967), pp. 77-80. 26. Harrison, W., Lecrone, H . , Temerlin, M . K . , Trousdale, W.W., "Effect of Music and Exercise on the Self-Help S k i l l s of Non Verbal Retardates," American Journal of Mental Deficiency, v o l . 71 (March 1966), pp. 279-282. 27. Howe, C . E . , "A Comparison of Motor S k i l l s of Mentally Retarded and Normal Children," Exceptional Children, v o l . 25 (Apri l 1959), pp. 325-329) 28. McCormick, C C , Shnobrick, J . N . , Foot l ik , S.W., "Improvement in Reading Achievement Through Perceptual-Motor Training," Research Quarterly, v o l . 39 (Oct. 1966), pp. 627. 29. Welch, D . , "The Effect of Training in Gross Motor and Fine Motor S k i l l s on the Improvement of Reading in a Selected Group of Grade One Students," Unpublished Master's Thesis, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1968. 30. Stein, J . V . , "Adapted Physical Education for the Educable Mentally Handicapped," Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, v o l . 33 (Apri l 1962), pp. 30-32. 31. Gallahue, D . L . , "The Relationship Between Perceptual and Motor A b i l i t i e s , " Research Quarterly, v o l . 39 (Oct. 1968), pp. 948-953. 32. Itard, j . M . G . , The Wild Boy of Aveyron, New York: Appleton-Gentury-Crofts, Inc . , 1932, pp. 77. 33. Sequin, E . , Idiocy and Its Treatment by the Physiological Method, New York: Columbia University Press, 1907, pp. 122. 34. Kershner, J . R . , "Doman-Delacato1s Theory of Neurological Organ-ization Applied with Retarded Children," Exceptional Children, v o l . 36 (Feb. 1968), pp. 441-450. 35. Robbins, M.P . , "Test of the Doman-Delacato Rational with Retarded Readers," Journal of the American Medical Association, v o l . 202 (Sept. 1967), pp. 87-92. 36. Duggan, A . E . , "The Effects of Special Training in Motor S k i l l s on the Reading A b i l i t y of Grade Two Pupils with Specific Reading Di sab i l i ty ," Unpublished Master's Thesis, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1967. 37. Brown, R . C , "The Effect of a Perceptual-Motor Education Program on Perceptual-Motor S k i l l s and Reading Readiness," Unpublished Master's Thesis, New York University, New York, 1968. 38. A l l ey , G .R . , Carr, D . L . , "Effects of Systematic Sensory-Motor Training on Sensory Motor, Visual Perception, and Concept Form-ation Performance on Mentally Retarded Children," Perceptual and  Motor S k i l l s , v o l . 27, (March 1968), pp. 451-456. 39. Panther, E . E . , "Prediction of F i r s t Grade Reading Achievement," Elementary School Journal, v o l . 68 (June 1967), pp. 44-48. 40. Spache, G . D . , "Personality Characteristics of Retarded Readers as Measured by the Picture Frustration Study," Educational and  Psychological Measurement, v o l . 14 (May 1954), pp. 186-192. 41. DeHirsch, K . , "Gestalt Psychology as Applied to Language Disturbances," Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, v o l . 60 (Sept.-Oct. 1954), pp. 257-261. 42. Gates, A . I . , "The Role of Personality Maladjustment in Reading Disab i l i ty ," Pedagogical Seminary and Journal of Genetic  Psychology, v o l . 59 (Jan. 1941), pp. 82-83. 43. Durkin, D . , "Children's Concept of Justice: A Further Comparison with the Piaget Data," Cal i fornia Journal of Educational Research, v o l . 21 (March 1959), pp. 252-257. 44. Gann, E . , Reading Di f f i cu l ty and Personality Organization, New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc . , 1942, pp. 17. 45. Holmes, J . A . , "Factors Underlying Major Reading Di sab i l i t i e s at the College Level ," Genetic Psychological Monographs, v o l . 54 (Feb. 1954), pp. 3-95. 46. Siegel, M . , "The Personality Structure of Children with Reading Di sab i l i t i e s as Compared with Children Presenting Other C l i n i c a l Problems," Nervous C h i l d , v o l . 10 (August 1954), pp. 409. 47. Rabin, H . M . , "The Relationship of Age, Intelligence and Sex to Motor Proficiency in Mental Defectives," American Journal of  Mental Deficiency, v o l . 62 (Sept. 1957), pp. 507-516. 48. Grey, W., "Summaries of Reading Investigations," Journal of  Educational Research, v o l . 16 (Sept. 1937), pp. 81-85. 49. Malmquist, E . , Factors Related to Reading Disab i l i t i e s in the  F i r s t Grade of the Elementary School, Stockholm, Almquist and Wiksel l , 1958, p. 48. 50. Wall in , J . E . , "Congenital Word Blindness," The Lancet, v o l . 23 (Apri l 1921), pp. 890-892. 51. Orton, S . T . , "Specific Reading Disab i l i ty Strephosymbols," Journal of the American Medical Association, v o l . 90 (May 1928), pp. 1095-1099. 52. Gates, A . , The Improvement of Reading, A Program of Diagnostic  and Remedial Methods, New York: International Universit ies Press, 1941, pp. 104-105. 53. Burt, C , The Subnormal Mind, Oxford: The Oxford Press, 1935. 54. Witty, P . , Kopel, D . , Reading and Education Process, Boston, 1939, pp. 220. 55. Robinson, H . , Why Pupils F a i l in Reading, Chicago: World Book C o . , 1946, pp. 65. 56. Schonell, F., The Psychology and Teaching of Reading, Edinburgh, Edinburgh Press, 1948, pp. 18. 57. Deputy, E . C , " P r e d i c t i n g F i r s t Grade Reading Achievement," Journal of Educational Research, v o l . 9 (Sept. L933), pp. 426. 58. Hayes, E., "Why P u p i l s F a i l , " Educational Method, v o l . 13 (Oct. 1940) pp. 25-28. 59. Tinker, M., "Diagnostic and Remedical Reading," Elementary School  Journal, v o l . 33 (March 1932), pp. 293-307. 60. Vernon, M.D., Backwardness i n Reading, London: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957, pp. 77. 61. Lennon,R., "The Relationship between I n t e l l i g e n c e and Achievement Test Results for a Group of Communities," Journal of Educational  Psychology, v o l . 41 (March 1950), pp. 301-308. 62. D u r r e l l , D., "The Influence of Reading A b i l i t y on I n t e l l i g e n c e Measures," Journal of Educational Psychology, v o l . 24 ( A p r i l 1933), pp. 412-416. 63. Bond, G., Fay, L., "A Comparison of the Performance of Good and Poor Readers on the I n d i v i d u a l Items of the Stanford-Binet Scale Form L and M," Journal of Educational Research, v o l . 43 (Feb. 1950), pp. 475-479. 64. Park, G., B u r r i , C , "The E f f e c t of Eye Abnormalities," Journal of  Educational Psychology, v o l . 34 (Sept. 1943), pp. 420-430. 65. Eames, T., "A Comparison of the Ocular C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Unselected and Reading D i s a b i l i t y Groups," Journal of Educational  Research, v o l . 25 ( A p r i l 1932), pp. 211-215. 66. F a r r i s , L. P., " V i s u a l Defects as Factors Influencing Achievement i n Reading," Unpublished Doctors D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , 1934. 67. Dalton, M., "A V i s u a l Survey of F i v e Thousand School Children," Journal of Educational Research, v o l . 37, (Sept. 1943), pp. 81-94. 68. Edson, W., Bond, G., Cook, W., "Relationships Between V i s u a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and S p e c i f i c S i l e t Reading A b i l i t i e s , " Journal of  Educational Research, v o l . 46 (May 1953), pp. 451-457. 69. Kennedy, H., "A Study of Children's Hearing as i t r e l a t e s to Reading," Journal of Experimental Education, v o l . 10 ( A p r i l 1942), pp. 238-251. 70. Reynolds, M., "A Study of the Relationships Between Auditory C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and S p e c i f i c S i l e n t Reading A b i l i t i e s , " Journal  of Educational Research, v o l . 46 (Sept. 1953), pp. 439-449. 71. Anderson, I., Hughes, B., Dixon, W.R., "Age of Learning to Read and I t s Rel a t i o n to Sex, I n t e l l i g e n c e and Reading Achievement i n the Sixth Grade," Journal of Educational Research, v o l . 49 (Aug. 1956), pp. 448-453. 72. Samuels, F., "Sex Differences i n Reading Achievement," Journal of  Educational Research, v o l . 36 (Sept. 1943), pp. 594-603. 73. Konski, V., "An Investigation into the Differences Between Boys and G i r l s i n Selected Reading Readiness Areas and i n Reading Achievement," Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Missouri, 1951. 74. Prescott, G.A., "Sex Differences in Metropolitan Readiness Test Results," Journal of Educational Research, v o l . 48 (Nov. 1944), pp. 605-610. 75. Sheldon, W., C a r i l l o , L., "Relation of Parents, Home and C e r t a i n Developmental C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to Children's Reading A b i l i t y , " Elementary School Journal, v o l . 52 (Jan. 1952), pp. 262-270. 76. Robinson, H., "Factors Which E f f e c t Success i n Reading," Elementary School Journal, v o l . 55 ( A p r i l 1955), pp. 263-269. CHAPTER I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURES Subjects. The subjects consisted of twenty grade one pupils who were classed as slow learners with perceptual-motor d i f f i c u l t i e s . T his c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was determined by the low standing (low normal, poor r i s k category) they obtained on the Metropolitan Readiness Test  Form R (1), the Winter Haven Perceptual Copy Forms Test (2), as well as, from observations of the homeroom teacher. These r e s u l t s were further confirmed by a complete medical and psychological examination given to each p u p i l . In Appendix C w i l l be found an example of the reports. Ten of these pupils from McBride Elementary School were selected f o r s p e c i a l motor t r a i n i n g . This group served as the experimental group. The remaining ten c h i l d r e n from Laura Secord Elementary School served as the co n t r o l group. The two groups were matched as c l o s e l y as possible by age, sex, and r e s u l t s obtained from the Metropolitan Reading Readiness  Test Form R, and the Winter Haven Perceptual Copy Forms Test. The r e s u l t s are shown i n Chapter IV. Experimentors. The experimentors consisted of the author, the psychological t e s t i n g unit of the Vancouver School Board, and Mrs. Sharpe, a s p e c i a l i s t i n remedial reading and perceptual work who a s s i s t e d i n organizing and coordinating t e s t i n g times. Procedure. The co n t r o l group received no t r a i n i n g i n f i n e and gross motor s k i l l s . The experimental group received t r a i n i n g i n f i n e and gross motor s k i l l s and a c t i v i t i e s f o r eighteen weeks. They received t h i s 44 t r a i n i n g approximately s i x t y minutes per day f i v e days a week. The t r a i n i n g began on October 5, 1968 and ended on March 7, 1969. No t r a i n i n g was given from December 21, 1968 to January 3, 1968 since t h i s period was the Christmas vacation. Mrs. Sharpe instructed the group on Tuesdays, and Thursdays, the writer d i d the i n s t r u c t i n g on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. A f t e r Christmas t h i s order was reversed. The program f o r the experimental group included: 1. s k i l l development on the trampoline, a g i l i t y equipment, balance beams, balance boards, and tumbling mats; 2. exercises using rhythm b a l l s , hoops, beanbags and ropes; 3. formal exercises and games; 4. f i n e motor exercises which included template tr a c i n g and use of pegboards and puzzles. An o u t l i n e of a lesson plan and the d e s c r i p t i o n of a l l the exercises used i n t h i s study are found i n Appendix D. Tests Used. The following t e s t s were administered i n the study. 1. The Metropolitan Readiness Test Form R. 2. The Winter Haven Perceptual Copy Forms Test. 3. The Metropolitan Readiness Test Form S. 4. Interview and Questionnaire. 5. Films. 1. The Metropolitan Readiness Test Form R: T h i s i s a standard reading readiness test administered to c h i l d r e n entering grade one i n the Vancouver School Board D i s t r i c t . I t i s designed to measure i n school beginners the t r a i t s and 45 achievements that contribute to their readiness for first grade instruction. That is, i t is used as an objective means of identifying the children who are not yet ready enough to profit by ordinary first grade instruction. Six separate instruments are included in the Metropolitan Readiness Test. These are: word meaning, sentences, information, matching, number and copying. Each instrument consists of pictures which the pupil marks or copies according to the instructions given. Test 1. Word Meaning: This is a test of understanding or comprehension of the English language. Test 2. Sentences: This test is similar to the first test, except, the pupil is required to comprehend phrases and sentences instead of individual words. Test 3. Information: This test is related to vocabulary. The pupil is required to select from a row of four pictures the one that best suits the examiners description. Test 4. Matching: This is a test of visual perception involving the recognition of similarities; a capacity required in learning to read. Test 5. Numbers: This test measures number knowledge. It measures achievement in number vocabulary, counting, ordinal numbers, recognition of written numbers, writing numbers, interpreting number symbols, the meaning of number terms. Test 6 . Copying: This test measures a combination of visual perception and motor control such as that required in learning to 46 read and write. T h i s type of test has proved to be diagnostic of mental maturity as well as p h y s i c a l development i n young ch i l d r e n . Even though t h i s c o r r e l a t e s well with success i n f i r s t grade work the r e s u l t s obtained from these t e s t s should be regarded as te n t a t i v e because so many factors a f f e c t success i n f i r s t grade. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y so i f there i s evidence that the test r e s u l t s vary markedly from other evidence concerning the c h i l d ' s maturity, as may be i n the case of the slow learner. Some of the more outstanding purposes which the Metropolitan  Readiness Test (3), serves are: 1. Provides an objective and r e l i a b l e basis for grouping f i r s t grade p u p i l s , for example, slow learners, for i n s t r u c t i o n a l purposes. 2. Suggests which p u p i l s might benefit by being retained i n Kindergarten. This may have s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e for the slow learner. 3. Helps the teacher adapt i n s t r u c t i o n to the l e v e l of the group and each i n d i v i d u a l . 4. May i n d i c a t e when formal work i n reading and numbers should be started. This has s p e c i a l relevance for the slow learner because he i s obviously not ready to s t a r t work at the same time the normal c h i l d r e n are. 5. May i n d i c a t e the general mental maturity of a c h i l d (Test 5 - Numbers). 47 2. The Winter Haven Perceptual Copy Forms Test: This test consists of reproducing seven geometrical figures: the cross, c i r c l e , square, triangle, divided rectangle, v e r t i c a l and horizontal diamonds. Manus (4:718) indicates that: The odds are approximately six to one that i f a chi ld in the five to seven age group scores below sixty he is a low achiever and w i l l have one or more poor v isual motor s k i l l s . Radler and Kephart (5) indicate that drawing geometrical figures i s a good indicator as to whether a chi ld has mastered various major and minor muscle movements and combinations of such movements; whether he can coordinate his eye and hand movement, and has developed a true sense of la tera l i ty and direct ional i ty . In fact, one of the h i s tor i ca l ly oldest tasks demanded of beginning grade one children i s that of drawing a reasonably good represent-ation of a square. This task occurs as a standard items in most standardized intell igence tests; Terman and M e r r i l l , 1937 (6); Wechsler, 1949 (7). In order to draw a square the chi ld must have control of his fine and gross motor s k i l l s . He must be able to move his fingers, wrist, hand, and arm in a coordinated fashion. He must be able to distinguish between his left side and his right side and to control the two sides of his body separately and simultaneously. In order to draw the square, the chi ld must know that two lines of the square go up and down while the other two go left and r ight . The 48 child requires considerable muscle coordination in order to change direction i n getting around a corner. I f the child draws a corner in a bulge, an arc, or an inverted loop, his eye-hand coordination i s incapable of reproducing the right angled turn. I f the child draws circles with f l a t sides or moves his paper while drawing any of the figures he may not have learned to cross the mid line of his body and therefore, has not developed an awareness of l e f t and right. Finally, i t i s , of course, obvious that the drawing of the square requires dexterity of the fingers, wrist, arm, shoulder, and grasp mechanism (5). 3. The Metropolitan Readiness Test Form S. This test contains the same subtests as found in the Form R Test discussed previously. Moreover, the individual test items have a reported r e l i a b i l i t y coefficient of .89 when compared to the previous Form R Test (1:79). 4. (A) Interview and (B) Questionnaire. The forms used for the collection of data pertaining to both personal and evaluative information are presented in Appendix D. A. Interview: The parents of the children involved in the study were interviewed towards the end of the study. The major purposes for this were: a) To determine the socio-economic background of the family of the children involved i n the study. b) To determine the background and attitudes of the parents, as well as their interaction with the child. 49 c) To determine how the chi ld interacts with his brothers, s isters , and friends; to the home, and the neighborhood. d) To obtain some information concerning the chi ld 's period of growth and maturation from the ages of 1-5. B. Questionnaire: A questionnaire was distributed towards the end of the study to the home room teachers of both experimental and control groups. The major purposes of this were: a) To determine the chi ld 's interaction and attitude in the classroom. b) To determine the chi ld 's relationship to other children in the class . c) To note improvement in fine and gross motor s k i l l s and reading. 5. Films. An eight millimeter f i lm was taken of the experimental group at three different stages during the study; October 28, 1968; January 31, 1969; and A p r i l 30, 1969. The purpose of the f i lm was to add further support to the subjective evaluation made in class by the author and Mrs. Sharpe concerning the improvement in motor s k i l l s (fine and gross) of the pupils in this group. At the completion of the eighteen week training program, the experimental and control groups T?ere given the same Perceptual Form Test as was given at the beginning. They were also given the Metropolitan Reading Readiness Test Form S. 50 Relationships were drawn from data obtained from the interview; questionnaire, personal observation, and the f i l m , concerning the subjects who received the s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n the program. The p u p i l s i n the experimental group receiving the s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g program, as well as, those i n the c o n t r o l group were evaluated i n r e l a t i o n to information obtained from the interview with the parents, d i r e c t observation of the c h i l d i n c l a s s , and fil m s with regards to: 1. Their l e v e l of p r o f i c i e n c y i n f i n e and gross motor s k i l l s at the beginning and end of study. 2. Their i n t e r a c t i o n i n the classroom ( s o c i a l , and pe r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s ) as a r e s u l t of the program, the so-called Hawthorne e f f e c t s or both. 3. T h e i r improvement i n reading readiness. 4 . General school achievement. S t a t i s t i c s . The t e s t i n g of the two groups was c a r r i e d out i n the following way: Con t r o l Group Experimental Group I n i t i a l Tests I n i t i a l Tests Metropolitan Reading Readiness Test Form R Winter Haven Perceptual Copy Forms Test Metropolitan Reading Readiness Test Form R Winter Haven Perceptual' Copy Forms Test F i n a l Tests F i n a l Tests Metropolitan Reading Readiness Test Form S Winter Haven Perceptual Copy Forms Test Metropolitan Reading Readiness Test Form S Winter Haven Perceptual Copy Forms Test 51 The raw score from these t e s t s were taken and two group were compared to see i f the d i f f e r e n c e between the means of the Metropolitan  Reading Readiness Test Form R and S and the Winter Haven Perceptual  Copy Forms Tests were s i g n i f i c a n t . T h i s was accomplished by using the t - t e s t found i n Appendix A. REFERENCES 1. H i l d r e t h , G.R., G r i f f i t h s , N.L., Metropolitan Reading Readiness  Test Form R, New York: Harcourt, Brach and World, Inc., 1949. 2. Teachers Test Manual for Administering Perceptual Forms Test, Winter Haven, Winter Haven Lions Research Foundation, Inc., 1967. 3. Teachers Test Manual for Administering The Metropolitan Reading  Readiness Test Form R, New York: Harcourt, Brach and World, Inc., 1950. 4. Manus, L., "A New Method of Scoring the Children's V i s u a l Achievement Forms," Journal of the American Optometric As s o c i a t i o n , v o l . 32 ( A p r i l 1961), pp. 714. 5. Radler, D.H., Kephart, N.C., Success Through Play, New York: Harper and Brothers, 1960, pp. 66. 6. Terman, L.M., M e r r i l l , M.A., Measuring I n t e l l i g e n c e , New York: Haughton M i f f l i n Co., 1937. 7. Wechsler, D., Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e Scale f o r Children, New York: Psychological Corporation, 1949. CHAPTER IV RESULTS The information obtained from t e s t i n g the co n t r o l group , and the experimental group i s summarized i n Tables I and I I . Table I summarizes the means and standard deviations of a l l the raw scores of the reading readiness t e s t , the perceptual form t e s t , and the means of the student's ages. The t - scores i n d i c a t e that the c o n t r o l group scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher i n sentences on the Metropolitan Reading Readiness Tests. Otherwise, the groups were c l o s e l y matched. In Table I I the r e s u l t s of the reading readiness test and the perceptual form te s t have been summarized. The t - scores indi c a t e that the experimental and co n t r o l groups d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n any aspect of either of the two t e s t s . Interview. Results obtained from the interview concerning the: A. Socio-economic Status of the Parents* 1. Seventy-five per cent of the breadwinners are either semi or u n s k i l l e d workers. The mean rank of the breadwinners computed from the occupational rank score as s p e c i f i e d by the Blishen Scale (1) was 46.4 and the standard deviation was 8.09. 2. Eighty per cent of the parents had held the same job since t h e i r c h i l d was born, and seventy-five per cent of the parents had not moved since t h e i r c h i l d was born. 54 TABLE I DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE CONTROL AND EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS ON AGE, READING READINESS AND PERCEPTUAL FORM TEST, BEFORE MOTOR TRAINING EXPERIMENTAL CONTROL GROUP GROUP 10 PUPILS 10 PUPILS DIFF. M l S.D. M 2 S.D. M r M 2 S.E. D t AGE (MONTHS) 74,5 3.93 74.3 3.51 +.2 1,80 .11 1. Word Meaning 12.8 2.23 12.2 3.4 +.6 1.26 .48 2. Sentences 10.0 1.84 7.8 1.83 +2.2 .62 3.55* 3. Information 11.4 1.80 10.9 2.51 +.5 1.03 .49 4. Matching 12.9 3.21 13.5 2.62 -.6 1.38 .44 TOTAL (1-4) 47.3 5.57 43.8 7.49 +3.5 3.11 1.13 PERCEPTUAL FORM 32.1 6.69 27.2 5.91 +4.9 2.96 1.66 t required f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e at the .05 l e v e l of confidence i s 2.10. * S i g n i f i c a n t 55 TABLE I I DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE CONTROL AND EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS ON READING READINESS AND PERCEPTUAL FORM TEST, AFTER EIGHTEEN WEEKS OF MOTOR TRAINING EXPERIMENTAL CONTROL GROUP GROUP 10 PUPILS 10 PUPILS DIFF. M l S.D. M 2 S.D. ML-M2 S.E. D t 1. Word Meaning 14.6 2.73 14.8 2.29 - .2 1.41 .14 2. Sentences 10.9 1.64 9.6 1.02 +1.3 .64 2.02 3. Information 11.8 1.18 11.4 2.15 + .4 .81 .50 4. Matching 14.1 2.61 14.9 2.12 - .8 1.12 .63 TOTAL (1-4) 50.9 4.88 49.4 2.66 + .6 1.80 .33 PERCEPTUAL FORM 39.0 8.14 38.1 6.38 + .9 4.58 .18 t required f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e at the .05 l e v e l of confidence i s 2.10. * Si g n i f i c a n c e 56 3. Seventy per cent of the parents interviewed were l i v i n g i n an area of the c i t y which had a socio-economic index c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of "below average" (2). 4. S i x t y - f i v e percent of the homes v i s i t e d were b u i l t p r i o r to 1945. 5. Eighty per cent of the f a m i l i e s had easy access to some playground, swimming pool, community center, and other park and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . But i n ninety per cent of the cases l i t t l e use was made of these f a c i l i t i e s by parents or t h e i r c h i l d r e n . 6. E i g h t y - f i v e per cent of the parents interviewed d i d not belong to any p r i v a t e , community, c i v i c , or church organizations or clubs. A graph summarizing the major r e s u l t s showing the socio-economic status of the parents i s shown i n Figure 1. B. Parents. 1. The grade reached by the parents ranged from grade one to grade 13. The average grade l e v e l reached by the fathers and mothers was grades 8 and 6 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Only two of the parents had graduated from high school and only f i v e had reached grade 10. 2. Ninety-five per cent of the parents viewed education s o l e l y as a means of obtaining a decent job. And 60 per cent were i n favor of p h y s i c a l education for t h e i r c h i l d i n the study, but f e l t that i t was of l i t t l e use to c h i l d r e n not s u f f e r i n g from motor or perceptual d e f i c i e n c i e s . 57 No. of Couples 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 E H FIGURE 1 SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF THE PARENTS A serai or u n s k i l l e d workers B have held same job since c h i l d i n study born C have not moved since c h i l d was born D l i v i n g i n a below average area of the c i t y E home b u i l t p r i o r to 1945 F f a m i l i e s with easy access to r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s G make no use of r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s H not s o c i a l l y a c t i v e i n pr i v a t e , c i v i c , or community clubs 58 3. N i n e t y - f i v e per cent of the parents d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n any outing which required ph y s i c a l a c t i v i t y with t h e i r c h i l d . 4. The fathers spend e i g h t y - f i v e per cent of t h e i r free, time watching t e l e v i s i o n , as opposed to f i f t e e n per cent of t h e i r time reading. The mothers spend seventy per cent of t h e i r time watching t e l e v i s i o n , as opposed to t h i r t y per cent of t h e i r time reading. Twenty-five per cent of the parents admitted to reading very l i t t l e , i f anything at a l l . 5. Ninety per cent of the parents read to t h e i r c h i l d , and encouraged him to read as well. About f i f t y per cent of the parents admitted that although t h e i r c h i l d had previously enjoyed being read to, he now preferred to read to himself. 6. Eighty per cent of the parents were p h y s i c a l l y i n a c t i v e i n r e l a t i o n to any r e c r e a t i o n a l or sporting a c t i v i t i e s , except f o r the source of t h e i r employment. 7. S i x t y per cent of the parents had never played i n any form of organized sports or competitive a t h l e t i c s . T h i r t y per cent had played i n organized sports at the elementary l e v e l , but had l o s t complete i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r teens. 8. Seventy per cent of the parents had a poor family h i s t o r y i n sports. In those cases where previous members of the family had been a c t i v e i n sports, u s u a l l y they were i s o l a t e d cases, for example, only one brother, one s i s t e r , one grandfather and so f o r t h . 59 9. S i x t y - f i v e per cent of the parents wanted t h e i r c h i l d to go to u n i v e r s i t y , but i n eighty per cent of these cases no f i n a n c i a l arangements had been made. 10. Eighty per cent of the parents, viewed themselves as being i n the middle low, and middle middle classes of society. A graph summarizing the major r e s u l t s concerning the parents of the c h i l d r e n i n t h i s study i s shown i n Figure 2. C. Subjects. 1. Seventy per cent of the c h i l d r e n were classed by t h e i r parents as being extremely a c t i v e (hyperactive). Twenty per cent of the c h i l d r e n were classed as being very i n a c t i v e (hypoactive). 2. The hyperactive c h i l d r e n d i d not appear to have any f a v o r i t e hobby or a c t i v i t y , but tended to move from one game to another and from one item to another, never being able to concentrate on one and only one for any period of time. 3. The average number of c h i l d r e n i n each family was three. In f o r t y per cent of the cases the c h i l d taking part i n the study was the f i r s t born. In about s i x t y per cent of the cases s i b l i n g r i v a l t y was indicated by the parents. 4. Eighty per cent of the c h i l d r e n i n t h i s study have only one close or steady f r i e n d . In many cases, however, they appear to s h i f t from one f r i e n d to another just as they do with t h e i r toys. 5. S i x t y per cent of the c h i l d r e n appear to watch very l i t t l e t e l e v i s i o n . 60 20 18 16 1 14 1 NUMBER 12 i 1 1 OF 10 COUPLES 8 6 4 | 1 2 A B C D E F G H FIGURE 2 THE PARENTS OF THE CHILDREN IN THE EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS view education as a step to obtaining a decent job in favor of physical education for their deficient ch i ld do not part icipate in any ventures with their chi ld do no reading at a l l physically inactive regarding sports or recreational a c t i v i t i e s have never participated in any form of competitive ac t i v i t y family history devoid of any competitive ac t i v i t y , view themselves as low middle, and middle middle class A B C D E F G H 61 6. One hundred per cent of the ch i l d r e n d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n any form of organized sports. Those sports the chi l d r e n had been introduced to such as swimming and skating, they seemed to lose i n t e r e s t i n , i n a very short period of time. 7. S i x t y per cent of the c h i l d r e n were described by t h e i r parents as having suffered from no serious i l l n e s s , disease or disorder, other than the t y p i c a l childhood diseases. Twenty-five per cent of the ch i l d r e n , however, had diseases or disorders, which were serious enough to have kept them i n bed or r e l a t i v e l y i n a c t i v e for eight to twelve months, during the e a r l y years of t h e i r l i f e . 8. Eighty per cent of the c h i l d r e n had bats, b a l l s , b i c y c l e s , skipping ropes, p l a s t i c wading pools, and other sports equipment, but i n seventy per cent of the eighty per cent l i t t l e use was made of them, i n comparison to t h e i r other toys. 9. Ninety per cent of the c h i l d r e n went to kindergarten. A graph summarizing the major r e s u l t s concerning the subjects of t h i s study i s shown i n Figure 3. Home Room Teacher's Questionnaire. Results obtained from the questionnaire concerning the home room teacher's observation of the ch i l d r e n i n t h i s study: 1. Eighty per cent of the experimental group changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r a t t i t u d e and i n t e r a c t i o n within the c l a s s . However, only f o r t y per cent of the c o n t r o l group changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y . 62 Number of Couples 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 A B H FIGURE 3 THE CHILDREN IN THE EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUP A hyperactive B hypoactive C f i r s t born D involved i n s i b l i n g r i v a l r y E having only one steady f r i e n d F not a c t i v e l y engage i n organized sports G having had a serious disease or i n j u r y H make l i t t l e use of sports equipment I went to kindergarten 63 2. Eighty per cent of the experimental group improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to work and play within the classroom, with t h e i r teacher, and with t h e i r classmates. F i f t y per cent of the c o n t r o l group improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h i s respect. 3. Eighty per cent of the experimental group improved i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r classmates. As the t r a i n i n g program progressed they were able to p a r t i c i p a t e more e f f e c t i v e l y within the group and with t h e i r classmates. Only f i f t y per cent of the c o n t r o l group showed any improvement i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r group. 4. Academically both experimental and c o n t r o l groups progressed slowly compared to the average grade ones. At the completion of the study, however, two of the c h i l d r e n i n the experi-mental group were integrated into normal grade one cla s s e s , and the teachers f e l t that three more ch i l d r e n i n t h i s group would be able to go back i n t o normal classes a f t e r t h e i r return to school i n the f a l l . 5. Ninety per cent of the experimental group showed a marked improvement i n t h e i r f i n e and gross motor s k i l l s . The experimental group improved t h e i r balance, co-ordination, l a t e r a l i t y , d i r e c t i o n a l i t y , and strength. The group improved i n i t s willingness to p a r t i c i p a t e , to t r y new s k i l l s , and to attempt more d i f f i c u l t s k i l l s . Case Studies. The p u p i l s i n the experimental group re c e i v i n g the s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g program and the pupil s i n the c o n t r o l group are discussed below i n r e l a t i o n to information obtained from the 64 interview with the parents, d i r e c t observation of the c h i l d i n c l a s s , and 8 mm f i l m s . The c o n t r o l group i s described as a t o t a l e n t i t y . A. Experimental Group I GLEN B February 28, 1962 At Beginning of Motor Program Glen was a big boy for h i s age. He was impulsive and seemed unable to forsee the consequences of many of h i s ac t s . He was c o n t i n u a l l y showing o f f , always wanting to make some noise, almost as i f there was some conpulsion to do so. A possible reason f o r h i s showing o f f was that he seemed to want to draw at t e n t i o n to himself, whenever he was unable to perform an a c t i v i t y which other members i n the c l a s s would do. He did , however, respond to t a l k of h i s behavior by improving h i s behavior. In comparison to the other c h i l d r e n i n the study he was underactive and slow paced. His a t t e n t i o n span was short and he was e a s i l y d i s t r a c t e d , e s p e c i a l l y when t r y i n g to learn a new motor s k i l l . To keep him a l e r t required almost a continuous and constant s h i f t of a c t i v i t y . His balance was poor and he was unable to balance on one leg or perform any of the balance exercises on the balance beam. His poor balance was al s o r e f l e c t e d by h i s performance on the trampoline on which he c o n t i n u a l l y fought to maintain h i s balance. He exhibited many problems of l a t e r a l i t y and d i r e c t i o n a l i t y . T h i s was i l l u s t r a t e d by h i s performance while doing f l o o r exercises req u i r i n g movement of limbs away from raid point of body or towards s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n s to experienced great d i f f i c u l t y , always looking 65 at a classmate to get h i s cue. Moreover, on the trampoline he jumped as though h i s body was t i e d to his r i g h t side. His r i g h t foot, leg, hip and shoulder c o n t i n u a l l y led i n performing any a c t i v i t y . His hand - eye, foot - eye coordination were very poor and were compounded by h i s large s i z e which added to h i s clumsiness and awkwardness. He experienced great d i f f i c u l t y i n catching or throwing a b a l l , and was unable to kick a b a l l c o n s i s t e n t l y . S i m i l a r l y , he experienced great d i f f i c u l t y i n jumping over a moving or an immovable object. Moreover, due to h i s clumsiness and awkwardness he was accident prone and numerous incidences occurred during the program when he suffered a cut, bruise, nose bleed, and loss of a tooth. Although he was w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n s k i l l learning a c t i v i t i e s , and games, he was not a leader but a follower, p r e f e r r i n g to step aside and allow the more aggressive c h i l d r e n to take charge. Th i s was probably due to h i s slow paced nature or h i s awkwardness and clumsiness which prevented him from p a r t i c i p a t i n g e f f e c t i v e l y . He lacked rhythm when hopping, skipping, or jumping on the f l o o r or trampoline and experienced great d i f f i c u l t y when performing on the a g i l i t y apparatus which was probably due i n part to h i s awkwardness. In the classroom, Glen's reading and perceptual organization were well below average for h i s age as indicated by h i s test r e s u l t s found i n Appendix B . His reading problems were compounded by h i s short a t t e n t i o n span, ease of being d i s t r a c t e d and the slow paced nature of h i s personality. While reading he would i n s e r t or omit small words, s y l l a b l e s , or whole l i n e s . He confused l e t t e r s such as "b" with "d", 66 "m" with "w", and "saw" with "was". In p r i n t i n g he made the same kind of r e v e r s a l s , omissions, and in s e r t i o n s as i n reading. Although he was able to i d e n t i f y and name a form once t o l d , he had great d i f f i c u l t y reproducing i t on paper. He lacked s p a t i a l o r i e n t a t i o n and h i s responses indicated that he had d i f f i c u l t y maintaining h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s to objects i n space and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between objects i n space. Perceptual data and motor responses frequently appeared to act independ-e n t l y of each other and he had poor v i s u a l memory. He did not mix well with h i s classmates, p o s s i b l y because of h i s slow paced nature whereas the majority of h i s classmates were extremely a c t i v e . He experienced great d i f f i c u l t y i n working independently, with h i s classmates, and h i s teacher. He d i d not e f f e c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e within the classroom. At End of Motor Program Glen's a t t i t u d e and behavior i n the c l a s s had improved. He s t i l l showed o f f but not to the same degree as he d i d at the s t a r t of the program. He no longer became e a s i l y f r u s t r a t e d when he was unable to perform a stunt or a c t i v i t y , but t r i e d again and again at learning the s k i l l . He s t i l l was slow and methodical i n many of h i s actions and t h i s created behavioral problems with many of the other slow learners, e s p e c i a l l y when he was on a r e l a y team, on the a g i l i t y apparatus, or leading a group through an obstacle course. His balance had improved but he s t i l l experienced d i f f i c u l t y with l a t e r a l movements on the balance beam, always wanting to lead with the r i g h t side of h i s body when asked to move l a t e r a l l y . 6 7 His hand - eye, foot - eye, co-ordination improved, although he s t i l l had trouble bouncing a b a l l with any consistency, and i n catching a c t i v i t i e s he tended to favor h i s r i g h t side. He now enjoyed working on the a g i l i t y apparatus but because of h i s large s i z e and poor limb strength h i s performance was severely handicapped. T h i s was very apparent when the a g i l i t y equipment was used i n a re l a y , i n an obstacle course, or i n free play. He s t i l l showed problems of l a t e r a l i t y and d i r e c t i o n a l i t y , as indicated by h i s d i f f i c u l t y of l a t e r a l movements on the balance beam. Thi s was more apparent, however, on the trampoline where although h i s balance and rhythm were g r e a t l y improved. He s t i l l appeared to jump with h i s body t i e d to h i s r i g h t side. P o s s i b l y greater body awareness of h i s limbs i n r e l a t i o n to h i s body would be improved i f h i s legs and arms were strengthened. Although he was now more w i l l i n g to take part i n c l a s s games and a c t i v i t i e s , because of h i s slow paced nature, he s t i l l preferred to follow rather than lead. He mixed s o c i a l l y i n the c l a s s with more of the c h i l d r e n than before, but s t i l l seemed to enjoy playing with only one or two of the c h i l d r e n with any consistency or r e g u l a r i t y . In the classroom Glen had progressed poorly i n h i s reading as compared to the other c h i l d r e n . He worked better independently then he d i d at the beginning of the program but because of h i s slow paced nature, and ease with which he could be d i s t r a c t e d he s t i l l experienced great d i f f i c u l t y i n the classroom. In reading, he s t i l l i n s erted or omitted l e t t e r s , s y l l a b l e s , and words, as well as, r e v e r s a l 68 Letter, but l e s s frequently than before. He s t i l l experienced d i f f i c u l t i e s i n perceptual organization. His a t t i t u d e and i n t e r -a c t i o n within the classroom, however, were g r e a t l y improved, and he had greater confidence i n h i s own a b i l i t i e s . He appeared to be more w i l l i n g to work with h i s classmates, and teacher, but s t i l l experienced problems i n mixing with a l l the c h i l d r e n , II CARL C. A p r i l 16, 1962 At Beginning of Motor Program C a r l was a f r i e n d l y , l i k e a b l e boy* He was big for h i s age and extremely strong. He l i k e d t r y i n g new a c t i v i t i e s and was able to c a rry on independently for short periods of time. His a t t e n t i o n span was short, but i f he applied himself he would accomplish a great deal. He did, however, become e a s i l y f r u s t r a t e d and i f he was unable to learn s k i l l s as r e a d i l y as some of the other c h i l d r e n he attempted to assert himself by p h y s i c a l l y beating the other c h i l d r e n i n the c l a s s , i n an attempt to r e l i e v e h i s f r u s t r a t i o n . He had poor balance. T h i s was shown by h i s i n a b i l i t y to perform forward, l a t e r a l , or backward movements on the balance board. On the trampoline h i s balance problem was r e f l e c t e d by h i s i n a b i l i t y to maintain an upright stature, as w e l l as, rhythm f o r any period of time. When jumping on the trampoline he tended to favor h i s r i g h t side, and jumped as though h i s body was t i e d to h i s r i g h t side and, as a r e s u l t , t h i s prevented him from jumping on one spot, continuously. His problem of l a t e r a l i t y and d i r e c t i o n a l i t y was also shown by f l o o r exercises and games which c a l l e d f o r him to respond. 69 c o r r e c t l y to such words as up, down, before, behind, l e f t and r i g h t . His hand - eye co-ordination was above average when compared to the rest of the c l a s s . Although he experienced no d i f f i c u l t i e s i n catching or throwing a b a l l continuously, he did have trouble bouncing or d r i b b l i n g a b a l l f o r any length of time. His foot - eye co-ordination, was good. He experienced no d i f f i c u l t y i n jumping or hopping over a stationary or moving object or kick i n g an object c o n s i s t e n t l y . On the a g i l i t y apparatus he appeared to have problems perceiving what was expected of him when performing on t h i s apparatus and to compensate for t h i s d e f i c i e n c y , he used h i s strength to make up for any d e f i c i e n c y i n t h i s s k i l l . He appeared to have problems perceiving the most e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t way to perform a s p e c i f i c s k i l l on the apparatus. In the classroom C a r l became e a s i l y f r u s t r a t e d by h i s i n a b i l i t y to keep up with some of h i s classmates i n reading and other subject matters. As a r e s u l t , he acted out, becoming a d i s -c i p l i n a r y problem i n an attempt to gain recognition from h i s classmates. In reading he c o n t i n u a l l y inserted or omitted small words, s y l l a b l e s , or whole l i n e s . He confused l e t t e r s such as "b" with "d", "m" with "w", "saw" with "was", and so f o r t h . He showed confusion of l e f t and r i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , followed by up and down and f i g u r e - ground confusion, confusion of 2 and 3 dimensions, and of shape, side, d i r e c t i o n , and distance. His memory for events and fa c t s i n reading was poor. He showed poor memory i n s e r i a l order, v i s u a l memory, and auditory memory. 70 At End of Motor Program C a r l no longer became e a s i l y d i s t r a c t e d by h i s i n a b i l i t y to perform a c t i v i t e s . His a t t e n t i o n span increased and he was less e a s i l y d i s t r a c t e d when interested i n doing something. He was w i l l i n g to work independently for a longer period of time on learning a s k i l l . Moreover, the confidence that he gained by learning new motor s k i l l s and/or the Hawthorne e f f e c t appeared to thwart to some extent h i s d i s c i p l i n a r y problems which were prevalent at the beginning of the study. He worked well within the c l a s s and with h i s classmates. He was no longer w i l l i n g to follow but rather wanted to lead i n those a c t i v i t i e s he performed w e l l . His balance improved. He was able to move backward, forward, and l a t e r a l l y on the balance beam but experienced great d i f f i c u l t y i n balancing i f blocks, hoops, or rings were placed on beams as i n obstacle c i r c u i t s and r e l a y s . T h i s indicated that h i s motor balance accomplishments d i d not generalize to s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s but remained highly s p e c i f i c to a p a r t i c u l a r movement or seri e s of movements. On the trampoline he overcame h i s balance problem and a l s o that of l a t e r a l i t y for he no longer jumped as i f t i e d to h i s r i g h t side. Moreover, i n f l o o r exercises such as angels on the snow he appeared by h i s responses to have progressed to the point where he had a good understanding of body image and l a t e r a l i t y . Although he was able to catch and throw a b a l l with accuracy and consistency at the beginning of the program he experienced d i f f i c u l t y i n d r i b b l i n g . He now, however, dribbled the b a l l w e ll and enjoyed those games and relays employing t h i s s k i l l . 71 On the a g i l i t y apparatus he no longer appeared to have any problems perceiving what was expected of him. He worked w e l l on t h i s apparatus, although he s t i l l used h i s strength to make up f o r any d e f i c i e n c y i n performing c e r t a i n motor a c t i v i t i e s . In the classroom C a r l , because of h i s increased confidence and aggressiveness, and because of his increased a t t e n t i o n span, did not become f r u s t r a t e d by problems as e a s i l y as he had at the beginning of study. He no longer was a serious d i s c i p l i n a r y problem i n c l a s s . He worked w e l l within the c l a s s and with classmates. In reading, although he had not improved a great deal, he was now making fewer l e t t e r r e v e r s a l s , omissions, or i n s e r t i o n s . However, his auditory and v i s u a l memory s t i l l remained poor and h i s perceptual organization for example; s p a t i a l o r i e n t a t i o n of distance, d i r e c t i o n and shape, confusion of 2 and 3 dimentions, and f i g u r e - ground confusion s t i l l remained well below acceptable grade one standards. I l l STEPHEN D. October 24, 1962 At Beginning of Motor Program Stephen was a very passive, reserved, and immature youngster. He was unable to mix with h i s classmates and appeared completely w i l l i n g to withdraw from the c l a s s and the classroom a c t i v i t i e s during the t r a i n i n g session. A very slow paced c h i l d , w i l l i n g to put up with repeated f a i l u r e academically and p h y s i c a l l y without a complaint. He appeared to be an i n t r o v e r t by nature. He appeared to be poorly co-ordinated, lagging i n a l l motor s k i l l s . His hand-eye, and foot-eye co-ordination were extremely poor and he was unable to h i t a moving object with h i s hand or foot. 72 He showed many balance problems as he was unable to balance on one foot f o r any period of time, or perform any of the forward, backward, or l a t e r a l a c t i v i t i e s required on the balance beam. He showed complete lack of rhythm i n f l o o r exercises and was unable to hop or jump from one side to the other continuously. He was unable to bounce e f f e c t i v e l y on the trampoline and was c o n t i n u a l l y f i g h t i n g for balance. Moreover, he showed signs of b i l a t e r a l movement d i f f i c u l t y since both sides reacted independently and he lacked visual-body c o n t r o l as shown by h i s movements over the surface of the trampoline while jumping. He showed complete lack of d i r e c t i o n a l i t y , having no idea of r i g h t , l e f t , up, down o r i e n t a t i o n , although he had developed some degree of handedness. His problems of l a t e r a l i t y were indicated by problems he experienced when moving sideways on the f l o o r or on the balance beam. His problems of d i r e c t i o n a l i t y were indicated by the d i f f i c u l t y he experienced i n games c a l l i n g f o r movement i n a s p e c i f i e d d i r e c t i o n or movement to a d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n . He showed complete lack of confidence on the a g i l i t y equipment and i n h i s unwillingness to t r y new a c t i v i t i e s on t h i s apparatus. He seemed to lack a l l confidence i n himself and the motor stunts or a c t i v i t i e s to be performed. He allowed himself to be shoved around by the more aggressive c h i l d r e n i n the c l a s s , and he showed no desire to compete with or against h i s classmates. In playing games he was a follower, and as h i s att e n t i o n span was short, he was unable to follow d i r e c t i o n s f o r any period of time. 73 He would always bring a small toy or some other source of amusement with him to c l a s s and i f given a chance ( f o r example during free a c t i v i t y ) , he would spend hi s time playing with t h i s object regardless of the a c t i v i t i e s of h i s classmates or the equipment and apparatus a v a i l a b l e . In the classroom Stephen d i d not i n t e r a c t with h i s classmates or the classroom a c t i v i t y and he was unable to work for any period of time independently. He seemed to go out of h i s way i n attempting not to draw a t t e n t i o n to himself i n the c l a s s and as a r e s u l t , was not a d i s c i p l i n a r y problem. He experienced great d i f f i c u l t y with f i n e motor a c t i v i t i e s such as c u t t i n g , pasting, t r a c i n g , and c o l o r i n g . In reading many words, phrases and numbers appeared to d i s t o r t and confuse him. He inserted and omitted words, s y l l a b l e s , and whole l i n e s . He confused l e t t e r s such as "b" with "d", "p" with "q", and so f o r t h . These reversals and omissions were also apparent i n h i s w r i t i n g . Generally, h i s lack of confidence, and h i s i n t r o v e r t nature demonstrated i n the motor program were also very evident by h i s lack of i n t e r a c t i o n within the classroom. At End of Motor Program Stephen no longer was quiet, timid, and reserved, but instead became a c t i v e , outgoing and boisterous. He showed marked improvement i n a l l s k i l l s i n v o l v i n g balance, co-ordination, a g i l i t y and rhythm. He was more aggressive and w i l l i n g to take part i n c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s . He was w i l l i n g to lead and would compete against others, as w e l l as, 74 himself. He no longer brought a toy to play with during free a c t i v i t y periods but became involved with classmates and the equipment a v a i l a b l e . His confidence and aggressiveness seemed to grow from every accomplishment he attained by way of a motor s k i l l . No longer d i d he allow himself to be shoved around, and at the same time he became quite verbose. His behavior had improved markedly. He was able to balance on one foot and perform a l l s k i l l s asked for on the balance beam and board. He appeared to take great pride i n h i s accomplishments on the balance apparatus and showed a great w i l l i n g n e s s to lead and partake i n obstacle courses involving balancing equipment. On the trampoline, h i s rhythm had improved and he was able to perform a large number of s k i l l s . He no longer had to f i g h t for h i s balance, he no longer t r a v e l l e d over the surface of the trampoline while jumping, and he no longer lacked v i s u a l body c o n t r o l . Although h i s co-ordination had improved, he s t i l l experienced some d i f f i c u l t y i n catching and throwing objects with any consistency or authority. However, h i s foot-eye co-ordination had improved markedly, as he appeared to have a great deal of confidence i n jumping, skipping, and hopping over stationary or moving objects. On the a g i l i t y equipment, he showed more confidence i n a l l the a c t i v i t i e s he did and seemed more receptive i n t r y i n g new a c t i v i t i e s . He s t i l l appeared to have some problems of perceiving what was expected of him on t h i s equipment as shown by the d i f f i c u l t y he 75 experienced when working on the apparatus, during the relays or free a c t i v i t y . He p a r t i c i p a t e d more e f f e c t i v e l y i n games appearing to take a greater i n t e r e s t and w i l l i n g n e s s to compete against himself and against h i s classmates. No longer d i d he allow himself to be pushed to the end of the l i n e by other c h i l d r e n when i t was h i s turn to perform. Moreover, h i s willingness to p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y with hi s classmates was shown by h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s such as paired games. At the beginning of the program he d i d not seem to mind i f he l o s t or even performed i n the a c t i v i t y , now however, he was less w i l l i n g to accept defeat, becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y stubborn, aggressive and more confident i n h i s own a b i l i t y . In the classroom Stephen showed no s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n hi s reading readiness. He was, however, able now to read and work independently i n c l a s s , and showed a greater willingness to work out h i s reading problem. In reading, he s t i l l experienced problems such as i n s e r t i n g or omitting words or s y l l a b l e s , and l e t t e r r e v e r s a l s . He s t i l l experienced problems of perceptual organization, v i s u a l and auditory memory, however, not to the same degree as he had at the beginning of the program. Although, h i s a t t e n t i o n span was s t i l l very short, he appeared to spend most of h i s time working rather than day dreaming. His i n t e r a c t i o n towards classmates, and c l a s s a c t i v i t y had improved so that he interacted and p a r t i c i p a t e d much more e f f e c t i v e l y . 76 IV KELLY G. January 27, 1962 At Beginning of Motor Program K e l l y was an outgoing and very a c t i v e g i r l who appeared emotionally and s o c i a l l y mature i n keeping with her age. She l i k e d t r y i n g new a c t i v i t i e s and was able to carry on independently f o r short periods of time. Her attention span was short but i f she applied h e r s e l f she could accomplish a great deal. She was c o n t i n u a l l y showing o f f , always wanting to make some noise, almost as i f there was some compulsion to do so. A possible reason for her showing o f f was that she seemed to want to draw attention to h e r s e l f whenever she was unable to perform an a c t i v i t y which other members of the c l a s s could do. Her balance was poor and she was unable to balance on one foot or perform any of the balance exercises on the balance beam. She was a l s o unable to maintain her balance on the trampoline and could not e s t a b l i s h any rhythm i n her jumping. Although she showed no marked problems of l a t e r a l i t y she d i d appear to experience problems of d i r e c t i o n a l i t y as shown by her i n a b i l i t y to respond to d i r e c t i o n a l commands i n games or a c t i v i t i e s c a l l i n g for these t r a c t s . Her hand-eye co-ordination was poor. She was unable to throw, catch, or bounce a b a l l with any degree of consistency, accuracy, or authority. S i m i l a r l y , her foot-eye co-ordination was poor. She was unable to jump, skip or hop over a stationary or moving object. As a r e s u l t , she became e a s i l y f r u s t r a t e d and gave up quickly i n 77 a c t i v i t i e s or games requiring these s k i l l s . Her i n a b i l i t y to skip seemed to f r u s t r a t e her, e s p e c i a l l y , i f any of the boys i n the c l a s s could skip. She was unable to p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y on the a g i l i t y equipment during free a c t i v i t y , r e l a y s , and obstacle courses. That i s , she was unable to perceive the a c t i v i t i e s expected of her on t h i s piece of equipment, and as a r e s u l t became e a s i l y f r u s t r a t e d g i v i n g up on whatever a c t i v i t y she was attempting. She appeared extremely moody and high strung, subject to temper tantrums and acting out. On some days she worked w e l l , other days she simply refused to do anything. She d i d not mix well with members of the c l a s s , and experienced a great deal of d i f f i c u l t y i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g e f f e c t i v e l y i n classroom a c t i v i t i e s . Because of her short a t t e n t i o n span and poor l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s , K e l l y was unable to work independently i n the classroom f o r any period of time. Many of her reading problems appeared to o r i g i n a t e from her perceptual-organizational d e f i c i e n c i e s . That i s , she had poor depth and s p a t i a l perception, showed confusion of l e f t and rig h t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , confusion of shape, side, d i r e c t i o n and distance, a l l of which retarded her reading. She d i d not mix well with the ch i l d r e n i n her c l a s s , because of her i n a b i l i t y to perceive what was expected of her. At End of Motor Program K e l l y now appeared more aggressive, outgoing, and confident i n performing s k i l l s and a c t i v i t i e s required of her on the apparatus, 78 as w e l l as, her s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n with the c l a s s . She no longer was a follower but instead acted as a leader i n many of the clas s a c t i v i t i e s . She associated well with members of the c l a s s and pa r t i c i p a t e d much more e f f e c t i v e l y i n c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s and games. She no longer appeared to experience the same degree of d i f f i c u l t y i n perceiving what was expected of her, as she had at the beginning of the study. Her balance improved. She was able to move forward, backward, and l a t e r a l l y on the balance beam apparatus. She appeared to enjoy use of the balance beam i n obstacle courses, r e l a y s , and during free play. She no longer experienced d i f f i c u l t y i n balancing on the trampoline, although she remained hesitant about performing a c t i v i t i e s on her back such as a back drop. She had now established a rhythm i n her jumping on the trampoline but t h i s d i d not carry over i n t o other s k i l l s such as skipping. T h i s indicated that her motor accomplishment did not generalize to s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s but remained highly s p e c i f i c to a p a r t i c u l a r movement or a se r i e s of movements. She no longer experienced any problems of co-ordination and she had d i f f i c u l t y i n bouncing, passing, and catching a b a l l or jumping over a stationary or moving object with any degree of accuracy, and authority. Moreover, she no longer seemed to allow h e r s e l f to become e a s i l y f l u s t e r e d , i f she did not meet rapid success, but kept working u n t i l she had acquired the s k i l l to be learned. 79 On the a g i l i t y equipment she showed more confidence i n a l l the a c t i v i t i e s she d i d and seemed more receptive to t r y i n g new a c t i v i t i e s by h e r s e l f . This may be accounted for i n part by her improvement i n perceptual organization. In the classroom K e l l y interacted well with members of the c l a s s and with the c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s . She no longer experienced the same degree of d i f f i c u l t y with perceptual organization, such as, confusion of l e f t - r i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , confusion of side, shape, d i r e c t i o n and distance, that she had at the beginning. Her s e r i a l , v i s u a l , and auditory memory were g r e a t l y improved. Her reading, general school work, and o v e r a l l perceptual organization had improved to such an extent that she w i l l soon be placed i n a normal classroom. V PETER H. December 9, 1962 At Beginning of Motor Program Peter at the s t a r t of the study was a very quiet and immature young boy. Very boyish i n both h i s actions and speech, In the l a t t e r he demonstrated a speech impediment very s i m i l a r to that of his mother. He appeared to enjoy a t t e n t i o n as shown by h i s wanting to t a l k and t e l l s t o r i e s whenever possible i n c l a s s . He was unable to concentrate on an a c t i v i t y for any period of time as w e l l as carry i t through once started. He was very e a s i l y d i s t r a c t e d by noise around him and had great d i f f i c u l t y i n perceiving what was being taught, and s t i l l greater d i f f i c u l t y incorporating i t into some form of a c t i v i t y . No matter what a c t i v i t y he was doing h i s arms and hands were i n continual motion, f l a i l i n g about independent 80 of one another. He was also unable to follow through a d e f i n i t e sequence of movements involved i n a complex motor s k i l l . Peter had very poor balance. Unable to cope with any of the balance equipment, unable to concentrate f o r any period of time on a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y , and extremely hyperactive with h i s arms or legs i n continual motion. He walked pigeontoed, was unable to balance on one foot, and was unable to throw a b a l l with any degree of force, accuracy, or d i r e c t i o n . Due to h i s poor balance, he was unable to perform simple motor a c t i v i t i e s on the balance beam; he was unable to keep h i s eyes f i x e d on any target while attempting a balancing a c t i v i t y ; and he l o s t c o n t r o l very e a s i l y on the trampoline. He was unable to jump from one foot to the other, or jump with any rhythm on the f l o o r or on the trampoline. His body co-ordination was extremely poor, he was unable to move parts of h i s body i n an integrated manner, but instead i n a f i x e d or abortive movements. He showed poor hand-eye co-ordination and because of h i s continual hand and arm movement, he was unable to bounce, r o l l , or catch the b a l l properly. He appeared to have no awareness of limbs (both arms and legs) once they were moved from the midline of the body. Th i s i s shown by h i s i n a b i l i t y to do a forward r o l l , the exercise angels i n the snow, and by h i s performance on the trampoline. In the exercise inv o l v i n g angels i n the snow, once h i s arms and legs l e f t the midline of h i s body he l o s t a l l c o n t r o l and co-ordination. In performing a forward r o l l , once h i s arms were placed on the mat i n 81 front of him, he forgot about them altogether. He enjoyed p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n games and relays but became so excited that l i t t l e learning and tran s f e r of learning of the s k i l l being employed i n the game was c a r r i e d out. During these games h i s short a t t e n t i o n span was very evident. He appeared to be a follower rather than a leader whether i t was i n p r a c t i c i n g s k i l l s , competing i n a r e l a y or performing i n a game. F i n a l l y , he was a c h e e r f u l , f r i e n d l y c h i l d not subject to temper tantrums. Extremely imaginative, able to excel i n games that c a l l e d f o r this t r a i t . However, he was often f r u s t r a t e d by his i n a b i l i t y to do a p a r t i c u l a r stunt or s k i l l and h i s i n a b i l i t y to communicate because of h i s s t u t t e r . In the classroom, Peter's problems of l a t e r a l i t y and d i r e c t i o n a l i t y were r e f l e c t e d by h i s reading i n which he would i n s e r t and omit words, s y l l a b l e s , or whole l i n e s . He confused "b" with "d", "m" with "w", "saw" with "was", and so f o r t h . He made the same kinds of r e v e r s a l s , omissions, and i n s e r t i o n s i n h i s p r i n t i n g as w e l l . Perceptually, he experienced confusion with l e f t - r i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , r o t a t i o n i n pencil-and-paper and construction problems, confusion of shape, side, d i r e c t i o n and distance. Although his memory for events and f a c t s was adequate, he had poor v i s u a l memory. His h y p e r a c t i v i t y and short a t t e n t i o n span prevented him from concentrating on any one item for any period of time. He was w i l l i n g to work with h i s teacher and classmates, however, he played r e g u l a r l y with only one other c h i l d i n the c l a s s . 82 At End of Motor Program Peter was s t i l l h ighly e x c i t a b l e , however, he now had far greater c o n t r o l of h i s body. His arms no longer f l a i l e d independently i n an uncoordinated manner. He was now able to follow through to completion of a s k i l l or sequence of a c t i v i t i e s . He p a r t i c i p a t e d much' more e f f e c t i v e l y within the c l a s s and with hi s classmates, although h i s a t t e n t i o n span was s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y short. When he was slowed down p h y s i c a l l y and emtoionally and made to concentrate, there was a marked improvement i n h i s perform-ance. His balance improved so that he was able to perform forward, backward, and l a t e r a l s k i l l s on the balance beam and the other balance apparatus. His o v e r a l l body co-ordination had improved markedly, he no longer moved d i s j o i n t l y . His hand-eye co-ordination had improved to the point where he could bounce, pass, and catch the b a l l with a great deal of authority and confidence. He had overcome some of h i s problems of l a t e r a l i t y and d i r e c t i o n a l i t y , and had much better c o n t r o l of h i s limbs when performing a c t i v i t i e s such as a forward r o l l and angels i n the snow. Thi s was e s p e c i a l l y evident on the trampoline as w e l l . He moved h i s arms and legs i n doing these a c t i v i t i e s with a great deal more confidence and assur-ance than he d i d at the beginning of the study. He s t i l l , however had a tendency to t r y hurrying h i s performance of some s k i l l s and h i s timing i n a c t i v i t i e s such as jumping, skipping, and hopping s t i l l lacked rhythm. Moreover, he 83 s t i l l experiences d i f f i c u l t y on the a g i l i t y equipment and was slow to perceive what was required of him of the apparatus. He s t i l l preferred to follow rather than lead. The one noticeable p o s i t i v e e f f e c t besides h i s improvement i n motor s k i l l s was h i s general a t t i t u d e . With the increasing success he met with from performing the f i n e and gross motor s k i l l s h i s confidence and s e l f assurance appeared to increase. Towards the end of the study he became very aggressive i n h i s attempt to learn new s k i l l s . He no longer seemed to allow himself to become e a s i l y f l u s t e r e d , i f he d i d not meet with rapid success, but kept working u n t i l he had acquired the s k i l l to be learned. It appeared that the more success he met with i n acquiring the motor s k i l l s , a more de l i b e r a t e attempt was made by him to perform c o r r e c t l y i n both his physical a c t i o n and h i s speech. In the classroom although he was making fewer errors i n h i s reading, he was s t i l l well below the n a t i o n a l norm as indicated by h i s r e s u l t s i n Appendix B. However, h i s approach to h i s schoolwork, classmates, and teacher was g r e a t l y improved. He no longer associated with only one classmate but played with a l l . He was s t i l l experiencing d i f f i c u l t y with problems i n perceptual organization, but not to the same extent as at the beginning of the study. His speech impediment had g r e a t l y improved and h i s at t e n t i o n span was s t i l l rather short, but i f he was interested, his powers of concentration were markedly increased. Parents also indicated that he looked forward to going to school and d i d reading homework w i l l i n g l y . 84 VI KELLY K. September 6, L962 At Beginning of Motor Program K e l l y was an outgoing f r i e n d l y youngster who appeared to be emotionally and s o c i a l l y mature i n keeping with her age. She d i d have a tendency, however, to be very stubborn at times. And t h i s seemed to occur whenever she became fru s t r a t e d by her i n a b i l i t y to perform an a c t i v i t y . Since her operation for double v i s i o n there had been noticeable improvement i n her gross and f i n e motor s k i l l s . P o s s i b l y , therefore, many of her perceptual and motor d e f i c i e n c i e s were simply due to a lack of experience. Although some of her work and s k i l l s had c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r to that of brain damaged c h i l d r e n . Her balance was poor. She was unable to balance on one foot for any period of time, or perform any of the basic balancing a c t i v i t i e s on the balance beam or board. Her balance problem on the trampoline was not as apparent and although she established a rhythm i n her jumping, she lacked the confidence to perform any of the basic s k i l l s . Her hand-eye, foot-eye co-ordination was very poor but t h i s i s to be expected because of her double v i s i o n . She was unable to throw, catch, or bounce a b a l l c o n s i s t e n t l y , and because of t h i s she became very f r u s t r a t e d and refused to do any b a l l a c t i v i t i e s during the f i r s t few periods of the t r a i n i n g program. She appeared to experience some d i f f i c u l t y when using the a g i l i t y equipment. This was p o s s i b l y due to her lack of experience and her apprehension and fear of a c t i v i t i e s performed on t h i s piece of equipment. 85 She was d e f i n i t e l y r i g h t handed, however, she showed some problems of l a t e r a l i t y . This was shown by her i n a b i l i t y to perform a c t i v i t i e s such as angels i n the snow and by her f a i l u r e to respond properly i n games requiring her to move i n s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n s , or respond to s p e c i f i c s i g n a l s . She was w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y with other c h i l d r e n i n the c l a s s but when she was unable to perform an a c t i v i t y she became quite stubborn and fr u s t r a t e d , interupting the c l a s s and cl a s s a c t i v i t y . In the classroom, a s l i g h t speech impediment was apparent as there were wrong consonants at the beginning of words, some s l u r r i n g , a s l i g h t s t u t t e r , and a b i t of a l i s p . Her at t e n t i o n span was very short. Some days she was w i l l i n g to work and other days she refused to do anything. Her free c r e a t i v e drawing was i n keeping with her age. She f e l l down badly, however, when she had to copy, recognize words, or l e t t e r s . Her v i s u a l memory and recognition were poor.. She was unable to recognize many simple words, and could not p r i n t anything from memory. She performed f a r better on a short task or at the beginning of a longer task. For she got progressively and r a p i d l y worse the further she went i n a task, ge t t i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y muddled and confused by the work she was doing. Although not observant about her environmental surroundings, she d i d i n t e r a c t f a i r l y w e l l with some of her c l a s s -mates and classroom a c t i v i t y when she wanted to. 86 At End of Motor Program K e l l y no longer became e a s i l y f r u s t r a t e d by her i n a b i l i t y to perform an a c t i v i t y , but remains at an a c t i v i t y for longer periods of time. She enjoyed showing o f f new s k i l l s which she now i s able to do. She became more independent, being able to p a r t i c i p a t e on various pieces of apparatus without being t o l d what to do, as w e l l as, allowing her v i v i d imagination to enter into her play. She entered into a l l a c t i v i t i e s and appeared more secure and sure of he r s e l f . Her balance improved markedly. She was now able to balance on one foot, perform a c t i v i t i e s moving forwards, backwards, and l a t e r a l l y on the balance beam, and balance on the balance board for short periods of time. She s t i l l had problems of co-ordination, as she had d i f f i c u l t y bouncing, passing, and catching a c a l l or jumping over a stationary or moving object with any degree of accuracy and authority. Her balance and rhythm on the trampoline had g r e a t l y improved. She appeared much more confident and sure of h e r s e l f while performing on t h i s apparatus. She had mastered a l l the s k i l l s required of her age except the front drop and combinations. She no longer had any h e s i t a t i o n about working on the a g i l i t y equipment. And because of her v i v i d imagination she worked more e f f e c t i v e l y on t h i s piece of apparatus than any of the other slow learners during periods of free a c t i v i t y , or games involving the c h i l d ' s imagination. 87 In the classroom K e l l y ' s reading and other school work had not been s i g n i f i c a n t l y improved. However, her speech had improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y and she appeared more confident i n expressing h e r s e l f . Since her body image and body awareness had improved due to the motor program and/or the Hawthorn e f f e c t , many of her perceptual problems had disappeared. T h i s was r e f l e c t e d i n her reading, as she no longer confused to the same extent l e t t e r s such as "b" with "d", "m" with "w", and words such as "was" with "saw", and so f o r t h , but because of her poor a t t i t u d e and v i s u a l memory she s t i l l experienced d i f f i c u l t y i n reading. She interacted w e l l with members of the c l a s s and with the a c t i v i t y and work i n the classroom. Moreover, with her improved confidence and assurance of h e r s e l f she was gradually emerging as a c l a s s leader, e s p e c i a l l y among the g i r l s . VII TONY L. August 15, 1962 At Beginning of Program Tony was a very pleasant and co-operative boy who interacted f a i r l y w e ll within the c l a s s and with h i s classmates. He had a short a t t e n t i o n span, was e a s i l y d i s t r a c t e d , and was unable to follow d i r e c t i o n s . Because of h i s i n a b i l i t y to comprehend what was required of him i n performing an a c t i v i t y , and h i s short a t t e n t i o n span, he was unable to execute a s k i l l or a c t i v i t y unless shown step by step or by others. He was not e a s i l y f r u s t r a t e d and appeared f a i r l y stable, emotionally, as w e l l as, s o c i a l l y . Although, he mixed f a i r l y w e l l , because of h i s i n a b i l i t y to perceive what was 88 to be done, he experienced d i f f i c u l t y i n j o i n i n g i n on c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s . His o v e r a l l gross motor s k i l l s were f a i r l y w e ll developed i n comparison to the other c h i l d r e n i n the study. His balance was average. He was able to balance on one foot and hop from one foot to another with some degree of rhythm. He had no trouble moving forward on the balance beam, but was unable to move l a t e r a l l y or backwards on the beam. He was also able to balance on the balance board for short periods of time. His hand-eye co-ordination was good when he was concentrat-ing i n games or on s k i l L a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g catching, throwing or bouncing a b a l l . He was able to throw and catch the b a l l with consistency, accuracy, and authority. However, h i s foot-eye co-ordination was poor. He was unable to jump, skip, or hop over a stationary or moving object. As a r e s u l t , he would become f r u s t r a t e d and give up i n an a c t i v i t y or game requiring these s k i l l s . In performing an a c t i v i t y on the a g i l i t y apparatus, h i s biggest problem appeared to be perceiving what was to be expected. Once an a c t i v i t y was shown to him by going through each step of the a c t i v i t y , he had no trouble, but i f l e f t alone, he was not able to v i s u a l i z e and/or perform the a c t i v i t y . His balance and rhythm on the trampoline were f a i r , but he lacked confidence i n performing any stunt or a c t i v i t y on the apparatus. He showed no signs of l a t e r a l i t y or d i r e c t i o n a l i t y problems on the trampoline, however, i n d i r e c t i o n a l games and f l o o r a c t i v i t i e s he demonstrated problems of d i r e c t i o n a l i t y , and 89 i n f l o o r a c t i v i t i e s such as angels i n the snow he demonstrated problems of l a t e r a l i t y . These d e f i c i e n c i e s may be a t t r i b u t e d , however, to h i s i n a b i l i t y to perceive and understand d i r e c t i o n s given rather than to a d e f i n i t e lack of body awareness and image. In the classroom because of h i s short a t t e n t i o n span and his i n a b i l i t y to perceive what was expected of him i n a c t i v i t i e s such as reading, he was unable to work independently. Many of h i s reading problems appeared to o r i g i n a t e from h i s perceptual-organ-i z a t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c i e s . That i s , he had poor depth and s p a t i a l perception, showed confusion of l e f t and r i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , confusion of shape, side, d i r e c t i o n , and distance, a l l of which r e t a r d -ed h i s reading. Moreoever, his v i s u a l and auditory memory were poor, although h i s conceptual reasoning for grade one was normal. His speech was poor, however, t h i s may have been due to poor auditory d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Although he mixed w e l l with the c h i l d r e n i n the c l a s s , because of h i s i n a b i l i t y to perceive what was expected of him, he was unable to p a r t i c i p a t e i n classroom a c t i v i t y e f f e c t i v e l y . At End of Motor Program Tony was no longer a quiet passive boy. He now appeared more aggressive, outgoing, and confident i n performing s k i l l s and a c t i v i t i e s required of him on the apparatus, as well as, h i s s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n with the c l a s s . He no longer was content to be a follower but instead acted as a leader i n many of the c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s . He seemed to r e l i s h competition and i t appeared to bring out the best i n h i s s k i l l s . His a t t e n t i o n span was longer than at the beginning of the study, and he was less e a s i l y d i s t r a c t e d . He was able to follow a s k i l l or a c t i v i t y through to i t s completion, and work 90 c o n s t r u c t i v e l y f o r longer periods of time, independently. He associated well with members of h i s c l a s s , and p a r t i c i p a t e d much more e f f e c t i v e l y i n c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s and games. He no longer appeared to experience d i f f i c u l t y i n perceiving what was expected of him. His balance on the beam had improved to the extent that, as well as, performing a l l the a c t i v i t i e s required of him, he was also able to perform a c t i v i t i e s such as stepping over blocks and through loops while maintaining h i s balance on a beam as i n an obstacle course. He no longer experienced d i f f i c u l t y with e i t h e r back or l a t e r a l movement on the balance beam and he was one of the few members of the c l a s s to be able to balance on a sport k r e i s e l . His hand-eye co-ordination was excellent. He was able to throw, catch, and bounce the b a l l with consistency, as w e l l as, throw a b a l l or bean bag into a target with accuracy from reasonable distances. His foot-eye co-ordination had improved so that he was able to jump, skip, or hop over stationary or moving objects and he appeared to get a great deal of enjoyment out of games involving t h i s s k i l l . He improved on the trampoline to where he was able to perform a l l the stunts required of him. He demonstrated excellent rhythm, balance, and co-ordination on t h i s apparatus, and he appeared to take a great deal of pride i n h i s performance. Due to h i s a b i l i t y to now perceive d i r e c t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n better than before, he showed no problems of l a t e r a l i t y and 91 d i r e c t i o n a l i t y . And as a r e s u l t , he was able to follow d i r e c t i o n , and perform a c t i v i t i e s independently, no longer re q u i r i n g cues from h i s classmates to follow, but a c t u a l l y leading h i s classmates i n performing many of the a c t i v i t i e s . On the a g i l i t y apparatus, he performed a l l a c t i v i t i e s quite e f f e c t i v e l y . Moreover, now that he was able to perceive what was asked for on the apparatus, he showed no hesitancy or problem of leading the other slow learners on t h i s apparatus during games, rel a y s , or free a c t i v i t y . In the classroom due to Tony's a b i l i t y to now perceive what was expected of him, h i s reading and school work improved to such an extent that he w i l l soon be placed i n a so c a l l e d normal classroom. He appeared to have overcome many of h i s perceptual problems, he had increased h i s a t t e n t i o n span and was able to work independently for a greater period of time. His speech had improved, and he was now able to t a l k f a i r l y c l e a r l y and concisely. He interacted well with h i s classmates and was now able to p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y i n the c l a s s . VIII SHEILA 0. March 16, 1962 At Beginning of Motor Program Sheila was a very immature young g i r l f o r her age. She was e a s i l y d i s t r a c t e d from performing an a c t i v i t y , her at t e n t i o n span being extremely short. She eit h e r d i d not l i s t e n or had poor l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s , as she had great d i f f i c u l t y understanding any demands made upon her. There d i d not appear to be any ph y s i c a l 92 obstruction causing or adding to her hearing problem. She had a slight speech impediment as shown by her lisp and her speech was rapid and often indistinct. And fi n a l l y , she appeared to have serious perceptual handicaps as shown by her in a b i l i t y to perceive objects in relation to her body and from one object to another. She was poorly co-ordinated as she was unable to skip, jump, or run with any rhythm. Her hand-eye co-ordination was very poor as shown by her in a b i l i t y to bounce a b a l l or throw a b a l l with any consistency. Similarly, her foot-eye co-ordination was very poor as she was unable to jump over a stationary or moving object, and she was unable to kick a b a l l with any consistency. Her balance was poor. She was unable to perform any act i v i t i e s on the balance beam or board, and she could not stand on one foot for any period of time. Her dynamic balance on the trampoline was equally as poor. Although, she did not appear to exhibit any problems of laterality on the trampoline she did show problems of directionality when asked to respond to certain commands while bouncing on the trampoline. This deficiency in directionality was also apparent from the responses she gave while playing directional games, or performing floor exercises such as angels in the snow. That i s , she had trouble understanding what was meant by words describing spatial position such as in-out, up-down, behind-before, left-right, and so forth. Moreover, this problem of directionality may stem from her perceptual deficiencies which are well illustrated by her i n a b i l i t y to participate effect-93 i v e l y on the a g i l i t y equipment during free a c t i v i t y , r e l a y s , and obstacle courses. That i s , she was unable to perceive the a c t i v i t i e s expected of her on t h i s piece of equipment, and as a r e s u l t became e a s i l y f r u s t r a t e d , g i v i n g up on whatever a c t i v i t y she was attempting. She d i d not appear to mix w e l l with her classmates and had trouble j o i n i n g i n on games involving the whole c l a s s . She was unable to work e f f e c t i v e l y within a group or on a team such as a r e l a y team. In the classroom Sheila, because of her short a t t e n t i o n span and poor l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s , was unable to work independently for any period of time. She appeared to have severe perceptual problems which impeded her i n acquiring reading s k i l l s . Thus, her reading problem appeared to stem from her poor perceptual organization. For example, she confused l e f t - r i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , followed by up-down and fi g u r e ground r e l a t i o n s h i p s , ninety per cent rotations i n pencil-and-paper and construction problems, confusion of 2 and 3 dimensions, confusion of shape, side, d i r e c t i o n and distance. Although her memory for events, and c e r t a i n f a c t s seemed good, she had poor memory s e r i a l order, v i s u a l and auditory memory as w e l l . She appeared to have poor auditory d i s c r i m i n a t i o n f o r vowels and experienced confusion regarding p l u r a l s , and some syntax. Because of her rapid speech and l i s p , she had trouble t a l k i n g and being understood within the c l a s s , and t h i s led to f r u s t r a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , she was subject to temper tantrums, and an unwillingness to work with classmates, i n c l a s s a c t i v i t y or with the teacher. 94 At End of Motor Program Sheila now appeared as a much more cheerful g i r l , wi l l ing to take part in class ac t iv i t i e s and games. She no longer gave up or became frustrated as easily as she did at the beginning of the program when exposed to a new and more d i f f i c u l t ac t iv i ty . She approached a l l ac t iv i t i e s much more aggressively and confidently. This new found confidence may be attributed to either the success she had met with in learning new motor s k i l l s , due to the extra attention she had received, or due to both of these factors. She no longer talked as rapidly as she did at the beginning, but appeared to choose her words more carefully with a greater amount of self confidence. Moreover, she appeared to be able to l isten and perceive more c learly when spoken to or asked to perform. Her balance had improved on the balance beam and board. She was able to perform most of the forward, backward and lateral ac t iv i t i e s asked for on this balance equipment, and enjoyed demonstra-ting to classmates and v i s i tors on the balance apparatus. Her balance and rhythm on the trampoline improved but not as markedly as many of the other children in the study. This may be due to her fear of heights. That i s , even though she was able to perform the knee and seat drops, she approached the learning of other s k i l l s such as those requiring height for example a front drop with much more apprehension and less confidence than those ac t iv i t i e s which were performed on the ground. Her hand-eye co-ordination had improved. She was able to bounce, throw, and catch a b a l l with some degree of consistency, 95 and appeared to enjoy playing games involving these s k i l l s . Her foot-eye co-ordination was s t i l l poor as she experienced d i f f i c u l t y in jumping over a stationary or moving object. Her in a b i l i t y to skip was one of the few ac t i v i t i e s that s t i l l appeared to frustrate her rather easily. She s t i l l experienced d i f f i c u l t y and appeared somewhat hesitant on the a g i l i t y apparatus, possibly due to the height. Although she performed a c t i v i t i e s which she had learned well with a great deal of confidence, especially i f they were close to the ground, she was hesitant about performing a new s k i l l or activity on the apparatus and hesitant about doing any activity at the top of the equipment. In the classroom Sheila was more active than at the start of the study. She was willing to take part in class a c t i v i t i e s , participate with her classmates, and work with her teacher. Although a number of her perceptual problems, hearing and speech problems appeared to have been corrected, she was s t i l l experiencing d i f f i c u l t y with her reading. However, instead of giving up as she did at the beginning of the training program when confronted with a problem, she now attacked i t more aggressively and was willing to stay with i t for a longer period of time. As indicated her perceptual organization appeared to have improved. She no longer was confused as easily in regards to left-right relationships, or shape, side, direction, and distance. She appeared to have improved her visual and auditory memory, however, she s t i l l had trouble discriminating certain vowels and consonants in hearing. 96 IX RICKY R. January 25, 1962 At Beginning of Motor Program Ricky was very small for his age. He showed an abnormal amount of motion being extremely hyperactive. He was in constant motion continually poking, punching, or shoving his classmates. He appeared impulsive and unable to forsee the consequences of his acts, and his attention span was very short. As a result , he was easily frustrated and high strung emotionally. He had a severe balance problem, as he was unable to balance on the balance board, or on the trampoline. When performing on the trampoline he was continually fighting for his balance. To compensate for this , as well as, other motor problems he performed a l l ac t iv i t i e s very fast, substituting speed for s k i l l . He showed no serious problems of la tera l i ty and direct ional i ty as shown by his a b i l i t y to lead in games requiring a series of recognitions, or directional movements and by his a b i l i t y to perform angels in the snow. His hand-eye coordination was poor. He experienced d i f f i c u l t y in catching or throwing a b a l l with any accuracy or consistency. He appeared to be unable to concentrate on performing a specific s k i l l such as catching a b a i l . That i s , he experienced great d i f f i cu l ty when attempting to perform a s k i l l as his hands, arms, legs and eyes were constantly moving in random motion. His foot-eye coordination was poor as he was unable to jump over a stationary or moving object. He worked well on the a g i l i t y apparatus, however, he was 9 7 limited by the number of specific s k i l l s he could do on this apparatus. He appeared extremely moody and high strung, subject to temper tantrums and acting out. On some days he worked well, other days he simply refused to do anything. When he did apply himself, however, he could do almost everything asked for. He was the leader of the group and was obsessed with the idea of being f i r s t . Always wanted to be f i r s t in line, f i r s t to perform an activity, f i r s t to win, f i r s t to dress, change, or line up, f i r s t out of the classroom, f i r s t into the classroom and so forth. Because of his obsession to be leader of the group, to be f i r s t in everything, he allowed speed to compensate for lack of s k i l l in performing motor a c t i v i t i e s with the result that no motor learning was taking place. In the classroom Ricky's hyperactive character, and short attention span prevented him from working independently or concen-trating for any period of time on a c t i v i t i e s such as reading. In reading he experienced problems in perceptual organization. He showed confusion of 2 and 3 dimensions, and confusion of shapes. He experienced d i f f i c u l t y in perceiving pictures, numerals, and letters correctly. He was puzzled by schematic representation of people and animals, but not of inanimate objects such as a toy car. Experienced d i f f i c u l t y in perceiving objects i f they were drawn against a pattern background. He experienced d i f f i c u l t i e s in fine motor ac t i v i t i e s such as cutting, pasting, tracing, and coloring. And he did not work or interact well with either classmates, teacher or 98 c l a s s a c t i v i t y . At End of Motor Program Ricky remained the c l a s s leader. His behavior s t i l l showed signs of aggressive tendencies towards h i s classmates, however, he seemed to have developed more s e l f c o n t r o l , and confidence from h i s a b i l i t y to perform various motor a c t i v i t i e s . He was able to pay atte n t i o n f o r longer periods of time, concentrating on an a c t i v i t y to be performed from s t a r t to f i n i s h . Although, he s t i l l raced through some a c t i v i t i e s , s u b s t i t u t i n g speed f o r s k i l l , he now performed many a c t i v i t i e s slower and more d e l i b e r a t e l y , demonstrating h i s confidence i n being able to perform the s k i l l . He was able to balance on one foot f or a f a i r l y long period of time, without moving or jumping around. He was able to perform most of the exercises asked f o r on the balance beam ( r e f e r to Appendix D for exercises). While performing these a c t i v i t i e s he showed complete c o n t r o l of limbs and body, as w e l l as, the a b i l i t y of f i x i n g h i s eyes on a s p e c i f i c spot to a i d i n h i s balance. His improvement on the trampoline was equally as impressive as h i s balance and co-ordination improved such that he was able to perform a l l a c t i v i t i e s asked of him. He appeared to take great pride i n hi s accomplishments on the trampoline. His hand-eye, foot-eye co-ordination improved but not to the extent that h i s balance had. He s t i l l experienced d i f f i c u l t y i n throwing and catching the b a l l with any authority or consistency. He had improved on the a g i l i t y equipment so as to be able to perform 99 e f f e c t i v e l y on i t during free play, and was an e f f e c t i v e leader on the a g i l i t y apparatus when playing games such as - follow the leader. In the classroom Ricky s t i l l experienced d i f f i c u l t y i n reading. However, he was now able to read i n c l a s s independently. He s t i l l appeared to suffer from perceptual d i f f i c u l t i e s but not to the same extent as at the beginning of the study. His speech had improved and he was able to express himself f a i r l y w e l l. He interacted w e l l with classmates and teacher and appeared more confident i n h i s classroom a c t i v i t y . He d i d not become f l u s t e r e d as e a s i l y as he d i d at the s t a r t of the study when confronted with a problem i n reading, but would keep on t r y i n g . There was a greater willingness on h i s part to p a r t i c i p a t e i n classroom a c t i v i t y , although he would s t i l l go to any extreme to be f i r s t i n c l a s s . X DAVID W. December 27, 1962 At Beginning of Motor Program David was a l i k e a b l e boy, w i l l i n g to learn or t r y any new a c t i v i t y presented. He was very hyperactive, always on the move. However, due to h i s motor d e f i c i e n c i e s he became very qu i c k l y f r u s t r a t e d when he was unable to learn a s k i l l or a c t i v i t y as quickly as other c h i l d r e n i n the c l a s s . Appeared to enjoy a t t e n t i o n as shown by h i s wanting to t a l k and act out whenever the opportunity presented i t s e l f . This behavior was e s p e c i a l l y i n evidence whenever a v i s i t o r was present i n the c l a s s . His a t t e n t i o n span was short and he was e a s i l y d i s t r a c t e d , e s p e c i a l l y 100 when t r y i n g to learn a new motor s k i l l . To keep h i s a t t e n t i o n required almost a continuous and constant s h i f t of a c t i v i t y . He had very poor balance. He was unable to cope with any of the balance equipment or balance on one foot f or any period of time. He could not keep h i s eyes f i x e d on any target while attempting a balancing a c t i v i t y and he l o s t c o n t r o l very e a s i l y on the trampoline. He was unable to jump from one foot to the other, or jump with any rhythm on the f l o o r or on the trampoline. While performing on the trampoline, he was c o n t i n u a l l y f i g h t -ing to maintain h i s balance, and he jumped as though t i e d to the right side of h i s body, showing marked problems of l a t e r a l i t y . This lack of body awareness and l a t e r a l i t y were a l s o demonstrated by h i s i n a b i l i t y to perform exercises such as angels i n the snow. Moreover, he constantly led with the r i g h t side of h i s body whenever performing motor s k i l l s on the balance beam. His hand-eye, foot-eye co-ordination were very poor and were compounded by h i s problem of l a t e r a l i t y . He experienced great d i f f i c u l t y i n catching or throwing a b a l l with any authority, and was unable to kick a b a l l c o n s i s t e n t l y . S i m i l a r l y , he experienced great d i f f i c u l t y i n jumping over a moving or an immovable object. In performing these a c t i v i t i e s he always led with the r i g h t side of h i s body, and when possible only involved t h i s side i n the a c t i v i t y . He showed marked problems of d i r e c t i o n a l i t y . This d e f i c i e n c y i n d i r e c t i o n a l i t y was apparent from the responses given while 101 playing d i r e c t i o n a l games, or performing f l o o r exercises such as angels i n the snow. That i s , he had trouble understanding what was meant by s p a t i a l p o s i t i o n a l commands such as in-out, up-down, behind-before, l e f t r - r i g h t , and so f o r t h . He was unable to work e f f e c t i v e l y for any period of time on the a g i l i t y equipment during free play a c t i v i t i e s , r e l a y s , and obstacles courses. T h i s may be explained i n part due to h i s perceptual d e f i c i e n c i e s associated with h i s problems of l a t e r a l i t y and d i r e c t i o n a l i t y . He enjoyed p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n games and r e l a y s . He mixed well with h i s classmates and appeared to have no trouble j o i n i n g i n on games in v o l v i n g the whole c l a s s . That i s i f he could perform the s k i l l s required i n the game or the a c t i v i t y . However, i f he was unable to p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y , he would become e a s i l y f r u s t r a t e d , stubborn, sulk, throw temper trantrums, and interrupt the c l a s s and the c l a s s a c t i v i t y . In the classroom, David was unable to work f o r any period of time due to h i s short a t t e n t i o n span. This problem was also compounded by h i s restlessness and h i s abnormal amount of energy. His p r i n t i n g and rawing were poor for h i s age. In both h i s p r i n t i n g and reading he reversed l e t t e r s such as "b" with "d", "m" with "w", "saw" with "was", and so f o r t h . S i m i l a r l y , he would i n s e r t and omit small words ("the" and "a") being the most common, or s y l l a b l e s , or whole l i n e s . Showed d e f i n i t e problems i n perceptual organization such as confusion of 102 l e f t - r i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , up-down, figure-ground confusion, 90° ro t a t i o n of pencil-and-paper construction problems, confusion of shape, side d i r e c t i o n and distance. Due to h i s short a t t e n t i o n span, restlessness, and d i f f i c u l t i e s with perceptual organization, he experienced great d i f f i c u l t y i n working independently with h i s classmates, and h i s teacher. He d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y within the c l a s s . At End of Motor Program David was s t i l l very a c t i v e , however, he now was able to pay a t t e n t i o n f o r longer periods of time concentrating on the a c t i v i t y to be performed. He s t i l l acted out i n c l a s s but not to the same degree as he d i d at the s t a r t of the program. He no longer became e a s i l y f r u s t r a t e d when he was unable to perform a s k i l l but t r i e d again and again u n t i l he had p a r t i a l l y mastered the s k i l l or a c t i v i t y . He approached a l l a c t i v i t i e s much more aggressively and confidently. T h i s new found confidence may be at t r i b u t e d to eit h e r the success he met with i n learning new motor s k i l l s , due to the extra a t t e n t i o n he had received, or due to both of these fa c t o r s . He entered into a l l c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s and appeared more secure and sure of himself. His balance improved. He was able to perform forward, backward, and l a t e r a l s k i l l s on the balance beam and other balance apparatus. While performing these a c t i v i t i e s he showed complete c o n t r o l of limbs and body, as well as, the a b i l i t y to focus h i s eyes on a s p e c i f i c spot to a i d i n h i s balance. On the trampoline he 103 overcame his balance problem and also that of la tera l i ty for he no longer jumped as i f t ied to his right side. Moreover, in f loor exercises such as angels in the snow he appeared by his responses to have progressed to the point where he had a good understanding of body image, la tera l i t y and di rect ional i ty . His hand-eye co-ordination was good when he was concentrating in games or on s k i l l ac t i v i t ies involving catching, throwing, or bouncing a b a l l . He was able to throw and catch the ba l l with consistency, accuracy, and authority. Moreover, he no longer led with his right side in performing these ac t i v i t i es . His foot-eye co-ordination improved to the point where he novi excelled in jumping, games, as well as, those games cal l ing for rhythm. On the a g i l i t y apparatus he s t i l l experienced d i f f i c u l t y working independently for any period of time. He did not perform effect ively on i t during free play and was not an effective leader on the apparatus. This may be par t ia l l y explained by the perceptual d i f f i c u l t y , he s t i l l experienced, although not to the same degree as at the beginning of the study. He now participated more effect ively in games, appearing to take a greater interest and willingness to compete against himself and his classmates. In the classroom David s t i l l experienced d i f f i c u l t y in reading. Although his attention span was br ie f , he was now able to work for longer periods of time independently. He did not become flustered as easi ly as he did at the start of the study when confronted with a problem in reading, but would keep on trying. 104 There was a greater willingness on h i s part to p a r t i c i p a t e i n classroom a c t i v i t y . He interacted w e l l with classmates and teachers, and appeared more confident i n h i s classroom a c t i v i t y . In reading he s t i l l experienced reversals of some l e t t e r s but not to the same degree as at the beginning of the study. He s t i l l experienced some d i f f i c u l t y with perceptual organization, although his confusion of shape, side, d i r e c t i o n and distance was g r e a t l y improved. B. Control Group At Beginning of Study This group exhibited the same perceptual-motor d e f i c i e n c i e s exhibited by the experimental group. While each c h i l d had s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l i z e d motor, perceptual, and emotional problems, as d i d those c h i l d r e n i n the experimental group, they a l s o had many si m i l a r d e f i c i e n c i e s . That i s , nine of the c h i l d r e n i n the con t r o l group were unable to balance on one foot for any period of time, or perform forward, backward, or l a t e r a l movements on the balance beam. T h e i r poor balance was al s o r e f l e c t e d by t h e i r performance on the trampoline i n which they c o n t i n u a l l y fought to maintain t h e i r balance. Eight of the c h i l d r e n had poor rhythm as well. Eight of the c h i l d r e n appeared poorly co-ordinated. This was e s p e c i a l l y evident i n games and a c t i v i t i e s involving hand-eye, or foot-eye co-ordination. They, therefore, appeared clumsy and awkward and t h i s prevented them from playing games with other 105 c h i l d r e n or p a r t i c i p a t i n g e f f e c t i v e l y within the c l a s s , with t h e i r classmates, or with t h e i r teacher. These eight c h i l d r e n s i m i l a r l y experienced problems of l a t e r a l i t y and d i r e c t i o n a l i t y thereby l i m i t i n g t h e i r effectiveness i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a c t i v i t i e s , games or exercises requiring d i r e c t i o n s or response to commands of d i r e c t i o n s . Moreover, t h i s may p a r t i a l l y explain why these c h i l d r e n had so much trouble playing games and performing i n motor a c t i v i t i e s involving both f i n e and gross motor s k i l l s . This may also explain why these eight i n d i v i d u a l s appeared to be followers rather than leaders i n the c l a s s . The ch i l d r e n as a group d i d not appear to mix w e l l . T heir a t t i t u d e appeared to be very s i m i l a r to that of the experimental group. As a group they were impulsive and d i d not seem able to forsee the consequences of t h e i r acts. Their a t t e n t i o n span was short, and they were e a s i l y d i s t r a c t e d . They showed an abnormal amount of motion, either they were r e s t l e s s , aggressive, and i n constant motion, or they spoke and moved to slowly. Seven of the c h i l d r e n were high-strung emotionally, and e a s i l y f r u s t r a t e d . Three were slow paced c h i l d r e n , who would put up with a l o t of f r u s t r a t i o n without complaint, as w e l l as, exhibited a n t i s o c i a l behavior such as withdrawl and mistrust. The c o n t r o l group exhibited s i m i l a r problems to those of the experimental group i n the classroom. As well as, l e t t e r , word, and s y l l a b l e r e v e r s a l s , omissions,: and i n s e r t i o n s while reading, they experienced a great deal of d i f f i c u l t y i n perceptual organization. 1 0 6 At End of Study At the end of the study, the control group s t i l l exhibited severe motor deficiencies while six children in this group had remained the same or slightly improved in some specific motor s k i l l s , four of the children appeared to have regressed. That i s , while some of the children had improved very slightly in either a specific motor activity involving either balance, co-ordination, or some other s k i l l , four children were unable to perform some of the motor a c t i v i t i e s at the level they had shown at the beginning of the study. Instead they demonstrated very overt antisocial behavior such as aggressiveness (one child), or mistrust and further withdrawl (three children). As a group they s t i l l showed many of the characteristics that they had at the beginning of the study. Although as a group they participated more effectively with the classroom activity than they had at the beginning, they s t i l l did not participate effectively with their classmates. Although they appeared to work better than they had at the beginning of the study in the classroom much more direction, guidance, and discipline appeared necessary than that given to the experimental group to get a similar amount of work out of each child. Furthermore, in the classroom they s t i l l experienced d i f f i c u l t y with reversals and omissions of letters, syllables, and words in their reading to the same degree as the experimental group, even though they had more practice time at overcoming these problems. REFERENCES 1. B l i s h e , B., "The Construction and Use of An Occupational Class Scale," Canadian Journal of Economic and P o l i t i c a l Science, v o l . 24 (Nov. 1958), pp. 521-531. 2. Metropolitan Vancouver, An Overview for S o c i a l Planners, Vancouver, B.C., Community Chest and Council, 1965. CHAPTER V DISCUSSION The discussion has been divided systematically into separate sections to complement the r e s u l t s found i n Chapter IV. The sections are as follows: 1. Test Results 2. Experience of Teachers 3. Hawthorne E f f e c t 4. Results of Interview 5. Results of the Home Room Teacher's Questionnaire and the Case Studies. 1. Test Results. The r e s u l t s obtained from the reading readiness test and perceptual forms test given p r i o r to and at the conclusion of the study indicated that there was no r e a l d i f f e r e n c e i n reading readiness between the c o n t r o l and experimental group at the end of the study. The t r a i n i n g i n f i n e and gross motor s k i l l s received by the perceptually-motor d e f i c i e n t c h i l d r e n , therefore, d i d not improve s i g n i f i c a n t l y t h e i r reading readiness as compared to the c o n t r o l group. Thi s f i n d i n g i s s i m i l a r to those found by A l l e y and Carr (1), Brown (2), Duggan (3), Kershner (4), and Robbins (5). They a l l found i n t h e i r studies that no s i g n i f i c a n t gains i n reading readiness were acquired as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a t r a i n i n g program of f i n e and gross motor s k i l l s . 109 Although no s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n reading a b i l i t y was made by the experimental group over the c o n t r o l group a f t e r receiving the s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g session and although the findings do not lend support to the theories of Kephart (6), Getman (7), and Doman and Delacato (4:445), there are some sound arguments for not r e j e c t i n g these theories completely. Two such arguments are: A. Slow learners with perceptual motor d e f i c i e n c i e s are u s u a l l y characterized by having other problems such as emotional and neurological disorders a r i s i n g from or leading to that d e f i c i e n c y (8). Therefore, i f these d e f i c i e n c i e s are removed or improved upon as demonstrated i n t h i s study a f t e r receiving a motor t r a i n i n g program the other problems may s t i l l remain or as Dingman (9:91) indicates: . . . some time when one learning problem i s cleared up, others appear. B. As reading i s a complex a c t i v i t y made up of a great number of i n t e r r e l a t e d s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s (10), and since we are dealing i n only two of these separate s k i l l s ; motor and perceptual s k i l l s , the c o r r e c t i o n of only these two s k i l l s i n a slow learner would not be r e f l e c t e d n e c e s s a r i l y by an improvement i n h i s reading a b i l i t y . 2. Experience of Teachers. The two teachers i n charge of the classes from which the experimental group was selected were older and more experienced than the two teachers i n charge of the classes from which the c o n t r o l 110 group was chosen. The w r i t e r interviewed the classroom teachers of both groups at the conclusion of the experiment and found that although the teachers i n charge of the c o n t r o l group were less experienced, t h e i r enthusiasm and i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r work seemed to be equal to the more experienced teachers. On several occasions the writer entered the classroom of both experimental and c o n t r o l teachers, while c l a s s e s were i n progress, and found the atmospheres to be s i m i l a r at the beginning of the study. However, near the end of the study upon s i m i l a r v i s i t a t i o n s the atmospheres of the txro classes had changed markedly. Th i s was a t t r i b u t e d to the change i n the a t t i t u d e of the c h i l d r e n towards the classroom a c t i v i t i e s i n the experimental group and t h e i r subsequent i n t e r a c t i o n with t h e i r work, fellow p u p i l s , and teachers. 3. Hawthorne E f f e c t . The Hawthorne e f f e c t states that an increase i n performance r e s u l t s from the stimulus of receiving s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n over a period of time. How t h i s e f f e c t i n t e r a c t s i n t h i s study remains questionable. Only a study by Corder (11) i n t h i s area of research, has taken the Hawthorne e f f e c t into consideration. He found that the group subjected to t h i s e f f e c t exhibited gains intermediate to the experimental and c o n t r o l groups and thus not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from e i t h e r . I t seems possib l e , however, that at least some of the observed improvement i n motor performance and emotional behavior could be due I l l to the Hawthorne e f f e c t . T h i s was noted i n the t r a i n i n g session where two of the c h i l d r e n i n the experimental group received extra a t t e n t i o n on the trampoline and a g i l i t y equipment and responded favorably by obtaining the greatest degree of s k i l l on t h i s equipment as compared to the other c h i l d r e n i n t h i s group. 4. Results of the Interview. The r e s u l t s of the interview concerning the socio-economic status of the parents i n d i c a t e that seventy f i v e per cent of the employed parents are classed as semi or u n s k i l l e d workers; eighty per cent of them have held the same job since t h e i r c h i l d was born; seventy f i v e per cent have not moved since t h e i r c h i l d was born; and seventy per cent l i v e i n an area of the c i t y with a socio-economic index c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of "below average". These findings i n d i c a t e : on the one hand, that the slow learners have been exposed to a stable socio-economic environment, on the other hand, they imply that the c h i l d r e n were raised i n a c u l t u r a l l y deprived environment. Thus, the slow learners i n t h i s study have been exposed to a stable, c u l t u r a l l y deprived environment. They have been exposed to an environment which possibly lacked appropriate s t i m u l i for developing basic motor and perceptual s k i l l s . However, even i f a c u l t u a l l y deprived environment possessed the appropriate s t i m u l i f or developing basic motor and perceptual s k i l l s , t h e i r a c q u i s i t i o n may be prevented by r e s t r i c t i v e or over-pr o t e c t i v e parents as indicated by Kephart ( 6:14). Results obtained i n t h i s interview support t h i s l a t t e r view. That i s , while eighty 112 per cent of the f a m i l i e s i n the study l i v e close to a playground, community center, or other r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t y , ninety per cent make l i t t l e use of them. The reasons for t h i s were the following: F i r s t , the parents were disturbed by the gangs of teenagers who frequented these f a c i l i t i e s and dominated the use of the equipment, as w e l l as, the bad example they set by smoking and drinking on these premises. Second, eight f i v e per cent of the parents did not belong to any outside organization or make use of the recreation f a c i l i t i e s and were, therefore, unable to see any r e a l value i n t h e i r c h i l d using these f a c i l i t i e s . Thus, the c h i l d r e n i n t h i s study have been subject to a stable, c u l t u r a l l y deprived environ-ment, and overprotective parents, both of which may have prevented them from engaging i n a gamut of perceptual-motor experiences during t h e i r development and t h i s i n turn may account for some of th e i r perceptual-motor d e f i c i e n c i e s . The r e s u l t s of the interview concerning the parents of the slow learners indicated that the average grade l e v e l s reached by the fathers and mothers were eight and s i x r e s p e c t i v e l y , that ninety f i v e per cent of the parents viewed education s o l e l y as a means of obtaining a decent job, and that eighty per cent of t h e i r free time was spent watching t e l e v i s i o n rather than reading. These r e s u l t s suggest that the parents set a poor example for t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n esta b l i s h i n g a reading habit, as well as, e s t a b l i s h i n g a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards school. 113 The parents with t h e i r negative a t t i t u d e , provided neither the motivation nor the means f o r aiding t h e i r c h i l d i n reading. Thus, a majority of the fathers (12) indicated to the author during t h e i r interview that: reading was a waste of time . . ., i t mixed up the mind . . . books are f i l l e d with garbage and l i e s . . . reading belongs i n the schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s . And these statements were supported by the fact that very l i t t l e reading l i t e r a t u r e other than newspapers were found i n the homes v i s i t e d . Although ninety per cent of the parents admitted reading to t h e i r c h i l d , they d i d not do t h i s every night. When they d i d read, however, i t was just before bedtime when the c h i l d was too t i r e d to concentrate on reading, thus i t served merely as a bedtime story. Towards the end of the study, f i f t y per cent of the parents no longer read to t h e i r c h i l d . Regarding the parents a t t i t u d e towards the school, t h e i r only r e a l worry seemed to be what t h e i r c h i l d was going to be able to do as a r e s u l t of h i s education. Many of the parents regarded school simply as a means to an end. As one father (13) indicated: I feed and clothe my c h i l d , now you do the rest . . . just so long as when he f i n i s h e s school he can get a decent job. F i n a l l y , eighty per cent had made no f i n a n c i a l arrangement f o r putting t h e i r c h i l d through u n i v e r s i t y . Many of the parents indicated they could a f f o r d to. Moreover, the majority of parents seemed to have a negative outlook on education. That i s , most of 114 the parents interviewed had had the opportunity to complete t h e i r education but had dropped out for a v a r i e t y of reasons. The r e s u l t s of the interview with the parents of the slow learners also indicated that ninety f i v e per cent of the parents di d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n any a c t i v i t y with t h e i r c h i l d , and that eighty per cent of the parents took part i n no ph y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , at a l l other than that required i n t h e i r job. The reasons for not p a r t i c i p a t i n g were lack of i n t e r e s t , time, money, and energy. As a r e s u l t , of the parents negative a t t i t u d e i n f a i l i n g to provide guidance, d i r e c t i o n and encouragement i n t h e i r c h i l d ' s motor development i t i s doubtful that the c h i l d would be given enough appropriate stimulation to develop h i s motor and perceptual s k i l l s . Although s i x t y per cent of the parents f e l t that ph y s i c a l education was helping t h e i r c h i l d i n the study, the majority of parents f e l t i t was complete waste of time f o r those c h i l d r e n who were not suff e r i n g from motor and perceptual d e f i c i e n c i e s . They indicated (14): I send my c h i l d to school to learn, not to play games . . . My c h i l d gets enough a c t i v i t y at home . . . Waste of tiraei As s i x t y per cent of the parents had never played i n any form of organized sport, and as seventy per cent of the parents had a poor family h i s t o r y i n sports these r e s u l t s help support the negative a t t i t u d e s of the parents. They also suggest that p o s s i b l y there i s a factory of inheritance involved i n the slow-learners perceptual-motor d e f i c i e n c i e s (8:19). The interviews also d i s c l o s e d that seventy per cent of the ch i l d r e n were classed by t h e i r parents as being extremely a c t i v e 115 (hyperactive), and that twenty per cent were classed as being very i n a c t i v e (hypoactive). Because the hyperactive c h i l d r e n had a short a t t e n t i o n span, they d i d not appear to have any f a v o r i t e hobby or a c t i v i t y , but tended to jump from one game to another and from one item to another, never being able to concentrate on one for any period of time. This may explain t h e i r r e s t l e s s behavior i n c l a s s . I t may also explain why they have never been able to f u l l y develop t h e i r motor and perceptual s k i l l s . Moreover, since f o r t y per cent of the slow learners i n the study were the f i r s t born c h i l d i n t h e i r f a m i l i e s , t h e i r parents admitted to being very r e s t r i c t i v e as to where t h e i r c h i l d would play, and with what t h e i r c h i l d would play. This r e s t r i c t i v e and overprotective nature of the parents when re l a t e d to the h y p e r a c t i v i t y of the c h i l d o f f e r s one possible explanation for the many emotional disorders possessed by the slow learners i n t h i s study. Furthermore, the overprotective nature of the parents may have prevented the c h i l d from experiencing the necessary motor-perceptual s t i m u l i f o r the development of these s k i l l s . As Kephart (6:15) in d i c a t e s : r e s t r i c t i o n s placed on a c h i l d at an ea r l y age may c u r t a i l h i s normal maturational development of motor and perceptual s k i l l s . Although a u t h o r i t i e s such as Kephart (6), Getman (7), and Doman and Delacato (4) have indicated that a c h i l d ' s maturational development i s often prevented by i l l n e s s and disorders which kept them confined i n bed or r e l a t i v e l y i n a c t i v e for any prolonged period of time, only twenty f i v e per cent had i l l n e s s e s and disorders which 116 kept them confined i n bed or r e l a t i v e l y i n a c t i v e f or any prolonged period of time. Twenty per cent of the slow learners were c l a s s i f i e d as being underactive during t h e i r early development. The parents (15) indicated: that t h e i r c h i l d r e n could be l e f t i n a room or somewhere i n the yard outside and they would remain i n p r a c t i c a l l y the same place, doing the same thing i f allowed. These c h i l d r e n , therefore, showed no signs of exploring t h e i r environment, manipulating materials found i n i t , and t r y i n g new a c t i v i t i e s , a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of so c a l l e d normal c h i l d r e n . Thus, instead of having r e s t r u c t i o n s placed on them, they placed r e s t r i c t i o n s on themselves due to t h e i r hypoactive nature. T h i s suggests another possible reason why these c h i l d r e n have not received the necessary motor-perceptual s t i m u l i f o r the development of these s k i l l s . The r e s u l t s of the interview indicated that s i b l i n g r i v a l r y was present i n s i x t y per cent of the cases, and as f o r t y per cent of the c h i l d r e n i n the study were the f i r s t born t h i s seemed to i n t e n s i f y t h i s s i b l i n g r i v a l r y . That i s , the slow learners became inc r e a s i n g l y f r u s t r a t e d and unhappy when t h e i r younger brother or s i s t e r was able to perform a simple motor task which they were unable to do themsleves such as tying t h e i r shoe laces, skipping, or throwing a b a l l . T h i s , then served to compound the problem increasing the f r u s t r a t i o n and confusion experienced by the slow learner i n performing motor a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s suggests another possible reason why these c h i l d r e n have so many emotional problems and disorders. 117 The r e s u l t s of the interview also i n d i c a t e that one hundred per cent of the slow learners d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n organized sports. T h i s i s due to the following. F i r s t , they are not p h y s i c a l l y or mentally on the same developmental l e v e l as t h e i r peer age group, and second, because of t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to concentrate, as w e l l as, perceive what i s expected of them, they are unable to compete and learn with the same r a p i d i t y and success as c h i l d r e n without motor or perceptual d e f i c i e n c i e s . These findings also probably account for the fact that eighty per cent of the slow learners made l i t t l e use of t h e i r sports equipment. That i s , since they lack the appropriate s k i l l to use the equipment e f f e c t i v e l y , they derive little-enjoyment from using i t . F i n a l l y , i t was indicated that eighty per cent of the slow learners had only one close f r i e n d , who i n the majority of cases was younger and at a somewhat s i m i l a r developmental l e v e l . The reason for t h i s , as shown by the previous statement, i s possibly that the slow learner can play somewhat more e f f e c t i v e l y with t h i s c h i l d because of the s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e i r motor s k i l l l e v e l and maturity l e v e l . 5. The Results of the Home Room Teacher's Questionnaire and  the Case Studies. The r e s u l t s of the home room teacher's questionnaire indicated that there were some diff e r e n c e s between the two groups at the end of the study, even though there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e ( s t a t i s t i c a l l y ) i n the reading readiness of the two groups. Moreover, the questionnaire showed that eighty per cent of the experimental 118 group changed quite noticeably i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r a t t i t u d e and i n t e r -a c t i o n within the c l a s s , and to t h e i r a b i l i t y to work and play within the classroom with classmates, and t h e i r teacher. Moreover, the teacher's questionnaire a l s o indicated that ninety per cent of the experimental group showed a marked improvement i n t h e i r f i n e and gross motor s k i l l s , as well as, t h e i r o v e r a l l balance, co-ordination, l a t e r a l i t y , d i r e c t i o n a l i t y , and strength. S i m i l a r l y the r e s u l t s of the case studies indicated that there were some di f f e r e n c e s between the two groups at the end of the study. That i s , at the beginning of the study the c h i l d r e n i n the ex-perimental and c o n t r o l groups were characterized by the following. They appeared awkward and clumsy when attempting to perform any motor a c t i v i t y . Their poor hand-eye, foot-eye co-ordination was c o n t i n u a l l y i n evidence whether the a c t i v i t y involved a f i n e motor s k i l l (tying t h e i r shoes) or a gross motor s k i l l (catching a b a l l ) . The c h i l d r e n also experienced severe problems of l a t e r a l i t y and d i r e c t i o n a l i t y . They not only appeared to lack awareness of l e f t and r i g h t , and so f o r t h within t h e i r own bodies, but a l s o , they appeared to lack awareness of these d i r e c t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n to the world around them. Thi s was i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to follow commands, take part i n s p e c i f i c games and a c t i v i t i e s , and perform exercises involving d i r e c t i o n s such as angels i n the snow. They possessed poor body awareness being unable to balance fo r any period of time on e i t h e r leg or on any piece of equipment such as a balance beam or board. Moreover, during s p e c i f i c exercises 119 they were unable to concentrate or f i x t h e i r eyes on any p a r t i c u l a r object to a i d t h e i r balance. Their poor balance, as well as, lack of rhythm were very evident during t h e i r performance on the trampoline. They showed an abnormal amount of motion, e i t h e r they were r e s t l e s s and i n constant motion (hyperactive) or they spoke and moved extremely slow (hypoactive). Due to t h e i r poor motor s k i l l development and subsequent awkwardness and clumsiness they had a hard time playing games with other c h i l d r e n . Thus, they d i d not mix well with other c h i l d r e n , and d i d not work w e l l with t h e i r classmates or t h e i r teachers. In considering t h e i r a t t i t u d e s , they appeared impulsive and seemed unable to foresee the consequences of t h e i r acts. T heir a t t e n t i o n span was short, and they were e a s i l y d i s t r a c t e d . They were high-strung emotionally, aggressive and e a s i l y f r u s t r a t e d or i f they were a slow paced c h i l d , they put up with a l o t of f a i l u r e and f r u s t r a t i o n without complaint, showing symptoms of withdrawl and a n t i s o c i a l behavior such as mistrust. They appeared to lack any s e l f confidence. In the classroom, the c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r reading appeared to be two or more years behind t h e i r age mates. They inserted or omitted small words "the" and "a" being the most common, or s y l l a b l e s , or whole l i n e s . They confused "b" with "d", "m" with "w", and "saw" with "was". Problems i n perceptual organization were also numerous. The most common perceptual problems were confusion of l e f t - r i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , followed by up-down and figure-ground confusion, 120 confusion of 2 and 3 dimensions, confusion of shape, side, d i r e c t i o n , and distance. Their memory for s p e c i f i c events and c e r t a i n kinds of fac t s appeared good, but they showed poor memory for s e r i a l order, v i s u a l memory, and auditory memory. Confronted with such problems as noted above, i t i s l i t t l e wonder as Kephart (6), Getman (7), and Doman and Delacato (4) have indicated that a perceptual-motor d e f i c i e n t slow learner i s at a serious disadvantage i n r e l a t i o n to other c h i l d r e n not s u f f e r i n g from these d e f i c i e n c i e s when he i s asked to learn to read with the same speed and under the same classroom conditions as the l a t t e r . At the end of the study, however, the c h i l d r e n i n the experimental group and the c o n t r o l group d i f f e r e d markedly i n t h e i r f i n e and gross motor s k i l l s , as well as, t h e i r a t t i t u d e , The experimental group showed a marked improvement i n t h e i r body co-ordination. They no longer moved awkwardly or clumsily. They were able to p a r t i c i p a t e more e f f e c t i v e l y i n games, a c t i v i t i e s , and exercises by themselves, with t h e i r classmates, and with t h e i r teacher. T h i s had not been reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e previously. Although t h i s improvement was very noticeable among the boys of the experimental group, the three g i r l s of t h i s group appeared to be much more conscious of t h e i r improved co-ordination, such that they tended to exaggerate g r a c e f u l movements, i f spoken to by the i n s t r u c t o r or by t h e i r classmates. S i m i l a r l y the experimental group no longer seemed to exhibit severe problems of l a t e r a l i t y and d i r e c t i o n a l i t y . Most of the 121 c h i l d r e n appeared to have a greater awareness of t h e i r own body, as w e l l as, i t s r e l a t i o n to the environment when s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n such as r i g h t and l e f t were required i n a game or exercise. T h e i r balance was g r e a t l y improved. They were able to perform forward, backward, and l a t e r a l s k i l l s on the balance beam and other balance apparatus. While performing these a c t i v i t i e s they showed complete c o n t r o l of limbs and body, as w e l l as, the a b i l i t y to f i x t h e i r eyes on s p e c i f i c spots to a i d i n t h e i r balance. Their a t t i t u d e changed markedly. As i n d i v i d u a l s they appeared more w i l l i n g to take an a c t i v e part i n c l a s s games and a c t i v i t i e s . The c h i l d r e n appeared much more confident with themselves and t h e i r own a b i l i t y i n performing c e r t a i n motor a c t i v i t i e s . Towards the end of the study they were much more w i l l i n g to t r y new a c t i v i t i e s . They no longer seemed to allow themselves to become e a s i l y f l u s t e r e d i f they were unable to qu i c k l y learn a new a c t i v i t y , but would keep t r y i n g f o r a longer period of time. In the classroom they, appeared more w i l l i n g to take part i n c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t i c i p a t i n g with t h e i r classmates, and work with t h e i r teacher. Most of the c h i l d r e n moreover, were now able to work independently f o r short periods of time. They s t i l l appeared to have some d i f f i c u l t y with word and l e t t e r r eversals and omissions and with perceptual organization when reading but not to the same extent as at the beginning of the program. The r e s u l t s of the home room teacher's questionnaire and the case studies i n d i c a t e the following. F i r s t , perceptually-motor 122 d e f i c i e n t c h i l d r e n can, with the a i d of a s p e c i a l i z e d motor program, the Hawthorne e f f e c t , or most l i k e l y a combination of both, improve t h e i r f i n e and gross motor s k i l l s to a l e v e l on a par with c h i l d r e n not s u f f e r i n g from any perceptual-motor d e f i c i e n c y . Second, that as a r e s u l t of achieving success from various f i n e and gross motor s k i l l a c t i v i t i e s , as w e l l as the s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n they have received, there i s an apparent e f f e c t on the a t t i t u d e of the slow learners, leaving them more confident and sure of themselves. Th i s confidence i s then manifested i n t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n and a t t i t u d e s towards school, classmates, teachers, and school work, e s p e c i a l l y reading. The c o n t r o l group, however, di d not show a s i m i l a r degree of improvement i n t h e i r f i n e and gross motor s k i l l s nor a marked change i n t h e i r general a t t i t u d e . They s t i l l exhibited poor body co-ordina-t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y t h e i r hand-eye, foot-eye co-ordination. They showed poor balance, serious problems of l a t e r a l i t y and d i r e c t i o n a l i t y , and almost t o t a l lack of rhythm. Moreover, they were not able to p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y on any of the balance or a g i l i t y equipment and they were not able to work or play e f f e c t i v e l y within the c l a s s or with t h e i r classmates. In regards to t h e i r a t t i t u d e they s t i l l appeared impulsive and seemingly unable to foresee the consequences of many of t h e i r acts. They appeared to lack any confidence i n t h e i r own a b i l i t y when performing an a c t i v i t y , and found i t d i f f i c u l t to take part i n games or c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s . Furthermore, i n the classroom they 123 s t i l l experienced d i f f i c u l t y with reversals and omissions of l e t t e r s i n t h e i r reading, as w e l l as, d i f f i c u l t y with perceptual organization. These findings tend to support the argument of Dingman (9:89) who ind i c a t e s : . . . because the c h i l d seldom either 'grows out of i t ' or 'catches up' without s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n . I f he i s exposed to the regular formal curriculum at the regular age, and not given help, he i s l i k e l y not only to maintain h i s lag but to f a l l further behind h i s age group. The findings alone, therefore, j u s t i f y the use of a motor s k i l l program as w e l l as, s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n f o r slow learners s u f f e r i n g from perceptual-motor d e f i c i e n c i e s with our schools. F i n a l l y , four members of the c o n t r o l group appeared to have a c t u a l l y stayed the same or even reached a lower l e v e l i n regards to t h e i r motor s k i l l s and general a t t i t u d e . This may be a t t r i b u t e d to the fact that as t h e i r f a i l u r e and f r u s t r a t i o n continued to grow day a f t e r day i n the school, these c h i l d r e n accepted themselves as f a i l u r e s , and everything and anything they d i d i n r e l a t i o n to school as a hopeless task. Thus, they developed overt a n t i s o c i a l behavior patterns such as aggressiveness, becoming the c l a s s b u l l y , as was demonstrated by one member of the co n t r o l group or behavior such as one of mistrust and withdrawl characterized by three c h i l d r e n of t h i s group. Thus, much of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s success i n school today i s determined by h i s a b i l i t y to understand and manipulate v e r b a l symbols. 124 Because the slow learners are less able to comprehend verbal commands, many know nothing but f a i l u r e and f r u s t r a t i o n as they wrestle with the abstractions of a reading program i n which success i s determined by academic a b i l i t y . T h i s condition manifests i t s e l f i n poor learning, inadequate s o c i a l adjustment, and delayed achievement. Progress and a c t i v i t i e s involving f i n e and gross motor s k i l l s i n which the retarded c h i l d can express himself i n non verbal but concrete, symbolic, and meaningful ways take on even greater meaning to the slow learner. That i s , c h i l d r e n place a great deal of respect on motor accomplishment, slow learners are no d i f f e r e n t . I t was noted by both author and teachers involved i n the study that as the c h i l d r e n improved i n t h e i r performance of a motor s k i l l , and began to meet with unaccustomed success, t h e i r a t t i t u d e r e f l e c t e d a more aggressive and confident nature which appeared to carry over to t h e i r speech, mannerisms, dress, and r e a c t i o n within the c l a s s . - Their a t t i t u d e and i n t e r a c t i o n to the c l a s s changed markedly, they were w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s with classmates, they were able to work for longer periods of time independently, and t h e i r new found confidence c a r r i e d over i n t o a l l phases of classroom a c t i v i t y . They were less subject to f i t s of anger, temper tantrums, and other overt behavioral responses which characterized them early i n the school year. I t was noted, however, that although they attained reasonably high degrees of motor s k i l l i n s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s , t h i s motor accomplishment d i d not generalize to s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s but remained highly s p e c i f i c to a p a r t i c u l a r movement or s e r i e s of movements. 125 A s i m i l a r explanation has been offered by F r o s t i g (16). She had indicated that slow learners u s u a l l y need much more support and encouragement than so c a l l e d normal c h i l d r e n because they do not t r u s t t h e i r own a b i l i t y to succeed. For such c h i l d r e n , pleasure i s an e s p e c i a l l y important ingredient of the program. Feelings of well-being and happiness, a desire to create, and a pleasure i n pleasing others are l i k e l y to occur when slow learners meet with success i n accomplishing simple motor s k i l l s . The joy i n movement i t s e l f and the experience i n success eliminate many problems such as, lack of c o n t r o l , behavioral disturbances, d e s t r u c t i b i l i t y , and implusive behavior. These i n turn help the c h i l d to d i r e c t h i s atte n t i o n to the task at hand, the improvement of h i s reading a b i l i t y , perceptual organization and f i n e and gross motor s k i l l s . S c h i l l e r (17:29) concerning t h i s same idea indicated: . . . 'that a human being i s at h i s best i n play.' This saying i s very relevant to the slow learner. I t i s mostly, i f not only, i n a motor a c t i v i t y that motivation to extend the s e l f i s most e f f e c t i v e l y sparked. Outside of motor a c t i v i t y or pleasant experience, the retarded i n d i v i d u a l may use h i s powers. In a motor a c t i v i t y , there i s a strong elan to str e t c h to new attainment, to launch into new a c t i v i t y , to attempt new contacts, to seek mastery of new behavior. This elan i s l i k e l y to y i e l d r i c h e s t f r u i t a g e i f the en t i r e mind and body are at t h e i r best, i f personal and s o c i a l outlook are most propitious to mental surge of new struggles with r e a l i t y and the evolution of new solu t i o n to everising problem s i t u a t i o n s . Although the changed a t t i t u d e of the slow learners from one of non confidence to one of confidence may be a t t r i b u t e d to the 126 motor program given, t h i s i s only conjecture as no substantial evidence i n t h i s case i s able to v e r i f y whether i t was the program, the Hawthorne e f f e c t , or both. Due to the numerous l i m i t a t i o n s and v a r i a b l e s involved i n thesstudy, the r e s u l t s obtained, therefore, do not allow us to either support or r e j e c t Kaphart's b e l i e f that the approach to e f f e c t i v e l y teaching slow learners appears to depend on the teacher's a b i l i t y to supply the perceptual-motor s k i l l s which the c h i l d has found d i f f i c u l t to develop for himself. The r e s u l t s of the questionnaire i n d i c a t e , however, that as a r e s u l t of achieving success from various f i n e and gross motor a c t i v i t i e s , there i s an apparent e f f e c t on the personality of the slow learners, leaving them more confident and sure of themselves. This confidence i s then manifested i n t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n and a t t i t u d e s toward school classmates, teachers, and school work, e s p e c i a l l y reading. REFERENCES 1. A l l e y , G.R., Carr, D.L., " E f f e c t s of Systematic Sensory-Motor Tra i n i n g on Sensory Motor, V i s u a l Perception, and Concept Form-a t i o n Performance on Mentally Retarded Children," Perceptual  and Motor S k i l l s , v o l . 27 (March 1968), pp. 451-456. 2. Brown, R.C, "The E f f e c t of a Perceptual Motor Education Program on Perceptual Motor S k i l l s and Reading Readiness," Unpublished Master's Thesis, New York U n i v e r s i t y , New York, 1968. 3. Duggan, A.E., "The E f f e c t s of Special T r a i n i n g i n Motor S k i l l s on the Reading A b i l i t y of Grade Two P u p i l s With S p e c i f i c Reading D i s a b i l i t y , " Unpublished Mater's Thesis, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967. 4. Kerschner, J.R., "Doman-Delacato's Theory of Neurological Organization Applied With Retarded Children," Exceptional Children, v o l . 36 (Feb. 1968), pp. 441-450. 5. Robbins, M.P., "Test of the Doman-Delacato Reationale With Retarded Readers," Journal of the American Medical Association, v o l . 202 (Sept. 1967), pp. 87-92. 6. Kephart, N.C, The Slow Learner In the Classroom, Columbus, Ohio: C E . M e r r i l l Books, Inc., 1960, pp. 42. 7. Getman, G.N., How to Develop Your C h i l d ' s I n t e l l i g e n c e , Luverne, Minnesota: The Announcer Press, 1962, pp. 39. 8. Hackney, M., "Learning D i s a b i l i t i e s i n School Age Ch i l d r e n , " Modern Medicine, v o l . 24 (Feb. 1969), pp. 19-26. 9. Dingman, J . , "Perceptual Handicap," Chatelaine, v o l . 41 (May 1968), pp. 91. 10. Grey, W., "Summaries of Reading Investigations," Journal of  Educational Research, v o l . 16 (Sept. 1937), pp. 81-85. 11. Corder, W.D., " E f f e c t s of P h y s i c a l Education on the I n t e l l e c t u a l P h y s i c a l , and S o c i a l Development of Educable Mentally Retarded Boys," Exceptional Children, v o l . 34 (May 1966), pp. 357-364. 12. From r e s u l t s of interview. 13. From r e s u l t s of interview. 14. From r e s u l t s of interview. 15. From r e s u l t s of interview. 16. F r o s t i g , M. , Home, D., The F r o s t i g Program For the Development  of V i s u a l Perception, Chicago: F o l l e t t Publishing Co., 1964, pp. 10. 17. Benoit, J.P., "Extending the Mind Through the Body," Journal of  Health, P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation, v o l . 37 ( A p r i l 1966), pp. 28-30. CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary The purpose of t h i s study was to assess the e f f e c t s that a sp e c i a l i z e d program i n which emphasis was placed on f i n e and gross motor s k i l l t r a i n i n g and on the reading readiness of a group of grade one boys and g i r l s d e f i c i e n t i n perceptual-motor s k i l l s . The subjects consisted of an experimental group of ten pupils from McBride Elementary School i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. These students were considered backward i n readiness to read accord-ing to the r e s u l t s from a standard readiness test and a perceptual form t e s t . Another group, the c o n t r o l group, consisted of ten grade one pupils selected from Laura Secord Elementary School. The groups were matched according to age, sex, and the r e s u l t s of the Metropolitan Readiness Test Form R, and the Winter Haven Perceptual  Copy Forms Test. At the completion of eighteen weeks of s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g given to the experimental group, both groups were administered the Metropolitan Readiness Test Form S, and the Winter Haven Perceptual  Copy Forms Test. Relationships were a l s o drawn from data obtained from an interview, questionnaire, personal observation and 8mm. films concerning the subjects who received the sp e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n the program. Using these d e s c r i p t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the pu p i l s i n the experimental and c o n t r o l group were then discussed i n regards to: 130 1. Their l e v e l of p r o f i c i e n c y i n f i n e and gross motor s k i l l s at the beginning and end of study. 2. Their i n t e r a c t i o n i n the classroom ( s o c i a l , and pers o n a l i t y t r a i t s ) as a r e s u l t of the program. 3. Their improvement i n reading. 4. General school achievement. F i n a l l y , the di f f e r e n c e between the means of the reading readiness test and the perceptual form test were subjected to s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . The t - t e s t was used and the t r a t i o required for s i g n i f i c a n c e at the .05 l e v e l of confidence was 2.10. This l e v e l was not reached i n eit h e r of the reading readiness t e s t s or perceptual form t e s t s . Conelusions The r e s u l t s of the study i n d i c a t e that the di f f e r e n c e betx^een the means of the readiness and the perceptual form test make i t impossible to accept the hypothesis that there was a r e a l d i f f e r e n c e i n reading readiness between the co n t r o l and experimental group at the end of the study. However, although no s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n reading a b i l i t y was made by the experimental group over the co n t r o l group a f t e r r e c e i v i n g the s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g session, and although the findings do not lend obvious support to the theories of Kephart (1), German (2), and Doman and Delacato (3), there are some sound arguments for not r e j e c t i n g these theories completely. Two such arguments are: 1. Slow learners with perceptual motor d e f i c i e n c i e s are us u a l l y characterized by having other problems such as emotional 131 and neurological disorders a r i s i n g from or the cause of that d e f i c i e n c y . 2. As reading i s a complex a c t i v i t y made up of a great number of separate a b i l i t i e s , and since we are dealing i n our t r a i n i n g sessions with the improvement of only two of these separate s k i l l s , motor and perceptual s k i l l s , the co r r e c t i o n of only these two a b i l i t i e s i n a slow learner would not be r e f l e c t e d n e c e s s a r i l y by an improvement i n t h e i r reading readiness. The r e s u l t s of interview i n d i c a t e that the majority of parents of the c h i l d r e n involved i n the study were either semi or un s k i l l e d workers, were not involved i n community organizations or clubs, and had a r e l a t i v e l y low educational l e v e l . They di d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n ph y s i c a l or r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s themselves or with t h e i r c h i l d , they did not encourage t h e i r c h i l d r e n to p a r t i c i p a t e i n sporting a c t i v i t i e s , and they had a poor family h i s t o r y i n regards to r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s involving motor s k i l l s . S i m i l a r l y , they spent most of t h e i r time watching t e l e v i s i o n , reading l i t t l e , and regarding education s o l e l y as a means of obtain-ing a decent job. Although most of the ch i l d r e n i n the study had easy access to r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , l i t t l e use was made of them due to the r e s t r i c t i o n s placed on the c h i l d by t h e i r parents. The majority of the c h i l d r e n i n the study, moreover, were classed by t h e i r parents as being either hypo or hyper a c t i v e , having an extremely short a t t e n t i o n span, having a few close f r i e n d s , and experiencing s i b l i n g r i v a l r y . They d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n any form of organized sport and made l i t t l e use of t h e i r sports equipment. 1 3 2 The r e s u l t of the homeroom teacher's questionnaire i n d i c a t e s that the majority of the students i n the experimental group changed a great deal i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r a t t i t u d e and i n t e r a c t i o n within the c l a s s at the end of the study. They improved i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to work and play within the classroom, with t h e i r teacher, and with t h e i r classmates. F i n a l l y , i t was indicated that at the end of the study subjects i n the experimental group improved t h e i r f i n e and gross motor s k i l l s . S i m i l a r l y , i t was a l s o indicated that as the c h i l d r e n met with unaccustomed success t h e i r a t t i t u d e r e f l e c t e d a more aggressive and confident nature which appeared to carry over to t h e i r speech, mannerisms, dress, and reaction within the c l a s s . T h eir a t t i t u d e and i n t e r a c t i o n to the c l a s s changed markedly, they were w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s with classmates, they were able to work for longer periods of time independently, and t h e i r new found confidence c a r r i e d over i n t o a l l phases of classroom a c t i v i t y . They were also less subject to f i t s of anger, temper tantrums, and other overt behavioral responses which characterized them early i n the school year. I t was noted, however, that although they attained reasonably high degrees of motor s k i l l s i n s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s , t h i s motor accomplishment did not generalize to s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s but remained highly s p e c i f i c to a p a r t i c u l a r movement or seri e s of movements. Although the changed a t t i t u d e of the slow learners from one of non confidence to one of confidence may be a t t r i b u t e d to the motor program given, t h i s i s only conjecture as 133 no substantial evidence i n t h i s case i s able to v e r i f y whether i t was the program, the Hawthorne e f f e c t , learning, maturation, or a combination of a l l these fa c t o r s . Children with learning d i s a b i l i t i e s then, need many types of s p e c i a l help, not just extra motor t r a i n i n g . However, t h i s study has indicated that the ph y s i c a l educator should be an important member of a team devoted to improving a t t i t u d e , personality, and possibly the reading readiness of the youngsters. The c h i l d who cannot bounce or catch a b a l l ; walk a straight l i n e ; recognize the r i g h t and l e f t side of h i s body; copy geometric f i g u r e s ; skip; or who has poor eye-hand co-ordination w i l l probably have d i f f i c u l t y with reading and adjusting to the school environment. I f a program of s p e c i a l motor t r a i n i n g can be given to these c h i l d r e n before the problem i s compounded by school f a i l u r e then many a p o t e n t i a l f a i l u r e and dropout may be thwarted. REFERENCES Kephart, N.C., The Slow Learner i n the Classroom, Columbus, Ohio: C.E. M e r r i l l Books, Inc., 1960, pp. 1-69. Getman, G.N., How to Develop Your C h i l d ' s I n t e l l i g e n c e , Luverne, Minnesota: The Announcer Press, 1962, pp. 39. Kerschner, J.R., "Doman-Delacato 1s Theory of Neurological Organization Applied With Retarded Children," Exceptional  Children, 1968, pp. 441-450. BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Bender,, L., Psyche-pathology of Children With Organic Brai n Disorders, S p r i n g f i e l d : C C . Thomas, 1956. Brown, R.C, "The E f f e c t of a Perceptual Motor Education Program on Perceptual Motor S k i l l s and Reading Readiness," Unpublished Master's Thesis, New York U n i v e r s i t y , New York, 1968. Burt, C , The Subnormal C h i l d , Oxford: The Oxford Press, 1935. Campbell, W.G., Form and St y l e i n Thesis Writing, Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1954. Crow, L.D., Crow, A., C h i l d Development and Adjustment, New York: The MacMillan Co., 1962. D o l l , E.A., The Oseretsky Tests of Motor P r o f i c i e n c y : A T r a n s l a t i o n from the Portugese Adaption, Minneapolis: Educational Test Bureau, 1946. Espenschade, A.S., Eckert, H.M., Motor Development, Ohio: Charles E. M e r r i l l Books, Inc., 1967. F r o s t i g , M., Home, D.H., The F r o s t i g Program for the Development  of V i s u a l Perception, Chicago: F o l l e t t Publishing Co., 1964. r Gann, E., Reading D i f f i c u l t y and P e r s o n a l i t y Organization, New York: The MacMillan Co., 1960. Gans, R., Reading i s Fun, New York; Bureau of Pu b l i c a t i o n s Teachers College, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1949. Gar r e t t , H.E., S t a t i s t i c s i s Psychology and Education, New York: David McKay Co., Inc., 1965. Gates, A.L., The Improvement of Reading. A Program of Diagnostic  and Remedial Method, New York: Bureau of Pu b l i c a t i o n s , Teachers College, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1961. Gates, A.L., Reading i n Elementary Schools, 1957 and 1937, New York: Bureau of P u b l i c a t i o n s , Teachers College, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1961. G e s e l l , A., The F i r s t F i v e Years of L i f e , New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1940. G e s e l l , A., Studies i n C h i l d Development, New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1948. Getman, G.N., How to Develop Your C h i l d ' s I n t e l l i g e n c e , Luverne Minnesota: The Announcer Press, 1962. Glynn, D.M., Teach Your C h i l d to Read, London: Cox and Wyman Ltd., 1964. Goldenson, R.M., Helping Your C h i l d to Read Better, New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1957. Hawkes, G.R., Pease, D., Behavior and Development From Five to  Twelve, New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1962. H i l d r e t h , G.H., G r i f f i t h s , N.L., Metropolitan Readiness Test Form R, New York: Harcourt, Brace and World Inc., 1964. J e r s i l d , A.T., C h i l d Psychology, Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., P r e n t i c e -H a l l , Inc., 1954. Kephart, N.C., The Slow Learner i n The Classroom, Columbus, Ohio: C E . M e r r i l l Books, Inc., 1960. McCandles, B.R., Children and Adolescents, New York: Holt, Rhinehart and Winston, Inc., 1962. 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Schilder, P., The Image and Appearance of the Human Body, New York: International U n i v e r s i t i e s Press, 1935. Schonell, F., The Psychology and Teaching of Reading, Edinburgh: Edinburgh Press, 1948. Sherrington, C , Men on His Nature, Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1951. Strang, R., An Introduction to C h i l d Study, Fourth e d i t i o n , New York: The MacMillan Co., 1959. Sutphin, F.E., A Perceptual Testing and T r a i n i n g Handbook f o r F i r s t  Grade Teachers, Winter Haven Lions Club: Boyd Brothers, Inc., 1964. Teachers Test Manual For Administering Perceptual Form Tests, Winter Haven, Winter Haven Lions Research Foundation, Inc., 1967. Terman, L.M., M e r r i l l , M.A., Measuring I n t e l l i g e n c e , New York: Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1937. Tredgold, A.F., A Textbook of Mental Deficiency, seventh e d i t i o n , Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1944. 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PERIODICALS A l w i t t , L.F., "Attention i n a V i s u a l Task Among Non-Readers and Readers," Perceptual and Motor S k i l l s , v o l . 23 (Oct. 1966), pp. 361-362. Anderson, I., Hughes, B., Dixon, W.R., "Age of Learning to Read and I t s R e l a t i o n to Sex, I n t e l l i g e n c e and Reading Achievement i n the Sixth Grade," Journal of Educational Research, v o l . 49 (Sept. 1956), pp. 448-453. A l l e y , G.R., Carr, D.L., " E f f e c t s of Systematic Sensory-Motor Training on Sensory Motor, V i s u a l Perception, and Concept Formation Performance on Mentally Retarded Children," Perceptual and Motor S k i l l s , v o l . 27 (March 1968), pp. 451-456. Ayres, A.J., "Patterns of Perceptual-Motor Dysfunction i n Children: A Factor A n a l y t i c Study," Perceptual'and Motor S k i l l s , v o l . 20 ( A p r i l 1965), pp. 334-368. 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Samuels, F., "Sex Differences i n Reading Achievement," Journal of  Educational Research, v o l . 36 (Sept. 1943), pp. 594-603. Sapir, S.G., "Sex Differences i n Perceptual Motor Development," Perceptual and Motor S k i l l s , v o l . 22 (June 1966), pp. 987-992. Sheldon, W., C a r r i l l o , L., "Relation of Parents, Home and C e r t a i n Developmental C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to Children's Reading A b i l i t y , " Elementary School Journal, v o l . 52 (Jan. 1952), pp. 262-270. Si e g e l , M., "The P e r s o n a l i t y Structure of Children with Reading D i s a b i l i t y as Compared with Children Presenting Other C l i n i c a l Problems," Nervous C h i l d , v o l . 10 (Aug. 1954), pp. 409-415. Skipp, D.E., London, M.L., "The Draw - a - Man Test and Achievement i n F i r s t Grade," Journal of Educational Research, v o l . 57 (July-Aug; 1964), pp. 518-521. Sloan, W., "Motor P r o f i c i e n c y and I n t e l l i g e n c e , " American Journal  of Mental D e f i c i e n t , v o l . 55 (Feb. 1951), pp. 394-406. Slobodan, J . , Campbell, P., "Do Children's Perceptions Influence Beginning Achievement?" Elementary School Journal, v o l . 67 (May 1967), pp. 423-427. Smith, L.C., "A Study of L a t e r a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Retarded Readers and Reading Achievers," Journal of Experimental  Education, v o l . 18 (Nov. 1950), pp. 324-326. Spache, G.D., "P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Retarded Readers as Measured By the P i c t u r e F r u s t r a t i o n Study," Educational  and Psychological Measurement, v o l . 14 (May 1954), pp. 86-192. Stein, J.V., "Adapted P h y s i c a l Education f o r the Educable Mentally Handicapped," Journal of Health, P h y s i c a l Education and  Recreation, v o l . 33 ( A p r i l 1962), pp. 30-32. Tinker, M., "Diagnostic and Remedial Reading," Elementary School  Journal, v o l . 33 (March 1932), pp. 293-307. Troth, W.B., "Procedures and Generalizations f o r Remediation i n Motor Coordination and Perceptual T r a i n i n g for the Mentally Retarded," T r a i n i n g School B u l l e t i n , v o l . 64 (May 1967), pp. 77-80 Wallin , J.E., "Congenital Word Blindness," The Lancet, v o l . 23 ( A p r i l 1921), pp. 890-892. Williams, G.H. "Learning," Journal of Health, P h y s i c a l Education  and Recreation, v o l . 39 (Nov.-Dec. 1968), pp. 28-31. APPENDIX A APPENDIX A STATISTICAL TREATMENT The following formulae (1) were used i n comparing the raw scores from the t e s t s given to the c o n t r o l and experimental group. 1. Number of subjects: N 2. Mean Score: M = £x N 3. Standard Deviation of small samples for the purpose of deter-mining the Standard Error of the d i f f e r e n c e between the two means: ^ _ / £ x * 4. Difference between the Means: M^ - M^ 5. Standard Deviation when two small samples are pooled: 6. Standard Error of the d i f f e r e n c e between means i n small samples: 7. C a l c u l a t i o n of the t r a t i o : ML - M 2 S ED 8. Degrees of Freedom: df = N - 1 For the r e s u l t s to s i g n i f i c a n t the t score was required to reach above the .05 l e v e l of confidence. For eighteen degrees of freedom at the .05 l e v e l of confidence the t had to show a score above 2.10 to be s i g n i f i c a n t (1:461). REFERENCES 1. Garrett, H.E., S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education, New York: David McKay Co., Inc., 1965. APPENDIX B APPENDIX B TABLE III RESULTS OBTAINED BY THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP ON READING READINESS BEFORE THE MOTOR TRAINING WORD MEANING SENTENCES INFOR-MATION MATCHING TOTAL GLEN B. 14 9 13 10 46 STEPHEN D. 11 7 4 6 32 CARL C. 16 13 12 15 56 KELLY G. 14 6 14 12 46 PETER H. 16 9 12 13 50 KELLY K. 10 4 8 11 33 TONY L. 8 8 9 16 39 SHEILA 0. 11 6 11 12 40 RICKY R. 11 7 13 16 47 DAVID W. 13 9 13 14 49 148 TABLE IV RESULTS OBTAINED BY THE CONTROL GROUP ON READING READINESS BEFORE THE MOTOR TRAINING WORD MEANING SENTENCES INFOR-MATION MATCHING TOTAL CARMINE B. 14 10 8 10 42 CLIFFORD C. 12 10 13 11 46 ENZO C. 15 14 12 18 59 VITO D. 8 12 12 8 40 RANDY J. 14 8 8 15 45 GERALD M. 12 10 12 16 50 KEVIN M. 15 8 11 11 45 GEORGE S. 15 11 13 13 52 DANNY Z. 10 8 12 12 42 ALAN W. 13 9 13 17 52 149 TABLE V RESULTS OBTAINED BY THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP ON PERCEPTUAL FORM TEST BEFORE THE MOTOR TRAINING EVALUATION OF INDIVIDUAL FORMS HORI- VER-TRI- REC- ZONTAL TICAL CIRCLE CROSS SQUARE ANGLE TANGLE DIAMOND DIAMOND TOTAL GLEN B. 2 1 6 6 5 2 0 22 STEPHEN D. 3 1 1 3 5 5 2 20 CARL C. 3 2 4 6 6 4 11 36 KELLY G. 2 2 5 6 5 2 2 24 PETER H. 2 2 3 5 6 2 7 27 KELLY K. 3 1 5 6 2 2 3 22 TONY L. 2 2 6 5 11 5 5 36 SHEILA 0. 3 1 0 4 6 4 2 20 RICKY R. 3 2 7 6 8 3 4 33 DAVID W. 3 2 7 2 9 4 4 31 150 TABLE VI RESULTS OBTAINED BY THE CONTROL GROUP ON PERCEPTUAL FORM TEST BEFORE THE MOTOR TRAINING EVALUATION OF INDIVIDUAL FORMS HORI- VER-TRI- REC- ZONTAL TICAL CIRCLE CROSS SQUARE ANGLE TANGLE DIAMOND DIAMOND TOTAL CARMINE B. 1 2 5 5 5 1 2 21 CLIFFORD C. 2 2 6 5 9 1 1 26 ENZO C. 2 2 6 5 10 6 10 41 VITO D. 2 2 3 6 4 6 6 29 RANDY J. 2 3 5 7 6 2 7 32 GERALD M. 1 3 4 6 12 6 8 40 KEVIN M. 2 2 6 5 9 1 3 28 GEORGE S. 3 2 5 4 6 2 6 2 8 DANNY Z. 1 3 2 4 10 4 6 30 ALAN W. 3 2 5 3 14 6 5 38 151 TABLE VII RESULTS OBTAINED BY THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP ON READING READINESS AFTER THE MOTOR TRAINING WORD INFOR-MEANING SENTENCES MATION MATCHING TOTAL GLEN B. 19 12 9 9 49 STEPHEN D. 9 7 8 10 34 CARL C. 17 10 13 17 57 KELLY G. 16 8 16 17 57 PETER H. 16 12 12 16 56 KELLY K. 9 7 12 16 48 TONY L. 12 11 12 12 47 SHEILA 0. 12 8 10 15 45 RICKY R. 12 12 11 14 49 DAVID W. 16 11 12 15 54 152 TABLE VIII RESULTS OBTAINED BY THE CONTROL GROUP ON READING READINESS AFTER THE MOTOR TRAINING WORD MEANING SENTENCES INFOR-MATION MATCHING TOTAL CARMINE B. 15 10 10 15 50 CLIFFORD C. 15 7 10 15 50 ENZO C. 15 11 8 19 53 VITO D. 15 10 9 14 48 RANDY J. 18 10 9 14 51 GERALD M. 11 11 13 17 52 KEVIN M. 11 12 12 14 49 GEORGE S. 16 9 13 14 52 DANNY Z. 14 12 11 10 47 ALAN W. 16 10 13 18 57 153 TABLE IX RESULTS OBTAINED BY THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP ON PERCEPTUAL FORM TEST AFTER THE MOTOR TRAINING EVALUATION OF INDIVIDUAL FORMS DIVIDED HORI- VER-TRI- REC- ZONTAL TICAL CIRCLE CROSS SQUARE ANGLE TANGLE DIAMOND DIAMOND TOTAL GLEN B. 3 2 5 7 11 8 8 44 STEPHEN D. 2 6 1 3 5 5 3 25 CARL C. 3 3 8 7 14 11 8 54 KELLY G. 3 2 4 4 12 8 7 40 PETER H. 3 2 7 7 15 8 9 51 KELLY K. 2 1 7 4 4 5 3 26 TONY L. 3 2 6 4 13 6 11 45 SHEILA 0. 2 1 4 3 4 3 3 2 1 RICKY R. 3 2 7 6 10 5 2 34 DAVID W. 3 2 4 4 12 9 7 41 154 TABLE X RESULTS OBTAINED BY THE CONTROL GROUP ON PERCEPTUAL FORM TEST AFTER THE MOTOR TRAINING EVALUATION OF INDIVIDUAL FORMS CIRCLE CROSS SQUARE TRI-ANGLE DIVIDED REC-TANGLE HORI-ZONTAL DIAMOND VER-TICAL DIAMOND TOTAI CARMINE B. 2 3 2 4 8 2 1 22 CLIFFORD C. 2 1 4 6 11 6 6 36 ENZO C. 3 2 5 5 13 10 10 48 VITO D. 2 3 5 7 6 2 7 32 RANDY J . 3 3 5 7 7 2 7 34 GERALD M. 3 3 8 7 11 8 10 50 KEVIN M. 2 3 6 4 10 2 4 30 GEORGE S. 2 3 8 6 13 9 12 53 DANNY Z. 3 3 2 " 6 10 5 6 35 ALAN W. 3 3 7 6 12 8 11 50 APPENDIX C 156 K e l l y Keays - Continued Page 2 and c o n s i d e r a b l y lower i n perceptue* areas. I t i s f e l t the verbal s c a l e i s the more accurate estimate of her a b i l i t y . K e l l y can understand, use, and produce verbal m a t e r i a l w e l l . I t i s i n the performance, p e r c e p t u a l , f i n e motor c o o r d i n a t i o n , eye-hand c o n t r o l areas she has d i f f i c u l t y . I am sure her eyea have i n t e r f e r e d a l o t i n these areas a l l her l i f e u n t i l the recent o p e r a t i o n . Since the op e r a t i o n there has been n o t i c e a b l e improvement i n gross and some i n f i n e c o o r d i n a t i o n . I f i n d i t hard t o say j u s t how much she continues t o be Influenced i n the l a t t e r by having had double v i s i o n a l l her l i f e , and how much, I f any of her perceptual d i f f i c u l t y has other o r i g i n s . C e r t a i n l y some of her work has c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r t o th a t of a brain-damaged c h i l d . I suspect there may be minimal brain-damage. K e l l y i s d e f i n i t e l y right-handed and 1s able t o handle p e n c i l s and s i m i l a r o b j e c t s c o r r e c t l y . Free, c r e a t i v e drawing i s i n keeping w i t h her age. She f a l l s down very badly though when she has t o copy ( e i t h e r p i c t u r e s , manual tasks or words), or i s r e q u i r e d t o recognize l e t t e r s or words. V i s u a l memory i s very poor. V i s u a l r e c o g n i t i o n i s a l s o poor. For i n s t a n c e she was not able t o recognize any simple words, could not p r i n t anything from memory (other than hers and her s i s t e r ' s name), and could not copy drawings (Bender G e s t a l t T e s t ) . On t h i s l a t t e r t e s t sometimes she knew her products were d i f f e r e n t but was unable t o do them c o r r e c t l y , sometimes she was not aware of the d i f f e r e n c e . Some r e v e r s a l s of l e t t e r s were apparent i n her e f f o r t s at p r i n t i n g . One c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was very prominent -K e l l y performed f a r b e t t e r on a short task or at the beginning of a longer t a s k . She got p r o g r e s s i v e l y and r a p i d l y worse the f u r t h e r she went i n a t a s k , g e t t i n g I n c r e a s i n g l y muddled and confused by the work above what s h y Was doing, her work d e t e r i o r a t i n g markedly so that she soon reached the poi n t where her performance and success was n i l . In view of t h i s i t i s s t r o n g l y recommended that Kelly, be gi v e n e i t h e r very short tasks or th a t work she has already done be blocked o f f so she can continue. K e l l y i s l e s s observant of her environmental surroundings than most c h i l d r e n but again t h i s i s l i k e l y r e l a t e d i n part t o her not having been able t o see her surroundings properly f o r most of her l i f e because o f f a u l t y v i s i o n . At one conference yesterday we agreed i t would be unwise to r e t u r n K*1Jy t o Kinder-g a r t e n . She i s too b r i g h t and mature f o r . t h i s . A l s o i t ' s f e l t t h i s would be damaging t o her, as she i s so proud of being i n grade one and one hates t o see her enthusiasm regarding school squashed. However K e l l y i s not s u i t e d t o a r e g u l a r grade one c l a s s e i t h e r . The above mentioned d i s a b i l i t i e s do and w i l l continue f o r some time anyway t o I n t e r f e r e w i t h her a b i l i t y t o l e a r n t o read and w r i t e . , )ur recommendations then are as f o l l o w s ! . That she attend the motor perceptual c l a s s at McBride School where she can r e c e i v e the remedial help she needs. And th a t she be e n r o l l e d i n the m u l t i - l e v e l c l a s s there so she can attend t h a t school f u l l - t i m e and proceed at her own r a t e i n the v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s . . That she be r e f e r r e d t o me again f o r a r e - e v a l u a t i o n of her progress around the end of January 1969. . That the p o s s i b i l i t y of a complete n e u r o l o g i c a l examination be kept i n mind based on . her fu t u r e development and pro g r e s s . • Hoping t h i s has been of some a s s i s t a n c e t o you, APPENDIX D APPENDIX D I Outline of Lesson II L i s t of Exercises and Games Used i n the Study I Outline of Lesson Exercises concerned with developing body image, l a t e r a l i t y and d i r e c t i o n a l i t y w i l l be given. Examples of body image exercises would be log r o l l , forward r o l l , obstacle course, i d e n t i f y i n g body parts, rope skip and angels i n the snow. Exercises would also include those done on the balance beam and the trampoline. C e r t a i n stunts and games used i n elementary ph y s i c a l education classes would also be u s e f u l i n aiding the c h i l d to develop body image and motor c o n t r o l . A few such games are duck walk, rabbit hop, crab walk, measuring worm, and elephant walk. Examples of exercises that would develop l a t e r a l i t y are galloping, s h u f f l e walk, hopping, trampoline and balance beam pro-cedures. Examples of exercises that would develop d i r e c t i o n a l i t y are walking backwards, b a l l r o l l i n g , bean bag tossing, b a l l toss and b a l l bouncing. Exercises to develop f i n e motor development would include drawing exercises at the blackboard and desk. Other exercises are cu t t i n g , planing and pasting, t r a c i n g and c o l o r i n g , buttoning, lacing shoes, and finger t r a c i n g . An o u t l i n e of a drawing exercise follows. Using a large cut out t r i a n g l e as an a i d or using a large t r i a n g l e i f a v a i l a b l e , perform the following exercises. 1. Make a tree outline 2. Make a free hand square at the bottom for a tree trunk I I 3. Make small free hand circles on the tree for tree decorations. This exercise would further training in perception of geometric forms by combining them into a picture. An example of an early lesson plan. 1. Free Activity Students are permitted to play with hoops, bean bags, rhythm balls, skipping ropes, and on the agility equipment for a few minutes at the beginning of the training period. 2. Body Identification A. The students touch parts of their bodies as they are indicated. For example, the following commands are given. Touch your shoulders Touch your hips Touch your head Touch your ankles Touch your ears Touch your feet Touch your eyes Touch your elbows 160 B . Angels i n the snow. L y i n g on the f l o o r on t h e i r backs they perform the fo l lowing movements as i n d i c a t e d . Move just t h i s arm (po int ing to the r i g h t arm) Now back. Move jus t t h i s arm (po int ing to the l e f t arm) Now back. Move jus t t h i s leg (po int ing to the r i g h t leg) Now back. Move jus t t h i s leg (po int ing to the l e f t leg) Now back. Move both legs . Now back. Move both arms. Now back. 3. A g i l i t y Equipment, Trampoline and Balance Beam. With two i n s t r u c t o r s a v a i l a b l e the group can be d i v i d e d in to three sec t ions . The group working on the a g i l i t y equipment need no ass i s tance once having been t o l d what to do. Separate i n s t r u c t i o n i s g iven on the trampoline and on the balance beam. The group ro ta te a f t e r a short time so that a l l have an opportuni ty on the d i f f e r e n t p ieces of equipment. A . Beginning exerc ises on the balance beam using the four inch s ide . Walk forwards - hee l - to - toe foot p o s i t i o n , eyes and head up. Walk backwards - t o e - t o - h e e l foot p o s i t i o n , eyes and head up. Side steps. Walk forward balancing bean bag on head. A f t e r these exercises have been mastered on the four inch s ide they can be attempted on the two inch s ide . B . Beginning exerc ises on the trampoline inc lude: 161 Bouncing. Stopping. Knee drop. Seat drop. Combined knee and seat drop. Bouncing and turning - quarter turns, h a l f turns and f u l l turns. Mark time - alternate bouncing on one foot. One foot - bounce ten times on preferred foot. Forward drop. Back drop. A l l exercises to be performed i n the center of the trampoline 4. Game The lesson should end with a game. Example - Charly Over the Water. A c i r c l e i s formed with students holding hands. One student i s selected to be Charly and he stands i n the c i r c l e . Players forming c i r c l e dance around Charly singing: Charly over the water Charly over the sea Charly catch a blackbird Can't catch me. As l a s t word i s said , players stop and Charly t r i e s to tag them before they can get into p o s i t i o n - should he succeed, player tagged changes places with him. II L i s t of Exercises and Games Used i n the Study The following pieces of equipment were used i n the research: balance beam, balance board, trampoline, and a g i l i t y equipment. Other equipment used were rhythm b a l l s , tumbling mats, hoops, bean bags, puzzles, pegboards, skipping ropes, and templates of geometric fi g u r e s . 162 The following exercises were used i n the research to develop l a t e r a l i t y , d i r e c t i o n a l i t y , body image, posture, balance and co-ordination. Exercises on the trampoline One of the most important contributions of the trampoline i s the development of t o t a l b o d i l y co-ordination throughout the gross muscle systems. The following sequence of techniques i s i n approximate order of d i f f i c u l t y . 1. Bouncing and stopping l e t the student f i r s t walk around the top of the trampoline to f e e l i t s f l e x i b i l i t y . The student next stands i n the center of the bed, d i r e c t l y over the center mark, with feet about shoulder-width apart. He jumps up and down, permitting the e l a s t i c bed to add to the force of h i s jump and therefore, l i f t him higher o f f the surface. Repeated bouncing i n the same center spot i s most important. Stop c o n t r o l i s also important. This i s accomplished by bending the knees and keeping them bent on the downward movement. The p u p i l should stop i n a well balanced crouch. A sequence of f i v e to ten bounces followed by a f u l l stop was practiced. The movement of the arms i s important. They should swing up when you go up and swing down as you return to the bed of the trampoline. 2. Knee drop The p u p i l bounces a few times on h i s feet to get good rhythm and height of bounce, then lands on the bed i n a kneeling p o s i t i o n 163 and bounces r i g h t back up to the standing p o s i t i o n where he again bounces a few times before dropping to h i s knees again. Contact point with the trampoline i s the knees, shins, and instep. The body i s kept d i r e c t l y above the knees when landing. 3. Seat drop. Begin as before with a few standing bounces, then land on the bed i n a s i t t i n g p o s i t i o n with enough bounce and co n t r o l to spring back up to standing p o s i t i o n . The c h i l d lands on the bed i n a s i t t i n g p o s i t i o n with the legs f u l l y extended forward so that the en t i r e backs of the legs contact the canvas simultaneously. The trunk i s s l i g h t l y i n c l i n e d backward from the c e r t i c a l . Hands are f l a t on the bed s i x to eight inches i n back of the hips. The fin g e r s are pointed towards the feet and the arms are s l i g h t l y bent. 4. Combined knee-seat drop. Begin with a bouncing sequence of feet, knees, feet, seat, feet, knees, feet, seat and so on, with steady rhythm and high bouncing, always on the center of the trampoline. As p r o f i c i e n c y develops bounce d i r e c t l y from knees to seat without bouncing on feet . 5. Bouncing and turning. with each bounce make one quarter turn clock-wise so that with each bounce the c h i l d lands facing a d i f f e r e n t way. Repeat i n counterclockwise d i r e c t i o n . Next t r y h a l f turns instead of quarter turns, then f u l l turns. 6. Mark Time. Alte r n a t e bouncing on one foot, for example l e f t , r i g h t , l e f t , r i g h t , and so on i n slow giant l i k e steps. Bounce only once on each 164 foot, then change to other foot, always landing on center mark. 7. One foot. Bounce ten times on preferred foot, always on the center of the trampoline. F i n i s h on two fe e t . 8. Double step. Bounce two times on each foot, f o r example, l e f t , l e f t , r i g h t , r i g h t , l e f t , l e f t , and so on. Every bounce must be on the center mark. Stop as usual with two feet i n a crouch. 9. Front drop. Thi s drop i s f i r s t developed by landing on hands and knees and bouncing back upon feet. When t h i s i s done e a s i l y , with body always centered on the bed, bounce from hands and knees to prone p o s i t i o n and back to hands and knees. When landing i n prone p o s i t i o n extend arms forward with elbows bent out and palms downward. The palms, forearms, abdomen, and thighs should a l l s t r i k e the bed simultaneously. Bouncing from hands and knees to prone p o s i t i o n should be done with a steady rhythm. Tfaen t h i s i s mastered bounce from standing p o s i t i o n to hands and knees to prone p o s i t i o n , back to hands and knees and back to standing p o s i t i o n and repeat. When steady rhythm and good centering i s apparent eliminate the hands and knees p o s i t i o n , bouncing back from standing to prone p o s i t i o n and back. 10. Back drop. The c h i l d lands on the bed i n the supine p o s i t i o n with legs straight and feet s l i g h t l y higher than hips. Hands are placed on the sides and front of the thighs just above the knees and not on 165 the bed. The chin must be kept on the chest during t h i s stunt. T h i s stunt i s f i r s t attempted from the standing p o s i t i o n by r a i s i n g one leg stra i g h t out and forward and f a l l i n g backwards, bouncing and springing back to standing p o s i t i o n . 11. Combination of the drops. 12. Skipping while bouncing. Exercises on the balance beam A diagram of the balance beam i s to be found i n Appendix D. On t h i s piece of equipment the c h i l d can develop balance, posture, l a t e r a l i t y , and s p a t i a l o r i e n t a t i o n . The following are the exercises used on the f l a t side of the beam. Once the exercises are mastered on t h i s side they then can be performed on the narrow side. 1. Forward walk. Walk slowly heel-to-toe, with toes pointed straight ahead. Pl a c i n g hands on the hips help give the c h i l d balance. Have some object put at eye l e v e l so that the c h i l d can keep h i s eye on i t while he walks. 2. Backward walk. Start the c h i l d at one end of the beam with h i s back toward i t , and the board extended out behind him. The c h i l d steps up on the beam and walks backwards toe-to-heel. Head up with eyes focused on an object at eye l e v e l . The exercise should be done without the c h i l d looking where he i s going. 166 3. Sidewise walk. Start the chi ld at one end of the beam facing at right angles to i t so that the beam extends to the r ight . The chi ld steps up on the beam and walks sidewise to the other end. He should move his right foot to the right and bring his left foot up to i t . When he has progressed to the end of the beam he i s to walk back sidewise, moving to his l e f t . A problem may arise here in that some children w i l l be found who can walk the board in one direction but not in the other. It i s thought that these children are accustomed to avoiding the la tera l i ty and di rect ional i ty problem by using only one side as a leading side. When the children have learned these three basic procedures they are taught to turn on the board. They are asked to walk across the board, and, without stepping of f , to turn and walk back sidewise. When they have mastered the half turn, they are asked to walk forward, across, turn, and return walking forward. The more d i f f i c u l t task can then be performed in which the chi ld walks backwards across the board, turns, and returns walking backward. Variations and combin-ations of these routines can be introduced can be introduced to maintain interest and also to reduce anticipation. The ab i l i t y to maintain balance under conditions which are not predictable can be further cultivated by asking the chi ld to walk to the center of the board, turn, and walk back, A l l combinations of directions and turns can be repeated in the center of the board. Here the spring of the board becomes an additional factor which must be considered in maintaining balance. 1 6 7 Balance Board A diagram of the balance board w i l l be found i n Appendix D. The c h i l d i s instruc t e d to step on the board, with the largest center post, feet placed about twelve inches from the center, and rock by s h i f t i n g weight. Rock i n the r i g h t - l e f t d i r e c t i o n and i n the fo r e - a f t d i r e c t i o n . When perfect balance can be maintained, the middle sized post, then the smallest post, should be used. A c t i v i t i e s on the balance board include the following: bouncing a rhythm b a l l on the f l o o r i n fro n t , catching i t again or continued bouncing; throwing bean bags at a target; catching a rhythm b a l l with a partner; doing simple c a l i s t h e n i c s ; touching parts of the body on command. Jumping Board The plans f o r the construction of a jumping board w i l l be found i n Appendix D. In t h i s research a tranpoline was a v a i l a b l e . However, i n cases where one i s not a v a i l a b l e a jumping board w i l l prove quite s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r bouncing on the feet and turns as out-l i n e d under trampoline. A g i l i t y Equipment This equipment consists of ropes and ladders for the c h i l d r e n to climb on. Horizontal ladders to hang from and climb along. The youngsters make up t h e i r own games on t h i s . Relays were also used i n which they had to climb through or over some parts of the equipment. Tumbling Mats Exercises performed here were the forward r o l l , backward r o l l , walking on the knees, and the head stand. 168 Rhythm B a l l s In bouncing the b a l l the c h i l d should cup h i s hands so that the fleshy part of the fingers make contact with the b a l l . S k i l l i n bouncing with both hands should be attempted. Many v a r i a t i o n s to the straight bouncing can be introduced such as the following: bounce clap hands; bounce and catch; bouncing using a l t e r n a t e hands; bouncing from a kneeling p o s i t i o n , either on one knee or both knees; bouncing the b a l l i n a hoop, and many others. In tossing and catching, the c h i l d r e n are shown how to hold the b a l l with both hands and toss underhand. In catching, the ch i l d r e n are taught to hold hands out for the b a l l and draw them back as b a l l i s caught. For catching above the head the c h i l d r e n should have the thumbs together. Catching below the waist the l i t t l e f i n gers are together. Many catching games can be played. Bean Bags The following a c t i v i t i e s were performed with the bean bags. 1. Bean bag toss The students attempted to score points by throwing bean bags through holes. 2. Bean bag passing r e l a y In teams of about f i v e players which are li n e d up i n a straight l i n e , the bean bag i s passed from the front to the back. The l a s t person on rec e i v i n g i t brings i t up to the front of the team. I t i s then passed down through the team again. T h i s continues u n t i l the whole team has f i n i s h e d . There are many v a r i a t i o n s to t h i s 169 passing, such as: pass and receive with the r i g h t hand; pass and receive with the l e f t hand; pass through the legs; touch the f l o o r and pass through the legs; pass over the head, and so on. 3. Bean bag c i r c l e pass Players form a c i r c l e , with every other player given a bean bag. On command, the bean bags are passed to t h e i r r i g h t , they receive them i n t h e i r l e f t hand. Change d i r e c t i o n and pass to the l e f t . More bags can be added as the s k i l l develops. Other a c t i v i t i e s with the bean bag included: 1. Throwing and catching. 2. Walking with bean bag on the head. 3. Walking along a chalk l i n e and balance beam with bean bag on the head. 4. On the knees get up to the feet with bean bag on the head. 5. Squatting with bean bag on the head, get up. 6. S i t t i n g with bean bag on the head, get up. Rope Skip Start with the rope stretched on the f l o o r . Have the c h i l d -ren jump back and f o r t h over the rope, s t a r t i n g at one end and continuing down to the other end. Next, r a i s e one end four inches from the f l o o r and the other end about eighteen inches. Children jump over the rope back and f o r t h , s t a r t i n g at the low end and going as f ar as possible toward the high end. Next, with the rope at the usual skipping height, swing i t back and f o r t h while the c h i l d r e n jump across. When t h i s i s accomplished turn the rope with the c h i l d 170 standing i n i t . When the c h i l d r e n can skip i n t h i s way with the rope turned i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n , the c h i l d r e n should t r y running i n . The youngsters should work with i n d i v i d u a l skipping ropes, skipping on t h e i r own. Hoops A c t i v i t i e s with the hoop included the following: hopping i n and out; bouncing b a l l s i n and around the hoop; making t h e i r bodies f i t i n t o the hoop while on the f l o o r ; and twisting t h e i r bodies in an attempt to keep the hoop revolving around them. Puzzles Students spent much time putting together simple puzzles of the jigsaw or cut out type. Pegboard A good pegboard can be constructed from acoustic c e i l i n g t i l e using g o l f tees as pegs. These tees should have about ha l f of the end cl i p p e d o f f . Two boards and two sets of pegs were provided, one for the i n s t r u c t o r and one f o r the c h i l d . The pegs were of a color contrast-ing with the background. In t h i s way, the form was made to stand out more sharply against the background, and the d i f f i c u l t y of the task was kept reasonable. Simple figures such as squares and t r i a n g l e s were outlined and the c h i l d was shown t h i s and asked to make one l i k e i t on h i s board. There are two stages i n the t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t y . In the f i r s t stage, the board with the model f i g u r e on i t i s l e f t i n f u l l view of 171 the child. He may consult i t whenever he has d i f f i c u l t y , and he may constantly compare his production with the model. In the second stage of training, the model figure i s shown to the child only briefly. When the child begins work, the model is removed and the child i s asked to complete the activity with no further reference to the model. The f i r s t task, that was taught the child, was to draw horizontal and vertical lines completely across the pegboard. These lines were constructed along the edges f i r s t . When they accomplished this, lines were then constructed towards the center of the board. Shorter lines were then constructed. This was followed by the construction of squares, rectangles, and diagonal lines. After these basic simple forms were mastered, the form perception problem was increased in d i f f i c u l t y by presenting two forms on the board at once. These forms were either adjacent or interlocking. Templates The templates used were the c i r c l e , square, rectangle, and diamond. The f i r s t a c t i v i t y was performed at the blackboard where the template was held against the board by the instructor. The child was asked to place his finger inside the cut-out template and to run i t around the edge of the form. The child in doing this was obtain-ing tactual and kinesthetic clues to the required movement. This was followed by giving a piece of chalk to the child who then ran the chalk around the edge of the template in the same way in which he ran his finger around i t s edge. For practice of perfecting the geometric forms the child continued at his desk as at the blackboard, doing the figure twenty 172 times on paper, then freehand, and comparing with the template fi g u r e s . Emphasis was placed on posture. The p r a c t i c e periods were of short term because the c h i l d r e n t i r e d quickly. Imitation of Movement The c h i l d r e n stand widely spaced, about eight to ten feet i n front of the teacher. They are asked to perform the exercises outlined i n Figure 3. The teacher begins with pattern No. 1 and moves the arms through each of the patterns indicated. Observations were made of t h e c c h i l d r e n 1 s movements i n going from one pattern to the next. These patterns are so designed that u n i l a t e r a l , b i l a t e r a l , and c r o s s l a t e r a l movements are required. The sequence may be v a r i e d as long as a l l three of these basic types of movements are included. I d e n t i f y Body Parts While standing, c h i l d r e n are commanded to touch on t h e i r own bodies d i f f e r e n t features such as nose, ear, eyes, mouth, back, shoulder, knee, ankle, hip and so on. They respond quickly and accurately with one hand at f i r s t and then both hands. The c h i l d r e n repeat the commands v e r b a l l y a f t e r they are given. Students l a t e r work i n p a i r s touching the indicated parts of t h e i r partners. F a l l Recovery Ch i l d r e n f a l l to the f l o o r and are t o l d to get up using any method. They f a l l again and get up using only one hand. Next time they t r y getting up without using any hands or they may attempt getting up keeping the legs s t r a i g h t but using the hands. 173 FIGURE 3 P o s i t i o n s of the arms f o r seventeen items of the i m i t a t i o n of movement task. To move from each p o s i t i o n to the next requires one of the following types of movement: U = u n i l a t e r a l movement, B = b i l a t e r a l movement, C = c r o s s l a t e r a l movement. 174 Obstacle Course Sports equipment, c h a i r s , hoops, tunnels, desks, and balance beams were used to make an obstacle course i n which the c h i l d r e n had to climb over, step or jump over, duck under, crawl under or squeeze through. The c h i l d r e n were made to do extensive crawling i n t h i s a c t i v i t y . Angels i n the Snow The c h i l d l i e s on the f l o o r on h i s back with the arms at the side and the feet together. In t h i s exercise the arms are moved up over the head u n t i l they touch. In doing t h i s , the c h i l d should push h i s wrists against the f l o o r . Next the feet are moved apart making sure the heels are kept on the f l o o r during the movement. The following are the sequence of commands. 1. Move just t h i s arm, pointing to the r i g h t arm. Now back. 2. Move just t h i s arm, pointing to the l e f t arm. Now back. 3. Move just t h i s leg, pointing to the r i g h t leg. Now back. 4. Move just t h i s l e g, pointing to the l e f t leg. Now back. 5. Move both arms. Now back. 6. Move both legs. Now back. 7. Move t h i s arm and t h i s leg, pointing to the l e f t arm and l e f t leg. Now back. 8. Move t h i s arm and t h i s leg, pointing to the r i g h t arm and ri g h t leg. Now back. 9. Move t h i s arm and t h i s leg, pointing to the ri g h t arm and l e f t leg. Now back. 175 10. Move t h i s arm and t h i s leg, pointing to the l e f t arm and right leg. Now back. The following stunts were used. Log R o l l Each c h i l d attempts to r o l l l i k e a log. Assistance i s needed at f i r s t . B a l l R o l l The c h i l d holds knees to chest and attempts to r o l l . Bunny Hop Jumping with two feet together, f i r s t i n an orderly pattern, then i n re l a y patterns, and then randomly so that c h i l d r e n must avoid obstacles and each other. Stork Stand Stand on one foot with the other c l e a r of the ground. Hopping Move around the room on one foot without putting the other one down. Touch a door, ch a i r , a desk, and return to the o r i g i n a l spot. Do the same with the other foot. Walking Reversals Walk quickly backwards, change d i r e c t i o n s on command of forward ) or backwards. An attempt should be made to make the c h i l d r e n walk quickly i n eit h e r d i r e c t i o n without c o l l i s i o n s , changing d i r e c t i o n s promptly on command. Shuffle Shuffle sideways, f i r s t the preferred d i r e c t i o n , then the opposite d i r e c t i o n . Change d i r e c t i o n on command. 176 Duck Walk The c h i l d places h i s hands on h i s knees and does a deep knee bend. In t h i s p o s i t i o n he walks forward. His hands may also be placed behind him with the palms together and fingers pointing backward i n i m i t a t i o n of a duck's t a i l . Rabbit Hop The c h i l d places h i s hands on the f l o o r and performs a deep knee bend. The hands move forward on the f l o o r and the feet are brought forward, with a jump, between h i s hands. The hands are moved forward again and the process i s repeated as the c h i l d moves across the f l o o r . Crab Walk The c h i l d squats down reaching backward and putting both hands f l a t on the f l o o r behind him without s i t t i n g down. He runs along the f l o o r i n t h i s p o s i t i o n . The head, neck and body should be i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e . Measuring Worm The c h i l d places h i s hands on the f l o o r i n front of himself and about shoulder width apart. The legs are stretched out straight behind, the weight of the body supported on the arms and toes. The arms are kept st r a i g h t and the body held s t r a i g h t from head to heels. With the knees str a i g h t and the hands stationary, the c h i l d makes l i t t l e steps u n t i l h i s feet are as close to h i s hands as possible. Next, with feet stationary, he moves h i s hands forward with l i t t l e movements u n t i l he has reached the s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n again. T h i s 177 s e r i e s of movements i s repeated as the c h i l d progresses forward across the room. Gallop The c h i l d r e n run around with the same foot always i n front and the other always behind. Remembering The c h i l d r e n gather around the teacher who indicates to them that they are to touch a number of objects and return to t h e i r o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n . They must touch the objects i n the order that was mentioned. The following games were used: Simon Says The c h i l d r e n are widely spaced about the f l o o r . The teacher stands facing them. The c h i l d r e n respond only when the p r e f i x to the command i s Simon Says. For example, i n the command Simon Says s i t down, the c h i l d r e n should s i t down. However, i f s i t down i s the only command, the students remain i n the p o s i t i o n that they were i n . I f a mistake i s made the student i s out. The one remaining wins. Cat and Mouse A c i r c l e i s formed with students holding hands. One student i s selected to be the mouse, another student to be the cat. The cat chases the mouse. The students forming the c i r c l e allow the mouse to pass f r e e l y i n and out of the c i r c l e . The cat i s stopped whenever possi b l e . As soon as the cat catches the mouse they reverse their p o s i t i o n s . A l l students are given the opportunity of playing the cat or the mouse. 178 Dodge B a l l The c h i l d r e n form a c i r c l e with ha l f of the c h i l d r e n i n the c i r c l e . Using one rhythm b a l l , the youngsters forming the c i r c l e attempt to h i t those i n the c i r c l e on the legs. Those that are h i t become part of the c i r c l e . The l a s t one l e f t i n the c i r c l e wins. The group that formed the c i r c l e now take up the p o s i t i o n within the c i r c l e and the game continues as before. Peg B a l l The c h i l d r e n form a c i r c l e . An Indian Club i s placed i n the center. Using one rhythm b a l l the c h i l d r e n attempt to h i t the peg down. Leader The group i s divided into teams of f i v e or s i x members. A youngster from each group stands out a few feet to the side of the team. A rhythm b a l l i s used. When the game s t a r t s he throws or r o l l s the b a l l to every member of the team. The next player comes out and he returns to the l i n e . This continues u n t i l everyone has had the p o s i t i o n of the leader. C a l i s t h e n i c s 1. On t i p toes, arms above the head and st r e t c h for the c e i l i n g . 2. Arms c i r c l i n g , small c i r c l e s developing into larger cones and then ge t t i n g smaller again. 3. Touching the toes without bending the knees. 4. Crouch, then spring into the a i r . 5. The c h i l d makes himself as t a l l as possible or as small as possi b l e . 179 6. S i t ups. The c h i l d r e n choose a partner. One c h i l d does s i t ups while the other holds the feet on the f l o o r . Children reverse t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . Relay Games Many r e l a y games were played. These depended on the amount of equipment a v a i l a b l e and were not d i f f i c u l t to develop. Of the exercises l i s t e d the following groups were used s p e c i f i c a l l y  f o r developing body image: 1. Log r o l l 2. R o l l l i k e a b a l l 3. Obstacle course 4. F a l l recovery 5. I d e n t i f y body parts 6. Imitation of movements 7. Bunny Jump 8. Rocking board 9. Balance beam 10. Trampoline 11. Rope skip The following a c t i v i t i e s were used s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r developing l a t e r a l i t y 1. Gallop 2. Shuffle 3. Stork stand 4. Hopping 5. Trampoline 180 The following a c t i v i t i e s were used s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r developing  d i r e c t i o n a l i t y 1. Walking reversals 2. Shuffle 3. Gallop backwards REFERENCES 1. Cox, B., A Developmental P h y s i c a l Education Program for Kinder- garten and Grade One, School D i s t r i c t No. 35, 1967, pp. 2-14. 2. Getman, G.N., How to Develop Your Child's I n t e l l i g e n c e , Luveme, Minnesota: The Announcer Press, 1962, pp. 49-57. 3. Kephart, N.C, The Slow Learner i n the Classroom, Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. M e r r i l l Books, Inc., 1960, pp. 120-275. 4. Sutphin, F.E., & Perceptual Testing and T r a i n i n g Handbook f o r  F i r s t Grade Teachers, Winter Haven Lions Clubs Boyd Brothers, Inc., 1964, pp. 88-106. APPENDIX E Winter Haven Perceptual Form Test The Winter Haven Perceptual Form Test was administered in October, 1968, and again after eighteen weeks of special motor training. Copies have been made of ten tests to illustrate the difference between the first and final testing. The tests are arranged in pairs, each pair belonging to the same child. The Winter Haven Perceptual Form Test consists of copying seven geometric figures which are similar to the following. 1 8 4 / 1A - October 1968 - CC. 2B - March 1 9 6 9 - P.H. 189 3A - October 1968 - S.D. 190 - March 1969 - S.D 192 March 1969 - T.L. APPENDIX F I Interview With Parents II Questionnaire for Teachers I Interview With Parents A. Regarding - Sociological-Economic Background 1. Occupation of breadwinner. 2. How long has he and/or she had this job? 3. What did he and/or she do before? 4. How many times have they moved in the last six years? *5. Area of town they are living in. * 6 . Upkeep of house (inside and out) - for example, books, T.V., etc. * 7 . Facilities (for example, playground, golf course, community centre, and so forth in the area surrounding the home. 8. Do they belong to any clubs? * Results recorded by Interviewer's own observation. B. Regarding - Parents 1. Education level. 2. Philosophy regarding education and physical education. 3. Their reading habits (are they prone to watching television). 4. Do they participate in any venture with their child (for example, sports activities). 5. Do they read to their child or do they encourage reading by him? 194 6. How a c t i v e (physically) are they? 7. Past h i s t o r y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to sports and/or a t h l e t i c s . 8. Families h i s t o r y i n regards to a c t i v i t y . 9. Are they planning to send t h e i r c h i l d r e n to u n i v e r s i t y (for example, are they saving money or making other f i n a n c i a l arrangements to send t h e i r c h i l d r e n to u n i v e r s i t y ) . 10. Do they view themselves as a: low low c l a s s , low medium, low upper c l a s s , middle low, middle middle, middle high, high low, high middle, high high, c l a s s of family? C. Regarding - Subjects 1. How a c t i v e i s c h i l d physically? 2. Favorite pastimes, hobbies, i f any, or what takes up a great deal of h i s time. 3. Number of c h i l d r e n i n h i s family. His r e l a t i o n s h i p to them and h i s parents as well. 4. Friends (numbers and types). 5. Time spent i n r e l a t i o n to t e l e v i s i o n , books, and so f o r t h . 6. Does c h i l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n any organized sport? 7. Hi s t o r y of i l l n e s s e s , diseases, disorders, and so f o r t h . 8. Equipment he has (for example, b a l l s , bats, b i c y c l e s and so f o r t h ) . 9. Did he go to kindergarten? 195 II Questionnaire f o r Teachers 1. Ch i l d ' s a t t i t u d e and i n t e r a c t i o n with the c l a s s r e s u l t i n g from the t r a i n i n g program. 2. Of c h i l d working, playing and so f o r t h . 3. Of c h i l d i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to other i n d i v i d u a l s i n c l a s s . 4. Academic h i s t o r y . 5. Improvement i n f i n a and gross motor s k i l l s . 6. For c o n t r o l group - how much education does homeroom teacher have - when was l a s t time he or she back to u n i v e r s i t y for a refresher course? 7. Same for experimental group. 8. Does the homeroom teacher for the co n t r o l group have any in t e r e s t i n reading d i s a b i l i t i e s ? 

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