Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Effects of an accelerated physical education programme on certain physical and motor traits of children… Tihanyi, Jeno 1968

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1968_A7_5 T54.pdf [ 5.56MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0077266.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0077266-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0077266-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0077266-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0077266-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0077266-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0077266-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0077266-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0077266.ris

Full Text

THE EFFECTS CF AN ACCELERATED PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME ON CERTAIN PHYSICAL AND MOTOR TRAITS OF CHILDREN IN GRADES ONE,  THREE, AND FOUR " 4  by  JENO TIHANYI B.P.E., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the School of  P h y s i c a l Education and R e c r e a t i o n  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as, conforming  THE UNIVERSITY OF April,  to the r e q u i r e d standard;  BRITISH.COLUMBIA 1968  T h i s study was supported by the F i t n e s s and Amateur Sport D i r e c t o r a t e , Department o f N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare, Ottawa, Canada  In  presenting  advanced  Library  agree  this  degree  shall  that  at  make  thesis  the  it  permission  in  University  freely  for  may  be  granted  tatives.  It  is  understood  financial  gain  Department  nf  by  not  April.  British  available  the  that  be  fulfilment  Head  of  my  the  Columbia,  reference  copying  copying  allowed  for  of  of  this  Department  or  without  1968  Columbia  requirements  I  agree  and  study.  thesis  or  publication  my w r i t t e n  p h y s i c a l Education and R e c r e a t i o n  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  Date  of  extensive  purposes  shall  partial  by  of  for  that  I  an  the  further  for  scholarly  his  represen-  this  thesis  permission.  for  ABSTRACT  The purpose o f t h i s study was e f f e c t s o f an a c c e l e r a t e d programme on v a r i o u s three,  and four  to i n v e s t i g a t e the  and a r e g u l a r p h y s i c a l  p h y s i c a l and motor  education  t r a i t s of grade one,  children.  Two hundred c h i l d r e n o f S i r Richard  McBride Elementary  School o f Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study. Two  c l a s s e s i n each grade were s e l e c t e d f o r one experimental  and one c o n t r o l group. initially.  A l l experimental c l a s s e s were t e s t e d  Fifty-^-four students o f the two hundred c o n t r o l and  experimental p a r t i c i p a n t s were randomly s e l e c t e d and were t e s t e d at the end o f the programme. The p h y s i c a l and motor development  traits  investigated  were: 1.  2.  P h y s i c a l Development: h e i g h t ,  weight, lung  capacity,  arm and t h i g h g i r t h s , c h r o n o l o g i c a l  age, s k e l e t a l age.  Motor A b i l i t y and A g i l i t y : standing  broad jump,  s h u t t l e run. 3.  Strength: bar  4.  left  and r i g h t g r i p s s t r e n g t h ,  flexed  hang.  Cardiovascular The s u b j e c t s  A p p r a i s a l : submaximal work  o f the c o n t r o l groups followed  task. the  arm  ii  programme o u t l i n e d by the Department Columbia f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n .  of Education of B r i t i s h  The programme was adminis-  t e r e d by the r e s p e c t i v e classroom t e a c h e r s . twice weekly,  f o r f o r t y minute p e r i o d s .  E x c e p t i o n to the above  i s grade four, who met t h r e e times per week. the  The s u b j e c t s o f  experimental groups f o l l o w e d a programme designed and  administered by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . per  These groups met  week, f o r f o r t y minute p e r i o d s .  These groups met three times The programme f o r both  experimental and c o n t r o l groups extended over a p e r i o d o f 15 weeks. Review o f the f i n a l r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e s no  statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups, w i t h the except i o n o f the t h i g h g i r t h f o r grade t h r e e c o n t r o l group. v a l u e was 2.66, s i g n i f i c a n t beyond  the .05 l e v e l .  i n grade t h r e e c o n t r o l group were t a l l e r  The t  The s u b j e c t s  and h e a v i e r .  It is  i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t although the grade three c o n t r o l  group  was younger c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y and s k e l e t a l l y , they surpassed the grade three experimental group i n a l l t e s t items, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f s t a n d i n g broad jump. The f i n a l  r e s u l t s o f the experimental group  improvement i n a l l v a r i a b l e s .  indicate  S i g n i f i c a n t improvements  beyond  the  .01 l e v e l were demonstrated i n s t a n d i n g broad jump (t = 7.78  for  grade three, and. t = 10.29 f o r grade four) ; f l e x e d arm bar  hang  ( t = 3.23 f o r grade f o u r ) ; t h i g h g i r t h  (t = 3.20 f o r grade  iii  three);  at the  .05  l e v e l i n s h u t t l e run  (t = 2.39  f o r grade  three) . The  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n shows o n l y  m a r g i n a l d i f f e r e n c e between the c o n t r o l and groups, i n favor not be  of the l a t t e r .  experimental  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e , however, can-  c o n s i d e r e d beyond the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s study.  t h i s i s not physical  to deny the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t  a more  However,  intensive  e d u c a t i o n programme, such as administered by  the  i n v e s t i g a t o r to the experimental groups, may  enhance  physical  I t seems that  and motor development of c h i l d r e n .  a programme, on a long-term b a s i s ,  can  improvement o f the p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t y o f  contribute  to  the such  the  children.  F u r t h e r recommendations i n view o f the r e s u l t s o f study may  be  l e a s t one  school  the e x t e n s i o n of the experimental p e r i o d year.  The  this  to at  c o n t r o l groups' programme should  monitored to assure a t r u e comparison of the a c t i v i t i e s . f u r t h e r i n q u i r y i s needed i n elementary school p h y s i c a l t i o n programmes, and  a  A educa-  a p o s s i b l e r e v i s i o n o f the c u r r i c u l u m  meet the p h y s i c a l developmental needs o f the growing  be  child.  to  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I  PAGE  INTRODUCTION  1  Purpose o f the Study Statement o f the Problem J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f the Problem Limitations Delimitations Definitions References II  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE .  .  11  1. P h y s i c a l Development 2. Motor A b i l i t y and A g i l i t y 3. Strength 4. C a r d i o v a s c u l a r A p p r a i s a l References III  METHODS AND PROCEDURES  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  30  1. P h y s i c a l Development 2. Motor A b i l i t y and A g i l i t y 3. Strength 4. C a r d i o v a s c u l a r A p p r a i s a l Subjects Design o f the Study Testing^ S t a t i s t i c a l Methods IV  RESULTS 1.  V  .  40  P h y s i c a l Development  2. Motor A b i l i t y and A g i l i t y 3. Strength 4. C a r d i o v a s c u l a r A p p r a i s a l SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . . . Summary Conclusion  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  66  PAGE BIBLIOGRAPHY  .  .  .  .  APPENDIX A .  .  .  .  .  I.  .' . .  .  . .  . .  . '.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . .  ACCELERATED PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME . . . . 8 1. Aims and Purposes 2. C h i l d Growth and Development, C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Needs 3. B a s i c Movements to be S t r e s s e d 4. S p e c i f i c A c t i v i t i e s  73 79 0  References II.  REGULAR PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME  APPENDIX B . I. II.  .  .  .  .  SKELETAL AGE ASSESSMENT FORM . SAMPLE X-RAY  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . .  .  . .  92 95 96 97  LIST OF TABLES PAGE I  II  III  IV  V  VI  VII  VIII  IX  Wetzel G r i d Development L e v e l s f o r E x p e r i mental and C o n t r o l Groups . . . . . . Sample D i s t r i b u t i o n f o r the F i n a l T e s t i n g o f the C o n t r o l and Experimental Groups  .  .  . . .  Comparison o f the Means Between Experimental and C o n t r o l Groups o f the F i n a l T e s t s f o r Height, Weight, and Lung C a p a c i t y i n Grades One, Three, and Four C o r r e l a t i o n o f Height, Weight, and Lung C a p a c i t y to M a t u r i t y , Motor A b i l i t y , Strength, and Working C a p a c i t y of C h i l d r e n i n Grades One, Three and Four  .  6  7  43  .  .44  Comparison o f the Means Between Experimental and C o n t r o l Groups o f the F i n a l T e s t s f o r Arm G i r t h i n Grades One and Three . . .  .46  C o r r e l a t i o n of Arm G i r t h and Thigh G i r t h to Strength, Motor A b i l i t y , M a t u r i t y , Growth, and Working C a p a c i t y F a c t o r s o f C h i l d r e n i n Grades One, Three and Four  47  Comparison o f the Means and C o n t r o l Groups o f C h r o n o l o g i c a l Age and Grades One, Three and  49  Between Experimental the F i n a l T e s t s f o r S k e l e t a l Age i n Four  C o r r e l a t i o n o f C h r o n o l o g i c a l Age and S k e l e t a l Age to Growth, Motor A b i l i t y , Strength, and Working C a p a c i t y o f C h i l d r e n i n Grades One, Three and Four  50  Comparison o f the Means Between Experimental and C o n t r o l Groups o f the F i n a l Test f o r Standing Broad Jump and S h u t t l e Run i n Grades One, Three and Four  52  PAGE X  XI  XII  XIII  XIV  XV  XVI  XVII  XVIII  C o r r e l a t i o n o f S h u t t l e Run' and Standing Broad Jump to M a t u r i t y , Growth, Strength, and Working C a p a c i t y F a c t o r s o f C h i l d r e n i n Grades One, Three and Four  . 5 3  Comparison o f the Means Between Experimental and C o n t r o l Groups o f the F i n a l Tests f o r the G r i p Strength and F l e x e d Arm Bar Hang i n Grades One, Three and FOur . . . . .  .  C o r r e l a t i o n o f G r i p Strength and Flexed Arm Bar Hang to Growth, M a t u r i t y , Motor A b i l i t y , and Working C a p a c i t y F a c t o r s o f C h i l d r e n i n Grades One, Three and Four  . 5 6  Comparison o f the Means Between Experimental and C o n t r o l Groups o f the F i n a l Tests f o r Standing R e s t i n g Heart Rate and Steady Heart Rate i n Grades One, Three and Four .  . 5 8  55  C o r r e l a t i o n o f Standing R e s t i n g Heart Rate and Steady Heart Rate to Growth, Motor A b i l i t y , M a t u r i t y and Strength o f C h i l d r e n i n Grades One, Three and Four . . . . ... . . ..  59  Comparison o f the Means o f the I n i t i a l and F i n a l T e s t i n g W i t h i n the Experimental Groups f o r Height, Weight, and Lung C a p a c i t y i n Grades One, Three and Four  61  Comparison o f the Means o f the I n i t i a l and F i n a l T e s t i n g W i t h i n the Experimental Groups f o r Arm G i r t h and Thigh G i r t h i n Grades One and Three  62  Comparison o f the Means o f the I n i t i a l and F i n a l T e s t i n g W i t h i n the Experimental Groups f o r Standing Broad Jump and S h u t t l e Run i n Grades One, Three and Four  6.4  Comparison o f the Means o f the I n i t i a l and F i n a l T e s t i n g W i t h i n the Experimental Groups f o r the G r i p Strength and Flexed Arm Bar Hang i n Grades One, Three and Four  65  ' ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  The  w r i t e r wishes  to express h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n  members o f h i s m a s t e r c o m m i t t e e . given  t o D r . H. D. W h i t t l e  generous a s s i s t a n c e Special Principal, Richard  Particular recognition i s  and D r . R. G. H i n d m a r c h f o r t h e i r  and g u i d a n c e .  thanks a r e g i v e n  and h i s s t a f f  t o Mr. C. W.  of physical  McBride Elementary School,  participated,  with  to the •  McLachlan,  education teachers o f S i r  and t o t h e c h i l d r e n who  their enthusiastic  co-operation,  i n this  study. Many t h a n k s t o D r . S. R. Brown, R e s e a r c h D i r e c t o r o f the  School o f P h y s i c a l  British  Columbia,  facilities  Education  and R e c r e a t i o n ,  f o r h i s assistance  o f t h e Human P e r f o r m a n c e  University of  i n t e s t i n g and f o r t h e Laboratory.  CHAPTER I'  INTRODUCTION  The two of  very important t h e home.  little The  g r o w i n g and m a t u r i n g environments.  This  control.  child  The p r i m a r y  i s a continuing process  The s e c o n d a r y  of the child,  should be g i v e n socially,  influence i s that  o v e r w h i c h we h a v e  influence i s that o f the school.  e f f e c t o f the school, p a r t i c u l a r l y  years  i s exposed t o a t l e a s t  i n the e a r l y  i s o f c o n s i d e r a b l e importance.  growing Each  t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o m a t u r e and d e v e l o p  physically,  and e m o t i o n a l l y ,  child  mentally,  to the best o f h i s  ability. Physical  education  should be regarded  f a c e t o f the c h i l d ' s developmental number o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s are  experiences.  demands c a r e f u l  necessary  The l a r g e  selection  i f we  t o be s u c c e s s f u l i n a c h i e v i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s s e t o u t f o r  each c h i l d .  Williams  and B r c w n e l l  o f man* s p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s conducted  the t o t a l  a t one s i n g l e p u r p o s e , The  (1) s u g g e s t  E a c h a c t i v i t y h a s i t s own  programme o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  the development o f t h e whole  formative period o f childhood  elementary  t h a t " t h e sum  a r e s e l e c t e d as t o t h e k i n d and  as t o t h e o u t c o m e s " .  p o s e ; however,  the  as a  school years.  aims  person.  i s centered  C e r t a i n experiences  pur-  will  around  2  profoundly  a f f e c t not only  social,  growth, b u t a l s o p h y s i c a l growth. educational  institution  emotional,  .It i s t h e purpose o f the  to create  an e n v i r o n m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n  conducive t o the achievement o f d e s i r e d I n many s c h o o l under  goals.  systems p h y s i c a l  t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f an a c c r e d i t e d  teacher,  b e g i n w i t h grade four,  and m e n t a l  education  physical  some as l a t e  classes,  education  as g r a d e  five.  Do t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e l o w e r g r a d e s n o t d e s e r v e and w a r r a n t the  s p e c i a l i z e d programmes t h e i r  older brothers  are  obtaining?  and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y  A well  organized  programme o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i m p o r t a n t means  and  sisters administered  i s p r o b a b l y one o f t h e most  u s e d t o meet t h e n e e d s o f e l e m e n t a r y  school  children. The by  objective evaluation  o f such  is  achieved  c o m p a r i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s o f d i f f e r e n t programmes i n t e r m s o f  some v a r i a b l e s o f p h y s i c a l g r o w t h . designed  to obtain  information  The p r e s e n t  pated  study i s  on t h e d i f f e r e n c e s  g r o w t h o f c h i l d r e n , i n g r a d e s one, t h r e e ,  an  a programme  i n physical  and f o u r , who  i n two d i f f e r e n t programmes o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ;  accelerated  programme  and a r e g u l a r  particithat i s ,  programme.  PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The accelerated  purpose o f t h i s physical  s t u d y i s t o examine t h e e f f e c t an  education  programme h a s o n p h y s i c a l and  m o t o r g r o w t h o f c h i l d r e n i n g r a d e s one, t h r e e ,  and f o u r .  3  In are  constructing  the study,  the following  questions  examined: 1.  Do c h i l d r e n , in  o f t h e same g r a d e , who  an a c c e l e r a t e d  show g r e a t e r pate: 2.  Do c h i l d r e n , the  programme o f p h y s i c a l  strength  i n a regular  participate  t h a n c h i l d r e n who  physical  education partici-  e d u c a t i o n programme?  o f t h e same g r a d e , who p a r t i c i p a t e  two d i f f e r e n t programmes o f p h y s i c a l  differ  s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n anthropometrical  in  education measure-  ments? 3.  Do c h i l d r e n who p a r t i c i p a t e programme agility pate  4.  score higher  tests  on t h e motor  total  appraisal,  programme  d i d they a l s o  partici-  achieved have  skeletal maturity?  Do c h i l d r e n , who p a r t i c i p a t e programme, test  a b i l i t y and  programme?  I f c h i l d r e n o f the accelerated  greater  accelerated  i n c o m p a r i s o n t o c h i l d r e n who  i n the regular  a greater  5.  i n the  i n the  accelerated  show s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n t h e i r  scores  from t h e i n i t i a l  to the f i n a l  test?  S T A T E M E N T OF T H E P R O B L E M The not on  problem  an a c c e l e r a t e d some s e l e c t e d  i n t h i s study i s t o determine whether o r  physical  e d u c a t i o n programme h a s any e f f e c t s  aspects o f p h y s i c a l  growth o f young  children.  4  J U S T I F I C A T I O N OF THE PROBLEM The is  e x p o s u r e o f young c h i l d r e n t o p h y s i c a l  not a novel  begins  idea.  to play  muscular  The young c h i l d  a t t h e e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e moment.  system develops,  his ability  d i f f e r e n t movement p a t t e r n s During perience ought vity  i s forever  activity  active.  He  As h i s n e u r o -  t o p e r f o r m new and  increases.  the kindergarten  period  t h e b a s i c movement p a t t e r n s .  t o have the o p p o r t u n i t y  the c h i l d In school  to express  should  ex-  the c h i l d  and d e v e l o p  these  patterns. This  investigation will  things occur: (a)  be j u s t i f i e d  i f one o f two  •  the c h i l d r e n o f the accelerated p h y s i c a l education with  programme b e n e f i t t o a g r e a t e r  relation  t o p h y s i c a l growth  extent  characteristics,  or (b)  f u r t h e r i n q u i r y and i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s i n i t i a t e d into  t h e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f t h e p h y s i c a l  education  programme i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y  particularly  the kindergarten  school  and p r i m a r y  divi-  sions.  LIMITATIONS Initial administered,  testing  o f t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p was n o t  due t o c e r t a i n u n f o r e s e e n  difficulties  at the  acti-  5  administrative level.  T h e r e f o r e , i t was  o f t h e random s e l e c t i o n o f s u b j e c t s their  r e s p e c t i v e grades,  the c o n t r o l This  mined  i s supported by the f a c t  b a s e d on academic  investigator  from the Wetzel G r i d above a s s u m p t i o n . close (Table  ability  employed  that  and m e n t a l  were  age, as d e t e r -  year.  the Developmental  (2) t o d e t e r m i n e  similar.  the classes  Levels  the v a l i d i t y o f the  T h i s method o f a n a l y s i s  shows  a relatively  s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l 1).  from  t h e means and s t a n d a r d s d e v i a t i o n s o f  at the beginning of the school The  because  t h e two g r o u p s  and e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s w e r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y  assumption  homogenous,  into  assumed t h a t ,  groups.  TABLE I  WETZEL GRID DEVELOPMENTAL LEVELS FOR EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS  NUMBER  STANDARD DEVIATION  MEAN  STANDARD ERROR OF THE MEAN  SIGNIFICANT t-VALUE  SIGNIFICANCE AT 5%  Z  E  9  9  53.6  51.5  6.32  12.57  2.20  4.40  2.31 df=8  2.31 df=8  SIG.  NOT SIG.  0  8  83.9  72.1  17.63  14.76  5.96  5.64  2.26 df=9  2.36 df=7  NOT SIG.  NOT SIG.  0  8  90.6  90.1  17.97  19.92  6.09  7.57  2.26 df=9  2.36 df=7  NOT SIG.  NOT SIG.  C  E  C  E  C  E  C = CONTROL GROUP E = EXPERIMENTAL GROUP  C  E  C  E  7  DELIMITATIONS The  subjects i n this  Richard McBride For  Elementary  testing  School.  purposes,  was r e p r e s e n t e d b y one s e x . indicated  tion  t h e random sample i n e a c h  The d i s t r i b u t i o n  grade  o f t h e samples i s  i n Table I I . The  T h e r e was  s t u d y were s t u d e n t s o f S i r  s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d  a two week b r e a k  f o r Christmas  after  over  a f i f t e e n week  t h e s e v e n t h week o f  period. instruc-  vacation.  TABLE I I  SAMPLE DISTRIBUTION FOR THE FINAL TESTING OF THE CONTROL AND  NUMBER  GROUP  EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS  GRADE  SEX  9 9  CONTROL EXPERIMENTAL  1 1  MALE MALE  10 8  CONTROL EXPERIMENTAL  3 3  FEMALE FEMALE  10 8  CONTROL EXPERIMENTAL  4 4  MALE MALE  8  DEFINITIONS The d e f i n i t i o n s e x p r e s s e d h e r e i n the purposes o f t h i s 1.  Accelerated  p l a n n e d programme  of activity  is a  taught by the each  period  minutes.  Regular p h y s i c a l education t h a t programme  programme  refers to  as o u t l i n e d i n t h e p r e s e n t  Columbia Curriculum.  I t i s administered  British on a  bi-weekly b a s i s by the r e g u l a r  classroom  e x c e p t g r a d e f o u r who  a tri-weekly  gramme. 3.  programme  on a t r i - w e e k l y b a s i s ,  consisting of forty 2.  followed  E a c h p e r i o d was  Physical traits physical  only  study.  p h y s i c a l education  investigator  are a p p l i c a b l e  teacher, pro-  f o r t y minutes i n length.  are d i s t i n g u i s h i n g features o f  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s measured by the f o l l o w i n g  variables: (a)  Arm g i r t h at  (b)  i t sgreatest  Thigh g i r t h thigh  (c)  of the l e f t  arm  circumference.  i s t h e measurement o f t h e  e x a c t l y below the g l u t e a l  left  fold.  L u n g c a p a c i t y i s t h e amount o f a i r t h a t c a n be e x p i r e d tion  (d)  i s t h e measurement  a f t e r the deepest p o s s i b l e  inspira-  (3) .  Dynamic s t r e n g t h  i s t h e measure o f the f o r c e  t h a t i s exerted on the hand nianuometer. (e)  S t a t i c s t r e n g t h i s the measure o f l e n g t h o f time one flexed  the  i s able to m a i n t a i n  a  arm bar hang.  Motor t r a i t i s synonymous w i t h motor a b i l i t y , i s the immediate c a p a c i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l perform a s p e c i f i c task  to  (4).  A g i l i t y i s the a b i l i t y to change the p o s i t i o n d i r e c t i o n o f the body Skeletal  Age  which  and  (5).  i s the degree o f s k e l e t a l development  of the r i g h t hand and w r i s t determined by  the  G r e u l i c h - P y l e Hand W r i s t X-Ray method. C h r o n o l o g i c a l Age  i s the age o f the c h i l d  months) at the time o f the i n i t i a l  and  (years,  final  testing. Submaximal work task i s the measure of the  length  o f time taken to a d j u s t to the g i v e n work l o a d developing  a steady h e a r t r a t e w i t h i n p l u s  minus four  beats.  or  by  10  REFERENCES W i l l i a m s , J.F. and B r o w n e l l , C.L., The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , P h i l a d e l p h i a , W.B. Saunders Co., 1947, ( t h i r d e d i t i o n ) , p. 20. E v a l u a t i n g P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s i n Terms o f Growth and Development; The W e t z e l G r i d , Department o f N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , 1949, Ottawa. Mathews, D.K., Measurements i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , W.B. Saunders Co., P h i l a d e l p h i a , 19S3, (second e d i t i o n ) p. Ibid.,  p.  123.  McCloy, C.H., T e s t s and Measurements i n H e a l t h and E d u c a t i o n , A p p e l t o n - C e n t u r y C r o f t s , I n c . , New 1954, ( t h i r d e d i t i o n ) p. 75.  Physical York,  64.  CHAPTER I I  REVIEW OF  In t h i s  study,  age w e r e t h e  subjects.  a r e meagre.  The  related tion  RELATED LITERATURE  c h i l d r e n of elementary Studies  under the  s t a t e d age  following  1.  P h y s i c a l Development  2.  Motor A b i l i t y  3. 4.  and  pre-school  above age  i n v e s t i g a t o r t h e r e f o r e extended  l i t e r a t u r e beyond the  i s pooled  i n v o l v i n g the  and  levels.  levels  the review The  informa-  headings:  Agility  Strength Cardiovascular  1. Although  Appraisal  PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT  there  a r e many ways o f  assessing physical  development,  the b a t t e r y of  evaluations  related.  To  appreciate  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the v a r i o u s  and  a s s o c i a t i o n to the p r e s e n t  will  their  the  are nevertheless  study,  the  closely methods  presentation  encompass t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1.  thigh girth, 2.  of  Anthropometrical  Measurements:  u p p e r arm  and  Maturity:  Anthropometrical Studies  girth,  hand-wrist  lung  height,  weight,  capacity.  x-ray.  Measurements i n which  age,  h e i g h t , w e i g h t v a r i a b l e s have  12  been used v a r y i n c o n c l u s i o n s as t o t h e i r v a l u e and r e l a t i o n s h i p to other parameters o f measurements i n p h y s i c a l Paterson  education.  (1) i n h i s summary o f anthropometric  o f growth d i s c u s s e d the r e l a t i v e importance weight i n measuring p h y s i c a l development.  o f h e i g h t and E a r l y s t u d i e s were  mainly c o n f i n e d t o h e i g h t and weight measurements. years o t h e r forms o f anthropometric  analysis  In l a t e r  techniques have e v o l v e d .  These, however, d i d not e l i m i n a t e the r e l a t i v e importance o f h e i g h t and weight data, as they are s t i l l  universally  accepted  t o o l s f o r the assessment and a n a l y s i s o f growth. In anthropometry, l i n e a r and c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l measurements are employed f r e q u e n t l y because o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e ease o f o b t a i n i n g r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n concerning p h y s i c a l growth, p h y s i c a l development as a r e s u l t o f a c t i v i t y , o r atrophy as a result of i n a c t i v i t y  (2) .• R a r i c k (3) i n d i c a t e d t h a t muscular  a c t i v i t y o f c h i l d r e n and t h e i r consequent development can be e a s i l y demonstrated by an o b s e r v a b l e i n c r e a s e i n b r e a d t h and g i r t h measurements.  C l a r k and P e t e r s o n  t i o n to Rarick's i n d i c a t i o n s ,  (4) i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c -  found no s i g n i f i c a n t measure o f  chest and upper arm g i r t h s i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between nonp a r t i c i p a n t and a t h l e t i c groups.  S i g n i f i c a n t t - r a t i o s were  o b t a i n e d o n l y when o u t s t a n d i n g i n d i v i d u a l s were compared w i t h non-participants. M a t u r a t i o n a l index, d e f i n e d by c h r o n o l o g i c a l age,  h e i g h t , and weight as r e p o r t e d by Carpenter  (5), showed a sub-  s t a n t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n v/ith composite scores o b t a i n e d on events w i t h c h i l d r e n i n the f i r s t  three  athletic  grades.  V i t a l c a p a c i t y has been known f o r a l o n g time as important  index of g e n e r a l p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n .  Cureton  an  (6)  and numerous other i n v e s t i g a t o r s have shown t h a t the more a c t i v e groups had g r e a t e r v i t a l  capacity.  However, i t must be  kept i n mind t h a t the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the r a t i o o f v i t a l c i t y t o weight i s a v e r y important  factor.  capa-  McCloy (7) s t a t e s  t h a t there seems to be some r e l a t i o n s h i p between body b u i l d and lung c a p a c i t y .  Motor performance, h e i g h t , weight  and  p h y s i o l o g i c a l age c o r r e l a t e s h i g h l y w i t h lung c a p a c i t y . has been observed  It  t h a t there i s a tendency i n the r e d u c t i o n o f  c o r r e l a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s w i t h lung c a p a c i t y d u r i n g the pubescent y e a r s .  T h i s i s o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to t h i s ^  study as the m a j o r i t y o f the s u b j e c t s have not a t t a i n e d t h e i r | pubescent development. C l a r k and P e t e r s e n d i f f e r e n c e at the  .05  (4) r e p o r t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t  l e v e l between the lung c a p a c i t y means o f  a t h l e t i c groups and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s at the upper elementary school  level. De L o t t o  (8) w i t h 348 boys, 9 to 12 years o f  age,  s t u d i e d the e f f e c t s o f a two hour a t h l e t i c programme, administ e r e d once a week f o r e i g h t months.  The measurements of h e i g h t ,  14  weight, s t a n d i n g broad jump, r i g h t and  l e f t g r i p s , and  lung  c a p a c i t y showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the c o n t r o l and  experimental groups. C l a r k and  Harrison  (9) upon comparing the r e t a r d e d  advanced maturers of the same c h r o n o l o g i c a l age f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r lung c a p a c i t y .  The  showed a s i g n i significance in  d i f f e r e n c e favoured the 15 year o l d group to a g r e a t e r  extent  than the younger age groups.  T h i s seems to be  w i t h McCloy's  on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of lung  (7) o b s e r v a t i o n  c i t y to pubescent  and  i n agreement capa-  years.  Maturity Chronological  age has,  from the b e g i n n i n g o f  studies  o f p h y s i c a l growth, been used as the measure o f the extent maturation. satisfactory,  While c h r o n o l o g i c a l age  seems to be  relatively  i t possesses c e r t a i n shortcomings as a  f o r comparison.  of  standard  C h i l d r e n of the same c h r o n o l o g i c a l age demon-  strate large variations i n size.  Greulich  the c h r o n o l o g i c a l age o f c h i l d r e n up second decade o f l i f e  i s nothing  of the l e n g t h o f time they l i v e d .  (10) has  found  to the e a r l y p a r t o f  that the  more than j u s t the i n d i c a t i o n Chronological  age has  limi-  ted r e l a t i o n s h i p to the amount o f p r o g r e s s c h i l d r e n make toward achieving maturity.  According  to Todd  (11),  the phenomena o f  m a t u r a t i o n i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f growth. i m p l i e s both p r o g r e s s i v e  maturity  and  Maturation  i n c r e a s e i n dimension.  15  T h i s p r i n c i p l e was  confirmed  concluded  that maturation  different  and  search  m a t u r i t y has  not  that  skeletal  early  and  growth p r o c e s s e s  for a single  achieved  from b i r t h  age  tool  children.  there  the b e s t  and  i n the  Hindmarch  high  .01  level  of  ability,  and  h a v e shown t h a t b o y s i n u p p e r e l e m e n t a r y participated  found  as much as  two  investigators physical weight,  age.  and  years. found  and  Fait  I n t e r e s t i n g to note or  lung capacity.  have been i n f l u e n c e d by  sig-  school  and  junior  or  in  an  greater  exposed to  were  poorer  the a t h l e t e s i n height,  Rowe e x p l a i n e d t h e  the p o s s i b i l i t y  16,  that a l l three  children  e d u c a t i o n programmes o u t g a i n e d and  on  (15,  d i f f e r e n c e s i n some c a s e s  non-athletes  that  i t was  in interschool athletics  The  of  r e a c t i o n time  i n t e n s i v e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme d e m o n s t r a t e d advance i n s k e l e t a l  suggest  confidence.  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f Rowe, Krogman,  s c h o o l who  (13)  r e t a r d e d m a t u r i t y boys  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r means,  17)  differed  i s general  (14)  measures by  The  very  identification  strength,- motor  the  who  maturational  Bayley  v a r i o u s body s i z e ,  n i f i c a n t beyond  (12)  measure o f p h y s i c a l  however,  Bayer  advanced m a t u r i t y boys surpassed  having  are  development  valid  represents  i s a valued  l a t e maturing  and  i t s end;  to maturity.  age  Greulich  size.  agreement t h a t s k e l e t a l index  and  Simmons and  t h a t changes i n s k e l e t a l  from changes i n body The  by  findings  t h a t the  may  children  16 p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n good p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programmes matured earlier,  thereby  growth.  I t was  a l r e a d y completing p o i n t e d out  (4, 15,  some of t h e i r 16,  the d i f f e r e n c e i n s i z e o f c h i l d r e n was  17)  that, i n g e n e r a l ,  more s i g n i f i c a n t i n  j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l than i n elementary s c h o o l . comparison was  between c h i l d r e n i n two  adolescent  The. b a s i s o f  programmes o f c o n t r a s t -  i n g i n t e n s i t y and p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n i n t e r school  athletics. C l a r k and Peterson  (4) r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y  higher  s t a n d i n g h e i g h t i n elementary s c h o o l f o r a t h l e t i c p a r t i c i p a n t s as compared to n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s : the t - v a l u e s were 3.27 respectively. s k e l e t a l age.  and  2.64  They a l s o observed c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n . The d i f f e r e n c e s Were s i g n i f i c a n t between s k e l e t a l  age means o n l y when the o u t s t a n d i n g with non-participants. Whittle  (18)  The  i n d i v i d u a l s were compared  t - r a t i o s ranged from 2.20  s t u d i e d the e f f e c t s of a t h r e e  programme o f good and poor elementary s c h o o l p h y s i c a l In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , the two  to  3.86.  year education.  groups p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the  two  types o f programmes showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n s k e l e t a l age, weight, h e i g h t , Wetzel developmental l e v e l , McCloy's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n index  2.  and  I.  MOTOR ABILITY AND  AGILITY  Motor a b i l i t y i m p l i e s the degree of management o f one's body i n v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s .  Individual differences exist  17  from childhood, individual but  there  of  through adolescence,  school  age  can  are observable  to maturity.  p e r f o r m e v e r y d a y motor  consequent motor a b i l i t y  extent,  the The  activity  of  the  opportunities  g r o w t h and  and  s u p p o r t e d by  Kane and  standing  broad  child the  balance  (1.9.) .  Meredith  jump a b i l i t y o f  The (20)  child  school  level,  However, b e y o n d t h i s Rarick  linear  and  it ing  was  found  their  to a c e r t a i n  i n an  relationship.  (22)  r e p o r t on  no  age  i n the  f o r boys the  w e i g h t on He  further  findings  obtained  relative motor  observed  a  general  girls.  increase.  t h a t the  influence  c h i l d r e n i s not  the motor performance o f  i s of l i t t l e  the  Their  b o t h b o y s and  suggested  young s c h o o l  that maturity  and  is  s t u d y on  e a r l y s t u d y on  height,  t h e r e was  Oyster  statement  increase  the  strength,  children.  to p u b e r t y by  age,  p h y s i c a l m a t u r a t i o n on In  (21)  agility,  the means a r e g r e a t e r  c h r o n o l o g i c a l age,  t r e n d o f i m p r o v e m e n t up  defined.  and  McCloy  p e r f o r m a n c e f o u n d no  and  had.  i n their  means a t e a c h age  influence of  reflects,  latter  i s a proportionate  for g i r l s .  facility  development o f c h i l d r e n a f f e c t s  showed t h a t t h e r e  than  activities,  Motor development  components o f m o t o r d e v e l o p m e n t s u c h as flexibility,  normal  d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r e c i s i o n and  w i t h w h i c h t h e s e movements a r e made. the  The  of  clearly  children  consequence i n e x p l a i n -  i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n motor p r o f i c i e n c y . Many e a r l y s t u d i e s  i n motor development i n v o l v e d  only  18  the  finer  c o o r d i n a t e d movements o f  t h e . a r m and  fingers.  The  m a j o r p o r t i o n o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s done i n m o t o r d e v e l o p m e n t  of  the l a r g e muscle type has  five  years  o f age  (23). the  and  Jenkins  age  been c o n f i n e d t o c h i l d r e n under  to the p r e a d o l e s c e n t  (24)  a l s o emphasizes  group o f t h r e e t o ten years  area of research.  Seils  performance i n running to o l d e r ages.  Of  (23)  (.51)  running  skeletal  age  fiat while  with  i n h i s study  performance. agility  o f boys  and  and  girls  and  maturational correlation correlations  respectively.  Seils  they  shown b e t w e e n s k e l e t a l m a t u r i t y s i z e o f the  correlation  age was  partialed  i n c r e a s e d as  increased.  Govatos  age  and  The  g i v e n more  and  standing broad reduced  .56  jump.  when  (25)  of  elementary  a t each  c e r t a i n mean m o t o r s k i l l  age  The  test  subjects  school  t h a t t h e mean m o t o r p e r f o r m a n c e o f increment  was  chronolo-  mean m o t o r p e r f o r m a n c e  i n h i s study  motor  signifi-  a c o r r e l a t i o n of  m a t u r i t y o f the  showed an  levels  (19)  to  concluded  the p h y s i o l o g i c a l  pointed out girls  c o u l d be  c o e f f i c i e n t was out.  younger  jump t e s t s  Espenschade  various  i n c r e a s e from  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s k e l e t a l m a t u r i t y  I n a study by  b o y s and  t h a t motor  standing broad  cance.  children,  states that  indicated  High p o s i t i v e  great,  scores  levels  a neglected  showed t h e h i g h e s t  p e r f o r m a n c e s were n o t  gical  represents  a l l the p h y s i c a l growth  skeletal maturity  were o b s e r v e d  adolescent  t h i s when she  showed a c o n s t a n t  variablesj with  and  level.  both  At  p e r f o r m a n c e s were  19  dominant, whereas a t other insignificant.  age l e v e l s the same were q u i t e  There was evidence o f sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  mean motor performances as w e l l . passed the g i r l s  For example, the boys s u r -  at the 7, 8, 9 and 11 year age l e v e l s i n the  s t a n d i n g broad jump, whereas g i r l s were s u p e r i o r to boys i n the jump and reach  a t ages 6, 7, 10 and 11 y e a r s .  3. Strength  STRENGTH  t e s t i n g i s an important measure i n e v a l u a t i n g  the e f f e c t s o f a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as a t e s t f o r determining 1880  a t Harvard.  programme.  The hand g r i p  s t r e n g t h was used by Sargent  (26)  in  Since then g r i p s t r e n g t h has been used as a  measure o f p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , p h y s i o l o g i c a l growth, and hand dominance.  G r i p s t r e n g t h i s one o f the most r e l i a b l e dynamome-  t r i c a l measures o f human s t r e n g t h . t h a t g r i p s t r e n g t h i s a reasonable strength.  Bookwalter's  Bookwalter  (27) has s t a t e d  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t o t a l body  (27) g r i p s t r e n g t h norms may be used  to compare i n d i v i d u a l s a c c o r d i n g  t o age, weight, and c l a s s i f i -  c a t i o n index c a t e g o r i e s . The  theory  t h a t a g a i n i n s t r e n g t h does not occur  d u r i n g r a p i d growth has been r e f u t e d by s e v e r a l Meredith  (28) r e p o r t e d  t h a t boys i n c r e a s e d i n g r i p s t r e n g t h  35 9 p e r cent from s i x t o e i g h t e e n found t h a t g i r l s during  authors.  increased  years o f age. Metheny (29)  26 0 p e r cent i n g r i p s t r e n g t h  a comparable growth p e r i o d .  Kintis  (30) found t h a t a  20  c h i l d ' s s t r e n g t h i n c r e a s e d p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y to weight at each grade l e v e l except i n grades 3 and 4 where s t r e n g t h remained constant  r e l a t i v e to weight.  Gates  (31) d i s c o v e r e d w i t h  a  sampling o f j u n i o r primary f o u r t h grade p u p i l s , g r i p s t r e n g t h correlated  .45 w i t h height,  and  .40 with; weight.  Crampton  (32)  b e l i e v e s growth r a t e s are dependent upon pubescence p e r i o d s and not age,  and  s t r e n g t h occur (33) was  t h a t a c c e l e r a t i o n s i n weight, h e i g h t  at the same time.  f e l t the gains suggestive  g r i p s t r e n g t h and  i n muscular s t r e n g t h o f boys they t e s t e d  Yet Baldwin  (34)  i n h i s s t u d i e s found r i g h t  c h r o n o l o g i c a l age had  boys between the ages o f seven and  a c o r r e l a t i o n of f i f t e e n years.  (35)  s u b s t a n t i a t e d Baldwin's f i n d i n g s w i t h  .765  f o r boys between the ages o f 3 and 13 years  two  Heebol-Nielson  of the o p e r a t i o n o f some u n i d e n t i f i e d matura-  tional influence.  for  Asmussen and  and  variables.  In R a r i c k  physical maturity  and Oyster's  .762  Johnson  a c o r r e l a t i o n of  (36)  f o r the same  study, o f the  i n d i c a t o r s employed, c h r o n o l o g i c a l age  four was  the most important i n e x p l a i n i n g the v a r i a n c e i n s t r e n g t h . Baldwin  (37) o b t a i n e d  c o r r e l a t i o n s between g r i p  s t r e n g t h and h e i g h t , weight and b r e a t h i n g  c a p a c i t y and  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between boys' g r i p s t r e n g t h and weight more meaningful than between s t r e n g t h the o p p o s i t e was  and h e i g h t .  For  found was girls,  true.  Metheny (29) v/as concerned w i t h  the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f  21  grip  strength  breathing  t o age,  capacity.  height, She  and  age  The h a n d has few.  consistently  (38)  and  discovered  concluded  and  breathing  .24  and  .75  or  capacity,  and w h i c h i s t h e  cent  per  Martin  o f her  two  c e n t were c o n s i s t e n t l y  tendency toward  Johnson  ambidexterity  enough t o p r e s e n t sides of  a  sample w e r e  c e n t were i n c o n s i s t e n t .  neither constant  stronger  t o name b u t  i n c r e a s i n g c h r o n o l o g i c a l age.  t h e r e f o r e the  equally  and  per  per  3.3  a significant  or  Martin  two  sides  any  serious  t h e b o d y c a n be  (39)  of  assumed  strong.  Carpenter boys  girth,  the p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e between the  the body are  be  height,  "handedness"  f o u n d 61.7  right-handedness with  to  of  35.0  arm  sexes.  "right-handed",  "left-handed",  error,  and  i n t e r e s t e d H e i n l e i n , J o h n s o n and  Heinlein  (35)  f o r both  question  upper  a r r i v e d at c o r r e l a t i o n s o f  b e t t e r between g r i p s t r e n g t h weight,  weight,  (40)  e s t a b l i s h e d c o r r e l a t i o n s of  f o r g i r l s between g r i p s t r e n g t h  and  .38  motor  for ability  of children.  4.  CARDIOVASCULAR APPRAISAL  Cardiovascular which the h e a r t and  and  c o n d i t i o n r e f e r s to the  blood  efficiency  with  vessels function i n transporting  fuel  removing waste products„  appraise  heart-lung  Cardiovascular  e f f i c i e n c y during  amount o f p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e .  A  or  t e s t s attempt  after  some  to  specific  s u b - m a x i m a l work t a s k was  used  22  i n t h i s study.  Maximal work tasks  are not s u i t a b l e f o r  use because they demand an ' a l l - o u t '  e f f o r t by  clinical  the s u b j e c t  Too much depends upon the w i l l - p o w e r and d e t e r m i n a t i o n  of  (41). the  s u b j e c t , which v a r y e x t e n s i v e l y between i n d i v i d u a l s . Sjostrand  (42) d e f i n e s working c a p a c i t y as the maximum  amount o f work t h a t can be performed on by  a b i c y c l e , and measured  an ergometer, under a steady s t a t e . Adams (43) p r e f e r s e x p r e s s i n g  t e s t s as working c a p a c i t y .  the r e s u l t s o f f i t n e s s  T h i s enables a s u b j e c t to  h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s p e c i a l programmes. v i d u a l s w i t h each other Pulse  and  Comparison o f  r e s p i r a t o r y r a t e s are the most s u i t a b l e f e e l s Wahlund  t h a t p u l s e r a t e i s as accurate  (44).  Sjostrand  an index o f working  c a p a c i t y and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s as "other more complicated ments o f maximum oxygen uptake and reported  indi-  and w i t h a group i s a l s o f e a s i b l e .  i n d i c a t o r s o f working c a p a c i t y , (42) r e p o r t s  evaluate  t h a t the d e t e r m i n a t i o n  cardiac output.  measure-  Cumming  (4.5)  o f oxygen consumption would  appear to o f f e r no p a r t i c u l a r advantages, and p h y s i c a l working c a p a c i t y o f c h i l d r e n may simply (41)  be determined w i t h c o n f i d e n c e  by  d e t e r m i n i n g the p u l s e r a t e at known work l o a d s .  s t a t e s t h a t the p u l s e r a t e i s based on the simple  Cumming fact  t h a t the w e l l - t r a i n e d i n d i v i d u a l i s able to perform a g i v e n work l o a d at a lower p u l s e r a t e than the u n t r a i n e d i n d i v i d u a l s . Cumming (45)  i n another study warns t h a t the working  capacity  23  of  t h o s e i n p o o r c o n d i t i o n may b e s l i g h t l y  pulse  r a t e methods a r e u s e d . Several  i n v e s t i g a t o r s h a v e shown t h a t b e f o r e  boys are superior girls due  u n d e r - e s t i m a t e d when  i n c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y endurance c a p a c i t y  (46). Hebbelink  i n part  puberty, than  (46) s a y s i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s a r e  t o t h e development o f s k i l l  with  age t h a t  influ-  cardiac  output  increase  e n c e s t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f movement. Sjostrand is  (42) c o n t e n d s t h a t  d e p e n d e n t upon t h e p h y s i c a l  working  f i t n e s s o f the i n d i v i d u a l .  c a p a c i t i e s i n a group o f p r i v a t e s c h o o l  e x p o s e d t o more p h y s i c a l to be h i g h e r  training, states  than average.  quency i n c r e a s e d frequency rose  with  Orban  increased  rapidly following  exercise  rate  as t h e e x e r c i s e  val  increased.  (43) r e s o l v e d w o r k i n g  weight, heart  the heart  fre-  the t h i r d minute o f e x e r c i s e  at a decelerating  w i t h age, h e i g h t ,  (41), tended  i n t e n s i t y and h e a r t  but  Adams  children  Cumming  (47) f o u n d  The  volume,  i n t e n s i t y and i n t e r capacity  surface  area,  increased and  degree o f p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g . The  graded e x e r c i s e  o v e r most t e s t s i n t h a t  i tpermits  l o g i c a l parameters before, exercise  and  during,  the study o f v a r i o u s  physio-  and a f t e r c a l i b r a t e d  ( 4 3 ) . E r i c s o n e t a l (48) i n an e x t e n s i v e  pertaining strated  o n a t r e a d m i l l has t h e advantage  experiment  t o t h e e n e r g y c o s t o f t r e a d m i l l w a l k i n g , h a s demon-  the advantages o f t h e t r e a d m i l l i n t h e study o f f i t n e s s  cardiovascular  analysis.  24  REFERENCES.  P a t t e r s o n , D.G., Physique C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , Inc.,  and I n t e l l e c t , 1930.  New  York,  Appleton  S i l l s , F.D., A n t h r o p o m e t r y i n R e l a t i o n To P h y s i c a l P e r f o r m a n c e , S c i e n c e and M e d i c i n e o f E x e r c i s e and S p o r t s , New Y o r k , H a r p e r & B r o t h e r s P u b l i s h e r s , 1960, pp. 40-53. R a r i c k , G.L., E x e r c i s e and Growth, S c i e n c e and M e d i c i n e E x e r c i s e and S p o r t s , New Y o r k , H a r p e r & B r o t h e r s P u b l i s h e r s , 1960, p . 441.  of  C l a r k , H.H., P e t e r s o n , K.H., Contrast of M a t u r a t i o n a l , S t r u c t u r a l , and S t r e n g t h C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f . A t h l e t e s and N o n a t h l e t e s 10 t o 15 y e a r s o f Age, The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V.32, No. 2, May 1961, pp. 163-176. C a r p e n t e r , A., The Measurement o f G e n e r a l M o t o r C a p a c i t y and G e n e r a l M o t o r A b i l i t y i n t h e F i r s t T h r e e G r a d e s , The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 13, No. 4; December 1942. C u r e t o n , T.K., " A n a l y s i s o f V i t a l C a p a c i t y as a T e s t o f C o n d i t i o n f o r H i g h S c h o o l B o y s " , The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 7, No. 4, December 1936, pp. 80-92. M c C l o y , C.H., Young, N.D., T e s t s and M e a s u r e m e n t s i n H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , Nev; Y o r k , A p p l e t o n C e n t u r y - C r o f t s . I n c . , 1954 ( t h i r d e d i t i o n ) pp. 384-395. De  L o t t o , M., The E f f e c t s o f C o m p e t i t i v e A t h l e t i c s on t h e G r o w t h and D e v e l o p m e n t o f P r e - P u b e s c e n t B o y s , D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon, 1954.  C l a r k e , H.H., H a r r i s o n , J.C.E., D i f f e r e n c e s i n P h y s i c a l and M o t o r T r a i t s Between Boys o f A d v a n c e d , N o r m a l , and R e t a r d e d M a t u r i t y , The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 33, No. 1 M a r c h 1962, pp. 13-25. G r e u l i c h , W.W., S k e l e t a l S t a t u s and Dynamics o f t h e Growth P r o c e s s , U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1950. Todd, T..W., A t l a s o f Mosby Co., 1937.  P h y s i c a l Growth, N.J., Princeton  S k e l e t a l Maturation,  St. Louis,  C.V.  25  12.  Simmons, K., G r e u l i c h , W.W., Menarchai Age and the Height, Weight and S k e l e t a l Age o f G i r l s , Age 7 - 1 7 Years, J o u r n a l o f P e d i a t r i c s , V. -22, 1943, pp. 518-548.  13.  Bayer, L.M., Bayler, N., Growth D i a g n o s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1959.  14.  Hindmarch, R.G., S i g n i f i c a n c e o f Physique, M a t u r a t i o n a l , Body S i z e , Strength, Motor A b i l i t y , and R e a c t i o n Time C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of E i g h t Year Old Boys, Microcarded D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon, 1962.  15.  Rowe, F.A., Growth Comparison o f A t h l e t e s and Non-Athletes, The Research Q u a r t e r l y , V. 4, 1933, p. 108.  16.  Krogman, W.M., F a c t o r s of P h y s i c a l Growth of C h i l d r e n as They May Apply to P h y s i c a l Education, American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Health, P h y s i c a l Education, and R e c r e a t i o n Proceedings, 1954, p. 60.  17.  F a i t , H., An A n a l y t i c a l Study o f the E f f e c t s o f Competitive A t h l e t i c s Upon J u n i o r High School Boys, Microcarded D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa, 1951.  18.  W h i t t l e , H.D., E f f e c t s of Elementary School P h y s i c a l Education Upon Aspects o f P h y s i c a l , Motor, and P e r s o n a l i t y Development, The Research Q u a r t e r l y , V. No. 2, May 1962, pp. 249-260,  Chicago,  32,  19.  Espenschade, A., Development o f Motor C o o r d i n a t i o n i n Boys and G i r l s , The Research Q u a r t e r l y , V. 18, No. 1, March 1947, pp. 31-44.  20.  Kane, R.J., Meredith, H.V., A b i l i t y i n the Standing Broad Jump o f Elementary School C h i l d r e n 7, 9 and 11 Years o f Age, The Research Q u a r t e r l y , V. 23, No. 2, May 1952, pp. 198-203.  21.  McCloy, C.H., The I n f l u e n c e o f C h r o n o l o g i c a l Age on Motor Performance, The Research Q u a r t e r l y , V. 6, No. 2, May 1935, pp. 61-64.  22.  R arick, G.L., Oyster, N., P h y s i c a l M a t u r i t y , Muscular Strength and Motor Performance o f Young School-Age Boys, The Research Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 35, No. 4, December 1964, pp. 523-531.  26  23.  S e i l s , L.G., The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Measures o f P h y s i c a l Growth and Gross Motor Performance o f Primary-Grade School C h i l d r e n , The Research Q u a r t e r l y , V. 22, No. 2, May 1951, pp. 244-260.  24.  J e n k i n s , L.M., A Comparative Study o f Motor Achievements o f C h i l d r e n o f F i v e , S i x , and Seven Years of Age, New York; Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1930.  25.  Govatos, L.A., R e l a t i o n s h i p s and Age D i f f e r e n c e s i n Growth Measures and Motor S k i l l s , C h i l d Development, V. 30, 1959.  26.  Sargent, D.A., S t r e n g t h T e s t s and the Strong Men o f Harvard, American P h y s i o l o g i c a l E d u c a t i o n Review, V. 11, p. 108.  27.  Bookwalter, K.W., G r i p S t r e n g t h Norms f o r Males, The Research Q u a r t e r l y , V. 21, October 1950, pp. 249-273.  28.  Meredith, H.V., The Rhythm o f P h y s i c a l Growth: A Study o f E i g h t e e n Anthropometric Measurements on Iowa C i t y White Males Ranging In Age Between B i r t h and Eighteen. Y e a r s . U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa Stud., Stud, i n C h i l d Welfare, V. 11, No. 3, (1935), p. 128.  29.  Metheny, E., B r e a t h i n g C a p a c i t y and G r i p S t r e n g t h o f P r e s c h o o l C h i l d r e n . Univ. Iowa Stud., Stud, i n C h i l d Welfare, V. 18, No. 2, (1941), p. 207.  30.  K i n t i s , P.F., P a t t e r n s o f Growth i n S t r e n g t h of Elementary School Boys. Microcarded T h e s i s (M.S.). University of Wisconsin, 1953.  31.  Gates, A.J., The Nature and E d u c a t i o n a l S i g n i f i c a n c e o f P h y s i c a l S t a t u s and o f Mental, P h y s i o l o g i c a l , S o c i a l and Emotional M a t u r i t y . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, V. 15, 1924.  32.  Crampton, C.W., P h y s i o l o g i c a l Age - A Fundamental P r i n ciple. C h i l d Development, V. 15, 1944, pp. 3-47.  33.  Asmussen, E., and Heebol-Nielson, K., A Dimensional A n a l y s i s o f P h y s i c a l Performance and Growth i n Boys. J . A p p l . P h y s i o l . , V. 6, 1955, pp. 585-592.  27  34.  B a l d w i n , B.T., A n t h r o p o m e t r i c M e a s u r e m e n t s . (In) Terman, L.M., G e n e t i c S t u d i e s o f G e n i u s , V . I . , M e n t a l and P h y s i c a l T r a i t s o f a Thousand G i f t e d C h i l d r e n . S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1926.  35.  J o h n s o n , B., M e n t a l Growth o f C h i l d r e n i n R e l a t i o n t o t h e R a t e o f Growth i n B o d i l y D e v e l o p m e n t . A Report o f t h e B u r e a u o f E d u c a t i o n a l E x p e r i m e n t s , New Y o r k C i t y : E.P. D u t t o n , 1925.  36.  R a r i c k , G.L., and O y s t e r , N., P h y s i c a l M a t u r i t y , M u s c u l a r S t r e n g t h , and M o t o r P e r f o r m a n c e o f Young S c h o o l - A g e Boys. The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 35, December, 1964, p p . 523-531.  37.  B a l d w i n , B.T., The P h y s i c a l Growth o f C h i l d r e n f r o m B i r t h t o M a t u r i t y . U n i v . Iowa S t u d . , S t u d , i n C h i l d W e l f a r e , V. 1, No. 1, 1921, p . 4 1 1 .  38.  H e i n l e i n , J.H., A S t u d y o f D e x t r a l i t y i n C h i l d r e n . Ped. Sem. and J . G e n e t . P s y c h o l . , V. 36, 1929, p p . 91-119.  39.  M a r t i n , G o r d o n E., M u s c u l a r S t r e n g t h and M u s c u l a r Symmetry i n Human B e i n g s . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P h y s i o l o g y , May 1918, p p . 67-73.  40.  C a r p e n t e r , A., T e s t s o f M o t o r E d u c a b i l i t y f o r t h e F i r s t Three Grades. C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , V. 4, 1940, p p . 293299.  41.  Cumming, G.R. and Cumming, P.M., W o r k i n g C a p a c i t y o f Normal C h i l d r e n T e s t e d on a B i c y c l e Ergometer. Can. Med. A s s o c . J . , V. 88, F e b r u a r y 16, 1963, p p . 351-355.  42.  S j o s t r a n d , T., A c t a . Med. S c a n d . 1947, p . 687.  43.  Adams, F.A., L i n d e , L . L . and M i y a k e , H., The P h y s i c a l Working C a p a c i t y o f Normal S c h o o l C h i l d r e n . Pediatrics, V. 28, J u l y 1961, p p . 55-64.  44.  Wahlund, H., D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e P h y s i c a l W o r k i n g C a p a city. A c t a . Med. S c a n d . ( S u p p l . 8 1 5 ) , V. 132, 1948, p . 74.  45.  Cumming, in  G.R.  and D a n z i n g e r ,  Children.  208.  Pediatrics,  R.,  ( S u p p l . 1 9 6 ) , V. 128,  Bicycle  Ergometer  V. 32, A u g u s t  Studies  1963, p p . 202-  28  46.  H e b b e l i n k , D.M., E x e r c i s e T o l e r a n c e o f 6-10 Y e a r O l d C h i l d r e n and t h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f P h y s i c a l P e r f o r m a n c e Capacity. Gymnasion, I I I , . 1966.  47.  O r b a n , W.A.R., B a i l e y , D.A. and B o l o n c h u k , W., Analysis o f S e l e c t e d C a r d i o - P u l m o n a r y V a r i a b l e s o f Young Boys i n an " A l l - O u t E x e r c i s e " . Unpublished Paper.  48.  E r i c k s o n , L, Simonson, E., T a y l o r , H.L., A l e x a n d e r , H. and K e y s , A., The E n e r g y C o s t o f H o r i z o n t a l and G r a d e W a l k i n g on t h e M o t o r - D r i v e n T r e a d m i l l , A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P h y s i o l o g y . V. 145, 1946, p p . 391-401.  CHAPTER I I I  METHODS AND  The the  effects  described  methods and p r o c e d u r e s  i n this  i n investigating  e d u c a t i o n programmes a r e  chapter.  experimental  v a r i a b l e s used  were:  P h y s i c a l Development (a)  Anthropometrical thigh girth,  (b) 2.  employed  o f two t y p e s o f p h y s i c a l  The 1.  PROCEDURES  u p p e r arm g i r t h ,  Maturity: hand-wrist  Motor A b i l i t y broad  measurements: h e i g h t ,  weight,  lung capacity.  x-ray.  and A g i l i t y :  s h u t t l e run,  standing  jump.  3.  Strength: flexed  4.  C a r d i o v a s c u l a r A p p r a i s a l : submaximal work  1.  arm b a r hang, g r i p  strength. task.  •PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT  Height This  i s t h e measurement o f e r e c t b o d y l e n g t h f r o m t h e  soles o f the feet  to the vertex.  t r a g i o n - o r b i t a l e plane body.  The s u b j e c t w i t h b a r e  t o u c h i n g each o t h e r . and  at right  r e a r o f t h e head  Heels,  The h e a d i s h e l d w i t h t h e angles  feet  to the l o n g a x i s o f the  stands  buttocks,  erect with heels  almost  upper p a r t o f t h e back,  are i n contact with  the w a l l to which the  scale  i s attached  (woven-type t a p e ) .  sides  i n a n a t u r a l manner.  A s q u a r e d wooden b l o c k  f i r m l y o n t h e h e a d and a g a i n s t  the wall  One measurement v/as t a k e n p r e c e d i n g mental p e r i o d ,  The arms h a n g a t t h e  to the nearest  i n a h o r i z o n t a l manner.  and one a f t e r  quarter  i s placed  the experi- .  (1/4) i n c h .  Weight The m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t scale. on  The s u b j e c t  the center  preceding half  i n gym  o f the platform.  and o n e a f t e r  a beam-type  platform  and t o p and b a r e f e e t  One measurement was  the experimental  period  stood  taken  to the nearest  (1/2) p o u n d .  Thigh  Girth The m e a s u r i n g  measurement was level  thigh.  instrument  a woven-type t a p e .  of the l e f t  o f t h e maximum p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e m e d i a l  The s u b j e c t  and a t r i g h t stands  s u r f a c e s Of t h e t h i g h s equally distributed  with  measurement was  over both  eighth  s u r f a c e below axis o f the  (so t h a t  and w i t h  The c o n t a c t  indenting  the medial  h i s weight o f the tape  the s k i n .  and one a f t e r  the  One  experimental  (1/8) o f an i n c h .  Upper Arm G i r t h The m e a s u r i n g  instrument  was  The  t h i g h at the  to the long  feet apart  feet.  taken preceding  to the nearest  angles  are not touching)  the s k i n i s f i r m but without  period  was  taken o f the g i r t h  the g l u t e a l s u l c u s  on  shorts  was  a woven-type  tape.  31  Maximum g i r t h o f t h e l e f t "bulge" all  arm i s e s t i m a t e d  o f the biceps muscle.  out f l e x i o n o f the l e f t  " b u l g e " marked w i t h  T h i s p o i n t was d e t e r m i n e d  an i n k d o t .  stands  relaxed  a t t h e s i d e s o f the body.  During  i n a n a t u r a l manner w i t h  t h e measurement t h e t h e arms  c a r e must b e t a k e n  tape.  One measurement was t a k e n p r e c e d i n g  n o t t o compress t h e t i s s u e w i t h t h e  period to the nearest eighth  measuring  instrument  piece o f three-eighths test  t h e s u b j e c t s were shown t h e p r o p e r  practice  trial.  Three t e s t  trials  the experimental  mouth-  procedure.  Each s u b j e c t then had  (hyperventilate) before  t o t a k e two  the t e s t  were g i v e n t o each s u b j e c t b e f o r e period.  Before  f o r m w i t h an  The s u b j e c t s were i n s t r u c t e d  t h r e e deep b r e a t h s  cubic  an e x c h a n g e a b l e  (3/8) o f an i n c h i n n e r d i a m e t e r .  explanation o f the correct  or  (1/8) o f an i n c h .  was t h e s t a n d a r d Wet S p i r o -  m e t e r o f 400 c u b i c i n c h c a p a c i t y , w i t h  one  and o n e a f t e r t h e  Capacity The  the  hanging  When t h e measurement i s  taken,  Lung  b y an  arm, and t h e h i g h e s t p o i n t o f t h e  subject  experimental  at the greatest  trials.  and a f t e r  The h i g h e s t s c o r e was r e c o r d e d i n  inches.  X-ray Roentgenogram 1.  specifications;  Type o f x - r a y m a c h i n e : 60 c y c l e s o p e r a t i o n .  Machlett  Dynomex 500,  32  2.  Size of  film:  3.  F o c a l f i l m d i s t a n c e : 40  4.  Amperage  5.  V o l t a g e : 45  6.  Exposure time:  7.  Developing Chemicals  The on  the x - r a y  ( 2 X 3 X 3  taken of  (milliamperes):  second 5 m i n u t e s a t 68°F  (Ansco  prelaboratory preparation.)  the  their  right  arms One  resting roent-  r i g h t hand o f each s u b j e c t a f t e r  MOTOR A B I L I T Y AND  measuring  inches) The  and  instruments one  the  AGILITY  the  the chest,  On  a g i v e n command t h e  sides of  The  back to the  is carried  forehead  i s 120  p l a c e d on  s u b j e c t jumps t o f e e t two  starting  line  wooden b l o c k s  and  one  the  finish  to  one-tenth  i n four  30  f a c e down, h a n d s the s t a r t i n g  and  runs  30  are p l a c e d  a  o f the b l o c k s  line.  only this  line.  feet  p l a c e s the b l o c k beyond  f o r the second b l o c k ,  through  feet  is lying  s u b j e c t t h e n p i c k s up  Same p r o c e d u r e  wooden b l o c k s  stop watch c a l i b r a t e d  starting position  to a l i n e beyond which the apart.  w e r e two  d i s t a n c e o f the run  at  block  3/10  process:  The  line.  100  KVP  foot portions.  runs  inches  period.  a second.  inches  (non-screen)  Run The  of  Ilfex  t a b l e i n a f l e x e d p o s i t i o n p a l m down.  2. Shuttle  inches  s u b j e c t s were s e a t e d w i t h  g e n o g r a p h was experimental  8 X 10  time  few and that the  Measurement i s i n  seconds t o t h e n e a r e s t t e n t h o f a second  from  nal  line.  until  the subject crosses the f i n i s h  explanation  and d e m o n s t r a t i o n  t r i a l s were p e r m i t t e d , w i t h  The b e s t  Standing  Broad The  6 foot  time  line. to  feet  testing,  were g i v e n on t h e p r o c e d u r e .  and a f t e r  trial.  on each o c c a s i o n .  f o r t h e m e a s u r i n g were one  mat and one w o v e n - t y p e t a p e . from  slightly  t h e mat. apart  The t a k e - o f f l i n e  The s u b j e c t assumed a p o s i -  and t h e t o e s b e h i n d  The d i s t a n c e jumped was m e a s u r e d f r o m  the take-off  the take-off  t h e p o i n t o f c o n t a c t o n t h e mat t o t h e n e a r e s t o n e - h a l f  for  the best of three trials,.  explanation allowed  Two  the experimental  a c h i e v e d was r e c o r d e d  o f equipment used  was marked two f e e t t i o n with  sig-  Jump  items  tumbling  Before  a s h o r t r e s t between each  Measurements were t a k e n b e f o r e period.  the s t a r t i n g  and d e m o n s t r a t i o n  one p r a c t i c e  trial  ments w e r e t a k e n b e f o r e  inch  The s.ubj.ects r e c e i v e d an o f the procedure  before  and a f t e r  3.  line  the actual  and w e r e  test.  the experimental  Measureperiod.  STRENGTH  F l e x e d Arm B a r Hang The five  feet  e q u i p m e n t c o n s i s t e d o f a d o o r w a y gym b a r p l a c e d  above t h e f l o o r  r e v e r s e grasped in  pulling  level  and o n e s t o p w a t c h .  t h e b a r (palms t o w a r d  face)  The s u b j e c t and was  h i m s e l f t o t h e b a r so t h a t h i s e y e s were  of the bar.  The arms were f u l l y  flexed.  assisted at the  The a s s i s t a n c e  34  was  withdrawn;  the stopwatch  was  started  and was  the s u b j e c t ' s head dropped below the l e v e l t i m e v/as r e c o r d e d  t o t h e n e a r e s t one  trial  and  was  allowed  Grip  tenth of  and  after  The  a second.  One  given.  Measure-  the experimental  used.  Hand Manuometer o f 200  Narragansett  period.  The  floor,  feet  s h o u l d e r v/idth a p a r t , h e l d the d i a l  facing  inward,  palm-side  a sweeping  s u b j e c t s t o o d on  pound maximum  the  was  when  Strength One  was  of the bar.  v e r b a l e n c o u r a g e m e n t was  ments w e r e t a k e n b e f o r e  stopped  down.  The  a c t i o n of the  the s a g i t a l p l a n e . b o d y o r any  s u b j e c t squeezed arm  A t no  downward,  t i m e was  o b j e c t a r o u n d him w i t h  hand,  t h e b e s t p e r f o r m a n c e o f e a c h was  allowed  v e r b a l e n c o u r a g e m e n t was  taken before  and  after  from  shoulder  two  the experimental  in  to c o n t a c t h i s t h e hand  t r i a l s with  recorded  used.  using  level  t h e manuometer and  tested.  4.  s u b j e c t was  i.e. dial  t h e manuometer  allowed  being  p o u n d and  The  he  approximately  each  to the  nearest  Measurements were period.  CARDIOVASCULAR APPRAISAL SUB-MAXIMAL WORK TASK A review  of the l i t e r a t u r e  s u b - m a x i m a l work t a s k s o n between the  ages o f f i v e  t a s k employed  i n this  which c h i l d r e n ,  a treadmill and  study  comparable  s u b j e c t s , were used.  r e v e a l e d no  Trial  a p p l i c a b l e to  eleven years. resulted  i n age,  reference to  from  height,  The  children  s u b - m a x i m a l work  a pilot  project  and w e i g h t  r u n s were made w i t h  to  various  in the  speeds  35  and  grades u n t i l  t h e p r e s e n t method was d e t e r m i n e d .  The  c r i t e r i a being  t h a t a l o a d was p l a c e d o n t h e c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y  system w i t h o u t  having  The mill  r u n on the t r e a d m i l l .  m e a s u r i n g d e v i c e s .employed w e r e o n e Q u i n t o n  Tread-  (Model 2.4-72), o n e S a n b o r n 500 V i s o - C a r d i e t t e , one ECG  Telemetering Receiver plus  t o make t h e c h i l d r e n  Transmitter  (Model RC-27),  the necessary  (Model 2 7 - 1 ) , o n e ECG R a d i o  Telemetry  two s e t s o f Beckman s k i n e l e c t r o d e s ,  tape,  scissors,  alcohol,  conducting  g e l and  stopwatches. One  e l e c t r o d e was p l a c e d o n t h e u p p e r s t e r n u m and t h e  o t h e r on the f i f t h The to  intercostal  e l e c t r o d e s were wired  space under t h e l e f t n i p p l e .  to. t h e T r a n s m i t t e r , w h i c h was. a t t a c h e d  a b e l t worn around t h e w a i s t .  The h e a r t b e a t s w e r e p i c k e d  up b y t h e R e c e i v e r , w h i c h i n t u r n was c o n n e c t e d  to the Viso-  Cardiette. A demonstration walking actual  on t h e t r e a d m i l l  and e a c h s u b j e c t  at the assigned  speed p r i o r  to the  s u b j e c t was p l a c e d o n t h e l o a d i n g s h e l f o f t h e  treadmill while  final  a d j u s t m e n t s w e r e made t o t h e e q u i p m e n t  a s t a n d i n g - r e s t i n g p u l s e r a t e was The  t r e a d m i l l was s t a r t e d  taken.  at the specified  subject  l i f t e d a n d p l a c e d upon t h e m o v i n g b e l t .  to  the r a i l i n g  hold  experienced  testing. The  and  was g i v e n  encircling  the f r o n t h a l f  speed, t h e  He was  allowed  of the treadmill  36  u n t i l h e was w a l k i n g c o n f i d e n t l y .  The s u b j e c t  t h r e e minutes on a z e r o p e r c e n t grade for  g r a d e one, 3.0 m i l e s p e r h o u r  four.  A t t h e end o f t h e t h i r d  increased  then walked f o r  a t 2.5 m i l e s p e r h o u r  f o r grade three  minute,  t o an e i g h t p e r c e n t g r a d e ,  and g r a d e  the e l e v a t i o n  was  and t h e o r i g i n a l  speed  was m a i n t a i n e d .  The h e a r t r a t e was m o n i t o r e d e a c h m i n u t e  the t h i r d  o f z e r o g r a de w a l k i n g ) o n an e l e c t r o c a r d i o g r a m .  With after  minute  the onset o f a steady s t a t e the eighth  t o n i n t h minute  removed from t h e t r e a d m i l l . administered  (after  ( i 4 beats per minute),  usually  o f walking, the subject  was  The s u b m a x i m a l work t a s k  was  a t t h e end o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d .  SUBJECTS The children, McBride  subjects p a r t i c i p a t i n g  f r o m g r a d e one, t h r e e  Elementary School.  d e f o r m i t y o r d i s e a s e was and c o n t r o l g r o u p s The h o m o g e n e i t y Developmental The  i n t h e s t u d y were  and f o u r ,  No c h i l d who  included  from S i r R i c h a r d h a d a known p h y s i c a l  i n the study.  The e x p e r i m e n t a l  i n each grade l e v e l were s e l e c t e d  o f t h e g r o u p s was  Levels, subjects  the r e s u l t s  verified  randomly.  by the Wetzel  Grid  shown i n T a b l e I .  came f r o m f a m i l i e s o f b e l o w a v e r a g e t o  moderate socioeconomic s t a t u s .  Also,  mixture o f several  ethnic origins.  sample c o n s t i t u t e s  an a t y p i c a l  cannot be g e n e r a l i z e d  200  t h e s u b j e c t s v/ere a  I t i s apparent that  group  to other school  and t h e r e f o r e populations.  this  the findings  37  DESIGN OF THE STUDY The  children  participated The  control  followed  o f the experimental  and c o n t r o l  i n two d i f f e r e n t programmes o f p h y s i c a l groups,  taught by the r e g u l a r classroom  t h e programme o u t l i n e d  i n the B r i t i s h  E d u c a t i o n G u i d e and C u r r i c u l u m .  g r o u p s f o l l o w e d a programme d e s i g n e d The c l a s s e s r e c e i v e d t h r e e ,  i n s t r u c t i o n p e r week.  in  the Appendix.  s e v e n t h week,  The  forty-  experimental  and t a u g h t b y t h e i n v e s t i f o r t y - f i v e minute p e r i o d s  The programme o u t l i n e s  The l e n g t h o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  f i f t e e n weeks, w i t h  The e x c e p -  received three,  f i v e m i n u t e p e r i o d s o f i n s t r u c t i o n p e r week.  of  teacher,  The c l a s s e s r e c e i v e d two,  t o t h e l a t t e r was g r a d e f o u r who  gator.  education.  Columbia P h y s i c a l  f o r t y - f i v e m i n u t e p e r i o d s o f i n s t r u c t i o n p e r week. tion  groups  are presented p e r i o d was  an i n t e r r u p t i o n o f two weeks, a f t e r t h e  f o r the Christmas  vacation.  TESTING The  t e s t i n g was d o n e b y p h y s i c a l  the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia.  Their particpation  t e s t i n g p h a s e o f t h e s t u d y was r e g a r d e d ment o f a s e n i o r y e a r The  tests  i n the  as a l a b o r a t o r y a s s i g n -  and measurement c o u r s e  School o f P h y s i c a l Education  gator  e d u c a t i o n majors o f  and R e c r e a t i o n .  supervised a l l stages o f the t e s t i n g .  o f f e r e d by The  investi-  Exception to the  above was  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the hand-wrist  conducted  by a p r o f e s s i o n a l x-ray  x-ray which  was  t e c h n i c i a n e m p l o y e d b y The  38  University of British The by  Columbia  reliability  a thorough  one  group  group hour  Service.  o f t h e t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e was  i n s t r u c t i o n given to the testers,  demonstration o f a l l t e s t For  Health  testing,  and b y a  items.  t h e items were d i v i d e d  o f t e s t s was  assured  into  two  a d m i n i s t e r e d i n the morning,  groups:  the other  o f t e s t s was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n t h e a f t e r n o o n , a f t e r lunch period.  The m o r n i n g g r o u p  hang, h e i g h t , w e i g h t , items were measured, administered. hand g r i p s ,  initially.  number,  While  appraisal  x - r a y was  each grade,  from b o t h  these  test  was  these  items  taken. groups  was n o t a d m i n i s -  o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l groups tests,  of bar  consisted of girths,  run. While  t e s t i n g o f the c o n t r o l  For the f i n a l  were t e s t e d .  consisted  jump.  of tests  and s h u t t l e  the hand-wrist  A l l children  domly from  the c a r d i o v a s c u l a r  lung capacity  Initial tered.  and s t a n d i n g b r o a d  The a f t e r n o o n group  w e r e measured,  of tests  a one  ten children; experimental  were  tested  selected  ran-  and c o n t r o l  groups,  The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t s as t o g r a d e ,  and s e x i s o u t l i n e d  i n Table I I .  S T A T I S T I C A L METHODS All  c a l c u l a t i o n s w e r e done b y c o m p u t e r .  standard deviations ted  f o r a l l e x p e r i m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s was  and t h e s t a n d a r d e r r o r  t-ratio  The means and calcula-  o f t h e means was d e t e r m i n e d : t h e  o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e means was t h e n  computed.  39  The r e l a t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s  was  determined by the Pearson Product  Moment c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n . g r o u p s were  compared  significance. tests  to determine  The d i f f e r e n c e  ' The r e s u l t s  o f t h e two  the d i f f e r e n c e s  and  their  between the i n i t i a l  and  final  o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s was  calculated.  CHAPTER I V  RESULTS  The of  p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was  an a c c e l e r a t e d  physical one,  physical  and f o u r .  ment t r a i t s w e r e 1.  e d u c a t i o n programme ort c e r t a i n  and m o t o r d e v e l o p m e n t  three,  Physical arm  t o examine t h e e f f e c t s  traits  The f o l l o w i n g  of children physical  i n grades  and motor  develop-  tested: development: height,  girth,  thigh  girth,  weight,  chronological  lung  capacity,  age, s k e l e t a l  age. 2.  Motor A b i l i t y  and A g i l i t y :  standing broad  jump,  shuttle  run. 3.  Strength: l e f t  grip,  4.  Cardiovascular  Appraisal:  The and  r e s u l t s o f t h i s study  summarized Tables  t-values, mental  i n the following  correlations,  and c o n t r o l  are d i v i d e d  groups.  task.  standard  T a b l e s XV t o X V I I I  sections  deviations,  f o r the experishow t h e means,  o f the i n i t i a l  groups.  i n means  two  tables.  and t h e t - v a l u e s  difference  arm b a r h a n g .  into  and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e s  f o r the experimental The  flexed  submaximal work  I I I to_ X I V show t h e means,  standard deviations, tests  right grip,  and c o r r e l a t i o n s i s  and  final  41  s i g n i f i c a n t when t h e p r o b a b i l i t y  i s high  that the results  c a n n o t b e a t t r i b u t e d t o chance, and i t i s c o n s i d e r e d  non-  s i g n i f i c a n t when i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e r e s u l t s may h a v e a r i s e n from normal f l u c t u a t i o n o r chance. In t h i s study, significant:  a t t h e .05 l e v e l w i t h  (b) d f = 16, t § t S  t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e means w a s (a) d f = 14, t ~ 2.14,  2.12; and a t t h e .0.1 l e v e l w i t h  (a) d f = 14,  2.98, a n d (b) d f = 16, t ^ 2.92. C o r r e l a t i o n o f c o e f f i c i e n t s were s i g n i f i c a n t :  .05  l e v e l when  r ^  .66, ( c ) N = 10, d f = 8, r |?  when and  and  at the  (a) N = 8, d f = 6, r ^ .70, (b) N = 9, d f = 7, .63; a n d a t t h e .01 l e v e l  (a) N = 8, d f = 6, r ^ .83, (b) N = 9, d f = 7, r ^  .79,  ( c ) N = 10, d f = 8, r > .76.  1.  PHYSICAL  DEVELOPMENT  T a b l e I I I s u m m a r i z e s t h e f i n a l means, and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e means f o r h e i g h t , and  lung capacity o f theexperimental  g r a d e s one, t h r e e ,  three grades.  heavier, group.  and c o n t r o l g r o u p s i n  and f o u r .  No s t a t i s t i c a l l y the  weight,  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s occurred i n  Grade one e x p e r i m e n t a l  g r o u p was t a l l e r ,  a n d shov/ed g r e a t e r l u n g c a p a c i t y t h a n t h e c o n t r o l The same r e s u l t s w e r e o b s e r v e d w i t h g r a d e f o u r e x p e r i -  mental group b u t w i t h s m a l l e r v a l u e s . group achieved  higher  final  results  Grade t h r e e c o n t r o l  than the experimental  42  group.  Height,  definite The to  and  lung  increase i n values  largest grade  capacity values  f r o m g r a d e one  increase i s noted i n lung  height,  ability,  .01  weight,  strength,  at the  weight  .01  (.86)  level.  groups  and  lung  No  and  and w o r k i n g  c a p a c i t y o f the  i n g r a d e s one,  level  three,  i n t h e g r a d e one  i n grade  three  and  significant  variables  Also, weight  i n g r a d e s one Table  experimental  four. (.89),  group,  c o r r e l a t i o n s occurred  V summarizes  and  weight  group,  a l s o at the  i n the  and r i g h t  t o t h e above  the f i n a l  means, and  the  signifi-  thigh girth  and c o n t r o l g r o u p s  o f the experimental  thigh girth  s i g n i f i c a n t l y beyond  but  and  i n grades  three. The  2.66.  three  three.  t h e means f o r arm g i r t h  of  other  g r i p s were c o n s i s -  cance o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between  and  and  C o r r e l a t i o n of height,  correlated high  and  motor  experimental  experimental  lung capacity to l e f t  tently high.  one  three  coefficients  capacity to maturity,  f o r t h e above t h r e e v a r i a b l e s .  weight,  four.  c a p a c i t y from grade  Lung c a p a c i t y c o r r e l a t e d t o h e i g h t  to  through grade  I V summarizes t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f  and c o n t r o l g r o u p s  (.90)  show a  four. Table  of  weight,  The  the  arm g i r t h  statistically  f o r grade  three  .05  of confidence  level  c o n t r o l group  f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p was  not s i g n i f i c a n t .  with  differed a  t-value  also greater,  The d i f f e r e n c e s i n f a v o r  TABLE I I I  COMPARISON OF THE MEANS BETWEEN EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS OF THE FINAL TESTS FOR HEIGHT, WEIGHT, AND LUNG CAPACITY I N GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR  Mexp Test  Grade  T^  T  2  HEIGHT WEIGHT LUNG CAPACITY  1 (N= 18)  47 .44 50. .33 69 .11  48 .25 53 .08 81 .83  HEIGHT WEIGHT LUNG CAPACITY  3 (N= 18)  50 .43 59 .43 83 .12  51 .50 59 .59 91 .25  HEIGHT WEIGHT LUNG CAPACITY  4 (N= 18)  53 .43 71 .06 116 .12  54 .53 74 .12 123 .75  SDexp Tj_ T 2 82 5.17 16. .38 3 .95 8 .57 9., 23 2 .79 15 .86 19. .63  2  Mcont T 2  2  Diff. Between Means  df  SDcont T  t  2..93 5. 76 13 .91  46. 62 51. 25 70. 00  1. 30 5. 37 14. 04  1. 63 2. 23 11. 88  16 16 16  1..51 0. 69 1 .30  2..99 8 .13 14. .07  52. 12 69. .90 102. .30  1. 66 13 ,68 11. 03  -0. 62 -10. .31 -11. 05  16 16 16  -0. .56 -1. .37 -1..86  2 .88 16. .68 26 .15  54. .00 72. 45 112. .10  2 .56 16. .14 17 .54  0..53 1..67 11. .65  16 16 16  0 .41 0 .21 1 .13  Mean o f E x p e r i m e n t a l Group S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n o f E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Mean o f C o n t r o l G r o u p S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n o f C o n t r o l Group I n i t i a l Test F i n a l Test  TABLE I V CORRELATION OF HEIGHT, WEIGHT, AND LUNG CAPACITY TO MATURITY, MOTOR A B I L I T Y , STRENGTH,,AND WORKING C A P A C I T Y OF CHILDREN I N GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR GRADE  T E S T ITEMS  1 Exp (N=9)  HEIGHT WEIGHT LUNG CAPACITY  1 C o n t HEIGHT (N=9) WEIGHT LUNG CAPACITY  1  2  .92 -.11 1 .00 . 9 2 l .00 .14 .12 .89 .90 x  x  .25 .38 -.07 1 .00 .30 .38 1 .00 .59 .40 -•.19 .52 -.14  HEIGHT WEIGHT LUNG CAPACITY  .7 0 -.11 1 .00 .7 0+1 .00 .32 .01 .66 .86  3 C o n t HEIGHT (N=10) WEIGHT LUNG CAPACITY  .77 -.31 1 .00 -.52 . 7 7 l .00 .14 -.44 .23  3 Exp (N=8)  4 Exp (N=8)  HEIGHT WEIGHT LUNG CAPACITY  4 C o n t HEIGHT (N=10) WEIGHT LUNG CAPACITY +  Significant  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  at 5 percent  Age Height Weight Arm G i r t h Thicfh G i r t h  .66+ .75+ .68+  .08 .30 .39  x  x  +  x  x  x  level; 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  +  +  .65 .83 .91  .43 .64 .41  x  x  11  12  13  .24 .27 .89 .21 .23 .90 .47 -.07 .11 -.01 .10 1 .00 - .10 -.20 .22 x  x  .60 - .13 .28 .46 .26 .31  x  10 •  9  - .41 - .48 - .18  .78 .20 .52 .37 .40 .25 .01 -.02 .71+"1 .00 - .47 .09 4  .77 + .71 + .55 -.11 .80+ . 9 4 .11 -.56 .77 + , 9 2 .18 -.61 x  x  .66 .86 1 .00  x  .28 .32 .54  14 .73 + .59 .7 0 +  .26 .42 .30  .52 .46 .63 .85 .71 + .61  x  .65+ .32 .32 .93 .05 - .08  .62 .45 .25  . 6 5 - .29 -.49 .23 - .28 -.37 .59 - .48 -.07 .14 - .28 -.17 .50 -.15 1 .00 .10 .02 -.05  .43 .07 .09  -  .63 .26 .58  .62 .51 .74  .69 - .68 -.03 .68 - .14 -.03 .54 - . 7 1 ' .21 . 7 2 .02 .07 . 8 8 - .31 -.31 1 .00 - .43 -.49  .66 .44 .47  _  _  _ .03  -• -•  -  .00 .02  ,77 .41 .41  .76 .35 .45  .64+ .25 .34  .61 .93  +  +  .70+ .77 .71  .04 .33 .28  x  8  7  .17 - .20 . 9 1 - .16 .30 - .20  .56 .48 .81 + . 8 5 .82 + .58  .76+ .27 1 .00 - • .00 . 7 6 l .51 .68 .72+ .64 -.08 1 .00 .75 -.36 .7 5+1 .00 .50 -.28 .24  6  5  4  3  Significant  x  x  at 1 percent  S t a n d i n g B r o a d Jump Left Grip Right Grip F l e x e d Arm B a r Hang S h u t t l e Run  +  4  +  x  +  x  - .02 .50 .05 - .32 .16 .24 - .28 -.14 1 .00  .61 .50 .04  level. 11. 12. 13. 14.  Lung C a p a c i t y Standing Heart Rate Steady Heart Rate S k e l e t a l Age  .52 .26 .17  45  of  t h e c o n t r o l group might be e x p l a i n e d  same g r o u p was a l s o  arm g i r t h  maturity, control  groups As  .93).  confidence. girth the  to strength,  and w o r k i n g  capacity  i n g r a d e s one and  to weight  Their  arm g i r t h b e y o n d  t h e .01 l e v e l  t h e .05 l e v e l  low.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t girth  low, w h e r e a s i n g r a d e  .05 l e v e l ) ,  of confidence  and b e t w e e n arm g i r t h  and .82  (significant  experimental groups,  In  thigh  i t was  quite  the c o r r e l a t i o n between  i t was  i n g r a d e one was  .88  ( s i g n i f i c a n t at  a t .01 l e v e l ) f o r c o n t r o l and  the f i n a l  means,  c a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e means and s k e l e t a l age o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  i n g r a d e s one, t h r e e ,  (.85), and  respectively.  T a b l e V I I summarizes  age  and t h i g h  (.81).  and w e i g h t  f o r b o t h groups three  (both  t h e .01 l e v e l o f  somewhat l o w e r b e t w e e n  and w e i g h t ,  very  c o n t r o l group  o f confidence  girth  and t h i g h  girth  experimental group weight  g r a d e one t h e c o r r e l a t i o n was  arm g i r t h  and t h i g h  s i g n i f i c a n c e was b e y o n d  c o r r e l a t e d beyond  ability,  three.  i n grade three  In grade three  motor  o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and  i t may b e e x p e c t e d arm g i r t h  correlated high were  the c o r r e l a t i o n o f c o e f f i c i e n t s  and t h i g h g i r t h  growth,  that the  heavier.  T a b l e V I summarizes of  by the f a c t  and t h e s i g n i f i -  for chronological and c o n t r o l  groups  and f o u r .  No s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant  differences  occurred  TABLE V  COMPARISON OF THE MEANS BETWEEN EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS OF THE FINAL TESTS FOR ARM GIRTH AND THIGH GIRTH I N GRADES ONE AND THREE  Mexp Test  Grade  SDexp T2  Tl  T2  Mcont T  SDcont  2  Diff. Between Means  df  t  ARM GIRTH THIGH GIRTH  1 (N=18)  6.94 13.25  7.36 13.91  0.41 0.76  0.81 0.67  7.15 13.68  0.70 1.32  0.21 0.23  16 16  0.57 0.47  ARM GIRTH THIGH GIRTH  3 (N=18)  7.06 13.37  7.28 15.03  0.56 0.99  0.67 1.07  7.90 16.82  0.97 1.63  -0.62 -1.79  16 16  -1.52 -2.66  +  Significant  Mexp SDexp Mcont SDcont Tl T  2  at 5 percent  level  Mean o f E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Standard Deviation o f Experimental Group Mean o f C o n t r o l G r o u p S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n o f C o n t r o l Group I n i t i a l Test F i n a l Test  +  TABLE V I CORRELATION OF ARM GIRTH AND THIGH GIRTH TO STRENGTH, MOTOR A B I L I T Y , MATURITY, GROWTH, AND WORKING CAPACITY FACTORS OF CHILDREN I N GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR  ARM GIRTH THIGH GIRTH  .05 .24  .08 .66  1 C o n t ARM GIRTH (N=9) THIGH GIRTH  .30 .42  .20 .17  .59 1 .00 .44 - .42 - .01 - .08 - .28 .12 -'.19 .20 -.29 .91 .30 .44 1 .00 .54 - .38 -.09 .30 -.05 -.09 .11  3 Exp (N=8)  .37 . 64  .56 .48  .81+1 .00 .82 .82+1 .00 .85  .61 .65  .88 . 9 3 l .00 . 8 8 l .00 .93  1 Exp (N=9)  ARM GIRTH THIGH GIRTH  3 C o n t ARM GIRTH (N=10) THIGH GIRTH +Significant 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  at 5 percent  Age Height Weight Arm G i r t h Thigh G i r t h  - . 6 5 +  -.58 levelr 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  +  5  4  .09 .3.0 i .00 .7 5+ .09 1 .00  .64 .41  7  8  9  10  2  TEST ITEMS  3  6  1  GRADE  .20 - .05 .60 .33  11  12  13  .39 -.60 -.66+- .14 . 6 8 .04 -.04 .27  .22 -.47 .17 -.01  +  x  +  x  x  +  x  Significant  x  x  .80+ .57  ,77 .58  .06 .39  .50 .50  at 1 percent  S t a n d i n g B r o a d Jump Left Grip Right Grip F l e x e d Arm B a r Hang S h u t t l e Run  +  .92 .80  x  +  .37 - . 7 9 .09 -.64  .53 - .45 . 7 6 - .29 x  +  .20 -.16  .82 .58  +  .24 .06  .56 .42  .32 .10 .66 .82  .17 -.12 -.03 -•.16 .05 -.46 -.28 .13  level 11. 12. 13. 14.  14  Lung C a p a c i t y Standing Heart Rate Steady Heart Rate S k e l e t a l Age  48  b e t w e e n t h e means i n t h e grades the and  in  Also,  s k e l e t a l age  i n chronological  chronological  strength,  and  The  age  at  to  of  were q u i t e  the  of  and  i n the  grade three  the  the  to growth, motor  ability,  experimental  control  and  four.  correlations, for chronological  age  low  to  f o r each grade.  l e v e l ) i n grade three and  differences  c o r r e l a t i o n of c o e f f i c i e n t s  f o u n d b e t w e e n s k e l e t a l age .05  The  chronological  s i x months above  s k e l e t a l age  three,  coefficient  b e t w e e n s k e l e t a l age level)  and  working c a p a c i t y  and' s k e l e t a l age  identical.  chronologically  age.  summarizes  g r o u p s i n g r a d e s one,  cant  However, i n a l l t h r e e  d i f f e r e n c e s between  r a n g e d b e t w e e n two  Table VIII  t h i s was  the  s k e l e t a l ages were n o t  differences  of  grades.  experimental groups were'older b o t h  skeletally.  ages and  three  weight  (.85,  signifi-  e x p e r i m e n t a l group,  s h u t t l e run control  and  Exception  (.83,  group.  significant  and at  .01  TABLE V I I  COMPARISON OF THE MEANS BETWEEN EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS OF THE FINAL TESTS FOR CHRONOLOGICAL AGE AND SKELETAL AGE I N GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR  Test  Grade  Mexp Ti T'2  SDexp T-^ T  2  Mcont T 2  SDcont T 2  Diff. Between Means  df  t  CHRONOLOGICAL AGS SKELETAL AGE  1 (N=18)  6.51  6.92 7.17  0.46  0.46 1.09  6.71 6.39  0.23 0.53  0.21 0.78  16 16  1.16 1.91  CHRONOLOGICAL AGE SKELETAL AGE  3 (N=18)  8.86  9.27 9.62  0.73  0.73 0.S5  8.96 9.17  0.36 0.82  0.31 0.45  1616  1.16 1.13  9.93  10.35 10.43  0.62  - 0.62 0.86  10.10 9.66  0.73 1.20  0.25 0.77  16 16  0.75 1.52  CHRONOLOGICAL . AGE 4 SKELETAL AGE (N=18)  Mexp SDexp Mcont SDcont T  T  l 2  Mean o f E x p e r i m e n t a l G r o u p S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n o f E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Mean o f C o n t r o l G r o u p S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n o f C o n t r o l Group I n i t i a l Test F i n a l Test  TABLE  VIII  CORRELATION OF CHRONOLOGICAL AGE AND SKELETAL AGE TO GROWTH, MOTOR A B I L I T Y , STRENGTH, AND WORKING CAPACITY OF CHILDREN I N GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR 4  3  6  5  8  7  9  TEST ITEMS  1 Exp (N=9)  CHRONOLOGICAL AGE SKELETAL AGE  1 .00 -.11 .13 .73  1 C o n t CHRONOLOGICAL AGE SKELETAL AGE (N=9)  1 .00 -.07 .26 + .53  .30 .42  .30 .32  .60 - .09 .10 .65 .42 .10 - .71+- .02 - .17 - .31  CHRONOLOGICAL AGE SKELETAL AGE  1 .00 -.11 .69 .46  .32 .85  .37 .66  .64 ,82  3 Exp (N-8)  3 C o n t CHRONOLOGICAL AGE (N=10) SKELETAL AGE 4 Exp (N=8)  CHRONOLOGICAL AGE SKELETAL AGE  4 C o n t CHRONOLOGICAL AGE (N=10) SKELETAL AGE "•"Significant 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  at 5 percent  Age Height Weight Arm G i r t h Thigh G i r t h  1  2  GRADE  +  .05 .14 .59 - .14  x  .24 .39 .27 - .38  .02 .63  +  .33 .7 0  .30 .73  +  +  .67 .32  +  10  12  11  .38 -.52 .23 .47  .12 .70  +  14  .01 + .57 .13 .21 .12 1.00  .16 - .14 + .41 .30 .04 .25  .30 - .20 -.53 .80+- .05 -.57  13  + .74V.53 .35 1.00  .69 .01 + .62 + .34 .18 1.00 .61 + .16  1 .00 -.31 - .52 - . 6 5 - •.58 + .00 .43 .13 .07 - .16  .00 + .00 .34 .04 - .35 - .41 - .12 -.14 -•.44 .40 + .54 1.00 .09 + .41 .49 - .03 .35 -,83  1 .00 .61  .36 .63  +  .27 .66  .51 .44  1 .00 -.08 - .36 .52 .64+ .25 evel; 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  —  -  x  —  —  —  Significant  .11 - .10 .07 .57  at 1per  S t a n d i n g B r o a d Jump Left Grip Right Grip F l e x e d Arm B a r Hang S h u t t l e Run  .06 .52 - .34 .54 .76+ .67 - .56 -.09 .06 .61  .61 .64 + .08 + .00 .47 .24 1.00 .07  .7 5 - . 2 4 -•.28 .43 -.25 .34 +  .52 .29 + .15 .01 1.00 .45  level 11. Lung C a p a c i t y 12. . S t a n d i n g H e a r t R a t e 13. Steady Heart Rate .14. S k e l e t a l Age  51  2.  Table  MOTOR A B I L I T Y AND  AGILITY  I X summarizes t h e f i n a l  means,  and t h e s i g n i f i -  c a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e means f o r s h u t t l e r u n and standing broad  jump o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  g r a d e s one, t h r e e ,  and f o u r .  No s t a t i s t i c a l l y the  three grades.  scored higher in  significant  X summarizes  experimental  cant  group.  jump t o m a t u r i t y ,  c o r r e l a t i o n was n o t e d  jump +.79,  In grade three  and c o n t r o l  f o r grade  capacity  w h i c h was  experimental  jump c o r r e l a t e d t o w e i g h t  four  I n t e r e s t i n g c o r r e l a t i o n o f +.83  shuttle  r u n and s k e l e t a l  was  age i n g r a d e t h r e e  s i g n i f i c a n t beyond  t h e .01  level.  signifi-  group the  .83, t o r i g h t  .91; a l l s i g n i f i c a n t  level.  w h i c h was  growth,  I n grade f o u r c o n t r o l group the s h u t t l e  a t t h e .01 l e v e l .  and t o l u n g  jump.  and f o u r .  c o r r e l a t e d to standing broad  standing broad .90,  i n the standing broad  and w o r k i n g c a p a c i t y o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  No s i g n i f i c a n t  groups  the c o r r e l a t i o n of c o e f f i c i e n t s o f  r u n and s t a n d i n g b r o a d  g r o u p s i n g r a d e s one, t h r e e ,  run  grades  i n t h e s h u t t l e r u n , and t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  Table  strength,  d i f f e r e n c e s occurred i n  The c o n t r o l g r o u p s i n a l l t h r e e  a l l three grades scored higher  shuttle  and c o n t r o l g r o u p s i n  grip  a t t h e .01  noted  between  c o n t r o l group,  TABLE I X  COMPARISON OF THE MEANS BETWEEN EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS OF THE FINAL TEST FOR STANDING BROAD JUMP AND SHUTTLE RUN I N GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR  Mexp Test  Grade  T-^  T  SDexp Tj_ 2 T  2  Mcont 2 T  SDcont 2 T  Diff. Between Means df  t  STANDING BROAD JUMP SHUTTLE RUN  1 (N=18)  38.55 14.67  44.05 13.64  10.55 1.85  6.09 1.25  43.66 14.01  4.65 0.88  0.39 -0.37  16 16  0.15 -0.71  STANDING BROAD JUMP SHUTTLE RUN  3 (N=18)  28.06 13.47  51.12 12.81  5.29 0.56  6.59 0.31  49.25 12.78  12.59 0.41  1.87 -0.03  16 16  0.37 -0.18  STANDING BROAD JUMP SHUTTLE RUN  4 (N=18)  30.25 12.33  58.68 12.35  5.23 0.71  5.80 0.74  56.50 12.75  8.11 0.86  2.18 -0.40  16 16  0.64 -1.03  Mexp SDexp Mcont SDcont Tl T  2  Mean o f E x p e r i m e n t a l G r o u p S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n o f E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Mean o f C o n t r o l G r o u p S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n o f C o n t r o l Group I n i t i a l Test F i n a l Test  TABLE X CORRELATION OF SHUTTLE RUN AND STANDING BROAD JUMP TO MATURITY, GROWTH, STRENGTH, AND WORKING CAPACITY FACTORS OF CHILDREN I N GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR GRADE  T E S T ITEMS  1 Exp (N=9)  SHUTTLE RUN STANDING BROAD JUMP  1 C o n t SHUTTLE RUN (N=9) STANDING BROAD JUMP 3 Exp (N=8)  SHUTTLE RUN STANDING BROAD JUMP  3 C o n t SHUTTLE RUN (N=10) STANDING BROAD JUMP 4 Exp (N=8)  1 -.52 .39,  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  .27 -.07 -.47 -.01 +.77+-.03 -.39 -.45 1.00 .04 .33 .64 .41 1.00 .11 .29 .09 + .77 .09 +.16 .41 .11 1.00 -.00  +  13  14  .10 .16 .49 .47 .28 -.19 -.53 -.38  +  .16 . 7 8 .25 .12 .60 -.20 -.16 -.42  12  .05 -.07 1.00 .71 -.33 -.12 .04 .47 .21 +.16 -.20 -.25 -.26 - . 7 1  -.53 -.11 -.56 - . 7 9 - . 6 4 +.47 -.39 -.58 -.13 1.00 -.61 -.00 -.39 -.57 .02 .65 . 8 3 .80 .57 1.00 . 8 0 .90* .26 +.47 . 9 1 .45 .62 .63 +  x  -.14 -.49 -.07 .04 .32 .32  4-  +  x  .20 -.16 +.65 -.25 -.53 -.39 1.00 -.15 .50 .06 .39 1.00 .05 .46 .04 +.65 -.08 -.37 +  +  .54 - . 8 3 .01 .49  SHUTTLE RUN STANDING BROAD JUMP  .06 -.03 .36 .63  .21 .26  -  -  +.51 0.47 -.50 -.15 1.00 -.31 .50 .60 -.09 1.00 .65 .69 -.49 +.51 .58 -.64 -.41 .63  4 C o n t SHUTTLE RUN (N=10) STANDING BROAD JUMP  -.24 .00 -.11 -.00  .16 .00  -  -  +.79 -.37 -.47 -.72+1.00 -.14 .00 .24 -.25 1.00 .46 .28 .38 + . 7 9 .02 -.14 -.26 .07  +  S i g n i f i c a n t a t 5 percent  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  Age Height Weight Arm G i r t h Thigh G i r t h  +  level; 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  x  x  S i g n i f i c a n t at 1 percent l e v e l S t a n d i n g B r o a d Jump Left Grip Right Grip F l e x e d Arm B a r Hang S h u t t l e Run  11. 12. 13. 14.  Lung C a p a c i t y Standing Heart Rate Steady Heart Rate S k e l e t a l Age  x  54  3.  STRENGTH  T a b l e XI summarizes  the f i n a l  means, and t h e s i g n i f i -  c a n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e means f o r l e f t grip  s t r e n g t h and f l e x e d  control  groups  arm b a r h a n g o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and  i n g r a d e s one, t h r e e ,  No s t a t i s t i c a l l y the  three grades.  the  experimental  Grade  was a l s o grade ly  and f o u r .  significant  Grade  differences occurred i n  three control  group,  group, w i t h  three control  g r o u p was y o u n g e r  surpassed  tests.  the exception o f l e f t  s u p e r i o r over the experimental  enough t h e y  as compared t o  g r o u p , was s u p e r i o r i n a l l t h r e e  four control  and r i g h t  the l i g h t e r  group.  Although the  and h e a v i e r , and o l d e r  grip,  interesting-  experimental  group. T a b l e X I I summarizes of  left  growth,  and r i g h t  grip  s t r e n g t h and f l e x e d  m a t u r i t y , motor  experimental  the c o r r e l a t i o n of c o e f f i c i e n t s  ability,  and c o n t r o l  groups  and w o r k i n g  group,  the r i g h t to  grip  group.  correlated  standing broad  capacity grade  .92.  correlation  and o n l y a few r e l a t i v e l y  the experimental  In grade  to weight  jump .90, t o l e f t  group  left  low c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r  .94, t o arm g i r t h grip  group .92,  .85, and t o l u n g  t h e .01 l e v e l .  and r i g h t  and f o u r .  i n g r a d e one  three experimental  A l l s i g n i f i c a n t beyond  four control  capacity of the  i n grades one, t h r e e ,  T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t control  arm b a r hang t o  grip  strength  In  TABLE X I  COxMPARISON OF THE MEANS BETWEEN EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS OF THE FINAL TESTS FOR THE GRIP STRENGTH AND FLEXED ARM BAR; HANG I N GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR  Diff. Mexp Test  Grade  GRIP  : Lt : Rt FLEXED ARM BAR HANG  1 (N=18)  GRIP  : Lt : Rt FLEXED ARM BAR HANG  3 (N=18)  GRIP  4 (N=18)  : Lt : Rt FLEXED ARM BAR HANG  Mexp SDexp Mcont SDcont T  l  Tj^  SDexp T  T 2  17.66 18.77  20.55 19.44  20.00  27.46  23.00 23.75  l  T  Mcont  2  6.61 5.44  6.85 6.55  12.86  13.07  23.37 26.12  7.48 5.62  12.00  17.05  8.24  30.37 33.12  37.37 37.37  12.08 11.40  22.56  50.00  8.67  T  2  T  2  Between Means  df  t  2.45 2.54  4.11 2.54  16 16  1.69 0.47  25.36  11.30  2.10  16  0.36  6.92 7.95  26.90 27.40  8.03 8.74  -3.53 -1.28  16 -0.98 16 -0.31  15.37  18.85  13.87  -1.80  16  9.25 9.33  36.70 39.20  9.45 8.82  0.67 -1.50  16 0.15 16-0.42  52.20  31.85  -2.20  16  22.35  Mean o f E x p e r i m e n t a l G r o u p S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n o f E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Mean o f C o n t r o l G r o u p S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n o f C o n t r o l Group I n i t i a l Test F i n a l Test  16.44 18.33  SDcont  -0.26  -0.16  TABLE X I I CORRELATION OF GRIP STRENGTH AND FLEXED ARM BAR HANG TO GROWTH, MATURITY, MOTOR A B I L I T Y , AND WORKING CAPACITY FACTORS OF CHILDREN I N GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR GRADE  T E S T ITEMS  1 Exp (N=9)  L E F T GRIP RIGHT GRIP FLEXED ARM BAR HANG  1 C o n t L E F T GRIP RIGHT GRIP (N=9) FLEXED ARM BAR HANG 3 Exp (N=8)  L E F T GRIP RIGHT GRIP FLEXED ARM BAR HANG  3 Corit L E F T GRIP (N=10) RIGHT GRIP FLEXED ARM BAR HANG 4 Exp (N=8)  L E F T GRIP RIGHT GRIP FLEXED ARM BAR HANG  4 C o n t L E F T GRIP (N=10) RIGHT GRIP FLEXED ARM BAR HANG +Significant 1. 2. 3. 4.  Age Height Weight Arm G i r t h  at 5 percent  1  2  .70+ .33 .67 + .43 .38 .24  5  6  .33 .60 .17  .11 .29 .09  4  3  .20 .77 .64 - .05 .22 .47 +  7  9  8  .77 .71 .55  .80 .94 .11  +  +  x  .77 .92 .37  +  x  x  x  .54 .62 .51 .54 .52 .69 -.34 - .68 - .71+ -.10 .77 .41 .06 .76 .35 .7 5 - .02 - .32 x  x  +  level; 6. 7. 8. 9.  —  -  -  —  —  —  -  —  '•Significant  —  -  .77 .17 .92 .27 .18 - .05  - .53  .25 - .08 .10 - .45 .50 - .12  .47 . 7 4 - .27 .50 . 8 8 - .41 .15 - .31 - .05  .46 1 .00 .80* .21 . 3 0 l .00 .28 .40 .38 .40 1 .00 .21  —  —  -  +  x  .37 .41 .47 .45 . 7 2 - .28 +  .43 .29 .24  level 11. 12. 13. 14.  Lung C a p a c i t y Standing Heart Rate Steady Heart Rate S k e l e t a l Age  .46 -.02 -.17 .35 -.31  .28 ,73 .61 .80+ . 32 -.05 +  x  —  -  —  +  .65 1 .00 .95 + .37 .69 . 9 5 l .00 + .27 .49 4-.37 .27 1 .00  at 1 percent  S t a n d i n g B r o a d Jump Left Grip Right Grip F l e x e d Arm B a r Hang  -  .39 .68 .13  .39  x  .70+ .32 .23  —  —  x  .10  - .36  .25  x  14  .41 .31 .43 .05 .26 - .48 .07 - .18 - .16  —  x  13  - .10 - .12  • 3 0 f .04 .05 1 .00 . 8 0 l .00 .46 .08 .04 + .04 .08 1 .00 x  +  12  .71+' .24 .41 .24 .22 - .06  +  .20 .68 . .80+1 .00 .85 .30 .80+ .90* . 8 5 l .00 .20 .30 1 .00 .09 .26  .50 .50 .62 .45 -.35 .76* .53 -.41 .65+ •.59 -.12 - .29 - .48 - .45 -•.29  11  1 .00 .49 .62 .03 .62 1 .00 . 7 2 - .39 .49 .72+1 .00 — .45  .30 - .07 1 .00 + .14 .13 -.09 .60 .28 - .01 .08 .14 .00 + .54 .47 1 .46 .65 - .13 + .11 .21 .13 + .11 1 .00 .10 - .41 - .48 - .28 -•.38 .30 .30 -.20  10  .20 -.03 .35 .17 .40  - .43 —  —  .76+ .67 .33 -.56  -  .34 .20 .12  —  .25  - .43  .57 .61 .43  57  correlated cant  to height  at the  .01  between l e f t .01  .77  level.  and  right  and The  .76,  respectively.  correlation  g r i p was  .80,  f o r the  Both  signifi-  same g r o u p  s i g n i f i c a n t beyond  the  level.  4. Table ficance of  CARDIOVASCULAR APPRAISAL  XIII  summarizes t h e  final  means, and  t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e means f o r  the  signi-  standing  i  resting heart and  statistically  three grades.  The  g r a d e s showed s l o w e r The  standing  attributed  to the  standing  heart  and  XIV  grade three .71  f o r both  by  maturity,  subjects  to  be the  steady  and  coefficients  heart  rate  strength of three,  the and  o f c o r r e l a t i o n s were v e r y  exception  .05  the  c o r r e l a t i o n of  r a t e and  of  c o n t r o l group,  at  measurements.  r a t e s w e r e q u i t e h i g h , w h i c h may  f o r grade three  were s i g n i f i c a n t  in  groups i n a l l three  rate values  summarizes t h e  coefficient the  four.  collecting.  resting heart  variables with  and  experimental  differences occurred  c o n t r o l g r o u p s i n g r a d e s one,  The  capacity,  three,  r e a c t i o n experienced  growth, motor a b i l i t y , mental  r a t e of the  experimental  for data  Table  for  heart  significant  resting heart  apparatus used  for  steady  c o n t r o l g r o u p s i n g r a d e s one, No  the  r a t e and  level.  steady and  heart  steady  experimental The  to experi-  four. low  for a l l  r a t e t o age,  heart  rate to  group.  Both  c o r r e l a t i o n s between  •fr.74 lung values  TABLE  XIII  COMPARISON OF THE MEANS BETWEEN EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS OF THE FINAL TESTS FOR STANDING RESTING HEART RATE AND STEADY HEART RATE I N GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR  SDexp  Mexp Test  Grade  STANDING RESTING HEART RATE 1 STEADY HEART (N=18) RATE STANDING RESTING HEART RATE 3 STEADY HEART (N=18) RATE STANDING RESTING HEART RATE 4 STEADY HEART (N=18) RATE Mexp SDexp Mcont SDcont  Tl To  Ti  T2  Tl  T  2  Mcont T 2  SDcont T2  Diff. Between Means  df  111.33  16.58  120.77  11.69  -9.44  16  -1.39  151.55  15.43  157.77  11.01  -6.22  16  -0.98  103.12  22.54  105.10  12.09  -1.98  16  -0.23  157.43  14.97  159.45  8.63  -2.02  16  -0.35  20.43  100.50  22.14  •3.25  16  -0.66  19.42  163.60  11.23  -6.79  16  -0.92  93.75 156.87  Mean o f E x p e r i m e n t a l Group S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n o f E x p e r i m e n t a l Group Mean o f C o n t r o l G r o u p S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n o f C o n t r o l Group I n i t i a l Test F i n a l Test  TABLE X I V CORRELATION OF STANDING RESTING HEART RATE AND STEADY HEART TO GROWTH, MOTOR A B I L I T Y , MATURITY, AND STRENGTH OF CHILDREN I N GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR GRADE  T E S T ITEMS  1 Exp  STANDING RESTING HEART RATE STEADY HEART RATE  (N=9)  C o n t STANDING RESTING HEART RATE STEADY HEART RATE (N=9)  2  1  4  3  6  5  .04 -.19 .11 -.60 -.00 - . 6 6 -.04 -.53  .01 + .57  .21 .23  + .41 + .74  .01 .20 -.05 .20 .37 -.02 -.29 -.09  +  7  8  9  .24 .24 -.06 -.10 -.10 -.12  10  .16 .49  RATE  11  12  13  14  -.10 1.00 .72 -.20 . 7 2 l .00  +  .21 .12  +  .25 .35  +  1  3 Exp (N=8)  STANDING RESTING HEART RATE STEADY HEART RATE  3 C o n t STANDING RESTING HEART RATE (N=10) STEADY HEART RATE 4 Exp (N=8)  STANDING RESTING HEART RATE STEADY HEART RATE  4 C o n t STANDING RESTING HEART RATE (N=10) STEADY HEART RATE +  Significant  1. 2. 3. 4. 5 .  a t 5 percent  Age Height Weight Arm G i r t h Thigh G i r t h  +  + .62 + .34  .28 .52  .32 .63  .24 .56  -.25 -.26  .06 .42  .45 .62  .43 .46  -.48 -.16 -.36 -.36  .17 .28  .29 " +.15 level; 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  .61 .52  .02 .07  .50 .36  -  Significant  -  -  -.64 -.27 -.41 -.41 -.25 -.43  -.14 -.26  at 1 p e r c e n t  S t a n d i n g B r o a d Jump L e f t Grip Right Grip F l e x e d Arm B a r Hang S h u t t l e Run  .43 .34  +  .27 -.05 -.00 .61 .32 -.39  .34 - .28 -.28 -.12 -.46 -.37 -.08 -.45 .00 - .37 -.17 -.03 -.28 .01 -.20 -.43  + .08 - .14 + .00 - .03  -.33 -.47 1.00 .72 -.12 .09 . 7 2 l .00  .54 1.00 .77-- .16 .71 . 7 7 l .00 .18 +  +  -.12 -.17  .50 .02 1.00 . 6 4 - .41 .54 -.05 . 6 4 l .00 .54  -.05 -.33  .50 -.43 .60 -.49  .29 .24 .20 -.12  +  +  .00 .24  1.00 .90 . 9 0 l .00  .07 .24  .04 1.00 .75 + .45 .17 . 7 5 l .00 .01  level  11. 12. 13. 14.  x  x  Lung C a p a c i t y Standing Heart Rate Steady Heart Rate S k e l e t a l Age  +  60  standing  resting heart  .72,  i n g r a d e one  .72  tively;  (b)  groups,  respectively;  mental  and  .77,  beyond  and  steady heart  experimental  and  i n grade three and  (c)  c o n t r o l groups,  significant four  .64  rate  the  .90,  c o n t r o l groups,  experimental .75  level, with  e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , w h i c h was  (a) respec-  and  control  i n grade four  experi-  respectively.  .05  r a t e were:  They w e r e a l l  the  exception  significant  of  beyond  grade  the  .01  level. The deviations, for  the  following and  the  initial  t-values  experimental T a b l e XV and  final  ences f o r h e i g h t ,  the in  three  grades.  initial  and  for  girth  The  initial  final  and  and  and  standard  final  tests  groups. d i f f e r e n c e s " between  the  means,  the  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  differ—  and  weight,  and  three,  A  large the  lung and  capacity  increase  summarizes means, thigh  and  the the  of  the  the  experimental  four. differences  was  largest being  noted  occurred,  for lung  i n grade  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  capacity  the  the differences  experimental groups  in  three.  increase  increase  i n thigh  girth  i n arm  girth  f o r grade  in  one.  d i f f e r e n c e s between  g i r t h ' o f the  B o t h g r a d e s showed girth.  the  means,  the  grades,  T a b l e XVI  g r a d e s one  of  statistically significant  a l l three  arm  summarize t h e  summarizes  g r o u p s i n g r a d e s one, No  tables  and  three  thigh was  TABLE XV  COMPARISON OF THE MEANS OF THE I N I T I A L AND FINAL TESTING WITHIN THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS FOR HEIGHT, WEIGHT, AND LUNG CAPACITY IN GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR  M Test  Grade  T^  SD T  2  ' T]_  T  2  2.93 5.76. 13.91  Mi - M  df  t  -0.81 -2.75 -12.77  16 16 16  -0.59 -1.06 -1.78  2  HEIGHT WEIGHT LUNG CAPACITY  1 (N=9)  47.44 50.33 69.11  48.25 53.08 81.88  2.82 5.17 16.38  HEIGHT WEIGHT LUNG CAPACITY  3 (N=8)  50.43 59.43 83.12  51.50 59.59 91.25  3.95 8.57 9.23  2.99 8.13 14.07  -1.07 -0.16 -8.13  14 14 14  -0.60 -0.03 -1.36  HEIGHT WEIGHT LUNG CAPACITY  4 (N=8)  53.43 71.06 116.12  54.53 74.12 123.75  2.79 15.86 19.63  2.88 16.68 26.15  -1.10 -3.06 -7.63  14 14 14  -0.77 -0.37 -0.65  3  Mean Standard Deviation I n i t i a l Test F i n a l Test D i f f e r e n c e B e t w e e n I n i t i a l and F i n a l  Test  Means  TABLE XVI  COMPARISON OF THE MEANS OF THE I N I T I A L AND FINAL TESTING WITHIN THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS FOR ARM GIRTH AND THIGH GIRTH IN GRADES ONE AND THREE  M Test  Grade  ARM GIRTH THIGH GIRTH  1 (N=9)  6.94 13.25  7.36 13.91  0.41 0.76  0.81 0.67  -0.42 -0.66  16 16  ARM GIRTH THIGH GIRTH  3 (N=8)  7.06 13.37  7.23 15.03  0.56 0.99  0.67 1.07  -0.22 -1.66  14 14  "^Significant  T^  SD  at 1 percent  T  2  T  l  T  2  M]_ - M  level  Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n I n i t i a l Test F i n a l Test D i f f e r e n c e Between I n i t i a l  and F i n a l  Test  Means  2  df  t  -1.36 -1.95 -0.70 -3.20 ++  63  s i g n i f i c a n t beyond It  .01  level  of  i n weight  increase of  initial  and  1.07  inches 1.66  X V I I summarizes  final  standing  groups  and  t h i g h g i r t h was  Table  three  means, and  broad  jump and  i n g r a d e s one,  grades, with  where the  3.20).  t h r e e had  only  .16  i n c r e a s e was  the  increase  beyond  the  .01  .05  level  the  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  and  grade four .01  standing  level  (t =  Table initial  broad  f o r both v a r i a b l e s i n a l l  of  s h u t t l e run second).  broad and  i n grade  jump was the  In  summarizes  the  arm  bar  g r o u p s i n g r a d e s one,  three,  and  four.  for  arm  bar  f l e x e d arm  level  grades  hang. bar  ( t = 3.23) .  noted  in  beyond  d i f f e r e n c e s between  flexed  flexed  beyond  significant  and  three  grade  s h u t t l e run  l a r g e s t i n c r e a s e v/as  jump, W h i c h was  four  significant  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  All  differences  experimental  the  grip strength  the  the  10.29).  XVIII  final  The  mean  four.  a l m o s t n i l (.02  ( t = 7.78),  the  means, and  for  and  exception  (t = 2.89).  the  the d i f f e r e n c e s between  i n standing  level  yet  pound  inches.  shuttle-run of  three,  the  three,  the  (t =  i n height;  L a r g e i n c r e a s e s were noted  the  confidence  i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that grade  mean g a i n  for  the  The  improved  hang o f  the  differences  experimental  i n both g r i p strength  l a r g e s t i n c r e a s e was  h a n g , w h i c h was  the  the  i n grade  s i g n i f i c a n t beyond  and four  the  .01  TABLE X V I I  COMPARISON OF THE MEANS OF THE I N I T I A L AND FINAL TESTING WITHIN THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS FOR STANDING BROAD JUMP AND SHUTTLE RUN I N GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR  SD  M Test  Grade  Tl  T  Tl  2  T  Mi  2  -  M  2  df  STANDING BROAD JUMP. SHUTTLE RUN  1 (N=9)  38.55 14.67  44.05 13.64  10.55 1.85  6.09 1.25  -5.50 1.03  16 1.6  STANDING BROAD JUMP SHUTTLE RUN  3 (N=8)  28.06 13.47  51.12 12.81  5.29 0.56  6.59 0.31  •23.06 0.66  14 14  STANDING BROAD JUMP SHUTTLE RUN  4 (N=8)  30.25 12.33  58.68 12.35  5.23 0.71  5.80 0.74  -28.43 -0.02.  14 14  +  -1.35 1.38  -7.78 ++ 2.89+  .10.29 -0.03  + +  S i g n i f i c a n t at 5 percent l e v e l S i g n i f i c a n t at 1 percent l e v e l  + +  M SD Ti T Mi~M 2  2  : : : : :  Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n I n i t i a l Test F i n a l Test D i f f e r e n c e Between I n i t i a l  CTl  and F i n a l  Test  Means  4^  TABLE  XVIII  COMPARISON OF THE MEANS OF THE I N I T I A L AND FINAL TESTING WITHIN THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS FOR THE GRIP STRENGTH AND FLEXED ARM BAR HANG I N GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR  M Test  Grade  GRIP  : Lt : Rt FLEXED ARM BAR HANG : Lt : Rt FLEXED ARM EAR HANG  1 (N=9)  GRIP  : Lt : Rt FLEXED ARM BAR HANG  3 (N=8)  GRIP  "^Significant M  : Mean  SD TJL T M1-M2  : : : :  2  4 (N=8)  T  L  SD T  T]_ •  2  17.66 18.77  20.55 19.44  20.00  27.46  23.00 23.75  T  2  M  x  - M  2  df  t  6.61 5.44 . 12.86  6.85 6.55 • 13.07  -2.89 -0.67  16 16  -0.90 -0.23  -7.46  16  -1.22  23.37 26.12  7.48 5.62  6.92 7.95  -0.37 -2.37  14 14  -0.10 -0.68  12.00  17.05  8.24  15.37  -5.05  14  -0.81  30.37 33.12  37.37 37.37  12.08 11.40  9.25 9.33  -7.00 -4.25  14 14  -1.30 -0.81  22.56  50.00  8.67  at 1 percent  22.35  -27.44  14  -3.23  level  Standard D e v i a t i o n I n i t i a l Test Final Test D i f f e r e n c e Between I n i t i a l  • and F i n a l  Test  Means  + +  CHAPTER  SUMMARY AND  V  CONCLUSION  Summary The effects  an  gramme h a d one,  purpose of  regular  on  and  motor t r a i t s  physical  and  hundred c h i l d r e n o f  One  British  hundred o f  the  r e m a i n i n g hundred,  selected  the  1.  i n the  due  to  physical  thigh  education children  pro-  i n grades  of  and  the  accelerated  the  control  O n l y the  arm  girth,  in the  the experi-  programme.  groups,  partici-  experimental  fifty-four  groups a higher  randomly  traits  investigated weight,  chronological  lung age,  were: capacity, skeletal  age. 2.  Motor A b i l i t y shuttle  run.  and  Agility:  The  Table I I ) .  Development: h e i g h t ,  girth,  as  Elementary  d i f f i c u l t i e s at  study,  (see  motor  participated  classified  administrative  conclusion  Physical  as  programme.  c h i l d r e n were t e s t e d The  of  the  S i r Richard McBride  Columbia,  classified  regular  were p r e t e s t e d , At  physical  children,  mental groups, p a r t i c i p a t e d  i n the  investigate  four.  S c h o o l o f Vancouver,  level.  to  and  Two  pated  s t u d y was  accelerated  three,  study.  this  standing broad  jump,  67  3.  Strength: l e f t  4.  C a r d i o v a s c u l a r A p p r a i s a l : submaximal work Tables  significance efficients The  The  flexed  show t h e  final  and  scores  the experimental  task.  means and the  co-  listed.  and  than  i n thigh  the  the group.  girth  i n favor of grade  three control  achieved per  items were i n f a v o r o f  g r o u p s 27  test  times,  and  i n favor of  group.  the  control  show t h e d i f f e r e n c e s  between  times. T a b l e s XV  initial  and  through  XVIII  f i n a l means,  ences f o r the e x p e r i m e n t a l traits  listed.  tially  from  jump  the i n i t i a l  the  groups  to the  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the  f o r the p h y s i c a l  final  In grade f o u r the  (Table XVII),  and  were s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the t h i g h g i r t h was  and  A l l three experimental  mental v a r i a b l e s . broad  hang.  the e x c e p t i o n o f grade three c o n t r o l  only s i g n i f i c a n t difference occurred  g r o u p s 13  bar  f o r the development t r a i t s  showed s l i g h t l y h i g h e r r e s u l t s  group, w i t h  The  arm  groups were o l d e r c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y  ( T a b l e V) w h i c h was  the  XIV  grips,  o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e means, and  of c o r r e l a t i o n  skeletally,  right  I I I through  experimental  control  and  .01  same g r o u p s t a n d i n g s b r o a d were s i g n i f i c a n t beyond  jump and  the  .01  and  the  arm  b a r hang  level.  s h u t t l e run .05  substan-  i n standing (Table  In grade three .01  motor  i n a l l the e x p e r i -  improvements  level.  s i g n i f i c a n t beyond  groups improved  test  i n flexed  and  differ-  levels,  For  XVIII)  the the  (Table XVII) respectively.  68  Conclusion In the Purpose of the Study f i v e hypotheses, p r e s e n t e d as q u e s t i o n s , were asked which d e f i n e The  answers to these q u e s t i o n s Hypothesis I :  Do  the problems  are:  c h i l d r e n , o f the  cipate  i n an a c c e l e r a t e d  greater  strength  investigated.  same grade, who  parti-  programme o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n show  than c h i l d r e n who  participate-  in a  regular  the experimental group shoved  greater  p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme? In grade one, strength bar  i n both l e f t  hang.  The  t = 1.69,  but  and  i t was  not  the c o n t r o l group showed  arm  grip,  The  greater  d i f f e r e n c e s , however,  small.  In grade f o u r , f l e x e d arm  flexed  significant statistically.  i n a l l t h r e e measurements.  were q u i t e  and  l a r g e s t d i f f e r e n c e occurred i n l e f t  In grade three, strength  r i g h t grips strength  bar  the c o n t r o l group i n r i g h t g r i p  hang were s u p e r i o r ,  mental group showed g r e a t e r The  differences  special  Hypothesis I I : c i p a t e ,' i n the  two  Do  i n l e f t g r i p the  experi-  strength.  i n a l l three grades, w i t h the  o f l e f t g r i p f o r grade one and warrant no  and  and  exception  experimental group, were v e r y  small  appraisal. c h i l d r e n , o f the  same grade, who  d i f f e r e n t programmes o f p h y s i c a l  parti-  education  d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n a n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l measurement?  69  G r a d e one e x p e r i m e n t a l and h a d g r e a t e r  lung  not s i g n i f i c a n t  the  experimental  were q u i t e  taller,  heavier,  c a p a c i t y than the c o n t r o l group.  largest difference occurred was  g r o u p was  i n lung  capacity,  statistically.  g r o u p was  The  t - 1,80, b u t i t  I n arm and t h i g h  girths  also greater, but the d i f f e r e n c e s  insignificant.  In grade  three,  contrary to the observations  made f o r  g r a d e one, t h e c h i l d r e n were t a l l e r ,  heavier,  lung  The d i f f e r e n c e s i n w e i g h t ,  t  c a p a c i t y i n the c o n t r o l group.  = 1.87,  not  and l u n g  significant  capacity,  t = 1.86, w e r e q u i t e l a r g e b u t  statistically.  t h i g h g i r t h s were a l s o g r e a t e r difference  and h a d g r e a t e r  i n t h i g h g i r t h was  The m e a s u r e m e n t s o f arm and f o r the c o n t r o l group. s i g n i f i c a n t beyond  The  t h e .05  level  ( t = 2.66) . Grade f o u r e x p e r i m e n t a l taller,  heavier,  and h a d g r e a t e r  largest difference occurred was  not s i g n i f i c a n t Hypothesis  III:  a c c e l e r a t e d programme agility  tests  regular  programme?  i n lung  capacity.  capacity,  Do c h i l d r e n who score higher  i n comparison  the s h u t t l e run.  lung  as g r a d e one,  was  Again, the  t - 1.13, b u t i t  statistically.  In a l l three grades in  group,  participate  i n the  on t h e motor a b i l i t y  t o c h i l d r e n who  participate-  the c o n t r o l groups scored  The l a r g e s t  difference occurred  and i n the  higher  i n grade  70  four  ( t - 1.03), w h i c h was  e x p e r i m e n t a l group, in  standing  broad  on  not  the  jump.  significant  other  The  hand,  statistically.  achieved  higher  The  results  d i f f e r e n c e s , however, w e r e  quite  small. Hypothesis  IV;  achieved  a greater  skeletal  maturity? Children  I f c h i l d r e n of total  of  the  the  appraisal, did  accelerated they  programme  a l s o have  experimental groups i n a l l three  g r a d e s w e r e s k e l e t a l l y more m a t u r e ,  although neither  d i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t  statistically.  interesting  same c h i l d r e n w e r e a l s o  when t h e i r  to note that chronological  significant skeletal  the  g r o u p w h i c h was the  exception  g r a d e s one the  the  l a r g e s t being  j u s t below the  of grade three,  and  four  i n mind,  i t may  be  q u i t e homogeneous i n a l l t h e favor  of  the  more a d v a n c e d  the. c a s e f o r g r a d e t h r e e younger b o t h  insignificant. stated  that  t e s t items.  skeletally  chronological  the The  be  With in  However,  With the two  above  g r o u p s were  slight  differences  a t t r i b u t e d to  ages.  This  c o n t r o l g r o u p c h i l d r e n , who and  and  confidence.  achievements.  e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s may  s k e l e t a l and  of  no  experimental  experimental groups  indicated higher  d i f f e r e n c e s were r e l a t i v e l y  indications  in  the  older  However,  i n grade three level  the  be  between c h r o n o l o g i c a l  .69 .05  of  I t might  ages were c o n s i d e r e d .  correlations occurred  age,  greater  chronologically.  is  their not  were  71  H y p o t h e s i s V:  Do  accelerated  programme,  test  from the  scores All  items.  c h i l d r e n , who  initial  Improvements b e y o n d  was  (t = 10.29);  the  the  run  of  the  intensive by  the  physical  investigator  physical  and  the  the  improvement o f  latter.  the  s t u d y may  be  least  school  monitored  the  to  arm  .05  the  This  the  physical  level  The  and  possibility  of  the  can  four  confidence  of  a  experimental however,  this  that  study.  a more  administered enhance  I t seems t h a t  contribute  to  the such  the  children.  i n view of  the  r e s u l t s of  experimental period  control  a true  jump  three.  s u c h as  children.  capacity  extension of  standing  hang f o r grade  e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s , may  recommendations  assure  3.20); i n  difference,  e d u c a t i o n programme,  year.  c o n f i d e n c e were  l i m i t a t i o n s of  to deny the  to  of  i n v e s t i g a t i o n shows o n l y  a long-term basis,  Further  be  <-  i n standing broad  control  motor development o f  a programme, on  one  test?  ( t =-.2.89) f o r g r a d e  c o n s i d e r e d beyond  However, t h i s i s n o t  (t =  i n flexed  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  i n favor  c a n n o t be  level  (t = 7.78);  m a r g i n a l d i f f e r e n c e between the groups,  final  .01  Improvement b e y o n d  shown i n s h u t t l e The  to  g i r t h f o r grade three  grade four 3.23).  the  show s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n t h e i r  •broad jump f o r -grade t h r e e  (t =  in  t h r e e g r a d e s showed i m p r o v e m e n t s i n a l l t e s t  shown i n t h i g h  for  participate  g r o u p s ' programme  comparison of  the  to  this  at  should  activities.  A  72  further  inquiry  i s needed i n elementary  e d u c a t i o n programmes, t o meet t h e p h y s i c a l  and a p o s s i b l e developmental  school  physical  r e v i s i o n o f the c u r r i c u l u m  needs o f t h e growing  child.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Adams, F.A., L i n d e , L . L . and M i y a k e , H., The P h y s i c a l W o r k i n g C a p a c i t y o f Normal S c h o o l C h i l d r e n . P e d i a t r i c s 28:55-64, July, 1961. Asmussen, E., and H e e b o l - N i e l s o n , K., A D i m e n s i o n a l o f P h y s i c a l P e r f o r m a n c e and Growth i n Boys, J . P h y s i o l . , 6:585-592, 1955.  Analysis Appl.  B a l d w i n , B.T., A n t h r o p o m e t r i c Measurements. (In) Terman, L.M., G e n e t i c S t u d i e s o f G e n i u s , V. 1., M e n t a l and P h y s i c a l T r a i t s o f a Thousand G i f t e d C h i l d r e n . Stanford University Press, 1926. B a l d w i n , B.T., The P h y s i c a l Growth o f C h i l d r e n f r o m B i r t h t o M a t u r i t y . U n i v . Iowa S t u d . , S t u d , i n C h i l d W e l f a r e , 1:1, 1921, p . 411. B a y e r , L.M., B a y l e y , N., Growth D i a g n o s i s , of Chicago Press, 1959.  Chicago,  B o o k w a l t e r , -K.W., G r i p - S t r e n g t h Norms f o r M a l e s , The Q u a r t e r l y , V. 21, O c t o b e r 1950, pp. 249-273.  University  Research  C a r p e n t e r , A., The Measurement o f G e n e r a l M o t o r C a p a c i t y and G e n e r a l M o t o r A b i l i t y i n the F i r s t T h r e e G r a d e s , The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V. 13, No. 4, December 1942. C a r p e n t e r , A., T e s t s o f M o t o r E d u c a b i l i t y f o r t h e F i r s t Grades. C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 4:293-299, 1940.  Three  C a r p e n t e r , A., The Measurement o f G e n e r a l M o t o r C a p a c i t y and G e n e r a l M o t o r A b i l i t y i n t h e F i r s t T h r e e G r a d e s , The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V.13, No.4, December 1942, pp. 444-465. C l a r k e , H.H., H a r r i s o n , J . C . E . , D i f f e r e n c e s i n P h y s i c a l and M o t o r T r a i t s Between Boys o f A d v a n c e d , N o r m a l , and R e t a r d e d M a t u r i t y , The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V.33, N o . l , M a r c h 1962, pp. 13-25. C l a r k e , H.H., P e t e r s o n , K.H., Contrast of Maturational, Struct u r a l , and S t r e n g t h C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f A t h l e t e s and NonA t h l e t e s 10 - 15 Y e a r s o f Age, The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V.32, No.2, May 196.1, pp. 163-176.  74  C l a r k e , H.H., W i c k e n s , J . S . , M a t u r i t y , S t r u c t u r a l , S t r e n g t h , and M o t o r A b i l i t y Growth C u r v e s o f Boys 9 t o 15 Y e a r s o f Age, The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V.33, No. 1, M a r c h 1962. C l a r k e , H. H a r r i s o n , A p p l i c a t i o n o f Measurement t o H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l Education. P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 1959 ( t h i r d edition). Crampton, C.W., P h y s i o l o g i c a l Age - A F u n d a m e n t a l C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 15:3-47, 1944.  Principle.  Cumming, G.R., and Cumming, P.M., W o r k i n g C a p a c i t y o f N o r m a l C h i l d r e n T.es.ted o n a B i c y c l e E r g o m e t e r . C a n . Med. A s s o c . J . , F e b r u a r y 16, 1963, V. 88:351-355. Cumming, G.R. and D a n z i n g e r , R., B i c y c l e E r g o m e t e r S t u d i e s i n Children. P e d i a t r i c s , 32:202-208, A u g u s t , 1963. C u r e t o n , T.K., A n a l y s i s . o f V i t a l C a p a c i t y as a T e s t o f C o n d i t i o n f o r H i g h S c h o o l B o y s , The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V.7, No.4, December 1936, p p . 80-92. D e L o t t o , M., The E f f e c t s o f C o m p e t i t i v e A t h l e t i c s o n t h e Growth and D e v e l o p m e n t o f P r e - P u b e s c e n t Boys, D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f O r e g o n , 1954. E r i c k s o n , L., Simonson, E., T a y l o r , H.L., A l e x a n d e r , H. and Keys, A., The E n e r g y C o s t o f H o r i z o n t a l and G r a d e W a l k i n g on t h e M o t o r - D r i v e n T r e a d m i l l , A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P h y s i o l o g y , 145:391-401, 1946. E s p e n s c h a d e , A., D e v e l o p m e n t o f M o t o r C o o r d i n a t i o n i n Boys and G i r l s , The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V.18, N o . l , M a r c h 1947, pp. 31-44. Fait,  H., An A n a l y t i c a l S t u d y o f t h e E f f e c t s o f C o m p e t i t i v e A t h l e t i c s upon J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l Boys, M i c r o c a r d e d D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa, 1951.  G a l l a g h e r , J.R., The S t a t i c and Dynamic P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s o f Adolescents. J o u r n a l o f P e d i a t r i c s , 24:81, 1944. G a t e s , A . J . , The N a t u r e and E d u c a t i o n a l S i g n i f i c a n c e o f P h y s i c a l S t a t u s and o f M e n t a l , P h y s i o l o g i c a l , S o c i a l and Emotional Maturity. Journal o f Educational Psychology, 15: 1924.  75  Govatos, L.A., R e l a t i o n s h i p s and .Age D i f f e r e n c e s i n Growth Measures and Motor S k i l l s , C h i l d Development, V.30, 1959. G r e u l i c h , W.W., S k e l e t a l Status and P h y s i c a l Growth, Dynamics of the Growth Process, N.J., P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1950. G r e u l i c h , W.W., Pyle, S.I., Radiographic A t l a s o f S k e l e t a l Development of the Hand and W r i s t , S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1959. Hebbelink, D.M., E x e r c i s e T o l e r a n c e of 6 - 10 Years Old C h i l d r e n and the Development of P h y s i c a l Performance Capacity, G.ymnasion, I I I , 1966. H e i n l e i n , J.H., A Study of D e x t r a l i t y i n C h i l d r e n . and J . Genet. Psychol., 36:91-119, 1929.  Ped.  Sem.  Hindraarch, R.G., S i g n i f i c a n c e o f Physique, M a t u r a t i o n a l , Body . S i z e , Strength, Motor A b i l i t y , and R e a c t i o n Time Charact e r i s t i c s o f E i g h t Year Old Boys, Microcarded D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, 1962. Humphrey, J.H., Jones, E., H a v e r s t i c k , M.J., Readings i n P h y s i c a l Education f o r the Elementary School, (rev. ed.), P a l o A l t o : The N a t i o n a l Press, .1965. Jenkins, L.M., A Comparative Study o f Motor Achievements of C h i l d r e n o f F i v e , Six, and Seven Years of Age, New York, Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1930. Johnson, B., Mental Growth o f C h i l d r e n i n R e l a t i o n to the Rate o f Growth i n B o d i l y Development: A Report of the Bureau o f E d u c a t i o n a l Experiments, New York C i t y : E.P. Dutton, 1925. Kane, R.J., Meredith, H.V., A b i l i t y i n the Standing Broad Jump o f Elementary School C h i l d r e n 7, 9, and 11 Years of Age, The Research Q u a r t e r l y , V.23, No.2, May 1952, pp. 198-208. K i n t i s , P.F., P a t t e r n s o f Growth i n Strength o f Elementary School Boys. Microcarded T h e s i s (M.S.), U n i v e r s i t y o f Wisconsin, 1953. Krogman, W.M., F a c t o r s o f P h y s i c a l Growth of C h i l d r e n as they may apply to P h y s i c a l Education, American. As,s.o.ci.a,ti.o,n f o r Health, P h y s i c a l Education, and R e c r e a t i o n Proceedings, 1954, p. 60." ' >  76  M a r t i n , Gordon E., Muscular S t r e n g t h and Muscular Symmetry i n Human Being, American J o u r n a l o f P h y s i o l o g y , :67-73, May, 1918. Meredith, H.V., The Rhythm o f P h y s i c a l Growth: A Study of Eighteen Anthropometric Measurements on Iowa C i t y White Males Ranging i n Age Between B i r t h and Eighteen Years. Univ. Iowa Stud., Stud, i n C h i l d Welfare, 11:3, 1935, p. 128. Metheny, E., B r e a t h i n g C a p a c i t y and G r i p Strength of Pres c h o o l C h i l d r e n . Univ. Iowa Stud., Stud, i n C h i l d Welfare, 18:2, 1941, p. 207. M i l l e r , A.G., Whitcomb, V., P h y s i c a l Education i n the Element a r y School Curriculum, New York: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1957. McNeely, S.A., Schneider, E., P h y s i c a l Education i n , the School C h i l d ' s Day, Washington, Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1950. McCloy, C.H., T e s t s and Measurements i n Health and P h y s i c a l Education. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , Inc., 195S, New York. McCloy, C.H., Young, N.D., T e s t s and Measurements i n H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l Education, New York, Appleton-Century-Crof'ts, Inc., 1954 ( t h i r d e d i t i o n ) pp. 384-395. McCloy, C.H., The I n f l u e n c e o f C h r o n o l o g i c a l Age on Motor Performance, The Research Q u a r t e r l y , V.6, No.2, May 1935, pp. 61-64. N i e l s o n , N.P., Schools.  Van Hagen, W., P h y s i c a l Education f o r A.So Barnes and Co., New York, 1954.  Elementary  Orban, W.A.R., B a i l e y , D.A. and Bolonchuk, W., A n a l y s i s of S e l e c t e d Cardio-Pulmonary V a r i a b l e s of Young Boys i n An " A l l - O u t E x e r c i s e " . Unpublished paper. P a t t e r s o n , D.G., Physique and I n t e l l e c t . Century-Crof t s , Inc., 1930.  New  York,  Appleton-  R a n d a l l , M.W., Waine, W.K., O b j e c t i v e s of the P h y s i c a l Education Lesson, London: G. B e l l and Sons L t d . , 1960. R a r i c k , G.L., E x e r c i s e and Growth, Science and Medicine of Exerc i s e and Sport, New York, Harper & Brothers P u b l i s h e r s , 1960, p. 441.  77  R a r i c k , G.L., O y s t e r , N., P h y s i c a l M a t u r i t y , M u s c u l a r S t r e n g t h and M o t o r P e r f o r m a n c e o f Young S c h o o l - A g e Boys, The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V.35, No.4; December 1964, p p . 523-531. R a r i c k , G.L., M o t o r D e v e l o p m e n t D u r i n g I n f a n c y and C h i l d h o o d , C o l l e g e P r i n t i n g and T y p i n g Co., I n c . , M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s i n , 1961. Rowe, F.A., Growth C o m p a r i s o n o f A t h l e t e s and N o n - A t h l e t e s , The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V.4, 1933, p . 108. S a r g e n t , D.A., S t r e n g t h T e s t s and The S t r o n g Men o f H a r v a r d , A m e r i c a n P h y s i o l o g i c a l E d u c a t i o n Review, 11:108. S e i l s , L.G., The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between M e a s u r e s o f P h y s i c a l Growth and G r o s s M o t o r P e r f o r m a n c e o f P r i m a r y - G r a d e S c h o o l C h i l d r e n , The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V.22, No.2, May 1951, p p . 244-260. Simmons, K., G r e u l i c h , W.W., M e n a r c h a l Age and t h e H e i g h t , W e i g h t and S k e l e t a l Age o f G i r l s , Age 7 - 1 7 Years, J o u r n a l o f P e d i a t r i c s , V.22, 1943, pp. 518-548. S i l l s , F.D., Anthropometry i n R e l a t i o n to P h y s i c a l Performance, S c i e n c e and M e d i c i n e o f E x e r c i s e and S p o r t s , New Y o r k , H a r p e r & B r o t h e r s P u b l i s h e r s , 1960, pp. 40-53. Sjttstrand,  T.,  Todd, T.W., Co.,  A t l a s of Skeletal Maturation, 1937.  Van  A c t a . Med.  Scand.  ( S u p p l . 196),  128:687,  S t . L o u i s , C.V.  1947. Mosby  Hagen, W., D e x t e r , G., W i l l i a m s , J . F . , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n t h e Elementary S c h o o l , Sacramento, C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1951, (third printing).  V a n n i e r , M., F o s t e r , M., T e a c h i n g t a r y Schools, T h i r d E d i t i o n , Company, 1963.  P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n ElemenPhiladelphia. W.B. Saunders  Wahlund, H., D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e P h y s i c a l W o r k i n g C a p a c i t y , A c t a . Med. S c a n d . ( S u p p l . 215), 132:74, 1948. W h i t t l e , H.D., E f f e c t s of Elementary School P h y s i c a l Education upon A s p e c t s o f P h y s i c a l , M o t o r , and P e r s o n a l i t y D e v e l o p ment, The R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , V.32, No.2, May 1962, pp. 249-260.  78  W i l l i a m s , J.F., Brownell, C.L., The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l Education, P h i l a d e l p h i a , W.B. Saunders Co., 1947 ( t h i r d e d i t i o n ) .  APPENDIX A  ACCELERATED PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME REGULAR PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME  80  I.  ACCELERATED PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME  T h i s programme o f p h y s i c a l ' e d u c a t i o n was designed and taught by the i n v e s t i g a t o r to the experimental groups.  Each  c l a s s r e c e i v e d t h r e e f o r t y minutes o f i n s t r u c t i o n every week. The aims and purposes, development c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and needs.of children,  and the s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s o f the programme o f the  experimental groups are o u t l i n e d below. 1.  AIMS AND  PURPOSES  i.  Development o f c o r r e c t p o s t u r a l h a b i t s .  ii..  Development o f b a s i c muscular s t r e n g t h and c o - o r d i n a t i o n .  iii.  Development o f c r e a t i v i t y i n motion through e n j o y a b l e rhythmic  iv.  activities.  Development o f s u f f i c i e n t s k i l l  i n motor movement to  assure enjoyment o f a c t i v i t i e s . v.  Development o f i n t e r e s t to s u s t a i n optimum p h y s i c a l , mental, s o c i a l ,  vi.  and emotional w e l l - b e i n g .  Development o f emotional s t a b i l i t y through frequent and vigorous p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the c a p a c i t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l .  vii.  Development o f courage, i n i t i a t i v e ,  alertness,  self-  c o n t r o l and c o - o p e r a t i o n i n group a c t i v i t i e s and i n d i v i d u a l games. viii.  Develop movement accuracy, e s p e c i a l l y with ages 9 and 10.  ix.  Develop awareness o f s e l f and independence.  81 CHILD GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT, CHARACTERISTICS AND NEEDS A.  Age 5, 6 and 7 Years i.  Boundless hanging,  ii.  energy  expressed  through running,  jumping,  throwing., k i c k i n g and c a t c h i n g .  Many c h i l d r e n do not have s k i l l or c o n f i d e n c e ; they f i n d t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n i n l e s s demanding ties.  activi-  S k i l l c o n f i d e n c e i s developed by i n c r e a s i n g -  l y demanding and p r o g r e s s i v e l y complicated activities. iii.  P h y s i c a l growth not as r a p i d as b e f o r e e n t e r i n g s c h o o l , however, i t i s continuous.  An  average  g a i n o f two to -three inches i n h e i g h t and three to s i x pounds i n weight per y e a r . iv.  Muscular  development i s r e l a t i v e l y uneven; b i g  muscles b e i n g more developed v.  than s m a l l ones.  The p l a y p a t t e r n s o f t h i s age group are exuberant, experimental, dramatic  and make b e l i e v e .  It  r e f l e c t s c e r t a i n ideas, r o l e s o f parents or a d u l t s . vi.  There i s an expressed d r i v e to be a c t i v e .  vii.  Complicated,  long p l a y s confuse and i r r i t a t e them.  v i i i . Being f i r s t o r b e s t i s the d e s i r e o f a l l . groups minimize ix.  Small  conflict.  Short a t t e n t i o n span and an i n t e r e s t i n m u l t i t u d e of a c t i v i t i e s .  Continuous  p r a c t i c e i s unappealing.  82  x.  F a t i g u e i s an important  f a c t o r to be r e a l i z e d .  C h i l d r e n o f t e n need r e s t w h i l e engaged i n vigorous activities.  Too much s i t t i n g ,  confinement w i l l .  a l s o cause f a t i g u e ; and the b e s t to B.  counter-irritant  f a t i g u e o f t h i s s o r t i s vigorous  activity.  Age 8, 9 and 10 Years i.  Growth i n h e i g h t and weight a r e normally slow and steady at t h i s age.  There w i l l be a l a g j u s t  p r i o r to pubescence. ii.  G i r l s have a s p u r t o f growth at about 10 y e a r s . They a t t a i n s k e l e t a l m a t u r i t y b e f o r e boys.  iii.  D i f f e r e n c e s i n i n d i v i d u a l o s s i f i c a t i o n are very wide - as much as 5 to 6 years at a g i v e n age. M a l n u t r i t i o n or s e r i o u s i l l n e s s may d e l a y  ossifi-  cation. iv.  Mental m a t u r i t y and s o c i a l c o r r e l a t i o n with s k e l e t a l  v.  maturity.  The small muscles are d e v e l o p i n g . skill  vi.  adjustment have some  Manipulative  i sincreasing.  Muscular  c o - o r d i n a t i o n s are good.  The hand-eye  c o - o r d i n a t i o n s are c o n t i n u i n g t o develop. vii.  Posture may be poor, not even as good as d u r i n g the f i r s t year o f s c h o o l . body i s most i n c l i n e d  The s p i n d l y type o f  to drop.  In some cases,  83  poor p o s t u r e may be symptomatic.  I t s presence  may i n d i c a t e a c o n d i t i o n needing a t t e n t i o n ; chronic i n f e c t i o n ,  fatigue, malnutrition,  orthopedic d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  emotional, mal-adjustment,  etc. v i i i . The h e a r t develops body.  i n s i z e l e s s r a p i d l y than the  I t s work i s i n c r e a s e d .  h e a r t i s prevented  Damage to the  d u r i n g p l a y because the s k e l e -  t a l muscles f a t i g u e f i r s t .  Taxing  the h e a r t  should be avoided by s e e i n g t h a t c h i l d r e n do not compete w i t h those who are stronger or more mature physically. ix.  The lungs are not f u l l y  developed.  x.  A t the end o f t h i s p e r i o d , the eyes f u n c t i o n as w e l l as those o f a d u l t s . may develop  Myopia  (near-sightedness)  around the age o f 8 y e a r s .  Many eye  d e f e c t s can be remedied by g l a s s e s . xi.  By the end o f t h i s p e r i o d the c h i l d w i l l have had many o f the contagious w i l l have b u i l t  xii.  d i s e a s e s o f c h i l d h o o d or  up immunity t o them.  I n t e r n a l changes i n glands taking place.  and body s t r u c t u r e are  There i s a wide range i n the b e g i n -  ning o f sexual m a t u r i t y .  The p e r i o d o f r a p i d  growth comes e a r l i e r f o r g i r l s  than f o r boys, b u t  84  it  lasts  longer  of  t h e p u b e r t y c y c l e o c c u r s b e t w e e n 10 - 13 y e a r s  of  age  and  In g i r l s , of xiii.  The  In boys,  age.  m e n s t r u a t i o n appears between the  10 - 16, w i t h t h e a v e r a g e child  the b e g i n n i n g  ends b e t w e e n 14 - 18% y e a r s o f  o f 8,  long-legged is  i n boys.  a t 13  years.  9 o r 10 y e a r s i s s t u r d y  and r a n g y i n a p p e a r a n c e .  u s u a l l y good  seems h u r r i e d  ages  though  His health,  and he h a s b o u n d l e s s e n e r g y .  and u n t i d y .  He  i s prone  to  He  acci-  dents. xiv.  He  now  longer  has  a wider range of i n t e r e s t s  attention  span.  His goals  and c o n s i s t e n c y i s demanded,  are  and  a  immediate  as i s i n d i v i d u a l  justice. xv.  He  i s learning  in  self-made groups  beginning  to be  abide by group xvi.  The  child  The  x v i i i . Sex  xix.  The  interested  boasting  a n t a g o n i s m may  and  be  i n teams and  i s good.  and may  He i s  will  The  seek i t  rivalry. improved.  acute.  S e x u a l "modesty"  appetite  plays  decisions.  r h y t h m i c s e n s e i s much  detailed.  He  over a longer p e r i o d .  desires prestige  through s i z e , xvii.  to co-operate b e t t e r .  Sex  interest  i s not  appears. child  i s interested  85  in  eating.  and xx.  He  i s generally  own  xxii.  can  •He  i s now  The  food  preferences  about f o l l o w i n g  jobs.  He  can  instruc-  take care  t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s own more aware o f h i s p e r s o n a l  child  this  need.  At  of  his  standing  and and  family  x x i i i . T h e r e must be control, 9 or  10  freedom  is  full  strength  and  a their  own  under-  Participation  to develop  endurance.  stunts,  child  i n v o l v i n g use  throwing their  The  body  and  of  8,  of  catching,  accompanying  i s important: k i t e s ,  noise,  tops,  etc.  needs o r g a n i z e d  willing  adults.  fills  important.  " i t " games w i t h  marbles,  club  strongly desire  opportunity  Seasonal play  secret  social  c h i l d r e n need  y e a r s needs a c t i v i t i e s  running,  hygiene.  i n s e t t i n g up  sympathy f r o m  the whole body;  etc.  i n a gang o r  rules, yet  affairs  clothing.  assured p o s i t i o n i n a  this period  amount o f  standards  in  n e e d s an  Membership  certain  in  fewer  room.  He  He  reliable  i n household  group.  xxiv.  are  refusals.  tions  xxi.  T h e r e now  games f o r team p l a y .  to p r a c t i c e i n order  skills  f o r games.  He  t o become  gains  He  is  adequate  self-confidence  by  86  excelling xxv.  i n some one t h i n g .  I t i s as i m p o r t a n t followership  f o r c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n good  as i t i s f o r them t o l e a r n good  leadership. xxvi.  Encouragement t o e x e r c i s e should  be  gathering  x x v i i i . The  such  as p l a y i n g  nuts,  i n c a v e s and b r o o k s ,  making campfires,  and s k a t e s  child  should  sleep  a b o u t 11 h o u r s .  i n the afternoon,  may p r e v e n t  A  constant  from  infancy  in physical  i n very  characteristic  t o any g i v e n  o f growth i s change.  stage w i l l  trend  needs.  tic  o f t h e age g r o u p s above a r e :  i.  The n e e d f o r a c t i v i t y .  ii.  The need f o r b e l o n g i n g  The d e v e l o p m e n t  not o n l y be prominant  and m e n t a l g r o w t h , b u t a l s o  important  i n bed,  a channel o f growth w i t h the  ing  is  A quiet  not.necessarily  much t h e same o r d e r .  toward b a s i c  He  over-fatigue.  Each p e r s o n passes through same s t a g e s  a r e needed.  are enjoyed.  u s u a l l y d o e s n o t g e t enough r e s t . period  i n rhythms  given.  xxvii. .Activities  Bicycles  creativity  i n an e v e r  Some b a s i c  t o t h e group,  needs  increas-  characteris-  the p r o j e c t  that  t o him, and p e o p l e he w a n t s t o p l e a s e .  87  iii.  The need  for participating  iv.  The need f o r s t a t u s expres'sed the people he  v.  important  successfully. by b e i n g  accepted  by  t o him, f o r what h e i s and what  has t o c o n t r i b u t e .  The need  for security;  i n belonging,  participating  and  recognition.  BASIC MOVEMENTS TO BE  STRESSED  Walking Running Stretching Pulling Pushing Climbing  Kicking Jumping Leaping Hopping Bending Turning  Phases o f A c t i v i t y : and  (3) M o t o r  be c e n t e r e d  each phase r e c e i v i n g  of  overall,  period,  (2) Body m e c h a n i c s ;  ability.  phases,  per  twisting  (1) F r e e movement;  Activities will  time  Catching Batting Throwing Bouncing Swinging  with  around  approximately  one p a r t i c u l a r  i n a d d i t i o n to a c t i v i t y  these  three  equal  proportion  phase b e i n g  emphasized  i n the remaining  two  phases.  SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES  (References:  1, 2, 3, 4,  5)  Grade 1 A.  Rhythm and Movement  Exploration  (1) Walk t o m u s i c o r c o u n t i n g ; counting;  and  (3) G a l l o p  (2) S k i p  t o music or  t o music or c o u n t i n g .  88  B.  Games o f Low  Organization  (1) Duek, duck, g o o s e ; the brook; (6)  Spider  Circle ball;  (9) T a r g e t  C.  (4)  toss;  stunts,  e.g.  Stunts,  Tumbling  (1) L o g  roll;  object;  and  flies;  (7)  Call ball;  and  (10)  r a b b i t hop,  (4) C h i n  tight  (9) Duck w a d d l e ;  and  (8) K i c k using  up  on  and;geese; chase;  skills  the  over  rope;  object, (8)  Rabbit  and  etc.  progression;  rope walk; (10)  Crossing  and  lame p u p p y w a l k ,  (6) C l i m b i n g  (7) B a l a n c i n g ,  (3)  (5) F o x e s  Relays:  (2) F o r w a r d r o l l  from k n e e l i n g ; over  (2) A u t o m o b i l e s ;  (5)  (3) P u s h  up  Jumping  ladder  Elephant  climbing; amble;  jump.  Grade I I I A.  Rhythmic (1)  Skipping:  rope;  Games o f Low  rope;  file;  doubles -  double f i l e ;  without and  (3)  Organization  (1) Tag  - Chinese;  (4) Red  rover;  ball;  - without  calisthenics.  (7) T a r g e t  C.  single  (2) M a r c h i n g : s i n g l e  Simple B.  Activities  (10)  (2)  (5) B i r d  toss  and  Cat  and  birds;  catcher;  (3) Red  (6) K i c k  and  h i t ; (3) P a r t n e r ' s b a l l ;  Shower b a l l ;  and  (11)  Ball  light; chase; (9)  Wall  toss.  Team Games (1) L i n e  soccer;  (2) B a s i c  soccer  fundamentals:  heading,  89  kicking,  trapping, dribble,  passing;  and (3) F l o o r  hockey. D.  Relays (1) U s i n g involves  E.  Stunts,  skills stopping  and r e v e r s i n g  grinder;  K a n g a r o o hop;  (7) R a b b i t  roll and  (2) R u n n i n g  direction.  jump;  fight;  beam w a l k ;  (3) F r e e  standing;  (6) Monkey r u n ;  (8) F o r w a r d r o l l  progression;  (10) W h e e l b a r r o w ;  (12) C a r t w h e e l p r o g r e s s i o n ;  progression; (16) Rope  (.2.) C r a b w a l k ;  (5) L o g r o l l ;  B e n c h and b a l a n c e Rooster  and  Tumbling  (L). C o f f e e (4)  learned with b a l l s ;  (14) S h o u l d e r  rest;  (9) (11)  (13) Backward  (15) The swan;  climbing.  Grade IV A.  Rhythmic  Activities  (1) M a r c h t o music, o r b e a t ; (3) R h y t h m i c l i m b o ; B.  Games o f Low  (2.) Run t o m u s i c o r b e a t ;  and (4)  Skipping  rope.  Organization  (1) T a g ; (2) C h a i n  t a g ; (3) Dodge b a l l ;  and (4)  Ball  race. C.  Relays (1) G o a t b u t t i n g ; (4)  Soccer  Obstacle  (2) S k i p  rope r e l a y ;  relay variations;  relay;  (3) S t r i d e b a l l ;  (5) Zigzag- r e l a y ; (6)  (7) L e a p f r o g r e l a y ;  (8) P a d d l e  tennis  90  relay; Team  and (9) Bean b a g b a l a n c e  Games  (1) S o c c e r fied  fundamentals;  volleyball  dribbling, Track  relay.  (2) I n d o o r  soccer;  (3) M o d i -  (Nev/comb) ; and (4) B a s k e t b a l l p a s s i n g ,  shooting.  and F i e l d  (1) S t a n d i n g b r o a d Running h i g h Stunts,  (1) C h i n n i n g ;  throw;  and (3)  Apparatus  (2) Rope c l i m b i n g ; (3) P u s h up; (4)  (5) C a r t w h e e l ;  (7) H e a d s t a n d ; Dive over  (2) S o f t b a l l  jump.  Tumbling,  Pyramids;  jump;  (6) Forv/ard and b a c k w a r d  (8) B a l a n c e beam;  object.  (9) P - b a r s ;  roll  and (10)  91  REFERENCES  1.  M i l l e r , A.G., Whitcomb, V., P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l C u r r i c u l u m , New Y o r k : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1957.  2.  V a n n i e r , M., F o s t e r , M., T e a c h i n g P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Elementary Schools, T h i r d E d i t i o n , P h i l a d e l p h i a : S a u n d e r s Company, 1963.  3.  R a n d a l l , M.W., Waine, W.K., O b j e c t i v e s o f the P h y s i c a l - Education Lesson. L o n d o n : G. B e l l and Sons, L t d . ,  in W.B.  1960.  4.  Humphrey, J.H., J o n e s , E., H a v e r s t i c k , M.J., R e a d i n g s i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l , ( r e v . ed.) P a l o A l t o : The N a t i o n a l P r e s s , 1965.  5.  N i e l s o n , N.P., Elementary  Van Hagen, W., P h y s i c a l Education for S c h o o l s , A.S. B a r n e s Co., New Y o r k , 1954.  92  II.  REGULAR PHYSICAL EDUCATION  This physical British was  e d u c a t i o n programme i s o u t l i n e d  Columbia P h y s i c a l Education C u r r i c u l u m .  administered by the regular classroom  control  PROGRAMME  groups.  Each c l a s s  s t r u c t i o n p e r week,  except  i n the  The programme  teachers  to the  r e c e i v e d two f o r t y m i n u t e s o f i n grade f o u r , w h i c h had t h r e e  forty  minutes o f i n s t r u c t i o n . The  f o l l o w i n g i s i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d from i n t e r v i e w i n g  the classroom  t e a c h e r o f each c o n t r o l  was c o n c e r n e d  with  physical  education  group.  The~investigator  t h e g e n e r a l programme o f a c t i v i t i e s training  o f the classroom  and  teacher.  Grade 1 Teacher:  "A"  Training:  Elementary physical  Activities:  Teacher  education  - warm up  Certificate, activities  one c o u r s e i n  and m e t h o d s .  calisthenics  -  games  -  relays  -  apparatus:  -  f r e e p l a y : w i t h t h e use o f b a l l s ,  benches,  ropes., mats,  agility ropes,  hoops,  beanbags Method,:  c r e a t i v e p l a y : a c t out people,  direct  and i n d i r e c t  animals,  divided equally  objects.  93  Grade I I I Teacher:  i  "B"  Training:  Elementary physical  Activities:  Teacher  education a c t i v i t i e s  - running, -  Certificate,  agility  jumping,  one and  course i n  methods.  skipping  equipment: c l i m b i n g ,  swinging,  hanging,  b a l a n c e benches - balls,  beanbags: c o n t r o l  catching, Method: G r a d e IV  specific  mainly  and  skill,  bouncing,  throwing activity  involving  arms and  trunks  indirect  (girls)  T e a c h e r : "C" "Training:  f o u r ••years u n i v e r s i t y w i t h p h y s i c a l  Activities:  - general: balls, -  specific:  gymnastics  basketball softball  h o o p s , beanbags.,  skills,  skills,  mainly  Grade IV  (boys)  Teacher:  "D"  and  track  ropes  apparatus), tumbling,  volleyball  folk  - o t h e r s : dodge b a l l , Method:  (large  e d u c a t i o n minor  skills  (Newcomb),  square dancing, and  field  indirect  Training:  Bachelor of Physical  Activities:  - gymnastics:  E d u c a t i o n Degree  apparatus  and mat  tumbling  rhythms  - hand-eye  and m o t o r  c o - o r d i n a t i o n w i t h rhythm  balls -  soccer,  direct  dodge b a l l ,  and i n d i r e c t  squareball,  divided  floor  equally  hockey  APPENDIX B  SKELETAL AGE ASSESSMENT FORM SAMPLE  X-RAY  HUMAN PERFORMANCE LABORATORY SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Skeletal Age of Individual Bones D i s t a l End. o f Radius D i s t a l End of Ulna Capitate Hamate Triquetral Lunate Navicular Greater Multangular Lesser Multangular  Metacarpal I Metacarpal I I Metacarpal I I I Metacarpal IV Metacarpal V  Proximal Proximal Proximal Proximal Proximal  Phalanx I Phalanx I I Phalanx I I I Phalanx IV Phalanx V  Middle Middle Middle Middle  Phalanx Phalanx Phalanx Phalanx  II III IV V  Distal listal Distal Distal Distal  Phalanx Phalanx Phalanx Phalanx Phalanx  I II III IV V  Pisiform Adductor Sesamoid of Thumb Flexor Sesamoid o f Thumb  HTJA3H  YTIESOVIMU  . 3 . B ,B 5 1 3 V U 0 3 H A V V***  ^ '  :TM3ITAq :3TAQ  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0077266/manifest

Comment

Related Items