The Open Collections website will be unavailable July 27 from 2100-2200 PST ahead of planned usability and performance enhancements on July 28. More information here.

Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Effects of an accelerated physical education programme on certain physical and motor traits of children… Tihanyi, Jeno 1968

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1968_A7_5 T54.pdf [ 5.56MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0077266.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0077266-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0077266-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0077266-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0077266-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0077266-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0077266-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0077266-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0077266.ris

Full Text

THE EFFECTS CF AN ACCELERATED PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME ON CERTAIN PHYSICAL AND MOTOR TRAITS OF CHILDREN IN GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR4" by JENO TIHANYI B.P.E., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the School of Physical Education and Recreation We accept this thesis as, conforming to the required standard; THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH.COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1968 This study was supported by the Fitness and Amateur Sport Direc-torate, Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa, Canada In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t n f physical Education and Recreation T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e A p r i l . 1968 ABSTRACT The purpose of th i s study was to investigate the ef f e c t s of an accelerated and a regular physical education programme on various physical and motor t r a i t s of grade one, three, and four children. Two hundred children of S i r Richard McBride Elementary School of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study. Two classes i n each grade were selected for one experimental and one control group. A l l experimental classes were tested i n i t i a l l y . Fifty-^-four students of the two hundred control and experimental part i c i p a n t s were randomly selected and were tested at the end of the programme. The physical and motor development t r a i t s investigated were: 1. Physical Development: height, weight, lung capacity, arm and thigh g i r t h s , chronological age, ske l e t a l age. 2. Motor A b i l i t y and A g i l i t y : standing broad jump, shuttle run. 3. Strength: l e f t and r i g h t grips strength, flexed arm bar hang. 4. Cardiovascular Appraisal: submaximal work task. The subjects of the control groups followed the i i programme outlined by the Department of Education of B r i t i s h Columbia for physical education. The programme was adminis-tered by the respective classroom teachers. These groups met twice weekly, for f o r t y minute periods. Exception to the above i s grade four, who met three times per week. The subjects of the experimental groups followed a programme designed and administered by the investigator. These groups met three times per week, for for t y minute periods. The programme for both experimental and control groups extended over a period of 15 weeks. Review of the f i n a l r e s u l t s indicates no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the two groups, with the excep-ti o n of the thigh g i r t h for grade three control group. The t value was 2.66, s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .05 l e v e l . The subjects i n grade three control group were t a l l e r and heavier. I t i s in t e r e s t i n g to note that although the grade three control group was younger chronologically and s k e l e t a l l y , they surpassed the grade three experimental group i n a l l test items, with the exception of standing broad jump. The f i n a l r esults of the experimental group indicate improvement i n a l l variables. S i g n i f i c a n t improvements beyond the .01 l e v e l were demonstrated i n standing broad jump (t = 7.78 for grade three, and. t = 10.29 for grade four) ; flexed arm bar hang (t = 3.23 for grade four); thigh g i r t h (t = 3.20 for grade i i i three); at the .05 l e v e l i n shuttle run (t = 2.39 for grade three) . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the investigation shows only a marginal difference between the control and experimental groups, i n favor of the l a t t e r . This difference, however, can-not be considered beyond the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s study. However, thi s i s not to deny the p o s s i b i l i t y that a more intensive physical education programme, such as administered by the investigator to the experimental groups, may enhance the physical and motor development of children. I t seems that such a programme, on a long-term basis, can contribute to the improvement of the physical capacity of children. Further recommendations i n view of the r e s u l t s of this study may be the extension of the experimental period to at l e a s t one school year. The control groups' programme should be monitored to assure a true comparison of the a c t i v i t i e s . A further inquiry i s needed i n elementary school physical educa-t i o n programmes, and a possible r e v i s i o n of the curriculum to meet the physical developmental needs of the growing c h i l d . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I INTRODUCTION 1 Purpose of the Study Statement of the Problem J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the Problem Limitations Delimitations D e f i n i t i o n s References II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE . . 11 1. Physical Development 2. Motor A b i l i t y and A g i l i t y 3. Strength 4. Cardiovascular Appraisal References III METHODS AND PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . 30 1. Physical Development 2. Motor A b i l i t y and A g i l i t y 3. Strength 4. Cardiovascular Appraisal Subjects Design of the Study Testing^ S t a t i s t i c a l Methods IV RESULTS . 40 1. Physical Development 2. Motor A b i l i t y and A g i l i t y 3. Strength 4. Cardiovascular Appraisal V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . 66 Summary Conclusion PAGE BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . .' . . . . ' . . . . . . 7 3 APPENDIX A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 9 I. ACCELERATED PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME . . . . 8 0 1. Aims and Purposes 2. C h i l d Growth and Development, Characteristics and Needs 3. Basic Movements to be Stressed 4. S p e c i f i c A c t i v i t i e s References I I . REGULAR PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME . . . . . 92 APPENDIX B . . . . . . 9 5 I. SKELETAL AGE ASSESSMENT FORM . . . . . . . . 9 6 I I . SAMPLE X-RAY 97 LIST OF TABLES PAGE I Wetzel Grid Development Levels for Experi-mental and Control Groups . . . . . . . . 6 II Sample D i s t r i b u t i o n for the F i n a l Testing of the Control and Experimental Groups . . . 7 III Comparison of the Means Between Experimental and Control Groups of the F i n a l Tests for Height, Weight, and Lung Capacity i n Grades One, Three, and Four 43 IV Correlation of Height, Weight, and Lung Capacity to Maturity, Motor A b i l i t y , Strength, and Working Capacity of Children i n Grades One, Three and Four . . . 4 4 V Comparison of the Means Between Experimental and Control Groups of the Fi n a l Tests for Arm Girth i n Grades One and Three . . . . 4 6 VI Correlation of Arm Girth and Thigh Girth to Strength, Motor A b i l i t y , Maturity, Growth, and Working Capacity Factors of Children i n Grades One, Three and Four 47 VII Comparison of the Means Between Experimental and Control Groups of the F i n a l Tests for Chronological Age and Skeletal Age i n Grades One, Three and Four 49 VIII Correlation of Chronological Age and Skeletal Age to Growth, Motor A b i l i t y , Strength, and Working Capacity of Children i n Grades One, Three and Four 50 IX Comparison of the Means Between Experimental and Control Groups of the F i n a l Test for Standing Broad Jump and Shuttle Run i n Grades One, Three and Four 52 PAGE X Correlation of Shuttle Run' and Standing Broad Jump to Maturity, Growth, Strength, and Working Capacity Factors of Children i n Grades One, Three and Four . 5 3 XI Comparison of the Means Between Experimental and Control Groups of the F i n a l Tests for the Grip Strength and Flexed Arm Bar Hang i n Grades One, Three and FOur . . . . . . 55 XII Correlation of Grip Strength and Flexed Arm -Bar Hang to Growth, Maturity, Motor A b i l i t y , and Working Capacity Factors of Children i n Grades One, Three and Four . 5 6 XIII Comparison of the Means Between Experimental and Control Groups of the F i n a l Tests for Standing Resting Heart Rate and Steady Heart Rate i n Grades One, Three and Four . . 5 8 XIV Correlation of Standing Resting Heart Rate and Steady Heart Rate to Growth, Motor A b i l i t y , Maturity and Strength of Children i n Grades One, Three and Four . . . . . . . . . .. 59 XV Comparison of the Means of the I n i t i a l and Fi n a l Testing Within the Experimental Groups for Height, Weight, and Lung Capacity i n Grades One, Three and Four 61 XVI Comparison of the Means of the I n i t i a l and F i n a l Testing Within the Experimental Groups for Arm Girth and Thigh Girth i n Grades One and Three 62 XVII Comparison of the Means of the I n i t i a l and F i n a l Testing Within the Experimental Groups for Standing Broad Jump and Shuttle Run i n Grades One, Three and Four 6.4 XVIII Comparison of the Means of the I n i t i a l and F i n a l Testing Within the Experimental Groups for the Grip Strength and Flexed Arm Bar Hang i n Grades One, Three and Four 65 ' ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The w r i t e r wishes to express h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n to the • members of h i s master committee. P a r t i c u l a r r e c o g n i t i o n i s give n to Dr. H. D. W h i t t l e and Dr. R. G. Hindmarch f o r t h e i r generous a s s i s t a n c e and guidance. S p e c i a l thanks are gi v e n to Mr. C. W. McLachlan, P r i n c i p a l , and h i s s t a f f o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teachers o f S i r Ric h a r d McBride Elementary School, and to the c h i l d r e n who p a r t i c i p a t e d , w i t h t h e i r e n t h u s i a s t i c c o - o p e r a t i o n , i n t h i s study. Many thanks to Dr. S. R. Brown, Research D i r e c t o r o f the School of P h y s i c a l Education and Rec r e a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n t e s t i n g and f o r the f a c i l i t i e s o f the Human Performance L a b o r a t o r y . CHAPTER I' INTRODUCTION The growing and maturing c h i l d i s exposed t o at l e a s t two v e r y important environments. The primary i n f l u e n c e i s t h a t o f the home. T h i s i s a c o n t i n u i n g process over which we have l i t t l e c o n t r o l . The secondary i n f l u e n c e i s t h a t o f the s c h o o l . The e f f e c t o f the s c h o o l , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the e a r l y growing years o f the c h i l d , i s o f c o n s i d e r a b l e importance. Each c h i l d should be g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y to mature and develop mentally, s o c i a l l y , p h y s i c a l l y , and em o t i o n a l l y , to the b e s t o f h i s a b i l i t y . P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n should be regarded as a necessary f a c e t o f the c h i l d ' s developmental e x p e r i e n c e s . The l a r g e number o f p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s demands c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n i f we are to be s u c c e s s f u l i n a c h i e v i n g the o b j e c t i v e s s e t out f o r each c h i l d . W i l l i a m s and Brc w n e l l (1) suggest t h a t "the sum of man* s p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s are s e l e c t e d as to the k i n d and conducted as to the outcomes". Each a c t i v i t y has i t s own pur-pose; however, the t o t a l programme of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n aims at one s i n g l e purpose, the development of the whole person. The f o r m a t i v e p e r i o d o f c h i l d h o o d i s centered around the elementary s c h o o l y e a r s . C e r t a i n experiences w i l l 2 p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t not o n l y s o c i a l , emotional, and mental growth, but a l s o p h y s i c a l growth. .It i s the purpose o f the e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n to c r e a t e an environmental s i t u a t i o n conducive to the achievement of d e s i r e d g o a l s . In many sch o o l systems p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , under the s u p e r v i s i o n o f an a c c r e d i t e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher, b e g i n w i t h grade four, some as l a t e as grade f i v e . Do the c h i l d r e n i n the lower grades not deserve and warrant the s p e c i a l i z e d programmes t h e i r o l d e r b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s are o b t a i n i n g ? A w e l l o r g a n i z e d and p r o f e s s i o n a l l y administered programme o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s p r o b a b l y one o f the most important means used to meet the needs o f elementary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . The o b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f such a programme i s achieved by comparing p a r t i c i p a n t s o f d i f f e r e n t programmes i n terms o f some v a r i a b l e s o f p h y s i c a l growth. The p r e s e n t study i s designed to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on the d i f f e r e n c e s i n p h y s i c a l growth o f c h i l d r e n , i n grades one, three, and four, who p a r t i c i -pated i n two d i f f e r e n t programmes o f p h y s i c a l education; t h a t i s , an a c c e l e r a t e d programme and a r e g u l a r programme. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose o f t h i s study i s to examine the e f f e c t an a c c e l e r a t e d p h y s i c a l education programme has on p h y s i c a l and motor growth of c h i l d r e n i n grades one, three, and f o u r . 3 In c o n s t r u c t i n g the study, the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s a r e examined: 1. Do c h i l d r e n , o f the same grade, who p a r t i c i p a t e i n an a c c e l e r a t e d programme o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n show g r e a t e r s t r e n g t h than c h i l d r e n who p a r t i c i -pate: i n a r e g u l a r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme? 2. Do c h i l d r e n , o f the same grade, who p a r t i c i p a t e i n the two d i f f e r e n t programmes of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n a n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l measure-ments? 3 . Do c h i l d r e n who p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c c e l e r a t e d programme scor e h i g h e r on the motor a b i l i t y and a g i l i t y t e s t s i n comparison to c h i l d r e n who p a r t i c i -pate i n the r e g u l a r programme? 4. I f c h i l d r e n o f the a c c e l e r a t e d programme achieved a g r e a t e r t o t a l a p p r a i s a l , d i d they a l s o have g r e a t e r s k e l e t a l m a t u r i t y ? 5. Do c h i l d r e n , who p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c c e l e r a t e d programme, show s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n t h e i r t e s t s cores from the i n i t i a l to the f i n a l t e s t ? STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The problem i n t h i s study i s to determine whether or not an a c c e l e r a t e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme has any e f f e c t s on some s e l e c t e d aspects o f p h y s i c a l growth o f young c h i l d r e n . 4 JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM The exposure o f young c h i l d r e n to p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y i s not a novel i d e a . The young c h i l d i s f o r e v e r a c t i v e . He begins to p l a y at the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e moment. As h i s neuro-muscular system develops, h i s a b i l i t y to perform new and d i f f e r e n t movement p a t t e r n s i n c r e a s e s . During the k i n d e r g a r t e n p e r i o d the c h i l d should ex-p e r i e n c e the b a s i c movement p a t t e r n s . In sc h o o l the c h i l d ought to have the o p p o r t u n i t y to express and develop these a c t i -v i t y p a t t e r n s . T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l be j u s t i f i e d i f one o f two th i n g s o c c u r : • (a) the c h i l d r e n o f the a c c e l e r a t e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme b e n e f i t to a g r e a t e r extent w i t h r e l a t i o n to p h y s i c a l growth c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , o r (b) f u r t h e r i n q u i r y and i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s i n i t i a t e d i n t o the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme i n the elementary s c h o o l p a r t i c u l a r l y the k i n d e r g a r t e n and prim a r y d i v i -s i o n s . LIMITATIONS I n i t i a l t e s t i n g o f the c o n t r o l group was not administered, due to c e r t a i n unforeseen d i f f i c u l t i e s at the 5 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l . T h erefore, i t was assumed th a t , because o f the random s e l e c t i o n o f s u b j e c t s i n t o the two groups from t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e grades, the means and standards d e v i a t i o n s o f the c o n t r o l and experimental groups were approximately s i m i l a r . T h i s assumption i s supported by the f a c t t h a t the c l a s s e s were homogenous, based on academic a b i l i t y and mental age, as d e t e r -mined at the b e g i n n i n g of the s c h o o l y e a r . The i n v e s t i g a t o r employed the Developmental L e v e l s from the Wetzel G r i d (2) to determine the v a l i d i t y o f the above assumption. T h i s method o f a n a l y s i s shows a r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e s i m i l a r i t y between the experimental and c o n t r o l groups. (Table 1 ) . TABLE I WETZEL GRID DEVELOPMENTAL LEVELS FOR EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS STANDARD STANDARD ERROR SIGNIFICANT SIGNIFICANCE NUMBER MEAN DEVIATION OF THE MEAN t-VALUE AT 5% Z E C E C E C E C E C E 9 9 53.6 51.5 6.32 12.57 2.20 4.40 2.31 2.31 SIG. NOT df=8 df=8 SIG. 0 8 83.9 72.1 17.63 14.76 5.96 5.64 2.26 2.36 NOT NOT df=9 df=7 SIG. SIG. 0 8 90.6 90.1 17.97 19.92 6.09 7.57 2.26 2.36 NOT NOT df=9 df=7 SIG. SIG. C = CONTROL GROUP E = EXPERIMENTAL GROUP 7 DELIMITATIONS The s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study were students of S i r R i c h a r d McBride Elementary School. For t e s t i n g purposes, the random sample i n each grade was re p r e s e n t e d by one sex. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the samples i s i n d i c a t e d i n Table I I . The study was conducted over a f i f t e e n week p e r i o d . There was a two week break a f t e r the seventh week o f i n s t r u c -t i o n f o r Christmas v a c a t i o n . TABLE I I SAMPLE DISTRIBUTION FOR THE FINAL TESTING OF THE CONTROL AND EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS NUMBER GROUP GRADE SEX 9 CONTROL 1 MALE 9 EXPERIMENTAL 1 MALE 10 CONTROL 3 FEMALE 8 EXPERIMENTAL 3 FEMALE 10 CONTROL 4 MALE 8 EXPERIMENTAL 4 MALE 8 DEFINITIONS The d e f i n i t i o n s expressed h e r e i n are a p p l i c a b l e o n l y the purposes o f t h i s study. 1. A c c e l e r a t e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme i s a planned programme o f a c t i v i t y taught by the i n v e s t i g a t o r on a t r i - w e e k l y b a s i s , each p e r i o d c o n s i s t i n g o f f o r t y minutes. 2. Regular p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme r e f e r s to t h a t programme as o u t l i n e d i n the p r e s e n t B r i t i s h Columbia C u r r i c u l u m . I t i s admi n i s t e r e d on a bi-weekly b a s i s by the r e g u l a r classroom teacher, except grade f o u r who f o l l o w e d a t r i - w e e k l y p r o -gramme. Each p e r i o d was f o r t y minutes i n l e n g t h . 3. P h y s i c a l t r a i t s are d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s o f p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s measured by the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : (a) Arm g i r t h i s the measurement of the l e f t arm at i t s g r e a t e s t c i r c u m f e r e n c e . (b) Thigh g i r t h i s the measurement o f the l e f t t h i g h e x a c t l y below the g l u t e a l f o l d . (c) Lung c a p a c i t y i s the amount o f a i r t h a t can be e x p i r e d a f t e r the deepest p o s s i b l e i n s p i r a -t i o n (3) . (d) Dynamic s t r e n g t h i s the measure o f the f o r c e that i s exerted on the hand nianuometer. (e) S t a t i c strength i s the measure of the length of time one i s able to maintain a flexed arm bar hang. Motor t r a i t i s synonymous with motor a b i l i t y , which i s the immediate capacity of an i n d i v i d u a l to perform a s p e c i f i c task (4). A g i l i t y i s the a b i l i t y to change the p o s i t i o n and d i r e c t i o n of the body ( 5 ) . Skeletal Age i s the degree of sk e l e t a l development of the r i g h t hand and wrist determined by the Greulich-Pyle Hand Wrist X-Ray method. Chronological Age i s the age of the c h i l d (years, months) at the time of the i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t i n g . Submaximal work task i s the measure of the length of time taken to adjust to the given work load by developing a steady heart rate within plus or minus four beats. 10 REFERENCES Wi l l i a m s , J.F. and Brownell, C.L., The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  Health and P h y s i c a l Education, P h i l a d e l p h i a , W.B. Saunders Co., 1947, ( t h i r d e d i t i o n ) , p. 20. E v a l u a t i n g P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s i n Terms of Growth and Development; The Wetzel G r i d , Department of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare, 1949, Ottawa. Mathews, D.K., Measurements i n P h y s i c a l Education, W.B. Saunders Co., P h i l a d e l p h i a , 19S3, (second e d i t i o n ) p. 64. I b i d . , p. 123. McCloy, C.H., Tests and Measurements i n Health and P h y s i c a l  Education, Appelton-Century C r o f t s , Inc., New York, 1954, ( t h i r d e d i t i o n ) p. 75. CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE In t h i s study, c h i l d r e n o f elementary and p r e - s c h o o l age were the s u b j e c t s . S t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g the above age l e v e l s are meagre. The i n v e s t i g a t o r t h e r e f o r e extended the review o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e beyond the s t a t e d age l e v e l s . The informa-t i o n i s pooled under the f o l l o w i n g headings: 1. P h y s i c a l Development 2. Motor A b i l i t y and A g i l i t y 3. S t r e n g t h 4. C a r d i o v a s c u l a r A p p r a i s a l 1. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Although t h e r e are many ways o f a s s e s s i n g p h y s i c a l development, the b a t t e r y o f e v a l u a t i o n s are n e v e r t h e l e s s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d . To a p p r e c i a t e the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the v a r i o u s methods and t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n to the p r e s e n t study, the p r e s e n t a t i o n w i l l encompass the f o l l o w i n g : 1. A n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l Measurements: h e i g h t , weight, t h i g h g i r t h , upper arm g i r t h , and lung c a p a c i t y . 2. M a t u r i t y : hand-wrist x-ray. A n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l Measurements S t u d i e s i n which age, h e i g h t , weight v a r i a b l e s have 12 been used vary i n conclusions as to the i r value and r e l a t i o n -ship to other parameters of measurements i n physical education. Paterson (1) i n h i s summary of anthropometric analysis of growth discussed the r e l a t i v e importance of height and weight i n measuring physical development. Early studies were mainly confined to height and weight measurements. In l a t e r years other forms of anthropometric techniques have evolved. These, however, did not eliminate the r e l a t i v e importance of height and weight data, as they are s t i l l u n i v e r s a l l y accepted tools for the assessment and analysis of growth. In anthropometry, l i n e a r and circumferential measure-ments are employed frequently because of their r e l a t i v e ease of obtaining r e l i a b l e information concerning physical growth, physical development as a r e s u l t of a c t i v i t y , or atrophy as a re s u l t of i n a c t i v i t y (2) .• Rarick (3) indicated that muscular a c t i v i t y of children and the i r consequent development can be e a s i l y demonstrated by an observable increase i n breadth and g i r t h measurements. Clark and Peterson (4) i n contr a d i s t i n c -t i o n to Rarick's indications, found no s i g n i f i c a n t measure of chest and upper arm gi r t h s i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between non-par t i c i p a n t and a t h l e t i c groups. S i g n i f i c a n t t - r a t i o s were obtained only when outstanding indiv i d u a l s were compared with non-participants. Maturational index, defined by chronological age, height, and weight as reported by Carpenter (5), showed a sub-s t a n t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n v/ith composite scores obtained on a t h l e t i c events with children i n the f i r s t three grades. V i t a l capacity has been known for a long time as an important index of general physical condition. Cureton (6) and numerous other investigators have shown that the more active groups had greater v i t a l capacity. However, i t must be kept i n mind that the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the r a t i o of v i t a l capa-c i t y to weight i s a very important f a c t o r . McCloy (7) states that there seems to be some re l a t i o n s h i p between body b u i l d and lung capacity. Motor performance, height, weight and phy s i o l o g i c a l age correlates highly with lung capacity. I t has been observed that there i s a tendency i n the reduction of c o r r e l a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t variables with lung capacity during the pubescent years. This i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to t h i s ^ study as the majority of the subjects have not attained t h e i r | pubescent development. Clark and Petersen (4) reported a s i g n i f i c a n t difference at the .05 l e v e l between the lung capacity means of a t h l e t i c groups and non-participants at the upper elementary school l e v e l . De Lotto (8) with 348 boys, 9 to 12 years of age, studied the e f f e c t s of a two hour a t h l e t i c programme, adminis-tered once a week for eight months. The measurements of height, 14 weight, standing broad jump, r i g h t and l e f t grips, and lung capacity showed no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the control and experimental groups. Clark and Harrison (9) upon comparing the retarded and advanced maturers of the same chronological age showed a s i g n i -f i c a n t difference i n t h e i r lung capacity. The s i g n i f i c a n c e i n difference favoured the 15 year old group to a greater extent than the younger age groups. This seems to be i n agreement with McCloy's (7) observation on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of lung capa-c i t y to pubescent years. Maturity Chronological age has, from the beginning of studies of physical growth, been used as the measure of the extent of maturation. While chronological age seems to be r e l a t i v e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y , i t possesses c e r t a i n shortcomings as a standard for comparison. Children of the same chronological age demon-strate large variations i n s i z e . Greulich (10) has found that the chronological age of children up to the early part of the second decade of l i f e i s nothing more than just the i n d i c a t i o n of the length of time they l i v e d . Chronological age has l i m i -ted r e l a t i o n s h i p to the amount of progress children make toward achieving maturity. According to Todd (11), the phenomena of maturation i s quite d i f f e r e n t from that of growth. Maturation implies both progressive maturity and increase i n dimension. 15 T h i s p r i n c i p l e was confirmed by Simmons and G r e u l i c h (12) who concluded t h a t m a t u r a t i o n and growth pr o c e s s e s are very d i f f e r e n t and t h a t changes i n s k e l e t a l development d i f f e r e d from changes i n body s i z e . The s e a r c h f o r a s i n g l e and v a l i d measure o f p h y s i c a l m a t u r i t y has not achieved i t s end; however, th e r e i s g e n e r a l agreement t h a t s k e l e t a l age r e p r e s e n t s the b e s t m a t u r a t i o n a l index from b i r t h t o m a t u r i t y . Bayer and Bayley (13) suggest t h a t s k e l e t a l age i s a v a l u e d t o o l i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f e a r l y and l a t e maturing c h i l d r e n . Hindmarch (14) found t h a t advanced m a t u r i t y boys surpassed r e t a r d e d m a t u r i t y boys on v a r i o u s body s i z e , strength,- motor a b i l i t y , and r e a c t i o n time measures by h a v i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r means, and i t was s i g -n i f i c a n t beyond the .01 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f Rowe, Krogman, and F a i t (15, 16, 17) have shown t h a t boys i n upper elementary s c h o o l and j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n i n t e r s c h o o l a t h l e t i c s or i n an i n t e n s i v e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme demonstrated g r e a t e r advance i n s k e l e t a l age. The d i f f e r e n c e s i n some cases were as much as two y e a r s . I n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t a l l t h r e e i n v e s t i g a t o r s found n o n - a t h l e t e s or c h i l d r e n exposed to poorer p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programmes outgained the a t h l e t e s i n h e i g h t , weight, and l u n g c a p a c i t y . Rowe e x p l a i n e d the f i n d i n g s may have been i n f l u e n c e d by the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the c h i l d r e n 16 p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n good physical education programmes matured e a r l i e r , thereby already completing some of t h e i r adolescent growth. I t was pointed out (4, 15, 16, 17) that, i n general, the difference i n size of children was more s i g n i f i c a n t i n junior high school than i n elementary school. The. basis of comparison was between children i n two programmes of contrast-ing i n t e n s i t y and p a r t i c i p a n t s and non-participants i n i n t e r -school a t h l e t i c s . Clark and Peterson (4) reported s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher standing height i n elementary school for a t h l e t i c p a r t i c i p a n t s as compared to non-participants: the t-values were 3.27 and 2.64 respectively. They also observed considerable differences i n s k e l e t a l age. . The differences Were s i g n i f i c a n t between sk e l e t a l age means only when the outstanding individuals were compared with non-participants. The t - r a t i o s ranged from 2.20 to 3.86. Whittle (18) studied the e f f e c t s of a three year programme of good and poor elementary school physical education. In the f i n a l analysis, the two groups p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the two types of programmes showed no s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n s k e l e t a l age, weight, height, Wetzel developmental l e v e l , and McCloy's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n index I. 2. MOTOR ABILITY AND AGILITY Motor a b i l i t y implies the degree of management of one's body i n various a c t i v i t i e s . Individual differences e x i s t 17 from c h i l d h o o d , through adolescence, to m a t u r i t y . The normal i n d i v i d u a l o f s c h o o l age can perform everyday motor a c t i v i t i e s , b u t t h e r e are o b s e r v a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r e c i s i o n and f a c i l i t y w i t h which these movements are made. Motor development and the consequent motor a b i l i t y o f the c h i l d r e f l e c t s , to a c e r t a i n extent, the a c t i v i t y o p p o r t u n i t i e s the c h i l d had. The growth and development o f c h i l d r e n a f f e c t s the components o f motor development such as a g i l i t y , s t r e n g t h , f l e x i b i l i t y , and b a l a n c e (1.9.) . The l a t t e r statement i s supported by Kane and M e r e d i t h (20) i n t h e i r study on the s t a n d i n g broad jump a b i l i t y o f s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . T h e i r f i n d i n g s showed t h a t t h e r e i s a p r o p o r t i o n a t e i n c r e a s e i n the o b t a i n e d means at each age l e v e l , and the means are g r e a t e r f o r boys t h a n f o r g i r l s . McCloy (21) i n an e a r l y study on the r e l a t i v e i n f l u e n c e o f c h r o n o l o g i c a l age, h e i g h t , and weight on motor performance found no l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p . He observed a g e n e r a l t r e n d o f improvement up to puberty by both boys and g i r l s . However, beyond t h i s age, t h e r e was no f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e . R a r i c k and Oyster (22) suggested t h a t the i n f l u e n c e o f p h y s i c a l m a t u r a t i o n on young s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n i s not c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . In t h e i r r e p o r t on the motor performance o f c h i l d r e n i t was found t h a t m a t u r i t y i s o f l i t t l e consequence i n e x p l a i n -i n g i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n motor p r o f i c i e n c y . Many e a r l y s t u d i e s i n motor development i n v o l v e d o n l y 18 the f i n e r c o o r d i n a t e d movements o f the.arm and f i n g e r s . The major p o r t i o n o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s done i n motor development o f the l a r g e muscle type has been c o n f i n e d t o c h i l d r e n under f i v e y e a r s o f age and to the p r e a d o l e s c e n t and adolescent l e v e l s (23). J e n k i n s (24) a l s o emphasizes t h i s when she s t a t e s t h a t the age group o f t h r e e t o ten years r e p r e s e n t s a n e g l e c t e d a r e a o f r e s e a r c h . S e i l s (23) i n h i s study i n d i c a t e d t h a t motor performance i n running showed a c o n s t a n t i n c r e a s e from younger to o l d e r ages. Of a l l the p h y s i c a l growth and m a t u r a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s j s k e l e t a l m a t u r i t y showed the h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n (.51) w i t h running performance. High p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s were observed w i t h a g i l i t y and s t a n d i n g broad jump t e s t s to s k e l e t a l age o f boys and g i r l s r e s p e c t i v e l y . S e i l s concluded f i a t w h i l e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s k e l e t a l m a t u r i t y and motor performances were not g r e a t , they c o u l d be g i v e n more s i g n i f i -cance. I n a study by Espenschade (19) a c o r r e l a t i o n o f .56 was shown between s k e l e t a l m a t u r i t y and s t a n d i n g broad jump. The s i z e o f the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was reduced when c h r o n o l o -g i c a l age was p a r t i a l e d out. The mean motor performance t e s t s c o r e s i n c r e a s e d as the p h y s i o l o g i c a l m a t u r i t y o f the s u b j e c t s i n c r e a s e d . Govatos (25) i n h i s study o f elementary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , p o i n t e d out t h a t the mean motor performance o f b o t h boys and g i r l s showed an increment a t each age l e v e l . At v a r i o u s age l e v e l s c e r t a i n mean motor s k i l l performances were 19 dominant, whereas at other age l e v e l s the same were quite i n s i g n i f i c a n t . There was evidence of sex differences i n the mean motor performances as w e l l . For example, the boys sur-passed the g i r l s at the 7, 8, 9 and 11 year age l e v e l s i n the standing broad jump, whereas g i r l s were superior to boys i n the jump and reach at ages 6, 7, 10 and 11 years. 3. STRENGTH Strength testing i s an important measure i n evaluating the e f f e c t s of a physical education programme. The hand grip as a tes t for determining strength was used by Sargent (26) i n 1880 at Harvard. Since then g r i p strength has been used as a measure of physical f i t n e s s , p h y s i o l o g i c a l growth, and hand dominance. Grip strength i s one of the most r e l i a b l e dynamome-t r i c a l measures of human strength. Bookwalter (27) has stated that g r i p strength i s a reasonable representative of t o t a l body strength. Bookwalter's (27) grip strength norms may be used to compare i n d i v i d u a l s according to age, weight, and c l a s s i f i -cation index categories. The theory that a gain i n strength does not occur during rapid growth has been refuted by several authors. Meredith (28) reported that boys increased i n gri p strength 35 9 per cent from s i x to eighteen years of age. Metheny (29) found that g i r l s increased 26 0 per cent i n grip strength during a comparable growth period. K i n t i s (30) found that a 20 c h i l d ' s strength increased proportionately to weight at each grade l e v e l except i n grades 3 and 4 where strength remained constant r e l a t i v e to weight. Gates (31) discovered with a sampling of junior primary fourth grade pupils, grip strength correlated .45 with height, and .40 with; weight. Crampton (32) believes growth rates are dependent upon pubescence periods and not age, and that accelerations i n weight, height and strength occur at the same time. Asmussen and Heebol-Nielson (33) f e l t the gains i n muscular strength of boys they tested was suggestive of the operation of some unidentified matura-t i o n a l influence. Yet Baldwin (34) i n h i s studies found r i g h t grip strength and chronological age had a c o r r e l a t i o n of .762 for boys between the ages of seven and f i f t e e n years. Johnson (35) substantiated Baldwin's findings with a c o r r e l a t i o n of .765 for boys between the ages of 3 and 13 years for the same two variables. In Rarick and Oyster's (36) study, of the four physical maturity indicators employed, chronological age was the most important i n explaining the variance i n strength. Baldwin (37) obtained correlations between gr i p strength and height, weight and breathing capacity and found the r e l a t i o n s h i p between boys' gr i p strength and weight was more meaningful than between strength and height. For g i r l s , the opposite was true. Metheny (29) v/as concerned with the r e l a t i o n s h i p of 21 g r i p s t r e n g t h to age, h e i g h t , weight, upper arm g i r t h , and b r e a t h i n g c a p a c i t y . She a r r i v e d at c o r r e l a t i o n s o f .75 or b e t t e r between g r i p s t r e n g t h and h e i g h t , b r e a t h i n g c a p a c i t y , weight, and age f o r both sexes. The q u e s t i o n of "handedness" and which i s the s t r o n g e r hand has i n t e r e s t e d H e i n l e i n , Johnson and M a r t i n to name but a few. H e i n l e i n (38) found 61.7 per cent o f her sample were c o n s i s t e n t l y "right-handed", 3.3 per cent were c o n s i s t e n t l y " l e f t - h a n d e d " , and 35.0 per cent were i n c o n s i s t e n t . Johnson (35) d i s c o v e r e d a s i g n i f i c a n t tendency toward a m b i d e x t e r i t y or right-handedness w i t h i n c r e a s i n g c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. M a r t i n (39) concluded the percentage d i f f e r e n c e between the two s i d e s of the body are n e i t h e r constant enough to p r e s e n t any s e r i o u s e r r o r , and t h e r e f o r e the two s i d e s o f the body can be assumed to be e q u a l l y s t r o n g . Carpenter (40) e s t a b l i s h e d c o r r e l a t i o n s of .38 f o r boys and .24 f o r g i r l s between g r i p s t r e n g t h and motor a b i l i t y o f c h i l d r e n . 4. CARDIOVASCULAR APPRAISAL C a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n r e f e r s to the e f f i c i e n c y w i t h which the h e a r t and b l o o d v e s s e l s f u n c t i o n i n t r a n s p o r t i n g f u e l and removing waste products„ C a r d i o v a s c u l a r t e s t s attempt to a p p r a i s e h e a r t - l u n g e f f i c i e n c y d u r i n g or a f t e r some s p e c i f i c amount o f p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e . A sub-maximal work task was used 22 i n t h i s study. Maximal work tasks are not suitable for c l i n i c a l use because they demand an ' a l l - o u t ' e f f o r t by the subject (41). Too much depends upon the will-power and determination of the subject, which vary extensively between i n d i v i d u a l s . Sjostrand (42) defines working capacity as the maximum amount of work that can be performed on a b i c y c l e , and measured by an ergometer, under a steady state. Adams (43) prefers expressing the r e s u l t s of f i t n e s s tests as working capacity. This enables a subject to evaluate his p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s p e c i a l programmes. Comparison of i n d i -viduals with each other and with a group i s also f e a s i b l e . Pulse and respiratory rates are the most suitable indicators of working capacity, f e e l s Wahlund (44). Sjostrand (42) reports that pulse rate i s as accurate an index of working capacity and physical f i t n e s s as "other more complicated measure-ments of maximum oxygen uptake and cardiac output. Cumming (4.5) reported that the determination of oxygen consumption would appear to o f f e r no p a r t i c u l a r advantages, and physical working capacity of c h i l d r e n may be determined with confidence by simply determining the pulse rate at known work loads. Cumming (41) states that the pulse rate i s based on the simple fact that the well-trained i n d i v i d u a l i s able to perform a given work load at a lower pulse rate than the untrained i n d i v i d u a l s . Cumming (45) i n another study warns that the working capacity 23 o f those i n poor c o n d i t i o n may be s l i g h t l y under-estimated when p u l s e r a t e methods are used. S e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s have shown t h a t b e f o r e puberty, boys are s u p e r i o r i n c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y endurance c a p a c i t y than g i r l s (46). Hebbelink (46) says i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s are due i n p a r t to the development o f s k i l l w i t h age t h a t i n f l u -ences the e f f i c i e n c y o f movement. S j o s t r a n d (42) contends t h a t c a r d i a c output i n c r e a s e i s dependent upon the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s o f the i n d i v i d u a l . The working c a p a c i t i e s i n a group o f p r i v a t e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n exposed t o more p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g , s t a t e s Cumming (41), tended to be h i g h e r than average. Orban (47) found the h e a r t f r e -quency i n c r e a s e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d e x e r c i s e i n t e n s i t y and h e a r t frequency r o s e r a p i d l y f o l l o w i n g the t h i r d minute of e x e r c i s e b u t a t a d e c e l e r a t i n g r a t e as the e x e r c i s e i n t e n s i t y and i n t e r -v a l i n c r e a s e d . Adams (43) r e s o l v e d working c a p a c i t y i n c r e a s e d w i t h age, h e i g h t , weight, h e a r t volume, s u r f a c e area, and degree o f p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g . The graded e x e r c i s e on a t r e a d m i l l has the advantage over most t e s t s i n t h a t i t pe r m i t s the study o f v a r i o u s p h y s i o -l o g i c a l parameters b e f o r e , d u r i n g , and a f t e r c a l i b r a t e d e x e r c i s e (43). E r i c s o n e t a l (48) i n an e x t e n s i v e experiment p e r t a i n i n g t o the energy c o s t o f t r e a d m i l l walking, has demon-s t r a t e d the advantages o f the t r e a d m i l l i n the study o f f i t n e s s and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r a n a l y s i s . 24 REFERENCES. Pa t t e r s o n , D.G., Physique and I n t e l l e c t , New York, Appleton C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , Inc., 1930. S i l l s , F.D., Anthropometry i n R e l a t i o n To P h y s i c a l Performance, Science and Medicine of E x e r c i s e and  Sports, New York, Harper & Brothers P u b l i s h e r s , 1960, pp. 40-53. Ra r i c k , G.L., E x e r c i s e and Growth, Science and Medicine o f  E x e r c i s e and Sports, New York, Harper & Br o t h e r s P u b l i s h e r s , 1960, p. 441. C l a r k , H.H., Peterson, K.H., C o n t r a s t of M a t u r a t i o n a l , S t r u c t u r a l , and Strength C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f . A t h l e t e s and Nonathletes 10 to 15 years of Age, The Research  Q u a r t e r l y , V.32, No. 2, May 1961, pp. 163-176. Carpenter, A., The Measurement o f General Motor C a p a c i t y and General Motor A b i l i t y i n the F i r s t Three Grades, The Research Q u a r t e r l y , V. 13, No. 4; December 1942. Cureton, T.K., " A n a l y s i s o f V i t a l C a p a c i t y as a T e s t of C o n d i t i o n f o r High School Boys", The Research  Q u a r t e r l y , V. 7, No. 4, December 1936, pp. 80-92. McCloy, C.H., Young, N.D., T e s t s and Measurements i n H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l Education, Nev; York, Apple t o n -Century-Crof t s . Inc., 1954 ( t h i r d e d i t i o n ) pp. 384-395. De L o t t o , M., The E f f e c t s o f Competitive A t h l e t i c s on the Growth and Development o f Pre-Pubescent Boys, D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon, 1954. C l a r k e , H.H., H a r r i s o n , J.C.E., D i f f e r e n c e s i n P h y s i c a l and Motor T r a i t s Between Boys o f Advanced, Normal, and Retarded M a t u r i t y , The Research Q u a r t e r l y , V. 33, No. 1 March 1962, pp. 13-25. G r e u l i c h , W.W., S k e l e t a l Status and P h y s i c a l Growth, Dynamics of the Growth Process, N.J., P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1950. Todd, T..W., A t l a s of S k e l e t a l Maturation, S t . L o u i s , C.V. Mosby Co., 1937. 25 12. Simmons, K., Greulich, W.W., Menarchai Age and the Height, Weight and Skeletal Age of G i r l s , Age 7 - 1 7 Years, Journal of Pediatrics, V. -22, 1943, pp. 518-548. 13. Bayer, L.M., Bayler, N., Growth Diagnosis, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1959. 14. Hindmarch, R.G., Significance of Physique, Maturational, Body Size, Strength, Motor A b i l i t y , and Reaction Time Characteristics of Eight Year Old Boys, Microcarded Doctoral Dissertation, University of Oregon, 1962. 15. Rowe, F.A., Growth Comparison of Athletes and Non-Athletes, The Research Quarterly, V. 4, 1933, p. 108. 16. Krogman, W.M., Factors of Physical Growth of Children as They May Apply to Physical Education, American  Association for Health, Physical Education, and  Recreation Proceedings, 1954, p. 60. 17. F a i t , H., An A n a l y t i c a l Study of the Effects of Competitive A t h l e t i c s Upon Junior High School Boys, Microcarded Doctoral Dissertation, State University of Iowa, 1951. 18. Whittle, H.D., Effects of Elementary School Physical Education Upon Aspects of Physical, Motor, and Personality Development, The Research Quarterly, V. 32, No. 2, May 1962, pp. 249-260, 19. Espenschade, A., Development of Motor Coordination i n Boys and G i r l s , The Research Quarterly, V. 18, No. 1, March 1947, pp. 31-44. 20. Kane, R.J., Meredith, H.V., A b i l i t y i n the Standing Broad Jump of Elementary School Children 7, 9 and 11 Years of Age, The Research Quarterly, V. 23, No. 2, May 1952, pp. 198-203. 21. McCloy, C.H., The Influence of Chronological Age on Motor Performance, The Research Quarterly, V. 6, No. 2, May 1935, pp. 61-64. 22. Rarick, G.L., Oyster, N., Physical Maturity, Muscular Strength and Motor Performance of Young School-Age Boys, The Research Quarterly, Vol. 35, No. 4, December 1964, pp. 523-531. 26 23. S e i l s , L.G., The Relationship Between Measures of Physical Growth and Gross Motor Performance of Primary-Grade School Children, The Research Quarterly, V. 22, No. 2, May 1951, pp. 244-260. 24. Jenkins, L.M., A Comparative Study of Motor Achievements of Children of Five, S i x , and Seven Years of Age, New York; Teachers College, Columbia University, 1930. 25. Govatos, L.A., Relationships and Age Differences i n Growth Measures and Motor S k i l l s , Child Development, V. 30, 1959. 26. Sargent, D.A., Strength Tests and the Strong Men of Harvard, American Physiological Education Review, V. 11, p. 108. 27. Bookwalter, K.W., Grip Strength Norms for Males, The Research Quarterly, V. 21, October 1950, pp. 249-273. 28. Meredith, H.V., The Rhythm of Physical Growth: A Study of Eighteen Anthropometric Measurements on Iowa C i t y White Males Ranging In Age Between Bi r t h and Eighteen. Years. University of Iowa Stud., Stud, i n Child  Welfare, V. 11, No. 3, (1935), p. 128. 29. Metheny, E., Breathing Capacity and Grip Strength of Pre-school Children. Univ. Iowa Stud., Stud, i n Child  Welfare, V. 18, No. 2, (1941), p. 207. 30. K i n t i s , P.F., Patterns of Growth i n Strength of Elementary School Boys. Microcarded Thesis (M.S.). University of Wisconsin, 1953. 31. Gates, A.J., The Nature and Educational Significance of Physical Status and of Mental, Physiological, Social and Emotional Maturity. Journal of Educational  Psychology, V. 15, 1924. 32. Crampton, C.W., Physiological Age - A Fundamental P r i n -c i p l e . Child Development, V. 15, 1944, pp. 3-47. 33. Asmussen, E., and Heebol-Nielson, K., A Dimensional Analysis of Physical Performance and Growth i n Boys. J. Appl. Physiol., V. 6, 1955, pp. 585-592. 27 34. Baldwin, B.T., Anthropometric Measurements. (In) Terman, L.M., G e n e t i c S t u d i e s o f Genius, V.I., Mental and P h y s i c a l T r a i t s o f a Thousand G i f t e d C h i l d r e n . S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1926. 35. Johnson, B., Mental Growth o f C h i l d r e n i n R e l a t i o n to the Rate o f Growth i n B o d i l y Development. A Report of the Bureau of E d u c a t i o n a l Experiments, New York C i t y : E.P. Dutton, 1925. 36. R a r i c k , G.L., and Oyster, N., P h y s i c a l M a t u r i t y , Muscular Strength, and Motor Performance of Young School-Age Boys. The Research Q u a r t e r l y , V. 35, December, 1964, pp. 523-531. 37. Baldwin, B.T., The P h y s i c a l Growth o f C h i l d r e n from B i r t h to M a t u r i t y . Univ. Iowa Stud., Stud, i n C h i l d Welfare, V. 1, No. 1, 1921, p. 411. 38. H e i n l e i n , J.H., A Study of D e x t r a l i t y i n C h i l d r e n . Ped. Sem. and J . Genet. P s y c h o l . , V. 36, 1929, pp. 91-119. 39. M a r t i n , Gordon E., Muscular S t r e n g t h and Muscular Symmetry i n Human Beings. American J o u r n a l o f P h y s i o - logy, May 1918, pp. 67-73. 40. Carpenter, A., T e s t s o f Motor E d u c a b i l i t y f o r the F i r s t Three Grades. C h i l d Development, V. 4, 1940, pp. 293-299. 41. Cumming, G.R. and Cumming, P.M., Working C a p a c i t y o f Normal C h i l d r e n Tested on a B i c y c l e Ergometer. Can.  Med. Assoc. J . , V. 88, February 16, 1963, pp. 351-355. 42. S j o s t r a n d , T., A c t a . Med. Scand. (Suppl. 196), V. 128, 1947, p. 687. 43. Adams, F.A., Linde, L.L. and Miyake, H., The P h y s i c a l Working C a p a c i t y o f Normal School C h i l d r e n . P e d i a t r i c s , V. 28, J u l y 1961, pp. 55-64. 44. Wahlund, H., Determination o f the P h y s i c a l Working Capa-c i t y . A c t a . Med. Scand. (Suppl. 815), V. 132, 1948, p. 74. 45. Cumming, G.R. and Danzinger, R., B i c y c l e Ergometer S t u d i e s i n C h i l d r e n . P e d i a t r i c s , V. 32, August 1963, pp. 202-208. 28 46. Hebbelink, D.M., E x e r c i s e T o l e r a n c e of 6-10 Year O l d C h i l d r e n and the Development of P h y s i c a l Performance C a p a c i t y . Gymnasion, III,. 1966. 47. Orban, W.A.R., B a i l e y , D.A. and Bolonchuk, W., A n a l y s i s o f S e l e c t e d Cardio-Pulmonary V a r i a b l e s of Young Boys i n an " A l l - O u t E x e r c i s e " . Unpublished Paper. 48. E r i c k s o n , L, Simonson, E., T a y l o r , H.L., Alexander, H. and Keys, A., The Energy Cost of H o r i z o n t a l and Grade Walking on the Motor-Driven T r e a d m i l l , American  J o u r n a l of P h y s i o l o g y . V. 145, 1946, pp. 391-401. CHAPTER I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURES The methods and procedures employed i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g the e f f e c t s o f two types o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programmes are d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p ter. The experimental v a r i a b l e s used were: 1. P h y s i c a l Development (a) A n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l measurements: h e i g h t , weight, t h i g h g i r t h , upper arm g i r t h , lung c a p a c i t y . (b) M a t u r i t y : hand-wrist x-ray. 2. Motor A b i l i t y and A g i l i t y : s h u t t l e run, s t a n d i n g broad jump. 3. S t r e n g t h : f l e x e d arm bar hang, g r i p s t r e n g t h . 4 . C a r d i o v a s c u l a r A p p r a i s a l : submaximal work task . 1. •PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Height T h i s i s the measurement o f e r e c t body l e n g t h from the s o l e s o f the f e e t to the v e r t e x . The head i s h e l d w i t h the t r a g i o n - o r b i t a l e plane at r i g h t angles to the l o n g a x i s o f the body. The s u b j e c t w i t h bare f e e t stands e r e c t w i t h h e e l s almost touching each o t h e r . Heels, b u t t o c k s , upper p a r t o f the back, and r e a r o f the head are i n c o n t a c t w i t h the w a l l to which the s c a l e i s attached (woven-type t a p e ) . The arms hang at the s i d e s i n a n a t u r a l manner. A squared wooden b l o c k i s p l a c e d f i r m l y on the head and a g a i n s t the w a l l i n a h o r i z o n t a l manner. One measurement v/as taken p r e c e d i n g and one a f t e r the e x p e r i - . mental p e r i o d , to the n e a r e s t q u a r t e r (1/4) i n c h . Weight The measuring instrument was a beam-type p l a t f o r m s c a l e . The s u b j e c t i n gym s h o r t s and top and bare f e e t stood on the cente r o f the p l a t f o r m . One measurement was taken p r e c e d i n g and one a f t e r the experimental p e r i o d to the ne a r e s t h a l f (1/2) pound. Thigh G i r t h The measuring instrument was a woven-type tape. The measurement was taken o f the g i r t h o f the l e f t t h i g h at the l e v e l o f the maximum p r o j e c t i o n o f the medial s u r f a c e below the g l u t e a l s u l c u s and at r i g h t angles to the l o n g a x i s o f the t h i g h . The s u b j e c t stands w i t h f e e t a p a r t (so t h a t the medial s u r f a c e s Of the t h i g h s are not touching) and w i t h h i s weight e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d over both f e e t . The c o n t a c t o f the tape on the s k i n i s f i r m but without i n d e n t i n g the s k i n . One measurement was taken p r e c e d i n g and one a f t e r the experimental p e r i o d to the n e a r e s t e i g h t h (1/8) o f an i n c h . Upper Arm G i r t h The measuring instrument was a woven-type tape. 31 Maximum g i r t h o f the l e f t arm i s estimated at the g r e a t e s t "bulge" o f the b i c e p s muscle. T h i s p o i n t was determined by an al l out f l e x i o n o f the l e f t arm, and the h i g h e s t p o i n t o f the "bulge" marked w i t h an i n k d o t . During the measurement the s u b j e c t stands i n a n a t u r a l manner w i t h the arms hanging r e l a x e d at the s i d e s o f the body. When the measurement i s taken, care must be taken not to compress the t i s s u e w i t h the tape. One measurement was taken p r e c e d i n g and one a f t e r the experimental p e r i o d to the n e a r e s t e i g h t h (1/8) of an i n c h . Lung C a p a c i t y The measuring instrument was the standard Wet S p i r o -meter of 400 c u b i c i n c h c a p a c i t y , w i t h an exchangeable mouth-p i e c e o f t h r e e - e i g h t h s (3/8) o f an i n c h i n n e r diameter. Before the t e s t the s u b j e c t s were shown the proper form w i t h an e x p l a n a t i o n o f the c o r r e c t procedure. Each s u b j e c t then had one p r a c t i c e t r i a l . The s u b j e c t s were i n s t r u c t e d to take two or t hree deep b r e a t h s ( h y p e r v e n t i l a t e ) b e f o r e the t e s t t r i a l s . Three t e s t t r i a l s were g i v e n to each s u b j e c t b e f o r e and a f t e r the experimental p e r i o d . The h i g h e s t s c o r e was reco r d e d i n c u b i c i n c h e s . X-ray Roentgenogram s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; 1. Type o f x-ray machine: M a c h l e t t Dynomex 500, 60 c y c l e s o p e r a t i o n . 32 2. S i z e of f i l m : 8 X 10 inches I l f e x (non-screen) 3. F o c a l f i l m d i s t a n c e : 40 inches 4. Amperage ( m i l l i a m p e r e s ) : 100 5. V o l t a g e : 45 KVP 6. Exposure time: 3/10 second 7. Developing p r o c e s s : 5 minutes at 68°F (Ansco Chemicals p r e l a b o r a t o r y p r e p a r a t i o n . ) The s u b j e c t s were seated w i t h t h e i r r i g h t arms r e s t i n g on the x-ray t a b l e i n a f l e x e d p o s i t i o n palm down. One r o e n t -genograph was taken o f the r i g h t hand of each s u b j e c t a f t e r the experimental p e r i o d . 2. MOTOR ABILITY AND AGILITY S h u t t l e Run The measuring instruments were two wooden b l o c k s ( 2 X 3 X 3 inches) and one stop watch c a l i b r a t e d t o one-tenth of a second. The d i s t a n c e o f the run i s 120 f e e t i n f o u r 30 f o o t p o r t i o n s . The s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n i s l y i n g f a c e down, hands at the s i d e s o f the chest, forehead p l a c e d on the s t a r t i n g l i n e . On a g i v e n command the s u b j e c t jumps to f e e t and runs 30 f e e t to a l i n e beyond which the two wooden b l o c k s are p l a c e d a few i n c h e s a p a r t . The s u b j e c t then p i c k s up one o f the b l o c k s and runs back to the s t a r t i n g l i n e and p l a c e s the b l o c k beyond t h a t l i n e . Same procedure f o r the second block , o n l y t h i s time the b l o c k i s c a r r i e d through the f i n i s h l i n e . Measurement i s i n seconds t o the n e a r e s t t e n t h o f a second from the s t a r t i n g s i g -n a l u n t i l the s u b j e c t c r o s s e s the f i n i s h l i n e . Before t e s t i n g , e x p l a n a t i o n and demonstration were g i v e n on the procedure. Two t r i a l s were p e r m i t t e d , w i t h a s h o r t r e s t between each t r i a l . Measurements were taken b e f o r e and a f t e r the experimental p e r i o d . The b e s t time achieved was recorded on each o c c a s i o n . Standing Broad Jump The items o f equipment used f o r the measuring were one 6 f o o t tumbling mat and one woven-type tape. The t a k e - o f f l i n e was marked two f e e t from the mat. The s u b j e c t assumed a p o s i -t i o n w i t h f e e t s l i g h t l y apart and the toes behind the t a k e - o f f l i n e . The d i s t a n c e jumped was measured from the t a k e - o f f l i n e to the p o i n t o f c o n t a c t on the mat to the n e a r e s t o n e - h a l f i n c h f o r the b e s t o f t h r e e t r i a l s , . The s.ubj.ects r e c e i v e d an e x p l a n a t i o n and demonstration o f the procedure and were allowed one p r a c t i c e t r i a l b e f o r e the a c t u a l t e s t . Measure-ments were taken b e f o r e and a f t e r the experimental p e r i o d . 3. STRENGTH F l e x e d Arm Bar Hang The equipment c o n s i s t e d o f a doorway gym bar p l a c e d f i v e f e e t above the f l o o r and one stopwatch. The s u b j e c t r e v e r s e grasped the bar (palms toward face) and was a s s i s t e d i n p u l l i n g h i m s e l f to the bar so t h a t h i s eyes were at the l e v e l o f the b a r . The arms were f u l l y f l e x e d . The a s s i s t a n c e 34 was withdrawn; the stopwatch was s t a r t e d and was stopped when the s u b j e c t ' s head dropped below the l e v e l of the b a r . The time v/as r e c o r d e d to the n e a r e s t one t e n t h o f a second. One t r i a l was allowed and v e r b a l encouragement was g i v e n . Measure-ments were taken b e f o r e and a f t e r the experimental p e r i o d . G r i p S t r e n g t h One N a r r a g a n s e t t Hand Manuometer of 200 pound maximum was used. The s u b j e c t stood on the f l o o r , f e e t approximately shoulder v/idth apart, h e l d the d i a l f a c i n g inward, i . e . d i a l was palm-side down. The s u b j e c t squeezed the manuometer u s i n g a sweeping a c t i o n of the arm downward, from shoulder l e v e l i n the s a g i t a l p l a n e . At no time was he allowed to c o n t a c t h i s body or any o b j e c t around him w i t h the manuometer and the hand b e i n g t e s t e d . The s u b j e c t was allowed two t r i a l s w i t h each hand, the b e s t performance o f each was r e c o r d e d to the n e a r e s t pound and v e r b a l encouragement was used. Measurements were taken b e f o r e and a f t e r the experimental p e r i o d . 4. CARDIOVASCULAR APPRAISAL SUB-MAXIMAL WORK TASK A review o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l e d no r e f e r e n c e to sub-maximal work tasks on a t r e a d m i l l a p p l i c a b l e to c h i l d r e n between the ages o f f i v e and e l e v e n y e a r s . The sub-maximal work task employed i n t h i s study r e s u l t e d from a p i l o t p r o j e c t i n which c h i l d r e n , comparable i n age, h e i g h t , and weight to the s u b j e c t s , were used. T r i a l runs were made w i t h v a r i o u s speeds 35 and grades u n t i l the p r e s e n t method was determined. The c r i t e r i a b e i n g t h a t a l o a d was p l a c e d on the c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y system w i t h o u t having t o make the c h i l d r e n run on the t r e a d m i l l . The measuring d e v i c e s .employed were one Quinton Tread-m i l l (Model 2.4-72), one Sanborn 500 V i s o - C a r d i e t t e , one ECG Tel e m e t e r i n g T r a n s m i t t e r (Model 27-1), one ECG Radio Telemetry R e c e i v e r (Model RC-27), two s e t s o f Beckman s k i n e l e c t r o d e s , p l u s the nece s s a r y tape, s c i s s o r s , a l c o h o l , conducting g e l and stopwatches. One e l e c t r o d e was p l a c e d on the upper sternum and the ot h e r on the f i f t h i n t e r c o s t a l space under the l e f t n i p p l e . The e l e c t r o d e s were wired to. the T r a n s m i t t e r , which was. attached t o a b e l t worn around the w a i s t . The h e a r t beats were p i c k e d up by the Receive r , which i n t u r n was connected t o the V i s o -C a r d i e t t e . A demonstration was g i v e n and each s u b j e c t experienced w a l k i n g on the t r e a d m i l l at the assigned speed p r i o r t o the a c t u a l t e s t i n g . The s u b j e c t was p l a c e d on the l o a d i n g s h e l f o f the t r e a d m i l l w h i l e f i n a l adjustments were made to the equipment and a s t a n d i n g - r e s t i n g p u l s e r a t e was taken. The t r e a d m i l l was s t a r t e d at the s p e c i f i e d speed, the s u b j e c t l i f t e d and p l a c e d upon the moving b e l t . He was allowed to h o l d the r a i l i n g e n c i r c l i n g the f r o n t h a l f o f the t r e a d m i l l 36 u n t i l he was w a l k i n g c o n f i d e n t l y . The s u b j e c t then walked f o r thr e e minutes on a zero per cent grade at 2.5 m i l e s per hour f o r grade one, 3.0 m i l e s per hour f o r grade t h r e e and grade f o u r . At the end o f the t h i r d minute, the e l e v a t i o n was i n c r e a s e d to an e i g h t per cent grade, and the o r i g i n a l speed was maintained. The h e a r t r a t e was monitored each minute ( a f t e r the t h i r d minute o f zero g r a de walking) on an e l e c t r o c a r d i o g r a m . With the onset o f a steady s t a t e ( i 4 beats per minute), u s u a l l y a f t e r the e i g h t h t o n i n t h minute o f walking, the s u b j e c t was removed from the t r e a d m i l l . The submaximal work ta s k was ad m i n i s t e r e d at the end o f the experimental p e r i o d . SUBJECTS The s u b j e c t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study were 200 c h i l d r e n , from grade one, th r e e and fo u r , from S i r R i c h a r d McBride Elementary School. No c h i l d who had a known p h y s i c a l d e f o r m i t y or d i s e a s e was i n c l u d e d i n the study. The experimental and c o n t r o l groups i n each grade l e v e l were s e l e c t e d randomly. The homogeneity o f the groups was v e r i f i e d by the Wetzel G r i d Developmental L e v e l s , the r e s u l t s shown i n Table I . The s u b j e c t s came from f a m i l i e s o f below average to moderate socioeconomic s t a t u s . A l s o , the s u b j e c t s v/ere a mixture o f s e v e r a l e t h n i c o r i g i n s . I t i s apparent t h a t t h i s sample c o n s t i t u t e s an a t y p i c a l group and t h e r e f o r e the f i n d i n g s cannot be g e n e r a l i z e d to other s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n s . 37 DESIGN OF THE STUDY The c h i l d r e n o f the experimental and c o n t r o l groups p a r t i c i p a t e d i n two d i f f e r e n t programmes o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . The c o n t r o l groups, taught by the r e g u l a r classroom teacher, f o l l o w e d the programme o u t l i n e d i n the B r i t i s h Columbia P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Guide and C u r r i c u l u m . The c l a s s e s r e c e i v e d two, f o r t y - f i v e minute p e r i o d s o f i n s t r u c t i o n per week. The excep-t i o n to the l a t t e r was grade f o u r who r e c e i v e d three, f o r t y -f i v e minute p e r i o d s o f i n s t r u c t i o n per week. The experimental groups f o l l o w e d a programme designed and taught by the i n v e s t i -g a t o r . The c l a s s e s r e c e i v e d three, f o r t y - f i v e minute p e r i o d s o f i n s t r u c t i o n per week. The programme o u t l i n e s are pre s e n t e d i n the Appendix. The l e n g t h o f the experimental p e r i o d was f i f t e e n weeks, w i t h an i n t e r r u p t i o n o f two weeks, a f t e r the seventh week, f o r the Christmas v a c a t i o n . TESTING The t e s t i n g was done by p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n majors o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. T h e i r p a r t i c p a t i o n i n the t e s t i n g phase o f the study was regarded as a l a b o r a t o r y a s s i g n -ment o f a s e n i o r year t e s t s and measurement course o f f e r e d by The School o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n . The i n v e s t i -g a t o r s u p e r v i s e d a l l stages o f the t e s t i n g . E x c e p t i o n to the above was the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the hand-wrist x-ray which was conducted by a p r o f e s s i o n a l x-ray t e c h n i c i a n employed by The 38 U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia H e a l t h S e r v i c e . The r e l i a b i l i t y o f the t e s t i n g procedure was assured by a thorough i n s t r u c t i o n g i v e n to the t e s t e r s , and by a demonstration o f a l l t e s t items. For t e s t i n g , the items were d i v i d e d i n t o two groups: one group o f t e s t s was administered i n the morning, the other group o f t e s t s was administered i n the afternoon, a f t e r a one hour l u n c h p e r i o d . The morning group o f t e s t s c o n s i s t e d o f bar hang, h e i g h t , weight, and s t a n d i n g broad jump. While these items were measured, the c a r d i o v a s c u l a r a p p r a i s a l t e s t was adm i n i s t e r e d . The aft e r n o o n group o f t e s t s c o n s i s t e d o f g i r t h s , hand g r i p s , lung c a p a c i t y and s h u t t l e run. While these items were measured, the hand-wrist x-ray was taken. I n i t i a l t e s t i n g o f the c o n t r o l groups was not adminis-t e r e d . A l l c h i l d r e n o f the experimental groups were t e s t e d i n i t i a l l y . For the f i n a l t e s t s , ten c h i l d r e n ; s e l e c t e d r a n -domly from each grade, from both experimental and c o n t r o l groups, were t e s t e d . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the s u b j e c t s as to grade, number, and sex i s o u t l i n e d i n Table I I . STATISTICAL METHODS A l l c a l c u l a t i o n s were done by computer. The means and standard d e v i a t i o n s f o r a l l experimental v a r i a b l e s was c a l c u l a -ted and the standard e r r o r o f the means was determined: the t - r a t i o o f the d i f f e r e n c e between the means was then computed. 39 The r e l a t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s was determined by the Pearson Product Moment c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n . ' The r e s u l t s o f the two groups were compared to determine the d i f f e r e n c e s and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . The d i f f e r e n c e between the i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t s o f the experimental groups was c a l c u l a t e d . CHAPTER IV RESULTS The purpose o f t h i s study was to examine the e f f e c t s o f an a c c e l e r a t e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme ort c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l and motor development t r a i t s o f c h i l d r e n i n grades one, three, and f o u r . The f o l l o w i n g p h y s i c a l and motor develop-ment t r a i t s were t e s t e d : 1. P h y s i c a l development: h e i g h t , weight, lung c a p a c i t y , arm g i r t h , t h i g h g i r t h , c h r o n o l o g i c a l age, s k e l e t a l age. 2. Motor A b i l i t y and A g i l i t y : s t a n d i n g broad jump, s h u t t l e run. 3. S t r e n g t h : l e f t g r i p , r i g h t g r i p , f l e x e d arm bar hang. 4. C a r d i o v a s c u l a r A p p r a i s a l : submaximal work task. The r e s u l t s o f t h i s study are d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s and summarized i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s . T a b les I I I to_ XIV show the means, standard d e v i a t i o n s , t - v a l u e s , c o r r e l a t i o n s , and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e s f o r the e x p e r i -mental and c o n t r o l groups. Tables XV to XVIII show the means, standard d e v i a t i o n s , and the t - v a l u e s o f the i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t s f o r the experimental groups. The d i f f e r e n c e i n means and c o r r e l a t i o n s i s 41 s i g n i f i c a n t when t h e p r o b a b i l i t y i s h i g h t h a t t h e r e s u l t s cannot be a t t r i b u t e d to chance, and i t i s c o n s i d e r e d non-s i g n i f i c a n t when i t appears t h a t the r e s u l t s may have a r i s e n from normal f l u c t u a t i o n o r chance. I n t h i s s t u d y , the d i f f e r e n c e between the means was s i g n i f i c a n t : a t t h e .05 l e v e l w i t h (a) d f = 14, t ~ 2.14, and (b) d f = 16, t § 2.12; and a t the .0.1 l e v e l w i t h (a) d f = 14, t S 2.98, and (b) d f = 16, t ^ 2.92. C o r r e l a t i o n o f c o e f f i c i e n t s were s i g n i f i c a n t : a t the .05 l e v e l when (a) N = 8, d f = 6, r ^ .70, (b) N = 9, d f = 7, r ^ .66, (c) N = 10, d f = 8, r |? .63; and a t t h e .01 l e v e l when (a) N = 8, d f = 6, r ^ .83, (b) N = 9, d f = 7, r ^ .79, and (c) N = 10, d f = 8, r > .76. 1. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT T a b l e I I I summarizes the f i n a l means, and the s i g n i f i -cance o f the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e means f o r h e i g h t , w e i g h t , and l u n g c a p a c i t y o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups i n grade s one, t h r e e , and f o u r . No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d i n the t h r e e g r a d e s . Grade one e x p e r i m e n t a l group was t a l l e r , h e a v i e r , and shov/ed g r e a t e r l u n g c a p a c i t y t h a n the c o n t r o l group. The same r e s u l t s were o b s e r v e d w i t h grade f o u r e x p e r i -m e ntal group b u t w i t h s m a l l e r v a l u e s . Grade t h r e e c o n t r o l group a c h i e v e d h i g h e r f i n a l r e s u l t s t h a n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l 42 group. Height, weight, and lung c a p a c i t y v a l u e s show a d e f i n i t e i n c r e a s e i n v a l u e s from grade one through grade f o u r . The l a r g e s t i n c r e a s e i s noted i n lung c a p a c i t y from grade three t o grade f o u r . T a b l e IV summarizes the c o r r e l a t i o n o f c o e f f i c i e n t s of h e i g h t , weight, and lung c a p a c i t y to m a t u r i t y , motor a b i l i t y , s t r e n g t h , and working c a p a c i t y o f the experimental and c o n t r o l groups i n grades one, three, and f o u r . Lung c a p a c i t y c o r r e l a t e d to h e i g h t (.89), and weight (.90) at the .01 l e v e l i n the grade one experimental group, and to weight (.86) i n grade three experimental group, a l s o at the .01 l e v e l . No s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s o c c u r r e d i n the other groups f o r the above three v a r i a b l e s . C o r r e l a t i o n o f h e i g h t , weight, and l u n g c a p a c i t y to l e f t and r i g h t g r i p s were c o n s i s -t e n t l y h i g h . A l s o , weight c o r r e l a t e d h i g h to the above three v a r i a b l e s i n grades one and t h r e e . T a b l e V summarizes the f i n a l means, and the s i g n i f i -cance of the d i f f e r e n c e between the means f o r arm g i r t h and t h i g h g i r t h o f the experimental and c o n t r o l groups i n grades one and t h r e e . The t h i g h g i r t h f o r grade three c o n t r o l group d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y beyond the .05 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e w i t h a t - v a l u e o f 2.66. The arm g i r t h f o r the c o n t r o l group was a l s o g r e a t e r , but s t a t i s t i c a l l y not s i g n i f i c a n t . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n f a v o r TABLE I I I COMPARISON OF THE MEANS BETWEEN EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS OF THE FINAL TESTS FOR HEIGHT, WEIGHT, AND LUNG CAPACITY IN GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR D i f f . Mexp SDexp Mcont SDcont Between Test Grade T^ T 2 Tj_ T 2 T 2 T 2 Means d f t HEIGHT 1 47 .44 48 .25 2 82 2. .93 46. 62 1. 30 1. 63 16 1. .51 WEIGHT (N= 18) 50. .33 53 .08 5.17 5. 76 51. 25 5. 37 2. 23 16 0. 69 LUNG CAPACITY 69 .11 81 .83 16. .38 13 .91 70. 00 14. 04 11. 88 16 1 .30 HEIGHT 3 50 .43 51 .50 3 .95 2. .99 52. 12 1. 66 -0. 62 16 -0. .56 WEIGHT (N= 18) 59 .43 59 .59 8 .57 8 .13 69. .90 13 ,68 -10. .31 16 -1. .37 LUNG CAPACITY 83 .12 91 .25 9. , 23 14. .07 102. .30 11. 03 -11. 05 16 -1. .86 HEIGHT 4 53 .43 54 .53 2 .79 2 .88 54. .00 2 .56 0. .53 16 0 .41 WEIGHT (N= 18) 71 .06 74 .12 15 .86 16. .68 72. 45 16. .14 1. .67 16 0 .21 LUNG CAPACITY 116 .12 123 .75 19. .63 26 .15 112. .10 17 .54 11. .65 16 1 .13 Mean o f Experimental Group Standard D e v i a t i o n o f Experimental Group Mean of C o n t r o l Group Standard D e v i a t i o n o f C o n t r o l Group I n i t i a l Test F i n a l T e s t TABLE IV CORRELATION OF HEIGHT, WEIGHT, AND LUNG CAPACITY TO MATURITY, MOTOR ABILITY, STRENGTH,,AND WORKING CAPACITY OF CHILDREN IN GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR GRADE TEST ITEMS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 • 11 12 13 14 1 Exp HEIGHT -.11 1 .00 .92 x .08 .66+ .04 .70+ .43 .24 .27 .89 x .21 .23 .73 + (N=9) WEIGHT .14 . 9 2 x l .00 .30 .75+ .33 .77 + .64 .47 -.07 .90 x .11 -.01 .59 LUNG CAPACITY .12 .89 x .90 x .39 .68+ .28 .71 + .41 .22 .10 1 .00 -.10 -.20 .7 0 + 1 Cont HEIGHT -.07 1 .00 .38 .25 .17 -.20 .60 - .13 - .41 .78 4 .52 .20 .37 .26 (N=9) WEIGHT .30 .38 1 .00 .59 .91 x- .16 .28 .46 - .48 .25 .40 .01 -.02 .42 LUNG CAPACITY -.14 .52 .40 -•.19 .30 -.20 .31 .26 - .18 .71+ "1 .00 - .47 .09 .30 3 Exp HEIGHT -.11 1 .00 .7 0 + .56 .48 .65 .77 + .71 + .55 -.11 .66 .28 .52 .46 (N=8) WEIGHT .32 .7 0+1 .00 .81 + .85 x .83 x .80+ .94 x .11 -.56 .86 x .32 .63 .85 x LUNG CAPACITY .01 .66 .86 x .82 + .58 .91 x .77 + ,92 x .18 -.61 1 .00 .54 .71 + .61 3 Cont HEIGHT -.31 1 .00 .77 x .61 .65+ .32 .62 .65 +- .29 -.49 .23 -.28 -.37 .43 (N=10) WEIGHT -.52 . 7 7 x l .00 .93 x .93 x .32 .45 .59 - .48 -.07 .14 -.28 -.17 .07 LUNG CAPACITY -.44 .23 .14 .05 -.08 .25 .10 .50 -.15 1 .00 .02 -.05 .09 4 Exp HEIGHT .27 1 .00 .76+ .63 .62 .69 - .68 -.03 .68 -.14 -.03 .66 (N=8) WEIGHT .51 . 7 6 + l .00 - • - .26 .51 .54 - .71 4 ' .21 .72 + .02 .07 .44 LUNG CAPACITY .64 .68 .72+ - - .58 .74 + .88 x- .31 -.31 1 .00 - .43 -.49 .47 4 Cont HEIGHT -.08 1 .00 .75 + _ _ _ .03 ,77 x .76 -.02 .05 .50 .61 .52 .64+ (N=10) WEIGHT -.36 .7 5+1 .00 - • - .00 .41 .35 -.32 .16 .24 .50 .26 .25 LUNG CAPACITY -.28 .50 .24 - • - .02 .41 .45 -.28 -.14 1 .00 .04 .17 .34 + S i g n i f i c a n t at 5 p e r c e n t l e v e l ; S i g n i f i c a n t a t 1 p e r c e n t l e v e l . 1. Age 2. Height 3. Weight 4. Arm G i r t h 5. Thicfh G i r t h 6. S t a n d i n g Broad Jump 7. L e f t G r i p 8. R i g h t G r i p 9. F l e x e d Arm Bar Hang 10. S h u t t l e Run 11. Lung C a p a c i t y 12. Standing Heart Rate 13. Steady Heart Rate 14. S k e l e t a l Age 45 o f the c o n t r o l group might be e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t the same group was a l s o h e a v i e r . T a b l e VI summarizes the c o r r e l a t i o n o f c o e f f i c i e n t s o f arm g i r t h and t h i g h g i r t h t o s t r e n g t h , motor a b i l i t y , m a t u r i t y , growth, and working c a p a c i t y o f the experimental and c o n t r o l groups i n grades one and t h r e e . As i t may be expected arm g i r t h and t h i g h g i r t h c o r r e l a t e d h i g h to weight i n grade three c o n t r o l group (both were .93). T h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e was beyond the .01 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e . In grade three experimental group weight and t h i g h g i r t h c o r r e l a t e d beyond the .01 l e v e l o f co n f i d e n c e (.85), and the arm g i r t h beyond the .05 l e v e l o f co n f i d e n c e (.81). In grade one the c o r r e l a t i o n was somewhat lower between t h i g h g i r t h and weight, and between arm g i r t h and weight i t was q u i t e low. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n between arm g i r t h and t h i g h g i r t h f o r both groups i n grade one was very low, whereas i n grade three i t was .88 ( s i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l ) , and .82 ( s i g n i f i c a n t at .01 l e v e l ) f o r c o n t r o l and experimental groups, r e s p e c t i v e l y . T a b l e VII summarizes the f i n a l means, and the s i g n i f i -cance of the d i f f e r e n c e between the means f o r c h r o n o l o g i c a l age and s k e l e t a l age of the experimental and c o n t r o l groups i n grades one, three, and f o u r . No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d TABLE V COMPARISON OF THE MEANS BETWEEN EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS OF THE FINAL TESTS FOR ARM GIRTH AND THIGH GIRTH IN GRADES ONE AND THREE D i f f . Mexp SDexp Mcont SDcont Between T e s t Grade T2 T l T2 T 2 Means df t ARM GIRTH 1 6.94 7.36 0.41 0.81 7.15 0.70 0.21 16 0.57 THIGH GIRTH (N=18) 13.25 13.91 0.76 0.67 13.68 1.32 0.23 16 0.47 ARM GIRTH 3 7.06 7.28 0.56 0.67 7.90 0.97 -0.62 16 -1.52 THIGH GIRTH (N=18) 13.37 15.03 0.99 1.07 16.82 1.63 -1.79 16 -2.66 + + S i g n i f i c a n t at 5 p e r c e n t l e v e l Mexp SDexp Mcont SDcont T l T 2 Mean o f Experimental Group Standard D e v i a t i o n o f Experimental Group Mean o f C o n t r o l Group Standard D e v i a t i o n o f C o n t r o l Group I n i t i a l T e s t F i n a l T e s t TABLE VI CORRELATION OF ARM GIRTH AND THIGH GIRTH TO STRENGTH, MOTOR ABILITY, MATURITY, GROWTH, AND WORKING CAPACITY FACTORS OF CHILDREN IN GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR GRADE TEST ITEMS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1 Exp ARM GIRTH .05 .08 .3.0 i .00 .09 .64 .20 -.05 .22 -.47 .39 -.60 -.66+- .14 (N=9) THIGH GIRTH .24 .66 + .7 5+ .09 1 .00 .41 .33 .60 .17 -.01 .68 + .04 -.04 .27 1 Cont ARM GIRTH .30 .20 .59 1 .00 .44 -.42 -.01 -.08 -.28 .12 -'.19 .20 -.29 .32 (N=9) THIGH GIRTH .42 .17 .91 x .44 1 .00 .11 .30 .54 -.38 -.09 .30 -.05 -.09 .10 3 Exp ARM GIRTH .37 .56 .81+1 .00 .82 + .80+ ,77 + .92 x .37 -.79 + .82 + .24 .56 .66 (N=8) THIGH GIRTH . 64 .48 .85 x .82+1 .00 .57 .58 .80 + .09 -.64 .58 .06 .42 .82 3 Cont ARM GIRTH - . 6 5 + .61 . 9 3 x l .00 .88 x .06 .50 .53 -.45 .20 .17 -.12 -.03 -•.16 (N=10) THIGH GIRTH -.58 .65 + .93 x . 8 8 x l .00 .39 .50 .76 x- .29 -.16 .05 -.46 -.28 .13 + S i g n i f i c a n t at 5 p e r c e n t l e v e l r S i g n i f i c a n t a t 1 p e r c e n t l e v e l 1. Age 2. Height 3. Weight 4. Arm G i r t h 5. Thigh G i r t h 6. Sta n d i n g Broad Jump 7. L e f t G r i p 8. R i g h t G r i p 9. F l e x e d Arm Bar Hang 10. S h u t t l e Run 11. Lung C a p a c i t y 12. Standing Heart Rate 13. Steady Heart Rate 14. S k e l e t a l Age 48 between the means i n the three grades. However, i n a l l three grades the experimental groups were'older both c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y and s k e l e t a l l y . A l s o , the d i f f e r e n c e s between c h r o n o l o g i c a l ages and s k e l e t a l ages were not i d e n t i c a l . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n s k e l e t a l age ranged between two to s i x months above the d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. Table V I I I summarizes the c o r r e l a t i o n o f c o e f f i c i e n t s o f c h r o n o l o g i c a l age and s k e l e t a l age to growth, motor a b i l i t y , s t r e n g t h , and working c a p a c i t y of the experimental and c o n t r o l groups i n grades one, three, and f o u r . The c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n s , f o r c h r o n o l o g i c a l age and' s k e l e t a l age were q u i t e low f o r each grade. E x c e p t i o n to t h i s was found between s k e l e t a l age and weight (.85, s i g n i f i -c ant at .05 l e v e l ) i n grade t h r e e experimental group, and between s k e l e t a l age and s h u t t l e run (.83, s i g n i f i c a n t at .01 l e v e l ) i n the grade three c o n t r o l group. TABLE VII COMPARISON OF THE MEANS BETWEEN EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS OF THE FINAL TESTS FOR CHRONOLOGICAL AGE AND SKELETAL AGE IN GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR D i f f . Mexp SDexp Mcont SDcont Between T e s t Grade T i - T'2 T-^  T 2 T 2 T 2 Means d f t CHRONOLOGICAL AGS 1 6.51 6.92 0.46 0.46 6.71 0.23 0.21 16 1.16 SKELETAL AGE (N=18) 7.17 1.09 6.39 0.53 0.78 16 1.91 CHRONOLOGICAL AGE 3 8.86 9.27 0.73 0.73 8.96 0.36 0.31 16- 1.16 SKELETAL AGE (N=18) 9.62 0.S5 9.17 0.82 0.45 16 1.13 CHRONOLOGICAL . AGE 4 9.93 10.35 0.62 - 0.62 10.10 0.73 0.25 16 0.75 SKELETAL AGE (N=18) 10.43 0.86 9.66 1.20 0.77 16 1.52 Mexp SDexp Mcont SDcont T l T 2 Mean o f Experimental Group Standard D e v i a t i o n o f Experimental Group Mean o f C o n t r o l Group Standard D e v i a t i o n o f C o n t r o l Group I n i t i a l T e s t F i n a l T e s t TABLE V I I I CORRELATION OF CHRONOLOGICAL AGE AND SKELETAL AGE TO GROWTH, MOTOR ABILITY, STRENGTH, AND WORKING CAPACITY OF CHILDREN IN GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR GRADE TEST ITEMS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1 Exp CHRONOLOGICAL AGE 1 .00 -.11 .14 .05 .24 .39 .33 .67 + .38 -.52 .12 .01 + .57 .13 (N=9) SKELETAL AGE .13 .73 + .59 -.14 .27 -.38 .7 0 + .32 .23 .47 .70 + .21 .12 1.00 1 Cont CHRONOLOGICAL AGE 1 .00 -.07 .30 .30 .42 .60 -.09 .65 .10 .16 -.14 + .41 + .74V.53 (N=9) SKELETAL AGE + .53 .26 .42 .32 .10 -.71+- .02 -.17 -.31 .04 .30 .25 .35 1.00 3 Exp CHRONOLOGICAL AGE 1 .00 -.11 .32 .37 .64 .02 .30 .30 -.20 -.53 .01 + .62 + .34 .69 (N-8) SKELETAL AGE .69 .46 .85 x .66 ,82 + .63 .73 + .80+- .05 -.57 .61 + .16 .18 1.00 3 Cont CHRONOLOGICAL AGE 1 .00 -.31 -.52 - .65 +- •.58 .04 -.35 -.41 -.12 -.14 -•.44 .34 .00 + .00 (N=10) SKELETAL AGE + .00 .43 .07 - .16 .13 .49 -.03 .35 .40 -,83 x .09 + .41 + .54 1.00 4 Exp CHRONOLOGICAL AGE 1 .00 .27 .51 — — .36 .54 .52 -.34 .06 .64 + .08 + .00 .61 (N=8) SKELETAL AGE .61 .66 .44 - - .63 .76+ .67 -.56 -.09 .47 .07 .24 1.00 4 Cont CHRONOLOGICAL AGE 1 .00 -.08 -.36 — .11 -.10 .06 .7 5 +-.24 -•.28 .29 + .15 .52 (N=10) SKELETAL AGE .52 .64+ .25 — .07 .57 .61 .43 -.25 .34 .45 .01 1.00 "•"Significant at 5 p e r c e n t 1. Age 2. Height 3. Weight 4. Arm G i r t h 5. Thigh G i r t h e v e l ; S i g n i f i c a n t a t 1 per 6. Standing Broad Jump 7. L e f t G r i p 8. R i g h t G r i p 9. F l e x e d Arm Bar Hang 10. S h u t t l e Run l e v e l 11. Lung C a p a c i t y 12. .Standing Heart Rate 13. Steady Heart Rate .14. S k e l e t a l Age 51 2. MOTOR ABILITY AND AGILITY Tabl e IX summarizes the f i n a l means, and the s i g n i f i -cance of the d i f f e r e n c e between the means f o r s h u t t l e run and s t a n d i n g broad jump of the experimental and c o n t r o l groups i n grades one, three, and f o u r . No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d i n the t h r e e grades. The c o n t r o l groups i n a l l t h r e e grades scored h i g h e r i n the s h u t t l e run, and the experimental groups i n a l l three grades scored h i g h e r i n the st a n d i n g broad jump. Table X summarizes the c o r r e l a t i o n of c o e f f i c i e n t s o f s h u t t l e run and s t a n d i n g broad jump to m a t u r i t y , growth, s t r e n g t h , and working c a p a c i t y o f the experimental and c o n t r o l groups i n grades one, three, and f o u r . No s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n was noted f o r grade four experimental group. In grade f o u r c o n t r o l group the s h u t t l e run c o r r e l a t e d to st a n d i n g broad jump +.79, which was s i g n i f i -cant at the .01 l e v e l . In grade t h r e e experimental group the s t a n d i n g broad jump c o r r e l a t e d to weight .83, to r i g h t g r i p .90, and to lung c a p a c i t y .91; a l l s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . I n t e r e s t i n g c o r r e l a t i o n o f +.83 was noted between s h u t t l e run and s k e l e t a l age i n grade t h r e e c o n t r o l group, which was s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .01 l e v e l . TABLE IX COMPARISON OF THE MEANS BETWEEN EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS OF THE FINAL TEST FOR STANDING BROAD JUMP AND SHUTTLE RUN IN GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR D i f f . Mexp SDexp Mcont SDcont Between T e s t Grade T-^  T 2 Tj_ T 2 T 2 T 2 Means d f t STANDING BROAD JUMP 1 38.55 44.05 10.55 6.09 43.66 4.65 0.39 16 0.15 SHUTTLE RUN (N=18) 14.67 13.64 1.85 1.25 14.01 0.88 -0.37 16 -0.71 STANDING BROAD JUMP 3 28.06 51.12 5.29 6.59 49.25 12.59 1.87 16 0.37 SHUTTLE RUN (N=18) 13.47 12.81 0.56 0.31 12.78 0.41 -0.03 16 -0.18 STANDING BROAD JUMP 4 30.25 58.68 5.23 5.80 56.50 8.11 2.18 16 0.64 SHUTTLE RUN (N=18) 12.33 12.35 0.71 0.74 12.75 0.86 -0.40 16 -1.03 Mexp SDexp Mcont SDcont T l T 2 Mean o f Experimental Group Standard D e v i a t i o n o f Experimental Group Mean o f C o n t r o l Group Standard D e v i a t i o n o f C o n t r o l Group I n i t i a l T e s t F i n a l T e s t TABLE X CORRELATION OF SHUTTLE RUN AND STANDING BROAD JUMP TO MATURITY, GROWTH, STRENGTH, AND WORKING CAPACITY FACTORS OF CHILDREN IN GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR GRADE TEST ITEMS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1 Exp SHUTTLE RUN -.52 .27 -.07 -.47 -.01 +.77+-.03 -.39 -.45 1.00 .10 .16 .49 .47 (N=9) STANDING BROAD JUMP .39, .04 .33 .64 .41 1.00 .11 .29 .09 + .77 + .28 -.19 -.53 -.38 1 Cont SHUTTLE RUN .16 .78 + .25 .12 .09 +.16 .41 .05 -.07 1.00 .71 -.33 -.12 .04 (N=9) STANDING BROAD JUMP .60 -.20 -.16 -.42 .11 1.00 -.00 .47 .21 +.16 -.20 -.25 -.26 - . 7 1 + 3 Exp SHUTTLE RUN -.53 -.11 -.56 -.79 +-.64 +.47 -.39 -.58 -.13 1.00 -.61 -.00 -.39 -.57 (N=8) STANDING BROAD JUMP .02 .65 .83 x .80 4 - .57 1.00 .80 + .90* .26 +.47 .91 x .45 .62 .63 3 Cont SHUTTLE RUN -.14 -.49 -.07 .20 -.16 +.65 +-.25 -.53 -.39 1.00 -.15 .50 .54 - . 8 3 x (N=10) STANDING BROAD JUMP .04 .32 .32 .06 .39 1.00 .05 .46 .04 +.65 +-.08 -.37 .01 .49 4 Exp SHUTTLE RUN .06 -.03 .21 - - +.51 0.47 -.50 -.15 1.00 -.31 .50 .60 -.09 (N=8) STANDING BROAD JUMP .36 .63 .26 - - 1.00 .65 .69 -.49 +.51 .58 -.64 -.41 .63 4 Cont SHUTTLE RUN -.24 .00 .16 - - +.79x-.37 -.47 -.72+1.00 -.14 .00 .24 -.25 (N=10) STANDING BROAD JUMP -.11 -.00 .00 - - 1.00 .46 .28 .38 +.79 x .02 -.14 -.26 .07 + S i g n i f i c a n t at 5 percent l e v e l ; S i g n i f i c a n t at 1 percent l e v e l 1. Age 6. Standing Broad Jump 11. Lung C a p a c i t y 2. Height 7. L e f t G r i p 12. Standing Heart Rate 3. Weight 8. Right G r i p 13. Steady Heart Rate 4. Arm G i r t h 9. F l e x e d Arm Bar Hang 14. S k e l e t a l Age 5. Thigh G i r t h 10. S h u t t l e Run 54 3. STRENGTH Table XI summarizes the f i n a l means, and the s i g n i f i -cance o f the d i f f e r e n c e between the means f o r l e f t and r i g h t g r i p s t r e n g t h and f l e x e d arm bar hang of the experimental and c o n t r o l groups i n grades one, three, and f o u r . No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d i n the three grades. Grade three c o n t r o l group, as compared to the experimental group, was s u p e r i o r i n a l l t h r e e t e s t s . Grade four c o n t r o l group, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f l e f t g r i p , was a l s o s u p e r i o r over the experimental group. Although the grade three c o n t r o l group was younger and h e a v i e r , i n t e r e s t i n g -l y enough they surpassed the l i g h t e r and o l d e r experimental group. Table XII summarizes the c o r r e l a t i o n o f c o e f f i c i e n t s o f l e f t and r i g h t g r i p s t r e n g t h and f l e x e d arm bar hang to growth, m a t u r i t y , motor a b i l i t y , and working c a p a c i t y o f the experimental and c o n t r o l groups i n grades one, three, and f o u r . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n i n grade one c o n t r o l group, and o n l y a few r e l a t i v e l y low c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r the experimental group. In grade t h r e e experimental group the r i g h t g r i p c o r r e l a t e d to weight .94, to arm g i r t h .92, to s t a n d i n g broad jump .90, to l e f t g r i p .85, and to lung c a p a c i t y .92. A l l s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .01 l e v e l . In grade f o u r c o n t r o l group l e f t and r i g h t g r i p s t r e n g t h TABLE XI COxMPARISON OF THE MEANS BETWEEN EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS OF THE FINAL TESTS FOR THE GRIP STRENGTH AND FLEXED ARM BAR; HANG IN GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR D i f f . Mexp SDexp Mcont SDcont Between T e s t Grade Tj^ T 2 T l T 2 T 2 T 2 Means d f t GRIP : L t 1 17.66 20.55 6.61 6.85 16.44 2.45 4.11 16 1.69 : Rt (N=18) 18.77 19.44 5.44 6.55 18.33 2.54 2.54 16 0.47 FLEXED ARM BAR HANG 20.00 27.46 12.86 13.07 25.36 11.30 2.10 16 0.36 GRIP : L t 3 23.00 23.37 7.48 6.92 26.90 8.03 -3.53 16 -0.98 : Rt (N=18) 23.75 26.12 5.62 7.95 27 . 4 0 8.74 -1.28 16 -0.31 FLEXED ARM BAR HANG 12.00 17.05 8.24 15.37 18.85 13.87 -1.80 16 -0.26 GRIP : L t 4 30.37 37.37 12.08 9.25 36.70 9.45 0.67 16 0.15 : Rt (N=18) 33.12 37.37 11.40 9.33 39.20 8.82 -1.50 1 6 - 0 . 4 2 FLEXED ARM BAR HANG 22.56 50.00 8.67 22.35 52.20 31.85 -2.20 16 -0.16 Mexp SDexp Mcont SDcont T l Mean o f Experimental Group Standard D e v i a t i o n o f Experimental Group Mean o f C o n t r o l Group Standard D e v i a t i o n o f C o n t r o l Group I n i t i a l T e s t F i n a l T e s t TABLE XII CORRELATION OF GRIP STRENGTH AND FLEXED ARM BAR HANG TO GROWTH, MATURITY, MOTOR ABILITY, AND WORKING CAPACITY FACTORS OF CHILDREN IN GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR GRADE TEST ITEMS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1 Exp LEFT GRIP .33 .70+ .77 + .20 .33 .11 1 .00 .62 .49 .03 .71+' .24 .10 .70+ (N=9) RIGHT GRIP .67 + .43 .64 -.05 .60 .29 .62 1 .00 .72 +- .39 .41 .24 -.10 .32 FLEXED ARM BAR HANG .38 .24 .47 .22 .17 .09 .49 .72+1 .00 — .45 .22 - .06 - .12 .23 1 Cont LEFT GRIP -.09 .60 .28 -.01 .30 -.07 1 .00 + .14 .13 .41 .31 .43 .46 -.02 (N=9) RIGHT GRIP .65 -.13 .46 -.08 .54 .47 + .14 1 .00 + .11 .05 .26 -.48 - .36 -.17 FLEXED ARM BAR HANG .10 -.41 -.48 -.28 -•.38 .21 .13 + .11 1 .00 — .07 - .18 - .16 — .35 -.31 3 Exp LEFT GRIP .30 .77 + .80 + .77 + .68 . .80+1 .00 .85 x .20 .39 .77 + .17 .28 ,73 + (N=8) RIGHT GRIP .30 .71 .94 x .92 x .80+ .90* . 8 5 x l .00 .30 -.68 .92 x .27 .61 .80+ FLEXED ARM BAR HANG -.20 .55 .11 .37 .09 .26 .20 .30 1 .00 -.13 .18 -.05 . 32 -.05 3 Corit LEFT GRIP -.35 .62 + .45 .50 .50 .05 1 .00 • 3 0 x f .04 — .25 .25 -.08 .20 -.03 (N=10) RIGHT GRIP -.41 .65+ •.59 .53 .76* .46 . 8 0 x l .00 .08 - .53 .10 -.45 -.43 .35 FLEXED ARM BAR HANG -.12 -.29 -.48 -.45 -•.29 .04 + .04 .08 1 .00 — .39 .50 -.12 — .17 .40 4 Exp LEFT GRIP .54 .62 .51 — — .65 1 .00 .95 x+ .37 — .47 .74 +- .27 — .25 .76+ (N=8) RIGHT GRIP .52 .69 .54 - - .69 . 9 5 x l .00 + .27 -.50 .88 x- .41 -.43 .67 FLEXED ARM BAR HANG -.34 -.68 -.71+ — — — .49 4-.37 .27 1 .00 — .15 - .31 -.05 — .33 -.56 4 Cont LEFT GRIP -.10 .77 x .41 — .46 1 .00 .80* .21 — .37 .41 .43 .34 .57 (N=10) RIGHT GRIP .06 .76 x .35 - - .28 . 3 0 x l .00 .40 -.47 .45 .29 .20 .61 FLEXED ARM BAR HANG .7 5 + -.02 - .32 - - .38 .21 .40 1 .00 -.72 +- .28 .24 -.12 .43 + S i g n i f i c a n t a t 5 p e r c e n t l e v e l ; 1. Age 6. 2. Height 7. 3. Weight 8. 4. Arm G i r t h 9. '• S i g n i f i c a n t at 1 p e r c e n t l e v e l S t a n d i n g Broad Jump L e f t G r i p R i g h t G r i p F l e x e d Arm Bar Hang 11. 12. 13. 14. Lung C a p a c i t y Standing Heart Rate Steady Heart Rate S k e l e t a l Age 57 c o r r e l a t e d to h e i g h t .77 and .76, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Both s i g n i f i -cant at the .01 l e v e l . The c o r r e l a t i o n f o r the same group between l e f t and r i g h t g r i p was .80, s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .01 l e v e l . 4. CARDIOVASCULAR APPRAISAL Tabl e X I I I summarizes the f i n a l means, and the s i g n i -f i c a n c e o f the d i f f e r e n c e between the means f o r s t a n d i n g i r e s t i n g h e a r t r a t e and steady h e a r t r a t e of the experimental and c o n t r o l groups i n grades one, three, and f o u r . No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d i n the three grades. The experimental groups i n a l l three grades showed slower h e a r t r a t e v a l u e s f o r both measurements. The s t a n d i n g r e s t i n g h e a r t r a t e s were q u i t e h i g h , which may be a t t r i b u t e d to the r e a c t i o n experienced by the s u b j e c t s to the apparatus used f o r data c o l l e c t i n g . T a b l e XIV summarizes the c o r r e l a t i o n of c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r s t a n d i n g r e s t i n g h e a r t r a t e and steady h e a r t r a t e to growth, motor a b i l i t y , m a t u r i t y , and s t r e n g t h o f the e x p e r i -mental and c o n t r o l groups i n grades one, three, and f o u r . The c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n s were very low f o r a l l v a r i a b l e s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f steady h e a r t r a t e to age, •fr.74 f o r grade t h r e e c o n t r o l group, and steady h e a r t r a t e t o lung c a p a c i t y , .71 f o r grade three experimental group. Both val u e s were s i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l . The c o r r e l a t i o n s between TABLE X I I I COMPARISON OF THE MEANS BETWEEN EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS OF THE FINAL TESTS FOR STANDING RESTING HEART RATE AND STEADY HEART RATE IN GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR T e s t Grade Mexp T i T2 SDexp T l T 2 Mcont T 2 SDcont T2 D i f f . Between Means df STANDING RESTING HEART RATE 1 STEADY HEART (N=18) RATE 111.33 151.55 16.58 120.77 11.69 -9.44 15.43 157.77 11.01 -6.22 16 -1.39 16 -0.98 STANDING RESTING HEART RATE 3 STEADY HEART (N=18) RATE 103.12 157.43 22.54 105.10 12.09 -1.98 14.97 159.45 8.63 -2.02 16 16 -0.23 -0.35 STANDING RESTING HEART RATE 4 STEADY HEART (N=18) RATE 93.75 156.87 20.43 19.42 100.50 163.60 22.14 •3.25 11.23 -6.79 16 16 -0.66 -0.92 Mexp SDexp Mcont SDcont T l To Mean o f Experimental Group Standard D e v i a t i o n o f Experimental Group Mean o f C o n t r o l Group Standard D e v i a t i o n o f C o n t r o l Group I n i t i a l T e s t F i n a l T e s t TABLE XIV CORRELATION OF STANDING RESTING HEART RATE AND STEADY HEART RATE TO GROWTH, MOTOR ABILITY, MATURITY, AND STRENGTH OF CHILDREN IN GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR GRADE TEST ITEMS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1 Exp (N=9) STANDING RESTING HEART RATE STEADY HEART RATE .01 + .57 .21 .23 .11 -.00 -.60 -.66 + .04 -.04 -.19 -.53 .24 -.10 .24 -.10 -.06 -.12 .16 .49 -.10 -.20 1.00 . 7 2 + l .72 + .00 .21 .12 1 Cont (N=9) STANDING RESTING HEART RATE STEADY HEART RATE + .41 + .74 + .20 .37 .01 -.02 .20 -.29 -.05 -.09 -.25 -.26 .43 .46 -.48 -.36 -.16 -.36 -.33 -.12 -.47 .09 1.00 . 7 2 + l .72 + .00 .25 .35 3 Exp (N=8) STANDING RESTING HEART RATE STEADY HEART RATE + .62 + .34 .28 .52 .32 .63 .24 .56 .06 .42 .45 .62 .17 .28 .27 .61 -.05 .32 -.00 -.39 .54 1.00 .71 + . 7 7 + l .77--.00 .16 .18 3 Cont (N=10) STANDING RESTING HEART RATE STEADY HEART RATE .34 -.00 -.28 .37 -.28 -.17 -.12 -.03 -.46 -.28 -.37 .01 -.08 -.20 -.45 -.43 -.12 -.17 .50 .54 .02 -.05 1.00 . 6 4 + l .64 +-.00 .41 .54 4 Exp (N=8) STANDING RESTING HEART RATE STEADY HEART RATE + .08 -+ .00 -.14 .03 .02 .07 - - -.64 -.41 -.27 -.25 -.41 -.43 -.05 -.33 .50 .60 -.43 -.49 1.00 . 9 0 x l .90 x .00 .07 .24 4 Cont (N=10) STANDING RESTING HEART RATE STEADY HEART RATE .29 " +.15 .61 .52 .50 .36 - - -.14 -.26 .43 .34 .29 .20 .24 -.12 .00 .24 .04 .17 1.00 . 7 5 + l .75 + .00 .45 .01 + S i g n i f i c a n t a t 5 p e r c e n t l e v e l ; S i g n i f i c a n t at 1 p e r c e n t l e v e l 1. Age 2. H e i g h t 3. Weight 4. Arm G i r t h 5 . T h i g h G i r t h 6. S t a n d i n g Broad Jump 7. L e f t G r i p 8. R i g h t G r i p 9. F l e x e d Arm Bar Hang 10. S h u t t l e Run 11. 12. 13. 14. Lung C a p a c i t y Standing Heart Rate Steady Heart Rate S k e l e t a l Age 60 s t a n d i n g r e s t i n g h e a r t r a t e and steady h e a r t r a t e were: (a) .72, .72 i n grade one experimental and c o n t r o l groups, r e s p e c -t i v e l y ; (b) .77, .64 i n grade t h r e e experimental and c o n t r o l groups, r e s p e c t i v e l y ; and (c) .90, .75 i n grade fo u r e x p e r i -mental and c o n t r o l groups, r e s p e c t i v e l y . They were a l l s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .05 l e v e l , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of grade four experimental group, which was s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .01 l e v e l . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s summarize the means, standard d e v i a t i o n s , and the t - v a l u e s of the i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t s f o r the experimental groups. Table XV summarizes the d i f f e r e n c e s " between the i n i t i a l and f i n a l means, and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r — ences f o r h e i g h t , weight, and lung c a p a c i t y of the experimental groups i n grades one, three, and f o u r . No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s occurred, i n the three grades. A l a r g e i n c r e a s e was noted f o r lung c a p a c i t y i n a l l three grades, the l a r g e s t b e i n g i n grade one. Table XVI summarizes the d i f f e r e n c e s between the i n i t i a l and f i n a l means, and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s f o r arm g i r t h and t h i g h g i r t h ' o f the experimental groups i n grades one and t h r e e . Both grades showed i n c r e a s e i n arm g i r t h and t h i g h g i r t h . The i n c r e a s e i n t h i g h g i r t h f o r grade three was TABLE XV COMPARISON OF THE MEANS OF THE INITIAL AND FINAL TESTING WITHIN THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS FOR HEIGHT, WEIGHT, AND LUNG CAPACITY IN GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR M SD T e s t Grade T^ T 2 ' T]_ T 2 Mi - M 2 d f t HEIGHT 1 47.44 48.25 2.82 2.93 -0.81 16 -0.59 WEIGHT (N=9) 50.33 53.08 5.17 5.76. -2.75 16 -1.06 LUNG CAPACITY 69.11 81.88 16.38 13.91 -12.77 16 -1.78 HEIGHT 3 50.43 51.50 3.95 2.99 -1.07 14 -0.60 WEIGHT (N=8) 59.43 59.59 8.57 8.13 -0.16 14 -0.03 LUNG CAPACITY 83.12 91.25 9.23 14.07 -8.13 14 -1.36 HEIGHT 4 53.43 54.53 2.79 2.88 -1.10 14 -0.77 WEIGHT (N=8) 71.06 74.12 15.86 16.68 -3.06 14 -0.37 LUNG CAPACITY 116.12 123.75 19.63 26.15 -7.63 14 -0.65 3 Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n I n i t i a l T e s t F i n a l T e s t D i f f e r e n c e Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l T e s t Means TABLE XVI COMPARISON OF THE MEANS OF THE INITIAL AND FINAL TESTING WITHIN THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS FOR ARM GIRTH AND THIGH GIRTH IN GRADES ONE AND THREE M SD T e s t Grade T^ T 2 T l T 2 M]_ - M 2 d f t ARM GIRTH 1 THIGH GIRTH (N=9) 6.94 7.36 13.25 13.91 ARM GIRTH 3 7.06 7.23 THIGH GIRTH (N=8) 13.37 15.03 0.41 0.81 0.76 0.67 0.56 0.67 0.99 1.07 -0.42 -0.66 -0.22 -1.66 16 16 14 14 -1.36 -1.95 -0.70 -3.20 ++ " ^ S i g n i f i c a n t at 1 p e r c e n t l e v e l Mean Standard D e v i a t i o n I n i t i a l T e s t F i n a l T e s t D i f f e r e n c e Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l T e s t Means 63 s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .01 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e (t = 3.20). I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that grade three had o n l y .16 pound mean g a i n i n weight and 1.07 inches i n h e i g h t ; y e t the mean i n c r e a s e o f t h i g h g i r t h was 1.66 i n c h e s . Table XVII summarizes the d i f f e r e n c e s between the i n i t i a l and f i n a l means, and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s f o r s t a n d i n g broad jump and s h u t t l e - r u n o f the experimental groups i n grades one, three, and f o u r . Large i n c r e a s e s were noted f o r both v a r i a b l e s i n a l l three grades, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of s h u t t l e run i n grade f o u r where the i n c r e a s e was almost n i l (.02 second). In grade three, the i n c r e a s e i n s t a n d i n g broad jump was s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .01 l e v e l (t = 7.78), and the s h u t t l e run beyond the .05 l e v e l (t = 2.89). The l a r g e s t i n c r e a s e v/as noted i n grade four s t a n d i n g broad jump, Which was s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .01 l e v e l (t = 10.29). Table XVIII summarizes the d i f f e r e n c e s between the i n i t i a l and f i n a l means, and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e s f o r g r i p s t r e n g t h and f l e x e d arm bar hang of the experimental groups i n grades one, three, and f o u r . A l l t h ree grades improved i n both g r i p s t r e n g t h and f l e x e d arm bar hang. The l a r g e s t i n c r e a s e was i n grade four f o r f l e x e d arm bar hang, which was s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .01 l e v e l (t = 3.23) . TABLE XVII COMPARISON OF THE MEANS OF THE INITIAL AND FINAL TESTING WITHIN THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS FOR STANDING BROAD JUMP AND SHUTTLE RUN IN GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR T e s t Grade M T l T 2 SD T l T 2 Mi - M 2 d f STANDING BROAD JUMP. 1 38.55 44.05 10.55 6.09 SHUTTLE RUN (N=9) 14.67 13.64 1.85 1.25 -5.50 1.03 16 1.6 -1.35 1.38 STANDING BROAD JUMP 3 28.06 51.12 5.29 6.59 SHUTTLE RUN (N=8) 13.47 12.81 0.56 0.31 •23.06 0.66 14 14 ++ -7.78 2.89+ STANDING BROAD JUMP 4 30.25 58.68 5.23 5.80 SHUTTLE RUN (N=8) 12.33 12.35 0.71 0.74 -28.43 -0.02. 14 14 .10.29 + + -0.03 + S i g n i f i c a n t at 5 p e r c e n t l e v e l + + S i g n i f i c a n t at 1 p e r c e n t l e v e l M : Mean SD : Standard D e v i a t i o n T i : I n i t i a l T e s t T 2 : F i n a l T e s t Mi~M 2 : D i f f e r e n c e Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l T e s t Means CTl 4^  TABLE XVIII COMPARISON OF THE MEANS OF THE INITIAL AND FINAL TESTING WITHIN THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS FOR THE GRIP STRENGTH AND FLEXED ARM BAR HANG IN GRADES ONE, THREE, AND FOUR M SD Te s t Grade T L T 2 T]_ • T 2 M x - M 2 d f t GRIP : L t 17.66 20.55 6.61 6.85 -2.89 16 -0.90 : Rt 1 18.77 19.44 5.44 6.55 -0.67 16 -0.23 FLEXED ARM (N=9) . • BAR HANG 20.00 27.46 12.86 13.07 -7.46 16 -1.22 GRIP : L t 23.00 23.37 7.48 6.92 -0.37 14 -0.10 : Rt 3 23.75 26.12 5.62 7.95 -2.37 14 -0.68 FLEXED ARM (N=8) EAR HANG 12.00 17.05 8.24 15.37 -5.05 14 -0.81 GRIP : L t 30.37 37.37 12.08 9.25 -7.00 14 -1.30 : Rt 4 33.12 37.37 11.40 9.33 -4.25 14 -0.81 FLEXED ARM (N=8) BAR HANG 22.56 50.00 8.67 22.35 -27.44 14 - 3 . 2 3 + + " ^ S i g n i f i c a n t at 1 p e r c e n t l e v e l M : Mean SD : Standard D e v i a t i o n TJL : I n i t i a l T e s t T 2 : F i n a l T e s t • M1-M2 : D i f f e r e n c e Between I n i t i a l and F i n a l Test Means CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Summary The purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t s an a c c e l e r a t e d and r e g u l a r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o -gramme had on p h y s i c a l and motor t r a i t s of c h i l d r e n i n grades one, three, and f o u r . Two hundred c h i l d r e n o f S i r R i c h a r d McBride Elementary School o f Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study. One hundred o f the c h i l d r e n , c l a s s i f i e d as the e x p e r i -mental groups, p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the a c c e l e r a t e d programme. The remaining hundred, c l a s s i f i e d as the c o n t r o l groups, p a r t i c i -p a t e d i n the r e g u l a r programme. Only the experimental groups were p r e t e s t e d , due to a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s at a h i g h e r l e v e l . At the c o n c l u s i o n of the study, f i f t y - f o u r randomly s e l e c t e d c h i l d r e n were t e s t e d (see T a b l e I I ) . The p h y s i c a l and motor t r a i t s i n v e s t i g a t e d were: 1. P h y s i c a l Development: h e i g h t , weight, lung c a p a c i t y , t h i g h g i r t h , arm g i r t h , c h r o n o l o g i c a l age, s k e l e t a l age. 2 . Motor A b i l i t y and A g i l i t y : s t a n d i n g broad jump, s h u t t l e run. 67 3. S t r e n g t h : l e f t and r i g h t g r i p s , f l e x e d arm bar hang. 4. C a r d i o v a s c u l a r A p p r a i s a l : submaximal work t a s k . Tables I I I through XIV show the f i n a l means and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e between the means, and the co-e f f i c i e n t s o f c o r r e l a t i o n f o r the development t r a i t s l i s t e d . The experimental groups were o l d e r c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y and s k e l e t a l l y , and showed s l i g h t l y h i g h e r r e s u l t s than the c o n t r o l group, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f grade three c o n t r o l group. The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e o c c u r r e d i n t h i g h g i r t h (Table V) which was i n f a v o r o f grade three c o n t r o l group. The s c o r e s achieved per t e s t items were i n f a v o r o f the experimental groups 27 times, and i n f a v o r of the c o n t r o l groups 13 times. Tables XV through XVIII show the d i f f e r e n c e s between the i n i t i a l and f i n a l means, and the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i f f e r -ences f o r the experimental groups f o r the p h y s i c a l and motor t r a i t s l i s t e d . A l l t h r e e experimental groups improved substan-t i a l l y from the i n i t i a l to the f i n a l t e s t i n a l l the e x p e r i -mental v a r i a b l e s . In grade f o u r the improvements i n s t a n d i n g broad jump (Table XVII), and i n f l e x e d arm bar hang (Table XVIII) were s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .01 l e v e l . In grade three the t h i g h g i r t h was s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .01 l e v e l . For the same group standings broad jump and s h u t t l e run (Table XVII) were s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .01 and .05 l e v e l s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . 68 Conclusion In the Purpose of the Study f i v e hypotheses, presented as questions, were asked which define the problems investigated. The answers to these questions are: Hypothesis I: Do children, of the same grade, who p a r t i -cipate i n an accelerated programme of physical education show greater strength than children who participate- i n a regular physical education programme? In grade one, the experimental group shoved greater strength i n both l e f t and r i g h t grips strength and flexed arm bar hang. The largest difference occurred i n l e f t grip, t = 1.69, but i t was not s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y . In grade three, the control group showed greater strength i n a l l three measurements. The differences, however, were quite small. In grade four, the control group i n r i g h t grip and flexed arm bar hang were superior, and i n l e f t grip the experi-mental group showed greater strength. The differences i n a l l three grades, with the exception of l e f t g r i p for grade one experimental group, were very small and warrant no special appraisal. Hypothesis I I : Do children, of the same grade, who p a r t i -cipate ,' i n the two d i f f e r e n t programmes of physical education d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n anthropometrical measurement? 69 Grade one experimental group was t a l l e r , h e a v i e r , and had g r e a t e r lung c a p a c i t y than the c o n t r o l group. The l a r g e s t d i f f e r e n c e o c c u r r e d i n lung c a p a c i t y , t - 1,80, but i t was not s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y . In arm and t h i g h g i r t h s the experimental group was a l s o g r e a t e r , but the d i f f e r e n c e s were q u i t e i n s i g n i f i c a n t . In grade three, c o n t r a r y to the o b s e r v a t i o n s made f o r grade one, the c h i l d r e n were t a l l e r , h e a v i e r , and had g r e a t e r lung c a p a c i t y i n the c o n t r o l group. The d i f f e r e n c e s i n weight, t = 1.87, and lung c a p a c i t y , t = 1.86, were q u i t e l a r g e b ut not s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y . The measurements o f arm and t h i g h g i r t h s were a l s o g r e a t e r f o r the c o n t r o l group. The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h i g h g i r t h was s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .05 l e v e l (t = 2.66) . Grade fo u r experimental group, as grade one, was t a l l e r , h e a v i e r , and had g r e a t e r lung c a p a c i t y . Again, the l a r g e s t d i f f e r e n c e o c c u r r e d i n lung c a p a c i t y , t - 1.13, but i t was not s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y . H ypothesis I I I : Do c h i l d r e n who p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c c e l e r a t e d programme score h i g h e r on the motor a b i l i t y and a g i l i t y t e s t s i n comparison to c h i l d r e n who p a r t i c i p a t e - i n the r e g u l a r programme? In a l l t h r e e grades the c o n t r o l groups scored h i g h e r i n the s h u t t l e run. The l a r g e s t d i f f e r e n c e o c c u r r e d i n grade 70 f o u r (t - 1.03), which was not s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y . The experimental group, on the o t h e r hand, achieved h i g h e r r e s u l t s i n s t a n d i n g broad jump. The d i f f e r e n c e s , however, were q u i t e s m a l l . Hypothesis IV; I f c h i l d r e n o f the a c c e l e r a t e d programme achieved a g r e a t e r t o t a l a p p r a i s a l , d i d they a l s o have g r e a t e r s k e l e t a l m a t u r i t y ? C h i l d r e n of the experimental groups i n a l l t h r e e grades were s k e l e t a l l y more mature, although n e i t h e r of the d i f f e r e n c e s were s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y . I t might be i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the same c h i l d r e n were a l s o o l d e r when t h e i r c h r o n o l o g i c a l ages were c o n s i d e r e d . However, no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s o c c u r r e d between c h r o n o l o g i c a l and s k e l e t a l age, the l a r g e s t b e i n g .69 i n grade t h r e e experimental group which was j u s t below the .05 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e . With the e x c e p t i o n of grade three, the experimental groups i n grades one and f o u r i n d i c a t e d h i g h e r achievements. However, the d i f f e r e n c e s were r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t . With the above i n d i c a t i o n s i n mind, i t may be s t a t e d t h a t the two groups were q u i t e homogeneous i n a l l the t e s t items. The s l i g h t d i f f e r e n c e s i n f a v o r o f the experimental groups may be a t t r i b u t e d to t h e i r more advanced s k e l e t a l and c h r o n o l o g i c a l ages. T h i s i s not the. case f o r grade three c o n t r o l group c h i l d r e n , who were younger both s k e l e t a l l y and c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y . 71 Hypothesis V: Do c h i l d r e n , who p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c c e l e r a t e d programme, show s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n t h e i r t e s t s cores from the i n i t i a l t o the f i n a l t e s t ? <-A l l t h r e e grades showed improvements i n a l l t e s t items. Improvements beyond the .01 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e were shown i n t h i g h g i r t h f o r grade three (t = 3.20); i n s t a n d i n g •broad jump f o r -grade three (t = 7.78); i n s t a n d i n g broad jump f o r grade fo u r (t = 10.29); i n f l e x e d arm hang f o r grade four (t = 3.23). Improvement beyond the .05 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e was shown i n s h u t t l e run (t =-.2.89) f o r grade t h r e e . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n shows o n l y a m a r g i n a l d i f f e r e n c e between the c o n t r o l and experimental groups, i n f a v o r of the l a t t e r . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e , however, cannot be c o n s i d e r e d beyond the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s study. However, t h i s i s not to deny the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a more i n t e n s i v e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme, such as a d m i n i s t e r e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r to the experimental groups, may enhance the p h y s i c a l and motor development o f c h i l d r e n . I t seems t h a t such a programme, on a long-term b a s i s , can c o n t r i b u t e to the improvement o f the p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t y of c h i l d r e n . F u r t h e r recommendations i n view of the r e s u l t s o f t h i s study may be the e x t e n s i o n of the experimental p e r i o d to at l e a s t one s c h o o l year. The c o n t r o l groups' programme should be monitored to assure a t r u e comparison of the a c t i v i t i e s . A 72 f u r t h e r i n q u i r y i s needed i n elementary s c h o o l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programmes, and a p o s s i b l e r e v i s i o n o f the c u r r i c u l u m to meet the p h y s i c a l developmental needs of the growing c h i l d . BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, F.A., Linde, L.L. and Miyake, H., The P h y s i c a l Working C a p a c i t y of Normal School C h i l d r e n . P e d i a t r i c s 28:55-64, J u l y , 1961. Asmussen, E., and Heebol-Nielson, K., A Dimensional A n a l y s i s o f P h y s i c a l Performance and Growth i n Boys, J . A p p l .  P h y s i o l . , 6:585-592, 1955. Baldwin, B.T., Anthropometric Measurements. (In) Terman, L.M., G e n e t i c S t u d i e s o f Genius, V. 1., Mental and P h y s i c a l T r a i t s o f a Thousand G i f t e d C h i l d r e n . S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1926. Baldwin, B.T., The P h y s i c a l Growth o f C h i l d r e n from B i r t h to M a t u r i t y . Univ. Iowa Stud., Stud, i n C h i l d Welfare, 1:1, 1921, p. 411. Bayer, L.M., Bayley, N., Growth D i a g n o s i s , Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago Press, 1959. Bookwalter, -K.W., G r i p - S t r e n g t h Norms f o r Males, The Research  Q u a r t e r l y , V. 21, October 1950, pp. 249-273. Carpenter, A., The Measurement o f General Motor C a p a c i t y and General Motor A b i l i t y i n the F i r s t Three Grades, The  Research Q u a r t e r l y , V. 13, No. 4, December 1942. Carpenter, A., T e s t s o f Motor E d u c a b i l i t y f o r the F i r s t Three Grades. C h i l d Development, 4:293-299, 1940. Carpenter, A., The Measurement o f General Motor C a p a c i t y and General Motor A b i l i t y i n the F i r s t Three Grades, The  Research Q u a r t e r l y , V.13, No.4, December 1942, pp. 444-465. Cl a r k e , H.H., H a r r i s o n , J.C.E., D i f f e r e n c e s i n P h y s i c a l and Motor T r a i t s Between Boys of Advanced, Normal, and Retarded M a t u r i t y , The Research Q u a r t e r l y , V.33, No.l, March 1962, pp. 13-25. Cl a r k e , H.H., Peterson, K.H., C o n t r a s t of M a t u r a t i o n a l , S t r u c -t u r a l , and S t r e n g t h C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of A t h l e t e s and Non-A t h l e t e s 10 - 15 Years of Age, The Research Q u a r t e r l y , V.32, No.2, May 196.1, pp. 163-176. 74 C l a r k e , H.H., Wickens, J.S., M a t u r i t y , S t r u c t u r a l , Strength, and Motor A b i l i t y Growth Curves o f Boys 9 to 15 Years of Age, The Research Q u a r t e r l y , V.33, No. 1, March 1962. Cl a r k e , H. H a r r i s o n , A p p l i c a t i o n o f Measurement to H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., 1959 ( t h i r d e d i t i o n ) . Crampton, C.W., P h y s i o l o g i c a l Age - A Fundamental P r i n c i p l e . C h i l d Development, 15:3-47, 1944. Cumming, G.R., and Cumming, P.M., Working C a p a c i t y o f Normal C h i l d r e n T.es.ted on a B i c y c l e Ergometer. Can. Med. Assoc.  J . , February 16, 1963, V. 88:351-355. Cumming, G.R. and Danzinger, R., B i c y c l e Ergometer S t u d i e s i n C h i l d r e n . P e d i a t r i c s , 32:202-208, August, 1963. Cureton, T.K., A n a l y s i s . o f V i t a l C a p a c i t y as a T e s t o f C o n d i t i o n f o r High School Boys, The Research Q u a r t e r l y , V.7, No.4, December 1936, pp. 80-92. DeLotto, M., The E f f e c t s of C o m p e t i t i v e A t h l e t i c s on the Growth and Development o f Pre-Pubescent Boys, D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a -t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon, 1954. E r i c k s o n , L., Simonson, E., T a y l o r , H.L., Alexander, H. and Keys, A., The Energy Cost o f H o r i z o n t a l and Grade Walking on the Motor-Driven T r e a d m i l l , American J o u r n a l o f  P h y s i o l o g y , 145:391-401, 1946. Espenschade, A., Development o f Motor C o o r d i n a t i o n i n Boys and G i r l s , The Research Q u a r t e r l y , V.18, No.l, March 1947, pp. 31-44. F a i t , H., An A n a l y t i c a l Study o f the E f f e c t s o f Competitive A t h l e t i c s upon J u n i o r High School Boys, Microcarded D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa, 1951. Ga l l a g h e r , J.R., The S t a t i c and Dynamic P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s o f A d o l e s c e n t s . J o u r n a l o f P e d i a t r i c s , 24:81, 1944. Gates, A.J., The Nature and E d u c a t i o n a l S i g n i f i c a n c e o f P h y s i c a l S t a t u s and o f Mental, P h y s i o l o g i c a l , S o c i a l and Emotional M a t u r i t y . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 15: 1924. 75 Govatos, L.A., Relationships and .Age Differences i n Growth Measures and Motor S k i l l s , Child Development, V.30, 1959. Greulich, W.W., Skeletal Status and Physical Growth, Dynamics  of the Growth Process, N.J., Princeton University Press, 1950. Greulich, W.W., Pyle, S.I., Radiographic Atlas of Skeletal  Development of the Hand and Wrist, Stanford University Press, 1959. Hebbelink, D.M., Exercise Tolerance of 6 - 10 Years Old Children and the Development of Physical Performance Capacity, G.ymnasion, III, 1966. Heinlein, J.H., A Study of D e x t r a l i t y i n Children. Ped. Sem.  and J. Genet. Psychol., 36:91-119, 1929. Hindraarch, R.G., Significance of Physique, Maturational, Body . Size, Strength, Motor A b i l i t y , and Reaction Time Charac-t e r i s t i c s of Eight Year Old Boys, Microcarded Doctoral Dissertation, University of Oregon, 1962. Humphrey, J.H., Jones, E., Haverstick, M.J., Readings i n Physical Education for the Elementary School, (rev. ed.), Palo A l t o : The National Press, .1965. Jenkins, L.M., A Comparative Study of Motor Achievements of Children of Five, Six, and Seven Years of Age, New York, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1930. Johnson, B., Mental Growth of Children i n Relation to the Rate of Growth i n Bodily Development: A Report of the Bureau of Educational Experiments, New York C i t y : E.P. Dutton, 1925. Kane, R.J., Meredith, H.V., A b i l i t y i n the Standing Broad Jump of Elementary School Children 7, 9, and 11 Years of Age, The Research Quarterly, V.23, No.2, May 1952, pp. 198-208. K i n t i s , P.F., Patterns of Growth i n Strength of Elementary School Boys. Microcarded Thesis (M.S.), University of Wisconsin, 1953. Krogman, W.M., Factors of Physical Growth of Children as they may apply to Physical Education, American. As,s.o.ci.a,ti.o,n> for  Health, Physical Education, and Recreation Proceedings, 1954, p. 60." ' 76 Martin, Gordon E., Muscular Strength and Muscular Symmetry i n Human Being, American Journal of Physiology, :67-73, May, 1918. Meredith, H.V., The Rhythm of Physical Growth: A Study of Eighteen Anthropometric Measurements on Iowa C i t y White Males Ranging i n Age Between B i r t h and Eighteen Years. Univ. Iowa Stud., Stud, i n Child Welfare, 11:3, 1935, p. 128. Metheny, E., Breathing Capacity and Grip Strength of Pre-school Children. Univ. Iowa Stud., Stud, i n Child Welfare, 18:2, 1941, p. 207. M i l l e r , A.G., Whitcomb, V., Physical Education i n the Elemen- tary School Curriculum, New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1957. McNeely, S.A., Schneider, E., Physical Education i n , the School Child's Day, Washington, Government Pr i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1950. McCloy, C.H., Tests and Measurements i n Health and Physical Education. Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 195S, New York. McCloy, C.H., Young, N.D., Tests and Measurements i n Health and Physical Education, New York, Appleton-Century-Crof'ts, Inc., 1954 (third edition) pp. 384-395. McCloy, C.H., The Influence of Chronological Age on Motor Performance, The Research Quarterly, V.6, No.2, May 1935, pp. 61-64. Nielson, N.P., Van Hagen, W., Physical Education for Elementary  Schools. A.So Barnes and Co., New York, 1954. Orban, W.A.R., Bailey, D.A. and Bolonchuk, W., Analysis of Selected Cardio-Pulmonary Variables of Young Boys i n An "All-Out Exercise". Unpublished paper. Patterson, D.G., Physique and I n t e l l e c t . New York, Appleton-Century-Crof ts, Inc., 1930. Randall, M.W., Waine, W.K., Objectives of the Physical Education  Lesson, London: G. B e l l and Sons Ltd., 1960. Rarick, G.L., Exercise and Growth, Science and Medicine of Exer- cis e and Sport, New York, Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1960, p. 441. 77 R a r i c k , G.L., Oyster, N., P h y s i c a l M a t u r i t y , Muscular S t r e n g t h and Motor Performance of Young School-Age Boys, The  Research Q u a r t e r l y , V.35, No.4; December 1964, pp. 523-531. R a r i c k , G.L., Motor Development During Infancy and Childhood, C o l l e g e P r i n t i n g and Typing Co., Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, 1961. Rowe, F.A., Growth Comparison of A t h l e t e s and Non-Athletes, The Research Q u a r t e r l y , V.4, 1933, p. 108. Sargent, D.A., S t r e n g t h T e s t s and The Strong Men of Harvard, American P h y s i o l o g i c a l Education Review, 11:108. S e i l s , L.G., The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Measures o f P h y s i c a l Growth and Gross Motor Performance o f Primary-Grade School C h i l d r e n , The Research Q u a r t e r l y , V.22, No.2, May 1951, pp. 244-260. Simmons, K., G r e u l i c h , W.W., Menarchal Age and the Height, Weight and S k e l e t a l Age o f G i r l s , Age 7 - 1 7 Years, J o u r n a l of P e d i a t r i c s , V.22, 1943, pp. 518-548. S i l l s , F.D., Anthropometry i n R e l a t i o n to P h y s i c a l Performance, Science and Medicine of E x e r c i s e and Sports, New York, Harper & B r o t h e r s P u b l i s h e r s , 1960, pp. 40-53. Sjttstrand, T., A c t a . Med. Scand. (Suppl. 196), 128:687, 1947. Todd, T.W., A t l a s o f S k e l e t a l Maturation, S t . L o u i s , C.V. Mosby Co., 1937. Van Hagen, W., Dexter, G., W i l l i a m s , J.F., P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n  i n the Elementary School, Sacramento, C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1951, ( t h i r d p r i n t i n g ) . Vannier, M., F o s t e r , M., Teaching P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n Elemen- t a r y Schools, T h i r d E d i t i o n , P h i l a d e l p h i a . W.B. Saunders Company, 1963. Wahlund, H., Determination of the P h y s i c a l Working C a p a c i t y , A c t a . Med. Scand. (Suppl. 215), 132:74, 1948. W h i t t l e , H.D., E f f e c t s of Elementary School P h y s i c a l Education upon Aspects o f P h y s i c a l , Motor, and P e r s o n a l i t y Develop-ment, The Research Q u a r t e r l y , V.32, No.2, May 1962, pp. 249-260. 78 Williams, J.F., Brownell, C.L., The Administration of Health  and Physical Education, Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1947 ( t h i r d e d i t i o n ) . APPENDIX A ACCELERATED PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME REGULAR PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME 80 I. ACCELERATED PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME This programme of physical'education was designed and taught by the investigator to the experimental groups. Each class received three forty minutes of i n s t r u c t i o n every week. The aims and purposes, development c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and needs.of children, and the s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s of the programme of the experimental groups are outlined below. 1. AIMS AND PURPOSES i . Development of correct postural habits. i i . . Development of basic muscular strength and co-ordination. i i i . Development of c r e a t i v i t y i n motion through enjoyable rhythmic a c t i v i t i e s . i v . Development of s u f f i c i e n t s k i l l i n motor movement to assure enjoyment of a c t i v i t i e s . v. Development of intere s t to sustain optimum physical, mental, s o c i a l , and emotional well-being. v i . Development of emotional s t a b i l i t y through frequent and vigorous p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s within the capacity of the i n d i v i d u a l . v i i . Development of courage, i n i t i a t i v e , alertness, s e l f -control and co-operation i n group a c t i v i t i e s and i n d i -vidual games. v i i i . Develop movement accuracy, e s p e c i a l l y with ages 9 and 10. i x . Develop awareness of s e l f and independence. 81 CHILD GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT, CHARACTERISTICS AND NEEDS A. Age 5, 6 and 7 Years i . Boundless energy expressed through running, jumping, hanging, throwing., kicking and catching. i i . Many children do not have s k i l l or confidence; they fi n d their s a t i s f a c t i o n i n less demanding a c t i v i -t i e s . S k i l l confidence i s developed by increasing-l y demanding and progressively complicated a c t i v i t i e s . i i i . Physical growth not as rapid as before entering school, however, i t i s continuous. An average gain of two to -three inches i n height and three to six pounds i n weight per year. i v . Muscular development i s r e l a t i v e l y uneven; b ig muscles being more developed than small ones. v. The play patterns of this age group are exuberant, experimental, dramatic and make believe. I t r e f l e c t s c e r t a i n ideas, roles of parents or adults. v i . There i s an expressed drive to be active. v i i . Complicated, long plays confuse and i r r i t a t e them. v i i i . Being f i r s t or best i s the desire of a l l . Small groups minimize c o n f l i c t . i x . Short attention span and an int e r e s t i n multitude of a c t i v i t i e s . Continuous practice i s unappealing. 82 x. Fatigue i s an important factor to be r e a l i z e d . Children often need rest while engaged i n vigorous a c t i v i t i e s . Too much s i t t i n g , confinement w i l l . also cause fatigue; and the best c o u n t e r - i r r i t a n t to fatigue of this sort i s vigorous a c t i v i t y . B. Age 8, 9 and 10 Years i . Growth i n height and weight are normally slow and steady at thi s age. There w i l l be a lag just p r i o r to pubescence. i i . G i r l s have a spurt of growth at about 10 years. They attain s k e l e t a l maturity before boys. i i i . Differences i n i n d i v i d u a l o s s i f i c a t i o n are very wide - as much as 5 to 6 years at a given age. Malnutrition or serious i l l n e s s may delay o s s i f i -cation. i v . Mental maturity and s o c i a l adjustment have some co r r e l a t i o n with sk e l e t a l maturity. v. The small muscles are developing. Manipulative s k i l l i s increasing. v i . Muscular co-ordinations are good. The hand-eye co-ordinations are continuing to develop. v i i . Posture may be poor, not even as good as during the f i r s t year of school. The spindly type of body i s most in c l i n e d to drop. In some cases, 83 poor posture may be symptomatic. Its presence may indicate a condition needing attention; chronic i n f e c t i o n , fatigue, malnutrition, orthopedic d i f f i c u l t i e s , emotional, mal-adjustment, etc. v i i i . The heart develops i n size less r a p i d l y than the body. Its work i s increased. Damage to the heart i s prevented during play because the skele-t a l muscles fatigue f i r s t . Taxing the heart should be avoided by seeing that children do not compete with those who are stronger or more mature p h y s i c a l l y . i x . The lungs are not f u l l y developed. x. At the end of this period, the eyes function as well as those of adults. Myopia (near-sightedness) may develop around the age of 8 years. Many eye defects can be remedied by glasses. x i . By the end of this period the c h i l d w i l l have had many of the contagious diseases of childhood or w i l l have b u i l t up immunity to them. x i i . Internal changes i n glands and body structure are taking place. There i s a wide range i n the begin-ning of sexual maturity. The period of rapid growth comes e a r l i e r for g i r l s than for boys, but 84 i t l a s t s l onger i n boys. In boys, the b e g i n n i n g o f the puberty c y c l e o c c u r s between 10 - 13 years of age and ends between 14 - 18% years of age. In g i r l s , m e n struation appears between the ages o f 10 - 16, w i t h the average at 13 y e a r s . x i i i . The c h i l d o f 8, 9 or 10 years i s s t u r d y though long-legged and rangy i n appearance. His health, i s u s u a l l y good and he has boundless energy. He seems h u r r i e d and u n t i d y . He i s prone to a c c i -d e n t s . x i v . He now has a wider range of i n t e r e s t s and a lo n g e r a t t e n t i o n span. H i s g o a l s are immediate and c o n s i s t e n c y i s demanded, as i s i n d i v i d u a l j u s t i c e . xv. He i s l e a r n i n g to co-operate b e t t e r . He p l a y s i n self-made groups over a longer p e r i o d . He i s b e g i n n i n g to be i n t e r e s t e d i n teams and w i l l abide by group d e c i s i o n s . x v i . The c h i l d d e s i r e s p r e s t i g e and may seek i t through s i z e , b o a s t i n g and r i v a l r y . x v i i . The rhythmic sense i s much improved. x v i i i . Sex antagonism may be acute. Sex i n t e r e s t i s not d e t a i l e d . Sexual "modesty" appears. x i x . The a p p e t i t e i s good. The c h i l d i s i n t e r e s t e d 85 i n e a t i n g . There now are fewer food p r e f e r e n c e s and r e f u s a l s . xx. He i s g e n e r a l l y r e l i a b l e about f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c -t i o n s i n household j o b s . He can take care of h i s own room. x x i . He can take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s own c l o t h i n g . •He i s now more aware o f h i s p e r s o n a l hygiene. x x i i . The c h i l d needs an assured p o s i t i o n i n a s o c i a l group. Membership i n a gang or s e c r e t c l u b f i l l s t h i s need. At t h i s p e r i o d c h i l d r e n need a c e r t a i n amount of freedom i n s e t t i n g up t h e i r own standards and r u l e s , y e t s t r o n g l y d e s i r e under-s t a n d i n g and sympathy from a d u l t s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f a m i l y a f f a i r s i s important. x x i i i . There must be f u l l o p p o r t u n i t y to develop body c o n t r o l , s t r e n g t h and endurance. The c h i l d of 8, 9 or 10 y ears needs a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g use o f the whole body; s t u n t s , throwing and c a t c h i n g , running, " i t " games w i t h t h e i r accompanying n o i s e , e t c . Seasonal p l a y i s important: k i t e s , tops, marbles, e t c . x x i v . He needs o r g a n i z e d games f o r team p l a y . He i s w i l l i n g to p r a c t i c e i n order to become adequate i n s k i l l s f o r games. He gains s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e by 86 e x c e l l i n g i n some one t h i n g . xxv. I t i s as important f o r c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n good f o l l o w e r s h i p as i t i s f o r them to l e a r n good l e a d e r s h i p . x x v i . Encouragement to e x e r c i s e c r e a t i v i t y i n rhythms should be g i v e n . x x v i i . . A c t i v i t i e s such as p l a y i n g i n caves and brooks, g a t h e r i n g nuts, making campfires, are needed. B i c y c l e s and skates are enjoyed. x x v i i i . The c h i l d should s l e e p about 11 hours. He u s u a l l y does not get enough r e s t . A q u i e t p e r i o d i n the afternoon, n o t . n e c e s s a r i l y i n bed, may prevent o v e r - f a t i g u e . A constant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of growth i s change. Each person passes through a channel o f growth w i t h the same stages i n ve r y much the same o r d e r . The development from i n f a n c y to any g i v e n stage w i l l not o n l y be prominant i n p h y s i c a l and mental growth, but a l s o i n an ever i n c r e a s -i n g t r e n d toward b a s i c needs. Some b a s i c needs c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c o f the age groups above are: i . The need f o r a c t i v i t y . i i . The need f o r b e l o n g i n g to the group, the p r o j e c t t h a t i s important to him, and people he wants to p l e a s e . 87 i i i . The need f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g s u c c e s s f u l l y . i v . The need f o r s t a t u s expres'sed by b e i n g accepted by the people important to him, f o r what he i s and what he has to c o n t r i b u t e . v. The need f o r s e c u r i t y ; i n belonging, p a r t i c i p a t i n g and r e c o g n i t i o n . BASIC MOVEMENTS TO BE STRESSED Walking K i c k i n g C a t c h i n g Running Jumping B a t t i n g S t r e t c h i n g Leaping Throwing P u l l i n g Hopping Bouncing Pushing Bending Swinging Climbing Turning t w i s t i n g Phases o f A c t i v i t y : (1) Free movement; (2) Body mechanics; and (3) Motor a b i l i t y . A c t i v i t i e s w i l l be centered around these three phases, each phase r e c e i v i n g approximately equal p r o p o r t i o n o f time o v e r a l l , w i t h one p a r t i c u l a r phase b e i n g emphasized per p e r i o d , i n a d d i t i o n to a c t i v i t y i n the remaining two phases. SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES (References: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) Grade 1 A. Rhythm and Movement E x p l o r a t i o n (1) Walk to music or counting; (2) Skip to music or counting; and (3) G a l l o p to music or c o u n t i n g . 88 B. Games of Low O r g a n i z a t i o n (1) Duek, duck, goose; (2) Automobiles; (3) C r o s s i n g the brook; (4) Spider and f l i e s ; (5) Foxes and;geese; (6) C i r c l e b a l l ; (7) C a l l b a l l ; (8) K i c k and chase; (9) T a r g e t t o s s ; and (10) R e l a y s : u s i n g s k i l l s and s t u n t s , e.g. r a b b i t hop, lame puppy walk, e t c . C. Stunts, Tumbling (1) Log r o l l ; (2) Forward r o l l p r o g r e s s i o n ; (3) Push up from k n e e l i n g ; (4) Chin up on the rope; (5) Jumping over o b j e c t ; (6) Climbing over o b j e c t , l a d d e r c l i m b i n g ; (7) B a l a n c i n g , t i g h t rope walk; (8) Elephant amble; (9) Duck waddle; and (10) Rabbit jump. Grade I I I A. Rhythmic A c t i v i t i e s (1) S k i p p i n g : s i n g l e - without rope; doubles - w i t h o u t rope; (2) Marching: s i n g l e f i l e ; double f i l e ; and (3) Simple c a l i s t h e n i c s . B. Games o f Low O r g a n i z a t i o n (1) Tag - Chinese; (2) Cat and b i r d s ; (3) Red l i g h t ; (4) Red r o v e r ; (5) B i r d c a t c h e r ; (6) K i c k and chase; (7) T a r g e t t o s s and h i t ; (3) P a r t n e r ' s b a l l ; (9) W a l l b a l l ; (10) Shower b a l l ; and (11) B a l l t o s s . C. Team Games (1) L i n e s o c c e r ; (2) B a s i c soccer fundamentals: heading, 89 k i c k i n g , t r a p p i n g , d r i b b l e , p a s s i n g ; and (3) F l o o r hockey. D. Relays (1) Using s k i l l s l e a r n e d w i t h b a l l s ; and (2) Running i n v o l v e s s t o p p i n g and r e v e r s i n g d i r e c t i o n . E. Stunts, Tumbling (L). C o f f e e g r i n d e r ; (.2.) Crab walk; (3) F r e e s t a n d i n g ; (4) Kangaroo hop; (5) Log r o l l ; (6) Monkey run; (7) Rabbit jump; (8) Forward r o l l p r o g r e s s i o n ; (9) Bench and balance beam walk; (10) Wheelbarrow; (11) Rooster f i g h t ; (12) Cartwheel p r o g r e s s i o n ; (13) Backward r o l l p r o g r e s s i o n ; (14) Shoulder r e s t ; (15) The swan; and (16) Rope c l i m b i n g . Grade IV A. Rhythmic A c t i v i t i e s (1) March t o music, or beat; (2.) Run to music or beat; (3) Rhythmic limbo; and (4) S k i p p i n g rope. B. Games of Low O r g a n i z a t i o n (1) Tag; (2) Chain tag; (3) Dodge b a l l ; and (4) B a l l r a c e . C. Relays (1) Goat b u t t i n g ; (2) Skip rope r e l a y ; (3) S t r i d e b a l l ; (4) Soccer r e l a y v a r i a t i o n s ; (5) Zigzag- r e l a y ; (6) O b s t a c l e r e l a y ; (7) Leap f r o g r e l a y ; (8) Paddle t e n n i s 90 r e l a y ; and (9) Bean bag balance r e l a y . Team Games (1) Soccer fundamentals; (2) Indoor s o c c e r ; (3) Modi-f i e d v o l l e y b a l l (Nev/comb) ; and (4) B a s k e t b a l l p a s s i n g , d r i b b l i n g , s h o o t i n g . Track and F i e l d (1) Standing broad jump; (2) S o f t b a l l throw; and (3) Running h i g h jump. Stunts, Tumbling, Apparatus (1) Chinning; (2) Rope c l i m b i n g ; (3) Push up; (4) Pyramids; (5) Cartwheel; (6) Forv/ard and backward r o l l (7) Headstand; (8) Balance beam; (9) P-bars; and (10) Dive over o b j e c t . 91 REFERENCES 1. M i l l e r , A.G., Whitcomb, V., P h y s i c a l Education i n the Elementary School Curriculum, New York: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1957. 2. Vannier, M., F o s t e r , M., Teaching P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n Elementary Schools, T h i r d E d i t i o n , P h i l a d e l p h i a : W.B. Saunders Company, 1963. 3. R a n d a l l , M.W., Waine, W.K., O b j e c t i v e s o f the P h y s i c a l - E d u c a t i o n Lesson. London: G. B e l l and Sons, L t d . , 1960. 4. Humphrey, J.H., Jones, E., H a v e r s t i c k , M.J., Readings i n P h y s i c a l Education f o r the Elementary S c h o o l , ( r e v . ed.) P a l o A l t o : The N a t i o n a l Press, 1965. 5. N i e l s o n , N.P., Van Hagen, W., P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r Elementary Schools, A.S. Barnes Co., New York, 1954. 92 I I . REGULAR PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME T h i s p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme i s o u t l i n e d i n the B r i t i s h Columbia P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m . The programme was ad m i n i s t e r e d by the r e g u l a r classroom teachers t o the c o n t r o l groups. Each c l a s s r e c e i v e d two f o r t y minutes o f i n -s t r u c t i o n per week, except grade f o u r , which had th r e e f o r t y minutes of i n s t r u c t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g i s i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d from i n t e r v i e w i n g the classroom teacher o f each c o n t r o l group. T h e ~ i n v e s t i g a t o r was concerned w i t h the g e n e r a l programme o f a c t i v i t i e s and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t r a i n i n g o f the classroom t e a c h e r . Grade 1 Teacher: "A" T r a i n i n g : Elementary Teacher C e r t i f i c a t e , one course i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and methods. A c t i v i t i e s : - warm up c a l i s t h e n i c s - games - r e l a y s - apparatus: benches, ropes., mats, a g i l i t y - f r e e p l a y : w i t h t h e use of b a l l s , ropes, hoops, beanbags - c r e a t i v e p l a y : act out people, animals, o b j e c t s . Method,: d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t d i v i d e d e q u a l l y 93 Grade I I I i Teacher: "B" T r a i n i n g : Elementary Teacher C e r t i f i c a t e , one course i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and methods. A c t i v i t i e s : - running, jumping, s k i p p i n g - a g i l i t y equipment: c l i m b i n g , swinging, hanging, balance benches - b a l l s , beanbags: c o n t r o l and s k i l l , bouncing, c a t c h i n g , throwing - s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y i n v o l v i n g arms and trunks Method: mainly i n d i r e c t Grade IV ( g i r l s ) Teacher: "C" " T r a i n i n g : f o u r ••years u n i v e r s i t y w i t h p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n minor A c t i v i t i e s : - g e n e r a l : b a l l s , hoops, beanbags., ropes - s p e c i f i c : gymnastics ( l a r g e apparatus), tumbling, b a s k e t b a l l s k i l l s , v o l l e y b a l l s k i l l s (Newcomb), s o f t b a l l s k i l l s , f o l k and square dancing, rhythms - o t h e r s : dodge b a l l , t r a c k and f i e l d Method: mainly i n d i r e c t Grade IV (boys) Teacher: "D" T r a i n i n g : Bachelor o f P h y s i c a l Education Degree A c t i v i t i e s : - gymnastics: apparatus and mat tumbling - hand-eye and motor c o - o r d i n a t i o n w i t h rhythm b a l l s - soccer, dodge b a l l , s q u a r e b a l l , f l o o r hockey d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t d i v i d e d e q u a l l y APPENDIX B SKELETAL AGE ASSESSMENT FORM SAMPLE X-RAY HUMAN PERFORMANCE LABORATORY SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Skeletal Age of Individual Bones Distal End. of Radius Distal End of Ulna Capitate Hamate Triquetral Lunate Navicular Greater Multangular Lesser Multangular Metacarpal I Metacarpal II Metacarpal III Metacarpal IV Metacarpal V Proximal Phalanx I Proximal Phalanx II Proximal Phalanx III Proximal Phalanx IV Proximal Phalanx V Middle Phalanx II Middle Phalanx III Middle Phalanx IV Middle Phalanx V Distal Phalanx I l i s t a l Phalanx II Distal Phalanx III Distal Phalanx IV Distal Phalanx V Pisiform Adductor Sesamoid of Thumb Flexor Sesamoid of Thumb HTJA3H YTIESOVIMU . 3 . B ,B 5 1 3 V U 0 3 H A V V*** ^ ' :TM3ITAq :3TAQ 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0077266/manifest

Comment

Related Items