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Changes in body fat, physical working capacity and personality of obese women undergoing training Debienne, Raymond Louis 1968

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CHANGES IN BODY FAT, PHYSICAL WORKING CAPACITY AND PERSONALITY OF OBESE WOMEN UNDERGOING TRAINING by RAYMOND LOUIS DEBIENNE B.A. (P.E.) The University of Saskatchewan, 1964 B.Ed. The University of Saskatchewan, 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the School of PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard: THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July, 1968 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n . p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and S t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h.iis r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to express his sincere appreciation to Dr. S. Brown for h i s guidance, co-operation and consideration throughout the study, and to Dr. A. Cairns, Dr. R. Hindmarch and Mr. A. Bakogeorge, for serving as committee members. The author further wishes to thank Miss R. Stadfeld for her technical assistance and a l l the subjects for the i r co-operation. ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes i n work capacity, personality and body fat i n obese women undergoing t r a i n i n g . Twenty-six subjects from the Vancouver Y.W.C.A. "180-Plus Club" v o l u n t a r i l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study. The subjects were tested before and after a nine month program. The pretraining and posttraining test environments and test procedures were standardized for a l l subjects. The experimental group met once per week, u n t i l halfway through the program, and then met twice a week. The program consisted of a gymnasium and pool exercise session. A control group of eleven subjects was used to help e s t a b l i s h the r e l i a b i l i t y of the Astrand test of physical work capacity. The following variables were measured as follows: (a) physical work capacity -- Astrand submaximal test, (b) personality -- C a t t e l l ' s Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, Forms A and B, and (c) body f a t -- determination of body density by underwater weighing and the use of Brozek and Keys formula, as well as subcutaneous fat measurements taken at s i x s i t e s . Three groups were formed on the basis of attendance. The re s u l t s of the study show that there was a s l i g h t improve-ment associated with a higher frequency of attendance, however, even the group with the highest frequency of attendance f a i l e d to show any physio-l o g i c a l l y important change i n work capacity or 'percent body f a t 1 . The combined group r e s u l t s showed a departure from the general female adult population for i n t e l l i g e n c e , which was higher than the population mean, and for ego strength, which was lower at pretest. The poorest attenders, Group I, showed evidence of departures from the population i n factors which described them as being happy-go-lucky, absent-minded, casual and undependable. I t i s , therefore, not unexpected that persons with these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would drop out of the program. Groups II and III,with respective higher frequencies of attendance, showed s i g n i f i c a n t changes from pretest to posttest i n factors which indicated that they became more emotionally mature (Group II) and more s e n s i t i v e and composed (Group I I I ) . These would appear to be desirable changes i n view of the Y.W.C.A.'s objectives for psycholo-g i c a l as well as physical changes. On the basis of the findings of t h i s study, i t does not appear that the time, money and e f f o r t required to run the "180-Plus Club" pro-gram can be j u s t i f i e d . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM 1 II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 7 III METHODS AND PROCEDURES 26 IV RESULTS 39 V DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 58 VI SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY 69 APPENDICES A. S t a t i s t i c a l Treatment 78 B. Sample Data Sheets 82 C. Raw Scores 85 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I Correlations of Skinfolds with Density-Women . . . . 12 II Relationship of Skinfold Measurements to Body Density . 13 II I Description of the Female Volunteers. . . . . . . 26 IV Description of Groups I, II and III 27 V Description of the Control Group 29 VI C a t t e l l ' s Description of the Sixteen Personality Factors 35 VII Results of the Analysis of Variance of the Combined Pretest Experimental Scores and Control Group Scores on the Astrand Test 39 VIII Test-Retest R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s Between Tests I and II and II and I I I of the Combined Experimental and Control Pretest Astrand Scores, and Between the Two Posttest Scores 40 IX Results of the Analysis of Variance of A l l Pretest-Posttest Scores for the Astrand Test 41 X Results of the Analysis of Variance of A l l Pretest-Posttest Values of 'Percent Fat" 42 XI Results of the Analysis of Variance of the Group I Pretest-Posttest Astrand Scores 46 TABLE PAGE XII Results of the Analysis of Variance of the Group I Pretest-Posttest 'Percent F a t 1 Values . . . . . 47 XIII Results of the Analysis of Variance of the Group II Pretest-Posttest Astrand Scores 50 XIV Results of the Analysis of Variance of the Group II Pretest-Posttest 'Percent Fat' Values 51 XV Results of the Analysis of Variance of the Group III Pretest-Posttest Astrand Scores 54 XVI Results of the Analysis of Variance of the Group II I Pretest-Posttest 'Percent Fat' Values . . . . 55 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE I Subcutaneous Fat Measurements Being Taken at the Front Thigh 33 II Underwater Weight Being Read While Subject Completely Submerged 33 II I Pretest-Posttest Subcutaneous Fat Measurements . . . 43 IV Pretest-Posttest Personality P r o f i l e s . . . . . . 45 V Pretest-Posttest Subcutaneous Fat Measurements for Group I 48 VI Pretest-Posttest Personality P r o f i l e s of Group I 49 VII Pretest-Posttest Subcutaneous Fat Measurements for Group II 52 VIII Pretest-Posttest Personality P r o f i l e s of Group II . . 53 IX Pretest-Posttest Subcutaneous Fat Measurements for Group I I I 56 X Pretest-Posttest Personality P r o f i l e s of Group I I I . . 57 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM Statement of the Problem The Vancouver Y.W.C.A. offers a va r i e t y of courses to the women of Vancouver. One of the courses offered i s named the "180-Plus Club". This club i s composed of obese women over 180 pounds who enrol v o l u n t a r i l y i n the program. The problem of this study i s concerned with evaluating changes which take place i n women as a r e s u l t of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n this p a r t i c u l a r program. More p r e c i s e l y , the evaluation sought to determine what changes took place i n body f a t , personality and work capacity of a group of female volunteers e n r o l l e d i n the "180-Plus Club" at the Vancouver Y.W.C.A. The group of volunteers which was tested consisted of twenty-six women who met once weekly at the beginning of the program, and then l a t e r , twice weekly. The program, which ran for nine months, consisted of exercise sessions i n the gymnasium and i n the pool, and group counselling sessions. A l l the volunteers were re-tested at the end of nine months even though some stopped attending classes before the program was completed. The amount of body f a t was determined by an underwater weighing method. The Astrand test (1) on the b i c y c l e ergometer was used to measure physical working capacity by adjusting the work load (expressed i n k i l o -pond-meters per minute) i n such a way that the subject reached a steady state heart rate. Forms A and B of C a t t e l l ' s Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire were used to measure personality. 2 D e f i n i t i o n s Obesity - Obesity i s excess fatness, and i n this study, represents i n d i v i d u a l s who have greater than f o r t y per cent body f a t . Body Fat - Body f a t i s that percentage of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s t o t a l weight due to f a t . This i s derived from the Brozek and Keys' equation and the body density as determined by underwater weighing. Personality - Personality represents a l l the main, non-physical, dimensions along which people can d i f f e r , according to basic factor a n a l y t i c research (2). These dimensions are, according to C a t t e l l , sixteen i n number and w i l l be described i n Chapter I I I . Work Capacity - Work capacity represents the a b i l i t y of an i n d i v i -dual to perform prolonged physical work, that i s , the a b i l i t y of the cardio-pulmonary system to take up, transport, and give o f f oxygen to the muscle tissues for the performance of physical work (3). In this study i t i s represented by a subject's heart rate response to a measured work load. Work Load - The work load i s the c a l i b r a t e d f r i c t i o n a l force applied to a f r i c t i o n b e l t which the subject must overcome to continue c y c l i n g at the rate of 50 cycles per minute and i s a product of the r e -sistance and rate. Steady State - Steady state i s the period during which the heart rate and other organic functions have adapted to the work being performed. For the purpose of the Astrand Test, i f the difference between the heart rate readings taken at the end of the f i f t h and s i x t h minutes of exercise did not d i f f e r by more than f i v e beats, the subject was said to have reached a steady state. 3 Kilopond - A kilopond i s the force exerted by g r a v i t a t i o n a l a t t r a c t i o n on a mass of one kilogram. Kilopond Meter - One kilopond meter i s the unit of work per-formed by a force of one kilopond moving i t s point of a p p l i c a t i o n one meter i n the d i r e c t i o n of the force. J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the Problem It has been estimated that twenty per cent of the North American population i s either obese or overweight ( 4 ) . Obesity has been associated with four d i f f e r e n t types of hazards to health (5 ) : (a) changes i n various normal body functions, *' (b) increased r i s k of developing c e r t a i n diseases, (c) detrimental e f f e c t s on established diseases, and (d) adverse psychological reasons. The hazards to health of this condition w i l l vary from i n d i -v i d u al to i n d i v i d u a l and must be viewed from the standpoint of the i n d i -vidual's t o t a l health. While i t has been pointed out that l o s i n g weight i s contra-indicated for some obese persons (6) , the vast majority of obese i n d i v i -duals would be n e f i t from weight reduction. These benefits would be both physical and psychological (7). . Due to the increased awareness of, and concern f o r , the problem of obesity, a number of agencies and groups have made offerings i n various forms which purport to help a l l e v i a t e the problem. These take various forms including special diets and di e t foods, weight reduction machines, exercise regimens, drug c o n t r o l , and s p e c i a l programs i n private hideaways. 4 Some of these programs seem to be b e n e f i c i a l and well founded, while others are not. Recently, some " c l i n i c s " o f f e r i n g weight control assistance, c h i e f l y through the use of drugs, have come under severe c r i t i c i s m i n the United States, ( 8 ) . This study i s not concerned with the type of weight control suggested immediately above, where there are possible detrimental e f f e c t s , but rather with a type of program which has the recognized po t e n t i a l to help obese people lose weight but lacks resources for measuring p r e c i s e l y what happens to the people involved. There are a vast number of agencies which o f f e r weight control programs but make no attempt to determine any-thing but changes i n weight and some body dimensions. This study i s designed to assess q u a n t i t a t i v e l y some changes which might occur as a r e s u l t of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a weight reduction pro-gram i n the Vancouver Y.W.C.A. I t was conducted as a r e s u l t of the ex-pressed concern of the National Y.W.C.A. over the need for evidence of improvements brought about by p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the i r programs. Limitations 1. The subjects fdr.Jthis study are volunteers and therefore do not constitute a random sample. 2. Due to the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of having compulsory attendance, a number of subjects missed many sessions and others stopped attending. 3. In determining body density, residual a i r was not measured d i r e c t l y , but was estimated as being t h i r t y per cent of the measured v i t a l capacity. 5 Delimitations 1. The study was confined to an in v e s t i g a t i o n of changes i n work capacity, personality and body f a t of a group of women enrolled i n the "180-Plus Club" at the Vancouver Y.W.C.A. The tests and measurements selected to determine these changes have been used i n numerous other studies and have proved to be p r a c t i c a l and useful i n assessing the va r i a b l e s . 2. The subjects i n the study are volunteers and the res u l t s of the study cannot be generalized to any group or population beyond the pa r t i c u l a r population i n the study. Assumptions 1. Changes i n heart rates were i n d i c a t i v e of changes i n work capacity, within the context of appropriate r e l i a b i l i t y . 2. Test r e s u l t s were not affected by any pathologic condition of the subjects r e l a t e d or not rela t e d to th e i r obesity. A l l the sub-jec t s were given a medical examination by th e i r own physicians i n order to ensure that the women could do the te s t i n g and exercise programs with-out adverse e f f e c t s . 6 REFERENCES 1. Astrand, P.-O., Work Tests With the B i c y c l e Ergometer, A B Cykel-fabriken Monark, Varberg, Sweden, 1965. 2. C a t t e l l , R. B., Eber, H. W., Handbook for the Sixteen Personality  Factor Questionnaire, I n s t i t u t e for Personality and A b i l i t y Testing, Champaign, I l l i n o i s , 1951, p. 1. 3. Rodahl, K., Astrand, P.-O., Birkhead, W., Hettinger, T., Issekutz, R., Jones, D. M., Weaver, R., "Physical Work Capacity", Archives of Environmental Health, V o l . I I , 1961, pp. 499-510. 4. Walker, H, C., "Obesity -- Its Complications and Sequalae", Archives of Internal Medicine, V o l . 93, 1954, pp. 951 - 966. 5. U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Obesity and Health, ( J . Mayer, ed.), U. S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, 1966, p. 23. 6. Keys, A., "Relative Obesity and Its Health S i g n i f i c a n c e " , Diabetes., V o l . 4, 1955, pp. 447-455. 7. U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, op. c i t . , pp. 59-65, 8. McBee, S., "Diet P i l l s " , L i f e , V o l . 64, Jan. 1968, p. 23. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE This chapter i s divided into sections, each dealing with s p e c i f i c subject matter. The f i r s t sections w i l l present material r e -lated to the various tests selected for t h i s study, while the l a s t section w i l l deal with obesity, physical a c t i v i t y and weight c o n t r o l . A. The Astrand B i c y c l e Ergometer Test This test (1) i s designed to estimate physical work capacity from measurements of heart rate during submaximal work, which are r e -lated to maximal oxygen intake. Rodahl et a l . (2) believe that maximal oxygen intake i s the best measure of performance capacity (physical work capa c i t y ) . His view i s supported by a great many inv e s t i g a t o r s , such as Taylor and Brozek (3) and Wyndham et a l . (4). The Astrand submaximal test consists of pedalling a b i c y c l e ergometer at a set work load for s i x minutes u n t i l the heart rate reaches a previously defined steady s t a t e . Through the a p p l i c a t i o n of a nomo-gram developed by Astrand and Rhyming (5) i n 1954, the prediction of aerobic capacity of i n d i v i d u a l s i s possible. This i s based on the high c o r r e l a t i o n between heart rates measured during steady state submaximal work and the maximal oxygen intake values of a heterogeneous sample. Bengtsson (6) reported that for subjects of 5 to 40 years of age the heart rate increased l i n e a r l y with exercise i n t e n s i t y . At the same time oxygen consumption showed the same r e l a t i o n s h i p to exercise i n t e n s i t y . 8 Borg and Dahlstrom (7), using a b i c y c l e ergometer test with successively increased power l e v e l s and a work duration of 6 minutes at each l e v e l , studied d i f f e r e n t measurements rel a t e d to work capacity on seventy-eight 20-year-old male forest workers who were e n l i s t e d i n the army. The i n t r a - t e s t consistency was assessed by c o r r e l a t i n g the heart rates with each other a f t e r 2, 4 and 6 minute work periods. The highest i n t r a - t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s were found between the pulse rates from the fourth to s i x t h minutes when the work load of 900 kgm per minute. On the f i r s t test this r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was .97 and on the r e -t e s t , .98. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t values for a workload of 600 kpm per minute and at the same times as above were .90 and .94, respect-i v e l y . The c o r r e l a t i o n s for pulse rates at the second and fourth minutes were somewhat lower. The t e s t - r e t e s t correlations for heart rates averaged between .50 and .60 for 600 kilopond meters per minute power lev e l s and between .60 and .70 for the 900 kilopond meters per minute power l e v e l . In 1964 de Vries and Klafs (8) conducted a study of 16 sub-jects i n which they investigated the v a l i d i t y of several submaximal work capacity t e s t s . In doing this they compared predicted values with actual oxygen consumption values determined on the b i c y c l e ergometer. The Sjo-strand t e s t , the Harvard step test and the Astrand test gave s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between the predicted and actual maximal oxygen intake values. The c o r r e l a t i o n for the Astrand test with maximal oxygen consumption, ex-pressed i n l i t r e s per minute, was .736. Astrand (9) found that the oxygen uptake during submaximal work increased l i n e a r l y with work i n t e n s i t y for both males and females. 9 Rowell, et a l . (10) c r i t i c i z e d the use of heart rates at sub-maximal work since pulse rates can vary independently of the oxygen up-take, but d i r e c t l y with the emotional state or degree of excitement, as well as the degree of physical conditioning, elapsed time a f t e r the previous meal, t o t a l c i r c u l a t i n g hemoglobin, the degree-of hydration of the subject, a l t e r a t i o n s i n the ambient temperature and h y d r o s t a t i c a l l y induced changes from prolonged erect posture. B. Body Composition Many techniques have been developed for use i n estimating the composition of the l i v i n g human body. These procedures include chemical, anthropometric, hydrometric and densitometric techniques. The e s s e n t i a l measurement to determine body density i s body volume. Body volume (based on Archimedes' p r i n c i p l e ) can be conveniently determined by the method of hydrostatic weighing. Following Archimedes' p r i n c i p l e the equivalent volume of a body equals i t s weight i n a i r minus i t s weight i n water. Behnke, et a l . (11) proposed the use of this p r i n c i p l e for determining body composition i n 1942 and i t i s now i n common use as a means of determining the amount of f a t i n the human body. In this study by Behnke, et a l , ninety-nine healthy young m i l i t a r y men were tested and i t was discovered that: "(1) s p e c i f i c gravity increased inversely i n r e l a t i o n to weight, and (2) the difference between thoracic and abdominal g i r t h c orrelated with s p e c i f i c gravity, i . e . , as the d i f f e r -e n c e increased, s p e c i f i c gravity increased." 10 Rathbun and Pace (12) i n 1945 described the body as being made up of a nonfat portion and a pure fat portion, each portion having charac-t e r i s t i c f i x e d d e n s i t i e s . They assigned values to these densities and ob-tained a numerical estimation equation for body f a t . They used 1.10 as the density value for the f a t free portion of the body, and 0.9007 as the density of the pure human f a t . In 1953 Keys and Brozek (13) f e l t this equation was not accurate for the reason that when a body changes to become f a t t e r i t does not do so merely by adding f a t to the pre-existing mass. They performed 10 experi-ments on men gaining weight by simple overeating and found that the density of the gained ti s s u e was quite constant with a mean value of 0.9478 grams per c.c. at 37° C. These studies covered gains i n weight from 2.5 k i l o -grams to 21.0 kilograms by men who i n i t i a l l y were from 15 per cent under-weight to 13 per cent overweight. They concluded that for these ranges l i v i n g "obesity t i s s u e " has a s u b s t a n t i a l l y f i x e d density of 0.9478 and i s composed of 62 per cent f a t , 7 per cent c e l l u l a r matter and 31 per cent e x t r a c e l l u l a r f l u i d . The amount of this tissue as an excess (or d e f i c i t ) compared to some standard body could be established from gross density i f the density of a body of standard composition i s f i x e d . The body of t h i s reference man was defined as a 25-year-old whose r e l a t i v e body weight was 100 according to the standard tables used i n the United States. The density of this reference body was obtained from the data of Brozek, et a l . (14) on 25 healthy men and calculated to be 1.0629 grams per c.c. Any change from this reference body was assumed to involve changes i n f a t , c e l l u l a r matter and i n t r a c e l l u l a r water. 11 The problem of the numerical estimation of body fat involves the estimations of the proportions of these three components i n the tissue mass, which represents a deviation from the reference body. The assumption was made that the reference body contained 14 per cent f a t . With this assumption they arrived at the following formula (15): f = 4.201 - 3.813 D C. Measurement of Subcutaneous Fat Measurement of subcutaneous f a t has proved to be a simple c r i t e r i o n of r e l a t i v e fatness since a large proportion of adipose tissue i s located under the skin (16). One commonly used measurement of this subcutaneous fat i s that of s k i n f o l d thickness taken by use of a c a l i -brated c a l i p e r . These s k i n f o l d measurements have been shown to r e f l e c t the amount of subcutaneous fat (17, 18, 19), which represents approximately one-half of the t o t a l f a t i n the body (20). In 1956 the Committee on N u t r i t i o n a l Anthropometry of the Food and N u t r i t i o n Board of the National Research Council (21) set forth a report which stated that, "In order to i n t e r p r e t i n t e l l i g e n t l y the b i o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of a departure of the actual weight from a standard body weight, i t i s necessary to estimate the r e l a t i v e contribution of the adipose tis s u e , serving as a measure of obesity, and of musculature. Since a large amount of adipose tissue i s located under the skin, the i n d i v i d u a l ' s leanness-fatness may be estimated by measuring the thickness of s k i n f o l d s " . 12. The Committee further s p e c i f i e d the technique and s i t e s i t found best for these measurements. The skinfolds recommended by the Committee as a good characterization of the indi v i d u a l ' s o v e r - a l l fatness are: the upper arm s k i n f o l d located at the back (over the triceps) at the l e v e l midway between the t i p of the acromial process of the scapula and the t i p of the elbow, and the s k i n f o l d below the t i p of the right scapula. Brozek (22) indicated that the s i t e s chosen for f a t c a l i p e r measurements should be e a s i l y located, accurate, r e l i a b l e and of f e r the p o s s i b i l i t y of rapid measurement. Young (23) found that those skinfolds which were the best measures of body fatness f o r women because they correlated highest with body densities were not the best for men. Also the "best" f a t measure-ments for young women were not the same as the "best" measurements for older women (Table I ) . TABLE I CORRELATIONS OF SKINFOLDS WITH DENSITY-WOMEN (24) YOUNGER OLDER SKINFOLD (16-30 YR) SKINFOLD (40-70 YR) Pubis -.659 Umbilicus -.714 S u p r a i l i a c -.630 Chest -.660 Lower Ribs -.611 Scapula -.627 Umbilicus -.605 • C h i n -.619 Triceps -.521 Triceps -.515 Scapula -.516 13 The r e s u l t s of studies by Yuhasz (25), Pascale (26) and Keys and Brozek (27) showing the re l a t i o n s h i p s found between s k i n f o l d measurements and body density are presented i n Table I I . TABLE II RELATIONSHIP OF SKINFOLD MEASUREMENTS TO BODY DENSITY SITE YUHASZ ('62) PASCALE ('56) KEYS AND BROZEK ('53) Chest .565 -.825 .808 Triceps .574 -.771 .649 Subscapular .624 -.742 .648 S u p r a i l i a c .659 .678 Front Thigh .602 .608 Umbilical .693 -.770 .641 Rear Thigh .597 Ruys (28) reported high i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s between s k i n f o l d measurements using the Franzen-type c a l i p e r . These correlations between eight s i t e s ranged from .752 to .938. Parnell's (29) data are i n close agreement with those of Ruys. The sum of three s k i n f o l d measurements (subscapular, s u p r a i l i a c and triceps) on women correlated .99 with sub-cutaneous f a t measures taken at 53 s i t e s on 24 obese women. Yuhasz (30) concluded from a comparison between measurements made with the Harpenden and Franzen type c a l i p e r s that the Harpenden gave s i g n i f i c a n t l y better (same day) r e l i a b i l i t i e s i n 8 of 10 measurements. He advocated the use of the Harpenden c a l i p e r s on the basis that they con-formed to the standards for anthropometric studies i n the United States and B r i t a i n . 14 P. C a t t e l l ' s Sixteen Personality Factor Test Personality has been defined as "the prime given which i s pre-d i c t i v e of behavior as well as the dynamic organization within the i n d i v i -dual of those psychophysical systems that determine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c behavior and thought." (31) C a t t e l l assumes that personality i s that which pre-di c t s behavior, given the s i t u a t i o n (32). His instrument to measure per-s o n a l i t y was based on h i s " t r a i t sphere" and "surface of personality" concepts as well as on his theory that personality i s concerned with and deduced from a l l the behavior r e l a t i o n s between the organism and i t s en-vironment. The complete "surface of personality" i s represented by ex i s -t i n g verbal symbols, while the " t r a i t sphere" concept suggests that t r a i t s are small areas on a continuous but i n f i n i t e surface which represents a l l the observed behavior of the i n d i v i d u a l . C a t t e l l believes that basic t r a i t s or factors of personality may be extracted from a population of t r a i t elements adequately sampled from this surface. He hypothesized that primary source t r a i t s or dimensions of personality i n general r e -veal themselves v i a behavior ratings, questionnaire data and objective test data. The Sixteen Personality Factor Test purportedly measures a l l the main dimensions of personality i n persons from 16 years to l a t e maturity. It i s useful i n measuring the normal as well as the abnormal personality. (The 16 dimensions are described i n Chapter I I I ) . S p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t i e s for each of the 16 factor scales range from +0.71 to +0.93, averaging about +0.83 or +0.84. R. P. Fischer (33) indicated that the r e l i a b i l i t y i s not so high as one would l i k e i t to be, but i t i s higher than conventional forms or instruments used by c l i n i c i a n s . 15 He states that the r e l i a b i l i t y i s as high as one can expect from a factor measure reduced by ten times i t s length. For each of the 16 scales i n t e r n a l construct v a l i d i t i e s have been estimated from known factor loadings of test items on the factors and also from the c o r r e l a t i o n of the two factor halves, A and B forms together. The r e s u l t i n g 32 v a l i d i t y estimates for each of the 16 factor scales range from .73 to .96, averaging about .88. C a t t e l l ' s b e l i e f (34) was that recreation, sports and hobbies were better i n d i c a t o r s than molders of personality. Their p r i n c i p a l p o s i t i v e influence on personality seemed to be i n providing outlets which permit adjustment and s t a b i l i z a t i o n of personality where the l i f e s i t u a t i o n might not otherwise permit i t . In a study using the C a t t e l l Sixteen Personality Factor Test, Reigart (35) found that, although a larger percentage of obese i n d i v i -duals were poorly adjusted, there were also wide vari a t i o n s of adjust-ment among medium and slender b u i l d group. E. E f f e c t of Exercise on Body Composition of Obese People Anatomical changes occur i n i n d i v i d u a l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n vigorous physical a c t i v i t y . The major changes involve a decrease i n body fat and an increase i n muscular mass, with v a r i a t i o n s i n t o t a l body weight being de-pendent upon the proportional change i n these two components (36, 37). Dempsey (38) studied obese subjects during a t r a i n i n g program and discovered that changes observed i n gross body weight did not provide a true i n d i c a t i o n of changes i n body composition. Furthermore, he found 16 that there vas no evidence to i n d i c a t e that weight changes during t r a i n i n g could be a t t r i b u t e d to increases or decreases i n f a t . Fat losses i n both obese and non-obese subjects were accompanied by increases in f a t free body weight. Wells, et a l , (39) reported changes i n the body composition of twelve men undergoing a three-week paratrooper t r a i n i n g course and of obese g i r l s following four weeks of "intensive physical t r a i n i n g " . Although the t o t a l body weight changes were n e g l i g i b l e and even showed an increase i n some cases, decreases were observed i n mean s k i n f o l d f a t and abdominal c i r -cumferences accompanied by increases i n body density. In a weight control experiment with t h i r t y - t h r e e male subjects Yuhasz and Eynon (40) concluded that s i g n i f i c a n t improvements (p 5- .01) in s i x of the s k i n f o l d f a t measures and the t o t a l body f a t which was the sum of the 10 s k i n f o l d f a t measures. They stated that "since there was no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n weight and there was a decrease i n f a t , we can assume an increase i n muscle mass". F. Relationship of Oxygen Intake to Obesity and Changes i n Body Composition Buskirk and Taylor (41) concluded from th e i r findings that while obesity and maximal oxygen consumption were not correlated, the excessive load of f a t made the accomplishment of a s p e c i f i c work task more d i f f i c u l t . S i m i l a r l y , M i l l e r and Blyth (42) have shown that increasing amounts of body fa t are l i f t e d during exercise as an excessive, i n e r t weight and that work capacity of an obese person i s d e f i n i t e l y l i m i t e d . Conversely, the addition of muscle mass or fat free body weight would apparently be a contributory factor to improved performance. 17 Buskirk and Taylor (43) reported n e g l i g i b l e differences i n maximal oxygen intake per kilogram of f a t free weight among three "obesity" groups (0 to 30% f a t ) . They concluded that the observed decline i n work capacity (maximal oxygen intake per kilogram of body weight) with increasing fatness was a t t r i b u t a b l e e n t i r e l y to the handicap of body fat as an i n e r t , non-contributory load, and that the presence of excess f a t does not have any important influence on the capacity of the cardiovascular-respiratory system to d e l i v e r oxygen to muscles under maximal performance conditions. They based this i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on the concepts: (a) that maximal oxygen intake per kilogram of body weight describes the maximum quantity of oxidative energy a v a i l a b l e for a s p e c i f i c task, and (b) that maximal oxygen intake per kilogram of fat free weight expresses the capacity of the cardio-r e s p i r a t o r y systems to f u l f i l l maximal metabolic demands of active t i s s u e s . Dempsey, et a l . (55) did not concur i n the i r findings with Buskirk and Taylor. They discovered that gross obesity, at least that which i s i n excess of t h i r t y percent f a t , imposes a severe l i m i t a t i o n on physical work capacity by i t s apparent interference with o v e r - a l l maximal cardio-respiratory function i n addition to i t s burden as an i n e r t , non-contributory load. The greater r e l a t i v e i n t e n s i t y of moderate work i n the obese was r e f l e c t e d i n a higher l e v e l of anaerobic work, elevated blood pressure, heart rate and pulmonary f e n t i l a t i o n , and an exaggerated a l v e o l a r - a r t e r i a l PC^ dif f e r e n c e . They did not f e e l the interference with a l v e o l a r - a r t e r i a l exchange of oxygen or carbon dioxide during moderate or severe work was of s u f f i c i e n t magnitude to warrant the implication of i n -18 e f f e c t i v e pulmonary function as a major l i m i t a t i o n to maximum oxygen trans-port i n the majority of obese subjects. Auchincloss, et a l . (45) studied subjects with uncomplicated obesity ( i . e . obesity without hypercapnia or c l i n i c a l evidence of c i r c u l -atory embarrassment). The exercise consisted of walking slowly on a treadmill on a s l i g h t u p h i l l grade and an analysis was made of both the early moments of exercise and the l a t e r steady state. I t was found that during the steady state of exercise, obese subjects increased t h e i r v e n t i l a t i o n s u f f i c i e n t l y to maintain normal alveolar carbon dioxide tensions. During the f i r s t two minutes of exercise, hyperventilation was more pronounced i n obese subjects. Dempsey, et a l . (46) hypothesized that c h r o n i c a l l y obese in d i v i d u a l s would assume a hypercapnic state i n response to the increased energy demands of exercise. I t was found, however, that the obese sub-j e c t s were capable of more than adequately meeting the r i s i n g requirements for carbon dioxide elimination during moderate, severe and a l l - o u t work. The obese subjects appeared to adapt th e i r breathing during work to the p r i n c i p l e of "minimum cost", but due to t h e i r s l i g h t l y elevated minute v e n t i l a t i o n s and because of t h e i r lldwer lung volumes, the work of breathing must have increased. They also observed that the majority of obese subjects assumed a high a l v e o l a r - a r t e r i a l PC^ differences and low o v e r - a l l d i f f u s i o n c a p a c i t i e s . They proposed that the basic disorder i n gas exchange i n the obese i n d i v i d u a l was one of nonuniform d i s t r i b u t i o n of v e n t i l a t i o n . They concluded that "In view of the obese subjects' shallow, rapid breathing pattern t h e i r low exercise steady-state d i f f u s i n g capacities could be accounted for by a smaller a l v e o l a r - c a p i l l a r y i n t e r f a c e for gas exchange 19 rather than any s i g n i f i c a n t abnormality i n the true d i f f u s i o n gradient across i n d i v i d u a l a l v e o l i " . A number of studies r e l a t e d to reducing have established a close r e l a t i o n s h i p between the maximum oxygen consumption and body composition i n adults (47, 48, 49). Sprynarova and Parizkova (50) studied aerobic capacity and body composition i n obese boys before and af t e r reducing. They found that changes i n maximal oxygen consumption depend i n the f i r s t place on changes i n the lean body mass. The drop i n absolute values of maximal oxygen consumption was inversely proportional to the decrease of lean body mass. The changes i n the maximal oxygen consumption per kilogram of body weight also depended on changes i n the lean body mass. The mutual re l a t i o n s h i p s (correlation) of the r i s e of maximal oxygen consumption per kilogram of body weight and the decrease of lean body mass was po s i t i v e and l i n e a r . They found no r e l a t i o n s h i p between the decrease of body f a t and decrease of maximal oxygen consumption. G. Exercise and Obesity Mayer (51) has compared the obese and non-obese i n r e l a t i o n to c a l o r i c expenditure and consumption. He stated, " I n a c t i v i t y i s shown not to be the r e s u l t of extreme obesity but i n f a c t preceded i t " . His findings are supported i n s i m i l a r studies by Stefanik, et a l . (52), Johnson, et a l . (53), and Greene (54). Auchincloss, et a l (55) discovered that obese i n d i v i d u a l s exer-cised less e f f i c i e n t l y than the non-obese as manifested by excessive energy expenditure i n r e l a t i o n to weight. However, there are c o n f l i c t i n g reports concerning the e f f i c i e n c y of exercise among the obese. 20 A study by McKee and Belinger (56) suggested that when differences i n basal energy expenditure are taken into account, obese in d i v i d u a l s exercise at an e f f i c i e n c y s i m i l a r to the non-obese. In a comprehensive review of the l i t e r a t u r e i n the previous t h i r t y years, Stunkard and McLaren-Hume (57) observed that most attempts to control obesity were i n e f f e c t i v e . Mayer, i n Obesity and Health (58) states the following i n regard to the treatment of obesity: "Unfortunately, the use of exercise i n the treatment of obesity has been plagued with faddism. There have been clubs, salons and a number of mechanical devices for promoting exercise. Many of these have enjoyed a wide popularity, and i n some instances and for l i m i t e d periods of time, they have been successful i n bringing about weight l o s s . However, jus t as with dietary control for weight reduction, increased physical a c t i v i t y must become a regular part of one's changed pattern of l i v i n g i f i t i s to maintain a permanent e f f e c t on weight status". 21 REFERENCES 1. Astrand, P.-O., Work Tests with the Bic y c l e Ergometer, AB Cykel-fabriken Monark, Varberg, Sweden, 1965. 2. Rodahl, K., Issekutz, B., Muscle as a Tissue, Rodahl and Horvath, eds., McGraw H i l l Book Co., Toronto, 1962, pp. 270-280. 3. Taylor, H. L., Brozek, J . , "Evaluation of Fitness 1:', Federation Proceedings, V o l. 3, 1944, p. 216. 4. Wyndham, C. H., Strydom, N. B., Maritz, J . S., Morrison, J . F., Peter, J., Potgieter, Z,, "Maximum Oxygen Intake and Maximum Heart Rate during Strenuous Work", Journal of  Applied Physiology, V o l . 14, 1959, pp. 927-936. 5. Astrand, P.-O., Rhyming, I,, "A Nomogram for the Calcu l a t i o n of Aerobic Capacity (Physical Fitness) from Pulse Rate during Submaximal Work", Journal of Applied Physiology, V o l . 7, 1954, pp. 218-221. 6. Bengtsson, E., "The Working Capacity i n Normal Children, Evaluated by Submaximal Exercise on the Bi c y c l e Ergometer and Com-pared with Adults", Acta Medica Scandinavica, V o l . 154, 1954, pp. 91-109. 7. Borg, G., Dahlstrom, H., "The R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y of a Physical Work Test", Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, V o l . 155, 1962, pp. 353-361. 8. DeVries, M. A., K l a f s , C. E., "Prediction of Maximal Oxygen Intake from Submaximal Tests", Journal of Sports Medicine, V o l . 5, 1965, pp. 207-214. 9. Astrand, P.-O., "Human Physical Fitness with Special Reference to Sex and Age", Phys i o l o g i c a l Reviews, V o l . 31, 1960, pp. 307-335. 10. Rowell, L. B., Taylor, H. L., Wong, Y., "Limitations to Prediction of Maximal Oxygen Intake", Journal of Applied Physiology, V o l . 19, 1964, pp. 919-927. 11. Behnke, A. R., Feen, B. G., Welham, W. C., "The S p e c i f i c Gravity of Healthy Men", Journal of the American Medical Associa-t i o n , V o l . 118, 1942, pp. 495-498. 22 12. Rathbun, E. N., Pace, N., "Studies on Body Composition: I. The Determination of Total Body Fat by Means of the Body S p e c i f i c Gravity", Journal of B i o l o g i c a l Chemistry, V o l . 158, 1945, pp. 667-676. 13. Keys, A., Brozek, J . , "Body Fat in Adult Man", Phys i o l o g i c a l Reviews, V o l . 33, 1953, pp. 245-325. 14. Brozek, J . , Henschel, A., Keys, A., " E f f e c t of Submersion i n Water on the Volume of Residual A i r i n Man", Journal  of Applied Physiology, V o l . 2, 1949, pp. 240-246. 15. Keys, Brozek, op. c i t . , p. 245. 16. Se l t z e r , C. C., Mayer, J., "A Simple C r i t e r i o n of Obesity", Postgraduate Medicine, V ol. 38, 1965, pp. A101-A107. 17. Parizkova, J . , "Total Body Fat and Skinfold Thickness i n Children", Metabolism, Vol, 10, 1961, pp. 794-807. 18. Pascale, L. R., Grossman, M. I., Sloane, H, S., Frankel, T., "Correlations between Thickness of Skinfolds and Body Density i n 88 S o l d i e r s " , Human Biology, V o l . 28, 1956, pp. 165-176. 19. Young, C, M,, "Predicting S p e c i f i c Gravity and Body Fatness i n Older Women", Journal of the American D i e t e t i c Associa-t i o n , V o l , 45, 1964, pp. 333-339. 20. Wilmer, H., "A Comparison of the Topography and Composition of the Body at B i r t h and i n the Adult by Newer Methods", Anatomical Records, V o l . 73, 1939, p. 77. 21. Committee on N u t r i t i o n a l Anthropometry, Food and N u t r i t i o n Board, National Research Council (A. Keys, Chairman), "Recommen-dations concerning body measurements for the characteriza-t i o n of n u t r i t i o n a l status", i n Body Measurements for Human  N u t r i t i o n , ( J . Brozek, ed.), Wayne Univ e r s i t y Press, Detroit, 1956, p. 10. 22. Brozek, J . , "Physique and N u t r i t i o n a l Status of Adult Men", Human Biology, V o l . 28, 1956, pp. 124-140. 23. Young, C. M., "Body Composition and Body Weight: C r i t e r i a of Overnutrition", Canadian Medical Association Journal, V o l . 9, 1965, pp. 900-910. 24. Young, C. M,, "Some Comments on the Obesities", Journal of the  American D i e t e t i c Association, V ol, 45, 1964, p, 134. 23 25. Yuhasz, M, S., "The E f f e c t s of Sports Training on Body Fat i n Man with Predictions of Optimal Body Weight", Ph.D. Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , Urbana, 1962. 26. Pascale, Grossman, Sloane, Erankel, l o c . c i t . 27. Keys, Brozek, op. c i t . , p. 245. 28. Yuhasz, op. c i t . , p. 18, c i t i n g Ruys, J , , "The Relation of Basal Oxygen Intake to Body Components", Ph.D. Thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , Urbana, 1956. 29. P a r n e l l , R.W., "Somatotyping by Physical Anthropometry", Anthropology, V o l . 12, 1954, p. 209. 30. Yuhasz, op. c i t . , p. 15. 31. Malumphy, T. M., "The Personality and General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Women Athletes i n I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e Competitinn", Ph.D. Thesis, Ohio State University, Columbus, 1966. 32. C a t t e l l , R. B., Description and Measurement of Personality, World Book Company, New York, 1943. 33. Fischer, R. P., "Special Test Review of the 16 P F Questionnaire", Journal of C l i n i c a l Psychology, Vol. 12, 1956, pp. 408-411. 34. C a t t e l l , R. B., Personality: A Systematic Theoretical and Factual Study, McGraw H i l l Book Co., New York, 1950. 35. Reigart, A. H., "Physical Growth and Personality Adjustment", Ph.D. Thesis, Western Reserve University, Cleveland, 1948. 36. Keys, op. c i t . , p. 18. 37. Sprynarova, S., Parizkova, J . , "Changes i n the Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition i n Obese Boys a f t e r Reduction", Journal of Applied Physiology, V o l . 20, 1965, p. 934. 38. Dempsey, J. A., "Anthropometrical Observations on Obese and Non-obese Young Men Undergoing A Program of Vigorous Physical Exercise", Research Quarterly, V o l . 35, 1964, p. 275. 39. Wells, J . B., Parizkova, J . , J o k l , E., "Exercise Excess Fat and Body Weight", Journal of the Association for Physical and  Mental R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , V o l . 16, 1962, pp. 35-40. 24 40. Yuhasz, M. S., Eynon, R. B., "An Experiment i n Weight Control", Unpublished material from the University of Western Ontario, London, 1964. 41. Buskirk, E. R., Taylor, H. L., "Maximal Oxygen Intake and Its Relat i o n to Body Composition with Special Reference to Chronic Physical A c t i v i t y and Obesity", Journal of  Applied Physiology, V o l . I I , 1957, p. 72. 42. M i l l e r , A. T., Blyth, C. S., "Influence of Body Type and Body Fat Content on the Metabolic Cost of Work", Journal of Applied  Physiology, Vol. 8, 1955, p. 139. 43. Buskirk, E. R., Taylor, H. L., Simonson, E., "Relationship between Obesity and the Pulse Rate at Rest and During Work i n Young and Older Men", Arbeitsphysiologie, V o l . 16, 1955, p. 83. 44. Dempsey, J, A., Reddan, A. W., Rankin, J., Balke, B., "Work Capacity Determinants and Physiologic Cost of Weight Supported Work i n Obesity", Journal of Applied Physiology, V o l . 21, 1966, P. 1815. 45. Auchincloss, J . H., Sipple, J . , G i l b e r t , R., " E f f e c t of Obesity on Ve n t i l a t o r y Adjustment to Exercise", Journal of Applied  Physiology, Vol. 18, 1963, p. 19. 46. Dempsey, J . A., Reddan, A. W., Rankin, J . , Balke, B., "Alveolar-a r t e r i a l Gas Exchange During Muscular Work i n Obesity", Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 21, 1966, p. 1807. 47. Buskirk, Taylor, Simonson, op. c i t . 48. Von Dobeln, W., "Human Standard and Maximal Metabolic Rate i n Relation to Fatfree Body Mass", Acta Physiologica  Scandinavica, V o l . 37 (Suppl. 126), 1956. 49. Welch, B. E., Riendeau, R, P., Cri s p , C. E., Isenstein, R. S., "Relationship of Maximal Oxygen Consumption to Various Components of Body Composition", Journal of Applied  Physiology, V o l . 12, 1958, p. 395. 50. Sprynarova, Parizkova, l o c . c i t . 51. Mayer, J . , "Ph y s i o l o g i c a l Basis of Obesity and Leanness", N u t r i -t i o n a l Abstracts and Reviews, V o l . 25, 1955, pp. 875-882. 25 52. Stefanik, P. A., Mayer, J . , " C a l o r i c Intake i n Relation to Energy Output of Obese and Nonobese Adolescents", American Journal  of C l i n i c a l N u t r i t i o n , V o l . 7, 1959, pp. 55-63. 53. Johnson, M. L., Burke, B. S., Mayer, J . , "Relative Importance of I n a c t i v i t y and Overeating i n Energy Balance of Obese High School G i r l s " , American Journal of C l i n i c a l N u t r i t i o n , V o l . 4, 1956, pp. 37-40. 54. Greene, J . A., " C l i n i c a l Study of the Eti o l o g y of Obesity", Annals of Internal Medicine, V o l . 12, 1939, pp. 1797-1803. 55. Auchincloss, Sipple, G i l b e r t , l o c . c i t . 56. McKee, W. P., Belinger, R. E., " C a l o r i c Expenditure of Normal and Obese Subjects During A Standard Work Test", Journal of  Applied Physiology, V o l . 15, 1955, p. 875. 57. Stunkard, A., McLaren-Hume, M., "Results of the Treatment of Obesity", Archives of Internal Medicine, V o l . 103, 1959, pp. 812-817. 58. U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Obesity and Health, ( J . Mayer, ed.), U. S, Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1966, p. 54. CHAPTER I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURES The i n i t i a l pre-program tests for determination of body f a t , work capacity and personality were administered to female volunteers from the Vancouver Y.W.C.A. "180-Plus Club". The numbers tested varied from twenty-one for the underwater weighing to twenty-six for the Astrand t e s t . This v a r i a t i o n was due to such things as fear of water, i l l n e s s and missed appointments. held once a week, and which consisted of a gymnasium session, a pool session and a group counselling session. Halfway through the nine month period i n which the program was offered, another gymnasium session was added at the request of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Also, i n addition to t h e i r regular class programs, the participants were asked to walk a mile every day and to keep an account of the i r d a i l y food intake. A des c r i p t i o n of the volunteers used i n this study i s presented i n Table I I I below. These volunteers were to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a program which was TABLE I I I DESCRIPTION OF THE FEMALE VOLUNTEERS FACTOR RANGE MEAN STANDARD DEVIATION Age 29-67 43 9.0 Weight 181.0-276.0 215.0 .'27.8 27 The subjects were retested a f t e r nine months' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program, with conditions and procedures as s i m i l a r as possible to the pretest s i t u a t i o n . By the l a t t e r part of the program the number of regular par-t i c i p a n t s had attenuated gre a t l y . However, the women who were tested at the beginning of the program were w i l l i n g to return for r e t e s t i n g . The scores of the women were separated into three categories or groups according to the number of times the women attended classes, i . e . Group I -- attended less than 10 times; Group II -- not regular i n attendance, and Group I I I -- f a i r l y regular attendance. The purpose of this was to determine the e f f e c t of frequency of p a r t i c i p a t i o n on any changes i n tiss u e proportions, work capacity and personality t r a i t s . A des c r i p t i o n of the three groups follows i n Table IV. TABLE IV DESCRIPTION OF GROUPS I, II AND I I I GROUP FACTOR RANGE MEAN i Attendance 3 - 9 5.6 1.9 A g e 30 - 58 44 8.1 Weight 186.0 - 276.0 217.5 30.3 i i Attendance 10 - 17 14.1 2.8 A g e 29 - 46 39. 5.1 Weight 183.0 - 270.5 227.1 26.6 i n Attendance 18 - 24 21.4 1.9 A g e 34 - 67 46 10.9 Weight 181.0 - 246.5 201.2 18.5 1 28 A. Astrand Test Each subject reported to the laboratory i n running shoes and appropriate dress for r i d i n g the b i c y c l e ergometer. Her weight, with shoes removed, was recorded. The recording electrodes were placed on the upper t h i r d of the sternum and sublateral to the heart as close as possible to the V,. p o s i t i o n between the fourth and f i f t h r i b s depending on the anatomy. An e l e c t r i c metronome, which simultaneously produced a sharp c l i c k i n g sound and f l a s h i n g l i g h t , was used to indicate the proper pedal cadence. Heart rates were recorded for the l a s t ten seconds of each minute and converted to minute heart r a t e s . The f i r s t time the subjects reported the proper seat heights and work loads were determined. The subjects reported three more times i n the pretesting phase, with each test conducted i n the same manner. During the post-testing phase, the subjects were tested twice. The procedure adopted during the pretest was also c a r r i e d out with a non-exercising, normal control group of women. This followed the completion of a l l pretests for the experimental group and was done be-cause the experimental group had appeared to improve from rid e to ride throughout three r i d e s . I t was necessary to terminate the series with-out having established that the subjects had reached a plateau i n the i r performance. The overweight women had been attending some classes during the period of time i n which the b i c y c l e tests were being conducted. There thus appeared to be a question whether or not the apparent improve-ment seen from r i d e to ri d e was due i n some measure to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n exercise both i n and out of class at the outset of the program. This p o s s i b i l i t y was investigated by tes t i n g a control group of eleven women 29 i n order to see i f the i r scores followed the same downward trend even though they were not p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n any other exercise. TABLE V DESCRIPTION OF THE CONTROL GROUP FACTOR RANGE MEAN Age Weight 22-47 107-146 28 125.6 6.6 12.7 Test Procedure The subjects were required to report at the same time each week i n the morning, without having had breakfast, coffee or c i g a r e t t e s . The metronome tempo was set at 100 beats per minute and checked with a stopwatch. The seat was adjusted to a height such that there was a s l i g h t bend at the knee j o i n t when the pedal was completely depressed, with the front of the foot on the pedal. The desired work load was set afte r the subject was pedalling at the proper cadence. The load s e t t i n g was checked frequently, as i t alt e r e d as the f r i c t i o n on the b e l t changed. At the l a s t 10 seconds of each minute the heart rate was taken and trans-formed to minute values. At the end of each minute the revolutions of the wheel and the minute heart rates were recorded. The subjects continued to ri d e f o r s i x minutes, at such a work load that at the completion of the test the heart rate had l e v e l l e d o f f between 130 and 160 beats per minute. 30 If the diff e r e n c e between the f i f t h and s i x t h minute heart rates exceeded f i v e beats, the work period was prolonged one or more minutes u n t i l a constant l e v e l was reached. B. Body Density Measurement Procedure The subjects were instructed to report to the pool i n the morning, without having had breakfast, coffee or c i g a r e t t e s . They reported i n bathing suits -- some with and some without bathing hats --and were weighed dry to the nearest ha l f pound. The f a t c a l i p e r measure-ments were also made at this time. The weighted lead b e l t was then secured to the subject's waist a f t e r which she s l i d into the water slowly, gently to cause a minimum of water disturbance. The subject was then asked to put on the nose plugs and take a maximum forced i n s p i r a t i o n through the mouth i n such a way that the intake was audible. She then cexhaled maximally into the wet spirometer. She performed this three times, while submerged to the neck i n an extended body p o s i t i o n . The highest of the three volume readings of v i t a l capacity was used i n the c a l c u l a t i o n of r e s i d u a l lung volume. The subject was then attached, by a harness and hook, to the weight scale which was f a s t -ened to the diving board. The subject rubbed her h a i r and body surface i n order to dislodge a i r bubbles and a f t e r this was directed to exhale maximally and then to take a maximum i n s p i r a t i o n out of the wet s p i r o -meter. She then held her breath and lowered he r s e l f gently to f u l l ex-tension of the harness. While completely submerged, the subject held 31 her legs together i n a s l i g h t l y flexed p o s i t i o n with her hands on her head. The scale reading was taken, usually within f i v e seconds. The subject was instructed to remain completely motionless u n t i l touched on the waist. Further t r i a l s were made for checks of consistency. Body Density Calculation The density of the human body i s the r a t i o of the body weight i n a i r to i t s volume. The technique for the determination of body volume i s by means of i t s displacement of water (Archimedian P r i n c i p l e ) . The volume of the body i s equal to i t s weight i n a i r minus i t s weight i n water divided by the density of water. The body, f u l l y submerged, was weighed i n water. To eliminate the e f f e c t of a i r remaining i n the lungs, the body weight i n water was corrected for the residual a i r i n the lungs. T h i r t y percent of the corrected v i t a l capacity was the constant used for the value of residual a i r . Yuhasz (1) Formula for Body Density at F u l l I n s p i r a t i o n Body Density = weight of body i n a i r density of water at water temper-weight of body i n a i r - correction ature of body in water Keys and Brozek (2) Formula for Percent Body Fat From Body Density Percent Body Fat = 4.201 3.813 x 100 body density C. Subcutaneous Fat Measurements Harpenden s k i n f o l d c a l i p e r s were used to measure the thicknes of the s k i n f o l d s . A f o l d was f i r m l y grasped between the thumb and the for e f i n g e r ; the contact surfaces of the c a l i p e r were placed about one cm. from the f i n g e r s . The pressure of the thumb and for e f i n g e r were s u f f i c i e n t l y released to allow the greater pressure to be exerted by the c a l i p e r . Locations 1. Sub-scapular - the s k i n f o l d was l i f t e d v e r t i c a l l y and was measured below the t i p of the l e f t scapula. 2. Tricep - the s k i n f o l d was located midway on the back of the r i g h t upper arm. The arm hung f r e e l y and the s k i n f o l d was l i f t e d p a r a l l e l to the long axis. 3. S u p r a - i l i a c - the s k i n f o l d was located immediately above the crest of the r i g h t i l i u m . The f o l d was l i f t e d at a s l i g h t angle to the v e r t i c a l , along the normal f o l d l i n e . 4. Umbilical - the s k i n f o l d was located to the r i g h t of, adjacent to, and i n l i n e with, the navel. The f o l d was l i f t e d p a r a l l e l to the long axis of the body. 5. Front thigh - the s k i n f o l d was located midway on the front of the upper r i g h t leg over the quadraceps. The knee was held i n a s l i g h t l y flexed p o s i t i o n . The f o l d was l i f t e d p a r a l l e l to the long axis of the body. 6 . Rear thigh - the s k i n f o l d was located midway on the back the r i g h t upper l e g . The leg was held i n the same p o s i t i o n as i n the front thigh measurement. The s k i n f o l d was l i f t e d p a r a l l e l to the long axis of the body. 33 FIGURE I I UNDERWATER WEIGHT BEING READ • WHILE SUBJECT COMPLETELY SUBMERGED 34 D. Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire This questionnaire was designed to y i e l d scores i n sixteen dichotomous t r a i t areas. Two alternate forms of the test were used (Forms A and B), and were administered on separate occasions, one week apart. The tests were scored and i n d i v i d u a l p r o f i l e s of the combined scores were made. The construction of the p r o f i l e was made using C a t t e l l ' s Sten Scale (3). This standard score system was devised i n such a way to place the mean value for each t r a i t for the female general population at exactly the sten of 5.5. Thus the mean value for the female general population was shown as that area between stens 5.0 and 6 .0. The test constructors (4) reported that scores more than one sten from t h i s band, i . e . scores at and above sten 7.0 and at and below sten 4 .0 , showed a d e f i n i t e departure from the general population i n that f a c t o r . This was the c r i t e r i o n for any differences between the mean scores of the overweight women and the general adult female population. 35 TABLE VI CATTELL ' S DESCRIPTION OF THE SIXTEEN PERSONALITY FACTORS LOW SCORE DESCRIPTION FACTOR HIGH SCORE DESCRIPTION RESERVED, D E T A C H E D , CR IT ICAL , COOL (Sizothymio) LESS INTELLIGENT, CONCRETE-THINKING (Lower scholastic mental capacity) AFFECTED BY FEELINGS, EMOTIONAL-LY LESS S T A B L E , EASILY UPSET (Lower ego strength) HUMBLE, MILD, ACCOMMODATING, CONFORMING (Submissiveness) SOBER, PRUDENT,, SERIOUS, TACITURN (Desurgency) ' EXPEDIENT, EVADES RULES , F E E L S FEW OBLIGATIONS (Weaker superego strength) SHY, RESTRAINED, D IFF IDENT, TIMID (Threctia) TOUGH-MINDED, SELF-REL IANT, REALISTIC, NO-NONSENSE (Harria) TRUSTING, A D A P T A B L E , F R E E OF J EALOUSY , EASY TO GET ON WITH, (Alexia) PRACTICAL, C A R E F U L , CONVENTION-A L , R E G U L A T E D BY E X T E R N A L REALITIES, PROPER (Praxernia) FORTHRIGHT, N A T U R A L , ARTLESS , SENTIMENTAL (Artlessness) PLACID, SELF-ASSURED, CONFIDENT, S E R E N E ' .(Untroubled adequacy) CONSERVATIVE, RESPECT ING ESTAB-LISHED IDEAS, T O L E R A N T OF TRADI-TIONAL D IFF ICULT IES (Conservatism) GROUP-DEPENDENT, A " J O I N E R " AND SOUND FOLLOWER (Group adherence) UNDISCIPLINED SELF-CONFLICT, FOL -LOWS OWN URGES, "CARELESS OF PROTOCOL (Low integration) RELAXED, TRANQUIL , TORPID, U N F R U S T R A T E D (Low ergic tension) A B C E F G H I L •M N 0 Qi Q 2 Q 3 OUTGOING, WARMHEARTED, EASY-GOING, PART IC IPAT ING (Affectothymia, formerly cyclothymia) MORE INTELLIGENT, ABSTRACT-THINKING, BRIGHT (Higher scholastic mental capacity) EMOTIONALLY STABLE, FACES REAL ITY , C A L M , MATURE (Higher ego strength) ASSERTIVE, INDEPENDENT, AGGRESSIVE, STUBBORN (Dominance) HAPPY-GO-LUCKY, IMPULSIVELY L I V E L Y , GAY, ENTHUSIASTIC . (Surgency) CONSCIENTIOUS, PERSEVER ING, STAID, RULE-BOUND (Stronger superego strength) VENTURESOME, SOC IALLY BOLD, UNINHIBITED, SPONTANEOUS (Parmia) TENDER-MINDED, DEPENDENT , OVER-PROTECTED , SENSITIVE (Premsia) SUSPICIOUS, SELF-OPINIONATED, HARD TO FOOL (Protension) IMAGINATIVE, WRAPPED UP IN INNER URGENCIES, CARELESS OF P R A C T I C A L (Autia) MATTERS , BOHEMIAN SHREWD, C A L C U L A T I N G , WORLDLY, | P ENETRAT ING ' (Shrewdness)' APPREHENSIVE, WORRYING, DEPRES -SIVE, T R O U B L E D (Guilt proneness) EXPERIMENTING, CR IT ICAL , L I B ERAL , A N A L Y T I C A L , FREE-THINKING (Radicalism) SELF-SUFFICIENT, P R E F E R S OWN DECISIONS, RESOURCEFUL (Sel f-sufficiency) CONTROLLED, SOCIALLY-PRECISE , FOLLOWING SELF-IMAGE (High- self-concept control) TENSE, FRUSTRATED , DRIVEN, OVERWROUGHT (High ergic tension) - , . - j 36 E. Description of Equipment Ski n f o l d measurements: (1) Harpenden s k i n f o l d c a l i p e r s with a contact surface of 15 m i l l i m e t e r s . A constant pressure of 10 grams per square centimeter i s exerted over the f u l l range of measurement. The d i a l i s graduated i n m i l l i m e t e r s . Underwater weighing: (1) C h a t i l l o n Autopsy Scale Model 1315 with scale d i v i s i o n s of 25 grams. Work capacity: (1) Monark B i c y c l e Ergometer (2) Model 2 7 - 1 ECG Telemetering Transmitter (3) Model RB - 27 Telemetry Receiver (4) Sanborn 500 Viso-Cardiette Electrocardiograph F. Analysis of the Data R e l i a b i l i t y Analysis of Astrand Results An analysis of variance was used to determine the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the difference between the combined pretest experimental and control group mean heart rates for Astrand test administrations I, II and I I I . The test r e s u l t s of experimental and control subjects were combined when i t became apparent that the experience of both groups over three rides was e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r (see "Results" chapter). Duncan's New M u l t i p l e Range test was used to test this d i f f e r e n c e . Pearson 37 Product-Moment cor r e l a t i o n s between rides I and I I , and II and III of the combined groups were calculated to provide further information about r e l i a b i l i t y of the Astrand test under the conditions of the study. The Pearson Product-Moment c o r r e l a t i o n for the two posttest rides was also calculated to determine the t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y at that time. Pretest-Posttest Differences The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the difference of the mean pre-test-posttest Astrand scores and the mean pretest-posttest "percent f a t " values was determined by the analysis of variance technique. Additional analyses of variance were performed to determine the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the difference of the pretest-posttest Astrand scores and "percent f a t " values i n each of Groups I, II and I I I . An analysis of variance was performed on the sub-cutaneous f a t measurement with the highest pretest-posttest mean d i f f e r -ence (Group I - s u p r a i l i a c ) as an exploratory step to see i f i t would be necessary to perform further analyses of variance for the subcutaneous fa t measurements. No s i g n i f i c a n t difference was found at the .05 l e v e l of confidence, therefore no further s t a t i s t i c a l analyses were made. T-tests were performed on pretest-posttest per-s o n a l i t y raw scores i n t r a i t s which changed by 1.0 sten or more. 38 REFERENCES 1. Yuhasz, M. S., "The E f f e c t s of Sports Training on Body Fat i n Man with Predictions of Optimal Weight", Ph.D. Thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , Urbana, 1962. 2. Keys, A., Brozek, J . , "Body Fat i n Adult Men", Phy s i o l o g i c a l Reviews, V o l . 33, 1953, pp. 295-325. 3. C a t t e l l , R. B., Supplement of Norms for Forms A and B of the  Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, I n s t i t u t e for Personality and A b i l i t y Testing, Champaign, I l l i n o i s , 1962. 4. C a t t e l l , R. B.,,Eb.er, H. W., Handbook for the Sixteen Personality  Factor Questionnaire, I n s t i t u t e for Personality and A b i l i t y Testing, Champaign, I l l i n o i s , 1957. CHAPTER IV RESULTS A. R e l i a b i l i t y of the Astrand Test Scores The r e s u l t s of the analysis of variance and of Duncan's New M u l t i p l e Range test applied to the combined pretest experimental Astrand scores and the control group Astrand scores are presented i n Table VII. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t difference at the .01 l e v e l of confidence between test administrations I and II and I and I I I , but there was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between test administrations II and I I I . TABLE VII RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF THE COMBINED PRETEST EXPERIMENTAL SCORES AND CONTROL GROUPS: SCORES ON THE ASTRAND TEST (HEART RATES) MEASURE TEST I MEAN TEST II MEAN TEST I I I MEAN BETWEEN TRIALS VARIANCE F RATIO Astrand Test 142.00 135.30 135.53 780.499 26.85 Note: Line j o i n i n g the mean values indicates no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . Table VIII shows the cor r e l a t i o n s of the combined pretest experimental Astrand scores and control group Astrand scores, as well as the c o r r e l a t i o n of the two posttest scores. A t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y 40 c o e f f i c i e n t of .34 was found between pretests I and I I , and .78 between pretests II and I I I . A r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of .95 was found f o r the two posttests. .78 and .95 were s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of c o n f i -dence, while .34 was not. TABLE VIII TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN TESTS I AND II AND II AND I I I OF THE COMBINED EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL PRETEST ASTRAND SCORES, AND BETWEEN THE TWO POSTTEST SCORES MEASURE CORRELATION COEFFICIENT Pretest I vs Pretest I I Pretest II vs Pretest III Posttest I vs Posttest I I 0.34 0.78 * 0.95 * S i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of confidence B. Total Pretest-Posttest Scores The r e s u l t s of the analysis of variance performed on the Astrand pretest-posttest scores are presented i n Table IX. This table indicates that the posttest mean score was s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than the pretest mean score at the .01 l e v e l of confidence. 41 The r e s u l t s of the r e l i a b i l i t y analysis described i n the pre-vious section showed that i t was defensible on s t a t i s t i c a l grounds to use the averages of the second and t h i r d pretest rides as the "best" estimate of the subject's work capacity at that time. Also, the analysis of the posttest scores showed that averaging both rides was j u s t i f i e d as a "best" estimate of the work capacity at that time. These were the values employed i n the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of the work capacity scores i n this study. TABLE IX RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF ALL PRETEST-POSTTEST SCORES FOR THE ASTRAND TEST (HEART RATES) MEASURE PRETEST MEAN POSTTEST MEAN BETWEEN TRIALS VARIANCE F RATIO Astrand Test 134.23 129.34 315.071 15.56 * *F >y 4.24; S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence F 7.77; S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of confidence The r e l i a b i l i t y of the mean difference between pretest and posttest means of the 'percent f a t ' scores was determined by the analysis of variance technique. The r e s u l t s of this analysis are shown i n Table X. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the pretest-posttest means 42 at the .05 l e v e l of confidence, with the posttest mean being lower than the pretest mean. TABLE X RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF ALL PRETEST-POSTTEST VALUES OF 'PERCENT FAT' PRETEST POSTTEST BETWEEN TRIALS MEASURE MEAN MEAN VARIANCE F RATIO Percent Fat 45.8 42.5 106.441 5.72 F^* 4.41; S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence F ^ 8.28; S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of confidence Figure I I I i s a graphical comparison of the pretest-posttest means of the s i x subcutaneous f a t measurement s i t e s and the sum of the si x measures. At posttest there were apparently s l i g h t increases at the following s i t e s : umbilical and rear thigh. The remaining measurements apparently did not show any appreciable change. (The re s u l t s of the analysis of variance of the Group I s u p r a i l i a c mean scores indicated that a s i g n i f i c a n t difference did not occur at the .05 l e v e l of confidence. Therefore, further s t a t i s t i c a l analyses of the subcutaneous f a t measure-ments were not made because of the obvious absence of any need to do so.) Figure HI 43 50 i l l P R E T E S T I | P O S T T E S T P R E T E S T - POSTTEST SUBCUTANEOUS FAT M E A S U R E M E N T S 44 Figure IV shows p r o f i l e s of the pretest-posttest personality mean scores i n r e l a t i o n to mean values for the general adult female population. There was a d e f i n i t e departure of the mean value for the posttest i n t e l l i g e n c e factor (B) higher, and of the mean value of the pretest ego strength factor (C) lower when compared with the population mean values (according to C a t t e l l values of 7.0 and above and 4,0 and below show a " d e f i n i t e departure" from the general population mean values). There were not any s i g n i f i c a n t differences between pretest and posttest mean scores for any of the personality t r a i t s . PERSONALITY TRAIT PRETEST- POSTTEST PERSONALITY PROFILES 46 C. Group I Pretest-Posttest Scores Tables XI and XII show the results of the analyses of variance of the Astrand scores and of the 'percent f a t ' scores r e s p e c t i v e l y . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the pretest-posttest means on either of the measures at the .05 l e v e l of confidence. TABLE XI RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF THE GROUP I PRETEST-POSTTEST ASTRAND SCORES (HEART RATES) MEASURE PRETEST MEAN POSTTEST MEAN BETWEEN TRIALS VARIANCE F RATIO Astrand Test 133.0 129.1 .60 3.53 F 5.32^ S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence 47 TABLE XII RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF THE GROUP I PRETEST-POSTTEST 'PERCENT FAT' VALUES PRETEST POSTTEST BETWEEN TRIALS MEASURE MEAN MEAN VARIANCE F RATIO * F 5.99; S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence The pretest and posttest means of the subcutaneous f a t measurements are i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure V. There was an increase i n a l l the measurements from pretest to posttest and i n the sum t o t a l of the measurements. The personality p r o f i l e s from pretest to posttest for Group I are shown i n Figure VI. This group showed a d e f i n i t e departure from the general adult female population i n the following t r a i t s : higher pretest and posttest i n t e l l i g e n c e (B), higher pretest surgency-desur-gency (F), lower posttest superego strength (G), higher pretest prax-ernia- a u t i a (M), and higher posttest conservatism-radicalism (Q^). There were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between pretest and posttest. 48 Figure V so 40 co LX. hi lli; J -J D £L 03 < D O CO CO to < CL CC O UJ CL < RIC 3 " j CO -H < o -j CO PRETEST POSTTEST PRETEST - POSTTEST SUBCUTANEOUS FAT MEASUREMENTS FOR GROUP I PERSONALITY TRAIT A B C E F G H I L M N O Q. Q 9 Q_ . Q 9 H PRETEST-POSTTEST PERSONALITY PROFILES OF GROUP I 50. D. Group II Pretest-Posttest Scores The r e s u l t s of the analysis of variance performed on the pretest-posttest Astrand scores are presented i n Table XIII. I t indicates that a s i g n i f i c a n t difference exists between the pretest-posttest means at the .05 l e v e l of confidence, with the posttest mean being lower than the pretest mean. TABLE XIII RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF THE GROUP II PRETEST-POSTTEST ASTRAND SCORES (HEART RATES) PRETEST POSTTEST BETWEEN TRIALS MEASURE MEAN MEAN VARIANCE F RATIO Astrand ^ Test 135.2 129.9 .720 5.41 F ^ 5.32; S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence F ^"11.06; S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of confidence Table XIV presents the re s u l t s of the analysis of variance on the pretest-posttest 'percent f a t ' values. A s i g n i f i c a n t difference does not exi s t for this group on th i s measure. 51 TABLE XIV RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF THE GROUP II PRETEST-POSTTEST 'PERCENT1 VALUES MEASURE PRETEST MEAN POSTTEST MEAN BETWEEN TRIALS VARIANCE F RATIO Percent Fat 45.4 43.8 6.72 .28* F ^ 7.71; S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence Figure VII i s a graphical presentation of the pretest-posttest subcutaneous f a t measurements for Group I I . From pretest to posttest the following areas show apparent increases: subscapular, u m b i l i c a l , front thigh and rear thigh; and the following area shows an apparent decrease: s u p r a i l i a c . The triceps measurement remained the same, and the to t a l of a l l the measurements shows an apparent increase from pretest to posttest. Figure VIII i l l u s t r a t e s the pretest and posttest personality p r o f i l e s of Group I I . Departures from the general adult female population are shown i n the following areas: higher posttest i n t e l l i g e n c e (B), lower pretest ego strength (C), higher pretest alaxia-protension (L) and higher pretest ergic tension (Q^). S i g n i f i c a n t changes i n t r a i t scores from pre-test to posttest occur i n i n t e l l i g e n c e (B) -- s t a t i s t i c a l l y higher at the .05 l e v e l of confidence -- ego strength (C) -- s t a t i s t i c a l l y higher at the .05 l e v e l of confidence. Figure SZH 52 5 0 « PRETEST |POSTTEST PRETEST-POSTTEST MEASUREMENTS FOR SUBCUTANEOUS FAT GROUP n PERSONALITY TRAIT PRETEST-POSTTEST PERSONALITY PROFILES OF GROUP n E. Group III Pretest-Posttest Scores The r e s u l t s of the analysis of variance performed on the pretest-posttest Astrand scores are presented i n Table XV. This table indicates that there was a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the means at the .05 l e v e l of confidence. The pretest mean was greater than the posttest mean. TABLE XV RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF THE GROUP III PRETEST-POSTTEST ASTRAND SCORES (HEART RATES) PRETEST POSTTEST BETWEEN TRIALS MEASURE MEAN MEAN VARIANCE F RATIO Astrand Test 135.7 128.9 2.067 6.38 F 5 . 3 2 ; S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence '* F?11.26; S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of confidence The pretest-posttest 'percent f a t ' values were analyzed and the r e s u l t s are presented i n Table XVI. A s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the pretest-posttest means exists at the .05 l e v e l of confidence. The posttest mean was less than the pretest mean. 55 TABLE XVI RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF THE GROUP I I I PRETEST-POSTTEST 'PERCENT FAT' VALUES MEASURE PRETEST MEAN POSTTEST MEAN BETWEEN TRIALS VARIANCE F RATIO Percent Fat 44.3 40.2 108.64 12.38* F :> 5.99; S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence ** F/^ 13.74; S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of confidence Figure IX shows the pretest and posttest means of the sub-cutaneous f a t measures. Apparent decreases from pretest to posttest were shown at the following s i t e s : subscapular, t r i c e p s , s u p r a i l i a c and front thigh. Apparent increases i n fat were shown at the umbili-cal and rear thigh areas. The sum t o t a l of the measurements indicates an apparent decrease at posttest. The pretest and posttest personality p r o f i l e s of Group III are displayed i n Figure X. D e f i n i t e departures from the general adult female population occurred for the following t r a i t s as follows: higher pretest and posttest i n t e l l i g e n c e (B), lower posttest alaxia-protension (L), and higher posttest conservatism-radicalism (Q^), S i g n i f i c a n t changes from pretest to posttest occurred i n the harria-premsia t r a i t (I) -- s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher at the .01 l e v e l of confidence^ and at the ergic tension t r a i t (Q^) -- s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower at the .01 l e v e l of confidence. 56 Figure IX so PRETEST POSTTEST PRETEST - POSTEST SUBCUTANEOUS FAT MEASUREMENTS FOR GROUP ED PERSONALITY TRAIT PRETEST H E I B POSTTEST MEAN VALUES FOR FEMALE ADULT POPULATION CD M PRETEST-POSTTEST PERSONALITY PROFILES OF GROUP m CHAPTER V DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS The problem which this study was designed to investigate was the e f f e c t of a Y.W.C.A. program for overweight women on the working capacity, 'percent body f a t ' and personality t r a i t s of twenty-six volunteers. After the program had been going some time i t had become obvious that the attendance of the volunteers showed considerable i n d i -vidual differences and that reserving analysis only for the res u l t s of the whole group would be an inadequate way of describing the eff e c t s of the program on the women. For this reason the women were c l a s s i f i e d into three groups, depending on attendance. Women i n Group I attended for a short while then dropped out ea r l y . Group II consisted of women who attended s p o r a d i c a l l y u n t i l a l a t e r period and some who attended more frequently at the e a r l i e r stage and dropped out before the l a t e r stage of the program. This group was, however, f a i r l y homogeneous i n regard to the t o t a l number of attendances. Group I I I women attended reasonably frequently up to the time the second tests were made i n May. Analysis of the mean scores of the whole group showed that there was a s i g n i f i c a n t mean difference i n the Astrand test (.01 l e v e l of confidence) and i n the 'percent f a t ' (at the .05 l e v e l of confidence). Mean scores for the f a t c a l i p e r measurements did not appear to show differences of more than minor s i z e (and were without doubt, s t a t i s t i c a l l y not s i g n i f i c a n t ) . The group appeared to be d i f f e r e n t , based on C a t t e l l ' s 59 c r i t e r i o n , from the general adult female population i n the following c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : (a) more emotionally unstable at pretest (Factor C). This was shown to be reduced at posttest, and (b) higher i n t e l l i g e n c e at pretest and posttest (Factor B ) . The r e l i a b i l i t y s t a t i s t i c s for the Astrand test show that the scores at pretest and posttest could be considered reasonably stable and that the analysis of difference between means did provide a r e l i a b l e estimate of the re a l changes i n work capacity which occurred between pre-test and posttest. The mean dif f e r e n c e , however, c e r t a i n l y did not repre-sent more than a very small average improvement i n the work capacity of the twenty-six volunteers. The mean change i n 'percent f a t ' scores also represented a very minor average f a t loss i n r e l a t i o n to the excess f a t ca r r i e d by the women at test two i n May. The analysis of mean changes for the three groups was designed to provide information about the e f f e c t of frequency of p a r t i c i p a t i o n on the work capacity, f a t and psychological measurements. It seemed.impor-tant to examine the trend of improvement i n the mean scores i n order to see i f frequency of p a r t i c i p a t i o n was d i r e c t l y associated with improve-ment i n work capacity, percent f a t and f a t c a l i p e r measurements. Also i t seemed important to examine the psychological measurements of the three groups i n order to see i f there were any differences between groups or between changes made between pretest and posttest which might show possible benefits a r i s i n g from the program despite differences i n frequency of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 60 I t i s possible that posttest 16 Personality Factor scores for women who dropped out of the program at some time before May would be d i f f e r e n t from the scores which might have been obtained had they been retested before or at the time they l e f t the program. Also, some could not be expected to have changed much i f at a l l because of the very b r i e f duration of the i r a f f i l i a t i o n with the Y.W.C.A. program. The same reasoning could be applied to both Groups I and II but with a modified e f f e c t i n Group II since Group II women stayed i n the program considerably longer than Group I women. Although there was no s t a t i s t i c a l comparison made between the mean gains of the groups, the s i z e of the gains made by each group between pretest and posttest indicates that Group I had a numerically smaller mean improvement(difference between pretest and posttest not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ) i n work capacity than Group II (difference between pretest and posttest s i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l ) , and Group II showed less mean improvement than Group I II (differences between pretest and posttest s i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l ) . The mean gains made by Groups I, II and III were i n increasing order and s i z e . Groups I and II f a i l e d to show any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i -cant improvement i n their 'percent f a t ' scores, but Group I I I showed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t improvement at the .05 l e v e l of confidence. However, even this greater mean change for Group III was not large i n r e l a t i o n to the amount of f a t the women were s t i l l carrying at posttest. There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the sub-cutaneous f a t measures, but Group I I I did show a small improvement i n the mean t o t a l of a l l the measurements. 61 Thus, i n a l l three variables -- work capacity, 'percent body f a t ' and f a t c a l i p e r measurements -- there was a trend for the mean gains to increase according to increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program. Unfortu-nately these gains were not large enough to denote any important group changes i n the physical condition of the subjects. Rodahl (1) has pointed out: " I t does not take more than a couple of half-hour t r a i n i n g sessions a week. . .to m a t e r i a l l y im-prove the maximal work capacity within a month. . .the exercise must be s u f f i c i e n t l y intense to increase the heart rate to more than 130 beats a minute. Experience has shown that when t r a i n -ing a c t i v i t y i s less vigorous than that, no im-provement i n physical work capacity occurs." The p o s s i b i l i t y that the t r a i n i n g program did not produce the stimulus of exercise heart rate of 130 beats per minute or more with s u f f i c i e n t frequency may have been an important factor i n producing such small changes i n the work capacity. Yuhasz and Eynon (2) were not able to produce an improvement in cardiovascular scores for a group of college freshmen who were required to meet only once a week. However, they were able to show a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n " s i x of the s k i n f o l d f a t measures and the t o t a l body fat which was the sum of the ten s k i n f o l d f a t measures." The exercise program i n this weight control program consisted of "vigorous a c t i v i t y " . The Y.W.C.A. exercise program was probably not vigorous enough to cause a marked change i n c a l o r i c balance ( i . e . i n terms of energy ex-penditure) , and therefore was unable to show any marked improvement i n th e i r body f a t . Another factor which bears consideration i s c a l o r i c 62 intake. While the subjects were required to keep an account of t h e i r d a i l y food intake, and were counselled about the need for a c a l o r i c d e f i c i t to reduce body f a t , there were no s t r i c t dietary requirements. Group I seemed to provide a possible opportunity for estimating the r e l i a b i l i t y of the 16 Personality Factor scores, e s p e c i a l l y i n view of the absence of a control group. The members of this group attended the classes on so few occasions that i t would seem u n l i k e l y that any change in the mean scores between pretest and posttest could not be due to p a r t i c i -pation but rather to a lack of r e l i a b i l i t y inherent i n the test or to lack of p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( g u i l t feelings) or both. This i s , of course, speculative and cannot be proved. There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences between pretest and posttest mean scores for this group. The apparent raw score mean difference between tests could be viewed as a r i s i n g from sampling e r r o r s . This was i n accordance with the assumption that for t h i s group changes i n mean scores should not be expected to occur. The procedure of using the c r i t e r i o n of 1.5 stens as i n d i c a t i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between group means and adult female population means must be viewed with caution and reservations. Some of the apparent differences were between population means and sample pretest means and some were between population means and posttest sample means, but only one factor (B) showed s i g n i f i c a n t mean differences from the population mean at both t e s t s . Since the differences between pretest and posttest scores were not s i g n i f i c a n t for most of the f a c t o r s , i t seems reasonable to assume that the differences are due to sampling error. However, i n cases where both pretest and posttest sample means are r e l a t i v e l y close and one or the other, but not both, was 1.5 stens or more from the adult female population mean, i t seemed reasonable to interpret the scores as i n d i c a t i v e of difference although no claim has been made as to the s t a t i s t i c a l r e l i a b i l i t y of the difference. Groups I and III both scored considerably higher than the population mean on factor which indicates persons to be more well informed, more i n c l i n e d to experiment with problem solutions and less i n c l i n e d to moralize. As mentioned previously, a l l groups scored highly on the i n t e l l i g e n c e factor B, which might indicate that the Y.W.C.A. att r a c t s more i n t e l l i g e n t women, or, of a l l obese women, the more i n t e l l i g e n t women are more w i l l i n g to make some attempt to correct the s i t u a t i o n . Groups II and III d i f f e r e d a great deal on factor L, with Group II's mean score being high, i n d i c a t i n g high inner tension which takes the form of a f e e l i n g of s o c i a l i n s e c u r i t y , together with compen-satory behavior, and Group I l l ' s score being low, i n d i c a t i v e of persons who are easy-going, showing f r i e n d l y relaxation, and perhaps a lack of ambition and s t r i v i n g . There appears to be an important consideration from the fact that Group I scored much higher than the population on factors F, M and Q^, and lower on factor G. These scores are i n d i c a t i v e of persons who are enthusiastic and happy-go-lucky, introverted and absent-minded, r a d i c a l i n t h e i r outlook, and casual and undependable. The implication from these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s that persons of this nature would not re a l be expected to be able to stay with this type of program for any length time, which was the case i n this study. 64 From pretest to posttest Group II changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y (.05 l e v e l ) i n factor B and factor C. Factor B i s the i n t e l l i g e n c e factor and factor C showed the group as becoming more emotionally mature and calm. Group I I I changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y (.01) i n factor I, becoming more se n s i t i v e and effeminate, and factor Q^ , becoming more phlegmatic and composed. These changes from pretest to posttest for Groups II and I I I appear to be desirable, and are important for the Y.W.C.A. which places emphasis on the " S p i r i t and Mind", as well as on the "Body". In l i g h t of the re s u l t s of this Y.W.C.A. program and the findings of Stunkard and McLaren-Hume (3) who found that the majority of weight control programs were unsuccessful, i t appears to be question-able whether the e f f o r t , the expense, or the time can be j u s t i f i e d for this program. Of a l l the participants i n the program, very few were able to show marked improvements. The whole group personality changes were not large enough to be considered important, which tends to confirm C a t t e l l ' s b e l i e f (4) that a c t i v i t y i s not a "molder of personality". 65 REFERENCES Rodahl, K., "International Aspects of Comparative F i t n e s s " , Proceedings  and Research Papers, Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 1963, p. 30. Yuhasz, M. S., Eynon, R. B., "An Experiment i n Weight Control", Un-published Material from the University of Western Ontario, London, Canada, 1964. Stunkard, A., McLaren-Hume, M., "Results of the Treatment of Obesity", Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 103, 1959, pp. 812-817. C a t t e l l , R. B., Personality: A Systematic Theoretical and Factual Study, McGraw H i l l Book Company, New York, 1950. CHAPTER VI SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes i n work capacity, personality and body f a t i n obese women undergoing t r a i n i n g . Twenty-six subjects from the Vancouver Y.W.C.A. "180-Plus Club" v o l u n t a r i l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study. The subjects were tested before and aft e r a nine month program. The p r e t r a i n i n g and posttraining test environments and test procedures were standardized for a l l subjects. The experimental group met once per week, u n t i l halfway through the program, and then met twice a week. The program consisted of a gymnasium and pool exercise session and a group counselling session. A control group of eleven subjects was used to help e s t a b l i s h the r e l i a -b i l i t y of the Astrand test of physical work capacity. The following variables were measured as follows: (a) physical work capacity-- Astrand submaximal t e s t , (b) personality -- C a t t e l l ' s Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, Forms A and B, and (c) body fat -- determination of body density by underwater weighing and the use of Brozek and Keys formula, as well as subcutaneous fat measurements taken at si x s i t e s . Three groups were formed on the basis of attendance. 67 Conclusions The results of the study show that there was a s l i g h t improve-ment associated with a higher frequency of attendance, however, even the group with the highest frequency of attendance f a i l e d to show any physio-l o g i c a l l y important change i n work capacity or 'percent body f a t ' . The combined group r e s u l t s showed a departure from the general female adult population for i n t e l l i g e n c e , which was higher than the population mean, and for ego strength, which was lower at pretest. The poorest attenders, Group I, showed evidence of departures from the population i n factors which described them as being happy-go-lucky, absent-minded, casual and undependable. I t i s , therefore, not unexpected that persons with these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would drop out of the program. Groups II and I I I , with respective higher frequencies, of attendance, showed s i g n i f i c a n t changes from pretest to posttest i n factors which indicated that they became more emotionally mature (Group II) and more s e n s i t i v e and composed (Group I I I ) . These would appear to be desirable changes i n view of the Y.W.C.A.'s objectives for psychological as well as physical changes. On the basis of the findings of this study, i t does not appear that the time, money and e f f o r t required to run the "180-Plus Club" pro-gram can be j u s t i f i e d . Recommendations For future studies of the eff e c t s of a weight control program on adult women, i t i s recommended that the following points be considered: 68 (a) use of a c o n t r o l group f o r the p e r s o n a l i t y measurements to determine i f f a c t o r s other than p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program w i l l e f f e c t changes i n p e r s o n a l i t y ( i . e . the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t of such things as seasonal changes). (b) set the p r e t e s t work load f o r the Astrand t e s t s so that the s u b j e c t s ' heart rates reach about 150 beats per minute. This would a l l o w f o r a higher range i n which to show improvement. BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Astrand, P.-O., Work Tests With The Bic y c l e Ergometer, AB Cykel-fabriken Monark, Varberg, Sweden, 1965. C a t t e l l , R. B., Personality: A Systematic Theoretical and Factual Study, McGraw H i l l Book Company, New York, 1950. C a t t e l l , R. B., Description and Measurement of Personality, World Book Company, New. York, 1943. Committee on N u t r i t i o n a l Anthropometry, Food and N u t r i t i o n Board, National Research Council (A. Keys, Chairman), "Recommenda-tions concerning body measurements for the cha r a c t e r i z a t i o n of n u t r i t i o n a l status", i n Body Measurements for Human  Nu t r i t i o n , ( J . Brozek, ed.), Wayne University Press, D e t r o i t , 1956, p. 10. Consolazio, C. F., Johnson, R. E., Pecora, L. J . , Phy s i o l o g i c a l  Measurements of Metabolic Functions i n Man, McGraw H i l l Book Company, Toronto, 1963. Ferguson, G. A., S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis i n Psychology and Education, McGraw H i l l Book Company, New York, 1966. National Academy of Sciences, Techniques of Measuring Body Composition, (Brozek, J . , Henschel, A., eds.), National Council, Washington, D. C.,1961. N u t r i t i o n Symposium Series, Overeating, Overweight and Obesity, (R. S. Goodhart, ed.) The National Vitamin Foundation, New York, 1953. Rodahl, K., "International Aspects of Comparative Fi t n e s s " Proceedings  and Research Papers, Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 1963. 70 Rodahl, K., Issekutz, B., Muscle as a Tissue, Rodahl and Horvath, eds., McGraw H i l l Book Company, Toronto, 1962. U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Obesity and Health, ( J . Mayer, ed.), U. S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, D. C., 1966. Weight Control Symposium, Weight Control, Iowa State College Press, Ames, Iowa, 1955. B. PERIODICALS Astrand, I,, "Aerobic Work Capacity i n Men and Women With Special Reference to Age", Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, V o l. 149, Suppl. 169, 1960. Astrand, I., "Human Physical Fitness With Special Reference to Age and Sex", Ph y s i o l o g i c a l Reviews, Vol. 36, 1956, pp. 307-335. Astrand, I., Astrand, P.-O., Rodahl, K«, "Maximal Heart Rate During Work i n Older Men", Journal of Applied Physiology, V o l . 14, 1959, pp. 562-566. Astrand, I., Astrand, P.-O., Stunkard, A., "Oxygen Intake of Obese Individuals During Work on the B i c y c l e Ergometer", Acta  Physiologica Scandinavica, V o l . 50, 1960, pp. 294-299. Astrand, P.-O., "Human Physical Fitness With Special Reference to Sex and Age", Ph y s i o l o g i c a l Reviews, V o l . 31, 1960, pp. 307-335. Astrand, P.-O., Rhyming, I., "A Nomogram for the Calcu l a t i o n of Aerobic Capacity (Physical Fitness) From Pulse Rate During Submaximal Work", Journal of Applied Physiology, V o l . 7, 1954, pp. 218-221. 71 Auchincloss, J. H., Sipple, J., G i l b e r t , R., " E f f e c t of Obesity on V e n t i l a t o r y Adjustment to Exercise," Journal of  Applied Physiology, Vol. 18, 1963, p. 19. Behnke, A. R., Feen, B. G., Welham, W. C., "The S p e c i f i c Gravity of Healthy Men", Journal of the American Medical Associa-t i o n , V o l . 118, 1942, pp. 495-498. Bengtsson, E., "The Working Capacity i n Normal Children, Evaluated by Submaximal Exercise on the Bicy c l e Ergometer and Com-pared with Adults", Acta Medica Scandinavica, V o l . 154, 1954, pp. 91-109. Borg, G., Dahlstrom, H., "The R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y of a Physical Work Test", Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, V o l . 155, 1962, Brozek, J., "Physique and N u t r i t i o n a l Status of Adult Men", Human Biology, V o l . 28, 1956, pp. 124-140. Brozek, J., Henochel, A., Keys, A., on the Volume of Residual Physiology, V o l . 2, 1949, " E f f e c t of Submersion i n Water A i r i n Man", Journal of Applied pp. 240-246. Buskirk, E. R., Taylor, H. L., "Maximal Oxygen Intake and Its Relation to Body Composition with Special Reference to Chronic Physical A c t i v i t y and Obesity", Journal of Applied  Physiology, V o l . I I , 1957, p. 72. Buskirk, E. R., Taylor, H. L., Simonson, E., "Relationship Between Obesity and the Pulse Rate at Rest and During Work i n Young and Older Men", Arbeitsphysiologie, V o l . 16, 1955, P. 83. Ch r i s t a k i s , G., Sajecki, S., Hillman, R. W., M i l l e r , E., Blumenthal, S., and Archer, M., "Effect,,of a Combined N u t r i t i o n Education and Physical Fitness Program on the Weight Status of Obese High School Boys", Federation Proceedings, Vol. 25, 1966, P. 15. •72 Cureton, T., K., "The E f f e c t of Physical Training Sports and Exercise on Weight, Fat and Tissue Proportions", Professional C o n t r i -butions, No. 6, 25-40, 1958. Dempsey, J . A., "Anthropometrical Observations on Obese and Non-obese Young Men Undergoing A Program of Vigorous Physical Exercise", Research Quarterly, V o l . 35, 1964, p. 275. Dempsey, J . A., "Relationship Between Obesity and Treadmill Performance i n Sedentary and Active Young Men", Research Quarterly, V o l . 35, 1964, p. 288. Dempsey, J . A., Reddan, A. W., Rankin, J . , Balke, B., "Alveolar-a r t e r i a l Gas Exchange During Muscular Work i n Obesity", Journal of Applied Physiology, V o l . 21, 1966, p. 1807. Dempsey, J . A., Reddan, W., Balke, B., and Rankin, J . , "Work Capacity Determinants and Physiologic Cost of Weight Supported Work i n Obesity", Journal of Applied Physio-logy, V o l . 21, 1966, p. 1815. DeVries, M. A., K l a f s , C. E., "Prediction of Maximal Oxygen Intake From Submaximal Tests", Journal of Sports Medicine, V o l . 5, 1965, pp. 207-214. Dublin, L. I., "Benefits of Reducing", American Journal of Public  Health, V o l . 43, 1953, p. 993. Fezekas, J . F., "Current Concepts i n Therapy, Anorexigenic Agents", New England Journal of Medicine, V o l . 264, 1961, p. 501. Fischer, R. P., "Special Test Review of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire", Journal of C l i n i c a l Psychology, V o l . 12, 1956, pp. 408-411. Forbes, F. B., Gallup, J . , Hursh, J . B., "Estimation of Total Body Fat From Potassium-40 Content", Science, V o l . 133, 1961, P. 101. Greene, J . A., " C l i n i c a l Study of the Etiology of Obesity", Annals  of Internal Medicine, V o l. 12, 1939, pp. 1797-1803. Hein, F. V., Ryan, A. J . , "Contributions of Physical A c t i v i t y to Health", Research Quarterly, V o l . 31, 1960, pp. 263-285. Johnson, M. L., Burke, B. S., Mayer, J . , "Relative Importance of I n a c t i v i t y and Overeating i n Energy Balance of Obese High School G i r l s " , American Journal of C l i n i c a l  N u t r i t i o n , V o l . 4, 1956, pp. 37-40. Keys, A., Brozek, J . , "Body Fat i n Adult Man", Phys i o l o g i c a l Reviews, V o l . 33, 1953, pp. 245-325. McKee, W. P., Belinger, R. E., "C a l o r i c Expenditure of Normal and Obese Subjects During A Standard Work Test", Journal of  Applied Physiology, V o l . 15, 1955, p. 875. Mayer, J . , "Physical A c t i v i t y and Anthropometric Measurements of Obese Adolescents," Federation Proceedings, V o l . 25, 1966, P. 11. Mayer, J . , "Obesity Diagnosis", Postgraduate Medicine, Vol. 38, 1965,' p. A101. Mayer, J . , "Some Aspects of the Problem of Regulation of Food Intake and Obesity", New England Journal of Medicine, V o l . 274, 1966, p. 610. Mayer, J . , "Physiological Basis of Obesity and Leanness", N u t r i t i o n a l Abstracts and Reviews, V o l . 25, 1955, pp. 875-882. M i l l e r , A. T., Blyth, C. S., "Influence of Body Type and Body Fat Content on the Metabolic 'iCost of Work", Journal of  Applied Physiology, V o l . 8, 1955, p. 139. 74 Nagle, F. J . , Irwin, L. W,., " E f f e c t s of Two Systems of Weight Training on Circulo-Respiratory Endurance and Related Physiological Factors", Research Quarterly, V o l . 31, 1960, pp. 607-615. Parizkova, J . , "Total Body Fat and Skinfold Thickness i n Children", Metabolism, V o l . 10, 1961, pp. 794-807. P a r n e l l , R. W., "Somatotyping by Physical Anthropometry", Anthropology, Vo l . 12, 1954, p. 209. Pascale, L. R., Grossman, M. I., Sloane, H. S., Frankel, T., "Corre-l a t i o n s Between Thickness of Skinfolds and Body Density i n 88 So l d i e r s " , Human Biology, V o l . 28, 1956, pp. 165-176. Passmore, R., "Daily Energy Expenditure i n Man", American Journal  of C l i n i c a l N u t r i t i o n , V o l . 4, 1956, p. 692. •Ra<thbun, E. N., Pace, N., "Studies on Body Composition: I. The Determination of Total Body Fat by Means of the Body S p e c i f i c Gravity", Journal of B i o l o g i c a l Chemistry, Vol. 158, 1945, pp. 667-676. Rowell, L. B., Taylor, H. L., Wong, Y., "Limitations to Pr e d i c t i o n of Maximal Oxygen Intake", Journal of Applied Physiology, V o l . 19, 1964, pp. 919-927. Se l t z e r , C. C., Mayer, J . , "A Simple C r i t e r i o n of Obesity", Post-graduate Medicine, V o l . 38, 1965, pp. A101-A107. Sprymarova, S., Parizkova, J . , "Changes i n the Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition i n Obese Boys After Reduction", Journal  of Applied Physiology, V o l . 20, 1965, p. 934. Stefanik, P. A., Mayer, J . , " C a l o r i c Intake i n Relation to Energy Output of Obese and Nonobese Adolescents", American Journal  of C l i n i c a l N u t r i t i o n , V o l . 7, 1959, pp. 55-63. 75 Stunkard, A., McLaren-Hume, M., "Results of the Treatment of Obesity", Archives of Internal Medicine, V o l . 103, 1959, pp. 812-817. Tanner, J . M., '.'The E f f e c t of Weight Training on Physique", American  Journal of Physical Anthropology, V o l . 10, 1952, pp. 427-461. Taylor, C., "The E f f e c t of Work Load on Heart Rate Studies i n Exercise Physiology", American Journal of Physiology, V o l . 135, 1941, pp. 27-42. Taylor, H. L., Brozek, J . , "Evaluation of F i t n e s s " , Federation Proceedings, Vol. 3, 1944, p. 216. Von Dobeln, W., "Human Standard and Maximal Metabolic Rate i n Relation to Fatfree Body Mass", Acta Physiologica  Scandinavica, V o l . 37 (Suppl. 126), 1956. Walker, H. C., "Obesity -- Its Complications and Sequelae", Archives of Internal. Medicine, V o l . 93, 1954, p. 95. Welch, B. E., Riendeau, R. P., Crisp, C. E., Isenstein, R. S., "Relationship of Maximal Oxygen Consumption to Various Components of Body Composition", Journal of Applied  Physiology, V o l . 12, 1958, p. 395. Wells, J. B., Parizkova, J . , J o k l , E., "Exercise, Excess Fat and Body Weight", Journal of the Association for Physical  and Mental R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , V ol. 16, 1962, pp. 35-40. Wilmer, H., "A Comparison of the Topography and Composition of the Body at B i r t h and i n the Adult by Newer Methods", . Anatomical Records, Vol. 73, 1939, p. 77. Wyndham, C. H., Strydom, N. B., Maritz, J . S., Morrison, J . F., Peter, J . , Potgieter, Z., "Maximum Oxygen Intake and Maximum Heart Rate During Strenuous Work", Journal of  Applied Physiology, V o l . 14, 1959, pp. 927-936. 76 Young, C. M., "Some Comments on the Obesities", Journal of the  American D i e t e t i c Association, V o l . 45, 1964, p. 134. Young, C. M., "Body Composition and Body Weight: C r i t e r i a of Overnutrition", Canadian Medical Association Journal, V o l . 9, 1965, pp. 900-910. Young, C. M., "Predicting S p e c i f i c Gravity and Body Fatness i n Older Women", Journal of the American D i e t e t i c Asso-c i a t i o n , V o l . 45, 1964, pp. 333-339. Young, C. M., Tensuan, R. S., Sault, F., and Holmes, F., "Estimating Body Fat of a Normal Young Women. V i s u a l i z i n g Fat Pads by Soft-Tissue X-Rays", Journal of the American D i e t e t i c Association, V o l . 42, 1963, p. 409. C. UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL Malumphy, T. M., "The Personality and General C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Women Athletes i n I n t e r c o l l e g i a t e Competition", Ph.D. Thesis, Ohio State University, Columbus, 1966. Reigart, A. H., "Physical Growth and Personality Adjustment", Ph.D. Thesis, Western Reserve University, Cleveland, 1948. Ruys, J . , "The Relation of Basal Oxygen Intake To Body Components", Ph.D. Thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , Urbana, 1956. Yuhasz, M. S., "The E f f e c t s of Sports Training on Body Fat i n Man With Predictions of Optimal Body Weight", Ph.D. Thesis, University of I l l i n o i s , Urbana, 1962. Yuhasz, M. S., Eynon, R. B., "An Experiment i n Weight Control", Unpublished Material From the University of Western Ontario, London, Canada, 1964. 77 Yuhasz, M. S., Cureton, T. K., "Body Fat Changes With Sports Training", Presented at the American College of Sports Medicine, Dallas, Texas, 1965. APPENDIX A STATISTICAL TREATMENT 79 STATISTICAL TREATMENT A. Pearson Product-Moment C o e f f i c i e n t of Correlation r = NEXY - EX EY Jl-mX2 - (EX")2] [ NEY 2 - (EY) 2] Where N = the number of subjects X = the i n i t i a l test score Y = the retest score B. Calculations Required f o r Sums of Squares Rows Columns R T R rh T ' C " N ,2 Interaction R C , R r ? - ? 1 2 2 E E Xrc - C E Tr - E T.c + T r=l c=l r=l R c =1 Total R C T 2 2 — E E Xrc - N N r=l c=l (1) — & T 2 T 2 ( 2 ) C r=l r - — 80 th Where T denotes the sum of a l l observations i n the r row, r th T.c denotes the sum of a l l observations i n the c column, T denotes the sum of a l l observations i n the c e l l rc th , th , • corresponding to the r row and c column, T denotes the sum of a l l N observations. C. F - Ratio Sc S i (3) REFERENCES Ferguson, G. A., S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis in Psychology and Education, McGraw H i l l Book Company, New York, 1966, p. 111. Ibid., p. 313. Ibid., p. 316. APPENDIX B SAMPLE DATA SHEETS ASTRAND TEST 83 Record following entries in laboratory book. Date __________________ Time of Day Time since last meal Time since last cigarette Time since last cup of coffee State of training: Describe, using one of the following categories. 1. Completely untrained. 2. Sporadic muscular activity = a few times a month. 3 . Regular but li g h t exercise = once or twice a week. 4. Rather intense training one or more times a week, 5. Hard training for competition several times a week. Age Years Body Weight lbs. Kgs. (2.2 lbs - 1 Kg.) First Load = TEST RECORD _Kp. Second Load Kp. Third Load _Kp, Mins. of Exercise Record Revolu Cum. ed tions Per Min. Pulse Rate Rec or Revolu Cum. ded tions Per Min. Pulse Rate Recor Revolu Cum. ded tions Per Min. Pulse Rate 0 - 1 1 - 2 2 - 3 3 - 4 4 - 5 5 - 6 Uncorrected Max. 0^ Intake Corrected Max. 0^ Intake litres/min. x correction factor litres/min.; cc/Kg/min. Rating BODY DENSITY DETERMINATIONS BY UNDERWATER WEIGHING 84 NAME DATE (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) Conversions Weight of Body i n A i r Temperature of Water Temperature of A i r Barometer Pressure Density of Water _lbs. i 2.2046 = °F - 32 = Kgs. F - 32 = . M i l l i b a r s at x f -_ mmHg. C Water Temp. Scale Weight at (A) F u l l I n s p i r a t i o n Lowest Weight = Kgs. Kgs. Kgs. Weight of Sinkers = out Weight withlj^Sinkers = Correction for. A i r i n Lungs Best V.C. submerged at Room Temp. (. V.C. Corrected f o r 3 7 ° C (Sat.) 3c) = V.C. 310c 310 273° + Room Temp.°C 30% of Corrected V.C. .30 x (10) (11) (12) A i r Inhaled at Weighing Corrected f or 37°C. (Sat) A.I, 310 310 273° + Room Temp.°C L i t r e s A.T.P.S. L i t es Corrected B.T.P.S, L i t r e s Residual Lung.Vol, L i t r e s Corrected B.T.P.S. (13) (14) (15) (16) Add (11) and (12) = L i t r e s T o t a l Lung Vol. at 37 C M u l t i p l y (13) by Density of Water at Water Temp, x Density = Lung Vol. i n Kgs^ Weight without Sinkers Kgs. (8) Plus Lung Volume i n Kgs. Kgs. (15) Weight of Body i n Water (Corrected f o r A i r i n Lungs) = Kgs. (8+15) Body Weight of Body i n A i r Density of x Water at Density Weight of Ecdy i n A i r - Correction Wt. of Body-in Water W a t e r He^p, , B o d y F a t . 3.(02) x m• - - 3.813) x M2 = Body Wt. = Kgs. l b s . Fat Wt. = Kgs. l b s . Fat Free Wt.= Kgs*. l b s . % APPENDIX C RAW SCORES 86 PERSONALITY FACTOR SCORES GROUP I PRETEST S U B J E C T A B C E F G H I L M N 0 Q l Q 2 Q 3 1 8 6 5 4 8 7 7 2 9 4 8 6 5 5 8 4 3 4 7 3 8 7 4 5 1 7 9 •6 7 8 6 5 7 4 9 9 3 6 8 5 7 3 5 4 4 6 5 4 7 7 5 6 9 7 7 5 4 7 6 1 6 6 5 7 3 7 6 6 1 9 2 4 5 4 1 7 5 9 1 7 5 5 4 8 7 9 8 3 8 8 2 7 8 5 10 7 4 9 8 5 7 8 4 5 6 6 10 2 8 6 4 8 6 3 8 5 4 2 GROUP I POSTTEST S U B J . E C T A B C E F G H I L M N 0 <rl Q 2 ^3 ^4 1 8 3 5 3 7 6 7 3 8 3 7 3 8 2 7 7 3 3 10 3 7 7 1 6 1 8 10 5 6 9 7 3 6 4 8 10 4 6 8 3 7 3 5 3 6 6 8 4 5 6 5 7 10 7 8 6 5 7 5 1 5 7 6 8 4 4 6 6 1 8 2 2 3 4 1 6 6 8 2 7 5 7 5 6 7 7 8 3 10 6 . 1 7 6 4 10 7 3 10 7 6 6 8 4 5 5 7 9 5 8 5 2 7 3 1 6 4 4 3 87 GROUP I I PRETEST S U B J E C T A B C E F G H I L . M N O Q i Q 2 Q 3 Q 9 4 10 4 10 6 2 5 3 6 9 6 7 9 6 3 8 10 2 7 5 6 8 4 4 6 8 8 5 6 7 6 7 7 11 6 2 3 5 5 2 4 4 7 5 4 5 6 7 4 7 12 7 5 4 3 6 3 4 5 6 6 4 6 7 4 7 4 13 4 3 3 5 5 4 4 4 6 5 4 6 6 3 4 9 14 8 8 3 9 7 6 7 6 8 4 4 6 6 5 6 8 15 2 10 2 7 1 7 3 8 8 8 7 8 5 7 5 7 16 8 5 1 7 7 5 5 6 10 8 3 6 5 3 4 7 17 4 6 4 5 4 8 4 5 4 7 7 7 5 6 3 6 GROUP I I POSTTEST S U B J E C T A B C E F G H I L M N 0 <*! ^2 ^3 ^4 9 4 10 3 10 5 1 4 3 7 10 6 9 8 7 5 9 10 3 7 5 8 8 2 5 3 7 7 4 4 7 7 8 4 11 3 3 6 8 6 5 4 3 6 4 5 5 5 7 6 6 12 7 7 5 3 6 5 4 6 5 3 4 5 8 3 6 3 13 4 7 5 6 6 6 4 4 5 2 3 6 6 4 8 8 14 6 7 6 7 6 5 6 5 5 6 4 5 7 4 6 5 15 2 10 2 7 3 5 2 7 8 3 3 8 1 5 4 8 16 6 6 3 7 7 6 5 5 9 6 5 7 5 5 3 6 17 4 8 4 6 4 4 4 6 5 6 3 4 5 6 4 7 GROUP I I I PRETEST S U B J E C T A B C E F G H I L M N 0 *1 2^ Q3 18 5 8 4 2 6 6 4 6 3 5 2 8 5 2 3 8 19 3 8 2 6 5 3 5 5 8 6 8 9 9 5 3 6 20 6 6 2 4 5 4 3 7 3 9 3 9 6 6 3 8 21 6 8 4 4 3 6 3 5 2 7 6 8 7 9 4 8 22 5 8 8 7 6 7 8 4 2 4 5 4 6 3 9 2 23 4 9 5 6 5 5 4 1 5 2 5 4 5 5 7 4 24 6 5 7 2 4 6 5 3 3 4 5 6 9 4 6 6 25 5 7 5 6 5 6 4 4 6 7 6 6 5 7 5 7 GROUP I I I POSTTEST S U B J E C T A B C E F G H I L M N 0 <*1 2^ ^3 %. 18 6 10 3 2 6 7 5 9 2 8 5 6 7 3 6 6 19 3 7 3 7 6 4 6 6 5 6 9 8 6 6 5 6 20 4 9 3 4 4 3 3 8 3 9 2 8 7 6 2 6 21 6 7 4 3 1 6 1 6 5 8 4 7 7 9 5 7 22 5 7 8 7 7 8 10 4 1 4 7 4 8 4 9 1 23 4 10 6 6 5 4 5 3 6 2 6 5 8 5 7 3 24 6 6 6 3 6 4 6 6 3 4 7 5 8 6 5 3 25 6 8 6 5 5 5 4 5 4 6 5 5 8 7 5 6 89 G S R U 0 B U P J E C T A G E FAT WEIGHT WEIGHT E T FAT FREE WEIGHT E S T PER ASTRAND CENT HEART FAT RATE P 0 S T T FAT PER FAT FREE CENT WEIGHT WEIGHT WEIGHT FAT l ASTRAND HEART RATE 1 58 186.0 91.6 94.4 49.2 127 183.0 85.8 97.2 46.9 122 2 43 189.0 — - - — 129 184.0 74.5 109.5 40.5 129 3 53 201.0 98.9 101.1 49.2 144 189.0 73.3 115.7 38.8 146 4 46 195.0 89.1 105.9 45.7 146 185.0 78.8 106.2 42.6 140 I 5 45 242.5 99.4 143.1 41.0 136 254.0 126.0 148.0 49.6 136 6 40 276.0 130.8 145.2 47.4 127 279.5 132.5 147.0 47.4 128 7 30 242.5 100.4 142.1 41.4 132 248.5 n o ; i 138;4 44.3 117 8 38 208.5 104.5 104.0 50.1 123 209.5 79.6 129.9 38.0 115 9 39 270.5 133.1 137.4 49.2 120 268.0 — — — 114 10 41 216.0 104.8 111.2 48.5 118 200.0 80.2 119.8 40.1 122 11 45 211.0 96.4 114.6 45.7 156 207.0 103.5 103.5 50.0 154 12 34 241.5 108.3 133.2 44.8 144 236.0 108.8 127.2 46.1 139 II 13 38 206.0 - - — — 118 201.0 - - — - - 122 14 35 240.5 114.4 126.1 47.5 137 232.5 98.1 134.4 42.2 124 15 46 201.5 — — — 147 188.5 — — — 145 16 29 250.5 - - — - - 139 254.5 115.0 139.5 45.2 129 17 41 183.0 74.0 109.0 40.6 120 176.0 71.3 104.7 40.5 119 18 34 197.5 88.5 109.0 44.9 145 196.5 69.0 127.5 35.1 141 19 46 197.0 - - — — 135 182.0 — - - - - 117 20 40 203.5 70.5 133.0 40.1 139 179.0 65.0 114.0 36.3 144 21 47 186.5 76.5 110.0 41.0 154 164.5 57.0 107.5 34.6 144 III 22 37 198.0 103.5 94.5 52.3 131 182.0 73.2 108.8 40.2 128 23 53 246.5 118.2 128.6 47.9 125 242.5 114.9 127.6 47.4 123 24 59 181.0 90.0 91.0 49.7 139 174.5 78.7 95.8 45.1 125 25 34 199.5 88.6 110.9 44.4 130 193.0 82.2 110.8 42.6 114 26 67 183.0 — — — 123 173.0 — 124 R 0 U P I I s u B J E C T SUBCUTANEOUS FAT MEASUREMENTS P R E T E S T SUB SUPRA FRONT REAR SCAPULAR TRICEPS IL IAC UMBILICAL THIGH THIGH SUB P O S T T E S T SUPRA FRONT REAR SCAPULAR TRICEPS IL IAC UMBILICAL THIGH THIGH 1 37.0 25.0 50.0+ 44.5 43.0 32.0 38.1 29.8 50.0 46.8 44.0 34.7 2 -- 20.5 24.7 29.5 40.5 44.2 50.0+ 3 19.5 16.0 32.0 23.5 40.5 45.0 18.0 16.7 34.7 29.7 36.0 46.0 4 34.0 24.6 35.3 46.0 50.0+ 50.0+ 28.0 21.0 37.0 48.2 51.7 50.0+ 5 33.5 30.8 37.5 45.2 38.7 50.0+ 41.0 35.2 53.5 54.5 51.7 50.0+ 6 41.5 38.0 46.1 50.0+ 50.0+ 50.0+ 43.7 40.7 49.7 53.5 50.0+ 50.0+ 7 40.0 29.5 44.0 50.0+ 50.0+ 50.0+ 38.5 27.7 56.0 50.0+ 50.0+ 50.0+ 8 24.5 26.2 35.7 39.0 43.0 50.0+ 27.3 31.5 39.7 42.5 48.1 50.0+ 9 43.7 33.2 48.5 45.7 49.0 33.0 10 24.5 28.5 46.5 40.7 49.5 49.5 22.5 31.2 37.2 41.2 49.7 50.7 11 36.0 36.0 42.0 46.6 49.0 50.0+ 32.0 34.5 42.0 47.5 51.5 50.0+ 12 35.0 32.7 45.6 50.0+ 50.0+ 50.0+ 34.7 29.3 45.5 45.2 50.0+ 50.0+ 13 39.5 26.2 50.0+ 43.5 50.0+ 50.0+ 14 1 c: 36.2 41.2 38.0 44.0 50.0+ 50.0+ 42.5 39.7 38.0 48.0 50.0+ 50.0+ i J 16 44.0 21.5 50.0+ 45.5 46.0 38.5 48.5 23.5 50.0+ 50.0+ 50.0+ 50.0+ 17 19.5 21.5 26.5 35.5 40.5 40.0 20.2 23.0 29.7 40.0 40.7 46.0 18 29.0 25.7 27.5 25.5 38.0 40.5 36.5 27.0 28.2 42.2 34.3 41.0 19 32.5 24.0 43.7 41.5 39.2 45.0 . --20 43.0 33.5- 47.5 50.0+ 48.0 36.5 34.7 27.2 39.5 49.2 36.6 37.6 21 27.0 28.0 40.3 43.5 45.0 40.5 20.2 24.0 24.2 37.7 35.2 45.7 22 42.0 32.5 44.0 45.0 50.0+ 50.0+ 37.8 33.5 42.5 43.2 49.5 50.0+ 23 33.5 27.5 41.0 40.5 42.5 46.5 31.5 29.6 38.0 40.6 43.1 50.7 24 31.3 29.0 38.3 41.7 50.0+ 50.0+ 35.0 29.0 34.0 39.2 51.0 50.0+ 25 41.0 42.5 50.0+ 47.5 " 48.5 50.0+ 42.2 42.2 48.0 49.5 49.5 50.0+ VO o 

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