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Motor performance of correctional institution inmates Pelton, Terrance Ronald 1965

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MOTOR PERFORMANCE OF CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION INMATES, by TERRMCE. R... PELT ON 3.P..E., UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1961 A. Thesis Submitted In P a r t i a l Fulfilment Of The Requirements For The Degree Of Master of Physical Education i n the School of Physical Education and Recreation We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Ap r i l , . 1965 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree; at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study... I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.. Department of Physical Education and Recreation.: The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada* Date A p r i l . , 1965 • ABSTRACT The problem of t h i s investigation -was to test the motor performances of Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n inmates, compare t h e i r performances to various norm populations, f i n d out i f t h e i r motor performances improved afte r they stayed f o r a short period of time i n the I n s t i t u t i o n , determine whether t h e i r motor performances were t y p i c a l f o r the dominant physique type of delinquents and decide whether factors such as siz e , maturity and mental performance had any rela t i o n s h i p to t h e i r motor performances.. The purpose of the investigation was to arri v e at some kind of a "motor performance picture" of delinquents, as compared to the "normal population." It was hypothesized that:, (a) inmate motor performances and mental performances would be lower than those of the norm population; (b) inmate motor performance would not be t y p i c a l of t h e i r dominant physique type;; (c) inmates would improve motor performances after a short stay at the I n s t i t u t i o n ; and (d) relationships would be-found between s i z e , . maturity, mental performance and motor performance. The subjects were 670, male inmates of the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia, ranging i n age from lh to HO, but with the majority between 17 and 23; years of age.. Of t h i s population of 6 7 0 , only 280 were given the Motor Ed u c a b i l i t y test, one of the motor performance items. Tests were given to inmates oh t h e i r a r r i v a l and again af t e r four months and the pertinent data recorded. The re-test population decreased i n size from 670 to 255 and from 280 to 129 for the Motor Educa-b i l i t y t e s t . Transfers, discharges, medical and various other reasons not connected with physical education and out of the investigator's control caused these reductions. The reductions and some missing data further reduced the size of the population to 111 when the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n matrix: of a l l variables was calculated by the computer.-A computer was used for the majority of the s t a t i s t i c a l ; work to obtain means, standard deviations, i n t e r c o r r e l a -t i o n matrix of a l l variables and t s t a t i s t i c of d i f f e r -ences between i n i t i a l and re-test motor performance scores., Other calculations, such as the t s t a t i s t i c of differences between H.C.I.. inmates' scores and those of the norm populations, and preparation of frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n polygons, were done by the investigator. The r e s u l t s , i n a l l but a few instances, supported s t a t i s t i c a l l y the hypotheses stated by the investigator. It was concluded, therefore, that Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n inmates had lower motor performances than the various norm populations, had motor performances that were not t y p i c a l f o r the dominant physique type of delinquents, had i n f e r i o r mental performances, had heights and weights that were shorter and l i g h t e r than the norms and had t y p i c a l relationships between mental performance, size, maturity and motor performance.. 2 TABLE.OP CONTENTS Chapter Page I Introduction 3; II. Related Literature 22! I l l Methodology 55 IV Results 75 V Discussion 96-VI Summary and Conclusions 10.6. Bibliography 110. Appendix. 117 L i s t of Tables I H.C.I.. and Norm Population Motor Performance Scores 80 II F i r s t T r i a l and Re-Test Motor Performance Scores 86, III. H.C.I... and Norm Population Mental Performance Scores 9 0 , 91 IV I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n Matrix of a l l Variables 95> CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO THE.PROBLEM There has been a growing d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , , on the part of Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n Administrators, with i n s t i t u -t i o n a l programs as a solution to the problem of a constantly increasing delinquent population.. Projections made by experts for the C a l i f o r n i a Youth Authority, f o r example, show that the number of wards i n i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l double i n the next ten years i f present trends con-tinue. I n s t i t u t i o n programs are becoming increasingly expensive to operate, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f they attempt to provide educational, vocational, and c l i n i c a l treatment services. In spite of t h i s expense, however, there has been growing evidence that the t r a d i t i o n a l c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e i n a l t e r i n g delinquent behavior patterns. Recidivism rates remain high i n the best-managed corre c t i o n a l systems.. There i s also considerable evidence that many offenders with r e l a t i v e l y low delinquency orientation may be adversely affected by t h e i r c o r r e c t i o n a l experiences. Correctional administrators, therefore, are now, more than ever, look-ing f o r more e f f e c t i v e ways of meeting the above problems (1). Recent trends. One way that authorities have found to ensure that e f f e c t i v e practices are used i s to demand that new practices and procedures he subjected to the scrutiny of research i n order to be j u s t i f i e d - Accept-ance of new c o r r e c t i o n a l programs should depend on t h e i r effectiveness proved through research. Correctional authorities agree that such research should not only be c a r r i e d out i n u n i v e r s i t i e s and s p e c i a l research i n s t i -tutes, but, i n so f a r as i s f e a s i b l e , the c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s should carry out research themselves (.1). . Physical education., Although programs of physical education within c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s are new, they have begun to be accepted as a necessary part of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l t r a i n i n g for delinquents. L i t t l e evidence of a s c i e n t i f i c nature exists, however, to support the contributions of these programs.. They have often been considered as merely a means for inmates to " l e t o f f steam" i n harmless a c t i v i t y . Men l i k e Medve (.9) have confirmed, through research, that there i s a r e h a b i l i t a -t i v e q u a l i t y i n such programs. He found that a s i g n i f i -cant rel a t i o n s h i p existed between p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a t h l e t i c s and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , as expressed i n terms of i n s t i t u t i o n a l behavior and subsequent parole success or f a i l u r e of the subjects./ Physical education i n the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u -t i o n . The writer, from experience gained during his. 5 association with inmates of the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n , was aware that many suffered from feelings of inadequacy when p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n physical education a c t i v i t i e s . . They expressed fears of i n a b i l i t y when approaching new situations i n a t h l e t i c s and demonstrated a lack of a b i l i t y to perform many basic motor s k i l l s . , < Outstanding performances were rare and competition with community teams was one-sided, with the i n s t i t u t i o n teams lo s i n g repeatedly. I t was suspected, therefore, that inmates had a lower motor performance l e v e l than young men i n the community^ A difference i n motor s k i l l a b i l i t i e s between new a r r i v a l s and those already i n the i n s t i t u t i o n for some time was also demonstrated. New inmates were extremely awkward and clumsy i n a t h l e t i c s , requiring considerable conditioning and i n s t r u c t i o n i n order to learn basic motor s k i l l s . Differences i n a b i l i t y were most pro-nounced i n intramural competition. New inmates l i v i n g i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n unit were no match for other unit teams. The inference from these observations was that inmates who had been exposed to the i n s t i t u t i o n physical education had a higher l e v e l of motor performance than those delinquents who had not been exposed to i t . This also, implied that inmates who were exposed to the physical education program acquired new motor s k i l l s or else markedly improved s k i l l s they had. 6 Physical status of .juvenile delinquents. Studies by-Sheldon (11) and the Gluecks (3>S5) revealed that over 60% of a l l the juvenile delinquents they examined were of mesomorphic body build. On analysis of the t r a i t s t y p i c a l f o r that physique type, i t was found that meso-morphic juvenile delinquents had t r a i t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from those usually associated with mesomorphic physique.. T r a i t s associated with ectomorphy and other physique types being found i n the delinquent mesomorphs led the Gluecks to surmise that those mesomorphs, i n whom t r a i t s . f o r e i g n to t h e i r physique type were present, were the ones most l i k e l y to become delinquents,. Since Physical Education research people have d i s -covered that mesomorphic body b u i l d i s associated with above average motor performance, one would expect, on the surface, that most juvenile delinquents would be above average i n motor performance. Personal observation of the juvenile delinquents'- motor performance did not, however, support t h i s notion. On the contrary, juvenile delinquents.were suspected of having i n f e r i o r motor performance a b i l i t i e s . . I t i s possible, therefore, that mesomorphic juvenile delinquents do not have motor performance t r a i t s u s u a l l y associated with that physique type-Thompson (12) and J e r s i l d (6). found that boys, i n general, valued motor performance s k i l l s above a l l other factors, such as academic performance and studiousness, and linked motor performance very c l o s e l y with popularity. Sheldon (11) added that delinquent boys Improved t h e i r behavior when brought to a r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e i r potentials i n motor performance.. This information leads one to surmise that the prestige of motor performance and i t s close association with popularity could combine with a delinquent's pre-d i s p o s i t i o n for a c t i v i t y ( t y p i c a l of mesomorphic physique) to make an unusually strong desire for a c t i v i t y , only to be frustrated by lack of r e a l i z a t i o n of these motor ; performances., THE. PROBLEM Statement of the problem. The general problem of t h i s investigation was to analyze.the motor performances of young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u -t i o n , compare t h e i r performances to those of the test.; norms, determine whether t h e i r motor performance t r a i t s were a l i e n to the dominant physique type of delinquents, determine the contribution of the I n s t i t u t i o n Physical Education program to t h e i r motor performances and f i n d out whether factors such as mental a b i l i t y , scholastic attainment, age, height and weight were related to the; motor performance scores i n any way.. 8 The purpose of the analysis was to arrive at some kind of a "motor picrture" : ;of the motor performance of these young men, i n terms of what the test results indicate or t e l l about them.. This information would supplement what i s already known about delinquents and, perhaps, be of sign i f i c a n c e i n gaining insight into t h e i r t o t a l make-up. Some indications as to the reasons why they are i n the ; i n s t i t u t i o n and what may be done through physical educa-t i o n to correct or change t h e i r behavior patterns might be provided through t h i s investigation.. In a more expanded and precise form, the purpose of t h i s investigation was to:; 1* Find the motor performance l e v e l s of young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n by analyzing t h e i r i n i t i a l and re-test scores on the Indiana Motor Fitness Index. I, Brace Motor E d u c a b i l i t y Test, McCloy General Motor Capacity Test, MeCloy Motor Quotient, and Twenty-Second Squat Thrust Test, and to compare t h e i r performances with the norms established for these t e s t s . It would be of value to corre c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n physical educators to know the l e v e l of motor performance of new inmates, as compared with young men of comparable size and maturity found i n the community. Knowledge of performance strengths and weaknesses would make fo r more e f f e c t i v e physical education program planning and instruc-tion.. Similar work has been done i n the academic 9 education areas where performance weaknesses have been revealed by comprehensive t e s t s , then followed up by concentrated i n s t r u c t i o n i n these areas to bring students up to community standards. 2., Find out whether motor performance t r a i t s foreign to, or t y p i c a l of, mesomorphic physique were dominant i n the young men, as revealed by a lower or higher motor perfor-mance l e v e l than the norm pppulation.. Based on the findings of Sheldon (11). and the Gluecks (h), i t was assumed that approximately s i x t y percent of the population i n the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n were mesomorphic i n body build.. An inves t i g a t i o n to f i n d t h e i r motor performance l e v e l might reveal motor performance t r a i t s a l i e n to mesomorphy, as was the case with the Gluecks' study (.*+). when they found t r a i t s i n mesomorphic delinquents that are foreign to that p a r t i c u l a r physique type. 3.. Find the contribution of the exi s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l physical, education program to the inmates' motor perfor-mance., This contribution was to be determined by comparing i n i t i a l motor performances with re-test performances, aft e r four months' exposure to the i n s t i t u -t i o n program.. Just as academic education supervisors use follow-up tes t i n g procedures to determine academic progress and. 10 effectiveness of i n s t r u c t i o n , so could physical education supervisors within c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s use re-test procedures to determine motor performance improvement and the effectiveness of i n s t r u c t i o n i n physical a c t i v i t i e s . h.. Find, i n addition, the r e l a t i o n s h i p of mental a b i l i t y , s cholastic attainment, age, height and weight to motor performance, by a c o r r e l a t i o n a l analysis.. Henmon Nelson Grade 6 - 9 Mental A b i l i t y scores, grade-last-completed, age, height, weight and McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index were to be included i n an i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n matrix of a l l motor performance variables to discover these relationships.. Where factors such as s i z e , maturity and mental a b i l i t y are tested and results used i n analysis i n order to determine t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to performance i n the academic areas, so also could these and other factors be tested i n order to determine t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the motor performance of inmates i n a correctional i n s t i t u t i o n . . I f such factors have any r e l a t i o n s h i p to motor performance, a better understanding of these relationships would aid physical education i n s t r u c t i o n and program planning. HYPOTHESES. To give d i r e c t i o n to the study, the following hypothe-ses were formed.-1.. Young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n w i l l have lower scores on the Brace Motor 11 Educability t e s t , Indiana Motor Fitness Index: I, Twenty-Second Squat Thrust te s t , McCloy General Motor Capacity test and McCloy Motor Quotient te s t , than the norm populations f o r these tests., 2. , Young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n w i l l have lower than average motor performance scores, a t r a i t not associated with mesomorphy, the assumed dominant physique type of the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n inmates.. 3 „ Young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n w i l l improve t h e i r motor performance scores, after four months' exposure to the I n s t i t u t i o n Physical Education program, as revealed by differences i n i n i t i a l and re-test mean motor performance scores.. h„ Young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n w i l l have a lower mean score on the Henmon Nelson Grade 6-9 Mental A b i l i t y test, than the norm population for t h i s test.. •5; Young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n w i l l have completed fewer grades i n school than the norm population, the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t ^ i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 6.. Young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n w i l l be shorter i n height, and l i g h t e r i n weight than the norm population., 12 7.. Mental a b i l i t y and scholastic attainment of young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n w i l l be p o s i t i v e l y related to t h e i r motor performance scores, as revealed on an i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n matrix of a l l variables. 8. Age, height, weight and the McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index of young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n w i l l be related to motor performance scores, as revealed on an i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n matrix of a l l variables., In conducting t h i s investigation, the following n u l l hypotheses were examined:. 1. Young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n w i l l reveal no s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n t h e i r scores on the Brace Motor E d u c a b i l i t y test', Indiana-Motor Fitness Index I, Twenty-Second Squat Thrust.test, McCloy General Motor Capacity test and McCloy Motor Quotient t e s t , as compared with the norm populations f o r these t e s t s . 2. - Young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n w i l l reveal motor performance t r a i t s that are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from those associated with mesomorphy, the assumed dominant physique type of the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n inmates.. 3;. Young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n w i l l , not display s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n motor performances a f t e r four months' exposure to the 13 i Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n Physical Education program, as revealed on i n i t i a l and re-test motor performance comparisons. h» Young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n w i l l not reveal s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n t h e i r scores on the Henmon Kelson Grade 6-9 Mental A b i l i t y t e s t , as compared with norms established for t h i s test.. 5- Young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n w i l l not reveal s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n t h e i r scholastic attainment, as compared with norms for the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t , i n B r i t i s h Columbia., 6.. Young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n w i l l not reveal s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n t h e i r height and weight, as compared to the norm population. 7 . Mental a b i l i t y and scholastic attainment of young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n w i l l not show a s i g n i f i c a n t relationship with t h e i r motor perfor-mance scores., as revealed on a c o r r e l a t i o n matrix of a l l variables.. 8.. Age, height, weight and McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index of young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n w i l l , not show a s i g n i f i c a n t relationship with motor performance scores., as revealed on an i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n matrix of a l l variables. Assumption.. Juvenile delinquents, as a group., are predominantly mesomorphic i n body build., A, s i x t y percent appearance of thi s physique type can be expected i n a correctional i n s t i t u t i o n , such as the Haney Correctional Institution.. Since somatotypihg i s a very complicated procedure, requiring a great deal of. time and experience to make accurate appraisal of physique types, no attempt was made to conduct such a study on the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n inmates. The comprehensive study of the Gluecks (*+) and Sheldon (.11), however, made the assump-tio n appear well founded. Delimitations. The Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n sees only a segment of the delinquent population. These are, for the most part, the chronic delinquents - those whom community services, both protective and corrective, have been unable to help. This group can be thought of as a residual group that has been strained through the sieves of many s o c i a l agencies. Coupled with t h i s selection process i s the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n procedure at Oakalla. Prison Farm. Inmates at Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n are selected from those at Oakalla by the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Board because the Board "believes , l ; these inmates may benefit from- the program at Haney. Since there i s no way, as yet, to determine exactly which inmates are able to benefit from t h i s program, we can assume that some 1 15 trainees at H.C.I., should not be there, and some at Oakalla Prison Farm should be at H.C.I.. Some trainees who were medically incapable of being tested f o r motor performance as determined by a medical doctor's examination, were excused from taking part i n the t e s t i n g program. Ages of trainees taking part i n the testing program ranged from 1*+ years to ho years, with the vast majority between 17 and 23 years of age. Limitations. 1. It was expected that "new a r r i v a l s " would experience some anxiety and be rather conscious of t h e i r movements i n front of other inmates. Despite the i s o l a t i o n of the test group from other inmates, some inmates may not have participated " a l l - o u t " on some items, to avoid embarrassment. Motivation to par t i c i p a t e " a l l -out" may have varied from group to group, creating discrepancies i n r e s u l t s . 2 . The ins t r u c t o r judged each performance and indicated to an assistant whether the subject "passed" or " f a i l e d " so that results could be recorded quickly.. Individuals tested f i r s t would have somewhat of a "disadvantage" over those tested l a s t , e s p e c i a l l y i n the Brace t e s t , because those tested l a s t would have a greater understanding of what was expected of them when i t came time to perform., 16 l 3*. After four months i n the I n s t i t u t i o n , and accompanying "institutionalization,"•some inmates took exception to "being re-tested. Some were so " h o s t i l e " that t h e i r results were biased and "disregarded." What effect such compulsory te s t i n g had on the majority i s d i f f i c u l t to estimate. Some i n h i b i t i n g e f f e c t , however, was expected. h. Individuals who experienced repeated failure, on some of the Brace test items were expected to become"rather discouraged i n the l a t t e r part of the test - e s p e c i a l l y since items i n t h i s area tended to be more d i f f i c u l t to perform. 5.- In computing t , to f i n d the sig n i f i c a n c e of the differences between the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n motor performance scores and those of the norm populations for the t e s t s , a l l the data needed was available except the N (number of subjects tested) for :some of the norm populations. Since i t was inconceivable that the norms were established and published without t e s t i n g at least one hundred persons, an N of 100. was used i n a l l calculations where the norm N was missing. 6.. Since the computer could not consider missing data: i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y manner for t h i s study, the 111 observa-tions^ (of the t o t a l 670.) with no missing data were used to construct the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n matrix of a l l v a r i a b l e s . This sample of 111 observations, therefore, was not 17 randomly selected using any of the usual s t a t i s t i c a l methods.. Since missing data occurred when inmates were not av a i l a b l e for the re-test (discharged or transferred to another i n s t i t u t i o n ) or had missed the mental a b i l i t y test - both reasons out of the control of the investiga-tor - a minimum of error due to sampling was expected. DEFINITIONS I Motor Educability.. (HE) McCloy (.7). introduced the term into the l i t e r a t u r e i n 193*+ and defined i t as "the a b i l i t y to develop high s k i l l quickly." Scott and French (10). sum up the l i t e r a t u r e on the subject by stating that motor educability i s the inherent aptitude (motor and mental) f o r learning new s k i l l s quickly and e f f e c t i v e l y . Tests devised to measure t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c involve motor problems new to the subject; they are presented through the usual media of i n s t r u c t i o n , verbal descrip-t i o n , and demonstration; they prohibit preliminary practice and allow very few t r i a l s ; they are of a success, or f a i l u r e type. Most of the tests which are proposed for measuring educability are of a stunt type and usually include several stunts i n order to secure sa t i s f a c t o r y ; r e l i a b i l i t y . , II Motor Fitness.. (MF) Mathews (8) defines motor f i t -ness as capacity f o r vigorous work. The aspects selected f o r emphasis are endurance, power, strength, 18 a g i l i t y , f l e x i b i l i t y and balance. III General-Motor Capacity., (GMO McCloy (.7). states •that just as there are tests,.for measuring i n t e l l i g e n c e , which i s l a r g e l y innate, so there are tests f o r measur-ing general-motor capacity, which i s l a r g e l y innate. "General" i s used to indicate the type of motor capacity that i s basic to a l l motor performance that involves large ranges of movement; i t i s used i n contrast to.the above tests which test more s p e c i f i c a b i l i t i e s . . "Motor" i s used for r e f e r r i n g to the neuromuscular and psycho-motor aspects. "Capacity" i s used to indicate potenti- a l i t y i n contrast to achievement. McCloy (7) refers to GMC as inborn, hereditary p o t e n t i a l i t i e s for general motor performance. His test includes motor f i t n e s s items, motor educab i l i t y items, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n index, speed and a g i l i t y ' i t e m s . Hence, whereas the above two tests measure more specific, a b i l i t i e s , the GMC measures.a much broader concept. IV Motor Quotient. (MQ.) The GMC, when divided by the norm for the subject and mult i p l i e d by 100, expresses his capacity as a percentage of the norm or Motor Quotient. This quotient i s the motor analogue of the IQ, score used i n the measurement of i n t e l l i g e n c e . The MQ indicates how the i n d i v i d u a l ranks when compared with others of equal size and maturity. A\ boy achieving an MQ; of 100 19 would be average f o r boys his age and siz e , whereas MQ;s of 120 and 80 would be above average and below average, respectively.. MQ 120 would indicate superior a b i l i t y to acquire new motor s k i l l s , and MQ; 80 would indicate d i f f i c u l t y i n learning new motor s k i l l s . . V Juvenile delinquent. The Juvenile Delinquent Act defines a juvenile delinquent as "any c h i l d who vio l a t e s any provision of the Criminal Code or any Dominion or P r o v i n c i a l statute of any by-law or ordinance of any municipality, or who i s g u i l t y of sexual immorality or any si m i l a r form of vice, or who i s l i a b l e by reason of any other act to be committed to an i n d u s t r i a l school or juvenile reformatory under the provisions of any Dominion or P r o v i n c i a l statute!" (.2). Young men entering Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n were considered to b e , i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d delinquents or young men with delinquent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 20 t REFERENCES 1.. American Correctional Association- "Manual of Correctional Standards," Issued by the American Correctional Association; pp., 3-6:, 1961+., 2*. Canadian Correctional Association.. "Towards a Better Understanding of our Juvenile Delinquents, 1 1 1 The  Canadian Journal of Corrections. -Vol. 1:. No.. 2:; 30-^O; Jan., 1 9 5 9 . 3... Glueck, S., The Problem of Delinquency. Boston: Houghton M i f l i n Co., pp. 2 5 0 - 2 5 5 , 1 9 5 9 . h„ Glueck, S. and E.- The Role of Constitution i n the  Problem of Delinquency. Boston:. Houghton M i f l i n Co., pp. 2 1 5 - 2 2 5 , . 1959.- :- • 5.. Glueck, S. and E. Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency. Cambridge, Mass..: Published by Harvard University •' Press, pp.. 2 7 3 - 2 8 1 , 1 9 5 0 -6 . J e r s i l d , A.-T... The: Psychology of Adolescence.. New York:: The Macmillan Co.., pp.. 3 6 3 - 3 6 7 , 1 9 6 3 . 7 - McCloy, C..H... and Young, Dv Tests, and Measurements . i n Health and Physical Education. New York:: Third E d i t i o n , Appleton - Century - Crofts, Inc..; pp.. 8 3 r l 7 7 , 1 9 5 ^ -21. 8... Mathews, D.K., Measurement i n Physical Education.. Philadelphia and London:: W.B.., Saunders Co., 1963.. 9* Medve, W.J.. "The Rehahilitative Aspects of Team Sports i n a Reformatory," Journal of Correctional  Education. Vol. 13:. No.. 3 : July, 1 9 6 1 . 10.. Scott, M..G*. and French E* Evaluation i n Physical Education... St., Louis:.. C..V. Moshy Co.; pp.. 193-95? 1950..-11., Sheldon, W..-H.., Stevens, S.S.. and Tucker, W.B., The Var i e t i e s of Human Physique. New York::.Harper and Brothers, -p.. 7 2 8 , 1 9 ^ 0 . 12.. Thompson, G..G.. "Dis t o r t i o n of S o c i a l R e a l i t y i n Delinquency,"' Education Psychology- New York:: Appleton-Century - Crofts Inc., 1959., CHAPTER II RELATED LITERATURE There i s very l i t t l e : material available on the motor performance and other a b i l i t i e s of juvenile delinquents, so the material of t h i s chapter i s necessarily related mainly to findings i n the "normal" ; population.. CHARACTERISTICS OF JUVENILE DELINQUENTS Mental ab i l i t y . , Most studies, agreed that, i n general, juvenile delinquents showed scores on verbal i n t e l l i g e n c e tests that were s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than normal ( 1 0 , 1 2 , 15).~ Some studies.placed the difference i n mental . a b i l i t y scores ten IQ points below norm populations ( 1 , 1 3 , 1 2 ) . Mussen, Konger and Kagan (20) stated that, although there was a somewhat larger proportion of mentally d e f i c i e n t children among juvenile delinquents than among the population at large, there was a wide range of i n t e l l i g e n c e i n the delinquent group. The mean difference between delinquents and the norm population was-.'hot large (about ten IQ points), they said, and there was a great deal of overlap between the delinquent and non-delinquent groups. Thus, they concluded., low i n t e l l i g e n c e , i n and of i t s e l f , could not be considered a major factor i n determining most cases of delinquency. 2 3 , The Gluecks (11) i n t h e i r comprehensive study i n which the two groups under comparison were si m i l a r , by virt u e of the manner i n which the boys were o r i g i n a l l y selected and matched, found certain differences i n the constituents of t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e s . F i r s t , the delinquents, as a group, were distinguishable from non-delinquents i n having a lesser capacity to approach problems methodically.. The delinquents had l e s s verbal i n t e l l i g e n c e , scoring lower than the control groups on the Vocabulary, Information, Comprehension and D i g i t , Symbol subtests of the Wechsler - Bellevue Scale. On the other hand, they attained a somewhat higher score: than the control group on two out of f i v e of the perfor-mance subtests, namely, Block Design and Object Assembly. The tendency toward dire c t and concrete ways of mental expression, said the Gluecks, f i t into the general picture of the delinquents as more simply organized than the non-delinquents. Other differences between delinquents and control group, the Gluecks found, were r e f l e c t e d i n scores on certain achievement tests.. In arithmetic reasoning, arithmetic computation, and to a lesser degree., i n reading comprehension and word meaning, the delinquents were i n f e r i o r to the control group. Low verbal i n t e l l i g e n c e , however, was the most s t r i k i n g difference the Gluecks found.. Mental a b i l i t y and motor performance.. Jer.sild (13). stated that at p r a c t i c a l l y a l l age l e v e l s , the i n d i v i -dual who was above average i n one major feature of h i s ; makeup was more l i k e l y to be above average i n other features. He found posi t i v e correlations between mental a b i l i t y and certain physical measurements. Among normal children, however, the correlations between mental a b i l i t y and bodily s i z e , and between i n t e l l i g e n c e and motor a b i l i t y , while p o s i t i v e , were low.. Although a re l a t i o n s h i p between i n t e l l i g e n c e and sensorimotor a b i l i t y was found by Thompson (25).- to be moderately high i n infancy, i t decreased with advancing age.. Mentally retarded children as a group were shown to be somewhat retarded i n motor development, while the i n t e l l e c t u a l l y g i f t e d tended to be generally superior i n motor a c t i v i t i e s . However, i n the o v e r a l l population the r e l a t i o n s h i p between factors of i n t e l l i g e n c e and motor achievement were so low as to be useless f o r prediction. McCloy (17) stated that almost no r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between i n t e l l i g e n c e quotients and measures of physical a b i l i t y . This lack of r e l a t i o n s h i p existed, he said, even i f i n t e l l i g e n c e quotients were correlated with motor quotients. For an i n d i c a t i o n of a b i l i t y i n physical s k i l l s , he concluded, i n t e l l i g e n c e quotients were useless scores, at least within the zone of i n t e l l e c t u a l normality maintained i n public schools.. Within the range of "subnormality" i n i n t e l l i g e n c e , however, the higher the i n t e l l i g e n c e quotient, the more quickly he found motor s k i l l s learned. Davis (6). stated that relationships between mental a b i l i t y and motor a b i l i t y were low. The a b i l i t y to be an expert performer i n motor s k i l l s was not dependent upon high l e v e l s of i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y or on an excellence i n academic i n t e l l i g e n c e . The d i f f i c u l t i e s that some a t h l e t i c coaches experienced when th e i r star performers were declared i n e l i g i b l e i n midseason because of s c h o l a s t i c d i f f i c u l t i e s was testimony to t h i s fact for him. In the early stages of the a c q u i s i t i o n of a complex motor s k i l l , Davis (6) stated, i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y had. a. great b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t . Intelligence helped the learner grasp the meaning of the i n s t r u c t i o n , and helped him to see the point rapidly. The bright person was able to sustain his concentration, follow direc t i o n s , think the performance through, formulate the concept, and to perform i t quickly and c o r r e c t l y . Brightness helped the learner to see the relationship of the s k i l l , t a other movements that were already learned.. Acquiring very complex movements involved more mental learning 26. than motor learning- Overall, Davis concluded, i n t e l l i -gence appeared to he more important i n influencing rapid learning than i n having marked effect on ultimate performance.. Van Dalen (261 tested Junior High School students and found that IQ correlated p o s i t i v e l y with:;, (i) Rogers Strength Index;: (r =. .26) ( i i ) McCloy General Motor Capacity (r = .28) ( i i i ) McCloy Motor Quotient (r = . 2 3 ) (iv) The number of play a c t i v i t i e s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n (r » . 3 0 ) . . Academic attainment and scholastic a b i l i t y . . Ferguson (7) found that the proportion of young men convicted rose as the l e v e l of scholastic a b i l i t y declined. He found the educational achievement of delinquents i n f e r i o r to that of non-delinquents.. The Gluecks (11). and Ferguson (7) found evidence that delinquents f a i l e d more grades, reached a lower l e v e l and a lower proportion f i n i s h e d school than non-delinquents. Out of 977 juvenile delinquents, Cole (1) found 8 5 percent were: retarded s c h o l a s t i c a l l y from one to f i v e years, 12 per-cent were normal for t h e i r grade and two percent were accelerated. L o u t t i t (15) and the Gluecks ( 1 0 , 11) found that-delinquent s showed consistent negative attitudes toward school. The Gluecks ( 1 0 , 1 1 , 12) stated that f a r more 27 of the delinquents than the non-delinquents markedly-d i s l i k e d school, and far fewer expressed any desire for education beyond grade school. As a group, they were less interested, less attentive, more often tardy, less r e l i a b l e , more careless i n work, l a z i e r , more r e s t l e s s , l e s s t r u t h f u l , and they sought more attention than the non-delinquents. Achievement was, therefore, r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r attitude toward schooling.. Fleischman (9) observed that the longer and more, int e n s i v e l y an i n d i v i d u a l was exposed to a school environment, the more the a b i l i t i e s developed there:-, contributed to his l a t e r achievements. r.-> Academic attainment and motor performance-. F l e i s c h -man -, (,9) .implied that the more prolonged the exposure to physical education programs i n schools, the more general motor performance a b i l i t i e s would be transferred to the indivi d u a l ' s l a t e r a t h l e t i c or other a c t i v i t i e s . Davis (6) stated that with the environment of school physical education classes, and given adequate time, most.indivi-duals could acquire the body control s k i l l s necessary for ease, grace and e f f i c i e n c y of movement needed f o r a c t i v i t i e s i n ordinary l i f e . Physical status - anthropometric considerations., The most s t r i k i n g finding i n the anthropologic analysis of 28 delinquents and non-delinquents .by both Sheldon (220 and the Gluecks (11). was the very high incidence of mesomorphic dominance ( s o l i d , muscular build) i n the. body structure of the delinquents.. There was a s i x t y percent incidence of mesomorphs among delinquents i n comparison with only twelve to fourteen percent of each of the other three body types. These percentages were evenly d i s t r i b u t e d for the nonedelinquents. The Gluecks (ll.)„ postulated some reasons f o r the excess of mesomorphy among delinquents - the main one being that t h i s physique type was more highly charac-t e r i z e d by t r a i t s p a r t i c u l a r l y suited to the commission of acts of aggression (physical strength, energy, i n s e n s i t i v i t y , the tendency to express tensions and f r u s t r a t i o n s i n action)... These t r a i t s were characterise t i c of a l l mesomorphs. As f o r the question of which boys among mesomorphs a c t u a l l y became delinquent, the fi n d i n g was that most of the t r a i t s that had a s p e c i a l impact on the delinquency of mesomorphs were not usually t y p i c a l of that physique.. It seemed reasonable fo r the Gluecks, therefore, to surmise that those meso-morphs i n whom t r a i t s a l i e n to t h e i r physique were present were the ones most l i k e l y to become delinquents. Endomorph delinquents (soft, roundness of physique), were more markedly submissive to authority, more sensuous-. 29 and more conventional than mesomorphs.. Endomorphs presented a much lower delinquency p o t e n t i a l than mesomorphs. The Gluecks (111 and Sheldon (22;) found that ecto- . morphs ( l i n e a r i t y and f r a g i l i t y of build) had outlets for f r u s t r a t i o n , not i n action, but i n i n t e r n a l emotional tension with resultant neurotic symptoms., Ectomorphs, i n general (normal group)., were more often; than mesomorphs characterized by the very t r a i t s that contributed so heavily to the delinquency of mesomorphs. Ectomorphs were more l i k e l y to be influenced to d e l i n - ' quency through problems at. home* Mussen, Konger and Kagan (20) add that i t was not l i k e l y that physique was a d i r e c t cause of delinquency. However, since mesomorphic, muscular boys were apt to be more p r o f i c i e n t at. masculine s k i l l s such as boxing and a t h l e t i c s , i t was more l i k e l y that these boys would be accepted by the "gangs" that t y p i c a l l y value t r a d i -t i o n a l masculine s k i l l s . I t could also have been that mesomorphs were more active generally and hence more l i k e l y to seek the types of outlets for t h e i r r e s t l e s s energy that gangs could provide. Since membership i n such a gang increased the p r o b a b i l i t y of being involved i n delinquent behavior, the i n d i v i d u a l ^ physique could have played a predisposing role., 39. Values attached to -physique and motor performance., A study hy Thompson (25) i n which relationships between motor performance and other t r a i t s , as shown by a group of C a l i f o r n i a boys who co-operated i n a growth study i n which various measurements were made at h a l f - y e a r l y i n t e r v a l s from age eleven to eighteen, provided some int e r e s t i n g information. Popularity was more c l o s e l y linked with physical strength and s k i l l i n a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s than with i n t e l l i g e n c e , school achievement, and socioeconomic status. J e r s i l d (13), also found that boys attached a high value to physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , " e s p e c i a l l y strength. He stated further that the fact that physical s k i l l s have great'prestige value suggested that troubled and unaccepted adolescents might benefit from a systematic program to improve motor performance, s k i l l s . , From his interviews with delinquent boys and from his observations of them, Sheldon (22) f e l t that much of t h e i r delinquent behavior was due to a lack of r e a l i z a -t i o n of t h e i r physical strength and a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y . . He stated that at least a dozen boys improved t h e i r behavior patterns more or less a f t e r being shown t h e i r own strengths'- and a b i l i t i e s . Physique and motor performance.. Cozens ( 2 0 , Cureton (3) . , Lindegaard (1^), M i l l e r ( 1 9 ), S i l l s ( 2 3 ), Tappan (2h) 31-and Willgoose (27),, to mention only a few, have examined the relationship between body types and motor perfor-mance.. Their studies have indicated the following to be true. F i r s t , the endomorphic i n d i v i d u a l (round and soft) i s characterized by an excessive amount of weight which i s a l i m i t i n g factor i n the performance of most s k i l l s . The "dead" weight which he carries around with him i s a serious handicap. Second, the ectomorphic i n d i v i d u a l i s muscularly weak, r e l a t i v e l y speaking, and subject to i n j u r y so that the types of contests and sports, i n which he may p a r t i c i p a t e at a highly competi-t i v e l e v e l are l i m i t e d by his body type. The mesomorphic i n d i v i d u a l i s characterized by physical ruggedness and strength that, without question, are conducive to excel-lent motor performance. Motor performance.- Fleischman (8) stated that i n the case of motor a b i l i t i e s , i n d i v i d u a l differences depended on the s e n s i t i v i t y of sense organs i n muscles and j o i n t s , on the composition of muscular tissue or on differences i n the structure of the central nervous system. The p a r t i c u l a r genes transmitted through heredity were also thought to play a s i g n i f i c a n t part i n determining one's basic a b i l i t i e s . However, Fleischman f e l t these genetic factors f i x e d only l i m i t i n g conditions, within which a wide range of v a r i a t i o n was. s t i l l possible. Within the boundaries set by heredity, environmental factors and 32 learning experiences were thought to play a major role i n influencing motor a b i l i t y development. According to Fleischman's (8) conceptualization,, the rate of learning and f i n a l l e v e l achieved by p a r t i c u l a r indi v i d u a l s i n certain motor s k i l l s was also l i m i t e d by the basic a b i l i t i e s of these i n d i v i d u a l s . Since these basic a b i l i t i e s were themselves f a i r l y stable, he con-cluded that he could make us e f u l predictions about < performances on s p e c i f i c tasks. For example, knowledge about the relevant motor f i t n e s s components should help one to predict performance i n vigorous a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t y . (Knowledge of other basic a b i l i t i e s such as motor educability and motor capacity, would further refine t h i s prediction.). The i n d i v i d u a l who had a great many highly developed basic a b i l i t i e s could become p r o f i c i e n t at a greater v a r i e t y of s p e c i f i c tasks than the i n d i v i -dual who had fewer basic a b i l i t i e s developed. Size and maturity... McCloy (17) stated that age, height, weight and body b u i l d influenced physical perfor-mance. He further stated that persons, young and adult, of the same age vary i n height, weight and body build., No one.of these factors, therefore, were adequate for c l a s s i f i c a t i o n purposes, a.combination of these factors was- needed.. Theoretical influence of weight. In an adult male of 33 good muscular development, McCloy (17) stated, the muscles constituted approximately UO to h5 percent of the weight of the body. An increase, due to t r a i n i n g , i n the weight of the body of a. person not increasing i n height was not, however, so d i s t r i b u t e d to the muscles, f o r the muscles increased i n weight f a s t e r than the bones and the viscera. Hence the muscles^,received more than Mo. percent of the increase i n weight.. Muscu-l a r strength, i f other physiological factors and psycho-l o g i c a l factors were equal, varied about i n proportion to the cross-sectional area of the muscles. Therefore, the cross-sectional area of the muscles increased more rapidly than the weight of the body as a whole, and hence muscular strength increased faster than the load (i.e.. the weight of the body as a whole). As a r e s u l t , an increase i n weight was accompanied by an increase i n performance a b i l i t y because; the increase i n muscular strength was disproportionate to the increase of the load*. Theoretical influence of height. McCloy C17X stated that when a person grew i n height, he increased the distances (lengths of limbs),, over which his muscular force was applied. I f a person grew i n height without increasing his load and without decreasing his muscular strength,, his muscular strength then, would be more ef f e c t i v e with the longer limbs than with the shorter limbs... Physiological elements, as well, McCloy (17). stated, may cause height to have an important effect on physical performance. Since, he claims, there i s f o r every person, regardless of how strong his muscles may be, a l i m i t to the speed with which he can contract his muscles,; a person may have more muscular strength than he can u t i l i z e . . I f a person with an excess of muscular strength increased i n height, he could then u t i l i z e some of the excess of muscular strength, and hence increase i n v e l o c i t y , f o r he then would have a greater distance over which he could apply his muscular strength. The longer the limb, the farther the end of the limb would move i n a given time with a given angular v e l o c i t y , and the farther a limb moved i n a given time with a given angular v e l o c i t y , the greater the l i n e a r v e l o c i t y at. the end of the limb. I f there was such an excess, per-formance would t h e o r e t i c a l l y vary d i r e c t l y with height up to the point at which there was no such excess of force available.. Theoretical influence of age.. McCloy (17). stated that there was a causal relationship between chrono-l o g i c a l age (up to a certain maximum), and excellence of a t h l e t i c performance. There was, perhaps, with increased chronological age, a greater "muscular matu-r i t y , " ' and a stronger w i l l to use complete effort.- Such factors, however, were- d i f f i c u l t to analyze.. The 35-influence of phys i o l o g i c a l age on performance, on the ; other hand, was supported by much evidence. In track-and-field events, postpubescent boys were found to exceed prepubescent boys of the same age, height, and weight. In strength the postpubescent boys were found to exceed the prepubescent boys by as much as 20 percent. From the ages of twelve to sixteen years i n c l u s i v e , McCloy (17) found almost a l i n e a r increase i n the- i n f l u -ence of physiological, age on performance.. Age ceased to make a contribution to performance at seventeen years. Limitations of age, height and weight as c l a s s i f i e r s . McCloy (17). stated that age, height, and weight were not e n t i r e l y adequate as a bases for c l a s s i f y i n g pupils, for p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n motor a c t i v i t i e s . As he pointed out, chronological age was only an approximation of matura-t i o n a l age. Even though the co r r e l a t i o n between weight and strength was high, weight did not necessarily denote strength (wide differences i n r e l a t i v e amounts of muscle and fat).. In spite of t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s , age, height and weight, were, because of t h e i r convenience and because of t h e i r high c o e f f i c i e n t s of cor r e l a t i o n with v a l i d c r i t e r i a , decidedly useful for c l a s s i f i c a t i o n purposes.. McCloy constructed a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n index, using the three factors i n a weighted formula. His index obtained a 36 c o r r e l a t i o n of .579, with High School track and f i e l d t o t a l points, and .,98 with the Neilson - Cozens C l a s s i -f i c a t i o n index.. It was emphasized by McCloy that age, height and weight could be used f o r purposes of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n only within limitations., S u b c l a s s i f i c a -tions f o r motor performance needed to be made on the basis of such items as motor educability, motor f i t n e s s and motor capacity., Fleischman (.9.) found that " s i z e " variables were related d i f f e r e n t l y to the four d i f f e r e n t strength f a c t o r s . Subjects who were heavier and t a l l e r did not do quite as well as other subjects on the dynamic strength factor.. On tests of s t a t i c strength, weight was e s p e c i a l l y important. Neither weight nor height, related to performance on explosive strength. Height correlated -.16 with squat thrusts, - . 1 9 with v e r t i c a l jump,.-.^2 with pull-ups, and - . 3 3 with push-ups-Weight correlated - . 1 7 with squat thrusts, - . 2 1 with v e r t i c a l jump, -J+5 with pull-ups and - . .25. with push- . ups.. Age correlated -».03 with squat thrusts, .OH- with v e r t i c a l jump, ..03 with pull-ups, and - . , 0 1 with push-ups.~ Van Dalen (26) i n a study of 3H8 Junior High School students found the following relationships with the McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index, Age, Height and Weight.. 37 A. , The McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index: correlated s i g n i f i -cantly with: (i) Roger's Strength Index:(r= ,?h)y ( i i ) General Motor Capacity (r = ..77),; ( i i i ) No. of play a c t i v i t i e s (r = . 2 7 ) ; . ( i v ) Time devoted to play ( r - . 3 2 ) ; (v) I..Q (r=.H - 3 ) . ; (vi) Weight (r = ..81); ( v i i ) Height (r=..M-3); ( v i i i ) Age ( r - . 7 5 ) . B. . Weight correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y with:: ( i ) Roger's Strength Index (r = . , 8 2 ) ; (ii),; General Motor Capacity (r = . ? 2 ) ; ( i i i ) Age (r = . ,63); (iv) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index (r = .8l).. C. ,. Height correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y with:, (i) Roger's Strength Index ( r = . 7 D ; ( i i ) General Motor Capacity ( r = . , 6 5 ) ; ( i i i ) McCloy Motor Quotient ( r - . 3 7 > ; (iv). C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index (r=.V3); (v) Weight ( r - . 7 3 ) ' D. Age correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y with::, (i) Roger's Strength Index (r = .71); ( i i ) General Motor Capacity (r = .70); ( i i i ) McCloy Motor Quotient (r = . W ; (iv) IQ (r».,H-6); (v) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index., (r - . 7 5 ) -Motor educability.. McCloy (17) defined motor educa-b i l i t y as the a b i l i t y to learn motor s k i l l s e a s i l y and well.. It corresponded, i n the area of general-motor s k i l l s , to i n t e l l i g e n c e i n the area of classroom subjects. Basic factors that he found i n a factor analysis of motor educability were:., insight into the 38 nature of the s k i l l ; the a b i l i t y to make quick and adaptive decisions; sensory-motor co-ordination relations of eye to hand, hand, or foot, weight and force; judgements of the relationship of the subject to external objects i n r e l a t i o n to time, distance, d i r e c t i o n , accuracy of d i r e c t i o n and small angle of error; general kinesthetic s e n s i t i v i t y and control; a b i l i t y to co-ordinate a complex series or combination of movements which follow one another i n rapid succes- ; sion; arm control; factors involved i n the function of balance; timing, motor rhythm; esthetic f e e l i n g . He indicated that a number of these were probably related,. Some of the factors, he claimed, could be cul t i v a t e d or learned, while others were as innate as color blindness. He drew attention to the fact that a b i l i t y i n one factor of motor educability could be negated by lack of a b i l i t y i n another factor. The f i r s t factor of sensory-co-ordination, f o r example - the.eye-hand type of motor co-ordination - may have been related to the factor of general-kinesthetic s e n s i t i v i t y and control, which factor may have, i n turn, f a i l e d to function i n such an a c t i v i t y as throwing at a target or throwing free throws i n basketball i f there was a deficiency i n the factor of depth perception, or i n the factor of arm control. The motor educability t e s t s , Brace, and Iowa-Brace referred to i n t h i s study, resulted from attempts to 3 9 design tests primarily for the measurement of motor educability., McCloy studied f o r t y stunts, and retained, (for the Iowa-Brace t e s t ) , those that met the following criteria::.. (I) The percentage of persons who executed a stunt c o r r e c t l y increased with each year of age; for example, a stunt executed successfully by 80 percent of the thirteen-year-old performers but only h$ percent of the fourteen-year-old performers was eliminated., (2:). Each stunt had a low correlation with strength tests, with the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n index, and with the Sargent Jump ( v e r t i c a l jump)... In other words, each stunt was not a s i g n i f i c a n t measurement of strength,, size and maturity or power., ( 3 ) Each stunt had a high c o r r e l a t i o n with track-and-f i e l d a t h l e t i c s when the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n index, v e r t i c a l jump and the strength score were held constant to the a t h l e t i c events but not to the stunt. The assumption upon which th i s c r i t e r i o n was based was that persons who, in- track-and-field events were better than the average of those having the same age, si z e , speed and strength, were "better primarily because they had greater s k i l l s or a greater degree of motor educability..-Of the stunts selected f o r the ten-item Iowa-Brace test for High School and College students, s i x of the o r i g i n a l Brace test stunts were retained. The remaining ko four stunts were c l o s e l y related, In requirements, to other Brace test stunts, Fleischman (8) stated that McCloy i n 1 9 3 8 , viewed, motor educability as representing a kind of physical fitness- IQ, general to tasks requiring large-muscle co-ordination. High loadings on t h i s factor were found, he says, for the Brace test and Johnson test.. It seemed possible to him that t h i s factor tapped some kind of "understanding of what has to be done'" i n a complex: motor performance- However, i t was more l i k e l y , he con-cluded, that the motor educab i l i t y factor would break up into components, as McCloy implied i n 195^«-Motor fit n e s s . . Mathews ( 18) stated that the term "motor fitnes s " ' became popular during World War II.. He defined i t as a l i m i t e d phase of motor a b i l i t y (capacity), emphasizing a b i l i t y to do vigorous work.. The aspects .selected for emphasis were endurance,, power, strength, a g i l i t y , f l e x i b i l i t y , and balance. More specifically,., he concluded, motor f i t n e s s could be referred to as e f f i c i e n t performance In such basic requirements as running, jumping, dodging, f a l l i n g , climbing, swimming, l i f t i n g weights, carrying loads, and enduring sustained e f f o r t i n a v a r i e t y of situations. This was the kind of f i t n e s s required of most m i l i t a r y personnel., Cureton (3) carried out a physical f i t n e s s analysis hi i n which he factored out only the motor f i t n e s s tests. Here he found elements of (1) balance (2) f l e x i b i l i t y (3),' a g i l i t y (!+), strength (5) power and (6) endurance... A l l of these were d i f f e r e n t by d e f i n i t i o n and were represented by d i f f e r e n t t e s t s . The Indiana Motor Fitness Index I included chins,, push-ups and v e r t i c a l jump. Chin-ups and push-ups have been used i n a number of strength tests, such as the Roger's Strength test and McCloy Strength test as well as i n muscular endurance t e s t s . The v e r t i c a l jump was considered by Fleischman (,9) to be a test of explosive strength or power, by McCloy (17) to be a test of power and by Sargent (21).., a test of power, as r e f l e c t e d i n his famous "Sargent Physical Test of a Man.." . V e r t i c a l jump - or Sargent Jump. McCloy (17) studied the Sargent Jump using as c r i t e r i o n the total-point score for the following events:. (1). 100-yard dash, (2) running high jump, (3). standing broad jump, and (h) eight-pound shot-put. The r of r e l i a b i l i t y for the track-and-field events was, on the basis of one thousand cases, ..890. The r of r e l i a b i l i t y for. the Sargent Jump was, on the basis of the best jump of each of two series of three jumps performed without previous prac-t i c e , .77.0; and on the basis of the r between the best jump.of each of two series of three jumps performed on d i f f e r e n t days and the best jump of another two series of three jumps performed on di f f e r e n t days, J&5h.. McCloy (17). stated that i n a number of studies the r's between the Sargent Jump and track-and-field events were, for boys, from . 6 5 to . .86.. The r's between .: track-and-field events and a combination of the Sargent Jump and the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n index were from ..72 to . .93* An r of . 8 8 was obtained between track-and-field events and a combination of the Sargent Jump and arm strength. In a comprehensive study, Fleischman (9) studied 201 Naval Training subjects i n regard to a b i l i t y to perform i n strength t e s t s . The average age was 18 years, 3 months (standard deviation = 1 year,, 3 months).. Their average height was f i v e feet? 10 inches (standard devia-t i o n = 2..8 inches)., Their average weight was 150..6 • " ; pounds (standard deviation = 2 0 * 3 pounds).. Complete frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s were tabulated for each te s t , and a l l approximated normal d i s t r i b u t i o n s . The mean v e r t i c a l jump score was 18..U-3 with standard deviation 2 . 6 6 and r e l i a b i l i t y -90. . The v e r t i c a l jump score correlated . 3 8 with chins ..31 with push-ups and ..18 with squat thrusts. The v e r t i c a l jump had . 3 0 factor load-ings on dynamic strength, . 1 8 on s t a t i c strength, ,.6h on explosive strength. Dynamic strength was character-ized by Fleischman as requiring muscular force repeated as many times as possible, with a consequent decrement i n the force which could be exerted. S t a t i c . strength required exertion of a maximum force for a b r i e f period, t y p i c a l l y against a f a i r l y immovable object, such as a dynamometer., This was contrasted with explosive and dynamic strength where there was substantial movement of the body or limbs., Fleischman (,9) stated that the common feature of Explosive Strength or power tests was that one was required to jump, or to project oneself, or some object, as f a r or as high as possible. The factor distinguished i t s e l f from strength factors i n requiring one short burst of e f f o r t , rather than continuous stress or repeated exertion. The study of the factor loadings confirmed Fleischman^s suspicion that factors c a l l e d "Velocity" and "Power" i n previous studies were r e a l l y the same as explosive strength. Chins and push-ups - strength. In the study F l e i s c h -man C9) conducted on 201 Naval Training cadets, he found that chins and push-ups had s i m i l a r factor loadings.-Chins had .31 factor loadings on dynamic strength, -.05" on s t a t i c strength, and .,29 on explosive strength. Push-ups had ,7k factor loadings on dynamic strength, - l ^ - on s t a t i c strength and .Qh on explosive strength. Both tests measured dynamic strength primarily, the a b i l i t y to support the weight of the body repeatedly for as H4:. many times as possible., He concluded from his study that pull-ups and push-ups were two of the best tests for t h i s f a c t o r - The mean score for pull-ups was 5 - 9 6 , with standard deviation 3.61 and r e l i a b i l i t y . 9 3 - The mean score f o r push-ups was 1 2 - 3 1 , with standard devia-t i o n 7.-99 and r e l i a b i l i t y - 8 8 . Pull-ups and push-ups correlated - 5 8 -McCloy (17) found correlations of . 9 5 between arm strength for boys as measured by a dynamometer and the McCloy Pull-up-dip strength Scores. He stated that the formula for boys was quite accurate within l i m i t s of "normality." For boys of exceptional endurance, however, i t was somewhat inaccurate at the upper extreme. I t also rewarded the small boys and s l i g h t l y penalized the large ones. In a revised version of the McCloy Pull-up (or dip)-strength score, a c o e f f i c i e n t of c u r v i l i n e a r c o r r e l a t i o n of . 9 6 5 was obtained between arm strength as measured by a dynamometer-McCloy (17) . stated that i n f a c t o r i a l analyses of strength t e s t s , two elements were i d e n t i f i e d (1) "pure" strength and (2) strength dependent upon the size of the body. Pure strength he measured by using the sum of right grip, l e f t grip, leg l i f t , McCloy Dip-Strength and McCloy Pull-Up Strength Score i n a weighted formula. He stated that pull-up strength alone was very highly correlated with performance i n a t h l e t i c sports, and h5 included i t i n his two A t h l e t i c Strength Score formulas:-of which v a l i d i t y r's of ,$lh and ...911 between them and general-athletic a b i l i t y were obtained. He has: also constructed norms fo r his Pull-up Strength Quotient formula. McCloy (17) commented on the use of strength tests, and stated that only the amount of strength possessed by a person was measured by a strength test . Neither the p o t e n t i a l of a person to develop strength nor the motor educab i l i t y of a person was measured by these te s t s . He said that although strength had been shown to be the most important item i n a l l motor performances, and on the average, to contribute more than twice as much to motor achievement as did v e l o c i t y , and more•than ten times as much as did motor educability, motor perfor- mance was not measured by strength tests except i n so fa r as motor performance depended upon strength. McCloy (17) d i f f e r e n t i a t e d the value of measurements of strength and the contribution of strength to motor performance. He said, v e l o c i t y was Increased consider-ably by an increase i n strength. This increase was explained by the fact that power i s force m u l t i p l i e d by v e l o c i t y , and hence an increase i n force resulted i n an increase i n power, which increase resulted i n an increase i n the speed of muscular contraction.. k6, Chins, and push-ups - endurance. Fleischman ( . 9 ) i n his study, found no separate endurance factor. To him, i t did not seem necessary to provide separate measures of muscle endurance i n the strength.area. No such factor distinguished performances carried to the " l i m i t " : as i n pull-ups and chin-ups, from shorter timed versions of these same tests.. It appeared that t h i s kind of endur-ance and dynamic strength both depended on the same underlying a b i l i t y factor.. Mathews (18). d i f f e r e n t i a t e d endurance from strength. He stated that endurance was the a b i l i t y of a muscle to work against a moderate resistance f o r long periods of time. I t d i f f e r e d from muscular strength i n that i t r e f l e c t e d the a b i l i t y of muscles to contract and relax: continuously over a period of time. McCloy C17X stated that i n addition to being associr-ated with the factor of strength, muscular endurance was also probably associated with changes i n the chemical q u a l i t i e s of muscles. Thus i f two men were unequal i n : respect to strength, but equal i n respect to the c a p i l -l a r y supply and the chemical condition of t h e i r muscles, and i f they were performing the same task, the stronger man would have more endurance than the weaker man.. McCloy (17). included pull-ups and push-ups with popular endurance tests and provided norms as well., . The Army Test of Endurance included both push-ups and h7 pull-ups i n i t s battery of endurance items, as did the Iowa High School Test of Endurance, and the Navy Test of Endurance. The mean score on pull-ups for Iowa High School boys was 7.0,, The mean score on push-ups f o r Iowa High School boys was 2 5 . Sauat thrust — a g i l i t v . , McCloy (17). stated that persons apparently equally e f f i c i e n t i n strength and i n v e l o c i t y vary i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to change position rapidly. The factor involved he c a l l e d a g i l i t y . , In a study by McCloy (17) on a group of adult males, an r of -.O^+^fO was obtained between squat thrusts for twenty seconds and weight, and an r of - . 1 3 7 9 vas obtained between squat thrusts and height.. An r of r e l i a b i l i t y of - 9 2 1 was reported and an r of v a l i d i t y ( c r i t e r i o n = general-athletic a b i l i t y ) of . 5 5 3 : for High School,.boys.. The mean score for High School boys on 2 0 . second squat thrusts was 13-5.j and on 10. second squat thrusts i t was 7-Fleischman (.9), i n his study on Naval Training Cadets, found a squat thrust for 30 seconds mean score of 1 9 . 2 0 v The standard deviation was h.h6 and the r e l i a b i l i t y . .70. He found that squat thrusts correlated . 1 8 with v e r t i c a l jump, .3h with pull-ups and . 3 7 "with push-ups. Factor loadings f o r squat thrusts were .h-5 with dynamic strength, .11. with s t a t i c strength, and . 11 with explosive strength.. General Motor Capacity... McCloy (17) stated that just as there were tests f o r measuring i n t e l l i g e n c e , which i s l a r g e l y innate, so there should be tests for measuring general-motor capacity, which i s l a r g e l y innate... "General"'1 was used to indicate the type of motor capacity that was basic to a l l motor performance that involved large ranges of movement; i t was to be used i n contrast to s p e c i f i c types of motor capacities required for the execution of s p e c i f i c s k i l l s . "Motor" was used primarily for neuromuscular, and secondarily fo r psychomotor. "Capacity" was used to indicate p o t e n t i a l i t y i n Contrast to achievement.. As a basis for the measurement of general-motor capacity, the following items were established:: (1). items of known v a l i d i t y , (2). items that had been un-practiced so that equal opportunities f o r learning could be given to a l l performers, and (.3) items with provision for standard amounts of practice. The McCloy General Motor Capacity (GMC). test that was devised was, i n the absence of any other such tests that might have been used as c r i t e r i a , validated against a battery of motor tests and against the ratings of competent teachers.. The GMC: test that was developed by McCloy (17). included the following items i n a multiple regression equation:. (1). McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index (size and maturity), (2:) Sargent Jump (power)., (3) ten-second 1*9 squat-thrust test ( a g i l i t y ) and (h) Iowa-Brace Test (motor educability)... An r of . 5 1 2 was obtained between the battery and ratings made by competent teachers... An r of ..969 was obtained between t h i s battery and c r i t e r i o n scores., This r was high because some of the elements were included both i n the batteries and i n the c r i t e r i a . On the other hand, he f e l t the c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n of the battery and teachers ratings were undoubtedly low. In one study he did he obtained an r of .,812 between GMC and teachers ratings of a b i l i t y i n sports,,. Events that required s p e c i a l i z e d a b i l i t y had a lov/er cor r e l a t i o n with the GMC than did events that required motor a b i l i t y of a general nature. Hence, i n contrast to f o o t b a l l and basketball a b i l i t y , track-and-field a b i l i t y was highly correlated with performance on the GMC. The effect of over- and underweight upon performance i n the GMC. was shown by McCloy (17). i n the following table* Underweight Normal Weight Overweight (N = hO) N. = 87 - (N =- ^1) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index, 8 9 3 . 8 9 0 5 . 9 2 7 . 8 Sargent Jump_ 50 ..65 5 3 . 2 : HS . 7 3 Squat-thrust test 5.-^9 5.55V 5.-31 Iowa-Brace score 12-98 12..H-5 1 1 . 1 0 GMC 2 2 8 . 0 . 236 .k 228 .,6 Motor Quotient 96.-3 98 ..0 91.-0 50, The range of weights extended from 75 to 120 percent of normal weights. According to the findings, the performers who were underweight and of normal weight obtained better scores i n motor educability as measured by the Iowa-Brace test and i n power as measured by the Sargent Jump than did the performers who were over-weight. The three groups did not vary greatly i n GMC scores; the larger c l a s s i f i c a t i o n indices of the persons whco. were overweight compensated for the lower scores of these persons i n the Iowa-Brace te s t , the squat-thrust t e s t , and the Sargent Jump., The performers who were: overweight were, i n motor quotients,, seven percent under those who were of normal weight. The motor quotient.. This was the motor analogue of the i n t e l l i g e n c e quotient i n the mental f i e l d , It was the motor capacity of a person r e l a t i v e to his size and maturity. The motor quotient f o r boys was the GMC score divided by the norm for GMC, which was i n terms of the McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index. Thus a boy with a motor quotient of 100 was average i n motor capacity f o r his. age and size, while a boy with a motor quotient of 120/-; was superior and a boy with a motor quotient of 80 was i n f e r i o r i n motor capacity... 51 REFERENCES. 1. Cole, L„ Psychology of Adolescence.. New York:: Rinehart and Company Inc., pp. 3 2 6 - 3 5 2 , 1956. . 2 . Cozens, F.W. "A Study of Stature i n Relation to Physical Performance," Research Quarterly. V o l . 1 : 33-H-5; 1930. . 3»- Cureton, T.K.. "Improvement i n Motor Fitness associated with Physical Education and Physical Fitness C l i n i c Work," Research Quarterly, Vol.. Ihi 15H -157; May, 19H-3.-h,. Cureton, T.K. Physical Fitness Ap-praisa! and Guid- ance. St. Louis: Moshy, 19h7. 5» Cureton, T.K.. "Physical Training Produces Important Changes, Physiological and Psychological,"'Reprint from the Journal of Snorts Medicine, Vol., 17.:-July 1 8 , 1 9 5 2 . - ' 6... Davis, E.C—and Wallis E.L. Toward Better Teaching  in Physical Education.. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey:; Prentice-Hall, Inc., 19.61.. 7.. Ferguson, T.. and Cunnlson, J., In Their E a r l y Twenties.. Published for the N u f f i e l d Foundation by Oxford Uni v e r s i t y Press, 1956... 52 8 . . Fleischman, E..A... "'Testing for Psychomotor A b i l i t i e s by Means of Apparatus Tests," Psychological  B u l l e t i n . Vol. 5 0 : ; No., hi. 2^1-263; July, 1953. . 9. Fleischman, E.A.. The Structure and Measurement of  Physical Fitness. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey:; Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1961*. 1 0 . Glueck, S.„ The Problem of Delinquency. Boston:. Houghton M i f l i n Co., pp.. 2 5 0 - 2 5 5 , 1 9 5 9 . 1 1 . Glueck, S. and E.. The Role of Constitution i n the Problem of Delinquency.. Boston: Houghton M i f l i n Co., pp.. 2 1 5 - 2 2 5 , 1 9 5 0 . 12.. Glueck, S„ and E.. Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency.. Cambridge, Mass.:. Published for the Commonwealth Fund by Harvard University Press, pp. 2 7 3 - 2 8 1 , 1950.. 13.. J e r s i l d , A.T.. The Psychology of Adolescence. New York:. The Macmillan Co., pp.. 363.-367, 1963-. lh„ Lindegaard, B.. Bodv-Build. Body Function and  Personality... Lund:; C.-W.K. Gleerup, 1 9 5 6 . 15.. L o u t t i t , CM... C l i n i c a l Psychology and Exceptional  Children. New York: Third E d i t i o n , Harper and Brothers Pub.-, 1957... 5.3 16.. McCloy, C.H.. "Ah A n a l y t i c a l Study of the Stunt Type Test as a Measure of Motor Educability," ;  Research Quarterly. Vol.. Q:i H-6-56.; Oct», 1937. 17- McCloy, C H - and Young, D... Tests and Measurements  i n Health and Physical Education.. New York:: Third E d i t i o n , Appleton- Century- Crofts, Inc.; pp.. 83-177, 195^.-18.. Mathews, D.K.. Measurement i n Physical Education. Philadelphia and London:: W.,B... Saunders Co., 1963* 19.. M i l l e r , K.D., "A Critique on the Use of Height-Weight Factors i n the Performance C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of College Men," Research Quarterly, Vol. 23:: M02r-1+16; 1952. 20... Mussen, P..H..., Konger, J.J.,, and Kagan, J . C h i l d Development and Personality.. New York, Evans ton, and London: Second E d i t i o n , Harper and Row, Publishers, 1963. 21. Sargent, D.A. "The Physical Test of a Man," A m e r i c a n Phvfil ngl F.rhmati on Review. A p r i l , 1921.. 22... Sheldon, W..H.., Stevens, S.S... and Tucker, W..B. The Var i e t i e s of Human Physique.. New York:, Harper and Brothers, pp.- 805-806, 19^0... 2 3 * S i l l s , F..D... and Everett, P.W., "The Relationship of Extreme Somatotypes to Performance i n Motor and Strength T e s t s , R e s e a r c h Quarterly. Vol., 2\i 2 2 3 - 2 2 8 ; 1 9 5 3 . 2h„ Tappan, N.O.. "An Anthropometric and Constitutional. Study of Championship Weight L i f t e r s , " ' American  Journal of Physiology and Anthropology, Vol.. 8:;. h9-6h, 1950... 2 5 . : Thompson, G.,G... "Dis t o r t i o n of S o c i a l Reality i n Delinquency," Education Psychology.. New York:: Appleton- Century - Crofts, Inc., 1959.» 26. , Van Dalen, D.B.„ "A Study of Certain Factors i n Their Relation to the Play of Children,"' Research  Quarterly. Vol. 18:; 2 7 9 - 2 9 0 ; Dec. 19H-7., 27... W i l l goose, CE-, and Rogers, M.R., "Relationships of Somatotype to Physical F l t n a s s . '" Journal of  Educational Research: pp., 7 0H - 7 1 2 , May, 19^9.. CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY Introduction- Data obtained from tests and measure-ments of Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n inmates were used i n various s t a t i s t i c a l analyses i n order to test a number of s p e c i f i c n u l l hypotheses. Subjects..1 The subjects were 670 inmates of the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n . . They ranged i n age from Ih to HO years, with the majority between 17 and 2 3 3 y e a r s of age.. Approximately 20 percent of the population were B..C... Indians, and the rest were White, but of various r a c i a l origins.. TESTING PROCEDURES. General C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Procedure. Young men trans-fer r e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n from Oakalla Prison Farm spent two weeks i n a C l a s s i f i c a t i o n L i v i n g Unit. While i n t h i s l i v i n g unit ( f i f t y beds i n a dormitory-type l i v i n g area), the men were subjected to various counselling, psychological and educational t e s t s , as well as an orientation to the program a v a i l -able to them- When two weeks had passed, each man went before a C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Board consisting of the various 1 S.ee Appendix p.1227 fo r detailed d e s c r i p t i o n -56 Department Heads. These people had a copy of the young man's f i l e , his test r e s u l t s , background, etc., and from t h i s information helped him to choose a constructive t r a i n i n g program* Motor performance testing pro-gram. It was decided that three days a f t e r a r r i v a l at Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n , a l l new inmates (except the medically u n f i t ) would be given the motor performance tests.. The tests administered were the Indiana Motor Fitness Index I (2, 1 5 ) , Twenty-Second Squat Thrust test (15) and the Brace Motor Ed u c a b i l i t y test ( 1 5 )* From the data obtained from these t e s t s , the McCloy General Motor Capacity (15) and McCloy Motor Quotient (15) test scores were computed.. After the scores were computed, the Physical Education Director interviewed each man and helped him plan a constructive Physical Education program. Information obtained was sent to the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Board and the Physical Education program included i n the man's t o t a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l t r a i n i n g program. In t h i s way, each man's f i l e contained a l l available information about him* Before the tests, each inmate, wearing shorts only, was weighed to the nearest pound and measured i n height to the nearest i . inch. A balance scale with attached measuring device was used, and res u l t s recorded. Test scores (motor performances) were recorded on the same data sheet, as:well as grade-last-completed and 57 Henmon Nelson Grade 6-9 Mental A b i l i t y scores. The l a t t e r were obtained from the young men's f i l e s , a f t e r the motor performance tests were administered.. The test battery was given every Thursday, at the same time of day, by the Physical Education Director. The procedure was consistent i n a l l respects, to avoid introducing procedural error. A ten minute l i g h t -exercise warm-up preceded the f i r s t t e s t . The Brace Motor E d u c a b i l i t y test was administered, according to the procedure i n McCloy (In-).. This was followed by; the Indiana Motor Fitness I n d e x ! test items, adminis-tered i n the same order each week.. The twenty-second Squat Thrust test was l a s t . Subjects were not hurried i n t h e i r performances, but no rest periods were given as i n d i v i d u a l - t e s t i n g and turn-taking permitted short rests between turns., A l l marking was done by the Physical Education Director as groups were small (10 to 15). and consider-able time available. The gymnasium atmosphere was quiet and as relaxed as the Physical Education Director could make it... A preliminary discussion of the purpose of the t e s t i n g program, and the absence of a l l other inmates helped to obtain t h i s relaxed, but attentive, atmosphere. The knowledge that test scores would be discussed the same day that they were administered helped to motivate inmates to perform " a l l - o u t . " 5« TEST.SELECTION.- JUSTIFICATION 1 The Brace Motor Ed u c a b i l i t y Test. The Brace test had the highest v a l i d i t y of the tests designed to measure, motor educability. Correlations of .706 and .671 were obtained i n a study by McCloy (15) on 155 senior-high-school g i r l s who were rated on t h e i r s k i l l s i n sports ( r e l i a b i l i t y , r = -95). and on "sports i n t e l -ligence"' (the quickness with which appropriate sports strategy was devised). The Iowa-Brace test had the next highest correlations of -682" and -618 for sports s k i l l s and sports i n t e l l i g e n c e . The findings i n a study by McCloy ( 15X on eighth, ninth, and tenth-grade boys i n which 16 tumbling stunts were used revealed an r of r e l i a b i l i t y (by the s p l i t - h a l f method) of - 8 8 5 obtained for the Brace te s t , and a c o e f f i c i e n t of v a l i d i t y of -606.. between the records f o r the twelve best performances i n the stunts and the sum of the T-scores for tumbling-Gire and Espenschade (12) found that the Brace test of a l l the tests of "educability," correlated highest with f i n a l achievement i n Basketball, V o l l e y b a l l and Baseball, a b i l i t y . The Brace t e s t , they contended, showed the highest relationships to the c r i t e r i a of learning u t i l i z e d to study the "educability" of the subjects. R e l i a b i l i t y , computed on the s p l i t - h a l f 59 technique was „7k-21 +- . 0 2 3 0 for the Brace test and . 6 1 1 1 ± . 0 3 2 0 for the Iowa-Brace t e s t . The Iowa-Brace and Brace test correlated ...766I+.+ . 0 2 1 7 . Girolamo ( 1 3 ) , i n comparing nonathletes and l e t t e r -men i n college, discovered that the athletes could jump higher, perform more squat-thrusts, and score higher on the Brace test than the nonathletes. In studying the rate of learning motor s k i l l s with 275 high school g i r l s , Brace (h) found substantial correlations between the learning of rhythms, hockey, tennis, stunts and v o l l e y b a l l with his test of motor : educability. Carpenter (7) tested 100 g i r l s and found that the Iowa-Brace t e s t , when combined with the v e r t i c a l jump, could be quite accurate i n predicting success i n a t h l e t i c s . McCloy (15) stated that the Brace test was the best screening device available i n Physical Education f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of d i f f i c u l t i e s i n gross motor co- < ordination. McCloy stated that the Brace test admin-i s t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l l y or to small groups was considered by experts to be a valuable research t o o l for the study of gross motor a b i l i t y . R e l i a b i l i t i e s were high ( - 9 + ) when f i r s t t r i a l r e sults were correlated with second 60 t r i a l r e s u l t s on the same day. Re-test correlations at i n t e r v a l s of s i x months were found to be . 7 2 f o r secondary school boys. McCloy (15) stated that the test was validated o r i g i n a l l y against judgment ratings of physical educa-tion teachers and against a battery of a t h l e t i c events. Athletes were found to score from one-half to one standard deviation above the mean. Hoskins (1*+). found relationships between the Brace test and a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s performance. The highest correlations were found i n the Brace test and a c t i v i t i e s such as f o o t b a l l J+3, i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s .*+2, basketball . 3 5 , handball .k, tap dancing ,3h and track . 3 0 . The Iowa-Brace Test. The Brace and Iowa-Brace test correlate approximately . 7 5 * Buros (6) stated that the Iowa-Brace test was less reliable,because i t was only h a l f the length of the Brace t e s t . The high degree of s i m i l a r i t y between the Brace test and the Iowa-Brace ', test was p a r t l y due to the fact that s i x of the Brace test items were included, i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l form, i n the ten-item IowaL-Brace te s t , and p a r t l y because both tests use stunt-type tests to measure motor educability. Buros (.6) stated the Iowa-Brace test was meant to be used as a quick rough measure of motor educability.. 61 P h i l i p s (18) i n a study of 200 college women, found that the Iowa-3race test correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y with ( i ) A g i l i t y Run ( r - , . 3 5 ) . ( n ) Obstacle Run (r = .hi).; ( i i i ) Humiston Motor A b i l i t y test (r = .hh^ (iv) Scott Motor A b i l i t y test (r = .l+3); (v) Bass Balance test (r = A 2 ) ; (vi) V e r t i c a l Jump (r = . M l ) ; ( v i i ) Broad Jump (r = . -37); ( v i i i ) Dips (r = . 3 0 ) . . She stated that the reasons r's were low with other factors i n the analysis was that there was probably a s p e c i f i c factor i n the test which was not present i n any of the other te s t s , and the factor was probably motor educa-b i l i t y . . The Brace to Iowa^-Brace Conversion. Espenschade (10) stated that substitution of the T - scores for either the Brace, H i l l or Johnson tests, may be made fo r the Iowa-Brace test scores i n computing McCloy's General Motor Capacity test scores.. She based t h i s conclusion on the results of a study of college students i n which she computed McCloy's General Motor Capacity score using the results from the above motor educability tests interchangeably.. McCloy's text (15) had norms for High S.chool. boys in- T score form for both the Brace test and the Iowa-Brace t e s t , so conversions were e a s i l y done. 62 Indiana Motor Fitness Index I.. Bookwalter (2). developed the motor f i t n e s s test for high school and college students. He validated the test against a 20 item c r i t e r i o n and established a v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of . ,831.- ± . ..01.- A v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of ..859 + . .01-with a more select c r i t e r i o n of 12 items was obtained l a t e r i n an unpublished study from the same source.. The 12. item c r i t e r i o n against which t h i s index was validated involved two or more measures each of strength, v e l o c i t y , motor a b i l i t y and endurance.. Bookwalter constructed four f i t n e s s indices, a l l . of which had high c o e f f i c i e n t s of v a l i d i t y , but Indexcl had.the highest and was recommended by the author as preferable, to the others.. Modified Indiana Motor Fitness Index I. Bookwalter weighted the t h i r d of the three items of the Indiana Motor Fitness Index.I quite heavily by multiplying the sum of two of the scale scores by the third.. A modified f i t n e s s index used i n t h i s study was designed to weight each scale score equally by simply adding them together. McCloy's General Motor Capacity test (GMC). The GMC was considered a measure of all-encompassing capacity or p o t e n t i a l for general motor performance because i t included both motor f i t n e s s items, and motor educability as well, as giving consideration to size and maturity by including McCloy 1 s C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index?.. The test was validated by McCloy (15). against a battery of motor tests and!against teachers*' judgements.. E h r l i c h (.8). chose McCloy's GMC because i t repeatedly measured a general type of potential motor development.. He f e l t i t suggested a t h e o r e t i c a l maximum that appeared to be associated with the maximum peak of a learning curve. E h r l i c h ( 8 ) decided that, on the basis of a multiple c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of ..67H-, the McCloy test provided as good an insight into maximum learning potentials as did a combination of three test batteries (Rogers t e s t , Larson t e s t , and Johnson test)., Brace (h) found correlations of ,6?k and . .658 between the Brace test and GMC and Motor Quotient, respectively. He also found a co r r e l a t i o n of . .861 between GMC and Motor Quotient.-Van Dalen (.19), gave tests of GMC to 6 9 6 junior high school boys and g i r l s and obtained s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n -ships between test scores and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n play a c t i v i t y . He found that GMC correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y with:.. ( 1 ) Rogers Strength Index: (r = . 7 7 ) ; 6^ ( i i ) Physical Fitness Index: (r = . 5 9 ) ; ( i i i ) McCloy Motor Quotient (r = . 7 3 ) ; (iv) Frequency of play (r = .61+); (v) Time a l l o t t e d to play (r = - . M + ) . - He also found that the McCloy Motor Quotient (GMC. -5- by norm for the individual's size and maturity) correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y with:; ( i ) Rogers Strength Index, (r = . 2 5 ) ; ( i i ) Physical Fitness Index (r = ..61+); ( i i i ) Frequency of play (r - . 5 3 ) ; (iv). Time devoted to play (r = . 3 6 ) . McCloy (15) found an r of »512? between GMC and ratings made by competent teachers. An r of ..969 was obtained between these batteries and the c r i t e r i o n scores. The c o e f f i c i e n t s of co r r e l a t i o n of the batteries with the c r i t e r i o n scores were high because some of the same elements were included both i n the batteries and i n the c r i t e r i a . On the other hand, the c o e f f i c i e n t s of cor r e l a t i o n of the batteries with the teachers' ratings were undoubtedly low, he f e l t . In another of his studies an r of ..812 was obtained between GMC scores and teachers 1'-ratings of a b i l i t y i n sports. Since the ratings were made before the GMC test was administered, the raters were not influenced by performance i n the t e s t -Norm populations.. The following norm populations were selected, for test mean score comparisons with H.C.I.. inmates, because the age ranges resembled those of the H.C.I.. inmates., 65 1 - Indiana Motor Fitness Index.I. Norms were estab-l i s h e d by Bookwalter (2) on 705 Indiana University students.. He considered the scores to be normally di s t r i b u t e d , with equal proportions of high and low scores. Norms for the test items, Chins, V e r t i c a l Jump, and Push-Ups were also provided. 2 . Brace Motor Edu c a b i l i t y t e s t . Norms were provided by McCloy (15). on an undetermined number of High School boys.. These scores were placed i n a table i n T-score form. Iowa-Brace norms were also provided i n T-score form on High School boys. 3 . , McCloy General Motor Capacity and Motor Quotient -Norms were provided by McCloy (15) on an undetermined . number of High School boys. The formula was used to machine calculate the General Motor Capacity and Motor Quotient scores. >+... Twenty-Second Squat Thrust t e s t . Norms were again provided by McCloy (151. on an unknown number of High School boys. 5 . Henmon Nelson Grade 6-9 Mental A b i l i t y t e s t - The company providing the test has established norms on an unknown number of people. 6 - Height and Weight. Norms were established by E l b e l 66 and Canuteson (,9), i n an extensive study involving many u n i v e r s i t i e s , on 8538 university, students. This set of norms seemed most appropriate because i t was done i n 1962 on 1 7 - 2 1 year old men.-. An unpublished study by Brown, Unive r s i t y of B.C., had almost i d e n t i c a l l y the same scores, for the same age group, but the sample (850) was smaller.. 7.. Grade-last-completed. Retention rates for the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t were obtained from Dr. N. E l l i s , who helped compile the fi g u r e s . Ko o f f i c i a l publication with these figures was available, nor was the exact number of students considered available. Since the number of students was extremely large, with break-downs of retention at each grade l e v e l , they were used for comparison. The retention figures werer. Grade 8 . 99$ or more, f i n i s h Grade 8 . . Grade 9 . 92$ f i n i s h Grade 9 . Grade 10 . 88% f i n i s h Grade 1 0 . Grade 11 .. 82% f i n i s h Grade 1 1 -Grade 12 . 73% f i n i s h Grade 1 2 . The B.C. retention figures were s l i g h t l y lower, with 7 0 $ f i n i s h i n g Grade 1 2 . A.break-down of the B.C. retention figures was not av a i l a b l e . The retention figures for B.C., are published by the D i v i s i o n of Tests and Standards, V i c t o r i a , B.C.,. Variables. The following variable scores were:, obtained, at the i n i t i a l t e s t i n g of a l l new inmates. .67 1.- Size and Maturity:: (a) age (,b) height (c). weight.. 2... Mental performance:: (a) Grade-last-completed (b) Henmon Nelson Grade 6 - 9 . Mental A b i l i t y Test.. 3.- Motor performance:: (a) V e r t i c a l Jump (b) Push-Ups (,c) Chins (d) Twenty-Second Squat Thrust Test; (e) Brace Motor Edu c a b i l i t y Test. Derived Variables. From the above: single variables, derived composite variables were obtained, using the single variable scores i n formulas. These derived variables were:; (a) . Indiana Motor Fitness Index-1.- Raw variable scores were converted to scale scores and placed i n the follow-ing formula, (Chins + Push-Ups) V e r t i c a l Jump + 100... (see Appendix) (b) . Modified Indiana Motor Fitness Index I. The above scale scores were placed i n the following formula to obtain a modified index valuet. Chins + Push-Ups + V e r t i c a l Jump, (see: Appendix). (c) McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index. Age, height and weight scores were converted into one score, the McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index., (see Appendix) (,d). McCloy General Motor Capacity (GMC)... By weighting 68 the following scores, the McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index score, the V e r t i c a l Jump score, the Squat Thrust score and using the Iowa-Brace conversion of the Brace Motor Educ a b i l i t y t e s t , -in a formula (see Appendix), the GMC was computed. (e) McCloy Motor Quotient (,MQ)By dividing each GMC by the norms established f o r the i n d i v i d u a l s size and maturity, the MQ. was obtained., (see Appendix) Re-test Variables. After four months, each group of inmates that had entered the Haney Correctional. I n s t i t u -t i o n was re-tested with the same motor performance tests used i n the i n i t i a l t e s t i n g program. These scores were, also used to obtain derived variables. : Computer program.. The mathematical and s t a t i s t i c a l calculations needed to prepare the data f o r analysis was extensive, so a computer was used.. The University of ;B r i t i s h ' Columbia Engineering Faculty I ;s Fortran Computer was used, and a l l programs f o r the computer were prepared by experts. Details of the program stages-, the experts followed i n programming f o r the computer are included i n the Appendix. The purpose of the ca l c u l a -tions by computer was to:; 1.. Calculate composite test scores f o r GMC; MQ;; and Indiana Motor Fitness Index-I, o r i g i n a l and modified, from the single item scores. 2. Calculate means and standard deviations of a l l single item and composite test variables. 3 . Calculate an i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n matrix of a l l variables, o r i g i n a l and derived. Calculate the t s t a t i s t i c s for the differences between the mean scores of i n i t i a l and re-test single item and composite test variables. Other calculations . The- t s t a t i s t i c s f o r the differences between the H.C.I., mean scores and those of the norm populations for s i z e , maturity, mental perfor-mance and motor performance were also computed.. These were done by the investigator. Frequency polygons were prepared to check the normality of a l l d i s t r i b u t i o n s of variables.. Analysis of data.. The analysis of the res u l t s was approached s t a t i s t i c a l l y by:; 1. Comparing a l l of the mean H.C.I.. inmate scores with those of the norm populations, by using the appropriate t s t a t i s t i c . 2- Comparing H.C.I.. inmate i n i t i a l motor performance scores with re-test motor performance scores, again using the appropriate t s t a t i s t i c 3„ Studying the relationships between H.C.I., inmates 1 mental performance, s i z e and maturity with t h e i r motor, performances» 70 There was considerable evidence, both i n the related l i t e r a t u r e and i n the investigator's observations of inmates, to support hypotheses that differences i n mean scores, of the variables the investigator was concerned with, between H.C.I.,, inmates and the norm populations, as well as between the H.C.I, inmates' i n i t i a l and re-test motor performances, would l i e in one direction.. On the chance that these differences would not a l l l i e i n one . di r e c t i o n , however, a two-tailed test of sign i f i c a n c e was used to measure the sign i f i c a n c e of these differences. . This procedure was recommended by Ferguson ( 1 0 , p.. 1 3 6 ) « . Two forms of the t s t a t i s t i c were used to test the significance of these differences., One form, Ferguson (.10, p. 1 3 7 ) , was used to test the significance of the differences i n mean scores of H.C.I.,, inmates and the norm populations i n mental a b i l i t y and motor performance. Both the i n i t i a l and re-test H.C.I., motor performance mean scores were used i n the significance test with the mean scores of the norm populations. The other form of t s t a t i s t i c , used by the computer, Ferguson (.10, p., 139)? was used to test the significance of the differences i n mean scores between H.C.I.. inmates' i n i t i a l and re-test motor performances.. In the event that differences i n motor performances were found, i t was conceivable that H.C.I.. Physical 71 Education program changes and tr a i n i n g of s t a f f would be necessary. Such changes and t r a i n i n g would be involved and costly, i n terms of time and money, and could not be j u s t i f i e d unless the investigator was confident that differences existed. The ..01 l e v e l of confidence was chosen, therefore, because i t was consid-ered, more important to guard against making an error of the f i r s t kind (alpha error) i . e . to avoid rejecting a • n u l l hypothesis that was true, Mouly (16, p.. 152.; On the basis of the two-tailed t e s t , at a ..01 confidence l e v e l , the n u l l hypothesis would be accepted i f the t s t a t i s t i c was inside the range ± 2 „ 5 7 ° , and rejected i f ' outside t h i s range, Ferguson (.10, p- 308)... The degrees of freedom i n th i s test were considered i n f i n i t e because the number of people tested. (% + -2) . exceeded the table values of the number of degrees of freedom for t. In considering the relationships of mental a b i l i t y , s cholastic attainment, age, height and weight to motor performance, a two-tailed test of significance was used because correlations were expected to be both posi t i v e and negative. The . 0 1 l e v e l of confidence was a r b i t r a r y i l y chosen, and the n u l l hypothesis accepted i f r was within + 2.-5H-, Ferguson ( 1 0 , p.. 3 1 5 ) , and rejected i f outside t h i s range... 72 REFERENCES 1.. Bookwalter, K.W.. "A C r i t i c a l Analysis of Achievements i n the Physical Fitness Program f o r Men at Indiana University." Research Quarter! v T Vol. ll+: pp. 18k-9 3 ; May, 19*+3.-2.. Bookwalter, K.W., "Test Manual for Indiana University Motor Fitness Indices for High School and College Men," Research Quarterly. D e c , 195+3«-3 - Brace, D.K.. Measuring Motor Ability.. New York:. A.S. Barnes and Company; pp.. 105~2h, 1 9 2 7 . h: Brace, D..K. "S.tudies i n Motor Learning of Gross Bodily Motor S k i l l s , " Research Quarterly. Vol.. 17A-2M-2-53; Dec. 19k6„ 5„ Brace, D..K... Studies i n the Rate of Learning Gross Bodily Motor S k i l l s , " Research Quarterly. Vol.. 12::. 1 8 1 - 8 5 ; May, 19*+1.-6. Buros, O.K.. (Editor) The F i f t h Mental Measurement Yearbook. Highland Park, N.J..r The Gryphen Press, 1 9 5 9 -7... Carpenter, A.. "Strength, Power and 'Femininity' as Factors Influencing the A t h l e t i c Performance of College Women," Research Quarterly, Vol.. 9:.. 1 2 0 - 2 7 ; May, 1 9 3 8 . 73 8 . E h r l i c h , G., "The Relation Between the Learning-of] a Motor S k i l l and Measures of Strength, A b i l i t y , Educability, and Capacity," Research Quarterly, 1 Vol. ihi 1+6-59; March, 1 9 H 3 . 9.. E l b e l , E.R... and Canuteson, R.I. Heights and Weights of College Students- Kansas Studies i n Education. Vol. 12 : , Wo. 1: IH-; March, 1 9 6 2 . 10... Espenschade, A.. "Motor Performance i n Adolescence," Monographs of the Society for Research i n Ch i l d Development, Vol. 5:: No. 1: 19k0. 1 1 . Ferguson, G.A.. S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis i n Psychology  and Education. London, Toronto, New York:: McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., 1 9 5 9 . 12 . , Gire, E. and Espenschade, A., "The Relationship Between Measures of Motor Edu c a b i l i t y and the Learning of S p e c i f i c Motor S k i l l s , " : Research  Quarterly. Vol. 1 3 : U-3-56; March, 19h2.. 1 3 . Girolamo, C.G.. "A Comparison of the General Motor Capacity of Athletes and Non-Athletes." Masters  Thesis.. Iowa City:; State University of Iowa, 1 9 5 6 . l U v Hoskins, R..N., "The Relationship of Measurements of .-General Motor Capacity to the Learning of Special Psycho-Motor S k i l l s , " Research Quarterly, V o l . 5» 6 3 - 7 2 ; March, 193 1 *. 15* McCloy, C*H., and Young, D.. Tests and Measurements  In Health and Physical Educatipn*. New York:. Third E d i t i o n , Appleton - Century - Crofts, Inc.; pp* 8 3 - 1 7 7 , 195*+.-16*. Mathews, D..K.. Measurement i n Physical Education* Philadelphia and London:. W.B., Saunders Co., 1 9 6 3 . 17*. Mouly, G.J.. The Science of Educational Research* New York: American Book Company, 1 9 6 3 -1 8 * P h i l i p s , M* "S;tudy of a Series of Physical Education Tests "by Factor Analysis," Research Quarterly, Vol* 2 0 : . 6 0 - 7 0 ; March, 19 1+9-19* Van Dalen, D*B.». "A.Study of Certain Fac'tbrss i n Their Relation to the Play of Children," Research  Quarterly. Vol.. 18: . 2 7 9 - 9 0 ; D e c , 19^7 • CHAPTER. IV RESULTS The results of the study are reported i n four tables and i n eight separate sections* Each section i s d i r e c t -l y related to one of the eight hypotheses, which together constitute the problem of the study.. The investigator did not consider i t necessary to include the frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n polygons of the twenty—four variables?because.the number of observations i n each case was extremely large, making a l l d i s t r i b u t i o n s "hormalish 1" i n shape... Mull Hypothesis :. 1. Young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n (H.C.I..) w i l l reveal no s i g n i f i -cant differences i n their, scores on the Brace Motor Edu c a b i l i t y test, Indiana Motor Fitness.Index: I, Twenty-Second Squat Thrust t e s t , McCloy General Motor Capacity test and McCloy Motor Quotient t e s t , as compared with the norm populations for these t e s t s . (1), Brace Motor Ed u c a b i l i t y t e s t . The norms for t h i s test were presented i n tables i n the form of T-scores.. In order f o r comparison to be done, the H.C.I., raw scores f o r t h i s test were also put i n T-score form.. The mean 76 T-score f o r the norm population was a T-score of 50 and standard deviation of 10. . The H.C.I- mean T-score for th i s test was 31*25 and standard deviation 5 . 8 5 on the f i r s t t r i a l and 35...2 and standard deviation 6*35 on the re-test,. four months a f t e r the f i r s t t e s t . Both H.C.I-. test scores were lov/er and d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the ..01 l e v e l , from those of the norm population.. The t s t a t i s t i c s were 22.,1+ and 1^*65 for f i r s t t r i a l and re-test comparisons. The H.C..I*. mean raw score for the Brace Motor Educa-b i l i t y test Wasj9 for the f i r s t t r i a l low mental a b i l i t y group) (IQ 66.-76) and 11. for the f i r s t t r i a l high mental, a b i l i t y group (IQ„ 110-131*)., The high mental a b i l i t y group had a higher mean motor educability raw score and d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the *01 l e v e l , from the mean motor educability score of the low mental a b i l i t y group-The t s t a t i s t i c was 8*2"; For the second t r i a l or re-test, however, the low mental a b i l i t y group had a mean raw score of 1 2 . 1 and the high mental a b i l i t y group had a mean raw score of 12*7• The high mental a b i l i t y group, s t i l l had the highest mean motor educability raw score, but these mean raw scores did not d i f f e r . s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the . 0 1 l e v e l . The t s t a t i s t i c was: *.1+7 — (23 Indiana: Motor Fitness Index:..I. The mean score f o r the norm population on the Indiana Motor Fitness Index.I 7 7 was H-5.,5 and standard deviation 2 5 . The H..C..I.. mean score on t h i s test wasr> 3 6 * 2 9 . on the f i r s t t r i a l with standard deviation 2 3 . 9 » and mean score.H-2..6. with stan-dard deviation 27«-3Jon the re-test. The f i r s t H*C.,I*. t r i a l scores were lower and d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the . .01 l e v e l , from the norm population. The t s t a t i s t i c was 6 * 9 7 f o r the f i r s t t r i a l . , H.C.T.. re-test scores were lower, but did not. d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y , . at the . .01 l e v e l , with the norm population.. The t s t a t i s t i c was l*5k for the re-test.. ( 3 ) McCloy General Motor Capacity t e s t * The mean score for the norm population on the McCloy General Motor Capacity test was 2 3 9 * 1 3 with standard deviation of H-6..Q. The H..C.I., mean score on t h i s test was 187.8H- and standard deviation 2 3 * 0 on the f i r s t t r i a l and mean score 1 9 5 * 8 8 with standard deviation 2H-*28 on the re- t e s t . The H.C.,1... scores were lower on both tests and d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the . .01 . l e v e l , with scores of the norm population.. The t statistics., were 1 7 . 6 and 1 1 . 7 f o r f i r s t . t r i a l and re-test comparisons* (h)' McClov Motor Quotient test.. The mean score f o r the norm population on the McCloy Motor Quotient test was 1 0 0 with a standard deviation of 1 0 . The H.C.I.. mean score on t h i s test was.78*26 and standard deviation 8 * 8 9 , for the f i r s t t r i a l , and mean score 8 1 . . 5 1 with standard. 78 deviation 9 . 2 1 on the re-test. The H.C.I., scores; were: lover on both tests and d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the . 0 1 l e v e l , with scores of the norm population.. The t s t a t i s t i c s were 22..k. and 16*5. f o r f i r s t t r i a l and re-test comparisons.. (5) Twenty-Second Squat Thrust test... The mean score f o r the norm population on the Twenty-Second Squat Thrust test was 13*-5. with standard deviation 2.65.,- The H.C..I... mean score on t h i s test was Q.hh with standard deviation 1*76 on the f i r s t t r i a l and mean score 9-52' with standard deviation 1*7.6 on the re - t e s t . The H..C..I* scores on both tests d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the * 0 1 , l e v e l , with scores of the norm population*. The t s t a t i s t i c s were 2 5 . 3 ;and 2 0 * 0 . f o r f i r s t t r i a l and re-test comparisons* On the basis of the information obtained i n te s t i n g the n u l l hypothesis 1 , the n u l l hypothesis was rejected, and the hypothesis accepted. Indiana Motor Fitness Index: I test items. (a:). Chins. The mean score of the norm population f o r Chins was 7 with a standard deviation of 3 * The H.C.I., mean score .was 7*033 and standard deviation 3*te on the f i r s t t r i a l and mean score 7*21 with standard deviation 3,.1+6 on the r e - t e s t * The H.C.I*, scores on both tests were higher, but did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the *01 l e v e l , with 7.9 scores of the norm population.. The t s t a t i s t i c s were . 1 7 6 and ..91+5 f o r f i r s t t r i a l and re-test comparisons. CD), Push-Ups* The mean score for the norm population on Push-Ups was 16 with standard deviation 7., The H.C.I... mean score on t h i s test was 19*38 with standard,, deviation 8 A 5 " on the f i r s t t r i a l and mean score 23^8 with standard deviation 9 . 7 on the re-test.. The:H.C..I... scores were higher and d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the ..0.1 l e v e l , with scores of the norm, population.. The t s t a t i s t i c s were 8..O.7 and 13 .70 . for f i r s t t r i a l - a n d re-test comparisons. Cc) V e r t i c a l Jump.. The mean score for the norm population on the V e r t i c a l Jump was 20..75, with a standard deviation of 3>- The H.C.I... mean score on thi s test was 17.653 with standard deviation 2.,72 on the f i r s t t r i a l and mean score 1 8 . 0 3 with standard deviation 2..69 on the re- t e s t . The H.C.I.. scores were lower on both tests, and d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the . 0 1 l e v e l , with scores of the norm population.. The t s t a t i s t i c s were 20..00 and 13.OO f o r the f i r s t t r i a l and re-test comparisons. On the basis of the above, information,, the null, hypothesis was rejected.. 80. TABLE I H.C.I. AND' NORM POPULATION MOTOR PERFORMANCE SCORES Norm Population H.C.{. Scores t test Test X SD N X SD N Brace A** 50 10 100* 31.25 5.85 280 22.4 B## 35.21 6.35 129 14.65 IMP A** 45.5 25 705 36.29 23.9 666 6.97 B** 42.60 27.3 254 1.54 GMC A** 239.13 46 100* 187.84 23.0 669 17.6 B** 195.88 24.28 255 11.7 MQ A** 100 10 100* 78.26 8.89 669 22.4 B#* 81.51 9.21 255 16.50 ST A** 13.5 2.65 100* 8.44 1.76 660 25.3 B** 9.52 1.76 253 20.0 Ohins. A** 7 3 705:: 7.03 3.42 656 .176 B** 7.21 3.46 251 .945 PU A** 16 7 705 19.38 8.45 667 8.07 B** 23.80 9.70 255 13.70 VJ A** 20.75 3 705 17.65 2.72 668 20.00 B** 18.03 2.69 254 1.3.00 Height 70.06 2.73 8538 68.8 2.596 H I 4.85 Weight 157.72 22.68 8538 150.01 16.425 111 3.56 * N was not known ** These statistics were obtained from the total number of raw scores rather than from the sample scores used in the correlation matrix, where only 111 observations for each variable were considered. 81 Mull Hypothesis 2.. Young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n w i l l reveal motor perfor-mance t r a i t s that are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from those associated with mesomorphy, the assumed dominant physique type of the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n (H.C.I..) inmates. The Indiana Motor Fitness Index I re-test scores and the two Chins test scores, within the Indiana Motor Fitness Index I f i r s t t r i a l and re-test, were the only motor performance tests that did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the norm population scores. The Push-Up test (both t r i a l s ) , also within the Indiana Motor Fitness Index.I tes t , was the only test i n which H.C.I.. scores were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the norm population scores. A l l other H.C.I, motor performance scores were s i g n i f i -cantly lower than motor performance scores of the norm population.. On the basis of the above information, the n u l l hypothesis was rejected. Mull Hypothesis 3. Young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n (H.C.I.) w i l l not display s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n motor performances, aft e r four months' exposure to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u -t i o n Physical Education program, as revealed on i n i t i a l and re-test motor performance comparisons. 82 (1) The Brace Motor Edu c a b i l i t y test:.. The H.C.I.. Brace Motor Edu c a b i l i t y test mean T-score was. 31*25 with standard deviation 5 . 8 5 on the f i r s t t r i a l and mean T— score 35*21 with standard deviation 6 * 3 5 on the re-test. The re-test mean T-score was higher and d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i -cantly, at the ..01 l e v e l , with the f i r s t t r i a l mean T-score. The t s t a t i s t i c was 6*18*. . The high mental a b i l i t y group (IQ,.. llO-lS 1*) had a. mean raw score of 11 with standard deviation 3*0.2' on the f i r s t t r i a l of the Brace Motor Ed u c a b i l i t y test., and a mean raw score of 12*7 with standard deviation 2*37 on the r e - t e s t . The re-test mean raw score was higher, but did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the .,01 l e v e l , with the' mean raw score; of the f i r s t t r i a l . The t s t a t i s t i c was lJ+ 3 . The low mental a b i l i t y group (IQ. 66.-76). had a mean raw score of 9 with standard deviation 1*23 on the f i r s t t r i a l of the Brace Motor Ed u c a b i l i t y test and a mean raw score:of 1 2 . 1 with standard deviation 2.1+1. on the re-test. The re-test mean raw score was higher and d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the .,01. l e v e l , with the mean raw score of the f i r s t t r i a l * The t s t a t i s t i c was:. 1 1 * 9 . (2) . The Indiana Motor Fitness Index I. The H.C..I*. Indiana Motor Fitness Index--1 mean score was 36*29. with standard deviation 23*9 on the f i r s t t r i a l and mean 1+2*60 8 1 with standard deviation 27.3 on the re-test. The re-test mean score was higher and d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the .,01. l e v e l , with the f i r s t t r i a l mean score. The t s t a t i s t i c was 3*<Lt3*. Indiana. Motor Fitness Index. I test items., (a) Chins.. The H.C.I.. Chins mean score was 7*03 with standard devia-t i o n 3.Li-2 on the f i r s t t r i a l and mean score 7-21 with standard deviation 3J+6 on the re-test.. The re-test mean score was higher, hut did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the ...01 l e v e l , with the f i r s t t r i a l mean score.. The t s t a t i s t i c was . 7 0 . (b) . Push-Ubs. The H.C.I.. Push-Ups mean score was 19*38 with standard deviation 8J+5 on the f i r s t t r i a l , and mean score 23*80: with standard deviation 9.70 on the re-test.. The re-test mean score was higher and d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i -cantly, at the *01 l e v e l , with the f i r s t t r i a l mean score. The t s t a t i s t i c was 6*79* (c) V e r t i c a l Jump.. The H.CI.,. V e r t i c a l Jump mean score was 17.,65. with standard deviation 2.72 on the f i r s t t r i a l and mean score l8.,,03.,with standard deviation 2..69 on the re-test.. The re-test mean score was higher, but did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the .,01 l e v e l , with the f i r s t t r i a l mean score.. The t s t a t i s t i c was I..9.I.. (d) Modified Indiana. Motor Fitness Index I.. The H.C.I., Modified Indiana, Motor' Fitness Index,. I mean score was 137.-36 with standard deviation ^-5.0 on the f i r s t t r i a l and mean score 152-16 with standard deviation *+7..5 on the re-test... The re-test mean • score was higher and d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the ..01 l e v e l , with the f i r s t t r i a l mean score.. The t s t a t i s t i c was h*39r (3). The McCloy General Motor Capacity test.: The H.C.I -General .Motor Capacity test mean score was 187.81+ with standard, deviation 23.O on the f i r s t t r i a l and mean score 1 9 5 . 8 8 with standard deviation 2*+.,28 on the re-test., The re-test mean score was higher and d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the -01 . l e v e l , with the f i r s t t r i a l mean score.. The t s t a t i s t i c was 1 +-66-(l+). The McClov Motor Quotient., The H.C..I... Motor Quotient mean score was 7 8 . 2 6 with standard deviation 8*89 on the f i r s t t r i a l and mean scorer8 1 . 5 1 with standard deviation 9 - 2 1 on the re- t e s t . The re-test mean score was higher and d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the - 0 1 l e v e l , with the f i r s t t r i a l mean score. The t s t a t i s t i c was W 8 9 * . (5)-The Twenty-Second Sauat Thrust test.. The H.C..I. Squat Thrust mean score was Q+\\k with standard deviation I . .76 on the f i r s t t r i a l , and mean score 9-522 with standard 8 5 deviation I . .76 on the re-test.. The re-test mean score was higher and d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the *Q1 l e v e l , with the f i r s t t r i a l mean score,. The t s t a t i s t i c wasv, On the basis of the information obtained t e s t i n g n u l l hypothesis 3> "the n u l l hypothesis was rejected.. TABLE II FIRST TRIAL AND RE-TEST MOTOR PERFORMANCE SCORES First Trial Re-test t tes1 Test X SD N X SD . N Brace Motor Educability 31.25, 5.85 280 35.21 6.35 129 6.18 Indiana Motor Fitness Index I 36.29 23.90 666 42.60 27.3 254 3.43 McCloy General Motor Capacity 187.84 23.0 669 195.88 24.28 255 4.66 McCloy Motor Quotient 78.26 8.89 669 81.51 9.21 255 4.89 Twenty-Second Squat Thrust 8.44 1.76 660 9.52 1.76 253 8.24 Chins 7.03 3.42 656 7.21 3.46 251 .70 Push-Ups 19.38 .8.45 667 23.80 9.70 255 6.79 Vertical Jump 17.65 2.72 668 18.03 2.69 254 1.91 Brace Motor Educability(High mental ability) 11 3.02 26 12.7 2.37 13 1.43 Brace Motor Educability (Low mental ability) 9 1.23 47 12.1 2.41 22 11.9 Modified Indiana Motor Fitness Index I 137.36 669 152.16 255 4.39 87 Mull Hypothesis h. Young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n (H.C.I.,). w i l l not reveal s i g n i -f i c a n t differences i n t h e i r scores on the Henmon-Nelson Grade 6 - 9 Mental A b i l i t y t e s t , as compared with norms established for t h i s test.. The mean score for the norm population on the Henmon Nelson Grade 6-9. Mental A b i l i t y test was 1 0 0 , with standard deviation 1 5 . The H.C.I... mean score from a sample of 111 observations (those observations included; i n the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n matrix: of a l l variables) was: 89„8i+:with standard deviation l 1 +. .96. The H.C.I., mean score was lower and d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the .,01 l e v e l , with the mean score of the norm population.. The t s t a t i s t i c was H-..9. The H.C.I.mean score, from the 2 6 l observations that were available, was 92.-5< with standard deviation 1 3 . 7 . . As.the company producing the test recommended that scores below 65 be disregarded and those individuals re-tested with non-verbal t e s t s , a l l scores of 65 or lower were omitted from consideration., The H.C.I., mean score was , lower and d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the ..0.1 l e v e l , with the mean score of the norm population.. The t s t a t i s t i c was 2 .73« On the basis of the above, information, the n u l l hypothesis was rejected. .•: 88 N u l l Hypothesis 5. Young men c l a s s i f i e d to the. Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n (H.C.I.,1 w i l l not reveal s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n t h e i r scholastic attainment, as compared with norms for the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t . As indicated i n Table I I I , 99 percent of the norm population f i n i s h e d grade 8 , while 7h percent of the H..C.I.> inmates f i n i s h e d grade 8 . The differences i n attainment were more pronounced i n the higher grades... In the norm population, 92 percent f i n i s h e d grade 9 , 88 percent f i n i s h e d grade 1 0 , 82 percent f i n i s h e d grade 1 1 , and 73 percent f i n i s h e d grade 1 2 . In the H.C.I., inmate population, H-3 percent f i n i s h e d grade 9 , 2H-. percent f i n i s h e d grade 1 0 , 10.2". percent f i n i s h e d grade 1 1 , and H-.7 percent f i n i s h e d grade 12., On the basis of the above information, the n u l l hypothesis was rejected. '". ; N u l l Hypothesis 6., Young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n w i l l not reveal s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n t h e i r height and.weight, as compared to Kansas^ University norms. (al.Height. The mean score f o r the norm population on height was 70...0.6 with a standard deviation of 2 . 7 3 -The H.C.I.. mean score for height was 68..8 inches with 89 standard deviation 2 „ 5 9 . The H.C.I, mean score was lower and d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the .,01 l e v e l , with the mean score of the norm population. The t s t a t i s t i c was l +.85. (b) Weight.. The mean score for the norm population on weight was 157-72 with a standard deviation of 2 2 - 6 8 -The H.C.I- mean score for weight was 1 5 0 - 0 1 pounds with a standard deviation of l 6 - 1 + 2 . The H..C-I- mean score was lower and d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the . 0 1 l e v e l , -with the mean score of the norm population. The t s t a t i s t i c was 3 - 5 6 -On the basis of the above information,, the n u l l hypothesis was rejected.. _TABLE III H.C.I. AND NORM POPULATION MENTAL PERFORMANCE COMPARISONS Vancouver School District -(N = large but unknown) H.C.I. - N== 577 Grade-last-completed Percentage Finishing each grade Percentage Finishing each grade 4 99.0 5 97.5 6 95.5 7 90 8 99 74 9 92 43 10 88 24 11 82 10.2 12 73 4.7 o TABLE III (Continued) H.C.I. AND NORM POPULATION MENTAL PERFORMANCE COMPARISONS Hemnon Nelson Grade 6-9 Mental Ability Test A. Scores from the correlation matrix B. A l l H.C.I, scores available -omitting IQ 65 X SD N X SD .100 15 100* 89.84 14.96 9 2 . 5 13.7 N t test 111 4.9 261 2.73 Brace Motor Educability Test Initial Test Re-Test Raw scores Raw scores H.C.I. High Mental Ability H.C.I. Low Mental Ability group. IQ 1 1 0 - 1 3 4 group. IQ 66-76 X 11 12.7 SD 3.02 2.37 N 26 1 3 9 12.1 SD 1.23 2.41 N 47 22 t test 8.2 .47 .*. N.was not known. 92: N u l l Hypothesis 7. Mental a b i l i t y and scholastic attainment of young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correc-t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n w i l l not show a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n -ship with t h e i r motor performance scores, as revealed on a co r r e l a t i o n matrix of a l l variables. (a) Mental a b i l i t y . . Mental a b i l i t y correlated s i g n i f i -cantly, at the ..01 l e v e l , with the General Motor Capacity re-test (r = . 2 8 ) . . A l l other correlations between mental a b i l i t y and motor performance were non-significant, at the - 0 1 l e v e l . , (b) . Scholastic attainment.. Scholastic attainment correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the ..01 l e v e l , with:: the Brace Motor'Educability f i r s t t r i a l (r = . 3 D 5 V e r t i c a l Jump f i r s t t r i a l (r = . 2 6 ) ; Indiana Motor Fitness Index: I re—test (r = . . 2 6 ) ; General Motor Capacity, both tests (r = . 3 8 f i r s t t r i a l and r = . 3 2 for re-test) and Motor Quotient f i r s t t r i a l Or =- - 2 8 ) . . A l l other correlations between scholastic attainment and motor performance were i n s i g n i f i c a n t , at the . 0 1 l e v e l . On the basis of the above information, the n u l l hypothesis was. accepted. The relationships were too low and too few, to be given consideration-H u l l Hypothesis 8 - Age, height, weight and McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Index of young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney 93: Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n w i l l not show a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p with motor performance scores, as revealed on an i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n matrix of a l l variables. A l l s i g n i f i c a n t relationships w i l l be investigated. (a) Age correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the . 0 1 l e v e l , with the McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index (r = . 2 5 6 ) and Weight (r = . . 2 9 ) . A l l correlations between age and motor performance were i n s i g n i f i c a n t , at the . 0 1 l e v e l . (b) . Height correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the . 0 1 l e v e l , with:, ( i ) Weight (r « . 5 7 ) ( i i ) Class. Index (r = ..80) ( i i i ) Grade-last-completed (r = - 2 9 ) , (iv) Mental A b i l i t y (r =- .29) (v) Chins (r = -.1+2 f i r s t t r i a l , r = - . 3 2 re-test) (vi) Push-Ups (r = - . 3 9 f i r s t t r i a l , r = - . 2 7 re-test) ( v i i ) Indiana Motor Fitness Index I, f i r s t t r i a l (r = - . 2 8 ) . ( v i i i ) Modified Indiana Motor Fitness Index. I (r = - . 3 8 f i r s t t r i a l , r = - . 2 5 6 re-test) (ix) GMC (r = .31+ f i r s t t r i a l , r = .1+6 r e - t e s t ) . (c) Weight correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the . 0 1 l e v e l , with:: ( i ) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index: (r » . 8 9 ) ( i i ) Chins (r = - . 3 1 . f i r s t t r i a l , r = - . 2 9 re-test) ( i i i ) , GMCII (r = ,M6 f i r s t t r i a l , r = .1+8 re-test) (iv). Height (r = . 5 7 ) (v). Age (r - . . .29.)* (d) . The McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index correlated < s i g n i f i c a n t l y , at the ..01 l e v e l , with:: (i) Age (r = . 2 5 6 ) ( i i ) Height (r = ..80) ( i i i ) Weight (r = - 8 9 ) (iv) Chins (r - - . 3 9 f i r s t t r i a l , r = -32: re-test) (v) Push-Ups • f i r s t t r i a l (r = - . 3 0 ) . (vi) Modified Indiana Motor F i t -ness Index I (r = - . 3 0 f i r s t t r i a l ) ( v i i ) GMC (r » .H-9 f i r s t t r i a l , r = . 5 5 re-test),. On the basis of the above information, and with the exception of age, the n u l l hypothesis was rejected. TABLE IV INTERCORRELATION Variables 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1. Age 1.0 2. Ht. .02 1.0 3. Wt.' .29 .57 1.0 4. Class. In. .25 .80 89 1.0 5. Grade .08 29 10 21 1.0 6. IQ . -.01 29 11 20 60 1.0 7. Brace A -.01 -04 -11 -09 31 20 1.0 8. Brace B -.11 -04 -07 -07 10 12 .63 1.0 9. Chins A .03 -42 -31 -39 03 -07 42 33 1.0 10. Chins B .04 -32 -29 -32 10 01 34 34 75 1.0 11. S.T. A -.16 16 -15 -19 07 -04 26 27 32 29 12. S.T. B .00 00 05 13 19 17 14 20 -10 04 13. PvU..- A -.07 -39 -23 -30 09 -06 29 27 59 63 14. P.U. B -.14 -27 -18 -20 16 00 25 30 54 30 15. V.J.. A -.04 07 05 00 26 13 45 35 38 35 16. V.J. B -.03 04 05 04 24 16 44 43 31 30 17. IMP A .00 -28 -10 -18 22 06 51 40 66 57 18. . IMP B -.05 -11 -10 -11 26 12 49 48 57 65 19. M.IMP A -.03 -38 -22 -30 15 -01 46 39 81 66 20. M.IMP B -.07 -25 -19 -22 21 06 42 44 69 83 21. GMC " A .07 34 46 49 38 25 57 41 20 19 22. GMC B .07 46 48 55 32: 28 44 57 05 12 23. MQ A -.08 -19 -12 -16 28 14 72 52 51 45 24. MQ. .. B -.08 -03 -08. -07 23. 19 59 74 35 38 IX OP VARIABLES 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 16 1.0 33 -12 1.0 42 00 73 1.0 35 08 40 36 1.0 26 15 26 29 73 1.0 41 02 70 60 88 65 1.0 39 14 54 67 70 84 80. 1.0 42 -07 87 70 70 51 92 74 1.0 42 07 67 87 58 61 76 90 80 1.0 37 20 22 26 79 65 66 58 47 43 1.0 16 43 05 15 54 76 41 60 24 38 80 1.0 55. 13 46 44 90 69 88 74 75 64 77 . 50 34 43 28 33 65 87 62 80 51 62 59 78 111 Observations CHARTER. V DISCUSSION. This chapter w i l l compare some of the Haney. Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n inmates' results with those included i n the related l i t e r a t u r e , as well as provide comments on these r e s u l t s , and the results: i n general, in a discussion at the end of the chapter... ' COMPARISON OF RESULTS. WITH PREVIOUS STUDIES 'The only results of t h i s study that could he compared with those of other studies, other than the mean score comparisons already made, were the in t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of the motor performance, mental performance, si z e and maturity variables.. Some mean score comparisons were also made with d i f f e r e n t studies. A. Motor Performance 1.. V e r t i c a l Jump. In the study by Fleishman (*+) on 20,1 naval t r a i n i n g subjects, t h e i r mean v e r t i c a l jump score was 18..H-3- with standard deviation 2-66.; Their v e r t i c a l jump scores correlated -38 with Ghins, -31 with Push-Ups and . 1 8 with Squat Thrusts- The H.C-I- mean V e r t i c a l , Jump; score was 17-65. with standard deviation 2-7.2'on the 9.7 f i r s t t r i a l and mean 1 8 * 0 3 , with standard deviation 2-69 on the re-test. H..C.I-. v e r t i c a l jump scores also corre-lated -38 with Chins as the navy correlation did on the f i r s t t r i a l and - 3 0 on the re-test. H..C-I-, Squat Thrust scores correlated - 3 5 on the f i r s t t r i a l and -15 on the re-test, coming closer to the navy co r r e l a t i o n on the re-test. The H..C.I- Push-Up scores correlated *l+0 on the f i r s t t r i a l and -29 on the re-test, again coming close to the navy c o r r e l a t i o n on the re-test. 2 - Sauat Thrusts- In a study on High School boys McCloy (7). found that t h e i r mean score f o r twenty-second Squat Thrusts was 13*5-. The H.C..I* mean score was 8.*+*+ on the f i r s t t r i a l and 9*52 on the r e - t e s t -Fleishman, i n his study of 20.1 naval cadets, found that t h e i r thirty-second squat thrust test correlated. . 1 8 with v e r t i c a l jump, -3)+ with chins and *37 with push-ups. The H.C.I* squat thrust scores correlated . 3 5 with v e r t i c a l jump on the f i r s t t r i a l and . 1 5 on the re-test; • 33. with push-ups on the f i r s t t r i a l ' and . 0 0 on the re-test; and - 3 2 with, chins on the f i r s t t r i a l and .0U- on the r e - t e s t - S i m i l a r i t i e s i n H.C.I- correlations can be found on either the f i r s t t r i a l or re-test scores with those of the navy cadets, but not on both. 3 „ Brace Motor Educability t e s t . McCloy (7) found re-test and f i r s t t r i a l correlations of Brace Motor Ed u c a b i l i t y S>8 test scores at in t e r v a l s of s i x months, to be . 7 2 for secondary school boys. The H.C.I.. re-test c o r r e l a t i o n was . ,63. , P h i l i p s ( 8 ) , i n a study of 200 college women, found a co r r e l a t i o n of .>1 between the Brace test and v e r t i c a l jump- The H.C.I., correlations between the Brace test and v e r t i c a l jump were -H-5 on the f i r s t t r i a l and •>t-3 on the re-test, i n d i c a t i n g a great deal of s i m i l a r i t y with P h i l i p s ' findings. Brace (.2), found correlations of -67M- and . 6 5 8 between the Brace test and GMC and Motor Quotient., The H.C.I... correlations between the Brace test and GMC and MQ,.were -57 and - 7 2 on the f i r s t t r i a l , and .,57 and -7^*'''on the re-test. S i m i l a r i t i e s were found, therefore, between the H.C.I- correlations and the Brace c o r r e l a t i o n s -H-. General Motor Capacity test. Van Dal en (.9), i n his study of 3*+8 Junior High School, students, found that GMC correlated . 7 3 with the McCloy Motor Quotient- H.C.I... correlations between GMC and Motor Quotient were . 7 7 on the f i r s t t r i a l and . 7 8 on the r e - t e s t -B- Mental Performance Studies by the Gluecks (5). , L o u t t i t (6) , , Bernard ( 1 ) , Cole (3) and others revealed that juvenile delinquents had mean mental a b i l i t y scores that -were 10 IQ_ points below normal- The H.C.I- mean mental a b i l i t y score was also 10 IQ; points below that of the norm population... 99 C Size A . study by Fleishman (hi on 201 Naval Cadets revealed an average weight of 150*6 pounds (standard deviation = 20 .3 pounds), and an average height of f i v e feet 10 inches (standard deviation = 2 .8 inches),.. The H.C.I., average weight, f o r 111 subjects, was 150*01 (standard deviation 16J+2). and the average height was 68*8 inches (standard deviation 2 . 5 9 ) - The two groups were s i m i l a r i n age, with H.C..I* average age 18*9 years and the cadets 18*3 years, and sim i l a r i n weight. H.C.I*, inmates were shorter than the Naval Cadets. Discussion As stated i n Chapter I, the purpose of t h i s investiga-t i o n was to arr i v e at some kind of "motor performance picture" of young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n i n order to gain insight into t h e i r t o t a l make-up and f i n d possible reasons f o r delinquency, as well as develop a better understanding o f what could be done through physical education to correct or change t h e i r delinquent behavior. Analysis of the motor performance test r e s u l t s , as well as a study of the relationships of mental performance, size and maturity to t h e i r motor performances has helped the investigator to gain some insight into the motor performance a b i l i t i e s of these young men*. 100. From the analysis of the r e s u l t s , i t appears that inmates of the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n have-i n f e r i o r a b i l i t i e s , both i n mental performances and motor performances.. They are also below average i n s i z e . In spite of the assumption that they have a predominance of mesomorphic physique, the physique type associated with above average motor performance, these young men are below average i n most motor performances.,. They d i s -play motor performance t r a i t s a l i e n to mesomorphic physique. For confidence to be placed i n the previous, statement, however, the entire t e s t i n g procedure would have to be repeated with somatotyping. As mental performance and exposure to school physical education programs showed l i t t l e r e lationship with the H.C.I... motor performances, i t could follow that t h e i r lack of motor performance a b i l i t y was related to physical and other, perhaps innate, factors. One factor to consider i s the fact that, i n most schools, formal physical education does not usually begin u n t i l students are i n Junior High School, the point i n the education program where most pre-delinquents drop out of school. It i s not l i k e l y , therefore, that exposure to school ph y s i c a l education programs has had time to develop motor performance..ability of pre-delinquents.. Hence, the relationship between the grade-last-completed of pre-101 delinquents and t h e i r motor performances might be expected to be low, as was the case i n t h i s study with delinquents., One physical factor showing a high relationship with delinquent motor performances was motor f i t n e s s , and i n p a r t i c u l a r , the strength, muscular endurance and power aspects of i t . Height and weight, as i n norm population studies, proved to be s l i g h t i n h i b i t i n g factors i n delinquent motor performance.. Age neither i n h i b i t e d nor contributed to motor performance. Since most of the boys were at age seventeen or older, the point where age has; been shown to cease contributing to motor performance, t h i s f i n d i n g was not unusual.-A more unusual finding was the fact that inmates improved t h e i r motor performance scores s i g n i f i c a n t l y within four months.. An i n t e r e s t i n g observation i n this 1 part of the study was the fact that the low mental a b i l i t y group had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower motor educability mean , score than the high mental a b i l i t y group, yet the rel a t i o n s h i p between mental a b i l i t y and motor educability was not s i g n i f i c a n t . The low mental a b i l i t y group improved t h e i r motor educability mean score more than the high mental a b i l i t y group, with re-test motor educa:^ b i l i t y mean scores of both groups being almost the same. This could indicate that delinquents with high mental ; 102 a b i l i t y , although l i m i t e d i n motor educability, maintain a higher l e v e l of motor educability than those delinquents with low mental a b i l i t y . . The delinquents with high mental a b i l i t y , being closer to t h e i r motor educability capacity than the low mental a b i l i t y delinquents, improve less when exposed to a Physical Education program. This i s only '. one possible answer, perhaps further study with extremely high and low mental a b i l i t y groups would reveal other relationships.of the kind mentioned above, and provide more appropriate answers.; • The "motor performance picture" : conjured up from the' material and findings of t h i s investigation, could o f f e r a set of clues to be added to the complex: of clues that t r y to provide reasons why juveniles and young men become delinquent.. To begin with, we kno%ir from related l i t e r a -ture that boys and young men give motor performance a b i l i t y , the a b i l i t y that delinquents are low i n , a great deal of prestige. Juveniles, who have experienced d i f f i c u l t y i n school, because of a lack of mental a b i l i t y and other reasons, have dropped out e a r l i e r than other boys.. Desiring masculine, aggressive, exciting, action-f i l l e d a c t i v i t y , which t h e i r physique type predisposes : them.to, the delinquent's-search for motor performances to f i l l t h e i r needs. These needs might be met, i n part, by committing delinquent acts, because these pre-delinquents 103; lack the conventional motor performance a b i l i t i e s necessary to gain s a t i s f a c t i o n from conventional, a c t i v i -ties., By providing physical education t r a i n i n g i n motor performance s k i l l s for' a l l youth at the beginning and throughout t h e i r school experience, and giving s p e c i a l attention to those with motor performance problems, perhaps some delinquency could be prevented. Motor per-formances would be developed to a greater extent than the are now, and aggressive behavior could be put to use i n more s o c i a l l y acceptable physical a c t i v i t i e s . For those youth who are already i n correctional i n s t i t u t i o n s , an intensive physical education program, aimed at improving basic motor performances and motor f i t n e s s , might help channel energies away from delinquent a c t i v i t i e s . loh REFERENCES 1.. Bernard, H.W., Adolescent Development i n American  Culture. World Book Company, 1 9 5 7 -2 - Brace, D.K.. "Studies i n Motor Learning of Grosss Bodily Motor S k i l l s , " Research Quarterly. V o l . 17;. 2 ^ 5 3 ; Dec.,, I9k6. 3 . . Cole, L. Psychology of Adolescence- New York:; Rinehart and Company Inc., Pub.,, 1 9 5 6 . l+... Fleishman, E..A.. The Structure and Measurement of Physical Fitness. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey:^ Prentice-Hall Inc., 196*+. 5.- Glueck, S.. and E., Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency.. Cambridge, Mass.:: Published f o r the Commonwealth Fund by Harvard Univ e r s i t y Press, 1950.. 6... Lout t i t , CM. C l i n i c a l Psychology and Exceptional  Children. New York:. Third E d i t i o n , Harper and Brothers, Pub.., 1 9 5 7 -7 - McCloy, C H . and Young, D.. Tests and Measurements i n Health and Physical Education.. New York:, Third E d i t i o n , Appleton - Century - Crofts, Inc.; pp.. 8 3 - 1 7 7 ; 1 9 5 ^ 105 8.. P h i l i p s , M.. "Study of a Series of Physical Education Tests by Factor Analysis," Research Quarterly,, Vol. 20: : 6 0 - 7 0 ; March, 19k9. 9 . , Van Dalen, D.B... "A Study of Certain Factors i n Their Relation to the Play of Children," Research  Quarterly, Vol. 18: : 2 7 9 - 9 0 ; D e c , 19H?., CHAPTER VI. SUMMARY: AND CONCLUSIONS. Purpose of the investigation. The purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was to analyze the motor performances of young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u -t i o n , to compare t h e i r performances to those of the test norms, to determine whether t h e i r motor performance t r a i t s were a l i e n to mesomorphy (the dominant physique type of delinquents.), to determine the contribution of the I n s t i t u t i o n Physical Education program to t h e i r motor performances and to f i n d out whether factors such as mental a b i l i t y , scholastic attainment, age, height and weight were related to t h e i r motor performance scores i n any way.. S.ub.iects.- The subjects were 670 male inmates of the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n , ranging i n age from In-to HO, but. with the majority between 17 and 23 years of age. ..,• Test items and variab l e s . A.,. Motor performance tests were administered to a l l . inmates on a r r i v a l and again a f t e r four months. Items, administered included (a) Brace Motor Ed u c a b i l i t y test 1 0 7 Cb). Twenty-Second Squat Thrust test (c) Push-Ups (d) V e r t i c a l Jump and (.e) Chins. The scores from these tests were placed i n the appropriate formulas to obtain:: (a) McCloy General Motor Capacity test (b) McCloy Motor Quotient (c) Indiana Motor Fitness Index: I (d). Modified Indiana Motor Fitness Index: I... B- Size and maturity variables were obtained by measuring the inmates* height and weight, then getting t h e i r age to compute t h e i r McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Indices.. C . Mental performances were obtained by checking the inmates* f i l e s for grades-lastr-completed and Henmon Nelson Grade 6-9 Mental A b i l i t y Test scores. Treatment of the data.. The data from the motor perfor-mance test items administered, mental performance, size and maturity were recorded on computer data sheets.. Programs fo r the computer were prepared by experts to obtain::. 1. Derived variables, such as the McCloy General Motor Capacity test score-2- Means and standard deviations of a l l o r i g i n a l - and derived variables.,. 3 . , An i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n matrix of a l l o r i g i n a l and derived variables.. t s t a t i s t i c s of differences between mean scores of i n i t i a l and re-test motor performances... 108 Other calculations, such as the t s t a t i s t i c of differences between H.C.I.. inmates' mean scores and those of the norm populations and preparation of frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n polygons, were done by the investigator. Conclusions The conclusions of t h i s study are d i r e c t l y related to, and appear i n the same order as, the hypotheses and re s u l t s . Each of the eight conclusions w i l l consider one of the hypotheses, which together, constitute the problem of t h i s study., 1.. Except for a few instances, H.C.I., motor performance: test mean scores were s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than those of the norm populations f o r the motor performance tests.. 2.. H.C.T.. motor performance test mean scores were s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than those associated with mesomor-phic physique, the assumed dominant physique type of correct i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n inmates. 3... Except for a few i n d i v i d u a l test items, H.C.I.,- motor performance re-test mean scores, taken aft e r four months' exposure to the I n s t i t u t i o n Physical Education program, were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the f i r s t t r i a l mean scores. 109 k+- The H.CI... Henmon Nelson Grade 6-9 Mental A b i l i t y test mean score was s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than that of the norm population* 5 * Young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional. I n s t i t u t i o n have completed fewer grades i n school than , students of the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t , B r i t i s h Columbia., 6*. Young men c l a s s i f i e d to the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n had height and weight mean scores that were s i g n i f i c a n t l y shorter and l i g h t e r than mean scores of the norm population.. 7. -., Except for a few instances, i n which the relationships were low, H.C.I.mental a b i l i t y and scholastic attainment scores were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to motor performance test scores. 8. Except f o r the General Motor Capacity t e s t , height and weight were s i g n i f i c a n t l y and negatively related to H.C.I.. motor performance test scores. Age was an i n s i g n i f i c a n t factor i n a l l H.C.I.. motor performance tests.. 110 BIBLIOGRAPHY: BOOKS American Correctional Association.. Manual of Correctional Standards. Issued by the American Correctional Association, 1.961+,. Bernard, H.W. Adolescent Development i n American Culture, World Book Company, 1 9 5 7 -Brace, D.K., Measuring Motor A b i l i t y . New York, A.S.. Barnes and Company, 1927. . Buros, O.K.. (Editor). The F i f t h Mental Measurement Yearbook.. Highland Park, New Jersey, The Gryphen . Press, 1 9 5 9 . Cole, L.. Psychology of Adolescence. New York, Rinehart and Company Inc., 1956., Crow, L.D.. Adolescent Development and Adjustment. New York, Toronto, London, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1956.-Cureton, T.IC. Physical Fitness: Appraisal and Guidance. St. Louis, C V . Mosby, 1 9 4 7 . ' Davidson,. C.H.E.. Adolescence and Juvenile Delinquency, C i r c l e v i l l e , Ohio, Advocate Press, 1955* Davis, E.C.. and Wa l l i s , E . l . Toward Better Teaching i n  Physical Education. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1961 . , Ferguson, T. and Cunnison, J... In Their E a r l y Twenties. Published for the N u f f i e l d Foundation by Oxford University Press, 1956.. Ferguson, G.A. S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis i n Psychology and  Education. New York, Toronto, London, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1959 . Fleishman, E.A.. The Structure and Measurement of  Physical Fitness. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey, Prentice-Hall Inc., 196h. Glueck, S.. The Problem of Delinquency, Boston, Houghton M i f l i n Co., 1959.-I l l Glueck, S. and E. Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency: Cambridge, Mass., Published f o r the Commonwealth Fund by Harvard University Press, 1 9 5 0 -Graybeal, E„ The Measurement of Outcomes of Physical  Education for College Women. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1 9 3 7 . J e r s i l d , A..T... The Psychology of Adolescence. New York, The Macmillan Co., 1 9 6 3 -Lindegaard, B.. Body-Build, Body Function and  Personality-, Lund, C.W.K. Gleerup, 1 9 5 6 . L o u t t i t , CM- C l i n i c a l Psychology and Exceptional Children. Third E d i t i o n , New York, Harper and Brothers, 1957 . McCloy, C H. and Young, D... Tests and Measurements i n Health and Physical Education. Third E d i t i o n , New York, Appleton - Century - Crofts, Inc., 195^. Mathews, D.K. Measurement i n Physical Education, Philadelphia and London, W..B. Saunders Co., 1 § 6 3 -Mouly, G-J- The Science of Educational Research. New York, American Book Company, 1 9 ° 3 -Mussen, P.H-, Konger, J . J - and Kagan, J - Ch i l d Develop-ment and Personality, Second E d i t i o n , New York, Evanston, and London, Harper and Row, 1 9 6 3 -Scott, M.G., and French, E. Evaluation i n Physical  Education, St.Louis, CV..Mosby Co., 1 9 5 0 . Sheldon, W.H.., Stevens, S.S.-and Tucker, W.B. . The  Va r i e t i e s of Human Physique, New York, Harper and Brothers, l^+O-Skinner, C.E.= Educational Psychology, New York, Prentice-Hall Inc., 1 9 5 1 -Thompson, G.G-, Gardener, E. and Di Vesta, F-J-Education Psychology, New York, Appleton - Century - > Crofts, 1959 . 112: PERIODICALS. Aarons, Z.A.. "Some Problems of Delinquency and. Their Treatment by a. Casework Agency," S o c i a l Casework.-. Vol.. 1+0, No.. 5, 251+-262", May, 19597 ; Anderson, T. and McCloy, C.H.. "The Measurement of Sports A b i l i t y i n High School G i r l s , " Research Quarterly. Vol.. 18, 2-11, March, 19^7.-Banay, R.S.. ".Problems of Delinquency," Corrective- Psychiatry and Journal o f S o c i a l Therapy. Vol.- 10, 8-16, January, l$6h,. Barrett, D..R.. "A Study of Academic Performance i n Correctional Education," The Journal of Correctional  Education. Vol.. 1.6, No., h, 13*17> October 196*+.. B;enton, R.J.. "The Measurement of Capacities for Learning Dance Movement Techniques," 1 Research Quarterly. Vol.. 15, 137-1^-, May, 1 9 ^ -Berger, R., "Report of the Geneva Juvenile Court for 1957},:  International Criminal Police- Review, No.. 122, 279-282:, November 1958.. Blesh, T.E.. and Soholzr, A..E. "Ten-Year Survey of Physical Fitness Tests at Yiale University,"' Research Quarterly, Vol., 2.8, 321-26, December 1957* Bookwalter, K.W.. "A C r i t i c a l Analysis of Achievements i n the Physical Fitness, Program for Men at Indiana University," Research Quarterly. Vol.. 1*+, IS^-93, May, 19^3.• Bookwalter, K.W- "Test Manual for Indiana.University Motor Fitness/Indices for High. School and College Men,"!  Research Quarterly, December, 19^3. Brace, D.K., . "Studies, i n Motor Learning of Gross Bodily Motor S k i l l s , " Research Quarterly. Vol. 17, 2l+2-53> December, 19^-6. Brace, D.K.. "Studies i n the Rate of Learning Gross Bodily Motor S k i l l s , " 1 Research Quarterly, Vol., 12, l8lr-85, May, 19kl». Braithwaite, J.. "Prison - Part of the Community,"' American Journal of Corrections, Vol. 2*+, U-o, January, February, 1962-113 Burley, L.,R„ and Anderson,, R.L., "Relation of Jiimp and Reach Measures of Power to Intelligence Scores and A t h l e t i c Performance," Research Quarterly. Vol. 26, 2 8 - 3 5 , March, 1 9 5 5 -C a l i f o r n i a Department of Correction., "Intramural Sports. Interest Inmates," The Correctional Review. Special E d i t i o n , 1963... Canadian Correctional Association.. "Towards a Better. Understanding of our Juvenile Delinquents," 1 The  Canadian Journal of Corrections. Vol.- 1 , No.. 2 , 30-40, January 1959.-Cane, F.E.. "Research Committee of the Board of Correc-t i o n s , " C a l i f o r n i a Youth Authority Quarterly, Vol., 5» No.. 2 , 3 2 - 3 9 , 1 9 5 2 . Carpenter, A.. "Strength, Power and 'Femininity' As Factors Influencing the A t h l e t i c Performance .of College Women," Research Quarterly. Vol.,, 9 , 1 2 0 - 2 7 , May, 1 9 3 8 . Costello, J...B.-,. "Our Youth and Delinquency," Correction, Published by New York State Department of. Correction, Vol.. 2 2 , 3 - 6 , January, 1957.-• Cozens, F.,W.. "A. Study of Stature i n Relation to Physical Performance," Research Quarterly. Vol.. 1, 3 8 - 4 5 , 1 9 3 0 . Cureton, T.,K.. "Improvement i n Motor Fitness Associated with Physical.Educationand Physical Fitness C l i n i c Work," Research Quarterly, Vol.. 14-, 1 5 4 - 1 5 7 , May, 1 9 4 3 -Cureton, T.IC. "Physical Training Produces Important Changes, Physiological and Psychological,"- Reprint from the Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol., 1 7 , July, 1952.. De Berker, P., "State of Mind Reports," The B r i t i s h Journal of Criminology. Delinquency and Deviant S o c i a l Behavior, Vol. 1, No... 1 , 6-20., July, I960. Director of Correction. "Recreation Program,": Annual Report of the (B.C..) Director of Correction for the , F i s c a l Year Ended March 31 j , 1 9 6 3 . E h r l i c h , G„ "The Relation Between the Learning of a < Motor S k i l l and Measures of Strength, A g i l i t y , Educa-b i l i t y , and Capacity," Research Quarterly, Vol.. 14-, 46 - 5 9 , March, 1 9 4 3 . E l b e l , E.R* and Canuteson, R..I. "Heights and Weights: of College Students," Kansas Studies i n Education. Vol. 12, No*. 1, March 1962-Espenschade, A.. "Practice:Effects i n the Stunt-Type Test," Research Quarterly, Vol. 16, 37-^1, March, 19M- " Espenschade, A.. "Motor Performance in. Adolescence," Monographs1 of. the Society for Research i n C h i l d  Development. Vol... 5T Mo- 1, 1Q*+Q» Fleishman, E.A. "Testing for Psychomotor A b i l i t i e s by Means of Apparatus Tests," r Psychological B u l l e t i n . Vol. 50, No., h, 2^1-263;, July, 1953. ' Fornataro, J..V.. " P o s s i b i l i t i e s and L i a b i l i t i e s . i n B-CJs Correctional Approach to Juveniles," : Proceed-ings of B.C. Conference on S o c i a l Welfare, May 8 &.9, 196%.. Gire, E. and. Espenschade, A.. "The Relationship Between Measures of Motor. Educability and the Learning of S p e c i f i c Motor. S k i l l s , " : Research Quarterly. Vol.. 13, >+3-56, March, 19>+2-Girolamo, CG... "A Comparison of the General Motor Capacity of Athletes and Non-Athletes,"' Masters,  Thesis, Iowa Ci t y , State University of Iowa, 1956-Microcard P.E. 291-Havighurst, R.J. and S t i l e s , L.J.. "Alienated Youth," Phi Delta Kappa, Vol. h29 283-291, October - June, 1960-61.. Henry, F.M. "Coordination and Motor Learning.,"'1 College Physical Education Association Proceedings, Washington, D.C. AAHPER; 68-75, 1956-Hoskins, R.N- "The Relationship of Measurements of General Motor Capacity to the Learning of S p e c i a l Psycho-Motor S k i l l s , " 1 Research Quarterly. Vol., 5, 63-72, March, 1931*--Karpovitch, P.V. and Weiss, R.A. "Physical Fitness of Men Entering the Army A i r Forces,"' Research Quarterly, Vol.. 17, l8!+-92, October, 19^6. K u l c i n s k i , L..E- "The Relation of Intelligence to the Learning of Fundamental Muscular S k i l l s , " Research  Quarterly, Vol., 16, 266-76, December, 19^5* 115 Larson, L.,A„ "Some Findings Resulting from the Army . A i r Force's Physical Training Program," Research  Quarterly. Vol., 1 7 , 144-64-, May, 1946. , McCloy, C.H. "An A n a l y t i c a l Study of the Stunt Type-Test as a Measure of Motor Educability,'" Research  Quarterly. Vol.. 8 , 46-56;, October, 1937.. McCraw, L.W., "Comparative Analysis of Methods of Scoring Tests of Motor Learning," Research Quarterly. Vol. 26, 440-53, December, 1 9 5 5 -McGee, R..A.. "Research i n Corrections," C a l i f o r n i a S-tate Department of Corrections Biennial Report. 1957 - 1958.. Medue, W.J.. "The R e h a b i l i t a t i v e Aspects of Team Sports i n a Reformatory," 3 Journal of Correctional Education. Vol. 1 3 , No.. 3, 4-5, July, 1961.. P h i l i p s , M. "Study of a Series of Physical Education Tests by Factor Analysis," Research Quarterly. Vol., 2 0 , 60-70. , March, 194-9. Sargent, D.A. "The Physical Test of a Man,": American  Physical Education Review.. A p r i l , 1921. Schnur, A..C, "Correctional Research," American Journal  of Correction. Vol. 2 4 , No.. 1, 2 4 - 3 0 , January,, February, 1962.. S i l l s , F.D.. and Everett, P.W. "The Relationship of Extreme Somatotypes to Performance i n Motor and Strength Tests," Research Quarterly. Vol. 24-, 2 2 3 -228, 1953. S.iminski, E.R. "Recreational A c t i v i t i e s as a Stimulus to Behavior," American Journal of Correction, Vol. 21, No., 2, .12-14, March - A p r i l , 1959. Tappan, N..0.. '"An Anthropometric and Constitutional. Study of Championship Weight L i f t e r s , " American  Journal of Physiology and Anthropology, Vol. b, 1+9-64-, 1950. ' - " Van Dalen, D.B. "A Study of Certain Factors i n Their Relation to the Play of Children," Research Quarterly, Vol. 1 8 , 279-90, December, 1947. "116 Walters, C.E.. "Motor A b i l i t y and Educability Factors, of High and Low Scoring Beginning Bowlers," : Research  Quarterly. Vol.. 3 0 , 94-100., March, 1 9 5 9 -Whalley, CD. and Crumley, J.Bv "Correcting Delinquency Through Status Elevation," Corrective Psychiatry and  Journal of S o c i a l Therapy. Vol. 1 0 , No. 1 , 32-40, January, 1 9 6 4 . '. Willgoose, C.E... and Rogers, M.R.. "Relationship of Somatotype to Physical Fitness," Journal of Educa- t i o n a l Research. 704-7.12, May, 194-9. Witmer, H..L.. and Tufts, E.. "The Effectiveness of Delinquency Prevention Programs," U.S. Department  of Health. Education and Welfare. No. 3 5 0 , 1 9 5 4 . APPENDIX.. 118 The following s t a t i s t i c a l procedures were used to analyze the raw scores of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Procedure used with the Fortran Computer A l l machine programming was prepared hy experts who followed the stages outlined below. Stage 1., Obtain the following, using the scores from the o r i g i n a l variables. 1. Means of o r i g i n a l v a r i a b l e s . 2. Standard deviations of a l l o r i g i n a l variables... O r i g i n a l Variables were:; 1. Age i n years 2. Height i n inches 3. - Weight i n pounds h. McCloy C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Index (Prepared from charts using 1, 2, 3) 5. Last grade i n school completed 6., Intelligence Quotient (Henmon Nelson Grade 6-9 Mental A b i l i t y test) 7.,Iowa-Brace Test 1 (Conversion of the Brace Motor E d u c a b i l i t y test), 8. Chin-Ups Test 1 9.. 20 second Squat Thrust test 1 (to convert to 10, second te s t , divide by 2) 10., Push-Ups Test 1 11. V e r t i c a l Jump Test 1 119 122. Iowa-Brace Test 2 (Re-test) 1 3 - Chin-Ups Test 2 (Re-test). 14. 20 second Squat Thrust Test 2 (Re-test) 1 5 . Push-Ups Test 2 (Re-test) 1 6 . V e r t i c a l Jump Test 2 (Re-test) Stage 2 . A. Convert some o r i g i n a l variables into scale scores as follows:, .1. Chins Test 1 &. 2 = 50 ± (7.5 - x) 16..7 3 - 0 • 2.. Push-ups Test 1 &. 2" = 50 + ( 1 6 - 0 - x) 16-7) 6.5 3 . V e r t i c a l Jump Test 1 & : 2 = 50 + (20.,7 - x) 16.7 2 ..9-The equation used was scale score s 50 ± (x:. - x) 16.7 where the sign i s . " + " when x i s larger than x, and the sign i s " - "' when x i s smaller than x.. B.. Add the scale scores for each i n d i v i d u a l i n the above items to make a new (composite) variable or "Modified Indiana Motor Fitness Index." i . e . Chins Push-Ups V e r t i c a l Jump Test 1 = Modified Indiana Motor Fitness Index 1 Chins Push-Ups V e r t i c a l Jump Test 2. = Modified Indiana Motor Fitness Index. 2 120. Stage 3.. Derive further (additional) new variables using equations::, 1. General Motor Capacity (GMC) (For test 1 and test 2), GMC = 0 . 3 2 8 7 (Class. Index) + 0.3Mh6 ( V e r t i c a l Jump in cm.); - 0 . 9 2 5 8 (Iowa Brace T-score). + 3-973 (Squat Thrust)-2 0 2 2 2 :. Motor Quotient (MQ) (From test 1 & test 2 - using GMC) M Q- = ..M-316. (Classflndex) - W . 3 1 X 1 0 0 3 . Indiana Motor Fitness Index. (From Test 1 and Test 2 data) - (Chin-Up scale score Push-Up scale score) x V e r t i c a l Jump scale score Stage h.. For a l l derived variables: i . e . 1. GMC, test 1 & 2 2.. MQ,. test 1 & 2 3 . Indiana Motor Fitness Index I, test 1 & 2 h. Modified Indiana Motor Fitness Index I, test 1 & 2 Calculate: 1. Means 2.. Standard deviations Stage 5.. 1. Obtain an i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n matrix of a l l variables, both o r i g i n a l and derived. Use the following Pearson product moment corr e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t formula, used i n machine calculating::. 121. r I A I X . - X £- Y Ferguson ( 1 , p.. 92) 2 . Compute the t s t a t i s t i c s f o r a l l variables where individuals have i n i t i a l and re-test scores by using the following formula from Ferguson ( 1 , p.. 1 3 9 ) . ^ _ D Where D s difference between v SD any pair of observations. . Where D = ^- D or the mean N difference over a l l pairs.. Where SD i s the variance of the D's, given by the formula 2_ SD" = -^2- - D. Other calculations.. 1. The t s t a t i s t i c used to calculate the differences between H.C.I, mean scores and norm population mean scores was the following formula from Ferguson ( 1 , p.. 1 3 7 ) -t = Xi - Xz_ Where X ( and X*_ are the I a*- —" n.u.x... ana n V N + 17 mean scores. H.C.I... and norm population Where S i s an unbiased estimate of the population variance obtained from:* s7" = X(X.-XO*" + ^ ( i - i ^ N, + N L - 2 2.. The significance of the r and t values was deter-mined by checking the appropriate tables i n Ferguson ( 1 , p. 315 and p.. 3 0 8 ) , respectively.. 122: Subjects. .Of the population of 670., only 280, were given the Motor E d u c a b i l i t y test.. The re-test population decreased i n size from 670 to 255 and consequently the Motor E d u c a b i l i t y test-group decreased i n the same proportion, from 280 to 1 2 9 . I n s t i t u t i o n transfers, discharges, medical and various other reasons not con-nected with physical education or t-he t e s t i n g program and out of the investigator's control, caused these reductions., The reductions and some missing data further reduced the size of the population to 111 , when the in t e r -c o r r e l a t i o n matrix of a l l variables was calculated by the computer, as the computer was not able to deal with missing data s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . . In the tables constructed for comparative purposes, the. exact number of subjects used was inserted, and considered i n the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis.. As the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis was to be extremely r i g i d , and the samples large and not biased by investigator control, any inferences r e s u l t i n g from the study were presumed representative of the Haney Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n population. 123 REFERENCES Ferguson, G.A.. S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis i n Psychology  and Education, New. York, Toronto, London, McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., 1 9 5 9 . 

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