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Cardiovascular and respiratory fitness improvements in adult women Allen, Graham Donald 1966

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CARDIOVASCULAR AND RESPIRATORY FITNESS IMPROVEMENTS IN ADULT WOMEN by GRAHAM DONALD ALLEN D.P.E. Sydney Teachers* College, Australia, I960 B.P.E. The University of British Columbia, 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the School of PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard: THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1966 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Br i t ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for ex-tensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of. this thesis for finan-cial gain shall not be a.l lowed without my written permission. Department The University of Br i t ish Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT This study i s concerned with an investigation of the effects of regular physical exercise upon various components of the cardiovascular and respiratory fitness of a group of thirty-one adult women. Two experimental groups and one Control group of Y.W.C.A. female volunteers were studied before and after a twelve week training period. The Bonne Sante group consisted of thirteen women who met once per week for approximately three and one-half hours of diversified a c t i v i t y . The Rhythmic Gym group met once per week for forty-five minutes of running, leaping and similar endurance and body control a c t i v i t i e s performed to music. The Control group of nine women performed no regular fitness ac t i v i t i e s before and during the experimental period. The testing procedure consisted of brachial pulse wave tracings performed after a quiet s i t t i n g period of fifteen minutes, three t r i a l s on a Collins 6 Litre Vitalometer, and two one minute step tests of 18 and 24 steps per minute. The following variables were obtained and studied: A. Heartometer Items 1. Resting Pulse Rate. 2. Area Under The Curve-Sitting. 3. Rest-to-Work Ratio-Sitting. 4. Obliquity Angle-Sitting. 5 . Systolic Amplitude-Sitting. 6. Systolic Amplitude-Standing. 7. Systolic Amplitude-Post-Exercise. B. Vitalometer Items 8. 0.5 second Expiratory Capacity. 9. 0.75 second Expiratory Capacity. 10. 1.00 second Expiratory Capacity. 11. V i t a l Capacity. • C. Step-Test Items 12. Quiet Pulse Rate-Sitting. 13. Two Minute Recovery pulse Count, Post 18 Steps Per Minute. 14. Stable Pulse Rate-Sitting. 15. Two Minute Recovery Pulse Count, Post 24 Steps Per Minute. The significance of the difference between the group mean scores i n each item was determined using Fisher fs t s t a t i s t i c at the 5 per cent level of confidence. The results indicate that the Control group improved significantly i n a l l the Vitalometer items i n amounts similar to the mean improvements of the exercise groups. It was concluded that influences other than training effects.were responsible for the changes i n the Vitalometer test scores. The variables therefore, were of no further interest for this study. The Bonne Sante group evidenced significant improvements i n the Heartometer Resting Pulse Rate (this improvement, however, was based on data which appeared to be unreliable and thus suspect)', the Area Under The Curve-Sitting, the Sitting and Standing Systolic Amplitudes, the Two Minute Recovery Pulse Count Post 24 Steps Per Minute. The Rhythmic Gym group showed significant improvements i n the Area Under The Curve-Sitting, and the Sitting Systolic Amplitude. The separate training regimens followed by each of the experimental groups were considered to be of insufficient frequency and intensity to produce uniform and physiologically important improvements i n the cardiovascular and respiratory fitness levels of the subjects. The Bonne Sante group showed greater relative improvement i n fitness partly because the members tended to be less f i t i n i t i a l l y than the subjects i n the Rhythmic Gym group, and partly because they spent more hours i n exercise each week. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to express sincere appreciation to Dr. S.R. Brown for his constant counselling and guidance, and also to Dr. E.W. Banister, Dr. P.M. Mullins, and Dr. D.J. Randall for their review of the text and their suggestions for the f i n a l presentation of this thesis. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 9 III. METHODS AND PROCEDURES 2 1 IV. RESULTS 2 7 V. DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS • 3 5 VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 4 7 BIBLIOGRAPHY 5 1 APPENDICES A. STATISTICAL PROCEDURES 5 7 B. DESCRIPTIONS OF THE MEASUREMENTS 5 8 C. DATA SHEET FOR THE STEP TEST 6 2 D. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE INSTRUMENTS 6 3 E. RAW SCORES FOR ALL SUBJECTS ON ALL VARIABLES 6 5 LIST OF TABLES I. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEAN SCORES IN EACH EXPERIMENTAL VARIABLE FOR THE CONTROL GROUP 2 7 II. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEAN SCORES IN EACH EXPERIMENTAL VARIABLE FOR THE BONNE SANTE GROUP 2 9 III. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEAN SCORES IN EACH EXPERIMENTAL VARIABLE FOR THE RHYTHMIC GYM GROUP 3 1 IV. RESULTS OF THE ANALYSES OF VARIANCE PERFORMED UPON THE VITALOMETER TRIAL SCORES 3 3 V. RESTING PULSE RATE VARIATIONS BETWEEN HEARTOMETER AND STEP-TESTS - ALL GROUPS . . . . , 3 9 L I S T OF TABLES ' PAGE V I . COMPARATIVE SCORES - RECOVERY PULSE COUNTS FOLLOWING THE 24 STEPS PER MINUTE WORK TASK . 42 V I I . CONTROL GROUP RAW SCORES - TEST ONE . . . . . , 66 V I I I . CONTROL GROUP RAW SCORES - TEST TWO 68 IX. BONNE SANTE' GROUP RAW SCORES - TEST ONE . . 70 X. BONNE SANTE' GROUP RAW SCORES - TEST TWO 72 X I . RHYTHMIC GYM GROUP RAW SCORES - TEST ONE •'. . . 74 X I I . RHYTHMIC GYM GROUP RAW SCORES - TEST- TWO 76 LIST OF FIGURES I . DIAGRAM OF BRACHIAL PULSE WAVE 60 I I . DIAGRAM OF VITALOMETER CURVE 61 CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The problem of this study i s concerned with an evaluation of the fitness improvements i n a group of female volunteers enrolled i n exercise classes at the Vancouver Y.W.C.A. More specifically, the problem i s to investigate the effects of regular exercise once per week for twelve weeks upon several measurements of the cardiovascular and respiratory function. The subjects studied were (of/two groups of adult women. One group of nine subjects exercised weekly for forty-five minutes while the other group met weekly for a three and one-half hour period of diversified a c t i v i t i e s . The variables examined were: 1. Brachial Sphygmograph Measurements, namely: a) Resting Heart Rate - Sitting. b) Area Under the Curve - Sitting. c) Rest-to-Work Ratio - Sitting. d) Obliquity Angle - Sitting. e) Systolic Amplitude - Sitting. f ) Systolic Amplitude - Standing. g) Systolic Amplitude - Post-Exercise. 2. Resting and recovery heart rates before and after step-test work loads of 18 and 24 steps per minute. 3. The 0.5 second, the 0.75 second, and the 1.00 second Expiratory Capacities, together with the V i t a l Capacity, as recorded on the Collins 6 Litre Vitalometer. - 2 -Delimitations 1. The study was concerned with cardiovascular and respiratory fitness improvements induced i n a group of thirty-one adult women volunteers, twenty-two of whom participated i n regular exercise programmes, and ten of whom acted as a control group by performing no regular exercise. 2. Because a l l the subjects were volunteers the results obtained were applicable only to the women who were tested and no inferences have been made about the possible effects of the same programme on the general population of adult women. 3. There are many components of cardiovascular and respiratory fitness and there are many tests designed to measure these components. The tests used i n this study were necessarily restricted to those which could be accomplished i n the time available and which would not upset the subjects nor stress them unduly. The cardiovascular tests have been used i n numerous other physical education studies and have proved practical and useful i n assessing improvements i n circulatory fitness. The respiratory variables have not been widely used i n fitness studies and were included i n the study on a somewhat exploratory basis. Limitations 1. Cardiovascular tests should be performed early i n the morning when the metabolism of the subject i s close to the basal rate. Because of the type of subjects - working g i r l s , housewives and mothers - and the location of the Y.W.C.A. where a l l tests were performed, i t was impossible to obtain ideal testing conditions. Each subject was tested and retested at similar times of day to control the experimental - x-situation as much as possible. 2. The in a b i l i t y to assign the subjects randomly to the treatment and control precluded any s t a t i s t i c a l comparisons between groups. Assumptions 1. A l l women who enroll i n any activity class at the Y.W.C.A. are compelled to present themselves for a medical examination before a panel of'doctors prior to enrolment. Therefore, i t i s assumed that a l l experimental, subjects possessed a certain minimal level of organic health and were free from any adverse pathological conditions which would deter from their performances i n the tests. 2. The tests used i n the study were valid and reliable instruments and i t was expected that they would reflect any changes i n circulatory fitness induced by the exercise programmes i n which the subjects participated. Hypothesis The Hypothesis presented was that improvements i n cardiovascular and respiratory fitness would occur i n the experimental groups of adult women, as a result of regular participation i n the exercise programmes. It was assumed that increased fitness would be reflected i n improvements i n the experimental variables. Definitions The following definitions have been adopted for this study:-1. Physical Fitness - this state "...consists i n the a b i l i t y of the organism to maintain the various internal equilibria as closely as possible to the resting state during strenuous exertion and to restore promptly after exercise any equilibria which have been disturbed. In other words, effective homeostasis i s a characteristic of fitness..." (1) 2. Cardiovascular condition - Cureton (2) indicates that "...both the heart and the blood vessels are muscular organs which are capable of contracting and relaxing i n ways which move the blood continuously around the body. The efficiency with which this can be done i s called cardiovascular condition." 3. Control Group - i n this study the "Control" group did not consist of matched subjects randomly assigned to a non-exercise group. They were, i n fact, volunteers a f f i l i a t e d with the Y.W.C.A. but were not enrolled i n the exercise classes. Though they were not experimental "Control" subjects i n the s t r i c t sense of the word, the term has been applied to that group of women throughout this study. Justification of the Problem During the past two decades there has been a great proliferation of studies concerning the beneficial effects of regular physical act i v i t y upon the human body. Many of these studies have been concerned with the effects of preparation for competitive events. Today, an increasing number of studies are being performed with older, non-athletic subjects who are motivated by a desire to postpone, i f not prevent, the adverse effects of time and age being expressed i n the form of various psychosomatic, hypokinetic or degenerative abnormalities. In North America there has been a great increase i n the recognition of the need for, and value of regular participation i n a regimen of physical activity. Individuals such as the late President Kennedy and Dr. Paul Dudley White, together with c l i n i c a l and researching cardiologists of organizations such as the American Medical Association, the American Heart Association and the National Heart Institute have spoken out i n favour of the maintenance of an adequate level of fitness and the beneficial effects of regular physical exercise. The greater mechanization of modern society has brought forth i n bold r e l i e f the value of exercise i n the maintenance of positive health (3), and i t i s now generally accepted that not only i s a minimum of exercise necessary to maintain bodily and emotional health but that physical activity i s an integral part of normal human l i f e (4). For several years, authorities at various institutions i n the United States have been examining the physiological effects of regular physical activity upon the human body. Many studies have been concerned with the effects of exercise upon the cardiovascular and respiratory fitness of adult men while only perfunctory attention has been afforded to the effects of such exercise upon adult women. This disproportionate emphasis may be due, i n part, to the predominance of male researchers interested i n the sc i e n t i f i c study of fitness and who use male subjects because they are available and i t i s not convenient to use females. In addition, there i s a concern not only with the fitness of men for military service but also with the loss of trained personnel from business and industry resulting from male susceptibility to degenerative heart disease. Adult women do not seem to be af f l i c t e d with heart disease to the same extent as are men but they are not immune. It i s necessary for information concerning the effects of regular exercise upon the cardiovascular and respiratory fitness of adult women - 6 -to be made available so that future programmes for this group may be based upon s c i e n t i f i c principles. A useful goal for future studies i s to determine which forms of training programmes will, help the body to cope with diseases of the heart and of the lungs (5). The increased incidence of cardiovascular disease occurring i n adult l i f e , during the years of social and intellectual maturity, has become an important social and medical problem. The loss to society can be considerable when experienced people are incapacitated by degenerative i l l n e s s (6). The minimum of physical activity necessary to maintain general health has not been determined. There are, however, medical authorities who are convinced that a reasonable level of physical activity i s necessary to preserve health, and the available evidence which supports these opinions should be included i n the education of the medical profession and the people at large (7). The Vancouver Y.W.C.A. has long been conducting classes for women without possessing sufficient information concerning the physiological or psychological effects of such classes upon the participants and that agency i s missing the opportunity which experimental evidence might provide for improving i t s classes and for persuading i t s present and potential members of the value of these classes. No doubt the participants have experienced improvements which may have been physiological and/or psychological i n nature. Without evidence to indicate possible outcomes of such exercise programmes, there can be neither valid bases for the formation of objectives nor sc i e n t i f i c evidence to substantiate the inclusion of the exercises which comprise the programme. According to Cureton (8), lack of understanding and lack of specific objectives reduce the effectiveness of training programmes for adult subjects. The implications of the importance of cardiovascular and respiratory fitness and the implications of their absence have created i n many people a desire for an elevation of their fitness levels. This increased concern has been reflected i n the National Y.W.C.A. of Canada ( 9 ) where an awareness of the value of fitness work with women and a concern over the lack of evidence of improvements wrought by their programmes lead to the emergence of a pilot project which was conducted at the Vancouver Y.W.C.A. This study i s part of a larger one conducted upon adult female volunteers enrolled i n several exercise programmes at that agency. r - 8 -REFERENCES 1. Darling, R.C, "The Significance Of Physical Fitness", Archives Of Physical Medicine, v o l . 28, (March, 1947), p. 141. 2. Cureton, T.K., "The Nature Of Cardiovascular Conditions In Normal Humans", Journal Of The Association For Physical And  Mental Rehabilitation, vol. 11, (November-December, 1957), p. 186. 3. Montoye, H.J., "The Role Of Exercise In Preventive Medicine", Journal Of Sports Medicine And Physical Fitness, v o l . 2, (December, 1962), p. 232. 4. Kraus, H., Raab, ¥., Hypokinetic Disease - Disease Produced By Lack Of Exercise, 1st ed. t Springfield, Charles C. Thomas, 1961, p. 173-5. Chapman, C.B., Mitchell, J.H., "The Physiology Of Exercise", Scientific American, vol. 212, (May, 1965), p. 96. 6. Cohn, A.E., "Research In Cardiovascular Disease", Journal Of Gerontology, v o l . 2, (January, 1947), p. 3. 7. White, P.D., "Heart Disease: The Modern Epidemic", Reprint From Health, (October and December, 1964), p.3« 8. Cureton, T.K., "Physical Fitness Of A Middle Aged Man, With Brief Comments On Related Studies", Research Quarterly, vol. 23, (March, 1952), p. 159. 9. Young Women*s Christian Association Of Canada, Report Of The Consultation On The Fitness For Women, Unpublished Report, Toronto, 1966. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE For the maintenance of a normal equilibrium i n the various tissues under varying conditions, an adequate supply of blood and oxygen to these tissues -will always be the most important prerequisite (1), and this supply w i l l be determined by the efficiency of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. The majority of the studies upon the variations i n cardiovascular and respiratory fitness levels as a result of training have been performed upon male subjects. Smalley and Smalley (2) contend that studies on women have been restricted to such areas as attitudes, interests, appreciations, and s k i l l s , and that there has been but scanty scie n t i f i c measurement of the various elements of fitness i n women. In a dissertation upon the problem of exercise for middle aged persons, Buskirk and Counsilman (3) state that their failure to include extensive data on adult women i s due to the almost complete lack of information about exercise participation and tolerance for this group. Wright (4) studied the effects of two hours of exercise per week for fourteen weeks upon various measures of cardiovascular fitness of ten housewives of the twenty-three to forty-five year age range. A control group of five women was used for purposes of comparison with the experimental group who participated i n one hour of class exercises and one hour of leisurely swimming per week. As a result of the training sessions, Wright found improvements significant at the 0.05 level of confidence i n the Angle of Ejection, the Sitting Heart Rate and the Rest-to-Work Ratio as measured from tracings on the Brachial Sphygmogram. - 10 -Walters (5) evaluated the improvements which occurred i n a group of young adult women of the eighteen to twenty-four year age range who participated for eleven consecutive days i n seven and one-half to twelve minutes of exercises which were designed to increase cardiorespiratory endurance; the results indicated that, at the 0.05 level , significant improvements occurred i n the work heart rates, the recovery times, the oxygen debt, and the physical efficiency of performing a standardized work task. Regular participation i n normal Physical Education classes of Swimming, of Folk Dancing, and of Dance Fundamentals were found to have produced i n young adult women improvements significant at the 0.01 level of confidence, i n cardiorespiratory endurance as reflected by the number of Squat Thrusts which could be performed to a set cadence of one movement per second (6). To evaluate the physical fitness of adult women, Cureton (7) performed a battery of relevant tests upon a group of approximately 110 subjects. The results of the cardiorespiratory tests indicated that 41 per cent had a lying pulse of 80-89 beats per minute, and 7 per cent had rates of 110-119 beats per minute; i t was found that 29 subjects could not complete the required period of four minutes for the step-up test, and that 13 per cent had poor scores while only 10 per cent had good scores on this test. The results of the one mile run-walk indicated that, while the average time required to complete this test was ten minutes, 9 per cent of the group required between fourteen and twenty-two minutes, and only 18 per cent required between six and eight minutes to complete the distance. These results indicated that the average woman tested did not possess a very high level of cardiorespiratory - 11 -fitness, and i t i s believed that regular participation i n physical a c t i v i t i e s could have created favourable changes i n this area. In a comparative study of the responses of men and women to brisk submaximal exercise, Franzeen et a l (8) determined that normal women were less f i t for such exercise than men as evidenced by the differences i n responses to a set work task between the groups i n such variables as excess oxygen consumption, the increase i n blood l a c t i c acid concentration, and the oxygen consumption i n cubic centimetres per square metre of body surface area per 1000 kilogram metre of work performed. The physiological, responses of women, when viewed comparatively with those of men for a standardized work task have been likened to the differences which exist between the trained and the untrained states. Women exhibit less endurance than do men for strenuous or moderate exercise. Metheny et a l (9) found that men have more economical ventilation during work and that they have the a b i l i t y to attain a greater maximum ventilation. It was determined that women have lower mechanical efficiency as indicated by a higher oxygen cost for a set work task, that they have a lower maximal oxygen consumption, higher blood lactate levels for a set work task, a lower blood lactate level at exhaustion, a higher increase i n pulse rate for submaximal exertion, and that they require a longer recovery time following physical work. Astrand (10) also found that the mayjmql oxygen uptake was lower for women than for men of the same age group, that they have similar maximum pulse rates, and that generally, for the same submaximal work task, the female has the higher pulse rate. A work task which i s performed with relative ease by the male (e.g. 50 per cent of capacity) places a greater stress upon the female - 12 -system (73 per cent of capacity). Further, Astrand found that females have a v i t a l capacity and a lung capacity which i s approximately 70 per cent that of the male, but that they have the same ratio of residual volume to tot a l lung capacity; men have a lower lung ventilation per l i t r e of oxygen consumed than do women and higher average haemoglobin levels. Anderson (11) found that for a set work task, women have a greater pulse count for recovery. Various investigations have shown that the performance capacity of the female i s lower than that of the male, and a well trained female may be not greatly superior to an average man. Because of the basic physiological superiority of the male, intersexual comparisons are not necessarily valid; further, i n the absence of established relationships and also because of the physiological disparity which exists between the sexes, the results of training studies performed on adult males may not be generalized to adult females. Because of the increasing proportion of older population, and the implication of i t s presence i n the labour force, the maintenance of an adequate level of physical fitness with advancing age i s of major importance. That aging may have a deleterious effect upon the structure and function of the component parts of the body, thereby reducing the working capacity, appears to be accepted generally, and physiological decline after the twenty-five to thirty year age group has been reported (12,13,14). Such a decline need not be a necessary consequence of increasing chronological age, and the role of exercise i n delaying the onset of this decline has been subject to careful examination. Aging may be associated with loss of physical courage, fear of - 13 -exposure to weather and accidents, fear of loss of health, greater introversion, and such retiring attitudes develop i n direct proportion to withdrawal from sport, from vigorous exercise and from hard physical work (15). Biochemically, aging i s a process of unfavourable cellular change manifested i n the i n a b i l i t y of the protoplasm to maintain i t s e l f (16). Physiologically, the aging process i s accompanied by reductions of working capacity and efficiency. Such reductions with age may be the result of deteriorations which occur i n the maximum rate of oxygen consumption (17,18,19,20), maximum lung ventilation (21,22), maximum heart rate (23,24), and^work heart rates induced by submaximal tasks (25)• There are increases i n the residual volume at the expense of the v i t a l capacity, decreases i n the maximum breathing capacity and general pulmonary function (26), and a reduced resting cardiac output (27,28), a general reduction i n cardiovascular capacity (29), and a reduced basal metabolic rate (30,31), a l l of which predispose the aging body to the experiencing of a greater physiological'stress to a standardized work task, to longer periods for the process of recovery and the attainment of a favourable and acceptable internal state following displacement induced by activity, and to a reduction i n working capacity. These various changes have been related to the probability of death which similarly i s not constant but increases with age, just as the efficiency of the human system decreases (32). The implication that the arresting or reversal of these changes may remove the omnipresence of death from the aged person has lead to the discovery that physiological deterioration i s not a necessary consequence of increasing chronological age. The general decrement of physiological efficiency which can occur - 14 -with increasing chronological age may be compensated by training (33,34) and i t follows that the effect of age upon the physiological processes may be n u l l i f i e d through regular physical activity. Physiological age and not chronological age i s the criterion for determination of the working capacity and of the efficiency with which work i s performed (35,36). In the absence of the ameliorating effects of physical activity upon the aging process, cardiovascular responses to moderate exercise have a notable dependence upon age (37), and cardiovascular diseases are taking an ever mounting t o l l of the aging population (38). Simonson (39) suggests the presence of a remarkable parallelism of the effects of age and of cardiovascular disease, and that the deterioration of cardiovascular functions with age may have some bearing on the higher incidence of cardiovascular disease with age. As the Western trend of mechanization and immobilization continues, the dangers of deficiency and of hypokinetic diseases of a l l forms which are attributable i n a major or a minor degree to the generally prevailing lack of exercise become more pressing (40). Coincident with this decline i n the expenditure of human energy there has been an increase i n the occurrence of certain degenerative diseases (41). Although the role of exercise i n the prevention of cardiovascular abnormalities has not been established unequivocally, recent reports have indicated that regular and frequent activity of sufficient intensity may inhibit cardiovascular degeneration (42). It has been maintained by organizations such as the American Heart Association and the National Heart Institute, as well as by certain knowledgeable authorities, that exercise may be a prophylaxis i n the delay or prevention of advanced atherosclerosis (43,44), - 15 -and that physical inactivity may be one of the many factors involved i n the increasing prominence of ischemic vascular disease, the most significant form of which i s coronary heart disease (45,46). Karvonen (47) indicated that exercise has a protective effect upon the cardiovascular system, and Wolfe (48) stated that he i s convinced, from empirical and c l i n i c a l observations, that there i s a direct relationship between the sedentary, push-button character of modern society and the constantly rising incidence of coronary heart disease and various other forms of cardiovascular disturbances. Brunner and Manelis (49) sought to examine the effects of physical exercise upon the incidence of myocardial infarctions i n certain areas where the members of the group were ethnically homogeneous and where the environmental conditions - standard of l i v i n g , diet, housing, cultural activity and recreation - were vir t u a l l y identical. Four thousand females and four thousand five hundred males aged between thirty and thirty- f i v e years at the end of 1949, were studied from that date u n t i l 1959. Of 111 cases of myocardial infarctions, 34 died and 77 survived. Of the 4000 females, 9 had infarctions and 7 survived. In this communal settlement i n Israel, of a l l the persons i n the age group of the study, 30 per cent were engaged i n sedentary work and 70 per cent i n non-sedentary work. For the non-sedentary workers, the incidence of myocardial infarctions was I.36 per 1000 males, for the sedentary males i t was 4.1 per 1000, and these findings may indicate the importance of physical activity i n the prevention of myocardial infarction. This study supports the findings of Morris and Crawford (50) and Morris et a l (51) i n which a higher incidence of coronary heart disease was found - 16 -amongst sedentary workers than amongst non-sedentary workers. Morris and Crawford (52) also determined that such diseases i n sedentary workers occur at an earlier age and produce a mortality rate which i s twice as high as that of the non-sedentary group. Regular physical activity could be a way of l i f e which promotes health i n middle age, and ischemic heart disease could be, i n some degree, a deprivation syndrome, a deficiency disease (53). Although a causal relationship between inactivity and coronary heart disease has not been established, an association between the two states i s indicated. Physical exercise may not be a factor of primary influence on coronary heart disease; i t may only be associated with other factors more directly related to the modification of the disease (54). However, the psychological and social benefits which accrue during adult l i f e through regular participation i n exercise and recreation may be as important as, and more easily documented than the physiological benefits (55). - 17 -REFERENCES 1. Astrand, I,, "Aerobic Work Capacity In Men And Women With Special Reference To Age", Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, vol. 49, Supplementum 169, I960, p. 79. 2. Smalley, E.J., Smalley, M.A., "Changes In Endurance In The Arm And Shoulder Girdle Strength Of College Women In Certain Physical Education Classes", Research Quarterly, vol. 16, (May, 1945), P. 139. 3. Buskirk, R.E., Counsilman, J.E., "Special Exercise Problems In Middle Age", Science And Medicine Of Exercise And Sports, Edited by W.R. Johnson, 1st ed., New York, Harper and Brothers, I960, p. 491. 4. Wright, 0.1., "The Effects Of Training On The Physical Fitness Of Adult Women", Unpublished Master of Science Thesis (Physical Education), University of I l l i n o i s , Urbana, 1961. 5. Walters, C.E., "A Study Of The Effects Of Prescribed Strenuous Exercises On The Physical Efficiency Of Women", Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, State University of Iowa, 1951. 6. Smalley, Smalley, op. c i t . , p. 146. 7. Cureton, P.M., "Physical Fitness Of Adult Women", Unpublished Master of Science Thesis (Physical Education), University of I l l i n o i s , Urbana, 1945. 8. Franzeen, E.B., Finesinger, J.E., Watkins, A.L., "The Response Of Psychoneurotic Patients And Normal Men And Women To Brisk Submaximal Exercise", Archives of Physical Medicine, vol. 30, (April, 1949), pp. 219-233. 9. Metheny, E., Brouha, L., Johnson, R.E., Forbes, W.E., "Some Physiological Responses Of Men And Women To Moderate And Strenuous Exercise - A Comparative Study", American Journal  of Physiology, vol. 137, (September, 1942), pp. 318-326. 10. Astrand, P-0., "Human Physical Fitness With Special Reference To Sex And Age", International Research i n Sports and Physical  Education, Edited by E. Jokl and E. Simon, 1st ed., Springfield, I l l i n o i s , pp. 524-528. 11. Anderson, K. Lange, "Respiratory Recovery From Muscular Exercise Of Short Duration", Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, vol. 48, Supplementum 168, I960, p. 82. - 18 -12. Cureton, T.K., "Physical Fitness, How To Earn It And Keep It -With Some Relationships With Nutrition", Journal of Physical  Education, vol. 54, (September-October, 1956), pp. 3-14* 13. Brouha, L., Radford, E.P., "The Cardiovascular System In Muscular Exercise", Science and Medicine of Exercise and Sport, Edited by W.R. Johnson, 1st ed., New York, Harper and Brothers, I960, p. 200. 14. Norris, A.H., Shock, N.W., "Exercise In The Adult Years", Science and Medicine of Exercise and.Sport, Edited by W.R. Johnson, 1st ed., New York, Harper and Brothers, I960, p. 466. 15. Cureton, T.K., "Anatomical, Physiological And Psychological Changes Induced By Exercise Programmes (Exercises, Sports, Games) In Adults", Exercise and Fitness, Edited by C.S. Staley, Cureton, T.K., Huelster, L.J., Barry, A.J., Urbana Athletic Institute, 1959, p. 176. 16. Lansing, A.I., "The General Physiology Of Aging - A Review", Journal of Gerontology, vol. 2, (October, 1947), p. 327* 17. Norris, Shock, loc. c i t . 18. Brouha, Radford, loc. c i t . 19. Simonson, E., "Changes In Physical Fitness And Cardiovascular Functions With Age", Geriatrics, vol. 12, (January, 1957), p. 32. 20. Falzone, J.A., Shock, N.W., "Physiological Limitations And Age", Public Health Reports, v o l . 71, (December, 1956), p. 1186. 21. Norris, Shock, loc. c i t . 22. Falzone, op. c i t . , p. 1187. 23. Norris, Shock, loc. c i t . 24. D i l l , D.B., "Effects Of Physical Strain And High Altitudes On The Heart And Circulation", American Heart Journal, vol. 23, (April, 1942), p. 443. 25. Norris, Shock, .op. c i t . , p. 479* 26. Falzone, loc. c i t . 27. Loc. c i t . 28. Shock, N.W., "Age Changes In Some Physiologic Processes", Geriatrics, v o l . 12, (January, 1957), p. 43. - 19.-29. Brouha, Radford, loc. c i t . 30. Shock, loc. c i t . 31. Falzone, loc. c i t . 32. Falzone, op. c i t . , p. 1189. 33. Dawson, P.M., Hellebrandt, F.A., "The Influences Of Aging In Man Upon His Capacity For Physical Work And Upon His Cardiovascular Responses To Exercise", American Journal of Physiology, vol. 143, (March, 1945), p. 425. 1 34* Simonson, loc. c i t . 35. Brouha, Radford, loc. c i t . 36. Balke, B., Clark, R.T., "Cardio Pulmonary And Metabolic Effects Of Physical Training", Health and Fitness i n the Modern World, 1st ed., Chicago, Athletic Institute, p. 87. 37. D i l l , op. c i t . , p. 442. 38. Lansing, A.I., "Some Physiological Aspects Of Aging", Physiological Reviews, vol. 31, (July, 1951), p. 274. 39. Simonson, op. c i t . , p. 33• 40. Kraus, H., Raab, W., "Hypokinetic Disease - Disease Produced By Lack Of Exercise", 1st ed., Springfield, I l l i n o i s , Charles C. Thomas, 1961, p. 173. 41. Davies, C.T.M., Drysdale, H.C., Passmore, R., "Does Exercise Promote Health?" Lancet, 1963 (2), p. 930. 42. Wolfe, J.B., "Prevention Of Disease Through Exercise And Health Education", Health and Fitness i n the Modern World, 1st ed., The Athletic Institute, 1961, pp. 78-80. 43. Kraus, Raab, op. c i t . , Foreward by P.D. White, p. v i . 44. Karvonen, M.J., "Some Effects Of Long Term Exercise On Health And Aging", Health and Fitness i n the Modern World, 1st ed., Chicago. The Athletic Institute, 1961, p. 223. 45« Fox, S.M., Skinner, J.S., "Physical Activity And Cardiovascular Health", American Journal of Cardiology, v o l . 14, (December, 1964), p. 736. 46. Kraus, Raab, op. c i t . , p. 109. 47« Karvonen, op. c i t . , p. 227. - 20 -48. Wolfe, op. c i t . t p. 77« 49. Brunner, D., Manelis, G., "Myocardial Infarctions Amongst Members Of Communal Settlements In Israel", Lancet, I960 (2), pp. 1049-1050. 50. Morris, J.M., Crawford, M.D., "Coronary Heart Disease And Physical Activity Of Work", British Medical Journal, 1958 (2), pp. 1485-1496. 51. Morris, J.M., Heady, J.A., Raffle, P.A.B., Roberts, C.G., Packs, J.W., "Coronary Heart Disease And Physical Activity At Work", Lancet, 1953 (2), pp. 1053-1057. 52. Morris, Crawford, op. c i t . , p. 1487. 53. Ibid, p. 1495. 54* Fox, Skinner, op. c i t . , p. 735. 55. Buskirk, Counsilman, op. c i t . , p. 492. CHAPTER III METHODS, AMD PROCEDURES The Subjects. The thirty-one subjects used i n this study were volunteers associated with the Vancouver Y.W.C.A., and may be classified i n the following manner: 1. Nine women from the Rhythmic Gym group. The age range was 24-66 years and the average attendance was 9.84 of the 12 sessions. 2. Thirteen women from the Bonne Sante class. The age range was 36-56 years and the average attendance was 9.88 of the 12 sessions. 3. Nine women formed a Control group by following a sedentary l i f e with no regular exercise during the experimental period. The age range of this group was 21-45 years. The Training Programme. The programme was conducted during the f i r s t three months of the Y.W.C.A. programme year. Although each group underwent a twelve week training period, the programme content for each group differed. The Control group participated i n no regular physical fitness a c t i v i t i e s and were requested to maintain their normal daily a c t i v i t i e s . None of the Control subjects had participated i n any regular fitness classes for at least six months prior to the commencement of the experimental period. The Bonne Sante' group met every Friday morning for approximately three and one-half hours during which time they participated i n diversified a c t i v i t i e s consisting of one hour i n the gymnasium for a programme of body conditioning exercises, rhythmical gymnastics, and yoga exercises. This was followed by a break for a sauna bath or a sun lamp treatment, a return to the gymnasium for an individual work-out and then a half hour of supervised exercising i n the swimming pool or a recreational swim. This - 22 -was followed by a health luncheon and then a rest period for fif t e e n to thi r t y minutes (1). The Rhythmic Gym group met every Thursday evening for a forty-five minute class during which the subjects performed warm-up exercises of a general stretching nature followed by demanding running, leaping, and body control a c t i v i t i e s to music for the remainder of the class session. For both experimental groups, the severity of the act i v i t i e s was increased as the subjects became more accustomed to the various tasks. Pre-training Tests.- For the testing periods each subject received an appointment at which time she presented herself dressed i n gym st r i p , having abstained from smoking for at least half an hour, and from the consumption of food, tea or coffee for at least one hour prior to her appointment. The subject then sat' quietly for f i f t e e n minutes to allow her metabolism to approach as closely as possible the basal rate. The cuff of the Cameron Heartometer was then applied and the quiet s i t t i n g , the standing and the post-exercise tracings were recorded i n accordance with the instructions issued by the Cameron- Heartometer. Company (2) and standardized according to Cureton (3). The standing tracings were recorded after the subject had been standing quietly for one minute and the post-exercise tracings were recorded immediately upon completion of a one minute, 180 steps per minute run i n place. The subject was then directed to the Collins 6 Litre Vitalometer where three t r i a l s and then three performances were recorded i n accordance with the instructions contained within the Vitalometer instruction booklet (4). The subject then proceeded to the f i n a l test station where she - 23 -rested for five minutes or u n t i l her heart rate had become stable as indicated by two consecutive thir t y second pulse counts with a disparity of plus or minus one heart beat being acceptable. During this time the tester demonstrated the procedure of stepping on the seventeen inch bench at the cadence of eighteen steps per minute. The cadence was provided by an electric metronome which simultaneously produced a sharp clicking sound and a flashing light on each count of the stepping action. When the stable pulse had been taken and recorded on the score sheet (see Appendix C), the subject stood and stepped for one minut.e at the above cadence. Upon completion of this work task, a continuous two minute recovery pulse count was taken commencing ten seconds after exercise. This recovery count was recorded and the subject rested u n t i l the heart rate became stable or u n t i l a five minute post-exercise period had elapsed, at which time two consecutive fifteen second pulse counts were taken and averaged. While the subject rested, the tester demonstrated the same stepping action at the increased cadence of twenty-four steps per minute. After the stable pulse had been recorded, the subject performed the increased work task. Upon completion of this load, the subject sat and another continuous recovery pulse count was taken from the ten seconds post-exercise point. Post-training Tests. For the purpose of attaining experimental and environmental consistency between tests, each subject was tested at the same time,of day for each testing session, and the testers were identical for each test. Interpretation Of The Data. For a l l three groups the r e l i a b i l i t y of the - 2 4 -difference between Test One (Pre-training) and Test Two (Post-training) mean scores was tested by Fisher fs t s t a t i s t i c , using a one tailed test and a level of significance,oC= 0.05, a r b i t r a r i l y chosen. Hypothesis. With the exception of a l l the heart rate variables and the Obliquity Angle, increases i n numerical value of test scores were considered to be improvements, i . e . i n the desired direction, physiologically. The S t a t i s t i c a l Hypothesis tested for these variables was: H: yLu2 -yj- i > Q against the alternative H: yx ^ - i < O For heart rate and Obliquity Angle variables, improvements would be reflected i n lower numerical values at Test Two. The S t a t i s t i c a l Hypothesis tested was: H: yUz —yLu < O against the alternative H: y & 2 - > L ' F ^ ' 0 Description of the Heartometer and Vitalometer Items 1. The Area Under the Curve reflects the amount of blood pumped per beat of the heart, i . e . the stroke volume, and also the tone of the brachial artery (5). 2 . The Systolic- Pulse Wave Amplitude indicates the magnitude of ventricular systole ( 6 ) . 3. The Angle of Obliquity indicates the velocity of the pulse wave with a slow acting heart producing a greater angle. A slow rate, - 25 -an artifact of aging, may also produce a greater angle (7). 4. The Rest-to-Work Ratio indicates the ratio of time of diastole to the time of systole, the higher ratios being associated with the more highly trained states (8). 5. The 0.05 second, 0.75 second and 1.00 second Expiratory Capacities refer to the volume of ai r which can be expelled forcibly from the lungs 0.5 seconds, 0.75 seconds, and 1.00 seconds after the commencement of a maximum forced exhalation following a maximum inhalation. 6. The V i t a l Capacity refers to the volume of ai r which can be expelled from the lungs i n one complete exhalation following a maximum inhalation. - 26 -REFERENCES 1. Brown, S.R., Allen, G., Nelson, B., Allen, P.J., Physical Fitness Of Women Enrolled In Y.W.C.A. (Vancouver) Physical Education Classes And Improvements Resulting From Exercise, Unpublished Report, School of Physical Education and Recreation, The University of British Columbia, January, 1966, p. 12. 2. Cameron Heartometer Company, Condensed Instructions For Blood Pressure Findings And Making Heartographs, Unpublished Report, Chicago, I l l i n o i s . 3. Cureton, T.K., Physical Fitness Appraisal And Guidance, 1st ed., St. Louis, C.V. Mosby, 1947, pp. 232-251. 4. Warren E. Collins Inc., Directions For Collins Recording Vitalometer, Unpublished Booklet, Boston, Massachusetts. 5. Cureton, op. c i t . , pp. 235-236. 6. Ibid, p. 236. 7. Ibid, p. 244. 8. Ibid, p. 249. CHAPTER IV RESULTS The results for the Control group, the Bonne Saute' group, and the Rhythmic Gym group are summarized i n Tables I, II, and III. The significance of the difference between mean scores of Test Gne (Pre-training) and Test Two (Post-training) i n a l l instances were determined by using a one t a i l e d test and a level of confidence of o c = 0.05, a r b i t r a r i l y selected. For the Rhythmic Gym and Control groups, a t s t a t i s t i c of 1.86 was required to attain significance i n a l l variables except those of the Vitalometer for the Control group, where only eight subjects completed the test, thereby changing the value of the t necessary for significance to 1.89. In the Bonne Sante results, a t s t a t i s t i c of 1.78 was required to attain significance i n a l l variables except those of the Vitalometer where only twelve subjects completed the test, thereby necessitating a t s t a t i s t i c of 1.79 to attain significance. TABLE I SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEAN SCORES IN EACH EXPERIMENTAL VARIABLE FOR THE CONTROL GROUP Means Variable Heartometer Resting Pulse -Sitting (beats/min) Area Under Curve-Sitting (sq.cms) T, Standard Mean Standard Deviations Difference Error of T, T„ Difference 78.44 83.77 8.81 9.33 0.29 0.27 0.02 0.05 Rest-to-Work Ratio-Sitting 3.57 3-24 0.79 0.59 Obliquity Angle-Sitting (degrees) 24.89 25.72 1.80 1.86 5.33 0.02 0.33 0.83 3.68 0.013 0.24 0.49 1.45 1.54 1.38 1.69 (Cont'd), - 28 -Standard Mean Standard Means Deviations Difference Error of t Variable T± T 2 ^ T 2 Difference Systolic Amplitude-'Sitting (cms) 0.97 0.95 0.17 0.31 .01 0.04 0.25 Systolic Amplitude-Standing (cms) 0.91 0.82 0.24 . 0.19 .09 0.07 1.29 Systolic Amplitude-Fost-exercise (cms) 1.14 1.09 0.40 0.24 .05 0.09 0.56 Step-Test Resting Pulse-Sitting (beats/min) 84.22 86.00 9.13 8.83 1.78 3.88 O.46 2 minutes Recovery Count-Post 18 Steps per minute (beats) 189.11 198.22 21.90 16.27 9.11 7.59 1.20 Stable Pulse -Sitting (beats/min) 82.67 88.00 8.48 9.79 5.33 2.49 2.14 2 minutes Recovery Count-Post 24 Steps per minute (beats) 209.00 217.22 18.57 16.90 8.22 7.32 1.12 0.5 second Expiratory Capacity ( l i t s ) 1.77 1.99 0.41 O.36 0.22 0.05 4.40 * 0.75 second Expiratory Capacity ( l i t s ) 2.32 2.58 0.40 0.24 0.26 0.09 2.89 * 1.00 second Expiratory Capacity ( l i t s ) 2.52 2.79 0.42 0.38 0.27 0.13 2.08 * V i t a l Capacity ( l i t s ) 2.67 2.96 0.32 0.29 0.29 0.12 2.42 * # Significant at the 0.05 l e v e l - 29 -Table I indicates that the Control group improved significantly-only i n the variables derived from the Vitalometer tracings. None of the mean scores of the cardiovascular measurements had improved at Test Two, and i n fact, a l l had moved i n the reverse direction, i . e . i n the wrong direction, physiologically. TABLE II SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEAN SCORES IN EACH EXPERIMENTAL VARIABLE FOR THE BONNE SANTE' GROUP Variable Heartometer Resting Pulse -Sitting (beats/min) Area Under Curve-Sitting (sq.cms) Rest-to-Work Ratio-Sitting Obliquity Angle-Sitting (degrees) Systolic Amplitude-Sitting (cms) Systolic Amplitude-Standing (cms) Systolic Amplitude-Post-exercise (cms) Step-Test Resting Pulse-Sitting (beats/min) Means Standard Deviations Mean Standard Difference Error of Difference 85.15 79.76 17.84 13.47 0.28 0.36 3.74 3.63 0.06 0.08 0.78 0.49 5.39 0.08 0.11 24.01 25.99 0.66 0.14 1.98 0.80 0.90 0.15 0.11 0.79 0.84 0.21 0.14 0.97 1.09 0.19 0.21 79.53 80.46 13.82 11.02 .10 0.05 0.12 3.03 0.02 0.02 0.46 0.05 0.05 0.06 1.78 4.00 5.50 4.30 2.00 1.00 2.00 0.93 1.77 0.53 (Cont'd) - 30 -Standard Mean Standard Means Deviations Difference Error of t Variable ^ T 2 T-j_ T 2 Difference 2 minutes Recovery Count-Post 18 Steps per minute (beats) 193.00 189.30 30.32 33.05 3.70 4.84 O.76 Stable Pulse-Sitting (beats/min) 82.15 83.69 13.22 14.09 1.54 2.33 0.66 2 minutes Recovery Count-Post 24 Steps per minute (beats) 220.61 208.84 31.43 29.97 11.77 6.54 1.80 0.5 second Expiratory Capacity ( l i t s ) 1.88 1.94 0.37 O.36 0.06 0.02 3.00 0.75 second Expiratory Capacity ( l i t s ) 2.25 2.44 0.40 0.37 0.19 0.06 3.17 1.00 second Expiratory Capacity ( l i t s ) 2.55 2.66 0.51 .0.41 0.11 0.06 1.83 V i t a l Capacity ( l i t s ) 2.92 2.91 O.56 0.50 0.01 0.08 0.13 * Significant at the 0.05 l e v e l . Table II indicates that Bonne Sante' group showed significant improve-ments i n the Heartometer variables of Resting Pulse Rate, Sitting Area Under The Curve, Sitting Systolic Amplitude, and Post-Exercise Systolic Amplitude, together with the Two Minute Recovery Pulse Count After 24 Steps Per Minute, and i n the Vitalometer items of the 0.5 second, 0.75 second, and 1.00 second Expiratory Capacities. - 31 -TABLE, III SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEAN SCORES IN EACH EXPERIMENTAL VARIABLE FOR THE RHYTHMIC GYM GROUP Variable Heartometer Resting Pulse -Sitting (beats/min) Area Under Curve-Sitting (sq.cms) Rest-to-Work Ratio-Sitting Obliquity Angle-Sitting (degrees) Systolic Amplitude-Sitting (cms) Systolic Amplitude-Standing (cms) Systolic Amplitude-Post-exercise (cms) Step-Test Resting Pulse-Sitting (beats/min) 2 minutes Recovery Count-Post 18 Steps per minute (beats) Stable Pulse-Sitting (beats/min) Means T l T2 Standard Mean Standard Deviations Difference Error of t T, To Difference 83.89 82.89 15.13 13.19 1.00 0.29 0.38 0.09 .10 0.09 3.65 3.38 0.77 0.73 0.27 24.87 25.39 3.01 1.89 0.52 0.86 1.03 0.16 0.27 0.17 0.84 0.94 0.27 0.30 0.10 1.05 1.05 0.40 . 0.33 0 82.88 81.33 10.77 14.04 1.55 188.66 190.11 35.84 35.10 1.45 83.11 78.44 8.43 15.02 4.67 3.56 0.28 0.02 4.50 * 0.18 1.50 0.24 2.17 0.05 3.40 * 0.11 0.91 0.06 0 4.45 0.35 9.60 0.15 4.74 0.99 (Cont'd) - 32 -Standard Mean Standard Means Deviations Difference Error of t Variable T 2 T-j_ T 2 Difference 2 minutes Recovery Count-Post 24 Steps per minute (beats) 209.44 204.66 33.63 39.84 4.78 9.61 0.50 0.5 second Expiratory Capacity ( l i t s ) 1.77 1.89 0.64 0.41 0.12 0.21 0.57 0.75 second Expiratory Capacity ( l i t s ) 2.22 2.35 0.57 0.49 0.13 0.12 1.08 1.00 second Expiratory Capacity ( l i t s ) 2.39 2.53 O.56 O.56 0.14 0.06 2.33 V i t a l Capacity ( l i t s ) 2.58 2.85 0.66 0.66 0.27 0.04 6.75 * Significant at the 0.05 l e v e l . Table III indicates that for the Rhythmic Gym group significant improvements occurred i n the Heartometer variables of Sitting Area Under The Curve and the Sitting Systolic Amplitude, and also i n the Vitalometer items of the 1.00 second Expiratory Capacity and the V i t a l Capacity. - 33 -Variable 0.5 second Expiratory Capacity 0.75 second Expiratory Capacity 1.00 second Expiratory Capacity V i t a l Capacity TABLE IV RESULTS OF THE ANALYSES OF VARIANCE PERFORMED UPON THE VITALOMETER TRIAL SCORES TEST ONE Mean Mean T r i a l 1 Trial. 2 31.393 1.848 2.081 2.324 1.321 1.853 2.076 2.433 Mean F Ratios T r i a l 3 Between Individuals 1.557 2.021 2.241 2.347 7.42 * 19.46 * 31.43 * 13.37 * F Ratios Between Trials 4.94 * 4.25 * 4.99 * 0.57 TEST TWO Variable 0.5 second Expiratory Capacity 0.75 second Expiratory Capacity 1.00 second Expiratory Capacity V i t a l Capacity Mean T r i a l 1 1.464 1.967 2.179 Mean T r i a l 2 1.503 1.960 2.125 2.362 2.332 Degrees of Freedom - Individual - 29 Test - 2 Error - 58 Total 89 Mean T r i a l 3 1.492 1.950 2.118 2.339 F Ratios Between Individuals 29.64 * 51.31 * 61.55 138.19 * F Ratios Between Trials 0.23 0.04 0.65 0.26 F-Ratio Significant at the 0.05 Level of Confidence Between Individuals =1.65 Between Trials = 3*15 * Significant at the 0.05 le v e l . - 34 -Table IV contains the results of the Analyses of Variance performed upon the Vitalometer t r i a l scores at a) Test One and b) Test Two. These analyses were performed i n an attempt to c l a r i f y the question of test r e l i a b i l i t y which arose as a result of the significant improvements shown by the Control group i n the related variables. The F-ratios showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant mean differences existing between t r i a l means for the 0.5 second, the 0.75 second, and the 1.00 second Expiratory Capacities at Test One. CHAPTER V DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS The Control group showed significant mean improvements i n each of the Vitalometer items but did not show mean improvements i n the cardio-vascular variables. It appears, i n fact, that the cardiovascular condition of this group deteriorated during the experimental period as evidenced by higher heart rates during the resting state and higher step-test recovery pulse counts. It i s possible that this may be explained as follows:- None of the Control group members had participated i n any regular exercise for a period of six months prior to the experimental period. The normal activity pursued by this group during the summer months which immediately preceded the experimental period was sufficient to raise the cardiovascular fitness level of this group above the winter-time levels. During the experimental period, deterioration of cardiovascular condition probably occurred. This i s i n accord with the general impression gained from other studies, i.e. that, after the end of summer, fitness levels w i l l decline unless maintained by exercise (1). The significant improvements which occurred i n the Control group i n each of the Vitalometer items were i n distinct contrast to the singular lack of improvement demonstrated by this group i n the cardiovascular measurements. It was most unlikely that the improvements i n the scores of the Control group could have arisen from any physiological adaptations made by the subjects during the experimental period,, and thus they may have arisen from one cause or from several other causes. It was considered that one possible reason for the results obtained could be that, under the conditions of this study, the Collins 6 Litre Vitalometer items were unreliable. This possibility was investigated by carrying out several - 3 6 ' -analyses of variance upon the three trials.performed by a l l subjects i n Test One and again i n Test Two, the purpose being to determine whether subjects showed mean improvements i n successive t r i a l s during both tests. The f i r s t assumption was that" subjects would show increasing improvement over three t r i a l s on Test One as a reflection of increased proficiency resulting from growing familiarity with the test equipment and the test procedure. A second assumption was that i f this effect was demonstrated also i n Test Two, the Vitalometer Test probably was unreliable. I f , however, i t was not demonstrated here, the test could be considered reasonably reliable once the subjects had an i n i t i a l experience i n use of the equipment. The results of the analyses of variance of the Vitalometer scores are shown i n Table IV. The F-ratios for s t a b i l i t y of test scores between individuals demonstrated that the va r i a b i l i t y between-the scores of individuals between t r i a l s i s not large i n relation to the va r i a b i l i t y between subjects. In Test One, however, the subjects showed f a i r l y similar mean scores at t r i a l s one and two and a relatively large improvement at t r i a l three - the exception being the V i t a l Capacity which showed f a i r l y similar mean scores over three t r i a l s . Apparently the subjects improved their a b i l i t y to expel a i r at a greater velocity after two t r i a l s without, however, demonstrating any corresponding increase i n total volume. In Test Two the subjects had a lower mean score on the i n i t i a l t r i a l than they demonstrated on the f i n a l t r i a l of Test One. Here, once again, the V i t a l Capacity appeared to be an exception. There was no apparent trend of improvement i n mean scores over the series of t r i a l s i n Test Two and this test, therefore, appeared to be quite reliable. - 37 -The determination of improvement was based upon best scores i n a l l instances. From the above results i t i s obvious that the 'best* scores appeared quite randomly throughout the t r i a l s . It thus seems impossible to determine the reason for the s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant improvements made by the Control group i n the Collins 6 Litre Vitalometer Test items. Improvements made by the experimental groups - Bonne Sante', and Rhythmic Gym - thus cannot be attributed to the effects of training and i t seems impossible, under the conditions, to speculate upon possible causes for the results obtained i n the Vitalometer tests. The Control, Rhythmic Gymnastics, and Bonne Sante' groups were not equated by random selection, thus making i t impossible to carry out any s t a t i s t i c a l comparisons of the mean improvements made by the three groups. There were, however, similarities and differences between the means and standard deviations of the groups at Test One and Test Two which were considered important i n a discussion of the results. Cardiovascular Tests. A l l three groups had similar mean scores for - Area Under the Curve, Rest-to-Work Ratio, and Obliquity Angle at Test One. At Test Two, the Control group appeared to become worse i n a l l three variables and the two exercise groups improved only i n Area Under the Curve. These improvements i n Area Under the Curve of the brachial pulse wave probably reflect a change i n the e l a s t i c i t y of the brachial artery and/or an increase i n cardiac output due to alterations i n autonomic nervous tone. In neither exercise group was there a mean increase i n time following the attainment of the systolic peak i n relation to t o t a l cycle time nor was there any improvement i n the force-time relationships of the contractile stage of the cardiac cycle . as reflected i n the slope of the anachrotic limb of the pulse wave. - 38 -The Control group was superior to the other groups i n a l l three systolic amplitude measurements at Test One. The Rhythmic Gym and Bonne Sante groups were next, i n that order. At Test Two, the mean scores for the Control group i n a l l three Systolic Amplitude variables had become worse, the Rhythmic Gym group had improved i n the Sitting Systolic Amplitude measurement, while a l l three Bonne Sante' group mean scores had improved significantly. The standard deviations for the Systolic Amplitude variables indicate that the Bonne Sante group was more homogeneous i n respect to these items than were the Control or Rhythmic Gym groups. Although five out of thirteen Bonne Sante subjects had lower scores at Test Two i n both Standing Systolic Amplitude and Post-exercise Systolic Amplitude, the differences were not large enough to sufficiently reduce the mean improvement relative to the error variance so as to destroy the s t a t i s t i c a l significance of the result. Although three of the nine Rhythmic Gym subjects had lower scores at Test Two i n both Standing Systolic Amplitude and Post-exercise Systolic Amplitude measurements, the differences between their Test One and Test Two scores were sufficiently large so as to reduce the mean gain scores while in f l a t i n g the error variances. Thus, i n both instances, the mean differences were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant. The improvements i n the mean Sitting Systolic Amplitude of both the Rhythmic Gym and Bonne Sante groups associated with increased Area Under the Curve mean scores were interpreted as representing an apparent mild sympathetic-tonic effect due to exercise. This effect has been observed i n other training studies but usually only when the exercise has been reasonably hard and performed - 39 -several times a week ( 2 ) . The Bonne -Sante group also showed improved circulatory adjustment to the effect of gravity on the blood volume and i n response to an increased oxygen demand after a one minute run i n place. Six of the Rhythmic Gym group subjects also demonstrated these improvements but, as previously stated, the effect of extreme differences i n the Test One and Test Two scores of the subjects who deteriorated, made i t impossible to show s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant group results. TABLE V RESTING PULSE RATE VARIATIONS BETWEEN HEARTOMETER AND STEP-TESTS - ALL GROUPS Number of Subjects,Who, After Test CONTROL TEST Heartometer ONE Step-Test TEST Heartometer TWO Step-Test RHYTHMIC GYM TEST Heartometer ONE Step-Test TEST Heartometer TWO Step-Test * Bench Step Variance Reduced by Low Scores of Five Subjects. Mean Standard Heartometer Test and Before Step-Test, Deviations Increased Decreased Remained Pulse Rate Pulse Rate Unchanged 7 8 . 4 4 8 . 8 1 ft , 8 4 . 2 2 9.13 +3.16$ Difference Between Standard Deviations 8 3 . 7 7 9 . 3 3 7 2 0 8 6 . 0 0 8 . 8 3 - 5 . 3 6 $ Difference B©tween Standard Deviations 8 3 . 8 9 15.13 , , n * 8 2 . 8 8 1 0 . 7 7 - 2 8 . 8 $ Difference Between Standard Deviations 8 2 . 8 9 13.19 c o 8 1 . 3 3 1 4 . 0 4 2 ? + 6.1+% Difference Between Standard Deviations (Cont'd) - 40 -Test Mean Standard Deviations Number of Subjects Who, After Heartometer Test and Before Step-Test, Increased Decreased Remained Pulse Rate Pulse Rate Unchanged BONNE SANTE* TEST Heartometer 85.15 ONE Step-Test 79.53 17.84 13.82 -22.5# 3 9 l ** Difference Between Standard Deviations TEST Heartometer 79.76 TWO Step-Test 80.46 13.47 11.02 -18.2J6 8 4 1 Difference Between Standard Deviations Heartometer Means and Variance Raised by High Scores of Three Subjects. Quiet Sitting Pulse Rates. Table V was introduced into this chapter to i l l u s t r a t e the considerable differences between the three groups i n resting pulse rate measurements. The only s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant difference between pre-training and post-training mean resting pulse rates was that of the Bonne Sant^ group i n the Heartometer measurement. This appeared to be the result of an a r t i f i c i a l difference between pre-training and post-training mean resting pulse rates and the s t a t i s t i c a l r e l i a b i l i t y of the result appeared to be subject to question. Table V shows that a l l three groups - Control, Rhythmic Gym, and Bonne Sante - exhibited different patterns i n the way individual resting pulse rates decreased or increased during the half-hour period between the Heartometer Test and the bench Step-Test. quite clearly that almost a l l the Control group members increased their pulse rates similar amounts between the Heartometer Test and the Step-Test. In the Rhythmic Gym group the number which showed decreased pulse rates was approximately the same as those who increased or did not change. This The means and standard deviations shown i n the table demonstrate - 41 -effect was observed i n both Test One .and Test Two. In the Bonne Sante' group the relationship between number of subjects who decreased their pulse rates between the Heartometer Test and the Step-Test i n Test One (nine out of thirteen) and those who fa i l e d to do so reversed almost exactly i n Test Two. This appeared to be an anomaly. The mean scores for the Heartometer Resting Pulse Rates.(85.1 beats/minute) seemed much too high when compared with the pre-Step-Test pulse rates (79.5 beats/ minute.). The inflated size of the standard deviation for the Heartometer Resting Pulse Rate at Test One (17.84 beats) was due to high pulse rates i n three subjects. It was considered unreasonable, therefore, to assume that the Heartometer Resting Pulse Rates for the Bonne Sante group at Test One represented normal resting rates and i t was considered reasonable to assume that there had not been any real improvement i n this variable between tests. There did not appear to be any reason for the pulse rates of the three groups to have been affected as differently as they were, by anxiety, fatigue, or other unknown influences. Recovery Pulse Counts Following Submaximal Work. None of the groups demonstrated a significant mean improvement between tests i n the 18 Steps Per Minute Recovery Pulse Count. In the Control group, f i v e of the nine.subjects had worse scores at Test Two; i n the Rhythmic Gym group four of the nine subjects'" scores became worse, and i n the Bonne Sante group five of the thirteen subjectsVhad worse scores at Test Two than at Test One. - 42 -TABLE VI COMPARATIVE SCORES - RECOVERY PULSE COUNTS FOLLOWING THE 24 STEPS PER MINUTE WORK TASK CONTROL TEST ONE TEST TWO RHYTHMIC GYM TEST ONE TEST TWO BONNE SANTE7 TEST ONE TEST TWO Mean 209.00 217.22 209.44 204.66 220.61 208.84 Standard Deviations 18.57 16.90 33.68 39.84 31.43 29.97 Range 189- 246 190- 242 172-265 151-264 175-286 175-275 Individual Scores Which Improved Deteriorated Remained Stable The bench stepping exercise at a rate of 24 steps per minute appeared to be a suitable means of stressing the cardiovascular system of the Y.W.C.A. subjects. A l l completed the one minute exercise at 24 steps per minute, but i t was quite obvious that many subjects would not have been capable of stepping at higher rates. Large differences i n individual responses to the exercise were evident i n the wide range of scores obtained i . e . from 172 pulse counts to 286 pulse counts at Test One and from 151 pulse counts to 275 pulse counts at Test Two. Table VI ill u s t r a t e s the main similarities and differences between the three groups at both tests and the number of subjects who: (1) improved their scores at Test Two, (2) deteriorated, or (3) remained unchanged. There were two subjects i n the Bonne Sante group, and four i n the Rhythmic - 43 -Gym group with recovery pulse counts below 190 beats at Test One. There were three subjects i n the Bonne Sante' group, and one i n the Rhythmic Gym group with recovery pulse counts above 240 beats at Test One. These groups contained some members who appeared to be more f i t than any of the Control group members and some who were less f i t . There were some very large changes i n the Test Two recovery pulse counts. In the Bonne Sante' group, the three subjects who had i n i t i a l recovery pulse counts above 240 beats reduced their Test Two counts by 11, 26, and 63 beats. Two Bonne Sante subjects increased their Test Two recovery pulse counts by 23 and 24 beats. The majority of subjects i n the Bonne Sante group made from small to quite good improvements i n the test scores. Five subjects i n the Rhythmic Gym group did not improve their recovery pulse count scores at Test Two, two subjects did not change, and three increased their recovery pulse counts by 5, 17, and 53 beats. This very large deterioration i n the response to the bench stepping exercise i n the subject who increased her recovery count by 53 beats was not a result of her poor attendance at the exercise classes. She was doing, i n fact, much more exercise at the time than that which was provided i n one Rhythmic Gym class per week. This subject was much older than the other women, and was very thin.. It seemed possible that the reason for the deterioration i n her score was mild exhaustion or depletion of nervous reserves. Four subjects i n the Bonne Sante group improved their performances. Four subjects i n the Rhythmic Gym group improved their performances from 16 to 41 pulse counts at Test Two. With the exception of the older subject mentioned previously, there was no apparent reason for the failure of. approximately one-half of this group to improve their scores i n the bench stepping exercise. - 44 -The v a r i a b i l i t y of the Control group recovery pulse counts was very much less than the corresponding measures of dispersion of the exercise groups. Two of the Control group subjects had slight reductions i n recovery pulse counts at Test Two, one did not change, and one reduced her recovery pulse count by 13 beats. Two subjects had large increases i n recovery pulse counts i . e . 43 and 48 beats. The scores of these two subjects exerted a large influence on the Test Two mean score (217.22 versus 209.00 at Test One). Numerous fitness tests have been based upon the significance of the pulse recovery after reasonably strenuous standardized bouts of exercise. Many studies have shown that where subjects i n training have progressively increased their capacity to engage i n hard exercise, the improved aerobic capacity i s reflected i n lower recovery pulse counts. The Bonne Sante subjects, on the whole, appear to have responded to training i n a similar manner. A number of the subjects appeared to have improved their i n i t i a l l y low levels of fitness as a result of several hours of exercise each week throughout the experimental period. Some of the Rhythmic Gym subjects also made reasonably good improvements and some did not. The reasons for these equivocal results are not clear. They may be due to individual differences i n the amount of effort expended during the weekly class period, or to the differences i n the patterns of activity i n the home and community l i f e . The effects of these latter influences upon fitness measurements w i l l probably vary i n proportion to the number of hours of formal training each week. Accordingly, the training w i l l have to be sufficiently frequent and intense i n order to override the extraneous effects of differences i n normal l i v i n g habits. - 45 -Exercising once a week for approximately one hour may not be sufficient to produce this effect i n some people. - 46 -REFERENCES 1. Brown, S.R., Allen, G., Nelson, B., Allen, P., Physical Fitness Of Women Enrolled In I.W.C.A. (Vancouver) Physical Education Classes And The Improvements Resulting From Exercise, Unpublished Report, School of Physical Education and Recreation, The University of British Columbia, January, 1966, p. 12. 2. Cureton, T.K., "Relation Of Physical Fitness To Athletic Performance And Sports", Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 162, (November, 1956), pp. 1139-1151. CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary This study attempted, to evaluate the improvements i n cardiovascular and respiratory fitness which may have occurred i n two separate and independent groups of adult women enrolled i n exercise programmes at the Vancouver Y.W.C.A. One experimental group was the Bonne Sante group of thirteen subjects whose programme consisted of approximately one three and one-half hour session of diversified a c t i v i t i e s per week. The other experimental group, the Rhythmic Gym group of nine subjects, met once per week for forty-five minutes of running, leaping, and similar endurance type act i v i t i e s performedv/to music. A Control group of nine subjects was used to determine the possible effects of extraneous influences. A l l subjects volunteered to participate i n the study which was conducted during a twelve week period. The average attendance at the sessions was 9«84 sessions for the Rhythmic Gym group and 9.88 sessions for the Bonne7 Sante group. A l l test procedures, times, and conditions were standardized for Test One and Test Two. Abstinence from smoking for at least half an hour, and from eating and drinking tea or coffee for at least an hour prior to each test was required of a l l subjects. Test One and Test Two were applied-at similar times of day according to appointments scheduled for the convenience of the subjects. The majority of the appointments were i n the evening. At each testing session the following sequence was adopted: (l) At the appointed time, the subject arrived at the testing station dressed i n gym strip and sat quietly for fifteen minutes. (2) Quiet s i t t i n g , standing and post-exercise tracings were performed on the Heartometer. (3) Three t r i a l s were permitted and three performances were recorded on the Collins 6 Litre Vitalometer. (4) The subject rested on a chair for five to ten minutes and two th i r t y second resting pulse rates were recorded. (5) The subject then performed two bouts of one minute step tests on a seventeen inch bench at the cadences of eighteen and twenty-four steps per minute, after each of which two minute recovery pulse counts were recorded from the ten second post-exercise point. The two step tests were separated by a five minute rest period during which two fifteen second stable pulse rates were recorded. When Test Two had been performed, the significance of the improvements i n group mean scores between Test One and Test Two was determined u t i l i z i n g Fisher's t s t a t i s t i c at the 0.05 level of significance, a r b i t r a r i l y chosen. This was performed upon the following experimental variables: (1 (2 (3 (4 (5 (6 (7 (8 Heartometer resting heart rate - s i t t i n g . Area under the curve - s i t t i n g . Rest-to-work ratio - s i t t i n g . Obliquity angle - s i t t i n g . Systolic amplitude - s i t t i n g . Systolic amplitude - standing. Systolic amplitude - post-exercise. Step test recovery pulse - s i t t i n g . - 49 -(9) Continuous 2 minute post-exercise heart rate after 18 steps per minute for one minute. (10) Sitting resting heart rate. (11) Continuous 2 minute post-exercise heart rate after 24 steps per minute for one minute. (12) 0.05 second expiratory capacity. (13) 0.75 second expiratory capacity. (14) 1.00 second expiratory capacity. (15) V i t a l capacity. Conclusions The results for the Bonne Sante group indicate that this group evidenced significant improvements i n several components of their cardiovascular fitness. Such changes, significant at the 0.05 level of confidence, were evidenced i n the quiet state variables of the Heartometer Sitting Pulse Rate, the Sitting Area Under the Curve, and the Sitting Systolic Amplitude, i n the Post-Exercise Systolic Amplitude, and i n the lower Recovery Pulse Count for the 24 Steps Per Minute step test. The s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant mean improvements i n the Heartometer Quiet Sitting Pulse Rate, however, was considered to be possibly an artifact resulting from elevated pulse rates due to anxiety at Test One. Significant improvements which occurred i n the 0.5 second, the 0.75 second, and the 1.00 second Expiratory Capacities were attributed to influences other than that of the training programme. The Rhythmic Gym group evidenced improvements significant at the 0.05 level of confidence i n the quiet state variables of the Sitting Area Under the Curve and the Sitting Systolic Amplitude. The improve-ments which appeared i n the 1.00 second Expiratory Capacity and i n the - 50 -V i t a l Capacity were disregarded as i t was believed that they were not the result of the training programme. Thirteen of the variables examined for this group, therefore, evidenced no significant improve-ments as a result of the training regimen. Both experimental groups evidenced moderate cardiovascular and respiratory fitness improvements. It i s believed that more frequent and intensive exposure to the various training regimens would improve to a greater extent the cardiovascular fitness of the adult female subjects used i n this study. Recommendations For future studies upon the effects of regular exercise upon adult women, i t i s suggested that the following points be considered: (1) Random allocation of subjects to Experimental and Control groups i s most desirable. (2) The variables employed should be more sensitive and the available time should be spent i n repeating the i n i t i a l measurements i n order to demonstrate a high degree of r e l i a b i l i t y . BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Anderson, K. Lange, "Physical Fitness Studies Of Healthy Men And Women In Norway", International Research i n Sports and Physical Education, Edited by E. Jokl and E. Simon, 1st Ed., Springfield, I l l i n o i s , Charles C. Thomas, 1964, pp. 489-500. Astrand, P-0., "Human Physical Fitness With Special Reference To Sex And Age", International Research i n Sports and Physical Education, Edited by E. Jokl and E. Simon, 1st Ed., Springfield, I l l i n o i s , 1964, pp. 517-559. Balke, B., Clark, R.T., "Cardio-Pulmonary And Metabolic Effects Of Physical Training", Health and Fitness i n the Modern World, 1st Ed., Chicago, The Athletic Institute, 1961, pp. 82-89. Brouha, L., Radford, E.P., "The Cardiovascular System In Muscular Exercise", Science and Medicine of Exercise and Sports, Edited by W.R. Johnson, 1st Ed., New York, Harper and Brothers, I960, pp. 178-206. Buskirk, R.E., Counsilman, J.E., "Special Exercise Problems In Middle Age", Science and Medicine of Exercise and Sport, Edited by W.R. Johnson, 1st Ed., New York, Harper and .Brothers, I960, pp. 491-507. Consolazio, C.F., Johnson, R.E., Pecora, L.J., Physiological Measurements Of Metabolic Functions In-Man, 1st Ed., New York, McGraw-Hill, I960. Cureton, T.K., Physical Fitness Of Champion Athletes, The University of I l l i n o i s Press, Urbana, 1961. Cureton, T.K., Physical Fitness Appraisal And Guidance, 1st Ed., St. Louis, CV. Mosby, 1947. Cureton, T.K., "Anatomical, Physiological And Psychological Changes Induced By Exercise Programmes (Exercises, Sports, Games) In Adults", Exercise and Fitness, Edited by Staley, S.C., Cureton, T.K., Huelster, L.J., Barry, A.J., Athletic Institute, Urbana, 1959, pp. 152-182. Garrett, H.E., Statistics In Psychology And Education, 5th Ed., New York, David McKay Co., 1958. Howell, M.L., Morford, W.R., A Guide To The Preparation Of Graduation Essays And Theses In Physical Education, 1st Ed., Best Printer Co., Vancouver, 1961. A Howell, M.L., Sproule, B.J., Frazer, R.S., McNab, R.B.J., Watson, R.C, Effect Of Participation Upon Treadmill Performances, University of Alberta. - 52 -Karvonen, M.J., "Some Effects Of Long Term Exercise On Health And Aging", Health and Fitness i n .the Modern World, 1st Ed., Chicago, The Athletic Institute, 1961, pp. 223-227. Karvonen, M.J., "Exercise - Physiological Aging", Health and Fitness  i n the Modern World, 1st Ed., Chicago, The Athletic Institute, 1961, pp. 368-370. Kraus, H., Raab, W., Hypokinetic Disease - Disease Produced By Lack Of Exercise, 1st Ed., Springfield, I l l i n o i s , Charles C. Thomas, 1961. Mouly, G.J., The Science Of Educational Research, 1st Ed., New York, American Book Company, 1963. Norris, A.H., Shock, H.W., "Exercise In The Adult Years - With Special Reference To The Advanced Years", Science and Medicine of  Exercise and Sports, Edited by W.R. Johnson, New York, Harper and Brothers, I960, pp. 466-490. Staley, S.C., Cureton, T.K., Huelster, L.J., Barry, A.J., (Eds), Exercise And Fitness, 1st Ed., I l l i n o i s , The Athletic Institute, I960. Steinhaus, A.H., Toward An Understanding Of Health And Physical Education, 1st Ed., Dubuque, Iowa, Brown Company, 1963, Walker, H.M., Lev, J., S t a t i s t i c a l Inference, 1st Ed,, New York, Henry Holt and Co., 1953. Wolfe, J.B., "Prevention Of Disease Through Exercise And Health Education", Health and Fitness i n the Modern World, 1st Ed., Chicago, The Athletic Institute, 1961, pp. 75-81. PERIODICALS Alexander, J.K., "Obesity And Cardiac Performance", American Journal of  Cardiology, v o l . 14, (December, 1964), pp. 86O-865. Anderson, K. Lange, "Respiratory Recovery From Muscular Exercise Of Short Duration", Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, vol. 48, Supplementum 168, i960. Astrand, I., "Aerobic Work Capacity In Men And Women With Special Reference To Age", Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, vol. 49, Supplementum 169, I960. Barker, R.G., "The Relation Of Age Of Human Adults To Some Aspects Of The Ab i l i t y To Do Fatiguing Muscular Work. Age Range: Twenty-Five To Ninety Years", Psychological Bulletin, v o l . 31:8, 1934, pp. 606-607. - 53 -Bell, A.L.L., Howell, T.W., "Screening Tests For Pulmonary Insufficiency -Timed And Total V i t a l Capacity Analysis Compared With Maximum Breathing Capacity Test", Journal of Aviation Medicine, vol. 26, (June, 1955), pp. 218-229. Brunner, D., Manelis, G., "Myocardial Infarctions Amongst Members Of Communal Settlements In Israel", Lancet, I960 (2), pp. 1049-1050. Chapman, C.B., Mitchell, J.H., "The Physiology Of Exercise", Scientific  American, vol. 212, (May, 1965), pp. 88-96. Clay, H.M., "A Study Of Performance In Relation To Age At Two Printing Works", Journal of Gerontology, vol. 11, (October, 1956), pp. 417-424. Cogswell, R.C, Henderson, C.R., Berryman, G.H., "Some Observations Of The Effects Of Training On Pulse Rate, Blood Pressure, And Endurance, In Humans, Using The Step Test (Harvard), Treadmill, And Electrodynamic Brake Bicycle Ergometer", American Journal of  Physiology, vol. 146, (June, 1946), pp. 422-430. Cohn, A.E., "Research In Cardiovascular Diseases", Journal of Gerontology, vol. 2, (January, 1947), pp. 11-17. Cureton, T.K., "Physical Fitness Of A Middle Aged Man, With Brief Comments On Related Studies", Research Quarterly, vol. 23, (March, 1952), pp. 149-162. Cureton, T.K., Physical Fitness, "How To Earn It And Keep It - With Some Relationships To Nutrition", Journal of Physical Education, vol. 54, (September-October, 1956), pp. 3-14. Cureton, ,T.K., "Relation Of Physical Fitness To Athletic Performance And Sports", Journal of the American Medical Association, v o l . 162, (November, 1956), pp. 1139-1151. Cureton, T.K., "The Nature Of Cardiovascular Condition In Normal Humans", Journal of the Association for Physical and Mental Rehabilitation, vol. 11, (November-December, 1957), p. 186. Cureton, T.K., Sterling, L.F., "Factor Analysis Of Cardiovascular Test Variables", Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, vol. 4, (March, 1964), pp. 1-24. Darling, R.C, "The Significance Of Physical Fitness", Archives of  Physical Medicine, vol. 28, (March, 1947), pp. 140-145. Davies, C.T.M., Drysdale, H.C, Passmore, R., "Does Exercise Promote Health?", Lancet, 1963 (2), pp. 930-932. - 54 -Dawson, P.M., Hellebrandt, F.A., "The Influence Of Aging In Man Upon His Capacity For Physical Work And Upon His Cardiovascular Responses To Exercise", American Journal of Physiology, vol. 143, (March, 1945), pp. 420-427. D i l l , D.B., "Effects Of Physical Strain And High Altitudes On The Heart And Circulation", American Heart Journal, vol. 23, (April, 1942), pp. 441-454. Falzone, J.A., Shock, H.W., "Physiological Limitations And Age';,- Public Health Reports, vol. 71, (December, 1956), pp.1185-1193* Fox, S.M., Skinner, J.S., "Physical Activity And Physiological Health", American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 14, (December, 1964), pp. 731-746. Frarizeen, E.B., Finesinger, J.E., Watkins, A.L., "The Response Of Psychoneurotic Patients And Normal Men And Women To Brisk Submaximal Exercise", Archives of Physical Medicine, v o l . 30, (April, 1949), pp. 219-233. Gallagher, J.R., Brouha, L., "The Step Test: A Simple Method Of ' Measuring Physical Fitness For Muscular Work In Young Men", Research Quarterly, vol. 14, (March, 1943), pp. 22-35* Hamilton, W.F., "The Physiology Of The Cardiac Output", Circulation, v o l . 8, (October, 1953), pp. 527-543* Hardy, H.L., Clark, H.L., Brouha, H., "Testing Physical Fitness In Young Women", Revue Canadienne de Biologie, vol. 2, (October, 1943), pp. 407-415* Henderson, Y., Haggard, H.W., Dolley, F.S., "The Efficiency Of The Heart, And The Significance Of Rapid And Slow Pulse Rates", American  Journal of Physiology, vol. 82, (November, 1927), pp. 512-524* Howell, T.H., "The Pulse Rate In Old Age", Journal of Gerontology, vol. 3, (October, 1948), pp. 273-275* Keen, E.N., Sloan, A.W., "Observations On The Harvard Step Test", Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 13, (September, 1958), pp. 241-243. Lansing, A.I., "The General Physiology Of Age - A Review", Journal of Gerontology, (October, 1947), pp. 327-338. Lansing, A.I., "Some Physiological Aspects Of Aging", Physiological  Reviews, vol. 31, (July, 1951), pp. 274-284* LeBlanc, J.A., "Use Of Heart Rate"As An Index Of Work Output", Journal  of Applied Physiology, v o l . 10, (March, 1957), pp. 275-280. Metheny, E. Brouha, L., Johnson, R.E., Forbes, W.E., "Some Physiological Responses Of Men And Women To Moderate And Strenuous'Exercise -A Comparative Study", American Journal of Physiology-, vol. 137, (September, 1942), pp. 318-326. Michael, E.D., Gallon, A.J. "Pulse Wave And Blood Pressure Changes Occurring During A Physical Training Programme", Research Quarterly, vol. 31, (March, i960), pp. 43-59. Miller, W.F., Johnson, R.L., Wu, N., "Relationships Between Fast V i t a l Capacity And Various Timed Expiratory Capacities", Journal of Applied Physiology, v o l . 14, (March, 1959), pp. 157-163. Miller, W.F., Wu, N., Johnson, R.L., "Convenient Method Of Evaluating Pulmonary Function With A Single Breath Test", Anesthiology, vol. 17, (May, 1956), pp. 480-493-Montoye, H.J. "Inter-Relationship Of Maximum Pulse Rate During Moderate Exercise, Recovery Rate And Post-Exercise Blood Lactate", Research Quarterly, vol. 24, (December, 1953), PP« 453-458. Montoye, H.J., "The Role Of Exercise In Preventive Medicine", Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, vol. 2, (December, 1962), pp. 229-232. Morehouse, L.E., Tuttle, W.W., "A Study Of The Post-Exercise Heart Rate", Research Quarterly, v o l . 13, (March, 1942), pp. 1-9. Morris, J.N., Heady, J.A., Raffle,- -P.A.B., Roberts, C.G., Parks, J.W., "Coronary Heart Disease And Physical Activity At Work", Lancet, 1953 (2), pp. 1053-1057. Morris, J.N., Crawford,' M.D., "Coronary Heart Disease And Physical Activity At Work", British Medical Journal. 1958 (2), pp. 1485-1496. Norris, A.H., Shock, N.W., Yiengst, M.J., "Age Changes In Heart Rate And Blood Pressure Responses To T i l t i n g And Standardized Exercise", Circulation, vol. 8, (October, 1953), pp. 521-526. Otis, A.B., "Physiology Of Respiration In Relation To Environment And To Muscular Exercise", Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical  Fitness, vol. 2, (June, 1962), pp. 83-85. Sal i t , E., Tuttle, W.W., "The Validity Of Heart Rate And Blood Pressure ' Determinations As Measures Of Physical Fitness, Research Quarterly, vol. 15, (October, 1944), pp. 252-257. Shock, N.W., "Age Changes In Some Physiological Processes", Geriatrics, vol. 12, (January, 1957), pp. 40-48. Simonson, E., "Changes In Physical Fitness And Cardiovascular Functions With Age", Geriatrics, vol. 12, (January, 1957), pp. 28-38. - 56 -Sloan, A.W., "A Modified Harvard Step Test For Women", Journal of  Applied Physiology, vol. 14, (November, 1959), pp. 985-986. Sloan, A.W., "Effects Of Physical Training On The Physical Fitness Of Women Students", Journal of Physiology, vol. 150, (December, I960), p. 19P. Smalley, E.J., Smalley, M.A., "Changes In Endurance In The Arm And Shoulder Girdle Strength Of College Women In Certain Physical Education Classes", Research Quarterly, vol. 16, (May, 1945), pp. 139-147. Taylor, C , "Studies In Exercise Physiology",'American Journal of  Physiology, vol. 135, (December, 1941), pp. 27-43. Taylor, H.L., "Coronary Heart Disease In Physically Active And Sedentary Populations", Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical  Fitness, vol. 2, (June, 1962), pp. 73-82. White, P.D., "Heart Disease: The Modern Epidemic", Reprint from Health, (October and December) 1964, p. 3. UNPUBLISHED PAPERS Brown, S.R., Allen, G., Nelson, B., Allen, P., Physical Fitness Of Women Enrolled In Y.W.C.A. (Vancouver) Physical Education Classes And Improvements Resulting From Exercise, Unpublished Report, School of Physical Education and Recreation, The University of Briti s h Columbia, January, 1966. Cameron Heartometer Company, Condensed Instructions For Blood Pressure Findings And Making Heartographs, Unpublished Report, Chicago, I l l i n o i s . Cureton, P.M., Physical Fitness Of Adult Women, Unpublished Master of Science Thesis (Physical Education), University of I l l i n o i s , Urbana, I l l i n o i s , 1945. Walters, C.E., A Study Of The Effects Of Prescribed Strenuous Exercises On The Physical Efficiency Of Women, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, State University of Iowa, 1951. Warren E. Collins, Inc., Directions For Collins Recording Vitalometer, Boston, Massachusetts. Wright, D.I., The Effects Of Training On The Physical Fitness Of Adult Women, Unpublished Master of Science Thesis (Physical Education), University of I l l i n o i s , Urbana, 1961. Young Women's Christian Association Of Canada, Report Of The Consultation On Fitness For Women, Unpublished Report, Toronto, 1966. APPENDICES APPENDIX A STATISTICAL PROCEDURES The following computations were performed: a) Group Mean, using original raw scores X = Z X where X = Group Mean N X = Raw Scores N = Number of Subjects b) Mean Difference Between Paired Raw Scores D = £ D where D = Mean Difference N D = Difference Between Paired Scores N = Number of Subjects c) Standard Deviations of the Raw Scores (1) N £ X 2 - ( H i ) 2 where S = Standard Deviation N(N - L) X = Raw Scores N = Number of Subjects d) Standard Error of the Difference Between Means (2) S- = / NUD 2 - ( £ D ) 2 where S- = Standard Error D V N2 ( N - l ) D = Difference Between Paired Scores N = Number of Subjects e) The Relevant t Statist i c (3) t = D where t = t Statist i c S_ D D = Mean Difference S_ = Standard Error D APPENDIX B DESCRIPTIONS OF THE MEASUREMENTS Description of the Variables Extracted From the Cameron Heartometer 1 . Area Under the Curve (ABDFCA). The two adjacent mitral valve closing points were connected for an average single cycle and the area enclosed was traced with a polar planimeter ( 4 ) . Each of three typical waves were measured three times, with each measurement consisting.of the average of ten area tracings. The overall, average area was the mean of the three typical areas. 2. Systolic Pulse Wave Amplitude (AB). This measurement was made with the vernier calipers nearly parallel to the blue l i n e . It was recorded i n centimetres to the nearest hundredth (5). 3. Angle of Obliquity (ABG). This angle was measured from the maximum systolic point of the graph, with one line being drawn from this point to the centre of the hole i n the graph and the other being drawn almost tangentially to the upward systolic line and going through point A. It was measured with a protractor to the nearest tenth of a degree (6). 4 . Time of Systole (AX). This measurement was performed with the vernier calipers horizontally from the start of the systole to the intersection of the base line and the line dropped from the point of maximum systole. The units of measurement were centimetres to the nearest hundredth ( 7 ) . 5. Diastolic Time (XC). This measurement was performed horizontally with the vernier calipers from the intersection of the base line and- the line dropped from the point of maximum systole to the end of the cycle. The units of measurement were centimetres to the nearest hundredth (8). - 59 -6. Rest-to-Work Ratio. This measurement i s the ratio of time of diastole to the time of systole. Description of the Variables Extracted From the Collins 6 Litre Vitalometer. 1 . The 0 . 5 second Expiratory Capacity (MP). From a point measured horizontally one-half centimetre from the commencement of the forced exhalation, a line was dropped parallel to the one second time division lines. The point at which this line intersected the descending exhalation curve indicated the volume exhaled and the valve i n l i t r e s and hundredths of a l i t r e was read from a reproduction of the table on the side of the Vitalometer graph superimposed upon the curve. 2 . The 0 . 7 5 second and 1 . 0 0 second Expiratory Capacities were measured i n a similar fashion to that of the 0 . 5 second Expiratory Capacity. For these two variables, the distances measured, horizontally from the commencement of the forced exhalation were 0 . 7 5 centimetres and 1 . 0 0 centimetres respectively. 3 . The V i t a l Capacity (XY). From the lowest point of the forced exhalation, a line was drawn up parallel to the one second time dividion lines to intersect that line drawn horizontally from the commencement of forced exhalation. The distance between these two points was read i n l i t r e s and hundredths of a l i t r e from the superimposed table. - 6 0 -OF SYSTOL£ TIME OF DIASTOLE FROM • MAXIMUM SYSTOLIC AMPLITUDE FIG. I DlAQRAK OF B R A C H I A L VULSE WAVE A N G L E O F O B L I Q U I T Y ' - 61 -F I G . I VITALOIAEFER CURVE APPENDIX C DATA SHEET FOR THE STEP TEST Y.W.C.A. FITNESS TESTS: DATA SHEET Name:- Group:-Date:- Time:-1. Sitting Pulse:- 1. 2. Post-Exercise Pulse Rates (18 steps/min) 2. 2 minute recovery pulse count. 3. Stable Pulse 3« 4. Post-Exercise Pulse Rates (24 steps/min) 4. 2 minute recovery pulse count. APPENDIX D INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE INSTRUMENTS CONDENSED INSTRUCTIONS FOR BLOOD PRESSURE FINDINGS  AND MAKING HEARTOGRAPHS  MODEL - 6100 FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS EXACTLY — NO OTHER METHOD WILL FURNISH PROPER RESULTS. 1. Turn Heartometer so patient can't watch graph being made. 2. Cuff must be put on tight - snugness i s important. (Instruct patient to remain q u i e t - they must not move or speak.) 3. Have clutch OUT - close a i r valve i n in f l a t i o n system. DIASTOLIC 4. Inflate, pause - inf l a t e , pause - inf l a t e , pause - etc. (The pause should be for two or three seconds.) Continue inf l a t i n g and pausing u n t i l one light (either) i s flashed by the pulse. This i s the DIASTOLIC point (5th phase). Push clutch i n and mark diastolic pressure. Pull clutch a l l the way OUT stopping the graph. 5. Inflate quickly u n t i l you have fixed light (no flashing) = collapsed artery. SYSTOLIC 6. Now, deflate, pause,- deflate, pause - deflate, pause - etc. (The pause should be for two or three seconds.) Continue deflating and pausing u n t i l pulse flashes one (either) lig h t for a- count of 10.t This i s the SYSTOLIC point. Push clutch i n and mark systolic pressure. Pull clutch a l l the way OUT stopping the graph. GRAPHING 7. Now, deflate u n t i l 10 or 15 mm. below diastolic mark. Stop! (Don't deflate to zero.) Now, increase the pressure above diastolic; 1/4 of the pulse pressure (usually 10 to 20 mm. above diastolic-"-). Push clutch i n to start motor; make Heartograph. Pull clutch a l l the way OUT stopping the graph. Release pressure from cuff promptly. (f) When Skipped Beats, F i b r i l l a t i o n etc, i s present there can never be 10 successive pulses to actuate the lig h t s . The term "COUNT OF 10" i s used to cover such cases. (Counts should be INTERVALS of 1 Second.) (*-) Exceptions to this rule are: In very low diastolic pressure or obliterated cases i n the legs, one may have to make a short graph at different pressures i n order to establish the proper graphing point. CAMERON HEARTOMETER COMPANY Chicago I l l i n o i s - 64,-COLLIMS 6 LITRE VITALOMETER' DIRECTIONS Have patient i n a standing position with noseclip attached. Raise the spirometer b e l l about one-half of the way up and place mouthpiece i n subject's mouth. Turn on kymograph motor. After two or three quiet breaths, instruct the subject to inhale as deeply as possible and then exhale as rapidly as possible. Turn off motor. This i s the fast V i t a l Capacity. (This spirometer has no provision for removal of CO2; therefore, the patient rebreathes his expired a i r and should not take more than two or three quiet breaths before the V.C. test ) . After a few minutes rest, flush spirometer by raising and lowering b e l l two or three times and a second test i s run, followed by a third. The largest forced v i t a l capacity should be used for reports ( 9 ) . APPENDIX E RAW SCORES FOR ALL SUBJECTS ON ALL VARIABLES For the experimental variables, the units of measurement were as follows: Heartometer Resting Pulse Rate - Beats per Minute Area Under the Curve - Square Centimetres, to hundredths Rest-to-Work Ratio Obliquity Angle - Degrees, to tenths Systolic Amplitude Sitting - Centimetres, to hundredths Systolic Amplitude Standing - Centimetres, to hundredths Systolic Amplitude Post-Exercise - Centimetres, to hundredths Step Test Resting Pulse Rate - Beats per Minute 2 Minute Recovery Pulse Counts After 18 Steps Per Minute - Beats Stable Resting Pulse Rate - Beats per Minute 2 Minute Recovery Pulse Counts After 24 Steps Per Minute - Beats 0.50 Second Expiratory Capacity - Litres, to hundredths 0.75 Second Expiratory Capacity - Litres, to hundredths 1.00 Second Expiratory Capacity - Litres, to hundredths V i t a l Capacity - Litres, to hundredths These Units Apply To The Following 6 Tables. TABLE VII CONTROL GROUP RAW SCORES - TEST ONE VARIABLE Heartometer Resting Pulse Rate-Sitting Area Under The Curve-Sitting Rest-to-Work Ratio-Sitting Obliquity Angle-Sitting Systolic Amplitude-Sitting Systolic Amplitude-Standing Systolic Amplitude-Post-Exercise Step-Test Resting Pulse Rate-Sitting SUBJECT 1 2 3 4 5 6 80 68 85 82 72 89 88 64 I 78 706 78.44 0.26 0.30 0.25 0.36 0.27 0.21 0.27 O.36 0.31 2.59 0.29 4.21 3.94 2.64 2.83 3.87 3.28 2.82 5.07 3.44 32.10 3.57 27.6 23.0 26.0 23.0. 26.3 25.0 25.9 22.2 25.0 224.0 24.89 O.76 1.03 0.98 1.35 0.77 0.88 0.91 1.06 0.95 8.69 0.97 0.85 0.84 1.01 1.41 0.78 0.82 0.87 0.94 O.65 8.17 0.91 0.90 1.25 1.26 2.04 0.87 ,1.20 0.94 1.14 O.64 10.24 1.14 84 80 92 86 76 96 96 70 78 758 84.22 (Cont'd), VARIABLE 1 2 Minutes Recovery Count-Post 18 Steps Per Minute 202 Stable Pulse -Sitting 84 2 Minutes Recovery Count-Post 24 Steps Per Minute 222 0.5 second Expiratory Capacity 0.75 second Expiratory Capacity 1.00 second Expiratory Capacity V i t a l Capacity 2 3 4 172 236 195 72 92 88 192 246 213 1.80 1.95 2.40 2.55 2.49 2.80 2.81 2.58 2.93 2.82 2.70 3.00 SUBJECT 5 6 169 186 198 166 178 1702 189.11 68 88 92 80 80 744 82.66 197 221 207 189 194 1881 209.00 i ON I 1.80 1.55 2.00 1.70 0.95 14.15 1.77 2.18 1.98 2.80 2.15 1.65 18.60 2.32 2.33 2.06 3.04 2.44 2.00 20.19 2.52 2.54 2.16 3.15 2.50 2.50 21.37 2.67 TABLEvVIII CONTROL GROUP RAW SCORES - TEST TWO VARIABLE Heartometer Resting Pulse Rate-Sitting Area Under The Curve-Sitting Rest-to-Work Ratio-Sitting Obliquity Angle-Sitting Systolic Amplitude-Sitting Systolic Amplitude-Standing Systolic Amplitude-Post-Exercise Step-Test Resting Pulse Rate-Sitting SUBJECT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 80 71 88 80 72 82 98 95 0.25 0.30 0.26 0.39 0.21 0.23 0.24 0.28 3.50 3.17 2.76 3.43 4.43 3.25 2.15 3.40 26.0 23.3 25.4 23.0 28 .0 26.0 27.0 24.6 88 0.26 3.11 28.2 754 2.42 29.20 231.5 0.70 1.11 1.13 1.16 0.66 0.94 0.91 1.15 0.82 8.58 0.69 0.90 0.62 1.19 0.53 0.86 0.96 0.77 0.86 7.38 X 83.77 0.27 3.24 25.72 0.95 0.82 1.14 1.16 1.05 1.44 0.74 1.34 1.19 1.07 0.70 9.83 1.09 82 74 92 82 74 84 96 94 96 774 86.00 (Cont'd), VARIABLE 1 2 Minutes Recovery Count-Post 18 Steps Per Minute 203 Stable Pulse-Sitting 88 2 Minutes Recovery Count-Post 24 Steps Per Minute 221 0.5 second . Expiratory Capacity 0.75 second Expiratory Capacity 1.00 second Expiratory Capacity V i t a l Capacity 2 3 4 172 211 192 72 92 88 198 233 216 2.05 2.00 2.35 2.74 2.49 2.90 2.85 2.52 3.17 2.89 2.88 3.25 SUBJECT 5 6 7 8 9 X X 177 198 197 212 222 1784 198.22 72 92 92 96 100. 792 88.00 190 214 209 232 242 1955 217.22 1.92 1.60 2.10 2.48 1.40 15.90 1.99 2.34 2.45 2.77 2.73 2.22 20.64 2.58 2.32 2.92 2.95 2.95 2.62 22.30 2.79 2.35 3.00 3.25 2.96 3.13 23.71 2.96 TABLE IX BONNE SANTE GROUP RAW SCORES - TEST ONE SUBJECT VARIABLE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 S X Heartometer Resting Pulse Rate-Sitting 72 136 88 90 78 80 101 78 68 88 72 72 84 1107 85.15 Area Under The Curve-Sitting ,0.30 0.19 0.28 0.29 0.28 0.32 0.21 0.42 0.34 0.29 0.21 0.30 0.21 3.64 0.28 Rest-to-Work Ratio-Sitting 4.00 2.18 3.75 3.69 4.40 4.25 2.86 4.76 3.80 3.15 4.00 4.14 3.58 48.56 3.74 Obliquity Angle-Sitting 22.9 22.8 20.5 23.8 26.0 23.0 26.0 23.1 21.5 22.2 29.9 26.9 23.5 312.1 24.01 Systolic Amplitude-Sitting 0.80 0.80 0.82 0.81 0.78 0.74 0.63 0.94 1.17 0.89 0.65 0.76 0.60 10.39 0.80 Systolic Amplitude-Standing 0.68 0.57 0.75 0.62 0.75 0.70 0.52 0.98 1.32 0.91 0.78 0.88 0.80 10.26 0.79 Systolic Amplitude-Post-Exercise 0.83 0.76 1.06 0.91 0.97 0.83 0.58 1.12 1.26 1.01 1.15 1.20 1.02 12.70 . 97 Step-Test Resting Pulse Rate-Sitting 68 114 80 88 78 78 88 64 60 92 74 74 76 1034 79.53 (Cont'd).... SUBJECT VARIABLE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9, 10 11 12 13 ^ X 2 Minutes Recovery Count-Post 18 Steps Per Minute 180 262 206 215 192 189 213 149 152 219 179 179 174 2509 193.00 Stable Pulse-Sitting 72 112 84 92 84 80 92 68 60 92 72 80 80 1068 82.15 2 Minutes Recovery Count-Post 24 Steps Per Minute 212 286 215 239 217 221 256 175 179 253 192 208 215 2868 220.61 0.5 second Expiratory t Capacity 1.54 1.85 1.35 1.50 2.00 1.85 2.25 1.46 3.45 1.94 1.50 1.90 22.59 1.88 0.75 second • Expiratory Capacity 2.05 2.46 1.80 2.10 2.45 2.35 3.20 1.80 2.24 2.05 1.93 2.60 27.04 2.25 1.00 second Expiratory Capacity 2.24 2.92 2.03 2.35 2.62 2.70 3.68 2.00 2.88 2.05 2.18 3.00 30.65 2.55 V i t a l Capacity 2.48 3.11 2.42 2.92 3.15 2.90 4.11 2.32 3.22 2.12 2.72 3.55 35.02 2.92 i TABLE X BONNE SANTE GROUP RAW SCORES - TEST TWO SUBJECT VARIABLE 1 2 3 , 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 ^ X Heartometer Resting Pulse Rate-Sitting 65 116 84 80 84 63 84 69 73 82 80 87 70 1037 7 9 . 7 6 Area Under The Curve-Sitting .O.36 0.21 0 .35 0.29 0 .33 0 .43 O.46 0.51 0 .42 0 .32 0.30 0 .39 ;0.32 4.70 O.36 Rest-to-Work Ratio-Sitting 4.12 2.78 3.20 3.71 3.53 4.26 4.13 3.31 3.70 3.11 3.23 3 . 8 0 4.31 4 7 . 1 9 3 . 6 3 Obliquity Angle-Sitting 25.0 2 4 . 5 27.0 26.4 27.1 26.1 25.8 22.8 26.0 27.8 28.1 26.2 25.1 3 3 7 . 9 2 5 . 9 9 Systolic Amplitude-Sitting r.0L 0.98 0 .82 0.78 0 .81 0.90 0 .90 1 . 1 6 0.94 0 .81 0 .81 0 .82 0 .99 11.73 0.90 Systolic Amplitude-Standing 0 .82 0.53 0.87 0.89 0 .82 0.98 0.71 1.05 1.03 0 .81 0.73 0.74 0.93 10.91 0.84 Systolic Amplitude-Post-Exercise 1.29 0.97 0.97 1.04 0.83 0.84 1.02 1.32 1.50 1.32 0.94 1 .18 0 .99 14.21 1.09 Step-Test Resting Pulse Rate-Sitting 68 122 88 88 86 74 76 60 68 88 80 74 74 1046 80.46 (Cont'd) SUBJECT VARIABLE 1 2 3 4 5 6 -7 8 9 10 11 12 13 21 X 2 Minutes Recovery Count-Post 18 Steps Per Minute 163 ,268 216 202 216 182 172 145 157 204 201 172 163 2461 189.30 Stable Pulse-Sitting 68 116 104 88 88 80 80 68 72 92 80 80 72 1088 83.69 2 Minutes Recovery Count-Post 24 Steps Per Minute 176 275 239 220 222 216 193 175 176 226 215 189 192 2715 208.84 0.5 second Expiratory Capacity 1.83 1.78 1.80 1.58 1.80 2.06 1.90 1.54 2.84 1.98 1.78 2.40 23.29 1.94 1 0.75 second Expiratory Capacity 2.18 2.45 2.23 2.05 2.40 2.50 3.15 1.88 2.80 2.42 2.21 2.98 29.25 2.44 1.00 second Expiratory Capacity 2.37 2.84 2.48 2.38 2.58 2.61 3-50 2.03 2.97 2.57 2.37 3.15 31.85 2.66 V i t a l Capacity 2.64 2.84 2.92 2.68 2.99 2.79 4.25 2.30 2.97 2.60 2.58 3-38 34.94 2.91 TABLE XI RHYTHMIC GYM GROUP RAW SCORES - TEST ONE VARIABLE Heartometer Resting Pulse Rate-Sitting Area Under The Curve-Sitting Rest-to-Work Ratio-Sitting Obliquity Angle-Sitting Systolic Amplitude-Sitting Systolic Amplitude-Standing Systolic Amplitude-Post-Exercise Step-Test Resting Pulse Rate-Sitting SUBJECT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 1 90 71 71 87 119 77 80 72 88 755 0.23 0.32 0.36 0.18 0.28 0.22 0.32 0.45 0.21 2.57 3.14 4.11 4.71 3.66 2.21 4.00 3.66 4.43 2.92 . 32.84 25.4 25.5 24.0 27.2 23.8 27.2 25.5 23.0 21.5 223.8 0.68 1.07 0.91 0.66 1.02 0.73 0.82 1.06 0.83 7.78 0.59 1.11 1.01 0.69 0.88 0.69 0.60 1.38 0.66 7.61 1.05 1.56 1.04 0.79 1.06 0.75 0.68 1.84 0.71 9.48 80 76 68 82 104 82 80 78 96 746 (Cont'd).., VARIABLE 2 Minutes Recovery Count-Post 18 Steps Per Minute Stable Pulse-Sitting 2 Minutes Recovery Count-Post 24 Steps Per Minute 0.5 second Expiratory Capacity 0.75 second Expiratory Capacity 1.00 second Expiratory Capacity V i t a l Capacity 1 2 171 163 80 72 • 189 186 1*15 2-; 92 1.21 2.92 1.21 2.92 1.27 3.02 3 ' 4 154 187 76 80 180 219 1.65 1.95 2.22 2.60 2.46 2.92 2.59 3.40 SUBJECT 5 " 6 259 204 96 88 265 228 1.77 1.55 1.99 2.15 2.02 2.42 2.02 2.82 7 8 155 176 80 80 172 192 2.30 1.95 2.83 2.50 2.86 2.62 2.86 3.07 9 X 229 1698 96 748 254 1885 .70 15.94 1.60 20.02 2.11 21.54 2.13 23.18 X . 188.66 83.11 209.44 1.77 2.22 2.39 2.58 TABLE' XII RHYTHMIC GYM GROUP RAW SCORES - TEST TWO SUBJECT VARIABLE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ^ X Heartometer Resting Pulse Rate-Sitting 1Q4 72 64 90 96 82 88 68 82 746 82.89 Area Under The Curve-Sitting .28 .45 .52 .28 .37 .33 .34 .54 .27 3.38 0.38 Rest-to-Work Ratio-Sitting 2.80 3.38 4.58 3.25 2.56 2.73 3.20 4.57 3.35 •• 30.42 3-38 Obliquity Angle-Sitting 26.1 23.8 24.2 27.2 23.8 27.8 25.0 22.8 27.8 228.5 25.39 Systolic Amplitude-Sitting 0.84 1.32 1.29 0.90 1.14 0.86 0.74 1.35 0.82 9.26 1.03 Systolic Amplitude-Standing 0.78 0.77 1.19 0.86 1.09 0.89 0.53 0.87 1.56 8.54 0.95 Systolic Amplitude-Post-Exercise 1.26 1.35 1.08 0.92 1.21 0.78 0.55 1.56 0.75 9.46 1.05 Step-Test Resting Pulse Rate-Sitting 104 68 64 92 88- 88 82 62 84 732 81.33 (Cont'd).... VARIABLE 2 Minutes Recovery Count-Post 18 Steps Per Minute Stable Pulse-Sitting 2 Minutes Recovery Count-Post 24 Steps Per Minute 0.5 second Expiratory Capacity 0.75 second Expiratory Capacity 1.00 second Expiratory Capacity V i t a l Capacity 1 2 •231 155 104 64 242 162 1.05 1.68 1.25 2.35 1.30 2.64 1.56 3.14 3 4 151 205 60 92 164 218 1.95 2.25 2.57 2.85 2.79 3.10 2.89 3.70 SUBJECT '5 6 7 8 9 Z X 237 212 174 144 202 1711 190.11 82 84 76 60 84 706 78.44 264 233 189 151 219 1842 204.66 1.80 1.65 2.45 2.25 1.95 17.03 1.89 2.10 2.22 2.88 2.55 2.39 21.16 2.35 2.12 2.48 3.12 2.75 2.50 22.80 2.53 2.16 3.12 3.20 3.29 2.58 25.64 2.85 - 78 -REFERENCES 1. Walker, H.M., Lev, J., S t a t i s t i c a l Inference, 1st ed., New York, Henry Holt and Co., 1963, p. 116. 2. Ibid, p. 152. 3. Garrett, H.E., Statistics In Psychology And Education, 5th ed., New York, David McKay Co., 1958, p. 215. 4. Cureton, T.K., Physical Fitness Appraisal And Guidance, 1st ed., St. Louis, C.V. Mosby Co., 1947, p. 236. 5. Loc. c i t . 6. Ibid, p. 244. 7. Cureton, T.K., Physical Fitness Of Champion Athletes, 1st ed., Urbana, University'of I l l i n o i s Press, 1951, p. 228. 8. Loc. c i t . 9. Warren E. Collins Inc., Directions For Collins Recording Vitalometer, Unpublished Booklet, Boston, Massachusetts. 

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