UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

C.A.H.P.E.R. fitness-performance test as validated by the Fleishman basic fitness test Jordan, Charles Stonehouse 1966

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1966_A7_5 J6.pdf [ 4.4MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0077259.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0077259-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0077259-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0077259-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0077259-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0077259-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0077259-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0077259-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0077259.ris

Full Text

THE G.A.H.P.E.R. FITNESS-PERFORMANCE TEST AS VALIDATED BY THE FLEISHMAN BASIC FITNESS TEST by CHARLES S. JORDAN B.P.E., UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1963  A T h e s i s Submitted I n P a r t i a l Of The Requirements  Fulfilment  F o r The Degree Of  M a s t e r Of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n I n The S c h o o l Of P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n And R e c r e a t i o n  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the required  standard  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h June, 1966  Columbia  In presenting this thesis in partial  fulfilment of the  requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia,  I agree that the Library shall make it  for reference and study.  freely  available  I further agree that permission for ex-  tensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  is  understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financ i a l gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  P H Y S I C A L EDUCATION  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date  JUNE, 1966  AND  RECREATION  ABSTRACT The purpose o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o a s c e r t a i n t h e degree t o which t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t i s a v a l i d measure o f motor f i t n e s s as determined by t h e Fleishman B a s i c F i t n e s s Test.  A second purpose was t o  determine whether a b b r e v i a t e d b a t t e r i e s w i t h l i t t l e o r no l o s s o f v a l i d i t y can be d e v e l o p e d . The s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e d o f n i n e t y grade s i x and seven boys e n r o l l e d a t an elementary s c h o o l i n Vancouver. T-score v a l u e s f o r each o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. and F l e i s h m a n items were computed.  These v a l u e s were used t o  e s t a b l i s h t h e i n t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n (average T-score v a l u e o f t h e s i x C.A.H.P.E.R. v a r i a b l e s ) and t h e e x t e r n a l (average T-score v a l u e o f t h e t e n F l e i s h m a n  criterion  variables).  I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e s i x C.A.H.P.E.R. t e s t items and t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h b o t h t h e i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n were computed.  The v a r i a b l e s  which  y i e l d e d t h e b e s t combined r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e c r i t e r i o n s c o r e were s e l e c t e d by t h e s t e p w i s e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n method. The v a l i d i t y o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t was determined by i t s c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e F l e i s h m a n Basic Fitness Test. B a t t e r y A, ( t h e s h u t t l e r u n , t h e 300 y a r d r u n , and t h e f l e x e d arm hang) w i t h an R o f 0.961, was chosen as t h e  best three item p r e d i c t o r o f the i n t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n . B, ( B a t t e r y A and t h e s t a n d i n g  Battery  broad jump) w i t h i t s R o f  0.90*2, was found t o be t h e b e s t f o u r i t e m  predictor.  B a t t e r y D ( t h e s t a n d i n g broad jump, t h e s h u t t l e r u n , and  t h e f l e x e d arm hang) was chosen as t h e b e s t t h r e e  indoor battery.  I t s m u l t i p l e R was 0.6*94.  item  Battery F  ( B a t t e r y D and t h e one minute speed s i t - u p ) had an R o f 0.941 and was chosen as t h e b e s t f o u r i t e m i n d o o r internal  predictor of the  criterion.  B a t t e r y G, ( t h e s h u t t l e r u n and t h e 300 y a r d run) w i t h i t s m u l t i p l e R o f 0.763, was chosen as t h e b e s t two i t e m predictor of the external c r i t e r i o n . the standing  With the a d d i t i o n of  broad jump, B a t t e r y H was formed.  I t s multiple  R o f 0.775, made t h i s b a t t e r y t h e b e s t p r e d i c t o r o f t h e external  criterion.  Battery J , (the standing and  broad jump, t h e s h u t t l e r u n ,  t h e f l e x e d arm hang) w i t h i t s R o f 0.752, was chosen as  the best indoor p r e d i c t o r o f t h e e x t e r n a l  criterion.  The h i g h degree o f v a l i d i t y o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t as measured by t h e F l e i s h m a n B a s i c F i t n e s s T e s t was s u b s t a n t i a t e d by: a) t h e m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f 0.790, b) t h e z e r o - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f 0.7S1. B a t t e r i e s G and H, however, p r e d i c t t h e F l e i s h m a n T e s t almost as w e l l as t h e complete C.A.H.P.E.R. T e s t .  The  r e l a t i v e l y h i g h r e l a t i o n s h i p between each o f t h e  following: a) t h e one minute speed s i t - u p , b) t h e s h u t t l e r u n , c) t h e 50 y a r d r u n , d) t h e 300 y a r d r u n , i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e  Test  c o n t a i n s measures o f v a r i a n c e common t o more t h a n one t e s t item.  DEDICATION  T h i s study i s d e d i c a t e d t o my  wife,  Florence, i n a p p r e c i a t i o n of h e r  sacrifices.  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The w r i t e r w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s h i s s i n c e r e t o h i s a d v i s e r Dr. H.D. W h i t t l e f o r h i s c o n s t a n t ment and v a l u a b l e  appreciation encourage-  advice.  The w r i t e r i s s i m i l a r l y i n d e b t e d  t o Dr. S.R. Brown f o r  h i s guidance and a i d i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e t e s t s and t o M i s s R. Hogan, S t a t i s t i c i a n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The w r i t e r a l s o w i s h e s t o extend h i s g r a t i t u d e t o t h e teachers  and s t u d e n t s o f Queen E l i z a b e t h E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l  and t o t h e Vancouver S c h o o l Board. cooperation study.  T h e i r i n t e r e s t and  d i r e c t l y contributed t o t h e success o f t h i s  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I  II III  PAGE STATEMENT AND JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM . . The Problem  :  J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e Problem  . . . . . .  1 1 2  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  6  METHODS AND PROCEDURES  13  Preparation f o r Administration of Tests  IV  IS  Administration of Tests  19  S t a t i s t i c a l Treatment o f Data . . . . . .  21  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  27  A n a l y s i s o f I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n and Validity Coefficients  27  S e l e c t i o n o f Short B a t t e r i e s as P r e d i c t o r s o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. T e s t . .  30  A n a l y s i s o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. C o r r e l a t i o n Coefficients with the External Criterion  35  S e l e c t i o n o f S h o r t B a t t e r i e s as Predictors of the External C r i t e r i o n  .  36  C o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s Performance Criterion  Test with t h e E x t e r n a l 40  CHAPTER V  PAGE SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Treatment  ...  o f t h e Data  44 44  B a t t e r i e s Which P r e d i c t t h e I n t e r n a l Criterion  •  45  B a t t e r i e s Which P r e d i c t t h e E x t e r n a l Criterion  46  V a l i d a t i o n o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s Performance T e s t  47  Conclusions  4&  Recommendations •  49  BIBLIOGRAPHY  51  APPENDICES A  D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s Performance T e s t Items  B  Test I n s t r u c t i o n f o r the Fleishman Basic Fitness Tests  C  . . . . . . . . . . .  The C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t Score Card  D  F l e i s h m a n F i t n e s s T e s t Score Card  . . . . . .  E  A r e a s o f F i t n e s s as D e f i n e d by F l e i s h m a n . . .  F  A l t e r n a t e T e s t i n g Procedures N e c e s s i t a t e d by Weather C o n d i t i o n s  G  T-Scores f o r t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. V a r i a b l e s  . . .  H  T-Scores f o r t h e F l e i s h m a n V a r i a b l e s . . • • .  LIST OF TABLES TABLE I  PAGE Zero-order C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s at the 5% and 1% L e v e l s o f S i g n i f i c a n c e . . . .  II  M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s (R) a t t h e 5% and 1% L e v e l s o f S i g n i f i c a n c e . .  III  24  25  I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s and T e s t - C r i t e r i o n C o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test Battery  IV  The I n c r e a s e i n t h e M u l t i p l e  . . . .  Correlation  Coefficient with Additional Variables V  28  .  31  .  32  Other Motor F i t n e s s B a t t e r i e s Which A r e S a t i s f a c t o r y as P r e d i c t o r s o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t  VI  Regression Equations f o r P r e d i c t i n g the Internal Criterion . .  VII  34  C o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s Performance T e s t V a r i a b l e s w i t h t h e Fleishman Basic F i t n e s s Test  VIII  The I n c r e a s e i n M u l t i p l e Coefficients with Variables  IX  35  Correlation  Additional . . . . .  37  Other Motor F i t n e s s B a t t e r i e s Which A r e S a t i s f a c t o r y As P r e d i c t o r s o f t h e Fleishman Basic F i t n e s s Test . . . . . .  3#  PAGE  TABLE X  Regression Equations f o r P r e d i c t i n g the External Criterion  XI  . . . . . .  39  Z e r o - o r d e r and M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t with the Fleishman Basic F i t n e s s Test  .  41  CHAPTER I STATEMENT AND JUSTIFICATION I.  OF THE PROBLEM  THE PROBLEM  The object* o f t h i s s t u d y i s two f o l d .  Namely t o  determine: a) t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s Performance T e s t i s a v a l i d t e s t o f motor as measured  fitness  by t h e F l e i s h m a n B a s i c F i t n e s s T e s t ;  b) whether an a b b r e v i a t e d  b a t t e r y w i t h l i t t l e o r no  l o s s o f v a l i d i t y can be d e v e l o p e d . Assumption: be measured  Motor f i t n e s s i s a q u a l i t y which cannot  directly.  Motor performance i s t h e r e f o r e  s e l e c t e d as t h e b e s t and most r e a d i l y measurable o f motor f i t n e s s .  reflector  I t i s t h e r e f o r e assumed t h a t motor  fitness  i s r e l a t e d t o achievement i n performance t e s t s i n v o l v i n g m u s c u l a r s t r e n g t h and endurance, c a r d i o v a s c u l a r - r e s p i r a t o r y endurance, m u s c u l a r power, f l e x i b i l i t y ,  speed, a g i l i t y ,  c o o r d i n a t i o n and b a l a n c e . Limitations: 1.  The t i m e a v a i l a b l e f o r t e s t i n g was l i m i t e d t o t h e c l a s s time of the subjects.  2.  The t o t a l number o f s u b j e c t s was l i m i t e d t o t h o s e enr o l l e d a t t h e sample  school.  2 3.  The age ranged from 10 y e a r s 2 months t o 13 y e a r s 6 months.  4.  Although t e s t d i r e c t i o n s are standardized, possible t o control•completely  5.  motivational  i t was imfactors.  The o r d e r o f t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was l i m i t e d by weather conditions. II.  JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM  There has been a growing i n t e r e s t w i t h i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r t h e need f o r a v a l i d t e s t o f motor fitness.  Many t e s t s have been d e v i s e d .  have been c o n s t r u c t e d  Most o f t h e s e t e s t s  i n u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the United  and w i t h norms based upon American p o p u l a t i o n s . D i r e c t o r s o f t h e Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n  States  The Board o f Physical  (C.A.H.P.E.R.) d e c i d e d t h a t i t was  o f s p e c i a l importance t o d e v e l o p i n Canada a s e t o f n a t i o n a l performance norms f o r Canadian c h i l d r e n . d i r e c t i v e t o t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. r e s e a r c h  Thus t h e y i s s u e d a  committee a t t h e i r  1963 n a t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n , i n i t i a t i n g . t h e p r o j e c t w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s Performance T e s t . The  o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s p r o j e c t was t h r e e - f o l d :  a) t o e s t a b l i s h f i t n e s s - p e r f o r m a n c e  norms on t h e  s e l e c t e d t e s t - i t e m s f o r Canadian boys and g i r l s aged seven t o seventeen;  3 b) t o p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e c u r r e n t range o f performance a b i l i t y sex  o f each age-  group;  c) t o p r o v i d e i n c e n t i v e  f o r the personal f i t n e s s  improvement o f Canadian c h i l d r e n . As a r e s u l t o f t h e 1964 C.A.H.P.E.R. Research Comm i t t e e meetings i n Edmonton and Ottawa, t h e t e s t i t e m s were selected  and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  The  d e t a i l s were  established.  s e l e c t i o n o f t e s t i t e m s depended upon:  a) t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e performance elements as p r e d i c t o r s  o f motor f i t n e s s ;  b) t h e ease o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  o f the t e s t items  i n terms o f : 1. t h e economy o f t i m e , 2. equipment and space  required;  c) t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s and a d a p t a b i l i t y o f t h e t e s t i t e m s f o r a l l ages and both s e x e s . C o n s i d e r a t i o n was a l s o g i v e n t o items which a f f o r d e d i n t e r national The  comparisons. v a l i d i t y o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. t e s t b a t t e r y  based upon t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l adian physical and  (1) was  knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e o f Can-  educational experts.  Although c o r r e l a t i o n a l  f a c t o r a n a l y t i c i n f o r m a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d w h i l e s e l e c t -  i n g t e s t i t e m s , no l e v e l o f c o r r e l a t i o n t o some c r i t e r i o n as t h e minimum s t a n d a r d was s e t by t h e committee.  " I t was f e l t  t h a t most items would be s e l f - v a l i d a t i n g i n t h e f a c t  that  t h e y sample a t y p e o f movement o r performance which we wanted t o a s s e s s . " (2) I t i s t h e purpose o f t h i s study t o add i n f o r m a t i o n as t o t h e e m p i r i c a l v a l i d i t y o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s Performance T e s t .  5  REFERENCES 1.  The  Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , and R e c r e a t i o n , " M i n u t e s o f the M e e t i n g o f the Research Committee o f the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and Recreation." U n i v e r s i t y of Ottawa, Ottawa, May 1,2, 19o4> p. 2. (Mimeographed.)  2.  The  Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , and R e c r e a t i o n , " M i n u t e s o f the M e e t i n g o f t h e Research Committee o f t h e Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and Recreation," U n i v e r s i t y o f Edmonton, Edmonton, F e b r u a r y 21,22, 23, 1964, p. 6. (Mimeographed.)  CHAPTER I I REVIEW GF THE LITERATURE V a l i d i t y o f a t e s t may be d e f i n e d as t h e a c c u r a c y w i t h which t h e t e s t measures t h a t which i t i s used t o measure, o r as t h e degree t o which i t approaches ity  i n measuring t h a t which i t p u r p o r t s  infallibil-  t o measure ( l ) ( 2 ) ( 3 ) .  "A t e s t i s v a l i d f o r a p a r t i c u l a r purpose o r i n a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n - i t i s not g e n e r a l l y v a l i d . "  (4)  C u r e t o n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e a r e two major a s p e c t s o f v a l i d i t y : relevance  and r e l i a b i l i t y  cerned w i t h t h e c l o s e n e s s  (5).  o f agreement  R e l e v a n c e i s con-  between t h a t which t h e  t e s t measures and t h e f u n c t i o n t h a t i t i s used t o measure. R e l i a b i l i t y i s concerned w i t h t h e a c c u r a c y and c o n s i s t e n c y  of  t h e t e s t * s measuring a b i l i t y . When a v a l i d i t y study i s b e i n g made, l o g i c as w e l l as s t a t i s t i c s s h o u l d be a p p l i e d .  Face v a l i d i t y i s a r a t i o n a l  a n a l y s i s of the task involved i n the t e s t s i t u a t i o n (6).  In  such c a s e s , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r v a l i d a t e s a t e s t d e s c r i p t i v e l y , using l o g i c a l explanations  t o show t h a t t h e t e s t does measure  t h a t which i s r e q u i r e d by t h e d e s c r i p t i v e c r i t e r i o n ( 7 ) . Face v a l i d i t y t h e n , i s t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e t e s t i s conv i n c i n g as a measure o f t h a t f o r which i t i s b e i n g used.  It  i s a form of s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n . Content v a l i d i t y i s t h e v a l i d a t i o n o f a t e s t ' s c o n t e n t by means of competent judgements.  I t i s e s t a b l i s h e d by  7 showing t h a t t h e t e s t items a r e a sample o f a u n i v e r s e i n which t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r  i s interested.  i s o r d i n a r i l y t o be e s t a b l i s h e d  T h i s type o f v a l i d i t y  deductively,  by d e f i n i n g  u n i v e r s e o f i t e m s and s a m p l i n g s y s t e m a t i c a l l y u n i v e r s e t o e s t a b l i s h t h e t e s t (&*). f o r the construction fitness tests  (9).  within  this  T h i s has been t h e b a s i s  o f many g e n e r a l motor a b i l i t y and motor These two p r o c e s s e s c o n s i s t  of analyzing  t h e a c t i v i t y i n terms o f i t s fundamental e l e m e n t s . researcher then investigates elements.  a  t e s t items t o measure t h e s e  The content v a l i d i t y i s u s u a l l y  d e d u c t i v e l y by s y s t e m a t i c a l l y the t e s t e r i s i n t e r e s t e d  The  established  s a m p l i n g t h e u n i v e r s e i n which  t o establish the t e s t .  This i s  most s a t i s f a c t o r y when t h e s a m p l i n g o f i t e m s i s wide and j u d i c i o u s and when s t a n d a r d i z e d groups a r e u t i l i z e d  (10)(11).  Content v a l i d i t y , t h e n , i s concerned w i t h how w e l l t h e t e s t performance r e p r e s e n t s t h e u n i v e r s e o f c r i t e r i o n b e h a v i o u r (12)(13). and  The above two methods were used f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n  v a l i d a t i o n o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t . The  combined judgement o f e x p e r t s i s o f t e n used when  i t i s d i f f i c u l t to find a suitable test for a c r i t e r i o n measure.  Though t h i s procedure i s t i m e consuming, i t may  prove more b e n e f i c i a l t h a n comparing a new t e s t w i t h older t e s t s of questionable value The  several  (14).  v a l i d i t y o f a t e s t may be determined experimen-  t a l l y by f i n d i n g t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e t e s t and some independent c r i t e r i o n , such as a n o t h e r t e s t o f t h e same  8  f a c t o r i n w h i c h r e s u l t s have a l r e a d y been e s t a b l i s h e d  (15).  A c r i t e r i o n i s a s t a n d a r d o f j u d g i n g t h a t which i s a known and a c c e p t e d measure o f whatever t h e a u t h o r w i s h e s t o t e s t (16).  I t may be a n o t h e r t e s t which has proven i t s w o r t h  o r i t may be some s c o r e d e t e r m i n e d s u b j e c t i v e l y p r o v i d e d by a r a t i n g ( 1 7 ) .  such as t h a t  The c r i t e r i o n i s t h e y a r d s t i c k  a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e t e s t i n q u e s t i o n i s t o be measured.  It i s  t h e r e f o r e most i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e c r i t e r i o n i s a p p r o p r i a t e . This type o f v a l i d a t i o n i s c a l l e d e m p i r i c a l tistical validity. the  or sta-  I f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e t e s t and  c r i t e r i o n i s h i g h , t h e y measure e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same  thing.  T h i s p r a c t i c e o f v a l i d a t i n g a new t e s t w i t h an e s -  tablished health  c r i t e r i o n has n o t been w i d e l y used i n p h y s i c a l and  education (18)(19). I t i s u s u a l l y very d i f f i c u l t t o create or locate a  s u i t a b l e c r i t e r i o n measure. exception.  A motor f i t n e s s c r i t e r i o n i s no  A l l c r i t e r i o n measures a r e p a r t i a l measures i n  t h a t t h e y measure o n l y p a r t o f t h e a b i l i t i e s o r p r e l i m i n a r i e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e a c t u a l performance ( 2 0 ) .  The problem t h e n  becomes one o f c h o o s i n g t h e most s a t i s f a c t o r y c r i t e r i o n measure.from among t h o s e measures w h i c h appear most  obtain-  able. T h o r n d i k e and Hagen l i s t t h e f o l l o w i n g q u a l i t i e s o f a c r i t e r i o n measure: a)  relevance,  b) freedom from b i a s ,  desirable  9 c)  reliability,  d) a v a i l a b i l i t y ( 2 1 ) . The  e m p i r i c a l v a l i d i t y o f a t e s t i s . . . "expressed  as a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , t h a t  i s a numerical expression  o f t h e degree o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between two f a c t o r s o r a b i l i t i e s as measured on a g i v e n p o p u l a t i o n . "  I n t h i s case, t h e  c o e f f i c i e n t e x p r e s s e s t h e degree o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e c r i t e r i o n and t h e t e s t ( 2 2 ) . The  a s s u r a n c e o f a new t e s t i s l i m i t e d by t h e degree  o f agreement between t h e c r i t e r i o n t e s t and t h e q u a l i t y measured.  The h i g h e r t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , t h e more  t r u l y - d o e s t h e t e s t appear t o be measuring t h e a b i l i t y i n question, that  i s , t h e more n e a r l y  i t confirms the basic  assumptions o f f a c e v a l i d i t y ( 2 3 ) . S k i l l i s r e q u i r e d t o i n t e r p r e t v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s because t h e r e a r e many f a c t o r s which may i n f l u e n c e  empirical  validity.  Some t e s t s l e n d t h e m s e l v e s more n a t u r a l l y t o v a l i d ation studies cult to find.  t h a n do o t h e r s .  O f t e n good c r i t e r i a a r e d i f f i -  Such i s t h e case i n f i n d i n g a s u i t a b l e motor  fitness criterion.  Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s  a high r e l a t i o n -  s h i p between t h e t e s t and t h e c r i t e r i o n i s u n l i k e l y . The  e x p e r i m e n t e r has no way o f knowing from h i s ex-  periment whether o r n o t t h e t e s t i s a b e t t e r measure o f t h e desired  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c than i s the c r i t e r i o n . Because a t e s t may work w e l l w i t h one group and n o t  so w e l l w i t h a n o t h e r , t h e v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s may v a r y  10 markedly as the populations d i f f e r .  The c o e f f i c i e n t i s  l i k e l y t o be h i g h e r when t h e g r o u p b e i n g e x a m i n e d  exhibits  A good t e s t s h o u l d d i s c r i m i n a t e  great v a r i a b i l i t y .  when t h e g r o u p i s h i g h l y  homogeneous.  power o f a t e s t i s o f t e n  established  The  even  discriminatory  by comparing d i f f e r e n t  groups such as t h e upper q u a r t e r o f t h e group b e i n g with  well  tested  t h e lower group (24). The  usefulness of a.test  o n l y on how w e l l  i tcorrelates  how much a d d i t i o n a l a test correlates  may n o t be o f much v a l u e . used i n a b a t t e r y  with  information  very highly  as a p r e d i c t o r  a c r i t e r i o n , but also  i t will with  depends n o t  give us.  on  E v e n when  the c r i t e r i o n variable, i t  Some o f t h e t e s t s w h i c h a r e t o be  may be m e a s u r i n g t h e same a b i l i t i e s a s  other t e s t s , thus a d u p l i c a t i o n  o f measurement r e s u l t s .  e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h i s i s t r u e may be d e t e r m i n e d b y a l a t i o n o f t h e s u s p e c t e d t e s t s a g a i n s t one a n o t h e r .  The  correSuch a  c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n two t e s t i t e m s i s known a s a n i n t e r c o r r e lation.  I n combining t e s t s t o form a b a t t e r y ,  those with low  i n t e r c o r r e l a t ^ i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a n d a t t h e same t i m e correlation coefficients with .500) a r e s e l e c t e d the  desired The  by  a multiple  (not l e s s  than  because t h e y measure d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f  criterion validity  the criterion  high  performance.  of the t o t a l test battery  c o r r e l a t i o n procedure.  may be c o m p u t e d  This s t a t i s t i c a l  pro-  c e d u r e a l l o w s us t o d e t e r m i n e t h e b e s t w e i g h t t o g i v e e a c h o f two  o r more m o t o r f i t n e s s p r e d i c t o r s  and t o c a l c u l a t e t h e  c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t t h a t w i l l r e s u l t f r o m t h i s combina t i o n (25).  The r e s u l t a n t w e i g h t s a r e c a l l e d  w e i g h t s and t h e r e s u l t a n t  regression  correlations are c a l l e d  multiple  correlation coefficients. S e v e r a l o f t h e above c o m b i n a t i o n s may be t r i e d . resultant multiple  The  correlation c o e f f i c i e n t s w i l l indicate the  r e l a t i v e v a l i d i t y o f each c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h t h e c r i t e r i o n . The  e x p e r i m e n t e r t h e n chooses a b a t t e r y  the highest m u l t i p l e the  i n terms o f  c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o r he s e l e c t s  few most v a l i d and l e a s t o v e r l a p p i n g t e s t s ( 2 6 ) .  e r a t i o n must a l s o be g i v e n t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  Consid-  feasibility,  costs,, s p e c i a l i z e d equipment needed, and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the t e s t t o t h e program b e i n g used. quite desirable  A test battery  may be  when c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e l i g h t o f i t s r e l a t i o n -  s h i p w i t h t h e e s s e n t i a l c r i t e r i a , but t h e use t o which i t s r e s u l t s can be put, may not j u s t i f y t h e e f f o r t and money involved. Weiss and S c o t t (27) summarize t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a t i o n p r o c e s s by g i v i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g  valid-  procedures.  A t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e c r i t e r i o n i s computed. Those t e s t s w i t h h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e s e l e c t e d p r o s p e c t s f o r t h e new t e s t  battery..  Every t e s t i s then c o r r e l a t e d i n the experimental battery  as t h e b e s t  w i t h every o t h e r t e s t  w i t h t h e purpose o f e l i m i n a t i n g  d u p l i c a t i o n o f measures o f t h e same f a c t o r . M u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e computed between t h e  12  c r i t e r i o n and two o r more t e s t s w i t h t h e purpose o f s e l e c t i n g a n a l y t i c a l l y t h e l e a s t number o f items t o form a b a t t e r y . T h i s b a t t e r y s h o u l d not o n l y be c o n s t r u c t e d on i t s h i g h r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e c r i t e r i o n but a l s o upon i t s ease and economy o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  The W h e r r y - D o o l i t t l e m u l t i p l e  c o r r e l a t i o n s method o f t e s t s e l e c t i o n i s o f t e n used. T h i s method i s a l s o used t o d e v e l o p a r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h e r e l a t i v e importance o f each item i n the t e s t b a t t e r y .  I f t h e items a r e a l l o f a p p r o x i -  m a t e l y t h e same weight o r i m p o r t a n c e , t h e r e s e a r c h e r d i s r e g a r d w e i g h t i n g i n s e t t i n g up t h e s c o r i n g system. the weightings  When  i n the r e g r e s s i o n equation are unequal, i t i s  b e s t t o use t h e e q u a t i o n i t s e l f , t o compute t h e t o t a l formance s c o r e .  may  per-  I f t h i s procedure i s not f o l l o w e d , t h e t o t a l  t e s t s c o r e s w i l l be l e s s v a l i d t h a n i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e multiple correlation  coefficient.  Factor a n a l y s i s technique  i s a valuable technique i n  any v a l i d i t y s t u d y , when i t p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n as t o what t h e t e s t measures, and t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t , how w e l l i t performs t h i s measurement t a s k . i a l i z e d mathematical technique  F a c t o r a n a l y s i s i s a specthat systematically studies  t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t e s t s o r o t h e r measures. Through t h i s t e c h n i q u e ,  i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of a large  number o f t e s t s a r e examined and i f p o s s i b l e accounted f o r i n terms o f a much s m a l l e r number o f more fundamental factors.  Each t e s t i t e m i s g i v e n a f a c t o r l o a d i n g o r weight  as a r e s u l t o f the t e s t s c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h each f a c t o r . f  T h i s c o e f f i c i e n t becomes t h e t e s ^ s  factorial validity  That i s , the v a l i d i t y o f a t e s t as a measure o f one  (2&).  of these  f a c t o r s i s i t s c o r r e l a t i o n with that p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r . As f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , s t u d i e s  become more e x t e n s i v e  more c a r e f u l l y d e s i g n e d , t h e i r f i n d i n g s w i l l  and  increasingly  c o n v e r g e , c o n f i r m i n g the e x i s t e n c e o f i d e n t i f i a b l e motor fitness factors.  G r a d u a l l y a r e f e r e n c e system o f  w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d scribed  factors  from,which d i f f e r e n t t e s t s can be  de-  (29). The  F l e i s h m a n B a s i c F i t n e s s T e s t was  r e s u l t of f a c t o r i a l a n a l y s i s technique.  c o n s t r u c t e d as  a  F i r s t , a comprehen-  s i v e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on p r e v i o u s f a c t o r a n a l y t i c r e s e a r c h on the d i m e n s i o n s o f p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s was C o n s i d e r a b l e p r e - t e s t i n g o f new c a r r i e d out.  The  and  made.  e x i s t i n g t e s t s was  most r e l i a b l e t e s t s from t h e s e  then  pre-test  s t u d i e s a l o n g w i t h t h e more f a m i l i a r t e s t s were i n c l u d e d two  large-scale  The  c o r r e l a t i o n s among a l l the t e s t s a d m i n i s t e r e d were  o b t a i n e d and  s t u d i e s w i t h U n i t e d S t a t e s Navy r e c r u i t s .  subjected to f a c t o r a n a l y s i s s t u d i e s .  This  p r o v i d e d a b e t t e r d e f i n i t i o n o f the f a c t o r s t h a t need t o a s s e s s e d f o r a more comprehensive e v a l u a t i o n p r o f i c i e n c y and  in  of  be  physical  p r o v i d e d recommendations f o r t e s t s which b e s t  diagnose these d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s . most r e l i a b l e and  diagnostic  assembled i n t o b a t t e r i e s and  The  t e s t s found t o be  the  o f the d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o more t h a n  2 0 , 0 0 0 boys and g i r l s i n 45 c i t i e s throughout t h e U n i t e d States. The v a l i d i t y  o f the f i n a l t e s t b a t t e r y was  i n terms o f two c r i t e r i a : t h e s i z e o f t h e t e s t * s  determined factor  l o a d i n g on i t s p r i m a r y f a c t o r , and how " p u r e " t h e t e s t i n measuring t h i s f a c t o r .  This kind of v a l i d i t y  called "construct v a l i d i t y . "  (30)  was  has been  15 REFERENCES 1.  L i n d q u i s t , E.F., A F i r s t Course i n S t a t i s t i c s ; T h e i r Use and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n E d u c a t i o n and P s y c h o l o g y , Houghton M i f f l i n Company, B o s t o n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , 1942, p. 213.  2.  S c o t t , G l a d y s M., and F r e n c h , E s t h e r , Measurement and E v a l u a t i o n i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , Wm. C. Brown Company P u b l i s h e r s , Dubuque, Iowa, 1959, p. 19.  3.  G a r r e t t , Henry E., S t a t i s t i c s i n P s y c h o l o g y and Educat i o n , David McKay Company, I n c . , New Y o r k , 1964, p. 354.  4.  Ibid.  5.  C u r e t o n , Edward E., " V a l i d i t y , " E d i t e d by L i n d q u i s t , E.F., E d u c a t i o n a l Measurement, American C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n , Washington, 1951, pp. 622-623.  6.  S c o t t , and  7.  W e i s s , Raymond A., and S c o t t , M. G l a d y s , " C o n s t r u c t i o n o f T e s t s , " E d i t e d by S c o t t , M. G l a d y s Research Methods i n H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , R e c r e a t i o n , American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , and R e c r e a t i o n , Washington, 1959, p. 246.  8.  Cronbach, Lee J . , and M e e h l , P a u l E., " C o n s t r u c t V a l i d i t y i n Psychological Tests," Psychological B u l l e t i n . V o l . 52, May, 1955, p. 282.  9.  C l a r k e , H. H a r r i s o n , A p p l i c a t i o n o f Measurement t o H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , E n g l e wood C l i f f s , I 9 6 0 , p. 30-31.  French, l o c . c i t .  10. G a r r e t t , op_. c i t . , p.  355.  11.  T h o r n d i k e , Robert L., and Hagen, E l i z a b e t h , Measurement and E v a l u a t i o n i n P s y c h o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n , John W i l e y and Sons, I n c . , New Y o r k , 1965, pp. 160-163.  12.  Adams, G e o r g i a Sachs, Measurement and E v a l u a t i o n i n E d u c a t i o n , P s y c h o l o g y and Guidance,, H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and W i n s t o n , New Y o r k , 1964, p. 128ti  ; 13.  16  C l a r k , Cherry Ann, "Developments and A p p l i c a t i o n s i n t h e A r e a o f C o n s t r u c t V a l i d i t y , " American E d u c a t i o n a l Research A s s o c i a t i o n , Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research 2 9 : 1 , F e b r u a r y 1959, pTW.  14. W i l l g o o s e , C a r l E., E v a l u a t i o n o f H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, New Y o r k , 1961, p. 23. 22.  15. W i l l g o o s e , p_p_. c i t . , p. 16.  W e i s s , and S c o t t , op_. c i t . , p.  17. S c o t t , and F r e n c h , o_p_. c i t . , pp.  236. 21-22.  16.  McCloy," C h a r l e s H a r o l d , and Young, Norma Dorothy, T e s t s and Measurements i n H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , " A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , I n c . , New Y o r k , 1954, p. 29.  19.  Clarke, l o c . c i t .  20.  T h o r n d i k e , and Hagen, op_. c i t . , p.  21.  I b i d . , p.  22.  S c o t t , and F r e n c h , op_. c i t . , p.  23.  Ibid.  24.  W i l l g o o s e , op_. c i t . , pp. 22-23.  25.  T h o r n d i k e , and Hagen, op_. c i t . , p.  26.  S c o t t , and F r e n c h , op_. c i t . , p.  27.  W e i s s , and S c o t t , op_. c i t . , pp. 2 4 6 - 2 4 6 .  26.  G a r r e t t , p_p_. c i t . , p.  29.  Adams, o£. c i t . , p.  164.  166. 21.  166.  26.  356. 136.  30. F l e i s h m a n , Edwin,A., The S t r u c t u r e and Measurement o f P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , Englewood • C l i f f s , 1964, p. 133.  CHAPTER I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURE The S u b j e c t s ;  The d a t a f o r t h i s s t u d y were o b t a i n e d  d u r i n g October 1965, by t e s t i n g t h e n i n e t y boys e n r o l l e d i n grades s i x and seven a t Queen E l i z a b e t h Elementary Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia.  School,  The age o f t h e s u b j e c t s  ranged from t e n y e a r s two months t o t h i r t e e n y e a r s s i x months. The T e s t Items: performance  The raw d a t a c o n s i s t e d o f a c t u a l  r e c o r d s made by t h e s u b j e c t s on t h e C.A.H.P.E.R.  F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e and F l e i s h m a n B a s i c F i t n e s s T e s t i t e m s . The C.A.H.P.E.R. T e s t c o n s i s t e d o f t h e f o l l o w i n g i t e m s : 1. one minute speed  1  sit-up,  2. s t a n d i n g broad jump, 3. s h u t t l e r u n , 4. f l e x e d arm hang, 5. 50 y a r d r u n , 6. 300 y a r d r u n . 2 The F l e i s h m a n T e s t c o n t a i n e d t h e f o l l o w i n g i t e m s : 1. e x t e n t f l e x i b i l i t y  test,  See Appendix A, f o r f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t i t e m s . 2 See Appendix B, f o r f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e F l e i s h m a n B a s i c F i t n e s s Test items.  2. dynamic f l e x i b i l i t y  test,  3. s h u t t l e r u n , 4. s o f t b a l l  throw,  5. hand g r i p , 6. p u l l - u p s , 7. l e g l i f t s , £. c a b l e jump t e s t , 9. b a l a n c e - A t e s t , 10. 600 y a r d  run-walk.  The r e s u l t s from t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. and F l e i s h m a n t e s t items 1 2 were r e c o r d e d by t h e examiner on t h e s c o r e c a r d s ' as O  I  recommended by t h e . a p p r o p r i a t e manuals. ' •  I-. PREPARATION FOR ADMINISTRATION OF TESTS The t e s t i n g team i n c l u d e d f o u r t h - y e a r p h y s i c a l edu-  c a t i o n majors and s e n i o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s .  This  team had been w e l l prepared f o r t h e t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s by  S e e Appendix C, f o r t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r formance T e s t * s s c o r e c a r d . x  See Appendix D, f o r t h e F l e i s h m a n B a s i c F i t n e s s T e s t s score card. f  See Appendix A, f o r f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n o f s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e C.A.H.P^E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t . ^"See Appendix B, f o r f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n o f s c o r i n g procedures f o r t h e Fleishman B a s i c F i t n e s s T e s t .  t h e i r r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d T e s t and Measurement l a b o r a t o r y classes.  D u r i n g t h e s e c l a s s e s , t h e y were examined n o t o n l y  on t h e i r t e c h n i q u e s o f t e s t i n g , but a l s o on t h e i r knowledge of  t h e two t e s t s . S t r i c t s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e t e s t i n g procedures was  p r a c t i c e d throughout t h e t e s t i n g p e r i o d s .  This s t r i c t  super-  v i s i o n was made e a s i e r by t h e f a c t t h a t : 1. no more t h a n f o u r boys were a s s i g n e d t o a t e s t administrator, 2. equipment and a r e a s f o r t e s t i n g were prepared w e l l i n advance. II.  ADMINISTRATION OF TESTS  The C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t and t h e F l e i s h m a n B a s i c F i t n e s s T e s t were a d m i n i s t e r e d d u r i n g t h e r e g u l a r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p e r i o d on two c o n s e c u t i v e Tuesdays and T h u r s d a y s . p e r i o d was BO m i n u t e s .  The time a l l o t t m e n t f o r each t e s t The two t e s t p e r i o d s , A and B, were  o r g a n i z e d as f o l l o w s : T e s t P e r i o d A:  During t h i s p e r i o d t h e f o l l o w i n g data  were o b t a i n e d : 1. The s i x measures o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s T e s t ; 2. Three measures o f t h e F l e i s h m a n B a s i c F i t n e s s T e s t : a) e x t e n t  flexibility,  b) dynamic f l e x i b i l i t y , c) hand g r i p .  T e s t P e r i o d B;  During t h i s period the Fleishman  i t e m s noted below were measured: 1. s h u t t l e r u n , 2.  pull-ups,  3. l e g l i f t s , 4. c a b l e jump, 5. b a l a n c e - A, 6. s o f t b a l l  throw,  7. 600 y a r d  run-walk.  Because o f weather c o n d i t i o n s , e x c e p t i o n s t o t h e above procedure were e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e Tuesday group. t e s t i n g procedure i s g i v e n i n Appendix F.  Their  Consideration i n  t e s t s e l e c t i o n was made, so t h a t no motor f i t n e s s  factor  would be measured t w i c e d u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d . B e f o r e t h e s u b j e c t s attempted any t e s t i t e m , i n s t r u c t i o n s were r e a d from t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t e s t manual, (see Appendices A, and B.)  Each t e s t was then  demonstrated.  A l t h o u g h each o f t h e s u b j e c t s had p r a c t i c e d t h e t e s t items d u r i n g e a r l i e r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p e r i o d s , t h e y were a g a i n allowed p r a c t i c e attempts.  During t h i s time, c o r r e c t i o n s  were made t o guarantee an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l o f performance. The f o l l o w i n g t e s t i t e m s were not p r a c t i c e d : 1. hand g r i p , 2. p u l l - u p s , 3. f l e x e d arm hang, 4. 50 y a r d r u n ,  21 5 . 300 y a r d r u n , 6 . 600 y a r d r u n . Because o f f a t i g u e f a c t o r s , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t p r a c t i c e a t t e m p t s , on t h e above items j u s t b e f o r e performance might be detrimental. III.  STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF DATA  The C r i t e r i a :  I n t h i s s t u d y , b o t h t h e i n t e r n a l and  e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n were e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e same manner.  The  i n t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n was t h e average composite  score o f the  s i x C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t s .  The e x t e r n a l  c r i t e r i o n was t h e average composite  score o f the t e n F l e i s h -  man B a s i c F i t n e s s T e s t s . B e f o r e t h e composite  s c o r e s c o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d , i t  was n e c e s s a r y t o c o n v e r t t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. and F l e i s h m a n raw s c o r e s i n t o comparable v a l u e s .  T h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d by  computing T s c o r e s f o r each raw s c o r e  (l).  I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. T e s t Items: determine  To  t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e t e s t i t e m s , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o  i n t e r c o r r e l a t e each T s c o r e d C.A.H.P.E.R. t e s t i t e m w i t h each o f t h e o t h e r C.A.H.P.E.R. t e s t items and w i t h t h e two c r i t e r i o n scores.  T h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e c a l c u l a t i o n  of zero-order c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s using t h e Pearsonp r o d u c t moment method ( 2 ) .  Selection of Tests f o r the Battery; the  Having  calculated  i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of the tests with  o t h e r and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e  each  v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s i . e . , the  c o r r e l a t i o n o f each t e s t w i t h i t s i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n s c o r e , t h e next s t e p i n t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e d a t a was t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f maximal m u l t i p l e  c o r r e l a t i o n s between  c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t e s t s and t h e two c r i t e r i o n s c o r e s . The  t e s t s were chosen i n terms o f t h o s e w i t h t h e  h i g h e s t v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s and t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a n c e t o t h e dependent v a r i a b l e , t h e i n t e r n a l or e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n .  Tests with  1  0.600 o r b e t t e r were t h e r e f o r e f o r the abbreviated t e s t The  c r i t e r i o n correlations of  s e l e c t e d as t h e b e s t p r o s p e c t s  battery.  u s e f u l n e s s o f a t e s t as a p r e d i c t o r depends not  o n l y on how w e l l i t c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e i n t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n , but  a l s o on how much new i n f o r m a t i o n  o f v a r i a n c e not a l r e a d y measured.  i t p r o v i d e d i n t h e form  Tests, w i t h i n t e r c o r r e l a -  t i o n s l o w e r t h a n 0.500 w i l l have t h e b e s t chance o f c o n t r i buting  previously The  unmeasured  variance.  s t a t i s t i c used f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t e s t items  f o r t h e a b b r e v i a t e d b a t t e r i e s was t h e s t e p w i s e regression  multiple  method, a computer a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e Wherry-  D o o l i t t l e method ( 3 ) .  I n t h i s method t e s t s a r e s e l e c t e d  a n a l y t i c a l l y and added one a t a time u n t i l a maximum c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s obtained.  multiple  "The v a r i a b l e added i s  23 t h a t one which makes t h e g r e a t e s t , improvement i n goodness o f 1  f i t * . " (4) An i m p o r t a n t p r o p e r t y o f t h e s t e p w i s e procedure i s t h e f a c t t h a t v a r i a b l e s which have been found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t i n e a r l i e r s t a g e s may be found t o be i n s i g n i f i c a n t s e v e r a l o t h e r v a r i a b l e s have been added.  after  When t h i s o c c u r s ,  t h e i n s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e i s removed from t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n b e f o r e a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s a r e added.  Only  signi-  f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s , then, are included i n the f i n a l regression. The purpose o f t h i s s t a t i s t i c a l  procedure was t o  s e l e c t t h e t e s t s which y i e l d e d t h e b e s t combined r e l a t i o n s h i p with the c r i t e r i o n score. I f an a p p r e c i a b l e r e d u c t i o n i n t h e number o f t e s t i t e m s can be a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h o u t a s a c r i f i c e i n v a l i d i t y i t s h o u l d be so done.  Thus a b b r e v i a t e d b a t t e r i e s as p r e d i c t o r s  of: 1. t h e i n t e r n a l  criterion,  2. t h e e x t e r n a l  criterion,  were computed. A z e r o - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n , u s i n g t h e Pearson  product-  moment method, was computed as v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s between t h e complete external  C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t and t h e  criterion.  T a b l e I shows t h e v a l u e t h a t r must be (when N i s 90 and d f i s 66) t o be s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l , and t h e .01 l e v e l ( 5 ) .  24 TABLE I ZERO-ORDER CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS AT THE 5% AND 1% LEVELS OF SIGNIFICANCE  Degrees o f Freedom (N-2)  .05  .01  88  .207  .270  N = 90  The s t a t i s t i c a l  s i g n i f i c a n c e of a multiple  i s dependent upon t h e number o f v a r i a b l e s I I , an i n t e r p o l a t i o n from G a r r e t t interpretation.  correlation  involved.  Table  ( 6 ) , i s p r e s e n t e d f o r ready  P r e d i c t i v e i n d i c e s were u t i l i z e d  to indicate  t h e b e t t e r t h a n pure chance r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e v a r i o u s obtained multiple  correlations.  Since the N i s constant i n t h i s study, Table I I p r e s e n t s a c o n v e n i e n t means o f e s t i m a t i n g t h e r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n t multiple ients.  correlation coeffic-  25 TABLE I I MULTIPLE CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS (R) AT THE 5$ AND 1% LEVELS OF SIGNIFICANCE  Number o f Items i n t h e Battery  .05  .01  1  .207  .270  2  .257  .316  3  .291  .347  4  .318  .372  5  .342  .394  6  .362  .413  N = 90 i n a l l d f = 88  cases  26  REFERENCES G a r r e t t , Henry E., S t a t i s t i c s i n P s y c h o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n , D a v i d McKay Company, New Y o r k , 1 9 6 4 , p p . 314-318. I b i d . , pp. 142-145. I b i d . , pp. 426-439. Efroymson, M.A., " M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s , " E d i t e d by R a l s t o n , Anthony, W i l f , H e r b e r t S., M a t h e m a t i c a l Methods f o r D i g i t a l Computers, John W i l e y and Sons, I n c . , New Y o r k , I 9 6 0 , p. 192. G a r r e t t , op_. c i t . , pp. 198-202. G a r r e t t , Henry E., S t a t i s t i c s I n P s y c h o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n , Longmans, Green and Co., New Y o r k , 1953, pp. 437439.  CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND The  DISCUSSION  p r i m a r y purpose o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was  to  determine t h e degree o f v a l i d i t y o f the C.A.H.P.E.R, F i t n e s s Performance T e s t as measured by t h e F l e i s h m a n B a s i c F i t n e s s Test.  The  secondary  purpose was t o s e l e c t a t e s t o r group o f  t e s t s which a r e v a l i d measures o f motor f i t n e s s . The n e c e s s a r y d a t a were o b t a i n e d by a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. and F l e i s h m a n t e s t s t o t h e n i n e t y grade s i x and seven boys a t Queen E l i z a b e t h Elementary  School.  I n t h i s s t u d y , t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t and t h e s e l e c t e d b a t t e r i e s  was  a s c e r t a i n e d p r i m a r i l y by t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n p r e d i c t i n g t h e i r own The  composite  s c o r e and t h e F l e i s h m a n composite  score.  p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e o f t h e s e b a t t e r i e s and t h e C.A.H.P.E.R.  t e s t were a n a l y z e d by means o f r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s . I.  ANALYSIS OF INTERCORRELATION AND  VALIDITY COEFFICIENTS  The d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e I I I , i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s range from 0.146  f o r the stand-  i n g broad j u m p - f l e x e d arm hang, t o 0.722 f o r t h e 50 yard-300 yard runs.  The  s t a n d i n g broad jump i s c o n t a i n e d i n f o u r o f  the s i x lowest i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s with i t s highest i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t b e i n g 0.496 w i t h t h e s h u t t l e r u n .  26 TABLE I I I  INTERCORRELATIONS AND TEST-CRITERION CORRELATIONS OF THE C.A.H.P.E.R. FITNESS-PERFORMANCE TEST BATTERY  1  G 1  0.79&  ,  2  3  0.625  0.666  0.365  2  5  6  O.646  0.605  0.634  0.652  0.569  0.476  0.566  0.496  0.146  .. 0.417  . . 0.435  0.456  0.696  0.655  O.366  0.415  3 4 5  .  4  0.722  6  Key t o v a r i a b l e s : C.  C r i t e r i o n (average T-score o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. i t e m s )  1.  One minute speed  2.  S t a n d i n g broad jump  3.  Shuttle run  4.  F l e x e d arm hang  5.  50 y a r d r u n  6.  300 y a r d r u n  sit-up  29 As shown by T a b l e 1,  t o be s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01  l e v e l , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t must be a t l e a s t The  .270.  s t a n d i n g broad j u m p - f l e x e d arm hang i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n o f  .146 i s t h e o n l y z e r o - o r d e r c o e f f i c i e n t not s i g n i f i c a n t a t this  level. The  f l e x e d arm hang, i s c o n t a i n e d i n f o u r o f t h e  seven l o w e s t i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , w i t h i t s h i g h e s t c o e f f i c i e n t b e i n g O.569 w i t h t h e minute speed s i t - u p . t h e s e two t e s t v a r i a b l e s  c o n t a i n the lower  As  intercorrelation  c o e f f i c i e n t s , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e y w i l l c o n t r i b u t e motor f i t n e s s v a r i a n c e which i s n o t well-measured variables.  by t h e o t h e r t e s t  T h i s a l o n g w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t they have v a l i d i t y  c o e f f i c i e n t s o f 0.625 and O.646 r e s p e c t i v e l y , further  justifies  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e s e items as p o s s i b l e motor f i t -  ness t e s t s f o r an a b b r e v i a t e d C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m ance T e s t b a t t e r y . The  o t h e r f o u r t e s t i t e m s : t h e one minute speed s i t -  up, t h e s h u t t l e r u n , t h e 50 y a r d r u n and t h e 300 y a r d r u n , have v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s r a n g i n g from 0 . 7 9 8 t o 0 . 8 6 6 . T h e i r i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s range f r o m 0.476 t o 0.722 i n d i c a t i n g t h a t some i t e m s c o n t a i n measures o f v a r i a n c e which a r e common t o one o r more o t h e r t e s t v a r i a b l e s .  I t i s quite  p o s s i b l e t h a t one o r more o f t h e s e t e s t s may be o m i t t e d from t h e a b b r e v i a t e d b a t t e r y w i t h l i t t l e o r no l o s s o f v a l i d i t y .  30 II.  SELECTION OF SHORT BATTERIES AS PREDICTORS OF THE  C.A.H.P.E.R. TEST  An a n a l y s i s o f T a b l e IV shows t h a t the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , (R) i s i n c r e a s e d the t h r e e hundred y a r d run was  multiple  considerably  added t o the s h u t t l e  when  run,  w h i c h has t h e h i g h e s t z e r o - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the t e r i o n score.  T h e i r combined c o e f f i c i e n t o f 0.935 i s s a t i s -  f a c t o r y f o r p r e d i c t i v e p u r p o s e s , but the a d d i t i o n o f f l e x e d arm  hang, r a i s e s the m u l t i p l e R t o 0.961  valuable  predictive correlation.  standing  broad jump, we  an even more  W i t h the a d d i t i o n o f  S i n c e the a d d i t i o n o f the  minute speed s i t - u p d i d not i n c r e a s e  B.  one any  terminated.  groups o f t e s t s , namely t e s t s 3, 4 and  t e s t s 2, 3, 4 and and  the  the m u l t i p l e R t o  e x t e n t , the p r o c e s s o f a d d i n g t e s t v a r i a b l e s was two  the  o b t a i n e d an even h i g h e r p r e d i c t i v e  i n d e x w i t h an R of 0.96*2.  The  cri-  6;  6, w i l l h e r e a f t e r be known as B a t t e r y  They were s e l e c t e d as t h e two  and A  b a t t e r i e s which b e s t  measured t h a t which the C.A.H.P.E.R. composite s c o r e i s assumed t o measure.  That i s , as t e s t b a t t e r i e s , i t i s  r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t , w i t h t h e h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n coe f f i c i e n t s o f 0.961  and  0.962 r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h e s e two  batter-  i e s b e s t p r e d i c t motor f i t n e s s as measured by the C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test.  Table I I i n d i c a t e s that i t i s  n e c e s s a r y t o have a m u l t i p l e R of .347 b a t t e r y and  o f .372  f o r a four-item  for a  three-item  b a t t e r y t o be s i g n i f i c a n t  31 a t t h e .01 l e v e l .  Thus t h e m u l t i p l e  correlation coefficients  o b t a i n e d by B a t t e r i e s A and B were s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h t o be used f o r p r e d i c t i v e  purposes.  The h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o b t a i n e d by B a t t e r i e s A and B f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e  the hypothesis that there i s  a d u p l i c a t i o n o f measurement by t h e items c o n t a i n e d i n t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e  Test.  TABLE IV THE INCREASE IN THE MULTIPLE CORRELATION COEFFICIENT WITH ADDITIONAL VARIABLES  Variables  Motor Fitness Test  Correlation with , Criterion  Multiple Correlation Coefficient  Increase of the Multiple :  3  Shuttle run  0.866  0.866  6.  300 y a r d r u n  0.834  0.935  0.069  4  F l e x e d arm hang  0.646  0.961  0.026  2  Standing jump  0.625  0.982  0.021  1  One minute speed s i t - u p  0.798  0.991  0.009  broad  C r i t e r i o n (average T-score o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. i t e m s )  32 TABLE V OTHER MOTOR FITNESS TEST BATTERIES WHICH ARE SATISFACTORY AS PREDICTORS OF THE  C.A.H.P.E.R.  FITNESS-PERFORMANCE TEST  Battery  Key  C.A.H.P.E.R. Variables  Multiple Correlation with C r i t e r i o n  R  2  C  2,4,6  0.948  0.898  D  2,3,4  0.946  0.894  E  1,2,4,6  0.963  0.928  F  1,2,3,4  0.970  0.941  to variables:  " ^ I n t e r n a l C r i t e r i o n (average T-score o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. items) 1.  One minute speed s i t - u p  2.  S t a n d i n g broad jump  3.  Shuttle run  4.  F l e x e d arm hang  5.  50 y a r d r u n  6.  300 y a r d r u n  test  33 A l t h o u g h t h e b a t t e r i e s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e V a r e most s a t i s f a c t o r y as p r e d i c t o r s o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s Performance T e s t , no t h r e e o r f o u r v a r i a b l e b a t t e r y has t h e p r e d i c t i v e power o f e i t h e r B a t t e r y A o r B.  However  Battery  D and F may prove more f l e x i b l e t h a n t h e former two b a t t e r i e s because t h e y c o n t a i n i t e m s a l l o f w h i c h can be performed indoors.  B a t t e r i e s A and B c o n t a i n t h e 300 y a r d r u n which  i s more s u i t e d t o t h e l a r g e r outdoor a r e a . Table I I i n d i c a t e s t h a t , f o r a three-itemed  battery  t o be s i g n i f i c a n t , an R o f .291 a t t h e .05 l e v e l , and an R o f .347 a t t h e .01 l e v e l a r e n e c e s s a r y .  I t also  indicates  t h a t an R o f .318 and .372 a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r a f o u r - i t e m e d b a t t e r y t o be s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 and .01 l e v e l s  respect-  ively. A l l b a t t e r i e s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s IV and V a r e h i g h l y significant. Because B a t t e r i e s A,B,D and F were such e x c e l l e n t predictors of the i n t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n , t h e i r multiple s i o n equations are given i n Table V I .  regres-  34 TABLE V I REGRESSION EQUATIONS FOR PREDICTING THE INTERNAL CRITERION  Battery  A  Regression Equation  X  C = .3625X  3  B  X  D  x  F  x  C c  ,1946X  4  2  = ,2263X  2  .4264X  3  1  .2072X  2  c = .2046X  6  + .2875X + .2191X. + ,2779X  .iao9x  =  .3177X + 6.2591  3  6  + 1.7272  + ,2642X^ + 4.153 + .3355X  3  .1923X.  + 3.018  Key t o v a r i a b l e s : X  p  c  - I n t e r n a l C r i t e r i o n (average T-score o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. items)  X^ - One minute speed s i t - u p X  2  - S t a n d i n g broad  X^ - S h u t t l e r u n X. - F l e x e d arm hang 4  X^ - 50 y a r d r u n X^ - 300 y a r d r u n  jump  35 III.  ANALYSIS OF THE C.A.H.P.E.R. CORRELATION  COEFFICIENTS WITH THE EXTERNAL CRITERION Table V I I i n d i c a t e s that the v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of each C.A.H.P.E.R. t e s t i t e m w i t h t h e e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n , t h e F l e i s h m a n B a s i c F i t n e s s T e s t s composite s c o r e , ranges f  0.436 w i t h t h e f l e x e d arm hang t o 0.717 The  from  with the shuttle run.  i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r each o f t h e t e s t v a r i a b l e s a r e  presented i n Table I I I .  TABLE V I I CORRELATION OF THE C.A.H.P.E.R. FITNESS-PERFORMANCE TEST VARIABLES WITH THE FLEISHMAN BASIC FITNESS TEST  C.A.H.P.E.R. Variables  Fleishman Criterion  1.  One minute speed s i t - u p  2.  S t a n d i n g broad jump  3.  S h u t t l e run,  0.717  4.  F l e x e d arm hang  0.436  5.  50 y a r d r u n  O.658  6.  300 y a r d r u n  0.667  C r i t e r i o n (average T-score o f t h e F l e i s h m a n i t e m s )  0.580 0.513  1  I t i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t t h e f l e x e d arm hang w i l l , because o f i t s low v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f .436,  contribute  l i t t l e as a p r e d i c t o r o f t h e e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n , the man  Basic Fitness Test.  I t i s not l i k e l y t h a t any  Fleish-  predictive  b a t t e r y w i l l c o n t a i n a l l t h r e e o f the r u n n i n g  i t e m s because  of t h e i r high i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s .  These i n t e r -  c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s range from .655 IV.  to  .722.  SELECTION OF SHORT BATTERIES AS PREDICTORS OF THE  EXTERNAL CRITERION  T a b l e V I I I shows t h a t t h e m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n (R) i s increased  c o n s i d e r a b l y when t h e v a r i a n c e f r o m t h e  three  hundred y a r d run i s combined w i t h t h a t o f t h e s h u t t l e r u n . I t a l s o shows t h a t t h e s e two zero-order  t e s t v a r i a b l e s have the  c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n .  highest It is  not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e s e i t e m s a r e t h e f i r s t t e s t s chosen by t h e s t e p w i s e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n s e l e c t i o n process. T h e i r combined m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f 0.763 as a p r e d i c t o r o r v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f an c r i t e r i o n i s q u i t e s a t i s f a c t o r y . The ing  external  a d d i t i o n o f the  broad jump r a i s e s t h e m u l t i p l e R t o 0.775.  stand-  Additional  t e s t v a r i a b l e s were found t o have no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t .  37 TABLE V I I I THE INCREASE IN THE MULTIPLE CORRELATION COEFFICIENT WITH ADDITIONAL VARIABLES  Variables  Motor Fitness Test  Correlation with External Criterion 1  Multiple Correlation Coefficient  Increase of the Multiple R  3  Shuttle run  0.717  0.717  6  300 y a r d r u n  0.667  0.763  0.046  2  S t a n d i n g broad jump  0.513  0.775  0.012  E x t e r n a l C r i t e r i o n (average T - s c o r e o f t h e F l e i s h m a n i t e m s )  S i n c e t h e s h u t t l e r u n and t h e 300 y a r d r u n had a combined m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f 0.763, t h e y were chosen as t h e b e s t t w o - i t e m b a t t e r y f o r p r e d i c t i n g t h e Fleishman Test. B a t t e r y G.  T h i s b a t t e r y w i l l h e r e a f t e r be known as  The a d d i t i o n o f t h e s t a n d i n g broad jump produced  the best three-item  b a t t e r y , h e r e a f t e r known as B a t t e r y H.  T h i s b a t t e r y has a m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f 0.775. B a t t e r y J i n T a b l e I X , was chosen as t h e b e s t  three-item  i n d o o r b a t t e r y h a v i n g a m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n o f 0.752.  38 TABLE IX OTHER MOTOR FITNESS TEST BATTERIES WHICH ARE SATISFACTORY AS PREDICTORS OF THE FLEISHMAN BASIC FITNESS TEST  Battery  Key  C.A.H.P.E.R. Variables  Multiple Correlation with External C r i t e r i o n  R  2  I  2,4,6  0.735  0.540  J  2,3,4  0.752  0.566  K  1,2,4,6  0.746  0.556  L  1,2,3,4  0.758  0.574  M  1,2,4,5,6  0.771  0.594  N  1,2,3,4,5  0.781  0.610  to variables:  E x t e r n a l C r i t e r i o n (average T - s c o r e o f t h e F l e i s h m a n i t e m s ) 1.  One minute speed s i t - u p  2.  S t a n d i n g broad jump  3.  Shuttle run  4.  F l e x e d arm hang  5.  50 y a r d r u n  6.  300 y a r d r u n  By c h e c k i n g T a b l e I I , i t was found t h a t a l l b a t t e r i e s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s V I I I and IX were s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 level. Regression equations f o r the three s e l e c t e d b a t t e r i e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e X. TABLE X REGRESSION EQUATIONS FOR PREDICTING THE EXTERNAL CRITERION  Battery  Regression Equation  G  X  Q  = .25£OX + .I813X5 + 28.036  H  X  c  = ,0855X  J  X  c  = ,1186X + .2794X3 + .0840X^ -V- 25.903  3  2  + .2263X + .1649X -V 26.167 3  6  2  Key t o v a r i a b l e s : XQ - E x t e r n a l C r i t e r i o n (average T-score o f t h e F l e i s h m a n test  items)  X^ - One minute speed s i t - u p X  2  - S t a n d i n g broad  X3 - S h u t t l e r u n X^ - F l e x e d arm hang X5 - 50 y a r d r u n X^ - 300 y a r d r u n  jump  40 V.  CORRELATION OF THE C.A.H.P.E.R. FITNESS-PERFORMANCE TEST WITH THE EXTERNAL CRITERION  The d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e X I show t h a t t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t has a s u b s t a n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e F l e i s h m a n B a s i c F i t n e s s T e s t (1) by b o t h t h e z e r o - o r d e r and m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n  coefficients.  The b a t t e r i e s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s V I I I and IX have m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s r a n g i n g from 0.735 t o 0.781.  These c o e f f i c i e n t s p r e d i c t t h e e x t e r n a l  criterion,  t h e F l e i s h m a n B a s i c F i t n e s s T e s t , almost as w e l l as t h e complete C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t . The  s m a l l degree o f d i f f e r e n c e between t h e v a l u e s o f  the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e s that the items c o n t a i n e d i n t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t may be measuring v a r i a n c e which i s common t o more t h a n one test item.  41 TABLE X I ZERO-ORDER AND MULTIPLE CORRELATION OF THE C.A.H.P.E.R. FITNESS-PERFORMANCE TEST WITH THE FLEISHMAN BASIC FITNESS TEST  Type o f C o r r e l a t i o n  Coefficient  Zero-order  0.781*  Multiple  0.790*  S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l  The Research  Committee o f t h e Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n  f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n agreed i n F e b r u a r y 1964, t h a t f l e x i b i l i t y " . . . was v e r y s p e c i a l t o t h e j o i n t o r j o i n t s and t h a t no s i n g l e t e s t c o u l d p u r p o r t t o measure g e n e r a l f l e x i b i l i t y . " (2) F l e x i b i l i t y was t h e r e f o r e e l i m i n a t e d as an a r e a t o be measured by t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e Measures o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n (3) and b a l a n c e  Test.  (4) were opposed  on s i m i l a r grounds. I t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e i n c l u s i o n o f good measures o f t h e s e t h r e e a r e a s would improve t h e C.A.H.P.E.R.-Fleishman correlation coefficients.  I t s h o u l d a l s o improve t h e u s e f u l -  42 n e s s o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t as a measure o f motor f i t n e s s .  43 REFERENCES 1.  G a r r e t t , Henry E., S t a t i s t i c s i n P s y c h o l o g y , D a v i d McKay Company, I n c . , New Y o r k , 1964, pp. 175-176.  2.  The Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , " M i n u t e s o f t h e M e e t i n g o f t h e Research Committee o f t h e Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , " U n i v e r s i t y o f Edmonton, Edmonton. F e b r u a r y 21,22, 23, 1964, p. 10. (Mimeographed.)  3.  I b i d . , p. 11.  4.  I b i d . , p. 5  CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND  RECOMMENDATIONS  The o b j e c t o f t h i s s t u d y was: a) t o a s c e r t a i n t h e degree t o which t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t i s a v a l i d t e s t o f motor f i t n e s s as measured by t h e F l e i s h m a n B a s i c F i t n e s s T e s t ; b) t o determine whether o r not abbrev i a t e d b a t t e r i e s w i t h l i t t l e o r no l o s s o f v a l i d i t y can be developed. The s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e d o f n i n e t y boys e n r o l l e d i n grade s i x and seven a t Queen E l i z a b e t h Elementary Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia.  School,  T h e i r s c o r e s on t h e s i x  C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e t e s t items and t h e t e n F l e i s h m a n B a s i c F i t n e s s t e s t items p r o v i d e d t h e n e c e s s a r y data. I.  TREATMENT OF THE DATA  The f i n a l b a t t e r i e s were s e l e c t e d t h r o u g h t h e a p p l i cation of the following 1.  procedures:  T-score v a l u e s were determined f o r t h e s c o r e s from t h e s i x C.A.H.P.E.R. and t e n F l e i s h m a n  items  which were used i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i n t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n and e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n r e s p e c t ively. 2.  The composite s c o r e s o f t h e i n t e r n a l  criterion  (average T-score v a l u e f o r t h e s i x C.A.H.P.E.R.  45 v a r i a b l e s ) , and e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n  (average  T-score value f o r t h e t e n Fleishman v a r i a b l e s ) were d e t e r m i n e d . 3.  The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e s i x C.A.H.P.E.R. t e s t i t e m s and t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n were computed.  4.  The s t e p w i s e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n method o f t e s t s e l e c t i o n was a p p l i e d t o s e l e c t t h e v a r i a b l e s . which y i e l d e d t h e b e s t combined r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the c r i t e r i o n  5.  score.  The v a l i d i t y o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R.  Fitness-Perform-  ance T e s t was d e t e r m i n e d by i t s c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the F l e i s h m a n B a s i c F i t n e s s T e s t . II.  BATTERIES WHICH PREDICT THE INTERNAL  CRITERION  B a t t e r y A, c o n s i s t i n g o f : a) t h e s h u t t l e r u n , b) t h e 300 y a r d r u n , c) t h e f l e x e d arm hang was chosen as t h e b e s t t h r e e i t e m b a t t e r y .  The m u l t i p l e  c o r r e l a t i o n o f 0.961 makes- i t -a most u s e f u l p r e d i c t o r o f t h e internal  criterion.  Battery B included the f o l l o w i n g items: a) t h e s h u t t l e r u n , b) t h e 300 y a r d r u n , c) t h e f l e x e d arm hang,  ~  ~  d) t h e s t a n d i n g broad jump. T h i s b a t t e r y was t h e b e s t f o u r i t e m p r e d i c t o r .  The m u l t i p l e  c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was 0.9#2. B a t t e r i e s D and F were s e l e c t e d a s t h e b e s t . i n d o o r b a t t e r i e s having multiple and  0.941 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  . _  c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s o f 0.894 Battery  D consisted o f :  a) t h e s t a n d i n g broad jump, b) t h e s h u t t l e r u n , c) t h e f l e x e d arm hang, while Battery  F consisted of:  a) t h e one minute speed s i t - u p , . „ „ b) t h e s t a n d i n g broad jump, c) t h e s h u t t l e r u n , d) t h e f l e x e d arm hang. A l t h o u g h t h e f l e x e d arm hang and t h e s t a n d i n g broad jump have t h e l o w e s t v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s , t h e y a r e cont a i n e d , a t l e a s t i n part, i n a l l the preceding b a t t e r i e s . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t s i n c e t h e s e i t e m s c o n t a i n e d t h e l o w e s t i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , t h e y would l i k e l y contribute variables. III.  v a r i a n c e which was n o t well-measured by o t h e r T h i s h y p o t h e s i s seems t o have been  substantiated.  BATTERIES WHICH PREDICT THE EXTERNAL CRITERION  B a t t e r i e s G and H, w i t h t h e i r m u l t i p l e  correlation  c o e f f i c i e n t s o f O.763 and 0.775 r e s p e c t i v e l y , were chosen as  47  the b e s t two criterion.  and  t h r e e i t e m p r e d i c t o r s o f the  Battery G consisted  a) t h e s h u t t l e  run,  while Battery H consisted  of:  run,  b) the 300 y a r d  run,  c) the s t a n d i n g  broad jump.  B a t t e r y J , which c o n s i s t e d  of:  a) the s t a n d i n g  broad jump,  b) the s h u t t l e  run,  c) the f l e x e d arm was  of:  run,  b) t h e 300 y a r d  a) the s h u t t l e  external  hang,  chosen as the b e s t t h r e e i t e m i n d o o r b a t t e r y .  I t has  a  m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f 0.752. IV.  VALIDATION OF THE  C.A.H.P.E.R.  FITNESS-PERFORMANCE TEST These t h r e e b a t t e r i e s p r e d i c t the e x t e r n a l  criterion  a l m o s t as w e l l as does the complete C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s Performance T e s t which has a m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f 0.790. o f 0.781  As e x p e c t e d , i t s z e r o - o r d e r v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t is slightly  smaller.  48  V.  CONCLUSIONS  I t may be concluded 1.  that:  The C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t as a t e s t o f motor f i t n e s s has a h i g h degree o f v a l i d i t y a s measured by t h e F l e i s h m a n B a s i c Fitness Test.  2.  B a t t e r i e s A and B, w i t h v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s o f 0.961  and 0.982 r e s p e c t i v e l y , a r e more t h a n ade-  quate p r e d i c t o r s o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s Performance 3.  Test.  B a t t e r i e s D and F, w i t h v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s o f 0.894 and 0.941, a r e adequate as i n d o o r b a t t e r i e s p r e d i c t i n g t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e Test.  4.  B a t t e r i e s G and H, w i t h v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s o f 0.763 and 0.775 r e s p e c t i v e l y , a r e n e a r l y e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e complete  C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m -  ance T e s t as p r e d i c t o r s o f t h e e x t e r n a l 5.  B a t t e r y J , w i t h a v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f 0.752, i s an adequate p r e d i c t o r o f t h e e x t e r n a l ion,  6.  criterion.  criter-  the Fleishman Basic F i t n e s s Test.  The C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t c o n t a i n s measures o f v a r i a n c e which a r e common t o two o r more t e s t i t e m s .  T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s based upon  the f a c t t h a t : a) t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between t h e one minute speed s i t - u p , t h e s h u t t l e r u n , t h e 50 y a r d r u n and t h e 300 y a r d r u n were r e l a t i v e l y high; b) B a t t e r i e s A,B,D and F gave a near p e r f e c t p r e d i c t i o n o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s Performance T e s t ; c) B a t t e r i e s G,H and J p r e d i c t e d t h e F l e i s h m a n B a s i c F i t n e s s T e s t w i t h almost t h e same degree o f p e r f e c t i o n as d i d t h e complete C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e VI.  Test.  RECOMMENDATIONS  On t h e b a s i s o f t h e f i n d i n g s o b t a i n e d from t h e study t h e f o l l o w i n g recommendations a r e made: 1.  A study u s i n g a s i m i l a r sample s h o u l d be made w i t h t h e purpose o f c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n .  2.  Other v a l i d a t i o n s t u d i e s on t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance  T e s t s h o u l d be made u s i n g  various other established c r i t e r i o n with the purpose o f a d d i n g a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n as t o i t s validity. 3.  A s i m i l a r study s h o u l d be made u s i n g elementary school-age g i r l s .  S t u d i e s s h o u l d be made w i t h t h e purpose o f improving content o f the t e s t . A r e l i a b i l i t y s t u d y o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s Performance T e s t s h o u l d be made.  BIBLIOGRAPHY A.  BOOKS  Adams, G e o r g i a Sachs, Measurement and E v a l u a t i o n i n E d u c a t i o n , P s y c h o l o g y and Guidance, H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and W i n s t o n , New Y o r k , 1964. B o v a r d , John F., Cozens, F r e d e r i c k W., and Hagman, P a t r i c i a E., T e s t and Measurements i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , W.B. Saunders Company, P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1949. C l a r k e , H. H a r r i s o n , A p p l i c a t i o n o f Measurement t o H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , Englewood C l i f f s , I960. C u r e t o n , Edward E., " V a l i d i t y , " E d i t e d by L i n d q u i s t , E.F., E d u c a t i o n a l Measurement, American C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n , Washington, 1951. Efroymson, M.A., " M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s , " E d i t e d by R a l s t o n , Anthony, and W i l f , H e r b e r t S., M a t h e m a t i c a l Methods f o r D i g i t a l Computers, John W i l e y and Sons, I n c . , New Y o r k , I960. F l e i s h m a n , Edwin A., The S t r u c t u r e and Measurement o f P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , Englewood C l i f f s , 1964. G a r r e t t , Henry E., S t a t i s t i c s I n P s y c h o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n , Longmans, Green and Co., New York, 1953. G a r r e t t , Henry E., S t a t i s t i c s I n P s y c h o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n , D a v i d McKay Company, I n c . , New Y o r k , 1964. G u i l f o r d , J . P . , Fundamental S t a t i s t i c s i n P s y c h o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n , M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, I n c . , New Y o r k , L a r s o n , Leonard A., and Yocom, R a c h a e l Dunaven, Measurement and E v a l u a t i o n i n P h y s i c a l , H e a l t h , and R e c r e a t i o n E d u c a t i o n , The C.V. Mosby Company, 1951. L i n d q u i s t , E.F., A F i r s t Course i n S t a t i s t i c s ; T h e i r Use and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n E d u c a t i o n and P s y c h o l o g y , Houghton M i f f l i n Company, B o s t o n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , 1942.  52 McCloy, C h a r l e s H a r o l d , and Young, Norma Dorothy, T e s t s and Measurements i n H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , A p p l e t o n C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , I n c . , New Y o r k , 1954. Mathews, Donald K., Measurement i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , Saunders Company, P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1963.  W.B.  P e t e r s , C h a r l e s C. and Van V o o r h i s , W a l t e r R., S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures and T h e i r M a t h e m a t i c a l B a s i s , M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company I n c . , New Y o r k , 1940. T h o r n d i k e , Robert L., and Hagen, E l i z a b e t h , Measurement and E v a l u a t i o n i n P s y c h o l o g y and E d u c a t i o n , John W i l e y and Sons, I n c . , New Y o r k , 1965. W e i s s , Raymond A., and S c o t t , M. G l a d y s , " C o n s t r u c t i o n o f T e s t s , " E d i t e d by S c o t t , M. G l a d y s , Research Methods i n H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , R e c r e a t i o n , American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , and Recrea t i o n , Washington, 1959. W i l l g o o s e , C a r l E., E v a l u a t i o n o f H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, New Y o r k ,  I96T:  B.  PERIODICALS  A r n e t t , C h a p p e l l e , "The Purdue Motor F i t n e s s T e s t B a t t e r i e s f o r S e n i o r High S c h o o l G i r l s , " The Research Q u a r t e r l y , 33:3 (October, 1962), pp. 323-323T C l a r k , Cherry Ann, "Developments and A p p l i c a t i o n s i n t h e A r e a o f C o n s t r u c t V a l i d i t y , " American E d u c a t i o n a l Research A s s o c i a t i o n , Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 29:1, F e b r u a r y , 1959. Cronbach, Lee J . , and M e e h l , P a u l E., " C o n s t r u c t V a l i d i t y i n P s y c h o l o g i c a l T e s t s , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , V o l . 52, May, 1955. N i c k s , D.C., and F l e i s h m a n , E.A., "What Do P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s T e s t s Measure?" E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measurement, 22:1 ( S p r i n g , 1962), pp. 77-95.  53 O l r e e , H a r r y , S t e v e n s , C l a r k , N e l s o n , Tommy, A g n e v i k , Goran, C l a r k , Robert T., " E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e AAHPER Youth F i t n e s s T e s t , " The J o u r n a l o f S p o r t s M e d i c i n e and P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s , 5:2 (June, 1965), PP* 67-71*  C.  UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS  The Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , "The C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m a n c e T e s t , " Ottawa, 1964. (Mimeographed.) The Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , "Minutes o f t h e M e e t i n g o f t h e Research Committee o f t h e Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , " U n i v e r s i t y o f Edmonton, F e b r u a r y 21,22,23, 1964. (Mimeographed.) The Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , " M i n u t e s o f t h e M e e t i n g o f t h e Research Committee o f t h e Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , " U n i v e r s i t y o f Ottawa, Ottawa, May 1,2, 1964. (Mimeographed.) The Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , " P r o g r e s s R e p o r t : N a t i o n a l Norms o f F i t n e s s Performance," November 24, 1964. (Mimeographed.) The Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , "Report o f t h e Research Committee t o t h e Annual M e e t i n g o f t h e Board and R e p r e s e n t a t i v e C o u n c i l , " F r e d e r i c t o n , New B r u n s w i c k , June 18,19, 1965. (Mimeographed.) Dempster, J.R.H., Gagne, A.E., and Hogan R., " T r i p : T r i a n g u l a r R e g r e s s i o n Package," U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Computing C e n t r e , Vancouver, 1965. (Mimeographed.) E l d e r , H a s k e l l P., " A p p r a i s i n g t h e Motor F i t n e s s o f J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l Boys," U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , S p r i n g f i e l d C o l l e g e , S p r i n g f i e l d , 1956. ( M i c r o c a r d e d . ) K i r c h n e r , G l e n n , "The C o n s t r u c t i o n o f a B a t t e r y o f T e s t s Designed t o M e a s u r e ' S t r e n g t h , Endurance, Power, and Speed Among Elementary School-age Boys," U n p u b l i s h e d Ed. D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon, Eugene, 1959. (Microcarded.)  54 Lehman, A l i c e E t h e l , " A n A n a l y s i s o f J u n i o r High S c h o o l G i r l s i n Fourteen F i t n e s s T e s t s , " Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , Oregon S t a t e C o l l e g e , C o r v a l l i s , 1958. (Microcarded.) Moore, George C l a r k , "An A n a l y t i c a l Study o f P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s V a r i a b l e s , " Unpublished D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , Univers i t y o f I l l i n o i s , Urbana, 1955. (Microcarded.) R o s s , W i l l i a m D., "The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f S e l e c t e d Measures t o Performance o f t h e Hanging i n Arm-Flexed P o s i t i o n T e s t f o r G i r l s , " Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, Eugene, I 9 6 0 . (Microcarded.) S c h r o d t , P h y l l i s B., " O b j e c t i v i t y and V a l i d i t y o f a Motor F i t n e s s Test B a t t e r y f o r G i r l s i n S e n i o r High Schools," U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , S c h o o l o f H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon, Eugene, 1958. (Microcarded.)  1  APPENDICES  APPENDIX A DESCRIPTION OF THE C.A.H.P.E.R. FITNESS-PERFORMANCE TEST ITEMS 1.  One Minute Speed S i t - U p Equipment.  Gym mat and s t o p watch o r t i m e r .  Starting Position.  The s u b j e c t assumes a b a c k - l y i n g  p o s i t i o n on t h e mat, hands i n t e r l a c e d b e h i n d h i s head.  The  knees a r e bent and t h e f e e t a r e h e l d f l a t on t h e f l o o r by a partner. Performance.  The s u b j e c t s i t s up and t o u c h e s b o t h  elbows t o b o t h knees.  Then he r e t u r n s t o t h e s t a r t i n g  position. Scoring.  The movement s i t - u p and r e t u r n i s counted  as one e x e c u t i o n .  The t o t a l s c o r e i s t h e number o f complete  e x e c u t i o n s performed i n 60 seconds.  A l l o w one t r i a l .  Count  when elbows t o u c h knees. Reliability  Controls.  The p a r t n e r k n e e l s s t r a d d l i n g  the  performer s feet.  the  s u b j e c t ' s l e g s j u s t below t h e knee t o prevent t h e s u b j e c t  1  He p l a c e s h i s hands on t h e c a l v e s o f  from s l i d i n g away and t o m a i n t a i n t h e s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n o f the  l e g s throughout t h e t e s t .  Only t h e s h o u l d e r s have t o  t o u c h t h e f l o o r and t h e s i t - u p s need not be c o n t i n u o u s .  57 2.  S t a n d i n g Broad Jump Equipment.  Ten f o o t t u m b l i n g mat i s recommended and  t a p e measure. Starting Position.  The s u b j e c t assumes a p o s i t i o n  w i t h t h e f e e t s l i g h t l y a p a r t and t h e t o e s b e h i n d t h e jumping line. Performance.  F l e x a t h i p s , knees and a n k l e s , and  u s i n g t h e arms t o a i d , jump as f a r f o r w a r d as p o s s i b l e . Scoring.  Measurement i s i n terms o f i n c h e s t o t h e  nearest  i n c h from t h e t a k e - o f f l i n e t o t h e h e e l o f t h e f o o t  nearest  the take-off Reliability  line.  Controls.  The suggested t a k e - o f f a n g l e  s h o u l d be between 30 and 45 d e g r e e s . allowed, the better t r i a l recorded.  Two v a l i d . t r i a l s a r e I f any p a r t o f t h e body  t o u c h e s b e h i n d t h e h e e l s , t h e jump w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d valid. 3.  Two o r t h r e e p r a c t i c e t r i a l s may be  in-  allowed.  S h u t t l e Run Equipment.  Two wooden b l o c k s  (2 x3 *x3 ) u  ,  tt  and a s t o p  watch c a l i b r a t e d t o o n e - t e n t h o f a second. Starting Position.  L y i n g f a c e down, hands a t t h e  s i d e s o f t h e c h e s t , f o r e h e a d on t h e s t a r t i n g Performance.  line.  On s i g n a l , jump t o f e e t and r u n 30 f e e t  to the l i n e .  P i c k up one  b l o c k o f wood, r e t u r n t o t h e  s t a r t i n g l i n e , and p l a c e t h e b l o c k b e h i n d t h i s l i n e .  Return  t o t h e second l i n e , p i c k up t h e second b l o c k o f wood, and r u n back t o t h e f i n i s h l i n e . finish  C a r r y the b l o c k t h r o u g h t h e  line. Scoring.  Measurement i s i n terms of seconds t o t h e  n e a r e s t t e n t h o f a second from the s t a r t i n g s i g n a l u n t i l s u b j e c t c r o s s e s the f i n i s h Reliability  line.  Controls.  shoes o r b a r e f e e t ,  The  t e s t s h o u l d be t a k e n i n  A *ready* w a r n i n g s i g n a l i s g i v e n  to the s t a r t i n g s i g n a l .  the  Two  gym  prior  t r i a l s , w i t h a r e s t between, are  a l l o w e d and t h e b e t t e r t r i a l i s r e c o r d e d . 4.  F l e x e d Arm  Hang  Equipment.  A doorway gym  b a r o r h o r i z o n t a l bar  p l a c e d 6 f e e t from the f l o o r ; a bench and a t i m e r . Starting Position.  The  b a r (palms toward f a c e ) and  subject reverse grasps the  i s a s s i s t e d i n p u l l i n g himself to  t h e b a r so t h a t h i s eyes are a t t h e l e v e l o f the b a r .  The  arms a r e f u l l y f l e x e d . Performance.  The  subject holds himself i n t h i s  h a n g i n g p o s i t i o n as l o n g as he i s a b l e . Scoring.  The  t o t a l p e r i o d of time t h a t the  subject  can m a i n t a i n t h e exact p o s i t i o n i s d e t e r m i n e d t o t h e  nearest  59 second. Reliability  Controls.  b r i d g e o f h i s nose a t t h e b a r . drops below t h e l e v e l  When t h e s u b j e c t ' s head  of the bar the test i s terminated.  One t r i a l i s a l l o w e d . 5.  The s u b j e c t must keep t h e  T e s t e r counts t h e seconds out l o u d .  50 Yard Run Equipment.  A 50 y a r d s t r a i g h t a w a y w i t h markers  ( s t a k e s ) p l a c e d a t t h e s t a r t and t h e f i n i s h ; a s t o p watch c a l i b r a t e d t o o n e - t e n t h o f a second; a s t a r t i n g Starting Position.  flag.  A r a c i n g crouch s t a r t o r a stand-  i n g p o s i t i o n may be assumed. Performance.  On t h e s t a r t i n g s i g n a l ("Go!" and f l a g  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ) t h e r u n n e r s p r i n t s t h e 50 y a r d d i s t a n c e . Scoring.  The e l a p s e d t i m e from t h e s t a r t i n g s i g n a l  t o t h e passage o f t h e r u n n e r ' s c h e s t a c r o s s t h e f i n i s h  line  i s s c o r e d t o t h e n e a r e s t t e n t h o f a second. Reliability  Controls.  The t e s t i s t a k e n i n gym shoes.  Only one r u n n e r i s t e s t e d a t a t i m e on a c o u r s e b u t one t e s t e r may time two r u n n e r s on a d j a c e n t c o u r s e s w i t h a s p l i t t i m e r o r two watches. 6.  300 Y a r d Run Equipment.  Same as f o r t h e 50 y a r d r u n .  60 Starting Position. i n g p o s i t i o n may  A r a c i n g crouch s t a r t or a stand-  be assumed.  Performance.  On t h e s t a r t i n g s i g n a l t h e s u b j e c t runs  s t r a i g h t up and around t h e s t a k e marker and back o v e r t h e 50 yard straightaway.  The c i r c u i t i s run 3 t i m e s t o g i v e t h e  300 y a r d s . Scoring.  The e l a p s e d t i m e from t h e s t a r t i n g s i g n a l t o  t h e passage o f t h e r u n n e r ' s c h e s t a c r o s s t h e f i n i s h l i n e i s s c o r e d t o t h e n e a r e s t second. Reliability  Controls.  The t e s t i s t a k e n i n gym  Only one runner i s t e s t e d a t a t i m e on a course but  shoes.  one  t e s t e r may t i m e two r u n n e r s on a d j a c e n t c o u r s e s w i t h a s p l i t t i m e r o r two  watches.  APPENDIX B TEST INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE  FLEISHMAN  . BASIC FITNESS TESTS 1.  Extent F l e x i b i l i t y  Test  T e s t i n g Arrangements. 1.  A measuring s c a l e i s drawn on a w a l l .  The s c a l e i s 30"  l o n g and i s marked o f f i n h a l f - i n c h i n t e r v a l s f r o m 0" t o 30".  T h i s s c a l e s h o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t l y wide t o t a k e  advantage o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n h e i g h t s o f t h e s u b j e c t s . 2.  A n o t h e r l i n e i s drawn on t h e f l o o r , p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e w a l l , i n l i n e w i t h t h e 12" mark on t h e s c a l e .  3.  The r i g h t - h a n d e d  s u b j e c t stands w i t h h i s l e f t  side  toward t h e w a l l , t o e s t o u c h i n g t h e l i n e on t h e f l o o r , f e e t t o g e t h e r and p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h i s l i n e on t h e floor. 4.  The s u b j e c t stands f a r enough from t h e w a l l so t h a t he can j u s t t o u c h t h e w a l l w i t h h i s l e f t f i s t when h i s arm i s h e l d h o r i z o n t a l from t h e s h o u l d e r . Instructions.  A f t e r assuming t h e p o s i t i o n d e s c r i b e d  above, t h e s t u d e n t keeps h i s f e e t i n p l a c e and extends h i s r i g h t arm s t r a i g h t out t o s i d e , a t s h o u l d e r h e i g h t .  His  palm f a c e s t h e f l o o r w i t h f i n g e r s extended and t o g e t h e r . From t h i s p o s i t i o n he t w i s t s c l o c k w i s e (around h i s b a c k ) , as f a r as p o s s i b l e , so t h a t he t o u c h e s t h e s c a l e on t h e w a l l  w i t h h i s r i g h t hand.  D u r i n g t h i s movement, the examiner, o r  an a s s i s t a n t , p l a c e s h i s f o o t a l o n g s i d e the s t u d e n t ' s r i g h t f o o t t o keep the  student's feet i n  Have the s t u d e n t make one f e e l o f i t , and  c o r r e c t any  place.  p r a c t i c e t r y t o get  the  e r r o r s i n h i s procedure.  The  second t r y c o u n t s . Scoring. i n c h e s ) , and the  Record the f a r t h e s t p o i n t  held  ( f o r a t l e a s t two  reached ( i n  s e c o n d s ) , as measured  on  scale. A d d i t i o n a l Guidance.  For left-handed s u b j e c t s ,  use  the a l t e r n a t e s c a l e and  r e v e r s e the d i r e c t i o n s of movement.  2.  Test  Dynamic F l e x i b i l i t y Testing  Arrangements.  back t o t h e w a l l and  The  s u b j e c t stands w i t h  his  f a r enough from t h e w a l l t h a t he  can  bend o v e r w i t h o u t h i t t i n g the w a l l w i t h h i s b u t t o c k s . f e e t s h o u l d be s h o u l d e r w i d t h a p a r t .  D i r e c t l y behind  m i d d l e o f h i s back, a t s h o u l d e r h e i g h t , mark an "X" w a l l (use  chalk or t a p e ) .  His  Mark a n o t h e r X W  on the  M  the  on  the  floor  between t h e s t u d e n t ' s f e e t . A s t o p watch i s needed. Instructions. and  touches the X M  t t  On the s i g n a l "Go * 1  the  s t u d e n t bends  between h i s f e e t w i t h b o t h hands  t h e n r i s e s , t w i s t s t o t h e l e f t , and w a l l w i t h b o t h hands.  t o u c h e s the X'* on  T h i s counts as one  tt  cycle.  and the  63 I n t h e next c y c l e , t h e s t u d e n t r e p e a t s t h i s , except he twists t o h i s r i g h t , continuing t o alternate the side to which he t w i s t s i n each The emphasizing  cycle.  i n s t r u c t o r s h o u l d demonstrate  t h r e e such  cycles,  speed.  Scoring.  Record t h e number o f c y c l e s completed i n 20  seconds. 3.  S h u t t l e Run T e s t i n g Arrangements.  Two p a r a l l e l l i n e s , 20 y a r d s  a p a r t , s h o u l d be marked o f f . T h i s can be r u n on a t r a c k s u r f a c e , but i s s u i t a b l e f o r f l o o r , macadam, o r o t h e r surfaces.  ground  (The norms a r e f o r an average o f many s u r f a c e s . )  One o b s e r v e r i s s t a t i o n e d a t t h e s t a r t l i n e and one a t the f i n i s h l i n e . watch.  The o b s e r v e r a t t h e f i n i s h l i n e has a s t o p  I d e a l l y , t h e r e s h o u l d be two o b s e r v e r s w i t h watches  at the f i n i s h l i n e .  Although not a b s o l u t e l y  essential,  u p r i g h t s t a n d a r d s may be used d u r i n g t h e l a s t l a p . Instructions. run at a time.  I t i s p r e f e r a b l e t o have one s t u d e n t  A t t h e s t a r t he stands b e h i n d t h e s t a r t  w i t h one t o e a t t h e l i n e . Go  tt  tt  line,  He i s t o l d t h a t a t t h e command  he i s t o r u n t o t h e o p p o s i t e l i n e , 20 y a r d s away, t o u c h  t h e ground on t h e f a r s i d e o f i t w i t h e i t h e r f o o t , r e t u r n t o t h e s t a r t l i n e , and r e p e a t .  He i s t o l d t o cover t h e one way  d i s t a n c e f i v e t i m e s f o r a t o t a l o f 100 y a r d s .  On h i s l a s t  64 lap up.  he i s t o go  tt  all-out  t o cross the f i n i s h l i n e standing  w  ( I f a tape i s put up he i s t o l d t o break t h e tape.)  The  o b j e c t i s t o cover t h e d i s t a n c e as f a s t as p o s s i b l e . The o b s e r v e r s a t each end note t h a t t h e s t u d e n t touched o v e r t h e l i n e .  has  They a l s o watch t h a t t h e s t u d e n t does  not get confused and a) s t o p s h o r t , not r u n n i n g f i v e t i m e s , or b) t r e a t t h e l a s t l a p as i f he was t o t u r n around a g a i n . The  examiner s h o u l d demonstrate t h e t u r n - a r o u n d move-  ment, e n c o u r a g i n g radius). radius.  e f f i c i e n c y (that i s , a small t u r n i n g  Turns have been found t o average under 6 f e e t i n I f t h e s t u d e n t i s d o i n g something  which g r o s s l y  slows him up a t t h e t u r n s , t h e o b s e r v e r s h o u l d encourage him to  t u r n more q u i c k l y . Scoring.  The t i m e t o c o v e r t h e 5 l a p s (5 x 20 =  y a r d s ) i s r e c o r d e d t o t h e n e a r e s t t e n t h o f a second.  100  I f two  o b s e r v e r s a r e used, r e c o r d t h e average o f t h e two watches. 4.  S o f t b a l l Throw T e s t i n g Arrangements.  T h i s i s , t y p i c a l l y , an  outdoor  t e s t r e q u i r i n g an open f i e l d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 y a r d s l o n g . A shorter f i e l d  (80 y a r d s ) w i l l do, e s p e c i a l l y i f t e s t i n g i s  b e i n g done w i t h younger boys o r o n l y w i t h g i r l s . t h e f i e l d need not exceed  50 y a r d s .  With  A 12" s t a n d a r d  girls  softball  i s thrown and f i e l d markings must be p r o v i d e d t o a l l o w measurement o f d i s t a n c e thrown, t o t h e n e a r e s t f o o t . football field i s ideal for this  purpose.  A  I f a f o o t b a l l - f i e l d i s not a v a i l a b l e , any f i e l d  may  be marked o f f i n v a r i o u s ways w i t h l i n e s , s t a k e s , o r b r i c k s p l a c e d every f i v e y a r d s .  I t has been found c o n v e n i e n t t o  use b r i c k s , w i t h p a i n t e d numbers, p l a c e d every f i v e y a r d s . These markings do not need t o b e g i n u n t i l 20 y a r d s from t h e t h r o w i n g l i n e f o r boys, and u n t i l 10 y a r d s out f o r g i r l s . The  l i n e b e h i n d which the s t u d e n t must throw s h o u l d be  c l e a r l y marked.  I n any c a s e , a tape measure i s a l s o needed.  B r i c k s o r s t a k e s may  be used t o mark t h e p o i n t o f  impact f o r each t h r o w , u n t i l a f i n a l measurement i s t a k e n . In t h e case o f s u c c e s s i v e throws by t h e same s t u d e n t , h i s b r i c k o r s t a k e can be moved t o t h e p o i n t o f h i s b e s t  throw.  At l e a s t two o b s e r v e r s a r e r e q u i r e d , one a t t h e t h r o w i n g a r e a , and one i n t h e f i e l d .  Two  observers, spotting point of  impact, are p r e f e r a b l e . Instructions.  The  s t u d e n t throws t h e b a l l as f a r as  he can, w i t h o u t moving h i s f e e t .  He t a k e s a p o s i t i o n com-  f o r t a b l e f o r him, as c l o s e t o t h e r e s t r a i n i n g l i n e as p o s s i ble.  He i s not a l l o w e d any run-up, and i s not a l l o w e d t o  s h i f t t h e p o s i t i o n o f h i s f e e t d u r i n g t h e throw.  He i s not  r e q u i r e d t o keep h i s f e e t f l a t on t h e ground, o f c o u r s e , and h i s f e e t w i l l move some i n p l a c e . l e a v e t h e ground.  But n e i t h e r f o o t i s " t o  ( T y p i c a l l y , t h e r i g h t - h a n d e d student  will  end up on t h e t o e o f h i s r i g h t f o o t . ) He i s t o l d t h a t he w i l l get t h r e e throws and w i l l  be  scored according t o h i s best throw.  He may  d e c i d e on a  d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n f o r h i s f e e t when he makes h i s next t h r o w , but t h i s i s up t o t h e s t u d e n t , and no s p e c i f i c g u i d ance on t h i s s h o u l d be g i v e n .  I f the subject l i f t s e i t h e r  f o o t , h i s t h r o w i s not measured and  counts o n l y as one o f h i s  three throws. A l l throws must be made overhand. Scoring.  The  t a p e measure i s used t o measure t h e  best of the three throws, to the nearest f o o t . i s o f f l i n e ( t o one  I f the throw  s i d e ) , t h e measured d i s t a n c e i s perpen-  d i c u l a r from t h e s t a r t l i n e t o t h e p o i n t o f i m p a c t . 5.  Hand G r i p T e s t i n g Arrangements.  A l l t h a t i s r e q u i r e d i s a hand  dynamometer. Instructions.. of the student's  The  dynamometer i s p l a c e d i n the palm  p r e f e r r e d hand.. The  away from t h e palm.  The  d i a l s h o u l d be f a c i n g  l a r g e r h a l f o f t h e g r i p i s i n the  meaty p a r t o f t h e palm, w i t h t h e f i n g e r s c u r l e d o v e r the smaller h a l f of the g r i p . second and t h i r d k n u c k l e s  P a r t of t h e f i n g e r s between the s h o u l d t o u c h t h e g r i p , but  the  f i n g e r s s h o u l d not c u r l f a r enough around t o t o u c h t h e and  dial  i n t e r f e r e w i t h the p o i n t e r ' s movement. The  student  stands and h o l d s h i s hand down h i s s i d e ,  away from h i s body, palm f a c i n g h i s s i d e .  He i s t o l d t h a t a t  67 t h e command "Squeeze," he i s t o squeeze t h e dynamometer once, s h a r p l y and s t e a d i l y as hard as he c a n . . A d e m o n s t r a t i o n . o f t h e proper g r i p and arm p o s i t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n .  D u r i n g t h e t e s t t r i a l t h e examiner s h o u l d  make sure t h e s t u d e n t ' s f i n g e r s do n o t hamper t h e d i a l , and t h a t he does not r e s t o r b r a c e any p a r t o f h i s arm a g a i n s t his  body. D u r i n g t h e f i r s t t r i a l , c o r r e c t any i n c o r r e c t  ure.  I f t h e r u l e s a r e v i o l a t e d , d i s r e g a r d t h e s c o r e , but  count i t as one squeeze. s h a r p squeeze.  Emphasize t h e need f o r a s h o r t ,  I f t h e s t u d e n t s t a r t s t o squeeze s l o w l y as  soon as he t a k e s t h e dynamometer i t w i l l a c t u a l l y his  proced-  decrease  s c o r e due t o muscle f a t i g u e . Each s t u d e n t g e t s t h r e e t r i a l s s e p a r a t e d by a t l e a s t  a f u l l minute o f r e s t .  Without  such r e s t he i s l i k e l y t o  s c o r e l o w e r each t i m e he squeezes (much t o h i s s u r p r i s e ! ) . Scoring.  Record t h e h i g h e s t r e a d i n g ( t h e s c a l e i s  r e a d i n pounds) o f t h e t h r e e 6.  squeezes.  Pull-Ups T e s t i n g Arrangements.  A l l t h a t i s needed i s a h o r i -  z o n t a l metal o r wooden b a r , a p p r o x i m a t e l y l j i n c h e s i n d i a m e t e r , and h i g h enough so t h e s t u d e n t can hang o f f t h e f l o o r w i t h h i s arms and l e g s f u l l y Instructions.  extended.  The s t u d e n t jumps up and g r i p s t h e b a r  63  w i t h h i s palms f a c i n g h i s body (the underhand g r i p ) . h i s hanging  From  p o s i t i o n , a t the s i g n a l "Start,, * he p u l l s h i m s e l f 1  up by h i s arms u n t i l he can p l a c e h i s own  c h i n over t h e b a r .  He t h e n l o w e r s h i s body t o a f u l l y extended p o s i t i o n . The  s t u d e n t i s t o l d t o do as many p u l l - u p s as p o s s i b l e  and not t o s t o p u n t i l he i s no l o n g e r a b l e t o p u l l h i m s e l f up.  He i s t o l d not t o pause more t h a n two seconds, e i t h e r a t  t h e t o p o r bottom o f each c y c l e , o t h e r w i s e he w i l l be t o l d t o stop.  He i s c a u t i o n e d t h a t i f h i s arms a r e not f u l l y  extended  o r h i s c h i n not over t h e b a r , he w i l l be p e n a l i z e d . The  examiner counts the number o f pull-.ups a l o u d t o  t h e s t u d e n t each time he l o w e r s h i m s e l f f u l l y .  I f he i s t o  be p e n a l i z e d t h e examiner i n d i c a t e s c r e d i t f o r o n l y  "one  h a l f " t o l e t t h e s t u d e n t know t h i s . Demonstrate, one c o r r e c t p u l l - u p . o r r a i s i n g o f l e g s s h o u l d not be a l l o w e d .  Kicking, twisting, I f the  student  s t a r t s swaying, t h e examiner s h o u l d put h i s palm o r against the student's l e g s t o stop the Scoring. p u l l e d h i m s e l f up 7.  Leg  forearm  swaying.  Record the number o f t i m e s t h e student  has  correctly.  Lifts T e s t i n g Arrangements.  f l o o r , or grassed area. Instructions.  The  T h i s may  be done on a  mat,  A s t o p watch i s needed. s t u d e n t l i e s f l a t on h i s back w i t h  69 his  hands c l a s p e d b e h i n d h i s neck.  examinee's elbows t o t h e ground.  A partner should hold the The s t u d e n t i s t o l d t o  r a i s e h i s l e g s , k e e p i n g them s t r a i g h t , u n t i l they a r e v e r t i cal, leg  and then t o r e t u r n them t o ground.  He i s t o do t h e s e  l i f t s as f a s t as he can, d o i n g as many as p o s s i b l e i n 30  seconds. The f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s s h o u l d be s t r e s s e d : 1.  Do not r o c k t h e body - t h e head, s m a l l o f t h e back and base o f t h e s p i n e must remain on t h e ground. The  e x e r c i s e s h o u l d be a s t i f f one-two motion.  2.  Do not boost t h e body t o g e t t h e l e g s v e r t i c a l .  3.  Elbows must remain f l a t on t h e ground.  4.  Legs s h o u l d be kept s t r a i g h t a t a l l t i m e s .  Demonstrate t h e movement. to  Then i n s t r u c t t h e s t u d e n t  t r y t h e e x e r c i s e t h r o u g h two c y c l e s t o g e t t h e f e e l o f i t .  Correct  errors. Emphasize t h e need t o go " a l l - o u t d u r i n g t h e s h o r t  t e s t p e r i o d " w i t h o u t s l o w i n g down. Then say "Ready: (pause) GO!"  D u r i n g t h e t e s t make  sure l e g s a r e r a i s e d t o t h e v e r t i c a l and i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e followed. Say " S t o p ! " e x a c t l y a t 30 It  seconds.  i s b e s t t o have a s e p a r a t e o b s e r v e r count t h e l e g  l i f t s and a n o t h e r examiner  doing t h e t i m i n g .  T h i s t e s t can  be g i v e n i n a group, p r o v i d e d t h e r e a r e s u f f i c i e n t o b s e r v e r s .  70 Scoring.  Record t h e number o f t i m e s the  student  r a i s e s h i s l e g s t o a v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n i n t h e 30 6*.  seconds.  Cable Jump T e s t T e s t i n g Arrangements.  A 24 i n c h l e n g t h rope i s  required. Instructions.  The  student  i s t o l d t o h o l d t h e rope i n  f r o n t o f him,.with, one hand g r a s p i n g each end. approximately  Note t h a t  4 i n c h e s o f rope are covered by each hand,  e x p o s i n g about 16 i n c h e s between h i s hands.  J u s t the ends o f  t h e rope p r o t r u d e  He i s not  outside the closed f i s t s .  to  h o l d t h e - r o p e s t r e t c h e d o u t , but s h o u l d l e t i t hang l o o s e . H o l d i n g t h e rope i n t h i s way, o v e r t h e rope w i t h o u t The ance.  t h e student  i s r e q u i r e d t o jump  l o o s e n i n g - h i s g r i p from i t .  o b j e c t here i s t o measure a c o o r d i n a t e d  I t s h o u l d be s t r e s s e d t o t h e student  that  performhe:  1.  jumps o v e r t h e r o p e , t h r o u g h h i s arms;  2.  l a n d s on h i s f e e t ;  3.  does not h i t the rope w i t h h i s f e e t , o r l o s e h o l d o f i t w h i l e jumping, and  4.  does not l o s e h i s b a l a n c e when l a n d i n g .  U n l e s s t h e s u b j e c t meets a l l o f t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s he has  not  made a c o r r e c t jump. Scoring. attempts.  Record number o f c o r r e c t jumps out o f f i v e  71 9.  Balance - A Test T e s t i n g Arrangements.  wood 1§" h i g h , ^" wide, and  The 24  tt  balance r a i l  long.  mounted t o a base board as shown. Instructions. b a l a n c e on t h e r a i l  The  i s a piece  T h i s p i e c e o f wood i s  A s t o p watch i s needed.  student  i s t o l d t h a t he i s t o  u s i n g the p r e f e r r e d f o o t , w i t h t h e  long  a x i s o f h i s f o o t p a r a l l e l t o the l o n g a x i s o f t h e r a i l . i s given a p r a c t i c e t r i a l  w i t h h i s eyes open.  "Go"  u n t i l he t o u c h e s t h e f l o o r w i t h any  p a r t o f h i s body o r  removes e i t h e r hand f r o m h i s h i p s .  He f i r s t p l a c e s h i s  hands on h i s h i p s and s t a n d s up on the r a i l .  When t h e s t u -  dent has h i s b a l a n c e and wants t o s t a r t t h e t r i a l , he  may  The  He  He i s t o l d  t h a t h i s s c o r e i s the l e n g t h o f time from when he says  "Go."  of  says  a d m i n i s t r a t o r t h e n b e g i n s t i m i n g the s u b j e c t .  not t o u c h the f l o o r w i t h any  He  p a r t o f h i s body, nor remove  e i t h e r hand f r o m h i s h i p s . A f t e r t h e p r a c t i c e t r i a l , the procedure i s w i t h t h e eyes c l o s e d .  The  t h e i n s t a n t he says "Go."  repeated  examinee must c l o s e h i s eyes at He i s a d m i n i s t e r e d  two  separate  t e s t t r i a l s w i t h eyes c l o s e d . Scoring.  The  number o f seconds the student  h i s b a l a n c e f o r each t r i a l together f o r a t o t a l  i s recorded  s e p a r a t e l y and  added  score.  I f he reaches 20 seconds w i t h o u t balance,  maintains  he i s t o l d t o s t o p , and a "20"  having l o s t h i s i s recorded  f o r that  72  trial.  I f he o p e n s h i s e y e s , r e m o v e s e i t h e r h a n d f r o m  h i p s , or touches  the f l o o r , stop the t r i a l  and  his  record the  time. 10.  600  Yard  Run-Walk  T e s t i n g Arrangements. doors, unless a large f i e l d yards  This i s typically house i s a v a i l a b l e .  done o u t The  600  c a n be m a r k e d o f f i n s e v e r a l w a y s , p r o v i d e d t h e  r e q u i r e d are not too sharp.  A square  turns  a r e a , 50 y a r d s on  s i d e p r o v i d e s a good t r a c k , s i n c e t h r e e l a p s c o m p r i s e yards.  A football  p r o p e r l y m a r k e d 440  field,  each  the  600  marked o f f a p p r o p r i a t e l y , o r a  y a r d t r a c k w i l l work.  With  improvised  t r a c k s c a r e must be t a k e n t o k e e p t h e s t u d e n t s f r o m  straying  outside the t r a c k , thus running too short or too long a course. S t o p w a t c h e s a r e n e e d e d , t h e number d e p e n d i n g on many s t u d e n t s a r e r u n t o g e t h e r . scheduling reasons,  i t will  to  F o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and  u s u a l l y be n e c e s s a r y  number o f s t u d e n t s t o g e t h e r .  The  to run  crosses the f i n i s h  line.  s c a r c e , t h e t i m e r can c a l l  is  student  Where s t o p w a t c h e s a r e  out t h e t i m e s as each  student  c r o s s e s the l i n e , w i t h the o b s e r v e r a s s i g n e d t o each recording the score f o r t h a t student. ees  a  most a c c u r a t e p r o c e d u r e  assign a separate observer to clock a p a r t i c u l a r  a s he  how  seem t o w o r k o u t w e l l i n p r a c t i c e .  student  Groups o f s i x examin-  Instructions* i s to cover the may  The  distance  students are t o l d that the i n the  intersperse h i s running  b e s t t o f i n i s h as Scoring. m i n u t e s and  with walking  q u i c k l y as Record the  to the nearest  shortest  object  possible time. but  he  He  must t r y h i s  possible. time,  to cover the d i s t a n c e ,  seconds.  in  APPENDIX C  THE C.A.H.P.E.R. FITNESSPERFORMANCE TEST  NAME  GRADE FIRST  LAST  SCHOOL  AGE  DATE OF BIRTH DATE OF TEST 1.  ONE MINUTE SPEED SIT-UPS  (NO.)  2.  STANDING BROAD JUMP  (INS.)  3.  SHUTTLE RUN  (SEC.)  4.  FLEXED ARM HANG  (SEC.)  5.  50 YARD RUN  (SEC.)  6.  300 YARD RUN  (SEC.)  APPENDIX D  FLEISHMAN FITNESS TESTS  NAME DATE OF TEST 1.  EXTENT FLEXIBILITY  2.  DYNAMIC FLEXIBILITY  (NO.)  3.  SHUTTLE RUN  (SEC.)  4.. SOFTBALL THROW  (IN.)  YDS.  FT.  .5.  HAND GRIP  (LBS.)  ,6.  PULL-UPS  (NO.)  7.  LEG LIFTS  (NO.)  8.  CABLE JUMP  (NO.)  9.  BALANCE A  (SEC.)  10. 600 YARD RUN-WALK  MIN.  SEC.  APPENDIX E AREAS OF FITNESS AS DEFINED BY FLEISHMAN E x p l o s i v e s t r e n g t h i s t h e a b i l i t y t o e x e r t maximum energy i n one e x p l o s i v e a c t . I t has a l s o been c a l l e d Energy M o b i l i z a t i o n , Power and V e l o c i t y . Dynamic s t r e n g t h i s t h e a b i l i t y t o e x e r t m u s c u l a r f o r c e t o move o r support  t h e body's weight r e p e a t e d l y o v e r a  given period of time. S t a t i c s t r e n g t h i s t h e a b i l i t y t o e x e r t maximum f o r c e f o r a b r i e f p e r i o d o f t i m e a g a i n s t a f a i r l y immovable o b j e c t . Extent f l e x i b i l i t y  i s t h e a b i l i t y t o move o r s t r e t c h  t h e body, o r some p a r t t h e r e o f , as f a r as p o s s i b l e i n v a r i o u s directions. Dynamic f l e x i b i l i t y  i s t h e a b i l i t y t o make r e p e a t e d  f l e x i n g o r s t r e t c h i n g movements.  T h i s a r e a seems t o be  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h b o t h f l e x i b i l i t y and speed o f b o d i l y movements. S t a t i c balance  i s the a b i l i t y t o maintain b o d i l y  e q u i l i b r i u m w h i l e in.some f i x e d Dynamic b a l a n c e while performing  position.  i s the a b i l i t y t o maintain e q u i l i b r i u m  some t a s k .  77  Multi-limb coordination i s the a b i l i t y t o coordinate the simultaneous  movements o f s e v e r a l l i m b s i n o p e r a t i n g  various devices. Gross body c o o r d i n a t i o n i s t h e a b i l i t y t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e more g r o s s a c t i v i t y  o f t h e whole body.  same f a c t o r o t h e r s c a l l  agility.  T h i s may be t h e  Endurance i s t h e a b i l i t y t o e x e r t maximal e f f o r t o v e r t i m e and r e s i s t a n c e t o f a t i g u e .  APPENDIX F ALTERNATE TESTING PROCEDURES NECESSITATED BY WEATHER CONDITIONS T e s t P e r i o d At  During t h i s p e r i o d the f o l l o w i n g data  were o b t a i n e d : 1.  F i v e measures o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r formance T e s t : a) one minute speed  sit-up,  b) s t a n d i n g broad jump, c) s h u t t l e r u n , d) f l e x e d arm hang, e) 300 y a r d r u n . 2.  Four measures o f t h e F l e i s h m a n B a s i c F i t n e s s T e s t : a) e x t e n t  flexibility,  b) dynamic f l e x i b i l i t y , c) hand g r i p , d) b a l a n c e - A. T e s t P e r i o d B:  During t h i s period the f o l l o w i n g data  were o b t a i n e d : 1.  One measure o f t h e C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r f o r m ance T e s t : a) 50 y a r d r u n .  2.  S i x measures o f t h e F l e i s h m a n B a s i c F i t n e s s T e s t : a) s h u t t l e r u n ,  b) p u l l - u p s , c) l e g l i f t s , d) c a b l e jump, e) s o f t b a l l t h r o w , f ) 600 y a r d run-walk.  APPENDIX G  KEY TO C.A.H.P.E.R. VARIABLES  1.  One Minute Speed S i t - u p  2.  S t a n d i n g Broad Jump  3.  S h u t t l e Run  4.  F l e x e d Arm Hang  5.  50 Yard Run  6.  300 Y a r d Run  APPENDIX G THE C.A.H.P.E.R. VARIABLES  T-SCORES FOR  ibject  1  2  3  4  5  6  1  46•441  48.203  48.139  44.979  49.821  52.951  2  39.161  45.093  52.518  48.832  58.624  43.328  3  61.911  63.755  49.234  59.290  38.082  58.725  4  38.251  48.203  40.476  43.328  42.434  39.478  5  57.361  46.648  57.991  48.832  54.223  54.876  6  62.821  35.761  53.612  66.445  65.961  58.725  7  40.981  62.200  45.950  37.824  57.157  56.801  8  54.631  46.648  39.382  62.042  51.288  45.252  9  48.261  45.093  51.423  47.181  45.419  37.553  10  50.991  59.089  53.612  53.235  43.951  49.102  11  53.721  45.093  55.802  53.786  51.288  49.102  12  44.621  52.868  45.950  42.777  45.419  52.951  13  43.711  37.317  47.044  69.747  41.017  37.553  14  55.541  55.979  57.991  68.096  55.690  51.027  15  55.541  55.979  60.180  55.437  52.755  51.027  16  54.631  49.758  59.086  53.235  • 43.951  45.252  17  54.631  51.313  48.139  46.630  48.353  45.252  18  42.801  38.872  40.476  38.374  45.419  47.177  19  60.091  66.865  68.938  54.336  58.624  56.801  20  51.901  51.313  43.760  62.592  24.876  47.177  82 ibject  1  2  3  4  5  6  21  52.811  55.979  45.950  54.336  48.353  47.177  22  34.611  38.872  49.234  38.374  45.419  45.252  23  58.271  49.758  62.370  53.786  ^.353  52.951  24  55.541  68.420  65.654  48.281  61.559  52.951  25  61.001  68.420  54.707  46.630  58.624  54.876  26  45.531  29.541  42.666  44.979  39.550  41.403  27  56.451  60.644  73.316  71.949  63.026  64.500  28  45.531  46.648  35.003  39.475  43.951  54.876  29  67.371  59.089  64.559  59.290  57.157  64.500  30  61.001  48.203  51.423  51.034  41.017  45.252  31  40.071  49.758  53.612  46.630  55.690  52.951  32  61.001  41.982  44.855  80.205  52.755  51.027  33  64.641  51.313  65.654  53.235  73.298  64.500  34  64.641  43.537  64.559  53.235  55.690  62.575  35  57.361  57.534  61.275  67.546  52.755  56.801  36  53.721  35.761  59.086  53.786  46.886  60.650  37  68.281  54.424  67.843  59.290  67.428  70.274  38  56.451  37.317  49.234  45.529  42.484  58.725  39  45.531  51.313  45.950  51.584  43.951  45.252  40  49.171  40.427  50.328  42.777  51.288  45.252  41  61.001  73.086  66.748  65.895  54.223  54.876  42  48.261  63.755  48.139  55.437  51.288  47.177  43  41.891  57.534  31.719  38.374  45.419  49.102  44  68.281  59.089  64.559  52.134  58.624  60.650  83 ibject  1  2  3  4  5  6  45  48.261  48.203  44.855  37.273  46.886  54.376  46  50.991  40.427  52.518  55.987  61.559  58.725  47  55.541  43.537  41.571  52.685  51.288  54.876  48  56.451  51.313  44.855  48.832  43.951  49.102  49 .  39.161  48.203  44.855  47.731  45.419  47.177  50  54.631  46.648  49.234  57-088  58.624  52.951  51  48.261  38.872  47.044  54.886  38.082  39.478  52  53.721  55.979  51.423  65.344  51.288  49.102  53  49.171  46.648  44.855  43.328  48.353  54.876  54  28.241  23.320  18.583  32.870  24.876  10.607  55  51.901  52.868  48.139  52.685  42.484  41.403  56  44.621  49.758  52.518  47.181  52.755  49.102  57  43.711  54.424  53.612  42.777  58.624  54.876  58  35.521  49.758  33.908  46.630  43.951  52.951  59  52.811  54.424  40.476  56.538  57.157  52.951  60  42.801  41.982  44.855  44.979  51.288  51.027  61  41.261  55.979  52.518  38.374  51.288  54.876  62  49.171  51.313  52.518  43.878  52.755  47.177  63  25.511  59.089  36.088  35.622  41.017  31.779  64  47.351  46.648  43.760  38.374  51.288  47.177  65  41.891  40.427  41.571  44.979  38.082  41.403  66  43.711  45.093  47.044  42.777  46.886  47.177  67  18.231  35.761  32.614  32.320  29.278  26.005  68  43.711  51.313  44.855  42.227  46.886  37.553  iubject  1  2  3  5  6  69  56.451  48.203  59.086  69.747  65.961  62.575  70  53.721  51.313  52.518  37.824  52.755  49.102  71  45.531  40.427  43.760  38.374  29.278  18.306  72  39.161  29.541  51.423  61.491  67.428  62.575  73  58.271  55.979  39.382  60.941  52.755  49.102  74  32.791  48.203  51.423  42.777  51.288  47.177  75  45.531  45.093  40.476  62.042  51.288  51.027  76  54.631  66.865  50.328  48.281  52.755  66.424  77  36.431  45.093  27.340  33.971  24.876  39.478  78  46.441  48.203  55.802  41.677  63.026  64.500  79  58..271  54.424  56.896  60.391  55.690  56.801  80  40.981  46.648  40.476  43.878  52.755  49.102  81  60.091  41.982  48.139  39.475  49.821  43.328  82  65.551  41.982  49.234  55.437  36.615  49.102  83  59.181  57.534  63.464  53.189  67.428  52.951  84  50.991  62.200  67.843  58.189  61.559  64.500  85  52.811  87.082  68.938  42.777  70.363  68.349  86  50.991  55.979  47.044  41.677  46.886  47.177  87  59.181  48.203  48.139  46.080  49.821  47.177  88  55.541  60.644  55.802  40.025  61.559  39.478  89  20.051  37.317  33.908  38.374  30.746  29.354  90  47.351  46.648  45.950  42.227  38.082  51.027  Mean  34.911  63.156  11.930  32.122  8.088  66.533  S.D.  . 10.989  6.430  0.914  18.168  0.682  5.196  APPENDIX H  KEY TO FLEISHMAN VARIABLES  1.  Extent F l e x i b i l i t y  2.  Dynamic F l e x i b i l i t y  3.  S h u t t l e Run  4.  S o f t b a l l Throw  5.  Hand G r i p  6.  Pull-Ups  7.  Leg L i f t s  8.  Cable Jump  9.  Balance - A  10.  600 Y a r d Run-Walk  APPENDIX H T-SCORES FOR THE FLEISHMAN VARIABLES  ib j e c t  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  1  57.573  65.914  48.720  49.426  52.946  47.537  50.239  61.080  50.833  52.105  2  53.331  42.813  46.777  44.257  61.755  47.537  45.934  47.230  56.033  61.013  3  46.260  29.612  46.777  36.738  42.376  58.810  50.239  47.230  56.900  59.232  4  61.816  42.813  47.425  36.268  39.733  43.779  39.477  54.155 .  50.833  51.511  5  42.018  52.714  61.020  39.557  43.257  40.021  39.477  61.080  39.999  57.450  6  53.331  42.813  59.725  62.533  22.997  70.032  50.239  40.305  60.801  52.699  7  36.362  39.513  56.488  47.076  48,542  47.537  54.544  61.080  57.334  53.293  8  54.745  32.912  53.251  60.234  52.946  66.325  48.087  61.080  45.633  46.I66  9  49.089  36.212  50.014  32.039  44.137  58.810  52.392  24.155  39.132  47.948  10  44.846  56.014  51.309  39.087  44.137  47.537  56.697  54.155  45.199  51.511  11  66.058  59.314  56.488  43.787  52.946  51.294  54.544  33.381  76.835  48.542  12  42.018  49.413  46.130  45.666  66.159  47.537  48.O87  33.381  43.466  33.101  13  44.846  42.813  44.188  37.208  35.329  55.052  56.697  47.230  69.035  40.821  6  8  9  10  50.239  61.080  45.199  53.887  62.567  58.849  61.080  47.366  55.074  55.589  47.537  61.002  61.080  43.899  52.699  45.666  44.137  40.021  41.629  61.080  52.567  46.166  75.910  55.065  42.376  40.021  24.409  47.230  46.066  47.354  62.614  66.847  46.6O6  59.993  40.021  54.544  54.155  47.366  56.262  67.472  89.016  35.124  54.595  61.755  47.537  52.392  33.381  76.402  52.105  21  56.159  62.614  41.598  31.569  42.376  43.779  45.934  61.080  51.266  52.105  22  50.503  56.014  44.188  49.426  52.946  40.021  63.154  33.381  43.899  45.572  23  51.917  52.714  43.540  48.486  52.946  47.537  52.392  54.155  68.601  55.668  24  50.503  59.314  56.488  53.655  61.755  43.779  50.239  61.080  43.032  53.887  25  49.089  59.314  51.309  56.944  52.946  51.294  65.307  54.155  46.933  55.668  26  58.987  52.714  39.656  46.136  52.946  40.021  48.087  54.155  43.032  20.629  27  47.675  52.714  66.199  55.535  61.755  55.052  58.849  61.080  37.399  58.638  28  44.846  42.813  53.899  37.208  59.993  40.021  43.782  40.305  51.700  57.450  29  47.675  62.614  62.962  77.151  51.184  62.567  45.934  47.230  61.234  64.576  4  Subject  1  14  63.230  49.413  61.020  48.486  57.350  77.598  15  47.675  49.413  53.251  55.065  56.469  16  60.402  46.113  53.251  51.305  17  30.705  49.413  37.714  18  40.604  59.314  19  36.362  20  2  3  5  7  oa  Subject  1  2  3  4  5  6  30  53.331  42.813  48.720  55.065  52.946  40.021  41.629  31  40.604  49.413  46.130  42.847  50.303  40.021  32  39.190  36.212  49.367  44.257  46.780  33  54.745  65.914  62.962  56.944  34  46.260  65.914  61.668  35  63.230  56.014  36  39.190  37  8  9  10  61.080  56.900  49.136  45.934  40.305  34.365  49.729  51.294  50.239  47.230  44.332  52.105  48.542  70.082  58.849  61.080  73.802  62.795  61.644  40.614  51.294  63.154  47.230  46.O66  59.232  61.668  61.644  53.827  55.052  56.697  61.080  52.133  59.232  62.614  59.078  55.065  52.065  40.021  45.934  40.305  34.365  63.389  61.816  49.413  61.668  65.873  45.899  51.294  54.544  40.305  40.866  64.576  38  46.260  52.714  43.540  40.027  33.567  40.021  56.697  26.456  45.633  43.791  39  36.362  42.813  43.540  40.967  36.210  43.779  45.934  54.155  43.899  49.136  40  30.705  56.014  50.014  45.666  44.137  40.021  39.477  54.155  35.665  48.542  41  49.089  56.014  61.668  55.535  45.899  70.082  56.697  61.080  34.798  50.917  42  37.776  36.212  46.130  47.546  48.542  55.052  52.392  47.230  35.232  36.664  43  42.018  52.714  52.604  39.557  39.733  40.021  45.934  47.230  46.066  50.323  44  30.705  39.513  59.725  63.053  45.899  62.567  61.002  47.230  44.332  59.825  45  43.432  42.813  50.662  47.076  45.899  43.779  56.697  47.230  42.599  58.044  7  oa oa  Subject  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  46  39.190  59.314  47.425  52.715  45.018  55.052  52.392  47.230  47.799  51.511  47  61.816  56.014  51.957  48.956  52.946  47.537  20.104  47.230  53.867  56.262  48  50.503  36.212  44.188  47.546  35.329  43.779  58.849  47.230  59.934  52.699  49  70.300  52.714  50.662  42.847  57.350  40.021  48.087  61.080  37.399  52.105  50  61.816  49.413  52.604  57.884  57.350  43.779  45.934  61.080  41.732  56.262  51  50.503  56.014  42.. 246  35.798  36.210  55.052  63.154  54.155  74.235  44.385  52  61.816  42.813  50.014  39.557  52.946  73.840  63.154  47.230  53.867  33.101 .  53  47.675  56.014  50.014  51.305  44.137  47.537  52.392  33.381  50.400  52.699  54  30.705  39.513  20.234  37.678  22.116  40.021  39.477  26.456  48.666  13.503  55  40.604  49.413  40.303  44.726  54.708  47.537  48.087  54.155  61.234  50.323  56  61.816  49.413  53.899  42.847  44.137  47.537  54.544  61.080  56.900  48.542  57  51.917  56.014  58.431  48.486  39.733  62.567  50.239  54.155  52.567  53.293  58  44.846  52.714  42.893  50.365  52.946  51.294  61.002  47.230  44.332  53.887  59  51.917  26.312  58.431  48.486  50.303  66.325  54.544  54.155  48.233  52.105  60  64.644  42.813  46.777  40.967  52.946  43.779  48.087  54.155  50.400  46.760  61  64.644  49.413  50.014  64.463  48.542  43.779  54.544  47.230  69.901  58.638 cc  Subject  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  62  43.432  42.813  56.488  56.005  58.231  43.779  50.239  33.381  37.832  46.760  63  39.190  39.513  37*066  57.884  61.755  40.021  22.257  54.155  56.900  23.005  64  50.503  46.113  42*246  57.884  57.350  47.537  48.087  33.381  46.O66  44.385  65  64.644  59.314  39.009  55.065  45.899  40.021  45.934  47.230  50.833  43.197  66  43.432  56.014  50.662  54.595  48.542  40.021  56.697  40.305  55.167  49.729  67  32.119  46.113  26.708  45.666  44.137  40.021  15.799  26.456  48.233  24.786  68  57.573  39.513  39.009  47.076  50.303  47.537  50.239  60'. 080  43.899  47.354  69  56.159  52.714  60.373  43.787  57.350  58.810  37.324  54.155  43.032  57.450  70  54.745  56.014  53.251  52.715  61.755  ' 46.779  56.697  54.155  39.565  53.293  71  61.816  56.014  30.592  43.787  51.184  40.021  45.934  47.230  35.665  21.223  72  60.402  46.113  58.431  42.377  44.137  62.567  41.629  54.155  50.833  58.638  73  51.917  29.612  51.309  40.497  35.329  40.021  54.544  54.155  52.567  49.729  74  57.573  59.314  54.546  55.065  57.350  47.537  48.087  61.080  60.801  42.603  75  46.260  57.714  56.488  53.655  52.946  51.294  48.087  47.230  39.565  47.948  76  44.846  49.413  61.668  59.764  61.755  43.779  54.544  47.230  44.332  58.044  77  30.705  46.113  40.951  60.704  68.801  40.021  45.934  26.456  36.532  35.476 O  6  9  10  54.155  56.900  62.201  52.392  54.155  40.866  55.668  43.779  53.849  54.155  52.567  45.572  57.350  51.294  56.697  47.230  56.900  47.948  46.606  27.401  62.567  67.459  61.080  56.467  56.856  61.668  62.583  58.231  70.082  58.849  54.155  66.368  58.638  42.813  44.335  57.884  52.946  70.082  67.459  61.080  54.733  60.419  50.503  62.614  62.962  90.779  88.130  58.810  50.239  61.080  61.234  59.232  86  30.705  46.113  61.020  39.557  47.661  47.537  45.934  47.230  63.834  50,323  37  61.816  56.014  42.893  49.396  53.827  55.052  58.849  61.080  52.567  52.699  88  58.987  59.314  44.188  57.884  59.993  47.537  50.239  54.155  40.866  45.572  89  53.331  39.513  22.823  32.039  42.376  40.021  17.952  26.456  50.400  28.350  90  50.503  46.113  38.361  35.798  35.329  40.021  43.037  40.305  43.466  56.262  Mean  13.644  15.178  23.002  87.222  46.656  2.656  15.889  3.400  5.408  141.544  S.D.  7.072  3.030  1.545  21.280  11.353  2.661  4.646  1,444  2.308  I6.838  1  2  73  57.573  52.714  60.373  56.005  50.303  47.537  35.172  79  50.503  42.813  51.957  65.873  60.874  73.840  80  47.675  56.014  44.188  64.463  57.350  81  60.402  26.312  27.355  49.896  82  37.776  59.314  48.072  83  63.230  52.714  8k  56.159  85  5ubject  3  4  5  7  3  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0077259/manifest

Comment

Related Items