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C.A.H.P.E.R. fitness-performance test as validated by the Fleishman basic fitness test 1966

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THE G.A.H.P.E.R. FITNESS-PERFORMANCE TEST AS VALIDATED BY THE FLEISHMAN BASIC FITNESS TEST by CHARLES S. JORDAN B.P.E., UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1963 A Thesis Submitted In P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t Of The Requirements For The Degree Of Master Of P h y s i c a l Education In The School Of P h y s i c a l Education And Recreation We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia June, 1966 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Br i t ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for ex- tensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for finan- cial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION The University of Br i t ish Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date JUNE, 1966 ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was t o a s c e r t a i n the degree to which the C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test i s a v a l i d measure of motor f i t n e s s as determined by the Fleishman Basic F i t n e s s Test. A second purpose was to determine whether abbreviated b a t t e r i e s w i t h l i t t l e or no l o s s of v a l i d i t y can be developed. The subjects c o n s i s t e d of n i n e t y grade s i x and seven boys e n r o l l e d at an elementary school i n Vancouver. T-score values f o r each of the C.A.H.P.E.R. and Fleishman items were computed. These values were used to e s t a b l i s h the i n t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n (average T-score value of the s i x C.A.H.P.E.R. v a r i a b l e s ) and the e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n (average T-score value of the ten Fleishman v a r i a b l e s ) . I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between the s i x C.A.H.P.E.R. t e s t items and t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h both the i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n were computed. The v a r i a b l e s which y i e l d e d the best combined r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the c r i t e r i o n score were s e l e c t e d by the stepwise m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n method. The v a l i d i t y of the C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test was determined by i t s c o r r e l a t i o n with the Fleishman Bas i c F i t n e s s Test. B a t t e r y A, (the s h u t t l e run, the 300 yard run, and the f l e x e d arm hang) w i t h an R of 0.961, was chosen as the best three item p r e d i c t o r of the i n t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n . Battery B, (Batt e r y A and the standing broad jump) w i t h i t s R of 0.90*2, was found t o be the best f o u r item p r e d i c t o r . B a t t e r y D (the standing broad jump, the s h u t t l e run, and the f l e x e d arm hang) was chosen as the best three item indoor b a t t e r y . I t s m u l t i p l e R was 0.6*94. Batte r y F (Battery D and the one minute speed s i t - u p ) had an R of 0.941 and was chosen as the best f o u r item indoor p r e d i c t o r of the i n t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n . B a t t e r y G, (the s h u t t l e run and the 300 yard run) with i t s m u l t i p l e R of 0.763, was chosen as the best two item p r e d i c t o r of the e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n . With the a d d i t i o n of the standing broad jump, Batte r y H was formed. I t s m u l t i p l e R of 0.775, made t h i s b a t t e r y the best p r e d i c t o r of the e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n . B a t t e r y J , (the standing broad jump, the s h u t t l e run, and the f l e x e d arm hang) wi t h i t s R of 0.752, was chosen as the best indoor p r e d i c t o r of the e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n . The high degree of v a l i d i t y of the C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test as measured by the Fleishman Basic F i t n e s s Test was s u b s t a n t i a t e d by: a) the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.790, b) the zero-order c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.7S1. B a t t e r i e s G and H, however, p r e d i c t the Fleishman Test almost as w e l l as the complete C.A.H.P.E.R. Test. The r e l a t i v e l y high r e l a t i o n s h i p between each of the f o l l o w i n g : a) the one minute speed s i t - u p , b) the s h u t t l e run, c) the 50 yard run, d) the 300 yard run, i n d i c a t e d t h a t the C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test contains measures of variance common t o more than one t e s t item. DEDICATION This study i s dedicated to my w i f e , Florence, i n a p p r e c i a t i o n of her s a c r i f i c e s . ACKNOWLEDGMENT The w r i t e r wishes t o express h i s s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o h i s a d v i s e r Dr. H.D. W h i t t l e f o r h i s constant encourage- ment and val u a b l e a d v i c e . The w r i t e r i s s i m i l a r l y indebted t o Dr. S.R. Brown f o r h i s guidance and a i d i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the t e s t s and to Miss R. Hogan, S t a t i s t i c i a n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The w r i t e r a l s o wishes to extend h i s g r a t i t u d e t o the teachers and students of Queen E l i z a b e t h Elementary School and t o the Vancouver School Board. T h e i r i n t e r e s t and cooperation d i r e c t l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o the success of t h i s study. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I STATEMENT AND JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM . . 1 The Problem : 1 J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the Problem . . . . . . 2 I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 6 I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURES 13 Pr e p a r a t i o n f o r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Tests IS A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Tests 19 S t a t i s t i c a l Treatment of Data . . . . . . 21 IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 27 A n a l y s i s of I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n and V a l i d i t y C o e f f i c i e n t s 27 S e l e c t i o n of Short B a t t e r i e s as P r e d i c t o r s of the C.A.H.P.E.R. Test . . 30 A n a l y s i s of the C.A.H.P.E.R. C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s with the E x t e r n a l C r i t e r i o n 35 S e l e c t i o n of Short B a t t e r i e s as P r e d i c t o r s of the E x t e r n a l C r i t e r i o n . 36 C o r r e l a t i o n of the C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - Performance Test w i t h the E x t e r n a l C r i t e r i o n 40 CHAPTER PAGE V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . 44 Treatment of the Data 44 B a t t e r i e s Which P r e d i c t the I n t e r n a l C r i t e r i o n • 45 B a t t e r i e s Which P r e d i c t the E x t e r n a l C r i t e r i o n 46 V a l i d a t i o n of the C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - Performance Test 47 Conclusions 4& Recommendations • 49 BIBLIOGRAPHY 51 APPENDICES A D e s c r i p t i o n of the C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - Performance Test Items B Test I n s t r u c t i o n f o r the Fleishman Basi c F i t n e s s Tests . . . . . . . . . . . C The C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test Score Card D Fleishman F i t n e s s Test Score Card . . . . . . E Areas of F i t n e s s as Defined by Fleishman . . . F A l t e r n a t e T e s t i n g Procedures N e c e s s i t a t e d by Weather Conditions G T-Scores f o r the C.A.H.P.E.R. V a r i a b l e s . . . H T-Scores f o r the Fleishman V a r i a b l e s . . • • . LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I Zero-order C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s at the 5% and 1% L e v e l s of S i g n i f i c a n c e . . . . 24 I I M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s (R) at the 5% and 1% Levels of S i g n i f i c a n c e . . 25 I I I I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s and T e s t - C r i t e r i o n C o r r e l a t i o n s of the C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test Batt e r y . . . . 28 IV The Increase i n the M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t w i t h A d d i t i o n a l V a r i a b l e s . 31 V Other Motor F i t n e s s B a t t e r i e s Which Are S a t i s f a c t o r y as P r e d i c t o r s of the C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test . 32 VI Regression Equations f o r P r e d i c t i n g the I n t e r n a l C r i t e r i o n . . 34 V I I C o r r e l a t i o n of the C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - Performance Test V a r i a b l e s w i t h the Fleishman Basic F i t n e s s Test 35 V I I I The Increase i n M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s w i t h A d d i t i o n a l V a r i a b l e s . . . . . 37 IX Other Motor F i t n e s s B a t t e r i e s Which Are S a t i s f a c t o r y As P r e d i c t o r s of the Fleishman Bas i c F i t n e s s Test . . . . . . 3# TABLE PAGE X Regression Equations f o r P r e d i c t i n g the E x t e r n a l C r i t e r i o n . . . . . . 39 XI Zero-order and M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n of the C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test with the Fleishman Basic F i t n e s s Test . 41 CHAPTER I STATEMENT AND JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM I . THE PROBLEM The object* of t h i s study i s two f o l d . Namely t o determine: a) the extent to which the C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - Performance Test i s a v a l i d t e s t of motor f i t n e s s as measured by the Fleishman Bas i c F i t n e s s Test; b) whether an abbreviated b a t t e r y w i t h l i t t l e or no l o s s of v a l i d i t y can be developed. Assumption: Motor f i t n e s s i s a q u a l i t y which cannot be measured d i r e c t l y . Motor performance i s t h e r e f o r e s e l e c t e d as the best and most r e a d i l y measurable r e f l e c t o r of motor f i t n e s s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e assumed that motor f i t n e s s i s r e l a t e d to achievement i n performance t e s t s i n v o l v i n g muscular strength and endurance, c a r d i o v a s c u l a r - r e s p i r a t o r y endurance, muscular power, f l e x i b i l i t y , speed, a g i l i t y , c o o r d i n a t i o n and balance. L i m i t a t i o n s : 1. The time a v a i l a b l e f o r t e s t i n g was l i m i t e d t o the c l a s s time of the s u b j e c t s . 2. The t o t a l number of subjects was l i m i t e d t o those en- r o l l e d at the sample s c h o o l . 2 3. The age ranged from 10 years 2 months to 13 years 6 months. 4. Although t e s t d i r e c t i o n s are standardized, i t was im- po s s i b l e t o contro l • c o m p l e t e l y m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . 5. The order of t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was l i m i t e d by weather c o n d i t i o n s . I I . JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM There has been a growing i n t e r e s t w i t h i n Canada and the United States f o r the need f o r a v a l i d t e s t of motor f i t n e s s . Many t e s t s have been devised. Most of these t e s t s have been constructed i n u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the United States and w i t h norms based upon American populations. The Board of D i r e c t o r s of the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation (C.A.H.P.E.R.) decided t h a t i t was of s p e c i a l importance t o develop i n Canada a set of n a t i o n a l performance norms f o r Canadian c h i l d r e n . Thus they issued a d i r e c t i v e t o the C.A.H.P.E.R. research committee at t h e i r 1963 n a t i o n a l convention, i n i t i a t i n g . t h e p r o j e c t which r e s u l t e d i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - Performance Test. The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s p r o j e c t was t h r e e - f o l d : a) t o e s t a b l i s h fitness-performance norms on the se l e c t e d t e s t - i t e m s f o r Canadian boys and g i r l s aged seven to seventeen; 3 b) t o provide teachers w i t h inf o r m a t i o n about the current range of performance a b i l i t y of each age- sex group; c) t o provide i n c e n t i v e f o r the personal f i t n e s s improvement of Canadian c h i l d r e n . As a r e s u l t of the 1964 C.A.H.P.E.R. Research Com- mittee meetings i n Edmonton and Ottawa, the t e s t items were se l e c t e d and the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e t a i l s were e s t a b l i s h e d . The s e l e c t i o n of t e s t items depended upon: a) the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of the performance elements as p r e d i c t o r s of motor f i t n e s s ; b) the ease of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the t e s t items i n terms of: 1. the economy of time, 2. equipment and space r e q u i r e d ; c) the appropriateness and a d a p t a b i l i t y of the t e s t items f o r a l l ages and both sexes. Consi d e r a t i o n was a l s o given to items which a f f o r d e d i n t e r - n a t i o n a l comparisons. The v a l i d i t y of the C.A.H.P.E.R. t e s t b a t t e r y (1) was based upon the p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge and experience of Can- adian p h y s i c a l educational experts. Although c o r r e l a t i o n a l and f a c t o r a n a l y t i c i n f o r m a t i o n was considered while s e l e c t - i n g t e s t items, no l e v e l of c o r r e l a t i o n to some c r i t e r i o n as the minimum standard was set by the committee. " I t was f e l t t hat most items would be s e l f - v a l i d a t i n g i n the f a c t that they sample a type of movement or performance which we wanted to assess." (2) I t i s the purpose of t h i s study to add inf o r m a t i o n as to the e m p i r i c a l v a l i d i t y of the C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - Performance Test. 5 REFERENCES 1. The Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l Education, and R e c r e a t i o n , "Minutes of the Meeting of the Research Committee of the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation." U n i v e r s i t y of Ottawa, Ottawa, May 1,2, 19o4> p. 2. (Mimeographed.) 2. The Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l Education, and R e c r e a t i o n , "Minutes of the Meeting of the Research Committee of the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l Education and R e c r e a t i o n , " U n i v e r s i t y of Edmonton, Edmonton, February 21,22, 23, 1964, p. 6. (Mimeographed.) CHAPTER I I REVIEW GF THE LITERATURE V a l i d i t y of a t e s t may be defined as the accuracy w i t h which the t e s t measures th a t which i t i s used to measure, or as the degree to which i t approaches i n f a l l i b i l - i t y i n measuring th a t which i t purports to measure ( l ) ( 2 ) ( 3 ) . "A t e s t i s v a l i d f o r a p a r t i c u l a r purpose or i n a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n - i t i s not g e n e r a l l y v a l i d . " (4) Cureton suggests that there are two major aspects of v a l i d i t y : relevance and r e l i a b i l i t y (5). Relevance i s con- cerned with the closeness of agreement between that which the t e s t measures and the f u n c t i o n that i t i s used to measure. R e l i a b i l i t y i s concerned w i t h the accuracy and consistency of the t e s t * s measuring a b i l i t y . When a v a l i d i t y study i s being made, l o g i c as w e l l as s t a t i s t i c s should be a p p l i e d . Face v a l i d i t y i s a r a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s of the task i n v o l v e d i n the t e s t s i t u a t i o n (6). In such cases, the i n v e s t i g a t o r v a l i d a t e s a t e s t d e s c r i p t i v e l y , u s i n g l o g i c a l explanations to show t h a t the t e s t does measure th a t which i s r e q u i r e d by the d e s c r i p t i v e c r i t e r i o n (7). Face v a l i d i t y then, i s the extent to which the t e s t i s con- v i n c i n g as a measure of that f o r which i t i s being used. I t i s a form of s e l f - v a l i d a t i o n . Content v a l i d i t y i s the v a l i d a t i o n of a t e s t ' s content by means of competent judgements. I t i s e s t a b l i s h e d by 7 showing that the t e s t items are a sample of a universe i n which the i n v e s t i g a t o r i s i n t e r e s t e d . T h i s type of v a l i d i t y i s o r d i n a r i l y t o be e s t a b l i s h e d d e d u c t i v e l y , by d e f i n i n g a universe of items and sampling s y s t e m a t i c a l l y w i t h i n t h i s universe to e s t a b l i s h the t e s t (&*). T h i s has been the b a s i s f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of many general motor a b i l i t y and motor f i t n e s s t e s t s ( 9 ) . These two processes c o n s i s t of a n a l y z i n g the a c t i v i t y i n terms of i t s fundamental elements. The researcher then i n v e s t i g a t e s t e s t items to measure these elements. The content v a l i d i t y i s u s u a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d d e d u c t i v e l y by s y s t e m a t i c a l l y sampling the universe i n which the t e s t e r i s i n t e r e s t e d t o e s t a b l i s h the t e s t . This i s most s a t i s f a c t o r y when the sampling of items i s wide and j u d i c i o u s and when standardized groups are u t i l i z e d (10)(11). Content v a l i d i t y , then, i s concerned w i t h how w e l l the t e s t performance represents the universe of c r i t e r i o n behaviour (12)(13). The above two methods were used f o r the s e l e c t i o n and v a l i d a t i o n of the C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test. The combined judgement of experts i s o f t e n used when i t i s d i f f i c u l t to f i n d a s u i t a b l e t e s t f o r a c r i t e r i o n measure. Though t h i s procedure i s time consuming, i t may prove more b e n e f i c i a l than comparing a new t e s t w i t h s e v e r a l o l d e r t e s t s of questionable value (14). The v a l i d i t y of a t e s t may be determined experimen- t a l l y by f i n d i n g the c o r r e l a t i o n between the t e s t and some independent c r i t e r i o n , such as another t e s t of the same 8 f a c t o r i n which r e s u l t s have already been e s t a b l i s h e d (15). A c r i t e r i o n i s a standard of judging that which i s a known and accepted measure of whatever the author wishes t o t e s t (16). I t may be another t e s t which has proven i t s worth or i t may be some score determined s u b j e c t i v e l y such as t h a t provided by a r a t i n g (17). The c r i t e r i o n i s the y a r d s t i c k against which the t e s t i n question i s to be measured. I t i s th e r e f o r e most important that the c r i t e r i o n i s ap p r o p r i a t e . T h is type of v a l i d a t i o n i s c a l l e d e m p i r i c a l or s t a - t i s t i c a l v a l i d i t y . I f the c o r r e l a t i o n between the t e s t and the c r i t e r i o n i s h i g h , they measure e s s e n t i a l l y the same t h i n g . T h i s p r a c t i c e of v a l i d a t i n g a new t e s t w i t h an es- t a b l i s h e d c r i t e r i o n has not been widely used i n p h y s i c a l and h e a l t h education (18)(19). I t i s u s u a l l y very d i f f i c u l t to create or l o c a t e a s u i t a b l e c r i t e r i o n measure. A motor f i t n e s s c r i t e r i o n i s no exception. A l l c r i t e r i o n measures are p a r t i a l measures i n th a t they measure only part of the a b i l i t i e s or p r e l i m i n a r i e s u n d e r l y i n g the a c t u a l performance (20). The problem then becomes one of choosing the most s a t i s f a c t o r y c r i t e r i o n measure.from among those measures which appear most o b t a i n - a b l e . Thorndike and Hagen l i s t the f o l l o w i n g d e s i r a b l e q u a l i t i e s of a c r i t e r i o n measure: a) relevance, b) freedom from b i a s , 9 c) r e l i a b i l i t y , d) a v a i l a b i l i t y (21). The e m p i r i c a l v a l i d i t y of a t e s t i s . . . "expressed as a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , t h a t i s a numerical expression of the degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p between two f a c t o r s or a b i l i - t i e s as measured on a given p o p u l a t i o n . " In t h i s case, the c o e f f i c i e n t expresses the degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c r i t e r i o n and the t e s t (22). The assurance of a new t e s t i s l i m i t e d by the degree of agreement between the c r i t e r i o n t e s t and the q u a l i t y measured. The higher the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , the more t r u l y - d o e s the t e s t appear t o be measuring the a b i l i t y i n que s t i o n , that i s , the more n e a r l y i t confirms the b a s i c assumptions of face v a l i d i t y (23). S k i l l i s re q u i r e d to i n t e r p r e t v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s because there are many f a c t o r s which may i n f l u e n c e e m p i r i c a l v a l i d i t y . Some t e s t s lend themselves more n a t u r a l l y t o v a l i d - a t i o n s t u d i e s than do other s . Often good c r i t e r i a are d i f f i - c u l t t o f i n d . Such i s the case i n f i n d i n g a s u i t a b l e motor f i t n e s s c r i t e r i o n . Under these c o n d i t i o n s a high r e l a t i o n - s h i p between the t e s t and the c r i t e r i o n i s u n l i k e l y . The experimenter has no way of knowing from h i s ex- periment whether or not the t e s t i s a b e t t e r measure of the des i r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c than i s the c r i t e r i o n . Because a t e s t may work w e l l w i t h one group and not so w e l l w i t h another, the v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s may vary 10 m a r k e d l y as t h e p o p u l a t i o n s d i f f e r . The c o e f f i c i e n t i s l i k e l y t o be h i g h e r when t h e group b e i n g examined e x h i b i t s g r e a t v a r i a b i l i t y . A good t e s t s h o u l d d i s c r i m i n a t e w e l l even when t h e group i s h i g h l y homogeneous. The d i s c r i m i n a t o r y power o f a t e s t i s o f t e n e s t a b l i s h e d by comparing d i f f e r e n t groups such as t h e upper q u a r t e r o f t h e group b e i n g t e s t e d w i t h t h e l o w e r group (24). The u s e f u l n e s s o f a . t e s t as a p r e d i c t o r depends not o n l y on how w e l l i t c o r r e l a t e s w i t h a c r i t e r i o n , but a l s o on how much a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n i t w i l l g i v e u s . Even when a t e s t c o r r e l a t e s v e r y h i g h l y w i t h t h e c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e , i t may not be o f much v a l u e . Some o f t h e t e s t s w hich a r e t o be used i n a b a t t e r y may be measuring t h e same a b i l i t i e s as o t h e r t e s t s , t h u s a d u p l i c a t i o n o f measurement r e s u l t s . The e x t e n t t o which t h i s i s t r u e may be determined by a c o r r e - l a t i o n o f t h e s u s p e c t e d t e s t s a g a i n s t one a n o t h e r . Such a c o r r e l a t i o n between two t e s t i t e m s i s known as an i n t e r c o r r e - l a t i o n . I n combining t e s t s t o f o r m a b a t t e r y , t h o s e w i t h l o w i n t e r c o r r e l a t ^ i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s and a t t h e same t i m e h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s w i t h t h e c r i t e r i o n ( not l e s s t h a n .500) a r e s e l e c t e d because t h e y measure d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e d e s i r e d c r i t e r i o n performance. The v a l i d i t y o f t h e t o t a l t e s t b a t t e r y may be computed by a m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n p r o c e d u r e . T h i s s t a t i s t i c a l p r o - cedure a l l o w s us t o determine t h e b e s t weight t o g i v e each o f two o r more motor f i t n e s s p r e d i c t o r s and t o c a l c u l a t e t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t t h a t w i l l r e s u l t from t h i s combin- a t i o n (25). The r e s u l t a n t weights are c a l l e d r e g r e s s i o n weights and the r e s u l t a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s are c a l l e d m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . S e v e r a l of the above combinations may be t r i e d . The r e s u l t a n t m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s w i l l i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i v e v a l i d i t y of each combination w i t h the c r i t e r i o n . The experimenter then chooses a b a t t e r y i n terms of the highest m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t or he s e l e c t s the few most v a l i d and l e a s t overlapping t e s t s (26). Consid- e r a t i o n must a l s o be given to the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f e a s i b i l i t y , costs,, s p e c i a l i z e d equipment needed, and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the t e s t to the program being used. A t e s t b a t t e r y may be qu i t e d e s i r a b l e when considered i n the l i g h t of i t s r e l a t i o n - s h i p w i t h the e s s e n t i a l c r i t e r i a , but the use to which i t s r e s u l t s can be put, may not j u s t i f y the e f f o r t and money i n v o l v e d . Weiss and Scott (27) summarize the s t a t i s t i c a l v a l i d - a t i o n process by g i v i n g the f o l l o w i n g procedures. A t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the c r i t e r i o n i s computed. Those t e s t s w i t h high c o r r e l a t i o n s are s e l e c t e d as the best prospects f o r the new t e s t b a t t e r y . . Every t e s t i s then c o r r e l a t e d w i t h every other t e s t i n the experimental b a t t e r y w i t h the purpose of e l i m i n a t i n g d u p l i c a t i o n of measures of the same f a c t o r . M u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s are computed between the 12 c r i t e r i o n and two or more t e s t s w i t h the purpose of s e l e c t i n g a n a l y t i c a l l y the l e a s t number of items to form a b a t t e r y . This b a t t e r y should not only be constructed on i t s high r e - l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the c r i t e r i o n but a l s o upon i t s ease and economy of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The W h e r r y - D o o l i t t l e m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s method of t e s t s e l e c t i o n i s o f t e n used. This method i s a l s o used t o develop a r e g r e s s i o n equation which i n d i c a t e s the r e l a t i v e importance of each item i n the t e s t b a t t e r y . I f the items are a l l of ap p r o x i - mately the same weight or importance, the researcher may d i s r e g a r d weighting i n s e t t i n g up the s c o r i n g system. When the weightings i n the r e g r e s s i o n equation are unequal, i t i s best t o use the equation i t s e l f , to compute the t o t a l per- formance score. I f t h i s procedure i s not f o l l o w e d , the t o t a l t e s t scores w i l l be l e s s v a l i d than i s i n d i c a t e d by the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s technique i s a va l u a b l e technique i n any v a l i d i t y study, when i t provides i n f o r m a t i o n as to what the t e s t measures, and to a l i m i t e d extent, how w e l l i t performs t h i s measurement t a s k . Factor a n a l y s i s i s a spec- i a l i z e d mathematical technique t h a t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y s t u d i e s the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t e s t s or other measures. Through t h i s technique, i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of a l a r g e number of t e s t s are examined and i f p o s s i b l e accounted f o r i n terms of a much sma l l e r number of more fundamental f a c t o r s . Each t e s t item i s given a f a c t o r l o a d i n g or weight as a r e s u l t of the t e s t f s c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h each f a c t o r . T h i s c o e f f i c i e n t becomes the t e s ^ s f a c t o r i a l v a l i d i t y (2&). That i s , the v a l i d i t y of a t e s t as a measure of one of these f a c t o r s i s i t s c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h that p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r . As f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , s t u d i e s become more extensive and more c a r e f u l l y designed, t h e i r f i n d i n g s w i l l i n c r e a s i n g l y converge, confirming the existence of i d e n t i f i a b l e motor f i t n e s s f a c t o r s . Gradually a reference system of f a c t o r s w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d from,which d i f f e r e n t t e s t s can be de- s c r i b e d (29). The Fleishman Basic F i t n e s s Test was constructed as a r e s u l t of f a c t o r i a l a n a l y s i s technique. F i r s t , a comprehen- s i v e review of the l i t e r a t u r e on previous f a c t o r a n a l y t i c research on the dimensions of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s was made. Considerable p r e - t e s t i n g of new and e x i s t i n g t e s t s was then c a r r i e d out. The most r e l i a b l e t e s t s from these p r e - t e s t s t u d i e s along w i t h the more f a m i l i a r t e s t s were included i n two l a r g e - s c a l e s t u d i e s w i t h United States Navy r e c r u i t s . The c o r r e l a t i o n s among a l l the t e s t s administered were obtained and subjected to f a c t o r a n a l y s i s s t u d i e s . This provided a b e t t e r d e f i n i t i o n of the f a c t o r s t h a t need t o be assessed f o r a more comprehensive e v a l u a t i o n of p h y s i c a l p r o f i c i e n c y and provided recommendations f o r t e s t s which best diagnose these d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s . The t e s t s found to be the most r e l i a b l e and d i a g n o s t i c of the d i f f e r e n t f a c t o r s were assembled i n t o b a t t e r i e s and administered to more than 20,000 boys and g i r l s i n 45 c i t i e s throughout the United S t a t e s . The v a l i d i t y of the f i n a l t e s t b a t t e r y was determined i n terms of two c r i t e r i a : the s i z e of the t e s t * s f a c t o r l o a d i n g on i t s primary f a c t o r , and how "pure" the t e s t was i n measuring t h i s f a c t o r . T h is k i n d of v a l i d i t y has been c a l l e d " c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y . " (30) 15 REFERENCES 1. L i n d q u i s t , E.F., A F i r s t Course i n S t a t i s t i c s ; T h e i r Use and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n Education and Psychology, Houghton M i f f l i n Company, Boston, Massachusetts, 1942, p. 213. 2. S c o t t , Gladys M., and French, E s t h e r , Measurement and E v a l u a t i o n i n P h y s i c a l Education, Wm. C. Brown Company P u b l i s h e r s , Dubuque, Iowa, 1959, p. 19. 3 . G a r r e t t , Henry E., S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Educa- t i o n , David McKay Company, Inc., New York, 1964, p. 354. 4 . I b i d . 5. Cureton, Edward E., " V a l i d i t y , " E d i t e d by L i n d q u i s t , E.F., Educational Measurement, American Council on Education, Washington, 1951, pp. 622-623. 6. S c o t t , and French, l o c . c i t . 7. Weiss, Raymond A., and S c o t t , M. Gladys, " C o n s t r u c t i o n of T e s t s , " E d i t e d by S c o t t , M. Gladys Research Methods i n H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l Education, R e c r e a t i o n , American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l Educat- i o n , and R e c r e a t i o n , Washington, 1959, p. 246. 8. Cronbach, Lee J . , and Meehl, Paul E., "Construct V a l i d i t y i n P s y c h o l o g i c a l T e s t s , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n . V o l . 52, May, 1955, p. 282. 9 . C l a r k e , H. H a r r i s o n , A p p l i c a t i o n of Measurement to Health and P h y s i c a l Education, P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., Engle- wood C l i f f s , I960, p. 30-31. 10. G a r r e t t , op_. c i t . , p. 355. 11 . Thorndike, Robert L., and Hagen, E l i z a b e t h , Measurement and E v a l u a t i o n i n Psychology and Education, John Wiley and Sons, I n c . , New York, 1965, pp. 160-163. 12. Adams, Georgia Sachs, Measurement and E v a l u a t i o n i n Education, Psychology and Guidance,, H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and Winston, New York, 1964, p. 128ti ; 16 1 3 . C l a r k , Cherry Ann, "Developments and A p p l i c a t i o n s i n the Area of Construct V a l i d i t y , " American Educational Research A s s o c i a t i o n , Review of Educational Research 29 : 1 , February 1959, pTW. 14. W i l l g o o s e , C a r l E., E v a l u a t i o n of Health Education and P h y s i c a l Education, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1961, p. 23. 15. W i l l g o o s e , p_p_. c i t . , p. 2 2 . 16 . Weiss, and S c o t t , op_. c i t . , p. 236. 17. S c o t t , and French, o_p_. c i t . , pp. 21-22. 16. McCloy," Charles Harold, and Young, Norma Dorothy, Tests and Measurements i n Health and P h y s i c a l Education, "Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., New York, 1954, p. 2 9 . 1 9 . C l a r k e , l o c . c i t . 2 0 . Thorndike, and Hagen, op_. c i t . , p. 164. 2 1 . I b i d . , p. 166. 2 2 . S c o t t , and French, op_. c i t . , p. 21 . 2 3 . I b i d . 24. W i l l g o o s e , op_. c i t . , pp. 22-23. 2 5 . Thorndike, and Hagen, op_. c i t . , p. 166. 2 6 . S c o t t , and French, op_. c i t . , p. 26. 27 . Weiss, and S c o t t , op_. c i t . , pp. 246-246. 2 6 . G a r r e t t , p_p_. c i t . , p. 356. 2 9 . Adams, o£. c i t . , p. 136. 30. Fleishman, Edwin,A., The S t r u c t u r e and Measurement of P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., Englewood • C l i f f s , 1964, p. 133. CHAPTER I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURE The Subjects; The data f o r t h i s study were obtained dur i n g October 1965, by t e s t i n g the ni n e t y boys e n r o l l e d i n grades s i x and seven at Queen E l i z a b e t h Elementary School, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. The age of the subjects ranged from ten years two months t o t h i r t e e n years s i x months. The Test Items: The raw data c o n s i s t e d of a c t u a l performance records made by the subjects on the C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance and Fleishman B a s i c F i t n e s s Test items. The C.A.H.P.E.R. Test consisted of the f o l l o w i n g i t e m s : 1 1. one minute speed s i t - u p , 2. standing broad jump, 3. s h u t t l e run, 4. f l e x e d arm hang, 5. 50 yard run, 6. 300 yard run. 2 The Fleishman Test contained the f o l l o w i n g items: 1. extent f l e x i b i l i t y t e s t , See Appendix A, f o r f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n of the C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test items. 2 See Appendix B, f o r f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n of the Fleishman B a s i c F i t n e s s Test items. 2. dynamic f l e x i b i l i t y t e s t , 3. s h u t t l e run, 4. s o f t b a l l throw, 5. hand g r i p , 6. p u l l - u p s , 7. l e g l i f t s , £. cable jump t e s t , 9. balance - A t e s t , 10. 600 yard run-walk. The r e s u l t s from the C.A.H.P.E.R. and Fleishman t e s t items 1 2 were recorded by the examiner on the score cards ' as O I recommended by the.appropriate manuals. ' • I-. PREPARATION FOR ADMINISTRATION OF TESTS The t e s t i n g team in c l u d e d fourth-year p h y s i c a l edu- c a t i o n majors and sen i o r p h y s i c a l education students. T h i s team had been w e l l prepared f o r the t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s by xSee Appendix C, f o r the C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r - formance Test*s score card. See Appendix D, f o r the Fleishman B a s i c F i t n e s s T e s t f s score card. See Appendix A, f o r f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n of s c o r i n g procedures f o r the C.A.H.P^E.R. Fitness-Performance Test. ^"See Appendix B, f o r f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n of s c o r i n g procedures f o r the Fleishman Basic F i t n e s s Test. t h e i r r e g u l a r l y scheduled Test and Measurement l a b o r a t o r y c l a s s e s . During these c l a s s e s , they were examined not only on t h e i r techniques of t e s t i n g , but a l s o on t h e i r knowledge of the two t e s t s . S t r i c t s u p e r v i s i o n of the t e s t i n g procedures was p r a c t i c e d throughout the t e s t i n g periods. This s t r i c t super- v i s i o n was made e a s i e r by the f a c t t h a t : 1. no more than f o u r boys were assigned to a t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t o r , 2. equipment and areas f o r t e s t i n g were prepared w e l l i n advance. I I . ADMINISTRATION OF TESTS The C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test and the Fleishman Basic F i t n e s s Test were administered during the r e g u l a r p h y s i c a l education period on two consecutive Tuesdays and Thursdays. The time a l l o t t m e n t f o r each t e s t p e r i o d was BO minutes. The two t e s t p e r i o d s , A and B, were organized as f o l l o w s : Test P e r i o d A: During t h i s p eriod the f o l l o w i n g data were obtained: 1. The s i x measures of the C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s Test; 2. Three measures of the Fleishman Basic F i t n e s s Test: a) extent f l e x i b i l i t y , b) dynamic f l e x i b i l i t y , c) hand g r i p . Test P e r i o d B; During t h i s period the Fleishman items noted below were measured: 1. s h u t t l e run, 2. p u l l - u p s , 3. l e g l i f t s , 4. cable jump, 5. balance - A, 6. s o f t b a l l throw, 7. 600 yard run-walk. Because of weather c o n d i t i o n s , exceptions to the above procedure were experienced by the Tuesday group. T h e i r t e s t i n g procedure i s given i n Appendix F. Consideration i n t e s t s e l e c t i o n was made, so that no motor f i t n e s s f a c t o r would be measured twice during the same p e r i o d . Before the subjects attempted any t e s t item, i n s t r u c t - ions were read from the appropriate t e s t manual, (see Appendices A, and B.) Each t e s t was then demonstrated. Although each of the subjects had p r a c t i c e d the t e s t items during e a r l i e r p h y s i c a l education p e r i o d s , they were again allowed p r a c t i c e attempts. During t h i s time, c o r r e c t i o n s were made t o guarantee an acceptable l e v e l of performance. The f o l l o w i n g t e s t items were not p r a c t i c e d : 1. hand g r i p , 2. p u l l - u p s , 3. f l e x e d arm hang, 4. 50 yard run, 21 5. 300 yard run, 6 . 600 yard run. Because of f a t i g u e f a c t o r s , i t was decided that p r a c t i c e attempts, on the above items j u s t before performance might be d e t r i m e n t a l . I I I . STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF DATA The C r i t e r i a : In t h i s study, both the i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n were e s t a b l i s h e d i n the same manner. The i n t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n was the average composite score of the s i x C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance T e s t s . The e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n was the average composite score of the ten F l e i s h - man Basic F i t n e s s Tests. Before the composite scores could be determined, i t was necessary to convert the C.A.H.P.E.R. and Fleishman raw scores i n t o comparable v a l u e s . This was accomplished by computing T scores f o r each raw score ( l ) . I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s of the C.A.H.P.E.R. Test Items: To determine the v a l i d i t y of the t e s t items, i t was necessary to i n t e r c o r r e l a t e each T scored C.A.H.P.E.R. t e s t item w i t h each of the other C.A.H.P.E.R. t e s t items and w i t h the two c r i - t e r i o n scores. This was accomplished through the c a l c u l a t i o n of zero-order c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s using the Pearson- product moment method ( 2 ) . S e l e c t i o n of Tests f o r the B a t t e r y ; Having c a l c u l a t e d the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of the t e s t s w i t h each other and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s i . e . , the c o r r e l a t i o n of each t e s t with i t s i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n score, the next step i n the treatment of the data was the c a l c u l a t i o n of maximal m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s between combinations of t e s t s and the two c r i t e r i o n scores. The t e s t s were chosen i n terms of those w i t h the highest v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s and t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l variance to the dependent v a r i a b l e , the i n t e r n a l or e x t e r n a l 1 c r i t e r i o n . Tests w i t h c r i t e r i o n c o r r e l a t i o n s of 0.600 or b e t t e r were t h e r e f o r e s e l e c t e d as the best prospects f o r the abbreviated t e s t b a t t e r y . The usefulness of a t e s t as a p r e d i c t o r depends not only on how w e l l i t c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the i n t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n , but a l s o on how much new in f o r m a t i o n i t provided i n the form of variance not already measured. Tests, w i t h i n t e r c o r r e l a - t i o n s lower than 0.500 w i l l have the best chance of c o n t r i - b u t i n g p r e v i o u s l y unmeasured v a r i a n c e . The s t a t i s t i c used f o r the s e l e c t i o n of t e s t items f o r the abbreviated b a t t e r i e s was the stepwise m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n method, a computer adaptation of the Wherry- D o o l i t t l e method ( 3 ) . In t h i s method t e s t s are s e l e c t e d a n a l y t i c a l l y and added one at a time u n t i l a maximum m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s obtained. "The v a r i a b l e added i s 23 t h a t one which makes the greatest, improvement i n 1 goodness of f i t * . " (4) An important property of the stepwise procedure i s the f a c t t h a t v a r i a b l e s which have been found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t i n e a r l i e r stages may be found to be i n s i g n i f i c a n t a f t e r s e v e r a l other v a r i a b l e s have been added. When t h i s occurs, the i n s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e i s removed from the r e g r e s s i o n equation before a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s are added. Only s i g n i - f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s , then, are included i n the f i n a l r e g r e s s i o n . The purpose of t h i s s t a t i s t i c a l procedure was to s e l e c t the t e s t s which y i e l d e d the best combined r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the c r i t e r i o n score. I f an appreciable r e d u c t i o n i n the number of t e s t items can be accomplished without a s a c r i f i c e i n v a l i d i t y i t should be so done. Thus abbreviated b a t t e r i e s as p r e d i c t o r s of : 1. the i n t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n , 2. the e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n , were computed. A zero-order c o r r e l a t i o n , using the Pearson product- moment method, was computed as v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s between the complete C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test and the e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n . Table I shows the value t h a t r must be (when N i s 90 and df i s 66) to be s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l , and the .01 l e v e l ( 5 ) . TABLE I 24 ZERO-ORDER CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS AT THE 5% AND 1% LEVELS OF SIGNIFICANCE Degrees of Freedom (N-2) .05 .01 88 .207 .270 N = 90 The s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of a m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n i s dependent upon the number of v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d . Table I I , an i n t e r p o l a t i o n from G a r r e t t ( 6 ) , i s presented f o r ready i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . P r e d i c t i v e i n d i c e s were u t i l i z e d t o i n d i c a t e the b e t t e r than pure chance r e l a t i o n s h i p of the various obtained m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s . Since the N i s constant i n t h i s study, Table I I presents a convenient means of est i m a t i n g the r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n t m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c - i e n t s . 25 TABLE I I MULTIPLE CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS (R) AT THE 5$ AND 1% LEVELS OF SIGNIFICANCE Number of Items i n the B a t t e r y .05 .01 1 .207 .270 2 .257 .316 3 .291 .347 4 .318 .372 5 .342 .394 6 .362 .413 N = 90 i n a l l cases df = 88 REFERENCES 26 G a r r e t t , Henry E., S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education, David McKay Company, New York, 1964,pp. 314-318. I b i d . , pp. 142-145. I b i d . , pp. 426-439. Efroymson, M.A., " M u l t i p l e Regression Analysis," Edited by R a l s t o n , Anthony, W i l f , Herbert S., Mathematical Methods f o r D i g i t a l Computers, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, I960, p. 192. G a r r e t t , op_. c i t . , pp. 198-202. G a r r e t t , Henry E., S t a t i s t i c s In Psychology and Education, Longmans, Green and Co., New York, 1953, pp. 437- 439. CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The primary purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was to determine the degree of v a l i d i t y of the C.A.H.P.E.R, F i t n e s s - Performance Test as measured by the Fleishman B a s i c F i t n e s s Test. The secondary purpose was t o s e l e c t a t e s t or group of t e s t s which are v a l i d measures of motor f i t n e s s . The necessary data were obtained by a d m i n i s t e r i n g the C.A.H.P.E.R. and Fleishman t e s t s to the n i n e t y grade s i x and seven boys at Queen E l i z a b e t h Elementary School. In t h i s study, the v a l i d i t y of the C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test and the s e l e c t e d b a t t e r i e s was a s c e r t a i n e d p r i m a r i l y by t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n p r e d i c t i n g t h e i r own composite score and the Fleishman composite score. The p r e d i c t i v e value of these b a t t e r i e s and the C.A.H.P.E.R. t e s t were analyzed by means of r e g r e s s i o n equations. I . ANALYSIS OF INTERCORRELATION AND VALIDITY COEFFICIENTS The data presented i n Table I I I , i n d i c a t e s that the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s range from 0.146 f o r the stand- i n g broad jump-flexed arm hang, to 0.722 f o r the 50 yard-300 yard runs. The standing broad jump i s contained i n four of the s i x lowest i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s with i t s highest i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t being 0.496 w i t h the s h u t t l e run. 26 TABLE I I I INTERCORRELATIONS AND TEST-CRITERION CORRELATIONS OF THE C.A.H.P.E.R. FITNESS-PERFORMANCE TEST BATTERY 1 2 3 . 4 5 6 G 0.79& , 0 .625 0 .666 O.646 0.605 0 .634 1 0.365 0.652 0.569 0 .476 0.566 2 0 .496 0 .146 . 0.417 . . 0 .435 3 0 .456 0 .696 0 .655 4 O.366 0 .415 5 0 .722 6 Key to v a r i a b l e s : C. C r i t e r i o n (average T-score of the C.A.H.P.E.R. items) 1. One minute speed s i t - u p 2. Standing broad jump 3. S h u t t l e run 4. Flexed arm hang 5. 50 yard run 6 . 300 yard run 29 As shown by Table 1, t o be s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l , the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t must be at l e a s t . 2 7 0 . The standing broad jump-flexed arm hang i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n of .146 i s the only zero-order c o e f f i c i e n t not s i g n i f i c a n t at t h i s l e v e l . The f l e x e d arm hang, i s contained i n f o u r of the seven lowest i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , w i t h i t s highest c o e f f i c i e n t being O.569 w i t h the minute speed s i t - u p . As these two t e s t v a r i a b l e s c o n tain the lower i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t they w i l l c o n t r i b u t e motor f i t n e s s v ariance which i s not well-measured by the other t e s t v a r i a b l e s . This along w i t h the f a c t t h a t they have v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of 0.625 and O.646 r e s p e c t i v e l y , j u s t i f i e s f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of these items as p o s s i b l e motor f i t - ness t e s t s f o r an abbreviated C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Perform- ance Test b a t t e r y . The other f o u r t e s t items: the one minute speed s i t - up, the s h u t t l e run, the 50 yard run and the 300 yard run, have v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s ranging from 0 .798 to 0 . 8 6 6 . T h e i r i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s range from 0.476 t o 0.722 i n d i c a t i n g that some items contain measures of variance which are common to one or more other t e s t v a r i a b l e s . I t i s qu i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t one or more of these t e s t s may be omitted from the abbreviated b a t t e r y w i t h l i t t l e or no l o s s of v a l i d i t y . 30 I I . SELECTION OF SHORT BATTERIES AS PREDICTORS OF THE C.A.H.P.E.R. TEST An a n a l y s i s of Table IV shows that the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , (R) i s increased considerably when the three hundred yard run was added to the s h u t t l e run, which has the highest zero-order c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the c r i - t e r i o n score. T h e i r combined c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.935 i s s a t i s - f a c t o r y f o r p r e d i c t i v e purposes, but the a d d i t i o n of the f l e x e d arm hang, r a i s e s the m u l t i p l e R to 0.961 an even more va l u a b l e p r e d i c t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n . With the a d d i t i o n of the standing broad jump, we obtained an even higher p r e d i c t i v e index w i t h an R of 0.96*2. Since the a d d i t i o n of the one minute speed s i t - u p d i d not i n c r e a s e the m u l t i p l e R to any e x t e n t , the process of adding t e s t v a r i a b l e s was terminated. The two groups of t e s t s , namely t e s t s 3, 4 and 6; and t e s t s 2, 3, 4 and 6, w i l l h e r e a f t e r be known as B a t t e r y A and B. They were s e l e c t e d as the two b a t t e r i e s which best measured that which the C.A.H.P.E.R. composite score i s assumed to measure. That i s , as t e s t b a t t e r i e s , i t i s reasonable to assume t h a t , w i t h the high c o r r e l a t i o n co- e f f i c i e n t s of 0.961 and 0.962 r e s p e c t i v e l y , these two b a t t e r - i e s best p r e d i c t motor f i t n e s s as measured by the C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test. Table I I i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t i s necessary to have a m u l t i p l e R of .347 f o r a three-item b a t t e r y and of .372 f o r a f o u r - i t e m b a t t e r y to be s i g n i f i c a n t 31 at the .01 l e v e l . Thus the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s obtained by B a t t e r i e s A and B were s u f f i c i e n t l y high t o be used f o r p r e d i c t i v e purposes. The high c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s obtained by B a t t e r - i e s A and B f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e the hypothesis that there i s a d u p l i c a t i o n of measurement by the items contained i n the C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test. TABLE IV THE INCREASE IN THE MULTIPLE CORRELATION COEFFICIENT WITH ADDITIONAL VARIABLES V a r i a b l e s Motor C o r r e l a t i o n F i t n e s s w i t h , Test C r i t e r i o n M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t Increase of the M u l t i p l e : 3 S h u t t l e run 0.866 0.866 6. 300 yard run 0.834 0.935 0.069 4 Flexed arm hang 0.646 0.961 0.026 2 Standing broad jump 0.625 0.982 0.021 1 One minute speed s i t - u p 0.798 0.991 0.009 C r i t e r i o n (average T-score of the C.A.H.P.E.R. items) 32 TABLE V OTHER MOTOR FITNESS TEST BATTERIES WHICH ARE SATISFACTORY AS PREDICTORS OF THE C.A.H.P.E.R. FITNESS-PERFORMANCE TEST Bat t e r y C.A.H.P.E.R. V a r i a b l e s M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n w i t h C r i t e r i o n R 2 C 2,4,6 0.948 0.898 D 2,3,4 0.946 0.894 E 1,2,4,6 0.963 0.928 F 1,2,3,4 0.970 0.941 Key to v a r i a b l e s : "^Internal C r i t e r i o n (average T-score of the C.A.H.P.E.R. t e s t items) 1. One minute speed s i t - u p 2. Standing broad jump 3 . S h u t t l e run 4. Flexed arm hang 5. 50 yard run 6. 300 yard run 33 Although the b a t t e r i e s presented i n Table V are most s a t i s f a c t o r y as p r e d i c t o r s of the C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - Performance Test, no three or fo u r v a r i a b l e b a t t e r y has the p r e d i c t i v e power of e i t h e r Battery A or B. However Battery D and F may prove more f l e x i b l e than the former two b a t t e r i e s because they contain items a l l of which can be performed indoors. B a t t e r i e s A and B contain the 300 yard run which i s more s u i t e d t o the l a r g e r outdoor area. Table I I i n d i c a t e s t h a t , f o r a three-itemed b a t t e r y t o be s i g n i f i c a n t , an R of .291 at the .05 l e v e l , and an R of .347 at the .01 l e v e l are necessary. I t a l s o i n d i c a t e s that an R of .318 and .372 are necessary f o r a four-itemed b a t t e r y to be s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 and .01 l e v e l s r e s p e c t - i v e l y . A l l b a t t e r i e s presented i n Tables IV and V are h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Because B a t t e r i e s A,B,D and F were such e x c e l l e n t p r e d i c t o r s of the i n t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n , t h e i r m u l t i p l e regres- s i o n equations are given i n Table V I . 34 TABLE VI REGRESSION EQUATIONS FOR PREDICTING THE INTERNAL CRITERION B a t t e r y Regression Equation A XC = .3625X3 ,1946X4 .3177X6 + 6.2591 B XC = . i a o 9 x 2 + .2875X3 + .2191X. + ,2779X6 + 1.7272 D x c = ,2263X 2 .4264X 3 + ,2642X^ + 4.153 F x c = . 2 0 4 6 X 1 . 2 0 7 2 X 2 + .3355X 3 .1923X. + 3.018 Key t o v a r i a b l e s : X p - I n t e r n a l C r i t e r i o n (average T-score of the C.A.H.P.E.R. c items) X^ - One minute speed s i t - u p X 2 - Standing broad jump X^ - S h u t t l e run X. - Flexed arm hang 4 X^ - 50 yard run X^ - 300 yard run 35 I I I . ANALYSIS OF THE C.A.H.P.E.R. CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS WITH THE EXTERNAL CRITERION Table V I I i n d i c a t e s that the v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of each C.A.H.P.E.R. t e s t item w i t h the e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n , the Fleishman B a s i c F i t n e s s T e s t f s composite score, ranges from 0.436 w i t h the f l e x e d arm hang to 0.717 with the s h u t t l e run. The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r each of the t e s t v a r i a b l e s are presented i n Table I I I . TABLE V I I CORRELATION OF THE C.A.H.P.E.R. FITNESS-PERFORMANCE TEST VARIABLES WITH THE FLEISHMAN BASIC FITNESS TEST C.A.H.P.E.R. Fleishman V a r i a b l e s C r i t e r i o n 1 1. One minute speed s i t - u p 0.580 2 . Standing broad jump 0.513 3 . S h u t t l e run, 0.717 4 . Flexed arm hang 0.436 5 . 50 yard run O.658 6 . 300 yard run 0.667 C r i t e r i o n (average T-score of the Fleishman items) I t i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t the f l e x e d arm hang w i l l , because of i t s low v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of .436, c o n t r i b u t e l i t t l e as a p r e d i c t o r of the e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n , the F l e i s h - man Basic F i t n e s s Test. I t i s not l i k e l y t h a t any p r e d i c t i v e b a t t e r y w i l l c o n t ain a l l three of the running items because of t h e i r high i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . These i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s range from .655 to .722. IV. SELECTION OF SHORT BATTERIES AS PREDICTORS OF THE EXTERNAL CRITERION Table V I I I shows tha t the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n (R) i s increased considerably when the variance from the three hundred yard run i s combined wi t h t h a t of the s h u t t l e run. I t a l s o shows that these two t e s t v a r i a b l e s have the highest zero-order c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , that these items are the f i r s t t e s t s chosen by the stepwise m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n s e l e c t i o n process. T h e i r combined m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.763 as a p r e d i c t o r or v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of an e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n i s q u i t e s a t i s f a c t o r y . The a d d i t i o n of the stand- i n g broad jump r a i s e s the m u l t i p l e R t o 0.775. A d d i t i o n a l t e s t v a r i a b l e s were found to have no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t . 37 TABLE V I I I THE INCREASE IN THE MULTIPLE CORRELATION COEFFICIENT WITH ADDITIONAL VARIABLES Motor C o r r e l a t i o n M u l t i p l e Increase V a r i a b l e s F i t n e s s w i t h E x t e r n a l C o r r e l a t i o n of the Test C r i t e r i o n 1 C o e f f i c i e n t M u l t i p l e R 3 S h u t t l e run 0.717 0.717 6 300 yard run 0.667 0.763 0.046 2 Standing broad jump 0.513 0.775 0.012 E x t e r n a l C r i t e r i o n (average T-score of the Fleishman items) Since the s h u t t l e run and the 300 yard run had a combined m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.763, they were chosen as the best two-item b a t t e r y f o r p r e d i c t i n g the Fleishman Test. This b a t t e r y w i l l h e r e a f t e r be known as Ba t t e r y G. The a d d i t i o n of the standing broad jump produced the best three-item b a t t e r y , h e r e a f t e r known as B a t t e r y H. This b a t t e r y has a m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.775. Ba t t e r y J i n Table IX, was chosen as the best three-item indoor b a t t e r y having a m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n of 0.752. 38 TABLE IX OTHER MOTOR FITNESS TEST BATTERIES WHICH ARE SATISFACTORY AS PREDICTORS OF THE FLEISHMAN BASIC FITNESS TEST Ba t t e r y C.A.H.P.E.R. V a r i a b l e s M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n w i t h E x t e r n a l C r i t e r i o n R 2 I 2,4,6 0.735 0.540 J 2,3,4 0.752 0.566 K 1,2,4,6 0.746 0.556 L 1,2,3,4 0.758 0.574 M 1,2,4,5,6 0.771 0.594 N 1,2,3,4,5 0.781 0.610 Key t o v a r i a b l e s : E x t e r n a l C r i t e r i o n (average T-score of the Fleishman items) 1. One minute speed s i t - u p 2. Standing broad jump 3. S h u t t l e run 4. Flexed arm hang 5. 50 yard run 6. 300 yard run By checking Table I I , i t was found that a l l b a t t e r i e s presented i n Tables V I I I and IX were s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . Regression equations f o r the three s e l e c t e d b a t t e r i e s are presented i n Table X. TABLE X REGRESSION EQUATIONS FOR PREDICTING THE EXTERNAL CRITERION Bat t e r y Regression Equation G X Q = .25£OX3 + .I813X5 + 28.036 H X c = ,0855X 2 + .2263X 3 + .1649X 6 -V 26.167 J X c = ,1186X 2 + .2794X3 + .0840X^ -V- 25.903 Key t o v a r i a b l e s : XQ - E x t e r n a l C r i t e r i o n (average T-score of the Fleishman t e s t items) X^ - One minute speed s i t - u p X 2 - Standing broad jump X3 - S h u t t l e run X^ - Flexed arm hang X5 - 50 yard run X^ - 300 yard run 40 V. CORRELATION OF THE C.A.H.P.E.R. FITNESS-PERFORMANCE TEST WITH THE EXTERNAL CRITERION The data presented i n Table XI show tha t the C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test has a s u b s t a n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the Fleishman B a s i c F i t n e s s Test (1) by both the zero-order and m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . The b a t t e r i e s presented i n Tables V I I I and IX have m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ranging from 0.735 to 0.781. These c o e f f i c i e n t s p r e d i c t the e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n , the Fleishman Basic F i t n e s s Test, almost as w e l l as the complete C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test. The small degree of d i f f e r e n c e between the values of the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e s that the items contained i n the C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test may be measuring variance which i s common to more than one t e s t item. TABLE XI 41 ZERO-ORDER AND MULTIPLE CORRELATION OF THE C.A.H.P.E.R. FITNESS-PERFORMANCE TEST WITH THE FLEISHMAN BASIC FITNESS TEST Type of C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t Zero-order 0.781* M u l t i p l e 0.790* S i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l The Research Committee of the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation agreed i n February 1964, t h a t f l e x i b i l i t y " . . . was very s p e c i a l to the j o i n t or j o i n t s and t h a t no s i n g l e t e s t could purport to measure general f l e x i b i l i t y . " (2) F l e x i b i l i t y was t h e r e f o r e e l i m i n a t e d as an area t o be measured by the C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test. Measures of c o - o r d i n a t i o n (3) and balance (4) were opposed on s i m i l a r grounds. I t i s l i k e l y t h a t the i n c l u s i o n of good measures of these three areas would improve the C.A.H.P.E.R.-Fleishman c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . I t should a l s o improve the u s e f u l - 42 ness of the C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test as a measure of motor f i t n e s s . 43 REFERENCES 1. G a r r e t t , Henry E., S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology, David McKay Company, Inc., New York, 1964, pp. 175-176. 2. The Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l Education and R e c r e a t i o n , "Minutes of the Meeting of the Research Committee of the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Heal t h , P h y s i c a l Education and Re c r e a t i o n , " U n i v e r s i t y of Edmonton, Edmonton. February 21,22, 23, 1964, p. 10. (Mimeographed.) 3. I b i d . , p. 11. 4. I b i d . , p. 5 CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The object of t h i s study was: a) to a s c e r t a i n the degree t o which the C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test i s a v a l i d t e s t of motor f i t n e s s as measured by the Fleishman Bas i c F i t n e s s Test; b) to determine whether or not abbre- v i a t e d b a t t e r i e s w i t h l i t t l e or no l o s s of v a l i d i t y can be developed. The s u b j e c t s c o n s i s t e d of ninety boys e n r o l l e d i n grade s i x and seven at Queen E l i z a b e t h Elementary School, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. T h e i r scores on the s i x C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance t e s t items and the ten Fleishman Basic F i t n e s s t e s t items provided the necessary data. I . TREATMENT OF THE DATA The f i n a l b a t t e r i e s were s e l e c t e d through the a p p l i - c a t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g procedures: 1. T-score values were determined f o r the scores from the s i x C.A.H.P.E.R. and ten Fleishman items which were used i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the i n t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n and e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n respect i v e l y . 2. The composite scores of the i n t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n (average T-score value f o r the s i x C.A.H.P.E.R. 45 v a r i a b l e s ) , and e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n (average T-score value f o r the ten Fleishman v a r i a b l e s ) were determined. 3 . The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between the s i x C.A.H.P.E.R. t e s t items and t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h the i n t e r - n a l and e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n were computed. 4 . The stepwise m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n method of t e s t s e l e c t i o n was a p p l i e d to s e l e c t the v a r i a b l e s . which y i e l d e d the best combined r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the c r i t e r i o n score. 5. The v a l i d i t y of the C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Perform- ance Test was determined by i t s c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the Fleishman Basic F i t n e s s Test. I I . BATTERIES WHICH PREDICT THE INTERNAL CRITERION B a t t e r y A, c o n s i s t i n g o f : a) the s h u t t l e run, b) the 300 yard run, c) the f l e x e d arm hang was chosen as the best three item b a t t e r y . The m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n of 0.961 makes- i t -a most u s e f u l p r e d i c t o r of the i n t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n . B a t t e r y B inc l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g items: a) the s h u t t l e run, b) the 300 yard run, c) the f l e x e d arm hang, ~ ~ d) the standing broad jump. Th i s b a t t e r y was the best f o u r item p r e d i c t o r . The m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was 0.9#2. B a t t e r i e s D and F were s e l e c t e d as the best.indoor . _ b a t t e r i e s having m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of 0.894 and 0.941 r e s p e c t i v e l y . B a t t e r y D co n s i s t e d of: a) the standing broad jump, b) the s h u t t l e run, c) the f l e x e d arm hang, while B a t t e r y F co n s i s t e d o f : a) the one minute speed s i t - u p , . „ „ b) the standing broad jump, c) the s h u t t l e run, d) the f l e x e d arm hang. Although the f l e x e d arm hang and the standing broad jump have the lowest v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s , they are con- t a i n e d , at l e a s t i n p a r t , i n a l l the preceding b a t t e r i e s . I t was hypothesized t h a t s i n c e these items contained the lowest i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , they would l i k e l y c o n t r i b u t e variance which was not well-measured by other v a r i a b l e s . T h i s hypothesis seems to have been s u b s t a n t i a t e d . I I I . BATTERIES WHICH PREDICT THE EXTERNAL CRITERION B a t t e r i e s G and H, with t h e i r m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of O.763 and 0.775 r e s p e c t i v e l y , were chosen as 47 the best two and three item p r e d i c t o r s of the e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n . B a t t e r y G c o n s i s t e d of: a) the s h u t t l e run, b) the 300 yard run, w h i l e B a t t e r y H c o n s i s t e d o f : a) the s h u t t l e run, b) the 300 yard run, c) the standing broad jump. B a t t e r y J , which consisted of: a) the standing broad jump, b) the s h u t t l e run, c) the f l e x e d arm hang, was chosen as the best three item indoor b a t t e r y . I t has a m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.752. IV. VALIDATION OF THE C.A.H.P.E.R. FITNESS-PERFORMANCE TEST These three b a t t e r i e s p r e d i c t the e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n almost as w e l l as does the complete C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - Performance Test which has a m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f 0.790. As expected, i t s zero-order v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f 0.781 i s s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r . V. CONCLUSIONS 48 I t may be concluded t h a t : 1. The C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test as a t e s t of motor f i t n e s s has a high degree of v a l i d i t y as measured by the Fleishman Basic F i t n e s s Test. 2. B a t t e r i e s A and B, w i t h v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of 0.961 and 0.982 r e s p e c t i v e l y , are more than ade- quate p r e d i c t o r s of the C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - Performance Test. 3. B a t t e r i e s D and F, w i t h v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of 0.894 and 0.941, are adequate as indoor b a t t e r i e s p r e d i c t i n g the C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test. 4. B a t t e r i e s G and H, w i t h v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of 0.763 and 0.775 r e s p e c t i v e l y , are n e a r l y equiva- l e n t to the complete C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Perform- ance Test as p r e d i c t o r s of the e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i o n . 5. B a t t e r y J , with a v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.752, i s an adequate p r e d i c t o r of the e x t e r n a l c r i t e r - i o n , the Fleishman Basic F i t n e s s Test. 6. The C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test contains measures of variance which are common to two or more t e s t items. This c o n c l u s i o n i s based upon the f a c t t h a t : a) the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between the one minute speed s i t - u p , the s h u t t l e run, the 50 yard run and the 300 yard run were r e l a - t i v e l y h i g h ; b) B a t t e r i e s A,B,D and F gave a near p e r f e c t p r e d i c t i o n of the C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - Performance Test; c) B a t t e r i e s G,H and J p r e d i c t e d the Fleishman Basic F i t n e s s Test w i t h almost the same degree of p e r f e c t i o n as d i d the complete C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test. V I . RECOMMENDATIONS On the b a s i s of the f i n d i n g s obtained from the study the f o l l o w i n g recommendations are made: 1. A study using a s i m i l a r sample should be made w i t h the purpose of c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n . 2. Other v a l i d a t i o n s t u d i e s on the C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test should be made using v a r i o u s other e s t a b l i s h e d c r i t e r i o n w i t h the purpose of adding a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n as to i t s v a l i d i t y . 3. A s i m i l a r study should be made using elementary school-age g i r l s . Studies should be made wit h the purpose of improving content of the t e s t . A r e l i a b i l i t y study of the C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s Performance Test should be made. BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Adams, Georgia Sachs, Measurement and E v a l u a t i o n i n Education, Psychology and Guidance, H o l t , Rinehart, and Winston, New York, 1964. Bovard, John F., Cozens, F r e d e r i c k W., and Hagman, P a t r i c i a E., Test and Measurements i n P h y s i c a l Education, W.B. Saunders Company, P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1949. C l a r k e , H. H a r r i s o n , A p p l i c a t i o n of Measurement t o Health and P h y s i c a l Education, P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., Englewood C l i f f s , I960. Cureton, Edward E., " V a l i d i t y , " E d i t e d by L i n d q u i s t , E.F., Educa t i o n a l Measurement, American Council on Education, Washington, 1951. Efroymson, M.A., " M u l t i p l e Regression A n a l y s i s , " E d i t e d by R a l s t o n , Anthony, and W i l f , Herbert S., Mathematical Methods f o r D i g i t a l Computers, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. , New York, I960. Fleishman, Edwin A., The S t r u c t u r e and Measurement of P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , Englewood C l i f f s , 1964. G a r r e t t , Henry E., S t a t i s t i c s In Psychology and Education, Longmans, Green and Co., New York, 1953. G a r r e t t , Henry E., S t a t i s t i c s In Psychology and Education, David McKay Company, Inc., New York, 1964. G u i l f o r d , J.P., Fundamental S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education, McGraw-Hill Book Company, I n c . , New York, Larson, Leonard A., and Yocom, Rachael Dunaven, Measurement and E v a l u a t i o n i n P h y s i c a l , H ealth, and Recreation Education, The C.V. Mosby Company, 1951. L i n d q u i s t , E.F., A F i r s t Course i n S t a t i s t i c s ; T h e i r Use and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n Education and Psychology, Houghton M i f f l i n Company, Boston, Massachusetts, 1942. 52 McCloy, Charles Harold, and Young, Norma Dorothy, Tests and Measurements i n Health and P h y s i c a l Education, Appleton- Century-Crofts, Inc., New York, 1954. Mathews, Donald K., Measurement i n P h y s i c a l Education, W.B. Saunders Company, P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1963. P e t e r s , Charles C. and Van Voorhis, Walter R., S t a t i s t i c a l Procedures and T h e i r Mathematical B a s i s , McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York, 1940. Thorndike, Robert L., and Hagen, E l i z a b e t h , Measurement and E v a l u a t i o n i n Psychology and Education, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1965. Weiss, Raymond A., and S c o t t , M. Gladys, " C o n s t r u c t i o n of T e s t s , " E d i t e d by S c o t t , M. Gladys, Research Methods i n He a l t h , P h y s i c a l Education, R e c r e a t i o n , American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l Education, and Recre- a t i o n , Washington, 1959. W i l l g o o s e , C a r l E., E v a l u a t i o n of Health Education and P h y s i c a l Education, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, I96T: B. PERIODICALS A r n e t t , Chappelle, "The Purdue Motor F i t n e s s Test B a t t e r i e s f o r Senior High School G i r l s , " The Research Q u a r t e r l y , 33:3 (October, 1962), pp. 323-323T C l a r k , Cherry Ann, "Developments and A p p l i c a t i o n s i n the Area of Construct V a l i d i t y , " American Educational Research A s s o c i a t i o n , Review of Educational Research, 29:1, February, 1959. Cronbach, Lee J . , and Meehl, Paul E., "Construct V a l i d i t y i n P s y c h o l o g i c a l T e s t s , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , V o l . 52, May, 1955. N i c k s , D.C., and Fleishman, E.A., "What Do P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s Tests Measure?" Edu c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Measure- ment, 22:1 (S p r i n g , 1962), pp. 77-95. 53 O l r e e , Harry, Stevens, C l a r k , Nelson, Tommy, Agnevik, Goran, C l a r k , Robert T., " E v a l u a t i o n of the AAHPER Youth F i t n e s s Test," The Jo u r n a l of Sports Medicine and P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s , 5:2 (June, 1965), PP* 67-71* C. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS The Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l Education and Re c r e a t i o n , "The C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Performance Test," Ottawa, 1964. (Mimeographed.) The Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l Education and Re c r e a t i o n , "Minutes of the Meeting of the Research Committee of the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l Education and Rec r e a t i o n , " U n i v e r s i t y of Edmonton, February 21,22,23, 1964. (Mimeographed.) The Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l Education and Re c r e a t i o n , "Minutes of the Meeting of the Research Committee of the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation," U n i v e r s i t y of Ottawa, Ottawa, May 1,2, 1964. (Mimeographed.) The Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l Education and Re c r e a t i o n , "Progress Report: N a t i o n a l Norms of F i t n e s s - Performance," November 24, 1964. (Mimeographed.) The Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l Education and Re c r e a t i o n , "Report of the Research Committee to the Annual Meeting of the Board and Representative C o u n c i l , " F r e d e r i c t o n , New Brunswick, June 18,19, 1965. (Mimeographed.) Dempster, J.R.H., Gagne, A.E., and Hogan R., " T r i p : T r i a n g u l a r Regression Package," U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Computing Centre, Vancouver, 1965. (Mimeographed.) E l d e r , H a s k e l l P., " A p p r a i s i n g the Motor F i t n e s s of J u n i o r High School Boys," Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , S p r i n g f i e l d C o l l e g e , S p r i n g f i e l d , 1956. (Microcarded.) K i r c h n e r , Glenn, "The C o n s t r u c t i o n of a B a t t e r y of Tests Designed to Measure'Strength, Endurance, Power, and Speed Among Elementary School-age Boys," Unpublished Ed. D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, Eugene, 1959. (Microcarded.) 54 Lehman, A l i c e Ethel,"An A n a l y s i s of J u n i o r High School G i r l s i n Fourteen F i t n e s s T e s t s , " Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , Oregon State C o l l e g e , C o r v a l l i s , 1958. (Microcarded.) Moore, George C l a r k , "An A n a l y t i c a l Study of P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s V a r i a b l e s , " Unpublished D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , Univer- s i t y of I l l i n o i s , Urbana, 1955. (Microcarded.) Ross, W i l l i a m D., "The R e l a t i o n s h i p of Selected Measures t o Performance of the Hanging i n Arm-Flexed P o s i t i o n Test f o r G i r l s , " Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, Eugene, I960. (Microcarded.) Schrodt, P h y l l i s B., " O b j e c t i v i t y and V a l i d i t y of a Motor F i t n e s s Test B a t t e r y f o r G i r l s i n Senior High Schools," Unpublished Master's T h e s i s , School of Health and P h y s i c a l Education, U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, Eugene, 1958. (Microcarded.) 1 APPENDICES APPENDIX A DESCRIPTION OF THE C.A.H.P.E.R. FITNESS-PERFORMANCE TEST ITEMS 1. One Minute Speed Sit-Up Equipment. Gym mat and stop watch or tim e r . S t a r t i n g P o s i t i o n . The subject assumes a b a c k - l y i n g p o s i t i o n on the mat, hands i n t e r l a c e d behind h i s head. The knees are bent and the f e e t are he l d f l a t on the f l o o r by a partner . Performance. The subject s i t s up and touches both elbows t o both knees. Then he re t u r n s t o the s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n . S c o r i n g . The movement s i t - u p and r e t u r n i s counted as one execution. The t o t a l score i s the number of complete executions performed i n 60 seconds. A l l o w one t r i a l . Count when elbows touch knees. R e l i a b i l i t y C o n t r o l s . The partner kneels s t r a d d l i n g the performer 1s f e e t . He places h i s hands on the calves of the subject's l e g s j u s t below the knee t o prevent the subject from s l i d i n g away and to maintain the s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n of the l e g s throughout the t e s t . Only the shoulders have to touch the f l o o r and the s i t - u p s need not be continuous. 57 2 . Standing Broad Jump Equipment. Ten foo t tumbling mat i s recommended and tape measure. S t a r t i n g P o s i t i o n . The subject assumes a p o s i t i o n w i t h the fe e t s l i g h t l y apart and the toes behind the jumping l i n e . Performance. F l e x at h i p s , knees and an k l e s , and using the arms to a i d , jump as f a r forward as p o s s i b l e . S c o r i n g . Measurement i s i n terms of inches t o the nearest i n c h from the t a k e - o f f l i n e to the heel of the foot nearest the t a k e - o f f l i n e . R e l i a b i l i t y C o n t r o l s . The suggested t a k e - o f f angle should be between 30 and 45 degrees. Two v a l i d . t r i a l s are allowed, the b e t t e r t r i a l recorded. I f any part of the body touches behind the h e e l s , the jump w i l l be considered i n - v a l i d . Two or three p r a c t i c e t r i a l s may be allowed. 3 . S h u t t l e Run Equipment. Two wooden blocks (2 u x3 , *x3 t t ) and a stop watch c a l i b r a t e d t o one-tenth of a second. S t a r t i n g P o s i t i o n . L y i n g face down, hands at the sides of the chest, forehead on the s t a r t i n g l i n e . Performance. On s i g n a l , jump to fe e t and run 30 f e e t t o the l i n e . P i c k up one block of wood, r e t u r n t o the s t a r t i n g l i n e , and place the block behind t h i s l i n e . Return to the second l i n e , p i c k up the second block of wood, and run back to the f i n i s h l i n e . Carry the block through the f i n i s h l i n e . S c o r i n g . Measurement i s i n terms of seconds to the nearest tenth of a second from the s t a r t i n g s i g n a l u n t i l the subject crosses the f i n i s h l i n e . R e l i a b i l i t y C o n t r o l s . The t e s t should be taken i n gym shoes or b a r e f e e t , A *ready* warning s i g n a l i s given p r i o r to the s t a r t i n g s i g n a l . Two t r i a l s , w i t h a r e s t between, are allowed and the b e t t e r t r i a l i s recorded. 4. Flexed Arm Hang Equipment. A doorway gym bar or h o r i z o n t a l bar placed 6 f e e t from the f l o o r ; a bench and a t i m e r . S t a r t i n g P o s i t i o n . The subject reverse grasps the bar (palms toward face) and i s a s s i s t e d i n p u l l i n g h i m s e l f to the bar so t h a t h i s eyes are at the l e v e l of the bar. The arms are f u l l y f l e x e d . Performance. The subject holds h i m s e l f i n t h i s hanging p o s i t i o n as long as he i s a b l e . S c o r i n g . The t o t a l p eriod of time that the subject can maintain the exact p o s i t i o n i s determined to the nearest 59 second. R e l i a b i l i t y C o n t r o l s . The subject must keep the bridge of h i s nose at the bar. When the subject's head drops below the l e v e l of the bar the t e s t i s terminated. One t r i a l i s allowed. Tester counts the seconds out loud. 5. 50 Yard Run Equipment. A 50 yard straightaway w i t h markers (stakes) placed at the s t a r t and the f i n i s h ; a stop watch c a l i b r a t e d to one-tenth of a second; a s t a r t i n g f l a g . S t a r t i n g P o s i t i o n . A r a c i n g crouch s t a r t or a stand- i n g p o s i t i o n may be assumed. Performance. On the s t a r t i n g s i g n a l ("Go!" and f l a g simultaneously) the runner s p r i n t s the 50 yard d i s t a n c e . S c o r i n g . The elapsed time from the s t a r t i n g s i g n a l to the passage of the runner's chest across the f i n i s h l i n e i s scored to the nearest t e n t h of a second. R e l i a b i l i t y C o n t r o l s . The t e s t i s taken i n gym shoes. Only one runner i s t e s t e d at a time on a course but one t e s t e r may time two runners on adjacent courses w i t h a s p l i t t i m e r or two watches. 6. 300 Yard Run Equipment. Same as f o r the 50 yard run. 60 S t a r t i n g P o s i t i o n . A r a c i n g crouch s t a r t or a stand- i n g p o s i t i o n may be assumed. Performance. On the s t a r t i n g s i g n a l the subject runs s t r a i g h t up and around the stake marker and back over the 50 yard straightaway. The c i r c u i t i s run 3 times t o give the 300 yards. S c o r i n g . The elapsed time from the s t a r t i n g s i g n a l to the passage of the runner's chest across the f i n i s h l i n e i s scored to the nearest second. R e l i a b i l i t y C o n t r o l s . The t e s t i s taken i n gym shoes. Only one runner i s t e s t e d at a time on a course but one t e s t e r may time two runners on adjacent courses w i t h a s p l i t t i m e r or two watches. APPENDIX B TEST INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE FLEISHMAN . BASIC FITNESS TESTS 1. Extent F l e x i b i l i t y Test T e s t i n g Arrangements. 1. A measuring s c a l e i s drawn on a w a l l . The s c a l e i s 30" long and i s marked o f f i n h a l f - i n c h i n t e r v a l s from 0" to 30". This s c a l e should be s u f f i c i e n t l y wide to take advantage of d i f f e r e n c e s i n heights of the s u b j e c t s . 2. Another l i n e i s drawn on the f l o o r , perpendicular t o the w a l l , i n l i n e with the 12" mark on the s c a l e . 3. The right-handed subject stands w i t h h i s l e f t side toward the w a l l , toes touching the l i n e on the f l o o r , f e e t together and perpendicular to t h i s l i n e on the f l o o r . 4. The subject stands f a r enough from the w a l l so that he can j u s t touch the w a l l w i t h h i s l e f t f i s t when h i s arm i s h e ld h o r i z o n t a l from the shoulder. I n s t r u c t i o n s . A f t e r assuming the p o s i t i o n described above, the student keeps h i s f e e t i n place and extends h i s r i g h t arm s t r a i g h t out to s i d e , at shoulder h e i g h t . His palm faces the f l o o r w i t h f i n g e r s extended and together. From t h i s p o s i t i o n he t w i s t s clockwise (around h i s back), as f a r as p o s s i b l e , so th a t he touches the s c a l e on the w a l l w i t h h i s r i g h t hand. During t h i s movement, the examiner, or an a s s i s t a n t , places h i s foot alongside the student's r i g h t f o o t to keep the student's f e e t i n place. Have the student make one p r a c t i c e t r y t o get the f e e l of i t , and c o r r e c t any e r r o r s i n h i s procedure. The second t r y counts. S c o r i n g . Record the f a r t h e s t point reached ( i n i n c h e s ) , and h e l d ( f o r at l e a s t two seconds), as measured on the s c a l e . A d d i t i o n a l Guidance. For left-handed s u b j e c t s , use the a l t e r n a t e s c a l e and reverse the d i r e c t i o n s of movement. 2. Dynamic F l e x i b i l i t y Test T e s t i n g Arrangements. The subject stands w i t h h i s back t o the w a l l and f a r enough from the w a l l t h a t he can bend over without h i t t i n g the w a l l w i t h h i s b uttocks. His f e e t should be shoulder width a p a r t . D i r e c t l y behind the middle of h i s back, at shoulder h e i g h t , mark an "X" on the w a l l (use chalk or t a p e ) . Mark another W X M on the f l o o r between the student's f e e t . A stop watch i s needed. I n s t r u c t i o n s . On the s i g n a l "Go1* the student bends and touches the MX t t between h i s f e e t w i t h both hands and then r i s e s , t w i s t s to the l e f t , and touches the ttX'* on the w a l l with both hands. This counts as one c y c l e . 63 In the next c y c l e , the student repeats t h i s , except he t w i s t s t o h i s r i g h t , c o n t i n u i n g t o a l t e r n a t e the s i d e to which he t w i s t s i n each c y c l e . The i n s t r u c t o r should demonstrate three such c y c l e s , emphasizing speed. S c o r i n g . Record the number of cy c l e s completed i n 20 seconds. 3. S h u t t l e Run T e s t i n g Arrangements. Two p a r a l l e l l i n e s , 20 yards a p a r t , should be marked o f f . This can be run on a t r a c k s u r f a c e , but i s s u i t a b l e f o r f l o o r , macadam, or other ground s u r f a c e s . (The norms are f o r an average of many surfaces.) One observer i s s t a t i o n e d at the s t a r t l i n e and one at the f i n i s h l i n e . The observer at the f i n i s h l i n e has a stop watch. I d e a l l y , there should be two observers w i t h watches at the f i n i s h l i n e . Although not a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l , u p r i g h t standards may be used during the l a s t l a p . I n s t r u c t i o n s . I t i s p r e f e r a b l e to have one student run at a time. At the s t a r t he stands behind the s t a r t l i n e , w i t h one toe at the l i n e . He i s t o l d t h a t at the command ttGott he i s t o run to the opposite l i n e , 20 yards away, touch the ground on the f a r side of i t w i t h e i t h e r f o o t , r e t u r n t o the s t a r t l i n e , and repeat. He i s t o l d to cover the one way di s t a n c e f i v e times f o r a t o t a l of 100 yards. On h i s l a s t 64 l a p he i s t o go ttall-outw to cross the f i n i s h l i n e standing up. ( I f a tape i s put up he i s t o l d to break the tape.) The object i s to cover the distance as f a s t as p o s s i b l e . The observers at each end note t h a t the student has touched over the l i n e . They a l s o watch that the student does not get confused and a) stop s h o r t , not running f i v e times, or b) t r e a t the l a s t l a p as i f he was to t u r n around again. The examiner should demonstrate the turn-around move- ment, encouraging e f f i c i e n c y (that i s , a small t u r n i n g r a d i u s ) . Turns have been found t o average under 6 f e e t i n r a d i u s . I f the student i s doing something which g r o s s l y slows him up at the t u r n s , the observer should encourage him to t u r n more q u i c k l y . S c o r i n g . The time to cover the 5 l a p s (5 x 20 = 100 yards) i s recorded t o the nearest t e n t h of a second. I f two observers are used, record the average of the two watches. 4. S o f t b a l l Throw T e s t i n g Arrangements. This i s , t y p i c a l l y , an outdoor t e s t r e q u i r i n g an open f i e l d approximately 100 yards l o n g . A s h o r t e r f i e l d (80 yards) w i l l do, e s p e c i a l l y i f t e s t i n g i s being done w i t h younger boys or only with g i r l s . With g i r l s the f i e l d need not exceed 50 yards. A 12" standard s o f t b a l l i s thrown and f i e l d markings must be provided t o a l l o w measurement of d i s t a n c e thrown, to the nearest f o o t . A f o o t b a l l f i e l d i s i d e a l f o r t h i s purpose. I f a f o o t b a l l - f i e l d i s not a v a i l a b l e , any f i e l d may be marked o f f i n v a r i o u s ways w i t h l i n e s , s t akes, or b r i c k s placed every f i v e yards. I t has been found convenient to use b r i c k s , w i t h painted numbers, placed every f i v e yards. These markings do not need to begin u n t i l 20 yards from the throwing l i n e f o r boys, and u n t i l 10 yards out f o r g i r l s . The l i n e behind which the student must throw should be c l e a r l y marked. In any case, a tape measure i s a l s o needed. B r i c k s or stakes may be used to mark the point of impact f o r each throw, u n t i l a f i n a l measurement i s taken. In the case of successive throws by the same student, h i s b r i c k or stake can be moved to the point of h i s best throw. At l e a s t two observers are r e q u i r e d , one at the throwing area, and one i n the f i e l d . Two observers, s p o t t i n g point of impact, are p r e f e r a b l e . I n s t r u c t i o n s . The student throws the b a l l as f a r as he can, without moving h i s f e e t . He takes a p o s i t i o n com- f o r t a b l e f o r him, as close to the r e s t r a i n i n g l i n e as p o s s i - b l e . He i s not allowed any run-up, and i s not allowed to s h i f t the p o s i t i o n of h i s f e e t during the throw. He i s not r e q u i r e d to keep h i s f e e t f l a t on the ground, of course, and h i s f e e t w i l l move some i n p l a c e . But n e i t h e r f o o t i s " t o leave the ground. ( T y p i c a l l y , the right-handed student w i l l end up on the toe of h i s r i g h t f o o t . ) He i s t o l d that he w i l l get three throws and w i l l be scored according t o h i s best throw. He may decide on a d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n f o r h i s f e e t when he makes h i s next throw, but t h i s i s up to the student, and no s p e c i f i c g u i d - ance on t h i s should be given. I f the subject l i f t s e i t h e r f o o t , h i s throw i s not measured and counts only as one of h i s three throws. A l l throws must be made overhand. S c o r i n g . The tape measure i s used to measure the best of the three throws, to the nearest f o o t . I f the throw i s o f f l i n e (to one s i d e ) , the measured di s t a n c e i s perpen- d i c u l a r from the s t a r t l i n e t o the point of impact. 5. Hand Gr i p T e s t i n g Arrangements. A l l that i s r e q u i r e d i s a hand dynamometer. In s t r u c t i o n s . . The dynamometer i s placed i n the palm of the student's p r e f e r r e d hand.. The d i a l should be f a c i n g away from the palm. The l a r g e r h a l f of the g r i p i s i n the meaty part of the palm, wi t h the f i n g e r s c u r l e d over the s m a l l e r h a l f of the g r i p . Part of the f i n g e r s between the second and t h i r d knuckles should touch the g r i p , but the f i n g e r s should not c u r l f a r enough around to touch the d i a l and i n t e r f e r e w i t h the p o i n t e r ' s movement. The student stands and holds h i s hand down h i s s i d e , away from h i s body, palm f a c i n g h i s s i d e . He i s t o l d that at 67 the command "Squeeze," he i s t o squeeze the dynamometer once, sharply and s t e a d i l y as hard as he can. . A demonstration.of the proper g r i p and arm p o s i t i o n should be given. During the t e s t t r i a l the examiner should make sure the student's f i n g e r s do not hamper the d i a l , and th a t he does not r e s t or brace any part of h i s arm against h i s body. During the f i r s t t r i a l , c o r r e c t any i n c o r r e c t proced- ure. I f the r u l e s are v i o l a t e d , d i s r e g a r d the score, but count i t as one squeeze. Emphasize the need f o r a s h o r t , sharp squeeze. I f the student s t a r t s t o squeeze sl o w l y as soon as he takes the dynamometer i t w i l l a c t u a l l y decrease h i s score due to muscle f a t i g u e . Each student gets three t r i a l s separated by at l e a s t a f u l l minute of r e s t . Without such r e s t he i s l i k e l y to score lower each time he squeezes (much to h i s s u r p r i s e ! ) . S c o r i n g . Record the highest reading (the s c a l e i s read i n pounds) of the three squeezes. 6. Pull-Ups T e s t i n g Arrangements. A l l that i s needed i s a h o r i - z o n t a l metal or wooden bar, approximately l j inches i n diameter, and high enough so the student can hang o f f the f l o o r w i t h h i s arms and l e g s f u l l y extended. I n s t r u c t i o n s . The student jumps up and g r i p s the bar 63 w i t h h i s palms f a c i n g h i s body (the underhand g r i p ) . From h i s hanging p o s i t i o n , at the s i g n a l "Start,, 1* he p u l l s h imself up by h i s arms u n t i l he can place h i s own c h i n over the bar. He then lowers h i s body to a f u l l y extended p o s i t i o n . The student i s t o l d t o do as many pu l l - u p s as p o s s i b l e and not t o stop u n t i l he i s no longer able t o p u l l h i m s e l f up. He i s t o l d not to pause more than two seconds, e i t h e r at the top or bottom of each c y c l e , otherwise he w i l l be t o l d to stop. He i s cautioned that i f h i s arms are not f u l l y extended or h i s c h i n not over the bar, he w i l l be p e n a l i z e d . The examiner counts the number of pull-.ups aloud to the student each time he lowers h i m s e l f f u l l y . I f he i s to be penalized the examiner i n d i c a t e s c r e d i t f o r only "one h a l f " to l e t the student know t h i s . Demonstrate, one c o r r e c t p u l l - u p . K i c k i n g , t w i s t i n g , or r a i s i n g of l e g s should not be allowed. I f the student s t a r t s swaying, the examiner should put h i s palm or forearm against the student's l e g s t o stop the swaying. S c o r i n g . Record the number of times the student has p u l l e d h i m s e l f up c o r r e c t l y . 7. Leg L i f t s T e s t i n g Arrangements. This may be done on a mat, f l o o r , or grassed area. A stop watch i s needed. I n s t r u c t i o n s . The student l i e s f l a t on h i s back w i t h 69 h i s hands clasped behind h i s neck. A partner should hold the examinee's elbows t o the ground. The student i s t o l d to r a i s e h i s l e g s , keeping them s t r a i g h t , u n t i l they are v e r t i - c a l , and then to r e t u r n them t o ground. He i s to do these l e g l i f t s as f a s t as he can, doing as many as p o s s i b l e i n 30 seconds. The f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s should be s t r e s s e d : 1. Do not rock the body - the head, small of the back and base of the spine must remain on the ground. The e x e r c i s e should be a s t i f f one-two motion. 2. Do not boost the body t o get the l e g s v e r t i c a l . 3. Elbows must remain f l a t on the ground. 4. Legs should be kept s t r a i g h t at a l l times. Demonstrate the movement. Then i n s t r u c t the student to t r y the e x e r c i s e through two c y c l e s to get the f e e l of i t . Correct e r r o r s . Emphasize the need to go " a l l - o u t during the short t e s t p e r i o d " without slowing down. Then say "Ready: (pause) GO!" During the t e s t make sure l e g s are r a i s e d to the v e r t i c a l and i n s t r u c t i o n s are fo l l o w e d . Say "Stop!" e x a c t l y at 30 seconds. I t i s best to have a separate observer count the l e g l i f t s and another examiner doing the t i m i n g . T h i s t e s t can be given i n a group, provided there are s u f f i c i e n t observers. 70 S c o r i n g . Record the number of times the student r a i s e s h i s l e g s to a v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n i n the 30 seconds. 6*. Cable Jump Test T e s t i n g Arrangements. A 24 i n c h l e n g t h rope i s r e q u i r e d . I n s t r u c t i o n s . The student i s t o l d to hold the rope i n f r o n t of him,.with, one hand grasping each end. Note that approximately 4 inches of rope are covered by each hand, exposing about 16 inches between h i s hands. Just the ends of the rope protrude outside the closed f i s t s . He i s not to h o l d the-rope s t r e t c h e d out, but should l e t i t hang l o o s e . Holding the rope i n t h i s way, the student i s r e q u i r e d t o jump over the rope without l o o s e n i n g - h i s g r i p from i t . The object here i s to measure a coordinated perform- ance. I t should be s t r e s s e d to the student that he: 1. jumps over the rope, through h i s arms; 2. lands on h i s f e e t ; 3. does not h i t the rope w i t h h i s f e e t , or l o s e hold of i t w h i l e jumping, and 4. does not l o s e h i s balance when l a n d i n g . Unless the subject meets a l l of these requirements he has not made a c o r r e c t jump. Sc o r i n g . Record number of c o r r e c t jumps out of f i v e attempts. 71 9. Balance - A Test T e s t i n g Arrangements. The balance r a i l i s a piece of wood 1§" h i g h , ^" wide, and 24 t t long. This piece o f wood i s mounted t o a base board as shown. A stop watch i s needed. I n s t r u c t i o n s . The student i s t o l d t h a t he i s to balance on the r a i l using the p r e f e r r e d f o o t , w i t h the long a x i s of h i s f o o t p a r a l l e l t o the long a x i s of the r a i l . He i s given a p r a c t i c e t r i a l w ith h i s eyes open. He i s t o l d t h a t h i s score i s the l e n g t h of time from when he says "Go" u n t i l he touches the f l o o r w i t h any part of h i s body or removes e i t h e r hand from h i s h i p s . He f i r s t places h i s hands on h i s h i p s and stands up on the r a i l . When the s t u - dent has h i s balance and wants to s t a r t the t r i a l , he says "Go." The a d m i n i s t r a t o r then begins t i m i n g the s u b j e c t . He may not touch the f l o o r w i t h any part of h i s body, nor remove e i t h e r hand from h i s h i p s . A f t e r the p r a c t i c e t r i a l , the procedure i s repeated w i t h the eyes clo s e d . The examinee must clo s e h i s eyes at the i n s t a n t he says "Go." He i s administered two separate t e s t t r i a l s w i t h eyes c l o s e d . S c o r i n g . The number of seconds the student maintains h i s balance f o r each t r i a l i s recorded s e p a r a t e l y and added together f o r a t o t a l score. I f he reaches 20 seconds without having l o s t h i s balance, he i s t o l d to stop, and a "20" i s recorded f o r that 72 t r i a l . I f he opens h i s e y e s , removes e i t h e r hand from h i s h i p s , o r t o u c h e s t h e f l o o r , s t o p t h e t r i a l and r e c o r d t h e t i m e . 10. 600 Y a r d Run-Walk T e s t i n g Arrangements. T h i s i s t y p i c a l l y done o u t - d o o r s , u n l e s s a l a r g e f i e l d house i s a v a i l a b l e . The 600 y a r d s can be marked o f f i n s e v e r a l ways, p r o v i d e d t h e t u r n s r e q u i r e d a r e not t o o s h a r p . A square a r e a , 50 y a r d s on each s i d e p r o v i d e s a good t r a c k , s i n c e t h r e e l a p s comprise t h e 600 y a r d s . A f o o t b a l l f i e l d , marked o f f a p p r o p r i a t e l y , o r a p r o p e r l y marked 440 y a r d t r a c k w i l l work. W i t h i m p r o v i s e d t r a c k s c a r e must be t a k e n t o keep t h e s t u d e n t s from s t r a y i n g o u t s i d e t h e t r a c k , t h u s r u n n i n g t o o s h o r t o r t o o l o n g a c o u r s e . S t o p watches a r e needed, t h e number depending on how many s t u d e n t s a r e r u n t o g e t h e r . F o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s c h e d u l i n g r e a s o n s , i t w i l l u s u a l l y be n e c e s s a r y t o r u n a number o f s t u d e n t s t o g e t h e r . The most a c c u r a t e procedure i s t o a s s i g n a s e p a r a t e o b s e r v e r t o c l o c k a p a r t i c u l a r s t u d e n t as he c r o s s e s t h e f i n i s h l i n e . Where s t o p watches a r e s c a r c e , t h e t i m e r can c a l l out t h e t i m e s as each s t u d e n t c r o s s e s t h e l i n e , w i t h t h e o b s e r v e r a s s i g n e d t o each s t u d e n t r e c o r d i n g t h e s c o r e f o r t h a t s t u d e n t . Groups o f s i x examin- ees seem t o work out w e l l i n p r a c t i c e . I n s t r u c t i o n s * The s t u d e n t s a r e t o l d t h a t t h e o b j e c t i s t o c o v e r t h e d i s t a n c e i n t h e s h o r t e s t p o s s i b l e t i m e . He may i n t e r s p e r s e h i s r u n n i n g w i t h w a l k i n g but he must t r y h i s b e s t t o f i n i s h as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . S c o r i n g . Record t h e t i m e , t o c o v e r t h e d i s t a n c e , i n m i n u t es and t o t h e n e a r e s t seconds. APPENDIX C THE C.A.H.P.E.R. FITNESS- PERFORMANCE TEST NAME GRADE FIRST LAST SCHOOL AGE DATE OF BIRTH DATE OF TEST 1. ONE MINUTE SPEED SIT-UPS (NO.) 2. STANDING BROAD JUMP (INS.) 3. SHUTTLE RUN (SEC.) 4. FLEXED ARM HANG (SEC.) 5. 50 YARD RUN (SEC.) 6. 300 YARD RUN (SEC.) APPENDIX D FLEISHMAN FITNESS TESTS NAME DATE OF TEST 1. EXTENT FLEXIBILITY (IN.) 2. DYNAMIC FLEXIBILITY (NO.) 3. SHUTTLE RUN (SEC.) 4.. SOFTBALL THROW YDS. FT. .5. HAND GRIP (LBS.) ,6. PULL-UPS (NO.) 7. LEG LIFTS (NO.) 8. CABLE JUMP (NO.) 9. BALANCE A (SEC.) 10. 600 YARD RUN-WALK MIN. SEC. APPENDIX E AREAS OF FITNESS AS DEFINED BY FLEISHMAN Exp l o s i v e s t r e n g t h i s the a b i l i t y t o exert maximum energy i n one ex p l o s i v e a c t . I t has a l s o been c a l l e d Energy M o b i l i z a t i o n , Power and V e l o c i t y . Dynamic st r e n g t h i s the a b i l i t y t o exert muscular f o r c e to move or support the body's weight repeatedly over a given period of time. S t a t i c strength i s the a b i l i t y to exert maximum fo r c e f o r a b r i e f period of time against a f a i r l y immovable o b j e c t . Extent f l e x i b i l i t y i s the a b i l i t y t o move or s t r e t c h the body, or some part t h e r e o f , as f a r as p o s s i b l e i n various d i r e c t i o n s . Dynamic f l e x i b i l i t y i s the a b i l i t y to make repeated f l e x i n g or s t r e t c h i n g movements. This area seems to be as s o c i a t e d w i t h both f l e x i b i l i t y and speed of b o d i l y move- ments. S t a t i c balance i s the a b i l i t y to maintain b o d i l y e q u i l i b r i u m while in.some f i x e d p o s i t i o n . Dynamic balance i s the a b i l i t y t o maintain e q u i l i b r i u m w h i l e performing some t a s k . 77 M u l t i - l i m b c o o r d i n a t i o n i s the a b i l i t y t o coordinate the simultaneous movements of s e v e r a l limbs i n operat i n g v a r i o u s d e v i c e s . Gross body c o o r d i n a t i o n i s the a b i l i t y to coordinate the more gross a c t i v i t y of the whole body. This may be the same f a c t o r others c a l l a g i l i t y . Endurance i s the a b i l i t y t o exert maximal e f f o r t over time and r e s i s t a n c e to f a t i g u e . APPENDIX F ALTERNATE TESTING PROCEDURES NECESSITATED BY WEATHER CONDITIONS Test P e r i o d At During t h i s p eriod the f o l l o w i n g data were obtained: 1. F i v e measures of the C.A.H.P.E.R. F i t n e s s - P e r - formance Test: a) one minute speed s i t - u p , b) standing broad jump, c) s h u t t l e run, d) f l e x e d arm hang, e) 300 yard run. 2. Four measures of the Fleishman B a s i c F i t n e s s Test: a) extent f l e x i b i l i t y , b) dynamic f l e x i b i l i t y , c) hand g r i p , d) balance - A. Test P e r i o d B: During t h i s p eriod the f o l l o w i n g data were obtained: 1. One measure of the C.A.H.P.E.R. Fitness-Perform- ance Test: a) 50 yard run. 2. S i x measures of the Fleishman B a s i c F i t n e s s Test: a) s h u t t l e run, b) p u l l - u p s , c) l e g l i f t s , d) cable jump, e) s o f t b a l l throw, f ) 600 yard run-walk. APPENDIX G KEY TO C.A.H.P.E.R. VARIABLES 1. One Minute Speed S i t - u p 2. Standing Broad Jump 3. S h u t t l e Run 4. Flexed Arm Hang 5. 50 Yard Run 6. 300 Yard Run APPENDIX G T-SCORES FOR THE C.A.H.P. E.R. VARIABLES ibj e c t 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 46•441 48.203 48.139 44.979 49 .821 52.951 2 39.161 45.093 52.518 48 .832 58.624 43 .328 3 61.911 63 .755 49 .234 59.290 38.082 58.725 4 38 .251 48.203 40 .476 43.328 42 .434 39 .478 5 57.361 46.648 57.991 48 .832 54.223 54.876 6 62.821 35 .761 53.612 66.445 65.961 58.725 7 40.981 62.200 45.950 37.824 57.157 56.801 8 54 .631 46.648 39 .382 62.042 51.288 45 .252 9 48 .261 45.093 51.423 47.181 45 .419 37.553 10 50.991 59.089 53.612 53 .235 43.951 49.102 11 53.721 45.093 55.802 53 .786 51.288 49.102 12 44.621 52.868 45.950 42.777 45.419 52.951 13 43.711 37.317 47.044 69.747 41.017 37.553 14 55.541 55.979 57.991 68.096 55 .690 51.027 15 55.541 55.979 60.180 55.437 52.755 51.027 16 54.631 49.758 59.086 53.235 • 43.951 45.252 17 54.631 51.313 48.139 46.630 48.353 45.252 18 42.801 38.872 40.476 38.374 45.419 47.177 19 60.091 66.865 68.938 54.336 58 .624 56.801 20 51.901 51.313 43.760 62.592 24.876 47.177 82 ibj e c t 1 2 3 4 5 6 21 52.811 55.979 45.950 54.336 48.353 47.177 22 34.611 38.872 49.234 38.374 45.419 45.252 23 58.271 49.758 62.370 53.786 ^.353 52.951 24 55.541 68 .420 65.654 48.281 61.559 52.951 25 61.001 68.420 54 .707 46.630 58.624 54.876 26 45.531 29.541 42.666 44 .979 39.550 41.403 27 56.451 60.644 73.316 71.949 63 .026 64.500 28 45.531 46.648 35.003 39.475 43.951 54.876 29 67.371 59 .089 64.559 59 .290 57.157 64.500 30 61.001 48.203 51 .423 51 .034 41.017 45.252 31 40.071 49.758 53.612 46.630 55 .690 52.951 32 61.001 41.982 44 .855 80.205 52.755 51.027 33 64.641 51.313 65.654 53.235 73.298 64.500 34 64.641 43.537 64.559 53.235 55 .690 62.575 35 57.361 57.534 61.275 67.546 52.755 56.801 36 53.721 35.761 59.086 53.786 46.886 60.650 37 68.281 54.424 67.843 59.290 67 .428 70.274 38 56.451 37.317 49.234 45.529 42.484 58.725 39 45.531 51.313 45.950 51 .584 43.951 45.252 40 49.171 40.427 50 .328 42.777 51 .288 45.252 41 61.001 73.086 66.748 65.895 54.223 54.876 42 48.261 63.755 48.139 55.437 51 .288 47.177 43 41.891 57.534 31.719 38.374 45.419 49.102 44 68.281 59.089 64.559 52.134 58.624 60.650 83 i b j e c t 1 2 3 4 5 6 45 48.261 48.203 44.855 37.273 46.886 54.376 46 50.991 40.427 52.518 55.987 61.559 58.725 47 55.541 43.537 41.571 52.685 51 .288 54.876 48 56.451 51.313 44.855 48.832 43.951 49 .102 49 . 39 .161 48.203 44.855 47.731 45.419 47.177 50 54 .631 46.648 49 .234 57-088 58 .624 52.951 51 48.261 38.872 47.044 54 .886 38.082 39 .478 52 53.721 55.979 51 .423 65 .344 51 .288 49.102 53 49.171 46.648 44.855 43.328 48.353 54 .876 54 28.241 23.320 18.583 32.870 24.876 10.607 55 51.901 52.868 48.139 52.685 42.484 41.403 56 44 .621 49.758 52.518 47.181 52.755 49.102 57 43.711 54.424 53.612 42.777 58.624 54.876 58 35.521 49.758 33.908 46.630 43.951 52.951 59 52.811 54.424 40.476 56.538 57.157 52.951 60 42.801 41 .982 44 .855 44.979 51 .288 51.027 61 41.261 55.979 52.518 38.374 51 .288 54.876 62 49.171 51.313 52.518 43.878 52.755 47.177 63 25.511 59.089 36.088 35.622 41.017 31.779 64 47.351 46.648 43.760 38.374 51.288 47.177 65 41.891 40.427 41.571 44.979 38.082 41.403 66 43.711 45.093 47 .044 42.777 46.886 47.177 67 18.231 35.761 32.614 32.320 29.278 26.005 68 43.711 51.313 44.855 42.227 46.886 37.553 iubject 1 2 3 5 6 69 56.451 48.203 59.086 69.747 65.961 62.575 70 53.721 51.313 52.518 37.824 52.755 49.102 71 45.531 40.427 43.760 38.374 29.278 18.306 72 39.161 29.541 51.423 61.491 67.428 62.575 73 58.271 55.979 39.382 60.941 52.755 49.102 74 32.791 48.203 51.423 42.777 51.288 47.177 75 45.531 45.093 40.476 62.042 51.288 51.027 76 54.631 66.865 50.328 48.281 52.755 66.424 77 36.431 45.093 27.340 33.971 24.876 39.478 78 46.441 48.203 55.802 41.677 63.026 64.500 79 58..271 54.424 56.896 60.391 55.690 56.801 80 40.981 46.648 40.476 43.878 52.755 49.102 81 60.091 41.982 48.139 39.475 49.821 43.328 82 65.551 41.982 49.234 55.437 36.615 49.102 83 59.181 57.534 63.464 53.189 67.428 52.951 84 50.991 62.200 67.843 58.189 61.559 64.500 85 52.811 87.082 68.938 42.777 70.363 68.349 86 50.991 55.979 47.044 41.677 46.886 47.177 87 59.181 48.203 48.139 46.080 49.821 47.177 88 55.541 60.644 55.802 40.025 61.559 39.478 89 20.051 37.317 33.908 38.374 30.746 29.354 90 47.351 46.648 45.950 42.227 38.082 51.027 Mean 34.911 63.156 11.930 32.122 8.088 66.533 S.D. . 10.989 6.430 0.914 18.168 0.682 5.196 APPENDIX H KEY TO FLEISHMAN VARIABLES 1. Extent F l e x i b i l i t y 2. Dynamic F l e x i b i l i t y 3. S h u t t l e Run 4. S o f t b a l l Throw 5. Hand G r i p 6. Pull-Ups 7. Leg L i f t s 8. Cable Jump 9. Balance - A 10. 600 Yard Run-Walk APPENDIX H T-SCORES FOR THE FLEISHMAN VARIABLES ib j e c t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 57.573 65.914 48.720 49 .426 52.946 47.537 50.239 61.080 50.833 52.105 2 53.331 42.813 46 .777 44.257 61.755 47.537 45.934 47 .230 56.033 61.013 3 46 .260 29.612 46 .777 36.738 42.376 58.810 50.239 47 .230 56.900 59.232 4 61.816 42.813 47 .425 36.268 39.733 43.779 39.477 54.155 . 50.833 51.511 5 42.018 52.714 61.020 39 .557 43 .257 40.021 39.477 61.080 39 .999 57.450 6 53.331 42.813 59.725 62.533 22.997 70.032 50.239 40 .305 60.801 52.699 7 36 .362 39.513 56.488 47.076 48 ,542 47 .537 54.544 61.080 57.334 53.293 8 54.745 32.912 53.251 60.234 52.946 66.325 48.087 61.080 45 .633 4 6 . I 6 6 9 49.089 36.212 50.014 32 .039 44.137 58.810 52.392 24.155 39.132 47.948 10 44.846 56.014 51.309 39.087 44.137 47.537 56.697 54.155 45.199 51.511 11 66.058 59.314 56.488 43.787 52.946 51.294 54.544 33.381 76.835 48.542 12 42.018 49.413 46.130 45 .666 66.159 47.537 48.O87 33.381 43 .466 33.101 13 44.846 42.813 44.188 37.208 35.329 55.052 56.697 47.230 69.035 40.821 Subject 1 14 63.230 15 47.675 16 60.402 17 30.705 18 40.604 19 36.362 20 67.472 21 56.159 22 50.503 23 51.917 24 50.503 25 49.089 26 58.987 27 47.675 28 44.846 29 47.675 2 3 49.413 61.020 49.413 53.251 46.113 53.251 49.413 37.714 59.314 75.910 62.614 66.847 89.016 35.124 62.614 41.598 56.014 44.188 52.714 43.540 59.314 56.488 59.314 51.309 52.714 39.656 52.714 66.199 42.813 53.899 62.614 62.962 4 5 48.486 57.350 55.065 56.469 51.305 55.589 45.666 44.137 55.065 42.376 46.6O6 59.993 54.595 61.755 31.569 42.376 49.426 52.946 48.486 52.946 53.655 61.755 56.944 52.946 46.136 52.946 55.535 61.755 37.208 59.993 77.151 51.184 6 77.598 62.567 47.537 40.021 40.021 40.021 47.537 43.779 40.021 47.537 43.779 51.294 40.021 55.052 40.021 62.567 7 50.239 58.849 61.002 41.629 24.409 54.544 52.392 45.934 63.154 52.392 50.239 65.307 48.087 58.849 43.782 45.934 8 61.080 61.080 61.080 61.080 47.230 54.155 33.381 61.080 33.381 54.155 61.080 54.155 54.155 61.080 40.305 47.230 9 45.199 47.366 43.899 52.567 46.066 47.366 76.402 51.266 43.899 68.601 43.032 46.933 43.032 37.399 51.700 61.234 10 53.887 55.074 52.699 46.166 47.354 56.262 52.105 52.105 45.572 55.668 53.887 55.668 20.629 58.638 57.450 64.576 oa Subject 1 30 53.331 31 40.604 32 39.190 33 54.745 34 46.260 35 63.230 36 39.190 37 61.816 38 46.260 39 36.362 40 30.705 41 49.089 42 37.776 43 42.018 44 30.705 45 43.432 2 3 42.813 48.720 49.413 46.130 36.212 49.367 65.914 62.962 65.914 61.668 56.014 61.668 62.614 59.078 49.413 61.668 52.714 43.540 42.813 43.540 56.014 50.014 56.014 61.668 36.212 46.130 52.714 52.604 39.513 59.725 42.813 50.662 4 5 55.065 52.946 42.847 50.303 44.257 46.780 56.944 48.542 61.644 40.614 61.644 53.827 55.065 52.065 65.873 45.899 40.027 33.567 40.967 36.210 45.666 44.137 55.535 45.899 47.546 48.542 39.557 39.733 63.053 45.899 47.076 45.899 6 40.021 40.021 51.294 70.082 51.294 55.052 40.021 51.294 40.021 43.779 40.021 70.082 55.052 40.021 62 . 5 6 7 43.779 7 41.629 45.934 50.239 58.849 63.154 56.697 45.934 54.544 56.697 45.934 39.477 56.697 52.392 45.934 61.002 56.697 8 61.080 40.305 47.230 61.080 47.230 61.080 40.305 40.305 26.456 54.155 54.155 61.080 47.230 47.230 47.230 47.230 9 56.900 34.365 44.332 73.802 46.O66 52.133 34.365 40.866 45.633 43.899 35.665 34.798 35.232 46.066 44.332 42.599 10 49.136 49.729 52.105 62.795 59.232 59.232 63.389 64.576 43.791 49.136 48.542 50.917 36.664 50.323 59.825 58.044 oa oa Subject 1 46 39.190 47 61.816 48 50.503 49 70 .300 50 61.816 51 50.503 52 61.816 53 47.675 54 30.705 55 40.604 56 61.816 57 51 .917 58 44.846 59 51.917 60 64.644 61 64.644 2 3 59.314 47.425 56.014 51.957 36.212 44.188 52.714 50.662 49.413 52.604 56.014 42.. 246 42.813 50.014 56.014 50.014 39.513 20.234 49.413 40.303 49.413 53.899 56.014 58.431 52.714 42.893 26.312 58.431 42.813 46.777 49.413 50.014 4 5 52.715 45.018 48.956 52.946 47.546 35.329 42.847 57.350 57.884 57.350 35.798 36.210 39.557 52.946 51.305 44.137 37.678 22.116 44.726 54.708 42 .847 44.137 48.486 39.733 50.365 52.946 48.486 50.303 40.967 52.946 64.463 48.542 6 55.052 47.537 43.779 40.021 43.779 55.052 73.840 47.537 40.021 47.537 47.537 62.567 51.294 66.325 43.779 43.779 7 52.392 20.104 58.849 48.087 45 .934 63.154 63.154 52.392 39.477 48.087 54.544 50 .239 61.002 54.544 48.087 54.544 8 47.230 47.230 47.230 61.080 61.080 54.155 47.230 33.381 26.456 54.155 61.080 54.155 47.230 54.155 54.155 47.230 9 47.799 53.867 59.934 37.399 41.732 74.235 53.867 50.400 48.666 61.234 56.900 52.567 44.332 48.233 50.400 69.901 10 51.511 56 .262 52.699 52.105 56.262 44.385 33.101 . 52.699 13.503 50.323 48.542 53.293 53.887 52.105 46.760 58.638 cc Subject 1 62 43.432 63 39.190 64 50.503 65 64.644 66 43.432 67 32.119 68 57.573 69 56.159 70 54.745 71 61.816 72 60.402 73 51.917 74 57.573 75 46.260 76 44.846 77 30.705 2 3 42.813 56.488 39.513 37*066 46.113 42*246 59.314 39.009 56.014 50.662 46.113 26.708 39.513 39 .009 52.714 60.373 56.014 53.251 56.014 30.592 46.113 58.431 29.612 51.309 59.314 54.546 57.714 56.488 49.413 61.668 46.113 40.951 4 5 56.005 58.231 57.884 61.755 57.884 57.350 55.065 45.899 54.595 48.542 45.666 44.137 47.076 50.303 43.787 57.350 52.715 61.755 43.787 51.184 42.377 44.137 40.497 35.329 55.065 57.350 53.655 52.946 59.764 61.755 60.704 68.801 6 43.779 40.021 47.537 40.021 40.021 40.021 47.537 58.810 ' 46.779 40.021 62.567 40.021 47.537 51.294 43.779 40.021 7 50.239 22.257 48.087 45.934 56.697 15.799 50.239 37.324 56.697 45.934 41.629 54.544 48.087 48.087 54.544 45.934 8 33.381 54.155 33.381 47.230 40.305 26.456 60'. 080 54.155 54.155 47.230 54.155 54.155 61.080 47.230 47.230 26.456 9 37.832 56 .900 46.O66 50.833 55.167 48.233 43.899 43.032 39.565 35.665 50.833 52.567 60.801 39.565 44.332 36.532 10 46.760 23.005 44.385 43.197 49.729 24.786 47.354 57.450 53.293 21.223 58.638 49.729 42.603 47.948 58.044 35.476 O 5ubject 1 2 3 4 73 57.573 52.714 60.373 56.005 79 50.503 42.813 51.957 65.873 80 47.675 56.014 44.188 64.463 81 60.402 26.312 27.355 49.896 82 37.776 59.314 48.072 46.606 83 63.230 52.714 61.668 62.583 8k 56.159 42.813 44.335 57.884 85 50.503 62.614 62.962 90.779 86 30.705 46.113 61.020 39.557 37 61.816 56.014 42.893 49.396 88 58.987 59.314 44.188 57.884 89 53.331 39.513 22.823 32.039 90 50.503 46.113 38.361 35.798 Mean 13.644 15.178 23.002 87.222 S.D. 7.072 3.030 1.545 21.280 5 50.303 60.874 57.350 57.350 27.401 58.231 52.946 88.130 47.661 53.827 59.993 42.376 35.329 46.656 11.353 6 47.537 73.840 43.779 51.294 62.567 70.082 70.082 58.810 47.537 55.052 47.537 40.021 40.021 2.656 2.661 7 35.172 52.392 53.849 56.697 67.459 58.849 67.459 50.239 45.934 58.849 50 .239 17 .952 43.037 15.889 4.646 3 54.155 54.155 54.155 47.230 61.080 54.155 61.080 61.080 47.230 61.080 54.155 26.456 40.305 3.400 1,444 9 56.900 40.866 52.567 56.900 56.467 66.368 54.733 61.234 63.834 52.567 40.866 50.400 43 .466 5.408 2.308 10 62.201 55.668 45.572 47.948 56.856 58.638 60.419 59.232 50,323 52.699 45.572 28.350 56.262 141.544 I6.838

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