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The effect of a wheelchair sports presentation on modifying attitudes of junior high school students… Knudson, Gail Ann 1990

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THE E F F E C T OF A W H E E L C H A I R SPORTS P R E S E N T A T I O N ON MODIFYING ATTITUDES OF JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS T O W A R D PHYSICALLY DISABLED PERSONS By GAIL A N N KNUDSON B . S c , The University of Alberta, 1984 D i p . E d . , The University of British Columbia, 1987 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF PHYSICAL E D U C A T I O N in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL E D U C A T I O N  W e accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A A p r i l 1990 0  G a i l A n n Knudson, 1990  In  presenting  degree  this thesis  in partial fulfilment of  requirements  for an  of this thesis for scholarly  department  or  by  his  or  her  I further agree that permission for  purposes  may be granted  representatives.  It  is  permission.  Department of  Physical  Education  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  /  /?7Q  extensive  by the head of my  understood  that  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without  Date  advanced  at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it  freely available for reference and study. copying  the  copying  or  my written  ABSTRACT The  Contact Hypothesis ( A m i r , 1969)  suggests that attitudes toward a  minority group can be modified. However, attitudinal change depends upon the nature of the contact. The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration T e a m Presentation on attitudes of junior high school students toward physically disabled persons This was measured by the Attitudes Towards Disabled Persons Scale ( A T D P ) (Yuker et a l , 1960)  and the  Modified Issues i n Disability Scale ( M I D S ) (Makas, 1985). The treatment consisted of a one hour structured program that included contact with physically disabled persons and information about their disabilities. One hundred and thirty-one able-bodied students  (ages 13-15) from four  junior high schools in two B r i t i s h Columbia school districts participated in this study. Students from one school in each district attended the British Columbia Wheelchair Sports Demonstration T e a m Presentation. Students from the other school did not attend and were assigned to the control group. This research used a one-group pretest-posttest design with a posttest-only control group as a follow-up. four weeks experimental treatment.  group completed  the  ATDP  after the treatment. prior to  Subjects in the  and immediately after  A s a result of the high correlation (r=.91)  the  between the M I D S and  A T D P with a prior sample of 15 year old students, both experimental and control groups completed only the M I D S four weeks after the treatment.  A l l subjects  completed the Social History Questionnaire (SHQ) (Makas, 1989) on each occasion. The S H Q gathered information on gender, birth date, place of residence and prior contact with physically disabled persons.  ii  ABSTRACT A t-test for dependent  samples  comparing differences  between  pre- and  posttest M I D S scores of the experimental group was not significant (p=.112 for a 2tailed test). However, in the follow-up portion of the study, an analysis of variance of the A T D P  found a significant difference between  the experimental and control  groups (p=.007). There were no significant interactions of gender, age or previous contact with treatment. The findings of this study show that able-bodied students' attitudes can be positively  modified with  an  information plus  contact  program.  Although the  modification was not immediate, a delayed effect occurred. Three focuses of further investigations might include the following: a need for attitude modification research related to disabled persons particularly in the junior high school age group; continued reliability and validity testing of the M I D S , and a refinement of the S H Q to more accurately assess prior contact with disabled persons.  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  H  LIST O F T A B L E S  vi  LIST O F FIGURES  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  x  INTRODUCTION  1  LITERATURE REVIEW  6  INTRODUCTION  .  THEORY BASE : Cognitive Dissonance T h e o r y Contact H y p o t h e s i s . Habituation Reduced Salience of D e v i a n t Characteristics Increased Cognitive Complexity of the T a r g e t G r o u p Reduced Reliance on Stereotypes T h r o u g h the Provision of Individuating Information Opportunity for Perception of S i m i l a r i t y Stereotype Disconfirmation METHODS OF ATTITUDE MODIFICATION TOWARD PHYSICALLY PERSONS Information Contact Information Plus Contact METHODOLOGY  6 6 6 7 8 9 9 9 9 10 DISABLED 10 11 13 15 23  INTRODUCTION C a n a d i a n Wheelchair Sports A s s o c i a t i o n - B . C . Division B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Wheelchair Sports Demonstration Team TREATMENT SAMPLING EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN O n e - G r o u p Pretest-Posttest D e s i g n . T h r e a t s to the Internal and E x t e r n a l V a l i d i t y of the O n e - G r o u p Pretest-Posttest Design Posttest-OnJy Control G r o u p D e s i g n  23 23 23 25 25 26 28 29 31  T h r e a t s to Internal and E x t e r n a l V a l i d i t y of the Posttest-Only Control G r o u p Design MEASURES U s e of Self-Report M e a s u r e s  33 34 34  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS T h e Attitudes T o w a r d Disabled Persons Scale (Yuker et a l . , 1960)  35  T h e Modified Issues in Disability Scale ( M a k a s , 1985) Social H i s t o r y Questionnaire ( M a k a s , 1989) DATA COLLECTION DELIMITATIONS LIMITATIONS HYPOTHESES ANALYSIS OF RESULTS  37 39 40 40 41 41 43  RESULTS  44  INTRODUCTION ONE-GROUP PRETEST - POSTTEST DESIGN POSTTEST-ONLY CONTROL GROUP DESIGN COMBINATION OF DESIGNS SUMMARY OF RESULTS  44 45 52 57 63  DISCUSSION TREATMENT AGE Dependent U p o n T r e a t m e n t Independent of T r e a t m e n t GENDER Dependent U p o n T r e a t m e n t Independent of T r e a t m e n t PREVIOUS C O N T A C T WITH DISABLED PERSONS Dependent U p o n T r e a t m e n t Independent of T r e a t m e n t RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH  65 65 71 71 73 75 75 76 76 76 78 78  CONCLUSION  81  BIBLIOGRAPHY  85  APPENDIX A ATTITUDE MODIFICATION TECHNIQUES A N D RESULTS  91  APPENDIX B A T H L E T E PROFILES A N D PRESENTATION FORMAT  95  APPENDIX C ADMINISTRATION P A C K A G E  99  APPENDIX D SUPPLEMENTARY TABLES OF RESULTS  v  109  LIST OF T A B L E S Table I Effect Sizes for Information Plus Contact by Age Level  15  Table II Reliability and V a l i d i t y of the A T D P and the MIDS  36  Table III Pilot Study D a t a - Correlation of M I D S with A T D P  39  Table I V T - T e s t for the M e a n Scores of Students on the MIDS  45  Table V M u l t i p l e A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Tests of Between-Subjects Effects on Gender on the M I D S  46  Table V I Multiple A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Tests of Within-Subjects Effects on Gender on the M I D S  47  Table V I I M e a n s and Standard Deviations for Gender on the M I D S for the Pretest and Posttest  48  Table VIII Multiple A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Tests of Between-Subjects Effects on A g e on the M I D S  49  Table I X Multiple A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Tests of Within-Subjects Effects on A g e on the M I D S  49  Table X M e a n s and Standard Deviations for A g e on the M I D S for the Pretest a n d Posttest  50  Table X I M u l t i p l e A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Tests of Between-Subjects Effects on Contact on the M I D S  51  Table X I I Multiple A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Tests of Within-Subjects Effects on Contact on the M I D S  51  Table XILT A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of T r e a t m e n t for the M e a n Scores of the Students on the A T D P  53  Table X D 7 M e a n s and Standard Deviations for T r e a t m e n t on the A T D P for the E x p e r i m e n t a l and Control G r o u p s  53  Table X V A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e o f T r e a t m e n t b y Gender for the M e a n Scores of the Students on the A T D P  vi  54  LIST O F T A B L E S Table X V I A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of T r e a t m e n t by A g e for the M e a n Scores of the Students on the A T D P  55  Table X V I I A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of T r e a t m e n t by Contact for the M e a n Scores of the Students on the A T D P  56  Table X V I I I A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of A g e on the M I D S  58  Table X I X M e a n s and Standard Deviations for A g e on the M I D S  59  Table X X A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of Gender on the M I D S  60  Table X X I A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of Contact on the M I D S  60  Table X X I I A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of Gender on the A T D P  61  Table X X I I I A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of A g e on the A T D P  61  Table X X I V A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of Contact on the A T D P  62  Table A I Effect Sizes of Attitude Modification Techniques Table D I M e a n s and Standard Deviations for Contact on the M I D S for the Pretest and Posttest  94 110  T a b l e D II M e a n s and Standard Deviations for A g e on the A T D P for the E x p e r i m e n t a l a n d Control G r o u p s  Ill  Table D III M e a n s and Standard Deviations for Gender on the A T D P for the E x p e r i m e n t a l and Control G r o u p s  112  Table D I V M e a n s and Standard Deviations for Contact on the A T D P for the E x p e r i m e n t a l and Control G r o u p s  113  Table D V M e a n s and Standard Deviations for Gender on the M I D S  114  Table D V I M e a n s and S t a n d a r d Deviations for Contact on the A T D P  115  Table D V I I M e a n s and Standard Deviations for Gender on the A T D P  116  Table D VIII M e a n s and S t a n d a r d Deviations for A g e on the A T D P  117  vii  LIST O F T A B L E S Table D IX M e a n s and Standard Deviations for Contact on the A T D P  viii  118  LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1 D i a g r a m of the O n e - G r o u p Pretest-Posttest D e s i g n  28  F i g u r e 2 F a c t o r s and L e v e l s of the Pretest - Posttest Single G r o u p Design  28  F i g u r e 3 D i a g r a m of the Posttest O n l y D e s i g n  32  F i g u r e 4 F a c t o r s and Levels of the Posttest O n l y D e s i g n  32  F i g u r e A 1 B r i e f Descriptions of Attitude Modification Techniques  92  F i g u r e B 1 Athlete Profiles  96  F i g u r e B 2 B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration T e a m Format  98  F i g u r e C 2 Subject Consent F o r m  101  F i g u r e C 3 Social H i s t o r y Questionnaire (Makas, 1989)  102  F i g u r e C 4 Attitudes T o w a r d Disabled Persons Scale ( Y u k e r e t a l . , 1960) F i g u r e C 5 Modified Issues in D i s a b i l i t y Scale ( M a k a s , 1985)  ix  103 105  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to take this opportunity to thank the staff of the Canadian Wheelchair Sports Association-B.C. Division for their assistance and support. I would also  like to  thank  the  members  of the  British C o l u m b i a Wheelchair  Sports  Demonstration T e a m for their cooperation in conducting this study. M y gratitude is also extended to D r . Elaine Makas for her continued support and  encouragement.  F i n a l l y , I would  like to express  my appreciation  to  committee members, D r . Sharon Bleuler, D r . C . K e n Curtis and D r . Gary Sinclair.  AX  my  INTRODUCTION Attitudes toward disabled persons are complex and multi-faceted. M a n y perspectives are possible. D a t a indicate that it is difficult to measure, change, and even understand attitudes toward disabled persons. Even though these things are difficult, they must, be done in order to improve the quality of life and status of persons with disabilities (Yuker, 1988, p. v). Over six hundred (600)  articles have been published on the subject of  modifying attitudes toward disabled persons. This chapter explores the theoretical and methodological weaknesses of the research in this area. It identifies the manner in which the current, research may strengthen these weaknesses. In addition, a tool  measuring  attitudes  toward disabled persons  is  described.  The  new  attitude  modification program which was the focus of this study was already in existence. The background,  purpose and format  of the  British  Columbia  Wheelchair  Sports  Demonstration T e a m Presentation is also explained. The majority of articles researching attitude modification programs toward disabled persons were published in the 1970's with the 1980's contributing at least fifteen literature reviews. Shaver, Curtis, Jesunthadas, and Strong (1989) reviewed 273 studies using meta-analysis and found that few studies received excellent or high ratings on any of the three types of global validity; general treatment  validity,  general internal validity, and adequacy of test validity. Also, none of the ratings of validity explained much of the variability in effect sizes (Shaver et al., 1989). Curtis and Shaver (1987) studied fifteen literature reviews on modifying attitudes toward persons with disabilities. They coded 143 of the 192 studies cited in these reviews for treatment  and internal validity.  None of the  143  studies were judged to  "excellent" in treatment validity or " h i g h " i n internal validity.  1  be  INTRODUCTION Few studies in the attitude modification area have been based on theory. Curtis and Shaver (1987) found that the most frequently mentioned recommendation in reviews of literature pertaining to modifying attitudes toward disabled persons was to base research on theory and to design research to test competing theories of attitude change (Harth, 1973; H o m e , 1985; Donaldson, 1980; Towner, 1984).  Not  only have few studies been based on theory, some of the methodological procedures have been questionable as well. Research has examined the effects of specific treatments on attitudes toward disabled persons. However, methodological weaknesses in designs make interpretation of findings difficult. According to a meta-analysis on attitude modification programs toward disabled persons (Shaver et al., 1989), failure to establish amount of prior contact with disabled persons, lack of control groups, absence of follow-up procedures and gender bias were obvious weaknesses in many studies. Few studies have measured the contact subjects have had with disabled persons prior to the study and this may have affected the results. Shaver et al., (1988) found only two studies that reported a correlation between prior contact with disabled persons and posttest attitude scores. Another problem that research has not addressed is the length of the effect of the treatment as most procedures only included a pretest-posttest with the posttest taking place immediately after the treatment. Few included a follow-up more than one day after the treatment. Most studies generalize about attitude change across gender although Shaver et al.'s (1988) meta-analysis found that the number of males in this research was disproportionately small when compared with female subjects. In the large number of  2  INTRODUCTION studies used in the meta-analysis, the mean, median and mode for male subjects were 36%, 35% and 0% respectively (Shaver et a l , 1988). There is definitely room to improve the quality of study i n this  area.  Recommendations in Shaver et al.'s (1989) meta-analysis report might assist in doing so. The current study attempted to address some of the research flaws i n the areas of theory and methodology relating to attitude change toward disabled persons.. The theoretical base that guided the current research was cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger, 1957) and the contact hypothesis ( A m i r , 1969). Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance is a type of attitude change theory in which cognitions are defined as, "any knowledge, opinion, or belief about one's self or about one's behavior" (Festinger, 1957, p. 3). Festinger's theory states that dissonance occurs when an individual holds two cognitions that are inconsistent with one another. The individual can then elect to ignore the dissonance or modify his/her cognitions. W h e n these cognitions are modified, an attitude-change occurs. A n effective way of bringing about this modification is based on the contact hypothesis which was founded on the premise that "intergroup contact tends to produce better intergroup attitudes and relations" ( A m i r , 1969, p.319). The current study strengthened the previous methodological weaknesses in the following ways: a) the extent of previous contact subjects had with disabled persons was identified;  3  INTRODUCTION b) a follow-up test was administered three weeks after the treatment. This does not infer that the treatment has a long term effect but that it lasts longer than one day as indicated in most of the research; and c) the ratio of males to females was 67 to 62 so a more accurate .generalization across gender could be made. A n additional purpose was to collect reliability and validity data for a new measurement tool and to use this measure to evaluate the treatment effects of an attitude modification program. This research provided additional reliability and validity data for the Modified Issues in Disability Scale (Makas, 1985). The Modified Issues in Disability Scale was developed in response to the criticisms related to the aging Attitudes Toward Disabled  Persons  Scale  (Yuker,  and  continued  comprehensiveness  1960).  Antonak  (1982)  reliability/validity of  commented the  that  Attitudes  the  Toward  Disabled Persons Scale have been questioned on the basis of extensive psychometric analysis and testing. O n a practical level, this study evaluated the effect of the British C o l u m b i a Wheelchair Sports Association Demonstration T e a m Presentation on modifying the attitudes of junior high school students toward physically disabled persons. The B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration T e a m is made up of physically disabled and ablebodied athletes  who play wheelchair basketball. The purpose of the Demonstration  T e a m is to educate and increase community awareness of the value of recreation for disabled  persons;  to  familiarize able-bodied  individuals with  the  abilities  of  wheelchair athletes; to promote the concept of safety at work and play; to promote reverse  integration;  to  increase  membership  4  and  provide  opportunities  for  INTRODUCTION participation i n sport and" recreation for both disabled and able-bodied persons. One of the stated goals of the Demonstration T e a m is to provide the opportunity for a positive change to occur in the physical and attitudinal barriers that inhibit the integration of disabled persons into the mainstream. The Demonstration T e a m visits institutions, sporting events, sports camps and community events w i t h the majority of the one hour wheelchair basketball presentations taking place at public school locations. In the present study, the effectiveness of these presentations was evaluated in the junior high school setting. The results were used to evaluate and modify the existing B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration Team Presentation. Finally, on a global level, the knowledge gained from the current study can be used to help modify the attitudinal barriers toward disabled persons as society's negative attitudes are the strongest barriers for disabled persons to overcome. In conclusion, the purpose of the study was to investigate the  effect of the  B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration T e a m presentation on attitudes of junior high school students  toward physically disabled persons.  It  also  addressed  selected  methodological and theoretical weaknesses i n previous research, that is, theoretical base,  prior contact, treatment follow-up, and gender bias. V a l i d i t y and reliability  data were also collected on M a k a s ' (1985) new Modified Issues in Disability Scale.  5  LITERATURE REVIEW  INTRODUCTION T h e literature review will focus on the following areas; theory base; the research  on methods for promoting attitude change toward physically disabled  persons; and relevant, additional studies in the area. The studies cited will reflect pertinent research on school children aged 13-18.  THEORY  BASE  Cognitive Dissonance Theory Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Festinger, 1957) and the Contact Hypothesis ( A m i r , 1969) provide the theoretical foundation for this research. Festinger's (1957) theory of Cognitive Dissonance defines cognitions as, "any knowledge, opinion, or belief about one's self or about one's behavior" (p. 3). Festinger's theory states that dissonance occurs when an individual holds two cognitions that are inconsistent with one another. T h e theory assumes  that  dissonance results  in psychological discomfort,  which, i n t u r n , motivates the individual to seek to reduce the dissonance or to achieve consonance by adding or changing cognitions, or to avoid information or situations that might increase the dissonance. In the current study, junior high school students were introduced to physically disabled persons through a sport situation. The object of the demonstration was to  6  LITERATURE REVIEW reduce the cognitive dissonance not add to it. A m i r (1969) suggested that one of the most successful ways by which to reduce this dissonance was through contact.  Contact Hypothesis " M o s t research on the effects of personal interaction upon attitude change has been directed to racial attitudes but there is no apparent reason for the findings not to be applied to disabled persons" (Watts, 1984, p.54). In its infant state the Contact Hypothesis suggested simply that "interracial or inter-ethnic contact could reduce stereotyping and the resulting prejudice and discrimination" (Makas, 1989,  p.2).  However, the conditions surrounding the contact are crucial. Amir's (1969) article summarized and evaluated the studies investigating the effect of intergroup contact on changing attitudes and ethnic relations. The conditions necessary for interracial contact to have a positive effect were found to occur when: (a) the members of each group are of equal status or (b) the members of the minority group are of higher status than the majority group members; (c) there is a favorable climate for group interaction; (d) the interaction is of an intimate rather than a casual nature; (e) the interaction is rewarding and pleasant; and (f) the two groups have a mutual goal that requires interdependent and cooperative action (Watts, 1984, p. 54). Conversely, some of the unfavorable conditions which tend to prejudice and to promote a negative attitude occur when: (a) the contact is unpleasant, involuntary, tension laden;  7  strengthen  LITERATURE REVIEW (b) the prestige or the status of one group is lowered as a result of the contact situation; (c) the members of the group are in a state of frustration (i.e., inadequate personality structure, recent defeat or failure, economic depression, etc.) - here contact with another group may lead to the establishment of an ethnic "scapegoat"; (d) the groups in contact have moral or ethical standards which are objectionable to each other; (e) the members of the minority group are of a lower status or are lower in any relevant characteristic than the members of the majority group (in the case of contact between a majority and a minority group) ( A m i r , 1969, p. 339). Makas (1989) noted that five constructs are particularly useful in explaining how contact with disabled individuals may be able to positively influence attitudes toward disabled persons: (1) habituation; (2) increased cognitive complexity in the perceptions of the target group; (3) reduced reliance on stereotypes through the provision of individuating information; (4) opportunity for perception of similarities; and (5) stereotype disconfirmation.  T h e following paragraphs elaborate upon these constructs.  Habituation Habituation is " a decline in the tendency to respond to stimuli that have become familiar due to repeated exposure" (Gleitman, 1986, p.88). Langer, Fiske, Taylor and Chanowitz (1976) stated that  " m u c h of the discomfort evident in  interactions between handicapped persons and normals exists because one's desire to  8  LITERATURE REVIEW explore a novel stimulus arouses the fear of violating a social norm against staring" (p. 452).  Reduced Salience of Deviant Characteristics Makas suggested that: Negative attitudes may be the result of illusory correlations between 'deviant' persons and 'deviant' behaviors. These negative attitudes, however, can be reduced through personal contact, since increased familiarity with individual group members can decrease the salience of phj^sical differences and, thus, disrupt the illusory relationship between unique appearance and unusual behavior (Makas, 1989, p.30).  Increased Cognitive Complexity of the Target Group Stephan  (1985) has suggested  that  "out-groups"  are conceptualized less  complexly (although more negatively than "in-groups" (Makas, 1989, p. 33).  Reduced Reliance on Stereotypes Through the Provision of Individuating Information Rose (1981) stated that this over reliance on stereotypes may be due in part to a bias i n memory i n which people store information by group, rather  than  individual, when the individual is a member of an out-group (Makas, 1989).  Opportunity for Perception of Similarity "Stephan (1985) stated that differences between groups are amplified, and similarities within groups are minimized" (Makas, 1989, p . 37). M c A r t h u r (1982) hypothesized that prejudice can be reduced b y breaking down categorizations of people  which focus o n dissimilarities between groups and re-categorizing persons i n  ways which highlight similarities (Makas, 1989).  9  LITERATURE REVIEW Stereotype Disconfirmation Finally, Deutsch and Collins (1951) stated that frequent and varied contact is likely to expose the interactants to enough nonstereotypic behaviors to break down the stereotype itself (Makas, 1989). Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Festinger, 1957) and the Contact Hypothesis ( A m i r , 1969).form the theoretical foundation upon which the current study was built. The  research supporting this is now discussed by reviewing the existing literature  promoting attitude change toward disabled persons.  METHODS DISABLED  OF ATTITUDE  MODIFICATION  TOWARD  PHYSICALLY  PERSONS  As mentioned in the introduction, over 600 studies have been completed assessing attitudes toward disabled persons. Because of the extent of the research in this area, the review of literature will consider general findings in the treatment intervention area as found by the meta-analysis of Shaver et al. (1989) and will then focus on the research relevant to children aged 13-18 years. Treatment was defined as an intervention used to modify the attitudes of the subjects toward physically and/or mentally disabled persons. The types of treatment described in Shaver et al. (1989) and explored i n this study were "information", "contact" and "information plus contact". The term attitude is defined as an affinity or aversion to situations, objects, persons, groups, or any other identifiable aspects of the  environment, including abstract ideas and social policies (Bern, 1970). Attitudes  have cognitive, emotional and behavioral components.  10  LITERATURE REVIEW The meta-analysis approach (Glass, 1976)  was developed to  "provide a  summary of the extant research in the form of answers to questions such as, 'What does the available research say about, the effects of Treatment X ? (Shaver et al, 1988, p. 5)". In this case, it is applied to the question of what is the effect of Treatment X i n modifying attitudes toward disabled persons? It is important to note that this meta-analysis  examined attitudes toward disabled persons. The term "disabled  person" is defined by Shaver et al. as someone with physical and/or mental disabilities. In the meta-analysis, the treatments  were assigned to one of ten possible  categories. A n explanation of each category can be found in Appendix A . T h e effect sizes for these categories are also found in Appendix A . The meta-analysis is based on effect sizes which are commonly labelled D . For their study, Shaver et al (1989), accepted values to identify low, medium and high effects as .2, .5 and .8 respectively.  Information This  technique  characteristics,  provides  information  problems, similarities with  on  disabilities  (e.g.,  able-bodied, prostheses)  etiology,  provided  by  means such as speakers, films, and books (Shaver et al., 1988, p. 48). According to Shaver et al. (1988), information has a m e d i u m effect size (Ds=.51). Therefore, information is seen as a moderately effective technique of positively modifying attitudes toward disabled persons i n general. However, a smaller mean effect size of .36 based on 43 studies was found for modifying attitudes toward physically disabled persons in which information was the sole treatment (Shaver et al., 1988, p. 59).  11  LITERATURE REVIEW The  technique  of information took  the form of audio, video and live  presentations and a number of combinations of the above in the following studies. No significant attitude change was found by Forader (1972) who studied the effects of three different modes of presentation on the change i n attitude toward disabled persons of 142 high school students. T h e students were exposed to one of three treatment conditions where the able-bodied experimenter presented factual, educationally based persuasive material using live, video or audio modalities. Pretestposttest differences for each modality failed to reach statistical significance. The effects on grade 7 students of a film (Barr, 1975) and discussion about a woman born without arms, which explored her life as a wife, a mother, and a woman with a handicap  was studied by Schroeder (1978). Results indicated that girls  became more positive toward physically disabled persons after the presentation while boys became more negative. Interpretation of these findings are difficult as the effect may have been due to the film, the discussion or a combination of the above. Mulkey (1980) seemed to improve upon the methodology of Schroeder (1978) by assigning the grade 6, grade 9 and grade 12 students to one of three groups: viewing a film " A Different A p p r o a c h " ; discussing aspects of disability with a person in a wheelchair; or no treatment pretest-posttest  (control). T h e research design was a modified  procedure with a follow-up observation after six weeks using the  A T D P as the dependent measure. Retention of attitude change was not maintained over the six-week period and there was no support for the contention that one treatment was better than the other. Although not statistically significant, there was a greater retention of positive attitude with increasing grade level among students who viewed the film.  12  LITERATURE REVIEW Perkins and Karniski (1978) conducted  a study with grade nine children  based on the premise that increased knowledge of physical disability would lead to positive attitude change as measured by personal-space behavior. A n experimental group (n=20) received instruction relating to physical disability while a control group (n=28) received no instruction. T h e results indicated that a significant  difference  existed between groups on how closely the children would approach a person they believed to be disabled. M a r s h and Friedman (1972) also found a positive change i n attitude toward disabled persons after the use of the Vision Education program with sighted high school students and their blind peers. However, their study did not include a control group like Perkins & Karniski (1978). Also, this treatment can arguably be classified as "information plus contact" since blind peers were present.  Contact T h e "contact technique" is defined as a situation i n which subjects are able to observe or interact, with persons having disabilities (Shaver et a l . , 1988, 48). Of the three treatments reviewed i n this study, the contact treatment was seen as most effective (Ds=.73) in modifying attitudes toward disabled persons. T h e mean D=.73 for contact approached  a high effect size. This technique  ranks second only to  vicarious experience (mean D=.76) when a l l possible attitude modification techniques are included. When  looking at modifying attitudes  toward physically  disabled  persons, the generalizability was questionable due to the small sample size. A small mean effect size of .26 was found based on four studies. In addition, the results specific to the age level studied i n the current research were equivocal.  13  LITERATURE REVIEW Results  tend  to be ambiguous.  Anthony  (1969)  reported  a  positive  modification i n attitude while Wallston et al. (1972) and A n t h o n y &z Cannon (1969) reported no change i n attitude. Wallston et al. (1972) also reported a negative change in attitude toward disabled persons. . A n t h o n y (1969) studied the attitudes of counsellors employed at a summer camp for handicapped children. T h e camping  experience provided the adolescent  counsellors with information conveyed b y professionals on the camp staff as well as continuous contact. T h e findings indicated that at the beginning of the camping experience new counsellors had significantly lower positive attitudes than those who had worked at the camp previously, and that b y the end of the summer, the new counsellors held significantly improved attitudes toward physically disabled persons (D=0.53). Wallston et al (1972) found no change i n attitudes toward disabled persons. They studied a group of student volunteers i n a summer parks program involved with disabled children. Anthony  Sz Cannon  (1969) also  found no effect on physically normal  children's attitudes toward physical disability as a result of attendance at a two week summer camp with physically disabled children. T h e findings indicated a tendency for children who had negative attitudes to become even more negative (D=-0.47). Finally, Wallston et al. (1972) studied the effects of contact with disabled youth i n a Junior Achievement Program on 42 youth and 30 advisors. T h e overall change i n attitude toward the disabled i n this study was a negative one.  14  LITERATURE REVIEW Information Plus Contact Another type of "contact" program has'been investigated. T h i s involved contact with a physically disabled person plus informational sessions relating to disabilities. Such an approach seemed to have been more successful than the contact treatment alone in bringing about positive attitude change. The  "information plus contact"  treatment  intervention was used in the  current study. In the Shaver et al. (1989) meta-analysis, studies using this approach yielded a mean effect size of .51. Although, it is only moderately influential overall, the potency of this intervention changes as a number of factors such as age and gender are introduced. The following is a summary of results across age levels found by Shaver et al. (1988) (see Table I). T a b l e I Effect Sizes for I n f o r m a t i o n P l u s C o n t a c t by A g e Level Age level  Effect size (Ds)  Number of studies  Grades 4-6  .59  6  Undergraduates  .69  15  Graduates  .09  5  Adults  .22  5  (Shaver et a l , 1988, p. 52)  Because of the lack of research studies i n the junior high area, an effect size was not calculated. However, the mean contact treatment effect size was found to be  15  LITERATURE REVIEW higher in the grade 4, 5 and 6 subjects (D=.81) than for a combination of subjects (school, university) (D=.20) and university and/or college subjects (D=.40) (Shaver et al., 1988). Due to the limited research in this area, the effectiveness of information plus contact as a treatment in the junior high school population is a good area to investigate. In a study by Handlers and A u s t i n , (1980), eighteen junior and senior high school students  participated i n activities to become more knowledgeable  about  handicapping conditions and handicapped people; to ease the mainstreaming of handicapped students into regular classrooms; and to develop a teaching  package  that could be used with other classes. Self-evaluation questions revealed that 82% felt their own attitudes became more positive and accepting of disabled people, and 62% felt that direct contact was the most effective method for improving attitudes toward the disabled. Rusalem (1967) attempted to change the attitudes of a group of high school girls toward deaf-blind persons. The students were pre-selected from a larger group to form two groups, one with extremely positive and one with extremely  negative  attitudes. T h e students participated in six 1 hour group sessions that involved information about  deaf-blindness,  instruction in the manual alphabet,  and  the  opportunity to communicate with deaf-blind individuals. Measures of attitude change were self-reports, a sentence completion test, and behavior. Results showed that the students with the most positive attitudes did not change on the self-report or the sentence completion test, probably due to the ceiling effect, but that the group with the poorest  attitudes  improved on both the attitude and behavioral  measures.  Measures of behavioral change included self-initiated volunteer work and reading  16  LITERATURE REVIEW about deaf-blindness. It was apparent that more sound methodological research was needed in this area to strengthen the results of these few studies. Other  factors  have  found  to  be  important  with  respect  to  attitude  modification treatments. Wetstein-Kroft and Vargo (1984) summarized the literature pertaining to children's attitudes toward physically disabled persons. They found the following factors to be important in the modification of attitudes. 1. Time. T h e failure of many studies to produce attitude change may be due to the fact that single experiences are not sufficient to produce long term change. Donaldson (1980, p. 511) has commented : Short, structured presentations of, or experiences w i t h , persons who represent nonstereotypic images of disabilities and are of equally valued status in relation to participants have been particularly effective i n short term attitude modification. These findings suggest that those who wish to maximize the effect of brief access to professional or lay groups should provide opportunities through liveor media presentations for handicapped persons to convey information about what it is like to be handicapped, who they are as individuals, and how they expect nonhandicapped persons to relate to them. 2. M o t i v a t i o n . The motivational aspect of change must be considered if it is to be enduring. It must be extrinsically or intrinsically rewarding to the child. 3. E q u a l status. Donaldson (1980) suggested that attitudes are more likely to change if an equal status relationship is perceived, or if the disabled person is higher in status (e.g., a disabled adult is higher in status than an able-bodied child). 4. Perceived similarity. Differences must be addressed first and then one ceases to be aware of the handicap and reacts to other characteristics (Davis, 1969). 5. The disabled as a vehicle for change. Disabled persons have the power to change existing stereotypical attitudes if they do not act i n a stereotypical manner  17  LITERATURE REVIEW (Donaldson, 1980) and can reduce the tension and anxiety present in interpersonal contacts to allow for positive attitude change (Evans, 1976). 6. T h e importance of structured interactions. Direct contact with the disabled must be structured i n order to reduce stereotypical attitudes (Donaldson, 1980). 7. Developmental considerations. T h e proposed intervention program should recognize the cognitive, affective and behavioral level of the child (Wetstein-Kroft and Vargo, 1984). It is interesting to note that the summary suggestions offered by WetsteinKroft iz Vargo (1984) in their review of the literature were almost identical to those stated in Amir's (1969) Contact Hypothesis. This further strengthens the notion of "contact" as being a central focus of an effective attitude modification technique. T h e following section presents studies pertaining to age and gender that did not use treatment interventions.  .ADDITIONAL  STUDIES RELEVANT  TO CHILDREN  AGED  13-18 YEARS  This section reviews research relating to the attitudes of male and female adolescents  (ages  13-18)  toward  physically  disabled .persons.  No  treatment  interventions i n terms of attitude modification programs were involved. Richardson (1970) found that liking for a drawing of a wheelchair bound child increased with age from kindergarten to grade 12 and was especially strong i n late elementary and adolescent males. Values gradually changed and by grade 12 the attitudes toward physically disabled persons closely resembled those of their same sex parents. Older females were found to conform more to peer values than older males.  18  LITERATURE REVIEW Females showed a greater dislike for children with facial disfigurement and males showed a lower preference for children with functional handicaps. Voeltz (1980) surveyed 2,392 children in grades 2 through 7 regarding their attitudes toward handicapped peers. They were asked to respond (agree, disagree, undecided) to 21 items related to disability taken from an Acceptance Scale for which they provided reliability and validity data. Results indicated that children were most willing to interact with a disabled child if the able-bodied child was female, i n grade 5 or 6, and enrolled in a school which permitted a high degree of contact with disabled children. Parish and Copeland (1978) administered the Personal Attribute Inventory for Children to 131 students i n grades five, six and seven. T h e students selected 15 adjectives which best described the three groups of handicapped and normal children. Results indicated a preference for normal children first, physically disabled children second, learning disabled children third, and emotionally disturbed children last. The following studies were based on mentally and/or physically disabled persons  across different ages. Bateman  (1962) explored the responses of sighted  children i n grades three through eight on a 50-item questionnaire concerning the abilities of b l i n d children. Results showed an increase i n favorability toward blind children u n t i l grade six and then this positive response leveled off. Higgs (1975) examined a cross-section of grade eight students, grade twelve students, college students, vocational rehabilitation counsellors, college advisors, and parents using the Attitudes T o w a r d Disabled Persons Scale (Yuker et a l . , 1960). He (1975) found that the grade twelve students had less knowledge about and less contact w i t h the disabled. These students also displayed a significantly lower test  19  LITERATURE REVIEW score on the A T D P indicating a less positive attitude toward the disabled than that of other groups studied. Siller (1963, 1964) chose three measures to assess attitudes of junior high, high school and college students toward disabled persons. T h e measures used were the A T D P , a social distance scale and a Feelings Check List. This study found college students more accepting of the disabled than high school and junior high school students. T h e high school students reported a more aversive reaction toward the disabled on the Feelings Check List than the junior high school and college students. Tringo (1970) used a social distance scale to measure attitudes of high school students, college students, graduate students and rehabilitation workers toward 22 deviant groups. Several disability groups were included within this category. A generally consistent rank order emerged. High school students were found to be less accepting of the disability groups than the other respondent groups. Age, however, may be confounded with" education i n this study. Prior contact  can also be  considered a confounding variable as it is very rarely taken into account. Gosse and Sheppard (1979) used the Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons Scale-Form B (Yuker, Block and Campbell, 1966) to compare the attitudes toward physically disabled persons held by 696 male and female individuals at  three  educational levels (n=273 grade 7 students, n=268 grade 11 students and n=155 second-year university students) who had personal contact versus no such contact with the disabled. Results revealed that higher the educational level the more positive were the students' attitudes. However, no significant differences were found between grade 11 and university students. Generally, students who had contact with  20  LITERATURE REVIEW physically disabled persons had more favorable attitudes toward the disabled with the exception of grade 11 contact versus non-contact groups. F u r n h a m and Gibbs (1984) surveyed the attitudes toward disabled persons of 135 ( f e m a l e = l l l ;  male=34), thirteen year old British students u s i n g . a modified  version of Y u k e r et al.'s (1960) A T D P questionnaire. Results demonstrated that the students' attitudes toward the physically disabled were more positive than toward the mentally handicapped. Generally, there were very few sex differences indicating that males felt greater  negative feelings toward the handicapped than  females.  Finally, those who knew or interacted with a disabled person were more positive in their attitudes than those who had little or no contact. The findings of these studies seem to be supported by the following research. According to social-cognitive development, Hoffman (1981) stated  that children  become more empathic with the general plight of entire classes of disadvantaged persons, as children move from early childhood to later childhood and adolescence (Sigelman and M c G r a i l , 1985, p.354). Cialdini and Kendrick (1976) found that this age group is also more likely to behave according to norms of social responsibility and find empathy toward the needy to be rewarding (Sigelman and M c G r a i l , 1985, p.354). However, in later adolescence, this may change. Finally, Donaldson (1980, p. 249) states: The developmental trend from early childhood through the late teens appears to form an inverted-U. Beliefs, attitudes, and behavior toward the disabled become increasingly favorable until the late teens, whereupon attitudes and beliefs (and perhaps behavior) again become quite unfavorable, although apparently not as unfavorable as i n early childhood.  21  LITERATURE REVIEW It is important to note that Donaldson's (1980) hypothetical view is based on a limited number of studies. Secondly, if this inverted-U does exist, the approximate age of the attitude change i n the adolescent years remains unclear. However, since the adolescent  years seem to be one of the most challenging periods for the  modification of attitudes toward the physically disabled, it is important that effective instructional programs are developed to reach this group. O n first glance, it is easy to dismiss the fact that new research  projects  measuring attitude modification programs toward the disabled are essential because of the large number of studies (600) in the area. However, on closer inspection, it is clear that more research is vital i n the area of "information plus contact"  attitude  modification programs toward physically disabled persons because of the equivocal findings i n this area i n general and, specifically, i n the junior high school age group. The  current  research  modification technique.  addresses  the information  plus  contact  attitude  T h e effect of this program is evaluated on modifying  attitudes of junior high school students ages (13-15) toward physically disabled persons.  22  METHODOLOGY  INTRODUCTION  C a n a d i a n Wheelchair Sports A s s o c i a t i o n - B . C . Division The  Canadian Wheelchair  Sports  Association-British C o l u m b i a Division  ( C W S A - B C ) is a charitable society dedicated to promoting and providing sport and recreation opportunities for people who use wheelchairs. C W S A - B C is the official voice for wheelchair sports  in B . C . and offers  direct  services  in the  areas of  competition, junior development, training and leisure counselling to its members. The Association also encourages and supports the integration of wheelchair athletes into existing community recreation programs, and promotes a general public awareness and acceptance of disabled people.  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Wheelchair Sports Demonstration  Team  The purpose of the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration T e a m is: (1) to educate and increase community awareness of the value of recreation and the abilities of wheelchair athletes; (2) to promote the concept of safety at work and play; (3) to promote reverse integration; (4) to increase membership; and (5)  to  provide opportunities  for participation  in sport  (Canadian Wheelchair Sports Association-B.C. Division, 1988).  23  and  recreation  METHODOLOGY The B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration Team, is made up of physically disabled and able-bodied athletes who participate in the wheelchair sport program of basketball. The B . C . Wheelchair Sports  Demonstration T e a m consisted of four  disabled and three able-bodied athletes during the Spring Tour of 1989. For a profile of each athlete, refer to Appendix B . The Demonstration T e a m visits institutions, sporting events,  sports camps and community events with the majority of the  presentations taking place at public school locations. The B . C . Wheelchair Sports  Demonstration Team visited schools in the  Okanagan, West Kootenays and Vancouver Island regions during their Spring Tour of 1989.  The effect of their program on modifying attitudes  disabled persons  toward physically  was investigated in the current study utilizing schools  within  Okanagan and Vancouver Island regions. The goals of the tour were stated follows: 1. T o increase the community's awareness of the opportunities and growth that individuals with disabilities can experience through leisure and recreation activities. 2. T o provide the opportunity to positively change both physical and attitudinal barriers experienced by individuals with disabilities. 3. T o encourage the independent recreation participation of individuals with disabilities within tour communities. 4. T o act as a community resource to promote the development of wheelchair sport programs. 5. T o promote the concept of safety during both work and play. 6. T o encourage the integration of able-bodied athletes into wheelchair sport programs (Canadian Wheelchair Sports Association-B.C. Division, 1988, p. 2).  24  as  METHODOLOGY TREATMENT The Demonstration T e a m presentation took approximately one hour. Initially, the  team  members  representing  the  school  and  the  B . C . Wheelchair  Sports  Demonstration Team were introduced. Then there was a brief outline of the rules and  skills involved in wheelchair basketball. A twenty to thirty  minute game  followed. A t half time, every athlete described his/her personal background and experiences. A n open question period took place between the athletes, staff and students after the game . Finally, each athlete related how he/she was injured and stressed the importance of avoiding similar situations. ( A n outlined format of the program can be found in A p p e n d i x B ) .  SAMPLING A non-probability convenience sample was used. The sample consisted of 131 (male=67, female=62) junior high school students from four B . C . secondary schools. The ages ranged from 13 to 16. The sample consisted of two experimental (n=88; males=46, females=41, missing d a t a = l ) and two control groups (n=43; males=21, females=21, missing d a t a = l ) . Students from the M c N i c o l l Park school (n=25; males=12, females=12, missing d a t a = l ) in Penticton, B . C . and Cumberland Junior Secondary school (n=63; males=34, females=29) in Courtenay, B . C . made up the  experimental group.  Students from the N k w a l a school (n=23; males=10, females=13) i n Penticton, B . C . and Courtenay Junior High school (n=20; m a l e s = l l , females=8, missing d a t a = l ) i n Courtenay, B . C . made up the control group.  25  METHODOLOGY The  researcher  obtained  a  schedule  of  the  B.C.  Wheelchair  Sports  Demonstration T e a m during M a y and June of 1989 when the Demonstration usually tours. Next, junior high schools  that  the team was scheduled to attend  were  identified as possible experimental groups. Then junior high schools in the same school district that would not attend the presentation were identified. These schools could act as possible control groups. It was also established that the control and experimental  groups had not  seen the  B . C . Wheelchair  Sports  Demonstration  Presentation in the past. The district superintendents and school principals of the school districts meeting the above criteria were contacted regarding the study. Those superintendents and principals agreeing to permit their schools to take part in the study confirmed their support in writing.  EXPERIMENTAL  DESIGN  The selection of the appropriate research design was dependent upon several factors. T h e school districts included in this study were randomly selected but the classes involved were in existence prior to the initiation of the study. Therefore, random assignment of subjects to groups was not possible. The experimental group completed the Modified Issues in Disability Scale (MIDS)  (Makas,  1985)  assessing  attitude  toward disabled persons  before and  immediately after the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration Presentation. They also completed the Social History Questionnaire ( S H Q ) (Makas, 1989) on each occasion which gathered information on age, gender, place of residence and amount of prior contact with physically disabled persons.  26  METHODOLOGY A different questionnaire Attitudes T o w a r d Disabled Persons Scale ( A T D P ) (Yuker et a l . , 1960) highly correlated with the A T D P in measuring attitude toward disabled  persons  was  administered with  the  S H Q four weeks  after the  B.C.  Wheelchair Sports Demonstration Team Presentation. The use of an alternate test (Modified Issues in Disability Scale, Makas, 1985) lessened the learning effect of the experimental group as they had completed the A T D P on two previous occasions. T h e principals of the control group schools consented to the administration of questionnaires on only one occasion. The most important part of the current research was to investigate the long term effect of the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration Team  Presentation  on modifying attitudes  toward physically disabled persons.  Therefore, the control group responded to the A T D P and the S H Q four weeks after the experimental group attended the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration Team Presentation. T w o experimental designs were used in this study. A one-group pretestpost test design was used for the initial portion of the study measuring attitude toward disabled persons prior to and immediately after the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration  Team  Presentation.  A  posttest-only  control  group  design  was  implemented for the three week follow-up. In the following section, the two designs are described and threats to internal and external validity are explored.  27  METHODOLOGY O n e - G r o u p Pretest-Posttest Design The name of the first design was a One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design (as described in Campbell & Stanley, 1963) (see Figure 1). Figure 1 Diagram of the One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design  Pretest  Posttest  Treatment  1.Social History Questionnaire (Makas, 1989)  1.Social History Questionnaire (Makas, 1989)  2.Modified Issues in Disability Scale (Makas, 1985)  2.Modified Issues in Disability Scale (Makas, 1985)  The  dependent  variable used for part  one was the  Modified  Issues in  Disability Scale ( M I D S ) (Makas, 1985). The factors of gender, area, age and contact were also considered. (See Figure 2). F i g u r e 2 F a c t o r s a n d L e v e l s of t h e P r e t e s t Posttest Single G r o u p Design Factor 1: Gender Levels: 2 male female Factor 2: Age Levels: 4  13 14 15 16  years years years years  of of of of  age age age age  28  METHODOLOGY Factor 3: Contact Levels: 5  no personal contact with physically disabled persons very little personal contact with physically disabled persons 3. some personal contact with physically disabled persons 4. quite a bit of personal contact with physically disabled 1. 2.  a grat deal of personal contact with physically disabled  T h r e a t s t o t h e I n t e r n a l a n d E x t e r n a l V a l i d i t y of t h e O n e - G r o u p P r e t e s t Posttest Design Campbell &: Stanley (1963) classify the One-Group Pretest-Posttest as a preexperimental design. Possible threats to internal validity include history, maturation, testing, instrumentation, and statistical regression. Internal validity refers to the degree to which the researcher can be reasonably certain that the effects are the result of the treatment. Other events which may have influenced the results between the time of the pretest and the posttest i n addition to the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration T e a m Presentation treatment. This threat is termed extrasession and intrasession history. In order for the rival hypotheses to become plausible, Campbell and Stanley (1963) state that such a n event should have occurred for most of the students in the group under study. Since no large scale media event such as the M a n - i n - M o t i o n T o u r was taking place, there is no reason to believe that history posed a threat. T h e threat that maturation may cause can be discounted due to the lack of time between the pretest and posttest. T h e term maturation is used to cover " a l l  29  METHODOLOGY biological and social processes which systematically vary with the passage of time, independent of specific external events" (Campbell & Stanley, 1963, p. 8). A third confounding variable is the effect of testing, or the effect of the pretest itself. It is possible that the instruments used in this study were reactive. However, this poses a problem in much of the attitude research because of the type of the selfreport measures used. Instrumentation refers to "autonomous changes  in measuring instruments  which may account for the pretest-posttest difference" (Campbell & Stanley, 1963, p. 9). This does not pose a threat to internal validity as self-report measures were used rather than observational or subjective measures. Statistical regression occurs when "groups have been selected on the basis of their extreme scores" (Campbell & Stanley, 1963, p.5). This factor is not applicable as the  attitudes  of the students  toward physically disabled persons  were  not  previously determined and there was no reason to believe that sets of extreme scores existed. Experimental mortality is a threat when there is reason to believe that the subjects lost from the study differ i n important characteristics from the subjects who remain i n the study. Since 20 of the subjects in the experimental group failed to complete the questionnaires on 3 occasions, they were dropped from the study. There was no reason to believe that these subjects differed from those who remained in the study. External validity refers to what population, settings, treatment variables, and measurement variables the study can be generalized to. Threats to the external  30  METHODOLOGY validity of the One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design include interaction of testing and the treatment interaction of selection biases and treatment. The pretest may decrease the subjects' sensitivity or responsiveness to the experimental variable and thus make the results unrepresentative of the general population (Campbell and Stanley, 1963). This may have been a factor in the current study. The subjects were not questioned as to whether or not they knew the true purpose of the measurement tools or the study. According to Campbell & Stanley (1963, p. 19), the threat to external validity presented by the interaction of selection and the experimental variable can be minimized by exposing the treatment to a number of schools located in a variety of environments, rather than several classes from a single school. Because the schools in this study varied in size, geographic setting and location, it was assumed that the results could be generalized to classes of junior high school students who had seen the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration T e a m Presentation outside a large metropolitan area.  Posttest-Only C o n t r o l G r o u p Design The second part of the experiment used a posttest-only control group design (as described in Campbell Sz Stanley, 1963) (see Figure 3). The Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons Scale ( A T D P ) (Yuker et al., 1960) was selected as the dependent variable.  31  METHODOLOGY F i g u r e 3 D i a g r a m of the P o s t t e s t O n l y D e s i g n GROUP  MEASURES  Experimental  1. Social History Questionnaire 2. Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons Scale  Control  1. Social History Questionnaire 2. Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons Scale  The factors of gender, area, age and contact were also considered. (See Figure 4)-  Figure 4 Factors and Levels of the Posttest Only Design Factor 1: Group Levels: 3  Factor 2: Gender Levels: 2  Factor 3: Age Levels: 4  Experimental Control  male female  13 14 15 16  years years years years  of of of of  age age age age  32  METHODOLOGY Factor 4: Contact Levels: 5  1. no personal contact with physically disabled persons  persons  2. very little personal contact with physically disabled  persons  3. some personal contact with physically disabled  disabled persons  4. quite a bit of personal contact with physically  disabled persons  5. a grat deal of personal contact with physically  Threats to Internal and External Validity of the Posttest-Only  Control Group Design  According to Campbell & Stanley (1963), the majority of threats to internal validity are controlled while threats to external validity include interaction of testing and  the  treatment,  interaction  of  selection  and  the  treatment  and  reactive  arrangements (Campbell & Stanley, 1963). Threats to history were minimized by selecting each experimental class and its respective control group from schools within the same school district. It was not possible to select the experimental and control group from the same school as the entire  school  attended  the  B.C.  Wheelchair  Sports  Demonstration  Team  Presentation. The possibility of maturation being a threat is diminished by the fact that the experimental and control classes were selected from the same grade levels. A third confounding variable is the effect of testing. This poses a problem in the majority of attitude research studies because of the reactivity of measures used. Instrumentation  does  not  pose  a  threat  to  internal  validity  as  self-report  questionnaire measures were used rather than observational measures. The factor of  33  METHODOLOGY statistical regression  is not applicable as the attitudes  of the students toward  physically disabled persons were not previously determined by the A T D P . In terms of external validity, the only variable that poses a threat is the interaction of testing and the treatment. This factor did not weaken the design as a different attitude measurement tool was given to the experimental group at the third testing period.  MEASURES  U s e of S e l f - R e p o r t M e a s u r e s Self-report measures are used throughout this study. The self-report approach includes all procedures by which a person can be asked to report his or her own attitudes. This can be administered orally in the form of interviews, surveys or polls; or written in the form of attitude rating scales, logs, journals, diaries or, i n this case, questionnaires. The self-report approach is most appropriate when the people whose attitudes you are investigating are able to understand the questions asked of them, have sufficient self-awareness to provide necessary information and, thirdly, are likely to answer honestly and not deliberately falsify their responses. The cognitive and affective components of attitude are measured by the Attitudes T o w a r d Disabled Persons Scale (Yuker, 1969) and the Modified Issues in Disability Scale ( M I D S ) . This represents the beliefs, perceived knowledge (cognitive) and feelings (affective) toward physically disabled persons.  34  METHODOLOGY T h e A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d D i s a b l e d P e r s o n s S c a l e ( Y u k e r et a l . , 1960) The Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons Scale ( A T D P ) (Yuker et a l . , 1960) is a Likert-type scale designed to measure attitudes  toward disabled persons when  administered to able-bodied individuals. It has been used i n over 200 studies relating to attitude modification toward disabled persons. There are three alternate forms of the scale, the original 20-item form (Form O ) , and two alternative 30-item forms A and B . Each item is a statement about disabled persons to which a person responds by indicating the extent of the agreement or disagreement. Each  form takes  approximately 15 minutes to complete. T h e scores can range from 0 to 120. T h e original form (Form O) of the A T D P was used in this study, (see Appendix C , Figure 3). In terms of reliability, Yuker et al. (1970) reported acceptable test-retest and split-half reliability ranging from .66 to .89 with a mean of .67 (see Table II). Stability-equivalence reliability values range from .41 to .83 with a median of .74. Reports of internal consistency have ranged from .72 to .89 (Yuker, 1970). " Y u k e r et al. (1970) and Block (1974) provided data which supported the construct validity based on predicted relationships with demographic variables (contact with disabled people and gender) and personality variables (body concept and nurturing)" (Makas et a l , 1988, p. 22). However, the comprehensiveness  and continued  reliability/validity of the  A T D P has been criticized (Antonak, 1982; Kent et a l . , 1984; Siller and C h i p m a n , 1964). Antonak (1982) used a Kuder-Richardson Formula-20 procedure and found a .51 reliability coefficient and extreme response tendencies for 5 of the 20 items i n A T D P - F o r m O (Makas, 1988). In terms of construct validity, Antonak (1981) found  35  METHODOLOGY a multiple correlation coefficient of only .25 for A T D P scores and the most commonly cited demographic and experiential determinants of attitudes toward persons with disabilities (age, sex, educational level, professional specialization, frequency  of  contact with disabled individuals, and contact intensity) (Makas et a l , 1988) Finally, the multi-dimensionality of the measure has been questioned as Siller and C h i p m a n (1964) and Antonak (1982) found that the scale clustered into two factors (see Appendix C , Figure 4).  Table II Reliability and Validity of the A T D P and the M I D S Instrument ATDP  MIDS  Reliability Internal consistency Test-retest  .72-.89 .67  .79  Validity Construct  Content Concurrent  "good attitude" subjects vs. student subjects ( F = 128 p<.0000) panel of experts panel of experts in the field i n the field (13) Between A T D P and M I D S .78 -.92  36  METHODOLOGY T h e M o d i f i e d Issues i n D i s a b i l i t y S c a l e ( M a k a s ,  1985)  The Modified Issues in Disability Scale ( M I D S ) (Makas, 1985) is a likert-type scale  in  which  subjects  agreement/disagreement disabilities.  The  are  with  possible  37  range  asked  to  statements in  score  indicate about  is  37  the  persons to  259.  extent  of  their  who have physical Completion time  is  approximately 10-15 minutes (see Appendix C Figure 5). Makas (1988) has attempted to develop a measure which "preserves valuable  information  gathered  through  previous  research,  while  taking  the into  consideration the criticisms of prior attitudinal measures" (p. 22). Attempts were made to "represent the multidimensionality of attitude and to reduce the demand of social reliability" (Makas, 1988, p. 22). Test items were selected from a large pool of statements generated by Makas (1985). Some of the items were drawn from existing scales (and, in many cases, reworded to reduce demand characteristics). Others were novel, resulting primarily from informal conversations with disabled individuals and/or researchers. T h e initial pool of more than 140 items was narrowed down to 100 by a panel of 12 experts who were either experts on attitude measurement or attitudes toward people with disabilities. Five of the experts had disabilities. The 37 items in the M I D S are those which showed statistical strength among 83 student subjects and high consensus as to what constitutes positive attitudes among 92 carefully selected disabled respondents ( F = 128.0, p < . 0001). With  respect  to reliability, a Cronbach alpha test showed good internal  consistency of .79 (Makas, 1989)  based on the responses of 305  undergraduate  student subjects (n=170 females, n=135 males) (Makas, 1989). The responses of this  37  METHODOLOGY sample  also  supported  the construct  significantly higher than males  validity of the M I D S .  (X=167.31 females,  Females  scored  X=161.03 males, p<.01) In  addition, subjects with greater personal contact with disabled individuals scored significantly higher than subjects with less personal contact ( X = 155.20 "no personal contact", X=179.11 " a great deal of personal contact") (Makas, 1989). Makas (1989) administered the M I D S to 80 undergraduate students (n=40 female, n=40 male). It was found to predict two behaviors: willingness to participate in further  research  with  disabled persons  as co-subjects (F=3.18, p<.05) and  proximity to a confederate who appeared to have a disability (F=6.57, p<.05). Makas(1989) surveyed 69 nondisabled persons (n=45 females, n=24 males) who had been identified as having extremely positive attitudes toward disabled people. They scored significantly higher (F=42.89, p<.0001) than a sample of 83 randomly selected student subjects (n=45 females, n=38 males), which gave further support to the M I D S ' s construct validity. Makas (1989) compared the results of the A T D P - F o r m O with the M I D S using 225 undergraduate  students.  A significant correlation was found (r=.78,  p<.001) indicating strong criterion validity for the M I D S compared to the A T D P . T o ensure that this correlation existed at a younger age level, a pilot study was undertaken with 12 junior high school students (15 years of age). A significant correlation was found between the A T D P - F o r m O and the M I D S (r=^92, p<.0001) (see Table III below).  38  METHODOLOGY T a b l e H I P i l o t S t u d y D a t a - C o r r e l a t i o n of M I D S with  ATDP  ATDP n  mean  12  61.88  MIDS s.d.  mean  s.d.  r  21.99  154.42  20.81  0.92  p .0001  S o c i a l H i s t o r y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Makas, 1989) A social history questionnaire was used to determine the age, gender, grade, class, school, and place of residence of the subject and the extent of contact, if any, with a disabled person (see Appendix C Figure 3). Completion time is approximately 1 minute. T h e purpose of the social history questionnaire is to identify subjects by means of  these demographics for the purposes of the repeated measures design.  Another purpose is to measure the effect of the treatment on the factors of age, gender,  area  and previous  contact  that  are identified by the Social  History  Questionnaire. The  measure used to determine  previous contact was a five-point scale  ranging from "no contact with disabled persons" to " a great deal of contact with disabled persons". This contact measure was a replication of one used by Makas (1990) where she found that subjects (n=305 undergraduate students) having greater personal contact with disabled persons h a d significantly more positive  attitudes  toward disabled persons than subjects w i t h less personal contact (p<.01) using the MIDS.  39  METHODOLOGY  DATA COLLECTION Packages containing administration information, parental consent forms and questionnaires were sent to the school prior to the arrival of the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration Team Presentation (see A p p e n d i x C ) . The principals of the schools were then contacted to confirm the arrival of the questionnaires and to answer any queries regarding the administration of the questionnaires. Letters of consent were sent to the parents of the children taking part in the study. Students returning completed consent forms prior to the administration of the questionnaires participated in the study. The  students  in the  experimental  group completed  the  Social History  Questionnaire and M I D S prior to the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration T e a m presentation. The experimental group subjects then attended the Demonstration T e a m presentation. The students were asked not to discuss the presentation when walking back to the classroom at which time they completed the- Social History Questionnaire and M I D S . Finally, the experimental and control group subjects completed the Social History Questionnaire and A T D P - F o r m O four weeks after the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration Team presentation.  DELIMIT A TIONS The study can be generalized to those junior high school students who attended the British C o l u m b i a Wheelchair Sports Demonstration Team Presentation in M a y of 1989 who reside in Courtenay or Penticton, B . C . .  40  METHODOLOGY LIMIT A TIONS L i m i t i n g conditions or restrictive weaknesses of the study include; 1. The use of self-report measures, 2. Drop-out rate of schools, 3. Drop-out rate of students, and 4. Availability of subjects on all testing dates.  HYPOTHESES 1. There will be a statistically significant short term treatment effect. EXPERIMENTAL  HYPOTHESIS:  The  posttest  (immediately following)  mean score on the Modified Issues i n Disability Scale of the experimental group students will be statistically significantly greater than the pretest mean score.  2. There will be a statistically significant longer term treatment effect. E X P E R I M E N T A L H Y P O T H E S I S : The mean score (four week follow-up) of the experimental group subjects on the A t t i t u d e Toward Disabled Persons Scale will be statistically significantly greater than the mean score of the control group subjects.  3. There will be a statistically significant age effect. EXPERIMENTAL HYPOTHESIS: a) Mean pretest scores of the experimental group subjects as measured by the Modified Issues i n Disability Scale will be statistically significantly different at each age level with mean scores decreasing at each successive age level from 13-15 years.  41  METHODOLOGY b) Mean scores of the control group subjects as measured by the Attitudes Toward Disabled "Persons Scale will be statistically significantly different at each age level with mean scores decreasing at each successive age level from 13-15 years.  4. There will be a statistically significant gender effect. EXPERIMENTAL HYPOTHESIS: (a)  Mean  pretest scores of females in the  experimental  group  will  be  statistically significantly greater on the Modified Issues in Disability Scale than mean pretest scores of males in the experimental group. (b)  Mean  scores of females  in  the  control  group  will  be  statistically  significantly greater on the Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons Scale than  mean  scores of males i n the control group.  5. There w i l l be a statistically significant contact effect. EXPERIMENTAL HYPOTHESIS: (a) Mean pretest scores of the experimental group subjects will be statistically significantly different using Modified Issues in Disability Scale on each level of prior contact with physically disabled persons. The mean scores will increase with amount of prior contact with disabled persons. (b)  Mean  scores of subjects in the  control  group  will  be  statistically  significantly different using the Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons Scale on each level of prior contact with physically disabled persons. The mean scores will increase w i t h amount of prior contact with disabled persons.  42  METHODOLOGY ANALYSIS  OF  RESULTS  The immediate treatment effect (pretest versus posttest) was analyzed using a t-test for dependent samples. The level of significance used was p<.05 for a one-tailed test. The factors of age, gender and contact were analyzed using a series of multiple analyses of variance ( M A N O V A ) . The lasting treatment effect (experimental versus control) was determined using a one-way analysis of variance ( A N O V A ) . The level of significance used was p<.05. Factors of age, gender and previous contact were analyzed using two-way analyses of variance ( A N O V A ) . The effects of age, gender and previous contact on attitudes toward physically disabled persons were analyzed independently of treatment. These were calculated using a series of one-way analyses of variance ( A N O V A ) on the pretest portion of the one-group pretest-posttest  design, and two-way analyses of variance ( A N O V A ) on  the control group subjects of theposttest-only control group design. Post-hoc tests (Scheffe's test) were performed on statistically significant factors. Two effect sizes or standardized mean differences were calculated with respect to the treatment on a short term (immediately after the presentation) and a longer term basis (4 weeks after the presentation).  43  RESULTS  INTRODUCTION The Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons Scale (Yuker et al., 1960) and the Modified Issues in Disability Scale (Makas, 1985) are instruments used to measure attitudes toward disabled persons. A person scoring high on these instruments is seen as having a positive attitude toward disabled persons, while a low score is interpreted as a negative attitude. This research used a one-group pretest-posttest design with a posttest-only control group as a follow-up four weeks experimental  group completed  the  ATDP  after the treatment. prior to  Subjects i n  the  and immediately after  the  treatment. A s a result of the high correlation between the M I D S and A T D P , both experimental and control groups completed only the M I D S four weeks after the treatment. A l l subjects completed the Social History Questionnaire (SHQ) (Makas, 1989) on each occasion. A t-test for dependent samples comparing differences between pretest and posttest M I D S scores of the experimental group determined the immediate treatment effect. M u l t i p l e analysis of variance ( M A N O V A ) was used to investigate the effect of the treatment on gender, age and previous contact with disabled persons. A n analysis of variance of the A T D P scores i n the posttest-only control group design was used to determine a treatment effect after four weeks. Interactions with treatment as related to gender,  age  or previous contact were investigated  ANOVA's.  44  by a series of two-way  RESULTS In order to'provide additional information on the construct validity of the M I D S , an analysis of variance was performed on the pretest portion of the one-group pretest-posttest design. Post-hoc tests were conducted on all significant results.  ONE-GROUP  PRETEST  - POSTTEST  DESIGN  The short term or immediate treatment effect was assessed using a t-test for dependent samples. The null hypothesis tested by the one-group  pretest-posttest  design was : There will be no statistically significant difference between the mean pretest scores and mean posttest scores of the experimental group subjects on the M I D S . The result failed to reach statistical significance (t=-1.62, df=55, p=0.112 for a 2-tailed test). However, the mean M I D S score rose from 161.38 before the B . C . Wheelchair Sports  Demonstration Presentation  to 165.07 immediately after  the  Presentation (see Table IV). A small effect size of .17 was found for the immediate treatment, effect.  Table I V T-Test for the Mean Scores of Students on the M I D S Variable  n  df  MIDS pretest MIDS posttest  161.3750  56  s.d.  mean  t  (2-tail)  21.777 -1.62  55  165.0714  P  24.231  45  0.112  RESULTS Because of the positive effect size and the increase in the mean scores, a series of multiple analyses of variance ( M A N O V A ' s ) were performed on the factors of gender, age, and prior contact. Gender (F=5.45, d f = l , p=.023) was significant (see Table V ) with the female mean score increasing from 166.71 (n=31) before the treatment to 171.72 (n=32) after the treatment while males remained relatively constant from 158.25 (n=36) before the treatment to 158.00 (n=36) after the treatment (see Table V I I ) . Age was also significant (F=6.73, df=2, p=.003) (see Table VIII). Scores for thirteen year old subjects  rose from 153.20 (n=20) to 160.22 (n=18) after the  treatment. Scores also increased for the fifteen year old subjects from 172.05 (n=22) to 176.87 (n=23). However, the opposite was true for the fourteen year old subjects with a pre-treatment, mean score of 158.71 (n=24) that decreased to 154.83 (n=24) after the treatment (see Tables VIII, I X , X ) . T h e final factor of prior contact with physically disabled persons (see Tables X I , X I I , XIII) was not significant.  Table V Multiple Analysis of Variance Tests of Between-Subjects Effects on Gender on the MIDS Source of Variation W i t h i n Cells Constant Gender  SS  45720.06 2985396.93 4610.00  DF  MS  54 1 1  846.67 2985396.90 4610.86  46  F  3526.05 5.45  Sig of F  <.01 <.05  RESULTS  Table V I Multiple Analysis of Variance Tests of W i t h in-Subjects Effects on Gender on the M I D S Source of Variation W i t h i n Cells Score Gender by score  SS  7847.91 420.65 196.01  DF  MS  54 1 1  143.33 420.65 196.01  47  F  2.89 1.35  Sig of F  >.05 >.10  RESULTS  Table V I I Means and Standard Deviations for Gender on the M I D S for the Pretest and Posttest MIDS Posttest  MIDS PreTest s.d.  n  mean  ' s.d.  n  mean  Gender Male Female  36 31  20.77 22.19  158.25 166.71  36 32  22.67 20.93  158.00 171.72  Combined  68  21.70  162.16  68  22.78  164.46  48  RESULTS  Table VITJ Multiple Analysis of Variance Tests of Between-Subjects Effects on Age on the M I D S Source of Variation W i t h i n Cells Constant Age  SS  39983.74 2837991.55 10345.95  DF  MS  52 1 2  762.92 2837991.6 5172.98  F  3690.89 6.73  Sig of F  <.01 <.05  Table I X Multiple Analysis of Variance Tests of Within-Subjects Effects on Age on the M I D S Source of Variation  SS  DF  MS  W i t h i n Cells Score Age by Score  7453.67 370.76 570.02  52 1 2  143.34 370.76 285.01  49  F  Sig of F  2.59 1.99  >.10 >.10  RESULTS  Table X Means and Standard Deviations for Age on the M I D S for the Pretest and Posttest MIDS Posttest  MIDS PreTest Variable  n  s.d.  mean  n  s.d.  mean  Age 15 14 13  22 24 20  25.90 14.65 23.18  172.05 158.71 153.20  50  23 24 18  23.78 22.03 16.65  176.87 154.83 160.22  RESULTS  Table X I Multiple Analysis of Variance Tests of Between-Subjects Effects on Contact on the M I D S Source of Variation  SS  W i t h i n Cells Constant Contact  48114.63 2324412.20 762.06  DF  MS  F  50 1 4  962.29 2324412.2 190.52  2415.49 .20  Sig of F  >.10 >.10  Table XLT Multiple Analysis of Variance Tests of Within-Subjects Effects on Contact on the M I D S Source of Variation W i t h i n Cells Score Contact x score  SS  7534.58 527.08 498.11  DF  50 1 4  MS  150.69 527.08 124.53  F  Sig of F  3.50 .83  >.05 >.05  RESULTS  POSTTEST-ONLY  CONTROL  GROUP  DESIGN  A one-way A N O V A comparing the experimental and control groups in the posttest-only  design resulted i n a significant treatment  effect (F=7.419,  df=l,  p=.O07) (see Table XIII). T h e effect size of the treatment follow-up one month later was found to be 0.52. T h e experimental group (n=70, X=81.39) scored significantly higher on the Attitudes T o w a r d Disabled Persons Scale than the control group (n=42, X=73.70) (see Table X I V ) . A series of two-way A N O V A ' s were performed on treatment versus gender, age and prior contact with none of the factors reaching significance (gender F=1.146, d f = l , p=.287 - see Table X V ; age F=0.619, d f = l , p=.433 - see Table X V I ; prior contact F=1.072, df=4, p=.374 - see Table X V I I ) .  52  RESULTS  Table XITJ Analysis of Variance of Treatment for the Mean Scores of the Students on the ATDP Source of Variation  S u m of Squares 1574.415 1574.415 1574.415 23555.655 25130.071  M a i n Effects Treatment Explained Residual Total  DF  1 1 1 111 112  Mean Square  F  1574.415 1574.415 1574.415 212.213 224.376  18 cases (13.7%) were missing  Table XPV" Means and Standard Deviations for Treatment on the A T D P for the Experimental and Control Groups Variable Experimental Control Combined  s.d.  n 70 43 113  mean  13.35  14.98  53  81.39 73.70 78.46  Sig of F 7.419 7.419 7.419  .007 .007 .007  RESULTS  Table X V Analysis of Variance of Treatment by Gender for the Mean Scores of the Students on the A T D P Source of Variation  M a i n Effects Treatment Gender 2-way interactions TreatmentxGender Explained Residual Total  S u m of Squares  DF  Mean Square  F  Sig of F  2421.142 1551.423 837.713  2 1 1  1210.571 1551.423 837.713  5.819 7.457 4.027  .004 .007 .047  238.462  1  238.462  1.146  .287  238.462  1  238.462  1.146  .287  2659.604 22468.316 25127.920  3 108 111  886.535 208.040 226.378  4.261  .007  19 cases (14.5%) were missing  54  RESULTS  Table X V I Analysis of Variance of Treatment by Age for the Mean Scores of the Students on the ATDP Source of Variation  M a i n Effects Treatment Age 2-way interactions TreatmentxAge Explained Residual Total  S u m of Squares  Mean Square  DF  F  Sig of F  3314.702 1601.202 1637.249  4 1 3  828.676 1601.202 545.750  4.014 7.756 2.644  .005 .006 .053  127.772  1  127.772  .619  .433  127.772  1  127.772  .619  .433  3442.474 . 21262.921 24705.394  5 103 108  688.495 206.436 228.754  3.335  .008  22 cases (16.8%) were missing.  55  -  RESULTS  Table X V I I Analysis of Variance of Treatment by Contact for the Mean Scores of the Students on the A T D P Source of Variation  M a i n Effects Treatment Contact  Sum of Squares  DF  Mean Square  F  Sig of F  1804.682 1416.485 150.607  5 1 4  360.936 1416.485 37.652  1.610 6.318 .168  .165 .014 .954  2-way interactions  961.532  4  240.383  1.072  .374  TreatmentxContact  961.532  4  240.383  1.072  .374  2766.214 21970.777 24736.991  9 98 • 107  307.357 224.192 231.187  1.371  .212  Explained Residual Total  56  RESULTS  COMBINA TION OF DESIGNS The  effects  of gender,  age, and previous  contact  on attitudes  toward  physically disabled persons were investigated by Attitudes T o w a r d Disabled Persons Scale ( A T D P ) a n d the Modified Issues in Disability Scale ( M I D S ) . T h e subjects who had yet to or did not attend the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration Presentation comprised the sample. M I D S scores were used from the pretest portion of the onegroup pretest-posttest design and the A T D P  scores of the control group of the  posttest-only control group design ( A T D P ) . M I D S scores were taken from the pretest portion of the One-Group PretestPosttest design. A significant effect was found i n the area of age (F=5.273, df=2, p=.008) (see Table X V I I I ) with the mean score increasing at each age level (13 years old, X=153.20; 14 years o l d , X=158.71; and 15 years o l d , X=172.05) (see Table X I X ) . A post-hoc analysis using Scheffe's test found a significant difference between the scores of those 13 and 15 years of age (p<.05). However, gender (F=2.503, d f = l , p=.112) (see Table X X ) and contact effects ( F = . 0 6 0 , df=4, p=.993) (see Table X X I ) were not significant. Also, there were no significant interaction effects. Gender (F=3.465, d f = l , p=.070 - see Table X X I I ) , age (F=3.242, d f = l , p=.079 - see Table X X I I I ) and previous contact (F=.500, df=4, p=.736 - see Table X X I V ) d i d not emerge as significant factors when the Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons  Scale (Yuker et a l . , 1960) was used. A g a i n , there were no significant  interaction effects.  57  RESULTS T a b l e X V E Q A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of A g e on the  MIDS  Source of Variation  M a i n Effects Age Explained Residual Total  S u m of Squares  DF  4011.372 4011.372 4011.372 23965.113 27976.485  23 cases (25.8%) were missing  58  2 2 2 63 65  Mean Square 2005.686 2005.686 2005.686 380.399 430.407  F  Sig of F 5.273 5.273 5.273  .008 .008 .008  RESULTS  Table X I X Means and Standard Deviations for Age on the M I D S MIDS Pretest Variable  n  s.d.  mean  Age 15 14 13  22 24 20  25.90 14.65 16.13  172.05 158.71 153.20  Combined  66  23.18  164.12  59  RESULTS  Table X X Analysis of Variance of Gender on the MIDS Source of Variation  S u m of Squares 1192.057 1192.057 1192.057 29881.137 31073.194  M a i n Effects Gender Explained Residual Total  DF  1 1 1 65 66  Mean Square 1192.057 1192.057 1192.057 459.710 470.806  F  Sig of F  2.593 2.593 2.593  .112 .112 .112  21 cases missing  Table X X I Analysis of Variance of Contact on the M I D S Source of Variation  M a i n Effects Contact Explained Residual Total  Sum of Squares  DF  118.736 118.736 118.736 30203.748 30322.485  22 cases were missing.  60  4 4 4 61 65  Mean Square 29.684 29.684 29.684 495.143 466.500  F  Sig of F .060 .060 .060  .993 .993 .993  RESULTS  Table X X I I Analysis of Variance of Gender on * the A T D P Source of Variation  M a i n Effects Gender Explained Residual Total  S u m of Squares  DF  896.095 896.095 896.095 10345.810 11241.905  1 1 1 40 41  Mean Square  F  896.095 896.095 896.095 258.193 274.193  Sig of F 3.465 3.465 3.465  .070 .070 .070  1 case (2.3%) was missing  Table XXILI Analysis of Variance of Age on the ATDP Source of Variation  M a i n Effects Age Explained Residual Total  Sum of Squares 828.043 828.043 828.043 10215.600 11043.643  1 case (2.3%) was missing  61  DF  1 1 1 40 41  Mean Square 828.043 828.043 828.043 255.390 269.357  F  of F 3.242 3.242 3.242  .079 .079 .079  RESULTS  T a b l e X X I V A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e of C o n t a c t on the A T D P Source of Variation  M a i n Effects Contact Explained Residual Total  Sum of Squares 562.145 562.145 562.145 10690.925 11253.070  1 case (2.3%) was missing  62  DF  4 4 4 38 42  Mean Square 140.536 140.536 140.536 281.340 267.930  F  Sig of F .500 .500 .500  .736 .736 .736  RESULTS SUMMARY OF RESULTS This  section  summarizes  the results  of this research.  It  addresses  the  hypotheses stated at the conclusion of the Methodology chapter. The short term treatment effect (pre- to immediately after the presentation) was not significant (p=.112 for a 2-tailed test). Subjects exposed to the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration Team Presentation  d i d not have statistically  significantly greater mean scores on the Modified Issues i n Disability Scale following the presentation than preceding it. However the mean scores did increase from the pretest to the posttest period immediately after the presentation. In addition, the effect size though small was, nevertheless, positive. The longer term treatment effect (tested one month after presentation vs. control group) was significant (p=.007). Subjects exposed to the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration Team Presentation had significantly greater scores on the Attitudes T o w a r d Disabled Persons Scale) one month after the presentation than those not exposed to the presentation. There was a statistically significant age effect (p=.008) as measured by the Modified Issues i n Disability Scale with scores becoming statistically significantly greater at each successive age level from 13-15 years of age. However, age was not statistically significant when measured by the Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons Scale (p=.079). Mean scores from ages 13 to 14 decreased. The effect of gender was not statistically significant. Females did not have statistically significantly greater scores than males as measured by the Modified Issues in Disability Scale (p=.112) and the Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons Scale (p=.070). However, the mean scores for females was higher than males.  63  RESULTS The  effect  of prior  contact  with  physically disabled persons  was not  significant. There was no significant difference between the level of prior contact with physically disabled persons and attitudes toward disabled persons as measured by the Modified Issues in Disability Scale (p=.993) and the Attitudes T o w a r d Disabled Persons Scale (p=.736). N o trend emerged in this area. T h e next chapter expands on these results and offers possible explanations for these findings.  64  DISCUSSION This  chapter  (immediately after  discusses  the effect  the presentation)  of treatment  on both  a short  term  and a longer term (one month after the  presentation) basis . T h e factors associated w i t h this treatment such namely age, gender and previous contact with physically disabled persons are considered. These three factors  are also discussed independently of treatment  i n their relation to  attitudes toward disabled persons.  TREA  TMENT There was no significant difference i n the attitudes of junior high school  students toward physically disabled persons immediately after the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration Team Presentation when compared with data collected i n a pretest using the Modified Issues i n Disability Scale (t=-l.62, df=55, p=0.112 for a 2tailed test). However, mean  M I D S score rose from X=161.38 before  Wheelchair Sports Demonstration Presentation to X=165.07  the B . C .  immediately after the  Presentation (see Table I V ) . In addition, a positive effect size (D=.17) was found for the scores immediately after the presentation as compared to the pretest scores. The  treatment  presentation. Subjects  effect,  however,  was significant  one month  after  the  exposed to the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration Team  Presentation h a d a statistically  significant greater score on the A t t i t u d e Toward  Disabled Persons Scale than those not exposed to the presentation (F=7.419, p=.007; experimental n=70, X=81.39; control n=42, X=73.70 - see Table X I V ) . A medium effect size (D=0.51) was found for the comparison of scores of the experimental group subjects with the control group subjects one m o n t h after the presentation.  65  DISCUSSION T h e effect of the information plus contact treatment modification technique seemed to vary over the testing period. T h e treatment effect was not significant (p=.112) immediately after the presentation but significant (p=.007) four weeks after the presentation. Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Festinger, 1957) offers an explanation as to the delayed treatment effect. In addition, the two groups may have just been different. Festinger's (1957) theory of cognitive dissonance is a type of attitude change theory in which cognitions are defined as, "any knowledge, opinion, or belief about one's self or about one's behavior" (p. 3). Festinger's theory states that dissonance occurs when an individual holds two cognitions that are inconsistent with one another. T h e theory assumes that dissonance results i n psychological discomfort, which, in turn, motivates the individual to seek a reduction of the dissonance or an achievement of consonance by adding or changing cognitions, or by avoiding information or situations that might increase the dissonance. In the current study, junior high school students were introduced to physically disabled persons through a sport situation. T h e object of the demonstration was to reduce the cognitive dissonance by changing cognitions toward disabled persons. It is assumed that most of the subjects had positive attitudes toward athletes. It is also assumed that  the majority of the subjects do not consider disabled persons as  athletes. B y attending the demonstration and viewing the skills of the disabled athletes, the subjects cognitions or attitudes toward disabled persons are challenged. If the disabled person is considered an athlete by the subject after viewing the presentation, the disabled athlete  is equated  with the already existing positive  attitude toward athletes and thus the subject must modify his/her attitude toward "  66  DISCUSSION disabled persons to be more positive. B y positively modifying the attitude toward the disabled individual, cognitive dissonance is reduced. Since the posttest measuring the attitude modification took place immediately after the presentation attitude modification may have not yet taken place due to the small amount of time between the presentation and the testing period. In this study, the follow-up testing period one month after the presentation is probably a better measure of the effect of the attitude modification technique. A t the end of one month the subjects have had the opportunity to process the information and challenge their existing attitudes. In terms of the long term treatment effect, social learning theory (Bandura, 1956)  suggests  that children learn attitudes by observing how significant others  around them evaluate people and situations. Children will then adapt their attitudes to be similar to those expressed by the important role models (Brigham, 1986). If the students identified the physically disabled athletes participating in the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration T e a m Presentation as positive role models, the subjects  1  attitudes toward the physically disabled may have been positively  influenced. This is based on the perceived credibility of the athletes. The credibility, or believability, of a source depends mainly on two factors: expertise and trustworthiness. Expertise is the extent, of knowledge that a source appears to have; trustworthiness refers to the source's intentions (Brigham, 1986). " A trustworthy source appears sincere and has no personal gain stemming from any attitude change that may occur" (Brigham, 1986, p. 84). T h e greater a source's perceived expertise and trustworthiness, the greater the attitude change produced (Aronson et a l . , 1963;  Cooper and Croyle, 1984). If the subjects perceived the  67  DISCUSSION members of the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration T e a m as being experts in their field, i.e. wheelchair basketball, then an" attitude change should have occurred. This should have been the case when considering the world-class calibre of the athletes involved. Amir's  (1969) contact  hypothesis  article summarized and evaluated  the  studies investigating the effect of intergroup contact on changing attitudes and ethnic relations. The B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration T e a m Presentation seemed to meet most of the important conditions necessary for contact to have a positive effect - the minority group members should be of an equal or higher status than the members of the majority group; a favorable climate is necessary; the interaction should be of an intimate rather than casual nature; the interaction must be pleasant and rewarding; and the two groups should have a mutual goal that  requires  interdependent and cooperative action. For positive attitude modification to occur, A m i r (1969) suggested that the minority group should be of an equal or higher status than the members of the majority group. It is assumed that the members of the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration T e a m were perceived by the students as having equal status or higher status than the students who acted as subjects in the current research. Judging by the age, biographies (see Appendix B ) and the demonstrated athletic abilities of the team members, they should have been perceived as having higher status than the junior high school subjects. A favorable climate is also necessary ( A m i r , 1969). The presentation should not be perceived as threatening to the members of the majority group. The B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration T e a m Presentation provides a favorable climate for  68  DISCUSSION group interaction. The audience is encouraged to ask the T e a m members questions on any topic during a question period after the wheelchair basketball game. T h e interaction needs to be intimate in nature. Although only a few students who participated in this study had an opportunity to play wheelchair basketball with the team, it is assumed that all of the subjects considered the contact to be intimate because of the candid nature of the discussion that took place during and after the presentation between the athletes and the subjects in the audience. The types of questions asked have been related to dating, marriage, etc,. For positive attitude modification to occur, the contact hypothesis states that the interaction must be rewarding and pleasant ( A m i r , 1969). Due to the large amount, of positive fan mail received by the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Association regarding the Demonstration T e a m Presentation, it is assumed that the interaction was rewarding and pleasant to the majority of the participants involved. F i n a l l y , the contact hypothesis (Amir, 1969) assumes that a positive attitude change, is likely if the two groups have a mutual goal that requires interdependent and cooperative action. T h e wheelchair basketball game was competitive. T h e B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration Team athletes challenged a team of students to a game of wheelchair basketball. T h i s condition of the Contact Hypothesis may have been better met if the members of the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration Team were on each of the opposing teams with students comprising remaining team positions. In this case, the wheelchair athletes and students would have cooperated with each other to challenge the other team. Wetstein-Kroft and Vargo  (1984)  also commented on the conditions necessary  for an improvement i n attitude of children toward physically disabled persons. The  69  DISCUSSION factors included length of interaction, motivation, equal status, perceived similarity, the disabled as a vehicle for change, and the importance of structured interactions. The factors of motivation, equal status, the disabled as a vehicle for change and importance of structured interactions have already been discussed in conjunction with  the  contact  hypothesis.  Therefore,  only the  factors  related  to length  of  interaction and perceived similarity will be discussed. The length of the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration T e a m Presentation was approximately 1 hour. This may lead one to question the effectiveness of an attitude modification treatment that is of such short duration. However, Donaldson (1980) suggested that even if the interaction is brief, a positive attitude change is possible if handicapped persons  convey information about what it is like to be  handicapped, who they are as individuals, and how they expect non-handicapped persons to relate to them. This information is included in the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration Team Presentation  (see Appendix B ) . Similarities and  differences  between disabled and able-bodied persons are also addressed. Davis (1969) suggested that once these similarities and differences are discussed, one ceases to be aware of the disability and responds to other characteristics. The  B.C.  Wheelchair  Sports  Demonstration  Team  Presentation  also  recognized the cognitive, affective and behavioral level of the child with a separate format being used for the elementary and the junior/senior high schools. "Drinking and driving" is included in the format for the junior/senior high schools as well as a more detailed etiology of spinal-cord injury. T h e following sections discuss the relationship of age, gender and previous contact with attitudes toward disabled persons. These results are examined both  70  DISCUSSION dependent upon treatment, and independent of' treatment. The immediate treatment effect was not. significant (p=.112 for a 2-tailed test). However, multiple analyses of variance ( M A N O V A ) were performed because of the rise in mean scores and the positive effect size. The effect, of the treatment one month after the presentation on gender, age, and previous contact were analyzed using two-way analyses of variance ( A N O V A ) . Finally the effects of age, gender and previous contact on the M I D S (pretest  subjects)  and  the  ATDP  (control  group  subjects)  were  investigated  irrespective of treatment. The subjects used for this part of the analysis had not yet seen the presentation and completed the M I D S . T h e rest of the subjects were taken from the control group who did not view the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration T e a m Presentation but had completed the A T D P .  AGE  Dependent U p o n  Treatment  Age emerged as a significant factor i n the M A N O V A (F=6.73, df=2, p=.003 see Table VIII). M e a n scores for thirteen year old subjects rose from 153.20 (n=20) to 160.22 (n=18). M e a n scores also increased for the fifteen year old subjects from 172.05 (n=22) to 176.87 (n=23). However, the opposite was true for the fourteen year old subjects w i t h a pre-treatment mean score of 158.71 (n=24) that .decreased to 154.83 (n=24) after the treatment (see Tables VIII, I X , X ) . Age (F=0.619, d f = l , p=.433 - see T a b l e X V I ) was not  significant in a two-  way interaction between age and treatment. T h i s A N O V A measured the effect of the presentation on attitude modification one month after the presentation. A s a result,  71  DISCUSSION the mean scores of each age group on the A T D P were similar to the distribution of the posttest  M I D S scores. T h e . mean score for the fourteen year old age group  (X=77.14) was lower than for the thirteen (X=83.19) and fifteen year old groups (X=85.55), and exhibited the same distribution over a longer period of time. Such a result is interesting. Donaldson (1980) stated that  a developmental  trend i n relation to age occurs from early childhood through the late teens and it appears to form an inverted-U. Beliefs, attitudes, and behavior toward the disabled become increasingly favorable until the late teens, whereupon attitudes and beliefs (and perhaps behavior) again become quite unfavorable (Donaldson, 1980). However, attitudes are not as unfavorable as i n early childhood (Donaldson, 1980). It is possible that attitudes become increasingly favorable until the age of fourteen at which time they become more negative. This could be related to a negative self-concept or self-esteem. Antonak and Livneh (1988) found that the A T D P was positively correlated with level of self-concept. This also may be true for the M I D S since it is highly correlated with the A T D P and is a self-report measure. Simmons et al. (1979) found that some 12-14 year olds experience a decline i n selfesteem as they leave elementary school being the oldest and revered pupils and enter junior high, where they are the youngest and least competent. T h e structure of the school settings i n relation to grade level needs further investigation. T h e grade 7 students m a y be in a separate building from the grade 8 and 9 students. In this case, the grade 8 (14 year old) students would be the youngest students i n the school and may experience a decline i n self-esteem.  72  DISCUSSION  Independent of Treatment Attitudes toward physically disabled persons as measured by the Modified Issues in Disability Scale (F=5.273, df=2, p=.008) became more positive at each successive age level (13 years o l d , X=153.20; 14 years old, X=158.71; and 15 years old, X = l 7 2 . 0 5 ) . A post-hoc analysis using Scheffe's test found a significant difference between the scores of those who were 13 and 15 years of age (p<.050). This finding is consistent w i t h Hoffman (1981) who stated that children become empathic with the general plight of entire categories of people as they move from early childhood to later childhood and adolescence (Sigleman &: M c G r a i l , 1985). A l t h o u g h age did not emerge as a significant factor (F=3.242, d f = l , p=.079 see Table X X I I ) , subjects' attitudes toward physically disabled persons as measured by the A T D P were more negative at 14 years of age than 13 years of age. It is interesting to note that the scores of the M I D S subjects increased at each age level (13 years o l d , X=153.20; 14 years old, X = 1 5 8 . 7 l ; and 15 years o l d , X=172.05) whereas the mean scores of the A T D P subjects decreased at each age level (13 years old, X=73.46; 14 years old, X=63.43) (Appendix D Table VII). This could be due to the small number of experimental group respondents in the fourteen year old category (n=7)  as compared to the thirteen year old category (n=35). The seven  respondents in the 12 year old category may not be typical. Another possible explanation is the reactivity of the measure. Y u k e r et al. (1970) have presented limited data suggesting that responses to the A T D P - F o r m O cannot be faked. O n the other h a n d , Cannon & Szuhay (1986), Scott & Rohrbach (1977) and Vargo & Semple (1984) argue that the A T D P may be susceptible to  73  DISCUSSION faking. T h e arguments are based on the assumption that since the A T D P is a selfreport measure, it can be faked. Education may also be a factor. Fourteen year old subjects may be able to determine the intent of the questions on the attitude measures better than the 13 year old subjects due to a higher level i n reading and comprehension. Therefore, the responses of the fourteen year old subjects may be more susceptible to being faked. However, the faking of responses may not be i n a positive direction due to increasing adolescent peer group pressure. Although, Y u k e r et al. (1970) provided some data that the A T D P - F o r m O was not significantly correlated with the Edwards (1957) Social Desirability Scale or the Crowne-Marlowe (1960) Social Desirability Scale, Siller et al. (1967) claim that the A T D P is influenced by social desirability (Antonak &: Livneh, 1988). It may be socially desirable to have a negative attitude toward disabled persons, therefore the student would attempt to respond to the A T D P with the intention of portraying a negative attitude. Finally, when the self-concepts of respondents were associated with the A T D P Scale scores, Antonak & Livneh (1988) reported that people with high self-concepts had a positive attitude toward disabled persons. It is possible that fourteen year old subjects have a lower self-concept than thirteen year old subjects because of the pressures and changes associated with the adolescent period. This may cause their attitudes toward disabled persons to be more negative than the thirteen year old subjects.  74  DISCUSSION GENDER  Dependent Upon Treatment Gender (F=5.45, d f = l , p=.023 - see Table V ) emerged as a significant factor reported i n the treatment effect measured immediately after the presentation. T h e female mean score on the M I D S increased from 166.71 (n=31) before to 171.72 (n=32) immediately after treatment while males remained relatively constant from 158.25 (n=36) before to 158.00 (n=36) after treatment - see Table VII). This finding is i n agreement with H o m e (1985) who stated that "females are more likely to have more positive attitudes toward persons with disabilities and that they may be more likely to change attitudes in a positive direction" (Shaver et a l . , 1989, p. 53). However, the gender effect may have been influenced by age because 28 of the experimental group respondents were i n the 14 year old age category (males=l7; f e m a l e s = l l ) . Since the fourteen year old category was seen as having the most negative attitudes toward disabled persons, the lack of improvement i n attitudes of the males m a y have been confounded by their age. Gender was not significant i n the longer term treatment effect (F=1.146, d f = l , p=.287 - see Table X V ) measured one month after the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration T e a m Presentation. This is consistent with  Shaver et a l . (1989) who  found negligible gender differences as a result of their meta-analysis.  Independent of Treatment No significant difference emerged between males and females on attitudes toward physically disabled persons as measured by the M I D S i n the pretest portion  75  DISCUSSION of the experiment (F=2.503, d f = l , p=.112 - see Table X X ) . Also, no significant gender difference occurred i n the control group subjects using the Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons Scale (F=3.465, d f = l , p=.070 - see Table X X I I ) . However, i n both cases the mean female score (X=166.71 M I D S ; X=78.24 A T D P ) was higher than the mean male score (X=158.25 M I D S ; X=69.00 A T D P ) . This finding is consistent with F u r n h a m & Gibb's (1984) study of 135 thirteen year old British students. N o significant gender differences were found in that study. However, like the current research, there was a trend indicating that males felt greater negative feelings than females toward disabled persons.  PREVIOUS  CONTACT  WITH DISABLED  PERSONS  Dependent U p o n Treatment Prior contact with physically disabled persons was not significant as measured by the M I D S on the one-group pretest-posttest design (F=.20, df=4, p=.938 - see Tables X I , X I I , XIII). A two-way A N O V A of treatment versus contact was also not significant as measured by the A T D P on the posttest-only control group design (F=1.072, df=4, p=.374 - see Table X V I I ) . This result may have been due to the nature of the questionnaire. The lack of a significant effect between prior contact and attitude toward disabled persons throughout the experiment may be due t o the unidimensionality of the instrument used to determine prior contact - the Social History Questionnaire ( S H Q ) (Makas, 1989). Makas' (1989) results, however, were significant when she used the S H Q as a measure to determine prior contact with disabled persons. Those  76  DISCUSSION undergraduate students (n=305) having "quite a b i t " or " a great deal" of contact with disabled persons  had significantly more positive attitudes  toward disabled  persons than those indicating "very little" or " n o " contact as measured by the Modified Issues in Disability Scale (F=3.54, df=4, p<.05). However, younger students may not be able to determine the extent of their contact based only on a 5 point unidimensional scale . This concept may be too abstract for them to comprehend. Instead a concrete measure of contact such as length of contact or number of contacts with a disabled person, may be more appropriate  to  this  relationship between  age  group. Indeed,  Makas  (1989) has  suggested  that  the  contact and attitude seems to be positively related to the  complexity of the contact measure used. Makas (1989) found significant positive relationships between A T D P scores and a number of contact variables - number of contacts, length of contact, intimacy, pleasantness and relative status. A positive relationship that approached significance was found between A T D P scores and frequency of contact (Makas, 1989). Finally, pleasantness and intimacy of contact were discovered to be the highest and second highest predictors, respectively, of attitudes toward disabled persons as measured by the A T D P (Makas, 1989). If the junior high school subjects in the current study had been asked to determine the extent of contact with physically disabled persons based on the number of different factors stated above, a significant positive relationship may have been found between prior contact and attitudes toward physically disabled persons.  77  DISCUSSION I n d e p e n d e n t of T r e a t m e n t No statistically significant difference was found between amount of prior contact with disabled persons and mean scores of the subjects on the M I D S in the pretest of the one-group pretest-posttest  design (F=.060, df=4, p=.993 - see Table  X X I ) . This was also found for the control group subjects in the posttest-only control group design and the A T D P  (F=.500, df=4, p=.736 - see Table X X I V ) . The  explanation regarding the relationship between the contact measure used i n this stud)' to attitudes toward physically disabled persons has already been presented in the preceding section.  RECOMMENDATIONS  FOR FURTHER  RESEARCH  This section presents recommendations for further research i n the following areas: experimental design, instrumentation, and contact plus information treatmentprograms. In terms of experimental design, a pretest-posttest control group design could be used with a follow-up taking place one month after the treatment. T h e researcher could also administer both the A T D P and M I D S at each testing period to investigate the response differences across time. In addition, this procedure would provide data for the criterion validity between the A T D P and M I D S as it would be administered to a number of age groups. It would be interesting to investigate the effect of the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration Team Presentation on modifying attitudes of junior high school students toward physically disabled persons i n a number of different rural and urban centers. T h e effect of the presentation may differ depending on the population base.  78  DISCUSSION One could also examine the aspects of the presentation that are most effective and ways in which the presentation could be made more effective. Different age groups should also be investigated. T h e difference i n attitude toward disabled persons across age levels (ages 13-18) could be studied using the M I D S in a number of schools in the same district. This could support or challenge Donaldson's (1980) concept of the inverted-U hypothesis related to attitudes toward disabled persons from childhood to late adolescence. More importantly, the current research found that attitudes toward disabled persons seemed to be most negative at 14 years of age. Further research is needed to examine this age as being the period when attitudes toward disabled persons are perhaps most negative. The instrumentation discussed i n this section includes the Modified Issues in Disability Scale ( M I D S ) (1985) and the Social History Questionnaire ( S H Q ) (1989). In terms of the M I D S , further research should include factor analytic techniques to investigate the underlying dimensionality of attitudes toward disabled persons. This will reveal possible subdomains of assessing attitudes toward disabled persons. Secondly, the scores on the A T D P  have been positively correlated to the  Edwards (1957) Social Desirability Scale and the Crowne-Marlowe (1960) Social Desirability Scale. T h e M I D S should be administered in conjunction with either the Edwards (1957) Social Desirability Scale or the Crowne-Marlowe (1960) Social Desirability Scale to determine levels of social desirability. This would determine whether or not children would be influenced to give socially acceptable responses on the M I D S . A more precise measure than the S H Q to determine the relationship between prior contact and attitudes toward disabled persons should be given to subjects at  79  DISCUSSION the j u n i o r h i g h school age level. T h e c o n t a c t m e a s u r e s h o u l d p r o v i d e subjects w i t h a m e a n s for a c c u r a t e l y r e c o r d i n g contact,  pleasantness  of  number  contact  and  of c o n t a c t s , l e n g t h relative  status  of  of c o n t a c t , i n t i m a c y contact  with  physically  d i s a b l e d persons. B y m e a s u r i n g p r i o r c o n t a c t w i t h d i s a b l e d persons i n this m a n n e r , m o r e a c c u r a t e assessment of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  between prior contact with  d i s a b l e d persons a n d a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d d i s a b l e d persons c a n be m a d e .  80  of  a  physically  CONCLUSION The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration T e a m Presentation on the modification of the attitudes of junior high school students toward physically disabled persons.  The  presentation consisted of a one hour structured program that included contact with physically disabled persons and information about their disabilities. One hundred and thirty-one able-bodied students  (ages 13-15) from four  junior high schools in two British C o l u m b i a school districts participated in this study. Students from one school in each district attended the British C o l u m b i a Wheelchair Sports Demonstration Team Presentation. Students from the other school did not attend and were assigned to the control group. A possible confounding variable in both of the experimental designs used was the effect of testing. However, this is a problem common to attitude change research. The measures used are usually of the self-report nature and clearly indicate the intent of the measure. The current research findings can be generalized to those students  who  attended the British Columbia Wheelchair Sports Demonstration Team Presentation in M a y , 1989 and reside in the Penticton or Courtenay areas of the province. This study is limited b y the use of self-report measures, drop-out rate of schools, drop-out rate of students, and availability of subjects on all testing dates. A one-group pretest-posttest  design was used with a posttest-only control  group as a follow-up four weeks after the treatment. Subjects in the experimental group completed the A T D P prior to and immediately after the treatment.  As a  result of the high correlation (r=  both  .91)  between the M I D S and A T D P ,  experimental and control groups completed only the M I D S four weeks after  81  the  CONCLUSION treatment. A l l subjects completed the Social History Questionnaire (SHQ) (Makas, 1989) on each occasion. The S H Q gathered information on gender, birth date, place of residence and prior contact with physically disabled persons. The  immediate  treatment  effect was  determined  by using a t-test  for  dependent samples on a one-group pretest posttest design. A t-test for dependent samples  comparing differences  between  pre-  and posttest  M I D S scores of  the  experimental group was not significant (p=.112 for a 2-tailed test). However, in the follow-up portion of the study, an analysis of variance of the A T D P  found a  significant difference between the experimental and control groups (p=.007). This part of the experiment used a posttest-only control group design. Since the immediate treatment  effect approached significance, a series of  multiple analyses of variance ( M A N O V A ' s ) were performed to investigate the effect of treatment on the factors of age, gender and prior contact with disabled persons. A number of two-way analyses of variance ( A N O V A ' s ) were performed on the factors of age, gender and prior contact related to the follow-up treatment effect one month after the presentation. Age as related to short term treatment (immediately after the presentation) emerged as a significant factor (p=.008). W h i l e the mean scores of the 13 and 15 year old age groups on the M I D S increased immediately after the presentation, the mean of the 14 year old age group decreased immediately after the presentation. Secondly, this trend continued i n the follow-up segment of the study with the distribution of mean scores on the A T D P being similar to those expressed for each age group on the M I D S . However, the two-way analysis of variance between age and treatment was not significant (p=.079).  82  CONCLUSION Gender (p=.023) emerged as a significant, factor in the short, term treatment effect but not i n the long term treatment effect (p=.287). T h e mean female score rose higher than the mean male score immediately after the presentation but the effect seemed to plateau in the follow-up one month after when no significant difference between the scores was found. Finally, prior contact with physically disabled persons was not significant with treatment on either a short (p=.938) or longer term basis(p=.374). This result may have been due to the nature of the questionnaire. If the contact measure had asked information on number of contacts, length of contact, intimacy of contact, pleasantness  of contact  and relative status  of contact  with physically disabled  persons, a significant positive relationship may have been found between attitudes toward physically disabled persons and prior contact. The factors of age, gender and prior contact with disabled persons were also investigated independently of treatment. A n analysis of variance using the M I D S found a significant, age effect i n the pretest portion of the one-group pretest-posttest design (p=.008). A post-hoc analysis using Scheffe's  test revealed a significant  difference (p<.05) between those subjects 13 and 15 years of age with the fifteen year old group displaying a statistically significant greater mean scores on the M I D S than the thirteen year old group. However, age did not emerge as a significant factor (as measured b y the A T D P ) i n the control group subjects of the posttest only control group design. This was probably due to the fact- that only 13 and 14 year old subjects made u p the control group. N o significant, difference emerged between males and females on attitudes toward physically disabled persons as measured by the M I D S (p=.112) and the  83  CONCLUSION A T D P (p=.070). However, in both cases the mean female score (X=166.71 M I D S ; X=78.24 A T D P ) was higher than the mean male score (X=158.25 M I D S ; X=69.00 ATDP). No statistically significant differences  occurred between  amount of prior  contact and attitudes towards disabled persons as measured by the M I D S (p=.993) and the A T D P (p=.736). N o trends emerged. Three focuses of further investigations might include the following: a need for attitude modification research related to disabled persons particularly in the junior high school age group; continued reliability and validity testing of the M I D S ; and a refinement of the S H Q to more accurately determine prior contact with physically disabled persons. In conclusion, the British C o l u m b i a Wheelchair Sports Demonstration Team Presentation  appears  to be a valuable instrument in positively modifying the  attitudes of junior high school students toward physically disabled persons. Although the positive attitude change d i d not occur immediately after the British C o l u m b i a Wheelchair Sports Demonstration T e a m Presentation it was apparent i n the followup portion of the study one month after the Presentation (p<.007). T h e success of the program i n achieving this goal is probably due to satisfying the conditions described by the contact hypothesis (Amir, 1969) which if followed appears to positively modify attitudes toward minority groups. Finally, the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration Team Presentation is an effective tool breaking the attitudinal barriers toward disabled persons as society's negative attitudes are the strongest barriers for disabled persons to overcome.  84  1  BIBLIOGRAPHY A m i r , Y . (1969). Contact Hypothesis i n Ethnic Relations, P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 71(5), 319-342. Anthony, W . A . (1969). The effect of contact on individual's attitude toward disabled persons. Rehabilitation Counselling Bulletin, 12, 168-171. Antonak, R . F . (1982). Development and psychometric analysis of the scale of attitudes toward disabled persons. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counselling, 13(2), 22-29. Antonak, R . F . & L i v n e h , R. (1988). T h e Measurement of Attitudes Toward People W i t h Disabilities: Methods, Psychometrics, and Scales. Springfield, 111: Charles Thomas. Aronson, E . , Turner, J . A . , & Carlsmith, J . M . (1963). Communicator credibility and communication discrepancy as determinants of opinion change. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67, 31-36. Barr, A . (Producer). (1975). A D a y i n the Life of Bonnie Consolo. company (Film). Bateman, B . (1962). Sighted children's perceptions Exceptional Children, 29, 42-46. Bern,  D . J . (1970). Brooks/Cole.  Beliefs,  Attitudes,  and  of blind children's  Human  Affairs.  Pasadena: abilities.  Belmont, C A . :  Campbell, D . T . & Stanley, J . C . (1963). 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(1984). Attitudes and attitude change. A n n u a l of Review of Psychology, 35, 395-426. Crowne, D . P . & Marlowe, D . (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24, 349-354. Curtis, O K . & Shaver, J . P . (1987). Modifying attitudes toward persons with disabilities: A review of reviews. International Journal of Special Education, 2(2), 103-129. Davis, F . (1969). Deviance disavowal and normalization. Quoted in Richardson, S . A . , The effect of physical disability on the socialization of the child. In D . A . Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of Socialization Theory and Research. New Y o r k : Rand McNally Co. Donaldson, J . (1980). Changing attitudes toward handicapped analysis of research. Exceptional Children 46, 504-514.  peers: a review and  Edwards, A . L . (1957). The Social Desirability Variable i n Personality and Research. New Y o r k : D r y den Press.  Assessment  English, R . W . (1977). Attitudes toward disabilities. In R . P . Marinelli and A . E . Dell Orto (Eds.) T h e Psychological and Social Impact of Physical Disability. New Y o r k : Springer. Evans, J . (1973). Attitudes toward the disabled and aggression. Motor Skills, 37, 834.  Perceptual and  Evans, J . H . (1976). Changing attitudes toward disabled persons: an experimental study. Rehabilitation Counselling Bulletin 19, 572-579. Forader, A . T . (1970). Modifying social attitudes toward the physically disabled through three different modes of instruction. Dissertation Abstracts, 30(9B), 4360. F u r n h a m , A . and Gibbs, M . (1984). School children's handicapped. Journal of Adolescence 7, 99-117.  attitudes  toward  the  Glass, G . V . (1976). Primary, secondary, and meta-analysis of research. Educational Researcher, 5(10), 3-8. Glass, G . V . (1977). Integrating findings: T h e meta-analysis Research in Education, 5, 351-379.  86  of research. Review of  BIBLIOGRAPHY Gleitman, H . (1986). Psychology (Second E d . ) . New Y o r k , N Y : W . W . Norton & Company, Inc. Goss, V . F . and Sheppard, G . (1979). Attitudes toward physically disabled persons: Do education and personal contact make a difference? Canadian Counsellor, 13(3), 131-135. Handlers, A . and A u s t i n , K . (1980). Improving attitudes of high school students toward their handicapped peers. Exceptional Children, 47(3), 228-229. Harth,R. (1973). Attitudes and Mental Retardation: Training School Bulletin, 69, 150-164.  Review of the Literature.  Henerson, M . E . , Morris, L . L . & F i t z - G i b b o n , C . T . (1987). How to Measure Attitudes. Newbary Park, C A : Sage. Higgs, R . W . (1975). Attitudes formation - contact or information? Children, 41, 496-497.  Exceptional  Hoffman, M . L . (1981). T h e development of empathy. In J . P . Rushton and R . M . Sorrentino (Eds.), A l t r u i s m and Helping Behavior: Social, Personality, and Developmental Perspectives (p. 41-63). Hillside, N J : E r l b a u m . Home, M . D . (1985). Attitudes Toward Handicapped Students: Professional, Peer, and Parent Reactions. Hillsdale, N J : Lawrence E r l b a u m Associates, Inc. Hoyt, J . H . (1978). Feeling free. American Education 14(9), 24-28. Kent, J . , Cartwright, D . , and Ossorio, P . (1984). Attitudes of peer groups toward paraplegic individuals. Journal of Rehabilitation, 50(3), 41-45. Kutner, B . (1971). T h e social psychology of disability. In W . S . Neff (Ed.), Rehabilitation Psychology. Washington, D . C : American Psychological Association. Lazar, A . L . , Gensley, J . T . and Orpet, R . E . (1971). Changing attitudes of young mentally gifted children toward handicapped persons. Exceptional Children, 37(8), 600-602. Langer, E . J . , Fiske, S., Taylor, S.E. iz Chanowitz, B . (1976). Stigma, staring and discomfort: A novel-stimulus hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 12, 451-463. Langer, E . J . and Imber, L . (1980). Role of mindlessness i n the perception of deviance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39(3), 360-367. Makas, E . (1985). M I D Scale (Modified Issues in Disability Scale). Washington, D C : George Washington University.  87  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Makas, E . (1988). Disabling stereotypes. T h e impact of contact with disabled persons on attitudes. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Disability Studies, June 1988, Washington, D . C . . Makas, E . (1989). In the midst. Modified Issues i n Disability Scale testing. Paper presented at the 1989 annual meeting of the Society for Disability Studies, June 1989, Colorado Springs, C O . Makas, E . (1989). Disabling Stereotypes. T h e Relationship Between Contact and Attitudes Toward People with Physical Disabilities. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, D . C . . Marinelli, R . P . & Dell Orto, A . E . (1984). The Psychological and Social Impact of Physical Disability. New Y o r k , N Y : Springer. M a r s h , V . , and Friedman, R . (1972). Changing public attitudes toward blindness. Exceptional Children, 38, 426-428. M c A r t h u r , L . Z . (1982). Judging a book by its cover: a cognitive analysis of the relationship between physical appearance and stereotyping. In A . H . Hastorf & A . M . Isen (Eds.) Cognitive Social Psychology. New Y o r k , N Y : Elsevier North Holland, Inc. M u l k e y , S . W . (1980). Standard Stimulus Effects on Attitudes Toward Disabled Persons: A n Experimental Study. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42(8), 1981. Pearman, W . A . & Starr, P . (1981). T h e Physically Handicapped: A n Annotated Bibliography of Empirical Research Studies. 1970-1979. New Y o r k , N Y : Garland. Perkins, M . A . and Karniski, M . A . (1978). The effect of increased knowledge of body systems a n d functions on attitudes toward the disabled. Rehabilitation Counselling Bulletin, 22, 16-20. Parish, T . S . and Copeland, T . F . (1978). Teachers' and students' mainstreamed classrooms. Psychological Reports. 43, 54.  attitudes i n  Richardson, S . A . (1970). Age and sex differences i n values toward handicaps. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 11, 207-214.  physical  Rose, T . L . (1985). Cognitive and didactic processes in intergroup contact. In D . L . Hamilton ( E d . ) , Cognitive Processes in Stereotyping and Intergroup Behavior, 259-302. Hillside, N J : Lawrence E r l b a u m Associates. Rusalem, H . (1967) Engineering changes in public attitudes disabled group. Journal of Rehabilitation, 33(3), 26-27.  88  toward a  severely  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Schroeder, C . S . (1978). T h e Psychologist's Role in P . L . 94-142: Consultation Strategies with Peer Groups of Handicapped Children. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, August, 1978. Scott, O . , & Rohrbach, J . (1977). A comparison of five criteria for identifying fakeable items on an attitude inventory. Journal of Experimental Education, 45, 51-55. Shaver, J . , Curtis, C , Jesunathadas, J . &: Strong, C . (1987). T h e modification of attitudes toward persons with handicaps: A comprehensive integrative review of research. F i n a l Report to the U . S . Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services. Project N o . 023CH50160, Grant N o . G008530210. Logan: U t a h State University, Bureau of Research Services. Shaver, J . , Curtis, C , Jesunthadas, J . & Strong, C . (1989). T h e modification of attitudes toward persons with disabilities: Is there a best way? International Journal of Special Education, 4(1), 33-57. Sigelman, C . K . and M c G r a i l , L . A . (1985). Developmental differences in evaluative reactions to physically and mentally handicapped children. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 3(3), 352-366. Siller, J . (1963). Reactions to physical disability. Rehabilitation Counselling Bulletin, 7, 12-16. SilleT, J. (1964). Personality determinants of reaction to the physically handicapped. American Foundation for the B l i n d Research Bulletin, 7, 37-52. Siller, J . , and C h i p m a n , A . (1964). Factorial structure and correlates of the Attitudes T o w a r d Disabled Persons Scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 24, 831-840. Siller, J . , C h i p m a n , A . , Ferguson, L . T . , and V a n n , D . H . (1967). Attitudes of the nondisabled toward the physically disabled. In Studies in Reactions to Disability X I . New Y o r k : School of Education at New Y o r k University. Simmons, R . G . , B l y t h , D . A . , V a n Cleave, E . F . & Bush, D . M . (1979). Entry into early adolescence: T h e impact of school structure, puberty, and early dating on self-esteem. American Sociological Review, 44, 948-967. Stephan, W . G . (1985). Intergroup relations. In G . Lindzey & E . Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of Social Psychology, V o l . H (3rd E d . ) , (599-658). Reading, M A : Addison-Wesley.  89  BIBLIOGRAPHY Tringo, J . L . (1970). T h e hierarchy of preference toward disability groups. Journal of Special Education, 4, 295-306. Towner, A . (1984). Modifying attitudes toward the handicapped: A review of literature and methodology, In R . Jones (Ed.)., Attitudes and attitude change in special education: Theory and practice. Reston, V A : T h e Council for Exceptional Children. Vargo, J . W . , & Semple, J . E . (1984). Honest versus fake scores on the Attitudes T o w a r d Disabled Persons Scale-Form A . Rehabilitation Counselling Bulletin, 27, 182-185. Voeltz, L . M . (1980). Children's attitudes toward Journal of Mental Deficiency, 84(5), 455-464.  handicapped  peers.  American  Wallston, B . , Blanton, R., Robinson, J . and Pollchink, L . (1972). Community Resources Development i n Rehabilitation of the Handicapped. Nashville, T N : Outlook Nashville, Inc. Watts, W . A . (1984). Attitude change: theories and methods. In R . L . Jones (Ed.), A t t i t u d e Change in Special Education. Reston, V A : E R I C . Wetstein-Kroft, S.B. and Vargo, J . W . (1984). Children's attitudes toward disability: a review and analysis of the literature. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling 7, 181-195. Y u k e r , H . E . , Block, J . R . and Campbell, W . J . (1960). A scale to measure attitudes toward disabled persons. H u m a n Resources Study Number 5. Albertson, New Y o r k : H u m a n Resources Foundation. Yuker, H . E . , Block, J . R . and Y o u n n g , J . H . (1970). T h e measurement of attitudes toward disabled persons. Rehabilitation Series Number 3. Albertson, New Y o r k : H u m a n Resources Foundation. Yuker, H . E . (1988). In R . F . Antonak & R . Livneh (1988). T h e Measurement of Attitudes Toward People with Disabilities: Methods, Psychometrics and Scales. Springfield, 111: Charles Thomas.  90  A P P E N D I X  A A T T I T U D E  MODIFICATION RESULTS  91  TECHNIQUES  A N D  Figure A 1 Brief Descriptions of Attitude Modification Techniques Technique Information  Contact  Description  Information on disabilities (e.g. etiology, characteristics, problems, similarities with nondisabled, prostheses) provided by means such as speakers, films, and books Ss in situations where they observe or interact with persons with disabilities  Vicarious Experience  Ss put in situations to help them experience what it is like to have disabilities  Persuasive Message  A n argument presented v i a persons or printed or electronic media to convince Ss that they should have positive attitudes toward persons with disabilities  Persuasive Message, Contrast Different messages or media used with treatment groups to investigate relative effectiveness Systematic Desensitization  T h i n k i n g about disabled persons in relaxed, nonthreatening settings to extinguish negative attitudes  Positive  Use of classical OT operant conditioning to modify behavior assumed to reflect attitudes  92  A n y combination of techniques other than Information Plus Direct Contact or Information Plus Vicarious Experience, which are coded separately  93  Table A I Effect. Sizes of Attitude Modification Techniques Effect Sizes (Ds) Rank  Technique  N  Mean  SD  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  Persuasive message Information Plus Contact Contact Vicarious Experience Other Systematic Desensitization Information Information Plus Vicarious  23 100 93 58 71 21 203 62  .67 .51 .43 .40 .39 .32 .29 .20  .56 .56 .73 .76 .64 .44 .51 .36  (Shaver et al, 1988, p. 50-51)  94  APPENDIX B ATHLETE PROFILES AND FORMAT  95  PRESENTATION  Figure B  1 Athlete Profiles  1. Indy B a t t h - Tour Coordinator/Manager As the Tour Coordinator and the Assistant Program Coordinator with C W S A - B C , Indy is eager to help the Demo T e a m reach as many communities as possible providing education and awareness. 2. D o n Alder D o n is employed as a musician and also as a wheelchair technician. W h e n he is not working, he is a valuable volunteer for C W S A - B C programs. He has travelled around the world with Rick Hansen's M a n - I n - M o t i o n Tour as the equipment manager. A s an able-bodied athlete, he looks forward to promoting integration of able-bodied individuals into wheelchair sports. 3. C o d y Stiles Although Cody is fairly new to wheelchair sports, he shows great potential. Having been injured less than a year ago, he has accepted his disability and set his sights on possibly furthering his education. He would also like to try his hand at wheelchair track and road racing. W i t h such a positive outlook on life, he is guaranteed to succeed. 4. M i k e M c M u r r a y M i k e is a member of the Canadian Wheelchair Basketball League ( C W B L ) . He has attended the B C W i n t e r Games for the past two years and came away with a gold medal i n 1988. Currently, he is a student i n Vanderhoof. 5. C y r i l K i n a k i n C y r i l has also played basketball at eh B C Winter Games for the past two years. In addition, he has been involved in numerous wheelchair basketball exhibition games as well as being a veteran Demo T e a m member. Currently, he resides in Kelowna where he is attending college. His winning smile captivates the audience as he sets his sights on a bright future. 6. J i m Miller Jim owns a business selling sports products for the physically challenged. In addition to playing basketball, he is an avid tennis player and monoskier. He also enjoys teaching individuals with disabilities how to monoski and water-ski. He looks forward to generating public awareness of wheelchair sports.  96  7. Colette Pilloud Colette is presently in process of completing her Education Degree at U B C . Recently, she got involved with the B C Women's Wheelchair Basketball team. As a varsity basketball player at University of British C o l u m b i a for five years, she contributes an enormous amount of skill and expertise to wheelchair basketball.  97  Figure B 2 B.C. Wheelchair Sports Demonstration Team Format 1. Introduction a) Demo T e a m School T e a m b) Short explanation of demo format c) Brief outline of rules and skills 2. 10-15 minute Game 3. Break a) Corporate involvement:Worker's Compensation Board Toyota Canada b) Athlete background c) Personal experience d) Safety e) Reverse integration 4. 10-15 minute game 5. Open a)Questions from students, staff, general public. b )Each athlete will relate how he/she was injured and stressing the importance of avoiding similar situations. A t junior and senior high schools, drinking and driving will also be discussed. 6. Close a) T h a n k - y o u b) Stay Safe  98  APPENDIX C ADMINISTRATION P A C K A G E  99  .Figure C 1 Parent Consent Form Dear Parent; T h e B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration T e a m will be visiting your school on . W e would like to evaluate on aspect of our program which is increasing the awareness of physically disabled persons. Y o u r child will be asked to complete a 15-minute questionnaire on three occasions. Participation is voluntary and refusal to participate will not reflect on your child's mark in any way. Thank-you for your cooperation. Please return by I consent/do not consent (circle one) to my child participating in the B . C . Wheelchair Sports Demonstration T e a m evaluation. P a r e n t / G u a r d i a n signature  100  Figure C 3 Social History Questionnaire (Makas, 1989) GENERAL INFORMATION 1. Date: 2. T i m e : 3. School: 4. Home R o o m Teacher: 5. Gender:  Male  6. B i r t h Date: M o n t h  Female Day  Year  7. Overall, would you say that you have had: (please choose O N E ) no personal contact with disabled people very little personal contact with disabled people some personal contact with disabled people quite a bit of contact with disabled people a great deal of contact with disabled people  102  Figure C 4 Attitudes T o w a r d Disabled Persons S c a l e ( Y u k e r et a l . , 1960) Instructions: Please place an X in the blank below the number that, best describes your agreement or disagreement with the following statements. There are no correct answers. The best, answers are those that honestly reflect your feelings. Scale: +3  I agree +2 +1 -1 -2 -3  very much I agree pretty much I agree a little I disagree a little I disagree pretty much I disagree very much +3 +2 +1 -1 -2 -3  1. Parents of disabled children should be less strict than other parents. 2. Physically disabled persons are just as intelligent as nondisabled persons. 3. Disabled people are usually easier to get along with than other people. 4. Most disabled people feel sorry for themselves. 5. Disabled people are the same as anyone else. 6. There shouldn't be special schools for disabled children. 7. It would be best for disabled persons to live and work in special circumstances. 8. It is up to the government to take care of disabled persons.  103  9. Most disabled people worry a great deal. 10. Disabled people should not be expected to meet the same standards as non-disabled people. 11. Disabled people are as happy as non-disabled ones. 12. Severely disabled people are no harder to get along with than those with minor disabilities. 13. It is almost impossible for a disabled person to live a normal life. 14. Y o u should not expect too much from disabled people. 15. Disabled people tend to keep to themselves much of the time. 16. Disabled people are more easily upset than nondisabled people. 17. Disabled persons cannot have a normal social life. 18. Most disabled people feel that they are not as good as other people. 19. Y o u have to be careful of what you say when you are with disabled people. 20. Disabled people are often grouchy.  Figure C 5 Modified Issues in Disability Scale (Makas, 1985) INSTRUCTIONS The purpose of this study is to gather information from a wide range of people on disability-related issues. Some people will have had a great deal of contact with these issues, others will have had virtually no contact. Please indicate, using the scale below, your opinion on each of the 37 statements which follow. Although some of these items may appear to be factual, there are really no "right" or "wrong" answers. W e are simply looking for your opinion (i.e., whether you personally agree or disagree with each statement). Therefore, even though you can respond "don't k n o w / n o opinion", you should use this response only when you have no idea at all what your answer should be. Here is how you should rate the items. Strongly Disagree 1  Disagree  Somewhat Disagree 2  Somewhat Agree  3 4 Don't K n o w / No opinion  5  Strongly Agree 6 Agree  7  If you feel that the statement is completely true, put a "7" in the blank before that particular statement. If you feel that the statement is completely false, put a " 1 " in the blank before the statement. A l l of the other numbers indicate partial agreement or partial disagreement with these statements. For example, if you consider a statement to be quite true (but not completely true), you should rate it a "6". (A " 2 " means that it is quite false.) If you feel that it is somewhat true (but not neutral), you should rate it "5". ( A " 3 " means it is somewhat false.) Use a "4" only if you have absolutely no opinion on the statement or absolutely no idea whether it is factually true or false.  105  Please rate all the items. Also, please make a separate judgement for each item. Do not look back and forth through the statements or try to remember how you rated similar items before. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7  -  strongly agree disagree somewhat disagree don't know/no opinion somewhat agree agree strongly agree  1. The majority of physically disabled adolescents should attend special schools which are specifically designed to meet their needs. 2. Certain jobs should be set aside for blind persons so that they don't have to compete directly with sighted persons. 3. Disabled children should not have to compete academically with nondisabled children. 4. Most people who have physical disabilities expect no more love and reassurance than anyone else. 5. If you are walking with a blind person, it is easier for him/her to take 3'our arm than for you to take his/her arm. 6. Physically disabled drivers should pay more for their automobile insurance than nondisabled drivers. 7. It is more humane to allow a child w i t h a severe disability to die at birth than for him/her to five as a severely disabled person. 8. Efforts to place physically disabled people who have been institutionalized back in the community are really pressing them to do more than they are capable of doing. 9. If a person with epilepsy becomes angry with people over little things, it should be overlooked because of his/her disability. 10. Disabled people are generally easier to get along w i t h than nondisabled people. 11. Parents of disabled teenagers should be as strict as any other parents. 12. Sheltered workshops (noncompetitive factory work exclusively for disabled people) cannot adequately solve the employment problems of people who happen to be disabled.  106  13. People with physical disabilities should be expected to meet the same vocational standards as other people. 14. Physically disabled people are usually easy going and seldom get angry. 15. One should avoid asking disabled people questions about their disabilities. 16. Disabled people don't have enough influence i n politics. 17. Income from taxes paid by an employed disabled person is greater than the amount of money spent to put that person back to work. 18. Wheelchair users frequently have bowel or bladder "accidents" (i.e., they can't get to the bathroom in time). 19. Educational programs for physically disabled students are very expensive in relation to what the physically disabled child gains from them. 20. Y o u have to be especially careful what you say when you are with people who are physically disabled. 21. Disabled people are generally no more anxious or tense than nondisabled people. 22. Adequate housing for disabled people is neither too expensive or too difficult to build. 23. Teachers should not expect students to who have epilepsy to participate fully in physical education activities. 24. T r a i n e d workers who use wheelchairs are no more likely to have accidents on the job than equally trained nondisabled workers. 25. Disabled people are no more likely than nondisabled people to be churchgoers. 26. Since a physical disability interferes with certain activities, the disability is foremost in a disabled person's m i n d practically all the time. 27. B l i n d people tend to get a more accurate first impression of others than most people do. 28. A m a n or a woman with a physical disability is much more likely than a nondisabled person to have a child who will also have a disability.  107  29. For a severely disabled person, the kindness of others is more important than any educational program. 30. Disabled people are more accident prone than nondisabled people. 31. Most disabled people would rather socialize with other disabled people than with nondisabled people. 32. Employers' attitudes are a greater handicap to a disabled person than lack of ability. 33. A physically disabled high school student will probably feel inadequate in a regular classroom. 34. Physically disabled drivers have more automobile accidents than nondisabled drivers. 35. Disabled people should be expected to fit into our competitive society. 36. It would be much easier for disabled people if they lived i n residential units (e.g.,apartment buildings) with other disabled people. 37. It is logical for a woman who uses a wheelchair to consider having a baby.  108  APPENDIX D SUPPLEMENTARY  109  T A B L E S OF RESULTS  Table D I Means and Standard Deviations for Contact on the M I D S for the Pretest and Posttest MIDS PreTest Variable  n  s.d.  MIDS Posttest mean  n  s.d.  mean  Contact None Very Little Some Quite a Lot A Great Deal  9 25 17 6 9  10.49 25.40 18.60 10.26 31.18  161.78 163.00 162.18 161.17 165.89  9 25 17 9 7  13.00 24.46 20.47 29.50 24.26  168.33 162.16 165.18 161.11 174.29  Column Total  66  21.60  162.85  67  22.68  164.88  110  Table D II Means and Standard Deviations for Age on the A T D P for the Experimental and Control Groups ATDP Experimental  ATDP Control  n  s.d.  mean  n  s.d.  mean  13 14 15 16  16 28 22 1  15.98 10.72 13.99  83.19 77.14 85.55 82.00  35 7  15.63 17.85  75.34 63.43  Combined  67  13.48  81.42  42  16.41  73.36  Age  111  Table D EQ Means and Standard Deviations for Gender on the A T D P for the Experimental and C o n t r o l Groups ATDP Experimental  ATDP Control  n  s.d.  mean  n  s.d.  mean  Male Female  34 36  12.39 14.20  79.74 82.94  21 21  16.03 16.13  69.00 78.24  Combined  70  13.35  81.39  42  16.56  73.62  Gender  112  Table D IV Means and Standard Deviations for Contact on the A T D P for the Experimental and Control Groups ATDP Experimental Variable  ATDP Control  n  s.d.  mean  n  s.d.  mean  6 25 19 9 6 65  10.73 14.11 14.76 12.11 12.88 13.60  82.00 79.08 81.11 86.89 86.33 81.69  5 24 8 4 2 43  16.35 14.98 17.96 24.14 21.21 16.37  70.20 74.75 77.88 64.75 71.00 73.70  CONTACT None Very Little Some Quite a Lot A Great Deal Column T o t a l  113  Table D V M e a n s and Standard Deviations for Gender on the M I D S  Gender Male Female  36 31  MIDS (pre-test) s.d.  mean  20.77 22.19  158.25 166.71  114  Table D V I Means and Standard Deviations for Contact on the A T D P ATDP Control Group Variable  n  s.d.  mean  5 24 8 4 2  16.35 14.98 17.96 24.14 16.37  70.20 74.75 77.88 64.75 73.70  Contact None Very Little Some Quite a Lot A Great Deal  115  Table D V I I Means and Standard Deviations for Gender on the A T D P ATDP Control Group n  s.d.  mean  Male Female  21 21  16.03 16.13  69.00 78.24  Combined  42  16.56  73.62  Gender  1 case (2.3%) was missing  116  Table D VIEt Means and Standard Deviations for Age on the A T D P ATDP Control Group Variable  n  s.d.  mean  7 35  17.85 15.63  63.43 73.46  Age 14 13  117  Table D I X Means and Standard Deviations for Contact on the A T D P ATDP Control Group n  s.d.  mean  None Very Little Some Quite a L o t A Great Deal  5 24 8 4 2  16.35 14.98 17.96 24.14 16.37  70.20 74.75 77.88 64.75 73.70  Column Total  43  16.37  73.70  Variable Contact  118  

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