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Structural characteristics of female distance runners of different proficiency levels Fernyhough, Jane Lee 1983

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STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FEMALE DISTANCE RUNNERS OF DIFFERENT PROFICIENCY LEVELS by JANE LEE FERNYHOUGH B.P.E., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF • MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Physical Education and Recreation) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February 1983 (c) Jane Lee Fernyhough, 19 83 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f P H Y S I C A L E D U C A T I O N The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall V ancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date FEBRUARY 28, 19 8 3 DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT The purpose of th i s investigation was to look at the st r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of recreational, adult female distance runners. The subjects were divided into two d i f f e r e n t speed categories: group one consisted of eleven women who averaged a v e l o c i t y of seven minutes per mile or faster over a race distance of ten thousand meters or longer; and group two consisted of twelve women who averaged seven and one half to eight and one half minutes per mile over t h i s distance. The two groups were compared using anthropometrical measures, body composition, age of menarche, t r a i n i n g practices and a t h l e t i c background, and iron stores. The anthropometrical and body composition measures were compared with those of a reference group of university females (group three). Anthropometrical measures were appraised using absolute values and Phantom Z-values of group means. The Phantom Z-values were plotted on graphs plus and minus one standard error. Differences were found i n hand length (group one was smaller), s i t t i n g height (group three was la r g e r ) , foot length (group three was smaller), and transverse chest width (group three was smaller). The trend was for group one, the faster runners, to be smaller i n absolute values and smaller i n g i r t h Z-values. Group one was found to have lower density values, lower sum of skinfolds, and less adipose mass. Proportional Z-values for skinfolds were s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower i n group one than group three and lower than group two at a l l s i t e s but front thigh. Age of menarche was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t between group one and two but group one had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater number of l a t e r maturers than group two when compared using chi-square analysis. i i i Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s determining t r a i n i n g p r a c t i c e s and a c t i v i t y i n adolescence were used w i t h c h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s t o determine frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n . The women i n group one t r a i n e d more f r e q u e n t l y and had been running a g r e a t e r number of years than those i n group two. Although a c t i v i t y i n adolescence was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t , a g r e a t e r number i n group one had been ' a c t i v e ' i n adolescence compared with those i n group two. Iron s t o r e s f o r both groups f e l l w i t h i n normal value ranges. Due to the s m a l l sample s i z e of the two running groups d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s are not warranted. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t e n t a t i v e ones based on the group means seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t the s u p e r i o r group of runners was s m a l l e r i n s t r u c t u r e , had lower body f a t , a g r e a t e r amount of time devoted t o t r a i n i n g , a l a r g e r number were l a t e r maturers, and more were a c t i v e i n adolescence. While some measures cannot be changed w i t h t r a i n i n g i t seems t h a t t r a i n i n g p l a y s a l a r g e r o l e i n running p r o f i c i e n c y and e x t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g can i n f l u e n c e body f a t and muscle mass. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF FIGURES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . " v i i i I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 E x p l a n a t i o n of the Study 4 D e l i m i t a t i o n s 5 L i m i t a t i o n s 5 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 6 II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 7 S i z e 7 P r o p o r t i o n s 9 Shape 11 Body Composition 12 Measurements of Body Fat 12 Body F a t and Performance 14 F r a c t i o n a t i o n of Body Mass . . . . 16 Age of Menarche 16 T r a i n i n g and A t h l e t i c Background . . 18 Iron Stores 19 I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURES 21 Subject s 21 Apparatus and Measuring Procedures . . 21 A n a l y s i s 23 Body Composition 25 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s 25 Age a t Menarche 25 Somatotype A n a l y s i s 26 T r a i n i n g and A t h l e t i c Background 26 Iron Stores 27 IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 28 A n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l Data 28 P r o p o r t i o n a l Body Masses 39 V TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page Somatotyping 42 Body Composition 42 Age a t Menarche 47 T r a i n i n g P r a c t i c e s and A t h l e t i c Background 48 S k i n f o l d Measures verse s T r a i n i n g Frequency 49 Iron Stores 49 D i s c u s s i o n 50 V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . 54 REFERENCES 57 APPENDIX A 64 Informed Consent Form APPENDIX B 66 Menarche Q u e s t i o n n a i r e APPENDIX C 68 T r a i n i n g Background Q u e s t i o n n a i r e APPENDIX D 70 A t h l e t i c Background Q u e s t i o n n a i r e APPENDIX E 72 Phantom S p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r E s t i m a t i o n of F r a c t i o n a t e d Body Masses by the Drinkwater T a c t i c APPENDIX F 74 A n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l Raw Data f o r Subjec t s i n Groups One and Two v i LIST OF TABLES Ta b l e Page I S i z e 28 I I A n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l Measurements A b s o l u t e V a l u e s 30 I I I A n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l Measurements P r o p o r t i o n a l Phantom Z-Values 32 IV P r o p o r t i o n a l Body Masses ( D r i n k w a t e r T a c t i c ) 39 V P r o p o r t i o n a l Body Masses ( D r i n k w a t e r T a c t i c ) Phantom Z-Values 40 VI Somato t y p e s 42 V I I S k i n f o l d Measures 43 V I I I S k i n f o l d Measures P r o p o r t i o n a l Phantom Z-Values 45 IX H y d r o s t a t i c Weighing D e n s i t y V a l u e s 47 X Age o f Menarche 47 XI Age o f Menarche Above and Below Average 48 X I I T r a i n i n g P r a c t i c e s Number o f Days p e r Week 48 X I I I T r a i n i n g P r a c t i c e s Number o f Years Running 49 XIV A c t i v i t y i n A d o l e s c e n c e 49 XV I r o n S t o r e s 50 ( v i i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1 Mean Z Val u e s : Lengths, Breadths, G i r t h s Group 1 vs Group 3 34 2 Mean Z Values: Lengths, Breadths, G i r t h s Group 2 vs Group 3 35 3 Mean Z Values: Lengths, Breadths, G i r t h s Group 1 vs Group 2 36 4 Mean Z Val u e s : Lengths, Breadths, G i r t h s Group 1 vs Group 2 vs Group 3 37 5 P r o p o r t i o n a l Body Masses (Drinkwater T a c t i c ) Mean Z Values Group 1 vs Group 3 . . . 4 1 6 P r o p o r t i o n a l Body Masses (Drinkwater T a c t i c ) Mean Z Values Group 2 vs Group 3 . . . . 41 7 P r o p o r t i o n a l Body Masses (Drinkwater T a c t i c ) Mean Z Values Group 1 vs Group 2 . 41 8 P r o p o r t i o n a l Body Masses (Drinkwater T a c t i c ) Mean Z Values Group 1 vs Group 2 vs Group 3. 41 9 S k i n f o l d Measures P r o p o r t i o n a l Z Values Group 1 vs Group 3 44 10 S k i n f o l d Measures P r o p o r t i o n a l Z Values Group 2 vs Group 3 44 11 S k i n f o l d Measures P r o p o r t i o n a l Z Values Group 1 vs Group 2 46 12 S k i n f o l d Measures P r o p o r t i o n a l Z Values Group 1 vs Group 2 vs Group 3 46 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish t o thank the members of my t h e s i s committee: Dr. S. R. Brown (Committee Chairman), Dr. R. Mosher, Mr. L. Pugh, and Dr. W. D. Ross. I would e s p e c i a l l y l i k e t o thank Dr. Brown f o r h i s v a l u a b l e and in e x h a u s t a b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n w r i t i n g the f i n a l d r a f t , and Dr. Ross f o r h i s enthousiasm f o r the s u b j e c t o f kinanthropometry. I would a l s o l i k e t o thank the women who p a r t i c i -pated i n the study as s u b j e c t s and those persons who helped me i n the data c o l l e c t i o n process and computer a n a l y s i s . And, f i n a l l y I extend a s p e c i a l thank you to my husband, f a m i l y , and f r i e n d s f o r encouraging and sup p o r t i n g me throughout my s t u d i e s . CHAPTER 1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM I n t r o d u c t i o n Women d i s t a n c e runners have i n c r e a s e d g r e a t l y i n number i n r e c e n t years and t h i s c o n s t i t u t e s both an i n t e r e s t i n g s o c i a l phenomenon, and an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s c i e n t i f i c study of female s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o long d i s t a n c e running performance. S e v e r a l reasons can be advanced f o r doing d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . One i s t h a t there i s very l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n about female d i s t a n c e runners and f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e performance. There has been a wid e l y h e l d c o n v i c t i o n i n l a y , i f not a l s o i n a t h l e t i c c i r c l e s , t h a t women were not s u i t e d f o r d i s t a n c e running, and t h a t those who d i d were r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t 'in s t r u c t u r e from normal. The data f o r male d i s t a n c e runners shows c o n s i s t e n c y w hile t h a t which has so f a r been obtained f o r women does not; thus, more i n f o r m a t i o n i s needed to help i n redu c i n g c o n f u s i o n about the f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g female d i s t a n c e running performance. At t h i s stage d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s are needed i n order t o determine f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s i n re s e a r c h on female d i s t a n c e runners. In c o m p e t i t i o n where the p a r t i c i p a n t s are running because they have the d e s i r e to do so and not because they were chosen, a r e l a t i v e l y common t r a i n i n g background i s not pre s e n t as i t i s i n i n t e r -n a t i o n a l c o m p e t i t i o n s . Thus, any d i f f e r e n c e s i n a b i l i t y r e l a t e d t o s t r u c t u r e may be masked by d i f f e r e n c e s i n a b i l i t y due t o f u n c t i o n a l s t a t u s ( t r a i n i n g ) . T h e r e f o r e , a proper i n v e s t i g a t i o n must i n c l u d e data of both k i n d s . A thorough r e c o r d of t r a i n i n g and a t h l e t i c background of the p a r t i c i p a n t s should be taken. 1 There has, for many centuries, been an awareness of the relationship between bodily structure and function as i t relates to performance. Philostratos Flavius of ancient Greek times (circa 170-250 A.D.) (Juthner, 196 9) described how participants of a given sport should be of a s p e c i f i c physique i n order to be successful. Many recent studies have shown t h i s from various points of view. Hirata (1966) studied the size and age of the competitors of the 1964 Tokyo Olympic Games. He found s i g n i f i c a n t group differences i n height, weight, and age of participants of the di f f e r e n t events. Another aspect of physique i s that of proportion - length, g i r t h , and width relationships. de Garay et a l . (1974) analysed biacromial and b i i l i o c r i s t a l widths as well as arm, trunk, and leg lengths of various groups of athletes. They found athletes i n a s p e c i f i c sport exhibited the same general trends i n these body proportions. The body composition of athletes has also been studied. Behnke and Wilmore (1974) and Krahenbuhl et a l . (1979) found athletes to have less f a t and a greater body density, as measured by hydrostatic weighing, than non-athletes. Somatotyping i s a method of looking at physique from the point of view of body shape. de Garay et a l . (19 74) determined the somatotype of each athlete and looked at each component separately. They found male athletes to vary according to th e i r sport but the small sample of women proved to be balanced mesomorphs (3 - 4 - 3) . Most o-f the studies previously done" on athletes h been concerned with e l i t e male athletes. With the rapid increase of p a r t i c i p a t i o n by women i n sport 3 there i s i n t e r e s t i n f i l l i n g a gap i n the s c i e n t i f i c knowledge of the relationship of structure and function in women athletes. I t i s a matter of s c i e n t i f i c c u r i o s i t y to see i f t h e i r relationship i s s i m i l a r to that seen i n the male athlete or i f the r e l a t i o n s h i p d i f f e r s . In areas of study where there i s a paucity of information i t i s necessary to proceed on i n t u i t i o n based on observations. One might proceed by assuming that Wie s t r u c t u r a l differences between female long distance runners and non-athletes would approximate the differences between male long distance runners and the normal population. Male distance runners are reported to be short, very lean, ecto-mesomorphs, with small biacromial and b i i l i o c r i s t a l widths (de Garay et a l . , 1974). One cannot v e r i f y t h i s assumption from the few studies of female long distance runners as the r e s u l t s have been equivocal i n some respects. The runners have been shown to be lean but size was d i s t i n c t l y d i f -ferent i n d i f f e r e n t samples (Malina et a l . , 1971; Brown & Wilmore, 1971; Wilmore & Brown, 1974). No studies concerning female distance runners and reporting proportions or somatotype were found. An additional perspective i n considering elements influencing levels of achievement i n female athletes i s age of menarche. It has been found that female athletes experience a l a t e r menarche than do non-athletes (Malina et a l . , 1978). Malina et a l . (1978) hypothesized that the physique of l a t e r maturing g i r l s i s more suited for successful a t h l e t i c performance: they were longer-legged, narrower hipped, more l i n e a r , had less weight for height and less f at than t h e i r early maturing peers. 4 Because of these s t r u c t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s r e l a t e d to l a t e r maturation i t i s necessary to c o l l e c t age of menarche data i n any e x p l o r a t o r y study of i n f l u e n c e s on the performance of women. Up to the p r e s e n t time the l i t e r a t u r e examining age of menarche has o n l y d e a l t w i t h young a t h l e t e s whose t r a i n i n g has been through adolescence. While cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n -s h i p s cannot be determined, i t i s unknown whether the l a t e r maturing females continue to be the ones to e x c e l or i f these d i f f e r e n c e s are minimized i n a d u l t y e a r s . Low i r o n s t o r e s have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n endurance a c t i v i t i e s . S ince i r o n i s an important substance i n oxygen t r a n s -p o r t i t seems reasonable to assume t h a t a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l s are important f o r performance. A t e s t f o r adequate i r o n s t o r e s should be done when c o n t r a s t i n g p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s i n order to r u l e out the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t lower performance i s not due to low i r o n s t o r e s . E x p l a n a t i o n of the Study T h i s study compared two groups of female d i s t a n c e runners of d i f f e r e n t p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s w i t h r e s p e c t to a n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l measurements, t r a i n i n g backgrounds, age of menarche, and i r o n s t o r e s , and compares these groups w i t h a r e f e r e n c e group i n anthropometri c a l measures.;. The runners were chosen from the e n t r a n t s of s e v e r a l races of 10,000 meters or longer. The 10,000 meter d i s t a n c e was chosen because i t i s a popular long d i s t a n c e race r e q u i r i n g an e x t e n s i v e amount of endurance t r a i n i n g . There were two groups: one of e l e v e n members who averaged seven minutes per m i l e or l e s s over the d i s t a n c e and the other of twelve members who averaged seven and one h a l f t o e i g h t and one h a l f 5 minutes per mi l e over the d i s t a n c e . The women were measured u s i n g anthropometric measures of s i z e (height, weight, l e n g t h s , breadths, and g i r t h s ) , shape (somatotype), p r o p o r t i o n s ( l e n g t h s , breadths, and g i r t h s i n r e l a t i o n to h e i g h t ) , and body composition (underwater weighing and s k i n f o l d t h i c k -nesses) . The two groups were compared wi t h a r e f e r e n c e group ( n i n e t y - f o u r women measured i n a t r i - u n i v e r s i t y study i n B r i t i s h Columbia) i n s i z e , shape, p r o p o r t i o n s , and s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s e s . The runners were gi v e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to a s c e r t a i n t h e i r p r e s e n t t r a i n i n g p r a c t i c e s , t h e i r a t h l e t i c back-ground, and t h e i r age of menarche. A blood sample was taken and analysed f o r f e r r i t i n , serum i r o n , t o t a l i r o n b i n d i n g c a p a c i t y , hemoglobin, and red blood c e l l s . D e l i m i t a t i o n s 1. T h i s study i s concerned w i t h females who entered the 10,000 meter races of the CP A i r s e r i e s d u r i n g January and February, 1980, who f e l l i n t o the p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d speed c a t e g o r i e s and who were a v a i l a b l e f o r measuring. L i m i t a t i o n s 1. The p a r t i c i p a n t s were chosen a c c o r d i n g t o performances i n one or two r a c e s . I t was not p o s s i b l e t h e r e f o r e , t o take i n t o account the t r u e a b i l i t y of any s u b j e c t who may have had an ' o f f day. The e x c l u s i o n of s u b j e c t s w i t h average v e l o c i t i e s between seven and seven and one h a l f minutes per mi l e was intended t o ensure a c l e a r s e p a r a t i o n i n running a b i l i t y of the two groups. 2. The age of menarche was r e c a l l e d by the s u b j e c t s and not taken from r e c o r d s . S t u d i e s have 6 shown t h a t most females can r e c a l l the date of menarche w i t h i n an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l of accuracy f o r group comparisons (Livson & M c N e i l l , 1962; Damon e t a l . , 1969; Be r g s t e n - B r u c e f o r s , 1976). D e f i n i t i o n of Terms The terms used i n t h i s work have the same s p e c i f i c d e n o t a t i o n as those u t i l i z e d i n the s c i e n c e s which d e a l w i t h human measurement and d e s c r i p t i o n . CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF LITERATURE For many years r e s e a r c h e r s seeking knowledge of the p e r f e c t physique f o r s p e c i f i c a t h l e t i c events have been r e p o r t i n g on the s i z e , shape, p r o p o r t i o n s , and body composition of a t h l e t e s i n v a r y i n g s p o r t s . Compared t o males, women have been p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s p o r t f o r a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d of time, but the time t h a t females have been competing i n long d i s t a n c e running events has been an even s h o r t e r p e r i o d . Very l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n on the physique of these female long d i s t a n c e runners has been recorded. T h i s review of l i t e r a t u r e i s r e s t r i c t e d almost e n t i r e l y t o m a t e r i a l on runners. Some i s concerned wi t h c o n t r a s t s between male d i s t a n c e runners and non-runners o r , i n some cases, s p r i n t e r s . Information on female s p r i n t e r s i s c o n t r a s t e d with i n f o r m a t i o n on non-runners and the l i m i t e d a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on d i s t a n c e runners. The review i s composed of m a t e r i a l coming under these t o p i c headings: s i z e , shape, p r o p o r t i o n s , body composition, age of menarche, t r a i n i n g and a t h l e t i c background, and i r o n s t o r e s . (In t h i s chapter a l l v a l u e s are averages f o r groups u n l e s s s t a t e d to the contr a r y . ) S i z e H i r a t a (1966) compared the h e i g h t , weight, and age of v a r i o u s c l a s s e s of competitors i n the 1964 Tokyo Olympic Games. At t h a t time the l o n g e s t f o o t r a c e f o r women was 8 00 meters. With male runners he found t h a t the longer the race d i s t a n c e , the s h o r t e r , l i g h t e r , and o l d e r the a t h l e t e s tended t o be. The marathoners 7 8 weighed 60.8 kg and were 170.3 cm i n h e i g h t w h i l e the 10,000 meter runners were 62.0 kg and 172.7 cm. de Garay e t a l . (1974) r e p o r t e d data on a t h l e t e s a t the 196 8 Mexico Olympic Games and found the h e i g h t of the 10,000 meter runners to be 171.9 cm and the r e f e r e n c e group to be 170.4 cm but the marathoners were s h o r t e r at 168.7 cm. The 10,000 meter runners and marathoners were l i g h t e r (59.8 kg and 56.6 kg r e s p e c t i v e l y ) than the r e f e r e n c e males (63.1 kg). The d i s t a n c e runners were l i g h t e r than a l l the a t h l e t e s . Pipes (1977) r e p o r t e d h i s two, t h r e e , and s i x m i l e male runners to be the l i g h t e s t of a l l the a t h l e t e s s t u d i e d but the female d i s t a n c e runners were h e a v i e r than the s p r i n t e r s , one h a l f and m i l e runners, and jumpers, but were second i n body f a t , w i t h o n l y the s p r i n t e r s having l e s s . Wilmore and Brown (1974) r e p o r t e d an average h e i g h t of 169.4 cm f o r t h e i r long d i s t a n c e runners which i s t a l l f o r women. The female d i s t a n c e runners i n the study by Brown and Wilmore (1971) were a l s o t a l l - 167.4 cm. The runners i n Wilmore and Brown's study (1974) were 57.2 kg but when an a t y p i c a l person - an u l t r a -marathoner (35.4% body f a t , 71.5 kg) i s taken out the group weight was 55.8 kg. Brown and Wilmore's women (1971) weighed 50.7 kg. Height and weight are the u s u a l measures of s i z e used i n surveys but i n more d e t a i l e d analyses of s p e c i a l p o p u l a t i o n s , measures of l e n g t h s , breadths, and g i r t h s can be employed. The c h o i c e of these measurements may depend on the i n s i g h t s gained from other s t u d i e s or from p a r t i c u l a r hypotheses proposed. In s t u d i e s where there are no d i s t i n c t p e r s p e c t i v e s about which measures might show d i f f e r e n c e s i n people w i t h d i f f e r e n t t r a i n i n g backgrounds or other f a c t o r s 9 which might i n f l u e n c e performance, one choses to i n c l u d e a reasonably l a r g e number of measures and looks f o r p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s which:.might then show some r e l a t i o n s h i p s to performance. T h i s i s a spec-u l a t i v e approach but i s a reasonable f i r s t step i n advancing i n t o new t e r r i t o r y where one does not know what to expect and samples are s m a l l . There are s e v e r a l ways of comparing i n d i v i d u a l s and groups on the measurements of l e n g t h s , breadths, and g i r t h s . One way i s to compare ab s o l u t e v a l u e s . T h i s i s not a s a t i s f a c t o r y method as i t does not account f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n d i v i d u a l h e i g h t s . Another, more s a t i s f a c t o r y method i s to t r a n s l a t e the measure-ments i n t o p r o p o r t i o n s of h e i g h t . T h i s can be done by two methods. The f i r s t i s t o d i v i d e the i n d i v i d u a l measure by the s u b j e c t ' s h e i g h t and show a percentage of h e i g h t s c o r e . The other method, which i s q u i c k l y g a i n i n g wide-spread acceptance i s to compare p r o p o r t i o n a l Z-values which have s c a l e d a l l s u b j e c t s to a common he i g h t . T h i s method of comparison i s r e f e r r e d to as the Phantom stratagem (Ross & Wilson, 1974) and i s based on the concept of a t h e o r e t i c a l r e f e r e n c e unisex human f i g u r e and the comparison of p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s among groups. I t "expresses a s u b j e c t ' s anthropometric measures i n terms of standard d e v i a t i o n s (Z-values) from those d e s i g n a t e d f o r a unisex r e f e r e n c e human. T h i s i s achieved by s c a l i n g the s u b j e c t ' s v a r i a b l e s to the r e f e r e n c e human s t a t u r e (170.18 cm)." (Ross & Ward, unpublished) P r o p o r t i o n s As w i t h a l l other body measurement a n a l y t i c a l systems, b a s i c data on body p r o p o r t i o n s i s l a c k i n g on female long d i s t a n c e runners. Day e t a l . (1977) 10 compared European champions to B e l g i a n runners (3000 meter d i s t a n c e ) and to a r e f e r e n c e group of F l e m i s h p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n undergraduates. They a s c e r t a i n e d t h a t the runners had p r o p o r t i o n a l l y longer lower limbs, w i t h the t h i g h l e n g t h more pronounced, narrower humerus and femur diameters, broader b i i l i o c r i s t a l widths, and s m a l l e r g i r t h s than the r e f e r e n c e group, and t h a t the more p r o f i c i e n t runners (the European champions) v a r i e d more from the r e f e r e n c e group than d i d the B e l g i a n runners. Conversely, Burke and Brush (1979) found t h e i r d i s t a n c e runners (aged 16.2 y e a r s , c r o s s country runners t r a i n i n g 50 p l u s m i l e s per week) to have a s h o r t e r t h i g h l e n g t h w i t h the lower l e g more pronounced i n comparison with t h e i r n o n - a t h l e t i c c o n t r o l s (they compared percentage o f t o t a l l e g ) . They hypothesized t h a t t h i s would a f f o r d a biomecha-n i c a l advantage i n t h a t "the c l o s e r t h a t the c e n t e r of g r a v i t y of the whole l e g i s to the h i p j o i n t , the s m a l l e r the moment of i n e r t i a d u r i n g the r e c o v e r y phase of the s t r i d e w i t h consequent r e d u c t i o n i n the r e s i s t a n c e to forward motion." (Burke & Brush, 1979:184) Eiben e t a l . (1976) a l s o r e p o r t e d a p r o p o r t i o n a l l y longer lower l e g f o r t h e i r . f e m a l e middle d i s t a n c e runners than f o r t h e i r n o n - a t h l e t i c teacher c o l l e g e c o n t r o l s and the Phantom. Male d i s t a n c e runners have been r e p o r t e d to have s h o r t e r trunks and longer l e g s than c o n t r o l s (Slocum & James, 1968), narrower b i i l i o c r i s t a l diameters than a l l other a t h l e t e s s t u d i e d (Parizkova, 1977), narrow b i a c r o m i a l diameters (de Garay e t a l . , 1974; P a r i z k o v a , 1977), p r o p o r t i o n a l l y s h o r t arms (de Garay e t a l . 1974), and a d e f i c i e n c y of arm g i r t h compared w i t h c h e s t and l e g s i z e which would i n d i c a t e a l a c k of muscle i n the l i t t l e used upper e x t r e m i t i e s (Behnke, 1966). 11 Shape Carter (1975) defines somatotype as a "description of present morphological conformation" (1975:1-1). It i s an attempt to. describe body shape with a simple three numerical ratin g . Somatotype encompasses form and composition without the influence of absolute s i z e . For a complete description of somatotyping the reader i s referred to Carter (1975). It has been shown that the somatotypes of athletes i n a s p e c i f i c sport are f a i r l y homogeneous and that somatotypes vary from sport to sport (Carter, 1970). Carter (1970) also showed that cer t a i n somatotypes which appear i n the general population do not appear i n an a t h l e t i c population, these being somatotypes high i n endomorphy, very high i n ectomorphy, and very low i n mesomorphy. Unfortunately most of the studies on female distance runners did not report somatotypes nor did they report the data which would enable somatotypes to be calculated. Wilmore, Brown and Davis (1977) reported a somatotype of 3.2 - 2.1 - 3.7 for twenty-three distance runners. de Garay et a l . (1974) found t h e i r female athletes ( a l l events) to be balanced mesomorphs (3 - 4 - 3). Westlake (1967) reported a somatotype of 3 - 4 - 3.5 for her distance runners (800 meters) -they being the lowest of a l l the athletes i n endomorphy and i n mesomorphy. Day's European champion distance runners (1500 and 3000 meters) exhibited a somatotype of 2.0 - 4.0 - 3.5 (1977). For non-athletic women enrolled i n a f i t n e s s c l a s s , de Woskin (1967) has reported a somatotype of 5.9 - 4.8 - 3.5 (40 females, age 44 years). de Garay 1s female non-athletic Mexican reference group showed a somatotype of 5.1 - 3.9 - 2.3 (1974). 12 de Garay e t a l . (1974) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the somatotypes of male Olympic a t h l e t e s v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g to the s p o r t , w i t h long d i s t a n c e runners (5000 and 10,000 meters) and marathoners being n e a r l y a l i k e (1.4 - 4.1 - 3.6 and 1.4 - 4.3 - 3.5 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Body Composition The body i s made up of f o u r masses: f a t , bone, muscle, and a r e s i d u a l p o r t i o n . Fat i s the most l a b i l e of the components - the one which causes the g r e a t e s t v a r i a t i o n i n the human shape and the one most i n f l u e n c e d by a c t i v i t y and n u t r i t i o n . Measurements of Body F a t There are many ways of measuring f a t content 40 i n v i v o ; among these are h y d r o s t a t i c weighing, K, t o t a l body water, radiography, and s k i n f o l d measures. H y d r o s t a t i c weighing to determine body d e n s i t y and p e r c e n t body f a t i s a r e l a t i v e l y common procedure f o r a s s e s s i n g i n d i v i d u a l s and s m a l l groups, but with l a r g e groups of people the time i n v o l v e d i s g r e a t so i t i s u s u a l to measure s k i n f o l d s to p r e d i c t percent body f a t . As M a l i n a points^ out (1969) both of these methods have l i m i t a t i o n s . H y d r o s t a t i c weighing formulas assume co n s t a n t d e n s i t i e s of muscle, f a t , and bone f o r a l l i n d i v i d u a l s which Bakker and Struikenkamp (1977), i n t h e i r review of l i t e r a t u r e , showed to be untrue. D i f f e r e n c e s i n bone m i n e r a l i z a t i o n due to sex, s i z e and e t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e s cause d i s c r e p e n c i e s i n body f a t estimation, from d e n s i t y measurements (Jones & C o r l e t t , 1980). Bone d e n s i t y i s known to decrease w i t h age (Malina, 1969) and can i n c r e a s e w i t h i n t e n s e p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y ( A l o i a e t a l . , 1978). Muscle becomes more dense wi t h p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y (Malina, 1969). Consequently, depending on a persons' a c t i v i t y l e v e l , sex, e t h n i c background and s i z e , the underwater weighing technique can underestimate or overestimate f a t l e v e l s . 13 A l s o , accurate underwater" weighing must have the s u b j e c t ' s complete c o - o p e r a t i o n . I f a person i s uncomfortable wi t h emptying'His -lungs underwater'or cannot s i t ' s t i l l on the s l i n g i n the water, e r r o r s w i l l be made. Katch and Katch (1980) l i s t e d f o u r sources of e r r o r i n u s i n g underwater weighing f o r the p r e d i c t i o n of p e r c e n t body f a t : 1. a v a r i a n c e i n water content of the body, independent of body f a t n e s s ; 2. a v a r i a n c e i n p r o t e i n to bone m i n e r a l r a t i o ; 3. a v a r i a n c e i n d e n s i t y of o b e s i t y t i s s u e ; and 4. a v a r i a n c e i n f a t content. The assessment of body f a t u s i n g s k i n f o l d measures a l s o has i t s l i m i t a t i o n s . These l i m i t a t i o n s are based upon two important assumptions t h a t are made when s k i n f o l d p r e d i c t i o n equations are formulated. These assumptions are: 1. t h a t the s k i n f o l d s are r e l a t e d to t o t a l body f a t ; and 2. t h a t the s i t e s s e l e c t e d are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the f a t i n the body. (Ca r t e r , 1979) I n d i v i d u a l s k i n f o l d measures c o u l d be a c c u r a t e l y made but when i n s e r t e d i n t o an equation may produce e r r o r s of p r e d i c t i o n of d e n s i t y or percent f a t . Damon and Goldman (1964) compared r e s u l t s from ten s k i n f o l d formulas w i t h d e n s i t o m e t r i c a l l y determined body f a t on a s m a l l sample of a t h l e t i c young men. The s i m p l e s t approach u s i n g the t r i c e p s and subscapular s k i n f o l d s came c l o s e r to p r e d i c t i n g t o t a l body f a t than other more e l a b o r a t e measures but the accuracy of p r e d i c t i o n s t i l l decreased c o n s i d e r a b l y f o r those s u b j e c t s at the extremes of age, h e i g h t , and weight i n the group and f o r those who were more endomorphic. I n d i v i d u a l s k i n f o l d measures c o u l d be taken 14 very c o r r e c t l y by the measurer but may s t i l l produce e r r o r s of f a t t h i c k n e s s measurement. Clegg and Kent (1967) found s k i n f o l d c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y t o vary a t d i f f e r e n t s i t e s , t o vary between i n d i v i d u a l s , and to be g r e a t e r i n females than i n males. They a l s o found i n c r e a s e d c o m p r e s s i b i l i t y w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s . T h i s c o u l d l e a d to c o n s i d e r a b l e e r r o r s o f p r e d i c t i o n when u s i n g a female formula f o r female a t h l e t e s whose s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s e s are much l e s s than the ge n e r a l female p o p u l a t i o n . Katch e t a l . (1973) looked f o r the best p r e d i c t i n g formula f o r percent body f a t i n women and concluded t h a t : " r e g r e s s i o n equations should o n l y be a p p l i e d to s u b j e c t s s i m i l a r i n p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n c l u d i n g age and weight, to those on whom the equations are d e r i v e d . The presen t equations may not be as v a l i d when a p p l i e d to a t h l e t i c young men and women who r e g u l a r l y engage i n strenuous p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g or c o n d i t i o n i n g , or f o r very l a r g e or sm a l l i n d i v i d u a l s who c o u l d be v i s u a l l y c l a s s i f i e d as t h i n or obese.: (1973:453) and Katch and Katch (1980): "no s i n g l e p r e d i c t i o n equation appears to be v a l i d and usable on d i f f e r e n t segments of the p o p u l a t i o n even though g e n e r a l i z e d equations have been proposed. I t i s w e l l documented t h a t p r e d i c t i o n equations d e r i v e d on one p a r t i c u l a r segment of the p o p u l a t i o n do a r e l a t i v e l y poor job when used t o p r e d i c t other p o p u l a t i o n v a l u e s . Thus r e g r e s s i o n equations are s a i d to be 'popula t i o n s p e c i f i c 1 . (1980:257) Body Fat -.and Performance Body f a t i s n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p h y s i c a l performance and a t h l e t e s tend to have l e s s f a t than the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . M a l i n a (1971) found a body f a t v a l u e of 19.1% i n h i s sample of female c o l l e g i a t e d i s t a n c e runners u s i n g the formula of Sloan e t a l . (1962) 15 f o r d e n s i t y and Brozek e t a l . (1963) f o r f a t . His ' d i s t a n c e ' runners however, were competing i n d i s t a n c e s of o n l y 440 and 880 yards, and one m i l e . Pipes (1977), i n a study of c o l l e g i a t e females running two, t h r e e , and s i x m i l e s , r e p o r t e d a body f a t of 13.8% u s i n g h y d r o s t a t i c weighing and S i r i ' s formula f o r p e r c e n t f a t (1956). Wilmore and Brown (1974), u s i n g the same method, r e p o r t e d a value of 15.2% f o r t h e i r group of n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l c a l i b r e female d i s t a n c e runners (two m i l e s to marathon d i s t a n c e ) . When one of t h e i r p a r t i c i p a n t s , who was 35.4% body f a t , and an u l t r a -marathoner, i s l e f t out of the group c a l c u l a t i o n s , the average percentage i s 13.2%. Wilmore, Brown, and Davis (1977) a l s o u s i n g t h i s method, found an average percentage of 16.9% f o r n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l competitors (two m i l e s to marathon) ages 17 to 51. They found the f o u r b e s t runners to have l e s s than 10% body f a t and the two b e s t t o have s i x percent. These f i g u r e s are very much lower than those of normal females. Values of 23.4% (Malina, 1971; 17.6 to 23.1 y e a r s ) , 25.7% (Wilmore & Behnke, 1970; c o l l e g e women), and 28.1% (Wilmore and Brown, 1974; average age of 31.7 years) have been r e p o r t e d . There i s a l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e i n body f a t v a l u e s between male d i s t a n c e runners and normal males. Pipes (1977) found a value of 3.5% f o r h i s c o l l e g i a t e runners of two, t h r e e , and s i x m i l e d i s t a n c e s . P o l l o c k e t a l . (1977), u s i n g h y d r o s t a t i c weighing w i t h S i r i ' s formula (1956), found a mean value of 5.0% f o r n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l c a l i b r e d i s t a n c e runners (three to s i x miles) and 4.3% f o r marathon runners. They r e p o r t e d a v a l u e of 13.4% f o r c o l l e g e age c o n t r o l s . 16 Fractionation of Body Mass Drinkwater and Ross (1980) developed a method of using the Phantom Z-values to derive proportional body masses for the four components of f a t , bone, muscle, and residual mass. These masses can be derived independently of each other and can be summed to test for error between obtained (actual weight) and predicted (sum of four masses) t o t a l body mass. This method "assumes that the deviation of any anthropometric tissue indicator from a given value i n standard scores w i l l be the same as the deviation of the p a r t i c u l a r tissue mass". (Hebbelinck, 1980) Hebbelinck et a l . (1980) j u s t i f y the usage of t h i s four component model saying i t provides more useful information about the body of an athlete than does the conventional two component model. Ross et a l . (1980) compared male and female runners ( a l l distances) with male and female student controls. Using the four component system they found the runners to have less body fat than t h e i r control counterparts and the female runners to have the same percentage f a t as the male controls. The female runners had the lowest percentage of bone while the males (both groups) had the highest. The runners were r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r and had the highest percentage of muscle mass while the female students had the l e a s t . Residual mass was the same for a l l groups. Age of Menarche Age of menarche has long been accepted as an i n d i c a t i o n of maturity. If the age at which a female experiences her f i r s t menses i s known she can be classed as an early, normal, or late maturer. There seems to be a c o r r e l a t i o n between body b u i l d and e a r l y / l a t e 17 maturation. M a l i n a e t a l . (1978) s t a t e d t h a t l a t e r maturing g i r l s were longer legged, narrower hipped, more l i n e a r , had l e s s weight f o r h e i g h t and l e s s r e l a t i v e f a t n e s s than t h e i r e a r l y maturing peers; e a r l y maturers seem t o be broader and f a t t e r and e a r l y maturation i s n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h ectomorphy. M a l i n a e t a l . (197 3) compared the age of menarche of t r a c k and f i e l d a t h l e t e s w i t h t h a t of n o n - a t h l e t e s . The a t h l e t i c groups ( d i v i d e d i n t o s p r i n t e r s , d i s t a n c e runners, jumpers and h u r d l e r s , d i s c u s and j a v e l i n , and shot p u t t e r s ) d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y among them-s e l v e s but experienced menarche a t a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a t e r age than the no n - a t h l e t e s (13.58 and 12.23 years r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . M a l i n a e t a l . (1976) a l s o looked a t age a t onset o f menses i n 145 p a r t i c i p a n t s a t the 1976 Olympic Games. They found t h a t the a t h l e t e s were, on the average, l a t e r maturers than the ge n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e i r own c o u n t r i e s . They a l s o found t h a t the Olympic runners were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a t e r than U.S. n a t i o n a l i n t e r c o l l e g i a t e t r a c k and f i e l d a t h l e t e s (14.3 as opposed to 13.6 years) but f i e l d a t h l e t e s are g e n e r a l l y e a r l i e r maturers than t r a c k a t h l e t e s (runners s p e c i f i c a l l y ) (Malina e t a l . , 1973) so perhaps t h i s comparison i s not r e l e v a n t . Ross e t a l . (1976) and Faulkner (1976) found e l i t e s k a t e r s t o be l a t e r maturers than n o n - a t h l e t e s , and Cameron (1981) found e l i t e gymnasts t o experience menarche l a t e r than n o n - a t h l e t e s and r e c r e a t i o n a l gymnasts. They concluded t h a t the s m a l l , l e a n body of the p r e -menarcheal female had a d i s t i n c t advantage i n s p o r t s such as f i g u r e s k a t i n g and gymnastics where the body i s p r o p e l l e d through space. 18 In 1978 M a l i n a e t a l . proposed a two p a r t hypotheses to e x p l a i n l a t e r menarche and success i n s p o r t s . The f i r s t p a r t suggested t h a t the physique of l a t e r maturing g i r l s i s more s u i t a b l e f o r s u c c e s s f u l a t h l e t i c performance (being longer legged, narrower hipped, more l i n e a r , having l e s s weight f o r h e i g h t and l e s s r e l a t i v e f a t n e s s than e a r l y m a t u r e r s ) . The second p a r t s t a t e d t h a t perhaps due to a s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s , e a r l y maturers are ' s o c i a l i z e d away' from a t h l e t i c s through s o c i a l and s t a t u s r e l a t e d motives. A l s o , sexual maturation o f t e n leads to a decrease i n p h y s i c a l s k i l l s i n v o l v i n g running and jumping. L a t e r maturers, due to t h e i r advanced age a t menarche, may never experience t h i s p r o c e s s , or, being o l d e r , and a l s o having had success i n s p o r t s (which i s motiv-a t i o n to continue) they can cope with the s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s . T r a i n i n g and A t h l e t i c Background Intense t r a i n i n g has been shown to a f f e c t weight (de V r i e s , 1975), body composition ( P a r i z k o v a & Poupa, 1963; P a r i z k o v a , 1968), and bone mass (Guyton, 1976; A l o i a e t a l . , 1978), and t r a i n i n g i n adolescence can p o s s i b l y a f f e c t p r o p o r t i o n s (Parizkova, 1973) and age a t menarche (Malina e t a l . , 1973, 1976; Ross e t a l . , 1976; Faulkner, 1976; Cameron, 1981). None of the s t u d i e s p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d d e s c r i b e s the type of t r a i n i n g p r a c t i c e s used by the a t h l e t e s except f o r the o c c a s i o n a l mentioning of milage run per week (Ehn, 1980; Wilmore & Brown, 1974). No l i t e r a t u r e was found s p e c i f i c a l l y d e a l i n g w i t h t r a i n i n g and a t h l e t i c background of women runners. P e r s o n a l experience would-suggest t h a t p r o f i c i e n c y i n c r e a s e s w i t h frequency' and i n t e n s i t y of ••trM-fiijag^b^fe'-'-a©-^es<e;a'rch cn female runners was found to s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n . 19 P o l l o c k e t a l . (1975) s t u d i e d t r a i n i n g frequency and improvement i n c a r d i o v a s c u l a r f u n c t i o n and body composition of middle aged men (28-64 y e a r s ) . Three groups ran 30-45 minutes two, t h r e e , or four days per week f o r twenty weeks. The groups running t h r e e or f o u r days per week showed decreases i n weight and p e r c e n t body f a t , a l l showed i n c r e a s e s i n c a r d i o v a s c u l a r f u n c t i o n but the f o u r day per week group i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more than d i d those running two and t h r e e days. T h i s would i n d i c a t e t h a t frequency of t r a i n i n g i s an important c r i t e r i o n f o r i n c r e a s e d a b i l i t y . Nothing has been r e p o r t e d on a d u l t female d i s t a n c e runners and t r a i n i n g p r a c t i c e s or t r a i n i n g i n adolescence. Iron S t o r e s In the p a s t s e v e r a l years many r e s e a r c h e r s have looked a t a medical c o n d i t i o n c a l l e d " s p o r t s anemia". The name has a r i s e n because i t i s found i n a t h l e t e s who engage i n strenuous p h y s i c a l endurance t r a i n i n g . Stewart e t a l . (1972) found t h e i r endurance Olympic a t h l e t e s to have decreased hemoglobin and packed c e l l volume l e v e l s but adequate i n t a k e s of p r o t e i n and i r o n . Clement e t a l . (1977) and Clement & Asmundson (1979, 1982) showed t h e i r a t h l e t e s ( d i s t a n c e runners) t o have low i r o n s t o r e s and low d i e t a r y i n t a k e of p r o t e i n and i r o n . The a t h l e t e s s t u d i e d by Ehn e t a l . (1980) (male d i s t a n c e runners t r a i n i n g 120-200 km per week) had low i r o n s t o r e s , i n c r e a s e d e l i m i n a t i o n o f i r o n and low a b s o r p t i o n v a l u e s of i r o n . T h i s i s c o n t r a r y to normal. U s u a l l y i n persons wi t h low i r o n s t o r e s there i s an i n c r e a s e i n the r a t e of a b s o r p t i o n to r e p l e n i s h storage i r o n (Ehn e t a l . 1980). Many s t u d i e s e x i s t t o show t h a t suboptimal 20 level s of hemoglobin and iron stores occur i n endurance athletes. Some explanations offered are: decreased dietary intake of protein and iron (Clement et a l . , 1977; Clement and Asmundson, 1979, 1982), decreased absorption of iron from the gut (Ehn et a l . , 1980), increased destruction of red blood c e l l s (Yoshimura, 1970), and an increase i n blood volume due to physical t r a i n i n g r e s u l t i n g i n a decrease i n hemoglobin concentration (Oscai et a l . , 1968). There have been few attempts to analyse the e f f e c t s of t h i s depleted condition on the performance of the athlete. Those researchers who showed a d e f i n i t e decrease i n per-formance with a decrease i n hemoglobin and iron stores were not studying persons whose decrease was caused by strenuous physical a c t i v i t y (Van Dobeln, 1957; V i t e r i and Torun, 1974; Ekblom, Goldberg, & Gullbring, 1972). Stewart et a l . (1972) t r i e d to say that t h e i r -Australian Olympic athletes who were low i n i r o n stores did not do as well i n competition as those who were normal, but from -their numbers i t appears .almost an equal number from each group (iron normal and iron suboptimal) made i t to the f i n a l s of the Olympic Games. More long-term studies are needed to determine i f low hemoglobin and low i r o n stores caused by strenuous physical t r a i n i n g r e s u l t i n a decrease i n physical performance. CHAPTER I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURES Subject s Subjects c o n s i s t e d o f twenty-three female d i s t a n c e runners of whom el e v e n f e l l i n t o the speed category of group one, i . e . , running at an average pace of seven minutes per m i l e or f a s t e r over 10,000 meters (6.2 miles) or longe r . Group two c o n s i s t e d of twelve women who ran a t an average pace of from seven and one h a l f t o e i g h t and one h a l f minutes per m i l e over 10,000 meters o r lo n g e r . The names of the women were taken from the r e s u l t s o f a t l e a s t two races h e l d d u r i n g January and February of 1980. (Two race r e s u l t s were necessary i n a l l cases i n order t o e l i m i n a t e the e f f e c t s of 'a bad day' and the e f f e c t which t e r r a i n i n any one race might have on average v e l o c i t y . Subjects were chosen o n l y i f t h e i r v e l o c i t i e s f o r both races v/ere i n the same category, i . e . , group one or group two.) The e l i g i b l e women were sent l e t t e r s of i n t r o d u c t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n and these were f o l l o w e d by a telephone c a l l to c o n f i r m p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s e t dates and times f o r measuring. The measuring was done i n e a r l y A p r i l , 1980. A l l s u b j e c t s were over the age of ei g h t e e n years and were assumed t o have completed t h e i r growth s p u r t . A l l s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d a f t e r a t l e a s t a s i x hour f a s t . Apparatus and Measuring Procedures Subjects r e p o r t e d t o the l a b i n ba t h i n g s u i t s and were asked to s i g n an informed consent form (Appendix 21 22 A). H y d r o s t a t i c weighing was performed u s i n g the method d e s c r i b e d by Behnke and Wilmore (1974). V i t a l c a p a c i t y was measured u s i n g a spirometer w i t h the s u b j e c t immersed neck h e i g h t i n water. Readings of weight were taken u n t i l three were obtained which were r e l a t i v e l y equal and i n the upper h a l f o f the measurements (a minimum of f i v e and a maximum of twelve readings were taken). Anthropometric measures were taken a c c o r d i n g t o the Montreal Olympic Games Anthropometric Procedures (MOGAP) c r i t e r i o n ( C a r t e r , 1977; 1982).. A Swiss-made anthropometer, a smal l s t e e l p r e c i s i o n c a l i p e r , and a c l o t h tape (checked f o r p o s s i b l e s t r e t c h i n g ) were used t o measure l e n g t h s , widths, and g i r t h s ; a s l i d i n g h e i g h t s c a l e and a balance s c a l e were used f o r h e i g h t and weight; and Harpenden s k i n f o l d c a l i p e r s were used f o r the s k i n f o l d measures. A l l measuring was done by t r a i n e d measurers. Subj e c t s were asked to f i l l i n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e c a l l i n g the age a t which they s t a r t e d t o menstruate and a l s o how c e r t a i n they were of t h i s date (Appendix B). P a r t i c i p a n t s were a l s o g i v e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r a t h l e t i c background d u r i n g adolescence and p r e s e n t t r a i n i n g p r a c t i c e s (Apperidices C & D). Two v i a l s of blood (lOcc each) were taken from the a n t i c u b i t a l v e i n by a t r a i n e d nurse. One v i a l was c e n t r i f u g e d w i t h i n three hours and the serum separated from the plasma. The specimens were r e f r i g e r a t e d over-n i g h t and d e l i v e r e d to the l a b the next day. B.C. Bi o - M e d i c a l L a b o r a t o r i e s (Burnaby, B.C.) d i d the a n a l y s i s . The blood was analysed f o r c i r c u l a t i o n i r o n , t o t a l i r o n b i n d i n g c a p a c i t y (TIBC), percent s a t u r a t i o n , f e r r i t i n , red blood c e l l s (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (HCT). 23 A n a l y s i s Anthropometric Values Absolute v a l u e s were examined f o r anomalies, but the primary comparison was done u s i n g Phantom Z-values and v i s u a l graphs, which are p a r t of the Phantom method. The f o l l o w i n g formula was used to f i n d the Phantom Z-values: Z = 1 V 170.18 d - P. s h where: z i s a p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y v a l u e z-score s i s the phantom standard d e v i a t i o n f o r the g i v e n v a r i a b l e v i s any v a r i a b l e 17 0.18 i s the phantom h e i g h t constant h i s the s u b j e c t ' s h e i g h t d i s a d i m e n t i o n a l exponent which i s 1 f o r a l l h e i g h t s , l e n g t h s , breadths, g i r t h s , and s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s e s ; 2 f o r a l l area v a l u e s ; and 3 f o r a l l weights and volumes p i s the phantom value f o r the v a r i a b l e (Ross & Ward, 19 82) For the Phantom v a r i a b l e s and standard d e v i a t i o n s see Appendix E. Using these Z-values, p r o p o r t i o n a l body masses were d e r i v e d f o r the f o u r components - f a t , bone, muscle, and r e s i d u a l mass. T h i s i s termed the Drinkwater T a c t i c of f r a c t i o n a t e d body masses. (Drinkwater & Ross, 1980). The formula used was: M = (z x s + p) l ~ l 7 0 . l F f d h where: M i s any mass such as f a t mass, s k e l e t a l mass, muscle mass, or r e s i d u a l mass z i s the o b t a i n e d mean phantom z-value f o r the s u b j e c t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a g i v e n mass s i s the phantom standard d e v i a t i o n f o r the mass p i s the phantom value f o r the mass h i s the o b t a i n e d h e i g h t f o r the s u b j e c t d i s a d i m e n t i o n a l exponent which has a value 24 of 3 i n t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n 170.18 i s the phantom h e i g h t constant The v a r i a b l e s used f o r the e s t i m a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t masses are: t r i c e p s s k i n f o l d (mm) subscapular s k i n f o l d s u p r a i l i a c " s k i n f o l d abdominal s k i n f o l d f r o n t t h i g h s k i n f o l d medial c a l f s k i n f o l d b i - e p i c o n d y l a r humerus width (cm) b i - e p i c o n d y l a r femur width w r i s t g i r t h ankle g i r t h r e l a x e d arm g i r t h - t r i c e p s s k i n f o l d (cm) che s t g i r t h - subscapular s k i n f o l d t h i g h g i r t h - f r o n t t h i g h s k i n f o l d c a l f g i r t h - medial c a l f s k i n f o l d forearm g i r t h b i a c r o m i a l breadth (cm) t r a n s v e r s e c h e s t width b i i l i o c r i s t a l breadth a n t e r i o r - p o s t e r i o r chest depth A c c o r d i n g to Drinkwater and Ross (1980) the Drinkwater T a c t i c has a number of a t t r a c t i v e f e a t u r e s : 1. " I t accounts f o r the body mass, t h a t i s , the sum of the fo u r components approximates body mass (with an a b s o l u t e e r r o r t o l e r a n c e of 5% (. . . ) ) . T h i s method has t h e . t h e o r e t -i c a l advantage of p e r m i t t i n g a l l . four. -components to be d e r i v e d independently of t o t a l body mass, with the t o t a l mass s e r v i n g as a major v a l i d i t y c r i t e r i o n . 2. The f a t mass or percent f a t i s not a maverick e s t i m a t i o n compared to anthropo-m e t r i c a l r e g r e s s i o n equations f o r p r e d i c t i o n of body f a t , as proposed i n the l i t e r a t u r e , but i s somewhere i n the mid-range of these p r e d i c t e d v a l u e s . " (1980:186) and p o s s i b l y : f a t : (kg) s k e l e t a l : (kg) muscle: (kg) r e s i d u a l : (kg) 3. Due to i t s usage of the Phantom unisex 25 f i g u r e as a r e f e r e n c e p o i n t , the Drink-water T a c t i c can compare any measurement of a t i s s u e mass.between groups. The percent e r r o r w i l l a l s o be c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g the formula: e r r o r = ( p r e d i c t e d body mass - o b t a i n e d body mass) x 100 o b t a i n e d body mass where: p r e d i c t e d body mass = f a t mass + muscle mass + s k e l e t a l mass + r e s i d u a l mass obt a i n e d body mass = s c a l e weight Body Composition Body d e n s i t i e s were d e r i v e d from h y d r o s t a t i c weighing and S i r i ' s formula (1956). S k i n f o l d measures of the three groups were compared u s i n g the t o t a l of the s i x s k i n f o l d s taken and were a l s o used i n the f r a c t i o n a t i o n of body mass. S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s Tables and graphs were used to show r e l a t i o n s h i p s and comparisons of p r o p o r t i o n s (lengths, breadths,' g i r t h s ) , s k i n f o l d measures and body masses between group one, group two, and group three - the r e f e r e n c e group. The Phantom Z-values were p l o t t e d on graphs and the h o r i z o n t a l bars were s e t a t one standard e r r o r on e i t h e r s i d e of the mean. When the groups' bars d i d not o v e r l a p , s i g n i f i c a n c e was i n f e r r e d (Ross e t a l . , 1982). A t w o - t a i l e d t - t e s t was used to examine the d i f f e r e n c e s i n d e n s i t i e s between group one and group two. Age a t Menarche Age a t menarche group d i f f e r e n c e s were examined u s i n g a standard t w o - t a i l e d t - t e s t . Members of group one and two were then d i v i d e d i n t o e a r l y and l a t e maturers u s i n g the average age of menarche of the r e f e r e n c e group as the d i v i s i o n , and analysed u s i n g a c h i - s q u a r e t e s t i n order to determine i f there was a 26 s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . g r e a t e r number of e a r l y maturers i n e i t h e r group. Somatotype A n a l y s i s Somatotype was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g the Heath-Carter method ( C a r t e r , 1975). T r a i n i n g and A t h l e t i c Background The groups were s u b - d i v i d e d i n t o those, who t r a i n e d f i v e times per week or more and those who t r a i n e d l e s s than f i v e times per week. (Three t o f i v e times per week of a e r o b i c e x e r c i s e have been recommended f o r best r e s u l t s o f c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n i n g (American C o l l e g e of Sports Medicine, 1975; de V r i e s , 1975). More than f i v e times per week has not been shown to improve c a r d i o v a s c u l a r c o n d i t i o n : f a s t e r : t h a n f i v e times. However, f i v e times per week improves f u n c t i o n a l a b i l i t y f a s t e r than three times per week (given the same i n t e n s i t y ) . T h i s ' c u t - o f f p o i n t ' of f i v e times per week was chosen a l s o because t r a i n i n g f i v e times or more per week r e q u i r e s , on average, more than every other day and r e q u i r e s more of a commitment from the runner. Four times per week or l e s s averages every other day or l e s s f o r t r a i n i n g . ) The groups were a l s o d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g t o the number of years i n d i v i d u a l s had been running. The thre e c a t e g o r i e s were: a. more than f i v e years; b. two to f i v e years; and e, l e s s than two y e a r s . These c a t e g o r i e s were chosen somewhat a r b i t r a r i l y but so t h a t the women were d i v i d e d i n t o long-time runners, medium, and r e l a t i v e beginners ( p a r t i c u l a r i l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o the 10,000 meter d i s t a n c e ) . From, the q u e s t i o n n a i r e on p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y d u r i n g adolescence the women i n each group were c l a s s i f i e d as 'active'., d u r i n g adolescence or 'non-27 a c t i v e ' d u r i n g adolescence. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s was taken as ' a c t i v e ' . School i n t r a m u r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n was taken as 'non-active'. A l l of these groups were analysed f o r f r e -quency d i s t r i b u t i o n u s i n g c h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s e s . L e v e l of S i g n i f i c a n c e The 0.05 l e v e l of confidence was chosen a r b i t r a r i l y as the l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r a l l of the above ana l y s e s . Iron Stores Each parameter i n d i c a t i n g i r o n s t o r e s was surveyed t o see i f a l l members and group means f e l l w i t h i n normal l i m i t s . CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION T h i s study compared two groups of female d i s t a n c e runners of d i f f e r e n t p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s w i t h r e s p e c t to a n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l measurements, t r a i n i n g backgrounds, age of menarche, and i r o n s t o r e s , and c o n t r a s t e d these groups w i t h c o n t r o l s i n a n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l measurements. Since t h i s was a d e s c r i p t i v e study, much use was made of graphs and t a b l e s and on l y when p a i r e d mean scores showed s p e c i f i c d i f f e r e n c e s was s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s used. T h i s chapter i s d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e r a l p a r t s : s p e c i f i c r e s u l t s and d i s c u s s i o n of a n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l assessment; t r a i n i n g p r a c t i c e s and a t h l e t i c back-ground; age of menarche data; very b r i e f l y , i r o n s t o r e s ; and a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n concerning a l l aspects of the study. A n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l Data S i z e Table I g i v e s the mean s i z e data (height and weight) f o r each of the three groups as w e l l as age. TABLE I: SIZE - standard d e v i a t i o n s group 1 group 2 group 3 h e i g h t (cm) 162.26 - 3.57 163.68 - 6.52 165.71 - 6.1 weight (kg) 53.97 - 4.72 57.01 - 6.32 57.48 - 6.37 age (years) 27.45 - 6.9 31.92 - 6.8 20.60 - 2.6 28 29 Group one, the f a s t e r runners, was the s h o r t e s t and l i g h t e s t and much more homogeneous i n a l l measures than the other two groups. / They are s i m i l a r to e l i t e male d i s t a n c e runners who are s h o r t e r and l i g h t e r than the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n (de Garay^et a l . , 1974; H i r a t a , 1966). Two p r e v i o u s r e p o r t s of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of female d i s t a n c e runners showed them t o be t a l l and l i g h t (Wilmore & Brown, 197 4; Brown & Wilmore, 1971). Table I I g i v e s the a b s o l u t e means and standard d e v i a t i o n s f o r the three groups f o r l e n g t h , breadth-,_ and g i r t h measurements. (Appendix F c o n t a i n s the raw a n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l data f o r each s u b j e c t i n groups one and two.) The g e n e r a l t r e n d i s f o r group one to be s m a l l e r on a l l measures. But, s i n c e they are s h o r t e r i n s t a t u r e , t h i s would e x p l a i n a l l the other h e i g h t measures being s m a l l e r ; a l s o the lower weight and s h o r t e r s t a t u r e seem to be r e f l e c t e d i n s m a l l e r g i r t h and breadth measures. Absolute v a l u e s are the b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n of anthropometry s t u d i e s but have l i m i t e d use when comparing body s t r u c t u r e . They show s i z e d i f f e r e n c e s but have to be transformed f o r use i n f u r t h e r a n a l y s e s . Table I I I shows the means and standard d e v i a t i o n s f o r the Z-values based on the unisex Phantom r e f e r e n c e ; f i g u r e s 1, 2, 3, and 4 show these v a l u e s i n graph form. TABLE I I : ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS ABSOLUTE VALUES (CM t STANDARD DEVIATIONS) group a c r o m i a l h e i g h t 130.8 r a d i a l h e i g h t 100.4 s t y l i o n h e i g h t 78.3 d a c t y l i o n h e i g h t 60.9 t i b i a l h e i g h t 42.3 s p i n a l e h e i g h t 90.1 t r o c h a n t e r i o n h e i g h t 82.3 f o o t l e n g t h 23.9 s i t t i n g h e i g h t 85.0 arm g i r t h r e l a x e d 24.9 arm g i r t h f l e x e d 26.6 f o r e a r m g i r t h 23.0 w r i s t g i r t h 14.7 c h e s t g i r t h 82.3 w a i s t g i r t h 66.3 t h i g h g i r t h 53.7 c a l f g i r t h 33.4 a n k l e g i r t h 20.7 1 g r o u p 2 group 3 + 3.4 132.9 + 6.3 134.6 + 5.8 + 2.6 102.2 + 5.4 103.5 + 4.5 + 2.9 79.7 + 4.0 80.8 + 3.6 + 2.7 61.1 + 4.1 62.4 + 3.4 + 2.9 42.9 + 4.1 42.7 + 2.3 + 3.1 91.6 + 5.1 91.0 + 5.5 + 3.2 85.1 + 4.8 n o t measured + 1.0 24.0 + 1.3 23.8 + 1.1 + 2.3 86.2 + 3.5 88.4 + 2.9 + 2.0 26.1 + 1.4 25.9 + 1.9 + 1.5 27.2 + 1.5 27.1 + 1.4 + 0.9 23.4 + 1.2 23.6 + 1.5 + 0.5 15.0 + 0.7 14.9 + 0.7 + 3.3 84.3 + 3.8 84.6 + 4.5 + 3.3 68.0 + 4.4 68.0 + 4.0 + 3.6 55.8 + 3.8 55.6 + 3.4 + 2.0 34.2 + 2.1 34.7 + 2.1 + 1.0 21.2 + 1.3 20.9 + 1.3 c o n t ' d . . . TABLE I I . . . c o n t ' d group 1 group 2 group 3 b i a c r o m i a l b r e a d t h 35. 4 + 1. 0 35. 1 + 1. 4 35. 5 + 1. 6 b i i l i o c r i s t a l b r e a d t h 27. 0 + 1. 6 28. 1 + 1. 6 27. 5 + 1. 9 t r a n s v e r s e c h e s t w i d t h 25. 0 + 1. 1 25. 7 + 1. 5 24. 5 + 1. 3 b i e p i c o n d y l a r humerus w i d t h 6. 2 + 0. 4 6. 2 + 0. 4 6. 3 + 0. 3 b i e p i c o n d y l a r femur w i d t h 8. 7 + 0. 3 9. 0 + 0. 4 9. 0 + 0. 4 a n t e r i o r - p o s t e r i o r c h e s t d epth 16. 5 + 1. 0 17. 4 + 1. 4 16. 8 + 2. 3 t o t a l arm ( a c r o m i a l - d a c t y l i o n ) 69. 9 + 2 71. 8 + 2. 9 72. 2 + 3. 3 f o r e a r m ( r a d i a l - s t y l i o n ) 22. 1 + 1. 9 22. 6 + 2. 5 22. 7 + 1. 4 hand ( s t y l i o n - d a c t y l i o n ) 17. 5 + 1. 3 18. 5 + 1. 3 18. 4 + 1. 2 upper arm ( a c r o m i a l - r a d i a l ) 30. 4 + 1. 4 30. 7 + 1. 5 31. 1 + 1. 8 arm ( a c r o m i a l - s t y l i o n ) 52. 5 + 1. 9 53. 3 + 3. 6 53. 8 + 2. 9 l e g ( h e i g h t - s i t t i n g h e i g h t ) 77. 2 + 2. 9 77. 5 + 4. 5 77. 3 + 4. 3 t h i g h ( l e g - t i b i a l h e i g h t ) 34. 9 + 2. 1 34. 6 + 2. 4 34. 6 + 2. 2 TABLE I I I : ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS PROPORTIONAL PHANTOM Z VALUES (- STANDARD DEVIATIONS) group 1 group 2 group 3 hand l e n g t h -0.646 + 1. 57 0.545 + 2. 10 0.020 + 1. 37 f o r e a r m l e n g t h -1.058 + 1. 38 -0.842 + 1. 45 -0.903 i _1_ 0. 75 upper arm l e n g t h -0.366 + 0. 63 -0.335 + 0. 71 -0.346 T J_ 0. 61 s i t t i n g h e i g h t -0.159 + 0. 46 -0.065 + 0. 55 0.205 i 4-0. 47 t h i g h l e n g t h 0.567 + 1. 07 0.253 + 1. 17 0.038 i 4-0. 72 t i b i a l e l a t e r a l e l e n g t h - 0 . 1 8 9 + 0. 97 -0.095 + 1. 19 -0.392 i X 0. 46 f o o t l e n g t h -0.375 + 0. 97 -0.454 + 0. 93 -0.866 0. 78 b i e p i c o n d y l a r humerus w i d t h 6.000 + 0. 99 -0.036 + 0. 98 -0.161 + 4-0. 88 b i a c r o m i a l b r e a d t h -0.459 + 0. 59 -0.781 + 1. 00 -0.822 T I 0. 76 t r a n s v e r s e c h e s t w i d t h -0.952 + 0. 64 -0.663 + 0. 93 -1.606 T _|_ 0. 72 a n t e r i o r - p o s t e r i o r c h e s t d e p t h -0.127 + 0. 85 0.412 + 0. 97 -0.025 T 4_ 1. 10 b i i l i o c r i s t a l b r e a d t h -0.265 + 1. 10 0.208 + 0. 97 -0.360 i i 1. 01 b i e p i c o n d y l a r femur w i d t h -0.764 + 0. 76 -0.380 + 0. 71 -0.741 + p. 87 w r i s t g i r t h -1.327 + 0. 90 -1.112 + 1. 04 -1.484 + i 0. 97 f o r e a r m g i r t h -0.720 + 0. 73 -0.582 + 0. 81 -0.637 + 1. 19 arm g i r t h r e l a x e d -0.318 + 0. 94 0.130 + 0. 65 -0.112 + 0. 89 c o n t ' d . . . c h e s t g i r t h w a i s t g i r t h t h i g h g i r t h c a l f g i r t h TABLE I I I . . . c o n t ' d group 1 -0.298 - 0.67 -0.532 - 0.91 0.121 - 0.86 -0.097 - 0.86 gr o u p 2 -0.019 - 0.99 -0.262 - 1.16 0.494 - 0.87 0.134 - 1.00 group 3 -0.177 - 0.95 -0.450 - 0.96 0.322 - 0.83 0.191 - 0.89 FIGURE 1: group 1 1 — group 3 czra HflNO LENGTH (STVLION-OACTTLION) FOREARM LENGTH (RROIftLE-STYLION) UPPER ARM LENGTH (flCROMIflLE-RRDI RLE! SITTING HEIGHT THIGH LENGTH (HT-SIT.IIT.-TIBIALE HT. TIBI RLE LATERALE HEIGHT FOOT LENGTH (AKR0P00I0N~PTERNION) BI-EPICONORflR HUMERUS WIDTH BIflCROHIRL BREADTH TRANSVERSE CHEST BREADTH ANTERIOR-POSTERIOR CHEST DEPTH BIILIOCRISTAL BREADTH BI-EPICONDTLAR FEMUR HIDTH HRIST GIRTH (DISTAL STYLOID PROCESSE FOREARM GIRTH (MAXIMUM RELAXED) ARM GIRTH RELAXED CHEST GIRTH (MESOSTERNALE) HRIST GIRTH (MINIMAL CIRCUMFERENCE) THIGH GIRTH (1 CM DISTAL GLUTEAL LIN CALF GIRTH (MAXIMUM CIRCUMFERENCE) MEAN Z-VALUES LENGTHS, BREADTHS, GIRTHS GROUP 1 VS GROUP 3 2 - 1 0 1 • — t n i —•— I • 1 I • — I i • 1 I 0 = 3 I t=3 I-3 H ^ t=i—i FIGURE group 2 \- - - - H group 3 m . r HAND LENGTH tSTTLION-DflCTYLION) FORERAN LENGTH (RflOIRLE-STTLION) UPPER ARM LENGTH IflCRONlflLE-RflOIRLE) SITTING HEIGHT THIGH LENGTH IHT-SIT.HT.-TIBIRLE HT. TIBIRLE LflTERflLE HEIGHT FOOT LENGTH (RKROPODION-PTERNJON) BI-EPICONOYLRR HUMERUS WIDTH BIRCROHIflL BREADTH TRANSVERSE CHEST BREADTH ANTERIOR-POSTERIOR CHEST DEPTH BIILIOCRISTAL BREADTH BI-EPICONOYLRR FEMUR WIDTH MR I ST GIRTH (DISTAL STYLOID PROCESSE FOREARN GIRTH (MAX I HUH RELAXED) ARM GIRTH RELAXED CHEST GIRTH (HESOSTERNALE) HAIST GIRTH (MINIMAL CIRCUMFERENCE) THIGH GIRTH (1 CH DISTAL GLUTEAL LIN CALF GIRTH (MAXIMUM CIRCUMFERENCE) MEAN Z-VALUES LENGTHS, BREADTHS, GIRTHS GROUP 2 VS GROUP 3 2 - 1 0 1 ct4 I 1 | »--I F -cn- H F-H F I FE-.. <=J F F---H Lc=r=i3 - I | C H 3 - » - - -F -F I I I - H Ln FIGURE 3: group 1 i • 1 group 2 r - * - H HAND LENGTH (STYLION-OACTYLION) FOREARM LENGTH (RAOIALE-STTLION) UPPER ARM LENGTH (ACROHIALE-RHOIALE) SITTING HEIGHT THIGH LENGTH (HT-SIT.HT.-TIBIALE HT. TTBI ALE LATERALE HEIGHT FOOT LENGTH (HKROPOOION-PTERNION) BI-EPICONDYLAR HUMERUS WIDTH -BIACROHIAL BREADTH TRANSVERSE CHEST BREADTH ANTERIOR-POSTERIOR CHEST DEPTH BIILIOCRISTAL BREADTH BI-EPICONDYLAR FEMUR WIDTH HRIST GIRTH (DISTAL STYLOID PROCESSE FOREARM GIRTH (MAXIMUM RELAXED) ARM GIRTH RELAXEO CHEST GIRTH (MESOSTERNHLE) WAIST GIRTH (MINIMAL CIRCUMFERENCE) THIGH GIRTH (1 CM DISTAL GLUTEAL LIN CALF GIRTH (MAXIMUM CIRCUMFERENCE) MEAN Z-VALUES LENGTHS, BREADTHS, GIRTHS GROUP 1 VS GROUP 2 2 ~1 1 0 H F I h H - ~ H — ~ H H x \- - -. - i — y — i • — I — . • — i . — - — H - - - -\ i — H — • + - - H i I • • i- I i • i — \ — * f- <- -• — h -H group l i — . — i group 2 t- -•- 4 group 3 r r — i p HAND LENGTH (STYLION-OflCTYLJON) FOREARM LENGTH (RROIRLE-STYLION) UPPER RRH LENtJTH IflCROHIflLE-RRDIRLE) SITTING HEIGHT THIGH LENGTH (HT-SIT.HT.-TIBIRLE HT. TI B I R L E LRTERRLE HEIGHT FOOT LENGTH (AKR0P0OION-PTERNION) B I - E P I CONDYLAR HUMERUS WIDTH BIACROHIAL BREADTH TRANSVERSE CHEST BREROTH ANTERIOR-POSTERIOR CHEST DEPTH B I I L I O C R I S T A L BREADTH BI-EPICONDYLAR FEMUR WIDTH WRIST GIRTH (DISTAL STYLOID PROCESSE FOREARM GIRTH (MAXIMUM RELAXED) ARM GIRTH RELAXED CHEST GIRTH (HESOSTERNOLE) WAIST GIRTH (MINIMAL CIRCUMFERENCE) THIGH GIRTH (I CM DISTAL GLUTEAL LIN CALF GIRTH (MAXIMUM CIRCUMFERENCE) MEAN Z - V A L U E S LENGTHS, BREADTHS, G IRTHS GROUP 1 VS GROUP 2 VS GROUP 3 -2 - 1 0 - H - I i on 'I F ' — H In -In y - e z a n -1— y ~ — i .—^—- - \ i ^ H - S h -. | H- - - -I i I n—r=* - | i I •—N==a> i _-es=3-« i — i h-- - I -I HTE3- ^ 38 As can be seen from the graphs no group shows a marked d i f f e r e n c e from the other two groups on any of the measurements. The l a r g e s t d i f f e r e n c e shows, group three to have a s m a l l e r t r a n s v e r s e c h e s t width than groups one and two. Since the members i n groups one and two engage i n an a c t i v i t y which r e q u i r e s l a r g e amounts of oxygen, they c o u l d have, by expanding t h e i r chest on i n h a l a t i o n , caused a permanent i n c r e a s e i n the s i z e of the r i b c a g e . However, t h i s may i n d i c a t e t h a t women who have a l a r g e r t r a n s v e r s e chest, or c h e s t c a v i t y , may f i n d running more comfortable and t h e r e f o r e stay with the s p o r t a t l e a s t long enough to b u i l d up stamina f o r the ten k i l o m e t e r d i s t a n c e . There are three areas where a sm a l l d i f f e r e n c e between groups i s shown. These are: s m a l l e r hand l e n g t h i n group one compared with groups two and t h r e e , a l a r g e r s i t t i n g h e i g h t i n group three compared w i t h groups one and two, and a s h o r t e r f o o t l e n g t h i n group t h r e e compared wi t h groups one and two. The l a r g e r s i t t i n g h e i g h t i n group three i s not shown to be balanced by a s h o r t e r l e g l e n g t h ( t h i g h l e n g t h and t i b i a l e height) but l o o k i n g a t f i g u r e s 1 and 2 we can see t h a t , i n f a c t , group three has a s h o r t e r t h i g h l e n g t h than group one and i s l o c a t e d i n the lower p o r t i o n of the standard e r r o r f o r group two. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e may show up to a g r e a t e r e x t e n t i n a l a r g e r sample s i z e . Groups one and two are r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r i n a n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h group three d i f f e r i n g from one or the o t h e r . Group three i s s m a l l e r than group one i n b i a c r o m i a l breadth w i t h group two the same as group t h r e e but o v e r l a p p i n g group one. Group two i s l a r g e r than group three 39 in b i i l i o c r i s t a l breadth with groups one and three the same but group one overlapping group two. Proportional Body Masses The Drinkwater Tactic was used to calculate proportional body masses. Table IV gives the values for the three groups, table V shows the proportional body masses i n phantom Z-values, and figures 5, 6, 7, and 8 show t h i s i n graph form. TABLE IV: PROPORTIONAL BODY MASSES (DRINKWATER TACTIC) adipose mass kg g. o s k e l e t a l mass kg a o muscle mass kg o. residual mass kg group 1 6.50 - 1.66 12.27 8.41 - 0.6. 15.83 24.79 - 2.19 46.52 13.49 - 0.85 25.33 predicted mass 53.29 obtained mass 53.97 % error -1.26 group 2 8.90 - 1.88 15.24 8.90 - 1.13 15,29 26.13 - 2.68 45.04 14.14 24.43 58.07 57.01 1.86 + 1.32 group 3 10.38 - 2.98 18.04 8.76 - 1.20 15.22 24.48 - 2.64 42.54 13.92 24.19 57.54 57.48 0.10 + 1.50 In group one the percentage f a t i s lower than i n group two and considerably lower than i n group three. The sk e l e t a l and residual masses are r e l a t i v e l y the same for a l l three groups but the muscle mass i n group three was lower than i n groups one and two. Hebbelinck et a l . (1980) found t h e i r female Olympic rowers to d i f f e r s i m i l a r l y from a 40 reference group and stated "the tissues represented by these masses (fat and muscle) were more susceptible to t r a i n i n g e f f e c t s than the sk e l e t a l and residual mass tissues." (1980:261) TABLE V: PROPORTIONAL BODY MASSES (DRINKWATER TACTIC) PHANTOM Z-VALUES group 1 group 2 group 3 adipose mass -1.287 - 0.65 -0.617 - 0.47 -0.280 - 0.93 bone mass -0.530 - 0.53 -0.326- 0.91 -0.642 - 0.78 muscle mass ' 0.463 - 0.54 0.435 - 0.91 0.036 - 0.85 residual mass -0.451 - 0.55 -0.206 - 0.58 -0.699 - 0.57 A l l three groups f a l l below the Phantom i n proportional adipose mass and the deviation from zero i s greater as the proficiency of the runners increases with group one deviating the most. Group three may f a l l below zero due to the nature of the sample (university women predisposed to exercise) and since group one spends more time t r a i n i n g t h i s could explain why they have the smallest mass. While groups one and two do not vary much i n bone mass, i t i s int e r e s t i n g to note that group two has a greater proportional bone mass than group three and that group one f a l l s on the lower side of group two. This would seem to indicate that group two tended to be larger framed than the other two groups. Groups one and two have a greater proportional muscle mass than group three which i s not surprising due to t h e i r t r a i n i n g . The residual mass i s greater i n groups one and two than i n group three. FIGURE 5: PROPORTIONAL BODY MASSES (DRINKWATER TACTIC) MEAN Z-VALUES GROUP 1 VS GROUP 3 group 1 i • i group 3 t * WEIGHT ADIPOSE MASS 3QNE MASS MUSCLE MASS RESIDUAL MASS -2 4--1 —4-C 3 J — — 4 I • I 1 FIGURE 6 : PROPORTIONAL BODY MASSES (DRINKWATER TACTIC) MEAN Z-VALUES GROUP 2 VS GROUP 3 group 2 t-—f group 3< i HEIGHT ADIPOSE HflSS 80NE MASS MUSCLE MASS RESIDUAL MASS -2 i Y *— •* c r -I FIGURE 7: group I t — — t group 2*-—-< HEIGHT ADIPOSE HflSS BONE MASS MUSCLE HflSS RESIDUAL HflSS -2 4-PROPORTIONAL BODY MASSES (DRINKWATER TACTIC) MEAN Z-VALUES GROUP 1 VS GROUP •1 •4-0 " i »• f - — \ i — f — 1 — - -i 1 FIGURE 8 : group 1/—-—« group 2 f- * group 3 e=s HEIGHT ADIPOSE MASS 80NE HflSS MUSCLE HflSS RESIDUAL HflSS -2 PROPORTIONAL BODY MASSES (DRINKWATER TACTIC) MEAN Z-VALUES GROUP 1 VS GROUP 2 VS GROUP 3 -1 —1-0 czn -1 i - -+ -I 42 Somatotyping The somatotypes of the three groups are presented i n Table VI. Group one had a lower value of endoraorphy (3.0) than groups two and three which were i d e n t i c a l (4.0). This difference and t h i s s i m i l a r i t y of endomorphic values of the groups do not correspond pre c i s e l y with values of percent f a t or f at mass for the three groups. In these l a t t e r two measures, the difference between groups one and two are si m i l a r to the differences between groups two and three. The anomoly may l i e i n the way endo-morphy, percent f a t , and fat mass are estimated. For endomorphy, calculations are based on upper body skinf o l d measures. For fat mass and percentage f a t , estimates are made from measures which include J leg skinfolds. The legs are an important s p e c i f i c region for fat deposition i n women (Edwards, 1951). Mesomorphy and ectomorphy were similar for a l l groups. group 1 SD range group 2 SD range group 3 SD TABLE VI: endomorphy 3.0 1.04 ,1.0-4.5 4.0 0.81 3.0-5.5 4.0 1.24 SOMATOTYPES mesomorphy 3.4 0.82 2.1-4.9 , 3. 7 ~~ 0.83 2.7-5.3 3.5 0.95 ectomorphy 2.8 0.87 1.5-4.5 2.7 0. 86 1.0-4.0 2.9 0.98 Body Composition Table VII gives the means and standard deviations of the six skin f o l d measures. While the difference i n t o t a l skinfolds between group one and two was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i t i s f a i r l y large. Non-significance may be ex-plained by the small sample numbers. For four of the s i t e s , groups two and three are si m i l a r and group one has the lowest values. The abdominal skinfold size increased progressively from group one through group three, although the difference between group one and two was larger than the difference between groups two and three. Groups one and two were similar i n front thigh s k i n f o l d values with group three having a much larger value. This may be related to t h e i r exercise which i s primarily of the lower body but t h i s does not explain the data on medial c a l f skinfolds. Group one had a much lower medial c a l f s k i n f o l d value than did groups two and three which were sim i l a r . TABLE VII tri c e p s subscapular s u p r a i l i a c abdominal front thigh medial c a l f t o t a l group 12.47 8.71 7.11 8.37 19.84 8.69 65.2 1 + + + + + + + SKINFOLD MEASURES (MM + STANDARD DEVIATION) 2 72 26 97 19 5.93 4.78 20.0 group 15.92 12. 22 9.74 13. 78 20.89 13. 70 86.25 + + + + + + ± 17.1 2, 3. 3, 4, 4, 5. 50 71 46 23 29 23 group 17.58 12.30 10.01 16.46 27.01 15.17 98.53 3 + + + + + + 75 94 63 17 8.71 6.27 Table VIII gives the proportion Z-values for each of the six skin f o l d s i t e s and figures 9, 10, 11 and 12 show these i n graph form. Group one i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y smaller on a l l six skinfolds than 44 group t h r e e w h i l e group two d i f f e r s from group t h r e e o n l y on t h e abdominal and f r o n t t h i g h s i t e s . Group one i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a l l e r t h a n group two on a l l b u t t h e f r o n t t h i g h s i t e . FIGURE 9: SKINFOLD MEASURES PROPORTIONAL Z-VALUES GROUP 1 VS GROUP 3 group group 1 H 3 -2 - 1 0 1 TRICEPS SF SUBSCAPULAR SF SUPRAILIAC SF ABDOMINAL SF FRONT THIGH SF MEDIAL CALF SF h I " 1 I 1 I • 1 I I FIGURE 10: SKINFOLD MEASURES PROPORTIONAL Z-VALUES GROUP 2 VS GROUP 3 group group 3 ^  ~" 2 - 1 0 • TRICEPS SF SUBSCAPULAR SF SUPRAILIAC SF ABDOMINAL SF FRONT THIGH SF MEDIAL CALF SF R C 3 C 3 - 4 F •=> r — I F - -F TABLE V I I I : SKINFOLD MEASURES PROPORTIONAL PHANTOM Z-VALUES t r i c e p s subscapular s u p r a i l i a c abdominal front thigh medial c a l f weight group 1 -0.508 - 0.91 -1.583 - 0.71 -1.775 - 0.70 -2.134 - 0.43 -0.738 - 0.76 -1.472 - 1.09 -0.265 - 0.61 group 2 0.259 - 0.57 -0.889 - 0.74 -1.181 - 0.79 -1.425 - 0.55 -0.636 - 0.51 -0.397 - 1.09 -0.058 - 0.70 group 3 0.594 - 1.32 -0.896 - 1.02 -1.146 - 1.07 -1.095 - 0.94 0.087 - 1.07 -0.090 1.39 -0.265 - 0.71 Ln 46 FIGURE 1 1 : SKINFOLD MEASURES PROPORTIONAL Z-VALUES GROUP 1 VS GROUP 2 g r o u p 1 1 • 1 group 2 r -•- - -\ - 2 - 1 0 1 TRICEPS SF SUBSCAPULAR SF SUPRAILIAC SF ABDOMINAL SF FRONT THIGH SF MEDIAL CALF SF H h - — - I h — H ' — h — r -f- - ~ - H T FIGURE 12: SKINFOLD MEASURES PROPORTIONAL Z-VALUES GROUP 1 VS GROUP 2 VS GROUP group 1 <-g r o u p 2 r-g r o u p 3 — -I 2 - 1 0 1 TRICEPS SF SUBSCAPULAR SF SUPRAILIAC SF ABDOMINAL SF FRONT THIGH SF MEDIAL CALF SF r -- H I- C3C3- 4 - t — I r •-I-D e n s i t i e s were d e r i v e d from h y d r o s t a t i c w e i g h i n g (groups one and two o n l y ) . T a b l e I X g i v e s t h e o b t a i n e d v a l u e s , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s and r a n g e s . Though t h e gr o u p s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t t h e body c o m p o s i t i o n i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e t h e same as 47 for the sum of skinfolds and the Drinkwater Tactic (the greater the density the lower the amount of body f a t ) . Group one had a greater density than group two and was a much more homogenous group. TABLE IX: HYDROSTATIC WEIGHING DENSITY VALUES group 1 1.059 - 0.007 range 1.049 - 1.070 group 2 1.047 - 0.010 range 1.027 - 1.061 Age at Menarche Table X shows the mean age of menarche for the three groups. TABLE X: AGE OF MENARCHE (YEARS - STANDARD DEVIATION) group 1 14.14 - 1.10 range 12.58 - 15.58 group 2 1 2 . 5 0 - 0 . 7 4 range 11.75 - 14.3 group 3 12.90 - 1.10 When the re s u l t s for groups one and two were analysed using a two-tailed t - t e s t no s i g n i f i c a n t difference was found. Members of groups one and two were then designated either 'early' or 'late' maturers using 12.9 years as the d i v i d i n g age (12.9 years was the age at menarche of group 3) and the numbers were analysed using a chi-square test for the p o s s i b i l i t y that the faster group would have more l a t e r maturers. The results showed t h i s to be so at the 0.02 l e v e l of significance (Table XI). Age at menarche has not heretofore been looked at when studying females past the teenage years but 48 data shown i n Table XI suggests that perhaps i t i s an important factor when studying the function of female distance runners. TABLE XI: AGE OF MENARCHE ABOVE AND BELOW AVERAGE ±=12.9 years >12.9 years group 1 2 (subjects) 18.2% 9(subjects) 81.8% group 2 8 (subjects) 66.7% 4(subjects) 33.3% chi-square = 5.49 s i g n i f i c a n t at 0.02 l e v e l Training Practices and A t h l e t i c Background The frequency responses to the questionnaires are given i n tables XII, XIII, and XIV. Chi-square analysis showed s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the groups i n number of days per week participants ran and the number of years they had been running. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the groups i n a c t i v i t y i n adolescence. This would suggest that the more frequently one tr a i n s the faster one becomes i n distance running. TABLE XII: TRAINING PRACTICES NUMBER OF DAYS PER WEEK 5+ times per week -^ -5 times per week group 1 11 subjects 100% 0 subjects group 2 6 subjects 50% 6 subjects 50% chi-square = 7.44 s i g n i f i c a n t at 0.01 l e v e l 49 TABLE X I I I : TRAINING PRACTICES NUMBER OF YEARS RUNNING > 5 years 2 - 5 years <C 2 years group 1 7 subjects 4 subjects 0 63.6% 36.4% group 2 0 4 subjects 8 subjects 33.3% 66.7% chi-square = 14.75 s i g n i f i c a n t at 0.01 l e v e l TABLE XIV: ACTIVITY IN ADOLESCENCE a c t i v e n o n - a c t i v e group 1 8 s u b j e c t s 72.7% 3 s u b j e c t s 27.3% group 2 5 s u b j e c t s 41.7% 7 s u b j e c t s 58.3% ch i - s q u a r e = 2.25 not s i g n i f i c a n t T h i s c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d by reas o n i n g t h a t as t r a i n i n g becomes more frequent so does the i n t e n s i t y . In order t o know the i n t e n s i t y o f the t r a i n i n g i t i s necessary to study the p h y s i o l o g i c a l make-up of the s u b j e c t - a t what percentage of t h e i r maximal a b i l i t y they are t r a i n i n g and i f they are t r a i n i n g above or below t h e i r anaerobic t h r e s h o l d . P h y s i o l o g i c a l make-up was not s t u d i e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . S k i n f o l d Measures v e r s e s T r a i n i n g Frequency A b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n was done comparing t o t a l s k i n f o l d t h i c k n e s s e s to the amount of t r a i n i n g done. The c o r r e l a t i o n (r = -0.335) was not s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h t h i s s m a l l sample s i z e . Iron S t o r e s Iron s t o r e measurements were taken to r u l e 50 out the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the women i n group two were slower because of lowered i r o n s t o r e s . Table XV shows t h i s i s not the cause of t h e i r lower p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l . A l l group valu e s f o r a l l measures were w i t h i n the ranges of normal as s t a t e d by Clement and Asmundson (1982) . 1* - 15.5 - 5.0 - 47.0 185 420 55 c a p a c i t y * Clement & Asmundson, 19 82 D i s c u s s i o n The r e s u l t s show t h a t the runners are s h o r t e r and l i g h t e r than the r e f e r e n c e group and t h a t the hi g h e r the p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l the more they d i f f e r from t h a t group. They are l i g h t e r not o n l y because they are s h o r t e r but a l s o because they have l e s s body f a t . The s h o r t e r s t a t u r e i s i n accordance w i t h data found f o r male d i s t a n c e runners (de Garay e t a l . 1974; P i p e s , 1977) who are u s u a l l y s h o r t e r than average. The biomechanical advantage a f f o r d e d a s h o r t e r s t a t u r e may be as Tanner (1964) s t a t e d : TABLE XV: -IRON STORES group 1 group 2 norma Hb (gm) 13.22 - 1.49 13.08 - 1.18 12.0 RBC 4.27 - 0.38 4.29 - 0.31 4.0 ( m i l l i o n ) HCT 38.98 - 4.15 39.10 - 3.01 35.0 Iron 112.27 - 43.66 102.25 - 51.59 55 -( / d l ) TIBC 385.0 ~ 59.98 416.25 - 56.08 250 -( / d l ) % s a t 29.73 - 12.65 25.17 - 13.27 20 -F e r r i t i n 29.82 - 18.89 40.92 - 33.64 30 ( /ml) Hb = hemoglobin RBC = red blood c e l l s HCT = hema t o c r i t TIBC = t o t a l i r o n b i n d i n g % s a t = % s a t u r a t i o n 51 "a s m a l l man needs l e s s energy and s m a l l e r muscles to run a t a constant pace (...)• He i s , t h e r e f o r e , b e s t adapted to long d i s t a n c e running and i s t y p i c a l l y a s m a l l , s h o r t legged, narrow shouldered a t h l e t e r e l a t i v e l y l a c k i n g i n muscle". T h i s s h o r t e r s t a t u r e o f the women of group one i s not i n agreement wi t h data found f o r female d i s t a n c e runners by Brown and Wilmore (1971) and Wilmore and Brown (1974). They a l s o had small sample s i z e s but t h e i r runners were r e l a t i v e l y t a l l i n r e l a t i o n t o normal women. In a study by Slaughter e t a l . (1981) where f i v e groups o f female a t h l e t e s were compared i n r e l a t i o n t o h e i g h t , weight, and other v a r i a b l e s , the gymnasts were the s h o r t e s t group and the c r o s s country runners (16 2.8 cm, 51.0 kg) were a c l o s e second. The d i s t a n c e s run and. the type of event are d i f f e r e n t i n a l l f o u r s t u d i e s (Wilmore & Brown, Brown & Wilmore, S l a u g h t e r e t a l . , and the p r e s e n t study) and t h i s makes i t i m p o s s i b l e to determine any p o s s i b l e a s s o c i a t i o n between event and t r e n d o f h e i g h t o f s u c c e s s f u l runners. So, f o r determining the optimum h e i g h t of women f o r success i n d i s t a n c e running more r e s e a r c h i s needed, and e s p e c i a l l y i n the d i f f e r e n t d i s t a n c e events. With male d i s t a n c e runners, the h e i g h t becomes l a r g e r from the s p r i n t s to 3000 to 5000 meters and then gets s m a l l e r again as the d i s t a n c e i n c r e a s e s , with the marathoners being the s h o r t e s t . Research i s needed on females who s p e c i a l i z e i n the running events t o see i f the same d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n h e i g h t o c c u r s . The runners are a l s o lower i n body f a t than the r e f e r e n c e group - the higher the p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l o f the group the lower the amount of f a t . T h i s i s i n concurrence w i t h the f i n d i n g s of Day e t a l . (1977) who found l e s s body f a t as the p r o f i c i e n c y of the d i s t a n c e runners i n c r e a s e d . Body composition was looked a t u s i n g three techniques - the Drinkwater T a c t i c , the sum of 52 s i x s k i n f o l d measures, and h y d r o s t a t i c weighing. A l l three techniques showed the same t r e n d - the f a s t e r group had l e s s f a t than the slower group, and both were lower than the r e f e r e n c e group. T h i s c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d by the amount of t r a i n i n g but a b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n showed no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d i v i d u a l s ' body f a t and t r a i n i n g - p o s s i b l y due to sm a l l sample s i z e . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t the runners w i t h the l e a s t amount of f a t w i l l e x c e l i n d i s t a n c e running and, meeting w i t h success, w i l l s t a y w i t h the s p o r t . Conley e t a l . (1981) found t h e i r f o u r t e e n t r a i n e d , c o m p e t i t i o n experienced 10,000 meter runners (average age 24.1 yea r s , average v e l o c i t y 7.04 minutes per mile) to be lower i n body f a t than n o n - a t h l e t e s . T h i s was a sample s e l e c t e d from the top twenty women i n one 10,000 meter road race i n which 300 women entered. The percent body f a t was not c o r r e l a t e d to race time i n t h i s group. The g e n e r a l t r e n d i n aging i n our s o c i e t y i s to i n c r e a s e d body f a t and decreased muscle mass. In t h i s study the average ages of group one and two were much o l d e r than group t h r e e , but the body f a t was lower and muscle mass hi g h e r . These trends show a d i s t i n c t d eparture from the us u a l changes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the aging process i n our s o c i e t y . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note (although d i f f i c u l t to e x p l a i n ) the l a t e r age of menarche i n the f a s t e r group, w i t h a s i g n i f i c a n t number of p a r t i c i p a n t s being l a t e r maturers even though age a t menarche was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . When the groups were d i v i d e d i n t o e a r l y and l a t e maturers a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r number of the f a s t group were l a t e r maturers. Sidhu and S i n g a l (1981) found t h e i r a d u l t sportswomen had experienced a l a t e r age a t menarche than d i d non-a t h l e t i c women of the same age group. 53 The f a s t e r group had been running a g r e a t e r number of years and ran more times per week than group two. Group two and group three were r e l a t i v e l y s i m i l a r i n a l l aspects measured although there was a tr e n d f o r group two to have lower s k i n f o l d measures. T h i s g e n e r a l s i m i l a r i t y c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t the members comprising the r e f e r e n c e group, group . thr e e , were taken from p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and elementary teacher t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s and may be more i n c l i n e d toward e x e r c i s e than the normal p o p u l a t i o n . The women i n group one, s i n c e they had been running longer than those i n group two, may have been the ones t h a t were s u c c e s s f u l - they were doing w e l l i n c o mpetitions or had l o s t weight - and t h a t those who are not s u c c e s s f u l do not continue i n the s p o r t . Those women i n group two t h a t stayed with t h e i r t r a i n i n g may have been i n t r a n s i t i o n towards and may now q u a l i f y f o r group one and those t h a t d i d not may not be s t i l l running. (A c u r s o r y look a t the r e s u l t sheets of the same CP A i r s e r i e s of runs two years l a t e r show r e l a t i v e l y few women s t i l l competing i n these events but, a t the same time, approximately h a l f the names of t h i s study's p a r t i c i p a n t s were c i t e d i n r e s u l t s of longer races ( f i f t e e n k i l o m e t e r t o marathon d i s t a n c e ) . Most had stayed i n the same speed category as i n t h i s study.) CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Th i s study looked a t the s t r u c t u r e of female d i s t a n c e runners i n two d i f f e r e n t speed c a t e g o r i e s -seven minutes per m i l e or l e s s over 10,000 meters or longer (group one) and seven and a h a l f to e i g h t and a h a l f minutes per m i l e over 10,000 meters or longer (group two). These two groups were compared u s i n g a n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l measures, percent body.fat, age o f menarche, t r a i n i n g p r a c t i c e s and a t h l e t i c background, and i r o n s t o r e s . The a n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l measures were compared to a r e f e r e n c e group of u n i v e r s i t y females (group t h r e e ) . A n t h r o p o m e t r i c a l measures were a p p r a i s e d u s i n g a b s o l u t e v a l u e s and Phantom Z-values of group means. These were p l o t t e d on graphs p l u s and minus one standard e r r o r . When one group bar f o r a s p e c i f i c v a r i a b l e d i d not o v e r l a p another group's bar, s i g n i f i c a n c e was i n f e r r e d . D i f f e r e n c e s of one standard e r r o r were seen i n hand l e n g t h (group one was s m a l l e r ) , s i t t i n g h e i g h t (group three was l a r g e r ) , f o o t l e n g t h (group t h r e e was s m a l l e r ) , and t r a n s v e r s e chest width (group three was smaller) . -* ; ..^.i . The .^trend was.--,, f o r "group one, the f a s t e r -runners , tp be s m a l l e r - i n a b s o l u t e j v a l u e s - a n d s m a l l e r i n g i r t h Z-values. Body f a t was measured u s i n g h y d r o s t a t i c weighing techniques f o r body d e n s i t y , s k i n f o l d c a l i p e r s , and the Drinkwater T a c t i c f o r adipose mass. Group one had lower d e n s i t y v a l u e s , lower t o t a l of s k i n f o l d measures, and lower adipose mass v a l u e s , a l l i n d i c a t i n g l e s s body f a t . P r o p o r t i o n a l Z-values f o r s k i n f o l d measures showed group one to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than group three a t a l l s i t e s and lower than group 54 55 two a t a l l s i t e s but the f r o n t t h i g h . Groups two and three were s i m i l a r a t a l l s i t e s but the f r o n t t h i g h . M a t u r a t i o n age of the two groups (one and two) was looked a t from two p o i n t s of view: by average age a t menarche and by numbers which f e l l on e i t h e r s i d e of a d i v i d i n g p o i n t r e p r e s e n t e d by the average age of menarche of the r e f e r e n c e group (designated ' e a r l y ' maturers i f the age was bef o r e the average age of the r e f e r e n c e group, or ' l a t e ' maturers i f the age was a f t e r ) . Average age of menarche was much l a t e r (by 1.64 years) i n group one than i n group two, but t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . When members of each group were d i v i d e d i n t o e a r l y and l a t e maturers, group one, by c h i -square a n a l y s i s , had s i g n i f i c a n t l y more l a t e r maturers than group two. Groups one and two were asked t o f i l l i n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s concerning t r a i n i n g p r a c t i c e s and a t h l e t i c background. Group one, on average, t r a i n e d more days per week and had been t r a i n i n g more years than group two. F i v e days per week was used as the d i v i d i n g p o i n t on frequency and a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r number of women i n group one t r a i n e d f i v e days per week or more than d i d i n group two. For l e n g t h of time t r a i n i n g the groups were d i v i d e d i n t o t hree groups: running f i v e years or longer, running two t o f i v e y e a r s , and running l e s s than two y e a r s . A s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r number i n group one had been running f i v e years or longer and a l l had been running longer than two ye a r s . No one i n group two had been running longer than f i v e y e a r s . In the area of a t h l e t i c background and a c t i v i t y i n adolescence, there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between groups i n 56 the number of women who r e p o r t e d themselves to be very a c t i v e i n adolescence and those who were not a c t i v e . A l l the women of the running groups were measured f o r i r o n s t o r e s i n order t o c o n t r o l the p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e of t h a t f a c t o r on running performance. None of the women had' below normal v a l u e s . A l s o , the mean v a l u e s o f groups one and two were s i m i l a r . Due t o the sm a l l sample s i z e of the two running groups d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s are not warranted. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t e n t a t i v e ones based on the group means seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t the s u p e r i o r group of runners was s m a l l e r i n s t r u c t u r e , had lower body f a t , a g r e a t e r amount of time devoted t o t r a i n i n g , a l a r g e r number were l a t e r maturers, and more were a c t i v e i n adolescence. While some of the measures cannot be changed wi t h t r a i n i n g i t seems t h a t t r a i n i n g p l a y s a l a r g e r o l e i n running p r o f i c i e n c y and t r a i n i n g can i n f l u e n c e body f a t and muscle mass. Recommendations f o r Future S t u d i e s 1. As women s p e c i a l i z e i n the d i f f e r e n t d i s t a n c e events, a study i s needed t o see i f the same d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t as do f o r men. 2. A long term study (of two to f i v e years) i s needed on r e c r e a t i o n a l d i s t a n c e runners, measuring pe r c e n t body f a t , t o see the a c t u a l l e v e l of a c t i v i t y needed t o l o s e f a t and the p a t t e r n of f a t l o s s . REFERENCES 51) 58 A l o i a , J . R. , S. H. Cohn, T. Bobu, C. Abesamis, N. K a l i c i , & K. E l l i s : S k e l e t a l mass and body composition i n marathon runners. Metabolism/ 27 (12): 1793-1796, 1978. American C o l l e g e of Sports Medicine: G u i d e l i n e s f o r Graded E x e r c i s e T e s t i n g and E x e r c i s e P r e s c r i p t i o n . P h i l a d e l p h i a : Lea & F e b i g e r , 1975. Bakker, H. K. & R V S . Struikenkamp: B i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b i l i t y and lea n body mass e s t i m a t e s . Human B i o l o g y , 49(2): 187-202, 1977. Behnke, A. R. & J . Royce: Body s i z e , shape and com-p o s i t i o n of s e v e r a l types of a t h l e t e s : O r i g i n a l papers. 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Canadian J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d  Sport S c i e n c e s , 54: 255-262, 1980. H i r a t a , K. I . : Physique and age of Tokyo Olympic Champions. J o u r n a l of Sports Medicine & P h y s i c a l  F i t n e s s , 6(4): 207-222, 1966. 61 Jones, P. R. M. & J . T. C o r l e t t : Some f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the c a l c u l a t i o n of human body d e n s i t y : Bone m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . In: M. Ostyn, B. Beunen, & J . Simons (eds.), Kinanthropometry I I . Baltimore: U n i v e r s i t y Park Press, pp. 423-434, 1980. Juthner, F. W. : as c i t e d i n Faulkner, R. A.:' Physique  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Canadian F i g u r e S k a t e r s . Unpublished Master o f Science ( K i n e s i o l o g y ) t h e s i s , Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1976., 1969. Katch, F. I. & W. D. McArdle: P r e d i c t i o n of body d e n s i t y from simple anthropometric measurements i n c o l l e g e - a g e men and women. Human B i o l o g y , 45: 445-455, 1973. Katch, F. I. & V. L. Katch: Measurement & p r e d i c t i o n e r r o r s i n body composition assessment and the search f o r the p e r f e c t p r e d i c t i o n e q u a t i o n . Research Q u a r t e r l y f o r E x e r c i s e & Sport, 50(2): 249-260, 1980. Krahenbuhl, B. S.: C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of n a t i o n a l and world c l a s s female p e n t a t h l e t e s . Medicine &  Science i n Sport, 11(1): 20-23, 1979. L i v s o n , N. & D. M a c N e i l l : Accuracy of r e c a l l e d menarche. Human B i o l o g y , 34: 218-221, 1962. Ma l i n a , R. M.: Q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of F a t , Muscle & Bone i n Man. C l i n i c a l Orthopaedics and Rel a t e d  Research, 65: 9-38, 1969. Ma l i n a , R. M., A. B. Harper, H. H. Avent & D. E. Campbell: Physique of female t r a c k and f i e l d a t h l e t e s . Medicine & Science i n Sport, 3_{1) : 32-36, 1971. Mal i n a , R. M., A. B. Harper, H. H. Avent & D. E. Campbell: Age a t menarche i n a t h l e t e s and n o n - a t h l e t e s . Medicine & Science i n Sport, 5_(1) : 11-12, 1973. Ma l i n a , R. M., W. W. Spirduso, C. Tate & A. M. B a y l o r : Age a t menarche and s e l e c t e d menstrual charac-t e r i s t i c s i n a t h l e t e s a t d i f f e r e n t c o m p e t i t i v e l e v e l s & i n d i f f e r e n t s p o r t s . Medicine &  Science i n Sport, 1_(3): 218-222, 1978. O s c a i , I. B., B. T. W i l l i a m s , B. A. H e r t i g : E f f e c t of e x e r c i s e on blood volume. J o u r n a l of  A p p l i e d P h y s i o l o g y , 24(5): 622-624, 1968. 6 2 Parizkova, J . : Longitudinal study of the development of body composition and body bu i l d i n boys of various physical a c t i v i t i e s . Human Biology, 4 0 : 2 1 2 - 2 2 5 , 1 9 6 8 . Parizkova, J . : Body composition and exercise during growth and development. In: Physical A c t i v i t y :  Human Growth and Development (chapter 5 ) . Rarick, G. L. (ed.): Academic Press, 1 9 7 3 . Parizkova, J . : Body Fat and Physical Fitness. Le Hague: Martinies Nijhoff, 1 9 7 7 . Parizkova, J. & 0. Poupa: Some metabolic consequences of adaptation to muscular work. B r i t i s h  Journal of Nutr i t i o n , 1 7 : 3 4 1 - 3 4 5 , 1 9 6 3 . Pipes, T.: Body composition c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of male and female track and f i e l d athletes. Research Quarterly, 4 8 ( 1 ) : 2 4 4 - 2 4 7 , 1 9 7 7 . Pollock, M. L., L. R. Gettman, A. Jackson, J. Ayres, A. Wark, & A. C. Linnerud: Body Composition of E l i t e Class Distance Runners. Annals of the New  York Academy of Science, 3 0 1 : 3 6 1 - 3 7 0 , 1 9 7 7 . Pollock, M. L., H. M i l l e r , A. C. Linnerud, & K. H. Cooper: Frequency of tr a i n i n g as a determinant for improvement i n cardiovascular function and body composition of middle aged men. Archives  of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, f_5(4) : 1 4 1 - 1 4 5 , 1 9 7 5 . Ross, W. D. & N. C. Wilson: A strategem for proportional growth assessment. Acta P a e d i a t r i c i a B e l g i c i a , 2 8 suppl.: 1 6 9 - 1 8 2 , 1 9 7 4 . Ross, W. D., S. R. Brown, R. A. Faulkner, & M. V. Savage: Age of menarche of e l i t e Canadian skaters and skiers. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport  Sciences, 1 : 1 9 1 - 1 9 3 , 1 9 7 6 . Ross, W. D., R. M. Leahy, D. T. Drinkwater, & P. C. Stone: Proportionality and body composition i n male and female Olympic athletes: a kinanthropometric overview. In: Proceedings of  the International Congress of Women i n Sport. J. Borms & M. Hebbelink (eds.), Rome, 1 9 8 0 . Ross, W. D., R. Ward, R. M. Leahy, & J. A. P. Day: Proportionality of Montreal Athletes. Medicine  & Sport, 1 6 : 8 1 - 1 0 6 , E. Jokl (ed.), Karger, 1 9 8 2 . 63 Ross, W. D. & R. Ward: Human p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y and sexual dimorphism. In: Sexual Dimorphism i n Homo  Sapiens. R. H a l l (ed.), New York, 317-361, 1982. Sidhu, L. S. & P S i n g a l : R e l a t i o n s h i p between age a t menarche and a d u l t morphology i n sportswomen. J o u r n a l of Sports Medicine & P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s , 21(4): 401-406, 1981. S i r i , W.: Body composition from f l u i d spaces & d e n s i t y . In: Techniques f o r Measuring Body Composition. J . Brozek & A. Her s c h e l (eds.), 1956. Slau g h t e r , M. H., T. G. Lohman, R. A. B o i l e a u , & W. R. Riner: Physique o f c o l l e g e women a t h l e t e s i n f i v e s p o r t s . In: The Female A t h l e t e : A S o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l & Kinanthropometric Approach. Medicine & Sport, 15: 186-191, E. J o k l (ed.), Karger, 1981. Slocum, D. B. & S. L. Jones: Biomechanics of Running. J o u r n a l of the American M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 205 (11) : 97-104, 1968. Stewart, B. A., J . E. S t e e l , A. H. Toyne & M. J . Stev/art: Observations on the haematology and the i r o n and p r o t e i n i n t a k e of A u s t r a l i a n Olympic a t h l e t e s . M e d i c a l J o u r n a l of A u s t r a l i a , 2: 1339-1343, 1972. Tanner, J . M.: The Physique o f the Olympic A t h l e t e . London: George A l l e n & Unwin L t d . , 1964. Van Dobeln, W.: Maximum oxygen uptake, body s i z e , and t o t a l hemoglobin i n man. Ac t a P h y s i o l o g i c a  S c a n d i n a v i c a , 38: 193-199, 1957. V i t e r i , R. & B. Torun: Anemia and p h y s i c a l work c a p a c i t y . C l i n i c a l Haematology, 3: 609-626, 1974 Westlake, D.: The Somatotype of Female Track & F i e l d  A t h l e t e s . Unpublished Masters T h e s i s , San Diego S t a t e C o l l e g e , 1967. Wilmore, J . H. & A. R. Behnke: An anthropometric e s t i m a t i o n of body d e n s i t y and l e a n body weight i n young women. American J o u r n a l of C l i n i c a l  N u t r i t i o n , 23: 267-274, 1970. Wilmore, J . H. & C. H. Brown: P h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o f i l e s of women d i s t a n c e runners. Medicine & Science  i n Sport, 6(3): 178-181, 1974. 63a Wilmore, J. H., C. H. Brown, & J. A. Davis: Body physique and composition of the female distance runner. Annals of the New York Academy of  Science, 301, 1977. Yoshimura, H.: Anemia during physical t r a i n i n g (sports anemia). Nutriti o n Review, 28: 251-254, 1970. APPENDIX A INFORMED CONSENT FORM 64 65 INFORMED CONSENT FORM A Study of Various Parameters of Female Distance Runners Related to Level of Running Proficiency. This study w i l l look at the structure, t r a i n i n g practices, a t h l e t i c background, iron stores, and age of menarche of two groups - those who averaged seven minutes per mile or less over a distance of f i v e miles or longer and those who averaged seven and a half to eight and a half minutes per mile. Structure w i l l be studied using anthropometric measures of size , shape,, proportions and body composition. Training practices (of the two to three months just p r i o r to the race, the year before the race, and how long one has been running), a t h l e t i c background (the period during junior and senior high school), and age of menarche ( f i r s t menstruation) w i l l be obtained by personal interview. A blood sample w i l l be taken to be analysed for iron stores. Information of t h i s kind, while abundant on male distance runners, i s very scarce on females. Also, i t has been shown recently that a high percentage of female runners, e s p e c i a l l y distance runners, are low i n iron stores. The re s u l t s of these tests w i l l be communicated to you as soon as possible, e s p e c i a l l y to those who are found to be below normal, so measures can be taken to correct t h i s condition. The procedures used i n t h i s study present minimal r i s k s to the subject. Your personal re s u l t s w i l l be forwarded to you at the completion of the study along with a b r i e f summary of the findings. However, your results w i l l be number coded and therefore w i l l remain c o n f i d e n t i a l . These measurements w i l l take approximately two and a half hours to perform. In signing t h i s consent form I state that I have read and understood the description of the tests. Any questions which occurred to me have been answered to my s a t i s f a c t i o n . I enter into the study w i l l i n g l y and understand that I may withdraw at any time. DATE: SIGNATURE: WITNESS: APPENDIX B AGE AT MENARCHE QUESTIONNAIRE 66 MENARCHE QUESTIONNAIRE 67 Dr. W. D. Ross Mrs. S. Carter Subject Number 1. Menarche or the onset of menstruation i s a maturity indicator used to study growth and development patterns. 2. Most female athletes p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n many d i f f e r e n t sports are reported to have experienced a l a t e r menarche than females i n the general population. I t i s not known i f t h i s i s due to the a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t y or i f those who experience a l a t e r menarche have an advantage in a t h l e t i c s . The purpose of looking at age of menarche i n t h i s study i s to see i f there i s any advantage l a t e r i n l i f e to having experienced a l a t e r menarche in adolescence. 3. We would appreciate your cooperation. Please give the month and year of the f i r s t occurrence. month year and check the statement which best describes your estimate. 1. c e r t a i n of the date j 2. f a i r l y c e r t a i n I 3. only approximate 4. best estimate but u n c e r t a i n I I 4. Give date of b i r t h day month year \ APPENDIX C TRAINING BACKGROUND QUESTIONNAIRE 68 69 TRAINING BACKGROUND QUESTIONNAIRE Frequency - how long have you been running regularly? - how many times per week did you run a) during the past three (3) month? b) during the past year? c) before that? Duration - how long do your runs l a s t (breafc down into days i f necessary) a) during the past three (3) months? b) during the past year? c) before that? Intensity - describe i n terms of long slow distance, h i l l work, track work, pace. APPENDIX D ATHLETIC BACKGROUND QUESTIONNAIRE 70 71 ATHLETIC BACKGROUND QUESTIONNAIRE during junior and senior high school were you active? (compared to now) did you pa r t i c i p a t e i n school sports and which ones? intramural: extramural: i n t e n s i t y (compare with now): frequency (days per week): did you belong to outside clubs? which sports? describe frequency, i n t e n s i t y , duration, and competition: APPENDIX E PHANTOM SPECIFICATIONS FOR ESTIMATION OF FRACTIONATED BODY MASSES BY THE DRINKWATER TACTIC 72 73 PHANTOM SPECIFICATIONS FOR ESTIMATION OF FRACTIONATED BODY MASSES BY THE DRINKWATER TACTIC MASS FAT (kg) SKELETAL (kg) MUSCLE (kg) RESIDUAL (kg) SUBSET INDICATORS P S triceps s k i n f o l d (mm) 15.4 4.47 subscapular ski n f o l d 17.2 5.07 su p r a i l i a c s k i n f o l d 15.4 4.47 abdominal s k i n f o l d 25.4 7.78 front thigh sk i n f o l d 27.0 8.33 medial c a l f s k i n f o l d 16.0 4.67 bi-epicondylar humerus width (cm) 6.48 0.35 bi-epicondylar femur width 9.52 0.48 wrist g i r t h ( d i s t a l to styloids) 16.35 0.72 ankle g i r t h (smallest) 21.71 1.33 relaxed arm g i r t h - triceps s f * 22.05 1.91 chest g i r t h - subscapular s f * 82.36 4.86 thigh g i r t h - front thigh s f * 47.33 3.59 c a l f g i r t h - medial c a l f s f* 30.22 1.97 forearm g i r t h 25.13 1.41 biacromial breadth (cm) 38.04 1.92 transverse chest width 27.92 1.74 b i - i l i o c r i s t a l breadth 28.84 1.75 anterior-posterior chest depth 17.50 1.38 * skin f o l d correction = (girth) - (skinfold/10) x p i Ross & Wilson, 1974 APPENDIX F ANTHROPOMETRICAL RAW DATA FOR SUBJECTS IN GROUPS ONE AND TWO 74 ANTHROPOMETRICAL RAW DATA FOR SUBJECTS IN GROUPS ONE AND TWO 75 GROUP 1 S u b j e c t 07 body w e i g h t (kg) - 45.6 h e i g h t (cm) - 157.1 t r i c e p s s f (mm) - 12.5 s u b s c a p u l a r s f (mm) - 8.0 s u p r a i l i a c s f (mm) - 5.4 abdominal s f (mm) - 5.7 f r o n t t h i g h s f (mm) - 19.0 m e d i a l c a l f s f (mm) - 5.4 a c r o m i a l h e i g h t (cm) - 125.9 r a d i a l h e i g h t (cm) - 96.2 s t y l i o n h eight.(cm) - 73.5 d a c t y l i o n h e i g h t (cm) - 56.2 t i b i a l h e i g h t (cm) - 38.'8 s p i n a l e h e i g h t (cm) - 86.4 t r o c h a n t e r i o n h e i g h t (cm) - 78.2 arm g i r t h r e l a x e d (cm) - 22.6 arm g i r t h f l e x e d (cm) - 24.6 for e a r m g i r t h (cm) - 22.2 w r i s t g i r t h (cm) - 15.0 c h e s t g i r t h (cm) - 77.2 w a i s t g i r t h (cm) - 60.9 t h i g h g i r t h (cm) - 48.8 c a l f g i r t h (cm) - 32.2 a n k l e g i r t h (cm) - 21.1 b i a c r o m i a l b r e a d t h (cm) - 34.3 b i i l i o c r i s t a l b r e a d t h (cm) - 25.8 t r a n s v e r s e c h e s t (cm) - 22.4 f o o t l e n g t h (cm) - 24.5 b i e p i c o n d y l a r humerus w i d t h (cm) - 5.75 b i e p i c o n d y l a r femur w i d t h (cm) - 8.40 s i t t i n g h e i g h t (cm) - 83.1 a n t e r i o r - p o s t e r i o r c h e s t d epth (cm) - 17.6 head g i r t h (cm) - 53.8 neck g i r t h (cm) - 28.9 76 Subject 08 body weight - 53.1 height - 161.6 triceps sf - 11.5 subscapular sf - 14.1 suprailiac sf - 8.5 abdominal sf - 11.8 front thigh sf - 20.0 medial calf sf - 7.6 acromial height - 127.9 radial height - 98.3 stylion height - 74.5 dactylion height - 5 8.6 t i b i a l height - 41.9 spinale height - 91.2 trochanterion height - 82.8 arm girth relaxed - 24.5 arm girth flexed - 26.5 forearm girth - 22.5 wrist girth - 14.8 chest girth - 82.4 waist girth - 69.3 thigh girth - 54.2 calf girth - 31.0 ankle girth - 20.8 biacromial breadth - 35.7 b i i l i o c r i s t a l breadth - 28.0 transverse chest - 25.0 foot length - 24.2 biepicondylar humerus width - 5.75 biepicondyalr femur width - 8.85 sitting height - 83.4 anterior-posterior chest depth - 17.2 head girth - 51.8 neck girth - 31.2 77 Subject 09 body weight - 55.1 height - 166.6 triceps sf - 9.9 subscapular sf - 7.0 suprailiac sf - 5.9 abdominal sf - 6.7 front thigh sf - 15.8 medial calf sf - 6.5 acromial height - 135.1 radial height - 103.5 stylion height - 80.4 dactylion height - 61.6 t i b i a l height - 41.9 spinale height - 93.1 trochanterion height - 84.8 arm girth relaxed - 22.9 arm girth flexed - 26.9 forearm girth - 23.1 wrist girth - 15.4 chest girth - 80.3 waist girth - 65.2 thigh girth - 56.1 calf girth - 35.6 ankle girth - 21.6 biacromial breadth - 34.3 b i i l i o c r i s t a l breadth - 26.0 transverse chest - 24.7 foot length - 24.3 biepicondylar humerus width - 5.78 biepicondylar femur width - 8.52 sitting height - 87.2 anterior-posterior chest depth - 15.2 head girth - 55.5 neck girth - 32.7 78 Subject 10 body weight - 56.6 height - 164.0 triceps sf - 10.6 subscapular sf - 6.7 suprailiac sf - 4.7 abdominal sf - 6.6 front thigh sf - 16.5 medial calf sf - 8.1 acromial height - 132.0 radial height - 100.2 stylion height - 78.2 dactylion height - 61.0 t i b i a l height - 41.4 spinale height - 91.7 trochanterion height - 8 3.3 arm girth relaxed - 24.9 arm girth flexed - 27.3 forearm girth - 23.5 wrist girth - 15.1 chest girth - 79.2 waist girth - 64.4 thigh girth - 52.5 calf girth - 34.2 ankle girth - 21.0 biacromial breadth - 34.4 b i i l i o c r i s t a l breadth - 27.8 transverse chest 24.3 foot length - 23.6 biepicondylar humerus width - 6.80 biepicondylar femur width - 9.00 sitting height - 84.7 anterior-posterior chest depth - 17.1 head girth - 52.4 neck girth - 32.8 79 Subject 11 body weight - 51.8 h e i g h t - 161.3 t r i c e p s s f - 12.2 subscapular s f - 8.1 s u p r a i l i a c s f - 6.7 abdominal s f - 8.5 f r o n t t h i g h s f - 19.6 medial c a l f s f - 8.0 a c r o m i a l h e i g h t - 131.8 r a d i a l h e i g h t 102.3 s t y l i o n h e i g h t - 81.2 d a c t y l i o n h e i g h t - 65.3 t i b i a l h e i g h t - 40.9 s p i n a l e h e i g h t - 85.9 t r o c h a n t e r i o n h e i g h t - 78.5 arm g i r t h r e l a x e d - 25.3 arm g i r t h f l e x e d - 26.5 forearm g i r t h - 23.5 w r i s t g i r t h - 14.0 c h e s t g i r t h - 81.3 w a i s t g i r t h - 63.3 t h i g h g i r t h - 53.7 c a l f g i r t h - 34.0 ankle g i r t h - 21.6 b i a c r o m i a l breadth - 34.4 b i i l i o c r i s t a l breadth - 25.4 t r a n s v e r s e c h e s t 25.4 f o o t l e n g t h - 21.1 b i e p i c o n d y l a r humerus width - 6.6 b i e p i c o n d y l a r femur width - 8.55 s i t t i n g h e i g h t - 84.4 a n t e r i o r - p o s t e r i o r c h e s t depth - 15.6 head g i r t h - 56.3 neck g i r t h 29.4 80 Subject 12 body weight - 53.0 h e i g h t - 159.3 t r i c e p s s f - 16.8 subscapular s f - 7.5 s u p r a i l i a c s f - 7.6 abdominal s f - 9.8 f r o n t t h i g h - 27.7 medial c a l f s f - 18.2 a c r o m i a l h e i g h t - 129.2 r a d i a l h e i g h t 99.8 s t y l i o n h e i g h t 77.8 d a c t y l i o n h e i g h t - 60.3 t i b i a l h e i g h t - 42.5 s p i n a l e h e i g h t - 92.4 t r o c h a n t e r i o n h e i g h t - 81.9 arm g i r t h r e l a x e d - 24.0 arm g i r t h f l e x e d - 26.0 forearm g i r t h - 23.2 w r i s t g i r t h - 14.9 c h e s t g i r t h - 80.5 w a i s t g i r t h - 68.8 t h i g h g i r t h - 54.5 c a l f g i r t h - 32.7 ankle g i r t h - 19.6 b i a c r o m i a l breadth - 35.1 b i i l i o c r i s t a l breadth - 29 2 t r a n s v e r s e c h e s t - 25.6 f o o t l e n g t h - 24.6 b i e p i c o n d y l a r humerus width - 6.2 b i e p i c o n d y l a r femur width - 8.67 s i t t i n g h e i g h t - 81.1 a n t e r i o r - p o s t e r i o r chest depth - 15.1. head g i r t h - 53.1 neck g i r t h - 30.2 81 Subject 13 body weight - 58.3 height - 165.0 triceps sf - 14.5 subscapular sf - 8.7 suprailiac sf - 13.1 abdominal sf - 10.6 front thigh sf - 20.6 medial calf sf - 8.6 acromial height - 131.2 radial height - 102.7 stylion height - 76.4 dactylion height - 60.1 t i b i a l height - 41.9 spinale height - 92.1 trochanterion height - 87.0 arm girth relaxed - 26.4 arm girth flexed - 28.1 forearm girth - 24.2 wrist girth - 14.8 chest girth - 84.1 waist girth - 67.5 thigh girth - 56.5 calf girth - 35.4 ankle girth - 20.2 biacromial breadth - 36.0 b i i l i o c r i s t a l breadth - 28.9 transverse chest 25.2 foot length - 24.0 biepicondylar humerus width - 6.3 biepicondylar femur width - 8.60 sitting height - 87.4 anterior-posterior chest depth - 18.5 head girth - 56.6 neck girth - 30.8 82 Subject 16 body weight - 54.0 h e i g h t - 156.4 t r i c e p s s f - 17.2 subscapular s f - 15.2 s u p r a i l i a c s f - 8.2 abdominal s f - 8.2 f r o n t t h i g h s f - 20.0 medial c a l f s f - 5.0 a c r o m i a l h e i g h t - 124.9 r a d i a l h e i g h t - 95.8 s t y l i o n h e i g h t 76.3 d a c t y l i o n h e i g h t - 58.7 t i b i a l h e i g h t - 37.5 s p i n a l e h e i g h t - 84.0 t r o c h a n t e r i o n h e i g h t - 7-6.7 rm g i r t h r e l a x e d - 26.8 arm g i r t h f l e x e d - 29.1 -forearm g i r t h - 23.3 w r i s t g i r t h - 14.9 chest g i r t h - 83.8 w a i s t g i r t h - 71.1 t h i g h g i r t h - 53.9 c a l f g i r t h - 33.5 ankle g i r t h - 20.4 b i a c r o m i a l breadth - 35.6 b i i l i o c r i s t a l breadth - 27.8 t r a n s v e r s e c h e s t 25.3 f o o t l e n g t h 23.3 b i e p i c o n d y l a r humerus width - 5.85 b i e p i c o n d y l a r femur width - 8.6 8 s i t t i n g h e i g h t - 86.5 a n t e r i o r - p o s t e r i o r chest depth - 16.6 head g i r t h - 55.0 neck g i r t h - 32.8 83 S u b j e c t 17 body w e i g h t - 61.8 h e i g h t - 162.2 t r i c e p s s f - 16.6 s u b s c a p u l a r s f - 9.7 s u p r a i l i a c s f - 10.8 abdominal s f - 14.8 f r o n t t h i g h s f - 31.4 m e d i a l c a l f s f - 17.4 a c r o m i a l h e i g h t - 132.5 r a d i a l h e i g h t - 101.0 s t y l i o n h e i g h t - 80.6 d a c t y l i o n h e i g h t - 62.8 t i b i a l h e i g h t - 46.4 s p i n a l e h e i g h t - 90.9 t r o c h a n t e r i o n h e i g h t - 84.0 arm g i r t h r e l a x e d - 28.7 arm g i r t h f l e x e d - 27.9 f o r e a r m g i r t h - 23.6 w r i s t g i r t h - 14.3 c h e s t g i r t h - 88.3 w a i s t g i r t h - 69.7 t h i g h g i r t h - 59.0 c a l f g i r t h - 35.7 a n k l e g i r t h - 21.6 b i a c r o m i a l b r e a d t h - 36.6 b i i l i o c r i s t a l b r e a d t h - 28.3 t r a n s v e r s e c h e s t - 26.4 f o o t l e n g t h - 24.5 b i e p i c o n d y l a r humerus w i d t h - 6.28 b i e p i c o n d y l a r femur w i d t h - 9.4 9 s i t t i n g h e i g h t - 82.8 a n t e r i o r - p o s t e r i o r c h e s t depth - 16.0 head g i r t h - 54.7 neck g i r t h - 31.8 84 S u b j e c t 18 body w e i g h t - 57.3 h e i g h t - 167.1 t r i c e p s s f - 10.8 s u b s c a p u l a r s f - 6.6 s u p r a i l i a c s f - 4.4 abdominal s f - 5.6 f r o n t t h i g h s f - 19.0 m e d i a l c a l f s f - 7.6 a c r o m i a l h e i g h t - 135.4 r a d i a l h e i g h t - 102.8 s t y l i o n h e i g h t - 81.8 d a c t y l i o n h e i g h t - 64.6 t i b i a l h e i g h t - 46.2 s p i n a l e h e i g h t - 91.9 t r o c h a n t e r i o n h e i g h t - 85.4 arm g i r t h r e l a x e d - 25.9 arm g i r t h f l e x e d - 26.4 f o r e a r m g i r t h - 22.7 w r i s t g i r t h - 14.9 c h e s t g i r t h - 87.2 w a i s t g i r t h - 65.8 t h i g h g i r t h - 55.3 c a l f g i r t h - 33.5 a n k l e g i r t h - 21.2 b i a c r o m i a l b r e a d t h - 37.4 b i i l i o c r i s t a l b r e a d t h - 25.9 t r a n s v e r s e c h e s t 26.4 f o o t l e n g t h - 24.7 b i e p i c o n d y l a r humerus w i d t h - 6.35 b i e p i c o n d y l a r femur w i d t h - 8.8 s i t t i n g h e i g h t - 87.4 a n t e r i o r - p o s t e r i o r c h e s t d epth - 16.2 head g i r t h - 55.0 neck g i r t h - 30.3 85 S u b j e c t 22 body w e i g h t - 47.1 h e i g h t - 164.2 t r i c e p s s f - 4.6 s u b s c a p u l a r s f - 4.2 s u p r a i l i a c s f - 2.9 abdominal s f - 3.8 f r o n t t h i g h - 8.6 m e d i a l c a l f s f - 3.2 a c r o m i a l h e i g h t - 132.6 r a d i a l h e i g h t - 101.5 s t y l i o n h e i g h t - 80.9 d a c t y l i o n h e i g h t - 60.5 t i b i a l h e i g h t - 45.8 s p i n a l e h e i g h t - 90.9 t r o c h a n t e r i o n h e i g h t - 82.5 arm g i r t h r e l a x e d - 22.1 arm g i r t h f l e x e d - 23.7 f o r e a r m g i r t h - 21.0 w r i s t g i r t h - 13.6 c h e s t g i r t h - 80.8 w a i s t g i r t h - 62.9 t h i g h g i r t h - 46.2 c a l f g i r t h - 29.5 a n k l e g i r t h - 18.3 b i a c r o m i a l b r e a d t h - 35.8 b i i l i o c r i s t a l b r e a d t h - 24.3 t r a n s v e r s e c h e s t - 24.7 f o o t l e n g t h - 24.0 b i e p i c o n d y l a r humerus w i d t h - 6.3 b i e p i c o n d y l a r femur w i d t h - 8.4 s i t t i n g h e i g h t - 87.4 a n t e r i o r - p o s t e r i o r c h e s t d epth -'16.5 head g i r t h - 56.7 neck g i r t h - 29.1 86 GROUP 2 Subject 01 body weight - 44.1 h e i g h t - 150.3 t r i c e p s s f - 14.8 subscapular s f - 9.6 s u p r a i l i a c s f - 12.4 abdominal s f - 12.2 f r o n t t h i g h s f - 17.8 medial c a l f s f - 12.6 a c r o m i a l h e i g h t - 120.9 r a d i a l h e i g h t - 92.6 s t y l i o n h e i g h t 75.0 d a c t y l i o n h e i g h t - 54.2 t i b i a l h e i g h t - 35.7 s p i n a l e h e i g h t - 80.2 t r o c h a n t e r i o n h e i g h t - 75.1 arm g i r t h r e l a x e d - 23.5 arm g i r t h f l e x e d - 25.3 forearm g i r t h - 20.8 w r i s t g i r t h - 13.2 chest g i r t h - 79.2 w a i s t g i r t h - 61.3 t h i g h g i r t h - 50.6 c a l f g i r t h - 33.0 ankle g i r t h - 18.8 b i a c r o m i a l breadth - 32.9 b i i l i o c r i s t a l breadth - 26.3 t r a n s v e r s e c h e s t - 23.5 f o o t l e n g t h - 21.9 b i e p i c o n d y l a r humerus width - 5.11 b i e p i c o n d y l a r femur width - 7.91 s i t t i n g h e i g h t - 82.3 a n t e r i o r - p o s t e r i o r chest depth - 16.0 head g i r t h - 56.9 neck g i r t h - 31.2 87 Subject 02 body weight - 57.1 he i g h t - .168.8 t r i c e p s s f - 16.9 subscapular s f - 9.4 s u p r a i l i a c s f - 8.6 abdominal s f - 10.6 f r o n t t h i g h s f - 24.2 medial c a l f s f - 19.8 a c r o m i a l h e i g h t - 137.8 r a d i a l h e i g h t - 106.2 s t y l i o n h e i g h t - 83.5 d a c t y l i o n h e i g h t - 64.8 t i b i a l h e i g h t - 41.9 s p i n a l e h e i g h t - 94.2 t r o c h a n t e r i o n h e i g h t - 88.9 arm g i r t h r e l a x e d - 25.5 arm g i r t h f l e x e d - 27.4 forearm g i r t h - 23.3 w r i s t g i r t h - 14.5 chest g i r t h - 83.3 wai s t g i r t h - 66.2 t h i g h g i r t h - 55.4 c a l f g i r t h - 34.6 ankle g i r t h - 21.9 b i a c r o m i a l breadth - 36.1 b i i l i o c r i s t a l breadth - 27.2 t r a n s v e r s e c h e s t - 25.6 f o o t l e n g t h - 24.3 b i e p i c o n d y l a r humerus width - 5.92 b i e p i c o n d y l a r femur width - 8.91 s i t t i n g h e i g h t - 92.6 a n t e r i o r - p o s t e r i o r chest depth - 15.0 head g i r t h - 54.0 neck .girth - 30.5 Subject 03 body weight - 50.6 h e i g h t - 162.1 t r i c e p s s f - 18.2 subscapular s f - 10.6 s u p r a i l i a c s f - 4.8 abdominal s f - 7.2 f r o n t t h i g h s f - 18.4 medial c a l f s f - 10.8 a c r o m i a l h e i g h t - 129.7 r a d i a l h e i g h t - 97.7 s t y l i o n h e i g h t - 7 3.5 d a c t y l i o n h e i g h t - 56.0 t i b i a l h e i g h t - 40.5 s p i n a l e h e i g h t - 90.8 t r o c h a n t e r i o n h e i g h t - 84.7 arm g i r t h r e l a x e d - 24.6 arm g i r t h f l e x e d - 25.6 forearm g i r t h - 22.7 w r i s t g i r t h - 15.0 c h e s t g i r t h - 81.3 w a i s t g i r t h - 70.2 t h i g h g i r t h - 49.6 c a l f g i r t h - 31.4 ankle g i r t h - 19.5 b i a c r o m i a l breadth - 36.7 b i i l i o c r i s t a l breadth - 26.6 t r a n s v e r s e chest - 25.8 f o o t l e n g t h - 23.7 b i e p i c o n d y l a r humerus width - 6.44 b i e p i c o n d y l a r femur width - 8.4 3 s i t t i n g h e i g h t - 83.5 a n t e r i o r - p o s t e r i o r chest depth - 16.1 head g i r t h - 53.8 neck g i r t h - 30.8 89 Subject 04 body weight - 51.5 height - 155.0 triceps sf - 17.2 subscapular sf - 14.5 suprailiac sf - 6.6 abdominal sf - 16.0 front thigh sf - 20.8 medial calf sf - 9.6 acromial height - 12 7.5 radial height - 97.3 stylion height - 75.3 dactylion height - 57.4 t i b i a l height - 40.5 spinale height - 85.4 trochanterion height - 78.9 arm girth relaxed - 27.0 arm girth flexed - 28.6 forearm girth - 23.1 wrist girth - 14.4 chest girth - 86.6 waist girth - 69.8 thigh girth - 54.3 calf girth - 31.7 ankle girth - 20.6 biacromial breadth - 36.3 b i i l i o c r i s t a l breadth - 27.1 transverse chest 26.1 foot length - 21.7 biepicondylar humerus width - 6.23 biepicondylar femur width - 8.89 sitting height - 81.1 anterior-posterior chest depth - 16.5 head girth - 52.4 neck girth - 30.8 90 Subject 05 body weight - 62.1 h e i g h t - 170.6 t r i c e p s s f - 13.0 subscapular s f - 17.2 s u p r a i l i a c s f - 11.6 abdominal s f - 19.2 f r o n t t h i g h s f - 16.4 medial c a l f s f - 12.0 a c r o m i a l h e i g h t - 143.4 r a d i a l h e i g h t - 111.2 s t y l i o n h e i g h t - 85.9 d a c t y l i o n h e i g h t - 67.9 t i b i a l h e i g h t - 47.8 s p i n a l e h e i g h t - 99.5 t r o c h a n t e r i o n h e i g h t - 90.8 arm g i r t h r e l a x e d - 25.9 arm g i r h t f l e x e d - 26.3 forearm g i r t h - 22.9 w r i s t g i r t h - 15.0 chest g i r t h - 85.0 w a i s t g i r t h - 72.0 t h i g h g i r t h - 54.7 c a l f g i r t h - 33.0 ankle g i r t h - 22.0 b i a c r o m i a l breadth - 33.3 b i i l i o c r i s t a l breadth - 30.6 t r a n s v e r s e chest - 25.2 f o o t l e n g t h - 25.2 b i e p i c o n d y l a r humerus width - 6.51 b i e p i c o n d y l a r femur width - 9.08 s i t t i n g h e i g h t - 86.1 a n t e r i o r - p o s t e r i o r c h e s t depth - 20.0 head g i r t h - 56.7 neck g i r t h - 32.2 91 Subject 06 body weight - 64.9 h e i g h t - 16 3.8 t r i c e p s s f - 18.4 subscapular s f - 1812 s u p r a i l i a c s f - 10.6 abdominal s f - 15.4 f r o n t t h i g h - 26.8 medial c a l f s f - 15.4 a c r o m i a l h e i g h t - 133.6 r a d i a l h e i g h t - 100.4 s t y l i o n h e i g h t - 77.3 d a c t y l i o n h e i g h t - 59.6 t i b i a l h e i g h t - 44.3 s p i n a l e h e i g h t - 95.9 t r o c h a n t e r i o n h e i g h t - 90.2 arm g i r t h r e l a x e d - 27.2 arm g i r t h f l e x e d - 29.1 forearm g i r t h - 23.6 w r i s t g i r t h - 15.8 c h e s t g i r t h - 90.0 w a i s t g i r t h - 72.2 t h i g h g i r t h - 62.3 c a l f g i r t h - 35.3 ankle g i r t h - 23.1 b i a c r o m i a l breadth - 35.1 b i i l i o c r i s t a l breadth - 30.0 t r a n s v e r s e chest - 25.0 f o o t l e n g t h - 26.0 b i e p i c o n d y l a r humerus width - 6.1 b i e p i c o n d y l a r femur width - 9.17 s i t t i n g h e i g h t - 82.7 a n t e r i o r - p o s t e r i o r chest depth - 17.5 head g i r t h - 55.8 neck g i r t h - 32.3 92 Subject 14 body weight - 64.4 height - 160.3 triceps sf - 13.3 subscapular sf - 9.9 suprailiac sf - 11.5 abdominal sf - 16.9 front thigh sf - 14.0 medial calf sf - 5.9 acromial height - 129.9 radial height - 100.7 stylion height - 78.6 dactylion height - 61.4 t i b i a l height - 39.9 spinale height - 90.4 trochanterion height - 82.2 arm girth relaxed - 28.2 arm girth flexed - 29.1 forearm girth - 25.6 wrist girth - 16.0 chest girth - 92.1 waist girth - 76.4 thigh girth - 58.0 calf girth - 36.0 ankle girth - 22.2 biacromial breadth - 35.7 b i i l i o c r i s t a l breadth - 30.9 transverse chest - 28.9 foot length - 25.3 biepicondylar humerus width - 6.37 biepicondylar femur width - 9.32 sitting height - 86.9 anterior-posterior chest depth - 17.2 head girth - 56.0 neck girth - 33.1 93 Subject 15 body weight - 54.8 h e i g h t - 163.2 t r i c e p s s f - 14.4 subscapular - 12.5 s u p r a i l i a c s f - 10.4 abdominal s f - 14.2 f r o n t t h i g h s f - 17.7 medial c a l f s f - 9.9 a c r o m i a l h e i g h t - 130.8 r a d i a l h e i g h t - 100.9 s t y l i o n h e i g h t - 80.6 d a c t y l i o n h e i g h t - 60.4 t i b i a l h e i g h t - 38.2 s p i n a l e h e i g h t - 92.4 :. t r o c h a n t e r i o n h e i g h t - 83.7 arm g i r t h r e l a x e d - 26.0 arm g i r t h f l e x e d - 27.5 forearm g i r t h - 23.0 w r i s t g i r t h - 15.0 chest g i r t h - 79.8 w a i s t g i r t h - 67.1 t h i g h g i r t h - 53.8 c a l f g i r t h - 32.2 ankle g i r t h - 20.2 b i a c r o m i a l breadth - 32.8 b i i l i o c r i s t a l breadth - 28.2 transve'rse chest - 23.8 f o o t l e n g t h - 23.6 b i e p i c o n d y l a r humerus width - 6.17 b i e p i c o n d y l a r femur width - 8.97 s i t t i n g h e i g h t - 87.1 a n t e r i o r - p o s t e r i o r c h e s t depth - 19.5 head g i r t h - 53.2 neck g i r t h - 29.8 94 Subject 19 body weight - 6 3.4 height - 170.7 t r i c e p s s f - 21.2 subscapular s f - 16.0 s u p r a i l i a c s f - 17.4 abdominal s f - 18.1 f r o n t t h i g h s f - 20.2 medial c a l f s f - 24.8 acromial height - 138.7 r a d i a l height - 106.8 s t y l i o n height - 84.2 d a c t y l i o n height - 64.2 t i b i a l height - 46.4 s p i n a l e height - 95.6 t r o c h a n t e r i o n height - 8 9.3 arm g i r t h r e l a x e d - 27.5 arm g i r t h f l e x e d - 27.9 forearm g i r t h - 24.4 w r i s t g i r t h - 15.2 chest g i r t h - 85.1 waist g i r t h - 67.5 t h i g h g i r t h - 61.4 c a l f g i r t h - 36.2 ankle g i r t h - 20.9 b i a c r o m i a l breadth - 34.9 b i i l i o c r i s t a l breadth - 28.2 transverse chest - 26.8 f o o t length - 24.8 b i e p i c o n d y l a r humerus width - 6.7 b i e p i c o n d y l a r femur width - 9.3 s i t t i n g height - 88.9 a n t e r i o r - p o s t e r i o r chest depth - 17.3 head g i r t h - 55.6 neck g i r t h - 31.1 95 S u b j e c t 20 body w e i g h t - 59.4 h e i g h t - 166.4 t r i c e p s s f - 15.6 s u b s c a p u l a r s f - 13.8 s u p r a i l i a c s f - 10.0 abdominal s f - 17.6 f r o n t t h i g h s f - 28.0 m e d i a l c a l f s f - 18.4 a c r o m i a l h e i g h t - 134.7 r a d i a l h e i g h t - 104.6 s t y l i o n h e i g h t - 82.5 d a c t y l i o n h e i g h t - 6 3.7 t i b i a l h e i g h t - 45.3 s p i n a l e h e i g h t - 90.2 t r o c h a n t e r i o n h e i g h t - 86.9 arm g i r t h r e l a x e d - 27.5 arm g i r t h f l e x e d - 28.5 f o r e a r m g i r t h - 24.0 w r i s t g i r t h - 15.5 c h e s t g i r t h - 83.5 w a i s t g i r t h - 66.9 t h i g h g i r t h - 58.4 c a l f g i r t h - 34.9 a n k l e g i r t h - 20.3 b i a c r o m i a l b r e a d t h - 35.1 b i i l i o c r i s t a l b r e a d t h - 26.6 t r a n s v e r s e c h e s t - 26.7 f o o t l e n g t h - 22.8 b i e p i c o n d y l a r humerus w i d t h - 6.5 b i e p i c o n d y l a r femur w i d t h - 9.47 s i t t i n g h e i g h t - 88.2 a n t e r i o r - p o s t e r c h e s t d epth - 17.6 head g i r t h - 55.8 neck g i r t h - 31.6 96 S u b j e c t 21 body w e i g h t - 54.5 h e i g h t - 161.4 t r i c e p s s f - 13.4 s u b s c a p u l a r s f - 7.4 s u p r a i l i a c s f - 5.6 abdominal s f - 6.3 f r o n t t h i g h s f - 22.4 m e d i a l c a l f s f - 10.6 a c r o m i a l h e i g h t - 128.3 r a d i a l h e i g h t - 99.3 s t y l i o n h e i g h t - 7 8.1 d a c t y l i o n h e i g h t - 59.1 t i b i a l h e i g h t - 45.7 s p i n a l e h e i g h t - 90.6 t r o c h a n t e r i o n h e i g h t - 82.8 arm g i r t h r e l a x e d - 25.0 arm g i r t h f l e x e d - 26.1 f o r e a r m g i r t h - 23.5 w r i s t g i r t h - 15.4 c h e s t g i r t h - 82.9 w a i s t g i r t h - 63.0 t h i g h g i r t h - 55.4 c a l f g i r t h - 38.2 a n k l e g i r t h - 22.6 b i a c r o m i a l b r e a d t h - 36.2 b i i l i o c r i s t a l b r e a d t h - 27.2 t r a n s v e r s e c h e s t - 24.2 f o o t l e n g t h - 24.2 b i e p i c o n d y l a r humerus w i d t h - 6.4 b i e p i c o n d y l a r femur w i d t h - 9.0 s i t t i n g h e i g h t - 84.7 a n t e r i o r - p o s t e r i o r c h e s t d epth - 17.3 head g i r t h - 55.4 neck g i r t h - 30.5 97 S u b j e c t 23 body w e i g h t - 57.3 h e i g h t - 171.6 t r i c e p s s f - 14.6 s u b s c a p u l a r s f - 7.5 s u p r a i l i a c s f - 7.4 abdominal s f - 11.6 f r o n t t h i g h s f - 24.0 m e d i a l c a l f s f - 14.6 a c r o m i a l h e i g h t - 139.9 r a d i a l h e i g h t - 109.0 s t y l i o n h e i g h t - 81.5 d a c t y l i o n h e i g h t - 64.9 t i b i a l h e i g h t - 49.0 s p i n a l e h e i g h t - 93.9 t r o c h a n t e r i o n h e i g h t - 87.9 arm g i r t h r e l a x e d - 25.7 arm g i r t h f l e x e d - 25.2 f o r e a r m g i r t h - 23.5 w r i s t g i r t h - 14.7 c h e s t g i r t h - 82.8 w a i s t g i r t h - 62.9 t h i g h g i r t h - 54.2 c a l f g i r t h - 33.5 a n k l e g i r t h - 21.8 b i a c r o m i a l b r e a d t h - 36.1 b i i l i o c r i s t a l b r e a d t h - 27.9 t r a n s v e r s e c h e s t - 27.1 f o o t l e n g t h - 24.7 b i e p i c o n d y l a r humerus w i d t h - 6.2 b i e p i c o n d y l a r femur w i d t h - 9.3 s i t t i n g h e i g h t - 90.0 a n t e r i o r - p o s t e r i o r c h e s t d epth - 18.5 head g i r t h - 55.0 neck g i r t h - 31.5 

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