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Changes in blood glucose and physical work capacity after heat dehydration 1975

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CHANGES IN BLOOD GLUCOSE AND PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY AFTEB HEAT DEHYDRATION by Philippe Joseph Jacques Harkon B.Sc. (Ed.P.) #Oniversite de Montreal A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION in the School of Physical Education and Recreation We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MAY 1975 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirement for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head cf my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of th i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of PHYSICAL EDUCATION The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date May, 1215. i ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was to examine the e f f e c t s of a 4% lean body weight dehydration with two l e v e l s of rehydration f o r four hours on the changes i n physical work capacity and blood glucose. Further, the study examined the e f f e c t s cn volume STPD, V02, R.Q. and true 02 during the physical work capacity t e s t . A t o t a l of .7 u v i v e r s i f y - aged males were involved i n the experiment as subjects . Each subject was tested i n two experimental conditions, i . e . 50% rehydration and 100% rehydration, on two separate days. Each set of tests consisted of blood samples drawn from the finger t i p , a physical work capacity test with expiratory gas c o l l e c t i o n . Six sets of tests were di s t r i b u t e d as follows: one at 6 A.M.,and one h a l f an hour a f t e r dehydration. The four other sets were hourly separated. The rehydration consisted of intake of tomato j u i c e given a f t e r the set of tests 2, 3, 4 and 5. The amount given was equally subdivided and depended on the experimental condition. Analysis of variance indicated s i g n i f i c a n t changes ever time for a l l dependent variables, except V02; s i g n i f i c a n t changes between l e v e l of rehydration for weight, and s i g n i f i c a n t changes for the l e v e l of rehydration by time i n t e r a c t i o n for true 02 and weight. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i v i d u a l simple i i c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t between blood glucose and physical work capacity for each experimental condition. There was a mean decrease of 30?? i n physical work capacity after heat dehydration and only U0% of the loss was recovered without s i g n i f i c a n t difference between experimental conditions. Gas exchange was also affected. The volume STPD increased a f t e r dehydration, true 02 decreased aft e r dehydration and a better recovery showed up in the 50% rehydration condition. The R.Q. parameter, i n f a c t , did not indicate s i g n i f i c a n t changes but there was a s l i g h t decrease a f t e r dehydration. The l e v e l of blood glucose decreased after dehydration tut there was an increase i n the middle of rehydration, even with the expected increase i n blood volume, from the l i q u i d intake. This suggested a very high l e v e l of gluconeogenesis on those l a s t hours, probably due to glucocorticoid hormone action. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I Statement of the problem ....................... 1 Introduction 1 Statement of the Problem .................. 2 Hypotheses ................................ 2 De f i n i t i o n of Terms ....................... 3 Delimitation .............................. 3 Limitation ................................ 3 Significance of the Study ................. 4 II Review of Literature ........................... 5 Physiological Changes .....5 Biochemical Changes ....................... 7 1. El e c t r o l y t e s ...................... 7 2. Metabolism ........................ 8 Summary .............10 III Methods and Procedures ...........................11 Sub jects ..................................11 Experimental Procedure ....................11 Blood Glucose Determination ................ 15 Gas Determination .........................16 Physical Work Capacity 150 Determination ..16 Rehydration Procedure .....................17 Experimental Design ., 17 Experimental Conditions ...................19 iv S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis 19 IV Results and Discussion .........................21 Results 21 Descriptive S t a t i s t i c .....................21 Analysis of Data, Test of Hypotheses ......22 Discussion ................................37 V Summary and Conclusions 42 S urn mar y ...................................42 Conclusions ............................... 44 Bibliography ..............................45 Appendices A. Individual Results and Graphs ..50 B. Analysis of Variance ...................78 C. Subject Information and Instruction ....92 V LIST OF TABLES PAGE I Analysis of Variance for Changes i n Physical Work Capacity 150, N=4, Time=6 ...24 II Analysis of Variance i n Blood Glucose N=6, Time=6 26 III Analysis of Variance for Changes in Weight, N=6, Time=6 28 IV Analysis of Variance for Changes i n VSTPD, N=4, Time=6 30 V Analysis of Variance for Changes i n R.Q., N=4, Time=6 32 VI Analysis of Variance for Changes i n True 02, N=4, Time=6 34 VII Individual Physical Work Capacity and Blood Glucose Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s ....35 VIII Analysis of Variance for Changes i n Physical Work Capacity 150, N=7, Time=1 to 3 79 IX Analysis of Variance for Changes i n Physical Work Capacity 150, N=5, Time=1 to 5 ..80 X Analysis of Variance for Changes i n Blood Glucose, N=7, Time=1 to 3 81 XI Analysis of Variance for Changes in Volume STPD, N=7, Time=1 to 3 82 XII Analysis of Variance for Changes in Volume STPD, N=5, Time=1 to 5 83 XIII Analysis of Variance for Changes i n R.Q., N=7, Time=1 to 3 ..84 XIV Analysis of Variance for Changes i n R.Q., N=5, Time=1 to 5 85 XV Analysis of Variance for Changes i n True 02, N=7, Time=1 to 3 86 XVI Analysis of Variance for Changes i n True 02, N=5, Time=1 to 5 .................87 XVII Analysis of Variance for Changes i n V02, N=7, Time=1 to 3 ... 89 v i XVIII Analysis of variance for Changes i n V02, N=5, Time=1 to 5 .................... .90 XIX Analysis of Variance for Changes i n V02 , Tinte=6 91 v i i LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Means of Physical Work Capacity 150 expressed i n percent for 50% Rehydration and 100% Rehydration Conditions .......23 2. Means of Blood Glucose i n percent for 50% Rehydration and 10055 Rehydration Conditions ..........25 3. Means of Weight i n percent for 50% Rehydration and 100% Rehydration Conditions ..........27 4. Means of Volume STPD expressed i n percent for 50% Rehydration and 100% Rehydration Conditions ......29 5. Means of R. Q. expressed i n percent for 50% Rehydration and 100% Rehydration Conditions ...................... 31 6. Means of True 02 expressed i n percent for 50% Rehydration and 100% Rehydration Conditions ......................33 7. Means of V02 i n percent for 50% Rehydration and 100% Rehydration Conditions ......................88 8. individ u a l s % Changes i n PWC-150 .................72 9. Individuals % Changes in Blood Glucose ...........73 10. Individuals % Changes in Volume STPD .............74 11. Indivuals % Changes i n R.Q. 75 12. Individuals % Changes i n True 02 ..76 13. Individuals % Changes in V02 ........77 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author would l i k e to express his sincere gratitude to the members of his thesis commettee for the i r help and support throughout the presentation of t h i s study and in particular to Dr. Kenneth Coutts, committee chairman, who has given me so much expert advice and guidance over the l a s t two years. My appreciation i s also extended to the seven subjects who not only gave two f u l l days but also submitted themselves to t h i s unpleasant experiment. F i n a l l y , a sp e c i a l thanks i s conveyed to my wife, Dominigue Markon, and to Jeannine Kapelus for the format presentation of th i s study. CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Introduction A major c r i t i c i s m of amateur wrestling concerns the rapid weight loss often required before weighing for a competition. It i s current practice for an athlete to dehydrate himself by the use of laxatives, d i u r e t i c s , f a s t i n g , or a combination cf these various techniques for lowering weight . I t i s very common for an i n d i v i d u a l to lose 10 to 12 pounds ( R i b i s l , 1974) within a few days and sometimes within a few hours. When a subject submits himself to heat dehydration, t h i s stress leads to biochemical and physiological changes which need to be recovered during rehydration . Heat dehydration i s already known to s i g n i f i c a n t l y decrease the physical work capacity of an i n d i v i d u a l (Saltin, 1964B; Kozlowski, 1969). The physiological mechanisms involved (Saltin, 1964B; Kozlowski, 1969) i n t h i s loss have been investigated, and the decrease i n capacity was revealed to be mainly caused by the reduction in the e x t r a c e l l u l a r f l u i d s which are l o s t during such dehydration. The biochemical (Simonson, 1971) changes are not well understood, but some available data give l i t t l e information, such as a lower l a c t i c acid concentration, during submaximal test, (Saltin, 1964B) and a lower R.Q. af t e r heat deydration. (Saltin, 1964A).Glucocorticoid hormones are s i g n i f i c a n t l y secreted (Col l i n s , 1968) during heat exposure. Their gluconeogenic e f f e c t 1 2 should be traceable after dehydration and a change i n blood glucose l e v e l would be an i n d i c a t i o n of t h i s steroid release. Thus blood glucose data could give information on changes in energy metabolism during heat dehydration and on the effect of rehydration. Statement of the problem The purpose of t h i s study was to investigate the changes in blood glucose l e v e l and physical work capacity a f t e r dehydration. Subproblem Secondly, t h i s study was made to investigate the e f f e c t of a 4 hrs rehydration period on physical work capacity and blood glucose l e v e l . Hypotheses The hypotheses are : 1. Heat dehydration increases the blood glucose l e v e l and reduces the physical work capacity. 2. The l e v e l of rehydration , immediately after beat dehydration , a f f e c t s blood glucose l e v e l and physical work capacity. 3 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Heat dehydration: a d e f i c i t of body water caused by high sweat rates with exessive loss of body f l u i d s i n a high temperature environment. Lean body weight: t o t a l body weight minus t o t a l f a t tody weight. Physical work capacity 150: work load needed for a heart rate response of 150 beats/min. Rehydration: recovery of body water towards normal l e v e l by absorption of l i q u i d . Delimitation Inferences from t h i s study should be r e s t r i c t e d to people involved i n a heavy t r a i n i n g schedule in a environment at room temperature. Limitation 1. The inves t i g a t i o n i s li m i t e d by the sample siz e of 7 subjects , and t h e i r type i . e . varsity wrestlers. 2. The accuracy of the re s u l t s i s limited by the equipment and the methods used, 3. The procedure involved in data c o l l e c t i o n may have influenced subsequent r e s u l t s , therefore interpretation of the data i s limited by the experimental protocol. 4 Significance of the study. At the present time most explanations advanced for the changes i n physical work capacity, following heat dehydration, are concerned with the cardiovascular aspect of the problem. There were no data available on changes in blood glucose after heat dehydration, and, since blood glucose i s a key i n energy metabolism, such data could explain,, to some extent, the biochemical processes involved i n heat dehydration and during rehydration. This study should give a better understanding of the reasons for the loss of physical work capacity, of the main reasons for the negative effects of heat dehydration and of what i s more important during rehydration ( i . e . f l u i d recovery, e l e c t r o l y t e balance, rehydration time, e t c . ) . F i n a l l y , i t may give the athlete important information to help him decide whether to stay i n a higher weight class or cut down rapidly his weight and s e t t l e for a limited recovery. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE Physiological Changes The loss of water and e l e c t r o l y t e s decreases the a b i l i t y to perform muscular work (Adolph, 1947; P i t t s et a l . , 1944). The mechanisms are not well understood, but impaired cardiovascular function i s considered to be an important factor (Adolph, 1947; Beetham and Buskirk, 1958; Buskirk et a l . , 1958; S a l t i n 1964A). Blood and plasma volume are greatly affected by a heat dehydration, a 4% loss i n body weight reduces s i g n i f i c a n t l y the Evans blue space and i n u l i n space (Kozlowski and S a l t i n , 1964). For a 3.6% heat dehydration plasma i s reduced by 13.6% with a plasma water loss of. 8.0% (Horstman and Horvath, 1972). Giec (1969) found s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . S a l t i n (1964A) found with a body weight reduction up to 5.2% during heat exposure, a reduction i n plasma volume up to 25%. C o s t i l l and Sparks (1973) studied eight males on three separate occasions during a 4% body weight thermal dehydration and during rapid f l u i d replacement, within three hours. They found a decrease in plasma volume of 12% (variance of 8 to 27%) without s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n red c e l l mass and mean c e l l volumes respectively during dehydration or a rehydration period. With the non rehydrated.group the reduction in plasma volume remained almost the same. Either demineralized water or glucose- e l e c t r o l y t e solution completely restored the plasma volume to 6 the prehydration l e v e l within three hours. Such changes i n c i r c u l a t i n g volume af f e c t the cardiac functions (Mountcastle, 1968) such as heart rate, cardiac output and stroke volume,. During submaximal work, af t e r heat dehydration, the heart rate was significanthy increased ( C o s t i l l and Sparks, 1973; Kozlowski, 1969; S a l t i n , 1964A ; S a l t i n , 1964B; Strydom and Holdsworth, 1968) and came back, close to the predehydration l e v e l , a f t e r a complete rehydration within 3hrs ( C o s t i l l and Sparks, 1973) By recording the heart rate during work, afte r a 4% body weight dehydration, Kozlowski (1969) found a decrease cf 30% in the physical performance of his subjects. Such changes in physical work capacity were noticable at a 1% body weight dehydration (Kozlowski, - 1966). Such an increase i n heart rate i s compensating for a decrease i n stroke volume fo r a s i m i l a r cardiac output on a submaximal work test (Saltin 64A, S a l t i n 64B)., Endurance was also s i g n i f i c a n t l y decreased (Saltin, 1964A). The v i t a l capacity was not impaired after a heat dehydration (Govindaraj, 1972), and neither was the oxygen consumption (Saltin, 1964A; Kozlowski, 1969), Ventilation equivalent did not show a s i g n i f i c a n t change (Salti n , 1964A) but increased s l i g h t l y . Therefore the major physiological changes, after heat dehydration, a f f e c t i n g the physical work capacity are mainly from the cardiovascular changes i . e . blood volume, stroke volume and heart rate, but pulmonary functions (oxygen consumption, true 02) do not seem affected. Complete rehydration returns normal cardiac function during exercise without a complete recovery of plasma volume. Biochemical Changes The hormonal release, the changes i n energy source for work, the loss of water and e l e c t r o l y t e s are of great importance in r e l a t i o n to the changes i n physical work capacity. These biochemical factors are revealed to be affected by dehydration and t h e i r l e v e l of significance needs to be considered. 1. E l e c t r o l y t e s : Serum sodium and chloride concentration increased approximately 3% following 4% body weight dehydration ( C o s t i l l and Sparks, 1973), but t h e i r loss through the sweat gland i s s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t , (Kozlowski and S a l t i n , 1964; Greenleaf and Sargent, 1965; Johnson et a l . , 1942). Calcium i s also l o s t at a rate of 20 mg/hr during dehydration (Consolazio et a l , 1962) but t h i s does not aff e c t s i g n i f i c a n t l y the plasma concentration (Rose et a l . , 1970) . Magnesium i s a very important c e l l u l a r constituent. The normal function of cardiac and s k e l e t a l muscle and nervous tissue depends greatly on a proper balance between calcium and magnesium, but even i f magnesium loss during dehydration i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y detectable these losses should not be considered 8 important for the proper balance of e l e c t r o l y t e s (Consclazic et a l . , 1963). Potassium i s the most important e l e c t r o l y t e that can be affected during heat dehydration since i t can influence muscular a c t i v i t y and the e x c i t a b i l i t y of nerve tissue. Potassium d e f i c i e n c i e s are manifested by muscular weakness and cardiac i r r e g u l a r i t i e s . After heat dehydration the concentration of potassium i n plasma remains almost the same ( C o s t i l l and Sparks, 1963; Griec, 1969). But the potassium concentration, during rehydration decreases i f . the l i q u i d intake does not contain enough potassium. ( C o s t i l l and Sparks, 1973). In general.then, heat dehydration of 4% body weight causes no important changes i n blood e l e c t r o l y t e s , but the rehydration should be made from an e l e c t r o l y t e solution containing enough sodium chloride and potassium i n order to maintain the normal concentrations with increasing plasma volume. 2. Metabolism: The pr i n c i p l e sources of energy during work are carbohydrates and f a t t y acids. The r e l a t i v e amount of energy from each source , depends on the i n t e n s i t y l e v e l of the work (Scherrer, 1969; Vanroux, 1969; Froberg, 1969; Issekurtz and M i l l e r , 1962; Masoro et a l . , 1966) and also the metabolic state (Baldwin, 1970; Herman, Sabim ana S t i f e l , 1969; L e v e i l l e , 1970). There was a lower R.Q. during a submaximal work test after heat dehydration ( S a l t i n , 1964A); which indicates an increase of 9 f a t t y acid catabolism a f t e r such dehydration. Lcwer pcst- exercise l a c t i c acid levels were also observed indicating less g l y c o l y s i s ( S a l t i n , 1964B), and therefore a lover glycogen breakdown. Blood glucose l e v e l decreases s l i g h t l y during submaximal work and returns to preexercise l e v e l within a short period of time (Beichard et a l . , 1961). There i s a decrease in i n s u l i n release during a c t i v i t y (Ccnrad et a l . , 1969). There i s also a decrease i n i n s u l i n release after dehydration (Tepperman, 1967), and the i n s u l i n i s i n h i b i t e d by the acidosis (Selkurt, 1971) produced by the dehydration (Hasorc, 1971). Insulin i s also i n h i b i t e d by C o r t i s o l release (Selkurt, 1971). Hormone secretions are of very great importance during heat exposure since they can af f e c t the l e v e l of blood glucose, some enzyme a c t i v i t i e s and the l e v e l of e l e c t r o l y t e s . Aldosterone and C o r t i s o l are gluconeogenic hormones, and during heat stress the l e v e l of aldosterone, throughout sweating, i s very high (Kozlowski, 1969; G i b i n s k i , 1969; C o l l i n s , 1968). Aldosterone i s responsible for 50-70% cf the t o t a l mineralocorticoid a c t i v i t y , whereas deoxycortisone contributes very l i t t l e either i n i t s potency or i t s presence quantitatively. The remaining response to heat, i n man, comes from C o r t i s o l arid corticosterone (0 'Connor, 1962). This high l e v e l cf aldosterone i s stimulated by the heat s t r e s s , reduction i n e x t r a c e l l u l a r f l u i d volume, s a l t depletion and dehydration (Bledsoe, Island, and Liddle, 1966). C o r t i s o l showed a marked increase in plasma a f t e r one to two hours of 10 heat exposure ( C o l l i n s , 1968) and the hepatic removal cf cort i c o s t e r o i d s i s lowered in a very high environmental temperature (C o l l i n s , 1968). A small concentration of these steroids i s found to be l e s t i n sweat and in urine (Bobinson and Macfarlane, 1958 ). Since the adreno-corticosteroids are s i g n i f i c a n t l y released during heat dehydration t h e i r e f f e c t cn bleed glucose should be revealed because of t h e i r gluconeogenic properties. There are no studies i n the l i t e r a t u r e which appear tc consider the combined e f f e c t s of heat dehydration followed by a rehydration cn changes of physical work capacity and blood glucose. Summary The f l u i d s h i f t s following heat dehydration leads to cardiovascular changes re f l e c t e d by a decrease in physical work capacity. Glucocorticoid hormones secreted during heat dehydration are expected to be manifested by an increase in blood glucose. This study was intended tc relate the changes in blood glucose and physical work capacity after dehydration and during rehydration and therefore determine the l e v e l of signi f i c a n c e between the two. CHAPTEB III METHODS AND PBOCEDUBES Subjects Seven subjects participated i n the experiment. The age of the subjects ranged from 18 to 29, giving an average of 21years. Six of these subjects were undergraduate students and one was a graduate student at the University of B r i t i s h Colombia. A l l of them, members of the Varsity Wrestling Team, were well trained and accustomed to heat and metabolic dehydration. Experimental Procedures A l l subjects were tested four times during the week prior to the experiment on a physical work capacity 150 test with expiratory gas c o l l e c t i o n . These tests were given i n order to eliminate any learning e f f e c t during the experiment and also to measure the physiological responses of the subjects i n order to determine the work load to be used during the experiment. On their f i r s t pretest subjects were informed, to some extent, of the nature of the study (see appendix C: Subject information and instruction) . Before the day they were to be tested, subjects received the following i n s t r u c t i o n s : to eat normally during the day before the experiment, have a good night's rest and do not discuss the experiment u n t i l a f t e r the la s t subject was tested. 11 12 These instructions were given i n order that the subjects could present themselves for each experiment with approximately the same metabolic state. The next morning the subjects arrived at 6 A.M. for one- half of the experiment. At that time the subjects were fasted and did not drink any water or other l i q u i d that morning. Their lean body weight was predicted from six skin fold measurements, through the use of a Harpenden Skinfold Caliper and body weight, as stated by Yuhasz (1963). Four per cent of t h e i r lean body weight was calculated and set as the amount of weight to be l o s t during dehydration. A one hundred mi c r o l i t e r blood sample was then extracted from the finger t i p as follows: the investigator wrapped the forearm of the subject with a hot towel and put one finger i n a hot water bath for f i v e minutes. Afterwards the forearm and the finger were dried with a towel and the subject was asked to spin his arm t h i r t y times; and the finger t i p was then pricked with a s t e r i l e lancet and the blood was c o l l e c t e d , by c a p i l l a r y action, i n a 100 mi c r o l i t e r glass disposable micro sampling pipet (from Corning Laboratory Products Deparment, cat.no. 7099-S, 1/2% accuracy). The blood was immediately poured into a t e s t tube pretreated with sodium f l u o r i d e 4%, and potassium oxalate 4%, containing 0.9 ml of 3% t r i c h l o r o a c e t i c acid solution. Then the sample was shaken l a t e r a l l y , capped and frozen. A three lead set of ECG electrode was put on the subject who had to mount the bicycle ergometer (Monarck). He was then f i t t e d up with a gas c o l l e c t i o n mask which consisted of a mouth 13 piece breathing valve with a connecting tube to the gas meter i n order to determine the gas volume and a 0.3% sample for gas analysis. The breathing valve was held by the mask, and the nose was blocked by a nose c l i p . The gasmeter and the ECG recorder were placed i n such a manner that the subject could not see the changes throughout the test. The height of the seat was always the same for each i n d i v i d u a l for a l l their t e s t s . The metronome was then set at 120 beats per minute with the sound corresponding to each down foot position, cycling at 60 revs/min. The subject started pedalling at a zero resistance a few seconds before the t e s t i n order to take up the speed. Then, exactly at the same time, the gas meter and the stop watch were turned on and, just a f t e r , the pre-determined work load was adjusted. This work load was set for the 6 A.M. test so that the heart rate would be at 100 beats per minute. The heart rate was recorded on the ECG during the l a s t 15 seconds of each minute throughout the test . On the f i f t h minute, the work load was increased to obtain a heart rate responses of 110 beats per minute, and again at the ninth minute for a rate of 120 beats per minute. At the end of the twelfth minute the gas meter and the ECG were shut o f f . Then the subject was ready f o r his dehydration. Immediately after each physical work capacity 150 test, the gas sample was analysed for oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration. The gas temperature was recorded on the s i x t h minute of the test and the barometric pressure was recorded 14 before the test . The subject went into the physiotherapy room, within the same building as the exercise physiology laboratory, and into a dry sauna, e l e c t r i c indoor, where the temperature was kept at 70 degrees Celcius. The r e l a t i v e humidity was recorded by a Bacharach Sl i n g Psychrometer. The subject had to l i e down or s i t down passively in the sauna. He could take a f i v e minutes break each 15 to 30 minutes. During those breaks at room temperature, he could check his weight and was covered with a wool blanket while lying on a bed. after the subject completed his 4% lean body weight dehydration, he went back to the exercise physiology laboratory where he had to l i e on a bed, covered with a wool blanket f c r a 30 minutes rest. This was done to insure that the subject stopped sweating when the weigh in took place to determine his per cent dehydration. During that time the investigator weighed a l l the clothes and equipment that the subject would have on him during rehydration. This was done to avoid the necessity of undressing f o r each successive weighing and of removing and replacing the electrodes. Then the subject was submitted to the same blood test as at 6 A.M. i n the morning, and his weight was recorded as the weight indicated on the weight scale minus the weight of his equipment. After t h i s , the subject underwent the physical work capacity 150 test following exactly the same procedure as given e a r l i e r . This was done i n order to compare the gas exchange between successive test and maintain a submaximal work load. After t h i s test the subject received a quantity of tomato juice (cooled to f i v e degree Celcius) which he had to drink within f i v e minutes. The quantity of tomato juice . received was determined by the experimental condition for that day. Then the subject rested for approximately 35 minutes i n the semi divided part of the laboratory where he could l i e down or read. After t h i s set of tests the room temperature and the r e l a t i v e humidity were recorded. One hour after the previous blood t e s t , the subject was again submitted to the same set.of tests i . e . blood test, weight measurement, work capacity 150 test and rehydration with tomato juic e . These hourly sets of tests were repeated three other times except on the last of these where the subject did not have to rehydrate himself as t h i s was the completion of that half of the experiment for that subject. Therefore each subject was submitted to six sets cf tests on each of two experimental days which are i d e n t i f i e d throughout t h i s investigation as times 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, Time 1 was taken as the baseline value for that day with time 2 at t h i r t y minutes after a 4% lean body weight, heat dehydration. Times 3, 4, 5 and 6 were at one, two, three and four hours, respectively, into the rehydration period which immediately followed the dehydration period. 16 Blood Glucose Determination A modification of the ortho-toluidine procedure for whole blood supplied by Sigma Chemical Company i n t h e i r technical b u l l e t i n #635 (1974) was used f o r determining blood glucose. A one hundred m i c r o l i t r e blood sample from a f i n t e r t i p puncture was used for analysis, and the normal procedure was followed u t i l i z i n g proportional quantities of the various reagents. Gas Determination The expired a i r volume and temperature were recorded from a Max Plank Gasmeter, and a gas sample was collected i n a sample bladder, model Pongs Geschutzt 1600774. Gas concentration was determined from the expired gas sample. Carbon dioxide analysis was made with a Godart Capnograph type 146, and oxygen analysis with a westinghouse Pulmonery Function Oxygen Monitor, model Nc. 211. Physical Work Capacity 150 Determination The paper speed of the ECG preamplifier was set at 25 mm/sec. For each work load the corresponding heart rate was determined by c a l c u l a t i n g the distance i n miliraeters of twelve heart beats from the l a s t two minutes of each work load. The distances were added, the sum divided by four and the value obtained was used to determine the heart rate from a chart (CAHPEH, 1968). The three heart rates corresponding with the work loads were used to determine the physical work capacity 150 using a regression equation. The value obtained was multiplied by 360 to convert the resistance value for a given heart rate to a work load in kilopond-meters per minute at a heart rate of 150 per minute. Rehydration Procedure Commercial tomato juic e was used, seasoned with less than 1% s a l t , containing approximately 21 c a l o r i e s per 100 grams, from Libby, McNeill and Libby of Canada Limited. The calculated weight for determining the tomato juice to be given to the subject was determined by a . volumetric method, using a 500 m i l i l i t e r beaker and a 100 m i l i l i t e r graduated cylinder. It was approximated that one m i l i l i t e r of tomato juice corresponded to one gram. Experimental Design The study was designed as a two by six f a c t o r i a l experiment with repeated measures on both factors and six dependent measures on each subject. The two independent variables were: A. Hydration l e v e l H1: 50% rehydration. H2: 100% rehydration. B. Time: T1: Pre dehydration at 6 A.M. T2: Following a 4% lean body weight dehydration. 18 T3 to 6: One hour i n t e r v a l rehydration. These two l e v e l s of rehydration were used i n order to determine i f the l e v e l of rehydration i s important; the four percent dehydration was selected because i t i s similar to the p r a c t i c a l s i t u a t i o n of the wrestlers. Also, i t i s the most used value i n the previous l i t e r a t u r e and i t i s known to produce s i g n i f i c a n t physiological changes. The lean body weight was determined to standardize each subject i . e . using a value more related to t h e i r t o t a l body water. The four hours rehydration was used to simulate the p r a c t i c a l s i t u a t i o n between weigh i n and competition. Tomato juice was used for i t s high l e v e l of e l e c t r o l y t e s (Goodhart and S h i l s , 1973) and i t s low s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l of glucose. The six dependent variables were: A. The physical work capacity 150 (Kpm/min). B. The blood glucose l e v e l (mq%) . C. The volume (STPD) of expired a i r (L/min). D. The R.Q. E. The V02 (L/min). F. The true 02 (%). The submaximal test, physical work capacity 150 was used to avoid any fatigue e f f e c t since subjects were submitted six times to the test i n a rather short period of time. The gas volumes and concentrations were of secondary importance in t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n : they were calculated i n order to determine the R. Q. and therefore the changes i n energy source a f t e r dehydration and during rehydration. The V02 was recorded to test 19 the r e l i a b i l i t y of t h i s study with previous publications. The volume STPD and true 02 were analysed for t h e i r information on the l e v e l of hyper or hypoventilation that can occur i n such s i t u a t i o n . A l l subjects were tested on the two experimental conditions: two of them had six days between the tests, four had seven days and one had eight days between the tests. Subjects were randomly assigned to one experimental condition, on t h e i r f i r s t test day and four of them were i n the f i r s t condition while the others were tested on the other. Experimental Conditions A l l subjects were heat dehydrated u n t i l they had l o s t approximately 4% of th e i r lean body weight. In one condition subjects were rehydrated of 50% of t h e i r weight loss i n four hours and i n the other condition subjects were rehydrated of 100% of t h e i r weight loss within the same period of time. Rehydration procedure consisted of four equal hourly amounts of l i q u i d (tomato juice) ingested within f i v e minutes. Therefore i n one condition the subject received 12.5%/hr of the amount l o s t (50% rehydration condition), while subjects i n the other condition received 25%/hr of the weight lost (100% rehydration condition). S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis To test the hypotheses, results from each subject for each dependent variable, were analysed as a two-factor experiment 20 with repeated measures. These results were calculated at the U.B.C, Computing Centre by the use of the BMDP2V repeated measures analysis of variance program which gave the mean, standard deviation and the l e v e l of significance for changes with time, with l e v e l of hydration and with time by l e v e l of hydration. The re l a t i o n s h i p between physical work capacity and blood glucose was further analyzed by cal c u l a t i o n of co r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f or each subject using a computer program (U.B.C, Simcort) . CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Results Descriptive S t a t i s t i c s Individual r e s u l t s for a l l dependent variables are presented i n appendix A. From these r e s u l t s for each experiment, time one was considered as baseline and the other values obtained (i.e. from the other tests) were a per cent value r e l a t i v e to time one. From these per cent values, means, standard deviations and analysis of variance were determined. , Since the number of subjects observed at d i f f e r e n t times changed, the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis was repeated each time for a change i n number of subjects within one observation. Missing observations are due to technical d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered during the testing of subjects T.H., F.D. and M.R. (see appendix A). The number of subjects within one observation i s shown in the graph, below the time observed, and the analysis of variance in t h i s chapter, i s given for times one to six along with the number of observations used. For complete analysis see appendix B. Means for physical work capacity 150, blood glucose, weight, V STPD, R.Q. and true 02 are graphically displayed i n Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and the analyses of variance are 21 22 presented i n Tables I, I I , I I I , IV, V and VI. Correlation between physical work capacity test 150 and blood glucose for each i n d i v i d u a l under each experimental condition i s presented i n Table VII. Analysis of Data, Test of Hypotheses Individual subject graphs are shown in appendix A i n order to compare the general trend. (Figure 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13). Physical Work Capacity 150 (Figure 1, Table I ) : The result shows s i g n i f i c a n t differences throughout time with a p<.001. There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t loss of physical work capacity, after heat dehydration, of about 30% with a p a r t i a l recovery within the four hours of rehydration. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the percent rehydration conditions and also no s i g n i f i a n t i n t e r a c t i o n cf time and l e v e l of rehydration. Blood Glucose (Figure 2, Table I I ) : Beth conditions show the same pattern of change throughout time with a p<.001, i . e . a decrease i n blood glucose followed.by an increase on times 5 and 6. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t change with treatment cr treatment by time. The c o r r e l a t i o n between blood glucose and physical work capacity , from raw data, shows no censistantly high co r r e l a t i o n (Table VII). Weight (Figure 3, Table I I I ) : The independent variable weight shows a very s i g n i f i c a n t change, p<.001, cn time. 23 FIGURE 1 MEANS OF PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY 150 EXPRESSED IN PERCENT FOR 50$ REHYDRATION AMD 100$ REHYDRATION CONDITIOrS 50% Rehvdration=A 100$ R e h y d r a t i o n s : ^ 24 TABLE I ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY 150 N= 4 TIME= 6 SOURCE SUM OF DEGREE OF MEAN SQUARES FREEDOM SQUARE TIME ERROR 0.55833 0.04589 5 15 0.11167 36.49 0.00306 0.000 PERCENT 0.00321 ERROR 0.03508 1 3 0.00321 0.01169 0.27 0.637 TP ERROR 0.00709 0.02040 5 15 0.00142 0.00136 1.04 0.429 25 FIGURE 2 MEANS OF 3LOOD GLUCOSE EXPRESSED IM PERCENT FOR 50$ REHYDRATION AND 100$ REHYDRATION CONDITIONS 50$ R e h y d r a t i o n s ^ ^ 100$ Rehydrations! TIME: NUMBER: 1 7 2 7 3 7 6 5 6 6 6 26 TABLE II ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN BLOOD GLUCOSE N= 6 TIME= 6 SOURCE. SUM OF DEGREES OF MEAN SQUARES FREEDOM SQUARE TIME ERROR 0.06831 0.04341 5 25 0.01366 7.86 0.00174 0.000 PERCENT 0.05131 ERROR 0.21826 1 5 0.05131 0.04365 1. 17 0.328 TP 0.02243 5 0.00449 0.80 0.555 ERROR 0.13879 25 0.00555 27 FIGURE 3 MEANS OF WEIGHT EXPRESSED IN PERCENT FOR 50$ REHYDRATION AND 100$ REHYDRATION CONDITIONS 50$ Rehydration^ 100$ Rehydrations! TIME: NUMBER 28 TABLE I I I ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN WEIGHT N= 6 TIME= 6 SOURCE SUM OF DEGREES OF MEAN SQUARES FREEDOM SQUARE TIME 0.01040 5 0.00208 1457.76 0.000 ERROR 0.00004 25 0.00000 PERCENT 0.00099 1 0.Q0099 768.89 0.000 ERROR 0.00007 5 0.00001 TP 0.00070 ERROR 0.00003 5 25 0.00014 116.48 0.000 o.ooooo 29 FIGURE 4 MEANS OF VOLUME STPD EXPRESSED It! PERCENT FOR 50$ REHYDRATION AND 100$ REHYDRATION CONDITIONS 50$ R e h y d r a t i o n ^ 100$ Rehydration=( TIME: NUMBER: 1 7 2 7 3 7 5 5 5 6 4 30 TABLE IV ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN VSTPD N= 4 TIME= 6 SOURCE SUM OF DEGREES OF MEAN SQUARES FREEDOM SQUARE TIME 0.05824 5 0.01165 2.99 0.045 ERROR 0.05830 15 0.00389 PERCENT 0.00025 1 0.00025 0.02 0.891 ERROR 0.03360 3 0.01120 TP 0.02147 5 0.00429 1.80 0.173 ERROR 0.03572 15 0.00238 31 FIGURE 5 '•SANS OF R.3. EXPRESSED IN PERCENT FOR 5 0 $ REHYDRATION AND 100$ REHYDRATION CONDITIONS 50$ Rehydrations A 100$ Rehydrations! TIME: NUM3ER: 1 7 2 7 3 7 4 5 5 5 6 32 TABLE V ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN R.Q, N= 4 TIME= 6 SOURCE SUM OF DEGREES OF MEAN SQUARES FREEDOM SQUARE TIME 0.00732 5 ERROR 0.00997 15 0.00146 2.20 0.00066 0. 108 PERCENT 0.01902 ERROR 0.05821 1 3 0.01902 0.98 . 0.395 0.01940 TP ERROR 0.00583 0.04163 5 15 0.00117 0.42 0.827 0.00278 33 FIGURE 6 MEANS OF TRUE 02 EXPRESSED IN PERCENT FOR 50$ REHYDRATION A'JD 100$ REHYDRATION CONDITIONS 50$ R e h y d r a t i o n s ^ ^ 100$ R e h y d r a t i o n s ^ TIME: NUMBER: 1 7 2 7 3 7 4 5 5 5 6 4 34 TABLE VI ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN TRUE 02 N= 4 TIME= 6 SOURCE SUM OF SQUARES DEGREES OF MEAN FREEDOM SQUARE TIME ERROR 0.05763 0.05081 5 15 0.01153 0.00339 3.40 0.030 PERCENT 0.01163 ERROR 0.05175 1 3 0.01163 0.01725 0.67 0.472 TP ERROR 0.02007 0.01729 5 15 0.00401 0.00115 3.48 0.027 35 TABLE VII INDIVIDUAL PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY AND BLOOD GLUCOSE CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS SUBJECT F.D. J.M. T.H. R.L. B.G. M.R. K.I. 50% REHYDRATION .2080 .1026 .7608 .2948 .3881 .9485 -.3515 100% REHYDRATION -.7532 .5583 .1081 .6802 .7334 .4910 .2538 36 treatment and treatment by time, which was to be expected as they were experimentally controlled. Volume STPD (Figure 4, Table IV): There i s an increase in volume STPD after heat dehydration with a p<.05. Percent rehydration and time by percent rehydration show no s i g n i f i c a n t differences. R.Q. (Figure 5, Table V): Results do not show any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t changes. However changes with time, where (p= 0.108), can be interpreted as a probable change. True 02 (Figure 6, Table VI): Percent rehydration shows no s i g n i f i c a n t change, but change with time i s s i g n i f i c a n t (p<,05) and the amount of l i q u i d intake by elapsed time shows a p<.05. 37 D i s c u s s i o n The mean changes i n p h y s i c a l work c a p a c i t y show a decrease of 30% a f t e r a 4% lean body weight heat dehydration which i s s i m i l a r t o Kozlowski (1969) and i n accordance with C o s t i l l and Sparks (1973), Strydom and Holdsworth (1968), S a l t i n (1964A) , and S a l t i n (1964B), where they noted an i n c r e a s e d heart r a t e on submaximal work. There was only a 12% recovery w i t h i n the f o u r hours on 100% r e h y d r a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s i s not i n accordance with C o s t i l l and Sparks (1973), but the d i f f e r e n c e i n r e s u l t s can be due to the r e h y d r a t i o n procedure. C o s t i l l and Sparks (1973), rehydrated t h e i r s u b j e c t s w i t h i n t h r e e hours with twelve e g u a l l y s u b d i v i d e d amounts of l i q u i d and s t u d i e d t h e i r s u b j e c t s on a t r e a d m i l l where they were submitted to only one submaximal work load i . e . heart r a t e of 120 beat per minute. The 50% r e h y d r a t i o n shows almost the same re c o v e r y and t h i s i s more r e l a t e d to the previous study mentioned, s i n c e the r e h y d r a t i o n l e v e l i s a l s o r e l a t e d to the plasma volume. T h i s l e a d to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the decrease i n plasma volume i s not the s o l e cause f o r e l e v a t e d heart r a t e s f o l l o w i n g heat dehydration ( C o s t i l l and Sparks, 1973). Among the f a c t o r s which can e x p l a i n the decrease i n p h y s i c a l work a f t e r heat dehydration are the e x p i r a t o r y gas volume and c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . Oxygen consumption shows no s i g n i f i c a n t changes throughout the study, see appendix B, as S a l t i n (1964B), and K o z l o w s l k i (1969), s t a t e d . T h i s i s very normal because oxygen consumption i s r e l a t e d to the amount of work done and i n t h i s study the s u b j e c t , w i t h i n the same 38 experiment, was submitted to the same amount of work. The s i g n i f i c a n t v e n t i l a t i o n increase a f t e r dehydration i s not reported i n previous l i t e r a t u r e . Respiratory rate and gas volume are mainly regulated by the chemoreceptors which are influenced by the l e v e l of C02. The l e v e l of C02 would be sensed as increased since the blood volume i s reduced but the amount of C02 released i s not increased. Also, the acidosis produced by dehydration, as reported by Masoro (1971), can be interpreted as a cause for such changes. Recovery i n volume STPD does not show a s i g n i f i c a n t decrease with time but i n the 50% rehydration condition, i t has a lower mean on time s i x , which can be p a r t i a l l y explained by true 02 changes. S a l t i n (1964B) reported a decrease i n true 02, but the decrease was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The volume STPD and true 02, for the same amount of oxygen intake, normally have a negative relationship, but the better recovery i n true 02 i n the 50% rehydration condition, which i s s t a t i s t i c a l y s i g n i f i c a n t , can be explained by the higher l e v e l of absorption of l i q u i d during 100% rehydration which may have caused an increase i n blood supply i n i n t e s t i n a l regions. This would tend to lower the artario-venous oxygen difference and reduce the e f f i c i e n c y of oxygen transport as indicated by the lower true 02. R.Q. i s reported to decrease after heat dehydration ( S a l t i n , 196UA). Our r e s u l t s showed no s t a t i s t i c a l l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e in the the changes of R.Q. and the means tendency 39 showed not enough evidence for accurate int e r p r e t a t i o n . The main purpose of t h i s study was to investigate the changes i n blood glucose a f t e r heat dehydration and during rehydration even i f i t i s revealed that blood glucose i s not related to the physical work capacity (Reichard et a l , 1961; Kosiek; 1969). The investigator believed that the hormonal changes produced by the heat stress should be s u f f i c i e n t to show s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n blood glucose. Therefore a negative c o r r e l a t i o n was expected between blood glucose and the changes i n physical work capacity a f t e r dehydration and during rehydration. Results from t h i s investigation show no consistent c o r r e l a t i o n between the two parameters (Table VII), which d i f f e r s from expected values. Blood glucose shows a s i g n i f i c a n t change with time during the two experimental conditions, with a decrease after dehydration and an increase on tests f i v e and s i x . These re s u l t s do not support the f i r s t hypothesis which projected an increase i n blood glucose a f t e r dehydration. F i n a l l y the second hypothesis i s p a r t i a l l y supported since there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n blood glucose and physical work capacity during rehydration, but the l e v e l of rehydration shows no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t . The l e v e l of the glucosteroids was not analysed i n t h i s investigation, but previous studies showed (Collins, 1968; Bledsoe, 1966; Kozlowski, 1969 and Gibinski, 1969), that C o r t i s o l and aldosterone l e v e l are increased during heat stress. Research i n more detailed a r t i c l e s gives a better understanding 40 of the mechanism of those hormones and j u s t i f i e s the delayed i n c r e a s e i n blood g l u c o s e . The i n i t i a l decrease i n blood glucose was probably due to normal blood glucose u t i l i s a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y by the muscle t i s s u e . G l u c o c o r t i c o i d s have the a b i l i t y of i n d u c i n g s p e c i f i c RNA and p r o t e i n s y n t h e s i s (mainly gluconeogenic) i n some t i s s u e s ( l i v e r ) while s u p p r e s s i n g RNA, p r o t e i n s y n t h e s i s and gluconeogenesis i n other .. t i s s u e s (muscle) , (Thompson and Lippman, 1974). C o r t i s o l i s t r a n s p o r t e d i n human plasma, but more than 90% i s bound to a, s p e c i f i c alpha g l o b u l i n , i . e . c o r t i c o s t e r o i d b i n d i n g g l o b u l i n . Only the unbound p o r t i o n i s of p h y s i o l o g i c consequence with t a r g e t t i s s u e s (Rosner, 1972 and Rosenthal, Sanberg and T r a n s c o r t i n , 1969). As a l r e a d y s t a t e d the i n h i b i t o r y e f f e c t on i n s u l i n of C o r t i s o l ( S e l k u r t , 1971) a l s o decreases glucose uptake i n e x t r a h e p a t i c t i s s u e s . T h i s i n h i b i t i o n i s delayed f o r 3 to 5 hours i n muscle t i s s u e (Munck, 1971). An i n v i t r o s t u d y on r a t l i v e r s r e v e a l e d t h a t the gluconeogenic e f f e c t of C o r t i s o l o n l y s t a r t e d t o show up a f t e r two hours, (Exton e t a l , 1970) a n d showed an i n c r e s e i n blood glucose a f t e r two hours with adrenalectomized f a s t e d r a t s which were subcutaneously i n j e c t e d with 2.5mg of C o r t i s o l , (flunck, 1962). Therefore the gluconeogenic e f f e c t of g l u c o s t e r o i d s expected i n t h i s s t u d y i n f a c t was probably delayed by the time n e c e s s a r y f o r the C o r t i s o l to show up i n plasma a f t e r heat exposure i . e . one to two hours ; by the delayed i n h i b i t i o n of g l u c o s e a b s o r b t i o n i n muscle i . e . 3 to 5 hours and f i n a l l y by 41 the s p e c i f i c inducing e f f e c t on RHA and protein (enzymes) synthesis i n the l i v e r which only shows up within two hours. While the time course of the blood glucose changes over the r e l a t i v e l y long time span of the dehydration and rehydration periods i n t h i s study suggests a primary involvement of glucocorticoids and gluconeogenesis i n these changes, glucagon and epinephrine, through t h e i r role i n regulating hepatic g l y c o l y s i s , may also contribute to the o v e r a l l e f f e c t of the treatments on blood glucose. In the l i g h t of t h i s study i t would seem that the advantages to a wrestler of cutting down weight by heat dehydration before competition w i l l be counteracted by the loss i n physical work capacity. However t h i s interpretation does not take into account the fact that a wrestler normally also eats during the rehydration period. This aspect might warrant futher study. This study also shows that recovery i s not only a matter of f l u i d reabsorption; the changes i n blood glucose suggest that the body i s affected.on the c e l l u l a r l e v e l , and a four hour rehydration period does not seem s u f f i c i e n t to counteract these biochemical changes. , CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary The purpose of t h i s study was to examine the e f f e c t s of a 4% l e a n body weight dehydration with two l e v e l s of r e h y d r a t i o n f o r f o u r hours on the changes i n p h y s i c a l work c a p a c i t y and blood glucose. F u r t h e r , the study examined the e f f e c t s on volume STPD, V02, R.Q. and t r u e 02 during the p h y s i c a l work c a p a c i t y t e s t . A t o t a l of 7 u v i v e r s i t y - aged males were i n v o l v e d i n the experiment as s u b j e c t s . Each s u b j e c t was t e s t e d i n two e xperimental c o n d i t i o n s , i . e . 50% r e h y d r a t i o n and 100% r e h y d r a t i o n , on two separate days. Each s e t of t e s t s c o n s i s t e d of blood samples drawn from the f i n g e r t i p , a p h y s i c a l work c a p a c i t y t e s t with e x p i r a t o r y gas c o l l e c t i o n . Six s e t s of t e s t s were d i s t r i b u t e d as f o l l o w s : one at 6 A.M.,and one h a l f an hour a f t e r dehydration. The f o u r other s e t s were hourl y s e p a r a t e d . The r e h y d r a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of i n t a k e of tomato j u i c e given a f t e r the s e t of t e s t s 2, 3, 4 and 5. The amount given was e q u a l l y subdivided and depended on the experimental c o n d i t i o n . A n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t changes over time f o r a l l dependent v a r i a b l e s , except V02; s i g n i f i c a n t changes between l e v e l of r e h y d r a t i o n f o r weight, and s i g n i f i c a n t changes f o r the l e v e l of r e h y d r a t i o n by time i n t e r a c t i o n f o r t r u e 02 and weight. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i v i d u a l simple 4 2 ^3 c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t between blood glucose and p h y s i c a l work c a p a c i t y f o r each experimental c o n d i t i o n . There was a mean decrease of 30% i n p h y s i c a l work c a p a c i t y a f t e r heat dehydration and only 40% of the l o s s was recovered without s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between experimental c o n d i t i o n s . Gas exchange was a l s o a f f e c t e d . The volume STPD i n c r e a s e d a f t e r d e h y d r a t i o n , t r u e 02 decreased a f t e r dehydration and a b e t t e r recovery showed up i n the 50% r e h y d r a t i o n c o n d i t i o n . The R.Q. parameter, i n f a c t , d i d not i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n t changes but there was a s l i g h t decrease a f t e r dehydration. The l e v e l of blood glucose decreased a f t e r dehydration but there was an i n c r e a s e i n the middle of r e h y d r a t i o n , even with the expected i n c r e a s e i n blood volume, from the l i q u i d i n t a k e . T h i s suggested a very high l e v e l of gluconeogenesis on those l a s t hours, probably due to g l u c o c o r t i c o i d hormone a c t i o n . 44 Conclusions 1. A 4% lean body weight heat dehydration s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduce physical work capacity and while s i g n i f i c a n t recovery occurs over a four hour rehydration period, there i s no difference between 50% and 100% rehydration within that time. 2. The l e v e l of blood glucose decreases a f t e r dehydration but i s not correlated to the change i n physical work capacity. 3. Two to three hours a f t e r heat dehydration, blood glucose increases without being affected by the l e v e l of rehydration. 4. Volume STPD increases after dehydration and almost plateaus during rehydration. 5. True 02 decreases aft e r dehydration and a better recovery comes with the 50% rehydration condition. BIBLIOGRAPHY Adolph, E.F., and A s s o c i a t e s , Physiology, of Man i n the Desert, New York: I n t e r s c i e n c e , 1947. Astrand, P.O., and K.Rodahl, Textbook of Work Pi>isi elegy., Toronto, Mc G r a w - H i l l Book Co., 1970. 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Horvath, "Cardiovascular Adjustment to Progressive Dehydration," J. l££lA£h2sicl i f 35:501, 1973. Issekutz, B.Jr. and H. M i l l e r , "Plasma Free Fatty Acids during Exercise and the Ef f e c t of La c t i c Acid," Proc. S oc Exp_t. Biol.. Med.., 110:237, 1962. Johnson R.E., Belding, Consolazio and P i t t s , HarXilci Fatigue Laboratory Report _13, Cambrige, Massachusetts, 1942. Kosiek, J.P., V. Kersting, F. Kusters and E.J. Klaus, "Comparative Investigation on the Daily Rhythm of Blood Glucose After Rest, After Exhaustive Continuous Exercise," Biochemistry of E x e r c i s e x Medicine and Sp_ort, New York, pp. 144-1477~19697 Kozlowski, S., " P h y s i c a l Performance and Maximum Oxygen Uptake i n Man i n E x e r c i s e Dehydration," B u l l . Acad. P o l . Sci.. B i o l . . , 14:513, 1966. Kozlowski S., "Role of T h i r s t i n Regulation of Water Balance i n the Body," Acta Physiol.. PoJU, 20:730, 1969, Kozlowski S, And B. S a l t i n , " E f f e c t of Sweat Loss on Body F l u i d , " J i A ^ l i e d i Physiol., 19:1119, 1964. L e v e i l l e , G.A., "N u t r i t i o n a l Factors i n the Regulation of Lip i d Metabolism," Fed^ Proc., 29:1276, 1970. Macfarlane, W.V., K.W. Robinson, B. Howard and R. Kinne, "Heat, Salt and Hormones i n Panting and Sweating Animal," Nature , 182:672, 1958. Masoro, E.J., L.B« Rowell and R.M. McDonald, " I n t r a c e l l u l a r Muscle Lipids as Energy Sources During Muscular Exercise and Fasting," Fed.. P r o c , 25:1421, 1966. Masoro, E.S. and P.p. Siegel, Acid Base regulations 11 J.s £lii§i2i2ai and Pathop_hysiolocjy, Philadelphia, W.B. Saunder Comp77~971. 48 Mountcastle, V.B., Medical Phjfsiolo2j» Twelfth Edition, St Louis, Mosby Company, 1968. Munck, A., "Glucocorticoid I n h i b i t i o n of Glucose Uptake by Peripheral Tissues. Old and Hew Evidence. Molecular Mechanisms and Physiological Significance," Perspect. B i o l . Med., 14:265, 1971. Munck, A. and S.B. Koritz, "Studies on the Mode of Action of Glucocorticoids in Rats. Early Effects of C o r t i s o l cn Blood Glucose and on Glucose Entry Into Muscle, Liver and Adipose Tissue," BiochimBiophv.s^ Acta, 57:310, 1962. O'Connor, W.J., Renal Function, London Arnold, 1962. P i t t s , G.C., R.E. Johson and F.C. Consolazio, "Work i n the Heat as Affected by Intake of Water, Salt and Glucose," Am. J L Physiol., 142:253, 1944. Reichard, G.A., Issekutz J r . , P. Kimbel, R.C. Putraan, N.J. Hochella and S. Weinhouse,"Blood Glucose metabolism i n Man During Muscular Work," J,. Ap.pl.. Physsiol.., 16:1005, 1961. R i b i s l , P.M., "When Wrestlers Shed Pounds Quickly," Physician and Sportsmedicine, 2:30, 1974. Rosenthal, H.E., W.R. Slaunwhite J r . and A.A. Sanberg, "Transcortin: A Corticosteroid-Binding Protein of Plasma. X. C o r t i s o l and Progesterone Interplay and Unbound Levels of These Steroids i n Pregnancy," J. C l i n . Endocrinol. Metab., 29:352, 1969. Rosmer, W., R. Hochberg, "Corticosteroid-Binding Globulin i n the Rat: Isolation and Studies of i t s Influence on C o r t i s o l Action i n Vivo," Endocrinoloaj, 91:626, 1972. S a l t i n , B., "Aerobic and Anaerobic Work Capacity After Dehydration," J. AppI.. Physiol.;., 19: 114, 1964A. S a l t i n , B., "Circulatory Response to Submaximal and Maximal Exercise After Thermal Dehydration," App1. Physiol., 19:1125, 1964B. Scherrer M., "Acid-Base Imbalance and Gas Exchange During Heavy Work," Biochimistr_y of Exercise^ Medicine and sport, New York, pp. 2 - 1 4 , 1 9 6 9 . 4-9 Selkurt E. E., Phisiology^ Third E d i t i o n Boston, L i t t l e Brown and Co., 1 9 7 1 . Sigma Chemical Company, Sigma technical B u l l e t i n No.. 6 3 5 J 4 - 74}_, St Louis, Sigma Che mica l~"co7, 1974*7 Simonson, E., Ehysiology of Work Capacity, and Fatigue, S p r i n g f i e l d , Thomas Publisher, 1 9 7 1 . - - - - - Strydom, N.B. and Holdsworth, "The Effects of Different Water D e f i c i t on Physiological Responses During Heat Stress," Int^. Angewj. P h y s i o l i # 2 6 : 9 5 , 1 9 6 8 . Tepperman, J., Metabolic and Endocrine Physiology, j . an l E i r o ^ U S i i S S Text, Second ed7,~ Chicago7 Year Book Medical Publishers,~19687" Thompson, E.B. and M.E. Lippman, "Mechanism of Action of Glucocorticoids," Metabolism, 2 3 : 1 5 9 , 1 9 7 4 . Vanroux, R., "1* Acidose Musculaire," Biochemisterjr of 3 : 8 9 , 1 9 6 9 . Yuhasz, M.S., "The Effects of Sports Training on Body Fat i n Man With Predictions of Optimal Body Weight," Ph.D Thesis, University, of I l l i n o i s , 1 9 6 2 . Metaboligue au Cours de L • E f f o r t Exercise^ Medicine and Sport, APPENDIX A 50 51 NAME: F.D. AGE: 18years old. PRETEST: PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY 150, •1. 1794.20 Kp. m./min, 2. 1742.43 Kp. m./min. 3. 1640.07 Kp. m./min. 3. 1719.11 Kp. m./min. Mean: 1723.95 Kp. m./min. SPECIAL COMMENTS: 50% Rehydration: Subject slept 5.5 hrs the night before and had a headache on the l a s t set of tests. 100% Rehydration: The subject slept 3 hrs the night before and got drunk. He could not complete his 4% lean body weight dehydration. The belt broke on his fourth set of tests and therefore that test with the following were recorded but the physical work capacity 150 and gas exchange were not included in the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis. 52 SUBJECT: F.D. DATE: MARCH 20-75 LEAN BODY WEIGHT: 1 5.2mm (chest) 2 7 . 4 ram ( t r i c e p t ) 3 8.0mm (subsca pular) 4 7.5mm (supra i l i a c ) 5 7.0mm (abdomen) 6 13.5mm (f r o n t thigh) % t o t a l body f a t = 48.6mm x 0.097+3.64 = 8.35% FAT WT = 73.74Kg X 0.0835 = 6.16Kg LBW = 73.?4Kg - 6.16Kg C o n d i t i o n : RH-50% = 67.58Kg % dehyd r a t i o n : 4. 19% | 6AM + " T " I I |PWC 150kpm/min.|1928.80 |Blood G mg% | 118.86 I + OhrRH | 1hrRH +• 1550.30 114.86 1770.00 103.00 2hrRH | 3hrRH | 4hrRH | 1705.05|1545.67| 1699.74 107.43 110.14J 109.861 | Weight Kg | L i g i n ml | 73.74 70.91 71.18 71.40 354 354 3 54 70.62| 71.84| 354 | 0.153o1 0.0489] 27C| 39.983~| I ( 0 2 ) I (C02) h JGas Temp. | 0.1570 |~0.0451 4 - 0 .1540 0 .0470 0 . 1 5 8 8 0 . 0 4 4 5 0 .1513 0. 1536| - 4 0.0489 IVATPS l i / m i n , I 27C 28C 28C 27. 5C I 37.941 39.722 39.826 35.666 0.0485 I 2 7 . 5 c | 39.119| jVSTPD l i / m i n . j^.Q. I 32.975 34.333 34.423 3 1 . 7 8 0 | 0.8469 -+ 0.8089 0.8447 0.8014 33.906| 34.7511 0.8333| 0.8308| 2.031| 1 5 .845| |V02 l i / m i n . h I 1.764 1.982 1.801 1.927 H | 5.325 .JL . 1.961| -+- I True 02 5.774| 5.233| 6.065 i 1 5.784| L Bar p r e s s . : 752.6mmHg Time s t a r t : 6:15A.M. Time D.H. : 3.50Hrs Time f i n i s h : 2:15P.M. Room Temp,: 25C Sauna Temp.: 70C Room rel.hum.: 47% Sauna rel.hum.: 3.2% 53 SUBJECT: F.D. LEAN BODY WEIGHT: DATE: MARCH 20-75 1- 5.0mm (chest) 2- 8.0mm ( t r i c e p t ) 3- 8.8mm (subscapular) 4- 8.1mm (supra i l i a c ) 5- 8.7mm (abdomen) 6- 15.0mm ( f r o n t thigh) % t o t a l body f a t = 54.4mm FAT WT = 74.44Kg x 0.0892 LBW = 74.44Kg - 6.64Kg C o n d i t i o n : RH-100% x 0.097+3.64 = 8.92% = 6.64Kg = 67.80Kg % dehyd r a t i o n : 3.73% "i T 1 • r 1 ! » | 6AM lOhrRH 1 1hrRH | 2hrRH | 3hrRH | 4hrRH | -+- V 1 H + -I 4 |PWC 150kpm/min.|12 59.27|1070.27 IBlood G mg% | 116.00| 125.00 1141.97J1234.55|2276.10|166 8.53 -| +- + 115.40| 121.83J 131.33| 135.56 72.58* 73.Ost 7 3 . 4 l j ~ 73.97 |Weight Kg | 74.41| 71.91 H H I | 632.5 -+- | 0.15391 0.1529 -I + + ^ 632.5| 632.5| 632.5| 0.1538| 0.15621 0.1602| 0.1579 l ~ 0 . 0 4 6 9 J ~ 0 . 0 4 8 2 •+ H + I(C02) 0.0477I 0.0430| 0.0402| 0.0429 JJ H +- 27C| 26C| 25.5C| 25C 46.540 |42.210 |34.745 |34.999 |gas Temp. JVATPS l i / m i n . | 26C| 2.65C | 45.39 |44.785 •+ 1- 4 IVSTPD l i / m i n . | 40.443 1 39.847 41.2961 37.6561 31.0801 30.398 +- +- IB.Q. I I 0 . 8 0 5 0 | 0 . 8 1 4 5 0 . 8 2 0 0 | 0 . 7 6 2 3 | 0 . 7 7 1 9 J 0 .7894 .j + + -I JV02 l i / m i n . | 2 . 3 4 1 | 2 . 3 4 3 | 2 . 3 8 7 | 2 . 1 0 9 | 1.607| 1.694 [True 02 | 5 . 7 8 9 J " 5.88o| 5 .780^ 5 . 6 0 l | 5 . 1 6 9 J 5 .397 i L 1 I I 1 I J Bar p r e s s . : 768mmHg Time s t a r t : 6:40A.M. Time D. H. : 4.00Hrs Time f i n i s h : 3;30P.M. Room Temp.: 23C Sauna Temp.: 70C Room rel.hum.: 29% Sauna rel.hum.: 3.4% 54 NAME: J.M. AGE: 20years o l d . PRETEST: PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY 150 1. 1121.19 Kp. m./min. 2. 1278.60 Kp. m./min. 3. 1381.22 Kp.m./min. 4. 1408.00 Kp. m./min. Mean: 1297.25 Kp.m./min. SPECIAL COMMENTS: 50% Rehydration: The s u b j e c t had a headache on h i s t h i r d s et of t e s t s . 100% Rehydration: None. 55 SUBJECT: J.M. DATE: MARCH 20-75 LEAN BODY WEIGHT: 1- 5. 9mm (chest) 2- 5.8mm ( t r i c e p t ) 3- 6.1mm (subscapular) 4- 4, 0mm (supra i l i a c ) 5- 8.2mm (abdomen) 6- 10.8mm (f r o n t thigh) % t o t a l body f a t • = 41. 4mm x 0.097+3.64 = 7.66% FAT WT = 57.99Kg x 0. 0766 = 4.44Kg LBW = 57.99Kg - 4. 44Kg = 53.55Kg Co n d i t i o n : RH-50% % dehydration: 3.99% ! | 6 AM OhrRH | 1hrRH +• 2hrRH | 3hrRH | 4hrRH -I + — H 1071 . H | 1142. 171 1253. 96 |PWC 150kpm/min.|1511.95 + 1020.00 Blood G mg% | Weight Kg I 134.47 + — 136. 11 | L i g i n ml I — r - 57.99 55.85 I 267.5 1008.37 134.47 56.04 130.29| 125.921 134.37 267.5 -j 56.22J 56.30| 56.41 267.5| 267.5| (02) (C02) | 0.1543 0. 1671 0.1599 | 0.0461 0.0348 0.0437 0.16251 0.16201 0.1587 0.04151 0.0437| 0.0445 27C| 27C| 27C | Gas Temp, I 27,5C 27. 5C 27C VATPS l i / m i n . | 2 8.442 +• 34.064 32.842 31.8821 31.157) 29.752 VSTPD l i / m i n . | 25.054 + _ R.Q.. | 0.8098 4— 27.0931 27.079| 25.858 0.85051 0.895o| 0.8427 V02 l i / m i n . I 1.418 1.311 1.455 |True 02 | 5.659 1.342J 1.313| 1.356 4.440| 5.115| 4.844| 4.849| 5.245 1 1 i i j Bar p r e s s . : 752.6mmHg Time s t a r t : 6:00A.M. Time D.H.: 3.50Hrs Time f i n i s h : 2:00P.M. Room Temp.: 25C Sauna Temp.: 70C Room rel.hum.: 47% Sauna rel.hum.; 3.2% 56 SUBJECT: J.M. LEAN BODY WEIGHT: DATE: MARCH 27-75 LBW = 58.70Kg C o n d i t i o n : RH-100% 1- 7. 2mm (chest) 2- 7.2 mm ( t r i c e p t ) 3- 8. Omm (subscapular) 4- 4. 6mm (supra i l i a c ) 5- 9.6mm (abdomen) 6- 12.4mm (f r o n t thigh) 49. Omm x 0.097*3.64 = 8.39% 0. 0839 = 4.93Kg 4. 93Kg = 53.78Kg % dehyd r a t i o n : 4.18% 1 1 T 2hrRH | 3hrRH | 4hrRH | 741.921 744.431 -) 112.99| 130.911 5 7 . n j 57.6lT + +- | 6 AM |PWC 150kpm/min.| 947.63 h +- |Blood G mg% | 124.10 I + | Weight Kg I 58.70 j. + | L i g i n ml | OhrRH 598. 14 112.99 56.45 + — 562.5 1hrRH 654.67 109.41 56.85 562.5 788.87| 132. 70~| 57.82^ 562.5| 562.5| + 4- 4 0.1640| 0.0423^ I (02) h | 0.1541 0.1666 0.1661 0.1658| 0.1690| (C02) | 0.0531 -+- 0.0399 0.0410 0.0419| 0.0360| H (Gas Temp. JVATPS l i / m i n , h | 24.2C | 37.696 25C 44.505 25C 44.121 IVSTPD l i / m i n , IR.Q. h | 33.895 39.937 39.598 25C| 25C| 4 h 42.882I 42.1311 •H +- | 0.9430 0.9067 0.9246 38.861| 37.7961 0.9420| 0.8566| -+ +• 2 5C| 39.642^ 35.563| 0.90651 4 JV02 l i / m i n . | 1.898 1.744 1.743 |True 02 5.599 4.368 4.402 1.716| 1.575J -+ +-4.416| 4.167| I L_ 1.648| 4.633| Bar p r e s s . : 766mmHg Time s t a r t : 6:00A.M. Time D.H.: 3.50Hrs Time f i n i s h : 2:00P.M. Room Temp,: 23.5C Sauna Temp.: 70C Room rel.hum.: 32% Sauna rel.hum.: 3.2% 57 NAME: T.H. AGE: 23years old. PRETEST: PYSICAL WORK CAPACITY 150 1. 1688.77 2. 1736.73 3. 1696. 84 4. 1711.14 Mean: 1708.37 Kp.m./min. Kp.m./min. Kp. m./min. Kp.m./min. Kp. m./min. SPECIAL COMMENTS: 50% Rehydration: None. 100% Rehydration: During the second rehydration period the subject was unable to complete the l i q u i d ingestion for t h i s and subsequent t e s t s . Therefore, tests at 2, 3, + 4 hrs. of rehydration were not included in the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis. 58 SUBJECT: T.H. DATE: APRIL 1-75 LEAN BODY WEIGHT: 1- 5. 4mm (chest) 2- 9. 3 mm ( t r i c e p t ) 3- 10.1mm (subscapular) 4- 6. 2mm (supra i l i a c ) 5- 8. 2 mm (abdomen) 6- 9.9 mm (f r o n t thigh) % t o t a l body f a t = 49.1mm x 0.097+3.64 = 8.40% FAT WT = 89.59Kg x 0.0840 = 7.53Kg LBW = 89.59Kg - 7.53Kg = 82.06Kg C o n d i t i o n : RH-50% % dehydration: 4.07% 1 1 T T 1 1 1 1 T | | 6AH |0hrRH | 1hrRH | 2hrRH | 3hrRH | 4hrRH | i + +- 1_ + H + ^ |PWC 150kpm/min.I 1374.71 I 980.55| 949.92|1015.30|1028.6711024. 45 | ^Blood G mg% | 136.67|~127.Oo|~120.Ooj 130.Ooj 126.33| 118.33^ I + + i 1 -I -\ 4 IWeight Kg | 89.59J 86.25| 86.60J 86.83| 87.05| 87.37| V + - — H H i 4 + i | L i q i n ml | | 417.5| 417.5| 417.5| 417.5| | I + + 4 H A + H | (02) | 0. 1490| 0. 15621 0. 1533| 0.1550| 0.15511 0. 1541| V- 4 H + - + H H 1 | (C02) | 0.0530J 0.0422| 0.0426| 0.04181 0.0414| 0.0428| j + + 1 H H -I ^ |Gas Temp. | 23C| 26C| 26.5C| 26.5C| 26.5C| 26.5C| i + -i H -\ ^ + 1 IVATPS l i / m i n . | 42.030| 47.810| 48.523| 50.306| 50.413| 47.539| IVSTPD l i / m i n . | 37.639| 42.162| 42.661| 44.224| 44.292| 41.7271 |R.Q., | 0.8436| 0.7452J 0.7075| 0.7174| 0.7107| 0.7238| JV02 l i / m i n . | 2.351J 2.371| 2.551| 2.558| 2.561| 2.450| I + -1 + - H + + 4 |True 02 | 6.247| 5.622| 5.979| 5.785| 5.783| 5.872| i i i i i i i i Bar p r e s s . : 757,8mmHg Room Temp.: 22C Time s t a r t : 6:30A.M. Sauna Temp.: 70C Time D.H. : 2.5Hrs Room rel.hum.: 33% Time f i n i s h : 1:30P.M. Sauna rel.hum.: 3.3% 59 SUBJECT: T.H. LEAN BODY WEIGHT: BATE: MARCH 26-75 LBW = 89.35Kg C o n d i t i o n : RH-100% 1- 5.3mm (chest) 2- 9.6mm ( t r i c e p t ) 3- 10.5mm (subscapular) 4- 6.2mm (supra i l i a c ) 5- 7.9mm (abdomen) 6- 10.6mm (f r o n t thigh) 50.1mm X 0.097+3.64 = 8.50% 0.0850 = 7.59Kg 7.59Kg = 81.76Kg % d e h y d r a t i o n : 4.17% 6AM + OhrRH 1hrRH | 2hrRH | 3hrRH J 4hrRH | |PWC 150kpm/min.|1639.41 1329.41 1 3 3 1 . 7 2 J Blood G mg% |Weight Kg h | 132.04 -+ 122.33 138.83 | 89.35 85.94 86.64 1159.8911175.91|1139.521 132.82| 137.67| 141.75| 87.36| 87.83| 87.67| 4 4 __i | L i q i n ml I -+- 855 855 855 | 4- 855 | 4- I (02) r- | 0.1545 -+ 0. 1602 0.1588 0.16111 0.1609| 0.1610| .4 4 1 I(C02) h | 0 . 0 5 0 5 0 . 0 4 2 8 0.0443 0 . 0 4 1 7 | 0 .03971 0 . 0 3 8 5 | 4 J J I Gas Temp. | 22.4C IVATPS l i / m i n . | 45.361 r 22. 5C 50.154 21C 49.700 23C| 25.5C| 25.5C| 74.1351 72.336| 72.773| H -I 64.704^ -j |VSTPD l i / m i n . | 40.933 44.674 45.199 66.740| 64.342| IH.Q. h 0 . 8 9 3 6 |V02 l i / m i n . h I —L. | 2.299 0.8314| 0.7734| H +• 3.348| 3.278| 0.7471| 3.308] 5.1l3~i |True 02 5.699 5.1001 5.238| 5.016| 5.094| L L I 1— Bar p r e s s , ; 762.4mmHg Time s t a r t : 6:30A.M, Time D. H.: 2.50Hrs Time f i n i s h : 2:00P.M. Room Temp.: 20C Sauna Temp.: 70C Room rel.hum.: 29% Sauna rel.hum.: 3.1% 60 SUBJECT: R.L. LEAN BODY WEIGHT: DATE: MARCH 29-75 1- 5. 6mm (chest) 2- 7. 8mm ( t r i c e p t ) 3- 8. 5mm (subscapular) 4- 5. 0mm (supra i l i a c ) 5- 8.4mm (abdomen) 6- 7. 8mm (fr o n t thigh) % t o t a l body f a t = 43.1mm x 0.097+3.64 = 7. FAT WT = 70.48Kg x 0. 082 = 5.51Kg LBW = 70.48Kg - 5. 5lKg = 64.97Kg C o n d i t i o n : RH-50% 55 dehydration: 4.02% ~« | 6AM T T OhrRH 1 1—• r 1hrRH I 2hrRH I 3hrRH 4hrRH JPWC 150kpm/min.|1202.79 r 833.78 |Blood G mg% h | 133.83 118.23 739.13| 798.821 906.10 H h 131.20| 132.521 +- 133.65 941.49 145. 68^ |Weight Kg | 70.48 67.87 68.04| 68.25| 68.35 + + 68. 62 | L i q i n ml I -+- 326 326 J +- 326 | +- 326 J 0. 1 5 5 5 1 0.0441^ 26.5CI (02) I (C02) jGas Temp, r- | 0.1557 0. 1601 | 0.0480 H | 23C 0.0448 24C 0.16091 0.16121 0.1589 0.04221 0.04221 0.0430 25.5C| 25.5C| 26.5C IVATPS l i / m i n . |VSTPD l i / m i n . IB.Q. |V02 l i / m i n . h | 61.547 | 53.817 67.300 60.482 |True 02 | 0.8623 - + — | 2.977 | 5.532 0.8794 3.060 5.060 68.530| 67.605I 61.1361 60.311| 62.664 55.543 0.8397 | 3.009| +- 4.775! 4.990! 0.8775| 2.919J 0.8117 2.921 5.260 59.8161 52.984 -1 0.7738! 2.999 5.661^ Bar press.: 741.6mmHg Time s t a r t : 6:00A.M. Time D. H. : 3. OOHrs Time f i n i s h : 1:30P. M. Room Temp.: 20C Sauna Temp.: 70C Room rel.hum.: 54% Sauna rel.hum.: 3.0% 61 SUBJECT: R.L. LEAN BODY WEIGHT: DATE: MARCH 22-75 1- 5. 4 mm (chest) 2- 7. 3 mm ( t r i c e p t ) 3- 8. Omm (subscapular) 4- 4. 4mm (supra i l i a c ) 5- 7. 6 mm (abdomen) 6- 7. 3 mm (f r o n t thigh) % t o t a l body f a t = 40.Omm FAT WT = 69.51Kg x 0.0752 LBW = 69.5lKg - 5.23Kg C o n d i t i o n : RH-100% x 0.097+3.64 = 7.52% = 5.23Kg = 64.28Kg % dehydration: 3.90% 1hrRH 1 2hrRH | 3hrRH~T~4hrRH ] 1124.76M180. 18r~208. 99^ 110.68| 103.88| 121.17| 68.08^ 68.55~[ 68.87] 627.5I 627.~t I 0.1664J 0.16321 0.1628| 0.039l| 0.0428J 0.0425^ |PWC 150kpm/min, | Blood G m< |Weight Kg |L i g i n ml I (02) I (C02) |Gas Temp. IVATPS l i / m i n , IVSTPD l i / m i n , \- IB.Q. , h 24.8C| 24.4C| + L- 50.459| 48.905| 43.9111 42.577| |V02 l i / m i n . I True 02 0.8768| 0 . 9 0 0 2 | 1.777| 1.943| 2.0101 24.3C| 47.369| 41.416| 1 0.8829| 1.979| 4.730| 4.425| 4.721| 4.780| 1 j 1 J Bar p r e s s . : 741.6mmHg Time s t a r t : 6:00A.M. , Time D. H. : 3. 75Hrs Time f i n i s h : 2:45P.M. Room Temp.: 20C Sauna Temp.: 70C Room rel.hum.: 42C Sauna rel.hum.: 3.1% 62 NAME: R.L. AGE: 18years o l d . PRETEST: PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY 150 1. 1227.24 Kp.m./min. 2. 1967.94 Kp.m./min. 3. 1675.44 Kp.m./min. 4. 1654.04 Kp.m./min. Mean: 1631.16 Kp.m./min. SPECIAL COMMENTS: 50% Rehydration: None. 100% Rehydration: The s u b j e c t only completed a 3.9% lean body weight dehydration because of a headache which desappeared a f t e r the second s e t of t e s t s . 63 NAME: B.G. AGE: 29years o l d . PRETEST: PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY 150 1. 1962.52 Kp. m./min. 2. 1854.88 Kp. m./min. 3. 1873.87 Kp.m./min. 4. . 1887.94 Kp. m./min. Mean: 1894.80 Kp.m./min. SPECIAL COMMENTS: 50% Rehydration: 4.5 hrs of s l e e p . 100% Rehydration: 5 hrs of s l e e p 64 SUBJECT: B.G. LEAN BODY WEIGHT: DATE: MARCH 21-75 1- 4.4mm (chest) 2- 6 , 9 mm ( t r i c e p t ) 3- 11.4mm (subscapular) 4- 7. 2mm (supra i l i a c ) 5- 10.Omm (abdomen) 6- 9. 8mm ( f r o n t thigh) % t o t a l body f a t = 49. FAT WT = 83.?2Kg x 0.0846 LBW = 83.72Kg - 7.08Kg C o n d i t i o n : RH-50% x 0.097+3.64 = 8.46% = 7.08Kg = 76.64Kg % dehydration: 4.07% | 6AM OhrRH 1hrRH 2hrRH 3hrRH | 4hrRH -I |PWC 150kpm/min.|2234.56 , + |Blood G mg% | 120.71 1772.95 1890. 16 1955.55 124.57 121. 14 |Weight Kg | L i q i n ml h I 83.72 80.60 390 80.77 390 122.86 81.02 390 2197.07)2225.71 f | 0.1542 125.71| 135.71 81.11| 81.40 3 9 o | 4- 0.1572| 0.1596^ I (02) h I(C02) |Gas Temp. I — 0. 1598 0.1568 0.1571 | 0.0460 4 | 25C 4 0.0403 25C 0.0438 26C 4 4 0.0449 26C 4 0.0434| 0.0432 25C| 25C |VATPS l i / m i n . | 46.461 51.987 47.919 50.363 -4- 48.338~[ 50.232 -4 IVSTPD l i / m i n . | 40.160 44.915 41.060 43.138 41.628| 43.247 4 IH.Q. |V02 l i / m i n . | 0.7914 -4- 0.7667 0.7887 0.8203 | 2.318 -4- 2.343 2.363 2.345 0.7888I 0.8305 -4 2.275| 2.234 5.217| 5.512| 5.437| 5.464| 5.166^ ± i i i i |True 02 | 5.775 Bar p r e s s . : 740.5mmHg Time s t a r t : 6:00A.M. Time D. H. ; 2. 25Hrs Time f i n i s h : 1.15P.M. Room Temp.: 22.5C Sauna Temp.: 70C Room rel.hum.: 33% Sauna rel.hum.: 3.2% 65 SUBJECT: B.G. LEAN BODY WEIGHT: DATE: MARCH 28-75 1- 5.2mm (chest) 2- 7.3mm ( t r i c e p t ) 3- 12.4mm (subscapular) 4- 8.2mm (supra i l i a c ) 5- 10.8mm (abdomen) 6- 10.5mm ( f r o n t thigh) % t o t a l body f a t = 54.4mm FAT WT = 83.39Kg x 0.0892 LBW = 83. 39Kg - 7.44Kg C o n d i t i o n : RH-100% x 0.097+3.64 = 8.92% = 7.44Kg = 75.95Kg % dehydration: 4.35% I | 6 AM JPWC 150kpm/min.|1583.12 |Blood G mg% |Weight Kg |L i g i n ml | 125.27 OhrRH 1206.13 120.16 1hrRH 1260.00 117.03 2hrRH | 3hrRH 1296.821 1340.27 121.06| 123.75 81.15| 81.84 827.5| 827.5 1351.66| 119.20| 82.44| 4hrRH | (02) (C02) | 0.1602 0.1560 0.1576 0.15911 0.1601 +-| 0.0403 0.0448 0.0441 j Gas Temp, r 24C 25C 25C 0.0437I 0.0421 26C| 26.5C 0. 1600| 0.0410| 1 26.5C| |VATPS li / m i n . | 57.480 55.505 55.270 58.586| 63.240 62.7951 H JVSTPD li/min, j. | 51.856 49.788 49.577 52.2611 56.267 55.871| { 0.7742 J 0.8302| 0.8145 1 0.7867| lR.Q. j 0.7977 0.8119 |V02 li/min. | 2.679 2.778| 2.675| 2.726| 2.887 + 2.890| |True 02 I 5.161 5.579| 5.395| 5.216| 5.132 5.173| Bar p r e s s . : 768mmHg Time s t a r t : 6=00A.M. Time D.H.: 2.00Hrs Time f i n i s h : 1:00P.M. Room Temp.: 23C Sauna Temp.: 70C Room rel.hum.: 29% Sauna rel.hum.: 3.4% 66 NAME: M.R. AGE: 21years o l d . PRETEST: PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY 150. 1. 1712.37 Kp. m./min. 2. 1733.32 Kp. m./min. 3. 1733.40 Kp. m./min. 4. 1761.99 Kp. m./min. Mean: 1735.27 Kp. m./min. SPECIAL COMMENTS: 50% Rehydration: Subject had only 3 hrs of s l e e p and got drunk the n i g h t b e f o r e . On the s i x t h s et of t e s t s the s u b j e c t was t e s t e d with a d i f f e r e n t b e l t , s i n c e the previous had broken, t h e r e f o r e h i s p h y s i c a l work c a p a c i t y 150 and gas exchange were recorded but not i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s of data because the new b e l t showed no r e l i a b i l i t y t o the pr e v i o u s one. 100% Rehydration: Subject has only 2.5 hrs of s l e e p and got drunk the night b e f o r e . 67 SUBJECT: M.R. LEAN BODY WEIGHT: 1- 2- 3- 4- 5- 6- 3. 7mm 4 .7mm 6. 3 mm 4. 7mm 6.4 mm 5. 9mm DATE: MARCH 28-75 (chest) ( t r i c e p t ) (subscapular) (supra i l i a c ) (abdomen) ( f r o n t thigh) % t o t a l body f a t = 31.7mm FAT WT = 78.04Kg x 0.0671 LBW = 78.04Kg - 5.24Kg C o n d i t i o n : RH-50% x 0.097+3.64 = 6.71% = 5.24Kg = 72.89Kg % dehydration: 4.00% T -i 6AM . lOhrRH , , 1hrRH I 2hrRH I 3hrRH +- 4hrRH | |PWC 150kpm/min. 1182.04 1029.27 1146.54 1077.24 1137. 17 1949.84| 142. 11| 75. 921 | Blood G m< 146.00 133.45 139.38 136.45 140. 16 |Weight Kg 78.05 75.12 75.38 75.70 75. 85 +-H i g i n ml 365 365 365 365 I (02) 0.1577 I (C02) 0.0454 0.1591 0.0449 0.1589 H 0.0439 0.1618 0.0417 + 0.1586 0.0438 0. 1610| I 0.0408| |Gas Temp. 26C 27C 26. 5C 26. 5C 26.5C 24.5C| j 36.291I |7ATPS l i / m i n . 48.539 48.006 47.264 52.537 48.513 32.633^ |VSTPD l i / m i n . (. IH.Q. , h 43.326 0.8433 42.603 0.8603 42.053 46.744 43.163 0.8373 0.8402 0.8225 0. 8016] |V02 l i / m i n . 2.317 2.208 2.201 2.303 |True 02 5.348 5. 184 5.236 4.927 4 — 2.277 5.276 + 1.649| 1 5.052| Bar p r e s s . : 768mmHg Time s t a r t : 6:30A.M. Time D. H.: 2. 5Hrs Time f i n i s h : 2:30P.M. Room Temp.: 23C Sauna Temp.: 70C Room rel.hum.: 29% Sauna rel.hum.: 3.4% 68 SUBJECT: N.B. LEAN BODY WEIGHT: DATE: MARCH 22-75 1- 4. Omm (chest) 2- 4. 9 mm ( t r i c e p t ) 3- 6. 7mm (subscapular) 4- 4. 6mm (supra i l i a c ) 5- 6. 2 mm (abdomen) 6- 6. Omm (f r o n t thigh) % t o t a l body f a t = 32.7mm FAT WT = 76.74Kg x 0.0681 LBW = 76,?4Kg - 5.22Kg C o n d i t i o n : RH-100% x 0.097+3.64 = 6.81% = 5.22Kg = 71.52Kg % dehyd r a t i o n : 4.10% UhrRH ]~1hrRH | 2hrRH "|~3hrRH i 4hrRH ] j, -j +- H 1 6AM JPWC 150kpm/min. r |Blood G mg% |Weight Kg h | L i g i n ml I (02) I (C02) r- + 1568.15 1261.29 139.80 1 3 7 . 8 6 76.74 73.81 732.5 0 . 1 5 7 5 0 . 1 5 8 0 0.0474 0.0452 1351.3811371.95|1390.33|1515. 95 | _ 4 H 4 1 118.45| 118.64| 129.90| 145.63| 74.50| -4- 732.5| -+- 7 4 . 9 6 | 7 3 2 . 5 | 0.1609| 7 5 . 4 8 | 7 3 2 . 5 J 75.95| 0. 1573| 0 . 1 5 9 0 1 4 0 . 0 4 2 2 1 0 . 0 4 6 8 | 0 . 0 4 7 1 | 4 0.1592| 1 0.0490| 25.2C| 26C| 4 1 43.868| -I |Gas Temp. r IVATPS l i / m i n . 24. 2C 42.110 IVSTPD l i / m i n . IB.Q. h -4 39.097) 4 0.9094| 0.8954) 0.9619) 3 8 . 5 0 2 I 1 -I 1.949| |V02 l i / m i n . 1.951 2.079 1.984| 1.997| -+- 2.044| I True 02 5 . 3 2 0 5.315 5 . 0 2 8 | 5.146| L. 5.228| 5.0 63 I Bar p r e s s . : 742mmHg Time s t a r t : 6:15A.M. Time D. H. : 2. 25Hrs Time f i n i s h : 1:00P.M. Room Temp.: 20C Sauna Temp.: 70C Room rel.hum.: 42% Sauna rel.hum.: 3.1% 69 NAME: K.I. AGE: 18years o l d . PRETEST: PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY 150. 1. 1181.54 Kp. m./min. 2. 1025.28 Kp. m./min. 3. . 1033.96 Kp. m./min. 4. 1056.25 Kp. m./min, Mean: 1076.76 Kp. m./min, SPECIAL COMMENTS: 50% Rehydration: S u b j e c t s l e p t only 3 hrs and had a headache a f t e r dehydration which desappeared a f t e r the f i r s t r e h y d r a t i o n . 100% Rehydration: Subject s l e p t 3.5 hrs the n i g h t before. 70 SUBJECT: K.I. LEAN BODY WEIGHT: DATE: MARCH 29-75 1- 4.1mm (chest) 2- 5.6mm ( t r i c e p t ) 3- 6.7mm (subscapular) 4- 4.0mm (supra i l i a c ) 5- 7.0mm (abdomen) 6- 6.6mm (f r o n t thigh) % t o t a l body f a t = 33.8mm x 0.097+3.64 = 6.92% FAT WT = 60.12Kg x 0.0692 = 4.16Kg LBW = 60.12Kg 4. 16Kg = 55.96Kg C o n d i t i o n : RH-50% % dehydration: 4.29% I 6 AM |PWC 150kpm/min.|1090.59 jBlood G mg% | 118.42 r- |Weight Kg r 60. 12 I'Lig i n ml I ObrRH | 1hrRH | 2hrRH | 3hrRH | 613.49 120.98 57.72 300 613. 16 121.43 57. 87 300 4hrRH | -j 692.66| 670.50| 683.94| + H 1 135.15| 146.621 58.12| 58.27| 4 4- 300| 300| + 4- 141.35| 1 58.47| j 0.1544) 0.15451 0.1540| 0.1589 0.1578 0.0441 0.0446 23C 25C 25C 0.0570I 0.0454| 0.0445| IVATPS l i / m i n , h j VSTPD l i / m i n . I | 28.487 30.075 32.017 | 24.911 •4- 26.915 30.613 26C| 28.680| 32.015| 30.285^ 25C| 27.5C| 25.6561 28.223| 26.880| -4 H 1 R.Q, | 0.8489 0.8374 0.8270 0.7886| 0.78401 0.7569| |V02 l i / m i n . |True 02 | 1.403 •4 1.408 1.640 | 5.630 5.230| 5.356 U477| 1.623| 1.570| 1 5.757| 5.757[ 5.840| 1 1 j Bar p r e s s . : 741.6mmHg Time s t a r t : 6:00A.M. Time D.H. : 3.00Hrs Time f i n i s h : 1:30P.M. Room Temp.: 20C Sauna Temp.: 70C Room rel.hum.: 54% Sauna rel.hum.: 3 . 0% 71 SUBJECT: K.I. LEAN BODY WEIGHT: DATE: APRIL 1-75 1 4.7mm (chest) 2 6.2 mm ( t r i c e p t ) 3 7,5 mm (subscapular) 4 5.0mm (supra i l i a c ) 5 7.8mm (abdomen) 6 7.8mm (fr o n t thigh) % t o t a l body f a t = 39.0mm x 0.097+3.64 = 7. FAT WT = 59.92Kg X 0.0742 = 4.45Kg LBW = 59.92Kg - 4.45Kg = 55.47Kg C o n d i t i o n : RH-100% % dehydration: 4*09% \~ ]~6AM |PWC 150kpm/min.| 985.66 2hrRH "~ 3hrRH [ 715.78| I H 769.05 1 -| 112.501 115.83 4- |0hrRH | IhrRH 571.08 644.64 709.41 4hrRH j Blood G m< | 125.83 123.17 119. 17 105.00 |Weight Kg | 59.92 57.65 58. 11 58.59 59.04| 59. 34 1 | L i g i n ml I 554 554 554 554 0. 1563J" 0.1585^ 4 I (02) | 0.1530 -+• 0. 1563 0.1575 0.1559 I(C02) h |Gas Temp. IVATPS l i / m i n , h | 0.0499 0.0466 0.0473 0.0488 IVSTPD l i / m i n , I— I H.Q. | 25C H + | 30.680 + 25. 5C 32.654 26C 32.095 | 27.010 | 0.8518 -+ 28.706 28.139 25. 5C 30.853 27.104 0.0487| 0.8429 0.8830 0.8842 25.5C| 31.650| 27.851| -+- 0.0464| 25.5C| 4 30.853 27.086 0. 89011 0.8831 1.414 5.220I |V02 l i / m i n , |True 02 | 1.573 1.577 1.498 1.487 ] 5.823 5.493 5.323 1.514| 5.485| 5.438| Bar p r e s s . : 754mmHg Time s t a r t : 6:30A.M. Time D. H. : 3.00Hrs Time f i n i s h : 2:00P.M. Room Temp.: 22C Sauna Temp.: 70C Room rel.hum.: 22% Sauna rel.hum.: 2.8% Figure 8 0 Individuals # Changes -10 i n FdC-150. -20 50% Rehydrations A 1003 Rehydrations • -30 -40 Subject: F.D. ' L Time: 1 / 1 1 I 1 / [ Subject: F .D. Figure 9 Indiv idua l s % Changes i n Blood Glucose. 50£ Rehydrations* 100$ Rehydrat ions* Subject: R .L . 2 3 4 Subject: B.G. Time: 1 +20 Figure 10 +10 Individuals "% Changes in Volume STPD. 0 503 RehydrationsA -10 100£ Rehydrations* -20 Subject: R.L. Subject: F.D. +20 +10 0 -10 -20 L / I I I I I / Time: 1 2 3 ^ 5 6 Time: 1 2 3 4 Subject: B.G. Subject: J.M. / - L A Subject: T.H. I / I I I l I I / 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 $ Figure 11 +20 Individuals $ Changes in R.Q. +10 50$ Rehydrations A 0 100$ Rehydrations* -10 -20 i +20 +10 0 -10 -20 Subject: R.L. Time: 1 Subject: F.D. 2 3 4 Subject: B.G. l l l l ' l I 1 1 Time: 1 Subject: J.M. Subject: T.H. ' I l I I I / 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 Subject: M.R. .J 1 I L 2 3 4 5 6 Subject: K.I. 1 l l l / . 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 +20 Figure 12 +10 Indiv idua l s % Changes 0 i n True 0 2 . 50% Rehydrat ionsA -10 100! Rehydrat ions* -20 Subject: R .L . Subject: F.D. >L-L_1 Time: 1 1 3 Subject: B.G. / I I I I I / I I Time: 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 Figure 13 Individuals % Changes in V0 2. 50^ RehydrationsA 1003 Rehydrations* i 420 +10 j— 0 -10 h -20 / Tine: 1 Subject: R.L. i +20 +10 0 -10 -20 / Subject: F.D. Time: 1 2 3 4 Subject: B.G, I I I / I I I L 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 Subject: J.M. Subject: T.H. 1 2 3 4 5 6 P Subject: K.I. 1 2 3 4 5 6 APPENDIX B 7 8 79 TABLE V I I I ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY 150 N= 7 TIME= 1 TO 3 SOURCE SUM OF DEGREES OF MEAN F SQUARES FREEDOM SQUARE TIME 0.60225 2 0.30112 34.98 0.000 ERROR 0.10329 12 0.00861 PERCENT 0.00077 1 0.00077 0.27 0.621 ERROR 0.01709 6 0.00285 TP ERROR 0.00161 0.01598 2 12 0.00081 0.00133 0.60 0.562 80 TABLE IX ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY 150 N= 5 TIME= 1 TO 5 SOURCE SUM OF SQUARES DEGREES OF MEAN FREEDOM SQUARE TIME ERROR 0.53443 0.08484 4 16 0.13361 25.19 0.00530 0.000 PERCENT 0.00007 1 ERROR 0.003095 4 0.00007 0.00774 0.00 0.929 TP ERROR 0.00526 0.01870 4 16 0.00131 0.00117 1.12 0.380 81 TABLE X ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN BLOOD GLUCOSE 8= 7 TIME= 1 TO 3 SOURCE SUM OF DEGREES OF MEAN SQUARES FREEDOM SQUARE TIME ERROR 0.03102 0.03293 3 18 0.01034 0.00183 5.65 0.007 PERCENT 0.01545 ERROR 0.08203 1 6 0.01545 0.01367 1.13 0.329 TP ERROR 0.01319 0.06992 3 18 0.00440 0.00388 1.13 0.363 82 TABLE XI ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN VOLUME STPD N= 7 TIME= 1 TO 3 SOURCE SUM OF DEGREES OF MEAN SQUARES FREEDOM SQUARE TIME 0.05775 2 0.02887 9.91 0.003 ERROR 0.03495 12 0.00291 PERCENT 0.00448 1 0.00448 1.32 0.293 ERROR 0.02022 6 0.00337 TP 0.00230 2 O.0O115 0.66 0.532 ERROR 0.02076 12 0.00173 83 TABLE XII ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN VOLUME STPD N= 5 TIME= 1 TO 5 SOURCE SUM OF DEGREES OF MEAN SQUARES FREEDOM SQUARE TIME 0.05451 4 ERROR 0.05324 16 0.01363 4.09 0.00333 0.018 PERCENT 0.00000 ERROR 0.02890 1 4 0.00000 0.00 0.00723 0.997 TP 0.01028 4 ERROR 0.04295 16 0.00257 0.95 0.00268 0.457 84 TABLE X I I I ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN R.Q. N= 7 TIME= 1 TO 3 SOURCE SUM OF SQUARES DEGREES OF MEAN FREEDOM SQUARE TIME ERROR 0.00267 0.02175 2 12 0.00134 0.00181 0.73 0.499 PERCENT 0.00323 ERROR 0.01098 1 6 0.00323 0.00183 1.76 0.232 TP ERROR 0.00175 0.00914 2 12 0.00088 0.00076 1.15 0.349 85 TABLE XIV ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN R.Q, N= 5 TIME= 1 TO 5 SOURCE SUN OF SQUARES DEGREES OF MEAN FREEDOM SQUARE TIME ERROR 0.00540 0.01129 4 16 0.00135 0.00071 1.91 0. 157 PERCENT 0.00818 ERROR 0.04059 1 4 0.00818 0.01015 0.80 0.420 TP ERROR 0.00549 0.03360 4 16 0.00137 0.00210 0.65 0.633 86 TABLE XV ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN TROE 02 N= 7 TIME= 1 TO 3 SOURCE SUM OF SQUARES DEGREES OF MEAN FREEDOM SQUARE TIME 0.04271 2 ERROR 0.05401 12 0.02135 4.74 0.00450 0.030 PERCENT 0.00005 ERROR 0.01583 1 6 0.00005 0.00264 0.01 0.894 TP ERROR 0.00253 0.01422 2 12 0.00126 0.00118 1.06 0.375 87 TABLE XVI ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN TRUE 02 N= 5 TIME= 1 TO 5 SOURCE SUN OF DEGREES OF MEAN SQUARES FREEDOM SQUARE TIME ERROR 0.05428 0.05199 4 16 0.01357 4.17 0.00325 0.017 PERCENT 0.00305 ERROR 0.03439 1 4 0.00305 0.00860 0.35 0.583 TP ERROR 0.01248 0.01523 4 16 0.00312 0.00095 3.27 0.038 88 FIGURE 7 MEATS OF V02 EXPRESSED IM PERCENT FOR 50$ REHYDRATION AND 100$ REHYDRATION CONDITIONS 50$ Rehydrations i 100$ Rehydrations! 110 105 o > 100 u w a. 95 90 TIME: NUMBER: 1 7 2 7 1 I I I ! 1 — • . A . — 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 7 4 5 5 5 6 4 89 TABLE XVII ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN V02 N= 7 TIME= 1 TO 3 SOURCE SOM OF DEGREES OF MEAN SQUARES FREEDOM SQUARE TIME 0.00007 2 0.00003 0.01 0.986 ERROR 0.02772 12 0.00231 PERCENT 0.00485 ERROR 0.01817 1 6 0.00485 0.00303 1.60 0.253 TP ERROR 0.00630 0.02451 2 12 0.00315 0.00204 1.54 0.254 90 TABLE XVIII ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN V02 N= 5 TIME= 1 TO 5 SOURCE SUM OF DEGREES OF MEAN SQUARES FREEDOM SQUARES TIME 0.00118 4 ERROR 0.03567 16 0.00029 0.13 0.00223 0.968 PERCENT 0.00554 ERROR 0.04075 1 4 0.00554 0.54 0.502 0.01019 TP ERROR 0.01001 0.02687 4 16 0.00250 1.48 0.252 0.00168 91 TABLE XIX ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN V02 N= 4 TIME= 6 SOURCE SUM OF SQUARES DEGREES OF MEAN FREEDOM SQUARE TIME ERROR 0.00158 0.03615 5 15 0.00032 0.00241 0.13 0.983 PERCENT 0.02156 ERROR 0.04296 1 3 0.02156 0.01432 1.50 0.307 TP ERROR 0.01287 0.02966 5 15 0.00257 0.00198 1.30 0.315 APPENDIX C 92 93 SUBJECT INFORMATION AND INSTRUCTION While the exact nature of t h i s study cannot be r e v e a l e d to you at t h i s time, I am r e q u i r e d to inform you of some p e r t i n e n t d e t a i l s . You w i l l be asked i n i t i a l l l y , the week before the experiments, to perform s e v e r a l p h y s i c a l work c a p a c i t y t e s t with e x p i r a t o r y gas c o l l e c t i o n . You w i l l then be f a m i l i a r i z e d with the r e s t o f the equipment to be used. T h i s equipment w i l l be used to determine your responses (heart r a t e , v e n t i l a t o r y and blood changes) to a pre s e t experimental design. You w i l l be submitted to two experimental s e s s i o n s which w i l l c o n s i s t of s i x (6); p h y s i c a l work c a p a c i t y t e s t s , f i n g e r t i p blood samples and e x p i r a t o r y gas c o l l e c t i o n s , d i s t r i b u t e d as f o l l o w : one a f t e r h% l e a n body weight d e h y d r a t i o n , and f o u r , separated by one hour, during r e h y d r a t i o n . During dehydration y o u ' l l be able t o go out of the sauna f o r f i v e (5) minutes each 15 t o 30 minutes. The dehydration should r e q u i r e two to fo u r hours. None of the i n f o r m a t i o n thus obtained w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d as belonging t o you, but w i l l be pooled with r e s u l t s obtained from other s u b j e c t s . I, the undersigned, have read, understand the above i n f o r m a t i o n and know t h a t the r i s k s are minimal. I a l s o keep the p r i v i l e g e t o withdraw from the p r o j e c t a t any time.

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