UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Changes in blood glucose and physical work capacity after heat dehydration Markon, Philippe Joseph Jacques 1975-01-29

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1975_A7_5 M03.pdf [ 4.08MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0077227.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0077227-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0077227-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0077227-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0077227-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0077227-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0077227-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0077227-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0077227.ris

Full Text

CHANGES IN BLOOD GLUCOSE AND PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY AFTEB HEAT DEHYDRATION by Philippe Joseph Jacques Harkon B.Sc. (Ed.P.)#Oniversite de Montreal A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION in the School of Physical Education and Recreation We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MAY 1975 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirement for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head cf my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of PHYSICAL EDUCATION The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date May, 1215. i ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 4% lean body weight dehydration with two levels of rehydration for four hours on the changes in physical work capacity and blood glucose. Further, the study examined the effects cn volume STPD, V02, R.Q. and true 02 during the physical work capacity test. A total of .7 uviversify- aged males were involved in the experiment as subjects . Each subject was tested in two experimental conditions, i.e. 50% rehydration and 100% rehydration, on two separate days. Each set of tests consisted of blood samples drawn from the finger tip, a physical work capacity test with expiratory gas collection. Six sets of tests were distributed as follows: one at 6 A.M.,and one half an hour after dehydration. The four other sets were hourly separated. The rehydration consisted of intake of tomato juice given after the set of tests 2, 3, 4 and 5. The amount given was equally subdivided and depended on the experimental condition. Analysis of variance indicated significant changes ever time for all dependent variables, except V02; significant changes between level of rehydration for weight, and significant changes for the level of rehydration by time interaction for true 02 and weight. There was no significant individual simple ii correlation coefficient between blood glucose and physical work capacity for each experimental condition. There was a mean decrease of 30?? in physical work capacity after heat dehydration and only U0% of the loss was recovered without significant difference between experimental conditions. Gas exchange was also affected. The volume STPD increased after dehydration, true 02 decreased after dehydration and a better recovery showed up in the 50% rehydration condition. The R.Q. parameter, in fact, did not indicate significant changes but there was a slight decrease after dehydration. The level of blood glucose decreased after dehydration tut there was an increase in the middle of rehydration, even with the expected increase in blood volume, from the liquid intake. This suggested a very high level of gluconeogenesis on those last hours, probably due to glucocorticoid hormone action. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I Statement of the problem ....................... 1 Introduction 1 Statement of the Problem .................. 2 Hypotheses ................................ 2 Definition of Terms ....................... 3 Delimitation .............................. 3 Limitation ................................ 3 Significance of the Study ................. 4 II Review of Literature ........................... 5 Physiological Changes .....5 Biochemical Changes ....................... 7 1. Electrolytes ...................... 7 2. Metabolism ........................ 8 Summary .............10 III Methods and Procedures ...........................11 Sub jects ..................................11 Experimental Procedure ....................11 Blood Glucose Determination ................ 15 Gas Determination .........................16 Physical Work Capacity 150 Determination ..16 Rehydration Procedure .....................17 Experimental Design ., 1Experimental Conditions ...................19 iv Statistical Analysis 19 IV Results and Discussion .........................21 Results 2Descriptive Statistic .....................21 Analysis of Data, Test of Hypotheses ......22 Discussion ................................37 V Summary and Conclusions 42 S urn mar y ...................................42 Conclusions ............................... 44 Bibliography ..............................45 Appendices A. Individual Results and Graphs ..50 B. Analysis of Variance ...................78 C. Subject Information and Instruction ....92 V LIST OF TABLES PAGE I Analysis of Variance for Changes in Physical Work Capacity 150, N=4, Time=6 ...24 II Analysis of Variance in Blood Glucose N=6, Time=6 26 III Analysis of Variance for Changes in Weight, N=6, Time=6 28 IV Analysis of Variance for Changes in VSTPD, N=4, Time=6 30 V Analysis of Variance for Changes in R.Q., N=4, Time=6 32 VI Analysis of Variance for Changes in True 02, N=4, Time=6 34 VII Individual Physical Work Capacity and Blood Glucose Correlation Coefficients ....35 VIII Analysis of Variance for Changes in Physical Work Capacity 150, N=7, Time=1 to 3 79 IX Analysis of Variance for Changes in Physical Work Capacity 150, N=5, Time=1 to 5 ..80 X Analysis of Variance for Changes in Blood Glucose, N=7, Time=1 to 3 81 XI Analysis of Variance for Changes in Volume STPD, N=7, Time=1 to 3 82 XII Analysis of Variance for Changes in Volume STPD, N=5, Time=1 to 5 83 XIII Analysis of Variance for Changes in R.Q., N=7, Time=1 to 3 ..84 XIV Analysis of Variance for Changes in R.Q., N=5, Time=1 to 5 85 XV Analysis of Variance for Changes in True 02, N=7, Time=1 to 3 86 XVI Analysis of Variance for Changes in True 02, N=5, Time=1 to 5 .................87 XVII Analysis of Variance for Changes in V02, N=7, Time=1 to 3 ... 89 vi XVIII Analysis of variance for Changes in V02, N=5, Time=1 to 5 .................... .90 XIX Analysis of Variance for Changes in V02 , Tinte=6 91 vii LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Means of Physical Work Capacity 150 expressed in percent for 50% Rehydration and 100% Rehydration Conditions .......23 2. Means of Blood Glucose in percent for 50% Rehydration and 10055 Rehydration Conditions ..........25 3. Means of Weight in percent for 50% Rehydration and 100% Rehydration Conditions ..........27 4. Means of Volume STPD expressed in percent for 50% Rehydration and 100% Rehydration Conditions ......29 5. Means of R. Q. expressed in percent for 50% Rehydration and 100% Rehydration Conditions ...................... 31 6. Means of True 02 expressed in percent for 50% Rehydration and 100% Rehydration Conditions ......................33 7. Means of V02 in percent for 50% Rehydration and 100% Rehydration Conditions ......................88 8. individuals % Changes in PWC-150 .................72 9. Individuals % Changes in Blood Glucose ...........73 10. Individuals % Changes in Volume STPD .............74 11. Indivuals % Changes in R.Q. 75 12. Individuals % Changes in True 02 ..76 13. Individuals % Changes in V02 ........77 viii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author would like to express his sincere gratitude to the members of his thesis commettee for their help and support throughout the presentation of this study and in particular to Dr. Kenneth Coutts, committee chairman, who has given me so much expert advice and guidance over the last two years. My appreciation is also extended to the seven subjects who not only gave two full days but also submitted themselves to this unpleasant experiment. Finally, a special thanks is conveyed to my wife, Dominigue Markon, and to Jeannine Kapelus for the format presentation of this study. CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Introduction A major criticism of amateur wrestling concerns the rapid weight loss often required before weighing for a competition. It is current practice for an athlete to dehydrate himself by the use of laxatives, diuretics, fasting, or a combination cf these various techniques for lowering weight .It is very common for an individual to lose 10 to 12 pounds (Ribisl, 1974) within a few days and sometimes within a few hours. When a subject submits himself to heat dehydration, this stress leads to biochemical and physiological changes which need to be recovered during rehydration . Heat dehydration is already known to significantly decrease the physical work capacity of an individual (Saltin, 1964B; Kozlowski, 1969). The physiological mechanisms involved (Saltin, 1964B; Kozlowski, 1969) in this loss have been investigated, and the decrease in capacity was revealed to be mainly caused by the reduction in the extracellular fluids which are lost during such dehydration. The biochemical (Simonson, 1971) changes are not well understood, but some available data give little information, such as a lower lactic acid concentration, during submaximal test, (Saltin, 1964B) and a lower R.Q. after heat deydration. (Saltin, 1964A).Glucocorticoid hormones are significantly secreted (Collins, 1968) during heat exposure. Their gluconeogenic effect 1 2 should be traceable after dehydration and a change in blood glucose level would be an indication of this steroid release. Thus blood glucose data could give information on changes in energy metabolism during heat dehydration and on the effect of rehydration. Statement of the problem The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in blood glucose level and physical work capacity after dehydration. Subproblem Secondly, this study was made to investigate the effect of a 4 hrs rehydration period on physical work capacity and blood glucose level. Hypotheses The hypotheses are : 1. Heat dehydration increases the blood glucose level and reduces the physical work capacity. 2. The level of rehydration , immediately after beat dehydration , affects blood glucose level and physical work capacity. 3 Definition of Terms Heat dehydration: a deficit of body water caused by high sweat rates with exessive loss of body fluids in a high temperature environment. Lean body weight: total body weight minus total fat tody weight. Physical work capacity 150: work load needed for a heart rate response of 150 beats/min. Rehydration: recovery of body water towards normal level by absorption of liquid. Delimitation Inferences from this study should be restricted to people involved in a heavy training schedule in a environment at room temperature. Limitation 1. The investigation is limited by the sample size of 7 subjects , and their type i.e. varsity wrestlers. 2. The accuracy of the results is limited by the equipment and the methods used, 3. The procedure involved in data collection may have influenced subsequent results, therefore interpretation of the data is limited by the experimental protocol. 4 Significance of the study. At the present time most explanations advanced for the changes in physical work capacity, following heat dehydration, are concerned with the cardiovascular aspect of the problem. There were no data available on changes in blood glucose after heat dehydration, and, since blood glucose is a key in energy metabolism, such data could explain,, to some extent, the biochemical processes involved in heat dehydration and during rehydration. This study should give a better understanding of the reasons for the loss of physical work capacity, of the main reasons for the negative effects of heat dehydration and of what is more important during rehydration (i.e. fluid recovery, electrolyte balance, rehydration time, etc.). Finally, it may give the athlete important information to help him decide whether to stay in a higher weight class or cut down rapidly his weight and settle for a limited recovery. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE Physiological Changes The loss of water and electrolytes decreases the ability to perform muscular work (Adolph, 1947; Pitts et al., 1944). The mechanisms are not well understood, but impaired cardiovascular function is considered to be an important factor (Adolph, 1947; Beetham and Buskirk, 1958; Buskirk et al., 1958; Saltin 1964A). Blood and plasma volume are greatly affected by a heat dehydration, a 4% loss in body weight reduces significantly the Evans blue space and inulin space (Kozlowski and Saltin, 1964). For a 3.6% heat dehydration plasma is reduced by 13.6% with a plasma water loss of. 8.0% (Horstman and Horvath, 1972). Giec (1969) found similar results. Saltin (1964A) found with a body weight reduction up to 5.2% during heat exposure, a reduction in plasma volume up to 25%. Costill and Sparks (1973) studied eight males on three separate occasions during a 4% body weight thermal dehydration and during rapid fluid replacement, within three hours. They found a decrease in plasma volume of 12% (variance of 8 to 27%) without significant changes in red cell mass and mean cell volumes respectively during dehydration or a rehydration period. With the non rehydrated.group the reduction in plasma volume remained almost the same. Either demineralized water or glucose-electrolyte solution completely restored the plasma volume to 6 the prehydration level within three hours. Such changes in circulating volume affect the cardiac functions (Mountcastle, 1968) such as heart rate, cardiac output and stroke volume,. During submaximal work, after heat dehydration, the heart rate was significanthy increased (Costill and Sparks, 1973; Kozlowski, 1969; Saltin, 1964A ; Saltin, 1964B; Strydom and Holdsworth, 1968) and came back, close to the predehydration level, after a complete rehydration within 3hrs (Costill and Sparks, 1973) By recording the heart rate during work, after a 4% body weight dehydration, Kozlowski (1969) found a decrease cf 30% in the physical performance of his subjects. Such changes in physical work capacity were noticable at a 1% body weight dehydration (Kozlowski, - 1966). Such an increase in heart rate is compensating for a decrease in stroke volume for a similar cardiac output on a submaximal work test (Saltin 64A, Saltin 64B)., Endurance was also significantly decreased (Saltin, 1964A). The vital capacity was not impaired after a heat dehydration (Govindaraj, 1972), and neither was the oxygen consumption (Saltin, 1964A; Kozlowski, 1969), Ventilation equivalent did not show a significant change (Saltin, 1964A) but increased slightly. Therefore the major physiological changes, after heat dehydration, affecting the physical work capacity are mainly from the cardiovascular changes i.e. blood volume, stroke volume and heart rate, but pulmonary functions (oxygen consumption, true 02) do not seem affected. Complete rehydration returns normal cardiac function during exercise without a complete recovery of plasma volume. Biochemical Changes The hormonal release, the changes in energy source for work, the loss of water and electrolytes are of great importance in relation to the changes in physical work capacity. These biochemical factors are revealed to be affected by dehydration and their level of significance needs to be considered. 1. Electrolytes: Serum sodium and chloride concentration increased approximately 3% following 4% body weight dehydration (Costill and Sparks, 1973), but their loss through the sweat gland is still significant, (Kozlowski and Saltin, 1964; Greenleaf and Sargent, 1965; Johnson et al., 1942). Calcium is also lost at a rate of 20 mg/hr during dehydration (Consolazio et al, 1962) but this does not affect significantly the plasma concentration (Rose et al., 1970) . Magnesium is a very important cellular constituent. The normal function of cardiac and skeletal muscle and nervous tissue depends greatly on a proper balance between calcium and magnesium, but even if magnesium loss during dehydration is significantly detectable these losses should not be considered 8 important for the proper balance of electrolytes (Consclazic et al., 1963). Potassium is the most important electrolyte that can be affected during heat dehydration since it can influence muscular activity and the excitability of nerve tissue. Potassium deficiencies are manifested by muscular weakness and cardiac irregularities. After heat dehydration the concentration of potassium in plasma remains almost the same (Costill and Sparks, 1963; Griec, 1969). But the potassium concentration, during rehydration decreases if. the liquid intake does not contain enough potassium. (Costill and Sparks, 1973). In general.then, heat dehydration of 4% body weight causes no important changes in blood electrolytes, but the rehydration should be made from an electrolyte solution containing enough sodium chloride and potassium in order to maintain the normal concentrations with increasing plasma volume. 2. Metabolism: The principle sources of energy during work are carbohydrates and fatty acids. The relative amount of energy from each source , depends on the intensity level of the work (Scherrer, 1969; Vanroux, 1969; Froberg, 1969; Issekurtz and Miller, 1962; Masoro et al., 1966) and also the metabolic state (Baldwin, 1970; Herman, Sabim ana Stifel, 1969; Leveille, 1970). There was a lower R.Q. during a submaximal work test after heat dehydration (Saltin, 1964A); which indicates an increase of 9 fatty acid catabolism after such dehydration. Lcwer pcst-exercise lactic acid levels were also observed indicating less glycolysis (Saltin, 1964B), and therefore a lover glycogen breakdown. Blood glucose level decreases slightly during submaximal work and returns to preexercise level within a short period of time (Beichard et al., 1961). There is a decrease in insulin release during activity (Ccnrad et al., 1969). There is also a decrease in insulin release after dehydration (Tepperman, 1967), and the insulin is inhibited by the acidosis (Selkurt, 1971) produced by the dehydration (Hasorc, 1971). Insulin is also inhibited by Cortisol release (Selkurt, 1971). Hormone secretions are of very great importance during heat exposure since they can affect the level of blood glucose, some enzyme activities and the level of electrolytes. Aldosterone and Cortisol are gluconeogenic hormones, and during heat stress the level of aldosterone, throughout sweating, is very high (Kozlowski, 1969; Gibinski, 1969; Collins, 1968). Aldosterone is responsible for 50-70% cf the total mineralocorticoid activity, whereas deoxycortisone contributes very little either in its potency or its presence quantitatively. The remaining response to heat, in man, comes from Cortisol arid corticosterone (0 'Connor, 1962). This high level cf aldosterone is stimulated by the heat stress, reduction in extracellular fluid volume, salt depletion and dehydration (Bledsoe, Island, and Liddle, 1966). Cortisol showed a marked increase in plasma after one to two hours of 10 heat exposure (Collins, 1968) and the hepatic removal cf corticosteroids is lowered in a very high environmental temperature (Collins, 1968). A small concentration of these steroids is found to be lest in sweat and in urine (Bobinson and Macfarlane, 1958 ). Since the adreno-corticosteroids are significantly released during heat dehydration their effect cn bleed glucose should be revealed because of their gluconeogenic properties. There are no studies in the literature which appear tc consider the combined effects of heat dehydration followed by a rehydration cn changes of physical work capacity and blood glucose. Summary The fluid shifts following heat dehydration leads to cardiovascular changes reflected by a decrease in physical work capacity. Glucocorticoid hormones secreted during heat dehydration are expected to be manifested by an increase in blood glucose. This study was intended tc relate the changes in blood glucose and physical work capacity after dehydration and during rehydration and therefore determine the level of significance between the two. CHAPTEB III METHODS AND PBOCEDUBES Subjects Seven subjects participated in the experiment. The age of the subjects ranged from 18 to 29, giving an average of 21years. Six of these subjects were undergraduate students and one was a graduate student at the University of British Colombia. All of them, members of the Varsity Wrestling Team, were well trained and accustomed to heat and metabolic dehydration. Experimental Procedures All subjects were tested four times during the week prior to the experiment on a physical work capacity 150 test with expiratory gas collection. These tests were given in order to eliminate any learning effect during the experiment and also to measure the physiological responses of the subjects in order to determine the work load to be used during the experiment. On their first pretest subjects were informed, to some extent, of the nature of the study (see appendix C: Subject information and instruction) . Before the day they were to be tested, subjects received the following instructions: to eat normally during the day before the experiment, have a good night's rest and do not discuss the experiment until after the last subject was tested. 11 12 These instructions were given in order that the subjects could present themselves for each experiment with approximately the same metabolic state. The next morning the subjects arrived at 6 A.M. for one-half of the experiment. At that time the subjects were fasted and did not drink any water or other liquid that morning. Their lean body weight was predicted from six skin fold measurements, through the use of a Harpenden Skinfold Caliper and body weight, as stated by Yuhasz (1963). Four per cent of their lean body weight was calculated and set as the amount of weight to be lost during dehydration. A one hundred microliter blood sample was then extracted from the finger tip as follows: the investigator wrapped the forearm of the subject with a hot towel and put one finger in a hot water bath for five minutes. Afterwards the forearm and the finger were dried with a towel and the subject was asked to spin his arm thirty times; and the finger tip was then pricked with a sterile lancet and the blood was collected, by capillary action, in a 100 microliter glass disposable micro sampling pipet (from Corning Laboratory Products Deparment, cat.no. 7099-S, 1/2% accuracy). The blood was immediately poured into a test tube pretreated with sodium fluoride 4%, and potassium oxalate 4%, containing 0.9 ml of 3% trichloroacetic acid solution. Then the sample was shaken laterally, capped and frozen. A three lead set of ECG electrode was put on the subject who had to mount the bicycle ergometer (Monarck). He was then fitted up with a gas collection mask which consisted of a mouth 13 piece breathing valve with a connecting tube to the gas meter in order to determine the gas volume and a 0.3% sample for gas analysis. The breathing valve was held by the mask, and the nose was blocked by a nose clip. The gasmeter and the ECG recorder were placed in such a manner that the subject could not see the changes throughout the test. The height of the seat was always the same for each individual for all their tests. The metronome was then set at 120 beats per minute with the sound corresponding to each down foot position, cycling at 60 revs/min. The subject started pedalling at a zero resistance a few seconds before the test in order to take up the speed. Then, exactly at the same time, the gas meter and the stop watch were turned on and, just after, the pre-determined work load was adjusted. This work load was set for the 6 A.M. test so that the heart rate would be at 100 beats per minute. The heart rate was recorded on the ECG during the last 15 seconds of each minute throughout the test. On the fifth minute, the work load was increased to obtain a heart rate responses of 110 beats per minute, and again at the ninth minute for a rate of 120 beats per minute. At the end of the twelfth minute the gas meter and the ECG were shut off. Then the subject was ready for his dehydration. Immediately after each physical work capacity 150 test, the gas sample was analysed for oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration. The gas temperature was recorded on the sixth minute of the test and the barometric pressure was recorded 14 before the test. The subject went into the physiotherapy room, within the same building as the exercise physiology laboratory, and into a dry sauna, electric indoor, where the temperature was kept at 70 degrees Celcius. The relative humidity was recorded by a Bacharach Sling Psychrometer. The subject had to lie down or sit down passively in the sauna. He could take a five minutes break each 15 to 30 minutes. During those breaks at room temperature, he could check his weight and was covered with a wool blanket while lying on a bed. after the subject completed his 4% lean body weight dehydration, he went back to the exercise physiology laboratory where he had to lie on a bed, covered with a wool blanket fcr a 30 minutes rest. This was done to insure that the subject stopped sweating when the weigh in took place to determine his per cent dehydration. During that time the investigator weighed all the clothes and equipment that the subject would have on him during rehydration. This was done to avoid the necessity of undressing for each successive weighing and of removing and replacing the electrodes. Then the subject was submitted to the same blood test as at 6 A.M. in the morning, and his weight was recorded as the weight indicated on the weight scale minus the weight of his equipment. After this, the subject underwent the physical work capacity 150 test following exactly the same procedure as given earlier. This was done in order to compare the gas exchange between successive test and maintain a submaximal work load. After this test the subject received a quantity of tomato juice (cooled to five degree Celcius) which he had to drink within five minutes. The quantity of tomato juice . received was determined by the experimental condition for that day. Then the subject rested for approximately 35 minutes in the semi divided part of the laboratory where he could lie down or read. After this set of tests the room temperature and the relative humidity were recorded. One hour after the previous blood test, the subject was again submitted to the same set.of tests i.e. blood test, weight measurement, work capacity 150 test and rehydration with tomato juice. These hourly sets of tests were repeated three other times except on the last of these where the subject did not have to rehydrate himself as this was the completion of that half of the experiment for that subject. Therefore each subject was submitted to six sets cf tests on each of two experimental days which are identified throughout this investigation as times 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, Time 1 was taken as the baseline value for that day with time 2 at thirty minutes after a 4% lean body weight, heat dehydration. Times 3, 4, 5 and 6 were at one, two, three and four hours, respectively, into the rehydration period which immediately followed the dehydration period. 16 Blood Glucose Determination A modification of the ortho-toluidine procedure for whole blood supplied by Sigma Chemical Company in their technical bulletin #635 (1974) was used for determining blood glucose. A one hundred microlitre blood sample from a fintertip puncture was used for analysis, and the normal procedure was followed utilizing proportional quantities of the various reagents. Gas Determination The expired air volume and temperature were recorded from a Max Plank Gasmeter, and a gas sample was collected in a sample bladder, model Pongs Geschutzt 1600774. Gas concentration was determined from the expired gas sample. Carbon dioxide analysis was made with a Godart Capnograph type 146, and oxygen analysis with a westinghouse Pulmonery Function Oxygen Monitor, model Nc. 211. Physical Work Capacity 150 Determination The paper speed of the ECG preamplifier was set at 25 mm/sec. For each work load the corresponding heart rate was determined by calculating the distance in miliraeters of twelve heart beats from the last two minutes of each work load. The distances were added, the sum divided by four and the value obtained was used to determine the heart rate from a chart (CAHPEH, 1968). The three heart rates corresponding with the work loads were used to determine the physical work capacity 150 using a regression equation. The value obtained was multiplied by 360 to convert the resistance value for a given heart rate to a work load in kilopond-meters per minute at a heart rate of 150 per minute. Rehydration Procedure Commercial tomato juice was used, seasoned with less than 1% salt, containing approximately 21 calories per 100 grams, from Libby, McNeill and Libby of Canada Limited. The calculated weight for determining the tomato juice to be given to the subject was determined by a . volumetric method, using a 500 mililiter beaker and a 100 mililiter graduated cylinder. It was approximated that one mililiter of tomato juice corresponded to one gram. Experimental Design The study was designed as a two by six factorial experiment with repeated measures on both factors and six dependent measures on each subject. The two independent variables were: A. Hydration level H1: 50% rehydration. H2: 100% rehydration. B. Time: T1: Pre dehydration at 6 A.M. T2: Following a 4% lean body weight dehydration. 18 T3 to 6: One hour interval rehydration. These two levels of rehydration were used in order to determine if the level of rehydration is important; the four percent dehydration was selected because it is similar to the practical situation of the wrestlers. Also, it is the most used value in the previous literature and it is known to produce significant physiological changes. The lean body weight was determined to standardize each subject i.e. using a value more related to their total body water. The four hours rehydration was used to simulate the practical situation between weigh in and competition. Tomato juice was used for its high level of electrolytes (Goodhart and Shils, 1973) and its low significant level of glucose. The six dependent variables were: A. The physical work capacity 150 (Kpm/min). B. The blood glucose level (mq%) . C. The volume (STPD) of expired air (L/min). D. The R.Q. E. The V02 (L/min). F. The true 02 (%). The submaximal test, physical work capacity 150 was used to avoid any fatigue effect since subjects were submitted six times to the test in a rather short period of time. The gas volumes and concentrations were of secondary importance in this investigation: they were calculated in order to determine the R. Q. and therefore the changes in energy source after dehydration and during rehydration. The V02 was recorded to test 19 the reliability of this study with previous publications. The volume STPD and true 02 were analysed for their information on the level of hyper or hypoventilation that can occur in such situation. All subjects were tested on the two experimental conditions: two of them had six days between the tests, four had seven days and one had eight days between the tests. Subjects were randomly assigned to one experimental condition, on their first test day and four of them were in the first condition while the others were tested on the other. Experimental Conditions All subjects were heat dehydrated until they had lost approximately 4% of their lean body weight. In one condition subjects were rehydrated of 50% of their weight loss in four hours and in the other condition subjects were rehydrated of 100% of their weight loss within the same period of time. Rehydration procedure consisted of four equal hourly amounts of liquid (tomato juice) ingested within five minutes. Therefore in one condition the subject received 12.5%/hr of the amount lost (50% rehydration condition), while subjects in the other condition received 25%/hr of the weight lost (100% rehydration condition). Statistical Analysis To test the hypotheses, results from each subject for each dependent variable, were analysed as a two-factor experiment 20 with repeated measures. These results were calculated at the U.B.C, Computing Centre by the use of the BMDP2V repeated measures analysis of variance program which gave the mean, standard deviation and the level of significance for changes with time, with level of hydration and with time by level of hydration. The relationship between physical work capacity and blood glucose was further analyzed by calculation of correlation coefficients for each subject using a computer program (U.B.C, Simcort) . CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Results Descriptive Statistics Individual results for all dependent variables are presented in appendix A. From these results for each experiment, time one was considered as baseline and the other values obtained (i.e. from the other tests) were a per cent value relative to time one. From these per cent values, means, standard deviations and analysis of variance were determined. , Since the number of subjects observed at different times changed, the statistical analysis was repeated each time for a change in number of subjects within one observation. Missing observations are due to technical difficulties encountered during the testing of subjects T.H., F.D. and M.R. (see appendix A). The number of subjects within one observation is shown in the graph, below the time observed, and the analysis of variance in this chapter, is given for times one to six along with the number of observations used. For complete analysis see appendix B. Means for physical work capacity 150, blood glucose, weight, V STPD, R.Q. and true 02 are graphically displayed in Figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and the analyses of variance are 21 22 presented in Tables I, II, III, IV, V and VI. Correlation between physical work capacity test 150 and blood glucose for each individual under each experimental condition is presented in Table VII. Analysis of Data, Test of Hypotheses Individual subject graphs are shown in appendix A in order to compare the general trend. (Figure 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13). Physical Work Capacity 150 (Figure 1, Table I): The result shows significant differences throughout time with a p<.001. There is a significant loss of physical work capacity, after heat dehydration, of about 30% with a partial recovery within the four hours of rehydration. There is no significant difference between the percent rehydration conditions and also no signifiant interaction cf time and level of rehydration. Blood Glucose (Figure 2, Table II): Beth conditions show the same pattern of change throughout time with a p<.001, i.e. a decrease in blood glucose followed.by an increase on times 5 and 6. There is no significant change with treatment cr treatment by time. The correlation between blood glucose and physical work capacity , from raw data, shows no censistantly high correlation (Table VII). Weight (Figure 3, Table III): The independent variable weight shows a very significant change, p<.001, cn time. 23 FIGURE 1 MEANS OF PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY 150 EXPRESSED IN PERCENT FOR 50$ REHYDRATION AMD 100$ REHYDRATION CONDITIOrS 50% Rehvdration=A 100$ Rehydrations:^ 24 TABLE I ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY 150 N= 4 TIME= 6 SOURCE SUM OF DEGREE OF MEAN SQUARES FREEDOM SQUARE TIME ERROR 0.55833 0.04589 5 15 0.11167 36.49 0.00306 0.000 PERCENT 0.00321 ERROR 0.03508 1 3 0.00321 0.01169 0.27 0.637 TP ERROR 0.00709 0.02040 5 15 0.00142 0.00136 1.04 0.429 25 FIGURE 2 MEANS OF 3LOOD GLUCOSE EXPRESSED IM PERCENT FOR 50$ REHYDRATION AND 100$ REHYDRATION CONDITIONS 50$ Rehydrations^^ 100$ Rehydrations! TIME: NUMBER: 1 7 2 7 3 7 6 5 6 6 6 26 TABLE II ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN BLOOD GLUCOSE N= 6 TIME= 6 SOURCE. SUM OF DEGREES OF MEAN SQUARES FREEDOM SQUARE TIME ERROR 0.06831 0.04341 5 25 0.01366 7.86 0.00174 0.000 PERCENT 0.05131 ERROR 0.21826 1 5 0.05131 0.04365 1. 17 0.328 TP 0.02243 5 0.00449 0.80 0.555 ERROR 0.13879 25 0.00555 27 FIGURE 3 MEANS OF WEIGHT EXPRESSED IN PERCENT FOR 50$ REHYDRATION AND 100$ REHYDRATION CONDITIONS 50$ Rehydration^ 100$ Rehydrations! TIME: NUMBER 28 TABLE III ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN WEIGHT N= 6 TIME= 6 SOURCE SUM OF DEGREES OF MEAN SQUARES FREEDOM SQUARE TIME 0.01040 5 0.00208 1457.76 0.000 ERROR 0.00004 25 0.00000 PERCENT 0.00099 1 0.Q0099 768.89 0.000 ERROR 0.00007 5 0.00001 TP 0.00070 ERROR 0.00003 5 25 0.00014 116.48 0.000 o.ooooo 29 FIGURE 4 MEANS OF VOLUME STPD EXPRESSED It! PERCENT FOR 50$ REHYDRATION AND 100$ REHYDRATION CONDITIONS 50$ Rehydration^ 100$ Rehydration=( TIME: NUMBER: 1 7 2 7 3 7 5 5 5 6 4 30 TABLE IV ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN VSTPD N= 4 TIME= 6 SOURCE SUM OF DEGREES OF MEAN SQUARES FREEDOM SQUARE TIME 0.05824 5 0.01165 2.99 0.045 ERROR 0.05830 15 0.00389 PERCENT 0.00025 1 0.00025 0.02 0.891 ERROR 0.03360 3 0.01120 TP 0.02147 5 0.00429 1.80 0.173 ERROR 0.03572 15 0.00238 31 FIGURE 5 '•SANS OF R.3. EXPRESSED IN PERCENT FOR 50$ REHYDRATION AND 100$ REHYDRATION CONDITIONS 50$ Rehydrations A 100$ Rehydrations! TIME: NUM3ER: 1 7 2 7 3 7 4 5 5 5 6 32 TABLE V ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN R.Q, N= 4 TIME= 6 SOURCE SUM OF DEGREES OF MEAN SQUARES FREEDOM SQUARE TIME 0.00732 5 ERROR 0.00997 15 0.00146 2.20 0.00066 0. 108 PERCENT 0.01902 ERROR 0.05821 1 3 0.01902 0.98 . 0.395 0.01940 TP ERROR 0.00583 0.04163 5 15 0.00117 0.42 0.827 0.00278 33 FIGURE 6 MEANS OF TRUE 02 EXPRESSED IN PERCENT FOR 50$ REHYDRATION A'JD 100$ REHYDRATION CONDITIONS 50$ Rehydrations^^ 100$ Rehydrations^ TIME: NUMBER: 1 7 2 7 3 7 4 5 5 5 6 4 34 TABLE VI ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN TRUE 02 N= 4 TIME= 6 SOURCE SUM OF SQUARES DEGREES OF MEAN FREEDOM SQUARE TIME ERROR 0.05763 0.05081 5 15 0.01153 0.00339 3.40 0.030 PERCENT 0.01163 ERROR 0.05175 1 3 0.01163 0.01725 0.67 0.472 TP ERROR 0.02007 0.01729 5 15 0.00401 0.00115 3.48 0.027 35 TABLE VII INDIVIDUAL PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY AND BLOOD GLUCOSE CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS SUBJECT F.D. J.M. T.H. R.L. B.G. M.R. K.I. 50% REHYDRATION .2080 .1026 .7608 .2948 .3881 .9485 -.3515 100% REHYDRATION -.7532 .5583 .1081 .6802 .7334 .4910 .2538 36 treatment and treatment by time, which was to be expected as they were experimentally controlled. Volume STPD (Figure 4, Table IV): There is an increase in volume STPD after heat dehydration with a p<.05. Percent rehydration and time by percent rehydration show no significant differences. R.Q. (Figure 5, Table V): Results do not show any statistically significant changes. However changes with time, where (p= 0.108), can be interpreted as a probable change. True 02 (Figure 6, Table VI): Percent rehydration shows no significant change, but change with time is significant (p<,05) and the amount of liquid intake by elapsed time shows a p<.05. 37 Discussion The mean changes in physical work capacity show a decrease of 30% after a 4% lean body weight heat dehydration which is similar to Kozlowski (1969) and in accordance with Costill and Sparks (1973), Strydom and Holdsworth (1968), Saltin (1964A) , and Saltin (1964B), where they noted an increased heart rate on submaximal work. There was only a 12% recovery within the four hours on 100% rehydration conditions .This is not in accordance with Costill and Sparks (1973), but the difference in results can be due to the rehydration procedure. Costill and Sparks (1973), rehydrated their subjects within three hours with twelve egually subdivided amounts of liquid and studied their subjects on a treadmill where they were submitted to only one submaximal work load i.e. heart rate of 120 beat per minute. The 50% rehydration shows almost the same recovery and this is more related to the previous study mentioned, since the rehydration level is also related to the plasma volume. This lead to the conclusion that the decrease in plasma volume is not the sole cause for elevated heart rates following heat dehydration (Costill and Sparks, 1973). Among the factors which can explain the decrease in physical work after heat dehydration are the expiratory gas volume and concentrations. Oxygen consumption shows no significant changes throughout the study, see appendix B, as Saltin (1964B), and Kozlowslki (1969), stated. This is very normal because oxygen consumption is related to the amount of work done and in this study the subject, within the same 38 experiment, was submitted to the same amount of work. The significant ventilation increase after dehydration is not reported in previous literature. Respiratory rate and gas volume are mainly regulated by the chemoreceptors which are influenced by the level of C02. The level of C02 would be sensed as increased since the blood volume is reduced but the amount of C02 released is not increased. Also, the acidosis produced by dehydration, as reported by Masoro (1971), can be interpreted as a cause for such changes. Recovery in volume STPD does not show a significant decrease with time but in the 50% rehydration condition, it has a lower mean on time six, which can be partially explained by true 02 changes. Saltin (1964B) reported a decrease in true 02, but the decrease was not statistically significant. The volume STPD and true 02, for the same amount of oxygen intake, normally have a negative relationship, but the better recovery in true 02 in the 50% rehydration condition, which is statisticaly significant, can be explained by the higher level of absorption of liquid during 100% rehydration which may have caused an increase in blood supply in intestinal regions. This would tend to lower the artario-venous oxygen difference and reduce the efficiency of oxygen transport as indicated by the lower true 02. R.Q. is reported to decrease after heat dehydration (Saltin, 196UA). Our results showed no statistical level of significance in the the changes of R.Q. and the means tendency 39 showed not enough evidence for accurate interpretation. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in blood glucose after heat dehydration and during rehydration even if it is revealed that blood glucose is not related to the physical work capacity (Reichard et al, 1961; Kosiek; 1969). The investigator believed that the hormonal changes produced by the heat stress should be sufficient to show significant changes in blood glucose. Therefore a negative correlation was expected between blood glucose and the changes in physical work capacity after dehydration and during rehydration. Results from this investigation show no consistent correlation between the two parameters (Table VII), which differs from expected values. Blood glucose shows a significant change with time during the two experimental conditions, with a decrease after dehydration and an increase on tests five and six. These results do not support the first hypothesis which projected an increase in blood glucose after dehydration. Finally the second hypothesis is partially supported since there is a significant change in blood glucose and physical work capacity during rehydration, but the level of rehydration shows no significant effect. The level of the glucosteroids was not analysed in this investigation, but previous studies showed (Collins, 1968; Bledsoe, 1966; Kozlowski, 1969 and Gibinski, 1969), that Cortisol and aldosterone level are increased during heat stress. Research in more detailed articles gives a better understanding 40 of the mechanism of those hormones and justifies the delayed increase in blood glucose. The initial decrease in blood glucose was probably due to normal blood glucose utilisation, especially by the muscle tissue. Glucocorticoids have the ability of inducing specific RNA and protein synthesis (mainly gluconeogenic) in some tissues (liver) while suppressing RNA, protein synthesis and gluconeogenesis in other .. tissues (muscle) , (Thompson and Lippman, 1974). Cortisol is transported in human plasma, but more than 90% is bound to a, specific alpha globulin, i.e. corticosteroid binding globulin . Only the unbound portion is of physiologic consequence with target tissues (Rosner, 1972 and Rosenthal, Sanberg and Transcortin, 1969). As already stated the inhibitory effect on insulin of Cortisol (Selkurt, 1971) also decreases glucose uptake in extrahepatic tissues. This inhibition is delayed for 3 to 5 hours in muscle tissue (Munck, 1971). An in vitro study on rat livers revealed that the gluconeogenic effect of Cortisol only started to show up after two hours, (Exton et al, 1970) and showed an increse in blood glucose after two hours with adrenalectomized fasted rats which were subcutaneously injected with 2.5mg of Cortisol, (flunck, 1962). Therefore the gluconeogenic effect of glucosteroids expected in this study in fact was probably delayed by the time necessary for the Cortisol to show up in plasma after heat exposure i.e. one to two hours ; by the delayed inhibition of glucose absorbtion in muscle i.e. 3 to 5 hours and finally by 41 the specific inducing effect on RHA and protein (enzymes) synthesis in the liver which only shows up within two hours. While the time course of the blood glucose changes over the relatively long time span of the dehydration and rehydration periods in this study suggests a primary involvement of glucocorticoids and gluconeogenesis in these changes, glucagon and epinephrine, through their role in regulating hepatic glycolysis, may also contribute to the overall effect of the treatments on blood glucose. In the light of this study it would seem that the advantages to a wrestler of cutting down weight by heat dehydration before competition will be counteracted by the loss in physical work capacity. However this interpretation does not take into account the fact that a wrestler normally also eats during the rehydration period. This aspect might warrant futher study. This study also shows that recovery is not only a matter of fluid reabsorption; the changes in blood glucose suggest that the body is affected.on the cellular level, and a four hour rehydration period does not seem sufficient to counteract these biochemical changes. , CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 4% lean body weight dehydration with two levels of rehydration for four hours on the changes in physical work capacity and blood glucose. Further, the study examined the effects on volume STPD, V02, R.Q. and true 02 during the physical work capacity test. A total of 7 uviversity- aged males were involved in the experiment as subjects . Each subject was tested in two experimental conditions, i.e. 50% rehydration and 100% rehydration, on two separate days. Each set of tests consisted of blood samples drawn from the finger tip, a physical work capacity test with expiratory gas collection. Six sets of tests were distributed as follows: one at 6 A.M.,and one half an hour after dehydration. The four other sets were hourly separated. The rehydration consisted of intake of tomato juice given after the set of tests 2, 3, 4 and 5. The amount given was equally subdivided and depended on the experimental condition. Analysis of variance indicated significant changes over time for all dependent variables, except V02; significant changes between level of rehydration for weight, and significant changes for the level of rehydration by time interaction for true 02 and weight. There was no significant individual simple 42 ^3 correlation coefficient between blood glucose and physical work capacity for each experimental condition. There was a mean decrease of 30% in physical work capacity after heat dehydration and only 40% of the loss was recovered without significant difference between experimental conditions. Gas exchange was also affected. The volume STPD increased after dehydration, true 02 decreased after dehydration and a better recovery showed up in the 50% rehydration condition. The R.Q. parameter, in fact, did not indicate significant changes but there was a slight decrease after dehydration. The level of blood glucose decreased after dehydration but there was an increase in the middle of rehydration, even with the expected increase in blood volume, from the liquid intake. This suggested a very high level of gluconeogenesis on those last hours, probably due to glucocorticoid hormone action. 44 Conclusions 1. A 4% lean body weight heat dehydration significantly reduce physical work capacity and while significant recovery occurs over a four hour rehydration period, there is no difference between 50% and 100% rehydration within that time. 2. The level of blood glucose decreases after dehydration but is not correlated to the change in physical work capacity. 3. Two to three hours after heat dehydration, blood glucose increases without being affected by the level of rehydration. 4. Volume STPD increases after dehydration and almost plateaus during rehydration. 5. True 02 decreases after dehydration and a better recovery comes with the 50% rehydration condition. BIBLIOGRAPHY Adolph, E.F., and Associates, Physiology, of Man in the Desert, New York: Interscience, 1947. Astrand, P.O., and K.Rodahl, Textbook of Work Pi>isi elegy., Toronto, Mc Graw-Hill Book Co., 1970. Baldwin, R.L., "Metabolic Function Affecting the Contribution of Adipose Tissue to Total Energy Expenditure, " Fed.. Proc.., 29: 1277, 1970. Beethman, W.P.J.r. and E.R. Buskirk, ••Effects of Dehydration, Physical Conditioning and Heat Acclimatization on the Response to Passive Tilting," J± Acpl., Phjsiol., 13:465, 1958. Bledsoe, T., D.P., Island and W.G. Liddle, "Studies of the Mechanism Through which Na Depletion Increases Aldosterone Biosynthesis in Man," J. Clin. Invest.,, 45:524, 1966. Bledsoe, T., G.W. Liddle, A. Riondel, et al. , "Comparative Fates of Intravenously and Orally Administrated Aldosterone: Evidence for Extrahepatric Formation of Acid Hydrolyzable Conjugate in Man," J.. Clin.. Invest^, 45:264, 1966. Buskirk, E.R., P. F. Iampietro and D.E. Bass, "Work Performance After Dehydration: Effects of Physical Condition and Heat Acclimatization," J. APPI. Pjiysiol.., 12:189, 1958. Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, The Physical Work Cajsacitj of Canadian Children, Published by~c7A7H.P. E7i~.7~Ottawa, 1968. Collins, K.J. and J.J. weiner, "Endocrinological Aspects of Exposure to High Environmental Temperatures," Physiol, Rev., 48: 785, 1968. Conrad, V., H. Brunnengraber, R. Vanroux, A. Deschaepdrjiver, E. Moermans and J.R,M. Franckson, "Influence of Muscular Exercise on Glucose Regulation," Biochemistrj of Exercise, Medicine and Sport, New York, pp. 114-Tl5,~?969. 45 46 Consolazio, CF., Sweat, Calcium Balance, 78:78, 1962. Consolazio, F.C., Le Roy, Nelson, Harding and Canhan, "Excretion of Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium, Iron in Human Sweat and the Regulation to Each to Balance and Requirements," J. Nutr. , 63: 407, 1963. Costill, D.L. And K.e. Sparks, "Rapid fluid Replacement Following Thermal Dehydration," Jt A££li Phisioli, 34:299, 1973. Exton, J.H., L.E. Mallette, L.S. Jefferson, et al., "The Hormonal Control of Hepathic Gluconeogenesis," Recent Proa. 22-EEs., 26:411, 1970. Ferguson, G.A., Statistical Analysis in £sychclcc|^ and Education, Third Edition, Toronto, Mc ~Graw-Hill Book CompanyT 1971. Froberg, S.O., "Metabolism of Lipids in Blood and Tissues During Work," Biochemistry of Exercise^ Medicine and Snort, New York, pp. 100-113, 1969. Gibinski K. , "Role of the Sweat Glands in Thermoregulation," Acta PJjjsiol^ Pol_., 20:709, 1969. Giec, L., "Mobilisation of Water-Electrolytes Reserves of the Body in Defense Against Hyperthermia," Acta Physiol. Pol., 20:717, 1969. Goodhart, R.S. and M.E, Shills. Modern Nutition in Health and Disease, Fifth Edition, Philadelphia7~Lea and~Febiger," 9 7 37 Govindaraj, M., "The Effect of Dehydration on the Ventilatory Capacity in Normal Subjects," Am. Rev.. Resjgir. Dis., 105:842, 1972. Greenleaf, J.E. and F. Sargent II, "Voluntary Dehydration in Man," J± h£2U Physiol., 20:719, 1965. Herman, R.H., D. Zakim and F.B. Stifel, "Effect of Diet on Lipid Metabolism in Experimental Animals and Man," Fed. Proc, 29 :1302, 1970. et al., "Relationship Between Calcium in and Calcium Requirements," J. Nutr.., 47 Horstaman, D.H. and S.M. Horvath, "Cardiovascular and Temperature Regulation Changes During Progressive Dehydration and Euhydration," J. A££li PJ2lsioli# 33:446, 1972. Horstaman, D.H. and S.M. Horvath, "Cardiovascular Adjustment to Progressive Dehydration," J. l££lA£h2siclif 35:501, 1973. Issekutz, B.Jr. and H. Miller, "Plasma Free Fatty Acids during Exercise and the Effect of Lactic Acid," Proc. Soc Exp_t. Biol.. Med.., 110:237, 1962. Johnson R.E., Belding, Consolazio and Pitts, HarXilci Fatigue Laboratory Report _13, Cambrige, Massachusetts, 1942. Kosiek, J.P., V. Kersting, F. Kusters and E.J. Klaus, "Comparative Investigation on the Daily Rhythm of Blood Glucose After Rest, After Exhaustive Continuous Exercise," Biochemistry of Exercisex Medicine and Sp_ort, New York, pp. 144-1477~19697 Kozlowski, S., "Physical Performance and Maximum Oxygen Uptake in Man in Exercise Dehydration," Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci.. Biol.., 14:513, 1966. Kozlowski S., "Role of Thirst in Regulation of Water Balance in the Body," Acta Physiol.. PoJU, 20:730, 1969, Kozlowski S, And B. Saltin, "Effect of Sweat Loss on Body Fluid," JiA^liedi Physiol., 19:1119, 1964. Leveille, G.A., "Nutritional Factors in the Regulation of Lipid Metabolism," Fed^ Proc., 29:1276, 1970. Macfarlane, W.V., K.W. Robinson, B. Howard and R. Kinne, "Heat, Salt and Hormones in Panting and Sweating Animal," Nature , 182:672, 1958. Masoro, E.J., L.B« Rowell and R.M. McDonald, "Intracellular Muscle Lipids as Energy Sources During Muscular Exercise and Fasting," Fed.. Proc, 25:1421, 1966. Masoro, E.S. and P.p. Siegel, Acid Base regulations 11 J.s £lii§i2i2ai and Pathop_hysiolocjy, Philadelphia, W.B. Saunder Comp77~971. 48 Mountcastle, V.B., Medical Phjfsiolo2j» Twelfth Edition, St Louis, Mosby Company, 1968. Munck, A., "Glucocorticoid Inhibition of Glucose Uptake by Peripheral Tissues. Old and Hew Evidence. Molecular Mechanisms and Physiological Significance," Perspect. Biol. Med., 14:265, 1971. Munck, A. and S.B. Koritz, "Studies on the Mode of Action of Glucocorticoids in Rats. Early Effects of Cortisol cn Blood Glucose and on Glucose Entry Into Muscle, Liver and Adipose Tissue," BiochimBiophv.s^ Acta, 57:310, 1962. O'Connor, W.J., Renal Function, London Arnold, 1962. Pitts, G.C., R.E. Johson and F.C. Consolazio, "Work in the Heat as Affected by Intake of Water, Salt and Glucose," Am. JL Physiol., 142:253, 1944. Reichard, G.A., Issekutz Jr., P. Kimbel, R.C. Putraan, N.J. Hochella and S. Weinhouse,"Blood Glucose metabolism in Man During Muscular Work," J,. Ap.pl.. Physsiol.., 16:1005, 1961. Ribisl, P.M., "When Wrestlers Shed Pounds Quickly," Physician and Sportsmedicine, 2:30, 1974. Rosenthal, H.E., W.R. Slaunwhite Jr. and A.A. Sanberg, "Transcortin: A Corticosteroid-Binding Protein of Plasma. X. Cortisol and Progesterone Interplay and Unbound Levels of These Steroids in Pregnancy," J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 29:352, 1969. Rosmer, W., R. Hochberg, "Corticosteroid-Binding Globulin in the Rat: Isolation and Studies of its Influence on Cortisol Action in Vivo," Endocrinoloaj, 91:626, 1972. Saltin, B., "Aerobic and Anaerobic Work Capacity After Dehydration," J. AppI.. Physiol.;., 19: 114, 1964A. Saltin, B., "Circulatory Response to Submaximal and Maximal Exercise After Thermal Dehydration," App1. Physiol., 19:1125, 1964B. Scherrer M., "Acid-Base Imbalance and Gas Exchange During Heavy Work," Biochimistr_y of Exercise^ Medicine and sport, New York, pp. 2-14, 1969. 4-9 Selkurt E. E., Phisiology^ Third Edition Boston, Little Brown and Co., 1971. Sigma Chemical Company, Sigma technical Bulletin No.. 635J4-74}_, St Louis, Sigma Che mica l~"co7, 1974*7 Simonson, E., Ehysiology of Work Capacity, and Fatigue, Springfield, Thomas Publisher, 1971. -----Strydom, N.B. and Holdsworth, "The Effects of Different Water Deficit on Physiological Responses During Heat Stress," Int^. Angewj. Physioli# 26:95, 1968. Tepperman, J., Metabolic and Endocrine Physiology, j. an lEiro^USiiSS Text, Second ed7,~ Chicago7 Year Book Medical Publishers,~19687" Thompson, E.B. and M.E. Lippman, "Mechanism of Action of Glucocorticoids," Metabolism, 23:159, 1974. Vanroux, R., "1* Acidose Musculaire," Biochemisterjr of 3:89, 1969. Yuhasz, M.S., "The Effects of Sports Training on Body Fat in Man With Predictions of Optimal Body Weight," Ph.D Thesis, University, of Illinois, 1962. Metaboligue au Cours de L•Effort Exercise^ Medicine and Sport, APPENDIX A 50 51 NAME: F.D. AGE: 18years old. PRETEST: PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY 150, •1. 1794.20 Kp. m./min, 2. 1742.43 Kp. m./min. 3. 1640.07 Kp. m./min. 3. 1719.11 Kp. m./min. Mean: 1723.95 Kp. m./min. SPECIAL COMMENTS: 50% Rehydration: Subject slept 5.5 hrs the night before and had a headache on the last set of tests. 100% Rehydration: The subject slept 3 hrs the night before and got drunk. He could not complete his 4% lean body weight dehydration. The belt broke on his fourth set of tests and therefore that test with the following were recorded but the physical work capacity 150 and gas exchange were not included in the statistical analysis. 52 SUBJECT: F.D. DATE: MARCH 20-75 LEAN BODY WEIGHT: 1 5.2mm (chest) 2 7 . 4 ram (tricept) 3 8.0mm (subsca pular) 4 7.5mm (supra iliac) 5 7.0mm (abdomen) 6 13.5mm (front thigh) % total body fat = 48.6mm x 0.097+3.64 = 8.35% FAT WT = 73.74Kg X 0.0835 = 6.16Kg LBW = 73.?4Kg - 6.16Kg Condition: RH-50% = 67.58Kg % dehydration: 4. 19% | 6AM + "T" I I |PWC 150kpm/min.|1928.80 |Blood G mg% | 118.86 I + OhrRH | 1hrRH +• 1550.30 114.86 1770.00 103.00 2hrRH | 3hrRH | 4hrRH | 1705.05|1545.67| 1699.74 107.43 110.14J 109.861 | Weight Kg |Lig in ml | 73.74 70.91 71.18 71.40 354 354 3 54 70.62| 71.84| 354 | 0.153o1 0.0489] 27C| 39.983~| I (02) I (C02) h JGas Temp. | 0.1570 |~0.0451 4-0.1540 0.0470 0.1588 0.0445 0.1513 0. 1536| -4 0.0489 IVATPS li/min, I 27C 28C 28C 27. 5C I 37.941 39.722 39.826 35.666 0.0485I 27.5c| 39.119| jVSTPD li/min. j^.Q. I 32.975 34.333 34.423 31.780 | 0.8469 -+ 0.8089 0.8447 0.8014 33.906| 34.7511 0.8333| 0.8308| 2.031| 1 5.845| |V02 li/min. h I 1.764 1.982 1.801 1.927 H | 5.325 .JL . 1.961| -+-I True 02 5.774| 5.233| 6.065 i 1 5.784| L Bar press.: 752.6mmHg Time start: 6:15A.M. Time D.H. : 3.50Hrs Time finish: 2:15P.M. Room Temp,: 25C Sauna Temp.: 70C Room rel.hum.: 47% Sauna rel.hum.: 3.2% 53 SUBJECT: F.D. LEAN BODY WEIGHT: DATE: MARCH 20-75 1- 5.0mm (chest) 2- 8.0mm (tricept) 3- 8.8mm (subscapular) 4- 8.1mm (supra iliac) 5- 8.7mm (abdomen) 6- 15.0mm (front thigh) % total body fat = 54.4mm FAT WT = 74.44Kg x 0.0892 LBW = 74.44Kg - 6.64Kg Condition: RH-100% x 0.097+3.64 = 8.92% = 6.64Kg = 67.80Kg % dehydration: 3.73% "i T 1 • r 1 ! » | 6AM lOhrRH 1 1hrRH | 2hrRH | 3hrRH | 4hrRH | -+- V 1 H + -I 4 |PWC 150kpm/min.|12 59.27|1070.27 IBlood G mg% | 116.00| 125.00 1141.97J1234.55|2276.10|166 8.53 -| +- + 115.40| 121.83J 131.33| 135.56 72.58* 73.Ost 73.4lj~ 73.97 |Weight Kg | 74.41| 71.91 H H I | 632.5 -+-| 0.15391 0.1529 -I + + ^ 632.5| 632.5| 632.5| 0.1538| 0.15621 0.1602| 0.1579 l~0.0469J~0.0482 •+ H + I(C02) 0.0477I 0.0430| 0.0402| 0.0429 JJ H +-27C| 26C| 25.5C| 25C 46.540 |42.210 |34.745 |34.999 |gas Temp. JVATPS li/min. | 26C| 2.65C | 45.39 |44.785 •+ 1- 4 IVSTPD li/min. | 40.443 1 39.847 41.2961 37.6561 31.0801 30.398 +- +-IB.Q. I I 0.8050| 0.8145 0.8200| 0.7623| 0.7719J 0.7894 .j + + -I JV02 li/min. | 2.341| 2.343| 2.387| 2.109| 1.607| 1.694 [True 02 | 5.789J" 5.88o| 5.780^ 5.60l| 5.169J 5.397 i L 1 I I 1 I J Bar press.: 768mmHg Time start: 6:40A.M. Time D. H. : 4.00Hrs Time finish: 3;30P.M. Room Temp.: 23C Sauna Temp.: 70C Room rel.hum.: 29% Sauna rel.hum.: 3.4% 54 NAME: J.M. AGE: 20years old. PRETEST: PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY 150 1. 1121.19 Kp. m./min. 2. 1278.60 Kp. m./min. 3. 1381.22 Kp.m./min. 4. 1408.00 Kp. m./min. Mean: 1297.25 Kp.m./min. SPECIAL COMMENTS: 50% Rehydration: The subject had a headache on his third set of tests. 100% Rehydration: None. 55 SUBJECT: J.M. DATE: MARCH 20-75 LEAN BODY WEIGHT: 1- 5. 9mm (chest) 2- 5.8mm (tricept) 3- 6.1mm (subscapular) 4- 4, 0mm (supra iliac) 5- 8.2mm (abdomen) 6- 10.8mm (front thigh) % total body fat • = 41. 4mm x 0.097+3.64 = 7.66% FAT WT = 57.99Kg x 0. 0766 = 4.44Kg LBW = 57.99Kg - 4. 44Kg = 53.55Kg Condition: RH-50% % dehydration: 3.99% ! | 6 AM OhrRH | 1hrRH +• 2hrRH | 3hrRH | 4hrRH -I + —H 1071. H| 1142. 171 1253. 96 |PWC 150kpm/min.|1511.95 + 1020.00 Blood G mg% | Weight Kg I 134.47 +— 136. 11 |Lig in ml I —r-57.99 55.85 I 267.5 1008.37 134.47 56.04 130.29| 125.921 134.37 267.5 -j 56.22J 56.30| 56.41 267.5| 267.5| (02) (C02) | 0.1543 0. 1671 0.1599 | 0.0461 0.0348 0.0437 0.16251 0.16201 0.1587 0.04151 0.0437| 0.0445 27C| 27C| 27C | Gas Temp, I 27,5C 27. 5C 27C VATPS li/min. | 2 8.442 +• 34.064 32.842 31.8821 31.157) 29.752 VSTPD li/min. | 25.054 +_ R.Q.. | 0.8098 4— 27.0931 27.079| 25.858 0.85051 0.895o| 0.8427 V02 li/min. I 1.418 1.311 1.455 |True 02 | 5.659 1.342J 1.313| 1.356 4.440| 5.115| 4.844| 4.849| 5.245 1 1 i i j Bar press.: 752.6mmHg Time start: 6:00A.M. Time D.H.: 3.50Hrs Time finish: 2:00P.M. Room Temp.: 25C Sauna Temp.: 70C Room rel.hum.: 47% Sauna rel.hum.; 3.2% 56 SUBJECT: J.M. LEAN BODY WEIGHT: DATE: MARCH 27-75 LBW = 58.70Kg Condition: RH-100% 1- 7. 2mm (chest) 2- 7.2 mm (tricept) 3- 8. Omm (subscapular) 4- 4. 6mm (supra iliac) 5- 9.6mm (abdomen) 6- 12.4mm (front thigh) 49. Omm x 0.097*3.64 = 8.39% 0. 0839 = 4.93Kg 4. 93Kg = 53.78Kg % dehydration: 4.18% 1 1 T 2hrRH | 3hrRH | 4hrRH | 741.921 744.431 -) 112.99| 130.911 57.nj 57.6lT + +-| 6 AM |PWC 150kpm/min.| 947.63 h +-|Blood G mg% | 124.10 I + | Weight Kg I 58.70 j. +  |Lig in ml | OhrRH 598. 14 112.99 56.45 +— 562.5 1hrRH 654.67 109.41 56.85 562.5 788.87| 132. 70~| 57.82^ 562.5| 562.5| + 4- 4 0.1640| 0.0423^ I (02) h | 0.1541 0.1666 0.1661 0.1658| 0.1690| (C02) | 0.0531 -+-0.0399 0.0410 0.0419| 0.0360| H (Gas Temp. JVATPS li/min, h | 24.2C | 37.696 25C 44.505 25C 44.121 IVSTPD li/min, IR.Q. h | 33.895 39.937 39.598 25C| 25C| 4 h 42.882I 42.1311 •H +-| 0.9430 0.9067 0.9246 38.861| 37.7961 0.9420| 0.8566| -+ +• 2 5C| 39.642^ 35.563| 0.90651 4 JV02 li/min. | 1.898 1.744 1.743 |True 02 5.599 4.368 4.402 1.716| 1.575J -+ +-4.416| 4.167| I L_ 1.648| 4.633| Bar press.: 766mmHg Time start: 6:00A.M. Time D.H.: 3.50Hrs Time finish: 2:00P.M. Room Temp,: 23.5C Sauna Temp.: 70C Room rel.hum.: 32% Sauna rel.hum.: 3.2% 57 NAME: T.H. AGE: 23years old. PRETEST: PYSICAL WORK CAPACITY 150 1. 1688.77 2. 1736.73 3. 1696. 84 4. 1711.14 Mean: 1708.37 Kp.m./min. Kp.m./min. Kp. m./min. Kp.m./min. Kp. m./min. SPECIAL COMMENTS: 50% Rehydration: None. 100% Rehydration: During the second rehydration period the subject was unable to complete the liquid ingestion for this and subsequent tests. Therefore, tests at 2, 3, +4 hrs. of rehydration were not included in the statistical analysis. 58 SUBJECT: T.H. DATE: APRIL 1-75 LEAN BODY WEIGHT: 1- 5. 4mm (chest) 2- 9. 3 mm (tricept) 3- 10.1mm (subscapular) 4- 6. 2mm (supra iliac) 5- 8. 2 mm (abdomen) 6- 9.9 mm (front thigh) % total body fat = 49.1mm x 0.097+3.64 = 8.40% FAT WT = 89.59Kg x 0.0840 = 7.53Kg LBW = 89.59Kg - 7.53Kg = 82.06Kg Condition: RH-50% % dehydration: 4.07% 1 1 T T 1 1 1 1 T | | 6AH |0hrRH | 1hrRH | 2hrRH | 3hrRH | 4hrRH | i + +- 1_ + H + ^ |PWC 150kpm/min.I 1374.71 I 980.55| 949.92|1015.30|1028.6711024. 45 | ^Blood G mg% | 136.67|~127.Oo|~120.Ooj 130.Ooj 126.33| 118.33^ I + + i 1 -I -\ 4 IWeight Kg | 89.59J 86.25| 86.60J 86.83| 87.05| 87.37| V +- —H H i 4 + i |Liq in ml | | 417.5| 417.5| 417.5| 417.5| | I + + 4 H A + H | (02) | 0. 1490| 0. 15621 0. 1533| 0.1550| 0.15511 0. 1541| V- 4 H +- + H H 1 | (C02) | 0.0530J 0.0422| 0.0426| 0.04181 0.0414| 0.0428| j + + 1 H H -I ^ |Gas Temp. | 23C| 26C| 26.5C| 26.5C| 26.5C| 26.5C| i + -i H -\ ^ + 1 IVATPS li/min. | 42.030| 47.810| 48.523| 50.306| 50.413| 47.539| IVSTPD li/min. | 37.639| 42.162| 42.661| 44.224| 44.292| 41.7271 |R.Q., | 0.8436| 0.7452J 0.7075| 0.7174| 0.7107| 0.7238| JV02 li/min. | 2.351J 2.371| 2.551| 2.558| 2.561| 2.450| I + -1 +- H + + 4 |True 02 | 6.247| 5.622| 5.979| 5.785| 5.783| 5.872| i i i i i i i i Bar press.: 757,8mmHg Room Temp.: 22C Time start: 6:30A.M. Sauna Temp.: 70C Time D.H. : 2.5Hrs Room rel.hum.: 33% Time finish: 1:30P.M. Sauna rel.hum.: 3.3% 59 SUBJECT: T.H. LEAN BODY WEIGHT: BATE: MARCH 26-75 LBW = 89.35Kg Condition: RH-100% 1- 5.3mm (chest) 2- 9.6mm (tricept) 3- 10.5mm (subscapular) 4- 6.2mm (supra iliac) 5- 7.9mm (abdomen) 6- 10.6mm (front thigh) 50.1mm X 0.097+3.64 = 8.50% 0.0850 = 7.59Kg 7.59Kg = 81.76Kg % dehydration: 4.17% 6AM + OhrRH 1hrRH | 2hrRH | 3hrRH J 4hrRH | |PWC 150kpm/min.|1639.41 1329.41 1331.72 J Blood G mg% |Weight Kg h | 132.04 -+ 122.33 138.83 | 89.35 85.94 86.64 1159.8911175.91|1139.521 132.82| 137.67| 141.75| 87.36| 87.83| 87.67| 4 4 __i |Liq in ml I -+-855 855 855 | 4- 855 | 4-I (02) r-| 0.1545 -+ 0. 1602 0.1588 0.16111 0.1609| 0.1610| .4 4 1 I(C02) h | 0.0505 0.0428 0.0443 0.0417| 0.03971 0.0385| 4 J J I Gas Temp. | 22.4C IVATPS li/min. | 45.361 r 22. 5C 50.154 21C 49.700 23C| 25.5C| 25.5C| 74.1351 72.336| 72.773| H -I 64.704^ -j |VSTPD li/min. | 40.933 44.674 45.199 66.740| 64.342| IH.Q. h 0.8936 |V02 li/min. h I —L. | 2.299 0.8314| 0.7734| H +• 3.348| 3.278| 0.7471| 3.308] 5.1l3~i |True 02 5.699 5.1001 5.238| 5.016| 5.094| L L I 1— Bar press,; 762.4mmHg Time start: 6:30A.M, Time D. H.: 2.50Hrs Time finish: 2:00P.M. Room Temp.: 20C Sauna Temp.: 70C Room rel.hum.: 29% Sauna rel.hum.: 3.1% 60 SUBJECT: R.L. LEAN BODY WEIGHT: DATE: MARCH 29-75 1- 5. 6mm (chest) 2- 7. 8mm (tricept) 3- 8. 5mm (subscapular) 4- 5. 0mm (supra iliac) 5- 8.4mm (abdomen) 6- 7. 8mm (front thigh) % total body fat = 43.1mm x 0.097+3.64 = 7. FAT WT = 70.48Kg x 0. 082 = 5.51Kg LBW = 70.48Kg - 5. 5lKg = 64.97Kg Condition: RH-50% 55 dehydration: 4.02% ~« | 6AM T T OhrRH 1 1—• r 1hrRH I 2hrRH I 3hrRH 4hrRH JPWC 150kpm/min.|1202.79 r 833.78 |Blood G mg% h | 133.83 118.23 739.13| 798.821 906.10 H h 131.20| 132.521 +-133.65 941.49 145. 68^ |Weight Kg | 70.48 67.87 68.04| 68.25| 68.35 + + 68. 62 |Liq in ml I -+-326 326 J +-326 | +-326 J 0. 15551 0.0441^ 26.5CI (02) I (C02) jGas Temp, r-| 0.1557 0. 1601 | 0.0480 H | 23C 0.0448 24C 0.16091 0.16121 0.1589 0.04221 0.04221 0.0430 25.5C| 25.5C| 26.5C IVATPS li/min. |VSTPD li/min. IB.Q. |V02 li/min. h | 61.547 | 53.817 67.300 60.482 |True 02 | 0.8623 -+— | 2.977 | 5.532 0.8794 3.060 5.060 68.530| 67.605I 61.1361 60.311| 62.664 55.543 0.8397 | 3.009| +-4.775! 4.990! 0.8775| 2.919J 0.8117 2.921 5.260 59.8161 52.984 -1 0.7738! 2.999 5.661^ Bar press.: 741.6mmHg Time start: 6:00A.M. Time D. H. : 3. OOHrs Time finish: 1:30P. M. Room Temp.: 20C Sauna Temp.: 70C Room rel.hum.: 54% Sauna rel.hum.: 3.0% 61 SUBJECT: R.L. LEAN BODY WEIGHT: DATE: MARCH 22-75 1- 5. 4 mm (chest) 2- 7. 3 mm (tricept) 3- 8. Omm (subscapular) 4- 4. 4mm (supra iliac) 5- 7. 6 mm (abdomen) 6- 7. 3 mm (front thigh) % total body fat = 40.Omm FAT WT = 69.51Kg x 0.0752 LBW = 69.5lKg - 5.23Kg Condition: RH-100% x 0.097+3.64 = 7.52% = 5.23Kg = 64.28Kg % dehydration: 3.90% 1hrRH 1 2hrRH | 3hrRH~T~4hrRH ] 1124.76M180. 18r~208. 99^ 110.68| 103.88| 121.17| 68.08^ 68.55~[ 68.87] 627.5I 627.~t I 0.1664J 0.16321 0.1628| 0.039l| 0.0428J 0.0425^ |PWC 150kpm/min, | Blood G m< |Weight Kg |Lig in ml I (02) I (C02) |Gas Temp. IVATPS li/min, IVSTPD li/min, \-IB.Q. , h 24.8C| 24.4C| + L-50.459| 48.905| 43.9111 42.577| |V02 li/min. I True 02 0.8768| 0.9002| 1.777| 1.943| 2.0101 24.3C| 47.369| 41.416| 1 0.8829| 1.979| 4.730| 4.425| 4.721| 4.780| 1 j 1 J Bar press.: 741.6mmHg Time start: 6:00A.M. , Time D. H. : 3. 75Hrs Time finish: 2:45P.M. Room Temp.: 20C Sauna Temp.: 70C Room rel.hum.: 42C Sauna rel.hum.: 3.1% 62 NAME: R.L. AGE: 18years old. PRETEST: PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY 150 1. 1227.24 Kp.m./min. 2. 1967.94 Kp.m./min. 3. 1675.44 Kp.m./min. 4. 1654.04 Kp.m./min. Mean: 1631.16 Kp.m./min. SPECIAL COMMENTS: 50% Rehydration: None. 100% Rehydration: The subject only completed a 3.9% lean body weight dehydration because of a headache which desappeared after the second set of tests. 63 NAME: B.G. AGE: 29years old. PRETEST: PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY 150 1. 1962.52 Kp. m./min. 2. 1854.88 Kp. m./min. 3. 1873.87 Kp.m./min. 4. . 1887.94 Kp. m./min. Mean: 1894.80 Kp.m./min. SPECIAL COMMENTS: 50% Rehydration: 4.5 hrs of sleep. 100% Rehydration: 5 hrs of sleep 64 SUBJECT: B.G. LEAN BODY WEIGHT: DATE: MARCH 21-75 1- 4.4mm (chest) 2- 6 , 9 mm (tricept) 3- 11.4mm (subscapular) 4- 7. 2mm (supra iliac) 5- 10.Omm (abdomen) 6- 9. 8mm (front thigh) % total body fat = 49. FAT WT = 83.?2Kg x 0.0846 LBW = 83.72Kg - 7.08Kg Condition: RH-50% x 0.097+3.64 = 8.46% = 7.08Kg = 76.64Kg % dehydration: 4.07% | 6AM OhrRH 1hrRH 2hrRH 3hrRH | 4hrRH -I |PWC 150kpm/min.|2234.56 , + |Blood G mg% | 120.71 1772.95 1890. 16 1955.55 124.57 121. 14 |Weight Kg |Liq in ml h I 83.72 80.60 390 80.77 390 122.86 81.02 390 2197.07)2225.71 f | 0.1542 125.71| 135.71 81.11| 81.40 39o| 4-0.1572| 0.1596^ I (02) h I(C02) |Gas Temp. I— 0. 1598 0.1568 0.1571 | 0.0460 4 | 25C 4 0.0403 25C 0.0438 26C 4 4 0.0449 26C 4 0.0434| 0.0432 25C| 25C |VATPS li/min. | 46.461 51.987 47.919 50.363 -4-48.338~[ 50.232 -4 IVSTPD li/min. | 40.160 44.915 41.060 43.138 41.628| 43.247 4 IH.Q. |V02 li/min. | 0.7914 -4-0.7667 0.7887 0.8203 | 2.318 -4-2.343 2.363 2.345 0.7888I 0.8305 -4 2.275| 2.234 5.217| 5.512| 5.437| 5.464| 5.166^ ± i i i i |True 02 | 5.775 Bar press.: 740.5mmHg Time start: 6:00A.M. Time D. H. ; 2. 25Hrs Time finish: 1.15P.M. Room Temp.: 22.5C Sauna Temp.: 70C Room rel.hum.: 33% Sauna rel.hum.: 3.2% 65 SUBJECT: B.G. LEAN BODY WEIGHT: DATE: MARCH 28-75 1- 5.2mm (chest) 2- 7.3mm (tricept) 3- 12.4mm (subscapular) 4- 8.2mm (supra iliac) 5- 10.8mm (abdomen) 6- 10.5mm (front thigh) % total body fat = 54.4mm FAT WT = 83.39Kg x 0.0892 LBW = 83. 39Kg - 7.44Kg Condition: RH-100% x 0.097+3.64 = 8.92% = 7.44Kg = 75.95Kg % dehydration: 4.35% I | 6 AM JPWC 150kpm/min.|1583.12 |Blood G mg% |Weight Kg |Lig in ml | 125.27 OhrRH 1206.13 120.16 1hrRH 1260.00 117.03 2hrRH | 3hrRH 1296.821 1340.27 121.06| 123.75 81.15| 81.84 827.5| 827.5 1351.66| 119.20| 82.44| 4hrRH | (02) (C02) | 0.1602 0.1560 0.1576 0.15911 0.1601 +-| 0.0403 0.0448 0.0441 j Gas Temp, r 24C 25C 25C 0.0437I 0.0421 26C| 26.5C 0. 1600| 0.0410| 1 26.5C| |VATPS li/min. | 57.480 55.505 55.270 58.586| 63.240 62.7951 H JVSTPD li/min, j. | 51.856 49.788 49.577 52.2611 56.267 55.871| { 0.7742 J 0.8302| 0.8145 1 0.7867| lR.Q. j 0.7977 0.8119 |V02 li/min. | 2.679 2.778| 2.675| 2.726| 2.887 + 2.890| |True 02 I 5.161 5.579| 5.395| 5.216| 5.132 5.173| Bar press.: 768mmHg Time start: 6=00A.M. Time D.H.: 2.00Hrs Time finish: 1:00P.M. Room Temp.: 23C Sauna Temp.: 70C Room rel.hum.: 29% Sauna rel.hum.: 3.4% 66 NAME: M.R. AGE: 21years old. PRETEST: PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY 150. 1. 1712.37 Kp. m./min. 2. 1733.32 Kp. m./min. 3. 1733.40 Kp. m./min. 4. 1761.99 Kp. m./min. Mean: 1735.27 Kp. m./min. SPECIAL COMMENTS: 50% Rehydration: Subject had only 3 hrs of sleep and got drunk the night before. On the sixth set of tests the subject was tested with a different belt, since the previous had broken, therefore his physical work capacity 150 and gas exchange were recorded but not included in the analysis of data because the new belt showed no reliability to the previous one. 100% Rehydration: Subject has only 2.5 hrs of sleep and got drunk the night before. 67 SUBJECT: M.R. LEAN BODY WEIGHT: 1-2-3-4-5-6-3. 7mm 4 .7mm 6. 3 mm 4. 7mm 6.4 mm 5. 9mm DATE: MARCH 28-75 (chest) (tricept) (subscapular) (supra iliac) (abdomen) (front thigh) % total body fat = 31.7mm FAT WT = 78.04Kg x 0.0671 LBW = 78.04Kg - 5.24Kg Condition: RH-50% x 0.097+3.64 = 6.71% = 5.24Kg = 72.89Kg % dehydration: 4.00% T -i 6AM . lOhrRH , , 1hrRH I 2hrRH I 3hrRH +-4hrRH | |PWC 150kpm/min. 1182.04 1029.27 1146.54 1077.24 1137. 17 1949.84| 142. 11| 75. 921 | Blood G m< 146.00 133.45 139.38 136.45 140. 16 |Weight Kg 78.05 75.12 75.38 75.70 75. 85 +-Hig in ml 365 365 365 365 I (02) 0.1577 I (C02) 0.0454 0.1591 0.0449 0.1589 H 0.0439 0.1618 0.0417+ 0.1586 0.0438 0. 1610| I 0.0408| |Gas Temp. 26C 27C 26. 5C 26. 5C 26.5C 24.5C| j 36.291I |7ATPS li/min. 48.539 48.006 47.264 52.537 48.513 32.633^ |VSTPD li/min. (. IH.Q. , h 43.326 0.8433 42.603 0.8603 42.053 46.744 43.163 0.8373 0.8402 0.8225 0. 8016] |V02 li/min. 2.317 2.208 2.201 2.303 |True 02 5.348 5. 184 5.236 4.927 4— 2.277 5.276+ 1.649| 1 5.052| Bar press.: 768mmHg Time start: 6:30A.M. Time D. H.: 2. 5Hrs Time finish: 2:30P.M. Room Temp.: 23C Sauna Temp.: 70C Room rel.hum.: 29% Sauna rel.hum.: 3.4% 68 SUBJECT: N.B. LEAN BODY WEIGHT: DATE: MARCH 22-75 1- 4. Omm (chest) 2- 4. 9 mm (tricept) 3- 6. 7mm (subscapular) 4- 4. 6mm (supra iliac) 5- 6. 2 mm (abdomen) 6- 6. Omm (front thigh) % total body fat = 32.7mm FAT WT = 76.74Kg x 0.0681 LBW = 76,?4Kg - 5.22Kg Condition: RH-100% x 0.097+3.64 = 6.81% = 5.22Kg = 71.52Kg % dehydration: 4.10% UhrRH ]~1hrRH | 2hrRH "|~3hrRH i 4hrRH ] j, -j +- H 1 6AM JPWC 150kpm/min. r |Blood G mg% |Weight Kg h |Lig in ml I (02) I (C02) r-+ 1568.15 1261.29 139.80 137.86 76.74 73.81 732.5 0.1575 0.1580 0.0474 0.0452 1351.3811371.95|1390.33|1515. 95 | _ 4 H 4 1 118.45| 118.64| 129.90| 145.63| 74.50| -4-732.5| -+-74.96| 732.5| 0.1609| 75.48| 732.5J 75.95| 0. 1573| 0.15901 4 0.04221 0.0468| 0.0471| 4 0.1592| 1 0.0490| 25.2C| 26C| 4 1 43.868| -I |Gas Temp. r IVATPS li/min. 24. 2C 42.110 IVSTPD li/min. IB.Q. h -4 39.097) 4 0.9094| 0.8954) 0.9619) 38.502I 1 -I 1.949| |V02 li/min. 1.951 2.079 1.984| 1.997| -+-2.044| I True 02 5.320 5.315 5.028| 5.146| L. 5.228| 5.0 63 I Bar press.: 742mmHg Time start: 6:15A.M. Time D. H. : 2. 25Hrs Time finish: 1:00P.M. Room Temp.: 20C Sauna Temp.: 70C Room rel.hum.: 42% Sauna rel.hum.: 3.1% 69 NAME: K.I. AGE: 18years old. PRETEST: PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY 150. 1. 1181.54 Kp. m./min. 2. 1025.28 Kp. m./min. 3. . 1033.96 Kp. m./min. 4. 1056.25 Kp. m./min, Mean: 1076.76 Kp. m./min, SPECIAL COMMENTS: 50% Rehydration: Subject slept only 3 hrs and had a headache after dehydration which desappeared after the first rehydration. 100% Rehydration: Subject slept 3.5 hrs the night before. 70 SUBJECT: K.I. LEAN BODY WEIGHT: DATE: MARCH 29-75 1- 4.1mm (chest) 2- 5.6mm (tricept) 3- 6.7mm (subscapular) 4- 4.0mm (supra iliac) 5- 7.0mm (abdomen) 6- 6.6mm (front thigh) % total body fat = 33.8mm x 0.097+3.64 = 6.92% FAT WT = 60.12Kg x 0.0692 = 4.16Kg LBW = 60.12Kg 4. 16Kg = 55.96Kg Condition: RH-50% % dehydration: 4.29% I 6 AM |PWC 150kpm/min.|1090.59 jBlood G mg% | 118.42 r-|Weight Kg r 60. 12 I'Lig in ml I ObrRH | 1hrRH | 2hrRH | 3hrRH | 613.49 120.98 57.72 300 613. 16 121.43 57. 87 300 4hrRH | -j 692.66| 670.50| 683.94| + H 1 135.15| 146.621 58.12| 58.27| 4 4-300| 300| + 4-141.35| 1 58.47| j 0.1544) 0.15451 0.1540| 0.1589 0.1578 0.0441 0.0446 23C 25C 25C 0.0570I 0.0454| 0.0445| IVATPS li/min, h j VSTPD li/min. I | 28.487 30.075 32.017 | 24.911 •4-26.915 30.613 26C| 28.680| 32.015| 30.285^ 25C| 27.5C| 25.6561 28.223| 26.880| -4 H 1 R.Q, | 0.8489 0.8374 0.8270 0.7886| 0.78401 0.7569| |V02 li/min. |True 02 | 1.403 •4 1.408 1.640 | 5.630 5.230| 5.356 U477| 1.623| 1.570| 1 5.757| 5.757[ 5.840| 1 1 j Bar press.: 741.6mmHg Time start: 6:00A.M. Time D.H. : 3.00Hrs Time finish: 1:30P.M. Room Temp.: 20C Sauna Temp.: 70C Room rel.hum.: 54% Sauna rel.hum.: 3.0% 71 SUBJECT: K.I. LEAN BODY WEIGHT: DATE: APRIL 1-75 1 4.7mm (chest) 2 6.2 mm (tricept) 3 7,5 mm (subscapular) 4 5.0mm (supra iliac) 5 7.8mm (abdomen) 6 7.8mm (front thigh) % total body fat = 39.0mm x 0.097+3.64 = 7. FAT WT = 59.92Kg X 0.0742 = 4.45Kg LBW = 59.92Kg - 4.45Kg = 55.47Kg Condition: RH-100% % dehydration: 4*09% \~ ]~6AM |PWC 150kpm/min.| 985.66 2hrRH "~ 3hrRH [ 715.78| I H 769.05 1 -| 112.501 115.83 4-|0hrRH | IhrRH 571.08 644.64 709.41 4hrRH j Blood G m< | 125.83 123.17 119. 17 105.00 |Weight Kg | 59.92 57.65 58. 11 58.59 59.04| 59. 34 1 |Lig in ml I 554 554 554 554 0. 1563J" 0.1585^ 4 I (02) | 0.1530 -+• 0. 1563 0.1575 0.1559 I(C02) h |Gas Temp. IVATPS li/min, h | 0.0499 0.0466 0.0473 0.0488 IVSTPD li/min, I— I H.Q. | 25C H + | 30.680 + 25. 5C 32.654 26C 32.095 | 27.010 | 0.8518 -+ 28.706 28.139 25. 5C 30.853 27.104 0.0487| 0.8429 0.8830 0.8842 25.5C| 31.650| 27.851| -+-0.0464| 25.5C| 4 30.853 27.086 0. 89011 0.8831 1.414 5.220I |V02 li/min, |True 02 | 1.573 1.577 1.498 1.487 ] 5.823 5.493 5.323 1.514| 5.485| 5.438| Bar press.: 754mmHg Time start: 6:30A.M. Time D. H. : 3.00Hrs Time finish: 2:00P.M. Room Temp.: 22C Sauna Temp.: 70C Room rel.hum.: 22% Sauna rel.hum.: 2.8% Figure 8 0 Individuals # Changes -10 in FdC-150. -20 50% Rehydrations A 1003 Rehydrations • -30 -40 Subject: F.D. ' L Time: 1 / 1 1 I 1 / [ Subject: F.D. Figure 9 Individuals % Changes in Blood Glucose. 50£ Rehydrations* 100$ Rehydrations* Subject: R.L. 2 3 4 Subject: B.G. Time: 1 +20 Figure 10 +10 Individuals "% Changes in Volume STPD. 0 503 RehydrationsA -10 100£ Rehydrations* -20 Subject: R.L. Subject: F.D. +20 +10 0 -10 -20 L / I I I I I / Time: 12 3^56 Time: 12 3 4 Subject: B.G. Subject: J.M. /-LA Subject: T.H. I / I I I l I I /111 12 34561 23 456 $ Figure 11 +20 Individuals $ Changes in R.Q. +10 50$ Rehydrations A 0 100$ Rehydrations* -10 -20 i +20 +10 0 -10 -20 Subject: R.L. Time: 1 Subject: F.D. 2 3 4 Subject: B.G. llll ' l I 11 Time: 1 Subject: J.M. Subject: T.H. 'I l I I I / 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 Subject: M.R. .J 1 I L 2 3 4 5 6 Subject: K.I. 1 ll l /. 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 +20 Figure 12 +10 Individuals % Changes 0 in True 02. 50% RehydrationsA -10 100! Rehydrations* -20 Subject: R.L. Subject: F.D. >L-L_1 Time: 1 1 3 Subject: B.G. / I I I I I / I I Time: 123 4 5 6 1 23 Figure 13 Individuals % Changes in V02. 50^ RehydrationsA 1003 Rehydrations* i 420 +10 j— 0 -10 h -20 / Tine: 1 Subject: R.L. i +20 +10 0 -10 -20 / Subject: F.D. Time: 1 2 3 4 Subject: B.G, I I I /III L 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 Subject: J.M. Subject: T.H. 12 3 4 5 6 P Subject: K.I. 1 2 3 4 5 6 APPENDIX B 78 79 TABLE VIII ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY 150 N= 7 TIME= 1 TO 3 SOURCE SUM OF DEGREES OF MEAN F SQUARES FREEDOM SQUARE TIME 0.60225 2 0.30112 34.98 0.000 ERROR 0.10329 12 0.00861 PERCENT 0.00077 1 0.00077 0.27 0.621 ERROR 0.01709 6 0.00285 TP ERROR 0.00161 0.01598 2 12 0.00081 0.00133 0.60 0.562 80 TABLE IX ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY 150 N= 5 TIME= 1 TO 5 SOURCE SUM OF SQUARES DEGREES OF MEAN FREEDOM SQUARE TIME ERROR 0.53443 0.08484 4 16 0.13361 25.19 0.00530 0.000 PERCENT 0.00007 1 ERROR 0.003095 4 0.00007 0.00774 0.00 0.929 TP ERROR 0.00526 0.01870 4 16 0.00131 0.00117 1.12 0.380 81 TABLE X ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN BLOOD GLUCOSE 8= 7 TIME= 1 TO 3 SOURCE SUM OF DEGREES OF MEAN SQUARES FREEDOM SQUARE TIME ERROR 0.03102 0.03293 3 18 0.01034 0.00183 5.65 0.007 PERCENT 0.01545 ERROR 0.08203 1 6 0.01545 0.01367 1.13 0.329 TP ERROR 0.01319 0.06992 3 18 0.00440 0.00388 1.13 0.363 82 TABLE XI ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN VOLUME STPD N= 7 TIME= 1 TO 3 SOURCE SUM OF DEGREES OF MEAN SQUARES FREEDOM SQUARE TIME 0.05775 2 0.02887 9.91 0.003 ERROR 0.03495 12 0.00291 PERCENT 0.00448 1 0.00448 1.32 0.293 ERROR 0.02022 6 0.00337 TP 0.00230 2 O.0O115 0.66 0.532 ERROR 0.02076 12 0.00173 83 TABLE XII ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN VOLUME STPD N= 5 TIME= 1 TO 5 SOURCE SUM OF DEGREES OF MEAN SQUARES FREEDOM SQUARE TIME 0.05451 4 ERROR 0.05324 16 0.01363 4.09 0.00333 0.018 PERCENT 0.00000 ERROR 0.02890 1 4 0.00000 0.00 0.00723 0.997 TP 0.01028 4 ERROR 0.04295 16 0.00257 0.95 0.00268 0.457 84 TABLE XIII ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN R.Q. N= 7 TIME= 1 TO 3 SOURCE SUM OF SQUARES DEGREES OF MEAN FREEDOM SQUARE TIME ERROR 0.00267 0.02175 2 12 0.00134 0.00181 0.73 0.499 PERCENT 0.00323 ERROR 0.01098 1 6 0.00323 0.00183 1.76 0.232 TP ERROR 0.00175 0.00914 2 12 0.00088 0.00076 1.15 0.349 85 TABLE XIV ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN R.Q, N= 5 TIME= 1 TO 5 SOURCE SUN OF SQUARES DEGREES OF MEAN FREEDOM SQUARE TIME ERROR 0.00540 0.01129 4 16 0.00135 0.00071 1.91 0. 157 PERCENT 0.00818 ERROR 0.04059 1 4 0.00818 0.01015 0.80 0.420 TP ERROR 0.00549 0.03360 4 16 0.00137 0.00210 0.65 0.633 86 TABLE XV ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN TROE 02 N= 7 TIME= 1 TO 3 SOURCE SUM OF SQUARES DEGREES OF MEAN FREEDOM SQUARE TIME 0.04271 2 ERROR 0.05401 12 0.02135 4.74 0.00450 0.030 PERCENT 0.00005 ERROR 0.01583 1 6 0.00005 0.00264 0.01 0.894 TP ERROR 0.00253 0.01422 2 12 0.00126 0.00118 1.06 0.375 87 TABLE XVI ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN TRUE 02 N= 5 TIME= 1 TO 5 SOURCE SUN OF DEGREES OF MEAN SQUARES FREEDOM SQUARE TIME ERROR 0.05428 0.05199 4 16 0.01357 4.17 0.00325 0.017 PERCENT 0.00305 ERROR 0.03439 1 4 0.00305 0.00860 0.35 0.583 TP ERROR 0.01248 0.01523 4 16 0.00312 0.00095 3.27 0.038 88 FIGURE 7 MEATS OF V02 EXPRESSED IM PERCENT FOR 50$ REHYDRATION AND 100$ REHYDRATION CONDITIONS 50$ Rehydrationsi 100$ Rehydrations! 110 105 o > 100 u w a. 95 90 TIME: NUMBER: 1 7 2 7 1 III! 1 — • .A. — 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 7 4 5 5 5 6 4 89 TABLE XVII ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN V02 N= 7 TIME= 1 TO 3 SOURCE SOM OF DEGREES OF MEAN SQUARES FREEDOM SQUARE TIME 0.00007 2 0.00003 0.01 0.986 ERROR 0.02772 12 0.00231 PERCENT 0.00485 ERROR 0.01817 1 6 0.00485 0.00303 1.60 0.253 TP ERROR 0.00630 0.02451 2 12 0.00315 0.00204 1.54 0.254 90 TABLE XVIII ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN V02 N= 5 TIME= 1 TO 5 SOURCE SUM OF DEGREES OF MEAN SQUARES FREEDOM SQUARES TIME 0.00118 4 ERROR 0.03567 16 0.00029 0.13 0.00223 0.968 PERCENT 0.00554 ERROR 0.04075 1 4 0.00554 0.54 0.502 0.01019 TP ERROR 0.01001 0.02687 4 16 0.00250 1.48 0.252 0.00168 91 TABLE XIX ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CHANGES IN V02 N= 4 TIME= 6 SOURCE SUM OF SQUARES DEGREES OF MEAN FREEDOM SQUARE TIME ERROR 0.00158 0.03615 5 15 0.00032 0.00241 0.13 0.983 PERCENT 0.02156 ERROR 0.04296 1 3 0.02156 0.01432 1.50 0.307 TP ERROR 0.01287 0.02966 5 15 0.00257 0.00198 1.30 0.315 APPENDIX C 92 93 SUBJECT INFORMATION AND INSTRUCTION While the exact nature of this study cannot be revealed to you at this time, I am required to inform you of some pertinent details. You will be asked initiallly, the week before the experiments, to perform several physical work capacity test with expiratory gas collection. You will then be familiarized with the rest of the equipment to be used. This equipment will be used to determine your responses (heart rate, ventilatory and blood changes) to a pre set experimental design. You will be submitted to two experimental sessions which will consist of six (6); physical work capacity tests, finger tip blood samples and expiratory gas collections, distributed as follow: one after h% lean body weight dehydration, and four, separated by one hour, during rehydration. During dehydration you'll be able to go out of the sauna for five (5) minutes each 15 to 30 minutes. The dehydration should require two to four hours. None of the information thus obtained will be identified as belonging to you, but will be pooled with results obtained from other subjects. I, the undersigned, have read, understand the above information and know that the risks are minimal. I also keep the privilege to withdraw from the project at any time. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0077227/manifest

Comment

Related Items