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The effect of practice schedules upon motor performance and learning in groups of different initial ability Bisakowski, Katherine 1971

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THE EFFECT OF PRACTICE SCHEDULES UPON MOTOR PERFORMANCE AND LEARNING IN GROUPS OF DIFFERENT INITIAL A B I L I T Y by KAY BISAKOWSKI B.P.E., U n i v e r s i t y o f " A l b e r t a , 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the S c h o o l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1971 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced deg ree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t he L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r ag ree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t he Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co l umb i a Vancouve r 8, Canada Date J ^ Z ^ v ^ J U ?/ ABSTRACT An i n v e s t i g a t i o n was made t o d e t e r m i n e t he e f f e c t o f p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e s on t h e pe r f o rmance and l e a r n i n g o f h i g h , medium, and l ow a b i l i t y s u b j e c t s (Ss) on t he p u r s u i t r o t o r . F i f t y - e i g h t men were rank o r d e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r i n i t i a l s c o r e s and t h e n s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a s s i g n e d t o one o f t h r e e p r a c -t i c e c o n d i t i o n s i n o r d e r t o make t h e g roups e q u a l i n r e g a r d s t o i n i t i a l s c o r e s . S i x t y women were a l s o r ank o r d e r e d and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a s s i g n e d t o one o f t h e t h r e e p r a c t i c e g r o u p s . The Ss i n each o f t h e t h r e e p r a c t i c e g roups were s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s . There were t h i r t y - e i g h t Ss i n t he d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e group and f o r t y Ss i n each o f t he two massed p r a c t i c e g r o u p s . On Day 1 o f p r a c t i c e t ho se Ss who r e c e i v e d a d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e (DP) had s i x t e e n 20 - second t r i a l s w i t h 20 seconds o f r e s t between each t r i a l ; t h o se Ss who r e c e i v e d one t y p e o f massed p r a c t i c e (MPl) had f o u r 80 - second t r i a l s w i t h 20 seconds r e s t ; and , t h o s e Ss who r e c e i v e d a second t y p e o f massed p r a c t i c e (MP2) had e i g h t 40 - second t r i a l s w i t h 20 second r e s t . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t he mean pe r f o rmance t i m e on t a r g e t s c o r e s o r number o f h i t s was f ound among t h e t h r e e p r a c t i c e g roups and t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n t i a l e f -f e c t o f p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e a t t r i b u t a b l e t o i n i t i a l a b i l i t y l e v e l on Day 1. A f t e r a t w e n t y - f o u r hour r e s t , a l l Ss r e c e i v e d a d i s t r i -b u t ed p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e o f f i f t e e n 20 - second p r a c t i c e p e r i o d s and 20 seconds i n t e r p o l a t e d r e s t between each p r a c t i c e t r i a l . R e m i n i s c e n c e was no t f ound t o be r e l a t e d t o p r a c t i c e , a b i l i t y , o r s e x . . A g a i n no s i g n i f i c a n t - s d i f f e r ence i n t h e mean pe r f o rmance t i m e oh t a r g e t s c o r e o r number o f h i t s was f ound among p r a c -t i c e g roups and t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e and a b i l i t y l e v e l . There was, however, a s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e a r t r e n d i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e medium a b i l i t y and l ow a b i l i t y g roups under DP and t h e medium and l o w a b i l i t y g roups under the ave rage o f MP1 and MP2. Men and women d i f f e r e d i n i t i a l l y i n t i m e on t a r g e t s c o r e s and number o f h i t s and t h e y d i f f e r e d a g a i n a t t he end o f p r a c t i c e i n number o f h i t s . A s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between a b i l i t y and sex was f ound f o r r e m i n i s c e n c e and f o r t h e f i n a l s c o r e f o r number o f h i t s . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER . • PAGE 1 . STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 Introduction 1 The Problem 6 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 6 Theoretical Expectations . 8 Limitations of the Study 1 0 Delimitations of the Study 1 0 1 1 . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 1 2 Temporal Patterning of S k i l l e d Behavior 1 2 The Ef f e c t s of Practice Schedules on Performance and Learning « IB Eff e c t s of D i f f e r i n g A b i l i t i e s on Performance and Learning 23 E f f e c t s of Sex on Performance and Learning 2 7 1 1 1 . METHODS AND PROCEDURES 3 0 Subjects 3 0 Apparatus 3 0 Practice Schedules 3 0 Experimental Design 3 1 Operational D e f i n i t i o n s 3 2 A b i l i t y Groupings . 3 3 Procedure 33 S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis 3 6 CHAPTER PAGE IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3 8 Results 38 Discussion 6 5 V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 78 Recommendations 8 3 REFERENCES 8" 4 APPENDIX Mean Scores (TOT and Number of Hits) f o r Experimental Groups 8 8 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1. Summary of the Experimental Design 34 11. Means i n Seconds of the Three.Practice Groups and Their A b i l i t y Groups f o r the Various Conditions 42 111. Analysis of Variance f o r the I n i t i a l Score (TOT)....43 IV. Analaysis of Variance f o r the Performance Score(TOT)44 V. Analysis of Variance f o r Reminiscence (TOT) 45 VI. Analysis of Variance f o r Contrasts f o r the Performance Scores on Day. 1 (TOT) L\6 V l l . Trend Analysis of Performance on Day 1 ( A b i l i t y Group Contrasts) (TOT) 47 V l l l . Trend Analysis of Performance on Day 1 (Practice Group Contrasts) (TOT) 48 IX. Trend Analysis of Performance on Day 1 ( A b i l i t y x Practice Schedule) (TOT) 49 X. Analysis of Variance f o r F i n a l Score Day 1 (TOT) 50 XI. Analysis of Variance f o r the F i n a l Score 2 (TOT)....51 X l l . Analysis of Variance f o r Contrasts f o r the Mean Learning Scores on Day 2 (TOT) 52 X l l l . Trend Analysis of Learning on Day 2 (TOT) 53 XIV. Correlations between Number of Hits and Time on Target 54 XV. Mean Number of Hits of the Three Practice Groups and Their A b i l i t y Groups f o r the Various Conditions 55 XVI. Analysis of Variance f o r I n i t i a l Scores(No. of Hits)56 XVII. Analysis of Variance f o r Reminiscence(No.of Hits)...57 X V 1 1 1 . Trend Analysis of Performance on Day l(No.of Hits)..58 XIX  Analysis of Varianc  r F i n a l Score Day 1(No.ofHits)62 XX. Analysis of Variance for F i n a l Score Day 2(No.ofHits)63 XXI. Analysis of Variance f or Contrasts for the Learning Scores on Day 2 (No. of Hits) 64 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. High A b i l i t y Groups - Time on Target Performance Curve 39 11. Medium A b i l i t y Groups - Time on Target Performance Curve 40 111. Low A b i l i t y Groups - Time on Target Performance Curve 41 IV. Reminiscence - AB x SX Interaction Effect f o r Number of Hits 60 V. F i n a l Score 1 - AB x SX Interaction Effect f o r Number of Hits 6 1 CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF PROBLEM I n t r o d u c t i o n S k i l l l e a r n i n g i n v o l v e s the successive development of higher l e v e l s of o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l of temporal pat-t e r n s . This hypothesis of h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i m p l i e s a gradual s h i f t i n l e v e l of c o n t r o l from i n d i v i d u a l response u n i t s to i n t e g r a t e d sequences as a r e s u l t of p r a c t i c e . F i t t s , (1964), M i l l e r , Galanter and Pribram (i960), and Pew (1966) have a l l studied s k i l l l e a r n i n g i n terms of h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . F i t t s (1964) e x p l a i n s the process of s k i l l l e a r n i n g i n the f o l l o w i n g way. The subject (S) observes c e r t a i n aspects of the environment, s e l e c t s an appr o p r i a t e subroutine, executes a short b e h a v i o r a l sequence such as a b i p h a s i c or polyphasic movement, samples e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l feedback from t h i s response, recodes and st o r e s t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , then makes another d e c i s i o n which might be to use a d i f f e r e n t sub-r o u t i n e . As l e a r n i n g progresses subroutines become longer, the executive program i s p e r f e c t e d , stimulus sampling becomes l e s s frequent and the coding more e f f i c i e n t and d i f f e r e n t as-pects of the a c t i v i t y become i n t e g r a t e d and coordinated. Ove a l l performance may come to resemble more c l o s e l y a continuou process. There i s a gradual s h i f t i n the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e of s k i l l s or i n the nature of the processes employed as l e a r n i n g progresses. Behavior i s organized i n t o l a r g e r and l a r g e r 2 units and toward h i e r a r c h i c a l organization. An example of the construction of h i e r a r c h i c a l behavior i n the development of a typing s k i l l i s given by M i l l e r , Galanter and Pribram ( I 9 6 0 ) . The S f i r s t memorizes positions of the l e t t e r s and builds up small subroutines to deal with f a m i l i a r sequences such as "ing" and so on u n t i l he has developed "phrase habits". He learns to put feedback loops around larger and larger segments of his behavior. Pew ( 1 9 6 6 ) studied the question of how behavior i s temporarily organized for a s k i l l that involved keeping an oscilloscope target centered on cross hairs by sequentially pressing two keys. He found, early i n p r a c t i c e , response patterns i n which feedback from the previous response ap-peared to be u t i l i z e d i n determining the timing of the next element of the sequence. Later i n learning the Ss organized sequences of responses into larger u n i t s . Two modes of operation near the end of t r a i n i n g were observed: 1 . "open-loop" mode i n which the S u t i l i z e d error feedback over a longer period of time and there were pauses i n the sequence to make a discrete correction, 2 . "modulation" mode i n which the S did not pause f o r corrections and there v/as an ongoing sequence of responses. Pew found low a b i l i t y Ss unable to acquire h i e r a r c h i c a l control as e a s i l y and they responded i n a manner resembling closed-loop control u n t i l l a t e i n prac-t i c e when they responded i n a manner resembling open-loop 3 c o n t r o l . The s u p e r i o r Ss, on t he o t h e r hand, were b e t t e r a b l e t o o b t a i n , e a r l y i n t he p r a c t i c e p e r i o d , h i e r a r c h i c a l c o n t r o l o v e r t h e t e m p o r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s k i l l and l a t e i n l e a r n -i n g t h e y d i d no t pause f o r c o r r e c t i o n s . Hearnshaw ( 1 9 5 6 ) a l s o o b s e r v e d t h a t l a t e i n l e a r n i n g , i n d i v i d u a l Ss d i f f e r i n t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r t e m p o r a l i n t e g r a -t i o n . When he i n t e r r u p t e d spoken pa s s age s w i t h nonsense words o r random words he f o u n d l a r g e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n c a p a c i t y f o r t e m p o r a l i n t e g r a t i o n among h i s Ss who were a l l u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . Ammons ( 1 9 5 1 ) s t a t e d t h a t m e a s u r i n g t i m e on t a r g e t on t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r does no t g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n as t o t h e t e m p o r a l p a t t e r n i n g o f t h e c o n t a c t s o r " h i t s " d u r i n g p r a c t i c e . To s t u d y t h e t e m p o r a l p a t t e r n i n g o f t h i s s e n s o r i - m o t o r s k i l l he r e c o r d e d t h e number o f h i t s , t o t a l d u r a t i o n o f h i t s p e r t r i a l , mean d u r a t i o n o f h i t s and mean d u r a t i o n o f m i s s e s . He s u g -g e s t e d t h e l e a r n i n g o f c i r c u l a r p u r s u i t movements may w e l l i n v o l v e t h e b u i l d i n g up o f manual and o c c u l a r movement p a t t e r n s o f a b a l l i s t i c t y p e , t h e components o f w h i c h a r e no t under d i r e c t c o r t i c a l c o n t r o l . The S l e a r n t o make l o n g e r and l o n g e r unb roken sweeps and t o c o r r e c t more q u i c k l y f o r d e v i a t i o n s f r o m t h e s e movements w h i c h wou ld t h r o w h im o f f t a r g e t . Ss w i t h c o n t i n u o u s p r a c t i c e l e f t t h e t a r g e t s oone r on t h e a ve r age and s t a y e d o f f no l o n g e r . I t was s ugge s ted t h a t as r e a c t i v e 4 i n h i b i t i o n a c c u m u l a t e d t h e r e d e v e l o p e d a s t r o n g need f o r t h e S t o cease work and r e s t . A l t h o u g h c o n t i n u o u s p r a c t i c e has been shown t o i n h i b i t p e rformance (as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Amnions 1 s t u d y ) i t does n ot reduce t h e amount l e a r n e d . . Bourne and A r c h e r (1956), S t e l m a c h (1969), and C a r r o n (1969) have shown t h i s i n t h e i r v a r i o u s s t u d i e s . Bourne and A r c h e r (1956), u s i n g t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r and r e c o r d i n g number and d u r a t i o n o f h i t s , f o u n d m a s s i n g o f p r a c -t i c e t o i n h i b i t p e r f o r m a n c e . On t h e f i r s t p o s t r e s t t r i a l a f t e r a f i v e minute r e s t p e r i o d had been g i v e n t o b o t h groups t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e l e v e l o f performance o f t h e groups on t h e l a s t p o s t r e s t t r i a l . S t e l m a c h (1969) showed t h a t massed p r a c t i c e r e s u l t e d i n i n f e r i o r p erformance on two l a r g e muscle motor t a s k s . However, when b o t h massed and d i s -t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e groups were on a d i s t r i b u t e d s c h e d u l e a f t e r a f o u r minute r e s t p e r i o d no d i f f e r e n c e was found i n t h e amount o f l e a r n i n g . C a r r o n (1969) u s i n g a d i s c r e t e - t r i a l motor l e a r n i n g t a s k , t h e peg t u r n , found t h a t r e m i n i s c e n c e d i d o c c u r under d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e s . I n c r e a s e d amounts o f massin g d i d have a d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t on pe r f o r m a n c e , but d i d not reduce t h e amount l e a r n e d . T a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t Pew's and Hearnshaw's f i n d i n g s t h a t t h e r e a r e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n c a p a c i t y f o r t e m p o r a l i n t e g r a t i o n and t h a t massed p r a c t i c e i n h i b i t s p erformance but not t h e amount l e a r n e d , M a r t e n i u k and C a r r o n (1970) suggested 5 that Ss with low i n i t i a l a b i l i t y , who operate on a closed-loop basis, would acquire a central type of fatigue under a massed practice schedule which would i n h i b i t t h e i r potential to learn. They found that the t o t a l MP group performed just as well as the t o t a l DP group on Day 1. After a twenty-four hour interpolated rest the MP Ss showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater amounts of learning. Inspite of the low a b i l i t y MP group's r e l a t i v e l y i n f e r i o r performance on Day 1 t h e i r Day 2 perfor-mance was greatly superior to that of the corresponding DP group. In addition, the performance curve f o r the low a b i l i t y MP group was e s s e n t i a l l y equal to that of the high a b i l i t y DP group on Day 2. While Marteniuk and Carron varied the work i n t e r v a l s (40 seconds practice -20 seconds r e s t , and 20 seconds p r a c t i c e -20 seconds r e s t ) , Pouliot (1970) investigated the e f f i c i e n c y of learning as a function of i n i t i a l a b i l i t y and practice schedule by using a more t r a d i t i o n a l MP and DP schedule -that i s , varying the rest i n t e r v a l . His DP group practiced for 30 seconds and rested 5 seconds. He hypothesized that the low a b i l i t y group under a MP schedule would learn l e s s 'than the low a b i l i t y group under a DP schedule as Marteniuk and Carron suggested. However, no difference was found i n the amount learned by the low a b i l i t y groups under massed and di s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e . This r e s u l t agrees with the findings of 6 Bourne and Archer ( 1 9 5 6 ) , Stelmach ( 1 9 6 9 ) , and Carron ( 1 9 6 9 ) , that massed practice does not i n h i b i t the amount learned. The question remains, why was the performance of the low a b i l i t y massed practice group superior i n the Marteniuk-Carron study? Is the varied work i n t e r v a l responsible f o r the r e s u l t s ? Perhaps a forty-second practice session i s not long enough to bring about a central fatigue i n low a b i l i t y Ss. Thus there i s a need f o r further research s p e c i f i c a l l y oriented towards studying the effects that d i f f e r e n t work-rest schedules have on Ss who are c l a s s i f i e d into d i f f e r e n t i a l a b i l i t y l e v e l s i n terms of the bahavior discussed by Pew. This study extended the research done by Marteniuk and Carron with the addition of a work i n t e r v a l of eighty seconds and a rest i n t e r v a l of twenty seconds. The Problem The purpose of the study was to determine whether d i f f e r e n t schedules of practice d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a f f e c t low, medium and high a b i l i t y subjects i n r e l a t i o n to performance and learning on the pursuit rotor task. This problem was investigated by examining two types of measurements: time on target scores and numbers of h i t s per t r i a l s . D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Massed Practice (MP). Massed practice occurs when the work periods are longer than the rest periods. Fatigue tends 7 t o a c c u m u l a t e and p e r f o r m a n c e d e t e r i o r a t e s d u r i n g massed p r a c -t i c e . There were two d i f f e r e n t massed p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e s used i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w i t h d i f f e r e n t l e n g t h s o f work p e r i o d s . The f i r s t massed p r a c t i c e c o n d i t i o n (M 'Pl) c o n s i s t e d o f e i g h t y seconds o f work w i t h t w e n t y seconds o f r e s t and t h e second massed p r a c t i c e c o n d i t i o n (MP2) c o n s i s t e d o f f o r t y seconds o f work and t w e n t y seconds o f r e s t . D i s t r i b u t e d P r a c t i c e (DP). D i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e o c c u r s when t h e work p e r i o d s a r e e q u a l t o o r s h o r t e r t h a n t h e r e s t i n t e r v a l s . I t i s assumed t h a t f a t i g u e does not a c c u m u l a t e and t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e i s a t a maximum a t a l l t i m e s . The d i s -t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e c o n d i t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f t w e n t y seconds o f work w i t h t w e n t y seconds o f r e s t . L e a r n i n g . L e a r n i n g i s a change i n b e h a v i o r , r e s u l t i n g f r o m p r a c t i c e , w h i c h i s r e l a t i v e l y pe rmanent . I t i s t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a h i e r a r c h i c a l p r o c e s s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e s p o n s e p a t t e r n s t h r o u g h p r a c t i c e . W i t h t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r i t i s t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s t e a d y c i r c u l a r p u r s u i t movements i n v o l v i n g t h e b u i l d u p o f manua l and o c c u l a r movement p a t t e r n s o f a b a l l i s t i c t y p e . P e r f o r m a n c e . Pe r f o rmance i s a t e m p o r a r y change i n b e h a v i o r , f l u c t u a t i n g f r o m t i m e t o t i m e due t o s uch v a r i a b l e s as f a t i g u e , boredom, and m o t i v a t i o n . P e r f o r m a n c e r e f e r s t o t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g i n t o b e h a v i o r . 8 I n i t i a l A b i l i t y . The mean of the f i r s t two t r i a l s i s an estimate of each i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n i t i a l a b i l i t y . Reminiscence. Reminiscence i s improvement i n performance over rest with practice. Theoretical Expectations 1. On the basis of previous findings that show performance i s hindered under MP conditions by fatigue b u i l t up during practice the mean performance scores on the pursuit rotor f o r low a b i l i t y , medium a b i l i t y , and high a b i l i t y subjects should be lower under MP and DP. Greater massing of practice i n h i b i t s performance and the mean performance scores should be lower fo r LA, MA, and HA Ss under MP1 than f o r Ss under MP2. 2. Given low a b i l i t y Ss, the learning scores should be lower under MP schedules than under the DP schedule. Also, the learning scores should be lower under the MP1 schedule than under the MP2 schedule. Because LA Ss may have used closed-loop behavior early i n learning which probably requires greater e f f o r t and concentration, learning should be affected by fatigue buildup. Fatigue should have r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e effect on learning i n MA and HA Ss who may form open-loop behavior easier. 3. Because performance may be i n h i b i t e d under MP conditions, Ss under MP should h i t the target le s s often that those under the DP condition and consequently the mean number of h i t s f o r the average of the l a s t two t r i a l s on Day 1 (PS) f o r the low 9 a b i l i t y , medium a b i l i t y and h i g h a b i l i t y s h o u l d be l o w e r under MP c o n d i t i o n s t h a n unde r t h e DP c o n d i t i o n . The number o f h i t s f o r a l l t h r e e a b i l i t y g roups s h o u l d be l o w e r unde r t h e MP1 c o n -d i t i o n t h a n unde r t h e MP2 c o n d i t i o n . 4 . G i v e n l o w a b i l i t y Ss t h e mean number o f h i t s a t t h e end o f Day 2 ( the a ve r a ge o f t h e l a s t two t r i a l s ) s h o u l d be l o w e r under MP s c h e d u l e s t h a n under t h e DP s c h e d u l e . The MP1 g roup s h o u l d have f e w e r h i t s t h a n t h e MP2 g r o u p . The re s h o u l d be no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e number o f h i t s f o r t h e medium and h i g h a b i l i t y g r oup s unde r a l l t h r e e p r a c t i c e c o n d t i o n s . T h i s was t h e o r i z e d becau se t h e l e a r n i n g o f t h e l o w a b i l i t y Ss s h o u l d be a f f e c t e d by f a t i g u e b u i l d u p s i n c e t h e y may use c l o s e d - l o o p b e h a v i o r . F a t i g u e b u i l d u p wou ld o c c u r becau se t h e t a s k wou ld r e q u i r e more c o n c e n t r a t i o n f o r Ss u t i l i z i n g c l o s e d - l o o p b e -h a v i o r . These Ss u t i l i z e f e e d b a c k a f t e r each r e s p o n s e . MP c o n d i t i o n s wou ld p r e v e n t t h e l o w a b i l i t y Ss f r o m l e a r n i n g t o c o n t a c t t h e t a r g e t . F a t i g u e s h o u l d have no e f f e c t on t h e l e a r n -i n g o f t h e medium and h i g h a b i l i t y s u b j e c t s . 5 . There s h o u l d be no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e amount o f r e m i n i s c e n c e f o r t h e l o w a b i l i t y s u b j e c t s unde r t h e t h r e e p r a c t i c e c o n d i t i o n s . F a t i g u e b u i l d u p i n t h e MP Ss may i n h i b i t t h e amount l e a r n e d as w e l l a s i n h i b i t i n g p e r f o r m a n c e . F a t i g u e m igh t i n f l u e n c e t h e l o w a b i l i t y S s T p o t e n t i a l t o l e a r n a moto r t a s k . The p r e s e n c e o f f a t i g u e wou ld i n h i b i t t h e deve lopment o f h i e r a r c h i c a l p r o -10 c e s s e s . F a t i g u e b u i l d u p under MP c o n d i t i o n s w i l l i n h i b i t pe r f o rmance bu t no t t h e amount l e a r n e d f o r t h e medium and h i g h a b i l i t y . . S s . They may f o r m o p e n - l o o p b e h a v i o r e a s i e r . F a t i g u e s h o u l d no t i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e c o n t i n u o u s m o n i t o r i n g b e h a v i o r o f t h e medium and h i g h a b i l i t y Ss who have a more automated b e h a v i o r . T h e r e f o r e t h e medium and h i g h a b i l i t y Ss under MP1 s h o u l d have g r e a t e r r e m i n i s c e n c e t h a n t h e medium and h i g h a b i l i t y Ss under MP2. A l s o g i v e n t h e h i g h and medium a b i l i t y Ss , t h e amount o f r e m i n i s c e n c e s h o u l d be g r e a t e r unde r MP t h a n unde r DP. 6. No p r e d i c t i o n was made r e g a r d i n g a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e a b i l i t i e s o f men and women t o l e a r n t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r t a s k . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S tudy 1. One-hundred and e i g h t e e n v o l u n t e e r u n i v e r s i t y summer s c h o o l s t u d e n t s were used as s u b j e c t s . 2 . Each s u b j e c t was t e s t e d on two c o n s e c u t i v e days bu t no a t t e m p t was made t o c o n t r o l t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s d u r i n g t h e t w e n t y - f o u r hou r i n t e r p o l a t e d r e s t . D e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S tudy 1. The o n l y moto r s k i l l u sed was t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r t r a c k i n g s k i l l . 2 . Three d i f f e r e n t p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e s were u s e d : a d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e w i t h t w e n t y seconds p r a c t i c e and t w e n t y seconds 1 1 r e s t , and two massed p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e , one w i t h e i g h t y seconds work and t w e n t y seconds r e s t , one w i t h f o r t y seconds work and t w e n t y seconds r e s t . 3 . A l l s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d on two c o n s e c u t i v e day s w i t h a t w e n t y - f o u r hour r e s t be tween t h e two p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s . CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE T h i s r e v i e w w i l l a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n how s k i l l e d b e -h a v i o r i s a c q u i r e d and how i t i s t e m p o r a l l y p a t t e r n e d . F o l l o w i n g t h i s d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be a r e v i e w o f t h e e f f e c t s o f p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e s on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s k i l l e d b e h a v i o r . F i n a l l y , a r e v i e w w i l l be made o f t he s t u d i e s w h i c h have t r i e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t s o f d i f f e r i n g a b i l i t i e s on t h e p e r -f o rmance and l e a r n i n g o f s k i l l s . The Tempora l P a t t e r n i n g o f S k i l l e d B e h a v i o r The " b l a c k b o x " a p p r o a c h has been used t o a n a l y z e t h e comp lex s y s tem o f t h e human b r a i n and body . Crossman (1964:33) s t a t e s t h a t : " I t i s c o n v e n i e n t t o t r e a t t h e c o m p l e t e s y s tem by w h i c h s e n s o r y i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o c e s s e d , s t o r e d , and used t o d e t e r m i n e s k i l l e d motor a c t i v i t y i n t h r e e s t a g e s c o n c e r n e d r e s p e c t i v e l y w i t h a n a l y s i s o f s e n s o r y i n p u t d a t a ( t he r e c e p t o r s y s t e m ) , w i t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a c t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o c u r r e n t o b j e c t i v e s ( t he c e n t r a l p r o c e s s e s ) , and w i t h c a r r y i n g ou t t h e r e q u i r e d a c t i o n s ( t he e f f e c t o r s y s t e m ) . " The e f f e c t o r mechanism e x e c u t e s t h e sequence o f commands i s s u e d by t he c e n t r a l p r o c e s s and t h e r e f o r e i t i s t h i s mechanism w h i c h must be s t u d i e d i n some d e t a i l i n o r d e r t o a t t e m p t t o u n d e r s t a n d t he a c q u i s i t i o n o f s k i l l . The e v i d e n c e f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t o r s y s tem i s i n d i r e c t and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h i s mechanism i s no t w e l l u n d e r s t o o d . The ma in p r o b l e m i n t h e s t u d y o f s k i l l e d p e r f o r m a n c e 13 r e l a t e s t o how t h e d a t a i s o r g a n i z e d i n t h e permanent s t o r e b u i l t up d u r i n g t he a c q u i s i t i o n o f s k i l l and how the d a t a i s r e t r i e v e d f o r u s e . I n o t h e r words , t he c e n t r a l p r ob l em i s how t h e r e c e p t o r - e f f e c t o r - f e e d b a c k p r o c e s s e s , w h i c h a r e h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d b o t h s p a t i a l l y and t e m p o r a l l y , a r e o r g a n i z e d . L a s h l e y ( 1 9 5 1 ) , M i l l e r , G a l a n t e r and P r i b r a m ( I 9 6 0 ) and Hearnshaw ( 1 9 5 6 ) , s ugges t t h a t t h e d a t a i s o r g a n i z e d i n a h i e r -a r c h i c a l manner. An a n a l o g y i s made between human s k i l l p e r -f o rmance and a computer p r o g r am. S k i l l e d p e r f o r m a n c e i s g ove rned by a p rog ram o r sequence o f i n s t r u c t i o n ; p a r t s o f t he p rog ram may be r e p e a t e d o v e r and o v e r ; t h e s e s h o r t f i x e d sequences o f o p e r a t i o n s a r e s u b r o u t i n e w h i c h may be c a l l e d i n t o p l a y as u n i t s o f t h e o v e r a l l p r og r am. A c c o r d i n g t o F i t t s ( 1 9 6 4 : 2 5 0 ) " P r og rams a r e p r o v i d e d f o r c a r r y i n g ou t b a s i c o r r o u t i n e f u n c -t i o n s , and o t h e r , h i g h e r - l e v e l p rograms o r p l a n s a r e p r o v i d e d f o r m o d i f y i n g t h e s e l o w e r - o r d e r ones on t h e b a s i s o f a c c u m u l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n . " Woodwor th ' s v i e w s ( 1 9 5 8 ) on t he q u e s t i o n o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f b e h a v i o r sequences p r o b a b l y had much i n f l u e n c e on c on tempo ra r y t h i n k i n g . He e x p l a i n e d t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f b e h a v i o r i n t h e t i m e domain i n t e r m s o f two -pha se motor u n i t s w h i c h u s u a l l y o c c u r i n sequences o r p o l y p h a s e motor u n i t s . Two-phase moto r u n i t s a r e t h e b u i l d i n g b l o c k s ou t o f w h i c h a r e f a s h i o n e d s p a t i a l l y and t e m p o r a l l y o r g a n i z e d motor u n i t s . The a c t o f j ump ing i s an example o f a two -pha se moto r u n i t because i t c o n s i s t s o f a p r e p a r a t o r y a c t ( c r o u c h i n g ) f o l l o w e d by t he a c t i o n i t s e l f . A sequence o f two -pha se u n i t s c o m p r i s e s a p o l y p h a s e moto r u n i t . R o t a r y p u r s u i t i s an example o f a p o l y p h a s e motor u n i t . The p a t t e r n f o r a t y p i c a l two -pha se motor r e s p o n s e i s s e t up i n advance o f i t s i n i t i a t i o n . T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o a computer s u b r o u t i n g . I t may be u n i n f l u e n c e d d u r i n g e x e c u t i o n by s e n s o r y f e e d b a c k o r new s e n s o r y i n p u t s . V e r y r a p i d p o l y p h a s i c r e s p o n s e s (more t h a n one two -pha se r e s p o n s e ) may be e m i t t e d as a u n i t . A r e p e t i t i v e p o l y p h a s e u n i t c o r r e s p o n d s t o a l o o p . Pew ( 1 9 6 6 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e a r e t y p e s o f l o o p s - c l o s e d l o o p s o r opened l o o p s . I n s k i l l e d p e r f o r m a n c e when a c l o s e d -l o o p mode o f o p e r a t i o n i s u sed t h e s u b j e c t r e s p o n d s , w a i t s f o r f e e d b a c k abou t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s r e s p o n s e and t h e n i n i t i a t e s a new r e s p o n s e . When a s u b j e c t o p e r a t e s w i t h t he o p e n - l o o p mode he u t i l i z e s e r r o r f e e d b a c k o v e r a. l o n g e r t i m e s p a n . In o t h e r words , he g e n e r a t e s a sequence o f r e s p o n s e s a t a r a t e more r a p i d t h a n c o u l d be c o n t r o l l e d had he o r g a n i z e d and e x e c u t e d each r e s p o n s e a s a s e p a r a t e u n i t . M i l l e r , G a l a n t e r and P r i b r a m ( I 960 ) c l a r i f i e d what i s meant by a p rog ram o r p l a n g o v e r n i n g a sequence o f o p e r a t i o n s . They used a TOTE u n i t , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s a f e e d b a c k l o o p , t o e x p l a i n s k i l l e d b e h a v i o r . The f u n d a m e n t a l b u i l d i n g l o c k o f t h e n e r v o u s s y s t em i s t h e f e e d b a c k l o o p o r TOTE u n i t . I t i s an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e c l a s s i c a l r e f l e x a r c . I t t e s t s t h e i n -15 put e n e r g i e s a g a i n s t some c r i t e r i a , r e s p o n d s i f t h e r e s u l t o f t he t e s t shows an i n c o n g r u i t y ; and c o n t i n u e s t o r e s pond u n t i l t h e i n c o n g r u i t y d i s a p p e a r s . TOTE u n i t s a r e we lded t o -g e t h e r t o f o r m s t i l l l a r g e r s k i l l e d u n i t s and when t he p l a n (wh i ch i s a n a l o g o u s t o a computer p rogram) i s e x e c u t e d t h e s u b d i v i s i o n s c a r r y out t he o r d e r s i n a r a p i d e f f i c i e n t man-n e r . A h i e r a r c h y o f i n s t r u c t i o n s gove rned by many p l a n s g u i d e t h e a c t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r movement. Each s u b r o u t i n e may s e r v e a s a p rogram o r p l a n f o r t h e n e x t s u b r o u t i n e . The TOTE u n i t a s s e r t s t h a t t h e o p e r a t i o n s p e r f o r m e d a r e g u i d e d by t h e outcome o f v a r i o u s t e s t s . A two -pha se motor u n i t c o n s i s t s o f two TOTE u n i t s . M i l l e r , e t . a l . ( I 9 6 0 ) i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p r i n c i p l e by a n a l y z i n g t h e a c t i o n o f hammering a n a i l w h i c h i s a two -pha se moto r u n i t . The TOTE u n i t s a r e l i f t i n g t h e hammer and s t r i k i n g t h e n a i l . Hearnshaw ( 1 9 5 6 ) t e s t e d t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s d i f f e r i n t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r t e m p o r a l i n t e g r a t i o n . Hearnshaw u sed f o u r s h o r t d e s c r i p t i v e p a s s a g e s , each a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o r t y words i n l e n g t h and i n t e r u p t e d the pa s s age s by i n t e r s p e r s i n g t w o - s y l l a b l e nonsense words o r random words w i t h i n t e r r u p t i o n s b e i n g e i t h e r f r e q u e n t o r l e s s f r e q u e n t . There were f o u r c o n d i t i o n s unde r w h i c h each pas sage was g i v e n : f r e q u e n t i n t e r -r u p t i o n s o f p a r a l o g s o r random wo rd s . The c o n d i t i o n i n v o l v i n g f r e q u e n t , i n t e r r u p t i n g random words Was h a r d e r t h a n t h e o t h e r s . The s u b j e c t s had t o r e p e a t as much as p o s s i b l e a f t e r l i s t e n i n g 1 6 t o a pas sage ( a l l o f t h e s u b j e c t s were u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s ) . There were l a r g e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e c a p a c i t y f o r t e m p o r a l i n t e g r a t i o n p a r t i c u l a r i l y under t he most d i f f i c u l t c o n d i t i o n . F i t t s (I964) e x p l a i n s some o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e m p o r a l i n t e g r a t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l s a s b e i n g due t o t h e sequence o f b e h a v i o r p r o c e s s e s employed e a r l y i n l e a r n i n g w h i c h i s d i f -f e r e n t f r o m t h e b e h a v i o r l a t e r i n l e a r n i n g . E a r l y i n l e a r n i n g t h e s u b j e c t s e l e c t s a s u b r o u t i n e and t h e n samples t h e f e e d b a c k f r o m t h e r e s p o n s e b e f o r e mak ing a n o t h e r d e c i s i o n w h i c h m i gh t be t o use a d i f f e r e n t s u b r o u t i n e . L a t e r i n l e a r n i n g , t h e s u b -r o u t i n e s become l o n g e r . The o v e r a l l p rog ram i s more p e r f e c t e d and f r e q u e n t changes a r e no t n e c e s s a r y any l o n g e r . O v e r a l l p e r f o r m a n c e may come t o r e s e m b l e more and more c l o s e l y a c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s . T h i s , o f c o u r s e , c o r r e s p o n d s t o Pew-'s opened l o o p s w h i c h were d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r . Amnions ( 1 9 5 1 ) f o u n d e v i d e n c e f o r t h e t e m p o r a l p a t t e r n i n g o f t h e number o f h i t s on t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r . The mean number o f h i t s f o r t h e massed p r a c t i c e g roup ( 3 5 , 2 0 - s e c . t r i a l s ) r o s e s l o w l y t h r o u g h o u t p r a c t i c e w h i l e t h e mean number o f h i t s o f t h e d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e g roup ( 3 6 , 2 0 - s e c . t r i a l s w i t h 5 m i n u t e s r e s t between each t r i a l ) r o s e s h a r p l y t o a p l a t e a u o f abou t 3 2 h i t s / 2 0 second t r i a l w i t h i n f o u r m i n u t e s o f p r a c t i c e . The mean d u r a t i o n o f h i t s i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g p r a c t i c e f o r b o t h g r o u p s , b u t was c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r f o r t h e d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c -17 t i c e g r o u p . The d u r a t i o n o f m i s s e s was a l w a y s l e s s f o r t h e DP g roup and d e c r e a s e d m a r k e d l y f o r b o t h . F o r t h e DP g r oup , t h e d u r a t i o n o f m i s s e s r e a c h e d a s t a b l e p o i n t a f t e r f i v e m i n u t e s w h i l e s t i l l d e c r e a s i n g a t t h e end o f p r a c t i c e f o r - t h e MP g r o u p . A m i s s r o u g h l y r e p r e s e n t s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f v i s u a l and k i n e s -t h e t i c r e a c t i o n t i m e t o s t a r t t he movement o f f t he t a r g e t and t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e c o r r e c t i v e movement a d j u s t m e n t cannot be made i n l e s s t h a n .4 s e c o n d s . As t h e s u b j e c t p r a c t i c e s he l e a r n s t o make t h e s e c o r r e c t i v e movements i n a s h o r t e r t i m e . He i s s e n s i t i v e t o more cues and has l e a r n e d more e f f i c i e n t c o r -r e c t i v e movements. He l e a r n s t o make l o n g e r , sweep ing , b a l l i s t i c movements w i t h o u t d i r e c t " v o l u n t a r y " c o n t r o l . The b a l l i s t i c -t y p e n o n - v o l u n t a r y movements a r e sweep ing movements where change o f d i r e c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e i n l e s s t h a n n o r m a l r e a c t i o n t i m e and i s n o t unde r c o r t i c a l c o n t r o l . .Ammons e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e num-b e r o f h i t s wou ld u l t i m a t e l y have d e c r e a s e d i f more p r a c t i c e had been g i v e n w i t h an e v e n t u a l a s ympto te s i n c e t h e number o f h i t s i s l i m i t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t b e t t e r p e r f o r m a n c e i n v o l v e s g r e a t e r d u r a t i o n o f h i t s . Ammons' d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e t e m p o r a l p a t t e r n i n g i n v o l v e d i n t r a c k i n g c o r r e s p o n d s t o Pew ' s opened l o o p mode o f o p e r a t i o n . I n c o n c l u s i o n , t h e deve lopment o f s k i l l s i n v o l v e s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a h i e r a r c h y o f b e h a v i o r a l u n i t s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n t he t e m p o r a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e s e u n i t s . 18 The E f f e c t s o f P r a c t i c e S c h e d u l e s on Pe r f o rmance and L e a r n i n g Ammons ( 1 9 4 7 ) f o und t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r a t any p o i n t i s a f u n c t i o n o f : t h e number o f p r e v i o u s p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s , d u r a t i o n o f r e s t s be tween s e s s i o n s , d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r a c t i c e w i t h i n p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s , and d u r a t i o n o f p r a c t i c e . L a s h l e y ( 1 9 5 1 ) f o und t h a t t h e g r oup s who p r a c t i c e d a r c h e r y s h o o t i n g l e s s e a ch day, and had t h e i r p r a c t i c e p e r i o d s d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t i m e showed a g r e a t e r improvement t h a n t h e g roup who sho t more a r r o w s each d a y . S i n g e r ( 1 9 6 8 ) c o n c l u d e d f r o m a r e v i e w o f t h i s and o t h e r s t u d i e s t h a t g r o s s moto r s k i l l s can be l e a r n e d more e f f i c i e n t l y v/ i th s h o r t e r b u t more numerous s e s s i o n s spaced o v e r a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t i m e . S i n g e r a l s o r e v i e w e d a number o f s t u d i e s e m p l o y i n g such t a s k s t o be l e a r n e d as t y p i n g , p i a n o p l a y i n g and p u r s u i t r o t o r s . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s t u d i e s showed s u p e r i o r p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h a g r e a t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r a c t i c e . Ammons ( 1 9 5 0 ) f o und t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r was b e s t f o r t h e g r oup s w h i c h had 5 0 s econds and 2 m i n u t e s r e s t i n t e r s p e r s e d between 3 6 , 2 0 - s e c o n d t r i a l s . Those g r oup s w h i c h had s h o r t e r r e s t s be tween p r a c t i c e t r i a l s ( 0 s e e s , and 2 0 s ee s ) and t h o s e who had l o n g e r r e s t s , (5 m i n u t e s , 12 m i n u t e s , and 2 4 h o u r s ) gave p o o r e r p e r f o r m a n c e s . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e f i n a l p e r f o r m a n c e l e v e l s c o u l d be a t t r i b u -t a b l e t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e amount o f a c c u m u l a t e d D w t ( t empo ra r y work d e c r e m e n t ) i n t h e 0 and 2 0 second r e s t g r o u p s . L e s s D w t 1 9 was a c c u m u l a t e d w i t h l o n g e r r e s t p e r i o d s o f 50 seconds and 2 m i n u t e s r e s t a l l o w i n g f o r d i s s i p a t i o n . However, t h e p e r f o r m a n c e l e v e l s o f t h e 5 m i nu te and 12 m inu te r e s t g r oup s was l o w e r t h a n t h e 50 seconds and 2 m i n u t e s r e s t g r oup s even though t h e y a p -p a r e n t l y b u i l t up no .D . . He s u gge s t ed t h i s p o o r e r p e r f o r m a n c e c o u l d have been due t o i n t e r f e r e n c e and m o t i v a t i o n may have been l o w e r . Ammons c o n c l u d e d t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e s c o u l d be i n f l u e n c e d by two v a r i a b l e s : one w h i c h d e p r e s s e s p e r f o r m a n c e o f g r oup s w i t h s h o r t i n t e r t r i a l r e s t s and one w h i c h d e p r e s s e s t h a t o f g r oup s w i t h l o n g e r r e s t s . Ammons* s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t e m p o r a r y work decrement accumu-l a t e s and i n h i b i t s p e r f o r m a n c e i f r e s t p e r i o d s between p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s a r e t o o s h o r t c o r r e s p o n d s t o H u l l ' s c o n c e p t ( 1 9 4 3 ) o f r e a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n ( I ^ ) « A c c o r d i n g t o H u l l , I^ i s t h e t e n d e n c y not t o r e p e a t a r e s p o n s e j u s t made. I t depends on t h e amount o f e f f o r t r e q u i r e d t o make a r e s p o n s e and i s r o u g h l y e q u i v a l e n t t o f a t i g u e . I t t e n d s t o c a n c e l t h e e f f e c t o f ^ E^ ( E x c i t a t o r y P o t e n t i a l - t h e t o t a l t e n d e n c y t o r e s pond t o a s t i m u l u s ) . The t o t a l amount o f I i n c r e a s e s each t i m e a r e s p o n s e o c c u r s bu t d e c r e a s e s w i t h pas sage o f t i m e . Ey senck ( 1 9 6 5 ) t e s t e d t h e i n h i b i t i o n t h e o r y . T h i s t h e o r y p o s t u l a t e s t h a t d e p r e s s i o n o f p r e r e s t p e r f o r m a n c e i s a c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n r e m i n i s c e n c e ( improvement o f p e r f o r m a n c e a f t e r a r e s t ) w h i c h i s due t o r e c o v e r y f r o m t h i s d e p r e s s i o n . He h y p o t h e s i z e d 20 t h a t a programmed r e s t pause a l l o w s f o r c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r h a b i t t o t a k e p l a c e f o l l o w i n g a n e g a t i v e l y a c -c e l e r a t e d c u r v e o f a c q u i s i t i o n and t h i s p r o v i d e s t h e b a s i s o f t h e r e m i n i s c e n c e phenomenon. A c c o r d i n g t o Ey.senck, c o n s o l i d a -t i o n i s a n e u r a l f i x a t i o n p r o c e s s w h i c h i s assumed t o c o n t i n u e a f t e r t h e o r g a n i s m i s no l o n g e r c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e t a s k . Ey senck s u g g e s t s r e m i n i s c e n c e i n p u r s u i t r o t o r l e a r n i n g i s a l m o s t a l l due t o c o n s o l i d a t i o n o r a m e n t a l p r o c e s s r a t h e r t h a n a p e r i p h e r a l p r o c e s s . A number o f s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e d e p r e s s i o n o f p e r f o r m a n c e i s due t o some u n s p e c i f i e d c e n t r a l mechanism r a t h e r t h a n i n t h e p e r i p h e r a l mechanisms o f t h e moto r o r v i s u a l s y s tems (Adams, 1955; Humphr ies and M c l n t y r e , 1963; G r i c e and R e y n o l d s , 1952; I r i o n and G u s t a f s o n , 1952). W e l f o r d (1968) e x p l a i n s t h e c e n t r a l p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d i n p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r and g i v e s two r e a s o n s why d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e r e s u l t s i n s u p e r i o r p e r f o r m a n c e . I f m a t e r i a l i s h e l d i n some k i n d o f dynamic s h o r t - t e r m s t o r e w h i l e more permanent t r a c e s a r e b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d , c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f t h e t r a c e w i l l o u t l a s t t he p r e s e n t a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l and w i l l c o n t i n u e d u r i n g p a r t o f t h e r e s t p e r i o d . A l s o , pause s a l l o w c e r t a i n a f t e r e f f e c t s o f p r e v i o u s t r a i n i n g t r i a l s t o d i e away, t h u s r e d u c i n g a d v e r s e i n f l u e n c e s t h e y may have on sub sequent t r i a l s . These a d v e r s e e f f e c t s may be v e r y s h o r t - t e r m m e n t a l f a t i g u e o r i n t e r f e r e n c e caused by c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n s between 2 1 i t e m s i n t h e " n e u r a l d i c t i o n a r y " . P o s t r e s t p e r f o r m a n c e d e -pends on what i s done d u r i n g t h e r e s t a c c o r d i n g t o W e l f o r d ( 1 9 6 8 ) . In a d d i t i o n , v e r y b r i e f pauses a r e a s e f f e c t i v e as l o n g e r o n e s . The p r e s e r v a t i v e o r a f t e r - e f f e c t s a r e l i k e l y t o l a s t o n l y a few seconds ( a t l e a s t 2 0 s econds a c c o r d i n g t o Ammons). E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f v e r y b r i e f pause s may be a r e a s o n why c o n t i n u o u s p r a c t i c e a p p e a r s t o be as e f f i c i e n t a s s p a c e d . The s u b j e c t , when p e r f o r m i n g a t h i s own speed , t a k e s many s h o r t b r e a k s no t r e c o r d e d when h i s p e r f o r m a n c e i s s t u d i e d bu t may a l l o w l e a r n i n g t o c o n s o l i d a t e and a v o i d m e n t a l f a t i g u e . As j u s t m e n t i o n e d , c o n t i n u o u s p r a c t i c e can be j u s t a s e f f e c t i v e f o r l e a r n i n g as d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e . I t has been shown t h a t t h e r e i s r e c o v e r y f r o m c o m p l e t e l y massed p r a c t i c e when a t i m e i n t e r v a l a s a r e s t p e r i o d p r e c e d e s a t e s t a s a r e s u l t o f t h e d i s s i p a t i o n o f work p r oduced i n h i b i t i o n . T h i s v i e w p o i n t i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by Bourne and A r c h e r ( 1 9 5 6 ) who t e s t e d f i v e g r oup s o f t w e n t y f e m a l e s u b j e c t s i n a r o t a r y p u r s u i t e x p e r i m e n t . A l l s u b j e c t s had 3 0 - s e c o n d t r i a l s . E a ch g roup worked under a d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n o f p r a c t i c e d i s t r i -b u t i o n w i t h 0 , 1 5 , 3 0 , 4 5 and 60 second i n t e r t r i a l r e s t s . A f t e r 21 t r i a l s , each g roup r e c e i v e d f i v e m i n u t e s o f r e s t f o l l o w e d by n i n e massed p r a c t i c e t r i a l s . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e f a c i l i t a t e d p e r f o r m a n c e ; a f t e r t h e f i v e m i n u t e r e s t a s i g n i f i c a n t amount o f r e m i n i s c e n c e was shown 22 i n t h e 0 and 15-second g r o u p s ; and under c o n d i t i o n s o f p o s t -r e s t massed p r a c t i c e , t h e g roups t e n d e d t o conve r ge so t h a t by t r i a l n i n e t h e d i f f e r e n c e among t h e g roups were no t s i g n i f i c a n t . Thus massed p r a c t i c e i n h i b i t e d p e r f o r m a n c e , bu t n o t l e a r n i n g . C a r r o n (1969) a l s o f ound t h a t i n c r e a s e d amounts o f m a s s i n g d i d l i m i t pe r f o rmance but d i d no t r e d u c e t h e amount l e a r n e d . He had t e s t e d 300 male s u b j e c t s who were a s s i g n e d i n a s y s t e m a t i c r o t a t i o n t o f i v e e x p e r i m e n t a l gitoups w h i c h d i f f e r e d i n t h e amount o f d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r a c t i c e T and t e s t e d them on a d i s c r e t e - t r i a l moto r l e a r n i n g t a s k , t h e peg t u r n . M a r t e n i u k and C a r r o n (1970) i n a r e c e n t s t u d y f ound a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between a d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e g roup (20 s econds work and 20 s econds r e s t ) and o f a massed p r a c t i c e g roup (40 seconds work and 20 s econds r e s t ) i n t h e amount ' l e a r n e d . A t t h e end o f Day 1 t h e MP group p e r f o r m e d j u s t a s w e l l a s t h e ftp g r o u p . However, a f t e r 24 h ou r s o f i n t e r p o l a t e d r e s t t h e MP s u b j e c t s showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r amounts o f l e a r n i n g . The s c h e d u l e s used were d i f f e r e n t f r o m t he s c h e d u l e s u sed i n t r a d i t i o n a l methods o f d i s t r i b u t i n g p r a c t i c e where t h e i n t e r t r i a l r e s t i s v a r i e d and t h e work i n t e r v a l i s k e p t c o n s t a n t . The r e l e v a n t i s s u e a c c o r d i n g t o M a r t e n i u k and C a r r o n ( Ibid.:147) i s " . . . w h e t h e r t h e r e e x i s t s some optimum p r a c t i c e l e n g t h a f t e r w h i c h t h e r e o c c u r s maximum b e n e f i t s f r o m an i n t e r p o l a t e d r e s t . " 23 E f f e c t s o f D i f f e r i n g A b i l i t i e s on Pe r f o rmance and L e a r n i n g I n a d d i t i o n t o p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e s , o t h e r s v a r i a b l e s have been f ound t o a f f e c t p e r f o r m a n c e and l e a r n i n g . Some s t u d i e s have a t t e m p t e d t o d e t e r m i n e t he f u n c t i o n o f i n i t i a l l e v e l o f a b i l i t y i n motor p e r f o r m a n c e and l e a r n i n g . Adams and R e y n o l d s (1952) t e s t e d 960 s u b j e c t s on t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r t o d e t e r m i n e whe the r t h e r e was any i n t e r a c t i o n between l e a r n i n g v a r i a b l e s and i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . There were two c o n d i t i o n s . The massed p r a c t i c e g roup had 20-second t r i a l s and 5 - second r e s t s between each t r i a l . The re were f o u r b l o c k s o f t w e n t y t r i a l s e a c h . The t r i a l s were 20 s econds w i t h 60-second r e s t s f o r t h e d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e g r o u p . There were t h r e e b l o c k s o f t w e n t y t r i a l s e a c h . E o t h g r oup s had t h i r t y m i n u t e s r e s t be tween b l o c k s . The s u b j e c t s were s t r a t i f i e d i n t o d e c i l e s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r t o t a l s c o r e on t h e f i r s t f i v e t r i a l s . The a c q u i s i t i o n c u r v e s f o r t h e t e n g r oup s unde r massed p r a c t i c e showed d i f f e r e n c e s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n . The l o w e s t a b i l i t y g roup c u r v e t ended t o be l i n e a r w i t h a s l o w r a t e o f r i s e . W i t h i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l o f i n i t i a l a b i l i t y l i n e a r i t y d e c r e a s e d . The c u r v e f o r t he h i g h e s t a b i l i t y s u b -g roup showed a marked n e g a t i v e a c c e l e r a t i o n i n i t i a l l y t h e n e s s e n t i a l l y a z e r o s l o p e . F o r t h e l a t e r t h r e e s e s s i o n s , f o rms o f t he c u r v e s were e s s e n t i a l l y t he same. The re were d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s l o p e s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t y g r o u p s d u r i n g t he f i r s t s e s s i o n f o r t h e d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e c o n d i t i o n a l s o . The s l o p e s 24 were g r e a t e r w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l o f a b i l i t y . The c u r v e s d u r i n g t h e second and t h i r d s e s s i o n s were e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same. An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e showed no s i g n i f i c a n t F r a t i o f o r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e and a b i l i t y l e v e l . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s c o r e s f o r t h e f i n a l t r i a l s were more v a r i a b l e f o r t h e l o w e r subgroups t h a n f o r t h e h i g h e r s ubg r oup s . Adams and R e y n o l d s s u g ge s t ed t h a t t h i s a r i s e s becau se some s u b j e c t s w i t h i n i t i a l l y l o w s c o r e s showed r a p i d r a t e s o f improvement and a t t h e f i n a l s t a g e s p e r f o r m e d a t a l e v e l comparab le t o t h e s u b j e c t s whose i n i t i a l l e v e l was much h i g h e r . U n l i k e Adams and R e y n o l d s , ^ a r t e n i u k and C a r r o n ( 1 9 7 0 ) i n a s t u d y p r e v i o u s l y men t i oned i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n , f ound a s i g n i f i c a n t a b i l i t y l e v e l x p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e i n t e r a c t i o n . T h i s i n t e r a c t i o n was caused by t h e l o w a b i l i t y s u b j e c t s under massed p r a c t i c e l e a r n i n g r e l a t i v e l y more t h a n t h e h i g h a b i l i t y s u b j e c t s unde r massed p r a c t i c e when compared t o t h e two DP g r o u p s . The a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t l e a r n i n g i s a f u n c t i o n no t o n l y o f s c h e d u l e o f p r a c t i c e bu t a l s o o f i n i t i a l a b i l i t y l e v e l . P o u l i o t ( 1 9 7 0 ) i n a l a t e r s t u d y and u s i n g a t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e o f 3 0 s econds work, 5 s econds r e s t f o r t h e massed p r a c t i c e g roup and 3 0 s econds work and 3 0 s econds r e s t f o r t h e d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e g roup f o l l o w e d by a 25 hour i n t e r -p o l a t e d r e s t and t w e n t y t r i a l s under t h e DP s c h e d u l e , f o und no s i g n i f i c a n t a b i l i t y l e v e l x p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e i n t e r a c t i o n . The re was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e on t h e f i r s t day o f p r a c t i c e w i t h t h e MP g roup s i g n i f i -25 c a n t l y , l o w e r . A f t e r 24 h ou r s o f i n t e r p o l a t e d r e s t b o t h g r oup s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y e q u a l i n amount l e a r n e d . A f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f t h e f i r s t d a y ' s p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s o f t h e t e n h i g h i n i t i a l a b i l i t y and t h e t e n l o w i n i t i a l a b i l i t y s u b j e c t s f r o m each o f t h e two ma in g r oup s r e s u l t e d i n no d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t o f p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e a t t r i b u t a b l e t o i n i t i a l a b i l i t y l e v e l . Pew (1966) d e s i g n e d a t a s k t o emphas i ze t h e t e m p o r a l d i m e n s i o n o f p e r f o r m a n c e by r e q u i r i n g s u b j e c t s t o s e r v e a s t h e a c t i v e s w i t c h i n g e lement i n a s i m u l a t e d r e l a y c o n t r o l s y s t e m . The s u b j e c t was r e q u i r e d t o keep a t a r g e t as n ea r t h e c e n t e r o f a s c r e e a as p o s s i b l e f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f each t r i a l . He d i d t h i s by r a p i d l y a l t e r n a t i n g between two k e y s . The pu rpo se o f Pew ' s s t u d y was t o examine t h e k i n d s o f t e m -p o r a l s t r u c t u r e t h a t d e v e l o p as a f u n c t i o n o f p r a c t i c e . Pew f ound t h a t two o f h i s s u b j e c t s were c o n s i s t e n t l y p o o r e r i n o v e r a l l p e r f o r m a n c e a n d . d e v e l o p e d an o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r a t e g y q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e o t h e r t h r e e s u b j e c t s . E a r l y i n t r a i n i n g t h e mean i n t e r r e s p o n s e t i m e v/as r e l a t i v e l y l o n g and t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c o n t r o l was r a t h e r p o o r and h a p h a z a r d . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s r e sponded w i t h a c l o s e d - l o o p mode o f o p e r a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e y w a i t e d f o r f e e d b a c k abou t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s r e s p o n s e and t h e n i n i t i a t e d a new r e s p o n s e . Near t h e end o f t r a i n i n g t h e r e were two p r edom inan t modes o f o p e r a t i o n . Two o f t h e s u b j e c t s o p e r a t e d " o p e n - l o o p " . They u t i l i z e d e r r o r f e e d b a c k o v e r a l o n g e r t i m e span t h a n w i t h t h e c l o s e d - l o o p mode. The o t h e r s u b j e c t s showed a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f s t r a t e g y . W i t h t h i s s t r a t e g y t h e r e were no pau se s f o r 26 c o r r e c t i o n . The s u b j e c t appea red t o o b s e r v e and c o n t r o l t h e mean r e s u l t a c h i e v e d by t h e o n g o i n g sequence o f r e s p o n s e s . Pew te rmed t h i s mode o f o p e r a t i o n t h e m o d u l a t i o n s t r a t e g y . Thus t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e c o n t r o l o f s k i l l e d a c t s w h i c h d e v e l o p w i t h p r a c t i c e b e g i n s w i t h c l o s e d - l o o p c o n t r o l and r e a c h e s d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f a c t i o n o r c o n t r o l i n d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s . F l e i s h m a n and Hempel (1955) were c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a b i l i t i e s a t d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s o f p r a c t i c e . They d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e r i s e i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e c u r v e i s t h e r e s u l t o f s y s t e m a t i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r com-b i n a t i o n s o f a b i l i t i e s u sed by s u b j e c t s a t d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s o f p r a c t i c e . E a r l y i n t h e l e a r n i n g p e r i o d t h e use o f c e r t a i n s k i l l s i s a m i n i m a l bu t n e c e s s a r y r e q u i r e m e n t f o r a c h i e v i n g a c e r t a i n amount o f p r o g r e s s i n p e r f o r m i n g t h e t a s k . - A t t h i s s t a g e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s e s k i l l s a f f e c t t h e r i s e i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n c u r v e . L a t e r i n t r a i n i n g , i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n o t h e r c o m b i n a t i o n o f s k i l l s may be t h e c h i e f c o n t r i b u t o r t o p e r f o r m a n c e . F l e i s h m a n and Hempel f ound t h a t i n t h e f i r s t s t a g e o f t r a i n i n g on a t a s k m e a s u r i n g t h e speed w i t h w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s make d i f f e r e n t i a l manual r e s p o n s e s t o v i s u a l s t i m u l u s p a t t e r n s t h e ma in a b i l i t y c o n t r i b u t i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s was t h e s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s w h i c h c o n -t r i b u t e d 36% o f t h e v a r i a n c e . L a t e r i n p r a c t i c e v a r i a n c e c o n t r i b u t e d by t h i s f a c t o r d e c r e a s e d t o 11% and t h e p r i n c i p l e 2 7 c o n t r i b u t o r now was r e a c t i o n t i m e and r a t e o f arm movement. A l t h o u g h i t seems c l e a r t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t y -l e v e l s i n i n d i v i d u a l s w h i c h may be due t o d i f f e r e n t t e m p o r a l p a t t e r n i n g and t h a t t h e s e q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e p a t t e r n s o f a b i l i t i e s d e t e r m i n i n g p r o f i c i e n c y i n p s ychomoto r p e r f o r m a n c e may change a s a f u n c t i o n o f p r a c t i c e , i t has no t been shown c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t any one t y p e o f p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e i s most e f f e c t i v e f o r l e a r n i n g i n s u b j e c t s o f d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t i e s . E f f e c t s o f Sex on Pe r f o rmance and L e a r n i n g The s ex o f t h e s u b j e c t a l s o seems t o be a v a r i a b l e i n p e r f o r m a n c e and l e a r n i n g on t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r . Bux ton and G ran t ( 1 9 3 9 ) d e t e r m i n e d t h a t men exceeded women i n i n i t i a l and f i n a l l e v e l o f p u r s u i t r o t o r s k i l l . The re were f o u r c o n d i t i o n s -a l l s u b j e c t s had f i f t e e n t r i a l s w h i c h were 1 7 s econds each f o l l o w e d by a 1 4 - m i n u t e r e s t p e r i o d w i t h d i f f e r i n g i n t e r p o l a t e d a c t i v i t y f o r each c o n d i t i o n , and t h e n f i v e t r i a l s o f 1 7 s econds on t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r a g a i n . The women g a i n e d more p r o p o r t i o n -a t e l y f r o m t h e i r l o w e r s t a r t i n g p o i n t d u r i n g t h e f i r s t f i f t e e n t r i a l s . The women a l s o f a i n e d p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more d u r i n g t h e r e s t p e r i o d . I n a f o l l o w up e x p e r i m e n t by Bux ton and G r a n t ( 1 9 3 9 ) f i f t e e n men and f i f t e e n women were g i v e n f i f t e e n t r i a l s on t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r , a one m inu te r e s t , f i f t e e n t r i a l s f o l l o w e d by a n o t h e r one m inu te r e s t , and f i v e more t r i a l s . A lmo s t e q u a l g a i n s were made d u r i n g t h e f i r s t r e s t p e r i o d by b o t h g r o u p s . The f e m a l e s u b j e c t s showed a somewhat g r e a t e r v a r i a b i l i t y i n 28 p e r f o r m a n c e and a somewhat g r e a t e r amount o f f a t i g u e d u r i n g t h e added p r a c t i c e . D u r i n g t h e second r e s t p e r i o d , t h e women made a g r e a t e r g a i n t h a n d i d t h e men. The c u r v e s l o o k e d a s t hough t h e women were g a i n i n g i n " l a t e n t " s k i l l d u r i n g t h e f a t i g u e p e r i o d , and needed o n l y a b r i e f r e s t t o p e r m i t them t o show t h e i r a c q u i r e d s k i l l . Ammons (1955) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f sex and age t o t h e c o n t i n u o u s r o t a r y p u r s u i t p e r f o r m a n c e o f p r e a d u l t s u b j e c t s . H i s s u b j e c t s were t h i r t y - f i v e boys and t h i r t y - f i v e g i r l s f r o m each o f g r ade s 3, 6, 9, 11, and 12. They were g i v e n t h r e e m i n u t e s o f MP, f i v e m i n u t e s r e s t and e i g h t m i n u t e s MP. Rime on t a r g e t s c o r e s were r e c o r d e d e v e r y t w e n t y s e c o n d s . Ammons f ound t h a t t h e p r e r e s t c u r v e s r o s e more s h a r p l y w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age and more f o r t h e boys t h a n t h e g i r l s . The g r e a t e s t s l o p e i n t h e p r e r e s t p e r i o d was t he c u r v e f o r t h e g rade 12 b o y s . The o v e r a l l g r e a t e r i n c r e a s e i n s l o p e o c c u r r e d i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e c u r v e o f t h e b o y s . R e m i n i s c e n c e was an i n c r e a s i n g f u n c t i o n o f a ge . The o v e r a l l amount o f r e m i n i s c e n c e was g r e a t e r f o r t h e b o y s . The mean o f t h e l a s t t h r e e t r i a l s i n each p e r i o d was used as t h e p e r f o r m a n c e l e v e l . Ammons f ound w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age t h e p e r f o r m a n c e i n c r e a s e d f o r t h e b o y s . I t i n c r e a s e d f o r g i r l s up t o g rade 9 and t h e n d e c r e a s e d . The boys were a l w a y s s u p e r i o r t o t h e g i r l s i n p e r f o r m a n c e and t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n c r e a s e d f r om g rade 9 t o 12 and was g r e a t e s t d u r i n g t h e p o s t r e s t p r a c t i c e . I t was s ugge s ted t h a t t h e 29 l e s s e r p r o f i c i e n c y o f t h e g i r l s was due t o t h e i r h a v i n g l e a r n e d f e w e r s k i l l s and t h e s k i l l s were l e s s w e l l l e a r n e d s i n c e t he boys and g i r l s a r e p r o b a b l y e q u a l i n f u n d a m e n t a l a b i l i t y . A l s o t he d rop i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e l e v e l o f t h e g i r l s f r o m g r a d e s 9-12 i s o b s e r v e d i n o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s and may be due t o d e c r e a s e d m o t i v a t i o n . In b o t h Ammons 1 and Bux ton and G r a n t ' s s t u d i e s t he f e m a l e s u b j e c t s had on t h e a v e r a g e , l o w e r i n i t i a l a b i l i t y t h a n t h e ma le s as w e l l a s l o w e r f i n a l a b i l i t y l e v e l s . The two s t u d i e s d i f f e r i n t h a t Bux ton and G r a n t ' s f e m a l e s u b j e c t s seemed t o have r e m i n i s c e d more t h a n t h e ma le s w h i l e i n Ammons' s t u d y t he r e m i n i s c e n c e was g r e a t e r f o r t h e b o y s . The age o f Ammons' s u b j e c t s may have c o n t r i b u t e d somewhat t o t h e r e s u l t s s i n c e t h e g rade 9-12 g i r l s may have l a c k e d m o t i v a t i o n t o p e r f o r m w e l l a t a moto r t a s k . (Bux ton and G r a n t ' s s u b j e c t s were o l d e r u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s ) . The e x a c t e f f e c t s o f sex on p e r f o r m a n c e and l e a r n i n g i s not y e t c l e a r . CHAPTER I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURES S u b j e c t s One-hundred and e i g h t e e n v o l u n t e e r u n i v e r s i t y summer s c h o o l s t u d e n t s ( f i f t y - e i g h t men and s i x t y women) were t e s t e d on t he p u r s u i t r o t o r . The men r anged i n age f r o m t w e n t y t o f o r t y - f i v e and t h e i r mean age was t w e n t y - n i n e . The women r anged i n age f r o m e i g h t e e n t o f i f t y and t h e i r mean age was t w e n t y - s i x . A p p a r a t u s The l e a r n i n g t a s k was t he p u r s u i t r o t o r . The- a p p a r a t u s was a L a f a y e t t e , model 3 0 0 1 3 , p u r s u i t r o t o r . The t o p s u r f a c e o f t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r was a 3 4 . 5 cm. x 3 4 « 5 cm. b l a c k t e m p l a t e . A 2 cm. x 2 cm. t a r g e t l i g h t r o t a t e d i n a c l o c k w i s e d i r e c t i o n ( c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e f o r l e f t - h a n d e d s u b j e c t s ) a t a speed o f 6 0 RPM f s . The d i a m e t e r o f t h e c i r c l e was 1 4 cm. and t h e c e n t e r o f t h e t a r g e t l i g h t was 8 cm. f r o m t h e c e n t e r o f t h e c i r c l e . A p h o t o e l e c t r i c wand was used and t h e s e n s i t i v i t y was s e t a t 2 . 5 . An e l e c t r o n i c t i m e r w h i c h r e c o r d e d t i m e on t a r g e t t o t h e n e a r e s t 1 0 0 t h o f a second and an i m p u l s e c o u n t e r w h i c h r e c o r d e d t h e number o f t i m e s t h e s t y l u s l e f t and came back on t he t a r g e t , were w i r e d t o t h e a p p a r a t u s . A t i m e r , a c c u r a t e t o l / 1 0 t h o f a second , was used t o t i m e t r i a l s and i n t e r t r i a l i n t e r v a l s . P r a c t i c e S c h e d u l e s D i s t r i b u t e d P r a c t i c e The DP s c h e d u l e was based on a 31 w o r k - r e s t r a t i o o f 20 seconds work, 20 seconds r e s t . Massed P r a c t i c e ^ The MP1 s c h e d u l e was based on a w o r k -r e s t r a t i o o f 80 seconds work, 20 seconds r e s t . Massed P r a c t i c e ^ The MP2 s c h e d u l e was based on a w o r k - r e s t r a t i o o f 40 seconds work, 20 seconds r e s t . E x p e r i m e n t a l D e s i g n The e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n used i s summar ized i n T a b l e 1. Each s u b j e c t r e c e i v e d two 2 0 - s e cond p r a c t i c e t r i a l s w i t h a 2 0 - s e cond i n t e r p o l a t e d r e s t between t h e two t r i a l s . F o l l o w i n g t h e two i n i t i a l t r i a l s , each s u b j e c t l e f t t h e l a b and was no t t e s t e d a g a i n f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y two week s . The f i f t y - e i g h t men were r ank o r d e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r i n i t i a l s c o r e s and t h e n s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a s s i g n e d t o one o f t h e t h r e e p r a c t i c e c o n d i t i o n s i n o r d e r t o equa te t h e g r oup s i n t e rms o f i n i t i a l s c o r e s . The women were a l s o r ank o r d e r e d and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a s s i g n e d t o one o f t h e t h r e e p r a c t i c e g r o u p s . On Day 1 each g roup r e c e i v e d f i v e m i n u t e s and t w e n t y seconds o f p r a c t i c e on t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r , l e f t t h e l a b a n d - r e t u r n e d t w e n t y - f o u r h o u r s l a t e r t o p e r f o r m f o r an a d d i t i o n a l f i v e m i n u t e s . One g r oup , d e s i g n a t e d t h e d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e g roup (DP), r e c e i v e d s i x t e e n p r a c t i c e t r i a l s on Day 1 and f i f t e e n on Day 2, where a t r i a l c o n s i s t e d on t w e n t y seconds p r a c t i c e f o l l o w e d by t w e n t y seconds r e s t . The second g roup r e c e i v e d a t y p e o f massed p r a c t i c e (MPl ) on Day 1 and DP on Day 2 . On Day 1 t h e r e were f o u r t r i a l s 32 o f e i g h t y seconds l e n g t h w i t h each t r i a l b e i n g f o l l o w e d by a r e s t p e r i o d o f t w e n t y s e c o n d s . On Day 2, f i f t e e n t r i a l s were g i v e n i n i d e n t i c a l f a s h i o n t o t h a t r e c e i v e d by t h e DP g r o u p , ( i . e . - t w e n t y seconds p r a c t i c e and t w e n t y seconds r e s t ) . MP1 was used i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e i f a work i n t e r v a l w h i c h was f o u r t i m e s as l o n g a s t h e r e s t i n t e r v a l wou ld i n h i b i t p e r f o r m a n c e more t h a n a work i n t e r v a l w h i c h was o t w i c e a s l o n g a s t h e r e s t i n t e r v a l a s was t h e case i n MP2. The t h i r d g roup (MP2) r e c e i v e d a n o t h e r t y p e o f massed p r a c t i c e on Day 1 and DP on Day 2 . On Day 1 t h e r e were e i g h t t r i a l s o f f o r t y seconds l e n g t h , each t r i a l b e i n g f o l l o w e d by a r e s t p e r i o d o f 20 s e c o n d s . On Day 2, f i f t e e n t r i a l s were g i v e n i n i d e n t i c a l f a s h i o n t o t h a t r e c e i v e d by t h e DP g r o u p . The t o t a l e x p e r i m e n t a l t i m e f o r t h e i n i t i a l s e s s i o n was one m i n u t e f o r a l l t h r e e g r o u p s . The e x p e r i m e n t a l t i m e f o r t he Day 1 s e s s i o n f o r t h e DP g roup was t e n m i n u t e s and t w e n t y s econds , f o r t h e MP1 g roup i t was s i x m i n u t e s and t w e n t y second and f o r t h e MP2 g roup i t was seven m i n u t e s and f o r t y s e c o n d s . F o r t h e Day 2 s e s s i o n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l t i m e was n i n e m i n u t e s and f o r t y seconds f o r a l l t h r e e g r o u p s . O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s I n i t i a l S co re ( I S ) . The i n i t i a l s c o r e s were t h e means o f t h e f i r s t two t r i a l s . 33 Pe r fo rmance Sco re ( P S ) . . The p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s were t h e means o f t h e l a s t two t r i a l s on Day 1. F i n a l Score^^ ( F S 1 ) . The f i n a l s c o r e 1 was t h e mean o f t h e f i r s t two t r i a l s on Day 2 . T h i s was t h e amount l e a r n e d on Day 1. F i n a l Score,., ( F S 2 ) . The f i n a l s c o r e 2 was t h e mean o f t h e l a s t two t r i a l s on Day 2 . T h i s was t h e amount l e a r n e d on Day 2 . . R e m i n i s c e n c e . R e m i n i s c e n c e was t h e d i f f e r e n c e between FS^ and PS. R e m i n i s c e n c e was t h e improvement i n p e r f o r m a n c e o v e r r e s t w i t h o u t p r a c t i c e . A b i l i t y G r o u p i n g s The f i r s t , two t r i a l s o f p r a c t i c e f o r each s u b j e c t were a ve r aged and t a k e n as an e s t i m a t e o f each i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n i t i a l a b i l i t y ( I S ) . Each g roup (DP, MP1, MP2) was t h e n s u b d i v i d e d i n t o h i g h , medium, and l o w a b i l i t y g r oup s by t a k i n g t h e i n i t i a l s c o r e s and d e t e r m i n i n g t h e e x a c t c u t o f f p o i n t s . Ss w i t h i n i t i a l s c o r e s o f 8.83 s econds and above c o m p r i s e d t h e h i g h a b i l i t y g roup and Ss w i t h s c o r e s o f 7.12 and 8.82 seconds c o m p r i s e d t h e medium a b i l i t y g r o u p . A l l Ss w i t h an i n i t i a l s c o r e b e l o w 7.12 seconds were i n t h e l o w a b i l i t y g r o u p . P r o c e d u r e The t o t a l t e s t i n g was c a r r i e d ou t by one e x p e r i m e n t e r . No knowledge o f r e s u l t s was g i v e n d u r i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l t h o u g h t h e r e was some f e e d b a c k f r o m t h e n o i s e made by t h e a u t o m a t i c 3 4 TABLE 1 SUMMARY OF THE EXPERIMENTAL DES IGN 1 2 4 GROUPS IN IT IAL PERFORMANCE Hours F INAL SCORES SCORES Re s t SCORES DP two t r i a l s 1 6 t r i a l s 15 t r i a l s 1 . H i gh A b i l i t y 2 0 s e e s , work 2 0 s e e s , work 2 0 s ee s .wo r k - 5 women, 9 men 2 0 s e e s , r e s t 2 0 s e e s , r e s t 2 0 s e e s . r e s t 2 . Medium A b i l i t y - 7 women, 5 men 3 . Low A b i l i t y -8 women, 4 men MP1 1 . H i gh A b i l i t y - 6 women, 1 0 men 2 . Medium A b i l i t y - 6 women, 4 men 3 . Low A b i l i t y - 9 women, 5 men two t r i a l s 2 0 s e e s , work 2 0 s e e s , r e s t 1 6 t r i a l s b u t massed 4 t r i a l s 8 0 s e e s , work 2 0 s e e s , r e s t 15 t r i a l s 2 0 s ee s .wo r k 2 0 s e e s . r e s t MP2 1 . H i g h A b i l i t y - 3 women, 12 men 2 . Medium A b i l i t y - 7 women, 3 men 3 . Low A b i l i t y - 9 women, 6 men two t r i a l s 2 0 s e e s , work 2 0 s e e s , r e s t 1 6 t r i a l s bu t massed 8 t r i a l s 4 0 s e e s , work 2 0 s e e s . r e s t 1 5 t r i a l s 2 0 s e e s , work 2 0 s e e s , r e s t 1 . See " O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s " f o r t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f s c o r e s . 35 c o u n t e r w h i c h was r e c o r d i n g t h e number o f h i t s . Each t r i a l was begun w i t h a v e r b a l w a r n i n g and one h a l f r e v o l u t i o n b e f o r e t h e s u b j e c t began t o t r a c k t h e t a r g e t . At t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n each s u b j e c t was i n s t r u c t e d t h a t t he pu rpo se o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t was t o t r a c k t h e mov ing t a r g e t k e e p i n g t h e p o i n t ' o f t h e s t y l u s d i r e c t l y o v e r t h e l i g h t and on t h e g l a s s s u r f a c e . The s u b j e c t s t ood i n f r o n t o f t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r w i t h t h e f r e e hand a t h i s s i d e and h e l d t h e p o i n t o f t h e s t y l u s 180 d e g r e e s f r o m t h e t a r g e t l i g h t . He was t o l d t o s t a r t t r a c k i n g t h e t a r g e t a s soon as i t had made o n e - h a l f r e v o l u t i o n and t o keep t r a c k i n g i t u n t i l t o l d t o s t o p . B e f o r e t h e f i r s t i n i t i a l t r i a l t h e s u b j e c t was shown one o r two r e v o l u t i o n s o f t h e t a r g e t a s an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e speed o f t h e t a r g e t . F o r r i g h t - h a n d e d s u b j e c t s t h e t a r g e t r o t a t e d i n a c l o c k w i s e d i r e c t i o n and f o r l e f t - h a n d e d s u b j e c t s , i n a c o u n t e r c l o c k w i s e d i r e c t i o n . A f t e r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n , t h e s u b j e c t was a s k e d i f he had any q u e s t i o n s . The i n i t i a l t r i a l was t h e n begun . When t h e s u b j e c t was t o l d t o s t o p he p l a c e d t he s t y l u s b e s i d e t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r , t u r n e d h i s back t o t h e a p p a r a t u s and began c o u n t i n g backwards f r o m one hundred by ones a l o u d . He d i d t h i s u n t i l a s i g n a l " r e a d y " was g i v e n . He t h e n t u r n e d a r o u n d , p i c k e d up t h e s t y l u s and h e l d t h e p o i n t 180 d e g r e e s f r o m t h e t a r g e t l i g h t . Each new t r i a l was begun w i t h a v e r b a l w a r n i n g " s t a r t " and one h a l f r e v o l u t i o n o f t h e t a r g e t . 3 6 A b r i e f r e v i e w o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r p e r f o r m a n c e were r e p e a t e d t o a l l s u b j e c t s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e t r i a l s f o r Day 1 . They were a l s o t o l d t h a t t h e r e wou ld be more t r i a l s (and i n t h e case o f t h e MP g r oup s , l o n g e r t r i a l s ) t h a n t h e r e were i n t h e i n i t i a l s e s s i o n . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f Day 2 t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s were t h a t t h e same p r o c e d u r e as had been used t h e two p r e v i o u s t i m e s wou ld be f o l l o w e d . The s u b j e c t s were a l s o t o l d t h a t t h e l e n g t h o f t h e t r i a l s wou ld be t h e same as t h e l e n g t h o f t h e i n i t i a l t r i a l s bu t t h a t t h e r e wou ld be more o f t hem. S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s To t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e subg roups i n r e l a t i o n t o IS , PS, F S j } F S 2 , and r e m i n i s c e n c e an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r a f a c t o r i a l d e s i g n was u s e d . T h i s d e s i g n r e s u l t e d i n t h e t h r e e main e f f e c t s o f a b i l i t y , p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e , and sex , a s w e l l a s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between a b i l i t y and p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e , a b i l i t y and sex , p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e and sex , and between a b i l i t y , sex and p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e . A f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s was c omp le ted on t h e t i m e on t a r g e t s c o r e s . The e i g h t e e n t r i a l s on Day 1 were t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o s i x b l o c k s by t a k i n g t h e a ve r a ge o f e v e r y t h r e e t r i a l s and t h e f i f -t e e n t r i a l s on Day 2 were t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o f i v e b l o c k s by t a k i n g t h e a v e r a g e o f e v e r y t h r e e t r i a l s . Program F i n n , a m u l t i v a r i a t e - u n i v a r i a t e ANOVA p rog ram, was used s e p a r a t e l y f o r Day 1 and Day 2 s c o r e s t o t e s t f o r s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s . The 3 7 f o l l o w i n g p r e - p l a n n e d c o n t r a s t s were t e s t e d : 1. h i g h a b i l i t y minus t h e a ve rage o f t h e medium and l ow a b i l i t y g r o u p s . 2 . medium a b i l i t y minus t h e l o w a b i l i t y g roup 3 . DP minus t h e a ve r a ge o f t h e MP1 and MP2 g r oup s 4 . MP1 minus t h e MP2 g r o u p . T e s t s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e were made on t h e o v e r a l l s c o r e s and on o r t h o g o n a l p o l y n o m i a l s f o r a t r e n d a n a l y s i s . The c o r r e l a t i o n s between t i m e on t a r g e t s c o r e s and number o f h i t s f o r IS, PS, F S1 , FS2, and r e m i n i s c e n c e were l o w . F o r t h i s r e a s o n an a n a l y s i s u s i n g t h e same p r o c e d u r e as t h a t d e s c r i b e d f o r t i m e on t a r g e t s c o r e s was done on number o f h i t s . CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION R e s u l t s Time on T a r g e t S c o r e s . F i g u r e s 1, 2, and 3 show t h e p e r f o r m a n c e c u r v e s unde r each p r a c t i c e c o n d i t i o n f o r each a b i l i t y g roup w i t h t h e mean s c o r e o f each t r i a l . These f i g u r e s and a r ough g r a p h i n w h i c h t h e i n i t i a l s c o r e s ( I S ) , p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s ( P S ) , f i n a l s c o r e s f o r Day 1 ( F S l ) , and t he f i n a l s c o r e s f o r Day 2 (FS2) were p l o t t e d f o r each o f t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r oup s unde r t h e t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s o f p r a c t i c e i n -d i c a t e d t h a t t h e g r oup s p r a c t i c i n g unde r d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e (DP) on Day 1 had a g r e a t e r r a t e o f improvement t h a n t h o s e g r oup s p r a c t i c i n g unde r massed p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e s (MP1 and MP2) . A l l g r oup s showed improvement o v e r r e s t and a s l ow r a t e o f improvement i n t h e second s e s s i o n . The means f o r t h e h i g h , medium and l o w a b i l i t y s u b j e c t s under DP, MP1, and MP2 a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e I I . CM DP MP I MP 2 10 DAY I 15 TRIALS 20 — r 25 DAY 2 30 FIGURE 2 MEDIUM ABILITY GROUPS - TIME ON TARGET PERFORMANCE CURVES LOW ABILITY GROUP - TIME ON TARGET PERFORMANCE CURVES 42 TABLE 11 MEANS IN SECONDS OF THE THREE PRACTICE GROUPS AND THEIR ABILITY GROUPS FOR THE VARIOUS CONDITIONS GROUPS INI T I A L SCORE IS PERFOR-MANCE SCORE PS FINAL SCOREl F S l FINAL SCORE2 FS2 REMINI-SCENCE SCORE RS DISTRIBUTED PRACTICE HIGH ABILITY 10.02 1 2 . 3 6 1 3 . 9 0 1 4 . 7 9 1.54 MEDIUM ABILITY 7 . 3 2 11.27 13.14 13.72 1.87 LOW ABILITY 3 . 6 8 8.86 1 1 . 2 3 12.64 2 . 3 7 MASSED PRACTICEl HIGH ABILITY 1 0 , .06 1 1 , . 2 1 13 . 7 7 1 4 . . 5 7 2 , -56 MEDIUM- ABILITY 7. .18 9 . . 5 8 12 . 3 2 1 4 . . 5 2 2 . . 7 4 LOW ABILITY 3 . . 9 6 . 8 . . 4 4 1 0 . 9 8 1 2 . . 3 9 2 , . 5 4 MASSED PRACTICE2 HIGH ABILITY 10.0 3 11.47 13 .62 15.36 2 .15 MEDIUM ABILITY 7-25 9.39 11 . 1 5 13.18 1 .76 LOW ABILITY 4.21 8 . 1 9 10 .90 11.39 2 .71 43 Day 1 . T a b l e 1 1 1 r e v e a l s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r i n i t i a l s c o r e s between a b i l i t y g roups and s e x e s . The mean i n i -t i a l s c o r e f o r t h e men was 8 . 2 5 seconds and f o r t h e women i t was 5 . 9 1 s e c o n d s . No d i f f e r e n c e i n i n i t i a l s c o r e s was f o u n d between p r a c t i c e c o n d i t i o n s . TABLE 1 1 1 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR THE IN IT IAL SCORE (TOT) SOURCE OF d f MEAN SQUARE F PROBABILITY VARIATION AB IL ITY 2 3 1 4 . 5 8 PRACTICE 2 0 . 0 6 SEX 1 1 1 . 28 ABxPR 4 0 . 2 0 ABxSX 2 0 . 3 1 PRxSX 2 0 . 6 8 AxPxS 4 0 . 1 6 ERROR 1 0 0 1 . 3 9 226.36 < r 0 0 1 8.12 4.01 At t h e end o f t h e p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n on Day 1 t h e r e was s t i l l a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between a b i l i t y g roups and sexe s as shown i n T a b l e IV . 44 TABLE IV ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR THE PERFORMA NCE SCORE (TOT) SOURCE OF VARIATION d f MEAN SQUARE F PROBABILITY AB IL ITY 2 61.06 8.15 <.01 PRACTICE 2 15.00 SEX 1 66.19 8.84 <:oi AExPR 4 2.22 ABxSX 2 5.00 PRxSX 2 16.34 AxPxS 4 0.94 ERROR 100 7.49 As shown i n T a b l e V, t h e women d i d no t show s i g n i f i c a n t l y -more r e m i n i s c e n c e t h a n d i d t h e men. There was no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e amount o f r e m i n i s c e n c e f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t y g r o u p s . There was no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e amount o f r e m i n i s c e n c e between t h e DP and MP1 and MP2 g roups and t h e r e was no i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between a b i l i t y g r oup s and p r a c t i c e c o n d i t i o n s . 45 TABLE V ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR REMINISCENCE (TOT) SOURCE OF d f MEAN SQUARE F P VARIATION AB I L ITY 2 0.96 PRACTICE 2 5 .92 SEX 1 19.46 ABxPR 4 1.00 ABxSX 2 O . 5 8 PRxSX 2 4.36 AxPxS 4 2.66 ERROR 100 5 .66 3.44 > . 0 5 To examine t r e n d s i n p e r f o r m a n c e improvement o f Day 1, an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r a r e p e a t e d measures d e s i g n was u s e d . T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t f o r t h e mean o f t h e e i g h t e e n t r i a l s on Day 1, t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e DP g roup and t h e mean o f t h e two massed p r a c t i c e c o n d i t i o n s and between t h e MP1 g roup and t h e MP2 g r o u p . The a n a l y s i s f o r Day 1 i s shown i n T a b l e V I . 4 6 TABLE VI ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CONTRASTS FOR THE PERFORMANCE SCORES ON DAY 1 (TOT) CONTRAST MEAN SQUARE d f F P D P - ( M P 1 + M P 2 ) 6 7 . 1 1 M P 1 - M P 2 1 4 . 9 1 HA- (MA -1-LA) 1 2 5 3 . 5 9 MA-LA 5 2 1 . 2 8 D P - ( M P 1 +MP2) x HA-(MA + LA) 2 7 . 6 6 M P 1 - M P 2 x ..: HA- (MA-r LA) 1 . 1 4 D P - ( M P 1 +MP2) x MA-LA 2 5 . 3 9 M P 1 - M P 2 x MA-LA 0.08 ERROR TERM 2 4 . 2 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 9 2 . 7 6 5 1 . 6 4 2 1 . 4 8 1 . 1 4 1 . 0 5 7 . 0 5 < . 0 1 < . 0 1 7 . 0 5 > . 0 5 T a b l e VI a l s o i n d i c a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r f o r m a n c e on Day i between t h e h i g h a b i l i t y g r oup s and t h e a ve r a ge o f t h e medium and l o w a b i l i t y g r o u p s . A l s o t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e medium and t h e l o w a b i l i t y g r o u p s . The re was no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between a b i l i t y g r oup s and p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e s when t h e mean p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s were a n a l y z e d f o r Day 1 . 47 U t i l i z i n g t h e same r e p e a t e d measures d e s i g n , a m u l t i v a r i a t e t e s t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r f o r m a n c e t r e n d s on Day 1 showed a s i g n i f i c a n t F r a t i o f o r a l i n e a r and q u a d r a t i c t r e n d d i f f e r e n c e between t h e h i g h a b i l i t y g r oup s and t h e a ve r age o f t h e medium and l o w a b i l i t y g r oup s ( Tab l e V l l ) . The a ve r age o f t h e medium and l ow a b i l i t y g roups showed a f a s t e r r a t e o f improvement on Day 1 tih.au. d i d t h e h i g h a b i l i t y g r o u p s . The s tep -down F r a t i o f o r a q u a d r a t i c t r e n d d i f f e r e n c e showed a s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d d i f f e r e n c e between the r a t e o f t a p e r i n g o f f i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e c u r v e on Day 1 f o r t h e h i g h a b i l i t y g roup and t h e medium and l ow a b i l i t y g r o u p s . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was f ound i n t h e r a t e o f improvement o f t he medium and l o w a b i l i t y g r o u p s . T a b l e V l l shows t h e t r e n d d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r f o r m a n c e on Day 1 between t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s . TABLE V l l TREND ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE ON DAY 1 (AB IL ITY GROUPS CONTRASTS) TOT VARIABLE MEAN SQUARE d f UNIVARIATE STEP-DOWN P F F HA-(MA+LA) LINE QUAD MA-LA LINE QUAD ERROR TERMS L INE QUAD 26.02 14.10 3-57 1.35 3.40 1.04 1 8.24 1 13.60 1 1 109 109 1.05 1.31 8.24 11.50 1 . 0 5 1.16 < 0 l <01 7 - 0 5 P \ 0 5 48 There was a s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the rate of improve-ment between the di s t r i b u t e d practice groups and the average of the two massed practice groups on Day 1. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f -ference was found i n the performance trends on Day 1 f o r the two massed practice groups. Table V l l l indicates the difference i n performance trends between the three practice groups. TABLE V l l l TREND ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE ON DAY 1 (PRACTICE GROUP CONTRASTS) TOT VARIABLE MEAN SQUARE df UNIVARIATE STEP-DOWN P F F-DP-(MP1+MP2) LINE 23.56 1 6.93 6.93 <.01 QUAD 0 . 2 0 1 MP1-MP2 LINE 0 .27 1 QUAD 3 .05 l ' 2.94 2.87 >.05 ERROR TERMS LINE 3 .40 109 QUAD 1.04 109 The step-down F r a t i o did not indicate a s i g n i f i c a n t trend difference i n the rate of improvement between the HA and the average of the MA and LA groups whether under d i s t r i b u t e d or massed practice. In other words, the difference i n the rate of improvement on Day 1 between the DP and MP groups was the same f o r 49 The HA s u b j e c t s a s f o r MA+LA s u b j e c t s . There were no i n t e r a c t i o n s between a b i l i t y g r oup s and p r a c t i c e c o n d i t i o n s i n r e g a r d t o s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d d i f f e r e n c e on Day 1 a s shown i n T a b l e IX . TABLE I X TREND ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE ON DAY 1 (AB IL ITY x PRACTICE SCHEDULE) TOT VARIABLES MEAN SQUARE d f UNIVARIATE STEP-DOWN P F F HA-(MA+LA) x DP-(MP1+MP2) LINE 0 . 0 6 1 QUAD 4 . 0 3 1 3 . 8 9 3 - 8 3 > - 0 5 HA-(MA+LA) x MP1-MP2 LINE 0 . 0 6 1 QUAD 0 . 0 6 1 MA-LA x DP-(MP1+MP2) LINE 0 . 5 6 1 QUAD 0 . 8 5 1 MA-LA x MP1-MP2 LINE O . 5 8 1 QUAD 1 . 0 6 1 ERROR TERMS LINE 3 . 4 0 1 0 9 QUAD 1 . 0 4 1 0 9 50 Day 2 . A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s t i l l e x i s t e d between t h e a b i l i t y g roups a f t e r t h e t w e n t y - f o u r hour r e s t p e r i o d as shown i n T a b l e X . The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e sexes no l o n g e r e x i s t e d . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between p r a c t i c e g r oup s and t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s . TABLE X ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR "FINAL SCORE DAY 1 (TOT) SOURCE OF VARIATION d f M A N SQUARE F P AB I L ITY 2 5 2 . 0 9 1 1 . 3 3 < . 0 1 PRACTICE 2 5 . 1 5 1 . 1 2 > . 0 5 SEX 1 13 . 8 4 3 . 0 1 < . 0 5 ABxPR 4 3 . 0 3 ABxSX 2 7 . 0 1 1.-52 > . 0 5 PRxSX 2 1 0 . 5 3 2 . 2 9 > . 0 5 AxPxS 4 1 . 4 9 ERROR 1 0 0 4 . 6 0 As i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e X I , t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f -f e r e n c e s between p r a c t i c e g r oup s o r s exe s a t t h e end o f p r a c t i ce on Day 2 . The re were no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s . A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s t i l l e x i s t e d between t h e a b i l i t y g r o u p s . 51 TABLE X I ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR THE FINAL SCOR E 2 ( F S 2 ) - TOT SOURCE OF VARIATION d f MEAN SQUARE F P AB IL ITY 2. 5 3 . 0 3 9 . 8 5 < . 0 1 PRACTICE 2 5 . 6 1 1 . 0 4 > . 0 5 SEX 1 1 5 . 8 9 2 . 9 5 > . 0 5 ABxPR 4 6 . 4 5 1 . 2 0 > . 0 5 PRxSX 2 7 . 3 3 1 . 3 6 > . 0 5 ABxSX 2 1 4 . 3 3 2 . 6 6 • > . 0 5 AxPxS 4 5 . 1 8 ERROR 1 0 0 5 - 3 9 When t h e a ve r age o f a l l 15 t r i a l s o f Day 2 was examined, t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e showed t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e h i g h a b i l i t y and t h e a ve rage o f t h e medium and l o w a b i l i t y g roups and a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e medium a b i l i t y and l ow a b i l i t y g roups a t t h e end o f Day 2 . T a b l e X l l i n d i c a t e s t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s . 52 TABLE X l l ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR CONTRASTS FOR*THE MEAN LEARNING SCORES ON DAY 2 (TOT) CONTRAST MEAN SQUARE d f F P ± HA-(MA+LA) 641.33 1 29.60 <.01 MA-LA 173.11 1 8 .01 <.01 DP-(MP1+MP2) 0 .68 1 MP1-MP2 14.07 1 HA-(MA+LA) x DP-(MP1+MP2) 2 . 8 4 1 HA-(MA+LA) x MP1-MP2 13.49 1 MA-LA x DP-(MP1+MP2) 1 .03 1 MA-LA x MP1-MP2 1.81 1 ERROR TERM 21.67 109 A l s o t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between p r a c t i c e g r oup s and t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between a b i l i t y g r oup s and p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e s when t h e mean l e a r n i n g s c o r e s were a n a l y z e d f o r Day 2 . On Day 2 t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e l e a r n i n g t r e n d between t h e t h r e e p r a c t i c e g r o u p s . The m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e showed one s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t . A s t e p down r a t i o o f 5.09 w i t h p .05 i n d i c a t e d a d i f f e r e n c e i n l i n e a r t r e n d s be tween t h e MA and LA g r oup s unde r t h e two massed p r a c t i c e c o n d i t i o n s and t h e MA and LA g r oup s unde r d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e . T a b l e X l l l shows t h e m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r Day 2 . TABLE X l l l TREND ANALYSIS OF LEARNING ON DAY 2 (TOT) VARIABLE M A N SQUARE d f UNIVARIATE STEP-DOWN P . F F HA-(MA+LA) LINE O.Ol 1 QUAD 0 . 5 1 1 MA-LA LINE 3 . 6 3 1 2.81 2.81 >.05 QUAD 0 . 5 1 1 1 . 4 9 ^ . 0 5 DP-(MP1-MP2) LINE 0 . 6 2 1 QUAD 1 . 7 0 1 2 . 2 9 1 . 9 4 > . 0 5 MP1-MP2 LINE 0.02 1 QUAD 0 . 0 4 1 HA-(MA+LA) x DP-(MP1+MP2) LINE 0.02 1 QUAD 1 . 3 3 1 1 . 7 9 1 . 7 9 ^ . 0 5 HA-(MA+LA) x MP1-MP2 LINE 3 . 2 2 1 2 . 4 9 2 . 4 9 ^ . 0 5 QUAD 0 . 1 8 1 54 VARIABLE TABLE X l l l (CONTINUED) MEAN SQUARE d f UNIVARIATE F STEP-DOWN F MA-LA x DP-(MPH-MP2) LINE 6 . 5 7 QUAD 1 . 8 1 MA-LA x MP1-MP2 L INE 0 . 7 1 QUAD 1 , 3 0 ERROR TERMS LINE 1 . 2 9 QUAD 0 . 7 4 1 1 1 1 5 . 0 9 2 . 4 5 1 . 7 6 1 0 9 1 0 9 5 . 0 9 1 . 1 1 1 . 3 9 < . 0 5 >.05 ^ . 0 5 As i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e X IV, t he c o r r e l a t i o n s be tween number o f h i t s and t i m e on t a r g e t s c o r e s f o r IS, PS, F S 1 , F S 2 , and r e m i n i s c e n c e was l o w . TABLE X IV CORRELATIONS BETWEEN NUMBER OF HITS AND TIME ON TARGET VARIABLE NUMBER OF HITS IS PS F S 1 F S 2 REM IS 0 . 5 9 TIME ON TARGET PS F S 1 0 . 0 0 - 0 . 3 9 F S 2 - 0 . 4 7 REM 0 . 0 3 55 Number o f F l i t s . T a b l e XV i n d i c a t e s t h e number o f h i t s f o r each a b i l i t y g roup under each p r a c t i c e c o n d i t i o n f o r IS, PS, F S l , FS2 and r e m i n i s c e n c e . TABLE XV MEAN NUMBER OF HITS OF THE THREE PRACTICE GROUPS AND THEIR AB I L ITY GROUPS FOR THE VARIOUS CONDITIONS GROUPS IN IT IAL PERFOR- F INAL F INAL REMINI -SCORE MANCE SCORE SCORE SCENCE IS SCORE F S l FS2 SCORE DISTRIBUTED PRACTICE HIGH AB IL ITY 28.47 25.92 24.54 21.04 -.62 MEDIUM AB IL ITY 27.75 25.42 25.17 22.50 -.25 LOW AB IL ITY 19.09 27.50 28.05 25.92 -.55 M A S S E D ' PRACTICE1 HIGH AB IL ITY 28.04 26.72 24.85 23.28 -2.13 MEDIUM AB IL ITY 27.95 25.10 25.55 21.50 .45 LOW AB IL ITY 20.22 23.92 26.50 24.82 3 ."57 MASSED PRACTICE2 HIGH AB IL ITY 26.94 25.40 25.10 21.04 -.30 MEDIUM AB I L ITY 24.95 26.00 25.95 23.40 -.05 LOW AB IL ITY 22.17 27.44 28.20 27.90 .76 Because t h e r e was a l o w c o r r e l a t i o n between t i m e on t a r g e t and number o f h i t s an a n a l y s i s was used t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s f o r number o f h i t s . 56 Day 1. T a b l e XVI shows t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f -f e r e n c e between a b i l i t y g r oup s and t h e sexe s i n t h e i n i t i a l s c o r e s but no d i f f e r e n c e between p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e s . A l s o t h e r e were no i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s . TABLE XVI ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR IN IT IAL SCORES (Number o f H i t s ) SOURCE OF d f MEAN F P VARIATION SQUARE AB IL ITY 2 471 .71 15.69 <.01 .PRACTICE 2 10 .74 SEX 1 157 .91 5 . 2 5 <.01 ABxPR 4 30 .60 1.02 > . 0 5 ABxSX 2 33 .16 1.10 PRxSX 2 3 0 .06 AxPxS 4 20 .65 ERROR 100 30 .07 There were no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s o r i n t e r a c t i o n s f o r t h e PS. The re was a s i g n i f i c a n t a b i l i t y x sex i n t e r a c t i o n f o r r e m i n i s c e n c e as shown i n T a b l e X V I I . 57 TABLE XVI1 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR REMINISCENCE (Number o f H i t s ) SOURCE OF d f ' MEAN F P VARIATION SQUARE AB IL ITY 2 26 .69 PRACTICE 2 16 .00 SEX 1 4 • 30 BBxPR 4 14 .89 ABxSX 2 146 .77 5.16 <.01 PRxSX 2 31 .03 1.09 >.05 AxPxS 4 9 .99 ERROR 100 28 .42 F i g u r e 4 seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e women i n t h e MA g roup had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s i n c r e a s e i n number o f h i t s a f t e r t h e t w e n t y - f o u r hou r r e s t i n t e r v a l t h a n t h e men i n t h e MA g roup d i d . The men i n t h e HA and LA g r oup s seemed t o have had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s i n c r e a s e i n number o f h i t s a f t e r t h e r e s t i n t e r v a l t h a n t h e women i n t h o s e two a b i l i t y g r oup s h a d . An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r a r e p e a t e d measures d e s i g n r e -v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between a b i l i t y g r oup s o r p r a c t i c e g r oup s and no i n t e r a c t i o n s between a b i l i t y and p r a c t i c e g roups on Day 1. U t i l i z i n g t h e same r e p e a t e d measures d e s i g n , a m u l t i v a r i a t e t e s t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r f o r m a n c e t r e n d s on Day 1 showed t h a t a q u a d r a t i c change i n p e r f o r m a n c e was d i f f e r e n t f o r t h e HA 5$ t h a n i t was f o r t h e average o f t h e MA and LA g r o u p s . . A l s o t h e r e was a l i n e a r d i f f e r e n c e and a q u a d r a t i c d i f f e r e n c e between t h e MA and LA g r o u p s . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d d i f f e r e n c e be-tween p r a c t i c e g r o u p s . The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t was found between t h e MA-LA x DP- (MP1+MP2). There v/as a l i n e a r t r e n d d i f f e r e n c e between t h e MA and LA groups under DP and t h e MA and LA groups under t h e average o f t h e MP c o n d i t i o n s . T a b l e XVI11 i n d i c a t e s t h e s e t r e n d d i f f e r e n c e s . TABLE XV111 TREND ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE ON DAY 1 (Number o f H i t s ) VARIABLE MEAN SQUARE d f UNIVARIATE STEPDOWN P F F HA-(MA+LA) LINE QUAD 7 7 . 6 6 219.59 1 1 3 . 3 7 21.99 3 . 3 7 18.28 > . 0 5 <.01 MA-LA LINE QUAD 217.71 109.79 1 1 9.44 10.99 9.44 6.18 <.01 < . 0 5 DP-(MP1+MP2) LINE QUAD 5 . 0 9 5 . 8 3 1 1 MP1-MP2 LINE QUAD 49.97 4.17 1 1 2.17 0.42 2.17 1.01 > . 0 5 > . 0 5 59 TABLE X V 1 1 1 (CONTINUED) TREND ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE ON DAY 1 (Number o f H i t s ) VARIABLE MEAN SQUARE d f UNIVARIATE STEP-DOWN P F F HA-(MA+LA) x DP - ( M P 1 + M P 2 ) LINE 1 8 . 3 0 1 QUAD 1 2 . 4 0 1 1.24 ^ . 0 5 MA-LA x DP - ( M P 1 + M P 2 ) LINE 14.96 1 QUAD 2 5 . 4 9 1 2 . 5 5 3 - 4 5 > . 0 5 MA-LA x DP -(MP1+MP2) L INE 138.46 1 6 . 0 1 6 . 0 1 < . 0 5 . QUAD 4 . 5 7 1 MA-LA x MP1-MP2 L INE 4 . 2 b 1 QUAD 1 3 . 7 7 1 1 . 3 8 1.76 ^ . 0 5 ERROR TERMS L INE 2 3 . 0 5 1 0 9 QUAD 9 . 9 9 1 0 9 Day 2 . At t h e b e g i n n i n g o f p r a c t i c e on Day 2 t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between a b i l i t y , p r a c t i c e , o r sex g r o u p s . The re was one s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between a b i l i t y and sex as shown i n T a b l e X I X . > 09 X o z c 09 m O CHANGE IN THE NUMBER OF HITS I r o i I o i si m Z (/> o rn z o rn l m > r~ m cn m > o H O z pt ~n •n m O 3 O c 30 m m 2 9 - | FIGURE 5 FINAL SCORE I - AB x SX INTERACTION EFFECT FOR NUMBER OF HITS 62 TABLE X IX ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR F INAL SCORE DAY 1 (Number o f H i t s ) SOURCE OF VARIATION d f MEAN SQUARE F P AB IL ITY 2 3 6 . 7 9 1 . 7 0 ^ . 0 5 PRACTICE 2 8 . 7 5 SEX 1 3 0 . 3 2 1 . 4 0 ^ . 0 5 ABxPR 4 3 . 2 1 ABxSX 2 7 5 . 8 2 3 . 5 0 < . 0 5 PRxSX 2 0 . 3 2 AxPxS 4 3 . 2 7 ERROR 1 0 0 2 1 . 6 6 I t a p p e a r s f r o m F i g u r e 5 t h a t t h e women i n t h e MA g roup had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r number o f h i t s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f Day 2 w h i l e t h e men i n t h e HA and LA g r oup s had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r number o f h i t s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f Day 2 t h a n t h e women i n t h e HA and LA g r oup s h a d . At t h e end o f p r a c t i c e on Day 2 t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between a b i l i t y g r oup s and t h e s e x e s . The re was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between p r a c t i c e g r oup s and t h e r e were no i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s . T a b l e XX shows t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e f i n a l s c o r e s f o r Day 2 . 63 TABLE XX ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR F INAL SCORE DAY 2 (Number o f H i t s ) SOURCE OF VARIATION d f MEAN SQUARE F P AB IL ITY 2 1 3 9 . 2 9 4 . 8 3 < . 0 1 PRACTICE 2 1 1 . 0 3 SEX 1 2 4 2 . 2 8 8 . 4 1 <.01 ABxPR 4 19.84 ABxSX 2 8 3 . 8 3 2 . 9 1 > . 0 5 PRxSX 2 6.80 AxPxS 4 47 .65 1 . 6 5 >.05 ERROR ioo 28.80 An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r a r e p e a t e d measures d e s i g n i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n l e a r n i n g on Day 2 be tween t h e h i g h a b i l i t y g roups and t h e a ve rage o f t h e medium and l o w a b i l i t y g r o u p s . A l s o t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t he medium and t h e l o w a b i l i t y g r o u p s . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between a b i l i t y g r oup s and p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e s when t h e mean l e a r n i n g s c o r e s were a n a l y z e d f o r Day 2 . T a b l e XXI shows t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r a r e p e a t e d measures d e s i g n f o r t h e l e a r n i n g s c o r e s on Day 2 . 6 4 TABLE XXI ANALYSIS OF ' VARIANCE FOR CONTRASTS FOR THE LEARNING SCORES ON DAY 2 (Number • o f H i t s ) CONTRAST MEAN SQUARE d f F P HA-(MA-KLA) 1 3 1 0 . 9 9 1 1 3 . 6 6 < . 0 1 MA-LA 9 2 2 . 8 6 1 9 . 6 1 ^ . 0 1 DP-(MP1+MP2) O . 5 8 1 MP1-MP2 1 7 . 22 1 HA-(MA+LA) x DP-(MP1+MP2) 1 .78 1 -HA-(MA+LA) x MP1-MP2 8 8 . 1 8 1 MA-LA x DP-(MP1+MP2) 8 7 . 4 0 1 M - L A x MP1-MP2 0 . 0 5 1 ERROR TERM 9 6 . 0 0 1 0 9 No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f ound i n t h e r a t e o f improvement on Day 2 between p r a c t i c e g r oup s and between a b i l i t y g r o u p s . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s f o r Day 2 . 65 D i s c u s s i o n An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i n i t i a l s c o r e s o f t h e DP, M P 1 , and M P 2 g r o u p s . Because t h e i n i t i a l a b i l i t i e s o f t h e s e t h r e e p r a c t i c e g roups were s t a t i s -t i c a l l y e q u a l i t can be assumed t h a t t h e i n i t i a l s c o r e s wou ld no t d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a f f e c t l a t e r s c o r e s o f t h e t h r e e p r a c t i c e g r o u p s . Time on T a r g e t S c o r e s . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f ound between t h e t h r e e p r a c t i c e g roups f o r t h e a ve r age p e r f o r m -ance s c o r e s on Day 1 . T h i s d i d no t s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t massed p r a c t i c e wou ld i n h i b i t p e r f o r m a n c e . The re may be a number o f e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e e q u a l p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s o f t h e t h r e e p r a c t i c e g r oup s on Day 1 . P a s t i n v e s t i g a t o r s (Adams, 1 9 5 4 j A r c h e r , 1 9 5 4 ; D igman, 1959; S i n g e r , 1 9 6 5 ; S t e l m a c h , 1 9 6 9 ; C a r r o n , 1 9 6 9 ; P o u l i o t , 1 9 7 0 ) have f o u n d t h a t massed p r a c t i c e i n -h i b i t e d p e r f o r m a n c e . A d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s e s t u d i e s and t h e p r e s e n t one was i n t h e use o f t h e w o r k - r e s t r a t i o s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g s c h e d u l e s o f p r a c t i c e . The p r e s e n t s t u d y u t i l i z e d a c o n s t a n t i n t e r t r i a l i n t e r v a l ( 2 0 s econds ) f o r t he DP and M P 1 and M P 2 g r oup s w h i l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g t h e s e t h r e e g r oup s i n t e r m s o f t h e work i n t e r v a l ( 8 0 seconds f o r M P 1 , 40 s econds f o r M P 2 , and 2 0 seconds f o r D P ) . I n t h i s r e s p e c t t h e p r e s e n t method o f d i s t r i b u t i n g p r a c t i c e i s no t comparab le e x a c t l y t o t h e methods u sed by o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s (Adams, 1 9 5 4 ; A r c h e r , 1 9 5 4 ) where t h e work i n t e r v a l was h e l d c o n s t a n t and t h e i n t e r t r i a l i n t e r v a l v a r i e d . T h i s 6 6 d i f f e r e n c e i n methods o f d i s t r i b u t i n g p r a c t i c e may have been t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e massed p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t o i n h i b i t p e r f o r m a n c e . The 2 0 - s e c o n d s r e s t i n t e r v a l s may have r e s u l t e d i n c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f t h e memory t r a c e w h i c h a c c o r d i n g t o Ey senck ( 1 9 6 5 ) o c c u r s d u r i n g r e s t i n p u r s u i t r o t o r p e r f o r m a n c e . I n s p e c t i o n o f F i g u r e s 2 , 3 , and 4 i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s c o r e s were h i g h e r f o r t h e f i r s t 2 0 s econds o f p r a c t i c e i n t h e 4 0 s econds p r a c t i c e i n t e r v a l f o r a l l t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s f r o m t h e t h i r d t r i a l o f p r a c t i c e u n t i l t h e e i g h t h t r i a l on Day 1 i n d i c a t i n g a c l a s s i c a l r e m i n i s c e n c e e f f e c t . The same r e m i n i s c e n c e e f f e c t o c c u r e d f o r a l l Ss unde r t he MP1 p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e a l s o . The f i r s t 2 0 s econds o f p r a c t i c e i n t h e 80 seconds p r a c t i c e i n -t e r v a l s was h i g h e r t h a n t h e f i n a l 2 0 s econds o f e v e r y p r e v i o u s 80 second p r a c t i c e i n t e r v a l . M a r t e n i u k and C a r r o n ( 1 9 7 0 ) a l s o f o u n d t h i s f a c i l i t a t i o n o f immed i a te p o s t r e s t p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h e i r MP g roup ( 4 0 seconds p r a c t i c e , 2 0 seconds r e s t ) . As p r e v i o u s l y s u g g e s t e d , t h e 2 0 second r e s t i n t e r v a l s may have a l l o w e d d e l i t e r e o u s e f f e c t s p i c k e d up f r o m p r e v i o u s p r a c t i c e t o d i s s i p a t e . W e l f o r d ( 1 9 6 8 ) s u g g e s t s t h e s e two e f f e c t s o c c u r d u r i n g s h o r t r e s t i n t e r v a l s i n p u r s u i t r o t o r p e r f o r m a n c e . A n o t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e l a c k o f any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e t h r e e p r a c t i c e g roups i n p e r f o r m a n c e on Day 1 may be t h a t t h e t a s k was t o o e a s y . I f t h i s was t h e c a s e , a m o d u l a t i o n o r an o p e n - l o o p mode o f b e h a v i o r c o u l d have been l e a r n e d by a l l Ss and t h e r e wou ld have been l i t t l e f a t i g u e b u i l d u p a s a r e s u l t o f massed p r a c t i c e . 6 7 A t h i r d e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t he l a c k o f p e r f o r m a n c e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e MP g roups and t h e DP g roup may be due t o d i f f e r e n t l e n g t h s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s e s s i o n s (6 m i n u t e s , 20 seconds f o r MP1 and 7 m i n u t e s , 4 0 s econds f o r MP2 as compared t o 10 m i n u t e s , 20 seconds f o r D P ) . The DP Ss may have become b o r e d w i t h t h e t a s k by t h e end o f Day 1 and t h i s wou ld have i n h i b i t e d t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e . A l t h o u g h t h e t h r e e p r a c t i c e g r oup s had s t a t i s t i c a l l y e q u a l p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e a r t r e n d d i f f e r e n c e between t h e DP and t h e a ve rage o f t h e 2 MP g r o u p s . The DP g roup d i d improve a t a' f a s t e r r a t e on Day 1 t h a t t h e a v e r a g e o f t h e MP g r o u p s . Eecause t h e DP g roup had more r e s t i n t e r v a l s t h a n t h e MP g roup s had t h e r e was more o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o n s o l i d a t i o n and f o r d i s s i p a t i o n o f d e l i t e r e o u s e f f e c t s and t h i s may have been t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e f a s t e r r a t e o f improvement o f t h e DP g r o u p . From t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e a b i l i t y g r oup s on Day 1 i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was a l i n e a r t r e n d d i f f e r e n c e between t h e HA and t h e a ve r a ge o f t h e MAand LA g r o u p s . The a ve r age o f t h e MA and LA g r oup s improved a t a f a s t e r r a t e t h a n t h e HA g r o u p . Adams and R e y n o l d s ( 1 9 5 4 ) f ound a s i m i l a r r e s u l t w i t h d i f f e r e n c e s i n s l o p e o f t he c u r v e s r e l a t e d t o i n i t i a l a b i l i t y . W i t h an i n c r e a s e i n t h e l e v e l o f i n i t i a l a b i l i t y l i n e a r i t y d e c r e a s e d . Pe rhap s t he b e s t e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n l i n e a r t r e n d s i s t h a t t h e HA Ss s t a r t out p e r f o r m i n g w e l l and t h e y do not have as f a r t o go t o r e a c h an a s ympto te as t h e MA and LA Ss who p e r -f o r m a t a much l o w e r l e v e l i n i t i a l l y and have more room f o r i m -6 8 p rovement . A l s o , i f t h e t a s k was t o o easy t h e MA and- LA Ss may have been a b l e t o f o r m a h i g h e r l e v e l o f t e m p o r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n v e r y q u i c k l y and t h u s a c q u i r e t h e s k i l l q u i c k l y . The HA Ss wou ld a l r e a d y have fo rmed such an o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h u s wou ld be p e r f o r m i n g n e a r t h e i r maximum c a p a b i l i t i e s a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s between a b i l i t y g roups and p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e s f o r p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s on Day 1. C o n t r a r y t o what was p r e d i c t e d t h e mean p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s f o r t h e HA, MA, and LA Ss was no t l o w e r under MP s c h e d u l e s t h a n i t was f o r t h e HA, MA, and LA Ss under DP. Thus i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e r e was no f a t i g u e b u i l d u p under t h e MP s c h e d u l e s f o r any o f t h e a b i l i t y g roups o r i f t h e r e was f a t i g u e b u i l d u p unde r t h e MP s c h e d u l e s o f p r a c t i c e t h e n t h e r e was an e q u a l amount o f b u i l d u p unde r t h e DP s c h e d u l e The deve lopment o f a h i e r a r c h i c a l p r o c e s s f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f p u r s u i t r o t o r s k i l l c o u l d t h u s o c c u r a t t h e same r a t e f o r t h e LA Ss unde r MP s c h e d u l e s as i t c o u l d f o r LA Ss under t h e DP s c h e d u l e . As i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e X l l , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e mean t i m e on t a r g e t s c o r e s f o r Day 2 was f ound between t h e t h r e e p r a c t i c e g r oup s and t h e r e was no i n t e r a c t i o n between a b i l i t y and p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e s . Because massed p r a c t i c e d i d . n o t i n h i b i t p e r -f o rmance on.Day 1 t h e f o r m a t i o n o f h i e r a r c h i c a l p r o c e s s e s was no t i m p a i r e d . The LA Ss under a l l t h r e e p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e s were a b l e t o l e a r n e q u a l l y w e l l on Day 2. The r e s u l t s do not s u p p o r t M a r t e n i u k and C a r r o n T s (1970) f i n d i n g s t h a t a f t e r e x tended r e s t 6 9 MP s u b j e c t s d e m o n s t r a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r amounts o f l e a r n -i n g t h a n d i d DP S s . M a r t e n i u k and C a r r o n a l s o f o u n d a s i g n i f i c a n t a b i l i t y l e v e l x p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e i n t e r a c t i o n ' i n w h i c h t h e LA Ss unde r MP l e a r n e d r e l a t i v e l y more t h a n t h e HA Ss unde r MP when compared t o t h e two DP g r o u p s . I n f a c t a t r e n d a n a l y s i s showed t h e o p p o s i t e e f f e c t i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . The re was a l i n e a r t r e n d d i f f e r e n c e between t h e l e a r n i n g r a t e o f MA and LA Ss unde r DP c o n d i t i o n s and t h e l e a r n i n g r a t e o f MAand LA . S s unde r DP c o n d i t i o n s and t h e l e a r n i n g r a t e o f MA and LA Ss unde r t h e a ve r age o f t h e MP c o n d i t i o n s . I t a p p e a r e d t h a t LA Ss unde r DP l e a r n e d a t a f a s t e r r a t e on Day 2 t h a n t h e MA Ss d i d w h i l e t h e MA Ss who were on a MP s c h e d u l e , l e a r n e d a t a f a s t e r r a t e on Day 2 t h a n t h e LA Ss on a MP s c h e d u l e d i d . T h i s e f f e c t m i gh t be due t o a change i n p r a c t i c e c o n d i t o n s on Day 2 . Pe rhap s t h e LA Ss had more d i f f i c u l t y i n a d j u s t i n g t o a DP p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e on Day 2 a f t e r h a v i n g been on a MP p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e on Day 1 . Pe rhap s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y d i d no t show a s i g n i -f i c a n t a b i l i t y l e v e l x p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e i n t e r a c t i o n as i n M a r t e n i u k and C a r r o n * s r e s u l t s because t h e t a s k i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was e a s i e r t h a n M a r t e n i u k and C a r r o n ' s . The t a r g e t a r e a was 28.8/0 l a r g e r t h a n t h e t a r g e t a r e a u sed i n M a r t e n i u k and C a r r o n ' s s t u d y (2x2 cm. squa re compared t o M a r t e n i u k and C a r r o n ' s 1 . 9 0 cm. d i a m e t e r c i r c l e ) . A l s o t h e speed o f M a r t e n i u k and C a r r o n * s t a r g e t was f a s t e r . T h e i r t a r g e t was s e t 3 v i n c h e s f r o m t h e t u r n t a b l e c e n t e r w h i l e t h e t a r g e t f o r t h i s s t u d y was 3 . 1 5 i n c h e s f r o m t h e c e n t e r . T h i s made t h e t a n g e n t i a l v e l o c i t y 3 . 3 4 % 70 s l o w e r t h a n M a r t e n i u k and C a r r o n ' s t a r g e t v e l o c i t y . I t a p p e a r s f r om M a r t e n i u k and C a r r o n ' s s t u d y t h a t ' p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e d i d . i n f l u e n c e t h e deve lopment o f h i e r a r c h i c a l p r o c e s s e s . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , because t h e t a s k was easy p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e s d i d not i n h i b i t p e r f o r m a n c e o r l e a r n i n g . The re was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e r e m i n i s c e n c e between t h e t h r e e p r a c t i c e g r o u p s . Thus f o r t h e p r e s e n t t a s k t h e r e seems t o be no opt imum p r a c t i c e l e n g t h a f t e r w h i c h t h e r e o c c u r s maximum b e n e f i t s f r o m an i n t e r p o l a t e d r e s t . Because t h e r e was r e m i n i s c e n c e f o r a l l t h r e e p r a c t i c e g roups i t may be p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e MP s c h e d u l e s d i d no t a l l o w f o r enough d i s s i p a t i o n o f i n h i b i t o r y e f f e c t s f r o m p r e v i o u s p r a c t i c e w h i l e t h e DP s c h e d u l e d i d no t keep t h e m o t i v a t i o n o f Ss a t an opt imum t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d o f p r a c t i c e as t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s e s s i o n was so l o n g . T h i s a p p e a r s t o c o n t r a d i c t K i m b l e (1949) who t h e o r i z e d t h a t no work decrement i s b u i l t up d u r i n g DP and t h u s no r e m i n i s c e n c e s h o u l d o c c u r . However, i t may no t be a c o n t r a d i c t i o n . The DP c o n d i t i o n , i n t h i s s t u d y m i g h t no t have c o n t r i b u t e d t o a work decrement bu t i t may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o a l a c k o f m o t i v a t i o n . The l a c k o f m o t i v a t i o n may e x p l a i n t h e r e m i n i s c e n c e o f t h e DP g r o u p . The r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e amount o f r e m i n i s c e n c e between a b i l i t y g r o u p s . P o u l i o t (1970) f ound t h a t LA Ss r e m i n i s c e d more t h a n HA S s . P o u l i o t ' s t a s k was a l s o a more d i f f i c u l t one t h a n t h a t used i n t h e 71 p r e s e n t s t u d y . Pe rhaps on a more d i f f i c u l t t a s k t h e r e wou ld be more f a t i g u e b u i l d u p as t he LA Ss a r e no t a b l e t o f o r m an o p e n - l o o p mode o f b e h a v i o r as q u i c k l y as t h e HA Ss and t h u s h e r e wou ld be more r e m i n i s c e n c e f o r t h e LA S s . F o r an e a s i e r t a s k t h e LA Ss wou ld be a b l e t o f o r m a more e f f i c i e n t mode o f b e h a v i o r e a r l i e r i n p e r f o r m a n c e and f a t i g u e b u i l d u p wou ld no t o c c u r as much. T h i s wou ld e x p l a i n t h e absence o f any d i f f e r -ence i n r e m i n i s c e n c e between a b i l i t y g r oup s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . As was h y p o t h e s i z e d , t h e LA Ss unde r t h e t h r e e p r a c t i c e c o n -d i t i o n s .showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n r e m i n i s c e n c e . T h i s was h y p o t h e s i z e d because t h e LA Ss unde r MP s c h e d u l e s v/ere e x -p e c t e d t o l e a r n l e s s s i n c e t h e y used a f o r m o f c l o s e d - l o o p b e h a v i o r and wou ld have c o n s i d e r a b l e f a t i g u e b u i l d u p under MP. The LA Ss unde r DP wou ld no t e x p e r i e n c e s u ch a f a t i g u e b u i l d u p and l e a r n i n g wou ld no t be i n h i b i t e d f o r t h e LA Ss unde r DP. The DP LA Ss were no t e x p e c t e d t o show a r e m i n i s c e n c e e f f e c t . However, a l l LA Ss unde r each o f t h e p r a c t i c e c o n d i t i o n s showed a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same amount o f r e m i n i s c e n c e and t h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e was some f a t i g u e b u i l d u p f o r t h e Ss under a l l o f t h e p r a c t i c e c o n d i t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e HA Ss under each o f t h e t h r e e p r a c t i c e c o n d i t i o n s and t h e MA Ss unde r each o f t h e t h r e e p r a c t i c e c o n d i t i o n s had a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same amount o f r e m i n i s -c e n c e . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e HA and MA Ss unde r t h e MP c o n -72 d i t i o n s wou ld show more r e m i n i s c e n c e t h a n t h e HA and MA Ss unde r DP. Thus p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e s had no d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s on t h e amount o f r e m i n i s c e n c e o f d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t y g r o u p s . M a r t e n i u k and C a r r o n , however, f o u n d t h a t p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e s d i d have d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s on t h e amount o f r e m i n i s c e n c e o f LA S s . T h e i r LA MP Ss r e m i n i s c e d more t h a n t h e LA DP Ss d i d . I t seems t h a t t h e i r DP s c h e d u l e cau sed f a t i g u e b u i l d u p i n Ss u s i n g a c l o s e d - l o o p t y p e o f b e h a v i o r and a f f e c t e d t h e amount t h e y were a b l e t o l e a r n . : Hepe a g a i n , t he f a i l u r e o f p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e s t o have a d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t on t h e r e m i n i s c e n c e o f t h e LA Ss i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y may. have been due t o t h e e a s i e r t a s k . Number o f H i t s , The l o w c o r r e l a t i o n between t i m e on t a r g e t s c o r e s and number o f h i t s seemed t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e two s c o r e s were m e a s u r i n g two d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f p e r f o r m a n c e and l e a r n i n g on t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r . The re was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e number o f h i t s between a b i l i t y g r oup s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f p r a c t i c e on Day 1 and a g a i n a t t h e end o f Day 2 . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e number o f h i t s c o u l d be a c c o u n t e d f o r by Ammons 1 (1951) d e s c r i p t i o n o f how p u r s u i t r o t o r s k i l l i s a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h t e m p o r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The HA Ss s t a r t e d i n i t i a l l y w i t h a h i g h number o f h i t s and t h e number d e c r e a s e d r a p i d l y w i t h p r a c t i c e . They l e a r n e d t o make l o n g e r movements w i t h o u t d i r e c t v o l u n t a r y c o n t r o l . I t seems t h a t t h e y advanced f r o m an o p e n - l o o p mode o f b e h a v i o r t o a m o d u l a t i o n - m o d e o f b e h a v i o r . The LA Ss i n i t i a l l y s t a r t e d out 73 h i t t i n g t h e t a r g e t o n l y a f ew t i m e s and t h e number o f h i t s i n -c r e a s e d r a p i d l y on Day 1. (There v/as a s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e a r t r e n d d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e number o f h i t s between t h e MAand LA g r oup s on Day 1 ) . E a r l y i n p r a c t i c e t h e LA Ss appea red t o be u s i n g a c l o s e d - l o o p mode o f b e h a v i o r i n w h i c h f e e d b a c k f r o m t h e r e s p o n s e o f mov ing o f f t h e t a r g e t appea red t o be u t i l i z e d i n t h e t i m i n g o f t h e c o r r e c t i v e movement back on to t h e t a r g e t . On Day 2 t h e number o f h i t s d e c r e a s e d f o r t h e LA Ss b u t t h e y s t i l l had a s i g -n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r number o f h i t s t h a n d i d t h e HA S s . T h i s s u g -g e s t s t h a t t h e LA Ss may have begun t o r e s p o n d i n a manner s i m i l a r t o o p e n - l o o p b e h a v i o r . They l e a r n e d t o c o r r e c t e r r o r s i n a s h o r t e r t i m e as t h e y became more s e n s i t i v e t o more cues and l e a r n e d more e f f i c i e n t c o r r e c t i v e movements, Ammons ( 1951 ) , when m e a s u r i n g number o f h i t s , f o u n d t h a t h i s Ss i n c r e a s e d i n mean number o f h i t s t h r o u g h o u t p r a c t i c e and t h e n r e a c h e d a p l a t e a u . He s u g ge s t ed t h a t i f t h e y had c o n t i n u e d t o p r a c t i c e t h e i r number o f h i t s wou ld have begun t o d e c r e a s e . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t h e HA and MA S s ' number o f h i t s d e c r e a s e d t h r o u g h o u t p r a c t i c e . ' T h i s d e c r e a s e p r o b a b l y o c c u r r e d because t h e t a s k v/as e a s i e r t h a n Ammons 1 and t h e HA and MA Ss were comparab le i n i t i a l l y t o Ammons* Ss who had r e a c h e d a p l a t e a u a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e p r a c t i c e . P r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e s had no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e mean number o f h i t s on Day 1 o r Day 2. Ammons d i d f i n d a d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r f o r m a n c e between MP and DP g r oup s when m e a s u r i n g p e r f o r m a n c e 74 w i t h number o f h i t s . The mean number o f h i t s f o r t h e DP g roup r o s e s h a r p l y t o a p l a t e a u w h i l e t he mean number o f h i t s f o r t h e MP g roup r o s e s l o w l y t h r o u g h o u t p r a c t i c e . Amnions u sed a t r a d i -t i o n a l w o r k - r e s t r a t i o i n w h i c h t h e r e s t i n t e r v a l was v a r i e d and so t h e method o f d i s t r i b u t i n g p r a c t i c e i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s n o t e x a c t l y comparab le t o Ammons* i n v e s t i g a t i o n . As was t h e case w i t h t i m e on t a r g e t s c o r e s , t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n methods o f d i s t r i b u t i n g p r a c t i c e may have been t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e f a i l u r e o f massed p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e s t o i n h i b i t p e r f o r m a n c e . A l s o , i f t h e t a s k i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y had been as d i f f i c u l t a s t h e t a s k i n Ammons' s t u d y t h e r e may have been e v i d e n c e f o r an optimum p r a c t i c e l e n g t h a f t e r w h i c h t h e r e o c c u r s maximum b e n e f i t s f r o m i n t e r p o l a t e d r e s t . I n a d d i t i o n t o no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e s o r a b i l i t y g r o u p s , t h e r e was no i n t e r a c t i o n between a b i l i t y g r oup s and p r a c t i c e s c h e d u l e s on Day 1 o r Day 2 f o r t h e mean' number o f h i t s . LA Ss were e q u a l i n t h e deve lopment o f a h i e r a r c h i c a l p r o c e s s under b o t h MP and DP c o n d i t i o n s , as were t h e MA and HA Ss under t h e t h r e e p r a c t i c e c o n d i t i o n s . ; Because t h e t a s k was easy t h i s may have c o u n t e r a c t e d t h e i n h i b i t o r y e f f e c t MP s c h e d u l e s were supposed t o have on t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a l l t h r e e a b i l i t y g roups on Day 1 and on t h e a c t u a l deve lopment o f a h i e r a r c h i c a l p r o c e s s f o r t h e LA g r oup s and t h u s t h e i r a b i l i t y t o l e a r n t o c o n t a c t t h e t a r g e t on Day 2 . Sex D i f f e r e n c e s . The re was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e o f 75 t ime on t a r g e t s c o r e s between sexe s i n i t i a l l y . The a ve r a ge i n i t i a l s c o r e f o r t h e men was 8.25 s econds and 5.91 s econds f o r t h e women. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e o f t i m e on t a r -ge t s c o r e s between t h e sexes a f t e r t h e 24-hour i n t e r p o l a t e d r e s t . The women d i d r e m i n i s c e more t h a n t h e men d i d bu t t h e d i f f e r e n c e was no t s i g n i f i c a n t . T h i s i s c o n t r a r y t o t h e f i n d i n g s o f Ammons (1955). He f ound t h a t p r e r e s t c u r v e s r o s e more s h a r p l y f o r boys t h a n f o r g i r l s and t h a t t h e o v e r a l l amount o f r e m i n i s c e n c e v/as g r e a t e r f o r t h e boys t h a n f o r t h e g i r l s . He a l s o f o u n d t h a t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age o f t h e g i r l s up t o g r ade n i n e t h e p e r f o r m a n c e l e v e l i n c r e a s e d b u t a f t e r g rade n i n e i t d e c r e a s e d . The boy s were a l w a y s s u p e r i o r t o t h e g i r l s b u t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n c r e a s e d f r o m g r a d e s n i n e t o t w e l v e and was g r e a t e s t d u r i n g p o s t - r e s t p r a c t i c e . He s u g ge s t ed t h a t t h e l e s s e r p r o f i c i e n c y o f t h e g i r l s may be due t o t h e i r h a v i n g l e a r n e d f e w e r s k i l l s o r t h e s e s k i l l s were l e s s w e l l l e a r n e d . He a l s o s u g ge s t ed t h a t t h e d rop i n p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e g i r l s f r o m g r a d e s n i n e t o t w e l v e i s o b s e r v e d i n o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s and may be due t o d e c r e a s e d m o t i v a t i o n . Because t h e Ss i n t h i s s t u d y were o l d e r t h a n t h e Ss i n Ammons 1 s t u d y ( a v e r a g e , 26 y e a r s f o r t h e women i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y ) i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e y d i d no t l a c k m o t i v a t i o n bu t t h e y may no t have p e r f o r m e d as w e l l a s t h e men i n i t i a l l y because t h e y had l e a r n e d f e w e r s k i l l s as Ammons s u g g e s t e d . I f t h i s i s t r u e t h e n t h e i r h i g h e r r e m i n i s c e n c e may be e x p l a i n e d as b e i n g due t o c o n s o l i d a t i o n as s u g ge s t ed by Ey senck (1955). He t h e o r i z e d t h a t 76 g r e a t e r r e m i n i s c e n c e i s due t o c o n s o l i d a t i o n w h i c h i s a n e u r a l f i x a t i o n p r o c e s s assumed t o c o n t i n u e a f t e r t h e l e a r n e r i s no l o n g e r c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e s e t o f s t i m u l i w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e t h e l e a r n i n g t a s k , r a t h e r t h a n d i s s i p a t i o n o f r e a c t i v e i n h i b i t i o n i n an u n l e a r n e d t a s k . Bux t on and G ran t (1939) f ound t h a t women g a i n e d p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more f r o m t h e i r l o w e r s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n and t h e y a l s o g a i n e d p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more d u r i n g r e s t t h a n t h e men d i d . However, c o n t r a r y t o t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e men exceeded t h e women i n i n i t i a l and f i n a l l e v e l o f p e r f o r m a n c e o f p u r s u i t s k i l l . The re v/as a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n number o f h i t s between t h e s exe s i n i t i a l l y and a g a i n a t t h e end o f Day 2. T h i s i n d i c a t e s a d i f f e r e n c e i n t e m p o r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n between t h e men and t h e women. I n i t i a l l y , t h e women had an a v e r a g e o f 23.9 h i t s w h i c h t h e men a v e r a g e d 26.5 h i t s and a t t h e end o f Day 2 t h e women had i n c r e a s e d t h e i r number o f h i t s t o an a ve r a ge o f 25.3 h i t s w h i l e t h e a ve r age f o r t h e men d e c r e a s e d t o an a ve r a ge o f 22.2 h i t s . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e women were u s i n g a c l o s e d - l o o p mode o f b e h a v i o r t o h i t t h e t a r g e t i n i t i a l l y and by t h e end o f p r a c t i c e t h e y had l e a r n e d t o r e s p o n d i n a manner s i m i l a r t o open l o o p . The men, on t h e o t h e r hand, may have u sed an o p e n - l o o p mode o f b e h a v i o r e a r l y i n p r a c t i c e and a m o d u l a t i o n mode o f b e h a v i o r a t t h e end o f p r a c t i c e as t h e y were h i t t i n g t h e t a r g e t l e s s o f t e n by t h e end o f p r a c t i c e . The re was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between a b i l i t y g r oup s 77. and sex f o r r e m i n i s c e n c e and FS1 w h i c h i n d i c a t e s a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e s exe s o f d i f f e r e n t a b i l i t y g r oup s t o l e a r n t o c o n t a c t t h e t a r g e t . The women i n t h e MA g roup had l e s s o f an i n c r e a s e i n number o f h i t s a f t e r r e s t t h a n t h e MA men had and t h e y had f e w e r number o f h i t s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f Day 2 t h a n t h e MA men. A t . the end o f Day 2 t h e MA women had a g r e a t e r num-b e r o f h i t s ( 2 5 . 2 ) t h a n t h e MA men ( 2 3 . 1 ) . The i n t e r a c t i o n s o f a b i l i t y and sex f o r r e m i n i s c e n c e and FS1 and i n s p e c t i o n o f F i g u r e s 5 and 6 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e MA women l e a r n e d t o use an o p e n - l o o p mode o f b e h a v i o r a t a s l o w e r r a t e on Day 1 - t h a n t h e LA and HA f e m a l e s w h i l e t h e men l e a r n e d t o use a m o d u l a t i o n mode o f b e h a v i o r a t a s l o w e r r a t e t h a n t h e HAmen. The number o f h i t s were a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same f o r FS1 f o r t h e MA and LA men. F i g u r e 5 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e LA men were p r o b a b l y a t t h e same l e v e l o f deve lopment o f a h i e r a r c h i c a l p r o c e s s as t h e MA men a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f Day 2 b e c a u s e ' t h e y r e m i n i s c e d more . Thus t h e t e m p o r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r l e a r n i n g t o c o n t a c t t h e t a r g e t appea r s t o be d i f f e r e n t f o r men and women. F u r t h e r -more, men and women o f MA a c q u i r e such t e m p o r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a t a d i f f e r e n t t i m e d u r i n g p r a c t i c e t h a n men and women o f LA and HA. CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The pu rpo se o f t h i s s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r s c h e d u l e s o f p r a c t i c e (v/ith t h r e e d i f f e r e n t work i n t e r v a l s ) d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a f f e c t l o w , medium and h i g h a b i l i t y Ss i n r e -l a t i o n t o pe r f o rmance and l e a r n i n g on t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r t a s k . One hundred and e i g h t e e n ' v o l u n t e e r u n i v e r s i t y summer s c h o o l s t u d e n t s were u sed as S s . A l l Ss were g i v e n an i n i t i a l two t r i a l s on the p u r s u i t r o t o r under a d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e . The f i f t y e i g h t men were t h e n r ank o r d e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e i n i t i a l t i m e on t a r g e t s c o r e s and t h e n s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a s s i g n e d t o one o f t h e t h r e e p r a c t i c e c o n d i t i o n s . The s i x t y women were a l s o r ank o r d e r e d and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a s s i g n e d t o one o f t h e t h r e e g r o u p s . On Day 1 t h e d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e g roup (DP) r e c e i v e d s i x t e e n - t w e n t y second t r i a l s w i t h t w e n t y second r e s t p e r i o d s i n t e r p o l a t e d , t h e massed p r a c t i c e 1 (MP1) g roup r e c e i v e d f o u r -e i g h t y second t r i a l s w i t h t w e n t y second r e s t p e r i o d s , and t h e massed p r a c t i c e 2 (MP2) g roup r e c e i v e d e i g h t - f o r t y second t r i a l s w i t h t w e n t y second r e s t p e r i o d s . On Day 2, f o l l o w i n g a t w e n t y -f o u r hour r e s t p e r i o d , a l l Ss r e c e i v e d f i f t e e n - t w e n t y second t r i a l s w i t h t w e n t y second r e s t p e r i o d s . The i n i t i a l s c o r e (mean o f t h e f i r s t two t r i a l s ) , p e r f o r -mancesco re (mean o f t h e l a s t two t r i a l s on Day 1 ) , f i n a l s c o r e 1 (mean o f t h e f i r s t two t r i a l s on Day 2 ) , f i n a l s c o r e 2 (mean o f t h e l a s t two t r i a l s on Day 2 ) , and r e m i n i s c e n c e s c o r e ( the d i f f e r e n c e between f i n a l s c o r e 1 and p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e ) were e xam ined . 79 The r e s u l t s were as f o l l o w s : P r a c t i c e G roup s . Time on T a r g e t S c o r e s 1. Massed p r a c t i c e d i d no t have an i n h i b i t i n g e f f e c t on Day 1 p e r f o r m a n c e . The DP, MP1, and MP2 g r oup s p e r f o r m e d e q u a l l y w e l l . 2 . The r e m i n i s c e n c e s c o r e s f o r t h e DP, MP1, and MP2 g r oup s were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m one a n o t h e r . 3. The re was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e DP and t h e mean o f t h e MP g roup s o r between t h e MP1 and MP2 g r oup s f o r t h e mean s c o r e s on Day 1. 4 . The re was a s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e a r t r e n d d i f f e r e n c e be tween t h e DP and t h e a ve r a ge o f t h e MP g roups on Day 1. 5. The re was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e t h r e e p r a c t i c e g r oup s f o r F S l and FS2. 6. The re v/as no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between p r a c t i c e g r oup s f o r t h e mean o f t h e s c o r e s on Day 2 . 7. The re were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s be tween t h e t h r e e p r a c -t i c e g r oup s i n r e g a r d t o t r e n d s on Day 2 . Number o f H i t s 1. The re were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s be tween p r a c t i c e g r oup s f o r t h e PS, F S l , FS2, r e m i n i s c e n c e . 2 . The re were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e p r a c t i c e f o r t h e mean s c o r e s on Day 1 and on Day 2 . 3. The re v/ere no s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e p r a c -t i c e g r oup s on Day 1 and on Day 2 . 80 A b i l i t y G roup s . Time on T a r g e t S c o r e s 1. The re was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e HA, MA, and LA g r oup s f o r t h e PS, F S l and F S2 . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r r e m i n i s c e n c e . 2 . The re was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e HA and t h e ave rage o f t h e MA and LA g r oup s and between t h e MA and LA g r oup s f o r t h e mean t i m e on t a r g e t s c o r e s on Day 1 and on Day 2 . 3 . The re was a s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e a r and q u a d r a t i c t r e n d d i f f e r e n c e between t h e HA and t h e a ve r a ge o f t h e MA and LA g r oup s on Day 1. The re were no s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d d i f f e r e n c e s between a b i l i t y g roups on Day 2 . Number o f H i t s 1. The re xvas no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e be tween HA, MA and LA g r oup s f o r PS, F S l , and r e m i n i s c e n c e . The re was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r IS and FS2.. 2. The re were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s be tween t h e a b i l i t y g r oup s f o r t h e mean o f t h e number o f h i t s on Day 1 . There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e be tween t h e HA and t h e a ve r a ge o f t h e MA and LAg roups and between t h e MA and LA g r oup s f o r t h e mean number o f h i t s on Day 2 . 3 . On Day 1 a q u a d r a t i c change i n p e r f o r m a n c e was d i f f e r e n t f o r t h e HA t h a n i t was f o r t h e a ve rage o f t h e MA and LA g r o u p s . There was a l i n e a r and q u a d r a t i c t r e n d d i f f e r e n c e between t h e MA and LA g r oup s on Day 1. The re were no s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d d i f f e r e n c e s be tween t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r oup s on Day 2 . 81 Sex . Time on T a r g e t S c o r e s 1. The re was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e s exe s f o r t h e IS and PS bu t no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r r e m i n i s c e n c e , FS1 and F S2 . Number o f H i t s 1. The re was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e be tween t h e sexe s f o r t h e IS and F S2 . There was no d i f f e r e n c e f o r t h e PS, r e m i n i s c e n c e o r F S 1 . I n t e r a c t i o n s . Time on T a r g e t S c o r e s 1. The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t was a l i n e a r t r e n d d i f f e r e n c e be tween t h e MA. and LA g r oup s unde r t h e DP c o n d i t i o n and t h e MAand LA g r oup s under t h e a ve r age o f t h e MP c o n d i t i o n s on Day 2 . Number o f H i t s 1. The re was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r a b i l i t y x sex f o r r e m i n i s c e n c e and F S 1 . 2 . The re was a s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e a r t r e n d d i f f e r e n c e between t h e MA and LA g r o u p s unde r DP and t h e MA and LA g r oup s unde r t h e a ve r a ge o f t h e MP c o n d i t i o n s on Day 1 . C o r r e l a t i o n between TOT and Number o f H i t s . A l o w c o r r e l a t i o n was f o u n d f o r t h e IS, PS, F S1 , FS2 and r e m i n i s c e n c e . From t h e s e r e s u l t s and w i t h i n t h e l i m i t a t i o n s and d e -l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s can be made: 82 1. D i f f e r e n t p r a c t i c e c o n d i t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e work i n t e r v a l s a r e v a r i e d and t h e r e s t i n t e r v a l s a r e k e p t c o n s t a n t do no t d i f f e r e n -t i a l l y a f f e c t p e r f o r m a n c e and l e a r n i n g o f Ss w i t h d i f f e r e n t i n i t i a l a b i l i t y l e v e l s on t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r . 2 . Ss unde r DP improve i n p e r f o r m a n c e a t a f a s t e r r a t e t h a n Ss unde r t h e a v e r a g e o f two MP c o n d i t i o n s on Bay 1. 3 . H i g h a b i l i t y Ss improve a t a d i f f e r e n t r a t e and r e a c h a peak i n t i m e on t a r g e t p e r f o r m a n c e a t a d i f f e r e n t t i m e t h a n MA and LA Ss on Day 1. 4 . MA and LA Ss under DP h i t t h e t a r g e t a t d i f f e r e n t r a t e s f r o m each o t h e r t h a n t h e MA and LA Ss unde r MP d u r i n g Day 1 p r a c t i c e . f>. The HA Ss r e a c h a peak i n t h e number o f h i t s a t a d i f f e r e n t t i m e t h a n MA and LA Ss do d u r i n g Day 1 p e r f o r m a n c e . A l s o , t h e l i n e a r t r e n d i n t h e number o f h i t s d i f f e r s f o r MA and LA Ss d u r i n g Day 1 p r a c t i c e . 6. Ss unde r p r a c t i c e c o n d i t i o n s w i t h c o n s t a n t r e s t i n t e r v a l s but v a r i e d work i n t e r v a l s r e m i n i s e t h e same amount a f t e r a . 2 4 - h o u r i n t e r p o l a t e d r e s t . 7. JMA and LA Ss who had been unde r a DP p r i o r t o r e s t imp rove i n t h e i r t i m e on t a r g e t s c o r e s a t d i f f e r e n t r a t e s f r o m each o t h e r d u r i n g Day 2 p r a c t i c e t h a n t h e MA and LA Ss do who were u n d e r MP p r i o r t o r e s t . 5. D i f f e r e n t a b i l i t y g r oup s do no t r e a c h t h e same l e v e l o f p e r f o r m a n c e f o r b o t h TOT s c o r e s and number o f h i t s a f t e r 10 m i n u t e s and 20 seconds o f p r a c t i c e on t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r . 83 9. Men have b e t t e r a ve r age TOT s c o r e s t h a n women i n i t i a l l y and men have a h i g h e r a ve rage number o f h i t s i n i t i a l l y t h a n women. The d i f f e r e n c e between men and women f o r TOT and number o f h i t s d i s s i p a t e s a f t e r a 24-hour i n t e r p o l a t e d r e s t . At t h e end o f p r a c t i c e on Day 2 men have a l o w e r a ve r a ge number o f h i t s t h a n t h e women. 10 . MA women h i t t h e t a r g e t l e s s o f t e n a f t e r a r e s t t h a n MA men do w h i l e HA and LA men h i t t h e t a r g e t l e s s o f t e n t h a n HA and LA women a f t e r a r e s t p e r i o d . 11. Time on t a r g e t s c o r e s and number o f h i t s a r e m e a s u r i n g two d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f l e a r n i n g and p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r . Recommendat ions 1. T h i s s t u d y c o u l d be r e p e a t e d u s i n g a more d i f f i c u l t t a s k s i m i l a r t o Ammons 1 (1951) because massed p r a c t i c e d i d not i n h i b i t p e r f o r m a n c e . 2. F u r t h e r s t u d i e s u s i n g t h e p u r s u i t r o t o r c o u l d u t i l i z e an a p p a r a t u s w h i c h p r o v i d e s a means o f c o n t i n u o u s l y o b t a i n i n g t h e magn i t ude o f e r r o r a s d e s c r i b e d by B a h r i c k (1957) r a t h e r t h a n r e l y i n g on TOT s c o r e s and number o f h i t s w h i c h a r e ba sed on an a l l - o r - n o n e c r i t e r i o n . REFERENCES Adams, J . A . "A Sou r ce o f Decrement i n P s ychomoto r P e r f o r m a n c e " , J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 4 9 : 3 9 0 - 3 9 4 , 1 9 5 5 . Adams, J . A . and R e y n o l d s , B r a d l e y , " R o t a r y P u r s u i t Pe r f o rmance as a F u n c t i o n o f I n i t i a l L e v e l . o f A b i l i t y " , The A m e r i c a n  P s y c h o l o g i s t , 7 : 2 6 1 , 1 9 5 2 . Adams, J . A . and R e y n o l d s , B. " E f f e c t o f S h i f t i n D i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r a c t i c e C o n d i t i o n s F o l l o w i n g I n t e r p o l a t e d R e s t " , J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 4 7 : 3 2 - 3 6 , 1 9 5 4 . Ammons, R o b e r t B. " A q u i s i t i o n o f Mo to r S k i l l : 1 . Q u a n t a t i v e A n a l y s i s and T h e o r e t i c a l F o r m u l a t i o n " , P s y c h o l o g i c a l  Rev i ew, 5 4 : 2 6 3 - 2 7 1 , 1 9 4 7 . Ammons, R.B., " A c q u i s i t i o n o f a Mo to r S k i l l : 1 1 . 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Humphr ie s , M. and M c l n t y r e , J . , "An A t t empt t o F i n d a Locus o f Temporary Work Decrement i n P u r s u i t R o t o r P e r f o r m a n c e " , P e r c e p t u a l and Moto r S k i l l s , 17:397-398, 1 9 6 3 . I r i o n , A . L . , and F u s t a f s o n , L .M. , ' ^ R e m i n i s c e n c e * i n B i l a t e r a l T r a n s f e r " , J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 43321-323, 1952. K i m b l e , G.A. , "An E x p e r i m e n t a l T e s t o f a T w o - F a c t o r Theo r y o f I n h i b i t i o n " , J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y , 39:15-23 1949. L a s h l e y , K.S. , "The P rob l em o f S e r i a l O rder i n B e h a v i o r . " I n M .L .A . J e f f r i e s ( E d . ) , C e r e b r a l Mechanism i n B e h a v i o r , New Y o r k : J . W i l e y and Sons, 1951. M a r t e n i u k , R.G. and C a r r o n , A . V . , " E f f i c i e n c y o f L e a r n i n g as a F u n c t i i n o f P r a c t i c e S c h e d u l e and I n i t i a l A b i l i t y " , J o u r n a l  o f Mo to r B e h a v i o r , 2(2):140-148, 1970. M i l l e r , G.A. , G a l a n t e r , E. and P r i b r a m , K . , P l a n s and t h e S t r u c t u r e  o f B e h a v i o r , New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , I960. Pew, R i c h a r d , " A c q u i s i t i o n o f H i e r a r c h i c a l C o n t r o l Over t h e Tempora l O r g a n i z a t i o n o f a S k i l l " , J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 7 1 ( 5 ) : 7 6 4 - 7 7 1 , 1 9 6 6 . P o u l i o t , J a c q u e s , "The E f f e c t s o f Massed and D i s t r i b u t e d P r a c t i c e Upon Mo to r Pe r f o rmance and L e a r n i n g i n Groups o f D i f f e r e n t I n i t i a l A b i l i t y " , U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 0 . S i n g e r , R o b e r t , Moto r L e a r n i n g and Human P e r f o r m a n c e : An  A p p l i c a t i o n t o P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n S k i l l s . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1968. S t e l m a c h , George, " E f f i c i e n c y o f Moto r L e a r n i n g as a F u n c t i o n o f I n t e r t r i a l R e s t " , R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 4 0 ( 1 ) : 1 9 8 2 0 2 , 1 9 6 9 . V/e l f o r d , A . T . , Fundamenta l s o f S k i l l , T o r o n t o : Methuen and Co . , 1 9 6 8 . Woodworth, R.S., Dynamics o f B e h a v i o r , New Y o r k : Henry H o l t , 1 9 5 8 . APPENDIX The f o l l o w i n g d a t a r e p r e s e n t t h e mean t i m e on t a r g e t i n seconds f o r each t r i a l f o r t h e h i g h a b i l i t y Ss unde r DP, under MP1, and unde r MP2., f o r t h e medium a b i l i t y Ss unde r DP, unde r MP1, unde r MP2; f o r t h e l o w a b i l i t y Ss unde r DP, unde r MP1, unde r MP2. F o l l o w i n g t h e mean t i m e on t a r g e t i n seconds i s t h e d a t a r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e mean number o f h i t s f o r each t r i a l f o r t h e same g r oup s as above and p r e s e n t e d i n t h e same o r d e r as a b o v e . F C P N A T C A R C S HIGH AB IL ITY DP ( 1 7 F 4 . 2)  14 CBSERV/ST ICNS 12 D E G R E E S CF F R F E D C M N *NE N F A N S . C . NAME MEAN S . O . NAPE NE AN S . C . VAR 1 9 . 0 6 0 1.7 57 VAR 12 1 2 . 62 2 . 7 7 6 V AR23 1 4 . 4 0 2 . 7 4 5 VAR2 10 .97 1 . 5 0 8 VAR 13 1 2 . 0 8 2 . 8 0 5 VAR 24 1 4 . 6 3 1 . 7 3 6 V A P 3 9. 7 6 5 2 . 5 7 4 V A R 1 4 1 2 . 1 3 2 . 5 3 5 V A R 2 5 1 4 . 5 1 2 . 4 1 7 V A R 4 1 0 . 7 0 2 . C 2 2 VAR 15 1 2 . 0 7 3 . 4 2 8 V A P 2 6 15 .21 2 . 3 4 4 V A P 5 11 . 0 7 2 . 2 4 3 VAR 16 1 2 . 2 2 2 . 8 0 3 V A R 2 7 1 5 . 2 2 1 . 9 8 6 VAP 6 1 1 . 6 ? 2 . 2 7 6 V A R 17 11 . 8 3 2 . 6 4 3 V AR 2 8 1 5 . 0 9 2 . 1 9 8 V A P 7 1 1 . 2 3 2 . 2 1 1 VAR .18 1 2 . fi8 2 . 6 3 C V A R 2 9 1 4 . 4 6 2 . 8 0 2 \l PP 11 . 2 4 2 . 7 5 5 VAR 19 1 4 . 2 2 2 . 4 2 5 VAR 30 1 4 . 92 2 . 3 3 5 V A R 9 1 2 . 14 2 . 7 2 9 V A P 2 0 1 3 . 5 8 . . 2 . 4 9 2 V AP 3 1 1 4 . 5 7 2 . 2 7 7 V A P I O 1 2 . 2 3 2 . 5 2 ? VAR 2 1 1 4 . IC 2. 6 6 6 V A R 3 2 14.98 2 . 2 3 1 V A R l l 1 1 . 8 8 3 . 0 9 7 V A R 2 2 1 4 . 8 0 1 . 7 7 2 VAP 3 3 1 4 . 59 2 . 5 5 0 HIGH AB IL ITY MP1"-FCPM AT c/mcs ( 1 7 F 4 . 2 / 1 6 F 4 . 2 ) 16 O B S E R V A T I O N 15 C E G R E E S C F FREEDOM N AN* F MEAN S . D . NAME NE AN S .0. NAME MEAN S . O . VAP1 9 . 1 0 6 1 . 6 3 2 V A P 1 2 1 2 . 0 7 2 . 9 G 6 VAR 2 3 ' 1 5 . 53 1 . 4 6 6 VAR ? 1 1. C l 1 . 6 1 2 VAR 13 1 1 . 5 5 2 . 7 4 1 V A R 2 4 1 4 . 8 3 1 . 6 6 C V A F 3 1 0 . 3 9 2 . 2 7 2 VAR 14 1 2 . C9 2 . 4 9 4 V A R 2 5 15.02 2 . 0 8 5 VARA 10.98 3 . 2 4 2 VAP 15 12 . 5 6 2 . 2 4 3 VAR 2 6 14. 8 4 2 . 7 5 5 V A R 5 1 1 . C l 2 . £ 3 6 V A P 1 6 1 1 . 7 1 2 . 4 8 8 V AR 27 14.29 2 . 5 8 9 V A R 6 1 1 . 7 9 3 . 4 5 7 VAR 17 1 1 . 2 9 2 . 9 4 6 V A R 2 8 1 5 . 0 0 2 . 3 9 7 VAR7 1 2 . 2 4 2 . 3 5 4 V £ i:). 8 1 1 . 1 3 2 . 7 6 5 VAR 29 15.04 1. 6 5 2 VARB 1 2 . 5 3 2 . 9 C 3 VAR 19 13.62 2 . 0 0 1 • V AR30 1 4 .b9 2 . 3 3 0 V A R ° 1 2 . 1 5 2 . 9 0 4 VAR 20 1 3 . 9 1 1 . 7 7 5 V A R 31 1 4 . 9 0 2 . 3 5 0 V A P IC \ 1.85 2. 9 6 2 VAR21 14 . 6 3 2 . 3 0 9 V A R 3 2 1 4 . 5 5 2 . 8 3 1 V A C 1 1 12 .27 2 . 1 6 C VAR 7.7 1 5 . IC 1 . 9 * 0 V A R 3 3 1 4 . 5 8 2 . 2 5 8 ( 1 7 F 4 . 2 / 1 6 F 4 . 2 ) HIGH AB IL ITY M P 2 1 5 C P S F R V A T I C N S 1 4 C E G R E F S C F F R E E O C M N A V E A N S . C . N A V E M E A N S . D . N A M E M E A N S . D . V A F 1 8 . 7 4 1 1 . 9 4 6 V A R 1 2 1 1 . 4 5 2 . 8 4 5 V A R 2 3 1 5 . 0 6 1 . 7 7 3 V A R 2 1 1 .32 C . 9 & 5 7 V A R 1 3 1 2 . 4 9 2 . 3 6 2 V A R 2 4 1 4 . 7 2 2 . 1 5 8 V A R ? 1 G . 6 1 2 . 6 8 1 V A R 1 4 1 0 . 9 1 2 . 3 4 9 V A R 2 5 1 4 . 9 1 2 . 2 6 1 V A R A 1 0 . 1 8 2 . 4 8 9 V A P . 1 5 1 1 . 7 C 3 . 0 0 1 V A R 2 6 1 4 . 8 5 1 . 9 1 1 V A P 5 1 1 . 6 9 ? . 7 5 9 V A P 1 6 1 1 . 3 3 2 . 9 6 0 V A P 2 7 1 4 . 6 6 2 . 1 3 3 V A R 6 1 C . 9 3 2 . 3 7 3 V A R 1 7 1 1 . 5 1 2 . 9 6 0 V A R 2 8 1 5 . 1 9 2 . C 4 4 V A R 7 1 2 . 0 5 2 . 5 2 9 V AR 1 8 1 1 . 4 2 3 . 9 3 3 V A R 2 9 1 5 . 0 1 1 . 9 9 9 V A R 8 1 1 . 8 5 2 . 5 * 0 V A R 1 9 1 3 . 3 2 1 . 8 0 7 V A R 3 0 1 5 . 3 4 " 2 . 4 1 8 V A R 9 1 2 . 2 7 2 . 3 6 7 V A R 2 0 1 3 . 9 2 1 . 8 7 8 - V A R 3 1 1 4 . 9 5 2 . 2 2 2 V A R I O 1 1 . 5 4 2 . 4 1 5 V A R 2 1 1 4 . 1 8 2 . 5 3 8 V A R 3 2 1 5 . 5 7 1 . 6 0 1 V A R 1 1 1 1 . 7 3 2 . 7 C 0 V A R 2 2 1 4 . 8 2 1 . 6 7 3 V A R 3 3 1 5 . 1 4 2 . C 1 7 FCFf A T C / ! R C S MEDIUM AB IL ITY DP ( 1 7 P 4 . 2 / 1 6 F 4 . 2 ) 1 2 C B S E R V A T I C N S 1 1 D F G R F E S C F F R F F C C M  N AV F MEAN S . 0 . NAME MEAN S . D . NAME VE AN S . C . VAR 1 5 . F 9 0 1 . 5 2 2 VAR 1 2 11 . 7 3 1 . 9 6 1 V AR 2 3 1 3 . 19 3 . 196 V A R 2 B . 7 5 5 1 . 6 2 9 VAR 12 1 1 . 4 7 ' 3 . 11 5 V A R 2 4 1 3 . 2 9 2 . 7 2 8 VAP 3 c . 594 1 . 1 9 7 V A P 1 4 12 . 0 5 2 . 3 6 2 VAP. 25 1 4 . 0 2 3 . 1 3 7 V A R 4 1 0 . 6 3 1 . 6 6 7 V A R 1 5 1 2 . 2 2 2 . 5 8 1 V AR26 1 2 . 8 4 2 . 6 8 1 V A P 5 11 ,2R 1 . 7 4 6 V A R 16 1 2 . 2 8 1. 8 9 2 V A P. 2 7 1 3 . 0 2 3 . 0 3 3 VAR 6 1 1 . 4 4 2. 3 3 C V A R 1 7 11 . 7 ? 2 . 5 9 9 V AR 28 1 3 . 4 3 3 . C 8 9 V A P 7 1 0 . 6 1 2 . 1 8 8 VAP 18 I C . 82 4 . 5 4 3 V A R 2 C ' 12 . 3 b 3 . 9 5 ? V A F 8 10.75 2 . 4 2 7 VAR 1 9 1 2 . 2 1 2 . 5 1 6 VAR 30 1 4 . C 2 3 . C 6 0 VtPC 1 1 . 70 1 . 9 * 9 V A P 2 0 1 2 . 9 7 2 . A 4 6 V AR31 1 3 . 9 2 2 . 4 9 5 V A C io 1 1 . 5 8 1 . 9 ? C VAP 2 1 1 3 . 3 2 2 . 3 9 1 V A R 3 2 1 3 . 5 0 2 . 1 2 0 V A ° 1 1 1 2 . C 6 1 . 9 9 0 V A P 2 2 1 2 . 5 6 2 . 7 1 2 VAR 33 1 2 . 94 2. 4 4 ? (17F4.2/16F4.2> MEDIUM A B I L I T Y MP1 IC OBSERVATION'S <5 DEGREES CF FRF EDOM NAME VAPl VAR 2 MEAN 6 . 6 7 ? 7 . 7C0 S.D. 1.67 1 1. 128 N AN E VAP 12 V AR13 MFAN 1C.28 1 0 . 42 S .D. 2. 338 2.562 NAM E VAR 2 3 V AR 24 MEAN 1 3 . 79 13.63 S.D. 2.052 1.897 V A P 3 VAR4 VAR 5 VAR6 V A P 7 VAR 8 8 .860 9.218 9. 152 10.02 1C.31 9.950 1. SC£ 2 .854 2. 148 3.228 ? .441 2.C26 VAR 14 VAR 15 VAR16 VAR 17 VAP 18 VAR 19 1C.C5 11.23 10.10 9. 890 9.263 12.32 3.597 2.416 2 .453 3. 286 3.121 2.730 VAR25 VAR 26 VAR27 VAR28 VAR 29 VAR30 13.23 13.91 14.12 13.51 14.41 14.22 1.980 1.602 2.246 2.588 2.058 2.442 VAR9 VAP IC V A R H 9 .POO 10.29 10.63 3.910 2.667 3.C84 VAR 20 VAP21 VAR 22 12.32 13.52 14.C4 2.654 1 .857 2.347 VAR31 VAR32 VAR33 14.08 14. 63 14.41 2.054 2.299 2.174 FCRNAT CAPCS (17F4.2/16F4.2) MEDIUM A B I L I T Y MP2 IC CBSERVATICNS 9 DEGREES CF FREEDC M NAVE MEAN S . D . NAME MEAN S.D. NAME MEAN S.C. VAR 1 6.225 C. g « 5 8 VAP12 9.589 2 .430 VAR23 13.27 1.9C7 V A p 2 8 .187 1.739 VAR 13 9.710 2.398 VAR24 12.66 3.324 VAP 3 6. e40 1 .927 VAP14 9.822 2.611 VAR 25 12. 92 2.412 VAR 4 7.807 1. 4 6 f VAP 1 5 10.64 2.149 VAP26 13.46 1.466 VAP5 8 .360 2.486 VAR 16 9.114 1.956 VAR27 13. 54 1 .863 VAP 6 9. 483 2. ".44 VAP 17 9 .440 2.248 VAF28 13.79 1.856 V A R 7 9.802 2. 144 VAR 18 9.347 2.478 VAR29 13 .80 1.473 VAP8 9.6^7 2.661 VAR 19 10.71 2.254 VAR 30 12. 66 2.147 VAP 9 I C . ?9 1.93 8 VAR20 11.59 2.787 VAR 31 13.52 1.853 V AR10 8 .9 2« 2.' 43 VAR 2 1 12.38 2. 360 VAR32 13.61 1.657 VAP 11 1 C . 12 1 .665 VAP22 12.54 2.106 VAR 33 12. 74 2. 637 ( 1 7 F 4 . 2 / 1 6 F A . 2 ) LOW A B I L I T Y DP 12 0RSFKV6TICVS 1 ? C E G P F F S C F F P F F C P M NAME M F A N S . D . NAVE VF AN S.C. NAME Mt AN S.D. VA-U 3.272 1 .46 3 VAR 12 9.20? 1. 944 VAP 23 12. 75 1.416 VAP 2 A . l , L n 2. 24 fi VAR13 9.209 2.113 VAR24 12.27 1. 360 VAR3 6 . 1 3 5 2.772 VAP 14 9.634 1. 975 VAR25 12.33 1.444 V A R4 7.369 2 .092 VAR15 8.638 1.999 VAR 26 11.93 1. 417 VAR 5 8 . AA3 2. 323 VAR 16 9.622 1 .812 V AP 27 12.93 2.036 V / R 6 7 .737 2.336 VAR 17 9. 234 1.895 VAR 28 12.30 1 .859 VAR 7 VAR8 V A R 9 VAP IC V AR11 9.457 P .67? 8.63A 9 . C O ? 9 .A38 2. 314 2.812 1 .765 2. ICC 1.57? VAR 18 VAR 19 VAP 20 VAP 2 1 VAP 2 2 8.490 1C.77 11.69 11.56 12.CC 3.456 1.608 1 .748 1 .455 1.805 VAR29 V AR30 VAR 31 VAR 32 VAR 33 12. 16 11.96 12. 55 12.38 12.69 1.366 1.792 1. 859 2. d l 3 1.761 FCPMA7 CAPCS LOW A B I L I T Y MP1 I 17FA.2/16F4.2) 1 4 1 ? CBSEPVAT ICNS PEC-RECS OF FREEDCM NANE MEAN S.C. NAME MEAN S.C. NAME MEAN S. D. VAP! 1.6A2 VAR 12 8.650 2.777 VAR23 12.30 3.044 V A R 2 A . 7 P A 1 . 8 3 8 VAP 13 7.530 3.29? VAR 24 12. 80 2.896 VAP 2 7. 231 2. ^ 4 8 VAR1A 8.536 3.510 . VAR25 12.49 2.499 VARA 6 .676 2.635 VAP 15 8. 879 3. 070 VAR26 12.51 1 .942 V A P 5 7.957 2 .773 V/*P 16 8.224 3 .578 VAR 2 7 12. 18 2.375 V A P 6 V A F"> V A R 8 V ARC V A P K < VAP U 7 . C 8 4 8 . 3 2 9 9 . 1 ? 1 « .7 )0 « . 5 2 A ° . C 6 A 2 . 6 ^ 8 2 . 2 7 3 3 . 3 R 9 2 . 1A C 2 . 7 6 7 2 . C 6 7 V A R 17 V A P 16 V A R 1 9 V A R 2C V/»P21 V A P 2 2 8. CSC 6.799 10.39 11. 57 12.09 12.35 4.601 2.733 3.206 2.433 2.295 V A R 2 8 V A P. 2 9 V A R 3 0 V A R 3 1 V ^ R 3 ? 11.65 12.7o 11.99 12 .OS 12.15 2.513 3 .011 3.091 2.884 3.138 ?.SB1 LOW AB IL ITY MP2 F C R M A T C A P C S ( 1 7 F 4 . 2 / 1 6 F 4 . 2 ) 15 CP. S E R V AT ICNS 14 D E G R E E S CF F R E E C C V r-AME MEAN S • D • NAME MEAN S . D . NAME MEAN S . C . V A R 1 3 . 2 2 3 1 . 5 3 5 V A R 1 2 7 . 7 9 7 2 . 3 6 5 V A R 2 3 1 2 . 0 5 2 . 8 1 9 V A F 2 5 .097 1 . 9 3 1 VAR 13 8 . 2 5 9 2 . 3 6 4 V A R 2 4 1 1 . 9 8 2 . 5 8 0 VAR" 2 6 . 8 85 3 . 7 8 0 VAR 14 7 . 8 1 1 2 . 8 0 0 VAR 2 5 1 1 . 72 3 . 3 3 3 V A R 4 7 . 0 1 3 3 . 3 6 6 V A R 1 5 8 . 6 1 3 2 . 3 2 7 V AP 26 1 1 . 3 7 3 . 5 7 9 V A P 5 7 . 8 3 6 3 . 1 4 2 VAP. 16 7 . 6 1 8 2 . 8 5 6 V A R 2 7 1 1 . 9 3 2 . 7 8 5 VAP 6 8. 0 4 9 3 . 3 1 6 V A R1 7 8 . 5 3 5 2 . 9 8 9 V A R 2 8 1 1 . 6 3 3 . 4 2 3 V/1P7 3 . 0 6 5 3 . 6C 8 VAP 18 .. 7 . 8 5 1 . . 2 . 3 0 8 V A R 2 9 1 1 . 7 0 3 . 4 6 7 V A P 8 7 . 6 2 4 3 . 3 7 1 V A P. 19 1 0 . 7 8 2 . 9 2 3 VAR 3 0 1 1 . 9 3 2 . 9 0 9 VAR9 8 . 1 4 0 2 . 5 9 6 V A R 2 0 11 . 0 2 2 . 6 9 0 V A R 3 1 1 1 . 7 7 3 . 2 8 6 V AR 10 7 . 1 3 6 2 . 7 9 5 VAP 2 1 1 1 . 83 3 . 0 3 4 V A P 3 2 11 . 1 9 3 . 4 7 4 V A F U 8 . 4 1 3 2 . 6 0 1 V A R 2 2 1 1 . 6 6 3 . 4 7 4 VAR 3 3 1 1 . 58 3 . 3 0 4 ( 3 3 F 2 . 0 ) HIGH ABILITY UP 1 4 O B S E R V A T I O N S 1 3 D E G R E E S O F F R E E D C M N A M E M E A N S . D . N A M E M E A N S . D . N A M E M E A N S . D . V A R 1 2 8 . 6 4 5 . 0 1 7 V A R 1 2 2 5 . 4 3 5 . 5 5 7 V A R 2 3 2 0 . 3 6 7 . 6 8 2 V A R 2 ? 8 . 2 9 6 . 1 3 2 V A R 1 3 2 6 . 6 4 6 . 2 3 4 V A R 2 4 2 2 . 2 9 6 . 4 2 6 V A R 3 2 3 . 2 9 6 . 7 7 6 V A R 1 4 2 5 . 9 3 5 . 8 3 7 V A R 2 5 2 2 . 5 0 7 . 3 9 8 V A R 4 2 6 . 1 4 5 . 7 7 6 V A R 1 5 2 5 . 1 4 4 . 8 8 1 V A R 2 6 1 9 . 2 1 7 . 5 3 6 V A R 5 2 7 . 1 4 4 . 9 9 0 V A R 1 6 2 6 . 0 7 6 . 3 7 9 V A R 2 7 2 0 . 2 1 7 . 1 3 8 V A R 6 2 6 . 7 9 3 . 4 9 0 V A R 1 7 2 5 . 9 3 5 . 9 5 4 V A R 2 8 2 0 . 3 6 7 . 5 3 1 V A R 7 2 6 . 1 4 4 . 5 5 5 V A R 1 8 2 5 . 7 9 5 . 4 0 9 V A R 2 9 2 2 . 0 0 7 . 5 2 4 V A R 8 2 6 . 9 3 3 . 8 7 2 V A R 1 9 2 5 . 0 0 6 . 7 0 2 V A R 3 0 2 1 * 1 4 6 . 8 6 0 V A R 9 2 3 . 7 1 9 . 0 5 1 V A R 2 0 2 4 . 0 7 • 6 . 6 7 3 V A R 3 1 2 2 . 8 6 8 . 9 8 6 V A R 1 0 2 3 . 5 7 9 . 7 1 7 V A R 2 1 2 3 . 0 0 7 . 2 5 4 V A R 3 2 2 0 . 2 1 7 . 0 5 1 V A R 1 1 2 6 . 2 9 5 . 8 6 3 V A R 2 2 2 4 . 2 1 5 . 9 5 1 V A R 3 3 2 1 . 8 6 7 . 7 3 5 FORMAT CARDS HIGH ABILITY MP1 ( 3 3 F 2 . 0 ) 1 6 O B S E R V A T I C N S 1 5 D E G R E E S O F F R E E D O M N A M E M E A N S . D . N A M E M E A N S . D . N A M E M E A N S . D . V A R 1 2 7 . 6 9 4 . 5 7 1 V A R 1 2 2 6 . 7 5 5 . 6 2 7 V A R 2 3 2 0 . 2 5 4 . 6 1 2 V A R 2 2 8 . 3 8 6 . 2 0 6 V A R 1 3 2 6 . 6 9 6 . 2 3 7 V A R 2 4 2 3 . 3 1 6 . 5 9 0 V A R 3 2 9 . 8 1 5 . 9 1 3 V A R 1 4 2 5 . 1 9 4 . 5 0 5 V A R 2 5 2 2 . 8 7 7 . 8 0 5 V A R 4 2 7 . 8 1 6 . 5 9 5 V A R 1 5 2 4 . 6 2 4 . 8 4 3 V A R 2 6 2 0 . 7 5 6 . 2 9 8 V A R 5 2 5 . 7 5 4 . 0 9 1 V A R 1 6 2 6 . 5 6 5 . 6 5 6 V A R 2 7 2 2 . 7 5 7 . 2 4 3 V A R 6 2 4 . 8 / 5 . 3 9 0 V A R 17 2 7 . 8 7 5 . 2 0 1 V A R 2 8 2 1 . 3 1 7 . 5 2 5 V A R 7 2 6 . 3 7 6 . 0 1 0 V A R 1 8 2 5 . 5 6 4 . 9 5 3 V A R 2 9 2 1 . 6 9 5 . 3 2 6 V A R 8 2 6 . 1 2 6 . 3 8 6 V A R 1 9 2 5 . 6 9 5 . 1 0 8 V A R 3 0 2 2 . 1 9 5 . 5 1 6 V A R 9 2 6 . 1 2 5 . 3 5 3 V A R 2 0 2 4 . 0 0 5 . 0 7 3 V A R 3 1 1 9 . 6 9 5 . 8 1 6 V A R I O 2 5 . 1 9 6 . 6 5 6 V A R 2 1 2 3 . 1 9 6 . 6 8 5 V A R 3 2 2 2 . 5 0 7 . 3 8 5 V A R 1 1 2 5 . 5 0 6 . 1 1 0 V A R 2 2 2 1 . 7 5 5 . 4 5 9 V A R 3 3 2 4 . 0 6 6 . 3 7 1 ( 3 3 F 2 . 0 ) HIGH AB IL ITY MP2 15 OBSERVATIONS 14 DEGREES OF FREEDOM NAME MEAN S.D. NAME MEAN S.D. NAME MEAN S.D. VARl 26.40 3.180 VAR 12 24.47 5.668 VAR 23 21.73 6.850 VAR 2 27.47 4. 955 VAR 13 26.33 4.791 VAR 24 21.00 5.345 VAR3 28.20 6.120 VAR 14 27.00 6. 188 VAR25 20.33 6.366 VARA 27.20 7.858 VAR 15 27.60 5.514 VAR 26 22.73 5.483 VAR5 25.60 5.316 VAR16 25.43 '.:>20 VAR27 22.00 5.843 VAR6 25.67 5.367 VAR 17 26.80 5.348 VAR28 19.33 4.806 VAR 7 26.67 5.640 VAR18 24.00 4.359 VAR29 20.67 5. 936 VAF8 26.87 5.436 VAR 19 26.27 4.877 VAR30 19.73 5.663 VAR9 25.07 4.698 VAR 20 23.93 5.311 VAR31 21. 53 6.105 VAR 10 23.80 5.710 VAR21 21.73 6.497 VAR32 20.47 5.357 V A R l l 25.93 6.065 V/AR22 21.47 5.540 VAR 3 3 21.60 5.435 FORMAT CARDS (33F2.0) MEDIUM A B I L I T Y DP 12 OBSERVATIONS U DEGREES OF FREEDOM NAME MEAN S.D. NAME MEAN S.D. NAME MEAN S.D. VARl 25.25 5.225 . VAR 12 28.00 4. 533 VAR23 22.08 5.648 VAR 2 30.25 6.137 VAR13 26.58 6.487 VAR 24 23.00 4 . 8 4 3 VAR3 32.33 5- 365 VAR 14 28.33 6.184 VAR25 22.08 6.708 VARA 30.Oo 5.543 VAR 15 25.42 5. 323 VAR26 22.75 HZ VAR 5 29. 33 3. 114 VAR16 26.42 3.965 VAR 27 22.92 5.468 VAR6 26.17 4.174 VAR 17 26. 33 5.483 VAR28 21.33 4.376 VAR7 3 0.A2 3 .60 5 VAR 18 24.50 9.318 VAR29 21. 92 4.274 VAR 8 26.58 3. 84 8 VAR19 24.92 4.122 VAR 30 20.42 3. 728 VAR9 28 .92 5.760 VAR 20 25.42 4.641 VAR31 22.25 3.793 VARl 0 26.42 5. 567 VAR21 23.50 4.442 VAR 32 23.25 5.864 VAR 1 1 26.00 3. 247 VAR22 22.67 3.916 VAP33 21.75 4.808 FORMAT CARDS (33F2.0) MEDIUM AB IL ITY MP l 10 OBSERVATIONS 9 OFGkEES OF FREEDOM NAME MEAN S .D. NAME MEAN S.D. NAME MEAN S.D. VAR 1 27. 20 5.673 VAR12 27.10 4.175 VAR 23 24.20 5. 029 VAR2 28 .70 6.447 VAR 13 26. 80 6.161 VAR24 21.70 4.620 VAR3 26.80 4 .849 VAR 14 24.90 4.630 VAR25 24. 90 6.367 VARA 28.70 5. 417 VAR15 26.40 4.351 VAR26 23. 10 4.999 VAR5 27.50 6.060 VAR 16 26.40 3.836 VAR27 22.40 5.420 VAR 6 24.70 5.397 VAR17 24.20 5.827 VAR 28 24.20 7.084 VAR 7 27. 10 4. 886 VAR 18 26.00 3.055 VAR29 19.90 4.408 VAR8 27.20 4.185 VAR 19 25.80 5.673 VAR30 23.10 6. 190 VAR9 26. 90 5.859 VAR20 2S.30 5.870 VAR 31 22.80 5. 808 VARiO 23.50 4.8,8? VAR 21 23.40 4.526 VAR32 20.10 5.259 VAR11 26.20 3.795 VAR22 22.10 5.507 VAR 33 22. 90 7.430 FORMAT CARDS - . . . (33F2. 0) MEDIUM AB IL ITY MP2 10 OBSERVATIONS 9 DEGREES OF FREEDOM NAME MEAN S.D. NAME MEAN S.D. NAME MEAN S.D. VAP1 24.40 8 .303 V AR 12 25.00 5.185 VAR 23 25. 00 3.771 VAR 2 25.50 5. 949 VAR13 25.60 4.300 VAR24 23.80 3 . 6 l b VAR3 26 .90 7.520 VAR 14 23.90 2.998 VAR25 24.00 4.137 VAR4 27. 20 7.254 VAR15 25.10 5.724 VAR 26 23. 20 2.394 VAR 5 24.50 5.017 VAR16 25.60 4.858 VAR27 23.90 5.486 VAR6 24.90 6.045 VAR 17 26.00 5.292 . VAR28 22.90 2.644 VAP. 7 25. 90 3. 814 VAR 18 26.00 4.137 VAR 29 23.40 3. 134 VAP8 23.80 4.«49 VAR 19 28. 10 4.254 VAR30 24.70 3.561 VAR9 27 .50 2.953 VAR 20 23.80 3.553 VAR31 23. 90 3.348 VAk 10 24.10 5. C87 VAR 21 24.60 5.125 V AR32 23. 70 4.900 V AR11 27 .10 5.087 VAR 22 24. 90 5. 131 VAR33 23. 10 4.306 ( 3 3 F 2 . 0 ) •UUVV h D i J j l i X 12 OBSERVATIONS H DEGREES OF FREEDOM NAVE MEAN S.D. NAME MEAN S.D. NAME MEAN S.D. VARl 18.67 7.062 VAR 12 27.75 5.463 VAR23 27.08 3.088 VAR2 19.50 9.913 VAR 13 27.33 5.348 VAR 24 27. 67 4.334 VAR3 26.58 8. 196 VAR14 30.17 5.254 V AR25 26.75 3.621 VAR4 27.00 6.090 VAR 15 27.67 4.830 VAR26 27.25 5.529 VAR5 26.92 4.144 VAR16 29.92 5.230 VAR27 27.83 5-149 VAR 6 26.92 4. 602 VAR17 28.75 4.712 VAR28 28.75 5.207 VAR7 29.25 4.845 VAR18 26.25 9.574 VAR 29 27.00 4.243 VAR 8 29.00 5. 152 VAR19 28.17 5.474 VAR30 27.92 4.481 VAR9 26.83 4.859 VAR 20 27.92 3.605 VAR 31 25.58 5.807 VARIO 27.25 4.770 VAR21 28.00 4.690 VAR 32 25.33 5.015 VAR 11 29.50 6.935 VAP 22 27.42 4.833 VAR33 26.50 5.351 FORMAT CAPCS LOW A B I L I T Y MPT -(33F2.0) 14 OBSERVATIONS 13 DEGRFES CF FREEDOM NAME MEAN S . 0 . NAME MEAN S.D. NAME MEAN S .D. VARl VAR2 VAR3 VAR4 VAR5 17. 79 22.64 28.43 28.64 27.93 6. 93 0 7.890 4.071 9. 748 11 .39 VAR12 VAR 13 VAR14 VARl 5 VAR 16 25.57 22. 64 25.64 25.29 24.64 6.211 6.097 7.510 4.358 6.801 VAR 23 VAR24 VAR25 VAR 26 VAR27 24.00 24.14 23. 93 25.57 27.64 26 .71 24.86 26.86 24.64 25.14 24.50 5. 602 4.521 4.463 4.718 6.879 4.730 5.749 5.641 4. 955 3.978 5.530 VAR 6 VAR7 VAR8 VAR9 VARIO VAR11 30.29 25.71 26.43 25. 71 27.93 26.57 17.04 6. 684 5.459 5.03 0 8.04 3 3.204 VARl? VAR 18 VAR 19 VAR2Q VAR 21 VAR22 23.00 24. 86 26.79 26.21 25.71 26.21 8.029 3.676 5. 206 5.265 6.170 4.475 VAR 28 V AR29 VAR30 VAR31 VAR32 VAR33 LOW ABILITY MP2 FORMAT CARDS ( 3 3 F 2 . 0 ) 15 OBSERVATIONS 14 DEGREES OF FREEDOM NAME MEAN S . 0 . NAME ME AM . S • D* NAME MEAN S . 0 . VAR1 19 .33 7. 451 VAR 12 25. 2 0 5. 532 VAR23 2 6 . 0 0 6. 325 VAR 2 25.00 5. 988 VAR13 28.53 5. 370 VAR 24 25.93 4. 7 1 3 VAR3 2 7 . 6 0 11 . 05 VAR14 25.00 4. 598 VAR25 26.07 7. 196 VAR4 25.33 9. 552 VAR 15 28.07 4. 383 VAR26 25.33 6. 137 VAR 5 2 4 . 9 3 4. 284 VAR 16 22.60 5. 026 VAR 27 2 6 . 6 / 5. 815 VAP6 24.53 7. 289 VAR 17 28. 87 6. 186 VAR28 25.47 6. 232 VAR7 26.47 7. 070 VAR 18 26.00 5. 438 VAR 29 27.00 7. 251 VAR 8 22.5 3 7. 180 VAR 19 ' 27.27 4. 527 VAR 30 26.73 4. 590 VAR9 26 .40 6. 864 VAR 20 29.13 • 6. 186 VAR31 2 6 . 5 3 6. 512 VARIO 2 4 . 6 7 6. 554 VAR21 27.00 7. 309 VAR 32 30.80 14 .04 VAR11 28.47 4. 89 7 VAR22 2 6 . 0 0 6. 803 VAR33 25.00 5. 196 

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