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Comparison of physical fitness and physical fitness development between deaf and hearing children Kinsey, William Joseph 1971

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COMPARISON OF PHYSICAL FITNESS AND PHYSICAL FITNESS DEVELOPMENT BETWEEN DEAF AND HEARING CHILDREN By WILLIAM JOSEPH KINSEY B.P.H.E., U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the School of P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1971 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced deg ree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t he Head o f my Depar tment o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Depa r tment The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada Da te ABSTRACT This study attempted to determine whether or not there was a dif f e r e n c e i n the physi c a l f i t n e s s or i n the developmental change of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s between deaf and hearing c h i l d r e n . F i v e deaf subjects of each sex were randomly chosen from each age group (7, 9, 11, 13, and 15) from the deaf population who had no major ph y s i c a l or health d i f f i c u l t i e s at Jericho H i l l School for the Deaf, Vancouver, B.C.. Hearing subjects (10 i n each age group and sex for s t a t i s t i c a l purposes) represented the population of general Canadian school-age c h i l d r e n who did not have any major physi c a l or health defects. Deaf subjects were administered the CAHPER Fitness-Performance Test which i s composed of 6 t e s t s (one minute speed sit-ups, shuttle run, standing broad jump, flexed arm hang, 50 yard run, and 300 yard run) and the CAHPER Ph y s i c a l Work Capacity Test. The r e s u l t s indicated no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the deaf and hearing i n over a l l p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s with the exception of sit-ups and shuttle run nor i n the developmental change of ph y s i c a l f i t n e s s . The deaf c h i l d r e n were superior i n the sit-ups but 1 i n f e r i o r i n the shuttle run as compared with hearing c h i l d r e n . P o s s i b l e causes of these di f f e r e n c e s were discussed. T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S LIST OF TABLES iv LIST OF FIGURES v CHAPTER Page I INTRODUCTION 1 Definitions 5 Delimitations 8 Limitations 8 II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 9 FACTORS AFFECTING MOTOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE DEAF 9 Play Experience 9 MOTOR PERFORMANCE OF THE DEAF 12 Fitness of the Deaf 18 Fitness of the Hearing 19 III METHODS AND PROCEDURES 23 Population and Sampling Procedures 23 Testing Procedures 24 Reliabilities and Validities 29 Data Analysis 30 IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 32 RESULTS 33 DISCUSSION 61 POST HOC ANALYSIS 68 V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 70 SUMMARY 70 CONCLUSIONS 71 RECOMMENDATIONS 71 CHAPTER Page REFERENCES 73 APPENDICES 7 6 A. INDIVIDUAL SCORE SHEETS 77 B. RAW SCORES FOR DEAF SUBJECTS 79 C. DESCRIPTION OF DEAF SUBJECTS 82 D. VARIANCES FOR ALL DEPENDENT VARIABLES 35 LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page I SUMMARY OF ANOVA - PWC17() 3 4 II AUDITORY X SEX MEANS - PWC17Q 3 4 III SUMMARY OF ANOVA - PWC 1 7 0 / k g 3 7 IV AUDITORY X SEX MEANS - FWC 1 7 0 / k g 3 7 V SUMMARY OF ANOVA - STANDING BROAD JUMP 41 VI AUDITORY X SEX MEANS - STANDING BROAD JUMP 4 1 VII SUMMARY OF ANOVA - SHUTTLE RUN 4 4 VIII AUDITORY X SEX MEANS - SHUTTLE RUN 4 4 IX SUMMARY OF ANOVA - SIT-UPS 4 8 X AUDITORY X SEX MEANS - SIT-UPS 4 8 XI SUMMARY OF ANOVA - FLEXED ARM HANG 51 XII AUDITORY X SEX MEANS - FLEXED ARM HANG 51 XIII SUMMARY OF ANOVA - 50 YARD RUN 5 4 XIV AUDITORY X SEX MEANS - 50 YARD RUN 5 4 XV SUMMARY OF ANOVA - 300 YARD RUN 5 8 XVI AUDITORY X SEX MEANS - 300 YARD RUN 5 8 iv LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. PWC1?0 - MALE 35 2. PWC17Q - FEMALE 36 3' P W C170/kg " M L E 38 4- ""no/kg " F E M L E 39 5. STANDING BROAD JUMP - MALE 42 6. STANDING BROAD JUMP - FEMALE 43 7. SHUTTLE RUN - MALE 45 8. SHUTTLE RUN - FEMALE 46 9. SIT-UPS - MALE 49 10. SIT-UPS - FEMALE 50 11. FLEXED ARM HANG - MALE 52 12. FLEXED ARM HANG - FEMALE 53 13. 50 YARD RUN - MALE 55 14. 50 YARD RUN - FEMALE 56 15. 300 YARD RUN - MALE 59 16. 300 YARD RUN - FEMALE 60 v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to thank the members of my committee, Dr. S.R. Brown, Dr. B.R. Clarke, Dr. H.D. Whittle, and Mr. J.R.W. Schutz, chairman, for t h e i r advice and assistance. To the administration and s t a f f at Jericho H i l l School for the Deaf goes my appreciation for with t h e i r cooperation and assistance the data c o l l e c t i o n was f a c i l i a t e d . A s p e c i a l thanks to Mr. J.R.W. Schutz whose constant encouragement and excellent guidance helped me invaluably and made t h i s study an e x c i t i n g and enjoyable educational experience. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The a b i l i t y to hear represents one of the strongest forms of communication between i n d i v i d u a l s and the world i n which they l i v e . Hearing enpompases a l l d i r e c t i o n s , thus p r o v i d i n g a radar type of contact, c o n s t a n t l y a l e r t i n g an i n d i v i d u a l of the e x t e r n a l circumstances o f f e r e d by the environment and by l o s i n g t h i s contact the deaf i n d i v i d u a l i s extremely i s o l a t e d . Hence an a u d i t o r y impairment o f t e n creates a deprived environment which g i v e s r i s e to unequal o p p o r t u n i t i e s to explore the environment and evolve and pursue i n t e r e s t s (Michal-Smith, 1962; Myklebust, 1964; Rodda, 1966). Research i n d i c a t e s that the deaf c h i l d ' s play experience i s o f t e n l i m i t e d because of h i s lack of communication and v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r peers (Heider & Heider, 1941). S i m i l a r i l y , i n game s i t u a t i o n s when two hearing c h i l d r e n are p l a y i n g together, t h e i r game i s o f t e n more h i g h l y organized and s t r u c t u r e d as compared to a game between two deaf c h i l d r e n (Heider, 1948).' Furthermore, i t has been noted that deafness, e s p e c i a l l y i n c h i l d r e n , e l i c i t s i n sympathetic i n d i v i d u a l s (parents, neighbours, teachers, c h i l d r e n ' s a i d , etc.) a crave to s h i e l d them from s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n s (Heider & Heider, 1941; Myklebust, 1964; Rodda, 1966). For instance, many parents of deaf c h i l d r e n do not a l l o w them to play unattended i n s t r e e t s or other open spaces mainly f o r s a f e t y purposes ( K e n d a l l , 1957). Thus, many deaf c h i l d r e n , v i c t i m s of wordlessness and o v e r p r o t e c t i o n , are r e s t r i c t e d and deprived of 1 numerous o p p o r t u n i t i e s experienced by hearing c h i l d r e n . Although a considerable amount of research has been done i n the motor f u n c t i o n i n g area of the deaf, v i r t u a l l y no a t t e n t i o n has been a l l o t t e d t o the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s of sensory d e p r i v a t i o n i n the form of an a u d i t o r y impairment w i t h respect to p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . Unquestionably,' a u d i t o r y impairment r e s u l t s i n i s o l a t i o n and detach-ment from the environment, e s p e c i a l l y from easy, normal contact w i t h other people, and thus, reduces the i n d i v i d u a l ' s contact w i t h the o u t s i d e world. A l s o , the deaf c h i l d ' s p l a y experience i s o f t e n l i m i t e d . T h i s i s o l a t e d , p e r i p h e r a l e x i s t e n c e and l i m i t e d p l a y experience may a f f e c t the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s of an a u d i t o r y handicapped c h i l d . There are other circumstances, however, which may a f f e c t the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s of a deaf c h i l d . Due to d i f f e r e n t e t i o l o g i e s of deafness, there are many other d e f e c t s which may accompany l o s s of hearing. Some deaf i n d i v i d u a l s are not only impaired a u d i t o r i l y but a l s o have psychomotor handicaps. These d i s a b i l i t i e s can be of the p a r a l y t i c type such as s p a s t i c i t y and a t h e t o s i s , or of the n o n p a r a l y t i such as the a t a x i a s and a p r a x i a s . Furthermore, when there are d e f e c t s i n the inner ear not only the a c o u s t i c but a l s o the nonacoustic l a b y r i n t h which i n c l u d e s the s e m i c i r c u l a r canals may be impaired; thus, balance may be a f f e c t e d . Therefore, the deaf c h i l d ' s motor f u n c t i o n i n g may be impaired mainly due to inner ear damage or damage t the c e n t r a l nervous system or p o s s i b l y to both simultaneously. 3 Both motor and a u d i t o r y impairment, then, can be due to organic damage. Nevertheless, motor a b i l i t y could a l s o be a f f e c t e d by deafness i t s e l f due mainly to two reasons. F i r s t , profoundly deaf c h i l d r e n have an abnormal ' s h u f f l i n g ' g a i t a t t r i b u t e d t o the f a c t that they do not hear t h e i r s h u f f l i n g and hence are not aware of i t (Myklebust, 1964; van Uden, 1965). I n t h i s ' s h u f f l i n g * g a i t the deaf c h i l d places h i s feet f l a t on the ground i n s t e a d of f i r s t the h e e l and then the toes; h i s knees g i v e somewhat; and h i s body i s bent forward s l i g h t l y thus keeping h i s chest and diaphragm too r i g i d . Van Uden (1965) f e e l s that t h i s r e s t r i c t i o n on the r e s p i r a t o r y apparatus i n t e r f e r s w i t h Eh&fchmieal breathing c o n t r o l and thus makes i t more d i f f i c u l t f o r deaf c h i l d r e n as compared to hearing c h i l d r e n to c o n t r o l t h e i r exhaling and i n h a l i n g . T h i s d i f f i c u l t y i n r h y t h m i c a l breathing c o n t r o l experienced by deaf c h i l d r e n may a f f e c t t h e i r cardiopulmonary endurance which i s one facet of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . Secondly, van Uden i n d i c a t e s that the tempo of deaf c h i l d r e n ' s b o d i l y movements i s slower than hearing c h i l d r e n ' s , e s p e c i a l l y when the motor act i s gross and complex. Research shows that deaf c h i l d r e n equal the hearing i n f i n e motor speed measured from manual d e x t e r i t y t e s t s (Long, 1932; Morsh, 1936; Myklebust, 1964)' °jV motor speed tasks i n v o l v i n g more complex movements, Myklebust (1964) found the deaf i n f e r i o r t o the hearing whereas Boyd (1967) using the same tasks found no d i f f e r e n c e s . Motor performance tasks commenly used to evaluate p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s are more gross and complex than those used by Boyd or Myklebust and thus i t i s p o s s i b l e that the deaf w i l l have d i f f i c u l t y i n performing these tasks. 4 Auxter (1971), working w i t h deaf c h i l d r e n of above average i n t e l l i g e n c e , compared one group who had acceptable l e a r n i n g r a t e s to another whose academic f u n c t i o n i n g was w e l l below expectations (the l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d group) on/, v a r i o u s t a s k s . He found the l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d group s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f e r i o r on tasks i n v o l v i n g muscular streng t h , motor speed, and motor planning, and a l s o on tasks which were gross and i n which the neuromuscular behaviour was complex. Thus, d i f f e r e n c e s between deaf and hearing c h i l d r e n i n p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s which i s composed of many complex and gross motor a c t s may be r e l a t e d to d i f f e r e n t academic l e a r n i n g a b i l i t i e s . Another important c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s the amount of p h y s i c a l education deaf c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e at school. I f deaf c h i l d r e n do r e c e i v e a programme unequal i n q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y to hearing c h i l d r e n then a d i f f e r e n c e i n p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s between the two groups may be due to t h i s f a c t . I t i s obvious, then, that there are many reasons why the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s of deaf c h i l d r e n may d i f f e r from that of hearing c h i l d r e n . Although the deaf have been studied e x t e n s i v e l y i n mental development, p e r s o n a l i t y development, emotional adjustment, and s o c i a l m a t u r i t y , l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been given to one of the most v i t a l i n g r e d i e n t s of l i f e , namely, p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . Educators, i n a i d i n g the deaf to adapt to the hearing s o c i e t y , would b e n e f i t f u r t h e r from the knowledge of the present s t a t e of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s of deaf c h i l d r e n . R e c e n t l y , concern f o r the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s of Canadian c h i l d r e n led to the development of the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Health, P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation (CAHPER) Fitness-Performance Test (CAHPER, 1966) and the CAHPER P h y s i c a l Work Ca p a c i t y (PWC) Test (CAHPER, 1968) and the establishment of norms of Canadian c h i l d r e n i n these t e s t s from the ages 7 to 17 years. Deaf c h i l d r e n , due to the reasons mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , may not conform to the reported standards of performance f o r Canadian c h i l d r e n on the CAHPER Fitness-Performance and CAHPER PWC Tes t s . An assessment of the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s of deaf c h i l d r e n would provide a sound foundation f o r determining the o b j e c t i v e s of school p h y s i c a l education and.physical r e c r e a t i o n programmes f o r deaf c h i l d r e n . T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was an attempt to determine: 1. Whether or not thefte was a d i f f e r e n c e i n the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s or i n the developmental change of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s between deaf and hearing c h i l d r e n . 2. P o s s i b l e explanations of the causes of any d i f f e r e n c e s which were found., DEFINITIONS In p h y s i c a l education, a c o n s t i t u t i v e d e f i n i t i o n i s very vague and not agreeable to many people. For example, p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s has been defined c o n s t i t u t i v e l y from the World Health Organization's (Shephard, 1969; 3) d e f i n i t i o n as "the a b i l i t y to perform muscular work s a t i s f a c t o r i l y 6 to Steinhaus (1936; 224) " d i s t a n c e from death" concept. A more elaborate d e f i n i t i o n of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s as proposed by C l a r k e (1967; 14) i s as f o l l o w s : "The a b i l i t y to c a r r y out d a i l y tasks w i t h v i g o r and a l e r t n e s s without undue f a t i g u e , and w i t h ample energy to enjoy l e i s u r e - time p u r s u i t s and to meet unforeseen emergencies." These c o n s t i t u t i v e d e f i n i t i o n s of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s d i f f e r as do d e f i n i t i o n s of other terms used i n t h i s study. Therefore, due to the disagreement among i n d i v i d u a l s and the vagueness presented by c o n s t i t u t i v e d e f i n i t i o n s , only o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s are given to the f o l l o w i n g terms i n t h i s study: Deaf i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s study r e f e r to those who: 1. are e n r o l l e d at J e r i c h o H i l l School f o r the Deaf and thus r e c e i v e a s p e c i a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l program aimed at teaching the a u d i t o r y impaired. 2. have a hearing l o s s of at l e a s t 60 Db i n the b e t t e r ear. 3. are p r e l i n g u a l l y deaf. 4. have been e n r o l l e d at J e r i c h o H i l l School f o r at l e a s t 6 months. 5. have no major p h y s i c a l or h e a l t h d i s a b i l i t i e s . Hearing i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s study r e f e r to those who: 1. do not have any major p h y s i c a l or h e a l t h d e f e c t . 2. were, randomly se l e c t e d by CAHPER to represent the general Canadian school-age p o p u l a t i o n . 3. have adequate a u d i t o r y f u n c t i o n s as to enable them to attend c l a s s e s which do not r e c e i v e a s p e c i a l i z e d educational program aimed at teaching the a u d i t o r y impaired. 7 P h y s i c a l F i t n e s s : the combination of p h y s i c a l performance, as measured by the CAHPER Fitness-Performance Test (CAHPER, 1966) and p h y s i c a l working c a p a c i t y , as measured by the CAHPER PWC Test (CAHPER, 1968). P h y s i c a l Performance: the scores obtained on the CAHPER F i t n e s s -Performance Test. P h y s i c a l Working Capacity: the scores obtained on the CAHPER PWC Test which i n d i r a c t l y measures cardiopulmonary f u n c t i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l i n terms of p r e d i c t i n g h i s PWC concurrent w i t h a steady heart r a t e of 170 beats per minute (PWC 1 7 Q) and i n terms of p r e d i c t i n g h i s PWC 1 7 0 p e r ^ i l o g r a m body weight (™ci7Q/ks )• A g i l i t y : score obtained i n the s h u t t l e run ( i n seconds). Speed; score obtained i n the 50 yard run ( i n seconds). Muscular Endurance: scores obtained i n the f l e x e d arm hang ( i n seconds) and one minute speed s i t - u p s (number). Muscular Power: score obtained i n the standing broad jump ( i n i n c h e s ) . Cardiopulmonary Endurance: ( i n seconds), the PWC^7Q ( i n Kp ( i n Kp-meters/rainute/kg.). scores obtained i n the 300 yard run • meters/minute), and the PWC,--,, 170/kg 8 DELIMITATIONS Th i s study i s l i m i t e d to deaf c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d at J e r i c h o H i l l School f o r the Deaf i n Vancouver, B. C. and a l s o to the age groups 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15, These d e l i m i n a t i o n s are due to the lack of time, money, and personnel. LIMITATIONS There are two l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h i s study. F i r s t , there are 17 deaf subjects who are i n t e g r a t e d i n t o schools f o r hearing c h i l d r e n that i s , they are i n c l a s s e s f o r the deaf and taught by J e r i c h o teachers but these c l a s s e s are i n the schools f o r hearing c h i l d r e n . Second, since J e r i c h o H i l l School f o r the Deaf i s a p r o v i n c i a l government r e s i d e n t i a l and day school, the sample of deaf c h i l d r e n i n c l u d e s 21 day and 29 r e s i d e n t i a l students. Therefore, g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of the r e s u l t s to the deaf p o p u l a t i o n as a whole i s not warranted because of u n c o n t r o l l e d sampling e r r o r . 9 CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE FACTORS AFFECTING MOTOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE DEAF P l a y Experience Childhood p l a y i s important i n l e a r n i n g s o c i a l s k i l l s and i n the development of motor s k i l l s (Arnheim, Auxter, and Crowe, 1969). Espenschacle and E c k e r t (1967; 131) i n d i c a t e that p l a y i s "the most important business of childhood"; t h e r e f o r e , i t i s not unreasonable to examine the few s t u d i e s concerning deaf c h i l d r e n at p l a y . Heider and Heider (1941) studied the means of communation and s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e of young deaf c h i l d r e n who had not yet acquired conventional language symbols. They observed 53 deaf c h i l d r e n and 22 hearing c h i l d r e n during approximately h a l f hour sessions of u n r e s t r i c t e d p l a y i n pre-school groups. They reported that imaginary p l a y i s p o s s i b l e f o r deaf c h i l d r e n , but when there i s more than one c h i l d i n v o l v e d , i t i s r e s t r i c t e d t o pantomime. Since elaborate pantomime i s r e q u i r e d t o make the nature of h i s imaginary s i t u a t i o n c l e a r whereas a s i n g l e word o f t e n s u f f i c e s f o r the hearing c h i l d , the amount and k i n d of imaginary p l a y by the deaf c h i l d i s g r e a t l y r e s t r i c t e d . Furthermore, t h e i r groups were o f t e n l e s s s t a b l e than those of hearing c h i l d r e n s i n c e the pantomime o f t e n f a i l e d to draw others f u l l y i n t o the s i t u a t i o n . In a l a t e r study, Heider (1948) compared deaf and hearing c h i l d r e n i n a game s i t u a t i o n . A game which only one c h i l d could use at a time was o f f e r e d to p a i r s of c h i l d r e n . S i x t y - s i x p a i r s of hearing and 48 p a i r s of deaf c h i l d r e n were observed i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n and the r e s u l t s showed that w i t h the hearing there was more tendahcy f o r one to dominate the game than w i t h the deaf. When the games played were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o s t r u c t u r a l i z a t i o n , i t was shown that those of the hearing group were more h i g h l y organized and showed gre a t e r c o n t i n u i t y of s t r u c t u r e . Heider f e e l s that these d i f f e r e n c e s can be explained i n part by the f a c t that the hearing c h i l d r e n have a more e f f e c t i v e means of communication t o c o n t r o l s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . K e n d a l l (1957) i n v e s t i g a t e d the motor development of 370 deaf c h i l d r e n and compared i t w i t h that of 384 hearing c h i l d r e n . From h i s observations he i n d i c a t e d that v e r y few deaf c h i l d r e n had had the same o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f r e e muscular a c t i v i t y as hearing c h i l d r e n of the same c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. He a t t r i b u t e d t h i s to the parent's r e l u c t a n c e because of s a f e t y purposes t o a l l o w t h e i r deaf c h i l d r e n to p l a y unattended i n s t r e e t s or other open spaces. Thus, the opportunity f o r deaf c h i l d r e n to experience what hearing c h i l d r e n experience i n everyday l i f e may be l i m i t e d because of the parent's o v e r - p r o t e c t i o n of t h e i r deaf c h i l d r e n . In summary, research evidence concerning p l a y experience of deaf c h i l d r e n i s meagre. From the a v a i l a b l e s t u d i e s though, i t may be sta t e d that p l a y experience of deaf c h i l d r e n i s l i m i t e d and r e s t r i c t e d and i s not as h i g h l y organized or s t r u c t u r e d as compared to pl a y experience*: of hearing c h i l d r e n . Furthermore, parents of deaf c h i l d r e n 11 have a tendency to overprotect t h e i r o f f s p r i n g and are r e l u c t a n t to permit t h e i r c h i l d r e n to p l a y unattended; thus r e s t r i c t i n g the f r e e muscular a c t i v i t y of t h e i r deaf c h i l d . Consequently t h i s may have an a f f e c t on the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s of deaf c h i l d r e n . P sychqiotor D i s o r d e r s Deafness i s o f t e n found i n co n j u n c t i o n w i t h other handicaps and one of those i s the psychomotor d i s o r d e r . T h i s d i s a b i l i t y i s d i v i d e d i n t o the p a r a l y t i c and n o n p a r a l y t i c types. The former type i n c l u d e s the motor handicaps of the c e r e b r a l p a l s i e s and some deaf c h i l d r e n who have s p a s t i c i t y or a t h e t o s i s wiould be l i m i t e d i n motor a b i l i t y . The n o n p a r a l y t i c motor d i s o r d e r s i n c l u d e the a t a x i a s and a p r a x i a s . C e r e b e l l a r a t a x i a , not uncommon i n deaf c h i l d r e n , r e s u l t s from damage to the cerebellum and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a staggering swaying g a i t . A p r a x i a i s the i n a b i l i t y to a s s o c i a t e a mental image, or i d e a , w i t h the motor system inv o l v e d and r e s u l t s from damage to the premotor area i n the f r o n t a l lobes. A p raxias can a f f e c t many types of v o l u n t a r y a c t i o n s and the two most' commonly found i n deaf c h i l d r e n are e x p t s s s l v e aphasia and dysgraphia. The expressive aphasis knows what he wants to say but he cannot speak f o r he cannot t h i n k the motor plan f o r saying the word. The dysgraphic cannot w r i t e because he cannot r e l a t e the word he has i n mind t o the motor system f o r w r i t i n g . Thus, c h i l d r e n , deaf or hearing who have psychomotor d i s a b i l i t i e s , are handicapped i n motor f u n c t i o n i n g (Myklebust, 1958; Myklebust, 1964). 12 MOTOR PERFORMANCE OF THE DEAF Motor A b i l i t y of the Deaf Motor a b i l i t y i s a vague, broad term and i s "thought of as an in t e g r a t e d composite of such i n d i v i d u a l t r a i t s as streng t h , endurance, power, speed, a g i l i t y , balance, r e a c t i o n time, and c o - o r d i n a t i o n , t r a i t s u n d e r l y i n g performance i n many motor complexes." ( C l a r k e , 1967; 262). I n t h i s study, p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s has been o p e r a t i o n a l l y defined as the combination of p h y s i c a l performance, as measured by the CAHPER Fitness-Performance Test (CAHPER, 1966), and p h y s i c a l working c a p a c i t y , as measured by the CAHPER PWC Test (CAHPER, 1968). Now since these two CAHPER t e s t s measure i n d i v i d u a l t r a i t s such as st r e n g t h , endurance, power, speed, and a g i l i t y and i n v o l v e balance, r e a c t i o n time, and c o - o r d i n a t i o n , an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l e v e l of p r o f i c i e n c y i n the t r a i t s of motor a b i l i t y may a f f e c t h i s p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . Thus, i t i s important to i n v e s t i g a t e the research i n v o l v i n g the motor a b i l i t y of the deaf. Long (1932) compared the motor a b i l i t y of deaf and hearing c h i l d r e n using seven t e s t s which 1 i n c l u d e d spool.packings s e r i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , p u r s u i t r o t o r , tapping, m o t i l i t y r o t o r , dynamometer and balance-board. The sample c o n s i s t e d of 37 deaf females and 51 deaf males who were matched w i t h hearing c h i l d r e n of the same age, sex, and race. The only s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found was on the balance-board r e s u l t s where the deaf were i n f e r i o r to the hearing. In a s i m i l a r study, Morsh (1936) a l s o t e s t e d the motor a b i l i t y of the deaf and h i s b a t t e r y of t e s t s i ncluded tapping, s t a t i c hand c o n t r o l , l o c a t i o n memory t e s t s , and balancing. As compared to Long's sample, Morsh's included o l d e r c h i l d r e n and some c o l l e g e deaf students. The r e s u l t s showed that the manual d e x t e r i t y of the deaf was equal to that of the hearing, but that when b l i n d f o l d e d , the deaf subjects were i n f e r i o r to the b l i n d -f o l d e d hearing subjects i n balancing a b i l i t y . Myklebust (1946) compared s e v e r a l e t i o l o g i c a l groups of deaf c h i l d r e n on g e n e r a l i z e d locomotor c o - o r d i n a t i o n using the Health R a i l w a l k i n g Test. The 203 subjects between the ages 5 to 21 years were e t i o l o g i c a l l y c l a s s i f i e d i n t o endogenous, presumptively endogenous, exogenous, m e n i n g i t i c , and undetermined. He found that the m e n i n g i t i c subjects scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than d i d the other e t i o l o g i c a l groups and that they a l s o scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y poorer on r o t a t i o n and c a l o r i c t e s t s . I t was concluded that the i n f e r i o r locomotor c o - o r d i n a t i o n of the m e n i n g i t i c group was due to an i n a b i l i t y to maintain normal balance as a r e s u l t of damaged s e m i c i r c u l a r c a n a l s . In a l a t e r study, Myklebust (1964) compared deaf and hearing c h i l d r e n using the same t e s t and found that the deaf were i n f e r i o r to the hearing i n locomotor c o - o r d i n a t i o n . On a d m i n i s t r e r i n g the Oseretsky Tests of Motor P r o f i c i e n c y to 50 deaf students, Myklebust (1964) found that the deaf s u b j e c t s ' mean motor age to be 1.6 years behind t h e i r mean c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. The scores f o r each of the s i x areas of the Oseretsky Test showed that the deaf f e l l w e l l w i t h i n the normal range i n dynamic manual and sy n k i n e s i a areas but they were retarded m o t o r i c a l l y i n general dynamic, simultaneous movement, general s t a t i c , and speed areas. These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that most deaf c h i l d r e n have p e r i p h e r a l , not c e n t r a l nervous system damage ( s y n k i n e s i a t e s t ) i f they have nervous system d i s o r d e r s at a l l , and that they are equal to hearing c h i l d r e n i n manual d e x t e r i t y (dynamic manual t e s t ) . I n f e r i o r scores were obtained on the general dynamic and simultaneous movement t e s t s demonstrating that the deaf f a l l below the norms i n tasks which i n v o l v e general i n t e g r a t i o n of motor behaviour and t o t a l c o - o r d i n a t i o n . The two lowest scores were found i n the general s t a t i c and speed t e s t s . The former t e s t r e s u l t can l a r g e l y be a t t r i b u t e d to inner ear damage which may a f f e c t balance. F i n a l l y , Myklebust f e e l s that speed t e s t r e s u l t s may i n d i c a t e that deaf c h i l d r e n have d i f f i c u l t y w i t h speed concepts or a c t u a l l y are i n f e r i o r i n motor speed, e s p e c i a l l y when the complexity of the task i n c r e a s e s . Boyd (1967) compared the motor behavior ; among hearing and deaf c h i l d r e n using three areas of the Oseretsky Tests of Motor P r o f i c i e n c y . The sample c o n s i s t e d of n i n e t y 8, 9, and 10 year o l d males and the hearing and deaf c h i l d r e n were matched on age, sex, and I.Q.. He found that the deaf subjects were s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f e r i o r r e g a r d l e s s of e t i o l o g y to the hearing subjects i n the general s t a t i c t e s t but noted that there were deaf subjects who scored as w e l l as the hearing, so i t cannot be g e n e r a l i z e d that a l l deaf c h i l d r e n are i n f e r i o r i n balance. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the hearing and deaf subjects at the 8 year o l d l e v e l on the general dynamic t e s t but there was an i n c r e a s i n g l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among the 9 and 10 year old; deaf and hearing s u b j e c t s . Boyd i n d i c a t e s that t h i s f i n d i n g shows that there may be a cumulative e f f e c t of l a c k of hearing w i t h balance and c o - o r d i n a t i o n problems r e s u l t i n g i n a slower r a t e of maturation. I n the speed t e s t s , i t was found that the deaf were equal to the hearing and i n f a c t the 8 year o l d endogenous deaf subjects were s i g n i f i c a n t l y superior to the hearing boys. T h i s f i n d i n g does not c o l l a b o r a t e w i t h Myklebust's (1964) f i n d i n g and Boyd a s s e r t s that the norms of t h i s p o r t i o n of the Oseretsky Scale do not appear a p p l i c a b l e t o North American c h i l d r e n . A comparison of s t a t i c and dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m among the hearing and hearing impaired a t the elementary and c o l l e g e l e v e l s was performed by Logan (1969). She found that the hearing impaired subjects at the elementary l e v e l were s i g n i f i c a n t l y poorer i n balancing a b i l i t y but t h i s f i n d i n g was not so f o r the c o l l e g e l e v e l . She concluded that c e r t a i n f a c t o r s operate i n the i n t e r v e n i n g adolescent years that permit hearing impaired subjects to compensate f o r the lack of a u d i t o r y s e n s i t i v i t y i n the performance of balancing t a s k s . T h i s does not comply w i t h Boyd's (1967) f i n d i n g s that there may be a cumulative e f f e c t of lack of hearing w i t h balance and c o - o r d i n a t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n a slower r a t e of maturation. Furthermore, Myklebust (1964) examined the balancing a b i l i t y of 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 year o l d deaf subjects and even though there was an increase i n the scores between each age group, the deaf were s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f e r i o r to the hearing at each l e v e l . McCurry (1969) compared n o n - a t h l e t i c and a t h l e t i c deaf and hearing subjects on dynamic balance. There appeared t o be a d i f f e r e n c e between dynamic balancing a b i l i t i e s of deaf a t h l e t e s and nonathletes but t h i s was not t r u e of the hearing s u b j e c t s . From observations of and experience w i t h deaf c h i l d r e n , van Uden (1965) i n d i c a t e s that the tempo of t h e i r spontaneous b o d i l y movements i s slower than hearing c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h more complex movements. T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n supports Myklebust's (1964) f i n d i n g s on the Oserestky speed t e s t . Van Uden a l s o b e l i e v e s that deaf c h i l d r e n have d i f f i c u l t y i n r h y t h m i c a l breathing c o n t r o l which r e s u l t s from a r i g i d chest and diaphragm which i n t u r n i s a t t r i b u t e d to the s l i g h t forward bend of the trunk i n t h e i r ' s h u f f l i n g ' g a i t . He notes that i t i s more d i f f i c u l t f o r deaf c h i l d r e n as compared to hearing c h i l d r e n to c o n t r o l t h e i r e xhaling and i n h a l i n g . T h i s d i f f i c u l t y i n r h y t h m i c a l breathing c o n t r o l may e f f e c t cardiopulmonary endurance but t h i s f a c t has not yet been i n v e s t i g a t e d . Berges (1969) f e e l s that the lung c a p a c i t y of the deaf may be underdeveloped due to decreased breathing because of l a c k of speech which may a f f e c t cardiopulmonary endurance. However con t r a r y to Berges* b e l i e f , an i n d i v i d u a l ' s v i t a l c a p a c i t y has l i t t l e bearing on endurance performance (Shephard, 1969). Auxter (19 71) compared two groups of 15 deaf subjects each i n b a l a n c i n g , sensory t e s t s , tasks of eye-hand c o - o r d i n a t i o n , gross body c o - o r d i n a t i o n , motor speed and planning, and p h y s i c a l and motor f i t n e s s . The s u b j e c t s , a l l f r e e from gross p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s were matched on age and I.Q. but one group was e d u c a t i o n a l l y retarded i n excess of 3 years ( d i s a b l e d l e a r n i n g group) whereas the other had acceptable l e a r n i n g r a t e s . In ba l a n c i n g , v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n k i n e s t h e s i s , and weight per c e p t i o n tyhere were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups. In eye-hand c o - o r d i n a t i o n t e s t s , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s appeared i n the pegboard task but i n the w a l l pass task the disabled l e a r n i n g group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f e r i o r which may be due t o the more complex and gross perceptual-motor nature of the w a l l pass task. The r e s u l t s of the motor speed t e s t s i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups on speed of limb movement, dynamic f l e x i b i l i t y , and the standing broad jump. Since these tasks are r e l a t i v e l y gross i n nature and r e q u i r e speed of movement f o r success, Auxter suggests that a d i f f e r e n c e i n performance between groups on these measures may i n d i c a t e that a motor disturbance renders the d i s a b l e d l e a r n i n g group l e s s able to execute s p e c i f i c motor ac t s r e q u i r i n g r a p i d processing of i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o a p l a n . Using g r i p s t r e n g t h t o measure the strength of f o r c e s of a motor act a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was obtained between the two groups, demonstrating that throughout maturation a strength d e f i c i t may r e s u l t because of the p o s s i b i l i t y of fewer motor experiences. There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups i n s t a t i c f l e x i b i l i t y s i n c e t h i s measure d i d not i n v o l v e the planning of a complex motor a c t , nor d i d i t i n v o l v e motor speed. I n the bent-legged s i t u p and step t e s t t a s k s , s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found i n both tasks which f u r t h e r supports Auxter*s c l a i m that when motor planning and speed were i n v o l v e d and when the tasks were gross and neuromuscular behaviour, was complex, d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n a b i l i t y may appear between the two groups, i n favour of the group w i t h no l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y . 18 I n summary, research i n d i c a t e s that on manual d e x t e r i t y tasks or t a s k s which i n v o l v e f i n e motor r e p e t i t i v e movements, deaf c h i l d r e n are equal to hearing c h i l d r e n . On balancing t a s k s , i t has been found that the deaf are s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f e r i o r to the Hearing and i s probably due to damaged s e m i c i r c u l a r c a n a l s . Logan (1969) i n d i c a t e s the deaf compensate somehow during adolescence to improve t h e i r balancing a b i l i t y but r e s u l t s obtained by Myklebust (1964) and Boyd (1967) do not support t h i s f i n d i n g . From t e s t s of speed, Myklebust (1964) found that the deaf are i n f e r i o r to the hearing e s p e c i a l l y i n gross, complex tasks and van Uden's (1965) observations support Myklebust's f i n d i n g s . However, Boyd (1967) found no d i f f e r e n c e between deaf and hearing c h i l d r e n on the same speed tasks used by Myklebust. Auxter (1971) suggest that i n f e r i o r performances on speed tasks as w e l l as i n tasks which are gross and complex may be r e l a t e d to f a u l t y processing and motor planning. Whether or not r h y t h m i c a l breathing c o n t r o l i s a f a c t o r i n cardiopulmonary endurance i s not known f o r no research has been done on i t . However, Berges' (1969) c l a i m that the deaf -may have a l i m i t e d cardiopulmonary endurance because of a decreased lung c a p a c i t y i s erroneous. F i t n e s s of the Deaf Fitness-performance. There has not been any r e s u l t s published concerning the p r o f i c i e n c y of the deaf on fitness-performance t e s t s . Berges (1969), however, f e e l s that the deaf students, as a group-;, do w e l l on these t e s t s ; but on those which i n v o l v e balance or quick change of d i r e c t i o n , scores tend to be lower than average. Furthermore, f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the deaf i n motor a b i l i t y explained e a r l i e r may indeed a f f e c t the p r o f i c i e n c y of the deaf i n fitness-performance items. PWC. Cartmel and B a n i s t e r (1969) examined the p h y s i c a l working c a p a c i t y of deaf school c h i l d r e n who were r e s i d e n t s at J e r i c h o H i l l School i n Vancouver, B.C.. They t e s t e d 44 deaf students (23 male and 21 female) whose ages ranged from 9 to 19. They found that the PWC of the deaf c h i l d r e n was s i m i l a r , even s l i g h t l y s uperior to current l e v e l s of PWC w i t h i n the general p o p u l a t i o n of Canadian c h i l d r e n and they concluded that the handicap of deafness i s no deterent to the normal exuberence of the c h i l d . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study are questioned though f o r the authors used r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s t o compare the deaf w i t h the hearing and i n the 13 to 15 age group there were only 3 deaf females and i n the 16 to 19 age group there were only 4 deaf males. Thus, approximately one subject represented a p a r t i c u l a r age i n these age groupings. F i t n e s s of the Hearing Fitness-performance. In 1966 the Research Committee of the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n of Health, P h y s i c a l Education, and R e c r e a t i o n completed a n a t i o n a l study i n which approximately 11,000 males and females (aged 7 to 17) were t e s t e d on a b a t t e r y of fitness-performance items (one minute speed s i t u p , standing broad jump, s h u t t l e run, f l e x e d arm hang, 50 yard run, and 300 yard run). T h i s p r o j e c t was 20 designed to e s t a b l i s h f i t n e s s norms f o r Canadian c h i l d r e n . The Committee agreed that each t e s t item s e l e c t e d was a v a l i d and r e l i a b l e measure and simple enough f o r any teacher, not t r a i n e d i n f i t n e s s measurement, to administer (CAHPER, 1966). Each province provided the Committee with a l i s t of a l l t h e i r schools w i t h t h e i r enrollments and the schools were randomly s e l e c t e d from t h i s l i s t . The number of schools s e l e c t e d i n each province was p r o p o r t i o n a l to i t s school-age p o p u l a t i o n . From a t o t a l of 135 schools s e l e c t e d there were 48 i n O n t a r i o , 35 i n Quebec, 12 i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 9 i n A l b e r t a , 8 i n Saskatchewan, 6 i n Manitoba and Nova S c o t i a , 5 i n New Brunswick and Newfoundland, and 1 i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . In On t a r i o and Quebec 3 home room c l a s s e s were randomly s e l e c t e d and t e s t e d i n each school. In the other provinces 2 home room c l a s s e s were randomly s e l e c t e d (CAHPER, 1966). Each of the s i x t e s t s measures a d i f f e r e n t aspect of f i t n e s s . The one minute speed s i t - u p s t e s t the muscular str e n g t h and endurance of the abdominal muscles. E x p l o s i v e s t r e n g t h or power of the legs i s measured by the standing broad jump. A g i l i t y , that i s , speed i n changing body p o s i t i o n s or i n changing d i r e c t i o n s i s determined by the s h u t t l e run. Flexed arm hang i n d i c a t e s the muscular endurance of the arm and shoulder muscles. The 50 yard run measures speed and f i n a l l y the 300 yard run i n d i c a t e s stamina or endurance. Norms, expressed as p e r c e n t i l e s , were compiled f o r males and females f o r each age 7 - 1 7 and published i n booklet form by CAHPER (1966). PWC. dimming and Keynes (1967) c o r r e l a t e d maximal oxygen uptake and PWC w i t h scores f o r the CAHPER Fitness-Performance Test. The sample c o n s i s t e d of over 500 male and female s u b j e c t s , 6-18 years of age, from Winnipeg. I t was concluded that the CAHPER F i t n e s s -Performance Test d i d not measure any f a c t o r r e l a t e d to c a r d i o -pulmonary endurance. Such performance t e s t s are h i g h l y dependent on speed, balance, a g i l i t y , and s k i l l s , as w e l l as m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s whereas m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s are el i m i n a t e d i n i d e a l measure-ments of PWC and maximal oxygen i n t a k e . In 1968, the Research Committe of CAHPER completed a n a t i o n a l study i n which 2,107 males and females ('(age 7-17) were administered a t e s t of p h y s i c a l working c a p a c i t y . G e n e r a l l y , the PWC of an i n d i v i d u a l measures h i s c a p a c i t y to perform prolonged p h y s i c a l work and i s l i m i t e d by the a b i l i t y of the c a r d i o v a s c u l a r pulmonary systems to p i c k up, t r a n s p o r t , and g i v e o f f oxygen to the muscle t i s s u e . The CAHPER Research Committee discussed the m e r i t s of v a r i o u s maximal and submaximal t e s t s , i n c l u d i n g step, t r e a d m i l l , and b i c y c l e t e s t s , and then agreed to i n v e s t i g a t e the f e a s i b i l i t y of using the Sjostrand PWC^ 7 QTest. T h i s t e s t e s t a b l i s h e d f i r s t i n a rudimentary form by Sjostr a n d (1947), modified by Wahlund (1948), and subsequently used e x t e n s i v e l y i n Sweden by Sj o s t r a n d , measures p h y s i c a l working c a p a c i t y concurrent w i t h a steady heart r a t e of 170 beats per minute (CAHPER, 1968). P i l o t s t u d i e s were used to i n v e s t i g a t e such questions as r e l i a b i l i t y , v a l i d i t y , and f e a s i b i l i t y of using f o u r - r a t h e r than s i x -minute work loads. The t e s t , modified by the Committee as a r e s u l t of the p i l o t s t u d i e s , i n v o l v e d r i d i n g a modified b i c y c l e ergometer ( a d j u s t a b l e seat and pedals and a l i g h t e r pendulum which consequently reduces the f r i c t i o n a l loading) f o r a t o t a l of 12 minutes; 4 minutes at each of 3 p r o g r e s s i v e l y heavier work loads. The heart r a t e at the end of the f o u r t h minute of each work load i s p l o t t e d against the p a r t i c u l a r work load and a r e g r e s s i o n l i n e i s drawn and ex t r a p o l a t e d or i n t e r p o l a t e d to a heart r a t e of 170. The subject's score i s the work he i s able to produce at a steady s t a t e heart r a t e of 170. From a t o t a l of 175 schools randomly s e l e c t e d there were 17 i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 15 i n A l b e r t a , 13 i n Saskatchewan, 11 i n Manitoba and Nova S c o t i a , 47 i n O n t a r i o , 35 i n Quebec, 10 i n New Brunswick and Newfoundland and 6 i n P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . Approximately 14 students were randomly s e l e c t e d from each school and i n a l l 2,107 c h i l d r e n , 7 to 17, were t e s t e d . Norms were e s t a b l i s h e d i n the forms of p e r c e n t i l e s and published by CAHPER i n booklet form (CAHPER, 1968). CHAPTER I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURES Po p u l a t i o n and Sampling Procedures The p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h i s study c o n s i s t s of deaf students w i t h no major p h y s i c a l or h e a l t h d i s a b i l i t i e s who are e n r o l l e d at J e r i c h o H i l l School f o r the Deaf i n Vancouver, B.C. and Canadian c h i l d r e n who do not have a u d i t o r y impairments nor any major p h y s i c a l or h e a l t h d i s a b i l i t i e s . Deaf s u b j e c t s . F i v e deaf subjects of each sex were randomly chosen from each age group (7, %, 11, 13, and 15) from the deaf popu l a t i o n at J e r i c h o H i l l School. Therefore, there were 50 deaf subjects t e s t e d (25 male and 25 female). Of these 50 s u b j e c t s , two females (ages 9 and 11) and one male (age 13) were dropped from the study before t e s t i n g began because of major motor problems. Three more subjects were dropped during t e s t i n g ; two because of emotional problems (7 year o l d female and 11 year o l d male) and one because he was e x p e l l e d (15 year o l d male). Replacements were s e l e c t e d from the same po p u l a t i o n f o r a l l subjects dropped. A c l o s e r i n s p e c t i o n of the sample shows that there were 21 day students (10 male and 11 female) and 29 r e s i d e n t i a l students (15 male and 14 female). Of the 50 deaf subjects 17 attended o f f campus c l a s s e s i n schools f o r hearing c h i l d r e n . The sample was represented by 45 23 Caucasians, 3 Chinese, and 2 Indian students. A l l the subjects complied to the d e f i n i t i o n of 'deaf* as defined i n t h i s study and a l l were free of major phy s i c a l or helath d i s a b i l i t i e s except a 9 year old female who was s l i g h t l y a t a x i c . Hearing subjects. In 1966 and 1968, the Canadian Association for Health, P h y s i c a l Education and Recreation randomly selected samples from the population of Canadian c h i l d r e n who did not have any major p h y s i c a l or health defects and established norms i n PWC and a battery of fitness-performance items. Thus, the hearing subjects represent the general Canadian school-age population. Testing Procedures For one or two physical education periods p r i o r to the Easter vacation, the deaf subjects were instructed i n the purpose of the CAHPER Fitness-Performance Test; what each i n d i v i d u a l item measures; how the test are performed and scored; what use w i l l be made of the r e s u l t s ; and given p r a c t i c e sessions. Fitness-performance t e s t . The CAHPER Fitness-Performance Test (1966) was administered on A p r i l 20, 21, and 22, 19 71 at Jericho H i l l School for the Deaf. Each subject was tested on one minute speed sit-ups, shuttle run, and standing broad jump/ i n the morning and then on the same day i n the afternoon they were tested on the flexed arm hang, 50 yard run, and 300 yard run i n that order. The one minute 25 speed s i t - u p s , s h u t t l e run, standing broad jump, and the fl e x e d arm hang were administered i n the a l l - p u r p o s e room i n the basement of J e r i c h o H i l l School. The 50 yard and 300 yard run were administered on a s t r a i g h t , l e v e l sidewalk p a r a l l e l i n g the north side of J e r i c h o H i l l School. One teacher ( i n the morning session) and two senior students ( i n both sessions) helped i n the t e s t i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g of i n s t r u c t i o n s . They were briefed„before the t e s t i n g commenced on the methods, procedures, and t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r d i d a l l the timing and data c o l l e c t i n g except on the standing broad jump where the group was s p l i t i n t o two and the teacher recorded the scores from her group. In the one minute speed s i t - u p s the performer's partner counted except i n the 7 and 9 year o l d age group where the i n v e s t i g a t o r and the a s s i s t a n t s counted. The f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s were explained v e r b a l l y and manually to the deaf subjects by the a s s i s t a n t s and demonstrated simultaneously by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . I t was r e a l i z e d because of the s u b j e c t s ' a u d i t o r y impairments that some, e s p e c i a l l y the younger s u b j e c t s , might not understand e x a c t l y what was re q u i r e d of them. Thus, at the end of the explanation and demonstration of each t e s t item, the subjects were asked i f they had any questions. I f there were questions, these u n c e r t a i n t i e s were c l e a r e d up. Again, i t must be stressed that while the f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s were explained v e r b a l l y and manually, each t e s t item was simultaneously demonstrated step by step. S h u t t l e Run: A. S i g n a l s . The s t a r t e r stands 4 feet i n f r o n t and to the side of the subject so that he i s c l e a r l y v i s i b l e to the subject. With h i s l e f t hand he shows h i s index f i n g e r from a close d f i s t and then h i s middle f i n g e r and simultaneously he v e r b a l l y says 'one','two'. On the v e r b a l command 'go' the red f l a g i n h i s r i g h t hand i s f o r c e f u l l y swung towards the f l o o r . B. E x p l a n a t i o n and Demonstration. 1. L i e face down, hands at the side of your chest and your forehead on the s t a r t i n g l i n e . 2. On the s i g n a l (1, 2, f l a g ) , jump to your feet as q u i c k l y as you can and run 30 feet to the second l i n e . 3. P i c k up one block of wood, r e t u r n to the s t a r t i n g l i n e and place the block behind t h i s l i n e . 4. Return to the second l i n e , p i c k up the second block of wood, and run back across the f i n i s h l i n e . 5. Run as f a s t as p o s s i b l e and do not stop at the f i n i s h l i n e . •>.<, 6. Two t r i a l s are given and the best one i s recorded. 7. Any questions? One Minute Speed S i t - u p s : A. S i g n a l s . The s t a r t i s the same as that f o r the s h u t t l e run. The s t a r t e r s i t u a t e s h i m s e l f so that a l l the performers can see him c l e a r l y . The s t a r t e r a l s o informs the counters when the 60 seconds has elapsed by waving the f l a g v i g o r o u s l y above h i s head so that i t can bee seen by them. B. Ex p l a n a t i o n and Demonstration 1. Assume a back - l y i n g p o s i t i o n on the mat, f i n g e r s i n t e r l a c e d behind your head. 2. Your knees are bent and your feet are held f l a t on the f l o o r by a partner. 3. On the standing s i g n a l (1, 2, f l a g ) , s i t - u p and touch both elbows to your knees. Then return to the s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n . 4. The movement s i t - u p and r e t u r n i s counted as one execution. The t o t a l score i s the number of complete executions performed i n 60 seconds. Count when the elbows touch the knees. One p r a c t i c e t r i a l i s allowed. 5. The partner kneels s t r a d d l i n g the performer's f e e t . He places h i s hands on the calves of the performer's legs j u s t below the back of the knee to prevent the subject from s l i d i n g and to maintain the s t a r t i n g p o s i t i o n of the legs throughout the t e s t . 6. The s i t - u p s do not have to be performed contineously. The vigorous waving of the red f l a g w i l l denote the completion of the 60 seconds. Do as many as you can. 7. Any questions? Standing Broad Jump: B. E x p l a n a t i o n and Demonstration 1. Assume a p o s i t i o n w i t h your feet s l i g h t l y apart and your toes behind the t a k e - o f f l i n e . 2. Your h i p s , knees, and ankles should be bent enough so that you can v i g o r o u s l y push your legs and swing your arms to jump as f a r forward as p o s s i b l e . 3. Two p r a c t i c e and two v a l i d t r i a l s are given. The best jump i s recorded. 4. Any Questions? F l e x e d Arm Hang; A. S i g n a l s No s t a r t i n g s i g n a l r e q u i r e d . B. E x p l a n a t i o n and Demonstration 1. G r i p the bar w i t h your palms toward your face. 2. You w i l l be a s s i s t e d to the p o s i t i o n on the bar so that your eyes are at the l e v e l at the bar. 3. Your arms are f u l l y bent. 4. Hold y o u r s e l f i n t h i s hanging p o s i t i o n as long as p o s s i b l e . 5. Again, keep your eyes at the l e v e l of the bar f o r when your head drops below the bar, the t e s t i s over. 6.0ne t r i a l i s allowed. 7. Any questions? 50 Yard Run: A. S i g n a l s Same s t a r t i n g s i g n a l as used f o r the s h u t t l e run. B. E x p l a n a t i o n and Demonstration 1. Observe the 50 yard straightaway from the s t a r t i n g l i n e t o the f i n i s h l i n e between the two s t o o l s . 2. A r a c i n g crouch or the standing s t a r t may be assumed f o r the s t a r t . 3. On the s t a r t i n g s i g n a l (1, 2, f l a g ) , s p r i n t the 50 yards as f a s t as p o s s i b l e and do not stop at the f i n i s h l i n e . 4. One t r i a l i s allowed. 5. Any questions? 300 Yard Run: A. S i g n a l s Same s t a r t i n g s i g n a l as used f o r the s h u t t l e run. B. E x p l a n a t i o n and Demonstration 1. A 50 yard straightaway from the s t a r t i n g l i n e where there i s a s t o o l to the other s t o o l . 2. A r a c i n g crouch or standing s t a r t may be assumed f o r the s t a r t . 3. On the s t a r t i n g s i g n a l (1, 2, f l a g ) , run s t r a i g h t up and around the s t o o l and back over the 50 yard straightaway and than around the s t o o l at the s t a r t i n g l i n e . Do not touch the s t o o l s . 4. The c i r c u i t i s run 3 times to make up 300 yards. 5 A counter placed at the s t a r t i n g l i n e i s used to inform you on how many laps you have gone. 6. One t r i a l i s allowed. 7. Anu questions? The f o l l o w i n g equipment was used f o r the Fitness-Performance Test; 4-5x10 foot gymnastic mats, 1-50 foot c l o t h measuring tape, 2 wooden b l o c k s , 2 stop watches, l l c h i n n i n g bar, 2 standards, 4 benches, 2 s t o o l s , 1 red f l a g , and a counter. An example of the score card appears i n Appendix A. A l l subjects wore shorts and running shoes f o r the t e s t . I t was f e l t by the i n v e s t i g a t o r and a s s i s t a n t s that the subjects understood how to perform the t e s t s and performed them w i t h much enthusiasm and according to the t e s t d i r e c t i o n s . P h y s i c a l working c a p a c i t y t e s t . The CAHPER PWC Test (1968) was adminsitered at J e r i c h o H i l l School i n a w e l l l i t , v e n t i l a t e d , and vacant room from A p r i l 23 to A p r i l 30, 1971, excluding the weekend. Approximately 6 subjects were tested i n the morning and 4 i n the afternoon. Mrs. M. R. Kinsey aided the i n v e s t i g a t o r i n t e s t i n g by recording the number of r e v o l u t i o n s on the counter at the end of each minute of the r i d e and by converting and recording the time f o r 30 beats to beats per minute. P r i o r to the PWC t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s , 4 e i g h t year o l d deaf subjects (2 male and 2 female) went through the t e s t i n g procedure to give the i n v e s t i g a t o r and a s s i s t a n t p r a c t i c e and to get the methods standardized. The procedures recommended i n the CAHPER PWC Test Manual (1968) were followed p r e c i s e l y except that the speedometer on the b i c y c l e ergometer was used instead of the metronome. The i n s t r u c t i o n s were w r i t t e n on a piece of paper as f o l l o w s : 1. Pedal the b i c y c l e at a steady r a t e f o r 12 minutes. 2. Keep the red needle at the l i n e marked on the g l a s s of the speedometer (which was marked at the 23.6 k i l o m e t e r mark). 3. Any djuestions? I t was r e a l i z e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r that these w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n might not be f u l l y understood by the deaf c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y the younger 29 ones; therefore, these i n s t r u c t i o n s were v i s u a l l y demonstrated and mimed by the inv e s t i g a t o r . I f there were any problems i n understanding what to do, and there were only two, Mr. E. C a r d i n a l l , the p r i n c i p a l a s s i s t e d i n explaining the procedure. There were 3 subjects (2 seven year old females and 1 seven year old male) who could not reach the pedals even when the seat and pedals were adjusted. This was solved by cuttin g appropriate' sized blocks (3 inches i n height) and taping them on the pedals; hence the subjects could then reach the pedals. The following equipment was used for the CAHPER PWC Test: 1 b i c y c l e ergometer (same one as used i n the CAHPER study)„ 1 counter, 1 thermometer, 1 weight scale, 1 stethoscope, and 2 stop watches. The b i c y c l e ergometer was c a l i b r a t e d at Jericho H i l l School a f t e r i t had been transported from the Physiology laboratory of The Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. An example of the score card used, appears i n Appendix A. Males wore shorts and running shoes and the females wore a loose blouse, running shoes, and slacks or shorts. Males were weighted and measured i n t h e i r shorts and bare feet and the females i n t h e i r shorts or slacks, blouse, and bare feet. R e l i a b i l i t i e s and V a l i d i t i e s Due to the facts that the CAHPER Committee selected the 6 items for the Fitness-Performance Test; tested the general Canadian school-age population; and established norms, the 6 items are 30 considered r e l i a b l e and v a l i d . L i k e w i s e , the CAHPER PWC Test i s considered r e l i a b l e and v a l i d . K l e s i a s (1968) reports that the r e l i a b i l i t i e s i n the s i t - u p s , s h u t t l e run, standing broad jump, and 50 yard dash from the AAHPER Youth F i t n e s s Test, a te s t s i m i l a r to the CAHPER Fitness-Performance Tes t , range from .68 to .95. From the CAHPER Committee's records (Brown, S.R., 1971) the r e l i a b i l i t y of the PWC 1 ? Q 18 minute t e s t i s .83 f o r males and .71 f o r females. They a l s o point out that the 12 minute t e s t i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from that of the 18 minute t e s t f o r males but there i s no d i f f e r e n c e between these two t e s t s fo r females. Data A n a l y s i s The data i s i n t e r v a l i n nature and there are 8 dependent v a r i a b l e s (one minute speed s i t - u p s , s h u t t l e run, standing broad jump, 50 yard run, 300 yard run, f l e x e d arm hang, P W C ^ Q , and PWCj^Q^g) and 3 independent v a r i a b l e s (type, age, and sex). Eig h t 2x2x5 ANOVA's were used w i t h 2 l e v e l s of type (deaf and hearing ) , 2 l e v e l s of sex (males and females), and 5 l e v e l s of age (7, 9, 11, 13, and 15). Program FINN (1968) was u t i l i z e d to t e s t 6 preplanned s t a t i s t i c a l hypothesis which were s p e c i f i c to the problems of t h i s study. These 6 s i n g l e degree of freedom c o n t r a s t s 31 were: Auditory: T h i s contrast t e s t s the d i f f e r e n c e i n performance between the deaf and hearing s u b j e c t s . A u d i t o r y x Sex: Th i s c o n t r a s t t e s t s whether the d i f f e r e n c e i n performance between the deaf and hearing i s the same f o r males as i t i s f o r females. A u d i t o r y x Age _, . : This c o n t r a s t t e s t s whether the l i n e a r J ° L i n . change i n performance over age i s the same f o r the deaf as i t i s f o r the hearing. A u d i t o r y x A g e q u a ( j : T h i s c o n t r a s t t e s t s whether the quadratic change i n performance over age i s the same f o r the deaf as i t i s f o r the hearing. A quadratic trend t y p i f i e s a change i n slope from p o s i t i v e to negative or v i c e versa. A u d i t o r y x Sex x Age,. . : This c o n t r a s t t e s t s whether the A u d i t o r y J ° L i n . x Age T . i n t e r a c t i o n i s the same f o r males as i t i s f o r females. Lm. Another p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s c ontrast i s whether the d i f f e r e n c e between sexes i n the l i n e a r change i n performance over age i s the same f o r deaf and hearing. A u d i t o r y x Sex x A S e g u a ( j : T h i s c o n t r a s t t e s t whether the Au d i t o r y x Age„ , i n t e r a c t i o n i s the same f o r males as i t i s f o r 3 6 Quad. females. Another p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s c o n t r a s t i t whether the d i f f e r e n c e between sexes i n the quadratic change i n performance over age i s the same f o r deaf and hearing. CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION RESULTS Raw scores f o r the hearing subjects could not be obtained so the means and the standard d e v i a t i o n s as given i n the CAHPER booklets (1966, 1968) were used instead.*" Raw scores f o r the deaf subjects appear i n Appendix B. The computer program FINN (1968) accepts input data i n the form of c e l l means, c e l l frequencies, and pooled v a r i a n c e s ; thus, the u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l scores was not r e s t r i c t i v e i n t h i s respect. However, under t h i s c o n d i t i o n , large d i f f e r e n c e s i n c e l l s i z e s (5 f o r deaf and approximately 300 f o r hearing) s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d the c a l c u l a t i o n of the mean squares f o r any i n t e r a c t i o n s , r e s u l t i n g i n gross overestimates of e f f e c t s . Consequently i t was necessary to analyze the data on the premise that the hearing data were based on c e l l frequences of only 10 s u b j e c t s . In e f f e c t t h i s h y p o t h e t i c a l reduction i n sample s i z e provides a much more conservative t e s t then would have been made under the c o n d i t i o n of c e l l frequencies of 300. H:he raw data from both the CAHPER surveys are on f i l e w i t h the chairman of the research team which conducted these s t u d i e s . However, t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r was refused access to these f i l e s . The reason given f o r t h i s r e s t r i c t e d access was that under the o r i g i n a l agreement by a l l provinces p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n these s t u d i e s , there would be no i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l comparisons made. As a p r o t e c t i o n against t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y none of the o r i g i n a l data i s a v a i l a b l e f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s . 32 PWCJ ^ Q. As shown i n Table I , there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between deaf and hearing subjects i n p h y s i c a l working c a p a c i t y when scores are averaged over sex and age. However, the s i g n i f i c a n t A u d i t o r y x Sex i n t e r a c t i o n shows that the d i f f e r e n c e between the deaf and hearing males i s not the same as i t i s f o r females. Table I I rev e a l s that f o r the male subjects the hearing are superior to the deaf but f o r the female subjects the hearing are i n f e r i o r t o the deaf. The s i g n i f i c a n t A u d i t o r y x A g e ^ ^ i n t e r a c t i o n i n d i c a t e s ; that the l i n e a r change i n performance over age i s not the same for the deaf as i t i s f o r the hearing s u b j e c t s . F i g u r e s 1 and 2 show that the slope of the l i n e s f o r the deaf subjects i s s l i g h t l y steeper than that f o r the hearing. On combining deaf scores (male and female) at each age and p l o t t i n g them against hearing scores at each age, the l i n e representing the hearing values i s l i n e a r and increases approximately 80 Kp.-m./min. every two years. The l i n e representing the deaf values i s a l s o l i n e a r up to age 13 w i t h s i m i l a r increases every two years but from age 13 to 15 the increase jumps to 170 Kp.-m./min. Table I I I r e v e a l s that there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t P W C 1 7 0 / K g . d i f f e r e n c e between deaf and hearing c h i l d r e n i n p h y s i c a l working c a p a c i t y per k i l o g r a m body weight when scores are averaged over sex and age. However, the s i g n i f i c a n t A u d i t o r y x Sex i n t e r a c t i o n i n d i c a t e s that the d i f f e r e n c e between the deaf and hearing males i s not the same as i t i s f o r the females. Table I V shows that the hearing males are superior to the deaf males but the hearing females are i n f e r i o r to the deaf females. TABLE I SUMMARY OF ANOVA - PWC Source di Mean Square F P Au d i t o r y 1 263.51 < 1.0 Au d i t o r y x Sex 1 162229.56 8.84 < .0036 A u d i t o r y x A g e ^ n 172872.00 9.42 < .0027 A u d i t o r y x A g e Q u a < J < 1 15683.18 < 1.0 Au d i t o r y x Sex x Age^^ n 1 2727.12 < 1.0 Au d i t o r y x Sex x Age a < j 1 14308.91 < 1.0 E r r o r 130 18343.35 TABLE I I AUDITORY X SEX MEANS - PWC Males Females Mean Hearing 516.1 359.6 437.8 Deaf 492.9 377.5 435.2 Mean 504.5 368.6 35 FIGURE ]: PWC170 - MALE 36 co. in 37 TABLE I I I SUMMARY OF ANOVA - PWC 170/kg Source df Mean Square F P A u d i t o r y 1 0.84 < 1.0 Au d i t o r y x Sex 1 80.52 9.16 < .003 Au d i t o r y x A g 6 L i n . 1 0.01 < 1.0 Au d i t o r y x A g e Q u a d . 1 12.34 1.40 < .2381 Au d i t o r y x Sex x A g e L . n > 1 0.38 < 1.0 Au d i t o r y x Sex x A g e Q u a d > 1 0.05 < 1.0 E r r o r 130 8.79 TABLE IV AUDITORY X SEX MEANS - PWC 170/Kg Males Females Mean Hearing 12.95 9.48 11.21 Deaf 12.32 9.79 11.05 Mean 12.63 9.63 38 a ca" 39 FIGURE 4: PWC170/KG - FEMALE 40 Standing broad jump. Table V i n d i c a t e s that there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the performance of deaf and hearing subjects i n the standing broad jump when scores are averaged over sex and age. However, a s i g n i f i c a n t A u d i t o r y x Age i n t e r a c t i o n shows thatthe Liin • l i n e a r change i n performance over age i s not the same f o r the hearing as i t i s f o r th'e deaf. F i g u r e s 5 and 6 r e v e a l that the slope of the l i n e s f o r the deaf subjects i s f l a t t e r than those f o r the hearing. T h i s i s due to the f a c t that the deaf subjects' v a l u e s remain v i r t u a l l y unchanged from the ages 9 to 11 f o r males and decrease from 11 to 13 f o r females, whereas the hearing s u b j e c t s ' values increase f o r both sexes from each age 9 through 15. S h u t t l e run. Since t h i s t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e i s very c o n s e r v a t i v e and since the A u d i t o r y main e f f e c t from Table V I I i s v i r t u a l l y at the .01 s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l , i t i s considered s i g n i f i c a n t . Thus, there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between deaf and hearing subjects i n the s h u t t l e run when scores are averaged over sex and age. Fi g u r e s 7 and 8 show that the deaf subjects sampled are slower than the hearing f o r both sexes at each age but t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i s p r i m a r i l y due t o the poor score obtained by the 9 year o l d deaf female who i s s l i g h t l y a t a x i c . For the same reason as above the A u d i t o r y x Age_. i n t e r a c t i o n U n , i s considered s i g n i f i c a n t . Thus, the l i n e a r change i n performance i n the s h u t t l e run over age i s not the same f o r the hearing as i t i s f o r the deaf. F i g u r e s 7 and 8 show that the slope of the l i n e f o r the deaf subjects i s f l a t t e r than that f o r the hearing. T h i s s i g n i f i c a n t TABLE V SUMMARY OF ANOVA - STANDING BROAD JUMP Source df Mean Square F P Au d i t o r y I 34.69 < 1.0 Au d i t o r y x Sex 1 114.41 1.67 < .1981 A u d i t o r y x L i n . 1482.97 21.69 < .0001 A u d i t o r y x A g e Q u a d . 1 10.06 < 1.0 Au d i t o r y x Sex x Age_ . L i n , 1 84.27 1.23 < .269 A u d i t o r y x Sex x Age„ , 6 Quad. 1 7.20 < 1.0 E r r o r 130 68.38 TABLE VI AUDITORY X SEX MEANS - STANDING BROAD JUMP Males Females Mean Hearing 58.4 53.2 55.8 Deaf 57.4 52.2 54.8 Mean 57.9 52.7 43 a CD FIGURE 6: STRNDING BRORD JUMP - FEMALE TABLE V I I SUMMARY OF ANOVA - SHUTTLE RUN Source df Mean Square F P A u d i t o r y i 8.60 5.44 < .0213 A u d i t o r y x Sex 1 1.88 1.19 < .2774 A u d i t o r y x A g e L i n . 1 10.64 6.73 < .0106 A u d i t o r y x A g e Q u a d . 1 1.99 1.25 < .2642 A u d i t o r y x Sex x A g e L . n > 1 0.09 < 1.0 Au d i t o r y x Sex x A g e Q u a d < 1 0.60 < 1.0 E r r o r 130 1.58 TABLE V I I I AUDITORY X SEX MEANS - SHUTTLE RUN Males Females Mean Hearing 12.6 13.4 13.0 Deaf 13.0 14.0 13.5 Mean 12.8 13.7 45 i n t e r a c t i o n occurs p r i m a r i l y because f o r the deaf females the 9 year ol d groups' score i s higher because of the poor score obtained by the s l i g h t l y a t a x i c subject than that of the 7 year o l d s whereas f o r the hearing females there i s a decrease i n score from the 7 to the 9 year o l d group. S i t - u p s . From Table IX, there i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between deaf and hearing subjects i n s i t - u p s when scores are averaged over sex and age. Table X i n d i c a t e s that t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i s i n favour of the deaf su b j e c t s . F i g u r e s 9 and 10 r e v e a l that the deaf are superi o r to the hearing at each age and f o r both sexes. Flexed arm hang. Table XI shows that there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between deaf and hearing subjects i n the f l e x e d arm hang when scores are averaged over sex and age. 50 Yard run. Table X I I I i n d i c a t e s there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the deaf and hearing i n the 50 yard run when scores are averaged over sex and age. The s i g n i f i c a n t A u d i t o r y x Age . i n t e r a c t i o n i n d i c a t e s that the l i n e a r change i n performance over Li x n« age i s not the same f o r the deaf as i t i s f o r the hearing. F i g u r e s 13 and 14 show that the slope of the l i n e s f or the deaf subjects i s f l a t t e r than those f o r the hearing, and that t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n occurs p r i m a r i l y because of the small decrease i n scores from the 7 to the 9 year o l d deaf females. 48 TABLE IX SUMMARY OF ANOVA - SIT-UPS Source df Mean Square F p A u d i t o r y 1 964.80 10.12 < .0019 A u d i t o r y x Sex 1 215.99 2.27 < .1347 A u d i t o r y x A g e L i n . 1 201.72 2.12 < .1482 A u d i t o r y x A g e Q u a d . 1 181.37 1.90 < .1702 A u d i t o r y x Sex x A g e ^ 1 44.85 < 1.0 Au d i t o r y x Sex x A g e Q u a d > 1 5.04 < 1.0 E r r o r 130 95.32 TABLE X AUDITORY X SEX MEANS - SIT-UPS Males Females Mean Hearing 28.5 21.4 24.9 Deaf 33.8 26.9 30.2 Mean 31.1 24.2 49 50 TABLE XI SUMMARY OF ANOVA - FLEXED ARM HANG Source df Mean Square F P A u d i t o r y 1 141.46 < 1.0 Aud i t o r y x Sex 1 1338.02 3.91 < .0502 A u d i t o r y x A g e L i n . 1 504.40 1.47 < .2271 A u d i t o r y x A g e Q u a d . 1 2.92 < 1.0 A u d i t o r y x Sex x Age. . ° L i n . 1 140.08 < 1.0 Au d i t o r y x Sex x Age. , e Quad. 1 5.92 < 1.0 E r r o r 130 342.44 TABLE X I I AUDITORY X SEX MEANS - FLEXED ARM HANG Males Females Mean Hearing 36.0 18.9 27.3 Deaf 33.6 16.8 25.2 Mean 34.8 17.7 52 53 AGE FIGURE 1 2 : FLEXED ARM HRNG - FEMALE TABLE X I I I SUMMARY OF ANOVA - SO YARD RUN Source df Mean Square F P A u d i t o r y 1 2.219 2.60 < • 1092 A u d i t o r y x Sex 1 1.402 1.64 < • 2021 A u d i t o r y x A g e L i n . 1 10.754 12.61 < 0006 A u d i t o r y x A g e Q u a d . 1 1.070 1.26 < • 2647 A u d i t o r y x Sex x Age_ . L i n . 1 0.563 < 1.0 Au d i t o r y x Sex x Age. , & Quad. 1 0.210 < 1.0 E r r o r 130 0.853 TABLE XIV AUDITORY X SEX MEANS - 50 YARD RUN Male Female Mean Hearing 8.7 9.3 9.0 Deaf 8.9 9.5 9.2 Mean 8.8 9.4 55 FIGURE 13: 50 YRRD RUN - MRLE 300 Yard run. Table XV i n d i c a t e s that there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the performance of deaf and hearing subjects i n the 300 yard run when scores are averaged over sex and age. However, a s i g n i f i c a n t A u d i t o r y x A g e ^ n i n t e r a c t i o n shows that the l i n e a r change i n performance over age i s not the same f o r the hearing as i t i s f o r the deaf. T h i s i s p r i m a r i l y due to the d i f f e r e n c e i n slopes f o r the female s u b j e c t s , the slope f o r the deaf being f l a t t e r . F i g u r e 16 shows that the d i f f e r e n c e i n performance between ages de-creases from 7 to 15 years whereas the deaf s u b j e c t s ' v a l u e s are very e r r a t i c - decreasing from 7 to 11 years, i n c r e a s i n g to 13 years, and again decreasing to 15 years. 58 TABLE XV SUMMARY OF ANOVA - 300 YARD RUN Source df Mean Square F P A u d i t o r y 1 1.76 < 1.0 Au d i t o r y x Sex 1 102.51 1.31 < .2541 Au d i t o r y x A g e L i n . 1 846.72 10.84 .0013 Au d i t o r y x A g e Q u a d . 1 60.95 < 1.0 Au d i t o r y x Sex x Age_ . L i n . 1 79.05 1.01 < .3163 A u d i t o r y x Sex x Age,. , 6 Quad. 1 11.67 < 1.0 E r r o r 130 78.11 TABLE XVI AUDITORY X SEX MEANS - 300 YARD RUN Males Females Mean Hear ing 72.1 77.0 74.6 Deaf 72.3 77.2 74.8 Mean 72.2 77.1 59 60 DISCUSSION Th i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n has attempted to determine whether or not there i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s or i n the developmental change of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s between deaf and hearing c h i l d r e n . By examining the components of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s as defined i n t h i s study, the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and developmental change of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s of deaf c h i l d r e n i s o b j e c t i v e l y determined. Cardiopulmonary endurance. T h i s component of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s i s determined by how w e l l the subjects perform i n the 3 0 0 yard run, P W C ^Q and PWC^Q^kg. ^he r e s u l t s show that there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between deaf and hearing c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r performances on these three t e s t items when scores are averaged over sex and age. These f i n d i n g s support the r e s u l t s of Cartmel's and B a n i s t e r ' s (1969) study but cause d i f f i c u l t i e s i n drawing inferences from van Uden's observations. I f i n f a c t van Uden's (1965) statement that the deaf have d i f f i c u l t y i n c o n t r o l l i n g t h e i r exhaling and i n h a l i n g i s v a l i d , t h i s does not seem to a f f e c t t h e i r cardiopulmonary endurance. However, f o r the P W C ^ Q and PWCj^Q^g t e s t items, the s i g n i f i c a n t A u d i t o r y x Sex i n t e r a c t i o n s i n d i c a t e that the d i f f e r e n c e between the deaf and hearing males i s not the same as i t i s f o r females. In f a c t , f o r the male subjects the hearing are super i o r to the deaf but f o r the female subjects the hearing are i n f e r i o r to the deaf. Thus, deaf females compared with t h e i r hearing counterparts have a greater c a p a c i t y to perform prolonged p h y s i c a l work and furthermore when p h y s i c a l working c a p a c i t y i s expressed per k i l o g r a m body weight the deaf females are a l s o s u p e r i o r . The opposite s i t u a t i o n holds t r u e f o r the deaf males. A p o s s i b l e explanation of these r e s u l t s i s that s i n c e female c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y i s g e n e r a l l y more s o c i a l l y o r i e n t a t e d as compared t o the more a c t i v e p l a y of males and because of the lack of communication, deaf females may be o s t r a s i z e d from s o c i a l p l a y and consequently r e s o r t to a more a c t i v e existence than hearing females. Furthermore, since hearing males p a r t i c i p a t e i n a more a c t i v e p l a y r a t h e r than s o c i a l , deaf males may not be as a c t i v e because of p o s s i b l e r e s t r i c t i o n s and ove r - p r o t e c t i o n s of t h e i r parents. The s i g n i f i c a n t A u d i t o r y x A g e ^ ^ i n t e r a c t i o n s f o r the P W C J ^ Q and 300 yard run i n d i c a t e that the l i n e a r change i n performance over age i s not the same f o r the deaf as i t i s f o r the hearing s u b j e c t s . T h i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n f o r the P W C ^ Q i s primarely due to the deaf males having a steeper slope from the ages 13 to 15. Th i s i s due to the f a c t that the deaf 15 year o l d males are heavier than t h e i r hearing counterparts but when weight i s considered t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n slope i s smaller (note the A u d i t o r y x Age T . i n t e r a c t i o n f o r the PWCj^Q^g i s n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t ) . The d i f f e r e n c e i n slopes f o r males between hearing and deaf i s s t i l l present i n the ^ ^uQ/^r, b u t presumably to the decrement i n the performance of the 15 year o l d hearing males. I n the 300 yard run the s i g n i f i c a n t A u d i t o r y x Age . i n t e r a c t i o n i s due to the very i n c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n of development f o r the female deaf.. The very good performance by 11 year o l d s , the consid e r a b l e increase to 13 and then decrease to 15 i s p o s s i b l y due to sampling e r r o r . Muscular power* The a b i l i t y of deaf c h i l d r e n to r e l e a s e maximum muscular forc e i n the shortest period of time as measured by the standing broad jump i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t to hearing c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y of the same. However, the r e s u l t s show that the l i n e a r change i n performance over age i s not the same f o r the deaf as i t i s f o r the hearing i n the standing broad jump. T h i s i s due to the f a c t that the deaf s u b j e c t s ' values l e v e l o f f from age 9 to 11 f o r the males and 11 to 13 f o r the females, whereas the hearing s u b j e c t s ' values increase f o r both sexes c o n s t a n t l y over a l l ages. A f a c t o r which may be r e l a t e d to t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s that there are more c h i l d r e n i n the 11 year o l d male and 13 year o l d female groups who attend J e r i c h o H i l l School than i n the 9 year o l d male and 11 year o l d female groups. Thus, t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n l i n e a r change over age may be r e l a t e d i n part to d i f f e r e n t p h y s i c a l education programs, but the f a c t that t h i s does not appear i n other age groups where t h i s s i t u a t i o n a l s o e x i s t s or i n other t e s t items, makes t h i s p o s s i b l e explanation untenable. A g i l i t y ? The a b i l i t y of deaf c h i l d r e n to change body p o s i t i o n s or to change d i r e c t i o n q u i c k l y as measured by the s h u t t l e run i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t than the hearing c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y of the same. A l s o the l i n e a r development i n performance over age i n a g i l i t y i s not the same f o r the deaf as i t i s f o r hearing c h i l d r e n . T h i s s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e might not occur though i f the score of the 9 year o l d deaf female who i s s l i g h t l y a t a x i c was del e t e d . The mean of the group without her would have been 13.8 seconds (9 year o l d hearing female mean = 13.8 seconds); t h e r e f o r e , without her the graph 64 ( F i g u r e 8) would e x h i b i t a slope more s i m i l a r to that f o r the hearing and deaf females with, the exception of a s l i g h t .rise i n the 13 year o l d females. Thus, the developmental change i n a g i l i t y of deaf c h i l d r e n i s s i m i l a r to the developmental change of hearing c h i l d r e n . However, as Berges (1969) p o i n t s out the deaf are s l i g h t l y slower i n a g i l i t y as i l l u s t r a t e d by F i g u r e s 7 and 8. A p o s s i b l e explanation of the deaf's poorer scores i n the s h u t t l e run may be r e l a t e d t o i n f e r i o r balance due to damaged s e m i c i r c u l a r c anals. However, since r o t a t i o n and c a l o r i c t e s t s were not administered, the c o n d i t i o n of the deaf s u b j e c t s ' s e m i c i r c u l a r canals i s not known. Thus, a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n -ship between poor a g i l i t y and i n f e r i o r balance cannot be supported w i t h c e r t a i n t y . Another p o s s i b l e explanation may stem from the f a c t that JL parents of deaf c h i l d r e n may have a tendency to overprotect t h e i r o f f s p r i n g mainly f o r s a f e t y purposes. Thus, the pla y ( i . e . t ag, chase, etc.) of deaf c h i l d r e n may be r e s t r i c t e d e s p e c i a l l y when t h e i r p l a y i s near t r a f f i c . Muscular endurance. T o t a l muscular endurance i s the combination of muscular endurance of the shoulder and arm muscles as measured by the f l e x e d arm hang and of the abdominal muscles as measured by the one minute speed s i t - u p s . The former t e s t r e s u l t s show that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the deaf and hearing i n the f l e x e d arm hang or i n the developmental change i n performance of t h i s item. However, a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between the deaf and hearing i n s i t - u p s when scores were averaged over sex and age but there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r developmental p a t t e r n s . F i g u r e s 9 and 10 r e v e a l that the deaf are supe r i o r to the hearing i n every age group. 65 For both sexes they are i n i t i a l l y b e t t e r and then maintain t h e i r s u p e r i o r i t y . P o s s i b l e explanations f o r the s u p e r i o r i t y of the deaf subjects may be r e l a t e d to the f a c t s that the deaf r e c e i v e a p h y s i c a l education program r i c h i n abdominal strength and endurance e x e r c i s e s or that the deaf subjects were more h i g h l y motivated than the hearing subjects during the t e s t i n g of t h i s t e s t item. Another p o s s i b l e e x p l anation of t h i s s u p e r i o r i t y may be r e l a t e d to the landscape of J e r i c h o H i l l School which i s s i t u a t e d on the side of a h i l l . The o l d e r deaf c h i l d r e n (11, 13, and 15 year olds) attend school on the top of the h i l l but the d i n i n g h a l l i s at the bottom; thus, at meals the o l d e r c h i l d r e n have to s c a l e approximately 100 s t a i r s each way. T h i s may increase t h e i r abdominal endurance. S i m i l a r i l y , the younger deaf c h i l d r e n (7 and 9 year olds) climb the steep i n c l i n e during the winter months to s l i d e down. The f a c t that t h i s s u p e r i o r i t y of deaf c h i l d r e n . i n s i t - u p s does not appear i n the PWCJ^Q and standing broad jump makes t h i s p o s s i b l e explanation questionable though. Speed. Quickness with which successive movements of the same k i n d can be performed or speed as measured by the 50 yard run, was found to be not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r the hearing and deaf subjects when scores were averaged over sex and age. Thus, Myklebust's (1964) f i n d i n g s that the deaf are i n f e r i o r to the hearing i n speed tasks and e s p e c i a l l y those which are gross and complex and van Uden's (1965) b e l i e f that the tempo of the deaf spontaneous b o d i l y movements i s slower than that of the hearing c h i l d r e n are not supported by the r e s u l t s found i n the 50 yard run. However, as Fi g u r e s 13 and 14 i l l u s t r a t e , the deaf dubjects were s l i g h t l y slower i n the 50 yard run than t h e i r hearing counterparts i n a l l age groups but t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was not s i g n i f i c a n t . These r e s u l t s then support Boyd's (1967) f i n d i n g s that the deaf are equal to the hearing i n speed. The r e s u l t s a l s o showed that the l i n e a r change i n performance over age i n the 50 yard run i s not the same f o r the deaf as i t i s f o r the hearing. T h i s may be due to the f a c t that i n the 9 year o l d female group there was a subject who i s s l i g h t l y a t a x i c and her time i n the 50 yard run was over 2 seconds slower than the subjects i n her group. The mean of the group without her would have been 9.9 seconds (9 year o l d hearing female mean =9.7 seconds); t h e r e f o r e without her the graph (Fi g u r e 14) would e x h i b i t a s i m i l a r slope f o r both hearing and deaf females. Thus, the developmental change i n speed of the deaf subjects i s s i m i l a r to that of hearing c h i l d r e n . P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s ^ From the f i n d i n g s , i t i s apparent that the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s of deaf c h i l d r e n who are e n r o l l e d at J e r i c h o H i l l School i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t than that of hearing c h i l d r e n and i n f a c t , the deaf are s i g n i f i c a n t l y superior i n s i t - u p s which i s and i n d i c a t o r o f muscular endurance of the abdominal muscles. Berges' (1969) observation that the deaf do w e l l on p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s t e s t s i s supported by these f i n d i n g s ; and furthermore, her c l a i m that on t e s t s which i n v o l v e quick changes of d i r e c t i o n s the scores of deaf c h i l d r e n tend to be below average i s a l s o supported by the s h u t t l e run r e s u l t s where the deaf subjects were s l i g h t l y slower than the hearing c h i l d r e n . Balance, which was not d i r e c t l y measured i n t h i s study i s known to be poorer i n deaf c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y those whose e t i o l o g y i s m e n i n g i t i s as compared to hearing c h i l d r e n . Thus, an i n s p e c t i o n of the scores obtained by the 3 m e n i n g i t i c subjects (two 1 1 year o l d males and one 1 5 year o l d male) on the tasks i n th i s study was done. The two 1 1 year old-males d i d poorer than the other 3 males i n t h e i r age group i n the P W C ^ Q s h u t t l e run, 5 0 yard run, and 3 0 0 yard run. The e t i o l o g y of m e n i n g i t i s , then, may a l s o a f f e c t d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y i n d i v i d u a l s i n other motor aspects of performance besides balance. Thus from o b j e c t i v e l y compiling the r e s u l t s found i n the 8 t e s t items, the p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s of deaf c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d at J e r i c h o H i l l School i s equal to that of hearing c h i l d r e n . P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s development. Development should be i n v e s t i g a t e d l o n g i t u d i n a l l y not c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l l y as t h i s study does. However, i f there was strong i n d i c a t i o n s i n every t e s t item that there was a d i f f e r e n c e i n the developmental change i n performance over age of d e a f c h i l d r e n as compared to hearing c h i l d r e n i t would probably be safe to confirm such a d i f f e r e n c e . From i n s p e c t i o n of the 8 t e s t items r e s u l t s , i t i s found that 5 of them ( P W C ^ Q standing broad jump, s h u t t l e run, 5 0 yard run, and 3 0 0 yard run) d i d have a s i g n i f i c a n t A u d i t o r y x Age, . . ^  , . , ' ° J ° L i n . i n t e r a c t i o n which i n d i c a t e s that the l i n e a r change i n performance over age i s not the same f o r the deaf as i t i s f o r the hearing. In a l l cases except f o r the standing broad jump and 3 0 0 yard run these s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s are due to a d i f f e r e n c e at a s p e c i f i c age and i n one sex only. In the 68 PWC 1 7 n the s i g n i f i c a n t A u d i t o r y x Age . i n t e r a c t i o n p r i m a r i l y due to the heavier weight of the 15 year o l d males as compared to t h e i r hearing counterparts. In the s h u t t l e run and 50 yard run i t i s due to the poor performance of the 9 year o l d deaf female, which makes a major c o n t r i b u t i o n to t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n . The s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s i n the standing broad jump and 300 yard run are p a r t l y due to the poor performance of the deaf 11 year o l d males and 13 year o l d females and the e r r a t i c performance of the deaf female su b j e c t s . Thus no g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s are p o s s i b l e and i t seems that the developmental change i n performance over age i n the 8 t e s t items i s s i m i l a r f o r deaf and hearing c h i l d r e n . POST HOC ANALYSIS A p o s s i b l e cause of the s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t F r a t i o s obtained i n the preceding a n a l y s i s , when no p r a c t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t trends were present, could be due to heterogeneity of v a r i a n c e . This was tested fo r w i t h B a r t l e t t ' s t e s t f o r homogeneity of v a r i a n c e , and the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d heterogeneity i n each of the eight dependent v a r i a b l e s (see Appendix D f o r v a r i a n c e s ) . Consequently the F r a t i o s obtained i n the a n a l y s i s reported i n t h i s paper are s l i g h t l y biased. Although the F t e s t i s u s u a l l y robust w i t h respect to departures from equal v a r i a n c e s , i t i s s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d by the combined e f f e c t s of heterogeneity of variance and unequal c e l l s i z e (Winer, 1962) - both of which are present i n t h i s study. Thus, the data were reanalyzed u t i l i z i n g a c e l l s i z e of f i v e for both hearing and deaf groups. The r e s u l t s of 6 9 these analyes showed that the previous tests were indeed bised and lacked conservativeness. TheF F ratios for a l l tests for each dependent variable were nonsignificant, the only exceptions being the Auditory effect for both sit-ups ( F = 7 . 5 9 , p ^ . 0 0 7 ) and shuttle run ( F = 4 . 0 8 , . 0 4 7 ) . These two main effects were also the only significant main effects in the original analysis. Although these results negate a few specific findings given in the results section of this chapter, they do not cause any major changes in the conclusions drawn;'. This reanalysis actually supports the conclusions drawn previously; that i s , there i s no difference between deaf and hearing children i n the developmental change in physical fitness over age. CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS SUMMARY This study attemted to determine whether or not there was a differen c e i n the physi c a l f i t n e s s or i n the developmental change of physical f i t n e s s between deaf and hearing c h i l d r e n . Five deaf subjects of each sex were randomly chosen from each group (7, 9, 11, 13, and 15) from the deaf population who had no major phys i c a l or health d i s a b i l i t i e s at Jericho H i l l School. Hearing subjects (10 i n each group and sex for s t a t i s t i c a l purposes) represented the population of general Canadian school-age ch i l d r e n who did not have any major physical or health defects (1966, 1968). Deaf subjects were administered the CAHPER Fitness - Performance Test (1966) which i s composed of 6 tests (one minute speed sit-ups, shuttle run, standing broad jump, flexed arm hang, 50 yard run, and 300 yard run) and the CAHPER Physical Working Capacity Test (1968). S t a t i s t i c a l treatment did not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e between' the deaf and hearing i n over a l l physical f i t n e s s with the exception of sit-ups and shuttle run, where deaf c h i l d r e n were superior i n the sit-ups but i n f e r i o r i n the shuttle run as compared with hearing ch i l d r e n . Possible causes of these differences were discussed. S t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n developmental change i n performance over age i n f i v e of eight test items 70 71 were obtained but f u r t h e r examination of c e l l means suggested that these d i f f e r e n c e s were due to a s p e c i f i c age or sex and that no general trend e x i s t e d . CONCLUSIONS The conclusions formed from the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study are: 1. There i s no d i f f e r e n c e i n the o v e r a l l p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s nor i n the developmental change o f p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s between deaf c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d at J e r i c h o H i l l School and the general Canadian school-age p o p u l a t i o n . 2. Deaf c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d at J e r i c h o H i l l School as compared to the general Canadian school-age pop u l a t i o n are superior i n s i t - u p s which measures the muscular endurance of the abdominal muscles and i n f e r i o r i n the s h u t t l e run which measures a g i l i t y . 3. The r e s t r i c t e d p l a y and p e r i p h e r a l e x i s t e n c e g e n e r a l l y experienced by the deaf does not seem to a f f e c t t h e i r p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . RECOMMENDATIONS Further research i s needed to di s c o v e r i f the r e s u l t s obtained by the deaf c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d at J e r i c h o H i l l School f o r the deaf i n Vancouver, B.C. are matched by the deaf population as a whole. A n a t i o n a l survey, employing the schools f o r deaf across Canada could be done. Because of the la r g e number of subje c t s , a comparison of the e f f e c t of d i f f e r e n t e t i o l o g i e s on o v e r a l l p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and on the components of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s could be analyzed. Answers to why the deaf as compared to hearing c h i l d r e n have a superior muscular endurance of t h e i r abdominal muscles and why they are i n f e r i o r t o hearing c h i l d r e n i n a g i l i t y should be sought. Other t e s t s to measure muscular endurance of the abdominal muscles and a g i l i t y should be u t i l i z e d to discover i f s i m i l a r r e s u l t s are found. P h y s i c a l education programmes f o r the deaf should emphasize more a g i l i t y type a c t i v i t i e s . However, i t i s not known i f t h i s type of programme would improve the deaf i n a g i l i t y , and consequently f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h should be done to see i f a g i l i t y performance of the deaf can be improved through p r a c t i c e . REFERENCES Arnheim, D.D., Auster, D., and Crowei W.C. P r i n c i p l e s and Methods of  Adapted P h y s i c a l Education; S t. L o u i s : C.V. MosbyCo., 1969. Auxter, D., Learning d i s a b i l i t i e s among deaf p o p u l a t i o n s , E x c e p t i o n a l  C h i l d r e n . 38: 573-577, A p r i l , 1971. Berges, S.A. The deaf student i n p h y s i c a l education, J o u r n a l of  Health, P h y s i c a l Education, and R e c r e a t i o n . 40: 69-70, 1969. Boyd, J . Comparison of motor behavior i n deaf and hearing boys, American Annals of the Deaf. 112: 598-605, 1967. Brown, S.R. Unpublished m a t e r i a l s from CAHPER p i l o t s t u d i e s . CAHPER. The CAHPER F i t n e s s - Performance Test Manual, published by CAHPER, 1966. CAHPER. The P r i n c i p a l Work Ca p a c i t y of Canadian C h i l d r e n - Aged  7 to 17. Published by CAHPER, 1968. C a r t n e l , J.L. and B a n i s t e r , E.W. The p h y s i c a l working c a p a c i t y of b l i n d and deaf school c h i l d r e n , Canadian J o u r n a l of Physi o l o g y  and Pharmacology 47: 833-836, 1969. C l a r k e , H.H. A p p l i c a t i o n of Measurement t o Health and P h y s i c a l  Education New Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1967. Cumming, G.R. and Heynes, R. A f i t n e s s performance t e s t f o r school c h i l d r e n and i t s c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h p h y s i c a l working c a p a c i t y and maximal oxygen uptake, Canadian M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l 96: 1262-1269, 1967. Espenschade, A.S. and E c k e r t , H.M. Motor Development Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. M e r r i l l Books, Inc., 1967. F i n n , J.D. M u l t i v a r i a n c e ... U n i v a r i a t e and M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s of  Varia n c e , Covariance, and Regression: a f o r t r a n IV program V e r s i o n 4, State U n i v e r s i t y of New York, B u f f a l o ; June 1968. Heider, F. and Heider, G.M. Studies i n the psychology of the deaf. No. 2, P s y c h o l o g i c a l monographs 53, No. 5: 1-56, 1941. Heider, G.M. Adjustment problems of the deaf chlld.'The Nervous C h i l d 7: 38-44, 1948. K e n d a l l , D. Mental development of young c h i l d r e n , i n Ewing, A.W.G. (ed), Ed u c a t i o n a l Guidance and the Deaf C h i l d . Manchester: Manchester U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1957. 73 74 K l e s i u s , S.E. R e l i a b i l i t y of the AAHPER youth f i t n e s s t e s t items and r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y of the performance measures, Research Q u a r t e r l y 39: 809-811, 1968. Logan, M.J. A comparison of s t a t i c and dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m among the hearing and hearing-impaired at the elementary and c o l l e g e l e v e l s , i n Singer, R.N. and Weiss, R.A. (ed). Completed Research  i n Health, P h y s i c a l Education, and R e c r e a t i o n 12: 140, 1970 Long, J.A. Motor a b i l i t i e s of deaf c h i l d r e n . Teacher C o l l e g e  C o n t r i b u t i o n s to Education No. 514: 1-67, 1932. McCurry, F.A. A comparison of dynamic balance performance of deaf and normal c o l l e g e men, i n Singer, R.N. and Weiss, R.A. (ed), Completed Research i n Health, P h y s i c a l Education, and R e c r e a t i o n 12: 185, 1970. Michal-Smith, H. Sensory d e p r i v a t i o n : a new approach to emotional problems of the c h i l d w i t h a hearing l o s s , J o u r n a l of Speech  and Hearing D i s o r d e r s 27(3): 290-294, 1962. Morsh, J.E. Motor performance of the deaf, Comparative P s y c h o l o g i c a l  Monograph. 13: 1-51, 1936. Myklebust, H.R. S i g n i f i c a n c e of e t i o l o g y i n motor performance of deaf c h i l d r e n w i t h s p e c i a l reference to m e n i n g i t i s , American  J o u r n a l of Psychology 59: 249-358, 1946. The deaf c h i l d w i t h other handicaps, American Annals of the Deaf 103: 496-502, 1958. The Psychology of Deafness - Sensory D e p r i v a t i o n , Learning and Adjustment New York: Grune & S t r a t t o n , 1964. Rodda, M. S o c i a l adjustment of deaf adolescent, i n Proceedings of  a Symposium on the P s y c h o l o g i c a l Study of Deafness and Hearing  Impairment London: B r i t i s h P s y c h o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , 1966. Shephard, R.J. Endurance F i t n e s s Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1969. S j o s t r a n d , T. Changes i n r e s p i r a t o r y organs of workman at an ore smelting works, Acta Medica Scandinavica, 196: 687-699, 1947. Steinhaus, A.H. Health and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s from the standpoint of the P h y s i o l o g i s t , J o u r n a l of Health and P h y s i c a l Education 7: 224-227, 286-287, 1936. van Uden, A. The p h y s i c a l education of p r e l i n g u a l l y deaf c h i l d r e n - a summary, The Teacher of the Deaf L x 111: 307-314, 1965 Wahlund, H.G. Determination of the p h y s i c a l working c a p a c i t y : a p h y s i o l o g i c a l and c l i n i c a l study w i t h s p e c i a l reference to s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of cardio-pulmonary f u n c t i o n a l t e s t s , A cta  Medica Scandinavica 132 (supplement 215): 9-86, 1948. Winer, E.J. S t a t i s t i c a l P r i n c i p l e s i n Experimental Design New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1962. 76 APPENDICES Page A. INDIVIDUAL SCORE SHEETS 77 B. RAW SCORES FOR DEAF SUBJECTS 79 C. « DESCRIPTION OF DEAF SUBJECTS 82 D. VARIANCES FOR ALL DEPENDENT VARIABLES 85 APPENDIX A INDIVIDUAL SCORE SHEETS I. FITNESS PERFORMANCE TEST CAHPER TEST Name: Age: _ TASK SCORES 1. Speed S i t - u p 2. Standing Broad Jump 3. S h u t t l e Run 4. Flexed Arm Hang 5. 50 Yard Run 6. 300 Yard Run ?7 I I PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY TEST (name) (Age) (sex) (Weight) ; (height) (temperature) L e v e l 1 Kp: Revs: 1 2 3 T o t a l : Ave: L e v e l 2 Kp: T o t a l : Ave: L e v e l 3 Kp: 9 10 11 12 T o t a l : Ave: Heart Rate: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9 10 11 12 Kp. -meters/min: Remarks: 79 APPENDIX B RAW SCORES FOR DEAF SUBJECTS Subject PWC PWC S i t S h u t t l e 50 300 Number Height Weight 170 170/kg Ups SBJ Run FAH Yards Yards 7 Year Old Males 1 52.5 26.78 295.2 11.02 26 38 14.6 14. 11.0 90 2 53.0 27.46 237.3 9.64 33 44 13.8 30. 9.8 79 3 45.5 20.43 249.7 12.22 29 40 14.8 18 10.5 86 4 49.0 22.24 225.6 10.14 33 47 14.3 15 10.4 90 5 50.0 25.87 254.1 9.82 19 55 14.4 15 10.4 84 7 Year Old Females 6 50.5 24.97 248.1 9.94 28 43 13.4 11 10.7 87 7 46.0 26.56 225.4 8.56 14 40 18.2 8 12.2 96 8 46.0 19.07 279.1 14.64 28 42 14.7 31 11.9 100 9 51.5 29.51 310.5 10.52 30 44 14.6 15 9.8 77 10 48.5 21.79 294.3 9 Year 13.51 Old Males 27 52 14.2 34 9.5 75 11 56.5 32.00 328.8 10.27 32 48 17.5 35 10.1 74 12 50.0 26.56 237.5 8.94 20 42 13.5 12 9.9 88 13 56.0 33.82 518.8 15.34 35 65 12.1 40 8.6 68 14 53.5 30.87 403.6 13.80 31 58 12.9 30 9.5 74 15 51.5 27.69 415.6 15.01 31 59 13.9 51 8.5 70 9 Year Old Females 16 52.5 31.55 351.7 11.15 19 44 15.2 26 11.3 88 17 52.0 26.10 362.8 13.90 33 60 18.2 22 9.1 77 18 50.0 25.87 258.1 9.98 25 47 13.8 20 9.7 56 19 52.5 27.92 171.5 6.14 25 35 20.4 6 13.6 120 20 49.0 22.92 304.5 13.28 20 45 13.1 42 9.4 77 80 Subject PWC PWC S i t S h u t t l e 50 300 Number Height Weight 170 170/kg Ups SBJ Run FAH Yards Yards 11 Yard Old Males 21 54.0 32.68 367.3 11.24 34 57 13.2 33 9.7 75 22 56.5 44.03 288.3 6.55 30 36 13.1 18 10.0 80 23 55.0 25.42 409.9 16.13 35 47 11.7 33 8.9 68 24 53.5 28.82 399.0 13.84 38 61 13.2 33 9.1 72 25 57.5 44.03 498.1 11.31 29 71 12.1 20 8.0 69 11 Year Old Females 26 61.5 42.67 426.7 10.87 34 49 12.9 18 9.0 72 27 56.0 42.22 422.2 6.98 21 56 13.4 23 9.0 73 28 59.5 40.85 408.5 12.48 30 63 12.3 20 8.7 59 29 61.5 51.97 519.7 9.30 26 59 15.3 20 9.3 74 30 59.5 58.33 583.3 6.98 27 55 13.3 12 8.9 68 13 Year Old Males 31 60.0 43.12 519.2 13.71 24 50 13.5 16 9.0 76 32 58.5 38.13 567.1 14.87 61 65 11.0 64 ,7.5 59 33 66.0 53.34 820.3 15.38 37 73 11.0 37 7.3 61 34 58.5 38.58 313.1 8.12 33 61 13.6 32 9.1 75 35 58.5 34.05 344.8 10.13 42 60 12.3 54 8.6 73 13 Year Old Females 36 63.0 52.20 457.8 8.77 40 56 12.2 18 7.9 63 37 60.0 45.85 572.6 12.49 24 53 13.5 14 8.4 69 38 60.5 40.17 450.3 11.21 27 61 14.2 9 8.4 71 39 60.0 46.98 360.3 .. 7.67 18 45 15.5 6 10.7 94 40 65.5 63.55 507.1 7.98 25 58 12.9 10 8.4 80 8.1 Number Height Weight PWC 170 PWC 170/kg S i t Ups SBJ S h u t t l e Run FAH 50 Yards 300 Yard; 15 Year Old Males 41 64.0 81.48 908.7 11.15 34 73 10.6 41 7.6 60 42 63.0 52.43 775.8 14.80 46 80 10.5 71 7.1 59 43 65.5 64.91 1075.6 16.57 34 68 11.6 56 7.6 57 44 71.5 64.00 1071.2 16.74 50 79 12.6 60 7.0 54 45 64.5 64.00 724.9 11.33 28 59 12.8 13 8.3 67 15 Year Old Females 46 61.5 59.01 590.1 8.08 34 54 12.9 5 8.9 68 47 61.5 40.17 401.7 8.01 22 54 13.9 5 9.0 75 48 64.0 54.02 540.2 7.96 32 72 11.1 18 7.8 63 49 61.0 64.46 644.6 5.07 30 54 13.9 6 9.2 81 50 66.5 61.96 619.6 9.21 33 64 11.9 20 7.8 68 Subject Number APPENDIX C DISCRIPTION OF DEAF SUBJECTS Res. or J e r i c h o Db Loss Age of Age Sex Day or other R L Onset Cause 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 11 11 M M M M M F F F F F M M M M M F F F F F M M D D R R D R R R D D R D D D D R D R D D R R J J J J 0 J J J 0 0 J J 0 0 0 J 0 0 J 0 J J 96 91 90 99 80 83 85 90 95 80 100 60 100 90 90 98 100 95 75 70 100 100 96 96 95 93 85 91 85 95 100 90 60 100 95 90 85 93 105 100 75 90 100 100 B i r t h B i r t h B i r t h B i r t h B i r t h B i r t h B i r t h B i r t h B i r t h B i r t h B i r t h 1 yr B i r t h B i r t h B i r t h B i r t h B i r t h 2 y r s 2yrs 2 mo. 18 mo. R u b e l l a R u b e l l a 1 R u b e l l a 1 1 R u b e l l a ? ? R u b e l l a Genetic 1 1 1 1 M e n i n g i t i s M e n i n g i t i s Subject Res.or J e r i c h o Db Loss Age of - N Number Age Sex Day or Other R L Onset Cause 23 11 M R J 65 80 ? ? 24 11 M R 0 60 65 B i r t h ? 25 H M D J 70 65 B i r t h ? 26 11 F R J 95 95 B i r t h Genetic 27 11 F R 0 95 100 B i r t h ? 28 11 F R 0 85 100 B i r t h Genetic 29 11 F R J 75 75 1 ? 30 11 F D 0 100 105 B i r t h ? 31 13 M R J 90 90 B i r t h ? 32 13 M R J 95 95 ? ? 33 13 M R J 80 82 B i r t h ? 34 13 M R J 63 67 B i r t h Genetic 35 13 M R J 64 70 B i r t h R u b e l l a 36 13 F R J 70 65 B i r t h ? 37 13 F R 0 90 90 B i r t h Genetic 38 13 F D J 100 100 B i r t h ? 39 13 F D J 80 90 ? ? 40 13 F D J 90 90 B i r t h ? 41 15 M R J 100 100 8% mo. M e n i n g i t i s 42 15 M R 0 90 90 B i r t h Genetic 43 15 M R J 95 95 B i r t h ? 44 15 M D J 100 100 2 y r s ? 45 15 M D J 90 90 B i r t h ? 46 15 F R J 90 90 ? ? 47 15 F R J 90 90 B i r t h Genetic Subject J e r i c h o Db Loss Age of Numbers: Age Sex Day or Other R L Onset Cause 48 15 F D 0 90 90 B i r t h 49 15 F R J 90 90 B i r t h Genetic 50 15 F D 0 90 90 B i r t h Genetic 85 APPENDIX D VARIANCE FOR ALL DEPENDENT VARIABLES DEAF HEARING PWC 170 P W C 1 7 0 / k g Sit- u p s SBJ S h u t t l e Run FAH 50 Yds. 300 Yds. Male 17307.2 7.9 70.9 90.7 1.6 232.8 0.5 38.9 Female 6761.1 5.8 31.3 39.3 3.4 89.5 1.3 62.8 Male 19483.3 10.8 92.4 65.7 1.5 374.2 0.7 76.4 Female 10406.5 6.8 60.9 43.7 1.7 218.8 1.0 49.9 

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