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Relation between field independence and open - closed skills Thorsen, Ronald Albert 1973

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c \ THE RELATION BETWEEN FIELD INDEPENDENCE AND OPEN - CLOSED SKILLS by RONALD ALBERT THORSEN B.P.E., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION i n the School of P h y s i c a l Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1973 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make I t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p urposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f P h y s i c a l Education The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date June 22nd, 1973 ABSTRACT The problem of t h i s study was to determine i f a t h l e t e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of open s k i l l s d i f f e r from a t h l e t e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of c l o s e d s k i l l s i n the perceptual s t y l e of f i e l d independence. I t was hypothesized that d i f f e r -ences i n perceptual s t y l e e x i s t between a t h l e t e s of open and c l o s e d s k i l l s , and between a t h l e t e s and non-athletes. This study a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d per-ceptual d i f f e r e n c e s : between advanced a t h l e t e s and less-advanced a t h l e t e s ; between b a s k e t b a l l p o s i t i o n a l groups; and between d i f f e r e n t sports of hockey, b a s k e t b a l l , swimming, and gymnastics. A t o t a l of sixty-one male u n i v e r s i t y students were test e d f o r f i e l d independence by use of the rod and frame t e s t (RFT) and the group embedded f i g u r e s t e s t (GEFT), as w e l l as t e s t e d on a v i s u a l search t e s t (VST). Scores from the t e s t s were placed i n t o groups, each group having a mean and standard d e v i a t i o n score f o r each of the t e s t s . RFT mean scores were computed f o r absolute e r r o r (AE), v a r i a b l e e r r o r (VE), and constant e r r o r (CE). Correct numbers i d e n t i f i e d and numbers missed were analyzed from the VST. The GEFT score was the number of c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d f i g u r e s . F - r a t i o s f o r m u l t i v a r i a t e t e s t s of e q u a l i t y of mean vectors were com-puted f o r the groups: Open-Closed; Ath l e t e - N o n - a t h l e t e ; Advanced-Less-advanced; Outside-Inside b a s k e t b a l l p o s i t i o n a l groups; Hockey-Basketball; and Gymnastic-Swimming. Results from t h i s study showed: (1) Open s k i l l a t h l e t e s (Hockey and B a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s ) do not d i f f e r i n perceptual s t y l e from close d s k i l l a t h l e t e s (Gymnasts and Swimmers); (2) a t h l e t e s do not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from non-athletes i n measures of f i e l d independence; (3) i n d i v i d u a l i i i u n i v a r i a t e t e s t s between the v a r i a b l e s from the GEFT and RFT (AE, VE) showed that the b a s k e t b a l l group was more f i e l d independent than the hockey group; and (4) the amount of shared variance between the two t e s t s of f i e l d independence (RFT and GEFT) was low ( l e s s than 1270) and l i m i t s the above co n c l u s i o n s . TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS v/£ii LIST OF TABLES v i i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM 1 Statement of the Problem 4 Hypothesis 4 Sub-problems 4 D e f i n i t i o n s 5 L i m i t a t i o n s 6 S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study 7 I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 8 Development of the Open-Closed S k i l l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . . 8 Development of the F i e l d Independence - F i e l d Dependence Hypothesis 9 Studies on Motor S k i l l s and Sports Related to Perceptual S t y l e . 10 Summary 14 I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURES 16 Source and Nature of the Data 16 The Tests 17 V i s u a l Search Test 17 Rod and Frame Test 18 Group Embedded Figures Test 19 v CHAPTER PAGE Data C o l l e c t i o n and A n a l y s i s 21 T h e o r e t i c a l Expectations 25 IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 28 Results 28 Summary of Results 36 Di s c u s s i o n 38 Ev a l u a t i o n of the Tests 44 V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 46 Summary 46 Conclusions 47 REFERENCES 49 APPENDIX 52 Scores from the Perceptual Tests 52 1 7 1 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I Spearman Rank C o r r e l a t i o n Between S k i l l s and Rod and Frame Test f o r G i r l Freshman P h y s i c a l Education Majors 13 I I F-Ratios f o r M u l t i v a r i a t e Tests of E q u a l i t y of Mean Vecto r s ; Open-Closed Groups, Athlete-Non-Athlete Groups, Inside-Outside Groups, Advanced-Less -Advanced Groups, Hockey-Basketball Groups, and Gymnastic-Swimming Groups 29 I I I Comparison of Mean Scores and Standard Deviations of Open S k i l l Group and Closed S k i l l Group 30 IV Comparison of Mean Scores and Standard Deviations of A t h l e t e Group and Non-Athlete Group 31 V Comparison of Mean Scores and Standard Deviations of B a s k e t b a l l P o s i t i o n a l Groups 33 VI Comparison of Mean Scores and Standard Deviations of Advanced A t h l e t e Group and Less-Advanced A t h l e t e Group 34 VII I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among Perceptual Test Scores 35 VTII Comparison of Mean Scores and Standard Deviations of Hockey Group-Basketball Group; Swimming Group-Gymnastic Group 37 IX Mean E r r o r Scores Over A l l T r i a l s f o r D i f f e r e n t Groups on the Rod and Frame Test 40 X Comparison of Mean GEFT Scores (Number of Figures Completed) f o r A t h l e t e Group, Non-Athlete Group, and College Students 42 v i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The writer would like to express his deepest gratitude to Dr. R. Marteniuk for the amount of time, patience, and advice that was so willingly given throughout the study. The writer also wishes to express appreciation for the helpful criticisms and suggestions of Dr. R. Schutz, Dr. W. Davenport, and Dr. R. Hindmarch. v i i i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM In some games and s p o r t s , the v i s u a l f i e l d i s s t a t i c and unchanging, whereas i n other games and sports the v i s u a l f i e l d i s of a dynamic nature, c o n s t a n t l y changing. These c o n t r a s t i n g types of sports have been l a b e l l e d r e s p e c t i v e l y as cl o s e d and open, according to the v i s u a l demands of the sport (Poulton, 1957). Thus, a sport such as rugby i n v o l v e s a multitude of p l a y e r c o n f i g u r a t i o n s to which a performer must r e a c t . Such an open s k i l l r e q u i r e s the performer to obt a i n i n f o r m a t i o n from e x t e r n a l v i s u a l cues l o c a t e d i n the v i s u a l f i e l d or d i s p l a y . Conversely, sports l i k e d i v -i n g present to the performer a v i s u a l l y s t a t i c f i e l d . I t may be that v i s u a l cues from the d i s p l a y are not a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r performance. The predom-inant sensory cues are t h e o r i z e d to be obtained from i n t e r n a l sensory sources such as body balance and k i n e s t h e s i s (Poulton, 1957). An important query c e n t r a l to the concept of open and cl o s e d s k i l l s i s the relevance of an open s k i l l performer having to v i s u a l i z e p a r t s of the f i e l d from the t o t a l v i s u a l f i e l d . I t may be necessary f o r open s k i l l a t h l e t e s to attend to parts of the d i s p l a y without being i n f l u e n c e d by the surrounding elements of the d i s p l a y . This perceptual a b i l i t y of separating f i g u r e from ground without p e r c e p t i o n of the f i g u r e being i n f l u e n c e d by the ground i s an a n a l y t i c a l manner of p e r c e i v i n g . Open s k i l l a t h l e t e s , per-forming i n p l a y s i t u a t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t i n g figure-ground s e p a r a t i o n , should be able to perceive i n an a n a l y t i c a l manner. Closed s k i l l a t h l e t e s , per-forming i n r e l a t i v e l y s t a t i c environments, would not be expected to have an a n a l y t i c a l manner of p e r c e i v i n g . 1 2 W i t k i n (1954) was the f i r s t to hypothesize that i n d i v i d u a l s might d i f -f e r i n t h e i r p e r c e p t u a l s t y l e regarding f i g u r e ground se p a r a t i o n . Exten-s i v e s t u d i e s by W i t k i n (1954) and W i t k i n , Goodenough, and Karp (1962) have found that some i n d i v i d u a l s are capable of viewing a d i s p l a y a n a l y t i c a l l y , v i s u a l i z i n g p a r t s of the f i e l d without being i n f l u e n c e d by the surrounding elements of the f i e l d . Opposite to t h i s perceptual s t y l e , i t was found, other i n d i v i d u a l s are unable to separate f i g u r e from ground or parts of the f i e l d from the t o t a l v i s u a l f i e l d . Such i n d i v i d u a l s , when viewing a f i e l d , perceive the pa r t s of the f i e l d as fused to the t o t a l f i e l d . These two per-c e p t u a l s t y l e s were l a b e l l e d as f i e l d independent and f i e l d dependent. People who are f i e l d independent are capable of separating f i g u r e from ground without being i n f l u e n c e d by the ground and can perceive a n a l y t i c a l l y . A f i e l d dependent perc e p t u a l approach i n v o l v e s the v i s i o n of the t o t a l s t r u c t u r e , seeing p a r t s i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the whole. Persons w i t h t h i s per-c e p t u a l s t y l e perceive g l o b a l l y , seeing p a r t s of the f i e l d as fused w i t h the t o t a l f i e l d . Some i n v e s t i g a t o r s ( K r i e g e r , 1962; Shugart, Souder, and Bunker, 1972; and Bard, 1972) became i n t e r e s t e d i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between figure-ground p e r c e p t i o n and sp o r t s . Some of the questions that answers were sought f o r were: does a f i e l d independent perceptual s t y l e r e l a t e to p r o f i c i e n c y i n sports or does i t r e l a t e to i n e f f i c i e n c y i n sports? Do s p e c i f i c sports nec-e s s i t a t e figure-ground p e r c e p t i o n and i f so, which perceptual s t y l e s u i t s which sports? In g e n e r a l , however, these s t u d i e s have been u n s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r two reasons. F i r s t , only a l i m i t e d number of s k i l l s have been i n v e s t i g a t e d . For example, K r e i g e r ' s study (1962) stud i e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s i n g l e s k i l l of tennis s p a t i a l a b i l i t y and f i e l d independence. Bard (1972) had a large number of a c t i v i t i e s , seven, but a very small number of only 20 s u b j e c t s . The second reason past studies on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between 3 perceptual-motor s k i l l s and figure-ground p e r c e p t i o n have been u n s a t i s f a c -t o r y i s the nature of the measurement of the l a t t e r v a r i a b l e . Both the rod and frame t e s t and embedded f i g u r e s t e s t purport to measure f i e l d i n -dependence. W i t k i n (1954) has shown the highest c o r r e l a t i o n , 0.76 (p 0.01), between scores from the embedded f i g u r e s t e s t and the scores from the rod and frame t e s t f o r c o l l e g e males. This e x p l a i n s 58% of the commonality between the t e s t s . The lowest c o r r e l a t i o n has been 0.38 (Haronian and Sugerman, 1966). This reveals only about 15% shared v a r i a n c e . W i t k i n (1954) p o i n t s out that the rod and frame t e s t may i n v o l v e o r i e n t a t i o n t o -ward the u p r i g h t as w e l l as body p o s i t i o n , whereas the embedded f i g u r e s t e s t does not. For example, when the rod i s t i l t e d during the RFT, the subject may tend to use feedback from h i s u p r i g h t body p o s i t i o n i n a d j u s t -ing the rod to the u p r i g h t . The GEFT does not i n v o l v e body p o s i t i o n , but because of the time l i m i t i n performing the t e s t , temporal speed may be an important f a c t o r . Thus, f a c t o r s other than f i e l d independence may be measured by these t e s t s . Most studies i n v o l v i n g f i e l d independence and i t s r e l a t i o n to sports have used only the rod and frame t e s t or the embedded f i g u r e s t e s t , not both. I n such s t u d i e s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s based on f i e l d independence measured by only one of the t e s t s leave a discrepancy as to a true measure of f i e l d independence and would have been more concrete i f two measures had been as c e r t a i n e d . As W i t k i n (1954) has pointed out, the rod and frame t e s t and the embedded f i g u r e s t e s t were developed f o r the purpose of demonstrating that d i f f e r e n t perceptual tasks share the fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of f i e l d independence, and that the shared variance would be seen i n s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s . By i m p l i c a t i o n , i t i s important to note that no one t e s t can be taken as a s u f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of f i e l d independence. Previous stu d i e s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of f i e l d independence and sports have not taken t h i s i n t o account. Thus, r e s u l t s from previous studies concerning open and cl o s e d s k i l l s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to f i e l d independence are i n c o n c l u s i v e . Previous s t u d i e s have not r e a l l y i l l u m i n a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p of f i e l d independence to open and closed sports w i t h any c e r t a i n t y , e s p e c i a l l y i n regard to a t h l e t e s w i t h s p e c i f i c advanced s k i l l a b i l i t y . Most studies i n v e s t i g a t i n g f i e l d indepen-dence i n r e l a t i o n to a t h l e t i c s (Bard, 1972; Shugart, Souder, and Bunker, 1972) have used subjects of general a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y . I t was presumed that groups composed of advanced s k i l l e d a t h l e t e s would demonstrate greater d i f -ferences i n perceptual s t y l e than groups1, composed of a t h l e t e s w i t h general a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y . I t was the purpose of t h i s study to a s c e r t a i n i f there was a r e l a t i o n -ship between d i f f e r e n t categories of sports and f i e l d independence. Statement of the Problem To determine i f performers of open s k i l l games d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from c l o s e d s k i l l performers i n measures of f i e l d independence. Hypothesis The hypothesis of t h i s study i s that the degree of f i e l d independence i n performers of open s k i l l s i s greater than that of c l o s e d s k i l l a t h l e t e s . Sub-problems: (1) To a s c e r t a i n any d i f f e r e n c e s between a t h l e t e s and non-athletes i n t h e i r measures of f i e l d independence. (2) To i n v e s t i g a t e any d i f f e r e n c e s between player p o s i t i o n s i n open s k i l l s i n t h e i r measures of f i e l d independence. (3) To determine i f d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n f i e l d independence between more advanced a t h l e t e s and less-advanced a t h l e t e s w i t h i n c e r t a i n s p o r t s . (4) To examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the group embedded f i g u r e s t e s t and the rod and frame t e s t . D e f i n i t i o n s F i e l d independence (FI) - FI i s a s p e c i f i c perceptual mode which en-ables a person to separate f i g u r e from ground. The person w i t h a more f i e l d independent way of p e r c e i v i n g tends to experience h i s surroundings a n a l y t i c a l l y , w i t h objects experienced as d i s c r e t e from t h e i r backgrounds ( W i t k i n , 1962). F i e l d dependence (FD) - FD i s the perceptual s t y l e i n which a person, when viewing a f i e l d , p a s s i v e l y conforms to the t o t a l f i e l d and i s incap-able of separating f i g u r e from the ground without being i n f l u e n c e d by the ground. The person w i t h a more FD way of p e r c e i v i n g tends to experience h i s surroundings i n a r e l a t i v e l y g l o b a l f a s h i o n , p a s s i v e l y conforming to the i n f l u e n c e of the p r e v a i l i n g f i e l d or context ( W i t k i n , 1962). Open s k i l l s - Open s k i l l s are s k i l l s which have to f i t e i t h e r an un-p r e d i c t a b l e s e r i e s of environmental requirements, or a very e x a c t i n g s e r i e s whether p r e d i c t a b l e or u n p r e d i c t a b l e . These s k i l l s are predominately per-c e p t u a l (Poulton, 1967). Closed s k i l l s - Closed s k i l l s are s k i l l s which are predominately h a b i -t u a l i n which conformity to a p r e s c r i b e d standard sequence of motor acts i s a l l - i m p o r t a n t (Poulton, 1957). A t h l e t e s - For the purpose of t h i s study, the term a t h l e t e s represents those i n d i v i d u a l s p l a y i n g or ta k i n g p a r t i n the v a r s i t y sports of gymnastic swimming, hockey, and b a s k e t b a l l at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Advanced a t h l e t e s - For the purpose of t h i s study, advanced a t h l e t e s represent those v a r s i t y b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s that are game s t a r t e r s , and the top s i x hockey play e r s s e l e c t e d on the ba s i s of t h e i r s k i l l l e v e l . 6 Less-advanced athletes - For the purpose of th i s study, less-advanced athletes represent those v a r s i t y basketball players that are not game st a r t e r s and the s i x lowest s k i l l e d hockey players from the v a r s i t y hockey team. Non-athletes - For the purpose of this study, non-athletes represent Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia students who are non-participants i n u n i -v e r s i t y a t h l e t i c s and did not play high school v a r s i t y sports. Limitations (1) This study i s l i m i t e d to those open s k i l l s of basketball and hockey, and to those closed s k i l l s of gymnastics and swimming. (2) This study i s li m i t e d to the small sample size of 16 subjects i n the closed s k i l l group, and 30 subjects i n the open s k i l l group. (3) This study i s l i m i t e d by the tests used to measure f i e l d indep-endence. The rod and frame test and group embedded figures test have shown high r e l i a b i l i t i e s but there i s l i t t l e evidence on the v a l i d i t y of the tests as measuring f i e l d independence. Thus, s i g -n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between the tests do not necessar i l y i n d i -cate the tests having a common factor of f i e l d independence but may be evidence of some other common f a c t o r . These tests have been used to define f i e l d independence, but i t has not been est-ablished that they measure that which they purport to. Ziegle r (1963) points out that the tests measure some perceptual aspect but the exact nature of these tests remains e l u s i v e . The view has been put forward that the re l a t i o n s h i p s found between field-dependence measures and many of the scores employed by Witkin are due to the common r e l a t i o n s h i p between a l l these scores and general i n t e l l i g e n c e . Therefore, the rod and frame and group embedded figures tests may measure a common factor of i n t e l l i g e n c e . 7 Added to the l a c k of v a l i d i t y of the t e s t s i s the l i m i t a t i o n on the f i e l d independence concept. F i e l d independence has been l i n k e d w i t h the p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n theory, but t h i s theory has yet to be placed w i t h i n a developmental framework. F i e l d independence therefore has e x i s t e d as a m e d i c a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and has not been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a theory e x p l a i n i n g i t s change over time. I n view of t h i s t h e s i s , f i e l d independence measures and d i f f e r e n c e s between groups are l i m i t e d and only a s c e r t a i n the status quo of these measures. Reasons f o r any d i f f e r e n c e s , because of the nature of what i s being measured and the concept i t s e l f , can only be c o n j e c t u r e . S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study There have been r e l a t i v e l y few studies ( K r e i g e r , 1962; Bard, 1972; Shugart, Souder, and Bunker, 1972) which have i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n -ship of p e r c e p t u a l s t y l e to p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . Inferences from these st u d i e s are l i m i t e d due to the f a c t that only one t e s t measuring f i e l d i n -dependence was used and therefore the c r e d i b i l i t y of these studies i s l a c k i n g . The object of t h i s study was to i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n c e s between sport groups i n r e l a t i o n to f i e l d independence. Knowledge of d i f f e r e n c e s between open and c l o s e d s k i l l groups, as w e l l as between a t h l e t e s and non-athletes and between advanced and less-advanced a t h l e t e s , may prove u s e f u l i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of causal arguments. By use of two t e s t s measuring f i e l d i n -dependence, the degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p between f i e l d independence and sport c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s w i l l provide sounder e m p i r i c a l evidence than that provided by previous s t u d i e s . CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Development of the Open-Closed S k i l l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n In a t h l e t i c s and games, c e r t a i n sports i n v o l v e dynamic f i e l d s whereas others are b a s i c a l l y s t a t i c . That i s , performers ob t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n from e x t e r n a l cues derived from the c o n t i n u a l l y changing d i s p l a y . The a n t i t h e s i s to a p e r c e p t u a l l y dynamic f i e l d i s a s t a t i c f i e l d , whereby the v i s u a l d i s -p l a y i s constant. O l d f i e l d (1952) was the f i r s t to analyze sports of an open nature. In an a r t i c l e on the " A n a l y s i s of Human S k i l l " (1952:50) h i s i n s i g h t about open s k i l l s i s demonstrated when he p o i n t s out, "... i n a s k i l l the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the behaviour i s dependent upon the absense of s t e r e o t y p i n g . At every i n s t a n t the motor a c t i v i t y must be r e g u l a t e d by, and appropriate t o , the e x t e r -n a l s i t u a t i o n . " Poulton (1957) c o n t r i b u t e d to the open-closed s k i l l concept when he p o s t u l a t e d that c l o s e d s k i l l s are performed without cues from the e x t e r n a l environment. He thought of s k i l l as the b u i l d i n g up of a number of habits to meet p r e d i c t a b l e requirements. For example, when c o n s i d e r i n g a s k i l l such as s h o t - p u t t i n g , the best performer i n theory w i l l be the one who has the best s t y l e mechanically and who can produce the most power.. Thus, the best performers w i l l a l s o tend to be those who can ignore the s i g n a l s a r i s -i n g from the e x t e r n a l environment. Therefore, Poulton concluded that c l o s e d s k i l l s are p r i m a r i l y i n t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d ; the a t h l e t e , i n order to perform, adequately, must r e f e r to i n t e r n a l cues such as k i n e s t h e s i s and body b a l -ance. Poulton's open s k i l l s , i n comparison, are defined as those s k i l l s which are e x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d . The a t h l e t e , i n order to perform w e l l , must attend to cues from the environment. 8 9 Knapp (1961) put forward the view that there i s a continuum, from s k i l l s which are predominately h a b i t u a l through to s k i l l s i n which con-fo r m i t y to a p r e s c r i b e d standard sequence of motor acts i s a l l - i m p o r t a n t , and at the other end are s k i l l s i n which the c o r r e c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of messages from the distance receptors i s v i t a l . I n between, i t was pro-posed, l i e s k i l l s at various places along the continuum depending on the r e l a t i v e importance i n the p e r f e c t e d s k i l l of h a b i t u a l and per c e p t u a l aspects. Development of the F i e l d Independence - F i e l d Dependence Hypothesis E a r l y s t u d i e s by Asch and W i t k i n (1948a, 1948b), i n which subjects were v i s u a l l y presented w i t h a small t i l t e d room on the back w a l l of which was a rod that the subject had to adjust to the true u p r i g h t , found that t i l t i n g of the room increased the tendency of the subject to adjust the rod towards the t i l t of the room. I t was a l s o found that t i l t i n g the body r e s u l t e d i n an increased tendency to accept the t i l t e d f i e l d as a basis f o r judging the u p r i g h t . Not only were the perceived v e r t i c a l and h o r i -z o n t a l d i s p l a c e d f u r t h e r i n the d i r e c t i o n of the t i l t e d scene, but they reported that a number of subjects perceived the t i l t e d scene as f u l l y u p r i g h t . I t was f u r t h e r found that under a l l c o n d i t i o n s , s t r i k i n g i n d i -v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s r e s u l t e d i n the extent to which the perceived u p r i g h t was a f f e c t e d by the surrounding t i l t e d f i e l d . W i t k i n (1954), and W i t k i n , Dyk, Faterson, Goodenough, and Karp (1962) i n s tudies of p e r s o n a l i t y r e l a t e d to p e r c e p t i o n , discovered that there are two d i s t i n c t methods that people use when viewing figure-ground. These two methods were t h e o r i z e d to i n v o l v e an a n a l y t i c a l as opposed to a g l o b a l manner of p e r c e p t i o n . Two t e s t s were used to measure these d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s of p e r c e p t i o n . One, the rod and frame t e s t , r e q u i r e d the subject to adjust a t i l t e d luminous rod. The rod was surrounded by a t i l t e d luminous frame 10 and only the rod and frame were v i s i b l e i n the darkened room. The subject had to adjust the rod to the true u p r i g h t or v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n regardless of the frame. The other t e s t was the embedded f i g u r e s t e s t , r e q u i r i n g the subject to i d e n t i f y f i g u r e s surrounded by other s i m i l a r l i n e s and sub-p a t t e r n s . W i t k i n (1962:69) s t a t e s , "The a b i l i t y to overcome an embedding context, when developed, makes p o s s i b l e an a n a l y t i c a l way of p e r c e i v i n g ; i n a b i l i t y to overcome a context r e s u l t s i n a g l o b a l way of experiencing. The dimension of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f erences w i t h which we are d e a l -ing thus represent, at i t s extremes, c o n t r a s t i n g ways of ap-proaching a f i e l d , whether the f i e l d i s immediately present or represented s y m b o l i c a l l y . I t may t h e r e f o r e best be described as an a n a l y t i c a l versus g l o b a l f i e l d approach." F i e l d independence and f i e l d dependence were the terms adopted to d i s t i n -g uish between the person who tends to experience h i s surroundings analy-t i c a l l y w i t h objects experienced as d i s c r e t e from t h e i r background, from the person who experiences h i s surroundings i n a g l o b a l f a s h i o n , p a s s i v e l y conforming to the i n f l u e n c e of the f i e l d . Studies on Motor S k i l l s and Sports Related to Perceptual S t y l e One of the f i r s t s t u d i e s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n of space and motor performance was by M i l l e r (1960). She found evidence of a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u p e r i o r v i s u a l - p e r c e p t u a l a b i l i t y and champion s k i l l a b i l i t y . A b a t t e r y of e i g h t t e s t s measuring the a b i l i t y to p e r c e i v e , analyze, i n t e r p r e t , and r e a c t to v i s u a l cues were administered. The t e s t s were: The Guilford-Zimmerman Aptitude Survey which purports to measure Perceptual Speed, S p a t i a l O r i e n t a t i o n , and S p a t i a l V i s u a l i z a t i o n ; The M u t i l a t e d Words and Hidden Figures which measure clo s u r e ( F i e l d Independence); the McCloy Blocks Test of the a b i l i t y to make quick and adaptive d e c i s i o n s ; the Key-stone T e l e b i n o c u l a r M u l t i - S t e r e o P r o f e s s i o n a l Performance Test of Depth P e r c e p t i o n ; and the Bass S t i c k Tests of S t a t i c Balance i n v o l v i n g v i s u a l judgement. The r e s u l t s from these t e s t s i n d i c a t e d that h i g h l y s k i l l e d 11 performers more f r e q u e n t l y than low s k i l l e d performers r e c e i v e d b e t t e r scores on the t e s t s . S everal i n v e s t i g a t o r s ( K r e i g e r , 1962; Shugart, Souder, and Bunker, 1972; and Bard, 1972) recognized the demands of figure-ground separation i n open s k i l l s . Due to Witkin's (1954) e a r l i e r work on perc e p t i o n and p e r s o n a l i t y , there was a method to t e s t the r e l a t i o n s h i p of figure-ground p e r c e p t i o n to sports a b i l i t i e s . K r e i g e r (1962) was the f i r s t to as s o c i a t e an open s k i l l w i t h the per-c e p t u a l a b i l i t y of f i e l d independence. He attempted to determine i f there was a r e l a t i o n s h i p between figure-ground p e r c e p t i o n and s p a t i a l adjustment i n t e n n i s , measuring f i e l d independence by the embedded f i g u r e s t e s t . The s p a t i a l adjustment t e s t was devised to measure the a b i l i t y of the p l a y e r to move the racquet i n t o p o s i t i o n to contact the b a l l . His r e s u l t s s i g -n i f i e d that figure-ground perception was s i g n i f i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y r e -l a t e d to s p a t i a l adjustment i n t e n n i s , the i m p l i c a t i o n being that the more f i e l d independent the p l a y e r , the b e t t e r h i s s p a t i a l adjustment i n a tennis p l a y i n g s i t u a t i o n . Further f i n d i n g s were that f i e l d independence was r e l a t e d to s p a t i a l adjustment to a greater extent i n more h i g h l y s k i l l e d t ennis p l a y e r s . More r e c e n t l y , Shugart, Souder, and Bunker (1972) stud i e d the r e l a -t i o n s h i p between v e r t i c a l space per c e p t i o n and a dynamic non-locomoter balance task. A group of 30 j u n i o r high school g i r l s were s e l e c t e d on the basis of t h e i r extreme scores on the rod and frame t e s t . The t e s t scores f o r the 15 most f i e l d independent and 15 most f i e l d dependent subjects were compared to scores r e c e i v e d on a stabilometer t e s t f o r balancing a b i l i t y . The subject's score was the time S balanced up to a maximum of 30 seconds, w i t h i n an allowed angle of 15° on the t e s t i n g appa-r a t u s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study showed an F r a t i o of 5.05 (p<0.01) 12 between the f i e l d independent and f i e l d dependent groups on the balancing task, w i t h the f i e l d independent group maintaining balance f o r greater periods of time. Thus, the f i e l d independent group performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r on the stabilometer t e s t of balancing a b i l i t y . The only study that has i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between percep-t u a l s t y l e , measured by the rod and frame t e s t , and both open and cl o s e d sports was by Bard (1972). Her subjects were 20 u n i v e r s i t y freshman f e -male p h y s i c a l education students. The s k i l l s i n v o l v e d i n the study were S o f t b a l l , v o l l e y b a l l , soccer, t e n n i s , swimming, dance, and tumbling. The s k i l l performance scores comprised of s u b j e c t i v e rankings and standardized s k i l l t e s t s . R e s ults from the s k i l l t e s t s and s u b j e c t i v e rankings were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h r e s u l t s from the rod and frame t e s t . Results from t h i s study are i l l u s t r a t e d i n TABLE I . S e r i e s I , I I , and I I I represent the body p o s i t i o n s of S during the RFT. S e r i e s I i s performed w i t h the body t i l t e d 28° to the l e f t or r i g h t and the frame t i l t e d to the same s i d e . S e r i e s I I i s performed w i t h the body t i l t e d 28° to the l e f t or r i g h t w i t h the frame t i l t e d to the opposite side 28°. S e r i e s I I I i s performed w i t h S s i t t i n g u p r i g h t w i t h the frame t i l t e d l e f t or r i g h t 28°. C o r r e l a t i o n s shown on the l e f t s ide i n TABLE I are from r e s u l t s of s k i l l t e s t s and s u b j e c t i v e rankings by subjects c l a s s i f i e d as f i e l d independent. C o r r e l a t i o n s on the r i g h t are from the r e s u l t s of s k i l l t e s t s and s u b j e c t i v e rankings by subjects c l a s s i -f i e d as f i e l d dependent. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n of the rod and frame t e s t r e s u l t s w i t h dance (r = 0.70) and w i t h tumbling (r = 0.77). These r e s u l t s lead Bard (1972:110) to s t a t e , "... subjects c l a s s i f i e d as more f i e l d independent tend to perform b e t t e r i n a c t i v i t i e s c a t e g o r i z e d as i n t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d such as dance and tumbling". 13 TABLE I SPEARMAN RANK CORRELATION BETWEEN SKILLS AND ROD AND FRAME TEST FOR GIRL FRESHMEN PHYSICAL EDUCATION MAJORS (BARD, 1972:110) Ser i e s I I I I I I X I I I I I I S o f t b a l l - - - - -.50 -.10 -.02 -.37 V o l l e y b a l l - - - - -.68* -.03 -.68* -.54 Soccer -.07 .02 .10 -.23 - - - -Tennis .21 .20 .43 .01 .10 .52 .45 .34 Swimming - - - - -.10 -.22 .40 .17 Dance -.04 .13 .70* .10 -.39 .29 .45 -.01 Tumbling .45 .40 .77** .51 -.62* -.13 .42 -.17 * S i g n i f i c a n t at .05 ** S i g n i f i c a n t at .01 14 A negative c o r r e l a t i o n (r = 0.68) was found between v o l l e y b a l l and the rod and frame t e s t scores, p o s s i b l y i n d i c a t i n g that subjects defined as more f i e l d dependent tend to perform b e t t e r i n team s p o r t s . Results from Bard's study may be misleading. The s k i l l performance scores f o r each subject were a s c e r t a i n e d from standardized s k i l l t e s t s , or s u b j e c t i v e rankings by the i n s t r u c t o r , or both. S k i l l t e s t s are p r i m a r i l y a c l o s e d s k i l l task. The subject i s r e q u i r e d to go through a s e r i e s of s i n g l e i s o l a t e d s k i l l s such as i n v o l l e y b a l l the s e t , the s p i k e , or the pass, i n which there are not many changing environmental v a r i a b l e s to attend to as there are i n game s i t u a t i o n s . There i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between c l o s e d s k i l l s and s k i l l t e s t s which only t e s t one aspect of a sport at a time i s o l a t e d from the game or p l a y i n g s i t u a t i o n . Thus, a subject who scored high on a s k i l l t e s t may i n r e a l i t y be more p r o f i c i e n t at c l o s e d s k i l l s but i s i n c o r r e c t l y c a t e g o r i z e d as an open s k i l l performer because the s k i l l t e s t i s from an open sport. Another weakness i n the study was the small sample s i z e of 20 subjects f o r a l arge number of sports (seven). This does not a l l o w f o r much s p e c i -f i c i t y of s k i l l s . The i n d i v i d u a l s t e s t e d were p h y s i c a l education majors and not competitive a t h l e t e s and therefore provide a background of general sport a b i l i t y r a t h e r than h i g h l y s k i l l e d a t h l e t e s from open and c l o s e d s p o r t s . I t was a l s o p r e v i o u s l y pointed out that s u b j e c t s ' measures of f i e l d independence were determined by the s i n g l e rod and frame t e s t , which when used by i t s e l f , cannot be shown to be a v a l i d measure of f i e l d independence. G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s and conclusions derived from her study may not apply to open and c l o s e d s k i l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and t h e i r exact r e l a t i o n s h i p to f i e l d i n -dependence . Summary The f o l l o w i n g i s a summary of the f i n d i n g s i n the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed. 15 1. Sports and games are p o s t u l a t e d to be c l a s s i f i e d on a continuum as open and c l o s e d . The d i s t i n c t i o n was that c l o s e d s k i l l s are predomin-a t e l y h a b i t u a l i n which conformity to a p r e s c r i b e d standard sequence of motor acts i s a l l - i m p o r t a n t , and open s k i l l s are fundamentally perceptual and are governed by the c o r r e c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of messages from the e x t e r -n a l environment. 2. There are two perceptual s t y l e s . A f i e l d independent mode of perce p t i o n i s an a n a l y t i c a l approach to figure-ground separation w i t h ob-j e c t s perceived as d i s c r e t e from t h e i r backgrounds. A f i e l d dependent mode of pe r c e p t i o n i s a g l o b a l approach to figure-ground p e r c e p t i o n w i t h objects perceived as fused w i t h t h e i r backgrounds. 3. Hi g h l y s k i l l e d performers more f r e q u e n t l y than lower s k i l l e d performers r e c e i v e d b e t t e r scores on v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n b a t t e r y t e s t s . 4. Figure-ground p e r c e p t i o n , measured only by the embedded f i g u r e s t e s t , was s i g n i f i c a n t l y and p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to s p a t i a l adjustment i n te n n i s . 5. A f i e l d independent group, measured by the rod and frame t e s t , performed b e t t e r on a stabilometer t e s t of balancing a b i l i t y . CHAPTER I I I METHODS AND PROCEDURES Source and Nature of the Data Data were c o l l e c t e d from male U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia v a r s i t y a t h l e t e s and male U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia non-athletes. The at h -l e t i c groups were composed of ei g h t swimmers, e i g h t gymnasts, 11 basket-b a l l p l a y e r s , and 19 hockey p l a y e r s . The non-athlete group was 15 volun-teer U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia students who had not played u n i v e r s i t y or high school v a r s i t y s p o r t s . Each subject was te s t e d on a V i s u a l Search Test (VST), a Group Em-bedded Figures Test (GEFT), and on the Rod and Frame Test, i n that order. A l l subjects were t e s t e d between e l e v e n - t h i r t y a.m. and f o u r - t h i r t y p.m. Subjects were test e d i n d i v i d u a l l y on the Rod and Frame Test; and i n groups, ranging from two to e i g h t , on the VST and GEFT. A l l subjects were test e d by one Examiner. Groups - The data f o r the open s k i l l group (n = 30) c o n s i s t e d of scores from b a s k e t b a l l and hockey p l a y e r s . The cl o s e d s k i l l group (n = 16) was composed of the gymnasts' and swimmers' scores. Scores, were a l s o combined according to the i n d i v i d u a l sports of hockey, b a s k e t b a l l , gymnastics, and swimming. Other groups were the b a s k e t b a l l p o s i t i o n a l groups of Insi d e and Outside, advanced a t h l e t e group, and less-advanced a t h l e t e group. The b a s k e t b a l l p o s i t i o n a l groups of i n s i d e and outside were composed of guards and forwards f o r the outside group and centers f o r the i n s i d e group. The advanced a t h l e t e group comprised the f i v e game s t a r t e r s from the v a r s i t y b a s k e t b a l l team and the top s i x hockey play e r s s e l e c t e d by t h e i r coach 17 according to t h e i r s k i l l l e v e l . The less-advanced a t h l e t e group c o n s i s t e d of the s i x b a s k e t b a l l non-game s t a r t e r s and the s i x l e a s t s k i l l e d hockey p l a y e r s as s e l e c t e d by t h e i r coach. R e l i a b i l i t y of the Tests - Both the rod and frame t e s t and the embedded f i g u r e s t e s t are purported to measure f i e l d independence ( W i t k i n , 1954). Cor-r e l a t i o n s as high as 0.76 (p<0.01), (Wi t k i n 1954:60), have been shown between the two t e s t s . Test, r e - t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y of the rod and frame t e s t f o r males i s 0.84 ( W i t k i n , 1962). R e l i a b i l i t y f o r the embedded f i g u r e s t e s t has been shown to be 0.89 ( W i t k i n , 1962) f o r males. The scores f o r males from the GEFT have been shown to have a c o r r e l a t i o n of -0.82 w i t h the o r i g i n a l em-bedded f i g u r e s t e s t . The c o r r e l a t i o n i s negative because the t e s t s are scored i n reverse f a s h i o n ; a high score on the GEFT u s u a l l y c o r r e l a t e s w i t h a low score on the EFT. The VST used i n t h i s study has not been used before, and therefore does not have r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y values a v a i l a b l e . The Tests V i s u a l Search Test - The VST r e q u i r e d S to i d e n t i f y and c i r c l e each number 36. There were a t o t a l of s i x t y - s e v e n 36s on the t e s t page of ran-dom numbers. S's score on the t e s t was recorded as the number of c o r r e c t responses and the number of 36s missed. The number of missed 36s were scored up to where S c i r c l e d the l a s t 36. Each S was t o l d : "This task i s three minutes i n d u r a t i o n . C i r c l e as many number 36s as you can i n the time permitted. Your score w i l l c o n s i s t of the number of c o r r e c t numbers i d e n t i f i e d as w e l l as the number of 36s missed, up to where you c i r c l e the l a s t number. Work as f a s t and a c c u r a t e l y as you can. Are there any questions?" 18 The GEFT r e q u i r e s S to i d e n t i f y an embedded f i g u r e . The VST was a l s o designed to t e s t S's a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y an embedded f i g u r e , but using numbers i n s t e a d of geometric designs. Therefore, i t was presumed that Ss who score high on the GEFT would a l s o score high on the number of 36s i d e n t i f i e d and low on numbers missed. Rod and Frame Test - The apparatus c o n s i s t e d of a luminous square frame, i t s sides one inc h wide and 42 inches long, w i t h i n which was mounted a rod, one i n c h wide and 39 inches long. The frame and rod were p i v o t e d at t h e i r c e n t e r s , but mounted on separate s h a f t s , so that they could be t i l t e d from side to side independently of each other. A p r o t r a c t o r , mounted on the frame s h a f t , moved w i t h the frame against a s t a t i o n a r y p o i n t e r , and per-m i t t e d d i r e c t readings of the p o s i t i o n of the frame i n degrees. The frame and rod were coated w i t h luminous p a i n t and during the t e s t were the only objects v i s i b l e i n the completely darkened room. A c h a i r f o r the subject was placed seven f e e t i n f r o n t of the rod and frame apparatus. The s u b j e c t , s i t t i n g e r e c t , i s presented w i t h the luminous rod and frame i n t i l t e d p o s i t i o n s , and was r e q u i r e d to d i r e c t the rod to the true u p r i g h t , while the frame remained t i l t e d . In a l l e i g h t t r i a l s , the rod and frame were t i l t e d 28° i n the s e r i e s : Rod LRRLLRRL Frame LLRRLLRR. The rod was adjusted by the examiner through i n s t r u c t i o n s from S. S's scores were recorded according to p o s i t i v e , zero, or negative e r r o r ; p o s i -t i v e e r r o r scores represented over-shooting the target of 0° from the d i r -e c t i o n i n which the rod was s e t , negative e r r o r scores i n d i c a t e d under-shooting the t a r g e t of 0° from the d i r e c t i o n i n which the rod was s e t . F i e l d independence, f i e l d dependence i s represented on a continuum. There i s no e s t a b l i s h e d p o i n t whereby one can be c a t e g o r i z e d as f i e l d i n -dependent or f i e l d dependent, but r a t h e r scores are evaluated i n terms of 19 the t o t a l sample. Extreme f i e l d independence may be c l a s s i f i e d i n the range of 0-5°, whereas f i e l d dependence i s represented by sc ores i n the range of 18-28° (Shugart, Souder, and Bunker, 1972). Ss were not permitted to see the apparatus upon e n t e r i n g the t e s t i n g room. S was seated i n a c h a i r f a c i n g the rod and frame and given the f o l -lowing i n s t r u c t i o n s : "When you are t o l d to open your eyes you w i l l see a luminous rod surrounded by a luminous frame. The r e s t of the room w i l l be i n darkness. The rod and frame move independently of each other and w i l l be adjusted to d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s throughout the t e s t . What you have to do i s , through your i n s t r u c t i o n s to me, have the rod adjusted to the v e r t i c a l or u p r i g h t p o s i t i o n . You may have as many adjustments as you want u n t i l you t h i n k the rod i s i n the v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n . When you th i n k the rod i s i n the v e r t i c a l po-s i t i o n , say 'read' and clo s e your eyes. I w i l l then take a measure-ment and re - a d j u s t the apparatus f o r another t r i a l . There w i l l be ei g h t t e s t s a l t o g e t h e r . Do you have any questions?" Group Embedded Figures Test - The group embedded f i g u r e s t e s t i s a paper-and-pencil t e s t which r e q u i r e s the subject to f i n d a simple f i g u r e w i t h i n a l a r g e r complex f i g u r e . The t e s t was obtained from c o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t s P r e s s , Palo A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a . The simple f i g u r e i s hidden, to a greater or l e s s e r extent, by being incorporated i n t o the p a t t e r n of the l a r g e r f i g u r e . For example, i t s o u t l i n e s may form the boundaries of s e v e r a l prominent sub-patterns i n the complex f i g u r e . I n a d d i t i o n , the complex f i g u r e i s shaded i n such a way as to r e i n f o r c e a given p a t t e r n and i t s sub-patterns. Depending on the s t r u c t u r e of the complex f i g u r e , de-t e c t i o n of the simple f i g u r e may be very d i f f i c u l t or very easy. Each S was given a t e s t booklet which contained i n s t r u c t i o n s i n i t . The f i r s t three pages described to S the nature of the t e s t and provided two sample f i g u r e s . There were three s e c t i o n s to the t e s t . The f i r s t s e c t i o n was two minutes i n dur a t i o n and was provided only to f a m i l i a r i z e S w i t h the t e s t . S e c t i o n two, w i t h nine f i g u r e s , was the o f f i c i a l begin-ning of the t e s t . The subject had f i v e minutes to complete s e c t i o n two. 20 The l a s t s e c t i o n was a l s o f i v e minutes long and contained nine f i g u r e s . The subject was not permitted to go back to the previous s e c t i o n i f he completed the l a s t s e c t i o n i n the a l l o t t e d f i v e minutes. Ss were asked to f i l l out i d e n t i f y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on the cover. Then Ss were t o l d : "Read the d i r e c t i o n s , which i n c l u d e two p r a c t i c e problems f o r you to do. When you get to the end of the d i r e c t i o n s on page three, please stop. Do not go beyond page three u n t i l d i r e c t e d . Before I give the s i g n a l to s t a r t , l e t me review the po i n t s to keep i n mind: 1. Look back at the simple f i g u r e on the back page as ofte n as necessary. 2. Erase a l l mistakes. 3. Do the problems i n order. Do not ski p a problem unless you are a b s o l u t e l y stuck on i t . 4. Trace only one simple form i n each problem. You may see more than one, but j u s t trace one of them. 5. The simple form i s always present i n the complex f i g u r e i n the same s i z e , the same p r o p o r t i o n s , and f a c i n g i n the same d i r e c t i o n as i t appears on the back cover of t h i s booklet. Are there any questions about the d i r e c t i o n ? Raise your hand i f you need a new p e n c i l during the t e s t . When I give the s i g n a l , turn the page and s t a r t the f i r s t s e c t i o n . You w i l l have two minutes f o r the seven problems i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n . Stop when you reach the end of t h i s s e c t i o n . Begin." A f t e r two minutes, E s a i d : "Stop - whether you have f i n i s h e d n a l , t u rn the page and s t a r t the minutes f o r the nine problems i n not f i n i s h a l l of them, but work you can. Raise your hand i f you t e s t . Ready, begin." or not. When I give the s i g -second s e c t i o n . You have f i v e the second s e c t i o n . You may as q u i c k l y and a c c u r a t e l y as need a new p e n c i l during the A f t e r f i v e minutes, E s a i d : "Stop - whether you have f i n i s h e d or not. Please c l o s e your t e s t b o o k l e t s . " The score f o r the GEFT was the t o t a l number of simple forms c o r r e c t l y traced i n the second and t h i r d s e c t i o n s combined. Omitted items were scored as i n c o r r e c t . 21 Data C o l l e c t i o n and A n a l y s i s Seven dependent v a r i a b l e s were scored f o r each S: absolute e r r o r (AE), v a r i a b l e e r r o r (VE) , and constant e r r o r (CE) f o r the rod and frame t e s t ; a t o t a l number f o r the c o r r e c t group embedded f i g u r e s i d e n t i f i e d ; and three scores f o r the v i s u a l search t e s t - the number of c o r r e c t responses (CORR), the number of missed numbers (WRNG), and the number of i n c o r r e c t numbers c i r c l e d (False Alarms). The VE was computed as the standard d e v i a t i o n of the e i g h t a l g e b r a i c e r r o r scores. CE was computed as the mean of the a l g e b r a i c e r r o r scores. This measurement takes i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the value of the s i g n ( p o s i t i v e or negative e r r o r ) when c a l c u l a t i n g the e r r o r . The AE was a l s o c a l c u l a t e d to provide an average e r r o r or mean d e v i a t i o n e r r o r f o r each subject. This e r r o r measurement does not take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the value of the s i g n . I t has been suggested that the two v a r i a b l e s CE and VE describe most d i s t r i b u t i o n s , the CE p r o v i d i n g the mean e r r o r and the VE i n d i c a t i n g the w i t h i n - s u b j e c t variance (Schutz and Roy, 1973). Therefore, i t appears that the c a l c u l a t i o n of AE would be redundant. However, AE was c a l c u l a t e d f o r the purpose of comparison w i t h other s t u d i e s which report only absolute e r r o r scores. The VST was designed to t e s t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s congruent with f i e l d independence. I t was f e l t that a task which i n v o l v e s i d e n t i f y i n g number combinations embedded i n other numbers would be s i m i l a r to the GEFT which r e q u i r e d separation of part of the f i e l d from the t o t a l f i e l d . I t was therefore hypothesized that subjects who have low e r r o r scores on the RFT and high scores on the GEFT would a l s o have a high number of target numbers c i r c l e d , a low number of missed responses, and a low number of i n c o r r e c t numbers c i r c l e d or f a l s e alarms. A l l Ss raw scores were recorded on a master s c o r i n g sheet. 22 Means, v a r i a n c e s , and standard d e v i a t i o n s were computed f o r each v a r i a b l e f o r the groups: I) Open s k i l l group I I ) Closed s k i l l group ..III) Non-athlete group IV) I n d i v i d u a l sport groups a) hockey b) b a s k e t b a l l c) gymnastics d) swimming V) A t h l e t e group VI) Advanced a t h l e t e s VII) Less-advanced a t h l e t e s V I I I ) P o s i t i o n a l groups a) I n s i d e - b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s , centers b) O u t s i d e - b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s , guards and forwards. Group means were compared by use of H o t e l l i n g ' s a n a l y s i s . Hypothesis 1, t e s t i n g f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n f i e l d independence between open and cl o s e d groups, was teste d by c o n t r a s t i n g the mean vectors f o r each group. Thus, hypothesis 1 contrasted: US I I u T T 1 U V I I UW I I U X I I UY I I UZ I I T^ t e s t s H US I u T j U V I UW I U X I u Y j-u Z I 23 Where: u = mean I = group I I I = group I I S = Constant e r r o r from rod and frame t e s t T = V a r i a b l e e r r o r from rod and frame t e s t V = Absolute e r r o r from rod and frame t e s t W = Group embedded f i g u r e s t e s t X = V i s u a l search t e s t , c o r r e c t responses Y = V i s u a l search t e s t , missed responses Z = V i s u a l search t e s t , f a l s e alarms For t h i s t e s t : Open group n = 30 Closed group n = 1 6 N = 4 6 For the m u l t i v a r i a t e t e s t of e q u a l i t y of mean ve c t o r s : Number of v a r i a b l e s i n input vectors = 7 Number of f a c t o r s i n design = 1 Number of l e v e l s of f a c t o r (Open, Closed, Control) = 3 Where d.f. f o r the numerator = p and f o r the denominator = (N - p - q) and p = number of t e s t s N = number of subjects q = number of groups - 1 Degrees of freedom f o r e r r o r = 5 3 To r e j e c t H Q, F 0 < 0 5 ) 7 > 5 3 > 2.19 U n i v a r i a t e F-Ratios FQ ^ £ 4 . 0 6 Sub-problem 1, t e s t i n g f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n f i e l d independence of a t h l e t e s (Group V) and non-athletes (Group I I I ) , contrasted the v e c t o r s : 24 JS V US I I I lZ I I I T 2 t e s t s H Q: U Z V Where a t h l e t e s ' n = 46 non a t h l e t e s ' n = 15 N = 61 And the m u l t i v a r i a t e t e s t of e q u a l i t y of the mean vectors had: Number of v a r i a b l e s i n input vectors = 7 Number of f a c t o r s i n design = 1 Number of l e v e l s of f a c t o r (Open, Closed, Control) = 3 To r e j e c t H Q, F 0 # 0 5 J 7 J „ 2 2.19 U n i v a r i a t e F - R a t i o s to be s i g n i f i c a n t , FQ ^ £4.00 Sub-problem 2, which hypothesized that Outside p o s i t i o n b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s (Group V HIb) are more f i e l d independent than Ins i d e p l a y e r s (Group V i l l a ) , c o n t r a s t e d the v e c t o r s : US V i l l a T z t e s t s H . US V H I b UZ V H I b U Z V i l l a Where Outside group n = 7 Inside group n = 4 N = 11 The m u l t i v a r i a t e t e s t of e q u a l i t y of mean vectors had: Number of v a r i a b l e s i n input vectors = 7 Number of f a c t o r s i n the design = 1 Number of l e v e l s of f a c t o r 1 (Advanced, Less-advanced) = 2 In order to r e j e c t H Q, FQ Q^ y 3 £ 8.88 U n i v a r i a t e F - R a t i o s , to be s i g n i f i c a n t , FQ Q^ g £5.12 25 Sub-problem 3, designed to t e s t i f advanced a t h l e t e s (Group VI) d i f f e r from less-advanced a t h l e t e s (Group VII) i n t h e i r measures of f i e l d indepen-dence, contrasted the v e c t o r s : T z t e s t s H„ US VI US VII _ UZ VII _ l _ u z V I Where n = 11 f o r the advanced a t h l e t e group n = 12 f o r the less-advanced a t h l e t e group N = 23 And the m u l t i v a r i a t e t e s t of e q u a l i t y of the mean vectors had: Number of v a r i a b l e s i n input vectors = 7 Number of f a c t o r s i n the design = 1 Number of l e v e l s of f a c t o r 1 (Advanced) = 2 To r e j e c t H Q J F 0 - 0 5 , 7, 15 *2.70 U n i v a r i a t e F-Ratios to be s i g n i f i c a n t , FQ^QS, 1, 21 £4.32 Sub-problem 4. The purpose of t h i s sub-problem was to determine i f the RFT and GEFT both measured the same perceptual a b i l i t y of f i e l d independence which they each purport to measure. A l l of the subjects RFT scores were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h scores from the GEFT. S i g n i f i c a n c e at the 0.01 l e v e l was accepted i f jg > 0.325 and s i g -n i f i c a n t at the 0.05 l e v e l i f r > 0.25. However, the amount of shared v a r i a n c e , f o r the t e s t s to be v a l i d i n the measurement of f i e l d independ-ence, should be > 50% or r>0.71. T h e o r e t i c a l Expectations I f i n f a c t open s k i l l s r e q u i r e not only figure-ground separation but a l s o p e r c e p t i o n of f i g u r e without being i n f l u e n c e d by the ground, then open s k i l l a t h l e t e s should demonstrate t h i s a b i l i t y when test e d f o r i t . Sports such as hockey, b a s k e t b a l l , soccer, and rugby i n v o l v e p l a y e r sub-pa t t e r n s . Decisions must be made by games players according to informa-26 t i o n from the d i s p l a y . Such games players must v i s u a l l y attend to parts of the f i e l d ; the b a l l or implement, the boundaries, other p l a y e r s and o f f i c i a l s . S u c c e s s f u l b a l l p l a y e r s are not i n f l u e n c e d by i r r e l e v a n t i n -formation which may tend to d i s t o r t the parts of the f i e l d or f i g u r e which they may d e s i r e to p e r c e i v e . Thus, they must remain v i s u a l l y independent of the f i e l d . Games i n v o l v e a n a l y t i c a l p e r c e p t i o n . A games player must operate and perform i n player combinations such as a give-and-go p l a y i n hockey, or a two-on-two i n b a s k e t b a l l . The player must analyze parts of the d i s -p l a y and not view i t as one g l o b a l scene. Such a player can be expected to be f i e l d independent. Closed s k i l l s , conversely, do not i n v o l v e player combinations or dy-namic f i e l d s i n which the a t h l e t e must r e a c t to the environment. Perceptu-a l l y , c l o s e d s k i l l s are t h e o r i z e d to be performed by r e a c t i n g to body sen-sati o n s from i n t e r n a l sensory sources. The a t h l e t e must be dependent on i n t e r n a l sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i s not confronted w i t h figure-ground s e p a r a t i o n to the extent as are open s k i l l a t h l e t e s . Therefore, open s k i l l a t h l e t e s should demonstrate a greater a b i l i t y i n separating f i g u r e from ground as measured by t e s t s of f i e l d independence. Sub-problem 1. A t h l e t e s are confronted w i t h perceptual i n f o r m a t i o n of various natures. They may use a u d i t o r y cues by l i s t e n i n g to f e l l o w players or r e c e i v e a u d i t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n about p l a y e r l o c a t i o n s by noise made by moving p l a y e r s . Other i n f o r m a t i o n may be from touch or contact of p l a y e r s by f e e l i n g where play e r s are when they are out of view. This i n f o r m a t i o n helps the a t h l e t e to put parts of the d i s p l a y together and aids him to de-termine the status of the t o t a l f i e l d . The f u l l amount of perceptual i n f o r m a t i o n i n v o l v e d i n c l o s e d s k i l l s i s not known. For example, gymnasts must use k i n e s t h e s i s to know the movement 27 patterns necessary f o r t h e i r s k i l l . As to the r e l a t i v e importance of v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n , l i t t l e i s known. Sub-problem 1, t e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n per-ceptual s t y l e between a t h l e t e s and non-athletes, was designed to a s c e r t a i n i f there are d i f f e r e n c e s between these groups. Sub-problem 2. A very important aspect of team games i s i n i t i a t i o n and c r e a t i v i t y of p l a y . The groups i n v o l v e d i n t h i s problem are comprised of b a s k e t b a l l outside p o s i t i o n and i n s i d e p o s i t i o n p l a y e r s . Outside pla y e r s i n i t i a t e p l a y . They b r i n g the b a l l up the c o u r t , set most of the screens and b l o c k s , and perform most of the passing. This type of p l a y i n v o l v e s a greater amount of a n a l y t i c a l p e r c e p t i o n than does the play i n v o l v e d by i n s i d e p l a y e r s . I n s i d e p l a y e r s , centers, very seldom d r i b b l e the b a l l or make many passes. T h e i r task i n v o l v e s rebounding and shooting. I t was expected that outside p l a y e r s are more f i e l d independent than i n s i d e p l a y e r s because of the greater figure-ground separation demanded by t h e i r p o s i t i o n . This sub-problem was hoped to provide e m p i r i c a l evidence of perceptual d i f -ferences between these groups. Sub-problem 3. The d e l i n e a t i o n between advanced and less-advanced a t h l e t e s has been evaluated by the c r i t e r i a of s k i l l . The exact nature of s k i l l i s not c l e a r cut. However, general f a c t o r s such as p h y s i c a l a b i -l i t i e s (speed, a g i l i t y , s t r e n g t h , endurance) and mental a t t r i b u t e s (psycho-l o g i c a l endurance, s t a b i l i t y ) may be of importance. Perceptual a b i l i t i e s may a l s o d i f f e r e n t i a t e a greater s k i l l e d a t h l e t e from a l e s s e r s k i l l e d a t h l e t e . I t was assumed that a greater degree of f i e l d independence i s important to s k i l l a b i l i t y than f i e l d dependence and i f t h i s was the case, then advanced a t h l e t e s should demonstrate higher scores on t e s t s measuring f i e l d independence. Sub-problem 3 was designed to t e s t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s be-tween advanced a t h l e t e s and less-advanced a t h l e t e s i n t h e i r measures of f i e l d independence. CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION To r e c a p i t u l a t e , there were f i v e problems that t h i s study was designed to i n v e s t i g a t e : 1) perceptual d i f f e r e n c e s between open and c l o s e d s k i l l a t h l e t e s , 2) perceptual d i f f e r e n c e s between a t h l e t e s and non-athletes, 3) perceptual d i f f e r e n c e s between b a s k e t b a l l p o s i t i o n a l groups, 4) perceptual d i f f e r e n c e s between advanced and less-advanced a t h l e t e s , and 5) the r e l a t i o n -ship between the t e s t s of f i e l d independence. No f a l s e alarms were made by any of the subjects and therefore t h i s v a r i a b l e was excluded from the data a n a l y s i s . Results Hypothesis 1: Open - Closed Group. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ence between open and c l o s e d s k i l l a t h l e t e s on any of the dependent v a r i a b l e s . The F - r a t i o f o r the m u l t i v a r i a t e t e s t of e q u a l i t y f o r these two groups was l e s s than one and not s i g n i f i c a n t as shown i n TABLE I I . Means and stand-ard d e v i a t i o n s are i l l u s t r a t e d i n TABLE I I I , the only v a r i a b l e which ap-proached s i g n i f i c a n c e was the GEFT scores where the mean of the open group was 14.73° and the c l o s e d s k i l l group mean was 16.06°. None the l e s s , the d i f f e r e n c e was not s i g n i f i c a n t at the 57o l e v e l . Sub-problem 1: A t h l e t e Group - Non-athlete Group. The a t h l e t e group d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the non-athlete group as shown by the i n -s i g n i f i c a n t m u l t i v a r i a t e F - r a t i o . Higher, but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher, scores of f i e l d independence were obtained by the a t h l e t e group as shown i n TABLE IV. The mean score f o r the a t h l e t e group on the GEFT was 15.4° 28 29 TABLE I I F-RATIOS FOR MULTIVARIATE TESTS OF EQUALITY OF MEAN VECTORS; OPEN-CLOSED GROUPS, ATHLETE-NON-ATHLETE GROUPS, INSIDE-OUTSIDE GROUPS, ADVANCED-LESS-ADVANCED GROUPS, HOCKEY-BASKETBALL GROUPS, AND GYMNASTIC-SWIMMING GROUPS Mean Vectors n per group F-Ratio f o r M u l t i v a r i a t e P Test of E q u a l i t y Open-Closed 30-16 < 1 Athlete-Non-athlete 46-15 1.71 Inside-Outside 4-7 1.15 Advanced-Less advanced 11-12 2.95 Hockey-Basketball 19-11 1.90 Gymnastic-Swimming 8-8 < 1 < 0.05 30 TABLE I I I COMPARISON OF MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF OPEN SKILL GROUP AND CLOSED SKILL GROUP V a r i a b l e Class X SD Open -0.09 0.65 CE < 1 ( i n degrees) Closed -0.09 0.58 Open 2.61 1.37 VE < 1 ( i n degrees) Closed 2.89 1.22 Open 2.15 1.26 AE < 1 ( i n degrees) Closed 2.39 0.94 GEFT Open 14.73 3.72 (No. of f i g u r e s 1.78 >.05 completed) Closed 16.06 2.05 CORR (VST - No. Open 22.27 4.61 c o r r e c t l y < 1 i d e n t i f i e d ) Closed 22.89 5.62 WRNG Open 5.83 6.35 (VST - No. < 1 missed) Closed 6.19 5.95 31 TABLE IV COMPARISON OF MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF ATHLETE GROUP AND NON-ATHLETE GROUP Va r i a b l e Class X SD CE ( i n degrees) A t h l e t e -0.09 0.61 Non-Ath. -0.13 0.69 VE ( i n degrees) A t h l e t e 2.75 Non-Ath. 2.42 1.30 2.35 AE ( i n degrees) A t h l e t e 2.27 Non-Ath. 2.50 1.10 2.22 < 1 GEFT (No. of f i g u r e s completed) A t h l e t e 15.40 Non-Ath. 14.00 2.89 3.09 1.57 > 0.05 CORR (VST - No. c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d ) A t h l e t e 22.57 5.12 Non-Ath. 23.87 4.14 < 1 WRNG (VST - No. missed) A t h l e t e 6.01 6.15 Non-Ath. 5.67 4.45 32 as compared to the non-athlete group mean of 14.0°. On the V i s u a l Search Test, the a t h l e t e group had a lower mean score of 22.57 than the non-athlete group mean of 23.87. The a t h l e t e group a l s o had a higher missed numbers (WRNG) of 6.01 as compared to the non-athlete group mean of 5.67. None of these s c o r e s , however, were s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5% l e v e l . I t may be c o n c l u -ded that a t h l e t e s do not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from non-athletes i n percep-t u a l performance as measured by the RFT, GEFT, and VST. Sub-problem 2: B a s k e t b a l l P o s i t i o n Groups ( I n s i d e - O u t s i d e ) . The i n -side group d i d not d i f f e r from the outside group demonstrated by the i n s i g -n i f i c a n t F - r a t i o of 1.15 (TABLE I I ) . The only measurement which d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y between the i n s i d e and outside p o s i t i o n a l groups was the CE mean scores from the RFT. I t can be seen i n TABLE V that the mean CE score f o r the i n s i d e group was 0.57°, and -0.16° f o r the outside group. This d i f -ference i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5% l e v e l . I n r e l a t i o n to t o t a l p e r c e p t u a l performance on the t e s t s , there was not a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the i n s i d e and outside b a s k e t b a l l p o s i t i o n a l groups. Sub-problem 3: Advanced Group - Less-advanced Group. The F - r a t i o f o r the m u l t i v a r i a t e t e s t of e q u a l i t y f o r the mean vectors of the advanced a t h -l e t e group and less-advanced a t h l e t e group was 2.95 (p < 0.05). The l e s s -advanced group had l a r g e r scores on measures of CE, AE, GEFT, Correct r e s -ponses, and i n c o r r e c t responses (WRNG). None of these i n d i v i d u a l measures had a s i g n i f i c a n t u n i v a r i a t e F - r a t i o , as i l l u s t r a t e d i n TABLE VI. Sub-problem 4: Amount of Shared Variance Between the GEFT - RFT (AE). TABLE VII shows the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between the perceptual t e s t s . S i g n i -f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s occurred between AE scores and scores from the GEFT (r = -0.34, p < 0.01), between VE and GEFT scores (r = -0.32, p < 0.05), 33 TABLE V COMPARISON OF MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF BASKETBALL POSITIONAL GROUPS Va r i a b l e Class SD CE ( i n degrees) Ins i d e 0.57 0.30 Outside -0.16 0.52 6.48 < .05 VE ( i n degrees) Ins i d e Outside 1.61 2.13 0.74 0.79 1.17 > .05 AE ( i n degrees) Ins i d e 1.44 0.66 Outside 1.59 0.69 < 1 GEFT (No. of f i g u r e s completed) Ins i d e 17.00 0.82 Outside 16.14 1.07 1.90 > .05 CORR (VST - No. c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d ) I n s i d e 20.25 4.57 Outside 20.71 5.77 <l WRNG (VST - No. missed) Ins i d e Outside 1.25 5.28 0.96 6.90 1.30 > .05 34 TABLE COMPARISON OF MEAN SCORES ADVANCED ATHLETE GROUP AND VI AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF LESS-ADVANCED ATHLETE GROUP V a r i a b l e Class X SD CE ( i n degrees) Advanced 0.00 0.62 Less-Ad. -0.21 0.68 < 1 VE ( i n degrees) Advanced 2.35 1.01 Less-Ad. 2.31 0.85 < 1 AE ( i n degrees) Advanced 1.57 0.80 Less-Ad. 2.08 0.68 2.64 > .05 GEFT (No. of f i g u r e s completed) Advanced 14.55 4.03 Less-Ad. 16.50 1.51 2.45 > .05 CORR (VST - No. c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d ) Advanced 21.45 5.96 Less-Ad. 23.58 3.70 1.08 >.05 WRNG (VST - No. missed) Advanced 3.55 Less-Ad. 5.67 2.91 6.68 < 1 35 TABLE V I I INTERCORRELATIONS AMONG PERCEPTUAL TEST SCORES CE VE AE GEFT CORR WRNG CE VE -0.02 AE 0.05 0.90** GEFT -0.06 -0.32* -0.34** CORR -0.08 -0.04 -0.10 -0.06 WRNG -0.30* 0.12 0.11 -0.17 0.12 * S i g n i f i c a n t at 0.05 l e v e l . ** S i g n i f i c a n t at 0.01 l e v e l . 36 between VE and AE scores (r - 0.90, p < 0.01), and between WRNG (numbers missed) and CE scores (r = 0.30, p < 0.05). The amount of shared variance between the GEFT and RFT (AE) was l e s s than 12%. Post-hoc Comparison of Sport Groups. An a n a l y s i s of the various sports contrasted revealed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between s e v e r a l of the i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s f o r the hockey-basketball c o n t r a s t . The m u l t i v a r i a t e F - r a t i o f o r the mean vectors was 1.90 and not s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5% l e v e l . TABLE V I I I shows the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the measures of VE, AE, and GEFT. The hockey group demonstrated a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher (p < 0.05) VE score according to the u n i v a r i a t e F - r a t i o . The hockey group a l s o had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher AE mean score of 2.50° compared to the b a s k e t b a l l group mean score of 1.54°. The b a s k e t b a l l group d i s p l a y e d a higher mean GEFT score (16.45) than the hockey group (13.74). Mean scores between each group on the VST and CE t e s t were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . Summary of Results The f o l l o w i n g i s a summary of the r e s u l t s obtained i n t h i s study. 1. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the open s k i l l group and closed s k i l l group, the F - r a t i o f o r the m u l t i v a r i a t e t e s t of e q u a l i t y of the mean vectors was i n s i g n i f i c a n t ( F - r a t i o 1, p > 0.05). 2. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the a t h l e t e group and non-athlete group demonstrated by a m u l t i v a r i a t e F - r a t i o of 1.71 (p >0.05). 3. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the i n s i d e b a s k e t b a l l p o s i t i o n a l group and the outside group ( m u l t i v a r i a t e F - r a t i o = 1.15, p > 0.05). 4. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the p o s i t i o n a l groups' mean CE scores (F = 6.48, p <0.05). 37 TABLE V I I I COMPARISON OF MEAN SCORES AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS OF HOCKEY GROUP-BASKETBALL GROUP; SWIMMING GROUP-GYMNASTIC GROUP V a r i a b l e Class X SD P CE ( i n degrees) Hockey B a s k e t b a l l Swimming Gymnastic -0.21 0.10 -0.10 -0.08 0.68 0.57 0.50 0.68 1.66 < 1 > .05 VE ( i n degrees) Hockey B a s k e t b a l l Swimming Gymnastic 3.00 1.94 3.42 2.36 1.51 0.78 1.21 1.04 4.44 2.91 <.05 > .05 AE ( i n degrees) Hockey B a s k e t b a l l Swimming Gymnastic 2.50 1.54 2.78 1.99 1.40 0.65 0.93 0.81 4.85 2.14 < .05 >.05 GEFT (No. of f i g u r e s completed) Hockey B a s k e t b a l l Swimming Gymnastic 13.74 16.45 16.00 16.13 4.34 1.04 2.27 1.96 6.14 < 1 < .05 CORR (VST - No. c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d ) Hockey B a s k e t b a l l Swimming Gymnastic 23.27 20.55 23.88 21.88 4.09 5.13 4.61 6.64 1.88 < 1 > .05 WRNG .(VST -No. missed) Hockey B a s k e t b a l l Swimming Gymnastic 7.00 3.82 5.13 7.25 6.53 5.74 2.85 8.07 1.71 < 1 > .05 38 5. The advanced group d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the less-advanced group shown by the m u l t i v a r i a t e F - r a t i o of 2.95 (p < 0.05) f o r the t e s t of e q u a l i t y between mean v e c t o r s . 6. The hockey group d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r from the b a s k e t b a l l group as te s t e d by the m u l t i v a r i a t e t e s t between mean vectors (F = 1.90, p > 0.05). The hockey group d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the b a s k e t b a l l group on some of the v a r i a b l e s : VE, F = 444, p < 0.05; AE, F = 4.85, p < 0.05; and GEFT, F = 6.15, p < 0.05. 7. S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were obtained between the AE and GEFT scores (r = -0.34), between the VE and GEFT scores (r = -0.32), between the VE and AE scores (r = 0.90), and between CE and WRNG scores (r = -0.30). D i s c u s s i o n Hypothesis 1: Open - Closed Groups. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n perce p t u a l s t y l e was evident between the open and c l o s e d s k i l l groups. As expected, the open group demonstrated a high degree of f i e l d independence but s u r p r i s i n g l y the closed s k i l l group a l s o demonstrated a high degree of f i e l d independence. In other s t u d i e s , absolute e r r o r scores f o r males were shown to be 4.46° (Adevai, 1968), and 6.81° (Oltman, 1968). Female p h y s i c a l education students' scores f o r extreme f i e l d independence was shown to range between 0 - 5 ° (Shugart, 1972). Both the open and cl o s e d groups, i n r e l a t i o n to r e s u l t s from other s t u d i e s , had very low absolute e r r o r scores which were 2.15° and 2.39°. Therefore, the la c k of d i f f e r e n c e be-tween the open and cl o s e d group appears to be the r e s u l t of the closed group being more f i e l d independent than expected. This i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d by the scores on the GEFT. The open group's mean was 14.73 u n i t s and the cl o s e d group's was 16.06 u n i t s . When compared 39 to r e s u l t s from W i t k i n (1971) who t e s t e d male c o l l e g e students, r e s u l t s from h i s t e s t show a mean of 12.0 u n i t s (TABLE I X ) . From these r e s u l t s , i t can f u r t h e r be seen that both the open and cl o s e d s k i l l groups were very f i e l d independent. I t was t h e o r i z e d that open s k i l l s r e q u i r e figure-ground separation and an a n a l y t i c a l perceptual s t y l e . I t was therefore assumed that open s k i l l a t h l e t e s would maintain a high degree of f i e l d independence because of the perceptual demands of open s k i l l s p o r t s , p o s t u l a t e d by Poulton (1957). Re-s u l t s support the r e l a t i o n s h i p between open s k i l l sports and the perceptual s t y l e of f i e l d independence i f one i s to compare the r e s u l t s w i t h other s t u d i e s . But the c l o s e d group, contrary to c o n j e c t u r e , a l s o proved to be r e l a t i v e l y f i e l d independent. One p o s s i b l e explanation f o r the c l o s e d group measuring as f i e l d independent as they d i d i s that a t h l e t e s of c l o s e d s k i l l s use e x t e r n a l sensory i n f o r m a t i o n and develop or i n n a t e l y have the a b i l i t y to perceive a n a l y t i c a l l y . For example, swimmers must use e x t e r n a l perceptual i n f o r m a t i o n i n order to assess t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to other swimmers i n a race. They must a l s o be c o n s t a n t l y aware of the end of the pool so proper timing r e s u l t s i n t h e i r turns. Swimmers must a l s o use v i s u a l i n -formation to remain i n t h e i r lanes. So i t may be p o s s i b l e that much more v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n i s i n v o l v e d i n c l o s e d sports than was a n t i c i p a t e d . Sub-problem 1: A t h l e t e - Non-athlete Groups. I n t h i s study, no per-ceptual d i f f e r e n c e s were shown between the a t h l e t e group and non-athlete group. S i m i l a r to the open-closed groups, the l a c k of d i f f e r e n c e was more of a r e s u l t of the non-athletes being f i e l d independent than of the a t h -l e t e s being f i e l d dependent. In order to compare r e s u l t s from t h i s t e s t to those of others, the AE scores f o r the a t h l e t e and non-athlete groups were c a l c u l a t e d f o r a l l e i g h t 40 TABLE IX ERROR SCORES SUMMED OVER ALL TRIALS FOR DIFFERENT GROUPS ON THE ROD AND FRAME TEST Group N X SD College males (Adevai, 1968) 92 35.68 26.37 College males (Oltman, 1968) 83 54.50 40.90 Closed group 16 18.50 7.27 Open group 30 18.17 9.97 A t h l e t e group 46 18.28 9.04 Non-athlete group 15 19.8.7 19.04 41 t r i a l s . These converted scores from t h i s t e s t as w e l l as those from others are shown i n TABLE IX. The a t h l e t e group had a mean of 18.28° w i t h a standard d e v i a t i o n of 9.04°. The non-athlete group had a mean of 19.87° wi t h a standard d e v i a -t i o n of 19.04°. Compared to other s t u d i e s , a t h l e t e s are s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f i e l d independent than c o l l e g e males measured i n terms" of the RFT mean ab-s o l u t e e r r o r scores ( t = 5.69, p < 0.001). The non-athlete group from t h i s study are a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f i e l d independent than the male c o l l e g e students (t = 2.95, p < 0.01). More evidence i s a v a i l a b l e , showing that subjects from the present i n -v e s t i g a t i o n were more f i e l d independent than other c o l l e g e students, when GEFT scores are compared. TABLE X shows that the a t h l e t e group i s s i g n i -f i c a n t l y more f i e l d independent than male c o l l e g e students t e s t e d by W i t k i n (1971), ( t = 6.29, p < 0.001). I t i s a l s o shown that the non-a t h l e t e group i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f i e l d independent than the c o l l e g e students w i t h a ' t ' of 2.32, s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5% l e v e l . Therefore, the r e s u l t s from t h i s study do not show d i f f e r e n c e s between the a t h l e t e s and non-athletes p r i m a r i l y because of the high scores of f i e l d independence by the non-athletes, and not because of a low degree of f i e l d independence by the a t h l e t e group. Sub-problem 2; P o s i t i o n a l Groups (I n s i d e - O u t s i d e ) . I t was t h e o r i z e d that outside p o s i t i o n b a s k e t b a l l p l a y e r s would show a greater degree of f i e l d independence than i n s i d e p l a y e r s . This was p r e d i c a t e d on the con-j e c t u r e that outside p l a y e r s must be aware of other p l a y e r s i n order to i n i t i a t e p l a y . For example, most passes and much of the general f l o o r p l a y i s performed by the outside p l a y e r s . Centers, i n s i d e p l a y e r s , are u s u a l l y on the r e c e i v i n g end of the pass. I t was assumed that outside p l a y e r s , 42 TABLE X COMPARISON OF MEAN GEFT SCORES (NUMBER OF FIGURES COMPLETED) FOR ATHLETE GROUP, NON-ATHLETE GROUP, AND COLLEGE STUDENTS Group N X SD A t h l e t e 46 15.40 2.89 Non-athlete 15 14.00 3.09 A t h l e t e 46 15.40 2.89 College Students ( W i t k i n , 1971) 155 12.00 4.10 Non-athlete 15 14.00 3.00 College Students ( W i t k i n , 1971) 155 12.00 4.10 1.59 > 0.05 6.29 < 0.001 2.32 < 0.05 43 because of the need to separate f i g u r e from ground and operate i n r e l a t i o n to parts of the d i s p l a y , would have a higher degree of a n a l y t i c a l p erceptual a b i l i t y . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d no d i f f e r e n c e between these two groups, so i t appears that other f a c t o r s , p o s s i b l y such a b i l i t i e s as s e l e c t i v e a t t e n -t i o n or p e r i p h e r a l v i s i o n , transcend the per c e p t u a l a b i l i t y of f i e l d inde-pendence. Sub-problem 3: Advanced - Less-advanced Groups. The advanced group was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the less-advanced group. The g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s that may be derived from these r e s u l t s becomes obscure when ana l y z i n g the means f o r each t e s t . To i l l u s t r a t e , the less-advanced group measured more f i e l d independent than the advanced group on the GEFT, how-ever t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was not s i g n i f i c a n t . A l s o , r e s u l t s from the RFT (TABLE VT) show the advanced group to be more f i e l d independent than the less-advanced group as i n d i c a t e d by the lower AE and CE scores, but these scores were not s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5% l e v e l . So, even though the two groups were s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n terms of the m u l t i v a r i a t e t e s t , the cause of the d i f f e r e n c e i n terms of f i e l d independence i s not e x p l i c i t . Post-hoc Comparison of Sport Groups. I f open s k i l l s r e q u i r e a t h l e t e s to perceive i n a f i e l d independent manner, then measures from groups repre-s e n t a t i v e of open s k i l l s should not d i f f e r . The m u l t i v a r i a t e t e s t between mean vectors showed the b a s k e t b a l l group and hockey group d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y . But the u n i v a r i a t e F - r a t i o s f o r the VE, AE, and GEFT v a r i -ables were s i g n i f i c a n t , w i t h the b a s k e t b a l l group e x h i b i t i n g a greater de-gree of f i e l d independence. Results from t h i s study, however, only r e v e a l the d i f f e r e n c e s between these two groups. The underlying causes at t h i s p o i n t can only be p o s t u l a t e d . 44 There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two c l o s e d s k i l l groups. Scores from the gymnasts and swimmers i n d i c a t e d that both groups are r e l a -t i v e l y f i e l d independent. These r e s u l t s are congruent w i t h those of Bard (1972) who a l s o found c l o s e d s k i l l performers to be f i e l d independent. E v a l u a t i o n of the Tests L i k e previous s t u d i e s ( W i t k i n , 1954, 1962) the c o r r e l a t i o n between the embedded f i g u r e s t e s t and the AE scores from the RFT was s i g n i f i c a n t at the 170 l e v e l . But the amount of explained variance was very low, l e s s than 127o (r = -0.34), which means that 8870 of the variance was unexplained i n terms of these two t e s t s . The RFT and GEFT each measure other f a c t o r s which are not explained by the two together. The r e s u l t s from t h i s study i n d i c a t e they are not v a l i d i n p r e d i c t i n g f i e l d independence. That i s , i f f i e l d i n -dependence was measured by each t e s t then a large amount of shared variance would be evident i n the c o r r e l a t i o n devised from r e s u l t s of the two t e s t s . I n such a s i t u a t i o n , r e s u l t s on one t e s t would be u s e f u l i n p r e d i c t i n g r e -s u l t s on the other. But t h i s i s not the case i n t h i s study. The RFT and GEFT do not measure the same perceptual t r a i t of f i e l d independence. I t may be p o s s i b l e that one or the other t e s t s t h i s a b i l i t y , but together the common explained variance i s s m a l l . Therefore, conclusions about the r e -l a t i o n s h i p between f i e l d independence and the sport groups from t h i s study are l i m i t e d . The AE scores c o r r e l a t e d h i g h l y w i t h VE scores (r = 0.90). This may be exp l a i n e d by the r e s u l t s of the CE scores which were close to zero. As Schutz and Roy (1973) p r e d i c t e d , when t h i s i s the case, AE and VE are h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d i f the d i s t r i b u t i o n of e r r o r scores i s r e l a t i v e l y normal and symmetrical. Thus, f o r a l l i n t e n t s and purposes, AE and VE y i e l d the same r e s u l t s i n as f a r as the RFT i s concerned. 45 The GEFT scores c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the VE scores (r = -0.34), which can be expected c o n s i d e r i n g that AE approximated VE scores and AE c o r r e l a t e d w i t h GEFT scores. The c o r r e l a t i o n between the CE scores and WRNG responses (missed number) i s s i g n i f i c a n t (p < 0.05) but reasons f o r t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n are not tenable. For example, i n the comparison between s p o r t s , a high negative CE score r e -l a t e d to a low WRNG score and a low CE score r e l a t e d to a high WRNG score, whereas i n the r e s u l t s f o r the p o s i t i o n a l group, a low CE score r e l a t e d to a low WRNG mean score and a high negative CE score r e l a t e d to a high WRNG mean score. Thus, t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n i s not i n t e r p r e t a b l e . The RFT and GEFT proved to have a c o r r e l a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from zero, but the VST measures d i d not r e l a t e to the GEFT or AE measures which have p r e v i o u s l y shown to t e s t f o r f i e l d independence. I t can be con-cluded that the VST measures a t r a i t very d i s s i m i l a r to f i e l d independence because of the l a c k of c o r r e l a t i o n of VST measures w i t h the t e s t s which pur-p o r t to measure f i e l d independence. Findings from t h i s study i n d i c a t e that the th e o r i z e d concept of f i e l d independence i s not common between the t e s t s which purport to measure i t . Due to the small amount of shared variance between the two t e s t s i t i s e v i -dent that a more v a l i d measuring device i s r e q u i r e d before f u r t h e r i n v e s t i -gations are undertaken i n v o l v i n g the perceptual a b i l i t y of f i e l d independence. Under the e x i s t i n g circumstances, i n regard to the concept of f i e l d independence and the l a c k of v a l i d i t y of the t e s t s , the r o l e of f i e l d i n -dependence i n motor behavior may not be r e a d i l y e s t a b l i s h e d . CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary I t was hypothesized that d i f f e r e n c e s i n perceptual s t y l e e x i s t between a t h l e t e s of open and c l o s e d s k i l l s , and between a t h l e t e s and non-athletes. This study a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d perceptual d i f f e r e n c e s : between advanced a t h l e t e s and less-advanced a t h l e t e s ; between b a s k e t b a l l p o s i t i o n a l groups; and between d i f f e r e n t sports of hockey, b a s k e t b a l l , swimming, and gym-n a s t i c s . Sixty-one male u n i v e r s i t y subjects were test e d f o r f i e l d independence by use of the rod and frame t e s t (RFT) and the group embedded f i g u r e s t e s t (GEFT), as w e l l as t e s t e d on a v i s u a l search t e s t (VST). The rod and frame t e s t r e q u i r e d S to adjust a t i l t e d luminous rod to the u p r i g h t . The rod was surrounded by a t i l t e d luminous frame. The t e s t was executed i n a dark room i n which only the rod and frame were v i s i b l e . A t o t a l of e i g h t t r i a l s were given to each S. Scores were recorded i n degrees e r r o r over or under the target of 0°. The GEFT r e q u i r e d S to i d e n t i f y simple f i g u r e s embedded i n more com-p l e x f i g u r e s . The two t e s t s e c t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g nine problems each and f i v e minutes i n d u r a t i o n , were given to each S. This t e s t was administered i n groups from two to s i x Ss. The score was the number of c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i -f i e d f i g u r e s . The VST r e q u i r e d S to c i r c l e as many number 36's as he could l o c a t e i n the time of three minutes. S's score was recorded as the number of 36's c i r c l e d , the number of i n c o r r e c t numbers c i r c l e d , and the number of 36's missed, up to the l o c a t i o n of the l a s t 36 c i r c l e d by S. 47 Scores from the t e s t s were placed i n t o groups, each group having a mean and standard d e v i a t i o n score f o r each of the t e s t s . RFT mean scores were computed f o r absolute e r r o r (AE), v a r i a b l e e r r o r (VE), and constant e r r o r (CE). No i n c o r r e c t numbers were c i r c l e d by any Ss and therefore only scores f o r c o r r e c t numbers i d e n t i f i e d and numbers missed were used f o r comparison. One score was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the GEFT f o r each S. F - r a t i o s f o r m u l t i v a r i a t e t e s t s of e q u a l i t y of mean vectors were com-puted f o r the groups: Open-Closed, Athlete-Non-athlete, Advanced-Less-advanced, Outside-Inside b a s k e t b a l l p o s i t i o n a l groups, Hockey-Basketball, and Gymnastic-Swimming. Conclusions The purpose of t h i s study was to discover e m p i r i c a l evidence of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between perceptual s t y l e and d i f f e r e n t s p o r t s , p e r c e p t u a l s t y l e and l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and p e r c e p t u a l s t y l e and b a s k e t b a l l p o s i t i o n a l groups. The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study warrant the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s : 1. Open s k i l l a t h l e t e s (Hockey and B a s k e t b a l l ) do not d i f f e r i n per-c e p t u a l s t y l e from c l o s e d s k i l l a t h l e t e s (Gymnastics and Swimming). 2. A t h l e t e s do not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from non-athletes i n measures of f i e l d independence. 3. I n d i v i d u a l u n i v a r i a t e t e s t s between the v a r i a b l e s from the GEFT and RFT (AE, VE) showed the b a s k e t b a l l group to be more f i e l d independent than the hockey group. 4. The amount of shared variance between the two t e s t s of f i e l d i n -dependence (RFT and GEFT) was low ( fir 12%) and l i m i t e d conclusions regard-in g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between perceptual s t y l e and open-closed s k i l l s . 48 Recommendation I t i s recommended that before f u r t h e r studies i n v e s t i g a t i n g the r e l a t i o n -ship between f i e l d independence and d i f f e r e n t sport c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are under-taken, that a more v a l i d t e s t b a t t e r y be devised to t e s t f o r f i e l d independence. REFERENCES Adamson, R. E., and T a y l o r , D. W. " F u n c t i o n a l Fixedness as Related to Elapsed Time and Set", Journal of Experimental Psychology, 47: 122-126, 1954. Adevai, G., Silverman, A. J . , and McGough, W. E. "Perceptual C o r r e l a t e s of the Rod and Frame Test", Perceptual Motor S k i l l s , 26: 1055-1064, 1968. Arbuthnot, J . 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"The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Some V i s u a l - P e r c e p t u a l Factors and the Degree of Success R e a l i z e d by Sports Performers", Unpub-l i s h e d D o ctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Southern C a l i f o r n i a , 1960. Mooney, C. M. "A F a c t o r i a l Study of Closure" Canadian Journal of Psy- chology, 8: 51-60, 1954. Newbigging, P. L. "The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Re v e r s i b l e P e r s p e c t i v e s and Embedded F i g u r e s " , Canadian Journal of Psychology, 8: 204-208, 1954. O l d f i e l d , R. C. " A n a l y s i s of Human S k i l l " , New B i o l o g y , 13: 49-60, 1952. Oltman, P. K. "A P o r t a b l e Rod and Frame Apparatus", Perceptual Motor  S k i l l s , 26: 503-506, 1968. Poulton, E. C. "On P r e d i c t i o n i n S k i l l e d Movements", P s y c h o l o g i c a l  B u l l e t i n , 54: 467-478, 1957. Schutz, R., and Roy, E. "Absolute E r r o r - the D e v i l i n D i s g u i s e " , Unpub-l i s h e d Paper, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973. Shugart, B., Souder, M. , and Bunker, L. " R e l a t i o n s h i p Between V e r t i c a l Space P e r c e p t i o n and a Dynamic Non-locomotor Balance Task", Percep-t u a l Motor S k i l l s , 34: 43-46, 1972. S o l l e y , C. M., and Murphy, G. Development of the Perceptual World, New York, Basic Books Inc., 1960. Stroup, F. " R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Measurements of F i e l d of Motion Per-c e p t i o n and B a s k e t b a l l A b i l i t y i n College Men", Research Q u a r t e r l y , 28: 62-76, 1957. Wapner, S., and W i t k i n , H. A. "The Role of V i s u a l Factors i n the Main-tenance of Body Balance", American Journal of Psychology, 63: 385-408, 1958. 51 Weiner, M. " E f f e c t of T r a i n i n g i n Space O r i e n t a t i o n on P e r c e p t i o n of the U p r i g h t " , Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49: 367-373, 1955. Wertheim, J . , and Mednich, S. A. "The Achievement Motive and F i e l d Inde-pendence", Journal of C o n s u l t i n g Psychology, 22: 38-43, 1958. Whiting, H.T.A. A c q u i r i n g B a l l S k i l l - A P s y c h o l o g i c a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n , P h i l a d e l p h i a , Lea and Febiger I n c . , 1969. W i t k i n , H. A., and Asch, S. E. "Studies i n Space O r i e n t a t i o n : Percep-t i o n of the Upright i n the Absence of a V i s u a l F i e l d " , J o u r n a l of  Experimental Psychology, 38: 603-614, 1948. W i t k i n , H. A., and Asch, S. E. "Studies i n Space O r i e n t a t i o n : Further Experiments on P e r c e p t i o n .of the Upright w i t h Displaced V i s u a l F i e l d s " , J o u r n a l of Experimental Psychology, 38: 762-782, 1948. W i t k i n , H. A. " I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n Ease of P e r c e p t i o n of Embedded F i g u r e s " , Journal of P e r s o n a l i t y , 19: 1-15, 1950. W i t k i n , H. A. P e r s o n a l i t y through P e r c e p t i o n , New York, Harper and Brothers Pub., 1954. W i t k i n , H. A., Dyk, R. B., Faterson, H. F., Goodenough, D. R., and Karp, S. A. P s y c h o l o g i c a l D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1962. W i t k i n , H. A., Oltman, P., Raskin, E., and Karp, S. A. Manual f o r the  Embedded Figures Tests, C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t s Press, Inc., Palo A l s o , C a l i f o r n i a , 1971. Young, H. "A Test of Witkin's F i e l d Independence Hypothesis", Journal  of Abnormal S o c i a l Psychology, 59: 188-192, 1959. Z i e g l e r , E. "A Measure i n Search of a Theory?", Contemporary Psychology, 8: 133-135, 1963. APPENDIX SCORES FROM THE PERCEPTUAL TESTS Rod and Frame Test Mean Subject E r r o r Scores ( i n degrees) Subject CE VE AE 1 _ 0.88 3.02 2.88 2 - 1.38 2.83 2.38 3 - 0.13 2.57 2.13 4 - 1.25 0.92 1.92 5 0.25 0.95 0.75 6 - 1.75 4.53 0.40 7 0.13 3.20 2.88 8 - 0.50 2.43 2.25 9 - 0.13 3.30 3.13 10 - 0.13 3.83 3.63 11 0.50 2.10 2.00 12 - 0.13 7.89 6.88 13 - 0.13 2.52 2.13 14 0.88 2.51 2.38 15 0.38 4.18 4.13 16 0.38 4.18 4.13 17 - 0.13 3.16 2.88 18 - 0.13 2.89 2.13 19 0.25 2.38 1.75 20 0.00 1.24 0.75 21 0.50 2.04 1.50 22 0.00 1.50 0.88 23 0.25 2.61 2.25 24 .0.38 0.84 0.63 25 - 0.75 3.16 2.13 26 0.88 1.36 1.38 27 - 0.75 1.90 1.50 28 - 0.50 3.27 2.75 29 0.38 1.79 2.75 30 0.75 1.62 1.50 31 0.00 2.92 2.00 32 - 0.25 3.40 3.25 33 - 0.13 5.33 4.38 34 - 0.13 4.13 2.63 35 0.38 2.54 2.38 36 0.75 2.05 1.75 37 - 0.88 2.24 2.13 38 - 0.50 4.74 3.75 39 - 0.25 2.68 2.50 40 - 0.63 1.45 1.13 41 - 0.75 1.48 1.25 42 0.13 2.73 2.25 43 - 0.25 1.19 1.00 44 1.38 2.06 1.88 45 - 0.50 2.92 2.63 52 53 Subject CE VE AE 46 0.25 4.37 3.25 47 - 0.38 1.55 2.63 48 - 1.00 0.62 3.25 49 - 0.38 0.66 0.63 50 - 0.63 1.28 1.13 51 0.38 2.17 1.88 52 0.50 2.96 2.75 53 - 0.13 1.54 1.38 54 - 1.25 1.22 1.50 55 - 0.75 1.48 1.38 56 0.13 10.12 9.88 57 0.00 4.30 3.50 58 1.13 2.73 2.63 59 0.25 1.48 1.25 60 0.88 1.25 1.13 61 - 0.75 2.89 2.50 1 - 19 = Hockey Ss 20 - 30 = B a s k e t b a l l Ss 31 - 38 = Swimming Ss 39 - 46 = Gymnastic Ss 47 - 61 = Non-athletes Group Embedded Figures Test Subject Scores Subject GEFT Subject GEFT 1 13 21 16 2 10 22 16 3 14 23 18 4 17 24 16 5 15 25 16 6 16 26 17 7 14 27 17 8 17 28 14 9 17 29 17 10 16 30 17 11 4 31 14 12 9 32 13 13 18 33 17 14 5 34 17 15 11 35 18 16 18 36 18 17 18 37 18 18 11 38 13 19 18 39 13 20 17 40 13 54 Subject GEFT Subject GEFT 41 17 52 17 42 18 53 15 43 17 54 17 44 17 55 15 45 17 56 9 46 17 57 15 47 15 58 12 48 15 59 16 49 14 60 17 50 10 61 16 51 7 I n d i v i d u a l Subject Scores on the V i s u a l Search Test Subject Correct Wrong Subject Correct Wrong 1 28 3 32 14 0 2 14 20 33 21 6 3 21 6 34 29 6 4 22 8 35 25 5 5 21 22 36 25 6 6 26 8 37 24 10 7 32 3 38 27 5 8 26 3 39 24 23 9 17 18 40 25 14 10 24 4 41 23 4 11 27 8 42 19 2 12 21 12 43 26 0 13 21 1 44 11 3 14 24 6 45 15 1 15 24 3 46 32 11 16 27 0 47 21 5 17 23 5 48 26 9 18 24 2 49 22 1 19 20 1 50 25 1 21 11 1 51 22 4 22 16 2 52 15 0 23 16 0 53 25 11 24 21 2 54 27 13 25 24 20 55 21 1 26 26 2 56 18 9 27 19 0 57 24 4 28 28 6 58 28 0 29 24 2 59 31 8 30 19 1 60 28 9 31 26 3 61 25 10 

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